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Brandeis University 

In Memory of 

Leo Kaufhan 
Gift of 
Mr. & Mrs, Joseph OppenheiiA 

The National Women's Committee 
Brandeis University 


Musical Biography: 












{All Rights Reserved.) 







In inidertalcing this work, the authors have been animated by the desire 
to present the true position of the British Empire in the world of music. 
A country is musical only by the music it produces for itself, not by 
what it takes from others. In this work, therefore, only what has been 
done by Britain's own sons and daughters is placed on record. It is 
probable that in no other nation is there, at the present time, greater 
musical activity, creative or executive, than is to be witnessed in our 
own ; and this not only in the great centres of population and culture, 
but everywhere throughout the Empire. In this connection the work of 
provincial and colonial musicians has received its proper share of atten- 
tion. The greater masters, already noticed at length in other similar 
publications, have been treated with brevity in order to afford space for 
mention of many worthy, if obscure, workers in the cause of Art, hitherto 
passed over by writers of biography. The very large number (probably 
over 40,000) of persons engaged in the musical profession at the present 
time will explain the apparent preponderance of notices devoted to living 
musicians. This part of the work, liowever, is intended rather to be 
representative than complete ; and from various causes, in many cases 
only a bare outline could be accomplished. While some names may seem 
to have but slight claim to inclusion, it is hoped that no artist of 
eminence has been omitted. The book being written from an independent 
standpoint, matters of opinion have been subordinated to the presentment 
of facts ; and its usefulness as a work of reference has been one of the 
main objects of the authors. Accuracy has been striven for as regards 
dates of birth and death ; first performance of important works ; and 
first appearances of artists, which have been carefully collated, where 
possible, from contemporary notices. Many of these differ from dates 
hitherto accepted. Still, faults and omissions may be detected, and any 
information in correction thereof will be gladly received. The work is 


issued by the authors themselves as a kind of experiment in pubhshing, 
their object being a patriotic desire to record the achievements of British 
workers in the field of musical art. 

The authors are indebted to the following gentlemen for information 
or aid rendered during the progress of the work : — Mr. Eeginald B. Moore, 
Exeter ; Mr. J. A. Browne, editor of the British Musician ; Dr. James 
C. Culwick, Dublin ; Mr. Spencer Curwen, London ; Mr. T. B. Dowling, 
Cape Town, South Africa ; Mr. Emlyn Evans, Cemmes, Montgomery ; Mr. 
John Glen, Edinburgh; Mr. W. J. Ions, King's Norton; Mr. E. P. 
Jones, Brisbane, Australia ; Mr. J. A. Matthews, Cheltenham ; Mr. C. 
E. South, Sahsbury; Mr. C. J. B. Tirbutt, Beading; Mr. Herbert 
Thompson, Leeds ; and Mr. F. H. Torrington, Toronto, Canada. Also to 
those artists who responded to the applications made to them for personal 
information. In addition to the catalogues of the British Museum and 
other public libraries, general newspapers, and other sources of information, 
the following works have been drawn upon for particular details : — Brown's 
Biographical Dictionary of Musicians ; Grove's Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians ; the works of Fetis and Mendel-Reissmann ; Dictionary of 
National Biography ; Love's Scottish Church Music ; Baptie's Musicians 
of All Times, and Musical Scotland ; Boll of the Union of Graduates in 
Music ; Degrees in Music, Abdy Williams, etc. The chief authorities for 
dates within their period have been the Musical World, 1836-91 ; Dramatic 
and Musical Revicic, 184:2-51 ; Musical Times, from 1844 ; Ahisical Standard, 
from 18G2 ; besides the musical journals of more recent date. For many 
particulars of less-known musicians, bandmasters, and teachers, much has 
been gleaned from the Orchestral IHmes, British Musician, the Musical 
Herald, and other papers. 

Stephen S. Stratton, James D. Brown, 

247, Monument Boad, Public Library, 

Birmingham. Clerkenwell, London, E.C. 


CM. . . . . Choirmaster. 

F.C.O Fellow of the College of Organists. 

G.S.M. .. Guildhall School of Music. 

I.S.M. . . . . Incorporated Society of Musicians. 

Mus. B. . . Bachelor of Music. 

Mus. D. . . Doctor of Music. 

R.A.M. . . Roj'al Academy of Music ; 

A. — Associate ; F. — Fellow ; L. — Licentiate. 
K.C.M. .. Royal College of Music. 

A. — Associate of the same. 
R.C.O... .. Royal College of Organists; 

F. — Fellow of the same. 
R.I. A.M. . . Royal Irisli Academy of Music. 

T.C.L. . . . . Trinity College, London ; 

L. — Licentiate of the same. 
Pf. . . . . Pianoforte. 

Ps. . . . . Psalm. 

Dates or words within square brackets, thus — [1846] are approxima- 
tions, or have been supplied from other sources to supplement undated 
title-pages, etc, 



Aaron. Scottish writer, who was conse- 
crated Abbot of St. Martin, Cologne, in 1042. 
He wrote a work on clianting in pubUc wor- 
ship, entitled, "De Utilitate cantus vocalis et 
de modo cantandi atque psallendi " He died 
in 1052. 

Abbott, Rev. Henry. Writer. Was 
lecturer of the Church of St. John the Bap- 
tist, Bristol. Author of " The use and benefit 
of Church musick towards quick'ning our de- 
votion. A sermon." Loudon, 1721. 

Abbott, Thomas Moreton, violinist, 
born at Bilston, Staffordshire, August 13, 
1843. Studied under Henry Hayward, of 
Wolverhampton. Resident for some years at 
Walsall ; he ultimately settled in Birming- 
ham. His repertory is large, and he is in 
wide demand as a soloist. As orchestral 
principal violin he has been associated with 
Mr. Stockley's orchestral concerts since 1873, 
first as colleague with Henry Hayward, and 
then with F. Ward ; also, at the concerts of 
the Birmingham Festival Choral Society, and 
societies at Oxford, Wolverhampton, and 
other festivals. He is an accomplished vio- 
loncellist and pianist, but in these capacities 
restricts himself to teaching. 

Abell, John, alto singer and song col- 
lector, born, probably, about 1G60. In May, 
1679, he became a gentleman extraordinary 
of the Chapel Royal, and was shortly after- 
wards sent to Italy by Charles II., to study 
music and singing. He returned to England 
in 1681-2, and re-entered the Chapel Royal, 
where he remained till 1688. He was made 
a Bachelor of Music at Cambridge, in 1684. 
In 1688 he was dismissed on account of his 
being a Roman Catholic, and he went to 
Holland and Germany, where he became 
known as a lute-player and singer. He sang 
also in Poland, and it is related of him that 
on refusing to sing before the King at War- 
saw, he was seized and suspended in a chair 
over a bear-pit, when the threat of being 
lowered into its midst compelled a display of 
his vocal powers. In 1698-9 he was Intendant 
at Cassel, and in 1700 he returned to England. 
He afterwards resided at Cambridge, and is 
supposed to have died there about 1724. 

Works. — Collection of songs in several lan- 
guages, London, 1701. Collection of songs 
in English, London, 1701 (contains To all 


lovers of musick, a poem by Abell). Song on 
Queen Ann's coronation [1702], Collection of 
. . . Scotch songs, etc. [1740], containing 
songs by Abell. Two songs in " Pills to purge 
melancholy" [1719]. 

Abingdon, Willoughby Bertie, Earl 
of, amateur composer and flute-player, was 
born on January 16, 1740, and died Septem- 
ber 26, 1799. He established concerts in 
London, and composed " Representation of 
the execution of Queen Mary of Scots, in 
seven views, the music composed and adapted 
to each view by the Earl of Abingdon," 
" Twelve sentimental catches and glees for 
three voices ; " Duets, songs, flute music, etc. 

Abram, John, organist and composer, 
born at Margate, August 7, 1840 ; graduated 
Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1868; Mus. Doc, Oxon., 
1874 ; Fellow of the Royal College of Organ- 
ists. Has held appointments as organist at 
St. John's, Torquaj^ 1864; St. Peter and 
Paul, Wantage, 1865 ; St. Paul's, St. Leo- 
nards-on-Sea, 1869 ; and is at present or- 
ganist of All Saints', Hastings. Conductor 
of St. Leonards and Hastings Choral Union, 
a society that, under his direction, has done 
much for the cause of music in the locality. 
He is also director of the Hastings Pier Sum- 
mer concerts. 

His compositions include an oratorio. The 
Widow of Nain ; cantatas, Jerusalem, and a 
Military Ballade, 1892 ; anthems, services ; 
Festival March for organ and voices, to the 
hymn Onward Christian Soldiers ; pianoforte 
pieces, etc. 

Abrams, Harriet, soprano vocalist and 
composer, was born in 1760. She studied 
under Dr. T. A. Arne, and made her first ap- 
pearance at Drury Lane in his " May Day," 
in 1775. In 1776 she appeared with her 
sister Theodosia at the Concert of Ancient 
Music, and in 1784 she sang at the great 
Handel Commemoration. She afterwards 
sang at the principal London concerts during 
her time. She died about 1825. 

Works.— Eight Italian and English Can- 
zonets for one and two voices. London, 1785. 
Second sett of . . Canzonets . . [1805]. 
Collection of Scotch Airs harmonized for three 
voices [1790]. Collection of twelve Songs, 
London, 1803. Songs — Crazy Jane ; The 
Felon [1800] ; Female hardship ; Friend of 



my heart ; Orphan's Prayer ; Smile and a tear ; 
Tom HaUiard ; WiUiani and Mary. Also, 
Little Boy blue, glee ; All nature mourns, 
duet [1805]; And must we part ? duet [1810] . 

Her sisters, Eliza and Theodosia (17G6 — 
1834, afterwards Mrs. Garrow) were also 
vocalists of some reputation, the laiter pos- 
sessing a fine mezzo-soprano voice. 

Abyngdon, Henry (also Habyngton and 
Abyngton), composer, of the 15th century. 
He was succentor of Wells Cathedral in 1447- 
97 ; Mus. Bac, Cambridge, 14G3 ; Master of 
song in the Chapel Royal, London, 1465 ; 
Master of St. Catherine's Hospital, Bristol, 
1478. He was celebrated as an organist and 
singer. Died September 1, 1497. 

Ackroyd, Thomas, musician, compiler 
of " An original set of 51 Psalm and Hymn 
tunes, for four voices, with organ or piano- 
forte accompaniment." Halifax, 1848. 

Acland, Arthur H. D., Sec Troyte, 
Arthur H. D. 

Acland, T. G., author of " Chanting sim- 
plified." London, 1843. 

Acton, John, composer and teacher of 
singing, born 1863. Studied nrusic privately, 
Manchester ; later, singing under Francesco 
Lamperti, of Milan. P.C.O. 1882 ; qualified 
for Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1893. Held various 
organ appointments 1882-93 ; now devoted en- 
tirely to teaching singing and directing choral 
societies. Professor of singing at the Man- 
chester R.C.M. since its opening, 1893 ; con- 
ductor of the St. Cecilia Choral Society, Man- 
chester, 1894. He has composed two cantatas 
for ladies' voices : Forest bells, [1888] ; The rose 
and the nightingale [1893]. Was awarded the 
prize offered by the South London Musical 
Club, 1888, for Chorus, men's voices, with pf. 
obbligato. For home and liberty. Other works 
are ducts for ladies' voices : six duets ; Songs 
on the river (six) ; The fairies (six) ; and Songs 
of wood and fairyland (six). He has also 
written pieces for pf. &c. 

Adam, Alexander, printer, established in 
Glasgow at the end of last century. He pub- 
lished "The Psalms of David in metre, newly 
translated . . . allowed by the authority of the 
general assembly of the Kirk of Scotland and 
appointed to be sung in congregations and fami- 
lies, with twenty-three select psalm-tunes par- 
ticularly adapted to the subject of the psalms 
to which they are set." Glasgow, 1773. "The 
Musical Repository, a collection of favourite 
Scotch, English, and Irish songs set to music." 
Glasgow, 1799, also Edinburgh, 1802, etc. 

Adams, Abraham, organist and com- 
poser, who flourished at the end of the 17th 
and beginning of the 18th centuries. He was 
organist of the parish church of St. Mary-le- 
bone, London, in 1710, and compiled "The 
Psalmist's New Companion," London, n.d., of 
which a 0th edition a^jpeared about 1720. 


Adams, James B., musician, who flour- 
ished in the latter part of the 18th and begin- 
ning of the present century. He published a 
large number of songs and pianoforte pieces, 
among which may be named the following : — 
The Paphian Doves [1783], a musical play. 
Three sonatas for the pf. or harpsichord and 
flute and violin op. 4 [1790]. A collection of 
songs, etc., London [1770]. Select songs set 
to music [1803]. Songs: Bacchanalian; Come 
gentle god of soft repose ; Daphne ; Invocation; 
Myrtilla; Power of music; The request; etc. 

Adams, John S., writer, author of "Five 
thousand musical terms." London, 1861. 

Adams, Stephen, sec Maybrick, Mi- 

Adams, Thomas, organist and composer, 
was born at [London?], on Septembers, 1785. 
He studied under Dr. T. Busby, and became 
organist of Carlisle Chapel, Lambetih, 1802-14. 
Organist of St. Paul, Deptford, 1814 ; of St. 
George, Camberwell, 1824 ; and of St, Dun- 
stan's, 1833. He died in London on Septem- 
ber 5, 1858. 

Works. — A grand march and quick step, 
composed for the regiment of loyal London 
volunteers [1808]. Six fugues for organ or 
pianoforte [1820]. Six voluntaries for the or- 
gan [1820]. Grand organ piece [1824]. Three 
voluntaries for the organ [1824]. Six organ 
pieces [1825]. Three organ pieces [1835]. 
Fantasias, interludes, and transcriptions for 
organ and pianoforte. Anthems and hymns. 

An organist of much celebrity in his day, 
who was a ver}' remarkable extempore player. 

Adams, Thomas Julian, composer and 
conductor, was born at London, January 28, 
1824. He studied under Moscheles and at 
Paris, and settled in England as a teacher and 
conductor. In 1851 he formed an orchestra 
and visited Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Greenock, 
giving a series of weekly concerts. In 1853 
he performed at Paris, and in 1855 organised 
another orchestra, with which he travelled in 
England, giving concerts of high-class music. 
He afterwards resided at Scarborough, Tyne- 
mouth, and Buxton as concert-conductor. In 
1877 he settled at Eastbourne as conductor 
of the Devonshire Park concerts. He died 
at Eastbourne, May 7, 1887. 

He introduced Debaiu's harmonium into 
England, and wrote for it a work entitled 
Method for the patent harmonium (1855). 
He also composed fantasias, studies, marches, 
and concert-pieces for the orchestra. 

Adcock, James, composer, born at Eton, 
June 29, 1778. He was a chorister in St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, 1786, and a lay- 
clerk in 1797. Member of Trinity, St. John's, 
and King's Colleges, Cambridge. School- 
master to the choristers of King's College, 
Cambridge. He died at Cambridge April 30, 



Works. — Evening sevice in B flat. An- 
thems. Three glees for three and four voices, 
dedicated to Sir Fatriclv Blalve (1815). Hark 
how tlie hees, glee for four voices. Welcome 
mirth and festive song, glee for three voices. 
Songs — Lucy, Queen of pleasure's languid 
smile, etc. Rudiments of music, n.d. 

Adcock, John, author of " The singers' 
guide to pronunciation, with an appendix con- 
sisting of a pronouncing dictionary of musical 
terms, etc.," Nottingham, [1873]. Mr. Adcock 
is choirmaster of Castle Gate Chapel, and con- 
ductor of the Sacred Harmonic Society, Not- 

Addington, Rev. Stephen, Independent 
clergyman and musician, born at Northampton 
June 9th, L729. He was successively minister 
at Spalding, ilarket Harborough, and ]\Iiles' 
Lane Meeting House, Cannon Street, London, 
1781. He died at London, February 6th, 1796. 
Compiler of •' A collection of Psalm-tunes for 
publick worship," 1780; 6th ed., 1786; supple- 
ment, 1800. "A collection of approved an- 
thems sellected from the most eminent mas- 
ters" [1795]. 

Addison, John, composer and double-bass 
player, was born at Loudon in 1765. He 
j)layed the 'cello at Vauxhall Gardens, and 
was double-bass player at the Italian Opera, 
the Concerts of Ancient Music, and the Vocal 
Concerts. He married Miss Willems, the voca- 
list, in 1793. In the latter part of his career 
he embarked in commercial speculations and 
was greatly reduced in circumstances. He 
died at London, January 30, ISli. 

Works.— The sleeping beauty, 1805. The 
Russian imposter, 1809. My aunt, 1813. 
Two words, 1816. Free and easy, 1816. My 
uncle, 1817. Bobinet, the bandit, 1818 : 
Musical Dramas. Elijah, a sacred drama. 
So7igs Songs of Almacks (with Bishop and 
Bayley), 1831 ; AUen-a-dale ; Clay cold dwel- 
ling; Cupid's frolic; Zephyr's reply ; and many 
others. Singing practically treated in a series 
of instructions, London [1836]. 

Addi-son was a successful teacher of singing 
and numbered Alex. Lee and Pearman among 
his pupils. His wife. Miss Willems, who was 
a niece of Reiuhold the vocalist, was a singer, 
and made her first appearance in 1796, in 
"Love in a village." She sang at Vauxhall, 
Covent Garden, and other concerts in London, 
and appeared also at Liverpool, Dublin, etc. 

Addison, Robert Brydges, composer, 
born at Dorchester, Oxford. Studied at R. A.M. 
under G. A. Macfarren, to whom he was sub- 
professor for four years. A.R.A.M., 1882, and 
professor of harmony and composition. Pro- 
fessor, Trinity College, London, 1892. While 
at the R. A.M. he composed some works notice- 
able for high aim and finish, the chief being 
a symphony in G minor (two movements from 
which were performed atR.A.M. concert, De- 


cember 15, 1881) ; concert allegro in G, orch- 
estra. Sonata in A minor, pf. ; andante and 
variations, pf. ; cantata, "A vision," for con- 
tralto solo, chorus, orchestra, and organ 
(R.A.M., June 18S0) ; Ps. 126, four voices; 
Motet, Save me, God ; two albums for chil- 
dren — " Please sing me a song," and " Chil- 
dren's voices." But he is more widely known 
by his songs, tasteful and fresh in feeling, 
Wandering wishes ; Two doves ; Do I love 
thee? rushing wind; and others, also a trio 
for female voices, " Quiet hours." 

AdIJngton, William, pianist, teaeher,and 
publisher, born at Southwell, Notts., in 1838. 
He was educated at the R.A.M., of which he 
became an Associate in 1865, and a Fellow in 
1882. In 1864 he settled in Edinburgh, and 
held various important teaching appointments. 
Afterwards he resided at Aberdeen, where he 
was conductor of the University Orchestral 
Society. He is now engaged in musicselliug 
and publishing. Author of " Elementary 
principles of music and elements of harmony 
adapted for those studying the pianoforte." 
Edinburgh, 1881. 

Adye, Willett, amateur musician, author 
of " ]\Iusical notes," London, 1869, a work on 

Agabeg, Mrs., see Wynne, Sarah Edith. 

Aguilar, Emanuel A., composer 
and pianist, born in Clapham, London, 
August 23, 1824. Son of E. Aguilar, a West 
Indian of Spanish extraction, and brother of 
Miss Grace Aguilar, the novelist. Resident 
in London as teacher and concert-giver. Has 
also given concerts in Germany, where some 
of his most important works have been pro- 
duced. His pianoforte recitals have been, for 
many years, a regular feature of the London 
musical season. Played at the Gewandhaus 
concerts, Leipzig, March 30tli, 1848. 

Works. — Psalm I., voices and orchestra, 
1861 (MS). O^XTas— Wave king, 1855 (MS); 
The bridal wreath, 1863. Cantatas, The iDridal 
of Triermain, Bedford, 1880 ; Summer night, 
1875, Goblin market, 1880, both for treble 
voices. Songs — The stars are brightly beam- 
ing. The appeal, etc. Symphonies— No. 1, in 
C, 1844 (MS.), Frankfort on Main ; No. 2, in 
E minor, 1844, Frankfort, 1851, London ; No. 
3, in D minor, 1854, London. Ooertures — ■ 
Alpheus, 1853, London ; St. George, 1875, 
London ; also at Kissingen and elsewhere on 
the continent. Pianoforte works — Allegro 
maestoso, pf. and orchestra, 1852, Loudon ; 
Septet, pf. , wind, and strings, 1888; Sextet, 
pf. and wind, 1860 ; Quartet, pf. and strings, 
1888 ; Quartets in A and D minor, strings, 
1884-5. These have been performed at con- 
certs of the Musical Artists' Society, the 
septet excepted. Trios, pf. and strings, in G 
minor, 1853 ; E major, 1856 ; A minor, 1889, 
performed at various concerts. Fantasia for 



organ, two pianos, and violin, 1880 ; Duo 
concertante, in C, two pianos, 1878 ; Sonata, 
pf. duet, 1885 ; Six sonatas, many smaller 
pieces, and a little book. How to learn the 
pianoforte, 1883. 

Agutter, Benjamin, organist and com- 
poser, born at St. Albans, April 2, 1844. 
Studied singing under Manuel Garcia ; organ 
and composition with E. J. Hopkins ; and 
harmony and counterpoint with Dr. Wylde. 
Graduated Mus. B., Oxon., 1870; Mus. D., 
Cantuar, 1891; F.K.C.O., etc. Since 1867, 
precentor, organist, and choirmaster, St. 
Peter's, Streatham. He has composed a 
Missa de Sancto Albans ; Missa de Sancto 
Petro ; and six other services for Holy Com- 
munion ; sequence. To the Paschal victim 
(scored for orchestra) ; anthems ; morning 
and evening services in D and A flat ; hymns, 
carols, &c., &c. 

Ainley, William Clark, organist and 
composer, born at Kirkheaton, Yorkshire, 
July 13, 1834. Was a chorister at the Parish 
Church when ten years old ; pursued his 
musical studies privately. A.R.C.O., Mus. B., 
Cambridge, 1885. Has been organist and 
choirmaster successively at Kirkburton Parish 
Church, 1856; Kirkheaton, 1863; Mold Green 
Parish Church, 1865 ; and Mirfield Parish 
Church, 1874 to present time. Conductor of 
the Mirfield Choral Society. His composi- 
tions are : — Ps. 46, for soli, chorus, and organ 
[1885] ; cantata. The great day of the Lord, 
produced Mirfield, 1891. Anthems — give 
thanks ; Behold, God our defender (written 
for the Queen's jubilee, 1887) ; and others. 
Te Deum, communion service in G, evening 
service in E, introits, oi'gan pieces, &c. 

Aird, James, music publisher of the last 
half of the 18th century, was established in 
business in Glasgow, where he died in Sep- 
tember, 1795. He issued among other works 
" A selection of Scots, English, Irish, and 
foreign airs adapted for the fife, violin, and 
Gernnn flute," Glasgow, 1784, etc.. 6 vols. 
He was succeeded in business by J. McFad- 
yen, who published new editions or continua- 
tions of Aird's publications. 

Airy, Sir George Biddell, astronomer, 
born at Alnwick, June 21, 1801. He was 
educated at Cambridge, etc., and in 1835 was 
appointed astronomer-royal. He died on 
January 1, 1892. Author of " On sound and 
atmospheric vibrations, with the mathemati- 
cal elements of music," London, 1868 ; also 
many works on astronomical and mathemati- 
cal subjects. 

Akeroyd, Arthur Thomas, Organist 
and composer, born at Bradford, March 10th, 
1862. Articled pupil of F. C. Atkinson, 
A.R C.INL Organist and choirmaster, St. 
Paul's Bradford ; music master, Girls' Gram- 
mar School, Bradford ; and conductor of the 


Ilkley Vocal Society. Hon. Sec. Yorkshire 
Section of the Incorporated Society of Musi- 
cians. He has composed an opera, " The 
Professor " (book by G. W. Harwin, produced 
Theatre Royal, Bradford, 1891) ; an operetta, 
"The Doctor's Dilemma" (Technical Col- 
lege, 1893) ; an anthem for Christmas ; songs 
and part-songs ; minuet and trio for organ, and 
pieces for pf. 

Akeroyde, Samnel, composer, born in 
Yorkshire at end of 17th century. He com- 
posed many songs in the " Theater of Musick," 
1685-87 ; " Banquet of musick," 1688 ; and 
in other collections of the same period. 
Among his single songs may be mentioned. 
Give me kind Heaven [1700] ; Thursday in 
the morn [1730] ; Rays of dear Clarinda's 
eyes [1700] ; etc. He died early in the 18th 

Alaw, Ddu. See Rees, William Thomas. 

Alawydd. See Robeets, David. 

Albani. See La Jeunesse. 

Albert, Prince Francis C. A. A. E. 
(Prince Consort), amateur musician, born Ros- 
enau, Coburg, August 26, 1819. Married Queen 
Victoria, February, 1840. Died Windsor, Dec- 
ember 14, 1861. 

He composed a number of anthems, services, 
songs, psalm-tunes, etc., most of which have 
been collected in "Songs and ballads written 
and set to music by their Royal Highnesses, 
Albert and Ernest, Princes of Saxe-Coburgand 
Gotha." Edited by E. J. Loder, London, 1840 ; 
and " Vocal compositions of H.R.H. the Prince 
Consort." London, 1862. In 1849 and 1855 
his fiiecfi, entitled L'Invocazione all' Armenia 
was produced at the Birniinghani Festival. 

Most of the members of his family are mu- 

Albert, Eugene Frangois Charles d', 
pianist and composer (son of Charles Louis 
Napoleon d' Albert, famous dance-music com- 
poser, who died in 1886), born at Glasgow, 
April 10, 1864. His mother, nee Annie Rowell, 
of Newcastle-on Tyne, was his first music 
teacher. After a few pf. lessons from the late 
G. A. Osborne, d' Albert gained the Newcastle 
scholarship at the National Training School 
of Music, in 1876, and later on was elected to 
the Queen's Scholarship, which he held until 
1881. His teachers were Arthur Sullivan, John 
Stainer, E. Prout, and E. Pauer. In 1881, he 
was nominated to the Mendelssohn Scholar- 
ship, which he only held for one year, failing 
to comply with the regulations. While still 
a student he made his debut at the Monday 
Popular Concerts, November 22, 1880, playing 
Schumann's Etudes Symphoniques ; and at 
the Crystal Palace, Februarj' 5, 1881, taking 
the solo part in Schumann's pf. concerto in 
A minor. In October, 1881, he appeared at a 
Richter Concert as a composer, with his own 
Concerto in A. As a pianist he gained a high 



reputation. Hans Ricbter then took him to 
Vienna, but he played again in London in the 
spring of 1882. He now became a pupil of 
Liszt, and was ajapointed Court pianist to the 
Grand Duke of Weimar. During the next 
four years he made artistic tours through Ger 
man)-; visited Russia, Italy, Spain; and twice 
undertook concert tours in America. He held 
various appointments, the last being that of 
Kapellmeister at Weimar, 1895, which he did 
not hold long. He reappeared in London, 
April 28, 1896, at one of the Mottl concerts ; 
began a series of Recitals, May 1; and played 
Liszt's concerto in E flat at the Philharmonic 
concert, May G, being nrost enthusiastically 

Works. — Opei'as : Ghismonda (Dresden, 
1895) ; Der Rubin (composed 1892) ; A work 
for chorus and orchestra, founded on Otto 
Ludwig's Man and Life (1893) ; songs, etc. 
Sj'mphonj' in F (1885) ; Concerto in B minor, 
op. 2 (T88i) ; in E, op. 12 (Berlin,' Jan. 189.3), 
for pf. and orchestra. Overtures : Hyperion 
(Berlin, 1885) ; Dramatic overture in A, op. 9 
(Cologne, 1887) ; Esther (Vienna, 1888) ; String 
quartets, in A minor, op. 8 ; in E flat, op. II ; 
Suite for pf., op. 1 ; Sonata, F sharp minor, 
op. 10, etc. 

Aibertazzi, Emma (born Howson), con- 
tralto vocalist, born in London, May 1, 1813 
[1814]. She was a daughter of Francis How- 
son, musician of London. In 1827 she studied 
under Costa, and in November, 1829 she was 
married to Signer Aibertazzi. She first ap- 
peared in the Argyle Rooms, London, in 1829, 
and in 18.30 she sang at the King's Theatre. 
In 1832 she appeared at jMilan, and afterwards 
at ^ladrid and Paris. She reappeared at Lon- 
don in La Cenercntola, April, 1837, and in 1838 
sang at Drury Lane in La Gazza Ladra. 
She frequently appeared as a concert vocalist, 
and died, in London, September 27, 1847. 

Alcock or Allcock, John, composer and 
organist, born at London, April 11, 1715. He 
was a chorister in St. Paul's Cathedral under 
Charles King, and afterwards studied under 
John Stanley, the blind organist. He held 
successively the appointment of organist at All 
Hallows Church, London, 1735; St. Andrew's, 
Plymouth, 1737 ; St. Lawrence's Reading, 
1742-49; and Lichfield Cathedral, 1749-60, 
where he was also vicar-choral and master of 
the choristers. In 1755 he graduated as Mus. 
Bac. Oxford, and in 1761 or 1765 proceeded to 
Mus. Doc. Oxford. He held the appointment 
of organist at Sutton Coldfield parish church, 
1761-86 ; and at Tamworth parish church, 
1766-90. He gained a prize medal of the Catch 
Club in 1770. He retained the post of lay- 
vicar at Lichfield till his death at Lichfield 
on February 23, 1806. 

WoEKS. — ilorning and Evening Service in 
E minor, 1753; Six-and-twenty select am hems 


in score ... to which are added a burial ser- 
vice for 4 voices and part of the last verse of 
the 150th Psalm for 8 voices and instruments, 
London, 21 part.s, 1771. Miserere, or the 51st 
Psalm in Latin for 4 voices, 1771. Fifty se- 
lect portions collected from the singing Psalm s, 
Reading, 1748. The Pious Soul's heavenly 
exercise, or divine harmony; being a choice 
collection of those excellent psalm tunes which 
are used in the parish churches in London, 
etc., Lichfield, n.d. Harmony of Sion, or a 
collection of all the capital psahn tunes that 
are used in London, Derby, n d. Divine Har- 
mony, or a colleciion of 55 double and single 
chants for 4 voices, as they are sung at the 
cathedral of Lichfield, 1752. Parochial Har- 
mony, 1777. Harmony of Jerusalem, being a 
collection of 106 psalms and hymns in score, 
1801. Harmonia Festi, or a collection of 
canons, cheerful and serious glees, and catches 
for 4 and 5 voices, Lichfield, 1791. Hail, ever- 
pleasing solitude ! (prize glee), 1770. Twelve 
Enghsh songs, 1740. Eight easy voluntaries 
for the organ, 1760. Six suites of easy lessons 
for the harpsichord or spinnet, with a trumpet 
piece, Reading, 1742. Six easy solos for the 
German flute or violin, 1750. Life of Miss 
Fanny Brown (a novel). 

Alcock, John, son of the above, was born 
probably at Plymouth about 1740, and studied 
under his father. He became organist of St. 
Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent, in 1758, 
and remained there till 1768. In 1773, he 
became organist of the Parish Church, Wal- 
sall, and died there, March 30, 1791. In 1766 
he graduated as Mus. Bac. at Oxford. He 
composed some anthems, songs, and harpsi- 
chord music, among which are — A cantata 
and six songs [1770] ; Venus and Bacchus, a 
two-part song ; Let me sink to regions of 
shade (song) ; Three sonatas for two violins 
and violoncello; The chace (pianoforte piece). 

Alcock, William Bennis, organist. 
Studied under .- ir R. P. Stewart. Graduated 
Mus. B., Oxford, 1879. Was appointed the 
first organist of Christ Church, Morningside, 
Edinburgh, in 1876, where he worked up the 
musical service to a high pitch of excellence. 
He was a most skilful organist. In 1891 he 
resigned his post at Christ Church, and was 
appointed inusic master in Speir's School, 
Beith, Ayrshire, where he taught with much 
success. He died, of congestion of the lungs, 
October, 1892. Madrigals and glees, he made 
a study of, and lectured upon the subject in 
Morningside Athenseum. 

Aldrich, Henry, divine and composer, 
born at Westminster in 1647. He was edu- 
cated at Westminster School, and at Christ 
Church, Oxford, from 1662. He became B.A., 
1666 ; M.A., 1669 ; Canon of Christ Church, 
1681; D.D., 1682; and Dean of Christ 
Church, 1689, all of Oxford. He died at 




Oxford, December 14, 1710, and left his 
musical library to Christ Church. 

Works. — Services iu G and A. Anthems — 
I am well pleased ; Not unto us, O Lord ; 
Out of the deep ; give thanks ; praise the 
Lord ; Tliy beauty, Israel ; We have heard 
with our ears. Glees — Hark, the bonny 
Christ Church bells, for three voices ; A 
catch on tobacco, etc. Works on logic, etc. 

Another musician of this name, viz., Bed- 
ford Aldrich, composed and published a 
number of songs in the first half of the 18th 

Alexander, Alfred, oi-ganist and com- 
poser, born at Rochester, Kent, May 6, 1844:. 
Chorister at the Cathedral, pupil of, and, 
later, assistant to, John Hopkins, the Cathe- 
dral organist. Took the Toronto degree of 
Mus. B. in 1889. When seventeen, succeeded 
J. F. Bridge as organist of Shorne Church, 
near Rochester ; then appointed to Strood 
Parish Church, and afterwards offered the 
post of organist to the Earl of Mar and 
Kellie. When Dr. Colborne left St. Michael's 
College, Tenbury, Sir Frederick Ouseley in- 
vited Mr. Alexander to fill the vacancy. He 
afterwards went to Wigan Parish Church ; 
then (1891-2) to Nice, as organist of the 
American Church ; and is now at St. An- 
drew's, Southport. Has given organ recitals, 
and conducted concerts of the Wigan Choral 
Society. His compositions include a cantata; 
Ps. 126, for soprano solo, chorus of women's 
voices, and orchestra ; services, anthems, 
songs, part-songs, etc. Triumphal march, 
orchestra ; Sonata in B flat, for string quartet ; 
Romances, violin ; Sonata in D minor, for 
organ (published in Novello's original organ 
compositions, 1892). 

Alexander, James, writer and performer, 
published various works, of which the follow- 
ing are the most important : — Alexander's 
Book of instructions for the accordion, Lon- 
don, 2 pts. [1845]. Complete instructions for 
the harmonicon, etc., London [1865] . Various 
arrangements, waltzes, etc., for accordion and 

Alford, John, lutenist of the 16th cen- 
tury, published a translation of Adrian Le 
Roy's book on the Lute as "A Brief e and 
Easye Introduction to learne the tablature, 
to conduct and dispose the hands unto the 
Lute." London, 1568. 

Alford, Marmaduke, vocalist and com- 
poser, was born in Somersetshire in 1647. He 
was a yeoman and sergeant of the vestry of 
the Chapel Itoj^al, and died in May, 1715. 

Allan, Archibald, violinist and composer 
of dance music, was born at Forfar about 
1790. He was a member of Nathanial Gow's 
band, and played at balls and other gather- 
ings in Scotland. He died at Forfar 1831. He 
composed strathspeys and other Scots dance 


tunes. His brother, Thomas R. Allan (born 
Forfar, 1807, died Dysart, Fife, 1851), was also 
a violinist and comiDoser of dance music ; and 
James Allan, cousin of the above (born Forfar, 
October 17, 1800; died there August 18, 1877), 
was another member of the same family of 
violinists which at one time was well-known 
all over the centre and south of Scotland. 

Allan, David Skea, tonic sol-fa teacher, 
born at Calfsound, Island of Eday, Orkneys, 
March 14, 1840. Son of a crofter-fisherman, his 
humble home was brightened by music ; and 
the boy worked hard at his musical studies, 
overcoming difficulties of no ordinary nature. 
In 1864 he settled in Glasgow, where he has 
ever since remained. After holding several 
appointments as Precentor, he was asked, in 
1877, to take the practical classes at Ander- 
son's College. These were transferred to the 
Christian Institute in 1881, and under the 
auspices of the Sunday School Union, con- 
tinite to be popular and successful. He is also 
conductor of St. Andrew's Choir, and has 
charge of the music in many of the Glasgow 
board schools. He is a Fellow of the Educa- 
tional Institute of Scotland, and is favoitr- 
ably known as a writer of delicate, tasteful 
verse. His publications consist of books of 
school songs ; part-songs, the Gloaming, &c. 

Allan, James, the "celebrated Northum- 
berland f)iper," was born at Rothbury, March 
1734, and died in Durham jail on November 
13, 1810. He was well-known all over the 
borders as a strolling vagrant, and his bio- 
graphy by Jarues Thompson was issued as the 
"Life of James Allan, the celebrated North- 
umberland Piper, detailing his surprising ad- 
ventures, etc." Newcastle, 1817. This has 
been frequently reprinted as a chap-book. 

Allan, James, baritone singer and con- 
ductor, was born near Falkirk, July 27, 1842. 
He became a lithographer in Glasgow and 
was successively precentor in Sydne}^ Place 
U.P. Church and Kelvinside Free Church in 
that city. He held the position of conductor 
of the Glasgow Select Choir from 1880 to 
1885, during which time it gave successful 
concerts in Scotland and England. He died 
at Glasgow, August 10, 1885. He composed 
various hymn tunes, of which " Vevay " was 
printed in the Free Church Hymnal, and ar- 
ranged various songs and airs for choir and 
school use. 

Allchin, William Thomas Howell, or- 
ganist and composer, born 1843. He became 
Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1869, and conductor of the 
Oxford Choral Soc. in the same year. Organist 
of St. John's College, Oxford, 1875, and local 
examiner for R.A.M. in 1881. He died at Ox- 
ford, January 8, 1883. 

Works —The Rebellion of Korah, sacred can- 
tata, composed and produced for the degree of 
Mus. Bac, June 1869 (ms.). So7igs — Christ- 



mas greeting, The forsaken, Lament for the 
Summer, but to see her face again, Prythee 
whj' so pale. Rainy day, Sea song, A shadow, 
Song for November, The wrecked hope, etc. 

Allen, Alfred Benjamin, pianist and 
composer, born at Kingsland, London, Sep- 
tember 4, 1850. Began the study of the 
pianoforte at the age of five, afterwards be- 
coming a student at the London Academy of 
Music. Settled in London as performer and 
teacher. His compositions include a cantata 
and a number of orchestral pieces still in 
MS. Among his published works are the 
songs. Lead, kindly light ; She sang to her 
harp ; Sweet birdie, mine, and many others. 
Pianoforte music — Minuet in C ; Gavotte in 
D ; Egyptian Court Dance, etc. Also pieces 
for the organ. 

Allen, Edward Heron=, author, born St. 
John's Wood, London, December 17, 18G1. 
Educated at Elstree and Harrow. In 1878 
he began the formation of his library of works 
on the violin. In 1879-1881 he studied violin 
making under Chanot. Admitted a solicitor 
1884. Special commissioner to Italy on be- 
half of Historic Loan Department of Music 
and Inventions Exhibition, 1885, for which 
service he was awarded a silver medal. Lec- 
tured in United States, 1886-89. Married to 
Marianna, daughter of Rudolph Lehmann, the 
artist. Elected " Socio onorario e benemerito " 
of the Accademia of Sta. Cecilia of Rome, for 
Bibliography of the Violin. 

Works. — De Fidiculis Bibliographia : being 
the basis of a bibliography of the violin and 
all other instruments played with a bow. 
Lond. 1890-93, 12 parts. Violin -making as 
it was and is. Lond. 1884. Manual of Cheir- 
osophy. Lond. 1885. Poems, tales, transla- 
tions, etc. 

Allen, George Benjamin, composer and 
vocalist,, born in London, AjDril 21, 1822. 
Chorister, St. Martin-in-the-fields, 1830 ; the 
same in Westminster Abbey, 1832. Estab- 
lished the " Abbey Glee Club," in 1841, and 
two years later was appointed to the choir of 
Armagh Cathedral as a bass. Conductor of 
Classical Harmonists' Society, Belfast, and 
originated and executed the scheme for build- 
ing the Ulster Hall, Belfast. Graduated as 
Mus. Bac, Oxon., in 1852. Left Armagh, and 
became organist at All Saints', Kensington, 
and later went to Australia, where he was 
organist at Toorak, Melbourne, and conductor 
of Lyster's Opera Company. Returning to 
England, he established a Comedy Opera 
Company, and produced the Gilbert and Sul- 
livan operas, " The Sorcerer," " H.M.S. Pina- 
fore," and "The Pirates of Penzance." He 
had previously made successful tours with 
his pupil. Miss Alice May (died U.S.A., 1887), 
in Australia, New Zealand, and India, his 
opera company being admirably organised. 


Since 1890 he has been settled in Brisbane, 
New S. Wales. 

Works. — O^Jeras— Castle Grim, two acts, 
London, 1865. The Viking, five acts. The 
Wicklow rose, Manchester, 1882. Fayette 
(J. Brunton Stephens), not yet (1895) pro- 
duced ; and others in ]\IS. Cantatas — Harvest 
home, 1863; The Vintage of the Rhine, 1865 ; 
Ministering (female voices,) 1884. Te Deums 
in D and F. Introits and Anthems — A book 
of fifteen anthems, 1853, and eight others. 
Concerted vocal music — Six four-part songs 
[1861] ; Morning; May; and others. Sonys— 
A Shadow ; The arrow and the song ; and set- 
tings of many of Longfellow's lyrics, the total 
amounting to about 300. Pianoforte and organ 
music. The Scales in music and colours — 
their analogy ; from the Musical World. New 
' pianoforte school. London [1884]. 
j Allen, Henry Robinson, tenor vocalist 
and composer, born at Cork in 1809. He 
studied at the R.A.M., and first appeared in 
Mozart's "Figaro" in 1831. Afterwards he 
j sang in opera, chiefly in London, till about 
I 1856, when he occuj)ied himself as a teacher 
of singing. He died at Hammersmith, Lon- 
j don, November 27, 1876. He composed many 
I songs, of which the following are best known : 
Adaline ; As steals the dew ; Bella donna, 
would'st thou know; Broken spell; Dearest, 
wake; Dear halls of my fathers; Green are 
thy hills; Maid of Athens [1861] ; Mine, only 
mine; Pilgrim's lament; Sea is calm; When 
first we met; When we two parted, etc. 

Allen, James Vaughan, musician, pub- 
lished "Ten Cathedral Chants in score, with an 
accompaniment for the organ. London [1842] . 
Allen, John, organistandcomposer of lat- 
ter part of 16th and early part of 17th centuries. 
He was organist of Chester Cathedral, and in 
1612 he graduated ]\Ius. Bac, Oxford. 

Allen, John, violinist, born in London, 
and began his career as a leader in 1841. 
Subsequently he went to America, and for 
thirty years was identified with the San Fran- 
cisco theatres. His four daughters, Ricca, 
Ray, Louise, and Anna, are well-known dan 
cers. He died at Brooklyn, New York, about 
August 1892, at the age of seventy-two. 

Allen, Richard, writer, who flourished at 
the end of the 17th and beginiug of the 18th 
centuries. Author of "An Essay to prove the 
singing of psalms with conjoint voices a 
christian duty." London, 1696. "Brief vin- 
dication of an Essay to prove the singing of 
psalms with conjoint voices a christian duty, 
from Dr. Russell's Animadversions and IMr. 
Marlow's remarks." London, 1696. 

Allison, Horton Claridge, composer, or- 
ganist, and pianist, born in London, July 25, 
1846. Entered the Royal Academy of INIusic 
in 1856, and appeared as a pianist at Willis's 
Rooms in I\Iay 1860, as a pupil of W. H. 




Holmes. Studied at Leipzig Cons. 1862-65, 
gaining, in the last year, the first prize for 
general proficiency, his teachers being Plaidy, 
E. P. Richter, C. Eeinecke, Hauptmann, and 
Moscheles. Commenced giving concerts in 
London, July, 1865, and has since appeared in 
various towns in the provinces. Resident as 
teacher in Manchester. Was elected Associate 
of the R.A.M., 1862, and Member in 1880. 
Graduated Mus. Bac, Cantab., 1877; Mus. 
Doc, Dublin, the same year. Appointed one 
of Her Majesty's Examiners in Music, Inter- 
mediate Education Board for Ireland, 1884. 

WoBKs. — Cantatas — 1871-74. Setting of 
Psalms ex., cxvii., and cxxxiv., for soli, chorus, 
and string orchestra, 1876, all in MS. An- 
thems, songs, and part-songs. Symphony for 
Orchestra, 1875. Suite for Orchestra. Con- 
certo in D. Pf. and Orchestra, composed in 
1870, performed 1877, and at the concert of 
the Westminster Orchestral Society, Decem- 
ber 9, 1891, and a second concerto, performed 
Manchester, February 1894, all in MS. Quar- 
tet, strings, 1865. Concert Duet for two 
Pianofortes, 1865. Studies and ConcertPieces. 
Sonata for the Organ, 1865, published 1879. 
Marches and various other pieces. 

Allison, or Alison, Richard, composer, 
who flourished in the latter part of the 16th 
century, and died early in the 17th century. 
He published "The Psalmes of David in 
meter, the plaine song being the common 
tunne to be sung and plaide vpon the lute, 
orpharyon, citterne or base violl, severally or 
altogether, the singing part to be either tenor 
or treble to the instrument, according to the 
nature of the voyce, or for foure voyces, etc. 
Lond. 1599." " An houre's recreation in 
Musicke, apt for instruments and voyces . . . 
Lond. 1606. He was one of the composers 
who harmonised the tunes in Thomas Este's 
"Whole Booke of Psalmes," 1592. 

AlUtsen, Frances, vocalist and composer 
of the present time. Made her debut at 
Grosvenor Hall, July, 1882 ; and has since 
sung at various concerts. She has com^Dosed 
six songs (Tennyson) ; eight songs (Heine) ; 
After long years ; Mary Hamilton ; In times 
of old; Warning; False or true, and others. 
Emma Allitsen, her sister, is a contralto voca- 
list, pupil of the late J. P. Goldberg. Has 
appeared at, and given concerts in London. 
Was a professor of singing at the Blackheath 

Allon, Rev. Henry, Congregational min- 
ister and musician, born at Welton, near 
Hull, October 13, 1818. He was educated at 
Cheshunt College, Herts., and was minister 
of Union Chapel, Islington, from 1844 till 
1892. He also acted as editor of the British 
Quarterlr/ Revieiu. He died at Islington, 
London,' April 16, 1892. 

Works. — Congregational Psalmist, edited 


with Dr. Gauntlett, Lond. 1858 ; also 1860-79 
four sections, and numerous other editions. 
Book of chants, 1860. Book of church an- 
thems, 1872. Children's worship hymns, 
1878. Church song in its relations to church 
life, Lond. 1862. The worship of the church, 
1870 (In Reynolds' "Ecclesia"). 

Allon, Erskine, composer, son of Dr. 
Henry Allon, born at Canonbury, London, 
1864. Educated at Reading and Trin. Coll. 
Cambridge. Studied music under W. H. 
Birch and other masters, and later under P. 
Corder. Resident in London. 

Works. — Comic opera, MS. Cantatas — 
May Margaret, Op. 17, 1889 ; Annie of Loch- 
royan, Op. 20, 1890, produced by the Phil- 
harmonic Society, May 18, 1893 ; 'The Childe 
of Elle, Op. 23, 1891, produced Islington, Dec. 
18, 1891 ; The Maid of Colousay, Op. 25, 1894 ; 
Sir Nicholas (choral ballad), 1895 ; and The 
Oak of Geismar, 1895 (MS.). Songs— Op. 3, 
5 ; Twelve songs. Op. 7 ; Albums of old Eng- 
lish songs. Op. 15, 18, 24, 28, and 34 ; Ten 
love songs. Op. 13 ; Six pastorals. Op. 34 ; 
Albums of songs (words by Dolly Radford), 
Op. 9, 27, 29, and 33 ; various songs, duets, 
and part-songs. Instrtmiental — Chamber 
music ; Quintet in C, pf. and strings. Op. 
35; Trio, Op. 22; Sonatas, pf. and violin, 
in P, Op. 19, in G, Op. 21. Pianoforte Solo— 
Sonatas, in C and G minor. Op. 11 and 12 ; 
The IMonths, twelve piece.s. Op. 8 ; Three sets 
of European dances, Op. 16, 30, and 31 (also 
for orchestra) ; Suite in F minor. Op. 26 ; 
Ballet music, and other pieces, in dance 
rhythms, &c. 

Allum, Charles Edward, organist and 
conductor, born at Great Marlow, Bucks., 
June 27, 1852. Studied under Mr. Yates, or- 
ganist of Bisham Abbey, and afterwards was 
pupil and assistant of tlie late W. W. Ring- 
rose. Graduated Mus. Bac, 1883, Mus. Doc, 
1887, Dublin. In 1874 he was appointed organ- 
ist and choirmaster of Holy Trinity Episcopal 
Church, Stirling, and also conductor of the 
Stirling Choral Society. B3' his energy and 
ability the musical services of the church were 
greatly improved, and the Choral Society raised 
to more than local importance. The first per- 
formance in Scotland of Gounod's Mors et vita, 
took place under his direction, December 11, 
1885. He holds the appointments of organist 
of the Public Halls, Stirling, and Town Hall, 
Alloa. His compositions include a setting of 
Ps. 84, and a short oratorio, "The Deliverence 
of Israel " ; only some church music, and tran- 
scriptions for the organ, have been published. 
Author of The Complete Scale and Arpeggio 
Manuel (Wickins). Dr. Allum holds the rank 
of Captain in the 4th Stirlingshire Volunteer 

Alpress H. G. Rivers, violinist, born 
in Beudigo, Victoria, Australia, in 1864. He 




founded the Sydney Orpheus Society, and for 
some years was conductor of the Sydney Lie- 
dertafel. lie is now associated with the Sydney 
Amateur Orchestral Society, and is heard at 
theprincipal concerts. As a solo player his rep- 
utation is very high, and his repertory embraces 
the concertos of the great masters, and the 
principal works of all schools for the violin. 

Alquin, Frank C. d', bass vocalist, born 
in London, of German parentage. Studied at 
Milan, under Visoni and Nava, Sang with 
success in Italy and Germany; and has been 
heard in concerts in various parts of Britain. 
Now resident at Brighton as teacher of sing- 
ing. When a child he studied the violoncello 
under Piatti, and at bis concerts in Brighton 
he frequently plays solos upon that instru- 
ment. He is well-known as a song composer, 
his publications including The carol singers; 
Komanza Pastorale; L' Aube Nait (Victor 
Hugo) ; and numerous others ; also the "Pre- 
paratory Exercise for the Shake." 

AIsop, John, composer of present time, of 
Newton Abbey, was awarded the Sir Michael 
Costa Prize of ten guineas, Trinity College, 
London, with the gold medal, 1888, for an 
orchestral overture in P. He is also the com- 
poser of a cantata, " The Sower " [1895]. 

Alston, John, educationist, was born at 
Glasgow in 1777. He was a merchant and 
magistrate of Glasgow, and identified himself 
with the Blind Asylum, of which he became 
a director and honorary treasurer. In 18.37 
he published specimens of printing for the 
blind in raised Roman type, and from that 
date he issued a large number of books, chiefly 
educational, for use among the blind. His two 
works on music in raised type for the blind are 
the earliest of the kind known to us. The first 
was " Musical catechism, with tunes, for the 
blind." Glasgow [18.38] ; and the second "A 
selection of Scottish songs, embossed for the 
use of the blind." Glasgow (printed in the 
Asylum at the Institution Press), 1844. This 
work is stated to be " the first book of songs, 
set to music, printed in relief for the instruc- 
tion of the blind." In 1843 a bust of Alston 
from the chisel of James Fillans was unveiled 
in the Glasgow Asylum for the blind, the in- 
scription on which records the fact that he 
printed the first bible " in raised letiers for 
the use of the blind." He died at Glasgow, 
August 20, 1846, after a career of usefulness 
and distinction. 

Ambler, Sarah, see, Brereton, Mrs.W. H. 

Ames, John Carlowitz, composer and 
pianist, born at Westbury-on-Trym, near Bris- 
tol, January 8, 1860. His father, Geo. A. Ames 
(born May 10, 1827; died in London, January 
3, 1893), was a talented amateur violinist, pu- 
pil of Molique, and, under an assumed name, 
played in the orchestra of the Birmingham 
Festival of 1846, when Mendelsson's ' ' Elijah " 


was produced. He was the composer of a 
string quartet, and other works. J. C. Ames 
first studied under Sir Herbert Oakeley, who 
persuaded his father to let him take up music 
as a profession. He then went to Stuttgart, 
1878, remaining there until 1881, studying 
the pf. under Lebert and Pruckner, and com- 
position under Goetschius and Faisst. After- 
wards he became ajjupil of Franz Wiillner at 
Dresden. One of the early advocates of the 
Janko Keyboard, he exhibited its powers at a 
concert at the Burlington Hall, London, in 
December, 1888, and has given recitals at the 
Conferences of the Incorporated Society of 
IMusicians in London, 1893, and Scarborough, 
1894, and since in several towns in the pro- 

Works. — Psalm 1.30, for soli, chorus, and 
orchestra, Dresden, 1877. Consertstiick, Dres- 
den, 1888 ; Concerto in C minor. Op. 8, Crystal 
Palace (Oscar Beringer), 1889, both forpf. and 
orchestra. Concerto in D minor, violin and 
orchestra, London, 1892 ; Quartet in E minor, 
strings (Dresden); Trio in E, pf. and strings; 
Sonata, pf. and violin ; pianoforte pieces, etc. 

Marie Mildred Ames, sister of the preced- 
ing, was born June 20, 1867. Studied under 
her brother for three years, and then at the 
R.A.M., instrumentation with F. Corder ; later 
at Berlin. Won the Charles Mortimer Prize 
for compo,sition at R.A.M., 1894. Has written 
an Andante and Rondo for clarionet and pf. ; 
Andante in G, Barcarolle, and other pieces 
for violin and pf., etc. 

Amner, John, composer and organist, was 
born about the end of the 16th century. He 
was appointed organist and choirmaster of Ely 
Cathedral in 1610, and took the degree of Mus. 
Bac. Oxford in 1613. He died at Ely in 1641. 

Works. — Sacred hymns of 3, 4. 5, and 6 
Ijarts for voyces and vyols. London, 1615. 
Some of his anthems and other music for the 
church service are preserved in nas. at Ely, 
Cambridge (Peterhouse and Christ Church), 
Oxford, and in the British Museum. According 
to Buruey he published some madrigals. 

Ralph Amner, a bass singer, probably a 
relative of the above, was a lay clerk at Ely 
Cathedral in 1604, and gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal in 1623. He was a minor canon 
of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. He died at 
Windsor, March 3, 1664. 

Amott, John, composer and organist, born 
at Monmouth in 1798, was organist of Abbey 
Church, Shrewsbury, from 1822 to 1832; and 
organist of Gloucester Cathedral in succession 
to Mutlow, 1832-65. He died at Gloucester, 
February 9, 1865. He composed services, 
anthems, etc., and acted as conductor of the 
Gloucester IMusical Festivals. He edited a 
second edition of Lysons' work on the Three 
choirs festivals, entitled "The Annals of the 
Three Choirs, etc." London [1864]. 




Amps, William, organist aud composer of 
the present time. Was conductor, for some 
years, of the Camhridge University IMusical 
Society, the concerts of which he distinguished 
by the production of choral works — Mendels- 
sohn's "EHjeh" (1853); Antigone, aud others. 
He was organist of St. Peter's Church, Cam- 
bridge. Of his compositions, two pf. sonatas, 
and two sonatinas have been published, as 
also six vocal quartets (1850), aud six part- 
songs (18G5). 

Anchors, William, musician of early part 
of 18th century, published "A Choice Collec- 
tion of Psalm-'Tunes, Hymns, and Anthems." 
London [1720]. 

Anderson, Andrew, compiler of " Sacred 
Harmony . . . adapted to the version of the 
psalnas, paraphrases, and hymns used in Pres- 
byterian cliurches and chapels . . . London 

Anderson, George Frederick, violinist, 
born Londou, 1793. He married Miss Lucy 
Philpot, the pianist, in July, 1820. He held 
the appointments of conductor of Roj'al 
Private Band, and lion, treasurer of Philhar- 
monic Society and Royal Society of Musicians. 
He died at London, December 14, 1876. He 
published " Statement of Mr. G. F. Anderson, 
in reply to calumnious charges against hin^ 
as Director of Her IMajesty's Private Band." 
Norwich [1855]. Privately printed. 

Anderson, James Smith, organist and 
composer, born at Crail, Fifeshire, June 30, 
1853. Musical training, private. F.R.C.O. ; 
Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1878. Has held various 
organ appointments, including the Parish 
Church, Abbey, 1877-9, and St. Andrew's 
Parish Church. Edinburgh, from 1881. He 
is teacher of pf. at Moray House Training 
College and School ; aud lecturer on harmonj' 
and counterpoint at St. George's Classes, 
Edinburgh ; both positions dating from 1892. 
A skilful organist, he has rendered valuable 
service at concerts. His compositions com- 
prise Psalm 100, for soli, chorus, and orches- 
tra ; operettas, " Hearts and homes " and 
" Land of romance," which are published ; 
as also some songs and pf. pieces. He also 
revised the harmonies of the " Blackburn 
tune book," and composed hymn tunes. 

Anderson, John, violinist and composer, 
born 1737 ; died at Inverness, June 5, 1808. 
He published " Selection of the most approved 
Highland straths]Deys, country dances, Eng- 
lish and French dances, with a harpsichord 
or violoncello bass." Edinburgh [1790], two 
collections. " Budget of strathspeys, reels, 
and country dances for the German flute or 
violin," Edinburgh, n.d. 

Anderson, Josephine, born Bartolozzi, 
mezzo-soprano singer, born at London in 1806. 
She was a younger sister of Madame Vestris, 
and studied under Corri, etc. In 1828 she 


made her debut as Rosina in the " Barber of 
Seville," at the Haymarket Theatre, London, 
and afterwards sang at London and provincial 
concerts. She died of consumption, on May 
1, 1848, aged 42. 

Anderson, Lucy, born Philpot, wife of 
G. F. Anderson, was born at Bath, December, 
1790. She was instructed in music by her 
father and James W. Windsor, and became a 
pianist of great promise. She appeared at 
the Pnilharmonic Society concert in Londou, 
April 29, 1822, being the first lady pianist 
who ever did so, and afterwards played at 
many of the principal concerts. She was 
teacher of Queen Victoria and several other 
members of the royal family. Died at Lon- 
don, December 24, 1878. 

Anderson, Robert, amateur musician, 
was born in Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire, 
May 6, 1835, and ^died there on November 22, 
1882. He was a solicitor in Fraserburgh and 
composed several part-songs of which the 
" Herring Song " is best known. He also 
composed " Songs of Zion " in 12 numbers, 
published by Novello. 

Anderson, Rev. William, clergyman and 
musician, born at Kilsyth, Stirlingshire, Janu- 
ary 6, 1799. He was a popular minister of the 
United Presbyterian Church in Glasgow, and 
for many years was pastor of John Street 
United Presbyterian Church. He died at Ud- 
dingston, near Glasgow, September 15, 1872. 

Early in his career he edited and published 
anonymously, "The Sacred Choir: a collection 
of music adapted to the psalms, paraphrases 
and hymns in general use in Scotland, and 
specially to the collection of hymns sanctioned 
by the Synod of Relief," Glasgow [1841]. This 
contains "Thanksgiving," "Trinity," and the 
" Sacred Choir," tures by himself. The har- 
monies were revised by Samuel Barr. He also 
compiled "A selection of psalm and hymn- 
tunes, adapted to various measures." Glasgow 
[1844]. For " The Choir: a collection of psalm 
and hymn tunes . . . selected and composed 
by Alex. Duncan." Glasgow, 1828, he wrote a 
preface. Among other literary works he wrote 
" Apology for the Organ as an assistance of 
congregational psalmody." Glasgow, 1829. 

Anderson,William, writer and musician, 
born at Aberdeen [1817]. He was a clothier in 
Aberdeen and held the appointment of precen- 
tor in the South Parish Church from 1835, and 
in the Free South Church from 1843 to 1871. 
He died at Aberdeen, August 6, 1875. 

Author of " Remarks on congregational 
Psalmody.'' Aberdeen, 1855. " Precentors 
and Musical Professors : being brief sketches 
of some of those more worthy of notice who 
flourished in Aberdeen in the course of the 
last hundred years." Aberdeen, 1876. This 
work contains 26 notices and is prefaced by 
a memoir of the author. 




Anderton, Thomas, composer, organist, 
and pianist, born in Birmingham, April 15, 
1836. Teaciier of music in that city, and 
organist of Parish Church, Solihull. Mus. 
Bac, Cambridge, 1865. Conducted the first 
singing class established at the Birmingham 
and Midland Institute, and for some years 
carried on a series of high-class orchestral 
concerts at the Exchange Assembl}- Rooms. 
Musical critic of the Birmingham Daily 
Gazette. Becoming part proprietor and editor 
of the Midland Counties' Herald, he retired 
from the musical profession in 1874, but con- 
tinued to compose and occasionally gave 
lectures on musical subjects. 

Works. — Cantatas: The song of Deborah 
and Barak, Solihull, 1871 ; The wise and 
foolish virgins ; The Wreck of the Hesperus ; 
John Gilpin ; The three jovial huntsmen, 
1881 ; The Norman Baron. 1884 ; Yule Tide, 
Birmingham Festival, 1885. An English 
requiem, 1890. Prize glee. Mat o' the Mill. 
Songs : Come to me, ye children ; The 
felling of the trees, and many others. Orches- 
tral : Symphony in D ; Overtures ; Marches ; 
Allemande in F ; Quartet in F, strings, 1884. 
Pianoforte : Allemande ; Play hours, etc. 
Literary : Letters from a country house, 1891. 

His brother, John Anderton, is a librettist 
and dramatic author, and has furnished more 
than one " book " for the coinposer. 

Andrews, F. H., Canadian (?) musician. 
Published " Collection of original sacred mu- 
sic, with organ or pianoforte accompani- 
ment," Montreal, 1848. 

Andrews, John Charles Bond=, pianist 
and composer, born at Birkenhead. At eleven 
years of age, began his musical career by 
giving a series of pf. recitals ; and two years 
afterwards was sent to Leipzig, where he 
studied under Reinecke and others. He also 
had lessons from Sterndale Bennett, at the 
R.A.M., and studied at Vienna. In 1876 he 
gave recitals at Birkenhead, and has appeared 
with success as a pianist in London and other 
cities ; he has also officiated as conductor to 
touring opera companies. He has composed 
several operas — " Heme's Oak," produced at 
Liverpool, October, 1887 ; " The Rose of 
Windsor " (both books by Walter Parke), Ac- 
cringtou, August, 1889 ; and an operetta, "A 
Pair of Lunatics " (1892). Quartet in B flat ; 
Trio in D minor, pf. and strings ; Sonata in 
G minor; "May Pole" suite; and many 
other j^ieces for pf., &c. 

Andrews, Mrs. John Holman, born 
Jenny Constant, a teacher of singing and 
composer, born in 1817. She resided in Lon- 
don as a teacher, and died there April 29, 
1878. She published " Two part exercises " 
(for the voice) [1860]. Songs — Adieu ; Au- 
tumn's golden leaf ; Go lovelj' rose ; Prince 
Charley's farewell to Scotland, etc. Nocturne 


for pf., and other instrumental music. 

Andrews, Richard Hoffmann, writer 
and composer, born in London, November 22, 
1803. Appeared as a child actor on the stage 
at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, and in 
1809 played the part of Pistol's boy in Henry 
v., at Liverpool. At the age of nine he was 
apprenticed to the leader of the Manchester 
Theatre band, and continueti to reside in that 
city as teacher, and later as music publisher. 
He gave a concert so late as February 23, 
1885, when he played a violin solo. He 
edited and arranged a vast number of works 
for the pianoforte, and wrote several glees 
which enjoyed great popularity — " Hail fair 
peace " being one of the earliest. He was 
author of " Music as a Science," 1885 ; " Sa- 
cred music, adapted for public and private 
devotion ;" and edited "The Family Vocalist," 
" Songs of the Hearth," " Handel's Songs," 
" The German Choral Harmonist," etc. He 
died at Longsight, Manchester, June 8, 1891. 
His sons, Richard Hoffmann (_born at Man- 
chester, May 24, 1831), and Edward Hoff- 
mann (born at Manchester, February 7, 1836), 
are settled in the United States as pianists 
and composers. 

Angel, Alfred, organist and composer, 
was born in 1816. Held appointment of 
organist of Exeter Cathedral 1842-1876. He 
died at Exeter, May 24, 1876. Composer of 
" Arise my fair and come away," part song, 
songs, and other vocal music. A son of his 
was drowned in the wreck of the " London," 
in 1865. 

Anger, Joseph Humfrey, organist and 
composer. Musical training private ; gradu- 
ated Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1889. Organist at 
Bristol and, in 1891, of Ludlow parish church, 
and music master in King Edward VI. school 
there. Appointed, 1893, principal in tlieory 
department of Toronto Conservatoire of Music 
and organist and CM. of the Church of the 
Ascension. His setting of Psalm 96, for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra, gained the gold medal 
of the Bath Philharmonic Society, and was 
performed by that Society, April 11, 1888. 
Other compositions are "Bonnie Belle," mad- 
rigal for six voices, London Madrigal Society 
prize, 1890 ; madrigal, " All on a summer's 
morning;" Pianoforte pieces, &c. 

Anseli,J. K., musician. Published " Col- 
lection of sacred music for the service of the 
Catholic Church . > . ." London [1818]. 
" Ave Regina, for four voices and chorus." 
Songs, Cavalry march, &c. 

Anstey, Thomas, musician. Issued a col- 
lection of " Sacred music ... in solo, duet, 
trio, and quartett." London [1830], 2 vols. 

Aptommas, Thomas Thomas, harpist 
(brother of John Thomas), born at Bridgend, 
Glamorgan, 1829. Has made tours through- 
out the United Kingdom, and played at many 




musical centres on the continent, appearing 
at tlie celebrated Gewandliaus Concerts, Leip- 
zig, January 18, 1872. Has a wide reputation 
as a brilliant performer on the harp. Author 
of a " History of the Harp," 1859, and many 
Fantasias and other pieces for ihat instru- 

Aquiia, pseudonym, of Edwin Ransford. 

Archer, Frederic, composer and organist, 
born at Oxford, June 16, 1838. Chorister at 
All Saints', ]\largaret Street, London, and 
afterwards studied at Leipzig. He succeeded 
Dr. Cliipp as organist at the Panopticon, and 
held similar positions at Meroon College, Ox- 
ford, and the Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill, 
following Mr. Weist Hill as conductor at the 
latter, a post he held until 1880. Conductor, 
1878-80, of the Glasgow Select Choir, for which 
he arranged several Scotch airs as part-songs. 
About the same time he was also conductor of 
the Blanche Cole Opera Company on its pro- 
vincial tours. In 1881 he was appointed or- 
ganist of the Rev. H. Ward Beecher's Church, 
Brooklyn, U.S.A., but left the next year for 
the Episcopal Church of ihe Incarnation. 
Since then he has been organist of several 
different churches, his latest post being at 
Pittsburg, with an annual stipend of £800. He 
was organist at IMapleson's New York season 
of Italian Opera, 1882, and at the Toronto 
Festival, June, 188G. For some years he was 
editor of the New York INIusical paper, the 
Keynote, and contributed many articles to the 
earlier volumes of Mtosical Opinion, London, 
and other papers. 

Works. — The Organ : a theoretical and prac- 
tical treatise (Novello & Co.) ; The college or- 
ganist ( Weekes) ; Grand fantasia in F ; Concert 
variations ; March triomphale ; and many 
pieces for the organ. Duo concertante, flute 
and pf . ; Three impromptus ; Two gavottes ; 
and other pieces for pf , Songs, part-songs, etc. 

Argent, William Ignatius, organist, 
composer, and conductor, born at Colchester, 
August 26, 184:4. Organist of Little Oratory, 
Brompton, 1859-60. Since 1868 resident in 
Liverpool arid Birkenhead. Organist succes- 
sively at St. Lawrence, Birkenhead, and St. 
Anne's TR.C.), Edge Hill. Conductor at dif- 
ferent periods of musical societies at Widnes, 
Frodsham, Garston, and of the St. Cecilia 
Society, Liverpool. Musical critic of the 
Liverpool Albion, 1873-80, and Mercury, 1886- 
90. Contributor to ihe- Musical Times and 
other papers. One of the founders of the 
Liverpool Sunday Society, in connection with 
which he has not only delivered lectures, but 
organised an orchestra of seventy performers, 
and for years given series of Sunday Concerts 
in St. George's Hall. 

Works.— Mass in A (1875) ; Mass in B flat 
(1887) ; Tantum ergo and O Salutaris hostia, 
for chorus and orchestra; Motets, anthems. 


etc. An opera di camera (1863), and other 
works in ms. Author of "Half-a-century of 
music in Liverpool," 1889. 

Arkwright, Mrs. Robert, was a daughter 
of Stephen Kemble, the actor (1758-1822). 
She appeared as an actress at Newcastle and 
Edinburgh, and was married to a Captain 

Works. — Set of six ancient Spanish ballads 
. . . London [1832], 2nd set [1885]. Set of 
six songs, the words from Mrs. Hemans, Mrs. 
Opie, Sir Walter Scott, etc., with pf. accompani- 
ment by '!'. Cooke [1835] . Three other similar 
sets. Six sacred songs [1866]. Ballads — 
Beloved one, Beth Gelert, Repentence, Sab- 
bath bell at sea, Sailor's grave. Pirate's fare- 
well, Zara's ear-rings, etc. 

Armes, Philip, composer and organist, 
born at Norwich, March 29, 1836. Chorister 
at Norwich Cathedral, 1846-48, and at Roches- 
ter Cathedral, 1848-50. Was articled to Dr. 
J. L. Hopkins in 1850, and was assistant or- 
ganist at the Cathedral up to 1856. In 1855 
he was appointed organist at Trinity Church, 
Milton, Gravesend, and two years later went 
to St. Andrew's, Wells Street, London. Here 
he remained till 1861, when he was appointed 
organist of Chichester Cathedral, a post he 
left a year later for Durham Cathedral, which 
position he still holds. He graduated Mus. 
Bac. Oxon., 1858, and Mus. Doc. 1864. In 
addition he has received the degrees of Mus. 
Bac. ad eundein, Durham, 1863 ; Mus. Doc, 
1874; M.A. Honoris causa, 1891; and was 
elected Fellow of the (Royal) College of Or- 
ganists in 1892. Resident Examiner in Music 
to University of Durham, 1890; Examiner in 
Music to University of Oxford, 1894. 

Works. — Hezekiah,an oratorio, produced at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1877, and revised and en- 
larged at the Worcester Festival, 1878. Church 
oratorios : St. John the Evangelist, produced 
at St. Peter's Church, Bramley, Leeds, July 
5, 1881, and at the Choir Festival, York Min- 
ster, July 7 ; St Barnabas, produced at Dur- 
ham Cathedral, July 30, 1891. Communion 
services, in A and B flat Anthems : The Lord 
preserveth (Harvest) ; Rejoice in the Lord, etc. 
Cantata and Dens for Festival in Durham 
Cathedral, July, 1894. Paper on English 
church music of Purcell's period, read at the 
Church Congress, Norwich, October 10, 1895. 

Armitt, Mary Louisa, writer on music, 
born at Salford, September 24, 1851. Her 
father, of a musical family, was assistant 
overseer of Salford. Her own tastes being of 
an antiquarian turn in connection with music, 
she has spent much time in exploring the 
Bodleian, Cambridge University, and other 
libraries in England and on the continent ; 
and her contributions to the press have real 
historical value. She wrote the musical 
sketches, "The Choirman of Grayford " and 




" A Stranger's visit " for the Quarterly Musical 
Review (edited by Dr. Hi les), and also papers on 
Anthony a' Wood, and Old English Viol Music. 
In the Musical Times (November, 1891), " A 
Richmond Idjdl" reveals facts not generally 
known concerning Charles Coleman's domestic 
life; a paper on "Old English Fingering" 
(March, 18'J5), in the same journal, should be 
also mentioned. Miss Armitt has also contri- 
buted to TJie Queen, Musical Standard, Musi- 
cal World, Musical News, and acted as musical 
critic for some time for the Manchester City 
Netvs. She is nowr resident at Ambleside, 

Armstrong, Helen Porter, born Mit- 
chell, known professionally as Madame 
Melba, soprano vocalist, born at Melbourne, 
Australia, 1859. Daughter of David Mitchell, 
contractor. Sang in the choir of St. Francis' 
Roman Catholic Church, IMelbourne, and 
appeared at the Melbourne Liedertafel con- 
certs. 1884. I\Iade her first appearance in 
Europe at Emil Bach's concert. Prince's Hall, 
London, June 1, 1886. A pupil of Madame 
Marchesi, her operatic d6but took place at the 
Theatre de lalMonnaie, Brussels, as "Gilda," in 
" Rigoletto," October 12, 1887. She appeared 
at the Royal Opera, Covent Garden, May 24, 
1888, as " Lucia," in the " Bride of Lammer- 
moor," and has in subsequent seasons been 
heard in a variety of parts. She sang at La 
Scala, Milan, in 1893; at the Handel Festival, 
Crystal Palace, June 27, 1894 (Selection Day) ; 
in opera, New York, and elsewhere, and has 
established herself as a prima do7ina of the 
first rank. In 1882 she married Mr. Charles 
Armstrong, of Queensland. 

Her sister, Frederica Mitchell, is con- 
sidered one of the most accomplished vocalists 
in Melbourne. In 1891 she was principal 
soprano in the Roman Catholic Church 
(St. George's) Carlton, Melbourne. She sang, 
November 24, 1883, in Dublin, at a concert 
of the University Choral Society. 

Arne, Michael, composer, natural son of 
Thomas A. Arne, born London, 1741. He 
was educated for the stage by his aunt, Mrs. 
Gibber. In 1751 he first appeared as a 
vocalist. He married Elizabeth Wright, the 
soprano singer, in November, 1766, and in 
1779 became director of music at a theatre in 
Dublin. He returned to London and was 
director of oratorios in 1784. He devoted 
himself latterly to the stud\^ of alchemy and 
lost his fortune in the pursuit. Died at 
Lambeth, London, January 14, 1786. 

Works. — Musical dramas : The fairy tale, 
1768 ; Almena (with Battishill) 1764 ; Positive 
man, 1764; Hymen, 1764; Cymon, 1767; The 
Father, 1778 ; The Belle's stratagem, 1780 ; 
Choice of Harlequin, 1781 ; Tristram Shandy, 
1783. The flow'ret, a new collection of English 
songs. Glees, many single songs, etc. 


His wife Elizabeth Wright (born about 
1743, died?) soprano singer, sang at the prin- 
ciiml concerts of her day. 

Anne, Susanna Maria, see Cibbeb 

(Susanna ]\L) 

Arne, Thomas Augustine, composer, 
born in King Street, Covent Garden, London, 
May 28, 1710, son of an upholsterer. He was 
educated at Eton College, being intended for 
the legal profession, but his natural aptitude 
for music led him to study privately, and he 
had lessons on the spinnet, and private lessons 
on the violin, from Festing. In 1736 he 
married Cecilia Young, daughter of Charles 
Young, an organist, and in 1738 became com- 
poser to Drury Lane Theatre. From 1742 to 
1744 he resided in Dublin, and on his return 
to London in 1745 he became composer to 
Vauxhall Gardens, Covent Garden Theatre, 
and the principal London theatres. Doc. 
Mus., Oxford, 1759. He died, London, 
March 5, 1778, and is buried in St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden. 

Works. — Operas and Musical Dramas : 
Rosamond (Addison), Lincoln's Inn Field's 
Theatre, March 7, 1733; Opera of operas, or 
Tom Thumb, 1733 ; Dido and yEneas, 1734 ; 
Comus. a masque, London, 1738; Judgment of 
Paris, a masque, 1740; Alfred, a masque, Lon- 
don, 1740 [by Thomson and Mallet, in which 
is the celebrated national song " Rule, 
Britannia," written by Thomson] ; Britannia, 
a masque, Dublin, 1743; Eliza, opera, Dublin, 
1743 ; Artaxerxes, opera, London, 17G2 [the 
well-known psalm-tune " Artaxerxes " i& 
taken from the minuet at the end of the 
overture to this opera, and was first adapted 
by R. Harrison in vol. 1 of his " Sacred 
harmony," 1784] ; The fairies, 1762 ; Olim- 
piade, 1765. Music to Plays: Fall of Phaeton, 
London, 1736 ; Zara, 1736 ; Blind beggar of 
Bethnall Green, 1741 ; Thomas and Sally, 
Dublin, 1743; Temple of Duluess, 1745; 
King Pepin's campaign, 1745 ; Neptune and 
Amphitrite, 1746; Don Saverio, 1749; The 
Prophetess, 1759 ; The Sultan, 1759 ; Love in 
a village, 1762 ; Birth of Hercules (never 
produced) 1763 ; Guardian outwitted, 1764 ; 
Ladies' frolic (with W. Bates), 1770 ; Fairy 
prince, 1771 ; The Cooper, 1772 ; Elfrida (by 
Mason) 1772 ; The, 1773 ; Contest of 
beauty and virtue, 1773 ; Achilles in petti- 
coats, 1773 ; May-Day, 1775 ; Phoebe at court, 
1776 ; Caractacus (by Mason), 1776 (MS. lost). 
Music to Shakespeare's As you like it, 1740 ; 
Twelfth Night, 1741; Merchant of Venice, 
1742; Tempest, 1746; Romeo and Juliet, 
1750. Oratorios : Abel, London, March, 1755 ; 
Judith, London, February, 1764. Ode on 
Shakespeare, composed for the Stratford 
Jubilee, 1769. So7igs, etc. : Lyric harmony, 
for voice, harpsichord and violin ; The Syren, 
a collection of favourite songs ; Vocal grove ; 




Summer amusement ; Winter amusement : 
Vocal melody, 1760 ; Glees, catches, etc., 
in Warren's collection and elsewhere. Over- 
tures for orchestra. Sonatas for violin. Con- 
certos for organ. Sonatas for harpsichord. The 
conipleat musician, . . . being a collection 
of vocal and instrumental music . . . . 
London [1760]. 

Arne, Mrs. born Cecilia Young (born 
1711, died October 6, 1789), was a singer of 
much note in her day and appeared in u.any 
of her husband's works, as well as at most of 
the leading concerts. 

Arnold, George Benjamin, composer 
and organist, born at Petworth, Sussex, 
December 22, 1832. Studied under Dr. S. 
Sebastian Wesley, and graduated Mus. Bac, 
Oxon., 1855, and Mus. Doc, 1861. Organist 
successively at St. Columba's College, 1852 ; 
St. Mary's, Torquay, 1856; New College, 
Oxford, 1860 ; and Winchester Cathedral, 
1865, in which city he is resident at the 
present time. He has given concerts with his 
specially formed choir, and appeared with 
success as a pianist. 

Works. — Oratorios : Ahab, Exeter Hall, 
London, by the National Choral Society, 
April 6, 1864 ; The second coming of our 
Lord (MS.) Cantatas : The Song of David 
(MS.) ; Sennacherib, Gloucester Festival, 
1883; The Song of the redeemed, written for 
St. James's church. New York, and produced 
there, 1891. Communion Service in G ; Te 
Deum and Jubilate in D, etc. Anthems : 
Praise the Lord ; Let the righteous be glad ; 
The night is far spent, etc. Part So7igs : 
Thou soft flowing Avon ; Live like the rose, 
etc. Songs : Go, sit by the summer sea. 
Harmony (Lancashire Choral Union Prize 
Glee), and others. Pianoforte Music : Sonata 
in F minor ; Sonata in D ; Prelude and 
Fugue, etc. 

Arnold, John, " Philo Musicae," com- 
poser, of Great Warley, Essex, born [c. 
1715-20] ; died in February, 1792. He issued 
the following collections : — The Compleat 
Psalmodist, or organist's parish clerk's and 
psalm-singer's companion, in four books, 
1741; also London, 1750; 4th ed., 1756; 
5th ed., 1761; 6th ed., 1769; 7th ed., 1779. 
The Psalmist's recreation . . . 1757. The 
Leicestershire harmony, containing a set of 
excellent psalm tunes and anthems comjDosed 
in modern taste for 4 voices, by an eminent 
master of the county of Leicester, and now 
first published by J. Arnold, London, 1759 ; 
also 2nd ed., 1771. Essex Harmony : being a 
choice collection of the most celebrated 
songs, catches, canons, epigrams, canzonets 
and glees, for 2, 3, 4, and 5 voices . . . 
vol. 1., 1750 ; vol. 2, 1769; various editions of 
both volumes. 

Arnold, Matthew, organist and con- 


ductor. Was organist at Leeds ; in 1865 ap- 
pointed to W^esleyan Chapel, Eccleshill, near 
Bradford ; and of Enuiskillen Parish Church 
in 1875. He very soon established a choral 
society there, and for nearly twenty years 
conducted a series of concerts, appearing like- 
wise as violinist and pianist, and occasionally 
as lecturer on musical topics. An active and 
useful career was closed by his death, at En- 
uiskillen, March 24, 1894. His son, Chardes 
Haydn Arnold, born 1871, is a pianist and 
organist. He made his debut at his father's 
concert, September 11, 1884 (with his sister 
Edith, two years his junior), and at the age 
of seventeen, in 1888, was appointed organist 
and choirmaster of St. Flannan's (cathedral) 
Church, Killaloe, near Limerick, where he is 
engaged as teacher, and also conductor of 
choral classes, &c. 

Arnold, Samuel, organist and composer, 
born London, August 10, 1740. He was edu- 
cated in the Chapel Royal, under Bernard 
Gates and Nares. In 1763 he was composer 
to Covent Garden Theatre, and he afterwards 
became owner of ]\Iarylebone Gardens, in 
1769, at which he produced various dramatic 
entertainments, of which two were written 
by Thomas Chatterton. He retired from this 
enterprise in 1771, after much loss. In 1771 
he married Miss Napier. He was made Mus. 
Bac. and Doc, Oxford, 1773. In 1783 he 
succeeded Dr. Nares as organist and composer 
to the Chapel Royal, and in the following 
year acted as sub-director of the Handel 
commemoration. He was conductor of the 
Academy of Ancient ]\Iusic from 1789, and 
organist of Westminster Abbey from 1793. 
In conjunction with Dr. Callcott he estab- 
lished the Glee Club, and was connected with 
many of the musical enterprises of his time. 
He died at London, October 22, 1802, and is 
buried in Westminster Abbey, where a monu- 
ment to his memory is placed. 

Works. — Musical Dramas, itc. — Maid of 
the Mill, 1765 ; Rosamond, 1767 ; Portrait, 
1770 ; Mother Shipton, 1770 ; Son-in-law, 
1779 ; Summer amusements, 1779 ; Fire and 
water, 1780; Wedding night, 1780; Silver 
tankard, 1780 ; Dead alive, 1781 ; Castle of 
Andalusia, 1782 ; Harlequin Teague, 1782 
Gretna Green, 1783 ; Hunt the slipper, 1784 
Two to one, ,784 ; Turk and no Turk, 1785 
Siege of Cuz2,ola, 1785 ; Inkle and Yarico, 
1787 ; Enraged musician, 1788 ; Battle of 
Hexham, 1789 ; New Spain, 1790 ; Basket 
maker, 1790 ; Surrender of Calais, 1791 ; 
Harlequin and Faustus, 1793 ; Children in 
the wood, 1793 ; Auld Robin Grey, 1794 ; Zo- 
rinski, 1795 ; Mountaineers, 1795 ; Love and 
money, 1795 ; Who i^ays the reckoning ? 
1795 ; Shipwreck, comic opera, 1796, Op. 40 
Bannian Day, 1796 ; Italian monk, 1797 
False and true, 1798 ; Cambro-Britains, 1798 




Throw physic to the dogs, 1798; Obi, 1800, ] 
The Review, 1801 ; Corsair, 1801 ; Veteran 
Tar, 1801 ; Sixty-third letter, 1802 ; Fairies' 
revels, 1802 ; The Revenge ; Woman of spirit. 
Oratorios — Cure of Saul, 1767 ; Abimelech, 
1768; I'rodigal Son, 1773 ; Resurrection, 1777; 
Redemption (compiled from Handel's works), ' 
1786 ; Elijah, 1795. Two services in A and 
B fiat. Anthems. Cathedral music, a col- 
lection in score of the naost valuable and 
useful compositions by the English masters 
of the 17tQ and 18th centuries. Loudon, 1790. 
The Psalms of David, for the use of Parish 
Churches, edited with J. W. Callcott. Lon- 
don, 1791. O ;e for the anniversary of the 
London Hospital. Anacreontic songs for one, 
two, three, and four voices. London, 1785. 
Songs composed for Vauxhall Gardens, several 
sets. Concertos, overtures, lessons, and son- 
atas for harpsichord or pf. Edited works of 
Handel, in 36 vols. 

Arnold, Thomas, musician. Published 
" The Celestial Wreath, a collection of fa- 
vourite Psalms and Hymns." London [18i0]. 
Daily Exercises for a soprano voice, etc. Lon- 
don [1861]. Songs. Selection of popular airs 
for two performers on the pianoforte, etc. 
London [1862]. 12 nos. "The Union," a 
collection of easy duets for pf. [1866]. 

Arnott, Archibald Davidson, composer 
and organist, born in Glasgow, February 25, 
1870. His parents removed to London when 
he was ten years old, but, though passionately 
fond of music, he did not begin the serious 
study of the art until he entered his twenty- 
first year. He graduated Mus. Bac, Durham, 
1891, being the first graduate by examination 
at that University. His exercise was a Gloria 
in four movements, for solo, chorus, and orch- 
estra, parts of which have frequently been 
given since as an anthem in Durham Cathe- 
dral. Studied for a year at the R.C.M., under 
Drs. Parry and Stanford, and afterwards with 
Mr. F. Corder. Organist of St. George's, Perry 
Vale; Trinity Church, Forest Hill; St. Gab- 
riel's, Pimlico; and, since 1893, organist to 
the Hon. Soc. of Gray's Inn. 

Works. — Operas: Angelo, a Noble of Venice 
(two acts, composed January, 1895) ; Marie 
Ancel (four acts, music and libretto, com- 
posed July, 1895) ; Cantatas : Young Lochin- 
var, op. 6, for chorus and orchestra (composed 
1893, produced Crystal Palace, March 16, 
1895) ; The ballad of Carmilhan, for baritone 
solo, chorus, and orchestra (composed 1894, 
produced Queen's Hall, February 26, 1895) ; 
The Lost galleon, poem by Bret Harte, for 
the same combination (1896) ; Vita Christi, a 
sacred mystery (1896). Sccna: The Stilling 
of the tempest, op, 8, for baritone and orch- 
estra. 4 Cycles of songs, words by Edith M. 
Dunaway and others, op. 1, 2, 12, 13 ; various 
songs, etc. Two concert overtures for orch- 


estra, op. 3, in D minor, op. 5, in D major; 
Trio in A, op. 4, for pf. and strings, produced 
Mus. Artists' Society, March 16, 1896. 

Arthur, J., musician, author of "The 
modern Art of Flute Playing." London, 1827. 

Ascher, Joseph, composer and pianist, 
born of German jDarents at London in 1831. 
He studied the pianoforte under Moscheles and 
at Paris, where he chiefly resided. He held the 
appoimment of pianist to the Empress Eu- 
genie. He died London, June 20, 1869. 

Works. — Pianoforte : Op. 1 Tarentella ; 
Valses: Op. 2, 4, 18, 46, 100, 108; Nocturnes: 
Op. 3, 125 ; Dances : Op. 6, 24, 61 ; Op. 7 ; La 
Fileuse, Reveries, etc. : Op. 9, 10, 42, 78, 89, 
110, 124, 127 ; Mazurkas : Op. 11, 41, 98, 107 ; 
Liipromptus: Op. 12, 26, 65, 81, 82, 99, 105; 
Polkas, Galops: Op. 13, 31, 49, 83, 91, 96; 
Op. 14, Barcarolle; Caprices: Op. 17, 22, 30, 
109,111, 113; Op. 21, i^'orgie; Marches: Op. 
25, 43, 62, 72 ; Idylles : Op. 29, 39, 128 ; Op. 
32, Le Papillon ; Op. 35, Styrienne ; Op. 38, 
64, Souvenirs; Op. 40, Fanfare; Op.42, Pri6re; 
Op. 48, Les Ciocheites; Op. 51, La Savillana ; 
Op. 52, La Fanchonette ; Op 58, Tyrolienne ; 
Op. 66, Ave Maria ; Op. 73, La Zingara ; Op. 
74, La Favorite ; Op. 80, La Cascade de Roses ; 
Op. 88, Berceuse; Op. 90, Fantasia ; Op. 92, 
Serenade ; Op. 93, La Phalene ; Op. 94, Le 
Chalet ;0p. 102, Rhapsodic: Op. 104, Rondedes 
Elfes ; Op. 106, La Cloche du Convent ; Op. 
112, I Lazzaroni ; Op. 119, Les Sylphes des 
Bois; Op. 121, Volhynia; Op. 126, Marinilla. 
Transcriptions and other arrangements : Op. 
16, 19, 20, 27, 28, 33-37, 44, 45, 50, 53, 55, 56, 
60, 63, 67-71, 75-77, 87, 101, 103, 114-118, 122, 
etc. Songs: Alice, where art thou?; Bygone 
love; I'll think of thee; Melanie : Twilight 
dream, etc. 

Ashe, Andrew, flute-player, born Lis- 
burn, 1758 [1756J ? He was educated at Wool- 
wich, where he learned the violin, and was 
afterwards adopted by General Beutinck, with 
whom he went to Minorca, and subsequently 
to Spain, Portugal, France, Germany, and 
Holland. At the Hague he received lessons on 
the flute from Wendling, and became family 
musician to Lord Torrington at Brussels, where 
he gained the post of first flute-player at the 
Opera House, in competition with Vanhall, 
1779. He resided in Dublin, 1784-91, and 
appeard at London, 1792, at Saloman's second 
concert, where he played a flute concerto of 
his own. In 1799 he married ]\Iiss Comer, a 
vocalist. He held the position of principal 
flute-player at the Italian Opera, London, and 
was director of the Bath concerts from 1810 
to 1822. He died at Dublin, April, 1838. He 
composed concertos, etc. for the flute. 

Ashley, John, musician and conductor, 
born in first half of the 18th century. He was 
assistant-conductor under Joah Bates of the 
Handel commemoration, 1784, director of ora- 




torio at Covent Garden Theatre, 1795, and a 
performer on the double-bass. He organized a 
band, in which his sons were performers, which 
gave concerts of instrumental music in various 
parts of England. He died ]\Iarch 2, 1805. 

His sons, all of whom played in his band, 
were General Charles (1769 — August 28, 
1818), a violinist ; John James (1771 — Lon- 
don, January 5, 1815), an organist and teacher 
of singing, who numbered among his pupils 
Mrs. Salmon, Mrs. Yaughan, and others. He 
composed "Three Canzonets, Op. 5," songs, 
and instrumental music. Charles Jane 
(1773— August 20, 1843), violoncellist, was one 
of the founders of the Glee Club, and Sec. to 
Koyal Soc. of Musicians. He was also a mem- 
ber of the Philharmonic Soc, and became 
proprietor of the Tivoli Gardens in 1843. For 
nearly twenty years he was a prisoner for debt 
in King's Bench Prison, London. His brother 
Eichard (1775 — 1836) was a violinist, and 
played chiefly in provincial orchestras. 

Ashley, Josiah or John, composer and 
vocalist, born Bath, 1780. He resided chiefly 
at Bath, where he was a teacher and concert 
vocalist. Died at Bath in 1830. 

Works. — Songs ; Honest Ben ; Heart that 
o'erflows with good nature; Origin of old 
bachelors; Poor Joe, the marine; Poor orphan 
maid, etc. Reminiscences and observations 
respecting the origin of our national anthem 
. . . 1827. Letter to the Rev. W. L. Bowles, 
supplementary to the observations . . . 1827. 
Both tracts in answer to Richard Clark's 
work. In the "Bath and Bristol Magazine," 
October, 1834, the article on "God save the 
king" is reprinted. 

Ashton, Algernon Bennet Langton, 
composer and pianist, third son of Charles 
Ashton (q.v.), born at Durham, December 9, 
1859. On the death of his father, the family 
went to reside at Leipzig, and Moscheles took 
a great interest in the boy, whose talent was 
manifested at a very early age. His first in- 
structors at Leipzig were Franz Heinig and 
Ivan Knorr. At the age of fifteen he entered 
the Conservatorium, his teachers being Rein- 
ecke, E. F. Richter, Jadassohn, R. Papperitz, 
and Coccius. On leaving, in 1879, he was 
awarded the Helbig prize, having on two 
previous occasions taken the yearly prizes for 
composition. He then visited England for a 
short time, returning to Germany for further 
study under Raff, at Frankfort, 1880-1. After 
that time he took up his residence in London, 
and in 1885 was appointed Professor of the 
pianoforte at the Royal College of Music. He 
has given many concerts in London and else- 
where, and has appeared as pianist at Leipzig, 
and in 1894 toured on the Continent with Mr. 
Ben Davies, the vocalist. His compositions 
are very numerous, the following list includ- 
ing the most important of them. 


Works. — Orchestral : Three concert over- 
tures (one in F, produced at the Hanley 
Festival, 1888); Concerto, pf. and orchestra; 
Concerto, violin and orchestra. Chamber 
Music : Quintets in C, op. 25 ; in E minor ; 
Quartets, F sharp minor, op. 34 ; C minor ; 
Trios, in E flat ; in A, op. 88, all for pf. and 
strings ; Quartet in B flat, strings (Musical 
Artists' Society Prize, 1886) ; Sonatas in P, 
op. 6 ; in G, pf. and violoncello ; in A minor, 
op. 14 ; in E, op. 38 ; in C minor, op. 86, pf. 
and violin ; Op. 44, pf. and viola ; and many 
pieces in smaller form. Pianoforte : Suite in 
F, for two pianos ; Six sets of duets ; Three 
pieces, op. 63 ; " Aquarellen," seven pieces, op. 
87, etc. Vocal : Salvum fac regem, for chorus, 
op. 27 ; Part-songs for men's voices, and for 
mixed choirs; Duets; Four songs (Geibel), 
op. 46 ; Six songs, op. 52 ; Nine songs, op. 
89, etc. Organ : Interludium, op. 11 ; Minuet 
in C, op. 81, etc. 

Ashton, Charles, tenor singer, born at 
Lincoln, Feb. 1, 1815. In 1822 he became 
a chorister in the cathedral under Benjamin 
Whall, the choirmaster. Appointed flrst tenor 
at Lincoln Cathedral, 1831, and held the post 
till 1841. He also acted as organist in the 
churches of St. Peter's at Gowts, and St. 
Peter's in Eastgate, Lincoln. He was leading 
tenor at Durham Cathedral from 1841 till 
1S62. He was a successful teacher of singing, 
and sang at many of the provincial festivals. 
Died at London, July 11, 1862, when there 
seeking medical advice. He published several 
anthems arranged from Beethoven, Mozart, 
etc., and issued " Services of the church . . . 
consisting of the Preces, Responses, etc., as 
sung in Durham Cathedral . . ." London, 
1844. Several of his children inherited his 
musical taste, among whom are Algernon and 
Diana, separately noticed. 

Ashton, Diana Uvedale, daughter of the 
preceding, born at Durham, October 21, 1840. 
Studied at first with her father, and, shewing 
great ability, was sent to Leipzig, where she 
received instruction from Moscheles, Haupt- 
mann, and E. F. Richter. Returning after 
three years' stay in Leipzig, she intended 
settling in London, but the unexpected death 
of her father necessitated a change in the 
plans of the family. For some time she 
remained in Durham, occupied in teaching ; 
but seeking a wider sphere for her talent she 
went to New York, and later to Chicago, 
where she married a German musician, Louis 
Staab. She lost all her property in the great 
fire at Chicago in 1871, and never recovering 
the shock of that terrible event, this accom- 
plished artist died in New York, December 21, 
1873. E. P. Richter dedicated his fine pf. 
Sonata, op. 27, to Miss Ashton. 

Ashton, Frank B., see Crawford, 




Ashton, Gertrude Cave=, born Holman 
Andrews, soprano vocalist, bora in London, 
April 17, 1855. Studied under her mother 
(Mrs. J. Holman Andrews), and Thorpe Pede. 
D6but at Alexandra Palace Theatre, 1873; 
the Popular Concerts, 1876. Sang in the 
provinces with ]\Ir. Sims Reeves ; and in 
opera with the Hersee Opera Company, 1877, 
and the Blanche Cole Company, 1879- Has 
also appeared at the principal concerts in 
many jjrovincial towns, and in London. In 
1875 she was married to Mr. Frank H. Cave. 

Ashton, or Aston, Hugh, composer who 
flourished during the 16th century and held 
the ai^pointment of organist to Henry VIII. 
He composed several masses and anthems 
which are preserved in the j\Iusic School at 

Ashwell, Thomas, composer who 
flourished during the first half of the 16th 
century. He composed " Twenty Songs," 
1530, and various motets, etc., preserved in 
MS. in the jMusic School at Oxford. 

Ashworth, Caleb, musician, born at 
Clough-Fold, Rossendale, Lancashire, in 1722. 
He was educated under Doddridge, at North- 
ampton, and was Baptist minister and tutor 
at Daventry. He died at Daventry July 18, 
1775. He compiled "A Collection of Tunes, 
suited to the several metres commonly used 
in public worship, set in four parts . . . [1760], 
Brd edition, 1766 ; and wrote an " Introduction 
to the Art of Singing," Lozidon, 1770, prefixed 
to the later editions of the Collection of Tunes. 
He also published a Hebrew Grammar, Ser- 
mons, etc. 

Aspa, Edwin, composer and teacher, was 
born in London in IMay, 1835, of Italian par- 
ents. He died at Lincoln, August 17, 1883. 
Composer of "The Gipsies" and "Endymion," 
cantatas ; songs, pf. music, etc. 

Aspull,Qeorge, pianist and composer,born, 
Manchester, June, 1813. He first appeard at a 
concert in 1822, and in 1823 appeared at Lon- 
don. Afterwards he gave concerts in England 
and Ireland, and in 1825 played at Paris, being 
everywhere hailed as a precocious genius of 
exceptional brilliancy. He died at Leaming- 
ton, August 19, 1832. His works were pub- 
lished as "Posthumous Works of George 
Aspull," edited by his father (Thomas AspuU), 
Book 1. London [1837]. 

Aspull, William, composer, born Notting- 
ham, 1798. Teacher and singer in London. 
Died in London, January 16, 1875. 

Works. — Songs for the drawing room [1 840]. 
Songs: Bird of the forest; Bright eyes; Come, 
let us sing ; Eastern love-letter ; Good-night ; 
I think of thee; Lonely heart; We have met; 
The wreckers, etc. Various transcriptions and 
other works for pf. Translations of Lemoine's 
harmony, Nauenburg's vocal exercises, Rink's 
Organ school, etc, 


Asquith, John, organist and composer of 
the present time. Graduated Mus. Bac, Cam- 
bridge, 1878. Organist of Parish Church, 
Barnsley. Has published church services, 
anthems, pieces for pf., organ, songs, etc. Is 
author of a pamphlet "On Ecclesiastical 

Aston, Hugh, see Ashton, Hugh. 

Atkins, Robert Augustus, organist and 
composer, was born in 1812. He became or- 
ganist of St. Asaph's Cathedral, and held the 
post for over 50 years. He died at St. Asaph, 
Augusts, 1889. His compositions consist of 
anthems and other church music. 

Atkinson, Frederick Cook, organist and 
composer, born at Norwich, August 21, 1841. 
Studied under Dr. Buck, and was assistant 
organist at the Cathedral until apj^ointed to 
': ]\Ianningham Church, Bradford. He gradu- 
, ated Mus. Bac, Cambridge, 1867, and in 1881 
was appointed organist of Norwich Cathedral, 
a post he resigned in 1885. From 1886, he 
has been organist of St. Mary's Parish Church, 
Lewisham. He has composed some services 
and anthems ; a volume of Masonic music ; 
songs and part-songs ; and pianoforte pieces. 

Atkinson, Q. Q., musician. Published 
" The Abbey Bell, a collection of original 
Psalm and hymn tunes . . ." London[1861]. 

Atkyns, B. K., author. Issued " A Choir- 
master's Manual : coniaiuingfuU instructions 
for training a choir." n.d. 

Atter, William, musician. Compiled 
" Collection of Sacred music, adapted to the 
hymns of Burder and Dr. Watts, with ac- 
companiment for organ or pianoforte." Lon- 
don [1845]. 

Atterbury, Luffman, composer, born 
London, in first half of 18tli century [c. 1735- 
40]. After being trained in music he became 
musician in ordinary to George III., and a 
teacher in London. He sang in the Handel 
Commemoration, 1784, and gained several 
prizes from the Catch Club. He died at 
Westminster, London, June 11, 1796, while 
giving a concert 

Works. — Mago and Dago (play with music) 
1794. Goliath, oratorio, 1773. Collection of 
12 glees, rounds, etc.. Op. 2 [1788]. Collec- 
tion of glees, canzonets, and rounds for 2, 8, 
and 4 voices. Op. 3. London [1790]. Collec- 
tion of catches and glees. London, n.d. 
Single Glees, &c. — Come let us all a Maying 
go ; Come mount your fleet coursers ; Come 
ye rural nymphs ; Cottagers ; Happy we ; 
Lads and lasses hither come ; Lay that sullen 
garland by thee ; Let's banish strife and sor- 
row ; Will you go to the fair ; With horns and 
hounds, etc. Songs — Mark the sweet rosebud ; 
Say why a blush ; Undaunted Britons, etc. 

Attey, John, composer, born about 1590 ; 
died at Ross, Hereford, about 1640. He com- 
posed " First booke of ayres of foure parts, 





with tableture for the lute, so made that all 
the parts may be plaid together with the lute, 
or one voyce with the lute and bass viol." 
London, 1622. 

Attwater, John Post, pianist, organist, 
and composer ; born at Faversham, Kent, 
June 26, 1862. In 1884 he went to London, 
and is now organist of Clapham Congrega 
tional Church. Studied under Dr. C. J. Frost, 
Dr. C. W. Pearce, and others ; is a violinist and 
vocalist, and F.R.C.O. His compositions 
include a setting of Psalm 34, for soli, chorus, 
and organ, and many songs and pieces for 
pf., reaching to Op. 79. 

Attwood, Thomas, composer and organ- 
ist, born London, November 2.3, 1765. En- 
tered Chapel Royal as chorister 1774. He 
studied under Nares and Ayrton 1774-1781. 
In 1783 he was sent to Italy by George IV., 
then Prince of Wales, to continue his musical 
studies, and he received instruction from La- 
tilla at isaples, IMozart at Vienna, etc., from 
1783 to 1787. On his return to England he 
became organist of St. George the Martyr, 
Holborn, 1787, and a member of the Prince 
of Wales' private band. From 1792 to 179.5 
he acted as music master to several members 
of the royal family. In June, 1796, he be- 
came organist of St. Paul's Cathedral, Lon- 
don, and, in the same year, composer to the 
Chapel Royal. He was a member of the 
Philharmonic Society, 1813, and held the 
appointments of organist to George IV. at his 
private chapel at Brighton, 1821, and organist 
of the Chapel Royal, 1836. He died at Chel- 
sea, London, IMarch 24, 1838, and is buried 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, under the organ. 

Works. — Musical Dramas, dx. — The Priso- 
ner, 1792 ; Mariners, 1793 ; Caernarvon Castle, 
1793; Adopted child, 1795; Poor sailor, 1795; 
Smugglers, 1796; Devil of a lover, 1798; Mouth 
of the Nile, 1798 ; Day at Rome, 1799 ; Red 
Cross Knight, 1799; Castle of Sorrento, 1799; 
Magic oak, 1799 ; Old clothesman, 1799 ; Do- 
minion of fancy, 1800; True friends, 1800; Tha 
Escapes, or the water carrier (from Cherubini), 
1801; II Bondocani, 1801; St. David's Day, 
1804 ; Adrian and Orilla (with M. Kelly), 1806; 
Curfew, 1807. Church services in P, A, D, 
and C. Anthems — Come Holy Ghost ; Enter 
Bot into judgment ; Grant, we beseech Thee ; 
I was glad ; Let the words of my mouth ; 
God, who by the leading of a star ; They that 
go down to the sea ; Turn Thee again Lord ; 
Turn Thy face from my sins ; Withdraw not 
Thou Thy mercy. Nine glees for three, four, 
five, and six voices. London [18281 . Songs — 
Dear vale, whose green retreats ; The sigh ; 
Soldier's dream ; Spacious firmament ; Young 
Lochinvar, etc. 

Audsley, George Ashdown, architect 
and musician, was born at Elgin September 
6, 1838. Has lectured on Bach and other 


musical subjects, and is author of a work on 
the organ. He has also produced a number 
of finely illustrated books on architecture 
and decoration. 

Austen, Augusta Amherst (Mrs. T. 
Anstey Guthrie), composer and organist, 
born London, August 2, 1827. She studied at 
the Royal Academy of Music, and was ap- 
pointed organist of Ealing Church in 1844. 
This post she held till 1848, when she re- 
ceived a similar appointment at Paddington 
Chapel. This she resigned in 1857, and soon 
after she married Mr. T. A. Guthrie. She 
died at Glasgow August 5, 1877. She com- 
posed various hymn-tunes, etc. Her son, P. 
Anstey, is the popular novelist, author of 
" Vice Versa " and other works. 

Austin, John, author, born at Craigton, 
near Glasgow, April 17. 1752. He was a manu- 
facturer in Glasgow, where he died about 1830. 
He published " A System of Stenographic 
Music." London, n.d. [1820], in which the 
proposal is made to substitute one line and 
six characters for the ordinary five lines and 
symbols of the existing musical notation. 
There is a short notice of Austin, with por- 
trait, in Kay's " Original Portraits," vol. 2. 
p. 376. Edinburgh, 1838. 

Austin, Walter, Amateur composer, born 
at Leeds. Engaged in the Civil Service. First 
came into notice by his Cantata, "The Fire 
King," accepted for the Leeds Festival of 1877. 
He is also the composer of an Operetta, "The 
Stepmother" (Arthur Sketchley), produced at 
St. George's Hall, London, 1880; an overture, 
"The Camp," performed at the Covent Gar- 
den Promenade Concerts, August, 1880; and 
some songs and pf. pieces. 

Austin, William Frank, organist and 
composer, born at Lichfield, December 23, 
1846. Began his career as a chorister, in Lich- 
field Cathedral, and was afterwards associated 
with the musical work of Rugby School, and 
Trinity College, London. He took up warmly 
the subject of "English Opera," upon which 
he lectured and wrote. His last organ appoint- 
ment was at St. Andrew's, Fulham. He died 
in London, February 16, 1891. His composi- 
tions include a chorus. The Crusaders; The 
Gondolier ; Farewell, dear Love, and other 
songs ; and a few pieces for pianoforte. 

Avison, Charles, composer, author, and 
organist, born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1710. 
He is supposed to have gone to Italy to study 
music, and he certainly had lessons from 
Geminiani in London. In July, 1736, he be- 
came organist of St. John's Church, New- 
castle, and in October of the same year he 
was appointed organist of St. Nicholas' 
Church, Newcastle. From 1736 he gave sub- 
scription concerts in Newcastle, and resided 
there as a teacher. He died Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, May 9, 1770. 




Works. — Twenty-six concertos for four 
violins, Newcastle, 175S. Eight concertos in 
seven parts for four violins, one alto-viola, 
a violoncello, and a thorough-bass for the 
harpsichord, 1755. Twelve concertos in seven 
parts for four violins, one alto-violin, violon- 
cello, and thorough-bass for the harpsichord, 
op. 6. Six concertos in seven parts, op. 10, 
London, 1769. Six sonatas for the harpsi- 
chord, with accompaniments for two violins 
and violoncello, op. 5, London, 1756 ; another 
set, op. 7, Newcastle, 1760; third set, op. 8, 
London, 1764. Concertos for organ or harp- 
sichord, op. 9. Songs, etc. An Essay on 
musical expression, London, 1752. This pro- 
voked an acrimonious discussion with Dr. 
Philip ilayes of Oxford. He replied to Hayes 
in the second edition, 1753, of his essay, and 
included in it "A letter to the author concern- 
ing the music of the ancients," written by 
Dr. Jortin. The third edition appeared in 
1775, "with alterations and large additions," 
and in the same year a German translation 
was published at Leipzig. He assisted Dr. 
Garth, of Durham, with his edition of Mar- 
cello's Psalms, 1759, after having himself 
issued proposals for publishing them. His 
best-remembered composition is " Sound the 
loud timbrel," otherwise called " Miriam's 
song." In Robert Browning's poem, " Parley- 
ings with certain people of importance," a 
part is devoted to Avison. 

His eldest son, Edward (1747-1776) suc- 
ceeded him as organist at St. Nicholas', and 
his second son, Charles (1750-1793) was or- 
ganist of St. John's. 

Aylward, Theodore, composer and organ- 
ist, born about 17>! I . He was a member of the 
Royal Society of Musicians in 1763, and gained 
a prize medal from the Catch Club in 1769. In 
June, 1771, he was appointed Professor of Mu- 
sic at Gresham College. In 1784 he was assis- 
tant director of the Handel commemoration. 
He held the appointments of organist of St. 
Lawrence, Jewry, 1762; St. Michael's, Corn- 
Mil, 1768; and St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
1788. In 1791 he was Mus. Bac. and Doc, Ox- 
ford. He died London, February 27, 1801, and 
is buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

Works. — Musical dramas : Harlequin's in- 
vasion [1787] ; Midsummer night's dream ; 
Mago and Dago, etc. Six lessons for the harp- 
sichord, organ, or pianoforte, op. 1 [1792]; 
Elegies and glees [1785]; Eight canzonets for 
two soprano voices, London [1785]. Songs : Oft 
Oft have I seen; Sweet tyrant love, etc. Church 
music in ms. 

Aylward. A family of musicians related 
to the above. William Price Aylward, 
great-nephew, was born at Salisbury, circa, 
1810. Was for about thirty years organist of 
St. Martin's, Salisbury, and in 1865 also 
appointed to St. Edmunds. Conductor of the 


Sarum Choral Society, and Bandmaster of 
First Wilts. Rifle Volunteers. He was an 
excellent flute player. Was elected Mayor 
of Salisbury, 1868-9. Died 1890. He had 
seven children in the musical profession : — 
Augustus Albert, born at Salisbury, organist 
successively of St. Edmund's and St. Thomas', 
Salisbury. Contrabassist and conductor of 
orchestral concerts. In 1889 he was appointed 
organist and choirmaster of St. Peter's, 
Ashtabula, Ohio, U.S.A., where he gained 
distinction by his organ recitals. He is now 
resident at Basingstoke, Hants. — Theodore 
Price, organist, was born at Salisbury, 1844. 
Articled pupil of Dr. S. S. Wesley, at Win- 
chester and Gloucester. Organist of St. 
Matthew's, Cheltenham ; St. Columba's 
College, Rathfarnham, Dublin ; St. Martin's, 
Salisbury (during his father's term of office 
as Mayor) ; Llaudaif Cathedral ; Chichester 
Cathedral ; and since 1886, of the Park Hall, 
and St. Andrew's Church, Cardiff. Editor of 
the Sarum Hymnal, 1870. — WiLLiAir Henry, 
violoncellist, born at Salisbury, 1835. Educated 
at the R.A.M. ; King's Scholar, 1850. Member 
of the rhilharmonic and Royal Italian opera 
orchestras ; also distinguished as a quartet 
player. Died at Slough, March 12, 1878. — 
Amy Aylward, soprano vocalist, educated at 
R.A. iM., and elected an Associate. Sang at the 
Monday Popular Concerts, 1880 ; Cambridge 
University Society's Concerts ; and elsewhere, 
and is now resident in London. — Gertrude 
Aylward, also a soprano, has sung in Lon- 
don, and given concerts during the last few 
years. — Janeita Aylward. pianist. King's 
Scholar, R.A.M., 1852, a brilliant and highly 
promising student, died June 7, 1853, in her 
sixteenth year. — Leila J. Aylward, pianist, 
and contralto vocalist, student, and Fellow 
R.A.M., has given some excellent Chamber 
Concerts in Salisbury; and has for years done 
good work in the advancement of musical edu- 
cation in the district. 

Ayrton Edmund, composer and organist, 
born Ripon, Yorks., 1784. He was a pupil of 
Dr. Nares, at York Minster, 1744. Organist 
of Collegiate Church, Southwell, 1754-67. 
Gentleman of Chapel Royal, 1764, and vicar- 
choral St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 1767. 
J..ay-Vicar, Westminster Abbey, 1780. Master 
of children of Chapel Royal, 1783-1805. Mus. 
Doc, Cambridge, 1784. Said also to have 
incorporated Mus. Doc, Oxford, in 1788. 
Assistant-director of Handel Commemoration, 
1784. He died London, May 22, 1808, and is 
buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 

Works. — Services for the church in C and 
E flat; Anthem, " Begin unto my God," de- 
gree exercise, 1784. Ode to Harmony [1790]. 
Canon, five in two [1790]. Songs, etc. 

His son Thomas (born 1781, died 1822), was 
organist of Ripon Cathedral for some years. 




Ayrton, William, author and composer, 
son of Edmund Ayrton, born Loudon. Feb. 24, 
1777. 1:1 e married a daughter of Dr. Samuel 
Arnold, and in 1801 unsuccessfully competed 
for the Gresham professorship of music. 
He was successively editor of the Morning 
Chronicle, 1813-26 ; Harmonicon, 1823-33 ; 
and Examiner, 1887-51. Member of Royal 
Society, Antiquarian Society, Athenteum 
Club, Philharmonic Society, etc. He died 
London, May 8, 1M58. 

Works. — Sacred Minstrelsy: a collection of 
sacred music by the great masters of all ages 
and naiions . . . with biographies. London, 
1835, 2 vols. Knight's Musical Library (edited), 
1834, etc., 8 vols. Duets : Fair and fair ; Oh ! 
oh ! memory. Songs, etc., etc. 

Ayton, Fanny, soprano vocalist, born 
Macclesfield, 1806. She studied under Man- 
ielli at Florence, and first apjDeared at Venice 
in opera, 1825, in Coccia's " Clotilda." In 
February, 1827, she appeared in London as 
Ninetta in Rossini's " La Gazza Ladra," at 
the King's Theatre. She afterwards sang in 
London, Birmingham, and elsewhere, both in 
opera and oratorio. The date of her death 
remains in doub , but was subsequent to 1832 
as she appeared in February of that year in a 
version of Meyerbeer's " Robert le Diable." 

Babell, William, violinist and composer, 
born 16'J0. He studied under Dr. Pepusch, 
and became a member of the Royal Baud. 
He was also organist of All Hallows Church, 
Bread Street, London. He died London, Sep- 
tember 23, 1723. 

Works. — XII. solos for a violin or hautboy, 
with a bass figur'd for the harpsichord. Lon- 
don [1720]. XII. solos for a violin, hoboy, or 
German flute, with a bass figur'd for the 
harpsichord. Loudon [1723]. Twelve solos 
for the flute or hoboy, Op. 2. Six concertos 
for the piccolo, flute, and violins. Suits of 
harpsichord and s] iunet lessons collected from 
the most celebrated masters' works. London 
[1712]. Book of the lady's entertainment, or 
banquet of musick, being a choice collection 
of aires and duets curiously set and fitted to 
the harpsichord or spinnet (four books with 
varying titles). Loudon [1710-25]. 

Baber, Miss Colbourne (Mrs. Harrison 
White); soprano vocalist of present time, 
born at Hobart, Tasmania. Pupil of Madame 
Lucy Chambers. Appeared at Melbourne 
Opera House ; toured through India, China, 
and Japan. Now settled in Sydney, N.S.W. 

Bache, Constance, pianist and writer, 
born at Edgbaston, Birmingham, the youngest 
child of the Rev. Samuel Bache (1804-1876), 
Minister of the Church of the Messiah, Bir- 
mingham. Her musical talent was fostered 
by her brother, Walter Bache, and she studied 
at the Conservatorium, Munich, becoming, 


later on, a pupil of Klindworth and Fritz 
Hartvigson. An accident to her right hand 
put a stop to the public career open to her, 
but she played occasionally at concerts in Bir- 
mingham, up to the year 1883, when she 
settled in London as a teacher, devoting, 
however, much of her time to musical litera- 
ture and translations, of which the following 
are the most important : — Liszt : Oratorio, St. 
Elizabeth (see Bache, Walter) ; Letters, 2 
vols. (Grevel, 1894) ; words of many of his 
songs. ' H. von Bulow — Letters and literary 
remains (Unwin, 1896), Wagner: — Descriptive 
sketch of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (for 
Richter concert programmes). Heintz : Ana- 
lyses of Wagner's " Tristan " (1891) ; Meister- 
singer (1891) ; "Parsifal" (1892). Schumann: 
"The Rose's Pilgrimage ;" Scenes from Goe- 
the's "Faust." Mozart: Libretto of "Bas- 
tian and Bastienne " (1894). Hninijerdinck : 
Libretto of " Hansel and Gretel ;" Lobe's 
Catechism of Music, and Von Bulow's anno- 
tated editions of Cramer, Chopin, etc. Con- 
stance Bache is the composer of the songs, 
" To my Love " and " The rain is falling." 

Bache, Francis Edward, composer and 
pianist, eldest son of the Rev. Samuel Bache, 
born at Edgbaston, Birmingham, September 
14, 1833. In early childhood he showed ex- 
traordinary aptitude for music, studying the 
pianoforte, organ, and violin, making such 
progress in the last, under Alfred Mellon, that 
he was given a place in the Festival Orchestra 
in 1846, when Mendelssohn produced "Elijah." 
Upon leaving school in 1849, he took lessons 
from Mr. James Stimpson, but soon left for 
London, where he studied with Sterndale 
Bennett. In 1853 he went to Leipzig, study- 
ing under Hauptmann and Plaidy, and took 
organ lessons from J. G. Schneider at Dresden, 
in 1854. He gave his first concert in Bir- 
mingham, at the beginning of December, 1855, 
but his health was already failing, and he 
spent the winter in Algiers. Here he gave a 
concert, in March, 1856, and his playing 
created a marked impression. From Algiers 
he went to Leipzig, and thence to Rome, 
where he spent the next winter. In 1857 he 
returned home, wintering in Torquay ; back 
in Birmingham, April, 1858, he gradually 
sank, and expired August 24, before he had 
completed his 25th year. His capacity for 
work knew no bounds ; he was always com- 
posing ; and only a few weeks before his death 
he gave a concert, chiefly of his own works, 
but he was unable, though present, to take 
his part in the performance. He was a 
thinker, and in a series of letters, written in 
1856, advocated the establishment of a per- 
manent orchestra in Birmingham, pointing 
out the great artistic results that shovild fol- 
low. The letters were not considered suitable 
for the pages of the journal to which they 




were addressed, and have only recently been 
published, and that in connection with the 
formation of the Scottish Orchestra at Glas- 
gow, in 1893. His compositions must be 
looked upon as the promise of what might 
have been had he lived longer ; they prove, 
however, that in Francis Edward Bache death 
robbed England of a highly gifted artist. 

Works. — Operas : Which is which (1851) ; 
Rubezahl (1853). Orchestral : Overture (per- 
formed, Adelphi Theatre, November, 1850) ; 
Concerto for pianoforte and orchestra in E ; 
Andante, Rondo, and Polonaise ; Morceau de 
concert in F, for pf. and orchestra. Trio in D, 
pf. and strings. Op. 28 ; Two Romances, violin 
and pf . ; Romance in G, flute and pf . ; Romance 
for pf . and 'cello. Op. 21. Pianoforte : Three Im- 
promptus, Op. 1 ; Two Romances, Op. 12 ; Pour 
Mazurkas, Op. 13 ; Five characteristic pieces. 
Op. 15 ; Deux Polkas, Op. 17 ; Souvenirs 
d'ltalie, eight pieces. Op 19; Les Clochettas 
des traineau. Op. 20 ; La Penseroso e I'AUegra, 
Op. 24 ; Souvenirs de Torquay, five pieces. Op. 
26; other pieces and transcriptions, more than 
fifty in all. Introduction and Allegro, organ. 
Six songs for voice and pf., Op. 16 ; Litany, 
words and music [18G2] . Four songs [1859] ; 
and single songs — the "Farewell " being worthy 
to stand side by side with the lieder of Schu- 
bert and Schvuiiann. 

Bache, Walter, pianist, born at Edgbas- 
ton, Birmingham, June 19, 1842. Fourth son 
of the Rev. Samuel Bache. Educated at the 
Proprietary School, Edgbaston. Began the 
study of music under James Stimpson, and at 
the age of 16 (August 1858) proceeded to 
Leipzig, studying at the Conservatorium, un- 
der Plaidy, j\Ioscheles, Hauptmann, and Rich- 
ter. At the end of three years, he left Leipzig, 
and visited Milan and Florence, where he 
began to give lessons. In 1862, he went to 
Rome and studying for three years with Liszt, 
formed a life-long friendship with the illus- 
trious artist. In May, 1865, he settled in 
London as a teacher and performer. He gave 
his first concert, in conjunction with Mr. 
Gustave Garcia, in Collard's Rooms, July 4, 
1865, and then began that ardent champion- 
ship of the claims of Liszt as a composer that 
lasted to the end of his life. The concerts 
were gradually extended, and the services of 
an orchestra requisitioned in 1871, when Bache 
played the Concerto in E flat, and gave the 
spnphonic poem, " Les Preludes " — intro- 
duced in 1865 for two pianos — with full or- 
chestra. Other modern composers were not 
overlooked, for works by Wagner, Berlioz, 
and Schumann, were introduced from time to 
time. But his affection for Liszt was strongest 
and his last recital, October 22, 1887, was 
exclusively devoted to that master. Un- 
daunted by hostile criticism, or financial loss, 
Bache went on with his propagandism, and if 


he did not succeed in what he felt to be his 
mission, he did more than any one to break 
down that conservatism in music that was a 
positive hindrance to the art in this country. 
Bache's reception to Liszt at the Grosvenor 
Gallery, April 8, 1886, was a memorable inci- 
dent of the great pianist's last visit to this 
country. He was an active promoter of the 
Liszt Scholarship) at the Royal Academy of 
Music ; the Scholarship to his own memory 
was incorporated in that of the man he so 
revered. Bache died, after a few days' illness, 
March 26, 1888, and was interred in the ceme- 
tery at West Hampstead. He had, for some 
vears, been a professor of the pianoforte at 
the R.A.M. 

Among the works of Liszt brought forward 
at Bache's concerts, the following were per- 
formed in England for the first time : — The 
" Faust " Symphony, March 11, 1880 ; Sym- 
phonic poem, " Les Preludes," JMay 26, 1871 ; 
Scena, " Jeanne d'Arc au bucher," for soprano 
solo and orchestra ; Angelus, strings, February 
5, 1885 ; Fantasia quasi Sonata, " Apris une 
Lecture du Dante," February 21, 1887. The 
Legend of Saint Elizabeth was first performed 
in England, by the New Philharmonic Society, 
June 15, 1870, anticipating Bache, who broi;ght 
out the work, February 24, 1876. 

Back, Sir Qeorge, naval officer, born 
Stockport, 1796 ; died, 1878. He issued 
"Canadian Airs, collected by Lieut Back, 
R.N , during the late Arctic expedition under 
Captain Franklin. With symphonies and 
accompaniments by E. Knight, jun. , the 
words by George Soane. " London, 1823. 

Bacon, Richard Mackenzie, author and 
editor, born Norwich, 1776. He was editor 
of the " Quarterly IMusical Magazine and 
Review." Died at Norwich, 1844. 

Wo avS. -Science and practice of vocal 
ornament, London, n.d. Elements of vocal 
science, being a philosophical enquiry into 
some of the principles of singing. London, 
1824 Art of improving the voice and ear, 
and of increasing their musical powers on 
philosophical principles. London, 1825. 

His daughter Louisa Mary Bacon, born at 
Norwich, March 4, 1800 ; died February 2, 
1885, was also a musician She married a 
Mr. Barwell. 

Bacon, Rev. Robert, clergyman and 
musician of the 18th century. He graduated 
B. A., Oxford, in 1738; and in 1753 became 
priest vicar of Salisbury Cathedral. He died 
in 1759. Composer of chants, etc. 

Badland, Thomas, musicia,n, published 
" Set of original Tunes in four parts, adapted 
to the Hymns of the Rev. J. Wesley, etc. 
London [18271. 

Baildon, Joseph, composer and vocalist, 
born 1727. He was a Gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal, and Lay-Vicar of Westminster 




Abbey, about the middle of the 18th century. 
He gained prizes given by the Catch Club in 
1763 and 1766. He held the position of 
organist of St. Luke's, Old Street, and All 
Saints, Fulham, London. Died at London, 
May 7, 1774. 

Works — Collection of glees and catches. 
London [1768]. The Laurel, a collection of 
songs. Ode to Contentment. Numerous single 
songs, and others in " Love in a Village," etc. 

Baillie, Alexander, musician of the 18th 
century. He was an engraver in Edinburgh. 

Editor of " Airs for the Flute, with a 
thorough bass for the Harpsichord. Edin- 
burgh, 1735. 

Baillie, Peter, commonly called " Pate 
Baillie," violinist, was born at Stenhouse, in 
Liberton parish, Midlothian, February 25, 
1774, and was a descendant of the gipsy 
family of Baillies of the Upper Ward of 
Lanarkshire, his father being Matthew 
Baillie of that sept. He was originally a 
stonemason, and worked for a time at the 
Edinburgh University building, but he settled 
as a violin-player at Loanhead and Bonnyrigg 
in IMidlothian. He died at Liberion, Mid- 
lothian, about 1841, and is buried in the 
churchyard there. A selection of his com- 
positions were published as " A Selection of 
Original Tunes for the jsianoforteand violin." 
Edinburgh, 1825 ; for the benefit of his family. 
He was a talented performer of S'cots music, 
and was widely employed "at penny weddings, 
kirns, and other merry ' splores,' " but seems 
to liave been a rude, offensive fellow, much 
given to bouts of intemperance. 

Bain, John, musician and teacher in 
Glasgow in the latter half of the 18th c. ntury, 
published "The Vocal Musician, being a col- 
lection of select Scots and English Songs, 
adcipted to two, three, or four voices " 
Glasgow, 1774. 

Bairstow, Thomas, musician, pubhshed 
"An Original set of Psalm and Hymn Tunes 
arranged for one or four voices, with an ac- 
companiment for the organ or pf." Halifax 
[1852] . Second set of Original Psalm and 
Hymn Tunes . . . Halifax [1852] . 

Baker, George, composer, born Exeter 
about 1773. He studied under Jackson of 
Exeter and Hugh Bond. He entered the 
family of the Earl of Uxbridge, and received 
further instruction from Cramer and Dussek. 
Organist successively of St. Mary's, Stafford, 
1794; All Saints', Derby, 1810; and Rugeley, 
1824. In 1797 he took the degree of Mus. 
Bac, Oxford., but did not x^roceed to Mus. 
Doc. as is usually supposed. He died at 
Bugeley, February 19, 1847. He composed 
" The Caffres," a musical entertainment, Lon- 
don, 1802; Sonatas for the pf . ; Organ volun- 
taries; Songs; Six Anthems for 4, 5, and 6 
voices ; and Glees for 3 and 4 voices. 


Baker, Sir Henry Williams, Bart., 

musician and clergyman, born London, JNIay 
27, 1821. Son of vice-admiral Sir Henry 
Loraine Baker, C.B.. He was educated at 
Cambridge University, and graduated B.A., 
1844, and M.A., 1847. Vicar of Monkland, 
near Leominster, 1851. Succeeded his father 
as a baronet, 1859. Died at Monkland Vicar- 
age, February 12, 1877. He was the originator 
and one of the compilers of "Hymns Ancient 
and Modern," 1858, and numerous later 
editions, to which he contributed " Step- 
hanos" and "St. Timothy." He published 
a volume of "Daily Prayers" and various 
religious works. 

Baker, James Andrew, organist and 
composer, born Birmingham, November 8, 
1824; died there November 17, 1863. He 
studied at Leipzig, and was organist of St. 
Luke's Church, Bristol Street, Birmingham, 
from about 1849 to 1863. His wife was a well- 
known and accomplished local singer. He 
composed a few chants and hymn tunes. 

Baldwin, W , author, published "The 

Science of Music." London, 1829. 

Balfe, Michael William, composer and 
vocalist, born in Pitt Street, Dublin, IMaj' 15, 
1808. He studied under C. E. Horn, Rooke, 
and Alex. Lee in Ireland. He accompanied 
Horn to England, and became a violinist at 
Drury Lane, 1824. In 1825 he was adopted 
by Count Mazzara, whom he accompanied to 
Italy. He sang in Italy and in Paris in 1827, 
and remained on the continent till 1835. 
There he was married to Mile. Lina Rosen, a 
Hungarian vocalist. In 1835 he sang in Lou- 
don, and in 1839 he became manager of the 
Lyceum Theatre. He conducted at H.M. 
Theatre, 1845-52, and directed the National 
Concerts at Drury Lane in 1850. In 1852 he 
sang in Russia. From 1852 till his death he 
was occupied chiefly as a composer. He died 
at Rowney Abbey, Herts., October 20, 1870. 

