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>^'>^t^^v y^' /^^- 



Si qui vero fint in urbe fua Hofpites, in Patria fua Peregrini, ct 
cognitione femper pueri effe velint, fibi per me placeant, fibi 
dormiant ; non ego illis haec confcripfi, non illis vigilavi. 

Camden, Br it an. Prof at. 






PRE r A C E, 

AT^ a time, when tke fludy of natural 
hiftory feems to revive in Europe -, and 
the pens of feveral illuftrious foreigners have 
been employedin enumerating theprodudtions 
of their refped:ive countries, we are unwilling 
that our own ifland fliould remain infenfible 
to its particular advantages; we are defirous 
of diV-efting the aftoniftiment of our country- 
men at the gifts of nature beftowed on other 
kingdoms, to a contemplation of thofe with 
which (at left with equal bounty) fhe has 
enriched our own. ^ 

A judicious Foreigner has well remarked, 
that an Englifhman is excufable fhould he be 
ignorant of the papal hiftory, where it does 
not relate to Great-Britain -, but inexcufable 
fhould he neglect inquiries into the origin of 
parlements, the limitation of the royal pre- 
rogative, and the gradual deviation from the 
feodal to the prefent fyftem of government. 

The obfervation is certainly iuft, and the 
application appears too obvious to be pointed 
out; yet the generality of mankind can reft 
contented with ignorance of their native foil, 
while a paffion for novelty attra(fls them to 
a fuperficial examination of the wonders of 
Mexico, or Japan 'j but thefe fhould be told, 
that fuch a paffion is a fure criterion of a 
weak judgement: utility, truth and certainty, 

A , fliould 



fliould alone be the point at which fcience 
fhould aim; and what knowlege can be 
more ufeful than of thofe objects with which 
we are moft intimately conned:ed ? and where 
can we reafon with greater certainty on fuch 
points, than in our own country, where a con- 
ilant recourfe may be had to the fpecimen of 
what we have under coniideration ? But thefe^ 
and many other arguments for examining into- 
the productions of our own illand, may here 
be waved, as the admirable LINN^US 
has difplayed them at large in an oration * 
which for mafterly reafoning, and happy in- 
genuity, may vie with the beft compofitions. 

Yet, as that great naturaliil haSj in the. 
fame tra6t, publiihed an eulogium on Sweden -, 
and as an incitement to his countrymen to 
•apply themfelves to the ftudy of nature, enu- 
merated the natural productions of that king- 
dom j we fhall here attempt a parallel, and 
point out to the Britijh reader, his native 
riches ; many of which were probably un- 
known to him, or perhaps (lightly regarded. 

Do the heights of l^orpurg, or Swucku af- 
ford more inftruCtion to the naturaliil thaii^ 
the mountains, of Cumberland, or Caernarvon^ 
ff:ire? whofe fides are covered with a rich va- 
riety of uncommon vegetables, while their 
bowels are replete with the mod ufeful mine- 
rals. Th^ Derby Jhire hi\h, abounding in all 
the magnificence of caves and cliffs; the 

* Aman,acad. torn. 2.p.^og,SlillingJIeefsSw(diJhtra.diS. tr. i. 




it than men of an illiberal education. But 
this inconvenience would be remedied, could 
we induce them to obferve and relifli the v/on- 
ders of nature 5 aided by philofophy, they would 
find in the woods and fields a feries of objeds, 
that would give to exercife charms unknown 
before; and enraptured with the fcene, they 
will be ready to exclaim with the poet. 

On every thorn, delightful wifdom grows j 

In every rill, a fweet inftruilion flows. Young. 

Thus would the contemplative naturalifl 
learn from all he faw, to love his Creator 
for his goodnefs ; to repofe an implicit con- 
fidence in his wifdom -, and to revere his awful 
omnipotence. We iliall dwell no longer on 
this fubie(it, than to draw this important con- 
clufion; that health of body, and a chearful 
contentment of mind, are the general efFed:s 
of thefe amufements. The latter is produced 
by a ferious and pleafing inveftigation of the 
bounties of an all-wife and beneficent Provi- 
dence ', as conflant and regular exercife is 
the befl prefervative of the former. 

Downing Feb, 1, ^^q PENNANT. 



I T I S I: 



Genus I. The H O R S E. 
Species I. The HORSE. 

I^aii Jy7i. quad. 6z, 
Merret pinax- 1 66. 
Gefn. quad. ^Oo^. 
Klein quad. 4, 
Be Buffon iv. 1 74. 

Equus aunculis brevibus ereftis, 
juba longa. BriJJhn quad. 69. 

Eq. Caballus. 'Lin. Jyjt. lOO. 

Eq. Cauda undique Tetofa. Fautu 
Suec. ^7. 

Br. Zool. 1. 










March, CefFyl 
Le Cheval 





Paerd, Henr^ll: 


M E 




La Cavale, Jument 
Cava! la 

Sruir, Motfch 
Stood, Horfs 
.JHsll:, Oeg, liingfl Stod-Ksft, Hoppe 

G E L D I re G. 

Cheval ongre 

THE breed of horfes In Great Britain is as mixed 
as that of its inhabitants : The frequent intro- 
duffion of foreign horfes has given us a variety, that 
no fingle country can boaft of: moft other king- 
doms produce only one kind, while ours, by a judi- 
cious mixture of the feveral fpecies, by the happy 
dilTerence of our foils, and by our fuperior fkill 

B in 

2 HORSE. ClafeL 

in management, may triumph over the reft of Eu- 
rope^ in liaving brought each quahty of this noble 
animal to the higheft perfeftion. 

In the annals of Newmarket^ may be found in- 
ftances of horfes that have literally out-ftripped the 
wind, as the celebrated M. Condamitie has lately fhewn 
in his remarks * on thofe of Great Britain. Childcrs -f 
is an amazing inftance of rapidity, his fpeed having 
been more than once exerted equal to 82^ feet in a 
fecond, or near a mile in a minute : The fame horfe 
has alfo run the round courfe at Newmarket., (which; 
is about 400 yards lefs than 4 miles) in fix minutes- 
and forty feconds-, in which cafe his fleetnefs is to 
that of the fwifteft Barb, as four to three. - 

Horfes of this kind, derive their origin from Ara- 
bia ; the feat of the pureft, and moft generous breed. 

The fpecies ufed in hunting, is a happy combina- 
tion of the former with others fuperior in ftrength,. 
but inferior in point of fpeed and lineage : an union of 
both is neceffary ; for the fatigues of the chace mult 
hi fupported by the fpirit of the one, as well as by 
the vigor of the other. 

No country can bring a parallel to the ftrength 
and fize of our horfes delVined for the^lraught ; or to 
the adivity and ftrength united of thofe that form our 

In our capital there are inftances of fingle horfes 
that are able to draw on a plain, for a fmall fpace. 

* Tn his tour to Italy. 

f M. Conda?nine illuftrates his remarks with the horfe, Star' 
/.'fig ; but the report of his fpeed being doubtful, we chufe to 
ip.ftance the fpeed of ChiUers, as indiiputable and univerfally 



Clafsl. HORSE. g 

the weight of three tuns ; but could with eafe, and 
for a continuance draw half that weight *. The 
pack-horfes of Torkjhire, employed in conveying the 
manufacftures of that county, to the nnoil remote 
parts of the kingdom, ufually carry a burden of 420 
pounds j and that indifferently over the higheft hills 
of the north, as well as the moft level roads j but 
the moft remarkable proof of the ftrength of our 
Briti/Jj horfes, is to be drawn from that of our mill- 
horfes : fome of thefe will carry at one load thirteen 
meafures, which at a moderate computation of 70 
pounds each, will amount to 910-, a weight fupe- 
rior to that which the lefler fort of carnels v/ill 
bear : this will appear lefs furprifing, as thefe horfes 
are by degrees accuftomed to the weight -, and the 
diftance they travel no greater than to and from the 
adjacent hamlets. 

Our cavalry in the late campaigns, (when they 
had opportunity) fhewed over thofe of our allies, as 
well as of the French^ a great fuperiority both of 
ftrength and aflivity : the enemy was broken through 
by the impetuous charge of our fquadrons ; while 
the German horfes, from their great weight, and in- 
adlive make, were unable to fecond our efforts; 
though thofe troops were aduated by the nobleft 

The prefent cavalry of this ifland only fupports its 
ancient glory ; it was eminent in the earlieft times : 
our fcythed -f chariots, and the adivity J and good 

* Hollingped makes it a matter of boaft, that in his time, fi-/e 
horfes could draw with eafe for a long journey 3000 lb. v/eight. 

f Co'vinos vocant, quorum falcatis axibus utuntur. Pomp. Mela, 
lib. iii. c. 6, 

J Cafar, Com. lib. iv. Siraho. lib. iv. 

B 2 difcipline 

4 HORSE. Clafsl. 

difcipHne of our horfes, even ftriick terror into C^far*s 
legions : it is now impoffible to trace out this fpecies-j 
for thofe which exiil among the indigent of GreaS 
Britain^ (vtch as the little horles oi' PFales and Cornwall 
the hobbies of Ireland^ and the fhelties of Scotland, 
though admirably well adapted to the ufes of thofe 
countries, could never have been equal to the work 
of war. Thofe we employ for that purpofe, or for 
the draught, are an off-fpiing of the German or Fk- 
mijh breed, meliorated by our foil, and a judicious 

The EngHjh were ever attentive to an exadf culture 
of thefe animals; and in very early times fet a high 
value on their breed. The eileem that our horfes 
were held in by foreigners fo long ago as the reign 
of Athelfian^ may be collefted from a law of that 
monarch prohibiting their exportation, except they 
were defigned as prefents. Thefe muft have been the 
native kind, or the prohibition would have been 
needlefs, for our commerce was at that time too 
limited to receive improvement from any but the 
Germain. kind i to which country theli'own breed could' 
be of no value. 

But when our intcrcourfe with the other parts of 
Europe was enlarged, v/e foon layed hold of the 
advantages this gave of improving our breed. Roger 
de Bekfnie^ Earl of Shrewjhury *, is the firft that is 
on record : he introduced the SpaniJIj ftallions into his 
eftate in Fcwifiar.d, from which that part of V/ales 
was for many ages celebrated for a fwift and generous 

* Created by William the Conqueror. 

Clarsl. HORSE. 5 

race of hotfes. Giraldus Camlrenjis, who lived in 
the reign o^ Henry II. takes notice of it, and Michael 
DraytOHj cotemporary v;ith Shakefpear^ fings their 
excellence in the fixih part of his Polyolhion. This 
kind was probably deftined to mount our gallant 
nobility, or courteous knights for feats of Chivalry^ 
m the generous contetls of the tiit-yard. From thefe 
iprung, to fpeak the language of the times, the 
Flozver of Courjers, whole elegant form added charms 
to the rider-, and whole adliivity and managed dex- 
terity gained him the palm in that field of gallantry 
and romantic honour. That this was the chief ob- 
je6l of cultivating the mixed breed, is very probable, 
for racing in its prefmt form was not introduced 
into England^ till the reign of James I. the earlieft 
notice we have of the diverfion being in that reign. 
Croydon in the fouth*, and Garterly -f in Torkjhire^ 
were then famous horfe-courfcs. That it was not ia 
vogue in the preceding reign, is rcafonable to 
imacrine, for among- the numerous entertainments ex- 
hibited at K.enehvcrlh by Elizaheth\ favourite on her 
'vifit there, and when no amufement then praililed 
was omitted, we do not find horfe-racing among 

Not that v/e deny this to be known in thefe 
kingdoms in earlier times ; we only afiert a different 
mode of it, gentlemen being then their ov^n jockier, 
and riding their own horles. Lord Herbert of Cherbury 
enumerates it among the fports that gallant philofc- 
pher thought unworthy of a man of honour. " The 
*' exercife, (fays he) I do not approve of, is running 

* OJvsrni work?, 452. f Drajtons, PoljoH-iatiy fong 3d. 

^ ^ " of 

6 HORSE. Clafsl. 

*' of horfes, there being much cheating in that kind ; 
*' neither do I fee why a brave man fhould delight 
" in a creature whofe chief ufe is to help him to run 
'' away *." 

The increafe of our inhabitants, and the extent 
of our manufadures, together with the former negleft 
of internal navigation to convey thofe manufactures, 
multiplied the number of our horfes : an excefs of 
v/eakh, before unknown in thefe iQands, increafed 
the luxury of carriages, and added to the neceffity 
cf an extraordinary culture of thefe animals : their 
high reputation abroad, has alfo made them a branch 
of commerce, and proved another caufe of their vaft 

As no kingdom can boaft of parallel circum- 
ftances, fo none can vie with us in the number of 
thefe noble quadrupeds ; it would be extremely dif- 
ficult to guefs at the exadl amount of them, or to 
form a periodical account of their increafe : the num- 
ber feems very fluduating : William Fiiz-Stephen relates, 
that in the reign of King Stephen, London alone poured 
out 2o,oco horfemen in the wars of thofe times : 
yet we find that in the beginning of Queen Eliza- 
heth\ reign -j-, the whole kingdom could not fupply 
2 000 horfes to form our cavalry : and even in the 
year 1588, when the nation was in the moft immi- 

* The life of Ediuard Lord Herbert oi Cher bury, publillied by 
Mr. Walpokt P- 51. 

Jar-iiis Markham, who wrote on the management of horfes 1599, 
mentions running horfes ; but thofe were only defigned for matches 
between gentleman and gentleman. 

t Vide Sir Edvjard Har'ii-ood''s memorial. Harleian Mifc. iv. 


ClafsL H O R S E, 7 

■nenc danger from the Spanifh invafion, all the cavalry 
which the nation could then furnifh amounted only to 
3000 : to account for this difference we mull ima- 
gine, that the number of horfes which took the fic-lJ 
in Stephmh reign was no more than an undifciplined 
rabble : The few that appeared under the banners 
oi Elizabeth, a corps well formed, and fuch as might 
be oppofed to fo formidable an enemy as was then 
•cxpeded ; but fuch is their prefent increafe, that in 
the late war, the number employed was i^^^sJS'-* 
and fuch is our improvement in the breed of horfes, 
that moft of thofe which are ufed in our wa^sons 
and carriages * of different kinds, might be applied 
to the fame purpofe : of thofe, our capital alone 
employs near 22,000. 

The learned M. de Buffon has almoft exhaufled 
the fubjedl of the natural hiftory of the horfe, and 
the other domefl:i<: animals ; and left very little for 
after writers to add. We may obferve, that this 
moft noble and ufeful quadruped is endowed with 
every quality that can make it fubfervient to the 
ufes of mankind ; and thofe qualities appear in a more 
exalted, or in a lefs degree, in proportion to our va- 
rious necefiities. 

Undaunted courage, added to a docility half-rea- 
foning, is given to fome, which fits them for military 
fervices. The fpirit and emulation fo apparent in 
others, furnifh us with that fpecies, which is admi- 
rably adapted for the courfe ; or, the more nobl^ 
and generous pleafure of the chace. 

* It may alfo be obferved, that the ufe of coaches was not in- 
'taxxiuced into England till the year 1564. 

B 4. Patience 

8 HORSE. Clafsl. 

Patience and perfeverance appear flrongly in that 
moil ufefi!! kind deftined to bear the burdens we 
impofe on them ; or -that employed in the flavery of 
the draught. 

Though endowed with vafl: fbrength, and great 
powers, they very rarely exert either to their mailers 
prejudice ; but on the contrary, will endure fatigues, 
even to death, for our benefit. Providence has im- 
planted in them a benevolent difpofition,. and a fear 
of the human race, together with a certain conlci- 
oufnefs of the fervices v;e can render them. MoH: 
of the hoofed quadrupeds are domeflic, becaufe 
necefiity compels them to feek our prote6iion: wild 
beads are provided with feet and claws, adapted 
to the forming dens and retreats from the inclemency 
of the weather ; but the former dellirute of thele 
advantages, are obliged to run to us for artificial 
Ihelter, and harvelled provifionj as nature, in thefe 
climiates, does not throughout the year fupply them 
with necelTary food. 

But fiiil, many of our tame animals mufl; by acci- 
dent endure the rigor of the feafon : to prevent which 
inconvenience, their feet (for the extremities fuffer 
firft by cold) are prcte(51ed by ftrong hoofs of a horny 

The tail too is guarded with long bulhy hair that 
protecls it in both extremes of weather j during 
the fummer it ferves by its pliancy and agility, to 
brulh off the fwarms of infeds, which are perpetually 
attempting either to liing them, or to depofit their 
eggs in the reSfum ; the fame length of hair contri- 
butes to guard them from the cold in v^inter. But 


Clafsl. H O R S F. 9 

we, by the abfurd and cruel cuftom of docking, a 
pra6i:ice peculiar to our country, deprive theic ani- 
mals of both advantages : in the hift war our cavalry 
fulTered fo much on that account, that we now feeni 
fenfible of the error, and if we may judge from fome 
recent orders in refped to thac branch of tiie fervice *, 
it will for the future be correiled. 

Thus is the horfe provided againil: the two greatefl 
evils he is fubjeft to from the feafons : his natural 
difeaks are few; but. our ill ufage, or negleft, or, 
which is very frequent, our over care of hun, bring 
on a numerous train, which are often fatal. Among 
the diilempers he is naturally fubjed to, are the 
worms, the bots, and the ftone: the fpecies of worms 
that infeft him are i\\z hanbrici, a.nd afcaridesi both 
thefe refemble thcfe found in human bodies, only- 
larger : the bots are the ^n/<r^, or caterpillars of the 
cefirus, or gad fly: thefe are found both in the r£^um^ 
and in the flomach, and when in the latter bring on 
cconvulfions, that often terminate in death. 

* The following remark of a noble writer on this fubjed is too 
fenfible to be omit;ed : 

' I mult own I am not pofiefTed with the Englijh rage of cutting 

* oiF all extremities from hoifes. I venture to cicclarc I iliould be 
' v^ell pleafed if their rails, at left a fwitch or a rag tail, (but better 
*. if the whole) was left on. It is hardly credible what a dilFcrence, 

* efpecially at a certain feafon of the year, this fjngle alccraLioa 
« would make in our cavalry, which though naiuially faperior to 

* all other I have ever feen, are however, long before the ciid of the 

* campaign, tor want of that natural defence againft the fries, 
' inferior to all: conllantly fweating and fretting at the picquer, 

* tormented and ftung off their meat and lloniachs, iniferable and 
' helplefs ; while the foreign cavalry bru'h oiF the vermin, are cool 

* and at eafe, and mend daily, inftead of pcrilhing as ours do aliriOil 

* vifibly in the eye of the beholder.' 

Method of breaking Horles, kz, by Uc7iy;^ Earl cf Pcmlrokef 
p. 68. 


lo HORSE. Clafsl. 

The ftone is a difeafe the horfe is not frequently 
fubjedl to ; yet we have feen two examples of it, the 
one in a horfe near High-wycombe^ that voided fixteen 
€akuli, each of an inch and a half diameter; the other 
was of a ftone taken out of the bladder of a horfe, 
and depofited in the cabinet of the late Dr. Mead ; 
weighing eleven ounces *, Thefe ftones are formed 
of feveral crufts, each very fmooth and gloffy ; their 
form triangular; but their edges rounded, as if by 
collifion againft each other. 

The all-wife Creator hath finely limited the feveral 
fervices of domeftic animals towards the human race; 
and ordered that the parts of fuch, which in their 
lives have been the moft ufeful, (liould after death 
contribute the lead to our benefit. The chief ufe that 
the exwvics of the horfe can be applied to, is for col- 
lars, traces, and other parts of the harnefs ; and thus, 
even after death, he preferves fome analogy with his 
former employ. The hair of the mane is of ufe in 
making wigs ; of the tail in making the bottoms of 
chairs, floor-cloths, and cords ; and to the angler in 
making lines. 


Mufeum Mtadianum, p. 261. 


Clafsl. ASS. ir 

Species II. The ASS, 

Afinus, Raiifyn. quad. 63. Eqaus afinus. lin.fyft. 100. 

Gefn. quad. 5. Eq- caud;e extremitate fetofa cruce 

Kiem. quad. 6. nigra fuper humeros. Faun.Suec, 

DeBuffon'w. 377. _ _ 35 *. 

Equus auriculis longis flaccidis, Br. Zool. 5. 
juba brevi. Brijfon quad. 70. 


Brit. Afyn.y^OT. A fen Germ. Efel 

Fren. L'x4ne,/. L'Aneffe Dut. Eezel 

Jtal. Afino, Miccio.y. Miccia Sived. Afna 

Span. Afno,Borrico.y: Borrica Dan. Afen, Efel. 

Port. AfnOjBurro./. Afna,Burra 

THIS animal, tho' now fo common in all parts 
of thefe iflands, was entirely loft among us 
during the reign of queen Elizabeth •, HolUngJIoed -f 
informing us that in his time, " our lande did yeelde 
no afes." But we are not to fuppofe fo ufetul an ani- 
mal was unknown in thefe kingdoms before that 
period ; for mention is made of them fo early as the 
time of king J Ethelred, above four hundred years 
preceding ; and again in the reign of y Henry III. 
fo that it muft have been owing to fome accident, 
that the race was extind during the days oi Elizabeth. 

* Habitat in magnatmn pr^sdiis rarius. Faun. Suec. 35. edit. I 746. 
We imagine that fmce that time the fpecies is there extinft, for 
Linnaus has quite omitted it in the lalt edition of the ¥au7ia 

f 109. 

X When the price of a mule or young afs was 12s. Chron. precio- 
fum, 51. 

II In 1 217 when the Camerarius of St. Allans loH two afles, &c. 
Chr. pr. 60. 


12 ASS. GlaisL 

We are not certain of the time it was again in- 
troduced, probably in the fucceeding reign, when cui" 
intercourfe with Spain was renewed \ in which coun- 
try this animal was greatly ufed, and where the fpecies 
is in great perfection. 

The afs is originally a native o? Arabia^' and other 
parts of the Eafi : a warm climate produces the 
largeft and the beft, their fize and fpirit declinin,: ;.:• 
proportion as they advance into colder regions - iht 
migration of thefe beads has been very flow ; we 
fee how recent their arrival is in Grcfit Britii'y • in 
Sweden they are even at prefen: a fore of vi-^v: nor 
does it appear by the lafl: hiftory of 'Noyujay ^, that 
they have yet reached that country. 1 hey are at 
prefent naturalized in this kingdom •, our climate and 
foil feems to agree v/ith them; the breed is fpread 
thro' all parts ; and their utility is more and more 

They are now introduced into many fervices that 
were before allotted to horfcs ; which will prove of 
the utmoU ufe in laving thofe noble animals for 
worthier purpofes. Many of our richeft mines are 
in fituations almofi: inacceffible to horfes ; but kvhere 
thefe fure-iooted creatures may be employed to 
advantage, in conveying our mineral treafures to their 
refpective marts i we may add too, that fince our 
horfes are become a confiderable article of commerce, 
and bring annually great fums into thefe kingdoms j 
the cultivation of an animal that will in many cafes 
fupply the place of the former, and enable us to 
enlarge our experts, certainly merits our attention. 

' /'o/i/^//'/ttWs Nat. Hiflory of ?.V-v3-. 


Clafsl. MULE. 15 

The qualities of this animal are fo well known, 
that we need not expatiate on them ; its patience 
and perfeverance under labor, and its indiiTerence 
in refpeft to food, need not be mentioned ; any weed 
or thiftle contents it : if it gives the preference to 
any vegetable, it is to the Plantane ; for which we 
have often feen it neglcft every other herb in the 
pafture. The narrow -leaved Vlantane * is greedily 
eat by horfes and cows : Of late years it has been 
greatly cultivated and fowed with clover in North 
IVales^ particularly in Anglefea^ where the feed is har- 
vefled, and thence difperfed thro' other parts of the 

The M U L E. 

Mulus, Raiifyn. quad. 64. Equus auricuiis longis ereftis, juba 

Gefn. quad. 70Z. brevi. Brijjm quad. 71. 

Alinus biformis, Klein quad. 6. Equus mulus, Lin.f\JI. 101, 

Charlton ex. 4. 

Fau77. Suec. 35. edit. i. 
Br. Zool. 6. 


Brit. Mv\,f^m. Mules 
Fren. Le Mulct 
Ital. Mula 
Span. Muio 
Port. Mula 

Germ. Multhier, Mulefel 

But. Muyl-Eefel 

Sit:ed. Mulafna 

Dan. Muule, n;. Muul-Efcl. 

iHIS ufeful and hardy animal is the ofr-fprlng 
of the horfe and afs, or afs and mare ; thole 
produced between the two laft are efleemed the bed, 
as the mule is obferved to partake lefs of the male 

* Plant ago mariiima. Fl. JngL 5 2. 


14 M U L E. Clafsl. 

than the female parent ; not but they almoft always 
inherii: in fome degree the obftinacy of the parent afs, 
tho' it muft be confeffed that this vice is heightened 
by their being injudiciouily broke; inftead of mild 
iifage, which generally correds the worft qualities, 
the mule is treated v.'ith cruelty from the firft ; and 
is fo habituated to blows, that it is never mounted 
or loaded without expectation of ill treatment ; fo 
, that the unhappy animal either prepares to retaliate, 
or in the terror of bad ufage, becomes invincibly 
retrograde. Could we prevail on our countrymen 
to confider this animal in the light its ufeful qualities 
merit, and pay due attention to its breaking, they 
might wich fuccefs form it for the faddle, the draught, 
or the burden. The fize and ftrength of our breed 
is at prefent fo improved by the importation of the 
Spanijh male affes, that we fhall foon have numibers 
that may be adapted to each of thofe ufes. Perfons 
of the firft quality in Spain are drawn by them ; for 
one of which (as Mr. Clarke informs us *) fifty or 
fixty guineas is no uncommon price ; nor is it fur- 
prizing, if we confider how far they excel the horfe 
in draught, in a mountainous country ; the mule 
being able to tread fecurely where the former can 
hardly ftand. 

This brief account may be clofed with the general 
obfervation, that neither mules nor the fpurious ofF- 
fpring of any other animal generate any farther ; all 
thefe produftions may be looked on as monfters % 
therefore nature, to preferve the original fpecies of 

* Letters on the Zpanijh nation. 


ClafsL OX. 15 

animals entire and pure, wifely flops in the firft in- 
flance the powers of propagation. 

Genus 11. The O X. 

Species I. The OX. 

Ranjyti. quad. 70. 
Merret pinax. 1 65, 
Gefn. quad. 25, 26, 92. 
Taurus domefticus. Klein, quad. 

Charlton ex. S. 

Bos cornibus levibus teretibus, fiir- 
fum reflexis. BriJJon quad. 52. 

Bos taurus, Lin.Jyfl. 98. 

Bos cornibus teretibus flexis. Faun. 
Suec. 46. 

Br. Zool. 7. 






Cal f. 




Ych, ] 




Le Taureau 

La Vache 
























Stier, Bui 















THE climate of Great-Britain is above all others 
produflive of the greateft variety and abun- 
dance of wholefome vegetables, which, to crown our 
happinefs, are almofl equally diffufed thro' all its 
parts : this general fertility is owing to thofe clouded 
fkies, which foreigners miftakenly urge as a reproach 
on our country ; but let us chearfully endure a tem- 
porary gloom, which cloaths not only our meadows 
but our hills with the richeft verdure. To this we 
owe the number, variety, and excellence of our cattle, 
the richnefs of our dairies., and innumerable other 


i6 O X. Clafal. 

,ijdvantages. C^far (the earliefi: writer who deicribes 
this ifland o^ Great- Britain) ipeaks of the numbers of 
cur cattle, and adds that we neglected tillage, but 
lived on milk and fieih *. Straho takes notice of our 
plenty of milk, but fays we were ignorant of the art 
of making cheefe -f. Mela informs us, that the 
wealth of the Britains confided in cattle : and in his 
account of Ireland reports that fuch was the richnefs 
cf the paftures in that kingdom, that the cattle would 
even burft if they were fuffered to feed in them long 
at a time J. 

This preference of pauurage to tillage was deli- 
verec down fromj our Britifb anceilors to much later 
times; and continued equally prevalent during the 
whole period of our feodal government : the chief- 
tain, whcfe power and fafety depended on the prompt- 
nefs cf his vafials to execute his commands, found 
it his intereft to encourage thofe employments that 
favoured that difpofition ; the vafTal, who made ic 
his glory to fly at the firft call to the flandar J of his 
chieftain, was fure to prefer that employ, v/hich 
might be tranfadted by his family with equal fuccefs 
during his abfence. Tillage would require an atten- 
dance incompatible with the fervices he owed the 
baron, while the former occupation not only gave 
leifuie for thofe duties, but furniflied the hofpitable 
board of his lord with ample provifion, of which the 
vaflal was equal partaker. The reliques of the larder- 
of the eider Spencer are evident proofs of the plenty 

* Lih. 5. -f lib. 4. 

^ Adeo luxuriofa Verbis non las'Is modo fed etiam dulcibus, ut ' 
fe exigua parte diei pecora impleant, ut nin pabulo prohibeantur, 
diuiius pafta diffilianc. Lib. m. c. 6. 


'Clafs I. OX. 17 

of cattle in his days; for after his winter provifions 
may have been fuppofed to have been moftly con- 
fumed, there were found, fo late as the month of 
May in fair, the carcafes of not fewer than 80 beeves, 
60G bacons, and 600 muttons*. The accounts of 
the feveral great feafts in after times, afford amazing 
inftances of the quantity of cattle that were confumed 
in them. This was owing partly to the continued 
attachment of the people to grazing -[- ; partly to the 
preference, that the Eyiglijlo at all thiies gave to ani- 
mal food. The quantity of cattle that appear from 
the lateft calculation to have been confumed in our 
metropolis, is a fufficient argument of the vaft plenty 
of thefe times; particularly when we confider the 
great advancement of tillage, and the numberlefs 
Variety of provifions, unknown to paft ages, that are 
now introduced into thefe kingdoms from all parts of 
the world J. 

Our breed of horned cattle has in general been fo 
much improved by a foreign mixture, that it is dif- 
ficult to point out the original kind of thefe iflands. 
Thofe which may be fuppofed to have been purely 
Britijh are far inferior in fize to thofe on the northern 
part of the European continent : the cattle of the high- 

* Hume' s hi^iory o^ England n. 153. 

f Polyd. Virgil' HiJI Angl. vol. i. 5. who wrote in the time of 
Henry the 8th, fays Angli plures pecuarii quam araiores. 

X That inquifitive and accurate hiHorian Maitland furniflies us 
with this table of the quantity of cattle that were confumed in 
London above 30 years ago, when that city was far lefs populous 
than it is at prefent. 
Beeves 98,244. Pigs 52,000. 
Calves 194,760. Sheep and } ^^ 

Hogs 186,9321 Lambs \' > "i* 

C lands 

1 8 OX. Clafs I. 

lands oi Scotland are exceeding fmall, and many of 
them, males as well as females, are hornlefs : the 
lVeJJ/3 runts are much larger : the black cattle of Corn- 
uiall are of the fame fize with the laft. The large 
fpecies that is now cultivated through moft parts of 
Great-Britain are either entirely of foreign extraction, 
or our own improved by a crofs with the foreign 
kind. The Lincolnjhire kind derive their fize from 
the Holftein breed ; and the large hornlefs cattle that 
are bred in fome parts of England come originally 
from Poland. 

As to the wild cattle of Scotland, which Jonjion 
mentions under the name of Bifon Scoticus^ and de- 
fcribes as having the mane of a lion, and being en- 
tirely white*, the fpecies is now extinfl ; nor is there 
to be found at prelent in any part of thefe kingdoms 
a wild breed of any fort, analogous to the domeftic 

Frequent mention is made of our favage cattle by 
hiftorians. One relates, that Robert Bruce, king of 
Scotland, in chacing thefe animals, was preferved from 
the furious attacks of a wild bull by the intrepidity 
of one of his courtiers, from which he and his lineage 
acquired the name of'Turnbull. Fitz-Stephens-f names 
thefe animals among thofe that harbored in the great 
foreil that in his days lay adjacent to London. Ano- 
ther enumerates among the provifions at the great 
feaftj of AVwY, archbilhop of Jb*->^, fix wild bulls. 

* Jonjion. Kat. Hiji, i. 37. ' 

t Fiiz-Stcphens was a monk, who lived in the time o^ Henry If. 
and wrote a hillory oi London ; a tranflation of it may be feen in 
one of the x'^nnual Regillers. 

: Leiand's coUecl. 


Clafs I. OX. 19 

And Sibbald aflures us, that even In his time wild 
white cattle were found in the mountains oi Scotland*, 
Thefe were the origin of the tame cattle in our 
iflands : the Urus or Aurochs^ the animal in its (late of 
nature, no longer exifts in any part of Europe^ except 
it remains ftill in Poland^ of which we have accounts 
in Rzackzynki's natural hiftory of that kingdom f. 

The ox is the only horned animal in thefe iflands 
that will apply his ftrength to the fervice of mankind. 
It is now generally allowed, that in many cafes oxen 
are more profitable in the draught than horfes •, their 
food, harnefs, and flioes being cheaper, and fliould 
they be lamed or grow old, an old working beafh 
will be as good meat, and fatten as well as a young 
one J, 

There is fcarce any part of this animal without its 
ufe. The blood, fat, marrow, hide, hair, horns, 
hoofs, milk, creme, butter, cheefe, whey, urine, liver, 
gall, fpleen, bones, and dung, have each their 
particular ufe in manufadures, commerce and me- 

The fkin has been of great ufe in all ages. The 
antient Britains^ before they knew a better method, 
built their boats with ofiers and covered them with 
the hides of bulls, which ferved for Ihort |1 coafting 

* Sib. Hiji. Scot. iii. 7. f P. 228. 

X Mortimer's Hujbandry,!. 171. 

II That thefe n)itilta nwuigia, as Pliny calls them, were not 
made for long voyages, is evident not only from their ftrufture, 
but from the account given by SoUnus, that the crew never eat 
during the time they were at Sea. Vide C, "Junii Solini folyhijior. 

C 2 Primum 

20 OX. Clafs L 

Primum cana falix madefafto vimine parvam 
Texitur in Puppimj casfoque induta juvenco, 
Vedoris patiens, tumidum fuper emicat amnem : 
Sic Venetus ftagnante fado^ fufoque Britannus 
Navigat oceano. Lucan. lib. iv, 131. 

Veflels of this kind are ftill in life on the Irijh 
lalces ; and on the Dee and Severn : in Ireland they are 
called Curacb, in E^tgland Coracles, from the Britijh 
CwrivgU a word fignifying a boat of that ftru6lure. 

At prefent, the hide, when tanned and curried, 
ferves for boots, fhoes, and numberlefs other con- 
veniences of life. 

Vellum is made of calves fkin, and goldbeaters 
ficin is made of a thin vellum, or the finer part of 
the ox's guts. The hair mixed with lime is a ne- 
cefTary article in building. Of the horns are made 
combs, boxes, handles for knives, and drinking 
vellels y and when foftened by water, obeying the ma- 
tt ufadturer's hand, they are formed into pellucid laminae 
for the fides of lanthorns. Thefe laft conveniences 
we owe to our great king Alfred, who firft invented 
them to preferve his candle, time meafurers, from the 
wind *-, or (as other writers will have it) the tapers that 
were fet up before the reliques in the miferable tat- 
tered churches of that time -f . 

In medicine, the horns were employed as alexi- 
pharmics or antidotes againft poifon, the plague, or 
the fmall-pox ; they have been dignified with the 
title of EngHJJj hezoar j and are faid to have been 

• Anderfons h'lft. commerce, i. 45. 
•f Stwveiyt hi/}, of churchei, 103, 


Clafs I. OX. 21 

found to anfwer the end of the oriental kind : the 
chips of the hoofs, and parings of the raw hides, 
ferve to make carpenters glue. 

The bones are ufed by mechanics, where ivory is 
too expenfive ; by which the common people are 
ferved with many neat conveniencies at an cafy rate. 
From the tibia and carpus bones is procured an oil 
much ufed by coach-makers and others in dreffing 
and cleaning harnefs, and all trappings belonging to 
a coach ; and the bones calcined, afford a fit matter 
for tefls for the ufe of the refiner in the fmeliino- 

The blood is ufed as an excellent manure for fruic 
trees*. And is the bafis of that fine color, the Pruffian 

The fat, tallow, and fuer, furnifh us with light ^ and 
are alfo ufed to precipitate the fait that is drawn 
from briny fprings. The gall, liver, fpleen and urine, 
have alfo their place in the materia medica. 

The ufes of butter, cheefe, cremeand milk, in do- 
meflic cecdnomy ; and the excellence of the latter, 
in furnifhing a palatable nutriment for moft people, 
whofe organs of digeflion are weakened, are too ob- 
vious to be infifled on. 

* E'velyns phil. difc. of earth, p. 319. 

C 3 Genus 


S H E E P. 

Clafs, L 

Genus III. The SHEEP. 

Species I. The SHEEP. 

Ovis, Raii/yn. quad. 73. 
Gefn. quad, ' 7 1 . 
Ovis aries, ovis anglica mutica 
Cauda fcrotoque ad genuapen- 
dulis. Lin. Jyfi, 97. 
Ovis cornibus compreflis lunatis. 
Faun, Suec. 45. 

Aries, &c. Klein, quad. 

Aries laniger Cauda rotunda 

brevi. Brijfon quad. 48. 
De Buffon. V. 1. tab. I, 2. 
Br. Zool. IQ. 




La MB. 


Kwrd, Maharen 




Le Belief 

La Brebis 























Wad ur 

Faar ' 



Vsdder, Vsre 



IT does not appear from any of the early writers, 
that the breed of this animal was cultivated 
among the Briiains ; the inhabitants of the inland 
parts of this ifland either went entirely naked, or were 
only clothed with fkins, Thofe who lived on the 
fea coafts, and v^ ere the mofl civihzed, affecfted the 
manners of the Gauls, and wore like them a fort of 
garments made of coarfe wool, called Brachce. Thefe 
they probably had from Gaul.^ there not being the 
leaft traces of manufadures among the Britains^ in 
the hiftories of thofe times- 


ClafsL SHEEP. 23 

This negligence may be eafily accounted for, in 
g,n uncivilized nation whofe v^^ants v/ere few, and 
thofe eafily fatisfied ; but what is more furprifing, 
when after a long period we had cultivated a breed 
of llieep, whofe fleeces were fuperior to thofe of 
other countries ; we ftili neglefted to promote a 
woollen manufa£lure at home. That valuable branch 
of bufinefs lay for a confiderablp time in foreign 
hands ; and we were obliged to import the cloth 
manufadured from our own materials. There feems 
indeed to have been many unavailing efforts made 
by our monarchs to preferve both the wool and the 
manufa(5lure of it among ourfelves : Henry the fe- 
cond, by a patent granted to the weavers in London^ 
direded that if any cloth was found made of a mix- 
ture oiSpanifi wool, it fhould be burnt by the mayor*! 
yet fo little did the weaving bufinefs advance, that 
Edward the third was obliged to permit the impor- 
tation of foreign cloth in the beginning of his reign % 
but foon after, by encouraging foreign artificers to 
fettle in England^ and infl;ru6l the natives in their 
trade, the manufacture increafed fo greatly as to 
enable him to prohibit the wear of foreign cloth. 
Yet, to fhew the uncommercial geniys of the peo- 
ple, the effects of this prohibition were checked by 
another law, as prejudicial to trade as the former was 
falutary ; this was an adl of the fame reign, againft 
exportiiig woollen goods manufaftured at home, 
under heavy penalties ; while the exportation of 
wool was not only allowed buc encouraged. This 

* StoHu 419. 

C 4 over- 

£4. SHEEP. ClafsL 

over fight was not foon redified, for it appears that. 
On the alliance that Edward the fourth made with 
the king o'i Arragon^ he prefented the latter with fome 
ewes and rams of the Cotef'dvold kind ; which is a 
proof of their excellency, fmce they were thought 
acceptable to a monarch, whofe dominions were fo 
noted for the finenefs of their fleeces *. 

