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THE ~ 



BRITISH QUARTERLY REVIEW. 



JANUARY AND APRIL, 18?8. 



VOL. LXTII. 



AMERICAN EDITION. 



NEW YORK: | 

PTTBLISirEB BY THE LEONARD SCOTT PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

i 

41 Bahclat Stuet. 
1878. 



8* W. GBBBN, 

paniTiB, BUKmorma, amd botobb, 

16ttdl8JMOb8t, N.T. 



INDEX TO VOLUME LXVIL 



Adams, W. D., Dictionary of Englisli Literature, 

Americans in Turkey, The, 15 ; The different 
books characterized, ib. ; What the Americans 
have done in Turkey in respect to exploration, 
17 ; Smith and D^rifirht's tour, ib. ; Dr. Rob- 
inson's researches, 18 ; Dr. Grant's labours in 
Kurdistan, 19 ; Information obtained incident- 
ally by other travellers, ib. ; Physical features 
of the country, 20 ; Different races among its 
inhabitants, ib. ; Bulgarians, 21 ; Mohammedan 
mces, ib. ; What the Americans have done 
^ for literature, ib. ; Translating the Bible, 22 ; 
' Education, 23 ; Medical practice, 26; Labours 
and successes of medical missionaries, 27 ; 
Improved condition of women, 29 ; Accounts 
of the religions work will be found in the 
books at the head of the article, 80. 

Anderson, R., D.D., History of the Missions of 
the A. B. G. F. M. to the Oriental Churches, 
16. 

Argyle, The Duke of, and Disestablishment in 
Scotland, 289 ; Important part taken by the 
duke in the disruption of 1843, ib. ; His pres- 
ent position not very consistent, 240 ; What 
is the independence now thought compatible 
with establishment? 241; The appointment 
of ministers, 242; The Church's supposed 
power of resisting the law, 243 ; The leaders 
of the Chnrch desired that the law should be 
altered, 244 ; '* Claim of Right" put forward 
by the Assembly, 246 ; The question of inde- 
pendence decided against the Church, 247 ; 
The disruption, 248 ; The abolition of patron- 
age in 1874 did not avail to bring we free 
Churches back to the Establishment, ib. ; A 
new proposal of Church independence, 249. 

Arthur, Rev. W., The Pope, the Kings, and the 
People, 298. 

Baker, V., Clouds in the East, 200. 
Balgarnie, Rev. R., Sir Titus Salt, Bart., his 

Life and its Lessons, 118. 
Bayne, Peter, M. A., Chief Actors in the Puritan 

Revolution, 288. 
Biblia Pauperum, A new, 185. 
Bible, The Holy, 158. 
Billing, A., M.D., The Science of Qems, Jewels, 

Coins, and Medals, Ancient and Modern, 48. 
Black, W., Green Pastures and Piccadilly, 148. 
Bonwick, J., Pyramid Facts and Fancies, 180. 
Bonrdillon, Rev. F., Scenes and Incidents from 

Old Testament History, 820. 
Brassey, T., Work and Wages, 61. 
Bright, W., D.D., Chapters of Early English 

Church History, 273. 
Bright well, C. L., PalisBy,the Huguenot Potter, 

292 
Brock, W., D.D., The Life of, 286. 



Browning, R., Transcribed by, The Agamemnon 

of .^flchylus, 140. 
Bryce, J., Transcaucasia and Ararat, 121. 

Cahun, L., The Blue Banner, 160. 

Canadian Dominion, The first ten years of the, 
159 ; History of Canada after its cession to 
Qreat Britain, ib. ; The confederaev of the 
British American provinces, 160; How the 
provinces are divided, ib. ; The first prime 
minister of Canada, 161 ; An opposition party 
set up, ib. ; Contests in Ontario, 168 ; Consti- 
tutional government in the Dominion endan- 
gered, 165 ; Suspicion of bribery, ib. ; The 
government seems to be returning to the two 
factions of former days, 167. 

Capital and Labour, 61 ; State of the problem 
in our own and other countries, ib. ; Two 
misconceptions to be cleared away, 62 ; Im- 
provement in the working classes in England, 
ib. ; The three requisites for the productive- 
ness of a country as described by J. S. Mill, 
68; Principles of the argument between 
capital and labour, 64 ; What may rightly be 
done on both sides, 66 ; How far are such 
principles carried out in our legislation, and 
in the organization of the working classes ? 
68 ; The state of the controversy on the con- 
tinent and in America, 69 ; The Congress of 
Qhent, ib. ; The convention at Cincinnati, ib.; 
Trade unions in England, 70 ; Their principle 
fair, ib. ; but their proceedings very much 
otherwise, 71 ; Testimony of Mr. Denny, 78, 
Mr. Honeyman, 74, and others, 75 ; Indirect 
methods of the unions, ib. ; Benefit clubs, ib.; 
Sins of employers, 79 ; Trade unions should 
now be let alone, 80 ; Events will afford them 
the most effective teaching, ib. 

Chalmers, J. A., Tiyo Soga, 288. 

Church, Rev. A. J., Stories from HOmer, 808. 

Comprehension, 81 ; Varying schemes of com- 
prehension in different Churches and sects, 
lb. ; Comprehension as to matters of faith, 
82 ; Roman and Qreek Churches, ib. ; Protes- 
tant Churches on the continent, ib. ; Doctrinal 
comprehension among*Congregationali8ts,83 ; 
Wide differences of opinion, 84 ; Meaning of 
the religious communion demanded, ib. ; Na- 
ture and mission of the Chnrch, 86 ; Christian 
view of humanity and what is necessary for 
its regeneration, ib. ; The method now must be 
the same as of old, 88 ; Christ Himself must 
be preached, 89 ; Results that have followed 
all other methods, ib. 

Conder, E. R., The Basis of Faith, 808. 

Constantinople, 215 ; Beautiful site of the city 
contrasted with its interior, ib. ; The ' Capit- 
ulations,' and the (abuse made of them, 216 ; 
The Sultan, 217 ; A reception fifty years ago. 



11 



Index. 



218 ; Anotber some years later, 219 ; Claim of 
the Sultan to be loid of the world, ib. ; The 
harem« 220 ; Slavery, 222 ; Treatment of wo- 
men, 228 ; Base origin of many pashas. 224 ; 
The established religion, 225 ; The softas,226; 
Prisons, ib. ; Dogs, 227; Etiquette, 228; 
Meals, ib. ; Mosques, and the officials connect- 
ed with them, 229 ; All the best churches have 
been converted into mosques, 230. 

Cook, D., Doubleday's Children, 146. 

Craik, G. M. and M. C. Stirling, Two Tales of 
Married Life, 146. 

Crutwell, C. T., A History of Roman Literature, 
144. 

Culro8s,J.,D.D., "Thy First Love." Christ's 
Message to Ephesus, 819. 

I) ALB, R. W., Nine Lectures on Preaching, 156. 

Davids, T. W. R., Buddhism, 818. 

Dawson, J. W., The Origin of the World accord- 
ing to Revelation and Science, 165. 

Dixon, R. W., History of the Church of England, 
Vol. I.. 278. 

, W. H., Ruby Grey, 804. 

Douce Lass, A, 148. 

Drew, F., The Northern Barrier of India. 200. 

Duffus-Hardy, Lady, Madge, 807. 

Duncan, F. M., M.D., Edited by, Cassell's Natu- 
lal History, Vol. I., 185. 

Early English Text Society Publications, 801. 
Eden, C. H., The Fifth Continent, 292. 
EUicoU, Bishop, Edited by, A New TesUuent 

Commentary for English Readers, 157. 
Elsdale, H., Studies in the Idvlls, 145. 
Emanuel, H., Diamonds and Predons 8t<mes, 

48. 
Erskine, T., Letters of, 186. 
Evans, M., The Gospel of Home Life, 819. 

Fatbbairn, a. M., Studies in the Philosophy of 

Religion and History, 154. 
Figgis, Rev. J. B.» Christ and Full Salvation, 

819. 
Finlay, George, History of Greece, 107. 
Finli^son, T. C, The Christian Voyage, 320. 
I^nsher, Q. P., D.D., The Beginnings of Chris- 

tianity, 153. 
Flint, R.. D.D., Tlieisro, 812. 
Foreign Classics for English Readers, 188. 
Forman, H. B., Letters of John Keats, 800. 
Formhy, Rev. H., Monotheism, the Primitive 

Religion of the City of Rome, 118. 
Fomander, A., An Account of the Polynesian 

Race, 294. 
Freeman, E. A., The Ottoman Power in Europe, 

280. 
Fumivall, F. J., Re-edited by. The History of 

the Holy Grail, Part IL, 801. 

Oallsnoa, a.. Two years of the Eastern Ques- 
tion, 215. 

Gilbert, W., Them Boots, 146. 

Giles, Rev. Dr., Hebrew and Christian Records, 
151. 

Qoldsmld, General, Edited by, Eastern Persia, 
200. 

Goodell, W., D.D., A Memoir of, 15. 

Grant, J., Casseirs History of India, Vol. IL, 
114. 

Gray, J. H., China, 301. 

Green, J. H., Hlstorv of the English People, 
Vol. 1,112; Vol. rt..278. 

Gregory, Rev. A., The Patriarch Jacob, 819. 



Grove, G., Edited by, A Dictionary of Music 
and Musicians, Part I., 298. 

Hamlex. Gen., Voltaire, 138. 

Hare, A. J. C. Walks in London, 801. 

Harrison, F., The Sool and Future Life, 197. 

Heard, Rev. J. B., National Christianity, 133. 

Heir to Two Fortunes, 804. 

Hinton, J., Life and Lettera of. 286. 

Holden, Rev. W. C, A Brief History of Method- 

ism, 281. 
Holland, J. G., Nicholas Maturin, 148. 
Holme Lee, Stndghtforward, 804. 
Hopper, M. A. M., Five Chinmey Farm, 149. 
Huxley, T. H., Physiography, 297. 

India, The Northwest Frontier of, 200 ; Pre- 
vailing ignorance of this subject, ib. ; Princi- 
pal features of the border land, 201 ; Its 
natural separation between Baluchistan and 
Afghanistan, ib. ; Many subdivisions among 
the people, 202 ; Origin of the aborigines, ib. ; 
The geographical features of the country 
little known, 208 ; The roads and passes not 
nnderstood, 204 ; Our unsatisfactory relations 
with these tribes, 206 ; The Amir of Cabul, 
ib. ; Connection with Persia, 208 ; Boundary 
commission, 209 ; Information supplied by it 
regarding the Persians, 210 ; Climate of Peraia, 
211 ; Russian advances in Central Asia, ib^ ; 
Question of Russian designs, 212 ; Unreason- 
able alarm felt on this subject, 214. - 

Innes, A. T., The Church of Scotland Crisis, 
289. 

Is Russia wrong? 292. 

Jackson, M. C, A Chaperon's Cares, 805. 
James, H., Jun., French Poets and Novelists, 

298. 
Jeafibrson, J. C, Edited by, A. Young Squire of 

the Seventeenth Century, 119. 
Jeesup, H. H., D.D., The Women of the Arabs, 

15. 
Jewel of a Girl, A.. 148. 
John Orlebar, Clerk, 805. 
Juvenile Books, 149. 

Keniv£DT, J., D.D., Pilate's Question, 158. 
Kermode, M. E., As Silver is Tried, 806. 
King, C. W., Antique Gems, 47. 
Kingsley, Rev. C, All Saints Day, and other 

Sermons, 818. 
Kingston, W. H. G., The Two Snper^aigoes. 

151. 
Klonsinger, C. B., M.D., Upper Egypt, 122. 

Lafskd, but not Lost, 808. 

Lange, F. A„ History of Materialism. Vol. 1, 156. 

Latliam, H., On the Action of Examinations, 

Laun, H. Van, History of French Literature, 

Vol. IIL. 187. 
Law, Dean, (^brist is All, 820. 
Leckey, W. E. H.. A History of England, 275. 
Lennep, H. J. Van, D.D., Travels in Asia 

Minor, 15. 
L'Estrange, Rev. A. G., History of English 

Humour. 299. 
Levi, L.. Work and Play, 61. 
Lloyd Jones and T. Peterson, Lectures, 61. 
Lynn Linton, Mrs., The World Well Lost, 803. 

Mack AT, A. B. , The Glory of the Cross as mani- 
fested In the fiast Words of Jesus, 820. 

Macleod, A., D.D., Days of Heaven upon Earth, 
819. 



Index. 



Ill 



Maine, £. G., Angnn Gray« 907. 

Maitland, Rev. B., The Argument from 
Prophecy, 313. 

Manning, Rev. 8., and Rev. S. 0. Qreen, D.D., 
En^nrltsli Pictures, 139. 

Martin, T., The Life of H.R.H. the Prince Con- 
sort, Vol. III,. 115. 

Mason, T. M.. New Lights upon Old Lines, 156. 

Masson, D., The Life of John Milton, Vols. IV. 
and v., 281. 

Matheson, Rev. G., Growtli of the Spirit of 
Christianity, 315. 

Mayor, J. K B., Collected by. The English 
Works of Bishop Fisher, 301. 

McCarthy, J., Miss Misanthrope, 804. 

Merivale, Dean, St. Paul at Rome, 818. 

Mikado's Empire, The, 1 ; Our scanty knowl- 
edge of Japan, lb. ; Mr. Griffis's book, 2 ; 
His residence in the country, 8 ; Bombastic 
writing, ib. ; Disregard to his predecessors, 4 ; 
Physical features of Japan, 5 ; Mineral 
wealth, 6; Vegetable productions, ib. ; Ani- 
mals, 7; Climate, ib. ; Origin of the inhabi- 
tants, 8 ; Moral characteristics, 9 ; Position of 
women, ib. ; Long unbroken line of soveiv 
eigns, ib. ; Different ranks and classes, 10 ; 
Religion, 11 ; Christianity introduced, ib. ; 
Persecution of Christians,* 12; Present posi- 
tion, ib. ; Old mythology and history, 13 ; 
Hecent revolution and its effects, 14. 

Molesworth, Mrs., Hathorcourt Rectory, 808. 

Moltke's Letters from Russia, 292. 

Moncreiff, Sir H., W. D.D., The Identity of the 
Free Church Claim from 1838 tp 1875, 239. 

Morley, H., Library of English Literature, 139. 

Morshead, E. D. A., The Agamemnon of iBschy- 
lus, 142. 

MycensB, 167; The first report of Dr. Schlie- 
mann's discoveries only gradually received, 
ib. ; Treasures often deposited in tombs, 168 ; 
The ancient city, ib. ; Qaestions about the 
])er8onality of Agamemnon, 169 ; and his 
tomb, if he did really exist, ib. ; Dr. Schlie- 
mann's own belief, 171 ; Value of his discov- 
eries, ib. ; His assumptions sometimes hasty, 
ib. ; The tombs contain jewels, 172 ; useful 
articles, 174; gold and silver /beads, ib. ; 
golden sun-disks, 175; and arms, 176; Old 
buildings discovered, ib. ; It is to be hoped 
that the antiquities will be brought to Eng- 
land, 177. 

Noel, Hon. R., The House of Ravensburg, 802. 
Norman, C. B., Armenia, 289. 

Oliphant, Mrs., Dante, 138. 
Oilier, K. Cassell's History of the United 
States, Vol. lU., 113. 

Page, H. A., Tlioreau, 136. 

Palgrave, W. G. , Hermann Agha, 306. 

Palmer, E. R., The Temptation in the Wilder- 
ness, 320. 

Parker, J. H., The Catacombs of Rome, 131. 

Tombs in and near Rome, 132. 

Parody and Parodists, 91 ; Comparison between 
parody and f>ers de sodeU, ib. ; Two rules to 
be observed by parodists, 92 ; Quotations from 
Thackeray, 93 ; Locker, ib. ; Tom Hood, 94 ; 
Calverley's parodies of Miss Ingelow, 95 ; Mrs. 
Browning, 96 ; Browning, ib. ; Tennyson, 97 ; 
and Swinburne, ib. ; Parodies in modem peri- 
odicals, 99. 

Payne, E. J., A History of European Colonies, 
292. 

Phases of the Eastern Question, 262 ; The re- 



bellion in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ib. ; Eng- 
land's refusal to act in concert with the 
other Powers, ib. ; War between Russia and 
Turkey, 264 ; Turkey encouraged by Bug- 
land, ib. ; Commanications between Russia 
and England, 205 ; The conditions suggested 
by Russia before the crossing of the Balkans, 
267; The treaty actually concluded, 268; 
The European congress proposed, 269 ; Ques- 
tions to be decided, ib. ; The case of Roume- 
nia, ib. ; Servia and Montenegro, ib.; Bul- 
garia, 271 ; Greece, ib. ; Tlie Dardanelles and 
the Bosphorus, ib. ; Civil and religious liberty 
for the Balkan Peninsula, ib. ; Such liberty 
possessed by tlie Greeks, 272 ; The hope that 
it may be desired and obtained by Russia, 
273. 

Phillips, Mrs. A., Benedicta, 806. 

Philochristus, 614. 

Picturesque Europe, 139. 

Pierce, G. A., The Dickens Dictionary, 300. 

Plumptre, E. H., St. Paul in Asia Minor and at 
the STTian Antioch, 313. 

Pocket Diary, 151. 

Poor, H. v., Money and its Laws, 296. 

Pratt, Rev. J., The Acts and Monuments of 
John Foxe, 111. 

Precious stones, 47 ; Three names applied to the 
objects to be described, 48 ; Books on the sub- 
ject, ib. ; The meaning formerly attached to 
precious stones, ib. ; List of them in the 
Bible, ib. ; Regalia of monarchs, 49 ; Light- 
giving properties of stones, 50; Engraved 
gems, ib. ; Different collections, 51 ; The 
Devonshire and Marlborough cabinets, ib. ; 
Forgeries, 52 ; Pastes and doublets, ib. ; Com- 
parative value of precious stones, 53 ; Pearls, 
ib. ; Diamonds, 54 ; The art of cutting them, 

55 ; Coloured diamonds, ib. ; Diamond mines, 

56 ; Celebrated diamonds, ib. ; Rubles, 58 ; 
Sapphires, 59 ; Emeralds, ib. ; Turquoises, 
opals, and amethysts, ib. ; Garnets, 60 ; Real 
valqe of precious stones, ib. 

Pressensg, Rev. E. De, D.D., Cliristian Life and 
Practice in the Early Church, 317. 

Proavia, Through my Spectacles, 308. 

Procter, R. A., Myths and Marvels of Astron- 
omy, 230. 

RADCI.TFFE, C. B., M.D., Proteus, 128. 

Rae, W. F., Columbia and Canada, 121. 

Rawlinson, Sir H., England and Russia in the 

. East, 200. 

Rev. G., The Heathen World and St. 

Paul — St. Paul in Damascus and Arabia, 313. 

Rogers, H., The Superhuman Origin of thje 
Bible Inferred from Itself, 158. 

^— • Professor Henry, 100 ; Sketch of his life, 
ib. ; His literary works, 101 ; Time spent on 
the writings of other men, 102 ; His edition 
of Howe, ib. ; Variety of his objects, 103 ; 
Essays for the ' Edinburgh Review * and 
other periodicals, ib. ; Controversial writing, 
104 ; Remarkable clearness of his stvlo, 105 ; 
His keen but only moderately indulged hu- 
mour, 106. 

Russian and Turkish War, The, 250 ; General 
view of the war and its results, |b. ; Condi- 
tions under which it was begun, 251 ; First 
proceedings in Asia, ib., and in Europe, 252 ; 
Crossing the Danube, ib. ; Disasters in Asia, 
253 ; Advances in Europe, 254 ; The Balkans, 
crossed, 255 ; First battle of Plevna, ib. ; The 
Russians defeated with great loss, 256 ; The 
one great chance for the Turks, and how they 
lost it, 257 ; Mistake of Suleiman Pasha in 



ir 



Index. 



not joininir Mebemet All, 259 ; Temporary 
BucoesB at Eski Sa^ra, ib. ; BatUe in tbe Sbip- 
ka PaM, 260 ; Proceedings of tbe RuBsiana de- 
fended, 202. 

RuTHSRFOKD, J., Tbe Secret History of tbe 
Fisnian Conspiracy, 109. 

Savings and Savings Banks, 81 ; Oripn of sav- 
ings banks, ib. ; Encouragement mven tbem 
by government in En^^land, ib. ; Evils of tbe 
old banks, ib. ; Development of tlM idea of 
Post office savinffs banks, 82 ; Tbe Act passed 
in 1861, ib. ; W orking of tbe system np to 
tbe present time, 88; Tbe new banks com. 
pared witb the old as to tbe rate of interest, 
ib. ; Tbe amoont lost by fraud, 36 ; Tbe fadl- 
ities for depositing and witbdrawing money, 
ib. ; Limits to tbe deposits, 87 ; Want of tbe 
social element, 88, ana of encouragement from 
tbe pulpit, 89 ; Lectures, ib. ; Penny banks, 
41 ; Tbe internal working of tbe vast scbeme, 
ib. ; Regular work, 42 ; Exceptional cases, 
48 ; Tbe locale of tbe department, 45 ; Ex- 
penses connected witb it, ib. ; Degree in 
wbicb our system bas been followed on tbe 
continent, ib., and in tbe colonies, 46 ; Impor- 
tance of encouraging saving among tbe poor, 
47. 

Scbuyler, Dr. E.. Turkistan, 200. 

Scott, J. C. A., Tbe Beebives. 145. 

Seguim, L. O., Walks in Algiers and its Sur- 
roundings, 290. 

Seventeen Years in tbe Yomba Conn try, 201. 

Shepherd, R, H., Edited by. Prose and Verse by 
Thomas Moore, 802. 

Sherring, M. A., tbe Hindoo Pilgrims, 803. 

Shore, Rev. T. T.^ The Life of tbe World to 
Come, 819. 

Simcox, E., Natural Law, 128. 

Si me, J., Lesslng, 114. 

Simpson, R., tbe School of Shakespeare, 144. 

Bkeat, Rev. W., Edited by, Tbe Vision of WU. 
Ham concerning Piers the Plowman, 801. 

Skene, W. F., Celtic Scotland, Vol. II., 109. 

Smith, a. B., Shelley, a Biographical Sketch, 

Southall, Dr., The Epoch of the Mammoth, 207. 

Stirling, M. C, A True Man, 146. 

Stobart, J. W. H., Islam and its Founder, 813. 

Street Life in London, 186. 

Stubbs, W., The Constitutional History of Eng- 

Und, Vol. III., 278. 
Sullivan, A. M., New Ireland, 278. 
Sumner, C, Memoirs and Letters of, 285. 
Supernatural in Nature, Tbe, 810. 

Taw, W., Sermons, 819. 

Taylor, Sir H., Tbe Works of, 143. 

l*he late Colonel M., The Story of my 

Life. 120. 
Testa, O. B., History of the War of Frederick I. 

against the Communes of Lombardy, 279. 
Tliackeray, W. M., Tlie Works of, 806. 
Thomson, Rev. W., D.D., The Ijind and the 

Book. 15. 
Sir C. W., The Voyage of the Challenger, 

126. 



Thorbum, S. S., Bannd, 200. 

Torrens, W. M., Memoirs of Viscount Mel- 
bourne, 284. 

Trench, Archbishop, Lectures on Medieval 
Church History, 281. 

TroUope, A., South Africa, 288. 

UNiYSBfimr, the proposed new, in Manchester, 
230 ; What a university means, 231 ; Diffienl. 
ties about degrees, ib. ; No uniformity in 
these or other respects In the four English uni- 
versities, ib. ; Increasing demand for collese 
education, 288 ; Restricted usefulness of the 
universities, ib. ; Proposed reforms, 284 ; The 
special character that would attach to a uni- 
versity at Manchester, 235 ; Fear of establish- 
ing a precedent, ib.^; Question of endowments, 
236 ; Advantages that will accrue from tho 
granting of the prayer, 237. 

VAT7X, W. S. W., Greek aties and Islands of 
Asia Minor, 313. 

Verax, The Crown and the Cabinet, 295. 

Victor Hugo, 177 ; His merits as a poet, 178, 
and as a classic writer, ib. ; His verse-poetry 
unequal, 179 ; Colossal scale of his work, 180 ; 
Want of finish, ib. ; Specimens of satire, lb. ; 
Dramas, 181 ; Romance, 185 ; Striking char- 
acters, ib. ; Tbe Romance of the' Revolution, 
192; Grand drawing of the catastrophe, 195. 

VioUet-le-Duc, E., Mont Blanc, 125. 

Walpobd, E., Old and New London, VoL V., 
114. 

War Correspondence, The, of the ' Daily News,' 
289. 

Werner, E., Riven Bonds, 305. 

West, M. A., the Romance of Missions, 15. 

Wheeler, Rev. C. H., Ten Years on the Eu- 
phrates, 15. 

Wiese, Dr. L., German Letters on English Edu- 
cation, 123. 

Wild, J. J., Thalaasa. 126. 

Williams- Wynn. C, Memorials of, 118. 

Wilson, Sir R. K., History of Modern English 
Law, 122. 

Woman's Reply, A, to Frederic Harrison, 197 ; 
The object of a woman's care, ib. ; How could 
she teach or help tbem under the proposed 
system, ib. ; Exercise of thought, will, and 
feeling, 198 ; Substitute for immortality as it 
is commonly understood, 199 ; The ground for 
duty, ib. ; No hope in death, 200. 

Wonnaoott. H., Memorial Volume, 291. 

Woolsey, T. D., Political Science, 293. 

Wood, C. W., Through Holland. 122. 

Worboise, £. J., The Grey House at Endle- 
stone, 807. 

Wylie, Rev. J. A., The History of Protestant- 
ism, VoL UL, 114. 

YONOE, C. M., Edited by, A Man of Other 
Days, 119. 

ZoECXLER. Rev. 0.. The Cross of Clirist, 318. 
Zupitza, Dr. J., Edited by, Tbe Romance of 
Guy of Warwick, Part II., 301. 



TUE 



BRITISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 



FOR JANUARY, 187 8. 



Art. I. — The Mikadoes Empire, 

The Mikadoes Empire. By William Elliot 
Qriffis, A.m., late of the Imperial Uni- 
versity of Tokio, Japan. 8vo. New York. 
1876. 

In spite of the many causes that may be 
adduced in explanation, it is still surprising 
that the amount of attention which Western 
nations have bestowed on Japan should be 
comparatively so small. Without doubt, 
since the opening of the country to foreign- 
ers events of vast importance have occupied 
the attention of the West in quick succes- 
sion ; and the minds of men in Europe and 
America have been too intent upon the 
mighty occurrences taking place around 
them, to devote much thought to the pro- 
ceedings of a distant nation, however strange 
and interesting. From the year 1853 dates 
the beginning of modem intercourse with 
Japan. In that year Commodore Perry, at 
the head of a squadron of United States^ 
ships, arrived in the bay of Yedo. The 
treaty between the government which he 
represented and that ostensibly in possession 
of the dominion of Japan was not ratified 
till a year afterwards. Since than a quarter 
of a century has not elapsed, but how great 
and how frequent have been the revolutions 
in Western history within that time ! The 
signature of Perry's treaty is of nearly the 
same date as the outbreak of the Crimean 
War. The opening of the principal ports 
to foreign trade was contemporary with the 
Italian campaign of Napoleon III. The 
sending abroad of Japanese embassies to 
foreign courts coincided chronologically 
very nearly with the secession contest in 
America and the Austro-Prussian invasion 
of 'the Duchies.' Western diplomatists 
were negotiating for a recognition of their 

VOL. lxvii. B — 1 



position by the Mikado, the true sovereign 
of Japan, and for increased facilities of in- 
tercourse with his people, when the * Seven 
Weeks' War ' wrought its immense changes 
in the relative positions of European states. 
The abolition of feudalism and the extinc- 
tion of the powerful baronage, which ruled 
the provinces with the semi-independent 
rank of Daimio, followed within a few 
months the capitulation of Paris and the 
new German Empire. The direct represen- 
tation abroad of the Mikado, the former 
clainiant of mysterious sanctity and divine 
origin, was instituted whilst the govern- 
ments of this country and of America were 
still discussing the Alabama question. Thus 
the, inhabitants of those countries most in- 
terested in the progress of Japan have, since 
their intercom se with her first began, had 
too much to think about at home to be able 
to spare much thought for matters of such 
indirect concern as the condition and his- 
tory of this remarKable nation. 

Yet important as the great events alluded 
to have undoubtedly been, it is difScult to 
repress some feeling of surprise when we 
realize the fact that the unrestricted inter- 
course of late years has not resulted in 
greatly extending our knowledge of a peo- 
ple whose history — as far as we know it — 
offers so many points of interest to ourselves 
and of parallelism to our own. The stream 
of travellers which flows in annual course 
round the world has brought home to Eu- 
rope so many indications of the romantic 
beauty of the country, of the serenity of 
the climate, of the charming manners of the 
people, of the treasures of native art, that 
the desire to know more about them all is 
natural and reasonable. A few writers have 
let us somewhat into the secret of the na- 
tional history. We have heard the story of 



The JUikado^s Empire. 



Jan. 



a feudal system, as elaborate and as definite 
as that of Western Europe, told in part by 
men of our own race, who were eye-wit- 
nesses of its processes and effects in our own 
time. Legends and ' Talcs of old Japan ' 
have been presented to us in an English 
dress so bright and so beautiful, that wc 
may well doubt as to how mucli we owe to 
the genius of our countryman aud how 
much to the native grace of the original 
narrator; but of neither have we had 
enough to make us cease to wish for more. 
Drawing-rooms and boudoirs arc now 
adorned with lustrous lacquer-ware and 
gracefully painted faience^ which serve as 
Kpecimens of a highly-advanced style of art 
flourishing beneath the rising sun. Shop- 
windows are crowded with the porcelain 
that bears the blue of Ilizen and the scarlet 
and gold of Kaga, and shows us at once 
what the Japanese artists can execute in fic- 
tile material and in colour. A few scholars 
have unlocked for us some rare treasures of 
Japanese literature, and have shown us sam- 
ples, only too few, of the lyric dramas and 
miniature odes of the classic wTiters. But, 
on the whole, our information concerning 
the country and the people is very deficient ; 
and we can scarcely understand the recent 
extraordinary revolution, or rather scries of 
revolutions, until we possess a* more inti- 
mate knowIed<;e of the events which since 
the beginning of our era make up the his- 
tory of Japan. 

It is not to be denied that within the last 
few years several books about the country 
have appeared both in England and else- 
where. But any person who has proposed 
to himself the study of Japan and the Jap- 
anese, will readily bear witness to the scanti- 
ness of the literature on the subject. The 
English edition of Kaempfer, translated by 
Scheuchzer and published in 1727, still re- 
mains the most valuable of all the works in 
which foreigners have described Japan as it 
existed till within the last six or seven years. 
The unchanging character of Eastern civili- 
zation will account for much of the dura- 
bility in accuracy and importance of the in- 
formation imparted to ns by the learned Ger- 
man doctor. But to the author's qualifica- 
tions only can we attribute the value of 
those most interesting portions of his book 
which depend upon minute and careful ob- 
servation, and patient habits of investiga- 
tion. Kaempfer was a man of science, a 
-scholar, and a traveller ; and he brought to 
the consideration of his subject the love of 
learning, the method of study, and the 
breadth of view which distinguish such 
characters. The difference in the result of 
•Jiis labours and that of the sum of those of 



most of his successors is considerable, and 
it must be admitted that the advantage 
rests with the older writer. Considering 
the facilities of intercourse enjoyed by our 
contemporaries, and the great difficulties 
under which he laboured, it is somewhat 
humiliating that but so little should have 
been done. But until some person possesH- 
Ing his qualifications shall be induced to at- 
tack the subject, it is not likely that any 
modern author will rival Kaempfer. 

These remarks will not, it is hoped, be 
understood as containing any disparagement 
of the labours of Satow and Aston in their 
study of the Japanese language, nor of such 
interesting works as those which we owe lo 
the pens of Dixon and Adams. More than 
one resident and traveller have sketched for 
us fascinating pictures of the life of the 
people and the scenery of the country, and 
occasional contributions to our many month- 
ly and quarterly journals have from time to 
time given us a glimpse of .that strangely 
romantic and distant world. But most of 
these books are of too light and thin a tex- 
ture for their perusal to be regarded as 
more than an agreeable amusement, and we 
cannot often feel confident of the rigid ac- 
curacy of many of the statements which 
they contain. A personal acquaintance with 
the country, extending over many months, 
enables us to do justice to the generally 
faithful nature of the accounts which these 
books offer to us, whilst at the same time it 
has made us alive to their many deficiencies. 
The work of Mr. W. E. Griffis, * The Mika- 
do's Empire,' which we intend to notice in 
this article, proposes to do that which no 
one — at least since Kacmpfer's day — has 
attempted to do in English ; viz., to give 
the political history of Japan from the earli- 
est ages to the present time, and a descrip- 
tive account of the people, the land, and 
the natural productions, besides a record of 
personal experiences and observations. This 
is certainly an ambitious programme, and it 
must be admitted that he has carried it out 
with a fair amount of success. Throughout 
the book we can discover no traces of any- 
thing like a scholarly knowledge of the 
Japanese tongue ; nor — teacher of physical 
science though he was — much proof of high 
scientific attainments. But the writer is 
evidently a man of reading and culture, full 
of sympathy with his subject, and possess- 
ing exceptional advantages as an observer 
and recipient of information ; and we may 
at once say that we hold his book to be the 
most important work on Japan which ha.H 
appeared since Scheuchzer's translation' of 
}v.aempfcr, at least in our own language. 

Tlic great political struggle in Japan 



-i 



1878. 



The Mikadd^a Empire. 



which ended in the overthrow of Ihe Sho- 
gnnate had its immediate beginning in the 
closing years of the late Mikado's reign. 
Within a year of the death of that sover- 
eign — Komei — who died in 1867, his gov- 
ernment had issued a decree extending the 
privilege of visiting foreign conn tries to all 
classes of his subjects. Advantage was 
taken of this permission by several of the 
great feudal chiefs to send the more promis- 
ing amongst their young vassals and retain- 
ers to study in the schools of the West. 
Several of these young men became the pu- 
pils of Mr. Grillis, at that time resMing in 
the State of New Jersey. Through them, 
many of whom have since risen to high 
place in their native land, a connection was 
iformed with the country ; and our author 
was invited by the prince of Echizen to go 
out to Fnkui, his feudal capital or castle, 
town, to establish there a scientific school 

# 

on the American system, and give instruc- 
tion in the physical sciences. He arrived 
in Japan at the end of the year 1870, and 
remained until the middle of 1874. The 
period of his stay in the empire comprised 
that in which occurred some of the most in- 
teresting events in recent Japanese history. 
At his first coming feudalism still existed, 
though direct homage to the Mikado had 
been substituted for that to the Shogun, 
whose place was no longer included amongst 
the political institutions of the nation. Mr. 
Griffis was present at an interesting and 
solemn ceremony, of which he gives us a 
description, that took place on the occasion 
of the prince of Echizen finally laying aside 
his feudal authority, and giving way to the 
representative of his angust suzerain. This 
ceremony, repeated in many of the castle 
cities of the empire, was the public act 
which terminated definitely the feudal sys- 
tem. His residence in Japan witnessed the 
crisis of the fever which induced the Japan- 
ese to enter on a headlong course of intro- 
ducing foreign customs, and transplanting* 
to their soil, no matter how uncongenial, a 
host of foreign institutions. It also saw the 
beginning of the reaction, the lopping off 
of the exuberant branches of the exotic lib- 
eralism, which, in the feverish condition of 
the people, had assumed an ugly likeness to 
license ; and before it ended he must have 
heard the first low rumblings of the conser- 
vative discontent which broke out in the in- 
surrection, hardly yet suppressed, in the old 
domains of the powerful Satsuma. 

In addition to thi» Mr. Grifiis enjoyed 
many special advantages. He spent nearly 
a year in the Daimio's capital in tne interior, 
far away from Western influence, and — ^for 
some months — without even seeing a single 



foreigner. From the favourable position 
supplied by a residence in the capital of 
the empire, he was a witness of the wonder- 
ful reforms and changes of the years 1872, 
1873, and 1874. During the whole time 
he was admitted to the society of * cultivat- 
ed scholars, artists, priests, antiquaries, and 
students.' He had come out provided with 
letters of introduction to the prominent 
men in the government, and he seems to 
have had, during regular and extended 
traveU, opportunities of associating with 
every class of the people, from the highest 
to the lowest. Besides this, he associated 
on friendly terms with the residents of his 
own and other nationalities, v/ho liave not 
thought it beneath them to bestow some 
time in investigating the many interesting 
questions connected with the land of their 
sojourn. And he derived assiptance, which 
ho gratefully acknowledges, from more than 
one native scholar and author. 

From all this it will be seen that we may 
fairly expect him to furnish us with very 
valuable descriptions of all that he saw, 
heard of, and read of. On the whole, he 
has done so ; and although we cannot pro- 
fess to be fully satisfied with the result of 
so many opportunities and facilities, yet we 
believe we may give his book, as we have 
already intimated, the credit of being the 
most interesting and valuable comprehensive 
work on the subject which has as yet been 
published. Its blemishes and deficiencies 
are by no means few or sipall. The writer 
has a flowing, and, occasionally, even grace- 
ful style ; but he is very unequal. Passages 
in a solemn and elevated strain are followed, 
or connected together, by bits containing 
miserable attempts at humorous or fine wri- 
ting, on a level with 'contributions to a low- 
class country newspaper. The tendency to 
* tall talk,' which the writer shares with so 
many of his countrymen, is apparent in 
every chapter, and many a page is disfigured 
by it. Some of his metaphors and expres- 
sions are almost startling. In describing a 
volcano, he says : — 

Hakuzan, on the west co.ist, which up- 
rears its form above the clouds, nine thousand 
feet from the sea-level, and holds a lakelet of 
purest water in its lx>8om, once in fire and 
smoke helched out rocks and ulcered its crater 
jaws with floods of white and black lava 
(p. 21). 

Hot springs abound, many of them highly 
impregnated with mineral salts, and famous 
for their geyser-like rkytfim o/M and fiow 
(ibid.). 

Tliis last recalls the production of the poet 
Stolt, rescued from oblivion by Byron— * a 



Uie Mikad6*d Mnpire. 



Jan. 



most thandering ode ' commencing as fol- 
lows : — 

Oh, for a lay loud as the sur^ 

That lashfeB Lapland's sounding shore I 

' Mercy on us ! ' says his lordship, ' the 
*^ Lay of the Last Miostrel '' is nothing to 
this.' 

To some of the chapters of his book he 
has prefixed silly and bombastic headings : 
e,g,y ' The background,' which simply means 
the physical geography of the country : 
' The twilight of fable,' which in plain lan- 
guage means the legendary history of the 
early sovereigns. Bis use of strange words, 
or of more common ones in strange posi- 
tions, is a notable feature of his style. In 
one place (p. 231) he warns the reader that 
the part played by Kobnnaga, the persecu- 
tor of the Buddhists,'is likely to ' be illy un- 
derstood.' The warrior, Hideyoshi, is de- 
scribed in another place (p. 236) as being 
in his infancy a * pithecoid baby.' Through- 
out the book the reader is being continually 
affronted by a frequent interweaving into 
the text of scriptural phrases and quota- 
tions, which to Americans it seems «o natu- 
ral to use lightly, and to us so revoltingly 
profane. The author may be readily ac- 
quitted of any conscious impropriety in 
thus availing himself of this, unfortunately, 
too characteristic Americanism; but as a 
man of reading and education, whicb, even 
without the symbols of his university degree 
attached to his name on the title-page, we 
.should soon find him to be, he ought not to 
forget that the best writers amongst his own 
countrymen have not found it necessary to 
resort to the practice in order to emphasize 
their periods or warm their style. That he 
has not remembered it is the more surpris- 
ing, as he is apparently a sincere Christian, 
and fully impressed with the ability of his 
own religion to exert a vast influence over 
the Japanese in their efforts to attain a 
higher and parer civilization. 

We must charge him with showing rather 
a want of gratitude to his predecessors, who 
have written in his own language, on the 
same subject as himself. He acknowledges 
^bat slight obligation to foreign writers, 
except to those working scholars in Japan 
who have written within the last decade 
with knowledge of the language.' Kaemp- 
fer, we believe, he does.not mention except 
to disparage him, and once incidentally, 
without intending it, only to confirm him. 
Now it would seem that he owes very much 
to the learned German. The arrangement 
of his work is on much the same plan as 
the latter's : the first part is historical and 
descriptive, and the second a record of per- 



sonal adventures and travels. Very much 
of what we read in Eaempfer we find, trans- 
lated into what we may suppose may pass 
for fine language, in Mr. Griffis. The chap- 
ter on the * Mythical Zoology of Japan' 
could hardly have been composed without a 
knowledge of Eaempfer's book. Much of 
the information concerning the peculiarities 
of the feudal system of Japan is undoubt- 
edly derived from the book of Dr. Walter 
Dixon, to which indeed, in the body of his 
work and again in an appendix, Mr. Griffis 
expressly refers. The references to another 
book, Mr. F. O, Adams's * History of Ja- 
pan,' are more numerous in the appendices ; 
but it is only necessary to have read that 
history to see how very much in the text of 
his work Mr. Griffis is indebted to it, as a 
rule without special acknowledgement. 

Mr. GriflBs says some very hard things of 
our. countrymen, who number more than all 
the other foreigners inhabiting the treaty- 
ports of Japan. Hard as what lie says is, 
we regret that our own experience of every 
one of the ports compels us in truth to ad- 
mit that it is no harder than the case de- 
serves. In general, his remarks on this 
head are exceedingly fair and just ; and 
particular attention may be called to a pas- 
sage in the chapter headed, * First Glimpses 
of Japan ' (pp. 342, 343), in which he de- 
scribes the state of society at Yokohama. 
Whatever merits our countrymen may fairly 
claim the author freely allows them, and 
there is no stint of compliment when he 
comes to speak of their good deeds. That 
he has no animus against us as a nation, the 
handsome manner in which he records the 
diplomatic victories of Sir Harry Parkes, 
and the acquirements of the ofiicials belong- 
ing to the consular and diplomatic branches 
of our civil service, are alone enough to 
show. This renders it more extraordinary 
that he should attack Sir Harry's predeces- 
sor. Sir Rutherford Alcock, in such unmeas- 
ured terms as he docs. Sir R. Alcock may 
have maintained a somewhat high-handed 
diplomacy ; he may have regarded — in 
those early days it i^ hard to prove that he 
was wrong — the Japanese as a nation of 
Asiatics to be coerced by gunboats into 
concessions which had been freely promised 
in treaties and then withheld ; and he may 
have been fonder than is now considered 
right of resorting to force to back up his 
negotiations. But Mr. Grifliis should remem- 
ber the times in which our first envoy took 
up his residence in Yedo ; the imminent 
risk of assassination that he ran almost 
hourly ; and also that in the Shimonos6ki 
affair he was in union 'with all his diplomat- 
ic colleagues. In bis book, recounting the 



1878. 



I7ie Mikadoes Empire, 



story of his life in Japan, Sir Rutherford 
may have been occasionally betrayed into 
expressions of irritation at the conduct of 
people to whose ostensible government he 
was accredited ; whose behaviour, to say 
the least of it, was something very different 
from that of the mild provincials and radi- 
cal politicians in whose society Mr. GrifiSs, 
some ten or a dozen years later, lived. But 
there is nothing to justify the unmeasured 
abuse of our late envoy which Mr. Griffis 
thinksTfit to indulge in. That he sinks from 
being merely absurd, to being positively be- 
neath contempt, the following extracts will 
suffice to show : — 

In this triple act of savage revenge [the Shi- 
nionos^ki affair], instigated by Sir Kutherf ord 
Alcock, the apostle of murder and Hind force^ 
who ill conceals his anger at the policy of 
peace, fair play, &c., &c. (p. 595.) 

. . . the British Minister, Alcock, eter 
ready to iihed bloody &c. (p. 594.) 

A reader of the book will find other pas- 
sasres in which the President of the Geo- 
graphical Society is savagely attacked, and 
never with better reason alleged than the 
author's undisguised prejudices. 

The book contains upwards of a htfndred 
well-executed illustratix)ns, by far the greater 
number of which have already appeared in 
previous works on Japan. In the list given 
at pp. 13 and 14 it will be seen that up- 
wards of a third are from the publications 
of Sir R. Alcock, M. Humbert, and Mr. L. 
Olipbant, as acknowledged against the sev. 
era! items. In addition to these, many of 
the drawings attributed to Hokfisai and 
other native artists have already been pub- 
lished in Alcock's pages and elsewhere. At 
the end of the booK are several very valuable 
notes and appendices, containing, amongst 
other things, a ma.ss of statistical informa- 
tion as to the present condition of the coun- 
try. By giving here two or three of the 
headings of these interesting additions to 
the book, their [importance will be easily 
shown. Amongst them appears such titles 
as — * Meteorological Tables,' * Postal Statis- 
tics,' * The National Finances,' * Tea Crop 
of 1876,' * Census of Japan for 1872 and 
1873,' * Silk Crop of 1876.' This is but a 
small selection from a respectably long list. 

The country, with an account of which 
Mr. Griffis presents us, is one singularly fa- 
voured by nature. It occupies a prominent 
position in the long chain, or succession of 
chains of islands which form, as it were, a 
system of natural outworks on the maritime 
frontier of Eastern Asia. The empire is 
composed of a group of islands, all of 



wb ich* lie within the temperate zone. Cape 
Chichagoff — the Land^s End of Japan — is 
to the northward of the 30th, and the island 
of Yezo to the southward of the 46th paral- 
lel of north latitude. The northern island 
is divided from Saghalien by a narrow 
strait, and at one point Saghalien is so close 
to the continent that, after the prevalence 
of certain winds, it is possible to walk dry- 
shod from one to the other. The southern 
island, Kiushiu, is but one day^s sail from 
the mainland of the Korea. The eastern 
shores of the group are washed by the Pa- 
cific Ocean, which stretches an unbroken 
expanse of water for four thousand miles to 
the coasts of Western America. Japan 
thus seems to occupy, with respect to East- 
ern Asia and the Far West, the position of 
the British Isles with respect to Europe and 
America. Enthusiastic Japanese of the new 
school are fond of drawing comparisons be- 
tween the geographical conditions of their 
island empire and ours ; and at a -visit paid 
by the Mikado to the naval school at Tokio, 
not very long ago, one of the native profes- 
sors entertained his Majesty with a dis- 
course, f highly thought of at the time, 
upon the career of Nelson, in which he 
pointed out the similarity in our respective 
situations, and the necessity thereby indi- 
cated of his country also becoming a great 
naval power. However that may be, it is 
easy to perceive that, if the enterprize of 
the JapHuese people shall equal in commer- 
cial matters that of their reforming public 
men in politics, the further development of 
the already important trans-Pacific trade 
promises a great future to their country. 

The configuration of the land is to a 
great extent due to past volcanic action. In 
many districts it does not require the eye 
of a geologist to see that the fiat-bottomed 
valleys and steep masses of verdure-clad 
rock have been opened and piled up by 
great convulsions. The surface of the 
country is naturally very irregular, and, as 
naturally, the beauty of the scenery is 
greatly heightened thereby. Through the 
centre of tne main island — usually called 
Nippon by foreigners, but which, Mr. Griffis 
tells us, is properly named Hondo— runs a 
backbone of mountains, from the higher 
ranges of which stand out such lofty peaks 

* Omitting all notice of the Kurile Islands, 
lately (1875) ceded to Russia in exchange for 
Saghalien, and practically not yet in the actual 
possession of the Japanese. 

f We had the satisfaction, when at Toklo 
(formerly Yedo), of reading a translation into 
English uf this discours«. The translation we 
owed to a friend who was present at the deliv- 
ery of the original discourse. 



6 



The Mikado's Empire. 



Jan. 



as Hakuzan, nine thousand feet, and the 
lordly Fuji, whose summit is over twelve 
thousand feet above the level of the sea. 
Many extinct volcanoes appear amongst the 
surroundinp; elevations, and some still active, 
as Asama Yama in Hondo and Taromai in 
Yezo. The Japanese count over twenty ac- 
tive burning mountains. Evidence of past 
eruptions meets the traveller on all sides. 
Beds of sulphur arc frequently found, and 
solfataras are in active operation in many 
places. An ex voto picture; lately hung up 
in a temple at Nagasaki, shows the smoke 
of a volcano combining with the fumes 
emitted from some tall factory chimneys. 
Hot springs, sulphur-springs, or natural hot 
baths, are found in nearly every province, 
and are largely resorted to on account of 
their curative properties by the Japanese. 
Geologically, a great portion of the Japa- 
nese group is said by Baron Eichthofen to 
be a continuation of the mountain system 
of South-Eastern China. In the southern 
half the structure of the hills and rocks is 
chiefly of Silurian and Devonian strata. 
The mountain mass of the northern island 
belongs to a different system, and exhibits 
different components. 

The islands being, individually and col- 
lectively, in general long, narrow, and 
mountainous, no really great navigable riv- 
ers may be looked for. Many of them are 
mere brooks or mountain torrents, dry or 
but trickling in times of drought, aod pour- 
ing down violent foods in rainy seasons. 
In spite of the careful and almost universal 
system of public works, which so please the 
foreign visitor, the streams often overflow 
their banks, and cause immense damage to 
the neighbouring fields. There arc in some 
of the more extensive plains rivers of rc- 
f^pectable size, easily navigable by boats. 
Until the completion of the new railway, 
starting from the treaty-port of Kobe, a 
favourite route from Ozaka to Kiyoto was 
by the river Yodo, in small native-built 
steamers, or boats propelled by poles, both 
of small draught of water. Most of the 
rivers, such as they are, abound in fish, the 
favourite and universal food of the people. 
And the streams are so numerous that spe- 
cial facilities for irrigation are afforded by 
them, a point of considerable importance in 
a country to which so much soil is devoted 
to the cultivation of rice. The insular char- 
acter and elongated form of the empire 
place it in possession of a coast -line of 
great extent ; and the physical formation of 
the surface endows it with innumerable bays 
and harbours, which'give shelter to count- 
less fishing barks, and provide bases of easy 
communication between different regions. 



Japan possesses considerable *niinoral 
wealth. Many useful varieties of stone ex- 
ist. The immense blocks which revert the 
ramparts of ^thc castle at Ozaka and the 
temple terrace of Daibtltzu at Kiyoto, not 
to mention the smaller, but still respectable 
ones, in almost every castle-town, show the 
capabilities of the quarries of the conntry. 
The list of metals found in the earth is a 
long one. Gold and silver are found in 
many places. The island of Sado is said to 
be a mass of gold-bearing quartz. Copper, 
lead, tin, antimony, and manganese abound. 
Zinc and mercury occur, but in smaller 
quantities. Iron of good quality can be ex- 
tracted from the magnetic oxide found in 
beds, often of great thickness, near the 
course of rivers and along the sea.eoast. 
Other varieties of iron ore are also found. 
Many thousands of tons of coal are raised 
yearly, and petroleum can bo collected in 
more than one province. 

The timber of several districts is of fine 
quality. The trees are large and stately, 
and the wood easily worked. The splendid 
avenues of pines and other conifers which 
line the great public ways, and the avenues 
to celebrated shrines, must have struck 
every traveller. Thirty-six varieties of tim- 
ber trees, including oak, can be cut in Yezo. 
The variety of workable woods was strik- 
ingly shown by a beautiful collection of 
polished slabs contributed by the govern- 
ment to the National Exhibition held last 
year at Kiyoto. Almost every building, 
from the stately temples of the ancient capi- 
tal to the cottage of the peasant, is built of 
wood, so that the importance of a good 
supply of timber can be easily imagined. 
Some variety of the bamboo is found in all 
parts of the country, and in the province of 
Satsuma it grows to an almost colossal size. 

The soil is remarkably fertile. In many 
places labourers may be seen working a rich 
black mould of a depth of several feet. Even 
in a natural state, without manure, most of 
the arable land produces good crops of 
grain and vegetables. Mr. Grifiis is of 
opinion that ^ the true wealth of Japan con- 
sists in her agricultural and manufacturing 
resources.' The rotation of crops is some- 
thing different from what we understand by 
the term in England. lu the month of May, 
on ncaring the land near Nagasaki, the ter- 
raced slopes of the heights were seeu to be 
yellow with the already ripening wheat. 
During the hot and rainy weather of Au- 
gust, the same fields were covered with the 
transplanted rice plants, and again in the 
later autumn were emerald with lettuces, 
cabbages, and root crops. Fruit trees arc 
not numerous, thDugh the cherry, peach, 



1878. 



TTie Mikado's Empire. 



and persimmon aro common. Wheat, bar- 
ley, and buck-wheat cover the surface of 
the country in spring and early summer. 
The rich plain tlurough which the river 
Yodo cuts its way from. Kiyoto t6 the bay* 
of Ozaka is in June an immense corn-field 
ready for the reaper, chequered here and 
there with bright yellow patches of tape 
and colza. Tea is grown in many districts. 
The most celebrated perhaps is that of Uji, 
not far from Kiyoto. The chief ports of 
export are Yokohama and Kob6, though a 
fair quantity is produced in Kiushiu, and 
there are extensive plantations in the neigh- 
bourhood of Omura. As every person of 
both sexes, even of almost tender years, 
smokes in Japan, the consumption, and con- 
sequent production of tobacco, is considera- 
ble. One species grown in Satsuma has 
been found fit for the European market, 
and the quantity exported to this country 
promises to attain fair dimensions. The 
ilavour, experto crede, is not unpalatable 
when it is smoked in a cigarette, but, un- 
fortunately, it is said that it is not to its 
flavour that wo owe its importation into 
England. It is believed to stand the addi- 
tion of a greater quantity of moisture with- 
out being injured than any other known 
variety. Duty can bo paid upon it in the 
dry state, ivhile thirty per cent, can be add- 
ed to its weight when moistened and pre- 
pared for sale. The flowers of Japan, if 
not' numerous, are beautiful. The woods 
are filled with the heavy petfume of a mag- 
nificent lily, which is in full flower at the 
beginning of the summer rains. The chry- 
yanthemums, which stand in the court of 
almost ever}' temple, are such as we rarely 
see at home. The single camellia grows in 
profusion ; and, not many months since, we 
ourselves walked through a perfect wood of 
the shrub in full blossom on a lonely height 
overlooking the gulf of Omura. 

The wild and domesticated animals of 
Japan aro not numerous. The bear, deer, 
wolf, fox, badger, and monkey, are said to 
oxist. lu the main island deer are certainly 
plcntifu^ enough to afEord good sport. A 
friend of ours, an officer of the navy, who 
was a keen sportsman, happened to have 
met during the shooting season with a bad 
accident, which rendered walking impossi- 
ble. He took his riflo with him and went 
out deer-stalking in a jiu-riki-sha^ or car- 
riage drawn by men ; and, without leaving 
it, managed to shoot and bring home a fine 
animal. The native traditions, that the 
conquered aborigines were the offspring of 
bears, are probably deducible from the fact 
that the animals at one time abounded, and 
that the inhabitants clothed themselves in 



their skin. Inari, the Fox-God, is the pat- 
ron divinity of rice, and has many worship- 
pers. Between Fushimi, the great suburb 
of the capital, and Kiyoto itself, stands an 
immense temple dedicated to Inari Sama, 
Lord Inari ; and in the sacred grove there 
is a paddock into which the pious fling 
handfnls of rice, to be devoured, as a party 
of English travellers were told last summer, 
by wild foxes, whose lives were sacred, and 
who came into the precincts of the temple 
with impunity. Sheep are still imported, 
chiefly for the use of the foreign residents, 
from China. Horned ciittle as beasts of 
burden, and pack-horses, are often met with 
in the country districts. About eight hun- 
dred beeves were slaughtered weekly in the 
capital, Mr. Griffis tells us, for food in 
1875. But the chief diet of the people is 
vegetables and fish. 

The climate, though not without extremes 
of both heat and cold, is as nearly perfect 
as that of any known part of the world. 
^ The seasons come and go with well nigh 
perfect regularity ; the climate at •times 
reaches the perfection of that in the tem- 
perate zone — not too sultry in summer, nor 
too raw in winter.^* Ice an inch thick is 
rarely seen ; and though in winter snow 
falls in large quantities, it seldom lies more 
than a few hours. The hottest months are 
July and August, the monthly average tem- 
perature, as shown by Dr. Hepburn's tables, 
being 73° (Fahrenheit) for the former and 
78° for the latter. For August also the 
highest monthly maximum 91^ is recorded. 
Our own experience is that in July the ther- 
mometer has been known to register a 
higher temperature — 97° F. iu the shade — 
at Yokohama than at any other sea-side 
place from the straits of Malacca to the 
Philippine Islands. But this was considered 
quite exceptional, and as much out of the 
usual course as the few terrifically hot days 
which smote us with such unwonted fervour 
during the last London season. The aver- 
age rain-fall is high, though there are long 
periods in each year of steadily serene 
weather. The spring and early summer 
until the beginning of Jtine are of a sereni- 
ty absolutely lovely ; and October and No- 
vember, even in Southern Kiushiu, are de- 
liciously cool, fresh, and bracing. ' Fogs,' 
says Dr. Hepburn, * are rarely noticed, so 
also is hail. Thunder-storms are neither 
frequent nor severe. Earthquake shocks 
are frequent, averaging more than one in a 
month ; but hitherto, since the residence of 
foreigners in Yokohama {i.e., about twenty 
years), no very severe or dangerous shocks 

*Griflas,p. 25. 



I%e Mikadoes Empire, 



Jan. 



have occorred.' All buildings being con- 
stnicted of light wood, none but unusually 
viplent shocks would cause more than dis- 
comfort and inconvenience. The typhoon, 
or storm cyclone, is more common and de- 
stnictive, but even it is checked from pene- 
trating to the inland sea or to the western 
coasts. 

Since Kaempfer*s time, foreign residents 
in Japan have devoted their attention to 
discovering the origin of the people who in- 
habit this fair group of islands. The geo- 
graphical ppsition of the country, and its 
meteorological and hydrographical condi- 
tions, give some clue to the paths by which 
the first settlers reached it. We have al- 
ready seen how close the northern portion 
of the is|^and system, of which it is a part, 
lies to continental Asia. The passage of 
immigrants into Yezo and Hondo, from 
what we now call Western Siberia, must 
have been attended by but few difficulties. 
On the other hand, the shores of the south- 
ern and eastern portion of the empire are 
swept by the great current known as the 
JCuro Shiwo or Japanese stream, which has 
its origin in the equatorial portions of the 
Indian Ocean, and flows past the Malay 
Peninsula, the Philippine Islands, and For- 
mosa. Historical evidence may be adduced 
to corroborate the view that the present 
people are formed of the coalescence of im- 
migrants from the continent, now represent- 
ed by the Ainos of Yezo, with bands of in- 
vaders or shipwrecked mariners from the 
various tribes of Southern Asia. The Ainos 
lingered until long after the beginning of 
the historical period in the north of the 
main island, and have left many traces of 
their occupation in the nomenclature of the 
mountains and ruins of the district At 
present they are known only in Yezo. Rel- 
ics of the stone age are still to be found in 
Japan. Flint arrows and spear-heads, ham- 
mers, chisels, scrapers, kitchen refuse, &c., 
are frequently dug up. Many ideas, cus- 
toms, and superstitions connect the present 
Japanese with the early Aino inhabitants. 
The colonists coming from the south were, 
as historv and tradition would seem to 
prove, long behind the first Aino settlers ; 
who, as recorded in tales and legends, dwelt 
in villages, and had some settled system of 
polity. The people now undoubtedly be- 
long, by ancestry on both sides, to the Tu- 
ranic family, and the marks of the Mongo- 
lian variety predominate. It is, therefore, 
to the emigration from the original seats of 
the race through Northern Asia and the 
islands, that we must refer the chief begin- 
nings of the Japanese nation. Mr. Griffis 



makes merry over Kaempfer*s derivation of 
them from the dispersion at Babel. He 
does not seem to be aware that in Kaeoip- 
fer's day, and even till a much later one, 
that was' the reciognized form of expressing 
the now usually accepted view, that Central 
Asia, or its neighbourhood, was the cradle 
of nations. 

Foreign observers, and our author amongst 
the number, are fond of strengthening their 
opinions upon the ethnology of Japan by 
comparisons between the two * distinctly 
marked types of features ' found amongst 
the people — the fine, long, oval face, and 
well- chiselled nose and chin of the upper 
classes ; and the round, flattened face, and 
straight nose of the lower. The latter is 
attributed to the predominance of Aino, or 
aboriginal blood; the former to the pre- 
dominance of that of the southern in- 
vaders, who conquered or drove out their 
Aino predecessors. This distinction has 
always seemed to us to be extremely 
fanciful. The coalescence of the two stocks 
must have been complete centuries ago, 
and the difference in type between the 
two social classes must be owing rather 
to diversities of habits and comforts than 
to diversities of descent As a matter of 
fact, the aristocratic type does not differ 
more from the plebeian in Japan than it 
does in many other countries. We should 
none of us think much of the ethnological 
diagnosis of a person who insisted upon See- 
ing the predominance of Norman blood in 
a young officer of the Guards, and of down- 
trodden Saxon in a Dorsetshire peasant. 
Yet the features of the two would probably 
exhibit typical differences, the successful 
commercial or legal ancestry of the guards- 
man notwithstanding. In Oriental coun- 
tries, where the distance between the luxurv 
of the high-bom and the poverty of the 
lowly is far greater, the distinction physic- 
ally is more marked ; but the Japanese 
peasant differs less from the court noble in 
form and feature, than the stout Osmanii of 
the provinces from the pallid and obese 
effendis of Stamboul. There are some strik- 
ing points of resemblance between the Ja- 
panese people and some u( the inhabitants 
of trans-Gangetic India. Those who have 
seen both Burmah and Japan must have ob- 
served many particulars in which the people 
of the two countries are alike. In complex- 
ion, stature, form, and feature, the resem- 
blance is nearly perfect. The mode of life, 
the diet, the preparation, and way of eating 
the food, are also not dissimilar ; bnt the 
likeness is shared with many other Eastern 
peoples. There is one striking custom 



1878. 



Tke JUikado^s JEmpire. 



9 



which is common to both, and that is the 
peculiar mode of tattooing the body and 
thighs. 

Of the moral characteristics of the peo- 
ple whom destiny has called to .inhabit a 
country amongst those most favoured by 
nature, most observers will concur with Mr. 
Griffis in speaking in terms of praise. They 
are certainly patient, industrious, frugal, 
and amiable. Courtesy and gentleness seem 
the inheritance of every class. Many de- 
clare them to be truthful and honest, and 
in these particulars they perhaps compare 
favourably with other Orientals, and — it is 
to be feared — not unfavourably with many 
of the Western foreigners who have gone 
amongst them to seek their fortunes. Of 
chastity and temperance they are signally 
deficient. Drunken men are to be seen in 
every town, and drunken women are not at 
all uncommon. We have seen more drunk- 
en people in one evening in the native dis- 
trict of Yokohama than in twice the time 
in some not very favourable places in our 
own country. Nor is this vice prevalent 
only in the neighbourhood of the foreign 
settlements; for we have seen people of 
both sexes intoxicated in places probably 
never before visited by a European, and in 
which, at all events, one was so scarce as to 
bo a curiosity. The possession of the other 
virtue just mentioned is as rare as that of 
temperance, or perhaps rarer. The ardent 
reforhiers, who have forced upon their 
countrymen the adoption of so many for- 
eign customs, have stopped at the reforma- 
tion of their own seraglios ; and his Impe- 
rial Majesty the Mikado, who presents prizes 
gained at colleges, opens railways, and dons 
an approximate copy of a Western military 
uniform, is said to have retained at least 
that portion of the state of an Oriental mon- 
arch which was furnished bv the zeTiana, 

The position of woman is' decidedly 
higher than in any country of the East. 
Nine women have set upon the throne of 
the descendants of the Sun. Their influ- 
ence upon affairs was great, and, what is 
more, direct ; unlike the condition of things 
at the neighbouring court of China, where 
women, when they reach a commanding po- 
sition, do so chiefly by the back-stairs. 
Some of the greatest names in Japanese 
literature are those of women. The odd 
ccclesiastioo-regal court of the Mikados at 
Kiyoto was the centre of a literary society of 
which many women were honoured mem- 
bers. There are little tales innumerable 
which tell us how this or that maiden won 
the love of sovereign or hero, not by per- 
sonal charms, but by her knowledge of the 
classics or her skill in poetry. The women. 



even of the better classes, may appear in 
public without breach of etiquette. The 
bearing of the men towards them is, and 
probably has always been, gentle, and not 
devoid of respect. Mr. Griffis, with some 
show of reason, attributes the degrading 
public occupation of a large number of 
young girls to a high sense of filial duty. 
He says : ^ Not a murmur escapes her lips 
as she thus filially obeys. To a life she 
loathes, and to disease, premature old age, 
and an early grave, she goes joyfully.' Sub- 
mission to parents is the law which lies at 
the root of the whole social structure in 
China, and in but a slightly less degree, and 
borrowed from thence, in Japan. The 
public opinion that permits parents to thus 
trade in their offspring is naturally lenient 
to the innocent sufferer ; and we havq our 
author's authority in confirmation of a state- 
ment often made before, that having once 
led such a life is no bar to the future ele- 
vation of an attractive woman. 

The new legislation, with its introduction 
of Western systems of education, its multi- 
plication of schools for both sexes, and its 
removal of the restrictions on marriage be- 
tween classes, must do much to correct 
what is bad in the relations between men 
and women in Japan. The old class dis- 
tinctions have been formally abolished, and 
alreadv the new social forces brought into 
play by the late reforms and by foreigfi 
intercourse have gone some way towards 
obliterating them. The structure of society 
in old Japan was more complicated than that 
in any of the neighbouring nations. At the 
same time, the distinctions were sharp and 
well defined. At the head of all was the 
sacred person of the sovereign, whose very 
title contained in it the attribute of august- 
ness, and whose progenitors were divine. 
The feeling of loyalty which was so charac- 
teristic of the Japanese down to our own 
daj", in obedience to the dictates of which 
the vassal cheerfully sacrificed his life for 
the honour of his lord, has its typical ex- 
pression in the unswerving reverence shown 
to the family on the throne. But one 
dynasty has sat upon the imperial seat of 
the divinely-descended founder, and his 
present majesty is the one hundred and 
twenty-third of the line. This unusual con- 
tinuance has sprung from the feeling of hor- 
ror which any attempt to usurp its place 
would be regarded. Rival factions have, at 
various periods of Japanese history, tried to 
seize the person of the Mikado, to give to 
their acts the authority of his sanctity ; one 
scion %f the imperial house has been re- 
moved to make way for another ; but the 
dynasty, shorn as it may have been of ail 



10 



77ie Mikado's Empire. 



Jan. 



but the shadow of power, has nerer been 
displaced. Next to the sovereign coroe the 
body of court-nobles, or kupes^ all laying 
claim to, imperial ancestry. 'These formed 
a class apart, illustrious, privileged, and em- 
powered to transmit hereditary distinctions. 
The class bore a faint resemblance to the 
^ imperial clan ' of the Manchoo dynasty in 
China ; but so long has been the duration 
of the present imperial lino of Japan, that 
many of the noble houses can claim but a 
distjint relationship to the sovereign's pre- 
decessors. The history of the country for 
many centuries is filled with stories of the 
rise and power of one noble family or an- 
other, and is rendered additionally interest- 
ing by the records of their rivalry and strug- 
gles. At present there are one hundred 
and fifty-five families of kughy of whom no 
less than ninety-five claim descent from the 
great house of Fujiwara. The Taira fam- 
ily, founded by a great-grandson of the 
Mikado Kuammu in the eighth century of 
our era, is represented by five existing fami- 
lies; and their rivals, the Minamoto, de- 
scended from a grandson of another emperor 
in the ninth century, by seventeen. 

Custom, in process of time, assigned to 
each family the monopoly and hereditary 
incumbency of certain oflSces. The regency 
could be held by members of the Fujiwara 
only. The highest religious posts were 
licreditary in the house of Nakatoini. At 
an early period a distinct gradation of ranks 
was formally introduced by the institution 
of twelve orders of nobility, with symbolic 
names, such as virtue, humanity, <S7C. — a 
practice evidently brought from China. 
The new orders constituted chiefly an offi- 
cial hierarchy, and soon branched into the 
two divisions of military and civil, as in the 
Chinese empire. Borrowed thence, too, 
was the division of the administration into 
eight boards or departments, and the ap- 
pointment of governors of provinces ; the 
combination being a species of modified 
centralization, which extinguished the ear- 
lier feudalism, hints rather than records of 
which are to be found in the ancient histo- 
ries. The rest of the nation was divided 
into four distinct classes, in which, perhaps, 
we may discover a faint reflection of an 
older division into castes. The classifica- 
tion existing to our own time was, first, 
military and official — samurai ; second, ag- 
ricultural ; third, labouring ; and fourth, 
trading. A more minuta division into 
eight classes, beginning with the court no- 
bles, and passing through the Daimios, or 
territorial nobles, down to the opte-less 
hinin and etay preserves this reflection with 
more distinctness. In it — the lesser baron- 



age and the untitled landed gentry, for In- 
stance, being each in a class apart — we sec 
evidences of two great causes of the caste 
institution, the existence of a despised abo- 
riginal race of subjects, and deliberate legis- 
lation, such as that which established in old 
Rome the Servian constitution. 

The later feudalism, the system in full 
vigour till less than ten years ago, was in 
part the natural outgrowth of tlie disturbed 
condition of mediseval Japan, and in part that 
of the ' settlement ' of lyeyasu, the founder 
of the Tokugawa line of Shoguns, at the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century. In the- 
ory, the whole soil of the country is vested 
in the Mikado. As in many other coun- 
tries of the East, the land-tax, a stated pro- 
portion of the produce annually, was the 
chief item in the revenue. Its receipt be- 
ing one of the most significant of the rights 
of sovereignty, collectors were stationed in 
all districts, to levy solely on behalf of the 
emperor, for whom Ihcy farmed the reve- 
nue. The tendency of all offices to become 
hereditary made of these farmers-general a 
distinct class, and — as has been the result of 
some of our own * settlements ' in India — 
the duty of collecting revenue fulfilled for 
many generations was converted into the 
right to receive rent, and. in return for 
homage to the Shogim, to be included 
amongst the land-holding baronage. By 
marriage of his daughters into powerful 
houses, or by direct investment of hift sons 
with impoi*tant fiefs, lyeyasti established 
his Shogunate on a firm foundation. Three 
of the latter founded the illustrious trinity 
of families from whom, in case of failure of 
the direct line, the Shogun was to be cho- 
sen. These, with other descendants of 
lyeyastl, all be^ir the trefoil as their cos^ni- 
zance. Next to the * three families ' ranked 
the kokushiu (province-ruling) Daimios, 
great princes with enormous wealth and a 
vassal baronage of their own, equal at least 
in power with the Shogun, to whom they 
stood related, as did the great peers of 
France to their feudal sovereign in the old 
mediaeval monarchy. The fudai Daimios 
were a kind of allodial proprietors, holding 
directly of the Shogun, and alone entitled 
to hold office under his government. By 
the court, neither Shogun nor Daimios were 
acknowledged as nobles of the empire ; the 
lowest kug^ was above the Shogun in rank. 
Some of the court nobles had founded fam- 
ilies, to whom they transmitted their privi- 
leges, among the feudal baronage ; and in 
such estimation was held all that flowed 
from the august fountain of honour on the 
throne, that the proudest feudatories sought 
eagerly the meanest and most empty titular 



1876. 



77ie Mikado*8 Empire. 



11 



distinctions. Below the Daimios ranked a 
smaller clsiss of vassals of the Shognnate, 
the hatamotOf bound to serve near his per- 
son in time of war. After them came the 
yeomanry, and the other classes of the peo- 
ple in due order. This was the great social 
fabric which has been shattered to pieces by 
the reforms of the last few years. 

This acconnt of the way in which the 
components of society arc divided in Japan 
bears with it repeated evidences of the in- 
fluence of China. That evidence is again 
apparent in the religious history of the peo- 
ple. The ancient mythology, teeming as it 
does with wild legends, many of considera- 
ble beauty, like that of more than one other 
country, tends chiefly to pourtray the old 
popular idea of natural science and observed 
phenomena, and to exalt the nation and the 
imperial lino. Upon this, amplified by tra- 
ditions, was grafted a modification of the 
Chinese cosmogony and abstract philosophi- 
cal ](feas ; and the result was the religion 
known as ' the doctrine of the gods,' in its 
Chinese form, Shinto. Like the people 
themselves, it came frctn the continent of 
Asia, its prototjipe being the curious state 
religion of China. Like that, it is a ritual 
rather than a relisiion. It has no idols or 
images, and its only symbols are the mirror 
and the strips of notched white paper 
which hang in nearly every shrine. Amongst 
the symbolical rites, that of purification held 
an important place. The ancient Mikados, 
the most sacred personages in the realm, 
were accustomed to make public lustrations. 
The chief characteristic of the religion was 
the deification of ancestors or sovereigns. 
The immortality of the soul it did not teach ; 
but that is indirectly deduced from it by 
some, since the whole Japanese nation is 
Hprung from the immortal gods. The 
sacred books lay down no precepts, and 
teach no morals or doctrines. At the pres- 
ent day the revivalist teachers of it claim 
that the absence of a moral code is one of 
its chief beauties. The Chinese, they say, 
invented morals because they were an im- 
moral people. The ethical superiority of 
the Japanese freed them from the necessity 
of a code. In effect Shinto has done little 
but increase the superstitions reverence sur- 
rounding the throne ; and, says Mr. Satow, 
' is nothing else than an engine for reducing 
the people to a condition of mental slavery.' 

For many centuries it has been acted 
upon by Buddhism, and has been considera- 
bly modified by the contact. The influence 
of China, already noted, has not always 
been direct : much of it has been exerted 
upon Japan through the Korea. The ancient 
foreign relations of the country were with 



the Koreans almost exclusively. The intro- 
duction of the Chinese characters and of 
Bnddhism is referred back to the arrival in 
Japan, in the third century of our era, of 
Wani, a Korean scholar. Two centuries 
later new missionaries were invited to come - 
over from Wani's country. The Buddhistic 
doctrines must have found ready hearers in 
the Japanese people. The number and 
splendour of its temples, and the wealth of 
its religious houses, are not required to show 
upon how fruitful a soil the new seed must 
have fallen. The epoch of its introduction 
was favourable, as far as concerns itself. 
,The ideas of the founder had developed 
into a complete theological system, and tlie 
doctrines were inculcated and maintained 
by the members of a vast and organized 
priesthood. The coldness of Shinto could 
have satisfied but few of the aspirations of 
the yearning hearts of the people. But 
these hearts could be touched by the preach- 
ers of Buddhism, and could hope for purifi- 
cation in adopting the lofty code of morals 
which its apostles ofiered. No class was 
exempt from its influence. The court, for- 
getting how the divine character of the 
ruler rested principally on the sanctions of 
the ancient rite, became its chief propa- 
ganda. Priests multiplied ; monasteries 
were established ; and many emperors 
shaved their heads, in token of their renun- 
ciation of the world, and became cloistered 
monks. The rise of the new faith was but 
the decadence of the Mikado's power. This 
in time was felt, and an important act of 
the revived sovereignty of late has been to 
* purify ' the Shinto temples, by expelling 
from them all sign of Buddhistic worship. 
The partizans of the Mikndo are naturally 
favourers of Shinto ; and, as naturally, 
those of his over-shadowing rival, the Sho- 

fun, leaned to Buddhism. No consistent 
hintoist could have robbed his sacred maj- 
esty of his power after the fashion of the 
Buddhist Tokugawa. Mr. GriflBs gives a 
list of no less than seven Buddhistic sects 
in Japan, of which six have several sub- 
sects. The number of their temples is put 
at about sixty thousand. 

Bnddhism had quite overshadowed Shin- 
to, the ancient cult, when Christianity was 
first preached in Japan. To the Portu- 
guese, who first of Europeans penetrated to 
that distant country, belongs the honour of 
introducing the Christian religion. The first 
record in the native histories of the arrival 
of Europeans is dated 1 542, and the year is 
noted as the one in which fire-arms were 
first introduced. In 1549 Francis Xavier, 
who had made the acquaintance of a Japa- 
nese convert at Go a, accompanied by a bro- 



19 



2%e Mikctdo's Empire. 



Jan. 



ther Jesuit, landed at Kagoshima, in Sat- 
8uma. Christian itjr promised to be to 
Bnddhism what the Reformation in Europe 
had been to Catholicism. 'Buddhism,' Mr. 
Griffis relates, ' having lost its vitalizing pow- 
er, had degenerated into a commercial sys- 
tem of prayers and masses, in which salva- 
tion could be purchased only by the deeds 
and prayers of the priests. Nevertheless, 
its material and outward splendour was 
nev(T greater. Gorgeous vestments, blazing 
lights, imposing processions, altars of daz- 
zling magnificence, and a sensuous worship, 
captivated the minds of the people ; while 
indulgences were sold, and saints days and 
holidays and festivals were multiplied.' The 
success of the priesthood had turned their 
heads. The court itself had long owned 
their power. Under the line of Ashikaga 
Shoguns they had reached the acme of 
their influence. Their monasteries had 
multiplied, and possessed enormous wealth ; 
many of them were wallied and moated for- 
tresses, rather than peaceful abodes of clois- 
tered recluses. The times were disturbed ; 
it was the interregnum between the Ashi^ 
kaga and Tokugawa Shogunates. Taking 
advantage of the condition of affairs, the 
bonzes appeared in armour in the field, and 
equipped forces of their own to take part in 
the struggles of the time. Nobunaga, the 
great general of the sixteenth century, who 
deposed the last Shogun of the house of 
Ashikaga, * broke the power of the Bud- 
dhist priesthood,' says Mr. Adams,* * favour- 
ing the Christian religion, as a counterpoise 
to the extravagant pretensions of the native 
monasteries.' Under this favourable com- 
bination of circumstances Christianity, as 
preached by the Roman missionaries, spread 
rapidly. Xavier visited the capital, and 
within five years * seven churches were 
established within the vicinity of the city 
itself, whilst scores of Christian curamnni- 
ties had spnmg up in the 'south-west.' In 
little more than thirty years the number of 
churches was computed at two hundred ; of 
converts, at one hundred and fifty thousand. 
Daimios, and lords, and gentlemen, and 
high officials in the public service, embraced 
the faith of Christ. ' Mendicant friars 
from the Philippines, with Dominicans and 
Augustinians, flocked into the country.' In 
1583 an embassy of four young noolemen 
was sent by the Christian Daimio of Kiu- 
shiu to the Pope. 

Their rapid and easy progress had warmed 
the aggressive spirit of the Catholic mis- 
sionaries. They began to attack the char- 



* * History of Japan/ vol. i. p. 59. London. 
1874. 



actor of the bonzes, and incite their con- 
verts to insult the gods and desecrate their 
shrines. The enterprize had been regarded 
in Europe with interest, and ample funds 
had been supplied for its furtherance by 
the king of Spain. ITiis abundance of for- 
eign money caused suspicion in the minda 
of the Japanese rulers. The Protestant 
Dutch and English had made their appear- 
ance, and fed this suspicion of the good faith 
of their national and commercial rivals. 
Hideyoshi, known as Taico Sama, who rose 
to power after Nobunaga's death, decreed 
the expulsion of the missionaries. The 
edict was not executed, and the priests con- 
tinued to preach. A new arrival of Fran- 
ciscans exasperated the Taico, and in 1596 
he issued a second edict, and six Francis- 
cans, three native Jesuits, and seventeen 
other Christians, were put to death. When 
the Taico died the persecutions for a time 
ceased ; but on the accession of ly^yasti, 
the founder of the Tokugawa line of Sho- 
guns, the new ' settlement ' had displaced 
some of the old feudatories in favour of oth- 
ers hostile to Christianity. Secure in their 
new fiefs, these latter ordered their vassals 
to return to the old belief. The order was 
disobeyed, and the attempt to enforce it 
was followed by insurrection. Armed re- 
bellion against the liege-lord was a thing 
hitherto unheard of in Japan, where the 
quarrels had been between barons and 
princes. lyeyasii, suspecting foreign insti- 
gation, resolved to crush this mutinous 
spirit, and terrify the missionaries by bloody 
reprisals. Then commenced a period of exe- 
cutions, imprisonments, and deportations. 
In 1642 all foreigners except Dutch and 
English were banished from the country. 
Thirteen years later, at Shimabara, the na- 
tive Christians rose in rebellion, seized the 
castle, and stood a siege of two months. 
* The fortress,* says Mr. Griffis, ' was finally 
reduced with the aid of Dutch cannon, fur- 
nished under compulsion by the traders at 
Deshima.' The surrender was followed by 
the massacre of thirty-seven thousand Christ- 
ians ; thousands were hurled from the sum- 
mit of the steep islet of Pappenberg, at the 
entrance to Nagasaki harbour. The faith 
still lingered in obscure places. In 1829 
seven persons were crucified in Ozaka. In 
I860', French missionaries stated that they 
found over ten thousand professing Chris- 
tians in the villages near Nagasaki. A 
Japanese gentleman at Yedo informed us 
that when the feudal castles were recently 
destroyed, in several were found secret 
chambers fitted up as Romish chapels. But 
the Japanese in authority still seem to cher- 
ish a strong feeling against the religion ; or 



1878. 



ITie Mikadoes Mnpire. 



13 



at least they fear, as seems, too, to be the 
case Id China, that protection or toleration 
of the Roman Catholic form of it may give 
them trouble; for as late as 1871 the 
French and English charges ^affaires were 
compelled to protest against what one of 
them, Mr. Adams, calls *• a farther persecu- 
tion of the Christians.' Of the Protestant 
missionaries, thongh unfriendly to them, 
they are less suspicious ; and least of all, 
apparently, of the clergy of the Kusso- 
Greek Church, who are believed to have 
made a lai^e, and still increasing, number 
of converts. 

The tragic fate of the early Christian 
converts, and the new efforts being made by 
Protestant missionaries to evangelize the 
people, give to the religious history of Japan 
an unusual interest. To the civil histoi7 of 
the country, except that of later times, when 
it deals to a great extent with other nations 
and with ourselves, we can hardly expect 
the same interest to belong. The materials 
of which to construct it, and the Western 
scholars fitted for the work, are as yet too 
few. . Mr. Griffis, in his chapter, ^ The Ma> 
terials of History,' gives a sketch of the na- 
tive authorities on whom his own historical 
survey has been based. The body of Japa- 
nese histories forma the largest and most im- 
portant division of their voluminous litera- 
ture. Prior to the eighth century of the 
Christian era it is meagre, the Japanese 
having possessed no writing until the sixth. 
Attention has already been called to the 
mythology, and in it is enveloped much of 
what an ordinary Japanese takes to be the 
early history of his country. The following 
is a sketch of this Eastern cosmogony. 

In the beginning heaven and earth were 
not separated. The female principle, me, 
was still undetached from the male, 6, 
Chaos in the form of an. egg was agitated 
on troubled waves. Subtle and perfect 
matter formed^ ether : heavy and thick, it 
hardened and became compact. The for- 
mer rose up and formed heaven ; the latter 
fell and produced earth. A Kami, a divine 
being, was born in the midst. This event 
is regarded as the beginning of creation. 
He was the first of the seven celestial spir- 
its, and reigned a hundred thousand mil- 
lions of years. At length arose Izanagi and 
Izanami, representing the male and female* 
principles which, according to the Chinese 
mythology, pervade all creation. ' From 
their union, mountains, rivers, in fact all the 
earth, which to the Japanese was Japan, came 
into existence.' The first child was the Sun- 
Goddess, from whom it is asserted the pres- 
ent emperor is descended without a single 
break. The fifth in descent from the Sun- 



Goddess was Jlmmu (b.c. 607), the first 
mortal ruler, with whom history and chro- 
nology begin. From the traditions of the 
time we may infer that only the south-west- 
ern part of the main island owned his sway : 
the Ainos still held the northern, but were 
continually being pushed farther back by 
the Japanese. The early form of govern- 
ment was a pure monarchy. But in time 
came intestine broils, which make up the 
history of Japan for centuries. The su- 
preme power gradually fell into the hands 
of the Fajiveara family, sprung from the 
imperial house. Its members, that the 
usual course of Oriental history might not 
be diverted, sunk into slothful luxury, and 
gave way to military commanders, who 
raised themselves to a pre-eminence by per- 
sonal talent and warlike qualities. Thus one 
house fell and another rose upon its ruins. 
The divine descent of the Mikado had be- 
come a cardinal article of faith, and had 
given rise to a thoroughly theocratic govern- 
ment. The further progress of the country 
resembles that of Europe during the middle 
ages. 

Above all, highly honoured but without 
real power, stood the Mikado. Under him 
was a nobility, great and small, fighting for 
possession and power. In the contest the 
families which fell made room for others 
who came after. Money had to be obtained 
by robbery and contribution, or from the 
rich merchant, who, like the middle-ago 
Jews of the West, lent it at high interest 
and rewards in land. The lower classes 
were plundered and oppressed. * To the 
Church, too,' says a German writer,* ' was 
reserved to play a part in the wars of the 
Japanese middle ages not very different 
from that which she played in Germany. 
Notwithstanding much bloody persecution, 
Buddhism had succeeded in obtaining a 
firm footing in .[apan, and although its doc- 
trines were never able to excite the people 
to a religious war, still its priests acquired 
power and lands, and were not enemies or 
allies to be despised. Many a Buddhist 
abbot rode armed and equipped at the head 
of his men, and the monks of the convent 
on Hiyeizan have more than once taken a 
decisive part in the political wars of these 
times.* 

The effete Fujiwara, delegating their mili- 
tary infiuence to other families, allowed 
the chief commands to fall into the hands 
of the Taira and Minamoto (In Chinese, Hei 
and Gen f). The struggles of these houses 

* Quoted by Adams (vol. 1. p. 13), who is in 
general followed by Mr. Griffis. 
f The names in general used in literature. 



14 



lite Mikado's Empire. 



Jan. 



supply material for most of the historical 
romances of the country, ^fembcrs of them 
were from time to time appointed shojuns, 
or * generals,' against the barbarians. From 
their incessant rivalries and combats arose 
the military aristocracy which formed the 
basis of the later fendal baronage. At the 
fall of the Taira, Yoritomo of Minamoto 
rose to power, and he and his brother utter- 
ly destroyed the rival clan. From the Mika- 
do he received the title of Tai Sbogan, 
Great Shogun, and is usually considered the 
first of what were once called Uie secular 
nilcrs. He founded a city at Kamakura, 
and established his court there. His line 
was short, and power fell into the grasp of 
another family, the Hojo, who were to the 
Minamoto Shognns what the Fujiwara had 
been to the imperial house. Their rule 
lasted for seven generations, and then passed 
to the family of Ashikaga. Meanwhile the 
line otfainkint sovereigns was being contin- 
ued at Kiyoto. Emperors would abdicate 
and turn monk, leaving children on the 
throne, and would then, without any sense 
of responsibility, exercise a trivial authority 
which aggravated the confusion of their 
realm. The Ashikaga had risen to emi- 
nence in a struggle between the adherents 
of two emperors, to which, as in our War 
of the Roses, was given the name of the 
War of the Chrysanthemums. Their line 
lasted for two centuries and a half (a.d. 
1335 to 1573), and during it the power of 
the Shogunate and the depression of the 
Mikado were established. 

The mere fact of one great house so often 
succeeding another in the real government 
shows how powerful the great families had 
become. As the authority of the court de- 
clined, so that of the baronage increased. 
The Daimios maintsuned armies of retain- 
(Ts, built castles, and made themselves sover- 
eign in their territories. Ti}/B military class 
naturally came to the front in the frequent 
and protracted wars. Allegiance to the 
lord became the first of all duties. In 1574 
the great leader Nobunaga, of whom we 
have already heard as the persecutor of the 
Buddhists and the friend of the Christians, 
deposed the Ashikaga, and there was an in- 
terregnum at Kamakura till, at the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century, Iy6yasii 
founded the line of Tokugawa Shoguns 
which ruled at Ycdo, to which place he 
transferred his court from Kamakura, till 
1868. To lycyasii, who was a le^slator as 
well as a warrior, is attributed the perfect- 
ing of the dual system of government and 
feudalism. The old appellation of secular 
emperor, given him and his successors by 
the Dutch, is not so improper as has of late 



been held. Their position bore much re- 
semblance to that of the mediaeval European 
monarch s, overshadowed by the Pope and 
restrained by powerful feudatories, with 
whose history men of the West in the sev- 
enteenth century were most familiar. 

The recent revolution which put an end 
to this long-established power is too near 
our own times to enable us to judge with 
full accuracy of its effects. That it was duo 
in great measure to the jealousy cherished 
in many powerful households of the Tokn- 
gawa's influence, and to a revival of the old 
loyalty to the Mikados, too long obscured 
by their powerful vassal, is very probable. 
But the contact with foreigners unquestion- 
ably forced matters on. It has certainly 
been one of the most complete and astonish- 
ing known in history. The only parallel to 
it, and that falls far short of it in every par- 
ticular, is the emergence from Oriental ob- 
scurity of Kussia under Peter the Great. In 
1864 vassals and retainers of the Tokugawa 
had marched to Kiyoto and held the Mika< 
do in their power. The Lord of Chosiu- 
Nagato — our opponent at Shimonoseki — 
and the men of the south attempted to oust 
them, and were defeated. The hakufu, the 
Shogunal government, tried to destroy 
them, and raised the suspicions of other 
clans, %?ho left Chosiu and Tokugawa to 
fight it out almost alone. The end brought 
about the fall of the dual government, 
though not without long fighting and much 
bloodshed. The final defeat at Fushimi, 
near Kiyoto, in 1868, of the Shogun's vas- 
sals and allies by the Satsuma, Toza, and 
other clans, once more converted the Mika- 
do into a ruler de facto. 

In the revolution, by the side of many 
men of old famil}^ there came to the front 
some whose only recommendation was a 
knowledge of foreign countries and an ar- 
dent desire for change. The consequence 
was that the hotter heads got the best of it 
in argument as to the future government of 
the country, and foreign institutions were 
taken over wholesale. The Mikado emerged 
from his seclusion, moved abroad like a 
mortal of the earth, received envoys, presi- 
ded in council. Two attempts at parlia- 
mentary provernment were made and failed. 
In municipal affairs, which the inhabitants 
of cities have long been in some sort accus- 
tomed to manage themselves, it is to be 
hoped the success has been more assured. 
At fii*st the great nobles had been turned 
from princes of serai-independent territories 
into governors of the same on behalf of the 
Mikado, but in 1871 feudalism was finally 
and formally abolished. That the present 
form of centralized government is better for 



1878. 



27ie Americans in Turkei/. 



15 



t he country at the present day, connected 
as it is \vith foreign nations in. the bonds of 
diplomacy and commerce, no one can doubt. 
But no revolution so vast can have been 
carried out in so short a time, as has been 
this in Japan, without causing ^n amount 
of suffering which a slower movement would 
have spared the people. The flourishing 
aspect of the country, the roads, the tem- 
ples, the busy commerce on the inland wa- 
tei*s and streams, the vast area of cultivated 
land, prove beyond a doubt that under the 
late government the nation must have en- 
joyed a long period of profound tranquillity. 
In some districts, at least, it has not been 
so since. Yet the reformers deserve much 
credit for what tbey have accomplished in 
spite of the mistakes of the more sanguine 
among them. They have introduced rail- 
way communication, steam navigation, and 
electric telegraphs. The efficiency of their 
post office is shown by its carrying twenty 
millions of letters in a year. Every danger- 
ous headland is marked by a lighthouse or 
beacon ; the wastes are being surveyed, and 
the resources of the land developed. Earn- 
est attempts are being made to introduce a 
system of jurisprudence worthy of the new 
position assumed by the empire ; and to the 
honour of the new government, be it said, 
it has covered the country with schools, and 
has provided for the wants of many thou- 
sand scholars. We may smile at its at- 
tempts to become all at once a constitu- 
tional monarchy of the European type, and 
a great naval and military power, but we 
cannot help wishing that the beautiful coun- 
try of Japan may have a destiny as fortun- 
ate as its climate is bright and its geograph- 
ical position happy. 



Art, 1 1. — 27ie Americans in Turkey. 

(1.) Tlie Annual Reports of the American Board 
of Commissioners/or Foreign Missions. 1825- 
1875. 

(2.) Missionary Herald. Bound Volumes. 
1825-1875. 

(3.) History of the Missums of the A.B. C. F:M. 
to the Oriental Churches. By Rupus Akdbr- 
BON, D.D., late Foreign Secretary of the 
Board. Two Vols. 1873. 

(4.) Travels in litUe-hnoicn parts of Asia 
Minor. With Illustrations of Biblical Lit- 
erature and Researches in Archaeology. By 
H. J. Van Lennep, ^D.D. Two Vols. 
New York and London. 1870. 

(5.) Biblical Researches in Palestine. By Hev. 
Edward Robinson, D.D., and Rev. Eli 
Smith, D.D., Various editions. 



(6.) Hie Land and the Booh. By Rev. Wm. 
TaoMsoN, D.D., New York and. London. 
Various editions. 

(7.) Forty Years in the Turkish Empire. A 
Memoir of "William Qoodell, D.D., late 
Missionary of the A.B.C.F.M. at Constanti- 
nople. By Rev. E. D. O. Prime. D.D., 
New York. 1876. 

(8.) Bible Land^ : their Modern Customs and 
Manners^ illustrative of Scripture. By H. 
J. Van Lennep, D.D. Harper Bros. New 
York. 1876. 

(9.) The Women of the Arabs. By H. II. 
Jessup, D.D. New York. 1873. 

(10.) Ten Years on the Euphrates. By Rev. 
C. H. Wheeler. Cong. Board of Publica- 
tion. Boston, U.S.A. 

(11.) The Romance of Missions ; or, Inside 

Views of Life and Labour in tlie Land of 

Ararat. By Maria A. West, Missionary 

of the American Board in Turkey. 813 pp. 

New York. 1876. 

(12.) Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Edu- 
cation. Article, * Education in Turkey.' 
1876. 

In the following article we shall leave out of 
view the work of religious reformation, and 
confine ourselves to some of the incidental 
and secular results of the labours in which 
the Americans in Turkey have b6en engaged 
for the past half century. We make this 
omission not because we do not appreciate 
the importance of the religious reformation, 
but because the public is somewhat well in- 
formed in regard to that reformation, while 
these more secular and incidental results are 
not so well known. Fortunately for our 
purpose, in the various works mentioned at 
the head of this article, we have abundant 
and reliable sources of information. Above 
all others we place * The Annual Reports 
of the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions,' and the volumes of 
the * Missionary Herald ' from 1825 to 
1875, a period of just fifty years. The Re- 
ports have evidently been prepared by men 
of marked ability, and with a severe scru- 
tiny of the facts. It may be questioned 
whether the Turkish Government itself can 
present so complete and truthful a record 
of the material, social, and moral progress 
of the empire during the period under re- 
view, as is found in these Reports and the 
accompanying volumes of the * Herald.' 
The record is all the more valuable because 
it comes to us simply as the testimony of 
those who were labouring in the country for 
other than material ends. 

The work of Dr. Andereon is a history of 
the operations of the American Board of 
Missions in Turkey since 1820. It contains 
a great amount of information in regard to 
the strictly missionary work ; the style is 
clear but never impassioned ; the facts arc 



16 



The Americans in Turkit/, 



Jan. 



arranged in a methodical order, and the au- 
thor evidently omits a great deal more than 
he inserts, and a great deal too that would 
be interesting to the general reader. There 
is, however, no attempt to sketch the his- 
tory, character, or even the religious sys- 
tems of those among whom the missionaries 
have laboured. Had there been even brief 
statements in regard to the special charac- 
teristics of the various nationalities men- 
tioned, the value of the work would have 
been greatly increased. Little is said of 
the physical 'geography of the country, al- 
most nothing of the Turkish political sys- 
tem. Had the author devoted fifty pages 
to these and kindred topics as an introduc- 
tion to his work, his readers would have 
been greatly aided in understanding what 
the Americans are doing in Turkey. Not- 
withstanding this omission, the work is one 
of profound interest. We confess our in- 
debtedness to it for much of the informa- 
tion contained in the present article. The 
number who read these volumes of Secre- 
tary Anderson through will not be large, 
but it will be made up of those who are 
studying with deep interest the social and 
moral movements of modem times. 

Some of the deficiencies of the work of 
Dr. Anderson are supplied in great measure 
by those of Drs. Van Lennep and Thomson. 
Dr. Van Lennep informs us that he was 
born in Smyrna, but removed to America 
at an early age. Knowing many languages, 
and gifted moreover with an Oriental fond- 
ness for detail in telling a story, he has 
given us many a carefully-drawn picture of 
Oriental life and scenery. In the work en- 
titled * Travels in little-known parts of Asia 
Minor,' the manners and customs of the 
people, comments on the natural history 
and geology of the country, the private 
affairs of the author, and many other sub- 
jects, are introduced with a somewhat tedi- 
ous monotony. If the two volumes could 
be compressed into one, the improvement 
would be great. The ^most valuable por- 
tions of this work of Dr. Vj^n Lennep are 
those which relate to ancient monuments 
which he visited His accurate description 
of these monuments is greatly ^ided by ex- 
cellent woodcuts, the sketches for which 
were made by the author on the spot We 
know of scarcely anything of its kind more- 
interesting than the pen and pencil picture 
of Niob6 at the end of the second volume. 

The work by the same author, entitled 
'Bible Lands; their Modern Customs and 
Manners, illustrative of Scripture,' is a far 
more elaborate contribution to the literature 
illustrating the East, and is worthy of un- 
qualified praise. Part I. may fairly be 



termed an exhaustive treatise on the physi- 
cal geography of Asiatic Turkey ; while 
Part II. relates to the ethnology of the 
country, embracingi a clear account of the 
languages of the people, their manners and 
customs, their form and modes of govern- 
ment, almost everything, in short, that re- 
lates to their religious, social, and political 
life. Far from being prolix, the author 
seems desirous, in this volume, to give the 
greatest possible amount of information in 
the fewest possible words. We are confi- 
dent that no work on this subject has ap- 
peared for many years that will compare 
with this in the breadth of its view and in 
the thoroughness and clearness with which 
the details are worked out W^e are awaro 
that this is high praise, but we are sure we 
shall be sustained by those who critically 
examine the work. The volume, which ia 
a single imperial octavo of 832 pages, is 
handsomely printed, and elaborately and 
elegantly illustrated. 

'The Land and the Book,' by Wnj. 
Thomson, D.D., is the most popular contri- 
bution yet made by Americans to a knowl- 
edge of Eastern life and manners. Dr. 
Thomson has spent most of a long life in 
exploring Palestine and the adjacent coun- 
tries, in noting places, antiquities, plants, 
animals, the manners and customs of the 
people, historical allusions, ancient sites, in 
fact, everything of interest in that portion 
of the world. Apart from his labours as a 
missionary, these volumes appear to have 
been the great work of his life. The style 
is rather monotonous, and is not relieved 
by the conversational form into which most 
of the narrative is thrown. The work dif- 
fers entirely from that of Dr. Van Lennep 
last mentioned in its method of treating the 
same topics. Perhaps we can say that this 
is the more practical, the other the more 
scientific : the two together well nigh ex- 
haust the subjects of which they treat. 

Mr. Wheeler's * Ten Years on the Eu- 
phrates ' is a small volume, which is mainly 
taken up with an account of the work of 
evangelization as conducted by the mission- 
aries at Kharpoot. There are, however, 
many incidental references to the manners 
and customs of the people, to the produc- 
tions of the countiy, and occasional hints 
on questions of geography. Some of these 
questions are more distinctly mentioned in 
a small volume by the same author, entitled 
* Letters from Eden ' (Boston, 1868). Both 
these volumes were evidently written amid 
the rush of daily work, and show a lack of 
careful research, yet they are valuable for 
the purpose for which they were prepared. 

We took up the work of Dr. Jessup, 



1878. 



The Americans in Turkey. 



17 



* The Women of the Arabs,' with the ex- 
pectation of finding roach information in it 
in regard to Arab women : we were disap- 
pointed. The volume relates almost excla- 
sivelj to the women of Christian and other 
races in Syria who have no Arab blood in 
them. The title of the book, therefore, is 
misleading ; it should have been * The Wo- 
men of Syria.' The work itself is rather 
disjointed and unequal in its different parts. 
We cannot help feeling that the author has 
made the dark ground of his picture too 
dark, and has painted the results of the 
efforts for the improvement of women in 
Syria in colours considerably too bright 
Dt. Jessup writes like an enthusiast ; many 
interesting facts are told in a graphic way, 
but the details are somewhat heavy, and 
yon lay down the book with a rather dis- 
biatisfied feeling. A good dinner requires 
something more than pies, cakes, ice-creams, 
and champagne. We trust Dr. Jessup will 
rewrite this book : the subject is one of the 
deepest - interest, and there is no work at 
present that satisfies the public demand for 
accurate information in regard to it. 

We are sure our readers will thank us 
for calling their attention to the volume of 
Y)r. Prime, entitled, ' Forty Years in the 
Turkish Empire : a Memoir of William 
(loodell, D.D.' The volume is principally 
made up of the letters and reminiscences of 
]>. Goodell. The letters are full of genial 
humour, and written in a singularly pure 
and simple style. Dr. Goodell has some- 
times been called the prince of missionary 
writers. Few who begin to read this vol- 
ume will lay it aside until it is finished. 
Dr. Prime has collected and placed at the 
end of his work all tbe official declarations 
made of late years by the Turkish Govern- 
ment in regard to religious liberty. 

Other works besides those mentioned 
abovo have been on our table while study- 
ing the subject we have in hand, some of 
them by English and some by American 
authors. Our sources of information, there- 
fore, have been ample and of the best kind. 
What then are some of the results of this 
effort of the men of the New World to in- 
troduce modern ideas and modern civiliza- 
tion into the very heart of the Old ? Wc 
sav * the heart of the Old World,* for when 
wc speak of Turkey we mean the country 
which contains the sites and the old cities 
of Ur, Nineveh, Babylon, Damascus, Thebes, 
Troy, Baalbeck, Palmyra, and Jerusalem. 
We shall endeavour to answer this question 
by giving some account of what the Ameri- 
cans have accomplished in the Turkish Em- 
pire in respect to the following particulars : 
— 1. Exploration ; including some notice of 

you Lxvii. B^2 



the Physical Geography and Ethnology of 
the Country. 2. Literature and Education. 
3. Medical Practice ; and 4. The Improved 
Condition of Woman. 

No one can fail to notice, at the outlet, 
the sharp contrast between the American 
and the Oriental. The Oriental is sluggish 
almost to indifference ; he dreads change, 
he easily submits to the decrees of fate ; he 
has a profound regard for authority, and is 
disposed to allow all things to take their 
own course. To him time is of little value, 
success is not essential. Abundance of 
sleep, plenty of food, pipes, coffee, narco- 
tics, long stories, formality, dignity, all 
these enter largely into the daily life of the 
dweller in the East. How strangely differ- 
ent the American. Nervous, impatient, 
short aod sharp in speech, always in a hur- 
ry, despising formality, careless of his dress,* 
unwilling to sleep till exhausted by over- 
work, ready to put his dissecting knife into 
everything, determined to make eveiy un- 
dertaking a success, self-confident, filled 
with the conviction that American ideas are 
destined to lead the world, working always 
for definite results, and adapting his means 
to the end in a most positive way, who can 
predict the result of bringing this restless 
New Englander face to face with the slow 
and dignified Oriental I Strange as it may 
seem, wo believe that the very sharpness of 
this contrast has been one of the main ele- 
ments in the success of the Americans in 
dealing with the people of Turkey. The 
Oriental needed something bold and posi. 
tive to arouse him, and this he has found in 
the Americans ; for it must be confessed 
that whatever may be the short-comings of 
the citizens of the great Republic, a want 
of positiveness and self-conndence is not 
one of them. 

Turning now to the actual work done by 
the Americans in Turkey, we call attention 
first of all to what they have accomplished 
as explorers of the country. On a careful 
examination of the authorities, we have 
noted the following facts. Two Americans, 
Messrs. Fisk and Parsons, examined the 
country embracing the Seven Churches as 
early as 1820. In 1823 Messrs. Fisk and 
King ascended tbe Nile as far as Thebes*, 
making and publishing copioiut notes of the 
journey. Between 1821 and 1827 Messrs. 
Parsons, Fisk, King, Goodell, and Smith 
had explored nearly the whole of Palestine. 
In 1827 Mr. Gridley travelled through Cap- 
padocia. In 1830 Messrs. Smith and D wight 
started on a tour through Asia Minor to 
Persia. As this journey was an extended 
one, and led to important results, it is wor- 
thy of more particular mention. These 



18 



The Americans in Ihirkey. 



Jan. 



travellers left Constanlinopic on horseback, 
April 12th, 1830. They were dressed like 
.native Tarks, in order not to attract atten- 
tion, and they proposed to go overland 
from th^ straits of the Bosphonis to the 
shores of the Caspian Sea, a distance of 
about one thousand miles in a direct line. 
The regions throngh which they were to 
pass were then little known ; many parts of 
Turkey were inhabited by independent and 
hostile tribes ; property was unprotected ; 
there was no post, no telegraph in the coun- 
try ; there were no st-earacrs on the Black 
or Mediterranean seas. Such a journey, 
then, may be compared to a trip from the 
head of Lake Snperior to Alaska, or to a 
journey from Allahabad into the heart of 
Central Asia at the present time. Our trav- 
^cllers were gone fifteen and a half months 
and returned in good health and spirits. 
They were richly rewarded by the informa- 
tion which they had obtained in regard to 
the regions through which they had passed, 
and the tribes and races which they had 
seen. This information is common enough 
now, but it was rare and interesting then. 
The travellers told their story in two fnod- 
est volumes, which were published in Bos- 
ton in 1833. That story made a deep im- 
pression on the minds of many thoughtful 
men, and led to the inau^^uration of import- 
ant measures for the enlightenment and re- 
formation of the tribes which the travellers 
had visited. 

The exploration of Palestine by Dr. Ed- 
ward Robinson, aided by Dr. Eli Smith, 
soon followed that of Armenia and Persia 
by Smith and Dwight. These investiga- 
tions marked an era in antiquarian research : 
they began in 1838 and w^ero renewed in 
1852. No one can read the volumes of 
these explorers without being impressed by 
the great amount of labour which they per- 
formed, and by the practical common sense 
which they applied to every branch of their 
investigations. It is hardly too much to 
say that a great part of the romance of the 
Uoly Land was destroyed by these unpoeti- 
cal Americans, yet in its place we have a 
vast amount of historical information rest- 
ing on a solid basis of ascertained facts. 
The dross of history has been thrown away, 
its pure gold remains with us. The efforts 
of Kobinson and Smith changed the meth- 
od of antiquarian research in the East, and 
gave a new impulse to such research. The 
very title of Robinson's volumes has been a 
constant stimulus to all subsequent explor- 
ers. That title, * Researches in Palestine 
and the adjacent regions,' exactly explains 
the character of the work. Since these vol- 
umes appeared men have not felt satisfied 



with second-hand reports; explorers have 
been compelled to see for themselves, to ex- 
amine, to measure, to weigii the evidence on 
the spot. Later visitors have added much 
to what Robinson recorded, but no one of 
them of any respectability fails to acknowl- 
edge large indebtedness to the American 
traveller. A few have not agreed with him 
on isolated points, but any attempt to do- 
tract from the importance of what he did 
meets a quick protest from the best scholars 
on both sides of the Atlantic. At the time 
of his death Robinson was engaged on what 
he hoped to make the great work of his 
life, a treatise on the physical geography of 
Palestine, Syria, and the adjoining regions. 
The fragment of this work which was 
published after his death makes us deeply 
regret that he was not spared to carry ont a 
design of such grand proportions. That 
Dr. Robinson was often dogmatic, and ex- 
tremely tenacious of his own opinions, can* 
not be denied. lie sometimes unjustly and 
too severely criticizes the opinions of others 
— in these respects some of the unpleasant 
characteristics of onr trans-Atlantic cousins 
appear to his great disadvantage — ^yet it 
must be admitted in his favour that he form- 
ed his opinions only after mature deliberation, 
and therefore held them the more firmly ^ and 
his most severe criticisms were reserved for 
those who were pretenders in biblical re- 
search: for such persons his most bitter 
sarcasm seemed to him to come short of 
their deserts. Our own Palestine Explora- 
tion Committee speak thus of Robinson 
(' Our Work in Palestine,' pp. 7, 8) : * But the 
nrst real impulse, because the first success- 
ful impulse, towards scientific examination 
of the Holy Land, is duo to the American 
traveller, Dr.* Robinson. lie it was who 
first conceived the idea of making a work 
on biblical geography, to be based, not on 
the accounts of others, but on his own ob- 
servations and discoveries. He fitted him- 
self for his ambitious undertaking by the 
special studies of fifteen years, mastering the 
whole literature of the subject, and above 
all clearing the way for his own researches by 
noticing the deficiencies and weak points of 
his predecessors. He went, therefore, know- 
ing what to look foVf and what had been al- 
ready found. His first journey was in 1838, his 
second in 1852. On each occasion he had 
the good fortune to be accompanied by his 
fellow-countryman, Dr. Eli Smith, a master 
of the Arabic language, and a keen and 
careful observer. Both travellers were gift- 
ed with that calm and sober common sense 
necessary above all things in a country where 
enthusiasm so often endangers accuracy, 
and a man, perfectly and entirely truthful 



' 1878. 



77ie Aniericans m Turkey, 



19 



and honest, sees wh^t ho wishes to see. 
Dr. Robinson soeras first to have recognized 
that most important aid to biblical identifi- 
cation, the modem Arabic names, and the 
first edition of his work contains a very 
valaable list of names, chiefly collected by 
Dr. Eli Smith. Dr. Robinson, starting with 
the broad canon ' that all ecelesiastical tra- 
dition respecting the sacred places in and 
around Jerusalem and throughout Palestine 
is of no value, except so far as it is support- 
ed by circumstances known to us from the 
Scriptures or from other contemporary his-' 
tory,' was the first (except the German book- 
seller Korte, of the eighteenth century) to 
impugn the accuracy of the traditional sites. 
. . . Let it be understood that Dr. Robin- 
son is the first of scientific travellers. His 
travels took him over a very large extent of 
ground, covering a large part of the whole 
country from Sinai north, and his books are 
still, after thirty years, the most valuable 
works which we possess on the geography 
of Palestine.' This is high praise, but not 
too high, and graceful as coming from Eng- 
lishmen. Dr. Thomson has followed up 
the explorations of Robinson and Smith, 
and has added greatly to the information 
which they have given us. In these latter 
days the Americans have undertaken the 
scientific exploration of the region east of 
the Jordan. It is too soon to judge of their 
success, but it is pleasant to know that they 
arc working in entire harmony with the 
English Palestine Exploration Society. 
One of the best illustrations of what the 
Americans have accomplished in Turkey in 
the way of exploration, is afforded in the 
labours of Dr. Grant in Kflrdistan. 

The Kurds arc undoubtedly the descend- 
ants of the ancient Carduchians, who are 
mentioned so frequently by Xcnophon in 
the Anabasis. They live in the same moun- 
tains, and are now what the Carduchians 
were 2,000 years ago. When Dr. Grant 
went among them they were still lawless 
robbers, unsubdued by the Turkish Govern- 
ment. A few years before, Schultz — the 
celebrated German traveller — lost his life 
among them. Grant was not afraid to 
enter the mountain fastnesses of their cuun* 
try, to stop at their villages, to examine 
their habits and customs, and note the pe- 
culiarities of the physical geography of that 
part of Turkey. He gave us the first au- 
thentic information we have received in 
modern times in regard to many interesting 
questions relating to the Kttrds, the Ncsto- 
rians, and other dwellers among the Kur- 
dish mountains. He was undoubtedly 
greatly aided in making these explorations 
by his knowledge of medicine and his skill 



as a surgeon. 



Even with this powerful ally, 
thirty-five years ago it required no little 
mornl courage to explore KUrdistan. Here 
is a description of his attending a celebra- 
ted Kurdish chief in 1839. * The sentinels 
upon the ramparts were sounding the watch- 
cry at midnight in the rough tones of their 
native KUrdiah. We entered the outer cour^ 
through wide, iron-ciised, folding-doors. A 
second iron door opened into a long dark 
alley, which conducted to the room where 
the chief was lying. It was evident that he 
was becoming impatient ; and as I looked 
upon the swords, pistols, guns, spears, and 
daggers, which hung around the walls of the 
room, I could not but think of the fate of 
the unfortunate Schultz, who had fallen, as 
it is said, by the orders of this sanguinary 
chief. He had the power of life and death in 
his hands.' The chief recovered, and, in token 
of his gratitude, made his benefactor the 
present of a beautiful horse. Grant soon fell 
a victim to his own enthusiasm : he died at 
Mosul, after an active career in the East of 
but a few years. His memoir and letters in 
the * Missionary Herald ' give us, even now, 
the moat reliable information we have in re- 
gard to the Kurdish mountains and their 
wild inhabitants. Dr. Grant was followed 
at Mosul by Dr. Lobdell, whose memoir has 
been prepared by Professor Wm. H. Tyler, 
of Amherst College, U.S.A., but we shall 
speak of his labours under the head of 
Medical Practice. In this memoir (pp. 
213-227) will be found an instructive ac- 
count of a visit to the singular sect of the 
Yezidees, or devil- worshippers ; and in the 
various numbers of the * Missionary Herald ' 
the letters of Dr. Lobdell contain a large 
amount of information in regard to this 
strange people, information which could 
only be gathered by the personal inspection 
of one acquainted with their language. 

Besides these extended and positive ex- 
plorations, the correspondence with the Mis- 
sionary House shows that nearly all of the • 
Americans have been more or less engaged 
in the work of exploration. There are ac- 
counts of extended journeys by Hamlin, 
Riggs, and Byington, in European Turkey ; 
by Johnston, Azoniah Smith, Peabody, 
Dunmore, and Trowbridge, in ancient Ar- 
menia ; by Coffing, [Schmider, and Adams, 
in Cilicia and Cappadocia ; by Wheeler, 
Basnum, Allen, and Williams, in Mesopota- 
mia ; and by Knapp in the region of Lake- 
Van, Trutr the immediate object of these 
travellers was not the exploration of the 
country, but with commendable common 
sense they have noted almost innumerable- 
facts in regard to its general features, arid 
have collected a great amount of informa- 



20 



77ie Americana in Turkey. 



Jan. 



tion that must be of special value to all 
students of the geography of those regions. 
The history of thcj civilized portions of our 
race seems to flow back to Egypt, Palestine, 
Mesopotamia, and Armenia, the very coun- 
tries where the Americans have lately stud- 
ied and worked. May we not hope that their 
continued occupation and examination of 
the country will throw 'light on some of the 
interesting questions that are now attracting 
so much attention, the questions, we mean, 
relating to the early occupation of. those 
lands by the primitive races. 

The physical features of the country natu- 
rally attracted the attention and secured 
the admiration of the Western strangers. 
They found the climate delightful, the soil 
rich : broad plains stretched far and wide, 
till they struck the base of rough, towering 
mountains. The vine, the olive, the mul. 
berry, rich fields of waving grain, reminded 
them of the luxury of nature, so often the 
burden of classic song. The rivers, too, so 
celebrated in the history and the poetry of 
the world, the Ilalys, the Araxes, the Cyd- 
nus, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the 
Orontes and the Meander, still roll on to 
the seas, as they did in the infancy of our 
race. Here arc the plains where the armies 
of the Greeks and Persians, the Romans 
and the Barbarians, the Moguls and the 
Turks, enriched the soil with their blood. 
Through these narrow passes of the Taurus 
Alexander and the Crusaders defiled as they 
marched to the East, The physical fea- 
tures of Asia Minor are deeply interesting 
in themselves, but that interest is increased 
by the fact that you cannot look there upon 
external nature without connecting it with 
the wonderful events that have occurred in 
the past in the very presence of these same 
natural objects. As you climb the Asiatic 
Olympus, you remember that Pliny was 
once governor of Bithynia;*as you stand 
on the battle-field of Issus, and look north 
to the snow-covered Taurus ranges, you 
remember that some of the most beautiful 
letters of Cicero were written when be Was 
governor of Cilicia. Egypt, Palestine, the 
Nile, the Jordan, the Hellespont, the Bos- 
phorus, Rhodes, Cyprus, the islands of the 
^Egean Sea, Smyrna, the plains of Troy — 
we mention them all, only to bring before 
the mind's eye the wonderful physical beau- 
ty of the localities in which so many of the 
great events of man's history have occurred. 