Works. — Operas : I Rivali di se Stessi, Pal- 
ermo, 1829; Uir Avertimento di Gelose, Pavia 
1830; Enrico Quarto al passo della Marno 
Milan, 1831 ; Siege of RocheUe, London, 1836 
Maid of Artois, London, 1836 ; Catherine Grey, 
London, 1837; Joan of Arc, London, 1837 
Diadeste, London, 1838; Falstaff, London, 
18-38; Keolanthe, London, 1841; Le Puits 
d'Amour, Paris, 1843; Bohemian Girl, Lon- 
don, November 27, 1843; Daughter of St. 
Mark, London, 1844; Quatre Fils Aymon, 
Paris, 1844; Enchantress, London, 1845; 
L'Etoile de Seville, Paris, 1845; Bondman, 
London, 1846; The Devil's in it, London, 
1847; Maid of honour, London, 1847; Sicilian 
Bride, London, 1852 ; Pittore e Duca, London, 
1856 [revived as the ' Painter of Antwerp,* 
1881]; Rose of Castillo, London, 1857; Satan- 
ella, London, 1858; Bianca, London, 1860; 
Puritan's daughter, London, 1861; Blanche 




de Nevers, London, 18G2 ; Armourer of Nantes, 
London, 18G3; Sleeping Queen, London, 1863 ; 
II Talismano, London, June 11, 1874. Can- 
tatas : Mazeppa, London ; The Page, etc. Six 
new songs and a duet (words by Longfellow), 
1856. Moore's Irish melodies, harmonized 
1859 (Novello). Part-songs: Exelsior; Hark! 
'tis the hunter's jovial horn; Trust her not, 
etc. Songs and ballads : Angels call me ; Annie 
of Tharaw ; Arrow and the song ; As the sun- 
shine to the flower ; Ah ! would that I could 
love thee less ; Anabel Lee ; Bells ; Beneath a 
portal ; Bridal Ballad ; Come into the garden, 
Maud ; Daybreak ; Defence, not defiance ; 
Evening chime is sounding; Fortune at her 
wheel; Fresh as a rose; Good-night, beloved; 
Green trees whispered ; Hidden voices ; I love 
you ; Kathleen Machree ; Killarney ; Lady Hil- 
dred; Long ago; Lonely Rose; Maggie's Ran- 
som; Maureen; Merry May; Nelly Gray; 
Phoebe, the fair; Sea hath its pearls; Stars of 
the summer night ; Spirit of light ; There is a 
shadow ; Three fishers ; What does little birdie 
sajs and very many more. Trio for pf., violin, 
and 'cello; Sonata pf. and 'cello; and other in- 
striunental works. New universal method of 
singing without the rise of solfeggi, London. 
The only opera of Balfe's which now survives 
is the "Bohemian Girl," which continues to 
draw good audiences wherever produced. 
This opera and a few of his songs, "Killarney " 
and "Come into the garden, Maud," are all 
that have lived out of an immense number of 
able productions. Two biographies of Balfe 
have been published — "A Memoir of Michael 
William Balfe," by Charles Lamb Kenney, 
London, 1875; and "Balfe, his life and work," 
by W. A. Barrett, London, 1882. 

His wife, Lixa Rosex (born in Hungary, 
1806; died London, June 11, 1888), was a sop- 
rano vocalist of considerable ability. 

Balfe, Victoire, soprano vocalist, born 
Paris, September 1, 1837. Daughter of M. W. 
Balfe. She studied under W. Sterndale Ben- 
nett, M. Garcia, and her father. On May 28, 
1857, she first appeared as "Amina," in "La 
Sonnambula." Afterwards she sang in Ire- 
land and Italy, in the "Bohemian Girl," 
"Don Giovanni," etc. She was married to 
Sir John F. Crampton, but was divorced, and 
afterwards married to the Duke de Frias, a 
Spanish nobleman. She died at Madrid, Jan- 
uary 22, 1871. 

Bali, Edward, see Fitzball, Edward. 

Ball, William, author and adapter, born 
1784 ; died London, ]\Iay 14, 1869. He com- 
posed a number of songs, and wrote the verses 
of many more, and contributed much to the 
musical and periodical literature of his time. 
He wrote the English version of Mendelssohn's 
"St. Paul," and provided English versions for 
a number of works by Rossini, Beethoven, 
Mozart, Haydn, etc. 


Baly, William, conductor and composer, 
born at Warwick, June 28, 1825. Studied at 
first under Mr. Clayton, of Warwick, and 
afterwards entered the R.A.M., 1843, where 
his teachers were Sterndale Bennett, piano- 
forte, and Cipriani Potter, harmony. P^lected 
first an Associate, then Fellow, R.A.M. Re- 
sided for some years in London, and taught 
harmony at the Harley Street College for 
Ladies. In 1853 he settled in Exeter, taking 
over the teaching connection of Mr. Kellow 
Pye. He conducted the Exeter Oratorio So- 
ciety's concerts for one year, and was con- 
ductor of the IMadrigal Society for fifteen 
years, his last concert taking x>iace May 29, 
1884. On his retirement he received a hand- 
some testimonial from the Society. He died 
June 4, 1891. His compositions included a 
Symphony in E flat, produced at the Hanover 
Square Rooms, July 10, 1847, and at the City 
of London Institute, April, 1848; Two Concert 
Overtures, "Macbeth" and "As you like it," 
performed in 1848. These were all written while 
a student at the R. A.jM. He likewise composed 
a ]\linuet for small orchestra ; a quartet in A for 
strings, and pieces for pf. Some part-songs, 
"Sweet and Low," &c., were performed in 
1885-6, by the Exeter Madrigal Society. His 
wife, nee Adelaide C. Byen, who survives him, 
is a pianist, and studied at the R.A.M. under 
Cipriani Potter and G. A. Macfarren. She is 
now living in retirement in Exeter. 

Bambridge, George Edmund, organist 
and pianist, born at Windsor, April 19, 1842. 
Studied at R.A.M. under Charles Lucas, G.A., 
and Walter Macfarren, and Charles SteggaU, 
1860-65. A.R. A.M. In 1881 appointed professor 
and examiner at Trinity College, London, and 
is now Vice-Dean. Has been organist at St. 
Luke's, Westbourne Park, since 1864, and is 
widely known as a skilful pianoforte teacher. 
His published compositions are not numerous, 
and consist of an Evening Service in F, and 
some pieces for the pf. 

Bambridge, William Samuel, organist, 
cousin of the preceding, born at the Waimate, 
New Zealand, July 18, 1842. When six years 
old came to England, and was, for a year, a 
supernumery in the choir of St. George's, 
Windsor. At the age of ten he was appointed 
organist of Clewer Church. Studied at R.A.M. 
under H. C. Banister, C. Steggall, W. Dorrell, 
and W. H. Aylward. Graduated Mus. Bac, 
Oxford, 1872. F.R.C.O. and A.R.A.M. Since 
1864, he has been organist and music master 
of Marlborough College, Wilts. ; and is con- 
ductor of the College and Marlborough Choral 
Societies. His i^rincipal composition is a set- 
ting of Psalm 144, in ten movements; and he 
has published Hymns, Carols and Songs. His 
grandfather, George White Bambridge was 
an admirable flute-player, and considered in 
his day, as second only to Charles Nicholson. 




Bamford, H. A., miisician. Wrote "The 
Rudiments of the theory of Music, designed 
for the use of pupil-teachers and students in 
training colleges." Manchester, 1881. 

Banestre or Banaster, Gilbert, musi- 
cian and poet of latter part of 15th century. 
He received 40 marks in 1482 as " Master of 
the Song, assigned to teach the children of 
the King's chapel." He contributed to the 
Fairfax MS., and wrote various works and 
translations in verse. 

Banister, Charles William, composer 
and teacher, born 1768, died 1831. He com- 
posed " Twelve Psalm and Hymn Tunes," 
London, 1792; "Four Moral Pieces," London 
[1803] ; " Star of Bethlehem," song, etc. 
His son, Henry Joshua, edited " Complete 
edition of the Vocal Music of C. W. Banister," 
London, 1831-33, in 21 numbers. 

His son, Henry Joshua (born London, 
1803 ; died London, 1847), was a violoncello 
player and author, who performed at nrost of 
the principal concerts in his day. He pub- 
lished " Tutor's Assistant for the Violoncello," 
N.D. ; One hundred and fifty Lessons for the 
Violoncello," London [1846] ; also " Lessons 
on Double-notes " and " Exercises on the use 
of the thumb." He also wrote "Domestic 
Music for the wealthy, or a plea for the art 
and its professors," London [1843]. 

Another son, Joseph (1812-1890), was a 
violinist, and for many years was a member 
of the Philharmonic Societj'. 

Banister, Henry Charles, composer, 
pianist, and writer on music, born in London, 
June 13, 1831. Son of H. J. Banister {q. v.). 
Studied, at first under his father, and later at 
the R.A.M., where he won a King's Scholar- 
ship in 1846, and again in 1848. Cipriani 
Potter was the master he chiefly studied with. 
In 1851 he became Assistant Professor, and in 
1853 Professor of Harmony and Composition, 
R.A.M., and is now F.R.A.M. As a singing 
boy he was heard at concerts of the Glee 
Clubs, and in 1846 he sang duets in " Judas 
Maccabfeus," with Miss Dolby and Miss 
Sabilla Novello, at the Reading Festival of 
1846 (vide Binfield). His string quartet in 
F sharp minor was produced by the Society 
of British Musicians at Erat's Saloon, De- 
cember 29, 1847 ; and he began concert giving 
November 26, 1855, at St. Martin's Hall. For 
many years a prominent figure in the musical 
world, of late he has devoted himself chiefly 
to tuition and to musical literature. Besides 
his appointment at the R.A.]\I., he has been a 
Professor at the Guildhall School of Music 
since 1880, and is Professor of Harmony at the 
Royal Normal College for the Blind. Mem- 
ber of the Philharmonic Society. 

Works. — In MS. : — Svmphonies : No. 1, in 
D (1847) ; No. 2. in E flat (1848) ; No. 3, in A 
minor (1850) ; No. 4, in A (1853). Overtures : 


No. 1, in E flat (1849) ; No. 2, " Cvmbeline " 
(1852) ; No. 3, in E minor (1852) ; No. 4, The 
Serenade, in E ; No. 5, From Sorrow to Joy, 
in B flat (1876). Andante and Rondo in E 
flat (1852). Capriccio in A minor. Fantasia 
in D (written for the JMusical Society, 1863), 
for pf. and orchestra. String Quartets in P 
sharp minor (1847) ; in D (1850) ; in E minor. 
Sonatas for pf. duet, in G minor (1850) ; in 
A flat ; in A minor ; for pf . solo, in E ; B 
flat ; F sharp minor ; F minor ; and F sharp 
minor. Sacred Cantata (1851). Cantatas for 
female voices and orchestra: The Sea Fairies 
(Tennyson— R.A.M., 1861); The Maiden's 
Holiday, for female voices (composed for pri- 
vate choir of Madame Bassano). Published 
compositions. — Pf. pieces, Op. 2, 4 ; Seven 
variations on an original air. Op. 5 ; Op. 6 ; 
Sonata in F sharp minor, duet, produced 
1852, Op. 7 ; Op. 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 22, 26, 
27, 29 ; Andante, with variations, pf. duet, 
Op. 31 ; Op. 34 ; Fantasia in F minor, Op. 35 
(composed 1874) ; Canzonets, Op. 1, 3 ; Part- 
song, Op. 8; Three songs. Op. 16; Anthem, 
satisfy us early. Op . 25 ; Part-songs, songs, 
etc. Literary and didactic, including lectures 
delivered before the Royal NormalCollege, 
The Musical Association, College of Organists, 
and the Incorporated Society of Musicians 
(Conferences), etc. Text-book of jMusic, Lon- 
don, 1872, 14 editions; Some Musical Ethics 
and Analogies, London, 1884 ; Lectures on 
Musical Analysis, 1887 ; Musical Art and Study, 
1888 ; George Alexander Macfarren : his life, 
works, and influence London, Bell and Sons, 
1892 ; Two addresses on the same subject : 
Helpful papers for harmony students London, 
Ryder, 1895 ; and many lectures unpublished. 

Banister, John, composer and violinist, 
born London, 1630. He was sent by Charles 
II. to France, where he studied the violin, 
and on his return became leader of the King's 
band of music. He established a " Musick 
School " at Whitefriars, and gave concerts 
from 1672 till 1678. He was dismissed from 
the King's band for maintaining that English 
violinists were superior to French ones. He 
died London, October 3, 1679. Banister com- 
posed music for Davenant's " Circe," 1667 
(with P. Humphrey) ; for Shakespeare's " Tem- 
pest ;" and published " New Ayres and Dia- 
logues composed for voices and viols of two, 
three, and four parts," London, 1678 (with 
Thomas Low). He also composed Lessons 
for viols, songs, etc. 

His son John (? — 1735) was also a violinist 
and a member of the private bands of Charles 
II., James II., and Anne. He was also prin- 
cipal violinist at the Italian Opera, London. 
Author of "The Gentleman's Tutor for the 
Flute," . . . 1698, and "The Compleat Tutor 
for the Violin, . . 1699, etc. 

Banks, Ralph, musician and organist, 




born Durham, 17G2 ; died 1841. Pupil of 
Ebdou, and organist of^ Rochester Cathedral 
52 years. Published " Selection of Psalm 
and Hymn Tunes from Purcell, Croft, etc., 
with interludes to each verse." . . London 
[1835]. "Te Damn, Jubilate, Sanctus, etc., 
in score, Rochester [1840] . 

Bannatyne, Rev. A. M., Scottish author, 
Free Church minister in Aberdeen, published 
" Hearts and voices the only organs for 
Christian praises," Edinburgh, 1868. " The' 
Great Innovation," Aberdeen, n.d., a pamph- 
let on the organ question. 

Banner, John, musician, published "Col- 
lection of Sacred IMusic used at St. jNIichael's, 
Wood Street, with an accompaniment for the 
organ and pianoforte," London [1840]. Second 
edition "with an additional hymn" by Miss 
Mounsey. Songs, etc. 

Bannister, Charles, bass vocalist, born 
in Gloucestershire, 1741? He joined a travel- 
hng theatrical company, and played " Romeo " 
and other characters. He also appeard in 
London as an actor. He sang at Ranelagh 
and ]Marylebone Gardens, and at the Royalty 
Theatre, London, and in the English pro- 
vinces. He died London, October 19, 1804. 
He was celebrated for his imitations of other 
vocalists. Shield composed his song, "The 
Wolf," specially for Bannister. 

Bantock, Qranville, composer, born in 
Loudon, AugTist 7, 18G8. Intended for the 
Indian Civil Service, and then for a scientific 
career. He did not enter upon serious musical 
study until the year 1889, when he became a 
pupil of Dr. Gordon Saunders, at Trinity Col- 
lege, London. He entered the R.A.M. the 
same year, and obtained the Macf arren Scholar- 
ship. While at the Academy he was very pro- 
ductive as a composer, and several works were 
performed at the Academy concerts. He was 
engaged as conductor for a provincial tour of 
the Gaietj' Company, and also for an extended 
tour in the United States of America and 
Australia. In 189-3 he undertook the editor- 
ship of the new Quarterly Musical Review 
(R. Cocks). 

Works. — Dramatic Cantata, The Fire Wor- 
shippers (overture, R. A.M., December 12, 1890, 
Crystal Palace, November 11, 1893) ; Lyrical 
Drama, in five acts, Rameses II (Ballet Suite, 
R.A.M., December 17, 1891 ; StrolHng Players, 
April, 1892) ; one-act Opera, Caedmar (R.A.M., 
July 12, 1892 ; Ohmipic Theatre, October 1892) ; 
One-act Oj)era, The Pearl of Iran ; The Curse 
of Kehama, for soli, chorus, and orchestra; 
Thorwenda's Dream, poem for recitation with 
accompaniment (words and music by himself, 
1891) ; Wulstan, scena for baritone (1892) ; 
songs, etc. Pianoforte album (three pieces) ; 
Two pieces for pf., etc. 

Baptie, David, composer and writer, born 
in Edinburgh, November 80, 1822. Self-taught 


in music. He has compiled a Descriptive 
Catalogue (commenced about 184G) of upwards 
of 23,000 secular part-songs, glees, madrigals, 
trios, quartets, etc. (ms.). Editor of Har- 
monium Tune Book (witli William Hume), 
1867-68; Harmonium Chant Book (do.), 1868- 
69 ; Union Song Garland (do.), 1874 ; The Scot- 
tish Book of Praise (with Lambeth), 1876; 
Academy Vocalist (selected), 1879; Richard 
Werner's Hymn Book (revised), 1881, etc. 
Author of A Handbook of Musical Biography, 
London : Morley, 1883 ; Musicians of All Times, 
a concise dictionary of Musical Biography, 
London, Curwen, 1889; Musical Scotland, 
past and present, Paisley, Parlane, 1894 ; 
Sketches of the English Glee Composers, 
London, W. Reeves, 1895. He is the com- 
poser of My soul truly waiteth; Sing aloud 
unto God, and other anthems; a number of 
Glees and Part-songs ; A rosy gift I twine for 
thee; Beautiful Spring; The sun's bright orb; 
Wind thy horn, niy hunter boy, etc. Also 
many songs harmonized. His son, Charles 
Robertson B.-vptie, born in Glasgow, May 29, 
1870, is a pianist and composer. Chorister in 
St. Mary's Episcopal Church, and from 1885 
employed in the Mitchell Library, until, in 
1888, he left to devote himself to the musical 
profession. Studied under John Fulcher, W. 
G. Martin, and WiUiam Moodie. Has pub- 
lished a children's operetta, " Floralia," and 
some part-songs and pf . pieces ; and was joint 
editor, with his father, of a work for children, 
"Tiny songs for Tiny Singers" (1891). 

Barber, Abraham, musician, published a 
"Book of Psalm Tunes, in four parts," 1686; 
7th edition, 1715. He was a book-seUer in 

Barber, Robert, musician, of Castleton, 
published various collections of psalmody. A 
Book of Psalmody, containing variety of tunes, 
with chanting tunes, etc., London, 1723; 2nd 
edition, 1733. The Psalm Singer's Choice 
Comx^anion, or a plain and easy introduction 
to Musick, etc., London, 1727. David's Harp 
well tuned, or a book of Psalmody, containing 
variety of psalm tunes, etc., London, 1753, 
3rd edition. Thomson's Hjinn to the Seasons, 
in score, Op. 4 [1780] . Some of these collec- 
tions are issued as by R. and J. Barber. 

Barber, Thomas, musician, published 
"Sacred Harmony, containing two anthems, 
fifteen psalm and hvmn tunes, etc." Wood- 
bridge [1814]. 

Barcrofte, Thomas, composer and or- 
ganist, who flourished during the 16th cen- 
tury. He was organist of Ely Cathedral in 
1535. Some of his Anthems, and a Te deum, 
and Benedictus in F, are contained in the 
Tudway collection in the British ]\Iuseum. 
His son George was organist of Ely Cathe- 
dral from 1579, and died in 1610. 

Bardd Alavv^, see Parry, John, 




Bardy Brenin, see Joxes, Edwaed. 

Barham, Thomas Foster, musician and 
writer, born at Bedford, October 8, 1766, died 
at Leskinnick, near Penzance, Febriiary 25, 
1844. He wrote on theological topics; sacred 
dramas and poems ; and IMusical meditations, 
■consisting of original compositions, vocal and 
instrumental, London, 1811; and edited and 
arranged Pergolesi's Stabat Mater, with Eng- 

lish words 

Barker, George Arthur, composer and 
tenor singer, was born on April 16, 1812. He 
sang in opera in London and the provinces, 
and gave concerts in various parts of the 
countrv. He died at Aylstone, near Leicester, 
March'2, 1876. 

Works. — Ballad Album, twelve books, Lon- 
don [1853] . Songs of the army and navy 
[1855] , issued in numbers. Single songs and 
ballads: Aline O'Neal; Dublin Bay; Ellen 
Astore ; Emigrant's bride ; Emigrant's child ; 
Excelsior ; Fare thee well, my gentle Mary ; 
Irish emigrant ("I'm sitting by the stile," 
words by Lady Dufferin), London [1846]; 
Irish peasant; Kate Connor; Lesson of the 
Water mill ; Mabel Gray ; Mary ! avourneen ; 
Mary Blane [1846]; Mountain Flower; My 
native mountain home; My skiff is on the 
shore ; Nellie and I ; Return of the emigrant ; 
Sands of gold; Scottish blue bells ("Let the 
proud Indian boast ") ; Song of the silent land ; 
Take back the ivy leaf ; White squall [1835] ; 
Wreck of the emigrant ship, etc. Why do 
summer roses fade ? quartet ; waltzes for pf . 
and other instrumental music. 

Barker is best remembered by his three 
songs, " Irish emigrant," " Scottish blue 
bells," and " White squall," which alone sur- 
vive out of the large number he composed. 

Barker, Laura W., see Taylor, Mrs. Tom. 

Barnard, Mrs. Charles, (fcorn Charlotte 
Alington), "Claribel," amateur song-wri- 
ter, born December 23, 1830; married Mr. 
Charles C. Barnard, 1854. She studied music 
imder W. H. Holmes. She died at Dover, 
January 30, 1869. 

Works. — Songs : All along the valley ; 
Answer to the dream; Bell's whisper; Blind 
Alice ; Blue Ribbon ; Broken Sixpence ; The 
Brook ; By the blue Alsatian mountains ; 
Children's voices ; Come back to Erin ; Do 
you remember ? ; Dreamland ; Drifting ; Fare- 
well to Erin ; Far away in bonnie Scotland ; 
Five o'clock in the morning; Friends for ever ; 
Friendship and love ; Golden days ; Half-mast 
high ; Hussar's parting ; I cannot sing the old 
songs ; I leaned out of the window ; I remem- 
ber it; Jamie; Janet's bridal; Janet's choice ; 
Kathleen's answer; The life-boat; Lowland 
Mary ; Maggie's secret ; Maggie's welcome ; My 
brilliant and I; Norah's treasure; Old house 
on the hill; Only a year ago; Out at sea; Rid- 
ing thro' the Broom; Sailor Boy; Susan's 


story ; Tell it not ; Through the Jessamine ; 
Walter's wooing; When I was young and fair; 
Won't you tell me why, Robin ; Vocal duets, 
trios, quartets. Pianoforte pieces, etc. 
Thoughts, verses, and songs, 1877. Of the 
songs composed hj Mrs. Barnard, under the 
name of Claribel, only a few survive. 

Barnard, Rev. John, divine, published a 
"Book of Psalms, together with Fifty Tunes 
to sing them, neatly engraved on copper- 
plates." 1727, "A New version of the Psalms 
of David, fitted to the Tunes used in the 
Churches." Boston (U.S.A.), 1752. 

Barnard, Rev. John, divine, who lived 
during the 16th and 17th centuries. He was 
Minor-canon of St. Paul's Cathedral in the 
time of Charles I. 

Barnard is famed as having been the first to 
issue a collection of Cathedral music. His 
collection of " Cathedral Music " appeared in 
1641, and contains services, anthems, etc., by 
Tallis, Gibbons, Mundy (W.), Parsons, Bird, 
Morley, Tye, Bull, etc. The only perfect copy 
of this woi-k is contained in the library of 
Hereford Cathedral. Its title is, "The First 
Book of Selected Church Music, consisting of 
Services and Anthems, such as are now used 
in the cathedral and collegiate churches of 
this' kingdom ; never before printed, whereby 
such Books as were heretofore, with much 
difficulty and charges, transcribed for the 
use of the Quire, are now, to the saving 
of much Labour and Expense, published for 
the general good of all such as shall desire 
them either for public or private exercise. 
Collected out of divers approved Authors, by 
J. B." London, 1641. 

Barnby, Sir Joseph, Kt., composer and 
conductor, born in Yorli, August 12, 1838. 
Chorister in York Minster at age of seven; 
began teaching" when ten ; was an organist at 
twelve ; and music master at a school when 
fourteen. At the age of sixteen he went 
to London, and entered the R.A.M., living 
with his brother Robert (q-v.), a vicar-choral 
of Westminster Abbey. Soon after his ap- 
pointment as organist of Mitcham Parish 
Church, he was called back to York, where he 
remained four years. Then he was organist 
at St. Michael's, Queenhithe; St. James the 
Less, Westminster ; and, in 1863, was appointed 
to St. Andrew's, Wells Street. There it was 
he acquired and exercised the influence that 
was to work such developments in the Choral 
Services of the Church. At the Dedication 
Festival (St. Andrew's Day) of 1866, his adap- 
tation of Gounod's Messe Solennelle (St. 
Cecilia) was performed, and the harp iir- 
troduced. He conducted a performance of 
Bach's Passion-Music (St. Matthew) at West- 
minster Abbey, IMaunday Thursday (April 6) 
1871, with full chorus and orchestra — a memo- 
rable event in the history of church music in 




this country ; and, in 1878, he introduced, at 
St. Anne's, Soho, where he was then director 
of the music, the St. John Passion of the same 
master. He resigned his position at St. An- 
drew's in 1871, and that of St. Anne's in 1886. 
"]Mr. Joseph Barnby's Choir' was formed in 
1867, the first rehearsal talking place in the 
Lower Exeter Hall, February 17, and the first 
concert given in St. James' Hall, May 23. 
From 1869 the performances were given under 
the title, " The Oratorio Concerts," and 
great works were revived, notably, Handel's 
"Jephtha" (February 5, 1869); I3eethoven's 
Mass in D (March 9, 1870) ; and Bach's "Mat- 
thew Passion" (April 6, 1870). At the end of 
1872, this choir was amalgamated with that 
hitherto conducted by M. Gounod; and, as 
the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society, com- 
menced giving concerts February 12, 1873. 
Wagner's " Parsifal " was produced, in concert 
form, by this Society, November 10, 1884. 
Barnby conducted the London Musical So- 
ciety, 1878-86, and produced Dvorak's Stahat 
Mater, March 10, 1883; he was also con- 
ductor, 1886-8, of the R.A.M. Concerts. Li 
1875 he was appointed Precentor of Eton Col- 
lege, an office he resigned in 1892, on his elec- 
tion as Principal of the Guildhall School of 
Music. For fifteen years, to 1876, he was 
musical adviser to the firm of Novello, Ewer, 
and Co. In November, 1882, he conducted 
the annual performance of the "IMessiah," by 
the Royal Society of jMusicians; the perform- 
ance of Dvorak's "Spectre's Bride" at the 
Leeds Festival of 1892 ; conducted the Cardiff 
Festivals, 1892 and 1895; a Halle Concert, 
Manchester, November 14, 1895. Was a Fel- 
low of R.A.jM., IMember of the Philharmonic 
Society, and, in 1887, was elected Hon. Mem- 
ber of' Tonic Sol-fa College. In 1892 he re- 
ceived the honour of Knighthood from the 
Queen. To the grief of the whole musical 
world, his career, in the midst of its activi- 
ties, was suddenly cut short by his death at 
London, on January 28, 1896. 

Works. — Rebekah, a Sacred Idyll, produced 
at the Oratorio Concerts, IMay 11, and at the 
Hereford Festival, August 23, 1870; Ps. 97, 
The Lord is King, Leeds Festival, 1883. Ser- 
vice in E (Morning, Communion, and Even- 
ing, composed at the age of seventeen) ; Mag- 
nificat and Nunc Dimittis in E flat, for voices, 
orchestra, and organ, for the Festival of the 
Sons of the Clergy, St. Paul's Cathedral, May 
18, 1881 ; Services, Preces, Offertory Sentences, 
etc. Forty-six Anthems, including the Motet, 
King All Glorious, for soli, six-part chorus, 
orchestra, and organ. 250 Hymn Tunes, of 
which a complete edition is in preparation 
(1896) ; Glad Christmastide, and other carols ; 
Sweet and low ; It was a lover and his lass 
(Norwich Festival, 1884); The haven, and 
other part-songs. Eton songs (A. C. Ainger). 


Songs ; How fades the light ; My golden ship ; 
When the tide comes in, and others. Trios 
for female voices. Pieces for organ. Musical 
editor of The Hymnary (Novello, n.d.). Music 
revised for "The Home and School Hymnal" 
(Eldinburgh, Constable). Posthumous pub- 
lications : Anthems, Sing to the Lord ; Lamb 
of God. Part-songs, 'The Kiss; In laudem 
Amoris (1896). 

Barnby, Robert, alto singer, born in 
York, 1821. The brother referred to in the 
preceding notice. He was appointed a lay 
vicar of Westminster Abbey about 1845, and 
a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1847, on 
the death of Enoch Hawkins. These posi- 
tions he retained until his death, June 1, 
1875. Another member of the family was 
Henry Barnby, born 1826, who was for 
twenty-eight }'ears a lay clerk of St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. He was considered one of 
the finest basses of his time, his voice being 
rich in quality, and of remarkable compass. 
He sang at the Hereford Festivals, 1852 and 
1855 ; at the Birmingham Festival Choral 
Society's " Messiah " Concert, December 26, 
1856 ; in the quartets in " Elijah," at the 
Birmingham Festival, 1858 ; and was well 
known as an oratorio singer. He died at 
Slough, April 2, 1885. Sidney Barnby, alto, 
was elected assistant Yicar Choral of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, in 1873, a position he still 

Barnes, Edwin, organist and teacher of 
music, born in the parish of St. Pancras, 
London, June 8, 1833. Ediicated as chorister 
at King's College, London ; studied pf. under 
Dr. W. Rea, organ and theory under J. L. 
Brownsmith. For many years professor of 
music at the London Society for teaching the 
Blind, where he has done miich excellent 
work. Member of the Philharmonic Society. 
Organist successively of Hornsey Parish 
Church ; St. George the Martyr, Bloomsbury ; 
and, since 1862, of Holy Trinity Church, Pad- 
dington. Was assistant organist to the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, and Conductor of the Dover 
Choral Society, 1856-58. His compositions in- 
clude an anthem, songs, and pf. pieces. 

Barnes, Frederick Edwin Lucy, or- 
ganist and composer, son of the above, was 
born in London, in 1858. He studied under 
Helmore in the Chapel Royal, and at R.A.M. 
from 1872. Organist successively of All 
Saints', Norfolk Square, London, 1872 ; St. 
IMargaret's, Princess Square, Liverpool, 1876 ; 
Montreal Cathedral, 1878-9 ; Trinity Church, 
New York (assistant). He was conductor 
of the Montreal Philharmonic Society, and 
was married to Miss Leonora Braham in 1878. 
He died at Montreal, September 21, 1880. 

W^ORKS. — opera : Libretto by ]\Irs. G. L. 
Craik (ms.) Operetta for German Reed Com- 
pany. Twenty-third Psalm for soli , chorus, and 




orchestra. Songs : But you know already ; May 
song; Mither; Path through the snow; Sun 
and Spring. Various pieces for organ and 

Barnett, Alice, see under Poole, IMadame. 

Barnett, Emma, pianist, sister of John 
Francis Barnett, and daughter of Joseph 
Alfred Barnett, professor of singing, was born 
in London. Studied entirely under her bro- 
ther, and made her debiit at the Crystal 
Palace Saturday Concerts, February 28, 1874, 
playing Beethoven's Pianoforte Concerto in 
G. December 1st of the same year she played 
J. F. Barnett's Pianoforte Concerto in D 
minor at the Royal Albert Hall Concerts. 
She gave her first recital at St. George's Hall, 
June 13, 1877, and her first appearance at the 
Monday Popular Concerts, St. James's Hall, 
took place January 28, 1882. Since that time 
she has given many pianoforte recitals in 
London and the provinces, introducing the 
Sonata in E, the series of pieces, " Home 
Scenes," and other of her brother's works to 
public notice. Her compositions are chiefly 
for the pianoforte, but include a few songs. 
Only the Gavotte in A is as yet published. 

Barnett, John, composer, was born at 
Bedford, July 15, 1802, son of Bernhard Beer, 
a Prussian watchmaker, who settled in Eng- 
land and changed his name to Barnett. He 
was articled to S. J. Arnold, proprietor of the 
Lyceum Theatre, and studied under C. E. 
Horn, Price, and Ries. Married Miss Lindley, 
daughter of the violoncello player, 1837. 
Studied Vogler's system of harmony at Frank- 
fort, under Schnyder von Wartensee, and 
returned to London in 1838. He opened St. 
James's Theatre for English opera in 1839. 
Retired to Cheltenham, where he established 
himself as a vocal teacher, in 1841. Resided 
in Leipzig and in Italy for a short time, 
superintending the education of his children. 
Died near Cheltenham, April 17, 1890. 

Works. — Operettas and Operas : Before 
Breakfast, Musical Farce, written by Richard 
Peake, Lycemn, 1828; Music in Miss Mit- 
ford's Rienzi, Drury Lane, 1828 ; Monsieur 
Mallet, operetta, written by Thomas Mon- 
criefi, Adelphi Theatre, 1828 ; Two Seconds, 
operetta, written by R. Peake, Lyceum, 1829 ; 
Carnival of Naples, opera, Covent Garden, 
1830 ; Robert the Devil, musical drama, Co- 
vent Garden, 1830 ; The Picturesque, operetta, 
written by Thomas Haynes Bayley, Lyceum, 
1830 ; Baron Trenck, operetta, written by T. 
Morton, sen., destroyed in the fire at Covent 
Garden Theatre, 1830 ; Country Quarters, 
musical farce, Covent Garden, 1831 ; Court of 
Queen's Bench, operetta, Olympic Theatre 
(Vestris), 1832 ; Paphian Bower operetta, 
written by Blanche and C. Dance, Olympic 
Theatre, December, 1832 ; Harlequin Pat, 
operetta, Covent Garden, 1832 ; Married 


Lovers, musical farce, Lyceum, 1832 ; Promo- 
tion, musical farce, Lyceum, 1833 ; Pet of the 
Petticoats, operetta, Sadler's Wells, August, 

1832 ; Win Her and Wear Her, opera, Drury 
Lane, December, 1839 ; Soldier's Widow, mu- 
sical drama, written by E. Fitzball, English 
Opera Company, Adelphi, 1833 ; Two songs 
and a march in Nell Gwynne, Covent Garden, 

1833 ; Song in Planch^'s Charles the Twelfth, 
Drury Lane, 1833 ; Deuce is in her, operetta, 
1833 ; 01.ympic Revels, 1833 ; Blanche of Jer- 
sey, 1834 ; Mountain Sylph, opera, written by 
Thackwray, Lyceum, August 25, 1834 : Fair 
Rosamond, opera, written by C. Z. Barnett, 
Drury Lane, March 30, 1837 ; Farinelli, opera, 
written by C. Z. Barnett, Drury Lane, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1837 ; Kathleen opera (never pro- 
duced), composed in 1840 ; Marie, opera, 
composed in 1845 (unfinished}. Oratorios : 
Omnipresence of the Deity, published in 1829 
(never performed) ; Daniel, unfinished, com- 
posed in 1841. A Mass. A Symphony, unfin- 
ished, composed in 1840. Two string quartets, 
MS., composed in 1840. Spare Moments, three 
sketches for concertina [1859] . Part-songs: 
Twelve Part-songs, mostly published in 1870 ; 
Chamber Madrigals, London, 1861 : It is sum- 
mer it is summer ; Bend down from thy chariot ; 
Haste not ; Farewell to the Flowers ; Tic-tac 
of the mill ; Dear peaceful valley ; Evening 
drum ; IMerrily, merrily sounds the horn ; In 
the merry greenwood ; Wrong not, sweet 
mistress (madrigal) ; Chamois Hunter ; O 
Lord, our governor. Duets . Set of six vocal 
duets [1845] ; A smile, a tear ; A spring song ; 
Come where the flowers are blooming ; Dear 
maid, mv heart is thine ; Down in the dell ; 
The Gleaner's Bell ; Good night ; The Hun- 
garian to his bride ; I'll follow thee ; Moon- 
light, music, love, and flowers: My gondola 
glides ; No more, no more ; Oh ! give to me ; 
Oh ! 'tis sweet to meet again ; Spring ; The 
twilight hour ; There's not a breeze ; When at 
night ; Where are the mountains ; Wilt thou 
tempt the wave ? Songs : Amusement for 
leisure hours — seven songs and one duet 
[1835J ; Songs of the Minstrels [1830]. 
Dreams of a Persian maiden [1842] ; Twelve 
Russian Melodies, with words by Harry Stoe 
van Dyk [1822] ; Songs of the Slavonians, 
containing Bohemian popular airs, with words 
by John Bowring, London, 1824 ; Twenty-four 
songs in imitation of the music of various 
nations, with words by Van Dyk, Leon Lee, 
and Mayhew, 1824 ; Twelve Songs from Fairy 
Land, written by Thomas Haynes Bayley, 
1827 ; Lyric Illustrations of the IMo'dern 
Poets, 1834, reprinted in 1877 ; Adieu to thee 
fair Rhine ; Ask me no more ; A day-dream ; 
Banks of Broomsgrove ; Break, break, break ; 
Bride's farewell ; Chase the falling tear ; 
Clansman's bride ; Come to me, thou gentle 
child ; Dear Napoli ; Days of Chivalry ; Days 




that ne'er return ; Flower of my life ; Fill up 
tbe wine cup ; Flowers of summer; Gc, thou 
art free ; Highlander's bride ; Her heart is 
mnie ; Highhvud soldier ; Highland minstrel 
boy ; Hark, the fairy bells ; Hope for the 
best ; Here's a health to merry England ; The 
HoU}' ; Hark, hark to the sound ; I have been 
to the woods ; Is the reign of fancy over ? 
Knight of the golden crest ; Light guitar ; 
Light of heart am I ; Lord, I believe ; List to 
my wild guitar ; My home beside the Quadal- 
quiver; Minstrel's lament ; Mermaid's song; 
Maid of Athens ; My native land, good night ; 
Maiden of Sicily ; Now the lamp of day has 
fied ; Normandy maid ; Rock me to sleep ; 
Rose of Lucerne, 1823 ; Rise, gentle moon ; 
Swiss shepherd ; Sing, nightingale, sing ; 
Sailor boy's song ; Spirit of love ; There sits a 
lovely maid ; The opal ring ; The ship ; Ves- 
per hour ; Up to the Forest ; Village bells ; 
Young moss rose ; Year's last hours. Systems 
and Singing Masters, a Comment upon the 
Williem System, and remarks upon Mr. J. 
Hullah's Manual, London, 1842, also, 1877. 
School for the Voice, a theoretical and practi- 
cal treatise, London [1845] ; since reprinted 
several times. 

Barnett's Mountain Sylph was the first 
English Opera cast in the dramatic form 
followed by Weber and other masters. It 
was very popular on its original production 
in 1834, and had a run of over 100 nights. Of 
the immense niuuber of songs and other vocal 
pieces published by Barnett, amounting in all 
to nearly 2000 items, only a few are known to 
the present generation of musicians. His 
eldest daughter married Mr. Robert E. Fran- 
cillon, the well-known novelist. 

Barnett, John Francis, pianist and 
composer, born in Loudon, October 16, 1837 ; 
son of Joseph Alfred Barnett. His first j)iano- 
forte teacher was his mother. In 1849 he was 
placed under Dr. Wj'lde, and in 1850 he won 
a King's Scholarship at the R.A.M., and was 
re-elected in 1852. He appeared for the first 
time in public at the New Philharmonic Con- 
cert, June 29, 1853, playing the solo part in 
IMendelssolm's Pianoforte Concerto in D 
minor. In 1856 he went to Leipzig, and 
studied at the Conservatorium, under Haupt- 
mann, Rietz, Plaidy, and Moscheles. He 
played at the Gewaudhaus concerts, March 22, 
18G0, the D minor concerto of Mendelssohn. 
At his reappearance in London, New Philhar- 
monic, April 16, 1860, he was heard in Beet- 
hoven's Concerto in E flat ; and at the Phil- 
harmonic Concert, June 10, 1861, in that 
composer's Concerto in C minor. He was 
afterwards associated with Dr. Wylde as a 
teacher of the pianoforte in the London 
Academy of IMusic. In 1883, was appointed 
a Professor R.A.M., and is F.R.A.M. and 
Member of the Philharmonic Society. Was 


for a time conductor of the Berkshire Musical 
Society ; and conducted a Philharmonic (Con- 
cert, April 23, 1884. First came into notice as 
a composer by a Symphony produced by the 
Musical Society of London, 1864 ; and receiv- 
ing a commission for the Birmingham Festival 
of 1867, he soon attained a prominent position 
among the younger English composers. 

Works. — Cantatas : The Ancient Mariner 
(Birmingham Festival, 1867) ; Paradise and 
the Peri (the same, 1870) ; The Raising of 
Lazarus (Oratorio, New Philharmonic, June 
18, 1873 ; Hereford Festival, 1876) ; The Good 
Shepherd (Brighton Festival, 1876) ; The 
Building of the ship (Leeds Festival, 1880) ; 
Ode, The triumph of labour (Crystal Palace, 
August, 1888) ; The wishing bell, Cantata for 
female voices (Norwich Festival, 1893). Part- 
songs ; Songs, The Harp of Life ; The Golden 
Gate, etc. Orchestral : Symphony in A minor 
(1864) ; Symphonic Overture in E (Philhar- 
monic, 1868) ; Overture, A Winter's tale 
(British Orchestral Society, February 6, 1873) ; 
Suite, The lay of the last minstrel (Liverpool 
Festival, 1874) ; Sj-mphonic Poem, The Har- 
vest Festival (Norwich Festival, 1881 ; and 
revised as a Pastoral Suite, Philharmonic, 
May 31, 1888) ; Concerto in D minor, pf. and 
orchestra ; The Ebbing tide ; Liebeslied, and 
other smaller works for orchestra. Chamber 
Music : Quintet in G minor ; Quartet in D 
minor, strings; Trio in C minor, pf. and 
strings; Sonata in G minor. Op. 41, pf. and 
flute ; in E minor, pf. and violin. Pianoforte 
solo : Sonata in E minor. Op. 45 ; Three Im- 
promptus ; Home scenes, nine pieces ; Seven 
characteristic studies ; and a large number of 
shorter pieces, elegant in style and widely 
popular. Ofiertoire in G and other organ 

Barnett, J. Maughan, pianist and or- 
ganist. For some years resident at Tunbridge 
Wells, where he held several organ appoint- 
ments, and annually gave concerts. Delicate 
health caused him, in 1889. to leave England 
for New Zealand, where he soon established a 
reputation as a brilliant pianist and organist, 
giving performances also in Tasmania. He 
liolds the office of conductor of the Wellington 
Musical Society, N.Z. He has written some 
pieces for pianoforte. 

Barnett, Joseph Alfred, tenor vocalist 
and teacher of singing, brother of John Bar- 
nett, was born in London. Early in life he 
was articled to Mr. Reeve of the Olympic 
Theatre, and appeared as a juvenile vocalist. 
Afterwards he sang as a tenor vocalist, in 
London and the provinces, but gradually he 
retired from public life, and devoted himself 
to voice training. He married a daughter of 
William Hudson, the artist, and had a large 
family, among whom may be named John 
Francis and Emma, who are separately no- 





ticed. He was for many years principal tenor 
at the Church of the Spanish Embassy, and 
choirmaster of Warwick Street Chnrch, and 
St. Aloysius, Somers Town, London. Pro- 
fessor of Singing at the London Academy of 
Music, and teacher in many large schools. 
Composer of "Domini Salvum," quartet and 
chorus ; " Ave Maria," quartet ; " Exaudi 
Deus," tenor solo ; many duets, songs, and 
other vocal music. 

Barnett, Neville George, organist and 
musical critic, born in London, March 3, 
1854. Pupil of R. Limpus, E. J. Hopkins, 
and E. H. Turpin. P.R.C.O., 1873. Ap- 
pointed organist and choirmaster St. Philip's 
Arlington Square, in 1872. Subsequently, he 
went to New Zealand, where he held several 
apxjointments, but he finally settled in Sydney, 
New South Wales. He was organist of St. 
Mary's Cathedral (Roman Catholic) ; IMusical 
Director at the Jewish Synagogue, and in- 
structor at the Blind Institution. For blind 
students he invented a type-writer, enabling 
them to write according to the Braille system. 
Wlien he went to Sydney he was appointed 
musical critic of the Sydney Morning Herald, 
then of the Evening News, and lastly, of the 
Sydney Daily Telegraph. He composed an 
Opera, " Poniare," on a Tahitan legend, which 
was performed at Auckland ; a Mass, organ 
pieces, part-songs, etc. He also wrote some 
treatises on music, his last work, " The Art 
Theory of Harmony (dedicated to Sir George 
Grove), is still in MS. He died at Picton, 
N.S.W., September 26, 1895. 

Barnett, Robert, pianist and composer, 
was born at IMacclesfield, in 1818. He studied 
at the R. A.M., and in 1840 was appointed a pro- 
fessor of the pf. there. In 1842 he appeared as 
a pianist at the Quartet Concerts, Hanover 
Square Rooms, and in 1850 at the Society of 
British Musicians. He was elected an Associ- 
ate of the Philharmonic Society in 1843. Died 
at Slough, Windsor, November, 1875. 

Works. — Pianists' Companion, London, 
1857 (issued in parts). Sonatas, rondos, and 
airs for pianoforte, 1842 (selected). Useful 
scale practice for the pianoforte, 1843. Rondo 
grazioso and rondoletto scherzando for pf. 
Edited Pianoforte works by Mozart, Pleyel, 
and Dussek. 

His eldest son Domenico, born in London, 
August 25, 1846. Studied at Leipzig Con- 
servatorium under Moscheles, E. F. Richter, 
Reinecke, and others. Principal professor of 
pianoforte at the Ladies' College, Cheltenham. 
Has composed some music for pf., but nothing 
is published hitherto. 

Barnhill, James, Scottish author, who 
graduated j\I.A., at Glasgow University. He 
published " The Statics of Harmony, with an 
appendix on anticipations, suspensions, and 
transitions, illustrated by examples from the | 

great masters," London, 1865. Reprintedfrom 
the Choir. He published various other works. 

Barr, James, musician, was born at 
Tarbolton, Ayr, in 1781. Employed by J. 
Stephen, music-publisher, Wilson Street, 
Glasgow, 1812, and was a music teacher in 
Glasgow. He resided in Canada as farmer, 
1832-1855. The " blithe Jamie Barr, frae St. 
Barchan's toun," of Tannahill. Composer of 
a few melodies, of which " Thou bonnie wood 
o' Craigielea (words by Tannahill) is well 
known. He died at Govan, February 24, 
I860, and is buried at Kilbarchan. 

Barr, Samuel, composer and writer, was 
born at Glasgow, in 1807. Self-taught in 
music. He ,was a teacher in Glasgow, and 
precentor in Dr. Wardlaw's (Inde^iendent) 
Church. Professor of Music in the Mechanics' 
Institute, Glasgow. Died, Glasgow, May 16, 

Works. — The Theory and Practice of Har- 
mony and Composition, Londou, 1861; Art 
of Singing at sight sinii^lified, Glasgow, 1847 
and 1859 ; Anthems ; Psalms. Songs : Hur- 
rah ! for the Highlands; The warning; The 
land for me ; The bridal gem ; Naebody kens 
ye. Part-songs ; Miscellaneous writings. 

Barr was well known in Glasgow and the 
West of Scotland as a teacher of merit, and 
is generally supposed to have introduced class 
music teaching into the West of Scotland. 

Barraclough, Isaac, musician, of Shef- 
field. Published " Sacred music, consisting 
of Psalm and Hymn tunes . . . for four 
voices, with an accompaniment for the organ 
or pianoforte," London [1836]. "Sacred 
music, consicting of original psalm and hymn 
tunes . . ," Sheffield [1847]. 

Barratt, John, organist, born near Hud- 
dersfield, January 11, 1848. Received his 
musical training at York Minster. Graduated 
Mus. B., Oxford, 1877. Organist of Paisley 
Abbey, the Clark Town Hall, and Conductor 
of Paisley Select Choir. Has published an- 
thems, hymn-tunes, etc. His sou, William 
Augustus Barratt, born 1874, was a scholar 
of the R.C.M. He first came into notice by 
his setting of " Sir Patrick Spens," for bari- 
tone solo, chorus, and orchestra, produced at 
Edinburgh, December 1894. A cantata, " The 
Death of Cuthullin," was brought out in tliat 
city, December 1895. He has also published 
an Album of ten songs (Paterson), eic. 

Barrett. The name of a family honour- 
ably distinguished in church music in Bristol. 
The father. Slater Barrett, was in the choir 
of Bristol Cathedral for nearly sixty years. 
John Barrett, the elder son, born at Bristol, 
1812, was a chorister in the Cathedral, and 
for many years organist of St. Augustine's 
Church, and also at the Blind Asylum, the 
choir of which he raised to a high standard 
of excellence. He was one of the founders 




of the Bristol Madrigal Society (1837), and 
for some time, until his last illuess, was a 
Vice-President. He died June 2-i, 1886. His 
brother, George Barrett, was born at Bris- 
tol, j\larch 16, 1814. Chorister in the Cathed- 
ral, and in January, 1839, appointed organist 
of Holy Trinity Church, Hotwells, an office 
he held for fifty-two years. Was also a 
founder of the J\la irigal Society, and the last 
surviving original member, and a Vice-Presi- 
dent from ISSO. He died March 5, 1891, a 
tablet in Holy Trinity Church commemorat- 
ing his long and faithful service as organist. 

Barrett, John, organist and composer, 
born in 167-1. Pupil of Dr. Blow. Music 
teacher at Christ's Hospital [1710]. Organist 
at Church of St. Mary at Hill, 1710. He died 
at London, 1735 [1738]. 

Works. — Music for Love's Last Shift, 1696; 
Tunbridge Wells, 1703; Mary, Quetn of Scois, 
1703; Custom of the Manor [17151; Wife of 
Bath. Songs: Celinda; Cruel charmer, do not 
grieve me; Fine lady's airs; Gloriana is en- 
gaging fair; Hapjjy fair; In the pleasant 
month of May; Liberia's all my thought; 
Love is now become a trade; Pilgrim; Three 
goddessses, etc. 

Barrett, John, organist, born at Bristol, 
March 31, 1837. Chorister at the Cathedral, 
18-44:, and in 1853 articled for five years to J. 
D. Corfe, Cathedral Organist. After that time 
he was assistant organist at the Cathedral for 
two years, while holding the post of organist 
and choirmaster successively at All Saints', 
Bristol, and at Bedmiusrer Parish Church. 
In 1878 he resigned the latter appointment, 
having been elected to Christ Church, Clif- 
ton, a post he still retains. He has been, 
since 1883, conductor of the Bristol Church 
Choral Union, which holds its annual festi- 
val in the Cathedral. He has also formed a 
special choir, which has produced Schubert's 
Mass in E flat, and other important works 
for the first time in Bristol. A zealous worker 
for the Incorporated Society of Musicians, 
as Hon. Sec. for the Western Section, he has 
made it one of the most flourishing of any. 
It was the first to form a special library of 
music, which out of compliment to him, was 
named the Barrett Library. 

Barrett, William Alexander, writer, 
vocalist, and organist, born at Hackney, Lon- 
don, October 15, 1836, son of an architect. 
Chorister at St. Paul's Cathedral, 1846-49, 
and pupil of George Cooper, W. Bayley (one 
of the lay-vicars), and John Goss, for com- 
position. First sang in public at a concert 
given by J. B. Stansell, at St. Philip's Schools, 
Stepney, November, 1847. When his voice 
changed he took to drawing on wood, and in 
1854. illustrated Holt's "Chronicle of the 
Crimean War," and an edition of Shakes- 
peare. From 1855 to '57 he was engaged in 


journalistic work on the Morning Chronicle, 
book reviewing; and translating stories and 
poems for different publishers. Appointed 
principal alto at St. Andrew's, Wells Street, 
in 1858; and in 1801, lay-vicar, Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford. He was also organist at St. 
John's, Cowley, Oxford, 1863-06. Sub-editor 
and illustrator of the Penny Post, Oxford, 
1861-67. Graduated Mus. B., Oxford, 1871. 
Appointed assistant vicar choral, St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 1867 ; vicar choral, 1876. He wrote 
his first musical criticisms while at Oxford, 
which appeared in the Oxford Times, 1864-66. 
On his return to London he was offered the 
post of musical critic on the Morning Post 
(1869), which he retained till his death. He 
also wrote for the \fliiteliaU Review and the 
Globe (1874-75). Was editor of the Monthly 
Musical Record (1877) ; the Orchestra (1881); 
and the Musical Times from 1887. Other ap- 
pointments were. Assistant Examiner in Mu- 
sic with Dr. John Hullah, 1873; Examiner to 
the Society of Arts, and to the Council of 
Military Education, 1883. Mr. Barrett was 
elected Fellow of the College of Organists, 
1871; and Fellow of the Royal Society of 
Literature ; Lecturer to the City of London 
College and London Institution ; LIus. D., 
Trinity College, Toronto; and, in 1888, ap- 
pointed by the Prince of Wales Grand Organ- 
ist of the United Grand Lodge of Freemasons, 
in succession to Sir Arthur Sullivan. It was 
at Walworth, in 1856, that, with a discourse 
on the " History of the Gipsies," he began his 
career as a lecturer, his extensive knowledge 
enabling him to deal with a great variety of 
topics. Some of these lectures have been pub- 
lished. In the midst of an active life he was 
attacked by apoplexy, and to the great loss of 
the world of music, died October 17, 1891. 

Works. — Oratorio, Christ before Pilate 
(MS.); Anthems; IMadrigals : On a mossy 
bank (eight voices. Bristol Madrigal Society, 
1839). Cynthia. Literary: Flowers and fes- 
tivals, or directions for the floral decorations 
of churches, 1868 ; The Chorister's Guide 
(1872?); Dictionary of musical terms (with 
Dr. Stainer), 1875; Etymons of musical terms 
(1876) ; English glee and madrigal writers, 
London, 1877; Introduction to form and in- 
strumentation for beginners in composition, 
1879; English church composers ("Great 
Musicians" series), London, San:pson Low, 
1882 ; Balfe, his life and work, London, Rem- 
ington, 1882; Editor of English folk songs; 
Standard English songs (Novello), etc. 

Barrett, William Lewis, flutist, born 
in London, January 4, 1847. His father was 
a violinist, and his mother came off a well- 
known musical family in Merionethshire. 
Taken to Wales when an infant, he spent his 
early years there, and when seven years of 
age commenced to play the violin, which he 




afterwards changed for the flute. Destined 
for a commercial career, he only took up 
music as a profession after the death of his 
father. Studied the flute under K. S. Rock- 
stro, and harmony under W. Castell. His 
firs I work was deputising for Mr. Johu Rad- 
cliff, and he was soon engaged by Costa as 
second flute and piccolo at Her Majesty's 
Opera, where afterwards, for many years, he 
was principal flute. Similar appointments 
were also held at the Roj'al Italian Opera 
(five years), the Carl Rosa London season 
(seven years) ; and he has been engaged for 
Birmingham, Leeds, and Three Choirs Festi- 
vals, the chief orchestral concerts, and is now 
principal flute of the Philharmonic Society, 
and Professor at the R.C.M. He toured with 
Madame Albani in Canada and the United 
States, and has also appeared, with success, 
on the continent. He has published Flute 
Studies; solo and important passages; Ro- 
mance and Tarentella, etc. 

Barrington, Hon. Daines, English writer 
on Law, ISlusic, and Natural History, was born 
at London, 1727. Judge on Welsh Circuit, 
1757. Second Justice at Chester. Retired from 
the Law and resided in the Temj^le. He died 
March 11, 1800. 

Barrington wrote a standard work on the 
Statutes, a work on the possibility of reaching 
the North Pole, and several papers dealing 
with Crotch, the Wesleys, Mornington, and 
Mozart. See his "Miscellanies," 1781, and 
the Philosophical Transactions, 1780. Also 
author of " Exi^eriments and Observations on 
the Singing of Birds," London, 1773. 

Barrington, Rutland, George Rutland 
Fleet, actor and vocalist. First appeared on 
the stage at the Olympic Theatre ; then toured 
for some years with Howard Paul. In 1877, he 
was engaged for the Opera Comique Company, 
and made his debut as the Vicar, in " The 
Sorcerer," on its production, November 17, 
1877 ; and has since taken part in most of the 
Gilbert and Sullivan Operas, his Pooh Bah, 
in the " Mikado," being one of his most re- 
markable assumptions. In 1888, he turned 
theatrical manager, opening the St. James's 
Theatre in October ; but the enterprise did not 
prosper, and he gave it up the January follow- 
ing. Since tlien he has re-appeaied at the 
Savoy Theatre, his latest character being Lud- 
wig in " The Grand Duke " (March, 1896). 

Barrow, J., musician of 18th century. 
Pubhshed "Book of Psalmody . . . ," 1730 
and 1751. " Psalm-singer's choice companion, 
or an imitation of heaven on earth, the beauty 
of Holiness, being a compleat composition of 
Church musick, containing variety of tunes 
for all the common metres of the Psalms . . . 
with a new and compleat introduction to the 
skill of musick. To which is added an alpha- 
betical dictionary . . ." n.d. 


Barrow, Thomas, composer and alto 
singer of the latter Iialf of the 18th century. 
He was a choirister and gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal, and sang in Handel's Oratorios. 
He died on August 13, 1789. He composed 
some Church music, chants, etc. 

Barry, Charles Ainslie, composer, or- 
ganist and writer, born in London, June 10, 
1830, Educated at Rugby, and Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. While at Cambridge he 
studied music with Professor T. A. Wa'misley. 
Graduated B.A. and M.A. By his father's 
wish he studied for the ministry, and passed 
the voluntary Theological Examination at 
Cambridge ; but music became his ultimate 
choice. At the Cologne Conservatorium he 
studied under F. Weber, E. Frank, and P. 
Hiller ; at Leipzig, with Moscheles and E. P. 
Richter (1856-7) ; and during his residence 
at Dresden received valuable hints from Carl 
Reissiger. Returned to London, 1858, and 
held an appointment as organist and choir- 
master at the Forest School, Leytonstone 
Hill, 18C0 ; but a year earlier began to devote 
his attention chiefly to musical and literary 
composition. Under the initials " C.A.B." 
he has contributed many articles to the 
Guardi in, Monthly Musical Record, Musical 
World, Athencctim, and The Meister ; and to 
the Analytical programme books of the Crystal 
Palace, Philharmonic, Bache, Richter, and 
Birmingham Festival Concerts, etc. He was 
secretary to the Liszt Scholarship Fund, 1886, 
and is widely known as a cultured musician 
with sympathetic leanings to the advanced 
modern school of composition. 

Works. — ymj^hony, for orchestra; Two 
Overtures ; Marcli (Festival March, played 
at the Crystal Palace Concerts, 1862) ; String 
Quartet ; Cantatas, sacred and secular, all in 
MS. Choral Hymns for four voices ; The 
story of the Resurrection, a cycle of Hymns ; 
The Christmas story, ditto ; Tunes in Hymns 
Ancient and Modern and the New Mitre 
Hymnal, etc. Six Songs with English and 
German v?ords ; Four Songs (C. Kingsley) ; 
Two Songs (Tennyson) ; Elizabeth's Songs 
from The Saint's Tragedy (Kingsley) ; and 
many others. 0, holy night, five-part song. 
Theme with variations, pf . duet ; A Birthday 
March ; Barcarolle ; Tarantella ; Menuetto 
grazioso, and other pf. jiieces. Transcriptions, 
Overture, Beatrice and Benedict, Berlioz, 
pf. duet ; Andante, from Tschaikowsky's 
Quartet in D, pf. solo ; Pf. score of Te 
Deum, Berlioz. Editor of The Child's Book 
of Praise (Masters), etc. 

Barry, William Vipond, pianist, com- 
poser, and writer, born at Bandon, March, 
1827. Appeared in Belfast as pianist, 1846, 
and founded the Belfast Classical Harmonist 
Society. He resided for a time in the Pot- 
teries, England. He studied under Liszt, 




and was M.A. and Ph. D. of Gottingen Uni- 
versity honoris causi. Organist of the Cathe- 
dral, Port of Spain, Trinadad, and died there 
March 13, 1872. He composed music for the 
pianoforte, and wrote a work entitled " Disser- 
tation on the Emotional Nature of Musical 
Art, and its Media of Operation," London, 
1868. His son, William H. Barry, born at 
Belfast, April, 1858, is a composer and concert 
giver in Dublin. 

Barthelemon, Mrs., see Young, Mary. 

Bartholomew, Ann Sheppard, born 
]MouNSEY, composer, organist and pianist, 
born in London, April 17, 1811. Became a 
pupil of Logier in 1817, and came under the 
notice of Spohr when he visited Logier's in- 
stitution in 1820, her harmonising of a melody 
being printed in his Autobiography (English 
ed., Vol. II., p. 100). She afterwards studied 
under Samuel Wesley and Thomas Attwood, 
and in 1828 was appointed organist at Clap- 
ton. The next vear she went to St. Michael's, 
Wood Street, and in 1837 to St. Vedast's, 
Foster Lane, a post she held for nearly fifty 
years. Associate of the Philharmonic Society, 
1834: ; jMember Royal Society of Musicians, 
1839. In 1813 she began giving series of 
Classical Sacred Concerts at Crosby Hall, 
which were continued until 1818. The first 
concert took place November 22, 1843, and at 
that given January 8, 1845, Mendelssohn's 
" Hear my Prayer " (composed for these con- 
certs) was performed for the first time. Miss 
Rainforth singing the solo part. Several of 
Mendelssohn's smaller pieces were first intro- 
duced at these concerts. Miss Mounsey was 
married to Mr. W. Bartholomew, April 28, 
1858. Her artistic career was long and dis- 
tinguished. She was a fine executant, par- 
ticularly upon the organ. The earliest of her 
known compositions, a ballad, " Mary, meet 
me there," was published in 1832 ; and she 
issued a set of hymn tunes as late as 1883. 
She was the possessor of the original MS. of 
" Hear my Prayer," which she presented to 
the South Kensington Museum in 1871 ; and 
of the pianoforte score of " Elijah." The last 
few years of her life she passed in retirement, 
and died in London, June 24, 1891. 

Works. — Oratorio, The Nativity, produced 
at St. Martin's Hall (Hullah Concerts) Jan- 
uary 17, 1855 ; Sacred Cantata, Supplication 
and Thanksgiving, dedicated to H.R.H. the 
Princess of Wales, 1864 ; Sacred Harmony, 
Hymns, &c. ; Hymns of Prayer and Praise, 
(both edited and composed in conjunction 
with her sister, Elizabeth Mounsey) ; Thirty- 
four original tunes set to favourite hymns 
(1883), and other sacred pieces. Six songs, 
composed for the Royal Society of Female 
Musicians (1845) ; Six songs of remembrance ; 
many detached songs, &c. Six duets in canon 
(1886) ; Six four-part songs, Op. 37 ; A wreath 


for Christmas, &c. Prelude and gigue, and 
other pieces for pianoforte. Organ music, 
&c. Notes, and unpublished letters of Men- 
delssohn, contributed to Lady Wallace's trans- 
lation of Elise Polko's "Reminiscences of 

Bartholomew, William, scientist, writer, 
and violinist, was born in London in 1793. 
iMarried to Miss Ann S. Mounsey, April 28, 
1858. Chiefly known as the adapter of the 
librettos of Mendelssohn's works. Died in 
London, August 18, 1867. 

Works. — Toy songs for children, written 
and adapted to pleasing melodies . . London 
[1849] . English version of the words of 
Mendelssohn's Antigone, Athalie, ^dipus, 
Lauda Sion, Walpurgisnacht, Loreley, Elijah, 
Christus ; Spohr's Jessonda ; Costa's Eli and 
Naaman ; Bartholomew's The Nativity, etc. 

Mr. Bartholomew is best known for his 
comaection with jMendelssohn, with whom 
his intercourse was friendly and intimate. 
Mr. Bartholomew wrote many hymns of con- 
siderable merit, in addition to the works 
named above. 

Bartleman, James, bass vocalist, was 
born at Westminster, on September 19, 1769. 
He studied under Dr. B. Cooke. Bass chor- 
ister at the Ancient Music Concerts, 1788-91. 
Principal bass at the Vocal Concerts, 1791, 
and at the Concert of Ancient Music, 1795. 
He died in London, April 15, 1821. This 
vocalist revived, and by his magnificent per- 
formance, created an interest in the music of 
Henry Purcell which lived for many years. 

Bartlett, John, composer, born in latter 
half of the 16th century. He composed a 
" Booke of Ayres, with a Triplicitie of Musicke, 
whereof the first part is for the lute or or- 
pharion, and the viole de Gamba, and four 
parts to sing; the second part is for two 
trebles to sing to the lute and viole ; the third 
part is for the lute and one voyce, and the 
viole de Gamba," London, 1606. Bartlett 
was a Bachelor of Music, Oxford, in 1610, but 
his biography is unknown. 

Bartolozzi, Josephine, see Andersok, 

Bartolozzi, Lucia E., see Vestris, 
Lucia E. 

Barton, William, musician, was born 
about 1598. He was vicar of Majrfield, Staf- 
fordshire, and afterwards vicar of St. Martin's, 
Leicester. He died at Leicester, May, 1678, 
aged 80. He published the "Book of Psalms 
in metre, close and proper to the Hebrew, 
smoth and pleasant for the metre ; plain and 
easie for the tune, with musicall notes, argu- 
ments, annotations, and index. Fitted for 
the ready use and understanding of all good 
Christians . . ." London, 1644, 2nd edition, 
1645 ; also 1646, 1651, 1654, 1682, 1692, Dub- 
lin, 1706. etc. 




Bassantin, James, astronomer and math- 
ematician, was born in Berwickshire in the 
reign of James IV. of Scotland. He studied 
at Glasgow and Paris, and passed his life in 
scientific pursuits on his estate of Bassendean. 
He died in 1568. His works are " Astronomia 
Jacobi Bassantini Scoti, opus absolutissimum 
. . . ," Geneva, 1599; several minor works on 
mathematics, and " Musica secundum Plato- 
nem," published about 1560. It was issued in 
French and Latin, but is of no practical value, 
being simply an abstract-work on music on 
the principles of the Platonists. 

Bate, Mrs. J. D., musician. Compiler 
of "The North India Tune-Book, containing 
Bhajans and Ghazals, with native tunes." 
London, 188G. 

Bates, Frank, organist and composer, born 
at March, Cambridge, in 1856. IMusical train- 
ing private. After acting for a short time as 
assistant organist at the Parish Church, Leam- 
ington, he was appointed, in 1874, to St. 
Baldred's, North Berwick. While there, he 
graduated Mus. Bac, Dublin, 1880; his Doc- 
tor's Degree being conferred in July, 1884. 
He was organist at St. John's, Edinburgh, 
from 1882 to 1885, at the end of which time 
he received the appointment of organist of 
Norwich Cathedral. In 1888 he instituted 
Musical Services for the people, with special 
choir, and has been actively engaged as tea- 
cher of music in Norwich, where he resides. 

His compositions include an Oratorio, Sam- 
uel (Dublin, 1884) ; a setting of Ps. 67, both 
in MS. He has published a Morning and 
Evening Service in B flat, an Evening Ser- 
vice in G ; God is our hope ; I will sing ; Hear 
my Prayer, and other anthems. 

Bates, George, organist and composer, 
was born on July 6, 1802. In 1839 he became 
organist of Ripon Cathedral, a post he re- 
tained till his death at Ripon, on January 24, 
1881. He composed " Sacred Music ... in 
full score for voices with an accompaniment 
for the organ or pianoforte." London, [1857]. 
Hymns, etc. 

Bates, Joah, musician, and one of the 
founders of the Handel Commemoration, was 
horn at Halifax in March, 1749. Instructed in 
music by Hartley, organist at Rochdale ; and 
R. Wainwright, organist, of Manchester. He 
resided for a time at Eton and Cambridge, and 
became private secretary to the Earl of 
Sandwich. In 1767 he graduated M.A. at 
Cambridge, and in 1776 he was appointed 
Commissioner of the Victualling Office. He 
established the Concert of Ancient Music, 
1776, and acted as conductor till 1793. Found- 
ed Handel Commemoration (with Sir W. W. 
Wynn and Viscount Fitzwilliam), 1783. He 
died in London, June 8, 1799. 

The "Handel Commemoration " with which 
Bates is chiefly identified was, in its time, a 


much talked of enterprise. No such gather 
ing of a large body of musicians had ever 
before taken place, and the extensive arrange- 
ments imdertaken in connection with it caused 
sufficient stir to assure its success. The vocal- 
ists who held the principle parts on the occa- 
sion of the first public performance were — 
Miss Cantelo, Miss Abrams, Mdlle Mara, Miss 
Harwood, Signers Bartolini and Tasca ; and 
Messrs. Harrison, Dyne, Champness, Bellamy, 
Corfe, Norris, Knyvett, Clerk, Reinhold, and 
Matthieson. Bates conducted, and the festi- 
val took enormously. The first i^erformance 
was in Westminster Abbey, on May 26, 
1784. Second and third performances were 
given on May 27 and 29. The programme 
included "The Messiah," The Dettingen Te 
Deum, a Coronation Anthem, and miscellane- 
ous selections from Handel's works. 

As regards Bates it can be said that he was 
a famous conductor, and in every respect a 
musician of great knowledge and administra- 
tive ability. He did not compose anything so 
far as we can learn, but appears to be widely 
known among musicians of every grade during 
his lifetime. He is somewhat roughly handled 
by the Scotch poet, A. Macdonald, in "Moni- 
tory Madrigals to Musical Amateurs," Nos. 3 
and 4, contained in his Miscellaneous Works, 
1791. He was married to Sarah Harrop, a 
soprano vocalist, who is noticed under her 
own name. 

Bates, John W., compiler of "The 
Sacred Lyre, containing original psalm and 
hymn tunes . . ." London [1841]. 

Bates, T. C, author of a " Complete 
Preceptor for the flageolet," London [1840]; 
and " Complete Preceptor for the violin," 
London [1845]. 

Bates, William, composer of the 18th cen- 
tury, who flourished between 1720 and 1790. 
He was connected with the Maryleboue and 
Vauxhall Gardens, for which he composed 
much vocal music. In 1760 he acted as sing- 
ing master to Ann Cateley, the vocalist, and in 
1763 he was prosecuted andflned for trying to 
dispose of or sell the person of his pupil for im- 
moral purposes to Sir Francis Blake Delavel. 
He died, probably in London, about 1790. 

Works. — Operas and Musical Dramas — 
Flora, or Hob in the well ; Pharmaces, an 
English opera altered from the Italian ; The 
Theatrical candidates, a prelude [] 788] ; The 
Ladies frolick (with T. A. Arne), 1770. Songs — 
Collection of songs sung at Vauxhall, Lon- 
don, 1771, also 1776 ; Songs sung at the 
Grotto Gardens, 1771 ; The buck's motto ; 
The butterfly ; Ye famed and witty one, etc. 
Various glees and catches. Six sonatas for 
two violins, with a thorough bass for the harp- 
sichord or violoncello, London [1750] . Eigh- 
teen duettinos for two guitars, two French 
horns or two clarinetts, London [1780] . 




Bateson, Thomas, composer and or- 
ganist, was born in the latter half of the 
the 16tli century. Organist of Chester Cathe- 
dral, 1599. Eesided in Ireland for many 
years, from 1608. Organist and vicar choral 
of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, 1608. 
Mus. Bac, Dublin. (The first on whom the 
degree was conferred by the University). 
The date of his death is unknown. 

WoKKs. — First set of madrigals, 1604 (re- 
printed by the IMusical Antiquarian Society 
in 1846) ; Second set of madrigals, 1618 ; 
Two madrigals in the Triumphs of Oriana. 

Bathe, William, Irish Jesuit and writer, 
was born in Dublin, 1564. Studied at Lou- 
vain and Padua, and became rector of the 
Irish College of balamanca. He died Madrid, 
June 17th, 1614. Author of " A brief intro- 
duction to the true arte of musicke, wherein 
are set down exact and easie rules for such as 
seeke to know the trueth, with arguments and 
there solutions, for such as seeke also to 
know the reason of the trueth : with rules be 
means whereby any by his own Industrie 
may shortly, easily, and regularly attaine to 
all such things as to the arte doe belong : to 
which otherwise any can hardly attaine with- 
out tedious difficult practice, by means of the 
irregular order now used in teaching ; lately 
set forth by William Bathe, student at Oxen- 
ford." London, 1584. Another edition was 
issued under the title of " A briefe introduc- 
tion to the skill of song, concerning the 
practice set forth by William Bathe, gent." 
London [1590]. 

Batson, Rev. Arthur Wellesley, com- 
poser. Mus. B., Oxford, 1878. Appointed 
Precentor, St. Anne's, Soho, 1888, and con- 
ducted Lenten performance of Bach's " St. 
John" Passion music in February of that year. 
Composer of a sacred cantata, "The Vineyard;" 
music to Fletcher's pastoral, " The Faithful 
shepherdess ;" comic operetta, " The burglar 
and the bishop." Has also published an- 
thems, services, madrigals, songs, etc. 

Batten, Adrian, composer and organist, 
was born in latter portion of 16th century 
[1585 — 90]. He studied under Holmes, of 
Winchester Cathedral. Became vicar-choral 
of Westminster Abbey, 1614, and vicar-choral 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, 1624. Organist, St. 
Paul's Cathedral, 1624. He died about the 
middle of the 17th century [1637] . 

Works. — Anthems — Hear my prayer ; 
praise the Lord; Deliver us, Lord (in 
Boyce's Cathedral music) ; Te Deum, Bene- 
dictus, Jubilate, Kyrie, etc., in D (Novello) ; 
Thirty-four anthems (words only — Clifford) ; 
Twenty-four anthems in Barnard's Cathedral 

Battishill, Jonathan, composer and or- 
ganist, was born in London in May, 1738. 
Son of Jonathan Battishill, solicitor, and 


Mary Leverton, his wife. He became a chor- 
ister in St. Paul's Cathedral under W. Savage, 
1748. He. became deputy organist, under 
Boyce, of the Chapel Eoyal. Conductor and 
accompanist at Covent Garden Theatre. Mar- 
ried to Miss Davies (the original "Madge" in 
"Love in a Village"), 1763. Organist of 
united parishes of S. Clement, Eastcheap and 
S. Martin, Orgar, 1764. Organist of Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, 1767. Resigned post 
at Covent Garden. Devoted himself to teach- 
ing and composition. Presented with gold 
medal by the Nobleman's Catch-club, 1771. 
On the death of his wife in 1777, he lost taste 
for music and became addicted to drink. He 
died at Islington, December 10, 1801, and was 
buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Works. — Almena, an opera (with M. Arne), 
Drury Lane, 1764 : The Eites of Hecate, a 
musical entertainment, 1764. Ayithems : IBe- 
hold, how good and joyful ; Call to remem- 
brance : I will magnify Thee, God; Lord, 
look down from heaven ; Six anthems and 
ten chants, edited by Page, 1804 (with memoir 
by Dr. Busby, and portrait) ; Twelve hymns, 
the words by the Eev. Charles Wesley .... 
London [1765] . Glees : Amidst the iiiyrtles ; 
Again my mournful sighs ; Here rests his head 
[1805] ; Kate, of Aberdeen ; Come, bind my 
hair. A collection of songs for three and four 
voices, London [1783] 2 books ; Collection of 
catches. Songs : Collection of favourite songs 
sung at the publick gardens and theatres 
[1761] ; At eve with the woodlark I rest ; 
Charms of Silvia ; Gay Damon ; Kind request ; 
Shepherd and shepherdess ; The Wish. Select 
pieces for the organ or pianoforte, contain- 
ing an overture and nine pieces selected from 
original MSS. by John Page. London [1805] . 

Battye, James, composer and teacher, 
was born at Huddersfield in 1803, and died 
there on October 10, 1858. He published 
" Twelve glees for four and five voices, with 
pianoforte accompaniment." London [1854J; 
" My soul truly waiteth," Gresham prize an- 
them, 1845 ; Songs, etc. 

Baumer, Henry, composer and teacher, 
born about 1835. Head master of Watford 
School of Music ; retired in 1886. He died at 
Watford, Herts. July 29, 1888. He composed 
the "Triumph of Labour," a cantata, 1875; 
Part-songs ; and inany single songs ; String 
quartet ; Three sketches for pf., etc. 

Baxter, Rev. J. A., clergyman and musi- 
cian, published " Harmonia Sacra, a collection 
of introductory sentences, chants, responses, 
doxologies, with 200 psabn and hymn tunes, 
arranged for four voices and pf. or organ. 
Eevised by Vincent Novello." London, 1840. 

Bayley, William, organist and composer, 
was born in [1810] . Vicar-choral St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and master of the choristers in 
succession to Hawes. Organist of St. John's, 




Horsleydown, Southwark. He died at Lon- 
don, November 8, 1858. He composed many 
songs and other vocal pieces, and published 
"The Paneuphonon: a selection of the most 
popular tunes, with chants for one or four 
voices . . ." N.D. 

Bayly, Rev. Anselm, writer and divine, 
born 1719. He matriculated at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, 1740. Lay-vicar at Westminster 
Abbey, 1741. Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 
1741. Priest do., 1744. B.C.L., 1749. D.C.L., 
Oxford, 1764. Sub-dean of Chapel Poyal, 
1764. He died in 1792. 

WoEKS. — Practical Treatise on Singing and 
Playing with just expression and real elegance, 
London, 1771 ; The Alliance of Musick, Poetry, 
and Oratory, 1789 ; The Sacred Singer, con- 
taining an Essay on Grammar, the requisites 
of singing cathedral compositions, etc., Lon- 
don, 1771. Collection of Anthems used in His 
Majesty's Chapel Royal, and most cathedral 
churches in England and Ireland, 1769. Ser- 
mons, etc. , 

Bayly, Barre Dalton, violinist, born at 
St. Heliers, Jersey, 1850. Youngest son of 
the late Captain Edgar Bayly, H.M. 12th 
Regiment, and his wife, daughter of Lord 
Charles B. Kerr, second son of the fifth Lord 
Lothian. Pupil of M. Currie de Hauteville 
and Ludwig Straus. Some time violinist at 
the Grand Opera House and Steinway Hall, 
New York. Leader of the orchestra, Exeter 
Oratorio Society, 1870-1895 ; principal violin 
at important concerts at Barnstaple (Easter 
Musical Festivals), and soloist at concerts in 
London, &c., and a successful teacher. 

Bayly, Thomas liaynes, lyrical poet and 
composer, born at Bath, October 13, 1797 ; 
died London, April 22, 1839. He composed 
the music for a large number of his own 
ballads, such as The bower, the Carrier dove, 
The Circassian, The Deserter, Ply away pretty 
moth, &c., but most of his more popular 
songs were set by Bishop, Knight, Lee, Loder, 
and others. 

Baynham, Thomas, published a " Col- 
lection of psalm and hynrn tunes, single and 
double chants . . . ," London, 1860. He 
also composed some pianoforte music. 

Beale, Charles James, organist and 
composer, born in 1819. He was organist of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, London, for several 
years. Died at London, March 19, 1882. 
Composer of a " Laudate Dominum " and 
other church and vocal music. 

Beale, Qeorge Galloway, organist, born 
in London, 1868. Chorister, Marlborough 
College ; pupil of Dr. J. F. Bridge ; Mus. Bac, 
Durham, 1891 ; F.R.C.O. ; Organist and as- 
sistant master, St. John's School, Leather- 
head, 1887-9 ; Organist, St. John's, Padding- 
ton, 1890-3, and Conductor of the Paddington 
Choral and Orchestral Association ; in 1894, 


appointed Organist and Choirmaster of Llan- 
daff Cathedral. 

Beale, John, composer and pianist, was 
born in London, about 1776. Pupil of J. B. 
Cramer, and member of Philharmonic Society, 
1820. He was a professor of jsianoforte at the 
R.A.M., and a teacher in London. He also 
directed the music at the Argyle Rooms. 
Died after 1830. 

Works. — Lyrical specimens of German and 
French composers, adapted to English poetry 
written and selected by L. S. Costello, Lon- 
don [1822] . Songs : The kiss dear maid ; 
Crusader's return ; Russian maiden's song, 
etc. Rondo for pianoforte. Op. 2 ; Forty- 
seven preludes . . . for the pianoforte [1827] . 
Complete Guide to the art of playing the 
German flute, London [1820] . 

Beale, Thomas Willert (Walter May- 
nard), born in London, 1828, son of Frederick 
Beale, of the firm of Cramer, Beale, and 
Addison. Studied iinder Edward Roeckel^ 
G. F. Flowers, and Pugni. Was one of the 
founders of the New Philharmonic Society, 
but did not adopt music as a profession, being 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1863. Be- 
sides the works mentioned below, he contri- 
buted many articles to different magazines. 
He died at Gipsy Hill, London, October 3, 

Works. — The Enterprising Impresario 
(Bradbury, Evans, & Co.), 1867 ; The Light 
of other days (Bentley), 1890. Operettas : 
An Easter egg ; Matrimonial news. Part- 
songs and songs, pianoforte pieces, &c. 

Beale, Thurley, baritone vocalist, born 
at Royston, Hertfordshire, April 23, 1849. 
Studied under (Sir) Joseph Barnby, and was- 
a chorister at St. Andrew's, Wells Street, 
London, and at St. Paul's Cathedral. A sin- 
ger of repute, he has been heard at the prin- 
cipal London and Provincial Concerts, the 
Hereford Festival of 1879, &c. 

Beale, William, composer, born at Lan- 
drake, Cornwall, January 1, 1784. He studied 
under Dr. Arnold and R. Cooke, and was gen- 
tleman of the Chapel Royal, 1816-20. He 
resided in London as a teacher of music, and 
held the appointments of organist of Wands- 
worth Parish Church, and St. John's, Clapham 
Rise. From November, 1820, to December, 
1821, he was organist of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. In 1813, he gained the prize cup of 
the Madrigal Society with his madrigal, 
" Awake, sweet muse," and in 1840, a prize 
from the Adelphi Glee Club. He died in 
London, May 3, 1854. 

Works. — Madrigals and Glees : A first 
book of Madrigals, Glees, etc., for three, four, 
and five voices, Op. 6, Loudon, 1815 ; Col- 
lection of Glees and Madrigals, London, 1820 ; 
Collection of thirteen Glees, edited by E. 
Plater [1879] ; Awake, sweet muse (1813),. 




prize madrigal ; Come let us join the rounde- 
lay ; This pleasant month of May ; What ho ! 
what ho ! (1816) ; etc. Songs. Sonata for 
the pianoforte, with an accompaniment for 
the violin [1815] ; Second Sonata for piano- 
forte, Op. 8 [1816] . 

Beale, William George Frederick, 
published " Congregational Psalmody : a col- 
lection of psalm and hymn tunes," London 
[1852] . He also wrote songs and pianoforte 

Another Beale, Henry Wolfgang Ama- 
DEUS, published a large number of Songs and 
Pianoforte Pieces between 1854 and 1878, and 
edited (with W. T. Wrighton) " Congregational 
Psalmody" [1858]. 

Beard, John, tenor vocalist, born in 
1716, was a chorister in Chapel Royal, 
under Bernard Gates. First appeared at 
Covent Garden in 1736, and at Drury Lane 
in 1737. ilarried to Lady Henrietta Herbert, 
widow of Lord Edward Herbert, 1739, and 
afterwards to IMiss Rich (daughter of Rich, of 
Covent Garden Theatre), 1759. He was one 
of the jjroprietors of Covent Garden Theatre, 
1761. Retired from public hfe, 1768. He 
died at Hampton, Middlesex. February 4, 
1791. He composed a few songs. 

Beardmore, Mrs., see Parke, Maria H. 

Beatson, John, musician. Published 
" A Complete collection of all the tunes sung 
by the different congregations in Hull. To 
which is prefixed an introduction to the art 
of Psalmody" [1780]. 

Beattie, James, poet and author, born at 
Laurencekirk, October 25, 1735. Professor 
of Moral Philosophy, Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, 1760. He died at Aberdeen, August 
18, 1803. Author of " Essays on poetry and 
music as they affect the mind, etc.," London, 
1776; second edition, 1779. "Letter to the 
Rev. Hugh Blair, CD., on the improvement 
of psalmody in Scotland," 1778 ; another 
edition, Edinburgh, 1829. Poems, Ethical 
works, etc. 

His eldest son, James Hay Beattie (born 
Aberdeen, 1768 — died 1790) was a violinist, 
and amateur musician of great promise. 

Beatty=Kingston, W., see Kingston, 

Beaty, Richard William, musician, 
was born in Dublin about 1799. He was 
originally a chorister of Christ Church Cathe- 
dral, and became organist and teacher at the 
Molyneux Asylum for Blind Women in 1824. 
He was organist of the Free Church, Great 
Charles Street, from 1828 to 1877, and choir- 
master of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, 
from 18.30 to 1872. He died at Dublin in 1883. 

Works. — One hundred and fifty hymns . . 
[1844] , with Weyman and I. Smith. Sequel 
to Melodia Sacra. Songs, etc. 

Beaumont, Alexander S., composer of 


the present day. His works include a Suite 
for strings (produced, Norwood, 1887) ; Suite 
in D, strings and pf. ; Lullaby, pf., violin, 
viola, and harrxionium ; Gondoliera and 
Marcia funebre, for pf. and string quartet; 
pieces for violin and violoncello. Duets for 
pf., songs, etc. 

Beaumont, Henry, tenor vocalist, native 
of Yorkshire. Studied first under Joshua 
Marshall, of Huddersfield, and later with 
Luigi Caracciolo, at Dublin. Made his debut 
at Huddersfield, October 22, 1881, at a con- 
cert of the festival in celebration of the 
opening of the first Town Hall in the 
borough. He soon made his way in public 
estimation, and in 1883 was offered a position 
in the choir of Christ Church Cathedral, 
Dublin. Here he remained about two years, 
singing at the principal Dublin concerts, 
when, in 1885, he joined the Carl Rosa Opera 
Company. He also sang in Grand Opera in 
Drury Lane, and joined the Burns-Crotty 
"Cinderella" tour, 1891-2. Has visited 
America three times, the first occasion being 
in 1888, when he was with Mr. Ludwig's 
party. Now resident in London, and chiefly 
engaged in concert-singing. Married, April 
26, 1888, the Dublin soprano, Adelaide 
Mullen [q.v.) 

Beaumont, John, musician, published 
" The New Harmonic Magazine, or Com- 
pendious Repository of Sacred Music, in full 
Score," London, 1801. 

Beazley, James Charles, pianist, vio- 
linist and composer, born in Ryde, I.W., 
1850. Studied music privately for some 
years, and then entered the R.A.M., where 
his masters were H. C. Banister, harmony ; 
Dr. Steggall, counterpoint ; W. Sterndale 
Bennett, compocition ; and F. B. Jewson, 
pianoforte. After leaving the Academy he 
was appointed music-master at the King's 
School, Sherborne, Dorset, but delicate health 
compelled his return to Ryde, where he has 
since resided as teacher and composer. 
During the last few weeks of Sir Sterndale 
Bennett's life, Beazley acted as his private 
secretary, the most cordial relations exist- 
ing between them. 

Works. — Cantatas: Drusilda (Ryde, 1888) ; 
Josiah (1891) ; The Red dwarf ; The Golden 
flitch. Services of song. Part-songs, songs, 
The white gondola, etc. Instrumental : Sona- 
tinas in D minor, P, and G minor ; Six 
sketches ; Six bagatelles ; Six miniatures ; 
' Deux pensees ; Elegy, and other pieces for 
violin and pf., with a large number still in 
MS. ; Thirty -five studies ; Four easy sketches ; 
Album of pieces, and other compositions for 
the pf. Pieces for flute and pf. Albums for 
American organ or harmonium. Author of 
" Aids to the violinist : a short treatise in 
reference to bow-marks " (Cary, London). 




Becher, Alfred Julius, composer, of Ger- 
man extraction, was born at Manchester iia 
1803. Educated at Universities of Heidel- 
berg, Berlin, etc. Resided at Vienna as editor 
of the Radikale, a democratic sheet, which 
was filled with seditious articles by Becher. 
Shot at Vienna for sedition, Nov. 23, 1846 

Works. — Op. 1, Songs for solo voice and 
piano ; op. 2, Lyrical pieces for the pf . ; op. 3, 
Six poems for voice and pf . ; op. 5, Rondo for 
the pf. ; op. 6, Six songs for voice and pf. ; op. 
7, Three sonatas for pf. solo ; op. 8, Original 
theme for pf . ; op. 9, Monologue for pf . ; op. 
10, Six songs for voice and pf. ; op. 11, Sonata 
for pf . ; op. 18, Nine pieces for pf . ; A Sym- 
phody ; String quartet, and various articles on 

Beckwith, John Christmas, composer 
and organist, born at Norwich, December 25, 
1750. Studied under Dr. Wm. and Philip 
Hayes, at St. Magdalen College, Oxford. Or- 
ganist of St. Peter's, Mancroft, Norwich, 
1794. Organist of Norwich Cathedral in suc- 
cession to Thos. Garland, 1808. Mus. Bac. 
and Doc. Oxon, 1803. Instructed Thomas 
Vaughan, the vocalist, in singing. Died at 
Norwich, June 3, 1809. 

Works. — The First verse of every Psalm 
of David, with an ancient or modern chant in 
score, adapted as much as possible to the sen- 
timent of each Psalm. London, 1808. Six 
Anthems in Score, for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 voices. 
London [1790] . Glees : Hark, o'er the waves ; 
Chimney sweepers ; Favourite concerto for the 
organ, harpsichord, or pianoforte, op. 4 [1795] ; 
Sonata for the harpsichord or pf., op. 3 ; Six 
voluntaries for the organ or harpsichord, Lon- 
don, 1780; Songs, etc. 

Beckwith was an organist of much genius, 
and was famous for his extempore playing. 
The name, "Christmas," is supposed to be a 
nickname given on account of his birthday. 
His son, John Charles (born 1788, died Oc- 
tober 5, 1828) was an organist of much ability, 
and succeeded to the post at Norwich Cathe- 
dral in 1809. His uncle, John Beckwith 
(born 1728, died May 14, 1800), was a lay- 
clerk in Norwich cathedral. His brother, the 
Rev. Edward James Beckwith (died January 
7, 1833), was succentor of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
and the composer af some chants. 

Bedford, Arthur, divine and writer, was 
born at Tiddenham, Gloucester, September, 
1668. Studied at Oxford. Died at London, 

Works. — The Temple Musick, or an Essay 
concerning the Method of Singing the Psalms 
of David in the Temple before the Babylonish 
Captivity, wherein the musick of our Cathe- 
drals is vindicated . . . Bristol, 1706 ; Essay on 
Singing David's Psalms, 1708; The Great 
abuse of Llusick, containing an account of the 
use and design of Musick among the Antient 


Jews, Greeks, Romans, etc., London, 1711 ; 
The Excellency of Divine Musick ... to which 
is added a specimen of easy grave tunes instead 
of those which are used in our profane and 
wanton ballads, London, 1733 ; Scripture 
Chronology demonstrated by Astronomical 
Calculations, London, 1730 ; The Present 
State of the Republick of Letters, London, 
1730 ; Serious Reflections on the Scandalous 
Abuse and Effects of the Stage, Bristol, 1705. 

Bedford, Herbert, composer, born in Lon- 
don, 1867, Musically educated at the Guild- 
hall School of Music, where he was twice 
awarded the annual prize for composition. 
First came x^rominently into notice by a con- 
cert of his works at the Meistersinger's Club, 
May 30, 1892. His principal compositions 
are " La Belle Dame sans merci " (Keats), 
and " La Joie fait jjeur," for voice and orch- 
estra ; an opera, " Kit IMarlowe," not yet pro- 
duced ; an Ave Maria, for contralto solo, con- 
tralto chorus, violoncello, pf., harp, and organ; 
a group of French songs ; an Album of Eng- 
lish songs (including a setting of Shelley's Ode 
to Music), etc. In 1894 he married Miss Liza 
Lehmann, the vocalist and composer (g.y.) 

Bedford, Paul John, comedian and bass 
vocalist, born at Bath, 1792 '? Sang at Drury 
Lane, November 10, 1824, in the first proper 
or complete performance of Weber's " Der 
Freischiitz," taking the part of Bernhard, 
From 1833 he sang in opera at Coven t Gar- 
den ; and later in farces at the Adelf)hi. He 
had a good, deep bass voice. He died in Lon- 
don, January 11, 1871. 

Bedsmore, Thomas, organist and com- 
poser, was born at Lichfield in 1833. Chor- 
ister, Lichfield Cathedral, 1843 ; articled to 
Samuel Spofforth, the Cathedral organist ; 
and after the death of his teacher, in 1864, he 
was appointed his successor. Died at Lich- 
field, June 9, 1881. Conaposer of Church 
music, songs, pianoforte music, etc. 

Beecroft, George Andus Beaumont, 
amateur composer, was born in 1845. His 
father was M.P. for Leeds. He was educated 
at Oxford, where he graduated B.A., in 1868, 
andM.A.,in 1872; Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1867. 
He died on May 3, 1873. He composed some 
vocal music, and contributed to the Choir 
and other musical journals. He also pub- 
lished a Magnificat and Nunc dimittis ; a 
Minuet and Trio for Pianoforte ; Three casts 
from the antique for Pianoforte, etc. 

Beesley, Mrs., see Spinney, Mattie. 

Beesley, Michael, published "A Book of 
Psalmody, containing instructions for young 
beginners, after as plain and familiar a man- 
ner as any, with a collection of psalm tunes, 
anthems, hymns, etc. . . . engraved by M. 
Beesley," 17—. 

Begg, Rev. James, Scottish divine, born 
1809, died at Edinburgh, 1883. Author of 




" The Use of Organs and other instruments 
of music in Christian worship indefensible," 
Glasgow, 1866. " Instrumental Music un- 
warranted in the worship of God," Edinburgh, 
N.D. His father, the Bev. James Begg, D.D., 
minister of New Llonkland, Lanarkshire, 
wrote a tract entitled " Treatise on the use of 
organs and other instruments of music in the 
\7orship of God," Glasgow, 1808, reprinted in 
his son's tract of 1866. 

Belcher, John, English writer, author of 
" Lectures on the History of Ecclesiastical 
Music," London, 1872. 

Belcher, William Thomas, organist and 
composer, born in Birmingham, March 8, 1827. 
Graduated Mus. B. Oxon., 1867 ; Mus. D. 1872. 
Organist of Great Barr Church, 1856, and sub- 
sequently of several churches in Birmingham, 
up to 1884, when he was appointed organist 
and choir-master at Holy Trinity, Bordesley, 
a position he still holds. Has given organ re- 
citals in Birmingham and neighbouring towns. 
His son, \V. E. Belcher, jM.A., is deputy organ- 
ist of the Leeds Town Hall, and teacher of 
music at Headingly, near Leeds. 

Works. — Oratorio, The Sea of Galilee 
(MS.), Oxford, 1872; Cantata, The Fates, 
Oxford, 1867 ; Cantatas composed for the 
opening of Adderley and Aston Parks, Bir- 
mingham ; Cantatina, Excelsior ; Opera, Es- 
telle. Church Mtisic : Anthem for double 
choir, from Psalm 122 ; Anthems, Hymns, 
Chants, &c. Glees and i)art-songs, including a 
Jubilee Song — Fifty years glad blessings bring- 
ing — a copy of which was graciously accepted 
by the Queen, 1887. Pianoforte pieces, etc. 

Bell, John, composer and organist, was 
born at Gourock, in Renfrewshire. He studied 
music from an early age, and became A, 
Mus. T.C.L. ; P.F.S.C. ; and Mus. Doc, 
Trinity College, Toronto. Has held the ap- 
pointments of organist or conductor of psalm- 
ody in Westbourne Free Church ; Springburn 
Parish Church ; Anderston Parish Church ; 
and St. Vincent Parish Church, all in Glas- 
gow. He also conducted a Select Choir, and 
acted as conductor of the Glasgow Temper- 
ance Choral Society ; Cathcart IMusical As- 
sociation ; Vale of Leven Choral Society ; 
Carluke Choral Society ; and St. Andrew's 
Musical Association. For four or five years 
he was musical critic to the North British 
Daily Mail. Composer and arranger of about 
150 anthems and x^art-songs ; the 145th Psalm 
for soli, double chorus, and orchestra (degree 
exercise), etc. 

Bell, John Montgomerie, amateur com- 
poser, was born at Edinburgh, May 28, 18.37. 
He is a writer to the signet. His composi- 
tions include anthems, songs, and hymn tunes, 
some of which have been published in various 
Scottish Church H^innals. 

Bellamy J., musician, compiled " A 


System of Divine Musick," 1745. 

Bellamy, Richard, bass singer and com- 
poser, was born about 1743. In 1771 he was 
appointed a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 
and in 1773 he became a lay-vicar of West- 
minster Abbey. He graduated Mus. Bac, 
Cambridge, in 1775. He became a vicar- 
choral of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, in 
1793, and succeeded Hudson, as almoner and 
master of the children, in 1793, a post he 
held till 1799. He died at Loudon, Septeraber 
11, 1813. Bellamy was one of the best bass 
singers of his day, and composed a Te Deum ; 
A set of anthems, 1788 ; Six glees for three 
and four voices, 1789 ; and other works. 

Bellamy, Thomas Ludford, bass vocalist, 
son of above, was born at Westminster, Lon- 
don, in 1770. He was a chorister in West- 
minster Abbey under Cooke. He studied 
singing under Tasca, and apj^eared as a 
concert vocalist in London till 1794. Stage 
manager of theatre in Dublin, 1794-97. He 
became part-proprietor of Chester, Lichfield, 
Manchester, and Shrewsbury theatres, 1800. 
Proprietor of Belfast, Londonderry, and 
Newry theatres, 1803. Sang in Coveut Gar- 
den theatre, 1807-12, and at Drnry Lane 
theatre, 1812-17. Choir-master at Chapel of 
Spanish Embassy, Loudon, 1819. Bass 
Singer at Concert of Ancient Music. He 
died at London, January 3, 1843. 

Works. — Songs and part-songs. Lyric 
poetry of glees, madrigals, catches, rounds, 
canons, and duets. London, 1840. 

William Henry Bellamy (born in 1799 — 
died at London, March 3, 1880), probably a 
relative of ihe above, composed A lady's page ; 
The neglected lute ; The pilgrim, and other 

Bellasis, Edward, writer, born January 
28,1852. "Lancaster Herald." 1882. Author 
of Cherubini : memorials illustrative of his 
life, London, 1874. The Law of arms, 1880 ; 
The Machells of Crackeuthorpe . . Kendal, 
1886. ; Memorials of Mr. Serjeant Bellasis, 
1800-1873, London, 1893, etc. Songs : Alone 
I wandered ; Ministering spirits ; The haven; 
Consolation ; Waiting for the morning ; The 
two worlds ; Tyre ; Marionette pantomime ; 
Pf. music, etc. 

His brother, the Rev. Richard Bellasis 
of the Oratory, Edgbaston, Birmingham, is a 
musician, and occasionally conducts concerts. 

Bellerby, Edward Johnson, organist, 
pianist, and composer, born March 28, 1858, 
at Pickering, Yorkshire. Studied under Dr. 
E. G. Monk, of York Minster, 1876-80, and 
was assistant organist during most of that 
time. In 1879 he graduated Mus. Bac, Ox- 
ford ; and Mus. Doc, 1895. He was organist 
to Lord Hotham, 1877-8; of Selby Abbey 
Church, 1878-81 ; then appointed to Margate 
Parish Church, 1881 ; and in 1884 to Holy 




Trinity, Margate, where he remains to the 
present time. An able executant, both as 
pianist and organist ; he has appeared at 
various concerts, and his organ recitals are 
very popular. He has a considerable reputa- 
tion as an extempore player. 

Works. — Psalm 46, for soli, eight-part 
■ chorus, and orchestra ; Communion service 
in F. Anthems : Jesu, my Lord, and others; 
songs, and a volume of nursery rhymes. 
Festive overture (Selby Orchestral Society, 
1887) ; Symphonic fantasia (composed 1888, 
and produced by Margate Philharmonic 
Society, 1895), for orchestra ; organ and pf. 
pieces, etc. Author of a "Primer on Har- 
monising Melodies." 

Belville, Edward (or Jakobowski), 
composer of the present time. At a concert 
given at the R.A.M., in conjunction with Mr. 
Sinclair Dunn, he introduced his comic opera. 
The Three Beggars (July 28, 1883), which has 
been followed by many others : Dick (Globe 
Theatre, April, 17, 1884); Ermine (book by 
Bellamy and H. Paulton, Grand Theatre, 
Birmingham, November 9, 1885) ; The Palace 
of pearl (joint composition with Stanislaus, 
Empire Theatre, June, 188G) ; Mynheer Jan 
(Comedy Theatre, February, 1887) ; Paola 
(H. Paulton) ; La Rosiere (Shaftesbury, 
January, 189.3) ; A Venetian singer (one act. 
Court Theatre, Nov. 1893), etc. Six songs 
(Sinclair Dunn), etc., etc. 

Bendall, Wilfred Ellington, composer, 
born iu London, April 22. 1850. Studied 
harmony and composition under Charles 
Lucas and E. Silas ; and at the Conserva- 
torium, Leipzig, 1872-4. Resident in London 
as composer and teacher of pf. 

Works. — Sacred Cantata, Parizadeh (pro- 
duced by Willing's Choir, St. James's Hall, 
April 22, 1884) ; Cantatas for female voices : 
The Lady of Shallott ; The Rosiere ; The 
Woman of Canaan. Operettas : Lover's knots 
(St. George's Hall, 1880); Quid pro quo (1880). 
Trios, for female voices. The fountain, etc. 
Six vocal duets, part-songs, songs, etc. Six 
pieces, violin and pf. In the Tyrol, three 
pieces for pf. Toccata in E flat, etc. 

Bennet, John, composer, who flourished 
at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 
17th centuries [1570-1615]. 

Works. — Madrigalls to four voyces, newly 
published by John Bennett, his first works at 
London, 1599 ; Madrigal, " All creatures now 
are merrily minded," iu the Triumphs of 
Oriana, 1601 ; Songs in a collection published 
by Ravenscroft ; O God of Gods, verse an- 
them, Sacred Harmonic Society's Library; 
Anthems and madrigals in MS. 

Nothing as to his biography appears to 
have been chronicled. His book of madrigals 
was re-published in 1845 by the Musical 
Antiquarian Society. 


Bennet, Robert, musician, published 
" The Psalm-singer's necessary Companion, 
containing above sixty choice psalm tunes," 
London, 1718. 

Bennet, Saunders, organist, pianist, and 
composer, born in last quarter of the 18th 
century. He was organist of a church at 
Woodstock, and died at Woodstock, May 25, 
1809. He wrote some vocal music (glees and 
songs), and a number of rondos, sonatas, 
variations, etc., for the organ and pf. Also 
edited " Selection of sacred music for three 
voices, with an accompaniment for the 
organ," London, 1810. 

Bennett, Alfred William, son of Thomas 
Bennett, organist of Chichester Cathedral, was 
born in 1805. He studied under his father. 
Organist of New College, Oxford, 1825. Mus. 
Bac, Oxon., 1825. Killed by a fall from a 
coach while on his way to Worcester Fes- 
tival, September 12, 18.30. 

Works. — Church Services and Anthems ; 
Cathedral Chants, 1829, edited with W. Mar- 
shall, Mus. Bac. ; Cathedral Music . . edited by 
T. and H. Bennett, London [1880] ; Songs ; In- 
structions for the pianoforte, with popular 
National Airs arranged as Lessons, London, 
[1825] ; Instructions for the Spanish guitar, 
London [1828] : Vocalist's Guide, comprised 
in a series of instruction and solfeggi, London 
[1830] , also [1865] . 

Bennett, Charles, organist and composer, 
was born about 1740. He was organist at 
Truro for 40 years, and died there on May 12, 
1804. Composer of " Twelve songs and a can- 
tata," London, 1765, etc. 

Bennett, Frederick James Went= 
worth, flutist and composer, born at Cadbury, 
Somerset, 1856. Studied at R. A.M. and R.C.M., 
also privately under A. P. Vivian and. R. S. 
Rockstro, L.R.A.M., 1895. Has performed in 
London and the provinces ; and was con- 
ductor of the Castle Cary Choral Society, 
1883-90, and the Cadbury Musical Society, 
1887-90. Appointed Professor of the Flute at 
the Brighton School of Music, 1895. Author 
of a brochure on " Conducting, and being 
Conducted " (1889), and now engaged on a 
work "On Solo Flute-playing." Has con- 
tributed articles to the Musical Times and 
other papers. 

Works. — Mass in C minor (1888) ; Sacred 
Cantata, Anno Domini (1888) ; Cantata, " Eury- 
dice"(1884); Operettas: Dr. Whack'um(lS80); 
King Richard I. (1883) ; King Arthur (1884) ; 
The King's Foresters (1886) ; and The Black 
Eagle (1888). Spiiphonv in C, orchestra 
(1885) ; Rustic Idyll, orchestra (1893). Con- 
certo in E minor, flute and orchestra (1887) ; 
Sonata, pf. Many pieces for pf. and flute. 
Various part-songs, and nearly 200 songs. 

Bennett, Qeorge John, composer and 
organist, born at Andover, Hants, May 5, 1863. 




Was a chorister at Winchester Cathedral, 
1872-78, and entered the Roj'al Academy of 
Music in 1879, studying under Sir G. A. Mac- 
farren. Here he remained until 1884, and at 
the R.A.M. concerts the first movement of a 
S}T2iphony, two overtures, a pianoforte con- 
certo, and other works of his were pro- 
duced. From 1884 to 1887 he was enabled — 
through the instrumentality of the firm of 
Novello, Ewer, and Co., who we/e greatly in- 
terested in the talented j'oung musician — to 
study at Berlin, under Friedrich Kiel, and at 
Munich, under Rheinherger. Returning to 
England, he was (1888) created a Fellow, and 
appointed Professor of Harmony, R.A.M., 
having, six years previously, obtained the dip- 
loma, F.(R.)C.O. He graduated Mus. Bac, 
Cambridge, 1888; Mus. Doc, 1893. He was 
organist of St. John the Evangelist from 
1890, until his api)ointment to Lincoln Cathe- 
dral in August, 1895. Other oflices held by 
him are Conductor, London Organ School 
Orchestra (1893), and Church Orchestral 
Society (1895). 

Works. — Mass, in B flat minor ; Festival 
Te Deuin in D, for soli, double choir, and or- 
chestra, in MS. ; Festival Evening Service in 
A, Dedication Festival, St. Paul's Cathedral, 
1890; Easter H\inn, for soli, chorus, and or- 
chestra. Festival of Sons of the Clergy, St. 
Paul's, 1895 ; Morning, Evening, and Com- 
munion Services ; Anthems, etc. Two Albums 
of Songs (Novello) ; Trios for female voices ; 
Part-songs, etc. Orchestral : Serenade, in 
Symphonic form ; Overture, Jugendtraiime. 
Crystal Palace, IMarch, October, 1887 ; Over- 
ture, "Leonatus and Imogen," Philharmonic 
Society, 1895. Trio in E, pf., vn., and 'cello, 
London, 1893 ; various pf. pieces. Voluntaries 
for organ, etc. 

Bennett, James, composer and writer, 
born at Salford, 1804; died at Brighton, June, 
1870. Author of " A Practical Introduction to 
part and sight-singing," London, 1843: "Ele- 
mentary exercises for the cultivation of the 
voice," London, n.d. Composed songs, etc. 

Bennett, Joseph, musical critic, librettist, 
and journalist, born at Berkeley, Gloucester- 
shire, November 29, 1831. In his youth he 
studied the organ, violin, viola, and violon- 
cello ; went through a course of training for 
scholastic profession at the Borough Road 
CoUege, London ; acted as precentor at the 
historical Weigh House Chapel, and was some- 
time organist of W^estminster Chapel. Finally, 
adopting musical criticism, he was connected 
successively with the Sunday Times, Daily 
Telegraph, Pall Mall Gazette, and Graphic. 
For many years he contributed to the Musical 
World, also to the Musical Standard, and 
Musical Ti^ncs, devoting himself now to the 
last-named and the Daily Telegraph. He was 
editor of Concordia, 1875-6 ; and of the Lute, 


1883-6. In 1885, he was engaged as annotator 
of the Philharmonic Society's programmes, 
and succeeded the late J. W. Davison as writer 
of the analytical programmes for the Saturday 
and Monday Popular Concerts. He has also 
done similar work for the Leeds, Birmingham, 
and other Festivals. He has acted as adjudi- 
cator at Eisteddfodan ; is a member of the 
Committee of the Mendelssohn Scholarship 
Fund ; and President of the Gloucester Choral 
Society. Of his innumerable contributions to 
the press, the most important are a series of 
papers on the Great Composers ( Musical Times, 
1877-91); "Elijah," a comparison of the origi- 
nal and revised scores (commenced in the short- 
lived Concordia, and reprinted and completed 
in the Musical Times, October, 1882, to April, 
1883); and "From my study," Musical 
Times, (1892 to present time). As a libret- 
tist, Joseph Bennett has done much. His 
chief works, adapted or original are. The 
Golden Legend (Sullivan) ; The Rose of Sharon, 
The Dream of Jubal, the Story of Sayid, and 
Bethlehem (Meckenzie); Ruth, Thorgrim, The 
Transfigiiration (Cowen), Jeanie Deans (]\Iac- 
Cunn), and books for Dr. J. F. Bridge, C. Lee 
Williams, Barnett, Mancinelli, and others. 
His chief publications are : Letters from Bay- 
reuth (Novello, 1877) ; The Musical Year 
[1883] (Novello, 1884) ; Primers of Musical 
Biography, five books, enlargements of some 
of the papers above-named ; and History of 
the Leeds Musical Festivals, 1858-1889 (in 
conjunction with F. R. Spark,) Novello, 1892. 
He is also the author of a number of poetical 

Bennett, Robert, musician, was born at 
Bakewell, Derbyshire, in January or Febru- 
ary, 1788. He became a chorister in King's 
College, Cambridge, and was articled to Dr. 
Clarke-Whitfield. In 1811 he became or- 
ganist of the Parish Church, Sheffield. He 
died at Sheffield, November 3, 1819. He was 
married to Elizabeth Don, daughter of the 
botanist, and his son was William Sterndale 
Bennett, separately noticed. He composed a 
number of songs and various hymn tunes. 

Bennett, Thomas, organist and composer, 
born at Fonthill in 1779. Chorister in Salis- 
bury Cathedral under Joseph Corfe. Organist 
of St. John's Chapel, Chichester, and of Chi- 
chester Cathedral, 1803-48. He died at 
Chichester, IMarch 21, 1848, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Henry, who held the 
appointment till 1860. 

WoEKS. — Introduction to the Art of Sing- 
ing, London, n.d. ; Songs and organ pieces. 
Sacred Melodies : A collection of psalms and 
hymns, sung at the Cathedral and Chapel of 
St. John, Chichester, London, 1825 ; Cathe- 
dral selections, consisting of anthems, sanctus 
commandments, and chants, London ; several 




Bennett, William, organist and com- 
poser, born near Teignmouth, 1767. He 
studied under Jackson of Exeter, and J. C. 
Bach and Schroeter, London. Organist of 
St. Andrew's Church, Plymouth. He died 
about 1830. 

Works. — Six songs and a glee, London 
[1799] ; anthems and organ music, etc. 

Bennett, W.J. E., compiler of a "Psalter, 
containing a selection of psalm tunes, chants, 
services, and other ecclesiastical music . . . 
arranged for congregational singing in four 
parts," 1843-44. 

Bennett, William Mineard, composer 
and painter, born at Exeter, in 1778, died 
there October 17, 1858. He composed a 
number of glees and songs, and was a portrait 

Bennett, Sir William Sterndale, com- 
poser and pianist, was born at Sheffield, April 
13, 1816. He studied as a chorister in choir 
of King's College, Cambridge, under his grand- 
father, John Bennett, and received subsequent 
instruction from Charles Lucas, Dr. Crotch, 
Cixjriani Potter, and W. H. Holmes. He 
studied at Leipzig Conservatorium under Mos- 
cheles, at the expense and on the suggestion 
of Messrs. Broad wood and Sons, during 1836- 
40. He appeared in England as concert-giver, 
1843-1856, and was an unsuccessful candidate 
for IMusic Professorship at Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, 1844. He married Miss Mary Ann 
Wood, 1844. Pounded (with others) the 
Bach Society, 1849. Conducted the Philhar- 
monic Society Concerts, 1856-66. Conducted 
the Leeds Musical Festival, 1858. Professor 
of Music at Cambridge, 1856. Mus. Doc, 
Cambridge, 1856. M.A., Cambridge, 1857. 
Principal of the R.A.M., 1866. D.C.L., Ox- 
ford, 1870. Knighted, 1871. Presented with 
testimonial, 1872. He died at London. Feb- 
ruary 1, 1875. 

Works. — Op. 1, First Concerto for piano- 
forte and orchestra, in D minor, 1832 ; Op. 2, 
Capriccio for pianoforte, in D ; Op. 3, Overture 
for full orchestra, Parisina, 1834-35 ; Op. 4, 
Second Concerto for pianoforte and orchestra, 
in E flat ; Op. 8, Sestet for pianoforte and 
strings, 1844 ; Op. 9, Third Concerto for piano- 
forte and orchestra, in C minor, 1834 ; Op. 10, 
Three musical sketches for pianoforte ; Op. 11, 
Six studies for the pianoforte ; Op. 12, Three 
impromptus for pianoforte ; Op. 13, Sonata 
for pianoforte, 1842 ; Op. 14, Three romances 
for pianoforte ; Op. 15, Overture for full or- 
chestra, The Naiads, 1836 ; Op. 16, Fantasia 
for pianoforte, 1842 ; Op. 17, Three Diversions 
for pianoforte duet ; Op. 18, Allegro Grazioso 
for pianoforte ; Op. 19, "Fourth Concerto for 
pianoforte and orchestra, in P minor, 1836- 
1849 ; Op. 20, Overture for full orchestra. The 
Wood Nymph, 1840 ; Op. 22. Caprice in E for 
pianoforte and orchestra, 1840 ; Op. 23, Six 


songs for solo voice with pianoforte accom- 
paniment ; Op. 24, Suite de Pieces, for piano- 
forte, 1843 ; Op. 25, Rondo Piacevale for 
pianoforte ; Op. 26, Trio for pianoforte, violin, 
and 'cello, 1844 ; Op. 27, Scherzo for piano- 
forte ; Op. 28, Rondino for j)ianoforte, 1853 ; 
Op. 29, Two studies for pianoforte ; Op. 30, 
Four sacred duets ; Op. 31, Tema e variazione 
for pianoforte; Op. 32, Sonata for pianoforte 
and 'cello, 1852 ; Op. 33, Sixty preludes and 
lessons for pianoforte, 1853 ; Op. 34, Rondo 
for pianoforte ; Op. 35, Six songs (second set) 
for voice and pianoforte ; Op. 36, Flowers of 
the month ; Op. 37, Rondeau a la Polonaise 
pour le pianoforte [1858] ; Op. 38, Toccato for 
pianoforte ; Op. 39, The May Queen, a pas- 
toral, by H. F. Chorley (cantata) for solo 
voices, chorus, and orchestra, Leeds Musical 
Festival, 1858 ; Op. 40, Ode, written for the 
opening of the International Exhibition, 1862, 
by (Lord) Alfred Tennyson, 1862; Op. 41, 
Cambridge Installation Ode, 1862; Op. 42, 
Fantasie-overture, Paradise and the Peri, for 
full orchestra, 1862 ; Op. 43, Symphony for 
full orchestra, in G minor; op. 44, The 
Woman of Samaria, an oratorio, for solo voices, 
chorus, and orchestra, Birmingham Festival, 
1867 ; op. 45, Music to Sophocles' Ajax ; Op. 
46, Pianoforte Sonata, The Maid of Orleans. 

In addition to the above he wrote overtures. 
The Merry Wives of Windsor ; Marie du Bois, 
1845 ; A quintet for pianoforte and wind in- 
struments, etc., songs, part-songs, pianoforte 
music, and collections of chants, etc., most of 
which have been published. 

Benson, George, composer and tenor 
singer, was born in 1814. He was a gentle- 
man of the Chapel Royal, and in 1878 he 
graduated Mus. Bac, Cambridge. He died 
at London, August 9, 1884. He composed 
Glees: If music be the food of love (prize, 
1863) ; Orpheus with his lute ; True love to 
win. Sleep little baby, sleep, four-part song. 
The Wooer, madrigal. My God look upon me ; 
I will arise, anthems. Songs, etc. 

Benson, John, musician, compiled "Sa- 
cred Harmony, a collection of tunes composed 
and arranged for one, two, three and four 
voices." London [1840]. 

Benson, John Allanson, composer, 
organist and teacher, born near Ripley, 
Yorkshire, February 8, 1848. Connected with 
the family of the late Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. He was intended, by his father, for 
an architect, but his love for music ultimately 
prevailed, and he adopted the art as his pro- 
fession. He received his earliest instruction 
as a choir boy after the removal of his family 
to Harrogate, and afterwards became con- 
ductor of the local Philharmonic Society. 
As organist, teacher, lecturer, and composer, 
he is a prominent and busy figure in musical 
life at Harrogate. 




Works. — Oratorio, King Hezekiah (com- 
posed, 1886, produced, Harrogate, 1891) ; 
bacred cantatas, Laudate Domlnum ; Christ 
at Nain (which obtained the £50 prize offered 
by Curwen and Sons, 1895) ; Cantata, Bott- 
reaux bells (1873) ; Six school cantatas ; The 
crown of roses, Summer holiday, etc., etc. 
Jubilee ode, Victoria ! Victoria! (1887). Ser- 
vices of song, anthems, school songs, etc. 
In MS. are two comic operas. King Cophetua 
(produced, 1881), and Endymion (1883), and 
a dramatic cantata. The water nymph (1885). 
Organ music contributed to the " Organist's 
Quarterly Journal " and other publications, 
and hymn tunes in the "National Tune 
Book" (London : Patey and Willis), etc., etc. 

Bentley, John Morgan, composer and 
organist, born at ^Manchester, September 3, 
1837. Cxraduated at Cambridge, Mus. Bac, 
1877 ; Mus. Doc, 1879. Was organist suc- 
cessively at St. Philip's, Salford, 1855; St. 
Stephen's, Manchester, 1860 ; St. Saviour's, 
1866 ; and of Bowden Parish Church, and 
Cheadle Abbey Church. During that time 
he conducted choral societies in those dis- 
tricts, and at Blackburn, Winsford, and 
Eccles. In 1881 he was appointed local 
examiner for R.A.M., and in the same year 
was made Provincial Grand Organist of East 

Works.— Oratorio, What is life? (1879); 
Dramatic cantata, Gethsemane (1877) ; Can- 
tatas, Yuletide, and The Golden butterfly — 
the latter for female voices. Vesper canticles ; 
Psalter pointed, and Psalter chants (Hey- 
wood, INIanchester). Symphony and other 
orchestral works in MS. Horte Sacraj, pieces 
for violin and pf ; The Two violinists, a 
series of duets for violins, with pf. accom- 
paniment ; Songs, etc., etc. 

Benton, Alfred, organist and conductor, 
born in Leeds. Began his musical career at 
the age of ten as a choir boy in Leeds Parish 
Church. His first instructor on the organ 
and pianoforte was Mr. Wm. Dawson, then 
deputy organist of the Parish Church. After- 
wards he became the pupil of R. S. Burton, 
and took lessons in counterpoint from W. J. 
Pritchard (a famous blind organist) and in 
composition from F. W. Hird. When four- 
teen years old he obtained the post of 
organist at All Saints', Leeds, and subse- 
quently was appointed to Windermere Parish 
Church, Arthington ; St. Mark's, Manning- 
ham ; St. Martin's, Potternewtown ; and final- 
ly, in 1891, succeeding Dr. Creser as organist 
and choirmaster of Leeds Parish Church. Here 
he worthily sustains the high reputation 
gained for the services. In 1889 he was 
appointed organist of the Leeds Festival, a 
position he still retains, with that of chorus- 
master, since 1895. He has introduced many 
important works at the Advent and Lent 


services, including the Requiem by Brahms, 
Spohr's Last Judgment, and Bach's Matthew 
Passion. For years past he has been noted 
as a skilful conductor, societies in Barnsley, 
Morley, Bramley, and other places being 
under his direction. A permanent orchestra 
was formed in Leeds, in 1895, and a choral 
union also, the conductorship of both being 
entrusted to Mr. Benton, who now occupies 
a most responsible and honoured jDosition in 
Leeds. He has also a high reputation as a 
teacher of singing, many of his pupils now 
holding appointments in English cathedrals. 

Berger, Francesco, pianist and com- 
poser, born June 10, 1834, in London, where 
his father, an Austrian, had settled as a 
merchant. Studied in Italy under Luigi 
Ricci and Carl Lickl, and at Leipzig under 
Hauptmann and others. Settled in London, 
1855. Appeared at Concerts in London and 
the provinces as solo pianist. In 1868 estab- 
lished the " Apres-midi Instrumentales." 
Was appointed a professor of pf. at the 
R.A.M. in 1885, and became hon. see. of 
the Philharmonic Society in 1887. In 1864 
he married Miss Lascelles, contralto vocalist. 
His works include a mass and an opera ; the 
music to The Frozen deep (Wilkie Collins, 
1857) ; a Suite in G, and other pieces for pf. 
Cavatina for violoncello and pf. Fart-songs : 
Poor and rich (Leslie's Choir, 1884), and 
others. Songs : Amor timido ; Fair, but 
fleeting; Only thyself, etc., etc. Author of 
" First steps at the pianoforte" (Novello). 

Berry, Sarah, contralto vocalist, born at 
Bamford, near Manchester, where, from her 
eighth to her seventeenth year, she was a 
weaver in a mill. She gained the Courtney 
Scholarship, R.C.M. ,aud pursued her studies 
under the late Madame Goldschmidt, having 
lessons also in declamation from Mrs. Ken- 
dal. She made her debut in Manchester, 
January 7, 1888, at a concert of M. De Jong, 
and at once achieved success. In October of 
the same year, she sung in "Elijah" at 
Huddersfield, and in that oratorio at the 
Albert Hall (Royal Choral Society), January 
22, 1890. She has also appeared at concerts 
in Birmingham and other places ; and at the 
Leeds Festival of 1895, created a highly 
favourable impression. She sang at the Nor- 
wich Festival of 1896, and is gaining a good 
position among the singers of the day. 

Berry, Thomas, organist and composer, 
born at Shepley, York, June 21, 1850. He 
settled in Glasgow about 1873, and has been 
a teacher and organist there ever since. 
Among his appointments may be named the 
organistship of Trinity Congregational Church 
and Bellhaven Church, Glasgow. He has 
also given organ recitals in Glasgow and in 
various parts of Scotland. Composer of 
various works preserved in manuscript. 




Bertini, Henri Jerome, composer and 
pianist of French parentage, born at London, 
October 28, 1798. Studied under his father, 
etc. He travelled through Germany and Hol- 
land, and in England and Scotland. Resided 
in Paris as teacher and concert-giver from 
1821. He died at Mevlan, near Grenoble, 
October 1, 1876. 

Works.— Studies for the pf., op. 29, 32, 66, 
86, 94, 100, 133, 134, 134a, 137, 142, 147, 166, 
175, 176, 177, 178, 180 ; Trios for pf., violin, 
and 'cello ; Sextets for pf., 2 violins, viola, 
'cello, and bass, op. 79, 85, 90, 114 ; Sonatas 
for pf. and violin, op. 152, 153, 156, ; Nonetto 
for pf. with wind instruments. 

Bervon, Inglis, organist and composer, 
born in Birmingham, 1837. Principal bass at 
St. Andrew's, Wells Street, London, 1861 ; 
organist of the Parish Church, Aberystwith, 
1866 ; thence to Welshpool, and to St. Marv's 
Stafford, which last he held till about 1880. 
Editor of a " Collection of 201 Chants for 
Psalms and Canticles," and composer of organ 
pieces (published in the Organists' Quarterly 
Journal), songs, etc. He died at Shelton, 
near Hanley, Staffs., December 18, 1891. 

Best, William Thomas, organist and 
composer, born at Carlisle, August 13, 1826. 
Took lessons from Young, the cathedral organ- 
ist, but being intended for the profession of a 
civiL engineer, he only took up the study of 
music seriously when in Liverpool, 1840, he 
decided to change his vocation. His first ap- 
pointment was that of organist at Pembroke 
Chapel, Liverpool, 1840 ; then, in 1847, to the 
Church for the Blind ; and in 1848, organist to 
the Liverpool Philharnionic Society. In 1852 
lie was in London, giving recitals on various 
organs, playing at the Crystal Palace (Hyde 
Park), April 10. He held the office of organist 
at Lincoln's Inn Chapel, and in October, 1853, 
was appointed organist and professor of the 
organ at the Royal Panopticon. About the 
beginning of 1855 he was appointed to St. 
Martin-in-the-Pields, and in August of that 
year he was elected organist of St. George's 
Hall, Liverpool. He conducted a grand con- 
cert, October 10, on the occasion of the visit 
of the Duke of Cambridge, when the organ 
was opened, and gave his first popular recital, 
October 20. For many years he officiated as 
organist at churches in Birkenhead and Liver- 
pool, and in 1871 was organist at the Royal 
Albert Hall at Kensington. Throughout the 
United Kingdom he was recognised as the 
finest organist of his time, and his recitals 
were of the most important service to the art 
of organ-playing. His influence in promoting 
uniformity in organ construction has been 
great. He has given recitals in Paris and 
Rome, and in 1890 (August 9) opened the vast 
organ in the Town Hall, Sydney, N.S.W. In 
February, 1894, ill health caused him to re- 


sign his appointment at St. George's Hall, 
and the famous organist, after fifty odd years 
of artistic activity, retired into private life. 
A commemorative bust was unveiled in the 
Hall, October 20, 1896. As a composer, he 
was known from 1845, when his Fantasia in 
two movements was published : he is also a 
fine pianist, and some compositions for the 
pianoforte were issued in 1852. In 1880 he 
received a Civil List pension of £100 per 
annum. He is an Hon. R.A.M. 

Works. — Two overtures and a march, or- 
chestra ; Morning and Evening Service in P, 
op. 40. composed for Leeds Parish Church ; 
Services, Kyries, etc. ; Behold, I bring you 
glad tidings ; Praise the Lord, and other an- 
thems and hymns ; Eighty chorals, selected 
and newly harmonized for four voices and or- 
gan, Novello, 1852. Glee, five voices. What 
mournful thoughts. Tarantella, Allegretto 
pastorale, Notturno, op. 27, marches, and 
other pieces for pf . Organ works. The modern 
school for the organ (1853?) ; The art of organ 
playing, parts I. and II. (1870) ; Thirty pro- 
gressive studies; Collection of pieces, expressly 
composed for church use, six books ; Six con- 
cert pieces ; Three preludes and fugues ; Sona- 
tas in G and D minor ; Fantasias, etc. Ar- 
rangements from the scores of the Great 
Masters, five volumes ; Mozart's overture, 
" Die Zauberflote " (1846) ; Editor of "Cecilia," 
a collection of organ pieces in diverse styles 
(containing important compositions of his 
own, festival overture in B flat, etc., 56 books 
published, still in progress) ; Organ music by 
Italian composers ; Handel's organ concertos ; 
Handel album ; and a bicentenary edition of 
the organ works of J. S. Bach, commenced 
in 1885. 

Bestwick, Lavinia, see Fenton Lavinia. 

Betjemann, Gilbert Henry, viohnist 
and conductor, born in London. Pupil of C. 
W. Doyle. In 1858 was engaged by Costa as 
a second violin at the Royal Italian Opera, and 
later played in the orchestra of the Pyne and 
Harrison Company. For some years connected 
with the Carl Rosa Opera Company as violin- 
ist, conductor, and director of the mise-en- 
scene. Conducted performances of Royal 
English Opera Company at Covent Garden 
Theatre, January, 1884, and Italian Opera at 
Her Majesty's Theatre in November. Gave 
Chamber Concerts at Highgate, 1884-5 ; suc- 
ceeded Dr. J. F. Bridge as Conductor of the 
Highbury Philharmonic Society in 1886 ; and 
about two years later was chosen as director 
of the operatic class at the R.A.M. In 1893 
he was joint conductor and principal violin 
at the Promenade Concerts, Covent Garden ; 
in 1895 he succeeded the late J. T. Carrodus 
as principal first violin at Covent Garden 
Opera ; and in 1896 accepted conductorship of 
the Oxford Orchestral Society. Hon. R.A.M.; 





Associate of the Pbilhannonic Society, and 
musician in ordinary to Her Majesty. His 
son, Gilbert Richard, A.R.A.M., born in 
London, 186-i, was a violinist and composer, 
and member of the Royal Italian Opera orch- 
estra. His " Song of the Western Men," for 
chorus and orchestra, was produced by the 
Highbury Philharmonic, March, 1890. He 
has also written some songs and pieces for 
violin. He was killed while descending the 
Wetterhorn, September 9, 1896, by falling 
through a snow bridge. 