In the firil year of Richard the third, and in the 
two fucceeding reigns, our woollen manufactures re-, 
ceived fome improvem.ents -f ; but the grand rife of 
all its profperity is to be dated from the reign of queen 
Elizabeth^ when the tyranny of the duke oi Aha in 
the Netherlands drove numbers of artificers for refuge 
into this country, who were the founders of that 
immenfe manufadure we carry on at prefent. We 
have ftrong inducements to be more particular ori 
the modern ftate of our woollen manufactures j but 
we defift, from a fear of digreffing too far ; our en- 
quiries muft be limited to points that have a more 
immediate reference to the ftudy of Zoology. 

No country is better fupplied with materials, and 
thofe adapted to every fpecies of the clothing bufi- 
nefs, than Great-Bmtain; and though the fheep of 
thefeiflands afford fleeces of different decrees of good- 
nefs, yet there are not any but what may be ufed in 
fome branch of it. Herefordfmre^ Devon/hire, an4 
Cotefwold dowrJ ,zxt noted for producing fheep with 

* Rapin i. 6os. in the note. Stoiv^s Annales, 6(j&. 

f In that oi Richard, two-yard cloths were iirll made. In tha^ 
o^ Henry the 8th, an Italian taught us the ufe of the diftafF. Ker- 
fics were alio firfl in::de in Eui-iund about that time. 


eiafsl. SHEEP. 25 

remarkably fine fleeces ; the LincoInJIoire and JVar- 
wickfhire kind, which are very large, exceed any for 
the quantity 'and goodnefs of their wool. The for- 
mer county yiekls the largefl fheep in thefe iflands, 
where it is no uncommon thing to give fifty guineas 
for a ram, and a guinea for the admiffion of a ewe to 
one of the vakiable maks ; or twenty guineas for the 
ufe of it for a certain number of ewes during one 
feafon, Suffolk alfo breeds a very valuable kind. 
The fleeces of the northern parts of this kingdorq 
are inferior in finenefs to thofe of the fouth •, but 
ftill are of great value in diff'erent branches of our 
^anufadlures. The Torkfiire hills furnifli the looms 
of that county with large quantities of wool ; and 
that which is taken from the neck and fhoulders, 
is ufed (mixed with ^amjlo wool) in fome of their 
fineft cloths. 

Wales yields but a coarfe wool ; yet is of more 
cxtenfive ufe than the fined Segovian fleeces j for ricl\ 
and poor, age and youth, health and infirmities, all 
confefs the univerfal benefit of the flannel manu^ 

The fheep of Ireland vary like thofe of Great- 
^riiain. Thofe of the fouth and eafl being large, 
and their flefh rank. Thofe of the north, and tha 
mountainous parts fmall, and their flefh fweet. The 
lleeces in the fame manner differ in degrees of value. 

Scotland breeds a fmall kind, and their fleeces are, 
coarfe. Sihbald (after Bocthius) fpeaks of a breed in. 
the ifle of Rona^ covered with blue wool ; of ano- 
ther kind in the ifle of Hirta, larger than the biggeft- 
be goaf, with tails hanging almoft to the ground^ 


26 SHEEP. Clafsl. 

and horns as thick, and longer than thofe of an ox^. 
He mentions another kind, which are clothed with 
a mixture of wool and hair ; and of a fourth fpecies, 
whofe flefh and fleeces are yellow, and their teeth of 
the colour of gold ; but the truth of thefe relations 
ought to be enquired into, as no other writer has 
mentioned them, except the credulous Boetbiiis. 

Befides the fleece, there is fcarce anv part of thi^ 
animal but what is ufcful to mankind ; the flefh is 
a dcHcate and vvholefome food ; the fldn dreflTed, 
forms difl'erent parts of our apparel-, and is ufed 
for covers of books. The entrails, properly pre- 
pa.«-ed and twifled, ierve for firings for various mu- 
fical inftruments. The bones calcined (like 'Other 
bones in general) form materials for tefls for the re- 
finer. The milk is thicker than that of cows ; and 
confequently yields a greater quantity of butter and 
cheefe ; and in fome places is fo rich, that it will 
not produce the cheefe without a mixture of water 
to make it part from the whey. The dung is a re- 
markable rich manure •, infomuch that the folding 
of fheep is become too ufeful a branch of hufbandry 

* Gmelin defcribes an animal he found in Silteria, that in many 
particulars agrees with this ; he ealls it Rupicapra cornubus arieti- 
nis ; LinniTus ftyles it Capra ammon. Syji. 97. and Gefner, p. 934. 
imagines it to be the Mujimon of the antients; the horns of the 
Sihcria7i animal are two j'ards long, their weight above thirty 
pounds. As we have fuch good authority for the exigence 
of fuch a quadruped, we may venture to give credit to Boethius^& 
account, that the fame kind was once found in Hirta. M. de 
Buijcn, torn. xi. p. 352. defcribes it under the name oi LeMoiifio*,i 
and with great appearance of reafon imagines it to be the Iheep 
in its wild ftate. in the fecond plate of this edition is given the 
fcure of the horns of this animal, from the Fetrop.Tranfa^ma, 
Tom. iv. 


Clafsl. SHEEP. - ±y. 

for the farmer to negltd. To conclude, whether 
we confider the advantages that refult from this ani- 
mal to individuals in particular, or to thefe king- 
doms in general, we may with Columella confider this 
in one fenfe, as the firft of the domeftic animals. 
Pofi major ss quadnipedes ovilU pecoris [ecunda ratio ejt •, 
qu<e prima Jit ft ad u till talis magnitiidinem refer as. Nam 
id pracipue contra frigoris violentiam protegit, corporis 
hufque nojlris liberaliora pr<£bet velamina •, et etiar/i ek- 
gantium menfas jucundis et numerofis dapihus exornat *. 

The flieep, as to its nature, is a moft innocent, 
mild and fimple animal ; and confcious of its own 
defcncelefs ftate, remarkably timid : if attacked 
when attended by its lamb, it will make fom.e fhew 
of defence, by ftamping with its hti and pulhing 
with its head ^ it is a gregarious animal, is fond of 
any jingling noife, for which reafon the leader of 
the flock has in many places a bell hung round its 
neck, which the others will conftantly follow ; it is 
fubjecl to many difeafes : fome arife from infedis 
which depofite their eggs in different parts of the 
animal ; others are caufed by their being kept in wet 
paftures ; for as the fheep requires but little drink, 
it is naturally fond of a dry foil. The dropfy, ver- 
tigo (the pendro of the Welih) the pthifick, jaun- 
dice, and worms in the liver -f annually make great 
havoke among our flocks : for the firft difeafe, the 
fhepherd finds a remedy by turning the infeded into 
fields of broom ; which plant has been alfo found to 

* De re rujlka, lib. vii. c. 2. 

I Fafciola hepatica, Lin.JyJi. 6480 


%% SHEER Clafsl. 

be very efficacious in the lame diforder among the 
human fpecies. 

The fbeep is alfo infefred by different forts of in- 
fers t, like the horfe it has its peculiar Oejirus or 
Cadjiy^ which depofits its eggs above the nofe in the 
frontal finufes \ when thofe turn into maggots they 
become exceffive painful, and caufe thofe violent 
agitations that we fo often fee the animal in. The 
J^rench iliepherds make a common practice of eafing 
the iheep, by trepanning and taking out the mag- 
got ; this praftice is fometimes ufed by the Englifo 
fiiepherds, but not always with the fame fuccefs : 
befides thefe infe6ts, the fheep is troubled with a kind 
of tick and loufe, which magpies and llarlings con- 
tribute to eafe it of, by lighting on its back, anc| 
picking the infects off. 


Clafs I. 



Genus IV. The GOAT. 

Species I. The G O A T. 

Rail Jyn. quad. 77. 
Meyer s an. i. Tab. 6a. 
Charlton ex. (). 
Klein quad. 1 5 . 
Gefn. quad. 2b6. 26 B. 
DeBugon. v. 59. Tab, 8.9. 

Kircus cornibus interiuscultratis, 
exterius rotundatis, infra cari- 
natis,arcuatis. Brijfon quad. 38.; 

Capra Hircus, Lin.fyjl. 94. 

Capra cornibus carinatis arcuatis. 
Faun- Stiec. 4^. 

Br. Zool. I 3 . 





La Chevre 
Dan. Sukj Geedebuk Geed 




Le Boac 





















THE goat is the mod: local of any of ourdd- 
mefiic animals, confining itfelf to the moun- 
tainous parts of thefe iilands : his mod beloved food 
is the tops of the boughs^ or the tender bark of 
young trees 5 on which account he is fo prejudicial 
to plantations, that it would be imprudent to draw 
him from his native rocks, except fome method 
could be thought on to obviate this evil. We have 
been informed, that there is a freeholder in the p:i- 
rifn of Trawfvynnyd., in Mctionethpire, who hath, 
for feveral years pad, broke the teeth of his goats 
fliort off with a pair of pincersj to preferve his trees. 

" This 

$o GOAT. CUfsI, 

This pra6lice has certainly efficacy fufficient to pre- 
vent the mifchief, and may be recommended to 
thofe who keep them for their fingularity ; but 
ought by no means to be encouraged, when thofe 
animals are preferved for the fake of their milk, as 
the great falubrity of that medicine arifes from their 
promifcuous feeding. 

This quadruped contributes in various inflances to 
the necefijties of human life; as food, as phyfick, 
and as cloathing ; the whitefb wigs are made of its 
hair ; for which purpofe that of the he-goat is moft 
in requeft ; the whiteft and cleareft is feleded from 
that which grows on the haunches, where it is longeft 
and thickeft •, a good fkin well haired is fold for a 
guinea j though a fkin of bad hue, and fo yellow as 
to baffle the barber's fkill to bleach, will not fetch 
above eighteen- pence, or two fhillings. 

The ^elcb goats are far fuperior in fize, and in 
length and finenefs of hair, to thofe of other moun- 
tainous countries. Their ufual color is white : thofe 
of France and the Alps are fhort-haired, reddifh, and 
their horns fmall. We have fcen the horns of a 
Cambrian he-goat three feet two inches long, and 
three feet from tip to tip. 

The fuet of the goat is in great efteem, as weli 
as the hair. Many of the inhabitants of Caernar- 
'Donjhire fuffer thefe animals to run wild on the rocks 
during winter as well as fummer, and kill them 
in G£lober^ for the fake of their fat, either by 
Ihooting them with bullets, or running them down 
with dogs like deer. The goats killed for this pur- 
pofe, are about four or five years old. Their fuet 


Glafs I. GOAT. ^% 

will make candles, far fuperior in whitenefs and 
croodnefs to thofe made from that of the fiieep or the 
ox, and accordingly brings a much greater price in 
the market : nor are the horns without their ufe, the 
country people making of them excellent handles for 
tucks and penknives. The ikin is peculiarly well 
adapted for the glove manufadory, efpecially that of 
the kid : abroad it is drefled and made into (lockings, 
bed-ticks, bolfters, * bed-hangings, fneets, and even 
fhirts. In the army it covers the horfeman's arms, 
and carries the foot foldiers provifions. As it takes 
a dye better than any other fkin -, it was formerly 
much ufed for hangings in the houfes of people of 
fortune ; being fufceptible of the richeft colors, and 
when flowered and ornamented with gold and filver, 
became an elegant and fuperb furniture. 

The fiefh is of great ufe to the inhabitants of the 
country where it re fides •, and affords them a cheap 
and plentiful provifion in the winter months, when 
the kids are brought to market. The haunches of 
the goat are frequently faked and dried, and fupplv 
all the ufcs of bacon : this by the natives is called 
Coch yr wden, or hung venifon. 

The meat of a fplayed goat of fix or feven years 
old, (which is called Hyfr) is reckoned the be ft ', be- 
ing generally very fweet and fat. This makes an 
excellent pafty -, goes under the name of rock venifon, 
and is little inferior to that of the deer. Thus nature 

* Bolfters made of the hair of a goat were in ufe in the days of 
Saul;,zs appears from 1. Samuel, c. 19. v. 13, The fptcies verv 
probably was that now called the angora goat, which is orly found 
in the Eaji; and whofe foft and fiiky hair fupplied a raolt luxuri- 
ous couch. 


32 G O A T. dafs I 

provides even on the tops of high and cragfyy 
rnountains, not only necelTaries, but delicacies for the 

The milk of the goat is fweet, ndurifhing and me- 
dicinal •, it is an excellent fuccedaneum for afs*s 
tniJk; and has (with a tea-fpoonful of hartfhorn 
drank warm in bed in the morning, and at four 
o*cIock in the afternoon, and repeated for fome time) 
been a cure for phtifical people, before they were 
gone too far. In fome of the mountainous parts of 
Scotland and Ireland^ the miik is made into whey % 
which has done wonders in this and other cafes, 
where coolers and refloratives are neceflary : and to 
many of thofe places, there is a great refort of pa- 
tients of all ranks, as there is in England to the Spaws 
or Baths, It is not furprizing that the milk of this 
animal is fo falutary, as it brouzes only on the tops, 
tendrils and flowers of the mountain fhrubs, and me- 
dicinal herbs j rejefling the groffer parts. The blood 
of the he-goat dried, is a great recipe in fome families 
for.the pleurify and inflammatory diforders*, 

Cheefe made of goats milk, is much valued in 
fome of our mountainous countries, when kept to 
proper age ; but has a peculiar tafte and flavour. 

The rutting feafon of thefe animals, is from the 
beginning of September to November-, at that time 
the males drive whole flocks of the females continu- 
ally from place to place, and All the whole atmof- 
phere around them with their fl:rong and ungrateful 

* This remedy Is taken notice of even by Dr. Mead In his mo- 
Mtta medica, p. 35. under the article pkuritis. The Germans ufe 
that of the Shin-bock or Ibex. 


Clafsl. GOAT. 35 

odor; which though as difagreeable as afla. fetida 
itfelf, yet may be conducive to prevent many diftem- 
pcrs, and to cure nervous and hyfterical ones. Horfes 
are imagined to be much refrefhed v/ith it -, on which 
account many perfons keep a he-goat in their ftuds or 

Goats go with young four months and a half, and 
bring forth from the latter end o'i February to the 
latter end of April: Having only two teats, they bear 
generally but two young, and fometimes three ; 
and in good warm pafrures there have been inilances, 
though rare, of their bringing four at a time : both 
young and old are affed;ed by the weather : a rainy 
feafon makes them thin •, a dry funny one makes them 
fat and blythe : their exceffive venery prevents 
longevity, for they feldom live above eleven or 
twelve years, 

Thefe animals with amazing fwiftnefs and fafety, 
climb up the moft rugged rocks, and afcend the 
moft dangerous places: They can {land unmoved 
on the highefl precipices, and fo balance their center 
of gravity, as to fix themfelves in fuch fituations with, 
fecurity and firmnefs ; fo that we feldom hear of their 
falling, or breaking their necks. When two are 
yoked together, as is frequently praflifed j they will, 
as if by confent, take large and hazardous leaps ; 
yet fo well time their mutual efforts, as rarely to mif- 
carry in the attempt. 

D Cenus 



Genus V. The S T A G. 

Species I. The STAG, or RED DEER. 

Red Deer, Stag or Hart. Cervus Cervus cornibus teretibus ad la- 

tera incurvis. Brijfon. quad. 58-. 
VU3 Elaphus. Lin. fyft. 93. 

Raiijyn. quad. 84, 
Charlt. ex. 1 1 . 
Jdeyersan. Tab. 22.' 
Gefner quad. ^26. 

Gre'w' j Mu/eu^fi, zi. C- nobilis. 


Hi n d. 

C. cornibus ramofis teretibus re- 
curvatis. Faun Suec. 40. 
Klein, quad. 23.. 


Carw Ewig 

Le Cerf La Bicbe 

Cervio Cervia 

Ciervo Gierva 

Cervo Cerva 

Hirtz, Hirfch: Hint 

Dutch, Hart Hinde 

S-ived. Hiort, Kronhiort Kind 

Dan, Kronhiort Hind 







Young,- or Galp-,. 



Hinde fcalb' 

Kid, orHind'karv 
The B'UCK. 


Species II. 

Fallow deer, or buck; cervus fummitate palmata. 

platyceros. Raii. fyn. quad. 85. quad. 62. 

'£>?imzv\x\ga.xh. Gefner quad. -loj, Cervus dama. Cervus corni 

Meyer's an. Tom. i. Tab. 71. 
De Buffon.Tcm. \i. 161. Tab. 

27, 28. 
Cervus cornuum unica et altlore 

bus ramofis recuryatis com- 
preflis : fumn^iitatibus palma- 
tis. Lin.fyji. 93. 

Faun. Suec. 42. Br. Zool. i r. 

Cervus palniacus. Klein.quad. zz.. 











La Daine 








Le Dairv 

Gamo, coraa 
Dof, Dofiiiort 
Daae Dijr 

T firft, the beafls of chace had this whole iflanci' 
for their range j they knew no other limits tha<ni 


Clafsl. BUCK. 35 

that of the ocean •, nor confeilt^d any particular maf- 
ter» When the Saxons had eftablifhed themfelves ia 
the Heptarchy^ they were referved by each fovereign 
for his own particular diverfion ; hunting and war 
in thofe uncivilized ages were the only employ of the 
great ; their aftive, but uncultivated minds, being 
fufceptible of no pleafures but thofe of a violent kind, 
fuch as gave exercife to their bodies, and prevented 
the pain of thinking. 

But as the Saxon kings only appropriated thofe 
lands to the ufe of forefts which were unoccupied •, fo 
no individuals received any injury ; but when the 
conquefi had fettled the Nor?nan line on the throne, 
this pafiion for the chace was carried to an excefs, 
which involved every civil right in a general ruin ; in 
fuperfeded the confideration of religion even in a fu- 
perllitious age : the village communities, nay, even 
the mod facred ccdifices were turned into one vaft 
wafte, to make room for animals : the objefts of a 
lawlefs tyrant's pleafure* The new foreft in Hamp- 
jhire is too trite an inftance to be dwelt on : fangui- 
nary laws were enadled to preferve the game; and in. 
the reigns of William Rufus, and Henry the firft, it was 
lefs criminal to deftroy one of the human fpecies than 
a bead of chace *, Thus it continued while the Nor" 
man line filled the throne ; but when the Saxon line 
was reftorcd under Henry the fecond, the rigor of the 
foreft laws was immediately foftened. 

When our Barons began to form a power, they 

* An ancient hiftorian fpeaks thus of the penalties incurred j 
Si cervum coperent aut aprum eculos eis evelUbat j amavit etiim fcras 
tan^uam erut pater (arum, 

D ij claim- 

S6 buck; Clafel.. 

claimed a va^ft, but more limited tract for a diverfioni 
that the Englijh were always fend of : They v/ere very- 
jealous of any encroachments on their refpeflive 
bounds, v/hich were often the caufe of deadly feuds ;. 
fuch a one gave caufe to the fatal day of Chevy-chace,.. 
a fad, though recorded only in a ballad, may, from 
v/hat we know of the manners of the times, be found- 
ed on truth 5 not that it was attended with all the cir- 
eumilanees the author of that natural, but heroic com- 
pofnion hath given it, for on that day neither a Percy 
nor a Douglas fell: here the poet feems to have- 
claimed his privilege, and mixed with this fray fome 
ef the events of the battle of Otterhour,^. 

When property became happily more divided by the: 
relaxation of the feodal tenures^ thefe extenfive hunt- 
ing-grounds became more limited ; and as tillage 
and hufoandry increafed, the beafts of chace were , 
obliged to give way to others more ufeful to the com- 
inunity. Thofe vaft tradls of land, before dedicated 
to hunting, were then contracted j and in proportioti 
as the ufeful arts gained ground, either loft their ori- 
ginal deftination, or gave rife to the invention of 
Parks. Liberty and the arts feem coeval, for when^ 
once the latter got footing, the former protefted the 
labors of the induftrious from being ruined by the- 
iicentioufnefs of the fportfman, or being devoured by 
the cbje6ls of his diverfion : for this reafon, the fub- 
je<Els of a defpotic government ftill experience the in- 
conveniences of vaft waftes, and forefts, the terrors of 
the neighbouring hufbandmen * i while in our welt- 

* In Germany the peafants are often obliged to watch their 
grounds the whole night, to preferve the fences and corn from be- 
ing ieftroyed by the desr, 

■ ^ . regui- 

Ckfs L B U C K. 37 

i-regulated monarchy, very few chaces remain: v>7e ftiJl 
indulge oiirfeives in the generous pleafure of hunt- 
ing, but confine the deer-kind to Parks, of which 
England boafts of more than any other kingdom in 
Eurofe. Our equal lavviS allow every man his 
pleafure-, but confine them'in fuch bounds, as prevent 
■them from being injurious to the meaneft ofthe com- 
munity. Before the reformation, our prelates ftem 
to have guarded fufiiciently againft the want of this 
amufemenr, the fee of Norwich in particular, being 
jpoflefied about that time of thirteen parks *. They 
fecm to have forgot good king Edgar's advice, Doce- 
Mus etiani tit facer dos non fit venator neqne acciptrarms 
mequs pot at or, fed incumhat fds libris Jicui ordinerA itfius 
Meet ■\. 

The flag and buck agree in their nature ; which is 
fo univcrfally known as to render any account of it 
unnecefTary : the firfl: is become lefs common than it 
was formerly j its exceffive vitioufnefs during the 
rutting feafon, and the badnefs of its fiefh, induce 
mofl people to part with the fpecies. Stags are Iiill 
€ound wild in the highlands of 'Scotland, but are 
fmaller than thofe of E^f^gland. They are likewife 
met with on the moors that border on C(?r;«ze?^/ and 
JDevoTifhire, and in Ireland an the mountains of Kerry^ 
where they add greatly to the m.agniiicence of the ro- 
mantic fcenery of the lake of Kiilarny. 

We have in England two varieties of fallov/-deer 
■which are faid to be of forneio-n origin : The beauti- 

O O 

ful fpotted kind, fuppofed to have been brought 
iirom Bengal; and the very deep brown fort, that are 

'^ Peachi^fii's Comj>!eai Gefitlcmmz, sGeo ir Leges Saxon. 'nj. 

P 5 .now 

SS BUCK. Clafs T. 

now fo common in feveral parts of this kingdom. 
Thefe were introduced here by king James the jirfi 
out oi Norway*^ where he paiTed fome time when 
he viiited his intended bride Mary cf Denmark -f. 
He obferved their hardinefs \ and that they could 
endure, even in that fevere cHmate, the winter with- 
out fodder. Re lirft brought fome into Scotland^ and 
from thence tranfported them into his chaces of En- 
field and Epping^ to be near his palace of Theobalds ; 
for it is well known, that monarch was in one part of 
his charader the Nimrod of his days, fond to excefs 
of hunting, that image of war, although he detefled 
the reality. 

The ufes of thefe animals are almioH: fimilarj the 
fkin of the buck and doe is fufficiently known to 
every onej and the horns of the ftag are of great ufe 
in mechanics j they, as well as the horns of the reft 
of the deer kind, ibeing ejccefllvely compad, folid, 
hard and weighty ; and make excellent handles for 
couteaus, knives, and feveral other utenfils. They 
abound in that fait, which is the bafis of the fpirit of 
Hartjhcrn -, and the remains (after the falts are ex- 
tracted) being calcined, becomiC a valuable aftringent 
in fluxes, which is known by the name of burnt 
Hartfborn : Befides thefe ufes in mechanics and me- 
dicine, there is an inftance in Giraldus Camhrenfis^ of ^ 
CGuntefs oiCheJier^ who kept milch hindes, and made 
cheefe, of their milk fome of which fhe prefented to 
archbifnop Baldicin^ in his itinerary through PFales, 
in the year 1188 J. 

* This we relate on the authority of Mr. Peier CoWmfon. 

t One of the Welch names of this animal {Geivr-danas, or Danijh 
goat) implies that it was brought from fome of the Danijh domi- 
C'ons. Ed, Lbivjd. Fb. tr. No. 334. J Girald, Camb. Itin. p. 216, 




Species IIL The ROEBUCK., 

•Qaprea Plinii, Cervus cornibus teretibiis eredis. 

Caf)reolus VuIgO. Rail fyn. BriJJhn quad. 6i. 

quad. 89. l^e ^'itf^'h Tom. vi. 289. Tab. 

■Camd. Brit. ii. 771. 3 2, 33. 

Meyer 5 anim. ii. Tab. 73. Cervus minimus, Klein quad. 24. 

Capreolus, 5/^. Scot. pan 3. 9. Cervus capreolus, lAn.Jyli. 94. 

Caprea capreolus. Dorcas^ Gef- C. Coinibus ramofis tcrctibut, e- 

ner. quad. 296. rettis, fummitate bifida, Faun. 

Merret piiiax. i66. Si*cc. 43. Br. ZooL 18. 


i?'//. Twrcli, 7^7/2. lyrchell Por/. Cabra montes 

Fren. Le Chevreuil Ger. Reechbock,yi2?;72. Reechgels 

h-al. Capriolo "S-iuf^. Radiur, Rabock 

Span. Zorlico.CabronziHoriHontesZ^a;/. Raaedijr Raaebuk 

f~Y^ H E roebuck prefers a mountainous woody 
X country to a plain one ; was formerly very 
common in JVales.^ in the north of England., and in 
'Scotland ; but at prefent the fpecies no longer exids 
in any part of GrecJ-Britain., except in the Scotti/h 

This is the left of the deer kind, being only three 
feet four inches long, and two {(zgi two inches high ; 
The horns are from eight to nine inches long, up- 
right, round, and divided into only three branches ; 
their lower part is fulcated lengthways, and extremely 
rugged ; of this part is made handles for couteaus, 
Ivnives, (^c. The body is covered with very long 
hair, well adapted to the rigor of the highland air ; 
the lower part of each hair is afh- color ; near the 
■ends is a narrow bar of black, and the points are 
yellow : The hairs on the face are black, tipped with 
aila- color s the ears are long, their infides of a pale 

D 4 yellow. 

40 ROEBUCK. Clafs I. 

yellow, and covered with long hair, the fpaces border- 
ing on the eyes and mouth are black. 

The cheft, belly, and legs, and the infide of the 
thighs, are of a yeilowifh white, the rump is of a pure 
white ; the tail is very Ihort. » 

The make of the roebuck is very elegant, and 
formed for agility : thefe animals do not keep in 
herds like other deer, but only in families ; they 
bring two fawns at a time, which the female is obliged 
to conceal from the buck v/hile they are very 
young. The flefh of thefe creatures is reckoned a de- 
licate food. 

In the old Weljh laws, a roebuck was valued at the 
fame price as a fhe-goat : a flag at the price of an ox % 
and a fallow deer was efteemed equal to that of a cow j 
or, as fome fay, a he-goat *. 

It will not be foreign to the prefent fubjed:, to 
merition the vaft horns frequently found in Ireland^ 
and others fometimes met with in our own kingdom. 
The latter are evidently of the ftag kind, but much 
flronger, thicker, heavier, and furnifhed with fewer 
antlers than thofe of the prefent race ; of thofe fome 
have been found on the fea-coaft of Lancafljire -f, and 
a fingle horn was dug a few years ago out of the 
fands near Chefier. Thofe found in \ Ireland muft be 
referred to the elk kind, but of a fpecies different 
from the Europan^ being provided with brow ant-; 
krs which that wants. Entire fkeletons of this 
animal are fometimes met with ; the foil a white 
marie. Some of thefe horns are four fee: between 

* L:gesWaUic^,z^'&. f No. 422. 

X No. Z2-;. Boat es Na(. Hif.. Ireland, 137. 

Clafs I. HOG. 41 

tip and tip. Noc the fainteft account Is left of the 
exiftence of thefe animals, fo that they may poffjbly 
be ranked among thofe remains which foffilifts dif- 
tinguifh by the title of diluvian. We fhall leave this 
queftion to be decided by the joint efforts of the natu- 
ralift and antiquarian. 

Genus VI. The H O G. 

Species I, The HOG. 

Sus, fea Porcus domefticus. 

Rail f)n. quad. 92. 

Gefner quad. 872. 

Charlton ex. 14. 

Sus caudatus auriculis oblongis 

acutis, Cauda pilofa, Brif' 

Jon quad. 74. 

De Buffan Tom. V. 99. Tab. 6. 1 7. 

Klein quad. 25. 

Sus fcrofa,Z/«._/5y^. 102. 

Sus dorfo antice fecofo, cauda pii 

I o fa . Faun . Suec. 21. 
Br. Zool. 19. 










Le Verrat 

La Truye 


























CCORD|NG to common appearances, the 
hog is certainly the mofl: impure and filthy of 
all quadrupeds : we ihould however refle6t that filthi- 
nefs is an idea merely relative to ourfelves ; but we 
form a partial judgment from our own fenfations, and 
overlook that wife maxim of providence, that every 
part of the creation Hiould have its refpedive inhabi- 

42 HOG. Clafs I. 

tants. By this osconomy of nature, the earth is ne- 
ver overllocked, nor any part of the creation ufelefs. 
This obfervation may be exemplified in the animal 
before us ; the hog alone devouring what is the re- 
fufe of all the reft, and contributing not only to re- 
move what would be a nuifance to the human race ; 
but alfo converting the moft naufeous offals into the 
richeft nutriment: for this reafon its llomach is capa- 
cious, and its gluttony excefTive ; not that its palate is 
infenfibie to the difference of eatables ; for where ic 
finds variety, it will reje6l the worft with as diitin- 
guifliing a tafte as other quadrupeds *. In the or- 
chards of peach-trees in North-America^ where hogs 
have plenty of delicious food, it is obferved that they 
will rejecTc the fruit that has lain but a few hours on 
the ground, and continue on the watch for a long 
time for a ficfli wind-fall. 

This animal has (not unaptly) been compared to a 
mifer, who is ufelefs and rapacious in his life ; but on 
his death becomes of public ufe, by the very effe^s 
of his fordid manners. The hog- during life does 
not render the left fetvice to mankind, except in re- 
moving that filth which other animals rejefl : his 
more than common brutality, urges him to devour 
even his own off-fpring. All other domellic quadru- 

* The ingenious author of the Pan Suecus, has proved this be- 
yond contradidiion, having with great induftry drawn up tables of 
the number of vegetables, which each domcfttc animal chufes, or 
rejefts : and it is found that the hog eats but 72, and retufes 171 

The Ox eats 276. reje61s 218. 
Goat 449« '■26. 

Sheep 387. 141. 

Hoiii 262. 212- Jftta:n. Aiad, n. ZQZ' 


Ciafs I. H O G. 43 

peds faew feme degree of refped to mankind ; and 
even a fort of tendernefs for us in our helplefs years; 
but this animal will devour infants, whenever it has 

The parts of this animal are finely adapted to its 
way of life: as its method of feeding is by turning 
up the earth with its nofe for roots of different kinds; 
fo nature has given it a more prone form than other 
animals; a flrong brawny neck; eyes fmali, and 
placed high in the head ; a long fnout, nofe callous 
and tough, and a quick fenfe of fmelling to trace oun 
its food. Its inteftines have a flrong refemblance to 
thofe of the human fpecies ; a circumftance that 
fhould mortify our pride. The external form of its 
body is very unv.'eildy, yet, by the (Irength of its ten- 
dons, the wild boar (which is only a variety of the 
common kind) is enabled to fly from the hunters 
with amazing agility : the back toe on the feet of 
this animal prevents its flipping while it defcends de- 
cHvities, and mufl be of fmgular ufe when purfued i 
yet, notwithflanding its powers of motion, it is by na- 
ture ftupid, inaftive, and drowiy ; much inclined to 
increaft in fat, which is difpofed in a different man- 
ner from other animals, and forms a regular coat 
over the whole body. It is refllefs at a change of 
weather, and in certain high winds is fo agitated as to 
run violently, fcreaming horribly at the fame time: 
it is fond of wallowing in the dirt, either to cool its 
furfcited body, or to deftroy the lice, ticks, and other 
infefts with which it is infefled. Its difeafes gene- 
rally arife from intemperence ; meafles, impoflumes, 
^nd fcfophulous complaints are reckoned among 


44. H O G. CUfs t 

Linnaeus obferves that its flefh is a wholefome food 
for athletic conftitutions, or thofe that ufe much exer- 
cife i but bad for fuch as lead a fedentary hfe : it is 
though of molt univerfal ufe, and furnifhes number- 
lefs materials for epicurifm, among which brawn is a 
kind peculiar to Englmid. The iieih of the hog is an 
article of the firft importance to a naval and commer- 
cial nation, for it takes fait better than any other 
kind, and confequently is capabable of being pre- 
ferved longen The lard is of great ufe in medicinej 
being an ingredient in various forts of plaifters, 
either pure, or in th€ form of pomatum; and the 
bridles are formed into bruihes of feveral kinds. 

The wild-boar was formerly a native of our coun- 
try, as appears fro-m the laws of Hoel dda *, who per- 
mitted his grand huntfman to chace that animal from 
the middle o^ November to the beginning oi 'Decemher^ 
William the Conqueror puniflied with the lofs of 
their eyes, any that were convicted of killing the 
wild-boar, the flag, or the roebuck f; and Fitx- 
Stephens tells us, that the vaft foreft that in his time 
grew on the north fide of London^ was the retreat of 
Hags, fallow deer, wild-boars, and bulls. 

* Leges Wallica^\\^ t Leges Saxon^ 2^i^ 

piv. ir: 

ClafsL CAT. 45 


Genus VII. The CAT. 
Species I. The DOMESTIC CAT. 

Felis domeflica feu catus. Rait De Buffon^Tom. vi. 3. Tab. 2." 

fyn.quad. 170. Felis catus, Lin. fyji. 62. 

Charlton ex. 20. Felis cauda elongata, auriba* 

Meyer""! an. i. Tab. 1 5. aequalibus. Faun. Suec. Q. 

Gefner quad. 317. ^r. Zool.zX- 

BriJ/on quad, I g i , 

N A M E. S. 


Cath, w^. G wreath Genn. 



Le Chat Dut. 

Cj/perfe Kat. Hayikat. 


Gatto B^wed. 



Gato Dan. 




THIS animal, is fo well known as to make a 
defcriptionof it unnecelliiry. It is an ufeful, but 
deceitful domeftic ; aftive, neat, fedate, intent on its 
prey. When pleafed purres and moves its tail : 
when angry fpits, hifles, and ftrikes with its foot. 
"When walking, it draws in its claws ; it drinks little 5 
is fond of fiih : its urine is corrofive : it buries its 
dung : it waflies his face with its fore-foot, (Linnaeus 
fays at the approach of a ftorm) the female is re- 
makably falacious ; a piteous, fqualling, jarring 
lover. Its eyes fhine in the night : its hair when 
rubbed in the dark emits fire: it is even proverbially 
tenacious of life : always lights on its feet : is fond 
of perfumes j Mariim^ Cat-mint^ valerian^ &c. * 

* Vide. Lin. fyfi. 


46 CAT. Clafsl.' 

Our anceftors feemed to have had a high fenfe of 
the utility of this animal. That excellent Prince 
Hoeldda^ or Hcwel the Good^ did not think it beneath 
him (among his laws relating to the Prices, &c. of 
animals*,) to include that of the cat; and to de- 
fcribe the qualities it ought to have. The price of a 
kiding before it could fee, was to be a penny ; till 
it caught a moufe two-pence % when it commenced 
moufer four-pence. It was required befides, that it 
fliould be perfe6t in its fenfes of hearing and feeing ; 
be a good moiifer ; have the claws whole, and be a 
good nurfe : but if it failed in any of thefe qualities, 
the feller was to forfeit to the buyer the third part of 
its value. If any one Hole or killed the cat thai 
guarded the Prince's granary, he was to forfeit a 
milch ewe, its fleece and lamb ; or as much wheat 
as when poured on the cat fufpended by its tail (the 
head touching the floor) vv'ould form a heap high 
enough to cover the tip of the former -f. This lad 
quotation is not only curious, as being an evidence 
of the flmplicity of ancient manners, but it alrnolt 
proves to a demonftration that cats are not aborigines 
of thefe iflands ; or known to the earliefl: inhabitants. 
The large prices fet on them, (if we conflder the high 
value of fpecies at that time '^) and the great care 
taken of the improvement and breed of an animal 
that multiplies fo faft, are almoft certain proofs of 
their being little known at that period. 

* Leges Wallica, p. 247, 248. 

•j- Sir Ed. Coke in hie Report?, mentions the fame kind of punifh- 
ment anciently for killing a fwan, by fufpenuingit by the bill, &c. 
Vide, Cafe des Sivannes. 

J HoiK^ell dda died in the year 948, after a reign of thirty-three 
years over South WaUs, and eight years over ali Wales, 


Clafsl. WILDCAT. 47 

The W' I L D C A T. 

Fells pilis ex fufco flavicantc, et Morton Northampt. 443. 

albido variegatis veltita, Cauda Gejner quad. 325. 

annulisalternatim nigris etex Catus iylveftris ferus I'tl feral'S 

fordide albo flavicantibas eques arbcrum, Klein quad. 

cinda, Brijjhi quad. 192. 75. 

Ds BiifonfTom. v\. 20. Tab. i. Br. Zool. 22. 

Brit. Cath goed Germ. Wilde katze,Boiitr<ruttcr 

Fren. Le Chat Sauvage Dan. Vild kat 

^.3;?, Gato Monsis 

J^""!"^ H I S animal does not differ fpecifically from the 
Jl tame cat; the latter being originally of the 
fame kind, but altered in color, and in fome other tri- 
fling accidents, as are common to animals reclaimed 
from the woods and domedicated. 

The cat in its favage ftate is three or four times as 
large as the houfe-cat; the head larger, and the face 
flatter. The teeth and claws, tremendous ; its muf- 
cles very ftrong ; as being formed for rapine ; the 
tail is of a moderate length, but very thick and flat, 
marked with alternate bars of black and white, the 
end always black: the hips and'- hind part of the 
lower joints of the leg, are always black : the fur is 
very foft and fine : the general colour of thefe ani- 
mals is of a yellowifli white, mixed with a deep grey: 
thefe colors, though they appear at firfi fight con- 
fufedly blended together, yet on a clofe infpe6lion 
will be found to be difpofed like the flreaks on the 
Hdn of the tiger, pointing from the back downwards, 
rifing from a black lift that runs from the head along 
the middle of the back to the tail. 


48 WILD CAT. Clafs I. 

This animal may be called the BritiJJo tiger ; it is 
the fiercefl, and moft deftru6live bead we have ; 
making dreadful havokc among our poultry, lambs, 
and kids. It inhabits the mod mountainous and 
and woody parts of thefe iflands, living moftly in 
trees, and feeding only by night. It multiplies as 
fail: as our common cats j and often the females of 
the latter will quit their domeftic mates, and return 
-home pregnant by the former. 

They are taken either in traps, or by (hooting : in 
the latter cafe it is very dangerous, only to wound 
them ! for they will attack the perfon who injured 
them, and have llrength enough to be no defpicable 
enemy. Wild cats were formerly reckoned among 
the beafts of chace ; as appears by a charter of 
Richard the fecond, to the abbot of Peterhorougb^ 
giving him leave to hunt the hare, fox, and wild cat : 
and in much earlier times it was alfo the object of the 
fportfman's diverfion. 

Felemque minacem 

Arboris in trunco longis prsefigere telis. 

Nemefiani CynegeiicoHy L. 55. 


Clafsl. DOG. 49 

Genus VIII. The DOG. 

Species I. The DOG. 

Qzms,Raiifyn. quad. 175. De Buffon, Tom. \. p. iS^. 

Charlton ex. 26. Klein quad, 63. 

Merret pinax, 168. Canis familiaris. Lin.fyjl. 56. 

Gef»er quad. 160, zi^C), 21^0. Canis Cauda recurva. Faun. 
Canis domelticus. Biijfonquad, Suec. 1^, 

170. ' Brii. Zool. 23. 


Brit. Ci, f<^m. Gaft Germ. Hund 

Fren. Le Chien Da/. Hond 

Ital. Cane ^'lu^a'. Hund 

Span. Perro Daw. Hundjy^g'OT. Tseve 

Port. Cam 

DR. C^w, an Englijh phyfician, who flourifhed 
in the reign of queen Elizabeth, has left among 
feveral other trads relating to natural hiftory, one 
wrote exprefsly on the fpecies of Britijh dogs : they 
were wrote for the ufe of his learned friend Gefner % 
with whom he kept a ftridl correfpondence ; and 
whofe death he laments in a very elegant and pathetic 

Befides a brief account of the variety of dogs then 
exifting in this country, he has added a fyftematic 
table of them : his method is fo judicious, that ive 
Ihall make ufe of the fame ; explain it by a brief ac- 
count of each kind ; and point out thofe that are no 
longer in ufe among us. 



