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Full text of "British wild flowers"

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BRITISH 

WILD FLOWEES 

ILLUSTRATED 

BY 

JOHN E. SOWERBY. 

DESCRIBED, 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND A KEY TO THE NATURAL ORDERS, 
* BY 

C. PIERPOINT JOHNSON. 



RE-ISSUE : 



TO WHICH IS NOW ADDED 

A SUPPLEMENT 

CONTAINING 180 FIGURES OF LATELY DISCOVERED 
FLOWERLNG PLANTS. 

By JOHN W. SALTER, A.L.S., F.G.S. 

AND THE 

FERNS, HORSETAILS, AND CLUB-MOSSES. 
By JOHN E. SOWERBY. 




LONDON: 
JOHN VAN VOORST, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

MDCCCLXXVI. 



LIBRAR / 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 






PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS. 
RKD LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



BRITISH WILD FLOWERS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



It is not the object of the present work to teach the science of 
Botany, or even to furnish a treatise upon the natural history and 
classification of the flowering plants of the British Islands. The 
first, like all other branches of natural knowledge, is an abstruse 
and complicated study, to which there is no ' royal road,' and the 
pursuit of which, however pleasing, involves the diligent perusal 
of many volumes, with close and unremitting attention to that 
Great One whose pages lie ever open before us : the last, though 
a less comprehensive subject, would demand far more space for its 
elucidation than can be accorded to it here. Intended merely as a 
volume of reference for the field-botanist, the country resident or 
summer rambler, when works of more pretension are not at hand, 
our book can comprise little more descriptive matter than is abso- 
lutely necessary, with the assistance of the plates, to identify each 
plant. Those who are desirous of acquiring an intimate knowledge 
of the structure and affinities of the vegetable kingdom we must 
refer to the compendious treatises of Lindley, Balfour and others ; 
while the student of the British Flora will find detailed descrip- 
tions of each species, and most of the information that has been 
accumulated on the subject, in the * English Botany ' and other 

b 



works to which references are given. But as this book may pro- 
bably fall into the hands of many who, while they have no previous 
acquaintance with botanical science and little leisure or inclination 
for its study, are yet desirous of learning the names of the flowers 
they meet with in their walks, it may be advisable to add a few 
lines explanatory of the general structure of flowering plants, which, 
with the Glossary of terms, will probably enable any educated 
person, however unscientific, to understand the descriptions given 
in the body of the work. 

The vegetable kingdom is naturally divided into two great sec- 
tions, the plants of which, while exhibiting for the most part con 
siderable difi^erences in internal structure, are more remarkably 
distinguished by the mode in which they propagate their kind. 
Those of one division possess no distinct flowers or seeds in which 
the germ of the future plant is enveloped, but multiply by means 
of minute cellular bodies called spores. Those of the other have 
distinct floral organs and produce seeds properly so called. The 
former section, called by botanists Cryptogamia, includes Ferns, 
Mosses, Lichens, Seaweeds and Fungi, with some other vegetables 
not comprised under these designations ; the latter, the Phanero- 
gamia or Flowering Plants, to the British species of which our 
present book alone refers. 

A plant, in this, its more highly developed form, usually consists 
of four distinct parts, which, while they are all modifications of the 
same organic type, consisting of cells and vessels variously arranged, 
have yet very different offices assigned them in the (Economy of 
Nature. They are the root, stem, leaves, and flower. 

The root is the organ by which the plant absorbs nutriment 
from the soil; it generally consists of a number of branches, 
whence various small fibres spring and penetrate into the sur- 
rounding earth in search of the nourishment, principally absorbed 
by their tender extremities. Where this form prevails, the root is 



Ill 



said to be fibrous. In some cases, however, the vessels of the root 
form a thickened mass, from which the absorbent fibres diverge, 
and to which various names are given according to its shape and 
proportions ; the most common varieties being the tap-root, where 
it descends in a tapering form into the ground, as in the Radish 
and Parsnip, and the tuber, in which it forms several more or less 
irregular, rounded masses, as in the Orchis and Potato. In the latter 
vegetable, however, the tuber is considered by botanists to be a 
modification of the stem, and not a root in the strict sense of the 
word. The same is the case with the leafy bulbs of the Lily and 
Onion, and the corm or solid bulb of the Crocus, and some other 
subterranean portions of plants to which the name of root is ap- 
plied in common language. In this work the word is used in its 
popular meaning. 

The stem is that portion of the plant which, rising from the 
root, supports the leaves and flowers. In some plants it is wanting, 
being represented only by the thickened rim or apex of the root 
from which the leaves and flower-stalks proceed, as in the Dande- 
lion; in other instances it creeps along the ground, as in the Iris, 
when it is called a rhizome. The stem is in all cases formed of 
the vessels that descend from the leaves and flowers to the root, 
and in which the sap circulates, and the various juices and secre- 
tions of the plant are elaborated. In some plants it dies down 
every year, fresh stems rising to supply its place the following 
season ; the plant is then termed herbaceous. In other vegetables 
it becomes a permanent portion of the plant, the leaf-buds con- 
tinuing to send down their fibres through it as long as growth 
lasts, and thus producing the substance we call wood ; the plant is 
then a tree or shrub. Whether the stem be herbaceous or perma- 
nent, the buds which produce the leaves and branches are formed at 
certain points on its surface called nodes, where a change of direc- 
tion takes place in the fibres ; the space between being termed an 
internode or joint. 

b2 



IV 



The manner in which the fibres descend from the buds through 
the stem differs in different classes of vegetables, and two of these 
modes require a short notice, as a most important division of the 
flowering plants is partly founded upon them. If we examine 
the stem of a Palm when cut transversely, we shall find it presents 
a dotted appearance, as in Fig. 1, the dots being sections of the 
vessels descending from the leaves, in their way to the root. 
There is no distinct bark, the stem being covered by a mere rind 
or cuticle ; and the wood itself is the same throughout, the fibres 
being only rather closer together towards the outer portion. Stems 
of this class are called endogenous, or inward-growing. If we take 
a section of the branch of an Oak, or any of our forest trees, we 
find a veiy different arrangement. The wood presents a series of 
concentric circles surrounding a centi'al column of pith, from which 
numerous rays diverge towards the bark, as in Fig. 2. In stems 
of this kind the fibres or bud-rootlets descend each year on the 
outside of the previously formed wood, between the latter and the 
bark, and thus each circle represents the annual growth of the 
stem. The bark is distinct and highly organized, consisting of an 
inner portion, formed of vessels descending from the leaves and 
can'ying off their secretions, and an outer mass made up of the 
growth of previous years, filled up with cellular tissue. Stems 
presenting this aspect are termed exogenous, or outward-growing. 
These forms characterize the two great families or classes into 
which the flowering plants are divided, named from the circum- 
stance Endogens and Exogens. The endogenous plants of this 
country have nearly all annual stems, and most of the exogenous 
ones being likewise herbaceous, it is not always easy for the un- 
practised observer to distinguish the difference in their internal 
structure ; but there are other peculiarities by which they are more 
readily recognized, as will be presently noticed. 

The leaves are the breathing organs of the plant, and, like the 
lungs of an animal, they are formed of a number of vessels 



ramifying in every direction, by which the sap is brought into 
contact with the air. These vessels are arranged in two sets ; the 
upper one, in exogenous plants, communicating with the vessels of 
the wood, and the lower with those of the bark. The nutriment 
taken up by the root passes through the upper series to the upper 
surface of the leaves, and after undergoing the necessary chemical 
changes, returns by the lower through the bark to the root, 
depositing various secretions by the way. The spaces between the 
vessels are filled up with cellular matter, in which numerous minute 
pores establish communication between the fluid in the vessels and 
the air ; they are chiefly on the under suiface in most plants. 

In exogenous plants the principal fibres or veins of the leaf branch 
ofi" from a central vein or midrib, distributing themselves in 
numerous net-like ramifications over the whole leaf, as in Fig. 3. 
In plants with endogenous stems, on the other hand, they are 
usually arranged in a parallel series, diverging from the stalk and 
uniting again at the apex of the leaf, being connected during their 
course only by minute cross-veins at right angles to the others, as 
in Fig. 4. The leaves are generally supported on a stalk called a 
petiole, but are sometimes stalkless, or, to speak technically, sessile. 
At or near the base of the petiole two or more leaf-like appendages 
are often found, to which the name of stipules is given. The angle 
between the leaf and the stem is called the axil, and is the place 
where the bud of the ensuing growth is developed. In some few 
plants the buds drop off, and falling on the earth become bulbs, 
and thus propagate the plant, as in the Tiger Lily ; a bulb is, in 
fact, only an underground bud. 

Leaves are either simple, or composed of a number of leaflets 
arranged upon the same stalk, when they are styled cojnpound. 
Simple leaves are either entire, or variously cut and divided ; but 
their forms are far too numerous to admit of mention here, and 
for the explanation of the technical terms by which botanists have 
been compelled to distinguish the diversified figures of these im- 



VI 

portant organs we must refer the reader to the Glossary. Leaves 
in the axils of which flower-huds are developed are called bracts; 
they are frequently of different form to the other leaves of the 
plant, and are sometimes membranaceous or scale-like. 

The leaves of most woody plants in this country drop from the 
stem in the autumn, or are deciduous; and though the Holly, Pine, 
and some other trees and shrubs retain their old leaves until the 
new ones are formed in the ensuing spring, and are consequently 
evergreen, all our trees change their leaves at some period of the 
year. 

Leaves are arranged in various ways upon the stem ; but 
generally they are alternate, or situated singly at each node, on 
alternate sides of the stem, or in a spiral manner, — a mode of 
growth to which there appears to be a general tendency in plants, 
probably the result of the two movements of lateral and longi- 
tudinal growth proceeding at the same time at right angles to each 
other, in accordance with a well-known mechanical law. In many 
plants the leaves are opposite, or arranged in pairs on opposite sides 
of the stem ; and in some they are in whorls, a number being 
situated in a circle round each node. The leaves of climbing plants 
are often furnished with elongated appendages called tendrils, by 
which they cling to the stems or other objects near them; the 
petioles in other cases twine in a similar manner, as in the Clematis 
of our hedges. 

These organs are all employed in preserving the life of the vege- 
table and fulfilling the various functions of its existence. Their 
form and appearance are often of great importance in botanical 
classification, particularly in distinguishing species, but must be 
considered of secondary value, as regards systematic arrangement, 
to those organs of reproduction forming the most conspicuous 
feature of the flowering plants, and upon the characters of which 
the arrangement and classification of this portion of the vegetable 
kingdom chiefly depend. 



Vll 



A flower, in its most perfect form, consists of an outer envelope 
composed of several leaf-like divisions called the calyx, an inner series 
of similar leaves called the corolla, and a number of small bodies 
situated within these denominated stamens and pistils. The usual 
arrangement of these parts may be seen in Fig. 5. The outer 
series of leaves, forming the calyx, are termed sepals ; they are 
usually green. The leaves of the inner series, or corolla, are called 
petals, and, being generally highly coloured, form the most con- 
spicuous part of the flower; in our figure they are of the same 
number as the sepals and alternate with them, but in many flowers 
several series of petals are developed. The calyx is sometimes 
coloured like the corolla, and can then only be distinguished from 
the latter by its position, as in Lilies and most other endogenous 
flowers ; the floral leaves are then collectively styled a perianth. 
Where only one series of floral leaves is present, it is considered as 
a calyx, whether coloured or not. Sometimes the calyx is deciduous, 
that is, it falls off before the flower opens, as in the Poppy tribe, 
and- in some plants both calyx and corolla are wanting. The 
sepals are occasionally united at their base into a tube, and the 
same is frequently the case with the petals, as in the Foxglove, 
Primrose, and many other flowers. The calyx is frequently re- 
duced to a mere rim, as in some of the Umbelliferse ; while in the 
Compositse, the order to which the Dandelion and Thistle belong, it 
is represented only by a circle of hairs or scales beneath the corolla, 
and is then denominated o. pappus. In the Grasses there is no regular 
calyx or corolla, these envelopes being represented by two series of 
scale-like bracts, the outer of which are called glumes, the inner 
palece. Sometimes, as in the Calla and the wild Arum of our 
hedges, the floral organs are enclosed in one large bract, which 
receives the name of a spathe. 

The petals are usually equal in number to the sepals, or some 
multiple of that number, and such flowers are called by botanists 
symmetrical; when the contrary is the case the flower is said to 



vm 



be unsymmetrical. The petals are often very different in form and 
size, and the flower then becomes irregular, as in the Snapdragon, 
Foxglove, and Monkshood. One peculiar form of irregular flower 
prevalent in the Leguminosse or Pea tribe is known q.% papilionaceous, 
from a fancied resemblance of the petals to a butterfly with its 
wings expanded. Tlie upper of the five petals, usually larger than 
the rest, termed the vexillum, is somewhat curved backwards ; the 
two lateral ones are called ala or wings ; while the two lower, which 
are united slightly by their margins, are styled the carina, or keel. 
Attached to the petals, or between them and the stamens, are 
sometimes found small processes of various form, to which the 
name of nectaries is usually given. 

The stamens are arranged within the petals, in one or move 
whorls. They consist generally of a long slender column or 
filament bearing a small body at the apex called the anther, 
which contains the pollen or powdery matter by which the seed 
is fertilized. This anther is usually two-celled, but sometimes 
one-celled, and the manner in which the cells open to discharge 
their pollen is often a most important character in distinguishing 
plants. The stamens are sometimes united by their filaments into 
a column with the pistil, or into several groups, and in some plants 
the anthers are similarly connected. The anther is the only 
essential part of the stamen, the filament being often wanting. 

The pistil is the body through which the fertilization of the seed 
takes place. There is sometimes only one, and sometimes many ; 
they always occupy the centre of the flower. A pistil generally 
consists of a club-shaped or variously divided process called the 
stigma, supported on a column termed the style, by which it com- 
municates with the ovary or embryo seed-vessel at its base; the 
style, however, is often absent. 

Like all other parts of the flower, the ovary is formed of modified 
leaves variously arranged. Sometimes it consists of one leaf with 
the margins united so as to form a vessel in which the seeds are 



Tnt7vdiM:tMrn Piai& 2. 




IX 



contained, — these latter, called in their immature state the ovules, 
being attached to the adherent margins of the folded leaf (Fig. 6). 
The vessel thus formed is denominated a carpel ; the line of ad- 
hesion is termed the ventral suture, that opposite to it, representing 
the midrib of the leaf, the dorsal suture. In many flowers two or 
more carpels are united, the edges of each carpel-leaf being curved 
inwards, forming divisions more or less complete, called dissepi- 
ments (Fig. 7). In every case the ovules are attached to the ovary 
by means of a substance called the placenta, formed partly of a 
prolongation of the vessels of the leaf, partly of cellular tissue 
connected with that of the style ; by the former they receive their 
nourishment, while through the latter their fertilization is ac- 
complished. When these placentas all meet in the centre, forming 
with the dissepiments a perfect division between the carpels, the 
ovary becomes, of course, two- or many-celled ; the united placentas 
are then said to be central or axile (Fig. 8). When they form by 
their junction a distinct column in the middle of the cavity, they 
are styled free and central (Fig. 9) ; when they appear as mere 
projections from the sides of the vessel, they are called parietal, 
as in the Poppy (Fig. 10). The ovules are attached to the placenta 
by means of a small appendage of that organ, to which the name 
of funiculus is given. 

The ovary is sometimes adherent to the tubular portion of the 
calyx, so as to appear below the teeth or sepals of the latter ; it is 
then termed inferior, the calyx being superior (Fig. 11). When 
free in the middle of the flower, it is called superior, the calyx 
becoming infei'ior (Fig. 12). 

In the Coniferse or Fir tribe and a few other plants there is no 
ovary, — the ovules being produced without any covering, in the axils 
of the modified bracts or leaves which form the con£, or covered 
only by those leaves converted into a fleshy substance as in the 
so-called berries of the Juniper and Yew. 

In some plants the ovaries and the stamens are contained in 

c 



distinct flowers, then termed unisexual. They are either upon the 
same plant, or monoecious, or upon different plants, when they are 
styled dioecious. 

The manner in which the fertilization of the ovules takes place 
is still involved in much obscurity. It is, however, certain that the 
contact of the pollen with the stigma is necessary for its accom- 
plishment ; and this end is attained by Nature in various ways. In 
some instances the filaments of the stamens are endowed with a 
peculiar irritability, which causes them, when touched by insects or 
otherwise, to bend towards the stigma and discharge the contents 
of the anthers ; this is the case with the flowers of the Barberry. 
In the Stinging Nettle the filaments are curved spirally within the 
calyx, and, when the latter expands, spring up suddenly and scatter 
the fertilizing grains over the adjacent pistils. In many plants the 
elastic coat of the anther itself performs a similar office, and the 
liberated pollen floats in clouds and becomes deposited upon the 
Qtigmas ; in Pine woods, during the flowering season, the air is 
frequently filled with the minute yellow grains of pollen thus dis- 
charged. That of monoecious and dioecious plants is often con- 
veyed to the pistils by the bees and flies attracted by the honey in 
the flowers, and whose bodies are usually furnished with hairs, to 
which the grains readily adhere. The pollen-grains, however, con- 
veyed to the stigma, are retained upon that organ by means of a 
viscid fluid secreted upon its surface, and, after remaining there a 
short time, send forth tubes, which, piercing the substance of the 
pistil and penetrating into the ovary, impregnate the ovules therein 
contained. 

The numerous hybrids of some flowers so abundantly raised by 
the florist are produced by the contact of the pollen with the 
stigmas of distinct species of the same genus. Similar varieties 
are not uncommon in Nature ; but they rarely produce seed, and 
consequently these abnormal forms seldom become permanent. 

The ovary, when matured, becomes the fruit of the plant, and 



XI 



either discbarges Its perfected ovules through openhigs made iu the 
vessel, or drops to the ground and decays, allowing the seeds to 
germinate. The mode of opening, technically called dehiscence, is 
often an important characteristic; non-opening seed-vessels are 
said to be indehiscent. 

There is a great variety of form and structure in the fruit of 
plants; but we can here notice only some of the more frequent 
kinds. A dry fruit dehiscing by valvular openings or pores is 
termed a capsule, as in the Poppy and Foxglove. A siliqua is a cap- 
sule opening by two valves and leaving the seeds attached to a 
membranous frame or replum formed by the placentas in the 
centre, as in the Wall-flower and other Cruciferse ; when short and 
thick, it is called by some writers a silicida. A legume or pod is a 
fruit formed of one carpel bearing a row of seeds along the united 
margins of the leaf, and opening by both sutures, as in the Pea and 
Broom ; the term pod, however, is often given to the siliqua of 
Cruciferse and to other fruits which resemble the legume externally. 
K follicle is a pod opening only by the ventral suture, or that along 
which the seeds are attached, as in the Larkspur; it is usually pro- 
duced in flowers bearing several pistils, two or more follicles con- 
stituting the fruit. Among the indehiscent varieties may be men- 
tioned the achcenium, a one-seeded carpel with a separable covering, 
generally, like the follicle, found several together, as in the Butter- 
cup ; the nut, a hard one-celled fruit, containing a single seed ; the 
drupe, a fleshy fruit enclosing a nut-like seed-vessel, as in the 
Cherry ; the berry, in which the seeds are imbedded in a pulpy 
mass, as in the Hawthorn fruit ; and the pome or apple, where the 
adherent calyx forms, with the outer covering of the ovary, a succu- 
lent body in which are cells containing the seeds. 

The seed consists of the embryo or young plant, surrounded 
usually by a quantity of matter stored up for its nutriment, called 
albumen, and enclosed in a testa or cuticle. The albumen is of 
various consistence, — -farinaceous, as in Wheat; fleshy, as in the 

c3 



XII 

Hazel-nut ; or horny, as in tlie Date and Coffee. Sometimes it is 
not present, the testa then enclosing the embryo alone, and the 
seed is said to be exalbuminous, as in the Bean and Almond. The 
embryo is formed of a radicle and plumule, the rudiments respect- 
ively of the root and stem of the future plant, and the cotyledons, 
which eventually become its first or seed-leaves. In Exogens these 
cotyledons are generally two m number ; but in a few instances 
several are situated in a whorl around the plumule. In Endogens 
there is only one present ; and the plumule, usually hidden by it 
while in the seed, rises, after germination, from a small slit at its 
base. These two great divisions of the flowering plants have, from 
this circumstance, been also termed Di-cotyledons and Mono-coty- 
ledons. The embryo being frequently very minute, it is often 
difficult to distinguish its nature until after germination ; its two 
principal forms may be better understood by reference to the Plate. 
Fig. 13 represents a Bean with its testa and one of the cotyledons 
removed, showing the other with the small plumule and radicle at 
its base. Fig. 14 is the young plant after germination has taken 
place: the testa is thrown off; the cotyledons have expanded; 
and the radicle is extended downwards into the ground. Fig. 15 
is a section of a grain of Wheat, a monocotyledonous seed, with the 
embryo lying on one side of the farinaceous albumen, which here 
forms the principal contents of the testa. In fig. 16 the grain has 
germinated ; and the single, long, pointed cotyledon is rising, the 
plumule emerging from the slit at its base, while the radicle is ex- 
tending in the contrary direction. The form and position of the 
embryo, however, vary very much in both monocotyledonous and 
dicotyledonous plants, and afibrd to the systematic botanist a most 
valuable point of distinction between different families. At that 
part of the seed where it is attached to the funiculus, a small 
scar is always found, called the hilum, — while at some point of its 
surface a pore exists, termed the foramen or micropyle, the opening 
through which the radicle is eventually protruded. The position 







JE Sowerky. Fecit; 



XllI 



of the foramen or of the radicle, with regard to the hilum, is the 
most important feature of the embryo. When the radicle is directed 
to the extremity of the seed opposite the hilum, the embryo is said to 
be antitropal; when it is next the hilum, it is termed orthotropal ; 
when the embryo lies across the seed with its radicle towards one 
side, it is heterotropal , when so curved that both extremities are 
pointed towards the hilum, it becomes amphitropal. The cotyle- 
dons are variously arranged in the seed, being often curiously 
folded and twisted ; they are sometimes leaf-like, and in some 
instances thick and fleshy. In a very few exogenous plants the 
cotyledons are wanting or are not distinguishable from the plu- 
mule. These characters of the embryo, being generally discernible 
only by the aid of a lens and distinguished with difliculty by the 
unpractised eye, have been little employed in the present work. 

The floral organs above described are all placed upon the more 
or less expanded apex of the flower-stalk, denominated the disk, 
receptacle, or thalamus. In many flowers the sepals, petals, stamens, 
and pistils are all situated immediately upon the receptacle, forming 
so many distinct concentric whorls ; but in some a different arrange- 
ment prevails, — a circumstance of which botanists have availed 
themselves in classification. Where the stamens are placed directly 
upon the disk, beneath the pistil, they are called hypogynous', 
where they are attached to the calyx, around the pistil, perigynous ; 
when placed apparently upon the ovary, they are said to be epigy- 
nous. It frequently happens that the filaments of the stamens in 
hypogynous flowers are attached to the petals, while in epigynous 
ones the calyx and ovary are often so united that the stamens 
appear to be in connexion with both organs. 

The manner in which the flower-buds open, technically called 
their (Estivation, is a feature of some importance in distinguishing 
tribes of plants. The petals are sometimes so folded that their 
margins just meet — the aestivation is then valvate; in some flowers 
they overlap each other like tiles — it is then imh'icaie ; in other 



XIV 



instances tlicy arc doubled inwards at the edges, or induplicate; 
while in many they are twisted or contorted. 

The arrangement of the flowers upon the stem likewise requires 
notice. They are frequently situated singly at the apex of a stalk 
or peduncle rising from the root, or are solitary. In most plants, 
however, the stem is variously divided into small branches bearing 
the flowers. AVhen a number of flowers are placed along a stalk 
without foot-stalks or pedicels, it is called a spike (Fig. 17). A 
drooping spike, containing stamens or pistils only, and dropping 
from the branch when withered, is termed an amentum or catkin. 
"When the flowers of the spike are each supported by a foot-stalk, it 
becomes a raceme (Fig. 18). When the raceme is branched it is a 
panicle (Fig. 19). When the outer branches of the raceme or 
panicle are so elongated that the flowers are brought nearly to the 
same level with the inner ones, it is a corymb (Fig. 20). When the 
branches of the corymb terminate in a flower and then produce 
lateral stalks, as in the elder, it is styled a cyme (Fig. 21). When 
the flowers are arranged upon stalks branching from the apex of 
the stem, an umbel is formed, which, like the corymb, may be either 
simple or compound as the flowers stand singly upon the branches 
of the umbel or are supported upon secondary umbels rising from 
the extremities of the latter (Figs. 22 and 23). Sometimes the 
flowers are arranged in a close head or capitulum without pedicels, 
being situated upon a common disk or receptacle, as in the Dande- 
lion and other Composite. The flowers are in this case surrounded 
by a whorl of leaves like a calyx, to which the name of involucrum 
is given, a term applied to any whorl of leaves or bracts situated 
upon the flower-stalk. In the compound umbel there is usually a 
general involucrum beneath the primary umbel, while each second- 
ary umbel has one of its own, to which the term involucel is 
applied. 

All the parts of the flower must be regarded as modifications of 
the leaf. The sepals and petals arc nothing more than leaves some- 



XV 



what altered in form and colour; the stamens are leaves, of which 
the petioles are represented by the filaments, while the expanded 
portion, being turned inwards upon the midrib, becomes the anther; 
the carpels of the pistil are likewise leaves variously modified. This 
interesting fact, long since surmised by Goethe, has been long veri- 
fied by accurate observation ; and some of its results are of import- 
ance even to the non-scientific observer of flowers. Occasionally 
portions of the corolla are found developed as green leaves, — a mon- 
strosity frequently occurring in the garden Tulip. The flowers 
called double are produced by a similar metamorphosis, the leaves 
that are usually developed as stamens and pistils assuming the 
petaloid form ; hence perfectly double flowers are incapable of 
maturing seed. 

The duration of plants is variable in different species ; but the 
general process of growth is the same in all. The seed, lying upon 
the ground, germinates under the influence of heat and moisture ; 
the radicle is elongated, and, penetrating the soil, pushes forth fibres 
which draw up nutriment for the support of the growing plant ; 
the plumule rises, bearing with it the cotyledons, which acquire the 
green colour of leaves, and are soon succeeded by the true leaves. 
At some period of its growth the leaves are developed in forms 
more or less modified, and become no longer organs of respir- 
ation and transpiration, but assume the characters of floral en- 
velopes and of stamens and pistils, through the mutual action of 
which the seed is produced. 

Some plants spring up from the seed and bear flowers and fruit 
within a single season, dying when the process is completed — or are 
annual. Others produce no flowers the first year, but store up 
during that period of growth the nutriment which is absorbed in 
the production of seed in the following summer, when they die ; 
these are called biennial. When the plant survives for an indefinite 
period it becomes perennial, either throwing up stems from the 
root each year, which die down after bearing flowers, or producing a 



XVI 



permanent, more or less woody trunk. In exogenous trees, vege- 
tation is chiefly carried on through the inner bark and young 
wood, the heart- wood and outer bark retaining little vitality, as 
may be often seen in the case of hollow trees, which, though the 
trunk and principal branches are reduced to a mere shell, the inte- 
rior having wholly decayed, stiU continue to put forth leaves and 
flowers for many successive years. 

All the organs of plants consist of cells of various form and 
arrangement, cither connected in masses, forming what is called 
cellular tissue, or elongated and joined together end to end so as to 
present a tubular appearance. Woody fibre is made up of a num- 
ber of such tubular cells, united by their overlapping extremities. 
These cells are all originally membranous ; and communication is 
established between the liquids contained within them by the pecu- 
liar process of exudation called endosmose. During growth, how- 
ever, the walls of the cells are thickened by the gradual deposition 
of earthy and other substances from the liquid, and are sometimes 
converted in this manner into a solid mass. Growth is the forma- 
tion of new cells, either by a process of subdivision and extension 
of those previously existing, or from the development of a minute 
body called a nucleus, which, formed in the cell-fluid, is afterwards 
extended through the membrane and becomes a cell itself. In each 
cell, during growth, a fluid is constantly circulating with more or 
less rapidity, holding in suspension various matters which are 
eventually deposited within it. One of the most important of these 
organic matters is the chlorophyll or colouring-substance of the 
plant, usually of a green tint. Light is necessary for its produc- 
tion ; and consequently, when plants are grown in the dark, they 
become etiolated or blanched. Starch, gum, and sugar form the 
principal other substances floating in the cell-fluid ; they are pre- 
sent in all plants during growth. Besides these, various resinous 
and oily secretions are elaborated in certain cells of the plant, prin- 
cipally in those containing that portion of the fluid which has 



xvu 



been exposed through the medium of the leaves to the action of 
the atmosphere. 

These elaborated matters and the cellular substance itself are 
all formed of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, combined 
in various proportions. Carbon, the most abundant element in 
the solid parts of all vegetables, is derived chiefly, if not entirely, 
from the small quantity of carbonic acid existing in the air ; ni- 
trogen, which only enters into the composition of a few vegetable 
products, is obtained from the nitrates and ammoniacal salts pre- 
sent in the soil ; while the two other elements are probably due to 
the decomposition of a portion of the water taken up by the root, 
the superfluous oxygen being exhaled by the leaves during the 
day. Thus plants form a necessary part of the great cycle c-f 
Nature, absorbing those gaseous particles produced by the respi- 
ration of animals and the decay of organic matter, and restoring 
to the air, in a purified state, that principle which is necessary to 
the support of all animate being. 

Water forms a considerable portion of growing vegetables, and 
is necessary to their existence. It is chiefly drawn up by the 
fibres of the root, though some plants doubtless absorb much 
from the atmosphere. Being required in very varying proportion 
by dificrent species, the amount present in the soil has a great 
influence upon its vegetation. Some plants will only grow entirely 
submersed, others flourish in the stagnant bog or peat-moss, 
some require the moist but well-drained hill-side, and a few are 
found in the most arid localities, where occasional dews form the 
only source of moisture. 

In addition to these elementary components, vegetables always 
contain a considerable quantity of various other substances of in- 
organic origin. Potash and soda are the most prevalent of these ; 
they are present in all plants, the former alkali existing in by far 
the greater proportion in most inland species, while an abundance 
of the latter is characteristic of those growing near the sea, being 

d 



xvm 



derived from the salt spray continually drifting over them. Such 
plants have generally a greenish-white or glaucous hue; they 
seldom flourish far from the shore, and when growing inland the 
soda usually existing in their tissues is replaced by potash. Silica 
is always present in more or less quantity, and is particularly 
abundant in the cuticle of Grasses and Horsetails. Lime is also 
found in most species ; and its presence in the soil seems neces- 
sary to some, as may be seen in the peculiar vegetation of our 
chalk-downs and limestone hills ; indeed the growth of plants is so 
intimately connected with the composition of the soil, that a botanist 
can generally detect the prominent mineralogical features of a coun- 
try through which he is travelling by the aspect of its vegetation. 

There is no department of botanical study more interesting 
than that which traces the relation of plants to the nature of 
their habitats, or places of natural growth. Mountain, bog, wood- 
land, sea-cliff, wet meadow, and upland pasture have all their 
characteristic vegetation; and even the hillocks of drifting sand, 
that line some parts of our storm-beaten coast, have a flora 
peculiar to themselves, or rarely found elsewhere. Difference of 
soil or situation will even produce great changes in the appearance 
of plants of the same species, sometimes to an extent that renders 
them difiicult of recognition by the unpractised observer. Those 
usually inhabiting marshy localities, when growing on dry ground 
become smaller and more rigid, while the native of the hills, when 
transferred to the lowland, acquires a more succulent and luxuriant 
habit ; the plants of the clay and loam often present a very dif- 
ferent appearance to those of the same kind growing upon chalk 
or sand. In determining species, allowance must always be made 
for these accidental variations from the typical form ; the points 
in which deviation most frequently occurs are, in the size of the 
plant, the form and dimensions of the leaves, the colour of the 
flower, and the degree of development of hairs, prickles, and other 
appendages of the cuticle. 



XIX 



Besides these diflferences occasioned by accidental circumstances 
of growth, all plants are apt to exhibit permanent variations from 
the general form, due to the operation of more obscure causes, 
giving rise to what are termed varieties. These varieties are, in 
perennial plants, capable of propagation by subdivision of the root, 
or from slips or cuttings ; but their seed usually reproduces the 
normal form, though it is yet a doubtful and disputed point 
whether they may not in some instances be permanently propa- 
gated by seed: they often diverge so greatly from the typical 
plant, that they are apt to be regarded by the ordinary observer 
as distinct, and even our most experienced botanists are sometimes 
unable to decide upon their real character. 

Among our native plants, the groups of Roses, Brambles, and 
Willows are remarkable instances of this obscurity regarding specific 
distinctions. Of upwards of seventy Willows figured and described 
in the present work, certainly not more than fourteen or fifteen can 
be satisfactorily distinguished as species. The twenty-four Roses 
are probably varieties of not more than five distinct plants ; and 
the species of Rubus, which have been multiplied by some writers 
to a far greater extent than in this book, are perhaps referable 
to four specific types. The confusion naturally existing between 
species and varieties has been unfortunately greatly increased, by 
the anxiety of the students of local floras to extend the apparent 
field of their labours by the addition of new species, — an object 
more easily attained in a well-explored country by the subdivision 
of well-known groups, than by the discovery of really new plants, 
and a habit the more to be deplored, as it tends to destroy that sim- 
plicity of arrangement which is the only object of classification. 

Whether species have any definite limits in Nature, is a ques- 
tion foreign to the scope of the present work. As the term is 
applied in Botany, it may be generally defined as an assemblage 
of plants possessing a certain similarity in all essential points of 
structure, capable of being permanently propagated by seed, and 

d2 



XX 



which may therefore be supposed to have descended from a single 
individual. 

Species are perhaps the only truly natural divisions of plants; 
but naturalists, for convenience of reference and description, have 
been compelled to arrange them in more or less artificial groups or 
families. Certain plants possessing a great resemblance to each 
other in structure are formed into genera; these are collected into 
larger groups called orders, and the orders into subclasses and 
classes. All these divisions are dependent upon some general 
similarity in the structure of the plants composing them, usually 
in that of the flower and seed, those organs being less liable to 
variation than others. LinnjBus, the founder of modern systematic 
Natural History, adopted the number and position of the stamens 
and pistils as the basis of his classification of the flowering plants, 
forming the names of most of his classes by affixing the word 
andria, the synonym of stamen, to the Greek numeral expressing 
the number of those organs present in the flower: thus plants, 
the flowers of which contained but one stamen, were called Mon- 
aiulria; those having two, Diandria. The orders or subdivisions 
of these were formed in a similar way by adding the word gynia, 
adopted as synonymous with pistil, to the numeral. Other divisions 
he made dependent upon the connexion of the filaments or anthers, 
and the monoecious or dioecious character of the plant. We have 
not space to enter into the details of his system, and have only 
made allusion to it because it has been adopted in the ' English 
Botany' and some other works of reference still in use. Its sim- 
plicity rendered it of easy application by the unscientific; but it had 
the great disadvantage of bringing together plants of widely different 
affinities into the same artificial section, owing to some coincidence 
m the development of a single organ, while it separated others 
evidently closely connected; it is therefore no longer usedbynatu- 
ralista, and the mode of classification adopted by Jussieu and De- 
Candolle, variously modified by other botanists, has been substituted. 



XXI 



By this system, plants are grouped into classes and orders ac- 
cording to certain structural characters, more or less definite, and 
of a similar nature to those upon which the primary divisions of 
genera and species are made. The plants thus connected by 
structure are usually found to possess a resemblance in general 
appearance or hahit, and not unfrequently in properties; so that 
the term natural, commonly applied to this mode of arrangement, 
is, in a relative sense, not altogether inapplicable. 

Flowering plants, by this plan of classification, are primarily 
divided into Exogens and Endogens, — a distinction founded upon 
peculiarities of the stem and seed which have been already 
explained. Exogens are grouped into four subclasses, according 
to the relative position of the parts of the flower. The first sub- 
class, called Thalamiflorce, contains those groups of plants which 
have the petals distinct and the stamens hypogynous, or inserted 
beneath the pistil upon the thalamus or receptacle. The second, 
Calyciflora, consists of those having the stamens perigynous or 
epigynous, or placed upon the calyx or the ovary. The third, 
Corolliflora, includes those with the petals united, and the stamens 
either hypogynous or joined to the petals. The fourth, Mono- 
chlamydea, is formed of those exogenous plants having only one 
floral envelope, and of those having neither calyx nor corolla. 

The Endogens have been variously divided by botanists ; but they 
present at least two well-marked sections — those possessing a peri- 
anth, or floral envelope, more or less perfect, Floridese, and those 
whose flowers are enclosed only in scaly bracts or glumes, Glumiferae, 
a division including the two great families of Grasses and Carexes. 
Some botanists separate certain Endogens with net-veined leaves 
and wood of a peculiar structure into a third group, Dictyogense ; 
these latter appear to form a connecting link between Exogens and 
Endogens. 

These subclasses are divided into Natural Orders, composed of 
certain genera, or assemblages of species which bear a general re- 



xxn 



semblance in essential characters. Some of these orders are well- 
defiucJ natural groups whose affinities are undoubted, like the 
great famihes of Composita? and Cruciferse ; others are more or less 
artificial, and appear to pass into each other by almost insensible 
gradations ; their limits are variously defined by difi'erent botanists, 
and are often made dependent upon obscure structural peculiarities 
only appreciable by an advanced student of the science. The Flora 
of this country is too limited to require reference to the minute and 
complex details of botanical classification, upon which the general 
arrangement of the Vegetable Kingdom has been founded ; and the 
characters given in the accompanying Table of Orders and Genera 
must be regarded as applicable only to British plants, — it being 
intended merely as a Key or Index to enable the reader to refer 
any wild plant to the Natural Order under which it is figured and 
described in this work. The British Flowering Plants are here 
arranged in the order stated below, — with few exceptions, that 
usually adopted by British botanists. 



1. Ranunculaceac. 

2. Bcrberidaceae. 

3. Nymphacaceae. 

4. Papaveraceje. 
6. Funiariaceae. 

6. Crucifera;. 

7. Resedaceae. 

5. Cistaceae. 



23. Celastraceae. 

24. llhamuaceae. 

25. Leguminosse. 

26. Rosaceae. 

27. Onagracere. 

28. Ilaloragaceac. 

29. Lythraceae. 

30. Tamaricacea;. 

31. Cucurbitaceic. 



EXOGENS. 
Thalamiflor/I!;. 

9. Violaceae. 

10. Droseraceae. 

11. Polygalaceae. 

12. Frankeniaceae. 

13. Caryophyllacea;. 

14. Linaceae. 

15. Malvaceae. 

CALYCIFLORiE. 

32. Portulaceae. 

33. Illecebraceae. 

34. Crassulaceae. 

35. Grossulariacea;. 

36. Saxifragaceac. 

37. Umbelliferac. 

38. Araliaceae. 

39. Cornaceae. 

40. Loranthaceee. 



16. Tiliaceae. 

17. Hypericaceac. 

18. Aceraceae. 

19. Geraniaceae. 

20. Balsaminaceae. 

21. Oxalidaceae. 

22. Staphyleaceac. 



41. Caprifoliacea;. 

42. Rubiaceae. 

43. Valerianaceae. 

44. Dipsaceae. 

45. Compositae. 

46. Campanulacea*. 

47. Lobeliaceae. 

48. Vacciniaceae. 



XXUl 



49. Ericaceae. 
60. Pyrolaceac. 

51. Monotropaccac. 

52. Aquifoliaceae. 

53. OlcacejE. 

54. Apocynaceae. 

55. Gentianaccae. 



68. Amaranthaceae. 

69. Chenopodiaceae. 

70. Scleranthaceae. 

71. Polygonaceae. 

72. Thymelaceac. 

73. Santalaceae. 

74. Aristolochiaccae. 



COROLLIFLOU^. 

56. Polemoniaceac, 

57. Convolvulaccic. 

58. Boraginaceae. 

59. Solanaceae. 

60. Orobanchaceas. 

61. Scrophulariaeeae. 

MoNOCHLAMYDEtE, 

75. EmpetraccfT. 

76. Euphorbiace;c. 
77- Callitriehace<r. 

78. Ceratophyllacea?. 

79. Urtioacea'. 

80. Ulmaceae. 

ENDOGENS. 



62. Labiatae. 
G',i. Verbenaceae. 

64. Lentibulariaceae. 

65. Primulaceae. 

66. Plumbaginaccae. 

67. Plantaginaceae. 



81. Elaeagnaocfc. 

82. Myricaccii'. 

83. Betulaceae. 

84. Salicaoeae. 

85. Cupuliferae. 

86. Coniferae, 



DiCTYOGENiE. 
87- Dioscoreacex, 88. Trilliaceae. 



89. Ilyclrocharidaceffi. 

90. Orcbidaeere. 

91. Iridaceae. 

92. Amaryllidaceae. 

93. Liliaceae. 

94. Melanthaceae. 



Floride.t;. 

95. Restiaceoe. 

96. Juncaceae. 

97. Butomace.e. 

98. Alismace<c. 

99. JuncaKinaceae. 



100. TyphaceiB. 

101. Araceae. 

102. Orontiaceae. 

103. Pistiaceae. 

104. Naiadaceae. 



Glumifer.e. 
105. Cyperaceae. 106. Gramineae. 

Plants being arranged under the Natural System according to 
general characters only, some genera of certain orders will be found 
to possess the structural form of a different subclass to that in 
which the order is placed. For instance, though most Legumiuosse 
have petals and stamens arranged in the manner chai*acteristic of 
the subclass Calyciflorse, some exotic plants of that order have no 
floral envelope, and would therefore be referred to IMonochlamydese 
by the inexperienced student, while a few British species having 
hypogynous stamens would seem to be naturally placed in the 
Thalamifloral division. To avoid the confusion thus arising, a more 



XXIV 



artificial arrangement, like tliat adopted in the accompanying Key, 
becomes necessary, to enable the unscientific student to discover the 
order to which any plant he may meet with in the fields is to be 
referred. The characters given, referring only to the plants of the 
order or genus indigenous to this country, are as simple as possible, 
and will probably enable the reader to find readily the description 
and figure of any native plant in the work. 

The space allotted to the descriptive portion of our book is so 
small, that it has been impossible to give in many instances one 
sufficient, alone, for the perfect identification of the plant ; and the 
aim has been rather to add those characteristics not clearly shown 
in the figure, and which are most easily recognized, than those by 
which the species is accurately determined by the botanist : in many 
cases three or four lines would have been necessary to give such 
characters as would enable the student to determine the species 
without the aid of the figure, when one line of description only 
could be admitted ; the descriptions must therefore be considered 
only subordinate to the plates. The normal habitat of each plant 
is given, together with the general height above the ground, 
its duration, time of flowering, and the colour of the flower; the 
height and colour are, however, in most cases veiy variable. The 
fraction at the end of the description denotes the scale upon 
which the flower is drawn in the plate — usually one-half or two- 
thirds the natural size : the size of the flower, however, is likewise 
subject to much variation j where no scale is given, the figure is 
the natural size. The works to which references are made, are the 
1st edition of the 'English Botany,* by Sowerby and Smith; the 
2nd edition of the same work by Sowerby and Johnson ; the 7th 
edition of Hooker and Arnott's ' British Flora ;' the 4th edition of 
Babington's * Manual of British Botany -/ and Lindley's * Synopsis 
of the British Flora.' 



KEY TO THE NATURAL ORDERS. 



EXOGENS. 



Stem with distinct wood, pith, and harlc. 
Leaves net-veined. 
Embryo with 2 or more cotyledons. 

Parts of the flower generally 2, 4, or 5, or their multiples — rarely 
3 or its multiples. 

Petals distinct. Stamens hypogynous. 
* Stamens 12, or more. 

1 . RanuncuI;ACE.e. Ovary of 1 or more distinct carpels. 

3. NvMPH^ACE^. Aquatic plants. Petals passing into stamens towards the 

centre. Ovary many-celled. 

4. Papaverace^. Herbs. Ovary of 2 or more carpels, 1 -celled, with parietal 

placentas. Sepals falling when the flower opens. 

8. CiSTACE^. Small shrubs. Ovary of several carpels, 1 -celled. Sepals per- 

manent, 

17. HYPERICACE.E. Herbs or shrubs. Ovary many-celled. Leaves opposite, dotted. 

Stamens united into several groups. 

15. Malvaceae. Herbs or shrubs. Ovary many-celled. Stamens united into a 

column. 

16. TiLiACE^. Trees. Ovary many-celled, 1 -celled when in fruit. Stamens distinct. 
7. EesedacejE. Herbs. Ovary 1 -celled, opening at the top. Flowers irregular. 

** Stamens under 12, filaments distinct, 
t Flowers regular. 
6. Crucifer^. Herbs. Petals 4. Stamens 4 long and 2 short. 
10. Droserace.e. Herbs with entire radical leaves cohered with glandular liairs. 

2. Berberidace^e. Herbs or shrubs. Stamens all opposite the petals. Ovary 

1 -celled. Anthers opening by recurved valves. 

13. Caryophyllace^. Herbs with jointed stems and opposite leaves. Placenta 

free and central. 
12. FRANKENIACE.E. Hcrbs. Stamcns alternate with the petals. Sepals united. 
Placentas parietal. 

18. AcERACEiE. Trees. Fruit 2-winged. Ovary 2-lobed, 2-celled. 
22. Staphyleace^. A shrub. Fruit bladder-like. 

19. G-ERANiACEiE. Carpels 5, surrounding a long beak. 

f f Flowers irregular. 

9. ViOLACE.E. Stamens 5. Ovary 1 -celled, opening by 3 valves. 

20. Balsaminace.e. Stamens 5. Ovary 5-celled. 

*** Stamens under 12, filaments more or less connected at the base, 
t Flowers regxdar. 

14. Linages. Stamens 4 or 5. Carpels 1- or 2-seeded, without a beak. 

19. Geraniace.e. Stamens 10. Carpels 5, surrounding a long beak. Style 1. 

21. O.xALiDACE^. Stamens 10. Styles 5. 



XX\n KET TO THE NATT7B.VI, ORDKRS, 

tt Flowers irregular. 

b. FuMARfACE-B. Stamens 6, in 2 bundles. Fruit 1 -celled. 
11. P0LYOALACE.B. Stamens 8, in 2 bundles. Fruit 2-celled. 
2.'). Leguminos.b. Stamens 10. Flowers papilionaceous. Fruit a legumo. 

7. Rksedace-e. Stamens 10 or more. Fruit 1-celled, opening at the top. 

Tetals distinct. Stamens perigynous or epigynous. 

25. LEGUMiNOSje. Corolla papilionaceous. 

26. RosACEiE. Corolla regular. Stamens numerous. Carpel* more or lesa distinct. 

Leaves with stipules. 

• Ovary superior or half-inferior. 
+ Carpels several. 

34. Crassulace.e. Carpels 2 or more, distinct. Leaves without stipules. 

+t Ovary solitary, 1-celled, 

32. PoRTULACE.E. Sepals 2. Placenta central. Leaves without stipules. 

33. iLLECEBRACEiE. Scpals 5. Placenta Central with Several sccds, or fruit 1 -Seeded. 
17. IlYi'ERiCACEiE (Pamassia). Sepals 5. Placentas 4, parietal. Seeds many. 

30. TAMARiCACEiB. A shrub. Placentas 3, parietal. Stigmas 3, feathery. 

+tt Ovary solitary, 2- or more-celled. 

3G. Saxifraoace.e. Herbs. Stamens twice as many as the petals. Styles 2, 

diverging. Seeds numerous. 
24. RiiAMNACEiE. Shrubs. Stamens equal in number to the petals, and opposite to 

them. Fruit a berry. 
23. Celastrace*. A shrub. Stamens alternating with the petals. Fruit a capsule. 
29. Lythrace^. Herbs. Calyx valvate in aestivation. Style 1. 
50. PYR0LACE.B. Herbs. Calyx imbricated in aestivation. Style 1. 

** Ovary inferior, 
t Ovary 1-celled. 

35. GROssi'LAniACEiE. Ovary 1-celled. Fruit a berry. Sepals and petals 4-5. 

Stamens 4^5, alternate with the petals. 

+t Ovary 2- or more-celled. 

27. Onagrace.«. Stamens 2, 4, or 8. Style 1. Leaves opposite or alternate. 

Petals twisted in aestivation. 

28. Haloragace.e. Aquatic herbs. Flowers monoecious. Leaves whorled. 

39. Cornace.e. Petals 4, valvate in aestivation. Stamens 4, alternating with the 

petals. Leaves opposite. 
38. ARALIACE.E. An evergreen creeping shrub. Petals 5, valvate in aestivation. 
37. UMBEi.iJFER.fi. Herbs. Flowers in umbels. Petals 5. Stamens 6. Fruit 

splitting into 2 dry 1 -seeded carpels. Leaves alternate. 

Petals united. 
• Ovary inferior or half-inferior, 
f Flowers sessile, in close heads upon a disk within an involucrum {capitate). 
45. CoMPOsiTiE. Stamens 5 ; anthers united into a tube. 
44. DirsACE.E. Stamens 4 ; anthers separate. 

tt Flowers not capitate. 
81. CucunBiTACBiE. A climbing herb. Flowers diacious. Ovules several in each cell. 



KET TO THE NATURAt ORDERS. XXvii 

§ Ovary with 1 seed-bearing cell ; ovule solitary. 

40. LoRANTHACE.E. A parasitic evergreen slirub, 

43. VALERiANACEiE. Sfjlc thread-like, bearing a trifid Btigma. 

41. Capkifoliace^. Stigmas sessile. 

§§ Ovary with 2 or more seed-bearing cells. 
48. Vacciniaceje. Small shrubs. Stamens free from the corolla. Leaves alternate. 

41. CAPRiFOLiACEiK. Shrubs. Stamens upon the corolla. Leaves opposite. 
38. ARALiACEiE (Adoxa). An herb. Styles 4 or 5. Stamens united in pairs. 

42. EuBiACE*. Herbs. Leaves vrhorled, or opposite with leafy stipules between. 

Stamens upon the corolla. Styles 1 or 2. 
4G. Campanulace^e. Herbs. Corolla regular. Stamens free from the corolla. 

Style 1. 
47. LoBELiACEiB. Hcrbs. Corolla irregular. Style \. 

** Ovary superior. Flowers irregular. 

60. OROBANCHACEiE. Plant leafless, scaly. 

62. Labiatje. Ovary in 4 distinct lobes. 

61. ScrophulariacevE. Ovary undivided. Stamens 5. 

t Ovary undivided. Stamens 2. 
64. Lentibulariace^. Corolla spurred at the base. 
61. ScEOPnuLAEiACEiE (Vcronica). Corolla not spurred. 

tt Ovary undivided. Stamens 2 long and 2 short. 

63. Verbenace^. Cells of the ovary 2 or 4, single-seeded. 

61. ScEOPHULARiACEiE. Cclls of the ovary 2, with 2 or more seeds in each. 

+tt Stamens 8, in 2 groups. 
11. PoLYGALACKJ!. Stamcns connected with the petals. 

*** Ovary superior. Flowers regular, or nearly so. 
t Stamens free from the corolla. 

49. Ericaceje. Small slu-ubs. Petals quite imited. Style 1. 

50. PTR0LACE.E. Hcrbs. Petals but slightly united. Style 1. Stamens 10. 
67. PLANTAGINACE.E. Herbs. Flowers monoecious. Style 1. Stamens 4. 
34. CRASsuLACEiE. Styles several. 

+t Stamens 2, upon the corolla. 

53. Oleacej!. Trees or shrubs. 

61. ScBOPHULAEiACE^ (Veronica). Herbs. Petals slightly irregular. 

ttt Stamens 4, upon the corolla. 
52. Aquifoliacej!. An evergreen tree or shrub. 

61. ScROPnuLARiACE.E (LimoscUa). An herb. Leaves radical. Capsule 1-celled. 

Calyx 5-cleft. 

67. PLANTAGiNACEiE. Hcrbs. Capsulc 2- or 4-celled. Calyx 4-cleft. Leaves all 

radical. 
65. Primulace^ (Centunculus). An herb. Leaves alternate. Calyx 4-clefit. 

Capsule 1-celled. 
55. Gentianace^. Herbs. Leaves opposite. 

tttt Stamens 5 or more, upon the corolla. 

54. Apoctnace^. Ovaries 2. Style 1. 

68. B0RAGINACB.E. Ovary 4-lobed. Stylo 1. 

62. AQUiFOLiACEiB. Fruit a succulent berry. Stigmas sessile. 
59. Solan ACKS. Fruit a succulent berry, 2-celled. Style 1. 



XXVUl KEY TO THE NATtTRAL OBDERS. 

63. Primulace.e. Stamens opposite the petals. Fruit dry, 1-celled. Stjle 1. 

(30. Plumbaginace*. Fruit dry, 1-celled. Seed 1. Styles 5. 

67. ConvolvulacejE. Stamens alternate with the petals. Fruit dry, 1- or 2-celled. 

Seeds few. Style 1. 
65. Gentianace.e. Stamens alternate with the petals. Fruit dry, 1- or 2-ceUed, 

many-seeded. Leaves opposite. 

69. SoLANACEiE. Stamens alternate with the petals. Fruit dry, 2-ceIled, or nearly 

4-eelled, many-seeded. Leaves alternate. 
56. PoLEMONiACEiE. Fruit dry, 3-celled. 
51. MoNOTROPACEJ!. Fruit dry, 4- or 5-celled. Plant scaly, leafless. 

Floral envelope (calyx) single or wanting. 
A. Barren and fertile flowers in catkins. 

82. MYRicACEiE. Monoecious or dioecious. Fruit a succulent drupo. 

83. Betulace.e. Fruit dry. Monoecious. 

84. Salicace.e. Fruit dry. Dioecious. 

B. Barren flowers only, in catkins. 
81. ELEAGNACEiE. Ovary superior. Dioecious. 

85. CupuLiFERJE. Ovary inferior. Monoecious. 

86. CoNiFEii.E. Seed in cones, or surrounded by a fleshy involucrum. Leaves 

linear, needle-like. 

C. Flowers not in catkins. 
40. LoRANTHACEiE. An evcrgrcen parasitic shrub. 

70. EuPiiORBiACE.E. Flowers in terminal clusters, surrounded by bracts. Ovary 

stalked, with 3 one-seeded cells. Juice milky. 

* Ovary inferior, 
t Cells man^-seeded. 
36. Saxifragace^. Stamens 8-10. Styles 2. 

27. Onagracej:. Stamens 4. Style 1. 

74. Aristolochiace.e. Stamens 6-12. 

tt Cells 1-seeded. 

28. Haloragace.e. Leaves whorled. Aquatic. 
73. Santalace^. Leaves alternate. Terrestrial. 

** Ovaries several, superior. 
1. EANUNCULACE.E. Stamens hypogynous. 
26. K08ACE.E. Stamens perigynous. 

*** Ovary 1, superior, with 2 or more cells, 
t Monoecious or dioecious. 

76. EuphorbiacejE. Terrestrial. Fruit capsular, of 2 or 3 one-seeded cells. 

75. E.MPETRACE.E. Terrestrial. Fruit fleshy. Stamens 3. 

77. Callitriciiace^. Aquatic plants. Fruit of 4 one-seeded carpela. 

tt Flowers perfect. 
80. UniACEiE. Trees. Stamens 5. Fruit dry, winged. 
24. Ehamnace,e. Slu-ubs. Stamens 4 or 5. Fruit a berry. 
53. Oleace^. Trees. Stamens 2. 

29. Lythrace/E. Herbs. 

**** Ovary 1, superior, 1-celled. 
f Calyx coloured and petal-like. 
65. Primulace;E. Leaves without stipules. Stamens 6. 



KEY TO THE NATTJEAI. OEDEES. XXIX 

72. TnYMELEACE*. Leaves without stipules. Stamens 8. 
71. PoLYGONACEiE. Leaves with stipules sheathing the stem. 

+t Calyx not petal-like. Leaves with stipules. 
71. PoLYGONACE^. Stipules sheathing the stcm. 
2G. Rosacea. Stipules attached to the petiole. 
79. UuTiCACEiE. Stipules deciduous. 

f f f Calyx not petal-like. Leaves without stipules. 
§ Terrestrial herbs. 
70. SCLERANTHACE.E. Calyx Contracted round the fruit. 

68. Amarantiiace^. Calyx free. Stamens hypogynous. Fruit opening transversely. 

69. CiiENOPODiACEiE. Calyx free. Stamens perigynous. Fruit indehiscent. 

§§ Aquatic plants. 
78. Ceratophyllace-e. Stamens 12 or more. 
28. HALORAGACEiS. Stamens 1-8. 

EKDOGENS. 

Stem witliout distinct wood and hark. 
Leaves usually with parallel veins. 
Embryo with 1 cotyledon. 
Parts of the flower usually 3 or its multiples. 

Leaves with netted veins. 

87. DioscoREACE^. A climbing herb. Leaves alternate. 

88. TrilliacejE. An herb. Leaves in a terminal whorl. 
98. ALisMACEiE. Leaves radical. 

Leaves with parallel veins. 
* Flowers with distinct calyx and corolla. 
98. Alismace^. Ovaries several, superior. 

89. Hydrocharidacre. Ovary 1, inferior. Dioecious. 

90. Orchidacej:. Ovary 1, inferior. Stamens and pistil united. 

** Flowers enclosed in a perianth. 
+ Ovary inferior. 

90. Orchidace^. Flowers irregular. Stamens and pistil united, obscure. 

91. Iridace^. Flowers regular. Stamens 3. 

92. AMARYLLiDAcma;. Flowers regular. Stamens 6. 

ft Ovary superior. Perianth petal-like. 

93. LiLiACKE. Stamens 6. Anthers opening inwards. Style entire. 

94. Melanthace.b. Stamens 6. Anthers opening outwards. Style divided into 3. 

96. Juncace^ (Narthecium). Stamens 6. Perianth becoming dry and scale-like 

■when withered, persistent. 

97. BuTOMACE^. Stamens 9. Flowers in an umbel. 

95. RESTiACEiE. Flowers in a compact scaly head, monoecious. 

+tt Ovary superior. Perianth dry and scale-like. 

96. JcNCACE^. Fruit a capsule. Flowers in panicles or clusters, with a bract 

beneath. 
102. Orontiace.e. Fruit a berry. Flowers arranged in a spike, springing from 

the leaf. 
100. TypHACEiE. Flowers in globular heads. Monoecious. 



TABLE OF OENEEA. 

*** Perianth inconspicuous, 
99. JuNCAGiNACE^. Sepals herbaceous. Marsh plants. 
104. NAIADACE.E. Sepals scale-like. Plants aquatic, submerged or floating. 
93. L1LIACE.E (Ruscus). An evergreen shrub with spiny leaves. 

**** Flowers enclosed in s spathe or membranous sheath. 
101. ARACEiE. Flowers in a spike or spadii, monoecious. Herbs. 

103. PiSTiACE.E. Small stcmless floating plants. Flowers on the margin of the leaf. 

104. Naiadace^e. Submerged or floating. Flowers axillary. 

»#»## Flowers without any covering. 

104. Naiadacb-e. Aquatic, submerged. Flowers in a slit in the grass-like leal 
lOO. TypHACE^E. Marsh plants. Flowers on a spike. Monoecious. 

Flowers enclosed in glumes or scales, one above another. 

106. Gramine.e. Stems jointed. Anthers attached by the middle. 

105. Cypbraces. Stems not jointed. Anthers attached by the basa 



TABLE OF GENERA. 

Order I. RANUNCULACE^. 

1. Clematis, A climber with opposite leaves. Petals none. Sepals white. Car- 

pels 1 -seeded. 

* Herbs. Carpels 1-seeded. 

2. Thalictrum. Involucrum none. Petals none. Stamens longer than the sepals. 

3. Anemone. Involucrum of 3 leaves, somewhat beneath the flower. Petals none. 

Sepals petaloid, coloured. 

4. Adonis. Petals 5-10, without a scale at the base. 

5. Myosurus, Carpels very numerous, in a long column. Sepals with a spur at 

the base. Petals very small. 

6. E.ANUNCULUS. Petals with a scale at the base. Sepals not spurred at the baaa 

Carpels in a globular or oblong head. 

** Carpels with several seeds. 

7. Caltha. Petals none. Sepals yellow and petaloid, 

8. Trollius. Petals small, flat, linear. Sepals yellow, very concave. 

9. Helleborus. Petals very small, tubular. Sepals green. 

10. Aquilegia. Sepals flat, coloured, deciduous. Petals 6, each with a long spur 

at the base. 

11. Delphinium. Sepals 5, coloured ; upper one with a spur at the base. Petals 

4, connected, forming a spur. 

12. Aconitum. Sepals 5, coloured ; upper one hood-shaped. Petals small, irregular. 

13. AcTMA. Stamens placed upon a glandular disk. Carpels solitary, berry-like. 

Petals 4. Calyx deciduous, petaloid. 

14. PiBONiA. Stamens upon a glandular disk. Calyx green, persistent. Carpels 

several. 

Order II. BERBERIDACE^. 

. Berberis. a bush. Stamens 6. 
2. EriMBDiuM. Herbaceous. Stamens 4. 



TAULE OF GENERA. XXXI 

Order III. NYMPHiEACE^. 

1. Nymph.ea. Calyx greenish without, of 4 sepals. Petals and stamens placed 

upon the base of the ovary. 

2. NuPHAR. Calyx yellow, of 5 sepals. Petals and stamens placed upon the 

receptacle. 

Order IV. PAPAVEEACEiE. 

1. Papaver. Fruit nearly globular or oblong. Stigma rayed, sessile. 

2. Meconopsis. Fruit oblong. Stigma rayed, with a short style. 

3. Glaucium. Fruit linear. Flowers large, red or purple. 

4. Chelidonium. Fruit linear. Flowers small, yellow. 

Order V. EUMARIACE^. 

1. FuMARiA. Fruit a roundish nut, 1 -seeded. 

2. CoRYDAHS. Fruit elongated, many-seeded, 2-Talved. 

Order VI. CRIJCIFERJE. 

* Fruit a short pod {Silicula), 

1. Cakile. Pod angular, compressed, formed of 2 joints ; the upper one deci- 

duous. Joints 1 -seeded, the lower sometimes barren. Indeliiscent. 

2. Crambe. Pod formed of 2 joints ; upper joint globose, deciduous, 1-seeded ; 

lower one abortive, like a short footstalk. Indehiscent. 

3. CoRONOPUs. Pod of 2 cells, placed side by side ; cells 1-seeded, indehiscent. 

Leaves pinnatifid. 

4. IsATis. Pod linear-oblong, smooth, 1 -celled, 1 -seeded, laterally compressed; 

the valves keeled, at length separating. 

5. Vella. Pod eUiptical, terminating in a flat winged style, twice the length of 

the valves. 

6. Thlaspi. Pod laterally compressed, emarginate, with the valves winged at 

the back ; cells 2-8-8eeded. Petals entire. 

7. Capsella. Pod laterally compressed, obcordate, wedge-shaped at the base; 

valves sharply keeled ; cells many-seeded. Petals entire. 

8. HuTCHiNsiA. Pod eUiptical, entire ; valves keeled at the back ; cells 2-seeded. 

Petals entire. 

9. Teesdalia. Pod oval, depressed, indented at the apex ; valves keeled ; ceUs 

2-8eeded. Calyx deciduous. Petals entire, unequal. Stamens with a scale 
at the base. 

10. Iberis. Pod much depressed, emarginate; valves winged; ceUs 1-seeded. 

Two outer petals largest. 

11. Lepidium. Pod ovate or cordate ; valves keeled ; cells 1-seeded. Petals equal. 

12. Cochlearia. Pod globular or ovate, turgid ; cells many-seeded ; style per- 

sistent. Petals entire. 

13. Subularia. Aquatic, with awl-shaped leaves. Pod oval ; style deciduous ; 

ceUs 4-seeded. 

14. Draba. Pod oval or oblong, entire, sometimes tvnsted ; valves flat or slightly 

convex. Seeds numerous in each ceU. 

15. Camelina. Pods inflated, subovate, on long stalks ; cells many-seeded. Flowera 

yeUow. 

16. KoNiGA. Pod subovate ; valves nearly flat ; ceUs 1-seeded. Leaves entire. 

17. Alyssum. Pod compressed, indented at the apex ; valves convex in the middle, 

flat at the edges ; cells usuaUy 2-seeded. Petals notched. 

** Fruit an elongated pod {SUiqua). 

18. Dentaria. Pods flat, linear, tapering ; valves without ribs. Seed-stalks broad. 

Style filiform. Seeds ovate, not bordered, in one row. 



XXxil TABLE OF GENERA, 

19. Cakdamine. Pod flat, linear; valves flat, ribless. Style short, or absent. 

Seed-stalks slender. Seeds ovate, not bordered. 

20. ARAnis. Pod linear, compressed; valves with 1 rib, or many longitudinal 

veins. Stigma sessile. Seeds in 1 row. Calyx erect. 

21. TuRRiTis. Pod linear, 2-edged; valves with a prominent rib. Seeds in 2 rows. 

Calyx lax. 

22. Barbakea. Pod linear, 4-angled ; valves keeled, concave, not pointed. Seeds 

in 1 row. Calyx erect. 

23. Nasturtiim. Pod nearly cylindrical, oblong or linear, vdthout veins or keel. 

Seeds in 2 irregular rows. Calyx spreading. 

24. Sisymbrium. Pod linear, rounded or angular ; valves concave. Calyx equal. 

Seeds in 1 row. 

25. Erysimum. Pod linear, 4-angled; valves prominently keeled. Style very 

sliort. Seeds in 1 row. Calyx erect, equal at the base. 

26. Cheiranthus. Pod linear, compressed, or 2-edged, with an elevated rib on 

each valve. Stigma upon a style, 2-lobed. Calyx erect, 2 opposite sepals 
saccate at the base. 

27. Matthiola. Pod rounded or compressed. Stigma sessile, lobes erect. Calyx 

erect, 2 opposite sepals saccate at the base. Longer filaments dilated. 

28. Hesperis. Pod 4-angled or compressed. Stigmas 2, erect, nearly sessile. Seeds 

somewhat triangular. Calyx erect, 2 opposite sepals saccate at the base. 

29. Brassica. Pod rounded or angular, with a conical beak. Calyx erect. 

30. SiNAPis. Pod rounded or anguiar, with a conical beak. Calyx spreading. 

31. Baphanus. Pod without valves, separating into several joints. 

Order VII. KESEDACE^. 
1. Reseda. The only British genua. 

Order VIII. CISTACE^. 
1. Helianthemcm, The only British genus. 

Order IX. VIOLACE^. 

1. Viola. The only British genus. 

Order X. DROSERACE^. 
1. Drosera. The only British genus. 

Order XI. POLYGALACE^. 
1. PoLYGALA. The only British genus. 

Order XII. FRANKENIACE^. 

1. Frankbnia. The only British genus. 

Order XIII. CARYOPHYLLACE^. 

1. Elatinb. Sepals distinct. Capsule completely 3- or 4-cellcd, opening by 4 

valves. Stem creeping. 

* Calyx tubular. Stamens 10. 

2. DiANTHUs. Calyx with bracts beneath. 

3. Saponaria. Calyx without bracts, rounded. Styles 2. 

4. CucuBALus. Capsule fleshy, berry-like. 

6. SiLENE. Capsule dry, opening at the apex. Stvles 3 or 4. 

6. Lychnis. Capsule opening at the apex. Styles 5 Petals with a scaleat the base. 



TABLE or GENEEA. XXXIU 

7. Agrostemma. Capsule opening at the apex. Styles 5. Petals without ap- 

pendage. Caljx-teeth long and linear. 

** Sepals distinct. 

8. BuPFONiA. Sepals 4. Petals 4. Stamens 4. Capsule opening by 2 valves. 

9. Sagina. Styles as many as the sepals, and opposite to them, 4-5. Capsule 

opening by an equal number of valves. Petals minute. 

10. McENcniA. Sepals 4. Petals 4, entire. Stamens 4. Styles 3. Capsule open- 

ing by 8 valves or teeth. 

11. HoLOSTEUM. Sepals 5. Petals 5, indented at the end. Capsule opening at 

the apex with 6 teeth. Styles 3. 

12. Spergula. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Styles 5, alternating with the sepals. 

13. Stellaria. Sepals 6. Petals 5, bifid. Styles 3. Capsule opening by 6 valves 

or teeth. 

14. Arenaria. Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire. Styles 3 or 5, and opposite the sepals. 

15. Cerastium. Sepals 5. Petals 5, bifid. Capsule opening with 10 teeth. Styles 3-5. 

16. Cherleria. Sepals 5. Petals very minute or wanting. Styles 3. Capsule 

opening by 3 valves. 

Order XIV. LINAGES. 

1. LiNUM. Petals and stamens 5. 

2. Basiola. Petals and stamens 4. 

Order XV. MALVACE^. 

1. Lavatera. Involucrum 3-cleft. 

2. Malva. Involucrum of 3 distinct bracts. 

3. Altilea. Involucrum 6-9-cleft. 

Order XVI. TILIACE^. 
1. TiLiA. The only British genus. 

Order XVII. HYPERICACE^. 

1. Hypericum. Stamens many, united into 3 or 4 groups at the base. Flowers 

yellow. 

2. Parnassia. Stamens 5, perigynous, with 5 fringed nectaries between. Flowers 

white. 

Order XVIII. ACERACE^. 
I.Acer. The only British genus. 

Order XIX. GERANIACE^. 

1. Geranium. Fruit with a long recurved awn. 

2. Erodium. Fruit with a long spiral awn. 

Order XX. BALSAMIKiCE.^. 
X. Impatiens. The only British genus. 

Order XXI. OXALIDACE^. 
1. OxALis. The only British genus. 

Order XXII. STAPHYLEACE^. 
1. Stapiitlea. The only British genus. n 



XXXIV TATIT.E OP OKNERA. 

Order XXITI. CELASTllACE^. 
1. Eco.NTHUS. The only British genus. 

Order XXIV. RHAMNACE^. 
1. EiiAMN-us. The only British genus. 

Order XXV. LEGUMINOSiE. 

* Stamens all united by their filaments. 

1. Ulet. All the branches spinous. Leaves minute. Calj'x with 2 bracts at the 

base. Sepals nearly as long as the corolla. Standard bifid. 

2. Genista. Flowering branches not spinous. Calyx without bracts, much shorter 

than the corolla, 3-cleft. Standard entire. 

3. Cytisus. Calyx much shorter than the corolla, without bracts, 2-lipped, tha 

lower lip with 3 teeth. Standard large, ovate. Pod flat. 

4. Ononis. Calyx much shorter than the corolla, 5-cleft. Leaves simple or ternate. 

5. Amthyllis. Calyx much shorter than the corolla, 5-cleft. Leaves pinnate. 

** One stamen distinct, the rest united. 

6. Medicago. Pod sickle-shaped, or spirally curved. Leaves ternate. 

7. Melilotus. Pod nearly straight. Calyx-teeth 5, nearly equal. Keel blunt. 

Leaves ternate. Petals deciduous. 

8. TniFOLiuM. Pod nearly straight. Calyx-teeth 5, unequal. Petals slightly 

connected, persistent ; keel blunt. Leaves ternate. 

9. Lotus. Pod nearly straight. Calyx-teeth nearly equal. Keel with a narrow 

point. Leaves ternate. 

10. OxYTROPis. Pod nearly 2-celled. Keel with a narrow point. Leaves pinnate. 

11. Astragalus. Pod nearly 2-celled. Keel obtuse. Leaves pinnate. 

12. Ornithopus. Pod compressed, curved, jointed. Leaves pinnate. 

13. HiPPOCREPis. Pod compressed, formed of crescent-shaped joints. Leaves 

pinnate. 

14. Onobryciiis. Pod 1-seeded, toothed on the lower margin. Leaves pinnate. 

15. ViciA. Pod 1-celled, many-seeded. Style filiform, hairy beneath the stigma. 

Leaves pinnate, with tendrils. 
IG. Ervum. Pod 1 -celled, with several seeds. Stigma downy all over. Leaves 
pinnate, with tendrils. 

17. Lathyrus. Pod 1-celled, many-seeded. Style flat, dilated upwards, downy in 

front. Leaves pinnate or simple, sometimes with tendrils. 

18. PisuM. Pod 1-celled, many-seeded. Style compressed, keeled, somewhat tri- 

angular, downy above. Leaves pinnate, with tendrils. 

19. Orobus. Pod 1-celled. Style flat, downy on the upper side. Leaves pinnate, 

without tendrils. 

Order XXVI. EOSACE^. 

1. Prunus. Fruit a drupe. Ovary superior, of 1 carpel. Calyx deciduous. 

2. Spir/ka. Fruit formed of several follicles, arranged in a ring upon the calyx-tube. 

3. Dryas. Carpels with a feather-like awn. Disk flat. 

4. Geum. Carpels with a feather-like jointed awn. Disk elongated. 

6. RuBUS. Fruit formed of a number of drupes, in a simple calyx. 

G. Frag aria. Fruit formed of carpels on a fleshy receptacle, falling when rip3. 
Calyx double. 

7. Com ARUM. Carpels on a spongy persistent receptacle. Calyx double. Petals 

smaller than the calyx. 



TABLE OF GENERA. XXXV 

8. PoTENTiLLA. Carpels on a dry flat disk. Calyx double. Petals 5, larger than 

the calyx. 

9. ToRMENTiLLA. Carpels on a dry flat disk. Calyx double. Petals 4, larger than 

tlie calyx. 

10. Sihbalma. Carpels on the bottom of the calyx. Calyx double. Petals 6, 

minute. 

11. Agrimonia. Carpels 2, enclosed within the calyx-tube. Petals 5. Calyx single. 

12. Alciiemilla. Carpels 1 or 2, within the calyx-tube. Petals none. Calyx double. 

13. Sangcisorba. Carpels I or 2, witliin the calyx-tube. Petals none. Calyx 

single, with bracts below. Stamens 4. 

14. PoTERiuM. Carpels 1 or 2, within the calyx-tube. Petals none. Calyx single. 

Stamens numerous. 

15. EosA. Fruit formed of small nuts, witliin the fleshy calyx-tube. 

Fruit a pome. 

16. Mespilus. Calyx-teeth large and leafy. Petals large. Disk nearly as broad 

as the fruit. 

17. Ckat^gus. Calyx-teeth small. Petals large. Carpels bony. 

18. Cotoneaster. Calyx-teeth small. Petals small, erect. 

19. Pyrus. Calyx-teeth small. Petals large. Carpels cartilaginous. Disk of fruit; 

small. 

Order XXVII. ONAGRACE^. 

1. Epilobium. Calyx 4-clefL Stamens 8. 

2. (Enothera. Calyx tubular below. Stamens 8, 

3. IsNARDiA. Calyx 4-cleft. Stamens 4. 

4. CiEC^A. Calyx 2-cleft, deciduous. Stamens 2. 

Order XXVIII. HALORAGACE Ji. 

1. HippcRis. Stigma 1. 

2. Myeiopiiyllum. Stigmas 4. 

Order XXIX. LYTHRACE^. 

1. Lythrum. Calyx tubular, cylindrical. Style filiform. 

2. Peplis. Calyx bell-shaped. Style very short. 

Order XXX. TAMARICACE^. 
1. Tamarix. The only British genus. 

Order XXXI. CUCURBITACE^. 
1. Beyonia. The only British genus. 

Order XXXII. PORTULACE^. 

1. MoNTiA. The only British genus. 

Order XXXIII. ILLECEBRACE^. 

1. CoRRiGiOLA. Fruit 1 -seeded, indeliiscent. Petals oblong. Leaves alternate. 

2. Herniaria. Fruit 1 -seeded, indehiscent. Petals filiform. Leaves opposite. 

3. Illecebrum. Fruit 1 -seeded, opening in 5 valves. Leaves opposite. 

4. PoLYCARPON. Fruit with several sejds, 3-valved. 

Order XXXIV. CRASSULACE^. 

1. TihhMA. Petals distinct, 3 or 4. Stamens alternating with the petals. 

2. Cotyledon. Petals united into a tube. 

/2 



XXXVl TABLE OF GENEKA, 

n. Sempervivi'm. Petals distinct, about 12. 
4. RiioDiOLA. Plant dioecious. 
6. Sedlm, Petals distinct, 4-6. 

Order XXXV. GROSSULAllIACEJE. 

1. RiBE3. The only British genus. 

Order XXXVI. SAXIFEAGACE^. 

1. Saxifraoa. Petals 5. Ovary 2-celled. 

2. Cjirysosplenium. Petals none. Ovary 1-celled. 

Order XXXVII. UMBELLIFERiE. 

1. HvDROcoTYLB. Lcavcs peltate. Flowers nearly sessile. 

* Umbels simple, or partly so. Fruit ovate, without ridgea. 

2. Sanicula. Fruit covered with hooked prickles. 

3. EuvNGiUM. Fruit covered with scales. Leaves prickly. 

** Umbels compound. 
+ Fruit laterally compressed, with 5 ridges. 

4. Cici'TA. Involucrum wanting, or of few leaves. Involucels many-leaved. 

Calyi 5-toothed. Petals with an inflexed point. Fruit double; carpels 
with 5 nearly flat equal ridges, with single vitt«e between. 
6. Apium. Involucrum and involucels wanting. Calyx-teeth wanting. Petals 
with an involute point. Fruit roundish, contracted laterally ; carpels with 
6 filiform ridges, with vitttc between. 

6. PETROSELiNUir. Involucrum few-leaved. Involucels many-leaved. Petals with 

a long inflexed lobe. Fruit contracted laterally; carpels with 6 equal 
ridges, with vittoe between. 

7. Trinia. Flowers dioecious. (The only dioecious genus.) 

8. Helosciadium. Involucel many-leaved. Calyx of 5 teeth, or obsolete. Petals 

ovate, pointed. Fruit ovate or oblong ; carpels 5-ribbed, with single vittfe 
between. 

9. SisoN. Involucrum few-leaved. Calyx-teeth wanting. Petals obcordate, with 

an incurved point. Fruit ovate, with short clavate vittse between the 
ridges. 

10. .^GOPODiuM. Involucrum wanting. Calyx-teeth wanting. Petals with an 

inflexed point. Carpels without vittse. 

11. Caruji. Calyx-teeth wanting. Petals obovate, with a narrow inflexed point. 

Fruit oblong. VittiE single between the ribs. 

12. BuNiu.M. Involucrum wanting. Involucel few-leaved. Petals obovate, with a 

broad inflexed point. Fruit linear-oblong. Vitta; 2 or 3 between the 
obtuse ribs. 

13. PiMPiNELLA. Involucrum and involucels wanting. Calyx-teeth wanting. Petals 

obovate, with an inflexed point. Fruit ovate. Vittse 3 or more together. 

14. SiuM. Calyx-teeth b, or wanting. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed point. 

Fruit laterally compressed or contracted, crowned by the depressed base of 
the styles. Vitt» 3 or more together. 

15. Bupi.EURrM. Calyx obsolete. Petals roundish, with a broad reflexed point. 

Fruit laterally compressed. Leaves simple. 

tt Fruit rounded, with 5 ridges. 

IG. CEnanthe. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed point. Fruit 
tapering, crowned by the straight styles. Vittai single. Bidges blunt. 

17. ^Etiiusa. Involucrum wanting. Involucel 3-leaved, pendulous. Calyx ob- 
solete. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed point. Fruit roundish-ovate. 
Bidges acute. Vittae single. 



TABLE OF GENEHA. XXXVll 

18. FcENicuLUM. Calyx obsolete. Petals roundish, with a broad inflexed lobe. 

Fruit oblong. Vittae single. 

19. Seseli. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals obcordate, with a reflexed point. Fruit 

oval or oblong. Eidges thick, elevated. Vittae single. 

20. LiGUSTicuM. Calyx 5-toothed or obsolete. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed 

point. Fruit elliptical. Eidges sharp. Vittae many together. Leaves bi- 
ternate. 

21. SiLAUs. Involucrum few-leaved. Involucel many-leaved. Petals obovate, 

with an inflexed lobe. Eidges sharp, with many vittae between. Leaves 
pinnatifid. 

22. Meum. Involucrum few-leaved. Involucel many-leaved. Petals elliptical, 

incurved at the point. Eidges acute. Vittae many. 

23. CfiiTHMUsr. Involucrum and involucel many-leaved. Petals elliptical, entire, 

involute. Eidges sharp. Vittae many. Plant succulent. 

f f t Fruit dorsally compressed, with a wing on each side. 

24. Angelica. Involucrum deciduous. Involucel many-leaved. Three middle 

ridges elevated ; two lateral spreading into a double wing on each side the 
fruit. 

25. Peucedanum. Calyx 5-toothed or obsolete. Petals obovate or obcordate, with 

an inflexed point. Fruit flattened at the back, with a thin dilated margin. 
Vittse single. 

26. Pastinaca. Involucrum wanting. Calyx nearly obsolete. Petals roundish, 

entire, involute, pointed. Fruit much compressed, with a dilated margin. 
Eidges very slender. Vittae linear, single. 

27. Heracleum. Fruit dorsaUy compressed, with a broad flat margin. Vitta; short. 

28. ToRDYLiuM. Involucrum and involucel many-leaved. Wings of fruit waved 

or crenated. 

tttt Fruit prickly. Carpels with secondary ridges between the others. 

29. Daucus. Fruit compressed dorsally. Carpels with 5 bristly ridges, and 4 

secondary ones with prickles. Seed plane in front. 

30. Caucalis. Fruit laterally compressed. Eidges prickly. Vittae beneath the 

secondary ridges. 

31. ToRiLis. Fruit laterally compressed. Secondary ridges hidden beneath the 

prickles. 

ttttt Fruit compressed at the side, elongated, with primary ridges only. 

32. Scandix. Calyx obsolete. Petals obovate, with an inflexed point. Fruit with 

a very long beak. Carpels with 5 obtuse ridges. Vittse none. 

33. Anthriscus. Calyx obsolete. Petals obcordate, with a short inflexed point. 

Fruit beaked ; beak only with ridges. Vittae none. 

34. Ch^rophyllum. Calyx obsolete. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed point. 

Fruit not beaked. Carpels with 5 obtuse ridges. Vitt.^ single. 

35. Myrrhis. Calyx obsolete. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed point. Fruit 

not beaked. Eidges 5, sharp. Vittae none. 
^. EcHiNOPHORA. Fruit ovate, included in the receptacle, with a projecting 
beak. 

37. CoNiuM. Carpels veith 5 prominent, equal, crenated ridges. Vittae none. 

38. P11YSOSPER.MUM. Calyx 5-toothed. Carpels vdth 5 equal filiform ridges. Vitta 

single, 

39. Smyrnium. Calyx obsolete. Petals lanceolate, with a long inflexed point. 

Fruit double. Tlu:ee dorsal ridges prominent and sharp. Vittae many. 

tttttt Fruit globular. 

40. CoRiANDRUJf. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed point ; the 

outer radiant and bifid. Fruit globular, the carpels scarcely separating. 
Secondary ridges prominent, primary nearly obsolete. 



XXXViii TABLE OF GENERA. 

Order XXXVIII. ARALIACE^. 

1. AnoxA. An herbaceous plant. 

2. IIeuera. An evergreen climbing shrub. 

Order XXXIX. CORXACE^. 
1. CoBNUs. The only British genus. 

Order XL. LORANTHACE^. 
1. VisccM. The only British genus. 

Order XLI. CAPRIFOLIACEiE. 

1. Sambdcus. Stigmas sessile. Corolla rotate. Leaves pinnate. 

2. Viburnum. Stigmas sessile. Corolla bell-shaped. Leaves simplei 

3. LoNiCERA. Stigma on a filiform style. Stamens 5. 

4. LiNNiEA. Stigma on a filiform style. Stamens 4. 

Order XLII. EUBIACEiE. 

1. RuBiA. Corolla rotate. Fruit succulent. 

2. Galium. Corolla rotate. Fruit dry. 

3. SiiERARDiA. Corolla funnel-shaped. Fruit crowned with the calyx. 

4. AspERULA. Corolla funnel-shaped. Fruit not crowned with the calyx. 

Order XLIII. VALERIANACEvE. 

1. Centranthus. Stamen 1. 

2. Valeriana. Stamens 3. Fruit 1 -celled. 

3. Fjcsia. Stamens 3. Fruit 3-celled. 

Order XLIV. DIPSACEiE. 

1. DiPSACUs. Receptacle with spinous scales. 

2. ScABiosA. Receptacle scaly or hairy. 

Order XLV. COMPOSITE. 

* Florets all perfect. 
+ Corollas all ligulate. 

1. Traoopogoh. Involucrum simple. Fruit longitudinally striated. Pappus 

feathery, stalked. 

2. Helmintiiia. Involucrum double. Fruit transversely striated. Pappus fea- 

thery, stalked. 

3. Picris. Involucrum double. Fruit transversely striated. Pappus feathery, 

sessile. 

4. SoNCHUs. Involucrum of 2 or 3 rows of imbricated scales, oblong, swelling at 

the base. Fruit longitudinally striated. Pappus sessile, hair-like. 
6. Lactuca. Involucrum cylindrical, imbricated, the scales membranous at the 
margin. Pappus simple, stalked. 

6. Prenantiies. Involucrum cylindrical, the principal scales equal, with small 

ones below. Florets few. Pappus simple, sessile. 

7. Leontodon. Involucrum imbricated, with flaccid scales, the outer ones reflexed. 

Pappus simple, stalked. 

8. Apargia. Involucrum imbricated; inner scales equal, outer smaller. Recep- 

tacle punctured. Pappus feathery, sessile. 



TABLE OP QENEBA. XTXIX 

9. TnRiNCiA. Pappus of the outer series scaly (otherwise as Apargia). 

10. HiERAciuM. Involucrum imbricated, with linear-oblong scales, ovate. Eecep- 

tacle punctured. Pappus simple, sessile. 

11. Crepis. Involucrum swollen at the base, surrounded by deciduous scales. 

Pajjpus simple, sessile. 

12. BoRKHAusiA. Involucrum oval, with deciduous scales at the base, ribbed when 

in fruit. Pappus nearly simple, stalked. 

13. Hypocikeris. Involucrum oblong, imbricated. Eeceptacle chafly. Pappus 

feathery. 

14. Lapsana. Involucnim with small scales at the base ; the inner ones equal, 

linear-lanceolate. Pappus wanting. 

15. CiCHORiuM. Involucrum of 8 united scales, with 5 smaller at the base. Pappus 

sessile, scaly, shorter than the fruit. 

tt Corollas all tubular. 

16. Arctium. Involucrum globose, the scales terminating in a hook. Pappus 

simple, short, persistent. 

17. Serratula. Dioecious. Involucrum oblong ; scales acute, unai-med. Pappus 

persistent, the hairs rigid, in 3 or 4 rows. 

18. Saussurea. Involucrum oblong, scales unarmed. Anthers bristly below 

Pappus sessile, in 2 rows. 

19. Carduus. Involucrum swollen ; the scales simple, spine-pointed. Receptacle 

hairy. Pappus deciduous, hair-like, united into a ring at the base. 

20. SiLYBuu. Filaments of stamens united (otherwise as Carduus). 

21. Cnicus. Pappus feathery (otherwise as Carduus). 

22. Onopordum. Involucrum swollen ; the scales spreading, spine-pointed. Recep 

tacle honeycombed. 

23. Carlina. Involucrum swollen ; the outer scales leaf-like, sinuous, very spiny ; 

the inner ones long and linear, coloured. Pappus feathery. 

24. Bidens. Involucrum double ; the outer scales leafy, spreading. Outer florets 

sometimes ligulate. Eeceptacle chaffy. Pappus of 2-5, rough, persistent 
awns. 

25. EuPATORiuM. Involucrum oblong. Florets few. Eeceptacle naked. Pappus 

featheiy. 

2G. CnRYsocoMA. Involucrum hemispherical. Pappus hairy. Style scarcely longer 
than the florets. 

27. DiOTis. Involucrum hemispherical. Receptacle convex, chafiy, the scales not 

fringed. Pappus wanting. Fruit with 2 ear-like processes. 

** Florets of the centre perfect, those of the circumference with pistils only, 
t Outer florets not ligulate. 

28. Tanacetum. Involucrimi hemispherical. Eeceptacle naked. Florets all tubu- 

lar ; those of the margin S-cleft, sometimes wanting, the rest 5-cleft. Pappus 
obscure. 

29. Artemisia. Involucrum ovate or rounded. Receptacle naked or hairy. Florets 

all tubular ; those of the margin slender, entire. Pappus wanting. 

30. Antennaria. Involucrum imbricated ; the scales membranous. Receptacle 

naked. Florets of the margin awl-shaped. Pappus rough or feathery. 
Flowers dioecious. 

31. Gnaphalium. Flowers perfect (otherwise as Antennaria). 

32. CoRYZA. Involucrum roundish, imbricated. Florets all tubular ; those of the 

circumference 3-toothed- Pappus haii-y, rough. 

tt Florets of the margin ligulate, those of the disJc tubular. 

33. Erigeron. Involucrum imbricated ; scales linear, acute, very numerous. 

34. TussiLAGO. Involucrum simple; scales linear, membranous on the margin. 

Florets of the margin ray-like, numerous, linear, long ; those of the disk 
few. 



Xl TABI« OP GENERA. 

35. Petasites. Flower-heads in a dense oral spike ; outer florets nofc ray-like, 

30. Senecio. Involucrum scales linear, with smaller ones at the base, brown at 

the points. Outer florets ray-like (sometimes very slightly). Pappus simple, 

hair-like. 

37. Aster. Involucrum imbricated, scales linear. Outer florets ray-like, nume- 

rous, blue or purplish. 

38. SoLiDAGO. Involucrum closely imbricated. Florets of margin few, ray-like, 

yellow. 

39. Inula. Involucrum imbricated ; scales leaf-like, spreading. Flower-heads 

large, terminal ; outer florets ray-like. Pappus simple. 

40. PcLiCARiA. Involucrum hemispherical, closely imbricated, with narrow scales. 

Pappus double. Outer florets more or less ray-like. 

41. LiMBARDA. Involucrum imbricated, with linear scales. Pappus simple. An- 

thers with bristles at the base. Leaves succulent. 

42. Cineraria. Involucrum simple ; scales many, equal, upright. Pappus simple, 

hair-like. Outer florets ray-like. 

43. DoRONicuM. Involucrum double, the scales longer than the disk. Pappus of 

the outer florets wanting. Outer florets ray-like. Heads very large. 

44. Bellis. Involucrum hemisplierical, simple. Receptacle conical. Pappus 

wanting. Outer florets ray-like, white or pinkish. Leaves entire. 

45. Chrysanthemum. Involucrum hemispherical, imbricated ; scales membranous 

on the margin. Pappus wanting. Outer florets white or yellow, ray-like. 
Leaves pinnatifid or jagged. 

46. Pyrethrum. Fruit crowned with a membranous border. Otherwise as 

Chrysanthemum. 

47. Matricaria. Involucrum hemispherical, imbricated; scales obtuse, with i 

membranous border. Pappus wanting. Outer florets ray-like, white. Re- 
ceptacle naked, nearly cylindrical. 

48. Antiiemis. Involucrum hemispherical, imbricated ; scales membranous at the 

border. Outer florets ray-like. Receptacle chaffy. 

49. Achillea. Involucrum ovate, imbricated. Receptacle narrow, plain, chaffy. 

Pappus wanting. Outer florets few, ray-like. Heads in corymbs. 

•** Outer florets with neither stamens nor pistils ; the rest with botli. Florets all 

tubidar. 

60. Cbntacrba. Outer florets funnel-shaped, much longer than the rest. 

**** Heads monoecious. 
51. Xanthium. Fertile involucrum prickly, 2-flowered. 

Order XLVI. CAMPANULACEiE. 

1. Campanula. Corolla bell-shaped. 

2. Phyteuma. Corolla rotate. Anthers distinct. 

8. Jasionb. CoroUa rotate. Anthers adhering at the base. 

Order XLVII. LOBELIACE^. 
1 . Lobelia. The only British genua. 

Order XLVIII. VACCINIACEiE. 

1. Vaccinium. Segments of corolla short, nearly erect. 

2. OxYCOCCus. Segments of corolla long, reflcxed. 

Order XLIX. ERICACEAE. 

1. Erica. Fruit dry. Calyx simple. Corolla persistent. 

2, Calluna. Fruit dry. Calyx double. Corolla persistent. 



TAIiLE or GENERA. xli 

3. MENZiEsrA. Fruit dry. Corolla deciduous. Stamens 8-10. Capsulc-valvea 

opjiiing at the margins of the carpels. 

4. Azalea. Fruit dry. Corolla deciduous. Stamens 5. 

5. Anduomeda. Fruit dry. Corolla deciduous. Stamens 10. Capsule-valves 

opening down the middle of the carpels. 
G. Arbutus. Fruit a many-seeded berry. 
7. Akctostapuylos. Fruit a 1-seeded berry. 

Order L. PYROLACEiE. 
I. Pvrola. The only British genus. 

Order LI. MONOTROPACE^E. 
1. MoNOTBOFA. The only British genus. 

Order LII. AQUIEOLIACE^. 

1. Ilex. The only British genus. 

Order LIII. OLEACEiE. 

1. LiGUSTRUM. A slu-ub. Fruit a succulent berry. 

2. Fra.xinus. Trees. Fruit winged, dry. 

Order LIV. APOCYNACE^. 
1. ViNCA. The only British genus. 

Order LV. GENTIAKACEJH. 

1. E.-cACUM. An herb. Corolla funnel-shaped. Calyx 4-cleft. Style deciduous. 

2. Eeytiir^a. Herbs. Corolla funnel-shaped. Calyx 5-cleft. Style deciduous. 

3. Gentiana. Herbs. Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped. Style persistent. 

4. Chlora. Herbs. Corolla rotate. Style deciduous. 

6. Menyantiies. a bog-plant. Leaves ternate. 

6. ViLLARsiA. A floating plant. Leaves heart-shaped. 

7. SwERTiA. An herb. Corolla rotate. Style persistent. 

Order LYI. POLEMONIACE^. 
1. PoLEMONiuM. The only British genus. 

Order LYII. CONYOLYULACE^. 

1. Convolvulus. Leafy twining herbs. 

2. CuscuTA. Leafless, twining, parasitic plants. 

Order LYIII. BORAGINACE^. 

* Nuts upon a disk below the style, their base flat. 

1. EcniuM. Corolla irregular, nearly bell-shaped. Filaments long. 

2. PuLMONARiA. CoroUa regular, funnel-shaped. Tiu-oat naked. Leaves rough. 

3. LiTHOSPERMUM. CoroUa regular, funnel-shaped ; its tlii-oat naked. Leaver 

rough. Or throat of corolla with 5 small projections ; leaves smooth and 
glaucous. 

4. Myosotis. Throat of corolla closed with scales. Corolla salver-shaped. 

*» Nuts upon a disk below the style, indented at their base. 
6. Anchusa. Corolla fimnel-shaped ; tube straight. 

9 



xlii TABLEOF GKNER.V. 

G. Lvropirn. Corolla-hibe slightly bent.. 

7. Symi'iiytuji. Corolla cylindrical, bell-shnpcd, straight. 

8. BouAuo. Corolla rotate. Filaments bifld. 

*** Nuts attached to the base of the sfylo. 

9. AsPERUoo. Calyx with unequal valves. 
10. Cynoolossum. Calyx equally divided. 

Order LIX. SOLANACE^E. 

1. Datura. Fruit a prickly 4-valved capsule. 

2. IIyoscvami'.s. Fruit dry, opening with a transverse lid. 

3. AxKorA. Fruit a berry. Anthers distant. 

4. iSoLANUM. Fruit a berry. Anthers close together. 

Order LX. OROBANCHACEiE. 

1. OitonANCiiE. Corolla 4- or 5-eleft, the base persistent. 

2. Latiu{j;a. Corolla 2-lipped, deciduous. 

Order LXI. SCROPHULAEIACEyE. 

1. Veronica. Stamens 2. 

* Stamens 4, calyx 4-clefl. 

2. Bartsia. Upper lip of corolla entire, not flattened laterally. 

3. Euphrasia. Upper lip of corolla bifid, not flattened. 

4. RiiiNANTiius. Upper lip of corolla laterally compressed. Calyx inflated. 

5. Mklampyuum. Upper lip of corolla latereilly compressed. Calyx not inflated. 

** Stamens 4, calyx 5-cleft. 

6. Pedicularis. Calyx inflated. Corolla 2-lippcd ; upper lip compi-essed la- 

terally. 

7. ScROPiiuLARiA. Corolla nearly globular. 

8. Digitalis. Corolla bell-shaped, unequal. Capsule 2-ccllcd. 

9. ANTiRniiixuM. Corolla-mouth closed by the lips meeting, with a rounded pro- 

jection at the base. 

10. LiNARiA. Corolla-mouth closed by the lips meeting, with a spur at the base, 

11. LiMOSBLLA. Corolla bell-shaped, equal. Capsule 1 -celled. 

12. SiBTiioiu'iA. Corolla rotate, regular. Capsule 2-celled. 

*** Stamens 5. 

13. Verbascu.m. Corolla rotate, petals unequal. 

Order LXII. LABIAT.^. 

* Stamens 2. 

1. Lycopu!?. Corolla nearly equal. Calyx with 5 segments, 

2. Salvia. Corolla lipped. Calyx 2-lipped. 

** Stamens 4, nearly equal. 

3. Mentha. Corolla 4-cleft, nearly regular. 

4. Thymus. Corolla 2-lipped. Flowers in whorls. 

5. Origanum. Corolla 2-lipped. Flowers paniclcd. 

*** Stamens 4, 2 longer than the others, 
+ Upiyer lip of corolla very short 
C. Teucrium. Stamens projecting beyond the upper lip. Upper lip cleft. 
7. Ajuga. Stamens projecting beyond the upper lip. Upper lip nearly entire. 



TABLE OF GENEKA, xliii 

tt Uj^]}cr lip of corolla longer than the sfmnevs. Calyx o-iooihcd. S'amcns longer 

than the tube. 

8. Ballota. Calyx salTer-shaped, lO-ribbed. Upper lip erect, concave. Lower 

stamens longest. 

9. Leonurus, Calyx tubular, nearly as long as the corolla. Lower stamens longest. 

10. G-ALEOPSis. Calyx bell-sliaped. Middle lobe of lower lip the largest. Upper 

lip vaulted. Lower stamens longest. 

11. Galeobdolon. Calyx bell-shaped. Lobes of lower lip nearly equal. Upper 

lip incui'ved. Lower stamens longest. 

12. Lamium. Calyx bell-shaped. Upper lip erect ; 2 lateral lobes of lower lip very 

small, middle bifid. Lower stamens longest, 
1.3. Betonica. Calyx ovate, with 5 a^vned teeth. 
14. Staciivs. Calyx bell-shaped. Sides of the lower lip reflexed, middle lobe 

nearly entire. Lower stamens longest. 
l.'). Nepeta. Ujjper stamens longest. Middle lobe of lower lip crenated. 
IG. Glechoma. Upper stamens longest. Middle lobe of lower lip indented. • 

ttt Calyx 10-toothed. Stamens shorter than the tide, 

17. Mabrubium. Lower stamens longest. Plant very woolly. 

tti + Calyx 2-lipped. 

18. AciNOS. Upper lip of corolla straight. Flowers in whorls. Stamens diverging. 

19. Calamintiia. Upper lip of corolla straight. Flowers in lateral cymes. Stamens 

diverging. 

20. Clinopodium. Upper lip of corolla straight. Flowers in whorls, wi h linear 

bracts beneath. Stamens diverging. 

21. Melittis. Calyx bell-shaped, open in fruit. Anthers approaching in pairs. 

22. Prunella, Calyx ovate, closed when in fruit; upper lip 3-toothed, lower 

bifid, 

23. Scutellaria. Calyx ovate, closed when in fruit, its lips entire. 

Order LXIII. VERBENACE^. 

1. Verbena, The only British genus. 

Order LXIV. LENTIBULAEIACE^. 

1, Pinguicula, Bog-plants with entire leaves. 

2. Utriculauia. Water-plants. Leaves in numerous linear segments. 

Order LXV. PRIMULACE^. 

1. HoTTONiA. A water-plant. Leaves pectinated. 

2. Primula, CaljT: tubular. Corolla-limb spreading, tube including the stamens- 

3. CvcLAJiEN. Calyx tubular. Corolla reflexed. 

4. Glaux. Calyx tubular, coloured. Corolla none. 

5. Trientalis, Calyx 7-eleft, 

6. LYSiiMACiiiA. Calyx 5-cleft. Capsule with 5 or 2 valves. 

7. Anagallis, Calyx 5-cleft. Capsule opening transversely. 

8. Centunculus, Calyx 4-cleft. 

9. Sajiolus. Calyx 5-cleft. Capsule opening with reflexed teeth, half inferior. 

Order LXVI. PLUMBAGINACE^. 

1. Armeria. Flowers in a close head. 

2, Statice, Flowers in panicles. 

^2 



Xliv TABLE OF GENERA. 

Order LXVII. PLANTAGINACEJE. 