Betts, Arthur, violinist and composer, 
a native of Lincolnshire, born 1774 ? Studied 
under Hindmarsh, Viotti, Dussek, and Stei- 
belt. Was for 49 years a member of the 
Royal Society of Musicians, and celebrated as 
a violin connoisseur. Died in London, Sep- 
tember, 1847, aged 73. His daughter was a 
popular vocalist. Composed sonatas, duets 
for violin and 'cello, arrangements, etc. 

Betts, Edward, musician and writer of 
18th century. He compiled " An introduc- 
tion to the Skill of Musick, anthems, hjinns, 
and psalni tunes, in several parts," London, 

Beugo, John, musician and engraver, 
born in 1759 ; died at Edinburgh in 1841. 
He was a friend of Burns, the poet, whose 
portrait he engraved in 1787, partly from 
special sittings. He was an engraver of por- 
traits and similar works in Edinburgh, and 
an amateur musician. Among other works 
he issued " The New Caliope, being a selection 
cf British and occasionally foreign melodies, 
newly arranged for the pianoforte, and en- 
graved on copper, by John Beugo." Edin- 
burgh, 1823-25, published in quarterly parts. 

Bevan, Frederick Charles, bass vocalist 
and composer, born in London, July 8, 1856. 
Began his career as a chorister at All Saints', 
IMargaret Street, London, and having a fine 
voice was, at the age of eleven, chosen as 
solo boy of the choir. Studied the organ 
under C. E. Willing, and W. S. Hoyte, and 
held, for a time, appointments at St. Martin's, 
Haverstock Hill, and St. Margaret Pattens. 
Sang in the Henry Leslie and Joseph Barnby 
choirs, and, after studying with Schira, H. 
Deacon, and P. Walker, obtained the post of 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 
1877, and succeeded the late William Winn 
at the Chapel Royal St. James's Palace, 1888. 
Now widely known as a concert-singer, and the 
composer of a number of songs — The silver path. 
The sailor's sweetheart. The flight of ages. The 
dream of my heart. The mighty river. Watch- 
ing and waiting. My angel. The everlasting day, 
and others extensively popular. 

Bevin, El way, Welsh composer and or- 
ganist, was born about the middle of the 16th 
century [1560-70]. He studied under Tallis, 
and was organist of Bristol Cathedral in 1589. 


Gentleman Extraordinary of the Chapel Royal 
1605. Lost both places on its being discovered 
that he was a Roman Catholic, 1637. He 
died about 1640. 

Works. — A Brief e and Short Introduction 
to the Art of Musicke, to teach how to make 
Discant of all Proportions that are in use: 
very necessary for all such as are desirous to 
attaine to knowledge in the Art ; and may, 
by Practice, if they can sing, soon be able to 
compose three, four, and five parts ; and also 
to compose all sorts of Canons that are usuall, 
by these directions, of two or three parts in 
one, upon a Plain Song, 1631. A Short Ser- 
vice in D minor, and Praise the Lord, anthem, 
in Barnard's Collection. Other anthems exist 
in manuscript. Bevin is usually credited 
with having been the first in England to 
systematise the rules for the composition of 

Bexfield, William Richard, composer 
and organist, was born at Norwich, April 27, 
1824. He studied under Dr. Zachariah Buck. 
Organist of Boston Church, Lincoln, 1845. 
Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1846. Unsuccessful candi- 
date for the Music Professorship of Oxford 
University. Organist of St. Helen's Church, 
Bishopsgate Street, London, 1848. Mus. Doc, 
Cantab., 1849. He died at London, October 
29, 1853. 

Works. — Israel Restored, oratorio, pro- 
duced, Norwich, October 16, 1851 ; and at the 
Norwich Festival, September 22, 1852 ; repro- 
duced. Royal Albert Hall, London, April 15, 
1880. Church Anthems, in score, with por- 
trait, London, [1849]. A set of concert fu- 
gues for the organ, London, [1845-1846.] 
Musica di camera [1848] . Eight Chorales 
for voices and organ [1845-1847 ?]. Six songs 
[1847J, part-songs, etc. 

Bickham, George, engraver and penman, 
flourished in the first part of the 18th century. 
He engraved " The Musical Entertainer," 
London, 2 vols. [c. 1737], a collection of songs 
of some value. He died in 1769. 

Bicknell, John Laurence, writer and 
barrister-at-law, was born in 1740, and died 
Ma.rch 27, 1787. He wrote a ]poem called 
" The dying negro," and is the reputed author 
of " Musical travels through England, by 
Joel Collier, Licentiate in Music." London, 
1774 (various editions). In 1818 appeared 
" Redivivus, an entirely new edition of that 
celebrated author's Musical Travels." The 
work is a satire on Burney, and is an amusing 
production now getting very scarce. It has 
also been ascribed to Peter Beckford, a writer 
on musical and other subjects. 

Biggs, Edward 5mith, glee composer 
and pianist, was born during the latter half of 
the 18th century, and died about 1820. He 
was a teacher of music in London. 

Works. — Six duets and three trios, London, 




1800; Six Sicilian airs for one voice, London, 
1805 ; Six Welsh airs adapted to English 
words, and harmonized for two, three and four 
voices, London, two sets ; Four sets of twelve 
Venetian airs for one voice, London, 1800 ; 
Six songs, written by Mrs. Opie, London, 1 800. 
Glees : Ah ! me, with that false one ; A poor 
soul sat sighing ; Bring the song ; Hark ! 
what sound ; Here beneath this willow 
sleepeth ; Here's lawn as white as driven 
snow ; In my cot, tho' small's my store ; 
Lost is my quiet for ever ; Now ev'ning's 
come ; O ! synge unto mie Roundelaie ; 
Under the greenwood tree ; Where feeds your 
flock ; Will you buy any tape ? Songs : The 
suicide ; Come, my lads, time posts away ; 
Fox and the crow ; Barbara Allan ; Where 
are you going my pretty maid ? Duets. 
Pianoforte : Twenty-eight Waltzes ; Rondos 
and marches. 

Biggs, Rev. L. C, author of "English 
Hymnology " (a series of articles reprinted 
from the "Monthly Packet.") 

Biggs, Walter Lyle, organist, composer, 
and conductor, liorn at Notting Hill, London, 
September 16, 1857. Received his first musi- 
cal instruction from his mother's uncle, the 
Rev. S. Lillycrop {q.v.), afterwards studied 
organ and harmony under G. P. Geaussent. 
Was organist of All Saints', Child's Hill, 
Kilburn, 1877-81, and in 1882, elected, after 
competition, to St. Peter le Bailey, Oxford, 
since when he has founded a musical society, 
given oratorio services in the Church, and 
concerts in the Old Town Hall. He con- 
ducted the Holy Trinity Musical Society, 
1887-8 ; and in 1895 founded ihe East Oxford 
Musical Society. He has also given organ 
recitals in Wadham, Worcester, and Trinity 
College Chapels. 

Works. — Sacred cantata, Elihu, Op. 3 
(produced, Wadham College Chapel, July, 
1891) ; Psalms 147-8-9 and 150, Op. 5, 6, 7, 8, 
for soli, chorus and orchestra ; Epithalaniium 
(Spenser), Op. 4, for soprano and baritone 
soli, men's chorus, and small orchestra ; 
Church compositions, Op. 2. Fairy opera, 
Marie (libretto by ]\Irs. Linsley, produced, 
Oxford Institute, February, 1896) ; Set of 
four songs, Op. 9; Short organ pieces. Op. 1. 
Of these only the Cantata and Church com- 
positions are 5'et published. 

Bilby, Thomas, musician, was born at 
Southampton, April 18, 1794. He served for 
some time in the army, but subsequently 
entered the teaching profession. For twenty- 
eight years he was parish clerk of St. IMary's, 
Islington. He died at Islington, London, 
September 24, 1872. He is only known as 
the composer of the hymn-tune called "Joy- 
ful," which is usually sung to his own words 
" Here we suffer grief and pain." 

Billington, Elizabeth, born Weichsel, 


soprano vocalist, born in Soho, London, about 
1768. She studied under her father, who was 
a German, and Schroeter, from an early age. 
In 1782 she sang at Oxford, and in October, 
1783 she was married to James Billington, a 
double-bass player of Drury Lane Theatre. 
She appeared on the stage at Dublin in 1783, 
and sang in different parts of Ireland till 1786. 
She sang in "Love in a Village" at London, 
February 13, 1786. Afterwards, she went to 
Paris, but in 1787 she returned to London. 
Owing, in part, to anonjinous attacks on her 
character, she went to Italy with her husband 
in 1794, and appeared in various cities with 
much success. In 1799 she married a French- 
man named Felissent (Billington having died 
in 1794), but left him, owing to his ill-treat- 
nient, and returned to London in 1801, when 
she appeared at Coven t Garden, King's Thea- 
tre, etc. In 1811 she retired, and in 1817 she 
was reconciled to her husband. She died at 
St. Artein, August 25, 1818. Full details of her 
career will be found in Hogarth's " Memoirs 
of the IMusical Drama," and in " Memoirs of 
Mrs. Billington from her birth ; containing a 
a variety of matter, ludicrous, theatrical, 
musical, and with copies of several original 
letters written by Mrs. Billington to her 
mother," London, 1792. A suppressed book, 
to which she replied in " An Answer to the 
Memoirs of Mrs. BiUington," 1792. 

Billington, Thomas, pianist, harpist, 
and comxJoser, was born at Exeter in 1754. 
He lived in London as a teacher of the piano 
and harp, but died at Tunis in 1832. 

Works. — Music to Gray's Elegies, Op. 8 i 
Pope's Eloisa to Abelard ; Prior's Garland ; 
Petrarch's Laura; The Children in the Wood, 
Morton ; Four sets of twelve canzonets for 
two voices, London, 1784-90; Six songs for 
voice and pianoforte ; Shenstone's Pastorals, 
consisting of 24 ballads ; Music to Young's 
Night Thoughts, 1790 ; Music to Pope's Elegy 
to the Memory of an unfortunate Lady ; 
Numerous glees ; Songs ; Scotch airs, etc., 
harmonized, London [1785] ; Six sonatas for 
harpsichord or pianoforte. Op. 5 ; Three trios 
for a violin, tenor, and 'cello. Op. 7 [1780] . 

Bilton, J. Manuel, bandmaster and 
composer, born at Plymouth, October 8, 1862, 
son of a uraster-at-arms in the Royal Na\'y. 
Educated at the Royal Naval School, Green- 
wich, and joining the school band, his playing 
the baritone at a concert of the band at the 
Crystal Palace, 1875, attracted the attention 
of J. Lawson, bandmaster of the Royal Ar- 
tillery Brass Band, who took him into that 
band. He met with a friend in Colonel Hime, 
who helped him in every way. In 1886 he 
was appointed Trumpet-Major of a Brigade of 
Artillery at Limerick, and studied under 
Stanislaus Elliott, and in 1887 entered Kneller 
Hall. After the death of Charles Cousins 




(May 1890) Bilton was made Director pi-o tern, 
an office which he filled until his appointment 
as Bandmaster of the 17th Lancers, in Feb- 
ruary, 1891. He began composition very early, 
and his first attempt was a Grand Overture. 
This, rewritten and corrected, was performed 
at Woolwich, in 1878. At the Military Ex- 
hibition of 1890, he was awarded prizes for a 
Morning Service, Concert Overture, and a 
work for brass, military, and string band, 
singly and collectively. He has also written 
a Wind Quintet, Cantata, " The Wreck of the 
Hesperus," a Sjinphonj', and Overtures. 

Binfield, a musical family of importance, 
for many years prominent in the town of 
Reading, Berks, where the first of the name, 
Richard Binfield, established a music busi- 
ness in 1799. He was organist of St Laurence 
Church from 1804 to the time of his death, 
1839. The Berkshire Musical Festival, dating 
back at least to 1786, was for many years 
under his direction, and he conducted a 
performance of the " Messiah " so late as 
September 28, 1839, when Balfe sang some of 
the bass solos. He edited and compiled the 
Reading Psalmody, and Heading Choral Ser- 
vice, works much in use in the neighbourhood 
for a long time. His son, John Bilson Bin- 
field, born at Reading, 1805, was an organist, 
and appears to have continued the Triennial 
Festivals, as they were given up to the year 
1846. He was the first to set Dean Milman's 
" Martyr of Antioch " to music (Milman being 
vicar of St Mary's, Reading, 1818-35). He 
died at Reading, June 8, 1875. Another son, 
Thomas Binfield, settled in London, where 
he was engaged as a violoncellist. He was 
also a good violinist and pianist. Member of 
the Royal Society of Musicians. Died, Lon- 
don, December 23, 1840. — R. L. Binfield, a 
third sou, was in the business at Reading, 
and conducted Choral Concerts, but no par- 
ticulars can be gleaned concerning him. — 
Hannah Rampton Binfield, born at Read- 
ing, 1810, sister of those preceding, was in 
her turn proprietor of the business. She was 
an excellent pianist and harpist, and con- 
tributed many hymn tunes and chants to the 
collections edited by her father, whom she 
succeeded as organist of St. Laurence, a post 
she held for forty-five years, Her annual 
concerts were the chief events of the Reading 
musical season, and she played, at the Fes- 
tival of 1839, a concerto upon the organ. 
Her death took place at Reading, May 2, 1887. 
Fanny Jane daughter of John Bilson Binfield, 
was a pianist and concert-giver, and an artist 
of repute. She died at Reading, September 
3, 1881. Of other members of the family 
little can be ascertained, but Louisa Bin- 
field, as a performer on the concertina, was 
often heard at Reading and elsewhere from 
thirty to forty years ago. Another, Louisa 


Binfield, third daughter of Richard, died at 
Reading, November 26, 1856. 

Bingiey, Rev.William, writer and clergy- 
man, was born at Doncaster in 1774. He 
studied at Cambridge, where he graduated M. A. 
He died at London, March 11, 1823. Author 
of " Musical Biography, or ]\Iemoirs of the 
lives and writings of the most eminent musi- 
cal composers and writers who have flourished 
in the different countries of Europe during the 
last three centuries," London, 1814, 2 vols.; 
2nd edition, London, 1834, 2 vols. Animal 
Biography, 1802, 3 vols., etc. He also added 
" Sixty of the most admired Welsh airs, col- 
lected by W. Bingiey, the basses and varia- 
tions arranged for the pf. by W. Russell, 
jun.," London, 1810. 

Binney, Thomas, clergyman and author, 
published "The Service of Song in the House 
of the Lord," Loudon, 1849. He edited Baird's 
Liturgies, and wrote numerous other works. 

Birch, Charlotte Ann, soprano vocalist, 
was born at London in 1815 ; and died there 
in 1857. She sang chiefly at London and pro- 
vincial concerts. 

Birch, Edward, clergyman, author of "A 
Tract on Responding, with a postscript on 
Singing," Manchester, 1862. 

Bircii, Edward Henry, organist. Received 
his training in music at the Cathedrals of Glou- 
cester and Winchester. Graduated Mus. Bac, 
Oxford, 1875. Has held organ appointments 
successively at St. Saviour's, Eastbourne 
(1872); St. Gabriel's, Warwick Square, London 
(1873) ; All Saints', Kensington Park (1874) ; 
St. James's, Netting Hill (1886) ; Choirmaster, 
St. Columbas', Netting Hill. His composi- 
tions include a cantata, " Vortigern and Row- 
ena" (produced Ladbroke Hall, Netting Hill, 
April 12, 1891), an Evening service, and other 
church music, organ pieces, etc. 

Birch, James Albert, alto vocalist, born 
at Sheffield, 1839. Sang in church choirs in 
Sheffield, and subsequently was in the choir 
of Canterbury Cathedral (1873-6) ; then at 
Westminster Abbey ; and finally at the Chapel 
Royal, St. James's, a post he retire 1 from in 
1892, owing to ill health. Lecturer on vocal 
music at the Church Missionary College ; 
founder and conductor of the Temperance 
Choral Society ; and sometime conductor of the 
London Board School Festival Concerts at the 
Crystal Palace. Musical editor of the Stan- 
dard Book of Song, for Temperance Meetings 
and Home Use, and author of a booklet. The 
Voice Trainer. A Vice-President of the Tonic 
Sol-fa Association, he was a zealous worker 
to the last. He died somewhat suddenly, at 
Hastings, June 22, 1895. 

Birch, Samuel, composer and minor poet, 
was born at London, November 8, 1757. He 
served as a Lord Mayor of London in 1815. 
Died at London, December 10, 1841. 




Works. — Musical dramas, etc.: The Marin- 
ers, 1793 ; Packet Boat, or a peep behind the 
veil (a masque), 1794 ; Adopted child, 1795 ; 
Smugglers, 1796 ; Fast asleeji, 1795 ; Albert 
and Adelaide, 1798. Glees, songs, etc. To 
some of these musical dramas, Attwood and 
others wrote the music. 

Birch, William, organist and composer, 
born at Lichfield in 1775. He was an organist 
at Tamworth, and died November 17, 1815. 
Another William Birch issued " Sacred Mu- 
sic, consisting of psalms, hymns, anthems, 
etc." London [1825]. 

Bircli, William Henry, organist and com- 
poser, born at Uxbridge, May 5, 1826. He 
studied under Elvey, Blagrove, and R. Bar- 
nett. He became organist of St. Mary's 
Church, Am ersham, and was a teacher of music 
at Caversham, near Reading. He died there 
July 18, 1888. 

Works. — The Merry men of Sherwood For- 
est, operetta, 1872; Wreck of the Argosy, can- 
tata, 1879 ; Twelve anthems, Reading, 1877. 
Choruses, glees, quartetts, trios, etc, 1856. 
Canticles of the Church of England [1875] ; 
Evensong, a selection of hymns and chants 
[1860] ; Gems of sacred harmony [1853] , 
Sabbath Recreation, a selection of favourite 
sacred melodies . . . 1857; Standard Psalmist 
. . . [1853-4] . Comic series of juvenile songs, 
concertina albums, journals, pf. music, songs, 
etc., etc. 

Bird, Qeorge, organist, was appointed to 
the Parish Church, Walthamstow, March 26, 
1829, after playing on probation with other 
candidates from the previous Advent Sunday, 
November 30, 1828. This post he held till the 
time of his death, August 14, 1894, a period 
exceeding 65 years, during which he officiated 
under three vicars, and assisted at the conse- 
cration of the first three of the churches 
which have been added to the district. He 
edited "A collection of 100 chants" (Novello), 
and a Hymn Tune-Book, in much use in their 
day. His son, Henry Richard Bird, born at 
Walthamstow, November 14, 1842, was ap- 
pointed organist of St. John's, Walthamstow, 
in 1851. Then for some years he studied with 
J. Turle, and in 1858 was elected organist of 
St. Mark's, Clerkenwell ; in 1860 appointed to 
Holy Trinity, Sloane Street; in 1866 to St. 
Gabriel's, Pimlico ; and in 1872 to St. Mary 
Abbots, Kensington, a post he retains. He 
was organist at the Festivals of the London 
Church Choir Association, at St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral in 1880-1 ; and has for a long time given 
concerts at Kensington. In 1891 he was ap- 
pointed accompanist at the Monday and Sat- 
urday Popular Concerts, a capacity in which 
he is in much request. He is a Professor of the 
pf. at R.C.M., and at Trinity College, London. 

Bird, William, musician of Watford, is- 
sued " A Set of Psalm and Hymn Tunes with 


an Anthem for four voices," London, 1807, 
2nd edition, 1810; "Original Psalmody, 57 
Psalm and Hymn Tunes in score . . . revised 
by S. Wesley," 1827, also 1830 ; " Gems of 
metrical Psalmody," London, 1835. 

Bird, William Hamilton, musician, pub- 
lished " The Oriental Miscellany, a collection 
of the most favourite airs of Hiudoostan, 
adapted for the harpsichord," Calcutta, 1789. 

Birde, William, see Byrd, William. 

Birkensha, John, Irish author and 
musician, who lived in London as a teacher 
of the viol during the first half of the 17th 
century. He translated the " Tempi um 
Musicum," of Alstedius, as " Templum 
Musicum, or the musical synopsis of the 
learned and famous Johannes Henricus, Al- 
stedius : being a compendium of the rudi- 
ments both of the mathematical and practical 
part of musick . . " London, 1664. 

Birnie, Patie, or Patrick, violinist and 
minor poet, who lived at Kinghorn, in Fife, 
at the end of the 17th century. He wrote 
" The auld man's mear's dead " and other 
songs, and was a famous fiddler in his day. 
He distinguished himself at the Battle of 
Bothwell Bridge, which he took part in as 
one of the Fife militia, by running away. 

Bishenden, Charles James, bassvocalist 
atid teacher, born at Hemel-Hempstead, 
Herts, in 1848. Has sung with success in his 
native town and other places. He was one of 
the early advocates for the adoption of the 
French pitch in this country. In 1882 he 
married Isabel Mary Beachey, a vocalist, who 
has appeared with him at various concei'ts. 
He is the author of a pamphlet, "The voice, 
and how to use it," and " How to sing," etc. 

Bishop, Anna, born Riviere, wife of the 
undernoted. A French soprano vocalist, was 
born in London, 1812 [1814-15]. She studied 
under Moscheles at the R.A.M., and married 
Sir Henry Bishop, 1882. Debut at London, 
1837. She sang at the musical festivals of 
Gloucester, York, and Hereford. She left her 
husband and travelled with Bochsa in Europe 
1839. Appeared in Copenhagen, 1839. She 
sang in Stockholm in 1840 ; St. Petersburg, 
1840; in Russia, 1840-1; in Austria, etc., 
1842 ; Italy, 1843. She went to America in 
1846, and travelled there and in Australia, etc., 
1853-8. She married Martin Schultz, of New 
York, 1858. Returned to England, 1858, and 
in 1859 went back to America. She travelled 
round the world, concert-giving, in 1865-69, 
and again in 1873-76. Between the years 
1839 and 1843 she sang at 260 concerts. She 
was a cultivated vocalist and member of 
many musical societies. She died at New 
York, March 18 [20], 1884. 

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley, composer, 
was born at London, November 18, 1786. He 
studied music under F. Bianchi, and became 




musical director at Drury Laue Theatre, 1810- 
11. Founded (with others) the Philhannouic 
Society, 1S13. Visited Dublin, 1820. Conductor 
at Drury Lane Tlieatre, 1825. Musical direc- 
tor of Vauxliall Gardens, 1830. He married 
(1st) Sarah Lyon (died 18.31) and (2ud) Anna 
Reviere. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1839. Musical 
director at Covent Garden Theatre, 1840-11. 
Conductor of the Ancient Concerts, 1840-48. 
Professor of Music at the Edinburgh Univer- 
sity (in succession to John Thomson), 1841-3. 
Kniglited, 1842. Professor of JIusic at Oxford 
University (in succession to Dr. Crotch), 1848. 
Mus. Doc, Oxon., 1853. He died at London, 
April 30, 1855. Buried at Finchley (or Mary- 
lebone) Cemetry. 

Works. — Operas and Musical Dramas : An- 
gelina farce, 1804 ; Tamerlau et Bajazet, ballet, 
1806 ; Narcissa et les Graces, grand Anac- 
reontic ballet, 1806 ; Caractacus, ballet, 1806 ; 
Love in a tub, a pastoral ballet, 1806 ; 
Mysterious bride, 1808 ; Circassian bride, 1809 ; 
Mora's love, ballet, 1809 ; Vintagers, 1809 ; 
Maniac, or Swiss banditti, 1810 ; Knight of 
Snowdouu, 1811; Virgin of the sun, 1812; 
CEthiop, or Child of the desert, 1812 ; Rene- 
gade, 1812 ; Harouu Alraschid (altered from 
-S^thiop), 1813 : Brazen bust, 1813 ; Harry Le 
Roy, 1813; Miller and his men, 1813; For 
England ho! 1813; Farmer's wife (with Reeve 
and Davy), 1814; Wandering boys, or the 
Castle of Clival, 1814 ; Sadak and Kalasrade, 
or the Waters of oblivion, 1814; Grand alliance, 
1814; Forest of Bondy, or Dog of Montargus, 
1814 ; ]\Iaid of the mill, comic opera, 1814 ; 
Noble outlaw, 1815; Telemachus, 1815; Mid- 
summer night's dream (Shakespeare), 1816 ; 
Guy Mannering, or the Gypsey's prophecy 
(from Scott), (with Whittaker), 1816; Heir of 
Vironi, or Honesty the best policy, 1817 ; Don 
Juan, or the Libertine (compiled from Mozart), 
1817 ; Duke of Savoy, or Wife and mistress, 
1817; Barberof Seville(compiled from Rossini), 
1818 ; Marriage of Figaro (compiled from Moz- 
art), 1819 ; Heart of IMidlothian (frona Scott), 
1819 ; A Rowland for an Oliver, 1 819 ; Gnome 
king, or the Giant mountains, 1819 ; Comedy 
of errors (Shakespeare), 1819 ; Antiquary (from 
Scott), 1820; Battle of Bothwell Brigg, 1820; 
Henri Quatre, or Paris in the olden time, 1820 ; 
Twelfth night (Shakespeare), 1820; Don John, 
or the Two Violettas, 1820 ; Two gentlemen of 
Verona (Shakespeare), 1821 ; IMontrose, or the 
Children of the mist (from Scott), 1820; Law 
of Java, 1822; Maid Marian, or the Huntress 
of Arlingford, opera, 1822; Clari, or the Maid 
of Milan, opera in three acts (J. H. Payne), 
1823 ; Beacon of liberty, 1823 ; Cortez, or the 
Conquest of Mexico, 1823; Native land, or Re- 
turn from slavery, 1824; Charles the Second, 
operetta, 1824 ; Fall of Algiers, opera, 3 acts, 
1825 : Hofer, the Tell of the Tyrol (compiled 
from Rossini), 1825 ; Edward the Black Prince, 


1825; Aladdin, or the Wonderful lamp, opera 
(by J. R. Plancli6), London, 1825; Knights of 
the cross, opera, 1826 ; Under the oak, opera, 
1830: Adelaide, or the Royal William, opera, 
1832 ; Home, sweet home, operatic drama, 2 
acts, 1832 ; Magic fan, or the Fillip on the 
nose, operetta, 1832 ; Yelva, musical drama, 2 
acts, 1833; Rencontre, operatic comedy, 1833; 
Doom kiss, opera, 1836 ; Slave, opera in 3 acts 
(by J. R.Planch6), 1816; As you like it (Shakes- 
peare) ; Aurora, ballet; Brother and sister, 

1814 ; Cymon (from M. Arne), 1815 ; Comus, 

1815 : Dr. Sangrado, ballet, 1814 ; December 
and May ; Don Pedro, tragedy (2 glees) ; Der 
Preyschutz (c nirpiled from Weber), 1824 ; 
Englishman in India, comic opera, 1827 ; 
Faustus, 1825 ; Fortunatus and his sons, 
1819; John of Paris (from Boieldieu), 1814 ; 
John du Bart (incidental music), 1815 ; Nin- 
etta, opera, 3 acts ; Bottle of champagne, op- 
eretta ; Czar of Muscovy, opera ; Humorous 
lieutenant, 1817 ; Romance of a day, operatic 
drama ; Zuma, or the Tree of health, comic 
opera, 1818. Fallen angel, oratorio ; Seventh 
day, cantata, 1833. Glees : Six original En- 
glish glees (poetry by Hemans, Baillie, etc.) ; 
Twelve original English glees ; Complete col- 
lection of glees, 8 vols., 1839 (other collections 
have since ajDpeared, one — Novello's — with 
orchestral accompaniments). Songs : Songs 
for the seasons, by T. H. Bayly ; Select and 
rare Scottish melodies, poetry by Hogg ; Songs 
of the old chateau, poetry by Bayly ; Lays 
and legends of the Rhine, J. R. Blanche; Do. 
of the UpjDcr Rhine; Melodies of various na- 
tions, Bayly ; Songs for leisure hours, W. Wal- 
ton; Edition of Handel's trios, choruses, etc.; 
Grand triumphal ode. Accession of the king ; 
Funeral ode ; Jolly beggars, cantata by Robert 
Burns ; Single songs in great numbers. Pf. 
music, and various pieces of instrumental 
music. English national melodies, poetry, 
edited by Chas. Mackay. Syllabus of a course 
of six lectures on the origin and progress of 
the lyric drama, or opera ... to be delivered 
in the Manchester Athenaeum, 8vo, 1845. 

Bishop is now remembered chiefly by his 
songs and glees, which are among the finest 
specimens of the modern English School. 
None of his operas or musical dramas save 
" Guy Mannering " are now performed. Many 
of them were mere occasional pieces, but a 
number of the songs and concerted vocal pieces 
scattered through them are in constant use 
by vocalists and choral societies. 

Bishop, John, composer and organist, 
born in 1665. Studied under Daniel Rosein- 
grave. In 1687 he was lay-vicar at King's 
College, Cambridge, and in 1688 became 
teacher of choristers. Organist of Winchester 
College in succession to Jeremiah Clark in 
1695 ; lay-vicar of Winchester Cathedral, and 
in 1729 succeeded Vaughan Richardson as 





organist. He died at Winchester, December 
19, 1737. He published "A Sett of new 
Psahn Tunes, in four parts," cantus, medius, 
tenor and bassus, J. Walsh [1700] ; " Supple- 
ment to the new Psalm-book, consisting of 6 
new anthems and 6 new Psalm tunes," Lon- 
don, 1725 ; and some of his compositions in 
MS. are in the British jMuseum. 

Bishop, John, organist and author, born 
at Cheltenham, July 31, 1818. He was suc- 
cessively organist of St. Paul's, Cheltenham, 
1831 ; Blackburn, 1838-39 ; St. James', Chel- 
tenham ; Roman Catholic Chapel, and St. 
John's, Cheltenham. These appointments he 
resigned in 1852. He died at Cheltenham, 
February 3, 1890. 

Works — Anthems, organ music, songs, etc. 
Two collections of Chants, 1852-57, containing 
" Remarks on the singing of the daily Psalms." 
Brief memoir of George Frederick Handel, 
1856. Remarks on the causes of the present 
generally degraded state of music in our 
churches, 1860. Repertorium Musicse An- 
tiqufe — a miscellaneous collection of classical 
comx30sitions by the greatest masters of Italy, 
Germany, ed. (with J. Warren) London, 1848. 
He edited various collections of organ miisic, 
and translated various works on musical 
theory by Czerny, Reicha, G. Weber, Otto, 
Spohr, etc. 

Bisse, Thomas, clergyman and author, 
published "A Sermon preached at Hereford 
at the meeting of the choirs of Hereford, 
Gloucester and Worcester, in September, 
1726 — ' I got me men-singers and women- 
singers and the delights of the sons of men, 
as musical instruments, and that of all sorts,' " 
1726. Dr. Bisse was the virtual founder of 
the Three Choirs Festivals, which he first 
proposed at Gloucester in 1724. 

Bisset, Catherine, pianist, born London 
in 1795. She was eldest daughter of Robert 
Bisset, LL.D., author of a "Life of Burke," 
and other works. She studied under J. B. 
Cramer, and first appeared at the New Musi- 
cal Fund Concert in 1811. In 1823 she ap- 
peared at Paris, and thereafter was much 
engaged in London as pianist at private con- 
certs. She died at Barnes in February, 1864. 
Her younger sister, Elizabeth Anne (born 
London, 1800; died — ?), was a harp-player 
and composer, who studied iinder F. Dizi. 
She published a niunber of arrangements and 
fantasias for the harp and pianoforte. 

Black, Andrew, baritone vocalist, born 
in Glasgow, January 15, 1859. Was for some 
time organist of the Anderston U. P. Church, 
Glasgow, but developing a fine baritone voice, 
he studied singing under A. Randegger, and 
J. B. Welch ; afterwards receiving instruc- 
tion from Domenico Scafati in Milan. From 
1884 his singing attracted attention in Scot- 
land ; but it was at the Crystal Palace Concert, 


July 30, 1887, that he achieved his first great 
success. He sang there twice during the fol- 
lowing month, and from that time his advance 
was rapid. He made a tour in America, and 
sang in opera. His first apj)earance at a pro- 
vincial Festival was at Leeds in 1892 ; and in 
1894 he was selected for the title part in 
"Elijah" at the Birmingham Festival, and 
was engaged for the same at Gloucester in 
1895, and at Norwich, 1896. He has sung at 
all the most important concerts in the King- 
dom. Since its opening, in 1893, he has been a 
professor of singing at the Manchester Royal | 
College of Music. He is a painter of consider- 
able ability, and his wife is an accomplished 

Blackwell, Isaac, composer, flourished ' 
during latter part of 17th century. Com- 
posed " Choice Ayres, Songs, and Dialogues 
to the theorbo-lute and bass-violo," London, 

Blackwood, Helen, see Dufferin, Lady. 

Blagrave, Thomas, composer and mu- 
sician, was born in Berkshire about 1661. He I 
was a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and a| 
member of the private band of Charles II, 
He died on November 21, 1688, and is buried] 
in the north cloister of Westminster Abbey. 
He composed a few songs. 

Blagrove, Richard, violinist and teacher. 
Author of "A New and Improved System tc I 
the Art of Playing the Violin." Lond., 1828. 
Fantasias, etc., for pf., concertina, etc. His] 
brother William, who died at London in] 
1858, was also a violinist. 

Blagrove, Henry Gamble, violinist, was| 
born at Nottingham, October 20th, ,1811. 
Son of above. First appeared in public, ',1816. 
Taken to London by his father, 1817. Played! 
at Drury Lane Theatre, 1817. Studied under I 
Si3agnoletti, 1821, and became a pupil at the I 
R.A.IM., 1823. Gained silver medal, R.A.M., 
for violin playing, 1824. ]\Ieniber of Queenl 
Adelaide's private band, 1830-1837. Studied! 
under Spohr in Germany, 1832-34. Played at] 
London Concerts and Provincial Festivals.! 
He died at London, December 15th, 1872. 

Blagrove, Richard Manning, viola andl 
concertina player, brother of the preceding,! 
was born at Nottingham. In 1837 he entered! 
the R.A.M., studying the viola under H. Hill.! 
He also studied the concertina, and played! 
a solo on that instrument at the Hanover! 
Square Rooms, March 12th, 1842. With.1 
Giulio Regondi, George Case, and A. B. Sedg- 
wick, he formed a concertina quartet, thel 
first concert taking place in the room justj 
named, June 12th, 1844. The next year 
found him engaged at concerts as pianofortel 
accompanist, and viola player in his brother! 
Henry's quartet concerts. From that timel 
onward he was prominent in musical work.J 
On the death of Henry Hill, in 1856, he 




succeeded him as principal viola in the Phil- 
harmonic orchestra, and at the Three Choirs 
Festivals, posts he held until 1894. For 
many years, up to 1890, he was a professor at 
the R.A.JI., and a Fellow of that Institution. 
In 1890, he began a series of concerts at 
Clapham HaU, assisted by his sons Stanley 
and Arthur, and his wife, nee Freeth, a 
gifted pianist. He died in London, October 
21st, 1895. Published Concertina Journal, 
1853, Fantasias, etc., pf. and concertina. It 
was specially for him that G. A. Macfarren 
wrote his concertina quintet. 

Blaikie, Andrew, engraver and musician, 
who flourished in Paisley in the first half of 
the present century. He noted down and 
engraved the tunes in " jMotherwell's ]\Iin- 
strelsy," 1827, and was the owner of two 17th 
century musical manuscripts of considerable 

Blair, Hugh, organist and composer, 
eldest son of the late Rev. R. H. Blair, M.A., 
F.R.A.S., of Ayrshire family. He was born 
at Worcester, May 26th, 1864, and educated 
in Yorkshire, and the Cathedral school, 
Worcester, studying music under the late 
Dr. Done. In 1883 he gained the Choral 
Scholarship at Christ College, Cambridge, 
where he was a pupil of Dr. Garrett, and Sir 
G. A. ilacfarren. He graduated B.A., 1886, 
and Mus. Bac, 1887. Deputy organist at 
Worcester Cathedral, 1887, he was appointed 
organist-in-charge, 1889, and succeeded Dr. 
Done as organist in 1895. He conducted the 
opening service of the Worcester Festival in 
1890, and the Festivals of 1893-6. He is 
Conductor of Musical Societies at Worcester 
and Redditch, and a Vice-President of the 
London Church Orchestral Society. 

His compositions include two Cantatas: — 
"Harvest Tide" (Trinity Church, Barnes, 
1892) ; " Blessed are they who watch " (Wor- 
cester, 1894) ; Festival Evening Service, eight 
voices (Worcester Festival, 1887) ; Evening 
Service in B flat (Gloucester Festival, 1892) ; 
Te Deum and Jubilate in D (Worcester Festi- 
val, 1893) ; Anthems, Services, etc. 

Blair, William, violinist and composer, 
born at Crathie, Aberdeenshire, October 26th, 
1793, died there November 12th, 1884. He 
was famous as a player of Scots dance music, 
and was a sort of fiddler to Queen Victoria 
from 1848. He composed some dance music, 
and is remembered by his strathspey, entitled, 
" The Queen's Fiddler's compliments to ]Mr. 
Troup." His sons John and James are also 

Blake, Benjamin, composer, was born at 
Kingsland, London, 1751. He studied music by 
himself, and learned the violin, 1760. IMember 
of orchestra of Italian opera, London, 1768. 
Professor of music in Public School at Ken- 
sington, 1789-1810. He died in London, 1827. 


Works. — Three bocks of six duets for violin 
and viola. Six sonatas for pf. and violin. 
Collection of sacred music for voices and 
organ. Three solos for viola, with accompani- 
ment for bass. Glees and songs. A musical 
dialogue between master and scholar. Six 
duets for violin and tenor (1765), 2nd sett; 
3rd sett. Op. 3 ; Six sonatas for the pf.. Op. 4. 
]\Iiscellaneous collection of vocal music. Op. 
6, 1814. 

Blake, Rev. Edward, composer, was born 
at Salisbury, 1708. Fellow of Oriel College, 
Oxford. Prebendary of Salisbury Cathedral, 
and rector of Tortworth, Gloucester, 1757. 
Perpetual Curate of St. Thomas' Church, 
Salisbury. Vicar of St. IMary the Virgin, 
Oxford, 1754. He died on June 11, 1765. 
Composed anthems and instrmnental duets. 

Blakeley, William, organist and com- 
poser, born at Wakefield, February 12, 1852. 
He studied under Dr. W. Spark and Dr. J. 
F. Bridge. In 1868 he became organist of 
Thornes Church, Wakefield ; Wakefield Choral 
Societ}^ 1868-69 ; and afterwards at Croydon, 
Batlev, Morningside U. P. Church, Edin- 
burgh, 1881-90 ; Queen's Park Parish Church, 
Glasgow, 1890. He is a ]Mus. Bac. of Toronto. 

Composer of "Jonah," an oratorio; an- 
thems, part-songs, songs, and music for the 
organ, etc. Also "Prize Psalmody," a col- 
lection of original hpnn tunes. 

Blancks, Edward, composer of tu.nes in 
Este's " Whole booke of Psalmes," 1592. He 
lived during the latter part of the 16th and 
and beginning of the 17th centuries. 

Bland, Dora, see Jordan, Mrs. 

Bland, Maria Theresa, born Romanzini. 
Soprano vocalist, was born in London, of 
Italian parents in 1769. First appeared at 
Royal Circus, Londoia, 1773. Sang at Dublin 
Theatre. Debut at Drury Lane Theatre, 
October 24, 1786. JMarried Mr. Bland, brother 
to ilrs. Jordan. Sang at Haymarket Theatre, 
1791. Sang in London till 1824. She died 
at Westminster, January 15, 1838, insane. 

She was a naagnificent ballad vocalist, and 
earned most of her success on the operatic 

Blandford, George, Marquis of, 4th 
Duke of jMaiiborough, born January 26th 
[1738]. He was connected with many of the 
musical enterprises during the end of last 
and beginning of the present centuries. He 
died on January 13, 1817. Among other 
works he published "Twelve Glees for three 
and four voices," London [1798]; a "Col- 
lection of vocal music," and various Sonatas 
for the pianoforte. 

Blew, William Charles Arlington, 
barrister-at-law and musician, was born at 
London in 1848, and caUed to the bar in 
1876. Aiithor of " Organs and Organists in 
Parish Churches. A hand-book of the law 




relating to the custody, control, and use of 
organs, and the duties, rights and disahilities 
of organists," London, 1878. 

Blewitt, Jonas, composer and organist, 
born in first half of 18th century. He held 
the appointments of organist to St. Margaret 
Pattens, and St. Gabriel, Fenchurch, Londcn, 
about 1795, and to St. Catherine Coleman, 
Fenchurch Street. He performed in public. 
Died at London in 1805. 

Works. — Ten voluntaries or pieces for the 
organ, op. 5 ; Twelve easy and familiar move- 
m.ents for the organ, op. 6 ; Treatise on the 
organ with explanatory voluntaries, op. 4, 
London, n.d. 

Blewitt, Jonathan, son of above, com- 
poser and orgaiiist, born London in 1782. He 
studied under his father ahd Battishill, and 
in 1793 becanre deputy to his father. He was 
successively organist of Haverhill, Suffolk ; 
Brecon ; Sheffield, and of St. Andrew's 
Church, Dublin, in 1811. In 1811 he became 
composer and conductor at the Theatre Royal, 
Dublin, and soon after was made grand or- 
ganist to the Masonic Society of Ireland. He 
returned to London in 1826, and became 
musical director at Sadler's Wells Theatre, 
1828-29. Teacher of vocal niusic and organist 
in London. He died at London, Sept. 4, 1853. 

Works — Music to Plays, etc. : Harlequin, 
or the Man in the Moon, 1826 , Talisman of 
the Elements ; Auld Robin Gray ; My Old 
Woman; Corsair; Magician; Island of Saints; 
Rory O'More ; Mischief Making, etc. Instru- 
mental : Concerto for pf. and orch. ; Sonatas 
and Duets for pf. ; Caprices, fugues, and 
sonatas for the organ. Vocal Assistant, treatise 
on singing, London, n.d. Songs : A nice little 
man ; Adieu my moustachios ; Barney Bral- 
laghan ; England, merry England ; Let us 
drink to old friends ; My hopes are fixed upon 
thee ; Emerald Isle ; The White Cliffs of Eng- 
land ; Good bye ; Groves of Blarney ; Hamlet ; 
I saw him but once : New cries of London ; 
for a cot ; Our jolly stout jackets of blue ; 
Phillis, have you seen my love?, Pic-nic ; 
When crowned with summer roses. 

Bliss, Mrs. J. Worthington, born 
M. Lindsay, composer of the present time. 
Has written a large number of songs, some of 
which attained great popularity in their day. 
Among them may be named — Airy, fairy 
Lilian ; Alone ; Arrow and the song ; The 
Bridge [1856] ; Danish Maid ; Excelsior 
[1854] ; Far away [1868] ; Home they brought 
her warrior dead [1858] ; Hymn of the Mora- 
vian Nuns (Pulaski's Banner) [1854] ; Songs 
for children, 1871-72, in numbers ; Part-songs, 

Blitheman, William, composer and 
organist, flourished in latter half of 16th 
century. He was master of the choristers of 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1564, and one of 


the organists of the Chapel Royal. Mus. Bac, 
Cantab., 1586. Mus. Doc, do. |15?]. He 
died at London, in 1591. 

Blitheman was the preceptor of Dr. John 
Bull, and was succeeded by him at the Chapel 
Royal in 1591. His biography is unknown, 
but it is believed that he composed church 
music, and had much celebrity in his time. 

Blockley, John, composer, writer, and 
publisher, was born in 1800. Engaged in 
music-publishing business in London. He 
died at London, December 24th, 1882. 

Works. — The Sabbath Minstrel [collec- 
tion of sacred music], London, n.d. ; The 
Singer's Companion, London, n.d. Songs : 
My childhood's home ; I remember thy voice ; 
We have been friends together ; The absent 
one ; A blessing on thine eyes ; The Arab's 
farewell to his favourite steed ; The friend of 
our early days ; Love not ; Love on (reply) ; 
The Englishman ; and numerous other songs 
written to words of the Hon. Mrs. Norton, 
etc. Selection of sacred melodies from the 
works of the most celebrated composers, n.d. 
Collection of psahn and hymn tunes for four- 
voices, London, n.d. 

Blow, John, composer and organist, was- 
born at Westminster (not North CoUingham, 
Nottingham, as usually stated), 1648. One of 
Children of Chapel Royal, 1660. He studied 
under Captain Cook, Hingeston, and Chris- 
topher Gibbons. Organist of Westminster 
Abbey, 1669-80. Gentleman of Chapel Royal, 
1673-74. Master of the Children, do., July, 
1674. Organist of Chapel Royal, 1676. Pri- 
vate Musician to King James II., 1685. 
Ahnoner and master of the choristers of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, 1687-93. Re-appointed 
organist of Westminster Abbey, 1695-1708. 
Married Elizabeth Braddock. Composer to 
Chapel Royal, 1699. He died at London, 
October 1st, 1708. Buried in north choir 
aisle, Westminster. 

Works. — Amphion Anglicus, a work of 
many compositions for one, two, three, and 
four voices, with several accompagnements of 
Instrmnental Musick, and a Thorow-Bass to 
each song, figur'd for an Organ, Harpsichord, 
or Theorboe-Lute, Lond. [1700]. Odes : A 
Second Musical Entertainment, performed on 
St. Cecilia's Day, November 22nd, 1684, words 
by John Oldham, London, 1684 ; Great Quire 
of Heaven, St. Cecilia's Day, 1691 ; Te Deum 
and Jubilate, composed for St. Cecilia's Day, 
1695 ; Triiimphant Fame, St. Cecilia's Day, 
1700; Arise, Great Monarch, New Year's Day, 
1681; New Year's Day Ode, 1683; Hail, 
Monarch, do., 1686 ; Is it a Dream ? do., 1687 ; 
Ye Sons of Phoebus, do., 1688 ; others in 1689 
and 1693-94 ; Appear in all thy pomp, appear, 
do., 1700; Ode on the death of Mr. Henry 
Purcell, the words by Mr. Dryden, London, 
1696 ; Three Elegies upon the much lamented 




loss of our late mcst Gracious Queen Mary, — 
sett to Musick by Dr. Blow and INIr. Henry 
Purcell, Lond., fol., 1695. Church Services 
in A, G, and E minor, one in triple measure 
and 10 unedited. Anthems, numbering about 
100, published in Boyce's Collection, Clifford's 
Collection, Page's Harmonia Sacra, Novello's 
Series ; others existing in MS. A choice 
Collection of Lessons for the Harpsichord, 
Spinnett, etc., containing four Setts, as 
grounds, almands, corants, sarabands, min- 
uets, and jiggs, 1698. A choice Collection of 
Lessons, being excellently sett to the Harpsi- 
chord, etc., by Blow and Purcell, 1705. 
Catches in the "Pleasant Musical Companion," 
published in various editions ; Do. pub. in 
The Catch Club, or Merry Companions ; Songs 
in D'Urfey's collections, and in others of the 
same period ; Organ music ; Chants. 

Blow, Rev. William, rector of Layer- 
Breton, Essex. A direct descendant of John 
Blow. Was esteemed one of the finest am- 
ateur violinists in Europe. He possessed the 
finest collection of violins in Crreat Britain. 
Died in January, 1887. 

Blower, John Henry, bass vocalist, born 
at Wolverhampton. Studied at the National 
Training School for Music, under J. B. Welch. 
He sang in concerts in Birmingham and 
district from about 1878 ; appeared at the 
Crystal Palace Concerts, April 15th, 1882, and 
at the Leeds Festival of 1883. Afterwards he 
gave himself up to teaching, and is now a 
Professor at the R.C.M. Miss Clara Butt was 
for some time his pupil. 

Bloxsome, Charles, author of " Elemen- 
tary practice for the Vocal Student," Lend., 
1857; "Elements of singing, chord and scale 
exercises to develop the voice," London, n.d. 

Blyth, Benjamin, composer and organist, 
who graduated Mus. Doc, Oxford, in 1833. 
He composed church music, "A Sanctus, two 
jubilates, and eight double chants," London, 
1841. Pf. music, and songs. His son, Benjamin 
Blyth, was organist of Magdalen College, 
Oxford. M.A., Oxford. Died at Whitchurch, 
Oxford, July 20th, 1883, aged 58. 

Boardman, John George. Published 
" Sacred INIusic, a selection of jjsalm tunes," 
London, 1844. Thomas Jamks Boakdman 
issued a " Collection of psalm and hymn tunes, 
ancient and modern," London, 1854 ; " The 
Copious Tune Book, a collection of psalm and 
hjonn tunes," London [I860]. Two editions. 
He also composed songs, etc. 

Bodda, Louisa Fanny, see Pyne, Louisa 

Bogue, Christina W., see Morison, 
Christina W. 

Bokwe, John Knox, Kaffir composer. 
Secretary of the Lovedale Institution, Cape 
Colony. Composer of Kaffir hymn tunes, and 
a book of part-songs, of which the type-setting 


and the whole production were the work of 
coloured sol-faists. 

Bolton, Thomas, musician and teacher, 
who flourished circa 1760-1820. He issued 
" Collection of Lessons, songs, etc., for the 
harp, lute, or lyre," London, 1797 ; " Collec- 
tion of airs, marches, dances, etc., adapted 
for the pf., with accompaninaents for the lyre 
or lute," London, 1806 ; Six Rondeaus, three 
songs, etc., op. 3 ; " Select collection of songs 
and airs arranged for the harp, lute, etc," 
1815; "Treatise on singing," London, 1810. 

]\Iary Catherine Bolton (who became 
Lady Thurlow, in 1813), a soprano vocalist. 
Born, London, 1790, died, Southampton, 
September 28th, 1830 ; and Eliza Bolton, 
her sister, who was also a soprano singer, 
appearing at concerts about the same time, 
were probably daughters of Thomas Bolton. 

Bond, Capel, composer and organist, lived 
in Coventry during middle of last century. 
He was organist and conductor of the first 
Birmingham IMusical Festival, 176S, and died 
in 1790. 

Works. — Six anthems in score, one of which 
is for Christmas Day, 1769. Six concertos 
for 4 violins, tenor, and 'cello, with thorough 
bass, 1766. Glees and songs. 

Bond, Hugh, organist and composer, was 
born at Exeter in the beginning of the 18th 
century. Lay-vicar Exeter Cathedral, 1762. 
Organist of Church of St. Mary Arches. He 
died in 1792. 

Works. — Twelve hpnns and four anthems, 
for four voices, London, 1776 ; The psahns of 
David ; also an appendix containing select 
hymns, London, 1780. Glees and songs. 

Bond, Jessie, vocalist and actress, born 
in Liverpool, daughter of John Bond, piano- 
forte mechanician of that city. Appeared at 
Hope Hall as a pianist at the age of eight, 
and was educated as a pianist at the R.A.M. 
But developing a contralto voice she took to 
singing, and became a pupil of INIanuel Garcia. 
She sang at the Crystal Palace, at Riviere's 
Concerts, and in the provinces. She was the 
original Hebe in " H.M.S. Pinafore " ; and 
since then has filled a round of characters in 
the Gilbert and Sullivan operas at the Savoy 

Bond=Andrews, sec Andrews (J. C. Bond). 

Bonnyboots. English singer and dancer 
of much fame in the reign of Queen Elizabeth 
bore this nickname. He is noticed in Haw- 
kins' " History/of Music." 

Booth, Josiah, organist and composer, 
born in Coventry, March 27, 1852. Studied 
under the late Edward Sims, Coventry ; Dr. 
James Taylor, Oxford ; and later, at the R.A.M. 
under Brinley Richards, and G. A.]\Iacfarren. 
Appointed organist at Banbury, 1867, and has 
been since 1877, organist and choirmaster at 
Park Chapel, Crouch End. 




Works. — Oratorios, Nehemiah (produced 
1885) ; Cantata, The Day of Rest, for female 
voices. School operettas ; The Babes in the 
Wood ; Dick Whittington ; and The six Prin- 
cesses. Church Services ; Anthems, Grant, 
we beseech Thee ; Thou crownest the year, 
and others. Hjann-tunes and chants. Part- 
songs ; The Mighty Caravan (produced by 
Henry Leslie's Choir, 1883) Album of twelve 
songs, &c., &c. Musical editor of Parts II. 
and III. of the Congregational Church Hym- 
nal, and author of Everybody's Guide to 
Music, London, Saxon. 

Booth, Robert, organist and composer, 
born at St. Andrews, December 29, 1862. 
Studied at the Madras School there, and 
under different masters. Organist, Holy Trin- 
ity Church, Kilmarnock, 1880, and for some 
time musical director of Kilmarnock Opera 
House. In 1887, he was appointed organist 
and choirmaster of Coltness Memorial Church, 

Works. — Festival Service in G ; Gloria in 
Excelsis ; Anthem, The Lord is my Shepherd ; 
Oi^eretta, Sisters Three; or Britannia's Heroes, 
for principals, chorus and orchestra ; Eight- 
part song, with solo, Lochinvar ; School Song- 
book, in three-part harmony — spnphony, and 
overture, orchestra ; Intermezzo, Maypole 
dance, for strings. Waltzes, for pf. and or- 
chestra. Author of a book on Musical Theory, 
and other didactic works. 

Borton, Alice, pianist, and composer. 
Educated at B.A.M., of which she is an Asso- 
ciate. Has composed Sacred Choral ]\Iusic, 
and songs ; an Andante and Rondo for pf . and 
orchestra ; Suite in the olden style, pf. ; Three 
Scotch pieces, etc. 

Berwick, W. Leonard, j^ianist, born at 
Walthamstow, Essex, February 26, 1868. 
Comes of an old Staffordshire family, many 
members of which were musical. His dis- 
position for music was shewn at a very early 
age ; and after some years of study under 
London masters, he entered the Hocli Con- 
servatorium, Frankfort, 1884, where he was a 
pupil of Madame Sehmnann for five years. 
He also studied composition with Bernard 
Scholz and Iwan Knorr. His debut took place 
at the Museum Concerts, Frankfort, Novem- 
ber 8, 1889, when he played the solo part in 
Beethoven's E fiat Concerto. His success 
was so marked that he was engaged for the 
London Philharmonic Concerts, and he made 
his first appearance in England, IMay 8, ] 890, 
playing Schumann's Concerto. He appeared 
at the Richter, Crystal Palace, and Popiilar 
Concerts, St. James's Hall, the same year ; 
and has now been heard at the principal 
musical centres in Britain, and Germany, 
ranking with the great pianists of the day. 

Bosanquet, R. H. M., Fellow of St. 
John's College, Oxford. Author of "An Ele- 


mentary treatise on musical intervals and 
temperament, London, 1876 ; also of various 
papers read before the Musical Association 
(1874) ; the College of Organists ; and the 
R.A.M. In 1881, he accepted the professor- 
ship of acoustics, R.A.M. 

Botting, Herbert William, composer, 
organist and pianist, born at Brighton, IMarch 
28, 1869. Studied for two years with Dr. P. 
J. Sawyer, during which time he obtained the \ 
diploma of F.R.C.O. ; then proceeded to Leip- ■ 
zig Conservatorium, and on his return was 
articled to Dr. J. F. Bridge, of Westminster 
Abbey. Graduated IMus. B., Durham, 1891. 
In Leipzig, he held the post of organist and 
choirmaster at the English Church (1888) ; in 
1891, he was appointed to St. Luke's, South- 

Eort, and four years later to St. Nicholas, 
Irighton, and finally to St. Aag\;stine's,| 
Preston Park, Brighton, 1896. He is founder! 
and conductor of the Preston Park Choral and] 
Orchestral Society ; and is known as a pianist, 
organist, and horn player. His compositions] 
comprise an Ode, Christ's Nativity, for so-i 
prano solo, chorus and orchestra (Univ. ex.) M 
The Chase, and The Return of Spring, for] 
soli, chorus and orchestra; A Spring Idyll, [ 
for orchestra ; pieces for pf., organ, violin,] 
violoncello ; songs, etc. 

Bottomley, Joseph, composer, organist,! 
and pianist, was born at Halifax, Yorkshire,] 
1786. Studied in Manchester, under Grim- 
shaw, Watts, Yaniewicz ; and at Leeds, under 
Lawton, to whom he was articled j)upil. He^ 
afterwards studied pf. under Woelfl, at Lon- 
don. Organist of Parish Church of Bradford,] 
1807 ; organist of Parish Church, Sheffield,] 
1820. He died after 1850. 

Works. — Dictionary of Music, London,] 
1816. New Svstem of Practising and Teach-I 
ing the Pianoforte, Sheffield, n.d. [1847]. Six| 
Exercises for the pf. Rondos and airs for pf.; 
Divertissements for pf. and flute. Twelve 
Sonatinas for pf. Songs, Glees, etc. 

Bourne, C. E., author of "The greafcj 
composers, or stories of the lives of eiuinentf 
musicians," London, 1884. He has also! 
written a number of popular works on bio- 
graphy, etc. 

Bowdler, Cyril William, composer, ofl 
Welsh descent on the maternal side, born inl 
Yorkshire, September 2Sth, 1839. As a boyJ 
he studied music under Dr. John Camidge,] 
of York, and subsequently with Sir R. Prescotfrj 
Stewart, whose pupil he remained for a long] 
period. Graduated Mus. B. and B.A., Dublin,] 
1864, and LL.D., Dublin, 1896. For twoj 
years, 1877-9, he was hon. organist at Allj 
Saints', Aldershot ; but he is chiefly devotecl| 
to composition. 

Works. — Music for the divine liturgy ofl 
St. John Chrysostom (Greek, 1864); complete] 
church services in E, F, G, B flat, and C ;J 




niunerous anthems, bynin tunes, etc. ; 
" Iniclda," three-act Italian opera ; Cantata — 
The descent of spring ; songs, organ and pf . 
pieces, etc. 

Bowie, John, violinist and composer. 
Was born near Perth, in 1759, and died there 
in 1815. He published about the end of last 
century a " Collection of strathspey reels and 
country dances, with a bass for the violoncello 
or harpsichord. Dedicated to the Countess 
of Kinnoul," Edinburgh [1789]. He also pub- 
lished several dance tunes on single sheets. 
He was engaged as a miasic-seller in Perth, 
and gave balls in conjunction with his brother. 

His brother Peter (1768-1846), was also a 
violinist, and a teacher of the pianoforte. 

Bowley, Robert Kanzow, musician, 
was born in London, ^lay, 1813, and died in 
August, 1870. Author of " Grand Handel 
Musical Festival at the Crystal Palace in 1857, 
a Letter," London, 1856. " The Sacred Har- 
monic Society, a thirty-five years retrospect," 
London, 1867. This musician was connected 
with the Sacred Harmonic Society, and he 
assisted in establishing the Great Handel 
Celebrations at the Crystal Palace, London. 

Bowling, a family of musicians. The 
father, John Bowling, organist, violinist, and 
pianist, was born at Leeds, November 11th, 
1820. At the age of eleven he was appointed 
organist of Heckmondwike parish church, 
and afterwards filled the office of organist of 
East Parade chapel, Leeds, for 34 years. He 
was conductor of musical societies in several 
Yorkshire towns, and of the Leeds Madrigal 
and Motet Societv. He died at Leeds, April 
16th, 1882. 

His son, John Pew Bowling, born at 
Leeds, ]May 26th, 1851, was considered the 
finest pianist in the county. He was also an 
able violinist, and organist, holding an ap- 
pointment at All Souls' (Hook Memorial) 
Church. Was the first Principal of the York- 
shire College of Music, Leeds, and conductor 
of the Leeds Amateur Orchestral Society, and 
the Huddersfield Orpheus Society. He died 
at Leeds, July 6th, 1886. 

James W'hewall Bowling, the youngest 
son, was born at Leeds, January 6th, 1860. 
Besides being an excellent pianist and organ- 
ist, he showed much ability as a composer. 
He succeeded his brother as Principal of the 
College of ]Music, and was organist to Ladj^ 
Mary Yyner, Skelton, near Ripon. His com- 
positions comprised six songs ; four songs for 
tenor. Op. 5 ; a second set of four songs ; suite, 
Op. 3, for pianoforte, etc. He died December 
13th, 1888, under mournful circumstances. 
His health being dehcate, he was spending the 
winter in Switzerland (the Engadine). Skat- 
ing on the lake near the hotel, one of the 
party fell through the ice, and ISowling was 
drowned in attempting a rescue. 


Bowman, Henry, composer, flourished 
during latter half of 17th century. Wrote 
" Songs for one, two, and three voyces to the 
Thorow-Bass. With some short Symphonies. 
Collected out of some of the select poems of 
the incomparable Mr. Cowley, and others, 
and composed by Henry Bo\vnian, Philo- 
Musicus," Oxford. 1677. 

Bowman, Rev. Thomas, amateur musi- 
cian, born in 1728. He was vicar of Martham, 
Norfolk, and died in 1792. He composed " A 
collection of English odes, cantatas, songs, 
etc." London, 1760. Single songs, etc. 

Box, Charles, author of " Church nmsic 
in the jMotropolis, its past and present condi- 
tion, with notes critical and explanatory," 
London, 1884. 

Boyce, Ethel Mary, composer and pian- 
ist, born at Chertsey, Surrey, October 5th, 
1863. Daughter of George Boyce, J. P. 
Studied at R.A.M., pianoforte under Walter 
Macfarren, and composition under F. W. 
Davenport. Was Lady Goldsmid Scholar, 
1885; Potter Exhibitioner, 1886; won the 
Sterndale Bennett Prize the same year, and 
the Lucas Medal for composition, 1889. Res- 
ident in Chertsey as composer and teacher. 
Associate, R.A.M., 1890. 

Works. — Cantatas : The Lay of the brown 
rosary (Mrs. Browning), 1890; Young Loch- 
invar, 1891 ; The sands of Corriemie, female 
voices, 1895 ; ]\Iarch in E, orchestra, West- 
minster Orchestral Society, 1889 ; Eight pieces, 
violin and pianoforte (Novello's albums). 
Songs — " So she went drifting," and others. 
Part-songs: "Love has come," etc. Piano- 
forte pieces : "To PhyUis"; Short pieces for 
children, etc. 

Boyce, William, composer and organist, 
was born in London, 1710. Chorister in St. 
Paul's Cathedral under Charles King. Arti- 
cled pupil to Maurice Greene, organist of St. 
Paul's. Organist of St. Peter's, Vere Street, 
1734. Studied under Dr. Pepusch. Organist 
(in succession to Kelway) of St. Michael's, 
Cornhill, 1736-68. Composer to Chapel Royal 
and the King, June, 1736. Conductor at 
meetings of choirs of Gloucester, Hereford, 
and Worcester, 1737. Organist of AUhallows 
the Great and the Less, Thames Street, 1749- 
69. Bac. and Doc. of Music, Cambridge, 1749. 
Master of Royal Band of Music, 1775. One 
of the organists to Chapel Royal, 1758. He 
died at Kensington, London, February 7th, 
1779. Buried in crypt, St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Works. — Peleus and Thetis, masque, by 
Lord Lansdowne, 17 ? ; Solomon, serenata by 
Dr. Edward Moore, 1747; The Chaplet, a 
musical drama, London, 1745 ; David's 
lamentation over Saul and Jonathan, oratorio, 
by Lockman, 1736 ; Ode for St. Cecilia's Day, 
by Lockman ; Ode for St. Cecilia's Day, by 
Vidal; Music to the Shepherd's Lottery, 1750; 




Ode for the Installation of the Duke of New- 
castle as Chancellor of Cambridge University, 
1749 ; Fifteen anthems and a te deuni and 
jubilate, 1780 ; Collection of twelve anthems 
and a service, 1790 ; Ode to charity ; Pindar's 
first Pythian ode, 1749 ; Masque in the Tem- 
pest. Cathedral music, being a collection in 
score of the most valuable and useful compo- 
sitions for that service, etc. [containing 
examples of Aldrich, Batten, Bevin, Byrd, 
Blow, Bull, Child, Jer. Clark, Creyghton, 
Croft, Farrant, Gibbons, Goldwin, Humphreys, 
King Henry VIII., Lawes, Locke, Slorley, 
Purcell, Rogers, Tallis, Turner, Tye, Weldon, 
and Wise] London, 3 vols, fol., 1760-78 ; second 
edition, with memoir by Sir J. Hawkins, 1778, 
also editions by V. Novello and J. Warren, 
1849. Eight symphonies for variotis instru- 
ments ; Twelve sonatas for two violins and 
bass, 1749. Organ concerto. Lyra Britannica, 
Collection of songs, duets, and cantatas, n.d. 
Overtures. Songs, duets, etc., in contempo- 
rary collections. 

Boyce, William; only son of the above, 
was born March 25th, 1764. He was intended 
for the church, and sent to Oxford ; but com- 
mitting some irregularity, was obliged to quit 
that university without obtaining a degree. 
He then became a double-bass player at the 
opera and principal concerts, and was in the 
orchestra at the Birmingham Festivals, 1802-5. 
Considerable property coming to him, he lived 
in retirement some years before his death, 
which took place early in 1824. 

Boyd, Henry, nu^sician of 18th century, 
was a teacher of psalmody and precentor in 
the Methodist Chapel, John Street, Glasgow. 
He died at Glasgow, November 17th, 1792. 

He compiled " A select collection of psalm 
and hymn tunes in three parts, adapted to a 
great variety of measures, to which is prefixed 
an introduction to the art of singing." .... 
Published for the benefit of his widow, 1793. 
Boyle, Frank, tenor vocalist, born at 
Barnstaple, August 13th, 1857. His father, 
William Boyle, has sung in the choir of Barn- 
staple Parish Church from his boyhood, and 
is still principal alto there. Frank, as a boy, 
displayed musical talent. His father taught 
him singing, and he had violin lessons from 
the late John Edwards, and organ lessons 
froin Dr. J. H. Edwards. Was a chorister at 
Holy Trinity Church, and, after leaving 
school, entered a newspaper office, singing, at 
times, at local concerts. He soon decided to 
devote himself to music, and winning the 
Corporation of London Scholarship, entered 
the National Training School, South Ken- 
sington. While there he sang as principal 
tenor at St. Matthias, Stoke Newington. 
Sang in the Messiah at the Albert Hall, Good 
Friday, 1880, and at the promenade concerts 
the same year. In 1882, was engaged for the 


Hereford Festival. Joined D'Oyly Carte's 
Opera Company ; toured in Australia, 1885-6 ; 
on his return rejoined D'Oyly Carte, and sang 
in George Edwards' English Opera Company. 
In 1891 his health broke down. He bi^rst a 
blood vessel in the lungs, and died at Barn- 
staple, February 6th, 1892. 

Boys, Henry, composer and teacher, was 
born about 1806, and died at Margate, Febru- 
ary 8th, 1851. He composed Cupid and 
Campaspe, a cantata, 1842, and the following 
glees : Friar Tuck ; The pearl divers ; Smug- 
gler's chaunt ; War-boat song of the Crusaders, 

Bradberry, Qervas, amateur composer, 
was b(irn about 1776, died at Pentonville, 
London, December 29th, 1862. He composed 
glees and songs, and harmonized a number 
of glees by other composers, as " Twenty-four 
select melodies of eminent composers harmon- 
ized for three voices," London [1825]. 

Bradbury, Orlando, vocalist and com- 
poser, was born about 1805. He was a Gen- 
tleman of the Chapel Royal, St. James' Palace, 
London ; lay- vicar of Westminster Abbey, and 
a bass singer of some note. He died at 
London, December 14th, 1872. Composer of 
ballads and other vocal music. 

Brade, William, composer and viol-player, 
who flourished about beginning of 17th cen- 
tury, and died at Frankfort in 1647. He 
published Paduanen, galliarden, canzonetten, 
etc., 1609; Neue Paduanen unci gagliarden 
niit stimmen, 1614 ; Neue Lustige Volten 
Couranten, Balletten, etc. 

Bradford, Jacob, organist and composer, 
born at Bow, London, June 3, 1842. Chor- 
ister, St. Paul's, Walworth. To a great extent 
self-taught in music, but was a pupil of Sir 
John Goss, and Dr. Steggall. Assistant or- 
ganist to Scotson Clark at St. Helens, and St. 
Ethelburga, Bishopsgate ; and at the age of 
twenty, gained the appointment of organist 
at St. Philip's, Kennington. Graduated Mus. 
B., 1873; Mus. D., 1878, Oxford. Organist, 
St. James's, Hatcham, 1868-75, and conductor 
of . orchestral services he introduced there ; 
and, after holding ^ arious appointments, went 
to St. ]\Iary's, Newington, in 1892, holding 
that position to the present time. Was music 
master at the Royal Naval School, New Cross, 
1881-90 ; and is a professor at West Kent 
Grammar School, and conductor of the New- 
ington Choral Society. From 1882 he was 
for some years Hon. Sec. to the Musical Artists' 
Society. Has contributed articles to Musical 
News, and other papers. 

Works. — Oratorio, Judith (produced, St. 
James's Hall, Feb. 28, 1888); Cantata, The 
Song of Jubilee, Op. 44 ; Cantata, Praise the 
Lord ; Harvest Cantata ; Anthenrs, Church 
Services, etc. Sinfonia Ecclesiastica, for 
double choir and orchestra ; overtures, etc., 




in MS. Trig in E flat, pf. and strings ; organ 
Sonata in C minor, Op. 47, etc. Compiler of 
The ^lusic Pupil's Register (Novello). 

Bradley, Charles, organist and composer, 
born at Wakefield, October 20, 1846. Trained 
under R. S. Burton, Dr. P. Arnies and P. W. 
Davenport. Organist successively of St. Mic- 
hael's, Wakefield, 1856-66 ; St. Paul's, Middles- 
brough, 1871-82 : St. George's, Edinburgh, 
1882-85 : Abbey Parish Church, 1885-87 ; and 
South Leith Parish Church, 1887. He was 
organist to the Edinburgh Choral Union, from 
1883 to 1890. Composer of anthems and other 
-Church music, songs, and organ music. 

Bradley, Frank H., organist and pianist, 
born in Birmingham. Pupil of A. Deakin, 
and A. R. Gaul. Organist of St. Barnabas, 
Birmingham, 1867 ; at Stoke-on-Trent ; Quebec 
Cathedral, Canada ; professor of music, and 
organist, Tettenhall College, Wolverhampton ; 
St. John's, W'ilton Road, London ; St. And- 
rews, West Kensington (1884). Has given 
organ and pianoforte recitals in Birmingham, 
Paris, South Kensington International Ex- 
hibition, 1883 ; at the Kimberley Exhibition, 
South Africa, 1892-3; also in Australia, and 
was accompanist and conductor during ]\Ir. 
Santley's tour in Australia, 1889-90. 

Bradley, Joseph, pianist and conductor, 
born at Hyde, Cheshire, February 28, 1857. 
At twelve, he was organist at St. Paul's, Staly- 
bridge ; and two years later at Heaton Chapel, 
Manchester; F.R.C.0.,1873 ; Mus.B., Oxford, 
1875. For six years, 1881-7, he was organist and 
deputy chorus-master to Sir Charles Halle at 
Manchester, and conductor of societies at 
Stockport, Stalybridge, and other places. In 
1887, he was appointed chorus-master to the 
Glasgow Choral Union, and later, conductor of 
the Choral Concerts. He composed "A Song 
of Praise," for chorus and orchestra, expressly 
for performance when the Queen visited Glas- 
gow Exhibition in August, 1888. 

Bradley, Orton, pianist and conductor, 
born at Greenwich, December 11th, 1858. 
Educated at Harrow, and Hertford College, 
Oxford. Pupil of John Farmer ; scholar and 
organist of his coUege ; graduated M.A., with 
classical honours. Organist, King Edward's 
School, Bromsgrove, 1891, for one year. From 
1887 to 1893, held the position of Musical 
Director to the People's Palace, London, and 
was the first conductor of the National 
Smiday League Choir. As a pianist, he has 
devoted much attention to the compositions 
of Brahms. In 1893 he went to New York, 
where he gained a distinguished position as 
conductor and pianist. His settings of poems 
by Jean Ingelow, and Rossetti (The Blessed 
Damosel), for recitation, have been performed 
at the Lyric Club [1886]. 

Bradshaw, Ann Maria, horn Tree, 
soprano vocalist and actress, born at London, 


in August, 1801. She first appeared in the 
" Barber of Seville " at Covent Garden, in 
1818, and continued to act and sing in public 
till 1825, when she married Mr. James Brad- 
shaw, and retired. She was sister to Ellen 
Tree the actress. 

Bradshaw, Ralph, musician and com- 
piler, was born in Bolton about 1776. He 
died in 1832. Issued " Twenty-four psalm and 
h\nnn tunes, composed and arranged for four 
voices . . ." [1820]. A Second set of psalm or 
hnnn tunes, London [1825]. 

Brady, Nicholas, divine and poet, born 
at Bandon, 1659, died at Richmond, Surrey, 
1726. He was associated with Tate in the 
production of a metrical version of the Psalms 
of David. He also wrote " Church music 
vindicated ; a sermon preached at St. Bride's 
Church on Monday, November 22nd, 1697, 
being St. Ceecilia's Day, the anniversary feast 
of the lovers of musick," London, 1697. 

Braham, John, tenor vocalist and com- 
poser, Ixirn in London, of Jewish parents, 
1774 [1772]. He studied under Leoni, and 
first appeared at the Royalty Theatre, Well- 
close Square, London, 1787. He appeared at 
Covent Garden, April 21st, 1787, and sang at 
Bath in 1794, where he studied under Rauz- 
zini. He sang at DruryLane Theatre in 1796, 
and afterwards travelled in Italy, and appeared 
at Florence, Rome, Naples, Milan, Genoa, 
Venice, etc., with Mrs. Billington and others. 
While in Italy he studied under Isola, and in 
1801 he returned to London, where he 
re-appeared at Covent Crarden Theatre. He 
married Miss Bolton, of Ardwick, in 1816. 
He sang as Huon in Weber's Oberon, in 1826. 

Lost his fortune by failure of several spec- 
ulations, 1851. Died at London, February 
17th, 1856. 

Works. — Music to Dramas : The Cabinet, 
1801 ; Family Quarrels, 1802 ; The English 
Fleet, 1802 (containing "All's WeU," duet, 
etc.) ; Thirty Thousand, 1804 ; Out of Place, 
1805 ; False Alarms, 1807 ; Kais, or Love in a 
Desert, 1808 (with Reeve) ; The Devil's Bridge 
(with C. E. Horn), 1812; The Paragraph; 
Narensky, or The Road to Yarostaf ; The 
Americans; The Magicians (with IM. P. King). 
Single songs, glees, etc. Death of Nelson, song. 

His sons, John Hamilton Braham (London, 
1818; Rochester, December 22nd, 1862), and 
Charles Bamfylde (London, 1822 ; London, 
June 11th, 1884), were both vocalists, the 
former, a baritone, who first appeared at the 
Hanover Square Rooms, November 2nd, 1843 ; 
and the latter, a tenor. His grandson, Edward 
B. Braham, appeared as a 'cellist in 1885. 

Braine, William Richard, organist and 
composer, born at London, November 8, 1829 ; 
died there February 19, 1865. Was for 18 
years organist of St. Barnabas, Kensington. 
Compiler of " The St. Barnabas Music Book," 





1850 ; " Hymns for the Church, or home 
circle," London, 1861. ComiDoser of duets, 
songs, and pf. music. 

Branscombe, Edward, tenor vocalist, 
born at Camberwell, London. Studied for 
three years at the Guildhall School of Music ; 
at the R.C.iM. for two years, under Blume, 
and later with Sims Reeves. When nineteen, 
he was appointed choirmaster and assistant 
organist of St. Paul's, West Brixton, and 
formed the Brixton Orpheus Glee Club. A 
concert he gave in Brixton Hall, October 19, 
1885, brought him into notice as a singer. 
In 1887, he was appointed to the Church of 
St. Andrew, Wells Street ; and in December, 
1890, lay-vicar, Westminster Abbey. He has 
sung at the principal London concerts ; at 
the Crystal Palace ; and in the chief provin- 
cial centres. He married Marie Hooton, 
the contralto vocalist, who studied at the 
R.A.M., winning the Westmoreland Scholar- 
ship, 1888, and the Parepa Rosa Gold Medal, 
1890. The artist pair now rank among the 
raost successful of our younger singers. 

Braun, Charles, composer, born in Liver- 
pool, 1868, where his father, an accomplished 
amateur, was partner in a large business firm. 
He was educated at Clifton, and Cambridge. 
Studied music at Leipzig, under Hans Sitt. 
Resident in England, and engaged in com- 
position. His cantata, " Sir Olaf," was pro- 
duced at the Philharmonic Hall, Liverpool, 
March 5, 1889, and attracted much attention. 
In December, 1890, a second cantata, " Sigurd," 
was produced with success at the same place, 
both performances being conducted by Mr. 
Rodewald, an amateur, who has done much 
for music in Liverpool. Charles Braun has 
written a good many songs, and is now en- 
gaged on an opera. 

Bray, Mrs. Anna Eliza (born Kempe), 
writer, born at St. Mary, Newington, Surrey, 
December 25, 1790. She died at London, 
January 21, 1883. Wrote a number of novels 
and miscellaneous works, and "Handel: his 
Life, Personal and Professional, with Thoughts 
on Sacred Music," London (Ward & Co.,) 1857. 
Breakspeare, Eustace John, composer, 
writer and pianist, born in Birmingham, April 
22, 1854. Studied under S. S. Stratton. Has 
appeared at concerts in Birmingham, as solo 
pianist and accompanist, but is better known 
as a writer on music. He has read papers on 
"Musical Aesthetics," and other subjects, at 
meetingsof the IMusical Association (1880-2-3) ; 
the College of Organists (1883), and at various 
institutions in Birmingham. His contributions 
to the Musical Standard, Musical Record, Musi- 
cal Times, Musical Opinion, and other papers, 
are very numerous, and embrace a wide range 
of subject matter. He has written a Suite, and 
many pieces for pf., and a number of songs, 
but hitherto very little has been published. 

Brechin, William, teacher, and inventor 
of " Brechin's Stave Sol-fa Notation," was 
born at Brechin, Forfar, 1824. He held ap- 
pointments as precentor in Montrose, Forfar, 
Perth, Leith, and Edinburgh. The principal 
feature of his system is the employment of 
letters, as in the ordinary Tonic Sol-fa, to 
represent the notes, together with certain 
signs to mark the duration. The notes are 
written on the staff. In addition to the in- 
vention of the Stave Sol-fa Notation, Brechin 
has edited and compiled "Vocal Exercises, 
Rounds, etc., in the Stave Sol-fa Notation, 
forming a short course of Lessons in Sight 
Singing in the key of F." "Congregational 
]\Iusic, Psalms, Hymns, etc., in Stave Sol-fa No- 
tation." "The Standard Scottish Psalmody" 
(compiled froni the foregoing) " Exercises in 
Sight Singing"; " School Song Books"; "The 
Stave Sol-fa Journal " (publishing in parts) 
containing pieces by Croft, Beethoven, Mason, 
Stevenson, Blow, Handel, etc." ; Two Books 
of Swedish Songs. 

Breden, Owen, music master at St. 
INIark's College, Chelsea, was born at Norwood 
in 1841. He was for five years a j)upil teacher 
at King's Somborne School, Hants. ; and in 
1860, gained a Queen's Scholarship at St. 
Mark's College, as a student. He had pre- 
viously learned xjianoforte and organ playing ; 
and as the organ at the College Chapel was 
put u^j while he was a student, he has played 
it from the first, and continues to act as 
organist and choirmaster. He became suc- 
cessively master of the upper school, tutor, 
and vice-principal ; and in 1883, gave up the 
last to undertake the musical work. For this, 
he had qualified himself by studying piano- 
forte under Dr. Wylde, organ under Dr. E. J. 
Hopkins, and singing under John Elwin. 

Brekell, John, clergyman, author of 
" A Discourse on Musick, chiefly Church 
Musick ; occasioned by the openiug of the new 
Organ in St. Peter's Church in Liverpool . . . 
Sermon," London, 1766. 

Brema, Marie, originally Bremer, voca- 
list, mezzo-soprano, a native of Liverpool. 
She studied under G. Henschel, and made 
her debut at the Monday Popular Concerts, 
February 23, 1891. Later (October) in the 
sanie year, she ax^peared as Lola in " Cavalleria 
Rusticana," at the Shaftesbury Theatre. She 
first sang at the Philharmonic Concerts, April 
20, 1893, and at the Crystal Palace, March 24, 
1894. She was engaged for the Bayreuth 
performance of 1894, appearing as Ortrud, 
and in 1896, as Fricka and Kundry. Her Fes- 
tival debut took place at Birmingham, October 
3, 1895, when she created a marked impression 
by her dramatic rendering of the part of the 
Evil Spirit in Hubert Parry's oratorio, "King 
Saul." She now ranks among the leading 
singers of the day. 




Bremner, Robert, musician and pub- 
lisher, born in Scotland about 1720 [1713]. 
He was a pupil of Geminiani, and taught 
music in Edinburgh. On December 13, 1753, 
he gave a concert in the High School, Leith. 
He commenced business as a music-seller and 
publisher at the Golden Harp, opposite the 
head of Blackfriars Wynd, Edinburgh, in 
1751 ; in 1755 he changed his sign to the Harp 
and Hautbo}- ; and in 1759 he removed to 
another shop in the High Street. He re- 
moved to London, and opened a shop with 
the Harp and Hautboy sign, in the Strand, 
opposite Somerset House, in 1762. Both busi- 
nesses were carried on till his death, the 
Edinburgh one being managed by John Bry- 
son, who succeeded him. He died at Ken- 
sington Gore, London, on Mar 12, 1789. 

Works. — Collection of the best Church 
tunes, in four parts. Published by Robert 
Bremner, by order of the Honourable the 
Conunittee for improving Church music in 
the City of Edinburgh, n.d. Thirty Scotch 
songs, souie of which are for two voices, with 
a thorough bass for the harpsichord or spin- 
net . . . The words from Allan Ramsay, except 
a few never before printed. Edin. [1757] A 
Second Set of Scots Songs, Edin., n.d. These 
were re-issued in London about 1762-65. The 
Songs in the Gentle Shepherd, adapted to the 
guitar, Edin. 1759. The A^ocal Harmonists' 
Magazine, being a collection of catches, glees, 
canons, and canzonets, London, n.d. The 
Freemasons' Songs, with choruses in 3 and 4 
parts ... to which is added some other songs 
proper for Lodges, London [1759] . A col- 
lection of Scots Reels, or Country dances, with 
a bass for the violoncello or harpsichord . . , 
Edin. [issued in 8 parts, 1757-61] A second 
collection of Scots Reels or Country dances . . . 
London [2 parts, 1768] . A curious collection 
of Sects tunes, with variations for the violin, 
and a bass for the violoncello or harpsichord, 
Edin. 759. Rudiments of Music, or a short 
and easy treatise on that subject, to which is 
added a collection of the best ©hurch tunes, 
canons and anthems. Edin. 1756 ; 2nd ed. 
Edin., 1762 ; 3rd ed. London, 1763. Instruc- 
tions for the guitar, London, n.d. Thoughts 
on the pei'fornrance of Concert music [pre- 
fixed to Schetky's Quartets, Op. 6] , London, 
n.d. The Harpsichord or Spinnet Miscellany, 
London [1760] . Select concert pieces for the 
Harpsichord or Pianoforte . . . London, 1780, 
pub. in numbers. 

Brent, Charlotte, sec Pinto, Mrs. 

Brereton, William Henry, bass vocalist, 
born at Bedford, in 1860. Son of the late 
Rev. Canon Brereton, rector of St. Mary's, 
Bedford. Studied under Manuel Garcia, 
R.A.M., 1877-80; with Sebastian Ronconi, 
Milan, 1881 ; and had occasional lessons from 
the late J. B. Welch, and Alberto Randegger, 


1882, and later. He made a successful dehut 
at the Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts, Feb- 
ruary 18th, 1882, and appeared at the Three 
Choirs Festivals in turn, at Gloucester, 1883, 
Worcester, 1884, and Hereford, 1885, and 
onwards. He sang at the Leeds Festival for 
the first time, in 1886 ; at the Birmingham 
Festival, in 1888, in which year he was also 
engaged for the Handel Festival at the Crys- 
tal Palace. Has sung at the principal concerts 
in the United Kingdom. In 1882 he was 
appointed principal bass at the Foundling 
Hospital ; to St. Paul's Cathedral, 1886 ; and 
a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, St. James's, 
1887. In 1884 he married Miss Sarah Ambler, 
a soprano vocalist, who has been heard in 
London concerts, and at the provincial 

Brett, Harry, authorof The Cornet, scales, 
exercises, etc. (Novella's primers. No. 28). 

Brewer, Alfred Herbert, organist and 
composer, born at Gloucester, June 21st, 1865. 
Chorister in the Cathedral, and pupil of Dr. 
C. H. Lloyd. Educated at the Cathedral 
School, and Exeter College, Oxford. In 1882, 
was elected organist of St. Giles' Church, 
Oxford, and in 1883 gained the first organ 
scholarship, R.C.M., studying under Walter 
Parratt, and other masters. At the end of 
this year he was elected Organ Scholar of 
Exeter College, Oxford ; was ap]3ointed to St. 
Michael's, Coventry, in 1886 ; in September, 
1892, organist and music master at Tonbridge 
School ; and in December, 1896, organist of 
Gloucester Cathedral. Beyond his organ 
work, he is known as a conductor, the Coven- 
try Musical Society having been iinder his 
direction for some years. 

Works. — Five evening services (an orches- 
tral setting in C, composed by request, and 
produced at the Gloucester Festival, 1895) ; 
anthems, caroLs, hjann tunes, etc. An oper- 
etta, Rosamond ; part-songs (Song and sum- 
mer, Gloucester Festival, 1892 ; Sad hearts, 
Hereford, 1894) ; school song, duets, songs ; 
three organ pieces, two Romances, violin and 
pf., pieces for pf. solo, and pf. duets. 

Brewer, Thomas, composer, flourished 
during the 17tb century [1610-80]. Educated 
at Christ's Hospital. He was a performer on 
the viol. Dates of birth and death unknown. 

Works. — Seven fantasias for the viol ; 
Rounds and catches in Hilton's " Catch that 
catch can " ; Turn, Amaryllis, to thy Swain, 
part-song in Playford's Musical Companion. 

The biography of this composer is obscure. 
" Turn, Amaryllis," is a well-known and 
pretty piece. 

Brewster, Henry, writer. Author of a 
" Concise ]\Iethod of playing thoroughbass," 
London, 1797. Composer of a Set of lessons 
for the harpsichord or pf., op. 4, 1785. Vaux- 
hall and grotto songs, London, 1771. 




Brian, see Bryne (A.) 
Briant, Rowland, organist. Pupil of 
R.A.M., also associate and professor of the 
organ there. F.C.O. Organist successively 
of Eccleston Square Church ; Westbourne 
Park Chapel ; and New Court Chapel, Tol- 
lington Park. Conductor of various choral 
societies. Composer of Hear my prayer ; 
Praise ye the Lord ; Come unto me ; Come 
now, and let us reason together ; and other 

Bridge, Frederick Albert, organist, 
vocalist, lecturer and writer ; born in London, 
1841. Choirmaster and solo bass, St. An- 
drew's Undershaft ; Organist, St. Martin's, 
Ludgate, 1873-8 ; Choirmaster, St. Martin-in- 
the-Fields, 1878-82 ; of St. John's, Lewisham. 
Commenced his Musical Monologue Lecture 
Entertaimnent in 1872. Conductor of St. 
John's Choral Society, Lewisham, 1885-91 ; 
and of the North West London Musical and 
Dramatic Society. Author of A Brief history 
of Mr. Henry Leslie's choir (London, 1880). 
Married, in 1863, Miss Elizabeth Stirling 

Bridge, John Fredericlt, composer, or- 
ganist, and didactic writer, born at Oldbury, 
Worcestershire, December 5, 1844. [His father, 
John Bridge, was for many years a lay-clerk 
at Rochester Cathedral, and an original mem- 
ber of the Choir Benevolent Fund. He died 
at Chester, September 1, 1893]. Entered Ro- 
chester Cathedral as a chorister in 1850, and 
after being taught for some time by his father, 
was articled to J. Hopkins, studying later with 
(Sir) John Goss. F.R.C.O., 1867 ; Mus. Bac, 
1868; Mus. D., Oxford, 1874. Was appointed 
organist of Trinity Church, Windsor, 1865; 
Manchester Cathedral, 1869; Professor of har- 
raony at Owen's College, 1872 ; permanent 
deputy organist at Westminster Abbey, 1875, 
and. after the death of James Turle (1882), or- 
ganist and master of the choristers. Conductor 
of the Highbury Philharmonic Society, 1878- 
86, and of the Western Madrigal Society. 
Examiner in Music, Oxford University, 1885, 
and in London University, 1891 ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Trinity College, London, 1891. Ai3- 
pointed Gresham Professor of Music, May, 
1890, the scope and variety of the " Gresham 
Lectures" being greatly extended by him. 
He became conductor of the Royal Choral 
Society in succession to Sir Joseph Barnby in 
1896. During his tenure of office at West- 
nrinster Abbey he has had some very impor- 
tant functions to discharge. He arranged all 
the music and composed a special anthem 
("Blessed be the Lord") for the celebration of 
the Queen's Jubilee, June 21, 1887 ; receiving 
the thanks of Her Majesty, and the Silver 
Jubilee Medal. Other notable musical ar- 
rangements were those for the funeral of Lord 
Tennyson (October 12, 1892), and the Purcell 


Commemoration (November 21, 1895). Dr. 
Bridge is Professor of Harmony and Counter- 
point, R.C.M. ; Hon. R.A.M. , and a member 
of the Philharmonic Society. He has lectured 
on musical subjects in Birmingham and other 

Works. — Mount Moriah, oratorio (1874) ; 
Boadicea, cantata (Highbury Phil. Soc, May 
31, 1880) ; Hymn to the Creator (Highbury, 
1883 ; Worcester Festival, 1884) ; Rock of Ages 
(Mr. Gladstone's Latin translation, Birming- 
ham Festival, 1885) ; Callirhoe, cantata, Bir- 
mingham, 1888 ; The Repentance of Nineveh, 
dramatic oratorio (book by Joseph Bennett, 
Worcester Festival, 1890) ; The Lord's Prayer 
(from Dante's Purgatorio, translated by Rev. 
E. H. Plumpton, Gloucester, 1892) ; The Cradle 
of Christ (Stabat Mater Speciosa, Hereford, 
1894); choral ballads. The Festival (men's 
voices) ; The Inchcape bell. Church services, 
anthems, etc. Editor of Westminster Abbey 
Chant Book ; Songs from Shakespeare. Part- 
songs. Concert overture, Morte d' Arthur 
(Birmingham, 1886) ; Minuet and trio, orches- 
tra ; Sonata in D, organ, etc. Author of Pri- 
mer on Counterpoint, Double Counterpoint, 
Organ accompaniment, and Musical Gestures 
and Rudiments in Rhymes (Novello). 

Bridge, Joseph Cox, composer and or- 
ganist, brother of the preceding, born at Ro- 
chester, August 16, 1858. Received his musical 
training at the Cathedral, where he became 
assistant organist ; afterwards acting in a 
similar capacity to his brother at Manchester 
Cathedral. In 1871 he was appointed organist 
of Exeter College, Oxford. Graduated B.A., 
1875; Mus. B., 1876; M.A., 1878 ; and Mus. 
D., Oxford, 1884. F.C.O. , 1879. Appointed 
Organist of Chester Cathedral, 1877, he has 
been Conductor of the Triennial Festivals there 
since their re-establishment in 1879. For 
some years, from 1887, he was Conductor of 
the Bradford Festival Choral Society, His 
compositions include several works produced 
at the Chester Festivals : Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis, for voices, orchestra, and organ 
(1879) ; Oratorio, " Daniel " (1885) ; Cantata, 
Rudel (1891) ; and a Symphony in F, orchestra 
(1894). He has also" composed an operetta, 
"The BeUe of the Area"'; an anthem for 
Harvest Festivals; some pieces for pf. ; songs; 
also transcriptions for the organ. . 

Bridgeman, Charles, organist, was born 
at Hertford, August 20, 1778. Studied the 
organ under J. Cubitt Pring, and violin under 
Fran(,'ois Cramer. In 1823 he founded the 
Hertford Musical Society, and for many years 
was teacher of music at Christ's Hospital, 
Hertford. He was organist of Hertford Parish 
Church for the long period of 81 years. Died 
at Hertford, August 3, 1873. 

Bridgeman, John Vipon, musician and 
writer, born in 1819. He was for upwards of 




30 years foreign editor of tlie Musical World. 
Translated Wagner's " Oi)er und Drama," 
Judaism in music, etc. Wrote libretto of 
Balfe's, Armourer of Nantes, and Puritan's 
daughter. Also ti'anslated various novels and 
other works from the French and German, 
such as Freytag's " Soil und Haben " (Debit 
and Credit), and works by Gautier, Blanc, 
and Hugo. He died at London, September 
30, 1S89. 

Bridgewater, Robert, composer and bass 
singer, born at York (?) in 1814. ? Son of 
Thomas Bridgewater, organist of St. Saviour's, 
York, who died January 6, 1831. He died at 
Windsor, July 24, 1869. Compiler of "Sacred 
music, consisting of chants, etc." York, 1840. 
" Church psalmody . . ." London, 1850. He 
also composed songs, etc. 

Bridgman, Frederick William, pianist, 
born in London, January 16, 1833. While very 
young went to reside with his grandfather, 
Mr. Eager, an esteemed teacher of music, at 
Edinburgh. He first appeared as a juvenile 
performer on the concertina, and made his 
debut as a pianist in March, 1840. He con- 
tinued to play, in Edinburgh and other places, 
as a musical prodigy, but in 1851 he went to 
Leipzig, and entered upon a thorough course 
of study, winning the favour of Moscheles 
whose pupil he was. In 1854 he returned to 
England, and appeared as soloist and con- 
ductor in London and the provinces. He was 
for some years manager of the IMetropolitan 
English Opera Company. He settled in Edin- 
burgh as a teacher in 1862, where he was 
highly successful. He was organist of the 
United Presbyterian Church,' College Street, 
and was accompanist at the Glasgow City 
Hall Saturday Concerts, celebrating his artis- 
tic Jubilee at one of them, March 22, 1890. 
Died at Edinburgh, December 28, 1892. 

Bridson, John, baritone vocalist, born in 
Liverpool, 1837. Engaged in business pur- 
suits, he sang as an amateur for many years, 
ultimately, studying under J. B. Welch, 
adopting singing as a profession. One of his 
early successes was, as a substitute for Mr. 
Santley, in the first performance as an orato- 
rio, of Rossini's " Mos6 in Egitto," at a con- 
cert of the Sacred Harmonic Society, under 
Sir Michael Costa, INIay 24th, 1878. The same 
year he sang in " Judas Maccabseus," in Bir- 
mingham, and created a very favourable 
impression. He afterwards appeared at the 
principal London and provincial concerts. 
His voice, if not remarkable for power, was of 
admirable quality ; and he was a singer of 
culture and refinement. He died in London, 
December 11th, 1895. 

Bright, Dora Estella, pianist and com- 
poser, born at Sheffield, August 16th, 1863. 
Upon the death of her father, an excellent 
amateur violinist, in 1881, she entered the 


R.A.M., studying the pianoforte under Walter 
Macfarren, and composition under Ebenezer 
Prout. She remained at the Academy until 
1888, gaining the Potter Exhibition in 1884, 
and other prizes, including the Lucas Medal, 
for composition, in 1888, being the first woman 
to obtain that honour. During this time she 
wrote several important works. Her progress 
as a pianist was such that she was allowed to 
appear at the Promenade Concerts, Covent 
Garden, in October, 1882. She began her 
pianoforte recitals in January, 1889, and ap- 
peared at the Crystal Palace Concerts, March 
28th, 1891, playing her Pianoforte Concerto 
in A minor. The next year (May 11th), she 
played her Fantasia in G, for pf. and orches- 
tra, at the Philharmonic Concerts, the first 
instance of an orchestral work by a woman 
being admitted to the programme of the 
Society. She gave recitals of English music, 
from Byrd to Cowen, in 1892, and in October, 
1895, began a series of national pianoforte 
recitals. Her first continental tour was 
undertaken in the autumn of 1889, when she 
appeared with success at Dresden, Cologne, 
and Leipzig. In 1892, she was married to 
Captain Knatchbull, of Bath. 

Works. — Air with variations, orchestra, 
London, 1890 ; Concerto in A minor, pf. and 
orchestra, London, 1888 ; Concerto, No. 2, 
Cologne, 1892 ; Fantasia in G, 1892 ; Quartet 
in D, pf. and strings, 1893 ; Suite, violin and 
pf., 1890 ; Duo, two pianos, Musical Artists' 
Society, 1886. Pieces for pf. and flute, pf. 
solo ; Twelve songs (Novello), etc. 

Brind, Richard, organist and composer 
of 17th century. Educated at St. Paul's 
Cathedral. Organist of St. Paul's Cathedral. 
Composed a thanksgiving anthem, etc., but is 
best known as the teacher of Greene. He 
died about 1718. 

Britton, Thomas, musician, was born at 
Higliam Ferrers, Northamptonshire, in 1651. 
He was apprenticed to a coal-dealer in Lon- 
don, and afterwards commenced business on 
his own account as a coal-dealer in Aylesbury 
Street, at the corner of Jerusalem Passage, 
Clerkenwell. He studied Music, Chemistry, 
and Bibliography, and established weekly con- 
certs in his own house, and formed a musical 
club. He died at Clerkenwell, Loudon, 27th 
September, 1714. 

The musical club was formed by Britton 
for the practice of chamber music, and the 
performers consisted of Handel, Pepusch, 
Banister, H. Needier, Hughes (the poet), P. 
Hart, H. Symonds, A. Wliichello, Shuttle- 
worth, Wollaston (the painter), etc. Matthew 
Dubourg when a child played his first solo in 
Britton's house. The origin of these concerts 
and their continuance was due to Britton's 
personal love for music, together, it is believed, 
with the mutual love for bibliographical and 




other studies held by many members of his 
audience. The admission to these concerts 
was originally free, but afterwards a subscrip- 
tion of 10s. per annum was charged. At the 
end of 1892 the Britton concerts were estab- 
lished in memory of Thomas Britton, at the 
Hampden Club, Phoenix Street, St. Pancras, 
London. Britton's books were sold after his 
death, and the catalogue was published as 
"The Library of Mr. Thomas Britton, small- 
coalman, deceas'd, who at his own charge kept 
up a consort of musick above 40 years in his 
little cottage, 1714-15. Being a curious Col- 
lection of Books in Divinity, History, Physick, 
and Chimistry, in all volumes." . . . 

His portrait, by J. WoUaston, hangs in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London. 

Broadhouse, John, organist and writer of 
the present da}'. Appointed organist of Christ 
Church, Barnet, 1876; St. John's, Whetstone, 
1886; and St. Barnabas', Woodside Park, 1889. 
Editor of the Musical Standard, 1878-80 ; 
1886-8 ; and again subsequently ; and also of 
the London Mzisical Revieiv, 1882-3. Author 
of Facts about Fiddles, Violins, Old and New ; 
The Student's Hehnholtz (1881) ; Henry 
Smart's Compositions for the Organ Analysed 
(reprinted, 1880, from the Musical Standard). 
Translator of Thibaut's "Purity in Music" 
(London, 1883) ; Schmitt's " Use of the Pedal 
in pf. playing"; Biilow's "Notes on Beeth- 
oven's Pianoforte Sonatas." Author of "Love 
which alters not: a story of to-day," which 
appeared in the Orchestra (new series), vols. 
VIII. and IX. 

Broadwood, Lucy E., collector, editor, 
and composer, youngest child of Henry Fowler 
Broadwood, of the firm of John Broadwood 
and Sons, was born in Scotland. Especially 
interested in singing, she studied under W. 
Shakespeare, and then continiied the work of 
her uncle, the Rev. John Broadwood (which 
he completed in 1840), of collecting songs from 
the country people of Surrey and Sussex. In 
1893, collaborated with J. A. Fuller Maitland 
(q.v.) in editing and arranging " English 
County Songs"; also in the series of "Old 
World Songs" ; and is now (1896) engaged in 
editing some of Purcell's v.'orks. Has arranged 
and pviblished the old Scotch airs, " Jess Mac- 
farlane," and "In Loyalty," and hascomx^osed 
and published Nae mair we'll meet; Tammy; 
When trees did bud; Annie's Tryst, and other 

Brocklesby, Richard, physician of the 
18th century. Author of " Reflections on 
Ancient and Jlodern Music, with its applica- 
tion to the cure of Diseases," London, 1749. 

Broderip, Edmund, organist and com- 
poser, who flourished in the beginning of the 
18th century. He was organist of Wells Cathe- 
dral about 1720, and wrote a service, anthems, 
and glees. He was the son of William Beo- 


DERip, born 1688 ; died Wells, January 31, 
1726, who was an organist and composer. 

Broderip, John, composer and organist, 
was born about 1710, and died in 1771, was 
organist of Wells Cathedral, 1740. He wrote 
various sets of songs, psalms, and " Six Glees 
for three Voices," London, n.d., "The Flower 
Garden, a collection of songs, duets, and can- 
tatas " ; "Portions of Psalms, in one, two, 
three, and four parts, adapted to 50 tunes 
composed by John and Robert Broderip, Lon- 
don, 1780" ; also "Psalms, hymns, and spirit- 
ual songs in score, for publick or private use," 
London [1765] n.d. 

Broderip, Robert, organist and composer, 
was born about the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury. He was organist of St. James', Bristol, 
and died at Bristol, May 14, 1808. Brother 
of the preceding. Compiled " Miscellaneous 
Collection of Vocal music," n.d.; " Organist's 
Journal, selections from great Masters," n.d.; 
' ' Cecilian Harmony, a set of the most favou- 
rite duets, rotas, canons, catches, and glees," 
London, 1790; "Plain and easy instructions 
for young performers on the pianoforte or 
harpsichord, op. 6"; "Eight voluntaries for 
the organ, op. 5"; " Concerto for the harpsi- 
chord or pianoforte, with accompaniment for 
two violins and violoncello, op. 7." He also 
wrote songs, single glees, and edited a book of 
psalms with his brother. 

Bromley, Robert Anthony, author and 
clergyman, died London, 1806. He published 
a tract entitled " On Opening the Church and 
Organ, Sermon on Psahn cxxii.," Lond., 1771. 

Brookbank, Rev. Joseph, clerg^onan and 
schoolmaster, born at Halifax in 1612. He 
was educated at Oxford and ordained a minis- 
ter. For some time he was a preacher in 
Wycombe, Bucks., but in 1651 he settled in 
London as a schoohnaster and minister. He 
died after 1668. 

Works. — The Well-tun'd organ, or anexer- 
citation wherein this question is discuss'd 
whether or no instrumental and organic IMu- 
sick be lawful in holy publick assemblies, Lon- 
don, 1660 ; The Organ's Echo, London, 1641 ; 
The Organ's Funeral, London, 1642 ; The Holy 
Harmony, or a plea for the abolishing of Or- 
gans and other Slusick in Churches, London, 
1643 ; Gospel Musick, by N. H. , London, 1644 ; 
The Compleat Schoolmaster, 1660. 

Brooke, Daniel, clergyman and author. 
Published a Sermon preached at Worcester, 
at the meeting of the three western choirs, in 
September, 1743 ; a discourse on the musick 
of the church on the occasion of the perform- 
ance of Handel's oratorio, " Athalia," 1743. 

Brooks, James, musician and glee com- 
poser, who flourished in Bath between 1760 
and 1812. He composed " Twelve glees for 
three and four voices," n.d. ; "Second Sett of 
twelve glees for three and four voices," n.d. ; 




"Twelve English ballads," op. 5 [1790]. 
Concerto for the violin, in nine parts, 1797 ; 
Nocturne for the pf. and 'cello or flute ; 
Thirty-six select pieces for a military band. 

Brooks, Walter, organist, born at Long- 
don, Worcestershire, April 1st, 1832. Recom- 
nrended to the Rev. Sir J. H. Seymour, Bart, 
(preacher at the Gloucester Festival of 1832), 
he was accepted as a chorister at Gloucester 
Cathedral, and afterwards articled to John 
Amott, the organist. On leaving, he was ap- 
pointed organist and choirmaster at Upton, 
St. Leonard ; then to Christ Church, Hamp- 
stead ; St. jMary's, Atherstone, and, in 1857, 
after competition, to St. Martin's, Birming- 
ham, a post he holds to the present time. 
Beyond conducting some concerts of the St. 
Martin's INIusical Society, he has not taken 
part in public work, but has devoted himself 
to church music and to teaching. 

Walter William Brooks, eldest son of 
the above, composer, conductor, and writer 
on music, was born at Edgbaston, Birming- 
ham, ilarch 19th, 1861. Received his earliest 
musical education from his parents, and was 
a chorister at St. IMartin's Church. Educated 
at King Edward's School, obtaining first place 
in all England for music (theory) in the Ox- 
ford local examinations. From 1879-81, he 
studied composition at the R.A.M., under 
(Professor) E. Prout, after which he settled 
in London as teacher and writer. He has 
held, since 1889, the position of teacher of 
pianoforte and singing at the W^illiam Ellis 
Endowed School, Gospel Oak. He has con- 
tributed articles to The Monthly Musical 
Record (of which he was sometime editor). 
Musical Opinion, and other papers, and has 
had some experience as a dramatic critic on 
the London Figaro. His compositions include 
an Allegro, for orchestra (Prize, 1891, Belfast 
Philharmonic Society) ; Deux Morceaux, op. 
14 ; Album Lyrique, op. 48 ; Trois Morceaux, 
op. 50, all for violin and pf . Prelude and Fugue 
in D minor (dedicated to Sir F. Ouseley) ; "The 
family circle," twelve characteristic pieces ; 
Six progressive studies, and other pieces for 
pf. ; songs, and part-songs. 

Arthur Charles Brooks, the younger 
brother of preceding, was born at Edgbaston, 
IMay 4th, 1864. Chorister at St. Martin's. 
Educated at King Edward's School. Early 
musical training at home ; then studied at 
R.C.M., under Dr. G. C. Martin, Dr. J. F. 
Bridge, Franklin Taylor, and others. In 1884, 
appointed organist and musicmaster at Bea- 
consfield School, Bucks, and organist of the 
Parish Church ; in 1890, to St. John's, Sligo, 
Ireland, which office he resigned in 1896 to 
return to Birmingham, where he is engaged 
in general musical tuition. 

Brooksbank, Hugh, organist, born at 
Peterborough, September 13th, 1854. Chor- 


ister at St. George's Chapel Royal, Windsor, 
and afterwards articled to Dr. Keeton, of 
Peterborough Cathedral. Organ scholar, Ex- 
eter College, Oxford, where he graduated ]\Ius. 
Bac, 1874, also taking the F.C.O. the same 
year. In 1881 he was appointed organist to 
the new church of St. Alban, Birmingham ; 
and in 1882 to Llandaff Cathedral, a post he 
held till his death, at Cardifi, April 28th, 1894. 
He was organist at the first Cardiff Musical 
Festival, 1892. His published works include 
Evening Services in E flat, and B flat (unison) ; 
a Benedicite, and songs. His brother, Oliver 
Oldham Brooksbank, was born at Peter- 
borough, May 17th, 1859. Was also chorister 
at St. George's, Windsor, and pupil of Dr. 
Keeton. F.R.C.O., Mus. Bac, Durham, 1894. 
Organist at Fletton, 1877 ; Alton Parish 
Church, 1880; St. Leonard's, 1882; St. John's, 
Leatherhead, 1883 ; St. Martin's, Bedford, 
1893 ; and Addlestone Parish Church. Has 
also held appointments as organist or music- 
master at Chardstock (1880) ; Highbury and 
Tonbridge Schools (1891) ; assistant at Trinity 
College, Glenalmond(1881), and music-master, 
Leamington College (1887). His compositions 
are : " Story of the Cross " (1895) ; church 
services, offertory sentences, set of hymn-tunes 
(1891). Songs: If 'tis love; The song of 
Medora, etc. ; pf. and organ pieces, etc. 

Broome, Edward, organist and composer, 
a native of North Wales. For some time 
organist and choirmaster, St. Mary's, Bangor. 
Successful competitor as composer and choral 
conductor at Eisteddfodan. Among his com- 
positions is an anthem in memory of Eos 
Morlais (Robert Rees, q.v.), which won the 
prize at the Eisteddfod, Pontypridd, 1893. 
Now resident as organist and professor of 
music at Montreal, Canada. 

Broome, Michael, musician, was born 
in 1700. He was clerk of St. Philip's Church, 
Birmingham, but appears to have been a 
singing-master at Isleworth, Middlesex, and 
also a printer or engraver in Birmingham. 
According to his tombstone at St. Philip's, 
Birmingham, he was "Father of the IMusical 
Society in this town." He died at Birming- 
ham, September 20, 1775, aged 75. 

Works. — " Michael Broome's Collection of 
Church Musick for the use of his Scholars," 
n.d. " A Choice Collection of Psalm Tunes, 
Hymns and Anthems, all in three or four parts, 
with the gamut and its branches : newly done 
in a fair large character ; the whole being drawn 
out in schore : Collected and printed by IMichael 
Broom, singing-master, Isleworth, Middle- 
sex" [17-31]. Another edition [1738]. "A Choice 
Collection of Twenty -four Psalm Tunes, all in 
four x^arts ; and Fifteen Anthems, set by diffe- 
rent authors . . . ; the whole collected, engraved 
and printed by Michael Broome, Birming- 
ham," [1738]. "A Collection of Twenty- 




eight Psalm Tunes in four parts . . . for the 
use of the Churches and Chapels in and near 
Birmingham," Birmingham, 1753. " The 
Catch Club, or Pleasant IMusical Companion, 
containing a Choice Collection of Fifty 
Catches, both Ancient and Modern . . . 
collected, printed and sold by IMichael Broome, 
near St. Philip's Church, Birmingham, 1757." 

Broomfield, William Robert, com- 
poser and writer. Born at Inverary, Argyle, 
14th October, 1826. He was for a time in 
an accountant's office in Glasgow, where he 
studied music under John Tarnbull. About 
1850 he settled in Aberdeen as a music 
teacher, and while there he did much work 
for William Hamilton, of Glasgow. He was 
a confirmed dipsomaniac, and, in spite of 
several efforts to cure him, he became victim 
to his habits, and died at Aberdeen, October 
16, 1888. In July, 1889, a monument to his 
memory was erected over his grave in Allan- 
vale Cemetery, Aberdeen. 

Works.— PsaZm Tunes : "St. Kilda," "Shan- 
don," " Zion." Songs : Edited "National Songs, 
harmonised as vocal quartettes," first series, 
London, n.d. ; second series, Glasgow, 1868. 
"The Principles of Ancient and Modern Music, 
deduced from the Harmonical Numbers of An- 
tiquity," Aberdeen, 1863. "Manual of Har- 
mony for the use of Students in Musical Com- 
position," Glasgow, 1872. 

Broughton, Alfred, pianist and conduc- 
tor, born near Dewsbury, Yorkshire, January 
12, 1858. Studied at first under his brother 
James {q-v.), and then under Lebert, Tod, and 
Attinger, at Stuttgart Conservatorium. In 1872 
he was appointed organist to the Leeds Phil- 
harmonic Society, and in 1884, conductor. 
He was accompanist at the Leeds Festival of 
1883, and choirmaster from 1886. Trained 
bodies of Leeds choristers have been under 
his direction, associated with the Festivals at 
Worcester, 1887, and Hereford, 1888 ; and he 
has taken detachments of his choir to assist 
at the Richter and Henschel concerts in Lon- 
don. He was a pianist of high attainments, as 
well as a conductor. He died at Leeds, June 
12, 1895. His brother, James Broughton, 
born near Dewsbury, in 1833, went to Leeds 
at the age of thirteen, and was appointed or- 
ganist of St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church, 
where he remained for over twenty years. He 
was chorus-master of the Leeds Festival from 
1874 to 1883, and for a period of ten years 
gave series of classical chamber concerts in 
Leeds. He died March 12, 1887. 

Brouncker, William Viscount, writer, 
born in 1620, died in 1684. Translated " Des- 
carte's Musical Compendium," 1653. Pub- 
lished anonymously an "Excellent Compen- 
diunr of Musick ; with necessary and judicious 
animadversions thereupon, by a Person of 


Brown, Abraham, violinist and composer. 
Was one of the principal performers at Rane- 
lagh Gardens, where he succeeded Pesting, 
about 1752, and at the aristocratic concerts 
in London about the middle of last century. 
His tone is mentioned as having been clear, 
but loud. 

Brown, Arthur Henry, organist and 
composer, born at Brentwood, Essex, July 24, 
1830. Organist of Brentwood Parish Church, 
1841 ; St. Edward's, Romford, 1852-7 ; Brent- 
wood, 1857-85; St. Peter's, South Weald, 
Brentford, 1889. Associated with the revival 
of Gregorian music, and member of the Com- 
mittee of the London Gregorian Choral Asso- 

Works. — Cantata, The First Miracle ; Mis- 
sa Seraphica (Communion service, in C) ; 
Missa Quinti Toni (plain chant Communion 
service) ; Missa Coelestis ; A flower service ; 
Children's festival service (compiled by Rev. 
S. Childs Clarke. M.A.) ; Harvest Tide, a ser- 
vice of song for Harvest Thanksgivings ; A 
century of Hymn tunes (1880) ; The Gregorian 
Canticles and Psalter (1874) ; Anglican Can- 
ticles and Psalter (1877) ; The Canticles of 
Holy Church (Gregorian) ; The Matin and 
Vesper Canticles (Anglican) ; Metrical Lit- 
anies ; The Prayer Book noted, with plain 
chant for all the offices of the Church (1885) ; 
Introits for Sundays and Festivals of the 
year (1885) ; Te Deum, Magnificat, and Nunc 
Dimittis ; Anthem for Christmas, etc. : A 
Christmas volume of prose and song (Barbara 
Wordsworth) ; Part-songs ; Songs : Across the 
field of barley; Somebody's darling; Gather 
ye rosebuds, etc. New Pianoforte Tutor 
(1882) . Pieces for pf . : Sarabande and Gigue ; 
Gavotte and minuet, etc. Organ Harmonies 
for the Gregorian tones : select compositions 
from the great Masters (arranged) ; Select 
overtures from the great Masters ; Twenty 
original voluntaries for organ or harmonium. 
Carols and hymn tunes, contributed to Hymns 
Ancient and Modern, and various collections. 

Brown, Colin, musician and theoretical 
writer, was born at Liverpool, August 25, 1818. 
He was descended from an Argyleshire family. 
Euing lecturer on IMusic in Anderson's Col- 
lege, Glasgow, from 1868. He died at Hill- 
head, Glasgow, December 19, 1896. 

Works. — Music in Common Things, Part 
I. : Analysis of a Musical Sound, and the 
Production therefrom of the Musical Scale, 
1874 ; Part 2 : IMathematical and ]\Iusical 
Relations of the Scale, shewing the Principles, 
Construction, and Tuning of the Natural 
Fingerboard with Perfect Intonation, 1876 ; 
Part 4 : Music in Speech and Speech in Music, 
Glasgow, 1870. Songs of Scotland (with J. 
Pittman) London, n.d. The Thistle, A Mis- 
cellany of Scottish Song, with Notes, Critical 
and Historical, Instrumental Accompani- 




ments and Harmonies by James Merrylees, 
Glasgow, 188-4 [originally issued in parts] . 

Mr. Brown constructed an instrument called 
the Voice Harmonium, founded upon the 
Monopolytone, to which the principles of 
perfect intonation were successfully applied. 
The novel character of the keyboard, fully 
described in '"Music in Common Things," 
part II., will perhaps act as an obstruction to 
its speedy adoption. The ]\Ionopolytone above 
mentioned is a small instrument for striking 
on the keyboard of a pf., producing a perfect 
unison, though sounding every note and dis- 
cord of the scale. His harmonium was awar- 
ded the first place at an exhibition of instru- 
ments illustrating the same principle held in 

Brown, Edward, organist and conductor 
of present time. Graduated Mus. Bac, 1878 ; 
Mus. Doc, 1883, Oxford. Organist and choir- 
master, St. James', Barrow-in-Furness, and 
St. Paul's, Grange-over-Sands ; choirmaster, 
Furness Association of Church Choirs. Con- 
ductor of choral societies at Barrow, Ulverston 
and Grange. His setting of Psalm 45 (Uni- 
versity exercise for Mus. Doc), was performed 
with success, April 9th, 1883. He has pub- 
lished some church music, songs, etc. 

Brown, H., musician and author of 
present time, resident in Brixton, London. 
Issued " Historical sketch of music from the 
most ancient to modern times," London 
[1886] ; also " Sonnets by Shakspeare solved." 

Brown, J. C, musician of Clerkenwell, 
London. Compiled " Collection of original 
sacred music, containing 104 psalm and hymn 
tunes, and four pieces harmonized for four 
voices, and arranged for the organ," London, 

Brown, James D., tenor singer, lecturer 
and teacher, was born at Aberdeen in 1834. 
He studied music and singing under James 
Davie, Samuel Barr, Thomas Macfarlane, 
H. Kuchler, and Alex. W. Smith, and was 
conductor of psalmody in Free St. David's 
Church, Edinburgh, from 1865 till 1877. 
Since 1866, he has given many concerts and 
lectures on the ballad music of Scotland, and 
has done much to aid the movement in favour 
of thorough voice cultivation, and to foster a 
taste for the old and genuine ballad music of 
Scotland. He has composed a few songs to 
words by Burns, etc. His son, James Duff 
Brown, was born at Edinburgh, November 
6th, 1862. He was educated at the Church 
of Scotland Normal School, and afterwards 
entered the employment of publishing firms 
in Edinburgh and Glasgow. From 1878 till 
1888 he was an assistant-librarian in the 
Mitchell Library, Glasgow, and in September, 
1888, he was appointed librarian of Clerken- 
well Public Liljrary, London, a position he 
now holds. Author of " Biographical diction- 


ary of musicians, with a bibliography of 
English writings on music," Paisley, 1886. 
"Handbook of library appliances: the techni- 
cal equipment of libraries," London, 1892. 
" Guide to the formation of a iTiusic library," 
London, 1893. Numerous papers on library 
economy, and on topics connected with 
bibliography and literature. 

Brown John, clergyman and writer, born 
at Rothbury, Northumberland, 1715. Edu- 
cated at Cambridge. Vicar of Great Horkesley, 
Essex, 1754. Vicar of St. Nicholas', New- 
castle, 1758. Committed suicide while insane, 
September 23rd, 1766. 

Works. — Honour, a poem; Essay on satire ; 
Sermons ; Essays on Shaftesbury's Character- 
istics, 1751 ; Dissertation on the rise, union, 
and power, the progressions, separations, and 
corruptions of poetry and music, to which is 
prefixed The Cure of Saul, a sacred ode, 
London, 1763 ; Remarks on some observations 
on Dr. Brown's dissertation on poetry and 
musick, London, 1764 ; An estimate of the 
manners and principles of the times, 1757. 

An Italian edition of the Dissertation was 
published in 1772. 

Brown, John, artist and writer, born at 
Edinburgh, 1752. Resided in Italy from 1771 
till 1781. He died in Scotland, 1781. Author 
of " Letters upon the Poetry and Music of 
the Italian Opera," Edinburgh, 1789. 

Brown, Robert, of Rockhaven, writer and 
theorist, was born at Glasgow, 1789-90, and 
died at Rockhaven, near Fairlie, Ayrshire, 
25th August, 1873. Author of The Elements 
of Musical Science, London, 1860. An Intro- 
duction to Musical Arithmetic, with its appli- 
cation to Temperament, London, 1865. 
Rudiments of Harmony and Counterpoint on 
a New Method . . . London, 1863. Also a 
work on Scottish Highland Psalm Tunes. 

In the first work Brown advocates the 
adoption of a uniform clef, and illustrates 
this in the course of his book. He also sug- 
gests certain modifications in the method of 
expressing harmonical combinations, etc. 

Brown, Thomas, musician of 18th cen- 
tury. Author of " The Compleat Musick 
Master, being plain, easie and familiar rules 
for singing and playing" . . London [1704]. 

Another Thomas Brown, styled "junior," 
was organist of St. Margaret Pattens and St. 
Gabriel, Fenchurch Street, London, in latter 
part of the 18th century. He published a 
" Collection of Songs, and a Cantata for the 
harpsichord or pianoforte," London, 1774. 

Brown, Thomas, musician, compiled 
"Psalms and hymns, as sung at the Sunday 
evening lectures in the galilee of Durham 
Cathedral, arranged for four voices, with an 
accompaniment for the organ or pianoforte," 
Durham, 1842. 

Brown, William, musician, issued a col- 




lection of Psalm Tunes, in four parts," Glas- 
gow, 1700. 

Brown, William, musician, of 18tli cen- 
tury, was a teacher in Glasgow, and precentor 
in the Wynd Church (St. George's Parish 
Church), which he resigned in 1807. He com- 
ipiled " The Precentor, or an easy introduction 
to Church Music, with a choice collection of 
Psalm Tunes" ... 6th ed., 1799, originally 
issued in 1776, by John McLachlan. 

Brown- Borth wick. Rev. Robert, clergy- 
man and amateur musician ; was born at 
Aberdeen, May 18th, 1840. Son of William 
Brown, Esq., of H.M. Civil Service, Aberdeen, 
who was an amateur musician, well-known at 
the concerts of that city. Ordained deacon 
in 1805. Ordained priest, 1866. Curate of 
Sudely IManor, Gloucestershire, and Chaplain 
to the Winchcomb Union. Curate of Evesham, 
Worcestershire, and assistant-minister of 
Quebec Chapel, London. Mr. Brown-Borth- 
wick assumed additional surname of Borthwick 
on his marriage in 1868 to Grace (D. 1881), 
only surviving daughter of the late, and sister 
of the present, J®hn Borthwick, Esq., of 
Borthwick Castle, and Crookston, Midlothian. 
Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Grange-in-Borrow- 
dale, Cunrberland, 1869-72. Vicar of All 
Saints, Scarborough, 1872. Chaplain for a 
few years to the Bishop of Aberdeen. Vicar of 
St. John's, Clapham. Died March 17th, 1894. 
Works. — Supplemental hymn and tune 
book (Novello), containing contributions by 
Goss, Sullivan, Stainer, E. J. Hopkins, and 
J. B. Calkin, four editions. Twelve Kyries. 
Kyries and Sanctuses, edited. Blessed are 
the dead, anthem. Words of " Church hymns " 
(with the Bishop of Bedford (Dr. W.'How), 
Bev. J. EUerton, Rev. B. Compton), the hymn 
book issued by the S.P.C.K. Select hymns 
for church and home, Edin.. 1871. The 
History of the Princes de Conde, by H.R.H. 
le due d'Aumale, translated, London, 8vo, 
2 vols. Life and works of Stephen Heller, by 
H. Barbedette, translated, London. Hymns, 
contributed to various collections. Sermons 
on various subjects, as " Art in worship," 
" The praise of God," etc., all published. 

Browne, James A., violinist, conductor, 
and writer on mtisic ; born at Woolwich, 
IMay 9th, 1838. Joined the Royal Artillery 
Band in 1848, as a singing-boy, and received 
instruction on the flute and violin ; was 
appointed solo flutist in the band in 1864, 
and from that date was similarly engaged in 
London theatres, concerts, and the Handel 
and other festivals. Appointed band-master. 
Royal Horse Artillery, in 1870, retiring on a 
pension in 1878, when he accepted the post of 
band-master to the South IMetropolitan 
Schools, Sutton. Musical Director, Royal 
Court Theatre, London, 1880-1 ; Conductor 
of the Orchestral Festival Services, St. Agnes, 


Kennington Park, 1881-94 ; teacher of the 
violin. Started the Siirrey Musical Jouryial 
(which existed only for six months), in 1885 ; 
became sub-editor British Musician, 1893 ; 
sole editor, 1895 ; proprietor and editor, 1896. 
His published works include ; Military band 
arrangements; a part-song, "The dragoons"; 
songs; March, "Cleopatra," an oboe solo. 
In MS. he has a drawing-room oratorio ; an 
opera ; a string quartet, and some dramatic 
music. Author of The north-west passage 
[1860] ; History of the Royal Artillery [1865] ; 
and j)ax3ers on bands and music in the Service 
Advertiser [1884]; and the Surrey M^isical 
Journal, etc., etc. 

Browne, Lennox, surgeon and writer on 
the voice, born at London, in 1841. He was 
the son of a distinguished surgeon. Educated 
at Edinburgh and Loudon. F.R.C.S., Edin., 
1873; M.R.C.S., Eng., 1863. Member of 
numerous medical societies, and surgeon to 
various musical societies. Author of " The 
'throat and its diseases," London, 1878, 4th 
ed., 1893. " Voice, song, and speech, a com- 
plete manual for singers and speakers," 
London (Low), 1883; 15th ed. 1892. Written 
in conjunction with E. Behnke. "The child's 
voice ; its treatment with regard to after 
development," London, 1885 (with Behnke). 
" Voice, use, and stimulants," 1885. " Mech- 
anism of hearing," 1889, etc. " Science and 
singing," 1884. 

Browne, Richard, medical writer, who 
was an apothecary at Oakham. Author of 
" IMedicina musica; or a mechanical essay 
on the effects of singing, musick, and dancing, 
on human bodies ; to which is annexed a new 
essay on the nature and cure of the spleen and 
vapours," London, 1729. 

Browne, Thomas (Tom), violinist, born 
at Newcastle in 1812 ? Studied under Elia- 
son, and theory with T. Severn, and French 
Flowers. In the band of Her Majesty's The- 
atre ; Sacred Harmonic Society, etc. Popular 
as a teacher, and composer of dance music, 
his "Helena Waltz" having had a great 
circulation. Of his songs, " On the swelling 
deep," deserves mention. Died in London, 
August 10, 1884. 

Brownsmith, John Leman, organist, 
was born at Westminster, in 1809. Chorister 
at Westminster Abbey under Greatorex, with 
whom he studied the organ. Organist of 
St. John's Church, Waterloo Road, London, 
1829, an appointment he was compelled to 
resign when made Lay-vicar of Westminster 
Abbey, in 1838, because the vestry refused to 
allow him to have a deputy when on duty 
at the Abbey. Organist to Sacred Harmonic 
Society, 1848 ; organist at Handel Festivals 
of 1857, 1859, 1862, and 1865 ; organist of St. 
Gabriel, Pimlico. He died at London, Sept. 
14, 1866. 




Bruce, John, violinist and composer, was 
a native of Braeniai', and according to Bums, 
who knew him well, " a red-wud {i.e., stark- 
mad) Highlander." He settled in Dumfries 
after the rebellion of 1745, in which he took 
part, and died there December 31. 1785. He 
is generally regarded as the composer of the 
air usually sung to " Whistle o'er the lave o't." 

Bruce, John Collingwood, M.A., LL.D., 
D.C.L., F.S.A., historian of the Roman Wall, 
and author of numerous books on the Roman 
occupation of Britain, and mediteval life upon 
Tyne-side. He was a great authority on the 
subject of the Northunrbrian Pipes, and read a 
paper relating to them at the Conference of 
IMusicians, held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 
Januarv, 1892. He died in that town, April 
5, 1892, aged 86. 

Bruce, Thomas, musician, of 18th cen- 
tury, was a schoolmaster in the Cowgate of 
Edinburgh. Author of " The Common tunes, 
or Scotland's Church Musick made plain, 
with a description of the antiquity, use, 
authors and inventors of IMusick." Edin- 
burgh, 1726; 2nd ed. n.d. 

Bryan, Cornelius, organist and coinposer, 
born at Bristol, about 1775. He held the 
appointments of organist of St. Mark's, and 
St. Mary, Redcliffe, Bristol. Died at Bristol, 
March 18, 1840, from the effects of a fall. 

Works. — Lundy, operetta, 1840. Collection 
of the most esteemed Psalm Tunes, ancient 
and raodern . . . interspersed with a few orig- 
inal compositions, 1830. Effusions for the 
organ, containing eight voluntaries, one hun- 
dred interludes and three psalms, n.d. 

Bryce, Rev. ? divine and writer who lived 
in Belfast. Author of "A Rational Intro- 
duction to Music, being an attempt to simplify 
the first principles of the science," London, 

Bryne, Albert (or Albertus), composer and 
organist, who flourished in the 17th century, 
and was born about 1621, and died in 1669. 
He was a pupil of John Tomkins, whom he 
succeeded as organist of St. Paul's Cathedral 
in 1638. Afterwards, he became organist of 
Westminster Abbey. His compositions appear 
in Boyce, Clifford, and some are in MS. in the 
British Museum. They consist of services, 
anthems, and organ music. His name is 
variously spelt, Brian, Bryan, etc. 

Bryson, John, musician, who flourished 
during latter part of 18th century. He was 
manager to Robert Bremner at the Harp and 
Hautboy, Edinburgh, from 1769, and suc- 
ceeded him in the business in 1789, carrying it 
on till 1818. Published "A Curious selection 
of favourite Scots tunes, with variations ; to 
which are added upwards of fifty favourite Irish 
airs for a German flute or violin ; with a bass 
for the harpsichord or violincello," Edin. 


.Buchanan, Thomas, surgeon and author. 
Author of ' 'Physiological Illustrations of the or- 
gan of hearing, more particularly of the secre- 
tion of cerumen and its effects in rendering 
auditory perceptions accurate and acute." 
London, 1828. 