D O G. 

CJafs I. 


H i Hounds 




■§ < 


»-; «^ 


r Terrier 
"^ Harrier 
LBlood hound 

Gaze hound 
Grey hound 
Leviner, or Lyemmer 



Water fpanlel, or iinder 

Spaniel gentle, or comfortei' 

Shepherd's dog 
MaftifF, or ban dog 




The firfl variety is the Terrarius or Terrier, which 
takes its name from its fubterraneous employ ; being 
a fmall kind of hound, ufed to force the fox, or other 
beads of prey, out of their holes ; (and in former 
times) rabbets out of their buroughs into nets. 

The Lezwarius, or Harrier, is a fpecies well known 

at prefent ;. it derives its name from its ufe, that of 

hunting the hare ; but under this head may be placed 

[the fox hound, which is only a ftronger and fleeter 

variety, applied to a different chace *. 

* Prince Griffith cp Cc^«« (who begun his reign in theyear 1079) 
divided hunting into three kinds : the f:rft and nobleft fort was the 
Uelfa ddohf, which is hunting for the melody of the cry, or notes of 


Glafs I. DOG. 51 

The Sanguinarius^ or Bloodhound, was a do^y of oreat 
ufe, and in high efteem with ouranceftors : its employ- 
was to recover any game that had efcaped wounded 
from the hunter ; or been killed and ftole out of the 
foreft. It was remarkable for the acutenefs of its 
fmell, tracing the loft beaft by the blood it had fpilt ; 
from whence the name is derived : This fpecies could, 
■with the utmoft certainty, difcover the thief by fol- 
lowing his footfteps, let the diftance of his flight be 
ever fo great ; and through the moil fecret and 
thickeft coverts : nor would it ceafe its purfuir, till 
it had taken the felon. The bloodhound was in great 
requeft on the confines of England and Scotland; 
where the borderers were continually preying on the 
herds and flocks of their neighb urs. 

The next divifion of this fpecies of dogs, compre- 
hends thofe that hunt by the eye ; and whofe fuccefs 
depends either upon the quicknefs of their fight, 
their fwiftnefs, or their fubtility. 

The Agafaus^ or Gazehound, was the firfi:: it 
chaced indifferently the fox, hare, or buck. It would 
feledl from the herd the fatteft and fairefi: deer ; pur- 
fue it by the eye j and if lofl for a time, recover it 
again by its fingular diflinguifliing faculty ; and 
fhould the beaft rejoin the herd, this dog would fix 
unerringly on the fame. This fpecies is now lofl:, or 
at leafl: unknown to us. 

the pack : The fecond fort was the Helfa ^fartha, or hunting 
when the animal Hood at bay : The laft kind was the Helfa gyfrediyi^ 
i e. common hunting; which was no more than the right any per- 
fon had, who happened accidentally to come in at the death ot the 
game, to claim a fhare^ Zfaaj's Uiji. ofJFaks, 56. 

E 2 It 

52 DOG. Clafsl. 

It muil be obferved that the Jgafaus of Dr. Caius^ 
is a very different fpecies from the Agaffeus of Oppiarij 
for which it might be miftaken from the fimilitude 
of names : this he defcribes as a fmal] kind of dog, 
peculiar to Great -Britain | and then goes on with 
thefe words ; 

Tvpov, aa' 7<,(xaioTpiy.oy, oy^i/.uai rt'osj. 

Curvum, maciknium, hifpidum oculis figrum, 

what he adds afterwards, flill marks the difference 
more flrongly ; 

Narihis autem longe ■prajiantijfimus eft agajfeus. 

From Oppian^s whole defcription, it is plain he meant 
our Beagle *. 

7 he next kind is the Leporarius^ or Gre-hound. 
Dr. Cairn informs us, that it takes its name quod 
pracipid gradm fit inter canes : the firft in rank among 
dogs j that it was formerly efleemed fo, appears from 
the fore/l laws of king Canute -, v/ho enabled, that no 
one under the degree of a gentleman fhould prefume 
to keep a gre-hound ; and ftill more flrongly from 
an old J^'^eljh faying ; Wt'th ei Walch^ ei Farch, a'i 
Filgi, yr adwaenir Bonheddig : Which fignifies, that 
you may know a gentleman by his hawk, his horfe 
and his gre-hound. 

* 0pp. Cyneg. lih. i. lin. 473. 476. 
KefTieJianuf alfo celebrates our dogs. 

Divifa Britannia mittit 
Yeloces, nollrique orbis venantibus aptos. 


Clafs I. DO a 53 

Froiffart relates a fad not much to the credit of the 
fidelity of this fpecies : when that unhappy prince 
Richard the fecond was taken in Flint caftle, his fa- 
vorite gre-hound immediately deferted him, and 
fawned on his rival Bolinghroke ; as if he underilood, 
and forefaw the misfortunes of the former*. The 
(lory is fo lingular, that w€ give it in the note iia the 
words of th€ hiflorian. 

The third fpecies is the Lrjinarim, or Lsrarius ; 
TheLeviner or Lyemmer : the firfl name is derived 
from the lightnefs of the kind ; the other from the 
old word Lyemme^ a thong : this fpecies being ufed to 
be led in a thong, and flipped at the game. Our au- 
thor fays, that this dog was a kind that hunted both 
by fcent and fight •, and in the form of its body ob- 

* Le Roy Richard auoit vn Leurier (Icqud on nommoit Mat?]} 
trelbeau Leurier outre mefure : & ne vouloit ce chien cong-noiiirc 
Hul homme, fors le Ruy: &, qijand le Roy vouloit cheuaacher, 
celuy, qui I'auoit en garde, k laiiToic alier : 4S; ce Leurier vcr;ok 
tantoft deuers le Roy, le feltoyer: Sc lay mettoit, incontinent qu'il 
eftoit echape, les deux pies fur les efpaules : et adoncques auint^ 
q.ue, le Roy & k Comte d'Erby parlajis enfembJe en la place ^e la 
court dudit chafteau, Sc eftans leurs cheuaux tous felles (car ils 
vouloyent monter a cheual) ce Leurier, romaie Math (qui ellGit 
couftaHiier de fairs au Roy ce, que dit til) laiffa le Roy: & s'sa 
vint au Due de Lanclafire, & luy iic toutes telles contenances, qise 
pai-auant i\ auoit accouRume de fai:e au Roy : & luy alEt les deurc 
pies fur le col : & le comtnen^a mouk grandenient a cherir, Le 
Due de Lanclaflre (qui point ne congnoiJ'ibit ce Leurier) demaniia 
a-u Roy, Etque veut ce Leurier faire ? Coufin (dit leRoy) ce vous t& 
vne grand' iignjiiance, & ii nioy petite. Coment {6h le Duc| 
I'enter.dez vous ? le I'enten, die Ic Roy- Le Leurier vous feftoye, 
& recueult auiourdhuy, commme Roy d'Angleterre, que vous 
ferez, &t i'en feray depose : et !e Leurier en a congnoilTasKe 
naturelle. Si letenez delcz vous car il vous fuiura, Sz m^eiongnej-a. 
Le Due dcLanclaiIre enteiuiJc bien cciio paiolk; o: lit chere aa 
Leurier: lequel ORcqacs d.eptiis ne voukt fuiu re Richard ds 
Boideaax : mais fuiuii L D uc de Lanclauje. Editton de Lysft, 1 559. 

E 1 ferved 

54 DOG. Claisi. 

ferved a medium between the hound, and the sre- 
hound. This probably is the kind now known to us 
by the name of the IriJJj gre-hound. 

I'he VertagtiSy or Tumbler, is a fourth fpecles ; 
which took its prey by merefubtiiity, depending nei- 
ther on the fagacity of its nofe, nor its fwiftnefs : if 
it came into a warren, it neither barked, or ran on the 
rabbets ; but by a feeming negleft of them, or atten- 
tion to fomething, deceived the objefl till it got within 
reach, fo as to take it by a fudden fpring. This dog 
was lefs than the hound ; more fcraggy, and had 
prickt up ears ; and by Dr. Caius\ defcription feems 
to anfwer to the modern lurcher. 

The third divifion of the more generous dogs, com- 
prehends thofe which were ufed in fowling ; firft, 
the Hifpaniolus or fpaniel : from the name it may be 
fuppofed, that we were indebted to Spain for this 
breed : there were two varieties of this kind, the firfl 
ufed in hawking, to fpring the gamie, v/hich are the 
fame with our ftarters. 

The other variety was ufed only for the net, and 
was called Indcx^ or the fetter ; a kind v.'ell known at 
prefent. This kingdom has long been remarkable 
for producing excellent dogs of this fort, particular 
care having been taken to preferve the breed in the 
utmofl: purity. They are dill diftinguifned by the 
name of Engliftj fpaniels •, fo that notvvithPianding the 
derivation of the name, it is probable they are natives 
oi Great- Briiain. The Pointer, which is a dog of 
foreign extrailion, was unknown to our anceflors. 

The Aquaticus, or Fynder, was another fpecies 

vifed in fov.'ling; was the fame as our v;aier fpaniel 5 

3 and 

Clafsl. DOG. s$ 

and was ufed to find or recover the game that was 

The Mdit^us, or Fotor -, the fpaniel gentle or com- 
forter of Dr. Caius (the modern lap dog) was the Jail 
of this divifion. The Maltefe little dogs were as much 
efteemed by the fine ladies of paft times, as thofe of 
Bologna are among the modern. Old Hollingjhed is 
ridiculoufly fevere on the iair of his days, for their ex- 
ceffive paffion for thefe little animals ; which is fuf- 
ficient to prove it was in his time * a novelty. 

The fecond grand divifion of dogs comprehends 
the Rujlici ; or thofe that were ufed in the country. 

The firft fpecies is the Pajioralis, or fhepherd's dog ; 
which is the fame that is ufed at prefenr, either in 
guarding our flocks, or in driving herds of cattle. 
This kind is fo well trained for thofe purpofes, as to 
attend to every part of the herd be 'it ever fo large ; 
confine them to the road, and force in every ilraggler 
without doing it the leaft injury. 

The next is the Villaticus^ or Catenarius ; the majliff 
or band dog ^ a fpecies of great fize and ftrength, and 
a very loud barker. Manwood fays -f, it derives its 
name from mafe thefefe^ being fuppofed to frighten 
away robbers by its tremendous voice. Caius tells us 
that three of thefe were reckoned a match for a bear ; 
and four for a lion : but from an experiment made 
in the Tower by James the firft, that noble quadru- 
ped was found an unequal match to only three. Two 
of the dogs were difabled in the combat, but the third 
forced the lion to feek for fafety by flight J. The 

* In the reign of Qjieen Elizabeth. f Mann-vooas Fcrejl Laiv. 

E 4 Eng' 

5^ DOG. Clafs^L 

EngUJh bull dog feems to belong to this fpecies ; and 
probably is the dog our author mentions under the 
title of Laniarius. Great-Britain was fo noted for its 
mallives, that the Roman Emperors appointed an of- 
ficer in this ifland with the title of Procurator Cynegii ^^ 
whofe fole bufinefs was to breed, and tranfmit from 
hence to the Amphitheater, fuch as would prove equal 
to the combats of the olace. 

Magnaque taurorum fra6luri coUa Britanni 

Gratius fpeaks in high terms of the excellency of the 
Britijh dogs, 

Atque ipfos libeat penetrate Britannos ? 
O quanta eft merces et quantum impendia fupra ! 
Si non ad fpeciem mentiturofque decores 
Protinus: hffic una eft catulis jaftura Britannis. 
Ad magnum cum, venit opus, promendaque virtus, 
Et vocat extremo prseceps difcrimine mavors, 
Non tunc egregios tantum admirere Molojfos J. 

Straho tells us, that the maftives of Britain were 
trained for war, and were ufed by the Gauls in their 
battles 'J : and it is certain a well-trained maftiff 
mifiht be of confiderable ufe in diftreiTin? fuch half- 
armed and irregular combatants as the adverfaries of 
the Gauls feem generally to have been before the Ra- 
riians conquered them. 

The laft divifion is that of the Begeneres, or Ctirs. 

* Camd. Brit, in Hampjhire. 

•\ ClaudianAt laude Stilichonis^ Lib. iii. Lin. 301. 

X Gra/// Cynegeticon. Lin. 175. [[ Straho. Lib. iv. 

Clafsi. DOG. c,'^ 

The firfl of thefe was the IVappe, a name derived from 
its note : its only ufe was to alarm the family, by 
barking, if any perfon approached the houfe. Of 
this clafs was the Ferfaior, or turnfpit ; and laftly the 
SaUator, or dancing dog •, or fuch as was taughc 
variety of tricks, and carried about by idle people as a 
fhew. Thefe Vegeneres were of no certain fhape, 
being mongrels, or mixtures of all kinds of dogs. 

We Ihould now, according to our plan, after enu- 
merating the feveral varieties of BriliJId dogs, give its 
general natural hiftory, but fince IJnn^us has already 
performed it to our hand, we fxiall adopt his fenfe, 
tranflating his very words (wherever we may) with 
literal exaftnefs. 

" The dogs eats fleOi, and farinaceous vegetables, 
*' but not greens : its ftomach digefts bones : it ufes 
" the tops of grafs as a vomit. It voids its excre- 
" ments on a {lone : the album grascum is one of the 
" greateftencouragers of putrefadion. It laps up 
^' its drink with its tongue : it voids its urine fideways, 
" by lifting up one of its hind legs ; and is moft diu- 
^' retic in the company of a ftrange dog. Odorat 
" anum alierius : its fcent is moft exquifite, when its 
*' rtofe is moift : it treads lightly on its toes ; fcarce 
" ever fweats ; but when hot lolls out its tongue. 
*' It generally walks frequently round the place it in- 
*•' tends to lye down on: its fenfe of hearing is very 
" quick when afleep : it dreams. Prods rixantibus 
'-' crudelis : catuUt cum varib : mordet ilia illos : cohceret 
*' copula junUus : it goes with young fixty-three 
*' days ; and commonly brings from four to eight at 
** a time : the male puppies reiemble the dog, the 

" female 

58 F O X. Clafsl. 

" female the bitch. It is the mod faithful of all 
*' animals: is very docible: hates ftrange dogs ; 
*' will fnap at a ftone thrown at it : will howl at 
*^' cert^n mufical notes : all (except the S. American 
*' kind) will bark at ilrangers : dogs are reje<5i:ed by 
'' the MahotnetanS''* 

Species II. The FOX. 

Vulpes. Rail fyn. t^uad. \ "jy. Vulpes au£toram. HaJJelquifi 
Morton s 'Northampt. 444. I^'n- '91. 

Meyer i an. i. Tab. 36. Canis vuipes. Lin.fyji. 5-9. 

Canis fulvuj,pii'.s cinereis inter- Cams cauda reda apice albo, 

naixtis. Bri£on quad. \-j'i^. Faun. Suec.f, 

DeBuffon. Tom. vii. 7^. Tab. 6. Vulpes vulgaris. Klein quad. 730 

Cejntr quad. 966. Br, Zool. 28. 


Brit, Llwynog,/^;/?. LUvynoges Germ. Fuchs 

Fren. Le Renard Dut. Vos 

lial. Voipe S'u.'ed. Raff 

Span. Rapofa Dan. Rev 

Fort. Rapoza 

TH E fox is a crafty, lively, and libidinous ani- 
mal, it breeds only once in a year (except 
fome accident befals its firft litter-,) and brings four 
or five young, which, like puppies, are born blind. It 
has been a common received opinion, that this animal 
would produce with the dog kind, but fome late ex- 
periments prove it to be erroneous, and convince us 
that this animal will mix only with its own fpecies *. 

* We owe the deteftion of this error to M. de Biiffon, who gives, 
tne following account of the experiment : J^en Jis garder trots pen- 
dint deux ans une femelle k^ deux males : on tenia inuiilement de lesf aires 
eQiouiler anju da cHinnes j quciqu'ih neu(fent jnviaii <vu defemelles de 

qafsl. FOX. 59 

It deeps much in the day, but is in motion the whole 
night in fearch of prey. It will feed on fleih of any 
kind, but its favorite food is lambs, rabbets, hares, 
poultry, and feathered game. It will, when urged 
by hunger, eat carrots and infers-, and thofethat live 
near the fea-coafts, will, for want of other food, eat 
crabs, (iirimps, or (hell fifh. In Francs and Italy, it 
does incredible damage in the vineyards, by feeding 
on the grapes, of which it is very fond. The fox is 
a great deftroyer of rats, and field mice ; and like the 
cat, will play with them a confiderable time, before it 
it puts them to death. 

When the fox has acquired a larger prey than it 
can devour at once, it never begins to feed till the 
reft is fecured, which it does with great addrefs. It 
digs holes in different places, returns to the fpot where 
it had left the booty -, and (fuppofing a whole flock of 
poultry to have been its prey) will bring them one by 
one, and thrufl them in with its nofe, and then con- 
ceal them by ramming the loofe earth on them, till 
the calls of hunger incite him to pay them another 

Of all animals the fox has the moft lignificant eye, 
by which it expreffes every paffion of love, fear, 
hatred, &c. It is remarkably playful, but like all 
other favage creatures half reclaimed, will on the leafi: 
offence bite thofe it is moft familiar with. 

leur efpece, et qu ils farujfent prefe du hefoin dejouir, il -,u purent s^y de- 
terminer, 7 Is refuferent tontes les chiennes, mazs de qiton leur prcfcnta leur 
femelle lege time, ils la con'vrirent ,quoiqu enchaines et elk producit quatre 
petits. Hifi. NatitrelleyVn. i\. The fame experiments were tried 
with a bitch and a male fox; and with a dog and female wolf, 
hue with the fame effect. Vide vol, v. z\o, 212. 


6o FOX. ClafsL 

It is a great admirer of its bufhy tail, with which 
it frequently amufes and exercifes itfelf by running 
in circles to catch it : and in cold weather wraps it 
roand its nofe. 

The fmell of this animal in general is very ftrong, 
but that of the urine is mofr remarkably fstid. 
This feems fo offenfive even to itfelf, that it will take 
the tr-ouble of digging a hole in the ground, flretching 
its body at full length over it, and there, after de- 
pofiting its water, cover it over with the earth, as the 
cat does its dung. The fmell is fo ofFenfive, that it 
has often proved the means of the fox's efcape from 
the dogs, who have fo ftrong an averfion to the filthy 
effluvia, as to avoid encountring the animal it came 
from. It is laid that the fox makes ufe of its urine 
as an expedient to force the cleanly badger from its 
habitation : whether that is the means is rather 
doubtful ; but that the fox makes ufe of the badger's 
hole is certain : not through want of ability to form 
its own retreat ; but to fave itfelf fome trouble : for 
after the expulfion of the firft inhabitant, the fox im- 
proves, as well as enlarges it confiderably, adding 
feveral chambers ; and providently making feveral 
entrances to fecure a retreat from every quarter. In 
warm weather it will quit its habitation for the fake 
of balking in the fun, or to enjoy the frefn air ; but 
then it rarely lies expofed, but chufes fome thick 
brake, and generally of gorfe, that it may reft fecure 
from lurprize. Crov/s, magpies, and other birds, 
who confider the fox as their common enemy, will 
often, by their notes of anger, point out its retreat. 

This animal is common in all parts of Greai Bri- 



Clafs I. FOX. 6i 

tain, and fo well known as not to require a defcrip^ 
tion. The fl^in is furniflied with a foft and warm fur» 
which in many parts of Europe is ufed to make muffs 
and line deaths. Vaft numbers are taken in Le VaU 
lois, and the Alpm parts of Switzerland. At Laufanne 
there are furriers who are in poffeffion of between two 
and three thoufand fkins, all taken in one winter. 

There ,are three varieties of foxes found in the 
mountainous parts of the iflands, which differ a little 
in form, but not in color, from each other. Thefe 
are diftinguiflied in Wales, by as many different 
names. The Milgi or gre-hound fox, is the largeft, 
talleft, and boldeft ; and will attack a grown (licep 
or wether : the mafiiff fox is lefs, but more ftrongly 
built : the Corgi, or cur fox, is the leaft, and lurks 
about hedges, out houfes, i^c. and is the mod perni- 
cious of the three to the feathered tribe. The num- 
bers of thefe animals in general would foon become 
intolerable, if they were not profcribed, having a cer- 
tain reward feton their heads. 

In this place we fhould mtroduce the wolf, a con- 
generous animal, if we had not fortunately a juft right 
to omit it in a hiftory of Britifh quadrupeds. We 
cannot for certain fay when it was extirpated in Scot- 
land, but it was, as appears by Hollingfioed *, very 
noifome to the flocks in 1577 » however, we are told 
that none are to be found there at prefent, fo haverea- 
fon to think M. de Buffon was mifinformed as to that 
particular -f. 

It has been a received opinion, that the other parts 
of thefe kingdoms were in early times delivered from 

* Difc. Scot. I o. t Tom. vii. 


62 ' F O X.' GlafsL 

this peft by the care of king Edgar. In England he 
attempted to efFedl it by commuting the punifliments 
for certain crimes into the acceptance of a number of 
wolves tongues from each criminal : in Wales by con- 
verting the tax of gold and filver into an annual tri- 
bute of 300 wolves heads. Notwithftanding thefe 
his endeavourSj and the afiertions of fome authors^ 
his fcheme proved abortive. We find that fome 
centuries after the reign of that Saxon monarch, thefe 
animals were again increafed to fuch a degree, as to 
become the objeCl of the royal attention ; accordingly 
Edward the firil iffued out his mandate to Peter Cor- 
bet to fuperintend and affift in the deftru<51:iQn of them 
in the feveral counties ofGlouceJer, IVcrceJltr^ Hereford^ 
Salop, and Stafford *; and in the adjacent county of 
Derby J as Camden, p. 902, informs us, certain perfons 
zi Wcrnibiil held their lands by the duty of hunting 
and taking the wolves that infefted the country, 
w hence they were ftiled IFohe html. To look back 
into the Saxon times . we find that in Athelftan^% 
reign wolves abounded fo in Torkfbire^ that a 
retreat was built at Flixton in that county, to 
defend paffengers from the '•dwhes, that they Jhoidd not 
he devoured by them 7 : and fuch ravages did thofe 
animals make during winter, particularly Januff.ry 
when the cold was fevereft, that our Saxon ancejlors 

* Pro Petro Corbet^ de Lupis Caplcndls. 

Rex, omnibus Baln-niSf isc. Sc!atis quod ivjvnximvi dheSlo et Jidelt 
tiofro Pecro Corbet quod in ornn'ihus for e Jits ef parcis et aliis iocis infra 
comitatui nnf.ros Gloucefter, VVyg^rn, Hereford, Salop, et ScafFord, in 
quibui lupi pcterunt ^^iieniri lup'os aim hcmirdbus canibus et itigcniis Juii 
capiat et deflruat modis omnibus qiiibus 'viderit expedire. 

Et idea ^jchi; f^andamus q^'cd eidem i'lfendc/ites et eiuxiliantes ejlis. 
Tejie Rege ^/«rf' Weltm. 14 Mail A. D. 1281. Rymer, vol. i. pars 
2. p. 192. + Camden i Brit. aQZ. 


Clafsl. FOX. 63 

diilinguifhed that month by the tide o^ vjolf-moneth *. 
They alio called an oui\3.v^ IVolfJ}jed-\, as being out of 
the protedion of the law, profcribed, and as liable to 
be killed as that deftruftive bead. 

They infefted Ireland many centuries after their 
extinftion in England^ for there are accounts of feme 
being found there as late as the year 1710. The lall 
prefentment for killing of wolves being made in the 
county of Cork about that time. 

The Bear, another voracious beafl:, was once an 
inhabitant of this ifland, as appears from different 
authorities : to begin with the more ancient. Marital 
informs us, that the Caledonian bears were ufed to 
heighten the torments of the unhappy lufFerers on 
the crofs. 

Nuda Caledonio fie peclora prjebuit urfo 
Non falfa pendens in cruce Laureolus J. 

And Plutarch relates, that Bears were tranfported from 
Britain to Rome, where they were much admired §. 
Mr. Llwyd \\ alfo difcovered in iome old TVelch MS. 
relating to hunting, that this animal was reckoned 
among our beafts of chace, and that its fielh was held 
in the fame efteem with'that of the hare or boar. Many 
places in Wales flill retain the name of Pennarth, or 
the bear's head, another evidence of their cxiftencein 
our country. Long after their extirpation out of this 
kingdom, thefe animals were imported for an end, 
that does no credit to the manners of the times : bear- 

* Verfiegan^ Antiq. 59. -f- Kntghton, 2356. 

:|: Martial. Lib. Spea.ep. 7.' 

^ Plutarch, as ciced by Camden^ p. 1 2 27. 11 Raiifyn. quad. 214. 


64 B A D G E k. ClafsL 

baiting in all its cruelty was a favourite paftime with 
our anceftors. We find it in queen Elizabeths days 
exhibited, (tempered with other merry difports) as an 
entertainment for an ambaffador *, and again among 
the various amufements prepared for her majefly ac 
the princely Kenelworth. 

Genus IX. The BADGER. 

Species I. Th^ BADGER. 

Badger, Brock, Gray, Pate, 
Taxus five Meles, Raii Jyn. 
auad. 185 

Meyers an. i. Tab. 31. 

Sib. Scot. I I . 

Meles pilis ex fordide albo et 
nigro variegatis veftita, capite 
ta-niis alternadm albis et ni- 
gris variegato. Brijfon quad. 

Be Biiffon, Tom. viii. Tab. 7. 
p. 104. 

Gifner quad. 686. 

Urfus meles, Urfus Cauda con» 
colore, corpore fupia cinereo, 
fubtus nigro, fafcia longitu- 
dinali per oculos aurefque ni- 
gra. Lin. fyjl. 70. 

Coaci Cauda brevi. Kkin quad. 

Meies unguibus anticis longiffi- 

mis. Faun. Suec. zo. 
Br. Zoo I. 30. 

N A M E S. 

Brii. PryfLIwyd, Pryf penfiith Germ. Tachs 

Fren. Le Taiffon, Le Biaireau Dut. Varkens Das 

Ital. Tafl'o S-Lved. GrafSuin 

Span. Texon Dan. Grevlin, Brok 

Pert. Texugo 

THOUGH the badger is a beafl of great 
ftrength, and is furniihed with ftrong teeth, as 
if formed for rapine, yet it is found to be an animal 
perfedly inoffenfive : roots, fruits, grafs, infects, and 

StO-My IJ62, 


tlafs i. BADGER. % 

frogs are its food; it is charged with deftroying lambs 
and rabbets ; but, on enquiry, there feems to be no 
other reafon to think ii a bead of prey, than from 
the analogy there is between its teeth and thofe of car- 
nivorous animals. Nature denied the badger the 
fpeed and aftivity requifite to efcape its enemies, fo 
hath fupplied it with fuch weapons of offence that 
icarce any creature would hazard the attacking 
it; few animals defend themfelves better, or bite 
harder : when purfued, they foon come to bay, and 
fight with great obftinacy. It is an indolent animal, 
and fleeps much, for which reafon it is always found 
very fat. It burroughs underground, like the fox; 
and forms feveral different apartments, though with 
only one entrance. It confines itfelf to its hole dur- 
ing the whole day, feeding only at night : it is {o 
cleanly an animal as never to obey the calls of nature 
in its apartments ; but goes out for that purpofe : it 
breeds only once in a year, and brings four or five at 
a time. 

The ufual length of the badger, is two feet four 
inches, exclufive of the tail, which is but four inches 
Jong. The eyes are very fmall : the ears fhort and 
rounded : the neck fhort : the whole Hiape of the 
body clumfy and thick ; which being covered with 
long coarfe hairs like briilles, makes it Appear ftill 
more aukward. 

The nofe, chin, lower fides of the cheeks, and the 
itiiddle of the forehead, are white : each ear and eye 
is inclofed in a pyramidal bed of black ; the bafe of 
which inclofes the former •, the point extends beyond 
the eye to the nofe : the hairs on the body are of three 

F colors 5 

6'6 B A D G E R. Clafs II 

colors; the bottoms of a dirty yellowIHi white -,% 
the middle black ; the ends afh-colored, or grey |i 
from whence the proverb, As grey as a badger. The 
hairs which cover the tail are very long, and of the 
fame colors with thofe of the body : the throat and-' 
under parts of the body are black : the legs and feet 
of the fame color, are very fhort, {Irong and thick t 
each foot is divided into five toes; thofe on the fore- 
feet are armed with long claws, well adapted for 
digging -, in walking the badger treads on its whole 
heel, like the bear ; which brings the belly very near 
the ground. Immediately below the tail, between 
that and the anus, is a narrow tranfverfe orifice, which: 
opens into a kind of pouch^from whence exudes a^ 
white fubftance of a very fetid fmell y this feems pe- 
culiar to the badger and the Hy^na. 

Naturalifts once diftinguifhed the badger, by the 
names of the fwine-badger, and the dog- badger ; from 
the fuppofed refemblance of their heads to thofe ani- 
mals, and fo divided them into two fpecies : but the 
moft accurate obfervers have been able to difcover 
only one kind; that, whofe head and nofe refembie 
thofe of the dog. 

Badgers are hunted In the winter nights, for their 
flefii and their fkin : the hind quarters may be made' 
into hams, not inferior in goodnefs to the beft bacon ;. 
the fkin, when dreffed with the hair on, is ufed fop 
piftol furniture ; the hair is frequently ufed for mak- 
ing brufhes to foften fhades in painting ; which are? 
Galled fweetening tools. 


Clafs I. ^ OTTER. 67 

Genus X. The OTTER. 

Species I. The OTTER. 

Le Loutre, Bdon 26. //. 27. ' Lutra caftanei colons. Brljfon 

Lutra. The otter. Rati jyn. quad. 201. 

quad. lHy. De Biifon, Tom. v'n. I'^^.Tah.i i^ 

Gre'wsmuf. 16. Multela lutra. Lin.fyfl. 66. 

Morton sNorthamp, i^AL^^ Pontop. Noyw. 2. 27. 

Sib. Scot. 1 o. Lutra digitis omnibus zequalibus. 

Ge/ner quad. 687. Faun, Suec. 12. 

Br. Zol. 32. 


Brit, Dyfrgi Germ. Otter, Fifch Ottef 

Fren. Lc Loutre Dut. Otter 

lial. Lodra, Lodria, Lontra. Suued. Utter 

Span. Nutria Dan. Odder 


THE ufual length of this animal is three feeC 
three inches, including the tail, which is Hx- 
teen inches long. 

The head and nofe are broad and flat, the neck 
fliort, and equal in thicknefs to the head : the body 
long : the tail broad at the bafe, tapers off to a point 
at the end, and is the whole way compreffed horizon- 
tally. The eyes are very fmall, and placed nearer the 
nofe than is ufual in quadrupeds : the ears ex- 
tremely fhort, and their orifice narrow : the opening 
of the mouth is fmall, the lips mufcular, and capable 
of being brought very clofe together : the nofe and 
corners of the mouth are furniflied with very long 
whifkers ; fo that the whole appearance of the otter 
is fomething terrible. The legs are very fhort, but 

F 2 re- 


OTTER. Clafs f. 

remarkably flrong, broad, and mufcular •, the joints 
articulated fo loofely, that the animal is capable of 
turning them quite back, and bringing them on a^ 
line with the body, fo as to perform the office of fins. 
Each foot is furnifhed with five toes, conneded by 
ftrong broad webs, like thofe of v/ater fowl. Thus 
nature in every article has had attention to the vv'ayof 
life fhe had allotted to an animal, whofe food is filh -, 
and whofe haunts muft necelTarily be about waters. 

The color of the otter is entirely a deep brown, ex- 
cept two fmall fpots of white on each fide the nofe^ 
and another under the chin. The Ikin of this ani- 
mal is very valuable, if killed in the winter; and is 
greatly ufed'in cold countries for lining eloaths : but 
in England it is only ufed for covers for piftol furni- 
ture. The befl furs of this kind come from the 
northern part of Europe^ and America. 

The otter fwims and dives with great celerity, and' 
h very deflrudive to fi(h : in rivers it is always ob- 
ferved to fwim againft the ftream, to meet its prey. 
\x\ very hard v^eather, when its natural fort of food 
fails, it will kill lambs and poultry. Its flefh is ex- 
ceffivcly rank and fifhy. The Romifi church permits' 
theufe of it on maigre-days. In the kitchen of the 
Carthiiftan convent near Dijon^ we faw one preparing 
for the dinner of the religious of that rigid order, who, 
by their rules, are prohibited during their whole lives, 
the eating of fiefn. 

It fhews great fagacity in forming its habitation : 
it burroughs under ground on the banks of fome river 
or lake; and always makes the entrance of its hole 
ynder water; works upwards to the furface of the- 


Clafs L -O T T E -R. 69 

jearth, and there makes a minute orifice for the ad- 
miffion of air : it is further obferved, that this animal, 
the more effedtually to conceal its retreat, contrives to 
make even this little air hole in the middle of fome 
thick bu(h. 

The otter brings four or five young at a time : as 
it frequents ponds near gentlemen's houfes, there 
have been inftances of litters being found in cellars, 
fmks, and other drains. 

Sir Robert Sibhald^ in his hiitory of Fife^ p. 49., 
mentions a Sea Otter^ which he fays differs from the 
common fort, in being larger, and having a rougher 
coat ; but probably it does not differ fpecifically from 
the kind that frequents frefh waters. Did not Arijiotle 
place his Latax * among the animals which feek 
their food among frefh waters, we fiiould imagine 
we had here recovered this loft animal, which he men- 
tions |immediately after the otter, and defcribes'as 
being broader. Though this muft remain a doubt, 
we may with greater confidence fuppofe the fea otter 
to be the Loup marin of Bekit ^, which from a hear- 
fay account, he fays, is found on the Englijh coafts: 

'^•, .60 t7iv T£ -^uT^eiAsytii; xacroipt 'tj To aa^ipiov y^ To uaiv^iov, 

s-HifA.Kt, Tot? o6iicriov. occKiBi OB T«? U'j&guj's'iii; 1^ h t>'y(5'^t5, xj ey. a(p(J)a(*, u<; 
J^tynai, ^ep/^tj av oaa -^0(^011 ay.acrh- to d's rgt^w^o. t^a vi 7\«ilx^ ay.?^r,^Qy, 
f^ TO iid'o? jucsTai|y ra Tri; (pun'/iq T§jp(jwfA«iIoj, >c^ ra tjjj i'Ka<pii. Arijloi, 

Hiji. Anim- p. 505. A. 

Sunt etiam in hoc genere (fc, animalium quadrupedum qu^e 'vi8iim ex 
lacubus et fiwviis petunt ) fiber , fatherium, fatyrium^ lutrh, latax, qucs 
■latior lutre eji, dentefque habet robufios, quippe quts nodu \bleruT7ique agre- 
diens, 'virguUa proxima fuis dentibus, ut ferro preecidat, Lutris eiia?n 
^hominem mcrdet,nec dejijlit (utferunt) nififraSi ojfis crepitum fenfe- 
^rit. Lataci pilus durus,fpecie inter piluni 'vituli tficn'ini (t cer-vi- 
-f fieionde laMatun.des Poi/ons, p. 28, pi, 29. 

70 OTTER. Clafs t 

He compares its form to that of a wolf, and fays, it 
feeds rather on fifli than fheep. That circumftance 
alone makes it probable, that Sibbaldh animal was in 
tended, it being well known, the otter declines flefh 
when it can get filh. Little ftrefs ought to be laid 
on the name, or comparifon of it to i wolf; this variety- 
being of a fize fo fuperior to the common, and 
its hair fo much more fhaggy, a common obferver 
might readily catch the idea of the more terrible 
beaft, and adapt his comparifon to it. 

Beavers, which are alfo amphibious animals, were 
formerly found in Great Britain ; but the breed ha$ 
been extirpated many ages ago ; the lateft accounts 
we have of them, is in Giraldtis Cambrenjis *, who 
travelled through PFales m 1188: he gives a brief 
hiftory of their manners-, and adds, that in his time 
they were found only in the river Teivi-^ two or three 
lakes in that principality, ftill bear the name of Llyn 
yr afangc -f, cr the beaver lake ; which is a further 
proof, that thefe animals were found in different parts 
of it. But we imagine they muit have been very 
fcarce even in earlier times ; for by the laws of Hoel 
dda, the price of a beaver's fkin {Croeti Lloftlyda-n f) 
was fixed at one hundred and twenty pence, a great 
fum in thofe days. 

* GiraU. Carnb. liin. 178, 175, -}• Raii Jyn. quad. 2 1 3. 

X Llojilydaji, that is, the broad tailed animal. Leges Wallkai, 



JR '/^. 


Tlie MtrSIMOK. J?^^ 

^*i^ *?'' 

Tlie BElAYER. 




Genus I. The SEAL. 

Species I. The SEAL: 

.-Le Veau marin,ou loup de Mer. 

Belon 25. PI. 26. 
/Seal, Seoile, or Sea-calf. Phoca, 
- feu vitulus marinus. Rait fyn. 
quad. 189. 
Sea-calf. Phil. tranfaSt. No. 

469. Tab. I. 
.SmiiFs Kerry, 84, 364. 
Morlafes Cornnv. 284. 
^Wortn. mu/e, 2Sg. 

Kaffigiak. Crantxi's Bifi. Green!. 

i. 123. 
.Le Phoque, de Buffon. 
Horr. Icel. 88. 
Pontop.Nor'w. W. 125, 
BriJJon quad. 162. 
Phoca vjtulina. Lin.fyjl.tfi, 
Phoca. -Kkin^quad. 93. 
>Fhoca dentibus .caninis teftis. 

Faun. Suec. 4» 
rBr^'ZooL 34. 

N A M E S. 




Meer wolff, Meer^eiHJ 


Le Veau man'n 


Zee hond 


Vechio marino 




Lobo marino 


Ssl hand * 

TH E common length of the feals taken on the 
Britijh coaftsj is from five to fix feet *. 
The fubjedl that we took our defcription from, was 
a young one •, fo allowance muft be made for the 
proportions of the meafurements of thofe that have 
attained their full fize. Its length from the end of 
the nofe, to the end of the hind feet, was two feet nine 
inches : to the end of the tail, two feet three inches : 
the head was feven inches long: the tail two and a 
'half : the fore legs were deeply immerfed in the fkin 
of the body ; what appeared out, was only eight 

* Sir R. Siihaid Cays, that On thecoaft of J^gut, f«me are found 
.^s large as oxen. 

F 4 inches 

'f% S E A L: Clafsl, 

inches long: the breadth of the fore feet, when ex- 
tended, was three inc:ic: and a half: the hind legs 
were placed in fuch a manner as to point diredly 
backwards •, and were ten inches long : each hind 
foot, when extended, was nine inches and a half 
broad : every foot was divided into five toes ; and 
each of thofe connefled by a ftrong and broad web, 
covered on both fides with fhort hair. 

The toes v/ere furnilhed with fcrong claws, well 
adapted to aiTift the animal in climbing the rocks it 
basked on : the clav/s on the hind feet were about an 
inch long, flender, and ftrait ; except at the end?, 
which were a little inciirvated. 

The circumference of the body in the thickefl part, 
which was nenr ^-vi fhoulders, was one foot ten inches i 
but near the hind legs, where it v/as narroweft, it 
nieafurcd only twelve inches. 

The head and nofe were broad and flat, like thofe 
of the otter ; the neck (liort and thick ; the eyes 
large and black j it had no external ears, but in lieu 
of them, two fmall orifices: the noflrils were oblong : 
on each fide the nofe were feveral long ftiff hairs ; 
and above each eye, were a few of the fame kind. 

The form of the tongue of this animal is fo Angu- 
lar, that were other notes wanting, that alone would 
diftinguifh it from all other quadrupeds ; being 
forked, or flit at the end. 