What of the races of men now inhabiting 
these countries, and what light have the 
Americans thrown upon their national char- 
acteristics ? These questions open before 
us a wide field, and we must limit ourselves 
in this branch of our subject. We may 



partially answer the last question first, by 
saying that in their published works and let- 
ters the Americans have brouorht out in the 
clearest manner the marked and peculiar 
characteristics of each nationality. This is 
especially true of the scholarly works of 
Dr. Van Lennep, but it appei^rs in all of the 
published writings of the Americans who 
have lived in Turkey. 

One of the marked peculiarities of the 
Turkish Empire is the great number of 
separate races over whom the Sultan is 
called to bear rule. Some of those arc the 
following : the Kiirds, the Osmanli Turks, 
the Arabs, the Yczidees, the Greeks, the 
Bulgarians, the Circassians, the Copts, the 
Armenians, the Druses, the Maronites, and 
the Turcomans. Besides these there are 
great numbers of occasional and straggling 
residents, as Gipsies, Persians, Hindu Fa- 
kirs, and wanderers from the interior of 
Africa and from the most distant regions of 
Central and Eastern Asia. Of the Christian 
races, the Americans have come most in 
contact with the Greeks, the Armenians, 
the Bulgarians, and the Copts. The Greeks 
are too well known to require special notice 
here. As the Armenians, in modern times, 
have been brought forward to the notice of 
the civilized world in great measure by the 
Americans, a brief but particular notice of 
them will not be out of place. The same 
may be said of the Bulgarians. 

The Armenians are undoubtedly one of 
the old, or primitive races of men. One of 
the names which they give to their country 
is ' Ashkanzean : ' this is derived plainly 
from Askenaz, who was the brother of To- 
garmah and the son of Gomer. They also 
call their country *Doon Torkomah,* the 
' House of Torkomah,' or Togarmah. There 
seems much reason to believe that the Ar- 
menians have .occupied Armenia ever since 
the nations were dispersed over the face of 
the earth, and that they retain, to a great 
extent, the early characteristics of the race. 
They are described by one of the Ameri- 
cans as * of medium height, squarely built, 
complexions rather dark, hair a glossy 
black, dark and beautiful eyes, thin frames 
firmly knit, so that they are capable of a 
great amount of physical labour. Many of 
the men have great strength. The marriage 
relation is guarded with the greatest sancti- 
ty ; illegitimate births are almost unknown 
among them ; marriage ties are seldom brok- 
en, or marriage vows violated : for many cen- 
turies intennarriages of- relations have been 
strictly prohibited both by law and custom. 
These causes, combined with a bracing cli- 
mate, have produced a people remarkable for 
health and physical strength. Many of the ' 



1878. 



The Americans in Turkey, 



21 



females of the higher classes, especially in 
youth, are very beautiful.' The same wri- 
ter adds : ' The Armenians have a high de- 
firree of mental capacity : this .is ehown in 
their ready mastery of the details of busi- 
ness, in the rapid progress they make in 
study whenever the opportunity is present- 
ed to Ihem. Their young men generally 
take a high stand in scholarship when ad- 
mitted to the schools and colleges of Europe 
and America. They have a sincere rever- 
ence for the aged, and delight in recounting 
the deeds of the .great heroes of their race. 
In comparing them, in respect to their men- 
tal characteristics, with the civilized nations 
of the West, we should remember their his- 
tory, a history which, for several hundred 
years, has been one sad tale of oppression 
and sorrow. If we boar this in mind, we 
shall wonder at the great amount of mental 
life and activity now existing among this 
interesting people.' * It would take us too 
far from our purpose to enter largely into 
the history'and prospects of the Armenians. 
This much is plain, that the Armenians be- 
long to the races that have a future before 
them. In Russia and Persia as well as in 
Turkey they are increasing in numbers and 
in wealth. They have an aptitude for busi- 
ness, and this will serve them a good turn 
as the semi-civilized countries in which they 
dwell are more opened to the commerce of 
the world. The Bulgarians have recently 
acquired a painful notoriety in consequence 
of their treatment by the irregular troops of 
the Turkish Government. They come origi- 
nally from the Volga, that part of Asia 
which has so long been the swarming hive 
of the human race. They are part of the 
great Slav family : tlie old Slavic is their 
ancient language, and they use the same 
alphabet and character in writing and print- 
ing Bulgarian as is used by the Russians. 
Thev number about five millions, and occu- 
py the great plains of European Turkey on 
both sides of the Balkan mountains. Tbey 
are essentially an agricultural people, very 
industrious, hard-working, peaceful. Du- 
ring the past twenty years no one of the 
subject races of Turkey has made such rapid 
strides in education ; great numbers of com- 
mon and high schools have been established 
among them ; the teachers are all supported 
by the people, and are well paid. A sepa- 
rates exarch and bishops of their own have 
recently been granted them by the Porte, 
so that they are now free from the over- 
bearing dominion of the Greek patriarch 
and Greek ecclesiastics. School-books, news- 

* ' Armenia and the Armenians. ' The New 
Englander, New Haven. U.S.A. Jan. 1874. 



papers, the Scriptures, magazines, tracts, and 
pamphlets, are having an immense sale 
among them. Under the fosterin'g care of 
a good government there can be little doubt 
that the Bulgarians would soon rise to a 
high scUle among the nations of Europe. 
We mention them thus particularly, because 
in various ways since 1858 they have come 
in contact with the Americans., Many of 
their books have been prepared by the 
Americans, and the Bulgarian newspaper 
that has by far the largest circulation is 
edited and published by them. 

Of the Mohammedan races, the Ameri- 
cans have thrown special light upon the his- 
tory and peculiarities of the Osmanli Turks, 
the Kurds, the Bedawin Arabs, and the 
Yezidees, if it is proper to class those last 
named among Mohammedans. We must, 
however, refer our readers to the works we 
have mentioned for information in regard 
to these races, remarking only in passing 
that the best description we have seen of 
the life and character of the Kiirds is found 
in the Memoir of Dr. Grant. 

Such then are the physical aspects and 
such the motley character of the inhabitants 
of the Eastern lands on which the Ameri- 
cans entered fifty yeara ago. Wliat have 
they accomplished ? A full answer to this 
question would take us beyond the limits of 
our space. We can only briefly indicate 
certain lines of efiEort, and the results that 
have thus far been reached. Mistakes have 
inevitably been made in prosecuting so difli- 
cult a work, and no doubt a considerable 
degree of imperfection is to be found in the 
results themselves. We turn first to what 
is usually designated as the work of the 
Press, Under this general term we include 
everything of every sort that the Americans 
have published in the various languages of 
Turkey. It is but fair to mention that 
when they began their labours in this de- 
partment, somewhat over fifty years ago,, 
the modern press was unknown in Turkey. 
Not a newspaper was published in the coun- 
try, there was not a school-book in any one 
of the modern languages. 

We have before us a catalogue of the 
books, tracts, and newspapers published by 
the Americans in the various languages of 
Turkey. W^e find in this list publications 
in Arabic, Greek, Armenian (ancient and 
modern), Bulgarian, Turkish, Hebrew-Span- 
ish, and Kurdish, besides what has been is- 
sued in the European languages. More- 
over, some of the books are published two 
or three times in the same language, but in 
a different character. Thus we find the 
Scriptures issued in Turkish written with 
three different characters, the Arabic, the 



22 



lyte Americans in Turkey, 



•Tan. 



Armenian, and tbc Greek ; and iheso ver- 
sions are styled the Arabo-Turkish, the 
Armeno-Turkisb, and tbc Greco-Turkish. 
So also of certain school and hymn-books. 
It is found that many Armenians* do not 
know Armenian, but Turkish : books there- 
fore have to be prepared for tlieni in the 
Turkish language, but written with the Ar- 
menian character. The same is true in re- 
spect to a large percentage of the Greeks in 
lurkey : they know only Turkish, but write 
it with the Greek character. When it is 
remembered that these bocks must be pre- 
pared in these different languages and dia- 
lects, and in these different characters, and so 
correctly as to stand the test of the severe 
criticism ^f educated men, we can form 
some idea of tbn obsfacles overcome and 
the amount of labour bestowed by the 
Americans on this department of their 
work. Take for example the books that 
liave been prepared for the common and 
Iiigher schools. Dr. Cyrus Hamlin declares 
that when his countrymen entered Turkey 
there was not a school-book to be found in 
the spoken languages of the country. In 
looking over tlie published catalogue of 
books, we find a great number of school- 
books in the various languages now spoken 
in Turkey. A few of these we shall men- 
tion, as illustrating this special department 
of work. 



11 



Id Armeno-Turkiuh. A Readiog Book No. 1. 

" " 8... fm 

Oeo^ntphy 105 

Grammar Sns 

PhTHiology 869 

Arithmetic 66 

Ditto W»7 

Church Hl»toi7 806 

*• 7T8 



00 paces. 



»« 






ti 



4» 



kS 






t4 



»4 



In Armenian. letlleftd(»r 106 '* 

Geography SOB »* 

Sud. or Largo Reader 388 *' 

*• Grammar 898 ** 

' * IntcHectual Philoaopby 808 *' 

" Arithmetic 819 " 

" WorkonthaWni 814 ** 

•• Moral Science 989 '* 

" Whately 'a Evidences 187 *• 

•• Hopkins's •• 469 »* 

*' fiystematic Theology 50H ** 

'* (Geometry 987 " 

** History of the BeformaUon, 

Vol. I .688 " 

** Histonr of the Beformation, 

*• Algebra 9ti2 " 

Grammar of English 964 ** 



»t 



In English. Grammar of Armeno-Turklsh M ** 

" Armenian 84 •* 

** Grammar and Vocabulary of Bul- 
garian 947 ** 

Quite a number of newspapers are pub- 
lished by the Americana at Constantinople 
and Biemt, in the Arabic, Armenian, Ar- 
mono-Turkish, Greco-Turkish, and Bulga- 
rian languages. Tlie circulation by sub- 
scription of those published at Constantino- 
ple alone is now 6,501 copies. 

AVe pass over the school-books that have I 



been prepared in the other languages and 
dialects ; in the above list we have placed 
only those works that seem most interest- 
ing and important In examining this list, 
we should remember that these works have 
been prepared only as an incidental part of 
the work of the Americans in Turkey. In 
the preparation of these books the}* have 
doubtless been greatly aided by well-edu- 
cated natives of the country, but the final 
decision, and indeed the main responsibility, 
must have rested with the missionaries. As 
large editions of these school-books have 
been sold, and as the books themselves arc 
now used in all parts of the country, their 
influence in raising the general standard of 
education must be considerable. 

The most important contribution, how- 
ever, which the Americans have made to 
the literature of Turkey, is found in tbo 
accurate translations which they have made 
of the Christian Scriptures. These transla- 
tions are worthy of special notiqe, because, 
apart from the religious influence of the 
Scriptures, they are making a marked im- 
pression upon the intellectual life of the 
various nationalities of Turkey. Fifty years 
ago there was no version of the Scriptures 
in any one of the modern languages of that 
country. The task of making these transla- 
tions was not an ordinary one. Regard 
must be had, on the one hand, to the nn. 
educated classes — the style must be such 
that the common people would readily un- 
derstand the meaning ; on the other band, 
regard must bo had to the educated classes 
— the style must be sufficiently elegant and 
idiomatic to commend itself to the taste of 
those who are proud of the literary excel- 
lences of their ancient tongues. The Ameri- 
cans may fairly claim that they have suc- 
ceeded in this diflicult task, in respect at 
least to four of the important languages of 
the countrv. We refer to the modern Ar- 
menian, the Arabic, the Turkish, and the 
Bulgarian. The Turkish versions have 
varied somewhat, according as they have 
been prepared for the Armenians, the 
Greeks, or the Osmanii Turks. The pre- 
paration of the entire Bible in the Armeno- 
Turkisb language (the Turkish language 
written with the Armenian characten was 
the life work of the late ^Villianl Good- 
ell, D.D. The Rev. Dr. Schauffler has given 
many years to the preparation of a version 
of the Scriptures iu the Arabo-Tarkish, or 
Turkish written with the Arabic character ; 
while at the present time a permanent com- 
mittee, of which the Rev. Dr. Riggs is 
chainnan, is engaged in an attempt to re- 
cast all the Turkish vervions of the Bible, 
and form one that may be printed in any 



1878. 



Tli^ Americans in Turkey, 



23 



character. We understaod that there is 
one £n«r)ish representative on this commit- 
tee. The translation of the Scriptures into 
Arabic is the result of the labours of two 
accomplished American scholars, Kev, Ell 
Smith, D.D., and Rev. C. V. A. Van Dyck, 
D.D. Wc are assured by many who are 
capable of judging, that this Arabic version 
of the Scriptures is worthy 9f the highest 
praise, and reflects great credit upon the 
scholarship of the translators. The same is 
»aid of the translations of the Bible that 
have been made into modem Armenian and 
Bulgarian by the Kev. Elins Higgs, D.D. 
We cannot forbear quotfng an extract from 
a letter from Dr. Kiggsin regard to the time 
spent on this branch of his work. 

You ask (he^says) in regard to the time de- 
voted to the Armenian and Bulgarian transla- 
tions of the Bible. In both cases the transla- 
tions were first issued in parts in small edi- 
tions, intended partly to supply the existing 
demand and partly to secure criticisms and to 
leave room for corrections arising from com- 
parison of the different parts of the Bible. In 
both cases the whole Bible^was finally printed 
in a single imperial octavo volume, with re- 
ferences. To the Armenian Bible (including 
the two editions) I gave most of my time for 
seven years, and to the Bulgarian, more than 
half of my time for eleven years. How long 
our committee will take to complete the Turk- 
ish version, it is quite impossible to say. We 
spent a year on the four gospels. 

When wo remember that these translations 
are all made from the original Hebrew and 
Greek ; and when we remember also that 
the translations, when put in their perma- 
nent form, have been commended by the 
best Arabic, Turkish, Bulgarian, and Arme- 
nian scholars of Turkey ; and when wc re- 
call also the great obstacles the Americans 
must have met in carrying these translations 
through 'the press at Constantinople and 
Beirut, we cannot refrain from expressing 
our appreciation, not only of their high 
scholarship, but of their persevering dili. 
gence and steadfastness of purpose, and we 
arc convinced that generations of men yet to 
come will join in this hearty commendation. 
We have taken no little pains to inquire as 
to the style and character of the aids to the 
higher education that have been issued by 
the Americans in Turkey. We regret that 
the number of these works is not larger. 
As the work of the Americans is essentially 
evangelistic, it was natural perhaps that 
many books especially adapted to that kind 
of work should be issued. We are glad to 
find that the professors in the college at 
Beirut have felt the importance of supply- 
ing, to some degree, the wants of educated 
men and of those who wish to enter upon 



the study of the higher branches of science. 
They have published in Arabic a work on 
Anatomy, of 741 pages octavo, illustrated 
by 360 cuts ; they have also published in 
the same language text-books on Chemistry, 
Natural History, Physiology, Botany, Sur- 
gery, Materia Medica, Mental Philosophy, 
Physical Diagnosis, and Astronomy. A 
monthly medical journal is also published 
by one of the medical professors. Treatises 
on Pathology, Geology, and History are in 
course of preparation. The testimony of 
those best qualified to judge in regard to 
the character of these books, is that they 
are well prepared both in respect to matter 
and the style of the language. 

From the annual report of the American 
Board for 1875 we make the following ex- 
tract : — * The printing of the mission dur- 
ing 1874 amounted to 1,006,000 pages in 
Armenian, 220,400 pages in Armeno-Turk- 
ish, 107,800 pages in Greco-Turkish, and 
450,420 pages in Bulgarian, making a total 
of 1,784,620 pages in that year, and a total 
from the first of 300,436,800 pages.' Dur- 
ing the same year there were printed in 
Arabic at Beirut, 30,000 vols, and 9,791,- 
910 pages, making a total from the first ii> 
Arabic of 146,023,320 pages. If we add 
together the number of pages printed from 
the first at Constantinople and Beirut, wc 
find a total of 446,460,120. As to the 
weekly neyrspapers : of the * Avedaper,' in 
Armenian and Armeno-Turkish, 1,600 copies 
were published ; and of the monthly paper 
bearing the Fame name, 4,000 copies were 
published ; of the * Zornitza ' (the * Morn- 
ing Star,' in Bulgarian), 2,000 copies were 
published. 

We notice that several volumes have been 
prepared both in Turkish and Arabic for 
the blind, according to Moon's system. 

As in regard to literature, so in regard to 
education, the theory on which the Ameri- 
cans have worked in Turkey has been that 
all their efforts should converge towards the 
evangelization of men. What they have 
undertaken therefore in respect to schools, 
seminaries of learning, and colleges, is in a 
sense incidental to their general work, and 
yet no less in vital connection with it. Wc 
gather most of our information on this point 
from a paper issued by the U. S. Commis- 
sioner of Education, and entitled ' Ameri- 
cans and Education in Turkey.' We find 
that the schools arc arranged under the fol- 
lowing designations. 1. Common Schools. 
2. Girls' Boarding Schools. 3. High Schools 
for Young Men. 4. Theological Schools. 
5. Colleges and Medical Schools. 

We find a detailed account of two hun- 
dred and ninety Common Schools, in which 



24 



Tfie Ameribans in Thrkey. 



Jan. 



there arc found eleven thousand two hun- 
dred and sixty-eight scholars^ of both sexes. 
The ages of the scholars in the common 
schools is from eight to fifteen years. The 
studies pursued in these schools are, of 
course, elementary : reading, writing, spell- 
ing, arithmetic, geography, grammar. Some- 
times Armenian history is introduced, and 
occasionally the English language is studied 
in the common schools, but these are excep- 
tions. The teachers are all natives, and 
generally are the graduates cither oif the 
(rirls' Boarding Schools or of the High 
Schools for Young Men. From various re- 
ports and letters, we conclude that much 
attention is given to the common schools ; 
that these form the basis of all the educa- 
tional work of the Americans in Turkey, 
and also furnish an important medium for 
communicating ideas on various subjects to 
the adult population, while the schoolrooms 
form convenient places for gatherings for 
religious and social purposes. We notice 
that the common schools are supported 
either wholly or for the most part, by the 
people themselves, the salaries of the teach- 
ers being raised by voluntary contributions. 
The Girls' Boarding Schools deserve more 
notice than we shall be able to give them. 
They are fifteen in number, and are located 
at Constantinople, Brasa, Bardizag, Manisa, 
Samokoor, Marsovan, Erzeroum, Bittis, Mar- 
din, Kharpoot, Marasb, Aintab, Beirut, La- 
takia, and Alexandria. In all cases two, in 
some cases three or four, unmarried Ameri- 
can ladies of good education are connected 
with each school. The main purpose of these 
schools is to raise up an efficient class of 
educated native women as general helpers 



but the girls are selected because of their 
promising character, and are trained for 
special service. AVe doubt whether the 
Americans are doing anything in Turkey 
that is so sure, sooner or later, to change 
the entire character of society as what they 
are doing in the line of the education of 
women. 

There are High Schools for Young Men, 
which may be described as midway between 
the Common Schools and the Theological 
Seminaries : in these schools yonng* men 
are fitted for the CJolleges. The exact char- 
acter of these High Schools, and the num- 
ber in attendance upon them, cannot be 
made out from the reports. 

What are called the Theological Semina- 
ries are institutions designed expressly for 
training young men for the various spheres 
of the work of evangelization. The promi- 
nence given to these institutions seems to 
indicate that the Americans regard them of 
the highest importance. Three well quali- 
fied men, besides competent native teachers, 
arc generally connected with each seminary. 
The course of study is adapted to the end 
in view, great prominence oeing given to 
scriptural and didactic theology and to 
mental and moral philosophy. The schools 
of this sort are located at Samokoor (Euro- 
pean Turkey), Marsovan, Kharpoot, Mirdin, 
Marash, Beirut, and Cairo. The number of 
young men in each seminary is small, in no 
case amounting to more than fifty , but these 
are chosen from a great number, and for 
four years they receive the closest attention. 
It is not too much to say that some of the 
men who give the greatest promise of wide 



e 

t 



-, _..,^_ usef iilnAoI ; at<>^<i ■ ^^ fftve present time are 

in the work of evangelization. After spend- m^rZT'!^}^^^''l ''^ ^^'^ I Seminaries, 
ing three years in these schools, some of ^ Three (^^^^ ^^ 



the yonng women become the wives of na- tl«. A™. V"^?^ nave been elxeisibert Col- 
tivo pastors and preachers, others become iZflTc^T?'' .'" ^^^^ '• ^'e K»ii?rote8t- 
teachers m common schools. The reports aTcolI«^r''^"« "''P'®' ^^'^ Syrian A '--Tur- 
and letters show that there is a great and fcet Cofc'\^'.™\"'"* ^^^ CentS,t. r«^ 
increasing demand for the services of this ceYtIv bllf "^.^'^ta**- ^ fourth ha^vthc 
cl»»s of persons. The coarse of study is ArmI- .. Pfoj^'^ted : it is to be called Vve at 

for Girls. The principal studies are arith- r^u!^ ^ " '''PP*'' Mesopotamia TU^ 
metic, geography Ariienian and Kish by t^A"' '^"*^^** ^ith^peS inS 
grammar, history, algebra, botany, physio o nL „ i '^""'"<^«n''. and therefore de^X 
gy.composKion, mental and mora^ phits: FoS^.T"**"' ^he fim "'"^"' 
ophy, besides instruction in sewin* »nH vu ,.^ "* ConstantinopI 
household duties. Kegular bibS Tfstruc ''''"•'■*-'•'-• "^ 
tK.n of course occupies a prominent place 
in the course of each schooK We have S 
been able to ascertain the exact number of 
scholars in all the schools, but the aveii^e 
attendance in those whore the attendanc^ 
reported is about thirty i„ each schoof th s 

rn"a"Kr I,*"!"' "J^^°" hundred and fifty 
m all the schools. Tlie number' ' 



one was \ 



J'berality of ChristoDher^ W p v^ ^^ ^'"* 

of New York in fh»^ f ^''^^' ^V< 
»rt kIJ. -"'•.'" *?.« year 1862. Mr. Rob' 



\ 



18 not laj^e, 



president of the CuK aid^f,' •" *''*' 
it many of the bestTm of ''"f-^''^' ° 
active and fruitful life vl *»"'«:"'"'>• 
properly deserves to be called ^hT.u™*''? 
education in Turkey fhV„"'K tmlit' ? 
1841 he was selected to take charge at Con- 



18^8. 



The Americans in Turkey. 



25 



stantinople of an institution then just pro-' 
posed for training native preachers and 
teachers. By the versatility of his genius 
and the force of his will, he has given a 
marked stiranlas to the cause of education 
throughout the whole cnipii'e. The College 
of which he is now president is situated on 
the Bosphorus at Koum61i Hissar, the very 
point where Mohammed II. built his fortifi- 
cations in 1452, preparatory to his final at- 
tack on Constantinople. The site of the 
College is one of unsurpassed beauty and 
magnificence : here a substantial stone edi- 
fice has been erected at a cost of about 
£12,000. Here are gathered the professors 
and their families, and students of many 
nationalities. Sixty-seven young men have 
already graduated from the College, many 
of whom have taken prominent positions as 
teachers among their own people. At the 
beginning of the recent political disturb- 
ances, and the great financial depression in 
Turkey, there were two hundred and twenty- 
five students in the college, representing 
different nationalities as follows : — Arme- 
nian, Bulgarian, Greek, English, German, 
Italian, French, American, Swedish, Turk- 
ish, Tunisian, Dalmatian, Russian, and Jew- 
ish. The religious creeds represented by 
the students are as follows : — the Armenian, 
the Orthodox Greek, the Orthodox Bulga- 
rian, the Protestant, the Catholic Latin 
rites, the Catholic Oriental rites, the Jewish 
and the Mohammedan. The principal lan- 
guage of the CoHege is English, but stu- 
dents speaking many different languages 
enter the preparatory department, in order 
to study the English language and such 
other studies as are required before they 
can enter upon the regular college course. 
Greek, French, Armenian, Bulgarian, and 
Turkish are in constant use in the daily 
work of the College. Each student pays 
£40 a year for his tuition and board. For 
the past three or four years the income of 
the College has been from £5,000 to £7,000 
per annum, while the expenses have aver- 
aged about £6,000 per annum. The insti- 
tution has a carefully-selected library of six 
thousand volumes. We have examined with 
much interest the course of study at this 
College. We find that in the first year the 
students are kept mostly to Latin grammar, 
natural history, physics, algebra, geometry, 
and English composition, together with 
special studies in Greek, Armenian, Turkish, 
and Bulgarian. In the second year, besides 
the special studies in the languages men- 
tioned above, and besides the studies in 
English rhetoric and oratory, we find Latin 
continued, ancient history. Pal ey's evidences, 
physiology, mechanics, physics, navigation. 



trigonometry, and surveying. In the third 
year, Latin continued, modern history, com- 
mercial and parliamentary law, political 
economy, chemistry, botany, mineralogy, 
analytical geometry, and calculus, besides 
the special studies mentioned above. In 
the fourth year we find Latin continued, in- 
ternational law, mental philosophy, moral 
philosophy, history of civilization, astrono*- 
my, analytical chemistry, geology, and many 
special studies that are arranged with refer- 
ence to the particular wants of the different 
nationalities. It must bo acknowledged 
that, considering the low state of education 
in Turkey since the conquest of Constanti- 
nople, the above programme of study is a 
comprehensive and practical one. From a 
communication from Dr. Hamlin, in the re- 
port of the U. S. Commissioner of Educa- 
tion, describing a recent examination, we 
conclude that this is not merely a schedule 
of a course of study on paper, but that the 
students are taken through these studies 
and thoroughly examined in them before 
they are allowed to graduate. ' Some of 
the above studies,' writes Dr. Hamlin, ' had 
not been introduced into Oriental institu- 
tions until this American College set the 
example which they must now follow. Its 
influence is felt upon other institutions as 
well as upon its own students.' 

The Syrian Protestant College was estab- 
lished at Beirut, Syria, in 1865. The lan- 
guage of the College is exclusively Arabic. 
In the literary department the course of 
study is as follows. 

Studies of the First Year, — Higher Ara- 
bic Grammar, Algebra, Universal History, 
English or French, and Bookkeeping. 

Second Year, — Arabic, Prosody, Rheto- 
ric, Logic, Geometry, Trigonometry (plane 
and spherical), Mensuration, Navigation 
and Surveying, Arabic History, English or 
French Prose Writers and Composition. 

Third Year. — Chemistry, Natural Phi- 
losophy, European History, English or 
French Poetry and Composition, Lectures 
upon Zoology, Botany, Turkish or Greek 
(optional), Latin. 

Fourth Year, — Mental and Moral Philos- 
ophy, Astronomy, Geology, Political Econ- 
omy, International, Maritime, and Commer- 
cial Law, Anatomy and Physiology, Modern 
History of Europe and America, English 
Logic and Rhetoric, or French, Latin, Turk- 
ish. Selected Lectures in the Medical Dc- 
partment. 

Throughout the course there are weekly 
exercises in Arabic Composition, and sys- 
tematic study of the Scriptures. ; 

There is a Medical Department in thi^s 
College. In regard to the course of study 



26 



The Americam in Turkey^ 



Jan. 



in this department, wc find the following 
statement. 

' Students applying for admission will be 
examined in the following branches : — 

' Arabic Grammar, Composition and Rhe» 
toric ; Arithmetic, to Decimal Fractions ; 
Algebra, to Simple Equations; Geometry, 
to the end of the Fourth Book of Euclid ; 
Elements of Geography, History, and Natu- 
ral Philosophy ; and either English, French, 
German, or Italian. 

* Studies of the Medical Course : — 

* First Year. — ^Winter Session : Chem- 
istry, Systematic Anatomy, Practical Anato- 
my, Physiology, Latin (if previously ne- 
glected). Summer Session : Botany and 
Regional Anatomy. 

* Second Year, — Winter Session : S5 s- 
tematic Anatomy, Practical Anatomy, Ma- 
teria Medica, Practical Pharmacy, Latin. 
Summer Session : Clinics and Hospital At- 
tendance, and Zoology. 

* Third Year, — Winter Session : Prac- 
tice of Physic, Surgery, Clinical Medicine, 
Clinical Surgery, and Hospital Attendance. 
Summer Session : Obstetrics, Diseases of 
Women and Children, Hospital Attendance, 
and Mineraloq^y. 

* Fourth Year, — Winter Session : Prac- 
tice of Physic, Surgery, Clinical Medicine, 
Clinical Surgery, Diseases of the Eye, Ear, 
and Skin, and Hospital Attendance. Sum- 
mer Session : Geology, Medical Jurispru- 
dence, Examination of Students, and con- 
ferring Diplomas.^ 

The Sessions of the Medical Department 
are three : — 1. The Winter Session, begin- 
ning the third Thursday in October, and 
ending one day before Christmas. 2. Be- 
ginning one day after New Year, and end* 
ing one day .before Easter. 3. Beginning 
eight days after Easter, and ending third 
Tuesday in July. Commodious buildings 
have been erected on the college grounds at 
ll^s Beirut. The main building, which has 
a front of one hundred and fifty feet in 
length, includes dormitories for one hun- 
dred students, cabinets, lecture and recita- 
tion rooms, library, and chapel. The medi - 
cal hall has all the appointments necessary 
for the prosecution of medical and surgical 
studies. 

The Lee Observatory was erected by the 
liberality of Henry Lee, Esq., of Manches- 
ter. It is well supplied with meteorological 
and astronomical instruments. 

These facts serve to illustrate the prac- 
tical character of the work which the Ameri- 
cans are doing in Turkey. The entire sum 
thus far expended in the establishment and 
partial endowment of the Syrian Protestant 
College is about £50,000. 



' • Ten thousand pounds have been contrib* 
uted by benevolent persons in Turkey, Eng- 
land, and the United States, for the estab- 
lishment of a college at Aintab, in Central 
Turkey. The reasons for the establishment 
of this institution are thus forcibly prcseut- 
ed by Dr. Hamlin. 

* First : It has a noble field to work in, 
consisting of some millions who have no 
other Christian institution of learning: of a 
high grade. 

*■ Second : If this College does not occupy 
this field the Jesuits will. They follow the 
track of all our missions, and endeavour to 
make them abortive by educating the youth 
of the most intelligent and infiuential 
classes. 

' Third : Such a College is the natural 
culmination of the missionary work. A 
true evangelical faith will always lead to- 
wards the highest mental culture. Not to 
support such institutions is virtually to 
abandon the work of universal evangeliza- 
tion. 

*' Fourth : The old civilizations of the 
many races and religions of Turkey are 
rapidly disintegrating, and some reconstruc- 
tion or other must follow. A Christian 
college in these circumstances will have an 
influence for good impossible to any similar 
institution in a normal state of society.' 

A wealthy Moslem has given a command- 
ing and beautiful site to the College, on 
which a handsome building has been erect- 
ed, capable of accommodating one hundred 
and twenty students and a professor^ s fami* 
ly, and furnishing also [abundant rooms for 
library, cabinet, recitations, and lecture?. 
There will bo a medical department con. 
nected with this College, towards the estab- 
lishment of which considerable sums have 
been collected and a valuable site secured. 
Two professors have been appointed to the 
medical department, and are already at 
work. The native Protestants of Aintab, 
though poor, have raised among themselves 
fourteen hundred pounds as a contribution 
to the College. 

The Rev. C. H. Wheeler has undertaken 
to raise in America ten thousand pounds 
for the establishment of the College at 
Kbarpoot. 

We have left ourselves too little space in 
which to speak of medical practice and the 
improved condition of women. The Ameri- 
cans early recognized the importance of 
trained medical skill as an auxiliary to their 
general work in Turkey. It appears, how. 
ever, that the first motive in Eending edu- 
cated physicians into that country was to 
protect and afford needed assistance to the 
missionary families. The medical gentle- 



1878. 



The Americans in Turkey. 



27 



men themselFes soon found that it was im- 
possible to live in the country, and not at* 
tend to the pressing wants of the saffering 
people. We find ourselves embarrassed by 
the great amount of information before us 
in reg^d to the character, extent, and re- 
sults of this medical work in Turkey. It is 
all the more worthy of note because it is 
unknown except to a limited circle in the 
United States, and scarcely at all in Eng- 
land. For a long period of years well-edu- 
cated physicians and surgeons from America 
have been quietly working in all parts of 
Asiatic Turkey. These gentlemen have 
made extended and interesting reports in 
regard to the diseases of the country, the 
climate, the state of medical practice, and 
their own special labours. From one of 
these reports we make the following extract. 
The writer, 11. S. West, M.D., recently de- 
ceased, was for eighteen years resident at 
Sivas. He says : — 

With a population of more than ten mil- 
lions, Asia Minor is almost entirely destitute 
of educated physicians. There are a few 
army physicians stationed at various military 
posts, on account of the soldiers. These men 
receive nn imperfect medical education at 
Constantinople, where there is a military 
medical school. The other medical practi- 
tioners are mostly Armenians, who have never 
received any professional training, except to 
be initiated into a routine of practice employ- 
ed by their ancestors for many generations 
back, consisting mostly of blood-letting and 
purging. These men are only found in the 
principal cities. In the hundreds and thou- 
sands of villages there are no medical practi- 
tioners whatever. There are no surgical prac- 
titioners except J)one-s€tters, ignorant men and 
women, who have learned from their ancestors 
to apply a bandage, but who have not the 
least knowledge of anatomy or of any other 
science. There are also operators for cataract 
and other diseases of the eye, who travel the 
country : they perform the old operation of 
couching. These are also entirely destitute 
of education, and know nothing of the eye. 
The midwives are rude, ignorant women. 

As illustrating the methods and influence 
of educated medical men in a semi-civilized 
country, we would call attention to the la- 
bours of Grant, Lobdell, Azariah Smith, 
and West. Dr. Anderson, secretary to the 
American Mission Board, says of Grant: 
' He awakened great interest as a physi- 
cian ; he was continually thronged with 
patients, sick with all manner of diseases, 
real and imaginary. Moslems and Nesto- 
rians came together. Children brought 
their aged parents, and mothers their little 
ones. Those blinded by ophthalmia were 
led by the hand. Those relieved from suf- 
fering were ready to kiss his feet, or even 



his shoes at the door. He gained great 
repute by the removal of cataracts and the 
consequent restoration- of sight. There we re 
patients from great distances, KUrdish 
chiefs from * the regions beyond,* and some 
from the distant borders of Georgia. Among 
the multitudes were the governor of the 
province, two princes of the royal family, 
and many of the Persian nobles. When ho 
made his first journey into KUrdistan he 
was exposed to great danger, but * his fame 
as a physician had preceded him, and men 
came from ail directions for medicine; 
Scarcely had ho entered the village of 
Lezan, on the banks of the noisy Zab, when 
a young man, the only one he had ever seen 
from this remote region, from whose eyes 
he had removed a cataract the vear before, 
came with a present of honey, and intro- 
dticed him at once to -the confidence of the 
people. He became so thronged with the 
sick from all the region, that he had to for- 
bid more than three or four coming forward 
at once.' 

Dr. Lobdell passed through Aintab on his 
way to Mosul in 1852. In ] 846 an Ameri- 
can missionary had been driven from Ain- 
tab amid a shower of stones. Dr. Lobdell 
was treated there with the highest respect : 
the change was due mainly to the fact that 
he was a physician. All classes, Moham- 
medans as well as Christians, united in peti- 
tioning him to remain there ; several hun- 
dred signed the petition, and * grey-headed 
men wept when assured that he must go.' 
After reaching Mosul, it is said : ' Scarcely 
had Dr. Lobdell set foot in the city, when 
he was besieged by patients of every class 
and description. He went everywhere 
armed with pills and lancet. A hundred 
patients, high and low, rich and poor, Mos- 
lem, Jew, and Christian, were often present 
together. Some rode on horses, some on 
dotikeys, some came on foot, and some 
were borne on the shoulders or in the arms 
of their friends. The majority were oftqn 
Mohammedans. The diseases were of every 
kind, real or imaginary, possible or conceiv- 
able. People wanted medicine to make 
them thin, and medicine to make them fat ; 
medicine to make them hot, and medicine 
to make them cold. Children must have 
medicine to make them strong. A high 
oflScer of the government brought his watch 
to Dr. Lobdell, to mend, thinking that of 
course the '* hakeen" must understand the 
mechanical arts.' The people were aston- 
ished at his diagnosis of diseases and his 
foresight of the issue. In a letter to a 
friend he reports that * it was no uncommon 
thing for the native doctors to blister the 
head all over, and to cauterize every other 



28 



The Americana m Turkey. 



Jan. 



part of the body Aviili a hot iron/ Men 
would ' iasist on taking a quart of medlcjoe 
all at once, or go to the other extreme, and 
lay it aside till they should get better/ ' I 
find/ he adds, * that many persons consider 
rae a magician. When I ask them, " What 
is the matter ?'' they reply, " You know ;" 
and say no more. I am very confident, as 
Dr. Mott told me it would be, that I do 
twice as much good here by my knowled^je 
of medicine as I could without it.' i^o 
doubt this estimate was correct, but, over- 
come by the immense pressure of his pro- 
fessional duties, he sank early to his grave, 
deeply and widely mourned by the natives 
among whom he died. 

Dr. Azariah Smith died at Aintab in 
1858. His contributions to the American 
Oriental Society and to various medical 
journals show that be was a man of wid« 
and accurate scholarship ; while the reputa- 
tion which still survives him in Northern 
Syria proves that he was a successful prac- 
titioner, and that he knew well how to se- 
cure the confidence and love of the people 
among whom he laboured. He arrived at 
Aintab at a time when the excitement 
against the Americans was at its height ; 
but by his medical skill and hia winning 
manner he entirely turned the tide of pub- 
lic sentiment, and was largely instrumental 
in establishing what is now known as the 
Central Turkey Mission, in some respects 
the most successful and interesting work 
under the care of the Americans in Turkey. 

Dr. Henry S. West was a graduate of 
Yale College, U.S.A., and of one of the 
prominent medical schools of New York. 
After eighteen years of faithful service in 
Turkey, he has recently been removed by 
death. He is described as a man of small 
stature, of a nervous temperament, of. kind 
and genial manners, who loved his profes- 
sion passionately, and who had devoted his 
life to the good of his fellow.men in the 
practice of that profession. His modesty 
and diffidence [were proverbial among all 
who knew him. In order to practice suc- 
cessfully among the native people, he 
learned the Turkish language. He attend- 
ed to the wants of a largo number of mis- 
sionary families, located in some cases hun- 
dreds of miles from his own home and from 
each other, and all his journeys were made 
on horseback. He educated nineteen young 
men as physicians, taking them through the 
various departments of their medical studies 
unaided and alone. He was compelled to 
practise in all branches of medicine and 
surgery, and his practice was so successful 
that patients came to him from all parts of 
Asia Minor, often crossing high mountains, 



• 

and exposing themselves to ^reat danger and 
suffering, in order to avail themselves of his 
skill. He received large sums as medical 
fees, but his own salary was only that of an 
ordinary missionary, while all his fees were 
given to a fund for building chapels and 
school-houses for the native people. One 
or two illustrations of his surgical practice 
will not be out of place. On one occasion, 
soon after he arrived in Turkey, he stopped 
about sunset at a rude villacre where he ex- 
pectcd to spend the night. He was scarce- 
ly seated in the rough quarters furnished by 
the villagers, when word was brought that a 
man in a khan near by was suffering from 
a dangerous rupture. Friends and neigh- 
bours begged the doctor to go and see him. 
He found the patient lying on the floor in 
a dark room, suffering from strangulated 
hernia. Several hours had passed since the 
obstruction occurred ; , the man was already 
much exhausted, and the parts were swollen 
and feverish. Dr. West knew scarcely a 
dozen words of the Turkish language, and 
he had no translator, and no assistant but a 
common native servant, who was readv to 
faint at the sight of blood. There was no 
light to be had except that given by one 
small candle. The obstacles certainly were 
great, and the chance of success was very 
small. The doctor, however, true to the 
teachings and spirit of his profession, did 
not hesitate a moment. He threw off his 
coat, and in that dark room, by the light of 
a single candle, operated on the poor man 
aloTie, The operation was a complete suc- 
cess, and the patient entirely recovered. On 
another occasion he stopped at a Kurdish 
village to spend the night. A young Kiird 
was brought to him, fifteen years of age, 
totally blind : his eyes were covered with 
cataract, and had been so covered from 
birth. Dr. West examined them, and re- 
solved to remove tlie cataract. He per- 
formed the operation the next morning bs- 
foro leaving the village, gave a few simple 
directions as to the subsequent treatment, 
and afterwards learned that the patient 
could see as well as any man in the village. 
At the- time of his death. Dr. West had 
performed about fourteen hundred opera- 
tions on the eye alone ; thirteen times he 
had been called to operate for strangulated 
hernia ; and his lithotomy cases had amount- 
ed to over one hundred and fifty. It was 
said on his death that Turkey had lost a 
public benefactor. During his last illness 
prayers were offered for his recovery in the 
Armenian churches and in the Mohamme- 
dan mosques, as well as in the Protestant 
chapels. Thousands of people, of all na- 
tionalities, accompanied his body to the 



1878 



ta. 



ITie Americans in Turkey, 



29 



grave. It is probably not too much to say 
of biui lb at, unaided and alone, by precept 
a)id example, he elcvatea the standard of 
medical practice throughout the whole of 
Asia Minor. He taught rich and poor 
alike, whether Turk, Christian, or Jew, to 
respect and place confidence in educated 
physicians, and to distrust mere pretenders. 
With one more quotation we must close 
our account of the medical practice of 
Americans in Turkey. This quotation is 
from a report made by Prof. 11. Lee Nor- 
ris, M.D., of Aintab, and will illustrate the 
eagerness with which the people welcome 
real medical and surgical skill. Dr. N orris 
says : — 

On Saturday, February 6, 1875, assisted by 
Mr. Adams, a native physician, I removed 
a diseased elbow-joint from an otherwise 
bealtby Armenian woman. The arm had been 
quite useless for more than a year, and the 
patient had suffered from severe pain in the 
joint. The operation was easily and painless- 
ly performed with the aid of chloroform, 
and the patient recovered rapidly without a 
bad symptom. On the same day I was called 
upon to remove a large adenoid tumour from 
the neighbourhood of the breast. The patient 
was a nervous, sickly Armenian woman, about 
forty ytars of age, and the presence of the 
growing tumour had caused her much mental 
and physical distress. After tlie operation she 
liad a slight feverish attack, which passed off 
in a day or two, and in two weeks the large 
wound n^as entirely healed. These opemtions 
seemed to create a considerable impression 
upon the inhabitants of Aintab, for on the 
following Monday morning, at an early hour, 
the court of the house in which I lodged was 
filled with sufferers of every class, seeking re- 
lief for almost every variety of disorder. 
This condition of affairs continued as long as 
I remained in Aintab. The number of appli- 
cants for treatment was always much greater 
than I could attend to, though I devoted six 
to ten hours each day to medical practice. 

We reluctantly leave this interesting part 
of our subject, feeling that we have done 
scant justice to the immense amount of hard 
and often self-denying labours of the 
American physicians in Turkey, most of 
whom laid duwn^heir lives in the cause 
which they had espoused. They were men 
who were content to work quietly and long, 
modest men. They rest from their labours, 
but their works follow them. 

We turn now to the last general 
topic of which we propose to treat — the 
improved condition of woman, A recent 
Mohammedan writer* of much learning 
and ability has attempte(f to defend the 



* Syed Ahmed Khan, in * Essays on the Life 
of Mohammed/ Triibner k Co., London. 1870. 



character of Mohammed (and the Moham- 
medan system) from the charges so often 
made against him in regard to his estimate 
of women. His defence is ingenious, and 
undoubtedly the best that can be made. It 
is fair, however, to judge a system by its 
results. We may properly ask. What is 
the condition of the female sex in those 
countries that have been most entirely un- 
der the influence of the religion of Moham- 
med ? Are the women of Mohammedan 
countries pure, virtuous, cultivated ? Tried 
by the test of actual results, can we recom- 
mend or defend the system of polygamy 
and the laws of divorce as they are recom- 
mended and defended by Moslem writers ? 
In answer to these questions we refer to the 
uniform testimony of these American wit- 
nesses. We make due allowance for the 
prejudices which they, as natives of the 
West, would naturally have, for the differ- 
ence in religious views, and for unintention- 
al exa^erations. Making the largest possi- 
ble discount, it still remains true that, ac- 
cording to the testimony of these Ameri- 
cans, the condition of women in Asia Minor 
and Arabia is helplessly sad. Their fgar- 
ments, their houses, all the arrangements of 
social life, are intended to secure the seclu- 
sion of women from general society. To 
ask a Moslem after the health of his wife 
or wives, is to offer him a gross insult. So 
far from promoting virtue among women 
by these strict regulations, the very oppo- 
site effect appears to be produced. The 
gratification of sensual passion appears to be 
the main purpose, according to Mohamme- 
dan ideas, for which women exist ; and this 
low, degrading estimate of their own sphere 
in life, seems to be the most common one 
among the women themselves. Moslem 
women become impure in their thoughts 
and desires. We know that these are heavy 
charges to bring against a system that is so 
enthusiastically embraced by so many mil- 
lions of men : the testimony, however, on 
this point is so uniform and so abundant, 
that it can hardly be rejected. When the 
Americans arrived in Turkey they found 
the women of the country in a degraded 
condition. There was no public sentiment, 
either among Moslems or Christians, in fa- 
vour of the education of women. The gen- 
eral opinion i«cemed to be that the female 
sex has almost no intellectual capacity. The 
first efforts of the Americans to make the 
women sharers in intellectual progress and 
refinement were met with opposition and 
often with derisive laughter. Let us ask, 
then, What have the Americans accom- 
plished in Turkey in respect to the improve- 
ment of women \ We answer, They have 



30 



I%e Americans in Turkey. 



Jan. 



created a new public sentiment in favour of 
the education of women. 

That sudi a sentiment now exists to a 
large extent, is shown in a variety of ways. 
Several thousands of adult women hkve 
been taught to read, and this fact attracts a 
great deal of attention among all classes of 
the people. The husbands and relations of 
these female readers are proud of them. 
* My wife knows how to read/ is a remark 
now often made with evident satisfaction. 
True, these women have not gone beyond 
simple reading, but that alone is a great 
boon : it opens to them a new world. 

This new public sentiment is shown by 
the interest taken in the schools that have 
been established by the Americans especial* 
ly for the education of girls. Annual examin- 
ations of these schools are held, and it is 
on these occasions that the public sympathy 
manifests itself. Pashas, civil and military 
officers of high rank, the ecclesiastics and 
wealthy men of all the different nationali- 
ties, are* reported as attending their examin- 
ations, ond as expressing their hearty ap- 
proval of the efforts that are made by the 
Americans for improving the condition of 
the women of Turkey. The American la- 
dies who have had charge of these schools 
have made great use of the press in enlight- 
ening the community on this subject. One 
of these ladies, many years ago, prepared a 
series of instructive letters to Greek moth- 
ers. They were first published nt Smyrna 
in a Greek paper that belonged to the 
Americans ; afterwards a Greek newspaper 
published the whole scries at Constantino- 
ple ; they were then collected into a volume 
by the Greeks themselves, and issued for 
the use of their schools. More recently the 
whole set of letters was translated into Bul- 
garian, and published in a Bulgarian paper 
at Constantinople, and thus scattered among 
the six millions of Bulgarians. Another lady 
prepared several articles for a newspaper 
which is published in the Turkish language. 
These articles were an attack on those Ori- 
ental customs and ideas by which women 
are kept in a degraded condition. They 
were extensively read, and created a sensa- 
tion in many a town and village in Turkey. 
Another American lady has issued, in the 
Annenian language, a volume intended 
especially for mothers in Turkey. It is en- 
titled, * Loving Counsels for the Chri6tian 
Women of Turkey.' Thus through the 
press and bv their well-organized schools for 
girls, m well as by direct effort, are Ameri- 
can women lifting up to a higher level the 
women of Turkev. The task is on© of 
peculiar difficulty, and requires great moral 
courage, mingled with tact aqd patience. 



AVe are not unwillinj): to believe that the 
American ladies who have undertaken this 
work are the fit agents for carrying it on to 
a larger success. In concluding this review 
of an interesting enterprize, prosecuted by 
those with whom we are associated by inti- 
mate ties, in a land in which we must ever 
take a deep interest, we acknowledge that 
wo have entirely omitted that phase of the 
enterprize to which the Americans attach 
the highest importance : we refer of course 
to the religious refonnation which is going 
forward in Turkey. This omission has been 
intentional, as we stated at the beginning of 
this article. Those who wish to tnake them- 
selves acquainted with that feature of the 
work of our American brethren must go to 
the books to which we have directed their 
attention. One fact has struck our atten- 
tion most forcibly on examining this sub- 
ject, which is, that those in Turkey who 
have been quick to avail themselves of the 
advantages placed before them by the 
Americans belong unifonnly to the Chris- 
tian and not to the Mohammedan races, 
Greeks, Copts, Armenians, and Bulgarians, 
not Kiirds, Turcomans, Turks, or Arabs. 
This fact is worthy of the attention of those 
who are now earnestly trying to forecast the 
future of the present Turkish Empire. AVe 
observe with satisfaction that the Americans 
have been prompt to acknowledge their in- 
debtedness to the British Government and 
the English people for much assistance in 
prosecuting their work in Turkey. In the 
days of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe the in- 
tecrourse between the ambassador and the 
missionaries appears to have been frequent 
and cordial. Since the Crimean War not a 
little material aid has been sent by the peo- 
ple of Great Britain for the support of na- 
tive pastors and schools, the building of 
churches, and the printing of books. Tlie 
total amount of this aid is not far from 
£50,000, but this sum ia exceeded by the 
annual expenditure of the Americans. The 
real aid, however, which the Americans have 
received from Great Britain, has been in 
the strong moral support which has been 
given them by the British Government. It 
is gratifying to know that that support ba^* 
been prompt, constant, and of an energetic 
character. Happily the attitude of the 
Porto towards religious teaching, owing 
very much to British influence wisely exert- 
ed in the pa:4, is of the most tolerant char- 
acter ; and whatever may be the issues uf 
the present sanguinary struggle, we tnist 
that this ample tolerance will be secured 
and continued. We are sure that in the 
future, as heretofore, our American brethren 
in their beneficent labours may count on 



1878. 



Savings and Savings Banks. 



81 



the coontcnance and support of our Govern - 
inent, as of our ambassador at Constanti- 
nople and our consular agents in different 
parts of the Turkish dominions. The world 
at large, and especially thoughtful students 
of social and political, as well as of moral 
and religious questions, will watch with 
deep interest for the ultimate results of the 
efforts which the Americans are making for 
the regeneration of Turkey, and which have 
the hearty sympathy and best wishes of the 
people of England and of Protestant Eu- 
rope. 



Art. III. — Savings and Savings Banks, 

It is a disputed point whether savings banks 
were originated in Germany, Switzerland, 
or Great Britain. Like many other necesr 
sary institutions flourishing in the present 
day, their origin is perhaps to be looked for 
in every country, for in every country the 
need of such institutions has been felt, and 
their development has varied according to 
the pressure of the need, and the special 
circumstances under which they claimed 
public attention. Mr. Lewins attributes to 
Great Britain the honour of originating the 
institution,* while Mr. Scratchley yields 
the palm to Switzerland or Germany .f M. 
Alphonse dc Candolle | gives the following 
as the order in which savings banks were 
founded: — Hamburg, 1778; Berne, 1787; 
Basle, 1792 ; Geneva, 1794 ; England (Tot- 
tenham), 1 798. A later writer, Herr Ehren- 
berger,§ has discovered that a savings bank 
was in existence in Brunswick in 1765. It 
is not worth while pausing to investigate 
these claims. Wherever savings banks were 
instituted, it was with the idea of providing 
some safe place for the deposit of money, 
and ot allowing it to accumulate inter- 
est, instead of lying useless in the secret 
drawer, the buried pot, the old stocking, or 
the bed tick. 

As early as the year 1817 savings banks 
had become recognized institutions in this 
country, insomuch that they became the 
subject of legislative enactment. Hitherto 

* 'History of Savings Banks in Qreat Britain 
and Ireland.' By William Lewins, author of 
• Her Majesty's Mails.' 

f 'Treatise on Savings Banks.' By Arthur 
Scratchley, M.A. 

^ ' IjCS caisses d'eparp:ne de la Saisse conside- 
r^es en elles-memes et cora parses avec celles 
d'autres pays.' A. de Candolle (Geneva). 

§ ' Oesterreiclis Spar-cassen. Nach directen 
Eiiiebanf^en and nach Mlttheilunj^en der K. K. 
Statistischen Central - Commission bearbeitet. 
Von Heinrlch Ehrenberger.' Wien, 1873. 



they had been merely the offspring of pri- 
vate influence and philanthropy, without 
any protection from the State, but from this 
date a new era in their history set in. 
Within a year from the passing of the Act 
57 Geo. III. cap. 105, entitled * An Act to 
encoura<ye the establishment of Banks for 
Savings in Ireland,' and cap. 130, for the 
like purpose in England, upwards. of 500 
banks were opened in the United Kingdom, 
and the influence of this movement extend- 
ed over nearly the whole continent, France, 
Germany, Denmark, and Italy successively 
taking up the idea and using it in various 
modified forms. Steadily the savings bank 
system increased and improved, further 
powere were granted under authority of 
different Acts of Parliament, and in 1860 — 
the year before the passing of the Post 
Office Savings Bank Act — the gross savings 
of the people,* which, from time to time 
had been invested with the National Debt. 
Commissioners at rates of interest varying 
from £4 lis. 3d. to £3 5s. per cent., 
amounted to £41,259,145, the property of 
1,586,778 persons. 

A great and good work was done by the 
establishment of these savings banks. They 
fostered habits of thrift in the people ; they 
called attention to the duty of providing for 
rainy days in the future ; they were the 
source from which many kindred societies 
for the cultivation of saving habits had 
their origin ; and they were, moreover, the 
stepping-stones to the establishment of Post 
Office savings banks. All honour to the 
men and women who gave time and money 
to the cause, who laboured zealously for the 
good of their poorer countrymen, and who 
laid the foundation of a system, the model, 
as will be shown hereafter, upon which the 
savings banks of other countries are based. 

Before dismissing for the present the sub- 
ject of ^ old savings banks ' — as we will call 
them for the sake of convenience — it roust 
be borne in mind that, useful as they were, 
they were very imperfect, mere shadows of 
good things to come. They were hampered 
with rules which more or less defeated their 
object, such as making payments compul- 
sory, demanding certificates as to the moral 
character of depositors, placing obstacles in 
the way of withdrawing money, and so 
forth. They afforded only limited accom- 
modation, were few and far between, and 
being for the most part conducted by chari- 
tably disposed persons, who could only 
give so many hours a day or week to the 
work, met, only to a very limited extent, 
the requirements of the poorer classes gen- 
erally. Those imperfections, however, were 
of minor importance : there were other 



32 



Savings and Savings JBanki, 



Jan. 



points which were in tbo highest degree 
unsatisfactory. The first was that every 
depositor felt himself — or might have been 
justified in feeling himself — under personal 
obligation to the trustees and managers, 
who ga^e influence, credit, and time, in 
most cases gratuitously, to the undertaking ; 
and so the edge of that feeling of independ- 
ence, which is one of the moving power* in 
making a thrifty man, was taken od. Then, 
aijain, the business of the banks bein^j con- 
ducted by local magnates and others, the 
affairs of depositors naturally became known 
to them ; and this fact, besides being an 
annoyance, often became positively injuri- 
ous to the interests of the working man, 
more especially in the agricultural districts. 
And, lastly, the most important point of all, 
there was a lack of security for the money 
invested. Acts of Parliament had been 
framed, dealing with, every conceivable 
minor point, while the weightier matter of 
fixing the liability of trustees remained a 
great problem untouched ; and the deposi- 
tors in the old savings banks were — as in 
fact they are at the present tim3 — at the 
mercy of the trustees. True, the managers 
of the banks, then as now, allured deposi- 
tors by advertising the tempting bait of 

* government security,' but the government 
had no cognizance of the amount lodged in 
any bank by depositors. The government 
guarantee was only for the repayment of 
money lodged with the State by the trus- 
tees, and there was no means of ascertaining 
what discrepancy there might be between 
the amount received by the trustees and 
that handed over to the State. For in- 
stance, if deposits to the amount of, say 
£18,000, were made at a bank, and the 
trustees, or an employe acting on their be- 
half, embezzled . £10,000, and deposited 
£3000 only with the government, the de- 
positors, despite all the advertisements about 

* government security,' were defrauded of 
the £10,000. Such frauds were not un- 
common, and the story of the gigantic swin- 
dling transactions at Hertford, Brighton, 
Bilston, Canterbury, Dublin, and elsewhere, 
is one of the saddest chapters in the history 
of the industrial classes. AVhat added so 
materially to the bitterness of the misfor- 
tune, and gave such a serious check to' the 
progress of education in thrift was, that the 
people had been deluded into the belief that 
their money was deposited with the State, 
and was therefore as safe as the Bank. 

As early as the year 1807, Mr. Whit- 
bread, in the House of Commons, fore- 
shadowed the present Post Office savings 
bank scheme in a remarkable speech on the 
Poor Laws Amendment Bill. He recommend- 



ed the institution of a government savings 
bank, to be worked with the Post Office 
machinery; the money received to be invest- 
ed in government stock, the annual limit of 
deposits to be £20, and the total limit £200. 
But Mr. Whitbread lived in advance of his 
time : the idea was feebly praised by a few, 
pooh-poohed by an overwhelming majority, 
and was at last abandoned. In course of 
time, however, it was revived and put to 
more definite uses by one of the most nota- 
ble of all the labourers in this field of phi- 
lanthropy, Mr. Sikes of Huddersfield. Mr. 
Whitbread had laboured, Mr. Sikes entered 
into his labours, and carried them forward 
with such pertinacity and unflagging zeal, 
that he forced his views into prominence, 
and demonstrated so clearly the possibility 
of establishing successful government sav- 
ings banks, through the intervention of th« 
Money Order department of the Post Office, 
that there was no resisting him or his argu- 
ments. But Mr. Sikes could not master the 
whole details of the scheme, and it was re- 
served for Mr. Chetwynd, at that time a 
staff officer in the Money Order department 
of the General Post Office, to bring his 
thorough practical knowledge to shape the 
theories of the philanthropist into a com- 
pact and workable form. Even then it 
needed wheel within wheel to put the ma- 
chinery in motion, and the finishing strokes 
and minute details were supplied by Mr. 
Scudamore, the Receiver- and Accountant- 
General of the Post Office. In building 
and launching this new ship of state, it may 
be said that Mr. Whitbread collected the 
raw material, the wood and the iron, the 
planks and masts ; Mr Sikes put these into 
shape, and reared the ship upon the stocks ; 
Mr. Chetwynd supplied the ropes and the 
sails, the rudder and the compass ; and Mr. 
Scudamore marked out the vessel's course, 
and noted in the chart all rocks and reefs, 
and dangerous tides and eddies. 

On the 17th May, 1861, the Post Office 
Savings Bank Act, for * affording additional 
facilities for depositing small savings at in- 
terest, with the security of the Government 
for due repayment thereof ' received the 
royal assent. In a leader in * The Times ' 
about that date it was said : * The country 
will recognize at once the universal boon of 
a bank maintained at the public expense, 
secured by the public responsibility, with 
the w^hole empire for its capital, with a 
branch in every town, open at almost all 
hours, and, more than all, giving a fair 
amount of interest.' * 



♦ Quoted in Low ins* * History of Savings 
Banks/ p. 311. 



k. 



1878. 



Savings^ and Savings Banks, 



83 



The basiacss of the Post Office savings 
hanks coRimcnced on the 16th September, 
1861, when 800 offices were opened for the 
receipt of deposits, and on that day 435 de- 
posits, amounting to £911, were received. 
Steps were taken by previous advertisement, 
and by special iustruptions given to the 
postmasters and receivers at whose offices 
the first facilities were offered to start the 
business, and these means of commanding 
the attention and securing the confidence of 
the public were so successful, that at the 
end of 1862, 2,535 offices were open, and a 
fund amounting to £1,098,221, including 
interest, had accumulated. 

Every year there is issued a report of the 
Postmaster-General on the Post Office, and 
from the twenty-third* or last report, issued 
in September, 1877, wo extract the follow- 
ing particulars (see pp. 34, 35), which show 
at a glance the returns for the past year, 
and the progress made in the fifteen years 
since the Post Office savings banks were es- 
tablished. 

During 1876 there were 188 new offices 
opened for savings bank business: 153 in 
England and Wales, 23 in Scotland, and 12 
in Ireland. 

The proportion of depositors to population 
was 1 to 19 in the Ignited Kingdom ; or 1 to 
about 15 in England and Wales, 1 to about 
71 in Scotland, and 1 to about 87 in Ireland. 

Looking at the combined accounts of the 
two systems, it appears that since the estab- 
lishment of Post Office savings banks the 
thrifty habits of the people have been so 
far infiuenced, that the number of deposi- 
tors has been more than doubled, and the 
capital owing to them raised considerably 
more than one half. This is no doubt very 
s>Htisfactory, but if the population of the 
United Kingdom, which is 33,891,237 and 
the inhabited houses, which number 5,632,- 
682, are taken into consideration, it must 
be admitted that, while in these fifteen years 
5,443 offices have been opened, while many 
facilities in the internal arrangements of the 
Pbst Office Savings Bank Department have 
been^ organized to expedite the forwarding 
of acknowledgments for money received 
and the payment of warrants to withdraw, 
and, generally, to make the working of the 
scheme more efficient, there has not been 
such a continued and unmistakably progres- 
sive increase in the business as might have 
been expected. While acknowledging that 
the scheme has been eminently successful, 



♦ Twenty-third report of the Postmaster-Gen- 
eral on the Post Office. London, 1877. Eyre 
and Spottiswoode. Price 3d. 

VOL. LXVII. B — 3 



that it has ' been recognized as a universal 
boon,' that in many respects it is unques- 
tionably the best system ever established in 
this or any other country, it is nevertheless 
true that it has not accomplished all that 
was anticipated, nor is it accomplishing -all 
that its admirable machinery adapts it to 
fulfil. It will be well therefore to inquire 
what effect the establishment of Post 
Office savings banks has had upon the old 
bank system, and what hindei's depositors 
in those old banks from accepting the 
greater advantages of the new ; to point 
out a few defects in the system, which, if 
remedied, would make tbc institution infi- 
nitely more valuable than it now is ; to sug- 
gest means for popularizing the subject and 
extending the education of the people in 
habits of thrift ; to offer a few remarks 
upon the internal arrangements of the Sav- 
ings Bank Department ; and to inquire what 
infiuence the Post Office savings bank scheme 
has had upon foreign and colonial govern- 
ments. 

Referring, then, to the effect the estab- 
lishment of Post Office savings banks has 
had on the old bank system, we find that, 
whereas in 1860 there were 638 old banks 
in existence, there are now only 466, show- 
ing a decrease of 172 ; the number of de- 
positors was 1,585,778, and is now 1,493,- 
401, showing a decrease of 92,377, while 
the accumulated capital up to November, 
1876, is £43,283,145, or £2,024,000 in ex- 
cess of that held in the year 1 860. Doubt- 
less this result is attributable to the accumu- 
lation of interest, as it is probable that 
many depositors of long standing do not 
disturb tbeir accounts, being reluctant to 
forego the higher rate of interest as com- 
pared with that allowed in the Post Office 
savings banks. At the same time these fig- 
ures prove that until the inequality in the 
rates of interest between the two ststems,, 
which has existed from the commencement 
and continues to the present day, is adjust- 
ed by the legislature, the Post Office savings 
banks will not hold that place in public es- 
timation which it is proper they should.. 
Mr. Lewins thus adverts to the question in 
his admirable work : — 

The old savings banks deposit their funds^ 
with government, and are allcrwed interest on 
their money at the rate of £3 5s. per cent. 
The Post Office banks of coTirse deposit their 
money with government, and are allowed in- 
terest at the rate of £2 10s. per cent. Out of 
the 158. per cent, difference between the two 
rates, an average of half of it is given by the 
old banks to their depositors. Now it is well 
known that the average cost of each trans- 
action in the Post Office banks is little more- 



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t Since ina, tha chiiga ror poitas*, amannLlng to abonl V<f- par trauiacllon, baa caaaed 
BaYlnfa Bank DapartBcnl. 

I Ontils etcapUoaal opauaa iBCwrad In un taadad M lacraaas liM aTar^a com pm 



8aning», and Savings Sankt. 



SAVINGS BANK. 



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u 38,SlTf., but Ihs u 






fi It n[11 be Mcu ttiKt the loUl nombur ot iccoanti opan at tha sad oT 1B7S iboira &a apparent ducieua of 
74,7S9 Id tba uconnta opea to the sad dI 1B7S. This la due to a Depaitmantal unngenient bj nblch taail bal- 
ancva on accaants in which no IraaaacUon hsa token place fori coiuldenble period hive been truutcmd to 
irhat are (echnlcall; called 'dormant' ledgen. Bat far this amngement an incrcaae voDld havo been (bom 
of Rl,«48. 

The total amoant of the balancea at tha credit of depodtora, togetber with Intetest ocerned at the end of 
1670. waa se.V»t,iaOl., being an iocreaae of 1.899,3051. od the total ot the preTJoni jmr. The total amonnl de- 
poalled In the Poat Offlce aailnga banks (hjm the comtneneaDunt, Incloilva of -Interest credited to dqioBitaif^ 
waa In roand Osurcs 90,999.00(11.. and Iba amonnt vltbdr&wn Oi.OOt.OOOt., leaving a balance renulnlnfr In depoatt 
on the Slat Deeonbvr, ISIS, of H,MS,OaaL 



?a 



SavinffSy and Savings Banks. 



Jan. 



» 

than half the average cost of a transaction in 
the ordinary savings banks.* If government 
can still afford to pay the old savings banks 
the higher rate of interest, it might afford, at 
the lowest computation, to give 10s. per cent, 
more to depositors in the Post Office sav- 
ings banks. If government cannot afford to 
pay the higher rate, it ought to discontinue 
its charity, which, like all other charitable 
doles, excites discontent among those who 
think they hove, and really hate the right de 
fa,ctOy if not de jure^ to ^share it. That the 
rate should be equalized in one way or other 
admits, we think, of little question ; but that 
the government should pay more than it can 
pay without loss admits of less.* 

The total Iosa to the government on the old 
banks up to the end of 1876 was £3,250,- 
676 1 It was caused in this way. From 1818 
to 1828 inclusive, interest was allowed at 
the rate of £4 lis. 3d. per cent., and from 
1829 to 1844 it stood at £3 16s. per cent 
Both of these rates were in excess of the 
amount earned by the government, so that 
in the year 1844 the deficit was £2,179,- 
934. In that year the rate of interest al- 
lowed to depositors was reduced to £3 5s. 
per cent., and the present deficit is that of 
1844 and the interest since accumulated and 
still accumulating thereon. If on two oc- 
casions the government could reduce the 
rate of interest, why should not the interest 
be again reduced, so that the tw^ systems 
may be placed on an equality ! The ques- 
tion was recently discussed in parliament, 
and a bill was introduced on the subject, 
but was withdrawn. 

Equalize the interest, either by reducing 
that allowed to old .banks, or increasing that 
allowed to Post Office savings banks, and 
the result would be that the deposi-tors in 
the old banks would, without doubt, in pro- 
cess of time transfer their accounts to the 

* 

Post Office banks, and in doing so they 
would avail themselves of many advantages 
which it is impossible for any private enter- 
prize to offer. For example, absolute secu- 
rity is guaranteed, and every depositor has 
the satisfaction of knowing that the credit 
of the whole British government is pledged 
to pay back with interest whatever he may 
invest No matter what defalcations may 
be made by postmasters, or by officers in 
the Savings Bank Department, the money 
Is as safe as the Bank as far as the deposi- 
tor is concerned, so long as he complies 
with the terms of the Act in demanding an 
acknowledgment of the money deposited. 

« 

* This was written in 1866. The average cost 
of a transaction in the Post Office savings banks 
dnring the whole period of their existence, has 
been 6rid., as compared with Is. in the old sav- 
ings banks. 



This is not the case with the old banks. 
Only very recently a case of fraud occurred 
at Chertsey, the secretary having embezzled 
the sura of £2,000, exclusive of interest. 
The prosecutor urged the case as one of 
much gravity, considering tlic positioa 
the prisoner (an old man nearlj eighty, 
and, as usual in such cases, much respected 
in the neighbourhood) held in the bank, 
and remarked that, * had it not been for the 
liberalitv of the trustees and manac^crs in 
subscribing upwards of £2,000, the deposi- 
tors would have been deprived of the pro- 
vision they had made for their old age.' 
According to the report of the case in the 
* Times ' of September 8, 1876, it was stat- 
ed that 199. in the pound would be paid to 
the depositors. 

The losses from fraud in the Post Office 
savings banks are insignificant in compari- 
son with the extent and magnitude of the 
business. From the outset to the end of 

1875 the total number of transactions, that 
is, deposits and withdrawals, was 36,344,- 
353, amounting in the aggregate to £137,- 
607,593. Yet the total loss from fraud up 
to that time was only £4,387, or at the rate 
of three farthings per cent To the end of 

1876 there was neither increase nor diminu- 
tion of this rate, and the experience of the 
Department is conclusive as to the efficiency 
of its safeguards for the prevention and de- 
tection of fraud. Contrast this with the 
losses by fraud in the old savings banks, 
losses which fall upon depositors themselves, 
and the new system requires no stronger 
recommendation. From returns laid before 
the Uouse of Commons in 1B57, it was 
shown that during a period of thirteen 
years, viz., from 1844 to 1857, the total 
amount of defalcations in old savings banks, 
officially reported to the National Debt 
Office, was £179,280, of which sum a loss 
of £117,732 was borne by the depositors. 

But there are other advantages. Deposi- 
tors in the old banks have only a choice of 
466 banks, which may or may not be con- 
venient : depositors in the Post Office sav- 
ings banks can deposit at any of the 5,448 
offices. In the old banks depositors must 
pay in and withdraw their money at the 
same office, whereas in the Post Office sav- 
ings banks depositors may pay in or with- 
draw where they like, and they have ibc 
run of 6,448 to select from. The conve- 
nience of this arrangement — which is only 
possible in connection with the stupendous 
machinery of the Post Office, and forms 
one of the most distinguishing features of 
the system — cannot be too widely known. 
It is a great boon for every one to have a 
banking account in every town in the king- 



1878. 



Savings^ and Savings Banks. 



37 



(lorn, to be able to withdraw money when 
travcllincr on business^, at the seaside, or else- 
where ; and that the system is recognized as 
valuable, is shown by the following state- 
ment in the l^ostmaster-GeneraPs Report of 
1876: — *0f the total number of deposits 
and withdrawals last year, 2 8 per cent, were' 
made at offices otiier than those at which the 
accounts were originally opened. In 1874 
the proportion of such transactions was 26 
per cent; in 1868, 19 per cent.; and in 
the first year of the establishment of Post 
Office savings banks, only a little over 4 per 
cent.' 

Among other advantages of the Post 
Office system should be mentioned the fact 
that secrecy is enforced upon all officers 
connected with the banks; that all corre- 
8pondonce is sent free through the post; 
that there are no fines, pains, or penalties, of 
any description ; that deposits and with- 
drawals can be made as often as may suit 
the convenience of the depositors ; and that 
the offices are open every day, and almost 
nt all hours. Any depositor wishing to 
lisave an old bank, has only to apply for a 
certificate of transfer, and, with little fur- 
ther trouble, his account will be transferred. 
During the year 1876 the total amount 
transferred from old banks to the Post 
Office savings banks was £132,937. 

Dr. W. Neilsou Hancock, of Dublin, in 
a paper read at the recent Glasgow meeting 
of the British Association, stated that he 
considered the continued maintenance of 
the trustee savings banks n waste of charita- 
ble effort, seeing that the Post Office sav- 
ings banks offer so many more facilities ; 
and he recommended that the State should 
withdraw from its connection with them, as 
their maintenance involves an annual ex- 
pense of £250,000. The security they 
offer is imperfect, and it is bad teaching 
for the poor to offer them a bounty at the 
pnblic expense to invest their savings in a 
less perfect security than the Post Office 
savings bank. Dr. Hancock then proceeded 
to show how the State could effect an im- 
mediate saving of £140,000 a year, and an 
ultimate saving of £280,000 a year, by clos- 
ing the trustee savings banks altogether. 

There is one defect in the Post Office 
savings bank system — common also to the 
old savings banks — which, if remedied, 
would make it infinitely more valuable than 
it now is, namely, in the annual and total 
limit of deposits. It would be an inestima- 
ble boon to thousands of middle class folk 
if they could invest in the Post Office sav- 
ings, banks a hundred pounds or so, instead 
of being limited to the sum of £30 per an- 
num, or £150 in all. There are many who 



can save £50 to £100 per annum, who have 
in the distance some lucrative investment, 
but who have in the meantime no safe place 
for their money*. It is difficult to conceive 
what objection there can be to extending 
the limit to, say, £100 per annum, or £500 
in all, except the selfish mterest of the bank- 
ing community, who have persistently op- 
posed their own imaginary grievance to the 
public good. Referring to the subject of 
extending the limit of deposits, the Con- 
troller of the Savings Bank Department, in 
one of those admirable reports which form 
so important a feature in the appendices 
of the Postmaster-General's annual reports, 
remarks : — 

The large and constantly increasing number 
of communications received from persons who 
arc desirous of depositing in excess of the pre- 
scribed amount, shows a growing desire, 
throughout the saving portion of the com* 
munity, that the statutory limit should be ex- 
tended. The applications, as a rule, give no 
evidence of being made by persons who are 
likely to invest their money in public securi- 
ties, or to whom the amount of interest to be 
obtained is not so much an object, as that they 
may have a ready means of making deposits 
and withdrawals, and the absolute certainty 
of being able to withdraw the precise amount ' 
paid in. In some cases the applicants sought 
to deposit small legacies ; in others, hoarded 
money which had become an increasing source 
of anxiety (as in one case, where a person had 
secreted £100 in the thatch of his house) ; and 
another application was on behalf of sea- 
men generally, a class of persons to whom, it 
was alleged, an extension of the system would 
be of special service. As a proof that many 
persons prefer the Post Office savings bank 
to any other investment, it may be stated that, 
in numerous instances where the amount they 
wish to deposit is over the limit, they, in a 
measure, evade the restriction, by depositing 
portions in trust for other persons; and it 
further appears that some depositors, whoso 
balances have reached the final limit of £200, 
although warned that no further interest will 
accrue until the balance is reduced below that 
sum, yet fail to make a withdrawal. From 
these facts it may safely be inferred that, as 
the Post Office savings banks have induced 
many persons of small means to become de- 
positors, so, if the limit were extended, others 
would be attracted whose savings would be 
comparatively large, and whose requirements 
could not be so fully met in any other way.* 

The annual limit of deposits in France is 
£40 ; in Belgium £120 ; in Denmark there 
is no limit ; in Prussia it varies from £3 
15s. to £150, and in some institutions there 
is no limit ; in Switzerland it varies from a 
very small sum to £400 ; and in Austria,' 
from £50 to £1,500. 

* Eighteenth Report of the Postroa»ter-Oien- 
eral on the Post Office. 1872. Page 43. 



38 



SavinffSy and Savings Banks. 



Jon. 



Having shown in wLat way the Post 
Office savings banks may be made of greater 
valae to the middle classes— classes from 
whom most is expected and* for whom least 
is done — it will be well now to consider 
how the subject of saving may be popular^ 
ixod among the masses, and what can be 
done to extend the education of the people 
in habits of thrift. 

- It is pleasant to note the progress that 
has been made in the establish noent, through- 
out the length and breadth of the land, of 
friendly societies and other kindred institu- 
tions. At the same time, while acknowl. 
edging the good they have effected in pro- 
moting saving habits, in fostering a spirit 
of independence, and exercising a wide so- 
cial influence, it mQst also be acknowledged 
that they are not the best means for invest- 
ing the poor man's money, inasmuch as they 
are open to many of the objections apply- 
ing to the old savings banks, such as pat- 
ronage, inconvenience, and, above all, lack 
of absolute security. These societies have 
been organized mainly for the purpose of 
providing means for working men to main- 
tain themselves during sickness, and, in case 
of death, to provide for the expenses of in- 
terment, and something to boot for widow 
and children. The thought of saving money 
m order to pay for one's funeral expenses, 
is not a cheerful view to take of thrift. It 
iH no doubt important that this should be 
done, but there are other and better motives 
for economy and saving. For instance, 
many a man haa been thwarted for life from 
not having a little ' nest egg,' to enable him 
to buy a piece of machinery or a stock of 
tools, by means of which he might have 
started for himself, and occupied a better 
position in the social scale, and left a good- 
lier legacy to widow and children. Now 
the Post Office savings bank combines most 
of the advantages of friendly societies with- 
out their disadvantages, except in one par- 
ticular, and that is in their social influence. 
Many will consider this to bo a benefit 
rather than a di$iadvantage, seeing that the 
meetings of such societies are almost invari- 
ably held at pablic-housety and that at club 
meetings there is often as much money 
apent in conviviality as there i« invested in 
tlie club. One special feature of many of 
these societies is that they have their an- 
nual village festival, the members walking 
in procession to church, and dining together 
in the afternoon, with the vicar or the 
squire in the chair ; and this festival, apart 
from the pleasure it affords, is the means of 
making the society known, and of inducing 
fresh members to ioin. Widely as this sys- 
tem of feasting has been condemned in 



many quarters, it b not altogether open to 
objection, for it. must be remembered that 
the poor only follow in such things the 
track of the rich ; and if they associate 
with their idea of a friendly society, or 
club, the necessity of roast beef and York- 
shire pudding, bad tobacco and beer, do 
not our aristocratic societies even the same 
in principle ? One has but to take up the 
daily paper, to see how with almost even* 
charitable object there is associated the 
gratification of the social instinct ; and the 
turtle and white-bait^ the champagne and 
ices, of the wealthier classes are used as a 
means to ensure fresh subscribers, in the 
same manner as the rural feast. Doubtless 
evil effects in many instances have arisen 
and do arise from the meetings of clubs 
and friendly societies being held in public- 
houses, but where ebe could such meetings 
be held ? The rich can afford to take the 
London Tavern or the Cannon Street Ilotel 
— they are neutral ground, and are con- 
venient ; the poor man can only find in ^ The 
Spotted Dog ' or ' The Coach and Ilorscs ' 
the warmth, comfort, and feeling of inde- 
pendence which are so necessary to the suc- 
cess of any social gathering of this kind. 

Without for a moment advocating the 
use of public-houses as places of meeting, 
or conviviality as a good means of inducing 
habits of thrift, there can be no doubt that 
if what is called the ' social element ' could 
be brought into exercise in relation to the 
savings bank movement, there would bo a 
steady decrease in the membership to 
friendly and benefit societies, and a propor- 
tionate increase in the deposits of working 
men in the Post Office savings banks. In 
offering a few suggestions on this head, 
clergymen and philanthropists generally will 
do well to remember that in organizing any 
efforts of the kind which will be proposed, 
it is most desirable that they should if pos- 
sible secure the friendly co-operation of 
postmasters ; and if postmasters would only 
look upon their savings bank labours as ad- 
vancing a great work which is capable of 
raising men and making them better and 
noblci, there is every reason to l>elievc that 
in a very short time rapid improvement 
wouKl be visible in many a district where 
po\*erty and squalor now follow in the train 
of intemperani'o and prodigality. 

Many Provident and Industrial so<^ietic.<« 
have been established solely through the in- 
tttrumentality of public meetings and lec- 
tures. It would l>e an easy matter for any 
clergyman or philantlu^pist, anxious to im- 
prove the condition of the people of hi 9 
parish or neighbourhood, to collect at very 
little trouble a mass of ioformation relative 



1878, 



1 • 

Savings^ and Savinga Banks, 



Z9 



to the Post Office savings baDks, and weave 
his facts into an interesting lecture. There 
is an extensive savings bank literature eJEUsilj 
accessible, and any postmaster could, if he 
felt so disposed, give valuable information, 
without in any way infringing the rules 
under which he holds his postmastership. 
An attractive title should be procured, the 
lecture should be well advertized, and if the 
hearty co-operation of the postmaster could 
be obtained, and he could be persuaded to 
attend the meeting, and bring with him his 
office date-stamp, a supply of declaration 
forms, deposit books, and his savings bank 
acconnt sheet, he could, at the conclusion 
of the lecture, when the minds of the peo- 
ple had been stirred up to see the import* 
ance of beginning to save at once, receive 
then and there the shilling, or whatever 
number of shillings within the limit it might 
bo proposed to deposit, and so a practical 
tarn would be given to the proceedings, 
and not a few would go away creditors ' in 
account with her Majesty.' If the co-ope- 
ration of a postmaster cannot be obtained, 
an arrangement might be made thus. If 
the clergyman or minister would make 
special application to the Controller of the 
Savings Bank Department, he could be sup- 
plied with the necessary forms of statutory 
declaration, and could himself receive the 
deposits of the people as soon as he had 
witnessed their signatures to the declara- 
tion. He could then pay in the amounts at 
the nearest Post Office savings bank, and 
receive the several deposit books, in which 
the postmaster would have made the proper 
entries, and these books might be called for 
or distributed to the depositors,. according 
to arrangement. 

If the lecture hall be the proper place to 
enforce the secular aspects of frugality and 
thrift, surely the pulpit is the proper place 
to deal with their more sacred aspects. And 
yet how rarely from the pulpit is heard one 
word concerning practical sabject* such .3 
these, which St. Paul did not consider too 
trivial to write about, or the Holy One to 
inspire him t-o write. If ministers would 
sometimes give a homely discourse on such 
subjects as * The duty of living below one^s 
income,' * The sin of prodigality,' * The 
Christian injunctions to save,' ^ The duty of 
making one's will,' they might, perchance, 
do more directly religious good than by 
preaching on abstractions ; and they might 
tind themselves following, even more closely 
than they might suppose, the example of 
our Lord. For He practised frugality, and 
inculcated the principle of thrift when He 
said, * Gather up the fragments, that noth- 
ing be lost ; ' and His apostles applied the 



principle in sentences such as these : ^ Pro- 
vide things honest in the sight of all men/ 
^ Lay by in store as God has prospered yon,' 
&c. In the rubric for the visitation of the 
sick*in the Book of Common Prayer it is 
written, ' And if he (the sick man) hath 
not before disposed of his goods, let him 
be admonished to make his will, and to de- 
clare his debts, what he oweth and what is 
owing to him, for the better discharging of 
his conscience and the quietness of his exe- 
cutors. But men should often he put in re- 
membrance to take order for the settling cf 
their temporal estates whilst they are in 
health.^ Nor would our preachers find much 
difficulty in culling from the writings of the 
golden-tongned St. Chrysostom, the devout 
St. Bernard, the eloquent Wbitefield, the 
doctrinal Wesley, and a host of other wor* 
thies, examples of the employ raetit of the 
pnlpit for practical matters of this kind. 
Let the minister not only enjoin habits of 
thrift upon his hearers, but let him also en- 
courage, as far as it is in his power, the 
same teaching in the Sunday-schools, Bible- 
classes, Mothers' Meetings, Ragged schools, 
and other agencies under his supervision. 
It would not be a hard thing to show that 
if, among the young, saving is taught as a 
duty, and practised as a conscientious habit, 
their moral welfare iu after life is, to a groat 
extent, ensured. 

There is yet another way in which the 
social instinct may be gratified and the end 
in view obtained, and that is by the adop- 
tion of some such plan as the following, 
which is capable of much modification, ac- 
cording to the tastes and habits of the peo- 
ple. In almost every town or village there 
is a workman's hall, lecture-room, or some 
such resort, at which entertainments, as 
penny ^readings, concerts, or lectures, are 
given. Why should not such entertain- 
ments be made the basis of an institution to 
supplant the club system and the injuriouH 
frequenting of public-houses for meetings i 
It mieht be done in this way. Let the urst 
meeting of each course be a special meeting 
for th^ enrolment of depositors in the 
savings bank. Make it attractive by organ- 
izing a debate, giving a lecture, or ensuring 
the attendance of some well-known men of 
local fame, who will entertain the meeting 
with speeches or what not. If possible, ob- 
tain the co-operation of the postmaster, who 
will attend, or send his clerk, in order to 
secure deposits then and there ; or, if this 
cannot be done, induce as many as may be 
to open accounts at the nearest office with- 
in a given time ; or constitute the clergy- 
man a postmaster pro tem,^ as already sag. 
gestcd ; or, if it is more convenient and 



40 



SavingSy and Savings Hanks, 



Jan. 



better suited to the means of Ibc people, 
organize a penny bank, explaining of course 
that the money will be deposited in bulk in 
the Post Office savings banks. Provide as 
good a programme of entertainment for the 
course as possible, and let the production of 
the savings hank hook he the card of adnUs- 
sum. By this means men would recognize 
one another as depositors in the same man- 
ner as if they were members of a clnb ; 
they would have the advantage of social in- 
tercourse without the expense and other at- 
tendant evils of the public-house, and they 
would be saving money which could bo ap- 
propriated for use much more expeditiously 
than throngh the intervention of the cum- 
brous machinery of a friendly society. 

It is alleged that the members of those 
societies take a keen interest in the names 
assumed by them, some of which arc odd 
as the oddest fellows could desire, such as 
the following, selected at random from a 
register of courts and lodges : * Amicable 
Brothers,' * Crooked Spire,' * Glorious Hope,' 
' Royal Antediluvian Order of Bu&loed,' 

* Shem and his Brothers,' * Blooming 
Rose,' * Who would have thought it ? ' 

* Violet of Eden,' * Do as you would be 
Done by,' * Live and Let live,' * Bow of 
Jonathan,' d;c. If this really be so, there 
would be no difficulty in arranging this 
with the members of any savings bank so- 
ciety, and calling it by any name they liked. 
The principal thing would be to have stated 
nights for tdeeting, stated minimum sums 
to be deposited, and, if possible, certain lo- 
cal advantages in addition to the entcrtair^- 
ments, such as the use of a workman's hall, 
or anything which would not involve the 
sacrifice of the men's independence, by 
making thetn in any way the recipients of 
charity or overmuch patronage. 

With reference to lectures and public 
meetings as a means of cre.ating an interest 
in the savings bank scheme, it is open to 
consideration whether it would not be worth 
while for the Post Office authorities to make 
arrangements for a duly qualified member 
of the Savings Bank Department to be sent 
to any town, to lecture in aid of a move- 
ment of the kind to which reference has 
been made ; or if this be not possible — and 
it would of coui*se be undignified for the 
government to be touting for business, es- 
pecially as English taste is not in favour of 
overmuch paternal treatment by the powers 
that be — to publish a good ' taking ' lecture 
explanatory of the system, which might be 
easily adapted to the special requirements 
of any particular neighbourhood, and might 
be purchased at a nominal charge at any 
Post Office. 



It cannot be denied that there are always 
difficulties in the way of educating men and 
women into new habits, and those who have 
never saved are the people who take the 
least interest in the subject of saving. But 
there are tens of thousands in the land who 
would be willing to make a trial if only they 
knew the advantages of the Post Office sys- 
tem and the extraordinary facilities it places 
within the reach of all, not only for deposit- 
ing money, but also for withdrawing it 
when and where they please. How to 
reach the masses with this information is 
the great desideratum, and one that has en- 
gaged considerable attention of late. It 
does not appear, however, that the sugges- 
tion we have made of making the 5448 
offices open for the transaction of savings 
bank business the means of advertising the 
institution by circulating, not a lecture only, 
but cheap pamphlets written in popular lan- 
guage, and devoid of official and technical 
terms — things hard to be understood by the 
masses — has ever been tried. If at every 
post office there could be found in a con- 
spicuous place little books published in a 
cheap and popular form, corresponding in 
style to that admirable pamphlet entitled, 
' My Account with Her Majesty,'* there 
can be no doubt that good results would 
follow. During the past year a distribu- 
tion of handbills issued by the Postmaster- 
General was made from house to house, as 
a means of making more widely known the 
facilities offered by the Post Office in re- 
gard to savings banks, life assurance, and 
annuities. Some millions of them were is- 
sued, but it is doubtful whether even this 
broadcast advertisement will make any ap- 
preciable difference in the business. The 
notice occupied only three pages, and de- 
voted as much space to life assurance and 
annuities — schemes which have been a fail- 
ure not only in this country, but wherever 
else they have been tried — as to savings 
banks, and it concluded by saying : * You 
can obtain at any post office printed papers 
containing the principal rules either of the 
Post Office savings bank or of the insurance 
and annuity offices ; and if, after reading 
these, you wish for further information, you 
can obtain it by sending a letter on the 
subject, the postage of which need not bo 
paid, to the Secretary, General Post Office, 
London.' The weak part of such an adver- 
tisement being that it referred people to 
places where tbey could obtain information , 
instead of explicitly giving the information ; 
it referred them to the ' rules,' which aro 

• ' My Account with Her Majesty.' By tho 
late Andrew Halliday. London : Partridge. 



1878. 



Savings^ and Savings Banks, 



41 



hard, dry, and uninviting in themselves ; 
and sagge&ted correspondence, which is the 
poor nian^s greatest stamhling-block in the 
way of seeking information. 

It is afiirmed by some that every move- 
ment destined to affect any large body of 
the community must have its origin among 
the rising generation. It would seem that 
the subject of education in thrift is looked 
upon by many at the present time in this 
light, inasmuch as there is an earnest en- 
deavour being made to establish penny 
banks in connection with schools — Day, 
Sunday, and even Ragged schools — but 
notably the schools under the supervision 
of the local boards. Penny banks were in- 
troduced in 1857, the first being opened at 
Greenock, when five thousand depositors 
availed themselves of its advantages in the 
first year : the adaptation of the scheme to 
school purposes is a matter of very recent 
date. Too much cannot be said in favour 
of penny banks. If a man can only be 
made to see that it is a duty to put by 
something for a rainy day, even though it 
be but a penny at a time, he has admitted 
a great principle, and has placed himself in 
a position to do better thinirs : the charac- 
ter of the man is altered by the first act, the 
beginning to save. If in early life this 
principle is made to form part of the edu- 
cation of a child, it augurs well for his fu- 
ture. The Controller of the Savings Bank 
Department thus refers to the subject : — 

It has been [eagerly debated whether sav- 
ings banks, the lowest limit of deposit in 
which is generally one shilling, should not so 
far relax their rules as to receive deposits of 
one penny and upwards, but the change has 
not commended itself to those who more im- 
mediately have the management of these in- 
stitutions. It has been judged by them that 
to gather into their garner the stray pennies of 
the poorer class of our countrymen, by send- 
ing round paid collectors, or by opening of- 
fices conveniently situated for the purpose of 
receiving the lowest limit of depbsit, would 
involve an expense far beyond the means 
available to tliat end, and would be abortive, 
unless kindly and neighbourly influences were 
brought to bear in encouraging the halt and 
helping the feeble. Actuated therefore by an 
ardent impulse to accomplish what is in itself 
so desirable, of late years every savings bank 
of importance has affiliated penny banks. 
The Department of the Post Office has been 
especially anxious from the earliest days of its 
savings bank transactions to afford a foster- 
ing encouragement in the formation of penny 
banks, and although its success has been slow 
and gradual, yet it can at this time boast of 
haviug the charge of the funds of about 450 
of these banks, and about two daily are now 
being added to the number. Ministers of all 
denominations, employers of labour, and other 



benevolent persons, seem fully alive to the 
benefits of such means of improving the social 
status of their more humble neighbours, and 
have availed themselves of the assistance of- 
fered by the Post Office in such laudable ef- 
forts. Accordingly, during the year 1875, no 
less than 25,000 books for the use of depositors 
were supplied gratuitously to the manas^ers of 
penny banks connected with the Department. 
Many penny banks, following the precedent 
afforded by the successful movement first set 
on foot in Belgium, have been opened in con- 
nection with both Naticmal and Board schools, 
and it is evident from the results already at- 
tained that school banks are destined to play 
a very important part in developing thrift and 
saving habits. As an example of the success 
of these banks, the forty-four penny banks 
in operation in the London bos^a schools re- 
ceived in the year 1875, in deposits, £1124 
from 5266 children, showing an average oi 
nearly 4s. SJd. per head, while at the end of 
the year £218 remained to the credit of the 
depositors.* 

During the year 1876 the progress of the 
penny bank movement was in every way 
satisfactory. Authority was given for 172 
penny banks in various parts of the United 
Kingdom to invest their funds in the Post 
Office savings bank, and since that time the 
progress has been even more remarkable, 
117 penny banks having been authorized 
during the quarter ending 31st March, 1877, 
exceeding by 41 the number during the 
corresponding quarter of 1876. Of these 
289 penny banks, 18 were in board schools, 
20 in Sunday schools, and 80 in other 
schools, one being in a Poor Law Union 
school, under the management of the mas- 
ter and chaplain of the workhouse. Farth- 
ing deposits are received in this bank, and 
although the depositors are probably .all 
pauper children, as much as £4 18s. was 
invested on behalf of the penny bank be* 
tween April, 1876, when the account was 
opened, and the 31st December. In 1876, 
28,000 books for the use of depositors in 
penny banks were supplied gratuitously to 
the managers of banks whose funds are de- 
posited with the Post Office savings bank. 

It may interest some readers — and espe- 
cially those who are anxious to acquaint 
themselves with everything relating to the 
Post Office savings bank system, in order 
that they may press the subject of thrift 
upon the consideration of others — to know 
a few details connected with the internal 
working of this vast scheme. For this pur- 
pose it will be best to follow in imagination 
a depositor into any of the 5448 Post Office 
savings banks, and watch the process of 

* From an unpublished lecture delivered by 
A. Christie Thomson, Esq., at Potter's Bar, in 
aid of a local i^enny bank, 1S76. 



42 



Savings, and Savings Hanks. 



Jan. 



making a deposit. lie has merely to name 
the sara he proposes to deposit, which may 
be any sum from Is. up to £30 — except a 
fractional part of a shilling— and he will be 
supplied by the postmaster with a form of 
declaration required by the'Act, in which the 
depositor declares that he has no other ac- 
count in this or any other savings bank. 
The postmaster will then receive the money, 
enter the amount in a ilepoftit book, to- 
gether with all particulars of name, address, 
and occupation, and after affixing his dated 
office stamp against the entry in the book, 
will hand it to the depositor. In about 
three days' time the depositor will receive 
from the head office in London a receipt 
for the amonpt from the Controller of the 
Savings Bank Department. Before he re- 
ceives this receipt, however, — or * acknowl- 
edgment,' as it is technically called — the 
transaction will have gone through a variety 
of processes. The postmaster will enter 
full particulars of the transaction on his 
savings bank daily account sheet, and this, 
together with the day's papers relating to 
Money Order business, &c., will be trans- 
mitted to the Receiver and Accountant-Gen- 
eral's office in London. The savings bank 
account and declaration will then be sepa- 
rated from the other documents, and for- 
warded to the Deposit Section of thfe Sav- 
ings Bank Department, where the acknowl- 
edgment will ^bc written. The acknowl- 
edgment, declaration, and postmaster's ac- 
count will then be sent to the Ledger Sec- 
tion of the Department, in order that an 
account in exact correspondence with the 
book in the depositor's possession may be 
opened in the proper ledger. In this sec- 
tion of the Department arc kept the ac- 
counts of all depositors, arranged alphabet- 
ically according to the name of the office 
at which the accounts were opened, and 
numerically according to the date of issue ; 
and the full particulars of the name, resi- 
dence, and occupation of depositors, and of 
every transaction which has taken place in 
their accounts. There are contained in this 
section of the Department no fewer than 
2678 ledgers, with about 1,800,000 current 
accounts ; and from one year's end to an- 
other never less than 96 officers are em- 
ployed exclusively as ledger-keepers. The 
average number of deposits received daily 
during the year 1876 was 10,347. 

When a depositor wishes to withdraw 
* from his account, the operation is as simple 
and expeditious as it can possibly be. lie 
has to fill up and sign a form of notice to 
withdraw, which may be obtained at any 
post office, and this, already addressed, and 
not requiring a stamp, has only to be dropped 



in the nearest letter-box. On arriving at 
the Savings Bank department in London it 
is opened, sorted, with all other notices re- 
ceived, into [alphabetical and numerical 
arrangement, and given to special sorters, 
who take out from the pigeon-holes, occu- 
pying a considerable space in the basement 
of the building, the declarations made when 
the accounts were opened. These declara- 
tions are then forwarded, with the notices 
to withdraw, to the Examiner's Branch, 
whero the signature on each notice is care- 
fully compared with that on the correspond- 
ing declaration. This is performed by n 
stafE of female clerks, who become so ex- 
pert at the work that they will generally 
compare as many as a hundred signatures 
in the course of a hour, detecting those that 
are not written by the depositors them- 
selves, and those which vary in sufficient 
degree to make it necessary to send any 
special instructions to the postmasters to 
satisfy themselves as to the identity of the 
depositors before paying the warrants. The 
amount applied for, if £5 or over, is en- 
tered on a list which is forwarded to tho 
Money Order Office, in order that funds 
may be remitted to the postmaster to meet 
the demands made upon him. The ^ notice ' 
is then sent to the Ledger Section of tho 
Department, where it is compared with the 
account in the ledger, and tho particulars of 
the withdrawal are entered therein. A 
warrant authorizing payment of the amount 
is then written (in duplicate, by means of 
carbonized paper, one half — the * warrant ' 
— being for the depositor, and the other 
half — the * advice ' — ^for the postmaster), 
and is sent to tho Examiners' Branch, where 
a female clerk examines it, to see that it is 
issued for the correct amount, checks the 
interest if the withdrawal closes the ac- 
count, and sees that the name, address, and 
all other particulars are properly inserted. 
The warrant is then handed to the sorters, 
to be stamped with the signature of tlio 
Controller, folded, and dispatched. 

The average number of notices to with- 
draw received daily during tho year 1876 
was 3^7. 

When, at the expiration of two days, or 
three at the most, the depositor receives the 
warrant for the payment of the money, he 
has only to take it to the office at which he 
has requested payment to bo made, and 
sign his name. The signature is then com- 
pared by the postmaster with that made in 
the deposit book when the account was 
opened, and, if found to be correct, the 
money is at once handed to him. If the 
transaction closes the account the depositor 
gives up the book, but if not, he retains it. 



1878, 



Savings^ and Savings Banks. 



43 



to deposit or withdraw, and thus continae 
hU ^banklDg account with the Crown.' 

A far greater number of deposits are 
made in the month of January than at any 
other time of the year. The largest num- 
ber received in any one day during the 
year 1876 was on the 31st January, when 
the total was 25,063, amounting to £69,- 
745 6s. 3d. ; the highest amount received 
in any one day was on the 3rd January, 
when 21,565 depositors paid in the sum of 
£71,141 19s. lOd. Withdrawals are al- 
ways heaviest towards Christmas and other 
public holidays. The greatest number of 
notices to withdraw acted upon in any one 
day in 1876, was 9939, when warrants 
amounting to £47,664 7s. 7d. were issued. 

It would not be possible in a limited 
space, nor would it be remarkably interest- 
ing, to describe in detail the various pro- 
cesses performed in the chief oJBSce before 
the total number of transactions are proved 
in a balance-sheet at the end of the year. 
It will be enough to say that every transac- 
tion at every office throughout the country is 
entered in the ledgers of the Savings Bank 
Department in London ; that the total num- 
ber of deposits and withdrawals are extract- 
ed quarterly into specially prepared * sum- 
maries ; ' that the interest due is calculated 
and each account balanced separately at the 
end of each year ; and, finally, the whole of 
the transactions are brought into perfect 
agreement. But it will be better under- 
stood why it would be impossible to de- 
scribe the modus operandi in a limited space 
when it is known that printed instructions 
are issued in the Department for the guid- 
ance of the officers in the ordinary routine 
of their duty, and that for the Book-keep- 
ers' Branch alone these instructions occupy 
70 closely printed pages, divided and sub- 
divided into 24 parts and 262 weighty 
clauses. This fact alone should be suffi- 
cient to silence forever the libels of those 
who still trot out the old joke about govern- 
ment clerks resembling the fountains in 
Trafalgar Square. Another reason why the 
difficulty of explanation would be considera- 
ble, arises from the fact that there has 
sprung up in the Department a nomencla- 
ture wholly unintelligible except to the ini- 
tiated. 

In what has been said about the internal 
arrangements of the Savings Bank Depart- 
ment, reference has only been made to the 
comparatively plain, straightforward work 
of depositing, withdrawing, and balancing 
the accounts. Of course there is a vast 
amount of complicated and exceptional 
work relating to the accounts of deceased 
and insane depositors ; to minors attaining 



the age of seven years ; to a wife's right to 
deposits under the Married Woman's Prop- 
erty Act disputed by - the husband ; to 
female depositors marrying iifter opening an 
account ; to depositors' books lost or de- 
stroyed ; and a variety of other iqatters, all 
of which involve correspondence. An idea 
of the extent of this correspondence will be 
gathered from the following statistics for 
1875. The number of letters received in 
that year was 99,000, as against 88,570 in 
1874. At the heaviest period of the year 
the number of communications despatched 
in one day, including acknowledgments for 
deposits, warrants for withdrawals, and de- 
positors' books, reached 40,000. 

Interesting cases are constantly arising in 
connection with the correspondence of the 
Department, and the reports of the Con- 
troller, which, as has been said, arc printed 
from time to time in the appendices of the 
Postmaster-General's reports, are full of in- 
teresting details, as the following extracts 
will show. 

As giving some idea of the extensive rela- 
tions of the Post Office savings bank, it may 
be mentioned that scarcely any accident oc- 
curs iu any part of the country, involving con- 
siderable loss of life, without claims being 
subsequently made, showing that some of the 
unfortunate victims had been depositors. 
Among the claims received last year was one 
from the representative of a depositor whu 
bad died in the far interior of Africa, while en- 
gaged in the exploring expedition under Mr. 
H. M. Stanley. 

The applications for new books (issued to 
depositors in place of books lost or destroyed), 
like claims to the moneys of deceased deposi- 
tors, are usually increased on the occurrence 
of any great casualty on land or water. For 
instance, last year several depositors' books 
were lost in H.M.S. Vanguardy and in the 
training ship Goliath ; and with reference to 
the latter case special authority was obtained 
that such books, and any others lost under 
similar circumstances, or through the wreck of 
any of Her Majcsty^s ships, should be replaced 
free of charge. The explanations of deposi- 
tors in accounting for the loss of their books 
are sometimes very curious. For instancy, an 
applicant wrote from a travelling circus as fol- 
lows : * Last night, when I was sleeping in the 
tent, one of our elephants broke loose and 
tore up my coat, in the pocket of which was 
my bank book, aud eat part of it. I enclose 
the fragments.' 

Another applied for'a new book, stating he 
had lost the original * through putting it in 
an old coat pocket, and selling the coat with- 
out taking out the book again.' Another ac- 
counted for the destruction of his book by 
stating that *■ his little puppy of a dog got hold 
of it and tore it all to pieces, not leaving so 
much as the number.' And another account- 
ed for the mutilation of his book as follows : 



44 



Savings^ and Savings Banks. 



Jan. 



^ lu the early part of last year I was rather se- 
riously ill away from home, and having my 
bank book with mr, I wrote on the margin in 
red ink what was to be done with the bidance 
in case of a fatal result, and as a precaution 
against its bciDg wrongfully claimed on my 
recovery, I cut this out.' 

In 1 876 there were 1 ,968 depositors' books 
issued by the Department in place of books 
lost or destroyed, and at the end of that year 
there were 1,650 unclaimed books in the pos- 
session of the Department, representing a 
total amount of £1,333 5s. 4d. These stray 
books, accumulated diuing fifteen years, are 
for the most part books forwarded from the 
Department after examination, which could 
not be delivered, owing to the depositors 
having changed their places of abode, leav> 
ing no clue behind them. Although these 
cases are not numerous, considering that in 
one day in January no fewer than 11,102 
books were received for examination, and 
the daily average for the year was 2,404, ihey 
show how much carelessness depositors 
sometimes exhibit in money matters. The 
following case is cited as an instance of 
this : — 

It is still the practice of the Department 
under certain circumstances, to remind deposi- 
tors that their books should bo forwarded for 
annual examination. A depositor thus remind- 
ed replied that his book was lost, but added 
that if there was any balance due to him ho 
would be glad to be furnished with the particu- 
lars. The amount due was upwards of 1 10, but 
as, when a depositor has lost his book, the rule 
is to test his own knowledge of the account, 
this course was followed; and it was eviilcnt, 
after much correspondence, that the depositor 
was entirely ignorant as to the balance stand- 
ing to his credit, that he had regarded the 
account us closed, and that, but for the re- 
ceipt of the circular from this Department he 
would have made no claim. 

Not only is the correspondence of the 
Department affected by accidents involving 
loss of life, but all strikes, lock-outs, de- 
pressions in trade, epidemics, increased rates 
of mortality, meteorological changes, the 
moi;^! condition of the people, and a variety 
of other subjects, come within the range of 
its extensive relations. Two curious in- 
stances of this arc pointed out by the Con- 
troller in the appendix to the Tostmastcr- 
Gcneral's last report. 

Last year there were 186 cases in which de- 
positors were shown to be insane, being an 
increase over the preceding year of 13; and 
there had been precisely the same increase in 
1876 over 1874. During the last quarter of 
1876 there were no Inss than 48 cases, a re- 
markable increase, as compared with the aver- 
age of about 29 only in the three previous quar- 
ters ; and this increase has been in a great 



degree maintained during the quarter to the 
81 st March last, when the case? numbered 39. 
The experience of this Department therefore^ 
tteems to juitify the apprehen*iony prevalent in 
various quarters^ that there has lately been a 
rapid increase of insanity^ particularly anumg 
the working cUuses, 

The claims to the moneys of deceased 
depositors during the year 1876 number- 
ed 11,891, as against 11,569 in the pre- 
vious year. Tlie small increase of 322, as 
compared with that in 1875 over 1874, which 
was 2,113, being eonnstent toith the diminished 
death-rate stated to hate pretailed throughout 
the kingdom^ even irrespective of tlte unwonted 
mildness oftJie later months of the year. 

The * deceased duty,' as it is technically 
termed in the Department, comes in for a 
large share of correspondence. In connec- 
tion with the claims above mentioned, 2,559 
probates of wills or letters of adminihtration 
were produced, but even these cases do not 
involve so much labour as the applications 
of representatives of deceased persons when 
the deceased is supposed to have made some 
investment which has not come to light 
The Post OflSco savings bank seems to be a 
general resource under such circumstances, 
for the number of applications is very great, 
and a laborious search is frequently under- 
taken merely to satisfy the applicant, even 
when there is every reason to believe that 
his supposition is groundless. In one case 
of this kind the applicant, who could pro- 
duce no evidence whatever that his deceased 
relative was a depositor in the Post Office 
savings bank, declined to accept the state- 
ment of the Department that, in the ab- 
sence of some tangible data, his application 
could not be dealt with ; and he went so 
far as to take out letters of administration, 
sworn under an imaginary sum, and to 
make an affidavit aflinning his * strong be- 
lief ' that the relative in question had 
money in the Post Office savings bank at 
his death. 

Among the vast amount of correspond- 
ence, * curious cnses * are constantly arising, 
manv of them rcsultin? from the notion, 
very prevalent among the people of Ameri- 
ca, that ' bankers ' may be consulted upon 
any conceivable subject. The following 
instances are cited in the last Report. A 
depositor wrote to the Department as fol- 
lows : * Having lost my parents, I am desir- 
ous of taking a housekeeper's situation 
where a domi*stic is kept. Must be a Dis- 
senting family. Baptist preferred. Think- 
ing that such a cafe might come under yonr 
notice, I have therefore taken the liberty of 
sending to you.' Another dopositor, appre- 
hensive lest some person might withdraw 
money from his accoont, pro[H>sod to send 



1878. 



SavinffSj and Savings Banks. 



45 



his likeness, to be used for identif jiug him, 
and then made the following curious re- 
quest : * There arc some little articles I 
>vould like to get from London, and one of 
them is some natnral leaf tobacco, which I 
would be glad if you sent an ounce of, and 
charge me for it — it is only to be bought 
in the largest tobacco stores.' In a further 
lett^sr, the depositor expressed surprise that 
his request was not complied with, observ- 
ing that ^ the commonest person in America 
(my country) can speak to General Grant, 
and there is nothing said wrong about it.' 
In another case, a woman forwarded her 
will, and requested to be informed whether 
it was ' correct in case of death.' 

Having spoken thus far of the work of 
the Department, a word or two may be de- 
voted to the place in which that work is 
performed, the otficers employed, and the 
cost of the working expenses of the estab- 
lishment. 

When the scheme first came into opera- 
tion, namely, in 1861, one room under the 
roof of the old General Post Office was 
more than enough to accommodate the 
staff of officers, consisting of Controller, 
two principal clerks, and 17 others. In a 
very short time this room was out grown, and 
two others were obtained in the same build- 
ing, one a blazingly hot room under sky- 
lights on the roof. This was only a make- 
shift, and in 1864 the business of the sav- 
ings bank was removed to a building in St. 
Paul's Churchyard (No. 27), built for a 
warehouse, and with air and light only 
adapted for the stowage of perishable arti- 
cies in the Manchester goods line. Year 
after year the borders had to be extended, 
and by degrees a whole range of buildings 
in Liitle Carter Lane, at the back of St. 
Paul's Churchyard, was taken, communicat- 
ing with the principal building by means of 
an iron bridge thrown across the street. 

\Vhen the lease of these stupendous and 
stupendously unsuitable and expensive build- 
ings (the rent of which is £5,000 per an- 
num !) expires, the business will be trans- 
ferred to * a new building about tb be 
erected in Queen Victoria Street, to accom- 
modate temporarily the Central Savings 
Bank, until permanent provision can be made 
for that and other departments, for which 
there is at present no accommodation in the 
General Post Office buildings, St. Martin's- 
le-Grand.' 

The revenue estimates for the year ending 
31 si March, 1878,* give the following as 



* ' Eatimates for Civil Services and Kevenne 
Pepartments for the year ending Slst March, 
1878.' Eyre and Spottiswoode.* Price 6s. 4d. 



the expenses for working the whole of the 
machinery of the Post Office savings banks : — 

Salailet to 403 Oi&cera In Savings Bank Depart- 
ment, London £61,046 

SaJanes to 00 Female Clerks in Sayiogs Bank Dc< 
TMirtment, London 6,10 

Salaries to Clerks for extra duty, &c., in Savings 
Bank Departmont, London '6,000 

Salaries to writers, Ac, in SavingB Bank Depart- ' 
men t, London , 4,000 

Wages to 180 Sorters, Messengers, Porters, Ac, 
in SavlDfTS Bank Department, London 8,185 

Wages to 180 Sorters, Messengers, Porters, &c., 
for extra duty l,050 

Expense of Savings Bank work performed by 
other offices of tne General Post Office ^6,840 

Allowance to Snb-postmasters and Receivers 
tlirotighnnt the iJnlted Kingdom for condacting 
Savings Bank business (rate of pay, £5 for every 
JOOO transactions) 14,460 

Allowance to Head Officers (including Qonerai 
Post Offices in London, Dablin, and Edin- 
burgh) 8,630 

£112,84$ 

Rent 6,00U 

Maintenance and repairs of building and supply 

of fiUlngs 8,iW0 

Fnrniture and Repairs 000 

Water, Fire Insurance, and Tithes 160 

Fuel and Light 9S0 

Stationery 10,000 

Law Charges 400 

Travelling TOO 

Incidental Expenses jo 

Superannuation and other non-effective chorgea. . . 200 

Losses by fraud and default (United Kingdom). . . 260 

Total £184,6^2 

r 

The profits accrning upon savings bank 
business • froip the commencement to the 
present time amount to £1,104,531 83., of 
which snni about £149,000 accrued in the 
year 187C. 

It remains now, in conclusion, to inqniro 
what influence the Post Office savings bank 
system has had upon foreign and colonial 
governments. 

For some years past eminent men, repre- 
sentatives of foreign governments, have 
been deputed to visit the Central Depart- 
ment in London, in order to possess them, 
selves of full information concerning tlie 
practical working of the scheme. Thus in 
1870, M. A. de Malarce, an eminent statis- 
tical writer, obtained information on behalf 
of the French government, which assisted in 
the revival of interest in the caisses (Tepargne 
after the war. In 1875 M. dc Malarce 
again visited England, and devoted a con- 
siderable time to a thorough investigation 
of the working and administration of the 
system, and soon after his return to Paris a 
billy having for its object the introduction 
of a similar system into France, was brought 
before the National Assembly by the Min- 
ister of Finance. ^ After an exciting debate 
of three days, however, the bill was with- 
drawn, in consequence, it would seem, of 
the opposition of the friends of the old sav- 
ings banks, and of the question having ulti- 
mately assumed a party aspect. Neverthe- 
less, the Assembly resolved almost unani- 
mously that post and revenue offices should 



46 



Savings, and Savings Banks. 



Jan. 



be placed at the disposal of the old savings 
banks for the receipt and payment of de- 
posits/ In August, 1876 — that is to say, a 
year after the passing of this Act — there 
were 800 post offices open for the transac- 
tion of savings bank business. There can 
be little doubt that eventually the Post 
Office savings bank system will bo adopted 
in France, and in the mean time much is 
being done to promote habits of thrift 
among the people. Penny banks have, up 
to December, 1876, been introduced into 
53 out of the 82 departments of France, 
and have been established in 3,200 schools, 
and no fewer than«^ 30,000 scholars having 
deposited in excess of their total limit, their 
accounts have been transferred to ordinary 
savings banks. The following statement 
shows with what rapid strides the savings 
bank movement has progressed in France. 

In 1870 the total amount of deposits in 
French savings banks had, after fifty years, 
risen to £28,800,000. After the war the 
amount fell to £20,600,000; but it has since 
increased, at first slowly, and in the last two 
years with extraordinary rapidity, having 
reached £21,400,000 in 1878, and £22,920,000 
ip 1874 ; while at the present time it is stated 
to be no less than £32,000,000. . . This re- 
markable increase, which appears to have 
continued even in a greater degree this year, 
although probably attributable in some meas- 
ure to the materiarprogress of the French na- 
tion, is no doubt mainly due to the extraordi- 
nary development, in the last three years, of 
pe:iny and school savinffs banks, brought 
about by the efforts of M. Auguste do Ma- 
larce. 

In Italy, an Act of Parliament establish- 
ing Post Office savings banks on a principle 
almost identical with our own, and inclnd- 
ing ' cross transactions,' that is to say, the 
power to deposit or withdraw at any office 
open for savings bank business, was passed 
on the 9th December, 1875, and on the 
29th February, 1876 there were 631 offices 
opened throughout the kingdom. The pro- 
meter of the bill, Signor Sella, ex-Minister 
of Finance, has also recently established an 
association, or league. La Lega del Hispar- 
mio^ for the encouragement of habits of 
thrift among the labouring classes, the idea 
of which is to induce employers of labour 
to present to persons in their service, wish- 
ing to become depositors, a deposit book in 
which the sum of one franc has already been 
entered. Within four months of the forma- 
tion of this society 80,536 operatives had 
availed themselves of the inducement thns 
held out to them, 13,693 being men, and 
16,843 women. 