Buck, Percy Carter, organist, born at 
West Ham, Essex, 1871. Educated at Mer- 
chant Taylors School. Chorister at West Ham 
Parish Church. Pupil of Dr. C. J. Frost, and 
F. Davenport, at CTuildhall School of Music ; 
and later, winner of an organ scholarship, 
R.C.M., studying under Dr. Hubert Parry, 
C. H. Lloyd, and (Sir) Walter Parratt. 
Prize-winner for composition, Stratford Musi- 
cal Festivals, 1887-8. F.R.C.O., A.R.C.M., 
Mus. B., Oxford, 1892, and qualified by Exam- 
ination for Mus. D., 1893. Organist at Sur- 
biton ; Worcester College, Oxford ; ]\Iusic- 
master, Rugby School ; and on the death of 
Mr. C. W. Lavington (Oct. 1895), appointed 
organist and choirmaster of Wells Cathedral. 
He has published an organ sonata in E flat, 
and some trios for female voices, and has 
written songs, and is joint author (with Rev. 
Dr. Mee, and F. C. Woods,) of " Ten years of 
University music in Oxford" (Oxford: Bow- 
den, 1894). 

Buck, Zechariah, organist and composer, 
born at Norwich, Sept. 9, 1798. He was a 
chorister in Norwich Cathedral, under Gar- 
land and Beckwith. Organist and choir- 
master of Norwich Cathedral, from 1828 to 
1877. Mus. Doc, Cantuar, 1853. He acquired 
great fame as a trainer of boys' voices. Died 
Newport, Essex, August 5, 1879. 

Works. — Anthems : Come hither, angel 
tongues invite (1849) ; I heard a voice from 
heaven ; O Lord, give Thy holy spirit. Eight 
chants in Farr's collection. 

Buckenham, J , of Bramfield, musi- 
cian of 18th century, issued "Psalm-singer's 
Devout Exercises, containing (1) new and com- 
pleat introduction to the grounds of Musick ; 
(2) Select collection of Church Musick ; (8) 
Two chanting tunes ; (4) Sixteen anthems 
and alphabetical glossary." 

Buckland, Henry, tenor vocalist, was a 
vicar-choral at St. Paul's Cathedral, and 
master of the choristers. He conducted the 
annual festivals of the Charity children, at 
St. Paul's, 1863-7 ; also the special evening 
services held there. A very good concert 
singer. He died in London, August 13, 1867, 
at the age of 41. 

Buckley, Mrs., born Olivia Dussek, 
pianist and writer, born in London in 1799. 
Daughter of J. L. Dussek, was taught by her 
mother, and appeared in public at the age of 
eight. Organist of Kensington Parish Church, 
from 1840. Died in London, in 1847. Author 
of " Musical Truths," London, 1843 ; two 
books of " Fairy songs and ballads for the 






young," 1846; pf. pieces 

" Rule Britannia," for pf. and harp, etc. 

Bucknall, Cedric, organist and composer. 
Studied privately, and graduated Mus. Bac, 
Oxfc rd, 1878. Organist of All Saints, Clifton . 
and of the Victoria Rooms. Has published a 
communion service in B flat ; composed, 
revised, and selected tunes for " Hymns for 
school worship " (Novello, 1893 ?) ; also com- 
posed part-songs, carols, etc. 

Budd, George William, partner in the 
publishing firm of Calkin and Budd, was born 
in 1806. He was the founder of the Western 
Madrigal Society, and secretary of the Phil- 
harmonic Society, 1847-50. Edited, for the 
Musical Antiquarian Society, the second set 
of madrigals by John Wilbye ; and was the 
composer of some glees, etc. He died in 
London, August 1st, 1850. 

Buddicom, Rev. Robert Redder, clergj^- 
man, and musician, born 1770, died July, 1846. 
Incumbent of Everton, Liverpool. Published 
" One hundred psalm and hymn tunes, with 
chants," edited by C. H. Wilton, London, 
1827. Re-published as " Devotional Har- 
mony," consisting of x^salms and hymns, 
Liverpool, 1833. 

Buels, William W. C, violoncellist 
and author, was principal of the Kensington 
School of Music, London. He died in London, 
Dec. 6th, 1890. Author of a "New and 
improved catechism of the rudiments of 
music," London, 1880. 

His father, John Buels, was also a musician, 
as are his brothers Ed. P., baritone vocalist, 
and Louis, violinist, and his sister Maeian, 

Bull, John, composer and organist, was 
born in Somersetshire [1563] . He studied 
under William Blitheman, and became organ- 
ist and master of the children of Hereford 
Cathedral, 1582. Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, January, 1585. Bac. Mus. Oxon., 
1586. Doc. Mus. Oxon., 1592. Organist to 
Chaj)el Royal, 1591. Professor of Music at 
Gresham College, 1596. Travelled on the 
continent, 1601-5. Married to Elizabeth 
Walter, 1607. Musician to Prince Henry, 
1611. Quitted England without leave from 
his employer, 1613. Organist at Notre Dame 
Cathedral, Antwerp [1617] . He was organist 
in service of the Archduke of Austria. He 
died at Hamburg, Liibeck; or Antwerp, 
March 13th. 1628. 

The productions of this composer are men- 
tioned by nearly every writer as having been 
voluminous, but comparatively few of them 
appear to have been jprinted. Specimens of 
his style can be seen in Barnard's Collection, 
Boyce, Leighton's " Teares," the Fitzwilliam 
music, "Parthenia," Queen Elizabeth's Vir- 
ginal Book, etc. A motet for five voices is 
preserved in Burney's Musical Extracts, 


British IMuseum. E. Pauer gives specimens 
of his virginal music in " Old English Com- 
posers." The extraordinary celebrity which 
this musician obtained during his lifetime 
must have been grounded on some uncommon 
degree of merit, either in his compositions or 
performance. A list of his works is contained 
in Ward's " Lives of the Gresham Professors," 
and in addition he wrote a great number of 
pieces of sacred vocal music. " The strength 
of this composer's talents lay in the production 
and execution of pieces fully harmonized, and 
comprising fugues, double-fugues, and the 
various species of canon ; and fortunately, for 
himself, he lived in an age that listened with 

pleasure to music of that description 

He surmounted old and invented new difficul- 
ties; and disdaining to be embarassed, aimed, 
in the province of polyphonic fabrication, at 
a species of omnipotence." — Busby. 

The question as to the composition of the 
English national anthem remains undecided 
in a general way, though Carey appears to 
have been strongly accredited with the com- 
position. See writings of Chappell, Cummings, 
Clark, etc. In connection with Gresham 
College, Dr. Bull delivered " The Oration of 
Maister John Bull, Doctor of Musicke, and 
one of the Gentlemen of hir Majesty's Royal 
Chappell, as he pronounced the same, before 
divers worshipful persons, the Aldermen and 
Commoners of the citie of London, with a 
great multitude of other people, the 6th day 
of October, 1597, in the new erected CoUedge 
of Sir Thomas Gresham, Knt. deceased: made 
in the commendation of the founder, and the 
excellent science of Musicke," London, este 

Bull, T., musician, wrote "New and com- 
plete modern preceptor for the royal Kent 
bugle," London, 1835. "New instructions 
for the improved flageolet, etc.," London 
[1845] . 

BumpUS, John S., writer on music of 
the present time. Has written a number of 
valuable antiquarian papers on musical sub- 
jects, among which may be named " A short 
history of English Cathedral Music"; "St. 
Patrick's and Christ Church Cathedrals, Dub- 
lin"; and " The Organists and Composers of 
St. Paul's Cathtdral." These were originally 
contributed to the Blusical Standard, 1884-8. 

Bunce, John Thackray, journalist, born 
at Farringdon, Berkshire, 1828. Removing 
to Biriningham in 1839, he was educated there; 
and devoting himself to journalism, became 
editor of the Birmingham Daily Post. Author 
of "the History of the Biraningham Cor- 
poration " ; " History of St. Martin's Church. 
Birmingham"; and other works. He origin- 
ated the Corporation School of Art, and has 
been identified with the Educational and 
Scientific work of the city. Is a J. P., and 




F.S.S. He claims notice here as author of 
" A History of the Birmingham General 
Hospital and the ^Musical Festivals, 1768- 
187B, Birmingham, Cornish, 1873. 

Bunch, James, mnsician, editor of " Cecil- 
iana : a collection of favourite catches, canons, 
rondos, and rounds, by eminent authors, 
ancient and }nodern, in score, with biograph- 
ical notes." London, 1825. 

Bunn, Alfred, operatic manager and libret- 
tist, was born at London, 1798. Stage man- 
ager at Drury Lane Theatre under Elliston, 
1823 ; ]\Ianager and Lessee of Drury Lane 
Theatre from 1834. He died at' Boulogne 
Dec. 20, 1860. Bunn adapted a great number 
of pieces for the English stage, and produced 
the following among other operas; — Maid of 
Artois ; Bohemian Girl ; and Daughter of St. 
Mark ( Balfe) : Brides of Venice (Benedict) ; 
Maritana (Wallace), etc. He also wrote a 
work entitled " The Stage, both before and 
behind the curtain, from observations taken 
on the spot." 3 vols., London, 1840. Poems, 
London, 1816. For a severe skit on Bunn, see 
"A word with Bunn, after Burns's Address 
to the Deil." By J. R. Adam, the Cremorne 
Poet, London [1847] . 

Bunnett, Edward, organist and com- 
poser, born at Shipdham, Norfolk, June 26, 
1834. Entered as a chorister at Norwich 
Cathedral, 1842 ; articled to Dr Buck, 1849, 
and from 185.5 to 1877 was his assistant or- 
ganist and partner. Graduated Mus. Bac, 
1857 ; Mus. Doc , 1869, Cambridge ; F.C.O., 
1870. In January, 1849, sang in the trio 
" Lift thine eyes," with Jenny Lind and ^Nliss 
Dolby, at a concert given in Norwich. From 
1871 to 1892 he was conductor of the Norwich 
Musical Union ; has been organist of the 
Norwich ^lusical Festivals since 1872; of St. 
Peter's, Mancroft, from 1877 ; and Borough 
Organist since 1880, his recitals always at- 
tracting large audiences. From 1890 he has 
had charge of the pier concerts at Lowestoft. 
He celebrated his musical jubJee, April 18, 
1896, when he was presented by the Mayor 
(John Moore, Esq.) with an address and 
handsome testimonial from his fellow citi- 
zens. He has occasionally lectured on Ora- 
torio and other subjects 

WoBKS. — Song of Praise (Degree Exercise, 
1869) ; Ps. 130, De Profundis (Norwich, 1880) ; 
Unison Service in F ; OfiEice for the Holy 
Communion, in E ; Services, &c. Anthems 
— Blessed be Thou ; If we believe that Jesus 
died; If ye love me; and others. Twenty 
four original tunes to favourite Hymns ; Ten 
Christmas Carols. Cantatas — Rhineland, for 
soprano solo, chorus, and orchestra (composed 
for ^lUe. Tietjens, but sung by Florence Lan- 
cia, and produced, Norwich Festival, 1872; 
Lora (W. W. Turnbull. Produced by Norwich 
Musical Union, June 1, 1870). Comedietta, 


Incognita (Mrs. Edward Adams, Lowestoft, 
August, 1892). Pai-t-so7ujs—The Rhine Mai- 
den (Norwich Festival, 1884) ; Victoria, 
soprano solo and chorus (1887), and others. 
Various Songs. Andante and rondo, pf. and 
orchestra ; Trio, pf. and strings ; Sonata, pf. 
and violin (MS. 1878) ; Duet, pf. and clarinet ; 
Pieces for pf., etc. Eight organ pieces; Six 
original compositions for organ (1884) ; 
Twelve short and easy pieces for organ ; 
Largo in E flat, for organ ; Ave Maria, etc. 
Bunning, Herbert, composer of the 
present time. Studied in France and Italy, 
chiefly in Milan, under Vincenzo Ferroni. 
Settled in London about the close of 1891. 
Of his compositions, a Scena, for baritone, 
" Ludovico il ^Nloro," was given at the Crystal 
Palace Concerts, February 27, 1892, the late 
Eugene Oudin being the singer ; and a " Vil- 
lage Suite," in four movements, for orchestra, 
was produced at the same, April 4, 1896. He 
has composed an opera, " The Last days of 
Pompeii;" Two symphonic poems, and a 
Rhapsody, for orchestra ; a string quartet, 
and some songs. 

Bunting, Edward, musician and editor, 
was born at Armagh, in February, 1773. He 
was articled assistant to Weir, at a church in 
Belfast, in 1784. Organist of St. Stephen's 
chapel, Belfast. Married to ]\Iiss Chapman, 
1819. He died at Dublin, December 21, 1843. 
WoEKS. — A General Collection of the An- 
cient Irish Music; containing a variety of 
admired airs never before published, and also 
the compositions of Conolan and Carolan, 
Lond., 1796. A General Collection of the 
Ancient Music of Ireland, arranged for the 
Pianoforte ; some of the most admired Melo- 
dies are adapted for the Voice, to poetry 
chiefly translated from the original Irish 
songs by Thomas Campbell, Esq., and other 
eminent poets ; to which is prefaced an His- 
torical and Critical Dissertation on the Egyp- 
tian, British, and Irish Harp, London, 1809. 
The Ancient Music of Ireland, arranged for 
the Pianoforte ; to which is prefixed a Dis- 
sertation on the Irish Harps and Harpers, 
including an account of the Old ^Melodies of 
Ireland. Dublin, 1840. These collections of 
Irish music are among the best which have 
been made, and Bunting is regarded as a 
fairly accurate compiler. 

Burgess, Alexander, the " Fife Paga- 
: nini," violinist, and poet, born in Fife, in 
t 1807 ; drowned at Whin Quarry, Starr, Fife, 
' August 2, 1886. He will be best lemembered 
in Scotland, as a contributor of humorous 
phonetically spelt verses lo the People's Jour- 
nal, under the signature of "Poute." Some 
of these poems were collected as " Nettercaps, 
being poutery, prose, and verse," 1875. his 
fame as a violinist was only local. 

Burgh, A . . , writer, who graduated 




M.A. at one of the Universities. He com- 
piled " Anecdotes of Music, historical and 
biographical, in a series of letters Irom a 
gentleman to his daughter," London, 1814, 
3 vols. 

Burghersh, Lord, see Westmoreland, 
Earl of. 

Burgon, William Henry, bass vocalist, 
born at Croydon, in 1858. Studied under 
Manuel Garcia, at the Loudon Academy of 
Music. Made his debut in oratorio, 1881, 
singing in Bach's Mass in B minor (Bach 
Choir), June 1st, and in Judas Maccabseus 
(Sacred Harmonic Society), iu Kovember. 
Has since sung for the principal choral socie- 
ties in London, Liverpool, Glasgow, and else- 
where. Sang in opera at Covent Garden, 
1881, and afterwards joined the Carl Rosa 
company. He was the original Osiap in 
Thoii:as's " Nadeshda " (produced at Drury 
Lane, Ajjril IGth, 1885), and Count des Grieux, 
in Massenet's " ]\Ianon," at its first perform- 
ance at Drury Lane, Slay 7th, 1885. Of his 
later assunnDtions are Cedric, in " Ivauhoe," 
1891, and Louis XII. in IMessager's " La 

Burgoyne, Montagu, see Harris 
(J. ilacdonald). 

Burnet, Alfred, musician. Published 
"Instructions for the Spanish guitar, founded 
on the systems of Carulli, Giuliani, etc." 
London, 1829. 

Burnet, Qeorge, amateur musician and 
herald, who held the office of Lyon king of 
arms in Edinburgh. He died at Edinburgh, 
January 21th, 1890. He was an authority on 
Scottish heraldry, and edited several antiqua- 
rian works. For many years he acted as 
musical critic to the Edinburgh newspapers, 
and was a very enthusiastic amateur musician. 

Burnett, Alfred, violinist. Edcatedat 
R.A.M., where he is now professor of the 
violin, and viola, also hon. R.A.M. Has 
appeared in chamber concerts, London ; was 
principal violin of the Reading Philharmonic 
Society ; and, since 1885, has been principal 
violin in the Birmingham Festival orchestra. 
Was ad interim conductor of R.A.M. concerts, 
1888. In 1893, succeeded ]Mr. J. T. Carrodus 
as principal violin at the Worcester Festival ; 
and since the death of that artist, has filled 
the same post at the other meetings of the 
Three Choirs. He has written some pieces 
for four violins, for the use of learners. 

Burnett, Henry, tenor vocalist. Studied 
under Sir George Smart, upon whose recom- 
mendation he was elected a pupil of the R.A.M. 
There he met Fanny Dickens (eldest sister of 
the great novelist), whom he married. He 
appeared on the stage with success, and settled 
for some years in Manchester, singing at the 
Gentlemen's Concerts in 1812; at the Liverpool 
Philharmonic Concerts, 1841, and iu many 


provincial towns. His wife died in 1848, and 
soon afterwards a delicate little boy, who was 
the original of Paul Dombey. Burnett 
appears to have retired soon afterwards. He 
died at his residence, Titchfield, Hampshire, 
in February, 1893, in his 82nd year. He 
composed a number of songs, published for 
the most part under an assumed name. His 
son, Walter Burnett, a professor of music, 
died at Hatcham, London, July 27th, 1887, 
aged 37. 

Burnett, Nathan J., see Sporle 
(Nathan J.) 

Burney, Charles, author, organist, and 
composer, was born at Shrewsbury, April 7th, 
1726. He was the son of James and Anne 
Macburney, and was baptized as such on May 
5th, 1726. He never used the prefix Mac. 
Educated at the Free School, Shrewsbury, 
and at Chester Public School. He studied 
music under Baker, organist of Chester Cathe- 
dral, and in London under Dr. Arne, 1744- 
47. Organist of St. Dionis Back-Church, 
Fenchurcli Street, London, 1749 Harpsi- 
chord player at the subscription concerts, 
King's Arms, Coriihill. Organist at Lynn- 
Regis, Norfolk, 1751-60. Bac. and Doc. of 
Music, Oxford, 1769. He travelled in Italy, 
1770, and returned to London, 1771. He 
also travelled in Germany, the Netherlands, 
etc., during 1772. Elected Fellow of Royal 
Society, 1773. Organist of Chelsea College, 
1783. In 1806 he received a pension of £300 
from Fox, and in 1810 he was made member 
of the Institute of France. He died at Chel- 
sea, April 12th, 1814. 

Works. — Translation of Signer Tartiui's 
Letter to Signer Lombardini, published as an 
important lesson to performers on the violin, 
London, 1771. The Present state of music in 
France and Italy, or the journal of a tour 
through those countries, undertaken to collect 
materials for a general history of music, 
Loudon, 1771. The Present state of music in 
Germany, the Netherlands, and United Prov- 
inces, or the journal of a tour through those 
countries, undertaken to collect materials for 
a general history of music, London, 1773. 
2 vols. A General History of music, from 
the earliest ages to the present period, 
to which is prefixed a dissertation on the 
music of the ancients, London, four vols., 
1776-1789. An account of the musical per- 
formances in Westminster Abbey and the 
Pantheon, May 26th, 27th, 29th, and June 
the Brd and 5th, 1784, in commemoration of 
Handel, London, 1785; Dublin edition, 1785. 
A paper on Crotch, the infant musician, pre- 
sented to the Royal Society, Transactions, 
1779. Striking views of Lamia, the celebrated 
flute-player, Massachusset's Magazine, 178G. 
Memoirs of the life and writings of the Abbate 
INIetastasio, iu which are incorporated trans- 




lations of his principal letters, London, 
8 vols., 1796. A plan for a music school, 
London, 1774. An essay towards the history 
of comets, Loudon, 1769. Articles on music 
iuRee'sEncyclopiedia. Sonata for two violins 
and a bass, 1765. Six concert pieces, with 
an introduction for the diapasons and fugue 
proper for young organists and practitioners 
on the harpsichord. Twelve canzonets from 
Metastasio. Six duets for the German flute. 
Six concertos for the violin, in eight parts. 
Two sonatas for pf., violin, and 'cello. Six 
harjisichord lessons. Two sonatas for harp 
or pf., with aceomp. for violin or 'cello. An- 
thems, glees, instrumental music, etc. 

Burney is best known to musicians of the 
present day by his " History of nausic ; " a 
vyork of much learning and ability. It is 
written in a pleasant style, but its historical 
value is somewhat destroyed by a vexatious 
absence of dates. He has given much space 
to the glorification of forgotten Italian com- 
posers, and comparatively little to the more 
interesting musicians of other nationalities. 
The " History " is less valuable than that of 
Hawkins, though much superior to it from a 
literary i:)oini of view. His most successful 
musical effort was an adaptation of Rousseau's 
"Devin du Village," produced under the title 
of " The cunning man." His daughter 
Frances was the Madame D'Arblay of English 
literary renown. It may further be added 
that Burney was one of the most esteemed 
organists of his time. His brother James 
(born 1709 ; died 1789), was organist at 
Shrewsbury for many j-ears. 

Burns, Daniel Joseph, Irish organist 
and writer. Organist of St. Patrick's Church, 
and of St. Malachy's College, Belfast. Con- 
ductor of the Philo-Celtic Society. Author of 
" Practical Notes upon Harmony and Counter- 
point for Junior Pupils." London [1883]. 
" Exercises in Figured Bass." London, n.d. 

Burns, Qeorgina (Mrs. Leslie Crotty), 
soprano vocalist, born in London, 1860. 
Granddaughter of Rev. Jabez Burns. Dis- 
played musical talent at an early age, and 
first appeared at the Westminster Aquarium 
Promenade Concerts. She made her first 
appearance in the Carl Rosa Opera Company 
at the Adelphi Theatre, February 11, 1878, 
when she took the part of Ann Page in " The 
Merry Wives of Windsor." During the time 
she remained with the Company she sang 
with success in many operas, creating the 
part of Filina— in English — in " jNIignon," 
and the titular part of Goring Thomas's 
" Esmeralda," was written expressly for her. 
In 1882, she married Leslie Crotty {q.i'.), the 
popular baritone, and when the pair quitted 
the ( arl Rosa Conipan}-, they started a light 
Opera Company, and revived with much suc- 
cess, Rossini's " La Cenerentola," in English, 


with whicli they undertook tours throughout 
the United Kingdom. 

Burns, John, Scottish violinist and com- 
poser, of early part of 19th centurj', published 
" Strathspeys, reels, jigs, etc., for the pf., 
violin and violoncello." Edinburgh, n.d. 

Burrowes, John Freckleton, writer and 
composer, was born in London, April 23, 1787. 
He studied under W. Horsley, and was a Mem- 
ber of the Philharmonic Society. . Organist 
of St. James's Church, Piccadilly, London. 
He died at London, IMarch 31, 1852. 

Works. — Op. 1. Six English Ballads, for 
voice and pf. ; Sonatas for pf. and flute, and 
for pf. and 'cello ; Overture for full orch., pro- 
duced by Philharmonic Society ; Six Divert- 
issements for pf. ; Three Sonatas for pf. and 
violin ; Sonata for pf., on Scotch airs, op. 9 ; 
Select airs from ^Mozart's o^Deras, for pf. and 
flute, 18 numbers ; IMozart's overtures, ar- 
ranged for pf., violin, flute, and 'cello ; Duets, 
for harp and other instruments. Collection 
of Psalm Tunes, with figured bass, n.d. Bur- 
rowes' Pianoforte Primer, containing the rudi- 
ments of Music, in question and answer, 
calculated either for private tuition or teach- 
ing in classes : London, 1822. The Thorough- 
bass Primer : London, 1818. Companion to 
the Thorough-bass Primer : London, 1835. 
Songs, part-songs, etc. 

Burstall, Frederick Hampton, organist, 
born in Liverpool, January 29, 1851. Studied 
under Dr. Rohner, and in 1870 was ai^pointed 
organist of Childwall Parish Church. In 1876, 
he obtained the post of organist at Wallasey 
Church. When the new Diocese of LiverjDool 
was formed, in 1880, he was elected organist 
and director of the choir at the Cathedral 
Church. In 1883, he formed a large special 
choir for oratorio services, and in 1889 under- 
took the parochial Sunday services, resigning 
his post at Wallasey. He is a clever per- 
former, and has given organ recitals at St. 
George's Hall. He married, in 1875, Mintie, 
daughter of the late Samuel ]\Iartin, ship- 
owner, of Liverpool. His wife is an excellent 
musician. Of his compositions the principal 
is a Festival Te Deum ; he has also written 
anthems, motets, songs, and pf. pieces, etc. 

Burton, Avery, English composer, who 
flourished during the 16th century. His 
compositions are preserved in MS. in the 
Music School of Oxford. 

Burton, John, English composer and 
harpsichord plaj'er, born in Yorkshire, in 
1730. He studied under Keeble, and died in 

Works. — Ten sonatas for the harpsichord, 
organ, or pianoforte ; Six trios for the harpsi- 
chord and violins. Six solos for the harpsi- 
chord. Songs, glees, organ music, etc. 

Burton, Robert Senior, organist, pianist, 
and conductor, born at Dewsbury, Yorkshire, 




in 1820. Studied under Cipriani Potter, and 
commenced his career in Leeds, in 1840, suc- 
ceeding Dr. S. S. Wesley as organist of Leeds 
Parish Church in 1849. Was chorus-master 
of the first Musical Festival, Leeds, 1858, and 
conducted choral societies at different periods 
in York, Barnsley, Leeds, Wakefield, Brad- 
ford, and Halifax. He eventually settled at 
Harrogate, where he founded a Choral Society, 
1880 ; he was also musical director at the 
Spa; and, up to his death, organist of St. 
Peter's Church. He was a fine performer on 
the organ, an admirable accompanist, and 
had a high reputation as a choir trainer and 
teacher of singing. He died at Harrogate, 
August 2, 1892. 

Burton, T. Arthur, organist and choir- 
master of St. Augustine's Church, Bourne- 
mouth, and conductor! f a musical society in 
that town, is the composer of an oratorio, 
" Jonah," produced at Bournemouth, January 
28, 1881. He has written a concert march 
for organ, etc. 

Busby, Thomas, composer and author, 
was born at Westminster, in December, 1755. 
Articled to Battishill, 1769-74. Successively 
Organist of S. Mary's, Newington, Surrey, and 
at S. Mary, Woolnoth, Lombard Street, 1798. 
Mus. Doc. Cantab., 1800. LL.D., Cambridge. 
He died at Islington, London, May 28, 1838. 
Works. — The Prophecy, oratorio, ]\Iarch, 
1799; Ode— British Genius, from Grey; Ode 
to St. Cecilia's Day, Pope ; Comala, a Dra- 
matic Romance from Ossian, 1800 ; Thanks- 
giving Ode (Degree exercise), 1800 ; Music to 
Joanna, drama by R. Cumberland, 1800; 
Music to M. G. Lewis's Rugantino, 1805 ; 
The Divine Harmonist, a collection of An- 
thems, etc., 1788; Melodia Britannica, do., 
1790 (unfinished). Sonatas for the pf. An- 
them for the Funeral of Battishill. Miscel- 
laneous anthems, glees, songs; Music to 
Holcroft's Tale of Mystery, 1802 ; IMusic to 
Porter's Fair Fugitives. Dictionary of IMusic, 
with Introduction to the First Principles of 
that Science, London, 8vo., 1786. A Gram- 
mar of Music : to which are prefixed Obser- 
vations explanatory of the Properties and 
Powers of IMusic as a Science, and of the 
general scope and object of the work, London, 
1818. A General history of Music, from the 
earliest times to the present ; comprising the 
Lives of Eminent Composers and Musical 
Writers, London, 2 vols., 1819 (Whittaker). 
Concert Room and Orchestra, Anecdotes of 
Music and Musicians, Ancient and Modern, 
3 vols., London, 1825. Musical Manual, or 
Technical Directory, with Descriptions of 
various Voices and Instruments, London, 

Bussell, Rev. Frederick William, com- 
poser, son of the Rev. F. Bussell, vicar of 
Great Marlow, born at Cadmore End, Oxford- 


shire, April 23, 1862, of a Devonshire family. 
Educated at Charter House, 1876-81 ; Demy 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1880 ; Craven 
Scholar, and B.A., 1885 (First Class Classics, 
Lit. Hum., Theology) ; M.A., 1887 ; B.D., 
1892: Mus. B., 1892. Musical training pri- 
vate. Fellow, tutor, chaplain, junior dean, 
Brazenose College, Oxford ; Select Preacher 
to the University, Oxford, 1896 ; and Morley 
Lecturer at ^t. ilargaret's, Westminster. 

Works. — Magnificat (Latin), for five voices, 
small orchestra, and organ ; IMass in G minor, 
voices, orchestra, and organ (performed at 
Italian Church, Hatton Garden, Sept. 1892). 
Incidental music to "The IMerchant of Ven- 
ice," composed for Oxford University Dram- 
atic Society, and produced at the New Theatre, 
February, 1895. Collaborator in preparation 
of " Song.-^ of the West" (IMethuen), and 
"English Minstrelsie" (Edinburgh, Jack). 
Has published the " School of Plato" (Meth- 
uen, 1895), and other works. 

Buswell, John, composer of the 18th 
century, who was connected with the Chapel 
Royal. He graduated IMus. Bac, Cambridge, 
in 1757, and Mus. Doc, Oxford, in 1759. 
Composer of songs and other vocal music. 

Butler, Charles, musician and author, 
born at Wycombe, Bucks., in 1559. M.A. , 
Oxford. Master of the Free school at Basing- 
stoke, Hants. Vicar at Wooton, St Lawrence, 
Hants. He died on March 29, 1647. 

Works. — The Feminine Monarchic ; or, the 
Historic of Bees . . . proving that in the Bees' 
song are the grounds of Musicke. Oxford, 
1009; other editions. The Principles of Musick 
in singing and setting : with the twofold use 
thereof, ecclesiastical and civil. London, 
1686. An English Grammar, and other works. 
The first work is a curious production ; the 
second a learned treatise on theory and on 
the abuses in sacred and secular music. His 
works were printed partly in characters taken 
from the Anglo-Saxon alphabet, partly in 
others of his own invention, which are de- 
scribed in his Grammar. 

Butler, Charles, English musician, and 
author, of Lincoln's Inn, London, wrote " Re- 
minisences, with a letter to a lady, on ancient 
and modern music." 1824, 4th ed. 

Butler, Thomas Hamly, composer and 
pianist, was born at London, 1702. He studied 
under Dr. Nares at the Chapel Royal, and 
under Piccini in Italy. Composer to Drury 
Lane Theatre, under Sheridan. Teacher and 
pianist in Edinburgh. He died at Edinburgh, 

Works.— The Widow of Delphi (R. Cum- 
berland), musical drama, 1780. Rondos on 
the following Scotch airs : — Duncan Gray, 
Flowers of Edinburgh, I'll gang nae mair to 
yon toun, Lewie Gordon, Roy's Wife, There's 
cauld kail in Aberdeen, etc. (Clementi). A 




select collection of original Scottish airs, 
arranged for one and two voices, with intro- 
ductory and concluding sj'mphonies for the 
flute, violin, and pf., Edinburgh [1790]. 
Sonatas for the pf. (various). Songs, part- 
songs, single pieces for pf., etc. 

Butt, Clara, contralto vocalist, born at 
Southwick, near Brighton. Studied under 
D. \V. Roothani, Bristol, for some years, and 
sang at Miss Lock's concert, December, 1889, 
with success. Entering the R.C.M., she dis- 
tinguished herself at the College concerts, and 
jDariicularly in the performances of opera. 
She made her debut at the Albert Hall, as 
Ursula in Sullivan's " Golden Legend," Dec. 
7, 1892, and sang there in oratorio (Israel in 
Egypt) the next year. Her Festival debut 
took place at Hanley, October 21, 1893, and 
she sang at the Bristol Festival, October 25, 
of the same year, she appeared at the 
Handel Festival of 1891, and has sung at the 
principal London and provincial concerts. 

Butterworth, Annie, cor.tralto vocalist. 
Educated at R.A.M. Westmoreland scholar, 
1871 ; Nilsson prize, 1878. A.R.A.M. She 
won the first prize for contralto singing at the 
National Music Meetings at the Crystal 
Palace. July, 1875, and sang at the Crystal 
Palace concerts twice in March, 1876, in 
Beethoven's choral symphony, etc. She soou 
gained a high position as a concert singer, 
but her career was brief. She died at the age 
of 33, at Hendon, December 9th, 1885. 

Button, H. Elliot, alto vocalise, and 
composer; born at Clevedon, Somerset, Aug- 
ust 8th, 1861. His father was a private 
schoolmaster and organist, and the whole 
family were musical, being able to provide 
both a vocal and a string quartet. In theory 
Mr. Button is self taught. He is a pianist, 
organist, and violinist, besides being solo alto 
at Holy Trinity, Upper Chelsea. He was 
awarded the gold medal for an ode "The song 
of the sower," performed at the National 
Co-operative Festival at the Crystal Palace, 
August 15th, 1891. His composicions include 
"Ivry," a dramatic ballad for baritone solo, 
chorus, and orchestra (1892); am liems, chants, 
etc.; part-songs; songs for children; organ 
pieces, etc. Edited the third series of the 
Bristol Tune Book, and other collections. 

Butts, Thomas, English musician of the 
18th century. Compiler of " Harmonia 
Sacra, or a choice collection of psalm and 
hymn tunes ... in 2, 3, and 1 parts . . . made 
use of in the principal chapels and churches 
in London." London, n.d. [c. 1776 or 1780] . 
Byrd, or Birde, William, composer and 
organist, was born [at Lincoln] about 1538. 
Senior chorister at St. Paul's Cathedral, 1554. 
He studied under Tallis. Organistof Lincoln 
Cathedral, 1503-72. Gentleman of Chapel 
Royal, 15G9. Organistof Chapel Royal (with 


Tallis), 1575. He died at London, July 4th, 

Works.— Cantiones quae ab argumento 
sacrae vocantur quinque et sex partium, 1575. 
Psalmes, sonets, and songs of sadnes and 
pietie, made into musicke of five partes, 
London, 1588. Songs of sundrie natures, 
some of gravitie, and others of myrth, fit for 
all companies and voyces, lately made and 
composed into niusicke of three, four, five, 
and six parts, London, 1589. Liber primus 
sacrarum cantionum quartum alise ad 
quinque, alise uuo ad sex voces aedita sunt, 
London, 1589 ; reprinted by Musical Anti- 
quarian Society, edited by W. Horsley. Liber 
secundus sacrarum cantionum quartum alise 
ad quinque, alise uno ad sex voces aedita sunt, 
London, 1591. Gradualia, ac cantiones sacrse 
lib.r primus, 1607. Gradualia, ac cantiones 
sacrse liber secundus, 1610. Psalmes, songs, 
and sonnets, some solemne, others joyfull,etc., 
1611. Parthenia, or the maidenhead of the 
first musick that ever was printed for the 
virginals, composed by the three famous 
masters, William Byrd, Dr. John Bull, and 
Orlando Gibbous, Gentlcnien of HerMajestie's 
Chappell, London, 1655. Service in D minor 
(Boyce) ; Three anthems (Boyce) ; Mass for 
five voices (Mus. Ant. Soc, Rimbault), 1841 ; 
Compositions contained in the royal virginal 
book ; Compositions contained in Lady 
Neville's musick book, 1591 ; Music in Leigh- 
ton's "Teares;" Non nobis dominae, in 
Hilton's Catches, 1652. Madrigals in various 
collections; Two other masses; anthems, etc. 
Byrd was one of the greatest composers of 
the 16th century. He lived at a period when 
the musical glory of England was supreme. 
Among his contemporaries were such men as 
Tallis, Tye, Farrant, Dowland, Bull, Morley, 
Hooper, Gibbons, Wilbye, Lawes, Weelkes, 
and Parsons. Byrd's claims to recognition 
rest chiefly on his sacred music, which is 
both dignified and grand without undue 
elaboration. He was one of the first in 
England to make use of the madrigal as an 
expressive musical form, though it must be 
admitted that his treatment of works of this 
class is not generally so happy as that of 
some of his successors. He was an organist 
of much ability. His compositions for the 
virginals are somewhat dry and elaborated 
exercises in counterpoint. Byrd secured with 
Tallis, in 1575, by patent, the supreme right 
to publish music in England, and under this 
patent they published the collection of sacred 
music first named in the foregoing list of 
Byrd's compositions. 

Byrn, Adelaide C, sec sub Baly, 

Byrne, C. S., musician. Published a 
" Selection of Scottish melodies, with words 
by George Linley." London, 1827. 




Byrne, Patrick, Irish harpist and com- 
poser. Was born at Farney, about the end 
of 18th century. He died at Dundalk, 1863. 

Bywater, Thomas, tenor vocahst and 
composer. A native of Staffordsliire. For 
many years he was very popular in Birming- 
ham, Wolverhampton, and the midlands. 
He has sung at the Crystal Palace, and other 
places. He is also a clever organist, and was 
for some time organist of St. Mark's, Wolver- 
hampton, but is now chiefly engaged as a 
concert agent. He is blind. Some songs of 
his have been published ; and in 1876 he 
issued a Collection of twenty-five hymn tunes, 
and twelve chants (Novello). 

Caerwarden, John, composer and teacher 
of the violin, who flourished during the 17th 
century. He was a member of the private 
band of Charles I. Hawkins mentions him 
as having been a noted teacher but a harsh 

Csesar, Julius, physician and composer, 
who lived in Rochester during part of the 
17th and 18th centuries. He was an amateur 
composer only, but Hawkins speaks of two of 
his catches appearing in the " Pleasant Mu- 
sical Companion," 1726, as being " inferior 
to none in that collection." 

Calah, John, organist and composer, who 
was born in 1758. He was organist of Peter- 
borough Cathedral at the end of the 18th 
century, and died on August 4, 1798. He 
wrote music for the Church service, hymns, 
ballads, and sonatas for the pf., etc. 

Caldicott, Alfred James, composer and 
organist, born at Worcester, November 26, 
1842 Of a musical family, he, with six 
brothers, went through a course of training 
in the choir of Worcester Cathedral. At the 
age of fourteen he was articled to William 
Done, the organist, whose assistant he be- 
came. He afterwards studied at Leipzig 
Conservatorium, under Moscheles, Haupt- 
miann, E. F. Richter, and others, and in 
1864 settled in Worcester. Graduated Mus. 
Bac, Cambridge, 1878. Organist, St. Ste- 
phen's Church, and to the Corporation of 
Worcester ; Conductor of the Musical and 
Instrumental Societies. In 1882 he renioved 
to Torquay, and the following year settled in 
London, and was appointed Professor of har- 
mony at the R.C.M. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed Musical Director at the Albert Palace, 
Battersea, composing a Dedication Ode for 
the opening, June 6. Toured in America as 
conductor of the Agnes Huntingdon Opera 
Company, 1890-91 ; was appointed Principal 
of the Educational Department, London 
College of Music, 1892 ; and Musical Director, 
Comedy Theatre, 189-3. 

Works. — Sacred Cantata, The Widow of 
Nain (Worcester Festival, 1881) ; Cantatas 


for female voices — A Rhine Legend; Queen 
of May. Operettas — Treasure Trove (1883) ; 
A Moss Rose Rent (1883) ; Old Kuockles 
(1884) ; In Cupid's Court (1885) ; A united 
Pair (1886); The Bo'sun's Mate (1888); pro- 
duced at the German Reed Entertainments. 
Operetta, John Smith (Prince of Wales' 
Theatre, 1889) ; The Girton Girl and the 
Milkmaid (1893), etc. Winter Days, prize 
serious glee (1879, Huddersfield) ; Humpty 
Dumpty, prize humorous glee (1878, Man- 
chester Gentleman's Glee Society) ; Part- 
Songs, various. Story of the Priest Philemon 
(Marie Corelli), special accompaniment for 
recitation, St.'s Hall, May 2, 1896. A 
number of songs ; The Dickens' series, etc. 
Editor of " Morley's Part-song Journal." 

Calkin, George, violoucellist and teacher 
of singing, born St. Pancras, London, August 
10, 1829. Youngest son of James Calkin. 
Organist for twenty-five years at St. Mark's, 
Regent's Park. As conductor of a Choral 
Society, gave concerts at the Hampstead 
Vestry Hall. Professor at the Loudon 
Academy of IMusic. For many years a violon- 
cellist in the orchestra of the Philharmonic 
Society, Royal Italian Opera, and the Provin- 
cial Festivals, including that of P.irmingham 
in 1846, when " Elijah " was produced. Is 
the composer of sixteen books of Soft Volun- 
taries for the organ ; arrangements of airs 
from " Elijah," two books; and organ trans- 
criptions from ilendelssohn, in eight books 
(Novello), all very popular with organists. 

Calkin, James, pianist and composer, 
was born at London, in 1786. He studied 
under Thomas Lyon. Associate of the Phil- 
harmonic Society, 1823. Wrote Symphony 
for orchestra, pf. music, string quartets, etc. 
He died at London in 1862. 

Calkin, John Baptiste, composer, pianist, 
and organist, born in London, March 16, 
1827. Studied under his father, James Calkin. 
Organist, precentor, and choirmaster, St. 
Columba's College, Ireland, 1846-58; Woburn 
Chapel, London, 1853-7 ; Camden Road 
Chapel, 1863-8; St. Thomas' Church, Cam- 
den Town, 1870-84. F.C.O. Member of the 
Philharmonic Society ; Member of the Coun- 
cil, Trinity College, London; Professor at 
Guildhall School of Music. 

Works. — Morning and Evening Services in 
B flat, Op. 43. G, Op. 96, and D ; Te Deum in 
D ; Communion Service in C, Op. 134 ; Mag- 
nificat and Nunc Dimittis in F. Anthems — 
Behold, now praise ye the Lord ; I will always 
give thanks ; I will magnify Thee ; Thou 
visitest the Earth ; and many others. Seven 
Introits. Glees and Part-songs — Breathe soft, 
ye winds ; Come, fill my boys ; My Lady is so 
wondrous fair ; and others. Soiigs — Coming 
light ; Sleep on, my heart ; Oh, lovely 
night ; and others. Quintet and Quartet, 




strings ; Trio, pf. and strings ; Sonata, pf. 
and violoncello. Duet, pf. " Overture " ; 
Youth and Age, six pieces, pf.. Op. 100 ; 
Kondo grazioso, Op. 93 ; Les Arpeges, Op. 94 ; 
The Pixie's E.evel, Op. 95 ; Les trois graces 
(Sonata) ; Studies ; Concert Study in douhle- 
notes; Transcriptions, etc. Oiyan — Andante 
con moto, Op. 101 ; Andante varied ; Harvest 
Thanksgiving IMarch ; Festal March, etc. , etc. 

Calkin, Joseph, violinist, born London, 
1781. Studied under Thos. Lyou and Spag- 
noletti, and was violinist at Drury Lane 
Theatre from 1798 till 1808. He married the 
widow of Mr. Budd, bookseller, and carried 
on the business under the name of Calkin and 
Budd, booksellers to the King. In 1821 he 
was appointed violinist in the King's band. 
He also played violin in the Philharmonic 
orchestra Died London, December .30, 1846. 
Calkin assisted at the capture of Hatfield, 
when he fired at George III. 

His son, James Joseph, born 1813, died 
London, 1868, was a violinist; and another 
son Joseph, known as Tennielli Calkin, 
born 1816, was a tenor singer ; studied under 
Lamperti at Lilian, and appeared at the Phil- 
harmonic and other concerts. He retired 
after a few years, and became a successful 
vocal teacher, and was also composer of aome 
songs. He died in London, June 6, 1874. 

Callcott, John George, pianist and com- 
poser, born in Loudon, July 9, 1821. Was 
organist of Eaton Episcopal Chapel, Eaton 
Square ; St. Stephen's, Westminster, for over 
thirty years, resigning in 1881; and Parish 
Church, Teddington, to 1895. Accompanist 
to Henry Leslie's Choir, 1855-82, and was 
awarded a Medal for his services during the 
visit of the choir to Paris, 1878. He contri- 
buted to the pasticcio, " Harold Glynde (1881), 
and comj^osed two cantatas — Hallowe'en, 
and The Golden Harvest. He also wrote 
part-songs, "Love wakes and weeps," and 
others, produced by Leslie's Choir. An excel- 
lent pianist ; he was almost unrivalled as 
an accompanist ; whilst as a teacher he was 
in great request. He died at Teddington, 
January 7, 1895. 

His father, John Callcott, entered the band 
of the Coldstream Guards at an early age. 
He was one of those who had to beat to arms 
in Brussels on the eve of Waterloo. He was 
for some years third horn in the Opera or- 
chestra under Spagnoletti, Costa, and others. 
He died at Eichmond, Surrey, February 16, 

Callcott, John Wall, composer and 
writer, was born at Kensington, Loudon, No- 
vember 20, 1706. He was largely self-taught 
in music, but he had lessons from Henry 
Whitney, organist of Kensington Parish 
Church. Deputy organist to Reinhold, of 
St. George the Martyr's, Bloomsbury, 1783-5. 


Member of orchestra of Academy of Ancient 
Music. Unsuccessful competitor for prize 
offered by the Catch Club, 1784 (his first trial). 
Gained three prizes (medals) out of the four 
offered by the Catch Club, 1785. Mus. Bac. 
Oxon., July, 1785. Gained two medals. Catch 
Club, 1786 ; and two prizes in 1787 (he sent 
in about 100 compositions). Founded, with 
others, the "Glee Club," 1787. Gained all 
the prizes offered by the Catch Club, 1789. 
Joint organist (with C. S. Evans) of St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden, 1789. He studied under 
Haydn in 1790. Organist ef Asylum for 
Female Orphans, 1793-1802. Gained nine 
medals for his glcLS during 1790-93. Mus. 
Doc. Oxon., 1800. Lecturer at the Royal 
Institution in succession to Crotch, 1806. 
He died at London, May 15, 1821. 

WoEKs. — Select Collection of Catches, Can- 
ons, and Glees, 3 books (D'Almaine), n.d. 
(edited) ; Five Glees for 2 Trebles and Bass 
in Score ; Five Glees, chiefly for Treble voices, 
Op. 12 ; Six Glees in Score ; Collection of 
Glees, Canons, and Catches, including some 
pieces never before published, with ]\Iemoir 
by W. Horsley (the editor), 2 vols., folio, 
Lond., 1824. Church Psalmody (selection) ; 
Services, Anthems. Ode to Fancy (Warton;, 
degree exercise. Titles of some of his princlixd 
Glees and Catches— MeWa. ; Are the white 
hours ; Blow, Warder, blow ; Desolate is the 
dwelling of Morna ; Dull repining sons of 
care; Drink to me only ; Father of Heroes; 
Forgive blest shade ; Erl King ; Farewell to 
Lochaber; Friend of fancy; The Friar; Go, 
idle boy ; If happily we wish to live ; In the 
lonely vale of streams; Lo! where incumbent 
o'er the shade ; Lovely seems the morn's fair 
lustre : Lordly gallants ; The May-fly ; Mark 
the merry elves ; Oh, share my cottage ; Once 
upon my cheek ; 0, snatch me swift ; thou 
where'er ; O fancy, friend of nature ; Peace 
to the souls of the heroes ; Queen of the 
valley ; Red Cross Knight ; Soft and safe ; 
See with ivy chaplet ; Thyrsis, when he left 
me ; Tho' from thy bank ; To all you Ladies 
now on land ; Thalaba ; Thou pride of the 
forest ; Triumphant love ; Whann battayle ; 
When Arthur first ; When time was entwining ; 
Who comes so dark ; With sighs, sweet rose ; 
Ye Gentlemen of England. Songs, etc. Gram- 
mar of Music, Lond., 1806 (other editions) ; 
Glees, Catches, and Canons, Op. 4 (Clementi), 
n.d. ; Explanations of the Notes, Marks, 
Words, etc. used in Music (Clementi), n.d. 

Callcott, Maria Hutchins, English musi- 
cian, born in 1799 ; died London, April 3, 
1859. Sister of W. H. Callcott. Author of 
" The Singer's Alphabet, or hints on the 
English vowels, etc," London, 1849. 

Callcott, William Hutchins, composer 
and pianist, son of J. W. Callcott, was born at 
Kensington, September 28, 1807. He died at 



His son, William 
in 1852; died 1886), 
Another of the name, 
violinist, was born 


London, August 5, 1882. Was organist of 
St. Barnabas', and teacher in London, for a 
considerable period. Among his various com- 
positions may be named the following : — 
Pianoforte — Elegant Extracts from INIendel- 
ssohn ; Favourite Marches, etc. An enormous 
number of arrangements of classical works 
for pf. solo and duet. A selection of Glees 
for three voices. Songs, part-songs, etc. " A 
Few Facts in the Life of Handel," London, 

Robert Stuart (born 
was also a musician. 
William Callcott, a 
about 1800. He was 
principal violinist at H.M. Theatre for many 
years, and afterwards musical director of the 
Adelphi, Olympic, and Astley's Theatres. 
He died at Gravesend, November 6, 1878. 
aged 78. He was father of William and 
Albert Callcott, the scenic artists. 

Callow, MrSo, see sub. Smart, Henry. 
Calvert, Thomas, Scottish musician of 
the latter part of the 18th and beginning of 
the 19th centuries. Published " A Collection 
ofmarches, quicksteps, strathspeys, and reels," 
Edinburgh, n.d. 

Cambridge, Frederick, organist and 
composer, born at South Runcton, Norfolk, 
March 29, 1841. Received his early musical 
training at Norwich Cathedral under Dr. 
Buck, subsequently studying harmony under 
Molique. In 1862, he was appointed organist 
and choirmaster to St. Columba's College, 
Dublin ; removing to St. Mary's, Leicester, 
in 1866 ; and to the Parish Church, Croydon, 
in 1868, holding this position to the present 
time. Conductor of Croydon Vocal Union, 
and of Festivals of Croydon Church Choirs, 
1882, etc. Is honorary local examiner for 
R.C.M. Graduated Mus. Bac. , Durham, 1893. 
He won the prize of ten guineas offered by 
the Nottingham Anacreontic Society for the 
best Glee, in 186.3 ; and among his published 
compositions are, a Communion Service in C 
(1864). AntJiews — Not unto us; I was in 
the Spirit ; Offertory sentences, hymn-tunes, 
chants, etc. Postlude in D, organ ; pianoforte 
pieces, etc. 

Cameron, Andrew Robertson, amateur 
musician and physician, born at Logie Cold- 
stone, Scotland, in 1838 Educated at Aber- 
deen University. Settled in Australia as a 
medical practitioner in 1867. Died at Rich- 
mond, near Sydney, N.S.W., October 18, 1876. 
He composed some overtures and vocal music 
and acted as critic for various journals. 

Camidge, John, composer and organist, 
was born about 1734. Chorister in York 
Cathedral. He studied under Greene and 
Handel, and was organist of York Cathedral, 
1756-1803. He died at York. April 25, 1803. 
Buried S. Olave's Churchyard, York. 


Works. — Six Easy Lessons for the Harp- 
sichord, Y'ork, n.d. ; Glees ; Miscellaneous 
works for the Harpsichord ; Church music 
and songs, etc. 

Camidge, Matthew, composer and or- 
ganist, son of the above, was born at Y'ork, 
in 1758. He studied under Dr. Nares at the 
the ChajiJel Royal, and was organist of York 
Cathedral, 1803-1842. He died at York, 
October 23, 1844. Buried S. Olave's Church- 

Works.— Collection of Tunes adapted to 
Sandy's version of the Psalms, Y'ork, 1789 ; 
Sunday Hymns, the words by the Rev. W. 
Mason, York [1795]. Musical Companion to 
the Psalms used in the Church of St. Michael 
le Belfry, and most of the churches in York 
and its vicinity, n.d. [1830]. Method of 
instruction in music by questions and an- 
swers, n.d. ; Twenty-four original j^salm and 
hymn tunes, n.d. ; Cathedral Music, [1790] ; 
Sonatas for the pf.. Op. 8-9, etc. Instruc- 
tions for the pianoforte or harpsichord and 
eight sonatas [1795] . Marches for the pf. 
Glees and songs. 

Camidge, John, composer and organist, 
son of ]\Iatthew, was born at York, in 1790. 
He studied under his father. Bac. Mus., 
Camb., 1812. Doc. Mus., Camb., 1819. Doc. 
Mus., Lambeth, 1855. Organist of York 
Cathedral, 1844-1859. He died at York, 
September 29, 1859. 

Works. — Cathedral Music, consisting of a 
Service . . Anthems and 50 Double Chants, 
1828. Six Glees for 3 and 4 voices, n.d., etc. 
His son, Thomas Simpson Camidge, was 
deputy organist at York Minster from 1848 
to 1859. Afterwards organist of St. Saviour's, 
York ; Hexham Abbey, 1882 ; Swindon Parish 
Church, 1889 ; and Swansea. John Cam- 
idge, son of T. S. Camidge, is organist of 
Beverley Minster, and has composed " Mars- 
yas and Apollo," a musical panorama for 
chorus and orchestra, Bridlington, 1896. 

Campbell, Rev. A., author of "Two 
papers on Church music, read before the 
Liverpool Ecclesiastical Musical Society," 
Liverpool, 1854. 

Campbell, Alexander, writer and 
musician. Was born at Tombea, on Loch 
Lubnaig, Callander, February 22nd, 1764. 
He was educated at Callander Grammar 
School. He studied music at Edinburgh 
under Tenducci. and was a teacher of pf. in 
Edinburgh. Organistin thenon-juringchapel, 
Nicolson Street, Edinburgh. Was musical 
instructor of Sir Walter Scott. He died at 
Edinburgh, May 15th, 1824. 

Works. — An introduction to the history of 
poetry in Scotland, .... Edinburgh, 1798. 
Sangs of the Lowlands of Scotland, carefully 
compared with the original editions, and 
embellished with characteristic designs com- 




posed and engraved by the late David Allen, 
Esq., historical painter, Edinburgh, 17'J'J. 
A tour from Edinburgh through parts of 
North Britain, London, 2 vols., 1802. An- 
other edition, 2 vols., 1811. The Grampians 
desolate, a poem, 180i. Albyn's Anthology, 
or a select collection of the melodies and 
vocal poetry peculiar to Scotland and the 
Isles, hitherto unpublished, collected and 
arranged by Alex. Campbell, the modern 
Scottish and English verses adapted to the 
Highland, Hebridean, and Lowland melodies, 
written bj* Walter Scott, Esq., etc., Edinburgh, 
Oliver & IJoyd, 2 vols., 1816-1818. Collections 
of Scottish songs, with violin, London, 1792. 
A second collection arranged for harpsichord, 
n.d., etc. The fine air now used with Tanna- 
hill's "Gloomy winter's now awa'," was 
claimed by Campbell as his composition, and 
it is said to have first appeared in leaflet form 
long before its alleged first publication by 
Gow as "Lord Balgonie's favourite." 

Campbell, Lady Archibald, musician 
of present time. Author of " Rainbow music, 
the philosophy of harmony in colour grouping," 
London, 1886. 

Campbell, Donald, Scottish writer and 
collector. Author of " A Treatise on the lan- 
guage, poetry, and music of the Highland 
clans, with illustrative traditions and anec- 
dotes, and numerous ancient Highland airs," 
Edinburgh, 1862. This work contains a 
number of ancient Highland melodies badly 
set to inferior basses. The compiler describes 
himself as "late lieutenant of the 57th 
regiment," and appears to have been a resident 
in Port-Glasgow on the Clyde. He was a 
claimant to the Breadalbane Peerage. 

Campbell, Gilbert James, Gilbkbto 
Ghilberti, bass vocalist, son of IMajor-Gen- 
eral T. Hay Campbell, R.A. He sang at the 
Gloucester Festival, 1880, and in opera at 
Her Majesty's Theatre the same year. Has 
sung in oratorio and other concerts in various 
parts of the United Kingdom, and in Ireland. 
He married, July 31st, 1881, Miss Ellen De 
FoNBLANQUE, soprano vocalist, who sang at 
the Gloucester Festival, 1880, and is known 
as an artistic vocalist at the Monday popular 
and other concerts. 

Campbell, John, music-sellerand teacher, 
who lived in Edinburgh in the latter half of 
last century. He published a collection of 
psalmody and other works. 

Campbell, John, amateur musician, was 
born at Paisley in 1807 ; died at Glasgow, 
October 7th, 1860. He was a merchant in 
Glasgow, and issued "The Sacred psaltery in 
four vocal parts, consisting principally of 
original psalm and hymn tunes," Glasgow 
[1854] . He also edited " Campbell's Selection 
of anthem's and doxologies, with a separate 
piano accompaniment," Glasgow, 1818 ; and 


wrote a few original anthems of mediocre 
quality, some of which were once very popular 
in Glasgow and neighbourhood. 

Campbell, Joshua, Scottish collector, who 
was a music-seller and bell-ringer in Glasgow, 
and died there early in the present century. 
He issued, about 1795, " A collection of new 
Reels and Highland Strathspeys, with a bass 
for the violoncello and harpsichord," Glas- 
gow, n.d. "Collection of favourite tunes," 
, with variations, etc., n.d. 

Campbell, Mary Maxwell, musician and 
poetess, born at Pitlour House, Fife, in 1812 ; 
died at St. Andrew's, January 15, 1886. 
Fifth daughter of Sir D. J. Campbell. Com- 
poser of the words and music of that blatant, 
though well-known song, " The March of the 
Cameron Men," and of "The mole and the 
bat " (1807), and other vocal pieces. 

Campbell, William, Scottish collector, 
who flourished in London, published about 
1790, and later, "Campbell's First Book of 
New and Favourite Country Dances and 
Strathspey Reels, for the harpsichord or vio- 
lin." Afterwards issued a " Collection of the 
newest and most favourite country dances and 
reels," London, various dates. Of these col- 
lections at least 23 books were issued. 

Campion, Thomas, poet, dramatist, com- 
poser, and physician, flourished in first part 
of 17th century, and died in February, 1619. 

WoBKS. — Observations on the art of Eng- 
lish poesie, 1602 : The first, second, third, and 
fourth booke of Ayres, containing divine and 
morrall songs ; to be sung to the Lute and 
Viols, in two, three, and foure parts ; or by one 
voyce to an instrument, London, 1610-12; Songs 
of mourning bewailing the untimely death of 
Prince Henry, 1613. A new way of making 
foure parts in Counter-point, by a most familiar 
and infallible rule, 1618 (and 1655 in Playford's 
" Introduction to the skill of Musick ") ; Ayres 
for the Mask of Flowers, 1618. 

Campobello, see Martin, H. M. 

Candlish, Rev. Robert Scott, Scottish 
Free Church clergyman, born Edinburgh, 
1807; died 1873. He wrote "The Organ 
Question : Statements by Dr. Ritchie and 
Dr. Porteous for and against the use of the 
Organ in Public Worship, with an introduc- 
tory notice." Edinburgh, 1856. 

Cantelo, Annie, Mrs. Harry Cox, pianist, 
born in Nottingham. Studied at R.A.M., 
being Sterndale Bennett prize-holder, 1881, 
and LadyGoldsmid scholar, 1882. A.R.A. M.. 
1888. Made her first appearance in public at 
Mr. Walter Macfarren's concert, St. James's 
Hall, March 25th, 1882, playing the solo part 
of Schumann's pianoforte concerto. She has 
given concerts in Nottingham, and recitals 
in London with much success ; and is the 
composer of a sonata in E minor, and other 
pieces for pf. 




Capel, J. M. Composer of the music to 
a comedietta, " The composer," 1892 ; also 
of " Six sougs ; " songs, various, and pieces 
for pf . 

Capes, Rev. John Moore, composer 
and writer, was born at Stroud. Was B.A., 
Oxford, 1836; M.A., 184G Died in 1889. 
He composed " The Druid," a tragic opera, 
produced at St. George's Hall, Liverpool, 
February 22nd, 1879. This work attained 
not more than local renown. Capes has also 
written " An essay on the growth of the 
musical scale and of modern harmony," 
London, 1879. 

Caradog, sec Jones, Griffith Rhys. 
Card, William, flute player and composer, 
born at Salisbury, in 1788; died at London, 
October 4th, 1861. He composed a large 
number of pieces of music for the flute, 
chiefly arrangements, and published a few 
pf. works. His son, Edward J. Card, also 
a flute player, was a member of Her Majesty's 
privaLe band, and of the Philharmonic orches- 
tra. He died in London, May 16th, 1877, 
aged 60. 

Cardigan, Cora, flutist, born in London. 
Studied under her father, and R. S. Rockstro. 
Appeared first at the Royal IMusic Hall, 
Holborn, then at the Oxford, and the Royal 
Aquarium. Her reputation as an artist being 
now established, she appeared with success 
on the concert platform, and gave a concert 
in Prince's Hall, February 17th, 1885. She 
has played at St. James's Hall ; at the Bow 
and Bromley recitals ; and in the provinces. 
Toured for two years in America, and has 
fulfilled engagements in Berlin and Nice. 
Her playing is remarkable for brilliancy of 
execution, and purity of tone. In 1889, she 
married Herr Louis Honig, a well-known 
pianist and composer. 

Carew, Miss ? English soprano vocalist, 
who was born in London, October 16th, 1799. 
She studied under Welsh, and her parents, 
and originally played small parts in Covent 
Garden Theatre. She first appeared as an 
operatic vocalist at Covent Garden, in July, 
1815. Sang at the English Opera House, 
1818, etc. She was also engaged for the 
Philharmonic, and principal London and 
provincial concerts. About 1823 she retired 
from the stage. Died [ ?] 

Carey, Henry, composer and minor poet, 
reputed natural son of George Saville, Marquis 
of HaUfax, was born in 1692 [1685]. Received 
some instruction in music from Roseingrave 
and Geminiani : otherwise self-taught. He 
was for a time a teacher of music, but was 
engaged chiefly in writing music for the 
theatres. He hanged himself in Great War- 
ner Street, Clerkenwell, London, October 4, 

Works. — Musical Dramas, etc. — The Con- 


trivances, 1715 ; Honest Yorkshireman, 1736; 
Ameha, 1732; Teraminta, 1732 ; Chrononho- 
tonthologos, 1734 ; Dragon of Wantley (words 
only), 1737 ; Dragoness (otherwise known as 
Marjery, or a worse Plague than the Dragon), 
1738. Betty, 1739 ; Nancy, 1739. Poems, 
1720 : Cantatas, 1732. The Musical Century, 
in 100 English Ballads on various Subjects 
and Occasions, etc., Lond., 2 vols., 1737-1740 ; 
Dramatic Works (Collected), 1743. Inter- 
ludes— ThomB.?, and Sally, etc. Melody of 
" God Save the Queen." (?) Carey is now 
known only as the composer of the fine ballad 
" Sally in our Alley," and of a few hymn 
tunes. The "Easter Hymn," usually attri- 
buted to Carey, is not his composition. His 
ballad " Sally in our Alley " appears to have 
been first published about 1715 as " (Sally in 
our Alley) the words and Tune by Mr. Henry 
Carey." It is a folio broadsheet on one side 
of a single leaf, and has a flute part added 
at the end. The melody differs considerably 
from more modern versions. In the 1729 
edition of his "Poems on several occasions" 
it first appears in permanent form with an 
argument or note explaining the circum- 
stances under which it was written, and 
referring to it as a juvenile effusion. This 
does not give the tune, nor is anything said 
about it. 

His son George Saville Carey, born 
1743, died 1807, was a poet and dramatist, 
who wrote a number of farces and other 
dramatic pieces. 

Cargill, James, Scottish musician of 
present century, published " Harmonia Sacra : 
a collection of' the most celebrated tunes and 
anthems, partly original and partly extracted 
from some of the best authors ancient and 
modern ..." Aberdeen, n.d. 

Carlile James, Scottish clergyman and 
psalmody editor, was born about 1784. He 
was minister of the Scottish Church, St. 
Mary's Abbey, Dublin, 1814-54. He died at 
Dublin, March 31, 1854. Compiler of a col- 
lection of psalmody issued in 1828. 

Carlton, Hugh, author of "The Genesis 
of Harmony : an inquiry into the laws which 
govern musical composition," Lond., 1882. 

Carlton, Rev. Richard, clergyman and 
composer, flourished during end of 16th and 
beginning of 17th centuries. He wrote 
" Twenty-one Madrigals for five voyces," 
Lond., 1601 ; and contributed " Calm was the 
Air," a madrigal for 5 voices, to the " Tri- 
umphs of Oriana." His biography is unknown. 

Carmichael, Mary Grant, pianist and 
composer, born at Birkenhead. Pupil of the 
Academy for the higher development of j)iano- 
forte playing, where her teachers were Os'car 
Beringer, Walter Bache, and Fritz Hartvigson ; 
pupil of E. Prout for harmony and compo- 
sition. As a pianist she has appeared chiefly 




as an accompanist, at the IMondaj^ Popular 
Concerts, 1884-5, and elsewhere ; but she is 
more widely known as a composer. Her 
works include many songs, among which may 
be named " Sing Song," twenty rhymes by C. 
Rossetti ; " The Stream," a series of connected 
vocal i^ieces in the manner of a Liederkreis, 
l^roduced at the lA'ric Club, November, 1887 ; 
The Flower of the Vale ; The Tryst, etc. 
Duets : A poor soul sat sighing. Who is Sylvia? 
Daybreak, and others. A suite for pf. Duet 
(1880) and smaller pf. compositions. She has 
also written an operetta, " The Snow Queen," 
and is now engaged on sacred coinpositions 
in large forms. Translator of A. Ehrlich's 
"Celebrated Pianists of the Past and Present," 
London : Grevel, 1894. 

Carmichael, Peter, author of the -'Science 
of Music Simplified," Glasgow, 1860. 

Carmichael, S., author of "Dictionary 
of Musical Terms and Elementary Rules," 
London, 1878. 

Carnaby, William, composer and organ- 
ist, was born at London, in 1772. He studied 
under Nares and Ayrton as chorister in Chapel 
Royal. Organist at Eye, Suffolk, and at 
Huntingdon. Bac. Mus., 1803. Doc. Mus , 
Cantab., 1808. Organist at Hanover Chapel, 
Regent Street, London, 1823. He died at 
London, Nov. 1.3, 1839. 

WoEKs. — Ode, The Tears of Genius. Twelve 
Collects for 4 voices, in score, with organ 
accompaniment ; Sanctus for 5 voices ; Six 
Canzonets for voice and pf. ; Six Songs for 
voice and pf. Glees, various. Anthems. MS. 
Works. The Singing Primer, or Rudiments 
of Solfeggi, with Exercises in the principal 
Major and ]\Iinor keys, London, 1827. 

Carnall, Arthur, composer and organist, 
born at Peterborough, 1852, son of John Car- 
nall, an amateur, who was for years choir- 
master of St. Mary's, Peterborough. Pupil 
of Dr. Chipp, at Ely Cathedral. Graduated 
Mus. B., Cambridge, 1873. Organist of the 
Parish Church, Penge. 

Works. — Overture, orchestra, Oxford, 1888 ; 
Quintets, in D and P, for wind instruments ; 
Quartets, in C minor (Oxford, 1887,) and P, 
performed at the Conference of the Incorpor- 
ated Society of Musicians, Newcastle, 1892, 
for strings; Nocturne, for strings, 1894. Album 
of duets, violin, and pf. ; pieces for pf., organ, 
etc. Anthem for Christmas, " Hail ! Thou 
that art highly favoured," and others ; services 
glees and madrigals ; songs, etc. 

Carnie, William, writer and editor, was 
born at Aberdeen in November, 1824. He 
was originally a letter engraver, but became 
precentor of the Established Church, Ban- 
chory-Devenick, Aberdeen, in 1845. Inspector 
of Poor for same Parish, 1847. Sub-editor of 
the Aberdeen Herald, 1852. Precentor of the 
West, or High Church, Aberdeen, 1854. Clerk 


and treasurer to the managers of Aberdeen 
Royal Infirmary and the Lunatic Asylum, 
1861. He acted as local correspondent for a 
time to the Times and the Scotsman. 

Works. — Psalmody in Scotland, a Lecture, 
Aberdeen, 1 854 ; Northern Psalter, containing 
402 Psalm and Hymn Tunes, Aberdeen, 1870 ; 
Anthem appendix to do. ; Precentor's Com- 
panion and Teacher's Indicator ; Contribu- 
tions to periodical literature, etc. 

Mr. Carnie's labours did much to promote 
good psalmody in the North of Scotland. In 
1854, at the request of the local Young Men's 
Christian Association, he delivered a lecture 
on Psalmody to an audience numbering over 
2000 2:)ersons, which inaugurated a very suc- 
cessful effort to improve the psalmody of 
Aberdeen churches. 

Carolan, see O'Carolan. 

Carr, Benjamin, English musician, born 
in latter part of 18th century. He settled in 
Philadelphia, U.S., early in the 19th century, 
where he was an organist and teacher. He 
published "The Spanish Hymn, arranged 
and composed for the concerts of the IMusical 
Fund Society of Philadelphia. . . The air from 
an ancient Spanish melody . . . 1826" The 
hymn-tune called "Madrid," " Spanish mel- 
ody," etc., is ascribed to Carr, but by a 
curious misprint, generally appears as by 
"B. Case." 

Carstairs, sec Molesworth, Lady. 

Carr, Frank Osmond, composer, born 
in Yorkshire. Graduated Mus. Bac, 1882 ; 
Mus. Doc, 1891, Oxford. Mus. Bac, Cam- 
bridge, 1885; M.A., 1886. He is known as 
the composer of music to a number of farces, 
burlesques, and comic operas : Joan of Arc, 
1891; Blue-eyed Susan, 1892; In Town, 1892; 
Morocco Bound, 1893 ; Go Bang, 1894 ; His 
Excellency (W. S. Gilbert), produced at the 
Lyric Theatre, London, October 27th, 1894 ; 
Biarritz, 1896 ; Lord Tom Noddy, 1896 ; The 
Clergyman's Daughter, Theatre Royal, Bir- 
mingham, April, 1896; later, as My Girl, at 
the Gaiety, London. 

Carr, John, vocal composer, who 
flourished at Boxford, Sussex, about the 
middle of last century. Among other works 
he issued " The Grove, or rural harmony," 
containingavariety of songs." London [1760]. 

Carr, Robert, musician of the 17th cen- 
tury. Issued "The delightful companion, 
or choice new lessons for the recorder or flute." 
London, 1686. Two editions. 

Carrodus, John Tiplady, violinist, born 
at Braithwaite, near Keighley, Yorkshire, 
January 20th, 1836. Received his first lessons 
from his father, an amateur violinist, and gave 
a concert at the Mechanics' Institution, 
Keighley, in November, 1845. At the age of 
twelve, he was placed under Molique, with 
whom he studied at Stuttgart and in London. 




He appeared ad a concert given by Mr. C. K. 
Salaman, at the Hanover Square Rooms, 
June 1st, 1849 ; and played a solo at the first 
Bradford Musical Festival, August 31st, 1853. 
He was engaged in the orchestra at Covent 
Garden Theatre, and ultimately became 
princijjal violinist in the Philharmonic, Three 
Choir Festival, and other orchestras, and was 
also noted as a quartet player, appearing in 
this capacity as early as 1850, being second 
violin at Molique's chamber conceits. He 
was leader at the Leeds festivals -from 1880 
to 1892, and appeared as soloist at the London 
Musical Society, April 22, 1863, Crystal 
Palace, and the leading metropolitan and 
provincial concerts. When the National 
Training School for Music was opened, in 
1876, he was appointed a professor of the 
violin there. He commenced giving violin 
recitals in 1881, and toured in South Africa, 
1890-1. His published compositions include 
fantasias, and a romance ; and he edited a 
collection of celebrated violin duets, and 
some studies. He died in London, July 13bh, 
1895. His son, Bernhard Molique, violin- 
ist, was educated at home, and at the R.A.M. 
He has been connected with the best orches- 
tras, and is making a reputation as a solo 
player, in the last capacity appearing with 
success at the Gloucester Festival of 1889. 
In 1888 he was appointed a professor at Trin- 
ity College, London. Ernest Alexander, 
his brother, is a contrabassist; member of the 
Philharmonic and other orchestras ; J. Car- 
RODUs is a violoncellist and organist; R. Car- 
RODUS, a violinist ; and W. 0. Carrodus, a 
flutist, scholar of the R.C.M. The father, 
with his five sons, were included in the 
orchestra at the Hereford Festival of 1891. 

Carroll, B. Hobson, organist, pianist, 
and violinist. Graduated Mus. Doc, Dublin, 
1884. He was for some time organist of 
Christ Church, Belfast, and is now organist 
and choirmaster of Dunfermline Abbey. 
Composer of a Te Deum in E flat, for soli, 
eight part chorus, and orchestra. Jubilate, 
Magnificat and Nunc dimittis, pieces for 
violin, etc. 

Carroll, Walter, organist. Graduated 
Mus. Bac, Durham, 1891 ; Mus. Bac, Man- 
chester, 1896 ; Organist and choirmaster, 
St. Clement's, Greenheys, Manchester 1892 ; 
Music master, Day Training College, Owen's 
College, Manchester, 1892 ; Professor of har- 
mony, R.C.M., Manchester, 1893. Works : 
Psalm 146, for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; 
Two sonatinas, pf., etc. 

Carrott, Livesey, Organist and pianist, 
born at Boston, Lincolnshire. Educated at 
R.A.M. Was appointed organist and choir- 
master at All Saints', Highgate, 1882 ; St. 
Matthew's, Bayswater, 1896. Resident in 
London as performer and teacher. Composer 


of a sacred cantata, Martha, for female voices, 
1896 ; songs, etc. 

Carte, Richard, flutist and maker of 
musical instruments, born 1808 (?), son of 
Richard Cart, quartermaster of the Blues. 
Orginally intended as a violinist, he was 
placed under Griesbach, of the Queen's band; 
afterwards he was a pupil, for the flute, of 
George Rudall. About 1828, he went to Ger- 
many, and studied composition under Haupt- 
mann. Returning to England he resumed 
concert giving, and also lectured on various 
musical tojDics, enjoying a high reputation. 
In 1843, he adopted the Boehm flute, subse- 
quently combining his own jDatent with the 
Boehm system. He joined the firm of Rudall 
and Rose in 1850, and in 1853 compiled and 
produced the first issue of the " Musical 
Directory, Register, and Almanack." He 
^ composed songs, and pieces for the fiute ; and 
I was author of " A complete course of instruc- 
tion for the Boehm Flute" (1845?); and 
" Sketch of the successive Improvements 
made in the Flute" (1851?). He died at 
Reigate, November 26, 1891. 

Carter, George, organist and composer, 
i born in London, January 26, 1835. Studied 
under Sir John Goss, and was first appointed 
an organist in 1847. He was then succes- 
sively organist at St. Thomas', Stamford 
Hill (1848) ; Christ Church, Camberwell 
(1850) ; Trinity Church, Upper Chelsea (1858) ; 
St. Luke's, Chelsea (1860); and of Montreal 
Cathedral (1861-70). As a performer he was 
known on the Continent as well as in London 
and America. For some years he acted as 
organist at the Albert Hall. His composi- 
tions include Operas — "Fair Rosamond," and 
" Nerone " (Italian), in MS. Operetta, " Golden 
Dreams." Cantatas, " Evangeline " (1873) ; 
"The Golden Legend " (composed 1883) ; and 
a Sinfonia-Cantata, Ps. 116, " I love the 
Lord" (1872). High Festival Communion 
Service (1883). Grand Festival March ; Tema 
con variazioni, organ; Songs and miscellaneous 
works. — Another George Carter, tenor vo- 
calist and lay vicar, Westminster Abbey, of 
repute as a ballad and glee singer, died at 
Wandsworth, November 17, 1890, at the age 
of fifty-six. 

Carter, Henry, organist and composer, 
brother of the preceding, born March 6, 1837. 
Was some time organist of the Cathedral, 
Quebec, and in 1882 was appointed organist 
of Rev. Henry Ward Beecher's Church, New 
York, having previously held a similar post 
at Trinity Church, in that city. Has com- 
posed anthems, songs, organ music, etc. 

Another Henry Carter published a large 
number of waltzes and other dance pieces, 
songs, etc., between 1849 and 1861. 

Carter, Robert, musician. Compiled "A 
Psalter, containing a selection of Psalm tunes, 




chants, services, and other ecclesiasticalmusic, 
the Psahiis selected from the new version by 
the Rev. W. J. E. Bennett," London, 18i3. 

Carter, Thomas, composer, was born in 
Irehmd, in 1735 [1758, 1768, also given]. He 
studied probably in Ireland under his father, 
and became Organist of S. Werburgh's Church, 
Dublin, 1751-69. He travelled in Italy for a 
time [1770-1] . Conductor of Theatre in 
Bengal [1771-2], but settled in London as and composer to the theatres, 1773. 
He died at London, October 12, 1804. 

Works. — Musical Dramas — Rival Candi- 
dates, 1775 ; Milesians, 1777 ; Fair American, 
1782 ; Birthday ; Constant Maid ; Just in 
Time. Lessons tor the Guitar ; Concerto for 
bassoon and pf. ; Six Sonatas for the pf. 
Songs, detached and in collections, etc. The 
Soldier's farewell on the eve of a battle, song. 
Carter composed "0 Nannie, wilt thou gang 
wi me," a song which owes its success to its 
imitation of the Scottish style. Apart from 
this song his merits as a composer are not 
greai, and none of his other works are now 

Carter, William, organist, composer, and 
conductor, brother of G. and H. Carter, born 
in London, December 7, 1838. Studied under 
his father and Ernst Pauer. Chorister, St. 
Giles', Camberwell (1845); Chapel Royal, 
Whitehall ; and King's College, London. Or- 
ganist of Christ Church, Rotherhithe (1848) ; 
Little Stanmore, Whitchurch (1850) ; St. 
Mary, Newington (1854) ; and St. Helen's, 
Bishopsgate (1856). In 1859 he acted, for his 
brother Henry, as Organist of Quebec Cathe- 
dral, and conducted a grand performance of 
"Judas Maccabseus," April 13, the centenary 
of the composer's death. The next year he 
was organist of St. Stephen's, Westbourne 
Park, London ; and, in 1868, of St. Paul's. 
Onslow Square. He established the Bays- 
water Musical Society in 1860, and was con- 
ductor of the London Choral L'nion, 1861. 
When the Royal Albert Hall was opened in 
1871, he formed a large choir, and has for 
many years given choral and popular concerts 
in that building. In 1«94 he started choral 
concerts in the Queen's Hall. He has also 
appeared with success ri a performer upon 
the organ and pianoforte. His chief compo 
sitions are : — Pla-ida, the Christian Martyr, 
a cantata produced at the Albert Hall, De- 
cember 5, 1871 : a Thanksgiving Anthem for 
recovery of H R.H. the Prince of Wales, 1872 ; 
Victoria, an ode, 1887. He has also com- 
posed anthems, songs, and part-songs, and 
. arranged national airs for choral-singing. 

Cartledge, James, composer, organist, 
and singer, born at Newark [1791] ; died at 
Manchester September 13, 1864. being the 
senior chorister of the Cathedral, his appoint- 
ment dating from 1826. He issued " Sacred 


Music, with an accompaniment for the organ 
or pianoforte," Lond. [1840]. 

Cartwright, Thomas, Puritan divine 
(1535-1603), who wrote against the use of 
music in public worship. Full particulars of 
what views he held will be found in Hawkins' 
" History of Music." 

Case, George Tinkler, concertina player 
and writer, author of virions text-books for 
different instruments, among which are " In- 
structions for performing on the Concertina, 
from the first Rudiments to the most difficult 
style of Performance," Lond. [1848]; Tutor 
for the Violin ; Exercises for Wheatstone's 
patent concertina [1855]. Baritone concertina, 
a new method . . . Lond. [1857] ; Concertina 
miscellany [1855]. English concertina tutor, 
n.d. One hundred ballads for the violin 

His wife, born Grace Egerton", was a 
soprano vocalist. 

Case, John, physician and writer, was 
born at Woodstock about the middle of the 
16th century. Chorister at New College and 
Christ College, Oxford. Fellow of St. John's 
College, Oxford. Lecturer at Oxford. He 
died in January, 1600. 

Works. — The Praise of Musicke, wherein 
its Antiquity, Dignity, Delectation, and Use, 
are discussed, Oxford, 1586. Apologia Musices, 
tern vocalis quam instrumentalis et mixtae, 
Oxford, 1588. Philosophical works, etc. The 
" Praise of IMusicke" is an exceedingly quaint 
work, and at the present date of great rarity. 
The writer was an enthusiast of the highest 

Cassidy, James, Irish composer and band- 
master, died at Dublin, March 28, 1869. He 
composed and published a very large number 
of galops, quadrilles, and other dance music, 
for orchestra and pf . 

Casson, Margaret, vocalist and composer, 
who flourished about the beginning of the 
present century. She wrote a number of 
vocal pieces of varying merit, among which 
may be named the songs : The Cuckoo ; At- 
tend, ye nymphs [1790] ; Snowdrop ; Noon 
[1790] ; God save the Queen, etc. ; The Pearl, 
glee. Her biography has not been preserved. 

Casson, John, probably a relative of the 
above, composed minuets for the pf. Eight 
favourite airs for the pf., and other works 
issued between 1794-1820. 

Casson, Thomas, bank manager, of Den- 
bigh, amateur organist, and writer. Author 
of " The Modern Organ, London [18831. Also 
papers and lectures on the organ. In 1887 
he formed a company for building organs on. 
the principle enunciated in his works. 

Catley, Ann, soprano vocalist, was born 
at London, 1745. She was articled to Bates, 
the composer, in 1760, and appeared at Vaux- 
hall Gardens in 1762. She sang at Covent 




Garden Theatre, Oct 8, 1762. Involved in a 
scandalous criminal case, 1763. Sang in Ire- 
land, 1763-70 ; Covent Garden Theatre, 1771. 
Made her last appearance in public in 1784. 
Supposed to have been latterly married to 
General Lascelles, with whom she lived pre- 
vious to her death. She died near Brentford, 
Oct. 14, 1789. 

The criminal case above alluded to in this 
singer's life was an action raised at the in- 
stance of her father against Bates, Sir Francis 
Delavel, and an attorney named Fraine for 
conspiring to prostitute her, by agreement, to 
the person named Delavel. Her father gained 
his case. She was a great favourite in Lon- 
don and in Ireland, and was one of the few 
successful vocalists who at that time made 
use of the staccato style. Her biography is 
given in "The Life and Memoirs of Miss Ann 
Catley, with biograi^hical sketches of Sir F. 
Blake Delaval, and the Hon. Isabella Pawlet, 
daughter of the Earl of Thanet," by Miss 
Ambross, London, 1789, with portrait. Re- 
printed in 1888. 

Causton, Thomas, composer and organist, 
who flourished during the 16th century. He 
was a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal during 
the reigns of Edward VI., IMary, and Eliza- 
beth. He died on October 28, 1569. Con- 
tributed to Day's " Certain Notes set forth in 
four and three parts, to be sung at the Morn- 
ing, Communion, and Evening Prayer." His 
compositions appear also in Day's " Psalms," 
London, 1563. 

Cave, William Reginald, violinist, com- 
poser and conductor, nex^hew of Joseph H. 
Cave, many years lessee and manager of the 
Marylebone and other theatres. He was born 
in Marylebone, in 1859, and first appeared as 
a violinist at the Marylebone theatre in 1864, 
and afterwards played for three months, during 
the nianagement of Nelson Lee, 1865, at the 
Crystal Palace. In conjunction with the late 
Edward Solomon and James Saunders, he 
gave concerts. In 1874 he founded the West 
London Orchestral Society, retaining the con- 
ductorship until 1887, and giving many con- 
certs. He then formed the People's Palace 
Orchestra ; and, since 1876, has been a Pro- 
fessor of the violin at Harrow Music School. 
He wrote incidental music to " Mary, Queen 
of Scots " ; two overtures, one in B flat (at 
the age of fourteen), for orchestra; two sym- 
phonies ; a concerto for violin, and other 

Cave=Ashton, Gertrude, see Ashton, 
Gertrude Cave-. 

Cavendish, Michael, composer, who 
flourished during the latter portion of the 
16th century. He composed " Ay res for four 
voices," 1599 ; and contributed the five-part 
madrigal " Come, gentle swains " to the " Tri- 
umphs of Oriana," 1601. He also aided in 


harmonising " The Whole Booke of Psahnes," 

1592. His biographv has not been preserved. 

Cazalet, Rev. William Wahab, M.A., 

English divine and writer, was born about 
commencement of present century. He wrote 
The History of the Royal Academy of INIusic, 
compiled from authentic sources, London, 
1854 ; On the right management of the voice 
in speaking and reading, with some remarks 
on phrasing and accentuation, London, 1855 
(3rd edit., 1860) ; The voice, or the art of 
singing, London, 1861 ; On the reading of 
the Church liturgy, 1862 ; Exhibition lecture 
on the musical department of the late Exhib- J 
ition, London, 1853. 1 

Cecil, Arthur, or Blunt, actor and manager. 
Destined for the army, he plaj'ed as an am- 
ateur at the Richmond Theatre, and in 1869 
joined the German Reed Company, appearing 
as Mr. Churchmouse in Gilbert's " No Cards," 
and as Box in the Burnand-SuUivan bur- 
lesque, " Cox and Box." He afterwards played 
in the regular drama at the Globe, Gaiety, 
and Opera Comique. For some time he was 
joint manager with John Clayton, of the 
Court Theatre. He died at Brighton, April 
16, 1896. 

Cecil, Rev. Richard, clergyman and 
musician, was born in London, November 8, 
1748. He was educated at Oxford, 1773. 
Deacon, 1775. Priest, 1777. Minister of St. 
John's Chapel, Bedford Row, London, 1780. 
Rector of Cobham and Bisley, Surrey, 1800. 
He died at Hampstead, August 15, 1810. 

Works. — Selection of psalms and hymns 
for the public worship of the Church of Eng- 
land, London, n.d. ; 32nd edition issued, 1840 ; 
Sermons, lectures, etc. Best known by his 
anthem, " I will arise, and go to my Father." 
His daughter, Theophania, was born in 1782, 
and died in London, November 15, 1879. She 
was organist of St. John's Chapel ; editor of 
"The psalm and hymn tunes, used at St. 
John's Chapel, Bedford Row ; arranged for 
four voices, and adapted for the organ or 
pf., London, 1814. 

Celli, F. H., see Standing, Frank. 

Cellier, Alfred, composer and conductor, 
of French extraction, born in London (Hack- 
ney), December 1, 1844. Chorister at Chapel 
Royal, St. James's, 1855-60 ; organist of All 
Saints', Blackheath, 1862. In 1866 he suc- 
ceeded Dr. Chipp as organist of the Ulster 
Hall, Belfast, and conductor of the Classical 
Harmonists, and two years later, was ap- 
pointed organist of St. Alban's, Holborn. He 
now turned his attention to comjposition and 
conducting, and was engaged at the Prince's 
Theatre, Manchester, 1871-5 ; Opera Comique, 
London, 1877-9 ; and, with Sir Arthur Sulli- 
van, joint conductor. Promenade Concerts, 
Covent Garden, 1878-9 ; and held other sim- 
ilar appointments at various times. About 




this time his health failed, and he lived much 
abroad, principally in Australia. He died in 
London, December 28, 1891, while giving the 
finishing touches to his opera, "The Mounte- 
banks," the overture of which was taken from 
his Orchestral Suite, the intended movement 
never having been written. Cellier was a 
brilliant organist, and was credited with 
sui^erior literary tastes. He wrote a trenchant 
little i)aper, " A nightmare of tradition" [The 
Theatre, October, 1878), a plea for English 

Works. — Operettas and Operas : Charity 
begins at home, 1870 ; The Sultan of INIocha 
(Prince's Theatre, IManchester, Nov. 16, 1874; 
revived, Strand Theatre, London, with a new 
libretto, Sept. 21, 1887) ; The Tower of Lon- 
don, 1875 ; Nell Gwynne, 1876 ; The Foster 
Brothers, London, 1876 ; Dora's Dream, 1877 ; 
The Spectre Knight, Feb., 1878; Bella Donna 
(Manchester, April, 1878) ; After All (London, 
1879) ; In the Sulks, 1880 ; Pandora, grand 
opera (Boston, U.S., 1881) ; The Carp (Savoy 
Theatre, 1886) ; Dorothy (a fresh arrangement 
of the music of Nell Gwynne to a new libretto, 
Gaiety Theatre, Sept. 25, 1886) ; Mrs. Jarra- 
mie's Genie (Savoy, Feb., 1888) ; Doris (Lyric, 
April, 1889) ; and The :Mountebanks (book by 
W. S. Gilbert, produced, Lyric Theatre, Jan. 
1892). He also set Gray's Elegy as a cantata, 
produced at the Leeds Festival, 1883 ; wrote 
incidental music to As You Like it, 1885 ; a 
Suite Symphonique, for orchestra ; Barcarolle, 
flute and pf. ; songs, and pf. pieces. 

His brother, Charles Herbert Cellier, 
is organist of Holy Trinity Church, Anerley ; 
Conductor of Lower Sydenham Choral So- 
ciety, and Anerley Musical Society. He has, 
for many years, given concerts in that locality. 
Francis A. Cellier, musical director, Savoy 
Theatre, was joint composer of the music to 
" IMrs. Jarramie's Genie," and composer of 
an operetta, " Captain Bill," produced at the 
■Savoy Theatre, Sept., 1891. 

Chadfield, Edward, pianist, born at 
Derby, August 1, 1827. At the age of nine, 
studied under Froude Fritche (organist of 
All Saints' Church, Derby), but after some 
years, was required to take the place of a 
deceased brother in his father's business. 
Prom this he was released in time, and he 
resumed his musical studies under Henry 
Smart, and later, in Paris, with Henri Ros- 
ellen, and Korbach. In 1851, he returned to 
Derby, and established himself as a performer 
and teacher, founding, with Mr. A. F. Smith, 
a School of Ttlusic there. He held the appoint- 
ment of organist at St. Werburgh's Church 
■for eleven years, and a similar office at All 
'Saints', which he resigned in 1887. In the 
early days of the Incorporated Society of 
Musicians, Mr. Chadfield was an active 
"worker, and in 1885, he was induced to accept 


the office of Hon. General Secretary. Since 
that date he has attended meetings and given 
addresses in all parts of the United Kingdom, 
and Ireland, and was chosen as a delegate to 
attend the annual meeting of the IMusic 
Teachers' National Association (America), 
held at Philadelphia, July, 1889. After the 
incorporation of the Society, 1893, Mr. Chad- 
field was presented with a handsome testi- 
monial during the Conference held in London 
that year. The office being then removed to 
London, Mr. Chadfield left Derby for the 
metropolis, and as the executive officer of the 
Society devotes the whole of his time to its 
advancement. He married, in 1858, the 
youngest daughter of the late Alderman Llade- 
ley, some time Mayor of Derby. His eldest 
son, Edward Joseph Chadfield, was music- 
ally educated first at home, then at the 
Leipzig Conservatorium. He made his dehut 
as a pianist at Derby in 1886, and succeeded 
his father as teacher and joint director of 
the Derby Scliool of Music. 

Challoner, Neville Butler, harpist and 
violinist, born London, 1784. He studied in 
London, and first appeared as a violinist in 
1793. He was violinist at Covent Garden 
Theatre in 1796 ; at Richmond Theatre, 1799 ; 
and subsequently leader at Birmingham, 
Sadler's Wells Theatre, etc. Harpist at It- 
alian Opera, London, and tenor player at the 
Philharmonic Society. Latterly, he was a 
music-seller. Date of death unknown. 

Works. — Method for the violin, London, 
n.d. New Guida di Musica, or instructions 
for beginners on the pf., n.d. Llethod for 
Guitar, n.d. ; Method for flute, n.d. ; Method 
for the harp, n. d. Romance and Polacca for 
harp, op. 14 ; Two duets on Scotch airs, op. 
10; Three duets (trans.), op. 15; Duet con- 
certante for harp, op. 22. Miscellaneous 
works for harp and pf. Harmonia Sacra, 
4 books, London, n.d. Lays of harmony, or 
the musical scrap book, 1830. National airs 
[1880] , etc. 

Chalmers, James, Scottish musician and 
printer, son of Professor James Chalmers, of 
Marischal College, was born early in the 18th 
century ; died at Aberdeen in 1764. He com- 
piled a collection of 20 Church tunes [circa 
1748], containing "Observations concerning 
the tunes and manner of singing them," 
which is now exceedingly scarce. In 1736 he 
was appointed printer to the town council of 
Aberdeen, and he published the Aberdeen 
Jour7ial, etc. His son, James, born in Aber- 
deen. March 31, 1742 ; died June 17, 1810, 
succeeded him in business, and in 1774 was 
appointed precentor of the West Church, 
Aberdeen ; a position he held till 1797. 

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, writer, 
author of "Das Drama Richard Wagner's" 
(Leipzig : Breitkopf and Hartel, 1892) ; 




" Richard Wagner" (Depot for Art and Sci- 
ence, Munich, 1895) ; and occasional contri- 
butions to musical papers. 

Chamberlaine, Elizabeth, sec Von Hoff, 
Mrs. H. 

Chamberlayne, Miss E. A., com- 
poser, of the present time. Studied under 
Professor Prout and H. C. Banister. Of her 
compositions a Scherzo for strings, harp, and 
flute was performed at the Crystal Palace, 
February 23, 1895. She has published Two 
Sonatas for pf., op. 16; a Suite, and smaller 
pieces. Also some music for organ, and songs. 
She has in MS. two Symphonies, overtures, 
an opera, and other works. 

Cliambers, Charles, organist and con 
ductor. Graduated Mus. Bac, 1880 ; Mus. 
Doc, 1887, Cambridge. F.R.C.O., 1877. Or- 
ganist successively at St. Peter's, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, 1870-82 ; Jesmond Parish Church, 
1882-90; All Saints', 1890-3; St. George's, 
Cullercoats, 1893. Some time conductor of 
Newcastle Harmonic Society. University 
Exercises — (Bac.) Ps. 109, for soli, chorus, 
strings, and organ ; (Doc.) Cantata, " The 
Redeemer." Composer of a Concert over- 
ture (Newcastle, 1887) ; offertory sentences, 
songs, etc. 

Chambers, Lucy, contralto vocalist, born 
in Sydney, New South Wales, where her 
father was a lawyer. Her early studies were 
under Mrs. Logan, a cousin of W. Vincent 
Wallace ; and, encouraged by Catherine Hayes, 
at the time in Australia, she decided to adopt 
the lyric stage as a profession. In January, 
1862, she went to London, and studied under 
Garcia ; then, proceeding to Italy, became a 
pupil of Luigi Vannuccini, and Romani, at 
Florence. After a year, she made her appear- 
ance as Azucena, in II Trovatore, at the Teatro 
Pagliano. She was then engaged for two 
seasons at La Scala. Milan, and while there 
continued her studies with Lamperti. A gen- 
eral tour of Europe followed, and in 1870 she 
returned to Australia. There she had a long 
career of unbroken success, her repertory 
being extensive and varied. She formed an 
Academy at Melbourne, and died in that city 
in 1894. 

Chambers, Robert, author and publisher, 
a member of the well-known firm of W. and 
R. Chambers, Edinburgh ; born 1802, died 
1871 ; edited " The Songs of Scotland prior to 
Burns, with the tunes," Edin., 1862. 

Champness, Samuel, bass singer, born 
about 1730 ; died September, 1803. He was 
a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, sang at the 
principal concerts in London during the latter 
half of the 18th century, and had a voice of 
great richness, which was much admired. 

Champneys, Francis Henry, amateur 
composer, born at London, March 25th, 1848. 
Educated at Oxford, where he graduated M.A., 


1 875. He studied music under Sir John Goss. 
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. 
Has conducted concerts, and is the composer 
of hymns and other church music; "Rustic 
coquette," ballet for four voices, etc. 

Chaplin. The name of three sisters, in- 
strumentalists of the present day. Nellie, 
the eldest, is a pianist, born in London, and 
musically educated at the London Academy 
of Music, where, among other distinctions, 
she was awarded the silver medal presented 
by the Society of Arts. Later, she studied 
the Deppe method with Frl. Elise Timm, at 
Hamburg. In 1898 she established a piano- 
forte school in London, and chiefly devotes 
herself to tuition. Miss Chaplin is known as 
a performer, and commenced giving concerts 
in 1882. She has played, with success, in 
London and the provinces, and, with her 
sisters, gained some reputation for the Chap- 
lin trio. Kate Chaplin, violinist, born in 
London, was also trained at the London 
Academy, under Mr. Pollitzer, having pre- 
viously received lessons from Miss Dunbar 
Perkins. As a very youthful performer she 
appeared at Mr. George Gear's concert, St. 
George's Hall, May 2nd, 1882; and since then 
has played at inany concerts, in London, and 
the principal cities of the United Kingdom. 
In 1892, she went to Brussels, to study under 
Eugen Ysaye, and in January, 1893, had the 
honour, with her sister Nellie, of playing 
before the Queen, at Osborne, receiving the 
Royal compliments, and souvenirs of the 
event. The youngest sister, Mabel Chaplin, 
violoncellist, received her first lessons from 
Mr. John Boatwright, of the Philharmonic 
Orchestra; and entering the London Academy, 
became a pupil of Signer Pezze. Subsequently 
she studied at the Brussels Conservatoire, 
under Edouard Jacobs, gaining, in 1893, the 
first prize, with distinction, for violoncello 
playing, being the first English girl to carry 
off that honour. She had for some time 
taken part in the concerts given by her 
sisters ; but gave her first concert, with 
Emil Sauer, in the Queen's Hall, March 28, 

Chapman, Rev. James, author. Wrote 
" The music, or melody and rhythmus of 
language, with the five accidents of speech, 
and a musical notation," Edinburgh, 1818. 

Chapman, T., musician. Published the 
" Young gentleman and ladies' musical com- 
panion," 1772-74. Two vols. 

Chappell, William, writer and antiquary, 
was born in London, November 20th, 1809. 
Brought up in music publishing business 
with his father. Engaged in musical anti- 
quarian studies. Founded (with others) the 
Percy Society in 1840, and the Musical Anti- 
quarian Society in 1840. F.S.A., 1840. 
Partner in the firm of Cramer & Co., 1843. 




Treasurer of the Camden Societ}', etc. Was 
connected with a number of learned and 
antiquarian societies. He died at London, 
August 20, 1888. 

WoEKs. — A collection of national English 
airs, consisting of ancient song, ballad, and 
dance tunes, interspersed with remarks and 
anecdotes, and preceded by an essay on 
English minstrelsy ; the airs harmonized for 
the pianoforte by Dr. Crotch, G. A. Macfarren, 
and J. A. Wade. London, 4to. part I., 1838 ; 
II., 1839 ; III., 1840. Popular music of the 
olden time : a collection of ancient songs, 
ballads, and dance tunes, illustrative of the 
national niusic of England, etc. London, 
Cramer, 2 vols. [1845-59]. Old English ditties, 
Loudon, 2 vols., n.d. History of music, art, 
and science, from the earliest records to the 
fall of the Roman Empire, with explanations 
of ancient systems of music, musical instru- 
ments, and of the true physiological basis for 
the science of music, whether ancient or 
modern, vol. I., London, 1874, all published. 
Edited works (collections of ancient poetry) 
for the Ballad, Percy, and Camden Societies. 
A new edition of his " Popular Music " was 
issued as "Old Englishpopular music," inl893, 
edited by H. Ellis Woolridge. This corrects a 
number of the statements concerning Scots 
music, which, in his anxiety to prove that 
England possessed an immense wealth of folk 
music, Chappell advanced without sufficient 
proof. Further proofs of Mr. Chappell's 
want of care in the presentation of evidence 
have been gathered by Mr. John Glen, and 
will be published soon. 

Chappie, Samuel, organist and com- 
poser. Was born at Crediton, Devon, 1775. 
He was blind from childliood ; but after 
studying the pianoforte he became organist 
at Ashburton, 1795-1833. He died at Ash- 
burton, October 3, 1833. 

Works. — Five songs and a glee, op. 3 ; Six 
anthems in score, figured for the organ or pf., 
op. 4 ; A second set of six anthems in score, 
op. 5 ; A third set of six anthems and twelve 
psalm tunes in score, op. 6 ; Tlie eighteen 
antheiBS, republished. Three sonatas for 
the pf. ; Six songs with pf. accompaniment ; 
Anthem for the coronation of George IV. ; 
Single pf. pieces ; Single glees, anthems, and 

Chard, George William, composer and 
organist, was born in 1765. He studied under 
Kobert Hudson in the choir of St. Paul's. 
Lay-clerk at Winchester Cathedral, 1788, and 
organi-t of the Cathedral in succession to 
Peter Fussell, 1802. Organist of Winchester 
College, 1832. Doc. Mus., Cambridge, 1812. 
He died at Winchester, May 23, 1849. 

Works. — Anthems: Happy is the man; 
Is there not an appointed time?; Lord we 
beseech ; To celebrate Thy praise. Services. 


' Chants in Bennett and Marshall's collection. 
Songs : Twelve glees for three, four, and five 
voices. London [1811]. 

Charde, John, composer of the 16th cen- 
tury. In 1518-19 he graduated Mus. Bac. 
Oxford, for which he composed a mass in five 
parts. This was the first composition in so 
many parts written by a bachelor for a degree 
exercise. He composed other masses. 

Charke, Richard, violinist and composer 
of middle of 18th century. He married Char- 
lotte Cibber, whom he illtreated, and from 
whom he soon separated. Notable as the first 
to compose medley overtures. He died in 
Jamaica of disorders brought on by dissipated 

Charlesworth, J. J., musician, compiler 
of "Fifty Select Tunes carefully adapted to 
the best part of the first 96 Psalms ..." 
London, 1796. 

Charlton, R., author, published "Rem- 
iniscences and biographical sketches of 
Musicians." Lincoln, 1836. 

Chatfield, Mrs. Henry, see Large, 
Eliza R. 

Chatterton, John Balsir, harpist and 
composer, was born at Portsmouth, where his 
father, John Chatterton, was a teacher of 
music, in 1802. He studied under Bochsa 
and Labarre, and became Professor of the 
harp at R.A.M. Harpist to the Queen, etc. 
He died at London, April, 1871. 

Works. — Numerous transcriptions from 
popular operas for the harp ; Songs with harp 
and pf. acconip., etc. 

His brother Frederick was also a harpist 
and composer, He was born in 1814, and 
died at Loudon in March, 1894. His daughter 
Josephine made her first appearance as a 
harpist at Willis' Rooms on June 3, 1857. 
She lived for some years in America, and 
established a school for the harp at Chicago 
in 1892. In December, 1895, she appeared 
again in London. 

Cheese, Griffith James, organist and 
writer, was born on IMay 2, 1751. He was 
organist at Leominster and teacher in London. 
Author of " Practical rules for playing and 
teaching the pianoforte and organ, likewise 
useful information to teachers and pupils born 
blind, op. 3," London [1806]. Songs, etc. 
He died on November 10, 1804. 

Chell, William, writer and anusician, was 
lay-vicar and precentor at Hereford Cathedral 
in 1554. Mus. Bac , Oxford, 1524. Preben- 
dary of Eigne, 1532, and East Withington 
1545. He left two treatises entitled " Musicse 
Practicse Compendium" and "De Proportion- 
ibus Musicis," which are said to be transcrip- 
tions from the works of John Dunstable, etc. 

Cherry, John William, composer and 
teacher, born London, December 10, 1824. 
Self-educated in theory and on Pianoforte. 




He died in London, January, 1889. Has 
composed over 1,000 pieces, of which the fol- 
lowing are the best known : — 

Works. — Will-o'-the-wisp ; Shells of ocean ; 
Beautiful leaves; The Blacksmith; How beau- 
tiful is the sea ; My village home ; Monarch 
of the woods ; Estelle ; Gentle Spring ; Sweet 
Annie; The Invitation; Silently, silently over 
the sea ; Trees of the forest ; Upon the lonely 
shore ; Wanton breezes, whither going ; Down 
by the sea ; Fair Glen Lochry ; Home again 
to England ; Seventh day ; Spirit of the 
whirlpool ; Breathe soft, summer wind ; Sum- 
mer twilight ; Come with me to Fairyland. 
Duets — Elfin revels ; Hark ! there's music 
stealing ; Let us roam away, etc. Pf. music, 
dances, etc. 

Cheshire, John, harpist and composer, 
born in Birmingham, March 28, 1839. Com- 
menced playing the harp when four years of 
age. Studied at R.A.M., 1852-55, and after- 
wards under G. A. Macfarren and J. B. Chat- 
terton. Played at a concert of the Society of 
British Musicians, February 27, 1855, after 
which he was presented with a fine harp by 
the Messrs. Erat. In that year he was ap- 
pointed harpist at the Royal Italian Opera ; 
and, in 1865, principal harpist at Her Majesty's 
Theatre. Travelled in South America, 1858-61 ; 
Norway and Sweden, 1879. Has been heard 
in the principal concerts in the United King- 
dom. From about 1887 resident in America; 
harpist to the National Opera Company 
there, 1888. His compositions include an 
opera, "Diana," written in Brazil; Cantatas: 
" The King and the Maiden " (book by Arthur 
Matthison), performed St. James's Hall, April 
20, 1866 ; " The Buccaneers," 1886. Three 
overtures for orchestra. These, excepting the 
Buccaneers, remain in MS. He has pub- 
lished for the harp — Six Romances; Album 
of twenty-four pieces, etc. A Duet in B flat, 
and a number of jDieces fur pf. ; Songs — Cupid 
the conqueror; The withered violet, etc., etc. 
In 1871 he married Miss Maria Matilda 
Baxter, an excellent pianist, who appeared 
with success at many ot his concerts. 

Chetham, Rev. John, musician and cler- 
gyman, born about 1700. He was master 
of the Clerk's School, Skipton, in 1737, and 
curate of Skipton 1739. He died at Skipton 
in August, 176.3. Issued "A Book of Psalmody, 
all set in four parts," 1718 ; 2nd ed., (?) ; 3rd, 
1724 ; 4th, 1731 ; 5th, 1736 ; 8th, 1752 ; 9th, 
1767; 10th, 1779; 11th, Leeds, 1787 ; of which 
an enlarged and revised edition by Houlds- 
worth was published at Loudon in 1832, and 
Halifax in 1868. 

Chevalier, Albert Onesime Britanni = 
cus Gwathveoyd Louis, comedian, and 
lyric author, born at Netting Hill, London, 
March 21, 1862. Displayed histrionic talent 
at an early age, and appeared in farce at the 


Prince of Wales' Theatre, Tottenham Street,. 
Sept. 29, 1877, as Mr. Knight. From 1878 to 
1887 he was on tour with Mr. and Mrs. Ken- 
dal, Mr. Hare, and other combinations, in 
"Diplomacy," and various dramas. Later, he 
came out as an entertainer, and in 1890 sang, 
in comic opera at the Avenue Theatre. It 
was February 5, 1891, that he made his first 
appearance as a music-hall performer, at the 
New London Pavilion. His success was phe- 
nomenal, and has lasted ever since. His 
matinees in the provinces have attracted large 
and enthusiastic audiences, and " The Cos- 
ter's Laureate," " The Kipling of the Music- 
hall," has been everywhere recognised as an 
artist. In 1890, he visited America. Besides 
his songs, he has written several pieces for the 
stage. His brother, Auguste, under the novide 
plume of Charles Ingle, supplies most of his 
music. Assisted by Bryan Daly, he has writteni 
" Albert Chevalier ; a Record by himself," 
London, Macqueen, 1895. Among the best 
known of his songs, composed by his brother, 
John Crook, and others, may be named 
" Knocked 'em in the Old Kent Road "; 
" Future Mrs. 'Awkins " ; " Coster's serenade";, 
"My Old Dutch," etc. 

Cheyne, Edwin, Scottish author, pub- 
lished " The Amateur's Vocal Guide and 
voice trainer . . . Glasgow, 1879. 

Chilcot, Thomas, composer and organist, 
was born about the beginning of the 18th 
century. He was organist of Abbey Church, 
Bath, 1733, and died at Bath, in November, 
1766. Chilcot is chiefly noted as having been 
the master of Thomas Linley. He composed 
six concertos for the harpsichord, with 4 
violins, viola, violoncello and basso ripieno, 
London, 1756. two sets ; Twelve English 
songs, the words by Shakespeare and other 
celebrated poets [1745] ; single songs, glees, 

Child, William, composer and organist, 
was born at Bristol, in 1606. He studied 
under Elway Bevin, as chorister in Bristol 
Cathedral. Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1631. Organist 
of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 1632. One 
of organists of Chapel Royal, London. Chanter 
of Chapel Royal, 1660. Member of King's 
private band, and composer to the King in 
1661. Doc. Mus., Oxon., July, 1663. He died 
at Windsor, TMarch 23, 1097, and is buried in 
St. George's Chapel. 

Works. — The first set of Psalmes of 3- 
voyces, fitt for private chappells, with a con- 
tinued bass either for the organ or theorbo, 
composed after the Italian way, London, 1639 
(2nd edit., 1650). Divine anthems and vocal 
compositions to several pieces of poetry, Lon- 
don ; Service in D (Boyce) ; Service in E 
(Boyce) ; Praise the Lord, O my soul, anthem ; 
O Lord, grant the King, anthem ; pray for 
the peace of Jerusalem, anthem ; Sing we 




merrily, anthem ; Services in G, F, and A 
minor ; Court Ayres (a volume of secular 
vocal music) ; Catches and Canons, etc. 

Child's compositions are very simple in 
general style, and approximate in character 
to the productions of a century later. " At 
times, however, as in his service in D, 
his harmony was rich, glowing, and closely 
worked. Some few of his full anthems, with- 
out any great deptli of science or elevation of 
genius, possess a great degree of warmth, and 
exhibit imagination." He paved at his own 
expense the body of Windsor Chapel. 

Chilley, Charles, tenor vocalist, born in 
London (I'imlico). He was educated at the 
Albert iMemorial College, Framlingham, and 
then was for several years in an office, fre- 
quently singing in concerts as an amateur. 
Eventually he entered the Guildhall School 
of Music, and became a pupil of the late 
J. B. Welch. He sang at the Crystal Palace, 
in ]Mendelssohn's Walpurgis Nacht, 1883 ; at 
a concert of ilr. WiUing's choir, 1884 ; and 
since then has been heard at the principal 
London and provincial concerts, having been 
on tour with Madame Albani, and others. 

Chilmead, Edmund, scholar and mu- 
sician, was born at Stow-in-the-Wold, Glou- 
cester, 1611. Clerk of Magdalen College, 
Oxford. Canon of Christ Church, 16-32. 
Resided with Este the musician, in London, 
1648. He died at London in 1654. Wrote 
" De Musica Antiqua Grseca," printed at the 
end of the Oxford edition of " Aratus," 1672. 
He gave concerts in London, and drew up a 
catalogue of the Greek MSS. in the Bodleian 
library. " He was well versed in the old 
music, and was the best qualified at that time 
.... to enter upon this subject." — Hearne. 

Chinn, Francis Farrant, composer and 
organist ; born in 1813, died at Liverpool, 
April 29, 18G8. Composer of glees and 
songs. " Harvest home, a pastoral glee." 
Liverpool [1844] is one of his best works. 

Chipp, Edmund Thomas, composer 
and organist; was born at London, December 
25, 1823. Son of Thomas Paul Chipp, the 
well-known performer on the kettledrums and 
harp. Chorister in Chapel Royal under 
William Hawes. He studied the violin under 
W. Thomas, J. B. Nadaud, etc., 1832-40. 
Organist (voluntary) of Albany Chapel, 
Regent's Park, London, 1843-6. Member of 
H. !NL private band, as violinist, 1843-55. 
Organist St. John's Chapel, Downshire Hill, 
Hampstead, 1846-7; St. Olave's, Southwark 
(in succession to H. J. Gauntlett), 1847-52 ; 
St. Mary-at-Hill, East-Cheap, 1852-6 ; Royal 
Panopticon (in succession to W. T. Best), 
1855 ; Holy Trinity Church, Paddington (in 
succession to C.E Stephens), 1856-62. Mus. 
Bac. Cantab., March 17th, 1859. Mus. Doc, 
do., June 21st, 1860. Organist Ulster Hall, 


and St. George's Church, Belfast, 1862-6. 
Conductor of the Anacreontic, Classical Har- 
monists, and Vocal Union Societies, Belfast. 
Organist of Kinnaird Hall, Dundee, Feb. -Nov., 
1866; St. Paul's, Edinburgh, May to Nov., 
1866. Organist, and Maser of Choristers, 
Ely Cathedral, November, 1866. Was also 
member of the Royal Italian Opera, the 
Philharmonic, and Sacred Harmonic So- 
ciety Bauds. He died at Nice, December 
17, 1886. 

Works. — Job, an Oratorio, for solo voices, 
chorus, and orchestra ; Naomi, a Sacred Idyll, 
for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra. Music 
for the Church Service and home circle, 
containing 10 Sentences, 24 single and 41 
double Chants, 4 Te Deums, 2 Jubilate, 
2Benedictus, 1 Te Deum in unison, 2 Sanctus, 
12 Kyrie, 4 Gloria, 2 Magnincat, Nunc Dim- 
ittis, 4 Cantate Domine, Deus Misereatur, and 
108 Church Melodies, in short, common, long, 
and irregular measures, by various authors. 
Te Deum, Jubilate, Sanctus and Kyrie in D ; 
Church Service in A; Te Deum in D; Gloria 
for male voices. Three Studies for the Organ, 
op. 7 ; Introduction and six variations upon 
Handel's Harmonious blacksmith, for organ ; 
Do. and seven variations on God preserve the 
Emperor, for organ ; Lord of all power and 
might, anthem ; Part-songs ; Songs, and 
miscellaneous Church and chamber music. 

Chipp, Thomas Paul, English harjDist, 
father of the foregoing, was born in London, 
May 23, 1793, and died on June 19, 1870. 
He was well-known as a drum player and 
harpist, and as a leading performer at all the 
principal festivals. He retired in 1866. His 
compositions include a string quintet in E 
minor, 18-36 ; quartet, 1845 ; Fantasias, etc., 
for harp. 

Chisholm, James, commonly called Mar- 
quis Chisholm, musician and entertainer, born 
Neilston, Renfrew, about 1837 ; died Toronto, 
Canada, December, 1877. He was a fair 
pianist, and travelled much in Australia, Asia, 
Scotland, and America with a Chinese giant 
named Chang. He composed the somewhat 
vulgar song entitled " The Battle of Stirling," 
which has been frequently parodied in Scot- 
land, and published "The Adventures of a 
travelling musician in Australia, China, and 
Japan," Glasgow, 1865, reprinted from the 
Glasgoiv Herald. He also published " Gems 
of Scottish melody" [1869], and the "Chin- 
Chin-Chang" Galop; " Great Chang Polkas," 
and similar works. 

Chisney, E., author of a work entitled 
"Concertina Instruction," London, 1853. 

Chivers. Q. M. S., musician and dancing- 
master of half of the present century. 
He published a number of works, among which 
may be named — Recueil de danses Espag- 
noles, or Spanish country dances, arranged 




for pf., London, 1819 ; First set of Chive- 
riau quadrilles [1820] , New set of contre 
dances ; The Modern dancing-master, Lon- 
don, 1822, etc. 

Chope, Richard Robert, clergyman and 
musician, born September, 1830. Vicar of 
St. Augustine's, South Kensington. Editor 
of "Hymn and Tune Book," 1857-62;" 
" Choir and Musical Record," 1862 ; Versicles, 
Canticles, Litany. Psalter (Gregorian), 1862. 
Choral Communion (Marbecke, etc.), 1863. 
Carols for use in Church, 1868-76. Easter 
and Harvest Carols, 1884. 

Chorley, Henry Fothergill, musician, 
journalist, general writer, etc., was born ab 
Blackley Hurst, near Billiuge, Lancashire, 
December 15th, 1808. Brought up for mer- 
cantile life. Commenced connection with 
the " Athenseum," 1830. Member of the 
" Athengeum " staff, 1833-1871. He died at 
London, February 16, 1872. 

Works. — Sketches of a sea-port town, 3 vols., 
1835 (novel) ; Conti the discarded, a novel, 
3 vols., 1835 ; Memorials of Mrs. Hemans, 

2 vols., 1836 ; The Lion, a tale of the coteries, 

3 vols., 18-39 ; Music and manners in France 
and Germany, 3 vols., London, 1841 ; Pom- 
fret, a novel, 1845; Old love and new fortune, 
a play, 1850 ; Modern German music, recollec- 
tions and criticisms, London, 3 vols., 1854 ; 
Roccabella, a novel, 1859 ; Thirty years' 
musical recollections, London, 2 vols., 1862 ; 
Prodigy, a tale of music, London, 3 vols., 
1866; Handel studies, 2 parts, 1859; National 
music of the world, edited by H. G. Hewlett, 
1880 ; Librettos for Wallace's Amber Witch ; 
Bennett's May Queen, etc. ; Translations of 
Mercadante's Elena da Feltre ; Cimarosa's 
II Matrimonio segreto ; Herold's Zampa ; 
Auber's Hayd6e ; Mendelssohn's Son and 
Stranger, etc. 

Chorley was too many-sided ever to attain 
great distinction in any one of the numerous 
walks he attempted. His musical writings 
possess greater literary merit than most of 
the English work of the same period, but the 
judgments formed in them, especially with 
regard to IMendelssohn, have long since been 
overturned. His " Autobiography, Memoir, 
and Letters," edited by Henry G. Hewlett, 
was published in London, 2 vols., 1873, with 
a photograph. 

Christie,William,violinistand composer, 
was born about 1778, and died I8l9. He re- 
sided at Cuminestown, Monquhitter, Aber- 
deenshire, as a dancing-master and teacher. 
Composer of a "Collection of Keels, etc." 

His son William was born at Monquhitter 
in 1817, and died at Bellie, near Fochabers, 
December 12, 1885. He studied at Aberdeen 
University, and was ordained in 1839 as in- 
cumbent of the Scottish Episcopal Church 


of Arradoul and Buckie. In 1861 he was 
appointed Dean of the United Diocese of 
Lloray, Ross, and Caithness. He compiled 
" Traditional Ballad Airs, arranged and har- 
monised for the Pianoforte and Harmonium, 
from copies procured in the counties of Aber- 
deen, Banff, and IMoray, by W. Christie, M.A., 
and the late William Christie, Monquhitter, 
edited by W. Christie, M.A., Dean of Moray," 
etc. Edinburgh, 2 vols., 1876-81. A very 
handsome and interesting work, containing a 
number of previously uncollected airs. 

Church, John, composer, born at Windsor 
in 1675. He was a chorister of St. John's 
College, Oxford. Gentleman of Chapel Royal, 
1696. Liay -vicar Westminster Abbey ; Choir- 
master, 1704-41. He died at Westminster, 
January 6, 1741. Author of an " Introduction 
to Psalmody, containing useful Instructions 
for young Beginners, explained in a familiar 
and easie manner," London, 1723. Service 
in F, in Ouseley's "Cathedral Services." An- 
thems. Four chants in Vandernan's "Divine 
Harmony." Songs, etc. 

Churchill, William, pianist and com- 
poser, who flourished in London at the end 
of last and beginning of the present century. 
He wrote a number of works for his instru- 
ment, including Three Sonatas for pf. and 
violin ; Six Duos for 2 violins, op. 2 ; Six 
Duos for violin and alto ; Ten Progressive 
Lessons for pf., op. 5 and 10. Six trios, four for 
a violin, tenor and violoncello obligate, and 
two for two violins and violoncello obligato, 
op. 1 [1780] ; Favorite Sonata for the harp- 
sichord [1785] . Another musician of this 
name, probably a relative, was Joseph Church- 
ill, who issued " A selection of Cathedral 
Chants," London [1841] . Songs, dance music, 

Churchyard, Thomas, poet and musician, 
who flourished during the 16th century. 
Wrote "The Commendation of Musyke by 
Churchyarde," 1562. For other works see 
Hazlitt's " Handbook of Poetical Literature," 

Cianchettini Pio, composer, was born 
at London, December 11, 1779. Son of Fran- 
cesco Cianchettini. Appeared as infant i^ro- 
digy, 1804. Travelled through Germany, Hol- 
land, and France. Returned to London, 1805. 
Accompanist and conductor to Catalani. 
Teacher and composer in London. He died 
at Cheltenham, July 20, 1851. 

Works. — Pope's Ode to Solitude. Sixty 
Italian Catches, for two, three, and four 
voices (Martini), edited. Cantata for two 
voices from "Milton's Paradise Lost." "Take, 
take those lips away," song. Music 'by 
Mozart, and Beethoven, edited, and a large 
number of fantasias, concertos, rondos, diverti- 
mentos, etc., for pf. His mother was 
A^ERONicA Rosalie Dussek (1779-1833), sister 




of J. L. Dussek, and his sister, Veronica 
Elisabeth Cianchettini, was a composer of 
overtures, rondos, sonatas, waltzes, etc. 

Cibber, Susanna Maria, born Arne, 
soprano vocalist, born London, February, 1714. 
Sister of Thomas A. Arne, under whom she 
studied music. She first appeared in Lampe's 
" Amelie," in 1732. Married to Thomas Cib- 
ber in 1734. She appeared as an actress in 
Hill's "Zara," in 1736, and afterwards sang 
at concerts in London and elsewhere. Died, 
London, January 30, 1766. 

Clagget, Charles, musician, born Lon- 
don, 175.5. Was a violinist, and acted as 
leader at a theatre in Dublin. Invented 
various instruments, 1776-90, which he exhib- 
ited in London in 1791. He died in 1820. 

Works. — Six duos for 2 flutes ; Six duos 
for two violins ; Six duos for violin and vio- 
loncello, op. 6. jMusical Phajnomena : an 
Organ made without pipes, strings, bells or 
glasses, the only instrument in the world that 
will never require to be retuned. A cromatic 
trumpet, capable of producing just intervals 
and regular melodies in all keys, without 
undergoing any change whatever. A French 
horn, answering the above description of the 
trumpet. London, 1793. 

Clagget, Walter, English composer and 
pianist, who lived in latter half of the 18th 
century. He gave concerts in Norwich and 

Works. — A New Medley overture, consist- 
ing entirely of Scots tunes and thirty-six of 
the most favourite Scots airs . . . for 2 violins 
or 2 German flutes and a violoncello. Six 
solos and six Scots airs, with variations for 
the viola or violoncello, op. 2. Discourse on 
Musick, to be delivered at Clagget's Attic 
Consort, October 31, 1793. 

Clapham, Jonathan, clergyman and au- 
thor. Rector of Wramplingham, Norfolk, in 
the 17th century. He wrote " A short and 
full vindication of that sweet and comfortable 
ordinance of singing of Psalms," London, 

Clare, Edward, organist and author, who 
died [London] April 9th, 1869. Issued "An- 
alysis of practical Thorough-bass," London 
[1835] . A simple guide for chanting, for the 
use of amateurs . . . , London, n.d. He com- 
posed a large number of ballads, transcriptions 
for pf., etc. 

Claribel, see Barnard, Mrs. 

Clark, Rev. Frederick Scotson, organ- 
ist and composer, born in London, November 
16th, 1840. He studied under his mother 
{a pupil of Mrs. Anderson and Chopin), and 
the pianoforte and harmony under Sergent, 
organist of Notre Dame. Organist of Regent 
Square Church, London, 1855. Studied organ 
under E. J. Hopkins; music at R.A.M., imder 
Beimett, Goss, Eugel, Pinsuti, and Pettit. 


Organist successively of a number of London 
churches. Founded a College of Music in 
London, 1865. He studied for the ministry 
at Oxford, and became organist of Exeter 
College, Oxford. Bac. Mus., Oxon., 1867. 
Head master of St. Michael's Grammar School, 
Brighton, 1867. Curate of Lewes, Sussex. For 
a time he studied at Leipzig Conservatorium 
under Richter, Reinecke, etc., and was assist- 
ant in English church there. He also studied 
under Lebcrt, Pruckner, and Kruger at Stutt- 
gart. He returned to London, 1873, and 
resumed his connection with the College or 
London Organ School, 1875. Represented 
English organ-playing at Paris Exhibition, 
1878. He died at London, July 5, 1883. 

Works. — Organ : Voluntaries ; Pastorale ; 
Douce Pensee ; Andantes in F and D ; Melo- 
dies in D, A, F, and E flat ; Postlude. 
Marches: Anglaise, aux Flambeaux, des Fan- 
tomes, des Girondins, des Jacobins, Militaire, 
Belgian, Commemoration, Festal, Procession, 
Roman, Russian, Vienna, etc. ; Communions 
in D minor, F, C minor, A minor, G and E ; 
Offertoires in F, D, A, G, and C ; INIeditation, 
in B flat; Fantasias in F, etc. ; Improvisations 
in B flat, C, G, P ; Impromptus, prayers, 
romances ; Gavottes ; Minuets, airs. Har- 
monium: Voluntaries; Reverie, Gavotte, Ave 
Maria, Songs. Meditation, in B flat, for 
violin, harmonium and pf. Pianoforte : Chi- 
nese march ; Indian march ; Turkish march, 
etc. ; Mazurkas, polkas, galops, valses, and 
minuets ; Barcarolles, studies, nocturnes, 
melodies. Vocal : Kyrie Eleison and Sanctus 
in E, from communion service No. 1 ; Do. 
from No. 2 ; Magnificat and nunc Dimittis, 
chant service in F. Cupid, part-song. Songs. 
First steps in organ-playing, London (Augener), 
n.d. ; First steps in harmonium-playing (Do.) 
n.d. ; First steps in pianoforte-playing, do. 

Clark, J. Moir=, composer, born at Aber- 
deen. Studied at R.A.M. under E. Prout, 
and later in Germany. He gave concerts in 
Dresden, 1892, when several of his compo- 
sitions were produced. Among his chief works 
are a Scotch Suite, for orchestra, performed by 
the Stock Exchange Orchestral Societv at the 
Queen's Hall, April 29, 1895. Quintet in P, 
pf. and strings, Dresden, 1892 ; Princes' Hall 
(Miss Dora Bright's concert), April 19, 1893; 
and the Monday Popular Concerts, November 
5th, 1894. He has also written a Suite, and 
other pieces for flute and pf., produced by Mr. 
P. Griffith, 1893 ; a Polonaise, violin and pf . ; 
Variations on an original theme, pf., played 
by Miss Dora Bright at her recital, January 
30, 1889 — the first public performance of any 
of his works ; Pf. duets ; songs, etc. 

Clark, Jeremiah, composer and organist, 
horn in London, 1669 [or earlier]. He studied 
under Blow as a chorister in the Chapel 
Royal. Organist of Winchester College, 1692- 




1695. Almoner aud master of the Choristers of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 1693. Organist 
and Vicar-Choral of St. Paul's, 1695 ; Gentle- 
naan of Chapel Royal, 1700. Joint organist 
of Chapel Royal with Croft, 1704. He com- 
mitted suicide by shooting himself in St. 
Paul's churchyard, London, December 1, 1707. 
WoBKS. — Music to the follo'wing plays — 
Antony and Cleopatra (Sedley), 1677 ; Fond 
Husband, 1676 ; Titus Andronicus, 1687 ; 
World in the Moon (with D. Purcell), 1697 ; 
Campaigners, 1698 ; Island Princess (with D. 
Purcell and Leveridge), 1699 ; All for the 
better, 1702 ; The Committee, 1706. Odes— 
Alexander's Feast, Dryden ; Ode in Praise of 
the Island of Barbadoes. Services in G and 
C minor. AiitJiems — Praise the Lord, O Jeru- 
salem ; How long wilt Thou forget me ? ; I 
will love Thee, Lord ; Lord God of my 
Salvation ; Bow down Thine Ear. Songs in 
D'Urfey's " Pills to Purge Melancholy." The 
Assumption, Cantata ; Lessons for the Harp- 
sichord ; Ten Songs, op. 4 ; Secular music, 

Clark is now best remembered by a few of 
his anthems and the psalm-tune" St. Mag- 
nus." His dramatic music is completely 
forgotten, and none of his other secular works 
are in use. 

Clark, John, Scottish collector and vio- 
linist of the 18th century. Published " Flores 
Musicfe, or the Scots Musician, being a general 
collection of the most celebrated Scots Tunes, 
Reels, Minuets, and Marches, adapted for the 
Violin, Hautboy, or German Flute, with a 
Bass for the violoncello or Harpsichord." 
Edinburgh, 1773. 

A musician of the same name, probably the 
same individual or a relative, published at 
Perth "A Collection of new Strathspey reels 
aiid country dances, with a bass for the vio- 
loncello or harpsichord, dedicated to the 
Musical Society of Perth," 1795. 

Clark, Richard, writer and singer, grand- 
son of John Sale, was born atDatchet, Bucks., 
April 5, 1780. Chorister in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, under Aylward. Chorister 
at Eton College, under S. Heather. Lay-Clerk 
at St. George's Chapel, and Eton College, 
1802-11. Secretary of the Glee Club. Lay- 
Vicar of Westmitister Abbey and Vicar-Choral 
of St. Paul's, 1811. Gentleman of Chapel 
Royal, 1820. He died at London, October 
8, 1856. 

Works. — Words of the most favourite pieces 
performed at the Glee Club, Catch Club, and 
other public societies, London, 1814. First 
volume of poetry, revised, improved, and con- 
siderably enlarged, containing tlie most favour- 
ite pieces performed at the Glee Clubs, etc., 
London, 1824. Continuation, 1833. An 
account of the National Anthem entitled 
" God save the King," etc., London, 1822. 