The whole animal was covered with fhort hair, 
very clofely fet together : the color of that on the 
head and feet was dufky : on the body dufky, fpot" 
ted irregularly with white : on the back the dufky 
color predominated , on the belly the white : but 


Clafsl; SEAL. 73 

feals vary greatly in their marks and colors, and fome 
have been found * entirely white. One that was 
taken near Chefier, in May 1766, had on its fird cap- 
ture, the body naked like the fein of a pc pefe ; and 
only the head and a fmall fpot beneath each 
fore leg, hairy ; it was kept alive fome time ; but 
before it died, hair began to grow over the whole 
body t- 

The feal is common on moll of the rocky fliores 
oiGreai Britain and /r^/^W,erpecia]ly on the northern 
coafts : in PVales it frequents the coails of Caernar- 
vonjhire^ and Anglefey. 

We muft acknowledge the obligations we are un- 
der to the reverend Mr. Farrington of Dims, in the 
former county, for feveral learned communications ; 
but in particular for the natural hlftory of this animal, 
which we Ihall give the public in his own words. 

' The feals are natives of our coafts ; and are 
' found moft frequently between Lkyn in Caernar- 
« vonjhire, and the northern parts o? Anglefey : they are 
' feen often towards Carrig y moelrhon, to the weft of 

* Bardfey, or ynys Enlli ; and the Skerries, com- 

* monly called in the Britijh language Tnys y moel- 
« rhoniad, or feal ifland. The Latin name of this am- 
< phibious animal is Phoca : the vulgar name is fea 

* calf •, and on that account, the male is called the 

* bull, and the female the cow ; but the Celtic appel- 
' lative is Moelrhon, from the word Moel, bald, or 
' without ears, and Rhon^ a fpear or lance. 

» In the AJhmokan Mu/eum at Oxford, is a good piflure of two white 

-j- Vide, The figure publiflied in the additional plates 0.'' the folio 
edition of this work, 

- '-' - ^They 

74 S E A L. ClafsL 

* They are excellent fwimmers, and ready divers^ 

* and are very bold when in the fea; fwimming care- 
^ leisly enough about boats : their dens orjodgment^j 
'■'^ are in hollow rocks, or caverns, near the fea •, but 
' out of the reach of the tide : in the fummer they 
"^ will come out of the water, to bafl<: or deep in the 
-* fun, on the top of large flones, or Ihivers of rocks: 
•^ and that is the opportunity our countrymen take 
-*^ of fhoottng them ; if they chance to efcape, they 
"* haften towards their proper element, flinging ftones 

* and dirt behind them, as they fcramble along -, at 
■^ the fame time expreffing their fears by piteous 
■* moans i but if they happen to be overtaken, they 

* will make a vigorous defence with their feet and 
^ teeth, till they are killed. They are taken for the 

* fake of their fkin<^, and for the oyl their fat yields:: 
^ the former fell for four (hillings, or four and fix- 
' pence a piece -, which, when drelTed, are very ufeful 
-^ in covering trunks, making waidcoats, fhot 
' pouches, and feveral other conveniencies. The 
•* ftefll of thefe animals, and even of porpefes, for- 

* merly found a place at the tables of the great ; as 
^' appears from the bill of fare of that vaft feaft that 
" archbifhop Nevell gave in the reign of EJw-^r^ the 
^ fourth, in which is feen, that feveral were provided 

* on the occafion *. They couple about Aprils on 
•^ large rocks, or fmall iflands, not remote from the 

* fhore -, and bring forth in thofe vaft caverns that are 

* frequent on our coafts ; they commonly bring two 

* at a time, which in their infant ftate, are covered 
-^ with a whitifh down, or woolly fubftance.' 

• Lelandi ColleSianea, 


ciafsi, seal; ^^ 

The natural hiftory of this animal, may be further 
elucidated, by the following extrafts from a letter of 
the reverend Dr. William Borlafi^ dated Ocfoher the 
24th, 1763. 

' The feals are feen in the greateft plenty on the 

* fhores of Cornwall, in the months of May^ June^ 
^ and July. 

* They are of different fizes, fome as large as a 
^ moderate cow, and from that downwards to a fmall 
^ calf. 

' They feed on mod forts of fifli which they can 

* matter, and are feen fearching for their prey near 

* fhore i where the whirling fifii, wraws, and polacks 

* refort. 

' They are very fwift in their proper depth of 

' water, dive like a (hot, and in a trice rife at fifty 

^ yards diftance -, fo that weaker fifhes cannot avoid 

* their tyranny, except in fhallow water : a perfon of 

* the parilh of Sennan, faw not long fince a feal in- 

* purfuit of a mullet (that ftrong and fwift filh :) the 

* feal turned it to and fro' in deep water, as a gre- 

* hound does a hare : the mullet at laft found it had 
' no way to efcape, but by running into fhoal water: 

* the feal purfued ; and the former to get more furely 
' out of danger, threw itfelf on its fide, by which 
^ means it darted into Ihoaler water than it could 
' have fwam in with the depth of its paunch and fins, 
? and fo efcaped. 

* The feal brings her young about the beginning 
^ of autumn; our fifhermen have feen two lucking 
^ their dam at the fame time, as fhe flood in the fea 
f in a perpendicular pofitiono 

' ' ' t Their 

--6 SEA L. ClafsT, 

* Their head In fwimming is always above water, 
•^ more fo than that of a dog. 

' They fleep on rocks furrounded by the Tea, or on 
' the lefs acceflible parts of our clifrs, left dry by the 
•= ebb of the tide; and if difturbed by any thing, take 

* care to tumble over the rocks into the fea. They 
' are extremely watchful, and never fleep long with- 
■= out rrjQving ; feldom longer than a minute; then 
^ raife their heads, and if they hear or fee nothing 
' more than ordinary, lie down again, and fo on, raif- 
' ing their heads a little, and reclining them alter- 

* nateiy, in about a minute's time. Nature feems 
^ to have given them this precaution, as being un- 
•^ provided with auricles, or external ears ; and confe- 
*^ quently not hearing very quick, nor from any great 
■^ diiiance/ 

In Sir R. Sihbald's hiftory of Scothjid, we find an 
account of another fpecies of the feal kind, which is 
copied from Boethius, The animal he mentions is the 
fea-horfe, or Morfe : as this vaft creature is found in 
the Norwegian feas, we think it not improbable but 
that it may have appeared on the ScoUiJh coafts ; but 
having no better authority for it, than what is above- 
mentioned, we dare not give it a place in a Britijh 
Zoology. The teeth of that animal, are as wiiite and 
hard as ivory ; but whether the ih^apivTivet 4«*^^*> 
ivory bits, which Strabo * mentions among the 
articles of the BritiJJj commerce, were made of them, 
or the tooth of the Narhwal^ or of fom.e of the toothed 
wJiales, is not at this time eafy to be determined. 

* SlrabO) Lib, iv. zoo. 

Clafsl. POLECAT. ^j 

In this place It will be proper to add, that SoUnus m 
his account of ^nV^minforms us, that the fine gentle- 
men of our ifland adorned the hilts of their fwords 
with the teeth of fea beafts, which were as white as 
ivory itfelf *. 

Genus XIL The W E E S E L. 

Species I. The POLECAT. 

Putorlus. Polecat or Ficchet, alba. Brijfonquad. iSo. 

Rail fyn. quad, 199. Tie Buffon,Tom. vij, 199. Tab. 23. 

Meyer^s an. ii. Tab. 6. Muftela putorius, Lin. fyft. 6j. 

Charlton ex. 20. Muftela fcetida, Klein quad. 6%^ 

Gefner quad. 767. Mufiela flavefcente nigricans, ore 

Muftela pilis in exortu ex cinereo albo, collari flavefcente. i^««;;b. 

albidis, colore nigricante ter- Suec. 16. 

minatis, oris ©ircumferentia Br. Zool. 3.7.- 

N A M E S. 

Brit. Ffwlbard Germ* Ittif, ulk, Buntfing 

Fren. Le Putois Dut. Bonfing 

Ital. Foetta, Puzol©^ Sived. lUer 

Span. Putoro Dan. Ilder 


TH E length of this animal, is about leventeera 
inches, exclufive of the tail ; that of the tail 
fix. The fhape of this animal in particular, as well 
as of the whole genus, is long and (lender; the 
Rofe fharp-pointed, and the legs Ihort : in fine, ad- 
mirably formed for infinuating itfelf into the fmallefi: 
holes and palTages, in fearch of prey : it is very nim- 
ble and adlivea runs very faft, will creep up the fides 

■ * PaljhiJlQr, 56. 

78 POLECAT. Clafs L 

of walls with greata gility, and fpring with vaft force : 
in running, the belly feems to touch the ground : in 
preparing to jump, it arches its back, which affifts it 
greatly in that action. 

The ears fhort, rounded and tipt with white : 
the circumference of the mouth, that is to fay, the 
the ends of the lower and upper mandibles are white : 
the head, legs and thighs, are wholly of a deep cho- 
colate color, almofl; black. The fides are covered 
with hairs of two colors •, the ends of which are of a 
blackifn hue, like the other parts ; the middle of a 
full tawny color. 

The toes are long, and feparated to the very origin : 
the tail is covered with pretty long hair. 

The Polecat is very defrrudlive to young game of 
all kinds j and to poultry : they generally refide in 
woods, or thick brakes -, burroughing under ground, 
forming a (liailow retreat, about two yards in length; 
v/hich commonly ends, for its fecurity, among the 
roots of fome large trees : it will fometimes lodge un- 
der hay-ricks, and in barns : in the winter it fre- 
quents hcufes, and makes a common pradice of 
robbing the dairy of the milk : it alfo makes great 
havoke in warrens. 

It will bring five or fix at a time ; warreners alTert, 
that the Polecat wiil mix with the ferret, and they 
are fometimes obliged to procure an intercourfe be- 
tween thefe animals to improve the breed of the latter, 
which by long confinement, wiil abate its favage na- 
ture ', and become lefs eager after rabbets, and con- 
fequently lefs ufeful, M. de Buffon denies that it will 
admit the polecat ; yet gives the figure of a variety 


Clafs I. MARTIN. 79, 

under the name of the Ferret Polecat *, which has 
much the appearance of being a fpurious offspring,. 
The Ferret agrees with the polecat in many refpefts, 
particularly in its thirft after, the blood of rabbets. 
It may be added, that the Ferret comes originally 
from Africa -f 5 and is only cultivated in Great- 

Though the fmell of the polecat, when alive, is 
f ank and difagreeable, even to a proverb ; yet the Ikia 
is dreft with the hair on, and ufed as other furs for 
eippets, ^<:. and is alfo fent abroad to line cloaths. 

Species II. The MARTIN. 

Martes, alias Foyna. The Mar- ftita, gutture albo. Brijfon 

tin and Martlet. Raii Jyn. quad. 178. 

quad. 200. Dt B-.ffon,Tom. vii. 161. Tab„ 

Meyer s an. ii. Tab, 4. 18, 

Martin, or Martern. Charlton Muftela martes., 

exer. 20. The Mertrick. M. M<a(tes. Klein quad. 6 i-. 

Martins Wefl. IJles,.i6. M. fulvo-nigricans gula pallida, 

Gefner quad. 'jb^. Fam. Suec. 1 5, 

Muilela pilis in exortu albidis Br. Zool. 38. 

caftaneo colore terminatis ve- 

N A M: E S. 



Bela graig 


H^hfs marder, flein marde; 


La Fouine 




Foina, Fouina 




Marta, Gibellina Dan, 


TH I S is the moil: beautiful of the Briiijh beads 
of prey : its head is fmall, and elegantly form- 
ed : its eyes lively : and all it motions lliew great 

* LaFuret Putols, Tom. vii. Tab. 25. 

+ KaJ ya^as «y^i«j «j h Tw^m ipEgj». Strahoy Lii>,\ii. p. 144, 
Edit, Cafaubon, 

4- graces 

Bo MARTIN. Ckfs h 

grace, as well as agility : when taken young, it is 
eafily tamed, is extremely playful, and in conftant 
good humour : nature will recur, if it gets loofe ; 
for it will immediately take advantage of its liberty, 
and retire to its proper haunts. It makes great havoke 
among poultry, game^ i^c. and will eat mice, ratSj 
and moles. V/ith us it inhabits woods, and makes 
its lodge in the hollows of trees ;' and brings from 
four to fix young at a time. 

The martin is about eighteen inches long ; the tail 
ten, or, if the meafurement be taken to the end of the 
hair at the point, twelve inches. 

The ears are broad, rounded and open : the back, 
fides, and tail, are covered with a fine thick down, 
and with long hair intermixed : the bottom is afh- 
colored : the middle of a bright chefnut color : 
the tips black : the head brown, with fome flight 
caft of red : the legs and upper fides of the feet are of 
a chocolate color : the palms, or under fides are 
covered with thick down like that on the body: the 
feet are broad : the claws white, large and Iharp j 
well adapted for clim/oing trees, which in this country 
are its confi:ant refidence. The throat and breail are 
■white : the belly of the fame color with the back, buE 
rather paler : the hair on the tail is very long •, efpe- 
cially at the end, where it appears much thicker than 
near the origin of it : the hair in that part is alfo darker. 
But martins vary in their colors, inclining more or 
lefs to afh-color, according to their ages or the fea- 
fons they are taken in. 

The fkin and excrements of this animal, have a 
fine muflcy fcent j and are entirely free of that rank- 


Clafsi MARTIN: 8i 

nefs which diftinguilhes the other fpecles of this 
genus ; the fkin is a valuable fur ; and much ufed for 
linings to the gowns of magiftrates. 

Species III. The Yellow Breafted Martin. 

Martes abietum. Rali fyn. <q^uad. reo albidiscaftaneo colore t^r- 

2DO. minatis vellita, gutture flavo. 

Meyer's an. ii.Tab. 5. BriJJ'on quad- 179. 

Martes fylveftris. Ge/ner quad. De Buffon, Tom, vii. 1 86. Tab. 

765. 22. 

Muftela pilis in exortu ex cine- Br. Zool. 39. 



Bela goed Port. 


La Marte Gerfu, 

Feld-marder, \vild-mar= 


Marta, Martura, Mar- 


tora, Martorello Dut. 



Marta Si^^cd. 

THIS fpecies is found in Great Britain j but is 
much lefs common in England than the former % 
it is fometimes taken in the counties of Merioneth and 
Caernarvon', where it is diftinguiihed from the other 
kind, by the name of hela goed, or wood martin, it 
being fuppofed entirely to inhabit the woods ; the bela 
graig to dwell only among the rocks. Tho' this is fo 
rare in thefe parts, yet in Scotland it is the only kind ; 
where it inhabits the fir forefts, building its neft ac 
the top of the trees *, It loves a cold climate, and is 
found in much greater numbers in the north of 
Europe, than in the other parts. North America 
abounds with thele animals. Prodigious numbers of 


* Vide Zihhala's EiJ}. Sec!, part ii, lib. iii. p. 1 1. 

G their 

82 W E E S E L. Clafs I. 

their fkins are annually imported from Hudfon''s bay 
and Canada. In one of th^ company's fales * not 
fewer than 12,370 good fkins, and 2360 damaged 
ones were fold, and about the fame time, the French 
brought into the port of Rochelle from Canada^ not lefs 
than 30,325. 

The principal differences between this and the 
former kind, confift in the fize, this being lefs : the 
bread too is yellow ; the color of the body much 
darker, and the fur in general greatly fuperior in 
finenefs, beauty, and value. 

Species IV. The W E E S E L. 

The Weafel or Weefel. Mufte- Brijfon quad. ly^. 

la vulgaris : in Yorkjkire, the De Bujhi, 'lorn. vii. 235. Tab. 

Fitchet or Foumart. Raii/yn. 29. 

quad. 155. Gefner quad. 753. 

Girald.Cambrerif. 1 49. Muflela vulgaris. Klein quad. 
The Whicred. Sib. Scot. \\. 62. 

Mullela fupra rutila, infra alba. Br. Zool. 39. 


Brit. Bronwen Germ. Wifel 

Fren. La Belette Dut. Weezel 

Ital. Donnola, Ballottula,Be- $xved. Vefla 

nula Fort. Doninha 

^pan. Comadreia Dar.. Vaifd 

THIS fpecles is the lead of the weefel kind, the 
length of the head and body not exceeding fix, 
or at molt feven inches. The tail is only two inches 
and a half long, and ends in a point : the ears are 
large j and the lower parts of them are doubled in. 

♦ In 1743. Vide Dohhis account of Eudfon s-bay^ 200. 

X The 

Chfsl. W E E S E L. 85 

The whole upper part of the body, the head, tail, 
kgs, and feet are of a very pale tawny brown. The 
whole under fide of the body from the chin to the 
tail is white ; but beneath the corners of the mouth 
on each jaw is a fpot of brown. 

This, like the reft of the kind. Is very deftruftive to 
young birds, poultry, and young rabbets ; and be- 
fides a great devourer of eggs. It does not eat its 
prey on the place, but after killing it, by one bite near 
the head, carries it off to its young, or its retreat. It 
is a remarkably adive animal, and will run up the 
fides of walls with fuch facility, that fcarce any place 
is fecure from it j and its body is fojmall, that there 
is fcarce any hole but what is pervious to it. This 
fpecies is muc1i more domeftic than the others ; fre- 
quenting out-houfes, barns, and grainaries ; where, 
to make as it were fome atonement for its depreda- 
tions among our tame fowl, it foon clears its haunts 
from rats and mice, being infinitely more an enemy 
to them than the cat itlelf. It brings five or fix 
young at a time : itsflcin and excrements are moft in- 
tolerably fetid. 

1 his animal is confounded by Linriteus with the 
•Stoat or Ermine. He feems unacquainted with our 
■weefel in its brov;n color, butdefcribes it in the white 
ilate under the title oiSr.omus^ or Mujiela nivalis *. 

* Similima Erm'meo /eJ dim Jio miner, cauda apice ptio 'vh; ii?io al- 
tero've albo. Faun. Suec. No. 1 8. Sj]/?. Nat. 69. 

G 2 Species 



Ciafa L 


When brown, the STOAT. 

IVhen white^ the E R M I N E. 

Muftela Candida, animal ermi- 
neum. Raii fyn. quad. 198. 

Mort. "Northampt. 442. 

Meyer s an. ii. Tab. 23, 24. 

Muftelahiemealba, jeftate fupra 
rutila infra alba, cauda; apice 
nigro. Brijm quad.i']6. 

De Bufforty vii. 240. lab. 29. 

Fig. 2. Tah. 31. Fig. r, 

Ge/ner quad. 'j^'j^. 

Muftela ermine^, M. plantis 

fiffis, cauds apice atro. Zz«. 

./jy?. 68. Faun.Suec. 17. 
Pontop. Norway, Part ii. p. 25:. 
-Sr. Zee/. 40. 


■i'.\ l\\y ;■'. -' 


Carhvm Germ. 



L'Hermine, Le Rofelet Sixied. 



Armellino Dut. 

Hermeiin, Lekat 


Armino, Aimelina Dan. 

TH E length of the float to the origin of the 
tail, is ten inches : that of the tail is five inches 
and a half. The colors bear fo near a refemblance to 
thofe of the weefel, as to caufe them to be confounded 
together by the generality of common obfervers ; the 
■weefel being ufually miftaken for a fmall ftoat : but 
thefe animals have evident and invariable fpecific dif- 
ferences, by which they may be eafily known. Firft, 
by the fize ; the weefel being ever lefs than the ftaac ;, 
fecondly, the tail of the latter is always tipt with 
black, is longer in proportion to the bulk of the 
animal, and more hairy -, whereas the tail of the 
weefel is fiiorter, and of the fame color with the body: 


Clafs I. STOAT. ' Ss 

thirdly, the edges of the ears, and the ends of the toes 
in this animal, are of a yellowifh white. It may be 
added, that the float haunts woods, hedges and mea- 
dows ; efpecially v/here there are brooks, whofe fides 
are covered with fmall buflies -, and fometimes (but 
lefs frequently than the weefel) inhabits barns, and. 
other buildings. 

In the mod northern parts of Europe, thefe animals 
regularly change their color in winter ; and become 
totally white, except the end of the tail, which con- 
tinues invariably black. The fkins and tails are a 
very valuable article of commerce in Norway, Lap- 
iand^ RuJJia, and other cold countries ; where they 
are found in prodigious numbers. They arealfo very 
common in Kamtfchatka and Siberia *. In Siberia thev 
burrough in the fields, and are taken in traps baited 
with flefh. In Norway f they are either fhot with 
blunt arrows, or taken in traps made of two flat ftones, 
one being propped up with a flick, to which is 
faftened a baited firing, which when the animals nib- 
ble, the flone falls down and crufhes them to death, 
Tht Laplanders take them in the fame manner, only 
inftead of flones make ufe of two logs of wood J. 
The float is fometimes found white in Great Britain, 
but not frequently •, and then it is called a white 
weefel. That animal is alfo found white ; but may 
be eafily diftinguifhed from the other in the ermine 
flate, by the tail, which in the weefel is of a light 
tawny brown. With us the former is obferved to 

* BelFs Tra've/s, \. 199. f Hi/. Norivay, ii. 25. 

:^ Oiwvrcsde Mau^ertHU,\n. 187. 

G 3 begin 

S6 STOAT.- Clafsl. 

be-g'in to change its color from brown to white in 
Jt^ovember, and to begin to relume the brown the be- 
ginning ox March '*. 

The natural hiftory of this creature is much the 
fame with that of the weefel, its food being birds, 
rabbets, mice, i^c. its agility the fame, and its fcent 
equally fetid : it is much more common in England^ 
than that animal. 

Sir RobiTt Sihh-e.ld mentions an animal, which he 
' fays is common in Caithnefs^ called there Lavellan : by 
his defcription it feems to belong to this genus. Ha 
fays it livts in the water, has the head of the wecfel, 
Slid reft^mbles that creature in color ; and that its 
breath is prejudicial to cattle. Stb. FUJI. Scot. ii. 

*P^. TV. No. 357. 


Ciafsl. HARE. '&•; 

Genus XIII. The HARE. 

Species I. The HARE. 

Lepus Plinii, lib. viii. c. 55. De BuffoUy Tom, vi. 246. Tab. 

The Hare. Raiifyn. quad. 204. 38. 

White Hare. Mart. Northamft. Lepus timidus. Lin.fyjl. 77. 

445. Lepus Cauda abrupta pupillis 

Sib. Scot. II. atris. Faun, Suec. 25. 

Meyer's an. 'ii.Tzh. "i^z. Lepus vulgaris cincreus. KUia 

Gejnerquad.()0^. quad. 51. 

Lepus caudatus ex cinereo rufus, Br. Zool. 41. 

Briffon quad. 94. 



Yfgyfarnog, Ceinach 


Has, Haas 


Le Lievre 




Lepre, Lievora 









TO enter on a minute defcription of fo well 
known an animal, would be to abufe the rea- 
der's patience; yet to negle6l pointing out the admira- 
ble contrivance of its feveral properties and parts, 
would be fruftrating the chief defign of this work : 
that of pointing out the divine wifdom in the animal 

Being a weak and mofl defencelefs creature, it is 
endued, in a very diftinguifhed degree with that pre- 
ferving paffion, fear: this makes it perpetually at- 
tentive to every alarm, and keeps it always lean. 

To enable it to receive the moft diflant notices of 
dangers, it is provided with very long ears, which 
(like the tubes made ufe of by the deaf) convey to it 
the remoteft founds. 

G 4 Its 

^S' HARE. Clafs I. 

Its eyes are very large and prominent, adapted to 
receive the rays of light, on all fides.. 

To afiift it to efcape its purfuers by a fpeedy flight, 
the hind legs are formed remarkably long, and fur- 
nifhed with ftrong mufcles : their length give the hare 
fingular advantages over its enemies in afcending 
fteep places ; and fo fenfible is the animal of this, as 
always to make towards the rifing ground when 

The various ftratagems and doubles it ufes, when 
ihunted, are fo well known to every fportfman, as not 
to deferve mention j except to awaken their attention 
to thofe faculties nature has endowed it with ; which 
ferve at the fame time toincreafe their amufement, as 
well as to prevent the animal's deftrudlion. 

It very rarely leaves its form or feat in the day ; 
but in the night takes a circuit in fearchof food, ai- 
'ways returning through the fame meufes, or pafTes. 

The color approaches very near to that of the 
ground ; which fecures it more effectually from the 
fight of men, and of beafts and birds of prey. Pro- 
.vidence has been fo careful in refpecc to the preferva- 
tion of the fpecies of animials, as to caufe in northern 
countries thefe as well as many others to change color, 
and become white at the beginning of winter ; to ren- 
der them lefs confpicuous amidll the fnow. Acci- 
dental inllances of white hares, are met with in Grcal- 

Its food is entirely vegetable j and it does great 
injury to nurferies of young trees, by eating the 
bark off: it is particularly fond of pinks, parfley, and 


Clafs I. H A R E. S9 

The hare never pairs ; but in the rutting feafon, 
which begins in February^ the male purfues and dif- 
covers the female, by the fagacity of its nofe. The 
female goes v/ith young one month, brings ufualJy 
two young at a time -, fometimes three, and very rarely 
four. Sir 'Thomas Brown^ in his treatife on vulgar 
errors *, afferts the dodrine of fuperfetation ; i. e, 
a conception upon conception, or an improvement on 
the firfl fruit before the fecond is excluded ; and he 
brings this animal as an inftance ; aflerting, from his 
own obfervation, that after the lirft caft there remain 
fuccefiive conceptions, and other younglings very im- 
mature, and far from the term of their exclufion -, 
but as the hare breeds very frequently in the year, 
there is no neceffity of having recourfe to this scci- 
dent f to account for their numbers. 

Hares are very fubjeft to fieas ; laimiiens tells us, 
that the Dalecarlians make a fort of cloth of the fur, 
called J?//; which, by attracting thofe infeds, pre- 
ferves the wearer from their troublefome attacks i„ 

The hair of this creature forms a great article io. 
the hat manufaflure ; and as this country cannot fup- 
ply a fufficient number, vaft quantities are annually 
imported from Ruffia and Siberia, In the latter || 
they colled in great troops of four or five hundred^ 
and during winter are white as the fnow they tread 
on. They are caught in toils for the fake of their 

* P. 118. 

+ For a farther account of this doftrine, we refer the curiou 
reader to M. Buffons works, vol. vi. p. 252, 279, &c. 

\ Faun. Suec, 25. || £s/rsTni-v/if, i. 200. 238. 


90 R A B E T. Clafs I. 

fldns, which are fo cheap, as to be fold on the fpot for 
a ruble and a half, or 6s. gd.per hundred *, 

The hare was reckoned a great delicacy among the 
Romaics -f -, the Brilains, on the contrary, thought it 
impious even to tafte it j: ; yet this animal was cul- 
tivated by them ; either for the pleafure of the chace-, 
or for the purpofes of fuperftition, as we are informed 
th^t Boadkia, immediately before her laft conflidlwith 
the Romans, let loofe a hare llie had concealed in her 
bofom, which taking what was deemed a fortunate 
courfe, animated her foldiers by the omen of an eafy 
vidtory over a timid enemy \\. 

Species 11. The RABBET. 

Guniculus. The Rabbet, or Lepus cuniculus. Z/>. Jyjf. 77. 

Cony. Raiijjn. quad. 205. Lepus Cauda breviffima papillis 

Me)eri an. \. Tab. 83. rubris. Faun Suec. 26. 

Gefner q-dad. 161. Cuniculus terram fodiens. Klim 

Lepus caudatus.obfcurecinereus, ^uad. ^2. ^ • 

Briffon quad. 95. Br. Zocl. 4.3. 

N 2 

i M E 






Kunigle, Kunek, Kunlefifc 















IT is well obferved by Pliny-, that nature ' hath 
' fhewed great kindnefs, in cauling thofe things 

* Strahlenheyg's Difc. Rujjia, See. 370. 

7 Inter aves turdus, fs quid me jiidice varum eft : 

Inter quadrupedcb gloria prima Lepus eft. Martial. 13.92. 
'^ Leporem ei gaUtnani it anferem gujiare fas non putant : hac ta-^ 
v:(.K a'ant. animi ^coluptati Cnue caufa. Caefar. Com. lib. v. 

II Tcyra «; xiJcii \xyti::' -^i-; vj. ts ^.i^.rb;, &C. Xipkilini Epitome Dio- 

. ' to 

Clafsl. RABBET. gt 

' to be moft prolific, that are the mofl harmlefs and 
' and the properell for our food *. 

This excellent obfervation of his, cannot be better 
illuftrated than in fiiewing the great fruitfulnefs of 
this animal ; as it far exceeds that proof, brought by 
the ingenious author of the ceconomy of nature, in 
fupport of the fame quotation. The inftance he pro- 
duces is the pigeon ; whofe increafe, from one pair, 
may in four years amount to 14,760 -f- : but rabbets 
will breed feven times a year, and bring eight young 
ones each time: on a fuppofition this happens regu- 
larly, during four years, their numbers will amount 
to 1,274,840. 

By this account, we might juftly apprehend being 
overflocked with thefe animals, if they had not a 
large number of enemies which prevents the too 
great increafe : not only men, but hawks, and beafts 
of prey, make dreadful havoke among the fpecies. 
Notwithftanding thefe diiferent enemies, we are told 
by Pliny, and Strabo, that they once proved fo great a 
nuifance to the inhabitants of the Balearic iflands, 
that they were obliged to implore the afliftance of a 
military force from the Romans, in the time oi Augiif- 
tus, in order to extirpate them J. Their native coun- 
try is ^-pain, where they were taken by means of 
ferrets, as we do at prefent, which animals were firil 
introduced there out of Africa § : they love a tem- 
perate and a warm clinnate, and are incapable of 

* Benigna circa hoc natura, innocua ei efcuUnla animcdia facunaa 
genera'vit. Lib.viii. c. 55. 

t Vide S^vedijb EiTays, cranflated by Mr. SttJ/j?tgj^eiff Ed. iff. 

P- 75- 

1 Pliri. lib. vui. c. 55. Strides, lib. iii. § Sirah, m. 144* 


92' R A B B E T. Clafs L 

bearing great cold, (o that in Sweden* they are oblig- 
ed to be kept in houfes. Our country abounds with 
them •, their furs form a coniiderable article in the 
hat manufaftures ; and of late, fuch part of the fur 
as is unfit for that purpofe, has been found as good 
as feathers for (luffing beds and bolfters. Numbers 
of the fl^ins are annually exported into China. The 
Englt^ couniks that are m oft noted for thefe animals 
are Lincobjhire^ Norfolk, and Cambridge/hire. Methold, 
in thelaft county, is famous for the beft fort for the 
table : the foil there is fandy, and full of mofles and 
the C^rex grafs. 

Formerly the filver-haired rabbets were in great 
eflieem for lining of cloaths, and their skins fold at 
three fhiilings a piece -f ; but fince the introduflion 
of the more elegant furs, the price is fallen to fix- 
pence each. The Sunk IJland "^ in the Humber was 
once famous for a moufe-colored fpecies, now ex- 
tirpated by reafon of the injury it did to the banks by 

* Taun. Suec. 26. f Ha'tlib''s Legacy, 

% Ph. /r. No. 361. 


Clafs I. S Q^U I R R E L. 93 


Species I. The S QJJ I R R E L. 

Sciarus vulgaris. Raiifyn. quad, palinis4-da£iylisp]antls j-dac- 

214. tylis. Lin/fyji. a6. 

Meyers an. \. Tab. 97. Sciurus palmis folis faliens. Faun. 

Ge/ner quad. 845- Suec, 37. 

Sciurus rufus, quandoqxie grifeo Sc. vulgaris rubicundus. KUin 

admixto. Brijfon quad. \o\. quad. z,^. 

Be Bufon, Tom. vii. 258. Tab. i.z. Br. Zoot. 44. 

Sciurus auriculis apice barbatis, 


Brit, Gwiwair Port. Ciuro 

Fren. L'Ecureuit Germ. Eychorn, Eichmermliij 

Jial. Scoiattolo, Schiarro, Schi- Z)«/. Inkhoorn 

ratto Sived. Ikorn, grafkin 

S^an, Harda, Hardilla, Efqailo Dan. Ekorn 

TH E fqiiirrel derives its name from the form of 
of its tail, a ffUA a fhade, Kja a tail, as ferving 
this little animal for an umbrella. That part is long 
enough to cover the whole body, and is cloched with 
long hairs, difpofed on each fide horizontally, which, 
gives it a great breadth. Thefe ferve a double pur- 
pofe ; when ere<5ted, they prove a fecure protedtioa 
from the injuries of heat or cold j when extended, 
they are very inftrumental in promoting thofe vaft 
leaps the fquirrel takes from tree to tree. On the au- 
thority of Klein and Linnieus^ we may add a third ap- 
plication of the form of the tail : thefe naturalifts tell 
us, that when the fquirrel is difpofed to crofs a river^ 
a piece of bark is the boat, the tail the fail. 

This animal is remarkably neat, lively, a^ive, and 


94 S Q^U I R R E L. Clafsf. 

provident, never leaves its food to chance ; but fe- 
cures in fome hollow tree a vaft magazine of nuts for 
winter provifion. In the fummer it feeds on the buds 
and young fhoots ; and is particularly fond of thofe of 
the fir and pine, and alfo of the young cones. It 
makes its neft of mofs or dry leaves, between the 
fork of two branches 5 and brings four or five young 
at a time. Squirrels are in heat early in the fpring, 
when it is very diverting to fee the female feigning an 
efcape from the purfuit of two or three males, to ob- 
ferve the various proofs they give of their agility, 
■which is then exerted in full force. 

The color of the whole head, body, tail, and legs 
of this animal, is a bright reddifh brown : the belly 
and breafl white : in fome parts of TVaks there is a 
variety of the fquirrel kind, with a creme-colored 
tail : the ears are very beautifully ornamented with 
long tufts of hair, of a deeper color than thofe on the 
body : the eyes are large, black, and lively : the fore 
teeth, ftrong, fiiarp, and well adapted to its food : 
the legs are fhort and mufcular : the toes long, and 
divided to their origin ; the nails ftrong and fharp ; 
in fhort, in all refpedls fitted for climbing, or clinging 
to the fmalleft boughs : on the fore-feet it has only 
four toes, with a claw in the place of the thumb or 
interior toe : on the hind feet there are five toes. 

When it eats or drefles itfelf, it fits ered, covering 
the body with its tail, and making ufeof the fore-legs 
as hands. It is obferved, that the gullet of this ani- 
mal is very narrow, to prevent it from difgorging its 
food, in defcending of trees, or in down leaps. 




Genus XV. The DORMOUSE. 

Species L The D O R M O U S E. 

Mus avellanarum minor. The De Bi(^», Tom. vn'u 193. Ta!/. 

Dormoufe or Sleeper. Raii 26. 

/yn. quad. 220. Mus avellanarius. Lin.fyjl. 83. 

The Dormoufe. Ednu. 266. Mus cauda longa pilofa corpore 

Cefner quad. i6z. rufo gula albicante. Faun, 

Glis fupra rufus infra albicans. Suec. 35. 

Brijfon quad. 115. Br, Zoal. 45 » 


Brit. Pathew Span- Liron 

Fren. Le Mufcardin, Croque- Germ. Rothe, Wald-mana 

noix, Rat-dor Snued. Skogfmus 

Ital. Mofcardino Dan. KaiEl-muus 

t'jP'HIS animal agrees with the fquirrel In Its 
JL food, refidence, and fome of its anions ; on 
firO: fight it bears a general refemblance to it -, but 
on a clofer infpe(5i:ion, fuch a difference may be dif- 
covered in its feveral parts, as vindicates M. Brijfon, 
for forming a diftinft genus of the Dormice, or Glires. 
Thefe want the fifth claw on the interior fide of their 
fore-feet ; nor are their ears adorned with thofe ele- 
gant tufts of hair that diftinguifh the fquirrel kind : 
their tail is fo covered with hair, as to appear perfeflly 
round ; while that of the fquirrel appears flat. Thefe 
diftinflions prevail in the other fpecies, fuch as the 
Leroi and Loir. 

Dormice inhabit woods, or very thick hedges ; 
forming their nefts in the hollow of fome low tree, or 


^5 DORMOUSE. Clafs t 

or near the bottom of a clofe fhrub : as they want 
much of the fprightlinefs of the fquirrel, they never 
afpire to the tops of trees ; or, like it, attempt 
to bound from fpray to fpray : like the fquirrel 
they form httle magazines of nuts, (^c, for winter 
provifion ; and take their food in the fame manner, 
and fame upright poilure. The confumption of their 
hoard during the rigor of the feafon is but fmall : for 
they fleep mod part of the time ; retiring into their 
holes at the firft approach of winter, they roll them- 
felves up, and lie almoft torpid the greateft part of 
that gloomy feafon. In that fpace,they fometimes ex- 
perience a Ihort revival, in a warm funny day ; when 
they take a little food, and then relapfe into their 
former ftate. 

The fize of the dormoufe is equal to that of a 
moufe •, but has a plumper appearance, and the nofe is 
more blunt; the eyes are large, black, and prominent; 
the ears broad, rounded, thin, and femi-tranfparent: 
the forefeet are furnifhed with four toes ; the hind 
feet with five ; but the interior toes of the hind feet 
are deftitute of nails : the tail is about two inches and 
a half long, clofely covered on every (ide with hair : ' 
the head, back, fides, belly, and tail, are of a tawny 
red color ; the throat white. 

Thefe animals feldom appear far from their retreats; 
or in any open place -, for which reafon they feem lefs 
common in England than ihey really are. They 
make their nefts of grafs, mols, and dead leaves ; and 
bring ufually three or four young at a time. 


C'lafsL R A T. 97 

Genus XVI. The R A T. 

Species I. The Common RAT. 

Mus domefticus major, feu Rat- Mus rattus. Lin.fyji. 83. 

tus, Raiifyn.quad. 2\j. Mus Cauda longa fubnuda cor- 

Meyers an. ii. Tab. 83. pore fufco cinerefcente. Fau7i. 

Gefner quad. 731. Suec. 33. 

Mus Cauda longiffimaobfcureci- Mus Rattus, mus ciftiinarius. 

nereus. BriJ/on quad. 1 18. Klein quad. 57. 

De Bufon,1om. vii. p. 278. Tab. Br. Zool. 46. 




Llygoden fFrengig 




Le Rat 




Ratto, Sorcio 




Raton, Rata 






FI E rat is the mofl: pernicious of any of our 
fmaller quadrupeds : our meat, corn, paper, 
deaths, furniture, in fhort every conveniency of life 
is a prey to this deftruftive creature : nor does it con- 
fine itfelf to thefe i -but will make equal havoke 
among our poultry, rabbets, or young game. Un- 
fortunately for us it is a domeftic animal, always re- 
ading in houfes, barns, or grainaries ; and na- 
ture has furniihed it with fore-teeth of fuch flrength, 
as enable it to force its way through the hardefl wood, 
or oldefl morter. It makes a lodge, either for its 
days refidence, or for a neft for its young, near a 
chimney-, and improves the warmth of it, by form- 
ing there a magazine of wool, bits of cloth, hay or 

H ftraw. 

9^' H A T. ClafsL 

ftraw. It breeds frequently in the year, and brings 
about fix or feven young at a time: this fpecies in- 
creafes fo faft, as to over- flock their abode : which 
often forces them, through deficiency of food, to de- 
vour one another : this unnatural difpolition happily 
prevents even the human race from becoming a prey 
to them ; not but that there are inftances of their 
p-navv'ins; the extremities of infants in their deep. 

The greateft enemy the rats have is the weefel j. 
which makes infinitely more havoke among them 
than the cat ; for the weefel is not only endowed 
with fuperior agility ; but, from the form of its body, 
can purfue them through all their retreats that are 
impervious to the former. The Norway, rat has alfo 
greatly lelTened their numbers,- and in many places 
almofb extirpated them : this will apologize for a; 
brief defcription of an animal once fo well known;. 
Its length from the nofe to the origin of the tail, is 
feven inches : the tail is near eight inches long : the 
nofe is fliarp-pointed, and furnifhed with long whif- 
kers : the colour of the head and whole upper part of 
the body is a deep iron-grey, bordering on black j 
the belly is of a dirty cinereous hue ; the legs are of 
a dufky color, and almofi: naked : the fore-feet wane 
the thumb or interior toe, having only in its place a 
claw: the hind-feet are furniOied with five roes. 

Among other officers, his Brilijlj majefty has a;v?/- 
catcher^ diftinguifiied by a particular drefs, fcarlet em- 
broidered with yellow worfted, in which are figures of 
mice deftroying wheat- Iheaves. 