In Belgium, tlie National aavion bank 
ha% since 1870, by permission of 'J^% gov- 



emment, employed the Post Offices for the 
purpose of receiving deposits, and has 
adopted many of the features of our own 
system. In Belgium, as in France, there 
has been a rapid increase in the use of sav- 
ings banks, greatly attributable to the de- 
velopment of school banks. 

In 1871, the Austrian government ob- 
tained full information respecting the Post 
Office savings banks, and adopted the sys- 
tem almost in its entirety. In the same year 
the United States government was supplied 
with similar information, and in 1873 with 
particulars of all alterations and improve- 
ments since the date of the previous appli- 
cation. In 1873 the directors of the Na- 
tional Bank at Pesth were furnished with 
information to aid them in introducing a 
system of Post Office savings banks into 
Hungary. 

In the autumn of 1875 the Netherlands 
government had under consideration the 
feasibility of establishing a system in Hol- 
land similar to that obtaining in Great Brit- 
ain, but it was decided that under existing 
circumstances such a step would be inexpe- 
dient ; and an Act similar to that in France 
came into force in May, 1876, when 1,255 
Post Offices were placed at the disposal of 
the 49 private savings banks of that coun- 
try. 

In Germany, the postal receiving houses 
are now allowed to be used for savings bank 
business. In Norway, Sweden, Brazil, Swit- 
zerland, and elsewhere, the postal scheme 
either has been, or is, under discussion. In 
far off Japan the Post Office savings bank 
system has been adopted, and in Yeddo 
alone 18 post office banks were opened in 
May, 1875. 

As regards the colonies and dependencies, 
the influence of our system of postal banks 
has spread and is spreading. In the Aus- 
tralian colony of Victoria, a system almost 
identical in every particular with that in 
force in the mother country was established 
in 1 805. In New Zealand, by an Act of the 
Gen^I Assembly in 1867, savings banks 
in connection with the Post Office were es- 
tablished, with rules similar in many respects 
to our own. In Canada the system was 
adopted in 1868, the sphere of its operation 
being confined to the provinces of Ontario 
and Quebec. The Postmaster-General of 
Canada, in a recent report, makes an obser- 
vation which applies to most of the colonies, 
and accounts for the fact that the savings 
bank movement does not make pn>gress 
there to the same extent it does elsewhere. 
' It must bo borne in mind,' be says, * that 
the labouring and artizan classes in Canada 
have opportumties, not generally enjoyed 



1878. 



JPreeious Stones. 



47 



by tbo same classes in older coantries^ of 
becoming owners of real property ; and tbat 
it is an ambition with the worKing man in 
Canada to acquire property, and' own at 
least the hoase he lives in, or the farm on 
which he works.' 

In India the subject of establishing Post 
OfiSce savings banks received the attention 
of Lord Lytton on his assuming the vice- 
royalty. 

It should be mentioned that every possi- 
ble facility has been offered to foreign and 
colonial governments to acquire the fullest 
information respecting the system, and to 
this end a work prepared in the Savings 
Bank Department, with much skill and 
painstaking, has been in no small degree in- 
strumental. It is a collection of ' Reports, 
Minutes, and Memoranda explanatory of 
the Origin and Progress of the System of 
Post OSce Savings Banks,' copies ot which 
were supplied to the various governments in 
1871. Referring to the applications for in- 
formation, and the effects of the informa- 
tion diffused, the Conti:olIer of the Savings 
Bank Department thus sums up the matter 
in his latest report : — 

Considering that the commercial depression 
and other unfavourable circumstances have 
not been confined to our own country, but 
have prevailed even in a greater degree on the 
continent of Europe, it need not have excited 
surprise that this Department should, during 
the pasfe year, have had fewer of such appli- 
cations than formerly. As, however, notwith- 
standing all the discouragements of the times, 
there is abundant evidence that the savings 
bank movement is still actively going on 
abroad, it seems as if the necessity for these 
inquiries had well-nigh ceased, and that our 
dissemination of such knowledge is being fol- 
lowed by practical results. 



How can the rich best help the poor ? is 
a question in discussing which rivers of ink 
have been poured forth, and the question is 
still unanswered. But certain p(nnts in the 
discussion have been settled. It is general- 
ly felt that working men do not want any 
more patting on the back or charitable pat. 
ronage ; all they want is to be shown how 
they can best help themselves, and to be 
convinced that, every right-thinking man 
should owe his success, his happiness, to his 
own perseverance and thrift. Unfortunate- 
ly there are many institutions in this coun- 
try which have been started with the best 
intentions, the outcome of the purest benev- 
olence, but which nevertheless encourage, 
and perchance have originated, the very 
evils they were designed to check. They 
make men dependent upon charity, and 
cause them to feel that if they are to be 



raised from poverty or degradation it must 
be by the charity of the benevolent. Such 
institutions imdermine self-respect, and de- 
stroy that healthiest of all virtuous feelings, 
a desire to be independent. No man in 
this country ought to look forward to the 
workhouse, or to asylums, or to public 
charity of any kind ; and by-and-by, when 
knowledge has run to and fro in the 
land, it may be that the lamentable extrava-* 
gance which is now the bane of the English 
poor may be checked, and habits of thrift 
become more general. Living for the fu- 
' ture, exercising foresight, are not character- 
istics of the workinor classes of this coun- 
try. These things come with education and 
consequent mental discipline ; with the 
power of being able to perceive that pres- 
ent self-denial yields a present gratification 
as well as a future reward. A savings bank 
depositor is doing good to himself as an 
individual, to his family, to his neighbour- 
hood, to the State. A writer in the ' Quar- 
terly Review ' remarks : * Henri Quatre 
wished that every peasant in France could 
have a fowl in his pot. If every working 
man in England had a little property, a pro- 
vision against misfortune and old age, a 
something to leave to his children, a stake 
in the country in fact, becoming thus, neces- 
sarily, a supporter of order, our institutions 
would ^ placed on so sound a basis that, 
humanly speaking, nothing could shake 
them.' 

To attain this end the working man, as 
we have said, needs not so much to be 
helped as to be shown how to help himself ; 
and a thorough exposition of the savings 
bank system, whether by employers, lectur- 
ers, or ministers and philanthropists in gen- 
eral, is one of the important means that may 
be employed in stimulating the poor to 
provident habits, the middle classes to a 
consideration of the increasing evils of liv- 
ing up to the last penny of income in order 
to keep up appearances, and the young to 
early frugality, so that thrift may become a 
habit as years advance. 



Art. IV. — Precious Stoma, 

(1.) Antique Gems: their Origin^ Uees^ and 
Valtte^ 08 Interpreters of Ancient History^ 
and OB Illustrative of Ancient Art, By 
C. W, King, M.A. 1860. 

(2.) The Natural History^ Ancient and Mod- 
ern^ of Precious Stones and Gems, and of 
tho Precious Metals, By C. W. Kino 
M.A. 1865. ' 

(8.) The Handbook of Engrated Gems, By 
C. W. Kino, M.A. 1866. 



4S 



Precious Stones. 



Jan. 



(4.) Diamonds and Precious Stones: their 
' History^ Value, and Distinguinhing Char^ 
acterihties. By Harry Emakuel,, F.G.S. 
1865. 
(5.) The Science of Oems, Jewels, Coins, and 
Medals, Ancient and Modern. By Archi- 
bald BiLLiKO, M.D., A.M., F.R.S. New 
Edition. London. 1875. 

A CERTAIN Chinese mandarin, ivho delight- 
ed in covering his richly-dressed person with 
precious stones, was one day accosted in the 
streets of Pekin by an old bonze, who, bow- 
ing very low, thanked him for his jewels. 
* What does the man mean ? ' cried the 
mandarin. * I never gave thee any of my 
jewels.' * No,' replied the other ; * but you 
let mo look at them, and that is all the use 
you can make of them yourself ; so there is 
no difference between us, except that you 
have the trouble of watching them, and 
that is an employment I do not want.' This 
little anecdote will probably commend it- 
self to the majority of our readers, as it is 
the few only that possess any quantity of 
precious stones, and most of us have to be 
contented with the sight of them in the 
possession of others. 

The objects we are about to describe are 
known by three names, which are often un- 
necessarily confused together. The expres- 
sion ' a precious stone ' explains itself, and 
includes both the raw material an(Lthe ar- 
tistic product, for every gem is a precious 
stone, but every precious stone is not neces- 
sarily a gem. The term * a gem ' is conven- 
tionally applied to an engraved stone, and 
the value of the gem in general depends 
more upon the artistic skill of the engraver 
than upon the preciousness of the material 
in which it is displayed. A jewel is a pre- 
cious stone set in some ornamental form, as 
a ring or brooch, but oftentimes it is merely 
a specimen of ornamental work in some 
precious metal. We intend chiefly to con- 
tine ourselves to the consideration of the 
simple stones, because a history of gems is 
more intimately connected with the early 
history of art. It will, however, be neces- 
sary to notice incidentally the engraving, as 
well a? the substance upon which it is ex- 
hibited. 

The books noticed at the head of this 
article are all of considerable value, and we 
shall have frequent occasion to refer to each 
of them in the following pages. Mr. King 
has made himself so well known, by the 
thoroughness of his books, as one of the 
first authorities on this subject, that it b 
needless to criticise them here. The prac- 
tical knowledge of the dealer in precious 
stones is exhibited in Mr. Emanuel's vol- 
ume, which contains a large amount of valu- 



able and interesting information in a small 
compass ; and Dr. Billing, with the elegant 
taste of a true connoisseur, has produced a 
work in which science and art are admira- 
bly united and exhibited in the beauty of 
it& appearance and the trustworthiness of 
its contents. A special feature of bis *• Sci- 
ence of Gems ' is the biography of Pistrucci, 
chief engraver to the Mint, which contains 
a most interesting portraiture of that great 
artist. 

Precious stones are now as highly es- 
teemed as ever for thdir beauty, but the 
awe in which they were once held for the 
qualities that superstition attached to them 
has long been a talc of the past. Besides 
the superstitious notions that were once 
prevalent, those habits of association which 
even now are not quite dead must not bo 
forgotten. Pope Innocent III. sent four 
rings to King John of England, each of 
which contained a different coloured stone, 
viz., the emerald, the sapphire, the garnet, 
and the topaz, as emblematical of the cardi- 
nal virtues — faith, hope, charity, and good 
works — ^much neglected by the English 
sovereign. Twelve has been a favourite . 
number for the arrangement of precious 
stones, apparently in connection with the 
twelve stones on the breast-plate of the Jew- 
ish high-priest. Thus, certain stones are 
appropriated to the twelve apostles, and 
others, again, to the twelve months. The 
practice of adopting the stone of the wear- 
er's birth-month in a rinnr still exists amons: 
the Germans. 

The Bible contains thiee lists of prccions 
stones, besides thoSe mentioned separately 
in various parts of the sacred volume. 1. 
The description of the four rows of three 
stones each, with the names of the children 
of Israel engraved upon them, which com- 
posed the breast-plate of judgment (Exod. 
xxvili. 17-21 ; xxxix. 10-14). 2. The list 
of the ornaments of the king of Tyre, com- 
prising nine stones, viz., sardius, topaz, dia- 
mond, beryl, onyx, jasper, sapphire, emer- 
ald, and carbuncle (Ezek. xxviii. 13). 3. 
The Apocalyptic vision of the heavenly 
Jerusalem, in which the twelve stones named 
jasper, sapphire, chalcedony, emerald, sar- 
donyx, sardius, .chrysolite, beryl, topaz, 
chrysoprasus, jacinth, and amethyst, figure 
as the foundations of the heavenly city 
(Rev. xxi. 19-21). 

There has been considerable confusion in 
the translation of the names of some of thesn 
stones, and the Authorized Version is often 
incorrect. Thus, there is every reason to be- 
lieve that the diamond was confounded with 
the white sapphire or corundum. Chrysolite 
was the same as our oriental topaz, and the 



1878. 



JPreciaus Stones. 



49 



topazion was the ppridot, a yellowiafa-green 
stone. Mr. Emanael devotes a chapter of 
his book to a full account of the stones in 
the breast-plate of the high-priest, with a 
table of the names used in the several trans- 
lations from the original Hebrew. Mr. 
Xing makes the startling remark that as no 
lapse of time produces any sensible effect 
upon engraved gems, thege venerable relics 
must still be ia existence ; and suggests 
that when the dark recesses of the Sultan's 
treasury are rummaged by the Russian heir 
of the. Sick Man, these stones may emerge 
from oblivion, to delight the eyes of the 
archsBologist and the theologian. 

The twelve precious stones mentioaed in 
St. John's vision are not arranged in the 
order of those on the breast-plate, but ac- 
cording to their shades of colour ; and here 
and elsewhere the writer of the book of 
Revelatiop exhibits an intimate acquaintance 
with the colors and qualities of jewels. 
Gems and precious stones have been offered 
to the gods from the earliest times, and 
these valuable objects were to be seen in the 
ancient temples, arranged with the greatest 
profusion. The contents of the treasury of 
the Parthenon are enumerated in Boeckh's 
Inscriptions, but the Greek temples seem 
poor when compared with the shrines of 
imperial Rome. These articles of jewellery 
were not always safe from the depredations 
of covetous hands ; and Zosimus ascribes 
the tragic death of Serena, the widow of 
the great general Stilicho, who was strangled 
by order of the wretched Honorius, to the 
vengeance of the goddess Vesta, whose 
statue she had robbed of a valuable neck- 
lace of precious stones. This practice of 
devoting gems to the adornment of shrines 
was continued by the Roman Catholic 
Church. The shrine of Edward the Con- 
fessor in Westminster Abbey, constructed 
by Henry III., was rich in the possession of 
cameos, one of which was valued in that 
day at the enormous sum of £200. The 
shrine of Loretto was excessively rich, and 
that of our Lady at Walsingham almost 
rivalled it in the abundance of its treasures ; 
bat two of the most magnificent collections 
were preserved at the shrine of the Three 
Kings of Cologne, and in the Abbey of St. 
Denis. However sacred these sanctuaries 
might be held, their keepers had need to 
be upon their guard, in order to save the 
jewels from passing into dishonest hands. 
One of the monks or canons attached to a 
religious house was usually the shrine- 
keeper. It was his duty to watch night 
and day, and ' a watching chamber ' was 
constructed for him near the shrine. On 
extraordinary occasions the Canterbury 

VOL. LXVII. 



shrine was guarded by a troop of fierce 
dogs, and Dalmatian dogs were till lately 
the shrine-keepers at the Church of St. An- 
thony at Padua. Yalery tells the story of 
a servant who, absorbed in prayer before 
the- shrine, did not observe the closing of 
the church doors. He was, however, brought 
back to recollection by two dogs, who placed 
themselves one on either side of him, and 
would not allow him to stir until the momingr 
One case is recorded of an apparent wor- 
shipper, who, seeming to kiss the jewels on 
a certain shrine, managed to detach some 
and carry them off in her mouth. In a 
large number of instances, however, the 
guardians of the shrines have taken the pre- 
caution to substitute paste for the true 
stones, and the blaze of jewels that worship, 
pers look at with wondering eyes is due 
merely to glass. 

The regalia of great monarchs are among 
the most interesting objects which are asso- 
ciated with precious stones, and many of 
them contain some gem of historical renown. 
One of the principal ornaments of the crown 
of Charlemagne was a lustrous emerald, and 
the Russian, Saxon, and Papal crowns all 
contain emeralds of wonderful beauty and 
of large size. The treasury of the Vatican 
includes seven or eight tiaras, the last of 
which was given by the late queen of Spain, 
in 1855. It weighs only three pounds, and 
cost £l?,000. Napoleon I. had one made 
for Pius Vn. after the Concordat, the 
three crowns of which are all different 

i those on Queen Isabella's tiara are alike), 
t weighs eight pounds, and cost £8,800. 

The iron crown of Lombardy was origin- 
ally all gold, but Theodolinda, queen of the 
Lombards, put an iron ring inside to make 
it stronger, and the legend runs that this 
ring was constructed out of one of the nails 
of the true cross, given by Pope Gregory 
the Great. Theodolinda espoused Agilulf, 
general of her troops, who was baptized by 
the name of Paul, and crowned with this 
crown in the month of May, a.d. 591. • It 
consists (this 1,300 years old crown) of a 
broad circle composed of six equal pieces 
of beaten gold joined together by close 
hinges, and set with large rubies, emeralds, 
and sapphires, on a ground of blue and 
gold enamel. It is considered a permanent 
miracle that there is not a speck of rust 
upon the iron. It was used by Napoleon 
when he was crowned King of Italy at 
Milan, on the 23rd of May, 1805. He placed, 
it on his head, with the words, Dieu me Pa 
donnij gare d qui la toucke^ the motto at- 
tached to it by its ancient owners. After 
his coronation. Napoleon instituted a new 
order of knighthood for Italy, called the 



50 



JPrecious Stones. 



Jan. 



Inm Crounif similat to the Legion of Hon- 
our, 

The Queen's state crown, preserved in 
the Tower of London, was made in the year 
1638 by Messrs. Rnndell and Bridge, with 
jewels taken from old crowns. It contains 
* three thousand and ninety-three pvecions 
stones^ which are summarized as* follows by 
Professor Tennant : 1 large mby, irregularly 
polished ; 1 laige broad-spread sapphire ; 
16 sapphires ; 11 emeralds ; 4 rubies ; 1,363 
brilliant diamonds ; 1,273 rose diamonds ; 
147 table diamonds; 4 drop-shaped pearls ; 
373 pearls. 

The first item in this list is the famous 
ruby said to have been ' given to the Black 
Prince by Don Pedro, king of Castile, after 
the battle of Najara, a.d. 1367, and after- 
wards worn in his helmet by Henry Y. at 
the battle of Agincourt, a.d. 1415. It is 
pierced quite through, after the Eastern 
manner, and the upper part of the piercing 
. is filled up with a small ruby. 

The office of Master of the Jewel House 
was originally one of great honour and emol- 
ument, but its consequence was gradually 
much reduced, and one of the first blows 
given to it was by the first duke of Buck- 
ingham, of the Villiers family. It was the 
duty of the Master to keep the royal plate 
and crowns, but Sir II. Mildmay, the holder 
of the office in James I.'s reign, was pro- 
fessedly ignorant of jewels, so his enemy 
Buckingham prevailed on the king to make 
all his presents to ambassadors in jewels, 
and not in plate, as previously, and then to 
i>end them by the Master of the Ceremonies. 

Kings did not confine the exhibition of 
their treasures to their crowns, but orna- 
mented nearly everything that appertained 
to them with jewels. Harold^s standard, 
>which William the Conqueror sent to the 
Pope, was * sumptuously embroidered with 
^rold and precious stones in the form of a 
man fighting ; ' but wo must go to the East 
4o see the extreme of profuseness ^ith 
which jewels may be exhibited by great 
<kings. Tavemier, the French traveller and 
jewel merchant, gives a most gorgeous ac- 
count of the treasures of the Great Mogul ; 
.and Dinglinger, the German Benvenuto Cel- 
lini, constructed a remarkable representation 
oi the court of Aurungzebe, on his sngges. 
lion, which is now in the Green Vaults at 
Dresden. Taveinier saw seven thrones, 
-«ome of which were set over with diamonds, 
«nd others with rubles, emeralds, and pearls. 
On one he counted about 108 pale rubies 
(the least weighing 100 carats, and some as 
much as 200), and about 160 emeralds. 
The canopy was embroidered with pearls 
«nd diamonds, and had a fringe of pearls 



round about. Everything used by the em. 
peror was covered with precious stones. 
The bridles of the horses were enriched 
with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and pearls. 
The bits were of pure gold, and a fair jewel 
hung about the neck of each. 

Old literature is full of the glorification 
of precious stones, and Eastern writers pre- 
tend that King Solomon wrote a book on 
gems, one chapter of which treated of those 
stones which resist or repel evil genii. I'oeta 
and travellers alike gave rein to their imagin- 
ations, and described hails that were formed 
of coloured marbles, studded with jewels. 
But the most favoured belief was the sup- 
posed light-giving properties of certain 
stones, more particularly, of the carbuncle. 
Epiphanius affirmed that it was impossible 
to conceal that stone, for, in spite of the 
clothes it might be covered with, its lustre 
would appear outside the envelope. In 
John Norton's ^ Ordinal,' there is an account 
of an alchemist who projected a bridge over 
the Thames of a very remarkable character. 

Wherefore he would set up In hij^ht 
That bridge, for a wonderfall sight. 
With pinnacles guilt, shinlajre as goaldof 
A glorious thing for men to behoulde. 
Then he remembered of the newe, 
Howe greater fame shulde him pursewe. 
If he mought make that bridge so brighte. 
That it mought shine alsoe by night. 

And in order to obtain this result he stud- 
ded the pinnacles with carbuncles^ which 
diffused a blaze of light in the dark. Rich- 
esse, in the ' Romaunt of the Rose,* is cor. 
ered with precioqs stones. 

But alle byfore ful sotilly 
A fjn carboncle sette sau^f h I. 
The stoon so clere was and so bright. 
That als.) soone as it was nyght, 
Men myghte seen to go, for nede 
A myle or two, in lengthe aud brede. 

Lucian relates that the lychnis (lamp-stone) 
fixed in the head of the goddess Astarte's 
statue lighted up the whole temple in which 
it stood ; and Alardus, a Dutchman, writ- 
ing in the year 1539, states that a chryso- 
lampis, set in a gold tablet dedicated to St. 
Adelbert, gave out sufficient light to serve 
instead of lamps for the reading of the 
' hours ' late at night. 

Precious stones, when unset, are of more 
interest to the scientific inquirer than to 
the seeker after objects of beauty ; and 
when set, they arc so peculiarly personal 
ornaments, that they are not often found in 
collections. Therefore it is that most of 
the celebrated collections of stones consist 
principally of engraved gems, which unite 
the beauties of art and nature. The history 
of the first dawnings of gem engraving is 
lost in antiquity, and in Csesar's time the 



1878. 



Precious Stofies. 



51 



term ' antique ' was looked upon as one of 
the highest praise. The art reached its 
fullest development under Alexander, and 
after a decline of many centuries again rose 
into prominence through the labours of the 
artists of the ' cinque cento.' Julius Ciesar 
had a mania for gems, and dedicated six 
cabinets to his patron-goddess, Venus Vic- 
trix. His boots were covered with fine 
specimens, and in order to display them, he 
is said to have held out his foot to Pompcius 
Pennns, to be kissed. Augustus made a 
large collection, as may be inferred from 
the fact that he employed a ^ keeper ' of his 
cabinet of gems, and his minister Mecsenas 
is recorded as a connoisseur by Horace. In 
more modem times the passion for collect- 
ing gems commenced with Lorenzo de Me- 
dici, who formed the Florentine Collection, 
and caused his own name to be incised 
upon his gems. The French Collection as 
A whole dates from the reign of Charles 
IX., but some of the gems were brought by 
St Louis from the East. The Berlin Col- 
lection consists of the united cabinets of the 
elector of Brandenburg and the margrave 
of Anspach, which last was collected by 
Baron Stosch, a Hanoverian spy over the 
Pretender's movements. The British Muse- 
um contains a Uno collection of gems, 
formed from the bequests of the Towneley, 
Payne Knight, and Cracherode cabinets, 
and the purchase, in 1866, of the Blacas 
Museum. The Towneley collection num- 
bers among its treasures some half-dozen 
intagli which are not to be surpassed by 
any gems in the most famous cabinets of 
Europe. Payne Knight's collection con- 
tains the famous Flora which Pistrucci cut 
for Bonelli, and which that dealer passed 
off on Knight as an antique. The Blacas 
Museum was principally formed by the Due 
de Blacas, who was French ambassador at 
Rome and Naples for many years. He 
died in 1830, and his son, who inherited 
the collection, added to it. Nearly all the 
most valuable gems came from the Strozzi 
Cabinet, which was formed by Bishop Leo 
Strozzi, in the beginning of the eigtiteenth 
century. At that time gem collecting be- 
came a perfect mania, and as the supply 
was not equal to the demand, nnscrupulous 
men sot to work to produce what was re- 
quired. Mr. King calls it ' the age of for- 
gery,' and tells us that for every antique 
gem of note, fully a dozen of its counter- 
feits are now in circulation. It is said that 
the artists of Rome sought after and paid 
liberally for antique pastes with unhack- 
neyed subjects, which they destroyed after 
they had copied them, in order to save 
themselves from the charge of plagiarism. 



The Devonshire and Marlborough Cabinets 
are the most renowned collections in Eng- 
land. The first was formed by William, 
third duke of Devonshire, during the first 
half of the last century, and has been aug. 
mented by its various possessors. It now 
numbers upwards of five hundred of the fin- ^ 
est gems, and a connoisseur of the greatest 
taste and experience once observed that 
were the choice of any fifty gems to be 
offered him out of all the collections of Eu- 
rope, he would prefer the Devonshire, lim- 
ited as it is, from which to select them. 

From this treasure (writes Mr. King) 
eighty-eight gems of the most beautiful in 
material and the most interesting in subject 
were selected by Mr. Hancock, . . . and 
mounted . . . in a complete set of ornaments, 
to be worn, for the first time, by the countess 
of Qranville, lady of the English ambassador, 
at the coronation of the present emperor of 
Russia. This parure consists of seven orna- 
ments : a como, a bandeau, a stomacher, a 
necklace, a diadem, a coronet, and a brace- 
let. . . . While others were vieing in the 
splendour of their jewels, in which the Rus- 
sian imperial, princ^y, and noble families are 
very rich, none attracted so much attention as 
the countess of Granville, whose parure was 
the triumph of art over mere material wealth. 
Others displayed a perfect blaze of diamonds, 
but it was for the English lady to assert a 
higher splendour ; and if their jewels were 
the more costly, hen were positively priceless, 
for while lost diamonds may be replaced, each 
of these fine gems is unique. 

The Marlborough Cabinet was formed by 
Greorge, third duke of Marlborough, and 
includes the collections of Thomas, earl of 
Arandel, and William, second earl of Bess- 
borough. The * Cupid and Psyche,' which 
is said to be the finest antique intaglio ex- 
tant, was presented to the duke by Lady 
Betty Germaine. Public attention has been 
called to this magnificent collection by its 
late sale, in one Tot, to Mr. Bromilow, of 
Battlesden Park, Bedfordshire, for 35,000 
guineas. It was stated at the time of the 
sale that the present duke of Marlborough 
had been led to consider that it was 'worth 
at least £60,000, but having taken the opin- 
ion of Signer Castellani, that gentleman 
estimated it at £85,000. This was there- 
fore the reserve price at which the collec- 
tion was put up for sale, and after a brief 
pause Mr. Agnew bid 35,000 guineas. There 
being no advance upon this sum, the auc- 
tioneer's hammer fell, amid loud applause. 

We need now only to mention a collection 
which has attsuned a most unenviable noto- 
riety. Prince Poniatowsky (who died at ^ 
Florence in 1833) inherited from his uncle 
Stanislaus, the last king of Poland, a col- 
lection of about 154 true antique gems, 



52 



Jn^ciouB Stones. 



Jan« 



which he supplemented by a aeries of abont 
3,000 forgeries. Although these last are 
masterpieces of skill, engraved by the best 
lloman artists upon stones of fine quality, 
they now fetch a mere trifle. Had these 
gems been engraved with the names of their 
makers, instead of with * the supposititioos 
names of artists of antiquity, they would 
have realized large sums. So little judg- 
ment was exhibited by the attendants at the 
sale of the collection in London, in 1889, 
that the head of lo — believed to have been 
engraved by Dioscorides — was sold for £17, 
although a few years before it was valued 
at £1,000. Here is a marked instance of the 
evil of keeping bad company, and Dr. Bil- 
ling mnkes some judicious remarks upon 
this depreciation of tine work. He writes : — 

If connoisseurs who are fond of gems would 
trust to their own eyes and taste, and pur- 
chase only what is beautiful — whether antique 
or modern — ^it would bring things to a just 
value ; but under the present system ordinary 
work has been over-estimated, if supposed to 
be antique, and beautiful work underrated, if 
known to be modem. A beautiful intaglio 
of Pichler's, with a Greek name of an ancient 
artist forged upon it, which was originally 
made for Poniatowsky for perhaps twenty or 
thirty pounds, will not now fetch more than as 
many shillings, because it is not really antique ; 
though a work of the same Pichler, genuine, 
with his name on it, will fetch, as it deserves, 
the price in pounds sterling, although no 
better than the other, which, though depre- 
ciated by the forged name, is quite as good, 
and if bought for its real merit, worth quite 
as much. So far does prejudice outweigh 
judgment. 

Wherever gems have been esteemed, the 
forger has flourished, and notices of pastes 
or imitations in glass of precious stones can 
be traced back to the most remote ages of 
antiquity. Seneca mentions that one Demo- 
critas had invented a process for imitating 
emeralds by giving a green colour to glass, 
then called crystal ; and Pliny remarks upon 
imitations of various stones, such as hya- 
cinths, sapphires, d^c, made of class, since 
called ' paste.' During the two nrst centu- 
ries of tne Roman empire the art of making 
pastes was caltivated to a remarakble ex- 
tent, in order to meet the requirements of 
the poorer classes. False emeralds and 
opals are found mixed up with real stones 
in ancient crowns, and the celebrated jew- 
elled cup of the Sassanian king, Chosroes, 
now in the Bibliothdque Nationale of Paris, 
which was long supposed to have belonged 
to Solomon, has been discovered to be de c- 
orated with pastes. Trebellins Pollio re- 
lates ho^ Gallienns punished a cheat who 
sold a piece of glass instead of a stone to I 



his empress, Salonina. The emperor sen- 
tenced the man to be exposed to the wild 
beasts in the arena, and when the poor 
wretch was thrown in, and the door of the 
den raiaed, a cock only strutted out, so 
that, as Gallienus said, he was deservedly 
made a fool of. One of the cleverest frauds 
that has been resorted to is the formation 
of a doublet, or semi-stone, in which the 
top of the stone is genuine and the under 
part glass. The reverse process is practised 
in regard to engraved gems, and the paste 
is backed with a slice of stone of the same 
colour, which of course stands the test of 
the file, and the whole passes muster as a 
true gem. Clarac was shown a paste with 
Marchant's usual signature upon it, which 
was thns metamorphosed \n\o a reputed an- 
tique sard. The glass and stone are fre- 
quently joined so ingeniously that the most 
experienced are deceived. Not long ago a 
very fine emerald was sold at one of the 
London salerooms, and bought by a jewel- 
ler of standing. When the latter had ob- 
tained possession of the stone, he wished to 
have the opinion of a well-known connois- 
seur upon it. This gentleman, immediately 
upon taking the jewel into his hand, char- 
acterized it as a doublet The purchaser 
natorally demanded his money back, and, 
in the presence of the auctioneer and other 
witnesses, the emerald was taken out of its 
setting, when it was found to be, as the 
connoisseur asserted, only half a stone. This 
same gentleman has so remarkable a knowl* 
edge of precious stones, that he can dis- 
criminate Cape from Brazil diamonds, and 
both from Indian stones, and can tell the 
weight to a fraction by merely holding them 
in his hands. There are, however, paste 
impressions of gems that are not meant to 
deceive, but are of the greatest value to the 
student, such as the Orleans and Tassie 
Collections. The regent duke of Orleans 
engaged the services of the celebrated chem- 
ist Homberg (1691-1715), and assbted him 
with his own hand in the operations carried 
out in a laboratory established within the 
Palais Royal. The duke reproduced in 
glass all the gems that he himself had col- 
lected, and, besides these, a lai^ number 
selected from the royal cabinet. Later on 
in the eighteenth century, Tassie, a Scotch 
sculptor established in London, brought out 
an immense series of pastes and enamels 
from gems of all dates and styles, to the 
number of fifteen thousand. He first copied 
the whole of the Stosch Collection, and 
afterwards reproduced every famous gem 
known in the cabinets of Europe. Precious 
stones have been imitated by those who are 
thoroughly acquainted with the chemical 



18V8. 



Preciou$ Stones. 



53 



coii8titat]x>n of the originals, but most of 
these artificial stones have been small, and 
they can only be looked at as results of 
carioDS experiments, because they are not 
of sufficient value to be worth the expendi* 
tnre of the time and labour that are neces- 
aarily devoted to them. 

The comparative value of precious stones 
has varied greatly at different periods, and 
the diamond, which now takes the lead as 
the very chief of jewels, has not always 
held that position. Before the skill of the 
lapidary (which now brings out all the 
beauties of the diamond) was brought to 
perfection, the pearl and the ruby stood be- 
fore it Even now a perfect ruby exceeding 
one carat in weight is worth considerably 
more than a diamond. Thus, £300 has 
been given for a ruby of three carats, 
although a diamond of the same weight 
would sell for no more than £90. But, as 
Mr. Emanuel writes, ' no matter how bril- 
liant the ruby, or how free from defects 
and flaws, it roust have the precise pigeon's 
blood red to make it the gem which sur- 
passes the diamond in value.' The Indians 
have always given the diamond the first 
place, but) the Persians, in the thiiteenth 
century, placed it fifth, after the pearl, the 
mby, the emerald, and the chrysolite. Cel- 
lini ranked it after the ruby and emerald, 
and Garcias ab Horto, in 1565 wrote : ' The 
diamond is considered the king of gems, on 
account of the hardness of its substance ; 
for if we look to value and beauty^ the em- 
erald holds the first place, and the ruby (if 
clear) the second.' 

We have mentioned the pearl as a pre- 
cious stone, because it was anciently sup- 
posed to be such, and also because no list 
of jewels would be complete without some 
notice of this beautiful object. As, how* 
ever, its origin is totally different from its 
fellows, we will consider it first, and then 
follow on with the true precious stones in 
their order of precedency. The pearl is a 
mere concretion of the carbonate of lime 
forming the shell of the oyster or mussel, 
which accumulates upon some foreign body 
accidentally introduced (usually a grain of 
sand), for the purpose of preventing the 
irritation its roughness would otherwise oc- 
casion to the animal. The Chinese are in 
the habit of producing pearls artificially by 
the introduction of small images of Buddha 
into ihe .mussels, which in course of time 
are covered with the pearly substance. Pearls 
are found over a considerable geographical 
range, but the best are brought from the 
coasts of Ceylon. The Persian Gulf pearls 
are inferior to these. Pearls are obtained 
in great abundance from the river Tay, but 



although at first they are scarcely distin- 
guishable from the Oriental, they are found 
to turn black with wear. It was once be- 
lieved that the shoals of pearl-oysters had a 
king, distinguished by his age and size, ex- 
actly as bees have a queen, wonderfully ex- 
pert in keeping out of harm's way ; but if 
the divers once succeeded in capturing him, 
the rest, straying about blindly, fell an easy 
prey. The beauty of pearls is entirely due 
to nature, and art cannot improve it. When 
the surface is examined with a microscope, 
it is found to be indented with a large num- 
ber of delicate grooves, which by their effect 
' upon the light give rise to the play of coir 
ours. 

The largest pearl known to the Romans 
weighed more thaii half an ounce, a size 
that has rarely been equalled ; but the larg- 
est on record is now in Russia. It was 
brought from India in 1620, and sold to 
Philip IV. of Spain. The merchant, when 
asked by the king how he could venture all 
his fortune on one article, replied, because 
he knew there was a king of Spain to buy 
it of him. Tavemier mentions in his trav- 
els a remarkable pearl belonging to an Ara- 
bian prince. He says, ^ It is the most won- 
derful pearl in the world ; not so much for 
its bigness, for it weighs not above 12 car- 
ats and -^ ; not for its perfect roundness ; 
but because it is so clear and transparent, 
that you may almost see through it. The 
Great Mogul offered, by a Banian, 40,000 
crowns for his pearl, but he would not ac- 
cept it' Perles baroques^ or pearls of an 
irregular shape, are usually set in some fan- 
ciful form with gold enamel. In the Devon- 
shire Cabinet there is a very fina specimen 
of a distorted pearl, which is made to repre- 
sent a mermaid ; and the Green Vaults at 
Dresden contain a remarkable collection of 
monster pearls in the shape of human fig- 
ures, animals, fruits, &c. The Persians 
have always been the greatest admirers of 
the pearl, and the portrsuts of the Persian 
queens exhibit them as wearing for ear- 
pendants three pearls, increasing downwards 
in size. 

It id needless to do more than mention 
Cleopatra's costly draught, and to note that 
the same story of the ' dissolved ' pearl is 
told of Sir Thomas Gresham. * Here fifteen 
hundred pounds at one clap goes instead of 
sugar. Gresham drinks the pearl unto his 
queen and mistress. Pledge it, lords 1 ' * 
If the Egyptian queen and the London 
merchant swallowed their pearls, they must 
have taken them undissolved, for no acid 



♦ Thomas Heywood : ' If you know not me 
you know nobody.' 1606. 



54 



Precious- Stones, 



3ox%. 



that the human Btomach can endare'is capa- 
ble of dissolving a pearl. Of the many 
tales told of notable pearls, none can compare 
in interest with that related by Procopiua 
of King Perozes and the pearl which a dar- 
ing diver obtained from the guardianship 
of the enamoured shark at the sacrifice of 
his own life. When the king was entrapped 
into a vast pitfall by the feigned retreat of 
the Ephthalite Uuns he was pursuing, ho 
tore from his right ear this glorious jewel, 
and cast it before himself into the aby^s, com- 
forted in his last moment with the thought 
that he had deprived the* foe of the great- 
est trophy of their victory. The pearl is 
well supplied with names, and the etymolo- 
gy of all of them is of much interest. The 
chief of these is Margarite (Greek, fiapya- 
piTfjg^ Latin, margarita)^ which is evidently 
cloeely related to the Persian word m«r- 
wari ; but the great German philologist 
Grimm has given the following very remark- 
able explanation of the word. 'Coarre 
gravel (glared) is termed in old High Ger- 
man, krioz, griez (masc.), and in the new 
High German, gries (masc.) ; the Anglo- 
Saxon greotj English, grit, means terra, puU 
vis ; the old Norao (neuter) griot, lapis. 
As men found the pearls on the sea-shore, 
they took them for stones, and named 
them, in old High German, merikrios 
(masc.) ; in middle High German, fit^^^riVz, 
or mergrieze ; in Anglo-Saxon, meregreot 
(neuter). To the ancients, fiapyapirrig, mar- 
garita, was a barbarous word (Plin. 9, 35). 
Mergriez affords a correct sense, and cannot 
be deduced from margarita. In margarita^ 
therefore, a German word of a very early 
time has been preserved to us in one of the 
oldest monuments of our language (Gothic, 
marigriuts, marigruit/fSf or marigruit, mari- 
gruita). At a later period it was supersede 
cd by the foreign ^^ertf/a, perle ; and we 
find mergriezen used in the sense of grains 
of sand.' * The real objection to this con- 
jecture is the fact that fidpyapinj^ was an ad* 
jective, the primary substantive being fiafy- 
yapoVf and consequently the last part, yapirriSf 
could not be deduced directly from any 
German form of the suhstantive grit. The 
real problem is the origin of margaron, and 
not of margarites, U is, however a remark- 
able coincidence that the Teutonic com- 
pound moaning * sea-grit ' should so closely 
resemble the (>roek word, which is appa- 
rently of Persian origin. As in a universi- 
ty list of honours the man who is without 
peer is marked off from his fellows in the 
examination, ao it seems well to specially 

• Urimm'a ' Deuteohe Urammatik.' 1881. 
Part iil. p. 880.1 



honour the jewel which has given a favour- 
ite Christian name to the female sex, and 
has added a word to the language to repre- 
sent an object of priceless value and a wo- 
man of exceeding excellence. 

The ordinary precious stones divide them- 
selves broadly into crystallized, and uncrya- 
tallized or amorphous. The moat beautiful 
jewels belong to the first class, and the sub- 
stances chiefly used by the gem-engraver, 
such as onyx, agate, cornelian, dec, to the 
last. The diamond is crystallized carbon, 
the sapphire and ruby are crystallized clay, 
and the rock crystal and amethyst are crya 
tallized flint or quartz. The cut and pol- 
ished diamond is one of the most beautiful 
of objects, but the rough atone is uninviting 
in appearance. It greatly reseroblea the 
common gravel by which it is surrounded, 
and is not nnlike a lump of gum-arabic, yet 
experts find but little difficulty in detecting 
it. When Tavemier visited the Indian dia- 
mond mines, he saw the children of the 
merchants, from the age of ten to fifteen or 
sixteen, seated in a prominent position, and 
ready to become purchasers of the stones 
that were found. Ilis relation is as fol- 
lows : * Ea^h boy has his diamond weights 
and b^ with money. If any one brings 
them a stone they hand it to the eldest boy, 
who looks at it and then hands it to the 
one next him, by which means it goes from 
hand to hand till it returns to him again. 
After that he demands the price ; but if he 
buys it too dear it is upon his own account. 
In the evening the boys bring the diamonds 
they have bought to the great merchants, 
and the profit is divided equally among 
them.* 

The diamond is the hardest of all known 
natural substances, and this quality alone 
would make it a valuable object, even had 
it no value as a jewel. 

The diamond— whj 'twas beautifal and liardp 
Whereto his iaviaed properties did tend. 

In the popular mind the qualities of liard- 
ness and toughness have been confnaed in 
this instance, so that the notion has been 
prevalent that if a diamond is laid upon an 
anvil and struck with a hammer, instead of 
breaking, it will be driven into the anvil, 
but we may presume that few have snfii* 
cient faith in thia test to make the costly 
experiment In point of fact, the dia- 
mond is very eaaiiy broken, on accouLt of 
the very thin layers of which it is com- 
posed, and those who are aoeurately ac- 
quainted with the point of cleavage can di* 
vide it with a simple pen-knife. Dr. Wd- 
laston used his knowledge of this peculiari- 
ty with great advantage to himself when 



1878. 



IVieeidtK Stones, 



bo 



he bongbt a faaltj diamond from Measra. 
Racdell and Bridge for £6,000, and after 
separating the flawed portions, which served 
for a ring and a set of shirt-studs, resold 
the remaining perfect stone for £7,000. The 
word adamai among the earliest Greek wri- 
ters signified a bard metal, and not a pre- 
cious stone, as we may guess when we read 
of the adamantine chains of Prometheus, 
which certainly were not strings of dia- 
monds. Plato's adamas is supposed to have 
been the white sapphire. Manilius, who 
flourished in the latter part of the Augustan 
age, is the first writer who describes the 
true diamond under the name of adamas. 

The Romans placed the diamond in the 
very highest rank as a precious stone, but 
as they were in the habit of wearing the 
crystals in their native form, this eminent 
position must have been given to it more on 
account of its scarcity than for its beauty. 
It was supposed to keep o£E insanity, dispel 
vain fears, drive away phantasms and night- 
mares, and bafl^e poison, but that if swal- 
lowed it became itself the deadliest of all 
poisons. Cellini tells a fabulous story of how 
his life was preserved from the machinations 
of an enemy by the roguery of an apothe- 
cary, whO| being employed to pulverize a 
diamond intended to season the artist's 
salad, substituted a bit of beryl in its stead. 
We do not know when the diamond was 
first polished with its own dust, but the art 
of cutting it into a regular form, so as to 
bring out all possible lustre, was not prac- 
tised before the year 1456, when Louis van 
Berghem made a revolution in the trado by 
the discovery of the art of diamond-cutting. 
In 1475 he was employed by Gbarles the 
Bold of Burgundy to cut three large stones, 
previously worn by the king in their natu- 
ral state as eight-sided crvstals (points 
naives). It was nearly two hundred years 
later (1650), during the supremacy of Car- 
dinal Mazarin, that the true brilliant shape 
was discovered. The English diamond-<:utters 
used to be renowned for the perfection of 
their work, and even now an old English cut 
brilliant will command a higher price in the 
market than one cut by the Dutch. When 
those cutters died off the trade fell into the 
hands of the Jews, who chose Amsterdam 
as the place where they could obtain most 
freedom, and that city became the seat of 
this branch of industry. Professor Tcn- 
nant, however, toils us that the diamond- 
cutting trade is coming back to England 
again, and some excellent work has been 
done . hero of late years. It is estimated 
that out of the 28,000 Jews living in Am- 
sterdam, 10,000 are dependent directly or 
indirectly upon the trade of diamond*cut- 



ting. Although the greatest skill is re- 
quired in the cutters, they are rather poorly 
paid. The three forms in which diamonds 
are cut are the table, the rose, and the bril- 
liant The two first forms were long the 
only ones in use, but when the brilliant cut- 
ting was introduced they were superseded, 
except for inferior stones. The brilliant is 
a double pyramid or cone cut off by a large 
plane, called the table, at the top, and by a 
small one, called the collet, at the bottom. 
The facets have to be so adjusted that the 
girdle (which determines the greatest hori- 
zontal expansion of the stone) shall present a 
prismatic edge ; and so aqcurate is tho: eye 
of the cutter from constant practice, that 
this is done by a sort of instinct, without 
any measurement. The adjustment of the 
relative sizes of the table and the collet is 
also a very important matter, as the light 
that penetrates from above must be totally 
reflected internally. Jacorao da Trezzo en- 
graved subjects upon the diamond in the 
year 1564, and is said to have been the first 
to do so, but his right to this honour has 
been disputed, and claimed for Birago, an- 
other Milanese. It is supposed, however, 
that much of this misplaced ingenuity was 
displayed upon the white topaz or the col- 
ourless sapphire, which stones have often 
been mistaken for diamonds. 

The diamond has been found in almost 
every colouv, from the slightest tint to the 
most pronounced dye, and the rose-coloured 
diamond as far eclipses the ruby as the 
green does the emerald^ and the blue the 
sapphire. A 'yellowish tinge is considered 
a great defect, but a decided colour is val- 
ued for its rarity as well as for its beauty. 
Thus, Mr. Emanuel notices a brilliant eme- 
rald green stone of five grains,* that sold for 
£320, which, if white, would only have been 
worth £28. In the jewel room of the Dres- 
den Green Vaults is the unique green bril- 
liant which weighs 40^ carats, and formerly 
belonged to the elector of Saxony — ^Augus- 
tus the Strong. The celebrated Hope blue 
diamond is supposed by Barbot to be the 
stone that disappeared from the French 
regalia at the time of the Great Revolution. 
It then weighed 67 carats, but has since 
been recut as a brilliant, and reduced in 
weight. In the Russian treasury is a bril- 
liant red diamond of 10 carats, which was 
bought by Paul I. for 100,000 roubles. 
Mr. King writes that the most charming 
piece of jewellery he ever beheld was a 

* The weight of diamoDds ie calculated M 
follows : — 4 trains = 1 carat ; 1411 carats = 1 
ounce tro.v. It will thus be seen that a diamond 
ftnXn is less than an ordinary trqy ^rain. 5 
diamond grains are equal to 4 troy grains. 



56 



PrtciouB Sconce. 



Jan. 



spray, composed with exquisite taste, entire- 
ly of coloured diamonds of all the tints that 
eoald be collected during ten years' research 
oy the skilful but unfortunate artist-gold- 
smith who designed and executed t)^e orna- 
ment. 

The first record of the burning of a dia- 
mond is to be found in the proceedings of 
the Academia del Cimento of Florence, in 
the seventeenth century ; but although some 
French chemists burnt one in 1771, the 
question of its combustion continued for 
some years to be disputed. It was subse- 
quently proved that it burned, and produced 
carbonic acid gas. Diamonds are found in 
the beds of rivers, mbstly in companionship 
with gold. The diamond mines of Central 
India originally supplied the world with 
nearly all the notable diamonds, but they 
are now nearly superseded. During the cen- 
turies that they were worked they produced 
an enormous quantity of fine stones, and it 
is said that one of the Mahommedan emper- 
ors, who died at the end of the twelfth cen- 
tury, managed to amass in his treasury 
400lbs. weight of diamonds. At the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century a Por- 
tuguese gentleman went to the ancient mine 
of Ourrure, belonging to the king of Gol- 
conda, to dig for diamonds, but after spend- 
ing a large sum of money, and converting 
everything he possessed, even to his clothes, 
into coin, he bad still found nothing. 
While the miners were employed upon the 
last day's work that he had money to pay 
for, he prepared a cup of poison, to dnnk 
if the men came empty-handed from work ; 
but in the evening they brought him a valu- 
able stone, and his purpose was instantly 
changed. Before returning to Goa, he set 
up a monument, with an inscription in the 
native tongue to the following efEect : — 

7oar wife and children sell, sell what you have, 
Spare not your clothes — nay, make yourself a 

slave ; 
Bat money get, then to Carrure make harte, 
There search the mines, a prlase you'll find at 

last.* 

Tbe diamonds of Borneo are held in high 
repute, and according to Sir Stamford Raf- 
fles, ' few courts of £urope could perhaps 
boast of a more brilliant display than in the 
prosperous days of the Dutch was exhibited 
by the ladies of Batavia, the principal and 
only mart then opened for the Bornean dia- 
mond mines.' 

The dealers have always looked with dis- 
favour upon any attempts to discover mines 
in new quarters, and when in the year 1727 

♦ 'Philosophical Transactions.' Vol. xii. p. 
909. 



Bernardino Fonseca Lobo brought news to 
Lisbon of the existence of large numbers of 
diamonds among the gold washings in the 
province of Minas Geraes, Brazil, they spread 
a report that the stones had been sent aur- 
reptitiously from Goa to South A^aerica. 
The discovery was made by accident, owing 
to Lobo having noticed the peculiarity of 
the small stones which the miners used as 
card countere. The same suspicion was ex- 
hibited when it. was first reported that dia- 
monds had been found* in Africa. Profes- 
sor Tennant made a very interesting report 
respecting these Cape diamonds before the 
geological section of the British Associatiou 
in September, 1875. He said that the late 
Mr. Ma we, who wrote on diamonds and de- 
scribed tbeir mode of occurrence in his 
'Travels in Brazil' (London, 1812), told 
him of the probability of their existence in 
South Africa, and affirmed that if people 
only knew them in their natural state they 
must be found. Mawo died in 1820, and 
Mr. Tennant took every ^opportunity of 
making the subject known ; but it was not 
until March, 1861( that tbe first Cape dia- 
mond was found. The supply since then 
has been very considerable, and it is esti- 
mated that the value of the diamonds found 
during the period that has elapsed since the 
first discovery is above thirteen millions of 
pounds sterling. In spite of this immense 
addition to the store of diamonds, their val- 
ue has not diminished, but rather increased, 
since Jeffries published his rule for ascer- 
taining the value of cut diamonds. 

The number of remarkable diamonds 
which possess a history is large,, and the 
following is a table of some of the roost 
celebrat^ of these. 

Weight aftw WHffhi in 

cutHng. rouffh. 

CaraU. Carata, 



1 Bn^nza (probably a white topaz). 

S Matan 

aOrlofl 

4 Austrian or FlorenUno BrilUant 

5 Pitt, or Regent '. 

6 Star of the South 

7 Koh-i-noor 

Indian cut 

8 Stewart (largest Cape diamond) 

9Shah 

10 Pigott 

11 Na^sack 

Indian cat 

13 Mr. Dresden's Brazil diamond 

18 Prof. Teunant'8 Cape diamond 

14 Sancy : 



IttS 
189H 

l»i?£ 
12414 

186 

• • • 

89H 

78« 

66 
64 



1680 
367 



410 
254i4 

«88».' 



lis 



1. The ^Braganza,' one of the Portu- 
guese crown jewels, which is preserved in 
its rough state in the Royal Treasury at 
Lisbon, is by far the largest stone profess* 
ing to be a diamond in existence. It was 
found in 1741 in Brazil, and is as large as 
a hen's egg, but as the Portuguese govern- 
ment will not suffer it to be examined, 



isrs. 



I^-eciaus Stones. 



57 



many persons believe it to be only a white 
topaz. 

2. The ' Matan ' is one of the largest and 
most esteemed diamonds, in existence. It 
is ancat, and in form resembles an egg in- 
dented on one side. It was found at Lan- 
dak, in Borneo, aboat the year 1760, and 
belongs to the sultan of Matan. Wars have 
been waged to obtain it, and the owner has 
refused to sell it, because he believes that 
on its possession depends the fortunes of 
his family. The Dutch governor of Batavia 
offered two gun-boats, with stores and am* 
munition complete, and £50,000 for it, bnt 
his offer was refused. Mr. Crawfnrd sets 
itsvalae at £260,378. Strangers are not 
shown the real stone, but a bit of crystal to 
represent it. 

3. The * Orloff ' is a rose diamond, now 
set in the top of the Russian imperial seep* 
tre, but has passed through many vicissi- 

•tudes before arriving there. Some say it 
originally formed one of the eyes of the 
idol at Sherigan, and others that it was set 
in the famous peacock throne of Nadir 
Shah. It was stolen by% French soldier, 
who sold it at Malabar for £2,800. The 
Armenian Schaffras, who bought it of a 
Jew, made a profitable bargain with the 
Empress Catharine II., for he received 460,- 
000 roubles, a pension of 20,000 roubles, 
and a patent of nobility as well. 

4. The * Austrian or Florentine brilliant,' 
also called the ' Grand Duke of Tuscany,' 
has a slightly yellowish hue, and is said to 
have been bought as coloured crystal out 
of a jeweller's shop in Florence. It has 
been valued at £100,000. 

6 The * Pitt,' or * Regent,' is the most per- 
fect brilliant in existence, and is without a 
rival in shape and water. It weighed 410 
carats in the rough, and is said to have been 
found in 1702 in the mines of Parteal, twenty 
rniles fron) Masulipatam, by a slave, who 
concealed it in a gash made for its reception 
in the calf of his leg, and running away 
from his master, offered it to a sailor, on 
condition that he assisted, him to escape. 
The sailor lured him on board a ship, and 
after throwing him overboard, sold the stone 
to Jamchund for £1,000. Thomas Pitt, 
governor of Fort St. George, purchased it 
of this Hindoo merchant for £12,500, and 
then had it cut into a fine brilliant. The 
cutting occupied two years, and cost £5,000, 
but the fragments cut off were valued at 
£3,000 to £4,000. Pitt seems to have found 
liis diamond a rather unenviable possession, 
for so fearful was he of robbery, that he 
never made known beforehand the day of 
his coming to town, nor slept two nights 
consecutively in the same house. The fame 



of the diamond spread over Europe, and 
many persons tried to obtain a yght of it ; 
but Uffenbach, who visited this country in 
1712, found all his efforts fruitless. Many 
tales floated about in society which were 
not very creditable to Pitt, and he was 
therefore forced to clear himself in a pam- 
phlet. Pope wrote : — 

Asleep and naked as an Indian Iny, 

An honest factor stole a gem away ; 

He pledjired it to the knight, the knight had wit. 

So kept the diamond, and the rogue was bit. ' 

This celebrated stone gave point to one of 
the first Lord Holland's speeches in the 
House of Commons. His gveat opponent, 
the first William Pitt, had expressed a wish 
that a certain motion might be a millstone 
about the mover's neck, to drag him to the 
lower regions. Pitt afterwards (when in 
oflSce) Adopted the plan he had before stig- 
matized, so Henry Fox rose and said, ' I am 
happy the right honourable gentleman has 
retracted the opinion he has hitherto main- 
tained, and I sincerely wish that what he 
hoped would prove a millstone about my 
neck may become a brilliant equal, if not 
superior, to that of his namesake's to grace 
his hat withal.' In 1717 Pitt sold the 
stone to the Due d'Orleans, regent of 
France, for £135,000. It was stolen dur- 
ing the Keign of Terror, but was restored 
io a mysterious manner. Napoleon I. found 
it o inestimable value to him, for after the 
18th Brnmaire, by pledging it to the Dutch^ 
he procured the funds that were so indis- 
pensable for the consolidation of his power. 
It was afterwards redeemed, and ornament- 
ed the pommel of the emperor's sword. In 
1855 it was shown at the Paris Exhibition. 

6. The ' Star of the South ' is a brilliant 
^hieh was found by a negro in the province 
of Mina^Geraes, Brazil, in 1853. 

7. The ' Koh-i-noor,' or Mountain of 
Light, was the talisman of India for many 
centuries. According to Hindu legend it 
was worn by Kama, king of Anga, and one 
of the warriors who were slain in the Great 
War, which is the subject of the Sanscrit 
epic Maha^bhdrata, The Emperor Baber 
records the fact of this diamond having 
been taken at Agra, by Humayun, in May, 
1526, and when Tavernier visited the court 
of the Great Mogul it was in the possession 
of Aurungzebe, who treated it with the 
greatest solemnity. According to tradition, 
Mohammed Shah, the great grandson of 
Aurungzebe, wore the Koh-i-noor in front 
of his turban at his interview with his con- 
queror, Nadir Shah, when the latter mon- 
arch insisted upon exchanging turbans in 
proof of his regard. Mr. King believes that 
Tavernier did not see the Koh-i-noor, but a 



58 



PreehuB Sionea. 



Jan. 



rnacb larger tstoDC called the ^ Great Mogul/ 
Professor ^^askeljne, however, proves that 
the traveller's calcnlatioiis are not to be de- 
pended npon, and shows that the weight in 
ratis given by Tavemier is identical with 
the Emperor Baber's statement of the weight 
of his diamond, and that both agree with 
that of the * Koh-i-noor.' On the annexa- 
tion of the Pnnjaub in 1850 by the British 
Goveniment, it was stipulated that the Koh- 
i-noor should be presented to the Queen. 
After the East India Company became pos- 
sessed of the gem, it was sent by Lord I)al- 
housie to England in the possession of two 
officers. After liaving been the cynosure 
of all eyes in the Exhibition of 1851, it was 
recut in Mr. Garrard's house, by workmen 
brought over from Mr. Coster's establish- 
ment at Amsterdam. The cutting by the 
new process, which included the employ- 
ment of a small steam engine, is said to 
have cost £8,000. Mr. King relates a curi- 
ous story of the danger the stone was in at 
this period, lie writes : * The London 
jeweller entrusted with the reeutting of the 
Koh-i-noor was displaying his finished work 
U) a wealthy patron, who accidentally let 
the slippery and weighty gem slip through 
his fingers and fall on the ground. The 
jeweller was on the point of fainting with 
alarm, and on recovering himself, reduced 
the other to the same state, by informing 
him that had the stone struck the floor at a 
particular angle it would infallibly have split 
in two, and been irreparably ruined.' 

9. The * Shah ' was presented to the em- 
peror of liussia by Chosroes, the son of 
Abbas Mirza. It is a faceted prism, and is 
engraved with a Persian inscription. 

1 0. The * I'igott ' has passed through 
many vicissitudes. At the end of the last 
century it was sold by lottery for £30,000, 
and was afterwards bought by Uuudoll and 
Bridge for £6,000. The pasha of Egypt 
then gave the original price of £30,000 for 
it. 

1 1 . The * Nassack ' was captured from 
the Peishwa of the Mahrattas by the mar- 
(]uis of Hastings. It was then Indian cut, 
and weighed 80| carats ; but after chang- 
ing hands several times it was purchased by 
the marquis of Westminster, who employed 
Messrs. llunt and lloskell to recut it. Mr. 
King treats the * Pigott ' and ' Nassack ' as 
the same stone. 

1 2. This, is a very large and beautiful 
diamond, which was found iu Brazil a few 
years ago. 

13. This diamond is now offered for sale 
at £10,000. 

1 4. Tlie * Sancy ' is a renowned stone, but 
n)ore credit has been given to it than is its 



due. It has been supposed to be the dia- 
mond worn by Charles the Bold of Bar- 
gundy when he was killed at the battle of 
Nancy, but Mr. JKing gives the following 
reason for disbelieving this story. De Boot 
states that the largest diamond ever seen in 
Europe was the one purchased from Carlo 
Afi^etati, of Antwerj), by Philip II., in 
1559, which weighed 47^ carats. Now 
Philip had been presented with the jewel 
of his unfortunate ancestor six years before 
this date, so that cuuld not be the * Sancy,' 
which weighed 54 carats. The Baron de 
Sancy died in 1627, and forty-two years af- 
terwards his diamond was in the possession 
of the queen of England, probably Ilenri- 
etta Maria. Subsequently it belonged to 
James 11., who sold it to Loub XIV. for 
£25,000. Ijouis XV. is said to have woru 
it in the clasp of his hat at his coronation. 
The stone was stolen in the great robbery 
of September, 1792, but appears again in 
1838, when it was sold to the Demidoff 
family. In February, 1865, it was pur- 
chased by Messrs. Garrard for Sir Jamsetjec 
Jejeebhoy, of A)mbay, and thus, after 
many vicissitudes, it again returned to India. 
The price paid for it was £20,000. 

No list of celebrated diamonds would be 
complete without some mention of the no- 
torious necklace which played so important 
a figure in the events of the French Revolu- 
tion. This matchless jewel was the result 
of an order given by Louis XV. for the 
most costly set of diamonds, to be present- 
ed by him to his mistress, Madame Du 
Barry. The king died before the order 
could be executed, and the jewellers were in 
consequence ruined. The necklace, which 
contained 629 diamonds, was however fin- 
ished, and offered to Marie Antoinette, who 
refused it. That arch impostor, Madame 
de la Motte, then appeared upon the scene, 
and by the help of lies and forgery obtained 
possession of it, with what consequences 
both to innocent and guilty, is known to all. 

The ruby as well as the sapphire is formed 
of corundum, or crystallized clay, and the 
two stones are, in fact, identical in compo- 
sition, so that the red sapphire is a ruby 
and the blue ruby a sapphire. Thus a long 
crystal has been found which was red ruby at 
one end, blue sapphire at the other, and 
colourless beryl between. The ruby is the 
most valuable of all stones when free from 
flaw, of large size, and of a colour which 
should exactly resemble that of pigeon^ s 
blood. The flnest rubies are obtained in 
Siam and Bnrmah, but they arc also found 
in Ceylon and in several parts of Europe. 
One of the titles of the king of Burmah is 
Lord of the Rubies, and he is said to pos- 



1878. 



Breoious Stones, 



50 



se6& one as large as a pigcoit*s egg, but no 
European has ever seen it. A fine stone of 
fonc carats^ weight is worth from £400 to 
£450, but above this weight they are. very 
rare, and woaid command fancy prices. 

The ruby has been most siiocessf nlly imi- 
tated in paste, and garnets backed by a ruby 
foil are often met with. The monster ruby 
of Charles the Bold, set in the middle of a 
golden rose, for a pendant, which was cap- 
tured by the Bernese after his rout at Gran- 
son, turned out, when purchased by Jacob 
Fugger, to be false. Many so-called rubies 
are nothing more than spinel or balas- 
rubies. Crimson spinel is named spinel- 
raby, and rose -red or pink spinel, balas- 
ruby. 

Magical properties have been assigned to 
the ruby, and Brnhman traditions speak of 
the abode of the gods as lighted by enor- 
mous rubies and emeralds. It was sup- 
posed to be an jtmulet against poison, 
plague, sadness, evil thoughts, wicked spir- 
its, <fec., and it warned its wearer of evil by 
becoming black or obscure. 

The ' heaven-hucd ' sapphire is found in 
all tints and shades of blue, and the an- 
cients called the dark-coloured male and the 
pale female. It is not so valuable when of 
a great size as the ruby, but a fine stone 
fetches a high price. Mr. Emanuel ; tells 
the story of a noble lady who possessed 
perhaps the finest known sapphire, but sold 
it during her lifetime, and replaced it by a 
skilful imitation, which deceived the jewel- 
ler who valued it for probate duty. It was 
estimated at £10,000, and the legatee paid 
legacy duty for it before he found out the 
deception. The largest sapphire is the 
^ Wooden spoon seller,' so c|klled from the 
occupation of its finder in Bengal, but also 
known as the Ruspoli. Its weight is 132-]^ 
carats. It was bought hj Ferret, a French 
jeweller, for £6,800, and is now in the Musit 
de Mineralogiey Paris. One of the finest sap- 
pliires is in the. possession of Lady Burdett 
Contts, and was formerly one of the crown 
jewels of France. 

The sapphire was sacred to Apollo, and 
was worn by the inquirer of the oracle at 
his shrine. It was supposed to prevent evil 
and impure thoughts, and was worn by 
priests, on account of its power to preserve 
the chastity of the wearer. St. Jerome 
a£5rmed that it procures favour w;th princes, 
pacifies enemies, and obtains freedom from 
captivity ; but one of the most remarkable 
properties attributed to it was its power of 
killing any venomous reptile that was put 
into the same glass with it. 

The emerald has been found in various 
parts of the world, but the most abundant 1 



and finest supply comes from Peru and 
Chili. The Spaniards obtaui^d large hoards 
of emeralds after the conquest of Peru, for 
the priests of the goddess whom the Span- 
iards called Esmer^da, and who was sup- 
posed to reside in an enormous emerald of 
the shape and size of an ostrich egg, gave 
out that she esteemed no offering so much 
as one of her own daughters. The king of 
Spain is said to have received one hundred- 
weight, but many were destroyed on ac- 
count of the Peruvian priest who accom- 
panied the Spanish army persuading the 
soldiers that the test of the genuineness was 
to smite them with a hammer on an anvil. 
The emerald is of the same chemical com- 
position as the beryl, or aquamarine, which 
is of little value. When first withdrawn 
from the mine it is so soft as to crumble 
by friction, but it hardens by exposure^ to 
the air. It is so rarely perfect, that ' an 
emerald without a flaw ' has passed into « 
provefb, and fine specimens are worth from 
£20 to £40 the carat. In the Middle Ages 
its value was enormous, and Cellini puts it 
at 400 gold scudi the carat, or four times 
the amount at which ho values the dia- 
mond. It is sometimes of great size, and 
the largest known is the Devonshire eme- 
rald, found at Muro, near Santa Fe di Bo- 
gota, and purchased by the duke of Devon- 
shire from Don Pedro. It is not cut, and 
is two inches in diameter, weighing 8 
ounces 18 pennyweights. 

The ancients dedicated , the emerald to 
Mercury, and supposed it to be good for 
the eyes. 

The deep-green emerald, iu whose fresh rej^ard 
Weak sights their sickly radiance do amend. 

The Upidaries who cut the stone were 
thought to possess in consequence a good 
eyesight. Nero observed the feats of the 
gladiators through an eyeglass of emerald, 
and the gem was therefore sometimes called 
Neronianus, a name continued as late as the 
close of the fourth century. The huge em- 
eralds made into cups and dishes that are 
mentioned by the ancients 'are supposed to 
have been green fluorspar, or composed of 
a kind of glass. The Cingalese anxiously 
seek after the thick bottoms of our wine 
bottles, and cut out of them apparently fine 
emeralds, which they dispose of at high 

{)rices. The Brighton emeralds are of a 
ike origin. The broken bottles, thrown 
purposely into the sea by the lapidaries of 
the place, are by the attrition of the 
shingle speedily converted into the form of 
natural pebbles. 

"^he turquoise, or Turkish stone, is sky- 
blue and opaqne, and is found in Persia. 



60 



PreciouB Stones, 



Jan. 



A variety (13 also found at Mount Sinai, in 
Arabia Petrea, in the matrix of a calcareous 
rock. The shah of Persia is supposed to 
have in his possession all the finest gems, as 
he allows only those of inferior quality to 
leave the country. In consequence, large 
turquoises of good quality and fine colour 
are extremely rare, and realize large prices. 
This stone was formerly highly esteemed as 
a talisman, and De Boot gives a long list of 
its virtues. Some persons have supposed 
the turquoise to be composed of fossil bone 
colourea by copper, but this is a misappre- 
hension, as the bone or fossil turquoise 
(odontoUte) found in Languedoc is a totally 
dijfferent production, and is sometimes called 
turquoise-Bricaud, from the name of the 
original owner of the mine. 

The opal was highly prized by the an- 
cients, and Nonius went into exile 'rather 
than surrender his fine opal to Mark An- 
tony. Marbodus says that it confers the 
gift of invisibility upon the wearer, so that 
Uie thief, protected by its virtue of dazzling 
all beholders, conld carry off his plunder in 
open day. It was also supposed to confer 
upon the wearer all the qualities granted by 
nature to itself. There are several varieties 
of this beautiful stone, as the noble or pre- 
cious opal, the fire or reddish opal, the com- 
mon opal, and the hydrophane or Mexican 
opal. The colours are produced by the 
polarising and refracting effect of the larainss 
of the stone upon the light. The hydro- 
phane loses its beauty on being exposed to 
water, and it was this stone which was worn 
by the Baroness Hermione of Arnhem in 
* Anne of Geierstein.' It is said that the 
absurd notion of the opal being an unlucky 
stone, cannot be traced farther back than the 
publication of Scott's novel. The Empress 
Josephine's opal, called the Burning of 
Troy, from the innumerable red flames blaz- 
ing on its surface, was considered to be the 
finest stono of modern limes, but its present 
owner is unknown. In .the Museum of 
Vienna is an opal of extraordinary size and 
beauty, for which £50,000 has been re- 
fused. 

The amethyst, one of the qnartz family, 
varies in shade from delicate pink or lilac 
to deep purple It was highly esteemed by 
the ancients as an amulet against intoxica- 
tion, on account of the supposed etymology 
of the word ojiidvero^j and it was thought 
that wine drank out of an amethyst cup 
would not inebriate. It is known as the 
bishop's stone, from being worn as a ring 
by the Roman Catholic bishops, just as the 
green variety of tourmaline is said to be 
used as a ring stone by the clergy of Brazil. 
In 1652 an amethyst was worth as much as 



a diamond of equal weight, but after large 
quantitiea had been sent from Brazil they 
became nearly valueless. Even in the last 
century it was still held in estimation, and 
Mr. King tells us that Queen Charlotte's 
necklace of well-matched amethysts (the 
most perfect ever got together) was valued 
at £2,000, but it would not now command 
as many shillings. The oriental amethyst 
is quite another stone. It is a purple sap- 
phire, or a rare and valuable species of tho 
precious corundum. 

The garnet is of little value, but is effec- 
tive in jewellery on account of its brilliant 
colour. When cut en c€U)aehon, that is, ob- 
long and raised like the section of a plum, 
it is called a carbuncle. The pendent car^ 
bnncle to the necklace of Mary Queen of 
Scots, which that qneen wore at her mar« 
rii^e with Darnley, was valued at the enor- 
mous sum of five hundred crowns. Tho 
purple or red-wine-tinted garnets are named 
almaudine. 

Here we must end our account of the 
most precious stones. Had we space we 
might give some notice of those less* pre- 
cious, and of the many other substances used 
in jewellery which are of interest from their 
beauty or from the superstitions that are 
attached to them. The makers of acrostic 
jewellery often ^use stones that are held in 
little estimation, in order to obtain a letter 
they want. Thus, lapis lazuli must be 
used tor / ; nephrite or jade for n ; verde 
antique for v ; and zircon for z. There are 
no stones whose names commence with the 
letters/, it, u; w, and ar, but all the remain- 
der of the alphabet is appropriate. 

Precious stones are objects of the great- 
est beauty, and although often used for pur- 
poses of mere display, they have a perma- 
nent and abidp^ value, on account of their 
distinguishing qualities of hardness and in- 
destructibility. A stone which has a his- 
tory that can be traced back a decade of 
centuries or more, cannot but exert some 
influence over our imaginations. Besides 
their beauty, precious stones are of interest 
on account of their optical qualities, their 
chemical constitution, and the prominent 
position they have held in universal history ; 
therefore their praises have been published 
by science, art, history, and poetry. We 
have already noticed how poets have sung 
of the virtues of gems, and we cannot do 
bettor than close our roll with the greatest 
of them all, who tells us of — 

. . . deep-brain'd sonnets that did amplify. 
Each stone's dear nature, worth, and quality. 



1878. 



Capital and Labour. 



61 



Art. V. — Capital and Labour : the Prin- 
ciples and Fads on Both Sides, 

(1.) Work and Wages. By Thomas Bb asset, 
M.P. Bell and Daldy. 

(2.) The Reports of the Amalgamated Society 
of Bngineers. 

(3.) Work and Pay ; or, Prineiples of Indus- 
trial Economy, By Leone Levi. Lectures 
delivered at King^s College, London. Stra- 
ban and Co. 1876. 

(4.) Lectures in reply to Le/me Levi, Keported 
in * Industrial Review,' late " Beehive.' By 
Lloyd Jones and Thomas Patbrson.* 

When the political institutions of a modem 
State have been improved so far as the po- 
litical knowledge and aptitude of its people 
will admit, no more has been done than to 
dear a stage for the free action of those 
material forces of civilization from which 
has to be derived the means of sustaining 
society and carrying it forward, namely, 
Capital and Labour. The countless accu- 
mulations and resources which render labour^ 

* In addition to the works quoted above may be 
added the following, and we give further titles 
for the convenience of readers who desire to 
parsae the subject into detail : — (5.) * Inaugural 
Address at Glasgow, April, 1876, at the opening 
of the Eighth Annual Cooperative Congress.' 
By Professor W, B. Hodgson, LL.D., Edinburgh. 
(6.) ' The Historv of Co-operation in England.' 
By George T. Holyoake. Two Vols. Trttbner 
and Co. (7.) 'Masters and Men.' By Ruj^ert 
Kettle. 1871. (8.) ' Boards of Concilia tftn/ 
&c By Rupert Kettle. 1871. (9.) * The Trade 
Unions.' An Appeal to the Working Classes 
and their Friends. By Robert Somers. Edin- 
burgh : A. and C. Black. (10.) * Industrial 
Conciliation.' By Henry Crompton. H. S. King. 
1876. (11.) * Handy Book of the Labour Laws.' 
By George Howelf, late Parliamentary Secre- 
tary of Trade Unions. Second Edition. (12.) 
' Intimidation and Picketing, and Apprentices.' 
• Contemporary Review,' Sept., Oct., 1877. (13.) 
' An Address ^o some Miners,' By John Morley. 
•Fortnightly Review/ March. 1877. (14.) 
' Trade Unions : the Blight of British Industries 
and Commerce.' By John Honeyman. Glas- 
gow : Maclehose. 1876. (15.) ' The Worth of 
Wages.' By William Denny, Dumbarton. 
Dumbarton : Bennett. 1877. (16.) ' The Piece- 
work Question in Engineers' and Ironfounders' 
Shops.' Correspondence, &c. 1876. (17.) ' The 
Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows.' By F. G. 
P. Neison. Layton. 1871. (18.) * The Strike 
of the Bricklayers at Messrs. Doulton's Build- 
ings.' Spon. 1876. (19.) < Progress of the 
Working Classes, 188a-1867.' By J. M. Lud- 
low and Lloyd Jones. Strahan. 1867. (30). 
' Industrial Statistics.' By C. P. Be van. Stam- 
ford. 1877. (21.) 'The Clergy and Trade 
Unions.' Conferences at the Chapter House, 
St. Paul's, June, 1877 ; and Discussion at 
Church Congress at Croydon, October, 1877. 
(22.) ' Reports (1867-69) of Royal Commission 
appointed in 1867, with Sir William Erie as 
Chairman, to inquire into the Organization and 
Kales of Trade Unions, whether of Workmen 
or Employers, and of the efl^t of such Unions 
on the Trade and Industry of the Country.' 



organized or individual, most effective, are 
on the aide of Capital. The industry, pa- 
tience, skill, and discipline, which give life 
and action to the dead masses of capital, 
are on the side of Labour. In any given 
country, unless there be a combination of 
the two forces,. both will waste away, and 
the country must decline and perish ; and 
unless there be an intelligent settlement of 
the respective claims of each side of the 
combination, ceaseless strife and conflict 
will, by a longer and more miserable route, 
lead to the same catastrophe. ' 

In DO two countries of the civilized world 
does, or can, this conflict of capital and 
labour present itself at any moment in ex- 
actly the same shape. In countries like 
Germany and Austria, where the masses of 
the labourers were but lately free only in 
part, and where capital has but recently be- 
come a conspicuous power, the contest is 
marked by a violence of measures and doc- 
trines not found in countries like our own, 
where personal freedom and great wealth 
are centuries old. To France and Belgium 
the same observations apply, but with re- 
serve. In America the di&cuity presents 
itself under aspects of which we have no 
example in the old world. In the United 
States, the absolute supremacy of the de- 
mocracy, and the apparently boundless and 
exhaustless capabilities of an entire conti- 
nent, forcibly surest to ignorance and 
greed that a popular vote would be just as 
efficacious in fixing w^es as in making and 
unmaking caucuses and conventidns. 

More solid advances have been made in 
this country than in any other towards mas- 
tering the very difficult problem which, un- 
til it be thoroughly understood, will expose 
us to perils not easily overstated. We are 
still far from a solution of ail the perplexi- 
ties; but we are much nearer a solution 
both theoretical and practical than is gener- 
ally supposed ; and we are certainly quite 
beyond the range of the wild and menacing 
methods of clearing away obstacles which 
meet with formidable support in most of 
the countries we have named. Here we 
have not only the guidance of modes of in- 
vestigation and reasoning, the result of free 
and sustained discussion by men having the 
most different interests and views, as well 
labourers as capitalists, but we are able to 
appeal to experience as realized on the 
largest scale. During the last eighty or a 
hundred years these Islands have exhibited 
a rate of improvement for which no parallel 
can be found ; and we have the means of 
knowing exactly how the improvement 
arose, how it has been kept up, and why in 
certain directions and certain respects it has 



62 



Capital and Labour. 



Jan. 



not been greater or less than in oibcrs. In 
1801 there were nine millions of people in 
England and Wales, living in one and a half 
minion of houses. In 1871 there were 
twenty-three millions, in foar and a quarter 
millions of houses ; and it is quite certain 
that, the twenty-three (now, in 1877, be- 
come at least twenty-four) millions of peo- 
ple are far better fed, clothed, taught^ and 
occupied, and the fonr and a quarter mil- 
lions (now become four and a half millions) 
of houses are in all respects better con- 
structed and appointed, in 1877 than they 
were in 1800 — nearly three generations ago. 
These three generations, therefore, have 
palpably succeeded not only in fostering the 
rapid growth of capital, but also in so rais. 
ing the rewards of labour, that population 
has increased nearly threefold, and the 
standard of living and comfort has been en- 
hanced in the same or a greater ratio. 

On every ground, therefore, of common 
sense and sound philosophy, we are bound 
to investigate any difficulties of the present 
time between capital and labour, and to test 
any anticipations respecting them in future, 
by the positive knowledge and the positive 
results which the immediate past history of 
our own country supplies in such ample 
measure. 

There are two misconceptions to be 
cleared away as preliminary to the argu- 
ment — misconceptions often met with in 
quarters where it is not creditable they 
should occur. The iirst is that one of the 
most striking results of the three genera- 
tions of work just mentioned, is that the 
rich have been growing richer and the poor 
poorer, and hence that all our methods have 
been false. It is difficult to imagine any 
statement more at variance with the truth. 
That there are still large multitudes of help- 
lessly pauper people is true enough; and 
these crowds are not likely to disappear or 
diminish so long as tens of thousands of 
human beings come yearly into the world 
with diseased bodies, disabled limbs, and 
mental and moral faculties obtuse or imbe* 
cile ; and so long as vice, folly, and misfor- 
tune drag down into misery victims of 
every age, station, and degree of culture. 
The threefold increase of population is itr 
self an antswer to the statement more cogent 
than any other. Physical nature forbids 
that twenty-four millions of people can live 
in comfort where only nine millions lived 
eighty years ago, unless the conditions and 
circumstances of life have undergone an 
amelioration, which, if needful, could be 
set forth in a schedule of particulars, for 
which a volume would be required. 

The second misconception is that we shall 



assist this discussion of the relations of capi- 
tal and labour, as we now find them, by 
going back to some epoch to be found cen- 
turies ago — to some period when the arts 
were so rude and ill protected that they 
could exist only in guilds, and when the 
king and his council acted upon the belief 
that it was their duty to fix the wages of 
each man*s labour and the price of most 
people's goods. These are called frequently 
ages of faith, and, by a still greater abuse 
of language, good old times, when a fair 
day's wage was given for a fair day's work. 
They were ages neither of faith nor fair- 
ness.* They were ages of poverty, starva- 
tion, violence, rapine, ignorance, and fraud. 
As we understand capital, there was next to 
none of it. In the six hundred years from 
the first to the third of our kings who has 
borne the name of William, the population 
of England and Wales a little more than 
doubled itself — that is to say, grew slowly, 
painfully, with long pauses and melancholy 
periods of retrogression, occasioned by some 
pestilence or famine more dire than usual, 
from between two and three millions of per- 
sons to between five and six. But what a 
commentary is that hardly-won increase of 
half a million of people in a century upon 
the fantastical and pernicious sentiment 
which a certain set of foolish teachers be- 
stow upon ages from which it is the great- 
est of blessings that wo have been wboUy 
delivered.! 

As an actual fact, therefore, on the larg- 
est scale, the progressive improvement of 
the labouring classes of this country during 
the last seventy, but more particularly dur- 
ing the last thirty, years is undeniable, and 
constitutes one of the most wonderful and 
beneficent revolutions in modern history. 
How then has it been brought about \ We 
will answer this inquiry almost wholl}' in 
the words of Mr. J. 8. Mill, not only because 

* The prreat number of churches in those 
times is frequently cited as a strong proof of 
the religious spirit of the age of faith. It is 
a proof of the exact opposite. A church in 
those days was about the best of paying specu- 
lations, when in the hands of an acceptablo 
priest. On the scores of saints' davs and holi- 
days, the priest and the publican and competi- 
tors of worse descriptions shared the spoils 
amon^ them. 

f ' Few people are aware of the immense de- 
velopment of the last twenty-five years in the 
condition for the better of onr English opera- 
tives, whether in a monetary, social, eiducational, 
sanitary, or legislative light. It is very doabt> 
fal whether the bulk of the working classes 
themselves ever take heed of the strides that 
they have made, or think how little they have 
to lament that the *' good old times" are past 
and gone.' — ^"Fhe Industrial Classes/ 1877, by 
C. P. Bevan — a work of authority nnd research. 



1878. 



Capital and Labour, 



63 



Le has givca nearly the best answer to be 
anywhere found, bat also because, as is well 
known, he discussed every question of la- 
bour and capital with a desire to do full 
justice to the labourers of all deBcriptioB&— 
not omitting the humblest of either sex. In 
the chapter, ' On what Depends the Degree 
of Productiveness of Productive Agents ? ' 
(* Principles of Political Economy,' book i. 
chap. 7) he says : — 

Wc have concluded our general survey of 
the requisites of production. We have found 
that they may be reduced to three — ^labour, 
capital, and the materials and motive forces 
afforded by nature. Of those, labour and the 
raw material of the globe are indispensable. 
Capital is itself the product of labour : its in- 
strumentality in production is therefore in 
reality that of labour in an indirect shape. 
Of capital, again, one, and by far the largest 
portion^ conduces to 'production only by sus- 
taining in existence the labour which pro- 
duces. The remainder — namely the instru- 
ments and materials-contribute to it directly 
in the same manner with natural agents and 
the materials supplied by nature. 

Mr. Mill then specifics as the first cause 
of the superior productiveness of a country, 
natural advantages, such as climate, soil, 
minerals, harbours, and navigable rivers; 
but with the emphatic qualification that it 
has scarcely cvef happened that the coun- 
tries with the greatest natural advantages 
have been the most eminent in prosperity 
and power. Athens, Tyre, Marseilles, Ven- 
ice, and the Free Cities of the Baltic, were 
all by nature poor and ill-favoured regions. 
lie proceeds : — 

The second cause of superior productive- 
ness is the greater energy of labour. By this 
is not to be understood occasional, but regu- 
lar and habitual energy. . . . Individuals or 
nations do not differ so much in the efforts 
they are able and willing to make under 
strong immediate incentives, as in their ca- 
pacity of present exertion for a distant ob- 
ject, and in the thoroughness of their applica- 
tion to work on ordinary occasions. Some 
amount of these qualities is a necessary con- 
dition of any great improvement among man- 
kind. . . . There is no need that less ardour 
in the pursuit of wealth should diminish the 
strenuous and business-like application to the 
matter in hand which is found in the best 
English workmen, and is their most valuable 
quality. 

The third element which determines the 
productiveness of the labour of a community 
IS the skill and knowledge therein existing, 
whether it be the skill and knowledge of the 
labourers themselves, or of those wlio direct 
their labour. . . . Thn productiveness of the 
labour of a people is limited by their knowl- 
edge of the arts of life ; and any progress in 
these arts, and any improved application by 



machinery and invention of the objects or 
powers of nature to industrial uses, enablea 
the same quantity and intensity of labour to 
raise greater produce.* 

These passages contain the simple, but 
the real, answer to the inquiry how this 
country has been able to raise its popula- 
tion from nine to twenty-four millions in 
seventy years, and to do so with a vast in- 
crease in the degree of general comfort. By 
the means of steady and effective labour, 
aided by progressive invention and capital, 
we have year by year added enormously to 
the volume of our products ; and by means 
of this additional production we have great- 
ly cheapened the means of living, because 
we have become possessed of augmenting 
masses of commodities, the larger part of 
which has necessarily been distributed as 
wages. The chain of causes is close and 
obvious : capital, invention, effective labour, 
more commodities, cheaper prices, better 
wages, enhanced comfort, progressive popu- 
lation. 

Let us refer to Mr. Mill again. 

If wages are higher at one time or place 
than another, if the subsistence and comfort 
of the class of hired labourers are more am- 
ple, it is for no other reason than becaitse eapi- 
tal bears a greater proportion to population. 
It is not the absolute amount of accumulation 
or of production that is of importance to the 
labouring classes ; it is not the amount even 
of the fundd destined for distribution among 
the labourers; it is the proportion between 
those funds and the numbers among whom 
they are shared. The condition of the class 
can be bettered in no other way than by 

* Dr. Enffel, the eminent and well-known 
head of the Statistical Bureau at Berlin, in a re- 
cent work estimates t/ie labour-sating effects of 
the steam motive power at present in use as fol-' 
lows. * The aggregate' steam power in use in 
the world is at present three and a half millions 
horse power employed in stationary engines, and 
ten millions horse power in looomotive engines. 
This force is maintained without the consump- 
tion of anim^ food, except by the miners who 
dig the coals, and the force maintained in their 
muscles is to the force given oat by the coals 
produced by them about one to one thousand. 
Tiiis steam power is equal to the working force 
of twenty-five millions of horses ; and as one 
horse consumes three times as much food as one 
man, this steam power is equivalent to tlie 
saving of food of seventy-five millions of human 
beings, or about the united population of Great 
Britain, France, and Germany. • . . Three 
power-looms, attended by one man, produce 
seventy-eight pieces of cotton fabric against four 
pieces produced by one hand-loom, worked by 
one man, in 1800— that is to say, one man in 
1877 turns out twenty times as much produce 
as in 1800. ... A carpenter's planinpr-machine 
does the work of twenty men. A McCormack's 
corn-reaper doubled the strain produce of the 
United States, by enabling the available labour 
to harvest the extended crops.' 



64 



CapUal and Labour. 



Jan. 



alteriDg that proportion; and every scheme 
for their benefit which does not proceed on 
this as its foundation, is, for all permitnent 
purposes, a delusion (book ii. chap. 11). 

In other words : As it is certain that in 
tliis country the increase of numbers in popu- 
lation has been and is steadily progressive, 
higher wages have been and can only be 
possible by an increase of capital (arising 
from the three causes already specified) still 
more progressive. The same inferences are 
extended by Mr. Mill in his third and fourth 
books, on International Trade, and on the 
* Influence of the Progress of Society on 
Production and Distribution ; ' with the 
general result that it is pnly by unabated 
progress in the application of the three con- 
ditions (abundant capital, effective labour, 
and natural agents) wnich lead to augment- 
ed gross produce, ' that a country is enabled 
to obtain, at less and less of real costy not 
only its own productions, but those of for- 
eign countries. Indeed, whatever dimin- 
ishes the cost of its own production, when 
of an exportable character, enables it to ob- 
tain its imports at less real cost' 

We have now got the philosophy or basis 
of the ailment, and we have to encounter 
the difficulties of applying it to the facts of 
real life — to the opposite interests of those 
who pay wages and those who live on them. 
These difficulties of application are serious 
enough, but whatever our partialities may 
be, the difficulties must bo solved in strict 
accordance with the basis and philosophy 
we have satisfied ourselves to be alone con- 
sistent with the constitution of nature and 
the facts of human life. 

It is quite easy to see that while in the 
mass and totality of things capital and la- 
bour are fellow- workers and joint heirs in 
the process and results of production, in the 
detail of individual trades and persons they 
are disputants, competitors, and rivals con- 
cerning their respective shares in the com- 
modities which have been produced, and 
have to be divided between them. We say 
commodities rather than money, because, 
for our present purpose, money may be re- 
garded as a mere vehicle or counter. 

In considering this natural contention it 
is well to bear in mind that in actual life 
there is no sHch thing as a sharp line drawn 
between capitalists and labourers. They 
are not two separate and distinct sets of 
persons. In point of fact, the great majori- 
ty of the two parties mingle with each other 
in ways and degrees so infinite — capitalists 
being labourers and labourers capitalists — 
that a great deal of the sharp and bitter an- 
tagonism is taken away ; and this is a miti- 



gating circumstance which prevents much 
danger. 

In the next place, it is easy to see that 
the contention between capital and labour, 
regarding their respective snares in the pro- 
ducts of their joint ef!ort8, is exactly the 
same in character as the contention between 
particular portions of capital and labour as 
producers of certain kinds of goods — cloth 
and shoes for example — and the rest of the 
community who are consumers of these 
goods. The producer seeks by all means to 
enhance the price of his article — that is to 
say, to give as little as possible of his own 
labour and capital for as much as possible 
of the labour and capital (expressed in 
money) of the person to whom he sells. In 
other words, there is a market established 
of sellers and buyers, and we thus advance 
to the simple but fundamental foimula 
which lies at the root of all exchanges of 
the products of industry, from the. most 
archaic kinds of barter'to the recondite and 
complex circumstances which on the largest 
scale govern the market rate for labour 
(wages) and the market rate for capital (in- 
terest and discount). 

As between capitalists and labourers, the 
capitalist or employer seeks naturally to sell 
his own commodity, capital (wages), for the 
largest share possible, both in quantity and 
quality, of the commodity (labour) offered 
by the labourer. On the other side, the la- 
bourer desires to sell his labour for the larg- 
est sum or price possible under any given 
condition of the market for labour. But 
here 'arises a material qualification. The 
money wages which the employer offers are 
all of the same quality of purchasing power, 
and mere quantity is the only measure of 
gradation. The labour which he buys is of 
the most diverse qualities of efficiency in 
power of production, from efforts of mere 
muscular strength, through all the grades of 
aptitude, skill, quickness, steadiness, and in- 
vention. Hence it is a constant and inevita- 
ble condition in the labour market that 
capital for its own interest seeks by all 

means to discover and ally itself with the 

If 

highest or most skilled quality of labour; 
that for such labour it is willing to give an 
extra price ; and hence that on the side of 
the labourers those are most successful sell- 
ers — that is, contenders or competitors with 
capital as regards the wages or share of the 
gross produce to be divided — who have 
skill, diligence, aptitude, and character to 
offer, as well as mere strength and industry. 
When capital and labour combine to pro- 
duce and offer for sale under the freest con- 
ditions (say) cloth or shoes, it is the best 



1878. 



Capital ami Labour. 



65 



and cheapest descriptions of each which 
command the market to the largest extent 
and for the longest time, and confer the 
greatest advantage upon both the producers 
and consumers. The same plain principle 
neither more nor less governs and mast 
govern the dealings between the capitalists 
and labourers whose joint efEorts produce 
the cloth or shoes — there must be perfect 
freedom of choice and action from first to 
last ; and sustained success can be the result 
of only the highest qualities of industry, 
forethought, and skill. 

For a moment we may interrupt the argu- 
ment (although scarcely necessary) to notice 
the allegation sometimes made that labour 
is not a commodity, but something very 
different ; inasmuch as for the support of 
human life there must be found somewhere 
for every labourer a reasonable or minimum 
rate of wage, with but little re^rd to skill 
or desert. Such a claim carries with it its 
own answer. * To be found somewhere ' — 
bnt where ? and by whom ? and under the 
compulsion of what natural or artificial mo- 
tives or obligations ? To give wages except 
for skill or desert, when not charity, is com- 
munism,^ that is to say, taking the earn- 
ings of the industrious to support the idle 
and worthless ; and, unhappily, such are the 
failings of human nature, that we know by 
many bitter examples that the idle and 
worthless would in no short time eat up all 
the substance of the industrious ; and the 
wages to be found somewhere would in the 
most literal sense bo found nowhere. Be- 
sides, every recipient of wages answers the 
claim by his own daily practice. Where 
and how does ho spend his wages ? Natu- 
rally and properly, where he can buy the 
most with them, that is to say, precisely for 
those commodities which are cheap and 
good because they are produced by applica- 
tions the most effective of labour which 
bears in it the most (not the least) of skill 
and desert. It is a chief glory of the last 
thirty years that in this country we have 
opened to the expenditure of wages markets 
iu which there is scarcely a single let or 
hindrance to the freest supply of commodi- 
ties produced and offered for sale under 
conditions wholly untainted by monopoly or 
state infiuence. But equity has two sides. 
If the labourer has secured the advantage 
of baying on the cheapest terms from all 

* What IS a Communist ? One who hath yearn- 
ings 
For an equal division of unequal earnings ; 
And who at all times is anxious and willing^ 
To take up your pound and to put down his 
shilMng. 

VOL. LXVII. B — 6 



other labourers and capitalists, he cannot, 
expect to be himself erected into a monopo- ' 
list, to be lifted on to a pedestal of protec- 
tion, and to be kept apart from the whole- 
some and vigorous competition which im- 
pels and animates everybody but himself. 
The commodity he sells — his labour — must 
be as cheap and good (effective and skilful) 
as the commodities he expects to buy with 
it. ' Effective and skilful,' that is the point — 
sound sterling quality, with a healthful ring 
of independence about it, very different 
from the whining claim for a reasonable or 
minimum rate of wages. The only mini- • 
mum rate of wages which the hard-headed 
but true benevolence of the English people 
has ever seen its way to, is the poor law 
and the workhouse. 

We now resume the general argument by - 
repeating that the ultimate formula or pro- 
cess which adjusts the wages which the cap- 
ital in any particular trade is to pay to the 
labourer in that trade (and generally the 
wages which the whole capital of a country 
is at any given period to pay to the whole 
labour of the country) is, exactly as in the 
case of all other commodities, the higgling 
of the market arising out of the fluctuating 
circumstances of supply and demand. There 
is no a priori rule or method by which 
wages any more than prices can be deter- 
mined. For a good many centuries it wag 
implicitly believed by nearly every one that 
edicts and laws could fix wages and prices 
with advantage to the State and equity to > 
the buyers and sellers ; and no belief war. 
ever put into force with greater vigour or 
led to more fatal consequences. It brought 
starvation and poverty to the State, and 
raised perjury and swindling into virtues. 
It is idle and childish to lament, as many 
do,, that there is incessant contention and 
uncertainty regarding wages and price?!. It 
is precisely this unchecked liberty and the 
outspoken ardour of contention and un- 
certainty regarding the current value of 
the services which free men have to offer, 
and of the commodities which free labour 
and invention have produced, which is 
among the choicest attributes and issues of 
a large and settled liberty. The free ex- 
change of labour and its products, like the 
free exchange of opinion and the free dis- 
cussion of schemes of polity and govern- 
ment, must be left to settle itself according 
to the truth — and the truth of markets, like 
the truth of opinions and beliefs, must be 
left to the intelligence, sagacity, and expe- - 
rience of the contending parties. The only 
useful function of the law is to ensure free- 
dom and fair play ; to provide that every 



66 



Capital and Labour. 



J&n, 



person of matnre* age shall be bound by 
his contract ; that every man shM be left 
to form his judffinent in his own way and 
without let or hindrance from others ; and 
hence that the price of the market shall be 
neither more nor less than the price which 
corresponds to the intrinsic worth, for the 
time being, of the things and services sold. 

We mast now apply these principles to 
the contentions between capital and labour 
re^rding wages. 

It is manifest that both masters and 
men have a clear right to form separate 
combinations for enhancing, by all fair 
means, the price in the market of their 
respective commodities. It is perfectly 
open to thcni to withdraw their com- 
modity from the market altogether for as 
long as they plea»e. It is obviously incum- 
bent upon both to ascertain as closely as 
possible every circumstance likely to tell for 
or against them in the competition of the 
market. It is still more incumbent upon 
both sides to take unceasing pains to raise 
the. intrinsic worth and excellence of the 
labour ofiered by the men and of the com- 
modities offered by the masters. All these 
arrangements and efforts are fair and lauda- 
ble on the single condition that as ample 
liberty is allowed to others as is claimed for 
themselves. But there is also another condi- 
tion, of which both masters and men are the 
servants, and not the regulators — and that 
is, the means and willingness of Consumers 
to go on paying for the commodities pro- 
duced, and in the same or larger quantities, 
the price hitherto prevalent, or some higher 
price. Within the limits of a given con- 
sumption, at a given price, masters and men 
are free to contend over the gross produce 
to be divided between them. But if the 
consumption falls away in quantity, and the 
price declines, the battle must cease, be- 
cause there is no longer a victory to fight 
for. 

But there is a reverse of the medal. 
There are things which masters and men 
cannot do, as well as things which, as we 
have seen, they may laudably do. First, as 
regards the Masters. It requires no argu- 
ment to show that the wages earned must 
be punctually and honestly paid in good 
and lawful money, free from all restrictions 
respecting the places where or the objects 
on which they shall be spent — in short, free 
from everything like ' truck ; ' — ^that the 

* We say mature age. The whole fabric of 
our legislation relating to children and partly 
to women rests on the principle that the parties 
specially protected by tne law are not of mature 
age, and are not free agents. 



workshops and places where the labour is 
carried' on shall, as far as possible, bo kept 
healthful and free from offensive surround- 
ings; — ^that the hours of labour and the 
times for meals shall be reasonable and 
convenient ; — that no impediments shall be 
placed in the way of any combinations of 
the men directed to the objects set out in 
the preceding paragraph ; — that there shall 
be a progressive willingness and tendency 
to relieve labour and skill of all sorts from 
oppressive restraints and penalties in tho 
form of lengthy periods of apprenticeship 
and pupilage ; — that especially there shall 
not be any hindrances to the free circula- 
tion and migration of labour from one* part 
of the country to another (or to or from 
different countries), by reason of parochial 
settlements, corporate restrictions in towns, 
or the like ; — and lastly, that the whole fab- 
ric of hiring, for wages shall rest upon the 
plain and simple principle that the highest 
wages shall be given to and the quickest 
promotion shall be won by, the men most 
eminent for skill, diligence, and character. 

All these are conditions subject to which 
capital must make its bargain with labour, 
and all of them are conditions which en- 
lightened experience and discussion have 
proved to be not disadvantageous to capi- 
tal, but, on the contrary, highly beneficial. 
It is quite true that there was a time, and 
far within the present century, when capital, 
misled by ancient fallacies and the selfish- 
ness of supposed class interests, denied or 
neglected every one uf these conditions; 
but, as wo shall have to show further on, 
the discussion and the legislation of the last 
half century have for some years past firmly 
established every one of them, not only in 
theory, but in practice ; and in point of fact 
it is this enlarged and liberalized view of 
the real interests and duties of Capital 
which has carried us a long way towards a 
true solution of all difficulties of work and 
wages. 

Next, as regards the Men. Here we have 
to remember thai every joint euterprize in 
which capital and labour combine is an eu- 
terprize of commercial risk, necessarily of 
uncertain issue, and that all the risk of that 
issue is taken by capital. Wages and profits 
can only come out of the surplus which the 
market price of the article produced may 
yield over the cost price ; but tho wages are 
all paid beforehand. Capital bears all the 
risk, and has to wait for its own replace- 
ment, with or without profit as the result 
may be, till the adventure is brought to an 
end, with all its incidents of loss by bad 
debts, bad seasons, and bad trade. It is 
this hard fact of capital bearing all the risk, 



18V8. 



Capital and Lahour. 



e7 



and being compelled by the natare of the 
case to hold back its own claims till all 
other claims are met, and e$%pecially till tiie 
wages paid week by week in advance of the 
uncertain result of the ventnre are recovered, 
which constitates the just and natural right 
of capital to hold and exercise command 
over the organization of the work to be 
done. There is no unfairness or usurpation 
in this command. It is the natural law of 
the facts, and without it production would 
cease. Nor are the dangers and risks out 
of which this right of command arises at 
all imaginary, as the tens of thousands of 
mercantile failures sufficiently attest Nor, 
further, is there in real life any such things 
as masses of (as it is called) bloated capital 
on the one side, and crowds of helpless la- 
bourers on the other. Modem society in this 
country is composed of infinite gradations of 
ranks and possessions; and since produc- 
tion has begun to be carried on by associated 
capital in the form of joint-stock and other 
large copartneries, a very considerable part 
of the capital which has to treat with labour 
is furnished by the modest and hard-earned 
savings of widows and single women ; of 
clergymen, doctors, and the like ; of men in 
the army, navy, and civil service ; of small 
tradespeople who have toiled early and late ; 
and of frugal artisans aspiring to be mas- 
ters : and if sentiment and philanthropy are 
to be admitted at all into these discussions, 
it cannot be denied that the classes we have 
named are entitled to quite as much sympa- 
thy as the members of a trade union. 

Subject, then, to^this natural and neces- 
sary control of capital over the organization 
of production, what are the things which 
the Men in any particular trade (and by in- 
ference in all trades generally) may not do 
in their contention with the masters for the 
highest wages which the supply of, and the 
demand for, labour will admit of ? 

First of all it is clear that the commodity 
which the men have to sell is of the most 
diverge quality, inasmuch as the degrees of 
efficiency, skill, find character are not to be 
enumerated. There cannot, therefore, be 
any uniform, or even minimum, rate of 
wages, and for exactly the same reasons that 
there cannot be any uniform or minimum 
range of prices for corn or cloth. Second- 
ly, while any number of workmen have a 
perfect right to. form themselves into a so- 
ciety, and fix their own price for their own 
labour, they have no right to use active or 
negative means to compel other workmen 
to join them. The personal interests of 
workmen are as diverse as the personal in- 
terests of masters, and both must be left 
absolutely free to act as they consider best. 



I'hirdly, among workmen, as well as among 
all otbdV classes from the top to the bottom 
of society, the mass or multitude have uo 
more than ordinary or inferior aptitude or 
industry, and it is the natural instinct of 
these sluggish temperaments to better their 
condition by appropriating, as far as possi- 
ble, the higher deserts of the limited class 
to whom nature has given ability, and in- 
dustry has brought skill. But it is mani- 
fest tyranny if, by mere force of numbers 
and combination, this inferior and stagnant 
majority of workmen seek to restrain and 
reduce to their own deplorable level the 
capacities and deserts of superior and ener- 
getic men. Fourthly, it is similar tyranny, 
and a manifest injury to the real interests 
of their own class, if* workmen seek to main- 
tain or impose onerous periods of appren- 
ticeship, or such limitations of apprentice- 
ship as debar the youths of their own order 
from reasonable openings in life. Fifthly, 
it is a violation of all principles of fair deal- 
ing, and a selfishness of the most fatal kind, 
to seek to raise wages by doing for them 
as little and as inferior work as possible, in- 
stead of as muuh and as good work as pos- 
sible. It is dishonest, because for the mar- 
ket price it does not give the marketable 
article ; and it is blindly selfish, because, by 
raising the cost of commodities, it dimin- 
ishes the willingness and means of the pub- 
lic (of which public they, the workmen, form 
the largest part) to consume them. Sixthly, 
while nothing can be more useful and praise- 
worthy than that workmen should raise, by 
regular contributions among themselves, 
funds to be used in the promotion of their 
trade interests, including, if need be, allow- 
ances in support of strikes, and other funds 
for the relief of age and sickness, it is a 
plain dishonesty not so to separate these 
funds that the provision for inevitable 
events such a? age and sickness shall be in 
no degree subject to the sweeping and sud- 
den calls of trade conflicts. The two obli- 
gations have nothing in common, and for 
the present generation to take to itself 
funds which belong to the next, is robbery 
pure and simple. 

We have now ascertained the general 
principles which govern the combinations 
of capital and labour in furthering and en- 
larging the well-being of both ; and we 
have in the second place ascertained the 
conditions in obedience to which capital and 
labour must treat with each other in order 
to a fair division between them of such sur- 
plus or profit as the willingness and means 
of the public to consume the commodities 
produced at certain levels offered may afford* . 

We have now to pursue the inquiry into • 



68 



Capital and Labour, 



Jan. 



further detail, and to find out in what degree 
the actual public legislation of this country, 
and the actual organization of the working 
classes, give effect to, or obstruct or depart 
frum, the true principles to which the facts 
arc alone amenable. 

The volumes* recently published by Mr. 
George Ilowell (the late Parlian^entary Sec- 
retary of Trade Unions), by Mr. Henry 
Crompton, so well known as an able legal 
advocate of what he considers to be the 
rights of labour, and by Mr. J. M. Ludlow 
(the present liegistrar of Friendly Societies) 
and Mr. Lloyd Jones (a principal writer in 
the * Industrial Review,' late the * Beehive,' 
of. which Mr. George Potter is editor), all 
testify that, so far as the public legislation 
of this country and the action of the gen- 
eral body of the masters is concerned, very 
little indeed remains to be done to render 
the facts of daily experience entirely con- 
formable to all the conditions we have estab- 
lished in the preceding pages as obligatory 
on capital in its dealings with labour. Mr. 
Howell, in his clear and sensible ^ Uandy 
IJook of the Labour Laws,' gives the sub- 
stance of the six Acts of Parliament f which, 
during the five years 1871-C have arisen 
chiefly out of the inquiries of the Ivoyal 
Commission on Trade Unions of 1807-69, 
under Sir William Erie. 

I regard these Acts (says 3[r. Ilowell) as a 
ccxeat boon to the industrial classes — as, in 
fact, the charter of their social and indus- 
trial freedom, the full value of which is not 
yet understood and appreciated. If adrainie- 
tcred in the same frank and just spirit with 
which they were ponceivcd and passed by the 
legislature, they will be found to fully cover 
the demands made by thoughtful intelligent 
workmen. through long years of earnest agi- 
tation. . . . Much is due to the frank and 
l^cncrous speech of Mr. Cross (the Home Sec- 
retary), and to the hearty acceptance of the 
measures by the House. The change in the 
tone of the speeches delivered in Parliament 
during the w^hole of the debates was most 
f^ratifying : not one single word was uttered 
to which exception could be taken by the 
most sensitive workman. The amendments 
made in the bills during their passage through 
the House were many and important, one and 
all of them being to the adcantage of the tcork- 
*nen (Preface). 

Mr. Crompton carries this evidence fur- 
ther in his volume, written in 1870, to urge 

• The titles are Nos. 10. 11, 12, and 19. in 
'tLi(4 noto at pajTo 61. 

f Tlie Acts are Trade Tnion Acts, 1871, and 
IHTO; Employcrii and Workmen Act, 1875; 
ConFpiracy and Protection of Property Act, 
1H«8: Kussell (lumcy's Act, 1808; Arbitration 
Act, l':J72. 



the resort to arbitration and conciliation in- 
stead of to strikes. lie says : — 

We may welV look back to the beginning 
of this long struggle by labour to achieve 
freedom and compare tlie condition of the 
working classes in the past to that of work- 
men in the best modern employment, where 
each man^s freedom is assured, and the full- 
est respect paid to the worth and dignity of 
labour. Such a contrast is no less than that 
])etween the slave and free citizen. . . . 
There has in truth been a great intellectual 
and moral progress among employers and 
employed. Doubtless there are parts of Eng- 
land and certain trades in which the relations 
between employers and employed are as bad 
now as was ever the case. There are trades 
in which the most brutal savagery is still the 
rule. This is the blackest part of the dark 
side, but the bright is surely, if slowly, 
growing upon it. . .'. The practical success 
which has attended the establishment of 
most of the boards of arbitration and concili- 
ation is due to the fact that the employers 
have really accepted the independence of tho 
men — that is, they have accepted the trade 
unions, which the men rightly regard as the 
secret of their strength (chap. i.). 

We could multiply testimony of this sort 
to any extent, but these extracts from two 
notable advocates on the side of labour will 
suffice ; and we may confidently assume 
that in this country the legislature has done 
all it can do, and that the temper of capita 
is to do all that it can bo fairly called upou 
to doy to enable masters and men to treat 
with each as free and independent buyers 
and sellers of the commodity labour, by 
means of which both of 4hem cxist.^ 

♦ Mechanical invention has, within the last 
thirty years or less, already put an end to many 
of the most ftevere and exhaustinf>^ kinds of 
manual labour. For example (1), the unwhole- 
some and hard labour of heckling; flax. (2) Uio 
still more unwholesome and hard labour of 
combing wool. (3) Dry scissor and knif«» grind- 
ing has been nearly banished. , (4) Hydraulic 
cranes have immensely lessened the very severo 
and dangerous labour of lifting goods out of and 
into ships, warchousos, &c. (5) l>onkey engines 
on shipboard greatly mitigate tho hard work 
of Bailors. (6) Tlie same machinos have al«> 
almost wholly relieved hodmen from the climb 
ing of ladders with bricks, mortar, and mate 
rials. (7) In agriculture, implement.s and Fteam 
power do most of the liardost work, as plough- 
ing, threshing, &c. (8) Lithography, copying 
inks, * key writers,' &c., have put an i»nd to 
much of Uie ill -paid drudgery of law and other 
copying. (9) Steam, applie<l to the pawing of 
timber, stont*, marble, ic. , has greatly h'^pened 
a class of severe and unwholesome work. (10) 
In engineering ahops, tho us»e of machines ban 
almost aboIi.shed the worst and dangeroua 
kinds of labour. (11) Above all, the sewing 
machine has revolutionized, to the gr.'at bene- 
fit of female and male workers, the trades of 
boot, shoe. dres:», and collar making, and al««o 
tailoring. Manual * puddling.* In the iron trade. 



18Y8. 



Capital and Labour. 



69 



We now turn to the other aid a, and it 
will considerably assist our appreciation of 
the solid progress we have made in this 
country towards a true understanding of the 
relations of capital and labour, if we state 
shortly the condition of the controversy on 
the Continent and in the United States. 

On the Continent there are two powerful 
associations representing the views and 
claims of the more * advanced ' of the work- 
men and their advocates and advisers. The 
first is called the ' Universal Congress of 
Socialists,' the last meeting of which was 
held in September, 1877, at Ghent, a city 
famous for the turbulence, in its days of 
industrial fame, of its working classes, les 
tetes dures de Oand, The second is called 
the * International Working Men's Associa- 
tion,' and it also held a meeting in Septem- 
ber, at Verviers, in Belgium. The utter- 
ances of the Ghent conference are the 
most typical, and therefore we give some 
outline of them. Forty delegates attended, 
from Belgium, Germany, Russia, Switzer- 
land, Italy, Spain, France, Greece, and one 
Englishman, sent by the ' Commonwealth 
Club,' of Bcthnal Green. The German-Swiss 
delegate, GraUlich, held that the State 
should own and the Commune administer 
the instruments of production. The State 
and Commune must be composed of faith- 
ful mandatories of the workers. The French- 
Swiss delegate, Guillaume, proposed that all 
property should be held by voluntary asso- 
ciations of workers in groups. These groups 
would be governed by unanimity, but ob- 
noxious members would be summarily ex- 
pelled. For these groups of producers 
there must be a manager, but he would be 
merely a workman, not living in a better 
house, or drinking or eating better than the 
rest. Ansele, the Ghent delegate, consid- 
ered that the Commuue at Paris and the 
Hallway Insurrection in the United States, 
in July, 1877, showed that the time of vic- 
tory was coming. Frankel, from Buda- 
Pesth, said that he was not enamoured of 
individual liberty. It was the craze of the 
small shopkeepers, and the stupid boast of 
England. It might be tnie that there 
would always be workers with the head as 
well as workers with the hands ; but the 
general body of the delegates vehemently 
denounced this statement as heresy. There 
was a general agreement, however, that the 
* instruments of production ' — land, cattle, 
machinery, fuel — must be taken out of pri- 

still remains to be conquered by mechanical 
means, and the prospects of the victory are 
encouraging. Bat what a glorious catalogue 
we have already ojf diminutions of human pain 
and suffering! 



vate hands and put into the possession 
either of the • State ' or of * groups of 
workers.' 

To English ears all this sounds like an 
echo of Bedlam, and so it is. But it is a 
great deal more than an echo of Bedlam in 
the continental countries. These wild So- 
cialists have actually returned some twenty 
or thirty members to the German parlia- 
ment, and they are formidable enough in 
that and other countries to give serious un- 
easiness to their respective governments. In 
France, as we all know, they held Paris for 
three months in 1871. The raving licence 
of the Ghent delegates is the natural reac- 
tion from the feudal and tyrannical oppres- 
sion of the working classes which prevailed 
all over Europe, but especially in Germany, 
till within the last twenty years or less. 
But it is a peril of no ordinary kind. 

The 'platform ' put forward by the Con- 
vention of Working Men held at Cincinnati 
in August last, within a few weeks of the 
Railway War of July, has more interest for 
ourselves than the Ghent rhapsodies. That 
Railwav War was an event and an omen to 
be carefully noted. It lasted nearly a fort- 
night ; it spread over twenty States of the 
Union ; stopped work on twenty thousand 
miles of railway, which had cost nearly 
three hundred millions sterling, and em 
ployed ordinarily one hundred and fifty 
thousand men of all classes ; and inflicted 
terror, suffering, and loss on quite thirty 
millions of people. At Chicago, wholly in- 
dependent of pillage and the loss of life, 
the destruction of property was equal to not 
less than ten shillings a head on every in- 
habitant of the city ; at Pittsburg to a 
great deal more ; and at New York to a 
sum so large as not to be easily overstated. 

The working men's party is already so 
much of a power in the United States, that 
it is approached and * handled ' by the 
wire-pullers of all the political sections, a 
pretty clear proof that its voting force is 
not to be despised. 

The third and leading resolution of the 
Convocation of August last was as fol- 
lows : — 

Resolved, That in the coming political 
campaign we invite the co-operation of all 
voters who believe that to the labourer justly 
and of right belongs the result of his labours, 
in the following demands, viz. : — 

1. The payment of wages to the labourer 
in the lawful money of the country, and at 
intervals of time not greater than one week, 
and that suitable penalties be provided for 
failures to do so. 

3. Eight hours for the present as the nor- 
mal working day, and* legal punishment to 
1 all violators. 



70 



Capital and Labour, 



Jan. 



8. Strict laws makiog employers liable 
for all accidents to the injury of tiieir em- 
ployes. 

4. Prohibitory laws against the employ- 
ment of children under fourteen years of age 
in industrial establishments. 

5. Prohibition of the use of prison labour 
by private employers. 

6. Abolition of all conspiracy laws. 

7. Sanitary inspection of all conditions of 
labour, means of subsistence and dwellings 
included. 

8. Gratuitous instruction in all educational 
institutions. 

9. Labour statistics in all States as well as 
by the National Government, the ofScers of 
these bureaus to be taken from the ranks of 
th« labour organizations, and elected by 
them. 

10. The repeal of the patent and all other 
laws and charters giving special privileges to 
individuals or companies to the aetriment of 
labour. 

11. Repeal of all tariff or other a^s which 
provide for the collection of the public reve- 
nue by indirect methods, and the substitu- 
tion therefor of a system of direct taxation, 
graduated in proportion to the amount of 
property or income to be taxed. 

12. Railways, telegraphs, and all means of 
transportation to be controlled by the Gov- 
ernment. 

1 8. For the puq)08e of abolishing the wages 
system, all industrial enterprizes to be placed 
under the control of the Government as far 
as practicable, and worked by free co-opera- 
tive unions for the good of the whole people. 

14. The Constitution to be so amended as 
to require that all officers of the General and 
State Governments be elected by a direct vote 
of the people. 