Reminiscences of Handel, His Grace the Duke 
of Chandos, Powells the Harpers, The Har- 
monious Blacksmith, and others, London, 
1836. Reading and playing from score simpli- 
fied, London, 1838. An examination into the 
derivation, etymology, and definition of the 
word " Madrigale," London, 1852. On the 
sacred oratorio of " The Messiali " previous 
to the death of G. F. Handel, 1759, London, 
1852. An address to the directors of the 
Ancient Concerts on the high pitch of the 
scale, London, 1845. Glees, anthems, chants, 

Clark, Thomas, musician, born at Can- 
terbury, 1775 ; died there. May 80th, 1859. 
Ho was conductor of music at the Wesleyan 
Chapel, and latterly of the L^nitarian Chaxjel, 
Canterbury. He published " The Union 
Harmonist, a selection of sacred music," 1841. 
" The Union Tune Book, a selection of tunes 
and chants suitable for use in congregations 
and Sunday schools," London [1842] . Psalm 
and hymn tunes, n.d. Composer of "Cred- 
iton," and otlier hymn tunes. 

Clark, Windeyer, organist, pianist, and 
composer. Began his studies in a Tonic Sol- 
fa class. He entered the London Academy 
of Music, studying under Dr. Wylde, and 
afterwards took organ lessons from J. W. Ell- 
iott. From about 1877 he became amanuensis 
to Sir G. A. ]\Iacfarren, whose later oratorios 
he took down from dictation, and also played 
to the Cambridge Professor the Degree exer- 
cises sent in. Held organ appointments at^ 
St. Philip's, Paddington ; Curzon Chapel, 
Mayfair ; and Westbourne Grove Chapel. 
Gave frequent recitals, for some of which 
Macfarren wrote organ pieces. In 1889 he 
was made L.R.A.M. He composed some 
pieces for pf., and arranged the scores of Mac- 
farren's " May Day," Haydn's " Creation," 
Mozart's First Mass, and Mendelssohn's 
" Lauda Zion," for pianoforte and harmonium. 
Joint translator, with J. T. Hutchinson, of 
Gounod's commentary on " Don Giovanni," 
London, Cocks & Co., 1895. He died of con- 
sumption, June 13, 1896, at the early age of 

Clarke, Charles E. J., organist and 
composer, born at Worcester, 1796. He was 
a chorister in Worcester Cathedral. Organist 
successively of Durham Cathedral, 1812, and 
Worcester Cathedral, 1814. Conductor of the 
Worcester Festival from 1815 (when only 
nineteen years of age), to 1839. Ill health 
compelled him to relinqiiish the task in 1842, 
when Joseph Surman was appointed conductor. 
Died at Worcester, April 27, 1844. 

Clarke, Frederick William, composer, 
born in 1852; died in 1883. He graduated 
]\Ius. Bac. Oxford in 1880. Composer of Re- 
veries, x^olonaises, gavottes, etc., for pf. ; Songs 
and other vocal music. An Album of his 




songs, edited by Rev. W. jMann, Precentor of 
Bristol Cathedral, and Charles South, organist 
of Salisbury Cathedral, was published, In 
Memoriam, by Novello and Co., 1885. 

Clarke, James, writer and teacher, born 
at London, 1793 ; died at Leeds, 1859. Author 
of a " Catechism of Wind Instruments, con- 
taining explanations of the scale and compass 
of each instrument, and particular directions 
for writing the parts of flutes, clarinets, etc.," 
London, u.d. "Instruction Book for Chil- 
dren on the Pianoforte," London, n.d. "The 
Child's Alphabet of Music," London, n.d. 
" Exercises in Harmony, designed to facilitate 
the study of the Theory of Llusic and the 
Practice of Thorough Bass, London, 1832 
(pub. in 24 nos). " Catechism of the Rudi- 
ments of Music," London, n.d. "New School 
of ]\Iusic, combining the Practice of Singing 
with that of the Pianoforte," London, n.d. 

Clarke, James Hamilton Smee, com- 
poser and conductor, born in Birmingham, 
January 25, 1810. His father was an amateur 
organist, and encouraged his son's musical 
studies, but did not intend him to follow the 
art as a profession. At twelve he was organist 
of St. iNIatthew's, Duddeston, and at fifteen 
was sent as pupil to an analytical chemist, 
but gave that up and was articled to a land 
surveyor, 1855-61. At the expiration of his 
articles he entered the musical profession, 
and obtained (1862) a post as organist of Par- 
soustown Parish Church, Ireland, changing, 
a year later, to Zion Church, Rathgar, Dublin. 
While here he joined the Dublin Philharmonic 
orchestra as first violin, and frequently as- 
sisted Dr. Stewart at Christchurch Cathedral. 
In 1864 he was appointed conductor of the 
Belfast Anacreontic Society, and organist of 
Caremony Church. This year he won the 
first prize offered by the then recently estab- 
lished College of Organists for an anthem. 
He was appointed organist of Queen's College, 
Oxford, in June, 1866, after holding office a 
few months at Llandaff Cathedral, and gradu- 
ated Mus. Bac, 1867. During his five years' 
residence in this city he conducted the 
Queen's College Musical Society, and played 
the clarinet at several College concerts. He 
was organist of Kensington Parish Church, 
1871, and succeeded (Sir) Arthur Sullivan at 
St. Peter's, South Kensington, in 1872. From 
this time he turned his attention to the 
theatre, and was conductor at the Opera 
Comique, Comedy, Toole's, Gaiety, and other 
houses ; conductor of the D'Oyly Carte Com- 
pany in the provinces, 1878, and of various 
concert parties. From 1878, for some years, he 
was musical director at the Lyceum Theatre, 
and composed music for several dramas pro- 
duced by (Sir) Henry Irving. In 1889 he was 
appointed conductor of the Victorian National 
Orchestra, returning from Australia in 1891. 


While there he acted as inspector of military 
bands, and had the honorary rank of Captain 
conferred upon him. In 1893 he accepted the 
post of principal conductor of the Carl Rosa 
Company. He is now resident in London. 
His published works are nearly four hundred 
in number, and can only be outlined in the 
subjoined list. He contributed an important 
series of papers to Musical Society, 1886-7. 

Works. — Dramatic : Incidental music to 
Hamlet, 1878 ; Merchant of Venice, 1879 ; 
Eugene Aram, 1879 ; The Iron Chest (partly 
from Storace), 1879 ; The Corsican Brothers, 
1880; The Cup (Tennyson, 1881) ; King Lear, 
1892; and Cymbeline, 1896; all for the Lyceum 
Theatre, under Henry Irving. Music to Vit- 
toria Contanari, and other dramas. Com- 
ediettas and operettas for the German Reed 
Entertainments ; Martial Law ; Castle Both- 
erem, 1880; A pretty Bequest, etc. School 
Cantatas and Operettas : Daisy Chain ; Horn- 
pipe Harry, op. 358, etc. Sacred Cantata : 
Praise, op. 68 ; Ode to Industry, op. 90 ; The 
Lord is my Light, anthem in 8 parts, op. 44 
(College of Organists' Prize, 1864) ; many an- 
thems. Church services, songs, part-songs, etc. 
Orchestral: Symphony, No. 1, in F (Exhib- 
ition Concerts, Albert Hall, August, 1873) ; 
No. 2, in G minor, op. 122 (Promenade Con- 
certs, Covent Garden, 1879) ; six overtures, 
and other pieces. Concerto, pf . and orchestra, 
op. 78 ; Quartets, strings ; Quartet, pf. and 
strings. Sonata and Romance, pf . and flute, etc. 
Organ : Six sonatas ; Three andantes ; Three 
offertories; Three pieces, op. 348, etc., etc. 

Clarke, James P., Scottish musician, who 
held a good teaching position in the West of 
Scotland. For some time he was assistant to 
a music-seller in Edinburgh. In 1829, he was 
leader of psalmody in St. George's Church, 
Glasgow ; and in 1834, he succeeded Thomas 
IMacfarlane, as organist of St. Mary's Epis- 
copal Chaxjel. In 1835, he emigrated to Canada, 
after which all trace of him seems to be 
lost. He edited " Parochial Psalmody, a new 
Collection of approved Psalm tunes, including 
several composed expressly for this w^ork, to 
which are prefixed. Lessons in the Art of 
Singing," Glasgow, [c. 1830], 2nd ed., 1832. 
The Choir : a selection of choruses, anthems, 
etc., edited by J. P. Clarke, late organist of 
St. Mary's Chapel, and A. Thomson, organist 
of St. Andrew's Chapel, Glasgow [1835] . He 
also composed songs in Atkinson's "Chame- 
leon," and in Hogg's "Border Garland" 
[1829], etc. 

Clarke, Jane, musician and organist, pub- 
lished " Select portions of psalms and hjinns, 
adapted to music, as sung at Oxford Chapel," 
London [1808]. 

Clarke, Jessie Murray, authoress of 
" How to excel in Singing and Elocution. A 
manual for ladv students," London, 1884. 




Clarke, John Charles, musician of first 
half of the present century, who resided iii 
Edinburgh as a conductor and vocalist. He 
published a "Collection of Glees and Chor- 
uses," Edinburgh [1840]. 

Clarke, John, or Clarke=Whitfeld, 
composer and organist, was born at Gloucester, 
December 13th, 1770. He studied tinder 
Philip Hayes, and became organist of St. 
Lawrence's, Ludlow, 1789-94. Mus. Bac, 
Oxon., 1793. Organist of Armagh Cathedral, 
1794-97. Mus. Doc, Dublin, 1795. Master 
of choristers and organist of Christ Church 
and St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 1798. 
Organist and Choirmaster of Trinity and 
St. John's Colleges, Cambridge, 1799-1820. 
Mus. Doc, Cantab., 1799. Mus. Doc, Oxon., 
1810. Organist of Hereford Cathedral, 1820- 
33. Professor of Music, Cambridge Univer- 
sity, 1821. He died at Holmer, near Hereford, 
February 22, 1836, and is buried in Hereford 

Works. — Cathedral music (consisting of 
services and anthems), 4 vols., 1805-1822, 
reprinted by Novello. Crucifixion and the 
Resurrection, oratorio, 1822. Twelve Glees, 
composed and inscribed bv permission to 
H.R.H. the Prince Regent "[1805] ; Twelve 
vocal pieces, with original poetry, 2 vols., n.d. 
Glees, etc. : Alice Brand ; The Carpet Weaver ; 
Celestial Hope ; Come, Ossian, come ; The 
Coronach ; Dawn of Day ; Edith of Lorn ; 
Hymn for the dead ; Hymn to the morning 
star ; It was a night of lovely June ; Merrily 
bounds the bark ; Minstrel's tale ; Red Cross 
Knights ; What tho' the Knights ; When I 
am doom'd ; Wide o'er the brim. Songs : 
Ah ! whither, Morpheus ; Blanche of Devon's 
song ; Bonnie, bonnie blue ; Days that are 
gone ; Ellen's song ; The Maid of the Moor ; 
Here's the vow ; In peace love tunes ; Know 
ye the land ; Laugh and rejoice ; Minstrel's 
Harp ; Moorland Mary ; Oh ! sweet is the 
perfume ; Poor Mary ; Smile of affection ; 
Soldier, rest ; Thou dear native land ; Wake, 
Maid of Lorn ; With jet black eyes ; Young 
Lochinvar. The Beau ties of Purcell. Thirty- 
four favourite anthems, selected from various 
English composers, 2 vols. The Vocal works 
composed by G. F. Handel, arranged for organ 
or pianoforte, London, 17 vols. [1809] . Selec- 
tion of single and double chants, in score, 
2 vols., n.d. 

Clarke, Mary Cowden, horn Mary Vic- 
toria Novello, writer, daughter of Vincent 
Novello, was born at London, June, 1809. 
She was married in 1828 to Charles Cowden 
Clarke. She compiled the famous " Shake- 
speare Concordance," wrote novels and poetry, 
edited an edition of Shakespeare, and wrote 
the " Life and labours of Vincent Novello." 
London, 1864 (portrait). " My long life : an 
autobiographic sketch," London, L'nwin, 1896. 


Clarke, Payne, tenor vocalist, born in 
Manchester, December 23, 1860. He sang as 
a boy at_the Church of the Holy Name, Man- 
chester, and subsequently as an alto and tenor 
for some years. He studied under Dr. Henry 
Hiles, and later with Mr. William Shakespeare. 
After sonae experience in opera, he joined Mr. 
J. W. Turner's Company in 1886, and later in 
the same year was a member of the Carl Rosa 
Opera Company, in which he remained for 
three years, sustaining a number of characters. 
In 1890 he appeared at Denver, U.S.A., as 
Manrico, in IL Trovatorc, and as Lohengrin 
at the National Theatre, Mexico, in 1891. He 
was singing in concerts in London, 1894 ; but 
he is more widely known in the north as a 
concert singer. 

Clarke, Stephen, musician, was born at 
Durham about the middle of the 18th century. 
He was organist of the Episcopal Chapel in 
the Cowgate of Edinburgh, and a teacher 
there from about 1764. He died at Edin- 
burgh, August 6, 1797. He composed " Two 
Sonatas for the Pianoforte or Harpsichord, in 
which are introduced favourite Scotch airs, 
composed and respectfully dedicated to Mr. 
Erskine, Jun., of Mar," op. 3. Edinburgh, 
1790. He also harmonized the airs in John- 
son's " Scots Musical Museum." On his death 
the work was continued by his son William 
(born Edinburgh [c. 1780]'; died Edinburgh, 
1820), who was organist of St. Paul's Episcopal 
Chapel, and a teacher and writer of some small 
pieces for the pianoforte and voice. He issued 
" A Collection of the most favourite airs, 
progressively arranged and fingered for the 
pianoforte." Edinburgh, n.d. 

Clarke, William, musician, born 1740; 
died December 5, 1820. He was a Vicar- 
Choral of St. Paul's Cathedral, and Minor 
Canon, 1769. He is buried in the crypt of St. 
Paul's. He edited "A Collection of Chaunts, 
Psalm Tunes, Hymns, and an Anthem in four 
parts," n.d. 

Clarkson, John, Scottish dancing-master 
and violinist, who died at St. Andrews, 
January 20, 1812. He compiled " Clarkson's 
Musical Entertainment, being a selection of 
various Tunes and Pieces of Music adapted 
for the Pf. or Harpsichord," n.d. 

His son John was a dancing-master and 
violinist, and published " A Complete Collec- 
tion of the much-admired Tunes, as Danced 
at the Balls and Publics of the late Mr. 
Strange, Teacher of Dancing in Edinburgh." 
This work appeared about the beginning of 
this century. 

Claxton, Rev. William, organist of St. 
Michael's College, Tenburv, graduated B.A., 
1876; Mus. B., 1882, Oxford, Curate of Hart- 
ley Wintney, 1887. Composer of a morning 
communion, and evening service, in G; an- 
thems ; songs ; part-song, " Ye little birds 




that sit and sing" (men's voices and orches- 
tra), etc. 

Clay, Frederick, composer, born at Paris, 
August 3, 1810. Son of James Clay, who was 
M.P. for Hull, and a famous whist player. 
He studied under IMolique at Paris, and 
Hauptmann at Leipzig. For a short time he 
held a post in the Treasury Department. He 
resided in London as a teacher and composer, 
but latterly, owing to ill-health, retired to 
Great Marlow, Bucks, where he died Nov. 
24, 1889. 

Works. — Operas and Operettas : The Pi- 
rate's Isle, 1859 ; Out of Sight, 1860 ; Court 
and Cottage, 1862 ; Constance. 1865 ; Ages 
Ago, 1869 ; Gentleman in Black, 1870 ; Happy 
Arcadia, 1872 ; Cattarina, 1 874 ; Princess 
Toto, 1875; Don Quixote, 1875; Babil and 
Bijou, 1872 (with others) ; Black Crook, 1872 ; 
Oriana ; Merry Duchess, 1883 ; INIusic to 
Shakespeare's " Twelfth Night." Cantatas : 
Knights of the Cross, 1866 ; Lalla Rookh, 
1877. Part-songs, songs, etc. 

Clayton, Eleanor Creathorne (Mrs. 
Needham), novelist and musical writer, born 
at Dublin in 1832. Author of " Queens of 
Song ; being memoirs of some of the most 
celebrated female vocalists who have appeared 
on the lyric stage from the earliest days of 
opera to the present time, with a chronological 
list of all the operas that have been performed 
in Europe." London, 1863, 2 vols. 

Clayton, Thomas, English composer, born 
in 1670. He was a member of the Roval Band 
of William and Mary, 1692-1702. After re- 
siding in Italy he returned to England and 
' introduced Italian opera. He died in 1730. 
He composed music for Addison's Rosamund ; 
Arsinoe ; Drydcn's Alexander's Feast ; The 
Passion of Sappho, etc., but none of it appears 
to possess much merit. 

Clegg, David, organist of Littleborough 

! Parish Church (1891), is the composer of a 

j cantata, " The Daughter of Jairus," produced 

: at Rochdale, December 8, 1891 ; and an opera, 

" Cleopatra," selections from which were given 

at the same place and date. 

Clegg, John, violinist, born Ireland, 1714. 
He studied under Dubourg and Buononcini, 
and first appeared in London, 1723. After 
travelling in Italy, he was appointed principal 
violin at the Opera, London. He became 
1 insane towards the end of his career, and died 
in 1746. 

Cleland, George, musician and organist 
of the end of 18th and first half of present 
century. He was organist of St. Mary's 
Chapel, Bath. He published " A selection of 
chants never before published, together with 
asanctusand kyrie eleison, arranged in score," 
London [1824]. 

Clench, Leonora, violinist, native of St. 
IMary's, Canada. Studied at Leipzig Conserv- 


atorium, and played at a concert given in that, 
town by ^liss IMarie Wurm, November 7, 1886, 
and ab other concerts in the same year. In 
London she made her debut at a concert at 
the Lyric Club, June 24, 1892. Appeared as 
soloist at the Hovinghani Festival, Yorks., 

Cliffe, Frederick, pianist and composer, 
born at Low iloor, near Bradford, Yorkshire, 
May 2, 1857. As quite a child he had a local 
reputation as pianist and organist, and at sis- 
teen (in 1873) he was appointed organist to 
the Bradford Festival Choral Society. In 
1876 he was elected to a Scholarship in the 
National Training School for Music, after 
leaving which he was pianist and accompanist 
on various concert tours. He played a con- 
certo at the Promenade Concerts, Covent 
Garden, in 1882 ; and on the opening of the 
Royal College of Music, in 1883, he was 
appointed a professor of the pianoforte. He 
came into notice as a composer with a sym- 
phony in C minor, produced at the Crystal 
Palace, April 20, 1889. In 1890 he composed 
an orchestra picture, "Clouds and sunshine," 
for the Philharmonic Society, which was pro- 
duced ^lay 22 of that year. For the Leeds 
Festival of 1892 he wrote a second Symphony, 
" A summer night," and a violin concerto for 
the Norwich Festival of 1896. He has also 
composed several songs, etc. 

Clifford, Rev. James, clergyman and 
musician, born at Oxford, 1622. Chorister of 
]\Iagdalen College, Oxford, 1632-42. ]\Iinor 
Canon St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 1661. 
Senior Cardinal, St. Paul's, London, 1682. 
Curate of Parish Church of St. Gregory. 
Chaplain to Society of Serjeant's Inn. He 
died at London, September, 1698. 

Works. — A Collection of Divine Services 
and Anthems, usually sung in His IMajesty's 
Chapel, and in all the cathedral and coUegiate 
choirs of England and Ireland, by James 
Clifford, 1663, 2nd edition enlarged, 1664. 
Sermons, etc. 

Clifford, Walter, baritone vocalist. Sang 
as a boy in the choir of Holy Trinity Church, 
Hull. Became a pupil of Edwin Holland, 
and made his debut at Mr. Ambrose Austin's 
concert at St. James's Hall, 1879, appearing 
at the Covent Garden Promenade Concerts 
the same year. He sang in English Opera in 
the provinces, and took the part of De Bre- 
tigny in Massenet's " Manon," when bhe 
opera was produced by Carl Rosa at Drury 
Lane, May 7, 1885. After singing for some 
time at concerts in various places, he was 
engaged, in 1887, for an American tour by the 
Chicago Sjnnphonic Orchestral Society. 

Clifton, Henry Robert, better known as 
" Harry Clifton," author and composer of 
comic songs, born at Hoddesden, Hereford, in 
1831, died, Hanunersmith, London, July 15, 




1872. Well-known in his day as author and 
composer of music-hall lyrics of the " motto " 
variety, among which were "Paddle your own 
canoe ; " " Pulling hard against the stream ; " 
" Shelling green peas ; " " Work, boys, work," 
and many others. He also wrote " Polly 
Perkins of Paddington Green" [186.5], and 
other songs of a mock-sentimental type, such 
as the " Agreeable young man ; " " Convivial 
man ; " " Jeniima Brown ; " " On board of 
the Kangaroo " [1865], etc. For many years 
he resided in Glasgow as a music-hall singer. 

Clifton, John Charles, composer and 
pianist, born at London, 1781. Studied under 
R. Bellamy and Charles Wesley. Employed 
for a time in mercantile pursuits. Resided 
at Bath as teacher and conductor. Went to 
Dublin, 1802, and resided there as teacher and 
composer till 1815. Settled in London, 1816, 
as teacher of the pf. and advocate of Logier's 
system. He died at Hammersmith, London, 
November 18, 1841. 

Works. — Edwin, opera, Dublin, 1815 ; 
Series of Moral Songs, by W. F. Collard, pub- 
lished in parts, 1823-4; Selection of British 
Melodies, with appropriate words, by J. F. M. 
Dovaston, London, n.d. ; Collection of French 
Airs, with symphonies and accompaniments, 
2 vols. As pants the hart, canon. Glees — 
Three glees for 8, 4, and 5 voices, 1823 ; A 
blossom wreath ; Maid of Toro ; On a rock 
whose haughty brow ; Quick flew the gales of 
rosy spring ; Hushed is the harp ; Pray goody. 
Songs — As through life's early path ; First 
dawn of love ; Good-night, my pretty Anne ; 
If music be the food of love (canzonet) ; Mil- 
ler's daughter ; Sensitive Plant ; Soft on the 
violet bank ; With love-fraught eyes ; Nay, if 
you threaten ; Sweet choice of my heart ; A 
bumper of sparkling wine, etc. Theory of 
Harmony Simplified, 1816 ; Instructions for 
the Pianoforte ; Memoir of Sir John Steven- 
son (in a review), etc. 

Clifton was a pianist of much ability, and 
invented, in 1816, an instrument called the 
" Eidomusicon," which, on being fastened to 
the keyboard of the pianoforte, produced the 
notes and chords as they were struck, with a 
view to displaying them to the eye, and so 
facilitate sight-singing, etc. 

Clinton, George Arthur, clarinettist, 
born at Newcastle-on-Tyne. For many years 
a member of the Crystal Palace Orchestra, 
and a soloist at the concerts there at least 
since 1876. Principal clarinet in Her IMajesty's 
Private Band, and in the Philharmonic Or- 
chestra. Professor of the Clarinet at R.A.M. 
Has given Chamber Concerts of music for 
wind instruments in various halls in London, 
1892-6, and has played at the Saturday Popu- 
lar Concerts, etc, 

Clinton, John, flute player and writer, 
born in 1810 ; died at London in 1864. Author 


of A Treatise upon the Mechanism and general 
principles of the Flute, London, n.d. ; Com- 
plete School for the Boehm Flute, containing 
everything necessary to learn that instrument, 
from the elements to the most advanced stage, 
London, n.d. (5 editions), Ashdown ; A Code 
of Instruction for the Equisonant flute, in 
which the fingering and resources of that 
instrument are fully explained by numerous 
examples ; First Set of three Grand Studies 
for the Flute ; Second do. ; Universal Flute 
Tutor (Boosey). Flute nnisic — Trios for two 
flutes and pf., opp. 2, 3, 10; Trios for three 
flutes, opp. 7 and 9 ; Five Notturnos, flute 
and harp (with Oberthiir) ; Gems of the Italian 
School ; Cavatinas, or songs without words ; 
The Drawing-Room Concert, written by W. 
Ball ; Transcriptions for flute and pf ., of which 
he published an enormous number. 

Clipsham, J , musician, compiled the 

" Divine Psalmist's Companion," Market Har- 
borough, 1753, 

Clive, Catherine, bom Rafftor, soprano 
vocalist, born in London, of Irish parents, in 
1711. She sang at Drury Lane Theatre from 
1728. Married to George Clive, a barrister, 
in 1734, and separated from him in 1769. 
Retired from stage. She died at Twickenham, 
Dec. 6, 1785. See Life of Catherine Clive, 
with an account of her adventures on and off 
the stage . . . bv Percv Fitzgerald, London, 

Clive, Franklin F., bass vocalist of the 
present day. He learnt the violin at nine 
years of age, and when seventeen entered an 
office in the city of London. In time his 
voice developed, and gaining a Scholarship at 
Trinity College, London, he studied for the 
profession. About the year 1882, he was be- 
coming known as a singer ; sang in the " INIes- 
siah," at Birmingham, Boxing Night, 1883, 
with success, and in other places. He was on 
tour with an Opera Company in 1887, and 
appeared as King Richard, in Sullivan's " Ivan- 
hoe," at the Roval English Opera, in February, 

Clutsam, George H , pianist and com- 
poser, a native of Australia. He was a mem- 
ber of the Amy Sherwin Concert Party in 
Australia, 1888 ; and acted as accompanist 
during the Melba tour in England, 1893. His 
compositions include a Symphony (a move- 
ment from which was perfornred at the Covent 
Garden Promenade Concerts, October 3, 1890), 
and other works ; Songs, etc. 

Cobb, Gerard Francis, composer, born 
at Nettlestead, Kent, October 15, 1838. Edu- 
cated at Marlborough College, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, of which he was elected 
Scholar in 1860 ; and, after taking a double 
First, a Fellow, in 1863. His musical training 
was chiefly in Dresden. He was President of 
the Cambridge University Musical Society for 




some ten years, from 1874 ; and Chairman of 
the University Board of ]Mnsical Studies for 
fifteen years, from 1877. His compositions 
are very numerous, although, from the claims 
of his official work at the University, it was 
many years before he was able to devote his 
attention to creative arb. 

Works. — Psalm 62, for soli, chorus, and 
orchestra, composed for the Festival of the 
North-Eastern Choir Association, Ripon Cathe- 
dral, 1892. Seven Church services, including 
a full Morning, Communion, and Evening 
Service in C major, for men's voices, composed 
(by request) for the use of the Choir of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor. IMotet, Stirge II- 
luminare (Leslie's Choir, March, 1887); Seven 
anthems. Prize Glee (four voices), A Message 
to Phyllis ; Prize Madrigal (six voices). Sleep- 
ing Beauty, etc. Six Songs (W. Fergusson) ; 
Lieder und Gesange (six songs) ; Three English 
Ballads ; Three Sacred Songs ; Barrack Room 
Ballads (Rudyard Kipling) ; Song and Silence, 
with horn obligato, and many other songs. 
Quintet in C, op. 22, pf . and strings ; Suite, 
violin and pf. ; Suite, Voices of the Sea, 
pf., etc., etc. 

Cobb, Richard, English composer and 
organist duriug the 16th and 17th centuries. 
Was organist to Charles I., and composed 
•some vocal music. " Smiths are good fel- 
lows," a catch, is by him. 

Cobb, Richard Barker, baritone vocalist, 
known by the nom dc tlu'atre of Richard 
Temple, made his dehut in opera at the Crystal 
Palace, 1872. Toured in the Gilbert and Sulli- 
van operas, 1879 ; sang at the Savoy Theatre in 
" Princess Ida" and " The Mikado," 1884-5 ; 
gave performances of opera in Italian at the 
Gaiety Theatre, May, 1886, himself taking 
the title-part in " Rigoletto ;" revived Gou- 
nod's " The Mock Doctor " at the Grand 
Theatre, London, 1890 ; and sang at the Oh-m- 
pic Theatre, under Signor Lago's manage- 
ment, October, 1892. He turned to the music 
halls early in that year, and appeared at the 
Trocadero ; sang again in the concert-room, 
189.3 ; and recited in Mendelssohn's " Athalie " 
at the Queen's Hall, November 1.3, 1895. 

Cobbold, William, composer, born in 
Parish of St. Andrew, Norwich, January 5, 
1559-60. In 1.599 he became organist of Nor- 
wich Cathedral, but in 1608 he became a 
singing man, while the post of organist was 
held by Wm. Inglott. He died at Beccles in 
Suffolk, November 7, 1639, and was buried in 
the south aisle of the Parish Church, where a 
stone marks bis grave. 

He contributed to Este's "Whole Book of 
Psalms," 1592, and wrote the madrigal, "With 
wreaths of rose and laurel" in the "Triumphs 
of Oriana." Some of his works remain in 
MS., and an anthem, " In Bethlehem town," 
appears in Clifford's Services, 1663. 


Cochran, John, musician, who issued "A 
Selection of Psalm and Hymn Tunes . . . with 
Anthems." Dublin, 1811, two editions. 

Cock, Arthur, organist and composer of 
the 16th century. He was organist of Exeter 
Cathedral, and in 1593 he graduated Mus. 
Bac, Oxford. 

Cogan, Philip, composer, organist, and 
pianist, born at Cork in 1750[Doncaster 1757 ?]. 
Chorister and choirman of Cathedral of St. 
Finn Barre, Cork. Stipendiary of Christ 
Church, Dublin, 1772. He died in 1834. 

Works. — Anthems, various ; Six sonatas 
for pf. and violin, op. 2, 1788; Sonatas for pf., 
op. 4 ; Concerto in E fiat for 2 violins, viola, 
'cello, 2 flutes, and 2 horns, op. 6, 1792 ; Son- 
atas for pf. (Clementi), op. 8 ; Harpsichord 
Lessons ; Songs. 

Coggins, Joseph, composer and pianist, 
was born in 1780. He studied under J. W. 
Callcott. Teacher of pf. in London, where he 
died, in first half of present century. 

Works. — The IMusical Assistant, containing 
all that is truly useful to the theory and prac- 
tice of the pianoforte, London, 1815 ; Com- 
panion to the ]\Iusical Assistant, containing 
all that is truly useful to the theory and 
practice of the pianoforte, also a complete 
dictionary, London, 8vo, 1824 ; Admired 
Hymns .... adapted for the use of schools, 
2 parts ; Pf. music, fantasias, etc. ; Songs ; 
Complete instructions for the flute, according 
to Drouet's system, London, 1830. 

Coghlan, J. P., author of " An essay on 
the Church plain-chant," London, 1782. 

Colbeck, William Robert, organist and 
conductor, born at Bebington, Cheshire, 1852. 
Studied under Dr. French Flowers, and F. 
W. Hird. Began his career as an organist 
at the age of eleven, at Gamston Parish 
Church, Notts. ; afterwards appointed to St. 
Peter's, ]\Iorley, Leeds ; St. Mathias, Burley, 
Leeds, 1869 ; and, in 1876, to the Parish 
Church, Folkestone. Later in that year (1876), 
he left for British Guiana, being appointed to 
St. Philip's, Georgetown. This appointment 
he still holds, together with that of organist 
of the Town Hall, from its opening in 1891. 
His organ recitals are popular, and an im- 
portant feature in the season's music. He 
was conductor for twelve years of the Musical 
Society, now defunct ; and is president and 
conductor of the recently formed Orchestral 
Society. He composed a march for the open- 
ing of the Town Hall organ, Georgetown (1891); 
and has published some pf. pieces, and songs 
(including a prize song in Cassell's IMagazine, 

Colborne, Langdon, organist and com- 
poser, born at Hackney, London, September 
15, 1837. Studied under George Cooper. Or- 
ganist of St. :Michael's College, Tenbury, 1860. 
Mus. Bac, Cantab., 1864. Mus. Doc, Cantuar, 





1883. Organist of Beverley Minster, 1874; 
Wigan Parish Church, 1875; Dorking Parish 
Church, 1877 ; Hereford Cathedral, 1877. He 
died at Hereford, September IG, 1889. 

Works. — Samuel, oratorio, Hereford, 1889; 
Complete Service in C ; Magnificat and Nunc 
Diniittis in D, A, and B fiat ; Te Deiun and 
Benedictus in E flat. Anthems — I will lay 
me down ; Lord, our Governor ; Out of the 
deep ; Ponder ni}' w'ords, O Lord ; Rend your 
hearts. Part-songs : If slumber sweet, Lisena ; 
The Siesta ; The bright-hair'd morn is glow- 
ing", Songs, etc. 

Cole, Blanche, sec sub. Naylor, Sidney. 

Cole, Charlotte, and Susanna, vocalists, 
formerly known in the musical world as the 
Misses Cole, were born at Tarrington, Hereford- 
shire. Their father came of a musical family, 
and was for many years organist of the parish 
church, choir trainer, and teacher of music. 
The children, from their infancy, were brought 
up in a musical atmosphere, and were familiar 
with the works of the great masters. At the 
E.A.M. they studied under Manuel Garcia, 
and both were elected Associates of that 
Institution. Charlotte, the elder, a soprano, 
was a leading uiember of the students' choir 
in Hanover Chapel, Regent Street ; and of the 
semi-chorus of the Concerts of Ancient ]\Iusic. 
She sang in the double quartet in " Elijah " 
at the Hereford Festival of 1849, and Mr. J. 
W. Davison at that time hearing the sisters 
sing Mendelssohn's two-part songs, advised 
them to appear in London as duet singers. 
Their debut took x^lace at Exeter Hall, in the 
Wednesday Concerts, November 14, 1849 ; 
and for years afterwards they were in great 
request, succeeding the Misses Williams in 
public favour. They sang at the Crystal Pal- 
ace in 1855, and at the principal London and 
provincial concerts. In 1853 Charlotte Cole 
married Mr. Alfred Gilbert (q.v.), and 
after singing at his concerts for some years, 
devoted her attention chiefly to teaching 
singing. She is an Associate of the Philhar- 
monic Society, and the composer of some 
tasteful songs, etc. Susanna, whose voice was 
a mezzo-soj)rano of beautiful quality, contin- 
ued to sing both in opera and concerts ; but 
she also married, and now is engaged in teach- 
ing singing, botli for the stage and concert 

Cole, James Parry, composer and con- 
ductor, born at Tarrington, Herefordshire, 
brotlier of the foregoing. While a child he 
was taught the violin by his father, and at the 
age of eight became a chorister of Hereford 
Cathedral, and pupil of G. Townshend Smith. 
When fifteen he entered the R.A.M., studying 
under Charles Lucas, R. Blagrove, W. Dorrell, 
and G. A. IMacfarren. On leaving the Acad- 
emy he went to Arundel, Sussex, as a teacher 
of music, and organist of the parish church. 

There he remained five years, and returning 
to London, he has occupied various posts as 
organist, musical director, and teacher. He 
has composed much, chiefly devoting his 
attention to music for the stage. While a 
chorister he composed an oratorio, "Deborah 
and Barak," as well as some church services. 
Later works are — Cantata, By the waters of 
Babylon. Operas and Operettas : Vokin's 
Vengeance (St. George's Hall, 1877) ; The 
Golden Wedding (1883); AU for nothing (1888); 
Black and White ; a Romance of the Harem 
(1887) ; The Black Count (1890; ; The Pillow 
of Roses ; Hypatia (Grand opera in four acts); 
Bunell's Bride ; Pas Seul ; Romance and 
reality ; The Grecian Dancer ; Woman's 
Honour ; V. V. ; Give him a rest ; The deaf 
knight, etc. A book of chamber songs ; songs, 
various ; pieces for pf. and violin, pf. pieces, 
etc., etc. 

Cole, William, musician, who was born 
about 1764. He was an organist and teacher 
at Colchester, and London. He died at Pim- 
lico, London, August 11, 1848. 

Works. — Morningand evening service, with 
six anthems in score, n.d. The Psalmodist's 
Exercise, or a set of psalm tunes and anthems, 
all entirely new, composed for the use of 
country choirs, London, n.d. View of modern 
psalmody, being an attempt to reform the , 
practice of singing in the worship of God. 
Colchester, 1819. 

Cole, William Henry, violinist and con- 
ductor, born at Dudley, April 7, 1847. Studied 
under Henry Hayward and J- T. Carrodus. 
He has taken a leading part in the musical 
life of Glasgow since 1868. He has organised 
various quartet parties and bands, which have 
performed in Glasgow, and in most of the 
Scottish provincial towns. Mr. Cole is well- 
known as a teacher of the violin. 

Coleire, Richard, English clergjTnan. 
Wrote ", The Antiquity and usefulness of 
instrumental musick in the service of God, 
a sermon on erecting an organ at Isleworth," 
London, 1738. 

Coleman, Charles (or Colman), composer, 
who was born about the beginning of the 17th 
century [1600] . He was a member of the 
private band of Charles I. Doc. Mus., Cam- 
bridge, 1651. He died at London, 1664. 

Works. — The Siege of Rhodes, Davenanfc 
(with Lawes, Cook, and Hudson), 1657 ; IMusi- 
call Ayres and Dialogues, 1652 ; Musick's 
Recreation on the Lyra-violl, 1656 ; Select 
Ayres, 1659 ; The Musical Vocabulary in 
Phihips' New World of Words, 1658. 

Coleman, Edward, brother of above, was 
born in 1633. He became Gentleman of Chapel 
Royal, and died at Greenwich, August 29, 
1669. Wrote songs in various collections, etc. 

Coleridge, Arthur Duke, amateur vocal- 
ist, lecturer, and translator, was born on Feb- 




ruary 1, 1830. He is a ]\I.A., and was called 
to tlie bar in 1860. Clerk of the Arraigns for 
the Midland Circuit, and nephew of the late 
Chief Justice, Lord Coleridge. In the days of 
the Amateur Musical Society, under Henry 
Leslie, he occasionally sang at their concerts, 
having a good tenor voice. He has lectured 
in various places upon Bach, Weber, Spohr, 
and Schumann ; and rendered service to 
musical literature by his translations of K. von 
Hellborn's " Life of Schubert," London, 
Longmans, 1869, 2 vols. ; and the " Life of 
Moscheles, with selections from his diaries 
and correspondence," by his wife. London : 
Hurst and Blackett, 1873, 2 vols. He also 
contributed articles to Grove's " Dictionary 
of !Music and ^Musicians." 

Coles, Sydney George Randolph, or- 
ganist and composer, born at Bristol, 1852, 
Chorister at St. Paul's Church, Clifton, and 
pupil of the late Alfred Stone. When eighteen 
he was appointed organist of St. John's, Broad 
Street, Bristol. In 1873 he became an articled 
pupil of, and assistant to, the late Dr. W. H. 
Monk. F.C.O., 1876; Mus. Bac, Trin. Coll., 
Toronto, 1887. Resident in Eastbourne since 
1881, as pianist, teacher ; and was organist of 
the Parish Church for ten years, now holding 
a similar office at the Presbyterian Church, 
and being also organist to the Hadrian Lodge 
of Freemasons, No. 2,483, When the legality 
of the m absentia degrees was questioned, Mr. 
Coles strongly upheld the bo7ia fide nature of 
the examinations. This subject is beyond the 
scope of the present work, and readers are 
referred to the musical press, 1890-93. 

Works. — Psalm 23, for soli, chorus, and 
organ (performed by the Musical Artists' 
Society, R.A.M., 1882) ; Communion Service ; 
Offertory Sentences ; Carol, The Bellringers 
(Crystal Palace Sunday School Festival, 1895) ; 
an Imperial Hymn, etc. Triumphal march 
for orchestra ; March and Postlude, organ ; 
pieces for pf., etc. 

Collet, Sophia Dobson, born in London, 
1822, was associated with Eliza and Sarah 
Flower in the music at South Place Chapel, 
and composed some of the music still in use 
there. She died at Highbury Park, March 
27, 1891. 

Collett, John, instrumental composer, 
who flourished during the middle of the 18th 
century. He composed " Six Solos for the 
violin, with a thorough bass for ye harpsi- 
chord, op. 1," London [1770] , and other 
instrumental music. 

Collier, Joel, see Bicknell, John L. 

Collins, Isaac, violinist, born in 1797 ; 
died November 24, 1871. Was for many years 
principal second violin in the Crystal Palace 
Orchestra. In the forties he gave concerts in 
London, with his five children, of whom the 
best known were George Collins, violoncellist, 


who died in 1869, and Viotti Collins, violinist, 
who is still actively engaged in his profession. 

Collinson, Thomas Henry, organist and 
conductor, bom at Alnwick, April 24, 1858. 
Pupil of Dr. Amies', at Durham Cathedra], 
and later, deputy organist there. Graduated 
Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1877. Organist of St. 
Oswald's, Durham ; aird in 1878, appointed 
to St. Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh. From 
1883 he has been conductor of the Edinburgh 
Choral Union. At the Cathedral he has dir- 
ected special Oratorio Services ; and has given 
organ ijerformances at the Edinburgh Exhib- 
ition, 1886, and has a high reputation as an 
executant. He is Church ]\Iusic lecturer to 
the Episcopal Theological College. Of his 
compositions only some anthems are published. 

Collisson, W. A. Houston, pianist 
and composer, resident in Dublin. His play- 
ing attracted attention about 1884, and he 
began giving Saturday Popular Concerts in 
1885, in the Leinster Hall, Dublin ; and in 
May, 1887, started a series of Saturday Even- 
ing Concerts in St. James's Hall, London. 
He was appointed organist of the Parish 
Church, Rathfarnham, 1885 ; and to Holy 
Trinity, Rathniines, Dublin, 1886. He grad- 
uated Mus. Bac. [1885?]; Mus. Doc, Dublin, 
1890. Of his compositions two comic operas 
have been produced : The Knight of the Road, 
Dublin, 1891 ; and Strongbow, Dublin, 1892. 

Colville, David, musician, born at Camp- 
beltown, January 15, 1829. He published 
" Graduated course of elementary instruction 
in singing, on the letter-note method, in 
twenty-six lessons, with hints on self-instruc- 
tion, etc." (with George Bentley), 1864 ; Col- 
lections "of Part-songs, under the title of 
" Choral Harmony," " Amphion," etc. 

Comon, or Cormac Dall, Irish harper, 
story-teller, and vocalist, was born at Wood- 
stock, Mayo, May, 1703. He lived an itine- 
rant life, and was famous as a composer of 
songs and elegies. He died about the end of 
the 18th century, or at least after 1786, at 
which date he was alive. 

Compton, Mrs. A., see Gkay, Louisa, 

Condell, Henry, violinist and composer, 
was bom in the latter part of the 18th cen- 
tury. He was' a violinist at Drury Lane and 
Covent Garden Theatres. Gained prize at 
Catch Club with glee, " Loud blowe the 
wyndes," 1811. He died at Battersea, Lon- 
don, June, 1824. 

Works. — Enchanted Island, ballet, 1804 ; 
Who wins ? or The Widow's choice, farce, 
1808; Transformation, farce, 1810; Farmer's 
wife, 1814; Glees; Songs, etc. 

Congreve, Benjamin, composer, was born 
in 1836, and died at London on March 23, 
1871. He composed part-songs and songs. 

Coningsby, George, clergj-man. Author 
of "A Sermon preached at the Cathedral 





Church of Hereford, at the anniversary meet- 
ing of the Three Choirs, September 6, 1732, 
Church Musick vindicated," Oxford, 1733. 

Conran, D., Irish writer, author of 
" Musical Research, or General System of 
Modulation," Dublin, 1840. 

Conran, Michael, probably a relative of 
the above. Organist of St. Patrick's Church, 
Manchester. Author of "The National Music 
of Ireland ; containing the History of the 
Irish bards, the national melodies, the harp, 
etc.," Dublin, 1846 ; London, 1850. Collection 
of admired Hymns and Gregorian Chants, 
with English words ; n.d. 

Cook, Aynsley, bass vocalist, born near 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 18-36 (?). Was a chorister 
at St. Paul's Cathedral. Through the gen- 
erosity of the Marquis of Anglesey he studied 
in Germany, and there made his debut in opera. 
He sang at Drury Lane about 1854, but his 
name is not noticed. Later he joined the 
Pyne and Harrison Company ; but he reached 
the full measure of his popularity as a member 
of the Carl Rosa Company, from 1875 to the 
end of his career. His repertory was extensive, 
but his Devilshoof in the "Bohemian Girl" — 
an elaboration of his own in the last act — was 
his favourite character with the public. His 
last appearance in opera was at Liverpool, 
February 2, 1894, and he died just a fortnight 
later. His wife, nee Payne, was a contralto 
singer, and a niember of the Pyne and Harri- 
son, and Carl Rosa Companies. She also sang 
on tour with Mr. Sims Reeves in "The Water- 
man," etc. Alice Aynsley Cook, his 
daughter, has sung in the provinces in the 
Gilbert and Sullivan operas, burlesques, etc. 
Cook, Mrs. Dutton, see Scates, Linda. 
Cook, Richard, musician of early part of 
the present century. Issued " Kentish 
Psalmodist's Companion," London, n.d. 

Cooke, Benjamin, composer and organist, 
was born at London in 1734. He studied 
under Pepusch, and became deputy-organist 
at Westminster Abbey in 1746. Conductor of 
Academy of Ancient Music, 1752-1789. Master 
of the boys at Westminster Abbey, 1757. Lay- 
clerk, do., 1758. Full organist, Westminster, 
1762, succeeding John Robinson. Doc.Mus., 
Cantab., 1775. Organist of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, 1782, Sub-director at Handel Com- 
memoration, 1784. He died at Westminster, 
London, Sept. 14, 1793. Buried in West Cloister 
of Westminster Abbey. 

Works. — Ode on Handel, for 8 voices. 
Glees : Collection of twenty glees, catches and 
canons, for 3, 4, 5 and 6 voices, in score, Lon- 
don, 1775 ; As now the shades ; Ere the beams 
of morning break ; Farewell ; Hand in hand ; 
Hark, the lark ; How sleep the brave ; In the 
merry month of May ; I've been young, though 
now grown old ; Now the bright morning star, 
day's harbinger ; Let Rubinelli charm the ear, 


duet ; Thrysis, when he left me, duet ; The 
Dormouse, glee ; Beneath in the dust. Nine 
'glees and two duets, op. 9 [1795] . Ode on the 
Passions (Collins), 1784, etc. Concertos for 
combinations of various instruments. Organ 
and harpsichord music. Anthems and Church 
Services. Morning and Evening Service in G. 
Songs, etc. 

" Dr. Cooke's glees are numerous, and of 
great beauty. They are remarkable for natural 
and graceful ease of melody, great simplicity 
and yet much art in the disposition of parts, 
and fine expression." — Hogarth. A number 
of them are still in use among our singing 
societies ; " Hark, the lark," being one of 
those perennial favourites of which the Eng- 
lish school furnishes not a few examples. 

Cooke, Henry, composer and teacher, 
born at the beginning of the 17th century. 
He was educated at the Chapel Royal, and 
obtained a captain's commission during the 
Civil War, 1642. Gentleman of Chapel Royal 
and Master of Children, 1660. Composer to 
the King, 1664. He died July 13, 1672. 
Buried in East Cloister, Westminster Abbey. 

Works. — Anthems and Services preserved 
(MS.) in the Collection formed by Dr. Al- 
drich in Christ Church, Oxford. Madrigals, 
songs, etc. 

Cooke was the teacher of Blow, Wise, Pur- 
cell, and Humfrey, and for that alone is 
entitled to some little credit and esteem. 

Cooke, John P., composer and conductor, 
was born at Chester, October 31, 1820. He 
went to America, and became conductor of 
various theatre orchestras in New York. He 
died at New York, November 4, 1865. Com- 
posed music to Shakespeare's Plays, Songs, etc. 

Cooke, Miss, see Waylett, Mrs. 

Cooke, Nathaniel, composer and organist, 
born at Bosham, near Chichester, 1773. He 
studied under his uncle, Matthew Cooke, of 
London (organist). Organist of the Parish 
Church of Brighton. He died sometime after 

Works. — Collection of Psalms and Hymns 
sung at Brighthelmston, with several Canons, 
and a Te Deum, arranged for the Organ or 
Pianoforte, n.d. Glees and Songs. Pianoforte 

Cooke was a good organist, and composed 
the canon, "I have set God always before me." 

Cooke, Robert, organist and composer, 
was a son of Benjamin Cooke, born in 1768. 
He studied under his father, and succeeded 
him as organist of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 
1793. Organist and choir-master at West- 
minster Abbey, 1802. Drowned in Thames, 
August 13, 1814. Buried in West Cloister of 
Westminster Abbey. 

Works. — Evening Service in C ; Magnificat 
and Nunc Dimittis in C. Anthems. Glees : 
In the rose's fragrant shade ; Love and foUy 




■were at play ; IMark, where the silver queen 
of night ; Queen of the sea ; Round thy pillow ; 
Sweet warbling bird ; Why o'er the verdant 
banks. Collection of Eight Glees (Clementi) 
[1805] . Songs, etc. 

Cooke, Thomas Simpson, vocalist and 
composer, was born at Dublin in 1782. He 
studied under his father and Giordani. In 
1803 he acted as conductor of a theatre in 
Dublin, and made his debut as a vocalist in 
Storace's " Siege of Belgrade." In 1813 he 
appeared in London, and in the same year 
was appointed conductor and vocalist at Drury 
Lane Theatre. He married Miss Howell. 
Member of the Royal Academy of ]\Iusic, 
Philharmonic Society, Noblemans' Catch 
Club, Glee Club, etc. He died at London, 
February 26, 1848. 

Works. — Music to Plays : The Count of 
Anjou; A Tale of the Times, 1822; The Wager, 
1825 ; Oberon, or the Charmed Horn, 1826 ; 
Malvina, 1826 ; The Bov of Santillane, 1827 ; 
The Brigand, 1829 ; Peter the Great, 1829 ; 
The Dragon's Gift, 1830; The Ice Witch, 

1831 ; Hvder Ali, 1831 ; St. Patrick's Eve, 

1832 ; King Arthur, 1835; The King's Proxy; 
Frederick the Great ; The Five Lovers ; 
Numerous Farces. Adaptations of Foreign 
Operas. ISIass in A minor. Glees : Six Glees 
for 3 and 4 voices, London, 1844 ; Come 
Spirits of Air ; Fill me, boy, as deep a draught ; 
Strike, strike the lyre ; Away with gloom and 
care ; O strike the harp ; Take thou this cup. 
Duets : Love and War ; Army and Navy ; 
Songs. Singing Exemplified in a Series of 
Solfeggi and exercises, progressively arranged, 
London, n.d. ; Singing in parts, containing 
progressive instructions, extracts, exercises, 
and original compositions, London, n.d. 
[c. 1842], etc. 

Cooke, Henry Angelo Michael. Grat- 
TAN Cooke, eldest son of the above, born in 
London in 1809. He studied at the R.A.M., 
1822-28, of which he became a professor. In 
1837 he married Miss Kiallmark. He was 
band-master of the 2nd life guards 1849-56. 
In 1845 he appeared at the Hanover Square 
Rooms as a tenor singer, and took part in a 
glee at the Norwich Festival that year. He 
lived for nearly twenty years in retirement at 
Harting, Sussex, and died there September 12, 
1889. He composed a number of operettas 
and songs, and was a fine oboe player. Author 
of " Statement of facts and correspondence 
between the Directors of the Philharmonic 
Society and Mr. Grattan Cooke," London 
[1850] . 

Coombe, William Francis, organist and 
composer, was born at Plymouth, 1786. He 
studied under his father (a singing master) 
And W. .Jackson of Exeter. Organist at Chard, 
Somerset, 1800; Totnes, Devon, 1802-11; 
and Chelmsford, 1811-22. He probably died 


at Chelmsford about 1850. He composed a 
few pianoforte sonatas, and other works. 

Coombs, James Morris, organist and 
composer, born at Salisbury, 1769. Chorister 
at Salisbury Cathedral, 1776-1784. He studied 
under Dr. Stephens and Parry. Organist at 
Chippenham, Wilts., 1789 to 1820. He died 
at Chippenham, on IMarch 7, 1820. 

Works. — Set of Canzonets; Te Deums ; 
Divine amusement for churches, families, etc., 
being hymns, anthems and other sacred pieces, 
psalms, etc., from the works of Marcello, 
Handel, Haydn, Mason, etc., etc. ; Glees and 

William Coombs, who flourished at Bristol 
in the latter part of last century, composed 
the psalm tune " Oxford," which is sometimes 
attributed to James IMorris Coombs. 

Cooney, Edward, organist and teacher. 
Educated at Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, 
Graduated Mus. Bac, 1885; Mus. Doc, 1887, 
Dublin. Organist, Parish Church, Ballymena ; 
teacher of pf. and singing in Coleraine Aca- 
demic Institute. University Exercises : 
(Bac.) Psalm 145; (Doc.) Psalm 1.39, for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra. He has published 
Church Services and Anthems ; Songs and 

Cooper, Alexander Samuel, organist 
and composer, born in London, April 30, 1835. 
F.R.C.O. Organist of St. John's, Putney, to 
1866; St. Paul's, Covent Garden, later. Award- 
ed a prize by the Ely Diocesan Church Music 
Society for a setting of the Nicene Creed, 
1869. Composer of anthems, music for Holy 
Communion, chants, hymn tunes, songs, and 
part-songs. Editor of "Parochial Psalter," 
and " Parochial Chant Book," both of which 
have passed through several editions. 

Cooper, George, composer and organist, 
born Lambeth, London, July -7, 1820. Suc- 
cessively organist of St. Benet's, Paul's Wharf ; 
St. Anne and St. Agnes, 1836 ; St. Sepulchre, 
1843 ; Christ's Hospital, and the Chapel Royal, 
all in London. He was also assistant organist 
for a time at St. Paul's Cathedral. He died, 
London, October 2, 1876. 

Works. — The Organist's Assistant, a series 
of arrangements . . . London (Novello). Or- 
ganist's Manual . . . select movements from 
the most eminent composers, London (Nov- 
ello). Organ Arrangements, London. Part- 
songs, songs, etc. 

His father, George Cooper, who died in 
London, in 1848, was an organist of repute. 
He was assistant organist of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, and organist of St. Sepulchre's until his 
death, when he was succeeded by his son. 

Cooper, Henry Christopher, violinist, 
was born at Bath in 1819. Studied violin 
under Spagnoletti. Appeared as solo violinist 
at Drury Lane Theatre, 1830. Principal vio- 
linist at Royal Italian Opera. Leader at 




Philharmonic Society. Violinist at Provincial 
Festivals. Conductor at various theatres. 
Latterly conductor at the Gaiety Theatre, 
Glasgow. He died at Glasgow, January 26, 
1881. He was one of the foremost of the 
English school of violinists, and at one time 
well known in London. He was married to 
Madame Tonnellier, the vocalist. 

Cooper, Isaac, violinist and composer, 
born at Banff about 1755. He was a teacher 
of music and dancing in Banff, and died there 
about 1820. 

WoEKS. — Thirty new Strathspey Reels for 
the violin or harpsichord, Banff, 1780. Col- 
lection of Slow airs. Strathspeys, Reels, and 
Jigs, 1806. New Instructions for the harpsi- 
chord or pianoforte, Banff, 1785. 

Cooper, Rev. James, clergyman and 
writer, author of " Musicse Sacrse, being Se- 
lections from Bowdler, Heber, etc., set to 
music, to which is prefixed an Essay on 
Church Music." London, 1860. 

Cooper, John, called also Coperaeio, 
composer and viol-da-gamba player, was born 
in latter part of the 16th century. He was 
music-master to the children of James I., and 
master of Henry and William Lawes. He 
died early in the 17th century. 

WoBKS. — Faneral Tears for the death of 
the Right Honourable the Earle of Devon- 
shire, figured in seaven songs, whereof sixe 
are soe set forth that the words may be 
expressed by a Treble voyce alone to the Lute 
and Base Voil, or else that the meane part 
Inay be added, if any shall affect more fulnesse 
of Parts, etc., 1606. Songs of IMourning, be- 
wailing the untimely death of Prince Henry, 
London, folio, 1613 ; Music in Leighton's 
" Teares " ; Music to Masque by Dr. Campion ; 
Songs and Fancies, etc. 

Cooper, John Wilbye, tenor vocalist and 
author. He sang at the first Leeds Festival, 
in 1858, and at the Worcester Festival of 
1863. In the concert room he was a favourite 
for a good many years. He retired for some 
time before his death, in London, March 19, 
1885. Aiithor of "The Voice, the Music of 
Language, and the Soul of Song," London, 
1874. Editor of " Cramer's Vocal School." 

Cooper, Joseph Thomas, organist and 
composer, born at London, ]May 25, 1819. 
He was a pupil of Henry Holmes and Mos- 
cheles. Organist of Christ Church, Newgate 
Street. Organist of Christ's Hospital. He 
was an Associate of the Philharmonic Society, 
Member of the Society of British Musicians, 
and Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. 
He died at London, November 17, 1879. 

WoEKS. — Orchestral music in MS. Songs, 
Part-songs, Sacred music. Organ music, etc. 

Cooper or Cowper, Robert, musician 
and priest of the 15th century. He was a 
Mus. Bac, Cambridge, and in 1504 proceeded 


to the degree of Mus. Doc. He composed 
songs and other secular music, and is men- 
tioned in Morley's Catalogue of Musicians. 

Coote, Charles, composer and band- 
master, born 1809 ; died London, March 0, 
1880. Composer of a large number of waltzes, 
galops, polkas, etc., chiefly based on popular 

His son Ch.^eles is a bandmaster and com- 
poser of popular dance music. 

Cope, Samuel, bandmaster, son of a band- 
master in the West of England. As a boy he 
sang in a Church choir, and played in a drum 
and fife band, afterwards taking to the cornet, 
on which he became a proficient performer. 
After holding various appointments he was 
offered, and accepted, in 1888, the conduc- 
torship of the Queen's Park (West London) 
Military Band, a position he still holds. He 
founded the magazine, Tlie Bi-itlsh Bandsman 
(the title has since been changed to The 
Orchestral Tivies and British Musician), 
which he edited for some years. He was also 
editor of the Chaminon Journal, the pioneer 
of popular band journal music, founded at' 
Hull, by the late Richard Sniith, in 1853 ; 
and has composed a large number of pieces, 
of which only a few have been published. 

Copland, Charles, baritone vocalist, born 
at Brightlingsea, Essex, August 20, 1861. Son 
of a distinguished London physician. Studied 
under F. Walker, at the Guildhall School, 
and R.A.M. Evill prizeholder, 1885. Later, 
he studied abroad, and took lessons from the 
late Eugene Oudin. During his student days, 
he sang in London occasionally, 1884-5 ; and 
in Otto Booth's operetta, "Traveller's Rest," 
1887, gave the first evidence of his histrionic 
talent. He appeared at the Promenade Con- 
certs, Her Majesty's Theatre, 1887, and also 
at Covent Garden Theatre. In the South of 
France, 1887-8, he sang, by request, to the 
late Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil. He was 
engaged to play Isaac of York, in " Ivanhoe," 
at its production, January 31, 1891, a part he 
sustained throiigh the run of the opera. In 
December, 1894, he created the part of the 
Broom-maker, in "Hansel and Gretel," when 
produced at Daly's Theatre. He has also 
appeared, with success, at the principal Con- 
certs, Royal Albert Hall, etc. 

Corbett, Felix, organist and conductor, 
born at Cinderford, Forest of Dean, Gloucester- 
shire, July 3, 1861. Son of J. F. Corbett, a 
colliery proprietor. The family moving to 
Birmingham, he studied under James Stimp- 
son, of that town. In 1882 he was appointed 
organist and choirmaster of the Parish Church, 
Middlesbrough, in which town he has for 
some years given a series of excellent concerts, 
and has played at Harrison's Concerts, Bir- 
mingham and elsewhere. He is the composer 
of a number of songs ; of which one entitled. 




''Butterflies" (Algernon Swinburne), has en- 
joyed great popularity. 

Corbett, Samuel, organist and conrposer, 
born at Wellington, Shropshire, January 29, 
1852. Pupil of James Stimpson (Birmingham) , 
and of Sir G. A. INIacfarren and James Coward. 
F.C.O., 1871 ; Mus. Bac, 1873 ; Mus. Doc, 
1879, Cambridge. Organist of Christ Church, 
Wellington, 1867; St. Mary's, Bridgenorth, 
1875; All Saints', Derby, 1886; and Holy 
Trinity, Bournemouth, from 1892. Mr. Cor- 
bett lost his sight when only three months 
old, but he has trained choirs, conducted 
concerts, and frequently played from memory 
the whole of such works as the Messiah, Israel, 
Elijah, etc. He committed to memory the 
score of Israel in Egypt in six weeks, for his 
Mus. D. examination, and was the first person 
so situated to pass. As a teacher he has been 
eminently successful. His compositions are : 
" Bethany," a cantata ; Sonata for pf. ; 
Evening Service in F ; Anthem ; Songs, and 
part-songs, etc. He has acted as press 
correspondent for the Birmingham and other 
Festivals, following by ear every note in a 

Corbett, William, composer and violinist, 
born about 1669. Member of King's Band. 
Travelled in Italj', Burney says, on behalf of 
the English Government, who paid him to 
watch the movements of the Pretender. 
Returned to England, 1740, where he died, 
in 174:8. He collected a valuable musical 

Works. — Op. 1, Sonata for two violins and 
bass, London, 1705; Op. 2, Sonata for two 
flutes and bass, Loudon, 1706 ; Op. -3, Sonata 
for two flutes and bass, London, 1707 ; Op. 4, 
Six Sonatas, a 3° for two flutes or two 
German flutes and a bass, consisting of pre- 
ludes, allemands, corants, sarabands, gavots, 
and jiggs. Book 1 ; Six Sonatas for two violins 
and tlioro'-bass for the spinet or harpsichord. 
Book 2, London, n.d. ; Six Sonatas for two 
oboes or trumpets, two violins, and bass ; 
Concertos, or Universal Bizzarries, composed 
on all the new Gustos during inany years' 
residence in Italj', op. 5, London, 1741 ; 
Twelve Concertos for various instruments ; 
Music to " Henry IV.," 1700 ; Music to 
" Love Betrayed," 1708 ; Songs in collec- 
tions, etc. 

Corder, Frederick, composer and con- 
ductor, born in London, January 26, 1852. 
Though he showed musical talent at an early 
age, he was intended for a business career ; 
and it was not until 1874 that he entered the 
R.A.]\I. as a student. The next year he gained 
the Mendelssohn Scholarship, and studied 
four years with Ferdinand Hiller at Cologne. 
Soon after his return to England he was ap- 
j)ointed conductor at the Brighton Aquarium, 
June, 1880, an office he resigned, September, 


1882. He gave many important works during 
that period, and greatly improved the charac- 
ter of the concerts. The next few years were 
given up to musical composition and literature. 
In 1890 he was appointed orchestral director 
at Trinity College, London ; Curator of the 
R.A.M. ; and conductor of the Borough of 
Hackney Choral Association. In 1891 he was 
elected a member of the naanaging committee, 
R.A.M. , and in 1892, a Fellow of the Institu- 
tion. He was editor of The Overture, a 
monthly paper published by students of the 
R.A.M.; 1890-4 ; and, in 1896, lectured at the 
Royal Institution on Berlioz, Wagner, and 
Liszt. His contributions to the press have 
been voluminous and important, including 
elaborate analyses of Wagner's works, and 
translations of " Die Meistersinger," and 
" Der Ring des Nibelungen," in which he was 
assisted by his accomplished wife, a lady 
(born Walford) not unknown in literary and 
artistic society. 

Works. — Operas : Morte d'Arthur, in four 
acts (1877-9) ; Nordisa (produced by Carl Rosa, 
Liverpool, January 26, 1887) . Operettas : 
Philomel (1880) ; A storm in a tea-cup (1880) ; 
The Nabob's Pickle (Brighton, September, 
1888) ; The Noble Savage (Brighton, October, 
1885). Cantatas: The Cyclops (1880) ; The 
Bridal of Triermain (Wolverhampton Festival, 
1886) ; The Sword of Argantyr (Leeds Festival, 
1889) ; Dreamland, ode for chorus and orches- 
tra ; The Minstrel's Curse, for declamation 
and orchestra ; The Blind Girl of Castel, 
cantata, female voices ; Songs, various. For 
orchestra : Evening on the sea-shore. Idyl 
(1876) ; Suite, In the Black Forest (composed 
1876 ; performed, Cr^'stal Palace, March 20, 
1880). Overtures : Ossian (Philharmonic 
Society, March, 1882) ; Prospero (Crystal 
Palace, October, 1885); Nocturne (1882, 
Brighton Festival) ; Suite, Scenes from the 
Tempest (1886) ; Roumanian Suite (co}nposed 
for, and produced by Philharmonic Society, 
1887). Roumanian dances, violin and pf. 
Literar;/ : Exercises in Harmony and Counter- 
j)uint (Forsyth. 1891) ; A plain and easy 
introduction to IMusic, or the new Morley 
(Forsyth, 1893) ; The Orchestra, and how to 
write for it (Robert Cocks, 1896) ; Articles in 
Grove's Dictionary of jMusic and ^Musicians. 

Cordner, William John, organist, born 
at Duncannon, W^exford, Ireland, 1826. W^ent 
to Australia in 1854, and was organist at 
St. Patrick's, Sydney, until 1856, when he 
was appointed to St. Mary's R. C. Cathedral, 
an office he held until his death, July 15, 
1870. He was held in much estimation as 
a teacher. 

Corfe, Joseph, organist, writer, and com- 
poser, born at Salisbury in 1740. Chorister 
at Salisbury Cathedral. Gentleman of Chapel 
Royal, 1783. Organist and choir-master at 




Salisbury Cathedral, 1792-1804. He died at 
Salisbury, September, 1820. 

Works. — A Treatise ou Singing, explaining 
in the most simple manner all the Rules for 
learning to Sing by Note without the assist- 
ance of an Instrument, with some Observa- 
tions on Vocal Music, London, fob, 1791, 
another ed., 1801 ; Thorough-bass Simplified, 
London, n.d. Beauties of Handel, being 154 
songs, duetts, and trios with accompaniment 
for pf., 3 vols., n.d. ■ Beauties of Purcell, 
2 vols., n.d. ; First Set of 12 Glees, n.d. ; 
Second Set of 12 Glees; Third Set of 12 Glees, 
in score for 3 and 4 voices, from melodies of 
Sacchini, Paisiello, Haydn, Pleyel, Storace, 
etc. Sacred Music, consisting of a selection 
of the most admired pieces, adapted to some 
of the choicest music of Jomelli, Pergolesi, 
Perez, Martini, Biretti, etc., 2 vols., Salisbury, 
n.d. ; Three Collections of Scottish Songs ; 
Anthems ; Nine Vocal Trios, harmonized, 
London, n.d. 

Corfe, Arthur Thomas, composer, or- 
ganist, and writer, son of above, was born at 
Salisbury, April 9, 1773. Chorister in West- 
minster Abbey, 1782. He studied under Dr. 
Cooke and Clementi. Organist and choir- 
master of Salisbury Cathedral, 1804. He died 
at Salisbury, January 28, 1863. Buried in 
Salisbury Cathedral. 

WoKKS. — Anthems ; Church Services ; Pf . 
music. The Principles of Harmony and Tho- 
rough-Bass explained, London, n.d. Songs; 
Glees, etc. Anthems adapted from ]Mozart, etc. 
Corfe, Charles William, organist and 
composer, son of the above, born at Salisbury, 
July 13, 1814. Studied under his father, etc. 
Organist of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, 
December, 1846. Mus. Bac, Oxon., March, 
1847. Conductor of the Oxford University 
Motett and Madrigal Society, 1848. Mus. 
Doc, Oxon., June, 1852. Choragus of the 
University of Oxford, 1860. He died at Ox- 
ford, December 16, 1883. 

Works. — Vocal music, as songs, part-songs; 

Corkine, William, lute player and com- 
poser, was born in the latter part of the 16th 
century, and died in the first part of the 17th 

Works. — Ayres to Sing and Play to the 
Lute and Basse Violl, with Pavins, Galliards, 
Almaines, and Corantos for the Lyra Violl, 
1610 ; the Second Booke of Ayres, some to 
sing and play to the Base violl alone, etc., 1612. 
Cornish, William, English poet and 
musician, flourished about 1500. He wrote a 
" Parable between Information and Musike," 
a poem, which will be found in Hawkins. 
He was a member of the Chapel Royal choir, 
and died 1526. His compositions exist in 
MS. His son Williani was also a composer. 
Cornwall, Channon, pianist and com- 


poser, born at Aberdeen, in 1845. He was 
organist of St. John's Episcopal Church, 
Glasgow, and in 1880 he became accompanist 
to the Glasgow Choral Union. Composer of 
some part-songs, etc. He was drowned in the 
Forth and Clyde Canal, Glasgow, May 4, 1885. 
Corri, Montague, second son of Dominico 
Corri (Rome, 1746, London, 1825), was born 
at Edinburgh in 1784. He studied under his 
father, Winter, and Steibelt, and became 
composer to the Surrey and Astley's Theatres, 
London. In 1816-17 he was chorus-master 
to the English Opera House. Afterwards, he 
resided successively at Edinburgh, Newcastle, 
Manchester, and Liverpool. He died at 
London, September 19, 1849. His brother, 
Haydn, was born at Edinburgh, in 1785, and 
resided chiefly in Dublin as a conductor and 
teacher. He died at Dublin, February 19, 
1860. His wife (born 1800; died 1867), was 
an operatic singer. His sister, Sophie (born 

at Edinburgh, 1775; died ?), was a singer 

and harp player. She married J. L. Dussek 
(1761-1812), the composer. Frances, or 
Fanny Corri, a mezzo-soprano vocalist, was 
a daughter of Dominico Corri's brother Natale 
(1765-1822), and was born at Edinburgh in 
1801. She studied under her father, and 
Braham, and first appeared at the King's 
Theatre, London. Afterwards, she appeared 
in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Russia, and in 
1821 she married Signor Paltoni. Her sister 
Rosalie (born 1803), was also a singer, who 
appeared in London from 1820. Other mem- 
bers of this musical family were Eugene 
Dussek (1815 ; February 4, 1870), a bass 
vocalist, who married Annie Thirlwali. 
(1830; London, October 19, 1881), a soprano 
singer; Henry (1822; Philadelphia, February 
28, 1888) a bass singer, son of Haydn the 
elder ; Patrick Anthony (born Dublin, 1820 ; 
died Bradford, June 1, 1876), a singer, con- 
ductor, and composer, another sou of Haydn 
the elder ; and Haydn, Junr. (born in 1842 ; 
died December 19, 1877), a baritone singer. 

Costeley, William, Scottish composer, 
was born in 1531. He settled in France as 
organist to Henry II. and Charles IX. He 
was a member of the society known as " Puy 
de musique a honneur de Ste. Cecile." He 
died at Evreux in 1606. His works consist of 
songs in Le Roy's Collections of Chansons, etc., 
and a treatise entitled "Musique," Paris, 1579. 

Cosyn, Benjamin, composer for, and per- 
former on, the Virginals, who flourished in 
first part of 17th century. He wrote music 
of a difficult and comphcated style for his 
instrument, and was one of the best per- 
formers of his day. 

Cosyn, John, composer, probably a rela- 
tion of above. Wrote " Musicke of six and 
five parts made upon the connnon tunes used 
in singing of the Psalms," 1585. 




Cotes, Digby, clerg^Tiian and writer, 
author of " Music a rational assistant in the 
duty of pi'aise when united with charity, a 
Sermon," 1756. 

Cotterill, Thomas, musician and editor, 
published "Christian Psalmody for congrega- 
tional or family use, arranged and harmonized 
by S. Mather and other professors under the 
direction of Thomas Cotterill," London, 1831. 

Cottman, Arthur, amateur composer, 
born 1S12. He was a solicitor by profession, 
and died at Ealing on June 3, 1879. He 
published " Ten Original Tunes," 1872, among 
which is " Caterham," a hymn tune which 
has been used in various Church hynrn-books. 

Couldery, Claudius Herbert, composer 
and pianist, horn at Lewisham, Kent, August 
17, 184:2. He learnt to play while a child, 
but some years were passed in business pur- 
suits before he was able to devote himself to 
the art of music. Then he entered the R.A.M., 
studying harmony under Sir John Goss, com- 
position with Sir W. S. Bennett, etc. A 
sacred cantata, " Christ's entry into Jerusa- 
lem," was performed at the R.A.M., and drew 
attention to the composer's ability. His chief 
works are — Overture, Richard I., performed 
at the Crystal Palace, February 14, 1885 ; 
Overture, To the memory of a hero (at the 
same) February 8, 1890 ; Suite in C minor, a 
romance from which has been given in many 
places in England and Scotland ; and a Cradle 
Song, in D fiat. Crystal Palace, November 18, 
1893 ; Suite in C, composed 1893-5 ; Andante 
religioso, St. Cecilia, for organ, harp, violin, 
and orchestra, Crystal Palace, November 2, 
1895. Twelve Reveries, op. 15 ; three series 
of studies, pf., etc. 

Courteville, Raphael, musician, who 
was born in first part of the 17th century. 
He was Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 
time of Charles I., and founder of the Courte- 
ville family. He died on December 28, 1675. 

Courteville, Raphael, organist and com- 
poser, son of above, was born in the latter 
part of 17th century. Organist of St. James' 
Church, Westminster, 1691. He died in June, 

Works. — Don Quixote, opera by D'Urfey 
(with Purcell, etc.), 1696 ; Six Sonatas for two 
violins ; Sonatas for two flutes, 1685 ; Songs 
in contemporary collections; "St. James" 
psalm tune, etc. He was a severe political 
writer, and gained the nickname of Court-evil. 
He wrote "Memoirs of Lord Burleigh," 1738, 
and a number of political squibs. 

Courteville, John, English song-writer 
of the 17th century, son of Raphael, the elder. 
His works appear in the " Theater of INIusic," 
1685-87, etc. 

Courtney, Wililam, tenor vocalist, born 
in Monmouthshire. Studied under F. Bodda, 
Sidney Naylor, and afterwards with Vannuc- 


cini, at Florence. Toured with Loi;isa Pyne 
and F. Bodda; sang in Cellier's "Nell 
Gwynne," and Sullivan's " Trial by Jury," 
when first produced ; and was, for a short 
time, a member of the Carl Rosa Opera Com- 
pany. Subsequently went to America, singing 
first at Boston. Settled as a teacher, in New 
York, removing to Denver, Colorado, 1896. 

Cousins, Charles, musician and band- 
master, was born near Portsmouth, January 
2, 1830. Educated at the Royal Hospital 
Schools, Greenwich, from 1841. Assistant 
band-master of the Royal Caledojiian Asylum, 
1846. Member of band of the 1st Life Guards, 
under Mr. James Waddell. Studied at Kneller 
Hall, Hounslow, for a band-mastership. Band- 
master of 2nd Dragoon Guards, October, 1863. 
Served with Guards in India, 1864-70. Held 
appointment till 1874. Director of Music at 
Kneller Hall, November 1, 1874. He died in 
June, 1890. 

Coutts, W. Q. Ithuriel. Author of 
" Scottish versus Classic Music, and the ethi- 
cal and sesthetical aspect of the question," 
Edinburgh, 1877 (2 eds.). 

Coward, Henry, composer and conductor, 
born in Liverpool. November 26, 1849, but a 
Yorkshireman by family and descent, and 
resident in Sheffield as conductor and teacher. 
He is a graduate of the Tonic Sol-fa College ; 
Mus. Bac, 1889; Mus. Doc, 1894, Oxford. 
Lecturer on Music, Firth College ; Teacher of 
Singing at the Girls' High School, Slieffield ; 
Conductor of the ^Musical Union, 1880; and 
Amateur Instrumental Society, Sheffield, 1878. 
Chorus-master, Sheffield Fe.stival, 1896. ]Musi- 
cal critic, for the provincial and Handel Fes- 
tivals, to the Sheffield Independent : Conduc- 
tor of the festivals of the Sheffield Sunday 
School Union, etc. 

Works. — Cantatas : Magna Charta, Shef- 
field, February, 1882 ; Queen Victoria, 1885 ; 
The Story of Bethany, 1891; The King's 
Error (Crystal Palace, Tonic Sol-fa Festival, 
July, 1894), and Heroes of Faith (Sheffield, 
September, 1895). The Fairy Mirror, cantata 
for ladies' voices, with tableaux vivants. An- 
thems, Sunday School pieces. Temperance 
choruses. School songs. Hymn tunes. Glees, 

Coward, Hilda, soprano vocalist, daughter 
of the late James Coward. Pupil of Madame 
Sainton-Dolby. She made her debut at a 
concert given by W. Lemare, at the Crystal 
Palace, Slonday, j\Iarch 6, 1882, taking part 
in F. Clay's "Lalla Rookh " ; and appeared 
at the Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts, Oct- 
ober 27, 1883. After singing in various pro- 
vincial concerts, she was engaged for the 
Hereford Festival of 1885, singing in the con- 
certed music in " Elijah," and Gounod's 
" Redemption," and with great success at the 
concluding Chamber concert. Severe illness 




compelled her to spend the winter of 1887-8 
in a milder climate, and her public appear- 
ances since then have not been frequent. 

Coward, James, organist and composer, 
born at London, January 25, 1824. Chorister 
in Westminster Abbey. Organist of Crystal 
Palace, 1857-80. He died at London, January 
22, 1880. 

Works. — Full anthem, " Lord, correct 
me." Ten glees, for 4 and 5 voices, Lon- 
don, 1857; Ten glees, London, 1871. Numerous 
dart-songs, songs, etc. 

His brother, William (born in London, 
1826; died 1873), was an alto singer in West- 
minster Al)bey. 

Coward, James Munro, composer and 
performer on the Mustel organ, understood to 
be connected with the firm of IMetzler & Co. 
Has given performances at the South Ken- 
sington Exhibition, 1885 (The "Inventions,") 
Prince's Hall, and other places, exhibiting 
much skill in improvisation. He has com- 
posed a cantata, " The Fishers," produced at 
Portman Hall, April 9, 1889; A Jubilee Hymn, 
for chorus and military band (Crystal Palace, 
1887) ; and pieces for American organ, etc. 
Editor of Ainerican Organ Journal (Metzler). 

Cowell, Samuel liaughton, comedian, 
and comic singer, born at London, April 5, 
1820. Son of Joseph Leathley Cowell (1792- 
1863), the actor, by whom he was taken to 
the United States in 1822. He resided for a 
number of years in the States, and appeared 
there as an actor ; afterwards he appeared in 
Edinburgh, where he acted under his uncle, 
W. H. Murray, and where he was married, in 
1842, to Emilie Marguerite Ebsworth. He 
appeared in London as an actor and singer, 
and subsequently sang chiefly as a comic 
vocalist in various parts of Britain, laying the 
foundation, to a considerable extent, of the 
modern music-hall j)i'ofession. He died at 
Blandford, Dorset, March 11,1864. His songs 
were published in many different collections, 
such as " Sam Cowell's new universal illus- 
trated pocket songster," London [1856] ,4 vols., 
and among his most successful songs may be 
named "Lord Lovel," " Alonzo the Brave," 
"Billy Barlow," "Rat-Catcher's daughter," 
" Corn cobs," etc. 

Cowen, Frederic Hymen, composer, 
conductor, and pianist, born at Kingston, 
Jamaica, January 29. 1852. Brought to 
England when four j'ears old, and placed 
under the tuition of Julius Benedict, and 
John Goss, with whom he remained until 
1865. His " Mima Waltz " was published in 
1858. Studied at Leipzig and Berlin, under 
Hauptmann, Moscheles, Reinecke, and others, 
returning to London in 1868. He soon became 
known as a brilliant i)ianist and composer, 
giving his first concert, June 24, 1868, at 
Dudley House, and introducing his pianoforte 


trio in A minor. Other works followed, and 
at his orchestral concert, St. James's Hall, 
December 9, 1869, he produced his first sym- 
phony (in C minor). Shortly after he went 
on tour, as pianist and accompanist, with 
operatic concert parties ; gave a series of 
Saturday Evening Concerts in St. James's 
Hall, 1880-1 ; conducted at the Promenade 
Concerts, Covent Garden, 1880. During the 
next two years he appeared at various places 
in Germany, conducting his own compositions. 
Conducted concerts at the Crystal Palace 
(December 16, 1882; December 13, 1884, etc.;) 
Philharmonic Society (May 7 and 28, 1884) ; 
was given the post of Musical Director of the 
Melbourne Centennial Exhibition, 1888 ; and 
visited Sydney. Conductor of the Philhar- 
monic Society, 1888-92 ; appointed successor 
to the late Sir Charles Halle as conductor of 
the Liverpool Philharmonic Society, and the 
Halle Concerts, IManchester, 1896. Conducted 
various compositions at the principal musical 
festivals, 1876-95. 

Works. — Operas : Pauline (Lyceum, Carl 
Rosa, November 22, 1876) ; Thorgrim (book 
by Joseph Bennett, produced Drury Lane, 
April 20, 1890; Signa (Dal Verme Theatre, 
Milan, November 12, 1893) ; Harold (book by 
Sir Ed. Malet, produced at Covent Garden, 
in English — an unique occurrence — June 8, 
1895) . Operettas : Garibaldi (an early work) ; 
One too many (German Reed, 1874). Inci- 
dental music to Maid of Orleans (1871). 
Oratorios and Cantatas : The Rose Maiden 
(1870) ; The Corsair (Birmingham Festival, 
1876 : The Deluge (Brighton Festival, 1878) ; 
St. Ursula (Norwich Festival, 1881) ; The 
Sleeping Beauty (Birmingham, 1885) ; Ruth 
(Worcester, 1887) ; Song of Thanksgiving 
(Melbourne, 1888) ; St. John's Eve (Crystal 
Palace, 1889) ; The Water Lily (Norwich, 
1893) ; The Transfiguration (Gloucester, 1895). 
For female voices : Summer on the river ; 
Christmas scenes ; The Rose of Life ; A 
daughter of the sea, etc. Part-songs, trios, 
duets, etc. Many soiigs, among which may 
be mentioned : Two Roses ; Marguerite ; The 
better land; The unfinished song; More than 
all to me ; The promise of life ; Nine songs 
(Longfellow) ; Songs for children (1896), etc. 
Orchestral: Svmphonv, No. 1, in C minor 
(1869) ; No. 2, "in F (1872) ; No. 3, in C minor. 
The Scandinavian, produced St. James's Hall, 
December 18, 1880, and since heard the world 
over ; No. 4, in B flat minor, Philharmonic, 
May 28, 1884; No. 5, in F (Cambridge, 1887). 
Overtures, etc. D minor (1866) ; Festival 
(Norwich, 1872) ; Characteristic overture, 
Niagara ; and others. Suites : The Language 
of flowers (1880) ; In the olden time (for 
strings, 1883) ; In Fairyland (Philharmonic, 
May 6, 1896) ; Four English dances in the 
olden style ; Sinfonietta in A ; Marches, etc. 




Concerto in A minor, pf . and orchestra ; 
Quartet in C minor ; Trio in A minor, pf . and 
strings; Sonata fantasia, Allegretto grazioso, 
Romance and scherzo, Valses, and other pieces 
for pf., etc. 

Cox, Frank Rowland, professor of sing- 
ing, born at Exeter, September, 1819. In- 
tended to follow his father's profession, a 
solicitor, but deciding for music, was admitted 
as an out-student of the Roj'al Academy of 
Music in October, 1839, and, later, was a 
pupil of Domenico Crivelli. In 1849 he was 
appointed an Assistant Professor of Singing 
at the Royal Academy of Music ; in 18.52 was 
made an Associate, and in 1862 elected a 
Member. He joined the Committee in 18G8, 
and was elected a Director in 1880. With the 
exception of a short period passed at Trent- 
ham, his whole professional life was devoted 
to this Institution. He died in London, April 
3, 1891, at the age of 71. Translator of Cri- 
veUi's " L'Arte del Canto," last edition, 1850. 

Cox, Mrs. Harry, see Cantedo Annie. 

Cox, Rev. John Edmund, D.D., clergy- 
man and writer, was born at Norwich, October 
•9, 1812. Vicar of St. Helen's, and St. Martin's, 
Bishopsgate, London, 1849, etc. Author of 
" ]\Iusical Recollections of the last Half Cen- 
tury," London, 2 vols., 1872. He was Hon. 
Chaplain of the Roval Society of Musicians. 
He died at Bath, October 27, 1890. 

Coy, Harry, organist and composer. Be- 
came F.R.C.O., 1878 ; graduated Mus. Bac, 
1878 ; Mus. Doc, 188-5, Oxford. Organist and 
choirmaster, St. John the Divine, Brookland, 
near Manchester, from 1878 ; Conductor of 
Sale District Musical Society, 1892. Com- 
poser of a sacred cantata, " Esther " ; a setting 
of Psalm 85, for tenor solo, chorus, and or- 
chestra ; anthems, etc. 

Craig, Adam, Scottish violinist and col- 
lector, born in latter half of 17th century. 
He performed at the public concerts in Edin- 
burgh during his lifetime. Died at Edin- 
burgh, September 3, 1741. 

Works. — A Collection of the choicest Scots 
Tunes, adapted for the Harp or Spinnet, and 
within the compass of the voice, violin, or 
German Flute, Edinburgh, 1730. A manu- 
script volume of original compositions by 
Craig was exposed for sale in 1728. 

Craig, John Millar, conductor and bari- 
tone vocalist, born in Edinburgh, November 
15, 1839. Was apprenticed to a printer, and 
■during that time studied singing under A. W. 
Smith, and Signer Bucher. When twenty- 
six years of age, devoted himself to music as 
a i)rofession, and began teaching. He after- 
wards studied at Milan and Florence, with 
Leoni and Romani. Held several appoint- 
ments as Precentor, and in 1886, succeeded 
the late James Allan as conductor of the 
famous Glasgow Select Choir. Has sung in 


many towns in Scotland, and with the Choir 
has made tours of the United Kingdom, giving 
an annual concert in London on St. Andrew's 
Day. He is also conductor of the Edinburgh 
Bach Society. As a teacher he has had many 
pupils who have taken high positions as 
singers. His wife, born Elizabeth Noble, 
studied singing first with her husband, then 
under Professor Goetze, in Leipzig. She sings 
occasionally in concerts in Edinburgh, but is 
chiefly occupied in teaching, in which she 
has met with great success, Thomas Ceaig, 
brother of J. ]\I. Craig, is a pianist. He was 
born in Edinburgh, October 1, 1851. Stvidied 
at Leipzig Conservatorium. He has played 
at Chamber concerts in Edinburgh, and is 
teacher of the pf. at George Watson's College, 

Crament, John Maude, organist, con- 
ductor, and composer, born at Bolton-Percy, 
Yorkshire, April 2, 1845. Studied under (Sir) 
G. A. Macfarren, and at the Hoch Schule, 
Berlin, under Haupt, and Kiel. Graduated 
Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1880. Professor of Music 
at the Church Education Society's Training 
College, Dublin, 1873-5. Organist of Bromp- 
ton Parish Church, and now of St. Paul's, 
Kensington. Secretary and conductor, People's 
Entertainment Society, 1879-92 : Conductor 
of Choral Societies at Richmond, Surbiton, 
and Putney ; Kensington Oratorio Society, 
and Orpheus ]\Iusical Society (men's voices), 
etc. His compositions comprise a setting of 
Psalm 145, for soli, chorus, and orchestra 
(Richmond, January, 1887). Cantatas: May 
Morn ; Little Red Riding Hood ; The Crystal 
Cup (for female voices). Anthems, carols, 
songs, and part-songs. 

Crampton, Thomas, organist, composer 
and editor, born Sheerness, 1817. Has edited 
several collections of choral music, and com- 
posed anthems, glees, and instrumental music. 
He was made purchaser of music to the British 
IMuseum in 1875. Editor of Pitman's Musical 
Monthly. He died at Chiswick, April 13, 

Cranford, William, composer of the 17th 
century. He was one of the choristers of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, London, in 1650. He com- 
posed rounds, catches, and songs, printed in 
the collections of Hilton, Playford, etc. 

Craven, John Thomas, writer and 
teacher, born in 1796. Author of " The Child's 
First Singing Book," London, n.d. ; "The 
Child's First Music Book, or Introduction to 
the Art of Playing the Pianoforte," Lon- 
don, n.d. 

Crawford, Major George Arthur, M. A., 
writer on ^lusic, born in Dublin, 1827. His 
chief work was in connection with Church 
music, and consisted of articles in the 
Musical Times ; Grove's Dictionary of JIusic 
and Musicians; and Julian's Dictionary of 




Hjnnnology. He compiled the biographical 
index in the Irish Church Hymnal. He was 
a member of the Musical Association, 1874-91, 
and frequently spoke at the meetings, his 
great knowledge giving more than ordinary 
value to his remarks In 1881, he issued 
" Succession of Organists ... of the cathedral 
churches of St, Patrick, Armagh ; of the Holy 
Trinity . . . and of St. Patrick, Dublin," etc. 
A small tract of .39 pages, containing brief 
biographical notices of the organists." He died 
at Sevenoaks, June 9, 1893. 

Crawford, William, composer and pianist, 
was born in 1848 ; died at Glasgow, March 2, 
1878. He composed a considerable number 
of pieces for the pianoforte, many of which 
were issued under the pseudonyms of "Rud- 
olph Rookford," and "Frank B. Ashton. His 
father, James Paul Crawford (182.5-1887), 
is best known as a minor poet, his poem, 
entitled " The Drunkard's raggit wean," being 
a popular piece of its kind. 

Creser, William, organist and composer, 
born in York, 1844, his father being choir- 
master of St. John's Church in that city. He 
was a chorister in York Minster at eight, and 
studied for some time under (Sir) G. A. ]\Iac- 
farren. Graduated i\Ius. Bac, 1869 ; Mus. 
Doc, 1880, Oxford. F.R.C.O., and Associate 
of the Philharmonic Society. When fifteen, 
he was organist of Holy Trinity, Micklegate, 
Y'ork; then of St. Paul's; and (1863-75) St. 
Andrew's, Grinton. In 1875 he was appointed 
to St. ^Martin's, Scarborough, and to the 
Leeds Parish Church, 1881. Here he re- 
mained ten years, maintaining the rejDutation 
of the musical servicss, and producing Bach's 
]\Iatthew Passion, and other great works on 
special occasions. In 1891 he was ap- 
pointed organist of the Chapel Royal, St. 
James's, and composer to Her Majesty's 
Chapels Royal. Conductor, Western Madrigal 
Society, 1896. He has given concerts at Leeds, 
and organ recitals at the Edinburgh Exhi- 
bition, 1890 ; Exeter Hall, 1891 ; Bow and 
Bromley Institute, 1892, etc. His wife, born 
Amelia Clarke, is a contralto vocalist of 
repute, who has sung at many concerts in 
Yorkshire, and the Metropolis, with much 

Works. — Oratorio, Micaiah ; Mass in C ; 
Psalm 46, motet for double choir ; Psalm 145, 
for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; Luther's hymn 
(Latin version). Cantatas, Eudora (Leeds, 
1882) ; The Golden Legend ; The Sacrifice 
of Freia (book bv F. Hueffer, produced at the 
Leeds Festival, "October 10, 1889); and Teg- 
ner's Drapa (Longfellow). Operetta, Naxine ; 
various songs. Old English suite for orchestra 
(Queen's Hall, ]May, 1896) ; Quartet in A 
minor, strings ; Trio in A, pf. and strings ; 
Sonata, pf. and violin ; Sonata in A minor, 
and other pieces for organ. 


Creyghton, Robert, D.D., divine and 
composer, was born at Cambridge in 1639. 
He became Professor of Greek in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge in 1662 ; Canon Resi- 
dentiary and Precentor of Wells Cathedral, 
1674. He died at Wells, February 17, 1733. 

Works. — Services in E flat and B flat. 
Anthems — Behold now, praise the Lord ; I 
will arise ; Praise the Lord, my soul, etc, 
Music mostly in MS. 

Creyghton is chiefly remarkable for a ca- 
dence which he employed at the close of his 
compositions, styled by some writers the 
" Creyghtonian seventh." 

Crisp, William, musician, compiled 
" Divine Harmony, or the Psalm Singer in- 
structed," London, 1755. 

Croager, Edward George, organist and 
conductor, born in Loudon, June 20, 1861. 
Chorister, St. Andrew's, Wells Street ; after- 
wards studied at R.A.M., obtaining the Cer- 
tificate of Merit, and being made an Associate. 
He was for some years assistant organist at 
St. Andrew's, and afterwards organist and 
choirmaster successively at Quebec Chapel, 
St. Mark's, North Audley Street, and St. 
James's, West Hampstead, which post he now 
holds. Conductor of the West Hampstead 
Choral and Orchestral Society, the London 
Diocesan Choral Union (II. ), and Organist to 
the London Handel Society. His patriotic 
cantata, " Our Watchword," produced in 1888, 
has been frequently performed. His other 
compositions are chiefly for Church use — 
hymn tunes, etc. 

Croal, Qeorge, composer and pianist, 
born at Edinburgh, February 28, 1811. Son 
of Mr. Croal, who was sub-editor of the Cale- 
donian Mercury. He was apprenticed to 
Alex. Robertson, music-seller, in 1823, and 
remained with him till 1833. He was in 
business for himself as a music-seller from 
1840 till 1848. Afterwards he was a teacher 
of music in Edinburgh. 

Works. — The Centenary Souvenir, six 
songs by Sir Walter Scott. Songs — Away to- 
the woods ; Emigrant's dream ; My grannie's 
pouch, etc. He also discovered and adapted 
the airs now known as " When the kye comes 
hame " (1836), and " My Nannie's awa " (1842). 
Under the pseudonym of "Carlo Zotti " Mr. 
Croal has published numerous arrangements, 
transcriptions, and dances for the pianoforte. 
Croft, William, composer and organist, 
born at Nether-Eatington, Warwick, 1678. 
He studied under Dr. Blow, and was chorister 
in the Chapel Royal. He was organist of St. 
Anne's, Soho, London, from 1700 to 1711. 
In 1700 he became a Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal ; in 1704 joint organist with Jeremiah 
Clark ; and in 1707 sole organist. In 1708 he 
was appointed master of the choristers and 
composer to the Chapel Royal, also organisi> 




of Westminster Abbey. He resigned his post 
at St. Anne's to John Isham in 1711. Mus. 
Doc, Oxon., 1713. Appointed tuner of the 
regals, a Court office, 1716. Original member 
of the Academy of Vocal Music, 1725. He 
died at Bath, August 14, 1727, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. 

Works. — Operas ( incidental music to 
plays)— Courtship a la mode, 1700; The Fu- 
neral, 1702 ; Twin rivals, 1703 ; Lying lover, 
1701. Divine Harmony, or a new collection 
of select anthems used at H.M. Chapel Royal, 
etc., 1712 ; Cathedral Music, or thirty select 
anthems in score, consisting of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 7, and 8 parts . . . London, 2 vols., 1724 ; 
Musica Sacra, or select anthems in score . . . 
1724. Numerous single anthems. Miscel- 
laneous Odes for public occasions. jNIusicus 
Apparatus Academicus, being a composition 
of two odes, etc., 1713. Three Odes, for degree 
of Mus. Doc, 1715 ; Six sets of tunes for two 
[ violins and bass; Six Sonatas for two flutes. 
1 Six solos for the flute. 

Croft introduced the printing of music from 
pewter plates, a practice which was generally 
followed afterwards. 

Croker, Norris, baritone vocalist of the 
present time. Has given English song recitals 
at Steinway Hall, Loudon, 1890, etc. Author 
of " Handbook for Singers," London, Augener, 

Cromar, Rev. Alexander, writer and 
clergyman of a Presbyterian congregation in 
Liverpool, wrote " A Vindication of the 
Organ — a Review of the Rev. Dr. Candish's 
publication, entitled " The Organ Question," 
' Edinburgh, 1856. 

Crome, Robert, a musician who flourished 
duriijg the middle of last century. He pub- 
lished " A Collection of Dr. Watts's divine 
and moral songs," London [1740]. "The 
Fiddle new model'd, or a useful introduction 
for the violin," London [1745]. A Compleat 
tutor for the violoncello, London [1765]. 
Songs, etc. 

Crompton, John, musician, of Southwold, 
Suffolk. Edited "The Psalm Singer's Assist- 
ant, or a key to psalmody, containing a new, 
easy, and familiar introduction, with an 
astronomical account of the two fundamental 
keys," Loudon, 1778. 

Cromwell, Thomas, English writer, au- 
thor of " Church Music ; a Sermon on the 
Antiquity, Excellence, and Propriety of the 
general adoption of the legitimate ]Music of 
the Christian Church," London, 1843. 

Crook, John, conductor and composer. 
Sometime musical director, Theatre Royal, 
Manchester. Composer of music to burlesques 
" Robinson Crusoe," Avenue Theatre, 1887 ; 
and " Lancelot the Lovely," the same, 1889. 
Operetta, The Transferred Ghost. Music to 
some of Chevalier's songs, etc. 


Crook, Joseph, musician of the first half 
of the i^resent century. Published " New 
Sacred ^lusic, thirty-four psalm and hymn 
tunes for four voices," London [1839]. 

Crosdill, John, violoncellist, born at Lon- 
don, 1755. He was educated at Westminster 
School, and became a chorister in Westminster 
Abbey. He studied under B. Cooke and J. 
Robinson. Member of the Royal Society of 
Musicians, 1768-1825. Violinist in Chapel 
Royal, 1777. Chamber-musician to Queen 
Charlotte, 1782. Principal violoncellist at 
the Handel Commemoration, 1784. Principal 
'cello at Ancient Concerts, etc. Married, and 
retired, 1790. He died at Escrick, Yorkshire, 
October, 1825. 

Crosdill was violoncellist -in -ordinary to 
King George IV., and a performer on the 
violoncello of the greatest ability. A number 
of anecdotes concerning him will be found in 
Parke's "Musical Memoirs." 

Cross, William, musician and organist, 
born in latter half of 18th century. He was 
organist of Christ Church Cathedral, St. 
John's College, and University Church, Ox- 
ford, 1807. He died in 1826. 

Works.— Collection of Chants, Kyries, and 
Sanctuses, n.d. A Collection of Psalm Tunes 
for the Church of England. London [1818]. 

Cross, William Paterson, conductor and 
voice-trainer, born at Blairoaks, Caldarvan, 
Dunbartonshire, October 24, 1837. Studied 
in Birmingham, where he was choirmaster 
for several years of Broad Street Presbyterian 
Church. Settled in Greenock, 1862, as con- 
ductor and teacher. Conductor of the Choral 
Union, Greenock, and of other societies in the 
locality. Has composed many songs, part- 
songs, and pf. pieces, etc. ; arranged Scottish 
melodies as part songs, and compiled school 
song-books, etc. 

Crosse, John, writer and musician. Au- 
thor of "An account of the Grand Musical 
Festival held in September, 1823, in the 
Cathedral Church of York, to which is pre- 
fixed a Sketch of the Rise and Progress of 
Musical Festivals in Great Britain, with Bio- 
graphical and Historical Notes," York, 1825. 
This is a valuable work, of more than local 
interest. Crosse died at York, October 20, 

Crossley, Frank Herbert, violinist and 
conductor, born at Sheffield, May 30, 1864. 
Studied violin and pf. under private masters. 
In 1880 went to Natal, where he was appointed 
Conductor of the Cathedral Choir, and of the 
Philharmonic Society, Pietermaritzburg. 
Afterwards went to Berlin (1887), and studied 
violin under Emile Sauret, and composition 
with Wilhelm Tappert. In 1890 he was 
appointed Conductor of the Warrington Mu- 
sical Society, and later of similar societies at 
Runcorn, and Newton-le- Willows, positions 




lie still retains. He has in MS. a cantata, 
Ad61e, for soli, chorus, and orchestra; a string 
quartet, etc. He has published six songs ; 
Melody in D, violoncello and pf. ; Romance 
in F, violin and pf. ; Three sketches, pf., etc. 
Crossley, Hastings, amateur composer, 
born at Gienburn, Antrim, August 1, 1846. 
Studied under Berthold Tours. Professor of 
Greek, Queen's College, Belfast. Composer 
of Reine d'amour ; The cottage by the sea ; 
Strew on her roses ; Under the star, and 
other songs. 

Crotch, William, writer, composer, and 
organist, was born at Norwich, July 5, 1775. 
He gave early evidence of great talent for 
music, and was taken to London in 1780. 
Assistant organist to Dr. Randall, at Cam- 
bridge, 1786. Studied for the Church at 
Oxford, 1788. Organist of Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1790-1807. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1794. 
Organist of St. John's College, Oxford, 1797- 
1806. Professor of music at Oxford, March, 
1797. Mus. Doc, Oxon., 1799. Lectured in 
Music School of Oxford, 1800-4. Lectured at 
the Royal Institution, Loudon, 1820. First 
Principal of the Royal Academy of Music, 
London, 1822. He died at Taunton, Decem- 
ber 29, 1847. 

Works. — Oratorios: The Captivity of Judah, 
1789 ; Palestine, by Bishop Heber, 1812; The 
Captivity of Judah, re-written, 1834. Anthems: 
Ten anthems dedicated to the Dean aud 
Chapter of Christ Church [1798]; Thirty 
select anthems, ed. by V. Novello, 2 vols. 
Collection of seventy-two original single and 
double chants, 1842 ; Tunes adapted to the 
old and new versions of the psalms. . . .1807 ; 
Be Merciful unto Me ; Comfort, O Lord, the 
Soul of Thy Servant; Holy, Holy, Holy; 
How dear are Thy counsels ; In God's Word 
will I rejoice ; Lo! Sar-led Chiefs ; Methinks 
I hear the full Celestial Choir ; My God, look 
upon me ; come hither, and hearken ; 
O Lord God of Hosts ; Sing we merrily ; The 
Lord is King ; Who is like unto Thee. Three 
concertos for the organ with accompts.; Fugues 
for the organ ; Sonatas for the pf . ; Handel's 
oratorios (portions) adapted for the organ or 
pf. Ode on the Accession of George IV., 
1827; Ode to Fancy, Warton (Doctor's exer- 
cise), 1799. Glees, various. Elements of 
Musical Composition, comprehending the 
rules of Thorough-bass and the theory of 
Tuning, London, 1812; 2nd edition, 1833; 
3rd edition, Novello, 1856 ; Practical Tho- 
rough-bass, or the art of playing from a 
figured bass, London, n.d. ; Questions for the 
Examination of Pupils who are studying the 
work called Elements of Musical Composition 
and Practical Thorough-bass, London [1830] ; 
Substance of several courses of Lectures on 
Music, 1831; Specimens of various styles of 
Music referred to in a course of Lectures read 


at Oxford and London, and adapted to keyed 
Instruments, London, 3 vols., n.d. ; Preludes 
for the Pianoforte, Compositions in various 
styles, to which are prefixed the rudiments of 
playing the instrument [1823]. 

Crotty, Leslie, baritone vocalist, born at 
Galway in 1853. Intended for a commercial 
life, he entered an office after leaving school, 
and was then for some years in a bank in 
Dublin. During this time he studied music 
under Alessandro CelUni, and frequently sang 
in concerts as an amateur. As such he also 
sang at times in opera for Mr. Carl Rosa, 
during the second visit of his company to 
Dublin (1875?). He then went to Florence, 
and studied under Mabellini. Returning to 
Eugland, he joined, in 1877, the Carl Rosa 
Opora Company, in which he remained for a 
little over ten years, his repertory comprising 
the parts of Rigoletto, Henry Ashton (Lucia 
di Lammermoor), Count di Luna (II Trova- 
tore), Danny Mann (I,ily of Killarney), Esca- 
millo (Carmen), and others. In 1889 he made 
his debzU at Covent Garden, in Italian Opera, 
as the Count, in II Trovatore. In 1882 he 
married Miss Georgina Burns (q.v.), and 
about 1890 started a company for the produc- 
tion in Euglish of Rossini's opera, " Cinder- 
ella," which successfully toured the provinces 
for some years. 

Crouch, Anna Maria, bom Phillips, 
soprano vocalist, born at London, April 20, 
1763. She studied under T. Linley, to whom 
she was articled in 1779, and first appeared 
at Drury Lane Theatre in Arne's " Artax- 
erxes," 1780. Appeared in Ireland with 
great success, 1783. Married to Mr. Crouch, 
a lieutenant in the navy, 1785. Sang at 
oratorios at Drury Lane, 1787. Separated 
from Crouch, 1792". Resided afterwards with 
Michael Kelly. Retired from the stage, 1800. 
She died at Brighton, October 2, 1805. 

" She had a remarkably sweet voice, and a 
naive, affecting style of singing ; this, added 
to extraordinary personal charms, made her 
a great favourite of the public for many > ears." 
A most laudatory poem on her is entitled 
" Euphrosyne, an Ode to Beauty : addressed 
to Mrs. Crouch, by Silvester Otway [other- 
wise John Oswald], London, 1788. See also 
"Memoirs of Mrs. Crouch," by M. Young, 
London, 2 vols., 1800, with portrait. 

Crouch, Frederick Nicholls, composer, 
vocalist and violoncellist, burn in Warreu 
Street, Pitzroy Square, London, July 31, 1808. 
Son of F. W. Crouch, violoncellist (q.v.). At 
the age of nine he played in the band of the 
Royal Ooburg Theatre. Then he travelled in 
Yorkshire and Scotland, and was for two 
years, through necessity, a common seaman 
on coasting smacks plying between London 
and Leith. Through the interest of William 
Watts, then secretary of the Philharmonic 




Society, he entered the orchestra of Drury 
Lane Theatre. His voice developing, he 
studied under ^^'illiam Hawes, and was in the 
choir of Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's 
Cathedral. Then, entering the R.A.M., he 
was for a short time under Crotch, Attwood, 
Lindley, etc., and member of the Philhar- 
monic, Ancient Concerts, and Royal Italian 
Opera orchestras. Travelled for a time for a 
firm of metal brokers, and invented the en- 
graving process known as zincography. After- 
wards musical supervisor to D'Almaine and 
Co., London. About 1838 he was giving an 
entertainment on the " Songs and Legends of 
Ireland," and was for years known as the 
Irish lecturer. The song " Kathleen ilavour- 
neen" was one of a series, "The Echoes of 
the Lakes," published about 1838. In 1849 
he went to Anierica, and filled various oftices, 
conducting at Portland, Philadelphia, Wash- 
ington, Richmond, etc. He joined the Con- 
federate army, and served through the Civil 
War. His last years were spent in Baltimore, 
where he died, August 19, 1896. He published 
his Autobiography in the Boston Folio, 1887 (?). 
He wrote the music of two operas— Sir Roger 
de Coverley, and the Fifth of November, 1670. 
His published songs comprised — Songs of 
Erin ; Echoes of the Past ; Bardic Reminis- 
cences ; Songs of the Olden Time ; Songs of 
a Rambler ; Wayside INIelodies, and many 
detached songs by various writers, which in 
their day had great popularity. 

Crouch, Frederick William, father of 
the above, was boru in Cxreat Smith Street, 
Westminster, about the year 1783. He was 
the eldest son of William Crouch {q.v.). He 
received his first instruction from his father, 
and was afterwards placed under John Smith, 
a fine player, when his rapid progress soon 
; enabled him to appear in public in concertos, 
; etc. In 1817 he became second principal at 
the Italian Opera House, and was also in the 
orchestra of the Ancient Concerts and Phil- 
harmonic Society. For years, and up to a 
fewmonths before his death, he played every- 
where with Robert Lindle3^ He married 
the daughter of John NichoUs, an eminent 
barrister. His death took place, July, 1844. 
He was the author of " A Complete Treatise 
on the Violoncello " (London, Chapell, 1826), 
based largely on the authorized Methode 
of the Paris Conservatoire ; a Supplement, 
with accompanied Scales and Exercises on 
Double Stops ; Duets for two violoncellos ; 
Duets for pf. and violoncello ; Arrangements, 
songs, etc. 

Crouch, William (father of F. W. Crouch, 
and grandfather of F. N. Crouch), musician 
and organist. He was for upwards of fifty 
years organist of St. Luke's Church, Old 
Street, London, and was also at the same 
time, for many years organist of Clapham 


Parish Church. Compiler of " Selection of 
Psalm tunes, as sung in Clapham Church," 
London [1820] ; and composer of six sonatas 
or lessons for the harpsichord or pf., op. 1; 
six sonatas for pf., op. 7 ; two sonatas for the 
pf., op. 9 ; The Triumph of Innocence, an 
ode ; The Llaid of Selnaa, a song, etc. 

Crow, Edwin John, organist and com- 
poser, born at Sittingbourne, Kent, September 
17, 1841. Chorister at Rochester Cathedral, 
and articled pu^Dil of the organist, IMr. J. L. 
Hopkins, up to 1856, when the latter removed 
to Cambridge. Under his successor, John 
Hopkins, young Crow remained two years, 
receiving lessons and also teaching the choir 
boys. In 1858 he went to Leicester, and 
studied with G. A. Lohr, whom he succeeded 
as organist of Trinity Church, after being 
acting organist for three years. He was then 
organist successively at St. Andrew's, and St. 
John's, Leicester ; and in 1873 was appointed 
organist and choirmaster of Ripon Cathedral, 
entering upon his duties January 1, 1874, and 
still retaining those offices. In 1868, he be- 
came F.R.C.O. ; graduated Mus. Bac, 1872 ; 
Mus. Doc, 1882, Cambridge. He is an 
Examiner for the Incorporated Society of 
Musicians, and Royal College of Organists, 
and music master at Ripon Grammar School ; 
also conductor, in rotation, of the JSTorth- 
East Cathedral Choir Association. 

His Compositions, besides the Degree exer- 
cises. Psalm 146, and a Harvest Oratorio, 
include a Communion Service in P (College 
of Organists' Prize, 1872), a IMorning Service 
in C (written for the opening ot the Cathedral 
Organ, April 24, 1878), Evening Services in 
G, A, and D. Organ and pf. music. Songs, 
and Masonic music. 

Crowdy, John, writer and editor, boru at 
Lewknor, January 6, 1834. Editor success- 
ively of The Musician, Musical Standard, 
and The Artist. Sub-editor of the Guardian 
from 1854. He died, Addlestoue, Surrey, 
January 12, 1888. 

Works. — A Kalendar of Cadences, in the 
form called Free Chant, adapted for the 
recitation of the Psalms, London, n.d. The 
Free Church Canticle Book, n.d. The Psalter, 
n.d. The Church Choirmaster . . . London, 
1864. A short Commentary on Handel's ora- 
torio, "The Messiah," London [1875]. 

Crow^e, Alfred Qwyllym, bandmaster 
and composer, born in Bermuda, November 
3, 1835. Of a family of soldiers (his father, 
Captain Crowe, was in the 30th and 50tli 
regiments, and was killed in the Sikh war, 
1845), he joined the 30th regiment at Man- 
chester when he was twelve years old. He 
entered the band, and played oboe and horn ; 
served in the Crimea, and was present at the 
battles of the Alma, Inkerman, and the siege 
of Sebastopol, for which he received medal 




and clasps. Returning to England, he raised 
a new band for the 30th, and afterwards 
studied for two years at Kneller Hall. Then 
he was appointed (1860) to the 14th Light 
Dragoons, retiring on a pension in 1874. 
Under the management of Mr. Freeman 
Thomas, he conducted the promenade con- 
certs at Covent Garden, from 1881, having 
previously been engaged at the Southport 
Aquarium. In 1893, he was appointed con- 
ductor of the Llandudno Pier and Pavilion 
Concerts. He died March 8, 1894. His com- 
positions were light, ballet music, and waltzes 
chiefly. The " See-Saw Waltz " (Covent 
Garden, 1884), was extensively popular. 

Crowest, Frederick J,, writer on music, 
organist and choirmaster, born in London, 
1850. Has held several appointments in 
London, and elsewhere, and is now organist 
and precentor at Christ Church, Kilburn, and 
choirmaster of St. Mary's, Somers Town. 
He has composed some Church music and 
songs. For some years he was favourably 
known as a tenor singer, under the name of 
Arthur Vitton. Besides contributions to the 
National Revieio, and other papers, he has 
written the following : " The Great Tone 
Poets," London, Bentley, 1874; "Book of 
Musical Anecdotes," Bentley, 1878, 2 vols. ; 
•" Phases of Musical England," Remington, 
1881 ; " Musical History and Biography, in 
the form of Question and Answer," 1883 ; 
" Advice to Singers ; " " Musical Groundwork," 
Warne & Co. ; " Cherubini," the Great Mu- 
sicians' series, Sampson Low ; " Dictionary 
of Britisli IMusicians," Jarrold, 1895 ; and 
"The Story of British Music," Vol. I., 
Bentley, 1895. 

Crozier, William, oboe-player, pupil of 
Barrett. Member of Crystal Palace orchestra 
from 1855-1870. He died December 20, 1870. 

Cruickshank, James, Scottish musician 
and teacher. Author of " Flutina and 
Accordion Teacher," London, 1851. Cruick- 
shank's Accordion and Flutina Teacher, 
Aberdeen [1853]. Also issued several books 
of music for the Accordion, and composed 
waltzes and other dance music. 

Cruickshank, William, Alexander 
Campbell, organist and composer, son of the 
late William Cruickshank, M.D., Deputy 
General Inspector of Hospitals, and of the 
52nd Regiment, born at Greenlaw, Berwick- 
shire, June 1, 1854. Educated at Epsom 
■College, where he received his first musical 
instruction, afterwards becoming a pupil of 
the late Thomas Hewlett. Graduated Mus. 
Bac, Oxford, 1885. Was resident music- 
master at Loretto School, IMusselburgh, 1874- 
1875 ; Organist and Choirmaster, St. John's, 
Selkirk, and Conductor of the Selkirk Choral 
Union, 1875-6 ; of St. John's, Alloa, and 
•Conductor of the Alloa Musical Association, 


1876-80 ; and of the Parish Church, Burnley, 
from 1880, and Conductor of Burnley Vocal 
Union, and of the Ruridecanal Festival 

WoEKS. — Psalm 145, " I will magnify Thee, 
God," for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; 
Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in G, composed 
for the Festival of the London Church Choir 
Association, and performed in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, May, 1889 ; Communion Service 
in E flat ; My heart is fixed ; Sing, O ye 
heavens ; Praise the Lord, composed for 
Annual Festival in aid of Burnley Hospital, 
1896 ; and other anthems. Hymn tunes, 
chants, etc., contributed to various collections. 
Songs: An autumn wind; Homeward bound; 
Waking ; Waiting ; and others. Part-songs ; 
Waken, lords and ladies gay ; and others. 
Romance for violoncello, pf and organ pieces, 
and organ arrangements, etc. 

Cruse, Edward, musician and writer, 
who died in 1879. He was an organist and 
teacher in London. Compiled " Psalms of 
the Church, adapted for four voices, con- 
taining a History of Church Music and 
Notation, biographical notices, etc., the 
whole calculated for general adoption by 
every sect of the Reformed Religion," London 
[1835] ; Te Deum, and other church music. 

Cudmore, Richard, violinist, composer, 
and pianist, was born at Chichester, in 1787. 
He studied under a musician named James 
Fargett, Reinagle, and Salomon. Violinist 
at Chichester Theatre, 1799. Resided in 
Chichester as violinist and teacher, 1799-1808, 
He studied the pianoforte under Woeifl, at 
London. IMember of Philharmonic Band, 
London. Resided in Manchester as leader of 
Gentlemen's Concerts. He died at Man- 
chester, December 29, 1840. 

WoBKS. — The Martyr of Antioch, oratorio ; 
Concertos for the violin ; Concertos for the 
pf. ; Songs, etc. 

Cudworth, William, musician, author 
of " Musical Reminiscences of Bradford." 
Reprinted from the Bradford Observer. 
Bradford [1885]. 

Cuisset, Frank F., organist and writer, 
born at London, February 23, 1812. Studied 
music under Sir H. Bishop, Sir George 
Smart, etc. Organist of Holy Trinity Church, 
Coventry ; Bishop Ryder's, Birmingham ; 
Selly Oak Church, Birmingham ; and Bus- 
bridge Church, Godalming. Author of "The 
Vocalist's Indispensable Practice, a series 
of exercises for promoting the strength and 
flexibility of the voice." London [1875]. 
Composer also of Concerted vocal music, 
songs, hymn tunes, etc. 

Cullen, Rose, Mbs. Albert Tench, vocal- 
ist and actress, born near London. INIade her 
debut at the Lyceum Theatre, January 22, 
1870, as the Page in " Chilperic," afterwards 




appeared at the Strand and Ol3'mpic, and in 
the provinces. She died, December, 1888. 

Culwick, James C, composer and organ- 
ist, born at West Bromwich, Staffordshire, in 
1845. Chorister (articled, at fourteen, to 
Tliomas Bedsmore), and afterwards assistant 
organist of Lichfield Cathedral. Organist 
successively at St. Chad's, Lichfield ; Par- 
sonstown, Ireland, 1866; Braj', 1868; St. Ann's, 
Dublin, 1870; Chapel Royal, Dublin, 1881. 
Professor of pianoforte and theory, Alexandra 
College, and Conductor of Harmonic Society, 
Dublin. Lecturer on Music. In 1893 the 
degree of Mus. Doc, honoris causa, Dublin, 
was conferred upon him. 

Works. — Dramatic Cantata, The Legend 
of Staufienberg (Ancient Concert Rooms, 
Dublin, May 3, 1890); Hymn for a May 
morning, both in MS.; Psalm 104, for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra. Anthems : Bless the 
Lord, my soul, for soli, four, and eight part 
chorus (1896) ; Praise the Lord ; O Lord, 
grant tlie Queen a long life ; and others. 
Church services, including a Te Deum and 
Benedictus, for men's voices (written by 
invitation for Lichfield Cathedral, 1892). 
Various part-songs, and an Elegy in memory 
of Sir Robert Stewart. Windle straws, a 
cycle of eight songs ; To the Cuckoo, with 
parts for strings and flutes ; duos, etc. In- 
strumental : Quartet in E fiat, for pf. and 
strings (Dublin, 1884) ; Sonata in D minor, 
organ; Suite, op. 1; Sonatina, op. 4; Ballade, 
op. 2, and other pieces for jDf. In MS., a 
concert overture, for orchestra ; Quartet and 
suite for strings ; Pieces for violoncello, violin, 
and pf., etc. Author of the Rudiments of 
Music, a text-book, Dublin, 1880 ; 2ud ed., 
1882; Pamphlets and papers, Handel's Mes- 
siah ; Discovery of the original word-book used 
at the first performance in Dublin, with some 
notes, 1891 ; The study of music and its place 
in general education, Dublin, 1882 ; Artistic 
landmarks (Musical Association), London, 
1891, etc. Lectures on Folk Song, and what 
it has done for us. The ethics and practice 
of ]\Iusic, etc., etc. Dr. Culwick's father was 
a tenor vocalist ; Lay-clerk of Lichfield 
Cathedral, a zealous worker in the cause of 
music, and an oratorio singer of repute in the 

Cumming, Angus, Scottish violinist and 
composer who flourished during the latter 
half of the 18th century. He published 
" A Collection of Strathspey or Old Highland 
Reels, with a bass for the violoncello and 
harpsichord, by Angus Cumming, musician, 
at Grantown in Strathspey," Edinburgh, 1780. 
A second edition was published at Glasgow 
some time after. 

Cummings, William Hayman, tenor 
vocalist, composer, conductor and writer, born 
at Sidbury, Devon, August 22, 1831. Chor- 


ister at St. Paul's Cathedral in his seventh 
year, he was placed under William Hawes ; 
afterwards entering the choir of the Temple 
Church, he studied under E. J. Hopkins, and, 
on leaving, was appointed organist of Waltham 
Abbey. While in the Temple choir, he sang 
among the altos in "Elijah," April 16, 1847. 
After some time he resumed his vocal studies 
under J. W. Hobbs, whose daughter he mar- 
ried, and soon gained a high position in the 
concert room, while holding appointments at 
Westminster Abbey, and the Chapel Royal. 
He sang at the Birmingham Festival of 1864, 
and at later celebrations ; at the Three Choir 
Festivals, at various times from that at 
Gloucester, 1865, to Hereford, 1879, frequently 
taking important parts for other singers at 
the briefest notice. In 1870, he appeared in 
opera at the Gaiety Theatre, and later at 
Drury Lane and elsewhere. Visited America 
in 1871, singing at the Festival of the Handel 
and Ha5'dn Society, early in the year ; in 
" Elijah," at New York, October 31 ; and at 
various places on tour. He has been heard 
at every important concert centre in the 
United Kingdom and Ireland, and has sung 
occasionally up to the last few years. In 1879 
he became a professor of the R.A.M., of which 
he is now an Honorary Member ; and later, 
joined the staff of the Guildhall School ; and 
many years professor at the Royal Normal 
College for the Blind. In 1882, he was ap- 
pointed chorus-master of the Sacred Har- 
monic Society, and afterwards conductor. 
He was precentor of St. Annes, Soho, 1886-88. 
In 1884, he was elected F.S.A. He is Hon. 
Treasurer, and was orchestral director of the 
Philharmonic Society up to 1896 ; Hon. Treas- 
urer of the Royal Society of Musicians ; editor 
for the Purcell Society's publications ; and 
conductor of the annual festivals of the Royal 
Society of Musicians. In June, 1896, he was 
elected Principal of the Guildhall School of 
Music. A learned musical antiquary, he 
has acquired one of the finest musical libraries 
in private hands, especially rich in early 
printed works and IMSS., and is the possessor 
of the duplicate of Handel's autograph will. 
He lectured on " English Schools of Compos- 
ition," at the Royal Institution, 1894, and 
has frequently lectured and given addresses 
before the Musical Association ; the Incor- 
porated Society of Musicians Conferences ; 
the R.A.M., Trinity College, London, etc. 
Author of The Rudinients of Music (London, 
Novello, 1877), which has gone through many 
editions, and has been translated into several 
languages ; Purcell (Great Musicians' series), 
London, 1882. Biographical Dictionary of 
Musicians, London, Novello, 1892. Contri- 
butions to Grove's Dictionary of Music and 
j\Iusicians, the Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy, aiad musical periodicals. 




His Compositions include a cantata, Tlie 
Fairy Ring, produced, St. James's Hail, May 
24, 1B72 ; Morning Service in D ; anthem, 
Lord, give ear ; Sunday part-songs (6 Nos.) ; 
part-songs ; many songs : Yellow lie the corn 
rigs ; Ask me no more ; Hush thy sounds 
(with 'cello obligato), etc. Glees : thou 
sweet bird (Abbey Glee Club Prize, 1850); 
with four other prize glees, etc. 

His son, Norman Percy Cummings, born 
at Dulwich, September 12, 1868, musically 
educated at home, made his debut as a pianist 
at Dulwich College, July, 1884. He then 
studied at Leipzig, and on his return played 
at the Crystal Palace Wednesday Concerts, 
October 24, 1888. He has assisted at his 
father's lectures, and is professor of pf. at the 
Royal Normal College, Norwood. 

Cummins, Charles, composer, pianist, 
and violinist, born at York in 1785. He studied 
under Dr. Miller, of Doncaster. Leader and 
violinist in theatres of the West of England. 
Wrote an amount of music for dramatic 
pieces, and a pamphlet against the system of 
J. B. Logier. The date of his death has not 
been ascertained. 

Cunningham, Francis, musician. Pub- 
lished " A Selection of Psalni Tunes, adapted 
to a selection of psalms and hymns extracted 
from various authors," London, 1826 ; and 
" A Selection of Psalm Tunes, designed to 
assist public worship." London, 1834. 

Currie, Rev. James, LL.D., musician 
and educationist, born April 24, 1828. He 
was Rector of the Church of Scotland Train- 
ing College, Edinburgh, for upwards of thirty 
years. He wrote The Elements of Musical 
Analysis, Edinburgh, 1858; A First Musical 
Grammar, Edinburgh, 1873. Works on 
Infant and Secondary Education ; School 
Songs, etc. He died at Edinburgh, September 
26, 1886. A monument to his memory was 
erected in Warriston Cemetery, Edinburgh, 
in 1890. 

Currie, William, violinist aud composer, 
born about 1828 ; died at Peterhead, Decem- 
ber 1, 1881. He was blind. Composer of 
the " Miller of Dron," and other reels. 

Curtis, Thomas, musician. Compiled 
" Divine Amusement, a selection of Psalms 
and Hymns as sung in all the principal 
churches, chapels, etc." London, n.d. 

Curwen, John, miisician and writer, was 
born at Heckmondwike, Yorks., November 
14, 1816. Educated at Coward College and 
London University. Ordained minister. As- 
sistant minister at Independent Church, 
Basingstoke, Hants., 1838. Co -pastor at 
Stowmarket, Suffolk, 1841. Pastor at Plais- 
tow, Essex, 1844. Founded Tonic Sol-Fa 
Associations, 1853. Established Tonic Sol-Pa 
College, 1862. Resigned ministry, and de- 
voted himself to propagation of the system, 


1867. Established " Tonic Sol-Fa Reporter," 
and publishing agency in London. He died 
at Heaton Mersey House, near Manchester, 
May 26, 1880. 

Works. — An Account of the Tonic Sol-fa 
Method of Teaching to Sing, London, 1854;. 
Grammar of Vocal Music, with Lessons and 
Exercises founded on the Tonic Sol-fa method, 
and a full introduction to the art of singing 
at sight from the Old Notation, London, n.d. j 
Standard Course of Lessons on the Tonic Sol- 
fa method of teaching to sing, London, n.d. ; 
Tonic Sol-fa instrumental instruction books ; 
Harmonium and Organ ; Theory of Fingering ; 
The First Pianoforte Book ; Reed Band Book ; 
Brass Band Book ; String Band Book : sepa- 
rate Works, all London, n.d. Musical Statics ; 
Art of Teaching, being the Teacher's Manual 
of the Tonic Sol-fa, n.d. ; Musical Theory, 
Loudon [1879] ; The Common-places of Music 
(Lectures), 10 parts, 1871-3 ; Primer of Tonic 
Sol-fa (Novello), n.d. ; Music in Worship and 
other papers on the People's Psalmody, Lon- 
don, n.d. ; The Present Crisis of Music in 
Schools, a Reply to Mr. Hullah, London, 
[1873]; The Child's own Hymn-Book ; How 
to Observe Harmony ; Construction Exercises 
in Elenaentary Composition ; Arrangements, 

Curwen, John Spencer, son of the fore- 
going, was born at Plaistow in 1847. Studied 
at first under his father and G. Oakey ; and 
later at R.A.M., under G. A. Macfarren, A. 
Sullivan, and E. Prout. A.R.A.M., 1879; 
P.R.A.M., 1885. Associate of the Philhar- 
monic Society. He has composed and ar- 
ranged part-songs, etc., but his life has been 
devoted to the Tonic Sol-fa movement, and 
to the promotion of music in elementary 
schools. He was made President of the Tonic 
Sol-fa College in 1880, and has taken an active 
part in the festivals held at Stratford-le-Bow 
since their establishment in 1883. He has 
lectured in many places in the United King- 
dom ; visited the Continent, examining the 
various methods of teaching singing in schools ; 
and in 1887 he made an extended tour in the 
United States, to enquire into the condition 
of music there. The results of these under- 
takings have been embodied in pamphlets, 
and in papers contributed to the Tonic Sol-fa 
Reporter (now the Musical Herald) and other 
publications. He is author of Studies in 
Worship Music, London, 1880 ; a second 
series, Loudon, 1885 ; IMemorials of John 
Curwen, London, 1882 ; Musical Notes in 
Paris, London, 1882 ; The Tonic Sol-fa Sys- 
tem ; a paper read before the Society of Arts, 
March 22, 1882, etc. 

Curwen, Mrs., born Annie Jessy Gregg, 
is a native of Dublin, where her father prac- 
tised as a solicitor. Her first composition was 
published by friends when she was fourteen. 




Studied at the lioyal Irish Acadeixiy of Music, 
under Mr. aud Mrs. Josepli Robinson and Sir 
Robert Stewart. Practiced the musical pro- 
fession in Dubhn for some years, and after- 
wards resided in Scotland, where she first 
came in contact with the Tonic Sol-fa system. 
Applying its principles to pianoforte teaching 
and the Staff Notation, she wrote " The Child 
Pianist" (London, Curwen, 1866), a work now 
extensively adopted. She has lectured con- 
siderably on the subject. Was an adjudicator 
at the singing competition of Dublin Schools, 

Cusins, Sir William George, Kt., 
composer, pianist and conductor, born in 
London, October 14, 183.3. Chorister in 
Chapel Royal, 1843. Studied at the Brussels 
Conservatoire, from 1844, piano, violin and 
harmony. In 1847, he won a King's Scholar- 
ship at R.A.I\L, and was re-elected 1849, 
studying under Potter, Bennett, Lucas, and 
Sainton. Played Mendelssohn's Rondo in 
B minor, with orchestra, at an Academy 
Concert at the Hanover Square Rooms, 
June 6, 1849, aud the same year was ajapointed 
to the Queen's Private Chapel, and entered 
the orchestra of the Royal Italian Opera. 
In 1851, made assistant professor at R.A.M., 
and later professor. Conductor Philharmonic 
Society, 1867-83 ; Master of the Queen's 
Music, 1870-93; Conductor of the London 
Select Choir, 1885. Professor, Guildhall 
School of Music, 1885. He conducted the 
performance of Bennett's oratorio, " The 
Woman of Samaria," at the Birmingham 
Festival, 1867. As a pianist, he played at 
the Gewandhaus Concerts, Leipzig, October 
12, 1856; Berlin; at the Philharmonic and 
Crystal Palace Concerts ; Rome, 1883 ; and 
at his own annual concerts, London, from 
1885. He was elected Hon. Member of the 
Academy of St. Cecilia, Rome, 1883 ; received 
the honour of Knighthood from the Queen, 
1892 ; and the Cross of Isabella the Catholic, 
from the Queen of Spain, 1898. He died, 
suddenly, from influenza, August, 31, 1893, at 
Remonchamps, in the Ardennes. 