1. Plantaoo. Stamens upon the corolla. 

2. LiTTOUELLA. Stamcns hypogynous. 

Order LXVIII. AMAEANTHACE.E. 
1. Amabanthus. The only British genus. 

Order LXIX. CHENOPODIACE^. 

1. Beta. Stamens 5, on a fleshy ring. Ovary adhering to the calyx. 

2. CiiENOPODiuM. Stamens 5, on the receptacle. Ovary free. 

3. Atriplex. Stamens 5. Flowers monoecious, of different forms. 

4. Salicorma. Stems jointed, succulent, leafless. Stamens 1 or 2. Calyx entire. 

fleshy. 

5. Salsola. Stamens 5, from an hypogynous ring. Calyx 5-parted. 

Order LXX. SCLERANTHACE^. 
1. SCLERANTHUS. The Only British genus. 

Order LXXI. POLYGONACE^. 

1. Polygonum. Sepals 5. 

2. Rum EX. Sepals 6. Styles 3. 

3. OxYuiA. Sepals 4. Styles 2. 

Order LXXII. THYMELACEJ3. 
1. Dafune. The only British genus. 

Order LXXIII. SANTALACE^. 
1. ToESiUM. The only British genus. 

Order LXXIV. ARIST0L0CHIACEJ3. 

1. ARisTOLOcnrA. Anthers 6, sessile on the style. A climbing plant. 

2. AsAuuM. Stamens 12. A low herb. 

Order LXXV. EMPETRACE^. 
1. Empetrum. The only British genus. 

Order LXXVI. EUPHORBIACEiE. 

1. Mercurialis. Calyx 3-parted. Dioecious or monoecious. 

2. Euphorbia. Flowers in monoecious heads, surrounded by bracts. Ovary stalked. 

3. Buxcs. An evergreen shrub. Stamens 4. Monoecious. 

Order LXXVII. CALLITRICHACE^. 
1. Callitbiciie. The only British genus. 

Order LXXYIII. CERATOPHYLLACK^. 
1, Ceratophyllum. The only British genus. 

Order LXXIX. URTICACKSl. 
1. Ubtica. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, in racemes. 



TABLE OP GENEEA. sdv 

2. Parietauia. Flowers in axillary clusters, surrounded hy an inTolncrum. 

3. HuMULUS. A climber. Dioecious. Fertile flowers in an oval catkin. 

Order LXXX. ULMACE^. 
1. Ulmus. The only British genus. 

Order LXXXI. ELEAGNACE^E. 
1. Hippo piiAfi. The only British genus. 

Order LXXXII. MYRICACE^. 
1. Myrica. The only British genus. 

Order LXXXIII. BETULACE^. 

1. Betula. Stamens 8-12. 

2. Alnus. Stamens 4. 

Order LXXXIV. SALICACEiE. 

1. Salix. Scales of catMns entire. Stamens 1-5. 

2. PopoLUS. Scales jagged. Stamens 4-30. 

Order LXXXV. CUPULIFEEyE. 

1. Fagus. Barren flowers in a globular catkin. Fertile flowers within a prickly 

involucrum. Stigmas 3. 

2. Castanea. Barren flowers in a cylindrical catkin. Fertile flowers in a 4-lobed 

involucrum. Stigmas 6. 

3. QuERCUs. Barren catkin lax, long. Nut surrounded by the cup-like involucrum. 

4. CoRYLus. Barren catkin long, cylindrical. Nut covered by a coriaceous in- 

volucrimi. 
6. Caepinus. Barren catkin long, lax, Involucrum of 2 leaf-like scales. 

Order LXXXVI. CONIPEE^. 

1. PiNus. A tree. Fertile flowers in a cone. 

2. JuNiPEEUs. A bush. Fruit berry-like. 

3. Taxus. a tree. Seed enveloped in a cup-like fleshy receptacla 

Order LXXXVII. DIOSCOREACE^. 
1. Tamus. The only British genus. 

Order LXXXVIII. TPJLLIACEiE. 
1. Paris. The only British genus. 

Order LXX^XTX, HYDEOCHARIDACE^. 

1. Anacharis. Leaves whorled. Plant submersed. 

2. Hydrocharis. Leaves floating, kidney-shaped. 

3. Stratiotes. Leaves submerged, sword-shaped, with marginal prickles. 

Order XC. OECHIDACE^. 

• Anther cohering to the face of the stigma. 
1, Oiicuis. Lip with a spur. Glands of the stalks of thepoUenniaESCS la a pouch 



xlvi TABLE' OP GENERA. 

2. GvMNADENiA. Lip with a spur. Glands of tlie pollen-Tnasses naked. 

3. IlAitEXAuiA. Lip with a spur. Perianth hooded. Anther-cells diverging at 

the base. 

4. AcERAs. Lip without a spur. Perianth helmet-shaped. Segment of the lip 

linear. 

5. Herminilm. Lip without a spur. Perianth bell-shaped. 

G. OriiRYS. Lip without a spur. Perianth spreading. Lip lobed. 

«» Anther on the back of the column, attached by its base. 

7. GooDYERA. Two lateral sepals spreading. Lip free from the column, cntu-c at 

the apex. 

8. Neottia. Two lateral sepals erect. Lip embracing the column. 
{). LisTERA. Lip linear or oblong, 2-lobed at the end. 

10. Ei'iPACTis. Lip free from the column, contracted in the middle. 

*** Anther 1, terminal, free. 

11. Malaxis. Perianth spreading. Lip supc-ior. ^ 

12. Li PARIS. Perianth spreading. Lip inferior. 

13. CoRALLORiiizA. Perianth Converging. 

**** Anthers 2. 
T4. CypEiPEDiuM. Lip very largo, inflated. 

Order XCI. IHlDACEiE. 

1. Iris. Stigmas pctaloid, covering the stamens. 

2. Triciionema. Stigmas 3, bifid ; lobes slender. 

3. Caocus. Stigmas 3-cleft ; lobes widening towards the apex. 

Order XCII. AMARYLLIDACE^. 

1. Narcissus. Perianth spreading, with a bell-shaped nectary within. 

2. Galantiius. Perianth bell-shaped; 3 inner sepals smaller, erect. 

3. Leucojum. Perianth bell-shaped. Sepals all equal. 

Order XCIII. LILIACEJi:. 
* Fruit a berry. 

1. Aspauaous. Leaves soft, setaceous. 

2. Buscus. A small dioecious shrub. Leaves spiny. 

3. Cokvallaria. Herbs. Leaves broad. Flowers bell-shaped, 6-cleft. 

** Fruit dry and capsular. Stalks not leafy, springing from a bulb. 

4. ITyacintiius. Perianth tubular below ; segments reflexed. 

5. MuscARi. Perianth tubular, nearly globose, contracted at the mouth. 
G. Allium. Flowers in umbels, with a spathe beneatli. Sepals distinct. 

7. SciLLA. Flowers in racemes. Perianth deciduous. Sepals distinct. 

8. OftNiTUOGALUM. Flowcrs in racemes. Perianth persistent. Sepals distinct. 

»»* Fruit dry. Stalks leafy. 

9. Gaoea. Style erect. Flowers yellow, in umbels. 

10. Antiiericum. Style erect. Flowers white or pink, solitary or very few. 

11. TuLirA. Style absent. Flowers solitary. 

12. Fritillaria. Style 3-cleft at the apex. Flowers solitary, drooping, large. 

13. LiLiuM. Sepals rcfloicd. Stylo undivided. Flowers in paniiilea. 



TABLE OF GENERA. xlvii 

Order XCIV. MELANTHACE.E. 

1. CoLCiiicuM. Perianth funnel-shaped ; tube very long. 

2. ToFiELDiA. Perianth 6-parted. Styles short. 

Order XCV. RESTIACEiE. 

1. EtttocAULON. The only British genus. 

Order XCVI. JUNCACEiE. 

1. Nautiiecium. Perianth yellow, petal-like. 

2. JuNCUs. Perianth scale-like. Capsule 3-celled. 

3. LuzuLA. Perianth scale-like. Capsule 1 -celled. 

Order XCVII. BUTOMACEyE. 

1. BuTOMUS. The only British genus. 

Order XCVIII. ALISMACEiE. 

1. Acting CARPUS. Stamens 6. Carpels 2-seeded. 

2. Amsma. Stamens 6. Carpels 1 -seeded. 

3. Sagittaria. Flowers monoecious. Stamens many. Leaves sagittate. 

Order XCIX. JUNCAGINACEyE. 

1. Triglociiin. Ovary 1. 

2. ScuEuciizEuiA. Ovaries 3. 

Order C. TYPHACE^. 

1. TypiiA. Flowers in a long spike (spadix). 

2. Sparganium. Flowers in globular heads. 

Order CI. ARACEtE. 

1. Aru.m. The only British genus. 

Order CII. OEONTIACE.E. 
1. AcoRus. The only British genus. 

Order CIII. PISTIACE^. 
I. Lejina. The only British genus. 

Order CIV. NAIADACEiE. 

1. PoTAMOGETON. Perianth of 4 sepals. Carpels 4, sessile. 

2. EuppiA. Perianth wanting. Carpels 4, on long stalks. 

3. Zannichellta. Flowers axillary, in a membranous bract. 

4. ZosTEKA. Flowers in a slit in the grass-hke leaf. 

Order CV. CYPERACE^. 

1. Cypercs. Spikelets many-flowered, 2-ranked, nearly all fertile. 

2. ScHCENus. Spikelets 2-4-ilowered, 2-ranked, Lower glumes empty. Slyle 

deciduous. 



jclviii TABLE OF GENERA. 

• Glumes imbricated. 

y. Cladfi'm. Glumes 5 or G. Bristles none. Nut crowned with the conical base 
of tlie stylo. 

4. RnYNcriospoRA. Glumes 5 or 6. Bristles several. Nut crowned with the dilated 

base of the style. 

5. Ei,EociiARis. Spikelets solitary, terminal. Bristles 4-12. Base of style persistent. 

6. Eleogiton. Spikelets solitary, terminal. Bristles none. Style deciduous. 

7. SciRPUS. Spikelets in umbels. Bristles about 6. 

8. Eriopiiorum. Bristles silky, very long when in seed. 

9. Elyna, Flowers monoecious, in aggregated spikelets. 
10. Carex. Flowers monoecious, in imbricated spikes. 

Order CVI. GRAMINE.E. 

1. ANTHOXANxnuM. Paniclc spike-like. Glumes unequal, containing 3 florets; 

the middle one perfect, with 2 stamens, the outer imperfect. 

2. Nardus. Flowers in one-sided spikes. Glumes wanting. Palete 2, the outer 

one with a long point. Style 1. 

3. Alopecurus. Flowers in cyhndrical spikes. Glumes 2, 1-flowered. Palca 1, 

awned at the base. 

4. Piialaris. Flowers panicled, or in ovate spikes. Glumes 2, 1-flowered, keeled, 

longer than the pale£E. Paleae 4, the inner pair investing the seed. 
6. Ammopiiila. Panicle spike-like. Glumes 2, keeled. PaleiE 2, with hairs at tlio 
base, one awned. 

6. Pjileum. Flowers in cylindrical spikes. Glumes 2, equal, sharp, 1-flowered. 

Palea; 2, awnless, within the glumes, loosely coating the seed. 

7. Lagurus. Flower in an ovate hairy spike. Glumes 2, 1-flowered, fringed. 

Palese 2 ; outer one with an awn and 2 bristles. 

8. Milium. Panicle loose. Glumes 2, pointed, longer than the floret. Paleie 2, 

awnless, coating the seed. 

9. Gastridium. Panicle contracted. Glumes 2, acute, swollen at the base, longer 

than the floret. PalejE 2, investing the seed ; outer one awned. 

10. Stipa. Panicle erect. Outer palea with a very long feather-like awn, coating 

the seed. 

11. PoLYPOGON. Glumes 2, notched at the end, with a long straight awn. Palcas 

unequal ; outer one awned. 

12. Calamaorostis. Panicle loose, spreading. Glumes 2, imequal, acute, 1-flowered. 

Paleai surrounded by long silky hairs. 

13. Agrostis, Panicle more or less spreading. Glumes 2, imequal, 1-flowered. 

PaleoB 2, unequal, membranous. Seed free. 

14. Catabrosa. Panicle spreading. Glumes 2, obtuse, 2-3-flowered. Palese 

truncated, awnless. Seed free. 

15. A IRA. Flowers panicled. Glumes 2, pointed, with 2 perfect florets. Paletc 

membranous ; outer one awned at the base. Seed free. 
IC. Melica. Flowers panicled. Glumes 2, with 2 perfect florets, and 1 or 2 ru- 
dimentary ones between. Palese coating the seed. 

17. HoLCUs. Panicle lax. Glumes 2, 2-flowered; upper floret imperfect, awned; 

lower perfect, awnless. Seed coated by the paleaj. 

18. Arriiknatherum. Panicle kx. Glumes 2, 2-flowered ; upper floret perfect, 

with a sliort bristle ; lower imperfect, with a long awn. Seed coated by the 
palere. 

19. Hierociiloe. Flowers panicled. Glumes 2, 3-flowered ; the inner floret with 

2 stamens ; the outer ones barren, with 3 stamens. 

20. 1v(ei,eria. Panicles spike-like. Glumes 2, longer than the florets, unequal. 

Palecc awnless. (Otherwise as Aira.) 

21. Sesi.eria. Panicle ovate, spike-like. Glumes 3-flowered, pointed. Paleee 2, 

the outer pointed, the inner cloven. Stylos united. Seed free. 



TABLE OP GEJTEEA. xlix 

22. PANiCTUf. Panicle close. Glumes 2, unequal, 2-flowcrcd, 1 floret imperfect 

Seed coated with the palese. 

23. Setaria. Panicle spike-like, bristly. Spikelets surrounded by bristles at the 

base. (Otherwise as Panicum.) 

24. PoA. Panicle usually loose. Spikelets rounded at the base. Glumes 2, 

pointed, with many florets. PaleiE 2, ovate, awnless. Seed free. 

25. Triodia. Panicle close. Glumes 2, many-flowered. Paleaj 2, broad; the 

outer one with 3 teeth. Seed free. 
2G. Briza. Panicle very lax. Glumes 2, many-flowered, swollen. Pale.-B 2, awn- 
less, obtuse ; the outer one swollen. Seed depressed, attached to the palese. 

27. Dactylis. Spikelets crowded, leaning one way. Glumes 2, unequal ; the 

larger one keeled, many-flowered. Paleae pointed. 

28. Cynosurus. Panicle one-sided, spike-like, or short, with few spikelets. Spikelets 

in pairs, one fertile and one abortive. Glumes 2, with several florets. 

29. Festuca. Flowers panicled. Glumes 2, pointed, unequal. Spikelets many 

flowered, rather cylindrical. Paleae 2 ; the outer awned, the inner downy. 
Seed free. 

30. BnoMus. Panicle loose. Spikelets oblong. Glumes 2, with many florets. 

Palea3 2 ; the outer awned beneath the cloven apex, the inner bristly. Seed 
attached to one palea. 

31. AvENA. Flowers panicled. Glumes membranous, with several florets. Outer 

palea coating the seed, with a bent awn at the back. 

32. Arindo. Panicle loose and spreading. Glumes 2, with 5 florets, with long 

silky hairs at the base. 

33. Er>YMus. Flowers spiked, in 2 rows, several together. Glumes 2, both on one 

side, with several florets. 

34. HoRPEUM. Flowers spiked, in 2 rows, 3 together. Glumes 2, both on one 

side, with 1 floret. Seed attached to the palece. Glumes and palea both awned. 

35. Triticum. Flowers spiked, in 2 rows, their sides towards the stalk. Glumes 2, 

with several florets. Inner palea bifid. 

36. Brachypodium. Flowers spiked, in 2 rows, their sides towards the stalk, nearly 

cylindrical. Glumes 2, unequal, many-flowered. Palese 2, awned. Seed 
loose. 

37. LoLiuM. Flowers spiked, in 2 rows. Glume 1, fronting the stalk, many- 

flowered. 

38. Lepturus. Flowers in an awl-shaped spike. Glumes 2, united below. Florets 

imbedded in the stalk. 

39. Knappia. Flowers spiked, in 2 rows. Glumes 2, obtuse, 1 -flowered. Palese 2, 

very hairy. 

40. Spartina. Flowers spiked, in 2 rows, on one side of the stalk. Glumes 2, 

compressed. Palese 2, compressed. Styles united. Seed free. 

41. Cynodon. Spikes linear, 3-5 together on the top of the stalk. Seed coated 

by the palea;. 

42. DioiTARFA. Flowers spiked, in pairs, on one side of the flattened sfalk. Spikes 

several together on the top of the stalk. Seed coated by the paie;*. 



Genera added in Appendix. 

Order XIII. 
14* Alsine. (See Arenaria.) 

Order XXXVII. 

3*. Astrantia. Umbels simple. Involucrum as long as umbel. Fruit oblong, 
with 5 wrinkled ridges. 



1 TAllLE OP GENF.nA. 

Oi ^cr XLV. 

ol*. FjLACO. (SoC ONArilALHM.) 

Ordt-LV. 

1. ClCKNDIA. (SOO EXACl'M.) 

Order XC. 

8. Spikanthes. (See Neottia.) 

lU*. Epipogium. Lip with a spur beneath. Stem leafless, with short eheath-like 
Bcales. 

Order XCf. 

1*. SisYuiNCiiirM. Perianth spreading, regular. Filaments of stamens connate. 

Stigmas 3, filiform. 
2». Gladiolus. Perianth irregiilar. Seeds winged. 

Order XCIII. 

y*. MiANTiiEMUM (Smilacin'a). Corolla with 4 or 6 Spreading Segments. Stamens 

inserted in the base of segments. Fruit a berry. 
8*. SiMETHis. Flowers in panicles. Perianth deciduous. Fruit capsular. Boot 

fleshy (not bulbous), with a knot of fibres. 

Order CIV. 
1*. Naias. Stems floating. Leaves in whorls or opposite. Fruit of 1 carpel. 

Order CVI. 

0*. Lf.ersia. Flowers panicled. Spikelets 1 -flowered, without glumes. Palese 
2-keeled, compressed laterally, covering the seed, not adherent, 
l.*]*. Apeua. (See Agrostis.) 
2t». Qlyceria. (SeoPoA.) 



GLOSSARY 

TECHNICAL TERMS EMI LOYED IN THE WOEK. 



Abortive.— Imperfectly developed, rv .i- 

mentary. 
Acuminate.— Tapering to a long ^.oint. 
Acute. — Pointed. 
Adnatc (Anthers). — Continuous with the 

filament. 
Alternate (Leaves). — Placed alternately on 

eitlicr side of the stem. 
Amplexicaul (Leaves). — Embracrig the 

stem at the base. 
Articulated.— United by a joint. 
Ascending (Stem). — Depressed towards 
the ground at the base and rising 
above. 
Auricles (Leaves). — Ear-like lobes at the 

base. 
Awn. — A terminal bristle. 
Axil. — Place of attachment to the stem. 
Axile (Placenta). — Attached to the centre 

of the seed-vessel. 
Barren (Flower). — Producing stamens 

only : forming no seed. 
Bifid.— Two-lobed. 
Bilabiate (Corolla). — Two-lipped. 
Bi-pinnate (Leaves). — Twice pinnately 

compound. 
Bi-pinnatifid (Leaves). — Twice pinnately 

lobed. 
Biternate (Leaves). — Twice ternately com- 
pound. 
Campanulate. — Bell-shaped. 
Canescent. — Covered \rith short whitish 

hairs. 
CapUlary. — Hair-like ; very slender. 
Capitate (Inflorescence). — In a close head 

or cluster. 
Ciliated. — Fringed at the margin with 

hairs. 
Clavate. — Club-shaped. 
Compound (Leaves). — Formed of several 

leaflets. 
Convolute (Leaves). — Turned inwards at 

the edges. 
Cordate (Leaves). — Heart-shaped, or with 

rounded lobes at the base. 
Coriaceous (Leaves). — Tough and dry or 

leathery. 
Corymbose (Inflorescence). — In a corymb, 

or Rattened panicle. 
Cottony. — Covered with white down. 
Creeping ( Stem or Boot). — Running along 

or beneath the surface. 
Crenated (Leaves). — Indented on the mar- 
gin with rounded teeth. 
Cuneate (Leaves). — Wedge-shaped, taper- 
ing towards the base. 



Cymose (Inflorescence). — In a cyme. See 

Introduction. 
Deciduous. — Falling when ripe or wi- 
thered. 
Decumbent (Stem). — Lying near the 
ground at the base. More depressed 
than when Ascending. 
Decurrent (Leaves). — With the edges pro- 
longed and running down the stem. 
'Dehiscent(Fruit). — Discharging its seeds. 
Diadelphous (Stamens). — United by the 

filaments into two groups. 
Dichotomous. — Forked, or dividing by 

twos. 
Digitate(Zerti;es). — Leaflets radiating from 
the point of the stalk, as in the Horse- 
Chestnut. 
Dioecious. — Barren and fertile flowers on 

separate plants. 
Downy. — Covered with close soft hairs. 
Elliptical. — Oval in general outline. 
Emarginated. — Indented at the apex. 
Entire. — Not lobed or divided. 
Epigynous ( Stamens). — Placed apparent- 
ly upon the ovary. 
Equitant (Leaves). — Flattened vertically 
and clasping the bud or stem in a slit 
at the base, as in Iris. 
Fertile (Flower). — Producing seed; con- 
taining perfect pistils. 
Filiform. — Thread-like. 
Fleshy (Leaves). — Tliick and soft. 
Fusiform (Boot). — Spindle-shaped. 
Glabrous. — Not quite smooth, but with- 
out hairs. 
Glandular. — Bearing glands or small 

secreting organs. 
Glaucous. — Whitish-green. 
Hastate (Leaves). — With diverging hori- 
zontal lobes at the base, like a halbert 
blade. 
Herbaceous (Stem). — Not woody. 
Hirsute. — Densely hairy. 
Hispid. — Covered with stiff hairs. 
Hoary. — Covered with minute white 

down or hairs. 
Hypogynous (Stamens). — Placed beneath 

the ovary. 
Imbricated. — Overlapping like tiles. 
Indehiscent (Fruit).— Not shedding its 

seed. 
Lanceolate (Leaves). — Broadest below the 
middle and tapering towards the apex, 
like a Greek spear-head. 
Ligulate (Petals). — Furnished with a limb 
or flattened portion. 



OL0S3AKY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. 



Ligule. — A small stipule-like appendage 
at tlie base of the leaves of grasses. 

Linear (Leaves). — Very narrow, but flat. 

Liiiear-lanceolatc. — I>ong and narrow, 
but tapering, and broadest below the 
middle. 

Linear-oblong. — Somewhat broader than 
when linear. 

Lyrato {Leaves). — With horizontal lobes, 
the terminal one largest. 

jjlealj. — Covered with minute white pow- 
dery down. 

Menil)ranous(Zffl'w). — Very thin and lax. 

Jlonadelplious {Sfa?nevs). — United by 
the filaments into one group. 

Monceeious. — Barren and fertile flowers 
distinct, but upon the same plant. 

Mucronato {lA'aves). — With the midrib 
projecting from the apex. 

Obcordate. — Cordate, with the lobes up- 
ward. 

Obovate (Leaves). — Egg-shaped, with the 
broadest part above. 

Obsolete (Ca/j/a:.) — Kudimentary, a mere 
rim. 

Obtuse (Leaves). — Blunt at the apex. 

Opposite (Leaves). — Placed in pairs on 
opposite sides of the stem. 

Orbicular (Leaves). — Circular in general 
outline. (Boot). — Globular. 

Oval (Leaves). — Oval in general outline. 

Ovate (Leaves). — Egg-shaped, with the 
broadest part below. 

Va\ma.ic(Leaves). — With finger-like lobes. 

PapiUonaceous (Flowers). — Like the Pea- 
flower, See Introduction. 

Pappus. — The hairs or scales (rudiment- 
ary calyx) below the florets of Com- 
positac. 

Parietal (Placenfa). — Attached to the 
sides of the carpels. 

Pectinated. — Toothed like a comb. 

Pedate (Leaves). — Divided primarily into 
tlu*ee, the two lateral branches forked 
or divided into leahets on their iimer 
margin only, as in Hellebore. 

Pedatifid (Jjcavcs). — With pedate lobes. 

Pedicel. — The stalk supporting each 
flower on a branclied flower-stem. 

Peltate (Leaves). — With the stalk attached 
to the underside, as in Hydrocotylo. 

Perfoliate (Leaves). — Base of the leaf sur- 
rounding the stem, as in Chlora. 

Perigynous (Stnmivs). — Situated appa- 
rently upon the calyx. 

Persistent. — Eemaining attached, not de- 
ciduous. 

Pilose. — Covered with long hairs. 

I'innate (Leaves). — Composed of a row of 
leaflets on each side of tlie stalk, as in 
the Rose. 

JPiunatilid (Leaves). — Pinnately lobcd. 



Procumbent (Sfcm). — Lying on the 

ground for the greater part of its 

length. 
Prostrate (Sfem). — Lying close to tho 

ground. 
Pubescent. — Downy; covered with closo 

soft hairs. 
Quinnte (Leaves). — ^With five diverging 

leaflets. 
Radical. — Springing from the root. 
Ray. — The outer ligulate flowers of some 

Composit.v. 
Reniform (L^eaves). — Kidney -shaped or 

very broadly cordate. 
Retuso (Leaves). — Trimcate and slightly 

indented at the apex. 
Rcvoluto (Leaves).— The margins rolled 

backwards. 
Rotate (Flowers). — With the petals radi- 
ating horizontally. 
Runcinate (Leaves). — With lateral lobes 

curving towards the stem. 
Runners. — Creeping stems thrown out 

from the root. 
Sagittate (lyeaves). — With acute lobes at 

the base, like a barbed arrow-head. 
Scape. — A flower-stalk rising from tho 

root, without leaves. 
Scions. — Runners. 

Serrated (Leaves). — Indented on the mar- 
gin with sharp teeth, like a saw. 
Sessile. — Placed directly upon the stem, 

without stalks. 
Setaceous (Leaves). — Very slender or 

bristle-like. 
Setffi. — Bristly hairs. 
Sinuated (Leaves). — With broad shnllow 

rounded indentations on the margin. 
Spatulate (Leaves). — Broadest at the aper, 

and long and tapering below. 
Spinous. — Furnished with thorns or 

prickles. 
Subulate (Leaves). — Awl-shaped, narrow- 
linear, as thick as broad. 
Succulent. — Tliick, soft and juicy. 
Ternate (Leaves), — Composed of three 

leaflets. 
Tomentose. — Cottony, or covered with 

thick down. 
Toothed (Leaves). — Cut on the margin 

into deep teeth. 
Trifid (ifaws).— Three-cleft. 
Tri-pinnate (Leaves). — Thrice pinnately 

compound. 
Tri-pinnatifid (Leaves). — Thrice pin- 
nately lobed. 
Urceolate ( Corolla). — Cup-shaped, but 

contracted at the top. 
Vittrc. — Channels filled with oil in tho 

fruit of Umbellifera\ 
Whorlcd (Leaves). — Arranged in circles 

ai'ound the nodes, several together. 



Order T. RANUNCULACEiE. 
Genus 1. Clematis. 

C. ViTALBA. Traveller's Joy. Fig. 1. 

A climbing plant, with pinnate leaves. Fruit feathered with long 
silvery plume. Hedges on chalky soil. Perenn. June and July. 
White. (^) E.B.I. 612. E. B. 2. 176. 11. 8r Am. 4. Bab. 3. Lind. 8. 

Genus 2. Tiialictrum. 

T. ALPiNUM. Alpine Meadow Rue. Fig. 2. 

Stem nearly leafless, simple. Fl. drooping, in simple racemes. Moist 
fissures of rocks in alpine districts. 6 in. Perenn. July. Pale yellow, 
(i) E.B. 1. 2(j2. E.B.2.772. H.^Arn.5. Bab. 3. Lind. S. 

T. MINUS. Lesser Meadow Rue. Fig. 3. 

Leaves 2- or 3-pinnate, glaucous on both sides. Stem zigzag, branched. 
Fl. drooping. Limestone pastures and the sea-coast, i ft. Perenn. 
July. Purplish, stamens yellow, (i) E.B. 1. 11. E.B. 2. 773. 
IL\Arn.5. Bab. 3. Lind. d. 

T. MAjus. Great Meadow Rue. Fig. 4, 

Leaves tripinnate, glaucous beneath. Fl. drooping, on branched 
stem. Northern hill-pastures. I to 2 ft. Perenn. July. Greenish- 
yellow. \\) E.B.I. 6\l. E. B. 2. m. H. ^ Am. .5. Bab, 4. Lind. 9. 

T. FLAVUM. Common Meadow Rue. Fig. 5. 

Stem erect, leafy. Leaves bipinnate. Fl. erect, in compact panicles. 
Moist meadows ; common. Plant acrid. 2 to 3 ft. Perenn. July. 
Yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 367. E. B. 2. 77o. H. ^ Am, 5. Bab. 4. 
Lind. 9. 

Genus 3. Anemone. 

A. Pulsatilla. Pasque Flower. Fig. 6. 

Leaves bipinnate, with linear lobes. Involucrum with linear seg- 
ments. Plant hairy. Fl. solitary. Petals 6. Fruit with feathery awns. 
Chalky pastures. 9 in. Perenn. May. Purple. (^) JE". J?. 1.51. 
E. B. 2. 777, H. ^ Am. 6. Bab. 4. Lind. 9. 

A. NEMOROSA. Wind Flower. Wood Anemone. Fig, 7. 

Flowers solitary, with involucrum of 3, stalked, deeply-cut leaves 
Petals 6. Woods and thickets. 6 to 8 in. Perenn. April. White, 
purplish underneath. (|) E.B.I. 355. E. B. 2. 77S. H. ^ Am. 6. 
Bab. 4. Lind. 9. 

A. APENNiNA. Blue Anemone. Fig. 8 

Petals numerous. Leaves triternate, Involucrum of 3 deeply-cut 

ternate leaves. Woods ; a doubtful native. 6 in. Perenn. April. Blue. 

(i) E.B. 1. 1062. E.B. 2. 780. H. ^ Am. 6. Bab. A. Lind. 9. 

A. RANUNCULOiDES. Tellow Anemone. Fig. 9. 

Involucrum of 3-5 deeply-cut leaves. Fl. solitary or in pairs. Petals 
5 or 6. Woods in Kent and Herts ; a doubtful native. 6 in. Perenn. 
April. Yellow, (i) E. B. 1. 1484. E. B. 2. 779. H. ^ Am. 6. 
Bab. 5. Lind. 10. 

Genus 4. Adonis. 

A. AUTUMNALis. Pheasanf s Eye. Fig. 10. 

Stem branched. Petals 8 generally. Seed-vessels forming an ovate 
head. Corn-fields. 10 in. Ann. May-Sept. Scarlet. {\) E.B.l.3{)S. 
E.B.2.7SI. H.^'Arn.6. Bab. 5. Lmd.O. 

B 



Genus 5. Myosurus. 

M. MINIMUS. Mouse- faif. Fig. 11. 

Calyx of [) sepals elongated at the base. Seed-vessels arranged on a 
long columnar receptacle. Leaves long and narrow. Fields and waste 
places. G in. Ann. Mav. Greenish. (^) E. B. 1. 435. E. B. 
2. 4G1. //. tj- Jrn. 7. Bab. o. Linel. 10. 



Genus 6. Ranunculus. 

R. AauATiLis. JFater Crowfoot. Fig. 12. 

Lower leaves under water, hair-like; upper ones floating, 3-lobed, 
sometimes wanting. Ponds, ditches and slow streams. Perenn. Mav. 
White, (i) E. B. I. 101. E. B. 2. 795. H. ^ Am. 7. Bab. 6. 
Lind. 12. 

R. PANTOTiiRix. Small Water Crowfoot. Fig. 13. 

All the leaves hair-like and submersed. Petals little larger than 
calvx. Ditches. Perenn. May -Aug. White. (^) H. ^ Am. 7. ? 
Bab. 7.1 Lind. 12. 

R. HEDERACEUS. Ivy-leuvcd Crowfoot. Fig. 14. 

Stem creeping. Leaves glossy, roundish, slightly 3-5-lobed, all 
floating or spreading. Wet places and shallow pools. Perenn. June- 
Sept. White, (i) ^.J5. 1.2003. E.B.2. 796. H.^Arn.^. Bab. 8. 
Lind. 11. 

R. Lingua. Great Spearwort. Fig. 15. 

Leaves lanceolate, serrated. Stem erect, many-flowered. Ditches ; 
not common. 2 to 3 ft. Perenn. July. Bright yellow. Q) E. B. 
1. 100. E. B. 2. 782. //. ^ Am. 9. ' Bab. 9. Lind. 10. 

R. OPHioGLOSsiFOLius. Adder' s-tongue Spearwort. Fig. 16. 

Lower leaves oval heart-shaped, serrated, with very long foot-stulks. 
Stem erect, manv-flowered. Marshes, Jersey. 2 ft. Perenn. June. 
Yellow, (i) E. B. Supp. 2833. H. ^ Arn. 9. Bab. 9. 

R. Flammula. Lesser Spearwort. Fig. 17. 

Lower leaves ovato-lanceolate, serrated, with long foot-stalks. Stem 
reclining. Ditches and wet places; common. 1 to 2 ft. Perenn. June- 
Sept. Yellow, (i) ^.J5. 1.387. E.B. 2. 783. H.^Arn.9. Bab. 9. 
Lind. 10. 

R. GRAMINEUS. Grass-leavcd Crowfoot. Fig. 18. 

All the leaves linear-lanceolate, not serrated. Stem erect, with few 

flowers. Dry alpine pastures. 1 ft. Perenn. June. Yellow. (^) 

E. B. 1. 2306. E. B. 2. 784. H. ^ Am. 10. Bab. 9. Lind. 10. 

R. FiCARiA. Small Celandine. Pilewort. Fig. 19. 

Leaves heart-shaped. Flowers solitary, with many petals. Roots 
consisting of clustered tubers. Hedge-banks and shady places ; com- 
mon. 4 to 6 in. Perenn. March and April. Yellow. {^) E. B, 
1. 584. E. B. 2. 785. H. ^' Am. 10. Bab. 10. Lind. 10. 

R. ALPESTRis. Alpine Crowfoot. Fig. 20. 

Lower leaves in 3 deep, lobed segments. Stem-leaf lanceolate. 
Flowers solitary. Moist places on mountains ; rare. Acrid. 6 in. 
Perenn. May. White, (i) E. B. 1. 2390. E. B. 2. 786. H. ^ 
Arn. 9. Bab. 9. Lind. 10. 



R. AunicoMUS. Woofl Crowfoot. GoldilocJcs. Pig. 21. 

Leaves 3-parted, with deeply-cut lobes. Stem erect, slender, many- 
flowered. Petals with a pore at the base. Dry woods. 1 ft. Perenn. 
April- June. Yellow, (i) J?. 2?. 1. 624. ^.£.2.788. H. ^ Am. 
10. Bab. 10. Lind. 10. 

R. SCELERATUS. Celery-leaved Crowfoot. ^ Fig. 23. 

Lower leaves palmate, with 3 slightly lobed segments, shining ; stem 
ones fingered in 3 lobes. Fruit forming a cylindrical head. Watery 
places ; common. Acrid. 1 to 2 ft. Ann. June-Sept. {\) E. B. 
1. 681. E. B. 2. 787. H. ^ Am. 10. Bab. 8. Lind. 11. 

R. ACRis. Buttercup. Fig. 23. 

Stem erect, hairy, round. Calyx spreading. Petals with a small 
scale at the base. Very common in meadows and pastures. Acrid. 1 ft. 
Perenn. June. Yellow, (i) J?.^. 1.652. E.B.2.7S9. H. ^ 
Am. 10. Bab. 10. Lind. 11. 

R. REPENS. Creeping Buttercup. Fig. 24. 

Shoots creeping. Flower-stalks furrowed. Calyx spreading. Pas- 
tures; common. 10-12 in. Perenn. June-Sept. Yellow. (|) 
E. ^. 1. 516. E.B. 2. 790. H. ^- Arm. 10. Bab. 10. Lind. 11. 

R. BULBOsxjs. Bulbous Buttercup. Fig. 25. 

Root bulbous. Flower-stalks furrowed, hairy. Calyx reflexed. Pas- 
tures ; common. 1ft. Perenn. May. Yellow. (|) E. B. \. b\b. 
E. B. 2. 791. H.^ Am. 10. Bab. 10, Lind. 11. 

R. HiRSUTUs. Hairy Buttercup. Fig. 36. 

Root fibrous. Calyx reflexed. Plant hairy. Fruit tuberculated. 
Moist meadows. 4 to 18 in. Ann. June-Oct. (^) ^. JB. 1. 1504. 
E. B. 2. 792. H. ^ Am. 11. Bab. 10. Lind. 11. 

R. ARVENSis. Com Croivfoot. Fig. 27. 

Leaves vrith narrow lanceolate segments. Stem much branched. 
Fruit prickly. Corn-fields. Acrid. 1 ft. Ann. June. (-!■) E. B. 
1. 135. E. B. 2. 793. H. ^ Am. 11. Bab. 11. Lind. U. 

R. PARViFLORUS. Small-flowered Crowfoot. Fig. 28. 

Stem prostrate. Leaves roundish, 3-lobed. Hairy. Calyx as long 
as the petals. Corn-fields. Ann. June-Sept. Yellow. {\) E. B. 
I. 120. E. B. 2. 794. H. ^ Am. II. Bab. 11. Lind. 11. 



Genus 7. Caltha. 

C. PALTJSTRis. Marsh Marigold. Fig. 29. 

Stem erect. Lower leaves large, rounded heart-shaped, deep glossy 
green. Marshes and river-sides. x\crid. 1-1^ ft. Perenn. May. 
Bright yellow, (i) E.B.\.b\)Q. E.B. 2. 798. H.^ Am. 11. Bab. 11. 
Lind. 12. 

C. RADICANS. Creeping Marsh Marigold. Fig. 30. 

Stem reclining. Leaves triangular. Scotch Mountains. Perhaps 
a variety of the preceding species. G in, Perenn. May and June. 
Yellow, (i) E.B.I. 2175. E.B. 2. 799. H.^ Am. 11. Bab. U. 
Lind. 12. 

B 2 



. 4 

Gonus 8. TiioLLius. 

T. EUROP.BUS. Globe Flower. Fig. 31. 

Leaves divided into o deep segments, cut and serrated. Sepals and 
petals convei-f^ing. Ilill-pastures. 2 ft. Perenn. June. Bright 
yellow, (i) E.BA. 28. E.B.2.797. II.^'Am.\2. Bab.W. Lind.\2. 

Genus 9. IIelleborus. 

H. viRiDis. Green Hellebore. Fig. 33. 

Stem few-flowered. Leaves dark green, digitate. Calyx spreading. 
Woods on chalk. Violently cathartic. 1 ft. Perenn. A[)ril. Green, 
(i) JS*. i?. 1. 200. ^. i?. 2. 800. II. ^Arn. 12. Bab. \2. Lind. \2. 

H. F(ETiDUS. Stinking Hellebore. Bear's-foot. Fig. 33. 

Stem many-flowered. Calyx converging. Leaves pedate. "Woods. 
Violently cathartic. 1ft. Perenn. Jan.-April. Green tipped with purple, 
(i) E.'B.\.^\3. J?, i?. 2. 801. H.^Arn.12. Bab. 12. Lind. 13, 

Genus 10. Aquilegia. 

A. VULGARIS. Columbine. Fig. 34. 

Leaves 2-ternate, lobed. Spur of petals incurvecJ. Woods and 
pastures. 18 in. Perenn. June. Purple or rose colour. Qr) E. B. 
1. 297. E. B. 2. 770. H. ^ Am. 12. Bab. 12. Lind. 13. 

Genus 11. Delphinium. 

D. CoNsoLiDA. Larkspur. Fig. 35. 
Stem erect, with straggling branches. Leaves sessile, in many linear 

segments. Fields. Acrid. 2 ft. Ann. July. Blue or pink. (^) 
E. B.l. 1839. E. B. 2. 769. H. ^ Am. 13. Bah. 12. Lind. 13. 

Genus 12. Aconitum. 

A. Napellus. Monkshood. Wolfsbane. Fig. 36. 

Lateral petals hairy inside. Leaves deeply 5-clcft, the lobes deeply 
cut. River-sides ; rare. Poisonous. 3-4 ft. Perenn. June. Blue. 
(i) E. B. Supp. 2730. E. B. 2. 769*. H. ^Am. 13. Bab. 12. Lind. 13. 

Genus 13. Act^ea. 

A. SPICATA. Herb Christopher. Bane-bernj. Fig. 37. 
Raceme erect, elongated. Petals as long as stamens. Mountain 

woods ; rare. Poisonous. 2 ft. Perenn. June. White ; berries 
black. (i)^.Z?. 1.9 18. £".5.2. 746. II.^Arn.\3. Bab.VZ. Lind.14. 

Genus 14. PjEonia. 

P. CORALLINA. PcBOny. Fig. 38. 

Leaves bi-ternate, smooth ; segments undivided. Steep Holmes m 
the Severn. 2 ft. Perenn. June. Crimson, (i) E. B. 1. 1513. 
E. B. 2. 768. //. 8r Am. 14. Bab. 13. Lind. 14. 

Order II. BERBERIDACE^. 
Genus 1. Beubekis. 

B. VULGARIS. Barberry. Fig. 39. 
A shrub. Flowers in pendulous racemes. Spines 3-cleft. Hedges. 

Berries acid. 4-10 ft. June. Yellow ; berries red. (^) E.B.\.A9. 
E. B. 2. 462. //. !^ Am. 14. Bab. 13. Lind. 14. 

Genus 2. Epimedium. 

E. ALPiNUM. Barren-wort. Fig. 40. 
No root-leaves. Leaf on stem solitary, 2-ternate, leaflets pointed, 

heart-shaped. Mountain woods ; rare. 8-10 in. Perenn. April. Red. 
i\) E. B. 1. 438. E. B. 2. 226. //. ^ Ar>i. 14. Bab. 13. Lind. 15. 







7.£. Scwerty. J^er/Z 



Order III. NYMPH^EACEiE. 
Genus 1. Nymph^a. 

N. ALBA. White Water Lily. Fig. 41. 

Leaves heart-shaped. Rays of stigma 16, curved upward. Clear 
water. Perenn. June and July. White ; stigma yellow, (i) E. B. 
1.160. E.B.2.7^b. H.^ Am. 15. Bab. 14. Lind. 15. 

Genus 2. Nuphar. 

N. LUTEA. Yellow Water Lily. Fig. 42. 

Leaves heart-shaped, lobes meeting. Border of stigma entire. Slow 
streams. Perenn. July. Yellow, (i) E. B. 1. 159. E. B. 2. 766. 
JI. ^ Arn. 15. Bab. 14. Lind. 15. 

N. PUMiLA. Small Yellow Water Lily. Fig. 43. 

Lobes of leaves rather distant. Stigma toothed on margin. High- 
land lakes. Perenn. July. Yellow ; stigma green. {^) E.B.I. 2292. 
E. B. 2. 7^7. H. ^ Am. 16. Bab. 14. Lind. 15. 

Order IV. PAPAVERACE^. 
Genus 1. Papaver. 

P. Argemone. Prickly-headed Poppy. Fig. 44. 

Capsule club-shaped, ribbed, bristly. Corn-fields and waste ground. 
Narcotic, l^ft. Ann. June. Pale scarlet, black at base. {\) E. B. 
1. 643. E. B. 2. 752. H. ^ Am. 17. Bab. 15. Lind. 16. 

P. HYBRiDUM. Rough-headed Poppy. Fig. 46. 

Capsule nearly globular, furrowed, bristly. Chalky fields. Narcotic. 
1^ ft. Ann. July. Crimson, often black at base. (|) E. B. 1. 43. 
E. B. 2. 753. H. ^ Am. 17. Bab. 15. Lind. 16. 

P. DUBiUM. Long-headed Poppy. Fig. 46. 

Capsule smooth, oblong. Flower-stalk covered with closely pressed 
hairs. Corn-fields. Narcotic. 2 ft. Ann. July. Pale scarlet. {\) 
E.B.I. 644. E. B. 2. 754. //. ^ Am. 17. Bab. 15. Lind. 17. 

P. Rhoeas. Com Poppy. Fig. 47. 

Capsule smooth, nearly globular. Hairs on flower-stalk spreading. 
Corn-fields. Narcotic. 2 ft. Ann. June and July. Deep scarlet, 
often black at base, (i) E.B.I. 645. E. B. 2. 755. H. ^ Am. 17. 
Bab. 15. Lind. 17. 

P. soMNiFERUM. TFhitc Poppy. Fig. 48. 

Capsule nearly globular. Leaves unequally divided, glaucous. Waste 
places. Narcotic. 3 ft. Ann. July. White or purplish, purple at 
base. (1) E. B. 1. 2145. E. B. 2. 756. H. ^ Am. 17. Bab. 15. 
Lind. 17. 

P. NUDiCAULE. Naked-stalked Yellow Poppy. Fig. 49. 

Capsule oblong-ovate, rough. Flower-stems long. Plant covered with 
tawny hairs. Rocks and hills on the north-west coast of Ireland. 1 ft. 
Perenn. July. Pale yellow, (i) E. B. Supp. 2681. E.B.2.753*. 
Lind. 17. 

Genus 2. Meconopsis. 

M. CAMBRiCA. Welsh Poppy. Fig. 50. 

Capsule smooth, elongated. Humid, rocky places. 1 ft. Perenn. 
July and Aug. Orange-yellow, (i) E. B. 1. 66. E. B. 2. 751. 
H. ^ Am. 17. Bab. 15. Lind. 17. 



Genus 3. Glaucium. 

G. LUTEUM. Homed Poppy. Fig. 51. 

Stem smooth. Stem-leaves wavy. Pods very long, curved. Plant 
glaucous. Sea-coast. 1-3 ft. Biennial. June-Aug. Bright yellow, 
(i) E. B. 1. 8. E. B. 2. 748. H. ^ Am. 18. Bab. 16. Lind. 17. 

G. PHCENiCEUM. Scarlet Horned Poppy. Fig. 52. 

Stem hairy. Stem-leaves pinnatifid, cut. Sandy shores. A doubt- 
ful nafive. 2 ft. Ann. June and July. Scarlet, (i) ^.JS. 1.1433. 
E. B. 2. 749. //. ^ Arn. 18. Bab. 16. Lind. 18. 

G. viOLACEUM. Violet Horned Poppy. Fig. 53. 

Stem slightly hairy. Leaves 3-pinnatifid, with linear segments. A 
doubtful native. 2 ft. Ann. May. Purple, red at the base. (^) 
E. B. 1. 201. E. B. 2. 750. H. f Am. 18. Bab. 16. Lind. 18. 

Genus 4. Chelidonium. 

C. MAJUS. Celandine. Fig. 54. 

Flowers in umbels. Plant slightly hairy. Juice yellow, acrid. 
Waste ground and thickets. 2 ft. Perenn. May and June. Yellow, 
(i) E. B. 1. \oSl. E. B. 2. 747. H. ^ Arn. 18. Bab. 16. 
Lind. 18. 

Order V. FUMARIACEiE. 

Genus 1. Fumaria. 

F. CAPREOLATA. Rampant Fumitory. Fig. 55. 

Stem climbing. Petioles twining. Calyx-leaves longer than fruit. 
Corn-fields. \\-Z ft. Ann. May-Aug. Pale purple. (|) E. B. 
1. 943. E. B. 2. 987. H. ^ Arn. 19. Bab. 17. Lind. 19. 

F. OFFICINALIS. Common Fumitory. Fig. 56. 

Stem spreading. Leaves glaucous. Calyx not longer than fruit. 
Fields and road-sides. 1 ft. Ann, May-Aug. Purple. (^) E. B. 
1. 589. E. B. 2. 986. H. ^ Arn. 19. Bab. 17. Lind. 19. 

F. PARViFLORA. Small-fiowered Fumitory. Fig. 57. 

Stem spreading. Calyx minute. Fruit pointed. Chalky fields. 
1ft. Ann. Aug. and Sept. Purple, (i) £'.£.1.590. £.£.2.988. 
//. ^ Arn. 19. Bab. 17. Lind. 19. 

Genus 2. Corydalis. 

C. soLiDA. Bulbous Corydalis. Fig. 53. 

Root a tuber. Stem erect, simple. Bracts large, palmate. A 
doubtful native. 9 in. Perenn. April. Purple, (i) £".£.1.1471. 
E. B. 2. 983. H. ^ Arn. 20. Bab. 16. Lind. 19. 

C. LUTEA. Yellow Corydalis. Fig. 59. 

Hoot fibrous. Stem erect. Bracts minute. Old walls ; rare, 6 in. 
Perenn. May and June. Yellow. (^) E. B. 1. 388. E. B. 2. 984. 
//. ^ Arn. 20. Bab. 17. Lind. 19. 

C. CLAVicuLATA. Climbing Corydalis. Fig. 60. 

Stem climbing, branched. Bracts minute. Foot-stalks with tendrils. 
Bushy places. 1 to 4 ft. Ann. June. Nearly white. (\) E. B. 
1. 103. E. B. 2. 985. H. ^ Arn. 20. Bab. 17. Lind. 19. 



*y 







3 

^.£. Sowerby Fecil. 



Order VI. CRUCirERiE. 
Genus I. Cakile. 
C. MARiTiMA. Sea Rochet. Fig. 61. 

Leaves succulent, pinnatifid. Joints of fruit smooth, 2-eclged. Sandy 
coasts. 9 in. Ann. June-Sept. Purple or white, (f) E.BA. 2'd\. 
E. B. 2. 891. H. ^ Am. 34. Bab. 34. Lind. 28. 

Genus 2. Crambe. 

C. MARITIMA. Sea Kale. Fig. 63. 

Leaves roundish, glaucous, waved, toothed, very smooth. Sandy 
coasts. Young shoots edible. 2 ft. Perenn. June. White. (^) 
E.B.I. 924. E. B. 2. 892. H. ^ Am. 43. Bab. 34. Lind. 34. 

Genus 3. Coronopus. 

C. RuELLii. Wart Cress. Swine's Cress. Fig. 63. 

Stem prostrate, smooth. Fruit undivided. Waste ground, abundant. 
1 to 3 in. Ann. June-Sept. White. JS". ^. 1. 16G0. E.B.2.Si)3. 
H. ^ Am. 39. Bab. 33. Lind. 30. 

C. DiDYMA. Small Wart Cress. Fig. 64. 

Stem procumbent, hairy. Fruit cloven. Waste ground near the 
sea. 1 to 2 in. Ann. July. White. E.B.I. 248. E. B. 2. 894. 
H. ^ Am. 39. Bab. 33. Lind. 31. 

Genus 4. Isatis. 

I. TiNCTORiA. Wood. Fig. 65. 

Upper leaves sagittate ; lower ones oblong, crenated. Fruit oblong, 
gmooth. Fields ; rare. Yields a blue dye. 3 ft. Bienn. July. Yellow. 
(i) E. B. 1. 97. E. B. 2. 895. H. |- Am. 39. Bab. 33. Lind. 32. 

Genus 5. Vella. 

V. ANNUA. Cress Rocket. Fig. 66. 

Fruit pendulous, with a flat dilated style. Fields ; a doubtful native. 
9 in. Ann. July. Pinkish white, (i) ^.J5. 1.1442. E.B.2.89ii. 
H. ^ Am. 43. Bab. 30. Lind. 33. 

Genus 6. Thlaspi. 

T. ARVENSE. Penny Cress. Fig. 67. 

Leaves arrow-shaped. Fruit nearly flat, with broad wings. Fields ; 
not common. 1 ft. Ann. July. White, (i) E. B. 1. 1659. 
E. B. 2. 897. H. ^ Am. 32. Bab. 30. Lind. 27. 

T. PERFOLiATUM. Perfoliate Penny Cress. Fig. 68. 

Stem-leaves heart-shaped, clasping at the base. Fruit inversely 
heart-shaped. Style very short. Limestone pastures ; rare. 6 in. Ann. 
May. White, (i) E.B.I. 2345. E. B. 2. 898. H. ^ Am. 32. 
Bab. 30. Lind. 27. 

T. (VLPESTRE. Alpine Penny Cress. Fig. 69. 

Stem-leaves arrow-shaped ; root-leaves ovate. Fruit with a prominent 
style. Limestone mountains. 6 in. Perenn. July. (|) ^. J?. 1.81. 
E. B. 2. 899. H. ^ Am. 32. Bab. 31. Lind. 28. 

Genus 7. Capsella. 

C. Bursa-Pastoris. Shepherd's Purse. Fig. 70. 

Fruit laterally compressed, without wings. Leaves 'generally pin- 
natifid, sometimes entire. A common weed. 3 to 18 in. Ann. 
Throughout the year. White. (1) E. B. 1. 1485. E.B. 2. 900. 
H. ^' Am. 37. Bab. 33. Li7id. 31. 



Genus 8. Hutchinsia. 

II. PETR.'EA. Rock Ilutrhinsia. Pig. 71* 

Leaves i)innate, lobes entire. Petals the length of the calyx. Lime- 
stone rocks. 3 in. Ann. March. White, (i) E. B. III. E. B. 
2. 901. H. ^ Am. 33. Bub. 31. Lind. 28. 

Genus 9. Teesdalia. 
T. NTJDiCAULis. Teesdalia. Fig. 72 

Petals unequal. Leaves spreading on the ground. Stamens with a 

petal-like appendage at base. Sandy places. 2 to 4 in. Ann. June. 

White. (^) E. B.\. 327. E. B. 2. 902. H. ^ Am. 33. Bab. 31. 

Lind. 28. 

Genus 10. Iberis. 

I. AMARA. Bitter Candy Tuft. Fig. 73. 

Leaves lanceolate, somewhat toothed. Chalky-fields. 6 to 10 in. 
Ann. July. White. (^) £.5.1.52. £. iJ. 2. 903. H.^Am.'iZ. 
Bab. 31. Lind. 28. 

Genus 11. Lepidium. 

L. LATiFOLiuM. Broad-lcdved Pepper Wort. Fig. 74. 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate, serrated. Fruit oval. Salt marshes. Acrid. 
2 ft. Perenn. July. White. (|) E. B. 1. 182. E. B. 2. 904. 
//. ^ Arn. 37. Bab. 32. Lind. 31. 

L. DRAB A. Whitlow Pepper Wort. Fig. 75. 

Leaves oblong, clasping the stem. Fruit heart-shaped, with the 
style the same length. Doubtful native. 1 ft. Perenn. June. White. 
(I) E. B. Supp. 2683. E. B. 2. 907*. H. ^ Arn. 38. Bab. 32. 

L. RUDERALE. Narrow-leaved Pepper Wort. Fig. 76. 

Lower leaves pinuatifid, upper ones entire. Flowers without petals. 
Fruit notched. 1 ft. Ann. June, (i) E.B.\. 1595. E. B. 2. 905. 
H. <5;- Arn. 37. Bab. 32. Lind. 31. 

L. CAMPESTRE. Common Pepper Wort. Fig. 77. 

Stem-leaves arrow-shaped. Fruit rough, winged at upper part; style 
short. Fields ; common. 1 ft. Ann. July. White. {\) E. B. 
1. 1385. E. B. 2. 906. H. ^ Am. 38. Bab. 32. Lind. 31. 

L. Smithii. Smooth-fruited Pepper Wort. Fig. 78. 

Stem-leaves arrow-shaped. Fruit smooth, winged ; style prominent. 
Fields. 8 in. Perenn. June. White, (i) E. B. 1. 1803. E. B. 
2.907. H.^ Arn. 38. Bab. 32. Lind.''3l. 

Genus 12. Cochlearia. 

C. OFFICINALIS. Scurvy Grass. Fig. 79. 

Root-leaves roundish, nearly entire. Fruit globose. Sea-coast; 
common. 4 in.-l ft. Ann. May. White, (i) E. B. 1. 551. 
E. B. 2. 908. //. ^ Arn. 29. Bab. 29. Lind. 27. 

C. GRCENLANDiCA. Greenland Scurvy Grass. Fig. 80. 

Leaves heart-shaped or kidney-shaped. Fruit globose. 6 in. Ann. 
June and July. White or purplish. (^) E.B.I. 2403. E. B. 2. 909. 
//. ^ Arn. 29. Bab. 29. Lind. 27. 




7£.Sowerf>Y. FM'-it 



9 

C. ANGLtCA. English Sairvij Grass. Fig. 81. 

Root-leaves heart-shaped or ovate. Fruit elHptical, reticulated with 
veius. Muddy sea-shores. 6 in. Ann. May and June. White (^) 
L\ B. 1. 552. E. B. 2. 910. //. ^ yim. 29. Bab. 29. Lind. 27. 

C. DANiCA. Banish Scurvy Grass. Fig. 83, 

Leaves all triangular. Fruit elliptical, reticulated with veins. Sea- 
coast and salt marshes. 4 in. Ann. May and June. White. 
E. B. 1. 696. E. B. 2. 911. //. ^ Ar7i. 29. Bab. 29. Lind. 27. 

C. Armoracia. Horse-radish. Fig. 83. 
Root-leaves large, ohlong, wrinkled, on long foot-stalks. Fruit 

oblong. Waste places ; a doubtful native. Root pungent, used as a 
condiment. 2-3 ft. Perenn. June. White, (i) E. B. 1. 2323. 
E. B. 2. 912. H. ^ Am. 29. Bab. 30. Lind. 27. 

Genua 13. Subularia, 

S. aquatica. Awl-Wort. Fig. 84. 

Leaves few, awl-shaped, springing from the root. Alpine lakes, in 
shallow water. 4 in. Ann. July. White, (f) E. B. 1. 732. 
E. B. 2. 913. U. ^ Am. 36. Bab. 33. Lind. 319. 

Genus 14. Draca, 

D. VERNA. Whitlow Grass. Fig. 85» 
Leaves lanceolate, hairy, toothed. Petals deeply notched. Walls 

and dry banks. 3 in. Ann. March. White, (f) E. B. L 586. 
E. B. 2. 914. H.^Arn. 30. Bab. 29. Lind. 26. 

D. AizoiDES. Telloio Draba. Fig. 86. 

Leaves tufted, rigid, hairy. Petals slightly notched. Plant growing 
in moss-like tufts. Pennard Castle, Glamorganshire. 2 in. Perenn. 
April. Bright yellow. ^. i?. 1. 1271. E. B, 2. 915. H. ^ Am. 31. 
Bab. 28. Lind. 26. 

D. RUPESTRis. Rock Braba. Fig. 87. 

Leaves in tufts, lanceolate, slightly toothed, hairy. Petals entire. 
Highland Mountains. 2 in. Perenn. May and June. White. 
E. B. 1. 1338. E. B. 2. 916. H. S^ Am. 31. Bab. 28. Li^id. 26. 

D. iNCANA. Twisted-podded Braba. Fig. 88. 

Stem-leaves deeply toothed, root-ones often entire. Pods twisted. 
Plant covered with white hairs. Limestone rocks. 2 in.-l ft. Bienn. 
May. White. (|) E. B. 1. 388. E. B. 2. 917. H. ^ Am. 31. 
Bab. 28. Lind. 26. 

D. MURALis. Broad-leaved Braba. Fig. 89. 

Leaves heart-shaped, toothed, hairy. Limestone rocks. 6 in.-l ft. 

Ann. April and May. White. (4) £".5.1.912. E. B. 2. nS. 
H. ^ Am. 3L Bab. 29. Lind. 26. 

Genus 15. Camelina. 

C. SATiVA. Gold of Pleasure. Fig. 90. 

Leaves sagittate. Fruit obovate, rounded. Cultivated ground, 
scarcely wild. Cultivated for the oil contained in the seeds. 3 ft. 
Ann. July. Yellow. {\) £. J5. 1. 1254. E.B.2.920. H.^-Am 
36. Bab. 30. Lind. 30. 

c 



10 

Genus 16. KoNiGA. 

K. MARTTTMA. Sweet Ahjssiim. Fig. 91. 

Leaves alternate, linear-Linceolate, hoary. Stem woody below. 
Sea-coast, scarcely wild. 1 ft. Pcrenn. July-Sept. White. (^^) 
£.3.1.1729. E.B.2.919. II. ^Arn. 30. Bab. 28. Lincl. 26. 

Genus 17. Alyssum. 

A. CALYCiNUM. Cahjcine Abjssum. Madwort. Fig. 92, 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Stems several, erect. Hairy. Calyx 

persistent. Sea-coast in Scotland. 4-G in. Ann. June. Yellow. 

(I) E. B. Supp. 2583. Bab. 28. 

Genus 18. Dentauia. 

D. bulbifeha. Coral-root. Fig. 93. 

Lower leaves pinnate, upper ones simple with bulbs at the base, 
by which the plant is propagated. Woods. 2 ft. Perenn. May. 
Purple, (i) E.B.I. 309. E. B. 2. 921. 77. ^ Am. 26. Bab. 24. 
Lind. 25. 

Genus 19. Caudamine. 

C. amara. Bitter-Cress. Fig. 94. 

Leaves without stipules, pinnate ; leaflets of the lower ones roundish 
and entire, those of the upper toothed. Hairy. Wet meadows, 
(i in.-l ft. Perenn. May. Yellowish white, anthers purple. (^) 
E. B. 1. 1000. E. B. 2. 926. H. ^ Am. 27. Bab. 24. Lind. 25. 

C. PRATENSis. Lady^s SmocJc. Fig. 95. 

Leaves pinnated ; upper leaflets narrow, entire ; lower ones roundish, 
toothed. Smooth. Meadows. 1 ft. Perenn. May. Lilac, anthers 
yellow, (i) E.B.I. 776. E.B. 2.925. H. ^ Am. 27. Bab. 24. 
Lind. 25. 

C. iMPATiENS. Narrow-leaved Bitter-Cress. Fig. 98. 

Leaves pinnate, with stipules. Petals linear, often wanting. Moist 
rocks. 1 ft. Ann. May and June. White, (i) ii". jB. 1.80. 
E. B. 2. 923. H. ^ Arn. 27. Bab. 24. Lind. 25. 

C. HiRSUTA. Hairy Bitter-Cress. Fig. 97. 

Leaves pinnate, without stipules; leaflets roundish, notched. Hairy. 
Moist places in fields. 4 in.-l ft. Ann. March- June. White. (^) 
E. B. 1. 492. E. B. 2. 924. H. ^ Arn. 27. Bab. 24. Lind. 25. 

C. BELUDiFOLiA. Baisy'Uaved Lady's Smock. Fig. 98. 

Leaves simple, ovate, on rather long foot-stalks. Doubtful native. 
2 in. Perenn. July-Sept. White, (f) E. B. \. 2355. E. B, 
2. 922. Lind. 25. 

Genus 20. Arabis. 

A. striata. Bristol Rock-Cress. Fig. 99. 

Leaves toothed, purplish beneath. Petals erect. Hairy. Rocks 
near Bristol. 6 in. Perenn. March. White, (f) E.B. 1. 614. 
E. B. 2. 927. H. ^ Arn. 25. Bab. 23. Lind. 24. 

A. PETRiEA. Rock-Cress. Fig. 100. 

Root-leaves toothed. Petals spreading. Moist rocks in Wales and 
Scotland. 4 in. Perenn. June and July. Lilac. (|) J?. J3. 1.469. 
E. B. 2. 928. //. ^Arn. 25. Bab. 23. Lind. 24. 



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l.Au.gt 1858 



11 

A. ciLiATA. Fringed RocJc-Cress. Fig. 101, 

Leaves oval, toothed, fringed with hairs. Sea-cliffs ; rare. 4 in. 

Bienn. July. White, (f) ^.-8.1.1746. £!. B. 2. 929. U. ^ 

Am. 26. Bab. 23. Lind. 24. 

A. HiRSUTA. Hairy Wall-Cress. Fig. 102. 

Leaves toothed. Pods straight. Hairy. Flower-stem without bracts. 
Rocks and walls. 1 ft. Bienn. June, White. (|) E. B. 1. 587. 
E. B. 2. 930. H. 8f Am. 26. Bab. 23. Lind. 24. 

A. TuRRiTA. Tower Wall-Cress. Fig. 103. 
Leaves toothed, stem clasping. Stem with leaf-like bracts below the 

flower-stalks. Pods recurved. Walls. 1 ft. Bienn. May. Pale 
yellow, (f) E. B.l, 178. E. B. 2. 931. H. ^ Am. 26. Bab. 23. 
Lind. 24. 

Genus 31. Turritis. 

T. GLABRA. Tower Mustard. Fig. 104. 

Root-leaves toothed, hairy ; stem-leaves smooth, entire, stem-clasping. 
Glaucous. Dry banks and road-sides. 1-3 ft. Ann. May and June. 
Pale yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 777. E. B. 2. 932. //. ^' Am. 25. 
Bab. 23. Lind! 24. 

Genus 23. Barbarea. 

B. VULGARIS. Winter-Cress. Yellow Rocket. Fig. 105. 
Lower leaves lyrate, the terminal lobe rounded. Hedge-banks and 

waste ground; common. 1-3 ft. Perenu. May-Sept. Bright 
yellow, (i) E.B.I. 443. E. B. 2. 933. H. ^ Am. 24. Bab. 22. 
Lind. 23. 

B, PRiECox. Early Winter Cress. Fig. 106. 

Lower leaves lyrate ; upper ones deeply pinnatifid. Waste ground. 
Used as salad. 1-2 ft. Perenn. April-Oct. Yellow, (i) E. B. 
1. 1129. E. B. 2. 934. E. ^ Am. 25. Bab. 22. Lind. 23. 

Genus 23. Nasturtium. 

N. OFFICINALE. Water-Cress. ^ Fig. 107. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets ovate, waved on the margin, the terminal one 
larger than the rest and rounded. Clear water; common. Used 
as salad. 6-9 in. Perenn. July. White. (|) E. B. 1. 855. 
-£'.£.2.935. H.^Am.28. Bab. 22. Lind. 23. 

N. SYLVESTRE. Creeping-Cress. Fig. 108. 

Root creeping. Leaves pinnate; leaflets lanceolate, cut. Upper 
leaves entire, linear. Wet places. 6 in. Perenn. July-Sept. Bright 
yellow. (^) E. B. 1. 2324. E. B. 2. 936. B. ^ Am. 28. Bab. 22. 
Lind. 23. 

N. TERRESTRE. Marsh-Cress. ^^Z' l"^* 

Leaves pinnatifid. Root tapering. Petals not longer than the 
calyx. Wet places. 6-10 in. Ann. June-Sept. Pale yellow, (i) 
E.B.I. 1747. E. B. 2. 937. H. ^ Am. 28. Bab. 22. Litid. 23. 

N. AMPHIBIUM. Amphibious Marsh-Cress. Fig. 110. 

Root fibrous. Leaves oblong, pinnatifid or serrated. Ditches and 
wet places. 2-3 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Yellow. (^) E.B. I. IS-iO. 
E. B. 2. 938. IL. &- Am. 28. Bab. 30. Litid. 23. 

^ c 2 



12 

Genus 24-. Sisymbrium. 

S. OFFICINALE. Hedge Mustard. Fig. 111. 

Leaves lyrate, hairy. Pods short, pressed against the stalk. Com- 
mon on waste ground and hedge-banks, 2 ft. Ann. June-Aug. 
Yellow. Q) E. B. 1. 735. E. B. 2. 939. U.^Arn. 34. Bab. 24. 
Lind. 29. 

S. Iris. London Rocket. Fig. 113. 

Leaves pinnatifid. Pods long, erect. Walls near London. 1-2 ft. 
Ann, July and Aug. Yellow, (i) £". i?. 1. 1G31. £.^.2.940. 
//. ^ Arn. 35. BaL 25. Li?id. 29. 

S. SoPBiA. Flix-weed. Fig. 113. 

Leaves bipinnate, with linear lobes. "Waste places. 2 ft. Ann. 
July and Aug. Pale yellow. {\) E. B. 1. 963. E. B. 2. 941. 
//. t^ Ar7i. 35. Bab. 25. Lind. 29. 

S. Thalianum. Thale-Cress. Fig. 114. 

Leaves oblong, toothed ; lower ones in a tuft. Common on walls. 
2-8 in. Ann. April and May. V/hite. (J) £'.i>\ 1.901. E.B, 
2. 942. H. ^ Arn. 35. Bab. 25. Lind. 24. 

Genus 25. Erysimum. 

E. CHEiRANxnoiDEs. Treacle-Mustard. TForm-seed. Fig. 115. 

Leaves lanceolate. Waste places and fields. Acrid. 1-2 ft. Bienn. 
May-Nov. Yellow. (}) E.B. 1.942. E.B.2.9i3. H.^ Arn. 3d. 
Bab. 26. Lind. 30. 

E. Alliaria. nedge-Garlic. Fig. 110. 

Leaves heart-shaped, with foot-stalks. Hedge-banks and waste 
places ; very common. Plant smells like garlic. 2-3 ft. Bienn. 
May. White, (i) E. B. 1. 796. E. B. 2. 944. H. ^ Arn. 35. 
Bab. 26. Lind. 29. 

E. ORiENTALE. Hare'' s- ear Mustard. Fig. 117. 

Leaves oblong heart-shaped, stem-clasping. Glaucous. Fields. 
1-2 ft. Ann. June. Yellowish white, (i) E. B. I. 1804. E. B. 
2. 945. H. ^ Arn. 36. Bab. 26. Lind. 30. 

Genus 26. Cueiranthus. 

C. Cheirt. Wall-Jlower, Fig. 118. 

Stem shrubby, branches angular. Leaves lanceolate. Pods linear. 
Walls. 1-1-2- ft. Bienn. usually. April. Orange-yellow. (i) 
E. B. 1. 934. E. B. 2. 946. H. ^ Arn. 24. Bab. 21. Lind. 22. 

Genus 27. Mattiiiola. 

M. iNCANA. Hoary Stock. Fig. 119. 

Stem shrubby. Leaves lanceolate, entire, hoary. Sea-cliffs in the 
south of England. 1-2 ft. Bienn. May-July. Purple. (i) 
E.B.I. 1935. E. B. 2. 947. //. ^ Ar7i. 24. Bab. 21. Lind. 22. 

M. siNtTATA. Great Sea-Stock. Fig. 120. 

Stem herbaceous, spreading. Leaves downy, waved. Sandy sea- 
ehores. 2 ft. Bienn. May-Aug. Purple.' (i) E. B. I. 462. 
E.B. 2. 948. H.^' Arn. 24. Bab. 21. Lind. 22. 







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13 

Genus 28. Hesperis. 

II. MATRONALis. Dame's Violet. Fig. 121. 

Stem erect. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, toothed. Moist hilly pastures 
and waste places. 2-3 ft. Pcrenn. May and June. Rose-colour, 
(i) E.B.I. 731. E. B. 2. 949. H. ^ Am. 34. Bah. 25. Lind. 29. 

Genus 29. Brassica. 

B. Napus. Wild Rape. Fig. 122- 

Root fusiform. Lower leaves lyrate, toothed ; upper ones lanceolate, 

stem-clasping. Smooth. Waste ground. Cultivated for its oily seeds. 

1-2 ft. Bienn. May and June. Bright yellow. i\) £". i?. 1. 2146. 

E. B. 2. 950. H. ^ Am. 40. Bab. 26. Lind. 32. 

B. Rapa. Wild Turnip. Fig. 123. 

Root orbicular, fleshy. Root-leaves lyrate, rough ; stem-ones nearly 
entire, smooth. Fields and waste places. Cultivated for its edible root. 
1-2 ft. Bienn. April and May. Bright yellow, (i) E.B.\.2\7Q. 
E. B. 2. 951. H.^ Am. 40. Bab. 26. Lind. 32. 

B. oleracea. Cabbage. Fig. 124. 

Root cylindrical, fleshy. Leaves large, partly lyrate, waved and 
lobed, glaucous, smooth. Sea-cliffs. Cultivated as an esculent. 6 in.- 
2 ft. Bienn. June. Lemon-yellow. (|) £".^.1.637. -E". jB. 2. 952. 
//. ^ Am. 40. Bab. 26. Lind. 32. 

B. MoNENSis. Isle of Man Cabbage, Fig. 125. 

Leaves glaucous, deeply pinnatifid, unequally toothed. Sandy sea- 
shores in the Isle of Man and elsewhere. Eaten by cattle. 6 in.-l ft. 
Perenn. June and July. Yellow. (|) E.B.I. 9^2. E.B.2.9b3. 
H. ^ Am. 41. Bab. 27. Lind. 32. 

B. Cheiranthus. Wall-flower Cabbage. Fig. 126. 

Root woody. All the leaves deeply pinnatifid, hairy. Perhaps a 
variety of the preceding. Sandy shores, Jersey. Perenn.? July. 
Deep yellow, (i) E.B. Supp. 2821. Bab. 27. Lind. 320. 

B. CAMPESTRis. Field Cabbage. Colza. Swedish Turnip. Fig. 127. 

Root tapering. Root-leaves lyrate, rough ; those of the stem entire 
or partly pinnatifid, stem-clasping. River-sides and cultivated ground. 
Varieties cultivated for their oily seeds and edible roots. 1-2 ft. 
Ann. June-Aug. Yellow. (|) ^.£.1.2243. E.B.2.954. E. ^ 
Am. 40. Bab. 26. Lind, 32. 

Genus 30. Sinapis. 

S. ARVENSis. Charlock. Wild Mustard. Fig. 128. 

Leaves toothed, partly lyrate. Pods with many angles, rugged, longer 
than their beak. A common weed. 1-2 ft. Ann. May and June. Yellow, 
(i) ^.5.1.1748. E.B. 2. 953. H.^Arn. 41. Bab.27. Lind. 33. 

S. ALBA. White Mustard. Fig. 129. 

Leaves pinnatifid. Pods bristly, rugged, spreading, shorter than the 
beak. Waste ground. 1ft. Ann. July. Yellow, (i) E.B.I. 1677. 
E. B. 2. 956. H. ^ Am. 42. Bab. 27. Lind. 33. 

S. NIGRA. BlacTc Mustard. Fig. 130. 

Lower leaves lyrate, rough ; upper ones linear-lanceolate. Beak of 
pod very short. Pungent seeds used as a condiment. 3-4 ft. Ann. 
June. Yellow. (1) E. B. 1. 969. E. B. 2. 957. //. ^ Arn. 41. 
Bab. 27. Lind. 33. 



14 

S. INCANA. Fig. 131 

Leaves lyrate, rough ; stem-ones linear-Ianccolatc. Pods closely 

pressed to the stem, very short, witU beak nearly as long. Sandy shores. 

Jersey. 2-3 ft. Ann. July. Yellow, (i) E. B. Supp. 2843. 

n. 4- Arn, 41. Bab. 27. 

S. TENUiFOLiA. Wall Rockct. Fig. 132. 

Stem smooth. Leaves pinnatifid. Foot-stalks spreading. Seeds in 
two rows. Walls. 1-1 1 ft. Percnn. July-Sept. Yellow. (|) 
E. B. 1. 525. E. B. 2. 958. H. ^ Am. 27. Bab. 42. Lind. 33. 

S. MURALis. Sand Rocket. Fig. 133. 

Stem hairy, spreading. Leaves toothed or lyrate. Foot-stalks 
spreading. Seeds in two rows. Sandy shores. 1 ft. Ann. Aug. 
Yellow, (i) E.B.l.lOdQ. E.B.2.959. H.^Arn.42. Bab.2S. 
Lind. 33. 

Genus 31. Raphanus. 

R. Raphanistrum. Wild Radish. Fig. 134. 

Lower leaves lyrate. Pods jointed, striated. Petals deeply veined. 
A common weed. Variety cultivated for its edible root, li ft. Ann. 
Julv. Yellow or white with purple veins. (^) E. B. l.HoO. E. B. 
2. 960. H. ^ Am. 43. Bab. 34. Lind. 34. 

R. MARITIMUS. Fig. 135. 

Lower leaves unequally lyrate. Pods jointed, deeply furrowed. 
Sea-coast. 3 ft. Bienn. May and June. Yellow. Q) E.'B. l.lGi3. 
E. B. 2. 961. H. ^ Am. 43. Bab. 34. Lind. 34. 

Order VII. RESEDACEiE. 
Genus 1. Reseda. 

R. LuTEOLA. Weld. Fig. 136. 

Leaves all lanceolate, entire. Calyx with 4 segments. Waste ground. 
Yields a yellow dye. 2-3 ft. Ann. July and Aug. Greenish yellow, 
(i) ^.i?. 1.320. E.B.2.6S5. H.^-Am.AA. Bab. 35. Lind.2l9. 

R. LUTEA. Wild Mignonette. Fig. 137. 

Leaves deeply 3-cleft or pinnatifid. Calvx with 6 segments. Chalky 
hills. 2-3 ft. Ann. July and Aug. Yellow, (i) E.B.I. 321. 
E. B. 2. 686. H. ^ Am. 44. Bab. 34. Lind. 219. 

R. FRUTiCULOSA. Shrubby Mignonette. Fig. 138. 

Shrubby. Leaves all pinnatifid, glaucous. Calyx with 5 segments. 
Petals trifid. Hedge-banks. 1 ft. Perenn. June. Nearly white, 
(i) E. B. Supp. 2628. E. B. 2. 686. //. ^ Am. 44. Bab. 35. 
Lind. 333. 

Order VIII. CISTACE^. 
Genus 1. Helianthemum. 

IL CANUM. Iloary Rock-Rose. Fig. 139. 

Shrubby. Leaves without stipules, opposite, hoary beneath. Alpine 
rocks. 3-4 in. Perenn. May and June. Bright yellow. (-|) 
E. B. 1. 396. E. B. 2. 757. 11. ^ Am. 45. Bab. 35. Lind. 36. 

IL GUTTATUM. Spotted Annual Rock-Rose. Fig. 140. 

Herbaceous. Leaves without stipules. Sandy pastures ; rare. 6 in. 
Ann. June and July. Yellow, with purple spot at base. (|) E. B. 
1. 544. E. B. 2. 758. H. S,- Am. 45. Bab. 35. Lind. 37. 




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15 

H. LEDiFOLiUM. Ledum-leaved Roc/c-Rose. Fig. 141. 

Leaves with stipules. Petals shorter than the calyx. Sandy places ; 
rare. Gin. Ann. July. Pale yellow, (i) £". if. 1. 2414. E.Ii. 
2. 759. //. ^ Arn. 45. Bab. 36. Lind. 37. 

H. vuLGARE. Rock-Rose. Sun-Cistus. Fig. 142. 

Shrubby, procumbent. Leaves with stipules. Petals large. Com- 
mon on chalk or limestone pastures. 6 in. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Bright yellow. {\) E. B. I. 1321. E. B. 2. 760. H. ^ Arn. 45. 
Bab. 36. Lind. 37. 

H. suRREJANUM. Dotted Sun-Cistus. Fig. 143. 

Shrubby, procumbent. Leaves with stipules, dotted beneath. Petals 
small. Chalky pastures. 6 in. Perenn. July. Yellow. (|-) 
JS. B. I. 2207. E. B. 2. 761. H. ^ Arn. 46. Bab. 36. Lind. 37. 

H. POLiFOLiuM. White Sun-Cistus. Fig. 144. 

Shrubby, procumbent. Leaves with stipules. Petals large. Kocky 
hills near the sea ; rare. 6 in. Perenn. July. White. (^) E. B. 
1. 1322. E. B. 2. 762. H. ^ Arn. 46. Bab. 3(j. Lind. 37. 

Order IX. VIOLACEJE. 
Genus 1. Viola. 

V. HiRTA. Hairy Violet. Fig. 145. 

No stem. Leaves heart-shaped, rough with hairs. Bracts below 
the middle of the flower-stalk. Stipules membranous. Hedge-banks 
on chalk or limestone. 4 in. Perenn. April. Pale violet ; scentless. 
(I) E.B.I. 894. E. B. 2. 328. H. ^ Arn. 47. Bab. 37. Lind. 35. 

V. ODORATA. Sweet Violet. Fig. 146. 

No stem. Leaves heart-shaped, nearly smooth. Bracts above the 
middle of the stalk. Stipules membranous. Woods and hedge-banks ; 
common. 5 in. Perenn. March and April. Deep violet or white ; 
sweet-scented, (f) ^. ^. 1. 619. E. B. 2. 329. H. ^ Arn. 47. 
Bab. 37. Lind. 35. 

V. PALTJSTRis. Marsh Violet. Fig. 147. 

No stem. Leaves kidney-shaped or heart-shaped, smooth. Bracts 
near the middle of the stalk. Stipules membranous. Bogs. 4 in. 
Perenn. April. Pale lilac, (f) E. B. 1. 444. E. B. 2. 330. 
H. ^ Arn. 46. Bab. 36. Lind. 35. 

v. CANiNA. Doff Violet. Fig. 148. 

Stem long, channelled. Leaves heart-shaped. Stipules membranous. 
Woods and banks ; common. 6 in. Perenn. April-Aug. Blue, 
(f) E.B. 1.620. E.B. 2. 331. H.^Arn.47. Bab. 37. Lind. 35. 

v. FLAvicoRNis. Tellow-spwred Violet. Fig. 149. 

Stem rather woody, angular. Probably a variety of the preceding. 
Heaths. 3 in. Perenn. May and June. Violet ; spur yellow, (f ) 
E. B. Supp. 2736. E. B. 2. 331*. Bab. 38. Lind. 36. 

V. LACTEA. Cream-coloured Violet. Fig. 150. 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate. Stipules membranous. Variety of canina ? 
Bogs. 6 in. Perenn. June. Yellowish white, (f) £'.-3.1.445. 
E. B. 2. 332. H. ^ Arn. 48. Bab. 38. Lind. 35. 



16 

V. TRICOLOR. Ucarf's-ease. Pansy. Fig. 151. 

Stems angular, spreading. Leaves oblong, crenated. Stipules leafy, 
pinnatifid. Petals longer than the calyx. Fields; common. 6 in. 
Ann. May-Sej)t. Upper petals deep violet, lower yellow, (f) 
E. B. 1. 1287. E. B. 2. 333. //. ^ Am. A9. Bab. 38. Lind. 36. 

V. CuRTisii. Yelloio Seaside Pansij. * Fig. 152. 

Stems angular, decumbent. Leaves ohlong, crenated. Stipules 
leafy, palmated. Sandy wastes near the sea. 6 in. Perenn. May- 
Aug. Lower petal deep yellow, upper ones straw-colour. (f) 
£.B.Supp. 2693. E.B.2.3S4*. H.^ Am. 49. Bab. 38. Lind. 320. 

V. ARVENSis. Com Pansy. Fig. 153. 

Stems angular, spreading. Leaves oblong, crenated, smooth. Sti- 
pules leafy, pinnatifid. Petals shorter than the calyx. Fields ; com- 
mon. 6 in. Ann. May-Sept;, Pale yellow, (f) E.B. Su])p.27l2, 
E. B. 2. 333*. II. ^ Am. 49. Bab. 39. Lind. 320. 

V. LUTEA. Mountain Pansy. Fig. 154. 

Stems triangular. Leaves oblong, crenated, hairy. Stipules leafy, 
palmated. Petals large. Mountain pastures. 4 in. Perenn. May- 
Sept. Yellow or violet, very variable, (f) E.B.I. 72\. E. B. 
2. 334. H. ^ Am. 49. Bab. 38. Lind. '30. 

Order X. DROSERACEiE. 

Genus 1. Deosera. 

D. KOTUNDiFOLiA. Sun-dcw. Fig. 155. 

Leaves rounded, foot-stalks hairy. Bogs. 2-4 in. Perenn. July. 
"White, (f) E.B.I. 867. E. B. 2. 453. H. ^ Am. 50. Bab. 39. 
Lind. 38. 

D. LONGiFOLTA. Lonff-leavcd Sun-dew. Fig. 156. 

Leaves obovate, foot-stalks smooth. Bogs. 2-6 in. Perenn. July. 

White. (2) E.B. 1.868. E. B. 2. 459. JI. ^ Am. 50. Lind. 38. 

D. ANGLTCA. Great Sun-dew. Fig. 157. 

Leaves linear-oblong, foot-stalks smooth. Bogs. Perenn. July. 

Pinkish, (f) £.2?. 1.869. ^. 2?. 2. 460. H.i^-Am.50. Bab. 39. 
Lind. 38. 

Order XI. POLYGALACEiE. 

Genus 1. Poly gala. 

P. VULGARIS. Milk-wort. Fig. 158. 

Stems forming a spreading tuft. Leaves scattered, linear-lanceolate. 
Heaths. 2-6 in. Perenn. May-Sept. Blue, pink or white. (^) 
E.B.I. 76. E. B. 2. 989. //. ^ Am. 52. Bab. 40. Li7id. 39. 

P. oxYPTERA. Milk-wort. Fig. 159. 

Lower leaves small, obovate. A variety of vulgaris. Channel 
Islands. 6 in. Perenn. June-Sept, h) E. B. Supn. 2827. 
JI.^ Am. 52. i- V.J/ 

P. AMARA. Broad-leaved Milk-wort. Fig. 160. 

Lower leaves large, obovate, in a tuft ; upper ones oblong. A variety 

of vulyaris. E. B. Siipp. 2764. E. B. 2. 989*. Bab. 40. Lind. 320. 






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17 

Order XII. ERANKENIACEiE. 
Genus 1. Frankenia. 

F. LjEvis. Sea-heath. Fig. 161. 

Leaves linear, in whorls. Plant procumbent. Muddy salt marshes. 
4 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Rose colour. (|) E. B. 1. 205. 
E. B. 2. 463. H.^Arn. 53. Bab.Al. Lind. 39. 

F. puLVERULENTA. Powdery Sea-heath. Fig. 162. 

Leaves obtuse, rather indented at the apex, downy beneath. Coast 
of Sussex ; very rare. 4 in. Ann. July. Pale pink, (f ) E. B. 
1. 2222. E. B. 2. 464. H. ^ Am. 53. Bab. 41. Lind. 39. 

Order XIII. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 
Genus 1. Elatine. 

E. TRiPETALA. Watcr-wort. Fig. 163. 

Flowers stalked, seldom expanding. Petals 3. Stamens 6. Wet 
sandy places or shallow water. 1 in. Ann, July and Aug. Pink, 
(f ) E. B. 1. 955. E. B. 2. 578. H. ^ Am. 54. Bab. 42. Lind. 48. 

E. Hydropiper. Octandrous Water-wort. Fig. 164. 

Flowers sessile. Petals 4. Stamens 8. Generally covered by the 
water ; rarely expanding ; rare. 1 in. Ann. Aug. Pink. (4) E. B. 
Supp. 2670. E. B. 2. 578*. H. ^ Am. 54. Bab. 42. Lind. 321. 

Genus 2. Dianthus, 
D. Armeria. Deptford Pink. Fig. 165. 

Flowers in clusters. Bracts lanceolate, downy, as long as the calyx. 
Pastures. 1-li ft. Ann. July-Sept. Pink with white dots, (i) 
E.B. 1.317. E.B. 2. 614. H.^Arn.56. Bab. 44. Lind. 44. 
D. prolifer. Proliferous Pink. Fig. 166. 

Flowers in clusters. Bracts ovate, membranous, longer than the 
calyx. Gravelly pastures; rare. 9 in. Ann. July. Dark purple, 
(i) E.B.I. 956. E. B. 2. 615. H. ^ Am. 56. Bab. 44. Lind. 44. 
D. Caryophyllus. Clove Pink. Carnation. Fig. 167. 

Flowers solitary, large. Bracts very short. Petals unequally notched. 
Stamens shorter than the calyx. Old walls. The origin of the garden 
Pinks. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Pink, (i) E. B. 1. 214. E. B. 
2.616. H.^Arn.56. Bab. 44. Lind. 44. 

D. DELTOiDES. Maiden Pink. Fig. 168. 

Stems procumbent. Flowers solitary. Bracts generally 2, ovato- 

lanceolate. Heaths and sandy fields. 6-9 in. Perenn. July-Oct. 

Pink or white, with a crimson ring, (f) £'.^.1.61. E.B.2.6\7. 

H. ^ Am. 57. Bab. 45. Lind. 44. 

D. c^sius. Mountain Pink. Cheddar Pink. Fig. 169. 

Stems single-flowered. Bracts roundish, short. Petals unequally 

toothed. Stamens longer than the calyx. Cheddar Rocks, Somerset. 

4-8 in. Perenn. July and x\ug. Pale rose colour, (f) E.B. I. 62. 

E. B. 2. 618. R.^ Am. 57. Bab. 45. Lind. 44. 

Genus 3. Saponaria. 

S. OFFICINALIS. Soapwort. Fig. 170. 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate, opposite. Calyx cylindrical. Flowers often 

double. Hedge-banks and waste places. 2 ft. Perenn. Aug. Pink. 

(i) E.B.I. 1060. E. B. 2. 613. H. |' Am. 57. Bab. 45. Lind. 45. 

o 



18 

Genus 4. Cucubalus. 

C. BACCIFER. Berry-hearing Chiekweed. Fig. 171. 

Stem straggling, branched. Fruit a succulent berry. South of Europe. 

Isle of Dogs near London, and Anglesey ; scarcely wild. 1^ ft. Perenn. 

June and July. White ; berries black, (f) E.B.I. 1577. E. B. 

2. 619. Bab. 45. 

Genus 5. Silene. 

S. ACAULTS. Moss Campion. Cushion Pink. Fig. 172. 

Plant growing in mossy tufts. Leaves linear. Flowers solitary, on 
short stalks. High mountain summits. 1 in. Perenn. June and 
July. Deep pink or white. (|) E. B. \. 1081. E. B. 2. 629. 
H. ^ Arn. 58. Bab. 47. Lind. 46. 

S. iNFLATA. Bladder Campion. Fig. 173. 

Flowers numerous, in loose panicles. Calyx much inflated. Petals 
deeply cleft, with narrow segments,. Stem erect. Plant sometimes 
downy. Fields and way-sides ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June- 
Sept. White, (i) ^. i?. 1. 164. E. B. 2. 620. H. ^ Am. 58. 
Bab. 46. Lind. 45. 

S. MARiTiMA. Sea Campion. Fig. 174. 

Flowers solitary or few together. Calyx much inflated. Petals 
slightly cleft, with broad segments. Stems recumbent. Sea-coast. 
4-9 in. Pereim. June-Sept. White. {\) E. B. \. 957. E. B. 
2. 621. H.^ Am. 58. Bab. 46. Lind. 45. 

S. Otites. Spanish Catchfly. Fig. 175. 

Flowers generally dioecious, in whorls. Petals entire. Calyx slightly 
inflated. Stem erect, few-leaved. Dry fields in the Eastern counties. 
6 in.-l ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Pale yellow, (f) E.B.I. 85. 
E. B. 2. 624. n. ^ Am. 59. Bab. 46. Lind. 46. 

S. ANGLiCA. English Catchfly. Fig. 176. 

Calyx slightly inflated. Petals small, slightly cleft. Flowers 
alternate, in the axils of the leaves. Lower capsules drooping. Plant 
hairy, viscid. Fields in dry soil. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. June. White, 
(f) ,^.i?. 1.1178. E.B. 2. 622. H.^ Am. 59. Bab. 45. Lind. 45. 

S. auiNQUEVULNERA. Variegated Catchfly. Fig. 177. 

Petals entire, roundish. Flowers alternate. Plant hairy. Capsules 
erect. Sandy fields ; not common. 1 ft. Ann. June-Aug. White, 
with deep red spot on each petal, (f) E. B. 1. 86. E. B. 2. 623. 
II. ^ Am. 59. Bab. 46. Lind. 45. 

S. NUTANS. Nottingham Catchfly. Fig. 178. 

Flowers in drooping panicles. Petals deeply cleft, with linear seg- 
ments. Calyx cylindrical. Leaves downy. Limestone rocks. 2 ft. 
Perenn. June and July. White. (|) E.B.I. 465. E. B. 2. 625. 
II. ^ Am. 59. Bab. 46. Lind. 46. 

S. PATENS. Dover Catchfly. Fig. 179. 

Flowers in erect panicles. Petals deeply cleft, with broad segments. 
Calyx long, club-shaped. Perhaps a variety of nutans. Dover cliffs. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. July. White. (^ E. B.Supp.2748. E.B. 2. 625*. 
Bab. 46. 

S. CONICA. Com Catchfly. Fig. 180. 

Calyx inflated, conical, furrowed. Petals small, slightly cleft. Flowers 
in dichotomous panicles. Sandy places in Kent. 1 ft. Ann. July. 
Purple, (i) E.B. 1. 922. E. B. 2. 626. //. ^- Am. 60. Bab. 46. 
Lind. 45. 



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19 

S. NOCTiFLOUA. Night-foweHng Catchfly. Fig. 181. 

Calyx with 10 hairy ribs, and very long linear teeth. Petals large, 
deeply cleft. Plant downy. Sandy fields. 1-2 ft. Ann. July. 
Pale pink or white, sweet-scented, opening at night. (^) E. jB. 1. 291. 
E. B. 2. 627. H. ^ Am. 60. Bab. 47, Lind. 46. 

S. Armeria. LobeVs Catchfiy. Fig. 182. 

Flowers in rather close corymbs. Petals notched. Calyx club-shaped. 
Walls ; doubtful native. \\ ft. Ann. July and Aug. Purplish pink. 
(i) jF. 5. 1.1398. iS'.-B. 2. 628. //.^^m.60. Bab.47. Lind. 46. 
Genus 6. Lychnis. 

L. Flos-Cuculi. Cuckoo Flower. Ragged Robin. Fig. 183. 

Petals with 4 long linear segments. Leaves lanceolate. Flower-stems 
viscid. Moist meadows ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June. Rose- 
colour ; calyx and flower-stalks pink. (|- ) E.B.I. 573. E.B.2. 664. 
//. ^ Am. 61. Bab. 48. Lind. 47. 

L. ViscARiA. German Catchfly. Fig. 184. 

Flowers large. Petals slightly cleft. Leaves linear-lanceolate. 
Flower-stems viscid. Dry alpine rocks ; local. 1 ft. Perenn. June. 
Deep purplish pink or white. (|-) E. B. 1. 788. E. B. 2. 667. 
H. ^ Am. 61. Bab. 47. Lind. 47. 

L. ALPiNA. Mountain Campion. Fig. 185. 

Plant tufted. Petals sharply cleft. Flowers in close corymbs. Clova 
Mountains, Angus. 6 in. Perenn. June and July. Pink, (f) 
E.B.I. 2254. E. B. 2. 668. H. ^ Am. 61. Bab. 47. Lind. 47. 

L. DiURNA. Campion. Fig. 186. 

Flowers usually dioecious. Petals deeply cleft. Plant hairy. Fig. 6., 
with broader petals and globular capsules, is a distinct species {L. vesper- 
tina). Fields and banks ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May-Aug. 
Rose-colour; b. white. (|) E. B. I. 1579 & 1580. E.B. 2.665 & 
666. H. ^ Am. 61. Bab. 48. Lind. 47. 

Genus 7. Agrostemma. 

A. GiTHAGo. Corn Cockle. Fig. 187. 
Flowers large. Teeth of the calyx projecting beyond the corolla. 

Petals very slightly cleft. Plant covered with silky hairs. Corn-fields ; 
common. 2-3 ft. Ann. July. Purple, (i) JE". JS. 1. 741. E.B. 
2. 663. H. ^ Am. 62. Bab. 48. Lind. 47. 
Genus 8. Buffonia. 

B. TENUIFOLIA. Fig. 188. 

Leaves very narrow, dilated at the base. Stems straggling. Calyx 
with straight parallel furrows. Capsule scarcely as long as the calyx. 
A doubtful native. 6 in. Ann. June. White. (^) jE^. ^. 1. 1313. 
E. B. 2. 234. H. ^' Am. 64. Bab. 48. Lind. 47. 
Genus 9. Sagina. 

S. PROCXJMBENS. Creeping Pearl-wort. Fig. 189. 

Stems creeping, smooth. Petals very short. Leaves linear, minutely 
pointed. Garden-walks and waste places ; very common. 1-2 in. 
Perenn. May-Nov. White. E.B.I. 880. E. B. 2. 249. H. ^ 
Am. 63. Bab. 49. Lind. 49. 

S. APETALA. Annual Pearl-wort. Fig. 190. 

Stems nearly erect, hairy. Leaves bristle-pointed. Petals minute. 
Dry ground ; very common. 1-3 in. Ann. May and June. Green. 
£". ^. 1. 881. E. B. 2. 251. H.^ Am. 62. Bab. 49. Lind. 49. 

D 2 



20 

S. MARiTiMA. Sea Pearl-wort. Fig. 191. 

Stems nearly upright, smooth. Leaves short, obtuse. Petals wanting. 
Sea-shore, and summit of Ben Nevis. 1-4 in. Ann. May-Aug. Green. 
-E. 5. 1.2195. E.B. 2. 250. H.^Arn. 63. Bab. 49. Lind. 49. 

Genus 10. Mcenchia. 

M. ERECTA. Pig. 192. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Stem erect. Sandy places. 1-3 in. Ann. 
May. White. £. li. I. 609. E.B. 2. 252. H.^Arn.70. Bub. 54. 
Lind. 49. 

Genus 11. Holosteum. 

H. UMBELLATUM. Juycfcd Chickweed. Fig. 193. 

Flowers in umbels. Leaves ovate. Upper part of the stem glaucous, 
with glandular hairs. Walls near Norwich and Bury St. Edmunds. 
3-4 in. Ann. April. Pink, (f) E. B. I. 27. E. B. 2. 192. 
H. ^ Am. 70. Bab. 52. Lind. 50'. 

Genus 12. Spergula. 

S. ARVENSis. Spurrey. Fig. 194. 

Leaves long, linear, in close whorls. Fruit-stalks reflexed. Plant 
hairy. Coru-fields ; very common. Cultivated in Holland for fodder. 
6in.-lft. Ann. June-Sept. White, (f) E.B. \.\5Z5. E.B. 
2.677. H.^ Am. 155. Bab. 124. Lind. 48. 

S. NODOSA. Knotted Spurrey. Fig. 195. 

Leaves short, opposite ; upper ones clustered. Petals large. Flowers 
2 or 3 on each stem. Wet sandy places. 6 in. Perenn. July and 
Aug. White, (f) E.B.I. 694. E. B. 2. 678. H. ^ Am. 64. 
Bab. 50. Lind. 48. 

S. SAGiNOiDES. Smooth Spurrey. Fig. 196. 

Leaves opposite. Flowers solitary, on long stalks. Capsules longer 
than the calyx. Highland mountains. 1-3 in. Perenn. June and 
July. White, (f) E. B. 1. 2105. E. B. 2. 679. H. ^ Am. 64. 
Bab. 50. Lind. 48. 

S. suBULATA. Small Hairy Spurrey. Fig. 197. 

Leaves opposite. Flower-stalks solitary, very long. Plant rather 
hairy. Capsules the same length as the calyx. Sandy places. 1-3 in. 
Perenn. July and Aug. (f) E. B. 1. 1082. E. B. 2. 680. H. ^ 
Am. 64. Bab. 50. Lind. 48. 

Genus 13. Stellaria. 

S. NEMORVM. Wood Star-wort. Fig. 198. 

Lower leaves heart-shaped, with foot-stalks ; upper ones ovate, sessile. 
Plant hairy. Moist woods. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May and June. White, 
(f) E.B.\. 92. E. B. 2. 630. H. ^ Am. 69. Bab. 53. Lind. 52. 

S. MEDIA. Chickweed. Fig. 199. 

Leaves ovate ; the lower ones with foot-stalks. Stems procumbent, 
with a line of hairs on one side. A common weed. May be used as 
an esculent. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. All the year. White. (|-) E. B. 
1 537. E. B. 2. 631. H. ^ Am. 69. Bab. 53. Lind. 52. 

S. HoLOSTEA. Star-wort. Fig. 200. 

Leaves narrow-lanceolate, sessile. Petals inversely heart-shaped. 
Stems erect. Hedge-banks. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May and June. White, 
(f ) E.B.\.5\\. E.B. 2. 632. H. ^ Am. 69. Bab. 53. Lind. 52. 



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21 

S. GRAMiNEA. Lesscr Star-wort. Fig. 201. 

Leaves lanceolate, sessile. Petals deeply cleft, with narrow lobes. 
Stems slender, erect. Iled2;e-banks and heaths. 1 ft. Perenn. June 
and July. White. (|) k^. 1.803. J?.i?.2.G33. II.^Arn.GO, 
Bab. 53. Lind. 52. 

S. GLAUCA. Marsh Star-wort. Fig. 203. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, glaucous. Petals deeply cleft. Stems erect. 
1 ft. Perenn. Moist meadows ; local. June and July. White. (^) 
E. B. 1. 825. E. B. 2. 634. H. ^ Am. 69. Bab. 53. Lind. 52." 

S. ULiGiNOSA. Bog Star-wort. Fig. 203. 

Leaves obloug-lauceolate. Petals shorter than the calyx. Ditches 
and wet places. 1 ft. Ann. June. White. (|) E. B. 1. 1074. 
E. B. 2. 635. H. ^ Am. 70. Bab. 54. Lind. 51. 