ClafsL NORWAY RAT. 59 

Species II. The Norway RAT. 

Mus fylveftris, de bois. Mus norveglcus. Klein quad. 56. 

Briffon quad. 20. Mus ex norvegia. Seb. Mus. lorn. 
Le Surmulor. De Buffon, Tom. ii. 64. Tab. 63. 

viii. 206. Tab. 27. Br. Zool. 47. 

TH I S is a very large fpecies •, thicker, and of 
a ftronger make than the common rat : the 
length from the end of the nofe to the begin- 
ning of the tail, is nine inches -, the length of the 
tail the fame ; the ufiial weight eleven ounces : the 
ears refemble thofe of the rat : the eyes large and 
black : the color of the head and whole upper part of 
the body is a light brown, mixed with tawny and a(h- 
color : the end of the nofe, the throat and belly, are 
of a dirty white, inclining to grey : the feet and legs 
almoft bare 5 and of a dirty, pale, fleih-color : the 
beginning of the tail is of the fame color as the 
back ; the reft of the tail is covered with minute 
dufky fcales, mixed with a few hairs. 

This is the fpecies well known in this kingdom 
under the name of the Norway rat -, but it is an animal 
quite unknown in Scandinavia, as we have been affured 
by feveral natives of the countries that form that 
trad: : and Linnaus * takes no notice of it in his iaft 
fyftem. It is fit here to remark an error that gentle- 
man has adopted in fpeaking of the common rat, 
which he fays was firft brought from America into 
Eurcfe by means of a fliip from AnfuDsr^, The fad is, 

* Lh.fyJ}. 83. 

H 2 that 

100 NORWAY RAT. Clafs L 

that both rat and moufe were unknown "to the new 
world before it v/as difcovered by the Europmns^ and 
the firft rats it ever knew, were introduced there by a 
fhip from Ardwerp *. This animal never made its 
appearance in England till about forty years ago -f. 
It has quite extirpated the common kind wherever it 
has taken its refidence j and it is to be feared that we 
^all fcarce find any benefit by the change ; the Nor- 
way rat having the fame dirpofition, with greater abi- 
lities of doing mifchief, than the common kind. This 
fpecies burroughs, like the water rat, in the banks of 
rivers, ponds and ditches; it takes the water very 
readily ; and fvvims, and dives with great celerity : 
like the black fpecies, it preys on rabbets, poultry, 
and all kind of game j and on grain and fruits. It 
increafes mofl amazingly faft, producing from four- 
teen to eighteen young at a time. Its bite is not only 
fevere, but dangerous ; the wound being immiediateiy 
attended with a great fwelling, and is a long time in 
healing, Thefe rats are fo bold, as fometimes to 
turn on thofe thatpurfue them, and fallen on the ftick 
or hand of fuch as offer to ftrike them. 

M. Brijfon defcribes this fame animal twice under 
different names, p. 170. under the title oilerat dti bois', 
and again, p. 173. under that oi le rat de mrvege, 
M. de Buffon fiiles it le SuYinulot \ as refembling the 
mulots, or field mice, in many refpeds \ but exceed- 
ing them in bulk. 

• O'valles H'ljl. cf Chile in Churchiirs Voy. iii. 43. 
-|- This fpecies reached the neighbourhood oi Parish about feven- 
teen years ago. 


Clafs L W A T E R R A T. loi 

Species IIL The WATER RAT. 

Le Rat d'Eau, BeIo7i^o.pL 31. De Buffon, To?;i. vii. 348. Tah.^^. 

Mus major aquadcus, feu Ratlus Mus ampbibius. Mus cauda 

aquaticus. Raiifpi. quad, zi 7. elongata pilofa plantis palrna- 

Sorex aquaticus. Charlton ex.2^. tis. Lin. fyfi.'^z. 

Meyer s mm. ii. Tab. 84. Caftor Cauda lineari tereti- Fann. 

Mus Cauda longa pilis fupra ex Suec. 2^. Ed. i. Musamphi- 

nigro et fiavefcente mjxds, in- bius 32. Ed. 2. 

fra cinereis vellifus. Brijfon Mus aquatilis. Klein quad. jjr. 

quad. 1 24. Br. Zool, 48. 



Llygoden y dwfr 


WalTer maus, W. Rata 


Le Rat d'eaa 




Sorgo morgange 







T IN N yEUS, from the external appearance of 
"^^ this animal, has in one of his fyftems placed it 
in the fame genus with the beaver. The form of the 
head, the {hortnefs of the ears, and the thicknefs of the 
fur, and the places it haunts, vindicate in fome degree 
the opinion that naturalift was at that time of: but 
the form of the tail is fo different from that of the 
beaver, as to oblige him to reftore the water rat to the 
clafs he found it, in the fyftem of ourilluftrious coun- 
tryman Ray. 

The water-rat never frequents houfes ; but is al- 
ways found on the banks of rivers, ditches and ponds, 
where it burroughs and breeds. It feeds on fmali 
fifh, or the fry of greater; on frogs, infedls, and 
fometimes on roots ; it has a fi(hy talle ^ and in fome 

H 3 coun- 


WATER RAT. Clafs I. 

countries is eaten •, M. Buffon informing us that the 
peafants in Francs eat it on maigre days. 

It iwims and dives admirably well, and continues 
long under water, though the toes are divided like 
thofe of the common rati not conneded by mem- 
branes, as Mr. Ray imagined j and as Linnaeus, and 
otiier writers, relate after him. 

The male weighs about nine ounces -, the length 
feven inches from the end of the nofe to the tail ; the 
tail five inches : on each foot are live toes, the inner 
toe of the fore-foot is very nnaH ; the firft joint of the 
latter is very flexible, which muft affiit it greatly in 
fwimming, and forming its retreat. The head is 
large, the ears fmall, and fcarce appear through the 
hair : the nofe blunt, and the eyes little : the teeth 
large, flrong, and yellow : the head and body are 
covered with thick and pretty long hairs, chiefly 
black ; but mixed with fome of a reddifh hue : the 
belly is of an iron-grey : the tail is covered v/ith fhorE 
black hairs, the tip of it with white hairs. 

A female that we opened had fix young ones ia 


Clafs I. F I E L D M O U S E. 103 

Species IV. The long-tailed Field Moufe. 

Mus domefticus medius. Rati Mus fylvaticus. M. caudalonga, 

fyn. quad. 21 8. palmis tetradadlyiis, plantis 

Mus Cauda longa fupra e fufco pentadaftylis, corpore grifeo 

flavefcens infra ex albocinere- pilis nigris abdomine albo. 

fcens. Brijfon quad. 123. Lin. fyft. 84. 

De Buffotiy lorn. vii. 325. Tab. Taun. Suec. 36. 

41, Brii. Zoo I. 4^^ 

N AM E S, 

Brit. Llygoden ganolig, Lly- Fren. Le Mulct 
goden y maes Dan. Voed 

THIS meafures from the nofe-end to the fetting 
on of the tail, four inches and half: the tail is 
four inches long : the eyes are black, large, and full : 
the ears prominent : the head and upper part of the 
body, is of a yellowifh brown, mixed with fome duf]<:y 
hairs : the bread is of an ochre color j the reft of the 
under fide is white : the tail is covered with fhort 

Thefe animals are found only in fields and gardens : 
in fome places they are called bean-mice, from the 
havoke they make among beans when firft fown. 
They feed alfo on nuts, acorns, and corn, forming 
in their burroughs vaft magazines of winter pro- 

Ssepe exiguus mus 
Sub terris pofuitque domes atque horrea fecit.' 
Virgil. Gecrg, i. I. i8i. 

H 4 Doflor 

104 FIELD MOUSE. Clafs L 

Do6bor Derham takes notice of this wonderful fa- 
o-acity of theirs, in providing againft thatfeafon when 
they would find a defeft of food abroad : but they 
provide alfo for other animals : the hog comes in for 
a (hare ; and the great damage v/e fuftain in our 
fields, by their rooting up the ground, is chiefly owing 
to their fearch after the concealed hoards of the field 

They generally make the nefl for their young very 
near the furface, and often in a thick tuft of grafs 3, 
they bring from feven to ten at a time. 

Species V. The fhort- tailed Field Moufe. 

Mus agreftis capite grand! brachi* Mus agreftis. Faun. Suec. 30. 

urus. Raiijyn. quad. 218. De Buffoit, Tom. vii. 369. Ti?^. 
Mus Cauda brevi pilis e nigrican- 47. 

te et fordide luteo mixtis in K/ei?i quad. 57. No, 50. 

dorfo et faturate cinereis in ven- Br. Zool. 50. 

tre vefticis. Bri/Jhn quad, iz^^ 


Btin Llygoden gwtta'r maes Fren. Le petit Rat de champs, 
Ital. Campagnoli ' Le campagnol 

Dan. Skier-muus 

TH E length of this fpecies, from the nofe to the 
tail, is about fix inches ; the tail only an inch 
and a half : the head is very large : the eyes promi- 
nent : the ears quite hid in the fur : the whole upper 
part of the body, is of a ferruginous color, mixed 
with black -, the under fide of a deep afh-color : the 
tail is covered with fhort hair, ending with a little 
bufh, about a quarter of an inch long. 


Clafs I. C O M M O N M O U S E. 105 

This animal makes its nefl in moid meadows, and 
brings eight young at a time : it has a itrong affec- 
tion for them : one that was feduced into a wire-trap, 
by placing its brood in it, was fo intent on foftering 
them, that it appeared quite regardlefs of its captivity. 
The manner of this creature much refembles the laft 
fpecies : like it, this refides under ground, and lives on 
nuts, acorns, but particularly on corn : it differs from 
the former in the place of its abode ; feldom infeft- 
ing gardens. 

Species VI. The common MOUSE. 

Mus domefticus vulgaris feu mi Mus mufculus. M. Cauda elon- 

nor. Rail fyn. quad. z\^. g^f3, palmis tetradadtylis, 

Seb. Mufeumf i. Tab. Ill- f. 6. plantis pentadaftylis. Lin. 

its ikeleton. fab. 31. JyJI. 83. 

Gefner quad. 7 1 4. Faun. Suec. 34. 

Mus Cauda longiffima, obfcure Mus minor, Mufculus vulgaris. 

cinereus, ventre fubalbefcente. Klein quad. 57. 

Brijjon quad. 119. Br. Zool. 50. 
De Buffon, 'lorn. vii. 309. Tah.i^. 


Brit. Llygoden Germ. Maus 

Fren. La Souris Dut. Muys 

ItaU Topo, forice Snved. Mus 

$fatt. Raton Han, Muus 
Fort. Ratinho 

THIS timid, cautious, ac^live, little animal, is 
too well known to require a defcription ; it is 
entirely domeflic, being never found in fields j or, as 
M. Buffon obferves, in any countries uninhabited by 
mankind : it breeds very frequently in the year, and 


£o6 HEDGEHOG. Clafs L 

brings tix or feven young at a time. This fpecies h 
ofcen found of a pure white, in which flate it makes a 
moft beautiful appearance ; the fine full eye appear- 
ing to great advantage, amidfl the fncwy color of the 
fur. The root of white hellehore and Jlaves acre^ 
powdered and mixed with meal, is a certain poifon to 

Species I. The HEDGE HOG, or URCHIN. 

Echinus fc. erinaceus terreflris. De Bufon,Tom. viii. 28. TaB. 6» 

Raii Jyn.quad. z-^i. Echinus teireftriSo Ge/ner quad, 

Meyer s an. i. Tab. 95, 96. 368. 

Sib. Scot. II. Erinaceusearopjeas.Z/w.j/y/?. 75. 

Erinaceus parvus noflras. Seh. Erinaceus, fpinofus auriculatus, 

Mus. i. p. 78. lab. 49. f. Faun. Suec. 22. 

1,2. Acanthion vulgaris nollras. Kleim 

Efinaceus auriculis ereftis. Brif- quad. 65. 

fon quad. 128. Br. Zool. 51. 


Brtt. Draenog, Draen y coed Germ. Eigel 

Fren. L'Herifibn Dut. Eegel-varken 

2tal. Riccio S-wed. Igelhot 

Span. Erizo Dan. Pin-fuin, Pin-foe 

Fort. Ourizo 

TH E ufual length of this animal, exclufive of 
the tail, is ten inches : the tail is little more 
than an inch long •, but fo concealed by the fpines as 
fcarce to be vifible. The form of the nofe, is like 
that of the hog ; the upper mandible being much lon- 
ger than the lower ; and the end flat : the noftrils are 
narrow, terminated on each fide by a thin loofe flap : 
I the 

Clafsl. HEDGE HOG. 107 

the color of the nofe is dusky •, it is covered by a few 
fcattered hairs : the upper part of the head, the fides, 
and the rump, are clothed with {Irong ftiff hairs, ap- 
proaching the nature of bridles, of a yellowifh and 
cinereous hue. 

The legs are fhort, of a dusky color, and almofl 
bare : the toes on each toot are five in number, long 
and feparated the whole way : the thumb or interior 
toe, is much fhorter than the others : the claws long, 
but v/eak : the whole upper part of the body and 
fides, are clofely covered with ftrong fpines, of an inch 
in length, and very (liarp pointed : their lower part is- 
white, the middle black, the points white. The eyes 
are fmall and placed high in the head : the ears are 
round, pretty large and naked. The mouth is fmall, 
but well furnilhed with teeth : in each jaw are two 
fharp pointed cutting teeth : in the upper jaw are on 
each fide four tufhes, and five grinders : in the lower 
jaws on each fide are three tufhes, pointing obliquely 
forward; and beyond thofe, four grinders. MY.BriJfon^ 
from whofe obfervations this account of the teeth has 
been taken, has given a very accurate figure of the 
jaws and teeth, p. 295. 

The hedge hog is a no6lurnal animal, keeping re- 
tired in the day ; but is in motion the whole night, in 
fearchof food. It generally refides in fmall thickets, 
in hedges, or in ditches covered with bufhes ; lying 
well wrapped up, in mofs, grafs, or leaves : its food 
is roots, fruits, worms, and infeds : it lies under the 
undeferved reproach of fucking cattle, and hurting 
their udders; but the fmallnefs of its mouth renders 
that impoifible. 


•loE M O L E. ClafsL 

Ic is a mild, helplefs, and patient animal ; and 
■would be liable to injury from every enemy, had not 
providence guarded it with a ftrong covering ; and a 
power of rolling itfelf into a ball 5 by that means fe- 
curing the defencelefs parts. The barbarity of anato- 
mies furnifhes us with an amazing inflance of its pa- 
tience ; one that was diffefled alive, and whofs feet 
were nailed down to the table endured that, and 
every ftroke of the operator's knife^ without even one 

Genus XVIil. The M O L E. 

-Species I. The MOLE. 

Talpa. The Mole, Mold-Warp, anticis et pofficia pentadsdlj''- 

or Want. Rojifyn. quad. 236., lis. Erijfon quad. 203. 

Spotted Mole. £^1^.268. De Buji»,vm, Si~ Tah.iz, 

Meyer's an. 1.^ ah. 2. Talpa euiopsus. T. caudata^, 

Talpa alba noflras. 5sb, MusA,. pedibus peDtadaclyiis. Uz^ 

p. 61. Tab.iz..L K JyJ'-lZ- 

tib. Scot. II. faun. Suec. 23. 

Gefncr quad. 93 i . Talpa. Klein quad^ 6JV 

Talpa caudata nigricans pedibus Br. Zoo/, zz. 



Gvvadd, TwTch daear 


' Mulwerf 


La Taupe 






Mulvad, Surk 







THERE are many animals in which the di- 
vine wifdom may be more agreeably illuf^ 

* Cliwis ierehrari fibz pedes et difciTsd't nfi/cera patient jJJiTKeJereiat^ 
cmms cultri i£ius fine gcmitu plufquam Spartand nobilitoAe cmcoqugtu^ 
Borricb in Bias, de Ewluno. Derham'i Pb)f. TheoL 240, 


ClafsL MOLE. 109 

trated ; yet the uniformity of its attention to every 
article of the creation, even the mod contemptible, 
bv adapting the parts to its deflined courfe of life, 
appears more evident in tiie mole than in any other 

A fubterraneous abode being allotted to it, the 
feeming defecls offeveral of its parts, vanilli ; which, 
initead of appearing maimed, or unfinifhed, exhibit a 
mod ftriking proof of the fitnefs of their contrivance. 

The breadth, flrength, and fliortnefs of the fore- 
feet, which are inclined fideways, anfwer the ufe as 
well as form of hands ; to fcoop out the earth, to 
form its habitation, or to purfue its prey. Had they 
been longer, the falling in of the earth would have pre- 
vented the quick repetition of its ilrokes in working, 
or have impeded its courfe : the oblique pofition of 
the fore-feet, has alfo this advantage, that it flings all 
the loofe foil behind the animal. 

The form of the body is not lefs admirably con- 
trived for its way of life : the fore part is thick and 
very mufcular, giving great ftrtngth to the action of 
of the fore-feet -, enabling it to dig its way with amaz- 
ing force and rapidity, either to purfue its prey, or 
elude the fearch of the moil a6tive enemy. The 
form of its hind parts which are fmalJ and taper, en- 
ables it to pafs with great facility through the earth, 
that the fore-feet had flung behind •, for had each 
part of the body been of equal thicknefs, its flight 
would have been impeded, and its fecurity pre- 

I'he fmallnefs of the eyes (which gave occafion 



MOLE. ClafsL 

to the ancients to deny it the fenfe of fight *',) is to 
this animal a peculiar happinefs : a imail degree of 
vifion, is fufficient for an animal ever defined to live 
under ground : had thefe organs been larger, they 
would have been perpetually liable to injuries, by the 
earth falling into them ; but nature, to prevent that 
inconvenience, hath not only made them very fmall, 
but alfo covered them very clofely with fur. Anato- 
mifts mention (befides thefe) a third very wonderful 
contrivance for their fecurity •, and inform us that 
each eye is furnilhed with a certain mufcle, by which 
the animal has power of withdrawing or exerting 
them, according to its exigencies. 

To make amends for the dimnefs of its fight, the 
mole is amply recompenced, by the great perfedbion 
of two other fenfes, thofe of hearing and of fmelling : 
ihefirft gives its notice of the moil diflant approach of 
danger : the other, v/hich is equally exquifite, dire<5ls 
it in the midft of darknefs, to its food : the nofe alfo, 
being very long and llender, is well formed for thruft- 
ing into fmall holes, in fearch of the worms and in- 
fers that inhabit them. Thefe gifts may with reafon 
be faid to compenfate the defect of fight, as they fup- 
ply in this animal ail its v/ants, and all the purpofesof 
that fenfe. Thus amply fupplied as it is, with every 
neceflfary accomodation of life ; we mufl avoid af- 
fecting to an obfervation of M. de Euffon^ and only re- 
fer the reader to the note, where he may find the very 

* Auc cculis a^pti fodere cubilia talps. Virg.Georg, i. 


Clafs I. MOLE. m 

■words of that author •, and compare them with thofe 
of our illuRrioLis countryman, Mr. Ray *. 

The mole breeds in the fpring, and brings four or 
live young at a time : it makes its nefl: of mofs, and 
that always under the largeft hillock, a little below the 
furface of the ground. The mole is obferved to be 
moH adive, and to caft up moft earth, immediately 
before rain : and in the winter before a thaw ; becaufe 
at thofe times the worms and infeds begin to be in mo- 
tion, and approach the furface : on the contrary, in 
very dry weather, this animal feldom or never forms 
any hillocks, as it penetrates deep after its prey, which 
at fuch feafons retires far into the ground. The mole 
Ihews great art in fkinning a worm, which it always 
does before it eats its Gripping the ftin from end to 
end, and fqueezing out all the contents of the body. 

Thefe animals do incredible damage in gardens, 
and meadows 5 by loofening the roots of plants^, 
Howers, grafs, corn, i^c. Mortimer fays, that the 
roots of P alma chrijii and white hellelore^ made into a 
paftcj and laid in their holes, will dellroy them. 
They feem not to have many enemies among other 
animals, except in Seotknd^ where (if we may depend 

* La taupe fans etre aveugle, a les yeux 11 petis, fi couverts, 
qu'elle ne peut faire grand ufage du fens de la vue : en dedojjimagc- 
ment la nature hi a donne wvec magnijicence Pn/age du Jixieme fens, &C,. 

Mr. Ray makes the iatter obferv'ation ; but forms from it a con- 
clufion much more folid and moral. TcJiesTna.ximos, paraflatas am- 
pliffimas, no'vum corpus feminale ab his di-verfu7n etfeparatum — —penerrt 
eti am facile omnium, nifallor, aiiimaliiim hng^Jftnum: ex quihiis coUigen 
eji maximam free reliquis onmibiis animalibus ^u(iluptate?n in coitu hoc 
ahjeSlum et ^ile animalculum percipsre,. ut hahsant quod ip/l iwvideant, 
qui in hoc fup-ema$mita fusg diliciat colkcant, Raji /jn, quad, 238, 




Clafs h 

on Sir Robert Sibhald) there is a kind of moufe, with a 
black back, that deftroys moles *. We have been af- 
llired that moles are not found in Ireland. 


Species I. The SHREW MOUSE. 

Mus araneus. Shrew, Shrew De Bitff'on,Tom. v'ln. t^y.TabAO. 

Moufe, or Hardy Shrew. Raii Sorex araneus. S. cauda cor- 

fyn. quad. 233. pore longiore. Lin.fyjl. ja. 

Gejner quad. 747. Faun. Suec, 24. 

Mus araneus fupra ex fufco rufus Mus araneus rofiro produdliore* 

infra albicans. Brijfon quad. Klein quad,^'i. 

126. Br. Zool. 54. 


Brit. Llygoden goch, Chwift- Port. 

len, Llyg Germ, Spitzmus, Zifsmufs, Mu- 
Fre7!. La Mufaraigne s;er 

Ital. Toporagno Sived. Nabbmus 

Sjian. Murganho Dan. N^ebmuus, Muufeikier 

'' I ^ H E length of this little animal, from the end 
§ of the nofe to the origin of the tail is 'two 
inches and a half : that of the tail, near one inch; and 
a half: the nofe is very long and {lender j and the up- 
per mandible is much longer than the lower : the 
ears are fliort, and rounded : the eyes are very fmall ; 
and, like tho'fe of the mole, almofi: concealed in' the 
hair. The color of the head, and upper part of the 
body, is of a brownilh dusky red : the belly of a diriy 
white : the tail is covered with fhort dusky ^hairs : 

* 'Sib. Elfi. Scot, part iii. p 12. 


Claisl. SHREW MOUSE. 113 

the legs are very Ihort : the hind legs are placed very 
far back ; the feet are divided into five diftincSt toes. 

The teeth are twenty-eight in numiber -, and of fo 
lingular a form, as to engage the attention of moft 
naturalifts. Gefner is of opinion, that nature feems 
to have formed, in this animal, teeth of mixed ihape, 
between thofe of mice and ferpents : the two upper 
fore-teeth are very Iharp, and on each fide of them 
grows a minute procefs, fcarce vifible, except on a near 
infpe6tion : the other teeth are placed clofe together, 
are very fmall, and feem fcarce feparated. 

The fhrevv moufe inhabits old walls, heaps of 
ftones, or holes in the earth : is frequently found 
near out-buildings, hay-ricks, dung-hills, and necef- 
fary houfes : it lives on infers, corn, and any filth ; 
and has been obferved rooting like a hog in the laft 
named places : either from its food, or its nature, it 
has a ftrong difagreeable fmell ; infomuch that the 
cat will kill it, yet refufes to eat it. It is faid to bring 
four or five young at a time. 


IJ4 BAT; ClafsL 

Genus XX. The B A T. 

Species I. The fliort-eared BAT. 

Verperfilio, Bat, Flitter, or Flut- bus omnibus pentadaflylis. 

'ttrr Moufe. Rail fyu. quad. Brijpin quad. 158. 

'24.3, ... j^2 chauve fourij De Buffotij 

^\^tt-&ssz^Englifii'2i,ZX,'E.dnjQ.a-v. -Tow. viii. 1 13. Tab. 16. 

'2.01. f. 2. Vefpcrtil:om<:riuus. £.z«._/v/?.47. 

S'&b. Mus.'i. V.caudatus nafooycqaelimplici. 

The Rear Moufe. Charlton ex. Faun. Suec. 2 . 

'80. V. rn^jor. Klein quad. 6 \. 

Meyer s an. i. Tab. 3. Vefpeitiik). Pliuii Lib. X. 6. 

Ge/ner av. ^66. 61. 

Vefperulio murini colons, pedU Br.ZojL 55. 

Brii. Yftlum Fori. Morcego 

Fre?i. LaChaure foaris Germ Speckmaus, Fledermaaa 

JtaL Nottola, Notula, Spor- Dut. Viederniuys 

tegHone.Viip'iftrcllc', S^jjcd. Ladeilap, Fladermus 

Vilpiitrello . Dan. Flagerniuus,Aftenbakkg. 
Span. MurcielagG, McrQiegalo 

TFI 1 S fingukr animal was placed by Pliny, 
Gefurr, Aldrovandus., and fome other naturalilh, 
among the birds : they did not confider, that it wanted 
every charafter of that order of animals, except the 
power of flying : if the irregular, uncertain, an4 
jerking motion * of the bat in the air, can merit the 
name of fii2;hr. No birds whatfoever are furnillied 
with teeth, or bring forth their young alive, and fuckle 
them : were other notes wanting, thefe would be fuf- 
ficient to determine that the bat is a quadruped. 

* The Er.glijh fynonym of this animal, flitter, or Flutter movfc, 
is very expreifive of its atlion in the air, 

4 The 

Clafs I. S H O R T E A R E D BAT. ' 115 

The fpecies i^ow defcribed, is the larger of the tv/o 
kinds found in England ; and the mofl: com'Tion : the 
ufual length of it, is about two inches and' a half: 
the extent of the fore-legs nine inches. 

The; members that are ufually called the wings, are 
nothing more than the four interior toes' of the fore- 
feet, produced to a great length, and connected by a' 
thin menibrane j which extends alio to the hind legs ; 
and from them, to the tail : the firft toe is quite loofe, 
and ferves as a heel, when the bat walks j or as a 
hook, when it would adhere to any thmg. The 
hind ittt are difengaged from the membrane, and 
divided into five toes, furnillied with pretty ilrong 
claws. The memjbranes are of a duflvy color : the 
body is covered with fhort fur, of a moufe-color, 
tinged with red. The eyes are very fmall : the 
ears like thofe of the moufe. 

This fpecies of bat is very common in England: it 
makes its firft appearance early in the fummer, and 
begins its flight in the dufk of the evening : it princi- 
pally frequents the fides of woods, glades, and fhadv 
walks \ and is alfo frequently obferved to flvim ak')ng 
the furface of pieces of water, in quefc of gnats and 
infedls : thefe are not its only food ; for it will eat 
meat of any kind that it happens to find hanging up, 
in a larder. 

The bat brings only two you n£; at a time; which 
it fuckles from two tears placed on the bread, like 
thofe of the human race : for this reafbn, Limt^us has- 
claiTed this animal in the fame order wirh mankind ; 
and has honored both, with the common title of P/v- 
mcHSi or chiefs of the creation. 

\ I Towards 

ii6 LONG-EARED BAT. Clafs I. 

Towards the latter end of fummer, the bat retires 
info caves, ruined buildings, the roofs of houfes, or 
liollow trees •, where it remains the whole winter, in a 
ilate of inadion ; iufpended by the hind feet, and 
clofely wrapped up in the membranes of the fore- 

The voice of the bat is fomewhat like that of the 
moufe ', but very low, and weak. Ovid takes notice 
both of that, and the derivation of its Latin name. 

Lucemque perofae 
Nodle x'olame, feroque tenenc a vefpere nomen. 

Minimam pro corpore vocem 
Emittunt peraguiitque levi Itiidore querelas. 

Met. lib. iv. 10. 


Edw. a'u. 201. f. 3. Vefpertilio auritus. Lin.fyfi. 47. 

Alh.\\\. Tab. 101. V. auritus, nafo oreque fimplici. 

La perice chauve fouris de notre auriculis duplicacis, capkema* 

pays. BriJTon quad. 160. joribus. Faun, Suec. 3. 

L'oreillar. Dc Buffon^Tom. vm. Br. Zoo/. ^6. 

118. 127. Tab. 17. f. I, 

THIS fpecies is much inferior in fizc to the for- 
mer : the length being only an inch and three 
quarters ; and the extent of the fore-legs feven inches. 
The principal diftindion, between this and the com- 
mon kind, is the ears ; which in this are above an inch 
Jong, very thin, and alm.oil tranfparent : within each 
of ihcfe is a IclTcr ear, or at leaft a membrane refem- 
blingone; which, as Mf. Ed-wards obferves, may pof- 
fibly itrve ns a valve to cloie the largerj in the lleeping 
i;u'.e of tliis animal. 

Clafs II. 

t 117 ] 



Div. I. Land Birds. 
II. Water Birds. 

Divifion I. 

Strong hooked bills and claws .--^ Genus P'^gs 

the bafe of the former covered / 


with a naked ftiin or cere: the f j Hawks 
firft joint of the middle toe con- I 
necled to that of tlie outmoft by i 
a membrane ----- J 

Strong hooked bills, no cere: the! 

outmoft toe capable of being! jj q^j^ ^ 

turned back, and doing the office f * -*-^ 

of a hind toe - - - _ _ J 

Strong bills hooked at the end, no! 

cere: the outmoft toe clofely {-ttt t> »„u„t,',.T,. .,<« 
connected to the middfe toe as r 
far as the firft joint - - — J 

•I Strait 

[ lis ] 

rait ftrong bills; noftrils covered > 
with briftles reHeaed down " 
cutmoft Eoe clofdy connefled 

^ to the middle toe as far as the 
firft joint --____ 

-Strong, ftrait, angu- 
lar bill ; long cy- 
lindric tongue 
ten ft iff feathers 
in the tail - 



l^oes difpofed 
two forwards, y 
two backwards 

Weak fmooth bill j' 
long cylindric 
tongue : ten flex- 
ible feathers in the 
tail - - - 

tongue : ten fea- 
thers in the tail . 

IV. Cifows 166 

V. Wood- 
peckers 176 

VI. Wryneck i8]| 

VIL Cuckoo 182 

Strait triangular bill 

horny at the end and jagged 

^^''^°"g"^>]viir. Nuthatch 185 

Strait ftrong bill : tongue fhort and't 
fharp pointed : three lower joints I 
of the oucmoft toe clofely con- f 
nedled to the middle toe - - J 

IX. KingfifiieriSy 

Weak ilender hooked bill 
feathers in the tail - - 


X. Creeper 193. 

Slender hooked bill : ten feathers in ' 
the tail: very fccrt triangular 
tOHPue ------_, 

XL Hoopoe 195 

Bill ilio-htlv bent; twelve feathers In! 

the tail: tongue cloveri at the > XII. Chough 197 

?ad ---=.----3 


[ 1^9 1 

Short arched bills : outmoft and in-"| 
ner toes connefted to the flrft I 
joint of the middle toe by a fnnall f 
membrane ----- , J 

XIII. Grous 

Strong bill a little incurvated : no} yiv R ft /^ 
back toe '------ i 



Weak ftrait bills ; noftrils lodged in 
a tuberous naked fkin : toes divi- 
ded to their origin - - - . 

Strait- bills a little bending at the 
point : a fmall notch near the 
end of.^he upper mandible : out- 
mofc toe adhering as far as the 
firft joint 10 the middle toe - 

Strait bill, a little comprefied - - 

rVfeak bills: very long' 
cla-w to the hind 
toe - - - 

Short weak bills ; ve- ' 
ry wide mouths : , 
fmall weak leo-s . 


Slender ureak bills : " 
fhort cbvW to the , 
back toe - - 

Small birds - "^ Very ftrong thick 

bills - - - -. 

Stronp; conic bills - 

XV. Pigeons 216 

XVI. Thru(hes223 

XVII. Stare 231 
XVIIL Larks 233 

XIX. Sv/allows24:} 

XX. Slender 

billed birds 254 

XXII. Finches 303 

Conic bills, with a"] 
hard knob in the f^-yv 
roof of the upper 
mandible - 

XXIII. Buntings 31S 

Short {Irong bills ; 1 

tonguererminated > XXIV Titmice 324 
y«'ith briflles - - j 

* I 2 Divifion 

"I 120 1 

Divifion IL 
: WAT E R-B I R D S. 

Sedion I. With cloven Feet, 
II. With finned Feet, 


III. With webbed Feet. 

Genus. Pag^-. 

Very long legs and necks: ftrait, i t ij 

ilrong, and fliarp pointed bills j^ * S6^ 

Slender, long^ and incurvated bills II. Curlews 346 

Slender, long, and ftrait bilk - -? III. Woodcocks 348 

Shortj flender, and ftrait bills - - I Y. Sandpipers 360 

Strait bills : no back toe - - « V. Plovers 376- 

Shortflender bill, {lightly incurvated, I ttj t> -i o^ 

toes divided to the origin - - j ' 

^hort thick bills; the bafe of the-j 
-. upper mandible produced fori tttt tit ^ i. o^- 

feme fpace up the forehead ; toes \ VII. Water h^as 386 
divided to the origin - - - J 


3tF^Uv ^epder rnd weak bills ; toes-^ r^jTr c^ ,. , 

furniflied with fcalloped mem- C '. ^j . "" 

1 1 *ib9 J 

Short thick bills, with a callus ex-' 

irt thick bills, with a callus ex- "1 
tending up the forehead; toes f iy P * 
furnished on their fides with | ^^- '^•^°" 39^ 
broad fcalloped membranes - J 

Strait, flrong, fharp pointed bills i"^ 

toes furniflied on their fides I 5f p U 

with broad plain membranes j f" ' ^^ ^^ 393 

no tail -------J 


Long, flender, and comprelled bill i YT a r ** 

turned upwards - - - - j" * ^ 399 

No back toe - - * -- * - *• XII. Auks 401 

Strong, ftrait, fiiarp pointed bills XIII. Divers 41^ 

Strong bills hooked at the end ; an "^ 

angular knob on the lower man- C XIV. Gulls 416 
dible ; narrow oblong noftrils J 

Strait, flender, fharp-pointed bills : 7 yu" T » 

forked tails ----- -| ^^- "^ ^''"^ 425 

Strong bills hooked at the end ; t 

tubular nofliils: fharp procefs C XVI. Petrels 431 
inftead of the back toe - - j 

Long flender bills hooked at the-) vTrrr ^ /> j 
ends, and the edges furnifhed C XVII. Goofanders 
with numerous fmall teeth - \ 43° 

Flat broad bills - -' •- - - - XVIII. Ducks 440 

Each of the four toes conne6led by ") -vrrv o \ ^ n 

'""^■^J^m'^^'^l^''- . ^.- - _/ fXIX.Corvorants476 

* 1,;^ Explanation 

'{ *IIO ] 

Explanation of fome technical Terms iii 
Ornithology ufed in this Work, and by 


i. Cere. 


The naked fkin that covers 
the bafe of the bill in the 
haivk kind. 

2. Capijlrum 

3, Lorusn 

Crhit^ Orhita: 

5. -Emarginatum 

6. Vibrijpz 

Bqflard zvif;g. 


A word ufed by Linn^us to 
exprefs the fhort feathers oa 
the forehead juft above the bill. 
In Crows thefe fall forwai'd over 
the noftrils. 

The fpace between the bill 
and the eye generally covered 
with feathers, but in fome birds 
naked, as in the black and 
white Grebe. 

The ficin that furrounds the 
eye, which is generally bare, 
particularly in the Heron and 

A bill is called rojlrum imar- 
ginatum when there is a fmall 
notch near the end : this is con- 
fpicuous in that oi Butcher-birds 
and Thrujhes. 

Vibrijpe pe£imata, friff hairs 
that grow on each fide the- 
mouth, formed like a double 
comb, to be feen in the Goat- 
fucker, Flycatcher^ he. 

A fmall joint rifing at the 
end of the middle part of the 
wing, or the cubitus ; on which- 
are three or live feathers. 

8. Lejer 

[ *JJI 1 

Lejpr coverts of the wing!. The fmall feathers that lie 

Te^ricei prima in feveral rows on the bones of 

the wings. The under coverts 

are thoie that line the infide of 

the wings. 

^e^ric'es The feathers that lie imme- 
diately over the quil-feathers 
and feccndary feathers. 

Primores The Jargeft feathers of the 
wings, or thofe that rife from 
the Hrll bone. 

9, Greater coverts 

lo. ^il-feathers. 

11. Secondary feathers. 


12. Coverts of the tad. 


13. Vent feathers. 

14. The tail. Reprices 

Se- Thofe that rife from the fe- 

Uro- Thofe that cover the bafe of 
the tail. 

Thofe that lie from the vent 
t<D the tail, Criffum Linnat. 

15. Scapular- feathirs 

16. Nucha 

17. Rojirum fubulatuM 

19. Pes fcavforins 

That rife from the (houlders 
and cover the fides of the back. 

The hind part of the head. 

A term Linnaeus ufes for a 
ilrait and llender bill. 

To fhevi^ the ftrudlure of the 
feet of the Kingffljer. 

The foot of the Woodpecke'r 
formed for climbing. 

20. Finned foot. Peslohatus, Such as thofe of the Grebes^ 

pinnatus &c. fuch as are indented as 

fig. 21. are called fcallopedi 

fuch are thofe of Coots and 

fcallop toed Sandpipers. 

11. Pes tridaBylus Such as v/ant the back toe. 

23. Semi-palmaied. Pes femi- When the webs only reach 
palmatus half way of the toes. 

*I4 ■ v,^;% 23J Unms 

14' Ungue pojlko fejftli 

i *U2 ] 

When the hind claw adheres 
to the leg without any toe, as 
in the Petrel:* 

25. Digitis 4 omnibus palma- All the four toes connected 
-; tis by webs as in the Corvorants, 

Explanation of other Linncean Terms. 

Roflrum cultraium 

Lingua cilia ta 



Pedes compedcs 

Nares Lineares 


When the edges of the bill 
are very fliarp, fuch as in that 
of the Crow. 

A bill with a nail at the end, 
as in thofe of the Goofanders 
and Ducks. 

When the tongue is edged 
with fine bridles, as in Ducks. 

When quite plain or even. 

When the tongue is long, 
round and flender like a worm, 
as that of the Woodpecker. 

When the legs are placed fo 
far behind as to make the bird 
walk with difficulty, or as if 
in fetters ; as is the cafe with 
the Auks J Grebes and Divers. 

When the noftrils are very 
narrow, as in Sea Gulls. 

With a rim round the nof- 
trils, as in the Stan, 

J?a^e *//«^>, 



yt^iu,^ j!„ 

ExPLAjfATiON or Tbohisttcal Terms 

JJaife ^t/O . 


I «ii3 } 



C A T A L O G U E 

O F 



English Names. 

p OLDEN Eagle 

^-^ Ringtail Eagle 

Sea Eagle 




Peregrine Falcon 

8 Grey Falcon 

9 Lanner 

10 Gofhawk 

11 Kite 

12 Common Buzzard 

13 Honey Buzzard 

14 Moor Buzzard 

15 Hen-Harrier 

16 Keftril 

17 Hobby 

18 Sparrow Hawk 

19 Merlin 

20 Long-eared Owl 

21 Short-€ared Owi 

British Names. 

Yr Eryr m€]yn 

Eryr tinwyn 

Eryr mawry mor. Mor Eryr 

Pyfg Eryr, Gwalclh y wdlgi 

Eryr cynffonwyn 

He bog chwyldro 

Hebog tramor. Camnalii 

Hebog. Gwakh 

Hebog gwlanog 

Hebog Marthiii 


Bod teircaili 

Bod y mel 

Bod y gwerni 

Bod tinwyn 

Cudyll coch. Ceinllefgocla 

Hebog yr Hedydd 

Pilan, Gwepia 

Corwalcho Llymyftsa 


luan ffornio^ 
uan eluftioo; 

• For the Britijh names we are indebted to that mc&st of ,tB« 
language,, Richard Morris^ Efqj of the Nvivy-ofHcc. 

22 White 

t *ii4 ] 

English Names. 