This resolution is a cnrioas compound of 
reason and unreason. On what ground of 
reason can the working classes of a free 
country claim gratuitous instruction in all 
educational institutions, more than shop- 
keepers or doctors ? Surely the first duty 
of a man worthy of freedom is to apply 
part of his earnings to the education of his 
children — to bo as independent in providing 
for them knowledge as in providing bread. 
Still more outraffeous is the claim that the 
wages system — ttiat is, the exchange of one 
valuable commodity for another — shall be 
abolished, and the whple industry oi the 
country handed over to the Government — 
that is, to an army of officials put into their 
places for every reason except that of 6t- 
ness, kept there by intrigue and corruption, 
and of course doing as little as possible 
themselves, and obstructing and persecuting 
everybody who sets a better example. 

The Trade Unions of this country can- 
not, by any means, be placed on the same 
level as the Labour. League at Cincinnati. 
But before we conclude we shall show, that, 



improved and advanced as the English socie- 
ties have become during the Inst thirty 
years, their policy and practice is still widely 
at variance with the principles of fair deal- 
ing between capital and labour we bare 
established. The Royal Commission of 
1867-69* reported that the objecte of 
trade unions were 

In general of a twofold character; viz., first, 
those of an ordinary friendly or benefit socie- 
ty; secondly, those of a trade society proper; 
viz., to watch over and promote the interests 
of the working classes in their several trades, 
and especially to protect them against the 
evident advantage which the command of a 
Isrge capital is supposed by them to give to 
the employers of labour. The last object, 
however, is in the great majority of existing 
unions the main object of the members in as- 
sociating together, and it has simply been 
found desirable by the promoters of trade 
unions to combine with their trade objects 
the functions of a friendly or benefit society. 
Additional members and additional funds are 
thus obtained, and a stronger hold is acouired 
over the obedience of the members to the or- 
ders of the union issued in*what it deems the 
interest of trade. Disobedience to these or- 
ders involves mostly expulsion and forfeiture 
of all the benefits to which a member would 
be entitled, it may be from a long course of 
subscriptions continued with the only object 
of securing to himself those friendly society 
benefits. 

The animating and guiding principle of 
the trade union is, as a matter of course, 
and naturally and laudably, to resist reduc- 
tions of wages ; to obtain and enforce ad- 
vances of wages ; and to shorten the hAurs 
of labour. Every one of these is a lawful 
and meritorious purpose on the part of 
those who live by labour ; always provided 
that the means employed to arrive at these 
ends is, in all respects, in accordance with 
the full liberty and independence of every 
one concerned, and with fair and honest 
dealing as between sellers and buyers in a 
free and open market 

* The Royal Commission was a strong one, 
and very fairly constituted, so as to represent 
all interests and opinions. Sir William Erie, 
the Chairman, was the retired Chief Justice of 
the Common Pleas, where he had earned great 
distinction for impartiality and acute ness. 
Lord Lichfield, Mr. Haghes, and Mr. F. Harri- 
son were stronffly inclined towards the trade 
nnion views. Sir Edmund Head and Mr. J. 
Booth were men long versed in the business of 
government administration. Mr. Herman Meri- 
vale was one of the most sound and benevolent 
of the political economists. Sir Daniel Gooch 
had risen from the ranks to l>e Chairman of 
the Great Western Railway, so long served by 
him as the head of a department. Mr. Roe- 
buck, as always, represented the critical and 
pugnacious quality, and Mr. Matthews was a 
rising lawyer. 



1878. 



Capital and Labour. 



71 



The Royal Coromiasion reported that the 
roeans employed by the unions resolved 
themselves into Direct and Indirect. The 
direct means were the strike, or the com- 
bined demand with the strike behind it. 
The indirect means are minate and gradoal, 
bat systematic efforts, first, to limit the num- 
ber of workmen employed in any branch of 
trade, so as to create a monopoly of employ- 
ment ; and, second, to repcess competition 
among the priyilogod workmen themselves. 
The first of these objects is sought to be ob- 
tained by the opposition, wherever possible, 
of unionist workmen to the presence in the 
same shop or yard of non-union men ; and 
some of the worst influences and the gross- 
est tyranny of the Unions have arisen from 
the enforcement of this unjustifiable prac- 
tice. The limitation of apprentices is an- 
other and favourite means of seeking to 
create a monopoly, of employment ; and a 
constant pressure to limit the hours of la- 
bour is a method still more popular. The 
second purpose, of repressing competition 
among workmen, is sought by the discour- 
agement, and not unfrequently the prohibi- 
tion, of piece-work ; by the punishment of 
what is called ' chasing,' that is, fines in- 
flicted on foremen who call to account laor- 

o 

gard or idle men ; and on men themselves 
when they exhibit so much superior activity 
and skill as to draw Attention to the low 
standard of work among the 'generality of 
their fellows.* To the same end are direct- 

* The following letter from 'a working 
stoiikmason ' appeared in the ' Standard ' news- 
paper of Nov. 27th, 1877, in reply to a previous 
letter by Mr. Nisbet, the Secretary of the Ma- 
sons' Union, challenging the production of any 
facts tending to show that the Union resorted 
to oppression or unfair practices. The answer 
is very much to the point. 

' Your correspondent of the 27th is charged 
by Mr. Nisbet in your impression of this morn- 
ing with making vague assertions, and also 
with not being sufficiently definite to enable 
them to contradict his statements. May I, Sir, 
be allowed, as a stonemason, to make a few 
definite statements? Some few years ago I 
went (a yoUng man) to Manchester, and ob- 
tained employment at Messrs. T. and R. Ibbet- 
son's, in Ihivid Street, off Portland Street, and 
before I completed my first day a man to all 
appearance like myself came to me and de- 
manded my card. I asked what he meant, and 
was informed by him that he was shop stew- 
ard, and that unless 1 became a member of the 
Union, paid to their funds, and conformed to 
their rules, I should not be allowed to work 
there. I was anxious to improve myself, and, 
there being plenty of good work going on at 
the time, I, very much against my inclination, 
became a member ; but before a month had 
])a8sed I was summoned to the lodge, and 
charged with " chasing." I answered the sum- 
mons. Three of my accusers were drunk, and 
did not work in the same shop as myself, and 



ed the minute and arbitrary rules forbid- 
ding a workman of one kind to do tlio 
smallest thing classified as not within his 
trade ; as, for example, that a mason shair 
not touch bricks, that a plasterer shall not 
touch brick or stone, that a bricklayer shall 
always be attended by a labourer, and shall 
set bricks only with his left hand, and the 
like. But above and beside all these de- 
vices is the constant and vehement demand 
for an uniform or standard rate of wages, 
irrespective of differences of industry, 
strength, and skill. The unions undertake 
to lay down that all their members are 
average men, and are entitled to be paid 
not less than the average wage. If the 
master considers that some particular man, 
although valuable in many respects, is yet, 
in point of skill, below the mark, the mas- 
ter is not at liberty to pay that man accord- 
ing to his real worth, but he must discharge 
him. The average wage is sought to be 
kept up in favour of the mere ordinary man, 
by the peremptory regulations against piece- 
work, chasing, and exceeding in the small- 
est degree the prescribed pace of work and 
the prescribed zeal of service. 

We wish we could find any satisfactory 
evidence that the outline now given does 
not represent the latest and present views 
of the lenders of trade unions ; but honestly 
we cannot. In the lectures given in March 
last, by Mr. Lloyd Jones, in reply to the 
lectures at King's College, by Professor 
Leone Levi, we lind nothing but confirma- 
tions of the statements we have made. Mr. 
Lloyd Jones was described by Mr. G^eorgc 
Potter as selected by the trade unionists of 
London to give a sort of oificial reply to 
the Professor, and Mr. Macdonald, M.P., 
was in the chair at the first, and Mr. Burt, 
M.P., at the second lecture ; and when wc 
examine the report of what Mr. Jones said, 
we find doctrines like the following : 1. 
That the unions were bound to make such 



the fourth was the shop steward. I was bul- 
lied, and ordered to pay a fine of £2, and given a 
month to pay it in, or to be expelled the Union, 
leave my employ, and be "posted up black," 
which latter means that my name should be 
written out in large black letters, and posted 
up in every club-room in the kingdom. I did not 
obey the order, aVid the steward made the fore- 
man acquainted with the circumstances, and I 
had to leave my employ in consequence ; and 
thankful I have Ibeen ever since that I sum- 
moned man enough to snap the shackles that 
would have bound me (as tney have done hun- 
dreds) all my life. I will not trouble you far- 
ther at present, but if Mr. Nisbet wishes, I am 
prepared to give him, as well as the public gen- 
erally, facts which I have experienced that will 
more than bear out all that has been laid to 
the charge of the Union.' 



n 



CapUal and Labour. 



Jan. 



conditions wilU the employ era * that the 
workmen may lead respectable lives, free 
from the anxieties which destroy/ [That 
is to say, that all the rest of society are to 
be laid under contribution to guarantee the 
comfort and freedom from annoyance of 
working men.] 2. That the uni6ns were 
naturally and properly strict regarding 
the admission of apprentices. 3. That 
the unions did say that a minimum rate 
of pay must be given to their members, 
and this minimum rate the union men 
must have, to prevent them .competing 
with each other. 4. * It was said that 
unionists coerced those who did not join 
the union. He would not say they had not 
coerced, be believed they had. . . . But 
when did they ever hear of any great dis- 
turbance against non-unionists 2 Perhaps 
when men got dnink and would quarrel, 
whether the union was in question or not, 
non-unionists were punched on the head.' 
[And this is literally all which an official 
exponent of trade unions can say in pallia- 
tion of the tyrannical practice of hindering 
one of his associates and equals from hon- 
estly earning a living.] 5. Employers must 
understand bow to put themselves on the 
.best relations with each other and with 
their customers, so that the industry of the 
workmen shall be well rewarded, as well as 
their own capital. [That is to say, that em- 
ployers must, in the .interest of the work- 
men, so understand and control the changes 
of consumption, the vicissitudes of the sea- 
. sons, foreign wars and politics, and the sol- 
vency of people to whom they sell, that 
wages may be always high, and profits 
always satisfactory.] G. *If they had to 
contend with the workmen of France, Bel- 
gium, and America, upon the simple ground 
of which could live on the least, then of 
what use were the benefits which Provi- 
dence bad put into their hands by the ap- 
plication of inventions ? They did not in- 
tend to live on potatoes without salt, in 
order to compete with 'foreigners — if so, 
they must first know the reason why.' [As 
if the whole burden of the competition of 
the British with the foreign workman was 
not a question of ' living on the least,' but 
of producing the most, and in the shortest 
time ; and for the simple reason that effec- 
tive and quick production means cheap 
prices, large demand, rapid returns, high 
wages, and high profits.] 

Mr. Lloyd Jones and his friends are de- 
vout believers in the doctrine they preach, 
but we have read few more disheartening 
discourses than these vindications, of which 
both he and they evidently think so much. 

As regards the opposition of the unions 



to Piece-work, there is not room for any 
doubt, in the face of the resolution passed 
unanimously at the Conference of the lead- 
ing and powerful Society of Amalgamated 
Engineers, held at Manchester, in July, 1872, 
viz. : — 

Resolved (1), That piece-work, even its 
best feature, is without doubt the worst evil 
we have tp contend against ; for under the 
most favourable conditions it is utterly selfish 
in its o}>eration, and is calculated to set man 
against man by tending to benefit those most 
opposed to our society and to similar instita- 
tious. This being the case, the Conference 
cannot too strongly condemn the system. 
Further, we recommend the members gener- 
ally to use their utmost influence in putting 
an end to piece-work^ and trust the Council 
will see that this resolution bo carried out in 
the most decided manner, — Resolved (2), That 
in every instance where a member of any 
branch refuses to carry out the resolutions 
passed by the Conference in relation to over- 
time and piece-work, we recommend the Coun. 
cil to allow branches to deal with all such 
members, even to th^ extent of exclusion^ if 
found necessary. 

This is plain speaking and a clear policy. 
Nor is it at all a dead letter. The strike at 
the Erith Works, in December, 1875, arose 
on this very point ; and Mr. John Bennett, 
the general secretary of the Amalgamated 
Engineers, stated in * The Times ' of Decem- 
ber 24, 1875, ' that it is a well-known fact 
the AmalgaVnated Society of Engineers, as 
well as the Steam Engine Makers Society, 
have been long opposed to the systematic 
extension of the piece-work system, because 
they know from long and painful experience 
the results to which it leads.' The unions 
allege that piece-work is bad for three chief 
reasons, viz. : (1) That it puts the men un- 
der the tyranny of the butty-man or task- 
master or piece-master, as he is variously 
called ; (2) That at the end of the piece- 
job the workman often finds himself worse 
off than if he had taken merely day wages ; 
(3) That wages were really reduced by the 
piece system. These allegations were, in 
April, 1876, brought to the decisive test of 
experiment, by the collection of detailed in- 
formation from one hundred and fifty-seven 
firms, with the result of proving that the 
allegations have no foundation in fact. From 
eighty-six firms the answers were specific 
regarding the increase of Avages arising from 
piece-work, and in the following propor- 
tions : — * Twenty-seven employers pay from 
12^ to 30 per cent, in addition to fixed 
weekly wages; thirty-three employers pay 
from 30 to 45 per cent, additional ; twcnty- 
pix employers ^'pay from 45 per cent, up- 
wards — several reaching as high as 75 per 



1878. 



Capital and Labour. 



73 



cent, as the addition to weekly wages.' 
When advantages so immediate and soUd 
as these arise to the energetic and industri- 
ous workmen who accept piece-work, the 
violent language and thd violent remedies 
of the Manchester leaders of July, 1872, are 
intelligible. The ordinary loitering men 
who are equal to nothing beyond the 
weekly wage, and desire to get even that by 
doing as little as possible, may well be 
alarmed and exasperated at the examples of 
perseverance and^skill set by the piece-work- 
ers ; and for such a crime against the sacred 
rights of idleness and dulness, ' expulsion 
from the society * is a mild penalty. .^ 

That the perils arising to the workmen 
themselves as a class, and to the country at 
large as a competitor in the free markets of 
the world, are real perils, is a statement 
^hich can be made plain by a multitude of 
witnesses, but [we will confine ourselves to 
three ; and the first is Mr. William Denny, 
the well-known shipbuilder of Dumbarton, 
and head of the large yard founded by his 
grandfather, who began his career as a 
workman. In November, 1876, Mr. Denny 
read a paper on the * Worth of Wages ' be- 
fore a local society, and we quote from the 
second edition : — 

The worth of wages (says Mr. Denny) is the 
amount of work produced for a certain amount 
of money ; and there is no other measure of 
value for wages with ^regard to work which 
j%of more than temporary and local utility. 
Tois is a fundamental truth, and however it 
may be obscured by class feeling and the 
technical difficulties of paying for work, it 
stands forth as the only true measure of the 
relationship between work and wages. We 
are so accustomed to hear of wages per week, 
or, more correctly, wages 'per hour, that this 
fundamental truth is almost obscured. Of 
coarse, taking a general average of a certain 
amount of laziness and a certain amount of 
honest work, wages per hour bear a rough re- 
lationship in their rise and fall to the varying 
eoft oj tcorkmanahip in any given article. But 
the relationship is of an untrustworthy and 
even of a risky description when manufactured 
articles have inevitably to come to a market 
where keen competition settles their price, 
uhieh price in the long run inflexibly searches 
down to the roots of production. This compe- 
tition does not .inquire of the workman liow 
mucti he has per hour or per week, or even 
how many hours he works, it simply asks how 
much of the cost of this article fell to his labour. 
In the same way it demands of the seller of 
the raw material how much he was paid for 
it ; and of the manufacturer, how largely his 
cost of management charges and profits enter 
into the cost. There is no escaping this 
searching inquisition. It sifts the costs of pro- 
duction to the last grain ; and ultimately, in 
masses or individually, sweeps away the un- 
suitable Producer, Manufacturer, or Work- 



man. We may turn as we please, and rail 
against this kind of power, but we are merely 
beating the air, and beating it uselessly. . . . 
All our workmen have a dead level fight 
waged against them by the labour of the out- 
side world. This outside labour is surely and 
certainly weighed and pitted against theirs 
in the long run ; and there is no other way 
in which they will ever rise above these ex- 
ternal rivals but by displaying a skill beyond 
what these rivals possess. Now our Miork- 
men not only do not do this, but have, tak- 
ing the great majority, been pursuing a policy 
which is directly contrary to their success; 
and that policy I shall designate the Degrada- 
tion of Labour^ or^ in other words, reducing by 
etery means the individual output of work. 
There is evidence in supi^ort of this statement 
in almost every page of the Trade Union 
Commission Reports, and abundant facts 
could be quoted to prove it. . . . You can- 
not contrive rules and regulations in one 
country which will not be counteracted and 
defeated by the greater energy and self-sac- 
rifice of other countries. The acceptable 
market price of the article (quality the same) 
will always be the cheapest at which it can 
be supplied on the spot to the consumer or 
user. You cannot avoid this conclusion, and 
the determining factor in the struggle is the 
efficiency of the workman. It may be objected, 
and with reason, that the master should give 
up some of his profits to secure the manu- 
facture of the desired article. The answer is 
that the master has been doing so for years, 
not willingly, but fofcibly. Unlike the time- 
workman, he has not been simply one of an 
uniform class. lie has been not only like 
the mass of workmen at struggle with foreign 
competition, ;but also at struggle and real 
fight with every other employer in his own 
country and trade, and the competition be- 
tween employer and employer has done more 
for the success of this country than any other 
force within it. . . . The poor and specula- 
tive master does more to raise wages than all 
the trades unions in the kingdom. The more 
new masters are tempted into a trade the 
greater is the chance of a rise in wages. . . . 
I don't object to a struggle of the workmen 
to get higher wages, but to the method they 
employ to accomplish their object. That 
method I have described as the Degradation 
of Labour-7-that is, the attempt to make it 
scarce, either by reducing the numbers em- 
ployed, by reducing the hours of their work, 
or by reducing the amount of work done by 
the workman in the time employed. The 
policy is the same, however various may be 
the form it assumes ; and it is one which I con- 
demn as foolish in the highest sense, and as 
altogether unpatrotic and ruinous. 

This is the clear testimony of a man 
sprung from the working classes, who has 
lived all his life among them, and has dis- 
tinguished himself by a wise beneficence on 
their behalf — a beneficence conspicuous in 
the whole tone and purpose of his pam- 
phlet. 



74 



Capital and JLabovr* 



Jan. 



It may bo said that Mr. Denny is an em- 
ployer, and cannot be free from the bias of 
a capitalist. It may be so, bnt in turning to 
the pamphlet issaed in November, 1876, by 
Mr. John Iloneyman,* a leading architect 
of Glasgow, and a Member of the Council 
of the Institute of British Architects, we 
obtain a witness who is not a capitalist at 
all, and by his profession is naturally an 
ally of the steady and skilful artizan ; and 
also by the rules of his profession a gainer 
(on commission) by whatever adds to the 
cost of the buildings raised under his care. 

The change (says Mr. Honeyman) which 
has come . over the 'spirit of workmen as re- 
gards honeatvDorh is great land remarkable. 
The manager of a large engineering establish- 
ment gives this testimony (and I could add 
much more to the same effect), that in his 
young days the men who were looked up to 
and respected, by young and old alike, were 
the men who did the best work, and the most 
of it, whereas now it is literally the reverse. 
A man who shows special aptitude for his 
work, who takes an intelligent interest in it, 
and gets through more than his fellows, is 
derided, denounced, and persecuted in a 
thousand ways; while he who does as little 
as possible during work hours, who sets the 
best example of how to draw wages and give 
very little work in return, is the man whom 
the majority, young and old, admire and de- 
light, to honour. . . . But it may be said. 
How can I dare to insinuate that the Unions 
encourage anything of this kind ? Well, I 
do not mean to insinuate, but I mean to auert 
that they do so. If not, what means such a case 
as this ? Among a squad of plasterers, the 
foreman observed one who, on one p{^rticu\ar 
morning, actually managed to trifle away his 
time till the breakfast hour without doing 
anything that could be called a hand's turn. 
The foreman said to him, 'Now you must 
really do something, however little. I see 
nothing 3*ou have done this morning.* ' Will 
you give me my money ? ' was the only reply. 
Of course he got his money at the end of the 
week, and left. But mark, on the Monday 
following, the foreman received notice from 
the union that he had been fined fifty shillings 
for finding fault with this man; and after 
some demur paid the fine, to prevent every 
man in the sliop striking, and himself being 
branded as a * nob.' In many trades the men 
avail themselves of every opportunity of 
shirking their work in the most scandalous 
manner. Illustrations of this, which have 
come under my own observation, and have 
been reported to me on undoubted authority, 
might be produced to any extent. 

Mr. Honeyman enters into elaborate tech- 
nical particulars relative to the manner in 

* Mr. Honeyman' does not hesltato to call 
his pamphlet, ' Trade Unions — the Blight of 
British Indastries and Commerce.'— Qlasgow : 
Maclehose, 1870. 



which the cost of building houses in Glaa- 
gow has been increased during the last 
twenty years, in consequence of the lessened 
quality of work done by masons, bricklay- 
ers, die, for con^derably more wages ; and 
at the close of his investigation, for the de- 
tails of which ho pledges his own knowl- 
edge, he says : — 

From these figures, after making very lib- 
eral allowance for the steady price of timber 
and lead, we learn that the cost of erecting a 
house now (without any reference to the 
price of ground) is at least 9hety per cent, 
greater than it woe twenty years ago (or in 
18$6). The rise in rents during the same 
period does not, even in Glasgow, exceed 
thirty per cent., so that the Increase is muek 
more than accounted for by the additional 
cost of construction. Rents must have cer- 
tainly risen considerably more but for the 
circumstance that so many houses were bnilt 
in cheaper times, the rentals of which, though 
low, are sufficiently remunerative; but as 
these houses change hands at enhanced 
value, rents must inevitably rise. Let not 
therefore workmen deceive themselves as to 
the true cause of the increased burden of the 
rent of their houses — ^these increased burdens 
are but the actual fruit of their own short- 
sighted devices. 

Mr. Honeyman put his criticism of trade 
unions into the form of the following spe- 
cific challenge, and although it has been l» 
fore the public' for quite a year, we have 
not heard of any reply to it - 

Finally (he says), I want the trade union 
officials to answer in an unequivocal manner 
the four heads of the indictment I have pre- 
ferred against them. Do they, or do they 
not sanction (1) the arbitrary restriction of 
the number of apprentices ; (2) unreasonable 
limitations of the hours of labour, and the 
payment of an unfair rate of wages to all 
journeymen; (3) the direct discouragement 
of superior diligence and industry, and pre- 
venting, if possible, any man doing more 
than the majority of his fellows think pro- 
per; and (4) can they shut their eyes to the 
detrimentary effect which these things have 
on the rising generation of apprentices t 
And one more question I shall ask. Is there 
in all the code of trade union by-laws, writ- 
ten or unwritten, one specially framed for 
the encouragement and protection of the dili- 
gent operative T We know that there arc 
plenty detailing the ways and means of ex- 
tracting high wages, but is there one even 
recommending a man to make a fair return 
in the shape of work t We know that pro- 
vision is made for fining a foreman if he 
checks a skulking man, and for fining a 
workman If he works five minutes after his 
proper hour; but is there one single encour- 
affement to honesty ? Is there a single pen- 
alty prescribed for careless wasting of a mas- 
ter's go<K]s, or deliberate robbery of a roaster^s 
time? I wish an answer to these questions. If 



IBIS. 



CapUcU and Labour, 



75 



they cannot be answered, then let the wretched 
system be held up in all its deformity before 
the eyes of men. 

Sir Edmand Beckett, no mean authority 
on the quality of artizan work, has declared 
(*The Times,' October 8, 1877)— 

That there is no subject of general observa- 
tion on which there is more concurrence 
among employers of all kinds than this, viz., 
that ordinary work is generally done worse, 
and is more difiEicult to get done even decently 
than it was in the last generation, and before 
unions had become as supreme over workmen 
as they are now ; and that skilled labour also 
18 diminishing. 

Mr. Charles Markham, the able manager 
of the Staveley Coal and Iron Works, who 
has passed all his life in the midst of work- 
people of all sorts, declared, oddly enough 
in the same paper and on the same day, 
that *the tendency of trade unions for 
many years past haci been to minimize the 
work of each individaal, and prevent the 
swift and intelligent workman from making 
the best use of his ability.' * 

We have now pretty well made manifest 
the facts relating to the direct methods (see 
page 70, ante) employed by trade uiiions to 
accomplish their objects, and these direct 
methods amount to nothing less than what 
Mr. Denny, speaking from long experience, 
emphatically calls * the degradation of la- 
bour ; ' that is to say, degradation arising 
from constant, systematic, and aggressive 
efforts to obtain higher wages, not by greater 
industry and skill, not by offering a com- 
modity (labour) of steadily improving quali- 
ty and efficiency, and thereby steadily pro- 
moting larger markets and higher wages by 
lessened cost of production ; — but by ex- 
tracting by compulsion and annoyance, as 
far as possible, more money for an article 
which, by intention more or less wilful, gets 
worse and worse. 

We have now to see what is the nature 
and effects of the * Indirect ' methods of 
the Unions, described by the Boyal Com- 
mission as societies ostensibly of the ordi- 
nary friendly or benefit character, but really 
associations * found desirable by the pro- 
moters of trade unions, as bringing addi- 
tional members and funds, and giving a 

* It is perfectly certain that one chief cause 
of the depression of trade during the last four 
years is to be found in the very heavy losses 
sustained by employers in 1872-3-4, in conse- 
quence of the lessened labour then given for 
higher wages. The losses from thia cause were 
most severely felt by employers who had en- 
tered into long contracts ; and the failure of 
large numbers of such employers has most con- 
siderably reduced the demand for labour, and 
has consequently aggravated the fall In wages. 



stronger hold over the obedierice of the 
members to the orders of the union in what 
it deems the interests of trade.' 

In the first place, let us say that working 
men have the most perfect right to form 
any associations they please, either for bene- 
fit or trade purooses (including, of course, 
strikes peacefully conducted), on the single 
condition which applies, on plain grounds 
of honesty, to insurance offices, fiiendly so- 
cieties, and all persons or partneries volun- 
tarily taking upon themselves the office of 
trustee for the provision of future and con- 
tingent payments ; viz., that the specific 
contributions for each benefit shall be kept 
intact and apart ; and, being received for 
one clear purpose, shall not be applied to 
any other. The law on thia point is clear 
and positive in every case except that of the 
so-called benefit club set up by the trade 
unions, and the exception in their favour 
arose as follows. When the bill which be- 
came (on the whole properly) the Trade 
Union Act, 1871, was before the House of 
Commons, an effort was made to ensure a 
proper division of the funds of the trade 
union benefit clubs, &c., between the trade 
(or strike) objects and the * benefit ' (or 
sick pay and pensions) engagements ; in 
accordance with the strong recommenda- 
tions of tho Kojal Commission, which had 
thoroughly investigated the subject. But 
this proposal was defeated by the strong 
opposition of the leaders of the unions, and 
in a moment of great weakness the Govern- 
ment allowed the Act to- contain a proviso 
(sec. 4) forbidding * any court to entertain 
any proceeding ' instituted against any trade 
union with the object of enforcing or recov- 
ering damages for the breach by it of any 
engagement or agreement into which it had 
entered with persons belonging to it, and 
who, no matter for what length of time, 
may have subscribed to it. The real effect 
and intention of this exception is clear 
enough. It gives the managing committee, 
first, complete control of all the funis of 
the union for strike purposes ; and, second, 
it enables them to expel for trade reasons, 
afid without redress, any member whom they 
please >to consider obnoxious ; and the 
heavy loss entailed upon the older men by 
these expulsions does give the committee a 
terrible power of enforcing obedience to 
their orders — to say nothing of the induce- 
ment placed before the younger and more 
unscrupulous members to get rid, on slight 
pretexts, of old contributors, who will pres- 
ently have a claim for pensions. As an in- 
stance of the tyrannical nature of the power 
given to managing committees, we take the 
following from the narrative by Messrs. 



76 



Capital and Laibour. 



Jan. 



Doulton, of Lambeth, of the manner in 
which the Bricklayers* Society attempted, in 
October, 1876, to prevent them giving terra- 
cotta work to the men best qualified, simply 
because they were plasterers. 

Two bricklayers belonging to the Operative 
Bricklayers* Society, who were employed as 
foremen of the buildings, did not leave when 
the others struck, but continued at work. 
Subsequently, however, they were summoned, 
and required to attend a meeting of the Lam- 
beth Branch of the Bricklayers* Society, ^ to 
explain their conduct, by not obeying the 
orders of the members and laws.* At this 
meeting it was resolved that the two foremen 
should not return to work after the follow^ing 
Saturday unless jtho two * plasterers ' were 
discharged; and they were told that if they 
refused to obey * they would be dealt with at 
some future time.' One of these men had 
paid his subscriptions to the society for nine 
years — fourpence per week to the trade, two- 
pence to the sick, and a penny to the acci- 
dent funds — in all, sevenpence a week — and 
he had never received anything from the 
society. He said to us that he wished to re- 
main at work ; but he also said that if he did 
80 he would be posted as a * black sheep,' and 
would run the risk of losing all benefit from 
the sick and accident fund ; and that, even 
if be were restored on payment of a fine, he 
would still be shut out from receiving any- 
thing for twelve mouths afterwards ; and so 
he left us. 

Messrs. Doulton displayed great public 
spirit in resisting the dictation of the union, 
and retaining the services of the two skilful 
plasterers. After seventeen weeks' picket- 
ing and annoyance, the union confessed de- 
feat at the end of January, 1877, and left 
the victory to Messrs. Doulton* 

A more extreme and disastrous instance 
occurred in June last, at Bamsley, as re- 
vealed in an action in the County Court, 
before Mr. Serjeant Atkinson, against the 
treasurer and secretary of the South York- 
shire Miners' Association, on the part of 
some three hundred widows and orphans, 
for payments due to them nnder the follow- 
ing painful circumstances. The rules of 
this Miners' L^nion provided that the Wid- 
ows' and Orphans' Fund ' be kept separate, 
distinct, and apart from any other fund 
connected with the association.' The hus- 
band of the plaintiff subscribed to the anion 
for seven years, and was killed while work- 
ing at his employment, and his widow and 
orphans brought the action as a test case, 
representing similar claims by three hundred 
persons. The funds of the Miners' Union, 
including this special Widows' Fund, had 
all been squandered and dispersed by the 
managing committee, and the plaintiffs were 
left destitute. The union, by its secretary 



and treasurer, met the claim by pleading 
the Trade Union Act, 1871, and denying in 
toto the jurisdiction of the County Court, 
or any other court", and, after taking time, 
Serjeant Atkinson allowed the plea, add- 
ing :— 

I am bound, however reluctantly, in sucli 
a case as this, and with the Act of 1871 be- 
fore me, to hold that I have no power to give 
the plaintiff the reliet she asks for, and I there- 
fore enter a non-suit for the defendants — that 
is, the trade union. 

This is about as flagrant a failure of jus- 
tice as can be conceived. Beyond all 
doubt, the making away with the ' separate 
and distinct ' moneys of the widows' fund 
by any private person, or ordinary com- 
pany, would have been held to be a crimi- 
nal oSence under the Fraudulent Trustee 
Act, passed twenty years ago, and would 
have fed to five years' penal servitude ; and 
yet here is a body of trustees who, because 
they call themselves a trade union, can com- 
mit a scandalous robbery upon the poor and 
helpless with impunity, and even with eclat, 

A further case occurred before the Sheriff's 
Court at Glasgow, in November last, when 
a William Lougmuir sued the officers of the 
Operative Hand-Mule Society for £7 4?„ 
* being the retiring benefit at September 15, 
1877, when, after being a member for three 
and A quarter years,' he was expelled for 
trade reasons. The Act of 1871 was boldly 
pleaded by the society and allowed by the 
court, and the plaintiff was told by the 
judge that his case was a hard one, and the 
technical defence to it was disgraceful and 
demoralizing in the highest degree. 

But not only are these union clubs left at 
liberty to squander and misapply their gen- 
eral and ' separate ' funds, but they are 
hopelessly insolvent as regards the sufficiency 
of their assets to meet even the benefit part 
of their engagements, to say nothing of 
their trade or strike expenditure. This 
subject was inquired into at great length by 
the Royal Commission of 1867-69, one of 
the commissioners, Mr. Booth, for many 
years Secretary of the Board of Trade, and 
a most competent authority, taking great 
pains to ascertain the truth. The Commis- 
sion obtained special reports from the late 
Mr. Robert Tucker, actuary of the Pelican 
Life Office, a man of the highest charjictcr 
and reputation, both personally and profes- 
sionally,* and from Mr. Alexander Finlai- 
son, the actuary of the National Debt Office,' 
a man quite worthy to be associated with 
Mr. Tucker. The evidence of these gentle- 

♦ Mr. Tucker was personally known for 
many y^rs to the present writer. 



187S. 



Capital and Labour. 



I * 



men was to the effect that, by reason of in- 
adequate contributions, the union clubs 
were insolvent to the extent of hundreds of 
thousands of pounds on their benefit engage- 
ments alone, and adopting the modes of 
valuation most favourable to them. Mr, 
Applegarth and other leading trade union 
officers were examined in reply to the state- 
ments of Mr. Tucker and Mr. Finlaison, and 
their answers amounted in substance to 
this : — (1) That the union clubs had so far 
paid their way ; (2) That considerable 
profits were derived from the large and con- 
stant exclusion and seccsHon of members ; 
and (3) That if at any time the funds did 
become deficient, the rules provided that 
' by a majority of votes of the whole society 
a special levy or assessment could be or- 
dered.' It is not too much to say that the 
first of these answers is childish. The most 
insolvent insurance offices, the Albert and 
European, for instance, went on paying 
their way to the moment of closing their 
doors ; and, as everybody knows, the test 
of solvency of a benefit society is not the 
cash-box, but the valuation of future liabili- 
ties and assets. The second answer is itself 
a condemnation, for if a society looks for 
large profits to the forfeiture, compulsory 
or systematic, of the money which its mem- 
bers have paid, it is a pernicious and hard- 
hearted societ}'. The third answer is Uto- 
pian. A special levy to bo made by a ma- 
jority of votes, as a financial resource at 
some future and indefinite time, in order to 
provide pensions to poor men who can no 
longer help the society, but must rely upon 
it to (help them ! This is not the sort of 
security upon which honest men enter into 
and accept contracts, the fulfilment of which 
cannot arise for thirty or forty years. An 
engagement to pay pensions in old age is 
far too solemn an obligation to be left to a 
majority of the votes of a set of people who 
must tax themselves to pay the debts of a 
past generation.^ 

* At the fortniglitly meeting of the members 
of the Manchester Scientific and Mechanical So- 
ciety, held on Nov. IGth, 1877, Mr. G. B. Corbett 
read a paper on Trade Unions — wh^t they were, 
tcluit they are, and what they might he. The 
ideal Trade Union was one which would carry 
out the following objects. (1) To accumulate 
an insurance fund to provide for old age, sick- 
ness, accidents, and death, founded on scientific 
actuarial data. (2) To keep a registration of 
the state of the labour market in all parts of 
the country, so as to keep the supply in ratio 
to the demand. (3) To accumulate a fund for 
defending the workers against any unjust 
dealing or extortion on the part of their em- 
ployers. Such fund to be kept distinct from 
the insurance and friendly society funds. (4) 
To provide a central authority to arbitrate on 



In April, 1876, the financial condition of 
one of the largest of the union clubs, the 
'Amalgamated Society, of Engineers,' was 
carefully investigated by Mr. James Stark, 
a competent actuary, with these results, 
viz. : — (1) That the average amount paid 
by the society for * trade or strike purposes ' 
during the preceding twenty-two'j^ears had 
been £24,000 per annum, or 20 per cent, 
of the income ; (2) That wholly apart from 
this * trade purpose expenditure,' the yearly 
subscriptions and entrance fees, supplement- 
ed by the exclusions, <fec., arc wholly inade- 
quate to provide the stipulated superannua- 
tions, [sick pay, and funeral and accident 
allowances; (3) That in 1876, on these en- 
gagements alone, the society is insolvent, 
on the most favourable valuation, to the ex- 
tent of more than one million sterling.* 

The * Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows ' 
(founded about 1880) is probably the great- 
est association of members of the working 
classes for friendly society purposes exclu- 
sively now existing. It has been founded 
nearly fifty years, and now contains about 
4000 lodges and nearly half a million of 
members. Twenty years ago its financial 
condition excited great alarm, and the late 
Mr. F. G. r. Neison distinguished himself 
as an actuary by demonstrating its early 
collapse, unless certain vigorous reforms, 
accompanied by a large increase of sub- 
scriptions, were at once adopted. The more 
intelligent members saw and admitted the 
conclusive nature of Mr. Nelson's facts and 
inferences, and commenced a movement for 
adopting them ; but for a long period they 
were batfled by the ignorant majority, who 
used arguments very much like Mr. Apple- 
garth's, especially the ai^ument that so far 
the Unity had paid its way. The needful 
reforms, however, were most of them gradu- 
ally adopted, but only just in time to pre- 
vent a most serious catastrophe. After 
much opposition a formal actuarial valuation 
was procured, and that valuation has been 
kept up at frequent intervals. The 'An- 
nual Movable Committee,' sitting at Ryde, 
ordered this very year (1877) that the assets 

p,nj dispute between man and man, whether of 
the working or capitalist class. (5) To arrange 
for technical instruction, general education, 
and means of improvement and amusement 
during the leisure nours of the members. A 
discussion ensued, in which it was advocated 
that boards of arbitration in all the large cen- 
tres of industry should be formed. — Manchester 
Paper, 

* The late General Secretary of the Amal- 
gamated Engineers, Mr. W. Allan, now de- 
ceased, in his reports for 1871 and 1872, drew 
pointed attention to the rapidly increasing 
claims on the society for superannuation ; but 
his candour brought him into disgrace. 



78 



CapiUd afid Labour. 



Jan. 



and liabilities of every one of the four thon- 
sand lodges should be properly valued on 
actuarial data ; and although the results of 
the investigation have been satisfactory as a 
whole, there are still a considerable number 
of lodges which exhibit deficits.* 

The quiet, provident working men, who 
have been' paying subscriptions for years 
to the trade union clubs, in reliance on their 
benefit engagements, are to be sincerely 
pitied. Wholly apart from trade expenditure, 
nearly every one of these clubs is insolvent — 
that is to say, the funds in hand and the in- 
come to come in in future years will wholly 
fail to meet the engagements falling due in 
those years— even if not a penny more be 
spent on trade objects. In addition to this, 
any member is liable to exclusion at the ca- 
price of the committee, and the Act of 1871 
cuts him off from all redress before the 
law. Contrast this painful position and 
that of a member of the Manchester Unity, 
where there is the demonstration of rigid 
mathematics that the society is financially 
sound, and the protection of the law to en- 
force the contracts it enters into. 

Wu have no.w shown in detail the manner 
in which trade unions as a whole, and as 
now existing in this country, interfere with 
the operation of the wholesome and natural 
laws which, if loft to themselves, tend to a 
steady increase of wages, by rendering it 
the interest of the workman to command a 
better price for his labour by raising its 
quality — that is, its skill and efficiency. 
The trade unions take the exactly opposite 
course — that is, they seek the higher wages, 
not by improving, but, as Mr. Denny says, 
by ' degrading ' labour ; not by deserving 
more, but by doing less, to the rapid and 
inevitable detriment of their own technical 
skill as artizans, and to their moral qualities 
as men and as citizens of a free country. 

Their denunciation of the ' competition,* 
which every other class, and every other 
roan and woman in the country and the 
world, has to meet and contend against, is 
an insolent call to be protected while eveiy- 
body else is, for their benefit, unprotected ; 
and the answer to the call cannot be better 

fiven than in the language of Mr. J. S. 
lill. 

Instead (he says) of looking upon Compe- 
tition as the baneful and anti-eocial principle 
which it is held to bo by the generality of 
•ocialists, I conceive that oven in the present 
state of society and industry erery restriction 

* Tlin excellent pamphlet (No. 17, p. 116) by 
the son of the late Mr. Nelson rives a clear 
and concise account of the Manchester Unity 
during its process of reform. | 



of it is an evil; and every extension of it, 
even if for a time injuriously affecting some 
class of labourers, is always an ultimate good. 
To he protected against competition U to he 
protected in idleness^ in mental dulnee^ ; to he 
eaved the necessity of heing as active and as t a- 
teUigent as other people; and if it is also to 
be protected against being underbid for em- 
ployment by a less highly paid doss of labourers, 
this is only where old customs or local and 
partial monopoly has placed some particnlar 
class of artizans in a privileged position aa 
compared with the rest; and the time has 
come when the interest of universal improve- 
ment IS no longer promoted by prolonging 
the privileges of a few. 

If the slop-sellers and others of their class 
have lowered the wages of tailors and some 
other artizans by making them an aftsXr of 
competition instead of custom, so much the 
better in the end. What is now required is 
not to bolster up old customs, whereby limited 
classes of labouring people obtain partial 
gains, which interest tuem in keeping tip the 

§ resent organization of society, but to intro- 
ttce new general practices beneficial to all ; 
and there is reason to rejoice at tohateter makos 
the privileged classes of skilled artisans fed that 
they have the s^me interests and depend/or their 
remuneration on the same general causes^ and 
must resort for the improvement of their con- 
dition to the same remedies as the less fortu- 
nately circumstanced and comparatively help- 
less multitude (' Principles of Political Econ- 
omy,' book iv. chap. 7). 

We do not attempt, nor is it needful, to 
add a word to the force of this admirable 
passage. 

If the influence of trade unions had not 
been practically^ confined to a comparatively 
small part of the working classes, the results 
would have been highly disasttrous, and tho 
prospects of the country in the future would 
be gloomy in the extreme. There is good 
reason to believe that the numbers in all 
the trade unions in this country are consid- 
erably under a million persons — probably 
not more than eight hundred thousand — or 
equal to about eight or ten per cent, of the 
men engaged in artizan, handicraft, and 
other kinds of manual labour ; and the rea- 
sons for these limited dimensions of ths 
unions are not difficult to understand. 
There is first tho native aversion of English- 
men to dictation and coercion of any kind, 
but especially by people whom they know 
and see to be inferior rather than superior 
to themselves : secondly, there is the obvi- 
ous objection of the enterprizing, prudent, 
ambitious, and reliant men to sacrificing 
their talcnta and comfort to the supposed 
interests of the common, ordinary, and idle 
majority of their fellows : thirdly, there is 
tho very large number of quiet, sober, 
conscientious workmen, who have be* 



1*878. 



Capital and Zaiour. 



79 



come attach od to a particular master or em- 
ployment, who have sons and nephews 
by the side of them growing up in the 
same occupation, and who avoid in- 
stinctively the secret conclaves and the ty- 
rannical decrees of trade union agitation : 
and, fourthly, there is the large and power- 
ful class of men classed by the anions as 
mere ' labourers,' and therefore excluded 
from the protected and preserved trade 
union paradise. These non-privileged men 
have everything to gain and nothing to lose 
by the failure of the anions, for it is a pri- 
mary object of union rules and policy to 
keep down the 'mere labourer' rigidly 
where he is, so as to retain the larger bene- 
fits to themselves. 

We have spoken freely of the faults of the 
trade unions. But justice requires that 
there should be a degree of condemnation, 
fully as emphatic, as regard^ certain classes 
and certain practices of Employers. In his 
speech, in September last, at the Trade 
Union Congress at Leicester, Mr. Thomas 
Brassey, M.P., said, as regards the present 
depression of trade : — 

In the discussions on the state of trade, and 
the prolonged depression throughout the 
commercial world, the exorbitant piice of 
labour is continually referred to. We hear 
but little, however, of the larger share of 
blame which rests upon the Capitalists, the 
employers of labour, and the investors and 
lenders of money, who overstock the market 
with goods to be sold at ruinous prices, and 
who by encouraging speculative building 
have raised the wages of artizans to their 
present* level. 

To a large extent Mr. Brassey is justified 
in this remark. There has been of late 
years disgraceful recklessness on the part of 
a considerable number of the Employer 
class ; and a recklessness chiefly attributa- 
ble to the defects of the law in affording a 
swift and cheap remedy to persons deceived 
and defrauded by the concocters and man- 
agers of limited companies ; the introducers 
and promoters of loans to foreign borrow- 
ers ; the * syndicates ' for favouring the 
public with concessions for public works, 
inventions, &c.; and above and greater than 
all, by the scandalous inefficiency of the 
Bankruptcy Laws to expose and punish 
swiftly the ever-swelling crowd of insolvent 
debtors, who run a brief and wondrous 
course of splendour, audacity, and folly ; 
fail for hundreds of thousands ; pay divi- 
dends of a few farthings (shillings and even 
pence have become vulgar) ; and emerge in 
a few weeks (or days even) with unabashed 
faces, faultless toilet, and lisping impudence, 



to sneer at their creditors, and start another 
race to ruin.* Until vigorous reforms of 
the law of Limited Liability are carried 
through, and the enactments to be adopted 
and amended have been tolerably well 
marked out ; and until a sound Bankruptcy 
Act is placed under the administration of 
an effective Court and Chief Judge, these 
scandals and disgraces will increase and 
multiply.! The certainty of exposure be- 
fore a court of law would have restrained 
the facilities of discount 'which enabled the 
notorious Alexander Collie to fail for mil- 
lions in the summer of 1875, and then find 
no difficulty in getting out of the country. 
The like certainty is the best, and, so far as 
the law is concerned, almost the only safe- 
guard against the practice, which has now 
unhappily become so prevalent in London 
and elsewhere, of banks lending vast sums 
on the security of Stock Exchange securi- 
ties — a practice which lies at the root of the 
dangerous prevalence of Stock Exchange 
speculation among the trading classes. A 
law which visited with sharp punishment 
every case in which mercantile failure was 
traced to gambling on the Stock Exchange 
or elsewhere, would in a few years work a 
remedy. Beyond all this there has come 
about a laxity of fibre among the trading 
classes, to be attributed to nothing short of 
an abatement of the tone of moral teaching 

* The railway strike of July, 1877, in the 
United States, was criminal in its violence and 
tyranny, but it was provoked by the long-con- 
tinued lehgn of fraud, mendacity, and insolence 
on the part of the Fisks, Goulds, and the race 
of autocratic railway presidents and officers 
who became rich by plundering railway bond- 
and shareholders. 

f We are happy to read the following prayer 
in a petition from bankers and merchants (No- 
vember, 1877), very largely signed :— ' Your 
petitioners desire further to represent to your 
nonourable House their strong conviction that, 
owing to the rapid growth and the increasing 
complexities of modern business, the establiali- 
ment and maintenance of a Court of Bank- 
ruptcy under the presidency of a judge distin- 
guished as a mercantile lawyer, and free to 
give his whole time and attention to the admin- 
ietration of his Court, Aa« hecame the only means 
by iohich insolvent debtors can be justly dealt 
with, by procedure in open court, and the estates 
appertaining to them expeditiously and economi- 
cauy distributed. Exhaustive experience has 
amply proved that it is futile to rely on credi- 
tors who have incurred losses by bankrupts to 
institute the necessary measures for the proper 
investigation of their affairs, and if need be of 
exposure of their cmiduct, which on every ground 
of public morality and commercial policy is im- 
peratively required. And your petitioners de- 
clare most emphatically that they have but lit- 
tle faith in the practical efficacy of any Bank- 
ruptcy Law unless it shall be administered un- 
der the supervision of a vigilant and energetic 
chief judge.' 



ao 



Capital and Labour. 



Jan.* 



H6 concerns the obligation of paying debts. 
In a note wc give a practical illastration of 
wliat we mean.* 

We entirely agree witb Mr. Lowe (* Fort- 
nightly Review,' March, 1877) that the time 
has corae when the Act of 1869 for the 
Abolition of Imprisonment for Debt mast 
be amended in the interest of the poorer 
classes. As the law now stands, debtors 
owing more than £50 escape imprisonment, 
and, indeed, punishment of any kind ; 
while the poor and needy persons whose 
liabilities are below that sum are at the 
mercy of their creditors. There is no jus- 
tice in the distinction. If, as was rightly 
argued, and as experience has shown, the 
abolition of the power to imprison operates 
in linnting credit in largo cases, the same 
beneficial result will be seen in small cases, 
and the law will be made the same for all. 

In the statement we have now given of 
the principles and facts on both sides of the 
controversy between Capital and Labour, 
we venture to think that no reasonable critic 
will accuse us of partiality or serious omis- 
sion. We are not among those who con- 
sider the contention — the merits of which 
wo have been examining — as a great peril 
to this country. In the nature of things there 
must always be contention, sometimes fierce 
and protracted, between capital and labour ; 
for, as we have tried to make plain, there is 
H point at which, from being co-operators, 
they become rivals, each advancing claims 
which the other contests. Bat this country 
has advanced further than any other in con- 
vincing both sides that they can best settle 
their disputes by peaceful meansjby discus- 
sion, by accepting explanations, and, of late 
years, by a' willingness to ask the advice 
and abide by the decision of impartial by- 
standers. Above all, the legislature has 
efTcctually removed from the law the small- 
est trace of partiality, cither for men or 

* Wo tako the following statement from the 
memoir of Rev. John Macfarlanc, LL.D., of 
C'lapliam, by Mr. Graham of Liverpool (Edward 
Oli pliant, 1870), just published. ' I was shocked 
at one of my intoryiews with him (a man 
of cdiicfition and intelligence, in large busi- 
ness in tlie city) to hear liim say, " I see some 
at the Lord's Table with whom I would 
not sit (iown at my own table. We have hun- 
dreds of thousands invested in our business ; 
wo have branches all over England; and we 
generally ^/tt/ iluJt t/if- bankrupts by icfiom we 
lone money are all Vfligio its professors. So much 
HO, that when wo hear that any of oar castom* 
era are given to much praying and professing, 
we drop the connection." This is very sad, of 
course. Little do some professors know the 
evil they do by walking before the world in- 
consistently with their profession and station 
as Church members' (p. 217). 



masters. If any undue favouritism does 
remain, it is towards the men ; and the 
most unjust and mischievous examples of it 
are the exemptions in the Act of^ 1871 of 
trade unions from that jurisdiction of the 
courts which is paramount over every other 
person and thing in the Queen^s dominions. 
The conflict must be left in its results to the 
play and influence of that free spirit of lib- 
erty which can alone bring into the paths 
of truth and soberness the most refractory 
contentions that arise among men ; nor is 
there any reason to fear that in this diffi- 
culty, as in hundreds of similar difficulties 
which have preceded it — tariff reform, poor 
law amendment, the management of colo- 
nies, free trade in shipping, free trade in 
corn, protection to manufactures, factory 
Acts, sanitary legislation — the process of 
cure will not be quite [equal to the extirpa- 
tion of the disease. 

It is on every ground desirable that the 
Trade Unions should now be let alone. 
They have no longer the shadow of a griev- 
ance against the law or against sober public 
opinion. The habit and fashion of patroniz- 
ing them by public men, philanthropists, 
Church congresses, clerical notabilities, and 
others, should cease, as answering no nscful 
purpose, and greatly retarding the accept- 
ance of sound views by the workmen them- 
selves. Not just yet, tut at no distant 
period, the trade unions will be forced by 
events to see that the only effectual way to 
increase wages is to cheapen production, by 
the application to it of advancing efficiency 
and skill ; and that the more production is 
cheapened — ^that is to say, the greater the 
outturn of commoditics[in proportion to the 
labour expended on them — the better will 
that labour be paid. At present the unions 
are wandering in the outer darkness, where 
the fallacy is cherished, that if by degrad- 
ing labour commodities can be made dear, 
wages will be sustained and enhanced. If 
we could imagine it to be possible for any 
country to apply such a principle through- 
out the whole extent of its transactions for 
even a single year, we may safely affirm 
that before the end of the first six months 
such a cry of distress and ruin would bo 
raised from every class and order of the in- 
habitants as was never heard before in this 
world. 

£vcnts will also teach more and more 
plainly that the surest and the only way to 
the just and rapid Distribution of the re- 
sults of labour and capital, is to render Pro- 
duction, in the most cmpliatic sense, free, 
intelligent, and effe<*tive. When this is 
done, all is done. The parties t<> the pro- 
cess, whether capitalists or labourers, each 



1878. 



Comprehensian, 



81 



of them obtain at once their fair share of 
the joint result ; and for the conclusive rea- 
son, that they contribute to that result on 
terms freely diacnssed, intelligibly under- 
stood, and effectively applied. When the 
working classes have acquired the habit of 
cond acting their aifairs on this basis, they 
will gradually and safely advance to what- 
ever future developments of industry may 
be, afforded by co-operation in any of its 
possible forms. 



Art. VI. — CompreJiension. 

GoMPBEHRNsiON is oDC of the great cries of 
the present age. In one form or another it 
rises from the midst of every country of 
Christendom. There is not a single section 
of the Church universal that can be said to 
abstain altogether from joining in the gene- 
ral chorus. Nay, more ; faint tones having 
the same meaning may be heard proceeding 
from beyond the boundaries of Christen- 
dom proper. The one word, however, cov- 
ers many and diverse senses. Under the 
appai'ent harmony the listening ear can de- 
tact harsh discords. It is only in the dis- 
tance that the voices blend into a sort of 
unity. 

The Homish Church yearns-r-yeanis no 
doubt intensely, and in part, at all Events, 
purely — to comprehend the whole world 
within its fold ; but comprehension on its 
lips means the abject submission of all who 
now dissent from it. The Greek, or Ortho- 
dox Church, would also welcome com- 
prehension, but though it might treat with 
the Romish Church as an equal — as a sister, 
tliough erring — it would claim from Protest- 
antism in all its sections a peccavi little less 
emphatic than Home itself. The Episcopal 
Protestant Church in England is of divided 
iriind in the matter of comprehension, as in 
other things. One section would rejoice if 
reunion with Rome could be effected, and 
desires only that the pill of submission 
should be sweetened ; another section co- 
quets with the Greek Church, which con- 
descendingly listens to the endorsement of 
its own pretences, whilst scarcely conceal- 
ing the disgust it feels at Anglican claims 
to be a portion of the true Church. All 
sections, however, agree in the terms on 
which they would be comprehended with 
their non-Episcopal fellow Protestants, 
namely, the absorption of the latter. Many 
no doubt are anxious that those whom they 
style ' Dissenters ' should be reconciled to 
what they call * the Church ; ' but as to a 

▼OL. LXVTI- B — 6 . 



comprehension which would moan mutual 
reconciliation on the basin of mutual con- 
cession, after mutual conferences on equal 
terms — they will none of it* Exceptions 
no doubt there are — noble exceptions : but 
they are — exceptions. 

Outiide the great Episcopal organiza- 
tions, which on the ground of their episco- 
pacy claim to be either the true Church or 
at all events integral parts of it, there is a 
broader spirit at work, and a less one-sided 
notion of comprehension prevails. Presby- 
terians in America have composed tbeir 
long-standing differences ; Presbyterians in 
England have united ; and Presbyterians in 
Scotland are hoping to follow the good ex- 
ample. Wesleyan and Primitive Metho- 
dists in 'Ireland are sinking their distinc- 
tions ; and there are many signs that ere 
long the two great branches of orthodox. 
Congregationalism — the Baptists and Pasdo- 
baptists — will forget their ancient feuds, 
and though retaining each its distinguish- 
ing feature, commune and co-operate as 
bretliren. 

But outside those most sectarian of the 
Christian sects — the Episcopal Churches — ," 
that spirit of mutual recognition and of oc- 
casional iutercommunion which is a very 
true, if not a formulated and organic com- 
prehension, is obviously stirring more and 
more powerfully in all the denominations. 
In America it has long been common for 
private members, ministers, and theological 
tutors, to pass and repass between Presby- 
terianism and Congregationalism without so 
much as a whisper of its being an act of 
desertion or apostacy. Adherents of both 
denominations have joined to found 
Churches and sustain organizations for com- 
mon Christian work ; and it has occurred 
that such association has extended even to 
Baptists and Methodists in places where 
none of them were strong enough to work 
alone. The interchanges of these denomi- 
nations in England have never assumed this 
semi-corporate character, except in the 
case of Union (Baptist and Independent) 
Churches ; and yet it is no infrequent things 
for Baptist and Methodist ministers to pass 
over to Congregationalism without further 
question, and for the members of these scv-^ 
eral Churches to be temporarily incor- 
porated with another Church than their 
own where circumstances render it naturaL 



* Not even Canon Curteia, who, whilst elo- 
quently expatiating on what conferences or 
synods did to prevent or remove splits in the 
early Church, ever Buggeats a almilar aynod op 
conference now, between Episcopalian and 
non-Epiacopalian Churches. One-sided confer- 
ences have only one-aided resulta I 



82 



Gomprehension, 



Jan. 



And it certainly now excites no sort of sur- 
prise when interchanges of pnlpits take 
place, whether on ordinary or extraordinary 
occasions. In a very true sense Presbyte- 
rians,. Baptists, Methodists, and Congrega- 
tionalists, are undergoing comprehension, 
and though it is of an unformulated kind, 
it is none the less real. 
• In Germany, too, the Lutheran and the 
Reformed Churches are gradually assuming 
a lees repellent attitude toward each other 
than they held a generation ago. Prior to 
this time the reaction against the compul- 
sory union brought about in Prussia during 
the reign of Frederick William III. bad 
driven those asunder in spirit who had once 
been almost losing the consciousness that 
they were separated, and the cry Had been 
gradually waxing more shrill and massive, 
* Ilie Lutheraner, hie Reformirter I ' — an 
ecclesiastical revival of the old political war* 
cry * Hero Guelph, here Ghibelline I ' But 
the necessities of the time are so grave, and 
the combined energies of indifference, scep- 
ticism, and superstition are so mighty, that 
the consciousness of their constituting, not- 
withstanding all differences of doctrine, sen- 
timent, rite, and practice, one Evangelical 
Church, is happily again awakening, and 
will, it is to be hoped, lead to hearty co- 
operation in Christian work, if not to or- 
ganic union. Baptists, indeed, are still re- 
garded by many in the State Church as an 
ecclesiastical nuisance ; Methodists, as for- 
eign intruders, who work under false pre- 
tences ; Independents, as the bom antago- 
•nists of everything like authority in faith, 
government, and practice ; and even Presby- 
terians, not being Germans, are more highly 
esteemed whilst they remain in Scotland 
than when they invade the Fatherland. 
State Churchism there, as elsewhere, gene- 
rates ecclesiastical exclusivoness, though it 
may tolerate, if not foster, the greatest 
incongruities of faith and doctrine, and a 
sonUdestroying indifference in practice. 

Another kind of comprehension, however, 
less ostentatious, but more vital in its char- 
acter, is partly making its way and partly 
asking for recognition;— comprehension as to 
matters of faith. Two sections of Christ- 
endom alone may be said to be undisturbed 
by the movement to which I now refer, 
namely, the Romish Church and the Greek 
-Church. So far as can be observed, neither 
among the clergy nor among the laity of 
either ol these Churches is there a party 
desiring that it should officially recognize 
forms of religious belief and teaching that 
deviate essentially from its time>honoured 
standards. If there bo signs thereof in 
either, it is in the Greek Cijurch. Both of 



them make this fact a ground of boasting, 
and adduce it as a proof that they are the 
true abode of the Spirit of Truth which 
Christ promised to send into the world. It 
is an old tale ; the fact looks very well till 
it is examined, but it does not bear examin- 
ation. We need not look far for the rea- 
son of the exemptions in question : it is a 
fruit of the position assigned by them to 
the principle of authority. Neither of 
these Churches concerns itself greatly about 
the intellectual relation of its members to 
its teachings so long as they keep their 
questionings to themselves, and are docile 
in practice. To the mass of Ihe clergy, and 
still more to the mass of the laity, the cre- 
denda are and must be mysteries, which it 
is dangerous to attempt to explore. When- 
ever and wherever a freer spirit has begun 
to stir, it has been stamped out, not merely 
with energy, but even with brutality. Un- 
willing to commit suicide, every effort to 
create and nourish intellectual independence 
is discouraged, and therefore these Churches 
are rarely at all, and never publicly, trou- 
bled with intellectual conflicts. But do 
they therefore comprehend no divergent 
elements f As a matter of fact, they em- 
brace within their pale abject superstition 
on the one hand and blank atheism on the 
other. Men and women may be seen going 
together, with the same outward signs of 
devotion, through all the rites of the 
Church, of whom the one class regard the 
process as a magical means of setting them- 
selves right with heaven for time and eter- 
nity, and fanatically cling to their couvio- 
tion, while the other look upon it as a dis- 
mal farce, over which they gnash their teeth 
in private, but which they keep up because 
it would be inconvenient for them to drop 
it. Yes, the Romish and Greek Churches 
are comprehensive, but it is a comprehen- 
sion of hypocrisy. 

Protestantism, in nearly all its branches, 
is being stirred to its very depths by this 
movement. In most of the State Churches 
comprehension as to matters of faith, thou|;h 
not in the extremes just described, exists 
already de facto : it now claims to exist de 
jure. Of the de facto breadth of the Eng- 
lish State Church it is unnecessary to speak. 
It is patent enough, and it requires no in- 
consiaerable exercise of charity to avoid 
thinking that there is not a good deal »f 
insincerity on the part of the laity as well 
as on the part of the clergy, when men 
whose thoughts diverge so widely use ihe 
same words to express not only their oom- 
mon devotions, but even their common be* 
lief 8. 

Germany has long been credited with be- 



1878. 



' s Comprehensitm. 



Sd 



ing the homo of everything that is erratic 
and daring in speculation, and rationaliatic, 
if not worse, in religious teaching. It is 
tme also that, for considerably more than a 
century, divergences have been tolerated in 
its clergy — its laity have been as undis- 
tarbed by interference as they were hot to 
resent it — ranging from Romanizing High 
Lntheranism on the one side to the extrem- 
est Humanitarianism on the other. And so 
long as a preacher was moderate in his ut- 
terances, the authorities seldom if ever sub- 
jected him to discipline. 

The Reformed and Lutheran Churches of 
France are also divided by these questions 
of belief, some of the clergy and laity being 
rigid Calvin ists, whilst others may be 
classed with the advanced Unitarians of 
England and America. Beginnings of a 
similar state of things are discernible be- 
yond the boundaries of the State Churches. 
The Presbyterians both of America and 
Scotland are beinfic affected by the spirit of 
the age, fenced off as their communion 
seems to be against the intrusion of even 
liberty, much more of license. So, too, the 
Congregationalists and Baptists, and even 
the Methodists, in both countries. So much 
for the question de facto. 

With slight exceptions, wherever this 
spirit exists as a matter of fact, it is asking 
for formal recognition as of right. So far 
as we know, there is only one Church that 
has really given its sanction to comprehen- 
sion in the sense now under consideration — 
that of Switzerland. The so-called Liberal 
party there, however, is now so strong that 
it is setting up the banner of orthodoxy 
from the opposite side — ^the orthodoxy of 
* liberalism.' It is getting tired of the com- 
prehension which it glorified so strongly as 
long as it was only tolerated — a logical 
result which it would be good for English 
Christians thoroughly to consider. Baden, 
of all the States of Germany, has gone fur- 
thest in this direction. The new Church 
constitution which was worked out about 
twenty years ago enables men like Professor 
Schenkel to retain not only a place, but 
even a very^inflnontial place, therein, name- 
ly, the post of director of the seminary 
through which the future pastors have to 
pass prior to entering on practical work. 
Now though Schenkel does not go so far as 
some, he would certainly here and in 
America be regarded as on a line with ad- 
vanced Unitarians. There, too, liberalism 
grows exclusive as it grows in power. 

The movement in Germany for the for- 
mal legalization of free thought or inquiry 
within the Churches has crystallized itsolf 
in the Protestanten* Verein, or Protestant 



Union, of which Schenkel of Baden hto 
been from the first one of the chief leaders. 
The association has branches in all parts td 
the country, from south to north, from east 
to west. Its actual members either amoBg 
the clergy or the laity are neither very 
numerous nor, with few exceptions, very 
inflaontial ; but its unenrolled constituency 
is far larger than its enrolled constituency^ 
Indeed, it may* be paid to represent the 
ideas and wishes vaguely cherished by at 
least three-fourths of the Protestants of 
Germany. The Protestant State Church otf 
France also includes a party headed by Co- 
querel which demands the liberty' of which 
we were speaking— demands it openly. In 
the English State Church there are also not 
a few who have the same aim f hitherto, 
however, they can scarcely be said to have 
consolidated themselves into a party. Nor 
can this be asserted of the advanced men 
amongst the Scottish Presbyterians. Among 
the Free Churches of Europe and America 
the hononr, if honour it can be called, of 
forming a party for the purpose of realizing 
doctrinal comprehension, belongs to the 
English Congregationalists. 

It is to this comprehension, whose pres- 
ent position we have thus briefly sketched^ 
that we purpose now to direct attention, 
especially in connection with Congregation- 
alism. 

The problem of Comprehension in the 
form in which it occupied the minds of our 
fathers down to the time of Doddridge 
must be left to settle itself. At all events, 
our intention now is to deal with the more 
vital problem of doctrinal comprehension. 
Many of us are growing comparatively in- 
difi^ercnt to questions of mere Church gov- 
ernment, partly, perhaps, because the old 
lines are becoming blurred, and the old 
separating walls are being broken through^ 
Indeed, for our part, we confess that we 
regard Congr^ationalism, Presbyterianism, 
and Episcopacy, as three mutually comple- 
mentary, rather than as three mutually 
exclusive, forms of Church government. 
What is essential to each is necessary to 
the full development and vigour of the oth- 
ers. As a matter of fact, too, each of these 
forms of Church government is gradually 
evolving and assimilating in an unformu- 
lated shape that which constitutes the dif- 
ferentia of the other two. We Congrega- 
tionalists formulate the Congregational ele- 
ment, but have in an unformulated shape h 
Presbyterial and an Episcopal element, and 
we shall probably have them in the future 
gradually more and more. So, too, the. 
Presbyterians and Episcopalians formnlate 
respectively the Presbyterial and Episcopal 



84 



OomvrehmBion. 



Jan. 



-clement, but arc recognizing more and more 
fall J each other's essential feature, as well 
as that of Congregationalism, in au nnfor- 
mulatcd shape. TJnder the circamstances 
of the present day this is inevitable, and 
the sooner Congregatioualists, Presbyterians, 
and Episcopalians see that this is the rela- 
tion of the principles they severally repre- 
sent, the suoner shall we be able to co-ope- 
rate, as those who *• hold the head ' ought 
to co-operate, for the furtherance of the 
kingdom of peace and righteousness in 
^Jesus Christ the Lord. 

Before going further, it will be well to 
examine carefully what is the scope of the 
doctrinal comprehension which is songht by 
the' parties to vvhich reference has been 
made. Lboking at the movement as a 
whole, this is not difficult ; looked at in de- 
tail, it is far from easy. Considering that 
it is Germany from which, in the main, the 
present impulse has come, it will not be ont 
of place if we ask what its meaning is 
there. The pronounced aim of the Protes- 
tant Union- in which the liberal tendencies 
debouch is to secure the full and authorita- 
tive recognition of the equal rights of all 
modes uf thought which are compatible 
with, or tend to further, a spiritual morality 
or a Christian spirit. Arid as its members 
maintain that the spirit of Christianity can 
be as well, if not better, nurtured under 
perfectly free inquiry and speech than 
under orthodox teaching, they desire in 
point of fact to combine well-nigh opposite 
extremes in one Church. Indeed, we might 
have used the words ^ opposite extremes ' 
without qualification, for they have repeat- 
edly proclaimed on the platform and in 
their publications that a new and an old view 
of the world are battling with each other — 
on the one side that which lies at the found- 
ation of the Bible ; on tlio other, that 
which is rooted in modern science. The 
one view recognizes miracles and revela- 
tions, the other believes in the inviolability 
of natural law, and regards miracles, espec- 
ially the bodily resurrection of Christ, as a 
myth. What is aimed at, moreover, is not 
merely that the laity, whatever their views, 
should all have the same practical privileges — 
for that they have now, and always have had 
— but that the offices of the Church, from 
that of elder up to pastor, professor, super- 
intendent, and even member of the Supreme 
Church Council, should be open to all 
alike, whatever views they may entertain 
on philosophical, critical, historioal, or theo- 
logical questions. Mere toleration they 
spurn ; they have been and still are very 
largely tolerated : — equal righta is now the 
cry. 



The nearest approach to a formulation 
of the aims of the party in Congregational- 
ism, to which we referred above, is found 
in the circular snmmoning the conference 
lately held at Leicester. All were invited 
' who value spiritual religion, and who are 
in sympathy with the principle that reli* 
gious communion is not dependent on agree- 
ment in theological, critical, or historical 
opinions.' These words are so vague, that 
they require a good deal of interpretaUon 
and explanation. The question naturally 
suggests itself, What ' theological, critical, 
and historical opinions?' Wo question 
whether any well-informed intelligent Christ- 
ian would nowadays make religious com- 
munion, or, to use a more definite term, 
Church fellowship and co-operation both 
individual and corporate, depend on agree- 
ment such as would have been required fifty 
years ago, or whether Congregationalista 
generally would now go so far in this 
requircmeut as some Presbyterians still do 
go. As the words do not interpret them- 
selves, we must try to interpret their scope 
by a reference to antecedents of those who 
use them. Among the signatories of the 
circular is the name of Mr. J. A. Picton. 
In his recent book on *The Religion of 
Jesus ' — a book of which the style is as ad- 
mirable as the spirit is in the main reverent 
and tender, and with many of whose posi- 
tive elements we heartily sympathize — he 
gives up almost everything in Christianity 
but what may be described as ^ the method 
of Jesus,' and such pointo of that method 
as seem to him of abiding significanoe. 
Christ was a mere man, who performed no 
miracles, who shared at least $(mu of the 
prejodices and errors of His time and na- 
tion, and who wrought the great OBvolution 
traced to Him by appealing to and reveal* 
ing the eternal element in man. liow far 
Mr. Picton believes in a personal God, does 
not appear from this work ; bnt in his Lei- 
cester address ho uaes the words, 'That 
which is more than men and more than 
man, more than matter, more than force, 
more than per$on€tiity^ and more tkan con- 
Bciousness ;' and his nearest ^proach to a 
definition is the phrase, ' Divine Totality of 
Being.' So, then, this is the one extreme. 
The other extreme woald be the most nar* 
row adherent amongst us of traditional 
orthodoxy, whoever be may be. And all 
gradations of opinion between the two are 
to hold ' religions communion ' with each 
other. 

Bnt now what is this *religioiis oom- 
ronnion ' ? It may mean merely singing a 
few hymns together, which, as some of onr 
hymns will bear a tolerably paothciatio in- 



1878. 



ComprehmjAim* 



86 



terprcialion, whilst others are doctrinally 
almost colourless, may mean very little. 
CoDgregationalists can generally sing to- 
gether all the hymns in the Congregational 
Hymn Book, but that would surely be a 
tough task for an average Unitarian. Or it 
may mean admitting men of the most varied 
views to the Lord's Table. Well, at pres- 
ent we ask few questions enough, and many 
leave the matter to the conscience of the 
individual communicants. This, too, is en- 
joined perhaps by Christian charity. But 
it is another matter if it mean admission to 
membership in ecclesiastical societies organ- 
ized on the basis of definite beliefs. Or, 
again, religious communion may denote 
that full communion which would open 
every office, not excluding that of pastor, to 
men holding opposed views. 

Whatever the present ideas of the party 
in question may be, there can be no doubt 
whatever that eventually religious commu- 
nion will with them mean all that it now 
means with the similar party in Germany. 
Indeed, that we believe is the real meaning 
of some of its members now. What they 
are chiefly concerned about is that preach- 
ers should be unbound by any tie, save 
their own love and perception of what is 
true, whether their views of truth agree or 
not with those current in the Christian 
Church generally, or in their particular sec- 
tion of it, or even with themselves at differ- 
ent times. This, too, is the sense in which 
we use the word * comprehension ;* and as 
the greater includes the less, we shall refer 
exclusively to the question of preaching or 
teaching. Indeed, we doubt very much 
whether the subject would be deemed worth 
discussion at all, still less agitation, if it 
simply meant private and public worship 
together, or communion at the Lord's Table. 

There are [various (modes of determining 
the^ limits of doctrinal comprehension. The 
Churches which have creeds and confes- 
sions naturally appeal to them. In Ger- 
many, as we have already remarked, these 
standards, though detailed and strict enough, 
have been almost always handled with great 
liberality. Only glaring and ostentatious 
deviations have been visited with discipline. 
In connection with the English State Church, 
legal courts decide the matter, and we know 
how their decisions fall out The Presby- 
terians have been, and still generally are, 
careful to maintain the authority of their 
Confessions. According to the opinion of 
some among us, the schedule of doctrine 
generally incorporated with their trust deeds 
places Congregationalists in the same posi- 
tion. There is this difference, however, 
that as one of their avowed fundamental 
principles is not to have a formulated creed I 



which men shall be compelled to subscribe, 
the statements in question must bo taken 
rather as indicating the substance of what is 
believed, than as prescribing the form in 
which the belief is to be expressed. 

On the other hand, however, the position 
which some are now taking up among us, 
that Congregationalism, owinir to the ab- 
sence of creeds, means perfect liberty of in- 
quiry and speech in its preachers and teach- 
ers, is either a mistake or misrepresentation. 
Protestantism, of which Congregationalism 
claims to be theoretically the most self-con- 
sistent branch, has its positive as well as its 
negative side. It is nob merely freedonri 
from, but obligation to, certain things. 
Freedom is never an end in itself ; free- 
dom is a means to the highest ends. Mere 
freedom without positive content inevitably 
degenerates into the individualism which, 
says, * Every man for himself, and God for 
us all.' Our negations are rooted Id posi- 
tions, not the reverse. 

But though the repudiation of written 
creeds by Congregationalists does not com-, 
mit them to what is termed perfect ' free-: 
dom of inquiry,' it does render it incun?- 
bent on them to insist exclusively on essco- 
tials. Their very principle binds them to 
the full recognition of the motto, In neces- 
sariismuniias, in dubiis liber tas, in omnibus 
carita-s ; and accordininrl^ lays upon them 
the duty of ascertaining and defining as 
carefully as possible what are the essentials 
and what are the non-essentials in tradition- 
al Christianity. Of this duty we are now 
reminded ; and if we only do our duty wq 
shall render an inestimable service, not only 
to the Christian Church, but to mankind 
generally. We are inclined, indeed, to 
think that this is the specific historical 
function which we are now called upon to 
fulfil. We have already nearly discharged 
our first mission, which was to incorporate 
once for all in the organism of Protestant 
Christianity the principle of individualism 
or of private judgment as to practical mat- 
ters. Let us now gird ourselves for what is 
even a more important task. We have no 
traditions of any consequence to hamper us ; 
our Churches are prepared to allow liberty 
in doubtful or non-essential matters. Be it 
ours then consciously to face this problem, 
and endeavour to determine within what 
limits deviations amongst us may be not 
only winked at, but openly recognized ; and 
thus to hasten on the day when the Christr 
ian Churches shall again form a whole, 
constituted \>j the union of sections once 
regarded as mutually exclusive and incom- 
patible, but then seen to be mutually sup- 
plementar3\ 

The only way to arrive at a definite and 



86 



Campreh^sion, 



Jan* 



rational result is to look at tlio question in 
the light of a general view of the nature 
and mission of the Church. For it is essen- 
tial Ij a Church matter. We are too prone 
in discussions of such subjects as this to be* 
gin in niediU rebus. Sometimes this has 
its advantages, but the thorough course is 
after all the clearest and shortest. Posi- 
tions that may be most intelligible and de- 
fensible when expounded as part of a sys- 
tem, may wear a look of arbitrariness and 
incertitude when set up by themselves. Let 
this consideration, then, be our excuse if we 
seem to take a somewhat roundabout way 
of arriving at conclusions which ecclesiasti- 
cal Hotspurs treat as almoEt self-evident 

In speaking of the Church, we refer to 
the Church of Christ as a whole, and not to 
pay any particular section thereof. If we 
mistake not, we Congregationalists desire 
and aim at the realization of what is essen- 
tial to Christ^s Church as such, and that 
alone. However far short we may fall of 
our ideal, this is our ideal, and wo should 
repudiate with scorn the notion that we had 
any specialties of our own to conserve, or to 
further. Nay, more, we believe that we 
should be willing to be absorbed by some 
other branch of the visible Church, if it 
were clear that our work could in that way 
be more fully and speedily accomplished. 
Wo glory in what to some ecclesiastics 
would seem to be a shame. 
' Mankind constitutes an organic unity or 
organism, in which each part presupposes 
the rest, and needs the rest in order to the 
attainment of its own true goal. As an 
organism, it is pervaded by a common life ; 
this life passes by invisible and visible chan- 
nels from member to member ; and what- 
ever affects one part, more or less fully and 
perceptibly affects every other part Dis- 
tinct expression is given to this conception 
of the human race in various passages of 
Scripture : the allusions to it are very nu- 
merous. Between this organism, however, 
and the organisms with which we ordinarily 
have to do, there is this important differ- 
once — ^that whereas the constituent factors 
of the latter are dependent parts, the con- 
ittituent factors of the former are tliemselves 
independent wholes — independent, that is, 
withm certain limits. The life of the race 
is accordingly the resultant of the co-opera- 
tion and interaction of what may bo termed 
the generic whole and the individual wholes. 
A direct consequence of this is, that what- 
ever is to become in the complete sense an 
element in the life of humanity, must be 
both gcncrically and individually assimilat- 
ed. The individual is neither independent 
of, nor a mere will-less branch of the race ; 



the race is neither altogether dependent on, 
nor is it independent of, individuals. Either 
extreme is an error. This is a consequence 
which it is very important we should keep 
in view, for it has a close bearing on aJI 
ethical problems, and in particular on the 
problem before us. 

Now, according to the biblical or Christ* 
ian view of the world, this great organism 
of humanity is smitten with deadly disease 
— ^moral disease, the disease of sin. ' The 
whole head is sick, the whole heart faint ; 
from the sole of the foot, even unto the 
head, there is no soundness in itJ The life 
of the organism as a whole is tainted, and 
therefore every member of it individually 
shares the taint — some, as also in physicjd 
matters, in a less, others in a greater degree. 
But here also it is ^rue that the generic and 
the individual must co-operate to the full 
development of sin ; as indeed Paul indi* 
cates when he writes to the Romans (chap. 
V. 12), 'By one man sin entered into the 
world, and death by sin ; and so death 
passed npoc all men, for that all have 
iinjiedJ' 

In order to the renewal of ttie life, and 
the eventual rcconstitntion of the organism 
of humanity, the Son of God, unto whom 
and by whom all things were created, be- 
came incarnate, being made in the likeness 
of sinful men. He who from the begin- 
ning, according to the Divine counsel, was 
destined in the fulness of the times to de- 
scend into the world, and as the head of 
normal humanity to swell the tide of its life 
till it shonid be fitted to meet and blend 
with its primal source in God Himself, — 
He shrunK not from His great task even 
when it involved humiliation, sofforing, and 
death. He engrafted Himself on the raco, 
and thus opened a way for the influx of 
healing life and reconstituting power. Other- 
wise expressed, * He camo to seek and to 
save ; ' He camo to restore men to fellow- 
ship and unity with God and with each 
other. But His engraftment, and the life 
thereby introduced into the human organ- 
ism, would have exercised bnt a transitory 
and scarcely perceptible influence, if there 
had not been the individual assimilation re- 
quired by the law to which wo referred 
above. It could not have failed, indeed, to 
stir in the unconscious depths of human 
life, as well as to ruffle its conscious sur- 
face. But more was necessary, namely, the 
determinate acceptance or rejection of Him, 
' the Way, the Truth, the Life,' the Savionr 
and Lord of men. Henee the Son of God 
not only went about doing good, and preach- 
ing the gospel of the kingdom, but also 
called to Himself Uie apostles, of whom 



1878. 



Coniprehenmon. 



87 



though at first it was true, as Christ said, 
' Ye have not chosen mc, but I have chosen 
yoQ ; ' yet it was also afterwards equally 
true that thev ' loved him because he first 
loved them.* Having made their own free 
and conscious i>ossession the life which in 
the first instance stirred in them without 
their, will and below their consciousness, 
they became, they were constituted, and 
constituted themselves, the germ and begin- 
ning of the new humanity whose creation 
was the end of Christ^s mission. The final 
hnd full decision which was necessary ere 
they could enter into proper possession of 
the gift of Christ, and thus begin to fulfil 
their destiny, was not, however, made until 
the Lord had consummated His work by dy- 
ing on the cross. So far as can be gather- 
ed from the New Testament, the crucifix- 
ion of Christ was the turning-point in the 
history of their relation to Him, in the 
sense, namely, of testing and making known 
to themselves what He had been to them, 
and bow they stood to Him. The resurrec- 
tion converted them from dejected and 
mourning, though genuine disciples, into 
exultant and courageous confessors and 
apostles. ' Christ and him crucified ' had 
now become their conscious choice. And 
80 the Church was founded. But these 
new men needed to grow — ^grow in relation 
to God and each other, and grow in them- 
selves — if they were to represent in little 
the humanity of the Divine Mind. In other 
words, they must enter into ever closer fel- 
lowship with God, draw ever tighter the 
bonds of union with each other, and ad- 
vance ever more towards the staturo of per- 
fect individuals. The means to the attain- 
ment of these distinct, though inseparable 
ends, were prayer to God, contemplation of 
Christ and His work, association for wor- 
ship »id activity and mutual help, and per- 
Mstent watchfulness and self-culture. Such 
exhortations and affirmations as these : 

* Pray without ceasing ; ' * To do good and 
communicate, forget not ; ' * ^ Be kindly 
affectioned one to another, in honour pre- 
ferring one another ; ' ' Rejoice with them 
that do rejoice, and weep with them that 
weep ; ' * Gird up the loins of your mind ; ' 

* Be sober ; ' * Grow in grace, and in the 
knowledge of Jesus Christ ; ' ' And I deter- 
mined to know nothing among you save 
Jesus Christ and him crucified ' — revealed 
to ua in an incidental way the principles 
and laws of the inner growth of the Church 
or new Humanity at the outset. As for 
the initiation of the life, so also for Its pro- 
gress, the generic and the individual were 
alike necessary — they needed to hold the 
Head from whieh all the body received 



nourishment, by constantly putting forth 
conscious effort. 

How was this germ to expand until the 
entire organism should be renewed and re- 
constituted ? In other words, how was the 
Church to grow into the kingdom of God 
on earth ? The same laws that conditioned 
the commencement of the process, condition 
Its continuance unto completion. There 
must be generic and individual assimilation* 
The Church with its Invisible Head holds 
now the place which at the outset was held 
by Christ alone : as His body. It is the 
mediating channel and reservoir of the life 
of which He Is the fountain-head. As 
such, its infiuence Is widely felt. This gen- 
eric action of the Church — this action in 
the depths of the life of humanity, below 
consciousness — is not always highly esti- 
mated : it is, notwithstanding, a very real 
actioQ, and one that is essentially necessary 
to the final accomplishment of its mission. 
This, however, neither is nor may be all. 
Individual conscious decision must be In- 
duced. At no stage whatever can the essen- 
tial difi^erentia of the human organism to 
which we have already several times alluded 
be ignored. To the end of the chapter, 
thajt which comes first in the way of imper- 
ceptible Infiuence pervading the life, after 
the manner though not with the effect of a 
subtle poison introduced into the veins of 
the body, must be openly and distinctly 
accepted and ratified by the will. Put in 
another and more common form, men can- 
not become subjects of the kingdom of God 
and heirs of eternal life unconsciously. 
Whoever dreams that they can, ignores the 
most characteristic feature of man, — what 
at all events th'e Bible regards as his most 
characteristic feature. The decision may^ 
and should indeed, become less and less 
marked as the ages advance. During the 
first geueratiouB of the Churches existence 
it necessarily involved a total break with 
the previous thought and conduct of the 
new disciples. There had been nothing In 
their previous life preparing I he way for 
and leading up to it : now, however, the 
case is different, at all events within the 
bounds of Christendom. But great as the 
difference referred to is, the personal, indi- 
vidual element in the matter can never bo 
dispensed with. 

By what means must this individual con- 
scious decision be brought about? How 
shall the Kpiaig^ as Christ terms it, be effect- 
ed i The ways in which the generic influ- 
ence is exerted, may, and perhaps must, 
lai^ely escape observation : not so those by 
which men are brought to open incorpora- 
tion with the kingdom of God. The first 



88 



Comprehension. 



Jan. 



disciples, as we have already observed, had 
to decide for or against ' Christ and him 
crucified.' The process of decision was tn- 
itiated when they obeyed His first call. 
Every step they afterwards took with Him 
added something to its force. But final it 
was not, as has been already remarked, till 
after the Master's shameful death and glori- 
ous resurrection. They clung loyally to the 
Master who had at first laid such powerful 
hold on them by His works and words and 
life, notwithstanding His shameful end. 
Then the shameful endHtself entered as an 
integral element into the motives! for con- 
tinued adhesion. At last that same shame- 
ful end, having been illuminated by the res- 
urrection, by His instructions given before 
ascension, and by the teachings of the Com- 
forter, became the very corner-stone of 
their hopes and conduct. Such at least -is 
the account of the matter which thev them- 
selves have left on record. 

Now, how did they in turn induce the 
decision of their fellow-men ? "We are told 
that they preached Christ — Christ, who be- 
came poor that we might become rich ; 
Christ crucified for human sin ; Christ risen 
from the dead ; Christ ascended np on 
high ; ChriBt sitting at the right hand of 
God, and making intercession for men ; 
Christ, who shall come again to judgment. 
Christ Himself commissioned them to go 
forth and preach thd gospel to every crea- 
ture, that every creature might either be- 
lieve or reject, decide for or against, the 
kingdom of God. Such importance did 
they attach in particular to the death of 
Christ, that the most active and successful 
apostle resolved to •know nothing among 
men save Christ and him crucified ; to the 
Jew a stumbling-block, and to Greeks fooU 
ishness.' As to the nature of the test ap- 
plied by the Church in its earlier days, 
there can be little if any doubt. That the 
critical or testing instrument employed was 
effectual, the establishment of the Church, 
the separation of individuals and communi- 
ties to Christ, testifies. 

The question to which we now come is 
whether the test applied in former times 
must be applied still, or whether the same 
ends can bo compassed by other means. 
The end we assume to be the same, to wit, 
the renewal and reconstitntion of humanity 
at once consisting in and effected by the 
reconciliation of men with God and each 
other, and the development of their individ- 
ual life. We assume also the necessity of 
the conjunction of the generic and individ- 
ual factors. We take for granted also that 
the Church must continue to use some test 
' — that is, testify to something which shall 



induce a conscious decision on the part of 
individuals. As to these points, expressed 
in these very general terms, there will be 
little difference of opinion among those who 
in any definite sense still ding to historical 
Christianity. What must the test be ? We 
have now come, as will be seen, to the real 
difiSculty of cur discussion. 

Wherever men are in the state in which 
the Gentiles were to whom the first preach- 
ers of Christ went, surelv it will be natural 
to adopt the means used by them. At all 
events, until very good reason is given for a 
change, we shall do well to follow in their 
footsteps. Doubts can arise solely in rela- 
tion to that portion of mankind which has 
experienced the generic influence of Christ 
through His Church. The suggestion that 
possibly in dealing with them new methods 
may be advisable, at all events alongside 
of, if not as a substitute for, the old, cannot 
be repelled as a self-evident absurdity. 
Circumstances do sometimes alter cases ; 
possibly this may be an illustration of the 
old adage. 

Let us not forget hero that the point 
under consideration really* looks two ways; 
that is, it concerns the growth of the 
kingdom of Christ, not only extensively, 
but intensively, not only in outward com- 
pass, but in inner depth and truth : in- 
deed, it concerns the one because it con- 
qems the other. The Church can dif- 
fuse no life unless it already possesses 
it. The Church will fail to constrain decis- 
ion in those who are outside, unless its own 
members are constantly growing, that is, as 
we remarked before, receiving ever fresh 
influxes of life from the Head, and freely 
assimilating those influxes. Now, is this 
possible without the constant presentation 
to itself of Him to whom it owes its exist- 
ence, and whoso work it is commissioned to 
execute? Few will answer this question 
with an entire negative ; but some will say, 
' We, too, hold that the Church mnst con- 
tinue to build up itself on and by Christ ; 
we also hold that to preach Christ in some 
form or other is necessary to the calling 
forth of the decision to which reference w^as 
made. But then we think that other, and 
if you will very different, modes of preach- 
ing Christ have become not only permissi- 
ble, but necessary. Why should it not be 
enough to teach the spiritual and nioml 
essence of what He taught, without burden- 
ing ourselves with the historic husk, excit- 
ing as it does so many critical and scientific 
qnestionings ! ' Let us here flrrant, as we 
safely may, that such preaching will often 
answer the purpose in queftion amongst 
those who constitute the Church. Indeed, 



18^8. 



Comprehension. 



69 



we arc not at ali sure that sometimes tbe 
raid purpose wonld not be better answered 
by such preaching. But does this Eettle 
the point ? No. And why ? Because to 
the vast majotity of minds the preaching 
described suggests more than it expresses : 
it is one-half of a whole, of which the re- 
maining half is unconsciously or consciously 
supplied by the hearers. Perhaps it wonld 
be well if we more frequently took for 
jjrantcd that this process will be performed. 
We spend too much time in laying the 
foundation of good works, instead of going 
on to perfection. Preachers to most con- 
gregations ought surely to be able to tak6 
for granted that the presuppositions and 
grounds of their Christian life are already 
known, and deal in detail with that life 
itself. But would it be safe for the Church 
altogether to ignore, or even to controvert, 
that which is thus presupposed ? Especial- 
ly, would a preaching which left it out of 
sight bring about the decision which we 
maintained to be necessary in the case of 
such as are outside the Church ? These 
two questions are at the bottom one. 

Be it here understood we are not under- 
takinjrr to prove that the account we gave 
of the rise, nature, and mission of the 
Chnrch is true, but only to answer the ques- 
tion — Given such an origin and mission, 
what kind of faith or preaching is necessary 
to its continuance and expansion? Are 
changes admissible, such as those described ? 

The question now therefore naturally 
arises : Is there any inherent fitness in the 
method either pursued or sanctioned by Ihe 
Chnrch from the earliest days down to the 
present ? Or was its fitness in so far tem- 
porary, that now at all events other methods 
may be recognized as possessing equal, or, 
under certain circumstances, greater fitness ? 

If the view of the Church — its nature, 
rise, and mission — previously presented, be 
correct, there is an inherent fitness in preach- 
ing Christ — Christ Himself, as He accom- 
plished His task. If, however, His distin- 
guishing characteristic were a metkodf the 
method, as Mr. Picton puts it, of calling 
people back from tradition or fancy to reali- 
ty ; of insisting upon present, actual, and 
imdeniable facts, whether of their own 
consciousness or the outer world ; and of 
assuming the existence of an afiinity be- 
tween the human conscience and truth ; * 
or if His mission were to set forth and ex- 
emplify certain great moral and religions 
truths; then tbe adoption and application 
of His method, ! or ^ the preaching of the 
truth He set forth, "with references to His 

♦ * Religion of Jesus/ pp. 5, 7. 



example more or less frequent, wott)d be ali 
He could reasonably claim. Nay, anything 
more were a dishonour to truth, and there- 
fore to Him, its greatest Teacher. But if 
He Himself be * the* Way, the Truth, and 
the Life ; ' if He be the Personal Source of 
all the healing influence that acts through 
the Church ; if what men needed and still 
need was and is to be led away from 
abstract law and prescription to a living 
Lord, and Guide, and Helper — ^then clearly 
there can be no complete realization of the 
end of His mission unless there is recogni- 
tion and acceptance of His person. This 
holds good alike of the individual member 
of the Church, of the Church as a whole, 
and of the race. In Scripture language, he 
that believeth hath eternal life : he that«bc- 
lieveth not shall not see life. Wherefore 
also it is necessary to set forth Christ, to 
the Jews a stumbling-block, to the Greeks 
foolishness, but to them that believe, the 
power of God and tho wisdom of God. 

To sanction bases of communion and 
means of securing decision such as were 
previously described, would logically involve 
and inevitably lead to a complete change in 
the conception of the Church and its mis- 
sion, that is, of the constitution and state 
of humanity and of tho person and work of 
Christ. In point of fact, too, the claim for 
comprehension proceeds in part from such 
as have already cast overboard the old con- 
ception ; an-d history teaches that, however 
little those who desire such comprehension 
intend it, the conclusion in question always 
follows. 

What wo have urged with regard to the 
inherent fitness of the preaching of Christ 
as the means of bringing into action the in- 
dividual factor in the development of the 
kingdom 'of Christ, is sustained and borne 
out by experience. Whenever Christ, the 
living personal Redeemer, has receded to 
tho back-ground in the thoughts and teach- 
ings of the Church, sti^nation of the life 
has ensued. Various substitutes have been 
tried, but all with the same result. 

The Bomish Chnrch has set forth the 
Church as the test : it has sought to accom- 
plish Christ's end by bringing men into 
what was conceived to be a right relation to 
the Church. Obey the Church, was its cry. 
Extra ecclesiam nulla salus, was its great 
weapon. And what followed ? Taken as a 
whole, it bears about as little resemblance 
as it well can to the Church of Christ, and 
instead of furthering a kingdom of light, 
manliness, truth, and liberty, promotes dark- 
ness, superstition, servility, and bondage, 
Where there is or has been life in it, it has 
been the portion of those members who 



90 



Comprehen$iofi. 



J«a. 



have coDsclouBly or unconsciously gone 
through the Church and its rites direct to 
Christ. 

Protestantism, too, has sometimes unwit- 
tingly substituted organization, constitution, 
liturgy, correctness of belief, practical right- 
eousness, accuracy of doctrine for Christ, 
or, at all events, made such points too pro- 
minent ; and then it too has sufitered from 
indiSerence and sloth and coldness. Its 
revival again has been due to the restoration 
of thoroughly evangelical preaching and 
teaching, as in the case of the Pietism of 
Germany, the Methodist movement in Eng- 
land, the Free Church developments of 
Switzerland and France, and the Revivals of 
England and America. 

The history of Rationalism, Socinianism, 
and Unitarianism tells the same talc. None 
of them have evinced or fostered the kind 
of fellowship with God and union of man 
with man that the orthodox Churches have 
evinced and fostered. The Rationalists of 
Germany had possession of its pulpits, uni- 
versities, and schools for nearly a century, 
and had therefore full opportunity of show- 
ing whether the teaching of the moral and 
religious truths of Christianity, apart from 
Christ and Ills work, could secure the ends 
for which He came ; and with what result ? 
That, but for tbe revival of Evangelicanism, 
which began. early in the present century, 
and which no one did more to further 
among students and the clergy than the 
ate Dr. Tholuck, Germany would now be 
as nearly destltate of specifically Christian 
religious life as a nation could be. As it 
is, indifierence, not to say ungodliness, is 
growing so rapidly, that some of the wisest 
and best men, liberals as well as orthodox, 
are appalled, and are anxiously asking for a 
remedy. The old remedy is to liberal 
thinkers as it was to the Greeks, foolish- 
ness ; bat whenever it is applied, even un- 
der the present most unfavourable auspices, 
it speedily works a change, and proves itself 
the power of God unto salvation. 

And if we turn to the analogous phenom- 
ena of Socinianism and Unitarianism, what 
do wo there find ? Socinianism did not recede 
so far in some respects from the Church as 
modern Unitarianism, but its characteristics 
were far more intellectual and moral than 
religious, and it rarely evinced much zeal 
for the furtherance of the kingdom of 
Christ As an agency for the direct pro- 
motion of Christ's great work.it was a fail- 
ure — an utter failure. Nor has modern 
Unitarianism distinguished it«elf in the 
same directi6n. Its public services are cold 
as ice ; the private religious devotions of its 
adherents are said to be scanty and formal ; 



its activity for mo:: is mainly restricted to 
education, general works of benevolence, 
and the like ; and it has done next to noth- 
ing for foreign missions. Wherever the 
spirit of Unitarianism creeps into the ortho- 
dox Churches, religious zeal languishes, re- 
ligious worship is neglected, and religious 
fellowship loses its inwardness. 

If space permitted wo might adduce am- 
ple detail. It is of course impossible to 
demonstrate that tho phenomena described 
always had their root in the causes assigned. 
In historical matters attempts to demon- 
strate are futile. We know too that many 
Unitarians, who lament the coldness that 
prevails among them, attribute it not to 
their particular views, but to other causes. 
But glad as we should be to avoid drawing 
the conclusion, our understanding compels 
ns to judge th^t when we find the absence 
of Evangelical faith and teaching almost in- 
variably associated with religious coldness 
and deadness, the one is the ground of tbe 
other. We know too that there are and 
have been Rationalists, Soclnians, and Uni- 
tarians, eminent for warmth of piety, love 
to their fellow-men, and personal human 
worth. We rejoice in their goodness, as we 
rejoice in goodness wherever it may bo 
found ; but if it be the natural outgrowth 
of the teaching, why are these men the ex- 
ceptions they are ? And with all their ex- 
cellence, have they a high degree of the ' 
specific spirit which leads men, after the 
example of the Master, to try to seek and 
save the lost ? 

4 Nothing ought Tto be insisted on as a 
term of comprehension beyond what is nec- 
essary to bring and keep men in living con- 
nection with the Head, Christ The scope 
of this term must be determined by circum- 
stances — possibly the circumstances of indi- 
vidual men as well as of individual Churches. 
Where the general mental development is 
scanty and uncritical, there the presentation 
of Christ in a concrete and lively way will 
be adequate, even though, doctrinally con- 
sidered, there may be great vagueness. 
But if inquiry has been awakened, and es- 
pecially critical inquiry, more will be neces- 
sary, whether in the Church or outside the 
Church. In no case, however, as it seems 
to us, can there be a toleration of direct at- 
tack on the central truth, or the truths 
which it either presupposes or immediately 
involves. With vagueness, as long as it is 
positive, we should be very patient : vague- 
ness that helps itself out with contradiction 
and controversy, has no right in the pulpit 
of a Christian Church. What these cen- 
tral and semi-central truths are, seems to us 
easier to decide than many assert. Let us 



1878, 



Parody and JParodists, 



01 



apply the rale laid down bj • Vlncentius of 
Lerinnm : Quod ubiguey quod semperj quod 
ah omnibus crediium est. That as to which 
all sections of the* Christian Church, from 
the Romish and Greek Churches down to 
the Primitive Methodists, have been agreed, 
substantially agreed, seems to us to bo the 
essential as to which, with tbe above limita- 
tioDB, there should be unity. They all 
hold that God is one in three Persons ; that 
Jesus of Nazareth was an incarnate person 
of the Trinity ; that He lived, suffered, 
died, and rose again, for the redemption of 
men from sin and eternal death ; and that 
the Holy Spirit dwells and works in and 
through all who believe in Cluist, yield to, 
and seek His grace. Much is made of the 
differences of Christendom : as to these 
matters we find agreement. Here we, for 
our own part at all events, feel ourselves in 
accord with the Roman Catholic on the one 
side and with the Plymouth Brother on the 
other. Nor are the meanings attached to 
the words wc have used so diverse as is 
often asserted. These then ace the creden- 
da. The central point of all is Jesus 
Christ, the Living, Dying, Rising Saviour 
of Mankind. The rest are buttresses there- 
of, sometimes unseen, sometimes brought 
prominently into view, according to the 
changing circumstances of the Church ; all 
however needed, if we are to grow up into 
the stature of perfect men — intellectually as 
well as practically — in Christ Jesus our 
Lord. 



Aaf. Vn. — Parody and Parodist*. 

Artificial forms of society inevitably de- 
velop artificial forms of literature. As the 
comparative anatomist reconstructs a whole 
animal from a tooth or a toe-bone, so the 
philosophical speculator or the skilful critic 
may guess at the most complex conditions 
of life from a song or even a versicle. This 
service has been rendered by Mr. James 
Davies in his studies of Tibullus, Catullus, 
and Proper tins ; and Horace and Juvenal 
have yielded worlds to scholars like Coning- 
ton and Sellar. The same problems, we 
may well believe, will remain for future 
workers in reference to our time. They 
will, perhaps, guess more efficiently at our 
manners and our modes of thought, at the 
pastimes of onr lighter hours and our airi* 
est talk *' across the walnuts and the wine,' 
by reference to tbe verses of Praed and 
Locker, Mortimer Collins, Calverley, Tom 
Hood, Austin Dobson, and their confreres, \ 



than by study of sterner literature. It is 
only preparing the way, by a very slight 
stage, if we endeavour at present to make 
clear to ourselves the action and functions 
of one form of artificial literature — that of 
Parody — on which it is quite certain that 
some characteristics of our day have spe- 
cially impressed themselves, as is testified by 
the great demand for such productions. 
And if it should seem to any reader that 
we venture on a theme too light and frivo- 
lous, then we have simply to reply that if, 
as we have already suggested, the reader 
will but project his soul far enough for- 
ward, and look at matters present as if they 
were distant, he may be philosophic enough 
in his meditations. 

Society- verses and parody are the pro- 
ducts of similar conditions — the craving for 
relief from the graver and more irksome 
concerns of life, by which they are never- 
theless necessarily tinged. They are alike 
safety-valves from pre-occupations that might 
else be fatal, and indicate some failure of 
thp resources open to those who lead simpler 
lives. They run to some extent alongside 
each other, but they lean very different 
ways in their ultimate drift.' Most of their 
points of affinity are found through form, 
very few through substance. To be success- 
ful, both the parodist and the writer of vers 
de soci^te must have faculties for metre 
carefully exercised, a dainty facility in 
catching the fiow of favourite rhythms, aqd 
considerable familiarity with what in these 
respects has been already accomplished. 
Both, too, must be careful not to rise above 
a certain level of familiar forms, else to both 
alike one element of attractiveness, through 
association, will inevitably be lost. 

The writer of vers de sociiie may thus be 
said to stand ever on the verge of the field 
of parody ; but one of his chief merits may 
be said to lie in neatly tripping along the 
very boundary-line and never tumbling 
over. For parody lies confessedly on a 
lower level of art. The parodist pure and 
simple is not a maker at all. To steal an 
image from the field of science, we may 
say that he is a kind of parasite, that exists 
only by reason of what strength remains to 
the organism to which he has attached him- 
self. The writer of vers de societe concerns 
himself with real affections, whims, affecta- 
tions, caprices, lightly-scornful contradic- 
tions, little innocent pretences and hypocri- 
sies, whose saucy nonchalance and dainty 
grace are their justification. He deals 
with love as a sort of secondary sentiment, 
that can easily surrender itself to propriety ; 
he exposes the point where manner and 
courtesy scathe the higher passion and 



93 



Pmvdy and Parodists, 



Jan. 



caasc it to retire iritli an accompanying rip- 
ple of sabdued laughter. A delicious scorn, 
a plnjfulness that is occasionally tender, 
only in order to give the more effect to 
graceful airy satire — that is his characteris- 
tic. But his strength lies in this, that he 
seeks to picture a world that has its coun- 
terpart in reality. His delicate scorn may 
veil deep feeling. He raust be a master of 
innocent disfxnises. He will tell no secret 
if lie can help it, and yet he often confesses 
to us, when concealing the stirrings of the 
heart, by the surprises of a happy banter, 
lie will hide a tear as he points a jest ; or 
by the expedient of a clever conceit he will 
divert us from the suggestion of the grave 
and painful problems clearly realized. Ilis 
very raillery not seldom reveals a glimpse of 
the serious side of things by the passion it 
is fain to hide. Tlie writer of vers de society 
is ironical, but he should never be cruelly 
so. His first ambition ought to be to please 
and to divert; and if he cannot do this 
without any real injury to the bloom of the 
better feelings, then he has failed in apripie 
requisite of his art. His world is thus no 
counterfeit one, however conventional it 
may seem. It has its own laws, and these 
guide and govern his ideal. Ho mnst be 
well bred ; his humour must not entangle 
itself in alien imagery. It is pre-eminently 
a self-contained worfd, and his muse must 
close her eyes to what is in itself simple 
and universal. No great thought, no mighty 
image, that seems magnet-wise to select 
and draw to itself all that is kindred from 
the widest contrasts of circumstance, must 
he indulge in. That would be to spoil the 
tone that ought to obtain — the tone of 
urban polish and perfect self-restraint. He 
must, in view of this, ''fetter his muse, 
thoujjh it be with silk : if she move not the 
more nimbly for such ' fetters, he has mis- 
taken his vocation. He must be dainty, 
full of verbal resource, fanciful, and true so 
far as he goes; but never so deeply in 
earnest as not easily to glide into an oppos- 
ing ^mood, nor careful to do aught more 
than cause to lift the eyelid, shrug the 
shoulder, raise a well-bred smile. ' To laugh 
outright were too much. 

The parodist, again, is concerned merely 
to raise as loud a laugh as he can, by bring- 
ing a trivial idea and a great one (or one 
that his original aimed at making great) 
into sudden and unexpected collision, 
clothed as near as may be in the same 
dress. He is a harlequin, who danses for a 
moment in the tragedian*s costume. He 
would be of no consequence in himself, had 
he not somehow got access to that costume. 
But he has got access to it, and ho manoeu- 



vres so oddly that we cannot help for the 
moment admiring^ his dexterity, though now 
and then, even as wo laugh, we cannot es- 
cape a passing twinge of regret that we 
shall hereafter recall his wry faces, and 
funny nods and becks and grins, when next 
time we sec the master himself on the stage. 
One pleasure is apt to' cancel or to lessen 
another. If we enjoy the parody, a little 
is taken from the poem. A new association 
has inwoven itself with its metre, its move- 
ment, its rhythm, and something is lost. 

The parodist has thus two things to be 
on his guard against He needs, in view of 
immediate impression, to emphasize a man- 
nerism, a catchword, a favourite turn or a 
trick of metre — this lies in the conception 
of his sphere of work — and yet to do no 
real despite to the general spirit which 
chiefly it must be that lifts his original 
into the position which justifies his being 
parodied. Under his satirical or off-taking 
temper should be apparent a wider toler- 
ance, an admiring affection, a certain enthu- 
siasm held in reserve. Without this, paro- 
dy must ever tend to become mean, person- 
al, and truculent. The other thing is that 
the parodist ought to have regard to the 
language in which he works — that it may 
suCEer no serious prejudice through his exer^ 
ciscs. Tins is an important point which 
cannot be too distinctly emphasized. Any- 
body of decent education can write what 
will roughly sound as an imitation of a 
favourite poem : the true parodist should 
deepen our respect for his author even a 3 
be raises the laugh at him, as it is well 
known that we cannot laugh kindlily and 
heartily at what we do not love. And if it 
may in one sense be said, as it has been 
said, that the parodist is not bound to have 
in view any real world whatever — ^here is a 
standard up to which he ought to work. 
Even the parodist is not a wild poet, 

that works 
Without a conscience or an aim ; 

but is subject to a clear law, moral and dis- 
tinct. Yet wc allow that his immediate 
end is merely amusing verbal contrast. If 
he gives us more than this it is beyond the 
bargain. Jlethcn approves himself some- 
thing of a poet too. If ho allows a free 
creative humour to steal in, he simply risks 
thus the reducing of the force that may be 
gained by emphasis of merely external pe- 
culiarities — wnich is primarily his business 
as parodist And herein lies, as we con- 
ceive, the critical test of true parody. It 
has been very well said : — * The first func- 
tion of the parodist is to exaggerate obvi- 
ous peculiarities — ^to flash a light upon them ; 



1878. 



Farody and Parodists. 



^ 



lo make out of them what lie calls ** points," 
by twisting them to new and surprising re- 
sults of his own. Therefore in parody you 
can only produce the mere fringe of the 
mere garment of art. That mode which is 
born of mood you cannot touch. Tbis is 
what makes parody an unsatisfactory line of 
work to a true poet — to him whose artistic 
instinct and yearning after perfection are 
stronger than common, and who knows 
tliat, unless his mimicry is deeper than par- 
ody allows, it* is superficial and puerile after 
all. This goes a good way towards the 
truth, but not altogether. 

Parody, if we view it in the light of use- 
fulness, may be regarded as a defence 
against mannerism and oddity on the part 
of those who have privilege, and might 
abuse it by too extreme indulgence in out- 
ward peculiarities. In this respect, as we 
shall see, it may be a corrective and an aid 
in the midst of artificial conditions such as 
alone could sustain it. 

It thus comes about that, though the del- 
icacy and graceful reserve and self-restraint 
which the writer of vers de societe endeav- 
ours to attain a.H respects form might tempt 
him to exercises in parody, he will gener- 
ally, for a deeper reason, eschew it ; and 
this because the very necessity of empha- 
sizing and rendering ridiculous what is 
most characteristic in other men's writing 
would tend to encourage a false emphasis. 
In no instance, perhaps, is this better illus- 
trated than in one or two specimens to bo 
found in the ' Boudoir Ballads ' of Mr. Ash- 
by-8terry — a point which will be made gen- 
erally appreciable by a few stanzas from his 
poems, in which the echo of another note 
at once steals away from the unity of effect, 
while he is precipitated into verbal vulgari- 
ty. Here are the stanzas : — 

O the vision of girlish distresaeB, 

The pitiful poutings of pets ! 
As they chat over ' knock-about ' dresses. 

And talk over thick ulsterettes. 
Ah ! the chorus of maidens ecstatic, 

Who long for the Chamoani pines: 
For a glimpse of the blue Adriatic, 

Or sight of the rich Apennines. 

the picture of packing and pleasure, 

Tlie flutter that reigns in the nest ; 
And the mixture of labour and leisure — 

The days full of bustle and rest. 
As the queen of the flitting unravels 

New plans for the pluming of wings ; 
Or perchance slnmbers o^er * Tiny Travels/ 

Or sweetly ' The Vagabond ' sings. 



Will yon dream 'neath ^ snowy umbrella, 
With Tauchnitz, ei^ei hot afternoon ? 

Will you go to the Isiica Bella, 
Or row by the lighitof the moon C 



Will you lounge 'neath the pink oleander. 
Comparing tliis year with the iast ? 

Will e'er less (!) in the garden meander. 
And think with regret of the past 1 

It is quite true that Thackeray in some 
of his inimitable parodies did succeed in 
observing a balance where many others 
have failed, did manage to convey weighty 
meanings through so effervescent a medium 
. without sense of divorce or by spoiling the 
pleasantry ; but this was because of his 
remarkable combination of delicacy and 
creative humour — his unique union of life- 
knowledge, quaint original fancy, and power 
of imitation, piercing to profoundcr charac- 
teristics ; so that he can hardly be said to 
be a mere parodist even when he seems to 
be most determinedly working as a parodist, 
and thus in a walk of art crowded with 
competitors, he stands absolutely alone. 
The bulk of the exercises of the Brothers 
Smith, again, are samples of pure parody. 
But it is not our purpose to draw particular 
illustrations from the past. ^ That would be 
an endless experiment. Specimens of pres- . 
ent-day writers will better serve our pur- 
pose. Mr. Frederick Locker, equipped as 
one might fancy in many respects for paro- 
dy, has seldom essayed it. He gives us, 
however, a few specimens. The following, 
which carries over into delightful extrava- 
gance the ultra-simplicity and sentiment of 
the Poet Laureate's ' Lord of Burleigh,' is 
one of his best efforts in pure parody ; but 
we must add that in this field, though Mr. 
Locker admirably illustrated our demand 
for well-bred inoffensiveness, he has never 
risen intellectually above the old-fashioned 
standard — the standard of the * Rejected 
Addresses.' We cannot, however, conceive 
Mr. Tennyson himself reading this save 
with well-pleased, hearty laughter, because 
Mr. Locker insinuates no feeling other than 
admiration for the poem he parodies : — 

UNFORTUNATE MISS BAILEY. 

AN EXPERIMENT. 

When he whispers, ' O Miss Bailey, 
Thou art biughtest of the throng ' — 

She makes murmur, softly-gaily — 
' Alfred, I have loved thee long.' 

Tlien he drops upon his knees, a 

Proof his heart is warm as wax ; 
She's — I don't know who, but he's a 

Captain bold, from Halifax. 

Though so loving, such another 

Artless bride was never seen ; 
Coachee thinks that she's his mother 

Till ihey get to Gretna Green. 

There they stand, by him attended. 

Hear the sable smith rehearse 
That whi'ch links them, when 'tia ended 

Tight for belter—- or for worse. 



04 



JParody and ParodisU. 



Jan. 



Now her heart rejoices — ugly 

Troubles need disturb ber le 
Now the Happj Pair are snugly 

Seated in the night express. 

So they go with fond emotion, 
So they journey through the night ; 

London is their land of Goshen — 
See, its suburbs are in sight 1 

Hark I the sound of life is swelling, 
Pacing up, and racing down ; 

Soon they reach her simple dwelling — 
Burley Street, by Somers Town* 

Wliat is there to so astound them T 
She cries ' Oh t ' for he cries ' Hah I ' 

Wlien five brats emerge, confound them ! 
Shouting out, ' Mamma I ' — ' Papa 1 ' 

While at this he wonders blindly. 
Nor their meaning can divine. 

Proud she turns them round, and kiudly, 
' All of these are mine and thine 1 ' 



Here he pines and grows dyspeptic, 

Losing heart he loses pith — 
Hints that Bishop Tail's a sceptic. 

Swears that Moses was a myth. 

Sees no evidence in P&l^y» 

Taiies to drinking ratina: 
Shies the muffins at Miss Bailey 

While she*s pouring out the tea. 

One day, knocking up his quarters. 
Poor Mlfis Bailey found him dead, 

Hanffing in his knotted garters, 
Which she knitted ere they wed. 

Tom Ilood was the more fitted for paro- 
dy in thcftt be was deficient in some of the 
qualities which made bis versatile father so 
unique — ^alike spontaneous and finished in 
serious poetry and in the veriest wbipt- 
cream of verse. He bai written one of the 
cleverest parodies of recent years on one of 
Mr. Swiuburne^s best known efforts. The 
parody will perhaps be the better appreciated 
if we first give a few stanzas of the original. 
It will bo observed that the metre is a diffi- 
cult one, and new in English. 

A MATCH. 

If love were what the rose is. 

And I were like tlie leaf. 
Our lives would grow together 
In sad or siaging weather. 
Blown fields or nowerful doses. 

Green pleasure or grey grief; 
If love were witat the rose is. 

And I were like the leaf. 

If I wore what the words are. 
And love were like the tune, 

With double sound and single 

Dellglit our lips would mingle. 

With kisses glad as birds are 
That get sweet rain at noon ; 

If I were what the words are, 
And love were like the tune. 



If yon were April's lady. 

And I were lord in May, 
We'd throw with leaves for hours 
And draw for days with flowers, 
Till day like night were shady. 

And night were bright like day ; 
If you were ApriVs lady. 

And I were lord in M^y. 

If you were queen of pleasure, 

And^I were king of pain. 
We'd hunt down Jove together. 
Pluck out Ills flying.feather. 
And teach his feet a measure. 

And find his mouth a rein : 
If you were queen of pleasure. 

And I were king of iiain. 

The reader will notice that in no point does 
Tom Hood fail to follow his origwial — the 
very title is a happy parody. 

A CATCBL 

BT A MUnC OF MODKRN MELODY 

If you were queen of bloaters. 

And I were king of soles. 
The sea we'd wag our fins In, 
Nor heed the crooked pins in 
Tiie water dropt by IxMiters 

To catch our heedless joles ; 
If you were queen of bloaters. 

And I were king of soles. 

If yon were Lady MSIe-End, 

And I were Duke of Bow, 
We'd marry and we'd quarrel. 
And then, to point the moral. 
Should Lord Penzance his file lend 

Our chains to overthrow ; 
If you were Lady Mile-End, 

And I were Duke of Bow. 

If you were chill November, 

And I were sunny June, 
I'd not witli love pursue you \*^ 
For I should be to woo yon 
(You're foggy, pray remember), 

A most egregious spoon ; 
If you were chill November, 

And I were sunny June. 

If yon were cook to Venus, 

And I were J 19, 
When missus was out dining. 
Our Buppertites combining, 
We*d oft contrive between us 

To keep the platter clean ; 
n you were cook to Venus. 