S. CERASTOIDES. Alpine Star-wort. Fig. 204. 

Stems decumbent. Leaves elliptic-oblong, eessile. Petals deeply 
cleft, about the length of the calyx. Highland mountains. 6 in. 
Perenn. June. White, (f) £'.£.1.911. E.B.2.637. H.^Am.73. 
Bab. 56. Lind. 53. 

S. SCAPIGERA. Many-stalked Star-wort. Fig. 205. 

Stem shorter than the flower-stalks. Leaves linear-lanceolate, crowded 
together. Flowers in a close irregular panicle. Moist places on moun- 
tains. 4 in. Perenn. June. (|) E. B. 1. 1269. E. B. 2. 636. 
Bab. 54. Lind. 52. 



Genus 14. Arenaria. 

A. PEPLOiDES. Sea Sand-wort. Sea Pimpernel. Fig. 206. 

Stem creeping, rather succulent. Leaves ovate, fleshy. Calyx with- 
out ribs. Flowers nearly sessile. Sandy sea-shores. 3 in. Perenn. 
July. White. (|) E. B. 1. 189. E. B. 2. 640. H. ^ Am. 65. 
Bab. 50. Lind. 49. 

A. TRiNERVis. Plantain-leaved Sand-wort. Fig. 207. 

Plant downy. Leaves ovate, with foot-stalks. Calyx obscurely 3- 
ribbed. Moist woods. 1 ft. Ann. May and June. White. (|) 
E. B. 1. 1483. E.B. 2. 641. H. ^ Am. 68. Bab. 51. Lind. 49. 

A. SERPYLLiFOLiA. Thyme-lcaved Sand-wort. Fig. 208. 

Leaves ovate, sessile. Calyx hairy, 3 outer sepals 5-ribbed. Walls 
and dry places ; common. 2-4 in. Ann. May-July. White, (f) 
E.B. 1.923. E.B. 2. 642. H.^Arn.67. Bab. 52. Lind. 49. 

A. ciLiATA. Fringed Sand-wort. Fig' 209. 

Stems procumbent, much branched, downy. Leaves spatulate, cihated 
at the base. Flowers terminal, solitary. Petals large. Limestone 
cliffs ; very rare. 3 in. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. (f) E.B. I. 1745. 
E. B. 2. 646. H. ^ Am. 67. Bab. 52. Lind. 50. , 

A. NORVEGiCA. Norway Sand-wort. Fig. 210. 

Leaves fleshy, spatulate, obovate. Sepals half as long as the corolla. 
Plant glabrous. Unst, Shetland. 3 in. Perenn. July and Aug. 
White. (I) E.B. Supp. 2852. U. ^ Am. 67. Bab. 52. 



22 

A. VERNA. Spring Sand-wort. Fig. 211. 

Stems numerous, panieled above. Leaves awl-shaped. Petals the 
length of the calyx. Mountain pastures. 4 in. Perenn. May- July. 
White, (f) E. B. 1. 512. E. B. 2. G45. //. ^ Am. G6. Bab. 51. 
Lind. 50. 

A. RUBELLA. Little Red Sand-ioort. Fig. 213. 

Stems tufted, downy, usually one- flowered. Leaves linear, blunt. 
Petals shorter than the calyx. Mountains ; very rare. 2 in. Perenn, 
Mav-Aug. White, anthers red. (|) E. B. Supp. 2638. E. B. 2. 646*. 
H.'^Arn.GG. Bab. 51. 

A. TENUiFOLiA. Fine-leavcd Sand-wort. Fig. 213. 

Stems slender, much branched. Leaves slender, awl-shaped. Petals 
shorter than the calyx. Walls and sandy places. 5 in. Ann. June. 
White, (f) E.B.I. 219. E. B. 2. 643. H. ^ Am. G6. Bab. 51. 
Lind. 49. 

A. FASTiGiATA. Lcvel-topped Sand-wort. Fig. 214. 

Stem erect, densely corymbose when in fruit. Leaves very slender. 
Flowers crowded. Petals small. Alpine rocks. 4 in. Ann. June. 
White, (f) E.B.I. 1744. E.B. 2.644. H.^Arn.67. Bab. 51. 
Lind. 50. 

A. RUBRA. Red Sand-wort. Fig. 215. 

Leaves with membranous stipules. Stems prostrate, hairy. Fields 
and dry places ; common. 2-3 in. Ann. July and Aug. Purple. 
(f) .£'.^.1.852. £".^.2.958. H.^Arn.\54. Bab. 124. Lind. 50. 

A. MARINA. Sea Sa7id-wort. Fig. 216. 

Stems prostrate. Leaves with membranous stipules, fleshy, semi- 
cylindrical. Sandy sea-shores ; common. 2-4 in. Ann. June-Sept. 
Purple. (I) E.B.I. 958. E.B. 2. 639. H.^ Am. 154. Bab. 124. 
Lind. 50. 

Genus 15. Cerastium. 

C. VULGATUM. Broad-leaved Mouse-ear. Fig. 217. 

Hairy, nearly erect, viscid above. Leaves roundish-ovate, pale green. 
Petals equal to the calyx, deeply cleft. Fields and road-sides ; common. 
6 in. Ann. April-June. White, (f) £".1?. 1.789. E.B. 2. 669. 
n. ^ Am. 71. Bab. 54. Lind. 51. 

C. viscosuM. Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear. Fig. 218, 

Hairy, spreading, viscid. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, dark green. 
Petals rather shorter than the calyx, deeply cleft. Fields and way- 
sides ; common. 6 in. Perenn. May-Sept, (f) E. B. I. 790. 
E. B. 2. 670. H. ^Am. 71. Bab. 55. Lind. 51. 

C. SEMipECANDRUM. Little Mouse-ear. Fig. 219. 

Hairy, viscid, nearly erect. Leaves oblong-ovate. Petals shorter 
than the calyx, slightly notched. Waste places and walls ; very com- 
mon. 1-3 in. Ann. March and April. White, (f) ^.^.1.1630. 
E.B. 2.671. H.^Arn.71. Bab. 55. Lind.51. 

C. TETRANDRUM. Four-cleft Mouse-eur. Fig. 220. 

Calyx 4-parted. Plant hairy, somewhat viscid. Probably a variety 
of the preceding. Walls near the sea. 6 in. Ann. May. White (f ) 
E. B. 1. 166. E. B. 2. 6/2. IL ^ Am. 72. Bab. 55. Lind. 51. 



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21 



23 

C, ARVENSE. Field Chickweed. Fig. 221. 

Stems ascending. Leaves linear-lanceolate, generally downy. Petals 
large. Dry fields and banks. 5 in. Perenn. June and July. "White. 
(I) JS". jB. 1.93. E.B.2.673, H.^Arn.72. Bab. 56. Lind.5\. 

C. ALPiNUM. Mountain Chickweed. Fig. 222. 

Leaves elliptical-ovate, often covered with silky hairs. Petals large. 
Flowers in scanty panicles. Mountains. 3-.5 in. Perenn. July and 
Aug. Pure white, (f) E.B.I. 472. E.B.2.674. H.^Arn.72. 
Bab. .56. Lind. 51. 

C. LATiFOLiuM. Broad-leaved Mountain Chickweed. Fig. 223. 

Leaves elliptical-ovate. Flowers terminal, usually solitary. Petals 
large. Plant covered with short rigid hairs. Mountains. 2-5 in. Perenn. 
June-Sept. White, (f) ^.5. 1.473. E.B.2.675. H.^Arn.73. 
Bab. 56. Lind. 51. 

C. AauATicuM. Water Chickweed. Fig. 224. 

Much like Stellaria nemorum. Straggling, hairy and viscid. Leaves 
heart-shaped, without foot-stalks. Petals about the length of the calyx. 
Styles 5. Watery places. 2 ft. Perenn. July. White, (f ) E. B. 
1.538. E.B.2.676. H. ^ Am. 68. Bab. 54. Lind. 51. 

Genus 16. Cherleria. 

C. SEDoiDES. Moss Cyphel. Fig. 225. 

Plant in a close tuft. Leaves rather fleshy, light green. Petals minute. 
Mountain summits. 1 in, Perenn. June and July. Greenish. E. B. 
1. 1212. E. B. 2. 647. H. ^ Am. 65. Bab. 51. Lind. 48. 

Order XIV. LINACEyE. 

Genus 1. Linum. 

L. xJsiTATissiMUM. Commou Flax. Fig. 226. 

Leaves lanceolate. Flowers large. Sepals ovate, with 3 ribs. Fields ; 
not indigenous. Cultivated for its stems, which supply the flax of 
commerce, and its oily seeds (Unseed). \^ ft. Ann. July. Purphsh 
blue, (i) E.B. 1. 1357. E. B. 2. 453. H. ^ Am. 74. Bab. 66. 
Lind. 53. 

L. PERENNE. Perennial Flax. Fig. 227. 

Leaves linear. Flowers large. Sepals with 5 obscure ribs, obovate, 
obtuse. Chalk and limestone hills, 2-3 ft. Perenn, June- Aug. Blue, 
(i) ^.^.1.40. E.B. 2. 454. H.^Arn.74. Bab. 66. Lind. 53. 

L. ANGXJSTiFOLiUM. Narrow-lcavcd Flax. Fig. 228. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Calyx-leaves 3-ribbed, elHptical, pointed. 
Sandy and chalky pastures. 1 ft, Perenn, July, Pale blue, (i) 
E. B. 1. 381. E. B. 2.;.455. H. ^ Am. 74. Bab. 66. Lind. 53. 

L, CATHARTicuM. Little Flax. Fig. 229. 

Leaves opposite, obovate ; upper ones lanceolate. Dry pastures ; 
common. Cathartic. 4-6 in. Ann. June-Sept. White or yellowish, 
(i) E.B.I. 382. E. B. 2. 456. H. \ Am. 74. Bab. 66. Lind. 54. 

Genus 2. Radiola. 

R. MiLLEGRANA. All-secd. Fig. 230. 

A small plant, easily known by its many-seeded, forked branches. 
Wet sandy places. 2 in. Ann. July and Aug. White. ^.JS. 1.893. 
E. B. 2. 253. H. ^ Am. 75. Bab. 66. Lind. 54. 



24 

Order XV. MALVACEAE. 
Genus 1. Lavatera. 
L. ARBOREA. Tree Mallow. Fig. 231. 

Shrubby. Leaves downy, with 7 angles. Rocks on the sea-coast ; 
rare. 3-8 ft. Bienn. ? July-Oct. Rose-colour, purple in the centre, 
(i) J?. 2?. 1. 1841. E.B. 2. 982. 11. ^- Am. 75. Bab. 58. Lind. 41. 
Genus 2. Malva. 
M. SYLVESTRis. Common Mallow. Fig. 232. 

Stems upright. Leaves with 7 acute lobes. Road-sides and waste 
ground ; very common. 1-3 ft. Perenn. May-Aug. Rose-colour. (|) 
JS". JB. 1. G71. E. B. 2. 978. n.^Arn. 7Q. Bab. 57. Lind. 40. 
M. ROTUNDiFOLiA. Round-leaved Mallow. Fig. 233. 

Stems prostrate. Leaves roundish, bluntly 5-lobed. Waste ground ; 
common. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. ? June-Sept. Pale rose-colour. (^) 
E. B. 1. 1092. E. B. 2. 979. H.^Arn. 76. Bab. 57. Lind. 40. 
M. MOSCHATA. Musk Mttllow. Fig. 234. 

Stem erect. Upper leaves in 5 deep, pinnatifid segments. Calyx 
hairy. Fields. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Rose-colour. (|) 
E.B.I. 754. E. B. 2. 980. H. ^ Am. 7G. Bab. 57. Lind. 40. 
Genus 3. Alth^a. 
A. OFFICINALIS. Marsh Mallow. Fig. 235. 

Leaves soft and downy, slightly 3-5-lobed. Peduncles many-flowered, 
shorter than the leaves. Marshes near the sea. 4-6 ft. Perenn. 
July-Sept. Pale rose-colour, (i) E. B. \. 147. E. B. 2. 981. 
H.^Arn.77. Bab. 58. Lind. 41. 

A. HiRSUTA. Hairy Marsh Mallow. Fig. 236. 

Lower leaves roundish, obtusely lobed, serrated ; upper ones acutely 

lobed, rough with hairs. Peduncles 1 -flowered, longer than the leaves. 

Fields in Kent. 4-6 ft. June and July. Rose-colour. {\) E. B. Supp. 

2674. E. B. 2. 981*. H. ^ Am. 77. Bab. 58. Lind. 320. 

Order XVI. TILIACEiE. 
Genus 1. Tilia. 

T. EUROPiEA. Lime. Linden-tree. Fig. 237. 

A tree. Leaves glabrous, obliquely heart-shaped, twice as long as the 
foot-stalks. Woods ; scarcely wild. July. Yellowish, (f) E.B.I. 
610. ^. i?.2. 763. H.^Arn.78. Bab. 58. Lind. 54. 

T. GRANDiFOLiA. Large-leavcd Lime. Fig. 238. 

A tree. Leaves downy beneath, longer than their foot-stalks. Flowers 
3 together. Woods ; not native. July. Yellowish, (f) JS". ^. 1. 2720. 
E. B. 2. 763*. //. ^Arn. 78. Bab. 59. Lind. 54. 

T. PARViFOLiA. Small-leaved Lime. Fig. 239. 

A tree. Leaves smooth above, glaucous beneath, about the length of 
the foot-stalks. Umbels many-flowered. Woods. June and July. 
Yellowish. (^) E.B. 1. 1705. E. B. 2. 764. H. ^ Am. 59. Bab. 
78. Lind. 55. 

Order XVII. HYPERICACEiE. 
Genus 1. Hypericum. 
H. CALYCINTJM. Large-flowered Tutsan. Fig. 240. 

Stem shrubby, square. Flowers very large, solitary. Bushy places ; 
naturalized? 1ft. Perenn. July-Sept. Brisht yellow. Q) E.B. 
1. 2017. E. B. 2. 1050. //. l^- Am. 79. Bub. 59. Lind. 41. 







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25 

H. ANDROS.EMUM. Tutson. Fig. 241. 

A shrub. Cai)sule berry-like, almost 1 -celled. Bushy ])lacos. 

2-3 ft. July and Aug. Yellow, (f) E.B.l. 1225. E. ii. 2. IU51. 
//. ^ Am. 79. Bab. 59. Lind. 43. 

H. QUADRANGULUM. Square-stalJced St. John's-wort. Fig. 242. 

Stem herbaceous, square, with sharp angles. Leaves with many 
pellucid dots. Sepals narrow. Bushy places ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. 
July and Aug. Light yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 3/0. E. B. 2. 1052. 
//. ^ Am. 80. Bab. 60. Lind. 42. 

H. PERFORATUM. Common St. John's-wort. Fig. 243. 

Stem 2-edged. Leaves with pellucid dots. Sepals narrow. Woods 
and hedge-banks ; common. 9 in.-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Bright yellow, dotted round the margin, (f) E. B. 1. 295. E. B. 
2. 1053. //. ^ Am. 80. Bab. 60. Lind. 42. 

H, DUBiuM. Fig. 244. 

Stem slightly square. Leaves without dots. Sepals broad. Hill 
woods ; not common. 9 in.-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Deep 
yellow, (f) E.B. 1.296. E.B.2.l0b4. H.^Am.80. Bab. GO. 
'Lind. 42. 

H. HUMiFUSUM. Trailing St. John^o-wort. Fig. 245. 

Stem slender, trailing close to the ground. Leaves thin, pale green, 
dotted, Sandy and peaty places ; common. 1-2 in. Perenn. June- 
Sept. Bright yellow; fruit red. E. B. 1. 1226. E. B. 2. 1055. 
H. ^ Am. 80. Bab. 60. Lind. 42. 

H. MONTANUM. IliU St. JohrHs-woH. Fig. 246. 

Stems erect, smooth. Leaves stem-clasping, dotted with black on the 
lower margin. Sepals with close black glandular serratures. Chalky or 
gravelly hills. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Pale yellow, (f) E. B. 
i.371. ^.i?. 2. 1056. H.^Am.81, Bab. 61, Lind. 42. 

H. BARBATUM. Bearded St. John's-wort. Fig. 247. 

Stem slightly angular. Leaves with black dots beneath. Sepals 
fringed with long glandular hairs. A doubtful native. 1 ft. Perenn. 
Sept. Bright yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 1986. E. B. 2. 1057. H. ^ 
Arn. 81. Bab. 61. Lind. 42. 

H. LiNARiFOLiUM. Narrow-leuved St. John's-wort. Fig. 248. 

Stem erect. Leaves linear. Sepals with many black dots and 
glandular serratures. Dry hills in Jersey and Devon. 6 in. Perenn. 
July and Aug. Yellow, (f) E. B. Supp. 2851. H. ^ Arn. 81. 
Bab. 61. 

H. HiRSUTUM. Hairy St. John's-wort. Fig. 249. 

Stem erect, round. Plant downy. Calyx with black glandular 
serratures. Dry woods on chalk. 1^-2 ft. Perenn. June and July. 
Golden yellow. (|) ^.^.1.1156. ^. 2?. 2. 1058. H.^Am.8l. 
Bab. 61. Lind. 42. 

H. PULCHRUM. Small St. John's-wort. Fig. 250. 

Stem erect, round. Leaves stem-clasping, smooth. Plant rather 
glaucous with a reddish tinge. Dry woods and heaths ; common. 
6 in,-l ft. Perenn. July. Deep yellow, tipped with red outside; 
anthers red. (^) E. B. 1. 1227. E. B. 2. 1059. H. ^ Arn. 81. 
Bab.6\. Lind. 42. 



26 

H. ELODES. Water St. John's-wort. Fig. 251. 

Stems erect, round, creeping below. Leaves roundish-ovate, stem- 
clasping. Plant shaggy with hairs. Bogs and peaty pools. G-!) in. 
Perenn. July and Aug. Pale yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 109. E. li. 
2. lUGO. U. ^ Arn. 82. Bab. 61. Lind. 42. 

Genus 2. Parnassia. 

P. PALUSTRis. Grass of Parnassus. Fig. 252. 

Hoot-leaves heart-shaped, with foot-stalks. Flowers solitary. Bogs. 
3-10 in. Perenn. Aug.-Oct. White, (i) E.B.\.ii2. E. B. 
2. 449. //. ^ Arn. 51. Bab. 40. Lind. 67. 

Order XVIII. ACERACE^. 

Genus 1. Acer. 

A. Pseudo-Platanus. Sycamore. Fig. 253. 

A tree. Leaves 5-lobed, unequally serrated. Flowers in drooping 

racemes. Wings of fruit slightly diverging. Woods and hedges; 

naturalized. Wood white and soft. I\Lay. Greenish yellow. {\) E. B. 

1. 303. E. B. 2. 562. H. ^ Arn. 82, Bab. 62. 'Lind. 55. 

A, CAMPESTRE. Maple. Fig. 254. 

A small tree. Leaves usually with 5 obtuse notched lobes. Flowers 
in erect, rather corymbose clusters. Wings of fruit diverging horizontally. 
Woods and hedges. Wood very hard. May and June. Greenish. (|) 
E.B.I. 304. E.B.2.063. H.^ Arn. 82. Bab. 62. Lind. 55. 

Order XIX. GERANIACEyE. 
Genus 1. Geranium. 

G. SANGT7INEUM. Crimson Crane's-bill. Fig, 255. 

Leaves opposite, roundish, very deeply 5- or 7-lobed ; lobes trifid. 
Stalks single-flowered. Flowers large. Limestone pastures. 9 in. 
Perenn. June and July. Crimson-purple, blue when fading. (^) 
E. B. 1. 272. E. B. 2. 977- H. ^ Arn. 83. Bab. 63. Lind. 58. " 

G. PH.EUM. Dusky Crane's-bill. Fig. 256.- 

Stalks 2-flowered. Leaves alternate, with acute serrated lobes. Woods ; 
rare. 1^ ft. Perenn. June. Blackish purple, rarely white. (^) 
E. B. 1.322. E. B. 2. 965. //. ^' Arn. 83. Bab. 63. Lind. 56. 

G. NODOSUM. Knotty Crane' s-bill. Fig. 257. 

Stems much swollen at the joints. Leaves opposite, 3-5-lobed, 
pointed. Fruit downy. Hertfordshire and Cumberland ; scarcely wild. 
1 ft. Perenn. May-Aug. Purple. {\) E. B. \. \0n. E. B. 

2. 966. H. ^ Arn. 83. Bab. 63. Lind. 56. 

G. SYLVATicuM. Wood Crane's-bUl. 'Fig. 258. 

Stalks 2-flowered. Fruit hairy, keeled. Leaves 5-7-lobed, cut and 
serrated. Woods and meadows. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June and July. 
Bluish purple with crimson veins, (i) E.B.\.\2\. E. B. 2. 967. 
H. ^ Arn. 83. Bab. 64. Lind. 56, 

G. PRATENSE. Meadow Crane's-bill. Fig. 259. 

Leaves with 5-7 pinnatifid lobes. Flowers large ; stamens dilated at 
the base. Moist pastures. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June and July. Purple-blue, 
(i) E.B.I. 404. E. B. 2. 968. H. i^ Arn. 84. Bab. 63. Li7id. 56. 

G. PYRENAicuM. Pyrenean Crane's-bill. Fig. 260. 

Leaves 3-7-lobed, kidney-shaped. Petals twice as long as the imIvx. 
Meadows ; local. 2-3 ft. Perenn. June and July. Lilac. (^) E. B. 
1. 405. E. B. 2. 969. //. ^- Arn. 84. Bab. 63. Lind. 57. 




.i^ff 



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27 

G. LuciDUM. Shining Crane' s-hill. Fig. 261. 

Sterns glossy, crimson. Leaves glossy, bright green, tipped with red, 
roundish, 5-lobed. Rocks and walls. 6 in. Ann. June-Sept. Rose- 
colour. (2) E.B.I. 75. E. B. 2. 970. //. ^ Am. 84. Bab. 64. 
Lind. 57. 

G. RoBERTiANUM. Herb Robert. Pig. 262. 

Leaves ternate, with pinnatifid leaflets, shining green. Stems straggling, 
usually tinged with crimson, hairy. Hedge-banks ; common. 1-1 i ft. 
Ann. May-Oct. Red with white streaks, (f) E. B. 1. 1486. 
E. B. 2. 971. //. ^ Am. 85. Bab. 65. Lind. 57. 

G. MOLLE. Soft Crane's-bill. Bove's-foot. Fig. 263. 

Leaves alternate, rounded, lobed, very downy. Petals notched. 
Dry pastures and waste ground ; very common. 3-6 in. Ann. April- 
Aug. Pale purple, (f) E.B.I, m. E.B.2.972. H.^Arn. 85. 
Bab. 64. Lind. 57. 

G. ROTUNDiFOLiuM. Round-leavcd Crane's-bill. Fig. 264. 

Leaves opposite, rounded, lobed, downy. Petals entire, the length of 
the calyx. Pastures and waste ground. 3-6 in. Ann. June and 
July. Pink, (f) E. B. \. \57. E. B. 2. 973. //. ^ Am. 85. 
Bab. 64. Lind. 57. 

G. PUSiLLUM. Small-flowered Crane" s-bill. Fig. 265. 

Leaves kidney-shaped, palmated, with trifid lobes. Petals notched. 
Waste ground ; very common. 3 in. Ann. May-Sept. Purple. 
(I) E.B.I. 385. E. B. 2. 974. H. ^Arn. 85. Bab. 64. Lind. 57. 

G. DissECTUM. Jagged Crane's-bill. Fig. 266. 

Leaves palmate, with linear trifid lobes. Flower-stalks shorter than 
the leaves. Waste ground ; common. 6 in. Ann. May and June. 
Deep pink. (|) E. B. \. 753. E. B. 2. 975. H. ^ Am. 85. 
Bab. 64. Lind. 57. 

G. COLUMBINUM. Long-stalked Crane's bill. Fig. 267. 

Leaves in 5 deeply lobed segments. Flower-stalks longer than the 
leaves. Fields and waysides ; not common. 9 in. Ann. June and 
July. Purplish pink. (|) E.B.I. 259. E. B. 2. 976. H. ^ 
Am. 85. Bab. 64. Lind. 58. 

Genus 2. Erodium, 

E. cicuTARiUM. Heron' s-bill. Fig. 268. 

Stems prostrate, hairy. Leaves pinnate, with pinnatifid lobes. Stalks 
many-flowered. Waste ground. 2-9 in. Ann. June-Sept. Pink, 
rarely white. (|) E. B. 1. 1768. E. B. 2. 962. S. ^ Am. 86. 
Bab. 65. Lind. 58. 

E. MoscHATUM. Mvshj Heron's-Ull. Fig. 269. 

Stems depressed, hairy. Leaves pinnate, with serrated lobes. Stalks 
many-flowered. Plant has a musk-like scent, Hillv pastures. 2-6 in. 
Ann. June and July. Pink. (|) E. B. 1. 902. ^. jB. 2. 963. 
H. ^ Am. 86. Bab.' 65. Lind. 58. 

E. MARiTiMUM. Sea Herons-bill. Fig. 270. 

Stems depressed, hairy. Leaves simple, oval, slightly lobed. Stalks 
few-flowered. Flowers verv small. Sandy shores ; not common. 3- 
6 in. Perenn. Mav-Oct*. Pale red. (f) E. B. 1. 646. E. B. 
2. 964. H. ^- Am. 86. Bab. 65. Lind. 58. 

£ 2 



28 

Order XX. BALSAMINACEiE. 
Genus 1. Impatiens. 

I. NoLT-ME-TANGERE. Yellow Balsam. Fig. 271. 

Spur loosely recurved. Watery shady places ; local. Violently diu- 
retic. 1-2 ft. Ann. July and Aug. Bright yellowwith orange spots, 
(i) E.B.\. 937. E. B. 2. 32/. //. ^ Am. 87. Bab. 67. Lind. fiO. 

I. FULVA. Taiony Balsam. Fig. 272. 

Spur closely recurved. Banks of the Wey, Surrey. 2-3 ft. Ann. 
July. Orange, spotted with red. (f) E.B. Supp. 2794. E. B. 2. 
327*. n.^ArH.87. Bab. 67. 

Order XXI. OXALIDACE^E. 
Genus 1. Oxalis. 

O. AcETOSELLA. JVood Sovvel. Shamrock. Fig. 273. 

Leaves springing from the root, ternate. Woods ; very common. 
Leaves very acid. 4 in. Perenn. April and May. White. (|) E. B. 
1. 762. E. B. 2. 661. H. ^ Am. 88. Bab'. 67. Lind. 59. 

O. coRNicuLATA. Ycllow Wood Sorrel. Fig. 274. 

Stems procumbent. Stalks 2-flo\vered. Moist places ; rare. 2-4 in. 
Ann. June-Oct. Yellow, (f) E.B.\.\726. E.B. 2. 662. 11. 
^^rn. 88. i?a6.68. Lind. bb. 

Order XXII. STAPHYLEACEiE. 
Genus 1. Staphylea. 
S. PINNATA. Bladder-nut. Fig. 275. 

A shrub with pinnate leaves and bladder-like fruit. A doubtful native. 
5-6 ft. May and June. Greenish yellow. (|) E. B.\. 15GU. 
E. B. 2. 446. H. ^ Am. 88. Bab. 68, Lind. 75. 

Order XXIII. CELASTRACEiE. 
Genus 1. Euonymus. 
E. EUROP^us. Spindle-tree. Fig. 276. 

A bush. Leaves opposite. Flowers 4-parted. Hedges; common. 
May. Greenish ; capsules crimson, with orange seeds, (f) E. B. 1. 
362. E. B. 2. 337. H. ^ Am. 91. Bab. 69. Lind. 74. 

Order XXIV. RHAMNACE/E. 
Genus 1. Rhamnus. 

R. CATHARTicrs. Buckthom, Fig. 277. 

A bush with spiny branches. Flowers 4-cleft, in dense clusters. 
Thickets. Berries purgative. May. Green ; berries black. {\) 
E. B. 1. 1629. E. B. 2. 335. H. ^ Am. 92. Bab. 69. Lind. 73. 

R. Frangula. Alder Buckthom. Fig. 278. 

A bush. Branches not spiny. Flowers in small clusters. Thickets. 
Berries purgative. May. Greenish white ; berries dark purple. (|) 
E.B.I. 250. E. B. 2. 336. H. §• Am. 92. Bab. 69. Lind. 62. 

Order XXV. LEGUMINOSiE. 

Genus 1. Ulex. 

IT. EUROP^us. Furze. Gorse. Whin. Fig. 279. 

An erect spiny shrub. Sepals ovate, with 2 ovate bracts. Commons 
ftnd thickets ; abundant. 3-6 ft. Dec-May. Golden yellow. (^) 
E. B. 1. 742. E. B. 2. 990. H. ^ Am. 94. Bab. 72. Lind. 77. 

U. NANUS. Btvarf Furze. Fig. 280. 

A spiny shrub, usually trailing. Sepals lanceolate, bracts minute. 
Heaths; abundant. 6 in.-2 ft. Aug.-Oct. Yellow. (|) E.B. 
1. 743. E. B. 2. 991. //. ^- Am. 95. Bab. 72. Lind. 77. 



if 




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^jfi". »S<?;j'!^/5j'. Jfic^i 



74 



29 

Genus 2. Genista. 

G. TiNCTORiA. Green-weed. Fig. 281. 

A little shrub. Leaves lanceolate, smooth. Flowers in erect racemes. 
Pastures and thickets. Bitter; yields a yellow dve. 1-2 ft. July and 
Aug. Bright yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 44. E. B. 2. 992. //. ^ 
Am. 95. Bab. 72. Lind. 77. 

G. PiLOSA. Hairy Green-weed. Fig. 282. 

Stem prostrate. Leaves lanceolate, silky beneath. Flowers axillary. 
Dry heaths. 6-9 in. May and Sept. Yellow. E. B. I. 20S. 
E. B. 2. 993. //. ^ Am. 96. Bab. 72. Lind. 77. 

G. ANGLiCA. Needle Green-weed. Petty Whin. Fig. 283. 

A low shrub. Branches spiny. Leaves ovato-lanceolate. Boggy 
heaths. 1-2 fc. May-July. Bright yellow, (f) E. B. \. 132. 
E. B. 2. 994. H. ^ Am. 96. Bab. 73. Lind. 77. 

Genus 3. Cytisus. 

C. ScoPARius. Broom. Fig. 284. 

A shrub with angular branches and small ternate leaves. "Woods and 
heaths; very common. Purgative and diuretic. 3-10 ft. May and 
June. Bright yellow, (i) E. B. 1. 1339. E. B. 2. 996. H. ^ 
Am. 96. Bab. 73. Lind. 77. 

Genus 4. Ononis. 

O. spiNOSA. Rest-Harrow. Fig. 285. 

Stem woody, spiny, nearly erect, slightly hairy. Sepals shorter than 
the pod. Heaths and dry commons ; abundant. 1 ft. Perenn. June- 
Sept. Rose-colour or white. (|) E. B. 1. 682. E. B. 2. 995. 
H. ^ Am. 96. Bab. 73. Lind. 78. 

O, PROCURRENS. Trailing Best-Harrow. Fig. 286. 

Stem rather woody, trailing, not spiny. Plant hairy all over. Sepals 
longer than the pod. Perhaps a variety of the last. Fields and way- 
sides, especially on chalk. 6 in. Perenn. June-Sept. Rose-colour 
or white. (|) E. B. Supp.2659. H.^Am.97. Bab. 73. Lind. 78. 

O. RECLiNATA. Small Best-Harrow. Fig. 287. 

Stem ascending, herbaceous. Plant hairy, viscid. Sepals shorter 
than the pods. Coast of Galloway and Channel Islands. 4-G in. 
Ann. July. Pink, (f) E. B.Supp. 2838. H.^Am.97. Bab. 73. 

Genus 5. Anthyllis. 

A. VULNERARIA. Kiduey-vetch. Wound-wort. Fig. 288. 

Very hairy. Leaves pinnate. Flower-heads in pairs. Dry pastures. 
6 in.-l ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Yellow, rarelv red or white. (2) 
E. B. 1. 104. E. B. 2. 997. H. ^ Am. 97. JBab. 80. Litid. 78. 

Genus 6. Medicago. 

M. FALCATA. Sickle Medick. Fig. 289, 

Stems procumbent. Leaflets narrow-obovate. Flowers in erect racemes. 

Pods sickle-shaped. Fields. 1 ft. Perenn. June and July. Pale 

yellow. (I) E.B.I. 1016. E. B. 2. 1047. H. ^ Am. 98. Bab. 74. 

Lind. 82. 

M. SATiVA. Lucerne. Purple Medick. Fig. 290. 

Stems erect. Leaflets oblong, toothed. Pods loosely spiral. Fields ; 
not native. Cultivated for fodder. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June and July. 
Purple, streaked with white and green. (|) E. B. 1. 1749. E. B. 
2. 1046. //. ^- Am. 98. Bab. 74. Lind. 82. 



30 

M, LUPULiNA. Black Medick. Nonsuch. Pig. 291. 

Stems procumbent. Leaflets obovate. Pods kidney-shaped, rugged, 
one-seeded. Flowers in close ovate sj)ikes. Fields ; common. Cultivated 
for fodder. G in.- 1 ft. Ann. J\Iay-Sept. Yellow, (f) E. li. 
1.971. E.B.2.\{)AS. II.^Arn.98. Bab. 74. Lind.83. 

M. MACULATA. Spotted Medick. Fig. 292. 

Stems spreading. Leaflets obcordate. Pods colled like a snail-shell, 
with long curved sj)ines. Stalks few-flowered. Fields ; common. 
4-8 in. Ann. May and June. Yellow, (f) ^.i?. 1.1616. E. B. 
2.1049. n.^ Am. 98. Bab. 74. Lind. Hd. 

M. DENTTCULATA. Reticulated Medick. Fig. 293. 

Stipules toothed. Pods spiral, flat, with spines. A variety of maculata. 
Sandy places. 4-8 in. Ann. April-July. Yellow, (f ) E. B. 
Supp. 2634. E. B. 2. 1049**. //. <^ Am. 59. Bab. 75. Lind.324. 

M. MINIMA. Little Medick. Fig. 294. 

Hairy. Stipules nearly entire. Pods closely spiral, subglobose, spiny. 
A variety of maculata. Waste places ; rare. 2-6 in. Ann. June 
and July. Yellow, (f) E. B. Supp. 2635. E. B. 2. 1049*. H. ^ 
Am. 98. Bab. 74. Lind. 83. 

Genus 7. Melilotus. 

M. OFFICINALIS. Yelloiv Melilot. Fig. 295. 

Stems erect. Petals nearly equal. Fields and waysides. Cultivated 
for fodder. 2-3 ft. Ann. June and July. Yellow. (^) E. B. 
1. 1340. E. B. 2. 1026. H. ^ Am. 99. Bab. 75. Lind. 79. 

M. LEUCANTHA. White Melilot. Fig. 296. 

Stems erect. Vexillum longer than the keel and wingis. A variety 
of o^cinal is 1 Sandy fields. 2 ft. Ann. Julv. White, (f) E.B. 
1.2689. £".^.2.1026. II. ^' Am. 99. Bab. 75. Lind.324. 

Genus 8. Trifolium. 

T. ORNiTHOPODioiDES. Bird' s-foot Clover. Fig. 297. 

Stems spreading. Stalks 2- or 3-flowered. Pod 3-seeded, twice as 
long as the calyx. Heaths. 2-4 in. Ann. July. Pink, (f) 
E.B.I. 1047. E. B. 2. 1027. H. ^ Am. 100. Bab. 78. Lind. 82. 

T. REPENS. White Clover. Dutch Clover. Trefoil. Fig. 298. 

Stems creeping. Leaflets obcordate or obovate, usually with a dark 
spot at the base, bordered by a light line. Flowers in close round heads 
on long stalks. Legumes covered by the calyx, 4-seeded. Pastures; 
abundant. Grown for fodder. 2-9 in. Perenn. May-Sept. White, 
(f) E. B. 1. 1769. E. B. 2. 1028. II. ^ Am. 100. Bab. 78. 
Lind. 79. 

T. suBTERRANEUM. Subtcrrancous Trefoil. Fig. 299. 

Heads 3- or 4-flowered, with short palmated fibres growing from the 
apex of the stalk and covering the pods, which, when ripe, are often 
buried in the ground. Fields. 3 in. Ann. May. White. (-|) 
E.B.I. 1048. E. B. 2. 1029. H. ^ Am. 103. Bab. 77. Lind. 80. 

T. OCHROLEUCUM. Sulphur-coloured Clover. Fig. 300. 

Stems ascending, downy. Leaflets obcordate. Pastures. 1-1^ ft. 
Perenn. July and Aug. Cream-colour. (|) E.B.l.\22i. E.B. 
2. 1030. //. ,^- Am. 101. Bab. 76. Lind. 80. 




^■9& 



l.Oct^ 1858. 



■-'■-E. S ower^y . J^gr^ 



15 



31 

T. PRATENSE. Bed Clover. Red Trefoil. Fig. 301. 

Stems ascending, hairy. Leaflets elliptic, pointed. Lower tooth of 
the calyx the longest. Pastures. Cultivated lor fodder. 1ft. Perenn, 
May-Sept. Reddish purple, (f) E. B. \. 1/70. E. iJ. 2. 1031. 
H. ^ Am. 101. Bab. 75. Lind. 80. 

T. MEDIUM. Purple Clover. ^ Fig. 302. 

Stems branched, zigzag, hairy. Leaflets elliptic, pointed. Two lower 
teeth of the calyx equal in length. Pastures. Cultivated for fodder. 
1-lift. Perenn. July. Deep purple, (f) ^. iJ. 1. 190. E. B. 
2.1032. H.^Am.lQl. Bab.76. Lind.80. 

T. MARiTiMUM. Teasle-headed Trefoil. Fig. 303. 

Stems ascending. Leaflets oblong. Calyx-teeth enlarging after 
flowering. Salt marshes. 6-8 in. Ann. June and July. Pale 
purple, (f) ^.iJ. 1.220. ^.5.2.1033. E.^Arn.lOl. Bab. 77. 
Lind. 80. 

T. STELLATUM. Starry-headed Trefoil. Fig. 304. 

Stems spreading. Leaflets obcordate. Calyx-teeth very long. Shore- 
ham, Sussex. 6-8 in. Ann. July and Aug. Rose-colour ; calyx with 
a red circle at the base, (f) E.^B. 1. 1545. E. B. 2. 1034. //. cj- 
Am. 102. Bab. 76. Lind. 80. 

T. ARVENSE. Hare's-foot Trefoil. Fig. 305. 

Stems erect, branched. Head cylindrical, hairy. Calyx-teeth long, 
bristly. Corolla very small. Dry fields. 6 in.- 1 ft. Ann. July and 
Aug. Pale purple, (f) E.B.I. 944. E. B. 2. 1035. //. ^- Am. 102. 
Bab. 76. Lind. 76. 

T. scABRUM. Rovffh Trefoil. Fig. 306. 

Stems procumbent, hairy. Leaflets obcordate. Heads sessile, ovate. 
Calyx-tube cyUndrical when in fruit. Dry fields. 4-6 in. Ann. June. 
Pale pink. (|) E. B. 1. 903. E.'B. 2. 1036. H. ^ Am. 102. 
Bab. 77. Lind. 80. 

T. GLOMERATUM. Round-headed Trefoil. Fig. 307. 

Stems prostrate, smooth. Heads of flower globose, sessile. Dry 
pastures. 4-6 in. Ann. July. Pale purple, (f) E. B. 1. 1063. 
E. B. 2. 1037. H. ^ Am. 103. Bab. 78. Li7id. 81. 

T. STRIATUM. Knotted Trefoil. Fig. 308. 

Downy. Stems ascending. Heads ovate, sessile. Calyx rather 
swollen when in fruit, striated. Sandy fields. 3-5 in. Ann. June. 
Pink, (f) E.B.I. 1843. E.B.2.103S. H.^ Am. 102. Bab. 76. 
Lind. 82. 

T. SUFFOCATUM. Sand Trefoil. Fig. 309. 

Stems spreading. Heads roundish, sessile. Petals shorter than the 
calyx. Sea-shore, in loose sand. 1 in. Ann. July. White or 
pinkish, (f) E. B. \. 1049. E. B. 2. 1039. H. Sf Am. 103. 
Bab. 78. Lind. 79. 

T. FRAGiFERUM. Straivhemj Trefoil. Fig. 310. 

Stems creeping. Heads globose, on long stalks. Calyx much inflated 
when in fruit, with the 2 upper teeth longest. Moist pastures. 3-6 in. 
Perenn. July. Pink ; calyces reddish, (f) E. B. \. \ObO. E. B. 
2.1040. H.^Arn.lQA. Bab. 78. Lind'. bl. 



32 

T. RESUPiNATUM. Reversed IWfoil. Fig. 311. 

Stem prostrate. Corolla with the vexilhim curved downwards. Heads 
globose, on foot-stalks. Sea-coast ; not native. 4 in. Ann. July. 
Pink. (I) E. D. Supp. 2769. E. B. 1. 1010. //. ij- Am. 101. 
Lab. 79. Lind. 324. 

T. PROCUMBENS. IIop Trefoil. Fig. 312. 

Stem procumbent or erect. Ueads ovate, many-flowered. Vexillum 
persistent. Dry fields; common. 4-8 in. Ann. June and Julv. 
Yellow, changing to brown, (f) £". U. 1. 945. ^. jB. 2. 1041. 
H.^Am.lQA. Bah. 7^. Lind.Sl. 

T. MINUS. Lesser Yellow Trefoil. Fig. 313. 

Stems procumbent. Heads few-flowered. Dry pastures. 4-9 in. 
Ann. June and Julv, Yellow. (|) ^.J5. 1.1256. i?. ^. 2. 1042. 
H.^Arn.lOb. Bab. 79. Lind. SI. 

T. FiLiFORME. Slender Trefoil. Fig. 314. 

Stems procumbent. Flowers few together in lax racemes. Foot-stalks 
very slender. A variety of »iirt?/s. Dry pastures. 2-6 in. Ann. July. 
Yellow, (f) ^.5.1.1257. ^.jB.2. 1042*. 11.^ Am. 105. Bab.70. 
Lind. 81. 

Genus 9. Lotus. 

L. coRNicuLATUS. Bird's-foot Trefoil. Fig. 315. 

Stems recumbent, pithy. Heads depressed, few-flowered. Claw of 
the vexillum dilated. Dry pastures .and heaths ; common. 2-8 in. 
Perenn. June-Sept. Bright yellow ; buds red. (^) E. B. 1. 2090. 
E. B. 2. 1043. H. ^ Am. 105. Bab. 79. Lind. 81. 

L. TENUIS. Slender Bird^s-foot Trefoil. Fig. 316. 

Stems prostrate, slender, nearly solid. Leaflets lanceolate. A variety 
of comiculatusl Pastures. 4-8 in. Perenn. July. Yellow. (#) 
E.B.Supp.2Q\5. J^.iJ. 1. 1043*. Il.Sr Arn.lQo. Bab.80. Lind. 82. 

L. MAJOR. Great Bird's-foot Trefoil. Fig. 317. 

Stems erect, tubular. Hairy. Heads many-flowered. Claw of the 
vexillum narrow. Bushy places. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. 
Yellow. (^) E. B. 1. 2091. E. B. 2. 1044. //. ^ Am. lOG. 
Bab. 80. Lind. 82. 

L. ANGUSTissiMUS. Little Bird's-foot Trefoil. Fig. 318. 

Hairy, Stems prostrate, slender. Flowers in pairs or solitary. Pods 
very long and slender. Southern coast ; rare. 8 in. Ann. June. 
Yellow. (4) E. B. 1. 925. E. B. 2. 1045. H. ^ Am. 106. 
Bab. 80. Lind. 82. 

L. HISPIDUS. Jlairy Bird's-foot Trefoil. Fig. 319. 

Very hairy. Stems prostrate. Flowers 3 or 4 together. Probably a 

variety of angustissimus. Southern coast. 4-8 in. Ann. June and 

July. Yellow, (f) E. B. Supp. 2823. IL^ Am. 106. Bab.80. 

Genus 10. Oxytropis. 

O. URALENSIS. Fig. 320. 

Leaves tufted, silky. Heads few-flowered. Dry mountain pastures in 
Scotland. 2-6 in. Perenn. June and Julv. Purple. (^) E. B, 
1. 466. E. B. 2. 1024. IL ^ Am. 107. Bab. 80, Lind'. 79. 



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33 

O. CAMPESTRIS. Fig. 321. 

Leaves tufted, rather silky. Heads many-flowered. Clova Mountains, 
Angus. 2-4 in. Perenn. July. Pale yellow, wings purplish. (|-) 
E. B. 1. 2522. E. B. 2. 1025. //. ^ Am. 107. Bab. 81. Lind. id. 

Genus 11. Astragalus. 

A. GLYCYPHYLLOS. MUk-Vetch. Fig. 322. 

Stem prostrate. Pods curved. Flowers in spikes. "Woods and dry 
fields. Leaves have a sweetish taste. 6 in.-2 ft. Perenn. July. 
Dh.gy yellow. (|) E.B.I. 203. E. B. 2. 1022. H. ^ Am. 107. 
Bab.Ql. Lind.7S. 

A. HYPOGLOTTis. Piirple Milk-Vetch. Fig. 323. 

Stem prostrate. Pods ovate. Flowers in round heads. Dry alpine 
pastures. 2-6 in. Perenn. July. Purple, (f) E. B. I. 274. 
E. B. 2. 1023. H. ^ Am. 108. Bab. 81. Lind. 78. 

A. ALPiNUS. Mountain Milk-Vetch. Fig. 324. 

Stem ascending. Pods elliptical, clothed with black hairs. Flowers 
in scanty racemes. Clova Mountains, Angus. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. 
July. White, tinged with purple, (f) E. B. Supp. 2717. E. B. 
2.1023*. H.^Am.XQQ. Bab. 81. Lind. 323. 
Genus 12. Ornithopus. 

O. PERPUSiLLUs. Bird's-foot. Fig. 325. 

Stems spreading. Pods jointed, compressed, curved. Foot-stalks 
with a bract at the apex. Dry pastures ; common. 2-6 in. Ann. 
June. White streaked with red, keel green. (^) E. B. 1. 369. 
E. 5. 2. 1019. H.^ Am. 108. Bab. 86. Lind. 87. 

O. EBRACTEATUS. Joint-Vetch. Fig. 326. 

Stems prostrate. Pods jointed, cylindrical, curved. Foot-stalks 
without bracts. Channel Islands and Scilly. Ann. July and Aug. 
2-4 in. Yellow, (f) E.B.Supp.28U. H.^ Am. 108. Bab. 86, 
Lind. 324. 

Genus 13. Hippocrepis. 

H. COMOSA. Horse-shoe Vetch. Fig. 327. 

Flowers in umbels. Pods jointed ; the joints curved like a horse- 
shoe. Chalky hills. 4-6 in. Perenn. May-Aug. Yellow, (f) 
E. B. I. 31. E. B. 2. 1020. E. ^ Am. 109. Bab. 86. Lind. 88. 

Genus 14. Onobrychis. 

O. SATIVA. Saintfoin. Fig. 328. 

Stems elongated. Pods one-seeded. Plant hairy. Chalk hills. 
Cultivated for fodder. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June and July. Crimson 
and white, (f) E. B. 1. 96. E. B. 2. 1021. H. ^ Am. 109. 
Bab. 87. Lind. 88. 

Genus 15. Vicia. 

V. sylvatica. Wood Vetch. Fig. 329. 

Stems climbing. Leaflets oval. Stipules deeply toothed at the base. 
Flowers in racemes. Woods and hedges. 5-6 ft. Perenn. July. 
White with blue streaks. (|) E. B. 1. 79. E. B. 2. 1008. H. ^ 
Am. 112. Bab. 82. Lind. 84. 

V. Cracca. Tufted Vetch. Fig. 330. 

Stem slender, climbing. Leaflets lanceolate. Stipules entire. Flowers 
in close racemes. Hedges; very common. 3-5 ft. Perenn. July 
and Aug. Purplish blue. (|) £'.^. 1.1168. E.B. 2. 1009. H.^ 
Am. 112. Bab. 83. Lind. 84. 



34 

V. SATivA. Vetch. Tare. Fig. 331. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong. Flowers sessile, axillary, usually in pairs. 
Fields ; a doubtful native. Cultivated for fodder. 1-2 ft. Ann. June. 
Purple, (f) E.B.\.ZU. £.5.2.1010. //.^^;-». 110. Bah.U. 
Lind. 84. 

V. ANGUSTIFOLIA. Fig. 332. 

Upper leaves lanceolate, lower linear. Flowers usually solitary. A 
variety of sativa. Fields. Ann. June. Deep purple. (^) E. B. 
Supp.2G\4. E.B. 2.1010*. H.^Arn.llO. Bab.S4. Lind. 324. 

V. BoBARTii. Fig. 333. 

Upper leaflets linear, lower obcordate. Flowers usually solitary. A 
rariety of sativa. Fields. Ann. June and July. Purple, (f) 
E. B. Supp. 2708. E. B. 2. 1010**. H. ^ Am. 110. Bab. 84. 
Lind. 84. 

V. LATHYROiDES. Spring Fetch. Fig. 334, 

Stems procumbent. Leaflets obcordate. Tendrils very short. Flowers 
solitary. Fields and waysides. 4-5 in. Ann. April and May. Purple 
or white. (|) E.B.I. 30. £. -B. 2. 101 1. H.^ Am. 1 10. Bab. 84. 
Lind. 84. 

V. LUTEA. Yellow Vetch. Fig. 335. 

Stems spreading. Leaflets elliptic-lanceolate. Flowers solitary, vex- 
illum smooth. Sea-coast. 4 in. -2 ft. Perenn. June and July. 
Pale yellow, tinged with purple. (|) E. B. 1.481. E. B. 2. 1012. 
H. ^ Am. 111. Bab. 84. Lind. 85. 

V. HYBRiDA. Hairy-Cowered Vetch. Fig. 336. 

Stems ascending. Leaflets obcordate or ohovate. Vexillum hairy. 
Glastonbury Tor, Somersetshire, and near Lincoln. 1-2 ft. Perenn. 
June and July. Yellow with purple veins, (f) E.B.I. 482. E. B. 
2. 1013. H. ^ Am. 111. Bab. 83. Lind. Sb. 

V. LJEViGATA. Smooth-podded Vetch. Fig. 337. 

Stems ascending. Plant smooth. Flowers solitary. Pods smooth. 
Beach at Weymouth. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. July-Sept. Pale purple 
or whitish, (f) £.5.1.483. £.5.2.1014. H. ^ Arn. WO. 
Bab. 83. Lind. 85. 

V. SEPTUM. Bush Vetch. Fig. 338. 

Stems cUmbing. Leaflets ovate. Flowers in short clusters. Pods 
smooth. Thickets ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May-July. Purple. 
(I) E.B. 1. 1515. E. B. 2. 1015. H. ^ Arn. 110. Bab. 83. 
Lind. 85. 

V. BITHYNICA. Fig. 339. 

Stems climbing. Upper leaflets very long, linear-lanceolate, lower 
elliptic-lanceolate. Flowers solitary, on long stalks. Bushy places ; 
rare. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Purple, keel and wings 
whitish, (f) E. B. 1. 1842. E. B. 2. 1046. H. ^ Arn. 111. 
Bab. 83. Lind. 85. 

Genus 16. Ervum. 

E. TETRASPERMUM. Tine-Tare. Fig. 340. 

Stems very slender, climbing. Flowers mostly in pairs. Pods smooth, 
4 -seeded. Corn-fields and thickets. 1-2 ft. Ann. June and July. 
Pale purple, (f) E. B. 1. 1223. E. B. 2. 1017. H. ^ Arn. 112. 
Bab. 82. Lind. 83. 







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J7 



35 

E. HiRSUTUM. Hairy Tine-Tare. Fig. 341. 

Stems very slender, climbing. Flowers several together. Pods 
hairy, 2 seeded. Corn-fields and thickets. 2-3 ft. Ann. June and 
July. Bluish white, (f) E.B.I. 970. E.B.2.\Q\S. II.^Arn.113. 
Bab. 81. Lind. 83. 

Genus 17. Lathyrus. 

L. Aphaca. Yellow Vetchling. Pig. 342. 

Leaves usually absent. Stipules very large and leaf-like, sagittate, 
glaucous. Fields ; rare. Seeds poisonous. 1-2 ft. Ann. June- 
Aug. Yellow, (f) E.B. 1. 1167. E. B. 2. 1000. H. ^ Am. 113. 
Bab. 84. Lind. 8'6. 

L. NissoLiA. Crimson Vetchling. Fig. 343. 

Stem erect. Leaves simple, linear-lanceolate, without tendrils. 

Stipules minute. Pods very long. Woods and banks. 2 ft. Ann. 

May and June. Crimson, (f) E. B. 1. 112. E. B. 2. 1001. 

H. ^ Am. 113. Bab. 85. Lind. 86. 

L. HIRSUTUS. Rough-podded Vetchling. Fig. 344. 

Stems spreading, winged, hairy. Tendrils with 2 leaflets. Pods 
oblong, hairy. Fields ; rare. 1-2 ft, Ann. July. Pale purple, 
vexillum crimson. (|) E. B. 1. 1255. E. B. 2. 1002. H. ^ Am. 1 13. 
Bab. 85. Lind. 86. 

L, PRATENSis. Meadow Vetchling, Fig. 345. 

Stems angular, climbing. Tendrils with 2 leaflets. Stipules large, 
arrow-shaped. Meadows and bushy places. 6in.-3ft. Perenn. July 
and Aug. Yellow, (f) E.B.l.QlQ. E.B. 2. 1003. H.^Am.lU. 
Bab. 85. Lind. 86. 

L. SYLVESTRis. Narrow-leavcd Everlasting Pea. Fig, 346. 

Stem winged, climbing. Leaflets 3-ribbed, linear-lanceolate. Thickets. 
3-6 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Greenish and purple. (|-) E. B. 
1. 805. E. B. 2. 1004. H. ^ Am. 114. Bab. 85. Lind. 85. 

L. LATiFOLius. Everlasting Pea. Fig. 347. 

Stem winged, climbing. Leaflets elliptical, broad. Woods and thickets; 
naturalized? 4-8 ft. Perenn, July and Aug. Rose-colour. (|) E.B. 
1. 1108. E. B. 2. 1005. H. ^ Am. 114. Bab. 85. Lind. 85. 

L. PALUSTRis. Marsh Vetchling. Fig. 348. 

Stem winged, climbing. Tendrils with 2-4 pairs of leaflets. Meadows 
and bog2;y woods. 2-4 ft. Perenn. June-Sept. Purplish blue. (■^) 
E. B. 1.169. E. B. 2, 1006. H. ^ Am. 114. Bab. 85. Lind. 86. 

Genus 18. Pisum. 

P. MARiTiMUM. Sea-side Pea. Pig. 349. 

Stem angular, procumbent. Leaflets numerous, alternate. Glaucous. 
Sea-coast. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Purple with crimson 
veins, (i) E.B.I. \OAQ. E.B.2.\007. H.^Arn. 114. Bab.85. 
Lind. 84. 

Genus 19. Orobus. 

O. TUBEROsus. Bitter Vetch. Fig. 350. 

Stem simple, erect. Stipules half-arrow-shaped, toothed at the 
base. Woods and thickets ; common. Tuberous roots edible. 6 in.- 
1 ft. Perenn. May-July. Purple ; blue when fading, (f ) E. B, 
1. 1153. E. B. 2. 998. H. ^ Am. 115. Bab. 86. Lind. 87. 

V 2 



36 

O. NIGER. Black Bitter Vetch. Pig. 351. 

Stem branched, erect. Stipules linear-lanceolate. Rocks in the 
Highlands. 1-1^ ft. Perenn. June and July. Crimson and purple, 
(f) E. B. Supp. 2788. E. B. 2. 998*. H. S^ Am. 115. Bab. 86. 
Lind. 87. 

O. SYLVATicus. Wood Bitter Vetch. Fig. 352. 

Stem branched, hairy, decumbent. Stipules half-arrow-shaped. 
Leaves hairy, with many leaflets. Mountain woods. 1-2 ft. Perenn. 
May and June. Whitish with purple streaks. (4) j&. JS. 1. 518. 
£. !b. 2. 999. H.^Arn.\\2. Bab. 82. Lind.'S?. 

Order XXVI. ROSACEiE. 
Genus 1. PnuNUs. 

P. DOMESTiCA. Wild Plum. Fig. 353. 

A small tree. Branches without thorns. Peduncles solitary or in 
pairs. Woods and hedges ; scarcely wild. The origin of the garden 
Plums. May. White; fruit purple or black, with bloom. (^) E. B. 
1.1783. E.B. 2. 090. H. ^ Am. 117. Bab. 89. Lind. 90. 

P. iNSiTiTiA. Wild Bullace. ^ Fig. 354. 

A small tree. Branches terminating in a spine. Peduncles mostly 
in pairs. Leaves downy beneath. Thickets and hedges. Fruit austere. 
The origin of the Bullace Plum. April. White ; fruit black, with 
bloom, (i) ^.^.1.841. E.B.2.(J9\. H.^Arn.117. Bab.89. 
Lind. 90. 

P. spiNOSA. Sloe. Blackthorn. ^ Fig. 355. 

A bush. Branches ending in a spine. Peduncles solitary. Thickets 
and hedges ; very common. Leaves poisonous ; fruit very austere. 
March and April. White ; fruit black, with bloom, (f ) E.B. 1. 842. 
E. B. 2. 692. H. ^- Am. 1 1 7. Bab. 89. Lind. 90. 

P. Padus. Bird Cherry. Fig. 356. 

A small tree. Flowers in long racemes. Woods and hedges. Fruit 
bitter. May. White ; fruit black, without bloom. (f ) E. B. 
1. 1383. E. B. 2. 688. //. ^ Am. 118. Bab. 90. Lind. 90. 

P. Avium. Wild Cherry. ^ Fig. 357. 

A tree. Flowers in lax umbels. Sepals rather pointed. Leaves 
drooping, downy beneath. Woods and hedges. The origin of the 
garden Cherry. May. White ; fruit black or red, without bloom. {^) 
E.B.I. 706. E. B. 2. 689. H. ^ Am. 118. Bab. 90. Lind. 90. 

P. Cerasus. Morello Cherry. Fig. 358. 

A bush. Flowers in spreading umbels. Sepals blunt and rounded. 
Leaves glabrous, not drooping. Woods. Fruit acid. May. White ; 
fruit red. (J) E.B. Supp. 28(iZ. H.^ Am. U8. Bab.90. Lind. 325. 

Genus 2. Spiraea. 

S. sALiciFOLiA. Willow-leaved Bropwort. Fig. 359. 

A shrub. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate. Flowers in terminal racemes. 
Mountain woods. 3-4 ft. July and Aug. Rose-colour, (f ) E. B. 
1. 284. E. B. 2. 702. R. ^ Am. 119. Bab. 90. Lind. 89. 

S. FiLiPENDULA. Common Dropwort. Fig. 360. 

Herbaceous. Leaves interruptedly pinnated. Flowers in a cyniose 
panicle. Pastures on chalk or limestone. 1 ft. Perenn. Julv. 
White or pinkish, (f ) E.B.I, 284. E. B. 2. 703. H. ^ Am. 1 19. 
Bab. 90. Lind. 89.* 



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37 

S. Ulmarta. Meadow-sweet. ^ Fig. 361. 

Herbaceous. Leaves interruptedly pinnate, the terminal leaflet large 
and lobed. Flowers in proliferous cymes. Meadows ; common. 2- 
4 ft. Perenn. June and July. Yellowish white, (f) £.£.1.960. 
E. B. 2. 704. U. ^ Arn. 119. Bab. 90. Lind. 89. 
Genus 3. Dryas. 

D. OCTOPETALA. Mountain Avens. Fig. 362. 

Stem woody, creeping. Leaves oblong, crenated, downy beneath. 
Petals 8. Mountain pastures. 6 in. Perenn. June and July. 
White, stamens yellow. (|) E.B.\.Ab\, E. B. 2. 745. H. ^ 
Arn.U9. Bab. 109. Lind. 99. 

Genus 4. Geum. 

G. URBANUM. Common Avens. Fig. 363. 

Root-leaves lyrato-pinnate. Flowers erect. Styles naked. Woods 
and hedge-banks. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Yellow, (f) 
E. B. 1. 1400. E. B. 2. 742. H.^Arn. 120. Bab. 109. Lind. 98. 

G. rivale. Water Avens. Fig. 364. 

Root-leaves lyrate or pinnate. Flowers drooping. Styles hairy. 
Marshes and river-banks. 1 ft. Perenn. June and July. Dull 
purplish red. (f) E. B, \. \QQ, E. B. 2. 743. H. ^ Arn. 120. 
Bab. 109. Lind. 98. 

Genus 5. Rubus. 

R. iD^us. Baspherry. Fig. 365. 

Stems biennial, woody, erect, round, downy, with straight prickles. 
Leaves pinnate, of 3 or 5 leaflets, white and cottony beneath. Mountain 
woods. Fruit edible. 4 ft. June. Greenish white ; fruit red. (f) 
E. B. 1. 2442. E. B. 2. 719. H.^Arn. 123. Bab. 95. Lind. 92. 

R. SUBERECTUS. Red-fruited Bramble. Fig. 366. 

Stems biennial, woody, round, nearly erect, with few prickles. Leaves 
digitate or pinnate, not white beneath. Moist thickets and commons. 
Fruit edible. 3-4 ft. June-Aug. White ; fruit red. (f ) E. B. 

1. 2572. E. B. 2. 720. H. ^ Arn. 124. Bab. 96. Lind. 92. 

R. PLicATUs. Fig. 367. 

Stems biennial, woody, nearly erect, not rooting, somewhat angular, 
with curved prickles. Leaves digitate, with 5 stalked cordato-ovate 
leaflets. A variety of fruticosust 3 ft. July and Aug. White or 
pinkish ; fruit black, (f) E. B.Supp.27U, E.B.2,720*. H.^ 
Arn. 124. Bab. 96. Lind. 92. 

R. CARPINIFOLIUS. Fig. 368. 

Stems decumbent, somewhat angular, with curved prickles. Leaves 
digitate, with 5 stalked ovate pointed leaflets. Panicle compact, hairy. 
A variety of fruticosus. July and Aug. Deep pink. (|) E. B. 
iSwijp. 2664. E.B.2.72\*ter, H.^Am,\2b, Bab. 99. Lind. 93. 

R. RHAMNIFOLIUS. ^ Fig. 369. 

Stems arched, somewhat angular, with straight prickles. Leaves 
digitate, with 5 stalked somewhat cordate leaflets. Panicle spreading. 
A variety offruticosus. July and Aug. Pinkish, (f ) E. B. Supp. 
2604. £".£.2.721*. H.^Arn.\2A. Bab. 98. Lind. 94. 

R. FRUTicosus. Bramble. Blackberry. Fig. 370. 

Stems biennial, woody, arched or procumbent, often rooting, angular, 
with prickles only at the angles. Leaves digitate, usually with 5 leaf- 
lets. Calyx reflexed from the fruit. Its varieties are endless. Fruit 
edible. Thickets and commons ; abundant. 2-6 ft. July and Aug. 
Pink or white ; fruit black when ripe, (f) E. B. 1. 715. E. B. 

2. 721. H. ^ Arn. 121. Bab. 96-107. Lind. 92-95. 



38 

R. LEUCOSTACHYS. Pig. 371. 

Stems arched, angular and furrowed, hairy. Prickles straight. Leaves 
with 3 or 5 stalked, somewhat cordate, coriaceous leaflets, white beneath. 
Panicle elongated and slender, hairy. A variety of /rw^zco^M*. July 
and Aug. Deep pink, (f) E. B. Supp. 2631. E. B. 2. 721* bis. 
H.^Arn.l26. Bab. 99. Lind.9o. 

R. MACROPHYLLUS. Fig. 372. 

Prickles very few and small, equal. Leaves large, with 3-5 stalked 
elliptical leaflets. A variety of //'m^/co^m*. July and Aug. Greenish 
white. (I) E. B. Supp. 2G25. E. B. 2. 721 * quar. H. ^ Am. 124 
Bab. 101. Lind. 93. 

R. KoHLERi. Pig. 373. 

Stems decurved. Prickles numerous, unequal. Leaves with 5 stalked 
ovate or elliptical leaflets. Panicles much divided, long, rigid, naked 
at the end. A variety offruticosus. July and Aug. Pale pink. (^) 
E. B. Supp. 2605. E. B. 2. 723*. if. ^ Am. 128. Bab. 103. Lind. 93. 

R. CORYLIFOLIUS. Pig. 374. 

Stem decurved, roundish. Prickles unequal, scattered. Leaves with 
5 ovate leaflets, the outer ones sessile. Calyx spreading or reflexed. 
A variety of /ruticosus or ccBsius ? July and Aug. White ; fruit black, 
large-grained, (f) i?. JB. 1. 827. E. B. 2. 723. H.^ Am. 122. 
Bab. 106. Lind. 93. 

R. C.ESIUS. Dewberry. Fig. 375. 

Stems biennial, woody, trailing, angular, glaucous. Prickles straight, 
unequal, passing into setae. Leaves mostly with 3 leaflets, the lateral 
ones sessile. Calyx embracing the fruit. Fruit large-grained. Varieties 
numerous. Heaths and banks. 1-3 ft. June and July. White or 
pale pink ; fruit black, with a glaucous bloom. (4) E. B. 1. 826. 
E. B. 2. 722. H. ^ Am. 122. Bab. 107- Lind. 94. 

R. SAXATiLis. Stone Bramble. Fig. 376. 

Stems nearly herbaceous, creeping ; flowering branches erect. Leaves 
ternate. Panicle cymose. Rocky woods. Fruit edible. 6-10 in. 
June. Greenish white ; fruit red. (|) E.B. 1.2233. E.B.2.724. 
H. ^ Am. 122. Bab. 107. Lind. 95. 

R. ARCTicus. Arctic Bramble. Fig. 377. 

Stems erect, rather woody, very slender, without prickles, generally 
one-flowered. Leaves ternate. Mountain moors ; very r<are. Fruit 
edible. 4-6 in. June. Deep rose-colour ; fruit red. (f ) E. B. 
1. 1585. E. B. 2. 725. H. ^ Am. 123. Bab. 108. Lind. 95. 

R. Cham^morus. Cloud-berry. Fig. 378. 

Stems simple, herbaceous, single-flowered. Leaves simple, lobed. 
Flowers unisexual. Mountain moors. Fruit edible. 6-8 in. June. 
White ; fruit orange, (f) ^. iJ. 1. 716. E. B. 2. 726. H. ^ Am. 123. 
Bab. 108. Lind. 95. 

Genus 6. Fragaria. 

F. VESCA. Wild Strawberry. Pig. 379. 

Hairs of the pedicels closely pressed. Woods ; abundant. Fruit edible. 
4-9 in. Perenn. May-Aug. White ; fruit red or white, (f ) E. B. 
1. 1524. E. B. 2. 727. H. ^ Am. 130. Bab. 95. Lind. 95. 

F. ATROVIRENS. Fig. 380. 

A variety of vesca, with larger fruit and more rounded leaves. 
Northumberland. 4-6 in. Perenn. May-July. White ; fruit white 
or red. (f) E. B. Supp. 2/42. E. B. 2. 727*. Lind. 96. 



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IS 



39 

F. ELATiOR. Hautloy Strawbernj. Fig. 381. 

Hairs of the peduncles and pedicels all spreading, somewhat dcflexed. 
Woods; local. Fruit edible. 6 iu.-l ft. Perenn. June-Sept. 
White; fruit red, sweet-scented. (|) K B. 1. 2197. E. B. 2. 728. 
//. ^Arn. 130. Bab. 95. Lind. 96. 

Genus 7. Comarum. 

C. PALUSTRE. Marsh Cinque-foil. Fig. 382. 

Lower leaves pinnate, with deeply serrated leaflets, glaucous beneath. 
Boos and marshes. Root astringent ; yields a yellow die. 1 ft. Perenn. 
July and Aug. Dingy purple, (f) E.B.I. 172. E. B. 2. 744. 
IL^Arn.VdQ. Bab. 94. Lind. 97. 

Genus 8. Potentilla. 

P. FRXJTicosA. Shrubby Cinque-foil. Fig. 383. 

Stem shrubby. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets entire, hairy. Mountain 
thickets. 3-4 ft. June and July. Bright yellow. (|) E.B.l.'dfjl. 
E. B. 2. 730. H. ^ Am. 131. Bab. 94. Lind. 96. 

P. ANSERiNA. Goose-weed. Silver-weed. Fig. 384. 

Stem creeping. Leaves interruptedly pinnate, silky. Stalks single- 
flowered. Meadows and road-sides ; very common. 2-4 in. Perenn. 
June and July. Bright yellow. (|) E.B.I. 861. E. B. 2. 730. 
H. ^ Am. 131. Bab. 93. Lind. 96. 

P. RUPESTRis. Strawberry-flowered Cinque-foil. Fig. 385. 

Stems erect, dichotomous. Leaves lyrato-pinnate ; leaflets ovate, 
serrated. Rocks in Wales ; very rare. 1 ft. Perenn. June. White, 
(f) ^.^.1.2058. E.B.2.731. H.^ Am. 131. Bab. 93. Lind. 96. 

P. ARGENTEA. Hoary Cinque-foil. Fig. 386. 

Stems decumbent. Leaves quinate ; leaflets wedge-shaped, jagged, 
white and downy beneath. Commons and pastures ; local. 6-8 in. 
Perenn. June-Sept. Yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 89. E. B. 2. 732. 
H. ^ Am. 131. Bab. 93. Lind. 96. 

P. VERNA. Spring Cinque-foil. Fig. 387. 

Stems decumbent. Root-leaves quinate ; leaflets obovate, serrated, 
hairy. Flowers 2 or 3 together. Hill-pastures. 4 in. Perenn. 
April and May. Yellow. (|) E. B.l. 37. E. B. 2. 733. H. ^ 
Am. 131. Bab. 93. Lind. 97. 

P. ALPESTRis. Alpine Cinque-foil. Fig. 388. 

Stems ascending. Root-leaves quinate ; leaflets wedge-shaped, deeply 
serrated, hairy. Mountains. 4-6 in. Perenn. June and July. 
Orange-yellow, (f) E.B. 1. 561. E. B. 2. 734. H. ^ Am. 132. 
Bab. 93. Lind. 96. 

P. OPACA. Saw-leaved Cinque-foil. Fig. 389. 

Stems decumbent. Root-leaves with 7 wedge-shaped deeply serrated 
leaflets ; stem ones ternate. Mountains ; rare. 6 in. Perenn. June 
and July. Deep yellow, (f) -E". JB. 1. 2449. E.B. 2. 735. H. ^ 
Arn. 132. Bab. 93. Lind. 97. 

P. ALBA. While rock Cinque-foil. Fig. 390. 

Stems very slender, procumbent. Root-leaves quinate ; leaflets oblong, 
silky beneath. Mountains. 4-6 in. Perenn. June-Sept. White. (|) 
E. B. 1. 1384. E. B. 2. 735. H.^Arn. 133. Bab. 94. Lind. 97. 



40 

P. REPTANS. Creeping Cinque-foil. Fig. 391. 

Stems filiform, creeping, rooting at the joints. Leaves quinate, on 
long petioles. Peduncles axillary, single-flowered. Meadows and road- 
sides ; very common. 4 in. Perenn. June-Sept. Yellow, (l) 
E. B.\. 8G2. E. B. 2. 737. //. ^ Am. 132. Bab. 93. Lind. [)7. 

P. TRiDENTATA. Trtfid Ciuque-foU. Fig. 392. 

Stem erect, panicled. Leaves ternate, smooth above, hairy beneath, 
3-toothed at the apex. Mountains ; very rare. 6 in. Perenn. May 
and June. White, (f) E. B. \, 2389. E. B. 2. 738. H. ^ 
Am. 133. Bab. 94. Lind. 97. 

P. Fragariastrum. Barren Strawberry. ^ Fig. 393. 

Stems creeping. Leaves ternate, very hairy on both sides. Hedge- 
banks and woods ; common. 2-4 in. Perenn. April and May. 
White. (I) JJ.JS. 1. 1785. E.B.2.739. H.^Arn. 133. Bab.94, 
Lind. 97 > 

Genus 9. Tohmentilla. 

T. OFFICINALIS. Common Tormentil. Fig. 394. 

Stems filiform, prostrate. Leaves ternate, sessile; leaflets deeply 
serrated; stipules cut. Heaths; common. Astringent. 2-6 in. 
Perenn. June and July. Yellow, (f) JE^. 2?. 1. 863. E.B.2.740. 
H. ^ Am. 132. Bab. 94. Lind. 97. 

T. REPTANS. Trailing Tormentil. _ ^ Fig. 395. 

Stems prostrate. Leaves ternate or quinate, with foot-stalks. Hedge- 
banks and fields. 4 in. June and July. Yellow, (f) E. B.\. 864. 
E. B. 2. 741. H. ^ Am. 133. Bab. 94. Lind. 98. 

Genu8 10. Sibbaldia. 

S. PROCUMBENS. ^ Fig. 396. 

Leaves ternate; leaflets wedge-shaped, with 3 teeth. Glaucous. 
Mountains. 4 in. Perenn. July. Yellow. (|) ^.£.1.897. 
E. B. 2. 457. U. ^ Am. 134. Bab. 92. Lind. 98. 

Genus 11. Agrimonia. 

A. EuPATORiA. Agrimony. Fig. 397. 

Stem-leaves interruptedly pinnate. Flowers in terminal spikes. Fields 

and way-sides. Astringent and tonic. 2 ft. Perenn. June and July. 

Yellow. (I) ^.£.1.1335. ^.i?.2.684. U.^Am.\3(i. Bab. 91. 

Lind. 99. 

Genus 12. Alchemilla. 

A. VULGARIS. Lady's Mantle. Fig. 398. 

Leaves lobed, plaited, serrated. Dry hill-pastures. 6-10 in. Perenn. 
May-Aug. Green. (|) E.B.\.b97. E.B.2.230. H.^ Am. 134. 
Bab. 92. Lind. 103. 

A. ALPiNA. Alpine Lady's Mantle. Fig. 399. 

Leaves digitate, serrated, silky beneath. Mountains. 6 in. Perenn. 
July. Green, (f) E.B.\.2AA. E.B.2.23\. H. ^ Am. 134. 
Bab. 92. Lind. 103. 

A. ARVENSis. Field Lady's Mantle. Fig. 400. 

Leaves 3-lobed, lobes deeply cut. Flowers axillary. Fields ; common. 
3-4 in. Ann. May-Aug. Green. (|) E. B. 1. 1011. E. B. 
2.232. H.^ Am. 135. Bab.92. Lind. 103. 



V}^^^ 38/ S 400. 

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41 

Genus 13. Sanguisorba. 
S. OFFICINALIS. Burnet. Fig. 401. 

Flowers in ovate spikes. Leaves pinnate. Pastures. 1-2 ft. Perenn. 
June-Aug. Dark purple. (|) £". iJ. 1. 1312. ^.^.2.233. H. ^ 
Arn. 135. Bab. 91. Lind. 103. 

Genus 14. Poterium. 

P. Sanguisorba. Salad Burnet. Fig. 402. 

Flowers in globular heads, monoecious ; stamens very long. Leaves 
pinnate. Chalky and sandy pastures ; abundant. 4 in .-2 ft. Perenn. 
Julv. Green, stamens purple, (f) £".5.1.860. E. B. 2. 1320. 
H.'^Arn. 135. Bab. 91. Lind. 103. 

Genus 15. Rosa. 

R. ciNNAMOMEA. Cinnamon Rose. Fig. 403. 

Stems with a few scattered prickles. Leaflets oblong-lanceolate, 
simply serrated, downy beneath. Fruit small, nearly globular. A 
doubtful native. 6 ft. May. Purplish pink ; fruit red. (^) E. B. 
1.2388. E. B. 2. 705. H. ^ Am. 137. Bab. 110. 

R. DiCKsoNii. Dickson's Rose. Fig. 404. 

Stems blood-red, with a few slender prickles. Leaflets ovato-lanceo- 
late, downy, with double serratures, folded together. Fruit large, ovate. 
Ireland. May and June. Deep purple-pink. (^) E. B. Supp. 2707. 
E. B. 2. 705*. H. ^ Am. 137. Bab. 110. Lind. 99. 

R. RUBELLA. Red-fruited Dwarf Rose. Fig. 405. 

Branches covered with small prickles and glandular setae. Fruit 
oblong, pendulous. Sandy sea-coasts. 6 in.-2 ft. June and July. 
Pale pink or cream-colour; fruit crimson. {\) E. B. 1. 2521. E. B. 
2. 706. H. ^ Am. 138. Bab. 110. Lind. 98. 

R. spiNOsissiMA. Burnet Rose. Fig. 406. 

Prickles crowded, very unequal. Leaflets almost round. Fruit 
globose, erect. Sandy shores and heaths. 4 in.-2 ft. May and June. 
Pink or cream-colour ; fruit dark purple when ripe. (|) E. B. 1. 187. 
E. B. 2. 707. H. ^ Am. 137. Bab. 110. Lind. 99. 

R. HiBERNiCA. Irish Rose. Fig. 407. 

Prickles scattered, unequal. Leaflets elliptical, simply serrate, hairy 
beneath. Sepals pinnate. Fruit nearly globular. Ireland. 6 ft. June- 
Nov. Pale pink; fruit red. (i) E. B. I. 2196. E. B. 2. 708. 
H. ^ Am. 138. Bab. 110. Lind. 100. 

R. WiLsoNii. Wilson's Rose. Fig. 408. 

Prickles crowded, unequal, mixed with setse. Sepals simple. Fruit 
ovate, with setae. Caernarvonshire. 3 ft. Julv. Deep pink ; fruit 
orange-red. {\) E. B. Supp. 2723. E. B. 2. 708*. H. ^ Am. 
138. Bab. 111. Lind. 325. 

R. INVOLUTA. Unexpanded Rose. Fig. 409. 

Prickles crowded, very unequal, mixed with setae. Leaves doubly 
serrate, hairy. Sepals simple. Petals rarely opening. Fruit globular, 
rough with setae. Hebrides. 2 ft. June. Pale pink ; fruit dark 
red. (i) ^.5.1.2068. ^.B.2.709. H.^Arn,138. Bab. III. 
Lind. 100. 

R. Sabini. Sabine's Rose. Fig. 410. 

Prickles nearly straight, scattered, unequal. Leaves doubly serrate, 
hairy. Sepals pinnate. Fruit rough with setae, variable in form. Flowers 
very large. Its varieties are numerous. Thickets. 8-10 ft. June. Pink 
of various shades; fruit dark red. (|) E. B. Supp. 2594. E. B. 2, 
705*. H.^Arn.\3d. Bab. III. Lind. 100. 

6 



42 

R. DoNiANA. Fig. 411. 

A variety of Salini. Leaves densely pubescent. Sepals nearly simple, 
(i) E.B.Supp.2m\. E.B.2.709*bis. E.^AmA3S. Jiab.Ul. 
Lind. 100. 

R. viLLOSA. Apple Rose. Fig. 412. 

A variety of Sabini. Sepals nearly simple. Larger prickles curved. 
Fruit very large, with stiff prickles. 8 ft. June. Pink ; fruit dark 
crimson, (i) E. B. \. 583. E. B. 2. 709* ter. H. ^ Am. 138. 
Bab. in. Lind.lQO. 

R. MOLLIS. Soft-leaved Rose. Fig. 413. 

Root-shoots erect. Prickles equal, straight. Leaflets ovate, downy 
on both sides. Sepals nearly simple, converging. Fruit globose. 
Mountain thickets ; common. 6 ft. June and July. Red or deep 
pink, rarely white, (i) E.B.X. 2459. E. B. 2. 710. H. ^ Am. 139. 
Bab. 111. Lind. 100. 

R. TOMENTOSA. BowTiy Boff-Rose. Fig. 414. 

Root-shoots arched. Sepals much divided, diverging. A variety of 
mollis. Hedges and thickets. 6 ft. June and July. Pink ; fruit 
red. (i) ^..B. 1.990. £.£.2.711. H.^Am.l39. Bab.Ul. 
Lind. 100. 

R. SCABRIUSCULA. Fig. 415. 

A variety of tomentosa. Leaflets nearly smooth above. Sepals mostly 

simple, (i) E. B. 1. 1896. E. B. 2. 711*. H. ^ Am. 139. 
Bab. 111. Lind. 100. 

R. INODORA. Scentless Briar. Fig. 416. 

Prickles nearly equal, very much hooked. Leaflets hairy. Fruit 
elliptical or nearly globular. Sepals much divided, deciduous before 
the fruit is ripe. Thickets. 6 ft. June and July. Pale pink ; fruit 
red. (i) E. J^. 1. 2570. E. B. 2. 712. H. ^ Am. 139. Bab. 111. 
Lind. 101. 

R. MiCRANTHA. Small-fiowered Briar. Fig. 417. 

Prickles equal, curved. Leaflets hairy. Sepals pinnate, elongated, 
deciduous. Fruit oblong-ovate. 6 ft. June and July. Pale pink ; 
fruit red. {\) E.B.I. 2490. E.B.2.713. H.^Arn.l39. Bab.U2. 
Lind. 101. 

R. RVBiGiNOSA. Sweet Briar. Eglantine. Fig. 418, 

Prickles very numerous, unequal ; the larger ones curved. Leaflets 
with many brown glands beneath. Sepals elongated, persistent. Fruit 
pear-shaped. Thickets. Leaves sweet-scented. 4-6 ft. June and 
July. Deep pink; fruit orange-red. (i) E. B. 1. 991. E. B. 2. 
714. H.^Arn.\39. Bab. \\2. Lind.\Q\. 

R. SEPiUM. Small-leaved Sweet Briar. Fig. 419. 

Prickles numerous, unequal. Leaves small, acute at both ends. Sepals 
elongated, persistent. Fruit ovate. A variety of rubiginosa. 3-4 ft. 
June. Pale pink. {\) E. B. Supp. 2653. E.B.2.714*. H. ^ 
Am. 140. Lind. 101. 

R. CANiNA. Dog Rose. Fig. 420. 

Prickles equal, hooked. Leaflets ovate, acute, simply serrated, smooth 
on both sides. Fruit ovate, smooth. Sepals pinnate, deciduous. Thickets 
and hedges ; abundant. Its varieties are very numerous. 4—8 ft. 
June. Pink; fruit deep red. (^) E. B. 1. 992. E. B. 2. 715. 
S. §- Arn. 140. Bab. 112. Lind. 101. 



A 



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I Dec n 86 8. 






43 

E.. SARMENTACEA. Fig. 421. 

A variety of canina. Leaflets doubly serrated, glandular at the edges. 
Hedges and thickets, (i) E. B. Supp. 2595. E. B. 2. 715*. //. ^ 
Am. 140. Bab. 112. Lind. 102. 

R. DUMETORUM. Fig. 422, 

A variety of canina. Leaflets slightly hairy on both sides, simply 
serrated. {\) E. B. Supp. 2610. E. B. 2. 715* bis. H.^Arn. 140, 
Bab. 112. Lind. 102. 

R. FoRSTERi. Fig. 423. 

A variety of canina. Leaflets more or less downy beneath, simply 
serrated, (i) E. B. Supp. 2^11. E. B. 2.715* ter. H.^Arn. 140, 
Bab. 112. Lind. 102. 

R. c^siA. Glaucous Doff-Rose. Fig. 424. 

Prickles numerous, hooked. Leaflets doubly serrated, downy and 
glaucous on both sides. Sepals pinnate. Fruit oblong, smooth. Scot- 
land and North of England. 5 ft. June and July. Pale pink ; fruit 
red. Q) E. B.\. 2367. E. B. 2. 716. H. ^ Arn. 140. Bab. 113. 
Lind. 102. 

R. SYSTYLA. Fig. 425. 

Root-shoots nearly erect, arched. Prickles hooked. Styles forming 
a column above the fruit. Thickets. 8-12 ft. July. Pink, (i) E.B. 
1.1895. E.B. 2.717. H.^Arn.MO. Bab.llS. Lind. 102. 

R. ARVENSis. Trailing Dog-Rose. Fig. 426. 

Root-shoots long, trailing. Prickles hooked. Leaflets smooth above, 
glaucous beneath. Styles forming a column above the fruit. Hedge- 
banks and heaths ; common. 1-4 ft. June and July. White, on 
purplish stalks, (i) E.B.I. 188. E. B. 2. 718. H. ^- Arn. 140. 
Bab. 112. Lind. 102. 

Genus 16. Mespilus. 

M. GERMANiCA. Medlar. Fig. 427. 

A tree. Branches thorny. Leaves lanceolate, downy. Flowers 
solitary, nearly sessile. Hedges ; rare. Fruit edible. May and June. 
White, (i) ^.^.1.1523. £'.^.2.694. ^.^^m. 141. Bab.U3. 
Li7id. 104. 

Genus 17. Cbat^gus. 

C. OxYACANTHA. Hawthom. May. Fig. 428. 

A thorny bush. Leaves deeply cleft. Flowers corymbose. Thickets 
and hedges ; abundant. 4-20 ft. May. White or pink ; fruit red. 
(i) E. B. 1. 2504. E. B. 2.693. H. ^ Arn. 141. Bab. 113. 
lind. 104. 

Genus 18. Cotoneaster. 

C. VULGARIS. Fig. 429. 

A shrub. Leaves oval, entire, downy beneath. Cliffs on the Caer- 
narvonshire coast. 2-4 ft. May. White ; fruit red. (|) E. B. 
Si^p. 2713. E.B. 2. 694*. H. ^Arn. 142. Bab. 113. Lind. 104. 

Genus 19. Pyrus. 

P. COMMUNIS. Wild Pear. Fig. 430. 

A tree. Leaves simple, ovate, serrated. Flowers corymbose. Fruit 

large, turbinate. Woods and hedges. The origin of the garden Pear. 

April and May. White, (i) E. B. 1. 1784. E. B. 2. 695. H. ^ 

Arn. 14.2. Bab. 114. Lind. 105. 

g2 



44 

P. Malus. JrUd Apple. Crab. ^ Fig. 431. 

A tree. Leaves simple, ovate, serrated. Flowers In a sessile umbel. 
Fruit large, globose. Woods and thickets. Fruit very acid. The 
origin of the garden Apple. May. Rose-colour and white. (|) E. B. 
1. 179. E.B. 2. 696. H. ^ Am. 142. Bab. 114. Lind. 105. 

P. TORMiNALis. Wild Servicc-tree. Pig. 432. 

A tree. Leaves ovate or cordate, 7-lobed, serrated. Flowers in a 
corymbose cyme. Fruit small, round or ovate. Hedges and woods. 
Fruit edible. May. White ; fruit greenish brown, (i) E. B. 1. 298. 
E. B. 2. 697. H. ^ Am. 142. Bab. 114. Lind. 105. 

P. DOMESTiCA. Service-tree. Fig. 433. 

A tree. Leaves pinnate, downy beneath. Flowers in panicles. Fruit 
pear-shaped. Woods ; rare. Fruit edible. May. White ; fruit 
green or pink, (i) E.B.I. 350. E. B. 2. 698. H. ^ Am. 142. 
Bab. 114. Lind. 105. 

P. AUCUPARiA. Mountain Ash. Rowan-tree. Fig. 434. 

A tree. Leaves pinnate. Flowers in corymbs. Fruit globose. 
Mountain woods. May. White ; fruit bright red. (i) ^.J5. 1.337. 
E. B. 2. 699. H. ^ Am. 143. Bab. 114. Lind. 106. 

P. PINNATIFIDA. Fig. 435. 

A tree. Leaves deeply pinnatifid, downy beneath. Flowers in 
corymbs. Fruit globose. Western Islands. May. White ; fruit 
scarlet, (i) E.B.I. 2331. E. B. 2. 700. H. ^ Am. 143. Lind. 105. 

P. Aria. White Beam-tree. Fig. 436. 

A tree. Leaves ovate, cut, serrated, very hoary beneath. Flowers 
in flat corymbs. Rocky woods. May. White ; fruit red. (^) E.B.I. 
1858. E. B. 2. 701. E. ^ Am. 143. Lind. 105. 



Order XXVII. ONAGRACEiE. 

Genus 1. Epilobium. 

E. ANGUSTIFOLITJM. French Willow-herb. Rose-Bay. Fig. 437. 

Leaves scattered, linear-lanceolate, smooth. Petals unequal. Stamens 
bent down. Moist shady places. 3-6 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Deep pink, (i) E. B. I. 1947. E. B. 2. 542. E. ^ Am. 144. 
Bab. \ 16. Lind. 108. 

E. HiRSTJTUM. Great Hairy Willow-herb. Fig. 438. 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate, stem-clasping. Plant hairy. Petals equal. 
Stigma 4-cleft. Flowers large. Wet places ; common. 4-5 ft. July. 
Pink, (i) E.B.I. 838. E. B. 2. 543. E. ^ Am. 144. Bab. 1 1 7. 
Lind. 108. 

E. PARViFLORUM. Small-Jlowered Willow-herb. Fig. 439. 

Leaves sessile, lanceolate, downy on both sides. Stigma 4-cl^'t. 
Flowers small. Wet places; common. 1-1^ ft. Perenn. July. 
Pale pink, (f) E. B. 1. 795. E.B. 2. 544. E. ^ Am. 144. 
Bab. 117. Lind. 108. 

E. MONTANUM. Brood-lcaved Willow-herb, Fig. 440. 

Leaves ovate, with short petioles. Plant usually tinged with crimson. 
Stigma 4-cleft. Dry places and walls ; common. 3 in.— 1 ft. Perenn. 
July. Rose-colour, (f) ^.5 1.1177. E.B. 2. 545. E.^ Am. 144. 
Bab. 117. Li7id. lO'S. 



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I Dec^'1858. 



J~£I. Scweriy. S'ecit 

22 



45 

E. ROSEUM. Smooth-leaved Willow-herb. Fig. 441 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate, with petioles. Stem slightly angular. Stigma 
entire. A common weed. 1-1|- ft. Perenn. July. Pale rose-colour. 
(I) E.B.\. 693. E. B. 2. 546. H. ^ Am. 145. Bab. 118. Lind. 108. 

E. TETRAGONUM. Square-stalked Willow-herb. Fig. 442. 

Leaves sessile, lanceolate. Stem 4-angled. Stigma entire. Wet 
places ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Pale pink, (f) E. B, 
1.1948. E.B.2.bA7. H.^Arn.l45. Bab. US. Lind. lOS. 

E. PALUSTRE. Marsh Willow-herb. F^. 443. 

Leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate. Stem round. Stigma entire. Marshes 
and bogs. 1 ft. Perenn. July. Pale pink, (f) E. B. 1. 346. 
E. B. 2. 548. H. ^ Am. 145. Bab. 118. Lind. 108. 

E. ALSiNiFOLiuM. ChicJcwecd Willow-herb. Fig. 444. 

Leaves nearly sessile, ovate. Stem decumbent. Stigma entire. By 
mountain streams. 6in.-lft. Perenn. July. Pink, (f) E.B.I. 
2000. E. B. 2. 549. H. ^ Am. 145. Bab. 119. Lind. 108. 

E. ALPiNUM. Alpine Willow-herb. Fig. 445. 

Leaves nearly sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse. Stem decumbent. 
Stigma entire. By mountain streams. 2-4 in. Perenn. July. Pink, 
(f) ^.^.1.2001. E.B.2.550. H.^ Am. 146. Bab. 118» Lind. 108. 

Genus 2. CEnothera. 

CE. BIENNIS. Evening Primrose. Fig. 446. 

Stem rough. Flowers sessile, in a terminal spike. "Waste ground and 
sandy coasts. 3-4 ft. Bienn. July-Oct. Yellow. (^) E.B.I. 
1534. E. B. 2. 541. H. ^ Am. 146. Bab. 119. Lind. 109. 

Genus 3. Isnardia. 

I. PALUsTRis. Fig. 447. 

Stem procumbent, rooting. Flowers axillary, apetalous. Bogs. 
2-4 in. Ann. Mfty-Aug. Green. (|) E. B. Supp. 2593. E. B. 2. 
233*. H. ^Arn. 146. Bab. 119. Lind. 109. 

Genus 4. CiRCiEA. 

C. LUTETiANA. Enchanter's Nightshade. Fig. 448. 

Stem erect. Leaves ovate, downy. Shady woods, common. 1-|- ft. 
Perenu. June and July. Pale pink. (|) E.B.I. 1056. E. B. 2. 7. 
H. ^ Am. 147. Bab. 119. Lind. 110. 

C. ALPiNA. Alpine Enchanter's Nightshade. Fig. 449. 

Stem ascending. Leaves heart-shaped. Shady places on mountains. 
4-8 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Pale pink, (f) ^.5.1.1057. 
E. B. 2. 7*. H. ^ Am. 147. Bab.U9. Lind. 110. 



Order XXVIII. HALORAGACEiE. 

Genus 1. Hippuris. 

H. VULGARIS. Mare's-tail. Fig. 450. 

Leaves linear, in whorls. Flowers axillary, sessile. Pools and ditches. 
4 in.-l ft. Perenn. May and June. Anther reddish, (f) E. B, 
I. 763. E.B. 2. 3. H. ^ Am. 148. Bab. 120. Lind. 110. 



46 

Genus 2. Myriophyllum. 

M. spiCATTJM. Water-Milfoil. ^ Fig. 451. 

Spikes leafless. Leaves submersed, 4 in a whorl ; with long linear 
lobes. Ditches and pools. Perenn. July and Aug. Reddish. (|) 
E. B. 1. 83. E. B. 2. 1316. H. ^ Am. 120. Bab. 148. Lind. 110. 

M. VERTICILLATUM. Fig. 452. 

Spike leafy. Flowers in axillary whorls. Leaves submersed, 5 in a 
whorl. Ponds and ditches; local. Perenn. July. Greenish, (f) 
^.5.1.218.^.^.2.1317. ^.^^rn. 148. Bab.\2Q. Lind.WO. 

M. ALTERNIFLORUM. Fig. 453. 

Fertile flowers in the axils of the upper leaves ; sterile ones alternate, 
in spikes. Ponds ; local. Perenn. July. Reddish. (|) E. B. Supp. 
2854. if. ^Jm. 149. Bab. \2Q. Lind.WO. 

Order XXIX. LYTHRACEiE. 
Genus 1. Lythrum. 

L. Salicaria. Purple Loosestrife. Fig. 454, 

Leaves opposite, lanceolate. Flowers in leafy spikes. Stamens 1 2. 
Wet places ; common. 3-4 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Purple. (|) 
iP.£. 1.1061. ^.5.2.682. H.^Arn.\49. Bab. \15. Lind. 72. 

L. HYSsopiFOLiuM. Hyssop-leaved Loosestrife. Fig. 455. 

Leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate. Flowers axillary. Stamens 6. 
Ditches and wet places ; rare. 6 in. Ann. Aug. Purple, (f ) 
E. B.\. 292. E. B. 2. 683. H. ^ Am. 149. Bab. 115. Lind. 72. 
Genus 2. Peplis. 

P. PoRTULA. Water Purslane. Fig. 456. 

Leaves opposite, obovate. Flowers axillary, solitary. Watery places. 
2 in. Ann. July and Aug. Reddish, (f) £.5.1.1211. E. B. 
2. 465. H. ^ Arn. 149. Bab. 115. Lind. 72. 

Order XXX. TAMARICACEiE. 
Genus 1. Tamarix. 
T. GALLiCA. Tamarisk. Fig. 457. 

A slender shrub. Flowers in lateral spikes. Clifi's on the southern 
coast. 4-8 ft, July. Pale pink, (f) E.B.\.U\^. E.B.2.447, 
H. ^Arn. 150. Bab. 116. Lind. 62. 

Order XXXI. CUCURBITACEiE. 
Genus 1. Bryonia. 
B. DTOicA. Bryony. Fig. 458. 

Stems climbing. Leaves palmate, rough. Dioecious. Hedges; 
common. Acrid. Perenn. May. Green ; berries red. (f ) E. B. 
1.439. E.B.2.U\2. H.^ Arn. 151. Bab. 121. Lind. 329. 

Order XXXII. PORTULACEJE. 
Genus 1. Montia. 
M. FONTANA. Water Blinks. Fig. 459. 

Stem creeping, rooting. Leaves opposite. Watery places ; common. 
I in. Ann. April and May. Reddish, (f) E.B.I. 1206. E.B, 
2. 191. n. ^ Arn. 151. Bab. 121. Lind. 63. 

Order XXXIII. ILLECEBRACEiE. 

Genus 1. Corrigiola. 

C LiTTORALis. Stropwort. Fig. 460. 

Stems prostrate. Leaves Unear-oblong. Flowers in corymbs. Sandy 
wastes ; rare. 1-2 in. Ann. July and Aug. White, (f) E. B, 
1. 668. E. B. 2. 448. H. ^ Arn. 152. Bab. 123. Lind. 60. 







.JZHowerby. le^:^ 



1 Dec ^1858 



47 

Genus 2. Herniaria. 

H. GLABRA. Rupture-wort. Figf. 461. 

Stems prostrate. Flowers in leafy spikes. Leaves glabrous. Sandy- 
places. 2-4 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Green, (f) ^.i?. 1.206. 
E. B. 2. 348. H.^Arn. 153. Bab. 123. Lind. 61. 

H. HiRSUTA. Fig. 462. 

Flowers in axillary clusters. Leaves hairy. A variety of glabra ? 
Sandy places ; rare. 2-4 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Green. {^) 
U.B.I. 1379. E.B. 2. 348*. H.^ Am. 153. Bab. 123. Lind. 61. 

H. ciLiATA. Fig. 463. 

Flowers in axillary clusters on the lateral branches. Leaves ciliated. 
A variety of glabra. Cornwall and Guernsey. 2-4 in. Perenn. 
July. Green. (|) E. B. Suj)j).28b7. H. ^ Am. 153. Bab. 123. 
Lind. 322. 

Genus 3. Illecebrum. 

I. VERTiciLLATrM. Whorled Knot-grass. Fig. 464. 

Stems procumbent. Leaves opposite, with membranous stipules. 
Flowers in whorls. Bogs in Cornwall and Devon. 4 in. Perenn. 
July. Pinkish, (f) E.B. 1. 895. E. B. 2. 345. H. ^ Arn. 154. 
Bab. 123. Lind. 61. 

Genus 4. Polycarpon. 

P. TETRAPHYLLUM. Four-leavcd All-seed. Fig. 465. 

Leaves usually in fours. Flowers in panicles, with 3 stamens. Southern 
coasts. 4 in. Ann. May-Sept. Greenish. (|) E. B. 1. 1031. 
E. B. 2. 193. H. ^Am. 154. Bab. 124. Lind. 61. 

Order XXXIV. CRASSULACEiE. 

Genus 1. Till^a. 

T. MuscosA. Fig. 466. 

Leaves succulent. Flowers axillary, usually 3-cleft. Sandy wastes. 
2 in. Ann. May and June. Reddish, (f) E.B.l.WQ. E.B. 2. 254. 
H.^Arn. 156. Bab. 125. Lind. 63. 

Genus 2. Cotyledon. 

C. Umbilicus. Penny-wort. Fig. 467. 

Root tuberous. Leaves peltate, depressed in the centre. Flowers 
pendulous. Moist rocks and walls. 4 in.-l ft. June-Aug. Greenish, 
(f) E. B. 1. 325. E. B. 2. 648. H.^Arn. 156. Bab. 128. Lind. 64. 

C. LUTEA. Great Penny-wort. Fig. 468. 

Root creeping. Lower leaves only peltate. Flowers erect. Not 
native. 1-1^ ft. Perenn. July. Bright yellow, (f) ^.^.1.1522. 
E. B. 2. 649. H.^Arn. 156. Bab. 128. Lind. 64. 

Genus 3. Sempervivum. 

S. TECTORUM. Houseleek. Fig. 469. 

Leaves broad, succulent, in close tufts. Offsets spreading. Walls 
and roofs ; scarcely wild. 6-8 in. Perenn. July. Pink, (f ) 
E.B. 1. 1320. E'.B. 2. 687. H. ^ Arn. 156. Bab. 127. Lind. 65. 

Genus 4. Rhodiola. 

R. ROSEA. Rose-root. Fig. 470. 

Flowers 4-cleft. Dioecious. Leaves ovate, glaucous, serrated. Moun- 
tain rocks. 6-8 in. Perenn. Yellow. (|) E.B. 1. 508. E.B.2.1395, 
H. ^ Arn. 157. Bab. 126. Lind. 64. 



48 

Genus 5. Sbdum. 

S. Telephium. Orpine. Pig. 471. 

Stems erect. Leaves ovate, flat, serrated. Hedge-banks and waste 
places. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Purple, (f) £".^.1.1319. E.B. 
2. 650. B. ^ Am. 157. Bab. 126. Lind. 64. 

S. DASYPHYLLUM. Thick-leaved Stonecrop. Pig. 472. 

Stems flaccid. Leaves ovate, very fleshy, glaucous. Flowers in 
scanty panicles. Rocks. 1-3 in. Perenn. July. Pink or white. (|) 
£. B. 1. 656. E. B. 2. 651. H. ^ Am. 157. Bab. 126. Lind. 64. 