22 White Owl 

23 Tawny Owl 

24 Brown Owl 

25 Little Owl 

26 Great Butcher-bird 

27 Red-back'cl Butcher-bird 

28 Woodchat 

29 Left Butcher-bird 

30 Raven 

31 Crow 

32 Rook 

33 Royfton Crow 

34 Magpie 

35 hy 

36 Chatterer 

37 Jackdaw 

38 Green Woodpecker 

39 Greater Spotted Wood- 7 

pecker j 

40 Leller Spotted Wood- 1 

pecker \ 

41 Wryneck 

42 Cuckoo 

43 Nut- hatch 

44 Kingfifher 

45 Creeper 

46 Hoopoe 

47 Cornifli Chough 

48 Cock of the Wood 

49 Black Cock 

50 Grous 

51 Ptarmigan 

British Names. 

Dylluan wen 

Dylluan frech 

Dylluan rudd. Aderyn y cyrph 

Coeg Ddylluan 

Y Cigydd mawr 

Y Cigydd cefngoch 

Y Ci2;ydd glas 

Y Cigydd bach. Y Barfog 

Bran. Cigfran 

Bran dyddyn. Bran dyfyn 


Bran yr Iwerddon 

Piogen. Y Bi 

Piogen y coed 

Sidan gynffon 


Cnocceli y coed. Delof y derW 

Y Ddelor fraith 

Delor fraith leiaf 

Y Pen gam. Gwas y Gog 

Delor y cnau 
Glas y dorian 

Y Grepianog 

Y Goppog 

Bran big-coch 

Ceiliog coed 
Ceiliog du. Grugiar 
Ceiliog mynydd. Jar fynyddl 
Coriar yr Alban 

52 Par- 


English Names. 

52 Partridge 

53 Qy^^^ 

54 Buftard 

55 Common Pigeon 

56 Ring-dove 
52 Turtle 

58 Miffel-bird 

59 Fieldfare 

60 Ttiroftle 

61 Redwing 

62 Blackbird 

63 Ring-ouzel 

64 Water-ouze] 

65 Stare 

66 Sky-lark 

67 Wood-lark 

68 Tit-lark 

69 Lefler Field-larft: 

70 Red-lark 

71 LefTer Crefted-lark 

72 Grafshopper-lark 

73 Willow-lark 

74 Houre-fwaliow 

75 Martin 

76 Sand-martin 

77 Swift 

78 Goatfucker 

79 Nightingale 

80 Redftart 
Si Redbreaft 


"5 ] 

British Names, 

Petrifen. Coriar 

Yr Araf ehedydd 

Colomen fair. Turtur 

I Y Drefglen, Pen j Uwyn, 
I Crecer 
Cafeg y ddryccin 
Ceiliog bronfraith 
S Y Drefglen gocb, Socceii 
1 yr eira 
J Yr Aderyn du, 
I Mwyalcii 
Mwyalchen y graig 
Mwyalchen y dwfr 

jDrudwen. Drudwy. Y 
I Drydws 

Hedydd. Uchedjdd. Ehedydd 
f Hedydd y coed. Efgudo- 

f Coeg Hedydd. Cor He- 

I dydd 

Hedydd bach y cae 
Hedydd coch 
Hedydd cribog 
Gwich Hedydd 
Hedydd yr helyg 

GwennoL Gwenfoi 


Gwennol y glennydi 

Marthin du 

Aderyn y droell, Y Rhod^^r 


Rhawn-goch. Rhonellgoch 
Yf Hobi goch, Brcn-coch 
S2 BkckT 

[ *u5 j 


English Names. 

S2 Blackcap 

83 Petdchaps 

84 Fly-catcher 

85 Hedge-fparrow 

86 Willow Wren 
Golden-crefted Wren 

89 Wheat-ear 

go Whin-chat 

91 Stone-chatter 

92 Cold-finch 

93 White-th-oat 

94. White W acer-wagtail 

95 Yellow Water- wagtail 

96 Grey Water- wagtail 

97 Grofbeak 

98 Croisbill 

99 Bulfinch 
300 Sparrow 
lOi Greenfinch 

02 Goldfinch 

03 Chaffinch 

04 Erambling 

05 Mountain Sparrow 

06 Sifkin 

07 Linnet 

08 Greaterred-headedLinnet 
og Lefferred-headedLinnet 

10 Mountain Linnet 

11 Bunting 

12 Yellowhammer 

13 Reedfparrow 

J 4 Greater Bramhling 

15 Lcfier Brambling 

16 Great Titmoufe 

17 Blue Titmoufe 

British Names. 

Penddu'r brwyft 

Y Gwybedog 
Llwyd y gwrych 
Dryw'r helyg 
Yfwigw. SywidWo 

\ GynfFonwen 
Clochder yr eithin 
Clochder y cerrig 
Clochder y mynydd 

Y Gwddfgwyn 

{ Brith y fuches. Tinfigl yr 

1 gwys 

Brith y fuches felen 

Brith y fuches \v/yd : , 


Y Chwibanydd 
Aderyn y to. Golfan 
Llinos werdd. Y Gegid .; , 

Gwas y fierri. Peneuryn 

Bronrhuddyn ■■^-;Q a^i 

Bronrhuddyn y mynyddH r£i 

Golfan y mynydd Jon^ Sgl 

Y Ddreinioa: '^ *" '^r '' 

Llinos ben-goch fwyaf 
Llinos ben-goch leiaf :. 

J Llinos fynydd. Chrwiba* 
C nogl y mynydd . ;.: 

Bras y ddruttan. Etaty^^^i 
Llinos felen. Melynog'-Q d^i 
Golfan y cyrs ' " :. r 

Golfan yr eira 
Yr Oifan leiaf 

Y Benloyn fwvaf 
fY Lleian. ' 
1 dervsr 


118 Cole- 

I *ii7 1 

English Names. 

ji8 Colemoufe 

J 19 Marfh Titmoufe 

120 Long-tail'd Titmoufe 

British Names. 

Y Ben'oyn lyglivv 
Penloyn y cyrs 

Y Lleian gynffonhir 


21 /^Refted Heron 

22 Common Heron 

23 Bittern 

24 Great White Heron 

25 Curlew 
fi6 Whimbrel 

27 Woodcock 

28 Godwit 

29 Red Godwit 

30 LefTer Godwit 

31 Greenfhank 

32 Spotted Redfhank 

33 Snipe 

34 Jackfnipe 

35 Lapwing 

36 Grey Plover 

37 RufFe 

38 Knot 

39 Afh-colored Sandpiper 

40 Redfhank 

41 Spotrs-d Sandpiper 

42 Black Spotted Sand- 1 
- ^piper i 

43 1 urnftone 

44 Green Sandpiper 

45 Sandpiper 

46 Duiilii^ 
][47 Purre 

48 Sea Pie 

49 Norfolk Plover 
J 50 Green Plover 

i^l Long-legged Plover 

Cryr Coppog 

Cryr glas. Cryhyr cam 

Aderyn y bwa 

Cryr gwyn 

Coeg Ylfinhir 

Rhoftog coch 
Cwttyn du 
Coefgoch mannog 
Yfnid. Yfnittan 

Corniccyll. Cornchwigl 
Cwtiaid llv/ydion 
Yr Ymladdgar 

Y Cnut 

Y Pibydd glas 

Y Pibydd mannog 

Y Pibydd du mannog 

Huttan y mor 

Y Pibydd gwyrdd 
Pibydd y traeth 

Y Pibydd rhuddgoch 
Llygad yr ych 

Piogen y mor 

Y Glinbraff 
Cwtiaid yr aur 

J 52 Dottrel 

I *iiS ] 

Ekclish Name^-- 

152 Dottrell 
253 Sea Lark 

154 Sanderling 

155 Water Rail 

156 Small fpottedWater-hen 
357 Land Rail 

15S Common Water hen 

159 Grey fcollop - toed 7 

Sandpiper 3 

160 Red ditto 

161 The Coat 

162 Great crefled Grebe 

163 Githe: 

164 LefTer erefted Grebe 

165 White and dulliy Grebe 
366 Lit-tle Grebe 

British Name?, 

Mor Hedydd 
Llwyd y tywad 

(■ Cwtiar. Y Fronwen. Rhe-« 
C gen y dwfr 

Corddyfriar fannog. 

C Rhegen y rhyeh. Rhegea 

t yr yd 

fY Pibydd llwyd llydan- 

I droed 

Y Pibydd coch Ilydandraed 

Jar ddwfr feel 

Gwyacb gorniog. Tiadroed 
J G^A yach. Dowciar. Wii y 
1 wawch 
Gwyach glufttog 
Gwyach leiaf 
Harri gwlych dy big 


167 Avcfetta 

168 Great Auk 

169 Auk 

170 Black-billed Auk 

171 Puffin 
372 Little Auk 
573 Guillemot 

174. LeSer Guillemot 

175 Black Guillemot 

176 Great Northern Diver 

177 Clrey fpeckled Diver 
^78 Rcd-thvpated DiveT 

Pig mynawyd 

Y Carfil mawr 

Carfil. Gwalch y Penwaig 
Carfil gylfinddu 

Y Carfil bach 
Gwilym du 

Y Trochydd ma^vr 
Trochydd bach 

y Trochydd gwddfgoch 

179 Great 

[ *ii9 3 

English Names. 

179 Great black and white 7 
Gull } 

i8o Skua 
i8i Blaclc-tocd Gull 

182 AraicGull 

183 Herring Gull 

J 84 Brown and white Qull 

185 Winter Mew 

186 Common Gull 

187 Tarrock 

188 Pewit Gull 

189 Small brown Gull 

190 Greater Tern 

191 Lefler Tern 

192 Black Tern 

193 Fulmar 

194 Shear- water 
395 Little Petrel 

196 Goofander 

197 LefTer dun Diver 
J98 Smew 

199 Red-headed Smew 

200 Wild Swan 

201 Tame Swan 

202 Goofe 

203 White- fronted wild 


204 Bernacle 

205 Brent Goofe 

206 Eic-ir Duck 

207 Velvet Duck 

208 Scoter 
2og Tufted Duck 

210 Scai.'p Duck 

211 Gold=n»-eye 

212 Shieldrake 

213 Wild-duck 
ZIA. Shoveler 

British Namus, 

Gwylan ddu a gwyn 

Gwylan frcch 

Yr Wylan yfgafn 

Gwylan y gogledd 

Gwylan Benwaig 

Gwylan rudd a gwyn 

Gwylan y gweunydd 

Gwylan Iwyd. Huccati 

Gwylan Gernyw 

Yr Wylan benddu. Bran ymor' 

Yr Wylan fechan 

Yfor-Wennol fawr. Yigraean 

Y for-Wennol bach 
Yfgraean ddu 

Gwylan y graig 
Pwffingen Fan aw 
Cas gan Longwr 

Hwyad ddanheddog 
Trochydd danheddog 

Y Lleian wen 

Y Lleian benjjoch 

Alarch gwyllt Alarch llwyd 



Gwydd wyUt 

Gwyrain, BarnacI 
BarnacI fanyw 
Hwyad fv/ythblu 
Hwyad felfcdog 

Y for-Hvvyad ddu 
Hwyad goppog 
Llygad arian 
Llygad aur 

Hwyadyr cithin. Hwyad hziti\ 
r Hwyad wyllt. , Garan 
1 Hwyad. Cors Hwyad 

Hwyad lydanbig 


[ *I20 ] 

English Names. 

215 Red-breafted Shovelcr 

216 Pintail Duck 

217 Swallow-tail'd ShieI-7 

drake | 

218 Pochard 

219 Ferruginous Duck 

220 Grey-headed Duck 

221 Wigeon 

222 Gadwal 

223 Gargany 

224 Teal 

225 Corvorant 

226 Shag 

227 Gannet 

British Names. 

Hwyad fron-goch lydanbJg 
Hwyad gynffonfain 

Hwyad gynfFon gwennol 

Hwyad ben-goch 
Hwyad frech 
Hwyad benllwyd 

Y gors-Hwyad Iwyd 
Hwyad addfain 
Crach.«Hwyad. Cor-Hwyad 

Mulfran. Morfran 

Y Fulfran leiaf 
Gan. Gans 


22S Roller 

229 Nutcraker 

230 Rofe-colored Ouzel 

231 Crane 

232 Egret 

233 Little Bittern 

Y Rholydd 
Aderyn y cnau 

Y Fwyalchen goch 

Cryr coppog lleiaf 
Aderyn y bwn lleiaf 


Clafs II. BIRDS. 


Genus I. HAWKS. 

Species I. The GOLDEN EAGLE. 

Grand aigle royal. ^f/oK«T;,8g. Aquila Chryfaetos. Lin. fyji, 

AquilaGermana. Gf/«.«T^. i68. 125. 

Aquila, aguglia, Chryfaetos. Orn. Faun. Suec./p. 54. 

Jldr. I. 62. L'Aigledore. BriJJona-v. I. 431. 

Gnefios. Plinii lib. 10. r. 3. Golden eagle. Br, Zool. 61. 

The golden eagle. Wil. orn. 58. Tab. A. 

Aquila aurca, feu fulva. Rati Stein adler. Kram, 32^;. 

/yn. a'v. 6. 

THIS fpecles is found in the mountanous parts 
oi Ireland, where it breeds in the loftieft cliffs: 
it lays three, and fometimes four eggs, of which fel- 
dom more than two are prolific ; providence denying 
a large increafe to rapacious birds *, becaufe they are 
noxious to mankind ; but gracioufly bellows an al- 
moft boundlefs one on fuch as are of ufe to us. This 
kind of eagle fometimes migrates into Caernarvonjhlre^ 

* Tw yocjA-^mvp^^uv oXiyoToy.ct 'v^kvIcc. Arid. luft. an. 

K and 


and there are inftances, though rare, of their having 
bred in Snoiz'don hills-, from whence fome writers 
give that tradl the name of Creigiau'r eryrau, or the 
eagle rocks j others that of Creigiau'r eira, or the 
fnowy rocks : the latter feems the more natural epi- 
thet : it bein^ more reafonable to imao-ine that thofe 
mountains, like Niphates in Armenia^ and hnaus * in 
■Tartarj^ derived their name from the circumftance of 
being covered with fnow, vvhich is fure to befal them 
near the half of every year, than from the acci- 
dental appearance of a bird on them, once only in fe- 
veral years. 
Defer. The golden eagle weighs about twelve pounds ; its 
length is three feet ; the extent of its wings feven feet 
four inches; the bill is three inches long, and of a 
deep blue color ; the cere is yellow ; the irides of a 
hazel color : the fight and fenfe of fmelling are very 
acute: her eyes heboid afar off -^ \ the head and neck 
are cloathed with narrow fharp pointed feathers, and 
of a deep brown color, bordered with tawny; but 
thofe on the crov/n of the head, in very old birds turn 
grey. The whole body, above as well as beneath, is 
of a dark brown ; and the feathers on the back, are 
finely clouded with a deeper fhade of the fame : the 
wings, when clofed, reach to the end of the tail : the 
quil feathers are of a chocolate color, the fhafts 
white : the tail is of a deep brown, irregularly barred 
and blotched with an obfcure a(h color, and ufually 

* /»;««:— —incolarum lingua nivofum fignificante. Plin. lib. 6. 
r. 21. 

t 7°^ 39j 27. V/here the natural biftory of ths eagle is finely- 
drawn up. 



white at the roots of the feathers : the legs are yellow, 
fhort, and very flirong, being three inches in circum- 
ference, and are feathered to the very feet : the toes 
are covered with large fcales, and armed with moft 
formidable claws, the middle of which are two inches 

Eagles in general are very deftrudive to fawns. 
Iambs, kids, and all kind of game ; particularly in 
the breeding feafon, when they bring a vaft quantity 
of prey to their young. Smith, in his hiftory oiKerrv^ 
relates that a poor man in that county got a comfort- 
able fubfiftence for his family, during a fummer of 
famine, out of an eagle's nefl, by robbing the eaglets 
of the food the old ones brought, whofe attendance 
he protradled beyond the natural time, by clipping 
the wings and retarding the flight of the former. Ic 
is very unfafe to leave infants in places where eae;les 
frequent ; there being inftances in Scotland * of tv/o 
being carried off by them, but fortunately, 

Illaifum unguibus hsfit onus. 

the theft was difcovered in time, and the children re- 
itored unhurt out of the eagles nefts, to the affrighted 
parents. In order to extirpate thefe pernicious birds, 
there is a law in the Orkney ifles, which entitles any 
perfon that kills an eagle to an hen out of every houfe 
in the parifh, in which it was killed -f. 

Eagles are remarkable for their longevity ; and for 
their power of fuflaining a long abflinence from food. 

* Martins hift. Weji. Ijles, 299. Stb. hift. Scot. 14. 

t Camden's Brit. I. 1474. The impreffion of an eagle and 
child on the coin of the IJJe of Man, was probably owing to fome 
accident of this kind. 

K 2 One 

124 RINGTAIL EAGLE. Clafs If. 

One of this fpecies, which has now been nine years in 
the pofleffion of Oweji Holland^ Efq-, of Conway^ lived 
thirty-two years with the gentleman who made hirn a 
prefent of it •, but what its age was when the latter 
received it from Ireland is unknown. The fame bird 
alfo furnifnes a proof of the truth of the other remark, 
having once9 through the neglefl of fervants, endured 
hunger for twenty- owe days, without any fuftenance 


Golden eagle, with a white ring Faico fulvus. L'tn.fyji.iz^. 

about jiS tail. IPil. orn. 59. BriJJon a-j. I. 420. 

'Rail (yn. a^j. 6. Ring-tail Eagle. Br. Zool. 62. 
White tailed eagle. Ed'v). i. 

THIS bird is common to the northern parts of 
Europe and America-, that figured by Mr. Ed- 
wards, differing only in fome white fpots on the 
breaft, from our fpecies. It is equal in fize to the 
precedent : the bill is of a blackilli horn color ; the 
cere yellow •, the whole body is of a deep brown, 
nightly tinged with rufl color ; but what makes a 
long defcription of this kind unnecelTary, is the re- 
markable band of white on the upper part of the tail; 
the end only being of a deep brown : which charac- 
ter it maintains through every fiage of life, and in all 
countries where it is found. The legs are feathered 
to the feet : the toes yellow, the clav/s black. Mr. 
IVillougkhy gives the following very curious account 
of the neit of this fpecies, p. 21. 


" In theyearof our. Lord 1668, in the woodlands 

* near the river Derweni, in the Peak of Berbyjhirey 
' was found an eagle's nefl: made of great fticks, 
' refting one end on the edge of a rock, the other on 
' two birch trees ; upon which was a layer of rulhes, 

* and over them a layer of heath, and upon the heath 

* rulhes again ; upon which lay one young one, and 

* an addle egg ; and by them a lamb, a hare, and 
, ' three heath poults. The neft was about two yards 

* fquare, and had no hollow in it. The young eagle 

* was black as a hobby, of the (hape of a golhawk, 

* of almoft the weight of a goofe, rough footed, or 

* feathered down to the foot ; having a white ring 
' about the tail.' 

Mr. Willoughhy imagines, his firft pygargus, or 
white tailed eagle, p. 6i. to be but a variety of this, 
having the fame charaftcriftic mark, and differing 
only in the pale color of the head. 

The antients believed, ihat the pebble, commonly 
called the titles*, or eagle ftone, was formed in the 
eagle*s neft ; and that the eggs could not be hatched 
without its afliftance. Many abfurd ftories have 
bc;en raifed about this foffil, which (as it bears but an 
imaginary relation to the eagle) muft be omitted in a 
zoologic work. 

* If the reader's curioiity fhould be excited, we refer him for 
information to P/znj, lib. x. c. 3. lib. xxx. c. 21. to Boetius cU 
gemmiifTp, 375. to Dr. Woodixara^ catalogue off ci^ils, vol. i. p. 53. 
<• 268. 269. and Grevjs Rarities,^. 297. 

K 3 Species 

jiS SEA EAGLE. Glafs II. 

III. The SEA E A G L E. 

Bein-brecher, Offifraga, Meef- Raufyn. gu. 7. 

a-^^2r, Fifch-arn, Halisetos, Sea eagle. Dale'sHarivich,l<^(i, 

G^fner tvt;. 2C1. 203. Mariiris hij}. Wejt. ijle: 70. 

Halistos. Turneri_ Le grand ai^le de mer. Brijfon 

Auguiftabarbata, Offifraga. .-^/flV. a'v. i. 437. 

av.\. 118. Seaeagle. Br.Zool.6-^. 

Kalissetos. Plinii lib. \o. c. ^. Falco offifragus. Lin. fyji. 12^. 

Sib. hiJi.Scot. 14. QaafeorHo Brunnich 13. 

Seaeagle, or ofprey. /F?V. orH. 59. 

iHIS fpecies is found in Ireland^ and feveral 
parts of Great'Biiiain ; the fpecimen we took 
our defcripcion from, was fliot in the county of Gdl- 
way \ Mr. Willoughhy tells us there was an aery of 
them in JVhinfield-park^ Wefimorehnd \ and the eagle 
foaring in the air, with a cat in its talons, which Bar- 
low drew from the very faft which he faw in $tot- 
land*^ is of this kind. The cat's refiftance brought 
both animals to the ground, when Barlow took them 
up •, and afterwards caufed the event to be engraved 
in the thirty-fixth plate of his colIe6lion of prints. 
^'urnsr fays, that in his days, it was too well known ia 
England., for it made horrible deftrudion among the 
fiili J he adds, that fiihermen were fond of anointing 
their baits with the fat of this bird, imagining that it 
had a peculiar alluring quality : they were fuperfti- 
tious enough to believe that whenever the fsa eagle 
Covered over a piece of water, the fifh, (as if charmed) 
would rife to the furface with their bellies upwards ; 

* Mr. Wal^ole\ catalogue of engravers, p. 49. 


Clafsir. S E A E A G L E, 127 

and in that manner prefent themfelves to him. No 
writer fince Clufius has defcribcd the Tea eagle : though 
no uncommon fpecies, it feems at prefent to be but 
little known ; being generally confounded with the 
golden eagle, to which it bears fome refemblance. 
The colors of the head, neck and body, are the fame ^ -r* 
with the latter -, but much lighter, the tawny part in 
this predominating : in fize it is far fuperior : the 
bill is larger, more hooked, and more arched ; under- 
neath grow feveral fhort, but ftrong hairs or briftles, 
forming a fort of beard. This gave occafion to fome 
writers to fuppofe it to be the aqiiila harhata or bearded 
eagle of 'Pliny. The interior fides, and the tips of the 
feathers of the tail, are of a deep brown \ the ex- 
terior fides of fome are ferruginous, in others blotch- 
ed with white. The legs are yellow, ftrong and 
thick ; and feathered but little below the knees ; 
which is an invariable fpecific difference between this- 
and our firft fpecies. This nakednefs of the legs is 
befides no fmall convenience to a bird who preys a- 
mong the waters. The clav/s are of a deep and 
fhining black, exceeding large and ilrong, and hooked 
into a perfed: femicircle. 

All writers agree, that this eagle feeds principally 
on fifh ; which it takes as they are fwimming near the 
furface *, by darting itfelf down on them j not by 
diving or fwimming, as feveral authors have invented, 
who furnifh it for that purpofe with one webbed fooc 

* Martini fpeaking of what he calls the great eagles in the 
weftern ifles, fays, that they failen their talons in the back of the 
ii(h, commonly of falmon, which are often above water, or on the 

K 4 to 

I2S O S P R E Y. Clafsli. 

to fwim with, and another divided foot to take its 
prey with. Pliny\ with his ufual elegance, defcribes 
the manner of its fifhing. Supereji haliaetos^ clarijfima 
oculorum acie, lihrans ex alto fefe^ 'vifoque in mart pifce^ 
praceps in eo ruens^ et difcujfis pe^ore aquis rapi^ns. 

IV. The O S P R E Y. 

Une Orfraye. Belon. a^v. 96. Bald buzzard, or fea eagle. Rait 

Fifch-adler, Maffwy, Aquila ana- fyn. av. 16. 

taria, Clanga, planga, Perc- Filhing havvik. Catejhfs Carol. I. 

330S, Morphnos. Gefner. au. Tab. 2. 

196. ¥&\QQQy^Xi0^m . KleinSlem.Tab. 8. 

Halia^tus, feu aquila marina. Faico Ha!ia;tus. Lin. fyji. \z(). 

Gefner a-j. 804. Blafot, Fifli-orn. Faun. 

Ealbufhardus. "lurneri. 63. 

AuguiQa piumbina, Aquilaftro, Aigle de mer. Brijpm av. I. 440. 

Halia;tus, feu Morphnos. ysV^r. fab. 34. 

a'v.l. IC5. 114. The Ofprey. Br. Zaol. 6^. Tab. 

Halicetus. Caii opufc. %^. A. i. 

Bald Buzzard. IVit. orn. 6<^. Fiik-oern. Brumich, -^^ ^. 

"R. Ray places this bird among the hawks, in- 
ilead of the eagles, on a luppoficion that 
Mr. Willoughhy had exceeded in his account of its 
weight ; but as we had an opportunity of confirming 
the words of the latter, from one of this fpeciesjuft 
taken, we here reftore it to the aquiline rank, under 
the name of the Ofprey : which was the name it was 
known by in England above one hundred and fixty 
years ago ; as appears by Dr. Kay., or CaiusS defcrip- 
tion of it, who alio calls it an eagle. 

This bird haunts rivers, lakes, and the fea-fhores. 
It builds its nefl: on the ground among reeds, and lays 
three or four white eggs of an elliptical form ; rather 


ClafsII. O S P R E Y. 129 

lefs than thofe of a hen. It feeds chiefly on fiHi *, 
taking them in the fame manner as the Tea eagle does, 
by precipitating itfelf on them, not by fwimming ; its 
feet being formed hke thofe of other birds of prey, 
for the left is not at all palmated, as Limideus^ copying 
the errors of antient writers, afferts it isf. The 
Italians compare the violent defcent of this bird on 
its prey, to the fall of lead into water, and call it, 
Aumifia piumhina^ or the leaden eagle. 

The bird here defcribed was a female ; its weight Defer, 
was fixty-two ounces : the length twenty-three inches : 
the brea„dth five feet four inches : the wing when 
clofed reached beyond the end of the tail : that, as in 
all the hawk kind, confifts of twelve feathers ; the two 
middle feathers v/ere dufky : the others barred alter- 
nately on their inner webs with brown and white : 
on the joint of the wing next the body was a fpot of 
white : the quil feathers of the wings were black : 
the fecondary feathers and the coverts duflcy, the 
former having their interior webs varied with brown 
and white. The inner coverts white fpotted with 
brown. The head fmall and flat, the crown white 
marked v^ith oblong dull^y fpots. The cheeks, 
chin, belly and bread white, the lad fpotted with a 
dull yellow: from the corner of each eye is a bar of 
brown that extends along the fides of the neck point- 
ing towards the wing. The legs were very fhort, 
thick and flrcng : their length being only two inches 
and a quarter ^ their circumference two inches : their 
iiolor a pale blue ; the outward toe turns eafily back- 

* Turner fays it preys alfo on coots, and other water fowl. 
> .■! Pesfinifter fubpalniatus. Lin./yji, gi. No. 21. 


ISO O S P R E Y. ClafsII. 

ward, and what merits attention, the claw belong- 
ing to it is larger than that of the inner toe ; in which 
it differs from all other birds of prey, but feems pe- 
culiarly neceffary to this kind, for the better fecuring 
its (lippery prey : the roughnefs of the foles of the 
feet contributes to the fame end. The difference ia 
weight, and other trifling particulars, makes us ima- 
gine that the bird Mr. IFtlloughby faw v/as a male ; as 
the females of all the hawk kind, are larger, ftronger, 
and fiercer than the males -, the defence of their young, 
and the providing them food, refting chiefly on 

Thefe are the only fpecies of eagles that we can, 
from our own knowlege, pronounce to be Britljh ; 
but, from the authority of Sir Robert Sihhald^ and fome 
other writers, we fhall venture to add the figure and 
defcription of the bird we fuppofe to be their Erne, 
The account and drawing is taken from a fluffed fkin 
fent us from Norway, which we believe to have been 
the fame with the eagle that Sir Robert makes fyno- 
nymous to his fpecies. 




Jntilfla /jui>. 

ClafsII. ERNE, tst: 

V. The ERNE. Tal^. 5. 

Pygargus, or white tailed eagle. Pygargus hinnularius, an Erne. 

tVil. orn. 6r. Sib, Scot. 14. 

Raiifyn.a'v. J. Vulcur albiulla. Lin.fyjl. izi. 

Gamfen geyer. Kiam. ^26. 

IT is inferior in fize to the golden eagle : the beak, Defcf. 
cere and irides are ot a very pale yellow ; the fpace 
between that and the eyes bare, and of a bluifh color. 
The head and neck are of a pale afb color dallied 
with red, in fome lighter, in others darker. The body 
and wings of a deep brown, the quil feathers very- 
dark : the tail white : the legs feathered but little 
below the knees, and of a very light yellow. 

The bill of this is rather ilraiter than is ufual in the 
eagle, which feems to have induced Linnaus to place 
it among the vultures ; but it can have no claim to be 
ranked with that genus, for the pygargus is wholly 
feathered ; whereas, the charafleriilical mark of the 
vulture is, that the head and neck are either quite 
bare, or only covered with down. 

Befidesthis fpecies, Sihbald* mentions another kind 
found in Scotland^ under the name o^ inelainatos, or the 
black eagle. Martin -^ defcribes the fame fpecies, 
which he fays is fmall, but very defl:ru6live to deer; 
it will feize the deer between the horns, and by con- 
flantly beating it about the eyes with its wings, foori 
makes a prey of the haraffed animal. The fame 
writer fpeaks alfo of another kind of eagle of a large 

* Hiji. Scot, 14. t Biji. Wefi, IJIes, 37.70. 


132 FALCONRY. Clafs 11. 

fize and grey color, a great deftroyer of fhcep, 
lambs and fawns. Whether this is our Erne, we can- 
not determine from fo obfcure a defcription ; but we 
Matter ourfclves that fome commentator will arife to 
elucidate the works of thefe Scotijh naturalifts, who 
have dealt out their knowlege with fo fparing a hand, 
as to excite without fatisfying our curiofity. 


Falconry was the principal atpufement of our an- 
ceftors : a perfon of rank fcarce fiirred out v/ithout 
his hawk on his hand •, which, in old paintings, is 
the criterion of nobility. Harold, afterwards king of 
Engl^rJ, when he went on a moil important embaf- 
fy into Normandy, is painted embarking with a bird 
on his fill, and a dog under his arm * : and in an 
antient pidlure of the nuptials of Henry VI, a noble- 
man is reprefented in much the fame manner -f ; for 
in thofe days, It was thought fufficient fof noblemen's 
fens to winde their horn and to ' cjirry their hawk fair^ and 
leave jiudy and learning to the children of mean 'people \. 
The former were the accompliibments of the times 3 
Speufer makes his gallant Sir T'riftram boaft, 

Ne is there hauke which mantleth her on pearch. 
Whether high tovvring, or accoafting low. 

But I the mcafure of her flight doe fearch, 
And all her pray, and all her diet know ||. 

In fhort, this diverfion was, among the old Englifh^ 

* Monfaucon monumens de la monarchle fran^olfe^ I. 372. 
-j- Mr^WalpoWs anecdotes of faintingiY. 33. 
\ B'log. Brit, article CarAon. 
\ Boor VI. Canip z» 




the pride of the rich, and the privilege of the poor, 
no rank of men feems to have been excluded the a- 
mufement : we learn from the book of St. Albans'^, 
that every degree had its pecuHar hawk, from the 
emperor down to the holy water clerk. Vaft was the 
expence that fometimes attended this fport; in the 
reign oi James I. Sir l^homas Monfon -f is faid to have 
given a thoufand pounds for a caft of hawks : we are 
not then to wonder at the rigor of the laws that tended 
to preferve a pleafure that was carried to fuch an ex- 
travagant pitch. In the Q^A-^h oi Edward III. it was 
made felony to fteal a hawk : to take its eggs, even in 
a perfon's own ground, was punilhable v/ith imprifon- 
ment for a year and a day j befides a fine at the king's 
pleafure : in queen Elizabeths reign the imprifon- 
ment was reduced to three months \ but the offender 
was to find fecurity for his good behaviour for it-vzvi 
years, or lie in prifon till he did. Such was the en- 
viable ftate of the times in old England: during the 
v;hole day our gentry were given to the fowls of the 
air, and the beads of the field : in the evening they 
celebrated their exploits with the moil abandoned 
-and brutifh fottifhnefs : at the fame time the inferior 
rank of people, by the molt unjuft and arbitrary 
laws, were liable to capital punifhments, to fines, and 
lofs of liberty, for deftroying the mofi; noxious of the 
feathered tribe. 

Our anceftors made ufe of feveral kinds of native 
hawks ; though that penetrating and faithful natura- 

* A treatife on hunting, hawking and heraldry, printed at 
St. Jlbans by Caxtaji, and aUribuced to Dime Julian 2ar?::s. 
t Sir Ant. IVsldon^ coyrc of K. Janis}, 105. 


134 ' FALCONRY. 

lift Mr. Ray^ has left us only the bare name of a falcon 
in his lift of the EngUfD birds, without mentioning 
the fpecies : our own enquiries have not been attended 
with any great fuccefs ; our difcoveries only amount- 
ing to three kinds, to be defcribed hereafter j but ex- 
cept the Lanner^ none feem to have been noted a- 
mong the BritiJJo birds by any of our countrymen. 
The Falcon, Goiliawk, Lanner, Sacre, and the Gyr- 
falcon * are mentioned as natives, both in our old 
o-amelaw, and by feveral of our naturalifts. Cam- 
den -f alfo conjedures the fpecies which Henry II. fent 
for every year out of Pe?nbrokeJIjire^ to have been the 
Peregrine Falcon -.^ but notwithftanding, we do not 
find their names in Mr. Rafs lift, (which is our 
authority for things not feen by ourfelves) yet we 
doubt not but they ftill exift in thefe kingdoms, par- 
ticularly in Scotland, which produces many birds in 
common with Norway -, th's we difcovered in a large 
col! jftion of thofe of Scandinavia, prefented by Mr, 
Fleifcher oi Copenhagen : among which were fome of 
the falcon tribe that are ranked as Briti/h by our old 
writers. We may here take notice that the Norwegian 
breed was, in old times, in high efteem with our 
countrymien : they were thought bribes worthy a 
king. JeoffreyFitzperre gave two good Norway hawks 
to king John, to obtain for his friend the liberty of 
exporting lOO weight of cheefe : and John, the fon of 

• Burn's jujiice. Careiv^s hijl. Corn^va!/, 25. Sil'. hljl. Scot. i^. 
Memfspinax, 17O. 

f p. 758. — Girald. Catnhrenfuy 156. — Scotland., the Weft em I/Ies, 
the Orheys, and the Jjle of Man, have been much celebrated for their 
£ne breed of hawks. 



TKc CfmPALCOi^r. 

^ (mi 


Clafs II. G Y R F A L C O N. 135 

Ordgar^ fined to Richard I. in one Norway hawk, to 
o-ain the royal intereft in a certain affair *. 

Among the falcons, we owe to the generofity of 
Mr. Fleifcher, were two which we believe to be alfo 
natives of our own country ; and thefe we venture to 
defcribe and figure in this work as fuch, on the au- 
thorities above mentioned. 

VI. The G Y R F A L C O N. Tab. 4. 

LeGerfault. Belon av. 94. F. Iflandus albus. Brunnkh 7. 8, 

Gyrfalco. Aldr. av. I. 243. Le Gerfault. Brijon wu. I. 370. 

Jer-falcon. Wil. orn. 78. Bib. Scot. 14. 

Gyrfalco. Rail Jyn. av. i'^, Charlton Ex. '^x'j. 

HIS elegant fpecies is not much inferior in fize Defer. 
to the Ofprey. The bill is very much hooked 
and yellow ; the throat of a pure white : the whole 
plumage is of the fame color, but marked with dulky 
lines, fpots or bars. The head, bread and belly with 
narrow lines, thinly fcattered and pointing down. 
The wings with large heart-fhaped fpots ; the middle 
feathers of the tail with a few bars : the feathers on the 
thighs are very long, and of a pure white ; the legs 
yellow, and feathered a little below the knees. This 
kind is fometimes found quite white ; it was a bird 
in high efteem when falconry .was in vogue, and ufed 
for the nobleft game, fuch as cranes and herons. 

This is the Gyrfalco of all the ornithologifls except 
Linnaus^ whofe bird we are totally unacquainted with ; 
though '^he gives feveral of their fynonyms, his def- 
cription differs entirely from each of them. 

* Madix's Antiq. Excheq. 325. 332. 

^ Species 


Belona'v. 116. Sparviere pellegrino femmina. 

Falco peregrinus niger. JUr. Lorenzi a-u. tab. 24. 

a'v. I. 239. Le Faucon pelerin. BriJjGna<v. I. 

Blue backed falcon. C^<2r/. £';f. 73. 341. 
DitCO. Br. ZooL tab. A *. 5. 

THIS fpecies was fhot in Ncrthamptonjkire, and 
communicated to us by Mr. Grace, of Throg- 
morion Street. 
Defer. In fize it was eqqal to the moor-buzzard * the bill 
flrong, ftort, and very much hooked, armed near 
the end of the upper mandible with a very fharp 
procefs : blue at the bafe, black at the point. 

The feathers on the forehead were whitifh : the 
crown of the head black mixed with blue : the hind 
part of the neck black : the back, fcapulars, and 
covert of the wings, elegantly barred with deep blue 
and black. The quil feathers duiky, marked with 
elliptical white fpots placed tranfverfe : the tail barred 
with numerous firokes of dufky and blue: the throat 
white : the forepart of the neck, and upper part of the 
breaft white (lightly tinged with yellow, the laft 
marked with a few fmall dufky lines pointing down- 
wards. The reft of the breaft, the belly, thighs and 
vent feathers, white inclining to grey, and crofted 
with dufky ftrokes pointed in their middle. The 
tail confifts of feathers of equal length, finely and 
frequently barred with blue and black. The legs 
fhort and yellow. 

According to Signer Lorenzly this bird is the fe- 

ClafsII. GREY FALCON. 137 

male peregrine falcon: he has figured the nniale in his 
twenty-third plate, and made all its colors darker, 
and the upper part of the body and the head almofl: 
black. The fore part of the neck, the bread and 
belly agree with the female. 

We received, a few years ago, a young bird of 
this fpecies from the rocks of Llandidno in Caernar- 
'uonjhire. That promontory has been long famed for 
producing a generous breed of falcons, as appears by 
a letter extant in Gloddaeth library, from the lord 
treaftirer Burleigh to an anceftor of Sir Roger MojlyUy 
in which his lordfhip thanks him for a prefent of a 
fine call of hawks taken on thofe rocks, which be- 
long to the family. 


Br^ Zoology 65, 

THIS kind was fhot near Halifax 1762, and the 
following account tranfmitted to us by Mr. 
Bolton^ of JVorly- dough. This bird was about the fize Defer. 
of a raven : the bill was ftrong, fhort, much hooked, 
and of a bluifli color : the cere, and edges of the eye- 
lids yellow: the irides red: the head was Tmall, 
flatted at the top •, the fore part of a deep brown ; the 
hind part white : the fides of the head and throat 
were creme colored : the belly white, marked with 
oblong black fpots : the hind part of the neck, and 
the back were of a deep grey : the wings were very 
long, and whenclofed reached beyond the train : the 

L firft 

ijS L A N N E R. ClafsII, 

firft of the quil feathers were black, with a white tip; 
the others were of a bluilh grey, and their inner 
webs irregularly fpotted with white : the tail was 
long, and wedge fhaped •, the two middle feathers be- 
ing the longeft, were plain, (the color not men- 
tioned) the reft fpotted : the legs were long> naked, 
and yellow, 


The Lanner. Wil. orn. 82. Faico Lanarius. Lin.fyji. \ii^ 

Lanarius. Raiijyn. a'v. 15. Faun. Suec./p. 62. 