And I were J 10. 

If you were but a Jingle, 

And I were but a rhyme ; 
We*d keep tliis up for ever, 
Nor tliink it v<^ry clever, 
A grain of sense to mingle 

At times with simple chime'; 
If you were but a jingle. 

And I were but a rhyme* 

Mr. Smnbumc, iw we shall see, ha^ been 
a favoarite subject with later parodist*— 
• Dolores,' ' A Ballad of Oreatnlaod,* ' Fmus- 



isie. 



Parody and Parodists. 



95 



tine,' and otBers, have been parodied over 
and over again ; bat we must not part from 
Tom. Hood without sajing that bis parodies 
of Moore and Byron are quite as ingenious 
and sustained as the above ; while Mr. 
Browning is not unsucccssfallj followed in 
these verses : — 

POETS AND SONNETS. 

BY "R* B»RT. BII»WN*NQ. 

Where'er there's a tbistle to feed a linnet — 
And linnets are plenty* thistles rife^ 

Or an ar^rnK^up to catcb dewdrops in it. 
There's ample promise of future life. 

Now mark how we begin it. 

For linnets will follow, if linnets are minded, 
f f As blow^the white-feather parachute ; 
And ships will reel by the tempest blinded — 

• Ay, ships, and shiploads of men to boot ! 
How deep whole fleets you'll find hid. 

And we blow the thistledown hither and thither, 
Forgetful of linnets, and men, and God. 

The dew ! — for Its want an oak will witlier — 
By the dull hoof into the dust is trod. 

And then who strikes the cithar t 

Bat thistles were only for donkeys intended, 
And that donkeys are common enough is 
clear. 
And that drop I What a vessel it might have 
befriended ? 
Does it add any flavour to Glugabib's beer ? 
Well, there's my musing ended. 

Headers of recent fiction — more especial- 
ly admirers of Miss Ingelow, of w-hom there 
are many iu every part of the world — may 
be interested in knowing the history of 
those little bits of funny verse with which 
she enliveued her latest novel, ' Fated to be 
Free,' more particularly several chapters in 
the latter part of it. They are really ' le- 
vonges * of a delicate kind. We know that 
poets from of old have been apt to bandy 
other wordy messages than compliments, 
and the quarrel between Mr. Tennyson and 
the late Lord Lyttou is a good modern in- 
stance. So when Mr. Calverley, who has 
obtained considerable repute as a cunning 
master of metre, both by liis original poetic 
work and by translations, includes direct 
parodies of Miss Ingelow's most popular 
pieces, exposing all her w^orst faults, it is 
only natural that she should try to retaliate 
in tind. In his little vol n me of * Fly Leaves,' 
Mr. Calverley at one place, under the title, 

* Lovers, and a Reflection,' wrote : — 

In moss-prankt dell, which the sunbeams flatter 
(And heaven it knoweth what tbatmay mean ; 

Meaning, however, ia no great matter), 
Where woods are a-tremble, with rifts 
atween ; 

Thro' Qod's own]^heather Vfre wound together ^ 
I and my Willie (O love) my love) : 

I need hardly remark it was glorious weather, 
And flitter bats Wavered alow, above : 



Boats were curtseying, rising, bowing 
(Boats in that climate are so polite), 

And sands were fi ribbon of green endowing. 
And O the sun-dazzle on batk and bight 1 

Thro' the rare red heather we danced together 
(O love my Willie !), and smelt for flowers : 

I must mention again it was glorious weather. 
Rhymes are so scarce in this world of ours : — 

By rises that flushed with their purple favours, 
Thro' becks that brattled o'er grassy sheen. 

We walked and waded, we two young shavers. 
Thanking our stars we were both so green. 

We journeyed in parallels, I and Willie, 
In fortunate parallels ! Butterflies, 

Hid in weltering shadows of daffodilly 
Or marjoram, kept making peacocks' eyes : — 

Song-birds darted about, some inky 
As coal, some snowy (I ween) as curds ; 

Or rosy as pinks, or as roses pinky — 
They reck of no eerie To-come, those birds I 

But they skim over bents which the mill- 
stream washes. 
Or hang in the lift 'neath a white cloud's 
hem ; 
They need no parasols, no goloshes ; 
And good Mrs. Trimmer she feedeth them. 

Then we thrid God's cowslips (as erst His 
heather) 
That endowed the wan grass with their gold- 
en blooms ; 
And snapt — (it was perfectly charming weath- 
er) — 
Our fingers at Fate and her goddess-glooms. 

And Willie 'gan sing (oh, his notes were fluty ; 
Wafts fluttered them out to the white-winged 
sea) — 
Something made up of rhymes that have done 
much duty. 
Rhymes (better to put it) of 'ancientry.' 

if billows and pillows and hours and flowers. 

And all the brave rhymes of an elder day. 
Could be furled together this genial weather, 

And carted or carried.on wafts away. 
Nor ever again trotted out — ay me 1 
How much fewer volumes of verse there'd be. 

To literary experts, with these facts in 
view, it was not hard to find an underlying 
satiric reference in such scraps as these 
from ' Fated to be Free : ' — 

That maiden's nose, that puppy's eyes^ 

Which I this happy day saw. 
They've touched the manliest chords that rise 

I* the breast of Clifford Crayshaw. 

« * • # 4t • 

All day she worked, ho lover lent 

His aid ; and yet with glee 
At dusk she sought her home, content. 

That beauteous Bumble Bee. 

A cell it was, nor more nor less. 

But oh ! all's one to me. 
Whether you write it with an S, 

Dear girl, or with a C. 
« « * * • • 



96 



Parody ani Parodists. 



Jan. 



Then doth Tuck-maa smile, ' Them there . 

(Ho and Hi and futile Hum) 
Jellies three«and-8ix pence air, 

Ude of spoons an equal sum.' 

Trees are rich. Sweet task, 'tis o'er, 
* Tuck-man, you're a brick,* they crjr. 

Wildly then, shake hands, all four 
(Hum and Ho, the end is Hi). 

But whatever may be said of the serioas 
vurse of the two writers, it !» clear that Miss 
Ingelow cannot cope with Mr. Calverley 

(Crayshay, C— y, for the sake of 

rhyme in two cases made Crashaw) in paro- 
dy. Her efforts are too easily taken for 
mere nonsense verse, and lack the exacti- 
tude and delicacy of reference and imitation 
which alone could have justified them in 
this iight. 

Mr. Calverley is perhaps the most dexter- 
ous of later paiodists. No point seems to 
escape him : no poet is beyond his scope. 
He is as facile in metres as bo is learned, 
and this enables him to deal with topics 
from which any one unless a well-grounded 
scholar would be excluded. His taste is 
admirable ; and, like Mr. Locker, he hits 
off the * masters ' without insinuating any 
particular irreverence for them — a great 
point in parody, which too often vulgarizes, 
by association. How ing niously Mrs. 
Browning is reflected in the piece entitled 
* In the Gloaming,' of which these are a 
few stanzas : — 

In the Gloaming to bo roaming, whore the 
crested waves are foaming. 
And the shy mermaidon combing locks that 
ripple to her feet ; 
When the Gloaming is I never made the ghost 
of an endeavour 
To discover— but whatever were the hour, it 
it would be swe^. 

' To their feet,' I say, for Leech's sketch indis- 
putably teaches 
That the mermaids oi our beaches do not end 
in ugly tails ; 
Nor have uomes among the corals ; but are 
shod wiih neat balmorals. 
An arrangement no one quarrels with, as 
many might with scales. 

Sweet to roam beneath a shady cliff, of course 
with some yovLtnc lady, 
Lalage, Nesra, Haldee, or Elaine, or Mary 
Ann : 
Love, you dear delusive dream you I very 
sweet your victims deem you. 
When heard only by the seamew, they talk 
all the stuff one can. 

Sweet to haste, a licensed lover, to Miss Pinker- 
ton, the glover, 
Having managed to discover what is dear 
Nenra's size : 
P'raps to touch that wrist " so slender, as your 
tiny gift you tender. 
And to read you're no offender in those 
laughing hasel eyes. 



Then the days of courtship over, with yoar 
wife to start for Dover 
Or Dieppe — and live in clover, evermore, 
whate'er befalls : 
For I've read in many a novel, that unless 
they've souls that grovel, 
Folks prefer in fact a hovel to your dreary 
marble halls. 

To sit, happy married Jovers ; Phillis trifling 
with a plover's 
Sgg» ^hile Corydon ^^uncovers with a grace 
the Sally Lunn, ^ 
Or dissects the Incky pheasant — ^that, I think, 
were passing pleasant, 
As I sit alone at present, dreaming darkly of 
a dun. 

Miss Rossetti, Mr. Coventry Patmoro, 
Mr. Browning, Mr. Tennyson, are all ren- 
dered inimitably. We can only afford 
space to give examples of his Brown ingesc 
blank verso and Tennysonian lyric : — 

Now law steps in» bigwigged, voluminoos- 

jawed ; • 

Investigates and reinvestigates. 
Was the transaction illegal ? Law shakes head. 
Prepend, sir, all the bearings of the case. 



At first the coin was mine, the chattel his. 

But now (by virtue of the said exchange 

And barter), tice wrsd, all the coin 

Per juris operationem, vests 

I* the boy and his assigns till ding o* doom 

(In 9tsetUa MeeuUHho-orum ; 

I think I hear the*Abate mouth out that). 

To have and hold the same to^ him [and 

them. . . • 
Confer some idiot on conveyancing. 
Whereas the pebble and every part thereof. 
And all that appertaineth thereunto 
Ouodeunqus pertinet ad earn rem 
(1 fancy, sir, my Latin's rather pat). 
Or shall, will, may, might, could, would, or 

should 
(Subaudi ecBtera—c\hp we to the close — 
For what's the good of law in a case of tho 

kind). 
Is mine to all intents and purposes. 
This settled, I resume the thread o* the tale. 

Now for a touch of the vendor's quality. 

He says a gen'leman bought a pebble of him 

(This pebble, i' sooth, sir, which I hold 1* my 

hand). 
And paid for't, like a gen'leman. on tho nail. 
' Did I o'ercharge him a ha'penny ? Devil a 

bit. 
Fiddlepin's end I Get out, you blazing ass I 
Gabble o' the goose. Don't bugaboo baby me ! 
So double or quits T Yah ! tittup ! what's the 

odds?' 
— ^There's the transaction viewed 1' the vendor's 

light. 

Is it possible, let as ask in passing, that 
this inimitable play on Mr. Browning's 
famous dramatic summary of a law-case 
suggested his * Leading Ci^s * to the ' Ap- 
prentice of Lincoln*^ Inn ' t But wo mnst 
not forget Mr. Tennyson's Ijric. Ilere it i^ 
in Mr. Calvoriey^a form : — 



1878. 



JParody and Parodists. 



97 



WANDERERS. 

I loiter down by thurp and town, 

For any job I'm willing ; 
Take here and there a dusty brown ; 

And here and there a shilling. 

I deal in every ware in turn, 

I've rings for buddin' Sally, 
That sparkle like those eyes of her'n ; 

I've liquor for the valet. 

I steal from th* parson's strawberry plots, 

1 hide by th' squire's covers ; 
I teach the sweet young housemaids what's 

The art of trapping lovers. 

The things I've done 'neath moon and stars 

Have got me into messes ; 
I've seen the sky thro* prison bars, 

I've torn up prison dresses : 

I've sat, I've sighed, I've gloom&d, I've glanced 

With envy at the swallows 
That thro' the window slid and danced 

(Quite happy) round this gallows. 

Bat out again I come, and show 

My face, nor care a stiver ; 
For trades are brisk and trades are slow. 

But mine goes on for ever. 

Thus on he prattled, like a babbling brook. 
Then I, ' The sun hath slipt behind the hill, 
And my aunt Vivian dines at half-past six.' 
So in all love we parted ; I to the Hall, 
They to the village. It was noised next noon 
That chickens had been missed at Syllabub 
Farm. 

That peculiarly offective metre in which 
Mr. Swiuburne wrote * Dolores ' and his fa- 
mous Dedication of the ' Poems and Bal- 
lads ' volume, is pre-eminently one to invite 
parody, but also to defeat it. It looks very 
easy to imitate it at first sight, but that 
ending line of each stanza, so dexterously 
cut short, will defy all hands save the most 
skilful. Of the many parodie's of this fa- 
vourite Swinburnian metre which we have 
seen, there is only one which really carries* 
the show of spirit successfully on, and this 
is the ' Dedication to J. S.' — the famous 
* John Stiles ' of the old law-books — in that 
little slip of a volume, ' Leading Cases.' 
That those even who may not be familiar 
with Mr. Swinburne's * Poems and Ballads ' 
may appreciate the parody, we give here 
the three stanzas from the Dedication to 
that volume which are most closely paro- 
died, and the reader will observe how aptly 
the somewhat • pompous feminine-rhymes 
and the alliterations have been followed : — 

The sea gives her shells to the shingle. 

The earth gives her streams to the sea ; 
They are many, but my ^ift is single, 

My verses, the iirst-friuts of me. 
Let the wind take the green and the grey leaf. 

Cast forth without fruit upon air ; 
Take rose.leaf and vine-leaf and bay-leaf 

Blown loose from the hair. 



* « 

VOL. Lxrii, 



« • 

B— 7 



Though the world of your hands be more gra- 
cious 

And lovelier in lordship of things, 
Clothed round by sweet art with the spacious 

Warm heaven of her imminent wings ; 
Let them enter, unfledged and nigh fainting. 

For the love of old loves and lost times. 
And receive in your palace of painting * 

This revel of rhymes. 

' * « « # « « 

Though the many lights dwindle to one light. 

There is help if the heaven has one ; 
Though the skies be discrowned of the sun- 
light. 

And the earth dispossessed of the sun. 
They have moonlight and sleep for repayment 

When refreshed as a bride, and set free. 
With stars and sea-winds in her raiment, . 

Nlghi sinks on the sea. 

Now, the ' Dedication to J. S.' can hard- 
ly fail to be read with interest. 

When waters are rent with commotion 

Of storms, or with sunlight made whole. 
The river still pours to the ocean 

The stream of its efBuent soul ; 
You, too, from all lips uf all living 

Of worship dlsthroned and discrowned. 
Shall know by these gifts of my giving 

That faith is yet found : 

By the sight of my song-flight of cases 

That bears on wings woven of rhyme 
Names set for a sign in high places 

By sentence of men of old time ; 
From all counties they meet and they mingle. 

Dead suitors whom Westminster saw ; 
They are many, but your name is single. 

The flower of pure law. 

When bounty of grantors was gracious 

To enfeoff you in fee and in tail. 
The bounds of your land were made spacious 

With lordship from Sale unto Dale ; 
Trusts had you, and services loyal, 

Lips sovereign for ending of strife, 
And the names of the world's names most royal? 

For light of your life. 

Ah desire that was urgent, to Rome ward. 

And feet that were s\ttifter than fate's. 
And the noise of the speed of them homeward 

For mutation and fall of estates I 
Ah the days when your riding to Dover 

Was prayed for and precious as gold. 
The journeys, the deeds that are over. 

The praise of them told. 

But the days of your reign are departed. 

And our fathers that fed on your looks 
Have begotten a folk feeble-hearted. 

That seek not your name in their books r 
And against you is risen a new foeman. 

To storm with strange engines your home,. 
We was pale at the name of him Roman, 

His coming from Rome. 



Tet I pour you this drink of my verses, 
Of learning made lovely with lays, 

Sone bitter and sweet that rehearses 
The deeds of your eminent days ; 

* The book was dedicated to Mr. Burne- 
Jones, the distinguished painter. 



98 



Parody and PcerodUtB. 



Jan^ 



Yea, in these eTil ^js from their reading 
Some profit a stadent eliall draw. 

Though some points are of obsolete pleading^. 
And some are not law. 

Though the Courts that were manifold dwindle 

To divers DiTisious of one, 
And no fire from jour face may rekindle 

The light of old learning undone ; 
We have suitors and briefs for our payment. 

While so lonfi^ as a Court shall hold pleas. 
We talk moonshine, with wigs for our raiment. 

Not sinking the fees. 

Though we cannot regard the • Appren- 
tice of LincolD's Inn ^ as haviog always been 
quite successful in findinp; funny points in 
his * cases,* sufficient to sustain for them a 
claim to rank on the higher ground of inde- 
pendent humour, as it is too clear that he 
aimed at doing, yet it must be admitted 
that he has ahiiost succeeded in this ' Dedi- 
cation.' Nothing could well be mere effect- 
ive than the point that is made on the 
' Romeward tendency.' ' If J. S. shall go 
to Rome in tbree days is the standing ex- 
ample of an iiTipossible condition ' in these 
old law-books. In all the other instances, 
howtver, the desire to compass a double 
purpose, that is, to convey ^substantial 
IcgRi fun ' under cover of parody, has, in 
par idea, failed, and failed nowhere more 
^conspicuously than in that imitation of Mr. 
Browning, Hhich we cannot help thinking 
was suggested by Mr. Calvcrley*s mnch hap- 
vpier effort in the same line — that piece, 
again, suggesting the idea of the whole 
4>ook. These are a few of the * Appren- 
iicc's' Biowningcse lines — he improves a 
^oint on Mr. Culverley in adopting that 
odd, ii regular, rhyming couplet which Mr. 
Browning used with such effect in one of 
4iis later volumes : — 

Facts o* case first. At Milborne Port 
^Was fair-day, October the twenty and eight, ' 
And folk in the market like fowls in a crate ; 
.Shepherd, one of your town-fool sort, 
(From Solomon's time they call it sport. 
Bight to help holiday, just make fun loader), 
Lights me a squib up of paper and powder, 
(Find if you can tl^ law-Latin for 't) 
And chucks it, to give their trading a rouse, 
Full i' the midst o' the market-house. 
It happ'd to fall on a stall where Tates 
Sold gingerbread and gilded cates 
(Small damage if th^ should bum or fly all) ; 
To save himself and said gingerbread loss, 
■ One Willis doth toss the thing across 
To stall of one Kyall, who straight an espial 
'Of danger to his wares, of selfsame wortli. 
Casts ii in market-house farther forth. 
And by two mesne tossings thus it got 
To burst in the face of plaintiff Scott ; 
And now 'gainst Shepherd, for loss of eye, 
'The question is, whether tretpasi shall lie. 

Here, precisely as in one of the other 
'^IfCading Case^,' where an effort is made 



by John Yauz, on a ground of treroass, to 
recovw *' eight pennies,' for wine and bread 
consumed on the premises by six carpen- 
ters, who could not or would not pay the 
same, we find that the body of legal fun is 
too heavy for the mere parody, which rests 
on points that are too delicate. In the case 
of the *six carpenters,' the point of the 
parody rests merely on the fantastical and 
inept rhyme of * low ' and * ah initio^ which 
forms the last couplet of each stanza. 

Sedver totam curiam 'twas well resolved 

(Note, reader, this difference) 
That in mere not doing no trespass is. 

And John Vanx went empty thence. 
The birds on the bough sinsr loud and sing low, 
No trespass was here ab initio— 

is surely very 'poor fun in either point of 
view. The * Apprentice' has spoiled his 
purpose of parody by limiting the field of 
motif. To make a book of * leading cases,' 
unless with an allowance of broader fun 
than his form of parody admitted, was 
almost to court monotony. 

Mr. Swinbunie in his various experiments 
with exotic forms has given a specimen of 
the French Balladty which would be very 
perfect were it not for one or two awkward- 
nesses in the feminine-rhymes — such as 

* snows is' and * grows is,' which would 
hardly be deemed happy rhymes in any 
ordinary English form ; while another point 
is that he gets over a difiaculty by the expe- 
dient of such words as * part,' * apart,' and 

* dispart ' — hardly rhymes in strictness, but 
identical words — an expedient, as we know, 
not uncommon in French poetry, and sanc- 
tioned even by Dante in Italian, but, in 
such a case, surely introducing somewhat of 
the very license which, as Mr. Gosse has 
well said in liis *• Flea for certain exotic 

. forms of verse,' * it is the special object of 
such forms to proscribe. AYe do not think 
that such identically sounded words as 

* heart ' and ' hart ' can in strictness be de- 
fended in this form of verse any more than 
they would be in the sonnet. If * deferred ' 
is a good rhyme to * bird,' then * heard ' 
may pass, but then only. A parodist, who 
is certainly ingenious, has made a point of 
emphasizing these defects in Mr. Swin- 
burne*s Ballade, But to give point to the 
parody we must quote two stanzas — the 
first and third— from the * Ballad of Dreani; 
land : * — 

I hid my heart in a nest of roses. 
Out of the sun's wav, hidden apart ; 

In a softer bed than the soft white snow's ii?, 
Under the roses I hid my heart. 

• * Comhill Magazine ' for July, 1877. Would 
Mr. Gosse really justify such expedients in the 
English sonnet ? 



1878. 



Parody and Parodists^ 



Wby sliould it sleep not ? why slioald it start, 
When never a leaf of the rose tree stirred 1 

What madA sleep flatter his wings and part? 
Only the son^r of a secret bird. 

The i^reen land's name that a charm encloses, 

It never was writ in the traveller's chart, 
And sweet as the frait on its tree that grows is, 

It never was sold in the merchants' mart. 

The swallows of dreams through its dim fields 
dart, 
And sleep's are the tunes in its tree tops heard ; 

No hound's note wakens the wild wood hart, 
Only the song of a secret bird. 



Now for the Parody — cap-a-pie — with the 
JBnvoi and all : — 

A BALLAD OF AFTER DINNER. 

A tfOKTR AFTER SWINBURNE. 

I hid my head in a rug from Hoses, 

From the clatter of moving dishes apart, 
And curled up my feet for forty dozes, 

Jast for to soothe my beating heart. 

Why did it sleep not t Why did it stare. 
When never a dish remained to shock ? 

What made the fluttering doze depart ? 
Only the tick of an eight-day clock. 

Be still, I said, for hope presupposes 

A still mild mood for the sleep-slain hart ; 
Be still, for the wind, with his curled-up toes, is 

Silent and quieter yet than thou art. 

Doth a wound in thee deep as a thorn's wound 
smart T 
Dost thou fretfully languish for Clicquot and 
hock? 

What bids the lids of thv sleep dispart ? 
Only the tick of an eight-day clock. 

I wait in vain for the charm that encloses 
The green, land of dreams in sleep's mystical 
chart. 
For the fruit of its trees and the breath of its 
roses, 
More sweet than are sold in the merchants' 

mart. 
So close to its bojrder, why fails my heart ? 
What holdeth it b^ck, tho' my dim brain rock? 

Without, the noise of the nightman's cart. 
Within, the tick of an eight-day clock. 

BnvoK 

Erewhile in hope I had chosen my part. 
To sleep for a season as sound as a block, 

With never a thought of a nightman's cart, 
Or the hateful tick of an eight- day clock. 

O^e parody of Mr. Swinburne which is 
distinctly ingenious and sustained, and 
which would have been less faulty had the 
subject been different and less personal, is, 
we have been led to believe, of American 
origin. It may be described as a ' glorifica- 
tion of the hat.' It comes too close on be- 
ing offensive here and there, but parts of it 
are exquisite, and it runs through many va- 
rieties of the metres much affected by Mr. 
Swinburne, even down to a comic travesty 




of his famous Atalauta choruses, 
one bit ; — 

Before the beginning of years, 

There went to the making of man 
Nine tailors with their shears, 

A coupe and a tiger and span. 
Umbrellas and neckties and canes. 

An ulster, a coat, and all that — 
But the crowning glory remains. 

His last best gift was his hat. 
And the mad hatters took in hand 

Skins of the beaver, and felt. 
And straw from the isthmus land, 

And silk and black bears' pelt : 
And wrought with prophetic passion, 

Designed on the newest plan. 
They made in the height of fasnion 

The liat for the wearing of man. 

Nor is this parodist unhappy in his blank 
verse, which he skilfully runs into sharpest 
caricature : — 

I would fain forget the cold 
Of hand and feet, of heart and mouth of me. 
Fire that I drink, burn in the songs I sing ! 
O that I were on some sweet sunlit hill 
To see the glad vines crowding aslant its slopes, 
Stnuning strong arms about it in the sun ; 
And through the light and shadow of the 

leaves. 
See Bacchus's self dancing among the grapes ; 
And drink my flll until my blood grew warm 
As juice of madness in the veins of vines. 
Until my song grew sweet, fulfilled of fire 
And joy of wine, of rich, luxuriant words, 
Clustered as purple grapes upon my lips \ 
So would I follow all the day the 4ance 
Of Bacchanals, and wearied in the way, 
Lay me asleep in shadow of the vines. 
Or would that I in midst of silver seas 
I^d felt the ship staid suddenly on her coarse. 
And seen the masts made green with vine leaves 

when 
Bacchus was crowned, and. rode triumphant, 

borne 
By lithe and spotted leopards out of the sea. 
Dead dreams, alas, and past I I will away. 
Leaving tlie club of clods for mine own house. 
Where is my hat ? I thought I had seen two ! 
Where is it ? Fret and irony of chance. 
Shall I be hatless, shall I walk uncrowned 
In shadow of no brim among the bards ? 



SFiall I, aji uncrowned crown, discrowned of 

Fate, . 

Bare to the breath of winds Clown every way. 
And chill the burning brain it bears beneath ? 

To give specimens of all the varieties of 
parody that are in their way worthy of 
citation, were impossible. Particularly do 
we recall a very clever parody of Mr. Brown- 
iiig*8 blank verse, with his affectedly prosaic 
spelling of Greek proper names, in the ' Ex- 
aminer,* and another as good in several re- 
spects, in * The World.' There are nowadays 
a whole class of clever satirical journals 
which make this a kind of feature, passing 
even into the refinements of Kondels and 
Rondeaus, &c., so that the supply is far 



100 



Professor JUsnry Rogers. 



Jan. 



from likely to fail. Bat it needs to be said 
that parody, though artificial in its nature, 
must not be too conspicucusly forced^ else 
the standard of requirement will be lowered. 
We see some tendency in this direction 
already : parodies are printed every week 
whose only claim to notice is their coarse- 
ness, and whose vulgar personality is their 
only point Luckily they serve their pur- 
pose and pass ; but, evanescent as this form 
of verse is, it has its own influence on the 
general taste, and it were to be wished that 
the editors of satirical journals were some- 
times a little more alive to this point of 
view. IT. A. P. 



Art. VIII. — Professor Henry Rogers, 

In the preface to the first edition of * Grey- 
son's Correspondence ' Mr. Rogers writes : 
* Should any inquisitive reader ask to know 
a little more of Mr. Grey son's history than 
is disclosed in his own correspondence, I 
answer that his biography, if ever written 
— and he took infinite pains to prevent any 
one having the materials for the purpose — 
must be written by one who knew him in 
his younger days much better than I did. 
I appreheiid, however, that there would be 
but little to tell. Few men ever led a more 
recluse life, or one more barren of incidents 
that could at all interest the public' Mr. 
Rogers almost always wrote anonymously. 
' R. E. B. Grey son ' is an anagram upon his 
own name, so that in the sentence we have 
quoted he is speaking of himself. His life 
was singularly retired and uneventful. We 
might, indeed recite a number of minute in- 
cidents of his personal and family history 
that would not be without interest to those 
who knew him, but any inclination to do so 
is repressed by the certain conviction that 
our late friend would emphatically have de- 
precated all suck attempts. It is quite true 
that a man's wishes, in this respect, may 
sometimes very properly be disregarded ; 
but we are at present not disposed so to 
deal with one who but yesterday was 
amongst us, and from the spell of whose 
personal influence we do not affect to be set 
free. Our readers will, however, not be 
sorry to have such a sketch of Mr. Rogers 
as may justifiably be given. He occupied 
an honourable and almost a unique position 
amongst Congregationalists ; and by his 
powerful pen he addressed, in the highest 
regions of Christian thought and contro- 
versy, a circle far wider than the limits of 
his own denomination. 



Henry Rogers was the son of a much re- 
spected medical man, and was a native of 
St. Alban's, where he first saw the light in 
the year 1806. In his boyhood he discov- 
ered Considerable precocity in the attain- 
ment of languages, and in a passion for 
reading. Of the two instructors to whom 
chiefly his early education was entrusted, 
he remembered with gratitude and affection 
Mr. J. C. Thorowgood, whose name seems 
to have been a symbol of his character, 
lliorowgood was then eighteen years of 
age. He had creditably completed his 
studies at Mill Hill School, and, with his 
sisters, resided near the school, and was 
master of the junior or preparatory depart- 
ment. Rogers lived in the same house, and 
Hudied with Thorowgood, till the latter left 
for Totteridge, and established a school 
there in partnership with a brother-in-law. 

Rogers remembered with feelings, in 
which there mingled little affection and no 
gratitude, another schoolmaster under whose 
tuition he was placed when separated from 
Thorowgood, and from whom he received 
no good, and whose chief function seems to 
have been to teach the boys how to waste 
their time. Those who are familiar with 
Professor Rogers's writings, will remember 
many instances in which medical pursuits 
furnish him with apt illustrations for adorn- 
ing and enforcing his argument. His irony 
and his humour — always exercised with 
kindliness — are frequently employed at the 
expense of the professors of the healing art. 
The orthodox practitioner, no more than 
the quack and the impostor, escapes the 
sallies of his wit. This may be accounted 
for by the fact that on leaving school it was 
towards medicine that his Intentions were 
first directed. But the science and the art 
of the apothecary did not long detain him. 
He was soon led aside into a very different 
path. It gradually grew irresistibly clear 
to him that the Christian ministry was the 
path he must follow, though subsequent 
events proved that the form in which his 
prophecyings were to be delivered to the 
world was not yet surmised. We are not 
aware that any sudden light, like the reve- 
lation to Saul on the Damascus road, had 
fallen upon young Rogers. The circum- 
stances of his early youth were happily such 
as to give him prepossessions towards the 
service of Christ, and to present the Christ- 
ian religion in its true attractiveness ; but 
it was the perusal of Howe's ' Redeemer's 
Tears wept over Lost Souls ' — which, Rog- 
ers says, ' is deservedly ranked amongst the 
most valuable pieces of practical divinity in 
the English language '-^— that led him to sol- 
emn, definite consecration, and ere long the 



1878. 



Professor JBJenry JRogere, 



101 



resolve was formed to devote himself to tbe 
ministry of the gospel. He determined to 
submit his powers to the best training that 
con Id be procured. Of course he could not 
enter an English university. He was a 
loyal subject, of high moral character and 
of an amiable disposition, and in bis intel- 
lectual ability and attainments he was far 
above the average. But he had one unpar- 
donable sin, which at that time proved a 
more effectual barrier to his admission to 
either of the great national seats of learning 
than any other doctrinal heresy, or than any 
immorality. Ho was a Nonconformist, and 
he would have knocked in vain at the doors of 
Oxford or of Cambridge. It is idle to specu- 
late upon the effect a university life might 
have had upon him, or to inquire which 
was the greater loser by such unjust exclu- 
sion, tbe university or the student. But, 
shut out from the universities, Rogers could 
not have taken a better course than that 
which he actually followed. He entered 
Highbury College, and .bad the advantage 
of the bracing and stimulating influence of 
the late Dr. Halley. From Highbury he 
went to Poole, in Dorsetshire, where the 
well-known Independent minister, Mr. Du- 
rant, was in the habit of availing himself of 
the assistance of younger men. Soon after 
his settlement there he married, in 1830, 
and in a few months he was visited with a 
calamity which almost overwhelmed him. 
It was the death of his wife ; and this 
affliction was speedily followed by another 
(though only an apparent one), which had 
as great an effect on his public career as 
his bereavement had upon his domestic his- 
tory. His voice failed him. After many 
vain endeavours to arrest and to remedy the 
growing weakness of the throat, the conclu- 
sion had to be accepted that public speak- 
ing, and of course the pastoral office, must 
be given up. Much to his own disappoint- 
ment, and much to the grief of Mr. Durant 
and tbe Charch at Poole, amongst whom 
Mr. Rogers had made many warm friends, 
the young minister — not yet ordained — was 
compelled to seek another vocation. After 
a little doubt as to the course that should 
be pursued, tbe way was soon opened, and 
Rogers fell into what was to be bis life's 
work — teaching and writing. In April, 
1832, he took up his abode in London, and 
gave himself to close study. Amongst other 
things, he acquired a knowledge of the 
Anglo-Saxon and the German languages, at- 
tainments that were necessary to qualify 
him for the post he afterwards held of pro- 
fessor of English. His first tntorship was 
in the college where he had studied — High- 
bury. He was appointed to this in ] 832 



or 1833, and in January, 1837, he became 
Professor of English Language and Litera- 
ture in the recently founded University Col- 
lege. He occupied this chair, while still 
engaged at Highbury, for two years. In 
December, 1838, he accepted an invitation 
from Spring Hill College, Birmingham, 
which had not till then filled up its staff of 
tutors. Mr. Rogers did not enter on his 
duties there till September, 1839. He re- 
mained in Birmingham for nineteen years, 
as Professor of English Language and Lite- 
rature, Mathematics, and Mental Philoso- 
phy. In 1858 he was appointed Principal 
of the Lancashire Independent College, 
Manchester, succeeding Dr. Robert Vaugh- 
an. He occupied this post till 1869, and 
for two more years, though not resident at 
the college, he continued to lecture on Phi« 
losophy and on Dogmatic Theology. The 
suspicion that bis powers were failing, and 
the desire for well-earned rest, combined to 
lead him, in 1871, to surrender professorial 
work, which he had followed for very near- 
ly forty years. The Lancashire students, 
on his retirement} presented him with his 
bust, in marble. This graceful compliment 
was a fitting though avowedly but a faint 
expression of the veneration in which he 
was held. As a teaicher, he inspired great 
affection : he invested with a charm pecu- 
liarly his own every subject that he touched. 
For those who did not know him, his 
writings sufiicienily serve to show that he 
possessed in a remarkable degree the power 
of presenting a subject in a luminous and 
attractive manner. When it was necessary 
to give conceit a little trimming, dulness a 
gentle stimulus, carelessness and indolence 
a grave censure, his satire never rankled in ^ 
the minds of those he rebuked. If a man 
had any possibility of cherishing a thirst 
for knowledge, or any capacity for literary' 
cultivation, Mr. Rogers would evoke it. 
Hundi'eds of students look back thankful Iv 
to his tuition for the wisdom and the in- 
spiration of its guidance^ On the ministry 
of Congregation alists his infiuence has been, 
and will continue to be, both wide and deep 
and valuable, and his memory will long be 
cherished. His death occurred on August 
the 20th, 1877, at Pennal Tower, near 
Machynlleth, whither he had retired soon 
after leaving Lancashire College. 

Mr. Rogers was a most diligent and vol 
uminuus writer. When we consider that 
for cot much less than forty years he was 
engaged iu constant professorial duties, 
which most men find quite enough for their 
powers, we may well be surprised at tbe 
number and the worth of the productions 
of his pen, It may be remembered, how- 



lt)2 



ProfeMor Henry Itogers, 



Jmn« 



ever, that he took no part in pablic a&ire, 
and entered but little into society. He 
* dwelt amongst his own people.' In com- 
pany, his genial disposition made him the 
most charming of companions. He pos- 
sessed conrersational pcwers of the very 
highest order, and he exercised Ihem with 
modest nnobtrasiveness. His wide and ac- 
curate knowledge, his endless fand of anec- 
dote, and his rare wit, enabled him to illu- 
minate every passing topic. But he cared 
little to mingle in general society ; indeed, 
ho shiank fiom doing so ; and though his 
company was repeatedly songht by some of 
those conspicuous and even illustrious men 
with whom his literary labours brought him 
into contact, he seldom travelled beyond his 
own immediate circle. It was this love of 
retirement — remarkable in a man so rich in 
all companionable qualities — that gave him 
leisure to produce works both numerous and 
valuable. It will, we befieve, not be possi- 
ble, supposing it should ever be attempted, 
to issue a complete republication of Mr. 
Rop:ers*s writings. Generally, as we have 
said, he wrote anonymously, cither using 
various designations, or indeed no nom de 
plume at all, so that it would be difiScult to 
recover much that might worthily be pre- 
served. But no collection, however com- 
plete, of his original compositions, could do 
justice to the amount of his literary toil'. 
The most tedious of his labours would not 
appear, for his industry was taxed by his 
generous desire to enhance the value of 
other men's productions, as truly as by the 
labour he 'spent upon his own. Three in- 
stances, the first comparatively trifling, may 
be given of this. At the request of the 
•Tract Society, he wrote an Introductory Es- 
say to Lyttleton's ' Letter on the Conversion 
of St. Paul,' and, to say the least of it, the 
Essay is worthy of the Letter. St. Paul 
preached Jesus Christ, Lyttleton admirably 
discoursed on the Apostle Paul, and Pro- 
fessor Rogers has emphasized and com- 
mended Lord Lyttleton. We need not in- 
quire whether the Divine Founder of Chris- 
tianity and the great Apostle of the Gen- 
tiles will survive while other teachers come 
and go, but such a question has no imperti- 
nence when applied to Lyttleton, and we 
may safely say that he has received a new 
vitality from the good service done him by 
Mr. Rogers. A more noticeable instance of 
playine a subordinate part, and holding up 
the'lignt of the genius of other men, is seen 
in Rogers's collection of the Letters of Emi- 
nent Christian Men and Women, which 
goes by the name of * Montgomery's Chris- 
tian Correspondent' The work appeared 
in 1837, while Rogers was living in London. 



It entailed immense labour, as a vast nom- 
ber of volumes had to be searched. The 
introduction was written by James Mont- 
gomery, but Rogers did the work. 

But by far the most important instance 
in which Mr. Rogers has rendered service 
to another man's reputation, and widely ex- 
tended a predecessor's usefulness, is seen in 
his edition of the Works of John Howe. 
There is much interest attaching to this re- 

Sroduction of the great Puritan's writings, 
logers's relationship to Howe was peculiar 
and affecting. His youthful mind, as wo 
have seen, had been deeply impressed, and 
indeed his whole future career largely con- 
trolled, by the persnal of one of Howe's 
books. While at Poole, and when looking 
forward to active duties as pastor and 
preacher, Rogers had closely studied Howe, 
and had written his life. The bereavement 
we have already mentioned very nearly hin- 
dered the completion of this work. He 
says in the preface : *• I began it at a period 
which would have allowed ample time to 
effect my purpose ; but scarcely had I writ- 
ten the first chapter, when I was visited 
with a calamity wliich, it is scarcely figura- 
tive language to say, paralyzed for a con- 
siderable time all power of thought and ac- 
tion.* He however bravely resumed the 
work and finished it, and the * Life ' was 
published in 1 886. Growing years appear 
to have deepened Rogers's appreciation of 
Howe, though he thinks the remark made 
to him once by Robert Hall, that, as a min- 
ister, he had derived '^roore benefit from 
Howe than from all other divines put 
together,' was rather an utterance of fervid 
admiration than one which tshould be in- 
terpreted literally. He, however, deter- 
mined to undertake the immense toil of ro- 
editing Howe, correcting his punctnation, 
and freeing his style from almost inces- 
sant blemishes, while at the same time 
scrupulously adhering to the ipmumis 
vfr!n$ of the text Mr. Rogers modest- 
ly says: * While I have endeavoured to 
exhibit him in a more attractive gaise to 
the reader, I shall think myself well repaid 
for much drudgery if I have in any measure 
attained that object' We have heard him 
say that no work on which he was ever en- 
gaged so heavily taxed his patience. His 
reward and that of the Tract Society, by 
whose good offices the work was under- 
taken, is to be found in this, that Rogen's 
edition must take the place of every other, 
and that the patience, the skill, and the 
fidelity he bestowed, have so trimmed the 
torch of Truth as handed to him by Howe, 
that it will bum with a purer radiance and 
diffuse a wider light through coming years. 



1878. 



M'ofessor Henry Rogers, 



103 



^ Mr. Rogers dealt with a vast variety of 
anbjects. Most of his earliest productions 
were given to the periodicals of his own de- 
nomination. The * Eclectic": Review' and 
the * Patriot ' newspaper constantly profited 
by hi8 efforts during the time of his resi- 
dence in London. We believe his first ar- 
ticle in the ' Edinburgh ' was that on the 
* Struct ore of the English Language.' It 
appeared in Oetober, 1839, at the very time 
he was beginning his work at Spring Hill 
College. He contributed to the same review 
more than one article a year on an average 
during the nineteen years be remained at 
Spring Hill. The reissue of the greater 
number of these essays has made them 
familiar to many of our leaders, and they 
will be aware that most of them are by 
no means merely the ephemeral criticism 
of a clever man commenting upon the last 
new book, or dealing with sotne compara- 
tively unimportant question of the hour, 
but are thoroughly well-digested and mas- 
terly discussions of questions of lasting in- 
terest. They are the product of wide and 
varied reading, and of penetrating and 
sagacious thought It will, we think, not 
be disputed by those who are familiar with 
them that these essays are pre-eminently 
worthy of the very best days of our venera- 
ble Scotch contemporary ; that they take 
rank with those of Sydney Smith, Jeffrey, 
and Macaulay ; and in some not unimport- 
ant respects possess higher qualities, as they 
deal with lofty themes, to which those wri- 
ters never aspired. The * Eclipse of Faith,' 
written during the same period, is perhaps 
the work by- which Mr. Rogers is likely to 
be roost enduringly known, though the hun- 
dred and eleven charming Letters of * Grey- 
son's Correspondence ' are more adapted to 
a popular taste. The widely circulated 
' Three Letters to a Friend on the Sunday 
Question,' by N. M. P., are from his pen. 
We might also name articles in the ninth 
edition of the ' Encyclopaadia Britannica,' 
and in former numbers of this Review, as 
well as numerous contributions of a more or 
less fugitive kind to various periodicals. 
His contributions to * Good Words ' have 
been republished, but much else has dropped 
into obliidon. We have mentioned the 
greater part of his works, without attempt- 
ing a complete list. More than once he 
printed without publishing. This was the 
case with two or three lectures given dur- 
ing his professorship at University College, 
and with a beautiful memoir he pefined of 
his dear friend Morell Mackenzie, for whoso 
memory Rogers cherished through life the 
profoundest affection. One work by Mr. 
Rogers remains to be noticed, a work which 



is quite enough to show that in- the evening 
of his life his hand — to use his own Ian- 
guage— ^need not be * pronounced unskilful,' 
nor his ' scalpel hopelessly blunt.' . After 
leaving Lancashire College he undertook to 
write the first of the new series of the 
' Congregational Lectures.' The title he 
chose was * The Superhuman Origin of* the 
Bible inferred from Itself.' It was noticed 
in our pi^es in April, 1B74, and it most ap- 
propriately and most ably heads a series 
which hitherto, in the five Lectures already 
given, has laid the Church of Christ under 
lasting obligation, and which promises to 
form one of the most valuable contributions 
of our own day to theological literature. It 
is creditable to the discernment and good 
taste of the public that this last product of 
Professor Rogers's pen has already reached 
a fifth edition. 

In his preface to the collected Essays 
from the ' Edinburgh. Review,' Mr. Rogers 
tells us that biographical and critical sketches 
were more to his taste than those polemical 
ones which ^related to great contemporary 
questions, and in the discussion of which 
hot feeling was prone to mingle. But it is 
not easy to decide in which direction his 
genius was most conspicuous. Whether we 
look at his social, philosophical, deisticid, or 
ritniJistic discussions, we find them all 
replete with penetrating sagacity and with 
critical power. Taking together * Greyson's 
Letters,' the * Essays from Good Words,' 
and the more lengthy ^ Essays from the 
Edinburgh Review,' we have a variety of 
general themes dealt with lying beyond 
those which he more particularly made his 
own. He writes charmingly, and with a' 
fine play of humour, on 'Beards' and on 
' Spectacles,' and moves with firm common' 
sense and keen logic through all kinds of 
topics to the very ^deepest questions that 
have ever agitated the human mind. On^ 
whatever subject he treats he is always in- 
teresting and suggestive. The letters that 
are thrown off playfully are pots pourris of 
wisdom. His amazing fertility of illustra- 
tion, and his highly finished but natural 
style, make his writings delightful reading ; 
and as he gracefully but remorselessly pur- 
sues his opponent from point to point, one 
is always entertained and always instructed, 
if not always convinced. His political con- . 
tribntions to the literature of the day were 
not numerous, and his articles on ' Reform ' 
and on ' Crime,' though of great interest at 
the time they were' written, and of consid- 
erable weight in forming opinion, are per- 
haps not of permanent value. But we think 
the principal topics with which Mr. Rogers 
dealt have received from him exposition and* 



104 



ProfeBsor JSmry Rogers. 



Jan. 



criticism that will not be of a transient char- 
acter. 

His articles and other writings of a strict- 
ly literary kind are invalnable, not only as 
models of> style, for which reason alone 
they onght to be in the hands of every stu- 
dent, but for the sound manly wisdom they 
contain. The Essays on the ' Vanity and 
Glory of Literature,* and on * Sacred Elo- 
quence/ are as useful as they are beautiful ; 
and tlie Letters or Essays on ' Authorship,' 
on * Novel Reading,' ' Pulpit Style,' and 
* Prose Composition,' may be read and re- 
read with great profit : both preachers, wri- 
ters, and readers would do well to take bis 
hints. He divides his Essays from the 
' Edinburgh ' into two sets ; first, Bic^raph- 
ical and Critical ; second. Theological and 
Political. It is to his philosophical and 
theological writings that we attach the 
greatest value. In these he is dealing with 
subjects of which we never tire, and wo fear 
it must be added, with disputes that never 
cease. The Essays on Plato, Leibnitz, Des- 
cartes, and Locke formed part of a contem- 
plated series which we believe Mr. Rogers 
never finished. We should have been glad 
to have spared some of his Letters and 
minor Essays, if we could have had in their 
place one or two such as those we have just 
named, or like the admirable articles on 
Fuller or' on Marvell. But we must not 
complain. The lighter must be taken with 
the more weighty, and the elaborate sketches 
we have mentioned are most masterly con- 
tributions on the subjects to which they 
relate. The Essay on Locke, for example, 
is unsurpassed, and furnishes an admirable 
specimen of Mr. Rogers's critical power. 
We think no one can read this essay, or 
that on Descartes, or the exquisite article 
on the ' Literary Genius of Plato,' without 
acknowledging the equity and the c-andour 
of the critic. Few men have had a more 
genuine admiration for the great disciple of 
Socrates, but no reverence blinds Mr. Rog- 
ers to the defects of the illustrious Greek, 
or leads him to indulge in that language of 
excessive laudation which, with some, makes 
Plato almost a rival of the Divine Founder 
of Christianity. 

But it is in relation to the religious con- 
flicts of the age that Mr. Rogers has the 
greatest claim upon the gratitude of all Pro- 
teatant Christians. lie took part in these 
controversies in two directions. He dealt 
with Puseyism (as it was called when he 
first wrote) on the one hand, and Deism on 
the other. It is curious that the two repre- 
sentative men he encountered were the two 
brothers Newman, and there can bo no 
doubt that Dr. J. H. Newman, of the ora- 



tory of St. Philip, had a larger degree of 
Mr. Rogers's respect than his brgther Fran- 
cis, the deistic champion. Rogers stands 
midway between the author of the ' Apolo- 
gia ' and the author of the ^ Phases,' and he 
' prophesies ' to his generation against the 
errors on the right hand and on the left. 
When more than thirty years ago the 

* Tracts for the Times ' were being pub- 
lished, and Rogers in the pages of the ' Ed- 
inburgh * entered into the controversy, terms 
with which we are now familiar had not 
come into vogue, but precisely the same 
issues were then lat stake as to-day excite 
the ardour of contending factions. Rogers 
wrote in October, 1844, on * Recent Devel- 
opments of Tractarianism.' Within the last 
thirty years there have been stiil greater 

* developments,' which would be described 
in other terms. In the close of that article 
he remarks * We prophesy that the very 
progress of High Church principles will 
precipitate their doom, by rousing the hu- 
man mind after a period of temporary delu- 
sion to re-examine them. * The present retro- 
gression is but the recoil with which truth 
is preparing herself for a more energetic 
spring.' The period of more than thirty 
years since this was written has not proved 
sufficient to exhaust the recoil. The delu- 
sion is intensified. It seems more than 
ever true, as he said of the sacerdotal par- 
ty, in his article on the Oxford Tractarian 
School, that ' we see them stretching them- 
selves half over the gulf which separates 
them from Popery, to the infinite hazard of 
toppling into it, for the purpose of touch- 
iug only the tips of the fingers of their new 
friends and allies.' Indeed, they have 
' toppled in,' and continue to topple in with 
great rapidity. In the history of any great 
controversy the space of but one generation 
is, of course, only a short time. The lead- 
ers still survive, Pusey and Newman have 
outlived Rogers. There are predictions in 
Rogers's articles that the tide would rise 
much higher. It has done so. No assump- 
tions have abated ; no superstitions have lost 
their champions; no audacity of historic 
falsification has ceased. Nevertheless, we 
cannot doubt the correctness of the prophecy 
that there is progress in freedom and in in- 
telligence. None can say when the revolt 
will come against the tyranny of those who 
would enslave us. And of course any par- 
ticular country may for a time recede into 
the darkness, and reinvest itself in a semi- 
pagan garment ; but we see at present no 
reason to fear that such a result is likely to 
come about in England. But we think Mr. 
Rogers is too charitable, though he may 
not be too sanguine. He supposes that the 



1^78. 



Professor Henry Hogers. 



105 



■ 

men who arc at the head of the moycmcnt 
woald not curtail onr liberties. He is 
speaking of onr Roman Catholic fellow- 
sobjeets, and he says : ' We bullevc that, 
whether consistently or -not, they would be 
as ready as were their Roman Catholic an- 
cestors, or as are their Protestant contcm- 
porariesi to resist any aggression on the 
civil or political prerogatives of the State or 
any attempt to reverse those great principles 
of perfect religious liberty which are at 
present triumphant amongst us.' This oc- 
curs in an article cf a comparatively recent 
date, and appears to have been his view of* 
the temper of the sacerdotalists, whether 
liomish or Pseudo-Romish. We doubt 
whether he would say so now. Recent ut- 
terances would probably have modified his 
opinion. At any rate, our conviction that 
tiroes of persecution will not come back is 
certainly not based on any confidence we 
have in those who mistake the gloom of the 
middle ages for the full daylight of Chris- 
tianity. Their sophistry, their tampering 
with truth, their justification of antf method 
to gain their end, and their hatred of free- 
dom, are enough to show that whatever pro- 
fession of toleration and liberty may be 
made, they would pretty quickly take all 
freedom away if they had the power. They 
must do [this, wherever they can or they 
must be utterly illogical, and must forswear 
all their principles. 

The argument against Romish and Angli- 
can claims — it becomes increasingly difficult 
to distinguish them — needs to be stated 
again and again. There is always a race 
growing up in ignorance, and too ready to 
be led by plausible and bold presumption ; 
and if the belief of Mr Rogers that dark- 
ness will not return is to be verified, it can 
only be by the people becoming acquainted 
with such arguments on Authority, on 
Apostolical Succession, on the Unity of the 
Church, on the Value of Tradition, as have 
been so ably presented in his writings. 

The other province of |religious contro- 
versy in which Mr. Rogers has done most 
excellent service is the deistical. He has 
dealt with this much more largely than 
with the former. His celebrated £ssay on 
' Reason and Faith,' the ' Eclipse of Faith,* 
the * Defence ' of the Eclipse, the introduc- 
tion to Lyttleton, a keen article in *• Good 
Words ' on Renan's * Les Ap6tres,' many 
of • Grey son's Letters,' of which number 
some were written at the same time as 
'Reason and Faith,' constitute a well-fur- 
nished armoury of effective weapons that 
may 'be employed against the assailants of 
Christianity. Youthful and speculative { 



'minds would do well to possess themselves 
of the merits of the case. They will fi.nd 
in Rogers^s contributidns io this branch of 
Christian Apologetics no position of import- 
ance overlooked. Mr. Rogers possessed a 
wide knowledge of deistical literature. He 
was thoroughly conversant, by his own di- 
rect and prolonged study, with every Eng- 
lish deistical writer of the least claim to im- 
portance, and with their inferior German 
and French successors and plagiarists. Rog- 
ers could use his knowledge with remarka- 
ble skill. It is the unfortunate attribute of 
many controversialists, even where they pos- 
sess adequate knowledge and ability, to be 
dull or to be passionate. Mr. Rogers was 
neither. Wherever you open his books and 
begin to read yon are attracted, sometimes 
fascinated, and are constrained to go on. 
And though he writes with singular iucisive- 
ness, he never loses his temper or becomes 
discourteous. We think the admission must 
be made that sometimes the sparkling geni- 
us he throws around his subject is apt to 
disturb the judgment of the reader.* Theo- 
logical disputes grow^ deeply interesting iu 
his hands. The ' Eclipse ' is a book that 
few who begin will fail to finish, and we 
think that in the ' Defence ' there are pas- 
sages of greater beauty than in the * Eclipse,' 
or indeed than in any other production of 
the author's pen. 

Mr. Rogers had a most hearty antipathy 
to all that confusion of thought and of ex- 
pression in which metaphyi^ical and theo- 
logical subjects are peculiarily liable to be 
shrouded. For example, in his essay on 
' Anglicanism,' in referring to two of the 
Oxford * Tracts,' he says : ' The one writer 
is most ' reserved on reserve,' and the other 
most ^mystical on mysticism.' Seldom is 
anything said plainly and absolutely, but 
with a perpetual tortuous and guarded ex- 
pression. Scarcely two sentences are found 
together without a " so to speak," or " as it 
were," or " if so be," or ** it may be after a 
certain manner," <kc., 6sc. Thus, endeav- 
ouring to prove our Lord's systematic con- 
cealment of His miracles, the writer on '^ re- 
serve " says of the feeding of the five thou- 
sand, *^Even here it would appear as if 
there was somehow a sort of secret character 
about the miracle." Another specimen : 
** The Fathers," he tells us, " suppose that 
our blessed Lord is, as it were^ throughout 
the inspired writings, hiding and concealing 
Himself, and going about {if J may so speak 
reverently) seeking to whom He may dis- 
close Himself." There are numberless pas- 
sages of this kind, which may mean any- 
thing the interpreter is pleased to imagine, 



106 



Brofessor Henry Sogers. 



Jan« 



aithoagh in reality they contain little else 
but pions-sounding nonsense, which would 
Iiave been qaite in character in Jacob Boh- 
men or Emanuel Swedenborg.' The fifty- 
sixth of Greyson's Letters is a most laugh- 
able but not unfair caricature of the style of 
Eichte, Schelling, and especially Hegel 
Sometimes Mr. Kogers'a impatience of ob- 
scurity may have led him to misapprehend 
the views of those whom he felt to be 
offenders in this respect, though it must be 
. remembered tliat if they suffered at his 
hands it was more their fault than his. 
And, clear as is Mr. Rogers^s own style, he 
has not himself escaped misrepresentation. 
Ho has been very fiercely assailed by those 
who have fastened on one or two of his more 
pungent utterances, and insisted that such 
expressions are characteristic of his whole 
tone and spirit. Whether all the hard epi- 
thets that Mr. Hutton, for example, hurls at 
Mr. Rogers, are deserved or not, is a ques- 
tion it would take too long to discuss. We 
must be content with the assertion that 
there was nothing * brutal ' — ^to quote one 
of Mr. Hutton's epithets used in condemna- 
tion of strong writing — in Mr. Rogcrs^s at- 
titude to genuine scepticism ; and, as a mat- 
ter of fact, he had the happiness of receiv- 
ing from many quarters assurances of the 
services his writings had rendered, not by 
their alleged * hardness ' but by their per- 
suasive power, to numbers who were stum- 
bling in the dim paths of doubt. There is 
a bracing, manly tone about Rogers, which 
if it sometimes is not tender enough to 
maudlin sentiment, and sometimes as too 
'slashing' toward those who might more 
wisely be dealt with by other methods, we 
must bear in mind that he wrote to prevent 
as well as to cure. And when he saw the 
mischief that was being done by vague ex- 
pressions which had the semblance but not 
the reality of profundity ; and by a spuri- 
ous charity that taught that all creeds are 
pretty much alike, provided you held none 
firmly ; and that the one unpardonable sin 
is to hold with genuine honest conviction 
any dogma at all ; we need not feel surprise 
if his vigour impelled him to expressions 
which, picked out and exhibited done, can 
easily be presented as uncharitable and nar- 
row. The determination if possible not to 
be misunderstood is a virtue Mr. Rogers 
practised as well as preached. We doubt 
the dictum uttered on Gibbon, that no man 
writing in his style could speak the truth ; 
but we believe that of Rogers it may bo 
said that in his style it would be very diffi- 
cult not to speak the truth. He never at- 
tempts to veil a want of meaning in a cloud 
of words, nor does he even affect the wis- 



dom that pretends to solve all mysteries.* If 
offence is sometimes taken at his free use of 
satire and ridicule, it may most truly be said 
that he has often employed these weapons 
when he might more a{»propriate1y have 
used the langiuige of burning indignation. 
Pascal, in his celebrated Eleventh Letter, 
not only shows that Scripture and the Fa- 
thers employ ridicule, and tluit therefore 
any objection to it comes with a bad grace 
from those who affect to be prominent ad- 
vocates of the true faith ; but he contends 
by arguments that apply to all controvert 
sialistB, that it is often as clear a duty to 
make use of ridicule as of any other method 
of ^usailing absurdities. Mr. Rogers often 
referred to this Letter, and was content with 
PascaFs vindication. In his article on An- 
drew Marvell, he says of Marvell's power of 
sarcasm and irony, that they were but ^ lit- 
tle associated with bitterness of temper.' 
He also says of Howe : ' In that most deli- 
cate task, the reproof of others, he was in- 
flexibly faithful, yet always kind ; and while 
he remembered what was duo to the majesty 
of truth, never forgot what was also due to 
the claims of charity.' 

The same thing may be said of Mr. Rog- 
ers himself. He had a keen sense of the 
ridiculous and an exuberant flow of wit, 
which he did not hesitate to employ in turn- 
ing what he thought to be error inside out, 
and to displaying the absurd logical results 
of positions he took to be untenable. Wo 
should do him much less than justice if we 
forgot that he was a man of intense earnest- 
ness. He regarded it as his work to strive 
to intercept the flow of those forms of su- 
perstition and of infidelity to which he had 
devoted long and candid and conscientious 
study. It is quite possible that in some in- 
stances his sarcasm was more scathing* than 
persuasive, but nothing can bo more unfair 
than to select strong expressions which he 
directed against the flippant, heartless infi- 
delity of mere pertness and ignorance, and 
quote them as his deliberate condemnation 
of all doubters. Mr. Rogers possessed a 
supreme and passionate, and, if we may use 
the term, a chivalrous devotion to the Lord 
Jesus Christ ; and when the faith of Christ, 
which he, in common with millions of his 
fellow-men, held dear above all things, was 
bitterly, even malignantly assailed, his strong 
convictions found appropriate utterance in 
vigorous and unflinching language. And 
when we remember how easily he might 
have persuaded himself into the belief that 

* We recoQunend our younger readers es- 
pecially to a valuable note in the Essay. 
' Reason and Faith/ in illustration of this re- 
mark 



1878. 



Oontemporaty JJUerature. 



107 



tnith woold have been served by the unre- 
strained exercise of a weapon so polished 
and BO keen as his, we rather admire the 
restraint than condemn anv excess in the 
skill and the frequency of its employment. 
After begging his readers to attribute the 
faults of the book to the author, and to be 
careful to do no injustice to Christ, he 
closes the * Defence of the Eclipse ' with 
these words, and all who enjoyed his friend- 
ship know how true they are. ' I have sup- 
pressed many, as I think most deserved sar- 
casms, which sprang into ray mind in the 
ardour of composition, and have struck out 
many more which have flowed from my 
pen, and I have done both mainly from the 
recollection of iJim.' 

The highly-cultivated genius of Mr. Rog- 
ers was dedicated to the noblest objects, 
and his career was not arrested before he 
had done a long and sood life's work. He 
is followed to what nis favourite master, 
John Howe, calls the * all-reconciling world ' 
by the reverent and affectionate remem- 
brance of many disciples both of his voice 
and of his pen. 



CONTBHPORART LiTERATURB. 
HJBTORT, BIOORAPHT AND TRAVELS. 

A BUtory of Greece^ from its Conquest fty' the 
Hamans to the Present Time. B.C. 146 to 
A.D. 1864. By Geobob FnaAT, LL.D. 
A new edition, Revised throughout by the 
Author, and Edited by the Rev. H. F. 
Tozbb, M.A., Tutor and late Fellow of 
Exeter College, Oxford. Seven vols. Ox- 
ford : Clarendon Press. 

This is a new and greatly jmproved edition 
of the late Dr. Finlay's historical works, pub- 
lished under the care of an editor well known 
for his researches into the geography, the 
different races, and the habits of modem 
Qreece and Turkey. Mr. Tozer tells us in his 
preface that he has endeavoured to reduce the 
several essays and histories of the author into 
the form of a continuous and uniform narra- 
tive, though he has found some difiSculty in 
doing so from the different way in which the 
subject had been treated in different parts, 
from the author's fondness for recapitulation, 
and, lastly, from the extensive alterations left 
in the author's hand and the disorderly con- 
diUon of the notes. In English, he observes, 
Dr. Finlay's histories are |the only works of 
any importance on the Byzantine period; for 
Gibbon regarded some account of the Byzan- 
tine Empire as a peg on which to han^ his 
general survey of the history of the time,* 
rather than as deserving of .study for its own 
sake. Tet the importance of Constantinople 



in the history of the world cahnot be denied. 
Whether as a power which so long withstood 
the attacks of Asiatic invaders, including 
Saracens and Turks, or fts a centre of art, civ- 
ilization, and literature, in the midst of bar- 
barism, or as taking an actiVe part in the 
spread of Christianity, we are bound to re- 
spect it ; and we ought to study its history, 
and to learn frbm the Byzantine annals the 
principles of government and the antecedents 
of the races that constituted so long- ruling 
and so important a state. 

In an appendix to vol. i., the author ^ives a 
complete list of the names and titles, with the 
dates of the editions, of the Byzantine his-' 
torians. They are very numerous, and, in- 
cluding some writers which * should be added 
to make a complete collection of works on 
Byzantine history,' reach to not fewer than 
sixty-three volumes. But the separate authors 
are very much more numerous, many of the 
volumes comprising the works of several. It 
is obvious therefore that Dr. Finlay, in com- 
pleting a work which will henceforth take its 
place in every good library by the side of 
Gibbon's *• Decline and Fall,' had a task to 
perform of no ordinary labour. 

The author defines the limit of Byzantine 
history proper, t .i., the really Greek part of 
it, from the Emperor Leo in 716 to the con- 
quest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 
1204. *The Byzantine Empire,' he says, 

* was only a continuation of the Roman gov- 
ernment under a reform system.' It is to this 
that he has devoted his special attention: the 
Greek, not the Roman, is the prominent actor 
in the drama. 

The preface to the original work, the * His- 
tory of Greece under Foreign Domination,' 
gives in brief its object and intention: * To 
record the degradation and the calamities of 
the nation which attained the highest degree 
of civilization in the ancient world.' It com- 
mences with the reduction of Greece to a 
Roman province, after the capture and de- 
struction of Carthage by L. Hummius, B.C. 
145. * With this event,' says Dean Merivale, 

* fell the last shadow^of the liberties of Greece. 
Achaia was reduced to .the form of a Roman 
province, f.om which, except for a moment 
nominally, she never again ''emerged. The 
history of Greece as the classic soil of genius 
and independence ends with the year B.C. 
146.' Henceforth the culture, if not the 
genius, of Greece was to be transferred to all- 
conquering Rome. Qrmeia eapta ferum «w- 
torem eetnt, as Horace says. Rome, always 
Eastern m her habits and traditions, became 
more and more Greek, till the Greek element 
ultimately recovered its pre-eminence in the 
New City of the Bosphorus. With the reign 
of Leo the Isaurian in a.d. 716 was brought 
to a close the predominant influence of Roman 
feelings and prejudices in the Eastern Em- 
pire. The Greek populations of Western 
Asia, settlers after the conquests of Alexander 
the Great, superseded the Roman in his occu- 
pation of the originally Greek Byzantium. 
The empires of Old Rome and of New Rome 
lasted each for about a thousand years. It is 



108 



ContAmpotary lAteratwrt, 



Jan. 



in the main, then, the history of the latter in 
its Greek revival th^t the present volumes 
comprise. * The records of enslaved Greece,' 
says Dr. Finlay, *• are as much a portion of 
her national existence as her national poetry 
and her classic history.' The tradition pf the 
lineal descent of the modern Greeks from the 
ancient heroes of Sparta and Athens is, of 
course, more sentimental than real. The 
author remarks, with something of irony, 
that Mf they emulate the patriotism of the 
ancient Greeks, and rival their eminence in 
literature and art, all Europe will readily ad- 
mit their claims to the purest Hellenic gene- 
alogy.' To mould out of the modem Greek a 
character in some degree resembling the Athe- 
nians under Pericles was a dream in which 
Lord Byron and other enthusiasts once vainly 
indulged. And yet it is something that its 
energy or its traditions hav^e so far survived as 
to enable Greece to form an independent 
state. In p. xxii. the author speaks of the 
modern Greeks as * the only existing repre- 
sentatives ' of the ancient world. 

The changes which affected the political 
and social condition of the Greeks are divided 
by the author into six portions, viz., 1. Greece 
under Roman government. 2. The Byzan- 
tine Empire, 716 to 1204. 3. Greek Empire 
of Constantinople (the return of the Roman- 
Greeks to that city), to the capture of it by 
the Turks in 1453. 4. The Greeks under the 
influence of Latin and Venetian rule, conse- 
quent on the capture by the Crusades, 1204 
to 1566. 5. Empire of Trebizond, the im- 
portance of which was chiefly commercial, 
1304 to 1461. 6. The Greeks under foreign 
domination, i.«., of the Turks and Venetians. 
Dr. Fin lay appears to us eminently a philo- 
sophical historian. He is not a mere narrator 
of facts, but he takes pains to expound their 
causes and their bearings on character and 
action. The very complexity of the subject 
(ns the arrangement under the above heads 
will show) absolutely demands a mind that 
can take in a wide range and sequence of 
events. The first chapter, ^Greece under 
the Romans, ' extending as it does to only a 
hundred pages, while it comprises the period 
from Alexander ttie Great to Constantine — 
more than 650 years — is a good example of 
this clear comprehension. His careful inquiry 
and knowledge of details, reminding us of a 
Gibbon or a Grote, wiU be seen m § 6, on the 
Fiscal Administration of the Romans, in 
which the depreciation in the value of coinage 
(supplemented in. the present edition, by Ap- 
pendix ii.) is elaborately discussed. ^' This 
depreciation,' he says, ' during the fifty years 
between the reign of Caracalla and the death 
of Gallienus annihilated a great part of the 
trading capital in the Roman Empire, and 
rendered it impossible to carry on commercial 
transactions, not only with foreign countries, 
bu t even witli distant provinces. ' From th is, 
he^says, resulted the custom of hiding treasures 
of pure gold or silver, and the consequent dis- 
covery in our times of occasional hoards of 
weiL-prcserved coins. 

In chapter ii. the section on the Influence 



of Christianity on the Greek mind is, as 
might be expected, extremely interesting, 
especially as compared with Gibbon's well- 
known disparaging chapter (xvi.) on the sub- 
ject. Dr. Finlay thinks that it raised them 
somewhat * by giving them a powerful and 
permanent object on which to concentrate 
their attention, and 'an invariable guide for 
their conduct in eveiy relatiun of life.' 
Among the Greeks, he thinks, as differing 
therein from the Romans, * Christianity met 
everywhere with a curious and attentive audi- 
ence. ' Their constant struggle for what they 
regarded as orthodoxy surrounded them with 
an atmosphere of dogma which was too often 
very uncongenial to what we regard as prac- 
tical Christianity. The author makes the 
important remark 'that the power which 
Christianity had acquired evidently exerted 
some influence in determining Constantine 
to transfer his capital into that part of his 
dominions where so numerous and powerful 
a body of his subjects were attached to his 
person and his cause.' The secret of much 
of the aversion felt in early times against 
Christianity was the notion that it was a dan- 
gerous, because a secret, political association. 
Ft is [singular that the reverse has come to 

Eass, in the denunciation of secret societies 
y high Christian authorities at the present 
day. The celibate and ascetic life, then so 
generally adopted as a Christian precept, was 
also regarded as unpatriotic, and at variance 
with the flrst duties of good citizens. The 
schism between the Eastern and the Western 
Churches, arising from the Patriarchate of 
Photius, under Constantine IX., is very fully 
related in chapter iii. of book i., and is a 
passage of history well deserving of the moat 
thoughtful perusal. The author's view of the 
rise of the Papal Supremacy is worth reading, 
though perhaps open to criticism. It is not 
a correct expression, for instance, to say that 
' the Popes arrogated to themselves the ivm,- 
poral power over the whole Church.' It is, 
of course, impossible to describe in detail the 
various subjects and historical divisions in so 
large and important a work. The last vol- 
ume (viii.), beginning with quite recent times 
the great ^battle of Navarino, in 1827, con> 
eludes the work, with an excellent and full 
index to the whole. We are startled to find 
that the allied fleets on that occasion had so 
narrow an escape from annihilation. ' There 
can be no doubt that a well-directed fire from 
the Turkish guns (on shore might have de- 
stroyed the English and French flagships be- 
fore the great body of the allied fleet arrived 
to their assistance.' 

Volume vi. is occupied with the short period 
of the Greek Revolution and the events im- 
mediately preceding it, from 1821 to 1827. 
It * came at last, and delivered a Christian 
nation from subjection to Mahommedanism, 
founded a new state in Europe, and extended 
the advantages of civil liberty to regions where 
despotism had for ages bden indigenous.' 
'When the Greeks took up arms,' it is added, 
' the numbers of the Greek and Turkish races 
in Europe were in all probability nearly equal, 



1878. 



Contemporary JLiterature, 



109 



and neither is supposed to have exceeded two 
millions. ' 

Volume ii. includes the Byzantine Empire, 
|iart i., from 716 to 1057, a period of revived 
energy which succeeded one of increasing 
decay, when ^ it seemed as if no human power 
could save Constantinople from falling as 
Home had fallen.' The rest of this period 
from 1057 to 1453, is contained in volume iii., 
which forms perhaps the most important part 
of the whole^work. It is a page of history 
with which the ordinary student is but little 
acquainted, and the very names of the empe- 
rors are unfamiliar to most. The rise of the 
Ottoman power in the fourteenth century, 
and its marvellous career of conquests, are 
brilliantly narrated in volume v., in which 
also the influence and decline of the Italian 
centres of commerce, Venice, Genoa, and 
Florence, are included. The excellent table 
of contents prefixed to each volume furnishes 
an epitome of the history ^which adds greatly 
to the convenience and utility of this edition.' 

The Secret History of the Fenian Conepiraey. 
Its Origin, Objects, and Ramifications. By 
John Ruthbrfobd. Two Vols. C. Kegan 
Paul and Co. 

The title of this Work is a misnomer. It is 
a history, and in 'some respects an interesting 
history, of the Fenian Conspiracy, but we fail 
to discover w^hy it should have been called 
* Secret History.' The assumption of a 
knowledge of Irish affaire in their roots and 
hidden sources, the protestation of access to 
documents and data unknown to the world, 
are indeed constantly cropping up as we read, 
but the assumption remains unverified, and 
the protestation is nowhere proved to rest 
upon facts. Very much of both volumes, for 
example, is taken up with the character and 
career of James Stephens, and the author holds 
him up to scorn as a traitor and a coward, 
who never rose above the region of base per- 
sonal motives, and who never shrank from 
sacrificing his colleagues and companions to 
secure his own safety. There is much in 
what is here set forth regarding Stephens that 
will help to a more complete knowledge of 
the character of the Fenian leader, but 
throughout we seem to be reading, not what 
was before unknown, but a sketch, in which 
is pieced together facts and judgments with 
which in their isolation we were familiar. 
Even when the author tries to be mysterious 
and dramatic, his success in impressing us 
with the idea that he has anythmg new to 
tell is very indifferent. Perhaps^ he is no- 
where more pretentious in this line than in 
his descriptions and reflections regarding 
Stephens's escape from prison; but he throws 
no light upon the modus operandi of the 
escape, which is what we want to know. 
The mysterious hints and suggestions, which 
convey to us the ideas of treachery within the 
prison, co-operating with aii organized plan 
of deliverance by violence from without, come 
to be almost irritating, seeing that they do 
not add in any respect to our information. 
It is very much the same with the materials 



with which we are furnished regarding othen» 
of the Fenian leaders. None of them appear 
in the light of heroes; scarcely any of them 
are represented as possessed of even ordinary 
intelligence and common sense. In otber de^ 
partments in which the author w^ritcs as if he 
were supplying the world with much it has 
never had the means of knowing before, we 
find precisely the same characteristics as we 
have noted in the chapters given to Stephens 
and some of his companions. For example, 
the relations of the Roman Catholic Church 
ana priesthood in Ireland to Fenlanism ard 
not represented to us in any new light. All 
the world has been long aware of the partial 
encouragement at first extended to the con- 
spiracy by the priests and some of tne higher 
ecclesiastics, but which was afterwards wholly, 
withdrawn, as. the Fenian Society was 
assigned its place among other secret societies 
denounced by Rome. With regard, again, to 
the relations of the conspirators to the British 
army, the attempts to seduce the soldiers from 
their allegiance, and the means by which it 
was sought to induce them to carry on the 
work of thu brotherhood while still wearing 
the uniform of the Queen, all these are mat- 
ters familiar as household words to every in- 
telligent and careful observer of I he times in 
which he is living. Altogether it seems to us 
that these volumes are a sample of bookmak- 
ing, which is not by any means always of a 
particular happy order. They are largely 
composed of extracts, but the sources quoted 
from are by no means always of a recondite 
character, as is evident from the fact that 
much importance is attached to a paper which 
appeared in * Fraser's Magazine ' some years 
ago from the pen of Cluseret, which is freely 
laid under contribution, although at the time 
it appeared it was copied into almost every 
newspaper in the United Kingdom. 

CeUie SeoUand. A History of Anoient Alban. 
By William Skene, Author of * The Four 
Ancient Books of Wales.' Vol. II. Church 
and Culture. Edinburgh : David Douglas. 

Every one interested in the ancient history 
of Scotland and the Scottish people will wel- 
come the second volume of Mr. Skene's 
'Celtic Scotland,' which describes the old 
Celtic Church and the culture of the period. 
Mr. Skene's general position may be gathered 
from the preface, in which he states that he 
is much indebted to Dr. Reeves's edition of 
Adamnan's 'Life of Columba,' and to the 
writings of Joseph Robertson and John Stuart. 
Dr. Reeves's edition of the ' Life of Columba ' 
taught Scotch antiquarians to read the old 
Celtic Church of Scotland in the light of the 
old Irish Church, and this method of investi- 
gation has been followed by Mr. Skene. 

He begins by describing the early sporadic 
attempts to Christianize Scotland by Ninian 
and others, and then traces the establishment 
and constitution of the old Irish Church, 
noting its peculiar character. It was a 
Church composed of a network of monaste- 
ries : the monastery was the living centre of 
Christian work and life, it was the ccclesiasti- 



110 



Contemporary JMercOure. 



Jan. 



cal unit in the old Irish and in the old Scotch 
Celtic Church. Mr. Skene does not give us 
much help in tracing the rise of this pecnliar 
ecclesiastical organization. He certainly does 
trace it to Gaul and to St. Martin of Tours, 
and from St. Martin of Tours to Athanasius 
and the monks of the East ; but his remarks 
would lead us to infer that the monastic sys- 
tem of the Scoto-Irish Church and of St. 
Martin was simjply a reproduction in the West 
of the monasticism of the deserts of the The- 
baid. To say nothing of the facts that few 
scholars now admit that Athanasius was the 
author of the * Life of St. Anthony;' that the 
idea is gaining ground that the earliest monk- 
ish lives were romances founded on the 
records of the later Roman Empire; and that 
it may be almost assumed as an established 
fact that the origin of Egyptian monasticism 
is pagan and not Christian ; it appears to us 
that the organization which owed its origin 
to St. Martin of Tours was one which in all 
its special features was new, and was invented 
by that able abbot for a special purpose, viz., 
the conversion and education of peoples who 
lived in tribes. Mr. Skene would have done 
a great service to the ecclesiastical history 
both of Ireland and of Scotland, had he spent 
some time in investigating for himself the 
missionary work of St. Martin, instead of 
sending his readers vaguely to Montalembert 
and Dupuy. 

When Mr. Skene enters fairly upon his sub- 
ject, however, he treads upon familiar ground, 
and his exposition of the organization, aim, 
and character of the Scoto-Irish Church is ex- 
tremely interesting. He describes the grad- 
ual disappearance, both in Ireland and Scot- 
land, of an older and feebler Church before 
the vigorous well-ordered monastic organiza- 
tion of St. Finnian and St. Columba^ and the 
conquest of the whole land by this vigorous 
missionary Church, 

The Columban Church is regarded by Mr. 
Skene as amission from the Irish Charch, and 
as forming an integral part of that Church, 
with which it never lost its connection. He 
therefore interprets all the indications of the 
peculiarities of the Columban Church by the 
known institutions of the parent Church of 
Ireland, of which it was an ofEshoot. It was 
a Monastic Church, and had in it neither a 
territorial Episcopacy nor a Presbyterian 
organization. According to Mr. Skene, and 
we agree with him, the old battles of Episco- 
palians and Presbyterians over the ancient 
Scoto-Irish Church have little or nothing to 
do with the question. The Church was 
neither Episcopalian nor Presbyterian. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Skene, however, the Church 
contained episeapi, and he attempts to define 
the position of these bishops by distinguishing 
between the power of mission and that of 
orders, ^ The former is the source of jurisdic- 
tion, the latter of the functions of the episco- 
pate. When the two are united we are pre- 
sented with a diocesan episcopacy, but the 
union is not essential.' Mr. Skene evidently 
holds by Cyprian^s rule — no bishop, no church ; 
for he goes on to say that a Monastic Church 



requires the exercise of episcopal functions 
within her, as well as any other Church, and 
by episcopal functions he means, ordination, 
confirmation, and celebration of the Mass 
pontifieale ritn. We are by no means certain, 
however, that it can be proved that the epit- 
copi were the only office*^ of the Scoto-Irish 
Church who ordained. In fact, the instance 
of the ordination of Aid, w^hich is continually 
quoted to prove this, seems to point to an 
opposite conclusion. (Adamnan, bk. i., c. 
29.) To our mind, the Scoto-Irish Church 
was, as Dr. John Stuart in his preface to the 
*■ Book of Deer ' has remarked, organized to 
overtake the spiritual wants of a country 
where the people lived in tribes, and the re- 
lations of abbot-presbyter, episcopi^ and pres- 
byters to each other may be conceived by any 
one familiar with the Beformation Church of 
Scotland, if they reflect upon the mutual rela- 
tions of superintendents, pastors, and elders. 

Of course we must suppose the presbytery 
living in a college, and not scattered through- 
out parishes. 

Space does not permit us to do more than 
refer to the admirable chapters on the Family 
of lona, the Churches of Cumbria and 
Lothian, and the Cofirbs of Columcille ; but 
we must notice briefly what Mr. Skene has 
to say about the Culdees, about the decline 
of the Celtic Qhurch, and about the language 
and learning of the period. In common with 
most modern Scottish antiqaarians, Mr. Skene 
refuses to identify the old Scottish Church 
and its ministers with the Culdees. His idea 
is that the Culdees did not appear till after 
the [expulsion of the Columban monks, and 
his general conclusion respecting the Cul- 
dees is, that they were originally an ascetic 
order who set themselves in opposition to the 
Columban monastic life and rule. They 
adopted a solitary service of God, in an iso- 
lated cell, as the highest form of the religious 
life, and were called Deicolse ; they then be- 
came associated in communities of anchorites 
or hermits; they made their appearance in 
the eastern districts of Scotland at the same 
time as the secular clergy were introduced ; 
they were afterwards brought under canoni- 
cal rule, along with the secular clergy, and 
finally became secular canons. 

The decline and fall of the Scoto-Irish 
Church is very graphically traced by Mr. 
Skene. Towards the close of the seventh 
century we find both in Scotland and Ireland 
a party of Romish, sympathizers, constituting 
a turbulent minority, and commonly favoured 
by the civil power. As time went on, the 
Roman party gained the advantage. The 
conflict was at first about the keeping of 
Easter, and the tonsure ; but as Roman usages 
came in, there was an attempt to substitute 
territorial for tribal organization, the secular 
clergy for the Columban monks. There are 
traces, too, of the fact that the Columbai 
monasteries were not doing the same work a 
of old ; they had become too wealthy. The 
headship of the community tended to become 
hereditary, and so on ; and it may be con- 
ceived that as the central civil power in Scot 



1678. 



Contemporary Literatu/re, 



lit 



land became stronger, the possibility of a 
need for a territorial , organization of the 
Church made itself manifest. We find, for 
example, that the consolidation of the Ger- 
mano-Roman Empire under Charles the Great 
had a wonderful effect in giving territorial 
organization to the Church in Middle and 
Northern Europe. The great deyelopment, 
too, of the anchorite life in the Scottish 
Church showed that everything was not right 
within it, and that a morbidjpiety was taking 
the place of the active Christian work of the 
earlier Columban communities ; so that when 
Margaret practically overthrew the old Celtic 
and established the Scoto-Romaa Church, she 
effected a somewhat needed reform. The 
old system, however, was hard to kill, and 
Mr. Skene traces its gradual extinction in a 
very interesting chapter. 

Mr. Skene's account of the learning and 
culture of the time possesses perhaps a wider 
interest than the rest of his book. There is 
not very much that is new in it, and Mr. 
Skene has drawn largely upon Dr. Joseph 
Bobertson's admirable paper on the ^ Scholas- 
tic Offices of the Scottish Church ;' but he has 
reduced to readable form the information 
given in that paper, where we liave note upon 
note with bewildering intricacy. 

In conclusion we have only to remark that 
Mr. Skene's book is the most valuable con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the early eccle- 
siastical history of our island that has ap- 
peared of late years. We only wish it hs^ 
not been quite so insular. It seems to us that 
a comparison of our information about the 
Irish and Scotch Churches with the knowl- 
edge that we have, however scanty, of the 
Church beyond the bounds of the Roman Em- 
pire on th^ Continent, would have modified 
some of his conclusions, and, at all events, 
would have afforded a broader basis for his- 
torical conjecture. 

The A cU and MonumenU of John Fozc. Fourth 
Edition. Revised and Corrected, with 
Appendices, Glossary, and Indices. By the 
Rev. JosiAH Pratt, M.A., of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. Also an Introduction, 
Biographical and Descriptive, by the Rev. 
John Stoughton, D.D. Eight Vols. Re- 
ligious Tract Society. 

John Foxe is a chronicler rather than a his- 
torian. His arrangement is disorderly, he is 
quite innocent Of philosophical method, nor 
can he claim any graces of literary art. He 
is an indefatigable collector, and a simple 
narrator of fact^ and incidents. He was, 
moreover, an avowed partizan, strong in his 
religious convictions and strenuous in his en- 
deavours to discredit the Church of Rome. 
He charges upon it as crime the persecutions 
of which he narrates the incidents ; he puts 
the case against it in the strongest light, and 
gives point to the stories he had so industri- 
usly collected by a series of pictures intended 
to illustrate the tortures to which it subjected 
its unhappy victims. He was, however, con- 
sistent, and did his utmost to hinder the Re- 
formed Church from indicting the punishment 



which he condemned in the Roman Church. 
He was a strenuous opponent of the punish- 
ment of death for religious offences. He fell 
into the common error of polemics. He could 
not conceive of men who held opinions op- 
posed to his own as being equally conscien- 
tious with himself. Of necessity, therefore,- 
a work written by such a man on such a 
theme has been the subject of the fiercest 
controversy. Few books have been made in 
a greater degree the battle-field of party. 
Romanists of every grade have strenuously 
endeavoured to discredit him as ' the lying 
Foxe,' white some of the most eminent liisto- 
rians and critics of Protestantism have under- 
taken to vindicate his general trustworthiness ; 
as, for Instance, in his estimate of the num- 
bers who perished in the Marian persecution^ 
in which he is shown to be substantially ac- 
curate by no less an authority than the late 
Dr. Maitland, who in his ^Reformation in 
England ' gives a list of tlie Marian martyrs. 
This may now indeed be assumed as the final 
verdict of histt>rical criticism, even while full 
allowance is made for inevitable errors and 
for polemical exaggerations, although to the 
end of Church controversy this will, no doubt, 
be fiercely denied. Foxe was a thoroughly 
honest man. He believed to be true all that 
he narrates, and he collected his materials 
with great care in the examination of evidence, 
and with an industry wnich was unwearied : 
he has preserved to us a mass of documentary 
materials which is simply invaluable, and 
which but for him would have perished. 
The very miscellaneousness of Foxe's coUec* 
tions make them historically more valuable 
than a digested and artistic history would 
have been, while his Bunyan-like genius gives 
great dramatic force to his own narrations. 
Few narratives are more truthful, graphic, 
and thrilling, than his account of John 
Hooper's martyrdom. 

Foxe was a thorough Protestant, but he 
was free from sectarianism. No one can in- 
fer from his work to which of the Protestant 
Churches he belonged. His book therefore 
has a permanent and a very great value. 
After all reasonable deductions for minor in- 
accuracies and polemical animus, it is a chron- 
icle of indisputable facts, which better illus- 
trates the intolerant and persecuting spirit of 
the Romish system than all the arguments 
that have ever been urged. Logic may con- 
clude that a Church which claims Divine pre- 
rogative and infallibility must end by being 
a remorseless persecutor : the facts of the 
Marian persecution prove that defctcto it is so. 
Had Rome repented of her sins. Christian 
charity would demand that she should no 
longer be reproached with this ; but her per- 
sistency in it is in the memory of thousands 
now living. ' By their fruits ye shall know 
them ;' and we must insist upon the necessity 
of the republication of such books as this as 
the most efilcient means of discrediting the 
spirit of the Church that persecutes. Unlike 
other Churches which have repented of their 
ignorant spirit of persecution, Rome is tole- 
rant only where she is compelled to be tole- 



112 



Contemporary LUerature. 



Jan* 



rant. Her spiiit is as intolerant and cruel as 
ever, as the Syllabus of Pius IX. demon- 
strates. Even apart, therefore, from the resl 
historical value of Foxe, we contend for the 
continuous religious value of his work, so 
long as the spirit of persecution survives ; and 
thank God it survives only in the Church of 
Home and Churches of kindred pretensions. 

Concerning this edition we need say only 
that it is printed from the plates prepared 
for the Reformation Series of the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Historians of England, published by 
Seeleys in 1858, and following years. The 
text of Foxe was carefully corrected and veri- 
fied by the editors of that edition, the Rev. 
R. R. Mendham, M.A., and Josiah Pratt, 
jun., M.A., and was done so well that it must 
continue to be the standard edition. Its ap- 
pendix of documents, too, is most valuable 
and interesting. 

Dr. S tough ton has prefixed to this reprint 
a brief memoir of Foxe and a critical intro- 
duction, which extend to nearly a hundred 
pages. Both are done with tfie loving care, 
genial enthusiasm, and extensive knowledge 
which characterize Dr. Stou^hton. Every 
scrap of information about John Foxe is col- 
lected and interwoven into a smooth and pic- 
turesque narrative, while the critical intro- 
duction is a sufficient bibliographical account 
of the work. The edition is everything that 
could be wished. It does not reproduce the 
curious old plates, but this is perhaps an ad- 
vantage. Those who care for their horrors 
may seek them out in the folio editibns. The 
original octavo of 1554, in Latin, is of the 
greatest rarity, so is the first English edition 
of 1562-68. John Bunyan's copy, preserved 
at Bedford, is the comparatively common 
black-letter copy of 1641. 

History of the English PeapU, By John 
Richard Grbbn, M.A. Vol. I. With 
Eight Maps. Macmillan and Co. 

The student is naturally sceptical regarding 
a new History of England, after the many 
masterpieces which have been made familiar 
to him. Why should another be added to 
the pre-existing multitude ? is the question 
that rises unbidden to^his lips. Has not the 
ground been gone over often enough, the 
facts marshalled from every possible point of 
view, the judgments of every class of critics 
who have formed independent opinions suffi- 
ciently backed and illustrated, and the whole 
varied field brought within our ken in all the 
diversities of treatment, and directed by all the 
.varieties of judgment of which literature and 
criticism are capable ? The obvious answers 
to be given to such questions as these must 
always render it necessary that a new history 
should have and should itself reveal its own 
raiwn d'etre. It must justify itself. It will 
take its place among the array of standard 
histories if it is a history possessing a distinc- 
tive character, and really thereby contribut- 
ing to a more perfect knowledge of the past. 
Tried by this test, Mr. Green's work will tri- 
umphantly stand the ordeal. It is too soon, 
of course, to say anything as to its character 



as a complete history, seeing that we have 
here but the first volume, which only brings 
us down to the period of the War of the 
Roses. But this first volume so obviously 
contains the foundations on which the super- 
structure is to be built, that without undue 
precipitation we are entitled to form an 
opinion as to the entire scope, purport, and 
design of the work. It will be observed that 
what is here offered to us is given as a his- 
tory, not of England, but of ^ the English 
people.' The nation, and not -merely its 
rulers; the mass of the population, and not 
only its leaders; the growth and development 
of tbo resources by unfolding which England 
has become what she is in commerce, civili- 
zation, literature, and arts, as well as in em- 
pire ; consequently the moulding of our insti- 
tutions, and the forms and organs through 
which the national life pours itself, and 
which it animates and energizes; these are 
the interests that are ever in the mind's eye 
of our latest English historian. The division 
of this first volume into four books, dealing 
respectively with Early England, Foreign 
Kings, the Charter, and the Parliament, will 
at once suggest the nature of the frame-work 
which Mr. Green is rearing. It is a relief to 
find in a History of England the ordinary in- 
terests of politics duly subordinated, and the 
traces of foregone conclusions conspicuous by 
their absence. There is here no undue exal- 
tation of one or two lordly figures, to whose 
greatness and hero-worship all else is sacri- 
ced. We have no indication of any of the 
dogmatic design under which historians have 
written history to prove that Providence was 
on the side of their Church or School. Nor 
is there that exaltation and assignment of un- 
due prominence to the merely external 
features and characteristics of the national 
story which is the commonest of all tricks of 
historians. 

Mr. Green has been able to vivify the past, 
until it seems to be reproduced before us, by 
the exercise of the most careful, thoughtful, 
and patient inquiry, because he has brought 
the past so entirely within mnge that its very 
spirit has entered into and possessed hinu 
But the art which conceals art has been so 
felicitously employed that there are no traces 
of labour or effort left. Mr. Green has laid 
under contribution the full treasures of mod- 
ern archaeological research in his sketches of 
Early England, and of the varied elements 
and influences that made it what it was, but 
his pages are suffused with a literary radiance 
that renders them more attractive than the 
most romantic of romances. It is the same 
with the subsequent books as with the first. 
There are everywhere the fullest indications 
that we are dealing, not with mere abstract 
forces, or trying to master wide historical gene- 
ralizations, but that the lives and exertions, 
the passions and aspirations, the sins and the 
follies, and also the virtues of living, working, 
striving, and suffering men and women are 
before us. Yet while this is so, the main in- 
terest which renders this work so conspicu- 
ously * philosophy teaching by example ' is 



1878. 



Contemporary Literature, 



113 



never absenfc from us as wo rend. Thepictur- 
csqaenessof individual detail, the wealth and 
variety of apt illustration, the light touches 
which reveal to us a world of experience by 
a vivid picture or a telling story, are never 
there for their own sakes. They are there as 
finger-posts to point out to us the general 
laws, the important truths, the historical na- 
tional developments which it is the main pur- 
pose of the book to bring before us. What 
Mr. Qrecn has sought to show his readers, is 
England in the actual process of growth. 
He makes manifest to us the roots from which 
the tree has sprung, and he proceeds to un- 
veil to us the elements on which it has been 
nourished, and which have enabled it to fling 
wide its bnmches towards the heavens till it 
became the magnificent growth which it now 
is. To enable us to know the English people 
in and through their history, we must be able 
to realize how, through struggle and effort, 
and in the face of obstacles and enemies, they 
formed the institutions which are the reflex 
of the national life. This is what Mr. Green 
helps US to do, and herein consists the unique 
value of his work. When we bear in mind 
that this is its character, the answer to those 
critics who have objected to the history as 
containing too many merely personal elements 
is at once suggested. These picturesque de- 
tails which light up the pages, these attrac- 
tive anecdotes and sketches, will all be found 
essentially illustrative. They give a vivid 
reality to the author's delineations which 
could not have been attained by any other 
means. Yet they are always subordinate to 
the mam purpose of the work, and rarely, if 
ever, overload the pages they illustrate. A 
* History of the English People ' completed 
after this fashion will be liable to the only 
objection that it makes the reading of history 
so attractive, that we are apt sometimes to for- 
get everything else in the exceeding charm of 
the story. . 

Monotheism, the J^imitive Beligionofthe City 
of Rome, Au Historical Investigation by 
the Rev. Henry Formbt. Williams and 
Norgate. 

The writer of this work undertrtkes to lay 
before his readers an amount of historical 
evidence insufficient, if not to prove, at least 
to^ render worthy of examination, the hypoth- 
esis that the * primitive religion ' of Home 
was monotheistic, and was derived from the 
Hebrew nation. According to his ideas 
Numa Pompilius had in some way come in 
contact with Jewish teachers, and from them 
learned the true faith. It is scarcely necessary 
to say that considerable ingenuity is essential 
in order to discover any evidence, whether 
documentary or traditional, that will for a 
moment appear to justify so extraordinary, 
and viewed historically, so revolutionary a 
theory. Mr. Formby has employed great dil- 
igence in his search, but our confidence in 
the adequacy of his guidance as a historical 
critic is sorely tried at the outset by the ac- 
count he gives us of the way in which he was 
led to undertake the inquiry. It was not the 

VOJ,. Lxvn. B — 8 



accumulation of evidence that convinced him 
of the truth of his theory, in the ordinary in- 
ductive manner. He started with his theory 
ready made, and went out in quests of proofs 
or confirmations of it. The high d priori 
road was his definitive choice. Starting with 
the idea of the universality of the Divine 
providential government of the world, he was 
certain that God could not have left Himself 
without witnesses to His unity in Rome — 
that centre of the whole world which was 
afterwards to be known as the Eternal City. 
Successive empires and monarchies in the 
East, which had risen and flourished and de- 
clined, losing after their appointed periods 
the «ceptre of sovereignty, had been brought 
into contact with the chosen people — the de- 
positaries for the good of mankind of the true 
religion — and from them had learned the 
great truth of monotheism. It was incred- 
ible that the last and greatest of all the em- 
pires of pre-Christian times should not also 
have been similarly dealt with. Having de- 
ductively established that it must be so, Mr. 
Formby's subsequent task was comparatively 
simple. He had only to seek confiimationa 
of a foregone conclusion, and a man in that 
state of mind is not long in finding what he 
wants. TJie evidence he does adduce, how- 
ever, is of the flimsiest kind, and is not really 
worthy of historical criticism. It consists of 
a series of assumptions which scarcely ever 
rises to the dignity of positive testimony. 
The *vast accumulation of historical evi- 
dence * which the author believes he lias ad- 
duced, and which he * challenges ' the * re- 
public of letters* to * consider,* exists only 
in his imagination. The facts that are 
against Mr. Formby's view will be |set aside 
by him in the spirit of the theorist who met 
rebutting evidence with the exclamation, 

* So much the worse for the facts.* The spirit 
of wild hypothesis in which the author in- 
dulges, as well as his peculiar standpoint, 
may perhaps be best estimated from the ap- 
plication in a postscript of his argument for 
Roman monotheism to * the world-wide ques- 
tion of the future of the City of Rome.* The 
Italian nation as the representative of idolatry 
is solemnly warned against the sin of taking 

* the city on which the Lord of heaven and 
earth has set the sign and seal of His choice 
away from the ends and purposes for which 
He has chosen and appointed this city.* Need 
we add another word ? 

GasseWs History of the United States, By 
Edmund Ollier. Vol. III. Illustrated. 
Cassell, Fetter, and Galpin. 

Mr. Oilier concludes his history with the 
accession to the Presidency of Mr. Hayes. 
He is a good popular narrator, and has pro- 
duced a history which ^Ives a fair and full 
account of events. He is one of those inter- 
mediary narrators who come between scien- 
tific historians — who investigate the original 
sources of history, 'appraise events, and ex- 
pound the development of nations — and the 
public. In this class he is entitled to high 
praise. His history is eminently readable, 



lU 



Contemporary literature. 



Jan. 



and he presents his fadts, on the whole, in 
just lights, although here and there he has 
the fault of his virtues, and evinces a bias in 
his judgment of disputed matters. Occasion- 
ally, too, he is vague: e.g.^ he tells us that 
Brigham Young was to.be tried for bigamy, 
and probably for murder, and then adds: 
'But a decision of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, pronounced in 1872, put a 
stop to the Mormon prosecutions, released the 
persons already convicted, and once more in- 
vested the *' saints" with control over the 
courts of Utah ;' which really tells us nothing 
- the whole point of the information lying in 
what the decision was. Mr. Ollier's history, 
however, is the best we have for general»read- 
ers. He is, we see, to write for the same pub- 
lishers a history of the Ru3.su-Turkish war. 

CoHselVB History of Englfvid, With about 
2,000 Illustrations. 

This is brought down, at the close of the 
secpnd volume, to the death of Elizabeth; 
who, by the way, according to the writer's 
own text, died in her bed — which sue had 
kept fifteen days after her obstinate sitting 
on the floor on cushions — and not on the floor, 
as represented on p. 565. A little more ex- 
actitude in the illustrations is desirable, for 
they are intended to be part of the history. 
One valuable feature of this history is its 
<:areful estimates of the various interests and 
characteristics of the nation as such. We 
fihall return to it. 

Old and New London : a Narrative of its Hie- 
tory^ ita People, and ite Palaces. Illustrated 
with numerous Engravings from the most 
Authentic Sources. The Western and 
Northern Suburbs. By Edward Walford. 
Vol. V. Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. 

In this fifth volume of his picturesque, an- 
■ccdotical, and descriptive history, Mr. Wal- 
ford carries us through Belgravia, Knights- 
bridge, Pimlico, Chelsea, Brompton, and Ken- 
sington; Netting Hill, Tyburnia, and Pad- 
dington; Kilburn, St. John's Wood, Mary- 
ilebone, Camden Town, St. Pancras, Hollo- 
'way, Highgate, Hampstead, and Homsey; 
Hackney, Hoxton, Stoke Newington, Stam- 
ford Hill, Tottenham, Edmonton, and Strat- 
•ford-le*-Bow. His book is a rich repertory of 
nil sorts of local information and out-of-the- 
way gossip, as well as a record of graver his- 
torical facts. It is full of reminiscence, his- 
torical, biographical, literary, and antiquarian. 
It is a kind of Pepys' Diary history, and fas- 
•ci nates in a like gossipy way. Dip where we 
'may, we are sure to find something intcrest- 
9ug, and once laid hold of, it is difficult to 
get away. Young readers and old gossips 
will alike value its orderly and well-selected 
.groups of local information about the vast 
metropolis. 

T/ie ITistori/ of Protestanthm. By the Rev. 
J. A. WvLiE, LL.D.« Illustrated. Vol. 
UL Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. 

Dr. Wylie concludes his history with this 
'-volume, which gives us. sketches of the his- 



tory of Protestantism in the Netherlands, 
Poland, and Bohemia, Hungary and Tran- 
sylvania, Germany during the Thirty Years^ 
War, France, England, and Scotland. It is 
not an easy task to separate any strand of the 
great cable of history. Protestantism, how- 
ever, is distinct enough in idea and in histor- 
ical embodiment to lend itself to such disinte- 
gration as well as almost any element of his- 
tory. We can scarcely call Dr. Wylie a great 
historian either in respect of knowledge, grip, 
or philosophy. His style, moreover, is some- 
what thin and garrulous, and he is not over 
careful of congruity of metaphor: e.g., the 
opening paragraph of chapter v., p. 37 1, would 
not be easy to construe. But he has indus- 
triously sought out his facts, and intelligently 
narrated them. His sympathies are always 
with lilx^rty and with spiritual religion. No 
more tragic and thrilling chapters of human 
history are to be found than those narrating 
the religious struggles which followed the 
Reformation. The heroism of the Waldenscs 
has become classic; that of the Netherlands is 
less known, but it is equally noble, and more 
bloody. Every struggle for freedom and for 
spiritual religion is for the entire welfare of 
mankind. Religious reformers have often 
been the greatest patriots. Dr. Wylie*s book 
will supply in a pleasing form, and gathered 
from a great variety of sources, information 
that will not only interest young readers, 
but that will also imbue them with the sacred 
love of liberty and of truth. 

GaaselVs Uistory of Tr.dia. By James Grant. 
Vol. H. 

This brings down the narrative to the rule 
of Lord Lytton and the present Madras 
Famine. As a history of our rule in India, 
derived from well-known authorities, such as 
Mill, Thornton, and Marshman, it leaves little 
to be desired. We regret, as we said iu our 
notice of the first volume, that it is only this, 
and tells us nothing about the prc-Anglican 
period. Could Messrs. Cassell do a better 
service than provide such a history of which 
this might be the sequel ? Few narratives 
would furnish more romantic interest, only it 
is not every man who could write it. Mean- 
while we are thankful for the really good 
popular history that Mr. Grant has given us. 

Leasing. By James Sime. Two Vols. Trub- 
ncr and Co. 

It is curious that Lessing, after the long 
period of comparative neglect in which he 
has been allowed to lie by English students 
of German literature and thought, should hare 
found two English biographers at the same 
time. Mr. Sime has preceded with his biogra- 
phy the long promised volume by the author 
of the interesting essay on Schopenhauer ; and 
when her book on Lessing appears, it will 
probably be more in the nature of a mono- 
graph than a life. Mr. Sime has fulfilled his 
task with old-fashioned thoroughness, and in 
these volumes has given to the public a bio- 
graphy and an elaborate criticism of the works 
of Lessing. It was quite time that something 



1878. 



CorUemporary Literature. 



115 



of the sort was supplied. Without being able 
to reckon the author of * Nathan ' and the 
* Laocoon ' quite so high as his enthusiastic 
biographer, it yet seems to us that it was not 
altogether creditable that a writer so much 
quoted, and to whom English as well as Ge)*- 
man thought owes so much, should hnve re- 
mained without elucidatory biography and 
critical comparison of his works. This re- 
proach has now been removed, and this has 
been accomplished by as careful and scholarly 
a piece of work, taken as a whole, as it has 
lately been our good fortune to meet. In 
these days of rapid and much writing, not 
many who essay to produce biographical com- 
positions will undergo the laborious research 
which has evidently attended the preparation 
of the work before us. But Mr. Sime has not 
been merely careful. He has sought to com- 
prehend Lessing in relation to his epoch, and 
the influence he exerted upon German thought 
and literature. How great that was we have 
materials for estimating in the graphic and 
impressive picture of the state of desolation 
in which Germany was sunk presented in the 
first chapter of the book. Comparing Ger- 
many as it was after the Thirty Years* War 
with the Germany of the time of Goethe and 
Schiller, we are able to form some idea of the 
immense gulf she had crossed in the interval. 
It was very much owing to Lessing that she 
was ever able to cross it. Mr. Sime, as we 
believe, does ndt exaggerate the formative 
and impelling power exercised by the great 
critic and writer, and this historical aspect of 
Lessing's work is perhaps the most important 
for the student. There are other aspects in 
which the biographer does not seem to us to 
have been quite so successful in expounding 
the position of Lessing. We do not think he is 
correct in his estimate of Lessing as a theo- 
logian and a philosopher. It seems to us 
that in his ardent admiration of his hero he 
has attributed to him a consistent religious 
and philosophical theory which we very much 
doubt if Lessing ever held. On this and 
other points we do not dwell here, as we hope 
to have an early opportunity of dealing at 
greater length with the character and position 
of Lessing, and the work which he accom- 
plished. For the present, we must be con- 
tent with saying that we do not think Lessing 
had so completely denuded himself of all be- 
lief in the supernatural as his biographer has 
tried to make out. To establish this conclu- 
sion, a minute examination of Lessing^s posi- 
tions and points of view will be necessary, 
and we reserve that work for another number 
of this Review. In the mean time we would 
only add here our cordial appreciation of a 
really admirable piece of biographical and 
critical work. Although the fruit of minute 
and careful study, the style of the book ren- 
ders it eminently readable, and it will be 
treasure- trove to all (and in these days they 
are legion) to whom German literature has 
attractions. 

The Life of His JRoyal Highness the Prince 
Consort. By Theodork Martin. Vol. 
IIL Smith, Elder, and Co. 



This third volume of the Prince Consort's 
Life is full of interesting and important mat- 
ter. It opens with the reaction which set in 
against the calumnies by which the Prince 
had been maligned. Lord Aberdeen, writing 
upon this subject in February, 1854, says: 
*" The whole edifice of falsehood and misrep- 
resentation is completely overthrown, and we 
may trust that a great reaction will now take 
place, in full proportion to the measure of cal- 
umny and injustice which has prevailed.' In 
the following April, the Queen, who bad 
naturally felt keenly these attacks upon the 
Prince, writes, * That black time, when foul 
calumny strove to blind our deluded people, 
vanished from the hour Parliament spoke of 
it ; and this serves to show how it was got 
up, and how little it had taken root.' Thus 
royalty itself benefited by that which is ever 
the very salt of a healthy national life, viz., 
full and free discussion. 

In judging of the Eastern Question, the 
Prince regarded, not so much the possibility 
or otherwise of Turkey being able to main- 
tain her existence, as the importance of pre- 
serving a united European action, and so pre- 
venting the Emperor . Nicholas solving the 
Eastern Question alone, according to his own 
views. Larger issues were involved than dis- 
gust at Turkish misrule, or the duration of 
what Mr. Martin justly terms an ^effete 
dynasty.' The necessity of controlling Russia 
by the united will of Europe was rightly felt 
by the Prince to be of paramount importance. 
The French Government of the day was well 
disposed to act with England in endeavouring 
to form such a union among the European 
powers as would impose its will on Russia 
and Turkey. Austria's position was one of 
no little difficulty. She was afraid of revo- 
lution, doubtful of Prussia, and fearful of 
Russia. Her diplomacy leaned to the side of 
the Western Powers, especially after the rev- 
elations made by the reported conversations of 
the Emperor Nicholas with Sir Hamilton Sey- 
mour, and of the Czar^s attempted intrigues 
with France when he found he could not suc- 
ceed with England. But Prussia, by her 
vacillation and fear of the Emperor Nicholas, 
was the great obstacle to the united and 
therefore efficacious action of Europe. l*he 
Prince Consort's feelings were roused to real 
indignation against the Sing of Prussia, for 
he became at last but a mere tool in the hands 
of Russia, and ' in concert with the princes 
of the smaller kingdoms of Germany was do- 
ing his utmost to paralyze Austria, who had 
shown a disposition to take an active part on 
the side of the Western Powers. The King 
of Prussia went so far as to dismiss Baron 
Bunsen, General Bonin, and other trusty ser- 
vants who were opposed to undue subserviency 
to Russia. This was so distasteful to the 
Crown Prince, the king's brother (now the 
Emperor William), that he left Berlin for 
Baden-Baden, on the plea of health. The 
King of Prussia, in a letter to the Queen of 
England, endeavoured to explain and justify 
his proceedings. Her Majesty's reply was 
marked by admirable judgment : ^ One thing/ 



116 



Contemporary IdUrature, 



Jan. 



she Bays, ' forces roe to speak out of my heart : 
it is this. That the men with wliom you have 
broken were loyal, truthful servants, devoted 
to you with no ordinary warmth of attach- 
ment; and if such men. as these—a loving 
brother among them, a prince noble and chiv- 
alrous to the core, and nearest to the throne 
^have felt themselves constrained to part 
from you at a momentous crisis, this is a Mri- 
ous wymptomy which may well give your 
Majesty occasion to take counsel with your- 
self, and to test with anxious care whether 
the hidden source of evils, past and present, 
may not perhaps be found in your Majesty ^s 
own views.' Had Prussia, instead of pursu- 
ing this unworthy course, joined firmly with 
Austria in supporting the Western Powers 
against the undue pretensions of the Emperor 
Nicholas, it is quite possible that the latter 
might have yielded to the united voice of 
Europe. But Prussians conduct embarrassed 
Austria, and left England and France alone 
to confront the haughty and overbearing Czar, 
who was thus strengthened by the divisions 
of the European Powers. Disunion among 
them in 1854 led to war, and disunion in 1877 
has led to the same result. But in this latter 
case it must be admitted that the fault of such 
disunion has not laid with Prussia, or rather 
with Germany, now happily united under the 
leadership [of the Emperor William. It was 
not hU cabinet which rejected the Berlin 
Memorandum, despite the entreaties of other 
powers not to do so; it was not tiu government 
which constantly thwarted really efficacious 
measures which alone were calculated to 
oblige Turkey to govern justly, and so pre- 
vent the single-handed intervention of Rus- 
sia. 

The Prince Consort *s ' Memorandum on my 
Visit to Boulogne,' when he spent four or five 
days with the Emperor of the French, at his 
camp near that town, gives an interesting ac- 
count of Napoleon III. and his entourage. 
His great hold upon the French was the ' name 
of Napoleon.' His knowledge of Napoleonic 
ideas and policy was very complete, but his 
acquaintance with the general history of mod- 
ern times was scanty. He never seems to have 
risen to enlarged views of true statesmanship. 
* The Emperor,' says the 'Prince, * appears in 
distress for means of government, and obliged 
to look about for them from day to day.' He 
then adds the following significant remark. 
^ Having deprived his people of every active 
participation in the government, and having 
reduced them to mere passive spectators, he 
is bound to keep up the spectacle ; and as at 
fireworks, whenever a pause takes place be- 
tween the different displays, the public im- 
mediately grows impatient, and forgets what 
it has just applauded, and that new prepara- 
tions require time.' Such was the miserable, 
not to say despicable, condition to which an 
irresponsible personal despotism had reduced 
a great nation. It is unnecessary to insist at 
length upon the danger which results from 
such a state of thinsa — a danger menacing 
alike to the ruler and the people. 

The Prince Consort followed the painful 



vicissitudes of the Crimean campaign with the 
most patriotic and intelligent interest. His 
memorandum on army organization is well 
worth reading, and contains sug^stions which 
have since been put in practice. Colonel 
Hamloy says that this paper *• dbtinctly hits 
the blots in the system aa it then existed, 
affords another proof of the soundness of the 
Prince Consort's judgment, of his capacity 
for being a leader of reform, and will enhance 
his repute as a thinker and administrator.* 
Nor was the Prince less able in the advice he 
gave during the prolonged political crisis, 
which '.began with the divisions and fall of 
the Aberdeen Cabinet and ended with the 
formation of one presided over by Lord Pal- 
merston, and which finally resulted in exclnd- 
ing from ofllce all the members of wnat was 
still known as the Peelite party. Lord Pan- 
mure, who succeeded the Duke of Newcastle 
at the War Office, found, like his predeces- 
sor, no small advantage in * the wise and en- 
ergetic counsels and accurate knowledge of 
the Prince.' 

The visit of the Emperor and Empress of 
the French to England, in the spring of 1855, 
is very well described by Mr. Martin. Tho 
Emperor was cordially received by all classes, 
and appreciated at its true value such a recep- 
tion. He made a very favourable impression 
on the Queen and Prince Consort, and was 
yet more favourably impressed himself by 
them. The negotiations und failure of tlie 
Vienna Conference in 1855, and the debates 
to which they gave rise in Parliament, form 
a part of this interesting volume which merits 
careful study. The conclusion cannot Ins 
avoided that the Austrian proposals did not 
offer a safe basis for a treaty of peace. 

The account of the memorable visit of the 
Queen and Prince Consort, accompanied by the 
young Prince of Wales and Princess Royal to 
Paris in August, 1855, receives great additional 
interest, from ita being compiled in great part 
from the Queen's own diary kept at the time. 
Nothing could exceed the cordiality of the 
reception given by the French and their Em- 
peror to Her Majesty and the royal family. 
The Emperor himself gained more in the 
Queen's and Prince Consort's esteem. The 
former says in her diary: * Strange indeed are 
the dispensations of Providence. Whoever 
could have thought that this same man, this 
Emperor towards whom we certainly were not« 
since December, 1851, well disposed, against 
whom so mncb was and could be said, whose 
life had been so chequered, could from out- 
ward circumstances, and his* own sincere and 
straightforward conduct towards this country, 
and moderation and wisdom generally, be- 
come not only the stauncheat ally and friend 
of £o|;land, but our own personal friend.' It 
is cunons to compare this with the suspicion 
and dislike manifested by the upper clasaca 
In England towards the Emperor onl^ a few 
years afterwards,, dating from his Italian war 
of 1850, which resulted in a free and conali- 
tutional kingdom of Italy. That war, deal- 
ing as it did a heavy blow to the despotic and 
priestly Austria of that day — the Austria of 



1878. 



Cwitemporary LUerature. 



117 



the Papal Concordat of 1855 — was not at all 
to the taste of £nglish Tories and aristocrats. 
It nevertheless proved a great blessing to the 
caase of European freedom, and was the best 
thing done by Napoleon III. daring his reign. 
Throaghout the negotiations for peace 
which followed upon the fall of Sebastopol, 
the French Emperor acted with good faith 
towards England. The feeling in France 
was one of impatience for peace, which ren- 
dered the Emperor^s position difficult, more 
especially as the Rassian diplomatists did 
their utmost to lessen the accord of the 
Western Powers. But the firmness of the 
English government, and [the steady adhe- 
rence to its views of the French Emperor, 
triumphed over all difficulties, and led at 
length to the signature of the Treaty of Paris, 
on the 80th of March, 1856. It gave mod- 
erate satisfaction in England, and was very 
popular in France. Speaking of the feeling 
towards England, after this final settlement. 
Lord Clarendon, writing from '.Paris,' says: 
' The universal feeling now is that we are the 
only cOlintry able and , willing, if necessary, 
to continue the war ; . that we might have 
prevented peace; but that having announced 
our readiness to make peace on honourable 
terms, we have honestly and unselfishly acted 
up to our word.' Such a view of England's 
conduct and policy, united to the fact of our 
acknowledged ability and willingneES to csrry 
on the war, if obliged to do so, left England, 
at the close of this memorable struggle, in 
full possession of her great and just position 
among the nations of the world. How effi- 
cient at that time was the condition of our 
army, as compared with that of either France 
or Russia, may be seen by the important facts 
and statements given in pages 481 and 482 of 
this interesting and well-compiled volume. 
We commend it to the careful perusal of every 
Englishman. It proves not only how great 
were the abilities of the Prince Consort, but 
how devoted and loyal was his attachment 
(despite baseless calumnies) to the country of 
his adoption ; how wisely and unceasingly he 
laboured for its welfare; and how judicious a 
counsellor he ever proved to the enlightened 
and patriotic sovereign beneath whose gentle 
fiway our great country is at cnco so orderly 
and so free. J. W. P. 

Shelley : a Biographical Study. By Geokob 
Barnett Smitu. ^Edinburgh: David 
Douglas. 