S. ANGLicuM. Mountain Stonecrop. Pig. 473. 

Leaves close, alternate, ovate, fleshy, spurred at the base. Flowers 
in 2-branched cymes. Mountain and sea-side rocks ; common. 1-2 in. 
Perenn. July. White or pinkish. (|) E.B.\.\7\. E.B. 2.652. 
JJ. ^ Am. 157. Bab. 127. Lind. 64. 

S. ALBUM. White Stonecrop. Pig. 474. 

Leaves scattered, cylindrical, fleshy. Flowers in many-branched 
panicles. Rocks and walls. 2-4 in. Perenn. July. White ; anthers 
red. (f) ^.^. 1. 1578. ^..B. 2.656. ^.^^rn. 158. J5a6. 126. 
Lind. 65. 

S. viLLOSUM. Hairy Stonecrop. Pig. 475. 

Stem erect. Leaves alternate, slightly hairy and viscid. Flowers 
corymbose. Moist rocks. Perenn. June and July. White, (f) 
E. B.l. 394. E. B. 2. 655. H. ^Am. 158. Bab. 126. Lind. 65. 

S. ACRE. Stonecrop. Wall-Pepper. Pig. 476. 

Leaves close, alternate, fleshy, somewhat ovate, spurred at the base, 
bright green. Flowers in trifid cymes. Walls and rocks ; common. 
Acrid. 1-2 in. Perenn. June. Bright yellow, (f) ^.5.1.839. 
E. B. 2. 653. H. ^ Am. 158. Bab. 127. Lind. 64. 

S. SEXANGULARE. Tastclcss Stonccrop. Pig. 477. 

Leaves in 6 rows, nearly cylindrical, fleshy. Cyme 3-branched. Old 
walls and sandy places ; not common. 1-3 in. Perenn. July. Yellow, 
(f) ^.^.1.1946. ^.J5.2.654. H.^Arn.lbS. Bab. 127. Lind. 64. 

S. REFLEXUM. Cvookcd Stonccrop. Pig. 478. 

Stems straggling. Leaves awl-shaped, spurred at the base, scattered ; 
the lower ones recurved. Sepals ovate. Walls and roofs. 6 in.-l ft. 
Perenn. July. Yellow, (f) E.B.\.6db. E.B. 2.657. H. ^ 
^m. 158. Bab. 127. Lind. 65. 

S. GLAucuM. Glaucous Stonecrop. Pig. 479. 

Leaves awl-shaped, scattered, glaucous. Sepals lanceolate. Walls 
and dry places. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellow. (^) 
E.B. 1. 2477. E. B. 2. 658. H. ^ Am. 158. Bab. 127. Lind. 65. 

S. RUPESTRE. Bock Stonecrop. Fig. 480. 

Leaves awl-shaped, erect, spurred at the base ; those of the branches 
in 5 close rows. Sepals elliptical. Rocks; rare. 6 in,- 1 ft. Perenn. 
Yellow, (f) E.B.I. 170. E. B. 2. 659. H. ^ Am. 158. Bab. 127. 
Lind. 65. 



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24 



49 

S. FoRSTERiANUM. Welsh Stonecrop. Pig. 481. 

Leaves semicylindrical, spurred at the base, in many rows, clustered. 
Sepals short and rounded. Kocks. 6in.-lft. Perenn. July. Yellow, 
(i) E. B. 1. 1802. E. B. 2. 660. H. ^ Am. 159. Bab. 127. 
Lind. 65. 

Order XXXV. GROSSULARIACE^. 

Genus 1. Ribes. 

R. KUBRUM. Red Currant. Fig. 482. 

A shrub. Branches without thorns. Clusters of flowers pendulous, 
smooth. "Woods in the North. Fruit edible. 2-4 ft. May. Green ; 
fruit red. (f) E. B. 1. 1289. E. B. 2. 338. H. Sf Am. 159. 
Bab. 128. Lind. 106. 

R. PETR^UM. Rock Currant. Fig. 483. 

A shrub. Not thorny. Clusters slightly hairy; erect in flower, 
pendulous in fruit. Bracts shorter than the flower-stalk. Northern 
woods. 4 ft. May. Yellowish; fruit red. (|) E. B. 1.705. 
E. B. 2. 339. H. ^ Am. 169. Bab. 128. Lind. 106. 

R. SPICATUM. Acid Mountain Currant. Fig. 484. 

A shrub. Not thorny. Clusters erect. Bracts shorter than the 
flowers. Yorkshire mountains. 4 ft. May. Green ; fruit red. (|) 
E. B. 1. 1290. E. B. 2. 340. H. ^ Am. 159. Bab. 129. Lind. 106. 

R. ALPiNUM. Tasteless Mountain Currant. Fig. 485. 

A shrub. Not thorny. DicEcious. Clusters upright. Bracts longer 
than the flowers. Leaves deeply lobed. Mountain woods. 4 ft. May. 
Green; fruit red. (|) £'.^.1.704. E.B.2.'6A\. JL^Arn.160. 
Bab. 128. Lind. 107. 

R. NIGRUM. Black Currant. Fig. 486. 

A shrub. Not thorny. Clusters hairy, pendulous ; few-flowered, with 
a solitary flower at the base. Leaves glandulous at the back. River- 
sides and swampy thickets. 4-6 ft. May. Greenish ; fruit black. (|) 
^. J?. 1.1291. E.B.2.342. H. ^ Am. 160. Bab. 128. Lind. 107. 

R. Grossularia. Gooseberry. Fig. 487. 

A shrub. Branches with thorns beneath each leaf. Stalks short, 
few-flowered. Fruit hairy. Hedges and thickets. Fruit edible. 4 ft. 
April and May. Greenish ; fruit green. (|) E.B.\. 12^2. E.B. 
2.343. //. ^ Am. 160. Bab. 128. Lind. 107. 

R. UvA-CRisPA. Stnooth Gooseberry. Fig. 488. 

Fruit smooth, and yellowish when ripe. A mere variety of Grossula/ia. 
E.B. 1.2057. E.B. 2.343*. H.^ Am. 160. Bab. 128. Lind. 107. 

Order XXXVI. SAXIFRAGACEtE. 
Genus 1. Saxifraga. 

S. Geum. Kidney-leaved Saxifrage. Fig. 489. 

Leaves roundish, kidney-shaped, acutely crenate, rather hairy, with 
long petioles. Varieties numerous. South of Ireland. 6-9 in. Perenn. 
June. Cream-colour. (4) E. B. 1. 1561. E.B. 2. 594. U.^ 
Am. 161. Bab. 130. Lind. 70. 

S. HiRSUTA. Hairy Saxifrage. Fig. 490. 

Leaves ovate, acutely serrated, hairy on both sides ; with long petioles. 
South of Ireland, 6 in.- 1 ft. Perenn. June. White spotted with red. 
(f> £'..6.1.2322. £'.5.2.595. IL^ Am. 161. Bab. 129. Lind. 71 

H 



50 

S. UMBROSA. London Pride. None-so-pretty. Fig. 491. 

Leaves ol)Ovate, smooth, crenated ; petioles short and dilated. Moun- 
tains. G-IO in. Perenn. June. White spotted with red and yellow, 
(f) E. B. 1'. GG3. E. B. 2. 596. //. ^ Arn. 161. Bab. 129. Lind. 71. 

S. STELLARis. Storrt/ Saxifrage. Fig. 492. 

Leaves oblong, wedge-shaped, serrated, sessile, in a star-like tuft. 
Panicle few-flowered. Mountains. 2-6 in. Perenn. June-Aug. 
White, yellow at the base, (f) E. B. \. 167. E. B. 2. 597. 
U. SfArn. 162. Bah. 130. Li'nd. 71. 

S. NIVALIS. Alpine Saxifrage. Fig. 493. 

Leaves roundish-obovate, crenated, with short dilated petioles. Calyx 
spreading, half-inferior. Mountain summits. 2-6 in. Perenn. July 
and Aug. White, (f) E.B.\.UO. E.B. 2. 598. H.^ Arn. 162. 
Bab. 132. Lind. 68. 

S. HiRCULUs. Yellow Marsh Saxifrage. Fig. 494. 

Stems erect, leafy. Stem-leaves lanceolate, entire, alternate. Calyx 
inferior. Bogs. 6-9 in. Perenn. Aug. Bright yellow, with red 
dots, (f) ^.5.1.1009. £".^8.2.599. H.^Arn.l62. Bab. 130. 
Lind. 67. 

S. ATZoiDES. Yelloio Mountain Saxifrage. Fig. 495. 

Stem branched, decumbent. Leaves linear-lanceolate, toothed. Calyx 
half-inferior. Boggy places on mountains. 5-8 in. Perenn. June- 
Wov. Yellow with red dots, (f) E.B.I. 39. E. B. 2. 600. H. ^ 
Arn. 163. Bab. 130. Lind. 67. 

S. OPPOSiTiFOLiA. Purple Saxifrage. Fig. 496. 

Leaves opposite, ovate, hairy at the edges. Flowers solitary at the 
ends of the branches. Mountain summits. 1-4 in. Perenn. March 
and April. Purple, (f) E. B.\. 9. E. B.2.6Q\. H.^Arn.U2. 
Bab. 133. Lind. 69. 

S. GRANTJLATA. Meadow Saxifrage. Fig. 497. 

Leaves kidney-shaped, Ibbed ; lower ones on long petioles. Root 
tuberous. Meadows ; common. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. May and June. 
White. (I) ^.fi. 1.500. J^. ^. 2. 602. H.^Am.lQZ. Bab. \32. 
Lind. 68. 

S. CERNUA. Drooping Saxifrage. Fig. 498. 

Leaves kidney-shaped, palmately lobed, with petioles ; upper ones with 
bulbs in the axils. Mountain rocks. 3-5 in. Perenn. June-Aug. 
White, (f) £".5.1.664. E.B.2.603. H.^ Arn. 163. Bab. 132. 
Lind. 68. 

S. RivuLARis. Alpine Brook Saxifrage. Fig. 499. 

Lower leaves lobed, with long petioles ; upper ones lanceolate, entire. 
Moist rocks. 2-4 in. Perenn. July-Sept. White. (^) E. B. 1.2275. 
E. B. 2. 604. //. ^ Arn. 163. Bab. 132. Lind. 68. 

S. TRi DACTYLITES. Rue-lcoved Saxifrage. Fig. 500. 

Leaves wedge-shaped, 3-5-cleft, alternate. Walls and dry places ; 
common. 1-6 in. Ann. May and June. White, (f) E.B. 1.501. 
if. JS. 2.501. H.^' Arn. 163. Bab. 132. 



^6V 










IJan^ 1859 



r £. Scnverby. FsaU 



51 

S. MuscoiDES. Moss Saxifrage. Fig. 501 

Root-leaves tufted, linear or trifid, glutinous. Corymbs few-flowered. 
Calyx superior. Highland mountains. 2-3 in. Perenn. May and 
June. Yellowish, (f) £.5.1.2314. E.B.2.&QQ. U.^Arn.UA. 
Lind. 68. 

S. CjEspitosa. Palmate Saxifrage. Fig. 502. 

Root-leaves tufted, palmate, 3-5-cleft, hairy. Calyx half-inferior, 
hairy. Mountains. 2-4 in. Perenn. May and June. Yellowish- 
white, (f) E. B. 1. 455. E. B. 2. 607. H. ^- Arn. 164. Bab. 130. 
Lind. 69. 

S. HiRTA. Hairy Saxifrage . Fig. 503. 

Root-leaves tufted, 3-5-cleft, very hairy. Shoots ascending. Sepals 
acute. Petals obovate. Mountains. 6-8 in. Perenn. June and 
July. White, (f) £.5.1.2291. £.5.2.608. U. ^ Arn. \QA. 
Bab. 131. Lind. 69. 

S. PLAxypETALA. Broad-floiceved Saxifrage. Fig. 504. 

Leaves 3- or 5-cleft ; segments linear, hairy. Shoots procumbent. 
Sepals ovate. Petals broad and rounded. 4-8 in. Perenn. Mav- 
Julv. White, (f) E. B. 1. 2276. E. B. 2. 609. H. ^' Ar7i. 164. 
M. 131. Lind. '69. 

S. HYPNOiDEs. Ladies' Cushion. Fig. 505. 

Root-leaves 3-5-cleft ; those of the shoots linear. Shoots long, 
procumbent. Varieties numerous. Mountains ; common. 3-5 in. 
Perenn. May-Julv. White, (f) E. B. 1. 454. E. B. 2. 610. 
H. ^'Arn. 164. Bab. 131. Lind. 69. 

S. ELONGELLA. Long-stalked Saxifrage. Fig. 506. 

Leaves 3- or 5-cleft. Shoots short and erect. Flower-stalks very 
long, leafless. A variety of hypnoides 1 Moist rocks ; rare. 4-6 iu. 
Perenn. May. White, (f) £.5.1.2277. £.5.2.611. H.^ 
Arn. 164. Bab. 131. Lind. 70. 

S. PEDATiFiBA. Geranium-leaved Saxifrage. Fig. 507. 

Leaves with very long petioles, 3-cleft, the lateral segments 2- or 3- 
lobed. Flowers in a cymose panicle. 6-10 in. Perenn. Mav. White. (|^) 
£. 5. 1. 2278. £.5. 2. 612. H. S,- Am. 165. Bab. 131. Lind. 70. 

Genus 2. Chrysosplexium. 

C. ALTERNiFOLiTJM. Golden Saxifrage. Fig. 508. 

A somewhat succulent creeping plant. Leaves alternate. Moist 
places ; not common. 1-4 in. Perenn. March and April. Yellow, 
(f) £. 5. 1. 54. £. 5. 2. 593. H. Sf- Arn. 165. Bab. 133. Lind. 66. 

C, OPPOSiTiFOLiUM. Opposite-leaved Golden Saxifrage. Fig. 509. 

Stem creeping, succulent. Leaves opposite, light-yellowish green. 
Moist places. 1-6 in. Perenn. Mav- July. Y''ellow. {^) E. 5. 
I. 490. £. 5. 2. 592. H. ^- Arn. 165. Bab. 133. Lind. 67. 

Order XXXVIL UMBELLIFER.^. 
Genus 1. Hydrocotyle. 

H. VULGARIS. Marsh Penny-icort. Fig. 510. 

Leaves peltate, orbicular. Umbels with about 5 nearly sessile flowers. 
T^Ioist places ; common. 2-4 in. Perenn. May and June. Pinkish. (|) 
£. 5. 1. 751. £. 5. 2. 379. H. ^- Arn. 169. Bab. 139. Lind. 128. 

h2 



52 

Genus 2. Sanicula. 

S. EUROP^A. Wood Sanicle. Fig. 511. 

Root-leaves simple, deeply lobed, dark green. Flowers sessile. Woods ; 
common. 1 ft. Perenn. May and June. White. (|) E, B 1, 98. 
E. B. 2. 380. H. ^ Am. 169. Bab. 139. Lind. 127. 

Genus 3. Eryngium. 

E. MARiTiMUM. Sea Holly. Erynyo. Fig. 512. 

Root-leaves roundish, spiny. Plant very glaucous. Sandy coasts. 

6in.-2ft. Perenn. July. Blue. (^) iE".^. 1.718. .F.JS. 2.381. 
H. ^ Am. 169. Bah. 139. Lind. 127. 

E. CAMPESTRE. Field Eryugo. Fig. 513. 

Root-leaves 2- or 3-pinnatifid, spiny. Waste ground ; rare. 2 ft. 

Perenn. July and Aug. Purplish, (i) E.B.I. 57. E. B. 2. 382. 
H. ^ Am. 140. Lind. 127. 

Genus 4. Cicuta. 

C. viROSA. Water Hemlock. Fig. 514. 

Leaves biternate, vrith linear-lanceolate leaflets. Umbels opposite the 
leaves. Ditches. Very poisonous. 3-4 ft. Perenn. Aug. White. (^) 
E.B.I. 479. E.B. 2.383. H. ^ Am. 170. Bab.\40. Lind. 123. 

Genus 5. Apium. 

A. GRAVEOLENS. Smallage. Wild Celery. Fig. 515. 

"Leaves pinnate or ternate ; the lower ones on long petioles with 
roundish leaflets; upper leaflets wedge-shaped. Stem furrowed. 
Marshes. Rather acrid. 3-4 ft. Bieun. June-Aug. White. (^) 
£".^.1.1210. £.^.2.384. H.^ Am. 170. Bab. 140. Lind. 123. 

Genus 6. Petroselinum. 

P. SATIVUM. Parsley. Fig. 516. 

Stem striated. Leaves tripinnate, shining ; the lower ones with 
roundish leaflets. Old walls ; scarcely wild. 1-3 ft. Bienn. June 
and July. Pale yellow, (i) E. B. Supp. 2793. E. B. 2. 384*. 
H.^Am.\7\. Bab. 140. 

P. SEGETUM. Corn Parsley. Fig. 517. 

Leaves pinnate, with roundish serrated leaflets. Umbels scanty, 
drooping. Chalky fields, lift. Bienn. Aug. Pink, (i) E.B. 
1.228. E.B. 2. 38b. H. ^ Am. 171. Bab. 140. Lind. 123. 

Genus 7. Trinia. 

T. GLABERRiMA. Honcwort. Fig. 518. 

Leaves tripinnate, with linear leaflets, pale glaucous green. Flowers 
dioecious. Limestone rocks. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May and June. 
White, (i) ^.5.1.1209. E.B.2.38Q. H.^Arn.\7l. Bab. 140. 
Lind. 124. 

Genus 8. Helosciadium. 

H. NODiFLORUM. Marsh-wort. Fig. 519. 

Stem procumbent. Leaflets ovate, serrated. Umbels sessile, opposite the 
leaves. Ditches ; common. 6-8 in. Perenn. July and Aug. White. {\) 
j&.if. 1.639. E.B. 2. 387. H.^Am.\72. Bab. 141. Lind. 122. 

H. REPENS. Creeping Marsh-wort. Fig. 520. 

Stem creeping. Leaflets roundish, deeply toothed. Umbels stalked. 
Watery places. 4-6 in. Perenn. July and Aug. White. (^) 
E. D. 1. 1431. E. B. 2. 388. //. ^' Am. 172. Bab. 141. Lind. 122. 



Jjc^.. 50i yi' S2/"' 




l.Jan>'l>3£9 



53 

II. INUNDATUM. Water Marsh-Wort. Fig. 521. 

Stem creeping. Lower leaves in hair-like segments. Umbels of 2 
rays. In shallow water. 2-4 in. Perenn. Julv. White. (|) 
E. B. 1. 227. E. B. 2. 389. //. ^ Am. 172. Bab/l4l. Lind. 122. 

Genus 9. Sison. 

S. AMOMUM. Hedge Stone-wort. Fig. 522. 

Leaves pinnate ; upper ones ternate. Umbels generally of 4 or 5 
rays. Hedge-banks. Has a strong pungent odour. 2-3 ft. Bienn. Aug. 
White, (i) ^.^.1.954. £".^.2.390. H.^Arn.\72. Bab. U\. 
Lind. 122. 

Genus 10. ^gopodium. 

M. PoDAGRARiA. Gout Weed. Herb Gerarde. Fig. 523. 

Root-leaves 2-ternate ; upper ones ternate ; leaflets ovate, pointed. 
Waste places and gardens. 2 ft. Perenn. May and June. White. 
( ) JE". 5. 1.940. ^.5.2.391. H.8rArn.\72. Bab.lAl. Lind. 123. 

Genus ]1. Carum. 

C. Carui. Caraway. Fig. 524. 

Stem branched. Leaves doubly pinnate ; segments linear. Pastures ; 
naturalized. Seeds aromatic. 1-2 ft. Bienn. June. White. (^) 
E.B.l.]503.E.B.2.3d2. H.^Arn.l73. Bab. 141. Lind.\22. 

C. VERTiciLLATUM. Whorlcd Caraway. Fig. 525. 

Leaflets with linear segments in whorls. Salt marshes ; rare. 1- 
lift. Perenn. July. Pinkish, (i) ^.5. 1.395. £".£.2.393. 
H.^ Am. 173. Bab. 173. Lind. 122. 

Genus 12. Bunium. 

B. BULBOCASTANUM. Large Earth-nut. Fig. 526. 

Lower leaves bipinnate on long foot-stalks. Fruit oblong, with re- 
flexed styles. Involucrum of many leaves. Chalky pastures. Tuberous 
root edible. '1-2 ft. Perenn. June. White, (i) E. B.Supp. 2SQ2. 
Bab. 142. 

B. FLEXuosuM. Earth-nut. Fig. 527. 

Lower leaves triternate, on long foot-stalks. Fruit oval with erect 
styles. Involucrum of few leaves or absent. Fields ; common. Tubers 
edible. 1-1 A ft. Perenn. June. White, (i) E. B. \. 988. 
E. B. 2. 394. H. ^ Am. 174. Bab. 142. Lind. 121. 

Genus 13. Pimpinella. 

P. Saxifraga. Burnet-Saxifrage. Fig. 528. 

Leaves pinnate ; lower ones with roundish leaflets ; upper with linear 
segments. Dry fields ; common. 1 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. White, 
(i) E.B. 1.407. E.B. 2.3db. H.^Arn.\74. Bab. 142. Lind. 121. 

P. MAGNA. Great Burnet-Saxifrage. Fig. 529. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets all ovate, serrated, sometimes 3-lobed. Woods. 
2-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. White, (i) E. B. \. 408. 
E. B. 2. 396. H. ^ Am. 174. Bab. 142. Lind. 121. 

Genus 14. Sium. 

S. LATIFOLIUM. Water Parsnip. Fig. 530. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets equally serrated. Umbels terminal. Ditches 
and river-sides. Poisonous. 4-5 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. White. (^) 
E. B. 1. 204. E. B. 2. 397. H.^Arn. 174. Bab. 142. Lind. 127. 



54 

S. ANGUSTiFOLiUM. Narrow-teaved Water-Parsnip. Pig. 531. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets unequally lobed and serrated. Umbels op- 
posite the leaves. Ditches. Poisonous. 8 in.-l ft. Perenn. July 
and Aug. White, (i) .£:. i^. 1. 139. ^.5.2.398. H.^Arn.l7o. 
Bab. 142. LindA2l. 

Genus 15. Bupleurum. 

B. Odontitis. Narrow-leaved Hare's-ear. Fig. 532. 

Leaves lanceolate. Involucrum of 3 or 4 leaves. Rocks in Devon 
and Channel Islands. 2-9 in. Ann. July. Yellow. {\) E. B. 
1.2468. £'.^.2.399. H.^Jrn.l75. Bab. H3. Lind. 120. 

B. ROTUNDiFOLiUM. Hare^-car. Fig. 533. 

Leaves oval, perfoliate, glaucous. Involucrum wanting; involucels 
of 4 or 5 broad pointed leaves. Cornfields. 18 in. Ann. June and 
July. Yellow, (i) jF. jB. 1. 99. ^. -B. 2. 400. H. ^ Arn. 175. 
Bab. 143. Lind. 120. 

B. TENUissiMUM. Slender Hare^s-ear. Fig. 534. 

Leaves linear. Umbels simple, alternate. Muddy sea-shores. 2- 
4 in. Ann. Aug. and Sept. Yellow. (\) E. B. 1. 478. E. B. 
2. 401. H.^ Am. 175. Bab. 143. Lind. 120. 

B. FALCATUM. Long-leavcd Hare' s-ear. Fig. 535. 

Lower leaves obovate, with very long stalks ; upper linear-lanceolate. 
Near Ongar, Essex. 1-4 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellow. (|^) 
E. B. Supp. 2763. E. B. 2. 401*. H.^Arn. 175. Bab. 143. Lind. 326. 

Genus 16. CEnanthe. 

(E. FiSTULOSA. Water-Dropwort. Fig. 536. 

Stem-leaves pinnate, tubular. Root throwing out runners. Styles 
very long when in fruit. Ditches. Poisonous. 2-3 ft. Perenn. 
July and Aug. Pinkish, (i) ^.£.1.363. E.B. 2. 402. H. ^ 
Am. 176. Bab. 143. Lind. 119. 

CE. PiMPiNELLOiDES. Parsleij Water-Droptvort. Fig. 537. 

Root-leaflets wedge-shaped, cleft ; stem ones linear, very long. In- 
volucrum of several leaves. Salt marshes. Boots edible. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. July. White. (|) -^. B. 1. 347. .2^. -B. 2. 403. H. ^ 
Am. 176. Bab. 143. Lind. 119. 

CE. PEUCEDANiFOLiA. Sulphur-weed Dropwort. Fig. 538. 

Leaflets all linear. Primary involucrum wanting. Marshes. Roots 
unwholesome. l|-2 ft. Perenn. June. Pink. (^) jE'.^. 1.348. 
E. B. 2. 404. H. ^ Am. \77. Bab. 144. Lind. 120. 

CE. CROCATA. Hemlock Dropwort. Fig. 539. 

Leaflets all wedge-shaped, many-cleft. Fruit linear-oblong with 
slender ridges. River-sides. Much like Celery before flowering. 
Very poisonous. 3-5 ft. Perenn. July. White, (i) £".^.1.2313. 
E. B. 2. 405. H. ^ Am. 177. Bab. 144. Lind. 120. 

CE. Phellandrium. Fine-leaved Water Dropwort. Fig. 540. 

Leaflets with many narrow wedge-shaped segments. Subaqueous 
leaves hair-like. Fruit ovate, with broad ridges. Ditches. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. June and July. Pinkish, (i) i^.^. 1.684. ^.5.2.406. 
H. ^ Am. 177. Bab. 144. Lind. 120. 



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55 

Genus 17. iExHusA. 
^. Cynavium. FooVs Parsley. Fig. 541. 

Leaflets all wedge-shaped, with lanceolate segments, dark glossy green. 
Leaves of involucels long, pointing downwards. A common weed. 
Poisonous. 6 in.-2 ft. Ann. July and Aug. White, (i) E. B. 
1. 1192. E. B.2. 407. H. ^ Am. 178. Bab. 145. Lind. 119. 
Genus 18. Fceniculum. 
F. vuLGARE. Fennel. Fig. 543. 

Leaves biternate with nearly filiform leaflets. Chalky fields and way- 
sides. A culinary herb. 3-6 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellow, (i) 
E. B. 1. 1208. E. B. 2. 408. H. Sr Am. 178. Bab. 14.5. Lind. 119. 
Genus 19. Seseli. 
S. LiBANOTis. Mountain Stone-Parsley. Fig. 543. 

Stem furrowed. Leaves 2-pinnate, cut. Involucrum many-leaved. 
Chalky hills, li-2 ft. Perenn. Aug. V/hite. (i) ^.^.1.138. 
E. B. 2. 409. H. ^ Am. 179. Bab. 145. Lind. 119. 
Genus 20. Ligusticum. 
L. scoTicuM. Scottish Lavage. Fig. 544. 

Leaves biternate ; leaflets broad, serrated. Involucrum of about C nar- 
row leaves. Northern sea-cliff's. Eaten in Scotland. 2tt. July. "White. 
(^) E.B.I. \2Q7. E.B. 2.410. n.^Am.179. Bab. 145. Lind.llS. 
Genus 21. Silaus. 
S. PRATENSis. Pepper Saxifrage. Fig. 545. 

Leaflets deeply pinuatifid ; segments linear-lanceolate, dark green. 
Livolucrum 1 or 2-leaved. Moist meadows. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June- 
Aug. Yellow, (i) £'.£.1.2142. E.B. 2.418. H.^ Am. 179. 
Bab. 146. Lind. 118. 

Genus 22. Meum. 
M. Athamanticum. Spignel. Fig. 546. 

Leaflets all in numerous bristle-like segments. Umbels with involu- 
crum. Mountain pastures. \\it. Perenn. June and July. Pale yellow. 
(I) E.B. 1.2249. E. B. 2.412. H.^ Am. 180. Bab. 146. Li7id.\l8. 
Genus 23. Crithmum. 
C. maritimum. Samphire. Fig. 547. 

Plant succulent. Leaves lanceolate, fleshy. Rocky sea-shores. An 
aromatic esculent. 6 in.-l|^ ft. Perenn. Aug. White, (i) E. B. 
1. 819. E. B. 2. 413. H. ^ Am. 180. Bab. 146. Lind. 146. 
Genus 24. Angelica. 
A. Archangelica. Garden Angelica. Fig. 548. 

Terminal leaflet 3-lobed. Umbels globular, without involucrum. 
Plant bright green. Not indigeno'iS. Aromatic. 4-6 ft. Bienn. 
June-Sept. Bright green. (|-) j&.£. 1.2561. E.B. 2.414. H. ^ 
Am. 180. Bab. 146. Lind. 117. 

A. SYLVESTRTS. Wild Angelica. Fig. 549. 

Leaflets equal, sometimes lobed at the base. Stems usually reddish. 

Watery places; common. 2-4 ft. Perenn. July. Pinkish. (|) 

E.B. \.\\28. E.B. 2. 415. H. ^ Am. 180. Bab. 146. Lind.117. 

Genus 25. Peucedanum. 

P. officinale. Sea Hog's Fennel. Fig. 550. 

Leaflets linear, filiform. Leaves of the involucrum few, deciduous. 
Salt marshes ; rare. Plant foetid. 3 ft. Perenn. July-Sept. Yellow. 
(^) E.B. I. 1767. E.B.2.4\6. H.^- Am. ISl. Bab. 147. Lind. 117. 



56 

P. PALUSTRR. Milk Parsley. Hog's Fennel. Pig. 551. 

Leaves tripinnate ; leaflets pinnatifid, with lanceolate segments. 
Marshes. Has a foetid milky juice. 4-5 ft. Perenn. July. White. 
(I) E.B.\. 2'29. E. B. 2. 417. //. ^ Am. 181. Bab. 147. Lind. 116. 

P. OsTRUTHiUM. Master-wort. Fig. 552. 

Leaves biternate ; leaflets broad, ovate. Involucrum wanting. Moist 
pastures ; a doubtful native. 2 ft. Perenn. May- July. White. (^) 
E. B. 1. 1380. E. B. 2. 418. H. ^ Arn. 181. Bab. 147. Lind. 116. 

Genus 26. Pastinaca. 

P. SATiVA. Wild Parsnip. Pig. 553. 

Leaves simply pinnate, serrated, downy beneath. Fields and road- 
sides. Variety cultivated for its edible root. 3-4 ft. Bienn. July. 
Yellow. {\) E. B. 1. 556. E. B. 2. 419. H. ^ Arn. 182. Bab. 147. 
Lind. 116. 

Genus 27. Heracleum. 

H. Sphondylium. Cow-Parsnip. Fig. 554. 

Leaves pinnate, leaflets pinnatifid, cut and serrated. Petals unequal. 
Fields ; common. 4-5 ft. Bienn. July. White. (|) ^.B. 1.939. 
E. B. 2. 420. H. ^ Arn. 182. Bab. 147. Lind. 116. 

Genus 28. Tordylium. 

T. OFFICINALE. Small Hart-wort. Pig. 555. 

Leaflets ovate, cut, crenated. Involucels about as long as the flowers. 
Radiant petals in pairs, unequal. A doubtful native. 1 ft. Ann. 
June and July. White. (-^) E. B. I. 2440. E. B. 2. 421. H. ^ 
Am. 182. Bab. 147. Lind. 115. 

T. MAXIMUM. Great Hart-wort. Pig. 556. 

Leaflets lanceolate, serrated and notched. Involucels shorter than 
the umbels. A doubtful native. 2 ft. Ann. June and July. Pink, (i) 
£■.^.1.1173. E.B. 2.A22. H.^Arn.l82. Bab. \47. Lind. 115. 

Genus 29. Daucus. 

D. Carota. JFild Carrot. Bird's-nest. Fig. 557. 

Leaflets pinnatifid, with linear-lanceolate acute segments. Umbels 
concave when in fruit. Bristles of the fruit slender. Fields ; common 
on the chalk. Variety cultivated for its edible root. 1-3 ft. Bienn. 
July. White, (i) ^.JS. 1.1174. E.B.2.A23. H.^ Arn. 187. 
Bab. 148. Lind. 113. 

D. MARiTiMA. Sea-side Carrot. Fig. 558. 

Leaves pinnatifid, fleshy, with rounded segments. Umbels convex in 
fruit. Bristles of fruit flattened. Southern coast. 1-2 ft, Bienn. 
July and Aug. White, (i) E. B. 1. 2560. E. B. 2. 424. H. ^ 
Arn. 187. Bab. 148. Lind. \\3. 

Genus 30. Caucalis. 

C. DAUCOiDES, Small Bur-Parsley. Fig. 559. 

Primary umbels of about 3 rays, without involucrum. Leaves 2- or 
3-pinnate, segments pinnatifid. Corn-fields; local. 1^ ft. Ann. 
June. Pink. (}) E. B. 1. 197. E. B. 2. 425. H. ^ Arn. 188. 
Bab. 148. Lind. 114. 

C. L, ATI FOLIA. Great Bur-Parsley. Fig. 560. 

Primary umbels of about 3 rays, with a membranous involucrum. 
Leaves pinnate, with deeply serrated leaflets. Corn-fields. 3 ft. Ann. 
July. Pink, (i) E. B. 1. 198. E. B. 2. 426. //. ^ Arn. 188. 
Bab. 148. Lind. 114. 



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57 

Genus 31. Tortlis, 

T. Anthriscus. Upright Hedge-Parsley. Fig. 561. 

Leaves bipinnate ; leaflets cut and serrated. Involucrum many-leaved. 
A common weed. 2-3 ft. Ann. July. Pink, (f) £•. fi. I. 987. 
ii'. B. 2. 427. H. ^ Am. 188. Bab. 148. Lind. 114. 

T. iNFESTA. Spreading Hedge-Parsley. Fig. 562. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets pinnatifid, cut and serrated. Primary invo- 
lucrum wanting, or of only one leaf. A common weed. 1 ft. Ann. 
July. White or pink, (f) E. B. 1. 1314. E. B. 2. 428. //. ^ 
Am. 188. Bab. 149. Lind. 114. 

T. NODOSA. Knotted Hedge-Parsley. Fig. 563. 

Stem prostrate. Umbels lateral, simple, nearly sessile. Fields and 
banks ; common. 6 in.-l ft. Ann, May-July. Pink, (f ) E. B. 
1.199. E.B.2.429. H.^Am.\89. Bab. \49. Lind.l\4. 

Genus 32. Scandix. 

S. Pecten-Veneris. Fenus's Comb. Shepherd's Needle. Fig. 564:. 

Fruit nearly smooth, with a very long beak. Leaflets in linear seg- 
ments. A common weed. G in.-l ft. Ann. June-Aug. White, 
(f) E.B. 1. 1397. E. B. 2. 430. H.^Arn. 185. Bab. 149. Lind. 125. 

Genus 33. Anthriscus. 

A. SYLVESTRis. Chervil. Cow-Parsley. Fig. 565. 

Umbels terminal, stalked. Stem hairy below. Leaves tripinnate ; 
leaflets pinnatifid. Hedge-banks ; very common. 3-4 ft. Perenn. 
April and May. White. (|) E.B.I. 752. E.B. 2. 431. H. ^ 
Am. 185. Bab. 149. Lind. 124. 

A. Cerefolium. Garden Chervil. Fig. 566. 

Umbels sessile, lateral. Leaves bipinnate ; leaflets pinnatifid, pale 
green. Waste ground. 1^2 ft. Ann. June. White, (f) E.B. 
1.1268. E.B. 2. 432. H.^Arn. 185. Bab. 149. Lind. 124. 

A. VULGARIS. Common Chervil. Fig. 567. 

Umbels stalked, lateral. Leaves tripinnate; segments pinnatifid. 
Stem nearly smooth. Banks and road-sides. 6 in.-3 ft. Ann. Mav. 
White, (f) ^.£.1.818. E. B. 2. 433. H.^ Am. 185. Bab. 149. 
Lind. 124. 

Genus 34. Ch.erophyllum. 

C. temulentum. Rough Chervil. Fig. 568. 

Stem spotted with purple, rough with hairs. Umbels drooping. 
Hedge-banks; common. Poisonous? 1|— 3ft. Bienn, July. White, 
(f) E. B. 1. 1521. E. B. 2. 434. H. ij- Am. 186. Bab. 150. 
Lind. 125. 

C. ATJREUM. Yellow-seeded Chervil. Fig. 569. 

Stem angular, hairy. Leaves tripinnate ; leaflets sharply pinnatifid, 
pointed. Fields ; not common. 3 ft. Perenn. June. White ; seeds 
vellow. (f) E.B.I. 2103. E. B. 2. 435. //. ^ Am. 186. Bab. 150. 
Lind. 125. 

C. AROMATicuM. Broad-leaved Chervil. Fig. 570. 

Leaflets undivided, ovate, serrated. Near Guthrie, Forfar. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. June. White, (f ) E. B. Supp. 2G36. E. B. 2. 435*. 
Ji.^- Am. 186. Bab. 150. 'Lind. 125. 

I 



58 

Genus 35. MYRRnis. 

M. ODORATA. Sioeet Cicely. Fig. 571. 

Leaves tripinnnto ; leaflets cut and pinnatifld. Fruit with sliar[) 
elevated ribs. North of England. Aromatic. 2 ft. Perenn. May 
and June. White, (f) £". i^. 1.G97. £". if. 2. 43G. II.^Arn.X^l. 
IhibAbO. Lind.Ub. 

Genus 3(5. Echinophora. 

E. SPINOSA. Prickly Samphire. Fig. 572. 

Leaves bipinnatifid, with spinous segments. Involucrum spinous. 
Sandy coasts ; rare. 1ft. Perenn. July. White. (^) ^.i?. 1.2413. 
E.n.2.437. IJ.^Arn. ISO. Jiab. \50. Lijid. 120. 
Genus 37. Conium. 

C. MACtJLATUM. Ilemlock. Fig. 573. 

Stem polished, spotted with purple. Leaves dark glossy green, tri- 
piimate. Fruit with waved ridges. Hedge-banks. Very poisonous. 
2-4 ft. Bienn. June and Julv. White, (f) £". Zf. I. 1191. ii\ /f. 
2.438. H.^Arn.\SZ. Bnb.\^0. Lind. 126. 

Genus 38. Piiysosfermum. 

P. CORNUBIENSE. Comish Bladder-secd. Fig. 574. 

Root-leaves 2- or 3-ternate, cut; stem ones ternate, entire. Fields 
in Cornwall. 1^-2 ft. Perenn. July. White. (^) ^. if. 1.683. 
E. B. 2. 439. H. S,- Arn. 184. Bab. 151. Lind. 12G. 

Genus 39. Smyrnium. 

S. Olusatrum. Alexanders. Fig. 575. 

Stem-leaves ternate, serrated ; bright yellow-green. Sea-side and 
waste ground. 3-4 ft. Bienn. May and June. Yellow. (^) 
E. B. 1.230. E. B. 2. 440. H. ^ Am. 184. Bab. 151. Lind. 12G. 

Genus 40. Coriandrum. 

C. SATIVUM. Coriander. Fig. 576. 

Seed globular. Lower leaflets wedge-shaped. Fields and waste 
places. Seeds aromatic. 2 ft. Ann. June. White. (^) E. B.l. 67. 
E. B. 2.441. II. ^ Am. 1 83. Bab. \h\. Lind. 1 1 5. 

Order XXXVIII. ARALIACE/E. 
Genus 1. Adoxa. 
A. MoscHATELLiNA. Moscluitel. Fig. 577. 

Root-leaves ternate, deeply lobed, few in number. Flowers in a small 
terminal head. Woods and hedge-banks. lias a musky scent. 8 in. 
Perenn. April. Pale yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 453. E. B. 2. 5/7. 
ii.^^rn. 190. Bab.\f>2. Lind. 67. 

Genus 2. Hedera. 

H. Helix. Ivy. Fig. 578. 

Leaves ovate or cordate with angular lobes. Stems climbing by 

rooting fibres. Perenn. Oct. Pale green ; berries black when ripe. (^-) 

^. iJ. 1. 1267. E. B. 2. 344. H.^Arn. 190. Bab. 152. Lind. 133. 

Order XXXIX. CORNACE.!^.. 

Genus 1. Cornus. 

C. SANGUiNEA. Comel-trce. Dogwood. Fig. 579. 

A shrub. Leaves opposite, ovate. Flowers in cymes. Hedges ; 
common. 4-6 ft. June. White ; berries black. (^) i?. if. 1.249. 
E. B. 2. 227. II. ^ Arn. 191. Bab. 152. Lind. 133. 

C. SUECICA. Dwarf Cornel. Fig. 580. 

Herbaceous, creeping. Flowers in terminal umbels. Alpine pastures. 
6 in. Perenn. June and Julv. Purple. (^) E. B. 1. 310. 
E. li. 2. 228. II. ^- Am. 191. Bab. 152. Lind. 133. 



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59 ■« 

Order XL. LORANTHACEiE. 

Genus 1. Viscum. 

V. ALBUM. Mistletoe. Fig. 581. 

A parasitic shrub. Steins forked. Leaves opposite. Dioecious. 

On apple and other trees. March-May. Yellowish ; berries white. 

(I) i?.i?. 1.1470. ^.5.2.1386. H.^ Arn.m. Bab.lb'i. Lind.Vd'i. 

Order XLI. CAPRIFOLIACE^. 
Genus 1 . Sambucus. 

S. EnuLUS. Dwarf Elder. Dane-wort. Fig. 582. 

Leaflets lanceolate. Stem herbaceous. Cymes with 3 branches. 
Waste ground. Violently purgative. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. Pink ; 
berries black, (f) E. B.\. 475. E. B. 2. 444. H. ^ Am. 192. 
Bab. 154. Lind. 132. 

S. NIGRA. Common Elder. Fig. 583, 

A large shrub. Leaflets ovate. Cymes with 5 principal branches. 
Hedges; common. Bark and leaves cathartic. 8-15 ft. June. 
White ; berries black, (f ) E.B.I. 476. E. B. 2. 445. H. ^ Arn. 1 92. 
Bab. 154. Lind. 132. 

Genus 2. Viburnum. 

V. Lantana. Meal-tree. Fig. 684. 

A shrub. Leaves heart-shaped, serrated, downy beneath. Hedges 
and thickets. 6-12 ft. June. White; berries purple when ripe. 
(I) ^.^.1.331. E.B.2.AA2. H.^ Arn. 193. Bab. 154. Lind. 132. 

V. Opultjs. Guelder Rose. Fig. 585. 

A large shrub. Leaves 3-lobed, serrated. Outer flowers barren, with 
one large 5-lobed petal. Woods. 10-15 ft. June. White; berries 
red. (f) ^.^.1.332. E.B. 2. 443. H.^ Arn. 193. Bab. 154. 
Lind. 132. 

Genus 3. Lonicera. 

L. Caprifolium. Perfoliate Honeysuckle. Fig. 586. 

A climbing shrub. Upper leaves united round the stem. Woods; 
rare. May and June. White or purple, (f) £'.^.1.799. E.B.2.324. 
H.^ Arn. 193. Bab. 154. Lind. 131. 

L. Periclymenum. Honeysuckle. Woodbine. Fig. 587. 

A climbing shrub. Leaves separate. Flowers in terminal heads. 
Woods ; common. June and July. Pale yellow, red outside. {^) 
E. B. 1. 800. E. B. 2. 325. H/^ Arn. 193. Bab. 154. Lind. 131. 

L. Xylosteum. Upright Honeysuckle. Fig. 588. 

A shrub. Flower-stalks 2flowered. Thickets in Sussex. June. 
Pale yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 916. E.B. 2.326. H. ^ Arn. 193. 
Bab. 155. Lind. 132. 

Genus 4. Linn^a. 

L. BOREALis. Fig. 589. 

A small creeping shrub. Leaves opposite. Flowers in pairs, drooping. 
Northern Pine-woods. 6-8 in. Perenn. May and June Wliite or 
pale rose-colour. (|) E. B. 1. 433. E. B. 2. 884. H. ^' Arn. 194. 
Bab.\b5. Lind. 132. 

Order XLII. RUBIACE^. 
Genus 1. Rubia. 
R. peregrina. Wild Madder. Fig. 590. 

Leaves 4 in a whorl, oval, with prickles on the margin, evergreen. 
Shady thickets, 8 in. Perenn. July. White, (f) E.B.\.9b\. 
E. B. 2. 218. //. ^- Arn. 195. Bab. 159. Lind. 131. 

I 2 



60 

Genus 2. Galium. 

G. CRUCiATUM. Cross-wort. Fig. 59L 

Leaves 4 in a whorl, ovate, hairy. Bunches of flowers lateral, with 

2 leaves. Hedges and thickets. 1 ft. Perenn. June. Yellow, (f ) 

E. li. 1. U3. E. B. 2. 203. //. ^ Am. 195. Bab. 156. Lind. 128. 

G. VERUM. Fellow Bed-straw. Fig. 592. 

Leaves 8 iu a whorl, linear, channelled, rough. Flowers in close 
panicles. Dry fields ; common. 6 in.-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Yellow, (f) E.B.I. (j60. E. B. 2. 204. H. ^ Am. 195. Bab. 158. 
Lind. 130. 

G. PALUSTRE. White Water Bed-straw. Fig. 593. 

Leaves chiefly 4 in a whorl, obovate. Stems weak and spreading. 
Ditches. 1-4 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. White, (f) E.B.\,\^b7, 
E. B. 2. 205. n. ^Arn. 19G. Bab. 159. Lind. 128. 

G. WiTHERiNGii. Rough Heath Bed-straw. Fig. 594. 

Leaves 5 in a whorl, lanceolate, fringed with bristles. Stem upright, 
hairy. Boggy heaths. 1 ft. Perenn. July. Pale yellow, (f) 
E.B.I. 2206. E. B. 2. 206. R.^Arn. 196. Bab. 159. Lind. 128. 

G. SAXATiLE. Smooth Heath Bed-straw. Fig. 595. 

Leaves 6 in a whorl, obovate. Stem prostrate, much branched. 
Heaths ; common. 2-6 in. Perenn. June-Sept. White, (f ) E. B. 
1. 815. E.B.2. 207. H.^Arn. 195. Bab. 158. Lind. 128. 

G. ULIGINOSUM. Rough Marsh Bed-straw. Fig. 596. 

Leaves 6 in a whorl, lanceolate, rigid, their edges rough with reflexed 
prickles. Wet places. 1 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. White, (f ) 
E.B.I. \^72. E.B.2.20S. H.^Arn.]96. Bab. 159. Lind. 129. 

G. ERECTUM. Upright Bed-straw. Fig. 597. 

Leaves 8 in a whorl, lanceolate, veiny, bristle-pointed with marginal 
prickles pointing forward. Hedges. 1 ft. Perenn. June. White, 
(f) ^.5.1.2067. E.B. 2.209. H.^Arn. 196. Bab.\57. Lind.129. 

G. ciNEREUM. Grei/ Bed-straw. Fig. 698. 

Leaves 6 or 8 in a whorl, linear, with marginal prickles. A variety 
of erectum. Scotland ; rare. 1 ft. Perenn. July. White, (f ) 
E. B. Supp. 2783. E. B. 2. 209*. H. ^ Am. 196. Bab. 157. Lind. 12'9. 

G. ARisTATUM. Bearded Bed-straw. Fig. 599. 

Leaves 6 in a whorl, stalked, lanceolate, with minute marginal prickles. 
A variety of erectum. Angus-shire. 1 ft. Perenn. July. White. 
(1) E. B. Supp. 27S4. E.B. 2.209**. H.^Arn. 196 Bab. 157. 
Lind. 129. 

G. SACCHARATUM. Rough-fruited Bed-straw. Fig. 609. 

Leaves 6 in a whorl, lanceolate, with prickles pointing forward. 
Flower-stalks axillary, 3-flowered. Corn-fields ; rare. 1 ft. Ann. 
June-Aug. White, (f) ^. J?. 1. 2173. E.B.2.2\0. H. ^ 
Am. 197. Bab. 15G. Lind. 129. 



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61 

G. TRicoRNE. Corn Bed-straio. Fig. 601. 

Leaves about 8 in a whorl. Stem and leaves rough with reflexed 
prickles. Flower-stalks axillary, 3-flowered. Fruit roui^h, drooping. 
Dry fields. 1ft. Ann. July. White, (f) E.B.\':\GA\. E.B. 
2. 211. H. ^ Am. 198. Bab. 156. Lind. 129. 

G. SPURIUM. S moo I h- fruited Corn Bed-straw. Fig. 602. 

Leaves about 8 in a whorl. Flower-stalks axillary, many-flowered. 
Fruit smooth, erect. Forfar. 1-2 ft. Ann. June and July. White, 
(f) E. B. 1. 1871. E. B. 2. 212. H. ^ Am. 198. Bab. 157. 
Lind. 129. 

G. pusiLLUM. Little Mountain Bed-straw. Fig. 603. 

Leaves 8 in a whorl, linear-lanceolate. Panicles terminal, forked. 
Fruit very smooth. Limestone hills. 3-10 in. Perenn. July and 
Aug. White. (I) E. B. 1. 74. E. B. 2. 213. H. ^ Am. 19G. 
Bab.lbS. Lind. 129. 

G. MoLLUGO. Great Hedge Bed-straw. Fig. 604. 

Leaves 8 in a whorl, oval, bristle-pointed. Flowers in loose spreading 
panicles. Seeds smooth, globular. Hedges. 1-4 ft. Perenn. July 
and Aug. White. (|) £'.5.1.1673. E.B.2.2\A. H.^ Am. 197. 
Bab. 158. Lind. 130. 

G. ANGLicuM. Wall Bed-straw. Fig. 605, 

Leaves about 6 in a whorl, lanceolate, pointed, fringed with prickles. 

Stems straggling. Flower-stalks forked, terminal. 6-8 in. Ann. 

June and July. White. (|) E. B. I. 384. E. B. 2. 215. H. ^ 

Am. 197. Bab. 157. Lind. 130. 

G. BORE ALE. Cross-leaved Bed-straw. Fig. 606. 

Leaves 4 in a whorl, ovate-lanceolate, not hairy. Stem erect. 

Rocky places. 1 ft. Perenn. July. White. (|) E. B.\. 105. 
E.B. 2.216. H.^Arn.l97. Bab. 156. Lind.130. 

G. Aparine. Goose-grass. Cleavers. Fig. 607. 

Leaves 8 in a whorl, lanceolate, keeled, rough. Stem weak, prickly. 
Fruit covered with hooked bristles. Hedge-banks ; abundant. Ann. 
May-Aug. White, (f) E.B. 1.816. E. B. 2. 217. H.^Am. 198. 
Bab, 157. Lind. 130. 

Genus 3. Sherardia. 

S. ARVENSis. Field Madder. Fig. 608. 

All the leaves whorled. Flowers terminal. Fields ; common. 4- 
6 in. Ann. Juue-Aug. Purplish blue. (|) E.B. 1. 891. E.B. 
2. 200. H.^Arn. 199. Bab. 156. Lind. 130. 

Genus 4. Asperula. 

A. ODORATA. Woodruff. Fig. 609. 

Leaves 8 in a whorl, lanceolate. Tufts of flowers on long stalks. 
Dry woods ; common. 6-8 in. Perenn. May. White, (f ) E. B. 
1. 755. E. B. 2. 201. H. ^ Am. 199. Bab. 156. Lind. 130. 

A. ARVENSIS. Field Woodruff. Fig. 610. 

Leaves 6-1 in a whorl, linear-lanceolate. Near Davenport. 6-10 in. 
Ann. May-July. Blue, (f) E.B.Supp.2792. E.B.2.2Q\*. H.^ 
Am. 199. Bab.\56. 



63 

A. CYNANCHICA. Squinaiicy-wort. Fig. 611. 

Lower leaves 4 in a whorl, upper ones in pairs. Dry banks. 6 in. 
Perenn. July. Pink, (f) E. B. 1. 33. E. B. 2. 202. H. ^ 
Am. 199. Bab. 155. Lind. 130. 

Order XLIII. VALERIANACEiE. 

Genus 1 . Centbanthus. 

C. RUBRA. Red Valerian. Fig. 612. 

Leaves lanceolate, entire. Stamen I. Spur of flower long. Chalky 
banks and old walls. H ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Red. (f) E. B. 
1. 1531. E.B.2. 37. H. ^ Am. 200. Bab. 160. Lind. 139. 

Genus 2. Valeriana. 

V. DioiCA. Marsh Valerian. Fig. 613. 

Flowers dioecious. Root-leaves ovate, those of the stem pinnate. 
Moist meadows. 1ft. Perenn. June. Pink. (|) £'.£.1.628. 
E. B. 2. 38. //. ^ Am. 200. Bab. 160. Lind. 138. 

V. OFFICINALIS. Great Wild Valerian. Fig. 614. 

Leaves all pinnate ; leaflets lanceolate. Moist places ; common. Root 
aromatic and antispasmodic. 3-4 ft. Perenn. June. Pink, (f) 
E.B.\. 698. E. B. 2. 39. H. ^ Am. 200. Bab. 160. Lind. 138. 

V. PYRENAiCA. Heart-leaved Valerian. Fig. 615. 

Stem-leaves heart-shaped ; the upper ones pinnated. A doubtful 
native. 3 ft. Perenn. July. Pink, (f) E. B. I. 1591. E. B. 
2.40. H.^Arn.20l. Bab. 160. Lind. 138. 

Genus 3. Fedia. 

F. olitorta. Corn Salad Fig. 616. 

Flowers in round heads. Leaves tongue-shaped. Fruit subglobose. 
A common weed. 6 in. Ann. April-June. Blue, (f) E.B.I. 811. 
E.B.2.4\. H.^ Am. 20 1 . Bab. 161. Lind. 23. 

F. dentata. LaniVs Lettuce. Fig. 617. 

Flowers in the forks of the stem. Fruit ovate. Leaves linear, tongue- 
shaped. Corn-fields. 1 ft. Ann. June and July. Purple, (f) 
E.B.\.U70. E.B. 2. 42. H. ^ Arn. 202. Bab. 161. Lind. 138. 

F. Auricula. Fig. 618. 

Upper leaves somewhat pinnatifid at the base. Fruit subglobose. A 
variety of «?en^a^a ? Corn-fields. 1ft. Ann. June and July. Purple, 
(a) E. B. Supp. 2809. H.^Arn. 202. Bab. 161. Lind. 327. 

F. carinata. Fig. 619. 

Fruit oblong. Leaves entire, oblong or spatulate. A variety of 
dentata. Corn-fields and gardens. 8 in. Ann. June and July. 
Purple, (f) E.B. Supp. 28\0. H.^ Am. 201. Bab. 161. Lind. 327. 

Order XLIV. DIPSACE^. 
Genus ]. Dipsacus. 

I). FuLLONUM. Fuller's Teasle. Pig. 620. 

Leaves connected at the base. Scales of the receptacle broad, hooked. 
Involucrum spreading. Heads used for dressing cloth. Waste places ; 
not native. 4 ft. Bienn. July. Purple. (|) E.B.I. 2080. E.B. 
2.194. II. i^ Am. 203. Bab. \62. Lind. 139. 



■J/y^K^< ^^a/ ^f^ 6' 2 a 



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6'0(9 




OVO' 



1 &b. 1869. 



31 



63 

T). SYLVESTRis. Wild TeosJe. Fig, 621. 

Leaves often connected at the base. Scales of receptacle narrow, 
straight. Ditch-banks and wav-sides ; common. 4 ft. Bienn. July. 
Purple, (f) ^.U. 1.1032. 'E.B.2.\95. U. ^ Am. 203. Bab. 16. 
Lind. 139. 

D. piLOSus. Small Teasle. Fig. 623. 

Leaves with foot-stalks, ternate, with small leaflets. Shady places on 
a chalky soil. 4 ft. Bienn. Aug. and Sept. White, (f) E. B. 
1. 877. E. B. 2. 196. H. ^ Am. 203. Bab. 1G3. Lind. 139. 
Genus 2. Scabiosa. 

S. succiSA. DeviVs-bit. Fig. 623. 

Corolla 4-cleft, regular. Heads of flowers nearly globular. Commons ; 
very common. 1ft. Perenn. Aug.-Oct. Blue, (f) E.B.\.S7'S. 
E. B. 2. 197. H. c^ Am. 204. Bab. 163. Lind. 139. 

S. ARVENSis. Field Scabious. Fig. 624. 

Corolla 4-cleft. Marginal flowers radiant. Leaves pinnatifid. Corn- 
fields and pastures ; common. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. Purple. (^) 
E. B. 1. 659. E. B. 2. 198. H. ^- Am. 204. Bab. 163. Lind. 140. 

S. COLUMBARIA. Small Scabious. Fig. 625. 

Corolla 5-cleft, irregular. Upper leaves pinnatifid, with linear seg- 
ments. Pastures. 1-li ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Purple, (f) 
E.B. 1. 134. E. B. 2. 199. H. ^ Am. 204. Bab. 163. Lind. 140. 

Order XLV. COMPOSITE. 
Genus 1. Tragopogon. 

T. PRATENSis. Yellow Goafs-beard. Fig. 626. 

Leaves channelled, pointed, dilated at the base. Peduncle thickened 
upwards. Livolucrum about equal to the florets. Meadows. 1-2 ft. 
Bienn. June and July. Yellow. (|) E.B.\.A3A. E.B. 2. 1061. 
H.^ Am. 209. Bab. 193. Lind. ] 61. 

T. poRRiFOLius. Purple Goafs-beard. Salsify. Fig. 627. 

Leaves straight from the base. Involucrum longer than the florets. 
Moist meadows ; not native. Roots esculent. 3-4 ft. Bienn. May 
and June. Purple, (f) J^. 5. 1.638. £".5.2.1062. H.^ Am. 209. 
Bab. 193. Lind. 161. 

Genus 2. Helminthia. 

H. ECHioiDEs. Ox-tongne. Fig. 628. 

Involucrum double ; outer one spiny at the margin. Lower leaves 
lanceolate, spiny. Hedge-banks. 2-3 ft. Ann. June and July. 
Yellow, (f) E.B. I. 972. E.B. 2. 1063. H.^ Am. 209. Bab. 194. 
Lind. 158. 

Genus 3. Picris. 

P. HiERACioiDES. Yellow Succory. Fig. 629. 

Stem rough with hooked bristles. Leaves rough, lanceolate, wavy. 
Foot-stalks with many bracts. Road-sides ; common. 2-3 ft. Bienn. 
July and Aug. Yellow. (|) £".£.1.196. E.B.2.\06A. H. ^ 
Am. 210. Bab. 193. Lind. 158. 

Genus 4. Sonchus. 

S. ALPiNUS. Blue Sow-Thistle. Fig. 630. 

Leaves lyrate ; terminal lobe triangular. Stems covered with glan- 
dular hairs. Scottish mountains. 3-4 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Blue. (I) ^.jB. 1.2425. £.5.2.1065. H.^Arn.2\3. Bab.\96. 
Lind. 156. 



64 

S. PALUSTRis. Marsh Sow-Thistle. Fig. 631. 

Leaves runcinate ; upper ones arrow-shaped, with very long lobes. 
Involucrum hairy. River-sides ; rare. 7-8 ft. Perenn. July. Yellow. 
(I) J?.^. 1.93;"). £'.5.2.1066. II.^Arn.2U. Bab.l^b. Lind.l56. 

S. ARVENSis. Corn Sow-Thistle. Fig. 632. 

Creeping at the root. Lower leaves runcinate ; upper ones entire. 
Involucrum hairy. Corn-fields ; common. 3-4 ft. Perenn. Aug. 
Golden yellow, (f) K B. I. 674. E. B. 2. 1067. H. ^ Arn. 213. 
Bab. 195. Lind. 156. 

S. OLERACEUS. Sow-Thistle. Fig. 633. 

Leaves more or less pinnatifid ; lower ones with foot-stalks. Invo- 
lucrum smooth. A common weed. 1-3 ft. Ann. June-Oct. Yellow, 
(f) E. B. 1.843. E.B. 2. 1068. H.^Arn. 213. Bab. 195. Lind. 156. 

S. ASPER. Rouffh Sow-Thistle. Fig. 634. 

Leaves with rounded bases ; lower ones sessile, spiny at the margin. 
A mere variety of oleraceus. (f) E. B. Supp. 2765. E. B. 2. 1068*. 
H.^Arn.2U. Bab. \9b. Lind. 2,2^. 

Genus 5. Lactuca. 

L. viROSA. Wild Lettuce. Fig. 635. 

Leaves horizontal, oblong, finely toothed. Stem prickly. Flowers 
in panicles. Hedge-banks ; common. Very narcotic. 3-4 ft. Bienn. 
Aug. Yellow, (f) E.B,\. 1957. E. B. 2. 1069. H. ^' Arn. 212. 
Bab. 194. Lind. 156. 

L. ScARiOLA. Prickly Lettuce. Fig. 636. 

Leaves uearly erect, lobed, prickly. Flowers in a terminal panicle. 
Waste places. 2-3 ft. Bienn. Aug. Yellow, (f) E.B.\.2tS. 
E.B. 2. 1070. H.^ Arn. 212. Bab. \94. Lind. 156. 

L. SALTGNA. Small Lettuce. Fig. 637. 

Root-leaves lanceolate, entire ; upper ones linear-lanceolate, sagittate. 
Flowers nearly sessile. Near the sea. 6 in.-l ft. Bienn. Aug. 
Pale yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 707. E. B. 2. 1071. H. ^ Arn. 212. 
Bab. 194. Lind. 157. 

Genus 6. Prenanthes. 

P. MURALis. Ivy-leaved Wall-Lettuce. Fig. 638. 

Leaves lyrate ; terminal lobe large and angular. Florets 5. Walls 
and cliflFs. 1 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Pale yellow, (f ) E. B. 
1. 457. E. B. 2. 1072. //. ^ Arn. 212. Bab. 194. Lind. 157. 

P. HiERACiiFOLiA. Hawk-wced Wall-Lettuce. Fig. 639. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, downy, toothed. Panicle corymbose, spread- 
ing. Near Forfar. 1 ft. Ann. June-Sept. Yellow, anthers brown. (-|) 
E.B. 1.2325. E.B. 2. 1073. H.^Arn.2l4. Bab. 197. Lind. 158. 

Genus 7. Leontodon. 

L. Taraxacum. Dandelion. Fig. 640. 

Leaves runcinate, smooth, all springing from the root. Outer scales 
of involucrum reflexed. A common weed. Diuretic. 6 in. Perenn. 
April-Oct. Bright yellow, (i) E.B. 1. 510. E.B. 2.1074. H.^ 
Arn.2l6. Bab. 195. Lind. 157. 



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65 

L. PAT.TTSTRK. Morsh Dandelion. Fig. 641. 

Leaves sinuated and toothed. Outer scales of involucrum erect. A 
variety of Taraxacum. Marshes. 6 in. Pcrenn, May-Sept. Yellow. 
(I) E. B. 1. 553. E.B. 2. 1075. H. ^ Am. 216. Bab. 195. 
J And. 157. 

Genus 8. Apargia. 

A. HispiDA. Rough Hawk-bit. Fig. 642. 

Leaves with hooked teeth, hairy. Stem single-flowered. Involucrum 
hairy. Dry pastures and heaths ; common. 6 in. Perenn. June 
and July. Bright yellow. (|) ^.i?. 1.554. ^.^.2.1076. H.^ 
Arn.2\0. Bab. 192. Lind. 162. 

A. Taraxaci. Dandelion Hawh-lit. Fig. 643. 

Leaves smooth, runcinate. Involucrum hairy. Stem single-flowered. 
Mountains. 1ft. Perenn. Aug. Deep yellow. (|) £". i?. 1. 1109. 
E. B. 2. 1077. H. ^ Am. 210. Bab. 193. Lind. 162. 

A. AUTUMNALis. Autumnal Jlaiok-hit. Fig. 644. 

Leaves nearly smooth, pinnatifid. Stem branched, with many scaly 
bracts. Meadows ; abundant. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Yellow. 
(I) E.B. 1.830. E. B. 2. 1078. H.^Am.2\Q. Bab. 193. Lind. 162. 

Genus 9. Thrincia. 

T. iiiRTA. Hairy Hawk-bit. Fig. 645. 

Leaves lanceolate, slightly toothed, hairy. Stems single-flowered. 
Gravelly commons; frequent. 6-8 in. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Bright yellow, orange outside. Q) E.B. 1. 555. E. B. 2. 1079. 
n.^Am.2n. Bab. 192. Lind. 162. 

Genus 10. Hieracium. 

II. ALPiNUM. Alpine Hawkweed. Fig. 646. 

Very hairy. Stem with 1 or 2 bracts, single-flowered. Leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, nearly entire. Involucrum shaggy. Mountains. 
6in. Perenn. Aug. Deep yellow, (i) £". i?. 1. 1 110. E.B.2.1QS0. 
H.^ Am. 219. Bab. 199. Lind. 159. 

II. Halleri. Fig. 647. 

Hairy. Stem 1 -flowered, with 1 or 2 leaves near the base. Leaves 
lanceolate, nearly entire. A variety of alpinum. Mountains. Perenn. 
Aug. Yellow. (I) E.B.\. 22,79. ^.5.2.1081. H.^ Am. 218. 
Bab. 2021 Lind. 160. 

H. PiLOSELLA. Mouse-ear Hawkweed. Fig. 648. 

Scions creeping. Stem hairy, leafless, 1 -flowered. Leaves elliptic- 
lanceolate, entire, very hairy, downy beneath. Dry places ; very com- 
mon. 6 in. Perenn. May-Aug. Lemon-yellow, (g) ii". i?. 1. 1093. 
^-.jB. 2. 1082. H.^Am.2\7. Bab. 198. Lind. 159. 

H. DUBitJM. Fig. 649. 

Scions creeping. Stem nearly smooth, loosely corymbose. Leaves 
elliptic-lanceolate, nearly entire, with long hairs. Mountains ; rare. 
1 ft. Perenn. July. Yellow. Q) E. B. 1. 2332. E. B. 2. 1083. 
Lind. 159. 

H. Auricula. Fig. 650. 

Scions short. Stem leafless, scape-like, hairy, densely corymbiferous. 
Leaves lanceolate, nearly entire, hairy. Near Grassmere. 8 in. Perenn. 
July. Yellow. (|) ^.B. 1.2368. E.B. 2. 1084. Lind. 159. 

K 



66 

H. AURANTiACUM. Orange Ilawkweed. Fig. 651. 

Scions creeping. Stem nearly leafless, hairy, densely corymbose. 
Leaves elliptical, entire, hairy. Flowers numerous. Northern woods. 
8 in.-l ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Deep orange. (|) E. B. 1. 1461). 
£. B. 2. 1085. H.^Arn. 217. Bub. 198. Lind. 159. 

H. Lawsoni. Glaucous Ilawkweed. Pig. 652. 

Hairy. Stem simply branched, few-leaved. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 
glaucous. Peduncles with black glandular hairs. Mountains. 1 It. 
Perenn. Aug. Yellow. (|) ^.i?. 1.2083. ^.ii.2. 1086. Bab.2^\. 
Lind. 160. 

H. PULMONARTUM. Pig- 653. 

Hairy. Stem somewhat corymbose, 2-6-flowered. Leaves lanceolate, 
deeply toothed ; teeth pointing forward. Rocky places. 1 ft. Peretm. 
Aug. Yellow. (I) E.B.\. 2307. E. B. 2. 1087. //. ^ Am. 220. 
Lind. 159. 

H. MURDRUM. Wall HawJiweed. Fig. 654. 

Hairy. Stem corymbose, bearing a single leaf. Leaves ovate or 
heart-shaped. Dry woods and walls ; common. 2 in. -2 ft. Perenn. 
Aug. Deep yellow, (i) E. B. 1. 2082. E. B. 2. 1088. H. ^ 
Am. 22\. Bab. 203. Lind. 159. 

H. SYLVATicuM. Wood Haiokwced. Fig. 655. 

Stem branched upwards, many-leaved. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, with 
teeth at the base pointing upwards. Dry woods ; common. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. JulvandAug. Yellow. (|) ^.^.1.2031. £".^.2.1089. 
H.^Am. 223. Bab. 204. Lind. 159. 

H. MACULATUM. Spotted Ilawkweed. Fig. 656. 

Leaves more deeply toothed, spotted with purple. A variety of 
sylvaticum. Dry woods. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellow. 
(1) E. B.\.2\2\. E. B. 2. 1090. H. 4' Am. 223. Bab. 204. 
Lind. 159. 

H. PALUDOSUM. Succory-leaved Hawkweed. Fig. 657. 

Stem angular, hollow, panicled. Leaves smooth, oblong-ovate, 
toothed, stem-clasping. Livolucrum covered with black bristles. 
Shady places ; common. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Bright 
yellow, ii) j^.j?. 1. 1094. £".^.2.1091. H.i^Ara.2\^. Bab.l97. 
Lind. IGO. 

H. MOLLE. Soft Hawhoeed. Fig. 658. 

Stem hollow, panicled. Leaves hairy, lanceolate, stem-clasping ; 
lower ones elliptical, stalked. Northern woods. 1-2 ft, Perenn. 
July and Aug. Yellow. (|) £'.£.1.2210. £. i?. 2. 1092. H. ^ 
Am.2\b. Bab. 197. Lind. 160. 

H. CERINTHOIDES. Fig. 659. 

Stem solid, corymbose. Leaves hairy, slightly toothed, oblong ; 
lower ones with petioles. Involucrum hairy. Highland rocks. 2 ft. 
Perenn. Aug. Bright yellow. (|) E. B. I. 2378. E. B. 2. 1093. 
H. ^ Am. 218. Bab. 201 ? Lind. 160. 

H. AMPLEXICAULE. Fig. 660. 

Stem corymbose, with glandular hairs. Leaves toothed ; lower ones 
oblong-ovate, with petioles ; stem ones cordate, stem-clasping. Clova 
Mountains. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. Aug. Yellow. (|) E. B. Supp. 2(')9\). 
E. B. 2. 1093*. //. ^'Am. 219. Lind. 160. 



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■ J^-SowerCj;. Fecy't. 

33 



67 

H. SABAUDUM. Shrubby Hawkweed, Fig. 661. 

Stem erect, much branched, very leafy, many-flowcreJ. Leaves 
ovate-lanceolate, toothed, hairy beneath. Woods ; common. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. July-Sept. Yellow. (|) £■. 2/. I. 349. E. B. 2. \QU. 
H. ^ Arn. 227. Bab. 207. Lind. 160. 

H. DENTICULATUM. Fig. 663. 

Stem erect, solid, many-flowered. Leaves sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, 
glaucous beneath. Peduncles cottony. Nortliern woods. 3 ft. Perenn. 
Aug. Yellow. (I) £".^.1.2122. £'.£.2.1095. //.^^rn.224. 
Bab, 20b. Lind. 160. 

H. PRENANTHOIDES. Fig. 663. 

• Stem erect, many-flowered. Leaves elliptic-oblong; upper ones 
cordate, stem-clasping. Scotland. 3-4 ft. Perenn. Aug. Yellow. 
ih) E.B.\.22'6b.E.B.2.\09Q. H.^ Arn. 224. Bab. 205. Lind. 16]. 

H. UMBELLATUM. Narrow-leavcd Hawkweed. Fig. 664. 

Stem erect, simple, very leafy. Leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly 
smooth. Flowers in terminal umbel-like corvmbs. Dry woods ; com- 
mon. 2-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Yellow, (h) E.B.I. 1771. 
E. B. 2. 1097. H. ^ Arn. 226. Bab. 206. Lind. 161. 

Genus 11. Crepis. 

C. TECTORUM. Smooth HawFs-beard. Fig. 665. 

Stem smooth, purple at the joints. Upper leaves linear-lanceolate ; 
lower runcinate. Walls and dry places ; common. 6 in.-2 ft. Ann. 
June-Sept. Yellow, (i) £".£.1.1111. £".£.2.1098. H. ^ 
Arn.2U. Bab.\97. Lind. 158. 

C. BIENNIS. Rough Hawk' s-b ear d. Fig. 666. 

Stem and leaves hairy. Root-leaves somewhat lyrate ; upper pinnatifid, 
with toothed lobes. Dry pastures. 2-4 ft. Bienn. June and July. 
Yellow. (I) i^.£. 1.149. £.£.2.1099. H.^Arn.2U. Bab. 197. 
Lind. 158. 

Genus 12. Borkhausia. 

B. FCETiDA. Stinking Hawk's-beard. Fig. 667. 

Stem hairy, spreading. Leaves pinnatifid, hairy, sessile. Involucrum 
with deciduous scales at the base. Chalky fields. 6 in.-l ft. Bienn. 
June and July. Yellow, (i) £'.£.1.406. £".£.2.1100. E.^ 
Arn.215. Bab. 196. Lind. 158. 

Genus 13. Hypochceris. 

H. MACULATA. Spotted Cat's-ear. Fig. 668. 

Stems simple, hairy; generally 1-flowered. Leaves ovate-oblong, 
all growing from the root, spotted with brown beneath. Dry pastures. 
6-8 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 225. 
^.£.2.1101. H.^Arn.212. Bab. 192. Lind. 161. 

H. GLABRA. Smooth Cat's-ear. Fig. 669. 

Nearly smooth. Stems branched, leafy. Leaves waved or toothed. 
Dry pastures. 4 in.-l ft. Ann. July and Aug. Yellow, (k) 
E.B.I. 575. E.B.2.1\02. H.^Arn.211. Bab. 191. Lind.l6\. 

H. RADiCATA. Long-rooted Cafs-ear. Fig. 670. 

Stems branched, not leafy, smooth. Leaves runcinate, rough with 
hairs. Meadows ; very common. 1 ft. Perenn. June-Sept. Yellow. 
G) ^.£.1.831. £'.£.2.1103. H.Sr Am. 21\. Bab. 192. Lind. 161 

K 2 



68 

Genus 14. Lapsana, 

L. COMMUNIS. Nipple-wort. , "iS- 671. 

Stem branched, panicled. Leaves ovate, toothed with foot-stalks. 
Peduncles slender. A common weed. 2-3 ft. Ann. July and An-. 
Pale yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 844. E. B. 2. 1104. H. ^ Jru. 227. 
BabA9l. Lincl.loJ. 

L. PUSILT.A. BmirfNipph-wort. . Fig. 672. 

Leaves all from the root. Stem branched, peduncles thickened up- 
wards. Sandy fields. G-8 in. Ann. June and July. Bright yellow. 
(A) E.B.\.9o. E.B.2.\\Qo. H.^Arn.227. Bab. \9l. Lind.\b7. 
Genus 15. Ciciiorium. 

C. Tntybus. Chicory. Succory. V^^'F^!\' 

Leaves runcinate. Flowers sessile, in pairs. Chalky or dry fields 

and way-sides. Roots used as a substitute for coffee. 1-3 ft. Perenn. 

July-Sept. Bright blue. (A) ^.JS. 1.537. ^.^.2.1106. H.i^ 

Arn.22S. Bab. 191. Lind. 162. 

Genus 16. Arctium. 

A. Lappa. Burdock. Fig. 674. 

Leaves heart-shaped, with petioles, very large. Scales of involucrum 

hooked. Waste places and road-sides; abundant. 3-4 ft. Bienn. 

July and Aug. Purple or white. (^) E.B.I. 1228. E. B. 2. 1 107. 

H.^Arn.229. Bab.\S\. Lind. 154. 

A. TOMENTOSUM. Bowny-hcaded Burdock. Fig. 675. 

Involucrum cottony. A variety of Lappa. Way-sides. 1-4 ft. 
Bienn. July and Aug. Purple. Q) ^. if. 1.24/8. £-.2?. 2. 1108. 
H.^Arn.229. Bab. \85. Lind. \54. 

Genus ] 7. Serratula. 

S. TiNCTORiA. Saw-wort. Fig. 67G. 

Leaves pinnatifid, or nearly entire, with sharp serratures. Woods ; 

common. Yields a yellow dye. 2-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. 

Purple. (I) E.B.I. 38. E.B. 2. 1109. H.^ Am. 229. Bab.lSo. 

Lind. 154. 

Genus 18. Saussuria. 
S. ALPiNA. Fig. 677. 

Leaves undivided, cottony beneath. Flowers in an umbel-like cluster. 
Moist alpine rocks. G-lOin. Perenn. Aug. Purple. (|) E.B. 
1.599. E.B.2.\nQ. H.^Arn.230. Bub. 183. Lind.l54. 

Genus 19. Carduus. 

C. NUTANS. Musk Thistle. Fig. 678. 

Leaves decurrent, deeply waved, spinous. Flowers drooping. Waste 
ground. 2-3 ft. Ann. July and Aug. Deep purple. (|) E. B. 
1. 1112. E.B. 2. nil. H.^Arn. 230. Bab. 188. Lind. 155. 

C. ACANTHOiDES. Welted Thistle. Fig. 679. 

Leaves decurrent, very spinous. Flowers in heads, nearly sessile. 
Road-sides; common. 3-5 ft. Ann. July. Purple or white, (g) 
^.5. 1.973. E.B.2.\U2. H.^Arn.230. Bab. 188. Lind.Vjb. 

C. TENUiFLORUS. Slender-flowercd Thistle. Fig. 680. 

Leaves decurrent, pinnatifid, spinous, rather cottony beneath. Waste 
places. 2-4 ft. Ann. June and July. Pale rose-colour. (|) E.B. 
1.412. ^. 2i. 2. 1113. H.Sf Arn.2:60. Bab.\88. Lind. 156. 



^^ tjfi'/ '^' /^c^>^ 



66J 




Mil tell. 1^5!-' 






6P 

Genus 20. Silyjjum. 

S. Marianum. Milk Thistle. Fig 681. 

Leaves waved, spinous, glossy green with white veins. Spines of 
involucrum very large, recurved. Waste places. 4-5 ft. liienn. 
July. Purple. (|) E.B, 1.970. E.B.2.UU. H.^ Am. 231. 
Bub. 190. Lind. 154. 

Genus 21. Cnicus. 

C. LANCEOLATUS. Sj^pur Thistle. Fig. 682. 

Stem hairy, furrowed. Leaves spinous, cottony beneath. Involucrum 
ovate, with lanceolate spreading scales. Flowers solitary. Waste places ; 
common. 3-4 ft. Bienn. July and Aug. Purple, {h) E.B. 1.107. 
F.B.2.\ll5. H.^Arn.23l. Bab. ISS. Lind. 152". 

C. PALusTRis. Marsh Thistle. Fig. 683. 

Leaves decurrent, pinnatifid, toothed, spinous. Involucrum ovate, 
scales nearly smooth. Flowers in close clusters. Marshes. 3-6 ft. 
Bienn. July and Aug. Purple or white. (|) E. B. 1.974. E.B. 
2.1116. H.^Arn.23\. Bab. 189. Lind. 152. 

C. ARVENSis. Common Thistle. Fig. 684. 

Root creeping. Stem panicled, solid. Leaves sessile, pinnatifid, 
spinous, deep shining green, nearly smooth. A common weed. 1-3 ft. 
Perenn. July. Pale purple or whitish. (|) E.B. 1.975. E.B. 
2. 1117. H. ^ Am. 231. Bab. 189. Lind. 153. 

C. ERioPHORXJS. Woolly-headed Thistle. Fig. 685. 

Stem very thick, furrowed. Leaves deeply pinnatifid, downy beneath. 
Involucrum spherical, woolly. Limestone pastures and waste places 
3-4 ft. July and Aug. Purple or white. (|) E.B.I. 3S(i. E.B 
2.1118. H.^Am.232. Bab. \S9. Lind. \ 53. 

C. TUBEROsus. Tuberous Plume Thistle. Fig. 686. 

Root creeping, tuberous. Stem 1- or 2-flovvered, not prickly. Leaves 
pinnatifid, with small prickles. Woods. 2 ft. Perenn. Aug. Bright 
purple. (I) E. B. 1. 2562. E. B. 2. \\\9. H. ^ Am. 232. 
Bab. 190. Lind. 153. 

C. HETEROPHYLLus. Dark Plume Thistle. Fig. 687. 

Stems downy, mostly 1-flowered. Leaves lanceolate, not prickly. 
Northern pastures. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Dark purple. 
Q) E. B. 1. 675. E. B. 2. 1120. H. ^ Am. 232. Bab. 190. 
Lind. 153. 

C. PRATENSis. Meadow Plume Thistle. Fig. 688. 

Stems downy, 1-flowered. Leaves lanceolate, green above, cottony 
beneath, with small spines. Involucrum cottony. Wet meadows and 
heaths. 1 ft. Perenn. July. Dull purple. (|) E. B. 1. 177. 
E. B. 2. 1121. H. ^ Am. 232. Bab. 189. Lind. 153. 

C. ACAULis. Dwarf Plume Thistle. Fig. 689. 

Stemless. Involucrum smooth, sessile. Chalk pastures ; abundant. 
2 in. Perenn. July. Purple. (|) ^.5.1.161. E. B. 2. 1122. 
II. ^' Am. 233. Bab. 190. Lind. 153. 

Genus 22. Onopordum. 

O. AcANTHiUM. Cotton Thistle. Fig. 690. 

Stem winged. Leaves sinuated, spinous, white and cottony. Scales 
of involucrum spreading. Waste places. 4-6 ft. Bienn. Aug. 
Purple. (4) E.B.I. 977. E.B.2.U23. II.^Arn.233. Bab. 187. 
Lind. 152. 



70 

Genus 23. Carlina. 

C. VULGARIS. Carline Thistle. Pig. 691. 

Stem downy, corymbose, many-flowered. Leaves waved, with uiie(|ual 
spines. Inner scales of involucrum pale yellow, membranaceous. Dry 
pastures. 3 in.-l ft. Bienn. June and July. Florets red, anthers 
yellow. (I) E. B. 1. 1144. E. B. 2. 1124. H. ^ Am. 234. 
Bab. 184. Lind. 154. 

Genus 24. Bidens. 

B. CERNUA. Nodding Bur Marigold. Fig. 692. 

Leaves lanceolate, deeply serrated. Flowers drooping. Ditches. 
1-2 ft. Ann. June-Sept. Yellow, {i) E. B. 1. 1114. E. B. 

2.1125. //. ^ Jrn. 238. Bab.\7A. Lind. \b\. 

B. TRIPARTITA. Bur Marigold. Fig. 693. 
Leaves tripartite. Flowers rather drooping. Ditches ; very common. 

1-3 ft. Ann. July-Sept. Yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 1113. E. B. 

2.1126. //.^^rH.238. Bab. 173. Lind. \ol. 

Genus 25. Eupatorium. 

E. CANNABiNUM. Hemp Agrimony. Fig. 694. 

Leaves opposite, pinnate, deeply serrated. Flowers in dense terminal 

corymbs. Ditches; common. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 

Pink. Q) E.B.I. 428. E.B.2.1127. H.^Jrn.240. Bab. 170. 

Lind. 142. 

Genus 26. Chrysocoma. 

C. LiNOSYRis. Goldilocks. Fig. 695. 
Leaves linear, smooth, glaucous. Cliffs on the south coast. 1^2 ft. 

Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Yellow. (A) ii". ii. I. 2505. £". ii. 2. 1 128. 
h.^Arn.240. Bab. 172. Lind.U2. 

Genus 27. Diotis. 

D. MARiTiMA. Cotton-weed. Fig. 696. 
Plant covered with a dense cottony down. Flowers in terminal 

corymbs. Sandy shores. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Yellow. (|) 
E. i?. 1. 141. E.B. 2. 1129. H. ^ Am. 238. Bab. 1/6. Lind. 149. 

Genus 28. Tanacetum. 

T. vuLGARE. Tansg. Fig. 697. 

Leaves bipinnatifid, serrated. Flowers in a flat corymb. Fields. 
1-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellow. (|) E.B. 1. 1229. 
ii'. ^. 2. 1130. H.^Arn.238. Bab. 178. Lind.l49. 

Genus 29. Artemisia. 

A. campestris. Field Southernwood. Fig. 698. 

Stems twiggy, procumbent before flowering. Leaves bipinnatifid, with 
linear segments. Drv heaths. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. Yellow, (j) 
ii\i?. 1.338. E.B.'2.\l3l. H.^Am.239. Bab. 177. Lind.]49. 

A. MARITIMA. Sea Wormwood. Fig. 699. 

Erect. Leaves downy, bipinnatifid, with linear segments. Flowers 
in drooping racemes. Sea-shore. l-l|-ft. Perenn. Sept. Yellowish. 
(i) E.B.I. 1706. E. B. 2. 1132. H. ^ Am. 239. Bab. 177. 
lind. 149. 

A. Gallica. Fig. 700. 

Racemes closer, erect. A variety of maritima. Sea-shore and salt 
HKir.slies. ly ft. Perenn. Sept. Yellow or brownish. (|) E. B. 
I. 1001. £•./?. 2. 1132*. H.^' Am. 239. Bab.\7S. Luid. 140. 







.March. 1659. 



J £ Sowfrhy. I'ict,': 



35 



n 

A. Absinthium. Wormwood. Fig. 701. 

Leaves bipinnatifid, with lanceolate segments, downy. Waste places. 
1ft. Perenn. Aug. Dingyyellow. (i) J^.ii. 1. 1230. £.^.2.1133. 
H.^Jrn. 239, J3ab. \77. Lind. 149. 

A. VULGARIS. Blngwort. Fig. 702. 

Leaves pinnatifid,with unequallvcut segments, downybeneath. Hedfje- 
banks. 3-4 ft. Perenn. Aug. Reddish or yellow. (|) ^.J3. 1.978. 
E. B. 2. 1134. H. 8rArn.239. Bab. 178. Lind. 149. 

A. CiERULKSCENS. Lavender Mvgwort. Fig. 703. 

Leaves lanceolate, hoary ; lowermost pinnatifid. Flowers erect. Sea- 
coast ; a doubtful native. 2-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. Yellow or brownish. 
(I) E. B. 1. 2426. E. B. 2. 1135. H. ^ Am. 240. Bab. 178. 
Lind. 149. 

Genus 30. Antennaria. 

A. MARGARiTACEA. Pearly Everlasting. Fig. 704. 

Stems branched above. Leaves linear-lanceolate, cottony. Flowers 
in flat corymbs. Moist meadows ; not native. 1-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. 
Involucrum pearly white, florets yellow. (|) E. B. \. 2018. E. B, 
2.1136. H.^Jrn.'Ml. Bab. l^. Lind. 144. 

A. DioiCA. Cat's-foot. Fig. 705. 

Shoots procumbent. Stems unbranched, white and cottony. Leaves 
green above, cottony beneath. Dry heaths. 2-6 in. Perenn. June 
and July. White or rose-colour. {\) E. B. 1. 267. E. B. 2. 1137. 
H.^Arn.24\. Bab. 180. Lind. 144. 

Genus 31. Gnaphalium. 

G. luteo-album. Jersey Cudweed. Fig. 706. 

Leaves half stem- clasping, linear-oblong, woolly on both sides. Dry 
fields. 1ft. Ann. July and Aug. Pale yellow. (|) E.B.I. 1002. 
E.B.2.\138. H.^ Am. 241. Bab. 179. Lind. 145. 

G. sylvaticum. Highland Cudweed. Fig. 707. 

Stem simple, nearly erect, downy. Leaves lanceolate, tapering at the 
base. Flowers axillary, sessile. Mountains. 1-1 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. 
Yellow. (I) E.B.I. 913. E.B.2.1139. H.^-Arn.242. Bab. 180. 
Lind. 145. 

G. supinum. Dwarf Cudweed. Fig. 708. 

Stem decumbent, simple or branched at the base. Leaves linear, 
downy on both sides. Flowers solitary or in a spike-like raceme. 
Highland mountains. 2-4 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Yelfow. 
(i) E.B.I. 1193. E. B. 2. 1140. H. ^ Am. 242. Bab. 180. 
Lind. 145. 

G. ULiGiNOSUM. Marsh Cudweed. Fig. 709. 

Stem much branched, spreading. Leaves linear-lanceolate, downy 
on both sides. Flowers in crowded leafy tufts. Watery places. 9 in. 
Ann. Aug. and Sept. Yellowish brown. (|) £".^.1.1194. E.B.2. 
1141. H.^ Am. 242. Bab. 180. Lind. 14b. 

G. Gallicum. Narrow-leaved Cudweed. Fig. 710. 

Stem erect, branched. Leaves linear, acute, downy. Flowers in 
axillary clusters. Dry fields; rare. 9 in. Ann, July and Aug. 
Brownish yellow. (|) E.B.I. 2369. E. B. 2. 1 142. H.^Am.243. 
Bab. 180. Lind. 145. 



72 

G. MINIMUM. Least Cudweed. Fig. 71L 

Stem branched, forked, the branches spreading. Leaves lanceolate, 
flat, cottony. Flowers in terminal and lateral clusters. Dry ground ; 
common. 2-6 in. Ann. JulyandAug, Yellow, {k) E. B. \. 1157, 
E. B. 2. 1 143. //. ^ Am. 243. Bab. 1 79. Lind. 145. 

G. Germanicum. Common Cudweed. Fig. 712. 

Stem proliferous at the summit. Leaves lanceolate, downy. Heads 
globose, many-flowered. 6-9 in. Ann. June and July. Pale yellow. 
(I) E. B. 1. 946. E. B. 2. 1144. //. ^ Am. 243. Bab. 178. 
Lind. 145. 

Genus 32. Conyza. 

C. SQtJARROSA. Spikenard. Fig. 713. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, downy. Scales of involucrum leafv, recurved. 
Chalky fields. 2-3 ft. Bienn. Sept. and Oct. Yellow. *(^) E. B. 
1. 1195. E.B. 2. 1145. H. ^ Am. 250. Bub. 172. Lind. 142. 

Genus 33. Erigeron. 

E. Canadense. Canada Flea-bane. Fig. 714. 

Stem hairy. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers in panicles. Waste ground ; 
naturalized? 6 in.-2 ft. Ann. Aug. and Sept. Yellowish. (|) 
^.2^.1.2019. E.B.2.\UQ. II.^Am.2AA. Bab. 171. Lind.lU. 

E. ACRE. Blue Flea-bane. Fig. 715. 

Leaves lanceolate. Flowers in racemes. Dry pastures. 1-ly ft. 
Bienn. Aug. Outer florets purplish, inner yellow. (|) ^.Z?. 1.1158. 
E.B. 2. 1147. 11.^ Am. 245. Bab. 171. Lind. 145. 

E. ALPiNUM. Alpine Flea-bane. Fig. 716. 

Stem mostly 1 -flowered. Leaves lanceolate. Outer florets radiate. 
Highland mountains. 2-5 in. Perenn. July. Pale purple. (|) 
E. B. 1. 464. E. B. 2. 1148. //. S,- Am. 246. ^a5. 171. Lind. 144. 

E. TJNIFLORUM. Fig. 717. 

Involucrum woolly. Outer florets erect. A variety of alpinum. 
Highland mountains. 2-6 in. Perenn. July. Purple. {\) E. B. 
1.2416. ^. i?. 2. 1148*. IL^Am.246. Bab. 171. Lind.144. 

Genus 34. Tussilago. 

T. Farfara. CoWs-foot. Fig. 718. 

Root creeping. Leaves cordate, angular, downy beneath ; appearing 
after the flowers. Clayey banks; abundant. 4 in.-l ft. Perenn. 
March and April. Golden yellow. (|) E.B. 1.429. E.B. 2.1149. 
n.^ Am. 245. Bab. 170. Lind. 147. 

Genus 35. Petasites. 

P. VULGARIS. Butter-bur. Fig. 719. 

Leaves very large, heart-shaped, downy beneath. Flowers in a close 
panicle, appearing before the leaves. Banks of rivers and wet meadows. 
3-6 in. Perenn. April and May. Pale lilac. (|) i?.^. 1.431. 
E. B. 2. 11 50. H. ^ Am. 244. Bab. 1 70. Lind. 147. 

Genua 36. Senecio. 

S. VULGARIS. Groundsel. Fig. 720. 

Leaves pinnatifid, with obtuse segments. Flowers panicled, without 
rays. A common weed. 4 in.-l ft. Ann. All the year. Yellow. 
(^) E.B. 1.747. E.B. 2. 1151. U.^- Am. 247. Bab. ISl. Lind. 146. 



. 7^-^ 




.March 185 9. 



J.E. Sowerh\. F'-ciZ 



,?/ 



73 

S. viscosus. Stinking Groundsel. Fig. 721. 

Stem with many spreading branches. Leaves pinnatifid, viscid. Ray- 
florets revolute. Waste ground. Has a foetid smell. 1-2 ft. Ann. July 
and Aug. Yellow, (f) E.B.I. 32. E. B. 2. 1152. H. &■ Am. 248. 
Bab. 181. Lind. 14G. 

S. SYLVATicus. Mountain Groundsel. Fig. 722. 

Stem erect, straight. Leaves sessile, pinnatifid, lobed. Ray-florets 
often wanting. Dry pastures. 1-2 ft. Ann. Julv. Yellow, m 
J?, i?. 1.748. ^.£.2.1153. ^. ^^m.248. Bab'.lQl. Lind. 146. 

S. LiviDus. Fig. 723. 

Leaves dilated at the base, pinnatifid and toothed. A variety of 
sylvaticus. Barren heaths. 1-2 ft. Ann. Sept. Yellow. (^ 
E.B.I. 2515. E.B.2.U54. H.^Arn.247. Bab. 182. Lind. 146. 

S. sauALiDus. Fig. 724. 

Leaves pinnatifid, with distant segments. Rays spreading. Walls' 
and waste places. 1-2 ft. Ann. June-Oct. Yellow. (|) E.B.I 600 
E. B. 2. 1 155. H. ^ Am. 248. Bab. 182. Lind. 146. 

S. TENuiFOLius. Hoary Ragwort. Fig. 725. 

Stem erect, cottony. Leaves closely pinnatifid, downy beneath! 
Banks and way-sides. 1-3 ft. Perenn. 'July and Aug. Yellow, fl) 
^.^.1.574. ^.5.2.1156. H.^ Am. 248. Bab. 182. Lind. 146. 

S. Jacob^a. Common Ragwort. Fig. 726. 

^ Stem erect, branched, furrowed. Leaves bipinnatifid, with spread- 
ing toothed segments ; lower ones somewhat lyrate. Rays spreading, 
toothed. Dry places; common. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Deep yellow (|) E. B. 1. 1 130. E. B. 2. 1157. H. ^ Am. 248. 
Bab. 182. Lind. 146. 

S. AauATicus. Marsh Ragwort. Fig. 727. 

Leaves lyrate, smooth, serrated. Rays spreading, elliptical. Wet 
places ; common. 1-3 ft. Perenn. July-Oct. Yellow, h) E B 1 
1131. £'.5.2.1158. H.^'Arn. 248. Bab.182. Lind. 146. ' 

S. PALUDOsus. Great Ragwort, Bird's-tongue. Fig. 728. 

Stem quite straight, hollow, rather woolly. Leaves lanceolate, 
serrated. Fens and ditches ; rare. 5-6 ft. Perenn. June and July. 
Yellow, (f) £'.5.1.650. £.5.2.1159. H.^Arn.248. Bab.183. 
Lmd. 146. 

S, Saracenicus. Broad-leaved Ragwort. Fig. 729. 

Stem erect, little branched. Leaves lanceolate, serrated. Corymbs 
termmal. Moist meadows; rare. 3-5 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Yellow, (f) £-.5.1.2211. £'.5.2.1100. H. ^ Am. 248. Bab.183. 
Lmd. 147. 

Genus 37. Aster. 

A. Tripolium. Sea Starwort. Sea Aster. Fig 730 

Stem smooth. Leaves Hnear-lanceolate, fleshy. Flowers in corymbs.* 

Muddy sea-shores and salt marshes ; common. 6 in.-3 ft. Perenn. 

Aug. and Sept. Disk yellow; rays blue or purple. (|) ^.5. 1. 87. 

^.5.2.1161. H.^Arn.246. Bab. 171. Lind. uL 

I. 



74 

Genus 38. Solidago. 

S. ViRGAUREA. Golden-rod. Pig. 731. 

Stem-leaves lanceolate ; lower ones elliptical. Flowers iu rather 
close panicles. Woods and heaths ; common. 1-3 ft. Perenn. July- 
Sept. Yellow, (f) ^. ^. 1. 301. E. B. 2. 1162. H. ^ dm. 246. 
Bab. 172. Lind. 144. 

Genus 39. Inula. 

I. Helenium. Elecampane. Fig. 732. 

Leaves ovate or lanceolate, downy beneath, very large. Flowers 
large, terminal. 3-6 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellow. (|) E.B.I. 
1546. E. B. 2. 1 163. H. ^Arn. 250. Bab. 172. Lind. 143. 

Genus 40. Pulicaria. 

P. DYSENTERiCA. Flea-bane. Fig. 733. 

Stem and leaves woolly. Leaves oblong, stem-clasping. Ditches ; 
common. 1ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Deep yellow. (^) E.B.\. 
1115. ^.5.2.1164. H.^Arn.2b\. Bab. 173. Lind. US. 

P. VULGARIS. Small Flea-bane. Fig. 734. 

Stem hairy, much branched. Leaves lanceolate. Rays very short. 
6 in.-l ft. Ann. Aug. and Sept. Yellow, (f) ^.^.1.1196. 
E.B. 2. 1165. H.^-Arn. 251. Bab. 173. Lind. 143. 

Genus 41. Limbarda. 

L. Crithmoides. Golden Samphire. Fig. 735. 

Leaves linear, fleshy, 3-pointed. Salt marshes; common. 1ft. Perenn. 
Aug. Deep yellow, (f) ^.^.1.68. £.-B.2. 1166. -ff.^^rn. 250. 
Bab. 173. Lind. 143. 

Genus 42. Cineraria. 

C. PALUSTRis. Marsh Flea-wort. Fig. 736. 

Stem shaggy, much branched, hollow. Leaves broadly lanceolate. 
Fens; local. 2-3 ft, Perenn. June and July. Yellow, (f) E.B.X. 
151. E.B.2.U&7. H.^Arn.249. Bab. 183. Lind. 14?. 

C. CAMPESTRis. Field Flea-wort. Fig. 737. 
Herb woolly. Root-leaves oval. Flowers in an umbel. 6 in.-l ft. 

Perenn. May and June. Yellow, (f) E.B.I. 152. E. B. 2. 1168. 
H.^Arn. 249. Bab. 183. Lind. 147. 

Genus 43. Doronicum. 

D. PLANTAGiNEUM. Greater Leopard' s-bane. Fig. 738. 

Lower leaves stalked, heart-shaped ; upper sessile. A doubtful na- 
tive. 2 ft. Perenn. May and June. Bright yellow. (|) E.B.I. 
630. ^.^.2.11 69. H. ^ Am. 250. Bab. 181. Lind. 327. 

D. Pardalianches. Common Leopard' s-bane. Fig. 739. 

Leaves heart-shaped ; lower on long petioles, upper on winged petioles 
dilated at the base. Moist woods ; scarcely native. 2-3 ft. Perenn. 
June-Sept. Yellow. Q) E. B. Supp. 2654. E.B. 2. 1169*. H. ^ 
Am.249. Bab. 181. Lind. 147. 

Genus 44. Bellis. 

B. PERENNis. Daisij. Fig. 740. 

Root creeping. Leaves spatulate, crenated. Pastures ; abundant. 
1-8 in. Perenn. April-Oct. White tipped with crimson, (f) E.B.I. 
424. E. B. 2. 1 170. U. ^ Am. 251. Bab. 1 72. Lind. 148. 




1. April. 1859 



T E Sowerhv. Fieit 

'J/ 



75 

Genus 45. Chrysanthemum. 

C. Leucanthemum. Ox-eye Daisy. Fig. 741. 

Stem branched. Root-leaves obovate, with petioles. Dry pastures ; 
common. 2 ft. Perenn. June andJuly. White, (g) £". if. l.GOl. 
E. B. 2. 1 171. U. ^ Am. 252. Bab. 176. Lind. 148. 

C. SEGETUM. Corn Marigold. Fig. 742. 

Leaves glaucous, deeply notched. Peduncles thickened uj)wards. 
Corn-fields ; common. l-2ft. Ann. June-Aug. Yellow. (§) E.B.I. 
510. E.B. 2.1172. H.^Jrn. 2^2. Bab. 176. Lind. MO. 

Genus 46. Pyrethrum. 

P. Parthenium. Feverfew. Fig. 743. 

Stem erect. Leaves bipinnatifid, with petioles. Rays shorter than 
the disk. Waste places ; frequent. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. White. (^) 
E. B. 1. 1231. E.B. 2. 1173. H.^Arn. 252. Bab. 177. Lind. HH. 

P. INODORUM. Corn Feverfew. Fig. 744. 

Stem spreading. Leaves bipinnatifid, with hair-like segments. 
Fields; common. 1ft. Ann. Aug. and Sept. White, (f) E.B.I. 
676. £". -B. 2. 1 1 74. H. ^ Am. 252. Bab. 177. Lind. 148. 

P. MARiTiMUM. Sea-side Feverfew. Fig. 745. 

Stem spreading, branched. Leaves bipinnatifid, with linear segments. 
Sandy sea-shores. 1ft. Perenn. July. White, (f) i^.JS. 1.979. 
E. B. 2. 1 175. H. ^ Am. 252. Bab. 177. Lind. 148. 