Works. — Royal Wedding Serenata, 1863 ; 
Gideon, an oratorio (produced at the 
Gloucester Festival, 1871); Te Deum, for 
soli, chorus and orchestra (Sacred Harmoiiic 
Society, February 24, 1882) ; Jubilee Cantata, 
Grant the Queen a Long Life (State Concerts, 
1887); anthems; Masonic prayers; Responses 
to the Commandments, &c. Editor of, and 
contributor to. Songs from the published 
writings of Alfred Tennyson ; songs, and part- 
songs. Symphony in C, for orchestra (Sarasate 
Concert, St. James's Hall, June 18, 1892) ; 
two concert overtures — Les Travailleurs de 
la ]Mer (1869) ; and Love's Labour Lost 
(1875) ; March, in honour of Prince Albert 
Victor (Albert Hall, January, 1885) ; Concerto 


in A Minor, pf. aud orchestra ; Concert ■, 
violin (MS.) ; Septet, for wind instruments 
and double-bass (1891); Trio in C Minor, pf. 
and strings (produced at the compose) 's 
concert, June 14, 1882) ; Sonata in A minor, 
pf. and violin (1893) ; pf. pieces, &c. Author 
of a pamphlet, Handel's Messiah, an examina- 
tion of the original aud of some contemporary 
MSS. (Augener), 1874, and contributor to 
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 

Custard, Walter Qoss, organist, pianist, 
and composer, born, June 9, 1841. Nephew of 
Sir John Goss. Articled iDupil of Sir George 
Elvey, at Windsor, 1857. Organist of Spring 
Grove Church, Isleworth, 1861 ; Christ Church, 
St. Leonards-on-Sea, 1865, to the present time. 
Conductor, for some years, of the Hastings and 
St. Leonards Sacred Harmonic Society, and 
St. Leonards Vocal Association. Has given 
pianoforte recitals with much success. His 
works include The Office of the Holy Com- 
munion, in E flat; Communion Service in F; 
Te Deum and Benedictus in F ; Hymns, vari- 
ous. The Chorister's Daily Practice, London, 
n.d. Pianoforte — Short studies in all the major 
and minor keys ; Twelve studies, op. 22 ; Noc- 
turne in C minor ; Rondino in A, op. 17, &c. 
Triumphal March for organ (with chorus) j 
Songs, &c. 

Cutell, Richard, musician and writer of 
the fifteenth century, author of a treatise on 
Counterpoint, preserved in the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford (MS. imperfect). 

Cutler, Edward, amateur composer and 
litterateur, born at Canons Park, the seat of 
his grandfather. Sir Thomas Plumer, Master 
of the Rolls, and was educated at Eton and 
Dresden. Well-known as a Q.C. and Chancery 
barrister, he is still more widely recognised as 
a clever composer. He was for some time 
organist of Whitchurch, Edgeware ; and in 
1891 was appointed by the Prince of Wales 
grand organist of the Freemasons of England 
— the first amateur to hold that office. He 
gave a matinee at Erard's Rooms, February 
23, 1893, with a programme of his own com- 
positions. He has composed a Scherzetto, and 
other pieces for orchestra ; Romance for 
violin ; Postlude in C, &c., for organ ; 
several pf. pieces. An Arab's Song ; Child 
and Mother ; The Rose Walk, and numerous 
other songs ; and has contributed various 
articles to the musical press. 

Cutler, William Henry, pianist, vocalist 
and composer, born at London, in 1792. He 
studied under Dr. Arnold and W. Russell, . 
and made his debut as pianist with a concerto 
by Viotti, in 1800. Chorister in St. Paul's 
Cathedral. Mus. Bac, Oxon, 1812. Organist 
of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, 1818. Taught 
Music by Logier's System. Organist of Que- 
bec Chapel, Portman Square, 1823. He sang 
at the principal London concerts. 




Works. — Church Music ; The Psahiis, 
Te Deum, Jubilate, etc., used at Quebec 
Chapel, Portmau Square, n.d. ; Pf. music ; 
fantasias, roudos, marches, duets, songs, etc. 

Cuzens, Benjamin, composer and organ- 
ist, who flourished about the end of the 
eighteenth century. He published " The 
Portsmouth Harmony," n.d. " Divine Har- 
mony, containing six anthems and a Christmas 
ode." Anthems, etc. 

Cympson, Edward, composer and lyric 
author of present time. Teacher of singing 
in London Board Schools, 1876. He has 
composed two sacred cantatas, "The Ruler's 
Daughter" (performed Greenock, 1888); and 
" The Angel of the Harvest " (London, 1892). 
Words for temperance songs, &c. 

Czapek, psetulonyvi of Hatton, John 


D' Albert, see Albert. 

Dale, C. J., amateur organist and con- 
ductor, born at Longton, Staffordshire, in 
May, 1842. Educated at Belper, Derby. 
Studied music with Mr. \i. Sharpe (organist 
of St. Mary's, Southampton). Went to 
London in 1860, where he is engaged in 
business. He was organist of St. John's 
Square (Clerkenwell) Wesleyan Church for 
nineteen years ; of Finsbury Park Wesleyan 
Church for fifteen years ; and is now Choir- 
master of Holly Park Wesleyau Church. 
Up to 1894 he was conductor of the Finsbury 
Choral Association, which he raised from 
small beginnings to a position of artistic 
importance. In 1889 he established the 
Metropolitan College of IMusic, which has 
flourishing classes for Tonic Sol-fa and other 
students. Of this he is still the Principal, 
and Chairman of Corporation Committees. 
He has composed a Morning Service, some 
simple anthems, and a few hymn tunes. 
]\Iusical editor of " Psalms and Canticles 
pointed for chanting," London, Wesleyan 
Book-room, 1888. 

Dale, Isaac, musician and organist, com- 
piled " The Mona Melodist, a selection of 
Psalm and Hymn Tunes suited to all the 
"variations of metrical psalmody, for congrega- 
tional or family worship, newly harmonised 
for four voices, with an accompaniment for 
the organ or pianoforte." Douglas [1842]. 
An excessively scarce book. 

Dale, Joseph, composer and editor, born 
in 1750. He was organist of St. Anthony 
and St. John Baptist, Watling Street, 
London. He died at Edinburgh, August 21, 
1821. Author of " Dale's Collection of Sixty 
Favourite Scotch Songs, taken from the 
original manuscripts of the most celebrated 
Scotch authors and composers, properly 
adapted for the German flute," Books I., II., 
and III., n.d. [1794]. Wrote an " Intro- 


duction to the Pianoforte, Harpsichord, or 
Organ," o]>. 12, n.d. Thirty organ pieces, 
op. 11, n.d., and many works for pf., etc. 
Also a collection of English songs. 

Dale, Rev. Reginald Francis, clergy- 
man and musician, born at Sydenham, 
London, September 12, 1845. Educated at 
Oxford, and graduated B.A. and Mus. Bac. in 
1866. Clerk in Holy Orders, 1870. Assistant 
master in Westminster School, 1870-1886. 
Rector of Bletchingdon, Oxford, 1885. Joint 
author with the Rev. John Troutbeck of 
"Music Primer for Schools," 1873, etc ; and 
composer of hymn tunes, some of which 
appeared in " Twenty-two original Hymn 
Tunes, by two Oxford Gra'.luates " [1867 J . 

Dalglish, Robert, composer, born at 
PoUokshaws, Renfrewshire, July, 1806 ; died 
there, August 5, 1875. He was a weaver by 
trade, and self-educated in music. Composed 
a number of anthems, glees, and psalms, of a 
somewhat feeble class, which were at one 
time regarded with some favour in Glasgow. 

D'Alquen, Frank C-, see Alqu n, Frank 
C. D'. 

Daly, William, violinst, born in Dublin, 
circa 1848. Settled in Edinburgh for many 
years, and teacher of the violin at Fettes' 
College there. Leader of the Edinburgh 
Quartet, which began giving chamber concerts 
in 1890. Author of a treatise on the violin, 
published in the " Musical Educator ' [see 
Greig, John). His son, Wili iam, has con- 
tributed a treatise on Musical History to the 
same publication. John Daly, violinist, 
born in Dublin, August, 1851, is brother to 
William Daly. Studied at R.A.M., Dublin, 
under Sir Robert Stewart and others. 
Resided for a time at Glasgow ; then in 
Manchester, where he was for some years in 
Halle's orchestra as a violin player ; at 
present time in Glasgow as teacher and 

Dalyell, Sir John Graham, antiquary, 
was born in 1776, and died June 7, 1851. 
He was educated for the bar, and succeeded 
as sixth baronet of Binns, Linlithgow, in 
1841. In addition to a number of valuable 
historical and scientific works, he wrote 
" ]\Iusical Memoirs of Scotland, with historical 
annotations, and numerous illustrative 
plates," Edinburgh, 1849. This is now a 
scarce work, and is of some value as a 
contribution to Scottish musical archaeology. 

Damian, Grace, contralto vocalist, born 
at Brighton. Studied under Madame Sainton- 
Dolby. Made her debut at the Monday 
Popular Concerts, January 12, 1880 ; and in 
the same year sang in " Ehjah," and other 
works, at the Gloucester Festival. She also 
sang at the Leeds Festival, 1883, in Raff's 
" End of the World " ; and has been heard at 
the principal London and provincial concerts. 




In 1889, she was on tour with ]\Iadame 
Albani in the United States and Canada. 
She made lier first appearance on the stage 
at Covent Garden, October 29, 1890, in "La 

Damon, William, composer and organist, 
was born 1510. Organist of Queen EHzabetli's 
Chapeh lie died early in tlie seventeenth 

Works. — The Psalmes of David in English 
Meter, with notes of foure parts set unto 
them by Gulielmo Damon, for John Bull, to 
the use of Christians for recreating them- 
selves, instede of fond and unseemely ballades, 
1579 [said to have been published by Bull, a 
goldsmith in London, Avithout Damon's 
consent or knowledge]. The Former Booke 
of the Musicke of Mr. William Damon, late 
cue of Her Majesties musitions ; conteining 
all the Tunes of Dauids Psalmes as they are 
ordinarily soung in the church, most 
excellently by him composed into four parts, 
altus, cantus, tenor, bassus ; in which sett 
the tenor siugeth the church tune. Published 
for the recreation of such as delight in 
musicke, by W. Swayne, Gent. Printed by 
T. Este, 1591. The Second Booke of the 
Musicke of Mr. William Damon, containing 
all the Tunes of David's Psalmes, differing 
irom the former in respect that the highest 
part singe I h the Church tune, London, 1591. 
The tunes to which Damon gave harmonies 
are forty in number, and are the first psalms 
with harmonies published in England. 

Danby, John, English glee composer, 
was born in 1757 [1750] . He gained ten 
prizes from the Catch Club, for seven glees, 
two canons, and an ode, 1781-94. He was 
organist of the chapel of the Spanish Em- 
bassy, Manchester Square, London, and died 
at London, May 16, 1798. Very little has 
been preserved concerning the biography of 
this musician. 

Works.— Masses ; IMotets; Catches, canons 
and glees, for three, four, and five voices, in 
Score, four books, London, n.d. [c. 1785-98]; 
La Guida alia Musica Yocale, Op. 2, London 
[1787] , n.d. Glees — When SapjDho tuned 
(Smollett), three voices ; When generous wine 
expands ; When floods retire to the sea ; The 
fairest flowers the vale prefer ; Sweet thrush ; 
Shepherds, I have lost my love ; Go to my 
Anna's breast ; Fair Flora decks ; Come, ye 
party jangling swains ; Awake, /Eolian lyre, 
four voices ; Music has power; Soft pleasing 
pains unknown before ; When beauty's soul ; 
The nightingale ; salutaris hostia, etc. 

Dance, William, violinist, pianist, and 
composer, born 1755. He studied under 
Aylward, Baumgarten, and Giardini, and was 
a violinist at Drury Lane Theatre, 1771-74. 
He was leader at King's Theatre, 1775-93, 
and led the band of the Handel Commemo- 


rations in 1790, etc. He was one of the 
founders of the Philharmonic Society, and 
acted as director and treasurer. He died at 
London, June 5, 1840. 

Dance was a successful piano teacher in 
London, and composed sonatas, fantasias, 
variations, etc. His brother, George Dance 
(1741 — London, January 14, 1825), was a 
painter and a Royal Academician. He was 
a singer and vocal composer. 

Dando, Joseph Haydon Bourne, vio- 
linist, born in SomersTown, London, in 1806. 
Studied under his uncle, Gaetano Brandi, 
and then for seven years under Nicolas Mori, 
1819-26. In 1831, he became a member of 
the Philharmonic Orchestra, and remained 
so till 1855. He was also in all the leading 
orchestras, and in those of the Birmingham, 
Three Choirs, and other festivals. He antici- 
pated the Concerti da Camera, started Novem- 
ber 7, 1835, by giving a chamber concert of a 
similar type at the Horns Tavern, September 
23 of that year. In 1836, he joined Blagrove, 
Gattie, and Lucas in chamber quartet con- 
certs, at the Hanover Square Rooms, the first 
taking place March 17, Dando playing viola. 
Ills claim to the introduction of jDublic per- 
formances of the string quartet cannot be 
maintained, as they were played from the 
date of the first Philharmonic Concert, March 
8, 1813 ; and at the British Concerts, given in 
the ball-room of the Argyll Rooms in 1823. 
But Dando did good work in his day, up to 
his retirement in 1875. His appointment as 
music master to the Charterhouse Schools he 
held from 1875 almost to the time of his 
death, at Godalming, in May, 1894. 

Daniel, Albert Edward, composer and 
pianist, born in Bii-mingham, November 9, 
1862. Studied privately under several masters, 
but owes much to his own unaided exertions. 
F.R.C.O. 1885. Has appeared as pianist and 
organist, giving recitals in the Birmingham 
Town Hall and other places. Increasing 
deafness has put a stop to a promising public 
career, and his time is now chiefly devoted to 

Works. — Two masses ; a Harvest Cantata, 
performed 1888-9, but remaining in MS., and 
other church music ; Choral song. The Sum- 
mer Rain, produced by the Birmingham Fes- 
tival Choral Society, April, 1891 ; A comic 
operatta, MS ; many songs, etc. Two con- 
cert overtures, orchestra ; Quintet and trio, 
pf. and strings ; Quartet, strings ; Fantasia, 
Clarinet and pf. ; Sonatas for organ and 
pianoforte, and various pieces in smaller 

Daniel, John, musician, was born at 
Aberdeen, in 1803. He studied music under 
John Ross, and was a music-teacher in Aber- 
deen for a number of years. He was also 
precentor of St. John's Church, Montrose, 




about 1833, and in 1848 he settled in New 
York as a teacher. He died at New York, 
June 21, 1881. He edited " The National 
Psalmody of the Church of Scotland, a col- 
lection of the most esteemed psalm and hymn 
tunes ..." [1837], 2nd ed. [1843]. Com- 
posed, also, part-songs, songs, and pf. music. 
James Daniel (Aberdeen, July 24, 1810 — 
February 17, 1889), probably a brother of the 
foregoing, was a music-engraver and editor. 
He issued " A Collection of Reels, Strathspeys, 
slow airs, etc," Aberdeen [1840]. 

Daniel, Rev. Richard Blackburne, 
curate of Tickenhall, Derby, 1878, and for- 
merly organist of the parish churches of St. 
Mary Bredin and St. MaryBredman, Canter- 
bury. Author of " Chapters on Church Music," 
London : Elliot Stock, 1894. 

Danneley, John Feltham, writer, 
pianist, and composer, born at Oakingham, 
Berkshire, 1786. He studied under C. Kny- 
vett, S. Webbe, Woelfl, and C. Neate. Resided 
in Hampshire as teacher till 1812. Organist 
of Church of St. Mary of the Tower, Ipswich, 
1812. Visited Paris, and studied under Reicha 
and Pradher, 1816. He died at London, 1836. 

Works. — A set of twelve Italian duets ; 
Glees and songs ; Pf. music. An Introduc- 
tion to the Elementary Principles of Thorough 
Bass and classical music, Ipswich, 1820 ; An 
Encyclopaedia, or Dictionary of Music, Lon- 
don, 1825 ; A Musical Grammar, comprehend- 
ing the principles and rules of the science, 
London, 1826. 

Danyl, or Daniel, John, composer, of 
the latter part of the 16th and beginning of 
the 17th centuries. He is supposed to have 
been the brother of Daniel, the poet, and was 
a Bachelor of INIusic, Oxon., 1604. He pub- 
lished " Songs for the Lute, Viol, and Voyce," 
London, 1606, and others of his compositions 
are preserved in MS. 

Darnton, Charles, organist and composer, 
born in London, October 10, 1836. Many 
years organist of Park Chapel, Camden Town. 
Composer of the sacred cantatas, " The Star 
of Bethleham" (1893); "The Song of Crea- 
tion;" "Abraham" (1895); "Spring-time 
and Harvest" (1895). Pastoral cantata, 
"Village Life," performed, London, 1891. 
Anthems for Church and Home ; various 
anthems, etc. ; Sacred songs. Compiler of 
" Comprehensive Psalmody " (London, 1866). 

Dart, Henry John Baker, organist, born 
at Torquay, March 5, 1854. Chorister at St. 
Luke's Church there, 1866-8 ; organist, St. 
Michael's Mission Church, 1868 ; and Christ 
Church, Ellacombe, 1873. In 1875 he re- 
moved to London, and later on studied at the 
London Academy of Music, under Dr. E. J. 
Hopkins, J. F. Barnett, and E. H. Turpin, 
his earlier teachers having been Charles Fow- 
ler and T. Craddock. Conductor, 1877-80, of 


the North London Philharmonic Society, at 
the concerts of which more than one im- 
portant work was given for the first time in 
London. In 1879 he was appointed organist 
of St. John's, Waterloo Road, where he or- 
ganised the series of recitals and oratorio 
performances that became famous. In 1893. 
he resigned that post for the parish church 
(St. James's), of Paddington, where he is still 
in office. He is A.R.C.O. and Professor at 
the London Academy of Music. He has 
written a Sonata for organ and trombone, 
performed at St. John's, February, 1884; 
Concert allegro for organ. A setting of Psalm 
84, for soli, chorus, and organ, was produced 
at the Church of St. John, March, 1893. A 
morning and evening Service in D is pub- 

Darwall, Rev. John, clergyman and 
composer, was born at Haughton, Stafford- 
shire, in January, 1731. He was educated at 
Manchester and Oxford, where he graduated 
in 1756. In 1769 he became vicar of Walsall, 
and died there December 18, 1789. He com- 
posed the Psalm tune, " Darwall's " and many 
others not so well known. 

Dauney, William, musician and anti- 
quary, born at Aberdeen, October 27, 1800. 
Educated at Dulwich and Edinburgh Uni- 
versity. Called to the Scottish Bar, 1823, 
Solicitor-General for British Guiana, at Deme- 
rara, 1838. He died at Georgetown, Demerara, 
July 28, 1843. 

Work. — Ancient Scottish Melodies from a 
manuscript of the reign of King James VI., 
with Introductory Inquiry (Skene Manu- 
script), Edinburgh, 1838. 

In the preface to this work, Dauney covers 
an amount of ground previously unattempted 
either by Tytler, Ritson, or Stenhouse, and 
displays much judgment and learning in the 
general handling of his subject. 

Davenport, Francis William, composer, 
born at Wilderslow, near Derby, 1847. Edu- 
cated at University College, Oxford. Pupil 
of Sir G. A. Macfarren, whose sou-in-law he 
afterwards became. Appointed Professor of 
Harmony and Composition, R.A.M., 1879, 
and subsequently elected an Honorary IMem- 
ber of the same. He is also a Professor at 
the Guildhall School of INIusic. His compos- 
itions number two Symphonies in D minor 
and G, the first winning the prize in the 
Symphony Competition at the Alexandra 
Palace, 1876. Also an overture, "Twelfth 
Night," produced at the Viard-Louis Concerts, 
St. James's Hall, February 18, 1879 ; and a 
prelude and fugue for orchestra, performed 
at the Crystal Palace, November 1, 1879. 
His other works include a trio in B fiat, op. 
5, for pf. and strings (Monday Popular Con- 
certs, January 31, 1881) ; six pieces for pf. 
and violoncello ; French songs, for children ; 




songs and part-songs. Author of " Elements 
of Music " (Longman, 1SS4) ; " Elements of 
Harmony and Counterpoint" (Ijongman, 
1886); "A Guide for Pianoforte Students" 
{jointly with Percy Raker), Longman, 1891. 

Davenport, Uriah, composer and writer 
•of the latter part of last century, and teacher 
in London, compiler of " The Psalm-Singer's 
Pocket Companion, containing a new intro- 
duction, with such directions for singing, as 
is proper and necessary for learners," London, 
1755 ; 2nd ed. 17oS ; 3rd ed. 1785. 

Davey, Henry, pianist and writer on 
music, born at Brightou, November 29, 1853. 
He acquired the first rudiments of music 
through the Tonic Sol-fa method ; and studied 
for three years at the Conservatorium, Leipzig. 
Resident in Brighton as teacher. He is a 
Scholar, and his work is not confined to 
music, as he is librarian of the Brighton and 
Sussex Natural History Society, and active 
in other ways. He is author of "The Stud- 
ents' Musical History," Lond., Curwen [1891] ; 
*' History of English Music," 1895 ; and has 
contributed articles to the " Dictionary of 
National Biography," and to the musical 

Davidson, Peter, Scottish violinist and 
■writer, was born about 1834. Author of " The 
Violin : a concise exposition of the general 
principles of construction, theoretically and 
practically treated," Glasgow, 1871. Second 
■edition, London, 1880, with lives of the 
most eminent artists and dictionary of violin 
makers, and lists of violin sales. In 1886 
Davidson went to America. He is reputed to 
liave dabbled in occult science and to have 
made magic mirrors. 

Davidson, Thomas, Scottish musician of 
the 17th century, was'appointed teacher in 
the Music (or Song) School, Aberdeen, in 1640. 
This position he must have held till far on in 
the century, as we find from the Burgh Records 
of Aberdeen, that on January 16, 1666, he 
received an augmentation of his salary, making 
it 250 merks. He is chiefly celebrated as the 
editor of " Cantus, Songs, and Fancies. To 
Thre, Foure, or Five partes, both apt for 
"voices and viols. With a brief Introduction 
of IMusick, as is taught by the Musick-Schole 
of Aberdene, by T. D., Mr. of Musick," Aber- 
deen, printed by John Forbes, 1662. Second 
edit., 1660. Third edit., 1682. Reprint, New 
•Club Series, Paisley, 1879. The three editions 
of the "Cantus" differ slightly in respect of 
several omissions and insertions It was the 
first secular music-book published in Scotland, 
and consists chiefly of English and foreign 
melodies, some b}' Gastoldi, or imitations of 
them, arranged. All these editions are ex- 
tremely scarce and valuable. 

Davie, James, violinist, flute-player, and 
•composer, born about 1783. He resided in 


Aberdeen as a teacher, and member of the 
Aberdeen theatre orchestra. He was choir- 
master of St. Andrew's Church, Aberdeen, 
and conductor of Aberdeen Choral Society. 
He died at Aberdeen, November 19, 1857. 

Works. — Music of the Church of Scotland, 
being a numerous selection of Psalm and 
Hymn Tunes, Ancient and Modern, in Four 
Vocal Parts, with an Instrumental Accom- 
paniment ... To which are prefixed Re- 
marks on Church ]\Iusic, etc., Aberdeen, 8vo., 
[1841]. The Chorister . . . Psalm and hymn 
tunes . . . arranged in four parts, Aberdeen, 
n.d. A Compendious Introduction to the Art 
of Singing, comprising the most useful scales 
and examples, Aberdeen, n.d. The Vocal 
Harmonist, a Collection of Duets, Trios, 
Glees, etc., n.d. Caledonian Repository of the 
most favourite Scottish slow airs, Marches, 
Strathspeys, Reels, Jigs, Hornpipes, etc., ex- 
pressly adapted for the Violin. Aberdeen and 
Edinburgh, 8vo., about 1829-30 [six books]. 
Scales for the Voice. Songs, etc. 

Davies, Ben, tenor vocalist, born at Pon- 
tardawe, near Swansea, in 1858. Gaining a 
reputation locally, he decided upon his pro- 
fession, and entered the R.A.M., studying 
under Raudegger. In 1880, he won the Evill 
prize for declamatory singing, and was elected 
an Associate. He joined the C^arl Rosa Com- 
pany, and made his operatic debut at Her 
Majesty's Theatre, as Thaddeus, in "The 
Bohemian Girl;" sang for a long period in 
Cellier's " Dorothy ;" in the title part in Sul- 
livan's " Ivanhoe " on its production ; and in 
Augustus Harris's Company, 1892. He first 
appeared at a Festival, at Cardiff, 1892, in 
Dvorak's Stabat Mater ; sang at the Norwich 
Festivals of 1893-96 ; Leeds, 1895 ; and Bris- 
tol, 1896. Sang with great success in Chicago, 
1893, and Berlin, 1894 ; as well as at all im- 
portant concerts in the United Kingdom, 
standing in the first rank of artists. In 1885, 
he married IMiss Clara Perry, a soprano 
singer, who was for some time a member of 
the Carl Rosa Company. She sang in the 
provinces at first, and appeared in London as 
Arline, March 27, 1883, at Drury Lane. 

Davies, Cecilia, vocalist, born in 1752 
[1740] . Travelled in France and Italy, and 
sang with success. Debut in London, 1773, 
in Sacchini's " Lucio Vero." Sang in London 
and on Continent, till 1791. She died at 
London, July 3, 1836. Her si-ster Marianne 
(born 1736, died 1792), was an harmonica- 
player, and appeared with her sister in public. 
She was a skilful performer on her instrument. 

Davies, Clara Novello, pianist, con- 
ductor and teacher, born at Cardiff, April 7, 
1861. Daughter of Jacob Davies (noticed 
below), by whom she was principally taught. 
Began as accompanist and teacher of the 
pianoforte. About 1884 she formed a ladies' 




choir, and gave concerts at Cardiff for some 
years. Tlie reputation of the clioir rising, 
tours were undertalven, and performances 
given in London, from 1890 ; in Birmingliam, 
1892 ; and on tour with Madame Patti. In 
1893 Madame Davies took her choir to Cliicago, 
and won the gold nredal in the competition for 
ladies' voices. On her return she was, with 
her choir, commanded to sing before the 
Queen, at Osborne, February, 1894. She is 
the head of a Music Institute at Cardiff. In 
1882, she married Mr. David Davies, of Cardiff. 

Her father, Jacob Davies, born at St. Fa- 
gans, in 1840, is a well known musician and 
conductor. The Blue Ribbon Choir became 
famous under his direction, and won many 
prizes. He now conducts the Cardiff Glee 
Society, and is resident in that town. 

Davies, David Ffrangcon, baritone vo- 
calist, born at Bethesda, Carnarvonshire, 
December 11, 1860. He received hi.s first 
musical instruction from his father, an ama- 
teur ; but he was originally intended for 
another profession, and educated at Oxford, 
graduating B.A. and JI.A. Deciding to be- 
come a singer, he entered the Guildhall School 
of Music, and studied under Richard Latter, 
afterwards becoming a pupil of W. Shake- 
speare. He made his first appearance in 
January, 1890, at Mr. De Jong's concerts, 
in Manchester ; sang in the title part, in 
" Elijah," at the Hovingham (Yorks.) Festival 
the following October ; at the Monday Popular 
Concerts, November 3 ; and in the " Messiah," 
at Birmingham, December 26. His Festival 
di'but was at Hauley, in October, 1893, where 
he was engaged again, 1896 ; and he sang at 
the Cardiff Festival of 1895. In opera he has 
appeared at times from 1890, in " Faust," 
" Lohengrin," &c., and created the part of 
Cedric in Sullivan's " Ivanhoe." In the Spring 
of 1896 he toured with great success in the 
United States ; and as an oratorio singer, 
especially, now occupies a foremost position. 

Davies, Fanny, pianist, though born in 
Guernsey, June 27, 1861, is connected with 
Birmingham by family and early residence. 
Her first teachers were Miss Welchman, 
Charles E. Plavell, and A. R. Gaul (harmony), 
all of Birmingham. Studied at Leipzig, 1882-3, 
under Reinecke, Oscar Paul, and Jadassohn ; 
at Frankfort, 1883-5, with Madame Schumann 
and Bernhard Scholz. She made her first 
appearance, on her return to England, at the 
Crystal Palace Concerts, October 17, 1885, 
playing the solo part in Beethoven's concerto 
in G ; on November 16, she played at the 
Monday Popular Concerts; at the Saturday 
Concerts, November 28. She then played at 
Manchester, Glasgow, and other j)laces, making 
her Birmingham debut, ^March 30, 1886, since 
which tinre she has annually given a recital, 
or concert, with Joachim and Piatti, in that 


city. She played at the Philharmonic Con- 
certs, April 15, 1SS6, choosing Bennett's con- 
certo in C minor ; and has given recitals in 
London and many places. She has played in 
the old and new Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 1887-8 ; 
at Berlin, and Ronae, 1890, and before several 
reigning Sovereigns ; and has achieved a high 
position, being regarded as a specially fine 
interpreter of the music of Schumaim. 

Davies, H. Walford, composer, studied 
at R.C.M., and while there produced a num- 
ber of important works. He has written a 
Symphony, produced at the Crystal Palace, 
October, 1895 ; an overture , quartets, for 
strings, and pf. and strings ; sonata, for pf. 
and violin. Also a choral ballad, " Herv6 
Riel," poeiri by Browning. In 1894, he won 
the Bristol Orpheus Society's prize with his 
glee, " The Sturdy Rock," and he has written 
other vocal music. In 1895 he was appointed 
a Professor at the R.C.M 

Davies, Hugh, organist and composer of 
early part of the 17tli century. He was 
organist of Hereford Cathedral, and in 1623 
he graduated jNIus. Bac, Oxford. He died 
about 1644. Composerof Church music, none 
of which has been preserved. 

Davies, Llewela, pianist and composer, 
born at Brecon, South Wales. Gained ad- 
mission to the R.A.M., 1887, by winning the 
John Thomas (Welsh) Scholarship. Pupil of 
Walter Macfarren for pf., and of Stewart 
Macpherson for harmony and composition. 
Her career at the Academy was distinguished, 
and she took, among other j)rizes, the IMac- 
farren Scholarship, 1892 ; The Lucas Rledal, 
1894, both for comjjosition. In 1893 she was 
awarded the Medal of the Worshipful Com- 
pany of Musicians. She ajDpeared as solo 
pianist at the Hereford Festival chamber 
concerts in 1891, and 1894, and has played at 
concerts in St. James's Hall, Queen's Hall, 
and the Covent Garden Promenade Concerts. 
Her compositions compris-e Three sketches 
for orchestra ; A quartet for strings ; Sonata, 
produced by the Musical Artists' Society, 
March, 1894, pf. and violin ; and a number 
of songs. 

Davies, Miss, sec sub Battishild, 

Davies, Margaret, soprano vocalist, born 
at Dowlais, South Wales. Sang in public 
from ten years of age. In 1886 gained a 
Scholarship at R.C.M. , and while a student 
there appeared with success at the Crj'stal 
Palace Concerts, April 5, 1890. She sang at 
the Cardiff Festival in 1892 ; has been heard 
at many of the best concerts; and was chosen 
for the part of Kitty O'Toole at the produc- 
tion of Stanford's Opera, " Shamus O'Brien," 
March 2, 1896. 

Davies, Mary, soprano vocalist, born in 
London, of Welsh parents, February 27, 1855. 




Educated in the Home aud Colonial Schools, 
Gray's Inn Road. Singing at Welsh concerts 
in London, she attracted the notice of Brinley 
Richards and Edith Wynne, both of whom 
gave her instruction. She won the W^elsh 
Choral Union Scholarship in 1S73, and studied 
at the R.A.M., chiefly under Randegger, 
winning the Parepa-Rosa Gold Medal, 1876, 
and the Nilsson prize, 1877. In 1878 she 
appeared with success at the Worcester 
Festival; also sang at Gloucester, 1883, and 
at Norwich and Chester Festivals. She sang 
in the first complete jserformances in England 
of Berlioz' Faust, at the Halle concerts, IMan- 
chester, March 11, 1880, and at St. James's 
Hall, May 21. As a ballad singer she is best 
known, and has sung at the principal concerts 
throughout the country. She has been elected, 
first an Ass:ciate, then a Fellow of R.A.M. 
In 1888, she was married to Mr. W. Cadwaladr 
Davies, of the Inner Temple. 

Davies, Rev. Owen, Eos Llechyd, 
composer, born at Llanllechid, Bangor, Sep- 
tember, 1828. In years past a successful 
Eisteddfodic competitor. Has devoted his 
attention chiefly to Church music ; and his 
anthems are held in much esteem. He has 
been a zealous worker in the cause of music 
in Wales, aud is still living. 

Davis, Gabriel, composer and vocalist, 
was a native of Bath, where he was born, 
about 1770. He was choirmaster of a Baptist 
Chapel at Portsea early in the present century. 
Composer of " Sacred Music, two hymns on 
the nativity of Christ, and forty psalm tunes," 
London, 1800 ; Ode for Christmas Day, etc. 

Davis, Mrs. Gabriel, horn Marianne 
Davis, comiDoser of a large number of part- 
songs and songs. She died at Littlemore, 
Oxford, July 18, 1888. Among her composi- 
tions may be named — By the river ; Dame 
Trot ; Dame Wiggins of Lee ; King Carnival ; 
Three Stars ; Zingara ; Four-part songs, etc. 

Davis, Miss, an Irish composer of the 
present time, has written a large number of 
sacred and secular songs, duets, etc. Among 
her songs may be named — The arrow and 
the song ; Better land ; Old clock on the 
stairs ; Ruth ; Song of the bell, etc. 

Davis, J. D., composer and pianist, borxr 
at Edgbaston, Birmingham, October 22, 1867. 
Was musical from childhood, but in 1882 was 
sent to Frankfort-on-the-Main to study Ger- 
man, with a view to business pursuits. While 
there he entered the Conservatorium, and 
had lessons from Hans von Billow. In 1883, 
he went to Brussels, and took up the study of 
music in earnest, under Zarembski, Kufferath, 
and Arthur de Greef. Returning to Birming- 
ham, in 1888, he gave himself up to composii:ig 
and teaching. His works include an opera, 
" The Zaporogues," produced by amateurs at 
the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, May 7, 1895 ; 


Legend, " Hero and Leander," for bass solo 
and orchestra ; songs and part songs. A suite, 
overture, and nocturne for orchestra — the last 
given at Mr. Stockley's concerts, January, 
1892 ; Sonatas for pf. and violin, pf. and cello., 
and pf. solo ; six pieces for pt. aud violin 
(Novello's Album) ; two suites for same ; 
pieces for pf., etc. 

Davison, James William, composer and 
writer, born at London, October 5, 1813. He 
studied under W. H. Holmes and (Sir) G. A. 
Macfarren. Married ]\Iiss Arabella Goddard, 
1860. ^Musical critic of the Times and Mu- 
sical World. He died at INIargate, JNIarch 24, 

Works. — An Essay on the Works of Frederic 
Chopin, London [1849], n d. Songs — Swifter 
far than summer's flight ; The light canoe ; 
Poor heart, be still ; Sweet village bells ; The 
lover to his mistress ; False friends, wilt thou 
smile or weep ? Pianoforte Music — Four 
Bagatelles a la valse, op. 4 ; First Sonata, 
op. 6 ; Tarantella, op. 7 ; Three Sketches, 
op. 8 ; Romance, op. 11. Dramatic Overture 
to the fairy tale of " Fortunatus," for pf. duet. 
Contributions to periodical literature. Con- 
tributions to Grove's " Dictionary of Music 
and IMusicians." 

Davison, (Mrs. J. W.), See Goddard, 

Davy, John, composer, was born at LTpton- 
Helions, Exeter, December 23, 1763. Articled 
to Jackson of Exeter, 1777. Resided in Exeter 
as teacher. He afterwards became a violinist 
in the orchestra of Coveut Garden Theatre, 
and a teacher and composer in London. He 
died in St. Martin's Lane, London, February 
22, 1824, in extreme indigence, having out- 
lived all his kindred. 

Works, ^il/ztsic to Plays, etc. — What a 
blunder ! 1800 ; Perouse (with J. Moorhead), 

1801 ; Brazen mask, ballet (with Mountain), 
1802; Cabinet (with Braham), 1802 ; Caffres, 

1802 ; Rob Roy, 1803 ; Miller's maid, 1804 ; 
Harlequin Quicksilver, 1804 ; Thirty thousand 
(with Reeve and Braham), 1805 ; Si^anish dol- 
lars, 1805 ; Harlequin's magnet, 1805 ; Blind 
boy, 1808; Farmer's wife, 1814; Rob Roy 
Macgregor (new version), 1818 ; Woman's will, 
a riddle, 1820. Overture to Shakespere's 
Tempest. Six quartets for voices, in score, 
with figured basses for the pf., op. 1, n.d. ; 
Six madrigals for four voices, op. 13 [c. 1810]. 
Beauties of Handel, 6 vols., n.d. Songs — Bay 
of Biscay, mighty Bacchus, Beggar boy. 
Brave marine. Darling Sue, Harvest home. 
Milkmaid, Smuggler, Son of old Saturn, etc. 
Single and double chants, various. Anthem, 
Lord, who shall dwell, op. 9. 

Davy, Richard, composer of the 10th 
century, some of whose works are in the 
British Jiluseum, among the Fayrfax MSS. 

Dawber, James, organist, born at Wigan, 




September 18, 1851. Received his musical 
training at Henshavv's Blind Asylum, Man- 
chester, 1864-9, and then studied under (Sir) 
Walter Parratt for two years. Graduated 
Mus. Bac, Cambridge, 1878. Settled in 
Wigan as teacher, organist, and choirmaster, 
St. Paul's Congregational Church. To Mr. 
Dawber is due the inception of the movement 
which resulted in the formation of what is 
now known as ihe Incorporated Society of 
Musicians, and he was its first Secretary, 
1882. He has given chamber concerts, and 
has published songs and part-songs. 

Dawson, Charles, author of " Analysis 
of Musical Composition, showing the con- 
struction of all Musical pieces, together with 
a concise and comprehensive system of Har- 
mony," London, 1845. " Elements of Music, 
condensed for the use of students of the 
pianoforte," London, 1844. 

Dawson, Frederick H., pianist, born at 
Leeds, July 16, 1868. At the age of five he 
began his studies under his father, William 
Dawson, a pianist of repute ; and when ten 
lie was taken to (Sir) Charles Halle, who at 
once recognised his great ability. From 
Rubinstein, a few years later, he also received 
encouragement. As a juvenile prodigy, he 
played a great deal in public in the north ; 
but his first important engagement was at 
Ed. Haddock's concerts, Harrogate, in October, 
1885. He appeared at the Halle Concerts, 
Manchester, December, 1890, and made his 
London debut April 18, 1891, at a chamber 
concert of Willy Hess. Gave recitals at 
St. James's Hall, 1891 ; appeared at the 
Monday Popular Concerts, January 8, 1893 ; 
at the Crystal I'alace, February 23, 1895 ; and 
at the Philharmonic Concerts, March 20, of 
the same year. He is now recognised among 
the leading pianists of the day. 

Dawson, W. H. C, musician, compiled 
" Psalm and hymn tunes, in score, for four 
voices," n.d. 

Day, Alfred, physician and musician, 
born at London, in January, 1810, and died 
there February 11, 1849. Author of a 
"Treatise on Harmony," London [184.5], n.d. 
His work on harmony advocates many altera- 
tions in theory, and a number of technical 
terms, most of which have been adopted by 
Macfarren and others. 

Day, Alfred H., organist, of present time. 
He held an appointment at Kimberley, South 
Africa, and went thence to Graham's Town, 
where he was appointed to the Cathedral. 
There he established a College of Music. In 
1893 he was appointed borough organist, and 
conductor of the Philharmonic Society at 
Maritzburg, Natal, where he remains. 

Day, Captain C. R., writer on music. 
Son of the Rev. Russell Day, of Horstead, 
Norfolk ; born in 1860. Educated at Eton, 


and studied music under the late Sir Joseph 
Barnby. Entered the Oxfordshire Light 
Infantry (the old 43rd) in 1882, and served in 
India until 1887. Was severely wounded in 
ihe operations against the Moplas in 1885. 
Married, in 1892, Katherine, daughter of Mr. 
Scott-Chad, of Thursford Hall, Norfolk. His 
principal works are : " The Music and Musical 
Instruments of Southern India and the Dec- 
can," London, Novello, 1891 ; and " A 
Descriptive Catalogue of the Musical Instru- 
menrs recently exhibited at the Royal Military 
Exhibition, London, 1890" (Eyre and Spottis- 
woode, 1891). These are both important and 
valuable books. He contributed an article on 
African Musical Instruments to Ferryman's 
"Up the Niger," 1892. Author of several 
papers and brochures on National and Military 
Music, read at meetings of the Musical Asso- 
ciation (1894), etc. He was a Member of the 
English Committee of the Vienna Inter- 
national Musical and Dramatic Exhibition 
of 1892. 

Day, Ellen, pianist, born in London, 
March 3, 1828. Studied under her father, 
William Day {q.v.), Henry Westrop, and 
Eduard Schulz. Her first appearance was at 
Drury Lane Theatre, in 1836, when she played 
a fantasia by Hlinten, with orchestra, Mori 
leading. In 1838 she played at a concert 
given by Thomas Baker, violinist, in Windsor 
Town Hall ; and the next evening played, by 
command, before the Queen at Windsor 
Castle. The same year she played in London 
with Teresa Milanollo, in June. Then, for 
some years, she appeared in conjunction with 
her brother John (g.v.) When Mendelssohn 
was in London, in 1844, she was invited to 
his house to play to him, and highly compli- 
mented by him. At the first concert the two 
young artists gave, June 16, 1846, Ellen Day 
played a pianoforte duet with Vincent Wallace. 
She continued to play in public for many 
years, in London and the provinces, and still 
retains her powers of execution. For about 
thirty years she has been an organist, first at 
St. Matthew's, and to the present time at 
Christ Church, Westminster. Balfe was her 
staunch friend, and she was instructor of his 
two daughters for some years. 

Day, John, publisher and editor, was born 
in St. Peter's parish, Dunwich, Suffolk, in 
1522. He was established at Holborn, London, 
in 1549, as printer and publisher. He died at 
Walden, Essex, July 23, 1584. He published 
Damon's Psalmes of David, in English meter, 
1579, and a work bearing the title " The 
Whole Booke of Psalmes, collected into Eng- 
lish metre by T. Starnhold, I. Hopkins, and 
others; conferred with the Ebrue, with apt 
notes to synge therewithal, faithfully perused 
and alowed according to the ordre appointed 
in the Queue's maiesties injunctions,".... 




London, 1562, In 1563 he issued the first 
English psalter with niusic in four parts, and 
in 1565 another edition was issued. The title 
is " The Whole Psalmes, in foure parts, 
whiche may be sung to al musical instru- 
m.entes, set forth for the encrease of vertue, 
and abolishying of other vague and trifiying 
ballads," London, 1563. 

Day, John, composer, who flourished at 
end of last, and beginning of the present 
century. Composer of " Harmonica Lyrica, 
selected from the poems of M. T. Scott, and 
adapted for organ or pianoforte," 1820. 

Day, John, violinist, brother of Ellen Day 
(q.v.), was born in London, March 7, 1830. 
Studied under his father, and first appeared 
at the Hanover Square Rooms in 1838. With 
his sister, he was, early in the forties, engaged 
by M. JuUien, and they performed at the 
Lyceum, Covent Garden, and on his provin- 
cial tours. In 1843, the pair visited Brussels, 
and De Beriot took the .young violinist to his 
home as a pupil, afterwards passing him into 
his class at the Conservatoire. On his return 
home he made his debut at the Philharmonic 
■Concerts, June 23, 1845, playing two move- 
ments of De Beriot's second concerto. He 
played at the Norwich Festival, in September, 
and at the second concert of the Birminghani 
Festival Choral Society, October 30, of the 
same year ; and engagements followed at 
every important musical centre. He entered 
the Queen's private band in 1847, and is now 
the senior member. He was appointed 
•organist of New Upton Church, Slough, in 
1853 ; of Old Upton Church shortly after- 
wards, resigning in 1857. Two years later, 
lie went to All Saints', Fulham, where he 
remained until 1869. For the last forty-five 
years his hobby has been the making of 
•copies of violins by the old masters. These 
have been pronounced by competent judges 
to be equal to the originals. See •' Violins, 
old and new," Reeves, reprinted from the 
Musical Standard. 

WiLT.iAM Day, father of the above, was a 
violinist of some reputation. He acted for 
many years as leader at Drury Lane Theatre. 
Died in London, ]\Iarch 3, 1851. 

Day, Wo, musician, compiler of •' Sacred 
Harmony," Madras, 1818. 

Deacon, Harry Collings, vocalist, 
teacher, and writer, born London, 1822. 
He studied pf. under Cip. Potter, and singing 
under ^lazzucato the elder. He lost his voice 
"while he was studying at Milan, and he after- 
wards resided in London as a teacher and 
pianist. He trained Anna Williams, Herbert 
'Thorndike, etc. One of the contributors to 
Grove's " Dictionary of Music." He died in 
London, February 24, 1890. He composed 
■*' Anacreon's Grave," a four-part song ; Con- 
templation ; Ethel ; ilay-time ; Only once 


more ; Over the crisp white snow ; Sing to 
me ; and other songs. First set of 24 studies 
for the pf., London, 1864 ; Tarantella, for the 
pf., etc. 

Deacon, Mary Ann, pianist, organist, 
and teacher, born at Leicester, June 26, 1821. 
Began the study of inusic at the age of six. 
and in 1838 began, at Leicester, her career as 
a teacher, which was successfully maintained 
until her retirement a year or two ago. 
Though not consi^icuously public, I\Iiss Dea- 
con's life has been one of consistent usefulness 
to the cause of music in Leicester, and the 
locality. For twenty years she was organist 
at St. ]Mary's Church, and officiated for ten 
years at two Congregational Churches. From 
1842 onwards she has appeared as vocalist or 
pianist at many concerts ; assisting at Mr. 
Oldershaw's lectures ; training choirs for 
oratorio performances ; and being intimately 
associated with the musical work of that 
enthusiastic amateur, the late William Gar- 
diner. In May, 1896, a complimentary 
concert was given to her by all the musical 
societies in Leicester, on which occasion she 
played in a duet for pf. and flute, with Mr. 
Henry Nicholson, a life-long friend and 
colleague in art. On October 28, 1896, she 
was publicly presented with a portrait of her- 
self, and a sum of money ; the latter she 
placed in trust for founding a "Deacon prize " 
for students resident in Leicester. 

Deakin, Andrew, organist, and critical 
writer, born in Birmingham, April 13, 1822. 
Began to study music at a very early age, 
and, entirely self-taught, became a creditable 
vocalist, organist, and violinist. Served a 
strict apprenticeship to the printing trade, 
and printed, in 1845, the Birmingham Musical 
Examiner, edited by James Stimpson. After 
some years service as organist at different 
places of worship, he was appointed to the 
Church of the Saviour (founded by George 
Dawson, the great preacher and lecturer), in 
1847, a post he held until 1878. As early as 
1849 he began writing musical criticisms for 
newspapers, and when the Birviingham Morn- 
ing News was started in 1871, he was appoint- 
ed its musical critic. In 1876 he joined the 
Birmingham Daily Gazette in a similar 
capacity, resigning the office towards the 
close of 1894. A diligent student of every- 
thing appertaining to music, he is recognised 
as an authority, and his services are much in 
request as an annotator of concert pro- 
grammes. He has composed hymn tunes, 
chants, and anthems, and among larger works 
a Stabat ]\Iater for solo voices, chorus, and 
organ, and a "Miserere," have been performed 
at the Church of the Saviour. lu 1846 he 
compiled and jDublished "Euphonia," one of 
the very earliest collections of music for non- 
conformistpublic worship ; a work that exerted 




more than a local influence. A recent publi- 
cation is a "Musical Bibliography, a catalogue 
of historical and theoretical works published 
in England, from the 15th to the 18th centu- 
ries," Birmingham, Stockley and Sabin, 1892 ; 
a companion work on a large scale, dealing 
with the music of the same periods, is in 
preparation. ]\Ir. Deakin is also known as a 
landscape painter and etcher, and some forty 
years ago his name was often seen in the 
catalogues of London and provincial 

Dean, J., author of " Guide and Self- 
Instructor for the Violin," London, 1853. 

Deane, Thomas, composer and organist, 
who flourished during the end of the 17th and 
first half of the 18th centuries. He was 
organist at Warwick and Coventry, and became 
Mus. Bac. and Doc, Oxon, 1731. He com- 
posed music for Oldmison's ' ' Governor of 
Cyprus," contributed to the "Division Vio- 
lin," and was the first to introduce Corelli's 
Sonatas to England. 

Dearie, Edward, organist and composer, 
born at Cambridge, March 2, 1806. As a boy 
he was a chorister in King's, Trinity, and 
St. John's Colleges, Cambridge, and having 
studied the organ, obtained his first appoint- 
ment at St. Paul's Deptford, 1827. He was 
successively at Blackheath parish church, 
1880 ; Wisbeach parish church, 1832 ; St. 
Mary's, Warwick, 1833 ; organist of the parish 
church and master of the song school, Newark, 
1835-64. While at Newark he graduated 
Mus. Bac, 1836, and Mus. Doc, 1842, Cam- 
bridge. In 1864 he removed to Camberwell, 
where he continued to reside. He was one 
of the founders of Trinity College, London, 
and took an active interest in the welfare of 
the inusical profession. An occasional con- 
tributor to the press, he wrote in 1850, a series 
of letters on organisation, anticipating in a 
remarkable manner the formation of the 
Incorporated Society of Musicians. He died 
at Camberwell, London, March 20, 1891. 

Works — Israel in the Wilderness, oratorio 
(published 1879) ; Morning and evening ser- 
vice in P (1832) ; Morning and evening service 
(1852 ?) ; A volume of church music (1838). 
Anthem, Turn Thee again. Thou God of Hosts 
(Gresham Prize, 1837); The desert shall re- 
joice ; Rend your hearts ; Four anthems 
(1852), etc Thirty-six chants (1852). Songs 
— Lays of the heai-t (1829), etc. Part-songs — 
Sigh no more, ladies ; JMountain Daisy, and 
others. Andante Cantabile, organ, etc. 

Dearnaley, Irvine, organist and con- 
ductor, born in the village of Broadbottom, 
Chester, September 29, 1839. His father was 
a spinner in a cotton mill, and was devoted 
to music, helping his son as far as he could. 
When seventeen, young Dearnaley obtained 
the post of organist at Staleybridge, and 


studied under J. J. Harris, afterwards taking 
pianoforte lessons from Halle, and working 
at harmony under H. Hiles. Then he became 
organist of Christ Church, and of the parish 
church, Ashton-under-Lyne, from 1864. He 
was conductor of the Gentlemen's Glee Club, 
and Philharmonic Society in that town ; and 
in 1883, was made musical director of the 
Gentlemen's Glee Club, Manchester. Gave 
many organ recitals in the district. Com- 
posed some anthems and pieces for the organ. 
He died at Ashton, September 18, 1894. 

Deering, or Dering, Richard, composer 
and organist, born in Kent, at the end of the 
16th century. He was educated in Italj', and 
afterwards became organist at a monastery of 
English nuns in Brussels, 1617. Organist to 
Henrietta Maria, Consort of Charles I., 1625. 
Mus. Bac, Oxon. , 1610. He died in 16.30. 

Works.— Cantiones Sacrte quinque vocum, 
cum basso continuo ad organum, Antwerp, 
1597 ; Cantica Sacrte ad melodiam madri- 
galium elaborata senis vocibus, Antwerp, 
1618 ; Cantiones Sacra;, 1619 ; Canzonette, 
1620. He also wrote motets, madrigals, etc., 
many of which are preserved in MS. at Ox- 
ford and London. He died in the Roman 
Catholic faith. It is claimed for Deering that 
his 1597 Cantiones were the first works issued 
with a figured bass. 

De Fonblanque, Ellen, See szib. Camp- 
bell, Gilbert -James. 

De la Fond, John Francis, author and 
teacher of languages in London during the 
first half of last century. He issued, among 
other works, a " New System of Musick, both 
theoretical and practical, and yet not mathe- 
matical, written in a manner entirely new, 
that is to say, in a style plain and intelligible," 
London, 1724. 

Del any, J. A„, organist and composer, 
born in London, 1852. Went to Sydney, 
Australia, and became a pupil of W. J. Cord- 
ner, whom he succeeded as organist of St. 
Mary's R. C. Cathedral, a post he held 1871-6. 
Then he went as chorus-master and pianist to 
the Opera House, Melbourne (then under the 
management of W. S. Lyster, who died in 
1880), where he remained some years. In 
1882 he was appointed choir-master of St. 
Mary's Cathedral, Sydney, and three years 
later succeeded Max Vogrich as conductor of 
the Svdnev Liedertafel, which positions he 
still holds." For St. Mary's Cathedral he has 
composed IMasses in F, and A fiat ; and has 
also composed a Cantata, " Ca]ptain Cook," 
and other works. 

Dempster, William Richardson, com- 
poser, born at Keith, Banffshire, in 1808 ; 
died at London, INIarch 7, 1871. He composed 
a number of part-songs and pf. pieces ; also 
Songs : Bird of the wilderness ; Blind boy ; 
Come o'er the mountain to me ; Doubting 




heart ; ]\Iav queen ; My love Annie ; Songs in 
the Idylls of the King, Tennyson [1864] . 

Dennis, John, writer and musician, born 
at London in 1G57. He studied at Cambridge, 
and afterwards travelled in France and Italy. 
He died on January 6th, 1733. Author of 
" An Essay on the Italian Opera," London, 

Derham, William, English writer, was 
born in 1657, and died in 1735. Author of, 
among other works, the following, "The Arti- 
ficial Clock-maker . . shewing . . the way to alter 
clock-work, to make chimes and set them to 
musical notes," London, 1696 [other editions]. 

Dering, sec Dkeeing. 

D'Este, John, musician and writer, 
author of " Music made easy, the Rudiments 
of Music," London, 1849; "The Vocalist's 
Vade Mecum, or Pocket Companion, Practical 
Hints on Singing," etc., London, 1872. 

Deval, Harry, writer and composer, 
author of "The Art of Vocalization, with com- 
plete instructions for the Cultivation of the 
Voice," London, n.d. Comj)oserof "The Rival 
Clans," Opera, Newcastle, 1846, and of music 
to "A Midsummer night's dream," Newcastle, 

Dewar, Daniel, Scottish clergyman and 
author of the end of last and beginning of the 
present century. He was professor of moral 
philosophy in Aberdeen University. He wrote 
" Observations on the character, customs, 
superstitions, music, poetry, and language of 
the Irish," London, 1812, 2 vols. 

Dewar, James, composer, conductor, and 
violinist, born at Edinburgh, July 26, 1793. 
Deputy-leader in Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, 
1807, and afterwards musical director. Organ- 
ist of St. George's Episcopal Church, 1815-35. 
Conductor of Edinburgh ^Musical Association. 
He died at Edinburgh, January 4, 1846. 
Dewar is famous for his arrangements of 
Scottish airs for the orchestra, a pf. edition 
of which was published about 1850. His work 
with the title, " Popular National Melodies 
adapted for the Pianoforte," Edinburgh, 1826, 
had a large circulation. He composed also 
a few part-songs and other vocal pieces, and 
edited " The Border Garland, Poetry by 
Hogg," [c. 1829] . His brother Johx was also 
a composer. 

Dewberry, William Charles, organist 
and conductor, born at Cambridge, January 16, 
1843. Chorister and solo boy at King's College, 
Cambridge, and afterwards assistant-organist. 
Pupil, later, of Sterndale Bennett, C. Lucas, 
and W. G. Cusins, and R.A.IM. silver medalist 
and Associate. Organist of Clare College, and 
St. Edward's Church, Cambridge, where he 
is resident as performer and teacher. He 
graduated Mus. Bac, Cambridge, 1887. He 
took an active part in establishing several of 
the college musical societies, and under his 


direction the Cambridge Musical Society 
attained a high position, producing such works 
as filacfarren's " St. John the Baptist," etc. 
As a Freemason he is a P.M. of Lodge 441, 
and P.P.G.O. for the Grand Chapter and 
Province of Cambridgeshire. His composi- 
tions embrace a setting of Psalm 13 ; An 
Evening Service in E flat ; Ai^thems, chants, 
and part-songs, etc. 

Fkederick Dewberry, hisyoungcrbrother, 
was born at Cambridge in 1848. Chorister at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and articled pupil 
of the late J. L. Hopkins. In 1868, elected 
organist and choirmaster of Gonville and 
Caius College, retiring in 1892. Organist of 
St. Michael's, Cambridge, 1871 ; St. Andrew 
the Great, 1873, to the present time, with the 
exception of a year, 1890-1, at St. Mary's, 
Saffron Walden. Graduated Mus. Bac, Cam- 
bridge, 1886; F.R.C.O., L.R.A.M. In 1882 
he was given the appointment of organist at 
the Guildhall, Cambridge, and is also organist 
to Dr. A. H. Mann's festival choir. Has given 
many recitals. Like his brother, he is a 
XDrominent Freemason, holding important 
offices in the Provincial Grand Cbax^ter. 

Dews, Elizabeth, contralto vocalist, born 
at Wolverhampton. Received her early 
musical training from local teachers and 
masters in Birmingham. Appeared in that 
city in "Elijah," in November, 1884, while 
still a young student Afterwards proceeded 
to London, and studied under W. Shakespeare, 
and Signor Randegger She made her debut 
in St. James's Hall, November 25, 1891 ; 
sang at Boosey's ballad concerts, 1893 ; and 
at the Crystal Palace, in Berlioz' " Romeo et 
Juliette," December 15, 1894. She went on 
a tour in Germany with Madame Valleria, 
and is now a singer of established repvitation, 
being engaged for such concerts as those of the 
Birmingham Festival Choral Society, the 
Liverpool Philharmonic, and societies at 
Leeds, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Dublin. 
Madame Dews sang at the jubilee performance 
of "Elijah," at the Royal Albert Hall, April 
23, 1896. She is married to a Scotsman, 
Mr. I). A. Parker. 

Dibdin, Charles, composer and writer, 
was born at Dibden, near Southampton [bap- 
tized March 4], 1745. He studied at Win- 
chester College, and was taught music by 
Kent and Fussell. Appeared as an actor at 
Richmond and Birmingham. Went to Lon- 
don, and was employed by Bickerstaff as 
composer and singer, 1765. Renounced stage, 
and commenced giving medley monodramas 
in London, 1788. He died at London, July 
25, 1814. 

Works. — Musical Dramas etc. — Shepherd's 
Artifice, 1763 ; Love in the city, 1767 ; Damon 
and Phillida, 1768 ; Lionel and Clarissa, 1768 ; 
Padlock, 1768 ; Maid the Mistress, 1769 ; Re- 




cruiting Sergeant, 1769 ; Ephesian Matron, 
1769 ; Jubilee, 1769 ; Queen Mab, 1769 ; Cap- 
tive, 1769 ; Pigmy Revel, 1770 ; Wedding Ring ; 
Institution of the Garter, 1770 ; Ladle, m-2 ; 
Mischance ; Brickdust Man ; Widow of Ab- 
ingdon ; Palace of Mirth, 1772 ; Christmas 
Tale, 1773 ; Trip to Portsmouth ; Deserter ; 
Grenadier, 1773 ; Waterman, 1774 ; Cobbler, 
1774 ; Quaker, 1775 ; Two Misers, 1775 ; Se- 
raglio, 1776 ; Blackamoor ; ]\Ietamorphoses ; 
Razor grinder ; Yo, yea, or the friendly Tars ; 
Old Woman of eighty ; Mad Doctor ; She is 
mad for a Husband ; England against Italy ; 
Fortune Hunter : All's not gold that glitters, 
1776; Poor Vulcan, 1778 ; Rose and Colin; 
Wives Revenged ; Annette and Lubin ; Milk- 
maid, 1778 ; Plymouth in an uproar, 1779 ; 
Chelsea Pensioners; Mirror; Touchsione, 
1779; Shepherdess of the Alps, 1780; Har- 
lequin Freemason ; Islanders, 1780 ; Jupiter 
and Alcmena, 1781 ; None so blind as those 
who won't see, 1782 ; Barrier of Parnassus, 
1783 ; Graces ; Saloon ; Mandarina ; Land 
of simplicity ; Passions ; Statue ; Clump and 
Cudden ; Benevolent Tar; Regions of Ac- 
complishment ; Lancashire Witches, 1783 ; 
Cestus, 1784 ; Pandora ; Long Odds ; Liberty 
hall, 1785 ; Harvest Home, 1787 ; Loyal 
effusion, 1797. Monodramas — Whim of the 
moment, 1788 ; Oddities, 1789 ; Wags ; Pri- 
vate Theatricals, 1791 ; Quizzes, 1792 ; Castles 
in the air, 1798 ; Great news, 1794 ; Will of 
the wisp, 1795 ; Christmas gambols, 1795 ; 
General Election, 1796 ; Sphinx, 1797 ; Val- 
entine's day, 1797; King and Queen, 1798; 
Tour to the Land's End, 1799 ; Tom Wilkins, 
1799 ; Cake house, 1800 ; Frisk, 1801 ; Most 
votes, 1802 ; New Year's Gifts ; Broken Gold ; 
Briton's Strike Home ; Datchet Mead ; Com- 
modore Pennant ; Heads and Tails ; Frolic, 
etc. Litcrarij Mimical Works — The Harmonic 
Preceptor, a Didactic poem in three parts, 
London, 1804 ; The English Pythagoras, or 
every man his own music-master, London, 
1808 ; Music epitomized, a School Book in 
which the whole science of music is clearly 
explained, London, n.d. Hannah Hewitt, or 
the female Crusoe, novel, 1792 ; Younger 
brother, novel, 1793 ; Musical tour, Sheffield, 
1788 ; History of the Stage, London, 5 vols., 
1795 ; Observations on a Tour through almost 
the whole of England, and a considerable 
part of Scotland . . . London, 2 vols., 1801 ; 
The professional life of Mr. Dibdin, written 
by himself, with the words of six hundred 
songs selected from his works, London, 4 vols., 
1803. Songs, chronologically arranged, with 
notes, memoir, etc., by George Hogarth, 1842, 
2 vols. 

Dibdin, according to the biography prefixed 
by his son Thomas to the 1875 edition of his 
songs, wrote over 1300 songs. Tn addition to 
these he wrote other music in his entertain- 


ments, etc., the gross amount of music and 
words which he wrote being in number over 
3000 pieces. Of these, very few are now used, 
" The Waterman " is the only large piece, 
and "Poor Jack" and "Tom Bowling" 
almost the only songs. 

Dibdin, Charles, Jun., son of the above, 
poet and writer, born about 1769. He was 
for some years part-proprietor of Sadlers' 
Wells Theatre, London, and wrote, among 
other pieces, the "Farmer's wife," "My 
spouse and I," and a number of Burlettas, 
Pantomimes, Songs, etc. He died at London, 
January 13, 1833. 

Dibdin, Henry Edward, musician and 
compiler, born in London, September 8, 1813. 
Grandson of Charles Dibdin. He studied 
under his sister, ]Mrs. Tonna, and Bochsa, the 
harpist. From 1833 he resided at INIorning- 
side, Edinburgh, as a teacher ; and he also 
was hon. organist of TrinityChapel, Edinburgh. 
He died at Edinburgh, May 6, 1866. 

Works. — The Standard Psalm-Tune Book, 
containing upwards of 600 specimens, com- 
piled from the original editions . . London 
[1851] ; Reid's Praise Book, 1868, harmonised ; 
Collection of Church Music, consisting of 
chants, psalm and hvhnn tunes, etc., 1843, 
edited with J. T. Surenne. 

His sons, Edward Rimbault Vere (Edin- 
burgh, August 25, 1853), and James Robert 
William (Edinburgh, December 9, 1856), are 
both musicians. The former has composed 
some songs and part-songs, and the latter is 
perhaps best known by his " Annals of the 
Edinburgh stage," 1888. His wife, born 
Isabella Perkins Palmer, was born at 
Southwold, Suffolk, January 19, 1828. She 
was married in 1846. She composed a few 
hymn tunes, and was a good soprano vocalist. 
His sister, Mary Anke Dibdin, born about 
1800, was a harpist, and studied under Chal- 
loner and Bochsa. In 1824 she became 
assistant teacher of the liarp at the R.A.M. 
She married Mr. Tonna. 

Dibdin, Thomas John, dramatist and 
musician, son of Charles, senr., born, London, 
March 21, 1771. Pie was an actor and dram- 
atic author, and appeared in the provinces 
and at Sadler's Wells Theatre, and Covent 
Garden Theatre, London. He was joint pro- 
prietor of Sadler's Wells Theatre from 1802, 
and died at Clerkenwell, London, September 
16, 1841. 

Works. — Numerous dramatic pieces, pro- 
duced at Sadler's Wells, and elsewhere. The 
Cabinet, an opera. Songs in the collection 
entitled "Lays of the last three Dibdins." 
Reminiscences of Thomas Dibdin of Covent 
Garden," etc., London, 1827, 2 vols. 

Dick, Charles George Cotsford, com- 
poser, born in London, September 1, 1846. 
Educated at Oxford, and prepared for the 




Bar, bv;t obliged, from ill-health, to give it up. 
Works. — Operettas: Our doll's house (Ger- 
man Reed, 1876) ; Our new doll's hoiise (the 
same, 1877) ; Back from India (1879) ; Doctor 
D, comic opera (Royalty Theatre, 1885) ; The 
Baroness (the same, 1892). A Children's 
Opera, A Fairy Wedding, in six parts, for pf. 
The Waif (play, adapted from the French, 
Haymarket Theatre, May, 1892). Songs: 
Doily Varden ; Olivia ; Golden wedding song ; 
Three songs, etc. Pf. pieces : Fireside fan- 
cies, six pieces ; Toccata ; December and 
]May ; Belinda Gavotte ; Deux Melodies ; etc. 
Author of a volume of verse : The Way of the 
World (London, Redway, 1896). 

Dickons, Maria, born Poole, soprano 
vocalist, born at London about 1770. She 
studied under Rauzzini, at Bath, and first 
appeared at Vauxhall in 1783. She appeared 
at Covent Garden in 179.3, and sang regularly 
at the Ancient (from 1792) and Vocal concerts, 
and in the principal provincial towns. In 
1800 she married IMr. Dickons, and retired for 
a time, but she resumed public singing again 
in London in 1806, and afterwards appeared 
at Paris, 1816, Venice, etc. She was made a 
member of the Instituto Filarmonico, Venice. 
She appeared for a short time in London in 
1819, but retired soon afterwards, and died 
May 4, 1833. 

Dickson, Ellen, " Dolores," composer, 
daughter of General Sir Alex. Dickson, was 
born at Woolwich, in 1819. She resided 
during her life-time chiefly at Lyndhurst, in 
the New Forest, having been an invalid from 
youth. She became known in her district for 
many charitable actions. She died at Lynd 
hurst, July 4, 1878. 

Works. — Songs : Clear and cool ; Destiny ; 
Goldilocks ; The land of long ago ; my lost 
love ; Pack clouds away ; The racing river ; 
She walked beside me ; Tell her not when I 
am gone ; Unchanged, etc. 

These songs acquired a considerable amount 
of popularity in their day, and some of them 
are even now in vogue. 

Dickson, Rev. William Edward, clergy- 
man and writer, born at Richmond, Yorkshire, 
1823. B. A., Cantab., 1846; M. A. 1851. Or- 
dained 1846. Precentor of Ely Cathedral, 

Works. — Singing in Parish Churches, 
1858 ; Cathedral Choirs, 1877 ; Practical 
Organ Building, London, 1881 ; Fifty years 
of Church :Music, Ely, 1895. 

Diemer, Philip Henry, composer, pianist 
and organist, born at Bedford, July 18, 1839. 
Of German extraction, and cousin of the 
distinguished pianist, Louis Diemer, of Paris. 
Studied at R.A.M., pianoforte, under W. H. 
Holmes, and harmony with G. A. Macfarren. 
Elected Associate of the Philharmonic Society 
1882. Has been organist and choirmaster of 


Holy Trinity, Bedford, for more than thirty 
years, and has directed musical services there 
when Bach's " Passion," and other oratorios 
have been given with orchestra. Director of 
Music at Bedford Grammar School for over 
thirty-five years In 1866, founded the Bed- 
ford Musical Society, which gives four concerts 
annually ; at the 100th concert he was pub- 
licly presented with a testimonial. For ten 
years he gave a short season of chamber con- 
certs, at which he apjDeared as pianist 

Works. - Cantatas : Thoughts of home, 
treble voices (1867) ; Bethany, Bedford, 1881, 
and, later, in London, many other places, and 
some of the Colonies ; Alcestis (written for 
25th annual concert of the Grammar School). 
Farewell, and a Jubilee Ode (both with or- 
chestra). Collection of original hymn-tunes;, 
anthems ; Songs and part-songs ; Pf. pieces, 

Dignum, Charles, tenor vocalist, was 
born at Rotherhithe, London, in 1765. Chor- 
ister in chajjel of Sardinian ambassador, Lon- 
don. He studied music under Samuel Webbe, 
and worked for a time as carver and gilder. 
Articled to T. Linley for seven years. Debut 
as Meadows in "Love in a Village," 1784. 
Sang afterwards at Vauxhall, Haym.arket 
Theatre, etc. He died at London, March 29, 

Dignum, who was usuallj' regarded as the 
successor of Beard, composed a number of 
songs, and published a collection of "Vocal 
Music, consisting of songs, duets, and glees," 
London [c. 1810] , with portrait. He was 
most successful as a singer of English ballads. 
Among his single songs may be named Maid 
of the rock ; Neglected Tar ; Poor Recruit ; 
Soldier's consolation ; Sweet Jane ; William 
of AUerton Green, etc. 

Ding, Lawrence, musician and publisher, 
who was engaged in business in Edinburgh, 
and died there in October, 1800. He pub- 
lished " The Songster's Favourite, or a new 
collection containing 40 of the most cele- 
brated songs, duets, trios, etc.," Edinburgh, 
n.d. " The Anacreontic Aluseum," Edin- 
burgh, n.d., etc. 

Distin, Theodore, composer and singer, 
born at Brighton, in 1823. Son of John 
Distin (1793-1863), a celebrated trumpet- 
plaj-er and inventor of the keyed bugle, 
under whom he studied. His father having 
organized a band, composed of members of 
the family, Theodore played the French horn 
in it, and travelled with it from 1836 to 1844. 
Afterwards he studied singing under T. Cooke 
and Negri and became a baritone singer in 
the Pyne and Harrison Opera Company. He 
was a singer in Bencher's Chapel, Lincoln's 
Inn, and an Associate of the R.A.M. He was 
latterly a teacher in London, and died on 
April 12, 1893. 




Works. — Services in C and G. Glees and 
part-songs. Two masses. Songs, etc. In 
1890, he wrote a madrigalian chorus entit]i?d 
The Break of Day. Tutor for the BaLad 
Horn [1871]. His father issued A selection 
of Swedish Melodies arranged for cornet, sax- 
horn, etc. [1847]. 

Dixon, Rev. E. S., writer, author of 
" Tlie Piano Primer, and Instructor's 
Assistant," n.d. 

Dixon, George, composer and organist, 
born at Norwicli, June 5, 1820. Chorister Nor- 
wich Cathedral, 1827-H4. Musically trained 
as a puivate pupil of Dr. Buck to 1835. Pup)il 
and assisian' organist of Parish Church, 
Grantham, 1835-45. Organist of the Parish 
Church, Retford, Notts., 1845-59; Parish 
Church, Louth, 1859-65; Parish Church, 
Grantham, 1865, resigned, 1886. Mus. Bac, 
Oxon., 1852; Mus. Doc, 1858. An Hon. Ex- 
aminer for Royal College of Music, at Gran- 
tham and Lincoln. He died at Finchley, 
June 8, 1887. 

Works. — 121st Psalm, for voices and or- 
chestra (MS.) Pope's Messiah, cantata for 
voices and orchestra (MS.) Numerous an- 
thems, hymns, rhants, etc. Songs. He also 
contribut d to various collections of psalms 
and chants. 

Dixon, J., musician, author of "Canto 
Recitative, or a system of English Chant . . " 
London [1816]. 

Dixon, William, writer, teacher, and 
music-engraver, born about 1760 ; died Lon- 
don, 1825. He resided chiefly in Liverpool 
and London. 

Works. — Sacred music, consisting of a Te 
Deum . . . anthems, psalm tunes, and 
hymns . . . [1790]. Euphonia ... 62 
Psalm and hymn tunes in four parts . . . 
for the congrega ion of All Saints' Church, 
Liverpool. Six glees for three voices. Mo- 
ralities : six glees, Cambridge [1800]. In- 
troduction to singing, containing rules for 
singing at sight . . . 1795. 

Dixon, William Hubert, organist and 
composer, born at Bishopstone, Wilts., August 
1, 1846. Organist of High Church, Kilmar- 
nock, from 1869, and conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society there. His sacred cantata, 
"Jerusalem," was produced at Kilmarnock, 
December, 1887 ; he has also written some 
part songs and pf. pieces. He died at Kil- 
marnock, July 31, 1893. 

Dobson, John, psalmody collector and 
composer, was born in 1814, died, Richmond, 
Surrey, Mayl, 1888. He was an industrious 
collector of psalm and hymn books, and his 
library was sold in November, 1889, in 492 
lots, consisting mainly of collections of 
psalmody. He edited "Tunes new and old," 
1864, and other editions till 1877, of which 
some were revised by Dr. Gauntlett. 


Docker, Frederick Arthur William, 

organist and conductor, born in London, 
August 14, 1852. Studied, R.A.M. Associate 
of the Academy. Organist and choirmaster, 
St. Andrew's, Wells Street, London, where he 
was first a chorister, then pupil of, and assist- 
ant to, the late Sir Joseph Barnby. When 
the Handel Society was formed, in 1882, he 
was appointed conductor; an office he held 
for ten years. He also conducts the concerts 
of the Kyrle Society, succeeding Malcolm 
Lawson in 1886. He has published a setting 
of the Te Deum ; ye that love the Lord, 
and other church music ; part-songs, etc. 

Dodds, Tom William, organist and 
composer, son of Thomas Dodds, tenor vocal- 
ist (died 1892), was born at Leeds, September 
22, 1852. At nine years of age became a 
chorister at Leeds Parish Church, and a year 
later organist of Headingley Chapel. Educa- 
ted at Bury Grammar School. Organist 
successively of St. Matthew's, Leeds, 1863-6 ; 
St. Wilfred's Collegiate Chapel, 1866-72 ; and 
of Queen's College, and St. Clement's Church, 
Oxford, since 1872. Graduated Mus. Bac, 
1876; Mus. Doc, L887, Oxford. Examiner 
for musical degrees in Oxford University, 
1895. His compositions comprise an oratorio, 
" Hezekiah," a setting of Psalm 8 ; chants, 
hymn tunes and pf. pieces. 

Dodwell, Rev. Henry, clergyman and 
writer, born at Dublin, 1641, died in 1711. 
In addition to many theological works, he 
wrote "A Treatise on the lawfulness of instru- 
mental Musick in Holy Offices," . London, 
1700 ; 2nd edition, with large additions, 1700. 

Dodworth, Harvey B., bandmaster and 
composer, born at Sheffield in 1822. Inventor 
of the rotary string-valve and bell-back 
instruments. Settled in the United States. 
He wrote and published several works on 
band instruments and military band instru- 
mentation. The first military band in the 
U.S. was organised by Mr. Dodworth. He 
was a musician of sterling worth, and was 
much esteemed in the United States. He 
died at New York, in April, 1891. 

Dolby, Charlotte, see Sainton-Dolby. 

" Dolores." Sec Dickson (Ellen). 

Donaldson, John, musician, theorist, 
and Professor of Music in Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, 1845-65, was born about 1790, died at 
Cramond, near Edinburgh, August 12, 1865. 
He was for s'^me time previous to his appoint- 
ment a teacher of music in Glasgow, and had 
been bred to the law. He did much to pro- 
mote the interests of the Chair of Music in 
the University, and practically did everything 
to establish the efficiency of the Chair, by the 
erection of the music room and organ, and by 
getting the rights of the IMusic Chair estab- 
lished by process at Law in 1851-55. 

Done, Joshua, organist and writer, was 




born ill London. He studied at Paris under 
Cherubini, and was organist successively of 
S. Jolm's, Lambeth ; Chelsea Old Church ; 
Knightsbridge Chapel ; and S. Augustine's, 
Liverpool. He died at King's Lynn, Novem- 
ber 2, 1848, in extreme poverty. Author of 
"A Short Treatise on Harmony, Thorough 
Bass, and ^Modulation, including the compass 
and properties of Musical Instruments in 
general." London, Cocks, n.d. "Treatise on 
the Organ," London, 1837. "Tuner's Com- 
panion : a Treatise on the Construction of 
Pianofortes, .with various methods of Tuning 
them," London, n.d. "Selection of the most 
popular, w-itli many original Psalm and Hymn 
Tunes, Chants, etc.," London [18.30.] 

Done, William, organist and conductor, 
born at Worcester, 1815. Entered the Cathe- 
dral choir in 1825, and sang in the chorus at 
the Worcester Festival of 1827. In 1839 he 
was apprenticed to Charles E. J. Clarke, the 
Cathedral Organist, and was elected his suc- 
cessor, June, 1844. He conducted the Wor- 
cester Festival of 1845, and was associated 
with the meetings of the Three Choirs until 
1890, when he resigned the baton, and took 
upon himself the duty of orchestral steward. 
In 1894, he celebrated his jubilee as organist 
of the Cathedral, when the ArchbishoiJ of 
Canterbury conferred on him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Music. He was for many 
years conductor of the Worcester Philhar- 
monic Society, an office he resigned in 1884. 
He composed much Church music, but will 
be more remembered by the reforms he insti- 
tuted in the Cathedral services, the introduc- 
tion of great works on special occasions, and 
the formation of a large voluntarv choir. He 
died at Worcester, August 17, 1895. 

Donkin, W. F., writer and nrusician, 
M.A., F.R.S., etc. Saviliau Professor of As- 
tronomv, Oxford. Author of " Acoustics, 
Theoretical." Part L, Oxford, 1870. All 
published of a work designed to cover the 
whole range of the science of sound. 

Doorly, Martin Edward, organist and 
composer, born in Demerara, British Guiana, 
1847. Was for many years organist of the 
Cathedral, Bridgetown, Barbadoes, and con- 
ductor of concerts ; also music master at 
Queen's College, Barbadoes. In 1891, he gradu- 
ated Mus. Bac, Durham, after examination 
held at Codrington College (affiliated to Dur- 
ham University), Barbadoes. He composed an 
oratorio, "The Raising of Lazarus," produced 
at Marshall's Hall, Bridgetown, August 24, 
1880, and repeated on the 27th, in St. Leo- 
nard's Church ; this performance being con- 
ducted by the Lord Bishop of the diocese 
(Dr. ilitchinson). He also wrote an opera, 
"Equality;" A burlesque; and published 
some organ pieces and songs. He died at 
Barbadoes, August 22, 1895. 


His brother, the Rev. W. S. Doorly, was 
born at Upper Park Camp, Jamaica, in 1851. 
Studied music under F. Jackson, of Hull ; 
J. Whomes, of Woolwich ; with Dr. Wylde, 
and others at the London Academy of Music ; 
and Tonic Sol-fa with L. C. Venables. Was 
organist of St.lMary's, Bridgetown, Barbadoes, 
1870-2 ; appointed organist and choirmaster 
of Holy Trinity Cathedral, Trinidad, in 1872. 
Took holy orders in 1877, and was appointed 
Hon. Canon and Precentor of the Cathedral 
in 1894. At Port-of-Spain he has been very 
active as a conductor of choral and orchestral 
societies ; and in addition to the Messiah, 
Elijah, Hymn of Praise, and such established 
compositions, has brought forward " The 
Redemption" (Gounod); "Lazarus" (M. E, 
Doorly, 188-3); "St. John the Evangelist" 
(Arme's) ; " The Prodigal Son " (Sullivan) ; 
" The Crucifixion " (Stainer) ; and many other 
important works for the first time in Trinidad. 

Doran, Rev. John Wilberforce, clergy- 
man and author, born London, 1834. B.A., 
Cantab, 1857 ; M.A., 1861 ; Ordained, 1857. 
Vicar of Fen Stanton, Huntingdonshire, 1883. 
He has compiled a large number of works for 
the musical service of the Church of England, 
such as Choir Directory of Plain Song. The 
Psalter and Canticles arranged for Gregorian 
chanting. Ritual Music of the Altar. Choir 
Book of Ritual Music of the Altar. Hyfforddwr 
av y Gan Eglwysig (Welsh Plain-song Di- 
rectory). Te Deums, Chants, etc. 

Dorrell, William, pianist, born in Lon- 
don, September 5, 1810. Son of Edmund 
Dorrell, painter, and early member of the old 
Water Colour Society. William Dorrell 
received his first lessons from his eldest sister, 
an d afterwards entered the R. A.M., and studied 
under Dr. Crotch, Cipriani Potter, and Charles 
Lucas. In 1844 he went to Paris, and studied 
with Kalkbrenner and Stephen Heller. Re- 
turning to London, he was made a Professor 
of the Pf. at the R.A.M., an office he retained 
for over forty years. Half a century ago 
Mr. Dorrell was known as a most skilful 
pianist, and he appeared occasionally in 
public. One noticeal3le concert he gave at 
the Hanover Square Rooms, June 2, 1842, 
when he played Bennett's Concerto in E flat. 
Mendelssohn was present at this concert. 
His time was afterwards mainly occupied in 
teaching, his pupils including members of 
many noble families. Of his compositions 
very little is known. At a Matinee d'invita- 
tion he gave at his residence, June 20, 1882, 
he introduced a movement from a Sonata for 
pf. and violin, which he played with M. Sain- 
ton. He was one of the founders of the Bach 
Society, in 1849 ; Member of the Royal 
Society of Musicians, and of the Philharmonic 
Society. He died in London, December 13, 
1896. The sister, already mentioned, Jane 




DoRRELL, was a fine pianist, pupil of Mrs. 
Anderson, and Cipriani Potter. In 1830, she 
played at the " Oratorios " at Covent Garden 
Theatre. She played Mendelssohn's Rondo 
brilliant in B minor, at the concert of June 2, 
1842 ; and once had the honour of playing to 
Queen Adelaide, at St. James's Palace. She 
died in London, July 19, 1883 

Dorrington, Theoph., clergyman of the 
18th century, author of " A Discourse on 
Singing in the Worship of God," London, 

Dougall, Neil, minor poet and composer, 
was born at Greenock, December 9, 1776. 
Apprenticed to mercantile marine service, 
1791. He continued a seaman till accidentally 
wounded while discharging a cannon, in 1794. 
Became a teacher of music, 1799. Married 
Margaret Donaldson, 1806. Inn-keeper in 
Greenock, 1824. He died at Greenock, 
October 1, 1862. 

Works.— Poems and Songs, Greenock, 1854. 
Psalm tunes : Naples, 1801 ; Kilmarnock, 
1823 ; Patience ; New East Church ; etc. 
Also tunes contributed to Stevens' " Sacred 
Music," vol. 6. 

His daughter, Lilly Dougall, was at one 
time a well-known contralto vocalist. 

Dow, Daniel, composer, teacher, and 
collector of last century, was born in Perth- 
shire in 1732, and from 1705 he resided in 
Edinburgh as a teacher, etc. He died at 
Edinburgh, January 20, 1788. 

Works. — Twenty Minuets and sixteen 
Reels, or Country Dances for the Violin, 
Harpsichord, or German Flute, Edinburgh 
[1775] . Collection of Ancient Scots Music 
[1778] . A Collection of Ancient Scots Music 
for the Violin, Harpsichord, or German Flute, 
never before x^finted, consisting of Ports, 
Salutations, Marches or Pibrochs, etc., Edin- 
burgh, n.d. Thirty-seven New Reels and 
Strathspeys, for the Violin, Harpsichord, 
Pianoforte, or German Flute, Edinburgh 
(N. Stewart), n.d. Of his dances, " Mony- 
musk," a strathspey, is probably best known. 

Dowland, John, composer and lutenist, 
born at Westminster, in 1562. He resided on 
the Continent in 1581-84, but returned to 
England and became Mus. Bac, Oxon., in 
1588, aud also Cantab., in 1592. Lutenist to 
Charles IV. of Denmark about 1599. Re- 
turned to Eiigland in 1605, and after another 
period of residence in Denmark he finally 
settled in England from 1609. He became 
lutenist to the King in 1625. He died in 

Works. — The First booke of Songes or Ayres 
of foure parts, with tablature for the Lute, 
1595. Second booke, do., 1600. Third booke, 
do., 1602. Lachrimse, or seven teares figured 
in seaven passionate pavans, with divers other 
pavans, gaUards, and almands, set forth for 


the lute, viols, or violins, in five parts, 1605. 
A Pilgrim's solace, wherein is contained mu- 
sical harmony of three, four, and five parts, 
to be sung and plaid with lute and viols, 1612. 
Translation of Ornithoparcus, his Micrologus, 
or introduction : containing the art of singing 
and the perfect use of the monochord . . . 
London, 1609. Harmonies in Este's Psalms, 

The poetry and music both in Dowland's 
works are of an exceptionally high degree of 
excellence, and he is properly classed among 
the best musicians of his time. The poetry, 
indeed, is so good that Professor Arber has 
reprinted the three books of songs, etc. (words 
only), in his valuable series of classical re- 
prints, while the Musical Antiquarian Society 
have done a like service for the first book of 
the same set. His music has that quaint, 
delightful flavour common to compositions of 
the 16th and 17th centuries. Shakespeare 
has shown his preference for Dowland in the 
sonnet comniencing — 

"If uinsie and sweet poetry agree." 

Dowland, Robert, composer, son of above, 
succeeded his father as lutenist to the King, 
in 1626. He edited several musical publica- 
tions, and a " Varietie of Lessons," etc. 

Dowling, Thomas Barrow, organist 
and conductor of the present time. Student 
and Associate, R.A.]\I. Some time organist 
of St. Philip's, Regent Street, London. In 
1888, appointed organist of St. George's Cathe- 
dral, Cape Town, and conductor of a choral 
union. After four seasons he amalgamated 
this with a society in Cape Town, and began 
producing oratorios on a fuller scale. In 1895 
he was invited to conduct the Orchestral 
Society in Cape Town, which dated back to 
1864. The chief works of the great masters, 
and those of the modern school, have been 
X^resented under his direction. He has also 
develox^ed the Cathedral choir, which has 
given x^erformances of Mendelssohn's " St. 
Paul," and other great works. A new organ 
was erected in the Cathedral, and Mr. Barrow 
opened it with a recital, Nov. 4, 1890, since 
when he has given many public performances 
ux)on the instrument ; and is a busy worker 
in the cause of music in South Africa. 

Downes, Rev. James F., amateur com- 
poser, born in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
has written the cantatas, " The Parable of the 
ten Virgins," Leeds, 1882 ; and " The Prodigal 
Son," 1885 ; and some secular x)ieces. He is 
a x)riest of the Roman Catholic Church, and 
is at x^resent at St. Patrick's, Bradford. 

Doyle, C. W., viola player, born at 
Scarborough. Educated at R.A.M., and 
elected a Fellow of that Institution. For 
many years Member of the Royal Italian 
Opera, and other orchestras. Principal viola, 
Birmingham Festival orchestra, 1861-82 ; 




Leeds Festival, 1874-92 ; Worcester Festival, 
1893. Played in chamber concerts with the 
Carrodus Quartet, 1877, etc. Professor in the 
Guildhall School ot ^lusic. Ada Doyle, his 
daugliter, contralto vocalist, was a pupil of 
Madame Dolby, and made her debut at Bux- 
ton, in :\Iay, 1885. 

Driffield, Edward Townshend, ama- 
teur organist and composer, born at Prescot, 
near Liverpool, December 10, 1851. Organist 
of Christ Church, Claughtou, Birkenhead, 
where he has given recitals, 1883-4. He is 
the composer of a Cantata, " My soul doth 
magnify the Lord " ; a Sonata in G, for organ ; 
and some glees, one of which, "Come follow 
me" was sung by the Bristol Orpheus Society 
at its annual concert, February 9, 1893. 

Druitt, Dr. Robert, writer, author of 
" A Popular Tract on Church Music, with 
remarks on its moral and political importance, 
and a practical scheme for its reformation," 
London, 1845; "Conversations on the Choral 
Service, being an examination of the popular 
prejvidices against Church ^lusic," London, 

Drummond, George, organist and com- 
poser, was born in 1798, died in 1839. Blind 
from infancy. He studied under Crotch, and 
published " Parochial Psalmody, or 70 plain 
psalm tunes arranged for the organ or piano- 
forte," n.d. O give thanks unto the Lord, 

Drummond, James, musician, was born 
at Cambuslang, near Glasgow, in October, 
1811. He was choirmaster of St. George's 
Church, Glasgow, from 1852 to 1875. Well- 
known in Glasgow as a good musician, He 
died at Glasgow, November 18, 1883. His 
youngest son, Thomas Smith Drummond, 
born, Glasgow, June 1, 1854, is a pianist and 
conductor. He holds various positions in 
Glasgow, and has composed some vocal music. 

Dryden, Henry E. L., author of " On 
Church JNIusic, and the Fittings of Churches 
for Music," London, 1854. 

Drysdale, F. Learmont, composer, born 
in Edinburgh, 1866. Originally educated for 
an architect, he turned to music, and entered 
the R.A.]\I., winning, in 1890, the Lucas 
prize for composition. While a student he 
produced a ballad for orchestra, "The Spirit 
of the Glen" (1889); Orchestral prelude, 
" Thomas the Rhymer " (1890) ; and a scena, 
forming part of a Cantata, " The Kelpie," 
afterwards produced at Edinburgh (Paterson 
concerts), December 17, 1894. His overture, 
" Tarn O'Shanter," was awarded a prize by 
the Glasgow Society of IMusicians, 1891, and 
it was performed at the Crystal Palace, 
October 24, of that year. Another overture, 
" Herondian," was produced by the Stock 
Exchange Orchestral Society, April 24, 1894. 
He has been selected to compose the music to 


the opera founded on Baring-Gould's novel, 
"The Red Spider." His mystic musical play, 
" The Plague," was produced at the Lyceum 
Theatre, Edinburgh, in October, 1896. 

Dubourg, George, writer, grandson of 
]\Iatthew, was born in 1799, died at ]\Iaiden- 
head, April 17, 1882. Author of " The Viohn ; 
being an account of that leading Instrument, 
and its most Eminent Professors," London 
[1832] ; 2nd edition, 1837; 4th edition, 1852; 
5th edition, 1850. 

Dubourg, Matthew, violinist and com- 
poser, was born at London in 1703. He 
studied under Geminiani. Appeared first at 
Britton's concerts, 1715. Composer and 
master of state music in Ireland, 1728. Suc- 
ceeded Festing as member of King's band, 
1752. Leader of band on production of 
Handel's " Messiah." He died at London, 
July 3, 1767. He composed concertos, solos, 
and variations for the violin ; odes, songs, and 
other vocal music. He was tlie leading Eng- 
lish violinist of his day, and one of the greatest 
among his contemporaries. 

Duchemin, Charles Jean Batiste, 
pianist, composer, and conductor, born in 
Birmingham, May 12, 1827. His father was a 
French naval officer, who was taken prisoner 
during the war with Napoleon I. He married 
an English lady, and settled in Birmingham 
as a teacher of languages. The son was 
educated at King Edward's Grammar School, 
and his musical talent developing, he was 
sent to Brussels, where he studied at the 
Conservatoire under M. Fetis. On his return 
he devoted his attention to teaching, and con- 
cert work, and was for many years a foremost 
figure in musical life in the Midlands. He 
was organist successively at St. Peter's, R.C. 
Church, and the Oratory, Edgbaston, where 
he had the present Duke of Norfolk as a pupil. 
He conducted the German Liederkranz ; 
founded the Edgbaston Amateur Musical 
Union, an orchestral society of which he was 
for nearly twenty years the conductor. With 
two other artists he originated chamber 
concerts in Birmingham, which he continued 
for some time, introducing many famous 
performers to the town. He was for many 
years local secretary for Trinity College, 
London. His compositions include several 
operettas, and orchestral pieces, which remain 
in MS. Many of his pf. pieces have been 
published: Tarantella in F minor; Saltarello 
in D minor ; La Velocite Etude, in octaves ; 
Caprice brilliante ; Idyll in E flat, etc. He 
has also composed songs, trios, etc. 

Dudeney, Thomas James, organist, 
composer, and conductor, born at Mayfield, 
Sussex, November 29, 1854. Studied under 
G. A. Macfarren. Organist Dunster parish 
church (1876) ; St. James's, Taunton ; and 
now of St. Anne's, Eastbourne. Established 




in 1875 the Taunton Philharmonic Associa- 
tion, and a similar one at Dunster, in 1877 ; 
and the Washwood Musical Society in 1880. 
Principal of the Taunton College of INIusic, 
1888. He has given many concerts, notice- 
able for the production of important works by 
British composers. He has written a cantata, 
" Song of joy," for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; 
"Who is Sylvia," eight-part chorus, with 
orchestra ; songs and part-songs. Also an 
overture, " Cassibelan ; an Elegy (In Memo- 
riam, Sterndale Bennett), for orchestra ; String 
quartets in D and E minor ; organ x^ieces, etc. 

Duff, Charles, Scottish collector, was a 
teacher in Dundee about the beginning of the 
present century, and a partner in the music 
and bookselling firm of Duff and Chalmers. 
His partner, James Chalmers, was the in- 
ventor of the adhesive postage stamp, which 
did so much to make the establishment of the 
penny post such a success. Duff xjublished 
" A Collection of Strathspeys, Reels, Jiggs,etc., 
with a bass for the violincello or harpsichord, 
etc." Edinburgh, [1790]. Duff died at Dun- 
dee, about 1822. 

Archibald Duff, brother of the above, was 
a dancing-master and composer in Montrose 
and Aberdeen, and published " A Collection of 
Strathspeys, Reels, etc., for the pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello," Edinburgh, 1794. 
" The first part of a choice selection of Minuets, 
Dances, etc.," Aberdeen, 1812. Duff was a 
teacher of dancing in Aberdeen till 1820, and 
is said to have been conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society before John Mackenzie, 
grandfather of Sir A. C. Mackenzie. 

Dufferin, Helen Selina, Lady, was 
born in 1807. She was a daughter of Thomas 
Sheridan, and grand-daughter of R. B. Sheri- 
dan. Her sister was Caroline, the Hon. Mrs. 
Norton. In 1825 she married the fourth Baron 
Dufferin, and, in 1862, was married a second 
time, to the Earl of Gifford. She died on 
June 13, 1867. She was mother of the present 
Marquess of Dufferin. Composer of " A Set 
of ten Songs and two Duets, the words and 
music by two sisters " [1833] . Also sets of 
twelve and seven Songs [1833-39] . Ten Songs 
for contralto or mezzo-soprano voice, with pf. 
accompaniment [1861] . She also composed 
"Terence's farewell to Kathleen" (" So, my 
Kathleen ! you're goin' to lave me "), and 
wrote many lyrics set by Barker, etc. See 
further, " Songs, Poems, and verses, by Helen, 
Ladv Dufferin, edited by the Marquess of 
Dufferin and Ava," 1894. 

Duggan, Joseph Francis, composer and 
pianist, born at Dublin, July 10, 1817. He 
.went early in life to the United States, and 
became accompanist of the recitatives in the 
Italian Opera at New York. Afterwards he 
became musical conductor of opera under 
John Wilson, and of a German opera com- 


pany. He became a teacher in Philadelphia. 
Baltimore, and Washington, and was principal 
of the Philadelphia Musical Institute, 1841. 
He resided in Paris as a pianist and teacher, 
1844-45, and afterwards in P^dinburgh. After- 
wards he settled in London, and became 
musical director at the Marylebone Theatre, 
1854, and later a professor of singing at the 
Guildhall School of Music, etc. 

Works. — Operas — Pierre, London, Novem- 
ber, 1853 ; Leonie, London, March, 1854 ; 
The Brides of Venice (MS.) ; Alfred, Phila- 
delphia (MS.) ; Le Nain Noir, Paris (MS.) 
Overture, etc., to As you like it, 1854. Home 
and foreign lyrics, a set of thirteen songs. 
Rhythmic tentatives, six songs, Op. 1 (1879). 
Two symphonies in C and E flat. Six string 
quartets. Numerous pianoforte pieces and 
songs. Author of the Singing-masters assist- 
ant, a first series of vocal exercises, London, 
[1878] ; and translator of Albrechtsberger's 
"Science of Music," Philadelphia, 1842 ; and 
F6tis' "Counterpoint and Fugue." 

Dun, Finlay, composer and teacher, was 
born at Aberdeen, February 24, 1795. He 
studied under Baillot, and at Milan. He 
played first tenor in the theatre of San Carlo. 
Afterwards he studied singing under Crescen- 
tini, and settled in Edinburgh as violinist, 
composer, and teacher. He died, Edinburgh, 
November 28, 1853. 

Works. — Two Symphonies for full orch. 
(MS.) ; Solfeggi and Exercises upon Scales, 
Intervals, etc.. .to which is prefixed an Intro- 
ductory Discourse on Vocal Expression, Lon- 
don, 1829 ; Two prize glees ; The Vocal 
Melodies of Scotland, edited with John Thom- 
son (Paterson) ; Wood's Songs of Scotland, 
edited with G. P. Graham, etc. ; Pf. music. 
Part-songs and Glees : June ; The Parted 
Spirit (prize at Manchester Gentlemen's Glee 
Club), 1831 ; She is coming, trio, etc ; An- 
thems, psalms, hymns ; Lays from Strathearn, 
by the Baroness Nairne, Glasgow, n.d. 
[c. 1845-7] ; The Musical Scrap Book, Edin- 
burgh [1833], 2 vols. Grain na'h Albain, a 
Collection of Gaelic Songs, with English and 
Gaelic words, and an Appendix containing 
Traditionary Notes to many of the Songs . 
Edinburgh, 1848. Analysis of Scottish 
Music, etc, 

Duncan, Alexander, music-teacher and 
vocalist, born about 1796. He was precentor 
of the outer High Church (now St. Paul's), 
Glasgow, from 1829 to 1836. Died at Spring- 
burn, Glasgow, March 26, i863. Compiler of 
" The Choir, a collection of psalm and hymn 
tunes, adapted to various measures, .with 
copious rudimental instructions in the art of 
vocal music," Glasgow, 1828. For this work 
the Rev. Dr. Wm. Anderson wrote a preface. 

Duncan, Arthur, violinist, who resided 
in Dumfries. Published " A Collection of 




reels, strathspeys, quadrilles, waltzes, etc," 
Glasgow, 1852. Of this we have ouly seen 
one part. 

Duncan, Gideon, author of the " True 
Presbyterian, or a brief account of the new 
singing, its author and progress in general." 

Duncan, William Edmondstoune, 
comi^oser, pianist, and organist, born at Sale, 
Cheshire, in 1866. Showed musical talent 
very early, and became A.R.C.O. at sixteen. 
At the opening of the K.C.M. in 1883, he won 
an open Scholarship for composition, studying 
under Hubert Parry, Villiers Stanford, E. 
Pauer, and G. G. IMartin. He studied, after 
leaving R.C.M., with Sir G. A. Macfarreu, 
and for ten years pursued his profession in 
London, during which time several of his 
works were performed, notably a concert 
overture under the direction of Hamish 
McCunn, at Hampstead, in June, 1888. He 
then returned to his native town, where he is 
chiefly occupied in composition; also holding 
a professorshijD at the Oldham College of 
Music. While in London he was musical 
critic to a provincial, and also to a London 
daily paper. 

Works. — Ye Mariners of England, ode for 
chorus and orchestra, op. 4, produced by the 
Glasgow Choral Union, March 4, 1890 ; Mass 
in P minor, op. 13, compo ed, 1892; Perseus, 
opera in two acts (libretto by Professor Mar- 
shall Hall), 1892; Ode to Music (Swinburne), 
soprano solo, chorus and orchestra, 1893 ; 
Sonnet to the Nightingale (Milton), soprano 
solo and orchestra, op. 32, 1895. Morning 
and Evening Service, together with the office 
for Holy Communion, set to music in the key 
of G, op. 21. Album of four Songs, op. 1; 
Three Songs ; Pour Sonnets of Shakespeare ; 
Ye Mariners of England ; Hymn to the Queen, 
1897, and other songs ; part-songs, etc. 
Orchestral : Concert Overture in D minor, 
op. 4, composed 1887, produced 1888 ; A Tone 
Poem. op. 7 ; Processional March ; In Memo- 
riam, meditation in D minor, op. 17 ; Trio in 
E minor, pf. and strings, op. 28, produced at 
Oldham, December 18, 1895 ; Sonatas in C 
minor, op 3, D minor, op. 8, and E flat 
minor, op. 9 ; Six tone pictures ; Six pieces 
for children, all for pf. ; Six pieces for organ 
(Cecilia, Book 49) ; Meditation ; Postlude ; 
Processional March, organ, etc. 

Dunkley, Ferdinand L., composer and 
organist, born in London, 1869, related to the 
family of Smart. In 1881, he was in the 
practising schools of St. John's, Battersea, 
under Edward ]\Iills, Mus. Bac. In 1886 he 
obtained the F.R.C.O., and the same year 
gained a scholarship at the R.C.M., where he 
remained four years, studying composition 
under Dr. Hubert Parry. He gained the 
prize of 50 guineas offered by the directors of 


the Promenade Concerts at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, 1889, for a Suite for orchestra. His 
setting of " The Wreck of the Hesperus," for 
chorus and orchestra, was produced at the 
Crystal Palace, April 7, 1894. He has also 
composed several songs. In 1893 he was 
appointed Professor of Music in St. Agnes' 
School, Albany, U.S.A., and holds the office of 
organist in the chief church in that place. 

Dunmore, Earl of, Charles Adolphus 
Murray, amateur composer, born on March 
24, 1841. In 1866 he married the 3rd daughter 
of the Earl of Leicester. He was a captain 
in the Scots Guards ; Lord Lieutenant of 
Stirlingshire, etc. Composer of a Suite Sym- 
phonique, for orchestra, produced at the 
Brighton Festival, 1880 ; Pastorale, for violin 
and pf. (1878) ; Military march, for the pf. ; 
Dance music. Songs : Fisher maid ; For 
ever ; Spirit of my dream ; Years, years ago, 
duet, etc. 

Dunn, John F., violinist, born at Hull, 
Februarv 10, 1866. Began learning the violin 
when eight years old under his brother, the 
leader at a Hull theatre. He was soon playing 
at concerts, and when barely eleven was en- 
gaged as assistant leader at the Theatre Royal, 
Hull. In 1878 he entered the Conservatorium, 
Leipzig, studying under Schradieck (violin), 
Jadassohn, and E. F. Richter. After distin- 
guishing himself at the Conservatorium, and 
playing the first movement of the Beethoven 
Concerto at the Hauptpriifung, in IMay, 1882, 
he gave some Chamber concerts in different 
towns in Saxony, and returned to England. 
He made his first appearance at Covent Gar- 
den Promenade Concerts, October 4, 1882, 
playing the Concerto in E, of Vieux temps. 
In 1885 he appeared at the Crystal Palace 
Concerts (]\Ir. Manns' benefit), and also Nov- 
ember 13, 1886, when he played Gade's Con- 
certo in D minor. Since then he has given 
concerts in many places, and gained a place 
among the finest violinists of the day. His 
repertory embraces all schools, from Paganini 
to Spohr ; and it was as the exponent of the 
Ninth Concerto of the last-named that he 
made his first appearance at the Philharmonic 
Society's Concerts, February 27, 1896. 

Dunn, Matthew Sinclair, tenor vocalist, 
lyric author, and composer, born at Glasgow, 
August 3, 1846. As a lad he played the cornet 
in a Volunteer band, and later while engaged 
in business, kept up his musical studies as a 
Tonic Sol-faist. Was precentor in Ayrshire, 
and choirmaster to the late Lady Elizabeth 
Pringle, in Berwickshire, where he wrote and 
gave his popular entertainments. In 1879 he 
won a scholarship at the Tonic Sol-fa College, 
and went to London. He afterwards entered 
the R.A.M., studying singing under Ettore 
Fiori, W. H. Cummings, and J. B. Welch, 
and harmony with Sir G. A. Macfarren. He 




has sung at the Crystal Palace, the Promenade 
Concerts, and in most of the provincial towns. 
His concert lectures and entertainments, and 
chamber concerts of Scottish song, have been 
given in many places. In 1888 he was ap- 
pointed conductor of the Choral class, and 
teacher of singing in Trinity College, London. 
He is author of The Solo Singer ; The Solo 
Singer's vade mecum, Curwen ; The Art of 
Singing ; The Choir-boy's Manual ; and The 
Music Class, or Sight-singer. Editor of Auld 
Scotch Sangs, two collections, each of 96 
Songs, Glasgow, Morison. Author of The 
Bride of Cambus (set by W. G. Wood), and 
other opera libretti ; also many lyrics, set by 
himself and other composers. His compos- 
itions comprise twelve trios for ladies' voices ; 
twelve two-part songs ; Beautiful Snow, and 
other Services of Song ; Stars of the Summer 
Night (with 'cello obligato) ; Sweetheart, come 
back, and many other songs. Six anthems. 
Matin Chimes, a collection of easy voluntaries 
for organ or harmonium, composed and 
arranged, 11 books ; Fireside Fancies, pf. 
pieces for little players, etc. 

Dunne, John, composer and organist, 
born at York in 183i. In 1850 he became a 
chorister in Worcester Cathedral, and in 1854 
chorister in Cashel Cathedral, Ireland. He 
was a member of Christ Church, St. Patrick's 
Cathedral and Trinity College choirs, Dublin. 
In 1866 he graduated Mus. Bac, and in 1870, 
Mus. Doc, Dublin. He was an examiner to 
the Government Intermediate Educational 
Board of Ireland. He died at Ashton, Kill- 
iney, near Dublin, June 7, 1883. Composer 
of " Myra," and " The Hanging of the Crane" 
(Longfellow), cantatas; Church services, an- 
thems, glees, songs, etc. 

Dunstable, John, composer and mathe- 
matician, was born at Dunstable in Bedford- 
shire, early in the 15th century. Author of 
" De Mensurabilis Musice," a work quoted by 
Ravenscroft and others. Little is known of 
his biography, but he died in 1453. 

He was erroneously attributed with the in- 
vention of counterpoint by Tinctor, but is 
generally held up by succeeding musicians as 
a composer of much ability and a musician of 
universal influence. 

Dunstan, Ralph, organist, writer, and 
teacher, born at Carnon Downs, near Truro, 
in 1857. In music chiefly self-taught. Pupil 
teacher at St. ]\Iary's Wesleyan Day School, 
Truro, 1871-6. In 1877, entered Westminster 
Training College, as a Queen's Scholar, and 
received his first regular instruction in music 
from Mr. James Thomson, then music master 
there. In 1880 he was appointed organist at 
the College Chapel, and in 1882, music master. 
That year he graduated Mus. Bac, and in 
1892, Mus. Doc, Cambridge. He is also a 
graduate and member of the Council of the 


Tonic Sol-fa College. Since 1885 he has been 
music master at the Southlands Training. 
College for Schoolmistresses ; and from 1898, 
head of the music department at the Battersea 
Polytechnic Institution. Besides his degree 
exercises, Ps. 146, and " The Wreck of the 
Hesperus," cantata, he has composed services,, 
anthems, hymn-tunes ; a school cantata, "The 
Jester," school songs, etc. He is author of 
"The Teachers' Manual of Music," 1886, four- 
teen editions ; " Basses and Melodies " (Nov- 
ello's primers), 1894, two editions ; " First^ 
steps in harmony, and the harmonizing of 
melodies," London, Curwen, 1895. 

Dupuis, Thomas Sanders, composer and 
organist, born at London, November 5, 1730. 
Son of John Dupuis, who was descended from 
a family of Huguenot refugees. Member of 
the Chapel Royal. He studied under Gates 
and Travers, and becaane organist of Chapel 
Royal, in 1789. Organist of Charlotte Street 
Chapel, near Buckingham Palace, in 1778. 
Mus. Bac. and Doc, Oxon., 1790. He died at 
London, July 17, 1796. 

Works. — Cathedral music, in score, com- 
posed for the use of His Majesty's Royal 
Chapel, by the late T. S. Dupuis, selected 
from the original manuscripts, and carefully 
revised, by John Spencer, London, n.d., 3 
vols. Twenty-four double and single chants 
[1780] . Sixteen double and single chants, as 
performed at the Chapel Royal. Second set 
of Chants [1784] . Twenty-four double and 
single Chants . . . [1791]. Five Concertos for 
organ, with accompaniments [1768]. Con- 
certos, sonatas and lessons for pf. Songs, 
six glees [1785] , etc. 

D'Urfey, Thomas, minor poet, play- 
wright, and musician, was born at Exeter, of 
French parents, in 1649. He lived in London 
as a writer for the playhouses and the court, 
and died there on February 26, 1723. He 
edited " Wit and mirth, or pills to purge 
melancholy, being a collection of the best 
merry ballads and songs, old and new, fitted 
to all humours, having each their proper tune 
for either voice or instrument.". .London, 
1719-20, 6 vols., and also other editions and 
reprints. " ]\Iusa et musica, or humour and 
musick, being an extraordinary collection of 
pleasant and merry humours, with Scotch 
and love songs," London, n.d. Many of the 
songs in " Wit and Mirth" were set to music 
byPurcell and other musicians of distinction. 

Dussek, Olivia, see Buckley, Mrs. 

Dyce, William, artist and musician, born 
at Aberdeen, in 1806, died at Streatham, 
London, February 14, 1864. The celebrated 
painter and Royal Academician, who did so 
much for art education in Britain. He was 
a cultured musician, and was one of the 
founders of the old Motett Society, for which 
he edited in 1844 the Book of Common Prayer, 




■with the ancient Canto Fermo set to it at the 
Reformation period, with an essay on that 
■class of music." Also editor of The Order of 
daily service, the Litauy and order of the 
administration of the Holy Communion, with 
plain tuue ; according to the use of the United 
Church of England and Ireland, London, 
1843 ; and author of Articles on IMusic in the 
■" Eucyclopffidia Britannica," etc. He was an 
accomplished organist, and composed various 
pieces of music possessing merit 

Dyer, Arthur Edwin, composer, organist 
and pianist, born at Frome, February 20, 1843. 
]\Iusical traiuiiig, private. Graduated Mus. 
Bac, 1873; Mus. Doc, 1880, Oxford. F.R. 
CO. Organist of the Parish Church, Weston- 
super-ilare, 1865-75, and from that date has 
held the office of organist and director of the 
music at Cheltenham College. He was also, 
for some time. Conductor of the Cheltenham 
IMusical Society. His compositions are : 
Sacred Cantata, " Salvator Mundi " (Degree 
Ex.; Mus. Doc, 1880) ; Cmtata, "Harold," 
produced at Cheltenham, 1882 ; Music to 
Sophocles' " Electra," produced at Chelten- 
ham College, June 28, 1888, and two following 
days. " I wish to tune my quivering lyre," 
chorus (Gloucester Festival, 1883) ; Psalm 97, 
for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; Anthem, 
■" Except the Lord build the house," composed 
for the College Jubilee, 1891 ; An Evening 
Service ; Songs, etc. Also an Opera, " The 
Lady of Ba^'onne," produced, Cheltenham, 
February, 1897. His brother, William Chin- 
KOCK Dyer, of St. Peter'«, Norbiton, 
and Cuuductorof the Norbiton Choral Society, 
is the inventor of a patented attachment of 
pedals to the pianoforte. 

Dyer. William Fear, organist and com- 
poser, not related to the foregoing. Has for 
some years held an appointment at St. 
Nicholas' Church, Bristol, and also that of 
conductor at the festivalsof the Bristol Church 
Choral Union. He is the composer of a Can- 
tata, '• The Second Advent of the Redeemer," 
performed at St. Nicholas Church, December 
22, 1889, and several anthems. 

Dygon, John, composer of the 15th cen- 
tury, who was supposed to be prior of the 
convent of S. Augustine, Canterbury in 1 97. 
He died in 1509. There is much doubt as 
regards ihe identity of this musician, the 
authority hitherto followed having been Haw- 
kins, who published a three-part motet by 
Dygon, entitled •' Ad lapidis positionem " in 
his " History of Music." A John Dygon 
graduated as bachelor of music at Oxford, in 
1512 He was a Benedictine monk, but it is 
doubtful if he is the same as the Dygon men- 
tioned by Hawkins. 

Dykes, Rev. John Bacchus, composer 
and clergyman, was born at Kingston-upon- 
Hull, March 10, 1823. He was a son of 


William Hey Dykes, bank-manager at Hull. 
He was educated at a proprietary school at 
Wakefield, and entered St. Catherine's Hall, 
Cambridge, in 1843. While there he was a 
leading member of the University Musical 
Society. He had previously studied music 
under Skeltou, the organist of St. John's 
Church, Hull, which had been built by his 
grandfather, the Rev. Thomas Dykes, LL.B. 
Afterwards, he studied music under Dr. 
Walmisley. In 1847, he graduated B.A. at 
Cambridge, and in the same year he was 
appointed curate at Malton, Yorkshire. He 
became minor canon and precentor of Durham 
Cathedral, 1849. In 1850 he married Susan, 
daughter of George Kingston, of Malton, 
M.A., Cantab., 1851. Mus. Doc, Durham, 
1861. Vicar of St. Oswald, Durham, 1862. 
He died at St. Leouards-on-Sea, January 22. 

Works. — Service in F ; The Lord is my 
Shepherd, 23rd Psalm ; These are they which 
came out of great tribulation, anthem. Part- 
songs. Psalms and hymns : Alford, St. Cross, 
Melita, Vox Dilecti, Horbury, HoUingside, 
St. Cuthbert, Dies Ira^, Lux Benigiis,, Nictea, 
St. Agnes, Durham, and a variety of others. 
He also published Eucharit^tic truth and ritual, 
a letter . . . Loudon, 1874, and various ser- 
mons, etc. 

The hymns of Dykes are among the finest 
examples of modern times. Melody and har- 
mony are beautifully and agreeably combined 
in all. They are so well known, that little need 
be said- beyond that their place in our col- 
lections will always be assured. His services 
and anthems are occasionally used, but their 
merits are not by any means so high as the 
genuine beauty of his hymns would lead us 
to expect. His son, John St. Oswald Dykes, 
is a composer and pianist. 

Dyne, John, composer and alto vocalist 
of the 18th century. He was a gentleman of 
the Chapel Royal in 1772; a Lay-Vicar of 
W^estminster Abbey in 1779 ; and Principal 
at the Handel Commemoration in 1784. He 
committed suicide on October 30, 1788. He 
composed prizj and other glees, songs, etc. 

Eady, W. H., musician. Author of an 
"Introduction to the theory of Music," Lon- 
don [1878] . Composer of pf . music, etc. 

Eager, John, composer, organist, violinist, 
etc., was born at Norwich, August 15, 1782. 
He removed with his parents to Yarmouth 
early in life, and in 1794 was noticed by the 
Duke of Dorset, who took him to Knowle, 
where he remained for some time. In 1800 
he married Miss Barnby, of Yarmouth, and 
in 1803 he became town organist of Yarmouth, 
and organist of St. George's Chapel. He dir- 
ected many concert enterprises in Yarmouth. 
About 1836 he settled in Edinburgh, and acted 




for a time as teacher to the royal children at 
Balmoral, He was a violinist at the principal 
Edinburgh and Glasgow concerts, and is re- 
membered as an enthusiastic advocate and 
teacher of Logier's system. He died at Edin- 
burgh, June 1, 1853. He had two daughters, 
one of whom married Joseph Lowe (q.v.), the 
reel composer, and another Mr. Bridgman, a 
pianist, father of F.W. Bridgman (q.v.) Eager 
wrote a tract, entitled " A brief account, with 
accompanying examples of what was actually 
done at the second examination of IMr. Eager's 
pupils in music, educated i;pon Mr. Logier's 
system." London, 1819. 

Earnshaw, Robert Henry, organist and 
composer, born at Todmorden, Lancashire, 
September 17, 1856. Musically educated in 
London under various masters, returning to 
Lancashire in 1880. Graduated Mus. Bac, 
1892, Mus. Doc, 1893, Dublin. Organist and 
choirmaster. Parish Church, Morecambe, 
1882-5 ; St. Philip's, Southport, 1890-1 ; 
Christ Church, Preston, 1891, in which town 
he occupies a high position as an earnest 
worker for music. His compositions include 
"The Wreck of the Hesperus" (University 
Exercise), and a cantata, " Hail to the 
Lord's Anointed," for soli, eight-part chorus 
and orchestra (Exercise for Mus. Doc.) He 
has published anthems, part-songs, songs, 
and pf. pieces, some of which have attained 
considerable popularity. 

Earsden, John, composer of end of 16th 
and beginning of the 17th centuries. He 
composed songs, etc., and is mentioned in 
Hawkins' History. 

Eastcott, Richard, writer and musician, 
born at Exeter in 1740. Chaplain of Livery 
Dale, Devon. He died in 1828. 

Works. — Sketches of the origin, progress, 
and effects of musick, with an account of the 
ancient bards and minstrels, illustrated with 
various historical facts, anecdotes, etc., Bath, 
1793 (2 editions). The harmony of the Muses 
(songs), n.d. Six sonatas for pf., etc. 

Eastlake, Lady, English writer, born 
1816, died 1852, authoress of " Music and the 
Art of Dress," London, 1852. Wife of Sir 
Charles Eastlake the painter. 

Eaton, Thomas Damant, writer and 
musician, at one time President of the Nor- 
wich Choral Society. He wrote Critical 
Notices of Bexfield's " Israel restored," and 
Pierson's "Jerusalem" (reprinted from the 
Norfolk Netvs), Norwich, 1852. Musical 
Criticism and Biography from the published 
and unpublished writings of T. D. Eaton, 
edited by his son, London, 1872. 

Eavestaff, William, writer and piano- 
forte-maker. Author of " Instructions for the 
Pianoforte," Loudon, 1830. A selection of 
French Melodies, with symphonies and ac- 
companiments, the words by W. H. Bellamy, 


six books, 1825-6. 

Eayres, William Henry, violinist, born 
in Marylebone, London, 1846. As a child, he 
studied the violin under Henry Blagrove, and 
subsequently under Sainton and Henri Wieni- 
awski, his pupilage with the latter ripening 
into close intimacy and friendship. He has 
also made a study of the pf. and organ, and 
for about four years was organist of Limerick 
Cathedral. He heads the second violins in 
the 1 rchestras of the Philharmonic Society, 
the Leeds and Three Choirs Festivals ; was 
principal violin, with T. Carringion, Bristol 
Festival, 1896; and holds important positions 
in London. Of his compositions, the music 
to Richard Davey's classical comedy, " Les- 
bia," was performed at the Lyceum Theatre, 
in September, 1888. He also wroie the music 
of one act of " Babil and Bijou," and has 
composed various anthems, Church services, 
and songs — Beguiling eyes. Our sister May, 
Ever thme. The chapel by the sea, etc. An 
overture, two string quartets, pieces for violin, 
pf , etc. 

Ebdon, Thomas, composer and organist, 
born at Durham, 1738. He was trained in 
Durham Cathedral, as a chorister, and acted 
as organist in it from 1763 till 1811. He died 
at Durham, September 23, 1811. 

Works. — Sacred music, composed for the 
use of the choir of Durham, 1780, two vols. 
Anthems. Collection of six glees, Op. 3, 1780. 
Songs. Two sonatas for the harpsichord, 

Ebers. John, impresario and theatre 
manager, born at London, in 1785, of German 
parentage. He managed King's Theatre, 
from 1821-28. Was ruined, and relinquished 
direction, 1828. He wrote " Seven Years at 
the King's Theatre," London, 1828. The date 
of his death is unknown. 

Ebsworth, Joseph, musician and dra- 
matist, born at Islington, London, October 
10, 1788. After living for a time in Cornwall 
and London, he settled in Edinburgh, in 1826, 
and became a teacher of music there, and 
precentor of St. Stephen's Church. He wrote 
and translated a number of dramas, and was 
for fifteen years a bookseller. Besides being 
leader of psalmody of St. Stephen's, he was 
teacher of music in many of the principal 
schools and colleges in Edinburgh. Died at 
Edinburgh, June 22, 1868. He published two 
collections of psalm and hymn tunes, 1834 
and [1845], and issued a General index to first 
hundred volumes of the music in library of 
the Edinburgh Harmonists' Society . . . 
Edinburgh, 1844. Short introduction to Vocal 
Music, adapted either for private tuition 
or class singing, Edinburgh, n.d. Songs, 
hymns, and other compositions. 

Eccles, Henry, violinist and composer, 
son of Solomon Eccles, was born at the end of 




the 17th century. Member of the King's Band, 
1694 to 1710. He published in Paris " Twelve 
excellent Solos for Violin," 1720. He was a 
member of the King's Band in Paris, and died 
about 1742. His brother Thomas was also a 

Eccles, John, composer and violinist, born 
1668. Son of Solomon Eccles. He studied 
under his father. Member of the Queen's 
band of music, 1700. INIaster of Queen's 
Band, 1704. He died at Kingston, Surrey, 
January 12, 1735. 

Works. — Acis and Galatea, masque, 1701 ; 
Ode for S. Cecilia's Day (Congreve), 1701 ; 
The Judgment of Paris ^Congreve), masque, 
2nd prize in competition with Weldon, etc. ; 
The Mad Lover, 1701 ; The City Lady ; The 
Fair Penitent, 1703 ; The Lancashire Witches, 
1682 ; The Spanish Friar, 1681 ; Justice Busy, 
1690 ; The Chances, 1682 ; The Wav of the 
W^orld, 1700 ; The Provoked Wife, 1697 ; The 
Richmond Heiress, 1693 ; Rinaldo and Armida 
(Dennis), 1699 ; Don Quixote ; Love for Love, 
1695. Collection of Songs for one, two, and 
three voices, etc., London [1701]. Songs in 
Pills to purge Melancholy, etc. Eccles was 
one of the most popular composers of his day, 
and some of his melodies are very fine, though 
not now in vogue. 

Eccles, Solomon, composer and violinist, 
was born in London, 1618. Father of Henry 
and John Eccles. He became a quaker in 
1660, and was frequently arrested for disturb- 
ing congregations at worship, and behaving 
with much eccentricity in the name of religion. 
He died at London, February 11, 1683. He 
contributed to the " Division Violin," 1693, 
and wrote a work entitled " A Musick-Lector, 
or the Art of Musick . . discoursed of, by way 
of dialogue, between three men of several 
judgements : the one a musician . . the other a 
Baptist, .the other a Quaker (so-called), being 
formerly of that art, doth give his judgment 
and sentence against it, but yet approves of 
the musick that pleaseth God," London, 1667. 

Edmonds, M., author of "Musical Cate- 
chism adapted to the first class of performers 
on the Pianoforte," Dublin, 1807. 

Edwardes, Richard, poet and composer, 
born in Somersetshire, 1523. Scholar of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Studied 
music under George Eltheridge. M.A., Oxon., 
1547. Master of Children, Chapel Royal, and 
Gentleman, do. Member of Lincoln's Inn. 
He died on October 31, 1566. 

Works. — The Paradise of Dainty deuises. 
The Soul's Knell, poem. Damon and Pythias, 
comedy. Palemon and Arcite, comedy. "In 
going to my naked bed," madrigal. ]\Iany 
poems, tracts, etc. 

Edwardes is not known now save by his 
lovely madrigal, "In going to my naked bed," 
which is one of the finest examples of this 


species of composition extant. The titles of 
his other poems are set out at length in Rit- 
son's and Hazlitt's works on Early English 

Edwards, C. A., author of " Organs and 
organ building, a treatise on the history and 
construction of the Organ, from its origin to 
the present day." . . London, 1881. 

Edwards, Frederick George, organist 
and writer on music, born in London, 
October 11, 1853. Studied at R.A.M. Elected 
A.R.A.M., 1896. Organist of Surrey Chapel, 
Blackfriars Road, 1873; Christ Church, West- 
minster Road, 1876 ; and of St. John's Wood 
Presbyterian Church since 1881. Conductor 
of Lavender Hill Choral Society, 1883. Com- 
poser of anthems and pieces for pf. Author of 
" United Praise : a practical handbook of 
Nonconformist Church Music," 1887 ; Ro- 
mance of Psalter and Hymnal " (jointly with 
Rev. R. E. Welsh, M.A.), 1889 ; " The Musical 
Haunts of London," J. Curwen and Sons, 
1895 ; " History of Mendelsson's ' Elijah,' " 
Novello, 1896. Contributor to the Musical 
Times and other papers. 

Edwards, Henry John, organist, pianist, 
and composer, born at Barnstaple, Devon, 
February 24, 1854. Studied at first under his 
father (noticed below), and later in London, 
under Sterndale Bennett, G. A. Macfarren, 
H. C. Banister, and George Cooper. Gradu- 
ated Mus. Bac, 1876 ; Mus. Doc, 1885, Oxford. 
Returning to Barnstaple, he succeeded his 
father as organist of the parish church, and, 
in 1886, as conductor of the Easter Musical 
Festival Society. In 1896, he was appointed 
conductor of the Exeter Oratorio Society. As 
a pianist he has appeared at the most im- 
portant concerts in his county. 

Works. — Psalm 145 (Exercise for Mus. 
Bac), produced in Barnstaple; Oratorio, The 
Ascension (Exercise for Mus. Doc), performed 
at the Western Counties' Festival, Exeter, 
April 12, 1888 ; Motet, Praise to the Holiest 
(from Cardinal Newman's Dream of Geron- 
tius), produced at the Hereford Festival, 
1891 ; Cantata, the Epiphany, Barnstaple, 
1891. Two oratorios in MS. Church service ; 
Anthems; Songs; Devonia, The Vigil, The 
beautiful City, and others ; Part-songs, etc. 
Triumphal March, orchestra and military 
band, performed at the promenade concerts, 
Covent Garden, 1883 ; pieces for pf., etc. 

His father, John Edwards, was born at 
Crediton, Devon, in 1808. Studied under 
Moxen, of Exeter, and about 1833 removed 
to Barnstaple. He was connected with the 
parish church for half a century, first as as- 
sistant to Huxtable the organist, then as 
organist and choirmaster ; the latter office 
being held until about 1886. He founded the 
Choral Society, first known as the Barnstaple 
Philharmonic Society, and still in existence 




under the title in the preceding notice. He 
was also a violinist, and for years was the 
leading professor of music in the district. 
His compositions were mostly for the Church, 
consisting of services, anthems, hymn-tunes, 
and chants. He died at Barnstaple, in April, 

Edwards, Henry Sutherland, author, 
born at Heudon, September 5, 1829. Author 
of " History of the Opera in Italy, Prance, 
Germany. Russia, and England, from Monte- 
verde to Verdi," . . . London, 1862, two vols. 
Life of Rossini, London, 1869. The life and 
artistic career of Sims Reeves, Loudon, Tins- 
ley, n.d. Rossini (great musicians series"), 
London, 1881. The Lyric Drama, essays on 
subjects, composers, and executants of modern 
Opera, London, 1881, two vols. The Faust 
Legend, Remington, 1886; Famous first re- 
presentations. Chapman and Hall, 188G ; The 
Prima Donna, her history and surroundings, 
from the 17th to the 19th century, two vols., 
Remington, 1888. Mr. Edwards has written 
a large number of works about Russia, Poland, 
etc., as well as opera libretti, novels, etc. 

Edwards, Rev. John David, clergyman 
and composer, born in 1806. He was vicar of 
Rosymedre, Ruabon. He died at Llanddoget 
Rectory, Denbighshire, November 24, 1885, 
aged 79. 

Edwards, Julian, composer and con- 
ductor, born 1858. First came into notice 
through an overture, " Corinne," produced at 
Mr. Cowen's Concerts in St. James's Hall, 
November 13, 1880. For some years after- 
wards, he was engaged as conductor for the 
Royal English Opera Company, at Covent 
Garden, 1884, and also in the provinces. He 
is now resident in America. His compositions 
include the operas, "Corinne," " Victorian," 
produced at Sheffield, 1883; "Brian Born," 
Broadway Theatre, New York, 1896 ; a cantata 
for female voices, " De Montford's Daughter ;" 
a sonata for pf., etc. 

Edwards, Robert James, organist at 
Banbury, Oxfordshire, in 1825. Published 
" Sacred music, being a large and valuable 
selection of the best Psalm tunes, both ancient 
and modern, arranged for four voices, or a 
single voice, with an accompaniment for the 
organ or pianoforte," London, Preston, 1825. 

Edwin, John, singer and actor, born in 
London, August 10, 1749. He is mentioned 
by O'Keefe, and appeared in various musical 
pieces during the latter half of last century. 
Died in London, October 31, 1790. His son 
John was married to Elizabeth Rebecca 
Richards, who was an actress and vocalist. 