Mr. Barnett Smith has done ^ood service to 
t)ie memory of Shelley. In spite of the evi- 
dent fact of Shelley's fine nature, his fearless- 
ness, his unselfishness, and his ready devoted- 
ness to suffering cases, certain elements of 
donbt have hung al>out his character, refer- 
able chiefly to three sources — (1) his early 
' atheism;' (2) his unfortunate first marriage, 
and what came of it ; and (3) his association 
with Godwin, on whose name, notwithstand- 
ing the effect he has had upon social philoso- 
phy in England, there rested a vague suspi- 
cion, as of ^one who, for sheer revolutionary 
delight, aimed at <}istnrbing the. cherished 



foundations of English society. A revolution 
of English habits and thoughts, necessitat- 
ing a complete revolution of institutions, was 
implied in Godwin's aims, and so far Shelley 
in some points followed him ; but both mea 
were disinterested idealists, and, at all events, 
earnestly believed that the only safe escape 
for society was through the enfranchisements 
for which they contended. The error was 
an error of the head and not of the heart ; and 
if the private life, when viewed in liberal con- 
nection with the teaching, is found tjp relieve 
them from all suspicion of mean and selfish 
intention, a great deal is gained. This is the 
purpose nnd drift of Mr. Barnett Smith's crit- 
ical biography in reference to Shelley. He 
takes up the leading periods of the poet's 
life, and shows the main facts in relation to 
published utterances, occasionally bringing 
out things in a really new light. He makes 
absolutely clear the fact that Shelley, who 
fel^into a great mistake in marrying Harriet 
Westbrook, was the victim of her scheming 
sister, and he proves that instead of being 
cruel, Shelley to the end behaved to her with 
great consideration. 

Mr. Smith, we think, is quite right when 
he regards Shelley as being a destroyer 
rather than a builder. * His eye was fixed 
on one object : he desired to break up utterly 
the wrong and corruption of the world. As 
to the processes by which this grand result 
was to be obtained, he was not always clear. 
. . . His enthusiasm was as noble and disin- 
terested as that of any other man whose his- 
tory has been bequeathed to us ; and it ex- 
torted even from Byron the remark that Shel- 
ley was the best as well as the ablest man he 
had ever known.' We could well have wished 
that Mr. Smith had at this point quoted the 
remarkable testimony to Shelley's uncalculat-- 
^Dg goodness which is afforded by the account 
of his rushing in between Byron and the 
drawn sword of the Italian officer at the gate 
of one of the Italian cities, who had been en- 
raged by some insulting words from Byron. 
It is quoted with great effect in one of Lan- 
dor's ^ Conversations.' But Mr. Smith has 
done his work with care, discretion, thorough- 
ness, and subdued enthusiasm — qualities 
which are not often found combined in studies 
of this class. He writes well, with no pre- 
tence beyond the simple illustration of his 
leading ideas. He has marked out the sec- 
tions of hia subject [clearly, and ^has adhered 
to them. He does not in this case pretend 
to niceties of textual criticism, or anything 
of that kind; but we could have wished thai 
he had Inot so unqualifiedly quoted the lyric 
from * Hellas ' as directly establishing a tend- 
ency on Shelley's part to a more favourable 
view of Christianity. It is purely dramatic 
in form, being put into the mouth of Greek 
Christian women. We are absolutely at one 
with Mr. Smith as to the final inference from 
it ; but seeing that not long ago a very diffe- 
rent conclusion was reached in an important 
Review — viz., that Shelley's approach to a 
modification of his earlier views went no fur- 
ther than an accommodation in the terms — 



118 



Contemporary Literature. 



Jan. 



all critical guards that arc possible shoald be 
carefully made use of in refereuce to such 
points, 8o*as to present them with full effect, 
and to save the possibility of what may be 
thought an ^ easy answer/ 

Memorials of Charlotte WUlia/nihWynn. Edit- 
ed by her Sister. With a Portrait. Long- 
mans and Co. 

Charlotte Williams- Wynn was the eldest 
daughter of the Right Hon. Charles Wat kin 
WilTiam^Wynn. She saw much of society 
in her girlhood, and travelled a good deal. 
She early cultivated literature and literary 
society; and though she wrote no book, was 
regarded as a woman of high intellcctaal mark 
in circles well qualified to judge, since they 
included such families as the Hebers, South- 
cys, Hallams, and Mackintoshes. In later 
years she was seized with ill-health, and had 
to reside a good deal abroad, finally giving 
up her London residence altogether, and oply 
returning for short visits to her friends. 
She was on terms of intimacy with the Car- 
lyles, the Maurices, the Bunsens, and others, 
and may be said to have lived in the highest 
intellectual atmosphere of the time. She 
was distinctly a clear observer, and wrote 
with not a little piquancy ; a good deal of 
her felicity arising from her complete power 
of detachment from the influences among 
which she temporarily found herself, though 
she was distinctly a religious woman, who 
had imbibed Mr. Maurice^s theology. A touch 
of innocent satire occasionally appears, and 
in none of the letters more effectively than 
when she is discussing certain Church affairs, 
where she is apt to deal in rather an off-hand 
way with the bishops, as the reader may easily 
see by glancing at pages 46, 70, and 70. Her 
sketches of French society, of which she saw 
much at various periods, are marked by the 
very qualities in which French letter-writers 
excel. We have clever sketches of Guizot, 
Montalembert, Dfi Tocqneville, and others.. 
Miss Williams-Wynnes religious opinions, as 
we have hinted, were liberal, and though she 
was benevolently-minded, it is clear that she 
was sometimes impatient of ^philanthropy.' 
She was impatient of orthodoxy, too, and she 
could hit off in the lightest and most lively 
way what she disliked. Here is an instance : — 

* I am beginning to be tired of the very 
name of orthodoxy. I am convinced that 
there are a set of men in the world who 
answer to that race of dogs who hunt 
truffles. It is quite curious to see how, in 
a wood, one of them will rush at once 
to some particular tree, and hunt out the 
truffles that are to be found in the ground 
underneath it; and equally ai^tonishing is it 
to see how these men are always sniffing at, 
and picking at, some hidden heresy in a 
book, which common eyes and readers never 
discover; and, like the dogs too, they trouble 
themselves with nothing but the heresy, and 
look neither to the right nor the left. They 
are mado to perform that one duty, and thcv 
do it.' 

Miss Williams- Wynn was not perhaps orig- 



inal or very far-sighted, but she had the gifts 
of the letter- writer — a clearness and unaffected 
grace, and the power of passing lightly from 
topic to topic, diffusing a certain spray-like 
light round each, and leaving a brtgbtaonke 
and happy and liberal impression on the 
minds of her correspondents. 

Sir Titus S'llt, Baronet: his Life and U$ 
Lessons, By the Bev. R. Baloarnie. Hod- 
der and Stoughton. 

Ko class of biography is more striking or 
of more sterling value than that which the 
commercial life of England supplies. A score 
of instances could at once be mentioned which 
in their romance of circumstance, struggle, 
and achievement, and in their inspiring and 
salutary character, far surpass almost every 
other, whether of statesmen, travellers, scf- 
entiflc men, or military heroes. No country 
in the world has pit»duced so many dis- 
tinguished self-made men. This is the peca- 
liarity of manufacturing enterprize — ^money 
has no chance against brains and aptitude. 
The best man generally climbs to the top, 
and the effort to climb calls into exercise so 
many varied qualities, that the result is types 
of men who in the wholesome stimulus of their 
example are unsurpassed. And when, as in 
such cases as that of Sir Titus Salt (and there 
are many), high religious principle controls 
the struggle and directs the successful result, 
they deserve and win very high admiration in- 
deed. It is not always so. Sometimes the 
habit of acquiring becomes masterful, and the 
pride of having so acquired becomes corrupt- 
ing. It fs, however, comforting to note Ihat 
in such instances the fame is sadly tarnished 
and limited, and the respect very qualified. 
It is not the mere rich or clever men that 
even commercial England delights to honour, 
but the man who has the heart to use bis 
wealth and his success for the good of his 
fellows. We are disposed to think that no 
more eminent and illustrious instance is to be 
found in (our annals than that of Sir Titos 
Salt. A quiet, patient, strong-purposed man. 
he began nearly at the bottom of the social 
and commercial ladder, and in virtue of his 
characteristic qualities he climbed to the very 
top — there is but one Saltaire in the world — 
and from first to last he preserved his sim- 
plicity, benevolence, and piety nncormpted. 
Saltiure is as much a monument of enlight- 
ened philanthropy as it is of successful 
achievement in business. Ilis workmen were 
M much to the large-hearted owner of Saltaire 
as their work ; and every provision for their 
social, intellectual, moral, and religious wel- 
fare that enlightened philosophy could de- 
vise is found in connection with it. Sir Titos 
Salt is far from standing alone. Both in his 
own district and in London names at oooe 
suggest themselves of men who with equal 
simplicity and large*heartedness emulate bis 
doings. We need only suggest, among those 
who nave departed, the names of Sir Francis 
Crossley and Mr. George Moore. Bat Sir 
Titus Salt may fairly claim to be pre-eminent. 
His private benevolences,, naany of which ore 



1878. 



Contemporary LUeratuxe, 



119 



mentioned in tliis memoir, were almost unlim- 
ited, and they were admiaiBtered with a sim- 
plicity, modesty, and often secrecy, of which 
only a truly noble nature is capable. The 
boy was father of the man. The qualities 
which ensured his great success — steady pur- 
pose, industry, punctuality, and conscicn- 
tiousness-r-were well marked in Sir Titus Salt 
from boyhood. Success such as his was no 
happy accident, even in the one or two 
marked occasions of it. The lesson for young 
men is an invaluable one, and it is unqualiScd 
by any drawbacks of character, such as are 
often found even in good men. The old 
man, in his goodness, piety, and benevolence, 
was to the last a child in heart. Mr. Balgar- 
nie has narrated his history with great good 
taste and admirable tact. It is the history of 
a religious man told by a religious man, who 
neithqr obtrudes nor concedes the secret 
springs of action, and, we will add, of suc- 
cess and honour. It is long 'since we read a 
memoir more admirably written, more inte- 
resting in itself,' or more likely to touch pur- 
pose with the best impulses. 

A Man of other Days. Recollections of the 
Marquis Henry Joseph Costa de Beauregard. 
Selected from his papers by his Great-G rand- 
son, the Marquis Costa db Beauregard. 
Edited, from the French, by Charlotte M. 
YoNGE. . Two Vols. Hurst and Blackett. 

The Marquis Henry was a Savoyard noble, 
born in 1752, and died in 1824. He lived 
therefore through the great revolutionary 
war, and was an active participator in the 
events and struggles which, beginning with 
the French invasion of Savoy in 1702, ended 
with its subjugation at Marengo in 1800. 
The book before us consists chiefly of his 
journals and letters, put together by his great- 
grandson, whose editorial work, we may say, 
is always done with good feeling, but is some- 
what redundant in sentimental reflections, 
which the English editor might with advant- 
age have curtailed. It is one of the bookl 
best reviewed by extracts. It is a rich reper- 
tory of sketches and anecdotes, which put be- 
fore us very vividly, first, the chivalrous and 
magnanimous character of the Marquis him- 
self, his tender homo alTections, and his lofty 
patriotism ; and next, the political and social 
condition of the Duchy of Savoy, the charac- 
ter of its sovereign and statesmen, and the 
course of political Events duriug the most 
eventful period of European history. Savoy 
was on the edge of the great storm, and was 
greatly agitated by it even before it was ulti- 
mately swept away by it. It also gives us in- 
teresting sketches of individual notabilities, 
especially of Joseph de Maistre, the life-long 
f nend of the Marquis and his chief correspond- 
ent, many of whose letters, describing the 
course of public events, are included here. 

Not the least interesting part of the work 
is the account of the Chateau de Yillard, the 
house of the hero's childhood, and of his first 
visit to Paris, and of the notabilities whom 
he met there. Greuze, whose sympathies 
were drawn to him by his own artistic tastes, 



for the Marquis was an artist of no mean 
skill, Vanloo, Diderot, Marmontel, and others 
are cleverly described in the piquant and 
shrewd home letters of the young Savoyard 
noble. Then he enters the army under Vic- 
tor Amadeus II., and takes up his residence 
at Beauregard, on the Savoy side of the 
Lake Geneva. Thus twenty-two years pass, 
when the early days of the Revolution excite 
Europe, and especially Savoy, wliich in 1792 
is invaded. Henry and his son Eugene, a 
boy of fourteen, joined the army, and in 1794 
the latter was killed by a bullet. The in- 
tensity of the father's sorrow is very pathetic, 
and the account of the ' straits of the little 
army in its Alpine winter quarters is full of 
interest. The Austrians used Savoy simply 
for their own selfish policy, and sacrificed it. 
Then the Corsican leader appears on the scene, 
and we have descriptions of him, and of the 
impressions made by him, before he became 
famous. The Marquis and General La Tour 
are sent to him as commissioners to propose 
an armistice. 'The sketches of Buonaparte at 
Turin are vivid and full of interest. At 
length, after a gleam of hope from the suc- 
cessors of Suwarrow, the Piedmontcsc 
monarchy comes to an end. Like Buonaparte, 
Suwarrow is graphically described as he ap- 
peared to an eye-witness. The Marquis saw 
the restoration of all things in 1815, but his 
own sacrifices of family and property were irre- 
parable, and he died almost of a broken heart. 
The volumes are full of interesting sketches 
and anecdotes, the impressions of a noble* 
minded and accomplished man. They will 
be valuable as side-lights on history, and are 
very attractive reading. 

A Young Squire of the Seventeenth Century. 
From the Papers (a.d. 1676-^6) of Christo- 
pher Jeafferson, of Dullingham House, 
Cambridge. Edited by John Cordy Jeaf- 
FBRBON. Two Vols. Hurst and Blackett. 

There must always be interest and some- 
what of illustrative information to be gathered 
from a correspondence of two hundred years 
ago. Mr. Jeafferson, the editor of these vol- 
umes, has hit upon a scries of letters, whether 
of an ancestor or not he does n6t say, which 
yield a good deal that is both interesting and 
illustrative, althouglfthe method adopted by 
the editor inv61ves a good deal of repetition. 
He first compiles from the letters a biograph- 
ical memoir, which occupies one hundred and 
sixty-four pages, and then gives us the letters 
from which the compilation is made. We 
scarcely see how he could have done other, 
inasmuch as it would have been very difficult, 
for ordinary readers to have gathered a cohe- 
rent Ibiography from the letters themselves, 
which are chiefly of a business character, and 
are necessarily allusive. 

The writer was the son of a Colonel Jeaflfer- 
son who had taken part in the subjugation of 
the West India Islands, and had by methods 
that were then more tolerated than they are 
now, except in the Turkish Empire, settled 
the unhappy natives, and had grown rich in. 
the process. This part of the story the edi- 



ISO 



Cgni^n^fMrary JJiterature. 



Jftn. 



tor puts as lightly as he can, bat It is not 
very pleasant to realize. Colonel Jeafferson 
had estates in St. Christopher, after \ehich 
island the * Young Squire ' was named, and 
he seems to have found means of buying other 
estates in Cambridgeshire. Ilis father died 
in 1 653, when he was three years old, and his 
Cambridge estates, which during his minority 
were carefully nursed, put him in a position 
of affluence when he attained his majority. 
He married, and was early left a widower, 
wbich led him in his twenty-seventh year to 
go to the West Indies, and tbere for five years 
he took upon himself the management of his 
estates, working hard as a planter, merchant, 
and colonial politician. Tbcn for four years 
he resided in London, as political agent and 
commissioner of the English colony of St. 
Kitts. The letters consist of those written 
from St. Kitts to England and of those writ- 
ten from London to St. Kitts, aud they thus 
afford us a good deal of incidental information 
concerning affairs both in the colony and at 
home during the time of Charles IL ; and as 
the London letters were many of them written 
for the information of the governor of St. 
Kitts and other chiet colonists, they enter 
fully into the state of public affairs. 

The volumes are full of facts andjncidenta, 
but are written 'somewhat jauntily^ after the 
author's manner, although with much intelli- 
gence and good sense, and tell us many things 
that are to be gathered only from private let- 
ters or diaries. The book, however, would 
have been twice as good had it been half as 
long. Having said this much to commend 
it, it is only needful to give specimens of its 
quality, and amusing p^es might be filled 
by extracts from it. We can only, however, 
send our readers to the volumes to cull for 
themselves. They will find the process' a 
pleasant one. 

The Story of My Life, By the late Colonel 
Meadows Tatlor. Edited by his Daugh- 
TEH. Two Vols. William Blackwood and 
Sons. 

A triple interest gives an exceptional value 
to this most attractive autobiography. It ex- 
hibits a condition of things in our Indian em- 
pire which is now of the past, but which is 
an instance of moral forA m the government 
of a vast territory occupied by aben and in- 
imical races that is, perhaps, without parallel 
in the history of the world. No conquered 
country has ever been held by a distant na- 
tion with a force of occupation so small, so 
largely civil, and whoso necessities often 
gave^to mere boys authority over vast dis- 
tricts. The necessity for moral control, in 
the absence of adequate physical force, no 
doubt called out arts of governing, as un- 
questionably it developed u class of Indian 
officials, whoso sagacity, individuality, cour- 
age, high moral tone, heroic deeds, and states- 
manlike qualities are probably without paral- 
lel in history. Whatever England may have 
done for India, she has developed by her rule 
qualities in her own sons of wbich she may 
well bc'proud. Some of her Indian names 



are the greatest in her history. Colonel Tay- 
lor gives us vivid pictures of the habita and 
mltf of Englishmen in India in the days when 
John Company was consul. 

Another element of interest is the remark- 
able individuality of Colonel Taylor himself. 
Without any pretensions to rank with the great 
names of our Indian soldiers, statesmen, and 
commissioners, he was yet possessed of nn- 
usaal pluck, power, and perseverance, and 
attained his position solely by merits of no or- 
dinary kind. Through the sheer instinct of self- 
improvement he was ever preparing himself 
for promotion, learning languages, studying 
character and circumstances and necessities, 
so that when promotion came he was always 
prepared to justify it by a singular efficiency. 
He owed something to friends. But for his 
cousin Mr. Newnham, be could never, have 
been removed to the civil service from the 
bankrupt house of Messrs. Baxter, to which 
he had been sent in utter misconception of 
its character. But the commission in the 
Nizam^s service which Mr. Newnham obtained 
for him, would have done but little for him 
had he not attracted attention and won com- 
mendation by his singular efficiency in every 
duty that devolved upon him, for which he 
had prepared himself by assiduous and varied 
self-improvement. Chance is on the side of 
competent men, and Colonel Taylor's compe- 
tence largely compelled chance. -Well ac- 
ouainted with the native languages, wise in 
deportment,, strict in integrity, with a singu- 
lar power of conciliating both natives and 
Europeans, he won his way step by step, never 
losing ground that he had won. He did not, 
however, rise very high. Political circum- 
stances were unfavourable. He retired on his 
honorary colonelcy aud a moderate pension, 
and is known chiefly by his literary achieve- 
ments. 

There is a third element of interest in his 
biography. From time to time we have in 
these pages called attention to Colonel Tay- 
Ar^s historical novels, and accorded to them 
high praise. ^The Confessions of a Thug^ 
' Seeta,' ' Tara,' and * Ralph Darrell/ consti- 
tute a remarkable series ot fictitious embodi- 
ments of momentous epochs snd characteris- 
tic phases of Indian history and life. He 
cannot claim rank with the great writers of 
historical fiction. Literary genius he had, 
but it was limited on the side of regal ima- 
gination. His descriptions are wonderfully 
vivid, in virtue of his powers of keen obser- 
vation^ and of his industry and conscientious- 
ness, frather than 'of his idealizing imagina- 
tion ; but the stories stand unrivalled as his- 
torical pictures of India, and one may learn 
from them almost as much history, and with 
more accuracy as from Shakespeare and Scott. 
His life, as here pourtrayed by himself, has 
for us a charm almost cqusl to that which 
made him trusted and loved bj the natives of 
India and made his life safe in the midst of 
his enemies. Instances of singular attraction 
and confidence on the part of Indian rulen 
and people of most diversified and unlikely 
character are to be found in these pages, and 



1878; 



Contemporary lAteraiure. 



131 



are a curious phenomenon in the case of a 
man whose name is unconnected with any 
special achievement. The autobiography has 
the interest of an exciting romance, while it 
abounds in information, and exhilarates like 
a tonic our entire moral nature, and gives us 
faith in the moral sympathies of humanity. 
It is a book for young men to read and study 
if they would know the secret of success in 
life. 

Tranncaycasia and Ararat. Being Kotes of a 
Vacation Tour in the Autumn of 1870. By 
James Bryce, Author of *The Holy Ro- 
man Empire,' &c. Macmillan and Co. 

i)r. Bryce in this volume describes an im- 
portant journey in a most interesting way. 
He passed through Russia, crossed the Steppes 
of the Volga, and roamed over the Cau- 
casus; then into Transcaucasia, making more 
or less intimate acquaintance with the races 
that dwell there, concerning all of which he 
has something to say. Then, after a short 
stay at Tiflis, he pursued his journey through 
Armenia, to Ararat- -in one sense the goal of 
his wanderings — and having m^de its ascent, 
travelled home through the Turkish Empire. 
It is impossible, within our limits here, to 
give any adequate impression of this most 
pleasant and instructive book. Dr. Bryce is 
well prepared by many studies to make the 
most of such a journey ; and besides all this, 
be has the patience, good-humour, and indo- 
mitable perseverance of the * climber.' This 
was particularly seen in the manner in which 
he overcame the difficulties that presented 
themselves to his ascent of Ararat. The 
superstitions of the natives respecting its in- 
accessibility were felt by Dr. Bryce in a 
special manner; for when, after much labour, 
he had reached the height of 14,000 feet, his 
guides, both Cossack and Kurd, declined to 
accompany him any farther, and disappeared. 
Though Dr. Bryce deprecates the custom of 
foolhardy mountaineering without guides, he 
went forward alone — the one man who for 
many years has made the ascent. One pecu- 
liarity of Ararat is the height of the snow- 
line, rising to 14,000 feet, whereas in the Alps 
this averages from 8,500 to 0,000 feet, and 
in the Caucasus varies from 10,000 to 12,000 
feet. Very powerful are the pictures he 
gives of Ararat, and of the views to be ob- 
tained from it at various points. He adds lit- 
tle or nothing, however, to our knowledge 
of the geology of the wondrous mount^in-^ 
said by the natives to be the centre of the 
earth, as it is undoubtedly the meeting 
point of three great kingdoms — and presents 

Eretty much the accepted opinions on that 
ead. That it was volcanic at some remote 
period there can be no doubt, but no approx- 
imate period can be fixed. Dr. Bryce's de- 
scriptions of Turkey are clear and informing. 
Ho winds up by a chapter of Reflections on 
the PoliticaljCondition of Russia and Turkey. 
He tells us that he set out with a decided pre- 
judice against Russia, as the ^ selfish man ' of 
European politics, the enslaver of Poland; 
but confesses that the more ho saw of the 



people under Russian rule, the.more impressed 
he was by the benefits they were enjoying, 
and by the fact that Russia is carrying on a 
kind of civilizing process in the East. Of 
Turkey in these respects he appears to have 
forgned a less favourable opinion. It is clear 
that Dr. Bryce is anxious to be impartial, and 
in that respect politicians may find this chap- 
ter all the more useful and suggestive. We 
confess we ourselves have read it with great 
pleasure and benefit. But we believe that 
the brfok will be most valued for its graphic 
and careful pictures of the scenery and the 
people. Dr. Bryce can paint a landscape well, 
and never wastes his touches. 

This glimpse of a prospect from the South- 
ern 8tcppe is a happy bit of word-painting. 
* Even now, with a bright sun overhead, the 
dreariness and loneliness were almost terrible : 
what must they be in winter, when north- 
eastern gales howl over the wastes of snow ? 
Yet even in this dreariness there is a certain 
charm. Looking from one of these billowy 
ridge-tops across the vast expanse, with the 
wide blue sky vaulted over it, full of that 
intense luminous clearness which marks the 
East, glowing at sunrise and sunset with the 
richest hues, you come to feel that there is a 
beauty of the plain not less solemn and in- 
spiring than that of the mountain.* 

Columbia and Canada. Being a Supplement 
to 'Westward by Rail.' By W. Eraser 
Rab. Daldy, Isbister, and Co. 

Mr. W. Eraser Rae has hardly in this new 
volume communicated so much of solid value 
as we think he might have done. It is too 
much after the model of the ordinary book of 
travel. He spends, we think, over much time 
in telling us about the peculiarities of his 
fellow-passengers, and how they impressed 
him; of the difficulties he had with Yankee 
cabmen; and of the various newspaper offices 
be visited, and newspaper men he met. 
Nearly one-half of the book is personal, and 
the other half, though it has a value of its 
own, might have been somewhat more com- 
pact. Mr. Rae is a diligent inquirer, and 
there can be no doubt that he is deeply in- 
terested in sooial and political questions ; but 
he has the defects of his qualities, and is too 
apt to speak with an air of authority. He 
always writes in a clear and vigorous way — 
now and then, however, dropping in a sen- 
tence that smacks of the newspaper. One of 
the most valuable of Mr. Rae*s suggestions is 
that of ' Interchangeable citizenship between 
Great Britain and America' — which means 
that a citizen of the United States should 
be a citizen of England, and f>ice versd. This, 
however, is so remote an arrangement, that it 
belongs to the region of speculation rather 
than to that of practical reform. Wc cannot 
help thinking tliat Mr. Rae is a little ungrate- 
ful to certain railway companies who, as he 
says, franked him along, and who are lectured 
for doing their kindness in this vicariotia way, 
though really we think this was very unvica- 
rious kindness since Mr. Rae himadf travelled, 
and not another in his stead. Mr. Rae^s 



122 



Contemporary LitercUure. 



Jan. 



hints as to thet best time and way of doing 
the American trip will no doubt be foand use- 
ful by many. On the whole, though we have 
not read this volume with the full sense of 
satisfaction that we had in * Westward by 
Hail,' it is readable, bright, and informing, 
and may not unsafely be recommended — 
especially to those who have still the Ameri- 
can continent to see. 

Upper Egypt : its People and its Products. 
A Descriptive Account of the Manners, 
Customs, Superstitions, and Occupations of 
the Ijihabitants . of the Nile Valley, the 
Desert, and the lied Sea Coast. By C. B. 
Klunzinger, M.D. With Prefatory Notice 
by Dr. Georo Schweinfurth, Author of 
* The Heart of Africa.' ,, Blackie and Sons. 

Dr. Klunzinger 'resided for many years at 
the little Upper Egyptian port of Koseir, on 
the Red Sea, as sanitary and 'quarantine doc- 
tor, appointed by the Egyptian Government. 
He made many excursions here and there, and 
observed closely : and, as he was admitted to 
terms of considerable intimacy with many 
of ,the people, it scarcely needs to be said 
that he has a good deal of an interesting 
kind to tell. And so, in a lively and pic- 
turesque way, he sketches the daily ongo- 
ings of life in Upper Egypt — takes you with 
him to the bazaar, the e^e^ the market-place, 
ftnd introduces you to the typical personages. 
He speaks very favourably of the fellahs, so 
far as their good dist)osition and contented 
spirit are concerned ; out be admits their mis- 
erable condition, and corroborates what we 
have heai'd from other sources as to the com- 
plete farce that the abolition of forced labour 
has pr6ved. He declares that the pay mostly 
Unds its way into the pockets of ofiicials ; and 
so keenly does Dr. Klunzinger sympathize 
with the brave way in which these poor 
people bear the burdens that the Government 
thrusts upon them that we fancy there is a 
certain approving tone in the passage wherein 
he tells that a fellah will stand out against 

Saying bis taxes till he has been severely 
eaten. A cruel government will always de- 
velop ^this spirit in a down-crushed people ; 
and though it must be heartily admitted that 
nowadays the labour and the taxes are, to 
some extent f devoted to educ-ational appli- 
ances and great public works that may vastly 
benefit the country in the future, yet the 
works are being pushed forward without 
much concern for the w^elfare of the people 
to^iay, who may be excused if they do not 
distinguish very nicely between present and 
future. Dr. Klunzinger has produced a lively 
and readable book, embodying many facts in 
the pleasantest way. 

Through Holland. By Charles W. Wood. 

Bentley. 

Mr. Charles Wood is cheerful, observant, 
and every way a delightful companion. We 
remember to have met him in this character 
before. He is as fond of observing odd cus- 
toms as he is of examining old buildings and 
bits of antique art- work. He writes in a very 



natural and attractive style, never straining 
after great effects. He has met with a fine 
theme in Holland, and one well suited to him. 
Notwithstanding the great mass that has been 
written about it, he has found out some fresh 
points. He was particularly delighted with 
Haarlem and Dordrecht, and speaks with due 
appreciation of the Hague and Schevcningen. 
For one thing, Mr. Wood knows what it is to 
be at perfect leisure — a most difficult thing 
for a traveller, who is most often haunted 
with time-tables and the ghost of the *• next 
train.' He was never in a hurry, and took 
care to have his mind and his eyes always 
open to the best impressions. He is possessed, 
too, of a quiet humour, which helps him 
sometimes. To those who have not visited 
Holland, this book will suffice to give a fresh 
and every way pleasant account. We should 
not omit to say that it is printed on beautiful 
paper, and that, being filled with wood en- 
gravings, executed with far more than ordi- 
nary delicacy and taste, it will form an ad- 
mirable book for a new year's present. 

Holiday Rambles, Reprints from the * Spec- 
tator.' Dalfly, Isbistcr, and Co. 

These sketches are slight, but show more 
art than appears on the surface. They are 
lively, garrulous, pack-full of quaint remark, 
wise thought, ana unexpected information, 
and they are not guiltless of gently satiric 
touches and bits of extravagance. The veil is 
very thin, and is sometimes too completely 
blown aside. Now and then, in spite of the 
persons who professedly relate the adventures 
in Switzerland, Devonshire, and elsewhere, 
we have sentences that should betray the 
authorship to critics who would not cla.ss 
themselves as experts — predilections for cer- 
tain poets, and for certain passages in their 
works, and over-philosophicarinterprctations 
of them. Theories of things, too, interject 
themselves somewhat untowardly. But in 
spite of all this the book is one to be prized, 
as no doubt it will be by not a few, who will 
feel that, under a momentary disguise, they 
meet with a mind that in graciously com- 
municating higher moods even in records of 
recreation; and, under playful forms, still 
intent on moral and theological problems. 
But there is one thing which we are sure no 
* Wife ou her Travels ' would have told the 
editor of the * Spectator * in the way which 
she is hero made to tell it, even though in- 
clined to banter. 



POLITICS, BCrENCE, AND ART. 

MiHtory of Modern English Law. By Sir 
RoiiAND Kntyet Wilson, Bart., M.A.. 
Hivingtons. 

This is one'of the series of Historical Hand- 
books in course of publication by Messrs. 
Rivingtons, under the editorship of Mr. Oscar 
Browning. It is intended to supply the 
materials for a knowledge of the existing law 



1878. 



Contemporary Literature. 



123 



of England as administered both in England 
and India. The suggestion, the writer tells 
us, of such a work was due to. his knowledge 
of the absence of a convenient text-book on 
the subject. He has therefore essayed to 
supply ttie want by a history of the laws of 
England from the year 1765 — when the tirst 
attempt to describe them as a whole in a 
popular form was made by Sir W. Blackstone 
— down to the present time. Attention is 
chiefly given to the laws for the determina- 
tion of disputes between individuals and the 
punishment of wrongdoers, excluding both 
purely economical and properly constitutional 
laws. The aut|ior first, then, examines the 
English Laws as they were in the days of 
Blackstone, under the threefold division of 
their form, their substance, and their admin- 
istration. As he considers that all our mod- 
ern law reforms are to be traced to the influ- 
ence of Bcntham, he proceeds in Part XL to 
sketch the life and estimate the works of the 
great law reformer, criticising at the same 
time his writings. Then in Part III. we have 
an account of the legal changes since 1825. 
Here arc set forth the changes in the form in 
which the law is enunciated, changes in the 
laws of property, in the laws as to wrongs 
and remedies, and in those relating to pro- 
cedure and evidence, and to special classes 
of persons. The work has been prepared 
with carefulness ,^and intelligence, and con- 
tains a mass of useful information, although 
it is not invariably put before us in the most 
lucid order. The value of the book for pur- 
poses of reference is increased by the addition 
of a chronological table of cases and statutes 
smd an ample index. 

German Letters an English Ediication, Writ- 
ten during an Educational Tour in 1876. 
By Dr. L. Wiese. Translated and Edited 
by Leonhard Schmitz, LL.D. William 
Collins, Sons, and Co. 

It did not need the cordial commenda- 
tion of Dr. Wiese as an amply qualified edu- 
cational ^observer, by his English editor. Dr. 
Schmitz, to convince intelligent readers of 
the value of these letters. They bear on 
them the stamp of a high degree of excel- 
lence, and are their own best voucher. Dr. 
Wiese has had a long practical experience of 
educational work in his own country, and his 
knowledge of English educational matters 
did not begin with the visit he paid as last 
year, of which we have the instructive re- 
sults in these admirable letters. Upwards of 
twenty years ago he was amongst us, with 
the express design of becoming acquainted 
with the systems of education and instruc- 
tion pursued in our public schools. He pre- 
pared a volume on the subject on his return 
home, which was translated into English by 
a son of the late Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, and 
published in 1854. Since then Dr. Wiese's 
experience has been greatly extended. Not 
only as a practical teacher himself, bntiits 
Councillor to the Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion in Prussia, and subsequently as chairman 
to a commission, appointed after the restora- 



tion of the German Empire, to supci vise the 
higher schools of Germany, and in other 
honourable offices, he acquired the knowledge 
and experience which constitute him a veri- 
table Nestor in educational matters. The 
leisure he has secured <eince retiring from all 
official duties he has not allowed to pass un- 
improved. The thoroughness of his investi- 
gations into all classes of English schools 
while he was among us last year is demon- 
strated by almost every page of his work. As 
might be looked for from such a man. Dr. 
Wiese, while fully alive to what is character- 
istically excellent in English educational 
methods and results, is not sparing in point- 
ing out the evils and defects he detected. 
This is done, however, with so much wisdom 
aud charity, that the most susceptible of Brit- 
ons cannot take offence at his frankness ; and 
from the point of view of the practical edu- 
cator he has rendered services for which Eng- 
lishmen ought to be really grateful, by point- 
ing out to us where our systems need amend- 
ment and improvement. In the earliest of 
these letters the writer treats his subject in 
the manner peculiar to Germans, who always 
like to deal with things aufond. His obser- 
vations on English characteristics, his gen- 
eralizations regarding our national character 
as determined by our history, are as acute as 
they are accurate, jind are brought into vivid 
relief in the contra*8tin which they are placed 
with Prussian peculiarities, not always to the 
advantage of the latter. For Dr. Wiese is a 
philosopher as well as an educationist, and 
shows that he has come to a thorough com- 
prehension of these insular I habits of ours 
which, to the ordinary * intelligent foreigner, 
usually prove so puzzling. He does full jus- 
tice to the efforts that have been made re- 
cently by the English, Legislature to overtake 
the educational wants [of the country. He 
shows, however, that — as has been long mani- 
fest to many among us — ^legislation is very 
far from having done Its work yet. It will 
not have done it until it has extended its 
supervision and organization beyond element- 
ary education to the domain of the higher 
schools. He urces the creation of a Ministry of 
Public Instruction as the central educational 
authority, assisted by a standing council of 
qualified and experienced men, which is very 
much what Mr. Forster advocates. What 
Parliament requires to do is to give its sanc- 
tion to a suitable organization of the higher 
schools,' which would secure the proper classi- 
fication of all the schools, and the establish- 
ment of provincial authorities. All the rest 
would be matter of administration. Dr. 
Wiese suggests, among the principal reforms 
needed, a better method of ascertaining quali- 
fications before any one is permitted to be- 
come a teacher, and such qualities as are 
necessary he shows cannot be discovered by a 
mere exanunation for a degree. Another sug- 
gestbn of importance is the reform of our 
present system of examinations, and the aboli- 
tion of the great evil of 'cramming,' or 
' coaching,' which is its direct result. There 
are many other points on which we have valu- 



124 



Contemporctry LUerajture. 



Jan. 



able hints, that will be best appreciated by 
those best versed in educational mattei's. The 
letters are written in a thoroughly interesting 
and readable style, and it is scarcely neces- 
sary to say, when Dr. Schmitz has done the 
work, that they have been admirably trans- 
lated. 

On the Action of Examinations Considered as a 
Means of Selection, By Henrt Latham, 
M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge. G. Bell and Sous. 

This is, perhaps, rather a long book on a 
subject which, whatever be its practical diffi- 
culties, is based on one clear and definite 
principle. If liter-ary and scientific rewards 
are to be given to young students at all, it 
must \ye cither by favour, or on the award of 
examiners and as the result of examinations 
designed and constructed as tests of merit. 
At tTie present day the latter method alone 
can be, and ought to be, recognized :. no other 
is equally impartial, or equally trustworthy 
on the whole. 

Mr. Latham, however, says (Preface, p. iv.) 
that selection by competitive examinations is 
open to one * deep-lying objection.' They 
do not tend to impart character; they only 
test acquirements. Examinations may lead, 
he thinks, to a system of training which actu- 
ally checks, instead of promotes or encour- 
ages, the growth of such qualities as make us 
manly or noble. Young men are too apt to 
become learners and nothing else. The ma- 
jority, he contends, would not be learners at 
all, without the hopes of a substantial re- 
ward. If they aspire to the social rather 
than the intellectual advantages of schools 
and colleges, they are too likely to prefer 
boating and cricket to the labour of learning. 
It is only by the machinery of rewards and 
examinations that average minds are induced 
to work at all. 

It is no doubt a curious fact that the great 
majority of tliose who have gained disdnc- 
tions in early life by examinations do not turn 
out famous in after life. They are usually 
surpassed by others who ^have not been 
brought up under *hi^h pressure,' but who 
have thought out their own conclusions, or 
made their own researches and observations in 
their own way.. So far, then, the action of 
examinations seems injurious rather than bene- 
ficial. ' And it is certain [that when the 
wished for prize has been attained, further 
effort is too often relaxed, and the dis- 
tinguished prizeman turns out a very ordinary 
mortal in after life. 

Another serious evil of prize-examinations 
is their tendency to keep the mind in the par- 
ticular groove or lines within which the re- 
quired subjects are enclosed. Every hour of 
study devoted to anything else is regarded as 
time wasted in what does not ' pay.' This 
is a result but. too common, and it is one 
main reason why prizemen do not generally 
turn out great. Their minds have been nar- 
. rowed, and their grasp and scope of p;eneral 
knowledge have been dwarfed and bmited. 
' Half the value of any kind of excellence,' Mr. 



Latham truly remarks, ' consists in its being 
declared to the world.' In other words, it is 
the honour quite as much as the profit which 
is the stimulus to exertion. He very wisely 
adds, that the popularity -given in the daily 
papers to cricket matches and other athletic 
performances, is a great and serious tempta- 
tion to young men to waste their time in idle- 
ness. There is the same interest, of coarse, 
resulting from publicity, in the attainment of 
literary honours ; and in both there is the ele- 
ment of excitement, the competition, and the 
struggle to excel. Mr. Latham, therefore, 
well compares examinations to stimulants, 
which require a very careful hand ling. • He 
says it is generally injurious to subject mature 
minds which ought to engage in original re- 
search, to the cramping efifect of examinations. 
The great object is so to frame all public ex- 
aminations, as not to damage the general tone 
of the education of the country. 

The following passage gives a summary 
of the author's general conclusions. ' A very 
large proportion of our young men require to 
be stimulated to study in the same way as 
men in active life require inducements to keep 
them to work. Competitive examinations 
answer to the struggle for advancement in 
life ; qualifying examinations to the necessity 
for [competent ability — a necessity which is 
becoming daily more imperative; and, lastly, 
the subjects which are the most repulsive, or 
which yield the smallest immediate return in 
the way of a practical acquirement, are the 
most in need of this adventitious encourage- 
ment.' On the whole, while quite aware of the 
evils of 'cram,' and of undeserved success 
gained by unworthy expedients, Mr. Latham 
approves of competitive examinations for the 
public service. * It is surely better,' he says, 

* for clerkships to be awarded by competition, 
than for young men to be content to remain 
dunces, as they used to do, because the borough 
member had promised to do something for 
them.' He thinks, however, that ' to the higher 
class of appointments, such as those for the In* 
dian Civil Service, the system works injurious- 
ly for the higher education, and the depart- 
ment does not obtain such effective public ser- 
vants as it might command.' It is too much in 
the hands of special * crammers, ' and it encour- 
ages, or rather makes necessary, a mode of 
education which is not satisfactory. The 

* getting up ' of oo many different subjects at 
once, and for one examination, prevents any 
one from being [learnt thoroughly,— an evil 
often felt, and generally acknowledged, in 
the otherwise excellent examinations of the 
London University. A student 'may be 
trained to get marks, without possessing the 
qualities which the marks are supposed to in- 
dicate.' So that, generally speaking, 'the 
value of examinations is far greater as an en- 
gine in the hands of the teacher to keep the 
pupil to definite work than as a criterion.' 

Mr. Latham answers the question so often 
put (and especially in reference to the large 
sinecure endowments of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge), * Why should you pay a man for do- 
ing what is for his good ?' by the proposition 



1878. 



Contemporary JLUerature. 



125 



that ' the country benefits by the existence of 
a considerable class of highly educated per- 
sons, and you would not have this class if 
you did not pay for it.' He avowedly puts 
the whole system of prize fellowships on the 
basis of paying men for taking the trouble to 
learn. * Whether the existence of a class of 
cultivated persons in the country is worth what 
it may cost to obtain, is a question for the pub- 
lic' On the right allotment of these prizes, 
such as fellowships, he has some very import- 
ant remarks in Appendix A. He seems to 
admit that there is great room for improve- 
ment in the present system. Too many fel- 
lowships are. bestowed on very .young men 
who do nothing, and far too few on older 
men who already have done everything in 
some of the many departments of knowledge. 
To reward work done is, fully as important 
to the cause of learning as to offer facilities 
for doing it, which facilities carry no obliga- 
tion with them. Good service, however, as 
he thinks, is done by bringing the rewards of 
learning to the lower classes, and so prevent- 
ing a high general cultivation from becoming 
nearly the monopoly of the wealthy class. 
What we really have to show to the nation as 
the result of (.fellowships and scholarsliips, is 
the generally high standard of attainment 
caused by the competition itself. One could 
only wish that the greater university prizes 
were made less exclusively the property of 
the privileged Church class, and more fairly 
and equally distributed among the nation. 

Mr. Latham's work is, in our opinion, alto- 
gether excellent. It is, moreover, interest- 
ing, because it is very well written, and is 
full of observation of men and character. 
We cannot even touch upon other topics of 
the work; but there is an excellent epitome 
of the contents prefixed, so that any reader 
can turn at once to any special point on which 
he desires information on this complex and 
important branch of our national education. 
Ko one can write upon it with higher authority 
than Mr. Latham, who has been a singularly 
successful and distinguished college tutor for 
a long series of years. . 

Mont Blanc. A Treatise on its Geodetical 
and Geological Constitution, its Transfor- 
mation, and the ancient and recent State of 
its Glaciers. By Eugene Viollet-lb-Duc. 
With one hundred and twenty illustrations. 
Translated by B. Bdckkall. Sampson 
Low and Co. 

This work, by the eminent French archi- 
tect whose name is so familiar to students of 
medissval art, is an important contribution to 
our daily increasing knowledge of the ice 
theory, and of its bearings on the present 
aspect of the mountainous districts of our 
own and other countries. Few agents are 
more powerful or more constant in their ac- 
tion than glaciers. Formed by snow alter- 
nately melting and freezing, and pushed on- 
wards into the lower valleys by the ever-in- 
creasing weight of new snow on the heights, 
they tear off and carry along in their resistless 
course blocks of stone (the * boulders ' of 



after fages), dropping, a^ they go^ heaps of 
gravel, till at last they break off in the depth 
of some adjacent sea, and form the ice-floes 
which are carried by currents far into the 
ocean. The "extensive beds of post-tertiaiy 
gravel which cover, often for many feet and 
even yards in thickness, a wide area in the 
neighbourhood of London and elsewhere, owe 
their origin to moraines or glacier-gravels lev- 
elled and dispersed by the floods of water 
which accompanied their flnal melting and 
disappearance. Such phenomena, it is evi- 
dent, are of sufficient importance to encour 
age the most careful and laborious research. 
The translator afiirms, for his author, that 
'the special subject has never before been 
treated in so consecutive and compendious a 
form.' He adds, that 'in the number, accu- 
racy, and beauty of the diagrams, this treatise 
may be deemed unrivalled.' The woodcuts 
are, for the most part, we think, somewhat 
slight and sketchy ; nevertheless, they show a 
mastery over the diflicult art of giving the 
true outline of rocks in a few simple but 
effective strokes. As a whole, the volume is 
unquestionably one of high merit and interest. 
The first chapter on the primitive configura- 
tion of Mont Blanc, follows the commonly 
accepted theory of a more or less flexible mass 
of primary rock (protogino, more correctly 
proto^me) having been upheaved, and of it* 
forcibly bending back and contorting the 
still soft sedimentary strata which it broke 
through. The evident marks of the action of 
heat, where very strong crystalline rocks have 
been compressed or disrupted, opens a ques- 
tion whether such heat is not in some instances 
the direct result of pressure, rather than of 
subterranean action. Thus we know that a 
piece of iron punched out of a cold bar be* 
comes, by the mere process, instantaneouply 
so hot an to burn the hand. By some such 
agency the protruded rock formed itself into 
a semi-crystalline mammillated surface, not 
very unlike the columnar structure assumed 
by basalt in cooling. Of this the author gives 
sketches in pp. 21, 106, and he regards this 
primitive condition of the surface as having 
been for the most part, by the lapse of time 
and by atmospheric agencies, disintegrated 
and changed into spiky and jagged ridges at 
the lines of contraction. It has long been a 
disputed point whether granite and other 
plutonic rocks have been upheaved in a hot 
and plastic, or in a solid, condition. The 
author inclines to the former opinion, and 
doubts if the elevation of a solid mass would 
not have caused much greater disturbance of 
the adjacent rocks, and have shown less 
facility for ' moulding itself as it has done 
among the environing rocks.' This difficult 
point may well be studied in the granitic up- 
throw in Charnwood Forest, in Leicestershire, 
where indications of ' plastic ' rock may often 
be met with. The theory of metamorphic 
action is also surrounded with difficulties, 
which perhaps are most readily removed by the 
acceptance of self-generated heat by pressure; 
and yet it is certain that, in immediate con- 
tact with eruptive rocks, as in many places in 



126 



Contemporary Literature, 



Jan. 



the nortli of Irclanc], inctamorphic action has 
bean the direct result. The author quotes the 
opinion of M. Delcssc, that metamorphism is 
often rather part of a general action than 
the result of direct contact. 

In the next chapter the author discusses 
the causes of the accumulation of snow, and 
in chapter iv. the changes which snow under- 
goes in forming neveSy f)r sheets of granulated 
frozen and crystalline drift, intermediate be- 
tween new snow and glaciers. These neves 
crack, slide, overlap lower strata, or fall in 
avalanches, all which phenomena are clearly 
explained by diagrams and sketches. The 
neves are mainly the feeders of the glaciers, 
though these derive nourishment, so to say, 
from the condensation and freezing of vapour. 
The tearing, rasping, and scmtching of the 
rocks in the glacial period, when the glaciers 
were enormously greater than their present 
bulk, is described in this chapter, and the 
formation of moraines (stone heapa) by abra- 
sion of the sides of the valleys from the 
lateral thrust of the moving masses of ice. 
Large rocks were torn o£E and carried down, 
and in the Antarctic Sea such rocks were seen 
by Sir James Ross on ice-floes, from which 
they occasionally dropped into the sea. In- 
deed, one of the most convincing proofs that 
the greater part of England was once, like 
Greenland, a great ice-field, is furnished by 
the scattered boulders, often numy tons iu 
weiglit, that are found on many hill-sides and 
valleys even far to the south. No other 
known agency could have transported these 
blocks from their original site ; but glaciers 
do now transport such blocks, and we know 
how and why. ' Nature, * the author pointed- 
ly observes, * never destroys all the evidences 
of her work.' 

The plastic or pliant nature of ice is well 
known, though rather difficult to explain. 
Any one may see, when many persons are 
skating on not very thick ice, how it bends 
under them without giving way. Even a 
strip of glass is elastic, tho&gh not in the 
same way as ice, which has a peculiar molecu- 
lar motion as yet not fully understood. Thus 
a glacier may be turned aside, or may pass 
over an obstacle with comparative facility. 
The wedge-like powar of ice in loosening and 
detaching huge blocks of stone in the course 
of agesifl well explained in p. 101. Many ex- 
amples of this may be seen m our own Lake 
district, where ice action was once extremely 
powerful. The disintegration of the primitive 
upheaved rocks by this process is well illus- 
trated by a series of sketches in pp. 106-10. 
The subject, to a geologist, is extremely im- 
portant, and the more so, because mere atmos- 
pheric action is quile insufficient to account 
for the more extensive kinds of disruption 
where there is no indication of earthquake 
action. 

Chapter v. treats of moraines and the move- 
ment of glaciers ; chapter vi. of * glacier muds, * 
— those torrents of dirty water filled with roll- 
ing stones, which have left the thick beds of 
» till ' or drift so often seen in the north of 
England. Chapters vii. and viii. describe 



the'streams which, issuing from uudcr gla- 
ciers, form the sources of lakes and rivers, as 
of the Rhone and (the Rhine. Chapter ix. 
treats of the lakes which wore the receptacles 
of the great floods from the melting glaciers. 
The work concludes with some wise remarks 
on the risks incurred by the avarice of man in 
altering or arresting the necessary operations 
of nature, as by cutting down forests, turning 
the course of streams, draining bogs, &c. 
The author everywhere shows acute reasoning 
and great powers of observation. We doubt 
not this volume will be welcomed as a valu- 
able contribution to geological science. 

The Voyage of the * ChaUcnger,^ The Atlan- 
tic. A Preliminary Account of the General 
Results of the Exploring Voyage of II.M.S. 
Challenger .Oiwxm^ the year 1873 and the 
early part of the year 1870. By Sir C. Wy- 
viLLE Thomson, Knight, LL.D. Two Vols. 
Macmillan and Co. 

Thalassa, An Essay on the Depth, Tempera- 
ture, and Currents of the Ocean. By John 
James Wild, Member of the Civilian Sci- 
entific Staff of H.M.S. Challenger, Marcus 
Ward and Co. 

Sir Wyvi He Thomson's report of the voyage 
of the Challenger y its title notwithstanding, 
can scarcely be accepted as preliminary, pub- 
lished as it is eighteen months after the home- 
coming of the ship, and subsequent to the 
narratives from different popular points of 
view by Lord George Campbell and Mr. Spry, 
or the more recent letters of the late Dr. von 
Willemoes-Suhm. As a preliminary account 
it is too late, and has been forestalled, not 
only by these other books, but by very con> 
sidcrable portions of itself, which have from 
time to time appeared in *Good Words,' 
'Nature,' or other periodicals, and are now 
reprinted without note or explanation, or 
even such care as was called for to avoid repe- 
tition of sentences and paragraphs, or to 
reduce them to the same grammatical point 
of time. We have thus some pages written 
in the past tense, some in the present, and 
some in the future, all jumbled together 
without distinctive mark. The more scien- 
tific parts of the book, as they now come be- 
fore us, arc equally open to criticism. In a 
work professedly meant for general readers, 
very detailed and technical obseri^ations in nat- 
ural history are out of place ; yet nearly one- 
half of the two heavy volumes before us is 
filled with such accounts of the curious and 
microscopic organizations netted near the sur- 
face of the ocean, or. dragged up from the 
hitherto unfathomed depths. We cannot but 
think that a description of these, which would 
have conveyed a sufficient, if not scientifically 
exact sense of their remarkable or hideous 
shapes, might have been couched in language 
something more like English than the techni- 
cal terms and sesquipedalian words in which 
zoologists chiefiy delight. The fact would 
seem to be that Sir Wy ville Thomson, whether 
trusting to the celebrity of the Challenger^s 
voyage and to his own deservedly high rank 
in the world of science, or being prevented by 



1878. 



Contemporary Xiterature, 



127 



other calls on his time, has not given to this 
book, as a literary work, that care which all 
literary work demands. If it had even been 
written straight off, in however great haste, 
it might have been better. As it is, written 
hnrriedly or carelessly, at different times, in 
different humours, and in the first instance 
for very different purposes, either as a purely 
popular narrative, or as a purely technical de- 
scription, and now put together without art 
or pains, the effect is one such as Caiiyle had 
in view when he wrote the not very original 
but pithily-worded seatcnc^, ' To make the 
malt sweet, the fire should and must be slow.* 
All this is, of course, quite irrespective of the 
subject-matter of the book — the voyage of the 
Challenger and the additions to exact knowl- 
edge which have been won during its contin- 
uance. The interest or the value of these it 
is perhaps impossible to overestimate, im- 
perfect though our acquaintance with them 
still is, and though the broad truths which 
have been revealed, have been made known so 
gradually, scattered by successive mails over 
the period of three years, that we have almost 
ceased to consider them as new accessions ; 
yet "when we look back to the state of our 
knowledge in the autumn of 1872, and compare 
it with that of many facts now firmly estab- 
lished, the magnitude and importance of 
what has been done seem even greater than 
we instinctively feel they must be. One 
point in which much interesting light has been 
thrown will be sufficient to illustrate this. 
Mr. Croll, one of our most careful and exact 
students of physical geography, wrote, in 
1870 in the * Philosophical Magazine,' and 
repeated in 1875, in * Climate and Time,* that 
' since there is a constant flow of water from 
the southern hemisphere to the northern in the 
form of surface currents, it must be compen- 
sated by undercurrents of equal magnitude, 
from the northern hemisphere to the southern. 
This seemed, in fact, a fair conclusion from 
his argument, to which it was difficult fb ob- 
ject, further than that, as based on theory 
alone, it could not be implicitly accepted un- 
til proved by actual observation. We have 
now, not the required proof, but, on the other 
hand, what must be accepted as very strong 
evidence to the contrary. So far as the 
Challenger observations have been published, 
they show, by a comparison of temperatures 
in different latitudes, both in the Atlantic 
and the Pacific, that the cold water which, 
as has long been known, forms the lower 
stratum at all great depths, comes not from 
the north, not even from the north or south 
in the respective hemispheres, but almost ex- 
clusively from the south ; that the cold water 
* of the Antarctic reaches, in a bottom layer, 
with a continually increasing temperature to 
the latitude of England or even further north. 
That it is, for instance, colder broad off 
Monte Video than it is off Hio de Janeiro ; 
that it is colder off* Rio than under the line ; 
colder at the equator than at 30° or 40° or 
50° north ; and that the cold streaks from the 
north, near the Ffiroe Islands, the discovery 
of which in 1868-9 gave rise to so much dis- 



cussion, have really but little extent, and no 
general influence on deep sea temperature. 
The knowledge of this fact, now picsnmp- 
tively established, must exercise a most im- 
portant bearing on the study of oceanic cir- 
culation and of climatology. But this li 
only one instance of many. For the state- 
ment and illustration of these we must refer 
lo Sir Wyville Thomson's report, which, un- 
satisfactory as in many respects it is, cannot 
faU to have a real interest far beyond the 
power of very great literary shortcomings to 
overshadow, much less destroy. 

'Thalassa' is primarily a collective and 
systematic record of the observations of deep- 
sea soundings and temperatures made not only 
by the Lightning^ Porcupine^ and Challenger 
expeditions, but also by the United States 
Coast Survey and by the different ships, 
American, Norwegian, and German, which 
have during the past few years determined a 
very large, number of facts as data for the 
solution of the various problems connected 
with ocean currents and oceanic circulation. 
It is thus a work of great and intrinsic inter- 
est; and being well printed and clearly 
illustrated, it v/ill stand as a ready reference 
and guide for all students of the physical geo- 
graphy of the sea. The deductions which the 
author has drawn from the facts recorded are 
much less satisfactory. It may seem almost 
paradoxical to say so of a member of the 
scientific staff of the Challenger expedition, 
but Mr. Wild, whilst tabulating the newest 
facts, and graphically delineating the most 
recent observations, writes as if he was unac- 
quainted with the results attained by modern 
meteorology and geography. Meteorology, 
as a science, is so entirely a thing of tt)o pres- 
ent, that theoretical writers of even ten years 
ago are now almost obsolete; but the only 
one that Mr. Wild refers to by name is Sir 
John Herschel, who wrote twenty years ago, 
and who had not, even then, any special 
authority as a meteorologist, beyond that 
readily allowed to his great reputation as a 
student of nature in all her modes of working. 
And further, the chart facing page 40 shows 
the long exploded * belts ' of calms crossing 
the lines of accurately-observed prevalent 
winds, and cutting the ^ isobars * in a manner 
utterly defiant of Professor Buys-Ballot's well- 
known law. His reference as to the cause of 
currents is, in the same way, 'to Lieutenant 
(or, as it should be, Captain) Maury; but the 
discussion as to this cause, which has raged for 
some years back, if otherwise unproductive, 
has at least refuted Maury's rather confused 
theory. From Croll to Carpenter, who may 
be considered as representing the two ex- 
tremes of theoretical opinion, there is prob- 
ably no one geographer (with the exception 
perhaps of Mr. Wild) who is prepared to ac- 
cept the viewg of the late Commodore Maury. 
Mr. Wild's opinion on this point is curiously 
at variance with that of his chief and director, 
Sir Wyville Thomson, who, both in *Thc 
Depths of the Sea,* and now again in his 
* Voyage of the Challenger^* has expressed 
himself satisfied as to the general truth of the 



138 



^Contemporary Literature, 



Jan. 



wind theory of ocean cnrrents . That there 
is, inside these another and more complex 
movement, dne to differences of temperature 
and specific gravity, few have ever doubted ; 
but this movement, of a nature so gentle that 
it can be tested in its results only by the 
most delicate and most careful observations 
of thermometer and hydrometer, is essentially 
different from that of the ocean currents, 
which are broadly marked geographical fea- 
tures, exercising a great, almost incredible in- 
fluence on climate and navigation. 

I^atural Law. An Essay in Ethics. By Edith 
SiMCox. Trtibner and Co. 

This volume is one of the series of the Eng- 
lish and Foreign Philosophical Library, now 
in course of publication by Messrs. Triibner 
and Co. It is evidently the r esult of much 
patient thought and careful analysis. Miss 
Simcox has caught up the ' enthusiasm of 
humanity ' which is one of the characteristics 
of some writers of the Positive school of 
thought in our day, and which from an artis- 
tic point of view has been so abundantly stim- 
ulated by Georffo Eliot. We wish to do all 
justice to a moae of thought which has at- 
tracted some of the ablest of living thinkers, 
but its poverty and lack of resource are never 
more plainly brought to view than, when un- 
der its guidance, attempts are made to solve 
the problems of ethics and spiritual philoso- 
phy. Miss Simcox, in the volume before us, 
has essayed to do that in the manner accept- 
able to the school, which, however, only 
means that she has elaborately attempted to 
do without an explanation. Her fundamental 
principle is that m the sphere of volition we 
meet with no phenomena that are not reduci- 
ble under natural law. Conscience and will 
are determined b^ the sum of precedent con- 
ditions precisely m the same way as the posi- 
tions of the planets are determined by gravi- 
tation. Everything is thus brought under 
the rigid governance of purely mechanical 
forces. Everything that is, is the sum of the 
forces and conditions which have given birth 
to it. There is nothing in the universe — 
nothing at least discoverable by human intel- 
lect—but inter-relations and successions of 
determining conditions, which, if we strictly 
analyze the matter, have no inherent force in 
themselves, but simply become what they are 
made to be. Of course there is no room in 
such a philosophy of life either for Qod or 
freedom ; and these, alike with the immor- 
tality of the soul — the three great thoughts 
which, according to Kaut constitute the pre- 
cious inheritance of Metaphysics— ar«3 simply 
set aside. Miss Simcox, that is to say, ac- 
cepts Mr. Lewes's method, and works through* 
out in his spirit, declaring the why of the 
minutest fact or phenomenon of life inscru- 
table, siBce we can only know the ko\t. But 
while doing this, she does not show as any 
warrant for the procedure. From first page 
to last this essay is simple absolute dogma- 
tism. And the dogmatism is so self-centered 
that the writer docs not even appear to sus- 
pect there are grave and mighty problems 



lying in her way which she has evaded, skip- 
ped over, or thrust aside, as if unconscious of 
their presence. It is not often that one meets 
a book dealing with questions in the domiun 
of philosophy which so utterly ignores the 
necessity there is for philosophical thought. 
We not long ago had a book which was en- 
titled * Philosophy without Assumptions,* bat 
Miss Simcox^s book might bo called * As- 
sumptions without Philosophy.' She accepts 
the whole rich and variea freight of moral 
and religious results, in the consciousness of 
the human raCc as developed socially and his- 
torically, and treats them as so many natural 
growths, growing we know not how nor from 
whence. But this is evading the whole ques- 
tion. It is alleged, with ut least seeming 
reasonableness, that these results cannot pos- 
sibly have grown after this naturalistic fash- 
ion, that there are elements present in them 
which cannot be so accounted for. Miss Sim- 
cox was bound, before she could secure her 
foundation, to establish the contrary of this, 
to show the possibility of spontaneity and 
activity springing from pure passivity. 
There is no light thrown on the problem by 
running back the rudiments of man*s moral 
and religious sense millions of ages. There 
can be no more in the effect than is present in 
the cause, and Evolution blinks the whole 
matter when it assumes that the order of 
things explains their origin. Miss Simcox 
does worse than this, for she has the actual 
elements before her in consciousness and 
thought which cannot be run into passive de- 
terminations ; and yet, without explaining or 
even trying to explain them, she assume that 
they are nothing but the latter. This pro- 
cedure not only is not philosophical, it is the 
death of all philosophy. It imports an arbi- 
trary hypothesis into the explanation of re- 
ality, and declares that things are inexplictble 
in the only sense in which it is much worth 
while asking for explanation— in their causes. 
Thift in spite of such a curious procedure Miss 
Simcox maintains a sternly stoical creed, hav- 
ing in it many noble elements, is highly 
creditable to her own moral sense, but not at 
all to her philosophical instincts. We can- 
not regard her essay as anything but a perverse 
and almost grotesque caricature of law and 
ethics in their highest developments; but it 
is perhaps well we should have an illustration 
of the illogical depths to which naturalistic 
enthusiasm does not scruple to descend in the 
vain attempt to sound what lies far beyond the 
length of its plummet-line. 

Proteu* ; or^ Unity in Nature. By Ciiarlbs 
Bland Radcliffk, M.D., Author of * Vital 
Motion as a Mode of Physical Motion^* Ac* 
Second Edition. Macmillan and Co. 

This work is one of the many amiable en- 
deavours that have been made by eminent 
men to induce Itcligion And Science cordially 
to shake hands, insti*ad of coldly bowing to 
each other, and going their own ways a noon* 
vinccd. * Proteus,* the sea-god in the Odys- 
sey, who can change himself into any shape 
at will, is a type of * the transmu tat ions oj 



1878. 



Contemporary Literature, 



129 



which the sauic matter is made to servo in 
building up an endless succession of dissimi- 
lar creatures.' He is the Platonic and Eleatic 
lif Kai iroAAa, plurality in unity, — very appro- 
priate as a symbol ; but then our author seems 
to regard what is a mere myth almost as a 
parable, and would explain every detail of it 
us possessed of a mystic signification. In- 
deed, in p. 87, he goes so far as to suggest 
that ^ instead of being an idle story, the meta- 
morphoses of Proteus may' be nothing less 
than a revelation in poetical guise of the 
grand truth that there is everywhere in nature 
one and the same archetypal plan.* This 
goes beyond the ancient school of Homeric 
interpreters, who contended that the poems 
contained implicicly all human knowledge 
and wisdom, — it makes Homer inspired. 
Surely the following is a little fanciful. * So 
too, a deep meaning may be found in that 
part of the story which tells how the approach 
to Proteus was secured under the disguise of 
seals, and how the skins necessary for this 
purpose were purified in nectar; even this, 
that the heart of nature is to be reached most 
readily by the comparative anatomist who 
sees his own image reflected everywhere in 
the lower animals typified in the seal, and 
who, instca.d of suffering annoyance from the 
reek of death which fouls the atmosphere in 
which he lives and works, is continually 
finding therein a pleasant nectar-like per- 
fume.' More oddly still, the author tells us 
that these reflections occurred to him at 
church, as he was studying a finial that 
seemed intended to represent a Proteus. He 
came then and there to the conclusion (not 
by any means an original one) that the inner- 
most law of nature was * unity in diversity, 
and diversity in unity.' With this convic- 
tion, he now reprints a book written to show 
that the morphological changes and develop- 
naents in plants and animals all proceed on 
one plan, and have one end in view, however 
different their external forms. 

IN'o scientific man at the present day doubts 
this concluaion for a moment. The skeleton 
of a horse or a dog or a bird is only a variety 
of that of man, however much toes or fingers, 
heels or arms, may be disguised. They are 
there, nevertheless; only what appears as the 
hoof in a horse, or the claws in a dog, appears 
OS finger-nails in us, and so on. In chapter 
i., * Traces of Unity in Plants,' Dr. Radcliffe 
merely enunciates what every botanist has 
long known and acknowledged, that the 
parts of a fiower, such as sepals, pistils, 
stamens, anthers, &c., are only altered leaves, 
nfid, in fact, in double fiowcrs, often go back 
again into actual leaves. Roots and tendrils, 
bulbs and tubers and buds, stems and 
rhizomes, are, of course, so many modifica- 
tions of a principle more or less common to 
every plant ; and again, the stem and branches 
of a plant have an obvious analogy to the 
vertebrsQ and limbs of an animal. Dr. Rad- 
cliffe writes on these points as if the doctrine 
were now first enunciated, and required de- 
tailed demonstrations. The second chapter, 
on Unity in the Limbs of Vertebrate Animals 

VOL. LXVII. B — 9 



f 

is equally true; but the exposition of the f^ct 
is not less behind the knowledge of the age. 
To be told that * the hand of man is only the 
foot ennobled, ' is quite needless. A parrot, 
a monkey, a squirrel, and many more animals, 
uso the foot as a hand. In a mole there is 
no perceptible difference between the fore and 
the hind feet; it has four hands or four feet, 
as we please to call them. Obvious, how- 
ever, and universally accepted as the facts 
themselves are, the author shows himself 
familiar with comparative anatomy, and gives 
us many interesting illustrations of hands 
being fins, or paddles, or wings, or flippers. 
His language in some parts is too scientific 
for popular reading, and yet his science is too 
well worn to have charms for scientific men. 
To be really consistent in his plan, he should 
have argued that the popular ideas of angels 
with wings on their shoulders directly violate 
the universal type, and would be six-handed 
or six-footed beings. He does not seem fully 
aware that his illustrations form an argument 
for the truth of ' evolution,' by showing how 
easily one limb or organ passes into another. 
And yet in p. 212 he rejects the view of de- 
velopment from lower forms, and proclaims 
his belief that each creature was created as 
a necessary part of a greut whole, and that 
man was not at first a brute-descended sav- 
age, but a demigod. He thinks that the 
varying number of feet, or the representatives 
of feet, in Crustacea, annulata, and some other 
orders, show that ^ the foot is not so special 
and singular an organ as it seemed to ue at 
first ' (p. 37) —an important remark. Even 
gills, he considers, have a strong affinity to 
legs and wings, and in fact arc but unde- 
veloped examples of those limbs (p. 39). The 
common prawn he takes as a typical example 
of many of these changes, and * evolutionists ' 
will no doubt thank Dr. Radcliffe for his 
careful observations. 

The chapter on Vital and Physical Motion 
is devoted to the question, What is Life ? 
The author thinks (and says that he does not 
stand alone in thinking) that ' a great change 
is necessary in the theory of mtdl motion, — 
a change amounting to no less than a complete 
revolution.' As far as we understand his 
views, he appears to regard vital motion as 
the same with physical motion, and as ulti- 
mately connected with the operations of elec- 
tricity and elasticity. * There is no occasion 
to think that ** nervous infiuence," whatever 
that may be, differs in its action from elec- 
tricity.' 'Everything, as it seems to me, 
is in flat contradiction to the current doctrine 
of vital motion: everything, as it seems ta 
me, tends to bring phenomena which have 
been regarded as exclusively vital under the 
dominion of physical law — to transmute vital 
motion into what proves to be nothing more 
than a mere mode of physical motion.' Prob- 
ably he will find in many thinkers a ready 
assent to this doctrine. Cicero had said long 
enough ago (De Div. ii. $ 70), * Humanianiml 
ea pars qus sensum, qnoe motum , qusB ap- 
petitum babet, non eat a5 actione corpori^^ 
9e}ugata^ 



i:io 



Contemporary lAUrature. 



JftlU 



We have not space to follow the author in 
his interesting speculations on Instinct and 
Memory, Imagination, Will, and Intelligence. 
We do not think, even here, his treatment of 
the subject is in any respect new; but his 
theory of ^ unity' reduces them all to the 
same principle, call it what we will, reason 
or brain power, inherent in us. In all these 
manifestations * there is something which 
points to tram-corporeity as a paramount 
reality in man.' The concluding chapter is 
written in a highly religious spirit, which 
seems to us ^hardly to harmonize with views 
which, as enunciated in the eariier part nf 
the book, will perhaps be claimed by mate- 
rialists and evolutionists as on the whole in 
their favour; though in pp. 308-212 Dr. Rad- 
cllfFc shows little sympathy with, at least, 
the more advanced advocates of those doc- 
trines. Some will be rather startled at the 
conclusion in p. 200, that ' there is an anthro- 
pomorphic element in the Deity, ' which gives 
reality to the doctrine that man was created 
in God's image. Such speculations, sup- 
ported, as they do appear to be, in some 
measure by the words of Scripture, end in 
difSculty, and it seems the best and the wisest 
course, on the whole, to let them alone. 

MythB and MarveU of Agronomy, By Rich- 
ard A. PttocTOR, Author of * Other Worlds 
than Oars,' <&c. Chatto and Wicdus. 

Mr. Proctor baa in this volume wedded in- 
struction to an interest not generally found 
in association with scientific writing. *■ My 
object,' he tells us, * has been to collect to- 
gether the most interesting of these old and 
new astronomical m^ths, associating with 
them, in due proportion, some of the chief 
marvels which recent astronomy has revealed 
to us ; and I have sought to present my sub- 
jects as I should wish to have matters outside 
the range of my special branch of study pre- 
sented to my own reading.' The first chap- 
ter, 'on Astrology,' is all that could be de- 
sired in the way of a popular and interesting 
essay, and finely strikes the keynote. * The 
Religion of the Great Pvramid and the Mys- 
tery of the Pyramids ' deal with theories of 
Professor Piazzi Smyth and others, and ex- 
poses with no little effect the falsity of some 
of their positions and deductions. We have 
not for long read a more incisive bit of writ- 
ing than that on 8wedenborg*s * Visions of 
other Worlds,' which simply shows that this 
seer — who, says De Quince v, * was the carth- 
Hest in tendency that ever addressed the spirit- 
ual part of man ' — was often inconsistent and 
self •contradictory, though sometimes in the 
midst of all this he hit great and central 
truths even in the light of science. Mr. Proc- 
tor, however, follows a popular error in speak- 
ing, in a foot-note to p. 118, as though Sir 
Isaac Newton was the author of the expres- 
sion that likened a man of science to a child 
Kthering shells on the ^sea-shore. Here Sir 
lac was but loosely quoting Milton, who 
"Wrote of the *■ Masters of those who know ' — 

' eoUecting toys 
And trifles for choice matters worth a sponge ; 
A» children gathering pMUe on the shore/ 



The other chapters of the book which have 
most struck us for curious facts and popular 
interest are those on the ' Lunar Hoax ' and 
* Some Astronomical Paradoxes.' Bat it is 
throughout attractive and informing, show- 
ing occasionally marked vigour of style, and 
we can on these accounts unqualifiedij 
recommend it. 

Pyramid FaeU and Fancies, By Jambs Bok- 
wicK, F.R.G.S., Author of * The Tasmanian 
Lily, ' &c. C. Kegan Paul and Co. 

The author of this clever and enter- 
taining little work *• has no special ideas of 
his own to propound, but simply claims tho 
merit of collecting intelligence for those 
whose time and opportunities will not war- 
rant research.' The information condensed 
into some two hundred duodecimo pages is 
something surprixing, and the writer shows 
himself not only well read in the modem and 
ancient works of various nations (including 
the Arabic) which bear upon the subject, but 
conversant with measurements and calcula- 
tions of no ordinary difficulty. 

The size and height of the Great Pyramid, 
which is the subject of this memoir, are as 
stupendous as its antiquity is vast and its use 
and object are mysterious. Occunying nearly 
thirteen acres of ground with its base,, it rises 
to a height variously estimated at from four 
hundred and fifty to seven hundred feet and 
more, and contains masonry .weighing not far 
short of seven millions of tons. Its age is 
wholly uncertain, but there seem good 
grounds for placing it as early as four thou- 
sand years before the Christian era — ' a culti- 
vated epoch,' as Dr. Lepsius says ('Discover- 
ies in Egypt, '^p. 88), * established as an his- 
torical fact by the continually increasing cer- 
titude of the royal names.' This sentence 
was written in 1852, and the largely-increased 
knowledge we now possess of the antiquity 
of man tends to confirm his statement. 

The interior of the pyramid contains, in a 
central chamber callea the King's Chamber, a 
plain and highly-polished vase or sarcophagus 
of porphyry. It is about six and a half feet 
long, and rather less than half that measure 
in depth. Whether it ever had a lid, or ever 
contained a royal mummy, or whether it was 
designed as a standard measure of capacity, 
is unknown. All these opinions and many 
more are discussed by Mr. Bonwick with 
much clearness of detail. The most sin- 
gular fact is the contrivance adopted by 
the builders of the pyramid to prevent 
all access to the interior by a series of 
great stones shutting out the passages by 
falling down in side-grooves, after the man- 
ner of a portcullis. The chapter entitled, 
' Why was the Pvramid built 7' enumer- 
ates not less than forty-seven distinct theo- 
ries, some of them verjr improbable. By far 
the most reasonable view is that it was de- 
signed as a place of bnrial by one of the kings 
of the fourth or fifth dynasty, and that it was 
entered and rifled of its treasures, if soch ever 
exiMted, by gold-seekers centuries ago. That 
it was built by * Cheops,' as Herodotus lAnns, 



1878. 



Contemporary lAterature. 



131 



saul to be rendered probable l>y the hiero- 
glyphic name * Shofo/ or 'Khoufou,' discov- 
ered in the pyramid itself. 

The Catacombs of Borne, By John Hbnrt 
Parker, C.B., Hon. M.A. Oxon, &c. With 
numerous Photographs and Descriptions. 
Oxford : Parker and Co. London : Murray. 

Though it would be impossible to conceive 
anything lower in pictorial art than the style 
which seems to prevail in the Koman cata- 
combs, and though the illustrations them- 
selves are somewhat open to criticism — in- 
deed, many of the photographs are * smudges,' 
almost indistinguishable — the greatest obliga- 
tions are due to the indefatigable explorer of 
Roman antiquities who has given to the pub- 
lic this important and interesting volume. 
As the fact has more and more clearly dawned 
upon us that a very large proportion of the 
population of Rome in the third and fourth 
centaries must have been Christian (or semi- 
Christian, at least, for pagan emblems are not 
nnfrequent), so inquirers have been more 
anxious to ascertain what were the views, the 
doctrines, the hopes, and the belief of those 
early professors, so many of whom sealed 
their faith with their blood. It was to be 
expected that different conclusions would be 
drawn according to the theological bias of 
the writers. One groat merit in j^this work is 
that sepulchral art, rude as it is, is allowed 
to speak for itself. Mr. Parker is always 
fair, and writes like one who has no concern 
for anything but plain truth. He speaks in 
his preface of the * popular 'delusions ' that 
are current on the subject, and the too hasty 
conclusions that have been formed for con- 
troversial ends. We believe his book is en- 
tirely trustworthy, and there can be no doubt 
that he has more thoroughly and impartially 
looked into the matter than any English 
writer who has preceded him. Indeed, his 
long residence at Rome, and his personal 
knowledge of the most eminent archseolo- 
gists, entitle him to speak with an authority 
which none of the other writers possess in an 
equal degree. 

The original entrances to the catacombs 
(which are excavations and galleries in a sub- 
terranean stratum of tufaceous earth, or more 
or less solid volcanic sand) are for the most 
part concealed, a significant fact, in itself 
indicating privacy for retirement or security, 
though for what particular reasons or neces- 
sities is open to doubt. Most of the rude 
paintings— in themselves seldom very ancient 
—have been restored by later hands. * Pew 
of them are of fany early date, and many of 
them are not Christian.' Mr. Parker adds, 
that * scores of Pagan inscriptions have been 
found in the catacombs, and many of them 
remain there still.' He again and again re- 
jects a theory which some have attempted to 
maintain, that these were old marbles carried 
into the catacombs to be used again, and to 
have new inscriptions engraved. He admits, 
however, that this may have been occasionally 
done. Nevertheless, the true explanation 
most probably be sought in the influence of 



early education on badly instructed minds, 
for old religions are not easily surrendered to 
and superseded by new. He thinks, too, 
that the number of martyrs buried in the cata- 
combs has been immensely exaggerated: in 
this also we agree with him. 

Like the London sewers, * there are hun- 
dreds of miles of sand-pit roads undermining 
the Campagna of Rome in all directions, some 
still in use, others long disused and the en- 
trances walled up.' The truth seems to be 
that the Roman builders, who used an enor- 
mous quantity of mdttar in their constructions, 
drew from the inexhaustible volcanic deposits, 
under the Campagna a fit material for their 
works. For centuries tne supply must have 
been thus obtained, nor is it easy to under- 
stand why there should have been such a de- 
mand for sand for any other purpose. Some 
of the pits Mr. Parker considers probably 
coeval with the foundation of Rome. Indeed 
the sand-trade is still actively kept up in 
Rome, though the author does not say for 
what use. But in p. 41 he states that the 
Pozzolana sand * makes the best mortar in the 
world, from its gritty nature.' It appears, 
however, in the neighbourhood of Rome to 
be largely used for domestic puri)oses. * Peo- 
ple once accustomed to the use of this sand,' 
he says, * cannot do without it.' 

The great Roman churches (basilicas) 

* were all originally chapels at the entrances 
of the catacombs.' Some of these the author 
believes to be yet unexplored, and that per- 
mission to dig could easily be obtained, if 
funds were forthcoming. The catacombs did 
not extend under the city of Rome, but lie 
two or three miles from it, mostly on the east 
side, and Mr. Parker points out the popular 
error attached to the not unfamiliar phrase, 
Boma 9otterranea. Another mistake is the 
belief that the frescoes belong generally to 
the second and third centuries, whereas 

* fully three-fourths of the paintings belong 
to the latest restorations of the eighth and 
ninth centuries ; and of the remaining fourth 
part, a considerable number are of the sixth 
century,' in the time of Pope John I. There 
are, however, some paintings of the fourth 
and fifth centuries, the earliest being the 
Good Shepherd and certain well-known scrip- 
tural subjects. * There are no religious sub- 
jects before the time of Constantine, and 
during the fourth and fifth centuries they are 
confined entirely to scriptural subjects.' It 
is only in the eighth century that figures of 
saints or martyrsbecame common. The most 
genuine things are the inscriptions on the 
tombstones; but * few of them are before the 
third century, and by far the largest propor- 
tion are of the fourth and fifth, with a few of 
the sixth, and even later.' But they have all 
been removed, and are deposited in museums 
and cloisters, too often without any careful 
record of the catacomb to which each Ije- 
longed. 

A knowledge of the existence of these cata- 
combs as places of Christian burial prevailed 
from very early times. In the seventh, 
eighth, and ninth centuries, pilgrimages to 



132 



Contemporary IJiterature. 



Jan. 



the tombs of Roman martyrs *■ amounted to a 
mania.* the result of which might be foreseen 
— the * relics of martyrs became a proHtable 
trade.' The niches or recesses in which the 
urns of ashes were deposited are known as 
Columbaria^ or * pigeon-holes.* But tlie burn- 
ing of bodies seems to have been displeasing 
to the Christian sentiment, and sarcophagi 
and loevllj or oblong graves, came into general 
use. Great doubts have been thrown on the 
alleged numbers of martyrs in the catacombs, 
who. Mr. Parker contends, * should be counted 
by tens rather than by thousands.' The sup- 
posed symbol of martyrdom, the palm-branch, 
IS found commonly in Jewish as well as in 
Christian catacombs; and the small vessel 
sometimes attached, supposed to contain 
blood, has pioved on analysis to have been 
some other fluid, probably wine — a libation, 
perhaps, to the Manes of the deceased. The 
custom, Mr. Parker suggests, may have been 
followed by Christians only as a custom, and 
without attaching any particular meaning to 
it. 

Mr. Parker doubts if the catacombs were 
ever exclusively Christian, from the large num- 
ber of pagan emblems and inscriptions found 
in them. Nevertheless, he thinks that some 
of them, as that of St. Callixtus, may have 
been so. It is a point, he says, that requires 
to be yet examined. 

The tifth and subsequent sections describe 
the position and dedication of the principal 
catacombs on the Komnn roadways. They 
are illustrated by notes of great learning 
and research, but the matter of them cannot 
be entered upon in n brief review. An ap- 
pendix gives a list of the numerous engrav- 
ings of catacomb frescoes (many of them now 
destroyed) drawn by Bosio in the sixteenth 
century, and also of chose given in the work 
of Louis Perrct, in six volumes folio, 185d-56. 
The last part of the work is occupied by the 
photographs aud brief descriptions of the sub- 
jects. Poor as these are as works of art« and 
in some cases so blurred as to be hardly intel- 
ligible, they are, novertholoss, highly curious. 
One of the commonest subjects is interpreted 
as an Agape^ or * Love-feast.' Possibly those 
represent the Silicfrnia^ or feasts of the dead, 
a rite existing under some form in nearly 
every religion. A few specimens of circular 
pltiques, supposed to have been the feet of 
gilt gloss vases, are given at the end. Ex- 
amples of these, which are all of late and do- 
liasod art, may be seen in the British and 
other museums. We do not understand how 
the inscription in Plate 1, *Cum tuis pie 
seses in Deo hilaris,* can mean, as Mr. Parker 

f'ivcs it, ' All faithful people in God rejoice.' 
ho word«««0f is C7<'«<c, * thou sholt live'; and 
the sentence seems to us to mean, * You shall 
live piously with yonr family, rejoicing in 
Qod.' This * pie zcses ' is read on the legend 
round the three Graces in Plato 8, but Mr. 
Parker can make of it nothing better than 
* pietezes.' The initial t is doubtless a mistake 
for s. As ' vivas cum tuis ' occurs on another 
glass (Plato 3), it is pretty safe to restore the 
mutilated inscription in Plate 6 tboSi * Uilaris 



[zeses cu]m t^is omnibus feliciter semper in 
pace Dei.' Possibly HilarU is here a proper 
name {Uilarius)^ though llilarui and Ililara 
are fonns better known. Some, it seems, 
have 8 apposed se»eM to I>e a corrupt and bar^ 
barous form of Jssuii^ which appears to us 
altogether improbable. 

Tomhi in and near Borne ^ Sculpture among 
the Greeks and Unmans; Mythology in 
Funeral Sculpture; and Early Chriitian 
Sculpture, By John IIen'rt Parker, C.B., 
Hon. M.A. Oxon, &c. Oxford : Jamea Par- 
ker and Co. London: Murray. 

The somewhat miscellaneous title of this 
work will in some measure prepare the reader 
to find a series of essays, several of them by 
authors whoso names arc appended, and (as 
in the companion volnme on the Catacom)>s) 
a large number of illustrations, with descrip- 
tions, of the best known examples of the 
different periods treated of. On the whole, 
the work is of importance and interest, 
though of rather unequal merit. The subject 
indeed is so vast, that almost any number of 
volumes might be filled with dissertations on 
the several topics comprised in the title. The 
illustrations, too, in photography, thongh 
generally well selected, and giving good, 
bad, and indifferent, according to tOe styles 
of art and the periods under discussion, have 
the common fault of being blurred and indis- 
tinct, so that they contrast unfavourably with 
the clear and bright specimens of the art 
which we are wont to see produced by French 
and Italian experts. But the details of the 
later (post-Christian) Roman art are not so 
well known to the majority even of classical 
readers as they deserve. It is therefore a 
matter of much interest to have a selection 
from the tomb-sculptures now deposited in 
the Roman museums made accessible in so 
convenient a form. Mr. Parker truly observes 
that * one of the first princioles of archssology 
is that it can be understood only by the eye; 
words only do not convey a sufficiently definite 
meaning, and no engravings can bo depended 
upon for details. The minute accuracy of 
the photographic art is absolutely necessary 
for the study of art.' Many of these toml> 
sculptures are liighly curious; and yet out of 
the nineteen examples of pngsnand Christian 
sculptures given, mostly of the fourth century, 
there is not a single one which has any claim 
to l>e called high art. It is hardly too much 
to say that Roman sculpture (as disiinct 
from architectural ornament, and with the 
important exception of bust-portraitnre) was 
nearly always l>ad ; and the late Greek art, 
though occasionally showing glimpses of 
genius, was spoilt by the huddled grouping 
and the want of that lifelike symmetry of 
the figures which characterized the sculptures 
in the age of Pericles. There is merit, for 
instance, but hardly excellence, in Plate 1, a 
Combat between Greeks and Amazons; so also 
in Plate 7, Castor and Pollux carrying off 
the daughters of Leucippus, and >lar» ap- 
proaching Rhea (not * lica ' or * RhsDA ') 
Silvia, with Diana TiaitingEndymion. Goou 



♦ 1878. 



Contemporary LiUrtxturc, 



133 



too is Plate 10, f^oin a sarcophagus in the 
Vatican, representing the victory of some 
Roman general over barbarians, and appa- 
rently by a Greek artist. Piute 12, giving 
two photograph views of the sarcophagus 
of Sr. Helena, of red porphyry, in the Vati- 
can Museum, is too much blurred to judge 
by, but the grouping and detail appear to be 
effective. 

In an interesting essay on ' Antique Sculp- 
tures,^ by Mr. Charles Hemans, pp. 77-89 of 
(he volume, a general account is given of the 
art-treasures found at different periods in the 
excavations at Rome. Since the iormation 
of the united kingdom of Italy, in 1870, the 
author remarks, ^The wealth in art-works 
disinterred has been extraordinary, abundant 
beyond expectation, and in many instances 
of high intrinsic value.' There can be no 
doubt that the ancient occupants of the domus 
and the mlla (the town-house and the chdteau) 
generally sought to preserve the artistic treas- 
ures in the atrium by burying them on or 
near the spot. The accumulation of soil 
which takes place in the course of ages in 
every city has removed^them still further from 
sight, till the making of drains or foundations 
has revealed them in these latter fdays. And 
few doubt but that the wide site of Rome 
contains many art treasures yet undiscovered. 
' Never has the wonderful fertility of her soil 
in such produce been more strikingly evinced 
than in recent years.' That the subterranean 
crop has suddenly come to an end, who will 
venture to surmise ? These sculptures were 
collected by the Romans — begged, bought, 
or stolen — from the cities of the Greek pro- 
vinces. No reader of Cicero's or Pliny's let- 
ters, or of the Verrine orations, is ignorant 
of the zeal of the Roman virtuosi even before 
the time of the Emperors. The villas of the 
wealthy were filled with them, and Rome in 
the earlier times of the Empire must have 
been a vast museum of the finest art the world 
ever produced. According to an old paying, 
there were then in Rome * more statues than 
inhabitants.' 

The paper by the Cavaliere Visconti, on 
■*■ Sculpture among the Greeks and Romans,' 
Inserted in the present volume, seems to us 
here and there rather deficient in the deeper 
classical knowledge,* and there are indica- 
tions that it has not been carefully rend by 
one learned in the classical languages. Its 
value, on the whole, is rather overrated by 
Mr. Parker, for a good part of the essay is 
certainly common-place. 

The first part of the volume, on the tombs 
in the neighbourhood of Rome, is illustrated 



* Why does Mr. Parker print ' the Coreutic (?) 
Art' (sic, p. 2), when the most ordinary knowl- 
edge enables any one to see that toreutic was 
meant ? The same remark applies to ' Cfrisele- 
phantina/ in p. 3. No one with any knowledge 
of Greek outfit to make such mistakes. Nor 
does 'these Hermes/ in p. 5, sound well to a 
literary ear. There are several other mistakes 
of this kind, e.g., elpvQfiia is printed e^piO/jna in 
p. 87. 



by twenty photographs of fair execution, and 
that is all that can be said for them. Mr. 
Parker rigbtly praises the drawing of the 
Shepherd and the Sheep in Plate 19, a fresco 
from the tomb of Statilius Taurus, b.c. 30. 
It is, he says, ' equal to anything that Raphael 
ever drew ; in fact, as good drawing as can be 
found anywhere.' Little if at all inferior to 
it is Plate 20, the Building of Lavinium by 
^neas and Lavinia. Here again, we must 
remark, Mr. Parker carelessly spells the name 
' Enasas ' (p. 36), and with equal carelessness 
on the preceding page he reads an inscription, 
* Octaviae Caesaris Augustus F.,' which is obvi- 
ously ' Caesaris August! filial.' In a note in 
p. 44 we are told that Stambonl (Constanti- 
nople) is * Stamboul's ryu fioXiv^ — a state- 
ment intended to explain that the name is a 
corruption of k rtlv noXtv, (Whether /JoX/v 
is really * Tartar-Greek,' or a mistake, we are 
unable to say.) In p. 39 an inscription is read 
*et sibi Bosterusquc eorum,' for 'Posteris.' 
One is perplexed to know if such errors are 
misprints, or mistranscriptions, or errors on 
the stones themselves, which, though possi- 
ble, seems the least likely of the three. 

The author says that the number of Roman 
tombs is so enormous, and their variety of 
forms so infinite, that it would be absurd to 
attempt to give any general account of them 
in a single chapter of moderate length. By 
selecting, however, some of the most remark- 
able ones in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Rome, he has produced a most valuable essay, 
full of information, and in the minuteness of 
description leaving nothing to be desired. 
The plan, too, of the volume in general is 
good — ^introductory essays on separate depart- 
ments of ancient art, followed by a series of 
illustrations of each, accompanied by short 
descriptions with dates and localities. We 
have not space to extract any descriptions 
from the first essay, 'On Tombs.' That of 
the Mausoleum of Augustus, in pp. 8-11, is 
of much interest. It stood in the Campus 
Martius, and though now we 'have but 'the 
miserable remains of a magnificent work that 
was the wonder of the world,' enough exists 
t(r show its grand proportions. It was a 
circular building, two hundred and twenty- 
five feet in external diameter, with thirteen 
smaller cells or burial-vaults for other mem- 
bers of the imperial family. The whole tomb 
was covered by a great tumulus or mound, 
which was planted with trees. *A large 
mound of earth raised upon a lofty base of 
white marble, is planted to the summit with 
evergreen trees, and surmounted by a bronze 
statue of Caesar Augustus.' Such is Strabo's 
account of it as it stood in the time of Tibe- 
rius ; and such it appears to have remained 
till it was ravaged in the search for treasure 
by the Goths under Alaric early in the fifth 
century. 

National Chriefianity ; rw, Ocesarism and 
Clericalism, By the Rev. J. B. Hbabd, 
M.A. Longmans, Green, and Co. 

Disestablishment literature grows apace. It 
is alike inevitable and desirable, that v^hen 



I'M 



ConUmparari/ literature. 



Jan. 



a question so momentous to the nation ap* 
proaches the sphere of practical politics it 
should be examined and re-examined on every 
side, 80 that it may not be settled in feverish 
haste, but after the calmest and wisest delil> 
oration. Men of every variety of opinion 
arc certain to deliver judgment upon it, and 
ill the honest expression of their convictions, 
whether ad verse or favourable, new aspects of 
the great problem are sure to start into view. 
For a long time past Nonconformists have 
enunciated their principles and stated the 
case, as it appears from their standpoint, with 
what their antagonists have thought, weari- 
some iteration. There is, therefore, no mis- 
conception of their position possible by any 
who have cared in a spirit of earnest inquiry 
to make themselves famiUar with the reasons 
for Disestablishment and Disendowment ad- 
vanced fromltheir side. So of late years, 
within the Cliurch itself, the question has 
been, and to-day is being agitated with a 
vigour that is prophetic of coming events. 
It is more than hopeful of the final result to 
find Evangelicals like Canon Ryle urging at 
Oxford that disestablishment must come, if 
the Protestantism of the Church is not main- 
tained ; and on the other hand to hear Ritualists 
like Mr. Mackouochie declare that without 
release from the bondage of the State spirit- 
ual freedom is impossible. Thus men aie ad- 
vancing from opposite positions with drawn 
weapons against each other to common 
ground, and to some kind of agreement — 
agreement at least in the final result. From 
their embittered conflict. Nonconformists may 
perhaps learn as much as the military men of 
£2urope may learn in their way from the strug- 
gle between Russian and Turk. There are 
those, however, though their number is 
astonishingly few, who, like Mr. Heaid, oc- 
cupy a kind of central position, and who are 
able to pass judgment on the controversy 
with some amount of practical sympathy with 
the parties within and without the so-called 
National Church. It is well known that the 
writer of the volume before us was for many 
years' a clergyman in the Establishment, but 
for conscientious reasons, which must be 
honoured, was compelled to leave it. He be- 
came a Dissenter, but no doubt still highly 
appreciates much in the Church he has for- 
saken: his opinions upon ^National Chris- 
tianity' therefore deserve and will receive 
special and careful consideration. Mr. Heard 
writes throughout in a calm and generous 
spirit, though he never flinches from the di- 
rect logical issues of his principles, and be 
expresses his matured beliefs with a firmness 
that commands respect and admiration. 
With a very full acquaintance of the entire 
question, he examines it anew ^ in the light 
of history and experience,* t.^., he seeks to 
trace the growth of National Churches, and 
to show what have been the fundamental and 
elemental causes of their origin and stability. 
The result of his inquiry is the opinion that 
Kstablishmenta have arisen from * Clericalism 
and CsBsarisro/ and that their continued ex- 
istence is owing largely to the influence of one 



or other of these principles. 'Clericalism/ 
he says, ' which took its rise when Cyprian 
asserted the monarchical theory of Churdi 
government, culminated in Cssarism as soon 
as the Emperor Constantine had discovered 
that Christianity could be employed as an en- 
gine of State. Thus it is that since that fatal 
time, as Dante described the funetta dotSy its 
funeral dower of State dignity, Erastiantam 
and Ecclesiasticism have been the poles be- 
tween which all National Churches have ever 
since oscillated. During the >&ddie Ages 
we find the Church claiming a supremacy 
over the State ; and since the Reformation, 
generally speaking, the State has retaliated, 
and has asserted its supremacy over the 
Church.' The demonstration of this theory 
is one of the purposes our author has in view, 
as he describes with much elo<juence and 
point the various epochs of ecclesiastical his- 
tory, and the struggles by which they were 
distinguisbed. The chapters in which he 
deals with this portion of tliis subject are pro- 
foundly .interesting and suggestive. Mr. 
Heard, though eagerly arguing for disestab- 
lishment, is at the same time more concerned 
for the freedom of Christianity itself from the 
corruptions that have paralyzed it, and which 
have been created by Clericalism and Cesar- 
ism. 'Certain it is,' he says, 'that as the 
first decline of Christianity from the primitive 
standard of purity was marked by the rise and 
extension of these two tendencies, so its re- 
covery will depend on our being able to deal 
simultaneously, if possible, a death-blow at 
these twin evils. Together they grew, and 
together they must perish, if the Church is 
ever to recover her primitive purity and re- 
turn to the simplicity of the truth as it is in 
Jesus.' This is unquestionably true, and 
though we can understand that Csssariam 
will receive its death-blow by disestablish- 
ment, we do not see how Clericalism would 
be seriously affected by disendowment. The 
sacerdotal spirit would not be destroyed by 
any action of the State, and Mr. Heard seems 
to despair of any great advantage accruing 
to the Church unless both evils can be re- 
moved together. Wo believe that if we can- 
not secure both results, we may at least strive 
eamestly^for one of them, keeping also in view 
the further necessity of ' liberating the laity 
from Clericalism,' by teaching truth and lift- 
ing into prominence the ideal Church. The 
discussion of this matter is of immense im- 
portance, and we are indebted to )Ir. Heard 
for his able exposition of liis beliefs in regard 
to it. The closing chapters effectively meet 
the common and often-exposed fallacica of 
Church Defence advocates, and the entire vol- 
ume is a valuable contribution to this great 
controversy. 

National Portrait OaHery. Vols. HI. and IV. 
Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. 

The third volume of ttie National Portrut 
Gallery contains Lord' Lytton, the Duke of 
Abercom, Sir Titus Salt, I^ord Sclbomc, 
Sims Reeves, the Duke of Westminster, John 
Raskin, ^Lord Houghton, Vernon Harcourt, 



1878, 



Contemporary Literature, 



135 



Canon Farrar, the Archbishop of York, 
Samuel Plimsoll, Professor Huxley, William 
Chambers, the Duke of Beaufort, Professor 
Tyndall, Charles Santley, Baron Rothschild, 
Lord Elcho, and the Maharajah Duleep Singh. 
The fourth, Lord Penzance, Professor Faw- 
cett. Admiral Rous, Sir John Lubbock, the 
Bishop of Gloucester, Sir Leopold M'Clin- 
tock, Mr. Chamberlain, Charles Matthews, 
Sir Charles Reed, Robert Browning, Cardinal 
Manning, Lord Hatherley, Sir Joseph Whit- 
worth, Sir William Gull, Lord Aberdare, Dr. 
C. J. Vaughan, Lord Napier of Magdala, 
Rev. James Martineau, Professor Blackie, 
and Mr. J. A. Froude. We ^ve the list, be- 
cause it conveys the information most needed. 
The list attests the catholicity of the editor, 
and it is needful to say only that the portraits 
and memoirs are equal to the high excellence 
of those of the former volumes. 

It is not an easy matter to adhere to mere 
biographical facts, or to restrict criticisms so 
as to be inoffensive to their subjects. The 
writers, however, while maintaining their in- 
dependence and sufficiently indicating blame 
or difference when they thluk it desired or 
necessary, avoid everything that in such a 
work would 4)6 an impertinence to the dis- 
tinguiflhed men who, oy their co-operation, 
make it possible. These biographies are 
models of manly independence and gentle- 
manly courtesy. They give a just impression 
as well as adequate information. The por- 
traits are admirable. Based upon photo- 
graphs, the artist by his colouring gives just 
that touch of idealization necessary for life- 
likeness, and without which photographs 
are justice without mercy, and therefore not 
justice. The volume forms an admirable 
biographical dictionary. 

Men of Mark, A Qallery of Contemporary 
Portraits. Sampson Low and Co. 

The present volume of Men of Mark, which, 
like its predecessor, contains thirty-six highly- 
finished and most effective photographs, 
among which are those of Leigh ton, Tyndall, 
Victor Hugo, William Black, Lyon Play fair, 
Airy, Lubbock, Grove, Sant, Jules Verne, 
Schliemann, &c. The biographies are simply 
notanda, limited to a page each. The volume 
is a very artistic and attractive one. 

Street Lif6 in London, Sampson Low and 
Co. 

This is a series of permanent photographic 

Eresentations of street scenes in London, with 
rief descriptions. Some of the little bits are 
very picturesque, and the collection will be 
a very valuable record of street architecture, 
costumes, manners and customs, &c., of the 
^cat metropolis, chiefly on the seamy side of 
Its life. 

Casseirs Natural Hutory, Edited by F. Mor- 
ton Duncan, M.D., Professor of Geology, 
King^s College, London. Vol. L Illus- 
trated., Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. 

The different departments of this volume 
are committed to various competent hands. 



Apes and monkeys to Professor Duncan; 
lemurs to Dr. Murie and Professor Duncan ; 
chiroptera and insectivora to Mr. W. T. Dal- 
las. The sections given to apes, monkeys, 
and lemurs occupy two-thirds of the volume, 
and are full of curious information respecting 
our anthropoid relations, especially the chap- 
ters on the man-shaped apes, the gorilla, the 
soko, the chimpanzee, the orang-utan, &c. 
Professor Duncan's. name is a sui^cient guar- 
antee of the scientific accuracy and fulness 
of the sections. The general ■ reader will bo 
greatly interested by the accounts and anec- 
dotes of the different species. Mr. du Chaillu 
comes up for judgment again, and is, on the 
evidence of Mr. Win wood Reade, proved never 
to have shot a gorilla, at any rate, under the 
circumstances afiirmed. The account of the 
chiroptera, or wing-handed animals, is equally 
interesting and instructive ; and the illustra- 
tions, with which the volume abounds, arc 
very amusing. The work is intended to give 
information concerning animals and their 
habits, which, by its popular form, shall Ikj 
entertaining while it is useful. The underly- 
ing scientific method is to show the connec- 
tion between zoology and comparative anat- 
omy. It is therefore as useful to the men of 
science, inasmuch as it presents the latest 
conclusions of naturalists, as it is entertaining 
to the general reader. 

A New Bihlia Paupertim^ Being thirty-eight 
Woodcuts illustrating* the Life, Parables, 
and Miracles of our Blessed Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ, with the proper de- 
scriptions thereof, extracted from the 
Translation of the New Testament, by 
John Wiclif, sometime Rector of Lutter- 
worth. London : F^rinted at the sign of 
tho Grasshopper, by Unwin Brothers, the 
Gresham Press, over against London Stone, 
in Cannon Street, and to be sold by Ber- 
nard Quaritch, at his shop in Piccadilly. 

This is a very interesting and curious pub- 
lication. Messrs. Unwin tell us that in 1862 
they printed a descriptive pa^e to accompany 
some impressions of * thirty-eight ancient bib- 
lical wood engravings,' of which they had 
about thirty sets for disposal. The original 
blocks were traced through Mr. H. G. Bohn 
to the possession of Messrs. Chatto and 
Wind us, and were purchased by Messrs. 
Unwin, and from these the piescnt volume is 
printed. The blocks were purchased .about 
the year 1880 by the late Mr. Sams of Darling- 
ton, at Nuremberg. They cannot bo recog- 
nized in connection witli any printed book : 
the presumption therefore is that, prepared 
four centuries ago, thev were thrown aside 
and never used. This is all the information 
concerning them that is possessed. In one 
of our literary journals a discussion has arisen 
concerning the age, whether it be, as the 
publishers maintain, 1470, or whether a date 
given on two of the engravings is to be read 
1440 or 1540. In itself the volume is ex- 
tremely curious. Seventy-eight subjects are 
represented on the thirty-eight plates, and 
they represent tho rude attempts to picture 



136 



ConUmpcrary LUerature. 



Jftn. 



the Qospel story wliich were contemporaneous 
"witb the beginnings of the art of printing. 
The quaint conceits, the laughable perspective, 
the rude drawing, furnish inexhaustible mate- 
rial for interest and amusement. The text of 
Wiclif accompanies the pictures, as being the 
only English version ot the period, and is 
printed in facsimile of the characters used by 
Caxton in * The game and playe of the chessc.' 
The paper has l^en specially made by hand, 
in imitation of that used in the fifteenth cen- 
tury; and, as was usual with early Block 
Books, is pxinted upon only one side, the 
printing press not having yet come into use. 
The binding is in accordance, having been 
cx)pied from an early Block Book in the Brit- 
ish Museum. An introduction by Dean Stan- 
Icy, and a dedication to Mr. Gladstone, com- 
plete perhaps the most curious facsimile vol- 
ume that hitherto has been produced. We can 
only add that the impression consists of only 
two hundred and fifty copies, of which, we 
understand, only a dozen or so remain to be 
disposed of. 



BELLES LISTTRES, POETllY, A27D FICTION. 

Thoreau : his Life and Abm* A Study. By 
II. A. Page. Chatto and Windus. 

We scarcely wonder a^ the misjudgments of 
Tlioreau against which. Mr. Page protests. 
His nature involved apparent contradictions 
for which indeed Mr. Page thinks he has found 
the key, but which made it natural for less 
penetrating onlookers, who saw only the side 
for which they had special sympathies or an- 
tipathica, to judge him only by that. He 
was no doubt a warm lover of his kind, but 
it is not easy to see why he should build him- 
self a hermit's hut in Walden Wood, and live 
there alone a couple of years, that he might, 
OS Mr. Pago seems to suggest, perfect his 
knowledge of men and his sympathies with 
them. He was a poet and somewhat of an ideal- 
ist, but with this, as his speeches about John 
Brown and his anti-slavery crusade showed 
he was a practical reformer, throwing himself 
heartily into tlie strife of men whenever worthy 
cause presented itself. He was an orderly 
citizen, but he oddly imagined that his seclu- 
sion in the Walden Wood exempted him from 
paying taxes, and sooner than do so he went 
to prison in Concord. He was eminently ob- 
jective in his intellectual qualities, and was 
as much a born naturalist as Thomas Edwards 
of Banff : the keenest observer of men, animals, 
and things, a practical genius in pencil-mak- 
ing and engineering, and yet under the 
glamour of Emerson he fell into confusing 
metaphysical ways. He is one of the most 
difficult of men toappraize. He has produced 
no great work, and yet Ids literary genius is 
as individual as that of Charles Lamb, 
although of a different quality, and his cliarm- 
Ing English as translucent as that of Addison 
and as rhythmical as that of I)c Quincey. 
His books descriptive of his travels, and his 
essays, are charming: to read him is like 



drinking champagne. The love of natoro 
possessed him, not exactly as a passion, but 
as a life, as it did Wordsworth. All dumb 
creatures loved him, and were drawn to him 
by an instinctive trust — mice and 8<^uirrels, 
partridges and hares. His fellowship with 
them equalled that of St. Francis of Aasisi, 
with whom 3Ir. Page oomparea liim. He 
had mysterious affinities with both brutes and 
plants, of which he himself could give no ac- 
count, but in virtuo of which they yielded up 
to him their secrets. He had the great gift 
of seeing. Nature was to him full of mean- 
ings. He knew every flower that blows, and 
every beast of the field and bird of the air, 
and insect and fish — at least in Concord — as 
few naturalists know them. His thoughts 
are fresh, unconventional, and touched with 
genius. Mr. Page tells us the little there is 
to tell about his life, but his chief business is to 
appraize the qualities of Thoreau and to tell 
the world concerning the kind of genius that 
he was. His book is a study of tlie man as 
revealed in his own writings, and one very at- 
tractive feature of it is the long extracts from 
Thoreau's books, which are almost unknown 
in England. Some of these are so beautiful 
in style and thoughtful in matter, and are 
here and there weighted with apothegms so 
original and just, that they will surely incite 
some English publisher to reproduce them on 
this side of the Atlantic. They are redolent 
with unsophisticated nature and with generous 
humour and sympathies. No one is more 
competent to edit an English edition than 
Mr. Page. Mr. Page has done his work 
well. His keen insight and just and delicate 
critical judgment peculiarly qualify him for 
appraizing a mind so complex and subtle as 
Thoreau's. Ho exhibits bis salient character- 
istics with just sufficient of critical indication 
to enable the reader to see what Thoreau was. 
He will have done no small service if he lead 
Englishmen to seek further acquaintance with 
a man whose original and kindly genius, 
whose delightful descriptions of [nature and 
men, and whose tender and noble yearnings 
for his kind, place him among the select few 
of the age destined to grow in the esteem of 
the ages to come. 

Letters of Thomas Erskine^ of Lifi^nthsn, 
From 1840 to 1870. Editcd'by William 
Havna, D.D., Author of * Memoirs of Dr. 
Chalmers,* &c. Edinburgh : David Doug- 
las. 

In spite of the grounds on which Dr. Han- 
na, in the preface to this volume, relieves 
himself from any responsibility of having an- 
dertaken to write a biography of Thomas 
Erskine, the impression on most minds in 
reading this volume will be a sense of pleas- 
ure in a greater variety of interest than had 
l)een expected. We were so accustomed to 
think of Mr. Erskine as a self -absorbed, medi- 
tative, far removed kind of man, that it is a 
positive pleasure to find that he was not dis^ 
inclined to crack a gentle joke on' occasion^ 
was full of stories of Scottish humour, and 
was not so preoccupied with his theology ms 



1878. 



Contemporary Literature. 



137 



to be unable to relish quaint originality and 
shrewdness in Scottish character. He seems, 
OD the contrary, to have had such a repertory 
in that kind as it would have delighted Dean 
Kamsay to draw from ; and it is for these 
reasons that we rather regret that some of the 
matter in this volume was not thrown into a 
connected narrative, and put in the forefront 
nf the former one, to show as directly and 
effectively as possible that Mr. Erskine, though 
a great theologian, was genial, patient, kindly, 
and deeply interested in many topics and 
questions that might be presumed to have 
lain outside his range of interest. We have 
80 frequently hitherto had occasion to dwell 
on Mr. Erskine's great services to theology, 
most especially in the direction of relieving 
Scotland from that kind of dreary fatalism 
that had inwoven itself with its intellectual 
conceptions of sacred things, that we may be 
excused at this time for devoting such space 
as we have at our disposal to noting some 
other tendencies that are revealed in this new 
volume. Over and above the letters to Mr. 
Maurice, Dr. Macleod Campbell, Mrs. 
Macnabb, his relative, and other j^friends, in 
which we have, of course, repetitions in many 
forms and with varied illustrations of points 
in his peculiar spiritual teachings, we have 
various letters from Mr. Erskine to Mr. Car- 
lyle, and from Mr. Carlyle to Mr. Erskine, 
which are characteristic and beautiful by 
reason of the complete frankness which evi- 
dently obtained in their relationship. It is 
most interesting to find Mr. Erskine giving 
Mr. Carlyle his honest opinion of Frederick, 
who was at that time much on Mr. Carlyle's 
conscience, and telling him that he could not 
admire a German king who went in merely 
for training armies, and extending his fron- 
tiers, and setting up, par goUtj for a French 
wit and atheist. As for Mr. Erskine, he 
would much rather be Betty [an old nurse of 
Mr. Carlyle's], living a holy life and silently 
undergoing suffering day by day for her poor 
bedrid son. This Betty (or Mrs. Braid) 
tigures prominently in these letters. She 
was always visited by Mr. Carlyle when in 
Scotland, and his tributes to her are worthy 
of him. Mr. Erskine, having once gone to 
see her in 1857, became a regular visitor. 
After Mr. Carlyle's letters, the Reminiscences 
of Dean Stanley and Principal Shairp are of 
most importance from our present point of 
view. They show Mr. Erskine, though still 
the thoughtful and spiritual man, as social 
and companionable, with an unexpected 
power of passing, by gentle gradations, from 
grave to gay, drawing, as it were, light from 
heaven to thu lowliest nooks of earth, and 
realizing heaven the better for sweec recog- 
nitions of the beautiful possibilities of life 
below. Some of the little anecdotes given, 
and the stories he used to like to tell, do 
much to show him in attractive lights, and 
explain how it was that he was so deeply 
loved by men of such varied character and 
tendency. 

But the inevitable point of return with Mr. 
Erskine i^ to religion. Perhaps the most 



striking of the letters ouTeligious matters are 
those to Madame de StaSL and Adolphe 
Monod, and certainly the letter on the death 
of M. Gaussen is most touching. Two of the 
most valuable letters on religious topics are 
those on Puseyism to an unknown correspond- 
ent, and to Dr. Gloag on the Theory of Justi- 
fication. 

History of French Literature. By Henry 
Van Laun. Vol. III. From the End of 
the Heign of Louis XIV. till the End of the 
Heign of Louis-Philippe. Smith, Elder, 
and Co. 

Mr. Van Laun has now finished his work, 
and a general view of it is highly favourable 
to his insight, industry, and sense of propor- 
tion. And this last is no small matter in 
view of such a work as this, where the par- 
ticular author should never be so obtrusively 
presented as to disturb the general contour. 
Individual predilections will inevitably ap- 
pear, as indeed we have seen is sometimes the 
case with Mr. Van Laun — notably in this vol- 
ume in some remarks on Dumas, — but gen- 
erally it must be said tliat he is impartial, 
desirous only to make evident tiie real merit 
and the true influence of those of whom he 
treats. This third volume covers a wide 
field, and presents topics of more difiiculty 
than in either of the former ones. For in 
literature, as in much else, distauce makes 
judgment easy. The writers have received 
their rank; they may be compared and con- 
trasted with each other, but their place is 
fixed by general consent, and the historian 
has merely to show, as best he can, what that 
place is. But as contemporary literature is 
approached, disturbing elements obtain. It 
is not only needful to refiect an opinion that 
is still forming, but to justify by critical 
reasons either its adoption or its rejection. 
Take an instance of the way in which Mr. 
Va(L Laun has been tempted into a difficult 
position by the desire for illustration. Few 
critics, we fancy, will fail to feel that he has 
done some injustice both to Thackeray and 
Dickens by the juxtaposition in which he has 
placed them to Balzac, who, as he says, was 
pre-eminently the vivisector of the human 
heart (hardly so happy an expression as might 
be) ; and yet his error, if error it be, sprang 
from a laudable desire for clearness. lie was 
writing not merely for critics, but for young 
English students of French literature, and 
such suggestions are good to begin with, 
though not always to end with. Mr. Van 
Laun has been very happy in the mo:^t trying 
subjects he had to deal with. It would bo 
hard to find anything more clear, compre- 
hensive, and yet finely sympathetic, than his 
accounts of Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot. 
On the Revolution writers he is equally good 
— indicating by a touch or two here and 
there the intrusive infiuence of the prevailing 
ideas. We think he is not quite conclusive 
iu some of his remarks on Victor Hugo, who 
is more of the Proteus than appears at first 
sight. He gives full space to Thiers, who, 
by-the-bye, is still a living presence here^ but 



138 



Contemporary ZUerature, 



Jan. 



a disproportionately small paragraph to De 
Tocquevill e. Tho poets have their full share, 
and we have certainly compact and graceful 
criticisms of Ch^nier and Alfred de Musset. 
To the critics, too, Mr. Van Laan metes out 
justice. The characteristics of Villemaiu and 
Siunte-Beuve are set forth skilfully. We 
should have expected, however, that Mr. Van 
Laun would have noted more expressly 8ainte- 
Beuve^s habit of re>elaborating and touching 
up his earlier essays late in life. No doubt 
he often added a happy touch or a brilliant 
illustration ; but this fact indicates some limit- 
ation in Sainte-Beuvo on the side of growth 
and experience. We jtake leave of Mr. Van 
Laun with a feeling of gratitude for the clear 
and vigorous form in which he has presented 
to us the main elements and tendencies in 
French literature, and we trust that his work 
may meet with the acceptance it deserves. 

Foreign Classics for Unglish Readers. Dcmte. 
By Mrs. Oliphant. Voltaire, By Major- 
General Hahley. W. Blackwood and Son. 

The idea of this series is an admirable one. 
To convey to those^ whose business renders 
it impossible that they can gratify themselves 
with more, a general survey of the field of 
modem literature, would be a great service, 
the more especially if each work were the re- 
sult of long and careful study, and complete 
mastery of the subject in its details. If suc- 
cessfully done, tho books would be of use to 
the student also, as a kind of indices or easy 
remembrancerH of the waymarks of his read- 
ing. But we cannot say that so good a be- 
ginning has been made here as in the case of 
the * Ancient Classics,' which proved so suc^ 
cessful. There are some things which genius 
and creative Instinct can almost of themselves 
accomplbh; others, to which only time, care, 
and intelligent industry are equal. To write 
a popular account of Dante is not a work to 
which one can prepare oneself during a sum- 
mer holiday; for it presupposes complete 
mastery of mediaeval lore, science, and the- 
ology, no less than of the political influences 
which did so much to colour and direct them. 
Mrs. Oliphant has lovingly studied the out- 
ward ana historical phases of that period — 
the picturesque elements of it, so to speak — 
OS was testified in her * Makers of Florence, ' 
and in her mind it has taken on a certain de- 
tached and romantic air, attested, for one 
thing, by the hopes she expressed therein of 
Savonarola's possibilities as a practical poli- 
tician. But we arc sorry to say that she has 
not studied Dante with the loving patience 
needful to the production of such a treatise 
OS this. Mrs. Oliphant has proceeded with 
one clear aim here, as in tho 'Makers of 
Florence,' and that is, as we have said, to be 
picturesque. Unfortunately, that is precisely 
what will not help us in any way in an car- 
nest study of Dante, or even to get a satisfac- 
tory general idea of his scheme of things. 