Genus 47. Matricaria, 

M. Chamomilla. Wild Chamomile. Fig. 746. 

Leaves smooth, bipinnatifid, with hair-like segments. Receptacle 
conical. Corn-fields ; common. 1 ft. Ann. July and Aug. White, 
(f) E.B.I. 1232. E. B. 2. U76. H. 8r Arn. 253. Bab. 177. 
Lind. 149. 

Genus 48. Anthemis. 

A. MARiTiMA. Sea Chamomile. Fig. 747. 

Stems prostrate. Leaves bipinnatifid, with fleshy segments ; some- 
what hairy. Scales of receptacle prominent, pointed. Rocky coasts. 
4-8 in. Ann. July. White, (f) E.B.\.2^70. E.B. 2. 1177. 
H.^ Arn. 253. Bab. 178. Lind. 149. 

A. NOBiLis. Common Chamomile. Fig. 748. 

Stems procumbent. Leaves bipinnatifid, with linear segments, 
downy. Dry pastures. Tonic. 6 in. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. 
White, (f) JE-.^. 1.980. ^.5.2.1178. H.^ Arn. 253. Bab. 175. 
Lind. 150. 

A. ARVENSI9. Corn Chamomile. Fig. 749. 

Stem erect. Leaves bipinnatifid, with linear-lanceolate segments. 
Receptacle conical. Corn-fields. 1 ft. Bienn. July. White, (f ) E. B. 
1. 602. E. B.2.\\ 79. H. ^ Arn. 254. Bah. 174. Lind. 150. 

A. CoTULA. Stinking Chamomile. Fig. 750. 

Stem erect, branched. Leaves bipinnatifid, smooth. Receptacle 
conical. A common weed. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. July and Aug. White, 
(f) E.B.\.\772. E.B.2.n8'J. H.^ Am. 254. Bab. \74, 
Lind. 150. 

ju2 



76 

A. TiNCTORiA. Ox-eye Chamomile. Fig. 751, 

Stem erect, corymbose, cottony. Leaves bijiinnatifid, with serrated 

segments, downy beneath. Dry fields ; rare. l-l|ft. Bienn. ? July 

and Aug. Yellow, (f) E.BA.\A72. E.B.2A\S\. H.^ Am. 254. 

liab.\74. Lind.lbO. 

Genus 49. Achillea. 

A. Ptarmica. Sneeze-wort. Goose-wort. Fig. 753. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, minutely serrated. Corymbs flat. Moist 
pastures. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. White. (1) E.B.I. 
757. E.B. 2. \182. H.^Am.254. Bab. 175. Lind. 151. 

A. SERRATA. Fig. 753. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, downy, deeply serrated. Corymbs nearly 
simple. Near Matlock, Derby. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. Pale yellow, 
(f ) E. B. 1. 2531. E. B. 2. 1183. H. ^ Am. 255. Bab. 175. 
Lind. 151. 

A. Millefolium. Yarrow. Milfoil. Fig. 754. 

Stems furrowed. Leaves bi{)innatifid, hairy ; segments linear. 
Pastures and way-sides ; very common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. 
White, (f) E.B. 1. 758. E.B. 2. 1184. //. ^Arn. 255. Bab. 176. 
Lind, 151. 

A. TOMENTOSA. Goldeu MUfoH. Fig. 755. 

Leaves woolly, pinnatifid ; segments linear. Dry hill-pastures ; not 
common. 6-8 in. Perenn. May-Oct. Golden yellow. (^) E.B.I. 
2532. E. B. 2. 1185. H. ^ Am. 255. Bab. 175. Lind. 151. 

Genus 50. Centaurea. 

C. Jacea. Brown Knapweed. Fig. 75C. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate ; those of the root broader. Scales of invo- 
lucrum pinnatifid, dark brown. 2-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. 
Bright purple, (f) E.B.I. 1678. E. B. 2. 1186. H.^Am. 234 
Bab. 185. Lind.'\55. 

C. NIGRA. Black Knapweed. Fig. 757. 

Lower leaves somewhat lyrate ; upper ovate-lanceolate. Scales of 
involucrum pectinated, black. Pastures and way-sides ; very common. 
2-3 ft. Perenn. June-Sept. Purple, (f) E.B.I. 27Q. E.B. 2, 

1187. H.^ Am. 235. Bab. 186. Lind.\55. 

C. Cyanus. Corn-flower. Blue-bottle. Fig. 758. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Scales of involucrum serrated. Flowers 
radiant. Corn-fields ; very common. 2-3 ft. Ann. July and Aug. 
Inner florets purple, outer brilliant blue, (f) E. B. 1. 277. E.B. 2. 

1188. II.<^Am.236. Bab. 186. Lind. 155. 

C. ScABiosA. Great Knapweed. Fig. 759. 

Leaves pinnatifid, with lanceolate segments. Flowers radiant. 
Scales of involucrum ovate, rather downy. Corn-fields and pastures. 
2-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Purple, (f) E.B.I. 56. E. B. 2. 

1189. H.^ Am. 235. Bab. 186. Lind. 155. 

C. IsNARDi. Jersey Star-Thistle. Fig. 760. 

Leaves somewhat pinnatifid, the lobes spiny. Scales of involucrum 
with palmated spines. Channel Islands. 1 ft. Perenn. July and 
Aug. Pale purple. (|) ^.5.1.2256. E.B.2.\190. H.^Arn. 
237. Bab. 187. Lind. 155. 



.yyy 



y^^ 7^yy. 



/■Ax ■N ' \ , '// / 



7-^5' 




L. April, i85c 



J:E Scwf.rby. J'eait. 

36 



n 

C. Calcitrapa. Common Star-Thistle. Fig. 761. 

Heads lateral, sessile. Scales of involucrum lengthened into long 
spines. Waste places ; local. 1-2 ft. Ann. July-Sept. Pale purple. 
(f) E.B. 1. 125. E. i?. 2. 1191. H. ^ Am. 236. Bab. 187. 
Lind. 155. 

C. soLSTiTiALTs. Yellow Star-TMstle. Fig. 762. 

Leaves lanceolate, not spiny. Flowers terminal. Scales of involucrum 
spiny. Waste places. 2 ft. Ann. June-Oct. Yellow. (|) E.B.I. 
243. E.B. 2. 1102. H. ^ Am. 236. Bab. 187. Lind. 155. 

Genus 51. Xanthium. 

X. STRUM ARiuM. Bui'-wecd. Fig. 763. 

Monoecious. Leaves 3-lobed at the base, angular, and toothed. 
Fruit covered with hooked spines. Waste ground ; scarcely wild. 1-2 ft. 
Ann. Aug. and Sept. Greenish, (f) J?. £.1.2544. £■. if. 2. 1310. 
//. ^ Am. 256. Bab. 208. Lind. 151. 

Order XLVI. CAMPANULACE^E. 

Genus 1. Campanula. 

C. ROTUNDiFOLiA. Blue-hell. Hair-bell. Fig. 764. 

Stem slender. Root-leaves roundish heart-shaped ; stem-leaves linear. 
Heaths; abundant. 8 in.-2 ft. Perenn. July-Sept. Blue. (^) 
.E. J?. 1.866. E.B. 2.296. H.^Arn.258. Bab. 210. Lind. 136. 

C. PATULA. Spreading Bell-flower. Fig. 765. 

Root-leaves oval ; others lanceolate. Corolla spreading. Segments 

of the calyx toothed. Woods. 1 ft. Bienn. July. Purplish blue, 

(f) -£'.£.1.42. E.B. 2.297. E.^ Am. 257. Bab. 211. Lind. 136. 

C. Raptjnculus. Rampion Bell-flower. Fig. 766. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate. Panicle erect. Segments of calyx entire. 
Banks and fields. 3 ft. Bienn. July and Aug. Pale blue. (|) 
E. B. 1. 283. E. B. 2. 298. H. ^ Am. 257. Bab. 21 L Lind. 136. 

C. PERSiciFOLiA. Peach-leaved Bell-flower. Fig. 767. 

Root-leaves oblong, stalked ; upper linear-lanceolate, sessile. Corolla 
spreading. Calyx-segments entire. Woods ; very rare. 2 ft. Perenn. 
July. Blue, (f) E. B.Supp.2773. E.B.2.29S*. H.^Arn.257. 
Bab. 210. Lind. 136. 

C. LATiFOLiA. Giant Bell-flower. Fig. 768. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Racemes erect. Shady places. 3-4 ft. 

Perenn. Aug. Blue, pink, or white, (f) E.B.I. 302. E.B. 2. 

299. H.^Am.258. Bab. 210. Lind. 136. 

C. RAPUNCULOiDES. Creeping Bell-flower. Fig. 769. 

Root-leaves heart-shaped, on foot-stalks ; upper lanceolate. Flowers 
drooping to one side. Calyx reflexed. Northern corn-fields. 1 ft. 
Perenn. July and Aug. Pale blue, (f) ^.£.1.1369. E. B. 2. 

300. H.^ Am. 258. Bab. 2\0. Lind. 136. 

C. Trachelium. Nettle-leaved Bell-flower. _ Fig. 770. 

Leaves cordate, on foot-stalks, serrated. Flower-stalks axillary, with 
1-3 flowers. Woods and hedges ; common. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July 
.•md Aug. Deep blue, (f) E.B.l.\2. E. B. 2. 301. H. ^' Am. 258. 
Bab. 210. Lind. 136. 



78 

C. GLOMERATA. Clustered Bcll-foicer. ^ Fig. 771. 

Leaves ovate, crenated. Flowers sessile, in a terminal cluster. 
Chalky pastures. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Purple-blue, 
(f) £.^.1.90. £".1?. 2. 302. H.^ Am. 258. Bab. 209. Lind.Vdi^, 

C. HEDERACEA. Ivy -leaved Bell- flowcr. Fig. 772. 

Trailing ; stem very slender. Leaves heart-shaped, angular. Bogs. 
4 in. Perenn. June-Aug. Blue, (f) E. B. 1. 73. E. B. 2. 303. 
JI.^Arn.2o9. Bal). 211. Lind. I'SG. 

C. HYBRiDA. Corn Bell-flower. Fig. 773. 

Leaves obbng, crenated. Corolla shorter than the calyx. Corn- 
fields. 6-9 in. Ann. Aug. Purplish, (f) J?. 5. 1.375. E.B.2. 
304. H.^Arn.2b9. Bab. 2U. Lind. 135. 

Genus 2. Phyteuma. 

P. ORBicuLARE. Rampion. Fig. 774. 

Flowers in a round head. Lower leaves heart-shaped, on long 
pptioles. Chalk-hills ; local. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. Purple, (f) 
E.B.I. 142. E. B. 2. 305. H. ^ Arn. 259. Bab. 209. Lind. 135. 

P. spiCATUM. Spiked Rampion. Fig. 775. 

Flowers in a cylindrical spike. Lower leaves ovate-heart-shaped. 
Hedges ; rare. 3 ft. Perenn. Aug. Cream-colour. (^) E. B. 
Supp. 2598. E.B. 2. 305*. H.^Arn.259. Bab. 209. Lind. 135. 

Genus 3. Jasione. 

J. MONTANA. Sheep's Scabious. Fig. 776. 

Flowers in round heads, with a circle of ovate bracts beneath. Dry 
pastures ; common. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. June and July. Blue, (f ) 
E.B.X. 882. E. B. 2. 306. H. ^ Arn. 260. Bub. 209. 

Order XLVII. LOBELIACE^. 

Genus 1. Lobelia. 

L. DoRTMANNA. Water Lobelia. Fig. 777. 

Leaves nearly cylindrical, composed of 2 tubes. Flowers rise above 
the water. Alpine lakes. Perenn. July. Light blue, (f) E.B.I. 
140. E.B. 2. 307. H.^Arn.26l. Bab. 209. Lind. 137. 

L. URENS. Acrid Lobelia. Fig. 778. 

Lower leaves obovate, on foot-stalks. Flowers in a terminal raceme. 
Heaths in Devonshire. 1 ft. Perenn. Sept. Light blue, (f ) E. B.l. 
953. E.B. 2. 308. H.^ Arn. 261. Bab. 209. Lind. 137. 

Order XLVIII. VACCINIACEiE. 

Genus 1. Vaccinium. 

"V. Myrtilltjs. Bilberry. Whor tie-berry. Fig. 779. 

Shrubby. Peduncles solitary, 1 -flowered. Leaves ovate, serrated. 
Heaths ; common. Fruit edible. 1-2 ft. May. Pink ; berries black. 
(I) ^.£.1.456. ^.^.2.551. H.^Arn. 261. Bab.2l6. Lind.l34. 

V. TJLIGINOSUM. Boff Whor tie-berry . Fig. 780. 

Shrubby. Peduncles in clusters, 1 -flowered. Leaves obovate, en- 
tire. Northern bogs. 1ft. May. Pink; berries black. (^) E.B.I. 
581. ^.^.2.552. H.^- Arn. 262. Bab. 216. Lind.\3i. 




1 Apnl 1859. 



d9 



79 

V. ViTis Id^a. Cow-herry. Fig. 781. 

Shrubby. Leaves obovate, evergreen, glossy, dotted beneath. Flowers 
in terminal racemes. Dry heaths. 4-9 in. Mav. Pink ; fruit red. 
(I) jF.£. 1.598. J?.2f.2.553. H.^Jrn 262. Bah.2\6. Lind. 134. 

Genus 3. Oxycoccus. 

0. PALUSTRis. Cranberry. Fig. 782. 

A slender trailing shrub. Peduncles 1-flovrered, terminal. Leaves 
ovate, evergreen. Bogs. Fruit edible. 2-4 in. June. Pink ; berries 
red. (f) E.B.\. 319. E. B. 2. 554. H. ^ Am. 262. Bab. 84. 
Lind. 134. 

Order XLIX. ERICACEAE. 

Genus 1. Erica. 

E. Tetralix. Cross-leaved Heath, Fig. 783. 

A shrub. Leaves 4 in a whorl, ciliated. Corolla ovate, as long as 
the style. Flowers in round tufts. Heaths ; common. 6 in.-l ft. 
July-Sept. Pink, (f) E.B.\.\OU. E. B. 2. 557. H. ^ Am. 
265. Bab. 214. Lind. 174. 

E. ciNEREA. Common Heath. Fig. 784. 

A shrub. Leaves 3 in a whorl. Corolla ovate, shorter than the 
style. Flowers in racemes. Heaths ; abundant. 6 in.-2 ft. July- 
Oct. Purple-red. (f) £'.5.1.1015. ^.5.2.558. H.^ Am. 266. 
Bab. 214. Lind. 174. 

E. MEDiTERRANEA. Mediterranean Heath. Fig. 785. 

A shrub. Branches upright. Leaves 4 in a whorl. Flowers axillary. 
West of Ireland. 1-4 ft. April. Pink ; anthers brown, (f ) E. B. 
Supp:2774. E.B. 2. 558*. H. ^ im. 266. Bab. 215. Lind. 330. 

E. VAGANS. Cornish Heath. Fig. 786. 

A shrub. Corolla bell-shaped Flowers in the middle of the 
shoots. Cornwall. 1-2 ft. July and Aug. Pink, (f) E.B.I. 3. 
E.B. 2. 559. H.^ Am. 266. Bab. 215. Lind. 174. 

E. ciLiARis, Fringe-leaved Heath. Fig. 787. 

A shrub. Flowers in terminal one-sided racemes. Leaves fringed 
with hairs. Cornwall. 1 ft. July and Aug. Deep pink, (f ) E. B. 
Siipp. 26\S. E.B. 2.559*. H.^ Am. 265. Bab. 215. Lind. 174. 

Genus 2. Calluna. 

C. VULGARIS. Ling. Heather. Fig. 788. 

A shrub. Leaves imbricated in 4 rows. Heaths ; abundant. 6 in.- 
4 ft. June-Oct. Pink, (f) £.5. 1. 1013. E.B. 2. 560. H.^Arn, 
267. Bab. 214. Lind. 173. 

Genus 3. Menziesia. 

M. c^RULEA. Fig. 789. 

A shrub. Leaves scattered, linear. Flowers 5-cleft. Highland 
moors. 6 in.-l ft. June and July, Bluish purple. (|) E.B.I, 
2469. E.B. 2. 555. H.^ Am. 267. Bab. 215. Lind. 173. 

M. POLiFOLiA. St. Dabeoc's Heath. Fig. 790. 

A shrub. Leaves ovate, white beneath. Flowers 4-cleft, West of 

Ireland. 1ft. July-Sept. Deep pink. (|) E.B.\. 35, E.B. 2, 
556. H.^Arn.267. Bab. 215. Lind. 173. 



81 

Order LI. MONOTROPACEiE. 
Genus 1. Monotropa. 
M. Hypopitys. Yelloio Bird's-nest. Fig. 801. 

A brownish parasitic plant, without leaves. Flowers in an eiect 
raceme, drooping at the top. Roots of beech and fir trees. 6-9 in. 
Perenn. June and July. Dull yellow, (f) E.D.l.d^. E.B.2. 
580. H.^ Am. 271. Bab. 218. Lind. \76. 

Order LIT. AQUIFOLIACE^. 
Genus 1. Ilex. 
I. Aquifolivm. Holhj. Fig. 802. 

A small bushy evergreen tree. Lower leaves waved, with spiny 
teeth ; upper entire, ovate. Woods and thickets. 6-20 ft. May. 
White ; berries scarlet, (f) i^.i?. 1.496. i:.B.2.235. H.^-Arn. 
272. Bab. 218. Lind. 1/6. 

Order LIII. OLEACEiE. 
Genus 1. Ligustrum. 
L. vuLGARE. Privet. Fig. 803. 

A shrub. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, nearly evergreen. Hedges and 
thickets. 4-8 ft. June. White, (f) £'.5.1.764. E.B.2.5. 
H. ^ Am. 273. Bab. 219. Lind. 171. 

Genua 2. Fraxinus. 
F. EXCELSIOR. Ash. Fig. 804. 

A tree. Leaves pinnate, serrated. Flowers without calyx or corolla. 
Woods and hedgerows ; common. April. (|) £".5.1.1692. E. B. 
2.6. H.^ Am. 273. Bab.2\9. Lind.\7\. 

F. heterophylla. Simple-leaved Ash. Fig. 805. 

Most of the leaves simple, ovate-lanceolate. A variety of excelsior. {V) 

E.B.I. 2476. E. B. 2. 6*. H. ^ Am. 276. Bab. 219. Lind. 171. 

Order LIV. APOCYNACEiE. 
Genus 1. Vinca. 

V. MINOR. Lesser Periwinkle. Fig. 806. 

Stems procumbent. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate ; evergreen. Thickets; 
not common. 4-6 in. Perenn. April-July. Blue. (^) E.B.I. 
917. £.5.2.293. H.^Arn.274. Bab.'2]9. Lind. 17G. 

V. MAJOR. Greater Periwinkle. ^ Fig. 807. 

Stems erect at first, trailing when long. Leaves ovate, large ; ever- 
green usually. Hedges. May and June. Purplish blue, (f ) E. B. 
1.514. £.'5.2.295. H.^Am.274. Bab.219. Lind. 176. 

Order LV. GENTIANACE^. 
Genus 1. Exacum. 

E. FiLiFORME. Gentianella. Fig. 808. 

Stem filiform, branched. Leaves sessile. Flowers on long foot-stalks. 
Bogs; local. 4-6 in. Ann. July. Yellow, (f) £.5.1.23.5. 
£.5.2.219. H.^Am.27b. Bab. 222. Lind. 176. 
Genus 2. Erythr^a. 

E. Centaijrium, Centaury. Fig. 809. 

Stem elongated, little branched. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 3-ribbed. 
Calyx half as long as the tube of the corolla. Dry pastures ; common. 
6in.-lft. Ann. June-Sept. Pink, (f) £.5.1.417. £.5.2. 
320. H.Sr Am. 22\. Bab. 276. Lind. 177. 

E. LiTTORALis. Tufted Centaury. Fig. 810. 

Stem simple. Leaves linear-obovate, 3-ribbed, tufted. Flowers 
nearly sessile. Sea-coast. 2-4 in. Ann. July. Pink, (f ) E. B. 
I. 2305. E. B. 2. 321. //. ^' Am. 221. Bab. 221. Lind. 17^. 



82 

E. LATiFOLTA. Broad-hcived Centaury. Pig. 811. 

Stem branched, very short. Flowers in a dense tuft. Leaves broad, 
elliptical, with 5 or 7 ribs. A variety of Centaurium 1 Sea-coast ; 
local. 1-3 in. Ann. July. Pink. (2) E. B. Sujjj). 2719. E. B. 2, 
321*. 11.^- Am. 270. Bab. 221. 'Lind.\7S. 

E. PULCHELLA. Dwarf Centaury. Fig. 812. 

Stem branched, short. Leaves ovate, with 3 or .5 ribs. A variety of 
Centanrium. Dry places. 2-4 in. Ann. Sept. Pink. (|) E. B.l.Ab^. 
E. B. 2. 322. //. ^ Am. 2/6. Bab. 221. Lind. 178. 

Genus 3. Gentiana. 

G. Pnexjmonanthe. Marsh Gentian. Calathian Violet. Pig. 813. 

Leaves nearly linear. Flowers 2 or more together, on short stalks. 
Wet heaths ; local. 4-8 in. Perenn. Aug. Deep blue with greenish 
streaks. (|) ^.2?. 1.20. E.B.2.Z7^. H.^Arn.277. Bab.223. 
Lind. 178. 

G. acaulis. Dwarf Gentian. Pig. 814-. 

Leaves oblong-lmiceolate. Flowers large, solitary, bell-shaped, as 
long as the stem. Near Haverfordwest ; not native. 4-6 in. Perenn. 
May-July. Deep blue. (|) ^.^.1.1594. E.B.2.374. Lind. 17S. 

G. VERNA. Spring Gentian. Pig. 815. 

Leaves ovate, clustered. Flowers solitary ; corolla salver-shaped, 
•with rounded lobes. Mountains ; rare. 2-3 in. Perenn. April. 
Bright blue. (|) E. B. 1. 493. E. B. 2. 375. //. ^^ Am. 277. 
Bab. 222. Lind. 178. 

G. NIVALIS. Small Alpine Gentian. Pig. 81G. 

Leaves elliptical. Flowers several ; corolla funnel-shaped ; the 
segments with small bifid lobes at the base. ]Mountain tops ; rare. 
1-3 in. Ann. July and Aug. Blue, (f) £".2?. 1.896. E.B.2. 
376. H.^' Am. 277. Bab. 222. Lind. 178. 

G. Amarella. Autumn Gentian. Fig. 817. 

Stem much branched. Corolla 5-cleft. Segments of the calyx equal. 
Limestone pastures. 4-6 in. Ann. or bienn. Aug. and Sept. 
Purplish blue, (f) E.B.I. 236. E. B. 2. 377. H. ^ Am. 277. 
Bab. 222. Lind. 179. 

G. CAMPESTRis. Field Gentian. Pig. 818. 

Stem branched. Corolla 4-cleft. Outer segments of the calyx very 
large. Hill-pastures ; common on the chalk. 2-6 in. Ann. Aug. 
and Sept. Purple, (f) E.B.I. 237. E.B.2.378. H.^ Am. 278. 
Bab. 278. Lind. 178. 

Genus 4. Chlora. 

C. PERFOLiATA. Tcllow-wort. Fig. 819. 

Leaves ovate, glaucous, perfoliate. Chalky hills ; common. 3 in.- 
1ft. Ann. July-Sept. Bright yellow, (f) E.B.I. 60. E.B.2. 
561. H.^Am.278. Bab. 221. Lind. 179. 

Genus 5. Menyanthes. 

M. TRiFOLiATA. Boff-bean. Marsh Trefoil. Pig. 820. 

Leaves ternate, the stalks sheathing the stem. Petals fringed with 
filaments within. Bogs. Bitter and sudorific. 8 in. Perenn. June. 
White tipped with pink. (^) E.B.I. 494. E. B. 2. 280. H. ^ Am. 
278. Bab.223. Lind. 179. 




I.April 1855 



4-/ 



83 

Genus 6. Villa rsia. 
V. NYMPH^oiDES. Fnnged Water-lily. Fig. 82L 

Leaves floating, heart-shaped. Petals fringed. Pools and slow rivers. 

Perenn. Aug. Yellow, (f) E.B.\.2\7. E.B.2.2SI. H. ^ Am. 

279. Bab. 223. Lind. 180. 

Genus 7. Swertia. 
S. PERENNis. Marsh Felwori. Fig. 822, 

Flowers erect, corymbose. Root-leaves ovate. Mountain bogs ; a 

doubtful native. 8 in.-l ft. Perenn. Aug. Blue, (f) £. if. 1.1441. 

KB. 2. 372. Lind. 179. 

Order LVI. POLEMONIACEJE. 

Genus 1. Polemonium. 

P. c^RULEUM. Jacob's Ladder. Fig. 823. 

Leaves pinnate. Calyx longer than the tube of the corolla. Bushy 

places ; rare. 1 ft. Perenn. May and June. Pale blue or white. 

(f) K B. 1. 14. E. B. 2. 295. H. ^ Am. 279. Bab. 224. Lind. 1G8. 

Order LVII. CONVOLVULACEJE. 

Genus 1. Convolvulus. 

C. ARVENSis. Small Bind-weed. Fig. 824. 

Stem climbing or trailing. Leaves arrow-shaped. Bracts minute. 
Hedge-banks ; abundant. Perenn. June and July. Pink. (|) 
E. B.\.'S\2. E. B. 2. 290. H. Sr Am. 280. Bab. 224. Lind. 1 67. 

C. Sepium. Great Bind-weed. Fig. 825. 

Stem climbing. Leaves arrow-shaped. Bracts very large, heart- 
shaped, close. Hedges and ditch-banks ; abundant. Perenn. July 
and Aug. White. (§) i?. 5. 1.313. £^.5. 2. 291. H.^Arn.2^\. 
Bab. 224. Lind. 167. 

C. Soldanella. Sea Bind-weed. Fig. 826. 

Stem trailing. Leaves angular, kidney-shaped. Bracts large, ovate, 
close. Sandy shores ; local. Perenn. July. Rose-colour, (g) E.B.I. 
314. E.B. 2. 292. H.^Arn.28l. Bab. 225. Lind.167. 
Genus 2. Cuscuta. 

C. EUROP^A. Greater Dodder. Fig. 827. 

A twining thread-like plant, without leaves. Segments of corolla 
reflexed. Stamens without scales. Parasitic on thistles and other 
plants. 2 ft. Ann. August. Reddish. (4) ^.^.1.378. E.B. 2. 
370. H.^ Am. 281. Bab. 225. Lind. 168. 

C. Epithymum. Common Dodder. Fig. 828. 

Twining, without leaves. Stamens with a fringed scale at the base. 
Parasitic on Heath and Thyme ; common. 4 in.-l ft. Perenn. Aug. 
Reddish, (f) E. B. 1. 55. E. B. 2. 371. //. ^^m.282. Bab. 225. 
Lind. 168. 

C. Epilinum. Flax Dodder. Fig. 829. 

Flower-heads on short peduncles, with a hroad ovate bract. Corolla- 
segments erect. A variety of europcea ? 2 ft. Ann. Aug. Reddish, 
(f ) E. B. Supp. 2850. H. ^ Am. 282. Bab. 225. Lind. 329. 

Order LVIIT. BORAGINACEiE. 

Genus 1. Echium. 

E. vuLGARE. Viper-grass. Fig. 830. 

Leaves lanceolate. Plant covered with stiff prickly hairs. Flowers 

in short lateral spikes. Dry fields. 1-1 1 ft. Bienn. June-Aug. Blue. 

(2; E. B. 1. 181. E.B. 2. 274. H. ^- Am. 283. Bab. 229. Lind. 163, 

M 2 



84 

E. viOLACKUM. Purple Viper-grass. Fig. 831. 

Leaves ovate-oblong ; upper ones oblong-cordate. Flowers in elon- 
p-ated lateral spikes. Sandy fields, Jersey. 1-1^ ft. liienn. Julv. 
r.irj.le-blue. (f) E. B. Supp. 2798. 11. ^ Am. 284. Bab. 229. 
Lind. 163. 

Genus 2. Pulmonaria. 

P. OFFICINALTS. Lunffwort. Fig. 832. 

Root-leaves ovate, generally spotted with white. Woods ; rare. 
6 in. -1ft. Perenn. May. Purple, (f) £".^.1.118. E.B. 2.267. 
JI. ^ Am. 284. Bab. 229. Lind. 1 G.'i. 

P. ANGUSTiFOLiA. Norrow-leaved Lungwort. Fig. 833. 

Leaves lanceolate, sometimes spotted. Woods ; rare. 1 ft. Perenn. 
May. Purple. (-;) E.B.I. 1628. E.B. 2. 268. 11.^ Am. 284. 
Bab. 229. Litid.l64. 

Genus 3. Lithospermum. 

L. OFFICINALE. Gromwell. Fig. 834. 

Leaves lanceolate, broad. Seeds polished, even. Fields and waste 
ground. 1-li ft. Perenn. June. Pale yellow. (§) £'.^.1.134. 
E. B. 2. 259. H. ^ Am. 285. Bab. 230. Lind. 164. 

L. ARVENSE. Corn Gromwell. Fig. 835. 

Leaves lanceolate, obtuse. Seeds rugged. Fields ; common. 1 ft. 
Ann. May- July. White. (|) E. B. \. 123. E. B. 2. 260. 
H.^Arn.285. Bab. 230. Li7id. 164. 

L. PURPURO-c^RULEUM. Creeping Gromwell. Fig. 836. 

Barren stems prostrate. Corolla much longer than the calyx. 
Seeds nearly even. Fields ; not common. ] | ft. Perenn. June-Aug. 
Purple-blue, (f) E. B. 1. 117. E.B. 2. 261. H. ^- Am. 285. 
Bab. 230. iiW. 164. 

L. MARiTiMUM. Sea Gromwell. Fig. 837. 

Leaves ovate, fleshy, glaucous. Stems procumbent. Seeds keeled. 
Sandy coasts. 8 in.-l ft. Perenn. May and June. Purple, (f ) 
E. B. 1. 368. E. B. 2. 262. H. ^-Arn. 285. Bab. 230. Lind. 164. 

Genus 4. Myosotis. 

M. PALUSTRis. Forget-me-not. Fig. 838. 

Leaves bright green, hairy. Limb of corolla longer than the tube. 
Style equal to the calyx. Calyx open when in fruit. Ditches ; 
common. 1 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Bright blue with yellow eye. 
(f) E. B. 1. 1973. E. B. 2. 255. H.%' Am. 286. Bab. 230. 
Lind. 165. 

M. REPENS. Creeping Forget-me-not. Fig. 839. 

Limb of corolla longer than the tube. Style shorter than the calyx. 
Calyx closed when in fruit. Moist peaty places. 8 in. Perenn. 
June and Julv. Blue. (^) E. B. Supp. 2703. E. B. 2. 255*. 
U.^' Am. 286. Bab. 231. 

M. c^spiTOSA. Tufted Forget-me-not. Fig. 840. 

Limb of corolla equal to the tube. Style very short. Hairs on the 
stem adpressed. Watery places; common. 8 in. Ann.? Julv. 
Blue. {\) E. B. Supp. 2661. E. B. 2. 255**. H. ^' Ar7i. 286. 
Bab. 231. Litid. 165. 










1-Ma.jr 18 5 9. 



42 



85 

M. ALPESTRis. Alpine Forget-me-not. Fig. 84L 

Limb of corolla longer than the tube. Style \ as long as the calyx. 

Calyx open, very hairy. Root-leaves on long stalks. Mountains. 4 in.- 

1ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Bright blue with yellow eye. (f) E.B. 

1.2559. E.B.2.2bQ. H.^Am.287. Bab. 231. Lind.166. 

M. SYLVATiCA. TFood Forget-me-not. Fig. 842. 

Limb of corolla longer than the tube. Style nearly as long as the calyx. 
Calyx closed when in fruit. Root-leaves on short stalks. Shady places. 
1 ft. Perenn. July. Bright blue. (^) E. B. Supp. 2630. E. B. 
2.256*. H.^ Am. 287. Bab. 231. 'Lind.166. 

M. ARVENSis. Field Forget-me-not. Fig. 843. 

Limb of corolla as long as the tube, concave. Calyx closed. Style 
very short. Dry places; common. 4-8 in. Ann. May-Aug. Light 
blue. (2) E. B. Supp. 2629. E.B. 2. 256**. H.^ Am. 287. Bab. 
231. Lind. 166. 

M. COLLINA. Early Forget-me-not. Fig. 844. 

Flowers very small. Calyx open, as long as the pedicels. Corolla- 
limb shorter than the tube. Dry fields and walls ; common. 4-6 in. 
Ann. April-Aug. Blue. (|) ^.^. 1. 2558. E.B. 2. 257. H.^ 
Am. 288. Bab. 232. 

M. VERSICOLOR. Changeable Forget-me-not. Fig. 845. 

Flowers very small. Calyx closed, longer than the pedicels. Limb 
of corolla shorter than the tube. Dry places. 2-6 in. Ann. May- 
July. Yellow ; afterwards blue, (f) ^.^.1.480. E.B. 2. 258. H.^ 
Am. 288. Bab. 232. Lind. 166. 

Genus 5. Anchusa. 

A. OFFICINALIS. Alkanet. Fig. 846. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate. Flowers in one-sided spikes. Waste ground ; 
Tare. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June and July. Purple, (f) ^'.A 1.662. 
E. B. 2. 263. H.^Arn. 288. Bab. 228. Lind. 165. 

A. SEMPERViRENS. Evergreen Alkanet. Fig. 847. 

Leaves ovate. Flower-stalks axillary. Waste ground ; local. 1 ft. 
Perenn. May and June. Deep blue, (f) E.B. 1.45. E.B. 2. 264. 
H. ^ Am. 289. Bab. 228. Lind. 165. 

Genus 6. Lycopsis. 

L. ARVENSIS. Bugloss. Fig. 848. 

Leaves lanceolate, hairy. Calyx erect when in flower. Fields ; 
common. 1ft. Ann. June. Bright blue, (f) £.^.1.938. E.B. 
2. 2/3. H. ^ Am. 289. Bab. 229. Lind. 165. 

Genus 7. Symphytum, 

S. OFFICINALE. Comfrey. Fig. 849. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Stem winged. Watery places ; common. 
2-3 ft. Perenn. May-Sept. Yellowish ; sometimes purple, (f ) E. B. 
1.817. E.B. 2. 269. H. ^ Am. 2h9. Bab. 229. Lind. 165. 

S. TUBEROSUM. Tuberous Comfrey. Fig. 850. 

Leaves ovate. Stem slightly winged. Root tuberous. Wet places ; 
rare. 2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellowish. (|) E. B. 1. 1502. 
E. B. 2. 270. U. ^ Am. 290. Bab. 229. Lind. 165. 



86 

Genus 8. Borago. 

B. OFFICINALIS. Common Borage. Fig. 851, 
Lower leaves obovate. Plant covered with pricklyhairs. Waste ground. 

6in.-lft. Bienn. June-Aug. Bright light blue, (f) E.B.\.2,Q. 
E. B. 2. 271 . H.^ Arn. 290. Bab. 228. Lind. 164. 
Genus 9. Asperugo. 
A. PROCUMBENS. Madwort. Fig. 852. 

Procumbent. Leaves lanceolate, hristly. Waste places ; rare. 6 in.- 
1ft. Ann. June and July. Purple, (f) ^.^.1.661. E.B.2. 
272. H.^ Arn. 2^0. Bab. 227. Lind. 165. 
Genus 10. Cynoglossum. 

C. OFFICINALE. Hound' s-tongue. Fig. 853. 
Leaves lanceolate, broad, downy, sessile. Waste ground ; common. 

Narcotic. 2 ft. Bienn. July. Purplish red. (f) E. B. 1.921. 
E.B. 2.265. H.^ Arn. 291. Bab. 228. Lind. 166. 

C. SYLVATICUM. Grccn-leaved Hound' s-tongue. Fig. 854. 
Leaves shining green, slightly hairy ; lower ones on very long stalks. 

Shady places. 2 ft. Bienn. June and July. Purple. (|) E.B. 
1.1642. E.B. 2. 266. H.^ Arn. 29]. Bab. 228. Lind. 166. 

Order LIX. SOLANACEiE. 

Genus 1. Datura. 

D. Stramonium. Thorn-apple. Fig. 855. 
Leaves ovate, angular, and siuuated. Fruit spiny. Waste ground ; 

not native. Narcotic. 6 in. -2 ft. Ann. July-Sept. White. (^) E. B. 
1.1288. ^.£.2.315. H.^ Arn. 292. Bab. 234. Lind.'l80. 

Genus 2. Hygscyamus. 

H. NIGER. Henbane. Fig. 856. 

Leaves downy, sinuated, stem-clasping. Flowers sessile. Waste 
ground. Poisonous. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. July. Dingy yellow with 
purple veins. (?,) E. B. 1. 591. E. B. 2. 316. H. ^ Arn. 292. 
Bab. 233. Lind. 181. 

Genus 3. Atropa. 

A. Belladonna. Bwale. Deadly Nightshade. Fig. 857. 

Stem herbaceous. Leaves ovate. Flowers solitary. Waste ground. 
Very poisonous. 2-3 ft. Perenn. June. Dull purple ; berries black, 
(f) E.B. 1. 592. E.B. 2.317. H.^Arn.293. Bab. 233. Lind. 182. 
Genus 4. Solanum. 

S. Dulcamara. Woody Nightshade. Bittersweet. Fig. 858. 

A climbing shrub. Leaves heart-shaped. Flowers in drooping 
clusters. Hedges ; abundant. Poisonous. 2-6 ft. June-x\ug. Bright 
purple, stamens yellow ; berries red. (f) £'.5.1.565. jE". J5. 2. 318. 
//. ^Arn. 293. Bab. 233. Lind. 182. 

S. NIGRUM. Garden Nightshade. Fig. 859. 

Stem herbaceous. Leaves ovate, waved. Flower in drooping umbels. 
A common weed. Narcotic. 4 in.-l ft. Ann. June-Sept. White ; 
berries black, (f ) E. B. 1. 566. E. B. 2. 319. //. 8f Arn. 293. 
Bab. 233. Lind. 182. 

Order LX. OROBANCHACE^. 

Genus 1. Orobanche. 

O. major. Broom-rape. Fig. 860. 

Stem simple. Tube of corolla inflated ; upper lip entire ; lower in 
3 equal segments. Stamens smooth. Roots of Broom and Furze. 1ft. 
May-July. Purplish brown. (|) E.B.\.A2\. E.B. 2.885. H. 
^' Arn. 294. Bab. 234. Lind. 193. 



v-^vv -V./V Vy (H'6'0'. 



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43 



87 

O. CARYOPHYLLACEA. Clove-sceuted Broom-rape, Fig. 861. 

Stem simple. Corolla-tube inflated ; upper lip emarginate. Stamens 
hairy. On the roots of GaZmm. 1ft. July and Aug. Purple-brown. 
(^) E. B. Supp. 2. 639. E. B. 2. 885*. H. ^ Am. 294. Bab. 235. 
Lind.dZ\. 

O. RUBRA. Red Broom-rape. Fig. 862. 

Stem simple. Upper lip of corolla cleft. Stamen fringed on one 
side. On Thyme. G in.-l ft. July. Purplish red. (^) E.B.I. 
1786. jE". jB. 2. 888. 11. ^Arn. 295. Bab. 234. Lind. 19 A. 

O. ELATiOR. Tall Broom-rape. Fig. 863. 

Stem simple. Corolla funnel-shaped. Stamens downy. On Cen- 
taur ea and other plants. 1-1 1 ft. July and Aug. Yellowish brown. 
(^) i?.^. 1.568. E.B.2.886. H.^ Am. 295. Bab. 235. Lind. 
194. 

O. MINOR. Lesser Broom-rape. Fig. 864. 

Stem simple. Corolla cylindrical ; tipper lip entire ; lower with 3 
curled segments. Stamens ciliated. On Clover. 5-8 in. July. Pale 
violet, (f) E.B.I. 422. E.B.2.887. H.^ Am. 296. Bab.236. 
Lind. 194. 

O. HEDERiE. Ivi/ Broom-rape. Fig. 865. 

Stem simple. Tube of corolla curved ; upper lip 2-lobed. On Ivy- 
roots. 6-8 in. June-Aug. Yellowish brown, (f) E. B. Supp. 2859. 
H.^ Am. 296. Bab. 235. 

O. c^RULEA. Purple Broom-rape. Fig. 866. 

Stem simple. Flowers with 3 bracts. On Artemisia. 6-8 in. July. 
Purple. (I) E.B. 1.423. E.B. 2.889. H.^ Am. 297. Bab.236. 
Lind. 194. 

O. RAMOSA. Branched Broom-rape. Fig. 867. 

Stem branched. Flowers with 3 bracts. On Hemp, 8-10 in. Aug. 
and Sept. Pale blue or yellowish, (f ) E.B.I. 184. E. B. 2. 890. 
H.^ Am. 297. Bab. 237. Lind. 194. 

Genus 2. Lathr^ea. 

L. SauAMARiA. Tooth-wort. Fig. 868. 

Stem simple. Flowers in one-sided pendulous racemes. Parasitic on 
tree-roots. 6-10 in. Perenn. April and May. Purple, (f) E.B. 
1. 50. E.B. 2. 864. H.^-Arn. 298. Bab. 237. Lind. 194. 



Order LXI. SCROPHULARIACEiE. 

Genus 1. Veronica. 

V. SPICATA. SpiJied Speedwell. Fig. 869. 

Stem ascending. Flowers in terminal spikes. Leaves opposite, cre- 
nated, obtuse. Dry pastures. 8 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Blue. 
(1) E.B.I. 2. E. B. 2. 8. H. ^ Am. 299. Bab. 247. Lind. 188. 

V. HYBRiDA. Welsh Speedwell. Fig. 870. 

Leaves very broad, obtuse. A variety of spicata. Mountain-pastures. 
6-8 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Blue, (f) £".^.1.673. E.B. 
2. 9. H. ^ Am. 299. Bab. 247. Lind. 188. 



88 

V. SERPYLLiFOLTA. J'hyme-leaved Speedwell. Fig. 87L 

Flowers in spiked racemes. Leaves ovate, 3-ribbed, smooth. Capsule 

shorter than the style. Pastures ; abundant. 4-6 in. Perenn. June. 

Blue, (f) £".-8.1.1075. ^.^.2.13. H.^Arn.299, Bab.'lAd,. 

Lind. 188. 

V. ALPiNA. Alpine Speedwell. Fig. 872. 

' Racemes corymbose, few-flowered. Leaves elliptic-ovate. Calyx 
hairy. Mountains. 2-4 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Blue. (^) E.B. 
1.484. E.B.2.U. H.^Arn. 299. Bab. 248. Lind. ISS. 

v. SAXATiLis. Blue Rock Speedwell. Fig. 873. 

Stems spreading. Corymb terminal, few-flowered. Leaves elliptical. 
Mountains. 2-4 in. Perenn. July. Light blue, (f) E. B. I. 
1027. E.B.2.n. H.^Arn.247. Bab. 300. Lind. 18S. 

V. FRUTicuLOSA. Shrubby Speedwell. Fig. 874. 

Stems woody, branched at the base. Spike terminal, many-flowered. 
Highland mountains. 8-10 in. Perenn. July. Pink. (^) E.B. 
1.1028. E.B. 2. 10. H.^ Am. 300. Bab. 247. Lind. 188. 

V. scuTELLATA. Muvsh Speedwell. Fig. 875. 

Clusters lateral, alternate. Fruit-stalks reflexed. Leaves linear. 

Bogs. Sin. Perenn. July and Aug. Pink. (^) E. B. I. 782. 
E. B. 2. 15. H.^ Am. 300. Bab. 246. Lind. 188. 

V. Anagallis. Water Speedwell. Fig. 876. 

Stems erect. Leaves lanceolate, serrated, glossy. Clusters lateral. 
Ditches. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. July. Blue, (f) E. B. 1. 781. 
E. B. 2. 14*. H.^Arn. 300. Bab. 246. Lind. 188. 

V. Beccabunga. Brooklime. Fig. 877. 

Stems creeping. Leaves oval, flat, glossy. Clusters lateral. Ditches ; 
abundant. 6-8 in. Perenn. June and July. Blue. (^) E. B. 
1.655. E.B. 2. 14. H.^Am.300. Bab. 246. Lind. 188. 

V. OFFICINALIS. Common Speedwell. Fig. 878. 

Stem procumbent. Leaves elliptical, serrated, rough. Clusters 
lateral, spiked. Flower-stalks shorter than their bracts. Dry places ; 
common. 4-6 in. Perenn. May- Aug. Blue. (-|) E.B. 1. 765. 
E.B. 2. 16. H.^ Am. 301. Bab. 247. Lind. 189. 

V. MONTANA. Mountain Speedwell. Fig. 879. 

Stem procumbent, hairy. Clusters lateral, few-flowered. Leaves 
ovate, serrated. Shady woods ; not common. 4-6 in. Perenn. May- 
July. Pale blue (f) E. B. 1. 766. E. B. 2. 18. H. ^ Am. 301. 
Bab. 247. Lind. 189. 

V. Cham^drys. Germander Speedwell. Fig. 880. 

Stem trailing, with a line of hairs on each side. Leaves ovate, sessile, 
rough, serrated. Clusters lateral. Banks ; abundant. 4 in. Perenn. 
May and June. Bright blue (f) E.B. 1.623. E.B. 2. 17, H-^ 
Arn.306. Bab. 247. Lind. 189. 




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J.£ Sowerbv Fea/.. 



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89 

V. HiRSUTA. Hairy Speedwell. Fig. 881. 

Stem procumbent, hairy. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Capsule ovate, 
entire. A variety of o^ci«a/i« ? Heaths in Ayrshire. 2-4 in. Perenn. 
June. Blue, (f) E. B. Supp. 2673. H. ^ Am. SOI. Bab. 247. 
Lind. 189. 

V. HEDERiFOLiA. Ivy-lcaved Speedwell. Fig. 882. 

Stem procumbent. Leaves 5-lobed. Flowers solitary. A common 
weed. 2-5 in. Ann. April-Aug. Pale blue, (f) E. B. 1. 784. 
E. B. 2. 21. //. ^Arn. 301. Bab. 249. Lind. 189. 

v. AGRESTis. Germander Chickweed. Fig. 883. 

Stem procumbent. Leaves stalked, ovate, crenated. Sepals oblong, 
blunt. Plant pale green. A common weed. 2-6 in. Ann. April- 
Sept. Pale blue, (f) E. B. Supp. 2603. E.B. 2. IS*. E.^Arn. 302. 
Bab. 249. Lind. 189. 

V. poLiTA. Grey Speedwell. Fig. 884. 

Stem procumbent. Leaves cordate-ovate, deeply serrated. Sepals 
ovate, acute. Plant greyish green. A common weed. 2-6 in. Ann. 
May-Sept. Pale blue. (|) E.B.I. 783. E. B. 2. 19. H. ^ 
Arn. 302. Bub. 249. Lind. 331. 

V. BuxBAUMii. Fig. 885. 

Stem procumbent. Leaves cordate-ovate, deeply serrated. Sepals 
lanceolate, acute. Flowers large. Fields. 6-8 in. Ann. April- 
Sept. Blue, (f) E. B. Supp. 2769. H. ^ Arn. 302. Bab. 249. 
Lind. 33 1 . 

V. ARVENSis. Tf^all Speedwell. Fig. 888. 

Stem erect. Leaves ovate, serrated ; floral ones lanceolate. Flowers 
nearly sessile. A common weed. 2-5 in. Ann. May. Blue, (f) 
E.B.I. 734. E. B. 2. 20. H. ^ Arn. 302. Bab. 248. Lind. 189. 

V. VERNA. Vernal Speedwell. Fig. 887. 

Stem erect. Leaves pinnatifid. Flower-stalks shorter than the calyx. 
Dry fields ; rare. 1-3 in. Ann. April and May. Blue, (f) E.B. 
1. 25. E. B. 2. 23. H. ^ Arn. 303. Bab. 248. Lind. 189. 

V. TRiPHYLLOS. Trijid Speedioell. Fig. 888. 

Stem erect. Upper leaves in deep finger-like segments. Flower- 
stalks longer than the calyx. Sandy fields ; rare. 4-6 in. Ann. 
May. Deep blue, (f) E.B.I. 2b. E. B. 2. 23. H. ^ Arn. 303. 
Bab. 248. Lind. 189. 



Genus 2. Bartsia. 

B. ALPiNA. Alpine Painted-cup. Fig. 889. 

Stem square. Leaves opposite, ovate-cordate. Flowers in a terminal 
spike. Alpine pastures; rare. 6-8 in. Perenn. June and July. 
Purple, (f) E.B. \.36\. E. B. 2. 855. H. ^ Arn. 303. Bab. 245. 
Lind. 190. 

B. viscosA. Marsh Vainied-cup. Fig. 890. 

Stem round. Leaves lanceolate, with rounded serratures. Flowers 
axillary. Moist pastures. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. Aug. Yellow, (f) 
E.B.\.\04o, E.B.2.%b6. H.^- Arn. 304. Bab. 245. Lind.l90. 

N 



90 

B. Odontites. Red Eye-hright, Pig. 89L 

Stem square. Leaves lanceolate, serrated. Flowers in one-sided 

racemes. A common weed. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. July-Sept. Purple. 

(f) E.BAAAlb, I!.B.2.857. H.^-Arn.304. Bab.246. Lind.l9l. 

Genus 3. Euphrasia. 

E. OFFICINALIS. Eye-bright. Fig. 892. 

Stem erect. Leaves ovate, deeply toothed. Dry pastures ; common. 
1-8 in. Ann. July-Sept. White or pinkish. (|) ^. JS. 1. 1416. 
E.B.2.SbS. H.^Arn.oOA. Bab. 245. Li7id. 191. 

Genus 4. Rhinanthus. 

R. CniSTA-GALLi. Yellow-rattle. Pig. 893. 

Stem simple or slightly branched. Leaves lanceolate, serrated. 
Flowers in loose spikes. Meadows. 1-2 ft. Ann. June. Yellow, 
with two blue spots on the upper lip. (f) E.B.I. 657. E. B. 2. 859. 
H. 4- Arn. 305. Bab. 244. Lind. 190. 

R. MAJOR. Large Fellow-rattle. Pig. 894. 

Stem much branched. Leaves linear-lanceolate, serrated. Flowers 
in crowded spikes. Corn-fields. 1^-2 ft. Ann. July and Aug. 
Yellow, with a purple spot on the upper lip. (|) E. B. Supp. 2737. 
E. B. 2. 859*. H. ^ Arn. 305. Bab. 244. Lind. 190. 

Genus 5. Melampyrum. 

M. CRisTATUM. Crested Cow-Wheat. Pig. 895. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers in dense 4-sided spikes. Bracts 
heart-shaped, pointed, toothed at the base. Woods and fields. 1 ft. 
Ann. July. Yellow ; bracts rose-coloured at the base, (f ) E. B. 
1. 41. E. B.2. 860. H. ^ Arn. 306. Bab. 243. Lind. 195. 

M. ARVENSE. Purple Cow-Wheat. Pig. 896. 

Flowers in loose spikes. Bracts pinnatifid. Fields ; local. 1-1^ ft. 
Ann. July. Yellow and purple; bracts purple at the base. (|) 
E.B.I. 53. E. B. 2. 861. H. ^ Arn. 306. Bab. 243. Lind. 195. 

M. PRATENSE. Yellow Cow-Wheat. Pig. 897. 

Flowers axillary, unilateral. Upper bracts pinnatifid at the base. 
Woods. 1-lift. Ann. June-Aug. Pale yellow, (f) E.B.I. 113. 
E. B. 2. 862. H. ^ Arn. 306. Bab. 243. Lind. 195. 

M. SYLVATicuM. Wood Cow-Wheat. Pig. 898. 

Flowers axillary, unilateral. Bracts entire. Alpine woods ; rare. 
1ft. Ann. July. Yellow, (f) ^.^.1.804. ^.£.2.863. H.^ 
Arn.SOd. Bab.24i. Lind. 195. 

Genus 6. Pedicularis. 

P. paltjstris. Marsh Red-rattle. Louse-wort. Pig. 899. 

Stem solitary, branched above. Calyx ovate, hairy. Marshes. 
8 in.-l ft. Perenn. ? June and July. Pink or white. (|) E. B. 
1. 399. E. B. 2. 865. H.^Arn. 307. Bab. 244. Lind. 190. 

P. SYLVATiCA. Dwarf Red-rattle. Louse-wort. Pig. 900. 

Stem branched, spreading. Calyx oblong, smooth. Moist pastures 
and bogs ; common. 3-8 in. Perenn. June and July. Pink or 
white, (f) ^.£.1.400. ^.5.2.866. H.^Arn.307, Bab.244. 
Lind. 190. 




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45 



91 

Genus 7. Scrophularia. 

S. NODOSA. Knotty Fig-wort. Fig. 901. 

Root tuberous. Stem with obtuse angles. Leaves cordate, acute, 
smooth. Woods; common. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. Greenish 
purple, (f) ^.^.1.1544. E.B.2.876. H.^ Am. 307. Bab. 242. 
Lind. 193. 

S. AauATiCA. Water Fig-wort. Fig. 902. 

Stem winged at the angles. Leaves ovate, blunt, glabrous. Ditches ; 
common. 3-4 ft. Perenn. July. Greenish ; hps dark purple, (f ) 
E.B.I. 854. E. B. 2. 877. H. ^ Am. 854. Bab. 242. Lind. 193. 

S. ScoRODONiA. Balm-leaved Fig-ioort. Fig. 903. 

Plant downy. Leaves heart-shaped, serrated. Panicle leafy. Ditches 
in Ireland and the southern counties. 2 ft. Perenn. July. Purplish, 
(f ) E.B.I. 2209. E. B. 2. 878. H. ^Am. 308. Bab. 242. Lind. 193. 

S. vERNALis. Yellow Fig-wort. Fig. 904. 

Plant downy. Leaves broadly cordate, pale green. Flowers in leafy 
cymes. Shady places. 2 ft. Perenn. ? April and May. Yellow. (|) 
E. B. 1. 567. E. B. 2. 879. H.^Arn. 308. Bab. 243. Lind. 193. 

Genus 8. Digitalis. 

D. PURPUREA. Foxglove. Fig. 905. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, rugged, crenated, downy. Woods and hedge- 
banks ; common in hilly districts. Very poisonous. 2-5 ft. Bienn. 
June and July. Crimson, speckled within ; rarely white. (|) E.B. 
1. 1297. E. B. 2. 880. H. ^ Am. 309. Bab. 240. Lind. 192. 

Genus 9. Antirrhinum. 

A. MAjus. Snapdragon. Pig. 906. 

Leaves lanceolate. Flowers in spiked racemes. Sepals ovate, shorter 
than the corolla. Old walls ; common, but not indigenous. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. June-Sept. Purple, pink, or white. (^) E. B. 1. 129. 
E. B. 2. 874. H. ^ Am. 309. Bab. 240. Lind. 192. 

A. Orontium. Calfs'Snout. Fig. 907. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers sessile, in lax spikes. Sepals linear, 
longer than the corolla. Corn-fields ; not common. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. 
JulvandAug. Pink. (|) ^.5. 1.1155. E.B.2.875. H.^ Am. 309. 
Bab. 240. Lind. 192. 

Genus 10. Linaria. 

L. Cymbalaria. Ivy-leaved Snapdragon. Fig. 908. 

Stems trailing, very long and slender. Leaves cordate, 5-lobed. Walls ; 
common, but not indigenous. 2-4 in. Perenn. June-Nov. Purple, 
(f) E.B.\.b02. E.B. 2.867. H.^- Am. 310. Bab. 240. Lind.\9l. 

L. SPURIA. Fluellen. Fig. 909. 

Stems procumbent. Leaves ovate, downy. Dry fields. 2-4 in. 
Ann. July-Sept. Violet and yellow, (f) E.B.\.69\. E. B. 
2. 868. H. ^ Am. 310. Bab. 241. Lind. 191. 

L. Elatine. Sharp-leaved Fluellen. Fig. 910. 

Stems procumbent. Leaves cordate-hastate, acute. Dry fields. 
2-4 in. Ann. June-Sept. Violet and yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 692. 
E. B. 2. 869. H. ^Arn. 310. Bab. 240. Lind. 191. 

n2 



92 

L. REPENS. Creeping Toad-Flax, Fig. 911. 

Stem erect, with creeping runners. Leaves linear, glaucous. Calyx 
smooth, as long as the spur. Rocks near the sea. 1-2 ft. Perenn. 
July-Sept. Pale blue, with streaks ; lower lip sometimes pink. (|) 
.£".7?. 1. 1253. ^.^.2.870. H.^' Arn.ZlQ. Bab. 241. Lind.vJl. 

L. VULGARIS. Toad-Flax. Butter-and-Eggs. Fig. 912. 

Stems erect. Leaves linear-lanceolate, glaucous. Calyx smooth, 
shorter than the spur. Hedges; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June 
and July. Bright yellow and orange, (f) E. B.\. 658. E. B. 
2. 871 & 8/2. H.^Arn.ZU. Bab. 242. Lind. 191. 

L. MINOR. Sinall Toad-Flax. Fig. 913. 

Stem erect, much-branched. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers 
axillary. Calyx longer than the spur. Chalky fields ; local. 4-8 in. 
Ann. June and July. Purple and yellow, (f) E. B. 1.2014. 
.£".^.2. 873. H.^Jrn. 312. Bab. 2il. Lind. 192, 

L. Peliseriana. Purple Toad-Flax. Fig. 914. 

Stem erect, little-branched. Leaves linear. Flowers in racemes. 
Sepals linear, twice as long as the capsule. Jersey. 1 ft. Ann. June. 
Purple, (f) E. B. Supp. 2832. H. ^ Am. 311. Bab. 241. 

Genus 11. Limosella. 

L. AQUATiCA. JMudwort. Fig. 915. 

Leaves spatulate, on long stalks. Petals shorter than the tube of the 
calyx. Muddy places. 1-2 in. Ann. July-Sept. Rose-colour. (|-) 
£".^.1.357. £".£.2.882. H.^Arn.3l2. Bab. 2i3. Lind. 192. 

Genus 12. Sibthorpia. 

S. EuROPiEA. Cornish Money-wort. Fig. 916. 

Stems creeping and rooting. Leaves alternate, kidney-shaped, nearly 
orbicular. Flowers minute, axillary, on short peduncles. Moist places; 
local. -I in. Perenn. June-Oct. Pinkish, (f) £".£.1.649. E.B. 
2.881. H.^ Am. 3\2. Bab. 24^. Lind. 192. 

Genus 13. Verbascum. 

v. Thapsus. Great Mullein. Fig. 917. 

Leaves decurrent, woolly on both sides. Stem simple. Flowers 
sessile, densely crowded. Hedge-banks. 4-6 ft. Bienn. July and 
Aug. Deepyellow. (|) £.£.1.549. £.£.2.309. H.^Arn. 3\3. 
Bab. 238. Lind. 181. 

v. Lychnitis. W^hite Mullein. Fig. 918. 

Leaves nearly smooth on the upper side. Stem angular, panicled. 
Chalky places ; local. 4-5 ft. Bienn. June. Pale yellow. (|) 
£".£.1.58. £".£.2.310. H.^-Arn.3l4. Bab. 239. Lind.l8l. 

v. PULVERULENTUM. Hoary Mullein. Fig. 919. 

Leaves covered with mealy wool. Stem round, panicled. Waste 
ground and hedge-banks. 3-4 ft. Bienn. July. Bright yellow. (|) 
£.£.1.487. £.£.2.311. H.^Am.3\4. Bab. 239. Lind. ISl. 

V. NIGRUM. Dark Mullein. Fig. 920. 

Leaves oblong heart-shaped, on foot-stalks, dark green, slightly downy. 
Flowers in a raceme. Hedge-banks. 3 ft. Perenn. June-Oct. 
Yellow. (I) £.£.1.59. £.£.2.312. B.^ Am. 314. Bab.239. 
Lind. 181. 



.C^O/ 



V^T" 
















^/^l^' 
\^-^,.^"^^ 



'.V'' ,; 





93 

V. viRGATTJM. Large-flowered Mullein. Fig. 921. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, toothed, sessile ; root ones downy, somewhat 
lyrate. Stem branched. Flowers clustered, nearly sessile. Banks ; 
rare. 5-6 ft. Bienn. Aug. Yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 550. E. B. 
2.313. H.^Arn.ZU. Bab. 240. Lind.181. 

V. Blattaria. Moth Mullein. Fig. 922. 

Leaves stem-clasping, oblong, serrated, smooth. Flowers distant. 
Banks; rare. 3-4 ft. Ann. July-Nov. Yellow. Q) E.B.I. '693. 
E.B.2.3\4. H.^Arn. 313. Bab. 240. Lind. 181. 

Order LXII. LABIATiE. 
Genus 1. Lycopus. 
L. EuROP^us. Gipsy-wort. Fig. 923. 

Leaves very deeply serrated. Flowers in dense whorls. Ditches and 
pool-sides. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Sept. White. (|) £'.£.1.1105. 
E.B. 2. 30. H.^ Am. 316. Bab. 254. Lind. 19S. 

Genus 2. Salvia. 

S. PRATENSis. Meadow Clary. Fig. 924. 

Leaves oblong, heart-shaped at the base. Corolla thrice as long as 
the calyx. Hedge-banks ; rare. 3 ft. Perenn. June. Purple. (|) 
£■.£.1.153. E.B. 2. 31. H.^Arn.3\7. Bab. 254. Lind. \ 97. 

S. VERBENACA. Wild Clary. Fig. 925. 

Leaves serrated and crenated. Corolla-tube equal to the calyx. Dry 
fields and hedge-banks. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Oct. Purple, (g) 
E. B. 1. 154. E. B. 2. 32. H. ^ Am. 317. Bab. 254. Lind. 197. 

Genus 3. Mentha. 

M. sYLVESTRis. Horse Mint. Fig. 926. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, very acute, deeply serrated, downy beneath. 
Spikes nearly cylindrical. Bracts awl-shaped. Calyx very hairy. 
Moist ground. 2-4 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Pale lilac. (|) 
E.B.I. 686. E.B. 2.802. H.^ Am. 3\8. Bab. 252. Lind.\99. 

M. ROTUNDiFOLiA. Round- leaved Mint. Fig. 927. 

Leaves elliptical, obtuse, wrinkled, sharply serrated, shaggy beneath. 
Spikes interrupted. Bracts lanceolate. Moist places. 1-2 ft. Perenn. 
Aug. and Sept. Reddish, (f) E.B. 1. 446. E. B. 2. 803. H. ^ 
Am. 318. Bab. 252. Lind. 199. 

M. viRiDis. Spear Mint. Fig. 928. 

Leaves lanceolate, acute, serrated, glabrous. Spikes interrupted. 
Bracts awl-shaped. Moist places. A culinary herb, l-lg ft. Perenn. 
Aug. and Sept. Reddish purple, (f) E. B. 1. 2424. E. B. 2. 804. 
H. <.^ Am. 318. Bab. 252. Lind. 199. 

M. PIPERITA. Pepper-Mint. Fig. 929. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, deeply serrated, rather hairy. Spikes 
interrupted below. Bracts lanceolate. Calyx smooth at the base, 
glandular. Watery places. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Pale 
purple, (f) E.B. 1.686. E.B. 2. 805. H.^ Am. 319. Bab. 253. 
Lind. 199. 

M. CRisPA. Curled Mint. Fig. 930. 

Leaves cordate, rugged, crisped at the margin, with long pointed teeth. 
A variety o{ piperita. Wet places. 1 ft. Aug. and Sept. Purplish 
red. (I) E. B. Supp. 2785. E. B. 2. 805*. H. ^ Am. 319. 
Bab. 253. Lind. 199. 



94 

M. ciTRATA. Bergamnt Mint. Fig. 931. 

Leaves cordate-ovate, acute, sharply serrated, smooth, stalked. Whorls 
distant. Calyx glabrous. Wet places ; rare. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. 
and Sept. Purple, (f) E. B. 1. 1025. E. B. 2. 806. H. ^ 
^rn. 319. Bab. 253. Lind. 200. 

M. HiRSUTA. JFater Mint. IJairrj Mint. Fig. 932. 

Leaves ovate, serrated, hairy, stalked. Flowers in dense heads. Calyx 
hairy. Wet places ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Pale 
purple, (f) E. B. 1. 447. E. B. 2. 807. H. ^ Am. 319. Bab. 253. 
Lind. 200. 

M. SATivA. ^ Fig. 933. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate. Floveers in dense, distant whorls. 
A variety of hirsuta. Wet places. 1-2 ft. Pereno. Aug. and 
Sept. Pale purple. (|) E.B.l.AAQ. E.B. 2. 808. H.^Arn.3\9. 
Bab. 253. Lind. 200. 

M. ACUTiFOLiA. Sharp-leaved Mint. Fig. 934. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, tapering at each end. Flowers whorled. 
Calyx hairy all over, hairs of the pedicels spreading. Wet places ; rare. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Reddish purple. (|) E.B. 1. 2415. 
E. B. 2. 80y. H. ^ Am. 320. Bab. 253. Und. 200. 

M. RUBRA. Red Mint. Fig. 935. 

Stem upright, zigzag. Leaves ovate, sharply serrated, glabrous. 
Flowers whorled. Pedicels and lower part of the calyx smooth. Watery 
places. 2-6 ft. Sept. Purplish red. (f) E. B.\. 1413. E. B. 
2. 810. H.^Arn. 320. Bab. 253. Lind. 200. 

M. GENTiLTS. Bushy Red Mint. Fig. 936. 

Stem much-branched, spreading. Leaves ovate, hairy, stalked. 
Flowers whorled. Pedicels smooth. 1-2 ft. Perenn. Aug. and 
Sept. Reddish purple, (f) £'.^.1.2118. E.B.2.8U. H. ^ 
Am. 320. Bab. 253. Lind. 201. 

M. GRACILIS. Narrow-leaved Red Mint. Fig. 937. 

Stem upright, much-branched. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute. A 
variety of gentilis. 1 ft. Perenn. Sept. Reddish, (f ) E. B. 
1. 449. E. B. 2. 812. H. ^ Am. 320. Bab. 253. Lind. 199. 

M. ARVENSis. Corn Mint. Fig. 938. 

Stem branched, spreading. Leaves ovate, hairy. Flowers whorled. 
Calyx bell-shaped, hairy. Corn-fields. 8-10 in. Perenn. July- 
Sept. Purple, (f) E.B.I. 2l\9. E.B. 2. 813. H.^Arn.320. 
Bab. 254. Lind. 200. 

M. AGRESTis. Field Mint. Fig. 939- 

Stem erect. Leaves heart-shaped, serrated, rugged. A variety of 

arvensis. Corn-fields. 8-10 in. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Purple. 

(f) E. B. 1. 2120. E. B. 2. 814. H. ^ Am. 320. Bab. 254. 

Li7id. 200. 

M. PuLEGiUM. Penny-royal. Fig. 940. 

Stem prostrate. Leaves ovate, downy. Flowers whorled. Calyx 
downy all over. Wet places ; naturalized. 4-8 in. Perenn, Aug. 
and Sept. Pale purple, (f) E.B.I. 1026. E. B. 2. 815. H. & 
Arn.320. Bab. 254. Lind. 201. 







I.Oct. 1859. 



J. JL. Su tveriry. Fecef. 

4-7. 



95 

Genus 4. Thymus. 

T. Serpyllum. Wild Thyme. ^ Fig. 941. 

Stems branched, decumbent. Leaves ovate, hairy, sometimes very 
woolly. Flowers in heads. Heaths and hedge-banks; abundant. 
1-2 in. Perenn. June-Sept. Reddish. (|) £'.-6.1.1514. E.B. 
2. 816. H. ^ Am. 321. Bab. 255. Lind. 201. 

Genus 5. Origanum. 

O. vuLGARE. Marjoram. Fig. 943. 

Flowers in roundish heads, panicled. Leaves ovate, entire. Hedge- 
banks and bushy places ; abundant on the chalk. 1 1-2 ft. Perenn. 
July and Aug. Rose-colour. (§) £^.£.1.1143. E.B.2.Q\7. 
H.'^ Arn. 322. Bab. 255. Lind. 201. 

Genus 6. Teucrium. 

T. ScoRODONiA. Germander. Wood-Sage. Fig. 943. 

Stem erect. Leaves heart-shaped, crenated, downy, with foot-stalks. 
Flowers in one-sided racemes. Woods and commons ; abundant. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. July-Sept. Pale yellow. (§) £.iS. I. 1543. £.^.2.818. 
H.^ Am. 322. Bab. 2^2. Litid. \ 98. 

T. ScoRDiuM. Water Germander. Fig. 944. 

Stem procumbent. Leaves oblong, sessile. Flowers axillary, in pairs. 
Wet meadows ; local. 9 in.-l ft. Perenn. July. Pink, (f) E. B. 
1.828. £'.J5. 2. 819. H.^Arn.322. Bab. 262. Lind. 198. 

T. Cham^edrys. Wall Germander. Fig. 945. 

Stems ascending, roundish. Leaves ovate, tapering to a stalk. 
Flowers axillary, three together. Old walls; naturalized. 9 in. 
Perenn. June-Nov. Purplish red. (|) £'.^.1.680. £'.5.2.820. 
H.^ Am. 323. Bab. 262. Lind. 198. 

Genus 7. Ajuga. 

A. REPTANS. Bugle. Fig. 946. 

Plant nearly smooth. Stem solitary, with creeping runners. Lower 
lip of corolla 4-cleft. Woods ; abundant. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. May 
and June. Blue, pink, or white, (f) E.B.I. A89, E.B. 2. 821. 
H. ^ Am. 323. Bab. 263. Lind. 197. 

A. PYRAMiDALis. Pyramidal Bugle. Fig. 947. 

Hairy. Stem without runners. Root-leaves very large, obovate ; 
whorls crowded in a pyramidal form. Highland pastures. 2-6 in. 
Perenn. June. Bluish, with darker streaks, (f) E. B. 1. 1270. 
E. B. 2. 822. H. ^ Am. 323. Bab. 263. Lind. 198. 

A. ALPiNA. Mountain Bugle. Fig. 948. 

Leaves nearly smooth. Stem without runners. Whorls distant. 
Mountains ; rare. 2-6 in. Perenn. June and July. Pale blue or pink, 
(f) E. B. 1. A77. E. B. 2. 823. H. ^-Am. 324. Bab. 263. Lind. 197. 

A. Cham^pitys. Ground Pine. Yellow Bugle. Fig. 949. 
Hairy. Stem spreading, branched. Leaves in three linear segments. 

Flowers solitary. Chalky fields; local. 6-8 in. Ann. April and 
May. Yellow, with red dots. (|) E. B. 1. 77. E. B. 2. 824. H. ^ 
Arn.324. Bab. 263. Lind. \ 98. 

Genus 8. Ballota. 

B. nigra. Black Horehound. Fig. 950. 
Leaves ovate, deeply serrated. Hedges and waste ground. 2-3 ft. 

Perenn. July and Aug. Purple. (|) E. B. I. 46. E.B. 2. 825. 
U. ^ Am. 325. Bab. 261. Lind. 205. 



96 

Genus 9. Leonurus. 

L. Cardiaca. Motherwort. Fig. 95L 

Leaves lanceolate, tapering to the petiole ; lower ones 3-lobed, upper 

entire. Upper lip of corolla hairy. Hedge-banks. 1-3 ft. Perenn. 

July and Aug. White ; lower lip purple, (f ) E. B. 1. 286. E. B. 

2.826. H.^ Am. 2,2b. Bab. 259. Lind.204, 

Genus 10. Galeopsis. 

G. Ladanum. Red Hemp-Nettle. Fig. 952. 

Stem not swollen beneath the nodes. Leaves lanceolate, hairy. 
Upper lip of corolla slightly notched. Dry fields. 6 in.- 1 ft. Ann. 
Aug.-Oct. Purplish pink, (f) E. B. 1. 884. E. B. 2. 828. 
H.^Jrn. 325. Bab. 260. Lind. 202. 

G. viLLOSA. Diva)-/ Hemp-Nettle. Fig. 953. 

Stem not swollen beneath the nodes. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, very 
soft and downy. Upper lip of corolla deeply notched. Sandy fields. 
1-2 ft. Ann. July and Aug. Pale yellow, (f) E.B.I. 2353. 
E. B. 2. 829. H.^Arn. 326. Bab. 260. Lind. 203. 

G. Tetrahit. Hemp-Nettle. Fig. 954. 

Stem swollen beneath the nodes. Leaves ovate, bristly. Corolla 
twice as long as the calyx. Fields ; common. 1-3 ft. Ann. Aug. 
Purplish or white, (f) E.B.I. 207. E. B. 2. 830. H. ^ Am. 326. 
Bab. 260. Lind. 203. 

G. VERSICOLOR. Bee-Nettle. Fig. 955. 

Stem swollen beneath the nodes. Corolla thrice as long as the calyx. 
Corn-fields. 2-3 ft. Ann. June-Aug. Yellow, with a purple spot 
on the lower lip. (|) E.B. 1. 667. E. B. 2. 831. H.^Arn. 326. 
Bab. 260. Lind. 203. 

Genus 11. Galeobdolon. 

G. LUTEUM. Weasel-snout. Fig. 956. 

Leaves ovate, pointed, bright green. Flowering stems erect, barren 
ones creeping. Hedges and thickets. 1 ft. Perenn. May and June. 
Yellow, (i) E.B. 1.787. E.B. 2. 827. H.^ Am. 326. Bab. 259, 
Lind. 326. 

Genus 12. Lamium. 

L. ALBUM. Tf^hite Dead-Nettle. Fig. 957. 

Flowers about 20 in each whorl. Calyx-tube shorter than the teeth. 
Upper lip of corolla notched. Hedges and way-sides ; abundant. 
1-1 1 ft. Perenn. April-Oct. White; anthers black. (|) E.B. 
1.768. E.B. 2. 832. H.^ Am. 327. Bab. 259. Lind.203. 

L. MACULATUM. Spotted Dead-Nettie. Fig. 958. 

Lower leaves with a white spot. Flowers 8 or 10 in a whorl. Calyx- 
tube curved, as long as the teeth. Upper lip of corolla crenated. Hedge- 
banks; rare. 1 ft. Perenn. May-Oct. Reddish purple. (^) 
E.B.I. 2550. E. B. 2. 833. H.^Am. 327. Bab. 259. Lind. 202. 

L. puRPUREUM. Red Bead-Nettle. Fig. 959. 

Stem leafless in the middle ; upper leaves crowded. Tube of corolla 
bearded within. A common weed. 6-10 in. Ann. All the vear. 
Purple or pink. (^) E.B.\. 769. E. B. 2. 834. H. ^ Arn.'327. 
Bab. 258. Lind. 203. 

L. INCISTJM. Cut-leaved Dead-Nettie. Fig. 960. 

Stem leafless in the middle. Leaves irregularly cut and serrated. 
Tube of coroHa naked within. Fields. 6-10 in. Ann. May and 
June. Purplish red. (f) E.B.I. 1933. Ei B. 2. 835. H. ^- Am. 327. 
Bub, 258. Lind. 204. 




l.Oc-t,. 185 9 



-E. SoA'eri^. Fecii. 

46 



^7 

L. AMPLEXiCAXJLE. Ilenbit Dead-Nettie. Fig. 961. 

Leaves cordate ; upper ones stem-clasping. Calyx-teeth longer than 
the tube, linear. Corolla-tube very long. Waste places. Sin. Ann. 
Feb.-June. Pink, with red spots. (|) E.BA. 770. E. B. 2. 836. 
H.^Arn. 328. Bab. 258. Lind. 204. 

Genus 13. Betonica. 

B, OFFICINALIS. Betony. Fig. 962. 

Root-leaves ovate-cordate, with long foot-stalks. Spike interrupted. 
Woods ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Purple-pink, 
(f) ^.5.1.1142. KB. 2.837. H.^Am.328. Bab. 260. Lind.205. 

Genus 14. Stachys. 

S. sylvatica. Hedge Woundwort. Pig. 963. 

Stem solid. Leaves ovate-cordate, with petioles. Flowers 6 in a 
whorl. Hedge-banks ; common. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Deep purple, with streaks of white. (|) ^. -B. 1. 416. E. B. 2. 838. 
H.^Arn. 329. Bab. 2Ul. Lind. 204. 

S. AMBIGUA. Fig. 964. 

Stem hollow. Leaves silky. A variety of sylvatica. Fields in 
Scotland. 2-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Reddish-purple. (§) 
E. B. 1. 2089. E. B. 2. 839. H. 8r Am. 329. Bab. 26] . Lind. 204. 

S. PALUSTRis. Marsh Woundwort. Fig. 965. 

Root tuberous. Leaves linear-lanceolate, sessile. Flowers 6 in a 
whorl. Wet places. 2-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. Purple and white. (|) 
E.B.I. 1675. E.B. 2. 840. H.^Arn.329. Bab. 261. Lind.205. 

S. GERMANiCA. Downy Woundwort. Fig. 966. 

Stem erect, woolly. Leaves oblong, silky above, woolly beneath. 
Whorls many-flowered. Fields. 2-3 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept- 
Purple, (f) £.^.1.829. E.B.2.84\. H.^ Am. 329. Bab. 261. 
Lind. 205. 

S. ARVENSis. Com Woundwort. Fig. 967. 

Stem weak, branched. Leaves cordate, slightly hairy. Whorls 
6-flowered. Corn-fields ; common. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. July and Aug. 
Dull purple, (f) E. B. 1. 1154. E. B. 2. 842. H. ^ Am. 329. 
Bab. 26\. Lind.205. 

S. ANNUA. Pale Woundwort. Fig. 968. 

Stem erect. Plant downy. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, the lower ones 
stalked. Calyx hairy. Fields ; rare. 1 ft. Ann. Aug. and Sept. 
Pale yellow, (f) E. B. Supp. 2669. E.B. 2. 842*. H.^Arn. 330. 
Bab. 261. Lind. 204. 

Genus 15. Nepeta. 

N. Cataria. Cat-Mint. Fig. 969. 

Leaves downy, with foot-stalks. Whorls stalked, many-flowered. 
Hedge-banks. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July-Sept. Pale pink, with purple 
spots. (I) E.B.\. 137. E. B. 2. 843. H. ^ Am. 330. Bab. 257. 
Lind. 202. 

Genus 16. Glechoma. 

G. HEDERACEA. Ground Ivy. Fig. 970. 

Stems procumbent, rooting. Leaves kidney-shaped, crcnated. Flowers 
in axillary whorls, 3 or 4 together. Hedge-banks ; abundant. 4-9 in. 
Perenn. April-Oct. Blue; sometimes whi*c. (?■) E. B. 1.411. 
E. B. 2. 846. H. f Am. 330. Bab. 257. Lind. 202. 



93 

Genus 17. Marrubium. 

M. vuLGARE. Horehound. Fig. 971. 

Stem erect. Leaves roundish-ovate, wrinkled, covered with a dense 
white wool. Waste places. Aromatic. 1-2 ft. Pereun. Aug. and 
Sept. Whitish. (^) E. B. 1. 410. E. B. 2. 845. //. ^ Am. 331. 
Bab. 2G2. Lind. 205. 

Genus 18. Acinos. 

A. VULGARIS. Basil Thyme. Fig. 972. 

Stem ascending, branched. Leaves oblong, acute, serrated. Flowers 
about 6 in a whorl. Dry fields. G-8 in. Ann. Aug. Purplish-blue, 
with a white spot on the'lower hp. (f ) ^. i?. 1 . 4 1 1 . E.B.2. 846. 
H. ^ Arn. 330. Bab. 256. Lind. 201. 

Genus 19. Calamintha. 

C. OFFICINALIS. Calamint. Fig. 973. 

Stem erect. Leaves with slight serratures. Flowers in unilateral 
cymes. Way-sides. 1| ft. Perenn. July-Sept. Pale purple. (^) 
E. B. 1. 1676. E. B. 2. 847. H.^-Arn. 332. Bab.2bQ. Lind.26l. 

C. Nepeta. Lesser Calamint. Fig. 974. 

Leaves serrated. Hairs in the throat of the calyx prominent when 
in fruit. A variety of officinalis. Limestone hills and way-sides. 1 ft. 
Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Purple. (|) £".3.1.1414. ^.5.2.848. 
B.^Arn. 331. Bab. 255. Lind. 202. 

Genus 20. Clinopodium. 

C. VULGARE. Wild Basil. Fig. 975. 

Leaves ovate, hairy. Flowers in 2 or 3 close, hairy whorls. Lime- 
stone hills. 1-1 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. Pinkish-purple, (f) E.B. 
1.1401. E. B. 2. 849. H.^ Arn. 332. Bab. 256. Lind. 202. 

Genus 21. Melittis. 

M. Melissophyllum. Bastard Balm. Fig. 976. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, serrated. Flowers large. Upper lip of the 
calyx with 2 or 3 teeth. Woods in the southern counties. 1 ft. 
Perenn. June. Reddish with crimson spots. (|) E. B. 1. 577. 
E. B. 2. 851. H. ^-Arn. 333. Bab. 258. Lind. 202. 

M. grandiflora. Fig. 977. 

Calyx-lobes entire. A variety of Melissophyllum. Woods. 1 ft. 
Perenn. June. White, with a purple spot on the lower lip. (|) 
E. B. 1. 636. E. B. 2. 850. H. ^ Arn. 333. Bab. 258. Lind. 202. 
Genus 22. Prunella. 

P. VULGARIS. Self-heal. Fig. 978. 

Leaves entire, with foot-stalks. Flowers in dense cylindrical spikes. 
Fields. 2 in.-l ft. Perenn. June and July. Purplish-blue ; sometimes 
pink or white, (f ) E.B.l.96\. E. B. 2. 852. H. ^ Arn. 333. 
Bab. 257. Lind.'206. 

Genus 23. Scutellaria. 

S. galericulata. Skull-cap. Fig. 979. 

Leaves lanceolate, cordate at the base, crenated. Wet places. 1 ft. 
Perenn. June-Aug. Purple or blue, (f) £".^.1.523. ^.i?. 2.853. 
H. ^ Arn. 334. Bab. 257. Lind. 205. 

S. MINOR. Lesser Skull-cap. Fig. 980. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, nearly entire, sometimes hastate at the base. 
Moist places ; common. 4-6 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Pinkish. 
(I) £".^.1.524. E.B. 2. 854. H.^Arn.334. Bab. 257. Lind.205. 






s>. 



// 




1 Oct^ 185,9 



4^ 



99 

Order LXIII. VERBENACEiE. 
Genus 1. Verbena. 
V. OFFICINALIS. Common Vervain. Fig. 981. 

Stem erect, hispid. Leaves lanceolate, deeply cut or serrated, some- 
times trifid. Flowers in slender panicled spikes. Waste places ; com- 
mon. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Lilac, (f) E. B. I. 767. £. B. 
2.883. IL^Arn.Z'65. Bab. 264. Lind. 196. 

Order LXIV. LENTIBULARIACE^. 
Genus 1. Pinguicula. 

P. VULGARIS. Butterwort. Fig. 982. 

Leaves in a tuft at the root. Flowers solitary. Spur cylindrical, as 
long as the petal. Segments of the calyx oblong. Bogs. 4-6 in. 
Perenn. June and July. Purple-blue, (f) E.B.I. 70. E.B.2.25. 
H.^Jrn. 335. Bab. 264. Lmd. IS6. 

P. GRANDiFLORA. Largc-fiowered Butterwort, Fig. 983. 

Spur cylindrical, as long as the nearly regular petal. Segments of 
the calyx ovate. Marshes ; rare. 6-8 in. Perenn. May. Blue. (|) 
E.B. 1. 2184. E. B. 2. 26. E. ^' Am. 336. Bab. 264. Lind. 186. 

P. ALPiNA. Alpine Butterwort. Fig. 984. 

Spur conical, slightly curved, shorter than the petal. Flower-stalks 
smooth. Alpine bogs. 4-6 in. Perenn. June. Pale yellow, (f ) 
E.B. Supp. 2747. E.B. 2. 24*. H.^Arn.336. Bab. 264. Lind. 331. 

P. LusiTANiCA. Pale Butterwort. Fig. 985. 

Spur blunt, shorter than the petal. Flower-stalks hairy. Flowers 
nearly regular. Bogs ; local. 4-6 in. Perenn. June. Pale blue. 
(I) £".£.1.145. E.B. 2.24. H.^Arn.336. Bab.264. Lind. 186. 
Genus 2. Utricularia. 

U. VULGARIS. Bladderwort. Fig. 986. 

Stems submersed. Leaves pinnate, with numerous segments. Spur 
conical. Upper lip of corolla as long as the palate. Stagnant water. 
Perenn. July and Aug. Tellow. (f) E.B.I. 253. E. B. 2. 27. 
H. ^Arn. 337. Bab. 265. Lind. 186. 

U. INTERMEDIA. Fig. 987. 

Spur conical. Spike 2- or 3-flowered. Upper lip twice as long as 
the palate. Water ; rare. Perenn. June-Sept. Yellow, (f ) E. B. 
1. 2489. E. B. 2. 28. H. ^ Am. 337. Bab. 265. Lind. 186. 

U. MINOR. Small Bladderwort. Fig. 988. 

Spur keel-shaped. Spikes with several flowers. Pools on moors. 
Perenn. June-Sept. Yellow. (%) E. B. 1. 254. E. B. 2. 29. 
H.^ Am. 337. Bab.265. Lind.\9,7. 

Order LXV. PRIMULACEiE. 
Genus 1. Hottonia. 
H. PALUSTRis. Water Violet. Fig. 989. 

Stems submersed. Leaves pectinated. Flowers in whorls around an 
upright stalk. Clear water. Perenn. June. Pale lilac, (f ) E. B. 
1. 364. E. B. 2. 282. H. ^ Am. 338. Bab. 267. Lind. 185. 
Genus 2. Primula. 
P. vulgaris. Priinrose. Fig. 990. 

Leaves obovate, tapering to the base. Pedicels usually sessile, single- 
flowered. Banks and thickets ; abundant. 6-8 in. Perenn. March- 
May. Pale yellow. (|) E.B.I. 4. E. B. 2. 275. H. ^ Am. 339. 
Bab. 266. Lind. 184. 



100 

p. ELATiOR. Oxlip. Fig. 991. 

Leaves ovate, contracted below the middle. Flowers in an umbel 
on a long stalk. Teeth of the calyx awl-shaped. Thickets. 6-9 in. 
Perenn. April. Pale yellow, (i) E. B. i. b\3. E. B. 2. 276. 
H. ^ Am. 339. Bah. 267. Lind. 184. 

P. vERis. Cowslip. Fig. 992. 

Leaves ovate, much contracted below the middle. Umbel on a long 
stalk. Limb of corolla shorter than the tube. Calyx-teeth short. 
Meadows and pastures ; abundant. 6-10 in. Perenn. May. Deep 
yellow. (I) E.B.I. 5, E.B.2.277. H.^Arn. 339. Bab. 266. 
Lind. 184. 

P. FARiNOSA. Bird's-eye Primrose. ' Fig. 993. 

Leaves mealy beneath. Petals narrow. Moist places on mountains. 
2-6 in. Perenn. June and July. Pale purple with a yellow eye. (|) 
E.B.I. 6. E. B. 2. 278. H. ^ Am. 340. Bah. 267. Lind. 184. 

P. scoTiCA. Scotch Primrose. Fig. 994. 

Leaves mealy. Petals broad. Northern Highlands. 1-4 in. Perenn. 
July. Bluish-purple with yellow eye. (f ) E. B. Supp. 2608. E. B. 
2. 278*. H. ^ Am. 340. Bah. 267. Lind. 184. 

Genus 3. Cyclamen. 

C. HEDERiFOLiuM. Sow-bread. Fig. 995. 

Leaves cordate, angular, with white blotches. Flowers solitary, on 
long stalks. Petals reflexed. Woods ; local, scarcely wild. 6-8 in. 
Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Pink, (i) E. B. 1. 548. E. B. 2. 279. 
H.^Arn.3AQ. Bab. 267. Lind. 183. 

Genus 4. Glaux. 

G. MARiTiMA. Sea Milkwort. Fig. 996. 

A small creeping plant with opposite, fleshy leaves. Flowers axillary. 
Sea- shores and salt marshes. 1-4 in. Perenn. June-Aug. Pink. 
Q) E.B.I. 13. E.B.2.346. H.^ Am. 341. Bab. 269. Lind. 183. 

Genus 5. Trientalis. 

T. EUROPiEA. Chickweed Winter-green. Fig. 997. 

Stem erect, with a whorl of leaves at the apex beneath the flowers. 
Heaths ; rare. 4-6 in. Perenn. June. White. (|) E. B. 1. 15. 
E. B. 2. 540. H.^Am. 341. Bab. 269. Lind. 185. 

Genus 6. Lysimachia. 

L. VULGARIS. Loosestrife. Fig. 998. 

Stems erect. Flowers in terminal leafy clusters. Moist places. 3 ft. 
Perenn. July. Yellow, (i) E.B.I. 761. E. B. 2. 283. H. ^ 
Arn.342. Bah. 268. Lind. 184. 

L. THYRSI FLORA. Tufted Loosestrife. Fig. 999. 

Flowers in axillary stalked clusters. Leaves lanceolate. Borders 
of lakes ; rare. 1| ft. Perenn. July. Yellow. (|) jE". i?. 1. 176. 
E. B. 2. 284. H. ^ Am. 342. Bah. 268. Lind. 184. 

L. NEMORUM. Wood Pimpernel. Fig. 1000. 

Stems procumbent, pinkish. Leaves ovate, acute. Sepals Unear- 
lanceolate. Woods ; common. 2-4 in. Perenn. May-Aug. Yellow. 
(I) E.B.I. 527. E. B. 2. 285. //. ^- Am. 342. Bab. 268. Lind. 184. 






\^'^4 




^■9/ 



101 

L. NuMMULARiA. Money-wort. Fig. 1001. 

Stems creeping. Leaves ovate, somewhat heart-shaped. Sepals 
ovate, pointed. Ditch-banks and shady places; common. 1-3 in. 
Perenn. May-Jnly. Yellow. (|) E. B. I. 528. E. B. 2. 28fi. 
H. ^ Am. 342. Bab. 268. Lind. 184. 

Genus 7. Anagallis. 

A. ARVENSis. Scarlet Pimpernel. Pig. 1002. 

Leaves ovate, sessile. Edges of corolla glandulose. A common weed. 
2-5 in. Ann. May-Sept. Scarlet, (f) ^. J5. 1. 529. E. B 
2.287. ^. ^^m. 343. Bab. 2m. Lind. 185. 

A. CiERULEA. Blue Pimpernel. Fig. 1003. 

Edges of corolla toothed. Plant more erect. A variety of arvensis. 
2-6 in. Ann. May-Sept. Blue, scarlet in the centre. (|) E. B. 
1.1823. E.B. 2.287*. H.^Jrn.343. Bab. 185. Lind. 185. 

A. TENELLA. Boff Pimpernel. Fig. 1004. 

Stem creeping. Leaves roundish. Bogs ; common. 1-2 in. 
Pevenn. July and Aug. Pink. (|) E. B. 1. 530. E. B. 2. 288. 
77. .^ ^rn. 530. Bab. 269. Lind. 185. 

Genus 8. Centunculus. 

C. MINIMUS. Chaffweed. ' Fig. 1005. 

Leaves alternate. Flowers axillary, sessile. Moist places. 1-2 in. 
Ann. June and July. Pink. ^.^.1.531. E.B.2.225. H. &- 
Am. 333. Bab. 269. Lind. 183. 

Genus 9. Samolus. 

S. Valerandi. Brook-weed. Fig. 1006. 

Stem erect, rather succulent. Leaves alternate, blunt. Flowers in 
clusters, with a bract on each pedicel. "Watery places. 1 ft. Perenn. 
June-Aug. White. (|) jP.^. 1.703. E.B. 2. 323. H.^ Am. 344. 
Bab. 269. Lind. 185. 

Order LXVI. PLUMBAGINACEJE. 
Genus 1. Armeria. 
A. MARiTiMA. Sea Thrift. Fig. 1007. 

Leaves linear. Flowers in a dense round head. Sea cliffs ; common. 
6-8 in. Perenn. June-Aug. Pink. (|) ^.^.1.226. E.B. 
2.450. H.^ Am. 344. Bab. 271. Lind. 170. 

Genus 2. Statice. 

S. LiMONiUM. Sea Lavender. Fig. 1008. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, glaucous. Panicles corymbose. Sea-coast. 
6in.-lift. Perenn. July and Aug. Purplish-blue, (f) E.B. 1.102. 
E.B. 2.451. H.^Am.345. Bab. 270. Lind. 170. 

S. SPATHULATA. Narrow-leaved Sea Lavender. Fig. 1009. 

Leaves spathulate, glaucous. Panicles distichous. Sea-coasts. 6- 
10 in. Perenn. Aug. Purphsh-blue. (f) E. B. Supp. 2663. 
E. B. 2. 451*. H. ^ Am. 346. Bab. 270. Lind. 330. 

S. RETICULATA. Matted Sea Lavender. Fig. 1010. 

Leaves spathulate. Panicles much divided, the branches crossing 
each other. Stems prostrate. Coast of Norfolk. 6 in. Perenn. 
July and Aug. Purplish-blue, (f) E.B.I. 328. E. B. 2. 452. 
H.^'Arn.346. Bab. 271. Lind. 171. 



102 

Order LXVII. PLANTAGINACEiE. 
Genus 1. Plantago. 

P. MAJOR. Greater Plantain. Fig. 1011. 

Leaves broadly ovate, with longish foot-stalks. A common weed. 
2-10 in. Perenn. June-Aug. Pinkish. (|) E. B. 1. 1558. 
E.B. 2. 220. H.^Jrn.347. Bah. 273. Lind. \69. 

P. MEDIA. HoarT/ Plantain. Fig. 1012 

Leaves broadly ovate, nearly sessile, downy. Chalk hills. 4-6 in. 
Perenn. June-Aug. Pinkish, (f) E.B.\.lo^)U. E.B. 2.221. 
H.^Arn. 348. Bab. 2/3. Lind. 169. 

P. LANCEOLATA. Ribwort. Fig. 1013. 

Leaves lanceolate, long. Spike ovate. Stalks angular. A common 
weed in pastures. 10 in.-l| ft. Perenn. June. Pinkish. (^) 
E. B.\. b07. E. B. 2. 222. H. ^ Am. 348. Bab. 2/2. Lind. 169. 

P. MARiTiMA. Sea Plantain. Fig. 1014. 

Leaves linear, fleshy, channelled. Stalks round. Muddy sea-coasts. 
4 in.-l ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Pinkish. (|) E.B. 1. 175. 
.E".^. 2. 223. H.^Arn.3A^. Bab. 272. Lind.169. 

P. CoRONOPUs. Buck's-horn Plantain. Fig. 1015. 

Leaves linear, pinnatifid. Dry places ; common. 2-4 in. Ann. 
June-Aug. Pinkish. (|) E.B.I. ^92. E.B. 2. 224. H.^^ Am. 348. 
Bab. 272. Lind. 169. 

Genus 2. Littorella. 

L. LACusTRis. Shore-weed. Fig. 1016. 

Leaves linear, fleshy, somewhat channelled. Flowers monoecious. 
Margins of pools. 2-4 in. Perenn. June. Yellowish, (|) E. B. 
1.468. ^.^.2.1304. H.^ Am. 349. Bab. 273. Lind. 170. 

Order LXVIIT. AMARANTHACEiE. 
Genus 1. Amaranth us. 

A. Blittjm. Wild Amaranth. Fig. 1017. 
Stem spreading. Leaves ovate, obtuse. Flowers 3-cleft, in small 

lateral tufts. Waste places. 8 in.-l ft. Ann. Aug. Green. (|) 
ii\^. 1.2212. ^.jB.2.1311. //.^^m.352. Bab. 274. Lind.2\3. 

Order LXIX. CHENOPODIACEiE. 
Genus 1. Beta. 

B. MARITIMA. Beet. Fig. 1018 
Stems procumbent. Flowers in pairs. Muddy sea-shores. The 

origin of the Beet and Mangel Wurzel. 3-4 ft. Perenn.? June-Sept. 
Green, (f) £.5.1.285. E.B.2.3Q3. 11.^ Am. 353. Bab. 277. 
Lind. 216. 

Genus 2. Chenopodium. 

C. FRUTicosuM. Shrubby Goosefoot. Fig. 1019. 
Erect, shrubby. Leaves semicylindrical, blunt. Bracts 3. Southern 

coasts ; rare. 3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellowish, (f ) 
E. B. 1. 635. E. B. 2. 349. //. ^ Am. 361. Bab. 275. Lind. 216. 

C. MARiTiMUM. Sea Goosefoot. Fig. 1020. 

Stem herbaceous, erect. Leaves semicylindrical, pointed. Bracts 2. 
Sea-shores. 1 ft. Ann. July. Yellowish. {^) E. B.\, 633. 
E. B. 2. 350. H.^Arn. 361. Bab. 275. Lind. 216. 



^<?: /^^V a--/^^2/7 



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/oo.j 







103 

C. OLiDUM. StinJiing Goosefoot. Fig. 1021. 

Leaves ovate, somewhat rhomboid, entire. Flowers in dense clustered 
spikes. Waste places and sea-coast. 8-10 in. Ann. Aug. Green. 
(§) E. B. 1. 1034. E. B. 2. 351. H. ^ Am. 354. Bab. 275. 
Lind. 216. 

C. POLYSPERMUM. Round-leaved Goosefoot. Fig. 1023. 

Leaves ovate, obtuse, entire. Stem prostrate. Clusters cymose. 
Waste ground. 6 in. Ann. Aug. Green, (f) E. B. 1. 1480. 
E.B. 2. 352. H.^Jrn.354. Bab. 276. Lind. 216. 

C. ACUTiFOLiuM. Sharp-lcaved Goosefoot. Fig. 1023. 

Leaves ovate, acute, entire. Stem erect. Clusters spiked, elongated. 
Waste ground. 8 in.-l ft. Ann. Aug. Green, (f) £".^.1.1481. 
£".5.2.353. H.^ Am. 354. Bab. 276. Lmd.2l6. 

C. Bonus-Henricus. Wild Spinach. Fig. 1024. 

Leaves triangular, sagittate, entire. Spikes compound, leafless. Waste 
places. 1 ft. Perenn. May-Aug. Green, (f) E. B. 1. 1033. 
E. B. 2. 354. H. ^ Am. 356. Bab. 277. Lind. '215. 

C. iJRBicuM. Upright Goosefoot. Fig. 1025. 

Leaves triangular, toothed. Spikes long, interrupted. Dunghills and 
waste ground ; common. 1 ft. Ann. Aug. and Sept. Green, (f ) 
E.B.I. 717. E.B. 2. 355. H.^Am.354. Bab. 276. Lind. 215. 

C. RUBRUM. Red Goosefoot. Fig. 1026. 

Leaves triangular, deeply toothed and waved. Clusters upright, 
leafy. Waste ground. 1-3 ft. Ann. Reddish, (f) E.B. I. 1721. 
E. B. 2. 356. H. ^ Am. 356. Bab. 277. Lind. 215. 

C. BOTRYOiDES. Clustered Goosefoot. Fig. 1027. 

Leaves triangular, somewhat toothed. Spikes upright, clustered, 
leafy. Sandy places ; rare. 1 ft. Ann. Sept. Reddish. (|) E. B. 
1. 2247. E. B. 2. 357. H. ^ Am. 356. Bab. 277. Lind. 215. 

C. MURALE. Nettle-leaved Goosefoot. Fig. 1028. 

Leaves ovate, nearly rhomboidal, acute, toothed, shining. Clusters 
cvmose, leafless. Waste ground; very common. 1 ft. Ann. Aug. 
and Sept. Green. (§) E.B.I. 1722. E.B. 2. 358. H.^Am.355. 
Bab. 276. Lind. 215. 

C. HYBRiDUM. Maple-leaved Goosefoot. Fig. 1029. 

Leaves heart-shaped, pointed, with angular teeth. Clusters cymose, 
leafless, divaricated. Moist places ; local. 1 ft. Ann. Aug. Green. 
(I) ^.5.1.1919. E.B.2.359. H.^Am.355. Bab. 276. Lind.2l5. 

C. ALBX7M. White Goosefoot. Fig. 1030. 

Leaves ovate-rhomboid, sinuated, jagged, mealy ; upper ones entire. 
A common weed. 1ft. Ann. May-Oct. Green, (f) £".2^.1.1723. 
E. B. 2. 360. H. ^ Am. 355. Bab. 276. Lind. 215. 



104 

C. FiciFOLiuM. Fiy-leaved Goosefoot. Fig. 1031. 

Leaves sinuated, somewhat hastate, jagged ; upper ones entire. Waste 
ground and fields. 1ft. Ann. Aug. Green, (f) E.B.\.\72A. 
.E.jB.2.361. H.^Arn.Zbo. Bab. 27^. Lind.2l5. 