Egan, Charles, Irish writer and harpist, 
author of a " Harp Primer, being a familiar 
introduction to the Study of the Harp," Lon- 
don, 1822, also, 1829. ' The Royal Harp 
Director. .London, 1827. 


Egan, P., Irish flute player. Author of 
" The single and double Flageolet preceptor. . 
Dublin [1810] , and arranger of numerous 
airs, etc., for flageolet or flute. 

Egerton, Hon. John Gray Seymour, 
son of the second Earl of Wilton (q.v.), ama- 
teur violinist and composer. He has written 
some good part-songs : Adieu to the Woods ; 
King Winter ; Spring's approach ; The Rose 
and the Soul, etc. Also songs, and a cantata. 
Eglinton, Hugh Montgomerie, Twelfth 
Earl of, composer, was born on November 
29, 1739. He entered the army and became 
a colonel, and after his succession to the title, 
distinguished himself by initiating many 
public improvements in Ayrshire. He died 
on December 15, 1819. He was a patron of 
music, and composed "New Strathspey Reels, 
composed by a gentleman, and given with 
permission to be published by Nathl. Gow," 
Edinburgh, 1796. 

Egville, John Herve d', bass vocalist, 
born at Worcester, 1857. Studied at R.A.M.; 
Parepa-Rosa prizeholder, 1879. Joined the 
Carl Rosa Company in 1881 ; and some years 
later toured with D'Oyly Carte Company in a 
round of the Gilbert-Sullivan operas. Well 
known also as a concert singer of repute. 

Ehrenberg, Alexandra, see Warwick, 


Elford, Richard, alto vocalist, was born 
about the middle of the 17th century. He 
was a counter-tenor in Lincoln and Durham 
Cathedrals. He afterwards sang on the stage 
in London ; and became a Gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal in 1702, and Lay-vicar of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, aiid Westminster. He died 
October 29, 1714. It was for him Croft is 
supposed to have written florid solos in his 

Elgar, Edward William, composer, born 
at Broadheath, near Worcester, June 2, 1857. 
Son of W. H. Elgar, organist, of Worcester. 
Studied the violin under Adolphe PoUitzer, 
and was well-known as soloist and orchestral 
leader in Worcester and district ; was also for 
a time a member of Mr. Stockley's orchestra, 
Birmingham, and of the North Staffordshire 
Festival orchestra. Conductor of the Wor- 
cester Instrumental Society, 1882 ; and or- 
ganist of St. George's (Roman Catholic) 
Church, 1885, succeeding his father who had 
held the post for 37 years. Both these posi- 
tions he gave up in 1889, when he remo\ ed to 
London. Ill-health compelled him to leave 
London in 1891, since which time he has 
resided at Malvern, devoting himself exclu- 
sively to composition. 

Works. — Oratorio, The Light of Life (Lux 
Christi, book by Rev. E. Capel-Cure, produced 
at the Worcester Festival, September 7, 1896). 
Cantatas : The Black Knight (Worcester, 
1893), and Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf 




<North Staffordshire Festival, October, 1896) ; 
Choral Suite : Six scenes from the Bavarian 
Highlands, chorus and orchestra (Worcester, 
April, 1896) ; Spanish serenade, chorus and 
orchestra. Four Litanies, and other Catholic 
Church IM^tsie. Part-Songs : My love dwelt 
in a northern land, etc.; The snow; Fly, 
singing bird (for ladies' voices, with accom- 
paniment for pf. and two violins). Songs: 
Like to the damask rose ; The wind at dawn ; 
The Poet's life, and others. Orchestral : Con- 
cert overture, Froissart (composed for the 
Worcester Festival, 1890) ; Sevillana ; Liebes- 
gruss ; Serenade (strings only), and other 
pieces. Romance, violin and orchestra ; pieces 
for violin and pf. ; Etudes caracteristiques, 
violin solo. Sonata, for organ, composed for 
the visit of the American Musicians to Wor- 
cester, July, 1895. and played by IMr. Hugh 
Blair in Worcester Cathedral on that occasion. 
Cantatas and other works in ]\IS. 

Ella, John, violinist, critic, and lecturer, 
born at Thirsk, Yorks., December 19, 1802. 
He studied for the law, but became a violinist 
in the King's theatre in 1822 ; Concert of 
Ancient IMusic ; Philharmonic Concerts, etc. 
He studied music under Attwood and F6tis, 
1826-29. Established the "Musical Union," 
1845-80. Established " Musical Winter Eve- 
nings," 1845-80. Lecturer on Music at London 
Institution, 1855. He died at London, Oct- 
ober 2, 1888. 

W^ORKS. — Lectures on Dramatic Music and 
IMusical Education abroad and at home, 1872. 
Musical sketches abroad and at home, 1861 
(3 editions), 1869-78. Records of the Musical 
Union, 1845-78 (anal3'tical progrannnes, notes, 
biographies). Personal memoir of Meyerbeer, 
with an analysis of Les Huguenots, London, 
1868. French Song and traditional Melody, 
Angiice, The Harmonious Blacksmith, Lon- 
don, 1865 ; etc. 

Ellerton, John Lodge, amateur composer 
and poet, born at Chester (?), January 11, 
1801. Soi: of Adam Lodge, of Liverpool. He 
assumed the name of Ellerton about 1845. 
Educated at Rugbv School, and at Oxford, 
graduating B.A., 1821, and M.A., 1828. In 
this last year was published a song, " And will 
thy spirit view," which was very favourably 
reviewed in the Harmonicon. He had begun 
his musical studies early, and after leaving 
Oxford he went to Rome and studied under 
Pietro Terziani, 'maestro cli capella at the 
Church of San Giovanni Laterano. While 
there he is said to have composed seven Italian 
operas. He resided a good deal in Germany, 
his symphonies having been composed at Wies- 
baden, and other places. When in London he 
had quartet meetings at his house with the 
best artists. He died in London, January .3, 

Works. — Oratorio : Paradise Lost,published 


1857 ; Stabat Mater, female voices and or- 
chestra, op. 130 ; Mass in C, op. 53 (1843) ; in 
B flat, op. 106 ; in D, for two tenors and a 
bass, op. 103 ; Motets and anthems. Operas : 
Issiple ; Berenice in Armenio ; Annibale in 
Capua ; II Sacrifizio di Epito ; Andromacca ; 
II Carnovale di Venezia ; II Marito a Vista 
(Italian) ; Carl Rosa ; Lucinda (German) ; 
Dominica, produced Drurv Lane, June 7, 
1838; The Bridal of Triermain (English). 
Nineteen Italian duets, with orchestra ; duets, 
songs, etc. Symphony, No. 1, in F, op. 65, 
performed in London, December 11, 1849 ; 
No. 2, in D, op. 66, composed 1845, performed 
London, 1847 ; No. 3, in D minor (Wald Sym- 
phonie), op. 120, published; No. 4, in E flat, 
op. 126; No. 5, in C, op. 123; No. 6, in E 
minor, op. 127, the last two composed in 
1858. Overtures, La Tarantella, and others ; 
one i^erformed in London, 1831. Three string 
quintets. Forty-four string quartets, op. 60, 
62, 70, 76, 101, 102, 124, etc. Three string 
trios ; eight trios, pf. and strings, etc. Thir- 
teen sonatas, etc. Many glees, including Catch 
Club prizes, 1836, and 18.38. Bridal of Salerno, 
a romance in 6 cantos, with other poems, 
] 845 ; The Elixir of Youth, a legend in four 
parts, with other j)oems and notes, 1864. 

Ellicott, Rosalind Frances, composer 
and pianist, born at Cambridge, November 14, 
1857. Daughter of the Right Rev. Charles 
John Ellicott, Bishop of Gloucester and Bris- 
tol. ]\Irs. Ellicott, her mother, is an accom- 
plished musician and vocalist, for whom the 
late Rev. Sir F. A. G. Ouseley wrote the part 
of Hagar, in his oratorio so named. She 
established the Handel Society, London, in 
1882. IMiss Ellicott began to compose when 
only six years of age, having a natural gift for 
harmony. Wben seventeen she entered the 
R.A.M., and afterwards studied form and 
orchestration for seven years with the late 
Thomas Wingham. Her compositions are 
numerous, and have secured her an honourable 
place among women composers. 

W^ORKs. — Cantatas : Elysium (Gloucester 
Festival, 1889) ; The birth of Song (the same, 
1892); Radiant sister of the dawn (Cheltenham 
Festival, 1887 ; Bristol and Gloucester, 1888); 
Henry of Navarre (men's voices, prod. Queen's 
College, Oxford, 1894) ; both for chorus and 
orchestra. Part-song, Bring the bright gar- 
lands, Bristol Madrigal Society, 1890, and 
others ; Duets, songs — To the Immortals, 
Gloucester Festival, 1883, etc. Dramatic 
overture, Gloucester Festival, 1886, Crystal 
Palace, 1891, etc. Concert overture, Spring, 
St. James's Hall, 1886. Festival overture, 
Cheltenham Festival, 1893. Fantasia in A 
minor, pf. and orchestra, Gloucester Festival, 
1895. Quartet in F ; Trios in G, and D minor, 
pf . and strings ; and other smaller works. 
A sonata for pf. and violoncello ; one for pf . 




and violin, with other worlis, remain in MS. 

Elliott, Carlotta, soprano vocalist of the 
present time. First came into notice at 
Ganz's concerts, 1880-2. Sang at the Saturday 
Popular Concerts, December, 1882 ; at the 
Philharmonic concerts, 1885. Has given 
vocal recitals, and appeared with success in 
many provincial towns. 

Elliott, J., author of "Philosophical 
Observations on the Senses of Vision and 
Hearing ; and a Treatise on Harmonic Sounds," 
London, 1780. 

Elliott, James, composer and bass vocal- 
ist, was born in 1783, and died at London in 
1856. He was a singer of reputation, and was 
one of the principals at the Birmingham 
Festival of 1802, and, it is supposed, sang 
some soprano solos at the Festival of 1799. 
Writer of a large nuxaber of glees, some of 
which obtained prizes. Among them may 
be named: A choir of bright beauties; At her 
fair hands ; The Bee, when varying flow'rs ; 
Chaunt we the requiem ; Come, my Celia ; 
Go, lovely rose ; Invest my head with fragrant 
roses ; Let those complain ; IMild is the air, etc. 

Elliott, James William, organist and 
composer, born at Warwick, February 13, 
1833. Chorister in Leamington Parish 
Church, 1816-48. Studied under G. A. Mac- 
farren, etc. Organist of Leamington Chapel, 
1847-52. Private organist to the Earl of 
Wilton, Heaton Hall, 1859-60; of Parish 
Church, Banbury, 1860-62 ; St. Mary, Boltons, 
Loudon, 1862-61 ; All Saints', St. John's 
Wood, 1864-71 ; and from 1874, organist and 
choirmaster, St. Mark's, Hamilton Terrace, 
London. Composer of two operettas: "Ro- 
mance and Reality," j^roduced at Charing 
Cross Theatre, with F. Maccabe in the prin- 
cipal part; and " Dan'l's Delight," German 
Reed, Easter, 1893. Other works are : " Na- 
tional Nursery Rhymes " (Novello, 1870, with 
sixty-five illustrations, engraved by the 
brothers Dalziel) ; " The Harmonium Treas- 
ury," 2 vols, (arrangements) ; Six original 
pieces for harmonium. " The Choral Service 
Book," 1892 ; Hymn Tunes, with varied har- 
monies, Phillips and Page, 1895 ; Anthems, 
services, part-songs ; Song, Hybrias the 
Cretan, etc., 

Ellis, Alexander John, musician and 
author, was born of parents named Sliarpe, 
at Hoxton, London, June 14, 1814. He was 
educated at Shrewsburj', Eton, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. in 
1837. Afterwards, he became a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, in 1864, and a membe' of the 
Council in 1880-81. He was also president of 
the Philological Society, and member of many 
learned societies. He died at Kensington, 
London, October 28, 1890. 

To the proceedings of the Royal Society he 
contributed various papers on musical theory 


and its physical basis, and published " Pro- 
uounciation for Singers, with especial refer- 
ence to the English, German, Italian, and 
French languages, with exercises for teachers- 
and for advanced students," Loudon, 1877. 
"Speech in song," 1878 (music primer). He 
also translated, with considerable additions, 
Helmholti.'s " Die Lehre von deu Tonemp- 
finduugen als phjsiologische gtundlage fur 
die theorie der musik," as " On the sensations 
of tone as a physiological basis for the thc^Ty 
of music," London, 1875, and with appendix 
and notes re-wriiteii, 1885. 

Ellis, Rev. David Henry, composer and 
writer on niusic. Graduated Mus. Bac, 1872 ;. 
LL.D., 1880 ; B.D., 1886, Trinity College, 
Dublin. Minor Canon, Bangor Cathedral, 
1872-6 ; Precentor, Sidney Cathedral, 1880-4 ; 
Goulburn Cathedral, and examining Chai^lain 
to the Bishop of Goulburn, 1885-9 ; vicar of 
St. Botolph, Lincoln, 1891. Compositions — 
Psalm 104, soli and chorus ; Comtn union 
service; Evening service ; Christmas antliems,, 
etc. Author of " Essay ou Cathedrals and 
Cathedral music." 

Ellis, Henry Bramley, organist and con- 
ductor, born at Newark, Notts, February 3, 
1841. Studied under Dr. Dearie. F.U.C.O. 
Organist successively at St. Audrew's, Hal- 
stead, 1868 ; St. John's, Leicester, 1874 ; and 
St. Mary's, Leicester, from 1878. Conductor 
of Leicester Orchestral Society, Philharmonic 
Society, etc. He has given a series of excel- 
lent concerts, and introduced many important 
works to the district. 

Ellis, William, composer and organist 
of 17th century. He was organist of Eton 
College, and of St. John's College, Oxford. 
On being expelled from St. John's at the 
Rebellion, he established music meetings at 
his house in Oxford, which were attended by 
iTiany of the most distinguished musicians of 
the time. At the Restoration it is believed 
Ellis was reinstated as organist at St. John's. 
In 1639, he graduated ]\Ius. Bac, Oxford, and 
in 1674, he died theie. He composed rounds- 
and canons in Hilton's collection. 

Elvey, Sir Qeorge Job, Kt., organist 
and composer, born at Canterbury, March 27, 
1816. Chorister, and pupil of Highmore 
Skeats, at Canterbury Cathedral ; he also 
studied under his brother, Stephen Elvey, 
and later at R.A.M., under Cipriani Potter 
and Dr Crotch. In 1835, he succeeded High- 
more Skeats, the younger, as organist and 
master of the boys at St. George's Chapel,. 
Windsor, a post he held until 1882, when he 
retired. During his long period of office he 
had the arrangement of the music in connec- 
tion with many important events in the Royal 
Family— the marriage of the Prince of Wales, 
in 1863 ; the Princess Louise, 1871, and of the 
Duke of Albany, in 1882. He graduated 




Mus. Bac, 1838; Mus. Doc, 1840, Oxford. 
lu 1871, he received the honour of knighthood. 
While at Windsor he was conductor of the 
Glee and ]\Iadrigal Society, and of the Windsor 
and Eton Clioral Society. As late as October 
18, 1893, he conducted some of his composi- 
tions at the annual concert of the St. George's 
Chapel Clioir. His death took place at 
Windlesham, Surrey, December 9, 1893. He 
was four times married; his widow being a 
sister of Sir Joseph Savory, ex-Lord ]\Iayor of 
London. In 1894, she published " The Life 
and Reminiscences of Sir George Elv.ey, Lon- 
don, Sampson Low. 

Works. — Jratorios : The Resurrection and 
Ascension (exercise for Mus. Bac), 1838, per- 
formed by the Sacred Harmonic Socieiy, 
Exeter Hall, December 2, 1840 ; Mount Car- 
mel. A birthday ode ; Victoria, an ode 
composed for opening of Royal HoUoway 
College, June 30, 1886, words by Martin Hol- 
loway ; An ode to the north-east wind. An- 
thems : Bow down thine ear, Gresham prize, 
1834 ; The ways of Zion do mourn (exercise 
for Mus. Doc), 1840 ; The Lord is King, com- 
posed for Gloucester Festival, 18-53 ; Sing, 
Heavens, (for Worcester), 18-57, and many 
others. Morning and evening services ; Thirty 
cathedral chants; Fifteen double chants. Tunes 
contributed to Hymns ancient and modern, 
and other collections. Glees and part-songs. 
Festal ]March for orchestra, composed for thn 
marriage of Princess Louise ; Introduction and 
gavotte, violin and Y>i.; Christmas Bells, im- 
promptu for organ or pf., etc. 

Elvey, Stephen, composer and organist, 
brother cf above, born at Canterbury, in June, 
1805. He studied, at Canterbury Cathedral, 
under Skeats, and became organist of New 
College, Oxford, 1830. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1831. 
Mus. Doc, Oxon., 1838. Choragusat Oxford, 
1848-60. He died at Oxford, October 6, 1860. 

Works. — Services and Anthems. The 
Psalter, or Canticles and Psalms, Pointed for 
Chanting, upon a New Principle, London 
(6 editions to 1866). Hymns, etc. 

Emanuel, Louis Alexander, composer, 
born at Plymouth, in 1819. Student and 
Associate, R.A.M. In 1841 was appointed 
bandmaster to the King's Royal Rifle Corps, 
and saw active service in India. For many 
years he has been choirmaster of the Bays- 
water Synagogue, London. Among his com- 
positions are : The part-song, " Gentle winds" ; 
the duet, "The Syren and the Friar"; and 
the descriptive song, " The Desert," which is 
still popular. 

Emdin, John, amateur musician, was 
born at Bristol in 1784, and died April 13, 
1827. He composed the duets : Ever true ; 
Hope, his Pilot shall be, etc. ; Dearest EUen, 
awake ; Lady, tho' thy golden hair ; and other 
songs, and vocal music. 


Emerson, William, mathematical writer, 
author of, among other works, " Cyclomathesis, 
or an easy introduction to the several branches 
of the Mathenmtics," London, 14 vols., 1763- 
70. [Vol. 13 contains "Music," etc]. 

Eos Llechyd, sec Davies (Rev. Owen). 

Eos Morlais, sre Rees (Robert). 

Ennis, John Matthew, organist, pianist, 
and composer, borii at Dover, August 5, 1864. 
Graduated Mus. Bac, 1892; Mus. Doc, 1895, 
London. Was organist and choirmaster of 
St. Philip's, Clerkenwell, 1883-7 ; Holy Trinity, 
Knightsbridge, 1887-93 ; and St. IMary, Brook- 
field, London, 1893. Has given concerts in 
Myddelton Hall, Islington, etc. His works 
are : Psalm 46, for contralto solo, chorus, and 
orchestra ; Magnificat, for soli, chorus, strings, 
and organ ; Songs : Beautiful maiden, etc. 

Esmond, Wilfred, tenor vocalist and 
comedian. W'as for many years a member of 
the Carl Rosa Opera Company, and also sang 
in comic opera, "Les Cloches de Corneville," 
etc. In 1890, he appeared as Thaddeus in the 
" Bohemian Girl," at Capetown, South Africa. 
In 189-5, he acted as stage manager for the 
operatic performance of the Guildhall School 
Students at Drury Lane Theatre. 

Essex, Edward Charles, composer ; of 
the firm of Hodge and Essex, instrument 
dealers. He has composed an Oratorio, 
" David," which was performed at Deal, in 
December, 1893 ; A Trio, Ave Maria ; Songs, 

Essex, Timothy, composer and organist, 
born at Coventry in 1764. He was a teacher 
in Coventry, and afterwards organist and 
choirmaster of St. George's Chapel, Albemarle 
Street, London, near which he also had a 
musical academy. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1806. 
Mus. Doc, Oxon., 1812. He died at London, 
September 27, 1847. Composed " Sonnets " 
of various kinds, by various authors, and wrote 
Rondos, six duets for 2 flutes, and miscellane- 
ous pf. music 

Essex, Countess of, see Stephens 

Este, Michael, composer, born in latter 
part of the 16th century. Son of Thomas 
Este. Mus. Bac, Camb., 1606. He was 
master of the choristers of Lichfield Cathedral, 
1618. Died about 1638. 

Works. — First set of Madrigals, London, 
1604 ; Second set, London, 1606; Third set oi 
Bookes, wherein are Pastorals, Anthems, 
Neapolitanes, Fancies, and IMadrigals, to 5 and 
6 parts, London, 1610; Set of Madrigals, 
Anthems, etc., 1618; Anthems, 1624; Duos 
and Fancies for Viols, 1638 ; Hence, Stars, 
you dazzle, 5 part Madrigal in the "Triumphs 
of Oriana," etc. 

The name of this composer is variously spelt 
Est, East, and Easte. He is only supposed 
to be the son of Thomas Este. 




Este, Thomas, publisher and musician 
during latter half of 16th and beginning of 
the 17th centuries. He died about 1609. 
He published all of the more important works 
of his time, including among others " The 
whole Booke of Psalmes ; with their wonted 
tunes as they are sung in Churches, composed 
into foure parts," London, 1592; Byrd's 
Psalms; The Triumphs of Oriana; and music 
by Campion, Dowland, Gibbons (Orlando), 
Weelkes, Kirbye, Wilbye, ]Mundy, etc. 

Estwick, Rev. Sampson, clergyman and 
musician, born in 1G57. One of children of 
the Chapel Royal. He studied at Oxford, and 
became Chaplain of Christ Church. Minor 
Canon of St. Paul's Cathedral, 1692. Vicar of 
St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, London, 1701. Do. 
of St. Michael's, Queenhithe, 1712. He died 
in February, 1739. 

Works. — The usefulness of Church Music ; a 
sermon preached at Christ Church, November 
27, 1696, London, 1696. Odes, sermons, etc. 

Etheridge, George, composer of the 16th 
century, was born at Thame, Oxfordshire. 
Wrote anthems, madrigals, and songs. 

Euing, William, musician and collector, 
was born at Partick, near Glasgow, May 20, 
1 788. Educated at Glasgow Crramniar School. 
Was an underwriter and insurance broker. 
He died at Glasgow, May 12, 1874. He founded, 
in connection with iVnderson's College, Glas- 
gow, a music lectureship, by deed dated 1866, 
and the lectures have been delivered since 
1869. He left also his valuable musical library 
to the same institution, together with £1,000 
for its maintenance. This library has never 
been perfectly accessible to students and the 
public alike, by reason of some neglect in the 
administration of the provisions of the be- 
quest. The library is one of the most valuable 
in Britain, and contains many rare and costly 
books on musical theory and history, together 
with valuable texts. The library of the late 
Dr. Rimbault is included in this collection. 
In 1876, a very poor catalogue of this library 
was published, and in 1885, a notice of its 
contents, by Jas. D. Brown, appeared anony- 
mously in Mason's "Public and private Li- 
braries of Glasgow." 

Evans, Charles, composer and organist. 
He was organist at Ludlow, Shropshire, early 
in the present century. Composer of six son- 
atas for pf. or harpsichord, op. 3, London 
1 1790] ; March, for a military band, op. 7 
[1807] ; Epicedium on the death of Lord 
Viscount Nelson [1806]. 

Evans, Charles Smart, composer and 
organist, Ijorn at London, in 1778. Chorister 
at Chapel Royal, under Avrton. Gentleman 
of the Chapel Royal, 1808. Organist of St. 
Paul's, Covent Garden. Gained prizes for 
glees in 1817, 1818, and 1821. He died at 
London, January 4, 1849. 


Works.— Six Glees (Clementi), [1812] . Col- 
lection of Glees, etc., London, 1825. Music 
to Linley's Ode to the memory of Samuel 
Webbe, 1817 (prize from Catch Club). Two 
anthems, being the collects for the first Sunday 
after Easter . . . [1830] . I will love Thee, 
anthem, etc. 

Evans, David Emiyn, composer, born 
near Newcastle Emlyn, Cardiganshire, Sep- 
tember 21, 1843. Is musically self-taught, 
with the exception of a few pianoforte and 
organ lessons, which he took while engaged 
in business in Cheltenham. More than twenty 
years of his life have been spent in commercial 
pursuits, so that his musical activity has been 
sonrething extraordinary. From 1865 to 1867 
he competed at the leading Eisteddfodau in 
composition, the number of his prize works 
being nearly seventy. After the Wrexham 
Eisteddfod of 1876, when all the prizes (four) 
in vocal compositions were awarded him, he 
retired from active competition ; he has sinc6 
acted, however, on many occasions, as adjudi- 
cator. He has edited various musical JournalSj 
and is now joint-editor of Y Cerddor (The 
Musician) ; also edited The Biography of 
Welsh Musicians, for which a prize of £30 
was awarded M. 0. Jones (q.v.) at the London 
National Eisteddfod (1887). Is author of ^ 
Manual on Accompaniment, and a series of 
papers on orchestration — ^the first ever pub- 
lished in Wales ; and has contributed various 
papers on musical subjects to the London 
Cymmrodorion, and other Welsh literary 

His published compositions include a sacred 
cantata. The Christian's Prayer (produced, 
Corwen, 1891) ; Songs of the i3eatitudes, for 
Sunday School Choirs ; a secular cantata, 
The Fairy tribe ; twenty-six anthems and 
sacred choruses ; thirty glees and part-songs ; 
forty-eight hymn tunes ; thirty-six songs ; 
and he has a large number of works in MS., 
including a cantata, Merch y Llyn (The IMaid 
of the Lake). He has arranged a number of 
old Welsh tunes, anthems, and airs, — 
the last, The melodies of Wales, specially 
issued, and performed by a select choir before 
the Queen, at Pal6, Merionethshire, during 
Her Majesty's visit there (1889). Chief musi- 
cal editor of the Psalmist, a selection of tunes 
and hymns, chants and anthems, for the use 
of the Welsh Congregationalists — a book since 
merged in a much larger collection. The Con- 
gregational Singer. Editor of a collection of 
music for Sunday Schools ; and has arranged 
for pf. 500 hitherto unpublished Welsh airs, 
Alawon Fv Ngwlad, 2vols., Newtown, Phillips, 
1896. Scored for full orchestra, the first 
Welsh oratorio. The Sea of Tiberias (Rev. E. 
Stephen,. q.i\). 

Evans, David Pughe, tenor vocalist and 
song composer, born at Conwil-in-Elvet, Car- 




martlienshirc, 1S66. Played the violin, and 
sang in a choir in his early days. Won an 
open scholarship for singing at E.C.M., 1887, 
studying under G. Henschcl, and others. On 
Reaving, he joined the Rousbey Opera Com- 
pany, and sang in several provincial towns, 
but ill-health obliged him to quit the stage. 
He afterwards resided in Swansea as a teacher, 
and died there, February 3, 1897, of chest 
disease. He composed songs, some of which 
have been popular ; and won prizes at various 

Evans, Edwin, organist and composer, 
of the present time. Has given organ recitals 
at the Bow and Bromley Institute, London, 
1881-2 ; and conducted concerts at Richmond, 
Surrey, 1884, etc. His compositions include 
a symphony ; pianoforte concerto (performed 
at the Promenade Concerts, November, 1882); 
suite de ballet, orchestra (the same, October, 
1888) ; sonata, pf . duet ; a series of pieces for 
the organ, and some vocal music. 

Evans, Evan, clergyman and musician, 
born 20th April, 1705 ; died at Rhyl, January 
21, 1855. He issued, among other works, 
" Y Seraph, sef casgliad o donau crefyddol, 
ar amrywiol fesurau " : Caerleon, 1838. A 
collection of religious tunes : Chester, 1838. 

Evans, Fanny, sw' Frickenhaus, Madame 

Evans, Hugh, Welsh musician, author 
of a catechism of music entitled " Egwyd- 
doriou peroriaeth, ar ddull holwyddoreg . . ." 
Llanrwst [18251. 

Evans, Robert Harding, writer, author 
of " An Essay on the Music of the Hebrews, 
intended as a preliminarj- discourse to the 
Hebrew Melodies of Braham and Nathan," 
London, 1816. 

Ewing, Alexander, amateur composer, 
born at Aberdeen, January 3, 1830. Nephew 
of Bishop Ewing. He was educated at Maris- 
chal College, Aberdeen. After being trained 
for the law, he entered the army, in 1855, 
and became a st fi paymaster, with the 
honorary rankoflieut-colonel. In 1867 he mar- 
ried Juliana Horatia Gatty ("Aunt Judy"), 
the authoress of many books for the young. 
He died at Taunton, July 14, 1895. 

He is chiefly known as composer of the 
hymn-tune, " Ewing," usually sung to the 
verses beginning "Jerusalem the Golden." 
This has frequently been ascribed to his uncle, 
Bishop Ewing. 

Eyre, Alfred James, organist, born at 
Lambeth, October 24, 1853. Studied at 
R.A.M., under (Sir) G. A. Macfarren, F. West- 
lake, and others ; and the organ with W. S. 
Hoyte, and G. Cooper. Organist at St. 
Peter's, Vauxhall, 1867-72, and again, 1874-81 ; 
St. Ethelburga's, Bishopsgate Street, 1872-74 ; 
and St. John Evangelist, Upper Norwood, 
from 1881. In May, 1880, he was appointed 
organist of the Crystal Palace, a position he 


held until ill-health compelled him to retire 
in 1894. He has given recitals at the Bow 
and Bromley Institute ; Birmingham Town 
Hall (October, 1890), and elsewhere. In 1885, 
he was elected a member of the R. A.iM., and 
is now a Fellow. His compositions include 
Church Services (one written for the Salisbury 
Diocesan Choral Association) ; Songs, part- 
songs, and pieces for pf. In MS. he has a 
setting of the 126ih Psalm ; a scena for so- 
prano solo and orchestra ; String quartet ; 
pf. trio, etc. He married Miss Margaret 
BucKNALL, an accomplished pianist, A.R. A.M. 
Who has played at various concerts with suc- 

Facer, Thomas, organist and composer 
of present time. Has held various organ 
appointments in Birmingham, and is teacher 
of singing at King Edward's Grammar Schools 
in that city. Conductor of a Choral Union, 
and gives concerts in the Birmingham Town 
Hall. He has composed the Cantatas, Noel- 
Tide, 1892; The Crusaders, 1893; Maid of 
Lorn, produced at the Tonic Sol-fa Festival, 
Crystal Palace, July 11, 1896; Part-songs, 
school music, action songs, etc. 

Fairbairn, James, writer, author of 
" Elements of Music : Part I., Melody, con- 
taining an explanation of the Simpler Prin- 
ciples of the Science. Part II., Harmony, 
with Appendix on the nature and causes of 
sound, and the consonance and dissonance of 
intervals, as arising from one system of 
vibration," Edinburgh, 1832. 

Fairfax, Robert, or Fayrfax, composer, 
born at Bayford, Herts, in latter part of the 
fifteenth century [1470] . Mus. Doc. , Cantab., 
1501-2; Do., Oxford, 1511. About 1.509 he 
was appointed one of the Gentlemen of the 
King's Cliapel. Organistof the Abbey Church 
of St. Albans. He died at St. Albans in 1529- 
30. He composed sacred and secular music, 
but is chiefly known as the composer of a 
volume of songs in two, three, and four parts, 
now preserved in MS. in the British Museum. 
Other compositions of the same master are 
in the Music School of Oxford, at Cambridge, 
Lambeth Palace, etc. 

Faning, Eaton, composer and conductor, 
born at Helston, Cornwall, May 20, 1850. 
Received his first lessons from his parents, 
and, in 1870, entered the R.A.M., studying 
under Sterndale Bennett, C. Steggall, and 
others. In 1873 he won the Mendelssohn 
Scholarship, and in 1876 the Lucas medal for 
composition. A.R. A.M., 1877; Professor, 
1878 ; and later, a Fellow of the Institution. 
Graduated Mus. Bac, Cambridge, 1894. 
Held various posts at the National Training 
School, the Guildhall School of Music, and 
R.C.M., until 1885, when he was offered, and 
accepted, the position of Director of the 




Music at Harrow School, which he still holds. 
His compositions include a Magnificat and 
Nunc Dimittis, for voices and orchestra, per- 
formed at the Festival of the Sons of the 
Clergy, at St. Paul's Cathedral, 1878; An- 
thems, part-songs ; IMoonlight, Song of the 
Vikings; Choral ballad, The Miller's Wooing; 
Chorus, Daybreak, with orchestra; Songs, etc. 
Operettas: The Two Majors, R.A.M., 1877; 
Mock Turtle, 1881 ; and The Head of the 
Poll, German Reed, 1882. Dramatic Cantata, 
Liberty, 1882; Cantata for female voices. 
Buttercups and Daisies. Symphony in C 
minor ; Overture, The Holiday, Promenade 
Concerts, Coveut Garden, 1882 ; Quartets ; 
Allegro, pf. and clarinet ; Pf. pieces, etc. 

Fanning, Charles, Irish harp-player and 
collector, born about 1736. Assisted Bunting 
with his collections. Date of death unknown. 

Farmer, Henry, violinist and composer, 
born at NotDingluun, May i;3, 1819, son of 
John Farmer, a vocalist. Chiefly self-taught 
in music, but had some lessons from J. Wade 
Thirlwall. A concert-giver from 1841, he led 
a busy life lo the last in his native town. 
Was for many years leader of the Birmingham 
Festival Choral Society's concerts and mem- 
ber of the Festival orchestra in 1846 (but not 
leader), and for some time after. Organist of 
High Pavement Chapel, Nottingham, for over 
40 years ; and conductor of the Nottingham 
Sacred Harmonic Society up to 1880. An 
active volunteer, he became Captain in the 
Robin Hood Rifles. Engaged in a music 
business for fifty years, he retired on a fortune 
just two days before his death, which took 
place June 25, 1891. His works comprised a 
Mass in B flat, published in 1844 ; a violin 
concerto, performed at Nottingham, Novem- 
ber 25, 1841 ; other concertos and violin 
pieces; Overture, "Calypso," Nottingham, 
1845. Glees — Welcome joy and harmony, 
prize, Nottingham, 1845 ; The Wine Cup, and 
others. " Singing Quadrilles," and various 
pf. ijieces. New Violin School ; The Violin 
Student ; New Violin Tutor ; Tutor for 
American Organ and Harmonium ; various 
arrangements, etc. His daughter, Emily 
Bardsley Farmer (Mrs. Arthur W. Lam- 
bert), is a composer, her works including a 
quartet for pf . and strings ; an operetta for 
children, " Nell," produced at Nottingham, 
1893 ; pieces for harp and pf., songs, etc. 
Other musical artists of the name were Anna 
Maria Farmer, a vocalist, who died in Lon- 
don, April 11, 1846; and her sister, Dinah 
Farmer, a pianist of distinction (afterwards, 
Mrs. De Lisle Allen), who died in London, 
March 10, 1884. 

Farmer, John, composer of the 16th 
century, harmonized Este's Psalms, and 
composed " Cantas, the first set of English 
Madrigals to foure Voyces, newly composed 


by John Farmer, practitioner in the art of 
musicque. Little Saint Helen's," 1599 ; "Fair 
Nymphs," six-part IMadrigal in "Triumphs of 
Oriana;" Divers and Saundrie waies of two 
parts in one, to the number of fortie upon one 
playu-song," etc., London, 1591. His bio- 
graphy is unknown. 

Farmer, John, organist and composer, 
born at Nottingham, August 16, 1886. Nep- 
l.ew of Henry Farmer. Studied at Leipzig 
Couservatorium, and under Andreas Spath, 
at Coburg. Resident as music teacher for 
some years at Zurich. In 1862 was appointed 
music naaster at Harrow School, a position 
he held until 1885, when he became organist 
of Balliol College, Oxford. There he instituted 
a Musical Society, and has given much atten- 
tion to concerts of an educational character. 
His compositions include an oratorio, " Christ 
and his Soldiers," produced at Harrow, March, 
1878 ; Requiem in memory of departed Har- 
row friends ; " Cinderella," a fairy opera, 
comi^osed 1882, performed, Harrow, Novem- 
ber, 1883; Comic cantata, "Froggy would a 
wooing go," Oxford, 1887 ; Nursery rhymes 
quadrilles, for chorus and orchestra. Septets 
in C and D, for pf., strings, and fiute ; Quin- 
tet, pf. and strings, Harrow, 1874. Editor of 
hymns and tunes for High Schools ; Harrow 
giee book ; Harrow School Songs ; Harrow 
marches ; Dulce Domum ; Rhymes and songs, 

Farmer, Thomas, composer of the 17th 
century, was one of the waits of London, and 
Mus. Bac, Cantab., 1684. He died before 
1695, and Purcell has included an elegy on 
him in " Orpheus Britannicus." 

Works. — A consort of musick in four parts, 
containing thirty-three lessons, beginning 
with an overture, 1686. A second consort of 
musick in four parts, containing eleven 
Lessons, beginning with a ground, 1690. 
Songs in Playford's Choice Ayres, 1675, and 
in various collections of his time. 

Farnaby, Giles, composer and spinnet 
player, born at Truro, Cornwall, about middle 
of the 16th century [1560]. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 
July, 1.592. Date of death unknown, but he 
lived mostly in London, and Sevenoaks, 

Works. — Canzonets to foure Voyces, with 
a Song of eight parts, London, 1598. 
Madrigals. Pieces contributed to Queen 
Elizabeth's Virginal Book (which also contains 
four pieces by Richard Farnaby, a son of 
Giles). Psalms in Ravenscroft's collection, etc. 

Farnie, Henry Brougham, musician 
and librettist, was born in Fife about 1837. 
He was educated at St. Andrews and Cam- 
bridge Universities, and was for some time 
editor of the Fifeshire Journal. In 1863 he 
settled in London, and was editor of the 
Orchestra, Sock and Buskin, and Paris Times. 




He also was associated with Henderson in the 
opera bouffe productions at the Strand, Folly, 
Avenue, and Comedy Theatres. He con^piled 
and wrote the librettos of a number of oper- 
ettas, pantomimes, songs, etc. ; and transla- 
ted most of the more successful modern 
French comic operas. His talents as an 
adapter were of the highest order. Among 
his productions may be named " Sleeping 
Queen," " Rip Van Winkle," " Cloches de 
Corneville," by Planquette. He also wrote 
words for Arditi's " Stirrup Cup," and trans- 
lated Gounod's " Romeo et Juliette," " La 
Reine de Saba," etc. He died at Paris, 
September 21, 1889. By his will he left 
£23,072 to his sister. 

Farnol, Eleanor, see Moir, Mrs. F. L. 

Farquharson, James, musician and 
teacher iia Edinburgh. Published a " Selection 
of Sacred Music, suitable for public and pri- 
vate devotion," Edinburgh, 1824. 

Farrant, Daniel, composer, of the 16th 
and 17th centuries ; set lessons for the viol 
in what was known as lyra-way, in iuiitation 
of the lute. 

Farrant, John, composer, of the 16th 
century, was organist of Salisbury Cathedral, 
about 1600. Biography unknown. 

Another John Farrant, or not unlikely the 
same, was organist of Christ's Hospital, Lon- 
don, about the same time. 

Farrant, Richard, composer and organist, 
was born about 1530. He was one of the 
Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal to 1564. 
Master of Choristers, St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, 1564-69. Again Gentleman of the 
Chapel Rcj-al, 1569-80. Organist and Lay- 
Vicar, St. George's Chapel. He died at Wind- 
sor, November 30, 1580. 

Works. — Services in G minor, D minor, 
and A minor. Anthems : Call to Remem- 
brance ; Hide not thou thy face ; Lord for 
Thy tender mercies sake ; O Lord, Almighty, 

The work by which Farrant is best known 
is " Lord for Thy tender mercies sake," an 
anthem which is of disputed authorship, some 
attriljuting it to John Hilton. It has also 
been adapted as a psalm tune, in which form 
it appears in numerous collections. 

Farrar, Joseph, writer and physician, 
who studied at Edinburgh, etc., and gradu- 
ated M.D. at St. Andrews, 1884. Now in 
practice in Gainsborough. Author of "The 
Human Voice and connected parts. A prac- 
tice book for orators, clergj'men, vocalists, 
and others." London, 1881, etc. 

Farren, Qeorge, author of "The Mortal- 
ities of Celebrated Musicians," London, 1834. 

Faulkes, William, organist, pianist, and 
composer, horn in Liverpool, November 4, 
1863. Studied under William Dawson, and 
the late Henry Dillon-Newman. Organist of 


St. Margaret's, Aniield, Liverpool, since 1886. 
Resident there as teacher and performer. 

Works. — Concerto in C minor, pf. and or- 
chestra, 1891 ; Concerto in A minor, violin 
and orchestra, composed 1892, performed, Art 
Club, Liverpool, May, 1893; Suite in C minor, 
for flute, oboe, trumpet, strings, and pf., 1892. 
Trios, for pf., violin, and 'cello, D minor, 
composed 1891, performed at Conference of 
Incorporated Society of IMusicians, London, 
January, 1893 ; G minor, and C minor. Twelve 
pieces for organ ; Sonata in D nainor ; Concert 
overture in E flat ; and other organ pieces. 
Pianoforte pieces ; three pieces awarded the 
prize offered by the North-Western Section, 
I.S.]\I., 1893. Pieces for violin, violoncello, 

Faulkner, Thomas, musician. Author 
of " Organ Builders' Assistant," London, 
1826. " Designs for Organs," London, 1838. 

Fawcett, a remarkable Yorkshire family 
of musicians. Joseph Fawcett, the head 
was born about 1815, and followed his occu- 
pation as a weaver at Horsforth, and after- 
wards at Eccleshill, whither he was invited to 
assist in the choir of the New Connexion 
Chapel. He sang tenor, played the violin, 
and was choirmaster. He has five sons, 
musicians, John, Joseph, Samuel, trombone 
players ; Tom, pianist and organist ; and Han- 
del, contrabassist. John has two sons in the 
profession ; — Harry, a violinist ; and Men- 
delssohn, a clarinettist. Joseph junior's 
son, Charles, is a violinist ; and the three 
sons of Samuel, named Charlesworth, Ver- 
di, and Weber, play clarinet, violin, and 
oboe, respectively ; while Fawcett Midgley, 
the married sister's son, is a bassoonist. The 
members of this family are known all over 
the north of England ; they have played regu- 
larly for the Carl Rosa Opera Company, and 
some have toured the country through, while 
others are known as skilled players in Cham- 
ber Concerts. 

Fawcett, John, composer and writer, was 
born at Kendal, in 1789. He was a shoemaker 
for a time, but afterwards became a teacher 
of music in Bolton, Lancashire. He died at 
Bolton, October 26, 1867. 

Works. — New set of sacred music, in three 
parts ... by John Fawcett, of Kendal [1830] . 
Miriam's timbrel, a new set of psalm and 
hymn tunes . . . London, n.d. Melodia divina, 
a collection of psalm and hymn tunes, London 
[1841]. Harp of Zion, consisting of original 
tunes, and pieces [1845] . The Cherub Lute 
. . . hymns, etc., London [1845]. Voice of 
Devotion, containing 400 psalm and hymn 
tunes, Glasgow [1862-63]. Music for Thous- 
ands, or the vocalist's manual [1845] . Lan- 
cashire Vocalist, a complete guide to singing 
at sight, London [1854]. Chanting made 
easy, London [1857] . Paradise, oratorio [1865]. 




The Seraphic Choir, a Chuistmas piece, 1840. 
Juvenile Pianist's Companion, 1850. Etude 
de Salon, for pf., op. 1. Anthems, Temper- 
ance songs, etc. _ , 

Fawcett, John, composer and oi-ganist, 
son of above, born at Bolton, 1824. He studied 
under his father, and became organist of St. 
John's Church, Farnworth, 1835. Organist 
of Parish Church, Bolton, 1842. He studied 
at the R.A.IM., London, under Bennett, from 
1845. Organist of Curzon Street Chapel, 
London, 1845-46. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1852. 
He died at Manchester, July 1, 1857. 

He wrote a cantata, " Supplication and 
Thanksgiving," as a degree exercise, 1852 ; 
anthems, glees, songs, and pf. music. 

Fawcett. Rev. Joshua, musician, edited 
" Lyra Ecclesiastica, consisting of voluntaries, 
introits, chants, services, anthems." Brad- 
ford, 1845. Preface by Rev. W. H. Havergal. 

Fayrfax. Robert; see Fairfax. 

Fearnside, Frederick, didactic writer, 
was a chorister at Norwich Cathedral in 1848, 
and afterwards articled to Dr. Buck. He died 
at Bradford, October, 1888. Author of " The 
Systematic and Comprehensive Singing Man- 
ual " [1887]. 

Fearon, see Glossop. 

Featherstone, Isabella, see Paul (Mrs. 

Felton, Rev. William, organist and com- 
poser, born in 1715. Was Vicar-Choral at 
Hereford in 1741, and afterwards Minor canon. 
He was Vicar of Norton Canon, 1751-69. He 
died on December 6, 1769. He wrote con- 
certos for organ and harpsichord ; and eight 
sets of easy lessons for the harpsichord, ops. 3 
and 8. He composed the well-known hymn 
tuTie, "Fabian." He was esteemed in his 
day a remarkable performer. 

Fenton, Lavinia, bom Bestwick, soprano 
vocalist, who made her debut at London in 
1726. She was the original Polly Peachem 
in "The Beggar's Opera," January 29, 1728. 
Retired from the stage as mistress of the 
third Duke of Bolton. Married to him at 
Aix, Provence, 1751. She died at Greenwich, 
January, 1760. 

This singer has interest for the present time 
only in her connection with that ever-famous 
work, "The Beggar's Opera," in which she 
scored an enormous success. 

Fergus, John, composer, was born at 
Huntly, Aberdeenshire, in 1767. He was or- 
ganist of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, 
Glasgow, for a number of years. Died at 
Glasgow, June 10, 1825. He composed three 
glees, songs, and organ pieces. 

Ferrabosco, a family of musicians. Alfon- 
so, son of an Italian composer of the same 
name, who settled in England some time 
before 1567, was born at Greenwich, at a date 
unknown, probably about 1570. He was taken 


to Italy by his father, and studied at Bologna. 
Musical instructor to Prince Henry, 1605. 
Published " Ayres," 1609. Died in 1628. His 
works included lessons, and fancies, and he 
contributed to Sir William Leighton's " Lam- 
entacions," 1614. His son, Alfonso Ferra- 
bosco, succeeded his father in the King's band 
in March, 1627-8. With his brother, Henry, 
he was appointed a musician-in-ordinary to 
the King. Some pieces for viols are to be 
found in the Addit. MSS., British Museum. 
He died in 1661. John Ferrabosco, son 
either of Alfonso or Henry, was Mus. Bac, 
' Cambridge, 1671. Organist of Ely Cathedral 
from 1662 to 1682, when he died. Anthems 
by him are in the Ely Cathedral library. The 
history of this family is obscure, but the best 
account will be found in the Dictionary of 
National Biography, xviii., pp. 375-7. 

Ferrey, George, organist of Christ Church 
Priory, Hampshire, from 1851, until his death, 
February 10, 1893. His predecessor, a Mr. 
Hiscock, was appointed when the organ was 
built, in 1788, the two holding office for more 
than a century. 

Ff rangcon = Davies, see Davies, 
D. Ffrangcon. 

Field, Henry Ibbot, composer and pianist, 
born at Bath, December 6, 1797. He studied 
under Coombs, of Cheltenham, and taught 
music at Bath, where he died. May 19, 1848. 
He wrote some unimportant music for the 
pianoforte He was one of the few i^rovincial 
pianists thought worthy of a hearing in Lon- 
don. At the Philharmonic Concerts, February 
25, 1822, he played a concerto by Hummel 
(in A minor '?), for the first time in England ; 
and, June 22, 1840, he played Hummel's 
B minor concerto. His father, Thomas Field, 
was organist of Bath Abbey. 

Field, John, composer and pianist, born 
at Dublin, July 26, 1782. Apprenticed to 
Clementi, London, under whom he afterwards 
studied. Taken by Clementi to Paris, Germany 
and Russia. Teacher at St. Petersburg, 
1804, and at Moscow, 1823. Appeared at 
London Philharmonic Concert, 1832. He 
played in Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy, 
and afterwards returned to Russia with a 
family named Raemann. He died at Moscow, 
January 11, 1837. 

Works. — Op. 1. Three Sonatas for pf. in A, 
E fiat, and C minor. Seven Concertos for pf. 
and orch., in E flat, A fiat, E flat, E fiat, G, 
C, C minor. Two Divertissements for pf., 
with accomp. for 2 vns., flute, alto and bass. 
Quintet for pf., 2 vns., alto and bass. Rondo 
for pf. and quartet. Variations on Russian 
air for pf. duet. Grand Valse for pf. duet. 
Three Sonatas for pf. in A, B, and C. Sonata 
for pf. in B. Exercise in Modulation for pf. 
Two Airs for pf. Fantasias for pf . Eighteen 
Nocturnes for pf. Rondo Ecossais for pf. 





Polonaises for pf. Two Songs for Voice and 
pf. Romances for pf. Rondos, and miscel- 
laneous pieces. 

Field, John Thomas, organist and com- 
poser, born near Manchester, February 4, 
1850. First musical studies private. Later, 
pupil of Sir John Stainer, and Dr. J. F. Bridge. 
In 1868, appointed organist and choirmaster, 
Parish Church, Holywell, North Wales; 1870, 
Christ Church, Southport ; 1872, St. German's, 
Blackheath ; and, two years later, to Christ 
Church, Lee Park, Kent, where he is still in 
office. Associate of the Philharmonic Society. 

Works. — IMorning, Communion, and Even- 
ing Service in D ; Benedictus and Agnus Dei, 
in F ; Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in G ; 
The Canticles of the Church, Two Sets; Chant 
Services. Anthems : Send out Thy Light ; 
Lord of our life ; Hail ! gladdening light ; and 
others ; Carols. Songs : An old story ; Two 
children fair; Part-songs, etc. Offerton-e a la 
Sonate, in three movements, and other organ 
pieces ; Nocturne, pf. ; Pieces for pf. and 
violin ; Romance in A, etc., etc. 

Filby, William Charles, organist and 
composer, born at Hammersmith, 18-36. Was 
organist of St. Peter, Hammersmith, in 1849, 
afterwards spending some time in study in 
France. Organist and choirmaster. Parish 
Church, Bromley, 1853; St. Peter's, Walworth; 
St. Matthew's, Bayswater; St. Luke's, West- 
bourne Park ; Holy Trinity, Margate ; Holy 
Trinity, Stepney ; and since 1884, of St. Paul's, 
West Greenwich. Conductor of Choral 
Societies at Greenwich, Chelsea, etc. Has 
given organ recitals in Loudon, and in various 
provincial towns. Was one of the appointed 
organists at the International Exhibitions, 
1882 and 1885. Lecturer on subjects con- 
nected with Church music, the opera, and 
musical education. His compositions are 
very numerous, and include settings in Can- 
tata form, of Psalms 13, 23, and 65 ; A ]\Iass 
in E fiat, op. 24 ; Mass in E, op. 28 ; Salve 
Regina, op. 67, and other music for the Roman 
Catholic Service. Anthems, settings of the 
Canticles. Operettas, Your money or your 
life ; Alabama claims. A number of songs, 
choruses, and part-songs. Sonatas in E, op. 
66, and G minor, op. 76, with many other 
pieces for pf . Four organ voluntaries, op. 110 ; 
Three organ pieces, op. 124, etc. Revising 
editor of Lady V. Freke's tune-book. Song of 
Praise ; and of J. B. Mead's, The Treasury. 
Contributor of hymn-tunes to Hjanns Ancient 
and Modern ; The Bristol Tune-book, etc. 
Author of Piccolo Tutor (London : Williams); 
Flute Tutor ; How to write music ; The 
Student's Copy Book (London, 1882). 

His brother, Stephen Filby (born 1834, 
died 1895), was organist of the Parish Church, 
Hammersmith, for over twenty years, and 
afterwards of Holy Trinity, Barnes, and the 

Parish Church, Wealdstone, Harrow. He 
was an extemporaneous player of repute. 

Filmer, Edward, composer of the 17th 
century. He published "French Court Ayres 
of four and five parts," 1629. 

Finch, Hon. and Rev. Edward, com- 
poser and clergyman, fifth son of the 1st Earl 
of Nottingham, born in 1664, died at York, 
February 14, 1738. He composed anthems, 
psalms, etc. ; also a " Grammar for Thorough- 
bass, with examples." MS. of 66 pages in 
the Euing Library, Glasgow. 

Findlay, William, violinist and com- 
poser, born at Crofthead, Linlithgow, August 
11, 1854. Resident at Broxburn, in the same 
county, as a music teacher. He has composed 
a number of reels, hornpipes, strathspeys, and 
other Scottish dance music. 

Firth, R. A., composer, and organist of 
St. John's, Hampstead, compiled " Select 
portions of the new version of Psalms, adapted 
to a choice collection of Psalm tunes, for the 
use of the Parish Church of St. John, Hamp- 
stead," London, 1819. "Congregational and 
domestic praise, consisting of select portions 
of psahiis and hymns adapted to appropriate 
tunes . . . ," London, 1835. Six canzonets 
[1825]. Hymns, pf. music, etc. 

Fish, William, violinist and composer, 
born at Norwich, in 1775. Violinist in Nor- 
wich theatre. Teacher of music at Norwich. 
Was musical preceptor of Edward Taylor and 
George Perry, and a composer of concertos; 
grand sonata for the pf., op. 1 ; glees, and 
songs. He died at Norwich, March 15, 1866. 

Fisher, Arthur E., is a professor of har- 
mony, counterpoint, and composition, in the 
Toronto College of IMusic. He is a Mus. Bac. 
(Toronto ?) and A.R.C.O., England. He has 
composed a cantata for female voices, " The 
Wreck of the Hesperus." Edward Fisher, 
another Toronto musician, was musically 
educated in Germany. He was musical 
director of the Ottawa Ladies' College, and 
conductor of the Choral Society in that city. 
Organist of St. Andrew's Church, Toronto ; 
conductor of the Toronto Choral Society for 
some years up to 1891. From its establish- 
ment, in 1887, he has been principal of the 
Toronto Conservatory of Music. Elected Presi- 
dent of the Canadian Society of Musicians, 
1888, and again in 1889. 

Fisher, Henry, didactic writer, and 
teacher, born at Blackpool, December 21, 
1845. Chiefly self-taught in music. Appren- 
ticed to a firm of music-sellers in IManchester, 
he acquired a knowledge of the pianoforte, 
and gained further experience as assistant to 
a professor of music at Darlington. Grad- 
uated Mus. Bac, 1876 ; Mus. Doc, 1878, 
Cambridge. For three years was organist of 
Christ Church, Blackpool, in which town he 
is settled as a teacher of singing, pianoforte, 





and harmony. He is an earnest student in 
every branch of knowledge, and has been 
elected a Fellow of the Geological Society. 
His compositions are two cantatas, " Ruth, 
the Gleauer," and "The Call of Gideon;" a 
romance for viola and orchestra, and some 
minor works. Besides contributions to the 
musical press, and lectures, he is author of 
The Musical Profession, a handbook for pro- 
fessors of the present and the future ; The 
Candidate in Music, Part I., a text book of 
musical elements, and II., Harmony; editor 
and part author of E. Q. Norton's Construc- 
tion, tuning, and care of the pianoforte ; and 
also of John Curwen's The Harmoriy Player, 
fir the harmonium, all 1'ublished by Curwen 
and Sons, for which firm he has arranged 
a number of operas for children's voices. 

Fisher, J. Churchill, a composer, born 
in Australia. Has written a Cantata, " The 
Emigrants," produced at Parraniata, Febru- 
ary 22, 1887. 

Fisher, John Abraham, composer and 
violinist, born at Dunstable, or London, 1744. 
He studied under Pinto, and appeared at 
King's Theatre as violinist, 1763. In 1764 
he became a member of the Royal Society of 
Musicians. Married Miss Powell, 1770. 
Bac. and Doc. Mus., Oxon., 1777. Travelled 
in Russia and Germany. ]Married Anne 
Selina Storace, 1784, but separated from her 
soon afterwards. He lived in Dublin as a 
teacher, and died in May, 1806. 

Works. — Music to The Monster of the 
Wood, 1772 ; The Sylphs, 1774 ; Prometheus, 
1776 ; The Norwood Gypsies, 1777 ; Macbeth. 
Providence, oratorio (for degree), 1777. Sym- 
phonies ; Concertos for pf., and for oboe; 
Violin and flute music ; Canzonets. A com- 
parative view of the English, French, and 
Italian Schools, consisting of Airs and Glees 
composed as examples of their several man- 
ners, London, n.d. 

Fisin, James, musician, horn at Col- 
chester, in 1755. He studied under Burney 
and Reinhold. Teacher in Chester. Wrote 
" The Seasons, or Vocal Year " ; " The Judg- 
ment of Paris," a masque (Congreve) ; " Sacred 
Songs on the most Prominent Incidents of 
our Saviour's Life and Death," London, n.d. 
Sonatas, Glees, Canzonets, Ballads, etc. He 
died September 8, 1847. 

Fitzball, Edward, or Ball, dramatist 
and writer, born at Burwell, near Newmarket, 
1793. He died at Chatham, October 27, 1873. 
He wrote the librettos of some of the most 
popular of English operas, Wallace's " Mari- 
tana " being perhaps his most successful 
production. Although something more than 
a mere play-wright, his poetical powers were 
not of a high order. He published " Thirty- 
five Years of a Dramatic Author's Life," 
London, 2 vols., 1859. 


Fitzherbert William, clergyman and 
musician, born 1713. He was a minor canon 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 1744. He 
was successively rector of Hadlow, Kent, 1753 ; 
Hornedon-on-the-Hill, Essex, 1756-1771 ; and 
of St. Gregory by St. Paul. He died at St. 
Paul's College, October 2, 1797. Composer of 
a double chant in F, and other church music. 

Fitzpatrick, W. A., musician, compiler 
of " Devotional Music ; being a selection of 
nearly 100 melodies," London [1837], and 
composer of glees and songs. 

Fitzwilliam, Edward Francis, com- 
poser and conductor, born at Deal, August 1, 
1824. Music-director, Haymarket Theatre, 
London. Married Miss Ellen Chaplin, 1855. 
He died, London, January 20, 1857. 

Works. — Music for The Green Bushes 
(1845) ; Anything for a change (1846) ; Love's 
alarms (1854) ; and other dramatic pieces. 
Queen of a day, comic opera. Set of sungs 
[1853] ; Songs for a winter night [1855] ; 
Dramatic Songs, London [1856] , 4 books ; 
Four four-part songs, London, 1855 : Glees, 
etc. Te Deum, ballads, pf. music. 

His father, E-.ward Francis (1785-1852), 
was an actor and singer, and his sister, Kath- 
leen Mary (born 1826), who married Mr. C. 
Withall, was also a singer and actress. 

Fitzwilliam, Richard, 7th Viscount, 
English peer, and founder of the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge, was born in August, 
1745 ; and died February 5, 1816. The title 
is now extinct. 

He bequeathed to the University of Cam- 
bridge, a collection of paintings, music, and 
books, the musical portion of which included 
a number of fine MS. compositions of early 
composers, principally Italian. These are 
housed in the fine Fitzwilliam Museum at 
Cambridge, The sacred music contained in 
this collection was edited and published by 
Vincent Novello, in 5 volumes, as " The Fitz- 
william Music, being a collection of sacred 
pieces from the MSS. of Italian composers in 
the Fitzwilliam Museum," n.d. 

Flavell, Charles Edwin, pianist, born 
in Birmingham about 1817. Studied under 
Robert Barnett, and later at Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, under Aloys Schmitt. Settled in 
Birmingham, as teacher. About the year 
1856, in conjunction with Mr. Duchemin (q.v.) 
he gave a series of chamber concerts, which 
were continued for some time, and then he 
started others on his own account. He re- 
moved to London about 1873 to undertake the 
agency for this country of the Kaps pianos ; 
and he died there, February 1, 1879. 

Flavell, Edwin Mark, pianist and com- 
poser, of present time. Educated at R.A.M. 
Sometime conductor of a choral society at 
West Hill, Wandsworth. He is the composer 
of a cantata, Babylon's Wave, produced at 




Wandsworth Town Hall, October 18, 1883 ; ! 
cantata, "The Fairy Ring," 1883; Songs and 
diiets ; Pieces for pf. solo, and duet, etc. 

Fleet, George R., see Barrington, Rut- 

Fleming, Rev. Alexander. Scottish 
clergyman, born in 1770 ; died in June, 1845. 
He was minister at Neilston in Renfrewshire. 
Author of "... Letters ... on the subject of 
the organ which . . . was introduced into St. 
St. Andrew's Church, Glasgow. To which 
are added remarks on the Rev. James Begg's 
Treatise on the use of Organs," Glasgow, 
1808. " Answer to a statement of the pro- 
ceedings of the Presbytery of Glasgow, relative 
to the use of an organ," Glasgow, 1808. 

Another clergyman of the same name. Rev. 
John Fleming, was minister at Airdrie in 
Lanarkshire, and wrote " An inquiry into the 
compositions with which the praise of God 
.should be celebrated in His public worship," 
Edinburgh, 1821. 

Fleming, James M., writer and violinist, 
born at Glasgow in 1839. Studied for a time 
under the late Samuel D. Smythe, of Glasgow, 
and received some hints from Ole Bull. Con- 
tributor to various musical periodicals ; Com- 
poser of Easy legato studies for tlie violin ; 
and author of " Old Violins and their Makers," 
1883; "The Practical Violin School," 1886; 
and "The Fiddle Fancier's Guide," 1892. 

Fletcher, Charles, violinist and con- 
ductor, born at Wincanton, Somerset, July 11, 
1846. His father was a schoolmaster and a 
musical amateur, and his mother was a cousin 
of Charles Lucas. At five years of age Charles 
Fletcher began his vocal studies, and at seven 
appeared in public as a singer and flute-player. 
When nine he was appointed soprano soloist 
and harmonium player at the Parish Church 
of Shepton Montague, at a salary of £50 per 
annum. He had studied the violin from his 
seventh year, and now became prominent as 
a performer. He was engaged by the late 
Lord Arundel for the private chapel and 
chamber concerts at Wardour Castle, where 
he remained three years. His voice changing, 
he settled as a violinist at Southampton. 
Failing health necessitated sea voyages, and 
for some time he was in Egypt and Brazil. 
Ultimately he took up his residence at 
Bournemouth, where he has established a 
string orchestra of ladies', mostly his pupils. 
He has played as soloist, and in chamber 
concerts in London, and many provincial 
towns, and at the conferences of the Incorpo- 
rated Society of Musicians. He was principal 
professor of the violin at Winchester College 
for ten years. At the Bournemouth Festival 
of 1896 he was principal first violinist. He 
married, in 1869, a German lady, a pianist of 
repute. His daughter Maud made her appear- 
ance as a violoncellist in Handel's Concerto 


Grosso in D minor, at a concert given by the 
Rev. E. H. Moberly, with his ladies' orches- 
tra, at Prince's Hall, London, Decem.ber 4, 

Fletcher, Thomas, double-bass player, 
in his day the leading professional musician 
in Birmingham. He was a member of the 
Festival Orchestra from 1808, if not earlier ; 
and was for years in the band of the Italian 
Opera under Weichsel. He died in Birming- 
ham, in June, 1845, at the age of 60. There 
were several other musicians of the same 
family. Jane Fletcher, a contralto vocalist, 
was one of the principal singers at the Bir- 
mingham Festival of 1811. 

Flinn, Kate, soprano vocalist. Studied 
under Ardellmann, and W. Shakespeare. She 
made her first appearance at a concert given 
by Mr. W. Ganz, July 1, 1884, and sang at 
the Ballad Concerts, St. James's Hall, the 
next year. Made her debut at the Crystal 
Palace Concerts, March 17, 1886, and at the 
Saturday Popular Concerts, March 26, 1887, 
since which time she has sung at many im- 
portant concerts in London and the provinces. 

Flintoft, Rev. Luke, clergyman and 
musician of 18th century, who was probably 
a native of Worcester. B.A. Cambridge, 1700. 
Priest-vicar of Lincoln Cathedral, 1704-14. 
Gentleman of Chapel Royal, 1715. Reader 
in Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 1719. Minor 
canon, Westminster Abbey, 1719. He died at 
London, November 3, 1727, and is buried in 
Westminster Abbey. He invented the double 
chant, or rather adapted one of the earliest 
specimens yet discovered. It is in G minor, 
and will be found in any large collection. 

Flood, Edwin, organist and composer, 
born early in the present century. He was 
organist of the Parish Church of Honiton, 
and died there in 1869. He compiled Psalmo- 
dia Britannica, a collection of psalms, anthems, 
chants, etc., London, 1847-54, 2 vols, issued 
in 12 books. Collection of chants for 4 voices 
[1846] . The Psalmodist, a collection of psalm 
and hymn tunes used in the Parish Church of 
Honiton, London, 1850. Gipsy's life is a 
joyous life, song. Sets of quadrilles, and other 
pf. music. Another Edwin Flood, possibly 
a son or other relative of the above, died at 
Honiton, April 29, 1848. We have been 
unable to disentangle the works of these two, 
both being contemporary composers. 

Florence, Amy, soprano vocalist, born 
at Edgbaston, Birmingham. Studied singing 
locally, and under San Giovanni at Milan. 
Made her debut in opera in Malta, afterwards 
singing at Como and Naples. Returning to 
England, she joined the Carl Rosa Opera 
Company, singing in " Carmen," and other 
works. In the season 1886-7, she sang at 
Covent Garden in " La Favorita," etc., and a 
year later under the management of Augustus 




Harris. She took the stage name of Mile. 
Firenze. She has given concerts at Steinway 
Hall, 1888, and elsewhere. 

Flower, Eliza, soprano vocalist and 
composer. Sister of Sarah Flower (Mrs. 
Wm. Brydges Adams, died 1847, or August, 
1848), author of " Nearer my God to Thee," 
and other hymns. She was horn at Harlow, 
Essex, April 19, 1803 ; and died Decemher 12, 
1846. Composer of " Hymns and Anthems," 
composed for the services at Finsbury Chapel, 
South Place, London; "Musical Illustrations 
of the Waverley Novels," London, 1831. 
'• Now pray we for our country," and other 
part-songs ; Songs of the Seasons, etc. 

Flower, Sara, contralto vocalist, born 
February 22, 1805 ; died at Melbourne, Augtist 
16, 1865. A concert singer who sang in 
England and the Colonies. Her sister, Eliza- 
beth, was a soprano vocalist and sang in 
public. These are frequently confounded with 
the two Flower sisters mentioned above. 

Flowers, George French, composer, 
organist, and writer, born at Boston, Lincoln, 
in 1811. He studied in Germany under 
Rinck and Schnyder von Wartensee. He 
was organist of the English Chapel, Paris, 
and of St. INIark's, Myddelton Square, Clerken- 
well, London. IMus. Bac, Oxon., 1839. Mus. 
Doc, Oxon., 1865. Editor of Literary Gazette. 
Flowers was an unsuccessful candidate for the 
Music Professorship at Oxford in 1848, and 
also for that of Gresham College in 1863. He 
was a successful teacher of singing, numbering 
Mrs. Howard Paul among his pupils, and 
established a British School of Vocalization. 
He died at London, June 14, 1872. 

Works. — Anthems, songs, etc. Essay on 
the construction of Fugue . . , London, 1846. 
Poem on Muscular Vocalisation, with intro- 
duction," Barton-upon-Huniber, 1861. Trans- 
lation of Basler's Pictorial representation of 
the science of harmony . . . n.d., etc. 

Fludd, Robert, scholar and author, born 
at Milgate, Bearsted, Kent, 1574 ; died at 
London, September 8, 1637. Author of " Ut- 
riusque cosmi majoris scilicet et minoris meta- 
physica, physica atque technica historia," 
Oppenheim, 1617 (q-v.). He was educated at 
Oxford, and is best known as a philosophical 

Foley, Allan James (Signoe Foli), bass 
vocalist, born in Cahir, Tipperary, in 1842. 
His early years were spent in America. Studied 
in Naples, under Bisaccia, and sang in opera 
at Catania, Turin, Milan, and Paris, 1862-4. 
He made his debut at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
June 17, 1865, as St. Bris in the " Huguenots," 
and for some years sang in many operas there, 
at Coveiit Garden, and Drury Lane. He has 
also appeared in opera in America, Russia, 
Austria, and elsewhere. His first performance 
in oratorio was in " Israel in Egypt," National 


Choral Society's Concert, April 25, 1866, when 
he sang in the duet, "The Lord is a man of 
war," with Mr. Santley. He sang at the 
Handel Festival, 1868 ; and in the provincial 
Festivals successively at Norwich, 1869 ; Bir- 
mingham, 1870 ; Gloucester, 1871 ; and Leeds, 
1877. As a concert singer he has been heard 
in every important musical centre. In 1892, 
he toured in Australia ; was in South Africa, 
1893 ; and singing in London again in 1896. 

Folkestone, Viscountess, see Radnor,. 
Countess of. 

Foote, Frank Barrington, baritone voca- 
list, born at Plymouth, February 2, 1855. 
Was intended for the army, but his voice 
developing while he was at school in Germany 
he was sent to Florence to study, his masters 
being Zuccardi, and Lamperti at Milan. As- 
signor Franceschi he made his debut in opera. 
at Pavia, and he sang, later, in Milan. In 
1880 he was engaged at Her Majesty's Theatre,, 
singing in Verdi's "Aida," etc. Later he 
went to America with Mapleson's troupe, and 
afterwards again visited Italy. In 1884 he 
was with the Carl Rosa Company, and sang 
in "Colomba," and "The Canterbury Pil- 
grims " ; and in 1885 he took part in the 
Handel Bi-centennial Festival, at the Crystal 
Palace. He now was busy with concert work, 
and studying oratorio with Mr. Randegger. 
He appeared at the Norwich Festival, 1887 ; 
and those of Gloucester and Leeds in 1889. 
In the spring of 1889, and again in 1891, he 
visited America, and has toured with Madame 
Albani, and Madame Patti. He was giving 
concerts in London in 1896. 

Forbes, George, pianist and composer, 
born at Pimlico, London, July 1, 1813. He 
studied under his brother Henry, and Sir G. 
Smart. Gave concerts with his brother in 
London, 1831-1844. Subsequently gave sub- 
scription concerts on his own account. Was 
organist of St. Mary's, Brj'anston Square, 
for 45 years. He died at London, September 
11, 1883. 

Works. — Pianoforte : Sonata in C ; March 
des Guides ; Larghetto and Rondo Capriccioso 
in E ; Rappelle toi ; La Caprera ; La Castellu- 
cia ; Carnival de Florence ; Marziale ; La pluie 
des Perles ; Forbes's Valse de Concert and 
Valse de Sylphes ; Calliope Valse ; Pluie de 
Printemps ; La Rosamund, a nocturne ; Lou- 
ise, nocturne. Four operatic duets. Six 
teaching pieces for pf. Gavotte, Queen Eliza- 
beth. March et Finale brillant, op. 7. Italian 
fantasia. Espaniola. Billet-doux. Tran- 
scriptions, etc. Thi'ee books of easy Volun- 
taries for organ or harmonium. Oflertoire 
for organ in F. 

Forbes, Henry, composer and pianist,, 
brother of the above, born at London in 1804. 
A pupil of Sir G. Smart, Hummel, Moscheles, 
and Herz. Conductor of the Societa Armonica. 




Organist of Parish Cliurch of S. Luko, Chelsea. 
•Gave concerts with his brother George. He 
died at London, November 24, 1859. 

WoKKS. — Fairv Oak, opera, Drury Lane, 
October 18, 1845" Ruth, oratorio, 1847. Pf. 
music. Songs. Psalms, etc. National Psalm- 
ody [1843]. 

JForbes, John, Scottish printer and pub- 
lisher, established in business at Aberdeen in 
miiddle of 17th century, whore he died, in 
December, 1675. He is chiefly remarkable as 
having published the first book of secular 
music in Scotland [See Davidson, Thomas] ; 
and for the authorship of three inflated 
epistles dedicatory, prefixed to the " Cantus " 
of 1662, and changed, to the edition of 1666 ; 
and again different, to the edition of 1682. 

Ford, Ann, performer on the Harmonica, 
who flourished during the 18th century. 
Married to the Hon. P. Thicknesse. Sat to 
Gainsborough for her portrait. Authoress of 
" Instructions for playing on the Musical 
Glasses, with a copperplate representing the 
order and manner of placing the glasses ; with 
such directions for performing on them, that 
any person of a musical turn may learn in a 
few days, if not in a few hours," London, 1762. 

Ford, David Everard, composer and 
organist, who flourished during the first half 
of the present century. He was organist at 
Lymington, Hants. He wrote " The Rudi- 
m.ents of ]\Iusic, etc." n.d., and published 
" Original Psalm and Hymn Tunes," London, 
7 books, 1827-36. " Progressive Exercises for 
the Voice..," 1829. 

Ford, Ernest A. C, composer, born in 
London, February 17, 1858. Studied at the 
R.A.M. under Sir Arthur Sullivan (composi- 
tion), and later at Paris with Edouard Lalo. 
Was the first Sir John Goss Scholar at R.A.M. 
{1875), F.R.C.O. the same year, and A.R.A.M., 
1883. Has acted as accompanist at the 
Saturday Popular Concerts, and is conductor 
at the Empire Theatre. He was chosen by 
Sir Arthur Sullivan to conduct '' Ivanhoe " 
on its production, in 1891. 

Works. — i\Iotet, Domine Deus (performed 
at 250th Anniversary of Harvard University, 
U.S.A.). Operas; Daniel O'Rourive (1884); 
Nydia (Duologue, 1889, libretto by Justin H. 
McCarthy) ; Joan (Robert Martin, 1890) ; 
Mr. Jericho (operetta, H. Greenbank, 1893) ; 
Jane Annie (opera, book by J. M. Barrie and 
Conan Doyle, produced Savoy Theatre, May 
13, 1893, and taken on tour in the provinces). 
Cantata, The Eve of the Festa, female voices. 
Music to the Ballets produced at the Empire 
Theatre, 1894-5. Album of six songs ; Six 
two-part songs ; Songs, various, etc. 

Ford, Henry Edmund, organist, born 
at Warlingham, Surrey. Chorister in Roch- 
ester Cathedral. Pupil of Ralph Banks, and 
later his assistant organist. In 1842 appointed 


organist of Carlisle Cathedral, a position he 
still holds. The jubilee of his office as Cathe- 
dral organist was celebrated by the public 
presentation of a testimonial at the County 
Hotel, Carlisle, April 23, 1892. In November, 
1891, he received the degree of Mus. Doc. 
from the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Ford, Thomas, composer, who was born 
in the latter half of the 16th century [1580] . 
Musician in suite of Prince Henry (Son of 
James I.). Musician to Charles I., on his 
accession. He died in November, 1648. 

Works. — Musicke of sundrie kindes set 
forth in two Bookes, the first whereof are 
Aires for foure Voyces to the lute, orpherion, 
or basse viol, with a dialogue for two voices 
and two basse violls, in parts tunde the lute- 
way. The second are Pavans, Galiards, Al- 
maines Toies, Jiggs, Thumpes, and such like 
for two base viols the liera-way, so made as 
the greatest number may serve to play alone, 
very easy to be performed, 1607. Contribu- 
tions in Leighton's " Teares." Canons, etc., 
in Hilton's " Catch that catch can." Ford 
is now chiefly remembered as the composer of 
the beautiful madrigal " Since first I saw 
your face." 

Ford, Thomas, clergyman, author of 
"Singing of Psalmes the duty of Christians, 
in V Sermons," London, 1659. 

Forde, William, musician, born 1796, 
died 1850. Author of " An Essay on the 
Key in Music, fully illustrated by exam- 
ples," London, 1841. Encyclopedia of Melody, 
3050 Airs of all Countries.., 6 vols., n.d. 
New Pianoforte Primer, London, n.d. New 
Method of Singing according to the Italian 
School, 87 exercises, London, n.d. Art of 
Singing at Sight, London [1840]. Principles 
of Singing, with practical examples, London 
[1830] , 7 editions. Master's Class Book on 
the Scales [1841] . 300 National Melodies of 
the British Isles, for pf., 8 vols. [1850]. 
Irish national quadrilles, etc. 

Formby, Rev. Henry, writer, author 
of . . . Duties and Privileges of Congrega- 
tional Singing, Sermon, 1849. The Roman 
Ritual and its Canto Fermo compared with 
the w rks of modern music, London, 1849. 
The Catholic Christian's guide to the right 
use of Christian Psalmody and the Psalter, 
London, 1847. Collection of Cath )lic hymns, 

Forster, Simon Andrew, writer and 
violin maker, was born at London, May 13, 
1801, died February 2, 1870. He was a violin 
and violoncello maker in London, and was a 
member of the celebrated Forster family of 
violin and double-bass players, of whom 
William (Brampton, Cumberland, May 4, 
1739 — London, December 14, 1808) ; his son 
William (London, January 7, 1764 ; June 24, 
1824) ; and grandson, William (London, 




December 14, 1788 ; October 8, 1824), were 
the principal members. S. A. Forster helped 
'William Sandys with his " History of the 
Violin," 1864. 

Fortay, James Butler, organist and com- 
poser, born in Liverpool, October 26, 1856. 
Studied under D. C. Browne, and G. W. 
Rohner. Was an organist at an early age, 
subsequently holding appointments at Em- 
manuel Church, Everton (1879-91) ; and at 
St. Michael's-in-the-Hamlet since 1891. Resi- 
dent in Liverpool as teacher. Since 1891 he 
has lectured on musical topics annually for 
the Liverpool Corporation Library and Arts 
Committee ; and has also lectured in other 
districts. He has published Hymns of the 
Church, a collection of original tunes; and 
contributed to The Chant Book Companion ; 
Church of England Hymnal ; Welsh Calvin- 
istic Methodist Tune Book, etc. ; and is the 
composer of Night and IMoruing ; Faithful 
unto death ; Joy cometh in the morning, and 
other songs; pf. pieces, etc. 

Fortey, Mary Comber, pianist and com- 
poser. Studied at R.A.M. Married to Sir 
Julius Benedict ; and in 1886 to Mr. Frank 
Lawson. Author of " How to teach the piano- 
forte to young beginners," London, Hughes, 
1883 ; and composer of Castles in Spain ; 
Cxoing to Sleep ; Love, the Truant ; and other 

Foster, James, amateur musician, was 
born at Bristol, September 12, 1807. He was 
a builder in Bristol. He acted as honorary 
organist of the Bristol Tabernacle, and 
assisted Waite with his compilation called 
"H .llelujah." He died at Bristol, June 7, 
1885. He composed a number of hymn tunes, 
among which " Claremont " is perhaps best 

Foster, John, musician, of Sheffield, 
compiler of " Sacred Music, consisting of 
anthems, psalms and hymns in full orchestral 
score, with organ or pf . adaptation," York, n.d. 
Foster, John, alto vocalist, organist, 
and composer, born at Staines, August, 1827. 
Pupil of Sir G. Elvey. Organist, St. Andrew's, 
Wells Street, London, 1847-56. Lay-Vicar of 
Westminster Abbey since 1856. His glee, 
" Sweet Queen of Autumn," men's voices, 
obtained a prize in 1852. In 1865 he pub- 
lished " Psalms and Hymns, adapted to the 
Church of England." He also issued " Tunes 
for the Psalms and Hymns," London, 1864. 
Choral Harmonist [1872]. etc. 

Foster, Myles Birket, organist and com- 
poser, born in London, November 29, 1851. 
Eldest son of Birket Foster, the celebrated 
artist. Being of a Quaker family his early 
love of music was not encouraged, and he 
was placed in a stockbroker's office. This he 
left in 1871, and studied music under Hamil- 
ton Clarke, and at R.A.M. under Sullivan, 


Prout, and Westlake. He held the post of 
organist at i.ev. H. R. Haweis' Church, 
1873-4, and was organist of the Foundling 
Hospital, 1880-1892. At the present time he 
is musical editor to Messrs. Boosey. He was 
elected an Associate of the Philharmonic 
Society in J880;A.R.A.M.; and 895, F. R.A.M. 
Travelling Examiner for T.C., London, in 
which capacity he visited Australia and New 
Zealand in 1895. 

Works. — Eve ing service in C (male voices) ; 
in A, Sons of the Clergy Festival, 1883 ; Com- 
munion service in B flat ; Anthems, etc. 
Cantatas for Children: Cinderella; Lamp- 
black ; Beauty and the beast ; The Angels of 
the bells; The boniiie fishwife; The snow 
fairies; and The coming of the King. Songs: 
The children's Christmas; A day in a child's 
life; Six two-part songs ; a second set ; Songs 
and part-songs. Instrumental compositions 
in MS. : Symphony in F sharp minor, " Isle 
of Arran " ; Overtures; String quartet, pf. 
trio, etc. 

Foster, William Martin, composer and 
conductor, born in London about 1834. He 
acted as bandmaster of the 9th regiment, and 
was afterwards in the orchestras of Drury 
Lane Theatre and the Crystal Palace. He 
became leader of the orchestra of the Glasgow 
Theatre Royal about 1870. He died at New- 
castle-on-Tyne, December 18, 1872. He com- 
posed incidental music to various plays, but 
is best known for his overture to the play of 
" Rob Roy," based on Scott's novel. 

Fowle, Thomas Lloyd, organist, writer 
and editor, born at Amesbury, Wilts, October 
16, 1827. His father was a clerg>'man, a 
prebendary of Salisbury. Self-taught in 
music, he acted for some years as organist at 
his father's church, Amesbury, and later at 
Crawley, Sussex. From 1856 to recent times 
he has been engaged as editor and publisher. 
He is Ph. Doc. of Giessen. He has published 
4 vols, of anthems ; 5 cantatas ; 4 vols, of 
organ voluntaries ; 12 marches for special 
seasons ; The Church Tune Book ; 2 Services, 
and numerous other musical works. Handel, 
a memoir ; Charles Dickens, a memoir ; 
Gentle Edith, a novel, and miscellaneous 

Fowler, Chas., pianist, studied under Sir 
W. Sterndale Bennett, at the Royal Academy 
of Music, and was appointed a Professor 
there in 1885. At Torquay, where he resided, 
he was in high repute as a teacher, and gave 
frequent concerts. His compositions include 
a Sonata for pianoforte and violin, a Sonata 
Trio, for voice, violin, and pianoforte, and a 
Sonata Concertante for four violins. He was 
also the author of several humorous sketches, 
which were received with favour. He died at 
Torquay, in May, 1891. 

Fowles, Ernest, pianist and composer. 




born at Portsmouth, April 27, 1864. Gained 
the Chappell Scholarship at the National 
Training School for Music, in 1876, and studied 
there for six years. In 1884 he entered the 
R.A.M., studying composition under Sir G. A. 
Macfarren, distinguishing himself at the 
Academy Concerts, producing several pf . com- 
positions in the larger forms, and being elected 
an Associate. From 1887 he has given annual 
concerts in the Prince's Hall, and, October 29, 
1894, began a series of Concerts of British 
Chamber JMusic, introducing important works 
by Algernon Ashton, J. C. Ames, Walford 
Davies, and other young writers, besides 
works by Hubert Parry, Villiers Stanford, 
Swinnerton Heap, among more widely known 
composers. His own compositions comprise 
a Quartet for strings ; A Trio in D, for pf. and 
strings ; Two Sonatas, and other pieces for pf. 

Fowles, Margaret F., pianist, organist, 
and conductor, born at Ryde, Isle-of-Wight, 
daughter of an artist. Studied pf. harmony 
and counterpoint under Chalmers Masters ; 
organ under Dr. Hopkins ; and voice produc- 
tion and singing under Emil Behnke, Alberto 
Randegger, and W. Shakespeare. At the age 
of fifteen she was appointed organist of St. 
James's, Ryde ; and in 1878, organist and 
choir director at St. j\Iichael and All Angels, 
which office she retains. In 1874 she founded 
the Ryde Choral Union, the concerts of which 
she conducted for twenty years, retiring in 
December, 1894. From the first concert, 
April 6, 1875, to the close of her official con- 
nection with the Society, j\Iiss Fowles has 
produced many oratorios and other important 
works, and has done great service in the cause 
of music. She is the composer of a number 
of anthems, and hymn tunes, also of several 

Fox, Albert H., pianist, composer, and 
conductor, born at Dulwich. Studied at 
R.A.M., pf. under Walter Macfarren, com- 
position under F. W. Davenport. Hine Ex- 
hibitioner, 1883 ; Balfe Scholar, 1884 ; Stern- 
dale Bennett Scholar, and Heathcote Long 
Prize winner, 1886. A. R. A.M., 1890. He is 
musical director at the Royalty Theatre, 
London. His compositions include an opera, 
operettas ; music to " IMerry Monte Carlo," 
1895 ; Romance for orchestra, 1893 ; March 
for band of harps, 1888; pf. pieces, etc. 

Fox, Arthur, pupil and Associate, R.A.M., 
is choirmaster at Christ's Hospital, and a 
tenor vocalist. He has published an Album 
of eight songs. 

Fox, George, composer and baritone voca- 
ist. Sang at the Crystal Palace, March, 
1876 ; on tour with Pyatt's operatic company 
in 1879 ; in Italian opera, at Her ]\Iajesty's, 
in October, 1880 ; and with the Royal English | 
Opera Company, in the provinces, 1883. He [ 
is the composer of a number of comic can- \ 


tatas and operettas, some of which have 
gained much popularity. 

WoEKS. — Cantatas: Tlie jackdaw of Rheims; 
The babes in the wood ; The fair Imogene, 
1880 ; Lord Level ; Winifred Price, 1882 ; 
Gabriel Grub (adapted from "Pickwick"), 
1882; John Gilpin; Hamilton Tighe, 1884; 
The messenger dove. Comedies and operas : 
The captain of the guard, 1882 ; Welcome 
home, 1885 ; Robert Macaire, 1887 ; The Cor- 
sican brothers, 1888 ; Nydia (from Bulwer- 
Lytton's "Last Days of Pompeii"), 1892. 
The last three were produced at the Crystal 
Palace. Songs : Grandmamma's jokes for 
little folks ; Songs for little singers, etc. 

Francis, Thomas, alto singer and com- 
poser, was born in 1812. He was a vicar- 
choral of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. He 
died at Hackney, London, September 2, 1887. 
Composer of glees and otlier vocal music. 

Fraser, John, author and musician, was 
born at Johnstone, Renfrewshire, about 1794, 
and died there on March 8, 1879. He was at 
one time well known in Scotland for the 
series of lectures and concerts he gave in 
conjunction with various members of his 
family, chiefly illustrative of Scots national 
music. He edited for a time a chartist news- 
paper called " The True Scotsman." His 
youngest son, James Roy Eraser, was born 
at Johnstone, September 21, 1832, and since 
1865 has resided in Paisley as a music-seller 
and teacher. Since 1875 he has been organist 
of the Mid Church, Paisley. He was one of 
the organisers and conductors of the Tannahill 
concerts on Gleniffer Braes, which produced 
the funds which were applied to the erection 
of a statue of that poet at Paisley. Mr. 
Fraser composed a cantata, " The Cottar's 
Saturday Night," and several songs. 

Fraser, Captain Simon, collector and 
violinist, born at Ardachie, Inverness, in 1778 ; 
and died in 1852. Published " The Airs and 
Melodies peculiar to the Highlands of Scot- 
land and the Isles, with a jilain harmony for 
the pianoforte, harp, organ, or violoncello, 
acquired 1715-45," Edinburgh, 1815. Another 
edition, 1874 ; also 1884. A valuable and 
scarce collection, containing a number of reels 
and strathspeys by Fraser himself. He also 
issued " Thirty Highland airs, strathspeys, 
etc. Selected and composed by Mr. S. F . . r." 

Fredericks, Charles Wigg, tenor voca- 
list, vicar-choral, Lichfield Cathedral, is a 
well-known concert singer in the Midlands 
and the North. He has sung at the Crystal 
Palace ; at M. Gounod's Trocadero Concerts, 
Paris, 1884 ; and at St. James's Hall, Lon- 
don ; also at the Hereford Festival of 1891, 
of which Cathedral choir he was formerly a 

Freemantle,Qeorge,organist and musical 




critic, born at Ely, April 23, 1833. His 
father, about 1838, was appointed to the choir 
of Durham Cathedral, and in due time the 
son became a chorister there, and pupil of Dr. 
William Henshaw, the Cathedral organist. 
In the autumn of 1853, he gained the post of 
organist and teacher of music at the Blind 
Asylum, Manchester, and later held various 
positions in that city. He gave up music for 
a business life, but accepted the office of 
musical critic to the Maricliester Guardian, 
which he held for thirty years. When the 
Carl Rosa Opera Company was re-organised 
he became one of the directors. He died at 
Ardwick, Manchester, May 81, 1894. His 
brother, William ThomasFreemantle, many 
years his junior, was assistant organist of 
Lincoln Cathedral, and in 1871 appointed 
organist of Sharrow Church, Sheffield. He 
published in 1876-7, "A Collection of Kyries, 
Glorias, Chants, etc., by various Composers," 
in 8 books (Novello). 

French, John, violinist and composer, of 
Ayr, in Scotland, who flourished in the latter 
part of last century. Composer of "A Col- 
lection of new strathspey reels, etc., dedicated 
to Mrs. Boswell of Auchinleck," Edinburgh, 

Frere, Walter, coinposer of present time. 
He has published five songs for baritone ; 
Three Italian songs ; Six songs (Herrick's 
" Hesperides "), etc. 

Frere, Rev. Walter Howard, amateur 
musician and author. Educated at Cam- 
bridge ; graduated M.A. ; ordained in 1887. 
Curate of St. Dunstan, Stepney, 1887-92. 
His works include the Order of the Holy 
Communion for men's voices ; Memorials of 
Stepney Parish, 1891 ; The Marian Reaction 
in its relation to the English Clergy, S.P.C.K., 
1897. Editor of " Eighteen well-known hymn 
tunes, as set in Ravenscroft's Psalter (1621)," 
London [1888] . Graduale Sarisburiense, 
1894. Bibliotheca Musico-Liturgica, a de- 
scriptive hand-list of the musical and latin 
liturgical MSS. of the middle ages, London. 
The Sarum Gradual and the Gregorian Anti- 
phonale Missarum : a Dissertation and an 
Historical Index, London, Quaritch, 1896. 

Frewer, Frank, organist of St. James', 
Garlick Hithe. Is author of a Collection of 
hymn tunes, chants, and kyries, London, 
Salter, 1886; also composer of songs, a scherzo 
for pf. and violin, etc. 

Frewin, Tom Harrison, violinist and 
composer. Educated at R.A.IM. ; Balfe 
Scholar, 1885. He has composed a Mass, 
performed, 1896 ; Orchestral pieces : " The 
Battle of the Flowers," 1895 ; Ballad, Mazeppa, 
1896, both performed at the Queen's Hall 
Concerts. Also pieces for violin and pf., etc. 

Frickenhaus, Fanny, 6oj« Evans, pian- 
ist, born at Cheltenham, June 7, 1849. She 


studied under George Llount, and later at the 
Brussels Conservatoire, under Auguste Dupont, 
also with Wm. Bohrer. She first came prom- 
inently before the public, January 11, 1879, 
at one of the Saturday Evening Concerts, 
started in St. James's Hall, in November, 
1878, Her success was immediate, and she 
was engaged for the rest of the series. She 
gave a recital in the concert room of the 
R.A.M., March 31, 1880; appeared at the 
Crystal Palace, November 20 ; and a week 
later played for the first time in London the 
pianoforte concerto of Goetz, at Cowen's 
Saturday Concerts. Her first appearance at 
the Popular Concerts was on Saturday, Jan- 
uary 27, 1883, and at the Philharmonic, 
IMarch 4, 1886. From 1884, in conjunction 
with Joseph Ludwig, she has given chamber 
concerts at the Prince's Hall, introducing 
important novelties ; and has been heard at 
the best concerts in Birmingham and other 
places, ranking among the leading pianists of 
the day. 

Frias, Duchess de, see Balfe (Vic- 

Fricker, Anne, or Mogford, song- 
writer and poetess, who was born about 1820. 
Married Mr. Mogford. First song published, 

Works. — Songs : A harvest hymn ; Angel 
of peace ; Autumn breezes ; Consolation ; 
Dear voices of home ; Dinna ye hear ? ; 
Distant bells ; Fading away ; The fancy fair ; 
Faithless swallow ; Flow, gentle river ; Foot- 
prints in the snow ; Gentle Clare ; Gentle 
Shepherd ; Heart of hearts ; Hesperus ; I cried 
i;nto Thee ; I stood beneath the chestnut 
trees ; Marguerite ; Memory's tears ; Night- 
ingale ; The old man's home ; Oh, weary eyes ; 
Phillis, fair; Regret ; Robin; Ruth's gleaning 
song ; She is not mine ; Softly at thy window ; 
Sunshine ; Sweet queen of hearts ; Thirty 
years ago ; To Thee alone ; Village bells ; 
When Celia sings ; When thou art nigh ; You 
ask me for a song. Pf. music, etc. 

Fripp, Edward Bowles, amateur or- 
ganist and composer, born at Kingsdown, 
Bristol, January 29, 1787. He held the 
appointment of honorary organist successively 
at St. James' Church, Bristol; Westbury, 
Gloucestershire ; and Hutton, near Weston- 
super-Mare. He died at Teignmouth, Sept. 1, 
1870. He edited " Selection of Psalms and 
Hymns, adapted in portions for every Sunday 
and Festival of the Church of England " (1850); 
" Church Psalmody, a collection of tunes 
harmonised for four voices . " He also com- 
posed much music for the church service, 
including the hymn tune '• Charmouth." 

Frith, John, organist and composer of 
early j^art of the 17th century. He was 
organist of St. John's College, Oxford, and 
graduated Mus. Bac. in 1626. He died in 




1644. Composer of a degree exercise in seven 
parts and of other music. 

Frost, Charles Joseph, organist and 
composer, born at Westbury-on-Trym, June 
20, 1848. His father moved soon after to 
Tewkesbury, where he was schoohiiaster and 
organist of Trinity Church. The son when 
quite a child played the pianoforte, organ, 
violin, and violoncello, and was soon actively 
engaged in concert work. His first organ 
appointment was at St. James', Cheltenham, 
1865, from whence he returned to Westbury, 
as organist of Holy Trinity. During this time 
he made periodic visits to Loudon, studying 
under George Cooper, John Goss, and others. 
He was next appointed to Holy Trinity, 
Weston-super-Mare, 1869 ; Holy Trinity, Lee, 
1873 ; St. Mary, Haggerstone, 1876 ; Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, London, 1880; and 
since 1884 has been organist at St. Peter's, 
Brockley. He started a choral society there 
in 1885, and has given important concerts. 
In 1872 he was made F.C.O. ; graduated 
Mus. B., 1877 ; Mus. D., 1882, Cambridge. 
He has been, since 1880, a professor of the 
organ at the Guildhall School of Music ; is 
head of the Music Section in the Goldsmith's 
Institute, New Cross ; has given recitals at 
the Bow and Bromley Instute, and elsewhere. 
He is an examiner for the College of Organists, 
and I.S.M., has lectured in many places, and 
contributed a number of articles to Musical 
Opinion, and other papers. Of his voluminous 
compositions only a selection can be named 
Works.— Oratorios, Nathan's Parable, 1878; 
Harvest Cantata, 1880 (both in MS.); Psalms 
92 and 1.S7, for soli, chorus, and organ ; Fes- 
tival Te Deum ; services, anthems, hymn- 
tunes, and chants. Secular choral works : 
Lollipop Dick ; King John and the Abbot of 
Canterbury ; Sing a Song of Sixpence ; The 
Gipsies; The Bell, and others. Songs: The 
Strawberry Girl, Paradise, and others ; Part- 
songs. Symphony for orchestra (^IS.). Organ: 
Collection of organ pieces ; 55 hymn-tune 
voluntaries ; Sonata in A ; Forty preludes, 
1880 ; 27 original pieces, &c. Two sets of six 
original pieces for harmonium ; Bouquet of 
Flowers, 24 pieces ; Seven sonatinas, &c., 
for pf. 

Frost, Henry Frederick, organist and 
musical critic, born in London, March 15, 
1848, son of Thomas Frost (a well-known 
bass vocalist, died 1884), and Eliza, his wife 
{contralto, born Redford). In 1856, he was 
appointed a chorister at St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, where he soon became solo boy, and 
head of the school. He frequently sang in 
private before the Queen, and assisted at all 
the Royal functions there, to the wedding of 
the Prince of Wales, in 1863. In 1865, began 
the study of the organ under Sebastian Hart, 
of St. Peter's, Great Windmill Street, Lon- 


don ; became his assistant three weeks later; 
and in December of the same year gained the 
post of organist, after competition, at the 
Chapel Royal, Savoy. Began his work as a 
critic in 1874, on the Weekly Despatch, being 
among the earliest champions of Wagner. In 
1877, was associated with E. Prout on The 
Academy, and later on The Athencpum, taking 
the whole duty on this paper in 1888, and 
succeeding the last Desmond L. Ryan on the 
Standard, the same year. Professor of har- 
mony and sight-singing, ]\Iadame Dolby's 
Academy, and professor of pf. at Guildhall 
School of ]\Iusic, 1880. Resigned these posts 
in 1888, and his position at the Savoy Chapel 
Royal, 1891. Author of "Schubert," Great 
IMusicians Series, Sampson Low, London, 
1881. Lecturer on Wagner's Art works, at 
the Musical Association ; London Wagner 
Society, etc. Composer of Savoy Hymn-tunes 
and Chants, London, Novello. His daughter, 
Beatrice Frost, soprano vocalist, studied 
under her father, and Hermann Klein, at 
the Guildhall School of Music, gaining the 
jirize for soprano, 1895. Made her debut at 
St. James' Hall, April 4, 1895 ; and gave her 
first concert at Steinway Hall, December 15, 
1896. She has appeared at other concerts, 
and is gaining a good position. 

Frost, William Alfred, alto vocalist, 
composer, and teacher, brother of the fore- 
going, born in London, November 7, 1850. 
Chorister at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
1859-66. Returning to London in 1869, he 
was engaged as an alto in the choir of Arch- 
bishop Tenison's Chapel (afterwards conse- 
crated as St. Thomas', Regent Street) ; in 
1870, at St. Andrew's, Wells Street ; and in 
1872, at All Saints', Margaret Street. He 
was then elected assistant vicar-choral at St. 
Paul's Cathedral, entering upon his duties, 
March, 1873. Appointed professor of pf. and 
assistant singing master in the Choir School, 
1888, and succeeding the late W. A. Barrett 
as vicar-choral in 1891. Became general sec- 
retary of the Choir Benevolent Fund, 1889. 
As a teacher he has been specially successful 
in training altos. His compositions embrace 
a complete morning, communion, and evening 
service, for men's voices, written for St. Paul's 
Cathedral at the request of the then organist, 
(Sir) John Stainer ; an anthem, " I will go 
unto the Altar of God " ; Songs, and part- 
songs. Author of an historical essay, " Good 
Friday and Easter Eve Communion, from 
the Days of the Apostles to the present time." 

Frost, William Lane, organist and com- 
poser. He has written an opera, "Fred"; 
Cantatas, "IMaldwyn the Crusader," produced 
Forest Hill, April, 1885, and "Lord of the 
Harvest." Pieces for pf., etc. 

Frye, John Thomas, organist, was born 
in 1812. When only eight years old he was 




appointed organist of St. Mary's Church, 
Saffron Walden, a post he lield for 64 years, 
from 1820 to 1884, He died at Saffron Wal- 
den, October 23, 1887. 

Fryer, Q., compiler, issued " The poetry 
of various glees, songs, etc., as performed at 
the Harmonists," London, 1798. 

Fulcher, John, musician and editor, 
born at London, August 18, 1830. He studied 
under Meyer Lutz and Alfred Mullen, and in 
1855 settled in Glasgow as a teacher, where 
he held the appointment of choirmaster in 
Glasgow Cathedral, from 1868 to 1879. He 
died at Glasgow, July 10, 1893. Editor of 
" Lays and Lyrics of Scotland," with a His- 
torical Epitome of Scottish Song by James 
Ballantine, etc., London, n.d. [1870] . Songs : 
Afton Water ; Bonnie, bonnie Bell; Hurrah 
for the Highlands ; Where hath Scotland 
found her fame ? Transcriptions, etc., for pf. 
Part-songs (arrangements) ; Beauties of Scot- 
tish Song (with T. S. Gleadhill and Thomson). 
The accompaniments and arrangements of 
the Scottish songs in his collections are much 
richer than those written by Surenne, Dun, 
Mudie, and others, and are accordingly more 
acceptable to modern taste. His son, Henry 
Macleod Fulcher, born at Glasgow, in 
January, 1856, is an organist and composer 
of ability, who has written some effective 
pianoforte music. 

Fuller=MaitIand, see Maitland, J. A. 


Fussell, Peter, or Fussel, organist, born 
about 1750. Succeeded James Kent as organ- 
ist of Winchester Cathedral, in 1774, holding 
that appointment until his death, July, 1802. 
Taught Charles Dibdin, the elder, his notes, 
and trained other musicians who afterwards 
attained good positions. 

Fyfe William, Wallace, Scottish writer, 
author of "Christmas, its customs and carols, 
with compressed vocal score of select choral 
illustrations," London [1860J ; and various 
poetical and other works. 

Gabriel, Mary Ann Virginia, composer, 
was born at Banstead, Surrey, February 7, 
1825. She studied music under Pixis, Dohler, 
Thalberg, and Molique. Married to George 
E. March, November, 1874. She died at 
London, August 7, 1877, from the effects of a 
carriage accident. 

Works. — Cantatas : Evangeline (Long- 
fellow) ; Dreamland ; Graziella. Operettas : 
Widows Bewitched; Grass Widows; Shepherd 
of Cornouailles ; Who's the Heir ? ; A Rainy 
Day. Songs : A farewell ; Ariel ; At her 
wheel the maiden sitting ; Across the sea ; 
Alone ; At rest; A dead past; A fisher's wife; 
Alone in the twilight ; A mother's song; Ar- 
den towers ; Asleep ; A song in the heather ; 
At my feet ; At the window ; Beryl ; Beside 


the sea ; Brighter hours ; Bye and bye ; 
Change upon change ; Chattering ; Calling 
the roll ; Corra Linn ; Dawn ; Dawn of Spring- 
tide ; Day is dying ; Dream, baby, dream ; 
Echo ; Eight fishers of Calais ; Emerald ; 
Fisherman's Widow ; Golden wedding day ; 
Happy days ; His work is done ; He will not 
come ; Hopeless ; In the gloaming ; Lady 
Moon ; Lost love ; Little blossom ; Little 
flowers ; Light in the window ; Lady of Kie- 
nast Tower ; Mountain echo ; My love ; 
Nightfall at sea ; Only at home ; Oh ! spare 
my boy at sea ; Only ; The Opal ring; Pearl; 
The Prodigal son ; Prisoner and the linnet ; 
Ruby ; Remembered ; Sweet seventeen ; 
Shadow light ; Somebody's darling ; Sacred 
vows ; Servian ballad ; Skipper and his boy ; 
The surprise ; Three roses ; Tender and true ; 
The ring ; Under the palm ; Wake my beloved ; 
Work ; Weep not for me ; When the pale 
moon; Weary; When sparrows build. Part- 
songs, pianoforte pieces, etc. 

Qadsby, Henry Robert, composer, born 
at Hackney, London, December 15, 1842. 
Chorister at St. Paul's Cathedral, 1849-58, 
and self-taught in music beyond the instruc- 
tion he then received from William Hayley, 
master of the boys. He was organist of St. 
Peter's, Brockley, Surrey, for some time up 
to 1884, in which year he succeeded John 
Hullah as professor of harmony at Queen's 
College, London, He is also a professor at 
the Guildhall School of Music. Member of 
the Philharmonic Society, and hon. F.R.C.O. 

Works. — Psalm 130. Cantatas: Alice 
Brand, 1870 ; The Lord of the isles, Brighton 
Festival, 1879; Columbus (male voices), Cry- 
stal Palace, March. 1881 ; The Cyclops (male 
voices), Queen's College, Oxford, May, 1890 ; 
Music to Alcestis, 1876 ; to Andromache. 
Festival service in D, for eight voices ; Service 
in C, and others. Anthems : He is risen ; 
Rejoice greatly; Sing, daughter of Zion, 
etc. Part-songs. Orchestral : Sj'mphonies 
in A, and C, movements from one performed 
at the Crystal Palace, February, 1871 ; Festal 
Symphony in D, Crystal Palace, November 
3, 1888; Intermezzo and Scherzo, composed 
for the British Orchestral Society, produced, 
April 21, 1875. Overtures : Andromeda ; 
Golden Legend ; Witches Frolic. Orchestral 
scene, The Forest of Arden, produced by the 
Philharmonic Society, INIarch 4, 1886 String 
quartet; Andante and rondo, flute and pf. 
Author of Supplemental Book of Exercises 
for the use of those learning to sing at sight. 
Harmony, a treatise, and harmonisation of 
given melodies, London, 1884. 

Qaffe, George, organist and conductor, 
born at Cawston, Norfolk, July 27, 1849. 
Chorister, Norwich Cathedral, at the age of 
nine, afterwards articled to Dr. Buck for 
seven years. In 1874 he was appointed 




oi'gauist of Oswestry Parish Church. While 
there he was associated with the late Henry 
Leslie in founding a Music school, and estab- 
lishing a Choral Society, which afterwards 
figured in the Musical Festivals of that town. 
In 1880 he was appointed to St. Albau's 
Cathedral. He has given performances of 
oratoiios in tlie Catliedral, and been active 
in promoting the cause of music, founding, 
in 1887, a School of Music, which is success- 
fully carried on. He is a Fellow and ]\Iem- 
ber of tlie Council of ihe Koyal College of 

Gale, Robert, musician, was born at Lon- 
don, August 4, 1769. He was for a time a 
tuner in the service of IMessrs. Broadwood, 
and afterwards he became a music teacher in 
Edinburgh. Finally he settled in Ayr, where 
he held the appointments of precentor in the 
Relief Church, and afterwards in the Old 
Established Church, till 1843. He died at 
Glasgow in May, 1845. 

He compiled "Psalm and Hymn Tunes, 
selected from the most approved composers 
... to which is prefixed a clear and easy 
method of initiating the scholar in the rudi- 
ments of Music," Edinburgh, 1824-1840, three 
editions. He also compo.-ed the songs, " Scot- 
land, I've no friend but thee," and " The 
Maid of Elderslie." He was an enthusiastic 
musician, and formed a small circle of equally 
earnest musicians, who all helped to improve 
psalmody in Ayrshire. 

Qall, Rev. James, musician and clergy- 
man, born at Edinburgh, September 27, 1808. 
He devoted much of his life to the Sunday 
School movement, and published a number 
of cheap musical works ihrough the firm of 
James Gall & Sons, afterwards Gall and 
Inglis, of which he was a member. These 
comprised " Children's Hymn Books," " Scot- 
tish Psalm Tune Book," " English Hymn 
Tune Book," etc. He invented a cheap pro- 
cess of mu.-iic printing which greatly facilitated 
his work. He also composed some hymn 

Gamble, John, violinist and composer of 
17th century. He studied under A. Beyland, 
and became a violinist in the private band of 
Charles II., etc. He died in 1657. He com- 
posed " Ayres and Dialogues," 1657. "Ayres 
and Dialogues for one, two, and three voyces," 

Gandsey, John, a celebrated Irish piper, 
who was born in 1768, and died in 1857. 

Gardiner, William, musician and writer, 
born at Leicester, March 15, 1770. He 
travelled much on the Continent. Died at 
Leicester, November 16, 1853. 

Works. — Sacred Melodies, from Haydn, 
Mozart, and Beethoven, 6 vols., London, 
1812, etc. Judah, an oratorio, adapted from 
the works of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 


Pope's "Universal Prayer" set to music by 
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. The Music 
of Nature ; or, an attempt to prove that what 
is passionate and pleasing in the art of 
singing, speaking, and performing upon 
]\Iusical Instruments, is derived from the 
sounds of the animated world... London, 1832. 
American reprint, Ditson, Boston, n d. INIusic 
and friends ; or, pleasant recollections of a 
Dilettante. London, 3 vols., 1838-1853. 
Sights in Italy ; with some account of the 
present state of music and the sister arts in 
that country. London, 1847. 

Gardiner composed some songs under the 
pen name of W. G. Leicester. He is chiefly 
to be remembered as the author of " The 
Music of Nature," a work which contains 
much useful information and curious and 
occasionally eccentric speculations. 

Gardner, Charles Graham, organist 
and pianist, born at Rotherhithe, Surrey, 
February 14, 1808. Studied under J. B. 
Cramer, Moscheles, W. Horsley, and Samuel 
Wesley. He was highly esteemed as a teacher, 
and numbered among his pupils H.R.H. 
Prince Arthur, The Duke of Connaught, who 
received lessons from him during the seven 
years he was studying in Woolwich. He was 
organist of St. Margaret's Church, Lee, for 
36 years, and after his death, which took 
place October 31, 1869, the parishioners, by 
whom he was held in great esteem, erected a 
monumi nt to his memory. 

Gardner, Charles, pianist and composer, 
son of above, was born at Greenwich, April 1, 
1836. He received his first instruction in 
music from his father, afterwards studying 
under Oliver May and Ernest Pauer (piano- 
forte), and J. McMurdie and G. A. Macfarren 
(composition). When the church of St. 
Michael and All Angels, Paddington, was 
consecrated, Charles Gardner was appointed 
organist and choirmaster, an office he held 
for some years, but he has for a lon^ time 
given up organ work. For many years his 
Musical Slatinees have been a feature of the 
London season. He is a member of the 
Philharmonic Society, and has since 1884 
continuously held the office of a Director; 
also professor of the pianoforte at the Guild- 
hall School of Music, and L.R.A.M. 

Works. — Trio for pf. and strings ; Sonata 
in A. Suite for pf., op. 40 ; Suite in five 
movements, op. 50., pf., and many smaller 
pieces. Educational publications : Technical 
Exercises for pf. students ; Diatonic and 
Chromatic - cales, with rules of fingering ; 
Arpeggios of the Common Chord, and Domi- 
nant and Diminished Sevenths, &c. 

Garland, Thomas, organist of latter half 
of 18th, and beginning of present centuries. 
He was organist of Norwich Cathedral till 
1808, the year of his death. Chiefly remark- 




able as the teacher of several musicians who 
have attained fame. 

Garland, William Henry, organist and 
conductor, born at York, in June, 1852. In 
his eighth year was placed as a chorister in 
the Minster, where he was distinguished as a 
solo boy. He was then articled to Dr. Monk. 
In 1878 he took the Mvis. Bac. degree at 
Oxford, and m 1882 passed the examination 
for F.C.O. His first organ appointment was 
at St. Paul's Church, Rome, whither he went 
on the expiration of his articles. Here he 
remained for three ^-ears, when ill-health 
compelled his return to England. He next 
held the post of organist at Reading Parish 
Church for three years, and after a year's 
work as acting organist and choirmaster at 
York Minster (during Dr. ]\Ionk's absence 
through illness), was appointed to Halifax 
Parish Church in 1884. In 1886 he was 
elected conductor of the Halifax Choral 
Society, one famous in local musical history, 
established early in the century, and now 
flourishing. Six years later he received a 
similar appointment to the Bradford Festival 
Choral Society, and was divisional chorus 
master for the Leeds IMusical Festival since 
1892. He died at Halifax, February 13, 1897. 
His Degree Exercise was a setting of Psalm 2.3, 
and he published some Church music. His 
brother, Chaeles T. Garland, was a choris- 
ter, and afterwards a bass singer in the choir 
of York Minster. In 1874 he was appointed 
to Magdalen College, Oxford, where he is now 
the senior lay-clerk. He is also music-master 
at the College School. 

Garrett, George Mursell, composer and 
organist, born at Winchester, Jime 8, 1834. 
Son of William Garrett, master of the choris- 
ters, W^inchester Cathedral. Chorister of New 
College, Oxford, and pupil of Dr. Stephen 
Elvey. Studied later under S. S. Wesley. 
Assistant organist, Winchester Cathedral, 
1851-4; organist of Madras Cathedral, 1854-6; 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1857 ; and 
organist to the Universitv in 1873. Gradua- 
ted Mus. Bac, 1857; Mus. Doc, 1867, Cam- 
bridge ; and, by grace of the Senate, received 
the degree of M.A. propter merita, 1878. 
F.R.C.O. University lecturer in harmony 
and counterpoint, 1883. Examiner in Music 
for the University of Cambridge, for the Irish 
Intermediate Education Board, and other 
institutions. Conductor of St. John's College 
Musical Society, and solo pianist at its con- 
certs, 1876, etc. ]\Iember of the Philharmonic 

Works. — Oratorio, The Shunammitc, pro- 
duced by the Cambridge University Musical 
Society, June 13, 1882, and given at the 
Hereford Festival of 1882. Cantatas : The 
Deliverance of St. Peter ; Prayer and praise ; 
Harvest Cantata ; The Two Advents, com- 


posed for a choir festival. New York ; Secular 
cantata. The Triumph of Love, produced by 
the Cambridge University Musical Society. 
Church Services in D, F, E flat, and E ; 
Evening Service in B flat, written for St. 
James's Choir Festival, New York, and others. 
Anthems : Psalm 43 ; In humble faith and 
holy love ; Praise ye the Lord (Harvest) ; 
Thy mercy, O Lord, written for the Festival 
of the London Church Choir Association, St. 
Paul's Cathedral, November 16, 1893, and 
various others. Chants, old and new, selected 
and arranged in order of daily use for one 
calendar month, with special chants for the 
Venite and Proper Psalms. Part-songs, songs, 
organ pieces, etc. 

Qarrow, Mrs., f<ee sub Abrams, Harriet, 

Garth, John, organist and composer, born 
at Durham, 1722. He died in 1810. He 
published " The First Fifty Psalms, set to 
music by Benedetto Marcello," London, 8 vols., 
1757. He also wrote much instrumental 
music, among other works, " Six sonatas for 
th • harpsichord, two violins, and violoncello," 
op. 2, 1768. Six organ voluntaries, op. 3 [1780]. 
Thirty collects set to music, London, 1794. 
Avison aide 1 Garth with the editing of Mar- 
cello's psalms. 

Garth, Richard Machill, organist and 
composer, born at Pudsey, near Leeds, 
October 15, 1860. Educated at Batley Gram- 
mar School, and chorister at the Parish 
Church. Pupil of the late James Broughton, 
Leeds, for pianoforte ; also studied under 
J. H. Collinson, Gustav Schreck, and others. 
After holding several appointments he 
became assistant organist of St. Mary's 
Cathedral, Edinburgh, 1882, later under- 
taking the duties of private organist to, 
among others. Sir Michael Shaw Stewart, 
of Ardgowan. Organist of Clark Memorial 
Church, Largs, 1893; Choirmaster St. Col- 
umba's Episcopal Church, Largs, at present 
time. Conductor of Unitf d Choir, Cumbrae, 
and, 1888, of the Greenock Choral Society. 
Elected a Fellow of the Educational Institute 
of Scotland, 1885. Has given organ recitals 
in London (" Inventions," 1885), Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and Paris. 

Works. — Ezekiel, dramatic oratorio, 1888; 
Choral ballads — Charge of the Light Brigade, 
1889; Wild Huntsman, 1890. Full cathedral 
service in E flat ; anthems, hymn-tunes, and 
chants. Sojigs : A message from the sea ; 
Though years have lapsed ; The heaving of 
the lead (prize), and others. Concerto in D, 
violin and orchestra; Six string quartets; 
Sonata in F, and other organ pieces ; Six 
Lieder ohne worte, pf., &c. A number of 
arrangements, and a text-book on arrange- 
ments, for military bands. In MS. an opera. 
The brigand (libretto by Edward Oxenford). 

Gaskell, James, orgmist and composer, 




born near Wigan, August 26, 1841. Studied 
pianoforte with C. A. Seymour, harmony with 
Dr. J. M. Bentley, and organ under F. H. 
Burstall. Organist, Parish Church, Pembertou, 
near Wigan ; and from 1885, of St. Barnabas, 
Swindon, Wilts. Composer of a collectiou of 
anthems and hymn-tunes ; songs, &c. 

Qaskin, James J., musician, born about 
1820; died at Dublin in 1876. Author of 
" Early History, etc., of Vocal Music." Lon- 
don, 1860. 

Qason, Adam F., author of "A Short 
Treatise in Defence of Cathedral Worship," 
Dublin, 1846. 

Qater, William Henry, organist and 
composer, born in Dublin, August 8, 1849. 
Musical training private ; studied organ under 
Sir R. P. Stewart. Graduated Mus. Bac, 
Trinity College, Dublin. 1876, and B.A., 1881, 
with honours in English and modern liter- 
ature ; Mus. Doc, 1886. He also passed 
through ilie Divinity School, obtaining several 
prizes. Organist of Christ Church, Bray, 
1871-3 ; to the Exhibition Palace, Dublin, 
1872-3 ; St. Andrew's, Dub in, 1873 ; and 
since 1876, organist of St. Stephen's, Dublin. 
Choirmaster, for several years, to the East 
Meath Diocesan Choral Association. His 
compositions include a setting of Ps. 66, for 
soli, chorus, and organ ; a cantata, " The 
Passions " (Collins), for soli, chorus, and 
orchesira; two services, and other Church 
music ; hymn tune, " From Greenland's Icy 
Mountains," Wrexham Eisteddfod Prize, 
1888 ; organ pieces, etc., the greater part 
remaining still in MS 

Gates, Bernard, organist and composer, 
born in 1685. He was one of the children of 
the Chapel Royal, 1702; a Gentleman, 1708 ; 
and Master of the children from 1740 to 1758. 
He died at North Aston, near Oxford, Novem- 
ber 15, 1773; in the Parish Church of which 
there is a memorial to him. His composi- 
tions, including a service in F, are mostly in 

Qattie, Henry, violinist. He was second 
violin in the Blagrove quartet, whicb com- 
menced a series of chamber concerts in the 
Hanover Square Rooms, March 17, 1836. For 
years he was associated with chamber music 
in connection with Joseph Banister, Dando, 
and others ; and was in repute as a teacher. 
He died in London, early in 1853. 

Gatty, Alfred 5cott, composer and 
writer, born at Ecclesfield, Yorks., .\pril 25, 
1847. Second son of Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D. , 
vicar of Ecclesfield, Sub-dean of York Cath- 
edral, etc. Studied at Marlborough, and 
Christ's College, Cambridge. Rouge Dragon, 
Pursuivant of Arms, Herald's College, Lon- 
don, 1880. He has composed two operettas, 
" Sandford and Mertou's Christmas Party," 
1880 ; and " Not at Home," 1886. Is author 


of "Little songs for little voices " (words and 
music), two books, published originally in 
A'i.nt Judy's Magazine ; other books for child- 
ren, illustrated by C. A. Doyle ; and a large 
number of songs. True till death ; O fair 
dove, fond dove ; Some future day ; The 
open window ; When love was a little boy, 
etc. Pianoforte music, etc. 

Gaudry, Richard Otto, organist and com- 
poser, born at Dublin. 1800. He was chorister 
in the chapel of Dublin Castle, fcnd organist 
of St. Anne's, Dublin. He died at Dublin, 
August, 1825. Composer of anthems, etc. 

Gaul, Alfred Robert, organist and com- 
poser, born at Norwich, April 30, 1837. Of a 
musical family, he was entered as a chorister 
at Norwich Cathedral at the age of nine ; 
afterwards articled pupil of Dr. Buck, and 
assistant or, anist. When seventeen he was 
appointed organist of Fakenham parish 
church, which he left in 1859, for St. John's, 
Lady Wood, Birmingham. He lias been 
organist and choirmaster at S . Augustine's, 
Edgbaston, since the church was built in 
1868. He graduated Mus. Bac, 1863, Cam- 
bridge. In 1887 he succeeded Mr. Stockley 
as conductor of Walsall Philharmonic Society, 
and for some years he held that and other 
similar offices in different places. He is now 
teacher of harmony and counterpoint, and 
conductor of the ladies' singing class at the 
Birmingham and Midland Institute ; teacher 
of harmony and singing at King Edward's 
High School for Girls; and teacher at the 
Blind Asylum. He has conducted perform- 
ances of his works in many towns, and played 
at the Bow and Bromley Institute in 1888. 

Works. — Hezekiah, oratorio, produced by 
the Amateur Harmonic Association, Town 
Hall, l'>irmingham, November 29, 1861 ; 
Psalm 1 (degree ex.), 1863. Cantatas : Ruth, 
1881 ; The holy city, produced at the Bir- 
mingham Festival, 1882 ; Passion music, 
1883 ; Joan of Arc, produced by the Birming- 
ham Festival Choral Society, 1887 ; The ten 
virgins, 1890 ; Israel in the wilderness. 
Crystal Palace, July 9, 1892 ; and Una, com- 
posed for the Norwich Festival, 1893. Psalm 
150, performed by the JiOudon Church Choir 
Association, St. Paul's, 1886; The Lord is my 
Shepherd ; Psalm 96, for eight-part chorus, 
and others ; hymn-tunes, chants, &c. Ode, 
A song of life ; The shipwreck, prize glee ; 
The silent land, performed by Leslie Choir, 
Paris, 1878, and given at the Birmingham 
Festival, 1879 ; The singers ; The day is done,, 
and other part-songs, school cantatas, col- 
lection of trios, duets, &•. The ferry maiden ; 
Faithful yet ; The sea's love, and other songs. 
Sonata in B flat minor, and various pieces 
for pf. 

Gauntlett, Henry John, organist and 
composer, born at Wellington, Shropshire, July 




9, 1805. Son of the Rev. Henry Gauntlett. 
Organist at Olney, Bucks., 1815. Articled for 
a time to a solicitor, 1826. Organist at St. 
Olave's, Southwark, 1827-47. Admitted as a 
solicitor, 1831. Commenced his labours in 
connection with the establishment of the C 
organ, 18-36, which latterly took the place of 
the F and G instruments. Organist of Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, 1836. Gave up prac- 
tice of the law, 1842. Mus. Doc, Lambeth, 
1843. Organist of Union Chapel, Islington, 
1852-61 ; Church of St. Bartholomew the Less, 
Smithfield, 1872. He died at Kensington, 
London, February 21, 1876. 

Works. — Hymnal for Matins and Even- 
song, 1844 ; The Church Hymnal and Tune 
Book, 1844-51 ; Cantus Melodici, 1845 ; The 
Comprehensive Tune Book, 1846-7 ; The Halle- 
lujah, 1848-55; The Congregational Psalmist, 
1851 ; Carlyle's Manual of Psalmody, 1861 ; 
Tunes, New and Old, 1868; Harlaud's Church 
Psalter and Hymnal, 1868; The Encycloptedia 
of the Chtiit ; St. Mark's Tune Book ; The 
Choral use of the Book of Common Prayer, 
London, 1854. Anthems — I will go unto the 
altar of God ; This is the day the Lord hath 
made ; Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, 
in E fiat. Hymns and Christmas carols ; One 
Hundred and Fifty-six Questions on the art 
of Music-making and the science of Music, 
London, 1864. Songs, glees, organ-music, &c. 
Revised, Jos. Williams' " Christmas min- 
strelsy, or carols, anthems," &c. 

Mr. Gauntlett was in his lifetime recognised 
as one of the foremost organists and author- 
ities on psalmody. His hymnals, psalms, etc., 
are compilations of the highest merit, the 
hand of the musician being always observable 
where too often we find the work of the 
officious reviser. His anthems are in frequent 
use, and his hymns are favourites. Among 
the latter may be named Alexandria, Brayles- 
ford, Bredon, Croyland, Denbigh, Gauntlett, 
Houghton, and Lux Alma. 

Qawler, William, organist and teacher, 
born in Lambeth, 1750. He was organist in 
the Asylum for Female Orphans. He died 
in March, 1809. He compiled " Harmonia 
Sacra, or a Collection of Psalm Tunes, with 
interludes, and with a thorough-bass, form- 
ing a most complete work of Sacred Music," 
London, 1781. Dr. Watts's Divine Songs 
[1780] . Lessons for the harpsichord. 
Hymns and psalms used at the Asylum 
or House of Refuge for Female Orphans, 
London [1785] . Voluntaries, interludes, etc., 
for organ. Miscellaneous collection of fugi- 
tive pieces for harpsichord or pf. [1780] . 
Songs, etc. 

Qawthorn, Nathaniel, English musi- 
cian, was conductor of psalmody at the 
Friday lecture in Eastcheap, London, early 
in the 18th century. Compiler of " Harmo- 


nise Perfecta, a compleat collection of psalm 
tunes in four parts, fitted to all the various 
measures now in use, taken from the most 
eminent masters," London, 1730. 

Qawthrop, James, tenor vocalist, born 
in York. Studied singing under J. B. Welch. 
Appointed in 1877 vicar-choral of Wells 
Cathedral ; in 1880, to St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor; and in 1h85 made a Gentleman of 
Her Majesty's Chapel Royal, St. James's. 
As a concert singer he has been heard at the 
Covent Garden Promenade Concerts, in the 
chief provincial cities, etc. 

Gay, George, stonemason and musician, 
born November 17, 1771, at Corsham (?), died 
there, July 26, 1833. Builder of Melksham 
Bridge, Wilts. Organ builder and verse 
writer. Organist of Corsham Independent 
Chapel, Wilts. Committed suicide by cutting 
through carotid artery with his own mallet 
and chisel. Composer of anthems and hymn 
tunes in 3, 5, and 8 parts. Compiler of " Sa- 
cred Music, consisting of 50 psalm and hymn 
tunes.. to which are prefixed some original 
ideas calculated to improve the method of 
singing," London, 1827. In 1833 he revised 
T. Hawkes' " Collection of Tunes." 

Gear, Henry Handel, tenor vocalist and 
composer, born at London, October 28, 1805. 
Son of an artist, who held the appointment 
of painter to the Duke of Sussex. He was a 
choir boy in the Chapel Royal and St. Paul's 
Cathedral ; but in 1822 he went to New York 
and became organist of Grace Church. In 
1828 he proceeded to Italy, where he studied 
singing under Nozzari, etc., and afterwards 
he went to Frankfort and sang there, and in 
Paris. He finally settled in London as a 
professor of singing, and was for over 17 years 
organist of Quebec Chapel, Bryanston Street. 
Composer of church services, anthems, songs, 
etc. He died in London, October 16, 1884. 

His third son, George Frederick Gear, 
composer and pianist, was born at London, 
May 21, 1857. He studied under Dr. Wylde, 
and J. F. Barnett, and in 1872 gained a 
scholarship at the London Academy of Music. 
He gained medals for harmony and pianoforte 
playing, and was elected an associate and 
professor of the London Academy of Music, 
and an associate of the Philharmonic Society. 
Musical director of the German Reed Com- 
pany from 1876 to 1892, and is a member of 
the Incorporated Society of Musicians, and 
the ]\Iusical Artists' Society. He has given 
many concerts, and has frequently appeared 
as a vocalist. 

Works. — String quartet; Two pf. sonatas; 
Scena, for soprano voice and orchestra ; 
" A water cure," and " Hobbies," 2 operettas. 
Songs : Day is done ; My Lady sleeps ; Sweet 
visions ; The rose is dead ; When night is 
gathering round ; White rose, etc. 




Qeary, E. M. Author of " Musical Edu- 
cation, with practical observations on the art 
of Piauoforte playing," London, 1841, 18-48, 
and other editions. 

Qeary, Timothy, composer, born at Dub- 
lin, 1783 ; died in 1806. Composed glees, 
duets, and other vocal music. Known also 
as Thomas Augustine Geary. 

Qeaussent, George F., pianist and con- 
ductor, born in London, in 1852. Has held 
organ appointments at Hampstead Parish 
Church, and elsewhere. As a pianist he gave 
recitals at various times, and as conductor of 
a choir bearing his name, he gave high-class 
concerts, introducing, for the first time in 
London, important works, such as Dvorak's 
" Patriotic Hymn." Principal of the Hamp- 
stead Conservatoire of Music, and member of 
the Governing Council since its re-organi.sation 
in 1896. Also director for some years of a 
Conservatoire at Croydon ; and, 1896, Prin- 
cipal of Belfast Conservatoire of Music. 

Gee, Samuel, organist, born at Congleton, 
Cheshire, May 12, 1834. Pupil and Associate, 
R.A.M. Organist successively at the Parish 
Church, Chertsey ; St. Peter and St. Paul, 
Wantage, 1861; Christ Church, Clapham, 
1864 ; St. Mark's, Lewisham, 1870 ; and in 
his later years at Leek, Staffordshire. He 
read papers on various topics at meetings of 
the College of Organists, and was well-known 
as a teacher. He died suddenly of apoplexy, 
in his room at the Hanley Academy of Music, 
Staffordshire, November 15, 1892. 

Geikie, James Stewart, composer and 
writer, born at Edinburgh, January 12, 1811. 
For a number of years musical representative 
of the Scotsman. Conductor of the Edinburgh 
Sacred Harmonic Association, and other 
societies of a kindred nature at Newington. He 
was conductor of psalmody at St. Augustine 
Church, Edinburgh, from 1843 till 1880. He 
died at Ormiston, Haddington, August 14, 
1883. He composed a number of secular 
vocal pieces : " How beautiful is night," part- 
song; "My heather hills," song, etc.: but 
his psalms and other sacred music will enjoy 
a more lasting popularity, He edited an 
edition of R. A. Smith's " Sacred Harmony," 
entitled, " Supplement to R. A. Smith's 
Sacred Harmony, adapted to the Psalms and 
Hymns used in the churches and chapels of 
Scotland," n.d. Also, "Songs of the Sanc- 
tuary, a collection of psalms, scripture hymns, 
etc.," 1863. 