Mrs. Oliphant sets out by giving a few 
pages to the Life of Dante, then discusses 
the earlier poems, and passes on to the ' Di- 
vina Commedia,' and after that devotes some 



space to the Prose Works. In order to make 
her task the easier, she tries to isolate Danto 
from the leading influences of his own asc, 
whilst she adopts a symbolism which rem 
troduces Guelf and Ghibelline almost at the 
outset of her discussion of the Commedia. 
That there is an internal or mystical tie in the 
symbols, whatever may be said of a secondary 
or political meaning in them, and that this tie 
extends even l:eyond the * Dlvina Commedia,' 
essentially relating the earlier and later 
poems together, as mirrors of Dante's deeper 
experiences, we firmly believe, and we hold 
that it is found in the fact that the Beatrice 
of the * Vita Nuova ' has in the * Divina Corn- 
media' become the symbol of love or the 
higher spiritual reason ; and that Virgil, rep- 
resenting the merely intellectual reason of 
the old Roman world, is but a pathway or 
conductor to that higher Reason or Love. 
But to set a mystical explanation of an indi- 
vidual symbol alongside of a historical or con- 
temporary one, and to leave it open to the 
reader which he shall choose, without so much 
as suggesting the probability of some more 
connected and absolute symbolism in the 
poet's mind, seems to us to be hardly just to 
Dante; and this is exactly what Mrs. Oli- 
phant in several instances does. Her trans- 
lations of extracts, too, are sometimes far from 
faithful, and she would have done better by 
Dante had she taken them from Gary, Ford, 
or Longfellow. Sometimes, too, she is loose 
and incorrect, as when she speaks of * Pope 
Celestine,' as though there were not several 
Celestines, and speaks of Manfred as the 
nephew oif the Empress Costanza, whereas he 
was the sou of the emperor. It must be said 
that Mrs. Oliphant ^always writes vigorously 
and well, and there are passages in this littU* 
volume worthy of, all praise ; but as a whole 
it must be taken with the deductions we have 
reluctantly indicated, and indicated only, as 
our space would not permit the citing of in- 
stances which might easily have been given. 

General Hamley presents, on the whole, a 
very fair and consistent view of Voltaire, 
saying for him what is needful to recommend 
him as far as may be to the prejudices of the 
British mind. And what he says he says 
well. Ilis criticisms of his works, however, 
do not strike us as so successful as his esti- 
mate of the characteristics of the man. He 
raises the * Henriade ' to a position among 
the great epics of the world, which one can 
count on one's fingers; and he over celebrates 
' Candide ' in our opinion. But he has been 
successful in presenting his subject consistent- 
ly, and has established, so to say, his theory 
of Voltaire, by "reference to Voltaire's writ- 
ings and contemporary records. Whether or 
not we agree with General Hamley on separate 
points, his industry and genial power of rep- 
resentation are everywhere present. 

Dictionary of English Literature. Being a 
comprehensive Guide to English Authors 
and their Works. By W. Davenport 
Adams. Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. 

It is difficult to reduce to exact classifica- 



1878. 



Contemporary lAterature. 



139 



tion the multifarious contents of this very 
useful book of reference. , Its aiTangement is 
alphabetical, and it comprises (1) tho names 
of all prominent writers and writers of special 
interest; giving, under each, dates of birth 
and death, titles of works, compressed infor- 
mation, and occasionally critical estimates. 
(2) Titles of chief works in the ilanguage in 
all departments of literature. (3) The norm 
de plume of writers. (4) Familiar quotations, 
phrases, and proverbs. (5) Characters in 
poetry and f ction. (6) First lines of poems, 
feongs, and ballads. (7) Principal translations 
of works by foreign writers. (8) Names of 
celebrated Ubraries and literary societies. (9) 
Explanations of the various forms of litera- 
ture. (10) Short articles on special literary 
topics, such as newspapers, the drama, &c. 
The miscellaneous character thus indicated 
constitutes the real value of the work as a 
library-table halid book. One continuous 
alphabetical order makes reference easy, and 
the extent of the Information may be inferred 
from such entries as these: * '* Aching void,'' 
a phrase occurring in Cowper's poem, 
* » Walking Twith [God." ' * Achitophel, in 
Dryden's satire of "Absalom and Achito- 
phel " iq.'D.), is ^intended for the Earl of 
Shaftesbury (1621-1688), who abetted the re- 
bellion of Absalom, the Duke of Monmouth. 
*' The character of Achitophel," says Hazlitt, 
"ia very fine, and breathes, if not a sincere 
love for virtue, a strong indignation against 
vice. " ' This kind of reference is, for literary 
men, of very great value. 

Library of English Literature. Illustrations 
of English Religion. Selected, Edited, 
and Arranged by Henry Moblet. Cassell, 
Petter, and Galpin. 

Mr. Morley's new volume is very rich in 
material. Ko thing interests men as religion 
docs. This volume therefore will, we do 
not doubt, be the most popular of the series. 
3Ir. Morley selects his materials with the skill 
of a historian, and uses them with the discern- 
ment of a philosopher; or, in reality, an illus- 
trative selection from any department of lit- 
erature demands a combination of knowledge, 
appreciation, and skill, which are not often 
found. Mr. Morley possesses this combina- 
tion in a high degree. His volume therefore 
is valuable for much more than a mere miscel- 
lany of religious ^literature: it is really a his- 
tory of religious development illustrated by 
examples. Necessarily Mr. Morley is most 
meagre and inadequate when he deals with 
contemporary religious history. His purpose, 
however, is not to write an ecclesiastical his- 
tory, but to trace the course of religious lit- 
erature, and throughout he maintains a fair 
and catholic spirit. 

Picturesque Europe. With Illustrations on 
Steel and Wood by the Most Eminent 
Artists. The British Isles. Cassell, Petter, 
and Galpin. 

The second volume of this really superb 
book fitill treats of the manifold beauties of 



our own British Isles. A chapter on English 
Houses includes some of our most picturesque 
and famous residences and ruins, such as Had- 
don Hall, Penshuist, Hever Castle, and 
Chepstow, the letterpress being by Mr. S. 
Wilson, and the illustrations by Boot/ Fenn, 
Rowbotham, and Skelton. Subsequent chap* 
ters deal with the west coast of Ireland, bor- 
der castles and counties, cathedral cities, the 
Grampians, Oxford, the west coast of Wales, 
Cambridge, Scotland [(from Loch Ness to 
Loch Eil), the south coast of Devonshire, tho 
Lake Country, South Wales, North Devon, 
and the Isle of Wight, described and illus- 
trated by different writers and artists. Per- 
haps the illustrations are occasionally ideal- 
ized ; but then one remembers Turner's reply 
to a critic who told him that he ' could not 
see it.' * Don't {you [wishj you could.' Too 
much praise cannot be given to the artistic 
beauty of the volume as a whole. While 
essentially 'a book for ths million, the engrav- 
ings are in almost^ every instance of most ex- 
quisite finish, and the points of view selected 
are most artistic, while the descriptions arc 

f;raphic, telling, and free ^ from [fine writing, 
t is a book to exclaim over, and to which 
one will recur without i possibility of weari- 
ness. Many ras are the illustrated books 
turned out by the enterprizing publishers, they 
have not, we think, hit upon any idea more 
happy, or realized it more artistically than in 
this. The letterpress is good, and tho whole 
work sumptuous. 

The Countries oj the World, Being a Popu- 
lar Description of the various Continents, 
Islands^ Rivers, Seas, and Peoples of the 
Globe. By Robert Brown, M.A., Ph.D. 
Vol. I. Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. 

Having completed his work on * The Races 
of Manlund,' Dr. Brown has undertaken a 
popular description of the different countries 
of the world. After an account of the geo- 
graphical knowledge of a thousand years ago, 
and of the progress of discovery, he begins 
with the Arctic Regions, and tells us about 
their characteristics, productions, and inhabi- 
itants. Next he describes the Fur Countries 
of North America, the Dominion of Canada, 
and the United States. Dr. Brown is an ad- 
mirable compiler and narrator, and his scien- 
tific knowledge enables him to present his 
information in forms that are as accurate as 
they are popular. Natural phenomena aro 
described, productions and processes are ex- 
plained, an account of both the Fauna and 
the Flora of the different countries is given, 
and illustrative ^incidents are skilfully intro- 
duced. Important information is thus pre- 
sented in a very interesting way, the whole 
being profusely illustrated. It is an excel- 
lent idea well carried out. 

English Pictures, Drawn with Pen and Pen- 
cil. By the Rev. Samuel Manning, LL.D., 
and the Rev. S. G. Greek, D.D. Religious 
Tract Society. 

Dr. Manning has created a distinct type 
of illustrated books of travels. Ho has^ a 



140 



Contemporary LUtraJdwre. 



Jan. 



keen faculty for observation, a wide knowl- 
edge, and a sure instinct for apt quotation, 
added to a faculty fur easy and graceful de- 
scription. If anybody tbinks that books STich 
as his are easily compiled, let him try. 
There is a genius for compilation, as well as 
for creating, and this Dr. Manning possesses. 
In the present volume he has been assisted 
by Dr. Green, and it is devoted to the inex- 
haustible store of natural beauty and histori- 
cal incident of our own land. From the most 
ancient churches and castles to the Bunyan 
gates recently presented to the Bunyan Meet- 
ing House by the Duke of Bedford, all places 
and all things are made to furnish pictorial 
matter. The letterpress and the engra^ngs 
are mutually illustrative. Historical, bio- 
graphical, and anecdotical reminiscences are 
skilfully interwoven with description in the 
text. Some of the most charming places and 
most romantic incidents of our history arc 
presented to the reader in artistic and in- 
teresting forms. Town and country, river 
and forest, mountain and woodland, are all 
represented. The engravings and the letter- 
press are bol h good, although some of the 
former have done duty before. The subjects 
are none the less attractive for being familiar. 
As a popular and inexpensive tabic book for 
modest homes and birthday gifts, we cannot 
speak of the little volume too highly. To 
specify its excellences is impossible within 
our space. 

Th6 Agamemnon of ^schylui. Transcribed 
by RoBBRT Browmino. Smith, Elder, and 
Co. 

In this work Mr. Browning has committed 
the ^i*eat mistake of undertaking a task far 
beyond his powers. He has endeavoured to 
*' transcribe ' (or what ordinary mortals call 
to translate) a poet of whose language he 
knew very little, and whose real spirit and 
meaning he has proved himself, if for that 
reason alone, unaole to represent. It is im- 
possible for any one but a thoroughly sound 
Greek scholar to estimate the poetry of 
iEschylus. No one else can comprehend the 
metaphorical language he employs, or give 
the exact equivalents for his expressions. No 
one, indeed, but a deep student of all the 
plays and fragments of this great poet can 
rightly appreciate his mind or trace tbo tenor 
of his thoughts. Mr. Browning^s natural 
love of mysticism, and his habitual obscurity 
of language, induced him to hope that a very 
literal translation of the somewhat turgid 
iEschylean phraseology would give a result 
unmeaning enough to captivate the most 
ardent admirers of his style. It is unfair) 
however, so to t raves tie a grand old poet as 
to make him use such language as forms the 
staple of Mr. Browning's * transcription.' 
Take the following, as an example without 
selection, but an average specimen (p. 64) : 

* Approach then, my monarch, of Troia the 

Backer, of Atreus the son ! 
How ought I address tliee, liow ought I revere 

thee, — nor yet overhittlng 
Nor yet underbending the grace that is fitting ? 



Many of mortals hasten' to honour the seeming:- 

to-be — 
Passing by jufltice : and, with the ill-faring, to 

groan as he groans all are free. 
But no bite of the sorrow their liver h«is reached 

to : 
They say with the joyful, — one outside on each, 

too, 
As they force to a smile smlleless faces.' 

Is there a person of sense who thinks such 
rubbish as this is poetry f Is it intelligible 
at ain Is it anything but absolute, unmiti- 
gated nonsense ? For what is the meaning 
of * overhitting,' or * underbending ' a grace ? 
What iEschylus does say (if Mr. Browning 
had understood his Greek) is, *■ neither over- 
shooting nor coming short of the true mean 
of compliment,' i,e.^ saying neither too much 
nor too little in praise, — a metaphor, or rather 
two metaphors, from aiming at a mark, and 
from driving short of the terminal pillar in a 
stadium. We fear we shall be accused of 
wishing to raise a laugh at Mr. Browning, if 
we add two or three brief extracts; but he 
has published a book with bis name, and he 
must face criticism. On p. 91 : — 

' Cassandra. Eh, eh, papal, papal, 
What this, I espy ? 
Some net of Hades undoubtedly ! 
Nay, rather, the snare 
Ts she who has share 

In his bed, who takes part in the murder there 
But may a revolt^- 
Unceasing assault — 
On the Race, raise a shout 
Sacrificial, about 
A victim — by stonin^r — 
For murder atoning ! ' 

In p. 13 the Chorus of Elders thus speaks : — 

' Thus ready is the beauteous one with help 
To those small dewdrop things fierce lion's 
whelp, 
And udder-loving litter of each brute 
That roams the mead : and therefore makes she 

suit. 
The fair one, for fulfilment to the end 
Of things these signs portend — 
Which partly smtle, iudeed. but partly scowl — 
The phantasms of the fowl.' 

Here we get on fairly (only fairly) well, till 
our risible faculties are sadly tried by that 
tremendous pathos, *• the phantasms of tlie 
fowl,' — a simple phrase in ^Eschylus, mean- 
ing the appearance of ominous birds on the 
journey. Let us try, for better luck, p. 9: — 

' And here and there, heaven-high the torch up- 

lifts 
Flame — medicated with persuasions mild. 
With foul admixture unbeguiled — 
Of holy unguent, from the clotted chrism 
Brought from the palace, safe in its abysm.' 

Page after page of this kind of *• poetry ' 
reads, to any person of common sense, like 
one tissue of elaborate nonsense. Even the 
grandest lines in the eriginal, like that fine 
verse (972, fine, however, only in Greek), 
uvdpdc re'ktiov dCtfi! kmarpu^ufUvov, *when the 
man of authority is resident in the house,' is 



1878. 



Contemporary Literature. 



141 



travestied by' the feeble and tasteless parody, 
*the perfect man his homo perambulating.' 
Every page shows that Mr. Browning could 
not understand the original. Some of his 
mistranslations are such as would disgrace a 
schoolboy. For instance, In the *• torch 
scene ' (304), the verse, uTpvve 6ea/idv fju) xari- 
^taQai irvpdc (which is probably the true read- 
ing for x^'^C'oBai), Mr. Browning translates 

* enforced the law — ** to never stint the fire 
stuff," ' the simple sense of the original being, 
that the bonfire on one hill ' urged on the 
law of the beacons not to be deficient (in 
brightness).' By Qea/idg ttv^V the preconcerted 
rule of the line of beacons is described. The 
rendering of orpweiv Oeofidv *to enforce a 
law ' is as faulty as any translation can be; it 
is, simply, utterly wrong. Wrong, too, is 
kotfiuvTcg i^hjya (597), * soothing the flame, ' for 
' extinguishing it.' 

Mr. Browning is not entitled to say, as he 
does say in his preface, that the text of the 

* Agamemnon,' is * sadly corrupt, probably 
interpolated, and certainly mutilated. ' That 
is a dictum which, coming from one who has 
no claim to be a Greek critic, is not of the 
smallest value. Still less has ho a right to 
talk about *the artistic (!) confusion of 
tenses, moods, and persons, with which the 
original* teems.' According to Mr. Browning 
who very often does not write grammatically, 
— as when he says (pp. 68 and 144), * to who 
gained the sickness,' and ' to who accept it ' 
— ^schylus was no better in that respect 
than himself; a proposition which we take 
upon ourselves to deny. If Mr. Browning 
takes pleasure in coining words that do not 
exist, often on a very barbarous model, as 

* sonority,' *musicality' (preface, p. vi.), 

* usurpature, ' ' upsdthral, ' * song-suasion, ' 

* unchilded, ' * passaged, ' * advantaged, ' 
' strewment,' and many more such monstrosi- 
ties; and if he chooses to interlard the verses 
of an early Greek poet with Latinisms de- 
rived from 1 he Augustan age, such as * suc- 
cinctly,' * dispersion,' * recognition, '* exacti- 
tude,* * solicitude,' * denominating,' * progeni- 
tors,' * precipitate,' *j^o3cillating,' ' diffidence,' 

* perambulating,' *con8ummatmg,' * experi- 
menting,' * prostration, ' * satisfaction,' 'pre- 
lusive,', 'marriage-prolusions,' * prognosti- 
cate,' 'mollify,' 'surreptitious,' — wo can only 
assure him that these are not our notions of 
' high art.' Many of his verses are so devoid 
of rhythm that it is hard to recognize any 
metre at all ; take the following as examples : — 

*Troia do the Achaloi hold, this same day' 

(p. 23). 
'And — as may best be — I my revered husband ' 

(p. 50). 

Where * revered ' requires the accent to be 
wrongly laid on the first syllable, and Troia 
to be a trisyllable with the i long. Again 
(p. 21), the verse — 

' Honoured 'the third libation — pa'an that should 
bring '— 

is a foot too long, and is < hypercataleotic ' 
in quite a wrong place. Such lines as the 



following (p. G5) seem to us simply no verses 
at all ; they are prose and nothing else : — 

* Thou to me. then, indeed, sending an army for 

Helena's sake, 
(I will not conceal it) wast — oh, by no help of 

the Muses ! — depicted 
Not well of thy midriff the >udder directing, — 

convicted 
Of brin;;ing a boldness they did not desire to the 

men with existence at stake.' 



Here is rhyme, indeed, but not rhythm. 
The original, in good anapaests, is perverted 
by such an unmetrical parody. 

The actual errors of translation are too 
numerous to be noticed at length; but wo 
subjoin a few instances of entirely mistaken 
meaning: (p. 49) 'O'ercome bywords, their 
sense 1 do not gainsay,' for ' I do not refuse 
to be prevailed upon by your words ; ' (p. 62) 
' How then if, speaking good, things true 
thou chance on,' for 'I would then you may 
prove right by telling good news which is 
true;' (p. 56) 'We chewed the cud in 
thoughts,' for ' We tried to beguile in anxious 
thought;' 'Pain to turn from sickness,' for 
'To turn away the mischief of diseasie;' (p. 
85) ' Speak thou, instead of voice, with hand 
as Kara do.' We do not know who or what 
' Kara ' (Carians ?) arc, but we do know that 
the verse of iEschylus means, ' Then do you, 
in place of voice, make known your meaning 
by the hand-siguals of a stranger;' ' The joy, 
in short, of scaping all that's— fatal ! ' Mr. 
Browning thinks this is what Clytemnestra 
calls her husband; but the real meaning is, as 
a separate and distinct reflection, ' Well ! 
'tis a pleasure to have got rid of all constraint' 
(p. 70). 'While, were he dying (as the 
words abounded), ' v/hich is nonsense, should 
have been transla^ted, ' Had he been dead, as 
most of the reports brought word. * This hos- 
pitality I ask as dying, ' should be, ' And I call 
you to be my witness of this, as one about 
to die;' (p. 145) * To have reaped away these, 
even, is a harvest much to me,' which again 
is nonsense, should be, 'But to have reaped 
even this is a harvest in many respects disas- 
trous;' (p. 107) *Ototoi, LukeionApollon, ah 
me — me I* We wonder here why the god of 
light should be called, as he nowhere is called 
Avxefuv, ' Instead of my sire's altar, waits the . 
hack-block, She struck with first-warm bloody 
sacrificing !' Here wo have neither sense nor 
grammar to guide us. What the poet does 
say, with 1 he greatest pathos, is, that instead 
of being slain at the family altar, a butcher's 
block awaits poor Uassandra, when she is 
knocked on the head with a slaughter that 
will make hor warm life-blood to flow, viz., 
from the chopping of the fatal axe. Not less 
absurd is the rendering of npovon^ (234) 
^head-downward.' Mr. Browning renders 
Kdpi^ ifiofjufau ^piua^ (v. 277) ' My mind thou 
mockest grossly.' The real meaning is, ' Yon 
have greatly underrated my intelligence.' 
The expression he uses is not only incorrect, 
but without meaning. You may mock a 
man's manners, but not his mind; to mock a 
thing groiily conveys no idea at all. Equally 



142 



ConUmpoTQiry Ztterature. 



Jan. 



maccaratc is i^tKvaOai ruSe ruxf^^i * tu reach this 
swiftness.' This would require the genitive 
ruxo}}^. The right sense is, *Who could 
arrive with such speed f ' In 484, trpd rov 
&avivToc is not * l>efore its view,' which would 
be npd Tov ^avijvaty but ^ in preference to thttt 
which has been seen,' or actually realised. 
In 575, the Greek ^boasting to the light of 
the sun ' is entirely missed. The flue verse 
in 974, fiiXot 6e toi aol ruvirep uv fU*?.^ re'^eiv 
* Ma^ that be your care, tchatever it U that 
you intend to bring to pass ' (i.e. the death 
of Agamemnon, which the queen dare not 
plainly speak of), is absurdly rendered, * Thy 
care be — yea — of things thou mayst make 
perfect, ' which, again, is nonsense. The very 
last verse is wrongly translated, * ruling o'er 
this household excellently well.' Mr. Brown- 
ing has failed to perceive that xaXu; belongs 
to O^uofievj not to KparovvTe. ' We, who have 
authority in this bouse, will set matters 
aright.' 

We have said enough to show that Mr. 
Browning has altogether mistaken his voca- 
tion. A bare literal translation of ^schylus, 
especially if it bo at once quaint, pedantic, 
inaccurate, and obscure, will seem quite un- 
intelligible enough to please the most de- 
voted admirers of the new school of mystic 
poets. But iEschylus hat a meaning, though 
Mr. Browning cannot give it. He has, as 
Pindar expresses it, * a voice for the know- 
ing.' It has already been given in many 
much better versions, notably by Mr. Da vies, 
though neither of his, nor of Professor Con- 
ington's, nor of Miss A. Swan wick's, nor 
of any other translation, prose or poetic, does 
Mr. Browning condescend to make the slight- 
est mention. If he had consulted them more, 
and trusted to himself very much less, his 
task would have been better [performed than 
it has been, and we should have been spared 
an ungracious and unwelcome part, but one 
which we consider a duty. If iBschylus 
really wrote such nonsense as his translator 
attributes to him, it would be worse than a 
waste of time to study him at all. 

7'he Agamemnon of jEtehylus, Translated 
into English Verse, By E. D. A. Morshead, 
M.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford, As- 
sistant Master of Winchester College. 
Henry S. King and Co. 

This is a very careful, highly finished, and 
studied rendering of the most profound and 
most difficult of Greek tragedies. The 
language throughout is plain, effective, well- 
chosen, and poetical ; the metre smooth and 
harmonious, and the translation everywhere 
correct. It is perhaps the best of tlio many 
that have already appeared. The preface, 
too, is very well written, and shows a just 
appreciation of the poet's mind and theology 
in dealing with the consequences of ancestral 
sin. The difficult choruses, which the author 
well describes as ^ the poet's profoundest 
musings on the moral and religious and his- 
torical problems suggested by the mythical 
tale which forms the ground-work of his 
drama,' arc most skilfully turned into good 



and intelligible verse, perfectly free from 
bombast, and possessing the singular merit 
of giving the exact sense of the original with 
additional clearness. 

A short extract will convey an idea of the 
harmony of the versification (p. 27) : — 

'Herald: O land of Argoe, fatherland of 

mine! 
To thee at last, beneath the tenth year's sun, 
My feet return ; the bark of my emprise. 
The' one by one hope's anchors broke away. 
Held by the last, and now rides safely here. 
Long, long my soul despaired to win, in deatb, 
Its longed-for rest within our Argive land ; 
And now, all hail, O earth, and hail to thee, 
New-risen sun ! and hail our country's God, 
Hfgh-ruling Zeus, and thou, the Pythian Lord, 
Whose arrows smote us once, — smite thou no 

more ! 
Was not thy wrath wreaked fall upon our 

heads, 
O Einff Apollo, by Scamander's side ? 
Turn tnou, be turned, be saviour, healer, now ! ' 

The last verse is an excellent rendering of 
the beautiful line (512) — 

vt;v 6* avre aur^p ioOt koI ir<u6vio?, &va^ 'AiroT.Xov. 

The fine account of the storm which dis- 
persed the Grecian fleet on its return- is also 
very happily given in some of its more diffi- 
cult passages. Thus (p. 36) : — 

* Night and great horror of the rising wave 
Came o'er as, and the blasts that blow fronr 

Thrace, 
; Clashed ship with ship : and some, with plung- 
ing prow. 

Thro' scudding drifts of spray, and raviog 
storm. 

Vanished, as strays by some ill shepherd 
driven.' 

A happy version this of noiftivoz naKov arpSPi^, 
where, however, by *the shepherd,' the un- 
skilful steersman is perhaps meant, and arpopoc 
is the unsteady course which the ship ia 
made to pursue. Compare with this Mr. 
Browning's unmusical verse, which conveys 
no clear idea or description to the mind, — 

* Off they went, vanished, through a bad herd's 

whirling,' 

where 'herd,' if it means Micrdsman, ' is as 
ambiguous as ' whirling.' 

A specimen of choral rendering is the fol- 
lowing (p. 88) : — 

* Strong blew the breeze — the surge closed o'er 
The cloven track of keel and oar. 

But while she fled, there drove along, 
Fast in her wake, a mighty throng — 
Athirst for blood, athirst for war. 

Forward, in fell pursuit, they sprung. 
Then leapt on Simois' bank, ashore, 

The leafy coppices among — 
No rangers, they, of wood and field. 
Bat huntsmen of the sword and shield.' 

This is quite in the style of Scott, be the 
remark taken as a compliment or otherwise. 



1878. 



[Contemporary Zdierature, 



143 



A little below (p. 39), the lines — 

* Even now, and in far other tone, 
Troy chants her dirge of mighty moan, 
Woe upon Paris, woe and hate / 
Who wooed hie country' a doom for mate, — 
This the harden of the groan, 
Wherein she waits disconsolate,' &c., 

contrast favourably with Mr. Browning's ver- 
sion, — 

' Bat learning a new hymn for that which was, 

The ancient city of Priamos 

Groans probably a ^reat and general dirge. 

Denominating Paris 
*' The man that miserably marries : " ' — 

where was is no more a rhyme with Priamos, 
than Paris is with marries. The author, in- 
deed, as the result shows, had nothing to fear 
from the competition, as he tells us he fore- 
boded (preface, p. xxix.). Such a difficult 
phrase as fieXayKep(t» Xapovaa /irfxavr^/iaTi (1127) 
is far better given by Mr. Morshead, * In 
treacherous wrath muffling his swarthy boms', 
than by Mr. Browning, * She strikes him now 
with the black-horned trick,' — ^an expression 
scarcely, if at all, English. So, in 278, 
uzrepoc ijidri^ is much better rendered by * Some 
rumoar'd word not sped from Troy,' than by 
Mr. Brovrning's inelegant verse, — 

' Bat has there puffed thee up some unwing'd 
omen ? ' 

*The joetry of ^Eachylus,' the author re- 
marks (preface, p. xix.), is the precursor of 
the philosophy of Plato : the vague and mys- 
terious problems over which the poet 
brooded, occame the subjects of moral phil- 
osophy in the next generation. Let it be re- 
membered that we have in ^^Sschylus the be- 
ginnings of speculation, not its ultimate forms ; 
and the greatness of this first step will be at 
once apparent.' It would be more correct to 
say, that the Pythagorean teaching of 
^^scbylus was largely adopted by Plato in his 
later teaching. It would be a mistake to re- 
gard philosophy at Athens in a crude or im- 
perfect state in the time of Pericles. Many 
of the poet^s sententious observations («^., in 
Eumen. 5o0, that to be really just a man must 
act on his free-will) form the subjects of dis.- 
cussions in Aristotle. What is really remark- 
able in the theology of j^schylus is his transi- 
tion from the earlier demon-worship of fear 
and propitiatory blood-offerings, to the ac- 
knowledgment of the beneficent agency of 
omnipotent celestial beings, — the worship of 
veneration, of faith, and of prayer. This is 
beautifully shown in the successful appeal of 
Orestes in the Eumenides to save him from 
blood-guiltiness, and from the relentless per- 
secution of the vengeful infernal Furies. 

Mr. Morshead says (preface, p. xxvii.J that 
his object has been, throughout, to oe, if 
possible, readable. We think he has entirely 
succeeded. His version is more than read- 
able — it is enjoyable. If his object had been 
to write something as unlike English, and as 
like a crude and literal translation of Greek 
words and compounds as be could devise, he 



might possibly have found some to praise him. 
But he has been guided by good sense and 
good taste, and has rightly preferred the ele- 
gant to the sensational. To translate 
iEschylus, something more is needful than to 
give a servile equivalent to a word or phrase. 
One must feel in Greek and write in English, 
and the genius of one language and of ono 
sort of poetry must be kept in view quite as 
much as those of the other. 

The Poetical Works of Thomas Cooper. Hod- 
der and Stoughton. 

Mr. Carlyle wished that he could enjoy the 

Erison comforts of a certain Chartist nota- 
ility whom he saw in prison, and gave it as 
his delit>erate opinion that theu the world 
should get such a work out of him as it would 
not else do with ^ taxes and botherations. ' 
Mr. Thomas Cooper's experience does not ex- 
hibit *• comforts * as the producing causes of 
poetic production ; but he confesses that he 
could never have written such a poem as ' The 
Purgatory of Suicides,' if he had not for two 
years been confined in Stafford gaol. It is a 
remarkable poem in every way for a working 
shoemaker to have composed in such circum- 
stances, and some of the most powerful 
touches in it are directly autobiographical.' 
Indeed, the great interest of the poem is 
autobiographical. No doubt there is great 
command of rhythm evident in it — ^for the 
Spenserian stanza, if not elegantly used, is 
most vigorously sustained through a poem 
almost as long as the 'Paradise Lost,' and 
. certainly there is sweep of imagination and 
k certain boldness and grandeur in many 
passages; but it is not faultless in points of 
taste, and its faults are almost as interesting 
to the critic as its beauties. Space will not 
allow of our illustrating these points. The 
reader, if curious, must go to the poem itself, 
which we earnestly recommend him to do ; 
but we cannot help remarking here on the 
simple, affecting, and brave words with which 
Thomas Cooper speaks of his wrongs and 
sufferings. No nobleman could be more for- 
bearing or more dignified, or plead his cause 
with his contemporaries and posterity with 
more effect. ! Culture, it almost makes us 
think, is sometimes inborn, for what educa- 
tion or care could have enabled a man to 
write with more effect than Mr. Cooper does 
on Sir William FoUett, who was the main 
cause of his having been unjustly imprisoned? 
* The Paradise of Martyrs ' is in some re- 
spects more finished, but not so powerful as 
the ' prison rhyme ;' but the volume will no 
doubt find a wide welcome, alike ou its own 
account and the record of the peculiar ele- 
ments of character and circumstances that it 
preserves. 

The Works of Sir Henry Taylor : Vol. I. Philip 
Van Artevelde. Vol. II. Edwin the Fair. 
Isaac Comnenus. Vol. III. Tlie Virgin 
Widow, St. ClemenVs Eve, and other Poems. 
Henry S. King and Co. 
Sir Henry Taylor, then a clerk in a public 

office, forty years ago published * Philip Van 



144 



Contemporafy Literature. 



Jan. 



Artevddc' by way of reaction against the 
pafuiion and Byronism of the day. In one 
sense it has been successful, in another not. 
It has received the meed of critics aa a most 
skilful effort in the direction of using dra- 
matic elements to give effect to what is really 
a historical narrative, and in maintaining and 
justifying the dramatic form while dispensing 
with several dramatic elements. The public 
did not take to the new poem with acclama- 
tion, but it has steadily risen in repute as a 
work of art, which justifies the theory on 
which it was composed. It is unnecessary to 
outline the story at this time of day. Philip 
Van Artevcldc is the son of a brewer of Qhent, 
who assumes a patriotic position similar to 
that of Massaniello or Rienzi, surrounds him- 
self with followers, and attains in May 1382 
a triumph which was but short-lived, lasting 
only some six months. The character of 
Philip is developed with great skill, and with 
the note of a cold, clear, business-like analy- 
sis. If any fault is to be found with it as 
creative, it is that even when he is living an 
easy life, like Isaac Wo 1 ton, fishing and 
meditating in his rich retirement, we are 
made to sec too clearly the possibilities of 
such power, and also of the faults that con- 
tribute most to bring about his downfall, 
when stirred into full life by sudden access 
to power. One of the most skilful points in 
the drama is the way in which the conflicting 
loves of Philip are managed — more especially 
in the episodical * Lay of Elena ' — ^meaning 
Elena deila Torre, his passion for whom is 
strong; and certainly one of the most effect- 
ive situations in any modem drama is that 
where Sir Fleureant dies by Elena^s hand, 
near the close. Mr. Forman has well said : 
' What we have most to thank Sir Henry Tay- 
lor for is the large and statesmanlike intelli- 
gence with which he has studied and mastered 
a historical situation of no mean significance, 
and the craftsmanlike intelligence with which 
he has embodied the situation in each in- 
stance when mastered. He carries us with 
him to the times and places of his play, and 
sets us in the midst of stir and turbulence ; 
shows us individual life at struggle amid the 
throes of national life ; ond gives us the su- 
preme enjoyment that dramatists, above all 
men, can give us, of standing *^calm and 
supercilious^' among the lifelike movements 
of a mimic world, to pass away at will out of 
its turmoil and agony and bloodshed — keep- 
ing the pleasure and the lesson and the 
knowledge, and leaving the pain behind.' 
As such, the drama has a distinctive place in 
literature, and will hold its place. 

The second volume, which contains * Ed- 
win the Fair' and ^ Isaac Comncnus,' is as 
full of interest for the student; and if 'Ed- 
win the Fair ' does not show so obtrusively 
the theories of art on which Sir Henry Tay- 
lor has worked; it has perhaps additional 
elements uf popular interest. In *■ Isaac Com- 
nenus' — which, if we mistake not, was the 
earliest of Sir Henry's dramas — the scene is 
laid at Constantinople, at the end of the 
eleventh century. The local colour is ad- 



I mirably convoyed. Is^iac Comnenus is subtly 
touched, but reminds us too much of Philip 
Van Artevelde in several traits. The poet 
has spent his greatest pains on the Patriarch 
of the Greek Church, who is vividly and 
directly presented to us. The edition alto- 
gether is admirable, and should attract new 
readers to these noble works. 

The School of Shakespeare, By Richard 
Simpson, M.A« Chat to and Windus. 

This book will be found of great service to 
Shakespeare students. We cannot say that 
we accept all its conclnsions, but it is to us 
very interesting. Mr. Simpson was indefati- 
gable in his own line of work, and he did 
make some discoveries and set forth some very 
ingenious guesses. Shakespeare has had no 
more industrious and persistent interpreter. 
One of the special points to which Mr. Simp- 
son more lately devoted much time and pains 
was to trace out clearly the division of labour 
among the Elizabethan dramatists through 
the formation and rearrangement and opposi- 
tion of the companies of playwrights in Shakes- 
peare's time. In 1594 two of these com- 
panies were active — the Lord Chamberlain's 
and the Lord Admirars. Shakespeare was 
connected with the LordChaniberlain*8, while 
Henslowe and Allen were members of the 
Lord Admiral's. The plays that were pro- 
duced by the Ix)rd Chamberlain's company 
Mr. Simpson designates by the term, * School 
of Shakespeare,' and this explains ttisi title. 
He examines them with the utmost minute- 
ness, and ho comes to the conclusion that 
Shakespeare imparted to them a variety and 
elevation that are lacking in the plays pro- 
duced by the opposing company, * an illite- 
rate and commercial character ' obtainfng in 
them. lie finds a special point in favour of 
his view in the fact that they ^ consistently 
favoured the school to which Essex was at- 
tached.' He devotes a good deal of space to 
considering the merits and authorship of the 
'Famous History of the Life and Death of 
Captain Thomas Stuckwell.' He infers that 
this play was acted by; the Chamberlain's 
company, resting chiefly on its affinity with 
the ' Alarum for London,' which is known to 
have been so acted. He finds Shakespeare^s 
hand in it, as in some others of the old plays; 
and there can be no doubt that Shakespeare 
did tTien generally rearrange, project, and 
superintend the remodelling of many plays. 
Mr. Simpson throws, too, a good deal of 
liglit on the relations in which Greene, the 
head of the university, or literate playwrights, 
stood to Shakespeare, as the leader of the 
non-university or * illiterate ' set, with special 
reference to the year 1592; but he draws cer- 
tain secondary lines of argument, which put 
him sometimes, we think, in the awkward 
position of proving too much, though his 
anthology of personal hits in the plays of the 
time of Shakespeare is richly interesting and 
curious. 

A EReiory of Roman Literature^ from the Ear- 
liest Period to the Death of Marcus Aurdius, 



1878. 



Contemporctfry Idkrature. 



145 



By Charles Thomas Cruttwell, M.A., 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College, Ox- 
ford. Charles Griffin and Co. 

The author designs this elaborate and very 
careful work for students at the Universities, 
and for the Indian Civil Service or other ad- 
vanced examinations, but hopes it will prove 
useful to all who are interested in * the grand 
literature of Rome.' In an excellent intro- 
ductoiy chapter, Mr. Cruttwell compares the 
rival claims of Latin with Greek literature, 
and remarks on the alternations of popularity 
which each has undergone at various times 
and in various nations. The * almost fault- 
less correctness * of Latin composition he re- 
gards as one reason why it has so high an 
educational value, and in this point, he says, 
'Latin stands alone.' Its comparatively late 
rise as a literature, almost or quite from con- 
siderably earlier Greek models, about tlie 
middle of the third century B.C., deprives it 
of much claim to a genuine originality ; but 
what it wanted in this respect it made up 
in art. The 'perfection of poetry was not 
attained until the time of Augustus,' while 
prose had declined after the era of Cicero. 

The first chapter ^ves some of the * best- 
known specimens of archaic Latin, as intro- 
ductory to * The Beginning of Roman Litera- 
ture' (chap. ii.). Which of the two chief 
sources of both Greek and Roman composition. 
Religion and the Stage, was the most prolific 
in the genesis may be questioned. The the- 
ory of an ancient Roman ballad literature, 
maintained by Niebuhr, Lord Macaulay, 
and others, Mr. Cruttwell regards as *not 
proven.' Chapter iv., on Roman Comedy, 
which was always of much higher importance 
than Roman Tragedy, gives an excellent 
sketch of Flautus, Terence, and Caecilius, the 
chief writers of whom we have any knowl- 
edge in this department. The tw(f ^eatest 
of Roman poets, Ennius and Lucretius, are 
treated with much skill and judgment, and 
the much-contested claims of Virgil to be a 
true poet are ably discussed, the verdict being 
that he ' stands first among those epic poets 
who own a literary rather than an original 
inspiration.' 

The work appears to us in every respect of 
high merit and usefulness, and we believe 
nothing at all equal to it has hitherto been 
published in England. 

Studies in the Idylls, By H. Elsdale. Henry 
S. King and Co. 

Not a few will be disposed to regard Mr. 
Elsdale's enforced seclusion as a happy cir- 
cmnstance for them, in its relation to their 
intellectual pleasure. He has certainly done 
something to make possible to the uncritical 
reader a comprehension of Mr. Tennyson's 
* Idylls ' as a whole. And without such aid 
this process was often found to be a little 
difScult : (1) Owing to the fragmentary and 
disjointed manner in which the ^ Idylls ' were 
published; and (2) because of the distrac- 
tions that arose on the attempt being faith* 

VOL. LXVII. B— 10 



fully made, by reason of the allegorical and 
forma] morality that we were authoritatively 
taught to seek for in them. Mr. Elsdale is 
Appreciative, but he is also critical. He is 
right, we. think, in refusing to follow too ex- 
haustively the line of * teaching.' He dis- 
misses it, after a short trial, as being unsatis- 
factory, and as ["only leading to the sense of 
contradictions, which are the more tantaliz- 
ing that they do not at all affect the imagi- 
native or emotional symbols the pdet has em- 
ployed. We are particularly pleased with 
Mr. Elsdale's remarks on the chief tendency 
of Mr. tTennyson's genius, and the place 
which his genius has made for itself as inter- 
preter of the subtle shades of experience in 
woman. Though more suggestive than final 
or complete, we have had pleasure in reading 
this book, and feel that others may be led by 
it to a more careful perusal of the * Idylls,' 
and a deeper enjoyment of their beauties. 

The Beehives, A Pastoral. By J. C. A. 
ScoTT, M.A., Fellow of University College, 
London. Farmer and Sons. 

The pastoral is a form of poetry noAr some- 
what out of favour, or at least not of frequent 
use. The title suggests a past era and an 
affected style. The scenery it recalls t6 the 
mind is not that met with by the eye; and 
the swains and shepherdesses who move, or 
I'ather lounge in' it, are so unlike the youthts 
and girls to be found in any farm or village, 
that we hardly think the poetically-named 
persons human. Yet the pastoral is a form 
of poetry not unworthy of attention and one 
which, more perhaps than any other, should 
be realistic. Its purpose is so to depict a 
passage of rural life as to make the reader 
smell the hay, see the haze dancing under the 
blazing sun, and hear the twitter and song of 
the birds, with all the vivid impressions cre- 
ated by the scents and sights and sounds them- 
selves; while men and women, plainly ap- 
pearing as the habitual dwellers in the scene, 
hold discourse which may be recognized as a 
morsel taken out of their ordinary lives, and 
yet expresses some particular thought or feel- 
ing, or both, which constitutes the purpose 
of the poem. A pastoral must combine home- 
liness, rusticity, and poetry. In the little 
poem of which the title is prefixed to these 
remarks, Mr. Scott has gone far to accomplish 
this object. His characters are true denizens 
of the countryside. The features of the land- 
scape amid which they dwell are clearly drawn 
by those incidental and disconnected refer- 
ences which most satisfactorily bring the pic- 
ture to the imagination ; and a sufiicient pur- 
pose for the drawing is revealed by the con« 
versation of a mother, son, and daughter, a 
lover of the daughter, and one or two subor- 
dinate characters. The nature of the piece 
is not such as to afford passages for quotation 
in the space at our disposal, but we gladly 
commend it to the perusal of any readers who 
are disposed to study what appeare to us to 
be a successful effort in a heretofore misused, 
and now neglected, form of art. 



146 



Contemporary Literature, 



JUXL 



Them Boots, By Williaic Gilbert, Author 
of * De Profundis,' ' Shirley Hall Aisylum,' 
&c. Daldy, Isbister, and Co. 

If we mistake not, Mr. Gilbert some time 
since published the story of * Tbem Boots ' in 
a more compendious shape. He has here 
ranged round the original nucleus a number 
of characters and incidents, treated in his 
•irn x>ecaliar manner, dry and realistic, but 
relieved by unexpected touches of humour 
and pathos. *Them Boots' is a story of 
morbid criminal tendency, flowing from and 
justifying itself by odd delusicms. A worker 
in one of the Refuges for Ticket-of-leave 
Women steals a pair of boots, and is deluded 
into the idea that they come to exercise an 
indescribable power over her will, and carry 
here where she would not go otherwise — 
especially into public-houses for gin — and 
that they will exercise the same power over 
any unlucky possessor. * Them Boots * fur- 
nish thus the only connecting bond between 
the various personages in the story, and in 
the midst of the realism there is a grotesque- 
ness ivpm which much effect is derived. We 
follow ' Them Boots,* and find that, in spite of 
the delusion that has taken possession of poor 
Mrs^ Rigton's mind, they do appear to carry to 
those into whose hands they fall something of 
the ill-luck prognosticated ; and in no point 
18 this more strikingly exhibited than in the 
case of Mr. Mordecai Moss, the Jew broker, 
who buys them of Mrs. Rigton for sixpence, 
and resells them to her for ^ve shillings — 
not, however, till Mrs. Moss has worn them, 
and suffered by it. The slow, unimaginative, 
detailed method of Mr. Gilbert suits well this 
kind of theme; but his narrative and de- 
scriptive passages might often be improved in 
style, and only thus give the more effect to 
his homely dialogue, which derives nearly all 
its force from its unaffected following up of 
the winding processes of such uneducated 
minds. The arguments of Mrs. Rlgtbn with 
the lady superintendent and the clergyman 
about ' original sin * are richly illustrative of 
this. On the whole, the story makes much 
of a somewhat repulsive subject ; but we fear 
Mr. Gilbert is hardly artistic in the n\anner 
in which he obtrusively urges his lesson, and 
the motto he has chosen seems to us, in view 
of the lesson, most untoward, since those 
concerned in the drink traffic might quote it 
honestly enough from their own point of view. 

Two Tale$ of Married Life: Hard to Bear. 
By Gborqiaka M. Craik. A True Man. 
By M. C. Stirling. Three Vols. Hurst 
and Blackett. 

There really does seem great virtue in the 
three-volume form. Here, two writers, in- 
ftcad of separately publishing their stories, 
club them together, that they may fill the 
orthodox three volumes, and look as much as 
possible like the conventional story to which 
novel readers are so wedded. There is no 
harm in this, except that it is a trifle unreal. 
Miss Craik is a practised story-teller, and Miss 
Stirling a neophyte, or but little mor^ but 
doarly the palm of merit is with the latter. 



Both stories are well written, both are pain- 
ful, and both redeem the painfulness with a 
good deal of pathos. But Miss Stirling's 
story, as it is the longer, so it attains to a 
higher point of dramatic power, is more full 
of passion, and leaves a deeper impression. 
Both are intended to point the moral of ill- 
assorted marriages. In both the shortcoming 
and th6 wrongaoing are with the husbandr 
who is uncongenial or unworthy, while the 
wife is the ideal of lofty and romantic affec- 
tion. We of the male aex have no right per- 
haps to complain of this, seeing that in ' Har- 
court ' Miss Stirling has compensated us for 
the condemnation otherwise pronounced upon 
the sex. But we are not quite so sure that the 
failure even in affection* and romance is 
always with the husband, while concerning 
other qualities essential to married happiness 
one would, in a court of love, like to hear 
witnesses like Socrates, Richard Hooker, and 
Baxter. Both ladies, however, give a whole- 
some warning -to their own sex, by represent- 
ing the choice of their heroines as somewhat 
wuful, not to say wayward. Even so, young 
ladies make their own bed, and often in spite 
of wise counsel. Norah's choice of Mr. Lang- 
ton, like Dorothea's choice of Mr. Casaubon, 
is to blame chiefly for its substitution of rev- 
erence and pity for a man much older than 
herself for the true passion which alone can 
justify marriage. Ainsworth is simply a brute, 
and there is no excuse for Alice's choice of 
him. We are almost Inclined to say that it ia 
an artistic defect to have made this possible. 
Norah*s husband flirts with an old mune, be- 
cause Norah has never really won his lore ; 
her strength, however, comes out very finely, 
and is rewarded as it ought to be. But poor 
Alice's married life is an unredeemed tragedy, 
the causes of which, some of them subtle but 
very real, are wrought out with much power and 
pathos. There are natures like Ainsworth's, 
utterly incapable of recognizing qualities like 
those of Alice, morc's the pity ; and when such 
marriages do take place, misery such as hers 
inevltM^ly results, aggravated perhaps, as 
here, by the consciousness that congruity and 
happiness were onlv just missed. BoUt 
stones are clever and wholesome. There is 
no help for radical incongruities of natare, 
but some alleviation may be possible bv ex- 
hibiting their possible development, and in- 
ducing watchfulness and striving. 

Douhleday^i Children. By Durrox Coos. 
Sampson Low and Co. 

Mr. Dutton Cook shows a good deal of in- 
genuity in manipulating his somewhat acsnty 
materials, and he has decidedly s crisp pic- 
turesque touch, as is seen here in some of his 
descriptions of Thames scenery ; but he is too 
much inclined to emphasize details, and to 
follow up pseudoH^harscteristic traits, after 
the manner of the school of IMckens, till they 
actually seem to become nnimportant through 
the false stress laid upon them. Donbleday's 
children are three: Nicholas, s slow, stolid, 
but honest and thorough Isd, who plods 
along as a clerk in s bank, to shake hands 



1878. 



Cantemporarf/ Xitercnture, 



147 



with Success, that meets him half-way in the 
shape of bis master's daughter as a bride; 
Basil, a youth of decided poetic temperament, 
who publishes verses, gets associated with a 
Chartist paper, and finally betakes himself to 
Australia, to marry, and do better there; and 
Doris, who engages herself to a respectable 
Academician, but tires of him and his woo- 
ing, and runs away with a French refugee, 
who leaves her a widow in the Revolution of 
February. There is a great deal of fresh and 
attractive sketching in the earlier portion of 
the novel, where the father of the Double- 
days is revealed to us struggling against pov- 
erty, and having recourse to many shifts to 
get along. The method adopted is for each 
to tell his own story, so that out of the varied 
parts a complete whole should at last come 
together; but the' process is far from new, 
and requires great invention to be completely 
successful. We do not think that Mr. Dut- 
toa Cook has quite succeeded in working his 
materials into such suggestion of unity as is 
desirable; but the story abounds in clever 
and humorous passages: it is bright and read- 
able, and here and there even piquant. 

Erema; or, my Father's Sin. By R. D. 
Black&iobe. Smith, Elder, and Co. 

* Erema ' cannot, we think, be ranked either 
for character or for picturesque description 
with 'Cradock NowelP or ^Lorna Doone,* 
but it has characteristics of its own which 
make it stand quite apart from the ordinary 
library fiction. Mr. Blackmore manages 
skilfully to combine faithfulness to nature, 
within certain limits, with striking situations 
and with incident of an original kind. In 
this respect ' Erema ' differs from the novel 
which preceded it, *Cripps the Carrier,' in 
which it must be said that the incident was 
sometimes forced, fantastical, and hardly 
new. Nothing could well be more powerful 
lu this way or more illustrative of what we 
have said than the picture of Erema, when 
she is found by ' Lawyer ' Sampson, insensible 
on the dead body of her father. He had 
quarrelled needlessly on the road to Sacra- 
mento with the leader of the waggon-tr^in 
which he had joined with his daughter, and 
had dropped down in the western desert in 
the attempt to find a way for himself to a 
certain spot in the mountains on which he 
had fixed his mind. George Castle wood, the 
father of Erema, is a man of brave and lofty 
nature, as it appeared to Erema, and some 
fine points are made in depicting her self-re- 
proaches for supposed failures in her duty to 
the dead man. Her state of mind may be 
guessed vhen, in overhearing a conversation, 
she discovers that her father had been com- 
mitted for trial for shooting his father Lord 
Castle wood ; that he had broken prison, and 
escaped to America. Lord Castlewood had 
been found dead near a bridge on his way 
from his son's house at Shoxford, and as thac 
pon^s pistol was found by his side, the pre- 
sumptive evidence against him was strong. 
Erema, whose faith in her father's honour 
was complete, devotes herself to clear up the 



matter, and relieve his memory from such a 
dark stigma. The account of the difficulties 
she encounters is relieved by the dexterous 
way in which Mr. Blackmore presents us with 
glimpses of new characters, and we follow 
the fate of Erema with keen interest. The 
more she perseveres, however, the more intri- 
cate the case becomes : suspicion rests now on 
this one and now on that, and our curiosity 
is alteraately stimulated and defeated. The- 
various clues are followed up with great close- 
ness, and the interest is admirably sustained ; 
but the one fault which strikes us is the very 
shadowy way in which the real murderer— an 
illegitimate son of Lord Castlewood — fiits, 
and only fiits, once or twice before us, never 
being made tangible to us at all. Mr. Black- 
more is complete master of his own careful 
detailed style of work, but it is possible to 
trust too much to it ; and this, we think, is 
the one fault of this story, which abounds 
(as a story from Mr. Blackmore's hands could 
hardly fail to do) in powerful pieces of de- 
scription [and touches of quaint humour. 
The poetical justice of the novel, however, in 
the disposal of Erema (which the reader, if 
he be curious, must find out for himself from 
the book), does not wholly suit our taste, 
savouring a little as it does of the transpontine 
melodrama, where all ends happily by hook 
or bv crook. 

A Young Wife^s Story. By Harribtte 
BowBA. Three Vols. Sampson Low and 
Co. 

The history of the first year of a wedded 
life, chequered by bitter disappointment and 
many provocations of temper, is told pro- 
fessedly by the young bride herself, and the 
authoress may be congratulated on the power- 
ful delineation of character she has effected. 
Ella Clare is an orphan, who is persuaded by 
Victor Demarcay, a fascinating widower with 
two children, to marry him out of hand, audi 
proceed at once with him to the ho^se and^ 
home of an uncle of enormous wealth, scepti- 
cal sentiments, boundless pride, and stately 
killing poll teness. She finds, by the awkwardl 
incident of accidental eaves-dropping, that 
the marriage has been contrived to satisfy tho- 
desire of the uncle rather than the love of the^ 
bridegroom, whose heart is still buried in the* 
grave of his first wife, and who honestly con- 
fesses to his deceased wife's sister, in the hear- 
ing of his bride, that he has married with the 
hope of securing the bequest of the family 
estate to his children. Poor Ella also over- 
hears some disparaging things about her ap- 
pearance >and manner from the selfish imperi- 
ous uncle, at whose shrine she has been offered' 
up as a holocaust. The eldest child, a boy, 
insults her, and the nurse of the children is^ 
in open revolt. These unpleasant surround- 
ings take the gilt off her splendid wretched- 
ness. The three volumes describe the pro- 
cess by which Ella's truthfulness rather than 
her tact, her self-respect rather than her wis- 
dom, her hunger for the love of her husbandi 
rather than her prudence, her Christian prin- 
ciple more than ner fortitude or clearness a£' 



148 



Contemporary Literature. 



Jan. 



thought, her real goodness and thorough un- 
selfishness, \rin a series of victories. There 
is little gush even at last, but a sincere pro- 
found love is awakened before the year is 
over, by which time the uncle is dead, the 
nurse dismissed, the daring boy conquered, 
and many lessons are learned. Harriettc 
Bowra has studied in the school of Miss 
Austen, and Lomdale and. the Normandy 
castle remind the reader of some of the sump- 
tuous scenes and dignified frigidity depicted 
in * Pride and Prejudice * and ' Northbanger 
Abbey,' but she differs profoundly in the 
moral of a tale which aims at enforcing the 
principle that * trust in God and do the right' 
is the only wise and safe course. 

A Douce Lass. Qy the Author of ' Citoyenne 
Jacqueline,' &c. Two Vols. Smith, El- 
der, and Co. 

Miss Tytler has here given us a very charm- 
ing study of Scottish character. The village 
of Oatness — we could almost identify it — 
lying along the coast of the bay, with its High 
Street and its Low Street, and its set arrange- 
ments of social strata, with its fisher-folk curi- 
ously sandwiched between, is presented with 
«the most careful and loving touches. The 
'Clement which gives cohesion, and is skilfully 
worked up to a somewhat striking climax, is 
ithe love-affairs of i Thomas Ord, who goes 
..away a poor lad, leaving behind him an ' en-' 
: gaged bride '-^Suffie Quhair— and who re- 
turns after fifteen years a rich man, to turn 
1 his back on ^SufiHe,' buy her off with four 
ihundmd pounds, that he may be free to wed 
;the daughter of a laird. Thomas's falsene&s 
in life pursues him with tmgic result, only 
Tto bring out the true stuff of which the dis- 

• carded Suffie is made, even in his eyes, when 

• on his death-bed. To find out how this all 

• comes about, the reader should turn to these 
two volumes, which convey some sense of the 
pawky humour, the self-restraint and strength 

(Of the Scottish lower orders, which Miss Tytler 
knows so well, though she knows their weak- 

inesses also, as is seen in the * pinging,' pock- 
pitted Mrs. John and Mrs. Aiken head, the 

\wif e of the grocer, in spite of a little diffuse- 

,ness in description, the volumes are most 

• readable, and the story is improved by many 
■ touches since we read it in * Fraser.' 

/A Jewel of a Girl, By the Author of 
*Queenie,' &c. Three Vols. Hurst and 
Blackett. 

The author of ^ Queenie ' has made a great 
■advance m her new- novel. Her hand is 
,much firmer, her style more incisive, and her 

• disposition and analysis of her characters 
>more masterly. Wc do not like the kind of 
ttit4e for her stories which she affects, and 
'v^hiehrthis third instance shows is not a mere 
•.accident. Miss Broughton has a good deal 
to answer for, for introducing the fashion — ^a 
fashion which even the parodies of ^ Punch ' 

« have not ridiculed out of countenance ; and 
' we* think too that the author of * Queenie,' in 
>hor present story, has offended against both 
;art and morals in.making her heroine request 



her lover to gratify Jacoba's passion by marry- 
ing her on her death-bed. How utterly wicked 
this would have been had^ she recovered! 
which, even as the author tells the story, she 
probably would have done but for an acci- 
dental cold. Perhaps the weakness of the 
author lies in her lack of well-contrived inci- 
dent. Her stories are a little too subjective 
and wire drawn, and need the relief of more 
incident. We fancy it is the consciousness 
of this which has urged her to devise such an 
extravagant episode as this. But having said 
this much by way of qualification we have 
nothing but praise for the story. The charac- 
ters are distinctly conceived, well discrimi- 
nated, and delineated with both finish and 
power. Miss Ina, with her undeveloped pos- 
sibilities, is a charming creature. Ulich also 
is true and tender without being spooney. 
His father is [powerfully drawn, and the one 
persistent tenderness for jMiss Ina,which quali- 
fies his otherwise hard and unscrupulous 
character, is true to nature. The descrip- 
tions of Irish and Dutch scenery are evidently 
from life, and in their contrasts and their 
vividness are very charming. If this writer 
continues to advance as in each of her stories 
•hitherto she has done, she will take a high 
place among our female novelists. ^ A Jewel 
of a Girl ' is a good^ sensible, and clever 
novel. 

I^holas Maturin. A Study in a Story. By 
J. G. Holland, Author of 'Sevenoaks,' 
' &c. Sampson Low and Ck>. 

Mr. Holland's novels are not so well known 
in England as they deserve to be. They are 
constructed with considerable artistic ekill 
and finish, their tone is elevating and inspir- 
ing, they are both dramatic and thoughtful, 
the characters are well conceived and vividly 
delineated, and the dialogue is inlaid with 
principles and maxims full of wisdom and 
genius. They touch the highest circle of 
modern fiction, if they do not enter it. One 
gets from reading them the kind of intellectual 
and moral satisfaction which George Mac- 
Donald's novels give. Two great aims seem 
to have inspired the present story. The first 
is' the insumciency of mere duty as the motive 
and sentiment of life. Mr. Benson, whose 
delineation is almost worthy of that of his 
great prototype, Mr. Pecksniff, very strikingly 
proves how inadequate mere duty is in strong 
temptation, and how selfish its basis may be. 
The second lesson is the manifold evils of 
almsgiving, brought out by the experiments 
of Nicholas. The dramatic force of the story 
is by no means injured by these aims — one 
has no sense of reading a * novel of purpose.' 
We very earnestly recommend to English read- 
ers this able and suggestive American writer. 

Green Pastures and Piccadilly, By William 
Black, Author of *A Princess of Thule,' 
&c. Macmillan and Co. 

Mr. Black could not write otherwise than 
attractively, but we greatly fear that his most 
devoted admirers will not claim for thisnuvel 
that it can rank with his best. We are per- 



IBIS. 



Contemporary Literature. 



140 



secuted with a sense of adaptations ; the char- 
acters, for one thing, being sent off on jour- 
neys as if to make opportunities for descrip- 
tion. Lady Sylvia is admirably sketched, 
and so is her father, Lord Willowby, with 
his odd automatic smile. We can see her — 
half girl, half woman — as she roves in- the 
woods on her delightful missions, and can 
follow up to a certain Tpoint tht; effects in the 
development of her character of her love for 
Balfour. But the Lady Sylvia of the earlier 
part fades and passes, we had almost said, 
into another character, on her American jour- 
ney, in which we are brought once more into 
the pleasant company of some of our old 
friends — 'Queen T.,' Bell, and Lieutenant 
von Rosen. The descriptions are in them- 
selves capital, and much of the talk is 
ingenious. Hugh Balfour himself, with his 
thoroughly Scotch caution and reserve cover- 
ing a nature really full of fine impulses, is 
well done, but better in the early part than 
in the later. The political element ^ives 
scope for clever sketching ; but the basis on 
which Mr. Black has proceeded in his descrip- 
tion of the low Jiondon lodging-houses is not 
real enough, and he has fallen into one or 
two errors. Mr. Balfour's desire to connect 
social problems directly with political ques- 
tions is in conformity with tendencies likely 
to become only more pronounced. The sep- 
aration of the couple, and thoir coming 
together again, in the midst of what to 
another man than Balfour would have been 
paralysis and ruin, imparts to the story its 
romantic element, where else it would have 
been weak in interest. On the whole, though 
there is some lack of clear plot, and though 
the characters are not so distinctly realized as 
in some other of Mr. Black's novels, ' Green 
Pastures and Piccadilly ' so successfully unites 
the sweet sense of idyllic life with knowledge 
of ' society ' and the world, as to justify its 
title and make it readable, though a great 
novel it is not, nor do we believe that Mr. 
Black would set up this claim for it. 

Fize-Chimney Farm, A Novel. By Mart 
A. M. Uoppus. Sampson Low and Co. 

This novel is written with more of literary 
ability than constructive art. Its scenes are 
laid in part in a peaceful Kentish village, and 
in part in Paris during the revolutionary 
events of 1848. Throughout, the canvas is 
too crowded and the incidents too multitudi- 
nous and rapid. It demands a strong exer- 
cise of memory and acuteness to understand 
the relations of generations and persons. We 
hardly know who is who. But the descrip- 
tive bits are well done, the characterization 
is clever, and the reflections are thoughtful 
and penetrating. By far the larger portion 
of the story is occupiecl with the fighting in 
the streets of Paris, and with very clever char- 
acterizations of the motives and passions of 
the revolutionary republicans. We are car- 
ried through terrible scenes of violence and 
bloodshed. The authoress has made herself 
thoroughly master of the intricate movements 
of politicians and of parties. We prefer the 



English part of the story, but throughout it' 
is a narrative of strong passions and of mad 
violence. We marvel at the rabid fanaticism 
of men like Latourelle and Barnard, and at 
the fierce passions of men like Thrasybule ; 
but the pandemonium which Paris has a^ain 
and again been, even so late as 1870, forbids 
us to think them exaggerated. The crowded 
scenes are full of clever sketches of individual 
character, although we get confused at their 
number, and scarcely get familiar enough 
with any of them except Kate and Felix. 
Death makes sad havoc of the authoress's per- 
sonages. The story is full of power, but is 
vei^ tragic. 

By Love and Law, The Story of an Honour- 
able Woman. By Lizzie Alldridoe. 
Three Vols. Smith, Elder, and Co. 

We really object to titles that designate 
nothing. After an honest perusal of this 
story we have failed to see any connection 
between it and its title except that Frank once 
purposed to read law, and didn't. 

It is the story of a woman who, out of two 
lovers, chose the wrong one, a man amiable 
enough, and with good instincts enough, but 
cursed with £500 a year, which relieves him 
from the necessity of practically doing any- 
thing. He sells this for £5000, which of 
course he loses— goes to the bad — deserts his 
wife, and dies in America. The interest lies 
in the noble struggles of Lois, who, having 
got some instruction in painting, and been re- 
fused as pupil of the Academy because she 
was a girl, has to earn her living by it when 
her husband leaves her, and ultimately suc- 
ceeds. An atmosphere of art knowledge and 
feeling pervades the story. It is slow enough 
at first, but quickens after the marriage of 
Lois, and at length interests us. Lois is 
happy at last in her second marriage witli 
Lochraine, whose character, those of Agnes 
Dymond, Elizabeth Akroyd, and some others, 
are well etched in. If, as we suspect, this 
be a first novel, it is a success marked enough 
to give promise of better things. 



JUVENILE BOOKS. 

Hector Sei'vadoc, By Jules Verne. Trans- 
lated by Ellen E. Trewer. With numerous 
Illustrations. (Sampson Low and Co.) The 
Child of the Cavern ; or, Strange Doing% Un- 
derground, By Jules Verne. Translated 
by W. H. Kingston. With numerous Illus- 
trations. (Sampson Low and Co.) Christ- 
mas would scarcely be Christmas without a 
wonder-book from Jules Verne; and his 
marvellous inventions are so full of superb 
scientific imagination, that the oldest and 
gravest, and even the most learned in scien- 
tific knowledge, read them with as much de 
light as the youngest. He is the genius of ^ Aie 
coming race,' and gravely transforms th^. 
most daring scientific romance into possibili^ 



1(0 



Contemporary LUeruture. 



Jan. 



ties, which eyen learned astronomers and 
geologists may ponder. This year brings us 
two new books, one as extravagant in its bold 
hypothesis as anything that he has done yet, 
and so absorbing in its interest, and even in- 
structive in its data, that no one can read it 
without interest, if not without solid informa- 
tion, far beyond that of a scientific romance. 
The conception is of a collision between the 
earth and a comet, the latter carrying off into 
farthest planetary space a portion of North- 
ern Africa, as also Gibraltar and Ceuta, 
together with a colony of between thirty and 
forty human beings. These consist of French- 
men, Englishmen, Russians, Italians, and 
Spaniards, and especially a professor of as- 
tronomy, and a German Jew. These supply 
the human interest of the story, and some rich 
scenes of humorous satire, which are full of 
cleverness. The Jew, especially, develops 
under strange conditions the money-getting 
proclivities of his race. A whole system of 
solar astronomy is interwoven with the nar- 
rative, with however some singular numeral 
inaccuracies. The comet is two years on its 
journey, and makes near acquaintance with 
Jupiter, Saturn, and other planets, under 
strange conditions of altered time, motion, 
and gravitation. What the comet consisted 
of, what its resources of warmth and food 
in the eztrcmest cold known in our solar sys- 
tem, how the involuntary travellers regained 
the surface of the earth, must be learneu from 
the wonderful story itself. Only an accom- 
plished man of science could have written it, 
and only an imagination of almost unique 
opulence and daring could have conceived it. 
The second story is far more subdued. Its 
scene is a marvellous coal-mine in Scotland 
running under Loch Katrine, which includes 
caverns inferior in vastness only to the Mam- 
moth Cave of Kentucky. Its personages are 
a family of miners and the overseer. We 
must not disclose its secret, nor the agency 
by which its strange phenomena are wrought. 
Suffice it to say that, with less of magnificent 
scientific impossibility than in most of his 
books, the author soberly narrates a series of 
phenomena which include the swallowing 
up of Loch Katrine, and this only raises a 
few feet the level of the lake at the bottom 
of the mine. Here our own more intimate 
acquaintance with social relations enables us 
to detect some incongruities of representa- 
tion, which do not, however, interfere with 
the scientific exposition of coal-mining. 
Here, as heretofore, the genius of the author 
does not fail him. It is simply superb. 
British readers will feel a special home inter- 
est in it, while readers of Scott will marvel 
at its independent conception and colouring. 
Happy the boys that can secure as Chiistmas 
gifts these new and marvellous stories. They 
will find them the sensation of the season. 

There is only one Jules Verne. The Blue 

Banrur ; or^ tJie Adventures of a Mussul- 
man^ a Christian^ arid a Pagan^ in the time of 
the Crusades and Mongol Conquest. By Leon 
Cahun. Translated from the French by W. 
Collet Sanders. (Sampson Low and Co.) 



M. Leon Cahun, whose *Ad ventures of Captain 
Mago, the Phcenician navigator, 1000 years 
B.C.,' we commended last year, evidently 
emulates in the field of imaginative history 
the achievements of Jules Verne in that of 
imaginative science, and with very fair suc- 
cess. He has not the lucid, vivid power of 
his prototype, but he thoroughly masters 
the historical circumstances and surroundings 
of the era which he chooses, and enables his 
readers to enter into its spirit. He has here 
chosen the period and conquest of Gengbis 
Khan and Timonr the Tartar, and has adhered 
mainly to the current of real history, with 
some little liberties taken with the chrono- 
logy; the chief element of fiction being the 
character and adventures of hie hero, who is 
himself the teller of the story. We do not 
follow Genghis Khan in his marvellous career 
of Mongol conquest, but we come into occa- 
sional contacts with him. We follow the 
fortunes of the hero, chiefiy in extensive ex- 
peditions to Samarcand and other distant 
places, and are interested in his personal ad- 
ventures, which are not withouc a mysterious 
veiled princess to give excitement to them. 
M. Leon Cahun is an accomplished Oriental 
scholar, and the mise en scene is carefully pre- 
served. Perhaps some indistinctness and 
confusion in the narrative of unfamiliar things 
and names were inevitable, but the book is 
much more than an exciting story, it is an in- 
teresting historical study. The Christmas 

Story 2'eUer. A Medley for the Festive Sea- 
son, of Turkey and Mince Pie; Pantomime 
and Plum Pudding; Smiles, Tears, and 
Frolic; Mummeries, Ghosts, and Christmas 
Trees. By Old HaniJs and New. Ones. 
Fifiy -seven Illustrations. (Sampson Low 
and Co.) All that we can do with such a 
medley as is here described is to report it. 
Here are tliirty-two stories, sketches, and 
poems, by almost as many writers. Murk 
Lemon's last f tory is here, so is Tom Hood's 
< Full Fathom Five.* 'Christmas is at once 
the festival of birth ana the time of death. 
Stories written by Mark Lemon, Tom Hood, 
Andrew Halliday, Edmund Yates, Walter 
Thornbury, Alfred Crowquill, and P. C. Bur- 
nand, need no commendation. Happy will 
be the youngster who plucks such fruit from 

the Christmas tree. Field Friends and 

Forest Foes, By Phillis Browne. (Cassell, 
Petter, and Galpin.) An account for young 
people, with illustrative anecdotes and pic- 
torial illustrations of lions and tigers, 
leopards, bears, foxes, wolves, horses, asses, 
elephants, hippopotami, camels, giraffes, 
cattle, sheep and goats, antelopes, deer, 
hares, weasels, boars, porcupines, rats and 
mice, &c. It is a very fascinating miscellany. 
Licssons in natural history are taught through 
its romance. Prince Ritto; or^ tlie Four- 
leaved Shamrock, By Fanny W.Cdrrey. With 
Illustrations. (Sampson Low and Co.) The 
illustrations are good, and the story is pret- 
tily told, with, however, somewhat of exag- 
geration in the neglect and cruelty with 
which the king's children were treated. The 
glimpse of Fairyland will deliorht young 



1878. 



Coniemporary Jjiterature- 



161 



readers. 



The Two 8upereargoe$ ; or^ 



Adf>entures in Savage Africa. By W. H. Q, 
KiNGfiTON. With numerous Illustrations. 
(Sampson Low and Co.) Mr. Kingston is 
almost unrivalled as a reproducer m con- 
nected and popular stories of geographical in- 
formation. His present story is one of ad- 
venture in Africa, and ''gives a vivid idea of 
what, in its savage life, its geo^aphical 
features, and its wild animals, Afnca really 
is. Mr. Kingston's writing is vigorous and 
almost sensational, but boys will delight in 

it. SpetiMT for Children, Qy M. H. 

TowRT. With Illustrations in colours by 
Walter J. Morgan. (Chatto and Windus.) 
Adopting the idea which last year Mrs. Haweis 
carried out so successfully with Chaucer, Mr. 
Towry has selected episodes from Bpenser, 
and rendered them into easy narrative for 
children. Bpenser, however, does not lend 
himself so readily to such a process as Chau- 
cer. His allegorical conceptions and imagin- 
ative descriptions are much more intractable 
than Chaucer's objective narrative. Mr. 
Towiy, therefore, has wisely chosen to select 
the narrative sections, preserving the continu- 
onsncsH of the tales. The rendering is very 
successful. The style is simple and just 
touched with quaintness, and avoids the peril 
of vulgarizing the poet. Bpenser can be read 
only by a cultivated and matured taste. Buch 
a rendering as this, therefore, which presents 
the story simply in a way to interest young 
minds, is a useful preparation for the enjoy- 
ment of the poem itself. We cannot say 
much for the illustrations. They are coarse, 
and without individuality of feature. Poor 
Amoret (p. 06) has no face at all, that which 
should be a face suggests the pulpy mass of a 
prize-fighter severely punished ; while the pro- 
Hie of the knight might be anything, but looks 
most like a cut cheese or melon. The gallery 
faces opposite (p. 8G) might have been pricked 
in by a pin by some little boy. The book is 
worthy of better work than this. 



We would call the attention of ministers of 
religion to a singularly complete and useful 
Podcet Diary ^ issued by Messrs. H odder and 
Stoughton, which, in addition to usual alma- 
nac and special ecclesiastical information, 
contains an ample diary, with Bund ay les- 
sons, cash account, visiting list of Church 
members, registers for baptism, marriages, 
funerals, sermons, texts for sermons, and 
general memoranda. Its convenience is so 
great, that few having their attention di- 
rected to it will willingly dispense with it. 



THEOLOOY, FHILOSOFHY, AND PHILOLOOT. 

Hebrew and Christian Records, Two Vols. 
By Rev. Dr. Giles. Trubner and Co. 

In dealing with any religious system, you 
may contemplate it from different points of 



view. (1) Its moral or practical character; 
(2) Its doctrinal, or speculative aspects ; (8) 
Its historical evidences. Dr. Giles deals only 
with historical facts— the facts of Judaism in 
the first volume, and the facts of Christianity 
in the second. He moreover narrows down 
his inquiry to one specific aspect of the sub- 
ject. His object in the first volume is to 
show that the whole of the Old Testament is 
due, not to the first settlement of the Hebrews 
in Canaan, 1500 B.C.. but to the re-establish- 
ment of the nation five hundred years before 
our era; and in the second volume, that the 
historical books of the Kew Testament were 
not in their present form before the year 150 
A.D., but were then put forth with the other 
books, to form the Christian canon which we 
now have. 

The author endeavours to establish the late 
composition of the Old Testament documents 
by two processes : (1) By external and nega- 
tive proofs, which consist in showing that the 
books were not written by the authors to 
which they are assigned, but that the Old 
Testament is compiled from more ancient 
documents, and is not an original work. Here 
he uses the old familiar arguments: e.g.^ the 
frequent interruption of the narrative by the 
insertion of separate and complete histories, 
recapitulation of the same events, quotations 
from earlier documents, and the different 
names given to the Deity. This method of 
investigation is applied more or less to the 
whole of the Old Testament, but especially 
to the Pentateuch. There is very little origi- 
nality in this part of the work, but there is a 
great deal of diffuseness and apparent in- 
ability to deal with the linguistic aspect of 
the inquiry, «.«., the essential difference of 
style between the documents themselves. 

He next examines at great length the argu- 
ment based on universal tradition, in favour 
of the Mosaic unity of the Pentateuch. Here 
he shows that the chain of tradition is broken, 
and the conclusion reached by him is that 
only two Jewish documents existed, viz., the 
Book of Joshua, which was not written, ac- 
cording to Dr. Giles, until seven hundred 
years after the date generally ascribed to it, 
and the Books of Kings and Chronicles, writ- 
ten about the time of the Babylonish Captiv- 
ity, or nine hundred years after the date of 
Moses, and that for nine hundred years, and 
probably much longer, no profane writer 
mentions the Book of the Law at all. 
The inference therefore is that the silence of 
nine hundred years, which were, moreover, 
years of obscurity and barbarism, altogeliier 
refutes the argument of universal tradition. 
He further obsei*ves that by the Book of the 
Law nothing more or less is meant than the 
two tables of stone. The perfect law of 
Moses, he observes, is contained in the Pen- 
tateuch, but the law of Moses and the Penta- 
teuch are not identical. The law of Moses 
was given 1500 B.C., but the Pentateuch was 
not complete more than 400 or 500 B.C. The 
final conclusion arrived at is that in our pr^ 
ent volume of the Old Testament we have 
not the original writings of the Hebrew law- 



159 



ConUmporwry XU^ature. 



Jan. 



giver and judges, but a compilation oat of 
ancient Hebrew docnroents, begun by the 
Tery hand and continued by the succesaorB of 
that Ezra who is named as having been in- 
spired by God to perform this especial duty. 
We have given as clearly as we can the out- 
line of the argument as well as the conclu- 
sion. We would here remark that there is 
scarcely an argument advanced against the 
Mosaic authorship which in our opinion is 
not in itself liable to correction or modifica- 
tion. But this we shall not attempt. 

There are two things which every candid 
critic must admit. (1) That the Pentateuch 
contains portions or fragments which un- 
doubtedly emanated from Moses, as also 
fragments of much greater anti(^uity than 
Moses ; (2) That the Pentateuch in its present 
completed form could neither be the work of 
Moses nor belong to Mosaic times. The ex- 
ternal evidence for it is so slender, and the in- 
ternal evidence of language and structure 
against it is so strong. Moses was emphatic- 
ally a lawgiver and ruler, and not an histo- 
rian. Besides, the history of a nation is never 
written during its years of wandering. Moses, 
no doubt, laid the foundation, but the super- 
structure .was completed by other hands. 
Thus far we agree in the main with Dr. Qiles. 
But when he comes to account for the origin 
of the Pentateuch and Old Testament writ- 
ings generally, and for the iiTegulari ties as to 
matter and form, wc differ from him alto- 
gether. He tries to solve all the difficulties 
by assigning the task to a compiler after the 
Captivity. Surely his historical instinct has 
here led him Tastray. How or by whom the 
double or triple documents of the Pentateuch 
were welded into unity, has been a subject 
of inquiry from the time of the French phy- 
sician Astruc, 1758, to the present time, but 
however much critics differ as to this, all 
muFt agree that in Deuteronomy we have a 
different and younger narrator. The differ- 
ence is conspicuous and startling even in the 
English version. Hero we have a narrator 
competent, at all events, to act as redactor 
or compiler in the case of the other books. 
In 2 Kings xxii. 8, &c., we are told that Hil- 
kiah the prieat found tkelw>hofthe law in the 
home of the Lord, That this was more than 
the * two tables of stone,' as Dr. Giles intcr- 

Srets the designation (to such absurdity is he 
riven by his unhistorical position), and 
more even than Deuteronomy, is evident from 
the reforms introduced by Josiah. Deute- 
ronomy alone, much less the two tables, does 
not fulfil the conditions of the case. Be- 
sides, can we conceive it possible that the 
Jewish nation should paHS through the won- 
derful times of Samuel, David, and Solomon, 
without a Book of the Law in the most com- 
prehensive sense of the word 7 The argument 
derived from the language deserves but little 
consideration after what wo have already 
said. According to Dr. Giles, the Jews while 
in Egypt must have exchanged their own 
language for the Egyptian, and when they 
retum<^ to Canaan must have again changed 
their tongue. Kot neeeemrily^ and we should 



say, taking all the circumstances into ac- 
count, that they probably did not. We think 
Wales, with its language, reli^on, &c., forms 
a very exact analogy to the position of Israel 
in Goshen, and is a sufficient refutation of 
the assumption on this point. The compila- 
tion theory in our opinion utterly fails. In- 
deed, is it noc morally certain that if we had 
had a compiler capable of such a task, we 
should have had man^ if not most of the diffi- 
culties and irregulanties in the Old Testa- 
ment most effectually removed, and been able 
to trace his skilful hand with unerring certi- 
tude through the whole of the Jewish records. 
We have no space left for comment upon 
the second volume, dealing with Kew Testa- 
ment records. It is scarcely necessary, since 
tUe means for testing his conclusions are ready 
to hand in abundance. We shall only give 
his standpoint. That the books of the New 
Testament have a separate origin, ho says, 
applies only to the first two^centuries, before 
the canon was complete. They have an edi- 
tor to whom they owe their present form. 
Possibly the editor or editors may have copied 
without alteration these twenty-seven doca- 
ments, but possibly they did a great deal 
more, and it is to this that our author attri- 
butes all MS. variations, and the words and 
passages which have been proved to be inter- 
polations. All ^these difficulties come from 
editorial hands. To establish this, several 
contested arguments are advanced: e.g., that 
the New Testament was written wholly in 
Greek; that there are few or no Hebraisms in 
the New Testament (which few will admit) ; 
the silence of Josephus and Philo respecting 
Christianity, &c. After these assertions he 
proceeds to an examination of differences, dis- 
crepancies, &c., in the documents themselves. 
The conclusion he f draws is that the New 
Testament, as we have it, was put together in 
the latter half of the second .century, out of 
the ^Memorials of the Apostles' and the 
^ Sayings of our Lord,' both of which are 
named long before atty mention is made uf 
the present gospels or their .writers. The 
volume which we receive with so much rev- 
erence cannot, he contends, bo reasonably 
ascribed to an earlier period than the second 
century, ^ when it was impossible to trust 
any longer to tradition, ana to the loving 
voice of the companions and followers of the 
apostles.' Most of these points have been so 
recently and excellently traversed by West- 
cott and Lightfoot and Banday, that it woald 
be superfluous for us to recur to their discus* 
sion. The work will repay a careful perusal 
by an advanced student of these subjects, 
who seeks to become familiar with both sides 
of the Question. Had the work been pub- 
lished earlier in its complete form, it would 
have deservedly occnpieil a more prominent 
position in the ^discussion of these subjects, 
whereas at present a great portion of it has 
become antiquated. Henceforth its main 
value will consist in furnishing comprehen- 
sive but somewhat lengthy quotations from 
the different authorities appealed to on con- 
troverted points. 



1S78. 



CwUemporary Literature. 



153 



Pilnte^s Question, ' Whence art Thou f ' An 
Essay on the Personal Claims asserted by 
Jesus Christ, and hovr to account for them. 
By John Reknedt, M.A., D.D. Edin- 
burgh : David Douglas. 

The arguments for the supernatural char- 
acter and divinity of our Lord have a con- 
vergence and congruity that is simply irresist- 
ible. Whether the method be to approach 
Him'from without, and test His teachmg and 
character by His history and miracles, or to 
begin with His claims for Himself, and by 
them test His history and miracles, the moral 
harmony is so perfect that it is a stupendous 
miracle— the least difficult theory of which is 
that He is really what Christian men have as- 
sumed Him to be. 

Dr. Kennedy begins at the centre and 
works outwards to the circumference, witli- 
out, however, any undue assumptions as to 
the origin or character of the Gospels. He 
simply takes what Christ is represented assay- 
ing about Himself, and insists .that the con- 
ception thus embodied, with its minute har- 
monies and profound congruity, be accounted 
for. Having sufficiently stated the claim of 
Divine authority and sinlessness, as it 
may be gathered from the Gospels, Dr. Ken- 
nedy examines the proposed solutions of it. 
First, hypotheses involving conscious dishon- 
esty; of which he demonstrates the moral 
contradiction as being fatal to any theory 
w^hich adopts them. Secondly, hypotheses 
which assume that these claims originated in 
a later age ; under which he examines the va- 
rious chronological objections to the apostolic 
origin ofnlifferent books of the New Testa- 
ment. And, thirdly, the hypothesis that the 
claims said to have been asserted by Christ 
are original and true ; showing that He alone 
explains the Bible. The early recognition of 
Christ as Divine, the Messianic claim, and 
the entire history and character of Christ 
throughout, constitute an argument from 
congruity, and it is conducted with singular 
abibty, lucidity, and force. It is composed 
of so many lines of argument, and involves 
Buch subtle and innumerable touches of senti- 
ment, feeling, and ^assumption, as well ^as so 
many essential facts ; it is, moreover, so won- 
derfully maintained in every particular, in 
tone, in character, in mission, and in result, 
that of all arguments from final causes, it is 
the most unanswerable. Dr. Kennedy is calm 
and measured, and singularly fair in bis state- 
ments. He has allowed the appeal, if not 
/rom external evidences, yet to internal evi- 
dences, and has wrought out a demonstration 
that we are bold to say cannot be answered 
by opponents, and that will to friends be an 
invaluable assurance for ^themselves and rep- 
ertory for use with others. We would earn- 
estly urge young people especially that they 
master the contents of this able and timely 
little volume. It is an admirable handbook 
for classes. 

The Beginnings of ChriBtianity^ with a View 
of the State of the Roman World at the Birth 
of Christ, By Geokgb P. Fisher, D.D., 



Professor of Ecclesiastical History in Yale 
College, &c. New York : Scribner, Arm^ 
strong, and Co. 

Dr. Fisher is grateful to the modem scholar- 
ship of the extreme school of Baur for the 
light it has directly and indirectly thrown 
upon the apostolic age. With the aid of it 
he endeavours to grasp more adequately the 
great problems which agitated the early 
Church. After an introductory chapter of 
remarkable power, on the relation of Christi- 
anity to the Jewish and heathen religions, 
he shows by broad and grand touches how 
the Roman Empire had prepared the advent 
of a universal faith, by the unifying influence 
of its jurisprudence, and the wide diffusion 
of the Roman and Greek languages. He 
here, by the way, justifies a large part of Dr. 
Roberts^s thesis on the bilingual character of 
Palestine, without accepting the conclusion 
that our Lord spoke the Greek language. 
He thinks that Roman law and government 
had the tendency to evoke obscurely the idea 
of humanity as a whole. Buddhism might 
have been here credited with having prepared 
the Oriental mind for this sublime concep- 
tion. 

Dr. Fisher has given, in about two hun- 
dred pages of this instructive volume, a 
sketch of the popular religions of the Greeks 
and Romans, a view of the several systems 
of religious thought from Homer to Lucre- 
tins, and of successive philosophical and 
ethical ideas from the Ionian physiologists to 
the Stoics and Neo-Platonists. These re- 
views are well sustained by illustrative quo- 
tations and judicious remarks. The morals of 
the Roman Empire and heathen society are 
powerfully delineated, and tlie religious con- 
dition of Palestine at the time of Christ. 
This part of the review has been effected by 
other writers with greater fulness, but Dr. 
Fisher has touched upon almost every ele- 
ment of the subject with masterly hand. He 
has, moreover, eiven an estimate of t!ie New 
Testament writmgs, their value and I authen- 
ticity, with clear-headed impartiality, deal- 
ing in detail with the latest assault upon the 
Fourth Gospel, and on the authorship of the 
Acts of the Apos'les, by the author of 
* Supernatural Religion.' A very interesting 
chapter on the * wa*,er-marks ' of great and 
high antiquity in the New Testament histo- 
ries and epistles, is followed by a rapid re- 
view of the story of Christianity, of the plan 
of Jesus, of the rise, founding, and planting 
of the Christian Church. Some of the ground 
traversed by the author in his * Supernatural 
Origin of Christianity ' is recapitulated, but 
the volume as a whole covers a different area, 
and is characterized by the author's sobriety 
of judgment, force of expression, and clear 
and emphatic conviction of the truth fas it is 
in Christ Jesus. By all this modem mvesti- 
gation — ^both friendly and hostile — of a 
notable period of human activity, it is prob- 
able that before long we shall have a clearer 
conception of the various sources and currents 
of religious and moral thought of the first 
and second century than was possessed by 



154 



Contemporary Literature. 



San. 



the contemporaries of the apodtles themselves, 
and a more vivid evidence than even they 
possessed of the surpassing and supreme sig- 
nificance of the Kew Creation inaugurated by 
God manifest in the flesh. 

Studies in the Phihiophy of Religion and Ilis- 
lory. By A. M. Faibbairn. W. Mullan 
and Son. 

The contents of this volume are correctly 
described by the author as * studies.' They 
are evidently tlie fruit of much thought and 
research, but they unfold problems and sug- 
gest further inquiries, rather than exhaustive- 
ly occupy any distinct field of investigation. 
This is in a great measure due to the char- 
acter of the subjects dealt with. Many scat- 
tered attempts have been made to found a 
' philosophy of religion ;' and a ^ philosophy 
01 history ' may be almost said to have as- 
sumed a place among distinct scientific in- 
quiries. The treatment, however, of religion 
scientifically, was impossible until fuller light 
had been thrown upon many cognate lines of 
inquiry than up till very lately was available. 
Essays on the philosophy of religion there 
have been in abundance ; and from the tran- 
scendental point of view we [have had de- 
ductive exercitations which showed the 
ingenuity of the philosopher, and performed 
marvellous feats in the way of ^ reconciling 
contradictions.' These [attempts have gen- 
erally failed in yielding satisfactory results 
because they were one-sidedly speculative, 
neglecting the historical factors in the case, 
without which a science of religion is impos- 
sible. Bchelling — to whom the author of this 
volume is evidently Very largely indebted — 
has remained almost alone in the attempt to 
unite the two processes of induction and de- 
duction ; but valuable as the results attained 
in his * Philosophy of Mythology and Philoso- 
phy of Revelation ' are, they are more to be 
esteemed for the individual lights which his 
penetrative insight was able to descry, than 
for the systematic whole which they offer to us. 
Mr. Fairbairn has brought to bear on the 
discussion of the matters with which he deals 
a high degree of philosophical culture and 
much independence and lucidity of thought. 
He is familiar with all the main lines of spec- 
ulative thought, and ho is gifted at the same 
time with the sobriety of temper which is 
characteristic of the best scientific inquirers 
of our time. Bringing these qualities to bear 
upon the high matters with which a philoso- 
phy of religion must deal, he shows us the 
directions in which inquiry in these lines — to 
be profitable — must proceed in the future. 
To have done so much is no small * prelimi- 
nary ' contribution to a complete science. 

The questions in religion which are here 
handled are the two essential and fundamental 
ones — God and Immortality; while in the 
philosophy * of history we have a series of 
essays on ' The Place of tthe Indo- European 
and Semitic Races in History,' treated in 
their various inter-relations in civilization, 
in religion,' and in literature and philosophy. 
It will be evident from this statement that 



the book before us deals with two separate 
and distinct lines of investigation, both of 
which are necessary branches of a science of 
religion, but which neve]*theless are in their 
own nature independent of each other. By 
this mode of treatment we are enabled to see 
to some extent the limits which the subject 
assumes in the mind of the writer. And this 
disclosure will create in all thoughtful read- 
ers the desire that Mr. Fairbairn should fill 
up the outline which he has traced out, more 
or less dimly, by giving us a complete work 
dealing systematically with the speculative 
and historical elements In Theism, and con- 
necting the development of the theistic idea 
with the various historical changes in the de- 
velopment of thought, and with the specific 
elements contributed by each of the principal 
branches' of the family of Inankind. Full of 
interesting reflection ^and inquiry as'* are the 
two essays on the Genesis and Development 
of the idea of God afld on Theism and Scien- 
tific Speculation, they only (to our thinking) 
indicate the lines along which we should ex- 
pect Mr. Fairbairn will be able to lead us. 
W hen a distinction is established between the 
philosophical and the reli^ous ideas of God ; 
when we are made to see that in the latter 
there are elements which are not accounted 
for and could never be originated by the 
former, we are brought face to face with a 
problem which is not solved by establishing 
the facts. To give the religious and the 
philosophical consciousness their respective 
rights, without yielding to the one what is 
peculiar to the other, takes us only a certain 
length in the evolvement of a science of re- 
ligion. I Reconciliation must follow [separa- 
tion, and the unity of our nature must not 
be sacrificed in order to maintain the reality 
of its distii^ct elements. We have a similar 
problem evolving itself in the essay on Immor- 
tality. And when we come to the more dis- 
tinctively philosophic historical portion of 
the volume, we find a whole series ojf prob- 
lems suggesting themselves as arising out of 
the treatment given to religious ideas by the 
different branches of the human family in 
their varying historical developments. 

This being the character of [the work be- 
fore us, we feel that we need make no apology 
for not criticising its contents more closely 
after the ordinary fashion. "We cannot re- 
gard it as anything but an instalment, and as 
such we gladly welcome it. Never more 
than now did Christian culture stand in need 
of thinkers who have scaled the heights of 
philosophy without losing in the process the 
realities with which a Christian philosophy 
ought to deal. Mr. Fairbairn is such a 
thinker. Combining a high degree of meta- 
physical acumen with varied philosophic 
knowledge, he is yet inspired by the veritable 
genesis of Christian thought. From such a 
combination we are warranted in looking for 
much good fruit in the future. 

The Bible Rec4)rd of Creation. True for every 
Age. By P. W. Grant. Hodder and 
Stoughton. 



1878. 



Contemporary Literature. 



155 



All thoughtful biblical students will attri- 
bute a high value to this book, whether they 
agree with the author and accept his theory 
of interpretation, or not. The main object 
he has set before him — as the title of the work 
indicates — is to show how tlio record of crea- 
tion in tbe early chapters of the Book of Gen- 
esis may be interpreted, without doing vio- 
lence to the sacred narrative, so as to be in 
harmony with whatever results regarding the 
mode and the time of creation may be dis- 
covered for us by science. Nothing short of 
this will enable us to claim the Bible narra- 
tive as true for all ages, and yet how is it 
possible, it may be asked, to imagine such a 
method of interpretation ? It is not, we 
hardly need say, by falling back on the old 
view put forward by Chalmers and others, of 
an indefinitely long period of chaos following 
upon the original act of creation, as described 
iu the first verse of the first chapter, or by 
keeping the first verse distinct in regard to 
the period it indicates from the succeeding 
verses. Nor is it by adopting the later view 
of a series of ages, during which tbe succes- 
sive creative periods were represented as so 
many days, so that the narrative in G-enesis is 
out of connection as it were with time. Each 
of these views has had able expositors and 
defendants, but Mr. Grant does not accept 
either. He has set forth a distinctive and 
original, yet when explained a sufficiently 
simple ^principle;' and he is confident that 
its application will suffice to meet all objec- 
tions to the Bible record of a purely scientific 
nature that can ever be brought forward. 
Viewing the three first chapters of the Book 
of Genesis as ^ The Inspired Introduction to 
the Inspired History of Redemption,' and the 
Bible as therefore an organic whole, or even 
an evolution of the introduction, the author 
proceeds to expound the idea that the order 
in which the creative works are recorded in 
the narrative was not intended to reveal tbe 
order of physical development. Science, or 
geology, reveals the order of succession or 
temporal order, but that is absolutely ex- 
cluded from the designs of the Scripture re- 
cord's delineation. The object of the analysis 
and examination of the Bible narrative which 
follows is to prove that this is so. The idea 
at the construction or erection of a home for 
the human family underlies the whole account 
and determined its form, and in order to be 
brief it had to be general, without details and 
without any description of the temporal order 
of the individual parts. The whole is pre- 
sented in the simplest manner, and as it were 
in pictorial form. For the manner in which 
tbe author ingeniously applies his theory we 
must refer to his book. The whole merit of 
the work is in its detailed application, and 
we arc convinced that the candid reader will 
feel grateful to the writer for the natural and 
simple fashion in which he leads him to see 
the harmony tliere is between Science and 
Kevelation in that very region in which we 
have been most often told there is palpable 
contradiction. 



The Origin of the World according to Revdor 
tion and Science, By J. W. Dawson, 
LL.D., &c. Hodder and Stoughlon. 

This work is to be welcomed as the produc- 
tion of a careful and competent thinker, well 
versed in the various branches of scientific in- 
quiry which ^bear upon the question of the 
origin of the world and of the human family, 
who has reconciled the \ revelations ' of sci- 
ence and the Bible. He does not come to his 
task as a novice. Dr. Dawson is Principal 
and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University, 
Montreal, and has written various works ^on 
cognate subjects. Nor is this altogether a 
new work. It is identical in scope with 
' Archaia,' published in 1860; but^the writer 
says that in attempting to prepare a new edi- 
tion of the former, brought up to the present 
condition of the subject, it was found that so 
much required to be rewritten as to make it a 
new book, and therefore he determined to 
give it a n^w name, more clearly indicating 
its character and purpose. There is nothing 
that is absolutely novel in the plan and lines 
of inquiry that are here followed, as may be 
seen from the fact that Dr. Dawson avowedly 
applies to the interpretation of the first chap- 
ter of the Book of Genesis the principles that 
were expounded by Dr. McCaul in his essay 
on the Mosaic record of Creation in the ' Aids 
to Faith.' Whether this view is the final 
outcome of science and criticism, we do not 
here discuss ; but in this volume we have 
what may be called the ordinary ^ orthodox * 
view set forth with clearness and conspicuous 
fairness. The author does not take his stand 
u^on any dogmatic foundations, or begin 
with the assumption of .the truth of every- 
thing which he ought to prove in the course 
of his investigations. The light thrown by 
revelation upon origins is in some respects 
mysterious, but it has left traces of its influ- 
ence, not only .upon the Semitic, but also 
upon other branches of the family of man- 
kind ; and the scattered rays that may bo 
caught up in irarious quarters all help to con- 
firm the truth of the revelation in the Bible. 
Dr. Dawson has called special attention to 
the barrier of scientific fact and induction 
which has been ^lately slowly rising to stem 
the current of crude and rash hypothesis.- 
Among these, he names the great discoveries 
as to the physical constitution and probable 
origin of the universe; the doctrine of the 
correlation and conservation of forces; the 
new estimates of the age of the eaith; the 
overthrow of the doctrine of spontaneous 
generation; the high bodily and mental type 
of the earliest known man ; the light which 
philology has thrown on the unity of lan- 
guage ; our growing knowledge of the uni- 
formity of the construction and other habits 
of primitive men, and of the condition of 
man in tbe earlier ^historic time ; the [greater 
completeness of our conceptions as to the 
phenomena of life and their relation to organ- 
izable matter — all these and various other re- 
cent aspects and results of science are brought 



166 



Contemporary Literature, 



Jan. 



to elacidate the Scripture revel atiOD of 
orij^ns, while the evidence for the nnity and 
antiquity of man is presented in its most 
modern form, and so as to contradict the wild 
views that are so prevalent. 

NeiD LigliU upon Old Linoa ; or, Vexed Quea- 
tions in Theological Controversy at the Pres- 
ent Day^ Critically and Exegetieally Discuss ' 
ed. By Thomas Monck Mason, B.A., 
T.C.D. James Nisbet and Co. 

The author of this scheme grapples with 
fourteen of the most knotty questions in criti- 
cal and ecclesiastical theology, and reveals, 
on the old lines of exegetical inquiry, very 
considerable ability and knowledge. He has 
the courage of his evangelical faith, and little 
patience with the method, now very fashion- 
able, of seeing lines of truth in all directions 
and on both sides of a controversy. To bim 
one side is wrong and the other right, and he 
cannot accept lame and dubious compromises. 
He does not hesitate to take full advantage 
of emendations of the text and version of the 
New Testament which have been suggested 
by competent scholars, and he displays much 
tact and skill in the use of them. He 
arranges all testimonies of Scripture that are 
apparently adverse to his view of the Gospel, 
of the Church, of Red em p tion, of baptismal 
ablution, baptismal regeneration, justification, 
ministerial absolution, and the like, with 
great fairness, and disposes of the arguments 
and objections in the spirit of true exegetical 
science. The reasoning is well knit together, 
and the logical coherence is remarkable. 
The style is free from obscurity, although the 
arguments are condensed. The position is 
that of an orthodox Evangelical Protestant, 
whoso outspoken repudiation of Arminian 
compromises and High Church pretensions 
now and then lead him to the verge of intol- 
erance. The volume is the very opposite 
of namby-pamb3*ism, and the author knows 
and says what he means, and, though we 
differ from a few of his conclusions, we 
heartily thank him for his work. 

iVlntf Lectures on Preaching. Delivered at 
Yale, New Haven, Connecticut. By R. W. 
Dal£, M.A., Birmingham. Hoddcr and 
Stoughton. 

The difficulties of the Lyman Beecher 
Lecturer increase with the multiplication of 
the lectures. Although the work of the 
Christian preacher is manifold, and touches 
the religious life at almost every point of its 
faith and experience and work, it must be 
dealt with in its character as a ministry. The 
lecturer must discuss not so much the things 
as the ministry of them, and in the very 
nature of things all possible novelties of topic 
and treatment are very soon exhausted, and 
for the lecturer as for the religious preacher 
there will remain only the reassert ion of 
^ell-known and well-urged truths. With the 
lecturer, however, as with the preacher, 
where there is individual thought and force, 
there will always be freshness of treatment. 

Mr. Dale, wlio is the fifth or sixth lecturer. 



solves the difficulty by neither seeking nov- 
elty nor avoiding commonplace, but by ad- 
dressing himself m a simple manly way to the 
salient points of the preacher's work, and 
saying concerning them simply what occnis 
to him to say, without being careful whether 
it has been said before or not. The result is 
a volume of singular freshness, suggestive- 
ness, and beauty. The lectures are a direct, 
cogent, and practical talk, upon a high and 
eloquent conversational level, about 'The 
Penis of Young Preachers,' ' The Intellect in 
Relation to Preaching,' 'Reading,' *The 
Preparation of Sermons,' * Extemporaneous 
Preaching and Style,' •Evangelistic Preach- 
ing,' 'Pastoral Preaching,' and *The Con- 
duct of Public Worship ;' in themselves well- 
worn topics, like many others that have to be 
constantly urged, but in their treatment full 
of intellectual strength, penetrating insight, 
broad and varied culture, and singularly 
spiritual and elevated in their aims. The 
great function and ideal of preaching is kept 
before (his hearers, and it is urged with a 
warmth and tenderness of religious feelinp^, 
and a practical common sense, which, m 
their not very common combination, give a 
singular value to the lecture. Almost every 
Dage would furnish matter for quotation or 
suggestion for criticism, but to venture upon 
eitlier would demand much more space tnan 
we can command. We may instance as 
specially valuable the Lectures on Reading 
and the remarks on the Ethics of Style. We 
do not hesitate to say, that numerous and 
valuable as have been the works on Homi- 
letics, and penetrating and eloquent as were 
the lectures of the first incumbent of the Ly- 
man Beecher Lectureship, Mr. Dale's volume, 
conceived in the light of modem require- 
ments, and bathed in the atmosphere of mod- 
ern feeling, characterized moreover by a catho- 
licity that fits them equally for every church 
in which Christ is preached, will be as useful 
and suggestive to the young preacher as any 
manual that has come under our notice. It 
is a volume of rare richness, manliness, and 
eloquence. 

History cf Materialism^ and Critititm of its 
Present Importance. By F. A. Lanob. 
Translated by £. C. Thomas. Three Vols. 
Vol. I. Triibner and Co. 

This is the first volume of ^lessrs. TrQbner 
and Co.*8 new scries, *The English and 
Foreign Philosophical Library.' It seems 
odd to begin a series which, from its title, 
ought to be composed largely, though not 
necessarilv exclusively, of inde|>endent 
works, with a translation. The im|)ortaoce 
of the work in this instance, however, may 
justify the arrangement. Lange*s ^History 
of Materialism ' has attained the rank in Ger- 
many of a standard lK)ok, and repeated ref- 
erences to it by well-known English writers 
of recognized authority have excited a good 
deal of interest in regard to it in our own 
country. Professor Huxley and Dr. Tyndall, 
in particular, have spoken of it with so mudi 
respect and admiration that its translation 



18 18. 



Contemporary Literatwe. 



157 



into English has been looked lor with an un- 
ueaal degree of expectancy. So far as the 
translator's work is concerned, we may say, in 
a word, that it has been admirably done. 
Saccess in translating philosophical German 
into English mast always be a relative term, 
as those best know who have made the at- 
tempt to evade or overcome the difficulties 
of the task. It would be flattery, of which 
the translator in this case would probably be 
the first to discern the hollowness, to say that 
in every instance he has succeeded in either 
meeting or eluding these difficulties ; but he 
hafl> produced a thoroughly readable work, 
faithful to the pirit and genius of the origi- 
nal, as well as trustworthy and accurate in 
its rendering. To have accomplished this 
much is a creditable achievement. Regard- 
ing the merits] of the work itself, it is im- 
possible [to give a satisfactory opinion from 
the instalment which alone we have yet ob- 
tained in English. The two volumes of the 
original haveibeen distributed into three in 
the translation. The first deals with Mate- 
rialism in antiquity, and traces the history of 
the opinions designated by the name onwards 
through * the period of transition ' down to 
the end of the seventeenth century in England. 
The second volume will follow the great ma- 
terialistic movement of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and trace out its influence and bearings 
upon modern philosophy. Finally, in the 
third volume, we shall have a criticism and 
an estimate fixing (we presume) the * present 
importance ' of Materialism in relation to the 
leading problems of modem thought. We 
are promised much interesting discussion un- 
der the three heads of * The Natural Sciences, * 
^Man and the Soul,' and 'Morality and Re- 
ligion.' 

For the present, the work in the instalment 
before us is ]:$urely historical. The author is 
distinguished by a general spirit of impartial- 
ity (free, on the whole, from party bias) which 
pervades the book, as well as by the fulness 
of his knowledge and the maturity of his re- 
flective genius. The value of his work is not 
diminished but increased by the fact that it 
is obviously written with constant reference 
to the problems and questions now or recently 
under discussion in Germany and to the 
forms of speculation current there. We shall 
be better able to judge by and by how far the 
translator is right in estimating the whole 
work as on the one side an assertion of the 
materialistic standpoint against the philoso- 
phy of mere * notions,' and on the other of 
the t Kantian or Neo-Kantian standpoint 
against both. So far as we are yet able to 
judge, however, it seems to us as if Lange's 
impartiality did not reach so far as to hold 
the balance even '}etween both. He appears 
to distinctly tend towards the materialistic 
point of view, and we shall be glad to find 
that this is subsequently corrected by the 
admission of the claims of an enlightened 
spiritualism, without which we hold it. im- 
possible to account for the actual facts with 
which philosophical thought must deal. In 
the mean time, it is but right to add that the 



historical materials illustrating the course of 
thought in antiquity have the value which 
might be expected from the researches of so 
thorough and comprehensive an inquirer as 
Dr. Lange was. A biographical notice of 
the author is prefixed to the work by the 
translator. 

A New Testament Commentary for English 
Readers. By Various Writers. Edited by 
Charles John Ellicott, D.D., Bishop of 
Gloucester and Bristol. Vol. I. The Gos- 
pel according to St. Matthew, St. Mark, 
and St. Luke, by the Rev. E. H. Plumptre, 
B.D. ; the Gospel according to St. John, 
by the Rev. H. W". Watkins, M.A. Cassell, 
Fetter, and Galpin. 

This is a textual commentary :or general 
readers, based upon a far more accurate and 
general scholarship than has hitherto been 
devoted to such works. In most of the popu- 
lar commentaries of which that of Albert 
Barnes is the type, while the scholarship may 
have been respectable, it has not been such 
as to carry independent authority, but has 
been, derived from the authority of others. 
It has therefore often been at fault, and es- 
pecially has it been beguiled into homiletical 
and devotional uses, often regardless of exact 
meanings. This is a work by thorough 
scholars and careful exegetes, intended for 
the use of those unable to read the sacred 
text in its original languages, and to put 
them in possession of its exact sense, at 
the same time carefully maintaiuing that 
liigher exegesis than any mere grammatical 
analysis can supply — the development and 
exhibition of the inner life and meaning of 
the sacred writers. The text exists for the 
meaning, and it is here wisely anc* effectively 
elucidated simply to bring out the meaning. 

The reputation as a scholarly and reverent 
expositor of Scripture which Dr. Plumptre 
has attained is a sufincient guarantee of the 
character of his exposition of the Synoptic 
Gospels. A man of thoroughly catholic and 
devout spirit, his elucidations are as free from 
bias as it is perhaps possible for any man co 
be. Fully acquainted with the critical diffi- 
culties which jierplex intelligent minds, he 
shows himself a sympathetic interpreter, while 
avoiding the error of polemics. His expo- 
sitions are given in the light of critical ob- 
jection, rather than in formal reply to them. 
No man can expound the Gospels without 
adopting views from which some will dissent. 
A commentary to which any competent critic 
could not take some exception, especially as 
to meanings, would be a miracle. The stand- 
point of Dr. Plumptre as a liberal and, at the 
same time, a reverent scholar and interpreter, 
will sufficiently indicate his general views. 
And these are set forth succinctly, clearly, 
and modestly. Mr. Watkins is less known 
as a biblical scholar, but his very able Intro- 
duction to the Gospel of John, and the seven 
excursuses appended to it, in which he wisely 
touches various points concerning the Fourth 
Gospel which are just now discussed, justify 
his selection for this task of great difficulty 



158 



Contemporary Xfiterature. 



Jan. 1878w 



and responsibility.. The spiritual insight 
and vigour of his exposition are a distinct 
gfdn to the commentaries on this the most 
spiritual of the Gospels. 

We had noted several points for comment, 
but must content ourselves with a general 
commendation of what promises to be a very 
valuable work. 

The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and 
New Testaments, with nearly Nine Hun- 
dred Illustrations from Authentic Sources. 
Cassell, Petter, and Qalpin. 

Messrs. Cassell have published what they 
call their * half-guinea Bible,' a well-printed 
text in double columns, with marginal refe- 
rences, and illustrated with clear, well-exe- 
cuted original engravings, from photographs 
chiefly of the Palestine Exploration Series, 
and from other authentic sources, the merit of 
which is that artistic conventionalisms are 
excluded, and we have exact ideas of things 



and places represented to us. An Illustrated 
Bible |for -half-a-guinea is something new in 
publishing '. enterprize. It is a marvel of 
cheapness and bMOty. 

The Superhuman Origin of the Bible inferred 
from Iteelf, The Congregational Lecture 
for 1878. By Henby HooERs. Fifth Edi- 
tion. Hodder and Stoughton. 

That Professor Rogers^s Lecture should 
have passed into a fifth edition, is very satis- 
factory proof of both its fitness and power. 
Few men were more qualified to deaf with 
the special line of evidence which he here 
pursues, or tu work out the intellectual and 
moral proof from coincidence and congmity 
so skilfully and eloquently as he has done 
here. He has gathered into this* volume 
some of the best thinking of a lifetime, and 
some of his best professorial work. Books 
like this are not made, they grow; and when 
BO grown, they tiike a permanent place in 
literature. 



. TUE 



BRITISH QUARTERLY REVIEW. 



FOR APRIL, 1878. 



Art. L—The First Ten Years of the Ca- 
^nadian Dominion. 

On the first of July last tho Dominion of 
Canada entered on the second decade of its 
existence. A natnral opportunity is thus 
presented for reviewing its brief history, and 
the success of its effort to solve the political 
problems to the pressure of which it owed 
its origin. Such a review will be found to 
be hot without interest to the student of po- 
litical science, especially in England, for 
Canada exhibits the British Constitution un- 
der a peculiar set of circumstances, by which 
its operation is modified in a way that is at 
once interesting and important. Even before 
the formation of the Dominion the Canadian 
colonies had excited interest among British 
statesmen by successfully grappling with 
some problems, like that of a State Qiurch, 
which formed a burden rather than an advan- 
tage of the inheritance received from the mo- 
ther country ; but since the confederation of 
the colonies, ten years ago, their political 
transactions have risen in imperial signifi- 
cance. The neighbourhood of Canada to the 
United States, and the intimate commercial 
and social relations which that neighbourhood 
entails, have 9]ready brought, and must con- 
tinue to bring, the affairs of the Dominion 
before the Imperial Government in a way 
that is sometimes more important than pleas- 
ant ; while, among themselves, the Canadi- 
ans are now facing the storm and stress of 
conflicts which, even in the varied political 
history of England, have not been com- 
pletely fought out, and may therefore be 
forced upon her yet. 

It may not be unnecessary to remind 
some readers that, previously to 1867, the 
British American provinces stood to each 
other practically in the relation of foreign 

TOU LXVII. B— -11 



countries. Governed by wholly independ- 
ent legislatures, separated by dissimilar 
tariffs, they were united only by the unob- 
trusive bond of a common dependence on 
the Imperial Government of Great Britain. 
Political thinkers who were liberal enough 
to be influenced by other considerations than 
the party questions of the hour, saw that 
such relations were indisputably hostile to 
the interest of all the provinces concerned, 
which could hope for a position of im- 
portance on the American continent only 
by such unrestricted commercial and social 
intercourse as might ultimately weld them 
into one people. It was evidently also in 
the interest of the Imperial Government that 
the colonial minister in London, instead of 
being obliged to deal with a number of petty 
states, should be able to correspond with a 
single government representative of them all. 
But the circumstances which led immediately 
to the confederation of the British American^ 

Provinces cannot be understood without a 
rief reference to the previous history of 
Canada. 

When Canada was ceded to Great Britain 
it was all embl^ced under one province, ex- 
tending somewhat indefinitely into the West, 
and known by the name of the province of 
Quebec. In 1791 the western section of 
the province, which had meanwhile been pop- 
ulated by English settlers, was separated 
into an independent province, with British 
institutions, while the eastern section con- 
tinued to retain its original French charac- 
ter. These two provinces, of Upper Canada 
or Canada West, and Lower Canada or Can- 
ada East, remained separate till 1840, when 
they were united into one province, styled the 
Province of Canada, in the hope of allaying 
the political discontent which had culminated 
in tne rebellion of 1837. In this province. 



160 



77ie Mrst Ten, Years of the Canadian Dominion. 



April, 



down jtill the period of confederation, ten 
years ago, politicians had been divided into 
two parties, one of which was distinguished 
by the name of Conservatives , whUe their 
opponents were known as Liberals or Re- 
formersy though commonly dubbed, in more 
familiar style, Clear Grits in Upper Canada, 
and Rouges among the French of the Lower 
Province. The history of the struggle be- 
tween these two parties may be read still 
with a little more than ordinary human per- 
severaBce, but bir no human iJ[ltelUg^Ilce fan. 
it be comprehended. . Its incompreliensibifity ' 
does not indeed arise from the absence of any 
question sufficient to call the political com- 
batants to anns, for at times there was a 
measure of solid importance flaunted by one 
of the parties as a standard round which its 
forces rallied. But even in such cases it is 
impossible to see why the measure should 
have been taken under protection by its ad- 
vocates rather than by its opponents. The 
student of the period, whose imagination 
cannot now be fired by the heat of its burnt- 
out passions, fails, even after patient investi- 
gation, to discover any general principle 
which uniformly inspired either party, and 
breathed a soul into the particular measures 
for which it fought. The rapidly changing 
administrations of those years show, at this 
•distance, a scene not unlike a well-known 
juvenile sport, in which boys divide them- 
•selves into two sets, for the mere enjoyment 
.of a tug against each other^s strength, and, 
-after one set is victorious, divide themselves 
jigain and again till they get worn out. Un- 
fortunately in contests of this kind, blood- 
Jess though they be, mere mortals, unlike 
ihc ghostly heroes of Walhalla, do at last 
become eidiausted. This exhaustion came 
.all tkc more naturally upon the combatants 
in the political arena of Old Canada, owing 
Xo tlte circumstance that for some time 
•neither party was cheered by any decisive 
victory. In truth, their struggles assumed 
,a serio-comic aspect at times, as one admin- 
istration after another attempted to carry on 
the buskiQss of the country by a majority 
which occasionally reduced itself to a unit, 
.and was Jikely to become a vanishing frac- 
.tion or a minus quantity whenever a test 
.question was pressed to a decision. Can we 
wonder that in these circumstances both 
parties at last laid down their anns in de- 
.spair, and .sought a peaceful settlement of 
ctheir quarrels ? 