C. GLAUCUM. Oak-leaved Goosefoot. Fig. 1032. 

Leaves all oblong, with a waved edge, glaucous. Sandy places. 

6in.-2ft. Ann. Aug. Green, (f) £.B.l.Mo4. KB. 2. 362. 
H.^Arn.356. Bab. 277. Lind.2l5. 



Genus 3. Atriplex. 

. A. PORTULACOiDES. Shrubby Orache. Sea Purslane. Pig. 1033. 
Stem rather shrubby. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, silvery. Sea- 
shores. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellowish. (|) E. B. 
1. 261. KB. 2. 1401. H. ^ Am. 357. Bab. 280. Lind. 216. 

A. LACiNiATA. Frosted Sea Orache. Fig. 1034. 

Stem herbaceous, spreading. Leaves ovate, toothed and serrated, 
very mealy beneath. Sandy shores. 6-8 in. Ann. July. Greenish- 
yellow. (I) ^.5. 1.165. £.5.2.1402. H.^ Am. 357. Bab. 280. 
Lind. 217. 

A. PATULA. Spreading Orache. Fig. 1035. 

Leaves triangular, hastate, irregularly toothed and lobed. Dunghills 
and waste places. 1 ft. Ann. Julv. Reddish, (f) E.B.I. 936. 
E. B. 2. 1403. H. ^ Am. 358. Bab. 279. Lind.2l7. 

A. ANGUSTiFOLiA. Narrow-leaved Orache. Fig. 1036. 

Stem herbaceous, spreading. Leaves lanceolate, entire ; the lower ones 
3-lobed. Waste ground. 1-3 ft. Ann. July. Green, (f) E.B. 
1 . ] 774. E. B. 2. 1404. H. ^ Am. 359. Bab. 278. Lind. 217. 

A. ERECTA. Spear-leaved Orache. Fig. 1037. 

Stem erect. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Calyx of the fruit with sharp 
tubercles. Waste ground ; rare. 1-2 ft. Ann. Aug. Green, (f) 
E.B.I. 2223. E.B.2.UQ5. H.^Arn.359. Bab.279. Lind.2l7. 

A. LiTTORALis. Grass-leoved Orache. Fig. 1038. 

Stem erect. Leaves linear, entire or toothed. Calyx sinuated. 
Salt-marshes. 2 ft. Ann. July-Sept. Green, (f) £".5.1.708. 
E. B. 2. 1406. H. ^ Am. 359. Bab. 278. Lind. 217. 

A. PEDUNCULATA. Marsh Orache. Fig. 1039. 

Stem zigzag. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, entire. Seed-bearing flowers 
stalked. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. July-Sept. Green. (4) E. B.\. 232. 
£.5.2.1407. H.^ Am. 357. Bab. 280. Lind.2l7. 

A. DELTOiDEA. Triangular-leavcd Orache. Fig. 1040. 

Stems prostrate or ascending. Lower leaves triangular-hastate. 
Spikes in a branched many-flowered panicle. Waste ground. I ft. 
Ann. July-Oct. Reddish, (f) E.B.Supp. 2860. H.^ Am. 358. 
Bab.279. 



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/03/ 



106 

P. Ray 11. RaysKnot-yrass. Pig. 1051. 

Stem procumbent. Leaves lanceolate, flat. Flowers axillary. Fruit 

smooth and shining. A variety of ajJicw/are ? Sea-shores. 6-10 in. 

Ann. July-Nov. Pink, (f) E. B. Supp. 2805. H. ^ Am. 364. 

Bab. 285. Lind. 232. 

P. MAUiTiMUM. Sea Knot-grass. Fig. 1052. 

Stem procumbent, woody below. Joints very short. Leaves lan- 
ceolate, with revolute margins. Stipules as long as the joints. Sandy 
shores. 4-6 in. Perenn. July-Nov. Pinkish. (|) E. B. Supp. 2804. 
JI.^Arn.364. Bab. 286. Lind. 212. 

P. Fagopyrum. Buckwheat. Fig. 1053. 

Leaves cordate-sagittate. Stem nearly upright. Flowers in cymose 
panicles. Fields ; naturalized. Seeds edible. 1 ft. Ann. July- 
Sept. Pink, (f) E. B.\. 1044. E. B. 2. 57 A. H. ^ Am. 305. 
Bab. 286. Lind. 212. 

P. Convolvulus. Black Bindweed. Climbing Buckwheat. Fig.1054. 

Stem twining, angular. Leaves cordate-sagittate. Flowers in 

axillary leafy spikes. Fruit striated with minute points. A common 

weed.' 1-6 ft. Ann. June-Sept. Greenish, (f) E. B. 1.941. 

E. B. 2. 575. H. ^ Am. 365. Bab. 286. Lind. 212. 

P. DUMETORUM. Copsc Buckwhcat. Fig. 1055. 

Leaves cordate-sagittate. Stems twining. Flowers in racemes. 

Fruit quite smooth, covered by the winged calyx. Woods. 4-6 ft. 

Ann, Aug.-Oct, Greenish. (|) E. B. Supp. 28\\. H.^ Am. 365. 

Bab. 286. Lind. 2\2. 

P. AMPHiBiuM, Water Persicaria. Water Bistort. Fig. 1056. 
Root creeping. Flowers in dense ovate spikes. Leaves, when 
floating, broad, ovate-oblong ; when not in water, lanceolate, with short 
hairs. Ponds and wet places. Perenn. July and Aug. Rose-colour, 
(f) E.B.I. 436. E. B. 2, 566. H. ^ Am. 366. Bab. 284. 
Lind.2\\. 

P. Persicaria. Spotted Persicaria. Fig. 1057. 

Leaves lanceolate, nearly sessile, often with a dark spot in the 
middle. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, on smooth stalks. Stipules fringed. 
Styles united to the middle. Moist ground ; common. 1-2 ft. Ann. 
July-Oct. Pinkish. % E.B.I. 756. E.B.2.567. H.^ Am. 366. 
Bab. 284. Lind. 211 '. 

P. LAXUM, Slender-headed Persicaria. Fig. 1058. 

Leaves lanceolate, with short stalks. Stipules fringed. Spikes on 

rough glandular stalks ; sometimes very slender. A variety of Persicaria. 

1-2 ft. Ann. July-Sept. Pinkish, (f) E. B. Supp. 2822. 

//. ^ Am. 366. Bab. 284, Lind. 332, 

P, LAPATHiFOLixJM. Pale-flowered Persicaria. Fig. 1059. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, on short stalks. Stipules not fringed. Spikes 
on rough stalks. Styles distinct. Dunghills and waste ground ; com- 
mon. 1-2 ft. Ann. July and Aug, Greenish. (|) E.B. \.\382. 
E. B. 2. 568. H. ^Arn. 366. Bab. 284. Lind. 212. 

P. MITE. Lax-flowered Persicaria. Fig. 1060. 

Leaves lanceolate, with short stalks. Stipules hairy. Spikes very 

slender and interrupted. Styles united to the middle. Waste ground. 

1-2 ft. Ann. Aug. Pink, (f) E. B. Supp. 2867 . H.^Arn.366. 

Bahr 285. Lind. 332. 



/O^/ 




107 

P. MINUS. Small Creeping Persicaria. Ilg. 1061, 

Procumbent. Leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly sessile. Spikes slender, 
upright. Style undivided. Wet places; common. 6-10 in. Ann. 
July-Sept. 'Pinkish, (f) E. B. 1. 1043. E. B. 2.570. H. ^ 
Jrn.367. Bab. 285. Lind. 213. 

P. Hydropiper. Biting Persicaria. Fig. 1062. 

Leaves lanceolate, waved. Spikes slender, drooping. Stipules fringed. 
Watery places; common. 1-3 ft. Ann. Aug. and Sept. Pink, 
(f) ii'.jK. 1.989. ^.iJ. 2. 569. H.^Arn.367. Bab. 285. Lind.2\2. 

Genus 2. Rumex. 

R. IIydrolapathum. Great Water Bock. Fig. 1063. 

Leaves lanceolate, acute ; lower ones rather cordate at the base. 
Clusters crowded. Enlarged sepals ovate-triangular, all tubercled. Ditches. 
3-5 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Green. (|) E. B. I. 2104. 
^.^.2.528. H.^ Am. 367. Bab. 282. Lind.2U. 

R. CRispus. Curled Dock. Fig. 1064. 

Leaves lanceolate, waved. Upper whorls leafless. Enlarged sepals 
cordate, acute ; one tubercled. A contimon weed. 2-3 ft. Perenn. 
June-Aug. Greenish. (|) E. B. 1. 1998. E. B. 2. 523. H. ^ 
Jrn.367. Bab. 283. Lind.2\\. 

R. PRATENSis. Meadow Bock. Fig. 1065. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, wavy. Enlarged sepals unequal, toothed 
at the base, with entire triangular point. Meadows ; rare. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. June and July. Pinkish. (§) E. B. Supp. 2757. E. B. 
2.523*. ^".^^^.368. Bab. 282. Lind. 332. 

R. OBTUsiFOLius. Broad-leaved Bock. Fig. 1066. 

Root-leaves ovate-cordate, obtuse. Enlarged sepals oblong-ovate, 
toothed at the base, with an oblong point. A common weed. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. July. Yellowish. (f) £".5.1.1999. E.B.2.52A. 
H. ^ Am. 368. Bab. 282. Lind. 210. 

R. AQUATicus. Grainless Water Bock. Fig. 1067. 

Leaves lanceolate ; lower ones cordate-oblong, crisped and waved. 
Enlarged sepals broadly cordate, without tubercles. Wet places. 
2-3 ft. Perenn. July. Green, (f) E. B. Supp. 2698. E.B. 2. 523*. 
H. ^ Am. 368. Bab. 282. Lind. 332. 

R, ALPiNUS. Monk's Rhubarb. Fig. 1068. 

Leaves broadly cordate, very obtuse ; upper ones ovate-lanceolate. 
Clusters rather crowded, leafless. Enlarged sepals cordate. 3-4 ft. 
Perenn. July. Green, (f) E. B. Supp. 2694. E. B. 2. 524. 
H. ^ Am. 368. Bab. 283. Lind. 332. 

R. SANGUINEUS. Red-vcincd Bock. Fig. 1069. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, generally with red veins. Enlarged sepals 
oblong, entire. Whorls distant, leafless. Woods and way-sides. 
2-3 ft. Perenn. July. Yellowish. (§) £'.5. 1.1533. E.B.'2.52\. 
H.^'Arn.369. Bab. 28\. Lind. 2\0. 

R. ACUTUS. Sharp Bock. Fig. 1070. 

Lower leaves cordate-oblong, pointed ; upper lanceolate. Enlarged 
sepals linear-oblong, obtuse. Whorls distant, leafy. Wet places ; 
common. 1-3 ft. Perenn. July. Yellowish, (f) E. B. I. 724. 
E. B. 2. 522. H.^ Am. 360. Bab. 28 1 . Lind. 210. 

p2 



108 

R. PULCHER. Fiddle Dock. Fig. 1071. 

Lower leaves fiddle-shaped. Whorls leafy. Enlarged sepals tri- 
angular-ovate. Waste ground. 1-2 ft. Perenn. Aug. Yellow, (f ) 
^.^.1.1576. E.B.2.b2b. H.^Arn.369. Bab. 281. Lind.2i{). 

R. MARiTiMUS. Golden Bock. Fig. 1072. 

Lower leaves ovate-lanceolate, not waved ; upper linear-lanceolate. 
Clusters very dense, axillary. Enlarged sepals with 4 bristly teeth. 
Marshes. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Bright yellow. (|^) 
E.B.I. 72b. E.B.2.b27. H. ^ Am. 369. Bab.28\. Lind. 209. 

R. PALTJSTRis. Marsh Dock. Fig. 1073. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Clusters distant, axillary. Enlarged sepals 
lanceolate, with 3 short teeth on each side. Marshes. 2 ft. Perenn. 
Julv. Greenish, (f) E.B.I. 1032. E.B.2.526. H. ^ Am. 369. 
Bah. 28\. Lind. 210. 

R. AcETOSA. Sorrel. F^.1074. 

Leaves oblong sagittate. Flowers dioecious. Leaves acid. Meadows ; 
abundant. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May-July. Red. (§) £".£.1.127. 
E. B. 2. 529. H. ^ Am. 370. Bab. 283. Lind. 2i 1. 

R. AcETOSELLA. Sheep's Sorrel. Fig. 1075. 

Lower leaves hastate. Flowers dioecious. Leaves acid. Heaths ; 
abundant. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Red or yellowish. (#) 
E. B. 1. 1674. E. B. 2. 530. H.^-Arn. 370. Bab.283. Lind.2n. 

Genus 3, Oxyria. 

O. RENiFORMis. Mountain Sorrel. Fig. 1076. 

Stems nearly leafless. Leaves kidney-shaped. Mountains. Leaves 
acid. 6-8 in. Perenn. June and July. Greenish ; red when in fruit, 
(f) E.B.I. 910. E.B. 2. 520. H.^ Am. 370. Bab.283. Lind. 211. 

Order LXXII. THYMELACEJG. 
Genus 1. Daphne. 

D. Mezereum. Mezereon. Fig. 1077. 

A shrub. Leaves lanceolate, deciduous. Flowers sessile, usually 3 
together. Woods. 4-8 ft. March. Pink ; berries scarlet, (f ) E. B. 
1.1381. ^.£.2.564. H.^-Arn.37\. Bab. 287. Lind. 209. 

D. Laureola. Spurge-Laurel. Fig. 1078. 

A shrub. Leaves broadly lanceolate, evergreen. Flowers in axillary 
racemes. Woods. 2-8 ft. March. Yellowish green ; berries black. 
(I) E.B.I. n9. E.B. 2.567. H.^Am.37l. Bab. 287. Lind. 209. 

Order LXXIII. SANTALACEtE. 
Genus 1. Thesium. 
T. LiNOPHYLLUM. Flux-leaved Toad-flax. Fig. 1079. 

Stems ascending. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Bracts in threes. Chalky 
pastures. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. May-July. (|) E. B. 1. 247. 
E. B. 2. 347. H. ^ Am. 372. Bab. 288. Lind. 208. 

Order LXXIV. ARISTOLOCHIACE^. 
Genus 1. Aristolocuia. 
A. Clematitis. Birthwort. Fig. 1080. 

Stems numerous, erect. Leaves cordate. Ruins and thickets ; 
naturahzed. 2-4 ft. Perenn. July-Sept. Pale yellow, (f ) E. B 
1. 398. E. B. 2. 1225. //. ^ Am. 3/3. Bab. 288. Lind. 225. 



/O^/ 




/m<v 



S4- 



109 

Genus 2. Asarum. 

A. EUROPiETJM. Asarabacca. Fig. 1081. 

Stems creeping and rooting. Leaves kidney- shaped, in pairs. Sepals 
recurved. Mountain woods. Emetic. 2-4 in. Perenn. May. Brown. 
(I) £.jB. 1.1083. £".2?. 2. 681. H.^Arn.2,7A. Bab. 2S9.'Lind. 225. 

Order LXXV. EMPETRACEiE. 

Genus 1. Empetrum. 

E. NIGRUM. Crow-berry. Crake-berry. Fig. 1083. 

A trailing shrub. Leaves linear-oblong, the margins meeting beneath. 

Bogs. 4-6 in. Perenn. April-June. Purplish ; berries black, (f ) 

.e.-B. 1.526. £'.i?. 2. 1384. H.^ Am. 375. Bab. 289. Lind. 22A. 

Order LXXVI. EUPHORBIACEtE. 
Genus 1. Mercurialis. 

M. PERENNis. Mercury. Fig. 1083. 

Stem simple. Leaves rough. Fertile flowers on long stalks. Woods 
and thickets; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. April and May. Green. (|) 
E. B. 1. 1872. E. B. 2. 1396. H. ^ Am. 3/6. Bab. 292. Lind. 223. 

M. ANNUA. Annual Mercury. Fig. 1084. 

Stem branched. Leaves smooth and shining. Fertile flowers axillary, 
2 together. Waste ground. 1 ft. Ann. Aug. Green. (^) E. B. 
1. 559. E. B. 2. 1397. H. ^ Am. 376. Bab. 292. Lind. 223. 

M. AMBIGUA. Fig. 1085. 

Stem branched. All the flowers in axillary whorls. A variety of 
annua. Waste ground. 1 ft. Ann. July. Green, (f) E. B. 
Supp.2SU. E.B.2.\397*. H. ^ Arn. 376. Bab. 292. 
Genus 3. Euphorbia. 

E, Peplis. Purple Spurge. Fig. 1086. 

Stem procumbent, forked. Leaves oblong, semi-cordate at the base. 
Plant glaucous. Sandy shores. 2-6 in. Ann. July-Sept. Reddish. 
(I) £",^.1.2002. ^.^.2.1226. H.^Arn.376. Bab. 290. Lmd.220. 

E. Helioscopia. Sun-Spurge. Wart-weed. Fig. 1087. 

Umbel 5-cleft. Leaves bright green, obovate, somewhat cuneate, 
serrated towards the end. Capsules smooth. A common weed. 6-10 in. 
Ann. July and Aug. Yellowish green. {\) E. B. 1. 883. E. B. 
2.1227. H.^ Am. 377. Bab. 29]. Lind.22l. 

E. platyphylla. Broad-leaved Spurge. Fig. 1088. 

Leaves obovate-lanceolate. Umbel usually 5-cleft. Bracts cordate. 
Capsules warted. Fields. 1-2 ft. Ann, June-Oct. Glands yellow. 
(^) E.B. 1.333. E.B. 2. 1229. H.^Arn.377. Bab. 290. Lind. 221. 

E. hiberna. Irish Spurge. Fig. 1089. 

Leaves and bracts elliptical, hairy beneath. Umbel 5-6-cleft. 
Capsules warted. Thickets. 1-2 ft. Perenn. Mav and June. Green; 
glands purple, (|) ^. if. 1. 1337. E. B. 2. 12'2H. H.^ Am. 377. 
Bab. 290. Lind. 221. 

E. piLOSA, Hairy Spurge. Fig. 1090. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, hairy beneath. Bracts elliptical. Umbel 
5-cleft. Capsules hairy. Woods near Bath ; naturalized ? 2 ft. 
Perenn. June. Yellowish green ; glands yellow. (|) E. B. Supp.2787' 
E. B. 2. 1229*. H. ^ Am. 378. Bab. 291. Lind. 333. 



110 

E. CORALLOIDES. Coral Spurge. Fig. 1091. 

Leaves broadly lanceolate, downy. Bracts ovate-oblong or ovate, 
hairy. Umbel 5-cleft. Capsules nearly smooth, woolly. Hedges in 
Sussex. 1-2 ft. Bienn.? July. Greenish yellow; glands yellow. 
Capsules reddish. (|) E. B. 'Supp. 2837. E. B. 2. 1229*. H. ^ 
^r«. 378. Bab.2n. 

E. EsuLA. Leafy-branched Spurge. Fig. 1092. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate. Bracts cordate. Umbel many-cleft. 

Glands of involucrum with 2 horns. Shady woods. 8 in.-l ft. Perenn. 

July. Greenish, (f) E.B.\.Vi^9. E.B.2.1230. H.^Arn.378. 

Bab. 291. Lind. 221. 

E. Cyparissias. Cypress Spurge. Fig. 1093. 

Leaves Unear, glaucous. Stems tufted, much branched. Umbel 

many-cleft. Thickets; local. 1-1 1 ft. Perenn. June and July. 

Yellowish. (^) £".^.1.840. i;. jB. 2. 1231. H. ^ Am. 678. 

Bab. 291. Lind. 221. 

E. Paralias. Sea Spurge. Fig. 1094. 

Leaves imbricated, glaucous ; lower obovate-lanceolate, upper linear- 
lanceolate. Umbel 5-cleft. Capsules wrinkled. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. 
and Sept. Greenish; glands orange. (|) ^.5.1.195. E. B. 
2.1232. n.^Arn.379. Bab. 291. Lind.222. 

E. PORTLANDICA. Portland Spurge. Fig. 1095. 

Leaves very glaucous, obovate-lanceolate. Stems red. Umbel 5-cleft. 
Glands of involucrum with 2 long horns. Capsules rough at the angles. 
Southern coast. 6 in. -2 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Yellowish ; 
glands deep orange. Q) E.B.I. 441. E.B. 2. 1233. H.^ Am. 379. 
Bab. 292. Lind. 222. 

E. Peplus. Petty Spurge. Fig. 1096. 

Leaves broadly obovate, tapering to a petiole. Umbel 3-cleft. A 

common weed. 4 in.-l ft. Ann. June-Nov. Greenish ; glands 

yellow, (f) E.B.\. 959. E.B. 2. 1235. H.^Arn.379. Bab. 292. 

Lind. 222. 

E. EXiGUA. Dwarf Spurge. Fig. 1097. 

Leaves and bracts rather rigid, lanceolate, acute. Umbel 3-cleft. 

Glands with 2 long horns. Corn-fields. 5-6 in. Ann, July. 

Greenish. (|) E. B. \. 1336. E. B. 2. 1234. H. ^ Am. 379. 

Bab. 292. Lind. 222. 

E. Lathyris. Caper Spurge. Fig. 1098. 

Leaves oblong lanceolate, cordate at the base, glaucous. Bracts cor- 
date. Umbel 4-cleft. Capsules smooth. Thickets. 1-2 ft. Bienn. 
July. Greenish, (i) £.^.1.2255. E.B. 2.\23&. H.^Arn.379. 
Bab. 292. Lind. 222. 

E. AMYGDALoiDES. JFood Spurge. Fig. 1099. 

Leaves broadly lanceolate, tapering at the base, hairy beneath. 
Bracts perfoliate. Umbel about 6-cleft, with scattered peduncles below. 
Capsules dotted. Woods ; common. 2-4 ft. Perenn. April-June. 
Yellowish ; glands bright yellow, (i) E.B.I. 256. E. B. 2. 1237. 
H.^ Am. 3S0. Bab. 291. Lind. 223. 

E. Characias. Shrubby Spurge. Fig. 1100. 

Plant shrubby. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Bracts connate. Umbel 

many-cleft. Capsules woolly when young. Bushy places ; not native. 

3-4 ft. Perenn. March. Greenish; glands purple. (|) E. B. 

1.442. JS". i?. 2. 1238. //. ^ ^>-w. 380. Lind. 223. 



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■ .~..So wei^fy. J''e'C{t 



c:> 



in 

Genus 3. Buxus. 

B. SEMPERVIRENS. BoX. Fig. 1101. 

An evergreen shrub. Leaves oblong-ovate, convex, glossy. Chalk 
hills; local. 3-1.5 ft. April. Yellowish, (f) E. B. 1. 1341. 
E. B. 2. 1306. H. ^ Arn. 380. Bab. 290. Lind, 223. 

Okder LXXVII. CALLITRICHACEiE. 
Genus 1. Callitriche. 

C. VERNA. Spriiig Water Starwort. Fig. 1102. 
Upper leaves floating in a star-like tuft, oval-lanceolate. Lobes of 

capsule bluntly keeled. Ann. Pools ; common. April-Oct. (^) 
E.B.I. 722. E.B. 2. 1239. H.^ Arn. 381. Bab. 293. Lind.243. 

C. PLATYCARPA. Fig. 1103. 

Fruit with the lobes slightly winged. A variety of verna. Pools 
and ditches. Ann. April-Oct. (f) E. B. Supp. 2864. H. ^ 
^rn. 381. Bab. 293. Lind. 2 A3. 

C. PEDUNCTiLATA. Stalked Water Starwort. Fig. 1104. 

Leaves all submerged, linear. Fruit-bearing peduncles long. Lobes 
of capsules bluntly keeled. Pools. Ann. June-Oct. (|) E. B. 
Supp. 2606. E. B. 2. 1239*. H.^Arn. 381. Bab. 293. Lind. 243. 

C. AUTUMNALis. Autumnal Water Starwort. Fig. 1105. 

Leaves all submerged, linear, notched at the apex. Lobes of fruit 
broadly winged. Pools and ditches. Ann. June-Oct. (f) E. B. 
Supp. 2732. E. B. 2. 1239**. H. ^ Arn. 381. Bab. 294. Lind. 243. 

Order LXXVIII. CERATOPHYLLACE^. 
Genus 1. Ceratophyllum. 

C. DEMERSXJM. Spiny-fruited Hornwort. Fig. 1106. 

Stems submerged. Leaves in narrow segments, densely whorled. 
Fruit with 2 spines. Pools. Perenn. July and Aug. (§) E. B. 
1.947. E.B.2.\3\A. H.^Arn.3S2. Bab. 293. Lind.225. 

C. suBMERSUM. Homwort. Fig. 1107. 

Stems submerged. Leaves in more distant whorls. Sepals entire. 
Fruit without spines. Pools. Perenn. Sept. (|) £. jB. 1. 679. £". -B. 
2. 1315. iT. ^^m.382. Bab. 293. Lind. 22b. 

Order LXXIX. URTICACEtE. 
Genus 1. Urtica. 

U. piLULiFERA. Roman Nettle. Fig. 1108. 

Leaves opposite, ovate, serrated, with stinging hairs. Fertile flowers 
in globular heads. "Waste ground. 1-2 ft. Ann. June and Julv. 
Green, (f) E. B. 1. 148. E. B. 2. 1307. H. ^ Arn. 384. 
Bab. 295. Lind. 219. 

V. URENS. Small Nettle. Fig. 1109. 

Leaves elliptical, with stinging hairs. Flowers in loose racemes. 
"Waste ground ; common. 8 in.-l ft. Ann. June-Oct. Green, (f ) 
£".^.1.1236. JS'.^.2. 13U8. H.^Arn.384. Bab.295. Lind. 2\9. 

U. DioiCA. Common Nettle. Fig. 1110. 

Leaves cordate, with stinging hairs. Flowers in much-branched 
axillary clusters ; usually dioecious. "Way-sides ; abundant. 2-4 ft. 
Perenn. July and Aug. Green. (|) E.B.I. 17^0. E.B. 2. 1309. 
H.^Arn.384. Bab.295. Lind.2l9. 



112 

Genus 2. Parietaria. 
P. OFFICINALIS. Pellitory. Fig. 1111. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Stems ascending. Involucrum 3-flowered. 
Old walls. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Nov. Pink, (f) ^.£.1.8/9. 
E. B. 2. 229. H.^Arn. 384. Bab. 294. Lind. 218. 
Genus 3. Humulus. 
H. LupuLXJS. Hop. Fig. 1112. 

A climbing dioecious plant. Barren flowers in panicles ; fertile ones 
in axillary catkins. Hedges. Perenn. July. Greenish. (|) E. B. 

1. 427. E. B. 2. 1389. H. ^ Am. 386. Bab. 295. Lind. 219. 

Order LXXX. ULMACE^. 

Genus 1. Ulmus. 
U. CAMPESTRis. Common Elm. Fig. 1113. 

Leaves rhomboid-ovate. Fruit oblong, deeply cloven. "Woods and 
hedges. March and April. Purplish, (f) £'.5.1.1886. E. B. 

2. 365. H. ^ Am. 386. Bab. 295. Lind. 226. 

TJ. SUBEROSA. Cork-barked Elm. Fig. 1114. 

Leaves nearly orbicular. Flowers on short stalks. Fruit roundish, 
cloven. Branches corky. Hedges. March. Purplish, (f) E. B. 
1.2161. E.B.2.'6&(i. H.^Arn.387. Bab. 295. Lind. 226. 

U. MAJOR. Dutch Elm. Fig. 1115. 

Leaves ovate. Flowers nearly sessile. Branches corky. A doubtful 
native. March. Yellowish. (|) E.B.I. 2542. E.B.2.367. H.^ 
Arn.387. Bab. 2961 Lind. 226. 

U. GLABRA. S7nooth Elm. Fig. 1116 

Branches smooth. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, very unequal at the base, 
smooth. Fruit slightly cloven. Woods. March. Purplish. (|) 
.E". 5. 1.2248. E.B. 2. 369. H.^ Am. 387. Bab. 295. Lind. 226. 

V. MONTANA. Wych Elm. Fig. 1117. 

Leaves large, obovate, nearly equal at the base, coarsely serrated. 
Branches drooping, smooth. Woods. March. Purplish, (f ) E. B. 
\. 1887. E.B. 2. 368. H.^ Arn.387. Bab. 296. Lind. 227. 

Order LXXXI. ELtEAGNACE^. 

Genus 1. Hippopha . 

H. RHAMNOiDES. Sollow Thom. Fig. 1118. 

A dioecious shrub. Leaves linear-lanceolate, silvery white. Branches 

ending in thorns. Sea-coasts. 4-10 ft. May. Berries orange. (|) 

E. B. 1. 425. E. B. 2. 1387. H. ^ Am. 388. Bab. 287. Lind. 208. 

Order LXXXII. MYRICACEiE. 

Genus 1. Myrica. 

M. Gale. Sweet Gale. Fig. 1119. 

A low shrub. Leaves lanceolate. Plant covered with white resinous 

glands. Catkins with pointed scales. 2-4 ft. May. Yellowish red. (|) 

E.B. 1.562. E. B. 2. 1388. H. ^ Am. 389. Bab. 307- Lind. 242. 

Order LXXXIII. BETULACE^E. 
Genus 1. Betula. 
B. ALBA. White Birch. Fig. 1120. 

Bark of trunk silvery white. Leaves ovate, acute. Flowers monoe- 
cious, in catkins. Woods. April and May. Greenish. (^) E. B. 
1.2198. £".5.2.1325. H.^Arn. 390. Bab. 307. Lind. 229. 



113 

B. NANA. BwarJ Birch. Fig. 1121. 

A low shrub. Leaves orbicular. Catkins erect. Highland mountains. 
1-.5 ft. May. Greenish. (|) E. B. 1. 2326. E. B. 2. 132G. 
H.^'Arn.d^iO. Bab. 208. Lind. 229. 

Genus 2. Alnus. 

A. GLUTiNOSA. Jlder. Fig. 1123. 

A tree. Leaves roundish, somewhat wedge-shaped, slightly lobed ; 
sometimes deeply cut. Sterile catkins long ; fertile ones ovate. Moist 
ground. March and April. Sterile catkins reddish. (^) £'.£.1.1508. 
E. B. 2. 1305. H. ^'Arn. 390. Bab. 308. Lind. 229. 

Order LXXXIV. SALICACE.E. 

Genus 1. Salix. 

S. PURPUREA. Purple Willow. Fig. 1123. 

Branches decumbent, purple. Leaves lanceolate, broadest above. 
Stamen 1 . Stigmas very short, nearly sessile. 4-6 ft. Moist meadows. 
March and April. Scales purplish. (|) ^.£.1.1388. E.B. 2.132,0. 
H. ^' Am. 392. Bab. 299. Lind. 232. 

S. Lambertiana. Fig. 1124. 

Branches erect, purplish. Stamen 1. Stigmas short, ovate, notched. 
A y&viQiy oi Helixl Meadows. 4-18 ft. April. Scales purplish. (^) 
E.B.\.'\3b9. E.B.2.U32. H.^Arn. 392. Bab.299. Lind. 232. 

S. WOOLGARIANA. Fig. 1125. 

Branches erect, yellowish. Leaves cuneate-lanceolate. Stamen 1. 
Stigmas short, obtuse, nearly sessile. A variety of Helixl Moist 
ground. 6-20 ft. April. Scales purplish. (|) E. B. Supp.2C)b\. 
E. B. 2. 1332*. H. Sr Am. 392. Bab. 299. Lind. 232. 

S. Helix. Rose Willow. Fig. 1126. 

Branches erect, yellowish. Leaves lanceolate, broadest above. Sta- 
men 1. Style as long as stigmas. Moist ground. 8-20 ft. March. 
Scales yellowish. (1) E.B.I. 1343. E.B. 2.\33\. H.^- Am. 393. 
Bab.299. Lind. 232. 

S. FORBYANA. Fig. 1127. 

Branches erect, yellowish. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, glaucous be- 
neath, with small, downy stipules. Stamen 1 . Stigmas linear ; style 
equal in length. Meadows. 6-20 ft. April. Scales purple, (g) 
E.B.I. 1344. E. B. 2. 1333. H. ^' Am. 393. Bab. 300. Lind. 232. 

S. RUBRA. Green-leaved Osier. Fig. 1128. 

Branches slender, purplish. Leaves linear-lanceolate, grass-green. 
Stamens 2, united. Meadows and osier-beds. 8-15 ft. April. 
Scales purple, (i) E. B. 1. 1145. E. B. 2. 1334. H. ^ Am. 393. 
Bab. 300. Lind. 232. 

S. TRiANDRA. Smooth Willow. Fig. 1129. 

A tree with deciduous bark. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, smootli. 
Stipules rounded. Stamens 3. Stigmas cloven, sessile. Wet woods 
and osier-beds. 10-30 ft. May-Julv. Yellow. (|) £'.-8.1.1435. 
E. B. 2. 1336. H. <$• Am. 394. Bab. 299. Lind. 231. 

S. HOFFMANNIANA. Fig. 1130. 

Leaves short, lanceolate. Stipules large, ear-shaped. Stamens 3. 
Stigmas nearly sessile. A variety of triandral Moist ground. 6- 
12 ft. May. Yellow. (|) E. B. Supp. 2620. E. B. 2. 1336. 
H. ^- Am. 394. Bab. 299. Lind. 231 . 

Q 



114 

S. AMYGDALrNA. Almoiul IVUlow. Fig. 1131. 

Young branches fnrrovved. Leaves oblong-ovate. Stipules large. 
Stauieus o. Stigmas sessile, notched. Kiver-sides. 12-30 ft. Mav. 
Yellowish, (i) E. B. \. 193G. E. B. 2. 1337. //. ^ Am. 3y'-J. 
Jiab. 299. Lind. 231. 

S. UNDULATA. Fig. 1132. 

Leaves lanceolate, very long ; petioles decurrent. Stipules pointed. 
Stamens 3. Stigmas linear, cloven ; style equal in length. A variety 
oitriandral Meadows. 8-12 ft. April. Yellow. (4) £".£.1.1430'. 
£■.2^.2.1335. U.^Arn.'69A. Bab. 298. Lifid. 231. 

S. PENTANDRA. Swcct WUlow. Fig. 1133. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, with glandular serratures, fragrant. Stamens 
5 or more. Capsule smooth. Stigmas nearly sessile. Banks of rivers. 
10-20 ft. May and June. Yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 1805. E. B. 
2. 1338. H. 4' Am. 394. Bab. 297. Lind. 231. 

S. FRAGiLis. Crack Willoio. Fig. 1134. 

A large tree. Young branches brittle at the joints. Leaves ovate- 
lanceolate, serrated ; with glandular petioles. Stamens 2. Style shorter 
than the stigmas. Marshy ground. April and May. Yellowish, (g) 
E.B.I. 1807. E. B. 2. 1340. H. ^ Am.39b. Bab. 298. Lind. 230. 

S. RussELLiANA. Bedford Willow. Fig. 1135. 

A large tree. Leaves lanceolate, deeply and unequally serrated ; the 
petioles glandular, sometimes leafy. Stamens 2. Style as long as the 
divided stigmas. Marshy woods. April and May. Yellowish, (g) 
JS-.^. 1.1808. £".£.2. 1341. H.^Arn.39(i. Bab. 298. Lind.23\. 

S. DECiPiENS. Varnished WUlow. Fig. 1136. 

Branches very smooth and glossy, brown. Leaves lanceolate, serrated. 
Petioles glandular. Style longer than the stigmas. A variety of 
fragilisi Moist woods. 1.5-20 ft. April. Yellowish. {\) E. B. 
1. 1937. E. B. 2. 1339. H. ^ Am. 396. Bab. 298. Lind. 230. 

S. ALBA. White Willow. Fig. 1137. 

A large tree. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, grey and silky on both sides. 
Stamens 2. Scales of catkins short, rounded, downy. Stigmas nearly 
sessile, recurved, bifid. Woods and wet places. May. Yellowish. (|) 
£".£.1.2430. E.B. 2. 1342. H.^ Am. 39G. Bab. 298. Lind. 231. 

S. CjErulea. Blue Willow. Fig. 1138. 

A slight variety of alba. Leaves less silky, sometimes nearly smooth. 
Moist woods and river-sides. (|) E. B. 1. 2431. E. B. 2. 1342*. 
H.^ Am. 396. Bab. 298. Lind. 231. 

S. vitellina. Fellow Willow. Golden Osier. Fig. 1139. 

Branches bright yellow, somewhat pendent. Leaves lanceolate, silky 
beneath, yellow-green. A variety of alba ? Moist woods and meadows. 
10-30 ft. May. Yellowish. (|) £".£.1.1389. £^.£.2.1343. 
//. ^ Arn. 397. Bab. 298. Lind. 231. 

S. petiolaris. Fig. 1140. 

Leaves lanceolate, glaucous beneath. Catkins lax. Capsules stalked. 
Stamens 2. Stigmas divided, nearly sessile. Not native. 6-12 ft. 
April. Green. Q) E.B. 1. 1147. E.B. 2. 1344. 11.^ Arn. 397. 
Bub. 299. 



115 

S. ROSMARiNiFOLTA. Itosemary-leaved Willow. Fig. 1141. 

Leaves entire, linear-lanceolate, silky. Catkins recurved, lax, short, 
hairy. Stamens 2. Stigmas linear, divided. Moist ground. 3 ft. 
April. Scales black. (4) £'.£.1.1365. E.B.2.\ZAo. H. ^ 
Am. 397. -Ba6.303, iiW. 236. 

S. ANGUSTI FOLIA. Little Tree Willow. Fig. 1142. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, slightly toothed, glaucous beneath. Catkins 
ovate, erect. Scales very hairy, as long as the capsule. Stamens 2. 
Stigmas broad, entire. Highlands. 1-2 ft. April. Scales purple. 
ik) E. B. 1. 1366. E. B. 2. 1346. H. ^ Am. 398. Bab. 303. 
Lind. 236. 

S. DoNiANA. Fig. 1143. 

Branches erect. Leaves obovate-lanceoTate, slightly serrated, glaucous 
beneath. Catkins erect, cvhndrical. Stamens 2. A variety of ^z/?-- 
pureal Scotland. 2-6 ft. May. Scales blackish, (i) E. B. 
Supj). 2599. E.B. 2.1346*. H.^ Am. 39S. Bab. 303. Lind. 232. 

S. FuscA. Creeping Willow. Fig. 1144. 

Stems procumbent. Leaves elliptical, somewhat downy, silky beneath. 
Stamens 2. Stigmas bifid. Capsule silky, the pedicel very long. Heaths; 
common. 6 in. -2 ft. April and May. Brownish. (|) £'.£.1.1960. 
jE". £. 2. 1347. H.^Arn.399. Bab. 303. Lind. 236. 

S. REPENS. Fig. 1145. 

Stem depressed, with short upright branches. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate. 
\ variety of fusca. Heaths. 6 in.-l ft. April. Scales brownish. 
(I) E. B. 1. 183. E. B. 2. 1348. H. ^ Am. 399. Bab. 303. 
Lind. 236. 

S. PROSTRATA. Fig. 1146. 

Stem prostrate, with straight, elongated branches. Leaves elliptic- 
oblong. A variety of fusca. Heaths. 6 in. April and May. 
Brownish, {h) E. B. 1. 1959. E. B. 2. 1349. H. ^' Am. 399. 
Bab. 303. Lind. 236. 

S. ASCENDENS. Fig. 1147. 

Stem recumbent. Leaves elliptical. A variety of y^^sca. Heaths. 
6 in.-l ft. April and May. Scales purplish. (|) E. B.\. 1962. 
E. B. 2. 1350. H. ^ Am. 399. Bab. 303. Lind. 236. 

S. PARVIFOLIA. Fig. 1148. 

Stem recumbent. Leaves very small, elliptical. A variety of fusca. 
6-S in. April and May. Scales reddish. (|) E. B. \. 1961. 
E. B. 2. 1350*. H. ^ Am. 399. Bab. 303. Lind. 236. 

S. INCUBACEA. Fig. 1149. 

Stem procumbent. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate. A variety of fusca. 
6 in.-l ft. April and May. Scales greenish or brown. (1) E. Ji. 
Sujjj). 2600. E. B. 2. 1350**. H. ^ Am. 399. Bab. 304. Lind. 236. 

S. ARGENTEA. Fig. 1150. 

Stem erect or spreading. Leaves elliptical, with a recurved point, 
very silvery beneath. A variety of fusca 1 Sandy sea-shores. 4 in.- 
1ft. April and May. Scales brown. (|) £.£.1.1364. E. B. 
2.1351. //.^•^;-H.399. Bab. 30^. Lind. 236. 

q2 



116 

S. AMBIGUA. ^ . Fig. 1151. 

Leaves obovate, oval, or lanceolate, with a recurved point. Catkins 
erect, cylindrical. Stamens 2. Capsules on long hairy pedicels. Heaths. 
2-4 ft. May. Brownish, (i) E. B. Supp.273S. E.B.2.l3ol*. 
II. ^- Am. 400. Bab. 304. LinJ. 236. 

S. RETICULATA. Net-Uuved Willoio. Fig. 1152. 

Stems very short, tufted. Leaves orbicular or elliptical, reticulated 
with veins, glaucous beneath. Catkins terminal. 1-4 in. June and 
July. Reddish. (|) ii". i/. 1. 1908. E.B. 2.\3b2. H.^Arn. 400. 
Bah. 30.). Lind. 238. 

S. GLAUCA. Doxoity Willow. Fig. 1153. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, entire, downy ; snow-white and cottony be- 
neath. Capsules sessile, ovate, downy. Stigmas sessile. Stamens 2. 
Highlands. 1-3 ft. July. Scales black. (1) E. B. 1. 1809. 
E. B. 2. 1354. H.^Arn. 401. Bab. 304. Lind. 237. 

S. ARENARIA. Fig. 1154. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, cottony beneath. Style as long as the 
capsule. Stigmas linear. A variety of glauca. Highlands. 2-3 ft. 
June. Scales blackish. (|) £". 5. 1. 1809. E.B.2.Ub4. H. ^ 
Am. 401. Bab. 304. Lind. 237. 

S. Stuartiana. Fig. 1155. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, shaggy. Style as long as the capsule. 
Stigmas hair-like, deeply divided. A variety of ylauca. Highlands. 
1-3 ft. July. Scales black. (|) £".^.1.2586. £".^.2.1355. 
H. ^ Am. 401 . Bab. 304. Lind. 237. 

S. viminalis. Common Osier. Fig. 1156. 

Branches straight, slender. Leaves linear-lanceolate, elongated, 
white beneath, revolute, with small stipules. Capsules nearly sessile. 
Style elongated. Stigmas linear, nearly entire. Stamens 2. Marshes. 
10-20 ft. April and May. Scales brownish. (|) E. B. 1. 1898. 
£". jB. 2. 1356. II.^Am.402. Bab. 300. Lind. 232. 

S. STIPULARIS. Fig. 1157. 

Leaves lanceolate, downy beneath, with large semicordate stipules. 
Capsules with short pedicels. A variety of viminalis. Marshes. 
10-20 ft. March. Scales brown. Q) E.B.I. 1214. E.B.2.1357. 
H.^ Am. 402. Bab. 300. Lind. 233. 

S. Smithiana. Fig. 1158. 

Leaves lanceolate, whitish beneath ; with minute crescent-shaped sti- 
pules. Style short. Stigmas deeply cleft, linear. A variety of vimi- 
nalist 6-10 ft. April and May. Scales brown. (|) £".£.1.1509. 
E.B. 2. 1358. H. ^ Am. 402. Bab. 300. Lind. 233. 

S. FERRVGINEA. Fig. 1159. 

Leaves thin, lanceolate, slightly hairy, brownish when young. Sti- 
pules small, semiovate. Capsule stalked. Style as long as the oblong 
stigmas. A variety of aciiminatal Marshes. 6-12 ft. April. 
Scales brown. (|) E. B. Svpp. 2665. E.B. 2. 1358*. H.^ Am. 403. 
Bab. 301. Lind. 233. 

S. ACUMINATA. Long-lcaved Willow. Fig. 1160. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, wavy, glaucous and downy beneath ; stipules 
kidney-shaped. Capsules stalked. Style as long as the blunt undivided 
stigmas. Stamens 2. Woods. 10-20 ft. April. Scales purplish. (|) 
E. B. 1. 1434. E. P. 2. ] 359. //. ^'- Am. 402. Bab. 301. Lind. 233. 



. i^ //v-/ A. /UJ^' 



//^^ 




117 

S. CINE RE A. Grey Sallow. Fig. 1161. 

Leaves obovate-lanceolate, glaucous above, downy and reticulated 
beneath. Stipules large, semicordate. Style short. Stigmas entire. 
Woods; common. 10-30 ft. April. Scales brown. (|) E. B. 
1. 1897. E. B. 2. 1360. H. ^ Am. 403. Bab. 301. Lind. 233. 

S. AauATTCA. Water Sallow. Fig. 1162. 

Leaves obovate-elliptical, rather downy. Stipules rounded, toothed. 
Stigmas nearly sessile. A variety oi cinerea. Wet woods. 10-30 ft. 
April. Scales brown. (|) £". i?. 1. 1437. ^.^.2.1361. H. ^ 
Arn.AQZ. Bab.'60\. Lind. 233. 

S. O LEI FOLIA. Fig. 1163. 

Leaves obovate-lanceolate, glaucous and reticulated beneath. Sti- 
pules small, rounded. Catkins oval. A variety oi cinerea. 10-20 ft. 
March. Scales brown, (f) ^. i?. 1. 1402. £.£.2.1362. //. ^ 
^r«. 403. Bab.3Q\. Lind. 233. 

S. AURiTA. Round-eaj'ed Sallow. Fig. 1164. 

Leaves obovate, wrinkled with veins, downy beneath, curved at the 
point. Stipules large, rounded. Style short. Stigmas ovate. Thickets; 
common. 4-12 ft. May. Scales brownish. (|) E. B. 1. 1487. 
E.B.2.\3Q3. JI.^Arn.403. Bab.30l. Lind. 23A. 

S. CAPREA. Great Sallow. Fig. 1165. 

Leaves very broad, roundish ovate, downy beneath. Stipules semi- 
cordate. Stigmas nearly sessile, entire. Hedges and thickets ; common. 
10-30 ft. April and May. Scales blackish, (i) E. B. 1. 1488. 
E. B. 2. 1364. H.^Arn. 404. Bab. 301. Lind. 234. 

S. SPHACELATA. Fig. 1166. 

Leaves obovate, downy, discoloured at the point. Stipules semi- 
cordate. Stigmas notched, longer than the style. A variety of caprea. 
Scotland. 6-10 ft. April and Mav. Scales brown. (|) E. B. 
1.2333. E.B. 2. 1365. H. ^ Am. 404. Bab. 301. Lind. 234. 

S. coTiNiFOLiA. Sumach-leaved Willoio. Fig. 1167. 

Branches downy. Leaves broadly elliptical, nearly orbicular, glaucous. 
Style bifid. Stigmas notched. A variety of nigiHcansI Woods. 
2-6 ft. April and May. Scales brown. (|) E.B.I. 1403. E. B. 
2.1366. H.^Am.AQA. Bab. 302. Lind.235. 

S. HiRTA. Hairy-brancJied Willoio. Fig. 1168. 

Branches densely hairy. Leaves elliptical, somewhat heart-shaped, 
downy. Stipules semicordate. A variety of nigricans. 6-12 ft. 
April. Scales brown. (|) E. B. 1. 1404. E. B. 2. 1367. //. ^ 
Am. 404. Bab. 302. Lind. 235. 

S. NIGRICANS. Dark-leaved Willow. Fig. 1169. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acute, smooth, with a downy rib above, 
glaucous beneath. Capsules downy. Woods. 10-12 ft. April. 
Scales brown. (|) £'.£.1.1213. £.£.2.1368. H.^-Arn.AOi. 
Bab. 302. Lind. 234. 

S. Andersoniana. Green Mountain Salloio. Fig. 1170. 

Branches minutely downy. Leaves elliptical, pale beneath. Stipules 
semiovate. Capsules smooth. Style bifid at the extremity. Stigmas 
cloven. 6-10 ft. Mav and June. Scales black, (i) £.£.1.2343. 
£. B. 2. 1369. H. ^' Am. 4U5. Bab. 301. Lind. 234. 



118 

S. DAMASCENA. BamsoH-leaved fVillow. Fig. 1171. 

Ycung shoots densely hairy. Leaves ovate, nearly smooth, green on 
both sides. Stipules semicordate. Capsules smooth. Scotland. 
10-12 ft. April. Scales purplish, {h) E. B. Supp. 2709. E. B. 
2. i;3G9*. 11.^ Arn. 405. Bad. 302. Lind.2M. 

S. FoRSTERiANA. Glaucous Mountain Sallow. Fig. 1172. 

Branches rather downy. Leaves elliptic-obovate, glaucous beneath. 
Stipules convex. Stigmas notched. A variety of </«ma*cewa. 6-12 ft. 
jMav and June. Scales brownish. Q) E.B. 1.2344. E.B. 2.1370. 
H. '^ Am. 404. Bab. 302. Lind. 234. 

S. RUPESTRis. Rock Willow. Fig. 1173. 

Stems traiUng ; branches slightly downy. Leaves obovate, silky. 
Capsule silky, stalked. Style as long as the entire stigmas. A variety 
oi nigricans^. 2-4 ft. May. Scales purplish. (|) £". J5. 1. 2342. 
E.B.2.\37\. H. ^'Arn. 405. Bab. 302. Lind. 234. 

S. PETR.EA. Dark Rock Willow. ^ Fig. 1174. 

Stems erect ; branches hairy. Leaves oblong, reticulated with veins, 
glaucous beneath. Stipules large, semicordate. Style divided. Stigmas 
cloven. Scotland. 4-10 ft. May. Scales purp'dsh. (|) E. B. 
Suj)p.2729. E.B. 2. 1371*. H.^Ar7i. 404. Lind.235. 

S. PROPiNauA. Fig. 1175. 

Stems erect ; shoots downy. Leaves elliptical. Stipules small, con- 
vex. Stigmas notched. A variety of yje^r^a? 4-8 ft. May. Scales 
purplish, (i) E. B. Supp. 2/29. E. B. 2. 1371**. H. .5^' Am. 404. 
Bab. 302. Lind. 235. 

S. TENUIOR. Fig. 1176. 

Leaves obovate-lanceolate, glaucous beneath, on slender petioles. 
Stipules small-pointed. Catkins slender, lax. Style longer than the 
stigmas. Scotland. 4-8 ft. May. Scales purplish, {h) E. B. 
Supp. 2650. E.B. 2. 1371***. H.^Am.405. Bab. 302. Lind.235. 

S. LATJRiNA. Laurel-leaved Willow. Fig. 1177. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong, waved, dark shining green, glaucous beneath. 
Petioles dilated at the base. Stipules pointed. Capsules very downy. 
Woods. 6-16 ft. April and May. Scales purphsh. (|) E. B. 
I. 1806. E. B. 2. 1372. H. ^ Am. 405. Bab. 302. Lind. 235. 

S. LAXiFLORA. Loosc-flowered Willow. Fig. 1178. 

Stems erect. Leaves broadly obovate, narrowed below. Stipules 
small, concave. Catkins loose. Stigmas divided, segments hnear. A 
variety of rac?iea«s ? 6-10 ft. April. Scales purplish. (|) E.B. 
Supp.2749. E.B. 2. 1372*. H.^ Am. 406. Bab. 302. Lind.235. 

S. RADiCANS. Tea-leaved Willow. Fig. 1179. 

Branches decumbent, rooting. Leaves obovate or elliptic-lanceolate, 
smooth, glaucous beneath. Stipules lunate, glandular. Capsules very 
silky. Style elongated. Stigmas entire or bifid. Scotland. 2-4 ft. 
May. Scales purplish. (|) E.B.I. 1958. E.B.2.\373. LI.^Am.406. 
Bab. 302. Lind. 235. 

S. BORRERIANA. Fig. 1180. 

Branches erect. Leaves broadly lanceolate. Stipules small, lanceolate. 
A variety of radicans. Scotland. 2-6 ft. April. Scales purplish. 
(I) E. B. Supp. 2619. E. B. 2. 1373*. H. i^- Am. 406. Bab. 303. 
Lmd. 235. 



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119 

S. Davalliana. Fig. 1181. 

Branches erect ; shoots downy. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, glaucous 
beneath. Stipules minute. A variety o? radicatis. Scotland. 2— J ft. 
May. Scales brown. (^) E. H. Suj)p. 2701. E. B.2. 1373**. JI. ,y 
Jrn.40G. Bab. 302. Lind.235. 

S. TETRAPLA. Fig. 1183. 

Upright. Shoots downy. Leaves lanceolate, twisted, acutely pointed. 
Stipules small, semicordate. Style longer than the stigmas. A variety 
ofradicans. Scotland. 4-10 ft. May. Scales blackish. Q) E. B. 
Supp. 2702. E.B.2.2137***. H.^^ Am. 406. Bab. 303. Bind. 23o. 

S. Weigeliana. Fig. 1183. 

Leaves elliptical, or nearly round, with a short point. Stipules small. 
Style longer than the stigmas. A variety of radicans. Mountains. 
4-10 ft. April and May. Scales brown. (^) E. B. Supp. 2656. 
E. B. 2. 1373*, 4. H.^Jrn.406. Bab. 303. Bind. 235. 

S. TENUIFOLIA. Fig. 1184. 

Upright. Young shoots densely downy. Leaves elliptical or oblong, 
with a recurved point, glaucous beneath. Capsule smooth. A variety 
of radicans. Westmoreland. 4-6 ft. May. Scales brown, {h) 
E. B. Supp. 2795. E. B. 2. 1373*, 5. H. ^ Arn. 406. Bab. 302 ? 
Bind. 235. 

S. NITENS. Fig. 1185. 

Branches shining brown. Leaves ovate or elliptical ; dark gieeu 
above, whitish below. Capsule densely silky. A variety of radicans. 
4-8 ft. April. Scales brown. (|) E. B. Supp. 2655. E. B. 
2. 1373*, 6. H. ^ Arn. 406. Bab. 302. Lind.235. 

S. Croweana. Fig. 1186. 

Leaves elliptical, smooth, bright green, glaucous beneath. Filaments 
of the stamens united. A variety of radicans. May. Scales brownish. 
(i) E. B. 1. 1146. E. B. 2. 1374. H. ^ Arn. 406. Bab. 302. 
Bind. 235. 

S. BicoLOR. Fig. 1187. 

Leaves elliptical, shining, glaucous beneath. Filaments of stamens 
bearded at the base. A variety of radicans. Scotland. 4-8 ft. April. 
Scales green. Q) E.B.l.2\S6. E.B.2.1375. H. ^ Arn. 406. 
Bab. 302. Bind. 235. 

S. phillyreifolia. Fig. 1188. 

Young shoots downy. Leaves eUiptic-lanceolate, acute at each end, 
glaucous beneath. Style as long as the stigma. A xariety o{ 7-adica7is. 
4-8 ft. April. Scales brownish. Q) E. B. Supp. 2660. E. B. 
2.1375*. H.^ Arn. 406. Bub. 303. Bind. 235. 

S, Dicksoniana. Fig. 1189. 

Young shoots smooth. Leaves elliptical, acute, glaucous below. 
Stigmas nearly sessile, A variety of radicans. Highlands. 2-3 ft. 
April. Scales reddish brown. (1) E. B. \. \3d0. E. B 2.1376. 
H.S,'Arn.406. Bab. 302. Bind. 235. 

S. VACCiNiFOLiA. BUberry-lcaved Willow. Fig. 1190. 

Stems decumbent. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, glaucous below. Capsules 
ovate, silky. Highlands. 1-2 ft. June. Scales brown. (1) E.B. 
1.2341. E.B. 2. 1377. H.^- Arn. 407. Bab. 304. Bind. 237. 



120 

S. CARINATA. Fig. 1191. 

Leaves ovate, sometimes folded. Capsule oblong-ovate. A variety 
of vacchiifolia. 4-6 ft. June. Scales brown. (|) £".5.1.1303. 
E. B. 2. 1378. H. ^ Am. 407. Bab.ZiiA. Lind.237. 

S, PRUNIFOLIA. Phim-leaved Willow. Fig. 1192. 

Stems erect. Leaves broadly ovate, glaucous beneath. Capsule 
oblong-ovate. A variety of vaccinifolia. Highlands. 2-3 ft. June. 
Scales brownish, {h) £'.5.1.1361. £.5.2.1379. H.^Jrn.407. 
Bab. 304. Lind.2~67. 

S. VENULOSA. Fig. 1193. 

Stems erect. Leaves ovate, reticulated with prominent veins, glau- 
cous beneath. Highlands. 2-4 ft. June. Scales reddish, (g) 
U.B.I. 1362. E. B. 2. 1380. H. ^ Am. 407. Bab. 304. Lind. 237. 

S. MYRSiNiTES. Whortle-leavcd WUlow. Fig. 1194. 

Erect. Leaves elliptical, waved, glossy on both sides. Catkins short, 
lax. Style half as long as the capsule, bifid. Stigmas bifid, linear. 
Highlands. 1-2 ft. June. Scales blackish. (|) E. B.\. 1360. 
£".5.2.1381. H.^Am.AQ^. Bab. 305. Lind. 237. 

S. PROCUMBENS. Fig. 1195. 

Leaves oval, green on both sides. Catkins elongated. Style very 
short, deeply cleft. Highlands. A variety of myrsinites. 1-4 ft. 
June. Scales blackish. (|) E. 5. Sup'p. 2753. E. B. 2. 1381*. 
H. ^ Am. 408. Bab. 304. Lind. 237. 

S. HERBACEA. Bwarf Willoiv. Fig. 1193. 

A minute shrub. Leaves orbicular, reticulated with veins, very 
smooth. Catkins few-flowered. Mountains. 1-3 in. June. Scales 
yellowish, (i) E. 5. 1. 1907. E. B. 2. 1382. //. ^ Am. A09. 
Bab. 306. Lind. 238. 

S. HASTATA. Apple-leaved Willow. Fig. 1197 

Stems spreading. Leaves elliptical, very broad. Stipules heart- 
shaped, large. Stigmas cloven. 3-5 ft. May. Scales green. (^) 
£•.5.1.1617. £.5.2.1383. ^.^^rw.410. 5a6. 305. Lind.23J. 

S. LANATA. Woolli/ WHlow. Fig. 1198. 

Stems straggling. Leaves large, broadly oval, pointed, very shaggy. 
Catkins shaggy, with yellow hairs. Stigmas undivided. Highlands. 
2-4 ft. April. Scales brown, (i) E. 5. Supp. 2624. £. 5. 
2. 1383*. //. ^' Am. 410. Bab. 305. Lind. 236. 

Genus 2. Populus. 

P. ALBA. White Poplar. Fig. 1199. 

A tree. Bark smooth. Leaves triangular, heart-shaped, lobed and 
toothed, very white beneath. Stigmas 4. Moist woods. March and 
April. Scales brown. (|) £".5.1.1618. £".5.2.1391. //. ^- 
Am. 411. Bab. 306. Lind. 238. 

P. CANESCENS. Jloai'ij Poplar. Fig. 1200. 

A tree. Leaves roundish, deeply waved and toothed, hoary beneath. 
Stigmas 8. Meadows. March. Scales brown. (|) £.5.1.1619. 
E. 5. 2. 1392. n. ^- Am. 411. Bab. 307. Lind. 238. 



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121 

P. TREMULA. Aspen. Fig. 1201. 

Leaves nearly orbicular, pointed ; petioles much compressed. Stig- 
mas 4. Moist woods, March and April. Stigmas purple, (g) E. B. 

1. 1909. E. B. 2. 1393. H. ^ Am. 412. Bab. 307. Lind. 238. 
P. NIGRA. Black Poplar. Fig. 1202. 
Leaves triangular, rounded, pointed. Catkins very lax. Stigmas 4. 

Moist ground. April. Scales brown. (1) £". 7i. 1. 1910. E. B. 

2. 1394. H. ^ Am. 307. Bab. 412. Lind. 238. 

Order LXXXV. CUPULIFERiE. 
Genus 1. Fagus. 

F. SYLVATiCA. Beech. Fig. 1203. 

Leaves ovate, glossy, ciliated on the margin. "Woods. A timber 
tree. April and May. Brownish, (k) E.B.I.IS46. E.B. 2. 1323. 
n.^Am.4l3. Bab. 308. Lind.239. 

Genus 3. Castanea. 

C. VULGARIS. Spanish Chestnut. Fig. 1204. 

Leaves large, oblong-lanceolate, pointed. Fertile and barren flowers 
on long pendulous stalks. Woods. Fruit edible. May. Yellowish. 
Q) E.B. I. 886. E.B. 2. 1324. H.^Am. 413. Bab. 308. Lind. 239. 
Genus 3. Quercus. 

Q. PEDUNCULATA. Oak. Fig. 1205. 

Leaves deeply sinuated, nearly sessile. Acorns 2 or 3 together, 
sessile upon long peduncles. A well-known timber tree. Woods and 
hedge-rows. April and May. Yellowish. (^) E. B.\.\342. E.B. 
2. 1321. H. ^ Am. 414. Bab. 308. Lind. 240. 

Q. SESsiLiFLORA. Dwfnast Oak. Fig. 1206. 

Leaves on foot-stalks. Acorns sessile or on short thick peduncles. 
A variety of pedunculata 1 Woods. May. Yellowish, (g) E. B. 
1.1845. iE". ^. 2. 1322. H.^ Am. 4\4. Bab. 308. Lind.240. 
Genus 4. Corylus. 

C. AVELLANA., Hazel. Fig. 1207. 

A large shrub. Leaves roundish, cordate. Involucrum of the fruit 
hell-shaped, torn at the margin. Woods and thickets. Nuts edible. 
Feb.-April. Catkins yellowish. Stigmas crimson, {h) E. B. 1.723. 
E. B. 2. 1328. H. ^ Am. 415. Bab. 309. Lind.240. 
Genus 5. Carpinus. 

C. Betulus. Hornbeam.- Fig. 1208. 

A tree. Leaves ovate, pointed, with straight parallel veins, plaited 
when young. Woods. April and May. Brownish green. (|) E. B. 
1.2032. E.B. 2. 1327. H.^Arn.4\(j. Bab. 309. Lind.240. 

Order LXXXVI. CONIFERtE. 
Genus 1. Pin us. 
P. SYLVESTRis. Scotch Fir. Pine. Fig. 1209. 

Leaves in pairs, rigid, bluish green. Cones ovate-conical, recurved, 
U'uallv in pairs. Northern forests. May and June. Catkins yellow. 
(^) E. B. 1. 2460. E. B. 2. 1329. H. ^ Arn. 418. Bab. 310. Lind.3\0. 
Genus 2. Juniperus. 
J. COMMUNIS. Juniper. Fig. 1210. 

An evergreen shrub. Leaves linear, spine-pointed, 3 in a whorl. 
Berries globular. Downs. 2-10 ft. May. Catkins brownish. (|) 
i^..B. 1.1100. £".^.2.1399. H.^Arn.4\8. Bab. 310. Lind. 241, 

R 



122 

J. NANA. Bwnrf Juniper. Fig. 1211. 

Procumbent. Fruit oval. Mountains. 6in.-2ft. June. Brownish; 
berries black, with a glaucous bloom, {h) E. B. Supp. 2743. E. B. 
2.1399. //. f ^/-n. 418. Bab. 3X0. ~Lind.'lA\. 
Genus 3. Taxus. 

T. BACCATA. Yeiv. Fig. 1212. 

An evergreen tree. Leaves linear, in 2 rows, crowded. Woods on 
chalk. Leaves poisonous. March and April. Yellowish, (g) E. B. 
1.746. ^.^.2.1400. //. ^^rn. 419. Bab.'dl^). Lhid.241. 

Order LXXXVIT. DIOSCOREACEiE. 

Genus 1. Tamus. 

T, COMMUNIS. Black Briony. Fig. 1213. 

A climbing plant with heart-shaped, net-veined, glossy leaves. 

Thickets. Poisonous. Perenn. June. Green ; berries red. (|) 

^.if. 1.91. E.B. 2.\3d\). H.^Jrn.443. Bab. 312. Lind.27i. 

Order LXXXVIII. TRILLIACE.E. 

Genus 1. Paris. 

P. QUADRiFOLfA. Herb Paris. Fig. 1214. 

Leaves ovate, 4 in a whorl below the flower, dark green. Woods. 

Poisonous. 1 ft. Perenn. May and June. Green ; berry black, (g) 

E.B.I. 7. E.B.2.576. H. ^' Arn. 444. Bab. 311. Lind.27l. 

Order LXXXIX. HYDROCHARIDACE^. 
Genus 1. Anacharis. 
A. Alsinastrum. Water Th7jme. Water-weed. Fig. 1215. 

Stems submersed. Leaves 3 or 4 in a whorl, oval-oblong, whorls 
close together. Flowers very small, in a leaf-like bract. Canals ; 
naturalized? May-Oct. Green. (|) H. ^ Am. 423. Bab. 313. 
Genus 2. Hydrocharis. 
H. Morsus-IIan^. Frog-bit. Fig. 1216. 

Stems submersed. Leaves floating, on long petioles, kidney-shaped. 
Flowers large. Ponds and streams. Perenn. July-Aug. White. (|) 
j&.ii. 1.808. ^.^.2.1398. H.^Arn.423. Bab.3\2. Lind.2n6. 
Genus 3. Stratiotes. 
S. ALOiDES. Water Soldier. Water Aloe. Fig. 1217. 

Leaves submersed, rising from the root, sword-shaped, with marginal 
prickles. Pools. Perenn. July. White. Q) E.B.I. 379. E. B. 
2.771. II. i^Ar?!. 424. Bab. 313. Lind. 2d4. 

Order XC. ORCHID AGE^E. 

Genus 1. Orchis. 

O. pyramtualis. Pyramidal Orchis. Fig. 1218. 

Sepals spreading. Lip with 3 equal entire lobes and 2 tubercles at 

the base above. Pastures. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. July. Purple or white. 

(i) E.B. \.llO. E.B. 2.\\93. H.^'Arn.43o. Bab.3lS. Lind.26l. 

O. Mo RIO. Green-winged Orchis. Fig. 1219. 

Sej)ais ascending, many-ribbed, converging. Meadows. 4 in.-l ft. 

Perenn. May and June. Deep purple with green ribs. (|) E. B. 

I. 20.09. E.B. 2. 1 194. //. ^' Am. 432. Bub. 316. Li.id. 260. 

O. MASCULA. Early Orchis. Fig. 1220 

Leaves usually spotted. Sepals 3-ribbed, the lateral ones reflexed. 

Liji 3-lobed. Spur obtuse. Pastures. 4-10 in. Perenn. May and 

J.uie. Purple or white, hp spotted, (h) E.B.\.Q3\. E.B. 2. 1195. 

II. ^- Am. 4:yZ. Hah. 316. Lind. 260. 



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123 

O. USTULATA. Dwarf Bark-ioinged OrcJiis. Fig. 1221. 

Bracts as lonj? as the capsule. Sepals converging. Lobes of lip 
linear-oblong. Spur very short. Chalky pastures. 3-5 in. Perenn. 
June. Purplish-brown, lip white and spotted. (|) E. B. I. 18. 
E. li. 2. 119G. //. ^ Am. 432. Bab. 317. Lind. 260. 

O. FiJSCA. Brown-wivged Orchis. Fig. 1223. 

Sepals obtuse, converging. Lip deeply 3-lobed ; lateral lobes linear- 
oblong, middle one broad, obcordate, with a point in the cleft. Chalk 
hills. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May. Calyx greenish purple, h[) pink with 
dark spots. (|) E. B. 1. 16. E. B. 2. 1197. H. ^ Am. 432. 
i?«6. 316. Lind. 260. 

O. MiLiTARis. Man Orchis. ^ Fig. 1223. 

Sepals converging, pointed. Lip deeply 4-lobed, with an intermediate 
point. Chalk hills. 8 in.-l ft. Perenn. May. Calyx pale purplish, 
hp purple with darker spots, (i) E. B. Sypp.2G7o. E.B.2.]197*. 
J'l.^ Arn.3\6. Bab. 433. Lind 2G0. 

0. TEPHROSANTHos. Monkey Orchis. Fig. 1224. 

Sepals converging, pointed. Lip with 4 nearly equal linear lobes. 
Chalk hills. 8 in.-l ft. Perenn. May. Purple. (|) E. B. 
L 1873. £".^.2.1198. /7.^^ra.433. Bab. 317. Lind.260. 

O. HiRCiNA. Lizard Orchis. Fig. 1225. 

Sepals concave. Lip downy, with 3 linear segments ; the middle 
one very long and twisted, bifid at the end. Spur very short. Chalky 
thickets. 1-3 ft. Perenn. Julv and Aug. Purplish green ; lip 
purple with dark spots. Q) E. B. 1. 34. E. B. 2. 1199. H. iSr 
Am. 434. Bab. 318. Li?id. 260. 

O. LAXiFLORA. Loosc-Jlowered Marsh Orchis. Fig. 1226. 

Lateral sepals reflexed. Upper petals converging ; lip 3-lobed, lateral 
lobes rounded and crenulated, middle one very small and truncated. 
Channel Islands. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June. Purple-red. (g) E. B. 
Snpp. 2828. £'.5.2.1199*. ^. ^ ^rw. 433. i?a6. 317. 

(). LATiFOLiA. Marsh Orchis. Fig. 1227, 

Bracts longer than the flowers. Sepals spreading. Upper petals 
converging. Lip convex, nearly entire, crenated. Spur conical. Marshes. 
\-\\ ft. Perenn. May-July. Purple or pink, with spots. (|) 
JE". J?. 1.2308. £'.5.2.1200. H.S,'Arn.433. Bab. 317. Lind. 260. 

O. MACULATA. Spotted Orchis. Fig. 1228. 

Leaves spotted. Bracts shorter than the flowers. Sepals spreading ; 
lip flat, usually deeply 3-lobed, crenated. Spur cylindrical. Heaths. 
]-li ft. Perenn. June and July. Pink or white, spotted. (|) 
£.5.1.632. E. B. 2. 1201. H.^ Am. 434. Bab. 317. Lind. 317. 
Genus 2. Gymnadenia. 

G. CONOPSEA. Fragrant Orchis. Fig. 1229, 

Lateral sepals widely spreading. Spur very slender, filiform. Chalk 
hills. 1 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Purple. (i) E. B. 1. 10. 
£".5.2.1202. H.^ Am. 435. Bab. 318. Lind. 261. 

Genus 3. Habenaria. 
H. viRTDTS. Froff Orchis. Fig. 1230. 

Bracts longer than the flowers. Sepals and upper petals converging. 
Lip linear, bifid, with an intermediate tooth. Spur short, slightly 
cloven. Hill pastures. 6-9 in. Perenn. June and July. Green, 
lip yellowish red at the margin, (i) E. B. 1. 94. £. 5. 2. 1203. 
//. > Am. 435. Bab. 319. Lind. 26 1. 

u2 



124 

II. ALBiDA. Small White Orchis. Fig. 1231. 

Sepals and lateral petals nearly equal, concave. Lips 3-cleft, the 
middle segment longest, pointed. Spur short. Mountains. 6-9 in. 
Perenn. June and July, Greenish white, (i) E. li. I. 505. E. B. 
2.1204. H.^Arn.A'i5. Bab. 318. ijW.*261. 

II. CHLORANTHA. Butterjly Orchis. Fig. 1233. 

Lateral sepals spreading downwards. Lip lanceolate, entire. Spur 
long, filiform. Anther with diverging cells. Moist meadows. 1 ft. 
Perenn. June. Greenish white, (i) ii". i?. I. 22. E. B. 2. \2QJ. 
n.^' Arn.436. Bab. 319. Lind. 335. 

H. BiFOLiA. Smaller Butterjly Orchis. Fig. 1233. 

Lip linear, entire. Anther-cells parallel. A variety of chloruntha '( 
Heaths. 9 in.-l ft. Perenn. June and July. Greenish white, (g) 
E.B.Supp.2m^. E.B.2. 1205*. H.^Arn.A3^. Bab.3\9. Lind.335. 
Genus 4. Aceras. 

A. ANTHROPOPHORA. Green Man Orchis. Fig. 1234. 

Calyx-leaves meeting like a helmet. Lip deeply 4-cleft, the seg- 
ments linear. Chalk hills, 1-1 i ft. Perenn. June, Calyx green, 
lip vellow. (i) E. B. 1. 29." E. B. 2. 120G. U. ^' Am. A3Q. 
Bab. 319. Liild. 262. 

Genus 5. Herminium. 

H. MoNORCHis. Green Musk Orchis. Fig, 1235. 

Petals 3-lobed, nearly equal. Stem with one leaf in the middle. Chalky 
pastures, 3-6 in. Perenn. July. Green. (|) E. B. I. 71. 
E.B. 2. 1207, H. ^ Am. 436. Bab. 262. Lind. 263. 

Genus 6, Ophrys. 

O. APiFERA. Bee Orchis. Fig. 1236. 

Calyx coloured. Lip as long as the calyx, velvety, convex, with 5 
marginal lobes, the terminal one reflexed. Chalk hills. 6-10 in. 
Perenn. June. Calyx purplish, lip purplish brown, with yellow lines. 
(I) E.B. 1. 383. E. B. 2. 1208. H. 8f Am. 437. Bab. 320. 
Lind. 262, 

O. ARACHNITES, Late spider Orchis. Fig. 1237. 

Calyx coloured. Lip longer than the calyx, convex, velvety, terminal 
lobe projecting. Chalk hills. 6-10 in. Perenn. May and June. 
Calyx purplish, lip brown, with yellowish green lines. (|) E. B, 
Supp. 2596. E. B.2.\2Q8*. H.^'Am.437. Bab. 320. Lind. 262. 

O. ARANiFERA. Spider Orchis. Fig. 1238. 

Calyx green. Petals linear. Lip as long as the calyx, velvety, 
convex, 3-lobed, the middle lobe large, emarginate. Chalk hills* 
6-10 in. Perenn. April and May. Petals green; lip brown, with 
pale lines. (|) E. B. 1, 65, E. B. 2, 1209. H. ^ Am. 437. 
Bab. 320. Lind. 262. 

O. FuciFERA. Drone Orchis. Fig, 1239. 

Lip longer than the calyx, undivided. A variety of orflwi/era. Chalk 
hills. 6-10 in, Perenn. May and June. Petals green, lip brown 
with pale lines. (|) E. B. Supp. 2649. E. B. 2. 1209*. H. ^Am. 437. 
Bab. 320. Lind. 262. 

O. MusciFERA. Fly Orchis. Fig. 1240. 

Calyx green. Petals linear, smooth. Lip flat, 3-lobed ; the middle 
lobe bifid. Chalk hills, 6-10 in. Perenn. May and June. Purple- 
brown, with a blue spot on the hp. (i) E.B.I. 64. E.B. 2. \2\0, 
H.^ Am. 438. Bab. 320. Lind. 262. 



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62 



12.> 

Genus 7. Goo dye ;u. 

G. RE PENS. Fig- 1241. 

Plant creeping at the base. Root fibrous, lower leaves ovate- lanceo- 
late, with petioles. Spike rather spiral, downy, lliijbland forests. 
6-10 in. Perenn. Ang. Pinkish, (f) E. B. I. 280. ^E. B.2. 1211. 
11. ^ Am. 430. Bab. 320. Lind. 257. 

Genus 8. Neottia. 

N. SPIRALIS. Lady's Tresses. T\g. 1243, 

Root-leaves spreading, ovate. Spike twisted spirally, one-sided. 
Chalk hills and pastures. 4-6 in. Perenn. Aug. and St-pt. Greenish 
white. (I) ^-.i?. 1. 541. E. B. 2. 1212. H.^Arn. 430. Bab. 321. 
Lind. 2o7. 

N. AESTIVALIS. Summer Ladifs Tresses. Fig. 1243. 

Root-leaves oblong-lanceolate. Spike lax, twisted. Jersey. 3 in.- 
1ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Whitish, (f) E. B. Supp. 28\7. 
E.B. 2. \2\2*. H.^Arn.430. Bab. 321. Lind. 334. 

N. GEMMiPARA. Prohferous Ladys Tresses. Fig. 1244. 

Leaves lanceolate, with buds at the base, as tall as the stalk. Spike 
dense, 3-ranked. Ireland. 3-6 in. Perenn. Oct. Whitish, (f) 
E. B. Supp. 2786. E. B. 2. 1212**. //. ^ Am. 430. Bab. 321. 
Lind. 334. 

Genus 9. Listera. 

L. ovATA. Tway-blade. Fig. 1245. 

Stem with two opposite oval leaves. Lip bifid. Column crested 
with a hood. Woods. 1-H ft. Perenn. June. Yellowish green. 
(I) ^. 2?. 1. 1548. £". ^r2. 1213. H.^Arn.A2<^. Bab. 321. 
Lind. 258. 

L. CORDATA. Mountain Tway-blade. Fig. 1246. 

Leaves cordate. Lip with a lobe on each side the base. Column 
not crested. Mountains. 3-6 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Green. 
(|) E. B. 1. 358. E. B. 2. 1214. H. ^ Am. 429. Bab. 321. 
Lind. 258. 

L. NiDUS-Avis. Bird's-nest. Fig. 1247. 

Without leaves. Stem covered with brown scales. Lip with 2 
spreading lobes. Epiphytic on the roots of Beech-trees. 8 in.-l ft. 
Perenn. May and June. Brown, (i) E.B. 1. 48. E.B.2.1215. 
II. ^ Am. 429. Bab. 321. Lind. 258. 

Genus 10. Epipactis. 

E. LATiFOLiA. Helleborine. Fig. 1248. 

Leaves broadly ovate, stem-clasping. Lower bracts longer than the 
flowers. Lip shorter than the sepals, entire. Woods. 1-2 ft. Perenn. 
July and Aug. Reddish green, Hp purple, {h) E.B.I. 269. E. B. 2. 
121*6. H.^Am.427. Bab. 322. Lind. 258. 

E. PURPURATA. Purple-leaved Heleborine. Fig. 1249. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, purplish. Bracts linear, twice as long as 
the flowers. Lip shorter than the calyx, entire. Woods. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. Aug. Greenish purple. (|) E. B. Supp. 277b. B.E.2. 
1216*. H.^ Am. 427. Bah. 322. Lind. 259. 

E. PALUSTRis. Marsh Helleborine. Fig. 1250. 

Leaves lanceolate, stem-clasping. Bracts shorter than the flowers. 
Lip 3-lobed. Marshy pastures. 1-1 g ft. Perenn. July. (^) 
E.B. I. 270. E.B.2\\2\7. H.^ Am. 428. Bab. 322. Lind. 259. 



12f) 

E. GRANDiFLORA. White Ilellehorine. Fig. 1251. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, sessile. Bracts longer than the flowers. 
Flowers sessile, erect. Woods on the chalk. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June 
and July, Yellowish white. (|) E.B.I. 271. E. B. 2. 1218. 
H. ^- Arn. 428. Bah. 322. Lind. 259. 

E. ENSiFOLiA. Narrow-leaved neUehorine. Fig. 1252. 

Leaves narrow lanceolate. Bracts minute. Flowers sessile, erect. 
Woods; rare. 1ft. Perenn. Mav and June. White. (|) E.B.I. 
49\. E.B. 2. 1229. H. ^ Arn. 428. Bab. 323. XiW. 259. 

E. RUBRA. Red Helleborine. Fig. 1253. 

Leaves lanceolate. Bracts longer than the capsule. Flowers sessile, 
erect. Mountain woods ; rare. 1 ft. Perenn. May and June. 
Purple, lip whitish. (|) E.B.\.A37. E. B. 2. \220. H.^Arn. 
428. Bab. 323. Lind. 259. 

Genus 11. Malaxis. 

M. PALUDOSA. Boff Orchis. Fig. 1254. 

Leaves oval, concave, with minute bulbs at the end. Flowers re- 
versed, the lip pointing upwards. Peat bogs 2-4 in. Perenn. 
Aug. and Sept. Greenish. (\) E. B. 1. 72. E. B. 2. 1221. 
H.^Arn. 425. Bab. 323. Lind. 263. 

Genus 12. Liparis. 

L. LoESSELii. Two-leaved Bog Orchis. Fig. 1255. 

Stem triangular. Leaves two, broadly lanceolate. Lip recurved, 
longer than the perianth. 6-8 in. Perenn. July. Yellow. (|) 
E. B. 1. 47. E. B. 2. 1222. H. ^ Arn. 426. Bab. 324. Lind. 263. 
Genus 13. Corallorehiza. 

C. INNATA. Coral-root. Fig. 1256. 

Leaves sheath-like. Spur very short. Scotland. 6-8 in. Perenn. 
July. Yellowish green, (f) E. B. 1. 1546. E. B. 2. 1223. 
H. ^ Arn. 426. Bab. 323. 'Lind. 258. 

Genus 14. Cypripedium. 

C. Calceolus. Lady's Slipper. Fig. 1257. 

Stem leafy. Leaves ovate, pointed. Flower solitary. Terminal 
lobe of corolla elliptical, channeled. Northern woods ; very rare. 
1-1^ it. Perenn. July. Purple, lip yellow. (J) E. B. 1. 1. E. B. 2. 
1224. H. ^ Arn. 438. Bab. 324. Lind. 263. 

Order XCI. IRIDACE^. 
Genus 1. Iris. 

I. PsEUD-ACORus. Yellow Iris. Fig. 1258. 

Inner segments of perianth smaller than the petaloid stigmas, the 
outer very broad. Seeds angular. Watery places ; common. 3-4 ft. 
Perenn. July. Yellow, (i) ^.J5. 1.578. E.B. 2. 47. H.^ Arn. 439. 
Bab. 325. Lind. 255. 

I. F(ETiDTSSiMA. StinJdng Iris. Fig. 1259. 

Inner segments of perianth spreading, outer narrow. Seeds rounded. 
Foetid. Pastures and thickets. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. Purple, 
sometimes yellow; seeds orange, d) E. B. \. 596. E. B. 2. 48. 
H. ^ Arn. 439. Bab. 325. Lind. 255. 

I. TUBEROSA. SnaJce-head Iris. Fig. 1260. 

Leaves 4-anglcd. Segments of perianth acute. Not native. 1 ft. 
Perenn. March and April. Purple, inner petals green. (|) E. B. 
l<itpp, 2S18. Bab. 325. 



127 

Genus 2. Tuichonema. 

T. BuLBOcoDiuM. Fig. 1261. 

Leaves linear, channeled, longer than the recurved stem. Guernsey, 
6 in. Perenn. March and April. Purplish, white, or yellow, (i) 
E. B. 1. 2549. E. B. 2. 46. //. ^ Am. 440. Bab. 325. Lind. 
255. 

Genus 3. Crocus. 

C. VERNUS. Spring Crocus. Fig. 1282. 

Stigma within the flower, in 3 wedge-shaped lobes. Tube hairy at 
the mouth. Meadows. 4-6 in. Perenn. March. Purple, (i) 
E.B. 1. 344. E. B. 2. 44. H. SfArn. 440. Bab. 325. Lind. 255. 

C. PRECOX. Small Purple Crocus. Fig. 1283. 

Stigmas deeply trifid, longer than the stamens, within the flower, 
divisions slightly notched at the end. Suffolk ; not native. 4-6 in. 
Perenn. March. Pale lilac with yellow and purple stripes. (|) 
E. B. Siipp. 2645. E. B. 2. 44**. H. ^ Am. 440. Bab. 326. 
Lind. 334. 

C. AUREUS. Golden Crocus. Fig. 1264. 

Stamens longer than the stigma. Stigma small, shortly trifid. 
Meadows. 4-6 in. Perenn. March. Yellow. (|) E. B. Supp. 
2646. E.B. 2. 44*. H. ^ Am. 440. Bab. 326. Lind. 334. 

C. SATivus. Saffron Crocus. Fig. 1265. 

Stigma hanging out of the flower in 3 deep linear segments. Na- 
txiralized. The stamens are the saffron of commerce. 6-9 in. Perenn. 
Sept. Purple. Q) E.B. 1. 343. E. B. 2. 43. H. ^ Am. 441. 
Bab. 326. Lind. 255. 

C. NUDiFLORUS. Naked-Jlowering Crocus. Fig. 1266. 

Leaves appearing after the flowers. Stigma within the flower, in 3 
deeply fringed segments. Meadows. 6-8 in. Perenn. Sept.-Nov. 
Purple. (D ^.^.1.491. ^. if. 2. 45. H.^Am.Ul. Bab. 326. 
Lind. 255. 

C. sPECiosus. Large Purple Crocus. Fig. 1267. 

Stigma much longer than the stamens. A variety of Nudijlorus. 
Meadows. 6-8 in. Perenn. Sept. and Oct. Purple. (^) E. B. 
Supp. 2752. H. ^ Am. 441 . Bab. 326. Lind. 334. 

Order XCII. AMARYLLIDACEtE. 
Genus 1. Narcissus. 

N. Pseudo-narcissus. Daffodil. Fig. 1268. 

Spathe single-flowered. Nectary bell-shaped, erect, with 6 crisped 
segments, equal to the perianth. Moist woods. 1 ft. Perenn. 
March. Yellow. (|) E. B. 1. 17. E. B. 2. 468. H. ^ Am. 442. 
Bab. 327. Lind. 265. 

N. POETicus. Pheasant'' s-eye Narcissus. Fig. 1269. 

Spathe single-flowered. Nectary very short, dcpi'essed, crenated on 
the margin. Heaths and pastures. 1 ft. Perenn. May. White, 
nectary edged with crimson. (|) E. B. 1. 275. E. B. 2. 469. 
H. ^- Am. 4 i2. Bab. 326. Lind. 265. 

N. biflorus. Pale Narcissus. Fig. 1270. 

Spathe 2-flowered. Nectary very short, depressed. Sandy fields. 
1ft. Perenn. May. Pale vellow, nectary yellow. (:?) E. B. I. 276, 
E. B. 2. 470. //. if Am. 442. Bab. 326. Lind. 265. 



128 

Genus 2. Galanthus. 

G. NIVALIS. Snowdrop. ^ Fig. 1271. 

Flowers solitary, pendant. Meadows and thickets. 4-8 in. Pereun. 
Feb. and March. "White, inner segments tipped with green. (^) 
£. B. 1. 19. JS. B. 2. 466. H.^Arn. 442. Bab. 327. Lind. 265. 
Genus 3. Leucojum. 

L. jESTIVUM. Summer Snowdrop. Fig. 1272. 

Spathe with several flowers. Stalk 2-edged. Marshes. 8 in.-l ft. 
Perenn. May. White. (|) E.B. 1.621. E.B. 2.467. H.^Arn. 443. 
Bab. 327. Lind. 265. 

Order XCIII. LILIACEiE. 

Genus 1. Asparagus. 

A. OFFICINALIS. Asparagus. Fig. 1273. 

Stems usually erect, much branched. Leaves in tufts, bristle-shaped. 
Sea-shores. 6-8 in. Perenn. Aug. Green ; berries red. (|) E.B.I. 
339. E.B. 2. 490. H.^Arn. 446. Bab. 328. Li?id. 270. 
Genus 2. Ruscus. 

R. ACULEATtJS. Butcher'' s Broom. Fig. 1274. 

A small evergreen shrub. Leaves ovate, spine-pointed, bearing the 
flower on the surface. Woods ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. March 
and April. Greenish ; berries red. (§) E.B.I. 560. E. B. 2. 1385. 
H. ^ Am. 446. Bab. 329. Lind. 270. 

Genus 3. Convallaria. 

C. MAJALis. Lily of the Valley. Fig. 1275. 

Flowers in a drooping raceme. Leaves in pairs, ovate-lanceolate. 
Hill woods ; common. 6-9 in. Pefenn. May. White, berries red. 
(i) E. B.\. 1035. E. B. 2. 491. H. ^ Am. 447. Bab. 328. 
Lind. 270. 

C. VERTiciLLATA. Narrow-leaved Solomon^ s Seal. Fig. 1276. 

Leaves whorled, linear-lanceolate. Flowers cylindrical. Scottish 
woods. 2 ft. Perenn. June. White ; berries blue. (|) E. B. 1. 
128. ^.^.2.492. H.8rArn.447. Bab. 328. Lind. 270. 

C. MULTIFLORA. Solomon's Seal. Fig. 1277. 

Stem round, curved. Leaves alternate, stem-clasping. Pedicles 
axillary, many-flowered. Woods. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June. White tipped 
with green. (|) £".^.1.279. E.B. 2. 493. H.^ Am. 447. Bab. 
329. Lind. 270. 

C. PoLYGONATUM. Angular Solomon's Seal. Fig. 1278. 

Stem angular. Leaves stem-clasping, alternate. Peduncles axillary, 
mostly single-flowered. Woods; rare. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June. White 
and green; berries black. (|) E. B. 1. 280. E. B. 2. 494. 
H. ^ Arn. 447. Bab. 329. Lind. 270. 

Genus 4. Hyacinthus. 

n. NON-SCRIPTUS. fJ'ild Hyacinth. Hare-bell. Fig. 1279. 

Flowers in drooping racemes. Leaves linear, flaccid. Woods and 
thickets; abundant. Poisonous. 6-10 in. Perenn. May and June. 
Rlue, sometimes pink. Q) E.B. I. 377. E.B. 2. 487. H.S,Arn. 
449. Bab. 33b. Lind. 270. 

Genus 5. Muscari. 

M. RACEMOSUM. Gropc-Hyacinth. Fig. 1280. 

Racemes crowded. Flowers ovate, furrowed ; upper ones abortive. 
Leaves linear, channeled. Naturalized. 6-8 in. Perenn. May. 
Purple-blue. {\) E.B.\. 1931. E. B. 2. 488. //. ^- Am. 450. 
.Bad. 335. Li7id. 269. 




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&4 



129 

Genus 6. Allium. 

A. Ampeloprasum. Great Jtound-headed Garlic. Fig. 1281. 

Umbel globose, without bulbs. Leaves linear, flat. Three alternate 
stamens deeply 3-cleft. Flat Holmes on the Severn. 4-5 ft. Perenn. 
Aug. White. (I) ^.fi. 1.1657. E.B. 2.473. H. ^ Am. 4oQ. 
Bab. 332. Lind. 267. 

A. ARENARiuM. Sand Garlic. Fig. 1283. 

Umbel globose, bearing bulbs. Leaves linear, with cylindrical sheaths. 
Alternate stamens 3-cleft. Leaves of spathe obtuse. Woods and pastures. 
U-2ft. Perenn. July. Purple. Q) E.B.I. \35H. E.B.2.475. 
11. ^ Am. 451. Bab. 333. Lind. 267. 

A. CARiNATUM. Mountain Garlic. Fig. 1283. 

Umbel lax, bulb-bearing. Leaves linear, keeled, flat. Stamens all 
simple. Leaves of spathe long, tapering, unequal. Pastures. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. July. Pinkish. (|) E.B.I. \&bS. E.B. 2. 475. H.^ 
Arn.4b\. Bab. 333. Lind. 267. 

A. OLERACEUM. Wild Garlic. Fig. 1284. 

Umbels lax, bulb-bearing. Leaves semicylindrical, rough, channelled 
a1)ove. Stamens simple. Leaves of spathe concave below, with long 
points. Fields. Perenn. 2 ft. July. Pinkish, {h) £".5.1.488. 
E. B. 2. 476. H. ^ Am. 451. Bab. 333. Lind. 2%7. 

A. AMBioruM. Rose-coloured Garlic. Fig. 1285. 

Umbels few-flowered, bulb-bearing. Leaves broadly linear. Spathe 
short, 3-4-leaved. Not native, l-lj- ft. Perenn. June. Pink. 
(I) E. B. Supp. 2803. Bab. 335. 

A. sPHiEROCEPHALUM. Small Round-headed Garlic. Fig. 1286. 

Umbel spherical, dense, without bulbs. Three alternate stamens 3-cleft. 
Jersey. 1-3 ft. Perenn. June and July. Purple, (g) E. B. 
Supp. 2813. H. ^ Am. 452. Bab. 333. Lind. 335. 

A. viNEALE. Crow Garlic. Fig. 1287. 

Umbel bulb-bearing. Leaves tubular. Three alternate stamens 3-cleft. 
Dry fields. 2 ft. Perenn. July. White. Q) E. B. 1. 1974. 
E.B. 2. 477. H.^ Am. 452. Bab. 333. Lind. 268. 

A. TJRSiNUM. Ramsons. Fig. 1288. 

Umbel nearly flat. Leaves all radical, elliptic-lanceolate, on footstalks. 
Woods and hedge-banks ; common. 1 ft. Perenn. May. White. 
(k) E. B.l. 122. E. B. 2. 478. H. ^ Arn. 453. Bab. 335. 
Lind. 268. 

A. ScH(ENOPRASuM. Chives. Fig. 1289. 

Leaves all radical, tubular, pointed. Stamens simple. Meadows ; 
rare. A culinary herb. 1 ft. Perenn. June. Purple. (|) E. B. 
1.2441. E.B. 2. 479. H.^Am.45\. Bab.334. Lind.268. 

Genus 7. Scilla. 

S. VERNA. Sprinff Squill. Fig. 1290. 

Raceme few-flowered, corymbose. Bracts lanceolate, obtuse. Leaves 
many, linear. Sea cliffs. 4-5 in. Perenn. April. Blue, (f) 
E.B.I. 23. E. B. 2. 484. H. ^ Am. 453. Bab. 332. Lind. 269. 



130 

S. BiFOLiA. Two-leaved Squill. Fig. 1291. 

Raceme lax, without bracts. Leaves 2, lanceolate. A doubtful 
native. 4-5 in. Perenn. March and April. Pale blue. (|) E. B. 
1. 24. E. B. 2. 485. //. ^ Am. 453. Bab. 332. Lind. 2G9. 

S. AUTUMNALis. Autumnal Squill. Fig. 1292. 

Raceme without bracts. Leaves linear, numerous. Dry pastures. 
2-5 in. Perenn. Sept. Blue, (f) £'.^.1.78. £'.£.2.486. 
H. f Arn. 453. Bab. 332. Lind. 269. 

Genus 8. Ornithogalum. 

O. PYRENAICUM. Spiked Star of Bethlehem. Fig. 1293. 

Raceme very long. Filaments dilated. Peduncles equal, spreading; 
erect when in fruit. Pastures ; naturalized. l|-2 ft. Perenn. July. 
Greenish-white. (|) E.B.I. 499. E. B. 2. 481. H. ^ Arn. 454. 
Bab. 331. Lind. 268. 

O. UMBELLATUM. Star of Bethlehem. Fig. 1294. 

Flowers corymbose. Peduncles longer than the bracts. Naturalized. 
1 ft, Perenn. April and May. White, greenish without. (|) 
E. B. 1. 130. E. B. 2. 482. H. ^ Arn. 454. Bab. 331. Lind. 269. 

O. NUTANS. Drooping Star of Bethlehem. Fig. 1295. 

Flowers pendulous. Filaments dilated, cloven; 3 of them longer. 
Naturalized. 1 ft. Perenn. May. White. (|) E. B. 1. 1997. 
E. B. 2. 483. //. ^ Arn. 454. Bab. 331. Lind. 269. 

Genus 9. Gagea. 

G. LUTEA. Fig. 1296. 

Root-leaves 1 or 2, longer than the flower-stem. Bracts longer than 
the umbel. Moist thickets and pastures ; local. 4-8 in. Perenn. 
March and April. Yellow, (f) E.B.I. 21. E. B. 2. 480. H. ^ 
Arn. 455. Bab. 332. Lind. 268. 

Genus 10. Anthericum. 

A. SEROTiNUM. Mountain Spider-wort. Fig. 1297. 

Leaves semicylindrical ; stem ones dilated at the base. Flowers mostly 
solitary. Snowdon Mountains, Wales. 4-6 in. Perenn. June. 
Pinkish. (I) E. B. 1. 793. E. B. 2. 489. H. ^ Arn. 455. 
Bab.3d\. Lind. 269. 

Genus 11. Tulipa. 

T. SYLVESTRis. Wild Tulip. Fig. 1298. 

Flowers solitary, somewhat drooping. Leaves lanceolate. Chalky 
fields; local. 1ft. Perenn. April. Yellow, (i) E. B. I. 63. 
E. B. 2. 472. JI. ^' Am. 456. Bab. 330. Lind. 266. 

Genus 12. Fritillaria. 

F. Meleagris. Fritillary. Snake' s-he ad Lily. Fig. 1299. 

Stem 1 -flowered. Leaves linear -lanceolate. Moist meadows. 1 ft. 
Perenn. April. Purple, checkered with darker spots, (g) E. B. 
1. 622. E. B. 2.471. H. ^ Am. 456. Bab. 330. Lind. 266. 

Genus 13. Lilium. 

L. Martagon. Turk's-cap Lily. Fig. 1300. 

Leaves whorled, ovate-lanceolate. Flowers reflexed. Woods ; not 
native. 2-3 ft. Perenn. June, Purple, with blackish spots. (|) 
E.B.Supp.2799. Bab. 331. 












/S>£>/ 




131 

Order XCIV. MELANTHACEiE. 

Genus 1. Colchicum. 
C. AUTUMNALE. Meadow Saffron. Fig. 1301. 

Leaves erect, broadly lanceolate, withering in the summer. Meadows. 
4-8 in. Perenn. Sept.-Nov. Purple, (i) £'.£.1.133. E. B. 

2.535. H.^Jrn.457. Bab. 336. Lind. 264. 

Genus 2. Tofieldia. 
T. PALUSTRis. Scottish Asphodel. Fig. 1302. 

Spike ovate. Stem nearly leafless. Leaves sword-shaped. Boggy 
mountains. 4-6 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Yellowish. (|) E.B. 

1.536. ^.£.2.534. H.^ Am. 457. Bab. 336. Lind. 264. 

Order XCV. RESTIACEiE. 
Genus 1. Eriocaulon, 
E. SEPTANGULARE. Pipewort. Fig. 1303. 

Leaves subulate, compressed, pellucid. Stem angular. Alpine lakes ; 
rare. 6-10 in. Perenn. Aug. Purplish-white. (|) E.B. 1.733. 
E. B. 2. 1313. H. ^ Am. 458. Bab. 337. Lind. 272, 

Order XCVI. JUNCACEiE. 

Genus 1. Narthecium. 

N. ossiFRAGUM. Bog Asphodel. Fig. 1304. 

Leaves linear, equitant. Flowers in erect racemes. Bogs ; common. 
6-8 in. Perenn. July and Aug. Bright yellow. (|) ^.£.1.535. 
^.£.2.519. i3'.^^m.468. Bab. 337. Lind.277. 
Genus 2. Juncus. 

J. MARiTiMUS. Small Sea-Rush. Fig. 1305. 

Leafless. Stems rigid, spine-pointed. Panicle terminal, proliferous. 
Bracts spinous. Capsules oblong. Salt marshes. 2 ft. Perenn. 
Aug. Brownish. (|) £'.£.1.1725. E.B. 2. 496. H.^Arn. 461. 
Bab. 338. Lind. 273. 

J. AcuTus. Great Sea-Rush. Fig. 1306. 

Leafless. Stems rigid, spine-pointed. Panicle terminal, rather dense. 
Bracts spinous. Capsules roundish. Sandy shores. 2-6 ft. Perenn. 
July. Brownish, (f) £.£.1.1614. E.B. 2. 497. H.^ Am. 461. 
Bab. 338. Lind. 273. 

J. coNGLOMERATUS. Common Rush. Fig. 1307. 

Leafless. Stems soft. Panicle lateral, dense, globose. Stamens 3. 
Moist ground ; abundant. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. Brownish, (f ) 
E. B. 1. 835. E. B. 2. 498. H. ^ Am. 459. Bab. 338. Lind. 273. 

J. EFFusus. Soft Rush. Fig. 1308. 

Leafless. Stems soft. Panicle lateral, loose, much branched. 
INIoist ground ; abundant. 2-4 ft. Perenn. July. Yellowish. (^) 
£".£.1.836. £'.£.2.499. H.^ Am. 459. Bab.338. Lind. 273. 

J. GLAucus. Hard Rush. Fig. 1309. 

Leafless. Stems rigid, glaucous, deeply striated. Panicle lateral, 
spreading. Moist ground. 1-3 ft. Perenn. Julv. Brownish. (|) 
£".£.1.665. £.£.2.500. H.^ Am. 460. Bab.'338. Lind. 273. 

J. FiLiFORMis. Thread Rush. Fig. 1310. 

Leafless. Stems very slender. Panicle below the middle of the 
stem. Sepals longer than the capsule. Lake shores in the North. 
1ft. Perenn. July. Green, (f) £.£.1.1175. £".£.2.501. 
H.^ Am. 460. Bab. 339. Lind.' 273. 

s2 



132 

J. Balticus. Baltic Rush. Fig. 1311. 

Leafless. Steins rigid. Panicle lateral, erect. Sepals as long as 
the capsule. Sandy shores. 1 ft. Perenn. July. Brown, (f) 
E. B. Supp. 2621. E. B. 2. 501*. H. ^ Am. 460. Bab. 339. Lind. 27 A. 