*HIS fpecies breeds in Ireland: the bird our 
defcription is taken from, was caught in a <^t- 
coy \n Lincohijhire^ purfuing fome wild ducks under 
the nets, and communicated to us by Taylor While 
Efq; under the name of the Lanner. 
Defer. It was lefs than the buzzard; The cere was of a 
pale greenifh blue : the crown of the head of a brov/n 
and yellow clay color : above each eye, to the hind 
part of the head, paiTed a broad white line ; and be- 
neath each, a black mark pointing down : the throat 
white : the breaft tinged with dull yellow, and marked 
with brown fpots pointing dov/nwards: the thighs 
and vent fpotted in the feme manner : back and 
coverts of the wings deep brown, edged with a paler : 
.quil feathers duflcy : the inner webs marked with 
oval ruft colored fpots : the tail was fpotted like the 

The legs (liort and ftrong, and of a bluiili cad, 
which Mr. Willonghby fays, are the charaders of that 


ClafsII. L A N N E R. 139 

bird. We are here to obferve, that much caution is 
to be ufed in defcribing the hawk kind, no birds be- 
ing (0 hable to change their colors the two or three 
firft years of their lives : inattention to this has 
canfed the number of hawks to be multiplied far be- 
yond the reality : the marks to be attended to as 
forming the charaders of the fpecies, are thofe on the 
quil feathers and the tail, which do not change ; ano- 
ther reafon for this needlefs increafe of the fpecies 
of this tribe of birds, is owing to the names given to 
the fame kinds in different periods of their lives, by 
the writers on falconry, which ornithologifts have 
adopted and defcribed as diftind kinds : even Mr. 
Ray has been obliged to copy them. The falcon, 
the falcon gentle, and the haggard, are made diftindt 
fpecies, whereas they form only one : this is explained 
by a French author, who wrote in the beginning of 
the lad century, and effectually clears up this point; 
fpeaking of the falcon, he tells us, '* S'il eft prins en 
" Jum, Juilkt & Aoujl^ vous le nommerez Gentil: 
*' fi en Septemhrey 05fobre^ Novemhre ou Decembre, 
*' vous le nommerez Pelkrin ou Pajfager : s'il eft 
" prins en Janvier, Febtirier et Mars^ ii fera nomme 
** Antenere : et apres eftre mue une fois ec avoir 
" change fon cerceau, non auparavant, vous le dires 
** Hagar, mot HebneUy qui fignifieeftranger *. 

* La faucomierie de Charles d' ArcuJJta feigneur i'Efparrony /- 1 4. 
tme e£f. Pari} 1607. 

X^ 2. Species 

I40 G O S H A W K, Chfs 11. 

X. The GOSHAWK, r^^. 5. 

Autour. Beion av. l 12. Railfyn. a'v. 18. 

Gefner an). 5. L'Aucour, Aftur. Brijfon av. I. 
AJdr.av. i. 181. 5517. 

Sil>. Scot. i^. Adore. Zifzan. 8j. 

Gofhawk.accipiterpalumbarius. Falcopalumbarius. £/«._/y/?. 130. 
Wi/. orn. 85. 

De cr. ^— |—A^£ gofnawk ts larger than the common buz- 
_j_ zard, but of a longer and more elegant form. 
The bill is blue towards the bafe, black at the tip : 
the cere a yellowiih green : over each eye is a white 
line •, and on the fide of the neck is a bed of broken 
white : the head, hind part of the neck, back and 
v/mo-s are of a deep brown color : the bread and bel- 
ly white, beautifully marked with numerous tranf- 
verfe bars of black and white : the tail is long, of a 
brownifh afn color, marked with four or five dufky 
bars placed remote from each other. 

This fpecies and the fparrow hawk, are diftin- 
ouilhed by Mr. IVillcughhy by the name of fhorr 
winged hawks, becaufe their wings, when clofed., fall 
fhort of the end of the taiL 

The gofhawk was in high efleem among falconers, 
and Hown at cranes, geefe, pheafants and partridges. 

XI. The 

The goshawk:. 

F. i4<y. 

J^^uJJo^ I 


ClafsII: KITE. 14, 

XI. The KIT E. 

LeMIlap royal. Be/on av. izg. Falco milvus, Lin. Jy/?. 126. 

Milvus. Gcfn. wv. 609. Glada. Faun. Suec. fp. 57, 

Glede, Puttok, Kyte Turneri. Le Milan royal, ^r/^owflo;. 1.414. 

Milvio, Nichio. Ald.a^. i, 201. Tab. 32. 

Kite, or Glead, Wil. orn. 744 Nibbio. Zinan. 82. 

Milvus. Plinii lib, x. c. 1 o. The Kite. Br. Zoo/. 66.Tai. A 2. 

Haiijfyn. a'v. ly. Glente. Bruanich ■^, 

Rother milon. Kram.iib, 

THE kite generally breeds in large forefts, or 
wooded mountanous countries : it lays two, 
or at moft three eggs: which, like thofe of all other 
birds of prey, are much rounded, and very blunt at 
the fmaller end ; they are white of color, and fpotted 
•with a dirty yellow : its motion in the air diftinguiflies 
it from all other birds ; being fo fmooth and even, 
as to be fcarce perceptible ; fometimes it Vv^ill remain 
quite motionlefs for a confiderable fpace ; at others 
glides through the fky, without the left apparent 
aflion of its wings : from thence is derived the old 
name of Glead, or Glede, from the ^axon Glida. 
Lord Bacon obferves, that when kites fly high, it 
portends fair and dry weather. Some have fuppofed 
thefe to be birds of paflage ; but in England they cer- 
tainly continue the whole year. 

The tail of this kind is fufficient to diftinguifh it 
from all other Britijh birds of prey, being forked. 
Pliny thinks that the invention of the rudder arofe 
from the obfervation men made of the various mo- 
tions of that part, when the kite was fteering through 

L 3 the 

142 KIT E; ClafsII. 

the air *. Certain it is that the moft ufeful arts were 
originally copied from animals •, however we may 
now have improved upon them. Still in thofe nations 
which are in a ilate of nature, (fuch as the Samoieds 
and Efqtiimcmx) their dwellings are inferior to thofe 
of the beavers, which thofe fcarcely human beings but 
poorly copy. 
Defer. The weight of this fpecies is forty-four ounces: the 
length twenty-feven : the breadth five feet one inch : 
the bill is two inches long, and very much hooked at 
the end. The cere yellow : the head and chin are of 
a Jight grey, in fome, white, marked with oblong 
Hreaks of black : the neck and breaft are of a tawny 
red, but the middle of the feathers black. On 
the belly and thighs, the fpots are fewer, and under 
the tail they almofl vanifh. The back is brown. 
The five firft quil feiithers are black : the inner webs 
of the others blotched with white : the coverts of the 
v/ings are varied with tawny black and white : the 
tail is forked, and of a tawny red : the outmoft fea- 
ther on each fide of a darker hue than the reft : the 
thighs are covered with very long feathers ; the legs 
are yellow and ftrong : the irides of a pale yellow. 

Thefe birds difi^er in their colors. We have feen a 
beautiful variety ihot in Lincolnjhire that was entirely 
of a tawny color. 

* lidem videntur artera gubernandi docuifle caudse fiexibus. I/i. 
ic. C. 10. 

XII. The 


XII. The Common BUZZARD, 

Le Bufe, ou Bufard. Be'hn a^v. Common Buzzard, or Puttock, 

100. Wil. orn, 70. 

Buteo. Ge/ner. a'v. /^6. Wald Geyer. Kram 2,'2-9- 

Bufharda Turneri. Falco buteo. Lin./yfi. izj. 

Buteo, feu Triorches. Jld. a'v. I. Quidfogel. Faun. Suec. /p. 60. 

I go. La Bufe. Brijfon a%i. I. 406. 

Triorches, Buteo. Plinii lib. io. Pojana, Zinan. 85. 

c. 7. Br. Zool. 66. Tab. A. 3. 

Raiijyn.a-v. 16. Oerne Falk. BrunnUh ^. ^. 

HIS bird is the commoneft of the hawk kind 
we have in England. It breeds in large woods, 
and ufually builds on an old crow's nefl, vv'hich it en- 
laroes and lines with wool, and other loft materials : 
it lays two or three eggs, which are fometimes wholly 
white ; fometimes fpotted with yellow. The cock 
buzzard will hat<:h and bring up the young, if the > 

hen is killed *. The young conforc with the old 
ones for fome little tim.e after they quit the neft ; 
which is not ufual with other birds of prey, who al- 
ways drive away their brood as foon as they can fly. 
This fpecies is very iluggifn and inadlive •, and is 
much lefs in motion than other hawks, remaining 
perched on the fame bough for the greatell part of 
the day, and is found at mod times near the fame 
place. It feeds on birds, rabbets, moles and mice ; 
it will alfo eat frogs, earth-worms and infeds. This -q^q^^ 
bird is fubjedl to fome variety in its colors : we have 

* Rafi Letters 352. 

L 4 Icen 


feen fome whofe breaft and belly were brown, and 
only marked crofs the craw with a large white cref- 
cent : ufually the breaft is of a yellowiili white, 
fpotted with oblong ruft-colored fpots, pointing 
downwards : the chin ferruginous ; the back of the 
head and neck, and the coverts of the wings are of a 
deep brown, edged with a pale ruft color : the fcapu- 
lar feathers brown ; but white towards their roots : 
the middle of the back is covered only with a thick 
white down : the ends of the quil feathers are dusky : 
their lower exterior fides alh-colored : their interior 
fides blotched with darker and lighter fhades of the 
fame : the tail is barred with black and afh-color : 
the bar next the very tip is black, and the broadeft 
of ail; the tip irfelf of a dusky white. The irides 
are white, tinged with red. The weight of this 
fpecies is thirty-two ounces : the length twenty-twp 
inches; the breadth fifty-two. 

XIII. The 


Xlir. The Honey BUZZARD. 

Le Golran, on Eondree. Behn Slag-hok. Faun. Suec. /p. 6^. 

a'v. lol. La Bondrec. Brijjhn a'v. i. 410. 

Ald.a'v. I. IQT. Zinan. 84. 

Honey-Buzzard. IVil. orn. 72. Br. Zool. 67. Tab. A. 4. 

Raiijyn. a'v. 16. A *. 4. 

Frofch-geyerl. ^raw. 331. Mufe-Hoeg, Mufe-Baage, ^/-aa- 

Falco Apivorus. Lin, Jyji. i^Q. nich ^. ^, 

THE weight of this fpecies is thirty ounces : the 
length twenty-three inches : the breadth fifty- 
two : the bill and cere are black ; the latter much I^^^^r. 
wrinkled : the irides of a line yellow : the crown of 
the head afh-colored : the neck, back, fcapulars, and 
covert feathers of the wings, are of a deep brown : 
the chin is white ; the bread and belly of the fame 
color, marked with dufky fpots pointing downwards. 
The tail is long, of a dull brown color, marked witli 
three broad dufky bars ; between each of which are 
two or three of the fame color, but narrower: the 
legs are fhort, ftrong, and thick : the claws large and 

After the publication of the Zoology., Mr. Plymly 
favored us with a variety of this fpecies, engraved in 
the additional plates of the Zoology., fuppofed to be a 
feniale, being fhot on the neft : it was entirely of a 
deep brown color, but had much the fame marks on 
the wings and tail as the male % and the head was tinged 
with a(h color. There were two eggs in the nefb, 
blotched over with two reds fomething darker than 
thofe of the keftril ; though Mr. Willcughly fays they 
are of a different color: that naturalift informs us, 
|;hat this bird builds its neft with fmali twigs, which 


146 MOOR BUZZARD. Clafs If. 

it covers with wool ; that its eggs are cinereous, 
marked with darker fpcts : as he found the combs of 
wafps in the neft, he gave this fpecies the name of the 
honey buzzard : he adds, that it feeds on the erucse 
of thofe infe6ls» on frogs, Hzards, ^c, and that it runs 
very fwiftly like a hen. 


Le fau-Perdrienx, Belcna^v. 1 14. Faico aruginofus. Lin. fyjl, 91. 

Circus Accipiter. Gefner av. 49, Hoenf-tjuf. Faun. Suec. /p. 66. 

Milvus seruginofus. ^Id. a<v. i, Pojana rolTa. Zinan. 83. 

203. Le Bufard de marais. ^n^w 
Moor Buzzard. Wil.orn. 75. a'v. \. 4.01. 

Raiifyn. a<v. 17. Hoenfe Hoeg. Brunnicb^. ^. 

Brauner rohr Geyer. Kram. 320. Br. Zool. 67. Tab. A. 5. 

THIS fpecies frequents moors, marfhy places, 
and heaths ; it never foars like other hawks j 
but commonly fits on the ground, or on fmall bufhes : 
it makes its neft in the midft of a tuft of grafs or 
rufhes : we have found three young ones in it, but 
never happened to meet with the eggs: it is a very 
fierce and voracious bird, and is a great deftroyer of 
rabbets, young wild ducks, and other water fowl. 
Defer. Its ufual weight is twenty ounces: the length 
twenty-one inches: the breadth four feet three inches: 
the bill is black, cere yellow ; irides of the fame 
color: the whole bird, head excepted, is of a choco- 
late brown, tinged with ruft color : on the head is a 
large yellowifh fpot ; we have feen fome birds of this 
kind with their head and chin entirely white ; the 
others again have a whitifli fpot on the coverts of 

* In fome places it is called the duck haijjL 


Clafs n. HEN-HARRIER. 147 

their wings ; but thefe are only to be deemed va- 
rieties. The uniform color of its plumage, and the 
great length and flendernefs of its legs, diftinguifnes 
it from all other hawks. 

XV. The HEN-HARRIER. "The Male. 
The RING -TAIL. "The Female. 

Jan le Blanc, ou Oyfeau Sain£l Wil. cm. 70. 

Martin. Belon a<v. 103. the Raiif-^n. aij ly. 

male. ^^^^ tl-iwk. Ec/-tx). 2z^. themak. 

tJn Autre Oyfeau Sainft Martin. Falco Pygargus, Falco Cyaneus, 

Bekn anj. 10 j\.- the female. le Faucon a Collier. Brijlon 

Subbuteo. Gejher a'v. 48. au. i. 345. the fem. 

Subbuteo Turneri. the female. Le Lanier ccndre. Bnjfon a^v. i. 

Rubetarius. the male. 365. the male . 

Lanarius albus. Jldr. av. i. Br. Zool. 68. Tab. A. 6. A. 7. 

157. Brunnich 14. 

THE male, or the hen-harrier, weighs about j^^^-, 
twelve ounces : the length isfeventeen inches; 
the breadth three feet three inches : the bill is black : 
cere, irides, and edges of the eye-lids yellow : the 
head, neck, back, and coverts of the wings, are of a 
bluifh grey : the back of the head white, fpotted 
with a pale brown : the breaft, belly, and thighs, are 
white : the former marked with a few fmall dufliy 
ftreaks : the fcapular feathers are of a deep grey, 
inclining to duflcy : the tvv'o middle feathers of the 
tail are entirely grey •, the others only on their ex- 
terior webs i the interior being white, marked with 


148 R I N G . T A 1 L. Clafs II: 

fome dulky bars: the legs are yellow, long and 

Defer. The female weighs fixteen ounces ; is twenty 
inches long ; and three feet nine inches broad : on 
the hind part of the head, round the ears to the chin, 
is a wreath of fhort ftiff feathers of a dusky hue, tipt 
with a reddifh white : on the top of the head, and 
the checks, the feathers are dulky, bordered with 
ruft color ; under each eye is a white fpot : the back 
is dufky j the rump white, with oblong yellowifh 
fpots on each fhaft -, the tail is long, and marked 
wich alternate bars of dufky and tawny ; of which the 
dusky bars are the broadeft ; the breall and belly are 
of a yellowifh brown, with a caft of red, and marked 
"with oblong dusky fpots : but we have met with one 
fpecimen that had thofe parts entirely plain. The 
legs in color and fhape refemble thofe of the male. 
Thefe birds fly very low, skimming the furface of 
the ground ; and are very deftrudive to our young 
poultry : they lay four eggs, befmeared over with 
red, a little white appearing here and there? 

XVI. The 

Clafs. 11. K E S T R I L: 149 

XVI. The K E S T R I L. 

La Creflerelle. Bdonav. 125. Windwachl, Rittlweyer, Wan- 
Gefner an). t,\. nenweher. Kram, ■^^i. 

Kiftrel, Kaftrel, or Steingal Falcotinnunculus. Z,/« ^^y?. 127. 

Turneri. Kyrko-Falk. Faun. Suec. fp.^x. 

jildr. av. 188. Kirke-Falk. Brunnich 4. 5. 

The Keftril, Stannel, Stonegall, Gheppio, Acertello, Gavinello, 

Windhover. Wil. orn. 84. Zinan. 88. 

JRaz/ /yn. a'v. 16. Br. Zaol. 68. plate A, 
La Creflerelle. Brijfon av. i. 393. 

/TT^HE male of this beautiful fpecies weighs only Defer, 

1 fix ounces and a half : its length is fourteen 
inches : the breadth two feet three inches: its colors 
at once diftinguifh it from all other hawks : the 
crown of the head, and the greater part of the tail, 
are of a fine Hght grey, the lower end of the latter is 
marked with a broad black bar : the tip is white : the 
back and coverts of the wings are of a purplifh red, 
elegantly fpotted with black : the interior fides of the 
quil feathers are dusky, deeply indented with white. 

The female weighs eleven ounces : the color of the 
back and wings are far lefs bright than thofe of the 
male : it differs too in the colors of the head and tail ; 
the former being of a pale reddifh brown, ftreaked 
with black ; the latter of the fame color, marked 
with numerous tranfverfe black bars : the breaft is of 
a dircy yellowifli white; and the middle of each 
feather has an oblong dusky flreak, pointing down- 

The keftril breeds in the hollows of trees, in the 
holes of high rocks, tov/ers and ruined buildings : is 


iSo H O B B Y. Clafslf: 

lays four eggs, of the fame color with thofe of the 
preceding fpecies : its food is field mice, fmall birds 
and infers; which it will difcoverat a great diflance. 
This is the hawk that we fo frequently fee in the air 
fixed in one place, and as it were fanning it with its 
wings ; at which time it is watching for its prey. 
When falconry was in ufe in Great-Britain, this kind- 
was trained for catching fmall birds and young 

XVII. The H O B B y. 

Le Hobreau. Belonwu. liS. Rati fyn. a'v. \^. 

Cefner anj.'j^.fcsm, Faico fubbuteo. Lin. fjfl, izj, 

Hobbia lurneri. Faun, Suec. /p. ^q. 

^falon. Aldr.a"j. \. 187. Barletta. Lorenzi anj. 45. 

The Hobby. Wil. orn. 83. LaerkeFalk. Brunnich 10. II» 
Le Hobreau, Dendro-fako. Brif- Br. Zool. 6(). plate A. g. 
/on a'v. i. 375. 

HIS bird was alfo ufed in the humbler kind 
of falconry ; particularly in what was called 
daring of larks : the hawk was caft off; the larks 
aware of their moll inveterate enemy, are fixed to the 
ground through fear; which makes them a ready 
prey to the fowler, by drawing a net over them. 
Mr. M^illoiighhy fays that the hobby is a bird of paf- 
Defcr. fage ; but that it breeds in England. The male 
weighs feven ounces : the length is one foot ; the 
breadth two feet three inches : the crown of the head 
and back are of a deep bluifh black : the hind part 
of the head is marked with two pale yellow fpots ; 
each cheek with a large black one pointing down- 
wards: the coverts of the wings are of the fame color 



with the back, but (lightly edged with ruft color: 
the interior webs of the fecondary and qui! feathers, 
are varied with oval tranfverfe reddifh fpots : the two 
middle feathers of the tail are entirely of a deep dove 
color : the others are barred on their interior fides 
with ruft color, and tipt with a dirty white. The 
fpots on the breaft of the female are of a higher color 
than thofe of the male : it is greatly fuperior in fize, 
its legs have a tinge of green, in other refpedls it re- 
fembles the former. 


L'Efpervier. Eehn an;. l2l» Rail/yn. a'v. i8. 

Gefner av. 51. Kram- 332. 

Sparhauc Turneri. Falco nifus. Lin. fyji. i-^o. 

Accipiter fringillarius, fparvlero. Sparfhoek. Faun. Suec.fp. 69- 

Aldr. an;, i. 183. Spurre-hoeg. Brunnich f. 5. 

Wil. orn. 86. Br. Zool. 69. plate A. so<. 
L'Epervier, accipiter. Brijfon A. 1 1 . 

av. i. 310. 

TH E difference between the fize of the male 
and female fparrow hawks, is more difpro- 
portionate than in moft other birds of prey ; the for- 
mer fometimes fcarce weighing fii^e ounces, the latter 
nine ounces : the length of the male is about twelve Defer, 
inches, the breadth twenty- three : the female is fifteen 
inches long -, in breadth twenty-fix. 

Thefe birds, as well as the hawk kind in general, 

vary greatly in their colors ^ in fome, the back, head, 

coverts of the wings and tail, are of deep bluilh grey ; 

in others of a deep brown, edged with a rufty red : the 

* quil 


quil feathers are dusky, barred with black on their 
exterior webs, and fpotted with white on the lower 
part of their inner webs : the tail is of a deep afh color 
marked with five broad black bars, the tip white : 
the breaft and belly are of a whitifh yellow, adorned 
with tranfverfe waved bars ; in fome of a deep brown 
color, in others orange : the cere, irides, and legs 
yellow. The colors of the female differ from thofe 
of the male : the head is of a deep brown -, the back, 
and coverts of the wings, are dusky mixed with dove 
color ; the coverts of the tail of a brighter dove color •, 
the waved lines that crofs the breaft, are more nu- 
merous than thofe on that of the male ; and the breaft 
itfelf of a purer white. 

This is the moft pernicious hawk v/e have -, and 
makes great havoke among pigeons, as well as par- 
tridges. It builds in hollow trees, and large ruins, 
and in high rocks : lays four white eggs, encircled 
near the blunter end with red fpecks. Mr. Willoughhy 
places this among the fhort-winged hawks ; or fuch 
whofe wings, when clofed, fall fnort of the end of th.e 

XIX. The 

Clafs IL M E R L I N. 15^ 


L'Efmerillon. Belon a<v. \\%, Ralifyn. av. 15. 

w^falon. Gefmraij, A^\. L'EmeriUon. Brijfon av. 1. o^^z, 

Merlina Turneri. Smerlio, o Smeriglio. Zorf«x;/«i/. 
Smerlus, Smerillas, Aldr. m). i. tab. 18. ig. 

187. Br. Zool 70. plate A. 12^ 
Wih orn, 85. 

THE Merlin weighs near five ounces and a half: Defer, 
its length is twelve inches, its breadth twenty- 
five. The bill is of a bluifh lead color : the cere of 
a lemon color : the irides very dark, almoft black : 
the head is ferruginous, and each feather is marked 
with a bluifh black flreak along the fhaft : the back 
and wings are of a deep bluiOi afh color, adorned 
with ferruginous flreaks and fpots, and edged with 
the fame : the quil feathers are almoft black, marked 
with reddiih fpots : the under coverts of the wings 
brown, beautifully marked with round white fpots : 
the tail is five inches long, crofTed with alternate 
bars of dusky and reddifh clay color : on fome of the 
the feathers of the fame bird are thirteen, on fome 
fifteen : the breaft and belly are of a yellowifli v/hite, 
marked v^ith oblong brown fpots pointing down- 
wards : the legs yellow : the wings when clofed 
reach within an inch and a half of the end of the 
tail. This and the preceding kind were often 
trained for hawking : and this fpecies, fmail as it is, 
was inferior to none in point of fpirit : it was ufed 
for taking partridges, which it would kill by a fingle 

* Merglarias j quia merulaj infeflatur. Skinnsr, 

M ilfokc 

154 MERLIN. Clafs I!. 

ftroke on the neck. The Merlin flies low, and is 
often feen along roads fides, skimming from one 
fide of the hedges to the other, in fearch of prey. 

It was known to our Britifro anceftors by the name 
of LJamyfden ; was iifed in hawking ; and its neft was 
valued at twenty-four pence. They made ufe of four 
other fpecies, but have left us only their names; the 
Hehcg or Hawk^ whofe nefl was eftimated at a pound j 
the Gwalch\ or Faukon^s at one hundred and twenty 
pence ; the Hwyedig's or long winged^ at twenty-four 
pence ; and a fpecies called Cammin or crooked hill, at 
four pence. The Fenhebogyd or chief falconer , held 
the fourth place at the court of the F/elch prince ; but: 
notwithftanding the hofpitality of the times, this 
ofRcer was allowed only three draughts out of his 
horn, leaft he Ihould be fuddled and negled his 
birds *. 

* LegeiWdUcdS, 253. 25, 



Genus IL OWL S. 


Species L The LONG EARED OWL. 

L'Hibou cornu. Belon av. 136. Le moyen Due ou le Hibou. 

Gefner an). 635. Briffon av, i. 486. 

Aiio, feu- otus. Jldr. a<v. \. 265. Horn-uggla. Faun.Suec. fp. 7I, 

The horn Owl. Wil.orn, xoo, Haffelquiji itin. Z':,'^. 

Raiifyn. a^v^ 25. Horn Ugle. Brunmch 16. 

Noftua aurita. Sib. Scot, i^, Horn-eule. ^raw;. 323. 

Strixotus. Lin./yfi* 132. Br. Zool. Plate B. 4. f. i. 

THIS fpecies is found, though not frequently, 
in the north of England^ in Chejhire and in 
Wales : the weight of the female, according to Mr. Defo 
JVilloughby^ (for we never had opportunity of weigh- 
ing it) is ten ounces : the length fourteen inches and 
a half: the breadth three feet four inches : the if ides 
are of a bright yellow : the bill black : the circle of 
feathers furrounding the eyes is whine tipt with reddifh. 
and dufky fpots, and the part next the bill black : the 
breafl and belly are of a dull yellow, marked with 
flender brown ftrokes pointing downwards : the thighs 
and vent feathers of the fame color, but unfpotted. 
The back and coverts of the wings are varied with 
deep brown and yellow : the quil feathers of the 
fame color, but near the ends of the outmoft is a 
broad bar of red : the tail is marked with dufky and 
reddifh bars, but beneath appears afli colored : the 

M 2 horns 


horns or ears are about an inch long, and confifi: of* 
fix feathers variegated with yellow and black : the 
feet are feathered down to the claws. 


Br. Zool. 71. Tab. B. 3. and B. 4. Fig. 2. 

THE horns of this fpecies are very fmall, and 
each confiils of only a fingle feather -, thefe ic 
can raife or deprefs at pleafure •, and in a dead bird 
they are with difficulty difcovered. This kind is 
fcarcer than the former; but like it is found in the 
mountanous wooded parts of our ifland : both are 
folitary birds, avoiding inhabited places. Thele 
fpecies may be called long winged owls •, the wings 
when clofed i-eaching beyond the end of the tail ; 
whereas in the common kinds, they fall fliort of it. 
refer. The length of the fliort eared owl is thirteen inches 
and a half : the head is fmall and hawk-like: the 
bill is dufl<:y : the circle of feathers that immediately 
furrounds the eyes is black : the larger circle white, 
terminated with tawny : the feathers on the head, 
back, and coverts of the wings are brown edged v/ith 
pale dull yellow : the bread and belly are of the fame 
color, marked with a few long narrow ftreaks of 
brown pointing downwards ; the thighs, legs and 
toes are covered with plain yellow feathers : the quil 
feathers are dufky, barred with red: the tail is of a 
very deep brown, adorned on each fide the fliaft of 


ClafsII. WHITE OWL; 157 

each feather with a yellow circle which contains a 
brown fpot : the tip of the tail is white. 

Befides thefe two fpecies of horned owls, we may 
add the great horn owl of Sir R. Sihbald, p. i^. 
found, according to his account, in the Orkneys : the 
great eagle owl has been once fhot in Torkjhire -, but 
we cannot, from thefe two inftances, determine 
yvhether they are natives of this kingdom, or only 
accidental wanderers out o( Scandinavia. This fhort 
eared fpecies we believe to be nondeCcript. 

III. The W H I T E O W L. 

Belon av. 1 43 *. Le petit Chat-huant. Brijfon an;, 
AViCo minor. Jidi: a'v.i. 2"] 2. i. 503. 

Common barn, white, or church Allocco, Zinan, 99. 

Ow!,Hovvlet, madge Howler, Strix flammea. Lin. Jyjl. i^'^. 

Gillihowter. Wil. cm. 104. Faun. Suec. 73. 

RatiJyn.a'V. 25. Br. ZooL 71. plate B. , 

THIS fpecies is almoft domeftic: inhabiting for 
the greateft part of the year, barns, haylofts, 
and other outhoufes ; and is as ufeful in clearing thofe 
places from mice, as the congenial cat : towards twi- 
light it quits its perch, and takes a regular circuit 
round the fields ; Ikimming along the ground in 
quefl of field mice, and then returns to its ufual re- 
fidence : in the breeding feafon it takes to the woods. 
The elegant plumage of this bird makes amends 
for the uncouthnefs of its form : a circle of foft white 
feathers furround the eyes. The upper part of the Defer. 

* This refers only to the figure, for his defcription means the 

M 3 body, 

15S TAWNY owl; Clafs it. 

body, the coverts andfecondary feathersof the wings 
are of a fine pale yellow : on each fide the fnafts are 
two grey and two white fpots placed alternate : the 
' exterior fides of the quil feathers are yellov/ ; the in- 
terior white, marked on each fide with four black 
fpots : the lower fide of the body is wholly white : 
the interior fides of the feathers of the tail are white t 
the exterior marked v/ith fome obfcure dufky bars : 
the legs are feathered to the feet : the feet are covered 
■with fhort hairs : the edge of the middle claw is fer- 
rated : the ufual weight of this fpecies is eleven 
ounces : its length fourteen inches : its breadth three 


\J\nlz. Ge/xer a'v. yy^, Strix ftridula. Lin.j^J. j^^, 

Strix. J/dr. a--v. i. 285. Skrik uggla. Faun. Suec. jj. 

Common brown or ivy Owl. Strix Orientalis, Hajelquijl itin, 

Wil. orn. 102. 213. 

Raiifyn. anj. 25. Nacht Eule, Gemeine. Kram, 

Le Chat huant. BriJJon av, \. 324. 

5 GO. _ Nat Ugle. Brunnich 18. 

Strige, Zina7z 100, Br. Zool. "jz. place B. 3. 

Pefcr. ^'1^ H E female of this fpecies weighs nineteen 
-L ounces : the length is fourteen inches : the 
breadth two feet eight inches : the irides are dusky : 
the ears in this, as in all owls, very large ; and their 
. fenfe of hearing very exquifite. The color of this 
kind is fuiHcient to diftinguifh it from every other : 
that of the back, head, coverts of the wings, and on 
the fcapular feathers, being a fine tawny red, ele- 
gantly jpotted and powdered with black or dusky 
fpots of various lizes : on the covertg of the wings, 
^ and 

Clafs II. B R O V/ N O W L, 159 

and on the fcapulars, are feveral large white fpots : 
the coverts of the tail are tawny, and quite free from 
any marks : the tail is vnrioufly blotched, barred 
and fpotted with pale red and black ; in the two 
middle feathers the red predominates : the bread 
and belly are yellowilli, mixed with white, and marked 
with narrow black ftrokes pointing downwards : the 
legs are covered with feathers dov/n to the toes. 

V. The B R O W N O V/ L, 

The grey Owl. Wil.orn. 103. Faun. Suec. 78. 

Raiijyn.a--v.26. Ug!e. Brunnich \c). 

La Hulote. BriJJhn a^j.l. t^oy. Br. Zool. 72, Plate B. I. 
StrixUlula. Lin./yji. i^T^. 

S the names this and the precedent fpecies bear 
do by no means fuit their colors, we have taken 
the liberty of changing them to others more con- 
gruous. Both thefe kinds agree entirely in their 
marks ; and differ only in the colors •, in this the 
head, wings and back are of a deep brown, fpotted 
with black in the fame manner as the former : the Defer, 
coverts of the wings and the fcapulars are adorned 
with fimilar white fpots : the exterior edges of the 
four firft quil feathers in both are ferrated : the breaft 
in this is of a very pale afh color mixed with tawny, 
and marked with oblong jagged fpots : the feet too 
are feathered down to the very claws : the circle 
round the face is aili-colored, fpotted with brown. 
Both thefe fpecies inhabit woods, where they refide 
die whole day •, in the night they are very clamorous -, 
M 4 approach 

i6o LITTLE owl; Clafs II. 

approach our dwellings •, and Vv^ill frequently enter 
pigeon houfes, and make great havoke in them. 
Thefe breed in hollow trees, or ruined edifices ; lay 
four eggs of an elliptic form, and of a whitifh color, 

VL The L I T T L E O W L. 

La Cheveche, Belonav. 140, La petite Chouette, ou la Cheve? 
Noftua. Gefner a^. 620. che. Brijfon a'v.h. z^\/\.. 

Little Owl. /',?'z7. or». 105. Strix pafleiina. Lin.fyft. 133. 

Rait fyn. am. 26. La Civetta. Olina 65. 

Ed<tv. 228. Krak-Ugle. Brunnich 20. 

Tfchiavitl. Kram. 324. Br. ZooU 73. plate B. 5. 
Faun, Suec. 79. 

TFIIS elegant fpecies Is very rare in Ejighnd-, 
it is fometimes found in Torkjhire, Flintjhire^ 
and alfo near London : in fize it fcarcely exceeds a 
^^'^^' thruQi, though tiie fullnefs of its plumage makes it 
appear larger: the irides are of a light yellow : the 
bill of a paler color : the feathers that encircle the 
face are white, tipt with black : the head brown 
fpotted \yith white : the back, and coverts of the 
■wings are of a deep olive brown ; the latter fpotted 
with white : pn the breafl is a mixture of white and 
brown : the belly is white, marked with a few brown 
fpots : the tail is of the fame color with the back : in 
one fubje6t we faw, each feather was barred v/ith 
■white : in another, each was adorned with circular 
v.'hite fpots, placed oppofite one another on both fides 
the (haft : the legs and feet are coyered with feathers 
down to the claws. 

The Italians made ufe of this owl to decoy fmall 
birds to the limed twig : the me thod of which is 
exhibited in Olind's uccelHsra, p. 6c^, 





La grande Pie grlefche. Se/ofi Butcher Bird, Murdering Bird or 

av. 126. Skreek. Mer. Pincix lyo. 

Lanius cinereus. Gefner aru. 579, Cat. Carol, app. 36. 

Skrike, nyn murder, humeri. '^\^\x.J3iX. Mart. Nor thampt. 424. 

Lanius cinereus, CoUurio major. La Pie-grieiclie griie. Brijjon ay, 

Aldr. a-v. 1. 199. ii. H^- 

Caftrica, Ragaftola. Olina 41. PL enl. 32, f. I. 

Greater Butcher Bird, or Matta- Lanius excubitor. Lin.fjjl. xi^^. 

pefs ; in the North of England, Warfogel. Faun. Suec. 80. 

Wierangle. J'VU. om. 87. Dani/h Torn-Skade. Nor've^is 
Raii/m- a'v. 18. Klavert. Br. 21. Z2. 

Speralfler, Grigelalfter, Nean- Br-ZooL-ji. plate C. 

todter. Kram. 364. 

THIS bird weighs three ounces; its length is ten Defer, 
inches : its breadth fourteen : its bili is black, 
one inch long, and hooked at the end ; the upper 
mandible furniilied with a iliarp procefs : the noftrils 
are oval, covered with black briiiles pointing down- 
wards : the mufcles that move the b'll are very thick 
and ftrong -, which makes the head very large. This 
apparatus is quite requifite in a fpecies whole method 
of killing its prey is fo fmgular, and whofe manner 
of devouring it not iefs extraordinary: fmall birds it 
will feize by the throat and ilrangle * j which proba- 

1 » 

bly is the reafon the Germans call this bird Wurchangel 
or the fufFocating angel. When it has kiiJed the prey, 
which is birds or infedls, it fixes them on fome thorn^ 
and when thus fpitted pulls them to pieces with its 
bill : on this account the Germans call it Thorntrdtr 

* Ed-w, CI, iii. 233. f WiL cr,7. S7. 

i62 BUTCHER BIRD. Clafs 11. 

and 'Thornfreker. We have feen them, when confined 
in a cage, treat their food in much the fame manner, 
flicking it againft the wires before they would devour 
it. Mr. Edwards very juftly imagines that as nature 
has not given thefe birds (Irength fufficient to tear 
their prey to pieces with their feet, as the hawks do, 
they are obliged to have recourfe to this artifice. 

The crown of the head, the back, and the coverts 
that lie immediately on the joints of the wings are 
afii colored ; the reft: of the coverts black : the quil 
feathers are black, marked in their middle with a 
broad white bar j and except the four firft feathers, 
and the fame number of thofe next the body, are tipt 
with white : the tail confifts of twelve feathers of un- 
equal lengths, the middle being the longeft ; the two 
middlemofi: are black, the next on each fide tipt with 
white, and in the reft the white gradually increafes to 
the outmoft, where that color has either entire pof- 
feftion, or there remains only a fpot of black : the 
cheeks are white, but crofTed from the bill to the 
hind part of the head with a broad black ftroke : the 
throat, breaft and belly are of a dirty white : the legs 
are black. The female is of the fame color with the 
male, the breaft and belly excepted, which are marked 
tranfverfely with numerous femicircular brown lines. 

II. The 



La petite Pie ©riefche grife. Mart. Nonhampt. 424. 

Belon a'V. \z%. L'Ecorcheur, 5r^s« c'l;. ii 151. 

Lanius tertius. Jldr. aij.i. igg. Pl.enl. 31. f. 2. 

LeiTer Butcher Bird, called in Lanius collurio. Lin./yJI. x-^^G. 

Torkj^m Flalher. lVil.orn,%%. Faun. Suec. 8i. Tab/ii. f. 81. 

fp. 2. The male. 8g. /p. 3. Domgic^ul, Dorr.heher. Kram. 

x\\t female. 363. 

Raii Jyn. a'v. \Z, Bitferola, Ferlotta roiTa, Zinan. 
Z)fl»7)^Tornlkade. iWi'. Hant- 91. 

vark. Br. 23, Br. Zool. 74. plate C. i. 

TH E male weighs two ounces -, the female two Defer, 
ounces two drams. The length of the former 
is {tvexi inches and a half; the breadth eleven inches. 
The irides are hazel ; the bill refembles that of the 
preceding fpecies ; the head and lower part of the 
back are of a fine light grey : acrofs the eyes from 
the bill runs a broad black firoke ; the upper part of 
the back and coverts of the wings are of a bright fer- 
ruginous color; the bread, belly and fides are of an 
elegant blofTom color *, the two middle feathers of the 
tail are longed, and entirely black; the lower p:^rt of 
the others white, and the exterior webs of the out- 
moft feather on each fide wholly fo. 

In the female the firoke acrofs the eyes is of a red- 
difh brown •, the head of a dull rufi color mixed with 
■grey; the breafi:, belly and fides of a dirty white 
marked with femicircular dufi^y lines ; the tail is of 
a deep brown, the outward feather on each fide ex^ 
cepted, whofe exterior webs are white. 


s64 W O O D - C H A T. Clafs IT. 

Thefe birds build their nefts in low bufhes, and lay 
fix ecygs of a white color ; but encircled at the bigger 
end with a ring of brownifh red. 

III. The W O O D - C H A T. 

Lanius minor primus. Aldr. a-o, Dorngreul mit rother platten. 

1. 200. 

Kram- 363. 

Another fort cf Butcher Bird. La Pie griefche roulTe. Brifon 

Wtl. orn. 89. /p. 4. „,'''"■,"• V^7- 

The Wood-chat. Rati fyn. a<v. PI. enl 9. f. 2. 

,Q jp, 6. Buferola, Ferlotta bianca. Zinan* 
J^r. Zooi. 74. plate C. 2. Sg. 