His sons. Sir Abchibald Geikie, and James 
Geikie, are the well-known scientists, while 
his brother Walter was the famous artist 
and etcher. 

Geoghegan, Joseph, vocalist and teacher, 
born at Ballinasloe, Galway, in 1830. He 
lived in Edinburgh, from about 1846, where 
he worked originally as a bookbinder. After- 


wards he became choirmaster of Old Grey- 
friars Church, 1857-83, and teacher in various 
schools and colleges in Edinburgh, lie died 
at Musselburgh, on January 27, 1892. 

George, Miss, see Oldmixon, Lady. 

German, J. Edward, composer, violinist 
and conductor, born at Whitchurch, Shrop- 
shire, February 17, 1862. Entered the R.A.M. 
in 1880 as an organ student, i ut the next 
year took the violin as principal study. In 
1885, he won the Charles Lucas medal for 
composition, his work being a setting of the 
Te Deuiiitor chorus and organ. While at the 
Royal Academy he wrote many works of 
importance, some of which have been per- 
formed at concerts in various places. He left 
the Academy in 1887, and was made an 
Associate, and in 1895, a Fellow of that 
Institution. In 1889, he was appointed 
Musical Director at the Globe Theatre, Lon- 
don. He has conducted concerts at the 
Crystal Palace, 1893, and performances of his 
own music at the Leeds Festival, 1895, and 

Works. — Dramatic : Operetta, The Rival 
Poets (R.A.M., July, 1886), St. George's Hall, 
December 21, 1886; Incidental Music to 
Richard III, Globe Theatre, 1889; Henry 
VIII, Lyceum, 1892 ; The Tempter (H. A. 
Jones), Haymarket, 1893; Romeo and Juliet, 
Lyceum, 1895 ; and As you like it (for Mr. 
Alexander), 1896. Orchestral: Symphony in 
E minor (R.A.M , July, 1886), Crystal Palace, 
December 13, 1890 ; in A minor, Norwich 
Festival, 1893. Gipsy suite, Crystal Palace, 
1892; Suite in D minor, Leeds Festival, 1895; 
Suites arranged from music to Henry VIIL, 
and The Tempter ; Funeral March in D minor, 
Henschel Concerts, January 15, 1891. Suites: 
Flute and pf., 1892 ; in E minor, pf. Pieces 
for violin and pf., oboe and pf., clarinet and 
pf., etc. Serenade for tenor voice, with 
accompaniment for pf. and wind instruments; 
Songs, etc. 

Ghilberti, Gilberto, see CAMPBEiiL, 
Gilbert James. 

Gibb, Alexander, violinist, composer, 
and dancing-master, who lived in Haddington 
and Edinburgh in the last thirty years of the 
18th century. He had a dancing school in 
Edinburgh from 1786 to 1809, after which all 
trace of him disappears. He issued " A new 
collection of minuets, medlies, high dances, 
marches, strathspey and other reels, with 
entertaining tunes, etc., for the pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello," Edinburgh, 1798. 

Gibbons, Christopher, organist and 
composer, born in 1615. Baptised August 22. 
Son of Orlando Gibbons. He studied under 
Edward Gibbons at Exeter. Organist of 
Winchester Cathedral, 1638-61. Served for a 
time in Royalist army. Organist of Chapel 
Royal, 1660-76. Private organist to Charles 




II., 1660. Organist of Westminster Abbey, 
1660-65. Mus. Doc, Oxon., July, 1664. 
Died October 20, 1676. A few works by this 
musician exist in MS., such as his "Act-song" 
(a degree exercise), inusic to Shirley's Cupid 
and Death, a masque ; Compositions in 
Playford's " Cantica sacra," etc., but it is as 
an organist tliat he was principally known. 

Qiljbons, Rev. Edward, organist and 
composer, born about 1570. IMus. Bac, 
Oxford, 1592, incorporated from Cambridge. 
Organist of Bristol Cathedral, 1592-1611. 
Organist of Exeter Cathedral, 1611-44. He 
died about 1650. Works in MS.,, 

Gibbons, Ellis, organist and composer, 
born at Cambridge about end of the 16th 
century. Brother of Edward. Organist 
of Salisbury Cathedral. He died about 
1650. Composer of " Long live fair Oriana," 
madrigal for 5 voices; "Round about her 
chariot," for 6 voices ; both contained in the 
" Triumphs of Oriana." 

Gibbons, Orlando, organist and com- 
poser, born at Cambridge in 1583. Brother 
of Edward and Ellis Gibbons. Chorister in 
King's College, Cambridge, 1596. Organist of 
the Chapel Royal, IMarch, 1604. Mus. Bac, 
Cantab., 1606; Bac. and Doc Mus., Oxon., 
1622. Organist of Westminster Abbey, 1623. 
He died at Canterbury, June 5, 1625. Buried 
in Canterbury Cathedral. 

Works. — Morning and Evening Service, in 
F ; Te Deum and Jubilate, in D minor ; 
Venite exultemus, in F ; Magnificat, Nunc 
Dimittis, in D minor and in F ; Te Deum 
and Benedictus. in P. A collection of the 
sacred compositions of Orlando Gibbons (of 
which the scores are not contained in Boyce's 
collection) from the original j\ISS. and part 
books, together with a transposed organ-part 
to some of his published works. Edited by 
the Rev. Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley, 1873 (con- 
tains two services, two sets of preces, seventeen 
anthems, six hymn-tunes). Single Anthems : 
Hosanna ; Lift up your heads ; O clap your 
hands ; Almighty and Everlasting ; God is 
gone up (Boyce) ; Lord, in Thy wrath ; O 
Lord, in Thee; Why art thou so heavy? 
Blessed be the Lord ; O Lord increase my 
faith ; Deliver us, Lord ; Behold, thou hast 
made ; This is the record of John ; Behold, I 
bring you; I iye be risen again (Ouseley); 
We praise Thee, O Father ; Lord, grant grace ; 
Glorious and powerful God See, see, the 
Word is incarnate ; Sing unto the Lord ; 
Blessed are all they ; Great Lord of Lords ; 
O Thou, the Central Orb. Hymns. Fantasies 
of III. Parts... composed for viols ; London, 
4to, 1610. Reprinted, edited by E. F. Rim- 
bault (Music. Antiq. Soc), London, fo., 1843. 
Lessons in " Parthenia " (with Bull and 
Byrd), London, 1611. First set of madrigals 


and motets, for five voices, London, 4to, 1612. 
Reprinted, edited by Sir G. Smart (Music. 
Antiq. Soc), London, fo., 1841. Fancies and 
songs made at King James ye First's being in 
Scotland, London, n. d. Tunes for " Wither's 
Hymns " (Reprinted by the Spenser Society, 
1881). Tunes in Leighton's " Teares," 1614. 
Madrigal titles — The silver swan ; I weigh 
not fortune's frown ; I tremble not ; I feign 
not friendship ; Dainty fine bird ; Farewell 
all joys ; Oh ! dear heart ; Ne'er lot the Sun ; 
Trust not too much ; O that the learned 
poets ; Nay, let me weep ; Yet if that age ; 
I see ambition ; Fair ladies that to love ;. 
What is our life? etc, Galiards, fantasias, 
preludium, pavans, etc. 

Gibbs, Joseph, organist and composer, 
born in 1699. For forty years he was organist 
at Ipswich. He died December 12, 1788. 
Composer of " Eight Solos for a violin with a 
thorough bass for the hari^sichord or violin " 
[1740] , etc. Some of his pieces have recently 
been re-published, and a sonata and other 
pieces performed by l\Ir. Otto Peiniger, 1885-7. 

Gibson, Alfred, violinist, born at Notting- 
ham, October 27, 1849. After some early 
lessons from his father, a good violin teacher, 
he studied for two years with Henry Farmer, 
after which time he was practically self- 
taught. He played with success, from the age 
of eleven, in differents parts of the country, 
and about 1868 went to London, and was 
engaged as first violin in the opera at Drury 
Lane. In 1871 he was appointed to the Royal 
Opera orchestra at Covent Garden, remaining 
there twelve years. He appeared at the 
Monday Popular Concerts, January 23, 1882, 
as a violinist in Svendsen's Octet, ultimately 
taking the position of principal viola, which 
he still retains. He succeeded Ludwig Straus 
as leader of the Queen's Private Baud ; is 
professor of the violin at the R.A.M., and of 
the viola at the G.S.M. Among the fine 
instruments he possesses is a Stradivari viola 
formerly belonging to Charles Reade, the 

Gibson, Edmund, bishop and writer, born 
at Brampton, Westmoreland, in 1669 ; died 
at Bath, in 1748. W^rote a number of an- 
tiquarian works, and a " Method or course of 
singing in Church ; direction to the Clergy 
of the Diocese of London, 1727 ; etc." 

Gibson, Francis, pianist and composer, 
born in Edinburgh, in 1861. After studying 
pianoforte and harmony five years with Mr. 
William Townseud, he entered Dr. Hoch's 
Conservatorium, Frankfort - on - the - Main, 
studying composition under Joachim Raff, 
and the pianoforte with Carl Faelten. Sett- 
ling in Edinburgh as a teacher, he succeeded 
Mr. G. L. Deas as a professor of the pianoforte 
and theory at the Edinburgh Ladies' College, 
which, with other appointments, he still holds. 




He has played at various chamber concerts at 
Edinburgh, where some of his compositions 
have been performed. So far he has only 
published an Alinim of ten songs ; a Serenade ; 
and a Reverie for violin. 

Gibson, Rev. James, D.D., clergyman 
and writer, was a professor in the Free Church 
College, Glasgow. Author of "The Public 
Worship of God : its authority and modes, 
Hymns and Hymn Books," Glasgow, 1869. 

Gibson, Louisa, teacher and writer, born 
in London, 1833. For some years head pro- 
fessor of music, Phnnouth High School for 
Girls. Authoress of "A First Book on the 
Theory of IMusic, applied to the Pianoforte," 
London, 6th edition, 1876 ; Second and third 
books of same ; key to exercises in third book. 
Songs, etc. 

Gibson, Mrs. Patrick, bom Isabella 
Mary Scott, vocalist and composer, born at 
Edinburgh, in 1786. She was a daughter 
of William Scott, teacher of elocution, 
Edinburgh, and married Patrick Gibson, 
K.S..\., in 1818. She at one time kept a 
Boarding School for Young Ladies, in Inver- 
leith Row, Edinburgh, and was an associate 
of many distinguished men of her time. 
Distantly related to Sir Walter Scott. She 
was consulted much by R. A. Smith in the 
composition of his songs and duets, and some 
of her psalm tunes are in Dr. Andrew Thom- 
son's " Sacred Harmony," 1820, and in vol. 6 
of Steven's "Church Music," edited by Turn- 
bull, 1833. Her fcong " Loch-na-gar " is 
contained in the 6th vol. of R. A. Smith's 
" Scotish Minstrel." Mrs. Gibson was a 
skilful harp player. She died at Edinburgh, 
November 2S, 1S38. 

Qibsone, Burford George Henry, com- 
poser of first half of present century. He is 
stated to have died about 1868. Composer of 
fantasias for the pf., songs, and glees. His 
"Table Book of Glees" [1840], contains 
original compositions. 

Qibsone, Guillaume Ignace, composer 
and pianist, born in London, of Scottish 
parentage, about 1826. Studied under Mos- 
cheles. Resident in Brussels, 1845, where he 
gave concerts. In 1846 he was made an 
honorary member of the Societe de Grand 
Harmonic, Brussels. Toured in Germany 
the same year. Returned to London in 1850, 
where he settled as teacher and composer. 
His works include three Cantatas: The Wood 
Nymphs, The Elfin Knight, and The Three 
Sisters ; an Oj)era and two Symphonies (in 
MS.) ; Sonata for violin and pf. ; A large num- 
ber of pf. pieces ; Meditations, 24 pieces ; Polo- 
naise ; Chanson a boire ; Clianson d'amour : 
Pour sketches, etc. So7igs : My lady sleeps ; 
Her voice ; Sweet hour of eventide, etc. 

Gick, Thomas, alto vocalist and composer, 
born in Liverpool, February 22, 1837. Musical 


training private. Appointed lay-clerk, York 
Minster, 1859 ; and in 1864, vicar-choral, 
Christ Church, and St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin ; he is also a member of the choir of 
Trinity College, Dublin. He graduated Mus. 
Bac, 1880 ; Mus. Doc, 1882, Dublin ; and is 
Examiner in Music under the Intermediate 
Education Board for Ireland. His compos- 
itions comprise a cantata. The Bard, for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra, Dublin, 1882 ; a morn- 
ing and evening service in B flat, and an 
evening service in F. He has also published: 
Come, let us worship ; Hear, thou Shep- 
herd ; Blessed is He, and other anthems, etc. 

Gilbert, Alfred, pianist and composer, 
second son of Francis and Jane Gilbert, was 
born at Salisbury, October 21, 1828. Com- 
menced his musical studies at the age of six, 
then became a pupil of Dr. Charles Corfe, and 
later, of Alexander Lucas, whose asssistant 
organist he was at St. Thomas's Church. In 
1845 he entered the R.A.M., and soon after 
was made assistant organist of Hanover 
Chapel, Regent Street. He then held organ 
appointments successively at St. Matthew's, 
Spring Gardens ; Chepstow ; Mitcham ; Kent- 
ish Town ; and St. Mark's, Hamilton Terrace, 
but devoted himself chiefly to pianoforte play- 
ing and composition. In 1851 he commenced 
a series of classical chamber concerts with the 
sisters, Charlotte and Susanna Cole (q.v.), the 
former of whom he married in 1853. Concerts 
were also given by the Arion Choir, the Poly- 
hymnian Choir, and other societies under his 
direction ; and he has lectured on music at 
various institutions. A concert of his works 
was given in Rome in 1884, when he received 
the distinction of being elected Socio onorario 
della Reale Accademia S. Cecilia. He is 
director of the Musical Artists' Society ; Soc- 
iety for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts ; 
Member, and a director of the Philharmonic 
Society, and in 1896 elected orchestral man- 
ager in succession to Mr. W. H. Cummings ; 
Member of the Court of Assistants of the 
Royal Society of Musicians ; F.R.A.M. Mr. 
Alfred Gilbert, R.A., the distinguished sculp- 
tor, is his son. 

Works. — Spectacular Cantatas : Abdallah ; 
L'Amie du Drapeau. Operettas : The rival 
roses ; Outwitted ; Blonde or brunette. Quin- 
tet in E flat, for pf., strings, and four voices, 
performed in Rome, January 24, 1884. Trios 
in C, A, and B flat, pf. and strings ; Sonata 
in P, pf. and violoncello. Suite for strings. 
Pieces for pf. and violin. A complete School 
for the pf. Classical Library, edited. Many 
smaller works. 

Gilbert, Davies, writer and musician, 
compiled " Some Ancient Christmas Carols, 
with the tunes to which they were formerly 
sung in the West of England." London, 
1828; 2nd ed. 





Gilbert, (Ernest) Thomas Bennett, 

composer and vocal teacher, born at Salis- 
bury, October 22, 18-33. Brother of Alfred 
Gilbert. He studied at the R.A.M. from 
1847, and at Leipzig under IMoscheles, Haupt- 
mann, Richter, etc., in 1852. Organist suc- 
cessively of St. George's, Isle of Man, 1853 ; 
St. Barnabas, do., 1854; St. Paul, Newport, 
Mou., 1856 ; Parish Church, Abei-gavenny, 
1857 ; St. Peter's, Walworth, 1861 ; St. 
George's, Southwark, 1864 ; and St. Mat- 
thew's, Southwark, 1867. He was afterwards 
a vocal trainer in London. Died at Gipsy 
Hill, London, May 11, 1885. 

Works. — Operettas : Night in fairyland, 
1861 ; Das Helldichein, Leipzig, 1851. Ra- 
miro, cantata, 1879. Orchestral : Concert 
overture, 1858 ; l\Ierry wives of Windsor, 
overture, 1854 ; String quartets in E flat and 
; Trio for pf., violin, and 'cello, in P. 
Pianoforte : Nocturnes, scherzos, ballads, im- 
promiDtus, dances, etc. Numerous part-songs 
and songs. Vocal exercises, for daily use, in 
2 books ; School harmony, London, n.d.. 
various editions ; Practical and natural 
method for the pianoforte, 2 books ; and 
other works. 

Gilbert, Walter Bond, composer and 
organist, born at Exeter, April 21, 1829. 
Studied vinder Alfred Angel, Dr. Wesley, and 
Sir H. Bishop. He was organist successively 
at Topsham, 1847 ; Bideford, 1849 ; Tunbridge, 
1854; Maidstone, 1859; Lee, Kent, 1866; 
Boston, Lincolnshire, 1868; and in 1869 
accepted a similar post at Trinity Episcopal 
Chapel, New York, which he still holds. He 
graduated Mus. Bac, Oxford, in 1854; and 
while in England, in 1888, took the degree of 
Mus. Doc, Oxford, his Exercise having been 
approved more than twenty-five years before. 
In 1886 he was made a Mus. Doc. of Trinity 
College, Toronto. His talent as a composer 
was shewn at an early age, and one of his 
most widely known works is a Cathedral 
Service written when he was seventeen. He 
is the composer of two oratorios : " The Res- 
toration of Israel," and " St. John " ; the 
last performed at Maidstone, in 1864. Also 
of church services, many anthems, and organ 
pieces, etc. Editor of Hymnal and Canticles 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, New 
York (with Rev. A. B. Goodrich, D.D.), 1875 ; 
The Psalter, or Psalms of David, New York, 
1882. The well-known hymn tune, " Maid- 
stone," was first published in the " Parish 
Tune Book" of ]\Ir. G. F. Chambers, in 1862. 
Author of The Antiquities of IMaidstone, 1865 ; 
Memorials of All Saints' Church, Maidstone, 
1864 ; and other historical works. 

Gilbert, William Schwenck, dramatist, 
and opera librettist, born in London, Novem- 
ber 18, 18.36. Educated for the Bar, and 
graduated B.A., London. Clerk in the Privy 

Council Office, 1857-62. Called to the Bar of 
the Inner Temple, 1864. In 1891 his name 
was added to the Commission of the Peace for 
the County of Middlesex. His first dramatic 
piece, " Dulcamara," was produced, St. 
James's Theatre, 1866 ; but here it is only 
necessary to name his operas and operettas. 
These are: Princess Toto (Clay), 1875; The 
]\Iountebanks (Cellier), 1892 ; Thespis, 1871 ; 
Trial by Jury, 1875 ; The Sorcerer, 1877 ; 
H.M.S. Pinafore, 1878 ; Pirates of Penzance, 
1880 ; Patience, 1881 ; lolanthe, 1882 ; Prin- 
cess Ida, 1884 ; Mikado, 1885 ; Ruddigoro, 
1887 ; The Yeomen of the Guard, 1888 ; 
Gondoliers, 1889 ; Utopia, 1893 ; and The 
Grand Duke, 1896, all set by Sullivan, (q.v.) 

Gildon, John, composer and pianist, who 
flourished in the latter part of last, and early 
part of the present century. He composed a 
large quantity of pf. music, including sonatas, 
as well as songs and other pieces. 

Giles, Nathaniel, composer and organist, 
born near Worcester, about 1548-50. Bac. 
Mus., Oxon., 1585. Doc. Mus., Oxon., 1622. 
Organist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and 
master of choristers, do., 1595. Master of 
Children of Chapel Royal, 1597, and organist, 
1625. He died on January 24, 1633. Buried 
in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. " His 
services and anthems announce his learning 
and abilities, and, by the lovers and judges of 
church composition, are regarded as masterly 
productions." — Btisby. He composed a com- 
plete service in C, in Barnard's Collection, and 
other compositions by him are in Leighton's 
" Teares," and various MS. collections. 

His father, Thomas Giles, or Gyles, was 
an organist, and succeeded John Bedford as 
organist of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Gill, William Henry, composer and 
writer. Author of "The Musical ladder; or 
Tonic sliding scale," London [1864]. Com- 
poser of " Easy Anthems for village choirs" 
[1888-91]; "Voluntaries from Handel, Men- 
delssohn, etc." Part-songs : Before sweet 
nightingale : Three merry maids ; When twi- 
light dews, etc. Songs. 

Gilmer, Alfred Walker, cornet player 
and conductor, was born in the parish of St. 
Margaret, Westminster, in 1838. As a child 
he played the violin, but was afterwards sent 
to Paris to study the cornet under Joseph 
Arban. His first important engagement was 
as first violin in a 5lanchester theatre, and 
about 1858 he joined the orchestra of the 
Theatre Royal, Birmingham, that town from 
henceforth being his home. His ability as a 
cornet player secured him engagements at 
the best orchestral concerts in the locality, 
and for some years he was a member of 
the Festival orchestra. In conjunction with 
Henry Syuyer [q.v.) he formed a military 
band, which acquired a high reputation in the 




Midlands. He was also bandmaster of the 
Worcestershire Yeomanry Regiment, and his 
annual concerts in Worcester were great 
events. Many of his pupils obtained good 
positions as cornet players. He died at Bir- 
miugliam, May 16, 1892. 

Qilmore, Patrick Sarsfield, bandmaster 
and composer, born near Dublin, December 
25, 1829. Joined a military band at Athlone 
while a youth, and went to Boston, U.S.A., 
when nineteen, as a cornet player. He was 
for several years salesman in a mrsic store 
there. In 1858 he organised a band bearing 
his name, which gained a high reputation, 
and in 1863 he was appointed director of 
military bands in Louisiana. The musical 
arrangements in the Peace Jubilee at Boston 
in 1869 were under his direction. He toured 
in Europe with his band in 1878. It is stated 
that his was the first military band to per- 
form the Tannhiiuser overture. He wrote a 
History of the National Peace Jubilee and 
great Musical Festival in Boston, 1869 ; Dia- 
tonic and Chromatic Scales for the Cornet ; 
much Military band music ; and composed 
some songs that became very popular, as — 
Good news from home ; Building castles in 
the air ; Freedom on the old plantation, etc. 
He died at St Louis, Sejotember 2'i, 1892. 

Qilmour, Robert, musician, who was a 
teacher in Paisley at the end of last century. 
He compiled "The Psalm Singer's Assistant, 
being a collection of the most approved psalm 
and hymn-tunes . . . with a compendious intro- 
duction, for the use of learners . . ." Paisley 
[1793] ; second edition, Glasgow, n.d. 

Gilson, Cornforth, teacher and writer. 
Was originally a chorister in Durham Cathe- 
dral, and latterly ]\Iaster of Music in the 
Edinburgh city churches, 1756. He was 
made Music-master of Heriot's Hospital, 
Edinburgh, in 1757-1764, and after a residence 
in London for a time, was re-appointed in 
in 1771. He died at Edinburgh after 1774. 
He wrote " Lessons on the practice of Sing- 
ing, with an addition of the church tunes, in 
four parts, and a collection of hymns, canons, 
airs, and catches, for the improvement of 
beginners," Edinburgh, 4to, 1759. "Twelve 
songs for the voice and harpsichord," Edin- 
burgh, 1769. Gilson did much to improve 
psalmody in the Edinburgh churches. 

Qirvin, John, musician and writer, who 
was born in Edinburgh in the first half of 
the 18th century. He was precentor of the 
Trou Kirk, Glasgow, 1761-62, and a teacher 
in Glasgow. He afterwards went to Port- 
Glasgow as a teacher in 1762. Published 
" A New Collection of Church Tunes," Glas- 
gow, 1761. Author of " The Vocal Musician, 
Part I., wherein the grounds of music are 
distinctly handled, the intervals explained, 
and their use in practice fully shown, etc. 


Illustrated with plates. For the use of 
Schools" (preface dated Port-Glasgow, 1763), 
Edinburgh, 1763. 

Gladstanes, Frederick, composer, who 
flourished during the first half of the present 
century. He composed " Six Glees for 3 and 
4 voices," 1830, and other glees published 
separately. His other works consist chiefly 
of pf. music and songs. 

J. C. Gladstanes, probably a relative of 
the above, composed " The Indian," and other 
glees, songs, etc. 

Gladstone, Francis Edward, composer 
and organist, born at Sumniertown, near 
Oxford, March 2, 1845. Articled pupil of Dr. 
S. S. Wesley, 1859-64, then appointed organist 
of Holy Trinity, Weston-super-Mare. In 1866 
he was chosen organist of Llandaff Cathedral, 
and in 1870 appointed to Chichester Cathedral. 
This post he resigned in 1873, and went to 
reside at Brighton, where he remained until 
1876, when he removed to London, and 
became organist of St. IMark's, Lewisham. 
He accepted the post of organist of Norwich 
Cathedral, December, 1877, and in 1881 
returned to London, acting as organist of 
Christ Church, Lancaster Gate, until 1886. 
The next year he was received into the Roman 
Catholic Church, and was director of the choir 
at St. Mary of the Angels, Bayswater, up to 
1894. He graduated Mus. Bac, 1876 ; Mus. 
Doc, 1879, Cambridge. He is an Hon. R.A.M., 
F.R.C.O., and a Member of the Board of 
Musical Studies at Cambridge. Professor of 
counterpoint, etc.. Trinity College, London, 
1881 ; Professor of harmony and counterpoint, 
R.C.IM., 1883; and examiner for various 

Works. — Cantatas : Nicodemus, produced 
by Highbury Philharmonic Society, December 
13, 1880 ; Philippi, Newcastle Cathedral, July 
26, 1883 ; and Constance of Calais, Highbury, 
May 18, 1885. Morning aiid Evening Service 
in P ; Anthems. Mass in E minor, written 
for the Brompton Oratory ; Mass in E flat, 
four voices and organ, 1888. Church music, 
various, in MS. A wet sheet and a flowing 
sea, chorus and orchestra, Highbury, 1880. 
Overture, string quartet. Trio, pf. and strings, 
1876, all in MS. Sonata in A minor ; Twelve 
original pieces ; Ten pieces ; Three preludes, 
and other organ music. The Organ Students' 
Guide, several editions. Editor of Select 
Anthems from the works of English composers. 

Glasgow, James, Irish clergj-man and 
writer. Was professor of divinity in the Irish 
Presbyterian Church. Author of " Heart 
and voice : instrumental music in christian 
worship not divinely authorised ". .n.d. 

Gleadhill, Thomas Swift, composer and 
teacher, born at Edinburgh, January 30, 
1827. Son of Benjamin Gleadhill, a musician, 
who was born in Derbyshire, April, 1789 ; 




and died at Edinburgh, October 6, 1859. He 
resided in Glasgow and Edinburgh as a 
teacher, compiler, and choirmaster, from 
1857. In 1889 he was appointed organist of 
the Parish Church of Peterhead, and on 
September 21, 1890, he drowned himself in 
the sea. He wrote or compiled the following 
works : — Beauties of Scottish song (with 
Fulcher and Thomson), Glasgow, n.d. Har- 
monium Album (popular airs arranged). Har- 
monium Repository (do.). Children's songs 
(with J. Thomson). Scottish airs arranged 
as part-songs, and for the pf. Lyric Gems of 
Scotland, Glasgow, n.d. Songs of the British 
Isles, 2 vols. Original songs, among which 
may be named, " Be kind to auld Grannie " ; 
"Thorn-tree"; "Farewell to the land," etc. 
Gledhill, John, pianist and composer, 
was one of the early students at the R.A.M., 
a fellow-pupil being Sterndale Bennett. He 
was made an Associate, and afterwards 
studied at Leipzig. For some years he was 
a professor at the R.A.M. From about 1876 
he settled in Brighton as a teacher. He died 
there in 1891, having been disabled some 
three years previously by a stroke of paralysis. 
He composed a number of pf. pieces, and 
several sets of songs, etc. 

Glen, Alexander, bagpipe maker, was 
born at Inverkeithing, Fife, in 1801. He was 
established in business in Edinburgh, and 
died there in March, 1873. He issued " The 
Caledonian Repository of Music for the Great 
Highland bagpipe . . ." Edinburgh, 1870. 

His son, David (born at Edinburgh in 
1850), who succeeded to the business, issued 
a " Collection of Highland bagpipe music . . ." 
Edinburgh, 1876-1880, 2 parts ; and a " High- 
land Bagpipe tutor, with a selection of quick- 
steps, strathspeys, reels, etc.," Edinburgh, 
1866. In 1896 this firm supplied sets of bag- 
pipes for use in the French army. 

Glen, Annie, soprano vocalist and writer, 
of present time. Gave her first concert at 
Steinway Hall, London, January 25, 1883. 
Is known as the author of " Music in its 
Social Aspect," and an elaborate treatise, 
" How to Accompany," London, Cocks & Co. 
Glen, Thomas Macbean, musical in- 
strunient maker, brother of Alexander, was 
born at Inverkeithing, Fife, in May, 1804. 
He established a musical instrument business 
in Edinburgh, in 1827, and made bagpipes, 
flutes, and other instruments. He invented 
a wooden Ophicleide, called a SeriDentcleide ; 
and the system of modern music-holders for 
military band instruments. He died in Edin- 
burgh, July 12, 1873. Publisher of " A new 
and complete tutor for the great Highland 
bagpipe . . . Edinburgh, n.d., 2 vols. 

His son, John (born at Edinburgh in 1833), 
succeeded to the business in company with 
his brother Robert iu 1866. He compiled 


" The Glen Collection of Scottish Dance 
Music . . . arranged . . . for the pianoforte. 
Containing an introduction on Scottish dance 
music, sketches of musicians, and music- 
sellers . . . and a chronological list of works, *■ 
Edinburgh, book 1, 1891 ; book 2, 1895. An 
accurate and valuable work. This he intends 
to follow up with a work on " Early Scottish 
Melodies," designed to clear up the naiscon- 
ceptions regarding their origin and history 
which have arisen. His brother, Robert 
(born at Edinburgh in 1835), is an artist and 
skilful mechanic, who has acquired a col- 
lection of musical instruments of some arch- 
seological value. The firm of J. & R. Glen 
has issued some books of instructions for 
playing the Bagpipe, and various collections 
of bagpipe music, among which may be 
named " Collection for the great Highland 
bagpipe, containing instructions and 52 
marching, dancing and slow airs, etc." 
Edinburgh, n.d., 3 parts. 

Glencorse, Peter, choir conductor and 
teacher, was born at Edinburgh, April 17, 
1852. He studied under James Sneddon, 
A. C. Mackenzie, G. C. IMartin, etc. He sang 
in various Edinburgh choirs as a bass, and in 
1883 succeeded Joseph Geoghegan as choir- 
master of Old Greyfriars Church. As conduc- 
tor of a choral society in Edinburgh, ]\Ir.- 
Glencorse has produced many good works 
with much acceptance. 

Glossop, Mrs., bom Fearon, operatic 
vocalist, who sang at La Scala, Milan, in 
1823-25, and appeared at the King's Theatre, 
London, in 1834. She married Joseph Glos- 
sop, the impresario, and was the grandmother 
of the late Sir Augustus Harris the theatrical 

Glover, Charles William, composer and 
violinist, born, London, February, 1806. He 
studied under T. Cooke, and became violinist 
at Drury Lane and Covent Garden Theatres. 
He afterwards acted as musical director of 
the Queen's Theatre from 1832. Died, Lon- 
don, March 23, 1863. He published a very 
large number of songs and pf. pieces, very few 
of which now survive. 

Glover, J. H. L., composer and writer, 
author of a " Concise Organ Tutor," London 
(Goddard), n.d. Te Deum, songs, pf. music. 

Glover, John William, composer, organ- 
ist, and teacher, born at Dublin, June 19, 
1815. He studied in Dublin, and became a 
violinist in the Dublin orchestra in 1830. 
In succession to Haydn Corri he became 
director of the cathedral choir, and in 1848 
was appointed professor of vocal music in the 
Normal Training School of the Irish National 
Education Board. In 1851 he established 
the Choral Institute of Dublin, and was con- 
nected with the organisation of the musical 
commemorations of O'Connell, Moore, and 




Grattan. He has lectured on Irish music in 
Dublin and London, and has been active in 
promoting the cultivation of choral music in 

Works. — Operas : Deserted Village (Gold- 
smith, dramatized by Edmund Falconer) 
London, 1880 ; Two Italian Operas by Metas- 
tasio (MS.). Cantatas, etc. : St. Patrick at 
Tara (O'Connell centenary), 1870; Erin's 
Matin Song, Patria, 1873 ; " One hundred 
years ago," Ode to Thomas Moore, 1879. 
Masses, hymns, songs, etc. Concerto for 
violin and orchestra in A ; Fantasias ; Con- 
certos and other music for organ ; Pf. music, 
etc. He also edited Moore's Irish IMelodies, 
1859, and a large number of musical works for 
school use. 

His daughter, Erminia (Mrs. IMackcy), was 
a harpist. She died at Dublin, in June, 188.3. 

Glover, Sarah Ann, musician and 
teacher, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Glover, 
of Norwich, was born at Norwich, 1785. 
Died at Malvern, October 20, 1867. She 
invented the Tonic Sil-fa system of musical 
notation, which the Rev. John Curwen after- 
wards modified and changed till its present 
form was reached. To Miss Glover much 
credit is necessarily due for the commence- 
ment of the system now so universally used 
in Britain. She published " A manual of the 
Norwich Sol-fa System . . . . " [1845] ; 
"Manual containing a Development of the 
Tetrachordal system," London [1850]. 

Glover, Stephen, composer, brother of 
C. W. Glover, was born at London, in 1812. 
He was a teacher and composer in London, 
and died there on December 7, 1870. 

Works. — Songs : Annie on the banks o'Dee ; 
Mary Astore ; Oh ! give me back my child- 
hood's dreams; The maiden's dream; Dreams 
of childliood ; I dream of thee ; The minstrel 
knight; The river of song; Woman's wiles; 
Yes or no ; Abide with me ; Autumn eve ; 
Bonnie Teviotdale ; Beware ; Break, break, 
break ; Down the green lane ; Ellen Vane ; 
Fair rose of Killarney ; Flower of the south ; 
Fond memory ; Good words ; I love him, 
yes ; Ildegonda ; King of the ocean wave ; 
Lays of the London season ; Merry mountain 
maid ; May Queen ; Oh far the bloom o' my 
ain native heather ; Oh ye mountain streams ; 
Pearl of the east ; Songs of other years ; There 
once was a knight ; Underneath your window ; 
Winter night ; Would you remember me. 
Duets : The cuckoo ; The dove ; The fairies' 
serenade; The gleaners ; Our bark is on the 
Rhine ; Return of the s.vallows ; Savoyard 
maids ; The skylark ; Hymn to the night ; 
Stars of the summer night ; The curfew bell ; 
The gipsy countess ; To the woods ! to the 
woods ; Voices of the night ; What are the 
wild waves saying ? Four-part songs, trios, 
etc. Pianoforte music, transcriptions, etc. 


Glover, William, organist and composer, 
was born at London, in 1822. He was a 
chorister in Trinity College, Cambridge, 
1829-38, and studied under Walmisley. Or- 
ganist successively of Christ Church, Cam- 
bridge, 1841-42 ; St. Matthew's, Manchester, 
1842 ; St. Luke's, Cheetham, 1846. 

He has composed two oratorios " Jerusa- 
lem," 1848, and "Emmanuel," 1851, both 
produced at Manchester ; The " Corsair," 
cantata, 1849 (printed 1856) ; Chamber music, 
pf. music, songs, etc. 

Glover, William Howard, composer and 
violinist, born at Kilburu, London, June 6, 
1819. Son of Mrs. Glover, the actress. He 
studied music under Wagstaff, and for a time 
travelle i in Europe. Member of the staS 
of the Morning Post. Resided in U.S.A. 
from 1868, and died at New York, October 
28, 1875. 

Works. — Operas and operettas : Ruy Bias, 
Covent Garden, London, October, 1861 ; 
Aminta, Haymarket, London ; Once too often ; 
The Coquette ; Palomita, or the Veiled Song- 
stress. Tam o' Shanter, cantata, London, 
July, 1855 ; Overture for orchestra, Manfred ; 
Twelve Romances for pf., in 2 books ; Vocal 
quartets, duets, etc. Miscellaneous pf . music ; 
Songs for voice and pf. 

Goddard, Arabella (Davison), pianist, 
born at St. Servan, near St. Malo, Brittany, 
January 12, 1836. Daughter of Thomas God- 
dard (died at Boulogne, July 19, 1890), of a 
Salisbury family. When a little child of four 
she played in public in her native village, and 
two years later received instruction from 
Kalkbrenner, in Paris. At the age of eight 
she played before the Queen and Prince 
Consort at Buckingham Palace, and at the 
same age (1844), published six Waltzes for 
pianoforte (D'Almaine). Her instructors at 
this time were Mrs. Anderson, and Thalberg. 
She made her debut at the Grand National 
Concerts at Her Majesty's Theatre, October 
30, 1850. For the next three years she studied 
with J. W.Davison ((2.u.),towhom shewas mar- 
ried in 1860. She also studied harmony under 
G. A.Macfarren. Her reappearance took place 
at Willis's Rooms, April 14, 1853, at a concert 
of the Quartet Association, when she played 
Beethoven's Sonata in B flat, Op. 106. On 
May 11, she played at the New Philharmonic 
Concerts, Bennett's Concerto in C minor ; 
and the same work at the Philharmonic, 
where she played for the first time, June 9, 
1856. In 1854-5 she toured in Germany, and 
played at the Gewandhaus Concerts, Leipzig, 
January 11, 1855, Mendelssohn's D minor 
Concerto. Returning to England she was 
! recognised as one of the greatest pianists of 
the time. She appeared at the Crystal Palace, 
March 15, 1858 ; Leeds Festival, 1858 ; Bir- 
mingham, 1861-70; Gloucester, 1865; and 




at all the leading concerts throughout the 
country. She first appeared at the Popular 
Concerts, March 9, 1859, at an extra Mozart 
Niglit, on a Wednesday ; and was for many 
years associated with that undertaking In 
1873 she left for a tour in Australia, America, 
and all round the world, returning in 1876. 
About 1880 she gave up public work, and 
devoted herself to teaching ; but reappeared 
at Sims Reeves's Concert, March 21, 1882. 
Later, her health failing, she retired to Tun- 
bridge Wells, where she still resides. She 
published a ballad, and some pf. pieces, 
1852-3. A concert was given for her benefit 
in St. James's Hall, March 9, 1890. 

Goddard, Joseph, writer and composer, 
born in 1833. Author of " M .ral Theory of 
Music," 1857 ; " Philosophy of Music : a 
series of essays," London, 1862 ; " Musical 
Development, or remarks on the spirit of the 
principal Musical Forms," London, ii.d. ; 
" New Graduated Method for the Pianoforte," 
n.d. ; " Time Exercises for the use of Piano- 
forte Students," n.d. ; " A study of Gounod's 
sacred Trilogy, 'The Redemption,'" London 
[1883] . Contributions lo AhisicaL Tivies, 1885, 
etc. Songs, pf. music, etc. 

Godding, James Henry, organist and 
composer, born about 1820. He was organist 
for nineteen years of the Parish Church of 
Newbury, where he died, April 20, 1884. 
Compiler of " Parochial Psalmodist, being a 
collection of psalm and hymn tunes," London, 
n.d., with appendix. 

Godfrey, Charles, Ijandmaster and com- 
poser, born at Kingston, Surrey, November 22, 
1790. At an early age became a drummer in 
the First Royal Surrey Militia; posted to the 
band of the Coldstream Guards, corporal, 
April 10, 1820 ; Sergeant, IMay 3, following ; 
and Master of the band, February 5, 1825. 
Discharged from military engagement, July 8, 
1834, but continued as civilian bandmaster 
until his death, December 12, 1863. Was 
present with the band in Paris, 1815. Mu- 
sician in ordinary to the King, 1831. He 
arranged a good deal of music for military 
bands. Three of his sons became distinguished 
.bandmasters : — 

Godfrey, Daniel, the eldest son, born at 
Westminster, September 4, 1831, was educated 
at the R.A.M., of which institution he is a 
Fellow, and also professor of military music. 
Appointed bandmaster of the Grenadier 
Guards, August 29, 1856. Gazetted Honorary 
Second Lieutenant in the army, June 21, 1887, 
the first English l^andmaster to hold Her 
Majesty's Commission ; Travelled with his 
band in the United States of America, 1872. 
Has arranged much music for military bands, 
and is the composer of the "Mabel," "Hilda," 
and other waltzes, etc. In 1896 he retired 
from the army, and formed a band of his own. 


Received a testimonial from the officers of the 
Guards, March 8, 1897. His son, Daniel 
Eyers Godfrey, L.R.A.M., was appointed 
conductor of the London military band, 1890. 
He toured in South Africa, 1891-2, and since 
his return has established his reputation as a 
bandmaster at the Crystal Palace, Bourne- 
mouth, etc. He has published some pieces 
for pf. 

Godfrey, Adolphus Frederick, second 
son of Charles Godfrey, was born in 1837. 
He was educated at the R.A.M., and made a 
Fellow. Entered the Coldstream Regiment, 
September 2, 1856 ; served with his father as 
sergeant of the band, and succeeded him as 
bandmaster, December 14, 1863. Was com- 
pelled to resign owing to ill-health, 1880, and 
died, August 28, 1882. He wrote a number 
of dance pieces, and other music of a popular 

Godfrey', Charles, third son of Charles 
Godfrey, was born January 17, 1839. Student 
and Fellow, R.A.]\I. Bandmaster of the Scots 
Fusilier Guards, 1859-68, and of the Royal 
Horse Guards from 1868 to the present time. 
He is professor of military music at the R.C.LL, 
and at the Guildhall School. His composi- 
tions and arrangements are very numerous, 
including the popular Princess Beatrice, 
Princess Louise, Blush Rose waltzes, etc., and 
he is editor of The Orplieits, a military music 
periodical. He has three sons who ai-e 
musicians: Arthur E. Godfrey, student and 
associate, R.A.M., who was api^ointed musical 
director at the Shaftesbury Theatre, London, 
1890, and is the comx^oser of a string quartet, 
songs, etc. Charles George, also a student, 
R.A.M., and composer of some orchestral 
pieces and songs; and Herbert A. Godfrey', 
who was appointed bandmaster at Christ's 

Goldwin, John, or Golding, organist 
and composer, born in 1670. He studied 
under Dr. W. Child. Organist St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, 1697. Master of the Choris- 
ters, do., 1703. He died at Windsor, Novem- 
ber 7, 1719. He composed a service in F ; 
Anthems : Behold my servant ; I will sing 
unto the Lord ; O Love the Lord ; praise 
God in His Holiness, etc. 

Gomez, Alice, vocalist (mezzo-soprano), 
was born at Calcutta, her father being of 
Spanish and her mother of Portuguese des- 
cent. She studied under Mr. T. Henry Webb, 
organist of the Protestant Cathedral, Calcutta, 
also learning the organ sufficiently well to be 
able to play a service. At first her voice was 
a high soprano, and she studied such roles as 
Leonora in " Trovatore." Ultimately, her 
voice settled into a mezzo-soprano of great 
compass, and remarkable evenness and purity 
of tone. She left Calcutta in 1885, and made 
her first appearance in England at a concert 




given by Mr. Webb, at the Kensington Town 
Hall, July 14, 1885. Her debut at the Crystal 
Palace took place April 9, 1887, and she now 
holds a high position as a concert-singer, 
having appeared at the principal concerts in 
London and the provinces. In 1891, she was 
married to Mr. Webb, now resident at Tor- 

Qoodban, Thomas, composer and writer, 
was born at Canterbury December, 1784. 
Chorister Canterbury Catliedral. He studied 
music under S. Porter, and was afterwards 
articled to a solicitor. Resigned the Law in 
1798. Lay-clerk Canterbury Cathedral, 1809. 
Leader of the Catch Club, Canterbury, 1810. 
He died at Canterbury, May 4, 1863. 

Works. — Glees, songs, pf. music. New 
and complete guide to the art of playing the 
violin, London, 1810. Guide to the piano, 
1811. Rudiments of music, London, 1825; 
new edition, 1836. New and complete intro- 
duction to singing, London, 1829. 

His son Charles (1812-1881) was a Mus. 
Bac, Oxon., 1847, and composed some miscel- 
laneous pieces, the "Vocal Album" (1850), etc. 
Henry William, A.R.A.M., anotlier son, 
born 1810, is a violoncello player and com- 
poser, having written " Bayham Abbey;" 
overture, Crystal Palace, 1885 ; pf. music and 
songs. Thomas Goodban, a third son, born 
1822, is a violinist, and James Frederick 
Goodban, A.R.A.M , a nephew, is an organist 
and composer. 

Qoodgroome, John, composer, born in 
1630. He was a chorister of St. George's 
Chapel, Winasor, and became a gentleman 
of tlie Cliapel Royal in 1660. Musician in 
ordinary to tlie King, 1664 He died in June, 
1704. Composer of concerted sacred and 
secular vocal music, songs, etc. 

Goodhart, Arthur Murray, assistant 
classical master at Etoii College, has com- 
posed a ballad for chorus and orchestra, 
" Earl Haldan's Daughter," produced, Lon- 
don, January 21, 1891 ; A " Dorian song " 
(founded on W. Jackson's Canzonets, by F. 
Corder), for soprano solo, chorus, and orches- 
tra ; "Arethusa"; School songs, etc. He 
graduated Mus. Bac, 1892, Cambridge; B A., 
1888 : M.A., 1894. 

Qoodson, Richard, composer and or- 
ganist, born about the middle of the 17th 
century. Organist Chri.>t Church and New 
College, O.xford. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1682, and 
Professor of Music at Oxford i uiversity, in 
succession to Edward Lowe, July, 1682. He 
died, January 13, 1718. Composer of a few 
odes, songs, etc., mostly in MS. 

His son, Richard, born in latter part of 
17th century, wa- organist of Newbury till 
1709. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1716. He succeeded 
his father as organist of Christ Church and 
New College, Oxford, and in the Professorship 


of ilusic, 1718. He died June 9, 1741. His 
compositions, in MS., are preserved in the 
library of Christ Chuich, and in the Music 
School at Oxford. 

Goodwin, Amina Beatrice, pianist, 
born at j\Linchester, daughter of John Law- 
rence Goodwin, violinist and conductor (died. 
May, 1883).. Received her first lessons from 
her father, and appeared in public at the age 
of six. Studied at Leipzig Conservatorium 
tmder Reinecke and Jadassohn; and later, 
under Delaborde, at Paris. Gave concerts in 
Manchester in 1882 ; played at Covent Garden 
Promenade Concerts, November, 1883 ; and 
appeared at the Crystal Palace, April 12, 1884, 
playing Mendelssohn's Concerto in D minor. 
Previous to this she had enjoyed the advantage 
of studying under Liszt, at Weimar. Later, 
she studied with IMadame Schumann, making 
her rentree in London in 1892, and now rank- 
ing among the leading pianists of the day. 
In 1895 she founded a Pianoforte College for 
ladies. She is married to Mr. W. Ingram- 
Adams, an American, whose new national 
anthem she has set to music. She has com- 
posed some pieces for pf., and is author of 
Practical Hints on the Technique and Touch 
of Pianoforte Playing, Augener, 1892. 

Goold, Rev. Ebenezer, writer on music. 
Studied privatelv. Graduated ]\Ius. Bac, 
1883; M.A., 1883, Dublin; Mus. Bac, 1884, 
London. Has composed a setting of Psalm 46, 
for solo, chorus, and orchestra. Author of 
Story of the Messiah ; Descriptive j)rogramme 
of the great musical works. 

Gordon, George, Roman Catholic min- 
ister and musician, was born at Fochabers, 
]*]lgin, March 27, 1776. He was a violinist 
and composer, and issued two collections of 
sacred music for the use of choirs. He studied 
at Valladolid for the Roman Catholic priest- 
hood. He died at Dufftown, May 10, 1856. 

Gordon, John, musician, born at London, 
]\Iarch 20, 1702. Educated at Westminster 
Schcol and Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
studied for the Law in 1718-22, and became 
Professor of Music at Gresham College, Jan- 
uary 16, 1728. Called to Bar, 1725. He died 
at London, December 12, 1739. 

Gordon, William, musician and flute- 
player, was born at the end of the 18th century. 
He studied under Drouet, and became a 
Captain of the Swiss Guards in Paris. Com- 
nienced improving fiitte mechanism, 1830. 
He died insane, in consequence of unsuccessful 
experiments, about 1839. His system of 
fingering was perfected by Boehni, but author- 
ities differ both as regards the original inven- 
tion and subsequent improvements. 

Goss, John Jeremiah, vocalist, born at 
Salisbury in 1770. He was chorister in Salis- 
bury Cathedral, and lay-vicar, do. Gentle- 
man of Chapel Royal, 1808. Vicar-choral, 




St. Paul's Cathedral. Lay-vicar of West- 
minster Abbey. Principal alto at meetings 
of the Three Choirs. He died in London, 
April 25, 1817. 

Goss, Sir John, Kt., composer and or- 
ganist, born at Fareham, Hants., December 
27, 1800. Son of Joseph Goss, organist, of 
that place. Chorister in Chapel Royal, under 
J. S. Smith, 1811. He studied under Attwood, 
and became organist of Stockwell Chapel, 
1821 ; organist of St. Luke's, Chelsea, 1824-38 ; 
organist, St. Paul's Cathedral, 1838-72. Com- 
poser to Chapel Royal, 1856-72. Knighted, 
1872. Mus. Doc, Cantab., 1876. He died 
at Brixton, London, May 10, 1880. 

Works. — Church Service, in A ; Burial 
Service, in E minor ; Te Deum for H.M. 
Thanksgiving at St. Paul's Cathedral, for the 
restoration to health of H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales. Benedictus. Te Deums in C, D, 
and F ; Cantate Domino and Deus misereatur, 
in C ; Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis, in E. 
Anthems : Almighty and merciful God ; And 
the king said to all the people (dirge) ; Behold 
I bring you good tidings ; Blessed is the man ; 
Brother, thou art gone before us ; Christ, our 
Passover ; Come, and let us return unto the 
Lord; Fear not, O land; Have mercy upon 
me ; Hear, Lord ; I heard a voice from 
heaven ; I will magnify Thee, God ; If we 
believe that Jesus died ; In Christ dwelleth ; 
Lift up thine eyes round about ; O give thanks ; 
O Lord God, Thou strength of my health ; 
O praise the Lord ; praise the Lord of 
heaven ; O Saviour of the world ; taste and 
see ; Praise the I>ord, my soul ; Stand up 
and bless the Lord your God ; The glory of 
the Lord ; The Lord is my strength ; These 
are they which follow the Lamb ; The wilder- 
ness. Seven glees, and a madrigal, London, 
1852 ; six glees, and a madrigal, 1826. Par- 
ochial Psalmody, a collection of ancient and 
modern tunes, London, 4 vols., 1827. Collec- 
tion of Voluntaries by eminent composers, 
organ. The Organist's Companion, 4 vols. 
Collection of Voluntaries, various composers. 
The sacred minstrel . . 1833, 3 vols. Church 
Psalter and Hymn Book, for the use of con- 
gregations and families, by Rev. Wm. fiercer, 
M.A., Incumbent of St. George's, Sheffield, 
London, 1862. An introduction to Harmony 
and Thorough-bass, London, 1833. Piano- 
forte Students' Catechism of the Rudiments 
of Music, Loudon, 1835. Collection of chants, 
ancient and modern, in score . . . 1841. Over- 
tures for orchestra, in F, Philharmonic Soc- 
iety, 1825 ; also one in E flat, and miscel- 
laneous orchestral music. Songs, etc. 

Qoss, Joseph, organist, youngest brother 
of Sir John Goss. Born at Poole, Dorset, 
1809. In 1822, went to his brother in Lon- 
don. Succeeded Henry Smart, at St. Philip's, 
Regent Street, and was well-known in London 


and Brighton (where he resided) as a piano- 
forte teacher. In 1876, he retired from the 
profession, and went to reside at Surbiton, 
where he died February 13, 1892. 

Qostick, Joseph, author of " A Manuel 
of Music," Edinburgh, 1851. 

Qostling, Rev. John, bass vocalist, bom 
in [1652] , died in 1733. Was the possessor 
of a most powerful voice of great compass, 
for which ii is said Purcell composed some 
sacred and other music. 

Gould, Rev. Sabine Baring=, theological 
writer, novelist, and song collector, born at 
Exeter, January 28, 1834. Educated at Clare 
College, Cambridge ; M.A., 1856 ; Ordained 
1864; Incumbent of Dalton, Thirsk, 1869; 
Rector of East Mersea, Colchester, 1871-1881. 
On the death of his father in 1872, he suc- 
ceeded to the family property, and in 1881, 
to the rectory of Lew-Trenchard, Devon, of 
which county he is justice of the peace. 
Author of " Lives of the Saints," 15 vols., 
and other theological works ; " Mehalah," 
" John Herring," and many other novels. 
In conjunction with the Rev. H. Fleetwood 
Sheppard, he has collected and arranged 
" Songs of the West," " A Garland of Country 
Song," both published by Methuen, London; 
and edited "English Minstrelsie," 8 vols., 
Edinburgh, Jack, 1895 ; and a " Book of 
Nursery Songs and Rhymes," Methuen, 1895. 
He has composed various hymns, "Eudoxia," 
and other pieces. 

Gow, Niel, violinist and composer, born 
at Inver, Dunkeld, March 22, 1727. Taught 
violin by John Cameron, a retainer in the 
Grandtully family. He was twice married, 
and had large families. He played at the 
principal gatherings and balls of his time, in 
the large towns of Scotland, lie died at Inver, 
March 1, 1807. 

Works.— A collection of Strathspey Reels, 
with a bass for the violoncello or harpsichord, 
dedicated to Her Grace the Duchess of Athole, 
Edinburgh (Corri), [1784]. Second collec- 
tion, dedicated to the noblemen and gentlemen 
of the Caledonian Hunt, Edinburgh (Corri), 
[1788]. Third collection, dedicated to the 
Marchioness of Tweeddale, Edinburgh, [1792]. 
A complete repository of original Scots slow 
strathspeys and dances (the dances arranged 
as medleys for the harp, pianoforte, violin, 
and violoncello), Edinburgh [1799], issued in 
four parts. Fifth and sixth collections of 
strathspey reels, 1808 and 1822. 

As personal recollections can not now be 
brought to bear on the subject of Gow's 
character, we have transcribed the following 
passage, which, with a curious portrait, 
appears in T. Garnett's " Observations on a 
Tour through the Highlands, etc., of Scot- 
land." Second edition, vol. 2, p. 73, London, 
1811 :— 




"... We were favoured with a visit from 
Niel Gow, a singular and well-known char- 
acter, and a celebi-ated performer on the 
violin. When I call him a celebrated per- 
former, I do not mean that he can execute 
the sweet Italian airs with the touch of a 
Cramer. His only music is that of his native 
country, which he has acquired chiefly by the 
ear, being entirely self-taught ; but he plays 
the Scotch airs with a spirit and enthusiasm 
peculiar to himself. . . . He excels most in 
the Strathspeys, which are jigs played with a 
peculiar spirit and life, but he executes the 
laments, or funeral music, with a great deal 
of pathos." 

A great deal of nonsense has been written 
about the Gow family, and numerous fables 
of all sorts have been published regarding 
Niel and his alleged doings. In Glen's " Col- 
lection of Scottish Dance Music, book 2, 1895, 
there is a very fair and impartial examination 
of some of these stories, and a careful sifting 
of his compositions, whereby many of them 
are rightly assigned to other composers. 

Gow, Nathaniel, violinist and composer, 
born at Inver, near Dunkeld, May 28, 1763. 
Pourth son of Niel Gow. He studied under 
his father, R. M'Intosh, M'Glashan, and 
J. Reinagle. Violinist at Edinburgh under 
his brother William. One of H.M. trumpeters 
for Scotland, 1782. Succeeded his brother 
W^illiam as leader of the Edinburgh concerts, 
1791. Established in Music-publishing 
business with W. Shepherd at Edinburgh, 
1796-1813. Gave up business, but subsequenly 
resumed it in partnership with his son Niel. 
Continued the firm till 1827. He died at 
Edinburgh, January 19, 1831. 

Works. — The Beauties of Niel Gow, being 
a Selection of the most favourite tunes from 
his first, second, and third collections of 
strathspey reels and jigs, chiefly comprising 
the compositions of Niel Gow and Sons (edited 
by Nathaniel). Edinburgh, 3 parts. The 
Vocal INIelodies of Scotland, arranged for the 
pianoforte, or harp, violin, and violoncello, by 
Nath. Gow. Edin.,3parts, n.d. The Ancient 
curious Collection of Scotland, consisting of 
genuine Scotch tunes, with their original 
variations, with basses throughout, for the 
pianoforte, or harp, violin and 'cello. Ded. 
to Sir W^altcr Scott. Edin., 1823. A Select 
Collection of original dances, waltzes, marches, 
minuets, and airs.. many of which are com- 
posed, and the whole arranged for the pf. and 
harp by Nath. Gow, Edin. A Collection of 
Strathspey Reels, with a bass for the violon- 
cello, or harpsichord, containing the most 
approved old and the most fashionable new 
reels, some of which are composed, and others 
with additions, by Nath. Gow. Edin. [1797] . 
Complete Repository of Old and New Scotch 
.Strathspeys, Reels, and Dances. Edin., n.d.. 


3 books. Nathaniel Gow is best remembered 
as the composer of " Caller Herrin," and 
" Bothwell Castle," the former being very 

Gow, Niel, Jun., violinist and composer, 
born about 1795. Son of Nathaniel Gow. 
He was a partner in the music-publishing 
business in Edinburgh with his father. He 
died at Edinburgh, November 7, 1823. 

Works. — Edinburgh Collection of Glees, 
Catches, Duetts, etc., Edin., n.d. A Collection 
of Airs, Reels, and Strathspeys, being the 
posthumous compositions of the late Niel Gow, 
Junr., arranged for pf., harp, violin, or 'cello, 
by Nathaniel Gow. Edin., 1849. 

This most promising young man died after 
giving convincing proofs of his caj)acity for 
musical composition. His melodies, " Bonnie 
Prince Charlie" and "Flora Macdonald's 
Lament," are well-known all over the world. 
He composed a number of melodies to words 
by Hogg, etc., but the two songs named are 
those by which he is best known. 

Other members of this family were Andrew 
[1760-180.3], John [1764; died, London, 
November 22, 1826], and William [1751- 
1791] , all of whom were musicians of some 
fame in their day, the last being especially 
well known as a fresh and vigorous violinist. 
They all composed reels and strathspeys of 

Goward, Mary Anne, sec Keeley, Mrs. 

Gower, John Henry, organist, pianist 
and composer, born at Rugby, May 25, 1855. 
Graduated Mus. Bac, 1876; Mus. Doc, 1883, 
Oxford. In 1876, he was appointed organist 
and music master at Trent College, Notts., 
where he remained until 1887, when he went 
to Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., as precentor and 
organist of the cathedral there. He gave 
organ recitals in various towns in England; 
was an early and enthusiastic member of the 
I.S.M. ; conductor of the Long Eaton Phil- 
I harmonic Society; and a captain in the First 
I Derbyshire Regiment, Volunteer Battalion. 
His compositions comjirise a cantata, "The 
Good Shepherd" ; part-songs, songs, etc. In 
1887, he read a paper, " The needs of the 
Musical Profession," at the annual meeting 
of the Music Teachers' National Association 
of the U.S.A. 

Graddon, Miss, soprano vocalist, born at 
Bishop's Lydiard, near Taunton, 1804. She 
studied under Tom Cooke ; sang at Vauxhall 
in 1822, and at Dublin in 1823. Afterwards 
she appeared at Liverpool, Manchester, Lon- 
don, and throughout the English provinces. 
On November 10, 1824, she sang in " Der 
Freischutz, at London. Died ? 

Graeme, Elliot, Author of "Beethoven: 
a memoir," London, 1870, two editions. 
Novels, etc. 

Graham, George Farquhar, composer 




and writer, born at Edinburgh, December 29, 
1789. Son of Colonel Humphrey Graham. 
He was educated at the High School and 
University of Edinburgh, but was chiefly 
self-taught in music. With George Hogarth 
he acted as joint-secretary to the Edinburgh 
Musical Festival, in 1815. For a time he 
resided in Italy. He was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the Music chair of Edinburgh 
University. Died at Edinburgh, March 12, 

Works. — Twelve pieces of vocal music, 
with accompaniments for the pf. ; composed, 
and as a small tribute of Scottish respect, 
inscribed to the memory of Haydn, by a 
Dilettante, Edinburgh, 1811. The songs of 
Scotland, adapted to their appropriate melo- 
dies . . . with historical, b.ographical, and 
critical notices . . . Edinburgh, 1848-49, 3 

.vols. Glees, hymns, songs, etc. An account 
of the first Edinburgh I\Iusical Festival, held 
. . . 1815, Edinburgh, 1816; 2nd edition, 1835. 
Elements of singing . . . Edinburgh, 1817. 
Essay on the theory and practice of Musical 
Composition . . . Edinbargh, 1838. [Being a 

■ reprint, with additions, of the article " Music " 
in the 7th and 8th editions of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica] . General observations 
upon Music, and remarks upon ]\Ir. Logier's 
system, Edinburgh, 1817. Notes and editorial 
work in connection witii the publication of 

.the "Skene MS." (Dauney). 

Graham, James Lascelles, organist and 

• writer, born at Edinburgh, May 22, 1854. 
He is music-master of the High School of 
S irling, and organist of Allan Park Church 
there. He is author of •' Music made easy," 
London, n.d., a pianoforte lutor. 

Graham, Maria, author of " A few words 
on the formation of the ^lajor and Minor 
Scales, in a letter to her pupils, by M. G," 
London, 1852. 

Graham, Thomas, composer and organist, 
born in 1800, died in 1867. He was organist 
of the Parish Church, Wigan, and a composer 
of vocal nmsic. His daughter, Mary Ann. is 
M..\DAME Enderssohn, the soprano singer, 
for ma y years a popular favourite. 

Grain, Richard Corney, entertainer, 
born at Teversliam, Cambridgeshire, October 
26, 1844. He was educated fur tiie law, and 
called to the Bar in 1866, His gifts for music 
and mimicry soon decided his career, and be 
joined the German Reed Entertainment, iMay 
16, 1870 There he continued for th ; rest of 
his life, performing in 1 london and the pro- 
vinces. He wrote an immense number of 
amusing sketches, of which may be mentioned 
Small and early. Spring's deligjits. Troubles of 
a tourist, Echoes of the opera, Back in town. 
That fatal menu ; as well as setting music to 
pieces by Arthur I .aw and others. His ex- 
periences he embodied in a little book, " Cor- 


ney Grain, by himself," London, ^Murray, 1888. 
He died in London, March 16, 1895, a year 
fatal to the whole German Reed combination. 

Grant, Donald, teacher and composer, 
a native of Elgin, i^ublished " A collection of 
strathspeys, reels, jigs, etc., for the pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello," Edinburgh [1790]. 

Grant, Sir James Hope, musician, born 
1808; died 1875. He entered the army in 
1826, aid served in China, etc. He retired 
from the army a General. See " Life of 
General Hope Grant, by H. KnoUys, London,. 
1894, 2 vols. His portrait, representing him 
pi lying the violoncello, painted by his brotlier,. 
Sir Francis Grant, i^.R.A., is iir the National 
Portrait Gallery, London He composed 
Three sketches for pf. and 'cello; The sea 
and the lake, for pf. and 'cello; JMotturno for 
nf. and 'cello ; The three violoncello makers, 
for pf. and 'cello ; Elegie for pf ; Voluntaries 
for the organ ; Songs, etc. 

Grant, John CampbeH, nmsician and 
writer, was born at Edinburgh, in 1839. He 
holds various teaching appointments in Edin- 
burgh. Author of " Elements of music and 

Grassineau, Jacques, musician, born, 
London, 1715 ; died there, 1769. Author of 
" Musical Dictionary, being a collection of 
terms and characters. . London, 1740. 

Gray, Alan, composer and organist, born 
at York, December 23, 1855. Educated at 
St. Peter's School, York, and Trinity College,. 
Cambridge, being intended f jr the legal pro- 
fession. Stud'ed music under Dr. E.G. Monk. 
Graduated LI..B., 1877; LL.M., 1883; Mus. 
Bac, 1886; Mus. Doc, 1889, Cambridge. In 
1883, he was appointed musical director at 
Wellington College, and in 1892 succeeded 
Professor Stiuf'-ird as organist of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and Conductor of the 
University ilusical Societj^ positions he still 

Works. — The Widow of Zarephath (a read- 
ing, witli choral e.N;pi)>it,ion), produced in York 
Minster, ]\Iav, 1888. Cantatas : Arethusa 
(Shelley). Leeds Festival, 1892 ; The Legend 
of the Rock Buoy Bell, Hovingham Festival, 
1893 ; The Vision of Belshazzar, the same, 
1896. Ill MS., .Milton's version of Psalm 7 
(exercise for Mus. Doc ); An Eastjr Ode, for 
soli, chorus, and orchestra (composed 1892) ; 
and a Festival Te Detim, with orchestra 
(composed 1895). Church Services in F, and 
A; Anthems, etc. Album of four songs; 
various songs. Overture for full orchestra ;. 
Quartet, pf. and strings; Quartet, strings, all 
in MS. Four sonatas (composed 1889); 
Fantasia, and other [lieces for organ. Sonata, 
in G, pf. and violin; Sonata, pf . ; and various 
smaller works. 

Gray, George, musician and vocalist, 
born at Eton, in June, 1815. He was a vicar- 




choral of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dubliu, and 
founder of the Choir Benevolent Fund. Died 
at Dubhn, May 8, 1888. 

His father, Wir-Li.\M Henry Gray, born 
at Eton in 178.5, died November 7, 1824, was 
an organist and comj^oser. 

Gray, John Locke, organist, born in 
1843. He was the first pupil of Ebenezer 
Prout when he entered the profession in 1859. 
He was appointed organist of Lee Chapel, 
Kent, 1862; then, in succession, of St. Rlark's, 
Lewisliam ; St. George the Martyr, Holborn ; 
Holy Trinity, Richmond, 1872 ; and of Christ 
Church, Kensington. In 1875 he was ap- 
pointed organist of Bombay Cathedral. He 
died at Bombay, from sunstroke, June, 1878. 
Gray, Louisa, Mrs. Abingdi n Compton, 
amateur composer of the day. Her ojjeretta, 
"Between two stools," has been performed 
in several places ; and she is the composer of 
a number of songs. What an angel heard ; 
The thread of the story ; Evening star, etc. 

Greatheed, Rev. Samuel Stephenson, 
clergyman and composer, born near Weston- 
super-Mare, February 22, 1813. B.A., Cantab., 
1835. M.A., 1888. Ordained, 1838. Rector 
of Corringham, Sussex. 

Works. — Enoch's Prophecy, an oratorio, 
words by James Montgomery, 1852. English 
Gradual : a book of plain song for Holy Com- 
munion, from ancient English sources. Plain 
song for Holy Communion on ordinary days, 
so far as it differs from that for feasts ; with 
offertory sentences, the Dies Ira; (English), 
and the Order for the Burial of the Dead. 
AntJieiiis : Blessed is the man ; Ye that fear 
the Lord; Hail, gladd'ning light; God, 
Thou art worthy to be praised ; Let my soul 
bless God ; Lord Almighty, God of Israel ; 
O Saviour of the world ; The Son of man, etc. 
Greatorex, Thomas, organist, conductor, 
and composer, born at North Wiugfield, near 
Chesterfield, Derby, October 5, 1758. He 
studied under Dr. B. Cooke, 1772. Adopted 
by the Earl of Sandwich. Chorister at Con- 
cert of Ancient Music, 1778. Organist of 
Carlisle Cathedral, 1780-84. Teacher in New- 
castle, 1784-85. Travelled in Holland and 
Italy, 1785-88; and was introduced to L rince 
Charles Edward Stuart. Teacher in Loudon, 
1789. Conductor of the Concert of Ancient 
Music, 1793. Revived the Vocal Concerts, 
1801. Organist of Westminster Abbey, in 
succession to G. E. Williams, 1819. Con- 
ductor of Birmingham IMusical Festival. 
Fellow of Royal and Linnean Societies. He 
died at Hampton, near London, July 18, 

Works. — Twelve glees from favourite Eng- 
lish, Irish, and Scotch melodies, London, 
n.d. [1832]. Psalms, chants, etc. A selection of 
Tunes. . . London, 1829. Parochial Psalmody, 
a collection of approved tunes for four voices, 


in score, with organ or pf. accompaniment, 
London, n.d. 

Greaves, Thomas, lutenist and com- 
poser, of 16th and 17th centuries. Biography 

Works.— Songs of sundrie kindes, 1604. 
Reprinted madrigals : Come away , love ; Lady, 
the melting crystal of your eye ; Sweet 
nymphs, etc. 

Green, James, organist and composer, 
was organist at Hull in first half of last 
century. He published " A Book of Psalmody, 
containing chanting tunes for the Canticles, 
etc. . . . the readmg Psalms, with eighteen 
anthems and a variety of Psalm-tunes in four 
parts," 1724; 8th edition, 1734; 11th edition. 
1751. He al.^o composed hymns, etc. 

Green, John, composer and teacher, of 
first half of the present century. Author of 
" Concise Instructions for performance on 
tlie Royal Seraphine and Organ," London, 
1833. The ser phiue is described as "anew 
musical instrument having the power of a 
large organ, in the size and shape of a chif- 
fionier." Green also issued " A bird's-eye 
view of the rudiments of music," London, 
1844, and adapted airs, etc. , for the pf. 

Another John Grehn publislied " Hints on 
the Spanish Guitar, being a preparatory tutor 
for that instrument," London [1830]. "Lit- 
tle songs for little singers," issued in parts, 

Green, Joseph N., writer, author of 
" The 'I'ritone ; a method of harmony and 
modulation adapted to the scales of keyed 
instrriments, with Appendix, London [1871]. 

Green, Richard, baritone vocalist, born 
April 21, 1866, in Kensington, London Edu- 
cated at Marga'e, and began life in a city 
Bank. Studying singing under Edwin Hol- 
land, he was advised to enter the R.A.M. 
After two ye.-rs' study there, he went to 
jNIilan, in 1888, and studied with Giulio 
Moretti. Reiurning to London, in 1890, lie 
was engaged for the Royal English Opera 
House, and made his debut as Prince John, 
in Sullivan's " Ivanhoe," January 31, 1891, 
afterwards taking the part of the TemiDlar. The 
next season he was engaged for the Savoy, 
where he created the part of Sir George 
Vernon, in " Haddon Hall," singing it more 
than 200 times. He next appeared at Covent 
Garden, in Italian Opera, creating the part 
of Silvio in " I Pagliacci," on its production, 
May 19, 1893. He had been engaged by Sir 
Augustus Harris for grand opera every season 
since, and has achieved success in a great 
number of works. He is also distinguished 
as a concert singer, and has appeared at the 
Saturday Popular Concerts, and other insti- 
tutions in London and the provinces. 

Green, William, musician, of 4 Cum- 
berland Street, Shoreditch, compiler of "The 




Clerk's Companiou, or the Christian's vade- 
mecum, contaiuing 373 tuues of two and three 
parts," Londfln [1820]. "The Ladder to 
Musical learning," London, 1834. Pf. music, 

Greene, Harry Plunket, bass vocalist, 
born at Old Coniiaught House, County Wick- 
low, June 24, 1865. His mother is the 
authoress of " Cushions and Corners," and 
many other popular children's books, and 
sister of Mr. Uavid Plunket, First Commis- 
sioner of Works. He was educated at Clifton 
College, and destined for the Bar; but, gifted 
with a fine voice, he ultimately decided upon 
entering the musical profession. In 1883 he 
went to Stuttgart, and later, to Florence, 
studying under Vannuccini. On his return 
to London he had lessons from J. B. Welch, 
and Alfred Blume. He made his debut at 
the People's Palace, Stepney, January 21, 
1888, in Handel's " Messiah." In March 
following he sang at Novello's Oratorio Con- 
certs, St. James's Hall, in Gounod's ' ' Redemp- 
tion " ; at the Crystal Palace, March, 1889 ; 
and in Germany the same year, being every- 
where successful. His operatic debut, was at 
Covent Garden, June 2, 1890; and he first 
appeared at the Provincial Festivals at Wor- 
cester in 1890. He has given song recitals all 
over the country, and has twice visited America, 
in 1893 (Chicago Exhibition), and 1896. 

Greene, Maurice, organist and composer, 
born, London, 1696 [1695]. Chorister in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. He studied music under 
R. Brind. Organist of S. Dunstan in the 
West, Fleet Street, 1716 ; S. Andrew's, Holborn, 
1717; S. Paul's Cathedral, 1718; Chapel 
Royal, 1727. Professor of Music, Cambridge, 
1730. Doc. Mus, Cantab., 1730. Master of 
the King's Band, 1735. He died at London, 
December 1, 1755. 

Works. — Oratorios: Jephthah, 1737; The 
Force of Truth, 1744. Florimel, or Love's 
Revenge, dramatic pastoral, 1737 ; The Judg- 
ment of Hercules, masque, 1740. Phoebe, 
opera, 1748. Spenser's Amoretti for voice, 
harpsichord, and violin. Ode on S. Cecilia's 
Day, Pope, 1730 ; Odes for King's Birthday 
and New Year's Day, 1730 ; Catches and 
Canons, 3 and 4 voices ; The Chaplet, collec- 
tion of 12 English songs ; Church Service in 
C, 1737 ; Te Deum in D, 1745 ; Forty select 
Anthems in Score for , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 
voices, London, 2 vols., 1743. Songs, organ 
and harpsichord music, etc. 

Greenish, Arthur James, organist, 
born at Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, Jan- 
uary 26, 1860. Musical education partly at 
R.A.M., partly private. Graduated Mus. Bac, 
1885 ; Mus. Doc, 1892, Cambridge. F.R.C.O., 
F.R.A.M. In 1880, appointed organist of 
St. j\Iary's, Battersea ; and in 1882, organist 
and choirmaster of St. Saviour's, South 


Hampstead, which offices he still retains. 
Was conductor of the South Hampstead 
Musical Society for some time, and is an 
Examiner for Trinity College, London. In 
addition to the Degree Exercises (Sing, ye 
heavens; The miracle at Bethany), he has 
composed songs, and pieces for violin ; and 
has published an Evening Service, and some 

His brother, Frederick Robert Greenish, 
is organist of St. Mary's Church, Haverford- 
west. He graduated Mus. Bac, 1883, and 
Mus. Doc, 1891, at Oxford. Composer of 
"The Church Triumphant" and "Adoration" 
cantatas ; Church services, anthems, cgc. 

Greenwood, James, organist, and teacher 
of singing, born of a Yorkshire family, in 
Lancashiie, in 1837. At the age of nineteen 
he went from Todmorden to Bristol, and 
gained a place as lay-clerk in the Cathedral, 
an office he resigned in 1877. While there, 
he studied under S. S. Wesley. He was 
organist at St. Paul's, Bedminster ; Westbury- 
on-Trym ; and lastly, at St. Matthew's, 
Kingsdown. Founder and Hon. Sec. of the 
Lay-clerk's Choir and Mutual Aid Society, 
and of a choir, 1870-79. Music-master at 
Colston School, and the Grammar School, 
Bristol. A great advocate of the Lancashire 
Sol-fa, of which he wrote a primer, and a Set 
of 396 Two-part Exercises for Choirs and 
Schools, Novello's Primers, Nos. 19 and 23. 
He also composed some Church Services, 
anthems, and organ pieces. This earnest 
and unassuming worker for music died at 
Clifton, June 14, 1894. 

Greenwood, John, musician and teacher, 
of Leeds. Published " Selection of antient 
and modern Psalm tunes . . . ," Leeds [1825] ; 
" Modulus Sauctus, a collection of sacred 
music," Leeds, 1828 ; " Psalmody harmonised 
in score, with accompaniment for organ and 
pianoforte," Halifax, 1838. 

Greeting, Thomas, teacher of the flageo- 
let, in London, at the end of the 17th century, 
Author of ' • The Pleasant Companion ; or 
new lessons and instructions for the Plage- 
lot," London, 1666, another edition, 1680. 

Gregg, Annie Jessy, see siib., Curwen, 
John Spencer. 

Gregory of Bridlington, musician, of 
13th century. He was a canon of the Order 
of St. Augustine, and precentor, and latterly 
Prior of Bridlington, about 1217. Author of 
" De Arte Musices," in 3 books. 

Gregory, George Herbert, organist, 
born at Clewer, near Windsor, 1 lecember 6, 
1853. Studied under Samuel Reay. F.R.C.O., 
1873, and Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1874. Organist 
of Holy Trinity Episcopal Church, Melrose, 
1872-4 ; Tam worth Parish Church, 1874-5 ; 
and Boston Parish Church, 1875, to present 
time. Conductor of Boston Choral Society 




for some years. He has a good tenor voice, 
and has occasionally sung in oratorio and 
concerts in Lincolnshire. Has composed 
services and other church music, songs, etc., 
and contrihuted to the 'Church of Scotland 
Children's Hymnal," and the authorised 
" Hymnal of the Established Church of Scot- 
land." — James Lively Gregory, brother of 
the preceding, was born at Old Windsor, 
March 27, 1860. F.R.C.O., 1883, and Mus. 
Bac, Durham, 1892. Received most of his 
musical training from his brother, whom he 
succeeded at ^lelrose, in 1875. From there 
he went to Welford Parish Church, in 1877, 
and to the Parish Church, Ware, in 1880. 
There he is actively engaged as a teacher ; he 
is also conductor of the Ware and other Musi- 
cal Societies. He has published church ser- 
vices, songs, part-songs, organ and pf. pieces. 
A third brother, Alfred Edward Gregory, 
was born at Clehonger, near Hereford, May 
16, 1862. He also was chiefly educated in 
music by the eldest brother. Graduated Mus. 
Bac, Oxford, 1895. Organist of the Parish 
Church, Lanark ; conductor of the Lanark 
Select Choir, etc. This family presents the 
possibly unique circumstance of three brothers 
holding Degrees in Music. 

Gregory, Rev. John Herbert, author 
of a " Letter to the Bishop of Melbourne 
on Church Music," IMelbourne, 1857. 

Qreig, Gavin, organist and composer, 
born in Aberdeenshire, February 10, 1856. 
He is a schoolmaster at New Deer. Com- 
poser of " Prince Charlie," a musical drama; 
" jMains's Wooin'," a musical drama ; num- 
erous songs, etc. 

Qreig, John, composer and organist, born 
in Edinburgh. Educated at Moray Training 
College, and appointed English ^Master in 
the High School, Leith. While holding this 
and similar appointments he pursued his 
musical studies, graduating Mus. Bac, 1878 ; 
Mus. Doc, 1889 ; Oxford ; M.A , Edinburgh ; 
and F.C.O. , 1880. Organist and choirmaster 
St. Cuthbert's Free Church, Edinburgh. 
Nominated during illness of Sir Herbert 
Oakeley, interim professor of music at Edin- 
burgh University, during which time he gave 
many lectures and organ recitals. His com- 
positions include an oratorio, Zion (degree 
exercise) ; an opera, Holyrood, Glasgow, 
October 5, 1896 ; an orchestral suite. The 
Graces (Edinburgh, 1890). Part-songs; Herald 
of Spring; Mouth of May; Merrily row we, etc. 
Editor of Scots Minstrelsie, 6vols., Edinburgh, 
Jack, 1892-5, and the Musical Educator, 
Edinburgh, Jack. 

Gresham, William, composer, born at 
Dunstable, about the middle of the 18th 
century. He died early in the present cen- 
tury. Compiler of " Psalmody improved, 
containing portions of the Psalms of David 


and 13 hymns . . . , "London [1780] ; and 
composer of songs by Sir Walter Scott, etc. 

Grey, Annie, Mrs. Wade, contralto 
singer, born at Edinburgh, July 4, 1860. She 
studied at the R. A.M. as a pupil of Randegger, 
and afterwards she appeared in Edinburgh. 
In 1890, she sang before the Queen at Bal- 
moral, and since then she has appeared at 
many concerts in Scotland and England. 

Grey, Rev. John, compiler of " Manual 
of Psalm and hymn tunes," 1857, and " A. 
Hymnal for use in the English Church, with 
accompanying tunes," London, 1866. 

Grice, Robert, baritone vocalist, born at 
Leeds, 1859. Was for seven years a chorister 
in Durham Cathedral, and at the age of 
twenty was appointed to Peterborough Cathe- 
dral as bass ; a year later taking the position 
of principal bass at New College, Oxford. 
In 1885 he was elected assistant vicar-choral 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, from which choir he 
retired in 1893. He has sung at the principal 
concerts in London and the provinces ; at 
Chester Festival ; Hereford Festival, 1894, 
as the narrator in Parry's "Job"; and at the 
Crystal Palace in the same. He also took 
part in the quartets in the Jubilee performance 
of " Elijah " at the Crystal Palace, June 27, 

Grier, William, writer. Author of "An 
Essay on the first principle of Music." Aber- 
deen, 1838. This originally appeared in "The 
Musical Cyclopaedia, being a collection of the 
most approved English, Scottish, and Irish 
songs, edited by J. W. Wilson," London, 
1835 ; also 1852. 

Griesbach, John Henry, pianist and 
composer, was born at Windsor, of German 
parents, on June 20, 1798. Violoncellist in 
Queen's band, 1810. He studied under Kalk- 
brenner, and afterwards became pianist in 
London, and director of Philharmonic Soc- 
iety. He died at London, January 9, 1875. 

Works. — Belshazzar's feast, 1835 ; Daniel 
(reproduction), 1853; Music to the "Tem- 
pest " ; James the First, or the Royal Cap- 
tive, operetta ; The Goldsmith of West Cheap, 
opera ; Eblis, opera, unfinished ; Raby Ruins, 
musical drama ; Overtures for orchestra. 
Analysis of Musical Sounds, with illustrative 
figures of the ratios of vibrations of musical 
intervals and their compounds, harmonic 
vibration, temperament, etc., n.d. Elements 
of Musical notation, containing tables of the 
comparative value of the different kinds of 
Notes, Signatures of the different keys, etc, 
n.d. Pianoforte Students' Companion, con- 
taining all I he Scales in four positions, etc., 
London [1825] . Anthems, songs, etc. 

Grieve, John Charles, composer, con- 
ductor, and didactic writer, born in Edin- 
burgh, August 29, 1842. Fellow of the Edu- 
cational Institute of Scotland ; lecturer on 




musical theory, Heriot-Watt College, Edin- 
burgh. Sometime choirmaster, Lady Yester's 
•Church, and conductor of Phoenix ]\Iusical 
Association, Edinburgh. Teacher of singing 
in various schools, and for some years editor 
of The Musical Star. 

Works. — Benjamin, an oratorio, Edin- 
burgh, 1877 ; Christian songs of praise, 24 
hymns, for 4 voices (1873) ; The sower and 
the seed, scripture parable, for soli and chorus ; 
The good Samaritan, ditto. Cantata, Legend 
of St. Swithin (1891). Kinderspiels : The 
happy family ; Playmates ; The flowers o' the 
forest ; Rip Van Winkle ; Don Quixote ; 
Hearts and Homes ; Day of rest and gladness. 
Part-songs : Good-morrow to my lady bright ; 
Stars of the summer night, etc. Songs : 
The Assyrian ; Comin' hame ; Broken vows ; 
Earth's partings, etc. Arrangements of Scotch 
songs, etc. Author of the Harmonium : how 
to use it (Edinburgh, n.d.) ; Practical har- 

Qriffin, George, organist and composer, 
born at Wingrave, Buckinghamshire. April 1, 
1816. Compiler of "New Sacred Music, con- 
sisting of Psalm and Hymn-tunes, with one 
■Christmas piece," London [1840]; "The 
Buckinghamshire Harmonist," comprising a 
new set of original Psalm and Hymn-tunes 
. . . London [1842] . 

Qriffin, George Eugene, pianist and com- 
poser, was born at London, January 8, 1781. 
Member of Philharmonic Society, teacher, 
etc. He died at London, May 28, 1863. 

Works. — Two concertos for pf. and or- 
chestra, op. 1 and 4; Ode to charity, 1820; 
Four sonatas for pf., op. 2, etc. ; Three string 
quartets ; Rondos, marches, variations, etc., 
for pf. ; Songs, glees, Cynthia (1810), etc. 

Griffith, Frederic, flutist, born at Swan- 
sea, November 12, 1867. His talent was 
displayed at an early age, and from 1881, he 
won several prizes at Eisteddfodau at Mer- 
thyr, and other places, playing both piccolo 
and flute. Attracting the notice of leading 
musicians, he was advised to enter the R.A.IM., 
where he studied under the late Olaf Svend- 
sen. Here he carried off all the Academical 
honours, and on leaving, in 1891, was elected 
an Associate. Further studies were pursued 
in Paris, under Taffanel. Returning to Lon- 
don an accomplished artist, he gave a number 
of recitals ; and in 1893, appeared in the pro- 
vinces, with the Melba touring party. His 
executive powers are very great, and his tone 
is pure and unforced. He was appointed, in 
1895, solo flute at the Royal Italian Opera, 
Covent Garden. Editor of Notable Welsh 
Musicians, London, Goodwen, 1896. 

Griffiths, F. J., musician, confipiler of 
" Psalm Tunes and Chants, original and 
selected, arranged for four voices," London 


Griffiths. John, bass vocalist, born about 
the middle of the eighteenth century. He 
was originally a parish clerk of a village in 
the Vale of Cly wd. Became a member of the 
Worcester Cathedral Choir, and was one of 
the principal singers at the Three Choirs' 
Festivals, from that at Gloucester in 1784, 
to the year 1799. He remained in Wor- 
cester up the time of his death, under tragical 
circumstances, October 7, 1821. At the Wor- 
cester Festival he sang in the chorus, and 
during a solo by Vaughan, fell back in a fit, 
on October 5, and expired two d^ys later. He 
also sang in the Covent Garden oratorios, 
London. His voice was of great power, and 
of deep compass. 

Griffiths, Richard, organist and com- 
poser, born about 1789 ; died at London, 
July 18, 1850. Composer of instrumental 
music, and compiler of " Psalm tunes and 
chants, original and selected," London, 1846. 

Griffiths, Lieutenant Samuel Charles, 
son of a c:)lour-st'rgeant in the Royal Scots 
(Lothian) Regiment was born in 1847. As a 
boy he entered the band, and ultimately be- 
came bandmaster, in 1874, of the second bat- 
talion of that regiment. In May, 1890, he 
was made quarter-master of Sandhurst Col- 
lege, and in December appointed after com- 
petition, to the directorship of Kneller Hall. 
He died suddenly, while out walking near the 
hall, October 31, 1895. Author of " The 
IMilitary Band " ; and " Hints on the Manage- 
ment of Army Bands." 

Grigor, Alexander Loclihart, musician, 
born Glasgow, March 28, 1853 ; died there, 
March 25, 1891. Author of "Hints and 
Maxims to players on Pianoforte, Harmonium, 
etc.," Glasgow, 1883. He was a teacher in 
Glasgow, and held the position of harmonium 
player at Oatlands Church there for some 

Grimshaw, Arthur Edmund, composer 
and organist, born 1864, in Leeds, where he 
received his musical training. Since 1883 
he has been organist and choirmaster of St. 
Anne's R. C. Cathedral, Leeds. He has 
composed a setting of Psalm 141, for soprano 
solo, and chorus, produced, January, 1885, at 
Leeds, and some Church music. Also two 
operettas, "El Escribano," and " Amaran- 
thus," produced at Leeds in 1891, and 1892. 
Songs, and part-songs. Two Melodies for 
string orchestra, produced by the Leeds 
Symphony Society, December 11, 1893 ; a 
Romance for violin and orchestra, etc. 

Grimshaw, John, organist and composer, 
who died on February 18, 1819. Composer 
of "Twenty-four hynans, in four parts," Lon- 
don [1810] . Songs, etc. 

Grimson, Samuel Dean, viohnist of the 
present time, has published a book of " Tech- 
nical Studies for the Violin." He is the 




father of a remarkable family of musicians. 
Of his children, Annie is a pianist, scholar of 
the R.C.^M. She has appeared with success 
at various concerts since 1886, and has com- 
posed a symphony, pieces for violoncello, etc. 
A,MY, another daughter, pianist and violon- 
cellist, was also educated at the R.C.INI. For 
some time she played in the Rev. E. H. Mob- 
erley's Ladies' Orchestra, and is favourably 
known as a soloist. Jessie Grimson is a 
violinist of repute, and other members of the 
family possess musical talent. A concert was 
given in the Queen's (small) Hall, January 
21, 1896, by the Grimson family, numbering 
eight, when Mendelssohn's string Octet was 
played under possibly unique circumstances. 

Groom, William, of Ivinghoe, composer, 
published "Congregational jMelodies, con- 
sisting of a new set of psalm and hymn 
tunes . . . ," Ivinghoe, 1838 ; Supplement, 
18-39. London edition, edited bv Thomas 
Jordan, 1841. 

Qroome,W., author of a " Concise treatise 
on Music. ^Musical Harmonv and Thorough- 
bass," London, 1870. 

Qrossmith, George, vocalist and actor, 
who has become famous for his monologues 
and sketches given in London and throughout 
the country. From 1877 he was, for some 
time, associated with the Gilbert-Sullivan 
operas, appearing in " The Sorcerer " when 
produced at the Opera Comique, November 
17, of that j'ear. He was also occasionally 
with the German Reed party in the provinces. 
His official position was that of Bow street 
police-court rei^orter, a post held by his father 
before him. Among his sketches may be 
named, Cups and saucers, 1878 ; Uncle Samuel, 
operetta, 1881 ; Drama on crutches, 1883, 
etc. Songs : Autocratic gardener ; Awful little 
scrub ; Cockney's life for me ; Gay photo- 
grapher ; Happy fatherland ; Haste to the 
wedding ; Muddle puddle porter ; See me 
dance the polka ; Speaker's eye, etc. He has 
also written various books, such as his own 
reminiscences in "A Society C1o\\ti," and 
stories in conjunction with his brother. Wee- 
don, the popular actor. Li 1888 he published 
the "Autobiography of a Society Clown," 
Bristol, Arrowsmith. 

Grosvenor, Symeon, organist and com- 
poser, was born at Dudley. January 11, 1816. 
He was a pupil of Moscheles and Thomas 
Adams, and held the position of organist of 
St. Thomas' Parish Church, Dudley, from 
1836 to 18.54. He graduated Mus. Bac, Oxon. 
in 1852. He died at Dudley, July 8, 1866. 
Editor of "Hymns, Anthems, Chants, etc., 
as used in the services of St. Thomas's Church, 
Dudley," c. 18-50. He wrote some music for 
the church service. 

Grove, Sir George, Kt., writer on music, 
born at Clapham, Surrey, August 13, 1820, 


Educated as a civil engineer, but quitting 
that profession he became Secretary to the 
Society of Aits, 1850 ; and in 1852, Secretary 
to the Crystal Palace Company, an office he 
held until 1873. It was here he began his 
long service to music, a service difficult to 
over-estimate. His analytical programmes 
gave a great impetus to musical study. In 
1867, he visited Vienna, in company with 
Arthur Sullivan, and recovered Schubert's 
music to " Kosamunde," lost since its per- 
formance in December, 1823. On leaving 
the Crystal Palace he was associated with 
the publishing firm of Macmillan and Co., 
and edited Macmillan's Magazine for more 
than 15 years. Other details of his long and 
active career are beyond the scope ^f this 
work. In 18S2, he was appointed, by H.R.H. 
the Prince of Wales, Director of the Royal 
College of Music, the founding of which owed 
much to his strenuous efforts. In 1875, the 
University of Durham conferred on him the 
degree of D.C.L. ; on the opening of the 
R.C.M., May, 1883, the Queen honoured him 
witli a knighthood ; in 1885 he was made 
LL.D., Glasgow ; and in 1887 he was elected 
on the Committee of the Bacb-Gesellschaft, 
Leipzig. He resigned his Directorship of the 
R.C.M., in November, 1894. His great work 
is the Dictionarj' of INIusic and Musicians, 
4 vols., Macmillan, 1879-89, which he edited, 
and to which he contributed many important 
articles. He wrote an appendix to Hellborn's 
Life of Schubert, English edition, Longmans, 
1869 ; published in 1896, Beethoven and his 
Nine Symphonies, Novello ; and was a fre- 
quent contributor to the musical press. 

Grover, George F., teacher of singing, 
born at Clapham, August 8, 1860. Chorister, 
St. Paul's Cathedral, from 1870, where he was 
musically educated under Sir John Goss, Dr. 
Stainer, F. Walker, and Dr. Martin. Organist 
successively at St. Michael's, Poplar ; St. 
John's, Wapping ; and, from 1884, St. Peter- 
le-poor. Old Broad Street. Principally en- 
gaged as a teacher of singing, many of his 
pupils holding good positions. He has pub- 
lished a sacred cantata, " The Raising of 
Lazarus," produced at Tottenham, in 1882 ; 
and is author of " Musical Hints to Clergy- 
men," London, W. Reeves, 1894. He has 
contributed articles to various musical peri- 
odicals, among them a series of biographical 
sketches of Old English ]\Iusicians, iu Musi- 
cal Opinion, Vols. VIII. and IX. 

Grover, Haydn, composer and alto singer, 
is a native of London. He has sung in many 
churches and institutions in London ; was 
organist of Godstone Parish Church, 1879-80; 
and is now a teacher and concert-giver in 
South London. Alto in the Temple Church, 
etc. Composer of a madrigal, •' Come, nymphs 
and shepherds." Part-songs. Songs: "Sons 




of the brave," "Soldier boys," "Fill the 
gleaming sail," "Lyric of love," " In dream- 
land," etc. ; numerous pieces for pf., etc. 
His brother, Herbbbt Geover, is a well- 
known tenor singer, who has appeared at 
conceits in London and the provinces. 

Qruneisen, Charles Lewis, musician 
and critic, born at London, November 2, 1806 ; 
died there November 1, 1879. Author of 
" The Opera and the Press," 1869. Memoir 
of Meyerbeer, London, 1848. 

Quenett, Thomas Harbottle, pianist, 
born at Fleetwood, Lancashire, June 22, 1850. 
Pupil of Halle and Prout. Settled in Mel- 
bourne, Australia. Professor of pianoforte ; 
organist of Toorah Presbyterian Church. 
Musical critic of the Melbourne Argus; lec- 
turer on musical subjects. Founder of the 
Melbourne Popular Concerts of Chamber 
Music, 1878. 

Guernsey, Wellington, lyric poet and 
composer, born at jMullingar, Ireland, June 
8, 1817, and died at London, November 13, 
1885. Author of the words of a great quantity 
of songs, chiefly of a sentimental kind, of 
which " Mary Blane," and "Alice, where art 
thoii '? " are exaniples. His own productions 
consist chiefly of songs, such as "I'll hang 
my harp on a willow tree," but he has written 
a Mass in B fiat, and other musical works. 
He also issued " Old Songs of Old Ireland, 
with symphonies and accompaniments, by 
W. Guernsey, and characteristic words by 
Jos. Fitzgerald," London [1843]. 

Quest, George, organist and composer, 
born at Bury St. Edmunds in 1771. Son of 
Ralph Guest. He studied under his father. 
Chorister in Chapel Royal. Organist at Eye, 
Suffolk, in 1787 ; and at Wisbeach in 1789. 
He died at Wisbeach, September 10, 1831. 
Wrote glees, hymns, songs, duets, organ music, 

Quest, Ralph, composer and organist, 
born at Basely, Shropshire, 1742. Chorister 
in Basely Church, and in Portland Church, 
London, 1763. He studied the organ under 
Ford of S. James' Church, Bury, and was 
choir-master of S.Mary's, Bury St. Edmunds, 
1805-22. He died at Bury, June, 1830. 

Works. — The Psalms of David, collection. 
Hymns and Psalms suited for the use of 
Parish Churches, n.d. Glees, songs, etc. 

Guildford, Lord, see North, Francis. 

Guinneth, John, see Gwynneth, John. 

Guise, Richard, musician, born in 1740. 
He was a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 
and a lay-vicar and master of choristers, 
Westminster Abbey. He died on IMarch 10, 
1808. Composer of 3 single chants, contained 
in Vandernan's " Divine Harmony," 1770. 

Gunn, Barnabas, organist and composer, 
was born at the end of the 17th century. He 
was organist of St. Philip's, Birmingham, till 


1730, when he became organist of Gloucester 
Cathedral, succeeding Hine. He wrote Two 
cantatas and six songs, Gloucester, 1736. 
Sonatas for harpsichord, etc. He died at 
Gloucester (?) in 1743. 

Gunn, John, writer and violoncello player, 
was born in tlie Highlands of Scotland [Edin- 
burgh, 1765 '?J Teacher of 'cello at Cambridge, 
and in London, from 1789. He afterwards 
returned to Edinburgh, and married Miss 
Anne Young, in 1804. He died about 1824. 

Works. — An Essay, with copious examples, 
towards a more easy and scientific method of 
commencing and pursuing the study of the 
Pianoforte, with the principles of thorough- 
bass and musical science, Loudon, n.d. Forty 
favourite Scotch airs, adapted for violin, 
German flute, or violoncello, with the phrases 
mark'd . . supplement to the examples in 
the theorv and practice of fingering the vio- 
loncello, London, n.d. The theory and prac- 
tice of fingering the violoncello, containing 
rules and progressive lessons for attaining 
the knowledge and command of the whole 
compass of the instrument, London, 1793 ; 
second edition, n.d. Art of playing tlie Ger- 
man flute on new principles, n.d. An essay, 
theoretical and practical, on the application 
of harmony, thorough-bass, and modulation, 
to the violoncello, Edinburgh, 1801. An his- 
torical enquiry respecting the performance 
on the harp in the Highlands of Scotland, 
from the earliest times until it was discon- 
tinued about the year 173 i ; to which is pre- 
fixed an account of a very ancient Caledonian 
liarp, and of the harp of Queen Mary. Edin- 
burgh 1807. This work he proposed to sup- 
plement by An enquiry into the antiquity of 
the Harp, etc., but it never appeared. School 
for the German flute, n.d. 

Gunn, Anne, horn Young, pianist and 
writer, wife of John Gunn, wrote " An intro- 
duction to music ; in which the elementary 
parts of the science, and the principles of 
thorough-bass and modulation, as illustrated 
by the musical games and apparatus, are fully 
and familiarly explained, with examples and 
complete directions for playing the several 
games," Edinburgh, 1803 ; second edition, 

Gunn, William, compiler of " The Cale- 
donian Repository of Music, adapted for the 
bagpipes, being a collection of strathspeys, 
reels, jigs, etc.," Glasgow ; Four editions to 

Qurney, Edmund, musician, who died 
at Brighton, in June, 1888. Author of "The 
Power of Sound," London, 1880, and several 
contributions to magazines on musical sub- 

Guthrie, Mrs. T. A., see Austen, Au- 
gusta A. 

Qutteridge, William, organist, violinist, 




and composer, born at Chelmsford, July 16, 
1798. He travelled in Belgium, etc., in 1815. 
Organist of Private Royal Chapel, Brighton 
Pavilion, under George IV., William IV., and 
Victoria ; also organist of St. Peter's Church, 
Brighton, 1828-1872. Member of private band 
of George IV. Leader of orchestra of Brighton 
Theatre, and conductor for many years of 
Brighton Sacred Harmonic Society. He was 
music-master to the Duke of Cambridge. He 
died at Brighton, September 23, 1872. Com- 
poser of nocturnes, galops, rondos, etc., for 
pf., numerous songs, etc. 

Quy, Henry, tenor vocalist and composer, 
born at Oxford, in 1847. Student and Asso- 
ciate, R.A.jM. In 1876 he was appointed a 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, St. James's. 
He sang at the Worcester Festival of 1878 ; 
at the Alexander Palace in 1876 ; and has 
been heard at the chief concerts in London 
and the provinces. He has written a trio, 
"Reflection"; a serenade, with violin obbligato ; 
and some glees and songs. 

Quylott, Robert, composer, born in 1794, 
died at London, December 18, 1876. He 
wrote songs chiefly, of which the following 
are among the principal : All remember thee 
[1848] ; Beggar's petition ; Bells on the water ; 
Broken vow ; Days that are gone ; Down the 
burn, Davy love ; Haste to the woodlands ; 
In the pretty spring time ; Love on ; Maid of 
Llanwellyn ; Rose shall cease to blow ; and a 
large number of comic and other songs. 
Glee, The orb of day, etc. He also issued a 
" Book of Melody, and drawing-room com- 
panion," 1847. 

Qwilym, Qwent, see Williams, Wm. 


Gwilt, Joseph, architect and musician, 
was born in Surrey, in 1784. Architect to 
the Grocers' Company, London. He died at 
Henley-on-Thames, September 14, 1863. He 
published a "Collection of Madrigals and 
Motets, chiefly for 4 equal voices, by the most 
eminent composers of the 16th and 17th 
centuries . . . ," London, 1815 ; and wrote the 
article "Music" in the "Encyclopaedia INIet- 
ropolitana." He also compiled a valuable 
" Encycloptedia of Architecture," etc. 

Qwynneth, or Quinneth, John, mu- 
sician and priest of the 16th century. One of 
the eminent musicians mentioned in Morley's 
catalogue. He graduated ]Mus. Doc, Oxford, 
in 1531, and in 1533 he became rector of St. 
Peter, Westchepe. Composer of Masses, songs, 

Qyde, Margaret, pianist and composer, 
born in London. Studied pianoforte and 
composition under W. C. and Sir G. A. Mac- 
farren ; violin under F. Ralph. Sterndale 
Bennett Prizeholder, 1879 ; Potter Exhib- 
itioner, 1880 ; Lady Goldsmid, and Thalberg 
Scholar, 1881. A.R.A.M., 1884. Made her 


dJbvt at W. Macfarren's concert, St. James's 
Hall, February 25, 1882, when she played his 
Concertstiick in E minor. She has played 
several times at the Crystal Palace concerts, 
including the Weber centenary, December 18, 
1886 ; and has given recitals at Steinway 
Hall, 1884-91. In 1895, she established the 
Kensington Musical Academy. The late 
Richard Jefferies, novelist and naturalist, 
was her first cousin. 

Works. — Pf . and violin : Sonatas in G 
minor, and C minor ; Suite, Idylls of summer 
(two books) ; Scherzo ; Romanza ; Reverie, 
etc. Impromptus ; Minuet ; Tarantella, and 
other pf. pieces. Prelude and Fugue in G 
minor, organ. Seas apart ; The bridge of 
tears ; Love's greeting, and other songs, etc. 

Habyngton, see Abyngdon. 

Hackett, Charles Danvers, composer, 
born in 1812. Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1850 Died 
London, 1858. He edited "The National 
Psalmist, consisting of original psalm and 
hymn tunes, etc., composed expressly for this 
work by the most eminent authors in 
England," London [1839] ; various editions. 
" Zion," a sacred cantata [1853]. Original 
music [1840] , etc. 

Hackett, Maria, musician, born Novem- 
ber 14, 1783 ; died Hackney, London, No- 
vember 5, 1874. She interested herself greatly 
in the education of cathedral choir boys, and 
to encourage the composition of church music 
founded the Gresham prii;e medal, in 1831. 
Author of " A brief account of Cathedral and 
Collegiate Schools, with an abstract of their 
statutes and endowments," London, 1827. 
" A memoir of Sir Thomas Gresham, with an 
abstract of his will," 1833, anon. " Corres- 
pondence and evidences respecting the ancient 
Collegiate School attached to St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral." " A popular account of St. Paul's 
Cathedral," London, 1816. Songs, etc. 

Hadden, James Cuthbert, musician and 
writer, born at Banchory-Ternan, near Aber- 
deen, in 1861. He studied under private 
teachers in London, and in 1882 became 
organist of Mannofield Parish Church, Aber- 
deen. He was appointed organist of St. 
Michael's Parish Church, Crieff, in 1884, and 
in 1889 went to Edinburgh as organist of St. 
John's Parish Church. He resides in Edin- 
burgh, and is chiefly engaged in literary 

Works. — George Frederick Handel, Lon- 
don, 1888. ]\Iendelssohn, London, 1888. Lays 
of Caledonia, a collection of Scottish airs 
arranged for the harmonium, Glasgow, 1883. 
Contributor of musical and other articles to 
the Dictionary of National Biography ; Love's 
Scottish Church Music ; Scottish Review, 
Quiver, Cassell's Magazine, Euglish Illus- 
trated Magazine, etc. Editor of the Scottish 




^Musical Monthly. Editor also of a selection 
from Hogg the Ettrick Shepherd, for Bryce 
of Glasgow ; and author of a work on Violin 
Collecting, to be published in Redway's Col- 
lector Series. 

Haddock, George, violinist and composer, 
born at Killingbeck, near Leeds. His father 
■was musical, and at his house the great in- 
strumentalists who visited Leeds often met 
for chamber music. The son began his 
studies at an early age, under Bywater, and 
in 1846 went to London. There he had 
lessons from Henri Vieuxtemps, and after- 
wards from Molique. Returning to the north 
he was, for many years, a foremost figure in 
musical life in Yorkshire. He was the first 
to give a performance of "Elijah" at Brad- 
ford ; and as a teacher he has sent out many 
players, now occupying important orchestral 
posts. He established a Music School at 
Bradford, and also the Leeds College of Music, 
opened in 1894. He is author of " A complete 
Practical School for the Violin," 3 vols., 
Schott and Co. " Major and Minor Scales 
in all positions, with exercises on double 
notes, octaves, and staccato bowing," etc., 
Ashdown. Fantasias and arrangements for 
violin and pianoforte. 

Haddock, Edgar, son of the preceding, 
violinist and composer, was born at Leeds, 
in 1862. Studied under his father, and in 
1884 started a series of "Musical Evenings " 
at Leeds, which have been continued annually. 
He appeared the same year at York, Halifax, 
and elsewhere. In 1891, he gave a series of 
concerts at the Steinway Hall, London ; and 
at the Huddersfield Subscription Concerts of 
that year (March 3) was associated with Herr 
Joachim in the performance of Spohr's violin 
duo in A minor, op. 67, No. 1, a rare compli- 
ment to an English artist. In 1896, he gave 
a series of Historical Recitals at Leeds. At 
one of the daily concerts at the Crystal 
Palace, March, 1885, he introduced Gade's 
violin concerto, more than a year before it 
was placed in a Saturday concert programme. 
The composer sent Mr. Haddock an autograph 
score in acknowledgment. He is one of the 
directors of the Leeds College of Llusic. His 
works include a Practical School for the 
Violin ; The Students' series of Violin Solos ; 
Ballade Norvegienne ; Sarabande and Tam- 
bourine, and other original compositions for 
violin. His brother, G. Percy Haddock, 
violoncellist, was born at Leeds. He is asso- 
ciated with the management of the " Musical 
Evenings ;" is a Director of the Leeds College 
of Music ; and is known as a pianist and 
organist. He has composed a number of 
songs, of which may be named " The Soul's 
awakening," with accompaniment for pf., 
violin, and organ ; " A crown of thorns ;" and 
" The King of Kings." He has also written 


pieces for violin, violoncello, and an entr'acte 
for orchestra. A magnificent collection of 
violins and violoncellos is in the possession of 
this artist family. Thomas Haddock, vio- 
loncellist, born at Leeds, in 1812, was another 
member of the family. He settled in Liver- 
pool, as teacher and performer, and was for 
many years principal violoncellist of the 
Liverpool Philharmonic Society. He died 
September 22, 1893. 

Haden, Arthur C, conductor and vio- 
linist, born in London, in 1852. Pupil of Sir 
John Goss and Henry Holmes. Conductor of 
the Dundee Ladies' Orchestra. His composi- 
tions include several cantatas; CampsieGlen ; 
Bonnie Lassie ; Two Reveries (with violin 
obbligato), and other songs ; Studies ; Air and 
variations for clarinet and pf., etc. 

Hadow, William Henry, composer and 
writer on music, born at Ebrington, Gloucester- 
shire, December 27, 1859. Educated at 
Malvern College, and Worcester College, 
Oxford. Studied pf. at Darmstadt (1882), and 
composition with Dr. C. H. Lloyd, Oxford 
(1884-5). Graduated B.A., 1882; M.A., 1885; 
and Mus. Bac, 1890, Oxford. Fellow and 
Tutor, Worcester College, Oxford, 1888. Lec- 
turer on Musical Form (for Sir John Stainer) 
1890-2. Appointed, 1897, to edit for Claren- 
don Press, a forthcoming series of works on 
Musical History. 

Works. — Hymn, Who are these ? for soli, 
chorus, strings, and organ; Cantata, The 
Soul's Pilgrimage (published 1886) ; Anthem 
(Prize, Curwen) When I was in trouble (1885); 
Songs; Quartet in E flat, strings (1885); Trio 
in G minor, pf. and strings (composed, 1887 ; 
produced. Musical Artists' Society, 1890) ; 
Sonatas in A minor (1886), and F (1891), pf. 
and violin ; Sonata in B minor, pf. and viola 
(1889) ; Andante and allegro in F, violin and 
pf. Sonatas in G sharp minor (1884) ; and 
A fiat (1890), for pf. Some of tliese remain in 
MS. Author of Studies in Modern ]\Iusic, 
London, Seeley & Co., 1892 ; Second series, 
1894 ; being essays on Criticism, Method, 
Berlioz, Schumann, and Wagner ; Claopin, 
Dvorak, Brahms, and Outlines of Musical 
Form. Sonata Form, Novello's Primers, No. 
54 [1896]. 

Hafrenydd, see Williams, Thomas. 

Hague, Charles, composer and organist, 
born at Tadcaster, May 4, 1769. He studied 
the violin at Cambridge under Manini, 1779- 
1785. Removed to London in 1785, and 
studied under Salomon and Dr. Cooke. Mus. 
Bac, Cantab., 1794. Professor of Music, 
Cambridge Universitv, in succession to Ran- 
dall, 1799. Mus. Doc, Cantab., 1801. He 
died at Cambridge, June 18, 1821. 

Works. — Ode performed at Cambridge in 
June, 1811, at the installation of the Duke of 
Gloucester as Chancellor of the University; 




By the waters of Babylon, Psalm. Glees ; Two 
Collections ; Arrangements of Haydn's 12 
symphonies as pf. duets; Plumptre's Collec- 
tion of Songs, moral, sentimental, instructive, 
and amusing, Cambridge, 1805. Pf . music, etc. 
His daughter H.\rhiot (born 17U3, died 
1816) published in 1811 " Six Songs," with 
pf. accomp. 

Haigh, Thomas, composer and pianist, 
born at London, 1769. He studied music 
under Haydn, at London, 1791-92. Resided 
in ^Manchester, 1793-1801. Returned to Lon- 
don in 1801, and died there, April, 1808. 

Works. — Sonatas for pf. and violin, op. 4, 
€, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 21, 33, 34, 36 ; Three 
sonatas, pf. duet, op. 5 ; Easy sonatas for pf. 
duet, op. 7 ; Three divertimentos, op. 18 ; 
Three sonatas, pf. and flute, op. 19; Three 
.sonatas, op. 20 ; Three capriccios, pf., op. 38 ; 
Three serenatas, do., op. 40; Twelve preludes; 
Twenty-eight familiar airs, etc., pf. ; Twelve 
petites pieces for the pf., with introductory 
Xn-eludes to each, op. 82. Songs and glees. 

Haite, John James, composer and writer, 
who died in London in October, 1874. 

Works. — The Principles of Natural Har- 
mony ; being a perfect systeiu founded upon 
the discovery of the true semitonic scale, 
London [1855]. Violoncello Tutor, London, 
u.d. Oratorio, operettas, symphonies. Glee 
Garland, various numbers. Melodies arranged 
for flute and other instruments. Songs. 

Haking, Rev. Ranulf (Richard?), com- 
poser, Ijorn about 1830. Ordained, 1861. RIus. 
Bac, 1855 ; Mus. Doc, 1864, Oxford. Some 
time rector of Eaton Gray, Malmesbury ; and 
of Congham, Norfolk, 1882. Composer of 
anthems : Doth not wisdom cry ; Lord, let 
me know my end, etc. Glees: Twine no more 
the cypress wreath ; By the mossy foiintain ; 
Song of the old bell ; Welcome home ; and 
others. Songs, etc. 

Hale, Thomas, of Damhall, Cheshire, 
musician. Composed " Social Harmony. A 
collection of songs and catches, in two, three, 
four, and five ^jarts. Also several choice songs 
on Masonrv, all with the music," London, 
1763 ; 3rd edition [1770] . 

Hale, Mrs. William (Jeannie M. 
Stevens), pianist and vocalist, born in Bir- 
mingham. Her father, Joseph Stevens, was 
an energetic member for years of the Festival 
Committee. Miss Stevens sang in the trio, "Lift 
thine eyes," from "Elijah," at the Birming- 
ham Festival of 1849, with Miss A. and Miss 
Williams. She was, for several years, solo 
pianist and principal vocalist at the Town Hall 
Mondaj' Concerts. She played to ^Mendelssohn, 
who gave her a copy of Chopin's studies, upon 
which he wrote his name. For many years 
she had a large teaching connection in the 
locality, and was frequently heard at chamber 
concerts, etc. Was heard as a pianist in Lon- 


don, in June, 1854 ; and sang at Boosey's Ballad 
Concerts, St. James's Hall, 1869. She is now 
living in retirement in North Wales. William 
Machin, the bass singer, was her uncle. 

Hales, William, writer on acoustics, 
author of " Sonorum doctrina rationalis et 
experimentalis, ex Newtoni opt. physicorum 
scriptes," Dublin, 1778. 

Halford, George John, organist, pianist, 
and conductor, born at Chilvers Coton, War- 
wickshire, February 13, 1858. His early 
musical studies were under W. Cliater (organ- 
ist of Holy Trinity, Coventry; died, IMarch 27, 
1880). In 1875 he went to Birmingham, and 
studied pianoforte, composition, etc., uiider 
Dr. C. S. Heap. P.R.C.O. ; Mus. Bac, 1892, 
Durham. Has been organist successively of 
St. Mary's and St. George's, Birmingham, 
1876-80 ; St. John's, Wolverhampton, 1881 ; 
St. Michael's, Handsworth, 1886 ; and from 
1891, of Handsworth Parish Church. Con- 
ductor of the Birmingham Musical Association 
from 1886, now formed into a choir bearing 
his name ; People's Concert Society, Stour- 
bridge, 1886-91 ; Philharmonic Society, 
Redditch, 1890-4 ; Birmingham Amateur 
Orchestral Society ; and the Midland Institute 
Madrigal Choir. He has introduced many 
important works to the local public, notably 
Schumann's "Manfred," produced in the 
Town Hall, April 16, 1896 ; and has probably 
conducted the first performance in this 
country of a Symphony in a parish church, 
introducing at a special service at Handsworth 
Beethoven's Symphony, No. 1, October 6, 
1892 ; and Schumann's Symphony in B flat, 
November 1, 1893. He has composed a 
cantata, " The Paraclete," produced, 1891 ; 
Anthems, part-songs, etc. A concert overture, 
1896 ; organ pieces, etc. 

Hall, Charles King, organist and com- 
poser, born in London, in 1845. Was organist 
of St. Paul's, Camden Square ; St. Lake's, 
Oseney Crescent ; and up to the time of his 
death, at Christ Church, Brondesbury. He 
wrote an Evening Service in E flat, performed 
at St. Paul's Cathedral by the London Church 
Choir Association in 1891, and other church 
music. The Verger ; A Strange Host ; The 
Foster Brothers, and other operettas produced 
at the German Reed Entertainments; also a 
cantata. Beauty and the Beast ; Songs, pf. 
pieces, etc. Author of "A School for the 
Harmonium, 1874 ; Estey Organ Tutor ; and 
a primer on the harmonium, Novello. He 
died in London, September 1, 1895. 

Hall, Rev. Edward Vine, composer and 
organist, born at IMaidstone, Kent, June 11, 
1837. Chorister of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
1845-55, and assistant organist, 1858-9. 
Graduated B.A., 1859 ; M.A., 1863, Oxford. 
Appointed Precentor of Worcester Cathedral, 
in 1877, and held the office till 1890, when he 




became vicar of Bronisgrove. He has been 
Conductor of the Worcestershire Musical 
Union from 1879. His voice at its best was 
a light tenor of sweet tone ; and he has fre- 
quently sung at the concerts of the " Magda- 
len Vagabonds." He has also given organ 
recitals, and lectures on music, at Worcester, 
Birmingham, and other places. His compo- 
sitions include a Cantata for Lent ; Two 
settings of the Service for Holy Communion ; 
Two of the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis 
(one, in C, performed at the closing service of 
the Worcester Festival, 1881) ; Praise the 
Lord, O Jerusalem, and other anthems ; and 
a part-song. Waken, lords and ladies gay, sung 
at the Worcester Festival, 1878. 

Hall, Elias, musician, compiled " The 
Psalm-singer's compleat Companion," Lon- 
don, 1708. 

Hall, Q. W. L. Marshall=comi5oser,born 
in Edge ware Road, London, 1862, grandson of 
the famous physician. Dr. Marshall Hall. 
Educated at King's College, London, and ab 
Oxford. Studied music at R.C.M., and in 
Switzerland and Germany. Was for some 
time master for foreign languages at Newton 
College, Newton Abbott. • In 1888 he was 
conductor of the Choral and Orchestral 
Societies of the London Organ School, and in 
1890, was elected Ormond Professor of ]\Iusic, 
Melbourne University, Australia. He has 
founded a Conservatorium of Music there, 
and gives an annual series of orchestral con- 
certs. Papers have been contributed by him 
to the musical press. His compositions are 
nu.merous, including three operas, of which 
he has written both libretti and music : 
Leonard; Dido and ^neas; and Harold. A 
study on Tennyson's "Maud"; an overture 
in G minor (Crystal Palace, 1893) ; Idyll, for 
orchestra ; Quartets for strings (one, in C, 
performed at Queen's Hall, London, December 
20, 1895) ; smaller works, songs, etc., etc. 

Hall, Henry, organist and composer, born 
at New Windsor in 1655. Son of Capt. Henry 
Hall. He was a chorister in the Chapel Royal 
under Capt. Henry Cooke, and he studied 
also under Dr. Blow. Organist of Exeter 
Cathedral, 1674, and organist and vicar-choral, 
Hereford Cathedral, 1688. He took holy 
orders in 1698, and died at Hereford, IMarch 
30, 1707, and is buried in the cathedral. He 
composed anthems, Te Deum in E flat, and 
other church music. He also wrote songs 
and poems. 

His son, Heney, was organist and vicar- 
choral of Hereford Cathedral, and William, 
another son (died 1700), was a member of the 
King's band and composer of songs. 

Hall, H. Foley, composer and pianist, 
who flourished about 1820 and 1866. He 
wrote a large number of sentimental songs, 
for many of which George Linley supplied the 


words. Among them may be named " Ever 
of Thee" (1859); "Blame not the heart" 
(1860); "Par from those I love"; "0, yes, 
thou'rt remember'd " ; When I am far away " : 
"Still in my dreams," etc. He also wrote 
polkas for pf., etc. 

Hall, John, violinist and composer, born 
at Ayr, about the end of the 18th century. 
He studied the violin at Edinburgh, and 
returned to Ayr as a teacher, and fornied a 
band, consisting of himself, his brothers, and 
others, which performed at all the principal 
gatherings and balls in Ayrshire. In 1822 he 
played in Niel Gow's band when it performed 
before George IV. at Edinburgh. He died at 
Glasgow, December 4, 1862. He published 
" A collection of quadrilles and waltzes for pf. 
and violin," n.d., and "A selection of straths- 
peys, reels, waltzes and Irish jigs," Ayr, n.d. 

His brother, James (died, Ayr, 1860), played 
second violin in his band, and was a teacher 
of dancing in Ayr and neighbourhood. 

His youngest brother, Douglas (died, Ayr, 
1878), was a violoncellist, and resided in Ayr 
as a teacher and performer. 

Hallewell, Frederick John, bass vocalist, 
born in Leeds, 1846. Pupil of " Joe " Wood, 
of Huddersfield. Appointed solo bass at Leeds 
Parish Church, 1866 ; to York Minster, 1867 ; 
and, two years later, to New College, Oxford^ 
where he remained until 1880. He then went 
to Australia, and is now bass at St. Mary's 
Roman Catholic Cathedral, Sydney, and 
engaged in teaching. Was considered the 
fine.«t bass singer in Australia. 

Halley, T. Douglas, musician, was or- 
ganist of St. John's, Wapping, and of St. 
Paul's, Shadwell, Loiidon. He published 
" Twelve hymns appropriate to charity ser- 
mons . . . ," London, n.d. 

Hambois, or Hanboys, John, musician 
and writer of the 15th century. Generally 
believed to have been the first English mu- 
sician on whom the degree of Doctor of Music 
was conferred. He is supposed to have re- 
ceived the degree in 1463, but there is no 
evidence to prove that he graduated either at 
Oxford or Cambridge. He wrote two tracts 
in Latin : Summum Artis Musices and Can- 
tionum Artificialium diversi Generis, etc. 

Hamerton, William Henry, composer 
and writer, born at Nottingham, in 1795. 
Chorister of Christ Church Cathedral, Dub- 
lin. He was taught music under T. Vaughan, 
at London, 1812. Teacher in Dublin, 1814. 
Master of Choristers, Christ Church Cathedral, 
Dublin, 1815. Gentleman of Chapel Royal, 
Dublin, 1823. Teacher in Calcutta, 1829. 
He is supposed to have died at Calcutta. 

Works — St. Alban, opera, Dublin, 1827. 
Vocal Instructions combined with the theory 
and practice of pianoforte accompaniment,. 
1824. Anthems, chants, glees, songs, etc. 




Hamilton, Sir Edward Walter, Kt., 

composer, son of Kt. Kev. Walter Ker Hamil- 
ton, Bishop of Salisbury (1808-1869), born 
July 7, 1847. Educated at Kton and Christ 
Church, Oxford. Studied under Dr. Stainer, 
and graduated Mus. Bac. 1867. Appointed a 
clerk in the Treasury, 1870 ; served as private 
secretary to the Rt. Hon. R Lowe, 1872-3 ; 
to the Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, 1873-4 ; 
appointed principal clerk of Financial Division 
in Treasury, 1885 ; Assistant Financial Sec- 
retary, 1892 ; and Assistant Secretary to 
Treasury in 1894. Created C.B. in 1885, and 
K.C.B. in 1894. Member of the Council and 
Executive Committee of the R.C.M. His 
published works include a Sacred Cantata, 
Praise the Lord, my soul (degree ex.); 
sundry songs, singing quadrilles, pieces for 
pf., etc. 

Hamilton, James Alexander, writer 
and composer, born at London, in 1785 ; died 
there, August 2, 1845. 

Works. - Cathechism on the nature, inven- 
tion, exposition, development, and concatena- 
tion of musical ideas, with examples from the 
great masters, London, 1838 (various edi- 
tions) ; Catechism on the art of writing for 
an orchestra, and on playing from score, with 
sixty-seven examples, 1844 ; second edition, 
1846, other editions ; Dictionary, comprising 
an explanation of 3,500 Italian, French, Ger- 
man, English, and other musical terms, 
phrases, and abbreviations, also a copious 
list of musical characters, London, 1849 (nu- 
merous other editions) ; The same, with ap- 
pendix containing John Tinctor's Termino- 
rum Musicie Diffinitorium, edited by John 
Bishop ; Modern instructions for ihe piano- 
forte, London, 1290 editions said by publishers 
to have been issued; New musical grammar, 
in three parts (four editions) ; Catechism on 
double counterpoint and fugue ; Practical 
introduction to the art of tuning the piano- 
forte, etc. ; Catechism of the organ, with an 
historical introduction, and a list and 
description of the principal organs in Great 
Britain, Ireland, Germany, France, and 
Switzerland (five editions) ; Modern instruc- 
tions for singing, containing a complete com- 
pendium of the rudiments of music, etc. ; 
Easy method for the violoncello ; Catechism 
for the violin ; Harmonium instruction book ; 
The jDupil's new daily exercise, containing all 
the scales and chords in their respective posi- 
tions ; jNIethod for the double bass, . . London, 
1833 ; Sacred harmony, a collection of three 
hundred and fifty standard psalm and hymn 
tunes, London [1843]. Psalms and hymns, 
in the order they are appointed to be sung or 
chanted in cathedrals, churches, chapels, etc., 
during the morning and evening service of 
the Church of England, with explanatory 
notes ; An introduction to choral singing, 


etc. ; Order of chanting the morning and 
evening services, according to the Rubric of 
the Church of England ; IMethod of chanting 
the Psalms, as used in the service of the 
Church of England. Compositions, various, 
pf. pieces, glees, songs, etc. 

Hamilton, David, organ-builder and 
writer, born at Edinburgh, April 2, 1803. 
He was organist of St. John's Episcopal 
Church, Edinburgh, for many years. Died 
at Edinburgh, December 20, 1863. Inventor 
of the pneumatic lever action for organs, and 
writer of musical articles in the old edition of 
" Chambers' Encyclopaedia." He also com- 
posed a few organ pieces, and edited a collec- 
tion of chants. He edited, with J. ]\I. Miiller, 
his partner, " Harmonia Sancta, a collection 
of chants, psalm tunes, sanctuses, etc., adapted 
to the service of the Episcopal Church of 
Scotland . . [1838] ; Supplement 1858. His 
youngest brother Adam was born in Edinburgh 
and is an organist and composer, who was 
conductor of the Edinburgh Choral Union, 
1866-83, and other societies. He studied in 
Germany under F. Schneider, and has com- 
posed several orchestral works. Also editor 
of " The Scottish Orphetis, a collection of the 
most admired Scots songs arranged with 
symphonies and accompaniments," Edin., n.d. 
His son Carl Drechsler Hamilton, born 
at Edinburgh in 1846, is conductor of the 
Edinburgh Amateur Orchestral Society, and 
a violoncellist of great merit. He is a member 
of the Edinburgh String Quartet, formed in 

Hamilton, John, musician and poet, was 
born in 1761, and died at Edinburgh, Septem- 
ber 23, 1814. He was a music seller in 
Edinburgh, and wrote several well-known 
Scots songs, such as '• Up in the morning 
early," etc. He also issued "A Collection of 
24 Scots songs, chiefly pastoral," Edin., n.d. 
" A complete repository of old and new Scotch 
strathspeys, reels, and jigs.." Edin., n.d. 
"The Caledonian Museum, containing a 
favourite collection of ancient and modern 
Scots tunes adapted to the German flute or 
violin," Edin., n.d., 3 books. 

Hamilton, William, musician and jjub- 
lisher, was born at Paisley about 1812. He 
was established as a music publisher in Glas- 
gow for a number of years. Died at Kirn, 
April 25, 1887. Among the publications issued 
by Hamilton may be named the " British 
]\Iinstrel and musical and literary miscellany," 
Glasgow, 1842-44, issued in parts. " The 
British Harmonist," 1847-48. " Select Songs 
of Scotland," 1848, etc. He was a musician 
and poet, and wrote songs and music under 
the pseudonym of William McGavin. 

Hancock, Charles, musician, author of 
"Accordion Instructions," London [1845]. 
" Flute Preceptor," London 1 1846] . " Violin 




Preceptor," London [1846] ; also " Improved " 
editions of these works in 1852 and 1853. 

James Hancock, a musician of the early 
part of this century, published Hymn Tvmes 
and Sacred Odes for 3, 4, and 5 voices London 
[1800] . He also composed anthems, canons, 

Hancock, Charles, organist and conduc- 
tor, born at Islington, London, January 4, 
1852. Choir boy at St. Michael's, Cornhill, 
1859, under R. Limpus (q v.) ; and in 1861 
elected to the choir of St. George's Chapel 
Royal, Windsor. Articled to Sir G. Elvey, 
1867, at the same time being organist at 
Datchet, and at St. Andrew's, Uxbridge. 
Received pianoforte lessons from (Dr.) Keeton, 
and remained as assistant to Sir G. Elvey 
until 1875. F.C.O., 1872; Mus. Bac, 1874, 
Oxford. In July, 1875, he was appointed 
organist of St. Martin's, Leicester, in which 
town he still resides. He is conductor of the 
Leicester New Musical Society ; and from 
1886, of the Derby Choral Union, and actively 
engaged as a teacher. His compositions com- 
prise a setting of Psalm 18, for soli, chorus, 
and orchestra ; Organ music. Andante in A 
flat, Wesley Prize, College of Organists, 1887 ; 
Songs, etc. 

Hanforth, Thomas WiHiam, organist 
and composer, born at Hunslet, a suburb of 
Leeds, March 6, 1867. Chorister at York 
Minster. Articled pupil of W. H. Garland, 
and studied later under Dr. Naylor. Grad- 
uated Mus. Bac, 1892, Durham. Assistant 
organist, York Minster ; Organist to the late 
Archbishop Thomson, 1885 ; St. Martins-le- 
Grand, York, 1888 ; Deputy at York IMinster, 
part of 1891 ; and in 1892 succeeded E. H. 
Lemare at the Parish Church, Sheffield. 
Conductor of Viscountess Downe's Madrigal 
Society, 1891 ; Countess of Harewood's Ladies' 
Choir, 1892-3. His compositions are : Psalm 
1 for soli, chorus, and strings ; Two evening 
services, anthems ; Pieces for pf., and for 
organ ; and music for the Three Masonic 
Craft Ceremonies. 

Hann, William Henry, viola player.