J. ACUTiFLORTJS. Shurp-Jlowered Rusk. Fig. 1312. 

Leaves compressed, jointed within. Stems leafy. Panicle branched 
dirhotomouply. Sepals bristle-pointed. Moist ground ; common. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. June and July. Greenish-brown. (|) E. B. 
1.238. £'.£.2.502. H.^Arn.46l. Bab.'Mi). Lind.27'5. 

J. LAMPROCARPUS. Jointed Rush. Fig. 1313. 

Leaves with internal divisions. Stems leafy, compressed. Panicle 
spreading. Sepals bordered, pointed, shorter than the capsule. Wet 
places. 1-1 1 ft. Perenn. July. Brown. (|) E. B. 1. 2143. 
E. B. 2. 503. H. ^ Arn. 462. Bab. 340. Lind, 2/5. 

J. NiGRiTELLtis. BlocJc-headed Jointed Rush. Fig. 1314. 

Stems leafy. Leaves with internal divisions, cylindrical. Clusters 
many-flowered. Sepals shorter than the capsule. Wet places in Scot- 
land. 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. Brown, (f ) E. B. Supp. 2643. E. B. 
2.503*. E.^Arn.46l. Bab. 341. Lind.276. 

J. OBTUSiFLORUS. Blunt-Jloioered Jointed Rusk. Fig. 1315. 

Stem and leaves cylindrical, with internal partitions. Panicles much 
branched, the branches reflexed . Sepals as long as the capsule. Marshes. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. Aug. Brown. (|) KB. 1.2144. E.B. 2. 504. 
H. ^ Arn. 462. Bab. 340. Lind. 2/6. 

J. uLiGiNOSUS. Small Jointed Rusk. Fig. 1316. 

Stem leafy, swollen at the base. Leaves channelled. Moist heaths. 
3-6 in. Perenn. June and July. Brown, (f) E. B. 1. 801. 
E. B. 2. 505. H. ^ Arn. 462. Bab. 341. Lind. 275. 

J. coMPRESsrs. Round-fruited Rusk. Fig. 1317. 

Stem erect, compressed, leafy below. Leaves linear, incurved at the 
edges. Marshes. 1 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Greenish. (|) 
E.B.I. 964. E.B. 2. 506. H. ^ Arn. 463. Bab. 341. Lind. 274. 

J. Gesneri. Slender Spreading Rztsk. Fig. 1318. 

Stem leafless. Leaves slightly channelled. Panicle dichotomous, 
shorter than the bracts. Highlands. 1 ft. Perenn. July. Brownish. 
(I) £".£.1.2174. E.B.2.507. H.^Arn.464. Bab. 342. Lind.274. 

J. BUFONius. Toad Rusk. Fig. 1319. 

Stem leafy. Leaves angular, filiform, channelled. Panicle forked. 

Flowers sohtary. Moist heaths ; common. 4-8 in. Ann. July and 

Aug. Greenish, (f) £.£.1.802. £.£.2.508. H.^ Arn. 464. 
Bab. 342. Lind.27'4. 

J. TRiFiDUS. Tkree-leaved Rush. Fig. 1320. 

Stem naked. Leaves few. Bracts 3, terminal, channelled. Flowers 
1 to 3. Alpine bogs. 4-6 in. Perenn. July. Brown. (^) £. £. 
1.1482. £.£.2.509. JI. ^- Arn. 463. Bab. 340. Lind.274. 



J^C^y /J6^/ ^<>' /J26^ 







133 

J. CASTANEus. Clustered Rush. Fig. 1321. 

Stem leafy, solitary, rounded. Leaves folded. Flowers in 1 to 3 
terminal heads. Mountain bogs ; rare. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. July. 
Brown, (f) E. B. 1. 900. E. B. 2. 510. H. ^ Arn. 463. 
Bab.2,'6^. Lind.275. 

J. sauARROsus. Moss Rush. Fig. 1323. 

Stems leafless. Leaves numerous, rigid, grooved. Panicle terminal, 
compound. Hill bogs; abundant. 6 in.-I ft. Perenn. June and 
July. Brown ; bracts light brown, (f) E.B.I. 933. E.B.2.5\l. 
H.^Arn. 464. Bub. 341. Lind. 27 A. 

J. CAPiTATUS. Dense-headed Rush. Fig. 1323. 

Stems erect, leafy at the base. Leaves channelled. Flowers in 1 or 2 

heads. Jersey. 6 in. Ann. May-July. Brown. (|) E. B. Supp, 

2644. £".^.2.511*. H.^Arn.46i. Bab. 340. Lind. 275. 

J. BiGLUMis. Two-Jlowered Rush. Fig. 1324. 

Stem erect, leafy at the base. Leaves linear, with sheathing bases. 
Flowers 2, terminal, surmounted by a leafy bract. Alpine rills. 2-4 in. 
Perenn. Aug. Brownish. (|) E. B. 1. 898. E. B. 2. 512. 
//. ^ Arn. 465. Bab. 339. Lind. 275. 

J, TRiGLUMis. Three-flowered Rush. Fig. 1325 

Stem erect, leafy below. Leaves linear, channelled. Head solitary 

of 1 to 3 flowers as long as the bracts. Mountain rills. 6-8 in. 

Perenn. JulyandAug. Brownish. (|) E.B.I. '699. E.B. 2.513. 

H.^ Arn. 465. Bab. 339. Lind. 275. 

Genus 3. Luzula. 

L. SYLVATiCA. Great Hairy-Rush. Fig. 1326. 

Panicle cymose ; peduncles elongated, about 3-flowered. Woods and 
hills. l|-2ft. Perenn. May and June. Brown, (f) E.B.I. 737. 
E. B. 2. 514. H. ^ Arn. 466. Bab. 342. Lind. 276. 

L. piLosA. Wood Hairy-Rush. Fig. 1327. 

Panicle cymose, reflexed ; peduncles 1 -flowered, reflexed. Sepals 
shorter than the capsule. Seed with a curved crest. Woods ; common. 
6 in.-l ft. Perenn. March-May. Brown. (§) E. B. 1. 736. 
E.B. 2. 515. H. ^ Arn. 466. Bab. 343. Lind. 2/6. 

L. FosTERi. Narrow-leaved Hairy-Rush. Fig. 1328. 

Panicle cymose, erect; peduncles 1 -flowered, upright. Sepals longer 
than the capsule. Seeds with a straight crest. Woods. 6-8 in. 
Perenn. May and June. Brown, (f) £".^.1.1293. E.B.2.5U. 
H. ^ Arn. 466. Bab. 342. Lind. 276. 

L. CAMPESTRis. Field Hairy-Rush. Fig. 1329. 

Panicle of 3 or 4 sessile or pedunculated clusters. Sepals longer than 
the capsule. Heaths and dry pastures ; common. 4-8 in. Perenn. 
April and May. Dark brown ; anthers yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 672. 
E. B. 2. 517. H.^ Arn. 467. Bab. 343. Lind. 276. 

L. ARCUATA. Curved Hairy-Rush. Fig. 1330. 

Leaves channelled, hairy. Panicle nearly umbellate, drooping. 
Summits of Highland mountains. 2-6 in. Perenn. July. Brown. 
(I) E. B. Supp. 2688. E. B. 2. 518*. H. ^^ Arn. 467. Bab. 34.3. 
Lind. 277- 



134 

L. spiCATA. Spiked Hairy-Rush. Fig. 133L 

Leaves recurved, somewhat channelled. Panicle spike-like, drooping. 

High mountains. 6-8 in. Perenn. July. Brown, (f) ii".^. 1.11/6. 

£. B. 2. 518. H. ^ Arn. 343. Lind. 277. 

Order XCVII. BUT0MACEJ3. 

Genus 1. Butomus. 

B. UMBELLATUS. Flowering Rush. Fig. 1332. 

Leaves linear, three-sided. Flowers in a large umbel. Ponds and 

Blow streams. 2-4 ft. Perenn. June and July. Pink or white, (f ) 

KB. 1. 651. E. B. 2. 579. H. ^ Arn. 469. Bab. 346. Lind. 272. 

Order XCVIII. ALISMACEJG. 
Genus 1. Actinocarpus. 

A. Damasonium. Star-fruit. Fig. 1333. 

Leaves floating, oblong-cordate. Capsules 6, in a star-like cluster. 
Pools. 6-8 in. Perenn. June and July. White. (|-) E.B.I. 1615. 
E. B. 2. 536. H. ^ Arn. 345. Bab. 345. Lind. 253. 
Genus 2. Alisma. 

A. Plantago. Water-Plantain. Fig. 1334. 

Leaves ovate or lanceolate, on long stalks. Flower-stalks in whorled 
panicles. Ditches. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Pale purple, (f ) E. B. 
1.837. E.B.2.537. H.^ Arn. 470. Bab. 345. Lind.253. 

A. NATANS. Floating Water-Plantain. Fig. 1335. 

Leaves elliptical, floating ; those at the rooting base linear, tapering. 
Flowers single, on long peduncles. Lakes ; local. 4-5 in. Perenn. 
July and Aug. White, with a yellow spot, (f) E. B.\. 775. 
E. B. 2. 539. H. ^ Arn. 470. Bab. 345. Lind. 253. 

A. RANUNCULOiDES. Lesser Water-Plantain. Fig. 1336. 

Leaves linear- lanceolate, sometimes floating. Flowers in umbels. 
Bogs and pools. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. Pale purple. 
(f) i^jB. 1.326. £".5.2.538. H.^Arn.470. Bab. 345. Lind. 253. 

A. REPENS. Creeping Water-Plantain. Fig. 1337. 

Procumbent. Leaves lanceolate, sometimes floating. Flowers on 
solitary peduncles. Pools in Wales. 6 in. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. 
Pale purple or white, (f) E. B. Supp. 2722. E. B. 2. 538*. 
H.^ Arn. 470. Bab. 345. Lind. 253. 

Genus 3. Sagittaria. 

S. SAGiTTiFOLiA. Arrow-head. Fig. 1338. 

Leaves arrow-shaped. Stalks triangular. Ditches and pools. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. July and Aug. White, with a purple spot. {^) E.B.I. 84. 
E.B.2.1318. H.^Arn.345. Bab. 471. Lind. 253. 

Order XCIX. JUNCAGINACE.iE. 

Genus 1. Triglochin. 

T. PALXJSTRE. Arrow-grass. Fig. 1339. 

Leaves linear, fleshy. Fruit linear, 3-celled. Boggy meadows. 
6-10 in. Perenn. Aug. Green. (^) i?. 5. 1.366. E.B. 2. 532. 
H. ^ Am. 472. Bab. 346. Lind. 252. 

T. MARiTiMUM. Sea-side Arrow-grass. Fig. 1340. 

Leaves linear, fleshy. Fruit ovate, 6-celled. Salt marshes and 
muddy shores. 6-10 in. Perenn. May-Aug. Green, (f) E.B. 
1.255. E.B. 2. 533. H.^ Arn. 472. Bab. 346. Lind. 252. 



V^^g-P V JPf I.: /3S3 







135 

Genus 2. Scheuchzeria. 

S. PALUSTRtS. Pig. 1341. 

Leaves semicylindrical. Flowers in a terminal raceme. Bogs ; rare. 
6 in. Perenn. July. Green, (f) ^. ^. 1. 1801. E. B. 2. b'dl. 
H.^ Am, 472. Bab. 346. Lind. 2'o2. 

Order C. TYPHACEJ3. 
Genus 1. Typha. 

T. LATiFOLTA. Bull-Tush. Caf s-tail. Fig. 1342. 

Leaves broad, linear. Flowers in a continuous spike. Pools. 4-6 ft. 
Perenn. July and Aug. Brown; sterile, yellow. (■!■) E.B.I. 1455. 
E J5. 2. 1 24 1 . H.^ Am. 473. Bab. 347. Lind. 247. 

T. ANGusTiFOLiA. Lesser Bull-rush. Fig. 1343. 

Leaves linear, narrow. Sterile and fertile catkins rather distant. 
Pools. 3-4 ft. Perenn. July. Brown ; sterile, yellow, (i) E. B. 
11456. ^.5.2.1242. ^.^^m.473. Bab. 347. Lind.247. 

T. MINOR. Dwarf Bull-rush. Fig. 1344. 

Leaves linear-setaceous, convex beneath. A doubtful native. 1-1 1 ft. 
Perenn. July. Brown ; sterile, yellow. (|) ^.5. 1.1457. E.B.2. 
1243. H.^ Am. 473. Bab. 346. Lind.247. 
Genus 2. Sparganium. 

S. RAMosuM. Branched Bur- Reed. Fig. 1345. 

Leaves long, linear, concave at the sides. Stem branched. Stigma 
linear. Ditches. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. Stamens yellow. (|) E. B. 
I. 744. E. B. 2. 1244. H. ^ Am. 474. Bab. 347. Lind. 247. 

S. SIMPLEX. Upright Bur-Reed. Fig. 1346. 

Leaves flat at the sides. Stem simple. Stigma linear. Ditches. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Stamens pale yellow, (f) E. B. 1. 745. 
E. B. 2. 1245. H. ^ Am. 474. Bab. 347. Lind. 247. 

S. NATANS. Floating Bur-Reed. Fig. 1347. 

Leaves floating, flat. Stem simple. Stigma ovate. Lakes. 6-10 in. 
Perenn. Julv and Aug. Stamens yellow. (|) E.B. 1.273. E.B. 
2. 1246. E.'^ Am. 474. Bab. 348. Lind. 248. 

Order CI. ARACEiE. 
Genus 1. Arum. 
A. MACTJLATUM. CucJcow-pint . Lords-and-Ladies. Fig. 1348. 

Leaves halberd-shaped, glossy, usually spotted. Spadix club-shaped. 
Hedges, banks, and thickets. Poisonous. 6-10 in. Perenn. May. 
Spathe greenish ; spadix purple. (|) E. B. 1. 1298. E. B. 2. 1319. 
H.^Arn.475. Bab. 348. Lind. 246. 

Order CII. ORONTIACEiE. 
Genus 1. Acorus. 
A. Calamus. Sweet-Flag. Fig. 1349. 

Leaves sword-shaped. Stem leaf-like. Flowers in a sessile spadix. 
Kiver-sides. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. Green. (|) E. B. 1. 356. 
E. B. 2. 495. H. ^ Am. 476. Bab. 348. Lind. 246. 

Order cm. PISTIACE^. 
Genus 1. Lemna. 
L. TRISULCA. Ivy-leaved Duckweed. Fig. 1350 

Fronds elliptic-lanceolate, linear at the base. Ditches and ponds. 
Ann. June and July. E.B.I. 926. E. B. 2. 33. H. ^ Am. 477. 
Bab. 349. Lind. 251. 



136 

L. MINOR. Small Duchioeed. Fig. 1351. 

Frond ovate, nearly flat. Hoot a single fibre. Ditches and ponds. 
Ann. June. £".^.1.1095. £'.5.2.34. IL^Arn.477. Bab. 349. 
Lind. 251. 

L. GiBBA. Thick-leaved Duckweed. Fig. 1352. 

Frond obovate, hemispherical beneath. Root of several fibres. Ponds 
and ditches. Ann. June. ^.5.1.1233. £.5.2.35. H.^Arn. 
477. Bab. 349. Lind, 252. 

L. POLYRHizA. Great Duckweed. Fig. 1353. 

Frond roundish-ovate, furrowed. Root with numerous fibres. Ponds. 
Ann. June. £.5.1.2458. £.5.2.36. H.^ Am. 477. Bab. 349. 
Lind. 251. 



Order CIV. NAIAD ACE^E. 

Genus 1 Potamogeton. 

P. NATANS. Broad-leaved Pond-weed. Fig. 1354. 

Upper leaves oblong-ovate, stalked, floating ; lower linear, sessile. 
Stipules large, free. Pools and streams. Perenn. July. Green. (|^) 
£.5.1.1822. £.5.2.236. H.^ Am. 4^4. Bab. 350. Lind. 250. 

P. PLANTAGINEUS. Plautain-leaved Pond-weed. Fig. 1355. 

Leaves membranous, reticulated, stalked ; upper ones elliptical ; 
lower oblong. Spike slender. Pools. Perenn. July. Green. (|) 
£. 5. Supp. 2848. H. ^ Am. 484. Bab. 350. 

P. HETEROPHYLLUS. Various-leavcd Pond-weed. Fig. 1356. 

Upper leaves on footstalks, floating, elliptical ; lower linear-lanceolate, 
sessile. Stipules small. Flower-stalks swelling upwards. Pools. 
Perenn. July. Green, (f) £.5.1.1285. £.5.2.237. H.^Am. 

482. Bab. 351. Lind. 250. 

P. RUFESCENS. Bed Pond-weed. Fig. 1357. 

Upper leaves elliptic-lanceolate, on footstalks, floating ; lower lanceo- 
late, nearly sessile. Stipules small. Plant reddish. Pools. Perenn. 
Aug. Brownish, (f). £. 5. 1. 1286. £. 5. 2. 238. H. ^ Am. 

483. Bab. 351. Lind. 250. 

P. LUCENS. Shining Pond-weed. Fig. 1358. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, submersed. Stipules large. Pools. Perenn. 
Aug. Green, (f) £.5.1.376. £.5.2.239. H. ^ Am. 4^2. 
Bab. 352. Lind. 250. 

P. LANCEOLATUS. Lanceolate Pond-weed, Fig. 1359. 

Leaves lanceolate ; upper ones sometimes floating. Spike ovate, 
dense, with few flowers. Stipules acute. Lakes. Perenn. Aug. Brown. 
(f) £. 5. 1. 1985. £. 5. 2. 240. H. ^ Am. 483. Bab. 351. Lind. 
250. 

P PERFOLiATXJS. Perfoliate Pond-weed. Fig. 1360. 

Leaves submersed, ovate, heart-shaped, stem-clasping. Stipules 
email. Ponds. Perenn. July and Aug. Brownish, (f) £.5.1.168. 
£. 5. 2. 241. H. ^ Am. 481. Bab. 352. Lind. 249. 



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137 

P. CRISPTJS. Curled Ponrf-ioeed. ^ Fig. 1361. 

Leaves submersed, lanceolate, serrated, waved at the margins. Pools 
and ditches. June and July. Greenish. (|) ^.jB. 1.1012. E.B.2. 
242. H.^Jrn. 481. Bab. 352. Lind. 249. 

P. OBLONGUS. Oblong-leaved Pond-weed. Fig. 1362. 

Leaves all stalked ; upper ones floating, oblong-elliptical ; lower 
linear-lanceolate. Spike cylindrical, on a cylindrical stalk. Ditches and 
pools. Perenn. July. Brown. (§) E. B. Supp.2849. H.^Arn. 
484. Bab. 350. Lind. 250. 

P. PR^LONGUS. Long-stalked Pond-weed. Fig. 1363. 

Leaves narrow-oblong, stem-clasping, obtuse and hooded at the end. 
Peduncles very long, cylindrical. Pools. Perenn. July. Brown. 
(D E.B.Supp.28b8. H.^ Am. 481. Bab. 352. Lind.334. 

P. coMPRESsus. Flat-stalked Pond-weed. Fig. 1364. 

Leaves linear, obtuse, 5-ribbed. Stem compressed. Ditches. Perenn. 
June and July. Brown, (f) E. B. 1. 418. E. B. 2. 243. //. ^ Am. 
480. Bab. 352. Lind. 249. 

P. GRAMiNEtrs. Grassy Pond-weed. Fig. 1365. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, obtuse, 3-ribbed. Stalk shorter than the 
stipules. Ditches. Perenn. July. Brownish, (f) £".5.1.2253. 
E.B. 2. 244. H. ^ Am. 480. Bab. 353. Lind. 249. 

P. pusiLLTJS. Small Pond-weed. Fig. 1366. 

Leaves linear, obtuse, 3-ribbed. Stalks much longer than the 
stipules. Ponds and ditches. Perenn. July. Brown, (f) E. B. 
1. 215. E. B. 2. 245. H. ^ Am. 480. Bab. 353. Lind. 249. 

P. ACUTiFOLitrs. Sharp-leaved Pond-weed. Fig. 1367. 

Leaves linear, 3-ribbed, with many parallel veins. Stem flat. 
Ditches. Perenn. July. Brown. (|) E. B. Supp. 2609. E. B. 
2.245*. H.^ Am. 481. Bab. 353. Lind. 333. 

P. zosTERiEFOiiius. Grass-wrack Pond-weed. Fig. 1368. 

Leaves broadly linear, 3-ribbed, with many parallel veins. Stalks 
swellmg upward. Stem flat. Ponds and lakes. Perenn. July. Brown. 
(I) E. B. Supp. 2685. E. B. 2. 245**. H. 8r Am. 481. Bab. 
352. Lind. 249. 

P. PECTiNATXJS. Fennel-leaved Pond-weed. Fig. 1369. 

Leaves bristle-shaped, sheathing. Stipules adnate. Spike inter- 
rupted. Green. (|) E.B.I. 323. E. B. 2. 246. H. ^ Am. 479. 
Bab. 354. Lind. 248. 

P. DENSUS. Close-leaved Pond-weed. Fig. 1370. 

Leaves ovate, opposite, crowded. Stipules wanting. Ditches and 
pools. June. Brown. (|) E.B. 1.397. E.B. 2. 247. H.^Arn. 
479. Bab. 354. Lind. 248. 

T 



138 

P. LONGiFOLTUS. Longleaved Pond-weed. Fig. 1371. 

Leaves elongate-lanceolate, narrowing below. Stipules winged. Pe- 
duncle very long, thickened upwards. Lakes. Pereun. Aug. Brown, 
(f ) E. B. Supp. 2847. H. ^ Am. 352. Bab. 482. 

Genus 2. Ruppia. 

R. MARITIMA. Pig. 1372. 

Leaves submersed, long, linear ; sheaths inflated. Salt ditches. 
Flower-stalks long, often spiral. Perenn. June and July. Green. 
(I) E. B. 1. 136. E.B. 2. 248. H. ^- Am. 485. Bab. 355. 
Lind. 251. 

Genus 3. Zannichellia. 

Z. PALUSTRis. Homed Pond-weed. Fig. 1373. 

Leaves grass-like. Flowers axillary, monoecious. Ditches. Ann. 
Aug. Greenish. (|) E. B. 1. 1844. E. B. 2. 1240. H. ^ Am. 
486. Bab. 355. Lind. 251. 

Genus 4. Zostera. 
Z. MARINA. Grass-wrack. Fig. 1374, 

Plant submersed. Leaves grass-like. Shallow bays and salt ditches. 

Perenn. Aug. (|) ^.^.1.467. E. B. 2. 4. H.^ Am. 487. Bab. 

356. Lind. 251. 

Order CV. CYPERACEiE. 

Genus 1. Cyperus. 

C. LONGUS. Sweet Cyperus. Fig. 1375. 

Stem triangular. Umbel leafy, twice compound. Bogs ; rare. 
2-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Brown. (4) E. B. 1. 1309. 
E. B. 2. 55. H. ^ Am. 489. Bab. 357. Lind' 279. 

C. Fuscijs. Brown Cyperus. Fig. 1376. 

Stem triangular. Umbel compound. Involucrum of three leaves. 
Bogs ; rare. 4-6 in. Ann. July. (|) E. B. Supp. 2626. E. B. 2. 
55*. H. ^ Am. 489. Bab. 357. Lind. 279. 

Genus 2. Schobnus. 
S. NIGRICANS. Black Bog-rush. Fig. 1377. 

Stem round, naked. Flowers in roundish heads between two leaves. 
Leaves setaceous. Bogs. 8 in. Perenn. July. Brown. (|) E. B. 

1. 1121. ^. ^. 2. 50. H.^Am. 490. Bab. 358. Lind. 280. 

S. coMPRESsus. Compressed Bog-rush. Fig. 1378. 

Stem roundish. Spikes 2-ranked, many-flowered. Leaves flat, 

rough. 1ft. Perenn. July. Brown. (§) ^.£.1.791. E.B. 

2. 51. H.^ Am. 491. Bab. 362. Lind. 280. 

S. RUFUS. Brown Bog-rush. Fig. 1379. 

Stem round. Spikes 2-ranked, few-flowered. Leaves channelled, 
smooth. 8-10 in. Perenn. July. Brown. (|) E. B. 1. 1010. 
E. B. 2. 52. H. ^ Arn. 362. Bab. 491. Lind. 280. 

Genus 3. Cladium. 

C. MARiscus. Twig-rush. Fig. 1380. 

Panicle repeatedly compound, leafy. Stem round, leafy. Leaves 
prickly on the edges and keel. Bogs. 3-4 ft. Perenn. July and 
Aug. Brown. (|) £".^.1.950. ^.^.2.49. //. t^ ^rn. 490. 
Bab. 358. Lind. 283. 



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69 



139 

Genus 4. Rhynchospora. 

R. ALBA, White Beak-rush. Fig. 1381. 

Flower-heads equal to the floral leaves. Leaves tapering. Bogs; 
rare. 6-10 in. Perenn. July. Pale brown. (^) E. B. 1. 985. 
E. B. 2. 53. H. ^ Am. 490. Bab. 358. Lind. 2/9. 

R. FUSCA. Brown Beak-rush. Pig. 1382. 

Floral leaves longer than the spikes. Leaves thread-shaped. Bogs; 
rare. 6-8 in. Perenn. July. Brown. (|) ^.5.1.1575. E.B. 
2.54. H.^Arn.An. Bab. 358. Lind. 279. 

Genus 5. Eleocharis. 

E. PALtJSTRis. Creeping Spike-rush. Fig. 1383. 

Stem round. Root creeping. Stigmas 2. Fruit lenticular. Ditches 
and bogs. 4-8 in. Perenn. June and July. Brown. (|) E. B. 
1.13L E.B. 2. 56. H. ^ Am. 492. Bab. 358. Lind. 280. 

E. MULTiCAULTS. Many-stttlked Spike-rush. Fig. 1384. 

Stem round. Stigmas 3. Fruit acutely triangular. 6-8 in. Perenn. 

June. Brown, (f) i?.^. 1.1187. E.B. 2. 57. H. ^ Am. 492. 
Bab. 359. Lind. 280. 

E. c^spiTOSA. Scaly Spike-rush. Fig. 1385. 

Stem round, sheathed and scaly at the base. Outer glumes as long 
as the spike. Mountains and heaths. 2-5 in. Perenn. July. Brown, 
(f) £'.^.1.1029. E.B. 2.58. H.^Arn.497. Bab.359. Lind.28\. 

E. PAUciFLOE\i. Chocolate Spike-rush. Fig. 1386. 

Stem round. Spike few-flowered, longer than its outer glumes. 
Moors. 6-8 in. Perenn. Julv and Aug. Brown, (f) £".5.1.1122. 
E.B. 2. 59. H.^- Am. 496.' Bab.359. Lind. 281. 

E. ACicuLARis. Least Spike-rush. Fig. 1387. 

Stems very slender, 4-angled, sheathed at the base. Wet places. 

2-5 in. Perenn. Aug. Brown. (|) E. B. \. 749. E.B. 2.60. 
H.^ Am. 493. Bab.359. Lind. 280. 

Genus 6. Eleogiton. 

E. FLUiTANS. Floating Water-rush. Fig. 1388. 

Flowering stalks alternate, round, naked. Stem branched, leafy. 
Leaves partlv floating. Pools. Perenn. June and July. Brownish-green. 
(?^) E.B. l". 216. E.B. 2.6\. H.^-Arn.493. Bab. 361. Lind.283. 

Genus 7. Scirpus. 

S. LACUSTRis. Bull-rush. Great Club-rush. Fig. 1389. 

Stem round. Panicle cymose, twice compound, terminal ; spikes 
ovate. Ditches and pools. 6-8 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Brown, 
(f) E.B. I. 666. E.B. 2. 62. H.^ Am. 494. Bab. 360. Lind. 281. 

S. GLATJCUS. Glaucous Club-rush. Fig. 1390. 

Panicle rather dense. Bracts long. Leaves glaucous. A variety of 
lacustris. Pools. 2-4 ft. Perenn. July. Brown, (f) E.B.I. 2321, 
E.B. 2. 62*. H.^ Am. 495. Bab.36\. Lind. 281. 

T 2 



140 

S. HoLOSCH(ENUS. Round-headecl Club-rush. Pig. 1391. 

Stem round, naked. Flowers in globular heads. Sea-shores. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. Oct. Brown, (f) E.B.\.\^\2. E.B.2.63. H.^ Am. 
494. Bab. 362. Lind. 283. 

S. SETACEUS. Least Club-rush. Fig. 1392. 

Stem bristle-shaped. Spikes about 2, sessile, terminal, shorter than 
the bracts. Watery places. 6 in. Perenn. July-Sept. Brown, (f) 
E.B.I. 1693. E. B. 2. 64. H. ^Arn. 494. Bab. 362. Lind. 283. 

S. Savii. Savi's Club-rush. Fig. 1393. 

Stem round, leafy below. Spikes terminal, 1-3, shorter than the 
bracts. Bogs. 6 in. Perenn. July. Brown. (|) E. B. Supp. 
2782. H.^Arn. 494. Bab. 362. 

S, TRiQUETER. Triangular Club-rush. Fig. 1394. 

Stem triangular, naked, sharp-pointed. Spikes lateral. Stigmas 2. 
River-banks. 3 ft. Perenn. Aug. Brown. (|) E. B. I. 1694. 
E. B. 2. 65. H.^Arn. 495. Bab. 360. Lind. 281. 

S. CARiNATus. Blunt Club-rush. Fig. 1395. 

Stem bluntly triangular, round at the base. Leaves absent. Panicle 
cymose, terminal. Stigmas 2. River-banks. 3 ft. Perenn. Aug. 
Brown. (I) E.B.X.i 983. E.B.2.66. H.^ Am. 495. Bab. 360. 
Lind. 281. 

S. PUNGENS. Sharp Club-rush. Fig. 1396. 

Stem sharply triangular. Spikes sessile, lateral. Glumes with 
pointed lobes. Ponds ; Jersey. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. June and July. 
Brown, (f) E. B. Supp. 2^19. H.^ Am. 495. Bab. 360. Lind. 337. 

S. MARiTiMtrs. Sea Club-rush. Fig. 1397. 

Stem triangular. Panicle leafy, terminal. Glumes pointed, in 3 
segments. Sea-shores. 1-3 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Brown. (|) 
E. B. 1. 542. E. B. 2. 67. H.^Arn. 496. Bab. 359. Lind. 281. 

S. SYLVATicus. Wood Club-rush. Fig. 1398. 

Stem triangular, leafy. Cyme leafy, terminal, much divided. Spikes 
clustered. Glumes entire. Woods. 3 ft. Perenn. July. Brown, (f) 
E.B.1.9\9. E. B. 2. 68. H. ^ Am. 496. Bab. 360. Lind. 281. 



Genus 8. Eriophorum. 

E. VAGiNATUM. Hare's-tail Cotton-grass. Fig. 1399. 

Spike solitary, ovate. Stem triangular above, with a swelling sheath 
below. Glumes membranous. Moors. 6-8 in. Perenn. May. 
Brownish ; hairs white. (|) E.B.I. 873. E. B. 2. 69. H. ^ Am. 
497. Bab. 363. Lind. 282. 

E. CAPiTATUM. Round-headed Cotton-grass. Fig. 1400. 

Spike solitary, roundish. Stem round, with a swelling sheath. 
Glumes membranous. Mountains. 6-8 in. Perenn. June. Greenish; 
hairs white. Q) E.B.I. 23S7. E.B.2.70. H. ^ Am. 498. Bab, 
;^63. Lind.282* 



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141 

E. ALPiNUM. Alpine Cotton-grass. Fig. 1401. 

Spike solitary, oblong-ovate. Stem slender, naked, angular. Leaves 
short. Glumes strongly keeled. Mountain bogs ; rare. 6 in. Perenn. 
May. Brownish; hairs white. (|) ^. ii. 1. 311. E. B.2. 7U 
H. ^ Am. 497. Bab. 363. Lind. 282. 

E. POLYSTACHION. Broad-leaved Cotton-grass. Fig. 1402. 

Spikes several. Stems round. Leaves flat, with a triangular point. 
Bogs. Sin. Perenn. May. (f) Brown ; hairs white. E.B.I. b(>6. 
E. B. 2. 72. H. 8f Am. 498. Bab. 303. 

E. ANGUSTiFOLiuM. Common Cotton-grass. Fig. 1403. 

Spikes many. Stem nearly round. Leaves Unear, channelled. Bogs; 
abundant. 8-9 in. Perenn. May. Brown ; hairs white. (|) E.B.I. 
364. E. B. 2. 73. H. ^- Am. 498. Bab. 363. Lind. 282. 

E. GRACiLE. Slender Cotton-grass. Fig. 1404. 

Spikes many. Leaves triangular. A variety of angustifolium. 
Mountains. 6-8 in. Perenn. May-Julv. Brown ; hairs white. (|) 
E. B. 1. 2402. E.B. 2. 74. ^.^^m.498. Bab. 363. Lind. 282. 

Genus 9. Elyna. 

E. cARiciNA. Fig. 1405. 

Spikes crowded. Leaves slender, shorter than the stem. Moors. 
6-8 in. Perenn. Aug. Brown, (f) £".^.1.1410. ^.^.2.1303. 
H.^ Am. 499. Bab. 364. Lind.2S4. 

Genus 10. Carex, 

C. DioicA. Creeping Sedge. Fig. 1406. 

Base creeping. Stem and leaves nearly smooth. Spike simple, di- 
oecious. Fruit ovate, rough at the margin. Bogs. 5-6 in. Perenn. 
May. Brown. (|) £".^.1.543. ^.5.2.1247. H.^ Am. 500. 
Bab. 364. Lind. 284. 

C. Davalliana. Prickly Sedge. Fig. 1407. 

Root tufted. Stem and leaves rough. Spike simple, dioecious. 
Fruit ovate-lanceolate. Bogs; rare. 6 in.- 1 ft. Perenn. June. 
Brown, (f) ^.£.1.2123. .&.^. 2. 1248. H.^ Am. bOO. Bab. 
364. Lind. 284. 

C. PULiCARis. Flea Sedge. Fig, 1408. 

Spike simple ; upper half with barren, the lower with fertile flowers. 
Fruit smooth and polished. Bogs. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. May and 
June. Brown. (|) E. B. 1. 1051. E.B. 2. 1249. H. ^ Am. 500, 
Bab. 364. Lind. 284. 

C. iNCURVA. Curved Sedge. Fig. 1409. 

Stem smooth, bluntly angular. Leaves channelled. Spikelets in a 
roundish head, sterile at the end. Fruit broadly ovate. Sea-shores. 
3-4 in. Pererm. June. Brown. (|) E.B. 1.927. E.B. 2. 1250. 
H.^ Am. 501. Bab. 365. Lind. 285. 

C. ARENARiA. Sea Sedge. Fig. 1410. 

Roots creeping. Stem triangular. Leaves flat. Spikelets crowded ; 
the lower fertile, upper barren. Fruit with a membranaceous wing. 
Sandy shores. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. June. Fertile green ; barren brown, 
(f) E. B. 1. 928. E. B. 2. 1251. H. ^^ Am. 505. Bab. 366. 
Lind. 285. 



142 

C. INTERMEDIA. Soft Brown Sedge. Fig. 1411. 

Stem triangular. Leaves flat, Spikeleta in an oblong dense head. 
Fruit acutely margined, longer than the scale. Marshes. 1-1^ ft, 
Perenn. June, Brownish, (f) E. B. 1. 2042. E. B. 2, 1252. 
H.^Arn. 506, Bab. 365. Lind. 286. 

C. DiviSA, Marsh Sedge. Fig. 1412. 

Base creeping. Spikelets few, chiefly in a dense head ; the lowest 
solitary, with a bract at its base ; barren at the end. Marshes. 1 ft. 
Perenn. May. Brownish, (f) E. B. 1. 1096. E. B. 2. 1253. 
H.^Arn. 506. Bab. 365. Lind. 286. 

C. M URIC AT A. Greater Prickly Sedge. Fig. 1413. 

Spike oblong, of 4-6 spikelets. Fruit ovate, pointed, spreading. 
Moist pastures. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May. Brownish, (f) E.B.I. 
1097. £".£.2.1254. H.^ Am. 505. Bab.S66. Lind.2S6. 

C. DivuLSA. Grey Sedge. Fig. 1414. 

Spike elongated, lax. Spikelets 5 or 6, the lower somewhat distant. 
Fruit ovate, rough at the point. 1 ft. Perenn. May. Greenish. 
(I) E.B.I. 629. E.B. 2.1255. H.^ Am. 505. Bab. 366. Lind.286. 

C. VULPINA. Great Rough Sedge. Fig. 1415. 

Stem acutely triangular. Leaves broad. Spike crowded, cylindrical. 
Fruit ovate, pointed, spreading. Meadows. 2 feet. Perenn. June. 
Greenish. (|) j^-.^. 1.307. E.B. 2. 1256. H.^ Am. 505. Bab. 
366. Lind. 286. 

C. TERETiuscuLA. Smaller Panicled Sedge. Fig. 1416. 

Stem roundish. Leaves narrow. Spike dense, oblong. Fruit with 
a notched, serrated beak. 2 ft. Perenn. May and June. Brown, 
(f) E. B. 1. 1065. E. B. 2. 1257. H. ^ Am. 504. Bab. 367. 
Lind. 286. 

C. PANicuLATA. Greater Panicled Sedge. Fig. 1417. 

Stem acutely triangular. Leaves broad. Spikelets forming a panicle. 
Fruit with a slightly cloven beak. 3-5 ft. Perenn. June. Brown. 
(I) E. B. \. 1064. E. B. 2. 1258. H. ^ Am. 503. Bab. 367. 
Lind. 286. 

C. STELLtJLATA. Star-headed Sedge. Fig. 1418. 

Spikelets few, rather distant, sterile at the base. Fruit ovate, acute, 
much attenuated, spreading. Marshes. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. May 
and June. Yellowish. (|) E.B.]. 806. E.B. 2. 1259. H.^Arn. 
501. Bab. 368. Lind. 284. 

C. LEPORiNA. Hare's-foot Sedge. Fig. 1419. 

Spikelets ovate, 3 or 4 together. Fruit elliptical, beaked, scarcely 
longer than the scale. Highlands. 4-8 in. Perenn. July. Brown. 
(f) E.B.Supp. 2815. E.B. 2.1259*. H. ^ Am. 502. Bab. 369. 
Lind. 338. 

C. cxjRTA. White Sedge. Fig. 1420. 

Spikelets 5-7, rather distant. Involucral bracts mmute. Fruit 
broadly ovate, smooth, as long as the scale. Bogs. 1 ft. Perenn. 
June, (f) E.B.I. 1386. E.B. 2. 1260. H. i^- Am. 501. Bab. 
369. Lind. 285. 



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V7 



143 

C. ELONGATA. Elongated Sedge. Fig. 1421. 

Spikelets numerous, oblong, lax, rather distant. Involucral bracts 
minute. Fruit ovate-oblong, longer than the scales. Marshes. 1-1 1 ft. 
Perenn. June. Brownish. (|) £'.5.1.1920. E.B.2.VHS\. 
H. ^ Am. 502. Bah. 3ti9. Lind. 285. 

C. ovALis. Oval Sedge. Fig. 1423. 

Spikelets in an oval head. Fruit ovate, pointed, with a broad mem- 
branous margin. Marshes. 1 ft. Perenn. June. Greenish, (g) 
E.B. 1. 306. E. B. 2. 1262. H.^Arn. 501. Bab. 369. Lind. 
285. 

C. REMOTA. Remote-flowered Sedge. Fig. 1423. 

Spikelets nearly sessile, solitary, very distant. Bracts leafy, higher 
than the stem. Fruit oblong-ovate, longer than the scale. Moist 
woods. 1-1^ ft. Perenn. June. Green. (|) £'.5.1.832. 
E. B. 2. 1263. H. ^ Am. 502. Bab. 368. Lind. 285. 

C. AXILLARIS. Axillary-clustered Sedge. Fig. 1424. 

Lower spikelets in distant clusters. Bracts leafy ; the lowermost as 
long as the spike. Marshes. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June. Green, (f ) 
E.B.I. 993. E. B. 2. 1264. H.^Arn. 503. Bab. 368. Lind. 
285. 

C. PULLA. Russet Sedge. Fig. 1425. 

Spikes ovate, obtuse, the lower fertile one stalked. Bracts leafy, 
not sheathing. Fruit elliptical, inflated, spreading. Mountain bogs. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. June. Brown, (f) E. B. 1. 2045. E. B. 2. 
1265. H.^Arn.5\0. Bab. 379. Lind. 2S9. 

C. c^spiTOSA. Bog Sedge. Fig. 1426. 

Leaves erect, linear. Bracts leafy, auricled at the base. Fertile 
spikes sessile, cylindrical, obtuse. Marshes. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. 
May and June. Dark purple. (§) £". J5. 1. 1507. £'.5.2.1266. 
H.^ Am. 509. Bab. 370. Lind. 291. 

C. RiGiDA. Rigid Sedge. Fig. 1427. 

Leaves rigid, broadly linear. Bracts leafy, auricled at the base. 
Fertile spikes subcyliudrical, obtuse, the lowest stalked. Mountains. 
3-6 in. Perenn. June and July. Brown. (|) E. B. I. 2047. 
E. B. 2. 1267. H. ^ Am. 508. Bab. 371. Lind. 290. 

C. STRiCTA. Glaucous Sedge. Fig. 1428. 

Leaves erect, glaucous, reticulated with filaments at the base. Fertile 
spikes nearly sessile, erect, cylindrical, elongated. Marshes. 2 ft. 
Perenn. April and May. Dark brown, (f) ^.5.1.914. E.B. 2. 
1268. H.!^Arn.b09. Bab. 370. Lind. 291. 

C. AauATiLis. Straight-leaved Mountain Sedge. Fig. 1429. 

Stem smooth, obtusely triangular. Bracteal leaves very long. Fertile 
spikes nearly sessile, linear, elongated, attenuated below. Marshes in 
Scotland. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Dark brown, (f ) E. B. 
Suj)p.275S. E.B. 2. 1268*. H.^Arn. 508. Bab. 371. Lind. 339. 

C. ACUTA. Slender-spiked Sedge. Fig. 1430. 

Stem sharply triangular. Bracts very long. Spikes cylindrical, acu- 
minate, slender, drooping when in flower. Marshes. 2-3 ft. Perenn. 
May. Purplish, (f) £'.5.1.580. £".5.2.1269. H.^- Am. 509. 
Bab. 370. Lind. 291. 



144 

C. PAUCIFLORA. Few-flowered Sedge. Fig. 1431. 

Spike simple, of few flowers; the up[)ermost barren. Fruit rather 
longer than the scale. Peaty moors. 3-6 in. Perenn. June. Brownish. 
(I) E. B. 1. 2041. E. B. 2. 1270. H. ^ Am. 500. Bab. 36.5. 
Lind. 284. 

C. RUPESTRis. Bock Sedge. Fig. 1432. 

Spike linear, with a few lax fertile flowers at the base. Fruit obovate, 
triquetrous. Rocks in Scotland. 3-9 in. Perenn. Aug. Brown. 
(I) E.B.Supp.2SU. E.B.2.\270*. H. ^ Am. bOO. Bab. 365. 
Lind. 338. 

C. DiGiTATA. Fingered Sedge. Fig. 1433. 

Leaves plane. Bracts membranaceous, sheathing. Spikes linear, 
lax, erect, approximated ; fertile ones 2 or 3, longer than the barren. 
Woods. 6-8 in. Perenn. May. Brownish. (|) E. B. I. 615. 
E.B.2.1271. H.^Arn.5\7. Bab. 374. Lind. 287. 

C. CLANDESTiNA. Bwarf SHvery Sedge. Fig. 1434. 

Leaves channelled. Bracts membranaceous, sheathing. Fertile 
spikes distant, few-flowered, nearly covered by the sheaths. Near Bristol. 
1-2 in. Perenn. May. Brown, (f) E.B.I. 2124, E.B.2.1272. 
H. ^ Am. 517. Bab. 374. Lind. 287. 

C. PENDULA. Pendulous Sedge. Fig. 1435. 

Sheaths nearly equal to the flower-stalks. Spikes very long, cylin- 
drical, drooping. Moist woods, 3-6 ft. Perenn. May and June. 
Fertile greenish; barren brown. (|) £". J5. I. 2315. E.B.2.1273. 
H.^Arn.5l6. Bab. 374. Lind. 287. 

C. STRiGOSA. Loose Pendulous Sedge. Fig. 1436. 

Sheaths nearly as long as the stalks. Spikes very slender, nearly 
erect. Woods. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May and June. Green. (|) 
.^.^.1.994. E.B.2.\274. H.^Arn.5\6. Bab. 374. Lind. 287. 

C. SYLVATiCA. Pendulous Wood Sedge. Fig. 1437. 

Sheaths not half the length of the stalks. Spikes slender, lax, droop- 
ing. Moist woods ; common. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May and June. 
Brownish. (|) E. B. I. 995. E. B. 2. 1275. H. ^ Am. 516. 
Bab. 378. Lind. 287. 

C. DEPAUPERATA. Starved Sedge. Fig. 1438. 

Sheaths much shorter than the stalks. Spikes erect ; fertile ones 
distant, few-flowered. Drv woods. 1-1 ^ ft. Perenn. May and June. 
Brown. (|) £'.^. 1.1098. ^.5.2.1276. H.^'Arn.5\3. Bab. 
378. Lind. 287. 

C. MiELiCHOFERi. Loose-spiked Rock Sedge. Fig. 1439. 

Sheaths not half as long as the stalks. Fertile spikes few-flowered, 
lax, drooping. Mountains. 2-6 in. Perenn. June and July. Brown. 
(I) E. B. 1. 2293. E. B. 2. 1277. H. ^ Am. 513. Bab. 373. 
Lind. 287. 

C. CAPiLLARis. Dwarf Sedge. Fig. 1440. 

Sheath shorter than the stalks. Fertile spikes lax, drooping, few- 
flowered. Mountains. 2-6 in. Perenn. June and July. Brown ; 
fruit dark browu. (f) E.B.I. 2069. E. B. 2. 1278. * H. ^ Arn. 
514. Bab. 374. Lind. 288. 



M^ /42/ /.^ /4///?. 




' •! E •> iva-^- /eat, 

72 



145 

C. LiMOSA. Mud Sedge. Fig. 1441. 

Sheaths very short. Fertile spikes oblong-ovate, dense, pendulous. 
Scales as long as the fruit. Muddy bogs. 8-10 in. Perenn. June. 
Brown, (f) J?. -B. 1. 2043. E.B.2.1279. H.^ Am. 514. Bab. 
373. Lind. 288. 

C. RARiFLORA. Loosc-jlowered Sedge. Fig. 1442. 

Sheaths nearly wanting. Fertile spikes narrow-oblong, few-flowered, 
pendulous. Scales longer than the fruit. 5-6 in. Perenn. June. 
Dark brown. (|) ii". ^. 1. 2516. £". JS. 2. 1280. fi^. ^^rn. 514. 
Bab. 373. Lind. 288. 

C. Pseudo-Cyperus. Cyperus Sedge. Fig. 1443. 

Sheaths nearly absent. Fertile spikes dense, cylindrical, pendulous, 
on very long stalks. Scales setaceous. Moist places. 2-3 ft. Perenn. 
June. Fertile green; barren brown. (|) £".£.1.242. E.B.2. 
1281. H.^Arn.bU. Bab.379. Lind 288. 

C. usTULATA. Scorched Sedge. Fig. 1444. 

Sheaths shorter than the stalks. Fertile spikes oval, pendulous. 

Fruit elliptical, compressed. Highlands. 8 in. Perenn. July. 

Dark brown, (f) jE". JS. 1. 2404. E.B. 2. \282. H.^Arn.olo. 
Bab. 376. Lind. 288. 

C. ATRATA. Black Sedge. Fig. 1445. 

Sheaths nearly absent. Spikes ovate, rather pendulous ; the ter- 
minal one sterile at the base. Mountains. 1 ft. Perenn. June and 
July. Dark purple, (f) ^.£.1.2044. ^.£.2.1283. H.^Arn. 
507. Bab. 372. Lind. 289. 

C. Vahlii. Close-headed Mountain Sedge. Fig. 1446. 

Sheath nearly absent. Spikes three or four, roundish or oblong, close 
together ; the terminal barren at the base. Rocks. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. 
Aug. and Sept. Dark brown. (|) E. B. Supp. 2666. E. B. 2. 
1283*. H.^Arn.506. Bab. 372. Lind. 338. 

C. PALLESCENS. Pale Sedge. Fig. 1447. 

Sheaths very short. Fertile spikes pedunculated, oblong-cylindrical, 
pendulous in fruit. Marshes. 1-1 ^ ft. Perenn. June. Fertile 
green; barren brown. (|) ^.5.1.2185. ^.£.2.1284. H. ^ 
Am. 514. Bab. 372. Lind. 289. 

C. FLAVA. Yellow Sedge. Fig. 1448. 

Sheaths short, about equal to the stalks. Fertile spikes roundish- 
oval. Beak of fruit curved. Turfy bogs. 4 in.-l ft. Perenn. June. 
Brownish, (f) E.B.I. \2\)A. E.B. 2. 1285. H.^Am. 511. 
Bab. 376. Lind. 289. 

C. (Ederi. Fig. 1449. 

Sheaths short. Beak of the fruit straight. A variety oi flava. 
Moist heaths. 4 in.-l ft. Perenn. June. Brownish. (|) E. B. 
1. 1773. E.B. 2. 1286. H.^-Am. 511. Bab. 54. Lind. 289. 

C. FULVA. Tawny Sedge. Fig. 145(X 

Sheaths shorter than the stalks. Fertile spikes ovate, distant, erect. 
Boggy meadows. 1 ft. Perenn. June. Tawny brown. (§) E. B, 
1.1295. E.B. 2. 1287. II. ^ Am. 511. Bab. 377. Lind. 280. 

V 



146 

C. 8PEIROSTACHYA. Short-spiked Sedge. Pig. 145L 

Sheaths about half as long as the stalks. Fertile spikes mostly 
three, erect, ovate, distant. Bogs. 1 ft. Perenn. Julv and Aug. 
Brown. (I) E. Ji. Supp. 2770. E. B. 2. 1287*. //. '^ Am. 511. 
Bab. '.Ml. Lind. 288. 

C. EXTKNSA. Long-bracteated Sedge. Fig. 1452. 

Sheaths as long as the stalks. Bracts leafy, very long and spread- 
ing. Fertile S[)ike3 roundish-ovate, nearly sessile, erect. Marshes. 
4 in.-l ft. Perenn. June. Fertile greenish; barren brown. {^) 
E. B. 1. 8;i3. E. B. 2. 1288. H. ^- Arn. 510. Bab. 377. Lind. 289. 

(1. DiSTANS. Distant-spiked Sedge. Fig. 1453. 

Stems smooth. Sheaths very long, nearly equal to the stalks. 
Fertile spikes oblong, very remote. Marshes. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June. 
Brown, (f) E.B.l.\2dA. E.B. 2. \2S9. H.^yArn.olL Bab. 
377. Lind. 289. 

C. BiNERVis. Green-ribbed Sedge. Fig. 1454. 

Stem smooth. Sheaths elongated, shorter than the stalks. Fertile 
ppikes cylindrical, remote ; sometimes compound. Dry heaths. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. June. Brown. {^) E.B. \. 1235. E.B. 2. 1290. H.^ 
Arn. 512. Bab. 378. Lind. 289. 

C. PRECOX. Vernal Sedge. Fig. 1455. 

Stalks very short ; sheaths equal in length. Spikes cval-oblong. 
Dry heaths and pastures. 3 in.-l ft. Perenn. April and May. 
Paie brown. (§) E. B. 1. 1099. E. B. 2. 1291. H. ^- Arn. 518. 
Bab. 375. Lind. 290. 

C. piLULiFERA. Round-headed Sedge. Fig. 1456. 

Sheaths absent. Fertile spikes sessile, clustered, roundish. Heaths 
and moors. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. June. Brown. (|) £".5.1.885. 
E. B. 2. 1292. H. ^ Arn. 518. Bab. 375. Lind. 290. 

C. TOMENTOSA. Downy-fruitcd Sedge. Fig. 1457. 

Sheaths minute. Fertile spikes nearly sessile, cylindrical, obtuse. 
Fruit globose, densely downy. Meadows ; rare. I ft. Perenn. June. 
Brown. (§) i?. £. 1. 2046. ^.i?.2. 1293. If. ^^rn. 518. Bab. 

375. Lind. 290. 

C. PANiCEA. Pink-leaved Sedge. Fig. 1458. 

Base creeping. Sheaths about half as long as the stalks. Fertile 
spikes subc)'lindrical; the flowers rather distant. Bogs and meadows. 
1-1^ ft. Perenn. June. Greenish-brown, (f) E. B.\. \5\)5. 
E.B. 2. 1294. IL^Arn. 513. Bab. 372. Lind. 290. 

C. PH.EOSTACHYA. Short Brown-spiked Sedge. Fig. 1459. 

Sheaths shorter than the stalks. Fertile spikes two, distant, eiect, 
oval. Scales of barren spike pointed, of the fertile obtuse. Moun- 
tains. 5-6 in. Perenn. July. Brownish. (|) E. B.Supp.273\. 
E. B. 2. 1294*. 11.^ Arn. 513. Bab. 373. 

C. RECURVA. Glaucous Heath Sedge. Fig. 1460. 

Creeping at the base. Sheaths very short. Fertile spikes cylin- 
drical, dense, slightly drooping, on long slender stalks. Leaves short, 
glaucous. Woods and pastures. 6 in.-l ft. Perenn. June. Blackish- 
green. (I) ff.JJ. 1.1506. E.B.2.\295. H.^Arn.o\7. Bab, 

376. Liitd. 290. 



.^My?/ /^4/,^,- /4^0. 



/M4. 




'73 



147 

C. STICTOCARPA. Dotted-fruitcd Sedge. Fig. 1461. 

Fertile spikes subovate. Fruit with minute brown spots. A variety 
of recurv a. I ft. Perenn. June. Brown. (|) E. B. Svpp.2772. 
£. B. 2. 1295**. //. ^'Jrn. 517. Bab. 3/6. Lind. 339. 

C. PALUDOSA. River Sedcje. Fig. 1462. 

Slieaths absent. Spikes cylindrical, obtuse, erect. Fruit oblong- 
ovate. Leaves broad, rough, strongly keeled. Ixiver-sides. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. May. Dark brown. (|) E.BA.807. E. B. 2. 1296. 
H.^Ani.b2Q. Bab.'iSQ. Li7id. 291. 

C. RiPARiA. Great River Sedge. Fig. 1463. 

Stem sharply triangular, rough. Sheaths absent. Spikes broadly 
cylindrical, acute, erect. River-sides and ditches. 2-3 ft. Perenn. 
May. Fertile greenish ; barren brown. (|^) E.B.I. 579. E.B.2. 
1297. H.^Jrn.52l. Bab. 380. Lind. 291. 

C. LAEVIGATA. Smooth-beaked Sedge. Fig- 1464. 

Sheaths elongated, shorter than the stalks. Spikes cylindrical ; the 
fertile ones drooping. Beak of fruit very long. Boggy woods. 2-3 ft. 
Perenn. June. Fertile greenish ; barren brown, (f) £". jB. 1. 1387. 
E. B. 2. 1298. H. ^'Arn.b\3. Bab. 3/8. Lind. 291. 

C. VESicARiA. Short-spiked BJadder Sedge. Fig. 1465. 

Sheaths none. Fertile spikes cylindrical, slightly drooping, on very 
short stalks. Marshes. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May and June. Brown. (^) 
JS'.-B. 1.779. ^.^.2.1299. H.^-Jm. 520. Bab. 380. Lind. 291. 

C. AMPULLACEA. Slender-beaked Bladder Sedge. Fig. 1466. 

Sheaths none. Fertile spikes cylindrical, erect, nearly sessile, long. 
Fruit inflated. Marshes. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June. Brown. (|) E. B. 
1.780. E.B. 2. \300. H.^Arn.b20. Bab.380. Lind. 292. 

C. HiRTA. Hairy Sedge. Fig. 1467. 

Hairy. Leaves flat. Sheaths nearly equal to the stalks. Fertile 
spikes short, cylindrical, remote. Scales awned. Moist places. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. May and June. Brown. (#) E.B.I. 68b. E.B. 2. \30\, 
li. 4- Am. 5 19. Bab. 378. Lind. 292. 

C. FiLiFORMis. Slender-leaved Sedge. Fig. 1468. 

Smooth. Sheaths very short. Fertile spikes nearly sessile. Fruit 
hairy, ovate. Boggy meadows. 1-2 ft. (f) E.B. 1.904. E.B. 
2.1302. H.^Arn.5\9. Bab. 379. Lind. 292. 

Order CVI. GRAMI^^EiE. 

Genus 1. Anthoxanthum. 

A. ODORATUM. Sweet Vernal-grass. Fig. 1469. 

Panicle spike-like, ovate-oblong. Flowers longer than their awns, 
upon short stalks. Pastures ; abundant. 1-1^ ft Perenn. May and 
June. Anthers purple, (f) E.B.\.6A7. E.B.2.\\A. H.^Arn. 
528. Bab. 390. Lind. 306. 

Genus 2. Nardus. 
N. STRiCTA. Mat-grass. Fig. 1470. 

Spike slender, erect, the flowers all pointing one way. Leaves hard, 
setaceous. 8-10 in. Perenn. June. Pui})lish. (f) £".^.1.290, 
E.B. 2. 7b. H.^'Arn.b29. Bab. 393. Lind. 296. 

V 2 



us 

Genus 3. Alopecurus. 

A. FKATKNSis. Fox-tuU-grass. Fig. 1471* 

Stem erect, smooth. Panicle nearly cylindrical. Calyx-valves hairy, 
united at their base. Pastures ; abundant. l-2j ft. Perenn. April- 
June. (|) £".^.1.759. E.B.2.bb. H.^Arn.bZQ. Bab.A^l. 
Lind. 29y. 

A. ALPiNUS. Alpine Foxtail-grass. Fig. 1472. 

Stem erect, smooth. Panicle ovate. Glumes downy, united at their 
base. Awn little longer than the palese. Mountains ; rare. 1 ft. 
Perenn. July, (f) E.BA. 11 26. E. B. 2. 86. H. ^ Am. 530. 
ifai. 391. ie«</. 299. 

A. AGRESTis. Slender Fox-tail-grass. Black Bent. Fig. 1473. 

Stem erect, roughish. Panicle rather cylindrical, tapering. Glumes 
nearly naked, united at the base. Awn very long. Waste ground. 

2 ft. Ann. July-Oct. (f) £'.5.1.848. E.B.2.87. H.^Am. 

530. Bab. 392. Lind. 299. 

A. BXJLBOSUS. Bulbous Fox-tail-grass. Fig. 1474. 

Stem erect. Panicle rather cylindrical, tapering. Glumes distinct, 
linear, downy. Root bulbous. Salt marshes. 1 ft. Perenn. Julv. 
(f) £".5.1.1249. £".5.2.88. H.^Arn.bZO. Bab. 392. Lind.299. 

A. GENicuLATUS. Floating Fox-tail-grass. Fig. 1475. 

Stem bent at the joints. Panicle cylindrical, obtuse. Glumes united 
at the base ; hairy. Leaves often floating. Wet places. 6 in.-l ft. 
Perenn. May-Aug. (f) £'.5.1.1250. JF.5.2.89. £r.<$'^rn.531. 
Bab. 392. Lind. 300. 

Genus 4. Phalaris. 

P. Canariensis. Canary-grass. Fig. 1476. 

Panicle ovate, spike-like. Glumes with broad keels. Naturalized. 

2ft. Ann. June-Aug. (f) £.5.1.1310. £.5.2.76. H.^Arn. 

531. 5a6. 389. Lind. 300. 

P. arundinacea. Reed Canary-grass. Fig. 1477. 

Panicle upright, with spreading branches. Flowers crowded. Pools 
and ditches ; common. 2-5 ft. Perenn. July. Purplish-green. (|) 
£'.5.1.402. £'.5.2.77. ^T.^^rn. 531. Bab. 390. Lind.300. 

Genus 5. Ammophila. 

.\. arundinacea. Sea-reed. Marram. Fig. 1478. 

Panicle cylindrical, acuminate. Glumes acute. Sandy sea-shores. 

3 ft. Perenn. July. Anthers purple, (f) £.5.1.520. E.B. 2. 78. 
H. ^ Am. 532. Bab. 394. Lind. 303. 

Genus 6. Phleum. 

P. pratense. Cafs-tail-grass. Fig. 1479. 

Panicle cylindrical, very long. Glumes truncated, twice as long as 
the awn. Pastures. 2-3 ft. Perenn. June and July. (|) E. 5. 
1.1076. E.B. 2.79. H.^Arn. 532. Bab. 391. Lind.300. 

P. ALPiNUM. Mountain Cafs-tail-grass. Fig. 1480. 

Panicle ovate-oblong. Glumes truncated, as long as the awn. Lower 
palea jagged at the summit. Mountains. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July, (f) 
£.5.1.519. £.5.2.80. H.^Arn.b33. Bab.39\. Lind.300. 



.JL.- /46V Mr /4r90 



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tJ^S. ^owerSy. fecii: 

74 



149 

P. ASPERVM. Bough Cafs-tail-grasi. Fig. 1481. 

Panicle cylindrical. Glumes wedge-shaped, truncate, swelling up- 
wards. Stem branched. 1 ft. Ann. July. (|) E. B. \. 1077. 
£.B.2.8\. H.^ Am. 532. Bab. 391. Lind. 301. 

P. BcEHMERi. Purple-stalked Cat's-tail-grass. Fig. 1482. 

Panicle long, cylindrical. Glumes linear-lanceolate, acuminate, twice 
as long as the paleae. Pastures. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. (|) E. B. 
1.459. E.B. 2. 82. H.^ Am. 533. Bab. 390. Lind. 30\. 

P. MiCHELii. Fig. 1483. 

Panicle nearly cylindrical. Glumes lanceolate, acuminate. Palese 
nearly equal in length to the glumes. A doubtful native ; mountains. 
2 ft. Perenn. July. (|) E. B. \. 2265. E.B. 2. 83. H.^ Am. 
533. Bab. 390. Lind. 301. 

P. ARENARiUM. Sea Cafs-tail-grass. Fig. 1484. 

Panicle ovate, elongated. Glumes lanceolate, thrice as long as the 
palese. Sandy shores. 6 in.-l ft. Ann. June. (|) ^. if. 1.222. 
E. B. 2. 84. H.^ Am. 533. Bab. 391. Lind. 300. 

Genus 7. Lagurus. 

L. OVATUS. Hare s-tail-gr ass. Fig. 1485. 

Panicle obovate. Glumes with a long subulate point, fringed with 
long hairs. Sandy shores ; Guernsey. 1 ft. Ann. June. White. (|) 
£".^.1.1334. ^.^.2.90. H.^Arn.53\. Bab. 396. Lind.299. 

Genus 8. Milium. 

M. EFFUSUM. Millet-grass. Fig. 1486. 

Panicle loose and spreading. Seed covered with the hardened palese. 
Damp woods. 2 ft. Perenn. June. (|) ^. 5. 1. 1106. E.B. 2. 93. 
H.^ Am. 534. Bab. 393. Lind. 301. 

Genus 9. Gastbidium. 

G. LENDiGEBUM. Nit-grass. Fig. 1487. 

Panicle contracted. Glumes lanceolate-acuminate. Awns twice as 
long as the calyx. Fields near the sea. 1 ft. Ann. Aug. (|) 
£•.5.1.1107. E.B.2.9A. H.^ Am. 534. Bab. 396. Lind. 302. 

Genus 10. Stipa. 

S. piNNATA. Feather-grass. Fig. 1488. 

Leaves rigid, setaceous. Awns very long, feathered. A doubtful 
native. 1ft. Perenn. June, (i) £".5.1.1356. .ff. ^^rn. 535. 
Bab. 393. Lind. 302. 

Genus 11. Polypogon. 

P. MONSPELiENSis. Annual Beard-grass. • Fig. 1489. 

Panicle dense, lobed. Glumes rough, the awns thrice as long. 2 ft. 
Ann. June-Aug. Pinkish. (|) E. B. 1. 1704. E. B. 2. 91. 
H. ^ Am. 535. Bab. 396. Lind. 302. 

P. LiTTORALis. Perennial Beard-grass. Fig. 1490. 

Panicle lobed. Glumes nearly smooth ; awns about equal in length. 
Salt marshes. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Pinkish, (f) £'.5.1.1251. 
E. B. 2. 92. H. ^- Am. 535. Bab. 396. Lind. 302. 



150 

Genua 12. Calamagrostis. 

C. Epigejos. Wood-reed. Fig. 1491. 

Panicle erect, close. Spikelets crowded, unilateral. Outer palea with 
ei) awn from the middle. Moist places. 3-5 ft. Perenn. June. (|) 
£ BA.AQ'i. E.Ji.2.l68. 11.^ Jm.530. Bab. 304. Lind.304. 

C. JLANCEOLATA. Small-reed. Fig. 1492. 

Panicle erect, loose ; spikelets spreading. Outer palea with a short 
terminal awn. Moist places. 3-4 ft. Perenn. June. Purplish. (|) 
JE". «. 1.2159. E.B.2.\Q0. II.^Arn.536. Jiub. 394. Lind. 304. 

C. STRICT A. Close-reed. Fig. 1493. 

Panicle erect, close. Lower palea deeply notched, with an awn from 
below the middle. Bogs; rare. 1^-3 ft. Perenn. June and Julv. 
Purplish. (I) E. B. I. 21C.0. E. B. 2. 1/0. //. ^ Am. 536. 
Bab. 394. Lind. 304. 

Genus 13. Agrostis. 

A. Spica-venti. Silky Bent-grass. Fig. 1494. 

Panicle spreading. Glumes smaller than the paleae. Outer palea 
with a long straight awn. Sandy fields. 2-3 ft. Ann. July. 
Pinkish. (I) E. B.l.rol, E. B. 2. 95. H. ^ Am. 538. Bab. 

394. Lind. 304. 

A. CANiNA. Brown Bent-grass. Fig. 1495. 

Panicle spreading, elongated. Awn short, bent. Inner palea mi- 
nute. Damp fields. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June and July. Purplish. (|) 
E.BA. 1856. E. B. 2. 96. H.^Arn. 538. Bab. 395. Lind. 303. 

A. SETACEA. Bristle-leaved Bent-grass. Fig. 1496. 

Branches of the panicle short, few-flowered. Outer palea with 
a long bent awn from the base. Leaves setaceous. Turfy heaths. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. Pinkish, (f) E. B. 1. 1188. 
E. B. 2. 92. H. ^' Am. 537. Bab. 395. Lind. 303. 

A. VULGARIS. Fine Bent grass. Fig. 1497. 

Bra.iches of the panicle spreading. Glumes nearly equal. Ligule 
very short. Pastures. 1-1 1 ft. Perenn. Aug. Pinkish. (|) E. B, 

1. 1671. E.B.2. 98. H.^Am. 538. Bab. 395. Lind. 303. 

A. ALBA. Marsh Bent-grass. Fig. 1498. 

Branches of the panicle crowded, rough. Glumes bristly on the 
Iceel, nearly equal. Ligule long, acute. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. 
Pinkish. (I) ^.^.1. 1189. E. B. 2. 99. H. ^ Am. 538. Bab, 

395. Lind. 303. 

A. STOLONiFERA. Fiorin-grass. Fig. 1499. 

A variety of alba. Stems with long prostrate scions. Pastures. 2 ft. 

Perenn. July. Light green. (§) E.B.l.lb32. E.B.2.99*. 
H. ^ Arn. 539. Bab. 395. Lind. 304. 

Genus 14. Catabrosa. 

C. AQITATICA. Water Whorl-grass. Fig. 1500. 

Panicle with whorled branches. Paleae longer than the glumes. 
Loaves linear, flat, sometimes floating. Wet places. 3 in. -2 ft. 
Perenn. May and June. Purplish, (|) E. B. \.\bb7. £. B, 

2. 110. U. ^' Arn. 539. Bab. 405. Lind. 306. 







tJ.E. Sawerby. F&clt. 

76. 



151 

Genus 15. Aira. 

A. CiESPiTOSA. Turfy Hair-grass. Fig. 1501. 

Panicle spreading, Palese as long as the glumes, hairy at the base. 
Awn short, from the bottom of the outer palea. Leaves flat. Pastures. 
1-3 ft. Perenn. July. Purple. (§) E.B.I. \A^Z. E.B.2.\QA. 
H. ^ Am. 540. Bab. 397. Lind. 308. 

A. ALPiNA. Smooth Alpine Ilair-grass. Fig. 1502 

Panicle rather close, smooth. Palese nearly as long as the glumes, 
hairy at the base. Awn short, from the top of the outer palea. Moun- 
tains. 1ft. Perenn. June andJulv. Green, (f) J?. ^. 1. 2102. 
E. B. 2. 105. H. 4' Arn. 541. Bab. 397. Lind'. 308. 

A. FLEXUOSA. Waved Hair- grass. Fig. 1503. 

Panicle spreading, 3-forked, the branches •wavy. Palese the lengtii 
of the glumes, acute. Awn from the middle of the outer ])alea. Leaves 
bristle-shaped. Heaths. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July. Pinkish. (|) 
E.B.I. lb\9. E.B. 2.106. H.^Arn.54]. Bab. 397. Lind.SuS. 

A. CANESCENS. Grey Hair-grass. Fig. 1504. 

Panicle rather dense. Paleoe shorter than the glumes. Awn club- 
fhiped. Leaves bristle-shaped. Sandy fields near the sea. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. July and Aug. Green; anthers purple. (|) E. B. 1. 1190. 
E. B. 2. 1 07. //. ^ Am. 54 1 . Bab. 397. Lind. 308. 

A. PRECOX. Early Hair-grass. Fig. 1505. 

Panicle close, oblong, few-flowered. Awn long, from near the base 
of the palea. Dry ground. 1-4 in. Ann. June. Pale green. (|) 
E.B. 1. 1296. E. B. 2. 108. H. Sf Arn. 542. Bab. 398. Lind. 3m. 

A. CARYOPHYLLEA. Silver Hair-grass. Fig. 1506. 

Panicle rather spreading, its branches ternate. Palese shorter than the 
glumes. Awn very long, from the middle of the palea. Leaves bristle- 
shaped. Hill-pastures. 6-9 in. Perenn. June. Silvery-grey. (2) 
E.B.\.^\2. E.B. 2.109. H.^ Arn. 541. Bab. 39S. Lind. 308. 

Genus 16. Melica. 

M. CiEUULEA. Purple Melic-grass. Fig. 1507. 

Palese acute, awnless. Panicle close, erect, compound. Stems rigid. 
Heaths. 6 in. -2 ft. Perenn. Aug. Purplish. (|) ^. if. 1.750. 
E.B. 2. 117. //. ^ Arn. 542. Bab. 400. Lind. 307. 

AL tJNiFLORA. Wood Melic-grass. Fig. 1508. 

Panicle close, drooping to one side, its branches very slender. Spike- 
lets 1 -flowered. Shadv woods. 1-2 ft. Perenn. May-July. Purple, 
(f) Zi-.^.l.lOoS. £'.'Z?.2. 115. H.^Arn.543. Bab. 400. Lind. 307. 

^L NUTANS. Mountain Melic-grass. Fig. 1509. 

Panicle close, leaning to one side. Spikelets 2-flowered. Mountain 
woods; rare. 1-2 feet. Perenn. May and June. Purple. (|) 
E. B. 1. 1059. E. B. 2. 116. Bab. 400. Lind. 307. 

Genus 17. Holcus. 

H. LANATXjs. Soft-grass. Fig. 1510. 

Glumes woolly, rather blunt. Root tufted. Leaves soft and woolly. 
Meadows ; common. 1-1^ ft. Perenn. June. Pinkish. (§) E.B.I, 
1169. E.B.2.UI. H.^- Arn. 543. Bab. 396. Lind. 60b. 



152 

n. MOLLIS. Creeping Soft-grass. Fig. 151L 

Glumes partly naked, acuminated. Root creeping. Leaves woolly. 
Pastures; common. 6 in. -1ft. Perenn. July. Pinkish. (^) E.B.\. 
1170. E.B.2.\\2. H.^ Am. 543. liab. 396. Lind.305. 
Genus 18. Arrhenatherum. 

A. AVENACEUM. Oat-grass. Fig. 1512. 

Panicle long. Leaves flat. Hedges and way-sides ; frequent. 3 ft. 
Perenn. June. Pinkish or green. (|) E.B.I. 813. E. B. 2. 1 13. 
H.^ Am. 544. Bab. 399. Lind.305. 

Genus 19. IIierochloe. 

H, borealis. Holy-grass. Fig. 1513. 

Panicle erect, raceme-like. Palese shorter than the glumes, awnless. 
Leaves flat. Root creeping. 1 ft. Perenn. May. Purplish, (f) 
E. B. Supp. 264 1 . E. B.2.113*. H.^ Arn. 544. Bab. 390. Lind, 
306. 

Genus 20. K(eleria. 

K. CRiSTATA. Crested Hair-grass. Fig. 1514. 

Panicle spiked, interrupted below. Awn short, from the bottom of 
the outer palea. Dry pastures. 8 in.-l ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
Green, (f) E.B.l.US. E.B. 2. 103. H. ^ Am. 545. Bab. 399. 
Lind. 307. 

Genus 21. Sesleria. 

S. c^rulea. Blue Moor-grass. Fig. 1515. 

Panicle ovate-oblong, imbricated. Outer palea jagged with four 
teeth. Plant glaucous. Mountains. 1 ft. Perenn. May and June. 
Bluish, (f) ^.5.1.1613. E.B.2.\\^. H.^ Arn. 545. Bab. 
392. Lind. 309. 

Genus 22. Panic um. 

P. Crus-galli. Panick-grass. Fig. 1516. 

Panicle bristly. Leaves without ligules. Fields ; naturalized ? 
2 ft. Ann. July, (f) ^.^.1.876. E.B. 2. 102. H. ^ Arn. 
546. Bab. 388. Lind. 305. 

Genus 23. Setaria. 

S. vertictllata. Rough Panick-grass. Fig. 1517. 

Panicle spiked, lobed, with whorled branches. Bristles few, with 
reversed teeth. Fields ; naturalized ? 2 ft. Ann. July, (f ) E. B. 
1. 874. E. B. 2. 100. H. ^ Arn. 547. Bab. 388. Lind. 309. 

S. viRiDis. Green Panick-grass. Fig. 1518. 

Panicle spiked, cylindrical. Bristles many, with erect teeth. 
Fields; naturalized? 1ft. Ann. July, (f) E.B.\.Q75. E.B. 
2.101. H.^Arn.547. Bab.38S. Lind.'dOd. 
Genus 24. Poa. 

P. AauATiCA. Reed Meadow-grass. Fig. 1519. 

Panicle upright, much branched, spreading. Spikelets linear, with 
5-10 florets. Ditches. 4-6 ft. Perenn. May-Aug. Green. (^) 
E.B. \.\3\5. E.B.2.\20. H.^'Arn.548. Bab. 403. Lind.3\6. 

P. DiSTANS. Reflexed Meadow-grass. Fig. 1520. 

Panicle branched, lax, the branches at length reflexed. Florets 5 ; 
root not creeping. 2 ft. Perenn. July-Oct. Pinkish, (f ) E. B, 
1. S86. E.B.2.\2\. H.^Am.549. Bab.404. Lind. 3\8. 



/..^/.tl. 







153 

P. MAUiTiMA. Sea Meadow-grass. Pig. 1521. 

Panicle branched, rather close. Florets 5-10, cylindrical, .0-ribbed. 
Root creeping. Leaves involute. Salt marshes. 8 in.-l ft. Perenn. 
July-Oct. (I) E. B. 1. 1140. E. B. 2. 122. H. ^ Am. 549. 
Bab.AQA. ZiW. 315. 

P. PUOCUMBENS. Procumbent Meadow-grass. Fig. 1522. 

Stem procumbent. Panicle lanceolate; the branches rough. Flowers 
close, pointing one way. Florets 4 or 5, 5-ribbed. Salt marshes. 
(5-8 in. Ann. July and Aug. (f) E. B. 1. 532. E. B. 2. 123. 
JI.^Arn.bbO. Bab. AQ5. Lind. 316. 

P. RiGiDA. Hard Meadow-grass. Fig. 1523. 

Stems very rigid. Panicle lanceolate ; the branches smooth. Flowers 
dense, pointing one way. Florets about 7, without ribs. Walls and dry 
ground. 4-6 in. Ann. June, (f) ^.i?. 1.13/1. ^.5.2.124. // . |- 
^rn.550. Bab. 405. Lind.3\6. 

P. COMPRESSA. Flat-stalked Meadow-grass. Fig. 1524. 

Panicle condensed ; the branches leaning one way. Florets in ovate 
spikelets. Stem flattened. Dry places. 6-8 in. Perenn. June- 
Sept, (f ) E.B.I. 365. E. B. 2.125. H.^ Am. 55 1 . Bab. 402. 
Lind. 316. 

P. ALPiNA. Alpine Meadow-grass. Fig. 1525. 

Panicle loose. Florets ovate, 3- or 4-flowered. Upper sheath longer 
than its leaf ; ligule long, pointed. Mountains. 6-8 in. Perenn. 
July and Aug. (|) E.B.I. 1003. E. B. 2. 12^. H. ^ Am. 552. 
Bab. 401, Lind. 316. 

P. LAXA. Wavg Meadow-grass. . Fig. 1526. 

Panicle zigzag, slightly drooping. Florets 3-4, connected by a 
web, in ovate spikelets. Grampians. 6-8 in. Perenn. July. (#) 
^.^.1.1123. E.B.2.127. H.^ Am. 553. Bab. 401. Lind. 316. 

P. BULBOSA. Bulbous Mettdow-grttss. Fig. 1527. 

Panicle slightly zigzag. Florets 4, connected by a web. Leaves 
finely serrated. Stems bulbous at the base. Sandy ground. 6-8 in. 
Perenn. April and May. Q) E.B.I. 1071. E.B. 2. 128. H.^ 
Am. 552. Bab. 400. Lind. 317. 

P. TRiviALis. Rough Meadow-grass.^ Fig. 1528. 

Panicle spreading. Florets 3, connected by a web. Stem and leaves 
roughish. Ligules lanceolate. Root fibrous. Meadows; abundant. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. June. (|) ^.jB. 1.1072. £".^.2.129. H.^ 
Arn. 552. Bab. 402. Lind. 317. 

P. PRATENSis. Smooth Meadow-grass. ' Fig. 1529. 

Panicle spreading. Florets usually 4, connected by a web. Stem 
and leaves smooth. Ligules short and blunt. Root creeping. Plant 
sometimes glaucous. 1-2 ft. Meadows; abundant. Perenn. June, 
(f) E. B. 1. 1073. E. B. 2. 129*. //. ^ Am. 551. Bab. 402. 
Lind. 317. 

P. ANNUA. Annual Meadow-grass. Fig. 1530. 

Panicle widely spreading. Spikelets ovate, 5-flowered. Stems ob- 
lique, compressed. Root fibrous. Waste ground ; abundant. 2-10 in. 
Ann. March-Nov. (|) £".5.1.1141. E.B. 2.131. H.^Am. 
554. Bab. 400. Lind. 317. 



154 

P. GLAUCA. Glaucous Meadow-grass. Fig. 1531. 

Panicle spreading. Spikelets ovate, 2-3-flowerecl, hairy at the hase. 
Ligulea of the k)wer leaves very short and hlunt. Mountains. l-'2 ft. 
Perenn. June. (|) ^. i?. 1. 1720. E.B. 2. 132. H.^Am.bbd. 
Lind. 317. 

P. c^siA. Fig. 1533. 

A variety of glauca. Leaves broad, blunt. Florets about 5. Moun- 
tain pastures. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June. (|) E.B.I. 1719. E.B. 2. 
133. H.^Arn.bb2l Bab. 401. Lind.SU. 

P. NEMORALis. JFood Meadow-ffvass. Fig. 1533. 

Panicle spreading ; the branches veaved, hair-like. Florets 3, in 
lanceolate spikelets. Glumes 3-ribbed. Ligules short, notched. Woods. 
U-3ft. Perenn. July and Aug. (|) E. B. I. l26o. E.B. 2. 134. 
ji.^Jrn. 553. Bab. 40\. Lind. 317. 

P. BoRRERi. Borrers Meadow-grass. Fig. 1534. 

Panicle spreading, in fruit ascending. Outer palea with a minute 
point formed of the midrib. Leaves flat. Salt marshes. 6-8 in. 
Perenn.? July. (|) E. B.Supp. 2797. H.^- Am. 549. Bab. 404. 

P. FLU IT AN s. Sweet-grass. Fig. 1535. 

Panicle nearly erect, slightly branched. Spikelets linear-oblong, of 
7-1 2 florets. Leaves folded on the midrib. Ditches and pool-margins. 
1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. (|) ^. ^. 1. 1520. £".2?. 2. 119. 
//. ^ Am. 548. Bab. 403. Lind. 315. 

P. LOLiACEA. Wheat Meadow-grass. Fig. 1536. 

Spikelets linear-oblong, of 8-12 florets, alternate, solitary; footstalks 
very short. Lower palea with distinct marginal veins. Sandy shores. 
6 in. Ann. June. (|) ^.^.1.221. ^.^.2.181. H. ^ Am. 
550. Bab. 405. Lind. 297. 

Genus 25. Triodia. 

T. DECUMBENS. Hcath-grass. Pig. 1537. 

Panicle simple, condensed, erect. Florets 4, in an ovate spikelet the 
length of the calyx. Plant rigid, decumbent. Moors. Sin. Perenn. 
July. Pinkish. (|) E.B.X. 792. E. B. 2. 135. H.^ Am. 554. 
Bab. 399. Lind. 311. 

Genus 26. Briza. 

B. MEDIA. Quaking-grass. Fig. 1538. 

Spikelets broadly ovate, on slender pendent branches ; glumes shorter 
than the lower florets. Ligule short. Downs ; common. 1 ft. Perenn. 
June. Purplish. (|) j?.^. 1.340. ^.^.2.137. H.^ Am. 555. 
Bab. 405. Lind. 315. 

B. MINOR. Smaller Quaking-grass. Fig. 1539. 

Spikelets triangular ; glumes longer than the florets. Ligule elon- 
gated, acute. Fields ; rare. 1 ft. Ann. July. Green, (f ) E. B. 1 . 
1316. ^.^.2.136. //.^^r«. 555. Bab. 405. Lind. 315. 

Genus 27. Dactylis. 

D. GLOMERATA. Cock's-foot-grass. Fig. 1540. 

Panicle distantly branched. Sjjikelets in dense tufts, leaning one 
wav. Fields. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June-Aug. (f) jE". ^. 1. 335. 
E.'B. 2. 138. //. ^Am. 555. Bab. 406. Lind. 310. 



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155 

Genus 28. Cynosurus. 

C. CRISTATUS. Dog's-tail-grass. Fig. 1541. 

Spike elongated, simple. Florets with a short awn. Pastures ; 
ootnmon. 1-2 ft. Terenn. July. (|) ^.^. 1.31G. E.B.2.V6d. 
JI.^Arn.556. Bab. 406. Lind. 306. 

C. ECHiNATUS. Rough Dog's-tail-grass. Fig. 1543. 

Spike ovate. Florets with awns as long as the paleac. Southern 
sea-shores. G-IO in. Ann. July, (f) E.B.I. 1333. E.B.2.U0. 
H.^-Arn. 556. Bab. 406. Lind. 306. 

Genus 29. Festuca. 

F. UNiGLUMis. Single-husked Fescue-grass. Fig. 1543. 

Taiiicle upright, nearly simple, pointing one way. Florets tapering, 
compressed, awned ; lower glume minute. Sandy shores. 8 in.-l ft. 
Bienn. June. Green. (4) E.B. \.U30. E.B.2.M5. H. ^ Arn. 
bb7. Bab. 406. Lind. 314. 

F. BROMOiDES. Barren Fescue-grass. Fig. 1544. 

Panicle upright, pointing one way. Florets shorter than their awns, 
rough at the top. Upper half of stem leafless. Leaves bristle-shaped. 
Drvground. 6-8in. Ann. July, (f) E. B.\. UU. E.B.2.1U. 
Jl'.!^ArH.5b7. Bab. 406. Lind. 315. 

F. Myurus. Wall Fescue-grass. Fig. 1545. 

A variety of bromoides. Panicle drooping one way. Stem leafy to 
the summit. Walls and dry ground. 6-8 in. Ann. June and July. 
(1) E. B. 1. 1412. E. B. 2. 144*. H. ^ Am. 557. Bab. 406. 
Lind. 314. 

F. oviNA. Sheep's Fescue-grass. Fig. 1546. 

Panicle close, pointing one way. Florets roundish, smooth at the base. 
Stem square. Leaves bristle-shaped, rough. Dry pastures ; abundant. 
6-8 in. Perenn. June, (f) ^.jB.1.585. JS". JS. 2. 141. H.^ Am. 557. 
Bab. 407. Lind. 313. 

F. ciEsiA. Fig. 1547. 

A variety of ovina. Stems many-angled, leaves glaucous. Pastures. 
10 in.-l ft. Perenn. June and July. (|) £'.^.1.1917. E. B. 2. 
141*. H.^ Am. 557. Bab. 407. Lind. 315. 

F. VI VI PARA. Fig. 1548. 

A variety of ovina. Flowers viviparous. Leaves smooth and long. 
Mountains. 6-8 in. Perenn. July, (f) E.B.I. 1355. E.B.2. 
1^1**. H.^ Am. 557. Bab. 407. Lind. 313. 

F. DURiTJSCULA. Hard Fescue-grass. Fig. 1549. 

Panicle spreading, pointing one way. Florets about 6, cylindrical, 
longer than their awns. Stem leaves flat. Pastures. 1 ft. Perenn. 
June and July, (f) E. B. 1. 470. E. B. 2. 142. H. ^' Am. 557. 
Bub. 407. Lind. 314. 

F. RUBRA. Creeping Fescue-grass. Fig. 1550. 

A variety of dnriuscula. Leaves downy. Root creeping. Sandy 
shores. 1 ft. Perenn. July. Reddish. (|) E. B. 1. 2056. 
E. B. 2. 143. //. ^' Am. 558. Bab. 407. Lind. 314. 

X 2 



156 

F. GiGANTEA. Giant Fescne-yrass. Fig. 1551. 

Panicle drooping, twice compound, sprendiiig. Florets 3-6, ovate- 
lanceolate, shorter than the awns. Shady places. 3-4 ft. Perenn. 
Jnlv and Aug. {h) E. B.\. 1820. E. B. 2. 14(5. 11.^ Am. 559. 
Bab. 407. Lind.'^U. 

F. TRIFLORA. Hg. 1552. 

A variety o{ gigantea. Florets about 3. Leaves narrower. Woods. 
2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. (i) E.B.l.Vn^. £.5.2.140*. 
//^. ^^rM. 5G0. ifa6.408. Lind. 2>\\. 

F. CALAMARiA. Bced Fcscue-grass. Fig. 1553. 

Panicle repeatedly branched, spreading, erect. Florets 2-5, oblong, 
cvlindrical, pointed. Moist woods. 3 ft. Perenn. July. Purplish. 
(1) E. B.l, 1005. E, B. 2. 147. H. ^ Am. 558. Bab. 407. 
Lind, 313. 

F. DECiDUA. Fig. 1554. 

A variety of calamaria. Spikelets of 2-3 florets. Woods. 1-2 ft. 
Perenn. July, (f) E.B.I. 22Q&. E.B.2.\47*, U.^Am.bb^. 
Bab. 407. Lind. 313. 

F. PRATENSis. Meadow Fescue-grass. Fig. 1555. 

Panicle nearly erect, loose, pointing to one side. Spikelets linear, 
compressed. Meadows. 2 ft. Perenn. June. (|) E.B.I. 1592, 
E. B. 2. 148. H. ^ Am. 559. Bab. 408. Lind. 312. 

F. LOLiACEA. Spiked Fescue-grass. Fig. 1553. 

Spike 2-ranked, drooping. Spikelets linear-oblong. Florets without 
awns. Pastures. 2ft. Perenn. July, (f) E. B. 1.1821. E.B.2.lbO. 
H. ^ Am. 559. Bab. 408. Lind. 313. 

F. ELATiOR. Tall Fescue-grass. Fig. 1557. 

Panicle drooping, spreading, much branched. Florets cylindrical, 
awned. Moist pastures. 3-5 ft. Perenn. July. (|) JE'. if. 1. 1593, 
E. B. 2. 149. H. ^ Am. 559. Bab. 408. Lind. 313. 

Genus 30. Bromus. 

B. ERECTUS. "Upright Brome-grass. Fig. 1558. 

Panicle erect, little-branched. Spikelets liuear-Ianceolate. Florets 
numerous, remote, compressed. Awns shorter than the florets. Root- 
leaves very narrow. Sandy pastures. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. (|) E. B. 
1.471. E.B.2.157. H. ^ Arn. 560. Bab. 40S. Lind.3\2. 

B. ASPER. Hairy Brome-grass. Fig. 1559. 

Panicle drooping, branched. Spikelets linear-oblong. Florets cylin- 
drical, rather distant. Awns shorter than the florets. Lower leaves 
hairy. Woods. 4-G ft. Ann. July and Aug. (|) ii". iJ. 1. 1172. 
E.B.2.\bS. H.^Arn.bUO. Bab. 400. Lind. 312. 

B. STERiLis. Barren Brome-grass. Fig. 1560. 

Panicle drooping, usually simple. Spikelets linear-lanceolate. Awns 
longer than the florets. Leaves downy. Fields. 2 ft. Ann. June 
and July. (1) E. B. 1. 1030. E. B. 2. 159. H. ^ Am. 561. 
Bab.WJ. Lind.3\2. 







78 



157 

B. DIANDRUS. Upright Annual Brome-grnss. Fig. 1561. 

Panicle upright, spreading, slightly branched. Florets with only 2 
stamens. Dry places. 1-2 ft. Ann. June. (|) E. B. 1. lOOG. 
E. i/. 2. 1 60. //. ^ Am. 56 1 . Bab. 409. Lind. 3 1 2. 

B. MAXIM us. Great Brome-grass. Fig. 1562. 

Panicle erect, lax, drooping. Spikelets lanceolate, downy. Awns 
two or three times the length of the glumes. Jersey. 6 in. -2 ft. Ann. 
June and July. (|) E. B. Suj)p.2S20. H.i^Arn. 561. Bab. 409. 

B. Secalinus. Rye Brome-grass. Fig. 1563. 

Panicle spreading, little-branched. Spikelets ovate, compressed, with 
about 10 florets. Awns shorter than the florets. Fields. 2-3 ft. 
Ann. July-Sept. (|) ^.if. 1.1171. ^.if.2. 151. H.^Arn.562. 
Bab. 409. Lind. 311, 

B. VELUTINU9. Fig. 1564. 

A variety of Secalinus. Panicle nearly simple. Spikelets downy. 
Fields. 2 ft. Ann. July-Sept. Q) E.B. i.l8S4, E.B. 2. 152. 
U. ^ Am. 562. Bab. 409. Lind. 311. 

B. RACEMOSUS. Smooth Brome-grass. Fig. 1565. 

Panicle nearly erect, simple. Spikelets ovate-oblong, with 6-10 
smooth florets. Awns as long as the florets. Pastures. 2 ft. Ann. 
June. (I) ^.^.1.1079. .^.£.2. 154. H.^Arn.b^Z. Bab. 410. 
Lind. 311. 

B. COMMUTATUS. ' Fig. 1566. 

Panicle loose, drooping in fruit; lower peduncles often branched. 
Awns as long as the floret. Fields. 1-2 ft. Ann. June and July. 
(I) E.B.I. 920. E. B. 2. 154*. H. ^ Am. 562. Bab. 410. 
Lind.ZW. 

B. MOLLIS. Soft Brome-grass. Fig. 1567. 

Panicle erect, close, compound. Spikelets ovate. Florets depressed, 
ribbed, downy. Leaves hairy. Pastures and road-sides ; abundant. 
1-2 ft. Ann. May and June. (|) £".£.1.1078. £".£.2.153. 
//.^^rn. 563. Bab. 4\0. Lind. 611. 

B. ARVENSis. Field Brome-grass. Fig. 1568. 

Panicle spreading, drooping, compound. Spikelets lanceolate, pointed, 
about 8-flowered. Florets elliptical. Leaves hairy. Sea-coast. 3 ft. 
Ann. July and Aug. (|) £".£.1.1984. £".£.2.156. H.^Am. 
563. £a6.410. Lind. -612. 

B. SQUARROSUS. Com Brome-grass. Fig. 1569. 

Panicle drooping, simple. Spikelets ovate-oblong, with about 12 
florets. Awns spreading. Leaves downy. Corn-fields; rare. 2 ft. 
Ann. June and July, (f) E. B. 1. 1885. E. £. 2. 155. H. ^ 
Am. 564. Bab. 411. Lind. 311. 

Genus 31. Avena. 

A. FATUA. Wild Oat. Haver. Fig. 1570. 

Panicle erect ; flowers drooping. Spikelets of about 3 florets, with 
lone; hairs at the base. Corn-fields. 3 ft. Ann. July, (g) £". £. 1. 
222^1. E. B. 2. 161 . H. ^' Am. 565. Bab. 398. Lind. 310. 



158 

A. STRiGosA. Bristle Oat. Fig. 1571. 

Panicle oblong, pointing one way. Florets 2. Outer palea with 2 
straight bristles. Corn-fields. 2-3 ft. Ann. July. (|) E. Ji. I, 
l'2Gi). JE.B.2A62. H.^Jrn.565. Bab.39S. Lind.310. 

A. PUBESCENS. VowMj Oat-grass. Fig. 1572. 

Panicle erect, nearly simple. Florets 3, scarcely longer than the 
glumes. Leaves downy. Chalky pastures. 1-2 ft. Perenn. June, 
(i) E. B.\. 1G40. E. B. 2. 163. //. ^ Am. 5G6. Bab. 399. 
Lind. 308. 

A. PRATENSis. Narrow-leaved Oat-grass. Fig. 1573. 

Panicle erect, simple. Florets 3-5. Leaves narrow, involute. Dry 
pastures. l-l|ft. Perenn. July. (|) £".2^.1.120-1. E.B.2.UA. 
H. ^ Am. 565. Bab. 398. Lind. 310. 

A. ALPiNA. Alpine Oat-grass. Fig. 1574. 

Panicle erect. Florets 5, tufted with hairs beneath. Leaves flat, 
finely serrated. Mountains. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. (|) E.B.I. 
2141. ^.2^.2.165. //.^^rn.565. ^a6. 399. iiW.310. 

A. PLANicuLMis. Flat-stemmed Oat-grass. Fig. 1575. 

Panicle erect, compound. Spikelets erect, linear-oblong. Florets 5-7, 
much longer than the glumes. Mountains. 3 ft. Perenn. July. 
(I) E. B. Supp. 2684. E. B. 2. 165*. H. ^- Am. 566. Bab. 399. 
Lind. 339. 

A. FLAVESCENS. Tellow Oat-grass. Fig. 1576. 

Panicle much-branched, spreading, erect. Glumes very unequal ; 
florets 3. Leaves flat. Chalky fields. 1 ft. Perenn. July. (|) 
^.^.1.952. ^.^.2.166. H.^Am.bQQ. Bab. SOS. Lind.3{)[). 

Genus 32. Arundo. 

A. Phragmites. Reed. Fig. 1577. 

Flowers in a loose panicle. Spikelets 5-flowered. Florets with long 
silky hairs at the base. Ditches and river-sides. 6-12 ft. Perenn. 
July. Purple. Q) £".^.1.401. E.B.2.167. H.^ Am. 567. 
Bab. 393. Lind.310. 

Genus 33. Elymus, 

E. ARENARTus. Lyme-grass. Fig. 1578, 

Spike upright, close. Florets as long as the glumes. Root creeping. 

Sandy shores. 3-4 ft. Perenn. July. (|) £.^.1.1672. E.B.I. 

171. H.^ Am. 567. Bab. 412. Lind. 296. 

E. GENICULATUS. Drooping lajme-grass. Fig. 1579, 

Spike bent downwards, lax. Glumes longer than the florets. Salt 

marshes. 3 ft. Perenn. July, (i) E.B. \.\5^6. E.B.2.\72. 

H. ^' Am. 568. Bab. 412. Lind. 296. 

Genus 34. IIordeum. 

n. SYLVATicxTM. TFood Barley. Fig. 1580. 

All the glumes bristle-shaped and rough ; outer glume of each spike- 
let half as long as the awn. Woods. 2 ft. Perenn. July and Aug. 
{^) E. B. I. 1317. E. B. 2. 173. II. ^ Am. 568. Bab. 412. 
Lind. 297. 



/■f^/ , 



<i/iJ{ 11/ 




159 

n. MURiNTJM. n^all Barley. Fig. 1581. 

Lateral glumes bristle- shaped ; intermediate ones lanceolate, ciliated. 
Boad-sides ; common. 8 in.-l ft. Ann. June and July, (f) 
E.B.\.\97\. KB. 2.174. H.^Jrn.bGS. Bab. 412. Li?id. 290. 

H. PRATENSE. Meadow Barley. Fig. 1582. 

Glumes all bristle-shaped. Outer palese of the middle spikelets as 
long as their awns, lateral ones shorter than the awns. Moist pastures. 
1-2 ft. Ann. June and July, (f) E. B. I. 409. E. B. 2. IJj. 
H. ^ Arn. 568. Bab. 4\2. Lind. 296. 

H. MARiTiMUM. Sea Barley. Fig. 1583. 

Inner glumes of the outer spikelets semi- ovate, the rest bristle-shaped. 
Sea-side pastures. 1ft. Ann. June and July. (|) E. B.\.\2Qa. 
E.B. 2.176. II.^Jrn.b69. Bab. 413. Lind. 2^6. 

Genus 35. Triticum. 

T. CRisTATUM. Crested Wheat-grass. Fig. 1584. 

Spikelets closely imbricated, depressed, straight. Florets 4, awned. 
Glumes elliptical, with a long terminal awn. Sea-side. 6-10 in. 
Perenn. July. (§) E.B. 1.2267. E.B. 2. 180. H.^ Arn. 569. 
Bab. 412. Lind. 297. 

T. JUNCEUM. Rushy Wheat-grass. Fig. 1585. 

Glaucous. Spikelets distant, 4-6-flowered. Glumes obtuse, many- 
ribbed. Leaves rolled inward. Sand-dunes. 2-.3 ft. Perenn. July 
and Aug. (|) ^.5. 1.814. E.B. 2. 177. H.^ Arn. 569. Bab. 412. 
Lind. 298. 

T. REPENS. Couch-grass. Bog-grass. Fig. 1586. 

Glumes awl-shaped, acute, many-ribbed. Florets 5, the outer palea 
awned or sharp-pointed. Leaves flat. Root creeping. A common 
weed. 2ft. Perenn. June-Sept, {f) E.B. 1.909. E.B. 2. 178. 
JJ.^ Arn. 571. Bab. 411. Lind. 298. 

T. CANiNUM. Bearded Wheat-grass. Fig. 1587. 

Glumes pointed, 3-5-ribbed. Florets 4, with long rough awns. 
Root fibrous. Woods. 2 ft. Perenn. July. (|) E. B. I. 1372. 
E.B. 2. 179. H.8rArn.57l. Bab.4\\. Lind.298. 

Genus 36. Brachypodium. 

B. SYLVATicuM. False Brome-grass. Fig. 1588. 

Spike drooping, flowers leaning one way. Awns longer than the 
florets. Copses and hedge-banks. 2 ft. Perenn. June and July, 
(f) E.B. 1.729. E.B. 2. 182. H. ^ Arn. 572. Bab. 411. Lind. 297. 

B. piNNATUM. Heath Brome-grass. Fig. 1589. 

Spike erect. Awns shorter than the florets. Heaths. 2 ft. Perenn. 
July, (f) £".£.1.730. £'.£.2.183. H. ^ Arn. 572. Bab.4U. 
Lind. 297. 

Genus 37. Lolium. 

L. PERENNE. Darnel. Rye-grass. Fig. 1590. 

Spikelets longer than the glumes. Florets awnless. Pastures ; com- 
mon. 1-2 ft. Perenn. or bienn. June and July, (f) £.2?. 1.315. 
E. B. 2. 184. //. ^- Arn. 5/3. Bab. 413. Lind. 259. 



160 

L. I.TNTCOLA. Annual Uye-yrass. Fig. 1591. 

Spikelets about twice as long as the glumes. Fields ; rare. Tlorets 
slightly awned. 1-2 ft. Ann. July. (2) E. B. Supp. 2955. 
JL^Jrn.b73. Bab. 413. 

L. TEMULENTUM. Bearded Damel. Fig. 1592. 

Spikelets shorter than the glumes. Florets awned. Fields. Seeds 

poisonous. 2 ft. Ann. July. (|) ^.^.1.1124. ^. ^. 2. I8.j. 
n.^Arn.574. Bab. 413. Lind.'295. 