Looking from our passionless distance at 
.those old eon^icts, one may reasonably ques- 
.tion whether the political system of the pro- 
vince was not less to blame for their fruit- 
iless perpetuation than the incompetence of 
.the polemical politicians by whom they were 



carried on. But however this may be, the 
fault of the deadlock between the two par- 
ties vras charged by the politicians, not on 
themselves, but on the political arrangement 
by which the two Canadas were united. 
As a result of this, a coalition was 
formed for the purj^se of breaking up 
the union of the two Canadas, and merg- 
ing them separately in a larger confedera- 
tion of the British American provinces. 
After a considerable amount of preliminary 
negotUtion^ matters werc^ si^Ojficiitjy. ad- 
virncod in 3866 to idtnit of dftlegat^es lleing 
appointed from the different provinces to 
confer on the terms of confederation. The 
delegates met in London, and the result of 
their deliberations wa^ the British North 
America Act, passed by the Imperial Parlia- 
ment, 29th March, 1867. On the first of 
July in that year a proclamation of the Queen 
ushered the young confederacy into exist- 
ence ; and the waste of gunpowder, the de- 
struction of maple branches, tfie display of 
dry goods in bunting and fashionable attire, 
showed it to be a festival on which the Ca- 
nadians kept high holiday. Since that 
time the First of July — Dominion Day as it 
is called — has formed, among the Canadians, 
a rival to the great holiday of the Fourtli 
among their American neighbours. Whether 
the day will hold its place or not, who can 
tell ? The explosion of tons of gunpowder 
In pyrotechnic exhibitions, and/eiu; dejoie, 
and salvoes of artillery, will not make the 
baptism of fire by which a people announcfis 
that it has been bom into the family of the 
nations. 

At the formation of the confederacy it 
embraced only four provinces — Upper Can- 
ada, under the new name of Ontario ; Lower 
Canada, under that of Quebec ; Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick, under their old names. 
Since then the provinces of Prince Edward 
Island in the east, and of British Columbia 
in the west, have joined the Dominion ; 
while the * Great Lone Land ' in the north- 
west has been acquired by buying up the 
rights of the Iludson's Bay Company, and 
already a portion of it set apart as the Prov- 
ince of Manitoba. The whole of British 
North America is tluis included in the Do- 
minion, with the exception of Newfoundland, 
which thus, literally and figuratively, re- 
mains out in the cold. The political con- 
stitution of the Dominion, as well as of the 
seven provinces which now compose it, is in 
all essential . respects a reproduction of the 
British Constitution. Thq only exception is 
in the case of Ontario and Manitol>a, the 
f onner having from the first contented itself 
with one legislative chamber, while the lat- 
ter, for economy's sake, has since followed 



1878. 



Jhe First Ten Years of the Canadian Dominion. 



161 



her example. Recently a proposal has been 
revived to unite under one provincial gov- 
ernment the three maritime provinces of 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince 
Edward Island. It is to be hoped that this 
proposal may be carried. Neither of these 
provinces by itself holds the position which 
its people should be ambitious of attaining 
in the Dominion ; while they entail upon 
themselves an enormous useless expenditure 
by supporting three governments, each with 
a paid lieutenant-governor, a paid cabinet, 
and two legislative bodies, whose members 
are paid. As one province, they might 
cope with Quebec or Ontario ; with a single 
government they would have a large surplus 
revenue to expend in developing tSeir natu- 
ral resources ; while their legislative cham- 
ber or chambers would attain a dignity 
which is hopeless while they attempt to in- 
vest the petty politics of a narrow sphere 
with the pomp of imperial ceremonies. 

Such were the political arrangements with 
which the Canadians entered on the new at- 
tempt to solve the problems of their national 
life. Tlie political outlook was certainly 
cheering. The old factions had forgotten 
their interminable struggles for office, and 
there seemed to be opened up to them the 
nobler destiny of working together, and 
along with their new fellow-countrymen from 
the other provinces, in building up a great na- 
tion along the north of the American conti- 
nent. This was evidently the interpretation 
of the position formed by the majority of 
thinking men throughout Canada, and it 
was the interpretation on which the Govern- 
ment of the new Dominion began to be 
formed. 

In the selection of a prime minister the 
governor-general was guided by an equally 
obvious and just consideration. At the 
conference of colonial delegates in London, 
by whom the details of the Confederation 
Act were arranged, the chair had been occu- 
pied by Sir John A. Macdonald, who had 
long been leader of the Conservative party 
in the old Province o^ Canada. The posi- 
tion to which he had thus been raised by his 
fellow-delegates was a fair indication of the 
position which he held among the public 
men of Canada, and the •governor-general 
therefore naturally called upon him to as- 
sume the dutie9 of the first premier, and to 
form the first Govem^ient of the new Do- 
minion. In the perfonnancje of this task 
Sir John Macdonald acted on the under- 
standing that the coalition out of ; which the 
confederation arose would be continued still, 
in order to overcome any difficalties which 
might arise in getting the new ship of the 
State fairly off the stocks. Accordingly he 



invited prominent Reformers as well as Con- 
servatives to accept office in his cabinet, his 
intention being that, as far as the Provinces 
of Quebec and Ontario were concerned, his 
Government should represent equally both 
of the old parties. His invitation was ac- 
cepted by several of the leading men among 
his old opponents, and there seemed a fair 
prospect that one great object of the con- 
federation was to be accomplished — ^that the 
bells which rang in the first Dominion Day 
would ring out the *" ancient forms of party 
strife. ' 

But the spirit of the old factions died 
hard. The calm which preceded the Hrth 
of the new constitution was but the prelude 
to a stormful party fight. Some time be- 
fore, indeed, an incident had occurred of ill 
omen for the success of the coalition, which 
was seeking to merge the political differences 
of the past in a larger sphere of future work. 
While the coalition was maturing its plans, 
one of its members, the Hon. George Brown, 
suddenly resigned his portfolio, without any 
definite indication of the reason which led 
him to abandon his colleagues. Mr. Brown 
had long been a recognized leader of the 
Reform party, and, therefore, one of the 
chief opponents of the new premier, Sir 
John Macdonald. Ilis action necessarily 
excited a feeling of uneasiness at the time, 
and seemed to receive its explanation after- 
wards, when the writs for the first general 
election were issued, and Mr. Brown expli- 
citly declared the policy he intended to 
adopt under the altered circumstances of the 
country. 

Sir John Macdonald had succeeded in 
forming a cabinet fairly representing the 
parties of the old Province of Clanada, as 
well as the other provinces of the Dominion. 
To Mr. Brown it was a sufficient objection 
to the ministry that its head was his old po- 
litical foe. His friends of the Reform 
party, who had accepted office, became 
thereby in his eyes renegades from the cause 
of Reform ^ 2md if any one urged that it 
was unfair to attack the new administration 
before its policy was known, the answer was 
ready, that the only safe government is by 
parties, and that it would be hazardous to 
the interests of the new Dominion if its 
Government were unwatched and unchecked 
by a regularly organized opposition. 

Mr. Brown has had the advantage, dur- 
ing the greater part of his public career, of 
possessing, as an exponent of his opinions, 
the most popular newspaper in Canada. 
About these opinions it is evident that he is 
thoroughly in earnest : he acts and spealis 
with the passion of intense conviction. Yet 
with every allowance for the earnestness of 



162 



The Tirst Ten Years of the Canadian Dominion, 



April, 



his intentions, and in view of all that his 
oi^an had to say in defence of his position 
at this crisis, we cannot but r^ard that posi- 
tion as involving a political blunder or the 
most serious nature. £ven from his own point 
of view, was it legitimate to let the govern- 
ment of the country slip from the hands of 
his party, to fall under the control of poli- 
ticians whose principles were worthy of be- 
ing denounced in the passionate language 
which he uniformly employs ? He had, at 
the time, not only a right to demand for his 
party an equal share with his opponents in 
the administration of public affairs, but he 
had also an opportunity offered by the pre- 
mier of asserting that right. To demand 
that his party should exercise no influence 
on the business of the country beyond that 
which proceeds from the opposition benches, 
when tney had the right and power of con- 
trolling the Treasury, seemed to many to 
involve a betrayal, not only of the interests 
of party, but of the more sacred interests 
of the whole people. 

But the history of the formation of the 
Dominion was meaningless if Mr. Brown's 
position was justifiable. By common con- 
sent the new confederation was to drown 
in a flood of wider sympathies the arbitrary 
landmarks by which the old parties had 
been separated. Yet here was a proposal 
that the confederation should start on its 
young career by instituting a division of par- 
ties, which, as the nature of the case im- 
plied, was demanded, not by the inevitable 
antagonism of political measures, but simply 
for the sake of having a division ; for the 
only justiflcation of Mr. Brown's position 
lay in his plea of the absolute indispensabil- 
ity of parties in the good 'government of a 
country. Let us speak with the most 
generous acknowledgment of the benefits 
which have, necessarily or incidentally, re- 
sulted from party government, especially in 
the history of England and of other free 
countries. Yet is it not an utterly extrava- 
gant estimate of these benefits to look upon 
the system as forming an essential element 
in all healthy political action, and to insist 
therefore on the moral obligation of retain- 
ing it imder all political conditions ? It is 
surely no universal and eternal law of human 
life that men can govern themselves only by 
splitting into hostile cliques, who shall cre- 
ate fictitious causes of quarrel if the natural 
course of events do not furnish them with 
real ones. Not once or twice only in the 
history of the world have all the rival sec- 
tions of a people coalesced by the irresistible 
force of their enthusiasm in a common right- 
eous cause ; nor need we despair of such 
coalitions in the future, when they are de- 



manded by the moral developments of the 
human race. In such supreme moments of 
national harmony is it a national duty to de- 
tail an unfortunate section of the community 
to do the work of an advocattu (fto^/i, simply 
that their client may have his due, and the 
people be saved from violating the immutable 
obligation of government by parties ? The 
truth is that government of men by keeping 
them at hostility with one another, so far 
from growing in favour with the progress of 
ethical and political knowledge, is falling 
into disrepute throughout all spheres of 
human life ; and the only matter of surprise 
to the reflecting observer is that the system 
should have held its ground so long amid 
that western civilization which for fifteen 
hundred years has been based on the wor- 
ship of a Being whose life and death are 
the perfect type of self-sacrifice for the good 
of others, and in the service of whom there 
was to be no longer any difference of Jew 
and Greek, of bond and free, of male and 
female, but all the separated sections of 
men were to become spintually one. Still it 
is growing into more general recognition, in 
theory as well as in practice, that any num- 
ber of men, — whetner the few who join 
in a commercial enterprize, or the millions 
who form a nation, or. the hundreds of mil- 
lions who compose the hilman race— can 
reach the highest welfare of their external as 
well as of their internal life by working in 
harmony rather than at discord with one 
another. The attempt to establish perma- 
nent international relations by means of 
war ; the attempt to establish the gospel of 
glory to God, with peace on earth and good 
will among men, by the mutual antipathies 
of religious sects ; the attempt to develop 
the wealth of nations or of individuals by 
selfish competition ; all such efforts are 
doomed to abandonment by the higher 
races, like slavery and other social phenom- 
ena of uncivilized life, as belonging to a 
mder stage of human progress. It is, there- 
fore, no idle dream of Utopian statesmen 
which would secure the general welfare of a 
nation by all parties co-operating as far as 
possible, and separating into hostile relations 
only as a last unwelcome necessity, when 
there is no conmion course on which they 
can possibly agree. 

This was evidently the view which was 
taken by the vast majority of Canadians at 
the first general election for the Dominion 
Parliament. Mr. Brown practically de- 
manded that their political life under the 
new confederation should be still an endless 
contest of the parties who had disturbed the 
old Province of Canada, and the answer to 
his demand was decided enough. He was 



18V& 



ITie First Ten Years of the Canadian Donunian. 



163 



himself defeated in the conetituency wliich 
he had long represented, and the Govern- 
ment entered upon their duties backed by 
an enormous majority throughout the coun- 
try as well as in parliament. 

The result in itself was one on which the 
Canadians were to be congratulated ; it was 
one of the most crushing defeats which the 
spirit of faction ever received. Yet the 
policy of Mr. Brown had the effect at which 
he aimed ; it practically divided the politi- 
cians of the country into two factions again. 
The Government no longer represented the 
whole people, as it was ti^e intention of the 
premier that it should — ^it represented once 
more a mere party, a party perhaps exasper- 
ated by an opposition which could vindicate 
its existence by no political reason, and cer- 
tainly elated by their sweeping victory at 
the poUs. It is not too much to say that 
the power and the temper of such a Gov- 
ernment were a peril to the best interests of 
the country. In any circumstances the 
power of the ministry would .have been for- 
midable in virtue of their patronage, which 
is uncontrolled by competitive examinations 
or any other check on the personal predilec- 
tions of a minister or the exorbitant expec- 
tations of political supporters. But at the 
formation of the Dominion there were several 

Eeculiar circumstances which threw into the 
ands of the Government an unusual power 
for obtaining corrupt support ; and it was, 
in fact, the abuse of this power that led to 
a gradual reaction against them, and to their 
final overthrow in 1874. 

This reaction appeared first in the Pro- 
vince of Ontario, where the tide of political 
feeling rises to a higher flow, and stretches 
into larger issues, than in other parts of the 
Dominion. Here an opposition arose in 
the provincial legislature, which, though not 
identifying itself with the position taken by 
Mr-JBrown at the elections, yet received the 
powerful support of his organ, the * Globe ' 
newspaper of Toronto. The leader of this 
opposition was Mr. Edward Blake, Q.C., 
httbely the president of the council in the Do- 
minion Government. Mr. Blake had entered 
political life only at the first general elec- 
tion for the Dominion. Appearing at first 
as an independent critic of the course pur- 
sued by the Ontario ministry, he conducted 
his criticisms with such ability, that he was 
soon recognized by both sides of the House 
as the most formidable- opponent with whom 
the Government had to contend. 

The prime minister of Ontario, on the other 
band, was the Hon. John Sandfield Mac- 
donald, who had long been a prominent friend 
of Mr. Brown among the leaders of the old 
Reform party. Mr. Macdonald had been 



selected by his. namesake and former op- 
ponent. Sir John Macdonald, oh the ground 
that the Province of Ontario would be most 
fairly represented by an old Reformer, while 
one of we old Conservatives became premier 
of Quebec — a province which, under the 
dominant influence of the Catholic clergy, 
has generally been Conservative. There is 
no doubt that Mr. Macdonald intended to 
guide himself by the principles of refonn, 
and these principles continued, in fact, to 
direct his administration in many respects, 
especially in the economy by which it was 
generally characterized. But his intentions 
met with a serious obstacle in the inveterate 
hortUity of that party among his old friends 
which had sided with Mr. Brown, and he 
was therefore driven to seek assistance from 
allies from whom it would have been to his 
advantage if he had held aloof. Accordingly 
the Government of Ontario, though headed 
by an old Liberal minister, and representing 
a decidedly Liberal province, soon began to 
show tendencies towards a policy in distinct 
antagonism to the principles of all Liberal 
government It w^ thus in the legislative 
assembly of Ontario that the new issues of 
political warfare in Canada first assumed 
definite shape, and it was here that politi- 
cians began to range themselves into new 
parties. 

Any one who watched with earnest eyes 
the contests in the legislature of Ontario 
could scarcely fail to see, and to see more 
clearly from year to year, that here Liberal- 
iun had met its old foe in new shines, and 
was surely fighting a battle which should 
not be without an interest to men. We 
take it that the struggle of Liberal states- 
manship in all ages has been to find an 
effective check by the people upon their ex- 
ecutive government ; and the foe of Liber- 
alism all along has been the endeavour of 
political adventurers — be they monarchs, 
hereditary oligarchies, or cabinets of minis- 
ters — to hold themselves above popular con- 
trol. Under a constitution like that of 
Canada, and still more under one like the 
American, it is not difficult to see how a cabi- 
net, by unscrupulous artifices, might attain 
a position almost as free from responsibility 
to the people as that of iiiQ veriest heredi- 
tary despot — a position from which they 
could be dislodged only by an extraordinary 
outburst of popular indignation. 

One source of enormous power which a 
Government possesses for securing its posi- 
tion unjustly is to be found in the expendi- 
ture on public works. In a new country 
such expenditure must always be large, and 
in Canada ten years ago it was unusually 
increased owing to works which had to be 



164 



7%e Fir^ Ten Teetrs of the Canadian Dominion. 



April, 



undertaken bjr the very terms of the confed- 
eration. It 18 not neceftsary to explain how 
favours can be shown to contractors which 
will caH forth their enei^es when the exist- 
ence of a Government is imperilled, and 
open their purses when an electioneering 
fund is getting exhausted. The hordes of 
men also employed by large Government 
contractors can easily be made to feel an in- 
terest in the party through whom they have 
obtained their immediate occupation. But 
an attempt at corruption of a somewhat 
novel character was made, especially in the 
Province of Ontario, by the bribery of en- 
tire localities. In the location of national 
institutions the Government of this province 
gave it to be understood by unmistakable 
actions^ and even by unmistakable langui^e, 
that they were guided not so much by a re- 
gard for the interests of the people at large 
{IS by the intention of rewarding those con- 
stituencies which had sent representatives to 
the right side of the House. This policy 
culminated in a measure which the Govern- 
ment used its majority to carry in the legis- 
lative assemblr on the eve of the second 
provincial election. By this measure one 
and a half million of dollars were placed 
absolutely at the disposal of the Govern- 
ment, with the single restriction that it was 
to be distributed in bonuses to projected 
railways in different parts of the province. 

On several occasions previously the Gov- 
ernment had, not without strenuous opposi- 
tion, obtained smaller grants for various 
works, without any specifications, and there- 
fore without any reliable estimates. In the 
case of the large railway grant, though the 
sum formed part of an accurtiulated surplus 
in the provincial treasury, the English 
reader ought to bear in mind that it repre- 
sented nearly the whole annual revenue of 
the province at the time ; and this sum was 
handed over to the Government without any 
specification as to the particular projects 
which were to be assisted, and without the 
roughest estimate of the amount which each 
might require. In view of the principles by 
which the Government had given it to be 
understood that they were guided in the ex- 
penditure of public money on different 
localities, and in view of the fact that nearly 
every county had some pet railway project 
on hand at the time, it would not have been 
surprising if the Government bait had caught 
every constituency in the pro^'ince. It is 
to the credit of the political sentiment of 
Ontario that the people refused the bait. 
The opposition had all along protested 
against the Government asking for large 
sums while they refused to give the House 
specific information as to the nature and 



locality and estimated cost of the works on 
which the sums were to be expended. It 
was on this point specially, and with more 
prominent reference to the large railway 
grant, that the opposition met the ministe- 
rial party at the polls in 1871. We believe 
that the more dispassionately this crisia 
comes to be estimated, the more it will be 
recognized that the very principle of con- 
stitutional government was at stake in the 
election. No plea can be advanced in de- 
fence of the ministerial policy which would 
not equally have justified the ministry in 
asking for a vote of the entire revenue for 
each year in a lump sum, without laying 
any estimates before the House. It has 
long been a familiar common-place in the 
politics of constitutional countnes, that the 
legislative body, which represents the people, 
nmst be satisfied as to the necessity and ex- 
pediency of all expenditure in the public 
service before voting the requisite grants, 
and that this principle forms the one effective 
check which the people hold over the men 
who control the machinery of government. 
Without this check, the forms of representa- 
tive government might be relegated among 
the solemn farces which still impart thie 
dignity of a hollow stateliness to many de- 
partments of human action. An adminis- 
tration therefore which acts on the principle 
of demanding enormous sums, while retain- 
ing to itself the unchecked control of their 
expenditure in detail, is on the fair way to 
meet the House some day with a preposter- 
ous speech from the throne : — 

Gentlemen, my ministers have formed care- 
ful estimates of Uie amounts which will be re- 
quired for their respective departments, and 
from these estimates I find that the total 
amount demanded by the exigencies of the pub- 
lic service will be so many millions. It is evi- 
dently for the interests of the country that the 
public service should not be interfered with by 
men who have not the special acquaintance that 
my ministers possess with its requirements. I 
shall therefore simply ask you to vote the total 
smn which I have named ; and I have the gra- 
tification of knowing that you will thus be re- 
stored all the sooner to those important private 
occupations which, I feel assured, must suffer 
seriously by your prolonged attendance hero. 
You will, of course, draw still the usual ses- 
sional allowance. 

It was, therefore, no mere cry of a faction 
which the opposition raised, when they ap- 
pealed to the electors of Ontario a^inst the 
policy of the Government, and their appeal 
was evidently sustained by the voice of the 
electors at the polls. Feeling confident in 
the result of the elections, the opposition 
determined to put the Government on its 
trial at the very opening of the new legisla- 



1878. 



7%tf Mrat Ten Years of the Oanadian Dominion. 



165 



live assembly. Whon the address was 
moved, they proposed an amendment con- 
demning the policy of the ministry in refe- 
rence to the railway firrant. and the amend- 
ment was carried by a small majority. The 
ministry pretended to treat the vote as not 
implying want of confidence ; but an addi- 
tional vote, with an overwhelming majority, 
compelled them to abandon the treasury 
benches with some loss of dignity at last. 

The course of political affairs in the Prov- 
ince of Ontario was but an inner circle of 
the wider course taken by the politics of the 
Dominion. Here the opposition was led by 
the present prime minister, the Hon. Alex- 
ander Mackenzie. For the first two or three 
years its feebleness obliged it to content it- 
self with aimless criticism of isolated meas- 
ures ; but by-and-by the ministry began to 
indicate a policy similar to that which had 
called forth a victorious opposition in On- 
tario. It has been observed above that the 
fundamental safeguard of all constitntionai 
government is that the executive shall be 
held under as minute and incessant control 
as the public service will allow, and that the 
one foe of all constitntionai government i& 
the political adventurer who endeavours to 
hold himself above such control. Legisla- 
tion may of course render the ambition of 
such adventurers more difficult, but every 
system of government is exposed to penl 
from the' uuscrupulousness of the men by 
whom it may be administered. The circum- 
stances of Canada, as of all new countries, 
form a peculiar source of temptation to cor- 
ruption in the administration of her Govern- 
ment. From the very nature of the case, a 
new country cannot possess that leisurely 
class of men from whom England has long 
derived her noblest statesmen, and from all 
that we have observed there seems no im- 
mediate prospect of this deficiency being 
made up in Canada. At least not a few in- 
stances nave been brought to notice in which 
the sons of wealthy Canadian merchants 
have been allowed to content themselves 
with a disgracefully meagre education, and 
have squandered, in frivolous idleness or in 
coarse sensuality, the fortunes which had 
been laboriously accumulated by industrious 
parents ; while no instance has yet attracted 
attention in which the leisure aerived from 
hereditary Wealth has been devoted to the 
service of the public in political life. The 
result of all this is that the administration 
of public affairs necessarily falls very largely 
into the hands of professional politicians — 
of men who enter politics as they would en- 
ter any olher profession from which they 
seek to obtidn a living. It is no discredit 
to Canadians in particular, but to human 



nature in general, to say that only the most 
incorruptible of men can utterly withstand 
the temptations of such a profession. At 
least the sympathy of every earnest political 
thinker must be repelled by any policy 
which would render it easier for the profes- 
sional politician to yield to the temptations 
of his position. 

It was, as we have said> a policy in this 
direction — a policy of encouragement to the 
mere political adventurer — that strengthened 
the opposition to the first Government of 
the Dominion, and a brief reference to the 
main points of conflict between the Govern- 
ment and their opponents will suffice to 
make this evident. 

One of the most serious dangers to con- 
stitutional government is the power which 
a cabinet possesses of manipulating the elec- 
tions so as to put the opposition at a disad- 
vantage throughout the country. This may 
be done, for example, by spreading the elec- 
tions over some weeks, taking care to secure 
the large number of voters who go for the 
winning side by obtaining at an early date 
the decision of those constituencies in 
which the ministry expect a favourable re- 
turn. The same end is also attained by 
bringing to the polls the large army of civil 
servants throughout the country, by leaving 
the law practically inoperative against brib- 
ery, and by the appointment of retuming- 
officers unscrupulously obsequious to the in- 
terests of the party by whom they are ap- 
pointed. Now, no one who watched im- 
partially the elections for the second parlia 
ment of the Dominion could avoid the con- 
viction that the Government had been using 
their power in all those ways to secure a 
verdict in their favour at the polls. The 
elections were brought on in an order which 
was wholly, inexplicable except in the inte- 
rest of the ministry. Votes were obtained 
from men whose employment in the service 
of the nation ought to keep them aloof from • 
the service of a party. In more than one 
instance a retuming-officer sent in a return 
so manifestly in opposition to the facts, that 
the Government, out of self-respect, should 
have at once subjected the offender to crim- 
inal prosecution. 

But it was mainly by their^ conduct in 
reference to the laws against bribery, and 
by the advantage which they took of the 
laxity of these laws, that the ministry 
brought upon themselves their defeat. It 
haid been well enough known to every one in 
Canada for a long time that representative 
government was being rendered a laughing- 
stock by the extent to which bribery was 
bwng carried on by all parties. All the evi- 
dence on the subject shows that neither 



166 



27ie First Ten Tears of the Canadian Damimon. 



April, 



party throaghout the country could boast 
of superior freedom from this corruption. 
Only this can be said of the leaders in the 
opposition at the time, that they demanded 
the legislation which has since been obtained, 
and which has proved a very formidable im- 
pediment to bribery and other dishonour- 
able influences at elections. The Govern- 
ment, however, by its overpowering major- 
ity in parliament, crushed all' attempts at 
legislation in this direction, and the result 
was that the second election for the Domin- 
ion House of Commons was disgraced by an 
extensive system of bribery, in which, ac- 
cording to their own confession, the leaders 
of the Government were deeply involved. 

The sources from which the Government 
obtained funds for bribery were various ; 
but after every allowance for disinterested 
subscriptions from conscientious supporters, 
there remain enormous sums, which no states- 
man should ever have allowed himself to 
touch, or, if tempted to use, could ever 
have spoken of afterwards without a feeling 
of shame. There was even a prevalent sus- 
picion that the public money was being mis- 
directed to electioneering purposes ; and 
though it may be admitted that tne suspicion 
was founded on a mistake, it must also be 
borne in mind that the premier was himself 
entirely to blame for giving currency to the 
suspicion. A motion had been introduced 
into the House of Commons at Ottawa for 
a confidential audit of the expenditure on 
the Secret Service Fund, and the motion 
was defended by a reference to British prac- 
tice. The Government, however, succeeded 
in defeating the motion, and Sir John Mac- 
donald, in vindicating afterwards his oppo- 
sition to the motion, not content with deny- 
ing that the demand for a confidential audit 
was justified by British usage, made the 
astounding assertion that, if a cabinet in 
England went out of office with £100,000 
of secret service money to their credit, they 
could employ it in canying the elections 
against their opponents. It is somewhat sur- 
prising that this 'statement did not attract 
attention or call forth any protest from the 
English press at the time, and that it was 
only after some years that Sir John Mac- 
donald acknowledged his misapprehension 
about the practice of British statesmen in 
reference to the use of Secret Service Funds. 

But however well or ill founded may have 
been the suspicion that the Dominion Gov- 
-ernment were abusing the public money for 
party purposes, their own confession places 
beyond all controversy the notorious attempt 
to maintain their position by corrupt influ- 
ences in connection w^ith the projected Pa- 
cjbfic Riulway through Canadian territory. 



This scandal received such prominent notice 
in the. English press at the time, and is still 
so recent, that it is unnecessary to< revive its 
details at present. One or two points of 
special political importance are all that re- 
quire to be remembered. 

In the first place, the Pacific Railway Bill 
contained in an aggravated form those un- 
constitutional features which have been 
already pointed- out in the earlier raUway 
bill of the administration in Ontario. It 
handed over absolutely to the Government, 
along with fifty million acres of land, the 
sum'of thirty million dollars — a sum fully 
equal to the public revenue of the whole 
Dominion for a year and a half ; and the 
people — the JIou8e.of Commons — were thus 
left without a voice as to the route which 
the railway should take, or even the most 
general details of its construction. In the 
second place, members of the cabinet con- 
fessed to having accepted for electioneering 
purposes a sum — which in Canada must be 
accounted very large — from the genUenoian 
who had been promised, or at least expected, 
the contract for the Pacific Railway, and 
.who has declared that it was no political 
conviction, but simply the spirit of com- 
mercial speculation, that induced him to 
advance so much money for the purpose of 
keeping the Government in power. It was 
a further serious aspect of this political scan- 
dal that the Government made an extremely 
questionable use of its prerogative, and 
showed a somewhat unseemly contempt of 
the privileges of parliament, in order to pre- 
vent the House of Commons from itself car- 
rying out the investigation on which it had 
determined. 

It was no wonder, therefore, that when^at 
last the ministry met the House, they found 
the opposition vastly increased in strength, 
and, after a lengthened debate, resigned 
without waiting for a division. The new 
ministry, soon after its formation, dissolved 
the House, and the appeal to the electors 
showed that they were sustained by a very 
powerful element throughout the country. 
Whether they will retain that support for 
any length of time, is a question on which, 
as on other social subjects, it is hazardous 
to form predictions ; but it is a question 
which is of interest only in so far as the 
ministry realize the mission which they have 
undertaken, and to which they owe their 
position — of fighting the batUe of consUtu- 
tional government in Canada. Certainly 
nothing has happened which should make 
the country forget the serious faults of the 
previous administration ; but the temper of 
political discussion, both in the House of 
Commons at Ottawa and throughout^he 



1878. 



MycencB* 



167 



Dominion, giyes too great reason to \fear 
that politicians are settling again into two 
factions, separated by no principle except 
the common conviction of the desirability 
of being in ofiSce. However convenient 
this state of things may be for the prof es- 
si<Mial politician, it is a resnlt which can be 
contemplated only with the deepest concern 
by every earnest stadent of political affairs. 
Not only would such a result defeat one 
great end of the Canadian confederation, 
bat it would give a new force to one of the 
great perils of popular government. Let 
us hope that the premi^er of the Dominion 
and his associates may prove themselves 
equal to their mission, and that they may 
find some safeguard for constitutional free- 
dom against that despotism of party which 
has formed one of its most powerful foes at 
all times, and now forms its peculiar foe on 
the other dde of the Atlantic. 



Art. II. — Mycence, 

MycenoR : a Narrative ofBesearchei and Discov- 
eries at MyeencB and Tiryns. By Dr. Henrt 
ScHLiEXAKN, Author of ^ Troy and its Re- 
mains.' The Preface by the Right Hon. W. 
£. Gladstone, M.P. With Maps, Plans, 
and other Illustrations. John Murray. 1878b 

This long-expected, if not wholly satisfac- 
tory, work has at length appeared, in the 
form of a copiously and beautifully illustrated 
volume, to gratify the curiosity that was ex- 
cited throughout Europe at the report of 
Dr. Schliemann's second and still greater 
success in exploring the site of an ancient 
city. When the news first arrived that an 
immense deposit of prehistoric treasures 
had been laid open by the excavations on 
the Acropolis of MycensB, some were incred- 
ulous, others cautious in accepting the 
rumour, while the majority suspended their 
judgment until at least competent authority 
should decide for or against the genuine- 
ness of the articles so unexpectedly brought 
to light. Many, indeed, thought that the 
ordinary laws of probability were outraged 
by the claim put forwacd by Dr. Schlie- 
mann. He had gone to Troy, to find the 
treasures and the palace of King Priam, and 
then he had gone to ' golden Mycena), ' to 
find th^ treasures and the palace of King 
Agamemnon ; and in both he had been en- 
tirely successful, in both places vessels and 
ornaments of the precious metals, amount- 
ing in the aggregate to a value of some 



thousands of pounds,* having rewarded the 
cost and the labour of the excavations. At 
MycensB, indeed, a body was found (at p. 
297 a portrait of it is given, and a ghatsly 
portrait it is), which is conjectured to have 
Deen that of Agamemnon himself ! This, 
it was said, was luck greater than human : 
a man might dig in a hundred old cities, and 
think himself lucky if he found even a small 
treasure in one. Dr. Schliemann, however, 
stood to his ground : seeing is believing, 
the proverb says. The treasures were there : 
they were seen, handled, examined by 
many, some of them eminently competent 
judges, and the verdict of genuineness was 
unanimously ^ven in their favour. Truly, 
as Mr. Gladstone says in his Preface, ' For- 
tune, for once renoimcing her caprice, seems 
in both cases to have obeyed the dictates of 
archaeological justice, and to have treated 
Dr. and Mrs. Schliemann as her favourite 
children. ' 

It has long been a. well-established fact 
that the custom prevailed for ages over a 
large part of the ancient world, including 
Romans, Greeks, Celts, Assyrians, and 
Etruscans, of burying with the deeeased the 
personal ornaments and the articles of value 
which he had possessed in life. Even ani- 
mals, nay, favourite servants and concu- 
bines, were sacrificed' at the tomb, on and 
over which offerings and libations were made 
at oft-recurring intervals, f the end and ob- 
ject of both being the same, the propitiation 
of a spirit powerful for harm ; for those 
maladies and pestilences which, in a scien- 
tific age, we attribute to bad drainage and 
' infusoria,' were attributed in a supersti- 
tious age to a malignant power of spirits 
who could exert a direct agency on earth. 



* It IB stated in the Preface (p. xxxvi.) that 
the weight of the ornaments found in the first 
tomb alone is abont one hundred pounds troy, 
or nearly Uiat of five thouaand Bovereijjrns. It 
is to be regretted that Dr. Schliemann never 
gives the weight of any of the larger articles 
which he is wont to describe as ' enormous mas- 
sive/ ' splendid massive fi[olden ' (p. 285), and so 
on. 'The reader would have been grateful/ 
sajs' a reviewer in the ' Athen«eam/ ' for pre- 
cise measurements generally, and for weights 
of gold objects such as masks and breast-plates, 
which are merely noted as ponderons and mas- 
sive.' From the crushed and bent condition of 
most^of them, they suggest the suspicion that 
they must be made of very thin metal. 

f The practice of the early Christians of say- 
ing masses over the bodies of martyrs in the 
catacombs, is unquestionably to be traced to the 
same idea, the partaking of the living and the 
dead in a common saoiifioe or food-offering. 
Hence, too, came the aydirai, or love-feasts, so 
often pictured in the catacombs. The Irish 
' wake ' is the latest surviving and the worst 
representative of the custom. 



168 



Mycenm. 



April, 



More than one tribe of the American In- 
dians, whose affinities with the Turanian 
race are many and well-marked, as those of 
California and Patagonia, place in the tomb, 
or bum with the body, anna and oth^^r oma- 
ments, sometimes the horses and dogs be- 
longing to a deceased chief, which are kiUed 
and consumed with the corpse. * At one 
time f we are told) they used to bury money, 
often in large sums, with the body. Dreams, 
too, were thought to be sent to the living 
by the dead, f Classical lore is full of such 
stories, and every scholar is familiar with 
them. In the ' Alcestis ' of Euripides, 
when the father of Admetus brings an offer- 
ing to his son's deceased wife, he says, 
* Accept these trinkets (xoafjLOV royde), 
and let them go into the ffraue; for wc 
are bound to honour the corpse of one who 
has died to save your life. * J 

So familiar were the Greeks themselves 
with the fact that ancient tombs often con- 
tained treasure, that they had a word ex- 
pressly to denote the office of a * grave- 
grubber ' {tvfiftoapvxoi). § Even in mod- 
ern times, the search after treasure in old 
tombs has become a complete trade, and 
has caused the mutilation and destruction 
of some of the finest monuments of antiquity. 
Indeed, many tombs reopened in recent 
times are found to have been plundered of 
their contents at some unknown period. 
This was found to be the case with many of 
those explored by General Di Ceanola in 
Cyprus.^ One of the tombs in tlic agora at 
Mycena) had been partially rified in an early 
age. ^ Some one, ' says the author, \ sank 
a shaft to examine the tomb, stnick the body 
(in the first tomb), plundered it recklessly, 
and for fear of being detected, carried oft 
his booty in such a hurry, that he only 
thought of saving the large massive gold 
ornaments, such as the mask, the largo 
breast-cover, the diadems, and the bronze 
swords, and, in remounting to the surface, 
dropped many of the smaller objects, such 
as the twelve golden buttons, which I found 
at intervals on digging down. There can 
be no doubt that this larceny occurred 
before the capture of Mycenaj by the Ar- 
gives (b.c. 468).' Dr. Schliemann also de- 
scribes a very old grave discovered at the 
village of Spata, the ancient Sphettus, in 



* See ' Races of Mankind/ by Robert Brown, 
vol. i pp. 109, 162. 303, 806. 

+ -ffisch. Cho. 528 ; Sopb. El. 460 ; Ear. Orest. 
618. 

1 Eur. Ale. 618. 

^ Ariat, Ran. 1149. Of coarse the act was re- 
prarded as saorilegions ; and this is the point of 
the well-known anecdote of Darius openln^r the 
tomb of Queen Nitocris, to extract treasures. 
Uerod. ii. 21, e^«eg. 



Attica, and adds : ^ This tomb had evidently 
been already rifled in ancient times, for but 
a few objects were found with the bodies : 
nearly all of them lay dispersed in debris^ 
in and before the entrance. ' 

The old Pelasgic, pre-Hellenic, or Acha- 
ian city of Mycense, lying close to Argos 
in lower Greece, had been renowned from 
very remote times as the seat of a power* 
ful and wealthy line of kings, of whom, 
according to the Homeric legend, Agamem- 
non, king of men, and the leader of the ex- 
pedition to Troy, was one of the most fa- 
mous. The city was called TroXvxptMfoS^ 
* abounding in gold. ' * Ita walls and pal- 
aces were of that peculiar massive masonry 
of which many scattered examples exist, 
though not all of one kind, called by iho 
ancients ^ Cyclopean. ' By thia they meant 
that the stones were so huge, often weigh- 
ing many tons, that none but giants could 
have put them together. Of the real archi- 
tects and their date nothing whatever is 
known, for not a scrap of writing is ever 
found in Greek cities of really prehistoric 
date. Indeed, with the possible exception 
of Egypt and Assyria, the remark applies 
equally to all very ancient sites, f Up to 
the time of the destruction of Mycenffi 
through the jealousy of the Argives, in the 
year 468 B.C., there can bo no doubt that 
the old city continued both rich and power- 
ful. But desolation came with destruction. 
Euripides, who appears personally to have 
known the ruined city — for he often alludes 
to it, and even expressly mentions the circu- 
lar agora\ lately brought to light — speaks 
of the lofty ' sky-reaching walls ' and solid 
basements, ovpavia relxtf and fiadpa. 
The toppling over of such buildings had filled 
up the floor of the agora, though its shape 
was still traceable in his time. The tombs 
of ancient kings buried in that precinct, 
after an old custom mentioned in Pindar, § 



♦ Iliad, vil. 180 ; Soph. El. 9. 

f The scratches found by Dr. Schliemann on 
some of the numero as clay whorls at HiBsnrlik 
we do not believe to be writing at all. When 
he says (p. 885) that he loand at Troy ' a num- 
ber of short inscriptions in very ancient Cypriote 
characters, and, so far as we can jad^e, in a Ian- 

guage which is essentially the same as Greek/ 
e assumes as certain what has yet to be proved 
— that these marks. were intended for letters. 

\ ayopai kvkXov, Orest. 010. The passaur^ in 
Euripides are referred to in the'note on pa^e 341. 
Sophocles mentions the Mycenians (EI. 423, Phil. 
435), but .fischylns appears to include Mycenie 
under the general term Argoa. % 

% Pyth. V. 69, et wo., quoted by Dr. Schlie- 
mann on paj^e 127. He refers also on page 120 
to the statement of Pausanias (i. 43, 4). that at 
Megara the tombs of the heroes were within the 
1 place for holding their council, i,e,, the agora. 



1878. 



ItycefiOB, 



160 



remained^ undisturbed, protected by the rains 
of their own palaces. * These tombs, of 
which more anon, were replete Avith the most 
costly treasores. In a manner precisely simi- 
lar, on digging out the floors of several of the 
abbeys f dismantled at the Reformation, 
founders' tombs, inscribed slabs, tesselated 
pavements, unopened graves in numbers, 
have been discovered. It was hardly likely 
that in the very centre of such a populous 
town as MycensB, these tombs, which were 
most religiously guarded, would be plun- 
dered. The destroyers themselves were not 
likely at the time to turn their attention to 
them. And so they were covered over and 
forgotten, till Dr. Schiiemann's good for- 
tune and indoniitable perseverance brought 
them once more to light. 

There is, of course, not a particle of evi- 
dence to show to whom either these treasures 
or those found at Hissarlik belonged, or to 
what precise period or nation they may be 
referred. All attempts to identify the re- 
mains or any of the ornaments with the 
Ilomerio accounts are, if not purely fanci- 
ful, J at least extremely unsatisfactory. We 
cannot possibly say whether such persons as 
Priam and Agamemnon really ever lived. 
If Priam's brother Tithonus ever existed in 
the flesh, we know that he did not marry 
Aurora, or * the dawn, ' as the legend tells 
us. We have good reasons for believing 
that Achilles was the midday sun, as Thetis, 
the sea, was his mother, out of which the 
sun appears to rise ; that Odysseus repre- 
sented, not only in name but in character, 
the setting sun ; § that the golden palace of 
Alcinoiis and the self-moving ships of the 
Phs&acians were the hues of a sunset and the 
fleeting clouds ; that Penelope's web was 
nothing but the sunlit mists which appear 
and disappear in the sky, <Src. But no harm 
is done to archaeology, which cares only for 
the facts of ancient art, if any one chooses 
to accept Dr. Schliemann's apparently 

* Dr. S^liemann (p. 126, and elsewhere) 
speaks of tile agora being deeply buried in ' pre- 
historic ' debris. He appears to us apt to let his 
enthusiasm outstrip his eare in minute exami- 
nation. It certainly shows hasty writing to say 
that ' the greater part of the prehistoric d&fria is 
later than the time of Earipides.' In page 841 
he says ' it is certain that until 468 B.o. the agora 
was kept clean, and that the accnmnlation in it 
only began after the Myoenians had been forced 
to emigrate.' The ' demon of doubt ' does not 
appear ever to hannt the author of these and 
many similar statements. 

t'Byland, Jervaux, Fountains, and otheis. 

I The most striking ooineidence, perhaps, is 
the golden goblet 'with two dotes on the ban- 
dies, compared with the deeeription of Nestor's 
goblet, in Iliad, is. 684. 

^ See BRrriSH QuAKTERiiT Kevibw fw Octo- 
ber, 1878, p. 284. 



strong conviction that he has found the ver- 
itable grave and skeleton of Agamemnon. 
Mr. Gladstone does not hesitate to support 
this view. He speaks cautiously, however, 
as becomes so well-read and so thoughtful a 
scholar. * The balance, I will not say of 
evidence, but of rational presumption, seems 
as though it might ultimately lean towards 
the belief that this eminent explorer has ex- 
posed to the light of day, after three thou- 
sand years, the memorials and remains of 
Agamemnon and his companions in the re- 
turn from Troy. ' * Again he says : ' The 
conjecture is, that these may very well be 
the tombs of Agamemnon and his company. ' 
The same cautious language is preserved in 
p. xxxviii. : ' We are now on the road, not 
of history, but of reasonable conjecture. I 
try to account for a burial which, according 
to all reasonable presumption, is of the he- 
roic age, and of royal and famous person- 
ages, but which presents conflicting features 
of honour and shame. That there is no con- 
flicting hypothesis is not a good reason for 
precipitate assent to the hypothesis which 
we may term Agamemnonian. ' Mr. Glad- 
stone's conjecture is that Agamemnon, hav- 
ing been murdered and (as the legend tells 
us) ignominiously buried by his Queen Cly- 
temnestra, who had wedded her paramour, 
the handsome -^Egisthus, f was afterwards 
reinterred in tlie «ame tomb, with the hon- 
ours of cremation, by his son Orestes, who 
had returned from exile and slain in retribu- 
tion both his own- mother and .^isthus. 
The ignominious burial he refers to the 
state in which three of the bodies, which he 
supposes to have been those of Agamemnon 
and his two heralds, were found. They had 
been forcibly squeezed into a grave cut in 
the rock, of too small a size properly to 
hold the remains. J * We are met, * lie says, 
* with the somewhat staggering fact that the 
bodies of full-grown and apparently tall men 
have been forced into a space of only flve feet 
six inches in length, so as to require that sort 
of compression which amounts almost to mu- 
tilation. ' § Dr. Schliemann himself speaks, 
as is his wont, with much more confidence 
on this subject. ' I do not for a moment 
hesitate to proclaim, ' he says, ^ that I have 
found here the sepulchres which Pausanias, 
following the tradition, attributes to Atreus, 



* Preface, p. vi. 

{KdXXet apapdi (afiQfiof), Eur. £1. 048. 
Here again we may comnare a custom of the 
North- Western American Indians, who have 
* such a horror of a dead body, or desire to 
ioueete it into a box before the corpse gets stiffened, 
that notunfreqnently it is put into the coffin be- 
fore life is extinct ' (' Races of Mankind/ i. 107). 
§ I^reface, p. xxxil. 



170 



Jfyeena. 



April, 



to the '' king of men/' Agamemnon, to his 
charioteer Enrymedon, to Cassandra, and to 
their companions.' 

Our ffreat difficulty in accepting this flat- 
tering theory, is to attach any real historical 
existence to such heroes as Theseus, Aga- 
memnon, Achilles, or Menektls. The sub- 
ject, however, is a very interesting one, and 
we shall be pardoned if we examine the tra- 
ditions about the death and funeral of Aga- 
memnon somewhat at length* Speaking 
generally (though there may be exceptions 
to this, as to every general rule), a story is 
either myth or ],ii8tory* The conclusion of 
those who have considered the question most 
fully, is that the two are not combined. 
There has always been a party who have be- 
lieved in the Trojan war as history, as there 
is also a party who regard the whole subject 
of the ' Iliad ' and the * Odyssey ' as a soUur 
myth of remote Aryan origin. We cannot 
decide between them, and shall not attempt 
to do so, though we incline, ourselves, to 
the mythical view. A writer in * The Times '* 
rightly observes that ' we need a wide induc- 
tion and a comprehensive survey before we 
can venture to draw any conclusion at all.' 
Again : ' If there is one thing these discov- 
eries teach, it is that judgment must be sus- 
pended for the present as to the questions 
raised by them.' 

Now one remarkable featu«e in the stories 
about Agamemnon is the extraordinary and 
godlike reverence in which he was held by 
his subjects. In the (perhaps older) epics 
about Troy which .^Eschylua appears to have 
followed, rather than the account given in 
our Homeric poems, he was the object of 
mixed fear and veneration to his subjects, f 
—one whose very word passed like an arrow 
* through the ear'and the mind of the peo- 
ple. ' To murder^him as a great general was 
an additional crime to the murder of him 
merely as a husband. | In death he was 
feared as a mighty spirit, and as such Ores- 
tes and his uster Electra often appeal to him 
to assist them in their designs of vengeance, 
and their just efforts to regain their home.§ 
It is not difficult to conceive that superstition 
would invest the grave of such a being, 
almost godlike in his power, with every pro- 
pitiatory rite. The * heroes ' (daifAon^) 
were worshipped by the Greeks as powerful 
for good or harm, and even a murderess 
might think her prosperity on earth was as- 

• Dec 80» 1877. f JEmih. Cbo. 56. 

t Agmm. 16d7 ; Earn. 687. uvApdi fti¥ ifdv 

Mtov vt^v, * Tbas have I described to yea the 
death of a hero who was held la awe by all, and 
who was the admiral of the fleet.' 
g Cho. 480, 497, Ac 



sured by placing in the tomb of her victim 
a few thousand pounds value in gold plate. 
Man's natural love of wealth would suggest 
the idea to a primitive mind that the anger 
of a malignant spirit could be bought off by 
the sacrifice of a certain amount of woridly 
goods. The remarkable point, however, 
in the legend is, that the queen is said to 
have buried the king at night, without hon- 
our, ' a king without his eitijEens, a husband 
without a wife's tears.' * She even muti- 
lated him by cutting off the limbs, accord* 
ing to an ancient idea that a ghost physically 
crippled could do no great harm to those 
whom he haunted, f The murder itself, ac- 
cording to the accounts of all the tragic 
poets, was perpetrated by the king's h^ 
being split open with an axe | as he was in 
the baUi, after he had been entangled in a 
costly embroidered robe. § ^ Of course these 
legends must be set at nought by those who 
wish to identify the body found in the 
agora of Mycenfls as that of Agamemnon, 
for the skuU was entire. There are other 
difficulties. Sophocles seems to describe 
the tomb of the murdered king as a tumulus 
outside of the eity, | or at least, as Euri- 
pides also does, as a nvpa^ or buMtum^ the 
site of which was marked by a pillar, at 
which, by way of deliberate insult, J^^ 
thus used to fling stones. ^I* But Dr. SchUe- 
mann finds a series of graves containing 
many bodies, and all with buried treasures, 
lie has thus to account for a plurality of 
Agamemnons, and [the only way of getting 
out of this additional difficulty is to assume 
that Agamemnon was buried thera with his 
friends and associates.** Let us, however, 

*iBseh. Agam. 165$ ; Cho. 480-4; Ear. 
Tioad. 446. In Eur. £1. 288, he Is said to have 
been baried ' ma outcast from his home.' 

k 'efuurxfi^^o$n. Cho. 489 ; Soph. £1. 445. 

X exiOfiii and itxK^tv are the terms used by 
tbem. There is a fixedneas in these tradlUoaa 
which is remarkable. They agree even la 
representing the axe as two-edged, o^ro^. 
See iBseh. Agam. 1496 : Ibid. IIM; Soph. El. 
90. Seveial axe-heads of this klncrwere foaad 
In the ooorse of the exeavalkms. 

% ir^oOrov dftafi km6v, Agam. 1S88. See 
ako Earn. 460; Cho. 098. A different atoiy 
is told In the Odyssey, ▼. 855, zi. 4U. thai he 
was murdered at a banquet. 

iMhimf. Eleetia, 004. 001 : Bar. El. 805. 

*|f wiTpoif ra Acvti ftp^jm Aiivov vorpvi. The 
tombsloiies found steading Tertlcally In the 
aaora (engraved ppb 80-06) eertalnljr salt the 
Idea of a ornhi, but not that of a «o^4»r«, whkh 
means ' a hillock.' 

** In the five tomba alxteen'or seventeen bodies 
were interred, indndlng three women and two or 
three ebildrea (Prefaoe, p. xsxl.X Here Casoan- 
dra, the Trq^ eoaeublBe, eomea la to help ns 
ont of the diffleuUj : and If Cusandra, wbj not 
Cssaaiidraand her two maids t Bui then Cssssn* 
dra too had her head split open with tlie 



1878. 



3iyC€1%(Bm 



171 



give all reasonable hearing to the tradition 
recorded by Ponsaniasy who expressly says * 
that this was the case, and even that Cassan- 
dra and her twin children, who had been 
mardered by .^Igisthns, were buried in 
MyceniB, though he also says the tomb of 
Agamemnon was not the same, but another, 
frepov. Let us admit that the author may 
be right in supposing that the ori^nal 
monument was a lai^r structure, from which 
were taken at some later time, when the 
level of the (igiora was altered, or the cir- 
cular ciffora itself constructed, the three 
tombstones sculptured in bas-relief. Let 
us conceive that the KoXojvtj axpa men- 
tioned by Sophocles as marking thd tomb of 
Agamemnon f was some kind of tumulus 
surmounted by a pillar, or even that it was 
the funeral altar found still standing above 
the fourth grave, as shown in Plan F. With 
all these concessions, we get no further than 
to allow that there may have been a tradition 
more than 400 years b.c. that certain hero- 
tombs at Mycenee belonged to A^memnon 
and his family. At a period when hero- 
worship was so rife, and each city or politi- 
cal community rivalled another in claiming 
ancestral honours (just as in the middle 
ages churches and shrines competed for the 
possession of relics), it is quite conceivable 
that such claims and such traditions had no 
truth in them whatever. Dr. Schliemann 
has no hesitation in aflSrming that the tradi- 
tion * may be perfectly correct and faithful.' 
The objections we have raised seem to have 
presented no difficulty to his mind. He be- 
gan with ' a firm belief in the Trojan War and 
a full faith in Homer ;' and to this faith, 
he adds, he is ' indebted for the discovery 
of Troy and its treasures. ' But the discov- 
ery of relics, it has been well said, | ' can 



axe (Aeam. 1490 ; Eur. Hec. 1277). However, 
we will contribute an argument not yet claimed 
^ on Dr. Schliemann's side. Euripides ezpresaly 
says (Electra, 7) that Agamemnon broasrht from 
t Troy to Aig^ (which the poets generally iden- 
' tify with Mycened) ' very many spoils/ oKvka 
irXelora, which he dedicated in the temples, and 
also that Clytemnestra was served by Phrygian 
(f.«. , Trojan) ladies dressed in their national dra- 
pery, with golden ekups. It might be possibly 
ari^ued that some of the treasures found in these 
tombs are of Phrygian manufacture ; and it 
might very easily happen, for the reasons ex- 
plained at the beginning of this review, that 
some of these spoils were deported as yipa and 
Kttft^Xia in the sepulchre of the king. Dr. 
Schliemann affirms that ' no trace of Assyrian art 
was found at Mycen».' Such brooches {n6pir<u) 
are represented on pp. 180, 193. 

* Book ii. 16, 6, quoted at length by the author 
at p. 59. See also Odyssey, iv. 586 ; zi. 888, 
412. 
f Soph. £1. 894. 
t ' The Times/ Dec. 20. 1877. 



never convert legend into history. ' Another 
example of hasty indilction is in p. 337. 
* The identity of the mode of burial, the 
perfect similarity of all the tombs, their very 
close proximity, the impossibility of admit- 
ting that three or even five royal personages 
of immeasurable wealth, who had died a nat- 
ural death at long intervals of time, should 
have been huddled together in the same 
tomb ; and, finally, the great resemblance 
of all the ornaments, which show exactly the 
same style of art and the same epoch, — all 
these facts are so many proofs that all the 
twelve men, three women, and perhaps two 
or three childi^n, had been murdered simul- 
taneously and buried at the same time. ' 

Here is a curious instance of fallacious 
reasoning. Why should these persons all 
have been murdered^ even if it were quite 
certain that they were all buried at the same 
time ? However, whatever we may think 
of Dr. Schliemann's own conclusions, it is 
impossible to overrate the importance of the 
contribution which this energetic explorer 
has made to human knowledge. It comes 
with especial value at a time when theories 
of devek^ment and speculations about the 
duration of man's existence on earth, and 
the history of his civilization, are occupying 
the attention of inquirers. We are aston- 
ished to find jewels, equalling in art those 
exhibited in London and Paris shops, claim- 
ing an antiquity of nearly four thousand 
years. * At Mycensd we know certainly that 
we are standing at the very centre ana cita- 
del of the powerful kingdom which engaged 
the interest of Greek poetry and poetical 
tradition for centuries, and transmitted a 
strong political impulse to historical times. ' * 
And we cannot deny that, to quote from the 
same review, ' the scene which has been un- 
covered by Dr. Schliemann is certainly in 
striking accordance with the tenour of My- 
cenian tradition.' 

The weak point, as it seems to us, in Dr.^ 
Schliemann's book, is the constant assump- 
tion and assertion that the treasures he has 
found are * prehistoric. ' Commencing with 
the uncritical petitio principii that the 
Homeric poems which we possess are the 
same — which most certainly cannot be 
affirmed — as the Homer which was known 
to Pindar, the tragic writers, and the paint- 
ers of the earlier Greek vases, he makes 
every two-handled cup a dinai apt<ptxv- 
TteXXoVf every gold boss or stud, button or 
band, sword or spear, to fall in with some 
Homeric description. Now those critics 
who have less faith than Mr. Gladstone or 
Mr. Grote in the genuine antiquity of our 

• • Athenwum; Dec. 22. 1877. 



in 



Myoenm, 



April, 



texts are entitled to ai^ue that if the sup- 
posed resemblance of these objects of art 
with the Homeric descriptions is real, and 
yet the descriptions themselves are not re- 
motely ancient, the extremely archaic char- 
actisr of the ornaments themselves is thereby 
called in question, and an argument is de- 
rived from the coincidence which may really 
point just the other way.* The hasty induc- 
tions of Dr. Schliemanp. result rather from 
his enthusiastic temperament than from any 
scholarly reasonings about the literary his- 
tory of our Homeric poems. Thus in p. 99 
he says, first, that the carved tombstones in 
the aufora ' must be brought into relation 
with the ancient architecture of Mycens^,' 
which is in itself a conclusion very far indeed 
from certain ; and next, that * therefore it 
cannot appear an unfounded assumption, if 
we claim for these ancient monumenta the 
middle of the second millennium b.c, and if 
we insert them for the future as an import- 
ant link into the history of art.' In p. 146 
ho assume^ the circular ' treasury of Atreus ' 
to be * nearly forty centuries old. ' The dis* 
covery in the tombs of carved gems. or in- 
tuglioa of very good workmanship, to say 
nothing of the highly artistic devices on the 
gold ornaments, should make us pause be- 
fore we affirm, without even a shadow of 
proof, and by an inference of no great 
weight, that the art of cutting gems is about 
a thousand years earlier than has hitherto 
been supposed, f * Oii seeing this intaglio, ' 
he says, ' and reflecting that it belongs to 
an antiquity preceding Homer by centuries, 
we are ready to believe (I) that all the works 
of art mentioned by Ilomer, such as the 
wonderful shield of Achilles, J the dog and 



* It is sufflcient here to relnArk that our 
Homeric texts begin first to be quoted, as we 
now have tliem» in Plato. 

f So far as we are aware, the first definite 
mention of dellcatelv-cut gems worn as seal- 
rinps occurs In the fheemankoricansm of Aris- 
tophanes (B.C. 408), where they are called e^pa- 
yidia dpivifdeaTd^ v. 427, ' worm-eaten seals.' 
There is, however, a pretty plain allusion in the 
earlier play of the Knights, v. 952. In Herod, 
jii. 41, the reference to the maker of a ring may 
refer only to the gold setting. In General Vi 
Cesnola's ' Cyprus' large numbers of Assyrian 
gems are given, and the Bubjectof their aniiqui- 
tv ie fully discussed in an appendix by Mr. 0. 

W. King. 

1 Tliere is no proof whatever that this ' won- 
>derfal shield of AchiUes.' in the Eighteenth 
Book of the Iliad was known to th^ tragic writ- 
ers in the age of pcricles. Eunploes, who 
twice Klludes to that hero's shield, must have 
had a different version of the story. See Elec- 
tra,455, Iph.' Aul. 1068, et *e?., where Achilles 
is said to have brought a shield with him from 
Greece to Troy, whereas the shield of the Iliad 
was made for Iiim after Hector had captured the 
other from Patroclus. But this * sWeld,' after 



the deer in the mantle-brooch of Ulysses, * 
Nestor's goblet, f and others, all existed in 
his time, and that he merely describes what 
he saw with his own eyes.' We are not 
denying the possibly great antiquity of the 
treasure trove, but only advocating great 
caution in accepting the view. In favour 
of it is the opinion of Mr. Newton of the 
British Museum, and generally the absence 
of all inscriptions. Again, the representa- 
tions of animals are more frequent than those 
of the human figure ; and animals are 
usuallv earlier in art than warriors or hunt- 
era. But Dr. Schlieraann himself notices 
occasionally a strong resemblance between 
some of the devices found, by him and com- 
paratively late art. In p. 175, his atten- 
tion, he says, was called to the fact that a 
lion on onid of the intaglios ' perfectly resem- 
bles the fore-part of the lion which we soe on 
the golden staters of Sardis in Lydia, which 
Borrel attributes to CrcBsus (550 b.c.).' 
Whether any genuine coins exist even of the 
age of Croesus, may very well be questioned. | 
Again, in p. 198 : ' We find round shields 
with an qmaxnentation of crescents and stars 
repretented on Macedonian coins ; but these 
can, of course, have no relation whatever to 
the Mycenian diadems, which may be twelve 
centuries older.' And in p. 95 : ' If I had 
found the last-named ornaments ' (a golden 
cross and a pendant with a ring) ^ as well as 
some of the smaller ornaments of this sep- 
ulchre, alone, I should decidedly not have 
claimed for them a very remote antiquity.' 
When we consider that, as an historical 
fact, Mycenae was destroyed b.c. 468, and 
that it is impossible to say what took place 
in that city up to that date, or what inter- 
ments may have been made, or what hon- 
ours paid to heroes deceased — for we have 
no history — there is nothing so very surpris- 
ing in finding burnt bodies and treasures in 
tombs, or the carved ffrffXai or monuments 
set above them. Plenty of illustrations of 
these customs may be found in Pindar and 
the tragics ; and who is to assert how much 
of their accounts are genuine traditions of 
the heroic times, and how much was derived 
from contemporary usages ? Were it possi- 
ble to show that the dihris covering the 
newly-found agora was itself' * prehistoric,' 
of. whatever date, the tombs imdemeath 
would, in all probability, be considerably 
earlier still. But we know that in the time 



all, like King Arthur's Round Table, is nothing 
but the sun ; and we know that it was a subject 
with the epic poets. 

* Odyssey, xix. 234. f Iliad, xi. 682. 

t The earliest mention of striking coins with 
a hainmer and a die is in the ' Suppliants ' of 
.Sschylus, V. 282. 



1878. 



Jfyeence, 



173 



of Euripides^ and^ indeed, up to 410. B.C., 
when he wrote the ' Orestes, ' the circnlar 
affora was visible to, if not actually visited 
by, him ; and we even think, from the pas- 
sages already quoted, that he saw the tomb- 
stones which he was told were those* of 
Agaftnemnon and his family. The question 
would still remain, what such a tradition — 
the same as that recorded by Pausanias — is 
really worth. 

The fact that in opening the tombs, and 
generally in the excavations, fragments of 
early pottery were found, clearly indicates 
disturbance of the site at a period later than 
the making of such pots, which were then 
treated as rubbish. . The custom of partially 
burning bodies — probably as a mere religious 
rite carried out pro fonnd — within the sep- 
ulchre itself, is, so far as we know, now first 
established by these discoveries. We hap- 
pen to know, from an incidental allusion in 
rropertius,* that jewels were thrown on the 
pyre with the dead, and sometimes even 
stolen from it. It appears that the Patago- 
nian Indians have a very similar custom. 
On the death of a chief * his property is 
burnt by the women, who are allowed, as a 
reward for their send^ei^y to snatch out of 
the bnming mass what they can get. ' f The 
ancient belief was that these, like food-ofEer- 
ings of all kinds, J were transmitted to the 
spirit in the under world through the medium 
of fire. Dr. Schliemann says, in speaking 
of the golden diadems found with three of 
^the bodies, that two of them ^ have suffered 
much from the funeral fire, which has 
blackened them so that the photographs could 
not take well. ' And again : * On all these 
diadems we recognize the fine black ashes of 
the funeral pyre sticking to the gold.' The 
burning in the tomb may, as Mr. Gladstone 



i ♦ V. 7, 9. • Et Bolltum dijrito beryllon adede- 
rat ignis ;' and 47, * Te patiente meie confiavU 
imai^nis aarom, Ardente e noBlra dotem habi- 
tura rogo.' But it may farther be inferred from 
the same e\egy (7, 8), that it wtfs not nncommmi 
only just to scorch the face and clothes of the 
deceased. For Oynthia'p ghost is thns described : 
' Eosdem habait secnm, quibns est elata, capil- 
loB, Eosdem oculos : lateri vestis adusta fait.' 
In the Odjssey (xxiv. 67) it is said that Achilles 
was committed to the pyre ' clad in the prar- 
ments of gods/ These psssagee taken together 
singularly illustrate Dr. Schliemann's discover- 
ies 

' Races of Mankind/ i. 807. 

Dr. Schliemann found oyster-shells and sev- 
eral unopened oysters in the first tomb, which 
be rightly Interprets as food left for the de- 
ceaaed. Di Cesnola ('Oypras/ p. 298) gives a 
drawing of a skeleton with the ri^ht arm 
stretehMl across the breast, and tlie hand rest- 
ing inacircular dish, and it is rather strange 
that ho should call snch a fact * inexplicable to 
him.' 



'0« 



thinks, have been done honoris causa^ subse- 
quently to the final interment. The account 
of the discovery is so interesting that we 
quote it at length. 

At a depth of fifteen feet below the level of 
the rock, or of twenty-five feet below the former 
surface of the ground, as I found it when I 
be^an the excavations, I reached a layer of 
pebbles, below which I found, at a distance of 
three feet from each other, the remains of three 
human bodies, all with the head turned to the 
east and the feet to the west. They were only 
separated from the surface of the levelled rock 
by another layer of small stones on which they 
were lying, and they had evidently been burned 
simultaneously in the very same place where 
thev lay. The masses of ashes of the clothes 
which had covered them, and of the wood 
which had partially or entirely consumed their 
flesh, as well as the colour of the lower layer 
of stones and the marks of the fire and smoke 
on the stone wall, which at the bottom of the 
sepulchre lined all the four sides, can leave no 
doubt whatever on this point. Nay, more; 
there were the most unmistakable marks of 
three distinct funeral piles. The wall, which 
at the bottom of the tomb lined its four sides, 
consisted of pretty large stones joined without 
any binding material : it was five feet high and 
one foot eight inches thick. The small stones 
with which the bottom of the sepulchre was 
strewn can, in my opinion, have had no other 
object than to procure ventilation to the fune- 
ral pyres. These could not have been large, 
and had evidently been intended to consume 
merely the clothes and partly or entirely the 
flesh of the deceased, but 7io more^ because the 
bones and even the skulls have been pre- 
served ; but these latter had sufilered so much 
from the moisture^ that none of them could be 
taken out entire. 



• In another tomb the author found * the 
mortal remains of three persons who, to 
judge by the smallness of the bones, and par- 
ticularly of the teeth, and by the ma.sses of 
female ornaments found here, must have 
been women. * All these ' had been burnt 
simultaneously, but separately and at equal 
distances from each other ; nay, in the very 
place where they now lay. The bodies 
were literally laden with jewels, all of which 
bore evident signs of the fire and smoke to 
which they had been exposed on the funeral 
pyres. ' The rather strong expression here 
used is repeated in p. 215, where we are 
told that the bodies of the five men found 
in the fourth tomb * were literally smothered 
in jewels.' Again, p. 266 : * The whole 
immense sepulchre was strewn with small 
gold leaves, of which I collected more than 
half a pound troy. ' 

Another example we must quote of Dr. 
Schliemann's enthusiasm outstripping his 
sober judgment. He tells us that when he 
brought to light two * wonderful signets,' 



m 



Mycenae. 



April, 



with devices representing a hunting and a 
battle scene, he involuntarily exclaimed^ 
* The author of the " Iliad " and the 
** Odyssey" cannot but have been bom 
and educated amidst . a civilization which 
was able to produce sunh works as these. 
Only a poet who had objects of art like these 
continually before his eyes could compose 
those divine poems.' lie adds that Mr. 
Gladstone ^ has already proved, beyond any 
doubt/ that Homer was an Achaian,' and he 
— the author — * is constantly bringing to 
light in the depths of Mycense thousands of 
additional proofs that he is perfectly right.' 

We need not stop here to remark that 
many are, nevertheless, convinced that Mr. 
Gladstone is perfectly wrong. The poems 
which formed the basis of our great epics on 
Troy were, as Curtius argues, Achaian bal- 
lads ; but 'they were put into", their present 
form, in sdl probability, by an Ionian and 
Asiatic poet, as the description of scenery 
and animals, and the geography generally, 
shows. But Dr. Schliemann is determined 
to believe that his discoveries must antedate 
B.C. 850, the ' orthodox ' date of the 
Homeric poems. 

The names of the kindred and contiguous 
cities, Tiryns and Mycena) — ^wbatever may 
be thought about the name Argos-^seem to 
be not of Hellenic origin. Like the ob- 
jects of art found there, they perhaps be- 
long to the old Accadian or Turanian rather 
than to the true Aryan stock.* If so, and 
if Mr. Taylor is correct in his conclusions 
concerning the Turanian origin of the Etrus- 
cans, we have a plain analogy between the 
Etruscan and the Mycenian tombs. Both 
are rich in gold ornaments, and in both the 
leading idea was to make the grave or buir- 
ing-vault a home and a habitation for the 
dead, and so .to furnish it with the objects 
dear to it in life, as to detain it there, and pre- 
vent its going forth to haunt cities, and to 
cause death and pestilence, f This is, 
doubtless, but a form of that devil-worship 
which, we have reason to think, in some in- 
stances preceded those higher and more 
spiritual forms of religion which looked with 
love and faith to a beneficent Creator. All 
low forms of religion are more or less con- 
cerned with the propitiation of malignant 
powers. \ The sepulchre was a room where 

^ Mr. Hyde Clarke thinks they belong to the 
Canaanlte or Hittite families. 

f ThuB an earlv Etruscan tomb at Conielo 
'eontalned not only the armour and weapons, 
but also the whole household fumltare» copper 
kettles, drinking vessels, and so forth, of a neb 
warrior.* 

} IniBschylas, Suppl. 35, the spirits of Ar^re 
heroes entombed are Invoked aa /iopvri/ioc jfioyiu 



all the household ornaments and articles of 
use or enjoyment were deposited for the nse 
of the spirit. Hence Dr. Schliemann finds 
swords, crowns, sceptres, rings, beads of 
amber, glass and rock-crystal, pottery, cop- 
per vessels of several sorts, axe-heads and 
arrow-heads, combs, needles, ivory Orna- 
ments, golden figures of birds and animals, 
a golden balance, even the remains of m lute 
and a fiute. It would be impossible to ac- 
count for such a medley of domestic articles 
on any other theory thim that of appeasing 
a spirit which was the object of fear. * 
Wrap him in his golden breast-plate, and 
put on him his golden diadem, place on him, 
round him, under him, his treasures, and 
the king on earth remains still a king, and 
has due honour in Hades.f 

Of all the curious objects f oond in these 
tombs, perhaps none are so curious aa the 
huge silver cows^ heads with golden horns, 
represented in pp. 216, 217, and the golden 
masks found on the faces of the bodies. Of 
these latter, an explanation has been suggest- 
ed in a letter in ' The Times, vis., \ that they 
were originally intended as glittering masks 
for the sun-gods, or solar heroes, such as Her- 
cules, the oal^a»Bi ^avrrfXtot^ whom we 
know to have been worshipped in the city 
of Agamemnon. § They were so ranged in 

69«a$ K^rix^vrti, ' angrily-panishinff deniaens 
of the under^world who are lying In their tombe.' 
With this Bupentitlon strong upon them, it was 
no wohder that the ancients sacrificed so maeh 
of their worldly wealth, through motivea of 
fear, not of love. On any other view we eui 
hardly eonoeive, at the present day, a man de- 
positing his box of plate in the tomb of a near 
relative. 

* In JBKh. SnppL 660, et mq„ the same cho- 
ms who before (SiS) had invoked the heroes pow. 
erful for harm, now pray that pestilence, and 
war,'and sadden deaths may be kept away from 
the dty of Argos, and that the snn-god (6 Avceioi) 
may be kind to the youth of both sezea. It was 
to obtain similar blesainsia that they put gold U 
the heroes' tombs. The same averting god, 
AvMtoi, is implored to bring goodoutof ominoiis 
dreams (Soph. £1. 645). 

f This is preelaelj what JBsehylns aaysof the 
spirit of Agunemnon In Choaph. 855. ' A mler 
Mow the earth distinguished for the awe and 
the honour in whieh you were held, a minion of 
the mighty rulers In the other world ; for yom 
were a king, while you lived, of those wlio fol- 
fil the destiny allotted them by fate, and sw^ 
the soeptra which men obey -, •'.#., yon were a 
king of kings. Cbn any deeeription better anil 
the grandeur of the entombment of Dr. ScfaUe- 
maan's kings? 

1 Dec. 20. 1877. 

% JBsch. Agam. 610. The oecnrrenee among 
ihum of a lion's-head maak, with holes oa eaa 
side for attaching it, strongly eoafimu this 
view, that they were never intended as porirmUt 
of the deceaaed. See p. 211. In Odyasey, xil« 
846, where the companlona of Ulysses art pct>> 
posing to slay some of the oxen of the San Is 



187P. 



Mycenm, 



1?<5 



the agora that their faces caught the bright 
beams of the morning sun, and fto looked 
cheery and bright {jpaidpa) on the citizens. 
The faces of such gods were plated, rather 
than merely gilded ; and we.^ know that 
among the ttlomans the gold plate {hroAitea) 
used to be picked and scrapiBdi^n by sac- 
rilegious thieves.* With x^^d to the 
golden horns of the Cow-Goddess, who was 
worshipped as lo at Arg08,f we know from 
Homer that it was the custom to adorn the 
horns of an ox about to be sacrificed on 
some very speMal occasion with thin gold 
plates. J The same principle is involved ; 
it is the bright golden colour of the sun and 
moon. This accounts for the large golden 
disk or spangle on the forehead of these 
silver heads ; for the sun himself being 
called ijXexrcopf from {jXextpoVf an alloy 
of gold and silver ; and lastly for &€{a be- 
ing invoked at once as the mother of the 
sun and the giver of gold to man. § Thus 
the golden horns of the cow are the appro- 
priate symbols of the crescent moon. But 
further ; the moon, as appearing to sink be- 
low the earth, was a Chthonian, or under- ^ 
world power. It was, therefore, a not un- 
natural act to place this mystical representa- 
tion of the goddess in the Hades of the 
grave. The same pious sentiment was ex- 
pressed in later religions, that * perpetual 
light might shine ' on the deceased. 

The lion, of which so many representa- 
tions occur in the treasures, was the badge 
of the Atridse. Hence ^Eschylus often 
alludes to it, as when he says finely that ' the 
ravening lion, leaping over the Trojan wall, 
has licked his glut of royal blood ;' and 
when he compares the vengeance wrought 
on Troy to a lion's whelp, tame at first, but 
turning savage when it has grown up. || The 
tradition of the Nemean lion slain by Her- 
cules, and bones of lions found in post-ter- 
tiary strata, might suggest the view that 

supply them with food, tbey propose, as a recom- 
1)61186, to erect to the Sun-God a rich temple, 
and place in it offerings (or images, ayd^fiara) 
many and prood. 

* Javenal, Sat. xiii. 150. 

f iBsch. Suppl. 292. The story given in this 
play is that the worsLip of lo, which is tlie 
Egyptian cow-worship of Isis, Apis, and Epaphus 
-^ad existed at Argos before it ¥»s imported 
into Egypt. Tlie probable explanation is, that 
the two kinds of worship being found to coin- 
cide, an opinion prevailed that the Qreek form 
of it, which was as probably Indian or Aryan, 
most have been identical with that of Egypt. 

t Iliad, X. 294 ; Odyssey, iii. 884, XP^^ 
Kipaatv irepixtva^, 

§ Pindar, Isthm. ir. 1. On the same prin- 
ciple, Chrysa {Xpv<T7j) was a name for the moon, 
and in the Iliad, Ghryses is the priest of the 
Sun-God, Apollo. 

I MBch, Agam. 717^ 827. 

VOL. LXVII. B— 12 



lions existed in Europe in the traditional, if 
not in the histprical, period.* But it seems 
more probable that the Asiatic descent of 
the Pelopid kings is indicated by the lion, 
as the Indian worship of Dionysius was by 
tigers or lynxes, and that of the Phrygian 
Rhea by lions, f drawing their cars through 
the various cities visited. The Lion Gateway, 
familiar to all travellers to My censB, represents 
two lions rampant, standing on each side of a 
column, which perhaps is meant for a sceptre 
surmounted by a crown.^ J It might even 
be conjectured that the two eagles conjoined, 
found as a golden ornament, and engraved 
on p. 318, allude to the two eagles sent by 
Zeus to Agamemnon and Menelatls as an 
omen on the way to Troy.§ 

Most difi&cult of all, perhaps, to explain 
are the circular disks of gold, many of them 
of very beautiful design and workmanship, 
which Dr. Schliemann, for want of a better 
name, calls * buttons. ' Of these, not less 
than 340 were found in the first tomb alone^ 
and nearly as many more in the fourth tomb. 
Some of these are larger than five-shilling . 
pieces. Many have patterns so distinctly, 
and not merely accidentally, representing 
the convolutions of a serpent, that the advo- 
cates of that theory, as one form of a uni- 
versal ancient worship, might confirm th^ir 
views by this recent discovery. || The most 
singular part of these * buttons ' is, that 
nearly all consist of thin gold plate overlay- 
ing fiat pieces of wood, or made in the shape 
of our shirt-studs, the same patterns being 
carved on the wood as appeared on tha- 

* See Herod, vii. 128. To this day lions are 
found in Lycia, as Sir Charles Fellows tells us 
(* Travels in Asia Minor,' p. 831). There was a* 
time, Indeed, when wolves and lions were the 
dread of man and the destroyers of his flocks.. 
Tlie legend of Hercules having slain the mon- 
sters, and so ' cleansed the earth,' and the invo- 
cation of Apollo the archer as the Wolf-SIayiag 
God, ^vKOKTdvoi Bedi, point to the traditions of 
such a period. 

J Lucretius, 11. 603. 
Dr. Schliemann describes it as ' a celumn 
with a capitfU formed of four circles enclosed 
between two horizontal fillets.' He giires a 
good engraving of it on p. 33. 

§ Mech. Agam. 115. They were Birieily joint 
kingi, like the two kings of Sparta. See Agam.. 
43 ; Eur. Hel. 892. 

I See especially the engravinjrs at pp. 90, 
166-7, 264-5, 322. The same might be remark- 
ed, thouffh in a lesser degree, of the ocnamenta- 
tion on the tombstones on p. 81, et seq., especially 
that given on p. 91. These have a strong 
aiOlnity to what we call Saxon or Bunic knots 
on stone crosses. If serpent-worship was ever 
a reality, it was due to fear, and to the notion 
that a mali^ant spirit took the form of that 
creature. All these notions vanish before our 
knowledge of the chemical nature of poisons. 
It appears, however, also to haim been. &.]^7uUUc 
emblem. 



176 



JfyeeniJB* 



April, 



Burface of the gold. In the third tomb, 
not less than 701 Marge, thick, round 
plates of gold ' (we should like to have been 
told their weight) were collected : these 
are evidently siihilar in character, though 
itiuch lai^r, and they have no wooden 
moulds attached. Several specimens are en- 
grraved on pp. 166-9, and their beauty and 
the ingenuity of the patterns would do credit 
to the most accomplished modem jeweller — 
if indeed he could design anything half so 
good.* Some of these represent cuttle-fish, 
others a butterfly. f Wo do not attach any 
more weight to the opinion that these are 
' miniature copies of shields ' than to the 

* button * theory. Like the clay whorls dug 
up at Troy io such numbers, the immense 
quantity and variety of these disks indicates 
some very common use. It would indeed 
be a wonderful and interesting discovery if 
it could be shown — what seems not remotely 
improbable — that they were an archuc form 
of money. Certainly, they remind us some- 
what of the ' angels ' and larger gold coins 
of our Elizabeth and James I. It is more 
likely they were sun-emblems brought as 
offerings to the temples, in which case some 
of them would naturally be formed on the 

* ahirt-stud ' principle, for attachment to 
draped statues. I 

The custom of burying the arms of a war- 
rior with the body seems to have been uni- 
versal : remains of weapons, it is well 
known, are constantly being disinterred from 
ancient tombs. The Greek poets retained 
the tradition, even if the practice had g^ne 
out in their time, which is hardly probable. 
Dr. Schliemann quotes the request of 
Elpenor to that effect, in the * Odyssey,' xi. 
74 ; the hope expressed by Ajax, in Soph- 



* Some of the Nortb-West American Indians 
are very skilful in work of tliis kind. ' I have 
M*en pieces of Jewellery made by this people 
(the Hydabs) which would not disgrace a civil- 
ised artist' ('Kaces of Mankind,' by R. Brown, i. 
80). We quote these reaemblanoes in Indian 
life as tending to indicate some common centre 
of early human development. 

t The objects on p. 176 are the egg-bags 
{foUimU, Lucret. v. BUI) of the cicada, atuclied 
t«» atbain, to be worn as amnleta. Dr. Schlie- 
mann reminds us in bin note of tbe old Ionian 
eiist«)m of wearing the golden irrasshopper in 
the lialr. *The Western (American) Indians 
tbink tbat tbe Prometheus wbo frave tbem fire 
iras ths euUU-fl9h ' (' Races of Mankind .' 1. p. 147). 

X Tbe pepluM ofltsred to Athena, in tbe Trojan 
.and aUo in the Athenian capitol, is a caae in 
point. Tbeoe golden disks may have been kept 
as a kind of sacred money in tbe treasuriea of 
tbe temples, thus preceding the daries and tbe 
Maten of much later times, At all events, the 
large number of them is most easily aeeoanted 
ior in this way. Tbe kind of art was called 
.UKpo¥9Tw. (Each. Tbeb. 548. 



ocles ;* and the baming^ of the body of 
Andronuiche's sire, with his well- wrought 
arms, iTuv erretTt SatdaXioiai^ in the 
Sixth Book of the ^ Iliad. ' f In removing 
the bodies from the sacred island of Deloa, 
in the seventh year of the Pdloponnc«an 
war, the Carians were rec<^nized by the 
style of the arms which had been buried with 
them. \ 

The so-called * treasuries ' — circular sub- 
terranean edifices of Cyclopean masonry, of 
which six exist in and near the Acropolis — 
are among the wonders of ancient Mycenip. 
They have been described by others, but 
Dr. Schliemann further explon^d one of the 
larger ones, that close to the Lions* Gate, 
without, however, finding much more than 
some archaic pottery, cow-headed images, 
and a few stone moidds. A more interest- 
ing discovery, perhaps, was the foundation 
of a spacious building of the same ancient 
masonry, a little to the south of the circular 
agora. It wan found to contain seven 
chambers, intersected by four corridors of 
four feet in breadth. The walls were from 
2 to 4^ feet thick ; the largest room, 18^ 
feet long by \^\ broad, which is the size of 
a very moderate parlour or breakfast -room 
in our town- houses. There were no aper- 
tures for windows, yet there are reasons for 
believing it was the royal palace, the same, 
possibly, as that mentioned in the ^ Elcctra * 
of Euripides, § where the people are sum- 
moned to the agora to see a portent — ^the 
ram with the golden fleece — which Thyestes 
is said to have in his house. In one of the 
chambers, at a depth of twenty feet below 
the surface, ' was found a finger ring cnt 
out of a splendid white onyx, with a seal, 
on which are represented in intaglio two 
animals without norns.' Here a«;ain the 
author's enthusiasm breaks out. These and 
similar works of art must, he is convinced, 
have been seen bv Homer himself. Why, 

• Ajax, 555. 

f V. 417. He is wrong, however, in qoollBg 
this passage — wbich describes honour done lo a 
chief slain in war — as a proof tbat tbe mnrdered 
Agamemnon was also, in direct contradiction to 
tbe tradition, interred with pomp by thorn who 
•lew biro. 'His argument is alto|retber weak : 
'It would tkertfore appear that, in baryioR 
the fifteea royal personages, with immense 
treasnries, tbe muiderers merely acted accord- 
ing to an ancient cnstom, and oonsM|oent- 
ly only fulfilled a sacred duty.' Truly, tbe 
number of ' tbe men in bnckram * has wonder- 
fully increased ainco the age of the tragic poeta. 
Still, it is dear from Odyssey xxlv. 21 that 
there was a tradition to tbat elfect. Round the 
irboet of Agamemnon, we there read, were as- 
sembled tbe splrluof those wbo 'had died with 
him In tbe house of .figisthus, and met thdr 
fate ' 
I X Tbucyd. i. 8 ; III. 104. 8 V. HI 



1878. 



Victor Hugo. 



177 



we may fairly ask, may not this ring have 
been dropped by th^ last occupant of the 
palace previous to the destruction of the 
town, B.C. 468 f, 

A more important suggestion is tliat made 
in p. 288, that the substnictions of the pal- 
ace alone were of stone, the house itself be- 
ing of wood, for the interior was filled up 
by a * tremendous quantity of yellow wood 
ashes.' This, in fact, seems to have been 
the general plan of all Greek houses, not a 
single example of which, from the perish- 
able nature of the materials, has ever been 
found on the site of any ancient city. We 
read in Pindar * that the founder of a new 
town at Camarina * rapidly fastened together 
(koXXo) a high-storied group of fixed hab- 
itations,' t.e., wooden houses not movable 
like tents. And in the account given by 
Thucydides of the demolition of Plata^a by 
the Thebans,^ we are told that they * pulled 
it all down to the basement story, from the 
foundations,' i.e.j b^inning the demolition 
(not literally, but as a figure of speech) of 
the wooden superstructure from the stone 
basement. 

Another circumstance of interest is the 
discovery of some of the original clay coat- 
ing or plastering of the palace walls, which, 
however, showed traces of ©olour. But in 
the dibrU of the agora were found frag- 
ments of wall-coating *' with painted archaic 
ornamentations of red, blue, green, or yel- 
low spiral lines. ' This enables us to explain 
a very obscurd verse in Euripides, J which 
describes the Cyclopean walls of Mycense as 
* fitted by lines ruled in red and masons' 
chisels,' i.e., by the stones being squared 
according to red marking. It is not uncom- 
mon to find the joints of the stones imitated 
on internal plaster by lines scored in red. 
We have met with this on Xorman masonry 
in churches. 

In the same Cyclopean house were found 
fragments of a very ancient vase, containing 
paintings of six warriors, with helmets, 
spears, breast-plates, and the large Argive 
or crescent-shaped shield. The style of 
drawing indicates great age. As usual, Dr. 
Schliemann explains every detail from 
Homer ; but in truth these figures have only 

• Olympia, ▼. 80. 

f III. 68. ii iCa^i vuoav iK tuv BefieXiov, 
Comfiare also i. 0. ' If the city of the LacediB- 
inonians were razed, and only the basements 
(ra tdi'n^Ti) of the houses left, in after times 
people woald not believe it had really been bo 
great.' This was the way in which houses were 
built in our own country to the time of the 
Commonwealth, and hundreds of them still 
exist. 

X Here. Parens, 915. foivact /cavovi aal tvkoi^ 
f/pfioafUva, 



that general resemblance which all paintings 
of. heavy-armed Greek warriors show on 
vases of the age of Pericles, A better test 
of antiquity is the absence of writing, and 
the very bad drawing of the faces, which 
have long pointed noses. This is, perhaps, 
about the earliest vase with the human figure 
that has yet been found, and it may date 
some seven centuries B.C., or even earlier. 

We cannot conclude our notice of this 
very interesting volume without the expres- 
sion of a hope that the antiquities themselves, 
at present, we believe, as the property of 
the Greek Government, in the Museum at 
Athens, may be exhibited, as those from 
Troy now are, in the Museum at South 
Kensington. Of course it would be better 
still if the nation would purchase them for 
the British Museum. It is true the photo- 
graphs in the present volume leave little to 
be desired. Nevertheless, the really learned 
in si^ch matters would prefer to examine the 
originals side by side, and so to form their con- 
clusions as to their history and the period or 
periods of art to which they belong. At pres- 
ent this is the greatest mysteiy of all in the 
complex problem of the how, the when, and 
the wherefore the deposits were made. That 
very early civilization existed in the East 
while Europe was still barbaric, is a fact 
more and more clearly becoming known and 
accepted. And that the sources of early 
Greek art, religion, and tradition were not 
so exclusively Aryan or Indo-Germanic as 
has been commonly assumed, is now gen- 
erally acknowledged by ethnologists. Prob- 
ably nothing in the history of discovery has 
done more to extend our knowledge of that 
ancient art than Dr. Schliemann' s successes 
in these explorations. But the ' Homeric 
question ' remains precisely where it was. 
We cannot extract history from these dis- 
coveries, and the sooner this is generally ac- 
knowledged the better for the cause of truth. 



Art. III. — Victor Hugo. 

Is he whom Tennyson calls Victor in song, 
Victor in romancty indeed only a clever, 
but eccentric and voluminous creator* of 
monsters f That, though not the opinion 
of poets, seems to be the opinion of some 
critics, English and foreign. In the * Spec- 
tator, ' a journal which, when it is in sympa- 
thy with the work criticized, unquestionably 
shows insight, Hugo was lately characterized 
as colossal, but not great ; and the dictum 
was hazarded that some reflective lines of 



178 



Victor Hugo, 



April, 



* In Memoriam ' were worth all lie had writ- 
ten put together. That the present writer 
feels completely at fault when such state- 
ments are made, he freely confesses. He 
hears them as empty sounds, without mean- 
ing ; for, though not blind to the great 
poet's faults, and to all objections that may 
be urged against him, he is nevertheless 
disposed to regard Hugo as the greatest 
European poet of our century. Tlie latest 
romance of this veteran of literature, 

* Quatre-vingt-treize, ' is surely enough to 
prove it. That a poet of Hugo's years 
should retain all the fire and intensity of 
youthful genius, while conquering for him- 
self also the moderation and artistic restraint 
of maturity, is a phenomenon rare enough 
to be remarkable. We have not in ' Quatre- 
vingt-treize ' the lurid, concentrated, and 
often grotesque horror of some of the dramas, 
or of * L' Homme qui rit. * Nor, on the other 
hand, have we the episodical and digressive 
Yoluminousness of that magnificent romance 

* Les Mis6rables. ' 

It may be well, however, to premise that 
we have spoken advisedly of Hugo as a 
poet. Those among us who appear to re- 
gard poetnr ad rhythmic sound of a special 
and very elaborate sort, into which (unfor- 
tunately) some semblance of idea and feeling 
has, if possible, also to find its hindering 
way, such persons may demur to Hugo be- 
ing called a poet. For we hold that some 
of his greatest poetic creations are in prose ; 
and that if you want dainty devices of epi- 
thet and sound, you must rather go to me- 
diaeval troubadours and troavhres, to men 
like Marini or Baudelaire, or again to sun- 
dry infusorial homologues of these in Eng- 
land and America; That the French lan- 
guage does not admit of melodious poetry 
indeed is a dictum of some critics to which 
we, who love Beranger, De Musset, and 
Ronsard, cannot subscribe. There is beauty, 
too, in the verse of Lamartine ; nor is it 
absent from that of Hugo. But by poets 
we mean imaginative creators, expressers of 
great imaginative types or ideas in appropri- 
ate verbal form ; or, again, singers with the 
heart's true lyrical cry. To those who hold 
the Art for Art theory, Hugo can hardly 
seem a poet. He is one who, like Homer, 
Shakespeare, .^Eschylus, Dante, Milton, is 
lifted high in the sphere of art by stress and 
storm of great ideas and aspirations ; he is 
in full sympathy with all the noblest ideals 
and tendencies of his time ; to him there is 
in man and nature nothing common or un- 
clean ; he is no bloodless spectre of study 
or studio, inventing, or adapting quaint 
feux d*artifiee9 of syllabic euphony. He 
cannot understand that an artist must be in- 



different to humanity, to religion, to poli- 
tics, to moral and metaphysical problems ; 
that an artist must work regardless of eternal 
distinctions in nature of high and low, good 
and bad, hideous and beautiful ; or that art, 
which may distinguish between beautiful 
and ugly in the region of sense, must lose 
all such discrimination in dealing with the 
higher sphere of spirit. To him such a 
creed, whatever might be its advantages, 
would seem inhuman, inartistic, degraded, 
and absurd. 

Let us then proceed to examine one or 
two of the chef9'd^ceuvre8 of this poet. In 
* Quatre-vingt-trei^e ' all is on the whole re- 
strained within the classic limits of highest 
art. But some seem to suppose that for art to 
be classical it must be cold and pale. Hugo 
is certainly never that. And neither are any 
of the world's masterpieces. Not thoso of 
Homer, ./Eschyhis, Sophocles, Sappho, 
Chancer, Dante, Shakespeare, Milton, Shel- 
ley, Byron, Scott, Hawthorne, Chariotte 
Bronte, George Sand, Tennyson. If these 
poets had not high genius, they would be 
justly reproached as * sensational.' Cold 
and pale works are either pseudo-classical 
imitations, or utterly insig^nificant as litera- 
ture. Racine was a true poet with fine sense 
of form ; but so far as be was cold and pale, 
he was not classical. David is cold, and 
pseudo-classical. Raphael, Michael Angelo, 
and Titian radiate life, fire, and colour from 
their canvas, true classics of pictorial art. 
Poor modem statues are very dead and cold ; 
Apollo Belvidere, and Diana in the Louvre, 
are gods that breathe, and ever do undying 
deeds in stone. Death is pale, and cold, 
and rigid ; but the touch of art makes alive ! 
And life is all varying complexity of subtle 
curve and colour. 

All this of course does not mean that 
there are not always certun general laws valid 
for, and to be found in great art, whatever 
the variety of shapes it may assume. There 
is a more complex and subtle, but as real a 
pervading unity in a perfect Gothic cathe- 
dral like Salisbury as in the Pagan Parthe- 
non of Athens. The vital variety and rich- 
ness of detail may sometimes overpower the 
sense of unity ; but this is a fault less grave 
than that the unity should be mechanical, 
dead andl>arren, without vital variety to in- 
form it. Indeed, while there is hope of 
perfection in the first case, there is no such 
nope in the last. Moreover, these beautiful 
artistic creations of detail, episode, and 
phrase, have organic unity of their own, or 
they would not be beautiful at all, although 
there be still wanting the Divine breath to 
mould them into one consummate spirit. 
But the carvings and festoonings of marble 



1878. 



Victor Hugo. 



179 



and jasper, and oaken fruiV or flower, the 
flamboyance of mullion, the jewelled dim 
radiance of silver lamp-lit shrine or altar, 
the high solemn interfluence of dark pillared 
arches — all these may form high poetry, 
though the style of the whole cathedral be 
not absolutely one and harmonious. We 
admit the turbid, yet glorious faultUiess of 
Hugo, as of Shakespeare, the rich, waver- 
ing, incompleted ascent of Gothic genius 
toward the twilight of infinity. But theirs 
is a splendid cathedral for all its imperfec- 
tion. And however imperfect, however 
erring the worship, it is a fane dedicated to 
the true God ; to Jesus Christ, His Son, our 
Lord. There men may worship the Father 
in spirit and in truth, according to the more 
or less light that is always vouchsafed to 
those who sincerely seek it. There may be 
perchance grotesque images of superstition ; 
there may even be altars to the Unknown ; 
but on the whole, the atmosphere and the 
ritual are Christian, elevated, advanced, and 
ennobling. There is nothing overtly, delib- 
erately, debasing or impure ; all tlie fair 
lines of the high arches ascend and marry 
far above our heads ; the spaces are large 
and ample ; we behold man in his heaven- 
helped progress toward the higher ideal of 
our Lord and Saviour, toward the coming cf 
Uis kingdom, toward human brotherhood 
in One — the spirit of these ideas informs the 
highest art of Christian time, whether the 
artist's formal creed be strictly orthodox or 
not. Nay, it informs the iconoclasm of 
Hugo and Lamennais more than it does 
the orthodoxy of Chateaubriand or Boileau. 
* Other foundation can no man lay than that 
is laid.' But the poetry of despair and 
materialism is in a temporary side-eddy 
merely ; for the craze of scientific material- 
ism is only that. In one sense it is doubtless 
part of the main stream ; still the grand cur- 
rent trends elsewhere. And the Ewigkeit" 
geist views tranquilly these inevitable vaga- 
ries of the Time-spirit, his daughter. 

Victor Hugo has written some splendid 
verse-poetry. But in this region he is ^er- 
liaps more unequal, and falls more below 
himself, than in any other. Much of it is 
merely declamatory and rhetorical, as French 
verse is so ^t to be. That is especially true 
of ' L' Annee Terrible. ' Yet you are never 
long without startling thrusts of genius in 
felicitous condensed epithet or line, that 
almost take away your breath with their 
memorable, incisive appropriateness and 
force. In ' L' Ann6e Terrible ' we have these 
concluding lines respecting the surrender at 
Sedan : — 

Alors la Ganle, alors la France, alors la ^loire, 
Alors Brennus, Taudace, et CIovIb, la vie- 
tolre. . . . 



Et tons les chefs de guerre, — H^ristal, Cbarle^ 

magna, 
Charles Martel, Turenne, eflfrol de TAllemagne. 
Napoleon, plus g^rand que CSsar et Pomp^e, 
Par la main d'un bandit rendirent leurs epees. 

« 

And here we have also that exquisite poem 
about Hugo's little grandchild — * La Petite 
Jeanne ' — written during the siege of 
Paris : — 

Et YouB yenez, et moi je m'en vais, et j 'adore, 
N'ayant droit qu'a la nuit, voire droit a Taurore. 
Voire blond frere George et vous, vous suffisez 
A mon ame, et je vols vos jeuz, et c'est assez ; 
Et je ne veuz, apr^s mes ^prenves sans nombres, 
Qa'an tombeau, surleqael se decoupera Tombre 
De vos berceauz dores par le soleil levant. 

Oh ! quand je vous en tends, Jeanne, et quand 

je voas Yois 
Chanter, et me parlant avec votre humble voix, 
Tendre vos donees mains an deesus de nos tetes, 
I] me semble que Tombre od grondent les tem- 

petes 
Tremble, et s'eloigne avec des rng^issemeuts 

Boards, 
Et que Dieu fait donner a la ville aax cents 

tours, 
Desempar^e ainsi qa'un navire qui sombre, . . . 
A Tunivers qui penche, et que Paris defend, 
8a b^n^iction par tin petit enfant. 

There are beautiful things about children^ 
too, in the great old poet's last volume of 
verse, * L'Art d'etre Grandpere,' notably 
* Jeanne endormie, ' and * Le Jardin des 
Plantes. ' In fact he is never higher and 
more wonderful than when writing about 
little children. The glory of the man's large 
loving Ijteart overflows whenever he beholds 
those innocents, whom the Lord took in his 
arms,and blessed with most peculiar blessing. 
And this is the writer of the scathing * Chati- 
ments.' *" J^ai/aitpeurattxpetiU homines ^^ 
he says in * L'Art d'etre Grandp^re,' 
' jamais aux petits en/ants. ' 

The design of the ^ Ld^ende des Siecles ' 
is grandiose, and there are some grand rep- 
resentative pictures in it, notably *' Canute ' 
and * Eviradnus. ' Certainly the canvases 
and designs of this master are * colossal. 
He seems to demand vast spaces for the free 
sweep of his magic brush, nor can we always 
claim for him perfect delicacy of touch, and 
perfect refinement of taste. Still his vast 
pictures are akin rather to the colossal works 
of Michael Angelo, Tintoret, and Orcagna, 
than to the colossal works of Haydon or 
Horace Yemet ; for in the prose romances 
there is little, enormous as they are, that is 
not stamped with the impress of the master. 
And yet the execution in small things is 
sometimes delicate, with all the rare felicity ' 
of Heine or De Musset. But the felicity is 
rather the unforeseen felicity of nature, as 
in Bums and Beranger. This is the song 
of the dying and h^-wandering girl. Fan- 
tine, longing to see her child before she 



180 



Victor Hugo. 



April, 



dica, in * Lea Miserables,' — a cradle-song, 
that comes to her, dying, which she used to 
sing in happier days to ner baby : — 

Nous acheteroDS de bien belles choses, 

En DOUB promenant le long des faabourjifa ! 

Les bleaets sent bleus, les roses sent roses, 

lies bleuets sont blens. j'aime mes amours. 

La Yi6rge Marie aupr^s de mon ^le 

Eat venue hier en nianteau brode, 

Et m*a dit : void, cach6 sous mon voile, 

Le petit qn'au jour tu m'as demande ! 

Coures a la ville, ayez de la toile, 

Aclietez da fil, achetex nn de I 

Nous acheterons de bien belles choses, 

En nous promenant le long des faubourgs I 

Bonne saints vierge, anprds de mon poele 
^ J'ai mis un l>erceau de rubans orn£ : 
Dien me donnerait sa plus belle etoile, 
J*aime mienx Tenfant que tu m'as donn6. 
Madame, que faire avec celte toile? 
Faites an trousseau pour mon nouveaa ne. 
Les bleaets sont blens, les roses sont roses, 
Les bleuets sont bleus, J 'a! me mes amours. 

Laves cette toile— on ? Dans la riviere : 

Faites en, sans rien gftter ni salir, 

Une belle Jupe avec sa brassiere. 

Que je venz broder et de fleurs emplir. . . . 

L'enfant n'est plus Ijl ; Madame, qu'en faire T 

Faites en an drap pour m'ensevelir ! 

Noas acheterons de bien belles choses 
En nous promenant le long des faaboargs 1 
Les bleuets sont bleus, les roses sont roses, 
Les bleuets sont bleus, j*aime mes amours. 

Still, the colossal scale on which the mas- 
ter loves to work is most characteristic ; the 
breadth of his touch, the rapidity and pro- 
fusion of his style — a profusion as of starry 
worlds ; a style resembling waves of the sea, 
sometimes, indeed, weltering dark, and 
massive, but ever and anon flashing with the 
foamy lightning of genius. The iinish, and 
rich accurate perfection of our own great 
living poet, Tennyson, are absent. Hugo 
is far more akin to Byron, but his range is 
vaster than Byron's. He has Byron's tierce 
satire, and more than Byron's humour, 
though it is the fashion to generalize, and 
say that the French have none. To this 
point we shall return. He is both a lyrical 
and epic poet. He is a greater dramatist 
than Byron ; and whether in the dramas or 
in the prose romances, he shows that rast 
sympathy with, and knowledge of, human 
nature, which neither Byron, Shelley, Cole- 
ridge, nor Wordsworth had. Scott could be 
his only rival. For in Fhmce they have 
lived dramatic lives for the last ninety years : 
we have lived much more quietly in England. 
And in France there is a real living drema. 

We need not repeat the old stoir of Hugo's 
long battle as champion of so-called Roman- 
ticism against the pseudo-classical Philistin- 
ism of academic prigs. In that battle he 
simply incarnated tno genius of his age, 
emancipating itself from the fetters of sim- 



pering incapacity, masquerading in the guise 
of ' correct taste. ' No capable person can 
deny the genius of Racine, Comeille, Vol- 
taire, Bcaumarchais. Still, Comeille was 
greater than Racine ; yet the self-laurelled* 
mumbling, official imbeciles of criticism, or 
puppies fresh from school, whom they hired 
as their bravoes, looked askance at Comeille, 
in proportion as his great limbs could not 
be confined within old-fashioned court uni- 
forms, then officially prescribed for poets. 

Voltaire was a power by the cold, keen, 
sparkling edge of his supple raillery and 
denial ; Beaumarchaisbythe salt of life, and 
grace of humour that belonged to him. 
But none of these men travailed with the 
rich and sorrowful humanity of an art, whose 
creators had passed through tremendous firea 
of an epoch-marking age. In Germany, 
Goethe and Schiller, in France, two men and 
one woman, have since stood forth as far 
greater art-creators than either of them — 
namely, Victor Hugo, Balzac, George Sand. 
One solitary figure indeed, by sheer force of 
native genius, rose to equality with these, 
and with the greatest of all time — Molidre. 
And one great writer before them foreshad- 
owed the future — Rousseau. But these 
spirits of our epoch, like Byron, Shelley* 
Scott, Keats, and Wordsworth, in England, 
having fresh, original things to say, nece^- 
sarilr made for themselves a more or less 
original way of saying them. And such 
things originating in a deepened, broadened 
current of human life, as in a fuller compre- 
hension of mankind than was possible to 
men of the corrapt, artificial, and exclusive, 
however nationally-stirring time of Louis- 
Quatorze — ^also in a heightened appreciation 
of extemal nature — ^the new creators found 
themselves drinking at the deep, eveV fresh, 
though ancient wells of Shakespeare and his 
contemporaries. Moreover, they felt and 
saw in Greek poetry, what they brought 
the power to feel and see ; that which their 
predecessors had no faculty for perceiving. 
Hence the imperious need to them, wrestling 
with great problems, palpitating with strange 
new prophecies and perceptions, of the large, 
free, Shakesperian form of art. 

We shall quote one or two instances of 
the master's satire from that trcmendoos 
book, ' Les Chfttiments.' Here is a poem 
called * Confrontations. ' 

O cadavres» paries I quels sont vos assassins T 
Quel les mains ant plonge ces stylets dans tos 

seinst 
Tol d'abord qao je Tois dans cette ombre apfia- 

raltre, 
Ton nom T — Religion — Ton meartrier t — La 

pretre. 
Yoas, vos noms? — Probity, Pudeor, Raisoa, 

Verta. 



1878. 



Vidcr Hugo. 



ISl 



Et qui vons egorprea ? It'EjrliBe— Toi, qu'es-tu ? 
Je 8uis la Foi pabliqae— et qui t'a poignardee ? 
Le Serment — Toi, qui dors de ton sang inond^e ? 
Mon nom etait Jnstice— et quel est ton bourreau ? 
Le jug^— et toi, geant, saus glaive en ton fonr- 

rean, 
Et dont la boue eteint raur^ole enflammee ? 
Je XD'appelle Austerlitz. Qui ta tue ? L'armee. 

^ Ad majorem Dei gloriam ' is fierce, scath- 
ing, annihilating as Swift, Juvenal, or Byron. 
It is an arraignment of tlie Church of Rome 
and her priests. 

Nous garroteroDB Tame an fond d'une ca- 

verne. ... 
Alora dans Tame humalne obscurity profonde ! 
Sar le neant des ccears le vrai pouvpir se fonde ! 
Toat ce que nous voudrons, nous le ferons sans 

bruit. 
Pas an souffle de voix, pas un battement d'aile 
Ne remnera dans Tombre, et notre citadel le 
Sera comme ane tour plus noire que la nuit. 

NooB re^rnetons. La tourbe obeit comme Tonde. 
Nons serona tout-paissants, nous regirons le 

monde 
Nous possederons tout, force, gloi re, et bonheur ; 
Et nous ne craindrons rien, n'ayant ni foi, ni 

raffles. . . . 
Quand vous liabiteriez la montagne des aigles, 
Je voos arracherais de la, dit le Seigneur I 

To the dead of the 4th of December, he 
cries : — 

Gr&ce au quatre Decembre, aujourdliui, sans 

pensee, 
Voas gisez etendus dans la fosse glacee, 

Sons les linceuls epais. 
O morts, Vlierbe sans bruit croit sur vos cata- 

* combes ; 
Dormez dans vos cercueils ! taisez vdus dans vos 

tombes! 
' L'Empire, c'est la pais.' 

And again every word of * Le Te Deum ' is 
a thunderbolt. These are the two last verses, 
addressed to the priest who chaunted the 
Te Deum of Ist January, 1852 : — 

Ton diacre est Trahison, et ton sous-diacre est 
Vol: 
• Vends ton Dieu, vends ton &me I 
Alions, coiffe ta mitre, aliens, niets ton llcol, 
Chante, vieux pretre Infame I 

Le Meurtre a tes cdt^s suit Toffice divin, 

Criant : feu sur qui bouge ! 
Satan tient la burette, et ce n'est pas de vin 

Que ton ciboire est rouge. 

*' A un martyr ' shows the poet's perfect 
reverence for our Saviour, while he slings 
syllables of fire at the Church, which ac- 
cepted *' the bandit ' for its patron. It is, 
we think, in these brief eagle-swoops of 
fierce song that the sound of the poet's 
verse is most striking. It has the resonant, 
quick tramp of irresistible battalions. In 
' L' Homme k ri,' and elsewhere, he reveals 
how he believes in the power, and 8ur^•ival 
for great ends of his ow^n verse. And to 
those who fancy Hugo is always over- ver- 
bose, or invertebrate, we commend the 



' Chatiments, ' and the dramas. The former 
are short, swift, concentrated, -and deadly as 
a fiash of lightning. See the terrific severity, 
where every word tells, and none is merely 
for effect — ^a stern brief severity as of Con- 
science herself speaking — in ^ Sacer esto.' 
But it is the loftiest moral indignation that 
bums and scalds in this poetry ; no feigned 
false fire of artificial rhyme-mongery. 
Warm generous human blood is in this poet« 
Read 'A un qui veut se detacher !' 

In the dramas, however, you have also 
complete vital concentration. That they are 
justly open to other charges we think is true. 
They are sometimes French, rather than 
human — seeking too ostentatiously striking 
melodramatic situations, sometimes laying 
bare a horror that is too raw and thrilling, 
sometimes revealing a Dora's Ipve of the mon- 
strous and grotesque. From this point of 
view some exception might be taken to 

* Marie Tudor,' even to * Ruy Bias,' * Her- 
nani,' and ^ Lucretia Borgia,' three of the 
most powerful dramas. But the finest in 
our judgment are ' Le Roi s'amuse ' and 

* Marion Delorme. ' Yet the impression left 
by * Le Roi s'amuse ' is too thrillingly hor- 
rible, like that of ' Lucretia Borgia. ' lU 
power and fascination, however, can hardly 
be surpassed : indeed, the unity of motive 
and action in all Hugo's plays is generally 
perfect, and they are admirably fitted for the 
TYiodem stage, their movement being rapid 
and stirring, the most minute directions also 
being given by the author for the mise en 
schie, with an admirable eye to pictorial and 
scenic effects. For reading, truly, the many 
startling surprizes seem often too caiculatedly 
theatrical. There is very little so-called 
' poetic diction ' in the dramas ; that is to 
be remarked : in the eyes of our latest 
ornate school of decadence in England they 
must seem too natural, too direct, too 
human. All the personages do not talk the 
same sonorous euphuism. Hugo dares to 
write what penny-a-liners call * bald, ' when 
he sees it to be appropriate. Perhaps it 
may be partly owing to this that the naked 
realism of his horror sometimes shocks, as 
an equal horror does not in Shakespeare, 
whose fault, however, as Matthew Arnold 
has dared to say, is, though not of course to 
the same extent as in our modem writers, a 
sonaewhat indiscriminate euphuism of dic- 
tion. For the most part,indeed,Shakespeare 
varies rhythm and diction with the situation, 
and sense. But there is a helpless wound- 
ing sense of cmel, overwhelming destiny for 
the good, and rampant triumphant evil, in 
' Le Roi s'amuse, ' which prevents its attain- 
ing rank among the highest works of art. 
For we will not admit the new-fangled doc- 



182 



Vidor Hugo. 



April, 



trine, that, so long as the form is good/ the 
substance is of no consequence, and that art 
may say anything, however absurd, false, 
or atrocious, provided she says it prettily. 
Art falls below herself, and unduly narrows 
her own scope, if she become a prude ; yet 
if she distort nature, or the grand spiritual 
laws that underlie and form nature, she is no 
longer Art at all, but at best a harlot^masque- 
rading in the guise of Art. She may not so 
one-sidedly and persistently misrepresent 
things as virtually, even if not by set phrase, 
to become pander for * the ape and tiger ' 
in humanity. The Divine Artist, who speaks 
through conscience and the human heart, 
does not ignore morality ; he who does so 
remains for ever outside the domain of high 
art, however swiftly his deft fingers travel 
over the whole gamut of men's lusts, hatreds, 
and chicaneries. True Art is the handmaid 
of heaven ; and however solicitous her pro- 
fessed friends may be to obtain for her the 
situation, she respectfully declines to become 
procuress of hell. All this does not touch 
Hugo, 'though it was indirectly suggested by 
' Le Roi s'amuse. ' The subject of that play 
is briefly as follows. The gallant and hand- 
some Francis I. has seduced the daughter 
of an old nobleman, and the hideous court 
dwarf, Triboulet, has encouraged this, as 
well as the rest of his master's vices, mock- 
ing openly the father's agony and tears. 
He is deformed in body and soul, and thus 
avcncres himself on the more favoured fei- 
low-mortals who cast him out. The father 
curses Triboulet ; and it happens that he 
has one tender place, one link indeed to vir- 
tue and salvation, his own daughter. Now 
the king, who spares none, spares not her. 
Triboulet keeps her carefully concealed from 
the king, but the latter finds her out, and 
corrupts her also. Then Tiiboulet bums 
with hatred against his master, and plots his 
destruction. He is to be lured into a coup- 
gorge and murdered. The sister of the 
bravo, however, takes pity on the sleeping 
king, persuading her brother to murder the 
first comer instead, and to hand the body to 
Triboulet in a sack, as the object of his re- 
venge. Now Triboulet' s daughter loves her 
seducer, and overhearing this, she resolves 
to save the king at the cost of her own life. 
She is killed, and handed over to her father, 
who gloats over what he supposes to bo the 
corpse of his child's '^betrayer. But a flash 
of lightning reveals to him the corpse of his 
child ; and his maddened agony now, as 
before his bitterness, misery, fiendish rage, 
and satiate revenge are wonderfully depicted 
— ^as also the beautiful light cruelty of Fran- 
cis. Yet we have a pained sense of inno- 
cence made victim, of the prosperous tyrant 



laughing'on, of the consummation of nature's 
hatred wreaked on this deformed man, who 
might be redeemed, one hoped, through 
his love. True, the retribution on him for 
having scoffed at the other father is just, 
and one's hatred changes to pity. There is 
nothing really immoral here. Tliis is the 
effect the poet intended ; there is indeed 
hope even for this Triboulet, while there is 
retribution also. Certainly what is odled 
' poetical justice ' is an utterly mistaken 
contrivance ; substituting our own shallow 
justice for God's — though even that has its 
justification in a healthy artistic as well as 
moral instinct. Moreover, it may be said 
there is the same oppressive sense of doom 
in 'King Lear,' or 'Hamlet.' Yet in 
Shakespeare there is a large air, a light and 
heat of essential poetry, that clears this at- 
mosphere of oppression, we scarce know 
how. There is a palpable suggestion of in- 
finite horizons beyond the slaughter-house 
of this world ; a feeling" conveyed, however 
indistinctly, of a holy Mystery that sur- 
rounds and sanctifies — this mortal scene be- 
ing but the antechamber of God's eternity. 
The rest is silence ; but an awe falls upon us, 
and we put our shoes from our feet, for we 
stand upon holy ground. Around the sub- 
lime anguish of Lear and Cordelia tliere 
abides a dim tranquil aureole, as around 
those piteous natural casts of distorted Pom- 
peian corpses, when lately brought to light, 
there brooded the blue heaven, and warm 
hazy horizons of Southern landscape. 
Hugo too often concludes with a terrible 
mad shriek of helpless anguish — a discord : 
the agony is too crude, too harrowing, too 
poignant. The emotions are liardly *" puri- 
fied ;' they are only lacerated through * pity 
and terror.' Those other inferior, 'though 
still potent jElizabethans, they likewise do 
not rise to these Shakesperian and Sopho- 
clean heights of moving, yet tranquillizing 
tragedy — not even Webster, nor Marlowe. 
Whatever the great world-poet's creed, and 
whatever the fierce writhings of his strong 
nature in doubt and revolt, he had/a«<A in 
the Divine order : the greatest Greeks had 
it also ; and so has Hugo. But the breath 
of faith does not seem here to dominate his 
art. Yet there is necessary for high art 
some kind of * Katharsis, ' some kind of rec- 
onciliation of moral elements, or upward 
tendency, to give that restful sense of har- 
mony which art demands. We cannot bear 
to finish upon a discord. If there be no 
' morality ' indeed, the whole work is apt 
to seem one long series of discords, and 
there can only be harmony in the strange 
sense that between a series of discords there 
must of course be some kind of concord. 



ISIS. 



Victor Hugo. 



183 



Here is no permanent material out of which 
to frame a permaoently satisfying work of 
art. We have at best an elaborate structure 
■with sugar, or with cards, rife with all bias 
toward disintegration. Lower elements are 
certainly needed to give variety and move- 
ment ; but the binding, transforming power 
is still more needed. We cannot dispense 
with the loftiest, most satisfying harmony 
man is capable of conceiving. As religion 
and philosophy, practically and dogmaticaJly, 
so art imaginatively, supplements the bewil- 
dering moral mysteries of life. This is not, 
of course, to endorse the strange opinion of 
some Gennan critics, that Shakespeare had 
a series of copy-book maxims in his head, 
which he wrote his plays to illustrate. Yet 
the more reflective, analytical, philosophical 
bias of our own day will necessarily influ- 
ence our greatest poets, and perhaps not 
altogether to their advantage as artists. 
You may learn from the artist, albeit indi- 
rectly ; the image, the story, and the type, 
or teaching, grow up together as one vital 
unity in his soul. 

' Marion Delorme, ' however, seems to us 
among the greatest of extant dramas. 
Marion is a woman of light love, a cele- 
brated courtezan. A young man of high 
and austere character meeting her, without 
knowing who she is, but taking her for a 
chaste maiden, indeed creating around her 
the ideal of young love, believes in and 
adores her. She is at first half amused, half 
astonished ; the experience is something new 
to her, but she conceals from him her real 
ch