L. ARVENSE. Fig. 1593. 

A variety of temulentum. Awns small and weak. Fields. 2 ft. 
Ann. Julv. (f) ^.i?. 1.1125. J?, i?. 2. 185*. U. ^ Am. '^73. 
Bab. 4\3.' Lind. 295. 

Genus 38. Lepturus. 

L. iNCURVATUS. nard-grass. Fig. 1594. 

Spike round, awl-shaped. Glumes united below. Sea-coast. 4-8 in. 
Ann. July-Sept, (f) i^iJ. l./GO. E.B.2.\m. H.^Arn.574. 
Bab. 413. Lind. 76. 

Genus 39. Knappia. 

K. AGROSTIDEA. Fig. 1595. 

Spikelets in 2 rows, each -with a single floret. Leaves short, linear. 
Sandy sea-side pastures. 2-4 in. Ann. March and April. (^) 
E.B'.\.1\27, E.B. 2.187. H.^Arn.575. Bab. 3S9. Lind.SOl. 

Genus 40. Spartina. 

S. STRiCTA. Cord-grass. Fig. 1596. 

Spikes 2 or 3, erect, smooth. Spikelets downy. Salt marshes. 1 ft. 
Perenn. Aug. (f) E. B. 1. 380. E. B. 2. 190. H. ^ Am. 575. 
Bab. 389. Lind. 298. 

S. ALTERNiFLORA. Maui/spiked Cord-grass. Fig. 1597. 

Spikes numerous. Stalk extending beyond the spikelets, with an 
awn-like point. Salt marshes. 2 ft. Perenn. Aug. and Sept. (|) 
E. B. Supp. 281 2. H. ^ Am. 576. Bab. 389. Lind. 339. 

Genus 41. Cynodon. 

C. DACTYLON. Bog'' s-tooth-grass. Fig. 1598. 
Spikelets 3-5, digitate. Root creeping. Sandy shores. 4-8 in. 

Perenn. July and Aug. (|) E. B. 1. 850. E. B. 2. 188. H. ^ Am. 
b7Q. Bab. 389. Lind. 298. 

Genus 42. Digitaria. 

D. SANGUINALTS. Hairy Finger-grass. Fig. 1599. 
Leaves hairy. Spikelets oblong. Stems ascending. Fields ; rare. 

1 ft. Ann. July and Aug. (|) E. B. 1. 849. E. B. 2. 189. 
//. ^ Am. 577. Bab. 388. Lind. 299. 

D. HUMiFUSA. Finger-grass. Fig. 1600. 

Leaves smooth. Spikelets ovate, downy. Stems procumbent. Fields. 
G-8 in. Ann. July and Aug. (f) E. B. Siijip. 2G13. E. B. 2. 189*. 
n.^Arn.577. Bab.388. Lind. 33\). 






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APPENDIX. 

By J. W. SALTER, A.L.S., F.G.S., r.ic. 



Order I. RANUNCULACE/E. 
Genus 6. Ranunculus. Croivfuut. 

R. CIRCINATUS. Flat-leaved Water Crowfoot. Fig. 1601. 

Leaves round, all submersed ; the segments stiff, repeatedly forked, 
all in one plane. Petals large, white. Streams, &c. ; rare. Perenn. 
June-Aug. E.B.Suj)p.2869. Bab.ed.5.8. H.^'Arn.7. 

R. FLUITANS. Fig. 1602. 

lieaves all submersed, twice 3-forked, with very long nearly parallel 
segments. Petals 5 or more, white. Stamens short. Carpels obovate, 
inflated. Rivers. Perenn. July. E.B.S.2870. Bab', ed. 5. S. 

R, CffiNosus. Mud Crowfoot. Fig. 1603. 

Leaves all roundish, with 3-5 lobes, deeply divided and widened from 
the base. Petals narrow, white. Stamens 8-10. Fruit with terminal 
point. Muddy ditches. July. K B. S. 2930. Bab. 8. 

R. TRIPARTITUS. Fig. 1604. 

Leaves usually floating, deeply trifid, with wedge-shaped segments. 
Flower-stalks shorter than leaves. Petals small, pinkish. Stamens few. 
Fruit much inflated, point terminal. Streams. May-Aug. E. B. S. 
2946. Bab. 7. 

R. FLORiBUNDUS. Larffe-fowercd Water Crowfoot. Fig. 1605. 

Leaves floating and submersed, the latter closely 3-forked, with rigid 
segments. Floating leaves long-stalked, tripartite, with 3-5 lobes. Pe- 
tals large, spreading. Fruit blunt. Ponds. Mav-Sept. Bab. 7. 

R. Drouetxi. ' Fig. 1606. 

Submersed leaves closely forked ; segments soft. Floating leaves 
rare, with 3 wedge-shaped bifid segments. Flower starlike. Petals 
small. Fruit laterally pointed. Ponds. INIay, June. Bab. 6. 

R. Baudotii. Fig. 1607. 

Submersed leaves closely 3-forked ; segments rigid. Floating leaves 
long-stalked, tripartite, with wedge-shaped lobed segments. Flower 
starlike. Stamens short. Brackish water. Perenn. May-Aug. Bab. 7 . 

R. TRiCHOPHYLLUs. Water Fennel. Fig. 1608. 

Submersed leaves closely 3-forked ; segments rigid. Flower small, 
starlike. Fruit compressed. Floating leaves not yet found in Britain. 
Ponds. June. Bab. 5. 

Order VI. CUUCIFERtE. 

Genus 19. Cardamine. Bitter-Cress. 

C. hirsuta. Hairy Bitter-Cress. Fig. 1609. 

Stem straight, leafy ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets of lower leaves round- 
ish, angled or toothed. Petals white. Pods erect. Stamens 4. Ann. 
April-Aug. Reich. Ic. Flor. Germ. 2. 26. Bab. 25. 

Order V. FUMARIACEiE. 
Genus 1. Fumaria. Fumitory. 

F. MICRANTIIA. Fig. 1610i 

Flower pale purple. Calyx-lobes large, roundish. Bracts longer 
than fruit-stalk. Fields. Ann. June-Sept. E. B. S. 2876. Bab. 13. 

Y 



1G2 

F. Vaillantii. Fig. 1611, 

Flower purple. Calyx minute. Fruit-stalks longer tlian pointed 

fruit, twice longer than bract. S. and E. of England ; rare. Ann. 

July-Nov. E. U.S. 2877. Bab. 18. 

F. PALLIDI FLORA. Fig. 1612. 

Stem climbing. Flower purple, dark-tipped. Calyx toothed, half 
as long as the large corolla, falling off. Fruit squjvrish. Borders of 
fields. Ami. July-Sept. Curtis, 2. 145. Bab. 17. 

Order IX. VIOLACEiE. 
Genus 1. Viola. Violet. 
V. CANiNA. Doff Violet. Fig. 1613. 

Tufted. Leaves rounded, acute. Central and side stems alike long 
and flowering. Fl. scentless, purple : the spur yellow, blunt. Spur 
of anther 3 times as long as broad. Sandy places. Perenn. April, 
May. Bab. 38.— F. lactea, fig. 150, is a var. only, (Figs. 148, 14\) 
belong to var. /3 of the Wood Violet, V. sylvatica of Fries.) 

V. STAGNINA. Fig. 1614. 

Stem erect. Lower leaves rounded at base, but not cordate. Flower 
very pale blue. Spur very short. Anther-spur short. Turf-bogs ; 
rare. Perenn. May, June. Bab. 39. 

Order XIII. CAEYOPHYLLACEJE. 

Geuus 2. DiANTHUS. Pink, 

D. PLUMARius. Fig. 1615. 

Leaves rough-edged. Fl. solitary, pink or white, fragrant. Bracts 

very short, roundish-ovate. Pet. very deeply notched, quite digitate ; 

downy in middle. Seeds flat. Old walls. Perenn. June. Bub. 45. 

Genus 15. Cebastium. Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

C. puMiLUM. Fig. 1616. 

Hairy. Stems viscid, branched at root only. Lower leaves spathu- 

late, upjier oblong. Bracts narrowly membranous. Flowers in terminal 

corymbs. Dry banks. Ann. April, May. Curtis, 2. 92. Bab. 56. 

Genus 14. Arenaria. Sand-wort. 

A. LEPTOCLADOS. Fig. 1617. 

Stems very slender, much branched. Leaves small, ovate, acute. 

Pet. short. Caps, oblong. Dry places and walls. June-Oct. Bab. 58. 

. Genus 14*. Alsine. ,,. ^„^o 

A. STRICTA. Fig. 1618. 

Prostrate, tufted. Leaves veinless. Flowers 1-3, terminal, very long. 

Calyx acute. Teesdale ; rare. Perenn. June. E. B.S. 28^Q. Bab. 51. 

Order XV. MALVACEAE. 
Geuus 2. Malva. Mallow. 

M. VERTICILLATA. Fig. 1619. 

Erect. Leaves in 5 deep triangular-acute lobes. Flowers axillary, 
clustered, small. Llanelly, S.Wales [not native]. E.B.S. 2953. Bab. 58. 

Order XVII. HYPERICACEiE. 

Genus 1. Hypericum. St. John's Wort. 

H. Andros^mum. Wild Tutsan. Fig. 1620. 

A shrub. Leaves blunt, aromatic. Styles much shorter than sta- 
mens. Petals short. [//. ancjHcvm, fig. 241, has long styles: it is 
scarcely native.] Thickets. E. and S. of Britain. Sept., Oct. Bab. GO. 



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Order XXV. LEGUMINOSiE. 

Gcuus 1. Ulex. Furze. 

U. Gallti. Fi°^. 1621. 

A a erect spiny shrub. Primary spines strong, deflexed. Flower 
orange ; the wings longer tlian keel, but not apparently. Very like U. 
nanus. Oct.-Nov. Perenn. Heaths. Bab. 73. 

Genus 15. Vicia. Vetch. 

V. GRACILIS. Fig. 1622. 

Stem ascending. Leaflets linear, acute, in 3-4 pairs. Flower large, 
pale blue. Pods o-S-seeded. Seeds small. S. of England. Ann. June- 
Aug. E.B.S.2()M. Bab. 83. 

Genus 8. Trifolium. Trefoil. 

T. INCARNATUM. Fig. 1623. 

Villose, erect. Heads ovate, then cylindrical, solitary, terminal. Calyx 
not inflated ; teeth in fruit patent, nearly equal, shorter than corolla. 
Flower nearly white. Lizard Point. Ann. July. ^.B.S. 2950. Bab. 77. 

T. BoccoNi. Fig. 1624. 

Ascending, Heads oblong-ovate, terminal, two together. Calyx not 
inflated ; teeth as long as corolla. Leaflets oblong-obovate, with straight 
veins. Flower small, yellow. Lizard Point. Ann. July. E. B. S. 
2S6S. Bab. 78. 

T. sTRicTUM. Fig. 1625. 

Diffuse. Heads globose, axillary. Calyx not inflated ; teeth unequal, 
spreading. Stipules broad. Upper leaflets oblong. Jersey, Cornwall. 
Ann. June-Aug. JE.B.S.2940. Bab. 79. 

Genus 7. Melilotus, Melilot. 

M. ARVENsis. Fig. 1626. 

Flower yellow ; wings and standard equal, longer than keel. Pods 
ovate, rounded, slightly keeled on back. Cambridge, &c. June. E.B.S. 
2900. Bab. 76 

Genus 6. Medicagq. Medich. 

M. SYLVESTRIS. Fig. 1627. 

Stems quadrangular. Pod forming one complete flat ring. Flower 
large, yellow or blackish^green. Norfolk, &c. Perenn. June. Bab. 7^u 

Order XXVI. ROSACEJE. 

Genus 5. Rubus. Bramble. 

R. GLANDULOSUS. Fig. 1628. 

Stem round, prickles small. Leaflets rarely 5, nearly equal, oblong, 
cuspidate, hajrv on veins beneath. Flower-stalk soft, felted, and with 
setse. Woods.' Aug., Sept. ^.£.^.2883. Bab. lOS. 

R. Leesii. Lees' Raspberry. Fig. 1629. 

Oeeping. Stems round. Prickles straight. Leaflets 3, round, ovate» 
imbricated ; prickles of flower-shoot few, setaceous, from a bulbous base. 
Somerset and Devonshire. June. Bab. 97. 

Genus 12. Alchemilla. Lady's Mantle. 

A. CONJUNCTA. Silhj Ladijs Mantle. Fig. 1630. 

Radical leaves peltate-palmate, of 5-7 divisions joined for grd of 
their length; very silky beneath. Scotch Mountains (G. Don). Pcrenii, 
July. Bab. 93. 



164 

Genus 14. PoTEUiuM. Salad Burnet. 

P. MURiCATUM. Rovyh-seeded Burnet. Pig, 1631. 

Calyx of fruit hardened, 4-vvinged, pitted, the pits denticulate. Dry 
places. Perenn. June. Bab. 92. 

Order XXVII. ONAGRACEJE. 

Genus 1. Epilobium. Willow-herb. 

E. OBSCURXJM. Pig. 1632. 

Leaves tapering from a rounded base, sessile, remotely denticulate. 
Lower leaves oblong, blunt. Stolons long-jointed. Stigma cut. Wet 
places. Perenn. July, Aug. Bab. 12L 

E. TETRAGONUM. Pig. 1633. 

Much branched. Leaves strap-shaped, much denticulate- serrate. 
Damp places. Perenn. July. Curtis, \, &fi. Bab. 121. 

Order XXXVI. SAXIFRAGACE^. 

Genus 1. Saxifraga. Saxifrage. 

S. AFFTNIS. Fig. 1634. 

(-3 inches, erect. Leaves with broad base, and 3-5 linear lobes. 
Flowers few ; calyx-lobes subulate ; petals white, oblong, inflexed. 
Yery like S. h7/p)ioides. Kerry. July. JS.B.S. 2903. Bab. 134. 

S. c^spiTosA, var. incurvifolia. Fig. 1635. 

lloot-leaves crowded, blunt ; stem-leaves incurved. Kerry. INIay, 
June. KB.S. 2909. Bab. 134. 

S. ELEGANS. Pig. 1636. 

Leaves round, not tapering into the footstalks, which are broad, and 
convex beneath. Rare in Kerry. June. E.B. S.2S92. Bab. 133. 

S. Geum. Kidney-leaved Saxifrage. Fig. 163/"^ 

Leaves broader than long, purple beneath, reniform. Footstalks long, 

hairy, channeled. W. of Ireland. June. E. B. S. 2893 (see also our 

fig. 489). Bab. 133. 

S. UMBROSA, var. Z. serratifolia. London Pride. Pig. 1638. 
Leaves oblong, acutely serrate, erect. W. of Ireland. June. E. B. S, 
2891. Bab. \33. 

Order XXXVIL UMBELLIFERiE. 

Genus 16. (En an the. Water Dropwort. 

(E. PIMPINELLOIDES. Pig. 1639. 

Stem 2 ft. high. Root with long fibres bearing knobs. Root-leaves 

bipinnate, the leaflets wedge-like. Stem-leaves pinnate. Fruit with 

thick corky base. S. of England. June, July. Perenn. Bab. 147. 

Genus 3*. Astrantia. 

A. MAJOR. Fig. 1640. 

Leaves palmate, with 5 oblong acute lobes. Involucral leaves entire ; 
straw-coloured, equalling the umbel. Malvern and Ludlow, naturahzed. 
Junc-Aug. Perenn. Bab. 143. 



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Order XLII. RUBIACE7E. 
Genus 2. Galium. Bed-straw. 
G. Vaillantii. Pig. 1641. 

Leaves 6-8, rough. Flowers axillary, 3-9 in a cluster, green. Fruit 
hispid. Fields. Essex. Ann. July. (Probably a variety of G. spurium, 
fig. G02.) £.B.S.2943. liab. 160. 

Orderly. GENTIANACE^. 

Genus 1. {Exacum) Cicendia. 
C. pusiLLA. Fig. 1642. 

Stem I in. or more, slender, branched. Leaves all narrow. Calyx 
4 -parted. Flower pink. Guernsey. Ann. June, July. Bab. 223. 

Order XLV. COMPOSITE. 
Genus 11. Crepis. Hawli's-beard. 
C. SETOSA. Yvg. 1643. 

Leaves runcinate ; stem-leaves arrow-shaped, entire except at base. 
Livolucre not covering the pappus, and, as well as peduncles, hispid. 
Fields. July, Aug. £'.^.5.2945. £a6. 199. 

C. TARAXACIFOLIA. Fig. 1644. 

Stem hispid, angular. Leaves mostly radical, rough, runcinate. 
Livolucral leaves bristly, covering half the pappus, with membranous 
margin. Fruit all equally beaked. E.B.S. 2929. Bab. 198. 
Genus 10. Hieracium. Hawkweed, 

H. iRicuM. Fig. 1645. 

Rigid, not branching, very leafy. Root-leaves ovate, with short 
footstalks. Stem-leaves clasping, broadly ovate. Styles livid. Flower- 
heads hairy and bristly. Mountains. Perenn. July, Aug. E. B. S. 
2915. Bab. 203. 

Genus 31*. Filago. Cudweed. 

F. APicuLATA. Fig. 1646. 

Stem mostly erect, proliferous at summit, cottony. Leaves all oblong, 
blunt, apiculate. Heads 5 -angled, half sunk in wool, overtopped by 1 
or 2 blunt leaves. Ann. July, Aug. Bab. 181. 

F. SPATHULATA. Fig. 1647. 

Diffuse, proliferous, silky. Leaves obovate. Heads not sunk in 
wool, with 5 prominent angles, clusters overtopped by 2-3 acute leaves. 
Ann. July, Aug. Bab. 181. 

Genus 16. Arctium. Burdock. 

A. MAjus. Fig. 1648. 

Leaves blunt. Petioles solid, furrowed. Heads very large, sub- 
corymbose, long-stalked, hemispherical, glabrous. Upper part of flower 
subcylindrical, more than half as long as lower part. Bienn. Aug. 
Bab. 186. 

Genus 1. Tragopogon. Goat's-beard. 

T. MINOR. Fig. 1649. 

Stem 2 feet high, branched. Involucre about twice as long as flower. 
Flower yellow. Meadows. July, Aug. (T. tnajor, Hook.) Bab. 195. 

Order XLIX. ERICACE^. 
Genus 1. Erica. Heath. 
E. Mackaiana. Mackaijs Heath. Fig. 1650. 

Leaves 4 in a whorl, revolute, smooth above and on midrib beneath. 
Calyx-lobes and ovary glabrous. Fl. purple. E. B. S. 2900. Bab. 215. 



IGG 

Order LVII. CONVOLVULACE^. 
Genus 2. Cuscuta. Dodder. 
C. Trifolii. Clover Dodder. Fig. 1651. 

Clusters sessile ; scales of'fl. converging, equalling half the tube of cor., 
and below standing out from it. Julv-Sept. E. B. S. 2898. Bab. 22(j. 

Order LX. OROBANCIiACE/E. 
Genus 1. Ouobanche. Broom Rape. 
O. PiCRiDis. Fig. 1652. 

Sepals I-3-veincd, entire, or bifid, subulate. Corolla nearly straight, 
slightly curved at each end. Upper lip not notched. Stigma violet. 
Parasitic ou Picris. Hare. July. E. B. S. 2956. Bah. 236. 

Order LXII. LABIATJE. 

Genus 6. Teucrium. Germander. 
T. BoTRYS. Fig. 1653. 

Stem erect, annual. Leaves trifid or pinnatifid, the segments oblong, 
entire or cut. Fl. pale purple. Box Hill. Ann. Aug., Sept. i?o6. 263. 
Genus 4. Thymus. Thyme. 
T. CHAMiEDRYS. Fig. 1654. 

Stems all alike, ascending. Corolla with upper lip semicircular. 
Heaths. Perennial. July, Aug. Bab. 256. 

Genus 13. Lamium. Dead-nettle. 
L. INTERMEDIUM. Scotch Dead-nettle. Fig. 1655. 

Upper leaves rcniform, crenate. Calyx-teeth longer than their tube, 
hispid, always spreading. Nuts very large. Common in Scotland. 
Ann. June-Sept. Bab. 259. 

Genus 19. Calamintha. Calamint. 
C. SYLVATICA. Fig. 1656. 

Leaves broad, sharply serrate. Segments of lower corolla-lip over- 
lapping. Isle of Wight. Aug.-Oct. Perenn. E.B.S.2S97. Bab. 257. 

Order LXI. SCROPHULAllIACEJE. 

Genus 7. Scrophularia. Fig-wort. 

S. Ehrharti. Stevens' Fig-wort. Fig. 1657. 

Leaves acute, serrate, their lower teeth smaller. Stem and petioles 
winged. Bracts leaflike. Cymes lax, few-flowered. Staminode bifid, 
with diverging lobes. Aug., Sept. E. B. S. 28/5. Bab. 243. 

Order LXV. PRIMULACE^. 
Genus 6. Lysimachia. Loosestrife. 
L. ciliata. ^ Fig. 1658, 

Peduncles axillary. Leaves ovate-lanceoiate, subcerdate, with ciliate 
stalk. Corolla-filaments 10, free, 5 sterile. Flower yellow. Perenn. 
July. Cumberland. E. B. S. 2922. Bab. 269. 

Order LXVI. PLUMBAGINACEiE. 

Genus 1. Armeria. Thrift. 

A. PLA.NTAGINEA. Fig. 1659. 

Leaves all similar, 3-5-veined. n Jersey. Perenn. June, July. 
E. B. S. 2928. Bah. 272. 

Geuus 3. Statice, Sea Lavender. 
S. Bahusiensis. Fig. 1660. 

Stems not corymbose. Spikes lax, erect. ' Outer bract keeled. Salt 
. marshes. July, Aug. (S. rariforu. E. B. S. 2917.) Bab. 271. 



<:^j7. 



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1G7 
Order LXIX, CHENOPODIACE^. 

Genus 3. Atriplex. Orache. 
A. Babingtonii. Fig. 1661. 

Spreading. Leaves ovate-triangular. Perianth of fr. large, rhoiiiboid, 
acute, toothed. Seashore. Ann. July, Aug. £'.7i,S.28S0. Bub.'lti^K 

Order LXXVI. EUPHORBIACEtE. 

Genus 2. Euphorbia. Spurge. 

E. STRICTA. Ujjriffht Spurge. Fig. 1662. 

2 or 3 feet high. Umbels moderate. Stamens rarely more than 2. 
Capsule with prominent tubercles. Limestone woods in the West. 
June-Aug. Bab. 291. 

Order LXXXIV. AMENTIFERiE. {Salicacea, p. 113.) 
Genus 1. Salix. Willow. 

S. cuspiDATA. c? Fig. 1663, ? 1664. 

A tree. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, glandular-serrate. Sti- 
pules ^-cordate, oblique. Shrewsbury. June. Bab. 298. 

Order XC. ORCHIDACE^. 
Genus 10. Epipactis. Helleborine. 
E. ovALis. Fig. 1665. 

A foot high. Leaves and bracts small. Bracts shorter than the 
fruit. Lower lip (labellum) transversely oval, mucronate. Flower 
dark yellow to blackish-red. July. E. B. S. 2884. Bab. 323. (It is 
the Helleborine No. 2, &c., of Ray 383.) 

Genus 8. Spiranthes [Neottia, p. 125). Lady's Tresses. 
S. CERNUA. Fig. 1666. 

Root-fibres cylindric. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flower fragrant. 
Spike 1| inch, dense. Lip blunt. Perenn. Aug., Sept. Bot. Mag. 
5277. Bab. 322. 

Genus 1. Orchis. Orchis. 
O. LATiFOLTA. Mursh Orcliis. Fig. 1667. 

A foot high. Leaves spreading, blunt; the spots faint, ring-like. 
June. Bab. 318. 

Genus 10*. Epipogium. 

E. APHYLi.uM. Fig. 1668. 

Stem a few inches. Leaves none. Petals narrow. Yellow. Lip 

with purple tubercles. Spur very thick. A singular deformed-lookiiig 

plant. Damp woods. Hereford. Aug. B. Mag. 4821. Bab. 324. 

Order XCIII [in part]. ASPARAGACEJ3. {Liliacea, 

p. 128.) 
Genus 3*. Maianthemum. 
M. BTFOLiuM. Fig. 1669. 

Only 2 deeply cordate leaves. Flower small, in a terminal raceme. 
Berries yellow, with brown spots. Perenn. JNIay. Bab. 330. 

Order XCIII. LILIACE^. 
Genus 6. Allium. Garlic. 
A. Bahingtonii. Babington s Leek. Fig. 1670. 

Stem 4-6 feet, leafy below. Leaves acutely keeled. Umbel loose, 
irregular, with secondary heads. Flowers few, pale purple. Stamens 
trifid. Galway. Aug. E. B. S. 29UG. Bab. 334. 



1C8 

A. TRiQUETRUM. Guemscy llam$07}s. Fig. 1671. 

Stem 3-cornered. Leaves linear, sharply folded. Spatlie 2-valved, 
the umbel without bulbs. Flowers white. Guernsey. May, June. 
Bab. 335. 

A. siBiRicuM. Cornish Chives. Fig. 1672. 

Leaves curved and bent down, with crenulate ribs. Heads large. 
Petals lanceolate. Barren bulbs single-leaved. Style longer than 
young germen. (Possibly a variety of fig. 1289.) Cornwall. June, 
July. E. B. S. 2934. Bab. 335. 

A. ScoRODOPRASuM. Sand Garlic. Fig. 1673. 

Stem leafy below. Leaves flat. Spathe short-pointed. Umbels 
globose, with bulbs. Stamens shorter than petals. June, July. E. B. S. 
2905. Bab. 334. 

Genus 3*. Simethis. 

S. BicoLOR. Fig. 1674. 

Root fleshy. Leaves linear. Flower panicled, purple, white inside. 
Heaths. Dorsetshire ; Kerry. May. E.B. 8.2952. Bab. 336. 

Ge.ius 13. LiLiuM. Lily. 
L. PoMPONiuM. Yellow Turk's-cap. Fig. 1675. 

A foot high. Leaves scattered. Flower nodding. Yellow, with 
black dots. Near S. Molton, Devon. May. Bab. 332. 

Order XCI. IRIDACE^. 
Genus 1*. Sisyrinchium. 
S. ANCEPs. Fig. 1676. 

Scape 2-edged, nearly leafless. Leaves grasslike. Flowers blue. 
Galway. Perenn. July. Bab. 326. 

Genus 2*. Gladiolus. Sword-Flag. 
G. iLLYRicus. Fig. 1677. 

18 inches high. Leaves slender. Flower red, changing to blue. 
Among ferns in New Forest and Isle of Wight. July. Bab. 326. 

Order XCVI. JUNCACEtE. 
Genus 3. Luzula. Wood Rush. 
L. piLOSA, var. Borreri. Fig. 1678. 

Probably an abortive state of the Wood Hairy Rush (fig. 1327). 
Growing luxuriant in thickets. May. Bab. 344. 

Genus 2. Juncus. Rush. 
J. DiJFusus. Fig. 1679. 

Stem finely striate, pith continuous. Capsule small, obovate, blunt, 
mucronate. (Very like J. (/laucus, fig. 1309.) Wet places. July, 
Aug. Bab. 339. 

Order CI. ARACE^E. 
Genus 1. Arum. 
A. iTALicuM. Fig. 1680. 

Leaves autumnal, all radical, with divaricate lobes. Isle of Wight. 
Pereuu. June. Bab. 349. 







JJV.SoUcr del 



J.i; 5.Sadj>t. 



1G9 

Order CIV. TOTAMOGETONACEiE. 

{NaiadacecB [in part], p. 13G.) 

Genus 1. Potamogeton. Pond-weed. 

P. TRICHOIDES. Fig. 1681. 

Stt'm very slender. Leaves subsetaceous, veined. Fruit with a 
straight inner edge toothed on each side near base. July, Aug. Bab. 
354. 

P. ZOSTER^FOLIUS. Fig. 1682. 

Leaves apiculate, covered all over with parallel veins (three principal 
ones). Spikes cylindric, on long fruit-stalks. Rivers and lakes. June. 
E. B. S. 2685. Bab. 353. 

P. FILIFORMIS. Fig. 1683. 

Leaves linear-setaceous. Spikes greatly interrupted. Fruit small, 
rounded on the back, without ridges. Forfar and Berwickshires ; rare. 
June, July. Bab. 355. 

Order CIV. NAIAD ACEJ]]. 

Genus 1. Naias. 
Naias flexilis. Fig. 1684. 

Leaves very narrow, ternate, pellucid, minutely denticled. Ovary 
.solitary, sessile, oblong. Galway (Prof. Oliver). Aug. Bab. 350. 

Genus 3. Zostera. Grass-wrack. 

Z. MARINA, var. ANGUSTIFOLIA. Fig. 1685. 

A variety with fewer leaf-veins and longer fruit-stalks. July, Aug. 
Bab. 356. 

Z. NANA. Fig. 1686. 

3 inches long. Leaves 1-veined. Spadix short, banded. Nuts 
smooth. Muddy estuaries. July, Aug. Bab. 356. 

Order CV. CYPERACEiE. 
Genus 8. Eriophorum. Cotton-grass. 

E. GRAciLE. Fig. 1687. 

Tall, slender. Leaves narrow-linear, 3-angled. Peduncles downy. 
Nut oblong-linear. Bogs. Yorkshire, &c. June-Aug. jE". i>. »S. 2886. 
Bab. 364. 

Genus 10. Carex. Sedge. 

C. Grahami. Fig. 1688. 

Barren spikes 1 or 2 ; fertile 2-3, ovate, blunt. Fruit twice as long 
as glume, oblong-ovate, inflated, narrowly ribbed. Beak short, bifid. 
Clova, &c. July. E. B. S. 2923. Bab. 380. 

C. iRRiGUA. Fig. 1689. 

Leaves flat, smooth-edged. Fertile spikes 2-3, drooping, a few S 
flowers at their base. Bracts broad, nearly flat. Glumes purple. 
Fruit round-ovate, faintly ribbed. Bogs. S. of Scotland. June. E.B.S. 
2895. Bab. 373. 

C. MONTANA. Fig. 1690. 

Root fibrous. Stem slender. Fertile spikes 1-3, ovoid, crowded. 
Fruit oblong-obovate, hairy, with short notched beak. Tunbridge, 
Chepstow. April, May. E. B. S. '2924. Mab. 3/5. 

z 



170 

C. PARADOXA. Fig. 1G91. 

I 2 i'cet high. Spikes narrow, panicled. Fruit ovate, many-ribbed 
near base ; beak not split nor winged ou back. Bogs ; rare. June, 
July. KB.S. 2896. Bab. 307. 

C. BoNNINGHAUSIANA. Fig. 1692. 

Inflorescence very long. Lower spikelets alternately branched. Fruit 
serrulate from below middle. Glumes equalling the fruit, silvery, 
smooth. Marshes, &c. June. KB. S. 2010. Bab. 368. 

C. BuxBAtJMii. Fig. 1693. 

Stem rough. Sheaths with netlike filaments. Spikes 3-4. Glumes 
cuspid. Fruit oval, comi)ressed, bidentate. Nut trigonous, apiculate. 
June. £. B. S. 2885. Bab. 372. 



Order CVI. GRAMINETE. 

Genus 6*. Leersia. Cut-grass. 
L. ORYZOTDES. Fig. 1694. 

Leaves broad, rough-edged. Panicle with wavy branches. Keel of 
glume ciliate. S. counties. Aug., Sept. E. B. S. 2908. Bab. 393. 

Genus 13*. Apera. Wind-grass. 
A. INTERRUPTA. Fig. 1695. 

Panicle close. Anthers oval. Awn very long. E. counties. June, 
July. KB.S. 2951. Bab. 395. 

Genus 24. Poa. Meadow-grass. 

P. Balfourii. Fig. 1696. 

Boot-fibres perennial, creeping. Panicle spreading. Flowers 3 or 4, 
webbed. Ligule prominent, blunt. Mountains. July. U.B. S.2918. 
Bab. 402. 

P. Parnellii. Fig. 1697. 

Stem ascending. Panicle rather close. Upper sheath longer than 
its leaf. Flowers 2-3, acute, free. Ligule very short. Teesdale. July. 
E.B.S.2916. Bab. 403. 

Genus 24*. Glyceria. Flote-grass. 

G. fluitans. Fig. 1698. 

Stem floating. Panicle secund, slightly branched, very long. Spike- 
lets of 7-12 acute flowers. Lower palese three times as long as broad. 
Anthers long, purple. June-Sept. Bab. 403. 

Genus 35. Triticum. IVlieat-grass. 
T. AcuTt)M. Fig. 1699. 

Leaves ribbed (rough even above). Spike close. Glumes 5-7-ribbed, 
blunt or mucronate. Sea-shores. July, Aug. Bab. 412. 

Genus 37. Lolium. Rye-grass. 

L. LiNicoLA. Fig. 1700. 

Stem erect: no barren shoots. Spikelets 7-1 1-flowered. Lower 
nale longer than its awn or awnless. Sussex, Yorkshire. Juue, July. 
E.B.S. 2955. Bab.AlA. 







.T.WStr//rr ,M 



<9.5 



SUPPLEMENT. 



TERNS AND FERN-ALLIES. 



Br JOHN E. SOWERBY. 



Order CVIL EQUISETACEiE. 
Genus 1. Equisetum. 

E. ARVENSE. Field Horse-tail. Fig. 1701. 

Fertile stems unbranched ; sheaths distant, loose. Sterile stems vvitli 
12-14 striae. Moist j)astures. 6 in. to 2 ft. Perenn. March. E.B.\. 
2U20. ^.^.2.1461. TI.^Arn.bdS. 5a6.4. 414, 5. 415. N.77. S.\. 

E, UMBROSUM. Blunt-topped Horse-tail. Fig. 1703. 

Fertile stems unbranched, sheaths appressed. Sterile stems with 
about 20 striae. Moist woods. 2 ft. Perenn. March. E.B.S.2777. 
E.B.2.\4Q{). H.^^ dm. 597. Bab. 4. 415, 5.415. N.03. S.2. 

E. Telmateia. Great Horse-tail. Fig. 1703. 

Sterile stems nearly smooth, with about 30 striae. Marshes and 
bogs. 3-6 ft. high. Perenn. March. £".5.1.2022. £".5.2.1459. 
H.^ Am. 597. Bab. 4. 4\5, 5. 4U. N.67. S.3. 

E. SYLVATicuM. Wood Horse-tail. Fig. 1704. 

Stems with about 12 striae. Moist woods. 12-18 in. April, May. 
£:. 5. 1.1874. £.5.2.1462. U.Sf Am. 59S. 5«6. 4. 415, 5.416. 
N. 59. S. 4. 

E. LiMosuM. Smooth Horse-tail. Fig. 1705. 

Stems nearly smooth, with numerous slight striae. Ponds and ditches. 
2-4 ft. Perenn. July. £.5.1.929. £.5.2.1463. H. ^ Am. 
598. 5a6. 4.415, 5.416. iV.51. ^.5. 

E. PALUSTRE. Marsh Horse-tail. Fig. 1706. 

Stems rough, with 6 or 8 broad prominent striae. Watery places. 
6-18 in. Perenn. July. £.5.1.2021. £".5.2.1464. H.^Am. 
598. 5a6. 4. 416, 5.416. iV. 43. S.6. 

E. HYEMALE. Rouffh Horse-tail. Fig. 1707. 

Stems simple, very rough, with 14-20 striae. Damp woods. 2-3 ft. 
Aug. £". 5. 1. 915. £". 5. 2. 1465. H.^Arn. 599. Bab. 4. 416, 
5.417. A^. 17. ^.8. 

E. MooREi. Moore's Equisetum. Fig. 1708. 

Stem simple, rough, with 10-14 striae. Rockfield, Wicklow. 1-3 ft. 
Ann. Aug. 5a6.4. 416, 5. 417. -S. 12. 

E. Mackaii. Mackay's Equisetum. Fig. 1709. 

Stem erect, simple, very rough, with 8-12 striae. Shcathg close, ulti- 
mately wholly black. Mountain glens. 1-4 ft. Perenn. Aug. 
H.^ Am. 599. 5«5.4. 416, 5. 417. A^. 24. ^.9. 

E. VARiEGATiJM. Variegated Rough Horse-tail. Fig. 1710. 

Stems decumbent, with 4-10 striae. Sandy sea-shores. 1-8 in. 
Perenn. Aug. £.5.1.1987. £.5.2.1466. 77.^^/71.599. Bab \ 
416,5.417. A\31. S. lU 

z2 



172 

E. WiLSONi. TFihon's Equisetum. Fig. 1711. 

Stem erect, simple, nearly smooth, with 8-10 strire. Teeth short, 

blunt. Mucruss, Killarney. 2-3 ft. Perenn. Ang. iV. 31). S. 10. 

Order CVIII. FILICES. 

Suborder 1. Poltpodiace^. 

Tribe 1. PoLYPODiEiE. 

Genus 1. Cryptogkamme. 

C. CRISPA. RocJi Brake. Fig. 1712. 

Barren fronds bi-tripinnate, leaflets wedge-shaped. Fertile fronds 
linear- oblong, entire. Mountain rocks. 6-12 in. May, June. E.BA. 
1160. E.B.2AAA2. JI.^Arn.590. Bab. 4. 419, 5.420. N.W^. 
S. F. 39. 

Genus 2. Polypodium. 

P. VULGARE. Common Polypody. Fig. 1713. 

Fronds strap-shaped ; segments linear-lanceolate, somewhat serrated. 
Shady hedge-banks. 5-18 in. May-Aug. ^.7^.1.1149. E.B.2. 
1409. H.^Jrn.58l. Bab. 4. 419, 5.420. N.lll. S.F.I. 

P. Phegopteris. Mountain Polypody. Fig. 1714. 

Fronds subpinnate ; pinnce linear-lanceolate, the two lowest turned 
downwards and forwards, hairy. Moist woods and mountain rills. 
.0-12 in. Perenn. Julv-Sept. E.B.\.2224. E.B.2.\4\0. U.^ 
Arn.5S\. Bab. 4. 4\9, 5. 42\. N.\\5. S.F.2. 

P. Dryopteris. Tender '6-branched Polypody. Fig. 1715. 

Frouds ternate, glabrous ; segments pinnate, pinnae pinuatifid. Shady 
rocky places. 3-12 in. Perenn. June, July. jE".^. 1. 616. E.B.2. 
1411. H.^ Am. 582. Bab. 4. 420,5. 421. iV. 123. S. F.3. 

P. calcareum. Rigid ^-branched Polypody. Fig. 1716. 

Fronds triangular, siibternate, glandular. Limestone districts. 
4-12 in. Perenn. June, July. E.B.\. 1525. E. B. 2. 1412. H. ^- 
^ra.582. ^a6.4. 420, 5.421. A^. 131. S.F.4. 

P. alpestre. Alpine Polypody. Fig. 1717. 

Fronds lanceolate, bipinnate ; pinnse linear-lanceolate, pinuatifid, with 
obtuse serrated lobes. Highlands of Scotland. 6 in. to 3 ft. Perenn. 
July, Aug. H. ^ Am. 582. Bab. 5. 421. N. 200. S. F. 49. 
Genus 3. Woodsia. 

"W. Ilvensis. Oblong Woodsia. Fig. 1710. 

Fronds lanceolate, chaffy beneath ; pinnse oblong. Moist mountainous 
rocks. 2-3 in. Perenn. Aug. E.B.S.2C)U. E.B.2.\4\2,. H.^ 
Am. 583. Bab. 4. 420, 5. 422. N. 137. S.F.5. 

W. hyperborea. Alpine Woodsia. Fig. 1719. 

Fronds linear-lanceolate, glabrous ; pinnre triangular, pinuatifid. Alp- 
ine rocks. 2-3 in. Perenn. July. ii". i?. 1. '^023. ii\-B. 2. 1414. 
H.^ Am. 583. Bab. 5. 422. A^. 143. S.F.^. 

Tribe 2. Aspidie^e. 
Genus 4. Lastrea. 
L. Thelypteris. Marsh Fern. Fig. 1720. 

Fronds lanceolate, pinnate ; pinnse linear-lanceolate, slightly downy, 
without glands. Sori submarginal. Marshy places. 1-4 ft. Perenn. 
July, Aug. ^.5.1.1018. E.B. 2. \420. H.^Arn.584. Bab. 4. 
421,5.422. A^. 183. S.F.7. 



^^ /70//Z, /7^'0. 




•T K S.S ctilp 



173 

L. Oreopteris. Sweet 3Iountain Fern. Fig. 1721. 

Fronds tufted, pinnate ; pinnse linear-lanceolate, pinnatifid, with 
resinous glands beneath, gradually decreasing to the root. Upland 
heaths and woods. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July. £".7^.1.1019. E.B.2. 
1419. II.^Arn.bBi. Bab. 4. 421, 5.422. iV. 187. S. F. 8. 

L. FiLix-MAs. 31ale Fern. Fig. 1722. 

Fronds lanceolate, hipinnate ; pinnse linear-lanceolate. Sori near the 
mid-vein. Woods and hedge-banks. 2-5 ft. Perenn. June, July. 
JE". 5. 1.1458. ^.2?. 2. 1422. H. 4' Am. 585. Bab. 4. 421, 5. 423. 

AM 98. S.F.O. 

L. RiGiDA. Eiffifl Lastrea. Fig. 1723. 

Fronds triangular-lanceolate, bipinnate, glandular. Indusium fringed 
with glands. Limestone rocks. 1-2 ft. Perenn. July, Aug. E. B. S. 
2724. ^.5.2.1423. II.^Arn.585. Bab. 4. 422,' 5. 423. N.\n, 
S.F.W. 

L. CRisTATA. Crested Fern. Fig. 1724. 

Fronds linear-lanceolate ; pinnae short, triangular-oblong, with oblong 
serrated lobes. Bogs; rare. 2ft. Perenn. Aug. ^.5.1.2125. 
JS'.^. 2. 1421. H.^ Am. 584. Bab. 4. 421,5.423. iV. 203. S.F.IQ. 

L. spiNULOSA. Narrow Prickly-toothed Fern. Fig. 1725. 

Fronds linear-lanceolate, bipinnate. Scales of stipe broad, ovate, 
pale. Damp woods. 1-3 ft. Perenn. July-Sept. jE". ^. 1. 14G0. 
ii; i?. 2. 1424. ^".(^^^.586. Bab. 4. 422, 5.424. N. 203. S.F. 12. 

L. DiLATATA. Brood Prickly-toothed Fern. Fig. 1726. 

Frond ovato-lanceolate, bipinnate. Scales of stipe long, lanceolate, 
dark in the centre. £".^.1.1461. £'.1^.2.1425. Bab. 4, 422, 5. 424. 
N.2\5. S.F.U. 

L. FCENiSECii. Recurved Prickly-toothed Fern. Fig. 1727. 

Fronds curved, triangular-ovate, bipinnate. Scales of stipe narrow, 
lanceolate, laciniate, pale. Damp shady places. 1-3 ft. Aug., Sept. 
Bab. 4. 422, 5. 424. N. 225. S. F. 14. 



Genus 5. Polysticoum. 

P. LoNCHiTis. Holly Fern. Fig. 1728- 

Fronds rigid, linear-lanceolate ; pinnse spinose-serrate, auricled above, 

oblique below. Mountainous districts. 3-18 in. Perenn. July. 

F.B.I. 797. ^.^.2.1415. H.^ Am. 583. Bab. 4. 423, 5.424. 

N.163. S.F. 15. 

P. ACULEATUM. Prickly Shield Fern. Fig. 1729. 

Frond rigid, subpinnate, pinnules more or less decurrent. Hed^e- 
banks. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July, Aug. ^. J?. 1. 15(52. Zi". ^. 2. 1417. 
U.^ Am. 583. Bab. 4.423,5.425. iV. 169. S.F. 17. 

P. LOBATUM. Close-leaved Prickly Shield Fern. Fig. 1730. 

Frond rigid, simply pinnate ; pinnse lobed or pinnatifid. Hedge- 
banks. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July, Aug. E.B.I. \5Q3. E.B.2.\4\(i, 
II. ^^ Am. 583. S.F.lfi. 



174 

P. ANGUi.ARE. Angular-leaved Shield Fern. Fig. 1731. 

Frond Icix, bii)Uinate ; ])iiuiules truncate below, distinctly stalked. 
Sheltered woods. 2-3 ft. Perenn. July, Aug. E.B.S.2776. E.n.2. 
1418. II.^Jrn.5S4. Bab. 4. 423, 5. 425. N.173. S.F. 18. 

Genus 6. Cystopteiiis. 

C. FRAGiLis. Brittle Bladder Fern. Fig. 1732. 

Frond lanceolate, bipinnate ; pinnae lanceolate, pinnules ovato-lan- 
ceolate, sharply toothed. Rocks and walls. 2-12 in. Perenn. July. 
KB. I. 1587. E.B.2.1427. H.^Arn.587. Bab. 4. 423,5.425. 
N.155. S.F. 19. 

C. ANGUSTATA. Narrow Bladder Fern. Fig. 1733. 

Frond oblong-lanceolate ; pinnules lanceolate, acute, cut, more or less 
decurrent. Loose stone fences. 4-10 in. Perenn. July. E.B.S. 
2790. ^.i?. 2. 1428. iV. 156. S.F. 20. 

C. DENTATA. Toothed Bladder Fern. Fig. 1734. 

Frond lanceolate, bipinnate; pinnules ovate, blunt, bluntly toothed. 
Hocky places. 4-6 in. Perenn. July. E.B.I. 1588. E.B.2.\42G. 
Bab. 4. 424, 5. 425. N.\54. S.F. 21. 

C. ALPiNA. Alpine Bladder Fern. Fig. 1735. 

Fronds lanceolate, bipinnate ; pinnules confluent, oblong-ovate, deeply 
pinnatifid ; lobes broadly and shortly linear, with two or three erect 
blunt teeth. Low Ley ton, Essex. 4 in. Perenn. July. E.B. 1. 
163. E. B. 2. 1429. //. ^ Am. 587. Bab. 4. 424, 5. 426. S. F. 23. 

C. MONTANA. Mountain Bladder Fern. Fig. 1736. 

Fronds triangular, tripinnate ; pinnae and pinnules spreading, lobes 
toothed at the apex. Scotch mountains. 6-8 in. Perenn. Aug. 
H.^ Am. 587. Bab. 4. 424, 5. 426. iV. 98. S.F. 24. 

C, DiCKiEANA. Broad-leaved Bladder Fern. Fig. 1737. 

Fronds ovate-lanceolate, pinnae overlapping. A variety of C. dentata. 
Near Aberdeen. 3-4 in. Perenn. Aug. N. 93. S. F. 22. 

Tribe 3. AsPLENiEiE. 

Genus 7. Athyrium. 

A. FiLix-F(EMiNA. Lady Fern. Fig. 1738. 

Fronds lanceolate, pinnate; pinnules linear-oblong, deeply serrated. 
Damp woods. 1-5 ft. Perenn. June, July. ^. i?. 1. 1459. E.B.2. 
1438. //. S,-Arn. 589. Bab. 4. 425, 5. 426. N. 207. S. F. 25. 

Genus 8. Asplenium. 

A. FONTANUM. Smooth Rock Spleemvort. Fig. 1739. 

Fronds linear-lanceolate, rigid ; pinnules obovatc, with a few large 
mucronate teeth. Walls; rare. 4 in. Perenn. June-Sept. E.B.I. 
2024. E.B. 2.1439. H.^- Am. 589. Bab. 4. 425, 5. 427. S.F. 26. 

A. LANCEOi.ATUM. Lanceolate Spleenwort. Fig. 1740. 

Fronds lanceolate, bipinnate ; pinnules obovate, deeply and sharj)ly 
toothed. Sori short, nearly marginal. Rocks and old walls. 2-18 in. 
Perenn. June-Sept. ^-.i?. 1.240. E.B. 2. 1436. 11.^ Am. 588. 
Bab. 4. 425, 5. 427. N. 249. <S. F. 27. 







XE^S S 



175 

A. Adiantum-nigrum. Black Spleenwort. Fig. 1741. 

Fronds triangular-ovate, 2-3-pinnate, pinnte triangular. Sori long, 
near the mid-vein. Walls and hedge-banks. 3-1 2 in. Perenn. June- 
Sept. E.B.\.\0:>0. E.B.2.\437. H.^-Arn.bSO. Bab. 4. 426, 
5.427. iV^.225. S.F.28. 

A. Trichomanes. Common Wall Spleenwort. Fig. 1743. 

Fronds linear, ])innate ; pinnae roundish-oblong, crcnate. Raehis 
purplish-black. Rocks and walls. 2-1 2 in. Perenn. j\Iay-Octobcr. 
E. B. 1. 576. E. B. 2. 1432. //. ^ Am. 588. Bab. 4. 420, 5. 427. 
N. 28.5. S. F. 30. 

A. viRiDE. Green Spleenwort. Fig. 1743. 

Fronds linear, pinnate ; pinnae roundish-ovate, crenate, stalked. 
Rachis green. Moist rocky places. 2-1 2 in. Perenn. June-Octol)or. 
E.B.I. 2257. E.B. 2. 1433. H.^Ar7i. 588. Bab. 4. 426, 5.427. 
iV. 281. iS". F. 31. 

A. MARiNUM. Sea Spleenwort. Fig. 1744. 

Fronds linear, pinnate ; pinnae stalked, unequally wedge-shaped at 
the base. Rocks near the sea. 1-24 in. Perenn. June-Oct. E.Ji.l. 
392. £'.^.2.1434. ^.^^rw. 588. ^a6. 4. 426, 5. 428. iV. 275. 
S. F. 29. 

A. RuTA-MURARiA. Wall Ruc. Fig. 1745. 

Fronds bipinnate ; pinnules rhomboid-wedge-shaped, notched or 
toothed. Indusium jagged. Old walls. 3-4 in. Perenn. May-Sept. 
^.i?. 1.150. E.B. 2. 1435. II. ^ Am. 588. Bab. 4. 426, 5.428. 
N.261. S.F. 32. 

A. GERMANicuM. Altematc-leaved Spleenwort. Fig. 1743. 

Fronds pinnate ; pinnae alternate, wedge-shaped. Indusium entire. 
Rocks; rare. 3-4 in. Perenn. June-Sept. £".5.1.2258. E.B. 2. 
1430. H.l^Am.588. Bab.4.426,5. 428. iV. 265. >S'. i^. 33. 

A. SEPTENTRiONALE. Forked Spleenwort. Fig. 1747. 

Fronds 2-3-cleft ; segments long, 2-3-toothed. Rocks ; rare. 2-4 in. 
Perenn. June-Oct. £'.5.1.1017. £.5.2.1431. H.^^Arn.588. 
Bab. 4. 426, 5. 428. N. 269. S. F. 34. 

Genus 9. Scolopendrium. 

S. VULGARE. Common Harfs-tongue. Fig. 1748. 

Fronds linear, strap-shaped, cordate at the base. Stipe shaggy. 
Shady damp places. 6 in.-3 feet. Perenn. July, Aug. E.B.I. 
3150. £.5.2.1440. H.^- Am. 500. Bab. 4.427. 5. 428. N.289. 
S. F. 35. 

Genus 10. Ceterach. 

C. OFFiciNARUM. Scoly Spleenwort. Fig. 1749. 

Fronds pinnatifid, covered beneath with dense scales. Old walls and 
ruins. 2-8 in. Perenn. April-Oct. £.5.1.1244. £.5.2.1408. 
//. ^- Am. 580. Bab. 4. 427, 5. 428. N. 277. S. F. 36. 

Genus 11. Gymnogramme. 

G. LEPTOPHYLLA. Slender Gymnogramme. Fig. 1750. 

Fronds ovate, bipinnate, fragile; pinnae wedge-shaped, obtuse. Banks. 
Jersey. 2-6 in. Ann. April. H.^ Am. 580. Bab. 4. 427, 5. 42S. 
iV. II. S.F.48. 



176 

Tribe 4. Adiante^. — Genus 12. Blechnum. 

B. BOREALE. Uard Fern. Fig. 1751. 

Fertile fronds pinnate ; pinnee linear, acute. Barren fronds pec- 
tinate, pinnatifid ; pinnae broadly linear. Woods. 6 in.-2 ft. Perenn. 
.Tuly. £'.i?. 1.1159. £'.5.2.1441. U.^- Am. 590. Jiab.4.427, 

5.429. iV. 17. S.F.37. 

Genus 13. Pteris. 
P. AQUiLiNA. Common Brake. Fig. 1752. 

Fronds tripartite ; brandies bipinnate ; segments oblong, obtuse. 
Ileatbs and moors. 6in.-8ft. Perenn. July. E.B.\.\679. E.B.2, 
1442. H.^Jrn. 590. Bab. 4. 427, 5.429. N.23. S.F. 38. 
Genus 14. Adiantum. 

A. Capillus-Veneris. Maiden-hair. Fig. 1753. 
Frond irregular; pinnules roundisb-wedge-shaped, lobed. Sea-caves 

and rocks. 3-12 in. Perenn. May-Sept. E.B.I. 1564. E.B.2. 
1444. H.^Arn. 591. Bab. 4. 428, 5. 429. N.\. S.F. 40. 
Tribe 5. Hymenophyllete. — Genus 15. Trichomanes. 

T. RADiCANs. Bristle Fern. Fig. 1754. 

Fronds 3-4 times pinnatifid, glabrous. Involucres solitary, in tbe 
axils of tbe upper segments. Dripping rocks, Ireland. 3-12 in. 
Perenn. Sept., Oct. ^.5.1.1417. E.B. 2.1445. H.^Arn.59\. 
Bab. 4. 428, 5. 429. N.283. S.F.41. 

Genus 16. Hymenophyllum. 

H. TuNBRiDGENSE. Filmy Fern. Fig. 1755. 

Fronds pinnate, membranaceous ; pinnae distichous. Involucre 
solitary, compressed, spinosely serrate. Damp moss. 1-4 in. Perenn. 
Aug. ^.5.1.162. £'.£.2.1446. H.^ Am. 592. Bab. 4. 428, 

5.430. N.297. S.F. 42. 

H. WiLSONi. Scottish Filmy Fern. Fig. 1756. 

Fronds pinnate ; pinnae recurved. Involucre stalked, inflated, entire. 
Damp moss. 1-4 in. Perenn. Aug. E.B.S. 2686. E.B. 2. 1447. 
H.^- Am. 592. Bab. 4. 428, 5. 430. N.30\. S.F. 43. 

Suborder 2. Osmundace^. 
Tribe 6. OsMUNDEiE. — Genus 17. Osmunda. 
O. REGALis. Flowering Fern. Fig. 1757. 

Fronds bipinnate ; pinnules oblong. Fructification in panicles, ter- 
minal. Margins of rivers and lakes. 1-1 1ft. £.5.1.209. E.B. 2. 
1448. H.^ Am. 593. Bab. 4.429,5.430. iV. 307. -S.i^.44. 

Suborder 3. OpniOGLOssACEiE. 
Tribe 7. OpHioGLOSSEiE. — Genus 18. Botrychium. 

B. LuNARiA. Moonwort. Fig. 1758. 
Frond pinnate ; pinnae fan-sbaped, notched. Commons and ])astures. 

3-6 in. Perenn. Aug. E. B. 1. 318. E. B. 2. 1449. H. ^- Am. 
594. 5a5. 4.429,5.430. A^. 313. S.F. 45. 
Genus 19. Ophioglossum. 

O. VXJLGATUM. Common Adder s-tovyiie. Fig. 1759. 

Frond ovate, blunt. Spike club-shaped. Meadovps. 2-1 2 in. Perenn. 
May, June. £'.5.1.108. £.5.2.1450. H.^'Am.593. Bab. 4. 

429.5.430. A^.325. S.F. 46. 

O. LUSiTANicuM. Lcsser Adder'' s-tonyue. Fig. 1760. 

Frond linear-lanceolate. Guernsey. 1-2 in. Perenn. Jan. Bab. 4. 

429.5.431. AT. 331. S.F. 47. 




■I i; S Souljjt ^^ 



6'(9 



177 

Order CIX. MARSILEACEiE. 
Genus 1. Pilularia. 

P. GLOBULIFERA. PUlwort. Fig. 1761. 

Rhizome creeping, slender, producing leaves and roots at regular in- 
tervals. Margins of lakes. 1-5 in. Perenn. May. E.B.\.b2\. 
E.B. 2. 1458. H.^Arn.5%. i?a6. 4. 430, 5.431. SA4. 

Order CX. LYCOPODIACEiE. 

Genus 1. Isoetes. 

I. LACUSTRis. Quillwort. Fig. 1762. 

No persistent leaf-bases ; larger spores bluntly tubercled. Aquatic. 
Bottom^ of lakes. 2-6 in. Perenn. July. ^.B. 1.1084. E.li.2. 
1457. if. ^^m. 596. ^a6. 4. 430, 5. 432. -S. 13. 

I ECHINOSPORA. ■''1&' ■•■•oo. 

No persistent leaf-bases ; larger spores very acutely tubercled. Aquatic 
(Bab.). Bottom of pools. 1-4 in. Perenn. July. Bab. 5. 462. 

I Hystrix. Fig. 1764. 

Rhizome more or less covered by the persistent hardened leaf-bases. 
Terrestrial (5a6.). Dampish sandy places. 1-2 m. Perenn. May, 
June. ^a6.5.432. 

Genus 2. Lycopodium. 

L. CLAVATUM. Common Club-moss. Fig. 1765. 

Stem creeping, long ; leaves scattered, incurved ; spikes 2-3, stalked. 

Heaths and high pastures. Perenn. July, Aug. ^.5.1.224. E.B.Z. 

1451. H.^ Am. 595. Bab. 4. 430,5.432. S. 15. 

L. ANNOTiNXJM. Interrupted Club-moss. Fig. 1766. 

Stem creeping, long ; leaves spreading ; spikes sessile, sohtary, ter- 
minal. Stony mountains. Perenn. Aug. E.B.I. 1727. E. B. Z. 

1452. H.^ Am. 595. J5a6. 4. 430, 5. 432. S. 16. 

L. ALPiNUM. Savin-leaved Club-moss. Fig. 1767. 

Stem creeping; leaves in four rows, imbricated; spikes sessile, 
terminal. High moorlands and mountains. 2-5 in. Perra". Aug. 
£.5. 1.234. i^. 5. 2. 1455. H.Sr Am. 595. Bab. 4. 43\, 5.432. 

S.17. 

L. Selago. Fir Club-moss. Fig. 1768. 

Stem short, erect ; leaves obscurely 8-rowed. Barren sandy heaths. 
2-9 in. Perenn. June-Aug. ^.5.1.233. E.B.2.14d6. H.^Arn. 
595. 5a6. 4. 431, 5.433. S. 18. 

L. inundatum. Marsh Club-moss. Fig. 176 . 

Stem creeping ; leaves scattered, curved upwards ; spikes terminal, 
sessile. Moist boggy heaths. 1-3 in. Perenn. Aug-, Sept. E.B.v. 
239. E,B. 2.1453. H.^Am.595. Bab. 4. 431,5.433. S. 19. 

L. SELAGINOIDES. Lcsser Alpine Club-moss. Fig. 1770. 

Stem creeping, branched ; spikes sohtary, sessile, terminal. Boggy 
ground. 2^ in. Perenn. Aug. ^.i?. 1.1148. ^.^.2.14.4. 
H.^Am.595. fifl6.4. 431, 5. 433. S.2Q. 



178 

Order CXI. CHARACE/E. 
Genus 1. Chara. 

C. FLEXiLis. Flaccid Nitella. Fig. 1771. 

Monoecious. Stem sleuder ; branchlets pointed, nearly equally forked. 
Ditches. G-9 in. Perenn. May. ^.i/. 1.1070. ii". ^. 2. 14G8. 
iiai. 4. 433,5.434. -S. 21. 

C. SYNCARPA. Twin-fruited Nitella. Pig. 1772. 

Dioecious. Stems slender, smooth ; branchlets bluntish, nearly 
equally forked. Stagnant waters. 6-12 in. Ann. June. ^a6. 4.432, 
5. 434. S. 22. 

C. TRANSLUCENS. Translucetit Nitella. Fig. 1773. 

Monoecious. Stem thick, transparent. Sterile branchlets simple. 
Deep pools. 6-9 in. Ann. July. E.B. 1. 1855. E. 3. 2. 1467. 
i?a6. 4. 432, 5. 434. iS". 23. 

C. GRACILIS. Slender Nitella. Fig. 1774. 

Monoecious. Stem slender, flexible, transparent ; branchlets in lax 
whorls. St. Leonard's Forest, Sussex. 3-6 in. Ann. Sept. E. B.\. 
2140. jE". 5. 2. 1470. £a6.4.433, 5. 434. S. 24. 

C. Smithii. Smith's Nitella. Fig. 1775. 

Dioecious. Stem slender, equal, transparent; branchlets blunt, pri- 
mary whorls simple. Lancing, Sussex. 3-6 in. Ann, Sept. E.B.I. 
1703. ^.-B. 2. 1469. 5a6. 4. 433, 5. 435. 5.25. 

C. PROLiFERA. Proliferous Nitella. Fig. 1776. 

Monoecious. Stem slender ; branchlets blunt, primary whorls simple. 
Ditches. 3-6 in. Ann. April. J?a6. 4. 433, 5.435. -S. 26. 

C. VULGARIS. Common Chara. Fig. 1777. 

Monoecious. Stem rough, finely striate. Ditches and streams. 

6-9 in. Ann. June- Aug. jF.^. 1.336. E.B.2.\A7\.. Bab. A. 
435, 5. 436. S. 27. 

C. HispiDA. Bristly Chara. Fig. 1778. 

Monoecious. Stem thickened upwards, striated, spinulose. Ditches. 
6-9 in. Ann. May-Aug. ^.5.1.436. ^.Z?. 2. 14/5. Bab. 4. 
435,5.436. <S. 28. 

C. ASPERA. Rough Chara. Fig. 1779. 

Dioecious. Stem smooth, flexible, with setaceous patent spines. 
Bog-pits. 1-2 ft. Ann. Aug. E.B.S.273S. E.B. 2. 1474. Bab. 4. 
435, 5. 436. S. 29. 

C. FRAGiLis. Fragile Chara. Fig. 1780. 

Monoecious. Stem slender, smooth, finely striate, not spinous. 
Stagnant water. 6-9 in. Ann. June-Aug. E. B. S. 2762. E. B. 2. 
1472. Bab. 4. 435, 5. 436. S. 30. 



OL 



2762^ 




J ES.Sculy.t 



'9y 



179 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES. 



Acer, 26. 
Accraceso, 26. 
Aceras, 124. 
Achillsea, 76. 
Acinos, 98. 
Aconitum, 4. 
Acorus, 135. 
ActiEa, 4. 
Actinocarpus, 134. 
Adiantese, 176. 
Adiantum, 176. 
Adonis, 1. 
Adoxa, 58. 
jEgopodium, 53. 
^thusa, 55. 
Agrimonia, 40. 
Agrostemma, 19. 
Agrostis, 150. 
Aira, 151. 
Ajuga, 95. 
Alchemilla, 40, 163. 
Alisma, 134. 
Alismaceae, 134. 
Allium, 129, 167. 
Alnus, 113. 
Alopecurus, 148. 
Alsine, 162. 
Althaea, 24. 
Alyssum, 10. 
Amaranthacese, 102. 
Amaranthus, 102. 
Amaryllidaceae, 127. 
Amentiferse, 167. 
Ammophila, 148, 
Anacharis, 122. 
Anagallis, 101. 
Anchusa, 85. 
Andromeda, 80. 
Anemone, 1. 
Angelica, 55. 
Antennaria, 71. 
Anthemis, 75. 
Antliericum, 130. 
Anthoxanthum, 147. 
Anthriscus, 57. 
Anthyllis, 29. 
Antirrhinum, 91. 
Apargia, 65. 
Apera, 170. 
Apium, 52. 
Apocynaccee, 81. 



Aquifoliaceae, 81. 
Aquilegia, 4. 
Ai'abis, 10. 
Araccae, 135, 168. 
AraliacejB, 58. 
Arbutus, 80. 
Arctium, 68, 165. 
Arctostaphylos, 80. 
Arenaria, 21, 162. 
Aristolocliia, 108. 
AristolochiaceiB, 108. 
Armeria, 101, 166. 
Arrhenatherum, 152. 
Artemisia, 70. 
Arvun, 135, 168. 
Arundo, 158. 
Asarum, 109. 
Asparagaceae, 167. 
Asparagus, 128. 
Asperugo, 86. 
Aspenila, 61. 
Aspidiese, 172. 
Aspleniese, 174. 
Asplenium, 174. 
Aster, 73. 
Astragalus, 33. 
Astrantia, 164. 
Athyrium, 174. 
Atriplex, 104, 167. 
Atropa, 86. 
Avena, 157. 
Azalea, 80. 

Ballota, 95. 

Balsaminacese, 28. 
Barbarea, 11. 
Bartsia, 89. 
BeUis, 74. 
Berberidacece, 4. 
Berberis, 4. 
Beta, 102. 
Bctonica, 97. 
Betula, 112. 
Betulacese, 112. 
Bidens, 70. 
Bleehnum, 176. 
Boraginacese, 83. 
Borago, 86. 
Borkliausia, 67. 
Botrychmm, 176. 
Brachypodium, 160. 



Brassica, 13. 
Briza, 154. 
Bromus, 156. 
Bryonia, 46. 
Buffonia, 19. 
Bunium, 53. 
Bupleurum, 54. 
Butomacese, 134. 
Butomus, 134. 
Buxus, 111. 

Cakile, 7. 

Calamagrostis, 150. 
Calamintha, 98, 106. 
Callitrichacese, 111. 
CaUitriche, 111. 
Calluna, 79. 
Caltha, 3. 
Camelina, 9. 
Campanula, 77. 
Campanulaccae, 77. 
Caprifoliacese, 59. 
Capsella, 7. 
Cardamine, 10, 161. 
Carduus, 68. 
Carex, 141, 169. 
CarUna, 70. 
Carpinus, 121. 
Carum, 53. 
Caryophyllacece, 17, 

162. 
Castanea, 121. 
Catabrosa, 150. 
Caucalis, 56. 
Celastracese, 28. 
Centaurea, 76. 
Centranthus, 62. 
Centunculus, 101. 
Cerastium, 22, 162. 
Ceratophyllaceoe, 111. 
Ceratophyllum, 111. 
Ceterach, 175. 
ChaerophyUum, 57. 
Chara, 178. 
Characeae, 178. 
Cheiranthus, 12. 
Chelidonium, 6. 
Chenopodiaceac, 102, 

167. 
Chenopodium, 102. 
Cherleria, 23. 
2b 



180 



INDEX OP LATIN NAMrS. 



Clilora, 82. 
Clii-ysantlicmum, 75. 
Clirysoconia, 70. 
Clirysospleniuni, 51. 
Ciccndia, 1G5. 
Cichorium, G8. 
Cicufa, 52. 
Ciiu'raria, 74. 
Circa>a, 45. 
Cii^tiU'cte, 14. 
Cladium, 138. 
CU'nintis, 1. 
Clinopodium, 98. 
Cnicus, 69. 
Cochloaria, 8. 
Colchicum, 131. 
Comarum, 39. 
CompositfP, 03, 165. 
ConiiersD, 121. 
Conium, 58. 
Convallaria, 128. 
Convolvulacoa!,83,166. 
Convolvulus, 83. 
Conjza, 72. 
Corallorhiza, 126. 
Coriandrum, 58. 
Cornaccffi, 58. 
Cornus, 58. 
Coronopus, 7. 
Corrigiola, 46. 
Corydalis, 6. 
Corylus, 121. 
Cotoncaster, 43. 
Cotyledon, 47. 
Crambe, 7. 
Crassulacece, 47. 
Crataegus, 43. 
Crcpis, 67, 165. 
Crithmum, 55. 
Crocus, 127. 
Cruciferse, 7, 161. 
Cryptogramnie, 172. 
Cucubalus, 18. 
Cucurbitaccse, 46. 
Cupuliferffi, 121. 
Cuscuta, 83, 166. 
Cyclamen, ICO. 
Cynodon, 160. 
Cynoglossum, 86. 
Cynosurus, 155. 
Cyperacese, 138, 169. 
Cypcrus, 138. 
Cypripedmm, 126. 
Cystopteris, 174. 
Cytisus, 29. 

Dactylis, 154. 

Daphne, 108. 
Datura, 86. 
Daucus, 56. 
Delphinium, 4. 
Dentaria, 10. 
Dianthus, 17, 162. 



Digitalis, 91. 
Digitaria, 160. 
Dioscoreacea;, 122. 
Diotis, 70. 
Dipsaccffi, 62. 
Dipsacus, 62. 
Doronicum, 71'. 
Draba, 9. 
Droscra, 16. 
Droseraeea>, 16. 
Dryas, 37. 

Echinophora, 58. 
Eciiiuiii, 83. 
Ela;agnacea5, 112. 
Elatine, 17. 
Eleoeharis, i;^9. 
Eleogiton, 139. 
Elymus, 158. 
Elyna, 141. 
Empetraceae, 109. 
Empctrum, 109. 
Epilobium, 41, 164. 
Epimedium, 4. 
Epipactis, 125, 167. 
Epipogium, 167. 
Equisetacese, 171. 
Equisetum, 171. 
Erica, 79, 165. 
Ericacea?, 79, 165. 
Erigeron, 72. 
Eriocaulon, 131. 
Eriophorum, 140, 169. 
Erodium, 27. 
Ei-vum, 34. 
Eryngium, 52. 
ErysLmum, 12. 
Erythrffia, 81. 
Euonymus, 28. 
Eupatorium, 70. 
Euphorbia, 109, 167. 
Euphorbiaceee, 109, 

167. 
Euphrasia, 90. 
Exacum, 81, 165. 

Fagus, 121. 
Fedia, 62. 
Festuca, 155. 
Filago, 165. 
Filices, 172. 
Fceniculum, 55. 
Fragaria, 38. 
Frankenia, 17. 
Frankeniacese, 17. 
Fraxinus, 81. 
Fritillaria, 130. 
Fumaria, 6, It 1. 
Fumariaccse, 6, 161. 

Gagca, 130. 
Galanthus, 128. 
Galcobdolon, 96. 



Galeopsifl, 96. 
Galium, 60, 165. 
Gastridium, 149. 
Genista, 29. 
Gcntiana, 82. 
Gentianacesc, 81, 165. 
Gcraniaceffi, 26. 
Geranium, 26. 
Gcum, 37. 
Gladiolus, 168. 
Glauciuin, 6. 
Glaux, 100. 
Glechoma, 97. 
Glyceria, 170. 
Gnaphalium, 71. 
Goodyera, 125. 
Graminea;, 147, 170. 
Grossulariaceffi, 49. 
Gyinnadenia, 123. 
Gymuogramme, 175. 

Habenaria, 123. 
Haloragaccfe, 45. 
Iledera, 58. 
Ilelianthemum, 14. 
Ilelleborus, 4. 
Helminthia, 63. 
Ilelosciadiimi, 52. 
Heracleum, 56. 
Hcrminium, 124. 
Heniiaria, 47. 
Hesperis, 13. 
Hieracium, 65, 165. 
Hierochloe, 152. 
Ilippocrepis, 33. 
Hippophae, 112. 
Hippuris, 45. 
Holcus, 151. 
Holosteum, 20. 
Hordeum, 158. 
Hottonia, 99. 
Humulus, 112. 
Ilutchinsia, 8. 
Hyacinthus, 128. 
Ilydrocharidacea;, 122. 
Hydrocharis, 122. 
Hydrocotyle, 51. 
Hymenophyllese, 176. 
Hymenophyllum, 176. 
Hyoscyamus, 86. 
Hypericaceae, 24, 162. 
Hypericum, 24, 162. 
Hypochoeris, 67. 

Iberis, 8. 
Ilex, 81. 
lUeeebracese, 46. 
Illecebrum, 47. 
Impatiens, 28. 
Inula, 74. 
Iridacero, 126, 168. 
Iris, 126. 
Isatis, 7. 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES. 



isi 



Isnardia, 45. 
Isoetes, 177. 

Jasione, 78. 
JuncacL'iB, 131, 168. 
Juncaginacece, 134. 
J uncus, 131, 1G8. 
Juaiperus, 121. 

Knappia, IGO. 
Koeleiia, 152. 
Kouiga, 10. 

LabiattB, 93, 166. 
Lactuca, 64. 
Lagurus, 149. 
Lamium, 90, 166. 
Lapsana, 68. 
Lastrea, 172. 
Lathrcca, 87. 
Lathyrus, 35. 
Lavatera, 24. 
Leersia, 170. 
Leguminosse, 28, 163 
Lemna, 135. 
Lentibulariaceso, 99. 
Leontodon, 64. 
Leonurus, 96. 
Lepidium, 8. 
Leptui'us, 160. 
Leucqjum, 128. 
Ligusticum, 55. 
Ligustrum, 81. 
Liliacete, 128, 167. 
Lilium, 130, 168. 
Limbarda, 74. 
Liraosella, 92. 
Linaccse, 23. 
Linaria, 91. 
LinnjEa, 59. 
Linum, 23. 
Liparis, 126. 
Listera, 125. 
Litbospormum, 84. 
Littorclla, 102. 
Lobelia, 78. 
Lobeliacea?, 78. 
Lolium, 160, 170. 
Loniccra, 59. 
Loranthaceae, 59. 
Lotus, 32. 
Luzula, 133, 168. 
Lychnis, 19. 
Lycopodiaccre, 177. 
Lycopodiura, 177. 
Lycopsis, 85. 
Lycopus, 93. 
Lysimachia, 100, IGG. 
Lythraceaj, 46. 
Lythrum, 46. 

iraianthemiim, 107 
Malaxis, 123. 



Malva, 24, 162. 
Malvacese, 24, 162. 
Marrubium, 98. 
MarsilcacesD, 177. 
Matricaria, 75. 
Matthiola, 12. 
Meconopsis, 5. 
Medlcago, 29, 163. 
Melampyrum, 90. 
Melanthacesc, 131. 
Melica, 151. 
MelHotus, 30, 163. 
Melittis, 98. 
Mentha, 93. 
Menyanthes, 82. 
Menziesia, 79. 
MercuriaUs, 109. 
MespUus, 43. 
Meum, 55. 
MiHum, 149. 
Moenchia, 20. 
Monotropa, 81. 
Monotropacese, 81. 
Montia, 46. 
Muscari, 128. 
Myosotis, 84. 
Myosurus, 2. 
Myrica, 112. 
Myricacese, 112. 
Myriophyllum, 46. 
Myrrhis, 58. 

NaiadaceiB, 136, 169. 
Naias, 169. 
Narcissus, 127. 
Nardus, 147. 
Narthecium, 131. 
Nasturtium, 11. 
Neottia, 125, 167. 
Nepeta, 97. 
Nuphar, 5. 
Nymphsea, 5. 
Nymphffiacea), 5. 

(Enanthe, 54, 164. 
OEuothera, 45. 
Oleaceaj, 81. 
Onagraccaj, 44, 164. 
Onobrychis, 33. 
Ononis, 29. 
Onopordum, 69. 
Ophioglossaccse, 176. 
Ophioglossum, 176. 
Ophrys, 124. 
Orchidacese, 122, 167. 
Orchis, 122, 167. 
Origanum, 95. 
Ornithogahim, 130. 
Ornithopus, 33. 
Orobanchacea;, 86, IGG. 
Orobanche, 86, IGG. 
Orobus, 35. 
Oi'ontiacea;, 135. 



Osmunda, 176. 
Osmundaceaj, 170. 
Oxalidaceae, 28. 
Oxalis, 28. 
Oxycoccus, 79. 
Oxyria, 108. 
Oxytropis, 33. 

Pseonia, 4. 

Panicum, 152. 

Papaver, 5. 

Papaveracea;, 5. 

Parietaria, 112. 

Paris, 122. 

Parnassia, 26. 

Pastinaca, 56. 

Pedicularis, 90, 

Peplis, 46. 

Petasites, 72. 

PetroseHnuin, 52. 

Pcucedanuiii, 55. 

rJialaris, 148. 

Phleum, 148. 

Physospernium, CO. 

Phyteuma, 78. 

Picris, 63. 

PHularia, l77. 

Pimpinella, 53. 

Pinguicula, 99. 

Pinus, 121. 

Pistiacese, 135. 

Pisum, 35. 

Plantaginacca?, 102. 

Plantago, 102. 

PlumbaginacesE, 101, 
166. 

Poa, 152, 170. 

Polemoniaceffi, 83. 

Polemonium, 83. 

Polycarpon, 47. 

Polygala, 16. 

Polygalaceae, 16. 

Polygonacese, 103. 

Polygonum, 105. 

Polypodiacese, 172. 
Polypodium, 172. 
Polypogon, 149. 
Polystichum, 173. 
Populus, 120. 
Portulacese, 46. 
Potamogeton, 136,10?, 
Potamogetoiiace£c,lU9. 
Potentilla, 39. 
Poterium, 41, 161. 
Prenanthes, 64. 
Primula, 99. 
Primulacere, 99, IGG. 
Prunella, 98. 
Prunus, 36. 
Pteris, 176. 
Puhcaria, 74. 
Pulmonaria, 84, 
Pyrcthrum, 75, 

2b2 



182 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES. 



Pyrola, 80. 
PyrolacecD, 80. 
PjruB, 43. 

Quercus, 121. 

Eadiola, 23. 
Ranuiiculacese, 1, 161. 
Kamniculus, 2, 161. 
Raphaims, 14. 
Reseda, 14. 
Resedacea?, 14. 
Restiacece, 131. 
Rliamnacese, 28. 
Rliamnus, 28. 
Rhinantluis, UO. 
Rhodiola, 47. 
Rhynchospora, 139. 
Ribes, 49. 
Ro8a, 41. 
Rosacea, 36, 163. 
Rubia, 59. 
Rubiacese, 59, 1G5. 
Rubus, 37, 163. 
Rumex, 107. 
Ruppia, 138. 
Ruscus, 128. 

Sagina, 19. 
Sagittaria, 134. 
Salicacese, 113, 167. 
Salicornia, 105. 
SaUx, 113, 167. 
Salsola, 105. 
Salvia, 93. 
Sambucus, 59. 
Samolus, 101. 
Sanguisorba, 41. 
Sanieula, 52. 
Santalacese, 108. 
Saponaria, 17. 
Saussurea, 68. 
Saxifraga, 49, 164. 
Saxifragaceae, 49, 164. 
Scabiosa, 63. 
Seandix, 57. 
Sclieuchzeria, 135. 
Sclicenus, 138. 
SciUa, 129. 
Scirpus, 139. 
Scleranthacc£D, 105. 
Scleranthus, 105. 
Scolopendriuin, 175. 
Scrophularia, 91, 166. 
Scrophulariacea;, 87, 
166. 



Scutellaria, 98. 
Sedum, 48. 
Sempcrvivum, 47. 
Senecio, 72. 
Serratula, 68. 
Seseli, 55. 
Sesleria, 152. 
Setaria, 152. 
Sherardia, 61. 
Sibbaldia, 40. 
Sibthorpia, 92. 
Silaus, 55. 
Silene, 18. 
Silybum, 69. 
Simethis, 168. 
Sinapis, 13. 
Sison, 53. 
Sisymbrium, 12. 
Sisyrincbium, 163. 
Sium, 53. 
Smymium, 58. 
SolanacejE, 86. 
Solanum, 86. 
Solidago, 74. 
Sonclius, 63. 
Siiargauium, 135. 
Spartina, 160. 
Spergula, 20. 
Spiraea, 36. 
Spirantbes, 167. 
Stachys, 97. 
Staphylea, 28. 
Staphyleaceoc, 28. 
Statice, 101, 166. 
Stellaria, 20. 
Stipa, 149. 
Stratiotes, 122. 
Subularia, 9. 
Swertia, 83. 
Sympbytum, 85. 

Tamaricaccse, 46. 
Tamarix, 46. 
Tamus, 122. 
Tanacetum, 70. 
Taxus, 122. 
Teesdalia, 8. 
Teucrium, 95, 166. 
Thalictrum, 1. 
Tbcsium, 108. 
Tldaspi, 7. 
Tlu-incia, 05. 
Thymclaccaj, 108. 
Tliymus, 95, 166. 
Tilia, 24. 



Tiliaccse, 2 k 
Tillroa, 47. 
Tofieldia, 131. 
Tordylium, 56. 
Torilis, 57. 
Tormentilla, 40. 
Ti-agopogon, 63, 165. 
Tricbomanes, 170. 
Trichoneuia, 127. 
Trientalis, 100. 
Trifolium, 30, 163. 
Triglocbin, 134. 
Ti-illiacese, 122. 
Trinia, 52. 
Triodia, 154. 
Triticum, 160, 170. 
Trollius, 4. 
T?ubpa, 130. 
Tiuritis, 11. 
Tussilago, 72. 
Typha, 135. 
Typhacese, 135. 

TJlcx, 28, 163. 
Ulmacece, 112. 
Ulnms, 112. 
UmbelUferaj, 51, 164. 
Urtica, 111. 
Urticaceaj, 111. 
Utricvdaria, 99. 

Vacciniacea3, 78. 
Vaccinium, 78. 
Valeriana, 62. 
Valcrianaccsc, 62. 
Vella, 7. 
Verbascum, 92. 
Verbena, 99. 
Verbenacca;, 99. 
Veronica, 87. 
Viburnum, 59. 
Vicia, 33, 163. 
Villarsia, 83. 
Vinca, 81. 
Viola, 15, 162. 
Violacea>, 15, 162. 
Viscum, 59. 

Woodsia, 172. 

Xanthium, 77. 

Zannichellia, 138. 
Zostera, 138, 169. 



183 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Adder's-tonguo, 176. 
Agrimony, 40. 
Alder, 113. 
Alexanders, 58. 
Alkauet, 85. 
All-seed, 23, 47. 
Alyssum, 10. 

Amaranth, 102. 

Anemone, 1. 

Angelica, 55. 

Apple, 44. 

Arrow-grass, 134. 

Arrow-head, 134. 

Asarabacca, lUt). 

Ash, 81. 

Asparagus, 128. 

Aspen, 121. 

Asphodel, 131. 

Aster, 73. 

Avens, 37. 

Awl-wort, 9. 

Balm, 98. 
Balsam, 28. 
Bane-beri-y, 4. 
Barberry, 4. 
Barley, 158. 
Barren Strawberry, 40 
Barren -wort, 4. 
Basil, 98. 
Basil Thyme, 98. 
Beak-rush, 139. 
Bear-berry, 80. 
Beard-grass, 149. 
Bed-straw, 60, 165. 
Beech, 121. 
Bee-nettle, 96. 
Beet, 102. 
Bell-flower, 77. 
Bent-grass, 150. 
Berry-bearing Chick- 
weed, 18. 
Betony, 97. 
Bilberry, 78. 
Bind-weed, 83. 
Birch, 112. 
Bii'd-cheri-y, 3G. 
Bird's-foot Trefoil, 32 
Bird's-nest, 50, 125. 
Bu'd's-nest, yellow, 81 
Bird's-tongue, 73. 



Bu-thwort, 108. 
Bistort, 105. 
Bitter-cress, 10, 161. 
Bitter-sweet, 86. 
Bitter-vetch, 35. 
Black Horuhouiid, 95. 
Black-thorn, 36. 
Bladder Campion, 18. 
Bladder Fern, 174. 
Bladder-nut, 28. 
Bladder-seed, 58. 
Bladder-wort, 99. 
Blue-beU, 77. 
Blue-bottle, 76. 
Bog Asphodel, 131. 
Bog-bean, 82. 
Bog Orchis, 126. 
Bog-rush, 138. 
Borage, 85. 
Box, 111. 
Brake, 176. 
Bramble, 37, 163. 
Bristle Pern, 176. 
Brome-grass, 156, 159 
Brook-hrae, 88. 
Brook-weed, 101. 
Broom, 29. 
Broom-rape, 86, 166. 
Bryony, 46. 
Bryony, black, 122. 
Buck-thorn, 28. 

Buck- wheat, 105. 

Bugle, 95. 

Bugloss, 85. 

Bullace, 36. 

Bull-rush, 135, 139. 

Burdock, 68, 105. 

Bur Marigold, 70; 

Burnet, 41. 

Burnet Saxifrage, 53. 

Bur Parsley, 56. 

Bur-reed, 135. 

Bur-weed, 77. 

Butcher's Broom, 128 

Butter-and-eggs, 92. 

Butter-bur, 72. 

Buttercup, 3. 

Butter-wort, 99. 

Cabbage, 13. 
Calammt, 98, 106. 



Calfs-snout, 91. 
Campion, 18. 
Canary-grass, 113. 
Candy-tuft, 8. 
Caraway, 53. 
Carnation, 17. 
Carrot, 56. 
Catchfly, 18. 
Cat-mint, 97. 
Cat's-ear, 67. 
Cat's-foot, 71. 
Cat's-tail, 135. 
Cat's-tail-grass, 113. 
Celandine, 6. 
Celandine, small, 2. 
Celery, 52. 
Centaury, 81. 
Chafl'weed, 101. 
Chamomile, 75. 
Chara, 178. 
Charlock, 13. 

Cherry, 36. 

Ciiorvil, 57. 

Chestnut, 121. 

Chickweed, 20, 23, 162. 

Chickweed Winter- 
green, 100. 

Cliicory, 68. 

Chives, 129, 168. 

Cicely, 58. 

Cinquefoil, 39. 

Clary, 93. 

Cleavers, 61. 

Close-reed, 150. 

Cloudberry, 38. 

Clove, 17. 

Clover, 30. 

Club-moss, 177. 

Club-rush, 139. 

Cock's-foot-grass, 154. 

Colt's-foot, 72. 

Columbine, 4. 

Comfrey, 83. 

Coral-root, 10, 126. 

Cord-grass, 160. 

Coriander, 58. 

Cornel-tree, 58. 

Corn Cockle, 19. 

Corn-flower, 76. 

Com Marigold, 75. 

Corn Salad, 62. 



184 



INDEX OF ElfOLISn NAMES. 



Cotton-grass, 140, 16J 


Felwort, 83. 


Hair-grass, 151. 


Cotton-tliistle, 69. 


Fennel, 55. «• 


Jfairv-rush, 133. 


Cotton-weed, 70. 


Fern, 172. 


Hard Fern, 176. 


Couch-grass, 159. 


Fescue-grass, 153. 


Hare-bell, 128. 


Cowberry, 79. 


Fever-few, 75. 


Hare's-ear, 54. 


Cow Parsley, 57. 


Field Madder, 61. 


Hare's-foot, 31. 


Cow Parsnip, 56. 


Figwort, 91, 166. 


Hare's-tail-gi-a-ss, 119. 


Cowslip, 100. 


Filmy Fern, 176. 


Hart's-tongue, 175. 


Cow-wheat, 90. 


Finger-grass, IGO. 


Hart-wort, 56. 


Crab, U. 


Fiorin-grass, 150. 


Hawk-bit, 65. 


Crake-berry, 109. 


Fir, 121. 


Hawkweed, 65, 165. 


Cranberry, 79. 


Flax, 23. 


Hawk's-beard, 67, 165 


Crane's-bill, 26. 


Fl.!a-bane, 72, 74. 


Hawthorn, 43. 


Cress Rocket, 7. 


Flea-wort, 74. 


Hazel, 121. 


Crested Fern, 173. 


Flix-weed, 12. 


Heart's-ease, 16. 


Crested Hair-grass, 


Flote-grass, 170. 


Heath, 79, 165. 


152. . 


Flowenng Fern, 176. 


Heath-grass, 154. 


Crocus, 127. 


Flowering Rush, 134. 


Hedge Garlic, 12. 


Cross-wort, 50. 


Fhiellen, 91. 


Hedge Mustard, 12. 


Crow-berry, 109. 


Fool's Parsley, 55. 


Hedge Parsley, 57. 


Crowfoot, 2, 161. 


Forget-me-not, 84. 


Hellebore, 4. 


Cuckoo-flower, 19. 


Fox -glove, 91. 


HeUeborine, 125, 167. 


Cuckoo-pint, 135. 


Fox-tail-grass, 148. 


Hemlock, 58. 


Cudweed, 71, 165. 


Fritillary, 130, 


Hemp Agrimony, 70. 


Currant, 49. 


Frog-bit, 122. 


Hemp-nettle, 96. 


Cut-grass, 170. 


Tumitory, 6, 161. 


Henbane, 86. 


Cyphel, 23. 


Furze, 28, 163. 


Herb Christopher, 4. 
Herb Paris, 122. 


Daffodn, 127. 


Gale, 112. 


Herb Robert, 27. 


Daisy, 74. 


Garlic, 129, 167. 


Heron's-bill, 27. 


Dame's Violet, 13. 


Gentian, 82. 


Hog's Fennel, 55. 


Dandelion, 64. 


Gentianella, 81. 


HoUy, 81. 


Danewort, 59. 


Germander, 95, 166. 


Holly Fern, 173, 


Darnel, 159. 


Germander Chick weed. 


Holy-grass, 152. 


Dead-nettle, 96, 166. 


89. 


Hone-wort, 52. 


Deadly Nightshade, 86. 


Germander Speedwell, 


Honeysuckle, 59. 


Devil's -bit, 63. 


88. 


Hop, 112. 


Dewberry, 38. 


Gipsy-wort, 93. 


Horehound, 98. 


Dock, 107. 


Glass-wort, 105. 


Hornbeam, 121. 


Dodder, 83, 166. 


Globe-flower, 4. 


HornedPond weed, 138. 


Dog Rose, 42. 


Goat's-beard, 63, 165. 


Homed Poppy, 6. 


Dog Violet, 162. 


Gold-of-pleasure, 9. 


Horn wort, 111, 


Dog's-tail-grass, 155. 


Golden-rod, 74. 


Horse-radish, 9. 


Dog's-tooth-grass, 160. 


Golden Samphire, 74. 


Horseshoe-vetch, 33. 


Dog-wood, 58. 


Golden Saxifrage, 51. 


Horse-tail, 171. 


Dove's-foot, 27. 


Golddocks, 70. 


Hound's-tongue, S6. 


Drop-wort, 36, 164. 


Gooseberry, 49, 


Houseleek, 47. 


Duck-weed, 135. 


Goosefoot, 102. 


Hyacinth, 128. 


Dwalo, 86. 


Goose-grass, 61. 






Goose-weed, 39. 


Iris, 126. 


Earth-nut, 53. 


Gorse, 28. 


Ivy, 58. 


Elder, 59. 


Gout-weed, 53. 




Elecampane, 74. 


Grape Hyacinth, 128. 


Jacob's Ladder, 83. 


Elm, 112. 


Grass of Parnassus, 26. 


Joint-vetch, 33. 


Enchanter's Night- 


Grass-wrack, 138, 169. 


Juniper, 121. 


^iiade, 45. 


Green-weed, 29. 




Eryngo, 50. 


Gromwell, 84. 


Kidney-vetch, 29. 


Eveiihig Primrose, 45. 


Ground Ivy, 97. 


Knapweed, 76. 


Everlasting, 71. 


Ground Pme, 95. 


Knawel, 105. 


Everlasting Poa, 35. 


Groundsel, 72. 


Knot-grass, 47, 105. 


Eye-bright, 90. 


Guelder Rose, 59, 


Lady Fern, 174. 


Ecathcr-grass, 119. 


Haii-L.-ll, 77. 


Lady's Mantle, 4U,1C3. 



ToTJEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



183 



Lady's Slipper, 12G. 
Lady'a Smock, 10. 
Lady'sTrcsse9,125,lG7. 
Lamb's Lettuce, 62. 
Larkspm", 4. 
Leopard's-bano, 74. 
Lettuce, 64. 
Lily of the Valley, 128. 
Lime, 24. 
Linden-tree, 24. 
Ling, 79. 

London Pride, 50, 1G4. 
London Rocket, 12. 
Loosestrife, 46, 100, 

166. 
Lords-and-Ladics, 135. 
Louse-wort, 90. 
Lovage, 55. 
Lucerne, 29. 
Lung-wort, 84. 
Lyme-grass, 158. 

Madder, 59. 
Madwort, 10, 85. 
Maiden-hair, 176. 
Male Fern, 173. 
Mallow, 24, 162. 
Maple, 26. 
Mare's-tail, 45. 
Marjoram, 95. 
Marram, 148. 
Marsh Cistus, 80. 
Marsh Cinquefoil, 39. 
Marsh Fern, 172. 
Marsh Mallow, 24. 
Marsh Marigold, 3. 
Marsh Pennywort, 51 
Marsh-wort, 52. 
Master-wort, 56. 
Mat-grass, 147. 
May, 43. 
Meadow-grass, 152, 

170. 
Meadow E.ue, 1. 
Meadow Saffron, 131. 
Meadow-sweet, 37. 
Meal- tree, 59. 
Medick, 29, 163. 
Medlar, 43. 
MeUc-grass, 151. 
MeUlot, 30, 163. 
Mercury, 109. 
Mezereon, 108. 
Mignonette, 14. 
MilfoU, 76. 
Milk-thistle, 69. 
Milk-vetch, 33. 
Milk-wort, 16. 
MiUet-grass, 149. 
Mint, 93. 
Mistletoe, 59. 
Money-wort, 101. 
Monk's-hood, 4. 



Moonwort, 176. 
Moor-gras8,152. 
Moschatel, 58. 
Motherwort, 96. 
Moimtain Ash, 44. 
Mountain Avens, 37. 
Moimtain Fern, 173. 
Mountain Sorrel, 108. 
Mouse-ear, 22. 
Mouse-tail, 2. 
Mudwort, 62. 
Mugwort, 71. 
Mullein, 92. 
Mustai-d, 13. 

Narcissus, 127. 
Nettle, 111. 
Nightshade, 86. 
Nightshade, Enchant- 

ei''s, 45. 
Nipplewort, 68. 
NiteUa, 178. 
Nit-grass, 149. 
None-so-pretty, 50. 

Oak, 121. 
Oat, 157. 

Oat-grass, 152, 158. 
Orache, 104, 167. 
Orcliis, 122, 167. 
Orpine, 48. 
Osier, 114, 116. 
Ox-eye Daisy, 75. 
Oxhp, 100. 
Ox-tongue, 63. 

Pseony, 4. 
Painted-cup, 89. 
Panick-grass, 152. 
Pansy, 16. 
Parsley, 52. 
Parsnip, 56. 
Pasque-flower, 1. 
Pea, 35. 
Pear, 43. 
Pearl-wort, 19. 
PeUitory, 112. 
Penny-cress, 7. 
Penny-royal, 93. 
Penny-wort, 47. 
Pepper Saxifrage, 55. 
Pepper-wort, 8. 
Periwinkle, 81. 
Persicaria, 105. 
Petty Whin, 29. 
Pheasant' s-eye, 1, 
Pilewort, 2. 
PiUwort, 177. 
Pimpernel, 101. 
Pine, 121. 
Pink, 17, 162. 
Pipewort, 131. 
Plantain, 102. 



Plum, 36. 
Plumo-tliistle, 69. 
Polypody, 172. 
Pond-weed, 136, 169. 
Poplar, 120. 
Poppy, 5. 

Prickly Sampliire, 58. 
Primrose, 99. 
Privet, 81. 
Purslane, Sea, 104. 
Pm-slane, Water, 46. 

Quaking-grass, 154. 
QuiU-wort, 177. 

Radish, 14. 
Ragged Robin, 19. 
Rag-wort, 73. 
Rarapion, 78. 
Ramsons, 129, 168. 
Rape, 13. 

Raspberry, 37, 163. 
Red Rattle, 90. 
Reed, 158. 
Rest-hai*row, 29. 
Rib-wort, 102. 
Rock-brake, 172. 
Rock-cress, 10. 
Rock-rose, 14. 
Rose, 41. 
Rose-bay, 44. 
Rose-root, 47. 
Rowan-tree, 44. 
Rupture-wort, 47. 
Rush, 131, 168. 
Rye-grass, 159, 170. 

Saffron, 127. 
Saintfoin, 33. 
Salad Burnet, 41, 164. 
S lUow, 117. 
SaUow-thom, 112. 
Salsify, 63. 
Saltwort, 105, 
Samphire, 55. 
Sand Rocket, 14. 
Sand-wort, 21, 162. 
Sanicle, 52. 
Saw-wort, 68. 
Saxifrage, 49, 164. 
Scabious, 63. 
Sciu*vy-gras3, 8. 
Sea Heath, 17. 
Sea HoUy, 52. 
Sea Kale, 7. 
Sea Lavender, 1 01, 1G6. 
Sea Milkwort, ICO. 
Sea Pea, 35. 
Sea Pimpernel, 21. 
Sea Purslane, 101. 
Sea Radish, 14. 
Sea Reed, 148. 
Sea Rocket, 7. 



ISO 



INDEX OF EXGLISn NAMES. 



Sea Starwort, 73. 
Sedge, 141, 169. 
Self-heal, 98. 
Service-tree, 44. 
Shamrock, 28. 
Sheep's Scabious, 78. 
Shepherd's Needle, 57 
Shepherd's Purse, 7. 
Shield Fern, 173. 
Shore-weed, 102. 
SkuU-cap, 98. 
Sloe, 36. 
Small-reed, 150. 
SmaUage, 52. 
Snako's-head Lily, 130, 
Snapdragon, 91. 
Sneeze-wort, 76. 
Snowdrop, 128. 
Soap-wort, 17. 
Soft-grass, 151. 
Solomon's Seal, 128. 
Sorrel, 108. 
Southernwood, 70. 
Sow-bread, 100. 
Sow-thistle, 63. 
Spearwort, 2. 
Speedwell, 87. 
Spider-wort, 130. 
Spignel, 55. 
Spikenard, 72. 
Spike-rush, 139. 
Spindle-tree, 28. 
Spleenwort, 174. 
Spurge, 109, 167. 
Spurge Laurel, 108. 
Spurrey, 20. 
Squill, 129. 
Squinancy-wort, 62. 
St. John's-wort, 25, 

162. 
Star-fruit, 134. 
Starof Bethlehem, 130. 
Star-thistle, 76. 
Star- wort, 20. 
Stock, 12. 
Stonecrop, 48. 
Stone-wort, 53. 
Stone Parsley, 55. 
Strap-wort, 46. 
Strawberry, 38. 
Strawberry-tree, 80. 



Succory, 63, 68. 
Sun-dew, 16. 
Sweet Briar, 42. 
Sweet Flag, 135. 
Swine's-cress, 7. 
Sword Flag, 168. 
Sycamore, 26. 

Tamarisk, 46. 
Tansy, 70. 
Teasel, 62. 
Thale-cress, 12. 
Thistle, 68. 
Thorn-apple, 86. 
Thrift, 101, 166. 
Thyme, 95, 166. 
Tine-tare, 34. 
Toad-flax, 92, 108. 
Toothwort, 88. 
Tormentil, 40. 
Tower Mustard, 1 1. 
Traveller's Joy, 1. 
Treacle-Mustard, 12. 
Tree Mallow, 24. 
TrefoU, 30, 163. 
TuUp, 130. 
Turk's-cap Lily, 130, 

168. 
Turnip, 13. 
Tutsan, 24, 162. 
Tway-blade, 125. 
Twig-rush, 138. 

Valerian, 62. 
"Venus's Comb, 57. 
Vernal-grass, 117. 
Vei-vain, 99. 
Vetch, 33, 163. 
Vetchling, 35. 
Violet, 15, 162. 
Viper-grass, 83. 

Wallflower, 12. 
Wall Lettuce, 64. 
Wall Pepper, 48. 
WaU Rocket, 14. 
Wall Rue, 175. 
Wart-cress, 7. 
Wart-weed, 109. 
Water Blinks, 46. 
Water Cliickweed, 23. 



Water Cress, 11. 
Water Crowfoot, 2, 

161. 
Water Dropwort, 5 1, 

164. 
Water Fennel, 161. 
Water Hemlock, 52. 
Water LUy, 5, 83. 
Water MQfoQ, 46. 
Water Parsnip, 53. 
Water Plantain, 134. 
Water Purslane, 46. 
Water Soldier, 122. 
Water Starwort, 111. 
Water Thyme, 122. 
Water Violet, 99. 
Water-wort, 17. 
Weasel-snout, 96. 
Weld, 14. 

Wheat-grass, 159, 170. 
Wliin, 28. 

White Beam-tree, 44. 
Whitlow-grass, 9. 
Whorl-grass, 150. 
Whortle-berry, 78. 
Wild Spinach, 103. 
Willow, 113, 167. 
Willow-herb, 44, 164. 
Wind-grass, 170. 
Winter-green, 80. 
Winter-cress, 11. 
Woad, 7. 

Wood Anemone, 1. 
Woodbine, 59. 
Wood Pimpernel, 100k 
Wood-reed, 150. 
Woodruff, 61. 
Wood- rush, 168. 
Wood Sage, 95. 
Woodsia, 172. 
Wood Sorrel, 28. 
Worm-seed, 12. 
Wormwood, 70. 
Wound-wort, 29, 97. 

Yarrow, 76. 
Yellow Rattle, 90. 
Yellow Rocket, 11. 
Yellow-wort, 82. 
Yew, 122. 



THE END. 



Printed by Taylob and Feaxcis, Hcd Lion Court, Fleet Street. 



New York Botanical Garden LIbrt 



3 5185 00222 4^ 



J^5^ N. MANCHESTER,