H I S is one of the few Britijh birds that have 
elcaped our infpedion % therefore we are obli- 
cred to defcribe it from an elegant drawing by Mr. 
Defer. Edwards^ p refer ved in the Sloanian Mufeim. In fize it 
feems equal to the preceding : the bill is horn colored 1 
the feathers that furround the bafe are whitilhj above 
is a black line which is drawn crofs the eyes, and then 
downwards each fide the neck : the head and hind 
part of the necii are of a bright bay ; the upper part 
of the back duflcy : the coverts of the tail grey : the 
fcapulars white : the coverts of the wings dusky : 
the quil feathers black, marked towards the bottom 
with a white fpot : the throat, breaft and belly of a 
yellowilh white. The two middle feathers appear by 
the drawing to be entirely black : the exterior edges 
and tips of the reft white : the legs black. M. Brijfon 
defcribes the female thus : the upper part of the head, 
neck and body are reddifh, ftriated tranfverfely with 
ijrown : the lower parts of the body are of a dirty 



white rayed with brown : the tail is of a reddifli 
brown, marked near the end with brown and 
tipt with red. 


Left Butcher Bird. Edward av. tache, Parus barbatus. Brijfon 

55. anj. iii. 567. 

Bearded Titmoufe. jild. a-u. i. Parus biarmicus. Lin. fyfi. 342. 

tab. 48. Br. Zool. 74. plate C. 2. 
La mefange barbue, ou le mouf- 

THIS fmall fpecies is found in the marfiies near 
London : we have alfo feen it near Gloucejier. Ic 
is of the fame fhape as the long-tailed titmoufe; bun 
rather larger. The bill is fhort, flrong and very con- 
vex, of a yellow color : the head is of a fine grey ; 
on each fide the bill beneath the eye is a long trian- 
gular tuft of black feathers ; the chin and throat arc 
white : the middle of the breaft flefii colored ; the 
fides, thighs and vent feathers of a pale orange : the 
hind part of the neck, and the back are of an orange 
bay : the fecondary feathers of the v/ings are black 
edged with orange : the qui! feathers dusky on their 
exterior, white on their interior fides : the lefTer quil 
feaihers tipt with orange. The tail is two inches 
three quarters long: the two middle feathers of the 
tail are iongeft, the others gradually lliorten on each 
fide : the outmofc of which are of a deep orange color. 
The legs are black. 

The female wants the black mark on each cheek, 
and the fine flelli color on the bread : the crown of 
the head is ot a browniOi ruit color fpotced with black; 



i66 RAVEN. ClafsIL 

the outmoft feathers of the tail are black tipt with 
while. Thefe bird have all the charaflers of the 
burxher-bird ; fo, after the opinion of Mr, Edwards, 
we place them in that genus. 

Genus IV. CROWS. 
Species I. The RAVE N. 

LeCorbeau. Be/on av. iyg. Corvas corax. Lin. fyji. \r^^t 

Corvus. Gefner a'v. 334.. Korp. Faun. Suec. 85. 

Corvo, Corbo. J/dr. a-v. i. 343. Danijh Raun. iWt'. ICorp* 

Wil. cm. I2i. Br. 27 = 

Raiifyn.a'u. : g. Rab. Kram. ■j^'^'^. 

Le Corbeau. Bn[fon a'v, li. 8. Br. Zool. 75. 

HIS fpecies weighs three pounds ; its length 
Defer A ^^ ^^° ^^^^ ^'*^'^ inches ; its breadth four feet; 
the bill is ftrong and thick ; and the upper mandible 
convex. The color of the whole bird is black, finely 
gloffed with a rich blue ; the belly excepted, which is 

Ravens build in trees, and lay five or fix eggs of a 
pale green color marked with fmall brownifh fpots. 
They frequent in numbers the neighbourhood of great 
towns ; and are held in the fame fort of veneration 
as the vukures are in Egyp^^ and for the fame rea- 
fon ; for devouring the carcafes and fikh, that would 
otherwife prove a nufancc. A vulgar refpeft is alfo 
paid to the raven, as being the bird appointed by 
heaven to feed the prophet Elijah., when he fled from 

* HaJ/elquiJl itin. 23. 


ClafsIL CROW. 167 

the rage of Ahah *. The raven is a very docil bird« 
may be taught to fpeak, and fetch and carry. In 
clear weather they fly in pairs a great height, making 
a deep loud noife, different from the common croak- 
ing. Their fcent is remarkably good j and their life 
prolonged to a great fpace. 

II. The C R O W. 

La Corneille. Belon a'v. z^i. La Corneille. Bri/fon a'v. 12. 

Comix, (Krae) Gefner a-v. 320. Corvus corone. Lin.fyft.\^<^^ 

Cornice, Cornacchio.^/i3'r. flf. i. Faun. Suec. 86. 

369. Krage. Br. 30. 

Wil. orn. 122. Br. Zoo I. 75. 
Raiijyn. av. 39." 

THE crow in the form of its body agrees with 
the raven ; alfo in its food, which is carrion 
and other filth. It will alfo eat grain and infeds ; and 
like the raven will pick out the eyes of young lambs 
when juft dropped : for which reaibn it was formerly 
diilinguifhed from the rook, which feeds entirely on 
grain and infefts, by the name of the^(?r or gorecrow% 
thus Ben John/on in his Fox, a5l I. fcene 2. 

Vulture, kite. 
Raven and gpr-crovj, all my birds of prey. 

England breeds more birds of this tribe than any 
ether country in Europe. In the twenty-fourth of 
HenryYlW. they v/ere grown fo numerous and thought 
fo prejudicial to the farmer, as to be confidered an 
evil worthy parlementary redrefs : an a6l was paf- 

• I Kings 1 7, 


i68 ROOK. Clafslt 

fed for their deilrudion, in which rooks and choughs, 
were included. Every hamlec was to provide crow 
Tiers for ten years ; and all the inhabitants were obliged 
-at certain times to affemble during that fpace, to con- 
iult the propereft method of extirpating them. 

Though the crov^ abounds in our country, yet in 
Szveden it is fo rare that Linnaus mentions it only as a 
bird that he once knew killed there. 

It lays the fame number of eggs as the raven, and of 
the fame color : both thefe birds are often found white 
or pied ; an accident that befals black birds more 
frequently than any others. The crow weighs about 
twenty ounces. Its length eighteen inches : its 
breadth two htt two inches. 


La Graye, Grolle ou Freux. LaCorneilleMoiiToneufe. Brifon 

Beion ai). 2S3. a^. ii. 16. 

Cornix frugi%'ora.(Roeck)G?/'/7?r Roka, Faun. Suec. ^-j. 

a'v. 332. Spermologus, feufrugilega. Caii 
Aldr. a'v. i. 378. cpufc. 100. 

Wii. cm. iz-t,. Schwartze kran, Schwartze 
Raii/yn. arj. 39. krahe. Kram. 333. 

Corvus frugikgus. Z/k._/5>'^' 'S^' Br. Zool. 76. 

THIS bird differs not greatly in its form from the 
carrion crow : the fize of the rook is fuperior j 
but the colors in each are the fame, the plumage of 
both being q;lofred with a rich purple. But what dif- 
tincruiihes the rook from the crow is the bill ; the 
noftrils, chin, and fides of that and the mouth being 
in old birds white and bared of feathers, by often 


Ciafsir. ROYStONCROW. i6^ 

thrufting the bill into the ground in fearch of the 
eruc^ of the Dor-beetle * ; the rook then, inftead of 
being profcribed, fhould be treated as the farmer's 
friend ; as it clears his ground from caterpillars, than 
do incredible damage by eatirig the roots of the corn. 
Rooks are fociable birds, living in vaft flocks : crows 
go only in pairs. They begin to build their nefts in 
March •, one bringing tnaterials, while the other 
watches the neft^ left it IhoUld be plundered by its 
brethren : they lay the fame number of eggs as the 
crow, and of the fame colorj but iefs. After the 
breed in o- feafort rooks forfake their neft-trees, and for 
fbme time go and rooft elfewhere, but return to them 
in Ju^uji : in October they repair their nefts -f . 


La Cortieille emmantelee. Be/on La Corneille mantelee. Brijfon 

a^j. 285. a'v. ii. 19. 

Comix varia, Marina, Hyberna, Mulacchia cineri:iia, Monacchia, 

(Nabelfrae.) Gefner a'v. 332. Zinan. 70. 

Comix cinerea. Jldr. ai). i. 379. Corvus comix. Lm.fyft. 156. 

WiL orn. 124. Kraka; Faum Suec./p. 88, 

Raiifyn. a'v. 39. Grave Kran, KranveitI, Kram, 
Martin s Wejl. IJIes. 376. 333. 

tlodded CroWi Sib. Scot. 15. Br. Zoo/. 76. plate D. I. 
PL en/. 76; 

^TpHE bill of this fpecies agrees in {ha|Det;viththSt 
-*■ of the rook ; to which it bears gteat fimilitude 
in its manners ; flying in flocks, and feeding on infeds* 
In Great-Britain it is a bird of paflage : vifiting us in 
the beginning of winter, and leaving us with the 

* Scarabsus melo!»ntha= Lin.fyji, 3;i. 'Rofel % tab, i, tifi^ 
Goed. 265. 

t Calendar cf F/ora% 

If wood- 

i7o ROY ST ON CROW. Clafs It 

woodcocks. They are found in the inland as well as 
' maritimcpartsof our country ; in the latter they feed 

on crabs and f}:ielfirn. They breed in Sueden, and 
build in trees, commonly in alders ; and lay four 
eggs *. Belon, Gefner and AUrovand^ agree that this 
is a bird of paffage in their refpedive countries : that 
it reforts in the breeding feafon to high mountains, 
and defcends into the plains on the approach of winter. 
It breeds though in the fouthern parts oiGennany, on 
the banks of the Danube -f. 
Defer, The. weight of this fpecies is twenty-two ounces : 
the length twenty-two inches ; the breadth twenty- 
three. The head, underfide of the neck, and wings 
are black gloiled over with a Hne blue : the J^reafb 
belly, back, and upper part of the neck, are of a pale 
afh color : the irides hazel : the legs black, a.nd weaker 
than thofe of the rook. The bottom of the toes are 
very broad and flat to enable them to walk without 
finking on marfhy and muddy grounds, where they 
are converfant. We do not know that they breed in 
any of the Britijh idcs, except Shetland j being the 
cnly fort of crow found thsre. 

=* Faun. auec. /p. 88. 
t KrajT). 333. 

V. The 

ClafsIL MAGPIE. 171 


La Pie. Bek'n cv. 2gi. Gazza, Putta. Zlnan. 66. 
pica varia et caudau. G(/«<.Tfi-z/. Corvus Pica. Lin. fyji. \^j, 

69^. Skata, Skiura,Skara, Faaa.^a^r. 

Jldf. av. i. 392. fp. 92. 

The Magpie, or Pianet. Wil. £)««//^Skade, Huus SkadciVo^-'z;. 

om. 127. Skior, Tunfugl. Bruntiich ^z, 

Raii J]n. an;. 41. Alfter. Kram. 335. 

La Pie. Brijfcn ii. 35. ^r. Zw/. 77. place D. 2. 

^'HF^HE great beauty of this very common bird 
•^ was fo little attended to, that the editors of the 
Britijh Zoology thought fit to publifh a print of ic 
after a painting by the celebrated Barlow. The 
marks of this fpecies are fo well known, that it would 
be impertinent to detain the reader with the par- 

We fhall only obferve the colors of this bird : 
it's black, it's white, it's green, and purple, and the 
rich and gilded combination of glofTes on the tail, are 
at left equal to thofe that adorn the plumage of any 
other. It bears a great refemblance to the butcher- 
bird in its bill, which has a fharp procefs near the 
end of the upper mandible ; in the Ihortnefs of its 
wings, and the form of the tail, each feather fhorten- 
ing from the two middlemoft : it agrees alio in its 
food ; which are worms, infeds, and fmall birds. Ic 
will deftroy young chickens : it is a crafty, redlefs, 
noify bird : it builds its neft with great art, covering 
it entirely with thorns, except one fmall hole for ad- 
mittance : and lays fix or k^tn. eggs of a pale green 
color fpotted with brown. The magpie weighs near 

N 2 nine 

S72 JAY; ClafsH. 

nine ounces : the length is eighteen inches ; the 
breadth only twenty-four. 

VI. The JAY. 

Le Jay, Behn av. 289. Le Geay, Garrulns. Brijfon a'V', 

Pica gland aria. Ge/ner av. 700. ii. 47. 

j^/Jr.a'v.i.^g^. Allonfkrika, Koinfkrikj. Faun. 

Olina. 35. Suec.fp. go. 

Wil. orn. 130. Skov-fkade. Br. 33.. 

Raiifyn. av. 41. NufT-heher. Kram. 335. 

Ghiandaia. Zinan. 67. Br. Zool. 77. plate D. 

CoTvus-glandarius. L/>.^/^. 256. 

TH I S js one of the mod beautiful of the Britijh 
ijzizv. birds. The weight is between fix and feven 

ounces : the length thirteen inches ; the breadth 
twenty and a half. 

The bill is ftrong, thick and black •, about an inch 
and a quarter long. The tongue black, thin, and 
cloven at the tip : the irides white. The chin is 
white on each fide the bill : at the angle of the mouth 
are two large black fpots. The forehead is white 
ilreaked with black : the head is covered with very 
long feathers, which at pleafure it can ereft into the 
form of a creft : the whole neck, back, breafl: and' 
belly are of a faint purple dalhed with grey ; the 
covert feathers of the wings are of the fame color. 

The firft quil feather is black ; the exterior weba 
of the nine next are afli-colored, the interior v/ebs 
dufky : the fix next are black -, but the lower fides of 
their exterior webs are white tinged with blue ; the 
two next wholly black ; the laft of a fine bay color 
tipt with black. 


Oafs II. CHATTERER. 173 

The greater covert feathers are moft beautifully 
barred with a lovely blue, black and white : the reft 
a-re black : the rump is white. The tail confifts of 
twelve black feathers. The feet are of a pale brown: 
the claws large and hooked. It lays five or fix eggs 
of a dull white, mottled very obfcurely with pale 
brown. The young follow their parents till the 
fpringj in the fummer they are very injurious to 
gardens, being great devourers of peafe and cherries : 
in the autumn and winter they feed on acorns, from 
■whence the latin name. Dr. Kraraer * oblerves, that 
they will kill fmall birds. Jays are very docil, and 
may be brought to imitate the human voice : their 
native note is very loud and difagreablc- 


Garrulus Bohemicus. Ge/nerav. Phil. Tranf. No. 175. 

703. Ampelis garrulus. Lin.fyfi. 297. 

Aldr. av. I. 395. Sidcn Suantz, Snotuppa. Faun. 

Bohemian Chatterer. WU. orn. Suec.ff. 82. 

133. Sieden vel Sieben Suands. J5ra«- 

Silk Tail. Raii/yn. av. 85. mch 25. 

Ray''s Let(£rSf igS. 200. Zuferl, GeidenfchweifH. Kram. 

i,e Jafeur de Boheme, Bomby- 363. 

cilia Bohejajica. Brijfonaij.xu Br. Zool. yj. plate C, i. 


'nr^HE critical Faunijl-f may polTibly cenfure us 

-■' for admitting a native of Germany into a BritiJJj 

zoology ; but as we can plead the extreme beauty 

• Kram. elench. 335. 

■| Faunifts, are writers on the animals of particular countries : 

fuch is Linneeus, as author of the hiftory of the Snuedijh animals, to 

wiiich he eave the title of Fama Suecica : from one of the names 

^ N ^ - of 

174 CHATTERER. Clafs IL 

of this bird, and that it does fometimes (though very 
rarely) vifit the northern parts of England in large 
flocks, we hope to be excufed introducing it here. 
The fubjeft we defcribe was killed on Flamborough- 
Defcr. ^^^^^'^ TorkJIoire, The length was eight inches : the 
bill fhort, thick and black : the end of the upper man- 
dible furnilhed with a fmall procefs : the bale of the 
bill is covered with black feathers, which pafs over 
each eye to the hind part of the head : the head is 
adorned with a long ILarp pointed creft reclining 
backward, afn- colored mixed with red : the cheeks 
are tawny : the back is of the fame color with the 
cred, but darker : the rump afh-colored : the throat 
is black, and in the middle is a fmall tuft of briftles: 
the breaft and belly are of a pale chefnut dafhed with 
purple : the vent feathers a bright bay : the lower 
part of the tail is black, the end of a rich yellow : the 
feathers are of an equal length, as in the jay, to which 
it fcems to have great affinity : the leffer coverts of 
the wings are brown, the greater black tipt with 
white : the quil feathers are black ; the ends of the 
three firfl white; the fix next have near half an inch 
of their outer margin edged with a fine yellow j and 
that of the inner with white, fo as to form an L. But 1 

what diftinguifhes this from all other birds are the 
horny appendages frorii the tips of feven of the lefler 
quil feathers, that have the color and glofs of the bed 
red fealing wax. The legs are fhort and black. 
Writers who have had better opportunities of exami- 
ning this fpecies than we have, fay that the male has 

of C\h!e, who under that charafter was faid to favor all living 


Clafs II. J A C K - D A W. ff^ 

feven of thefe appendages, the female only five * ; that 
they live in the woods, and feed on juniper and oriier 
berries -f-. This bird is alfo found \r\N{)rth America \ 
thofe figured by Mr. Catejl>y^ and again by Mr. Ed- 
wards J, feem only to be varieties of our kind. 

VIII. The J A C K - D A V/. 

Chouca, Chouchette, oa Chou- Mulacchia nera. Zlnan. 70. 

etre. Belon a^v. 286. Corvus monedula. Lin fyji, 156. 

Gracculus, feu monedula. Geftier Kaja. Faun. Suec.fp. 89. 

a-v. 5 z I . Dauijh Alike. Nor-v . Kaae , Kaye, 

Jldr. a'v.i. 3S7. Raun Kaate, Raage. Br. 31, 

Wit. orn. 125. Tagcrl,Dohle,Tichockeil.iirr^A«. 

Raii Jyn. U'v. ^O. 334. 

Le Choucas, BriJJhn av. 24. Br. ZqoI. 780 

'HT^HE jack-daw weighs nine ounces: the length Defer. 

"■" thirteen inches : the breadth twenty-eight. The 
head is large in proportion to its body j which Mr. 
Willoughhy Tays argues him to be ingenious and crafty. 
The irides are white : the forehead is black .: the hind 
part of the head afh colored ; the breaft and belly of 
the fame color, but more obfcure : the reft of the 
plumage is black, flightly glofled with blue : the feet 
and bill black. It is a docil loquacious bird. 

Jack-daws breed in fteeples, old cailles, and in 
high rocks ; laying five or fix eggs : are gregarious 
birds ; and feed on infefbs. grain, and feeds jj. 

* Brunnich Ornith. Boreal. 

+ Kramer Blench. An. Aujlrla. 

J Cat. Carol, i. 46. Bdiv, za.2. 

\\ The caryocatac\es, IFil. om. 132. E.irv. tab. 340. a bird of 

this genus, was Ihot near Mojlyn, FlintJJnre^ in Oclolir, 1753; 

fuppofed tu have ftragg,led from Germany, where tbry arc common, 

N4 and 




Le Pic mart. Pic verd, Pic jaulne. 

Belon. anj. 299. 
Gefner anj. 7 1 0. 
Picoverde, Aldr. av. i. 416. 
Green Woodpecker, or Wood- 

fpite ; called alfo the Rain 

Fowl, High Hoe, and Hew- 

hole. Wil. orn. I3y 
Jlaii fyn. av. 42. 
Le Pic verd. BriJJhn av. 4. g. 

Picus viridis. Lift. fyfl. I'l;. 
Wedknar, Gronfpik, Giong= 

joling. Faun, Suec. fp, 99. 
Hajfelquifi itin. Ter, San3. 29 1 . 
Girald. Cambrejis. 19I. 
Danijh & Nor'v. Groenfpet. Br, 

Grunfpecht. Kram. 334. 

Br. ZooL 78. plate E. 

y^'^HE wifdom of providence in the admirable 
' -A. contrivance of tlie fitnefs of the parts of ani- 
mals to their refpeflive nature, cannot be better illuf- 
trated than from this genus : which we fhall give- 
from the obfervations of our illuftrious countrymaq 

Thefe birds feed entirely on infers : and their 
principal aftion is that of climbing up and down 
the bodies or boughs of trees : for the firft purpofe 

ar.d the Roller, another bird of this clafs, was killed near Helflon^ 
hridgcs Corfinxiall, in the autumn 1766. It is alfo a native of Ger~ 
many ; and is far the moft beautiful of the European birds; as a^. 
acquaintance with thefe wanderers may be agreeable to our readers, 
we have given its figure as well as that of the former. ' The 
one is copied from Mr. Ed'wards', the Other from a drawipg by 
Failicu. Vide appendix. 

* B-aj on £ht creation, p. 143. 



they are provided with a long {lender tongue, armtd 
with a fliarp boney end barbed on each fide, which 
by the means of a curious apparatus of mufclcs* 
they can exert at pleafure, darting it to a great length 
into the clefts of the bark, transfixing and. drawing 
put the infefts that lurk there. 

They make their nefts in the hollows of trees : 
In order therefore to force their way to thofe cavities, 
their bills are formed ftrong, very hard, and wedge- 
like at the end ; Dr. Derham obferves, that a neat 
ridge runs along the top, as if an artifb had dcfigned 
it for flrength and beauty. 

Their legs are fhort, but ftrong ; their thighs very 
mufcular: their toes difpofed, two backwards, two 
forward : the feathers of the tail are very ftiff ; fliarp 
pointed and bending downwards. The three firii: 
circumftances do admirably concur to enable them to 
run up and down the fides of trees with great fecurity ; 
and the ftrength of the tail fupports them firmly 
when they continue long in one place, either where 
they find plenty of food, or while they are forming 
an accefs to the interior part of the timber. This 
form of the tail makes their flight very awkward, as 
it inclines their body down ; and forces them to fly 
with fhort and frequent jerks when they would afcend 
or even keep in a line. 

This fpecies feeds oftener on the ground than any 
other of the genus ; all of them make their nefls in 
the hollows of trees ; and lay five or fix eggs of a 

* i*li/.iranT, Marfin's tUiridg. III. p, 18 5. plate 3. 



Defer, beautiful femitranfparent white. This kind weighs 
fix ounces and a half. Its length is thirteen inches ; 
the breadth twenty and a half : the bill is dufky, tri- 
angular, and near two inches long : the crown of the 
head is crimfon, fpotted with black. The eyes are 
furrounded with black, beneath v/hich (in the males 
only) is a rich crimfon mark. The back, neck, and 
leffer coverts of the wings are green. The rump of 
a pale yellow. The greater quil feathers are dufky, 
fpotted on each fide with white. The tail confifts of 
ten llifF feathers, whofe ends are generally broken as 
the bird refts on them in climbing •, their tips are 
black : the reft of each is alternately barred with 
duflcy and deep green. The whole under part of the 
body is of a very pale green ; and the thighs and vent 
marked with dufky lines. The legs and feet are of a 
cinereous green. 


L'epeiche, Cul rouge, Pic rouge. Le grand Pic varie. Brijfon av. 

Belon a^j. 300. iv, 34. 

Picus varius, feu albus. Gefner Picus major. Lin.fyft. \j6. 

fioi. 709. GyWtntenndi. Faun. Suec. /p. 100. 

Greater fpotted Woodpecker, or Hakke-fpeet. Brtmnich ^o. 

Witwal, Wil. orn. i-i,-]. GrofTes Baumhackl. iTmOT, 336. 

Raiifyn.a'u. 43. Br. Zool. 79. plate E. 
Picchio. Zinan. 73. 

Defer. 'Tp HIS fpecies weighs two ounces three quarters ; 

■*• the length is nine inches : the breadth is fixteen. 

The bill is one inch and a quarter long of a black horn 

color. The irides are red. The forehead is of a pale 

buff color. The crown of the head a gloHy black. 

. , The 


The hind part marked with a rich deep crimfon fpot : 
the cheeks white ; bounded beneath by a black line 
that pafles from the corner of the mouth and fup- 
rounds the hind part of the head. The neck h en- 
circled with a black color. The throat and breaft are 
of a yellowifh white. The vent feathers of a fine 
light crimfon. The back rump and coverts of the 
tail, and lelTer coverts of the wings are black ; the 
fcapular feathers and coverts adjoining to them are 
white. The quil feathers black, elegantly marked 
on each web with round white fpots. The four mid- 
dle feathers of the tail are black, the next tipt with 
dirty yellow, the bottoms of the two outmoft black: 
the upper parts a dirty white. The exterior feather 
marked on each web with two black fpots j the next 
with two on the inner web, and only one on the other. 
The legs are of a lead color. The female wants that 
beautiful crimfon fpot on the head, in other refpe<fts 
the colors of both agree. This fpecies iis much more 
uncommon than the preceding ; and keeps altogether 
in the woods. 

ill. Iht 



Gefner o.'v. 709, Le petit Pic varie. BriJJon. av- 

Aldr. anj.'u /^\6. iv. 41. 

Lefler fpotted Woodpecker, or Faun. Suec. /p. 102. 

Hickwall.^. Hajfelquiji itin. z\Z. 

Haii/yn. nv. 43. Kleiner Baumhackl. Kram. 336. 

Picus minor. Lin.fyfi. 176. Br.Zool.-jo. plate E. 

♦T^HIS fpecies is the lefl: of the genus, fcarce 
Defer. weighing an ounce : the length is fix inches ; 

the breadth eleven. The forehead is of a dirty white : 
the crown of tiie head (in the male) of a beautiful 
crimfon : the cheeks and fides of the neck are white, 
bounded by a bed of black beneath the former. 
The hind part of the head and neck, and the coverts 
of the wings are black : the back is barred with 
black and white : the fcapulars and quil feathers 
fpotted with black and white : the four middle 
feathers of the tail are black -, the others varied with 
black and white : the bread and belly are of a dirty 
white : the vent feathers a bright crimfon : the crown 
of the head (in the female) is white ; it wants alio the 
red mark under the tail : the feet are of a lead color. 
It has all the characters and aflions of the greater 
kind, but is not fo often met with. Befides thefe, 
we are credibly informed that the Pic varie of M. 
BriJJon., and the Picus medius of Unnaus is found ii^ 


Oafs II. WRYNECK. ;i8r; 

Genus VI. The WRYNECK. 


Le Tercou, Torcou, ou Turcot. The Emmet Hunter. Charlton 

Belona'v. 306. ex. 93. 

Jynx. Gefner av.^jy. Jynx torquilla. Lin./yji. 172. 

JIdr. av. I. 421. Gjoktyta. Faun. Suec/p. 97. 

The Wryneck. WiLorn. 138. Bende-Hals. Br. 37, 

Raiifyn. a'v. 44. Natterwindl, Wendhalfs. Kram* 
Le Torcol, Torquilla. Brijfon 336. 

a^o. IV. 4. tab. i-Jig- !• Br.Lool. 80. plate F, 
Collotorto, verticella. Zinan. 72. 

NATURE, by the elegance of its pencilling the 
colors of this bird, hath made ample amends 
for their want of fpiendor. Its plumage is marked Defc: 
with the plained kinds. A lift of black and ferru- 
ginous ftrokes divides the top of the head and back. 
The fides of the head and neck are afh colored 
beautifully traverfed with fine lines of black and red- 
difh brown. The qui! feathers are dufky, but each 
web is marked with ruft colored fpots. The chin and 
breaft are of a light yellowilh brown, adorned with 
iharp pointed bars of black. The tail confiftsf of ten 
feathers, broad at their ends and weak ; of a pale afh 
color, powdered with black and red, and marked 
with four equidiftant bars of black. The tongue is 
long and cylindric : for the fame ufe as that of the 
woodpecker. The toes are alfo difpofed the fame 
way. The bill is iliorr, weak and a little arcuate. 
The irides are of a yellowifh hazel. 

The Wryneck we believe to be a bird of pafTage ; 


1^2 CUCKOO. Clafs IL 

appearing here In the fpring before the cuckoo. The 
Welffj confider it as the forerunner or fervant of that 
bird, and call it GiJvas y gog, or the cuckoo's atten- 
dant: the Szvedes regard it in the fame light *. The 
food of thefe birds is the fame with that of the wood- 
pecker. Its weight is one ounce and a quarter : the 
length feven inches ; the breadth eleven. It takes its 
name from a manner it has of turning its head back to 
the fhoulders ; efpecially when terrified : it has alfo 
the faculty of ered:ing the feathers of the head like 
thofe of the jay. Its eggs are white, and have fo thin 
a (hell that the yolk may be feen through it. This 
bird builds in the hollows.of trees, making its neft of 
dry grafs> in which we have counted nine young. 

Genus VIL The CUCKOO. 

Le Coqu. Belon ei'v. 132. Cuculus canorus. Lin.fyjl. l68. 

Cuculus. GrZ/jfrflx/. 362. Gjok. Faun.Suec./p. 96. 

Aldr.av. i. 20. Danijh Gjceg v. Kuk. Nor^v-. 
Cuculo. Olina 38. Gouk. Br. 36. 

Wil. orn. 97. Kuctuft. Kram. 337. 

Raiifyn. a'u. 23. £/-. Zool. 80. plate G. G. I. 
Le Coucou. BriJJon flf . IC5. 

'"T*^ HIS fingular bird appears In our country early 

•^ in the fpring, and makes the fhorteft (lay with 

us of any bird of pafTage ; it is compelled here, as 

* Jynx hieme non apparet, vere autem remigrans, cuculi, 3oft 
quatuordccem dies, adventum ruricolis annuntiat. Amaen* 
acad. iv. 584.. - . 


Glafs II. CUCKOO. 183 

Mr. Stillirigjleet obferves, by that condlcu'iion of the 
air which caufes the fig-tree to put forth its fruit *; 
From the coincidence of the firft appearance of the 
fumtner birds of paflage, and the leafing and fruiting 
of certain plants ; this ingenious writer would eftablifli 
a natural calendar in our rural csconomy ; to inftruft 
us in the time of fowing our moft ufeful feeds, or of 
doing fuch work as depends on a certain temperament 
of the air. As the fallibility of human calendars 
need not be infifted on, we muft recommend to our 
countrymen fome attention to thefe feathered guides, 
who come heaven-taught, and point out the true 
commencement of the feafon -f •, their food being 
the infeds of thofe feafons they continue with us. 

The cuckoo is filent for fome little time after his 
arrival : his note is a call to love, and ufed only by 
the male, who fits perched generally on fome dead 
tree, or bare bough, and repeats his fong, which he 
loofes as foon as the amorous feafon is over. In a 
trap, which we placed on a tree frequented by 
cuckoos, we caught not fewer than five male birds ia 
one feafon •, his note is fo uniform, that his name in 
all languages feems to have been derived from it ; and 
in all other countries it is ufed in the fame reproach- 
ful fenfe. 

the plain fong cuckoo grey, 
whofe note full many a man doth mark, 

and dares not anfwer nay. Shaksf^ear. 

* Calendar of Flora, qjid. Preface throughout. 
t In SiJoeden, which is a much colder climate than OUr OWn, the 
cuckoo does not appear fo early by near a month. 


'tU G U G K O O. Clafsrf. 

The reproach feems to arife from this bird making 
ufe of the bed or neft of another to depofit its eggs in ; 
leaving the care of its young to a wrong parent. 
A water-wagtail or hedge Iparrow, is generally the 
nurfe of the young cuckoos ; who, if they happeri 
to be hatched at the fame time with the genuine 
ofF-fpring, quickly deftroy them, by overlaying theni 
as their growth is foon fo fuperior. This want in the 
cuckooof the common attention other birds have t6 
their young -, feems to arife from fome defed in its 
make, that difables it from incubation j but what that 
is, we confefs ourfelves ignorant, referring the inquiry 
to fome fkilful anatomift. 
Defer. The weight ot the cuckoo is a little more than five 
ounces -, the length is fourteen inches ; the breadth 
twenty -five. The bill is black, very ftrong, a little 
incurvated, and about two-thirds of an inch long. 
The irides are yellow. The head, hind part of the 
neck, the coverts of the wings, and the rump are of a 
dove color •, darker on the head and paler on therumpa 
The throat and upper part of the neck are of a pale 
grey : the breaft and belly white, crofled elegantly 
with undulated lines of black. The vent feathers of 
a buff color, marked with a few dufky fpots. The 
wings are very long, reaching within an inch and a 
half of the end of the tail •, the firft quil feather is 
three inches fhorter than the others ; they are dufliVi 
and their inner webs are barred with large oVal white 
fpots. The tail confills of ten feathers of unequal 
lengths like thofe of the butcher bird : the two mid- 
dle are black tipt with white -, the others are marked 
with white fpots on each fide their Ihafcs. The legs 


Clafs IL NUTHATCH. 185 

are fhort ; and the toes difpofedtwo backwards and two 
forwards like the woodpecker, though it is never ob- 
ferved to run up the fides of trees. The female dif- 
fers in fome refpefls. The neck before and behind is 
of a brownifhred: the tail barred with the fame color 
and black, and fpotted on each fide the Ihaft with 
■white. The young birds are brown mixed with fer- 
ruginous and black, and in that ftate have been de- 
fcribed by fome authors as old ones. 



Le grand Grimpereau, le Tor- Le Torchepot, Sitta. BriJJhn a-v* 

chepot, Belon a<v. 304 iii. 51^8. tab, 29. fig. 3. 

Picus cinereus, feu Sitta. Gefner Picchio grigio, Raparino. Z/^i7«, 

a'v. 711. 74. 

Ziolo. Aldr. m}. i. 417. Notwacka, Notpacka. Fau?:, 

The Nuthatch, or Nut-jobber. Suec.fp. 104. 

Wil. orn. 142. Danijh Spoett-meire. tJor^^j. Nat- 

Rati fyn. a<v. 47. Bake. Br. 42. 

The Woodcracker. Blott's hijl. Klener, Nuflzhacker. Kram^ 

Oxf. 175. 362. 

Sitta Europasa. Lin.fyfi. 177. Br. ZcoL 81. plate H. 

HE nuthatch weighs near an ounce; Irs j^^r.j.^ 
length is five inches three-quarters ; breadth 
nine inches \ the bill is ftrong and ftrait, about three 
quarters of an inch long ; the upper mandible blacky 
the lower white : the irides hazel j the crown of the 
head, back, and coverts of the wings are of a fine 
bluiih grey : a black ftroke pafTes over the eye from 
the mouth : the cheeks and chin are white : the breaft 

O and 

i86 NUTHATCH. ClafsIL 

and belly of a dull orange color ; the quil-feathers 
dusky ; the wings underneath are marked with two 
fpots, one white at the root of the exterior quils ; the 
other black at the joint of the baftard wing ; the tail 
confifts of twelve feathers ; the two middle are grey ; 
the two exterior feathers tipt with grey, then fucceeds 
a tranfverfe white fpot y beneath that the reft is black 5 
the legs are of a pale yellow v the back toe very 
ftrong, and the claws large. 

This bird runs up and down the bodies of trees, 
like the woodpecker tribe ; and feeds not only on in- 
fects, but nut kernels ; it is a pretty fight, fays Mr. 
Willoughb)\ to fee her fetch a nut out of her hoard, 
place it fafl: in a chink, and then (landing above it 
with its head downwards, flriking it with all its force, 
breaks the fhell, and catches up the kernel : it breeds 
in the hollows of trees ; if the entrance to its neft be 
too large, it flops up part of it with clay, leaving 
only room enough for admiiTion : in autumn it be- 
gins to make a chattering noife, being filenc for the 
greateft part of the year. Dooior Plott tells us, that 
this bird, by putting its bill into a crack in the 
bough of a tree, can make fuch a violent found as if 
it v/as rending afunder, fo that the noife may be beard 
at left twelve fcore yard^ 




Le Martinet pefcheur. Belon av. Le Martin-pecheur. Brijfon av. 

218. iv. 471. 

Ifpida (Isfogel) Ge/ner av. ^yi, Piombino, Martino pefcatore, 

j^/Jf. G'v. iii. 200. Pefcatore del re. Zinan. \\t. 

Olina 39. 40* Isfogel. MuJ. Fr. ad. 16. 

Wil, orn. 146. Jis-fugl. Brunnich in Append. 

Rati fyn. a'v. 48. Meerfchwalbe. Kram, 337. 

PL enl. J J. Br, ZooL 82. plate I. 
Alcedo ifpida. Lin./yft. xyg. 

THIS bird weighs an ounce and a quarter ; Defc: 
its length is feven inches ; its breadth eleven : 
ks fhape is very clumfy, the head and bill being very 
large, and the legs difproportionably fmall : the bill 
is two inches long ; the upper mandible black, the 
lower yellow : the irides are red : the colors of this 
bird atone for its inelegant form : the crov/n of the 
head, and the coverts of the wings are of a deep 
blackifh green, fpotted with bright azure : the fca- 
pular feathers, and coverts of the tail are alfo of a 
mod refplendcnt azure: the whole underfide of the 
body is orange colored ; a broad mark of the fame 
palTes from the bill beyond the eyes; beyond that is 
a large white fpot : the tail is fhort, and confifts of 
twelve feathers of a rich deep blue : the ftzi are 
of a reddifh yellow : the three lower joints of the 
outmoft toe adhere to the middle toe : the inner toe 
adheres to it by one joint. 

The kingftllier frequents the banks of rivers, and 

O 2 feeds 

i88 kingfisher; ClafsII; 

feeds on fifh. To compare fmall things to great, it 
takes its prey after the manner of the ojprey, balan- 
cing itfelf at a certain diflance over the water for a 
confiderable fpace, then darting below the furface, 
brings the prey up in its feet. While it remains fuf- 
pendedin the air, in a bright day, the plumage ex- 
hibits a moft beautiful variety of the moft dazzling 
and brilliant colors. This ftriking attitude did not 
efcape the notice of the antients, for Ibycus^ as quoted 
hy Athejiieus, ftyles thefe birds ctAKyaj/gf Tfiivt/a-zTrTSfe/ *, 
the halcyons with expanded wings. It makes its neft 
in holes in the fides of the cliffs, which it fcoops to 
the depth of three feet •, and lays from five to nine 
eggs -j-, of a moft beautiful femi-tranfparent white. 
The neft is very fetid, by reafon of the remains of 
the fifti. brought to feed the young. 

This fpecies is the ahxvav aipav^, or mute halcyon of 
Ariftotle J, which he defcribes with more precifion 
than is ufual with that great philofopher : after his 
defcription of the bird, follows that of its neft, than 
which the moft inventive of the antients have delivered 
nothing tJiat appears more fabulous and extravagant. 
He relates, that it refembled thole concretions that are 
formed by the fea-water \ that it refembled the long 
necked gou.'-d, that it was hollow within, that the 
entrance v/as very narrow, fo that ft^ould it overfet 
the water could not enter -, that it refifted any violence 
from iron, but could be broke with a blow of the 

* P. 388. 

•J- Gef7ier fays he found nine young in one ncH, 

j tliji, cm. Sgz, 1050. 

hand 5 


hand ; and that it was compofed of the bones of the 
EiKovn or fea- needle *. 

Yet much of this feems to be founded on truth. The 
form of -the neft agrees mod exaiSlly with the curious 
accountof it that count Zinamii has favored us with f. 
The materials which AriftotU fays it was compofed of, 
are not entirely of his own invention. V/hoever has 
feen the nefi: of the kingnllier, will obferve it ftrewed 
with the bones and fcales of fifh-, the fragments of the 
food of the owner and its young : and thofe who de- 
ny that it is a bird that frequents the fea, muft not 
confine their ideas to our northern fhores ; but reflect, 
that birds that inhabit a fheltered place in the more 
rigorous latitudes, may endure expofed ones in a 
milder clime. Arijlotk made his obfervations in the 
eaft : and allows, that the halcyon fometimes afcen- 
ded livers ;|: ; pofiibly to breed : for v/e learn from 
Zinamii^ that in his foft climate, Italy^ it. breeds in 
May^ in banks of dreams that are near the fea •, and 
having brought up the firft hatch, returns to the fame 
place to lay a fecond time. 

On this foundation, the fucceeding writers formed 
feveral other tales equally abfurd •, and the poets, in- 
dulging the powers of imagination, drelTed the ftory 

* 1050. See alfo j^Uan. lib. ix. c. 17. Plin. lib. x. c. 32. 

t Nidifica egli nelle ripe degli acquidotci, o de piccol? torrenti 
vicino al mare, formando pero il nido nei fiti piu alti di dette 
ripe, acciocche I'efcrefcenza delle acque non pofTa infinuarfi nel di 
lui foro ; e fa egli detco nido incavaado internamente il terreno in 
tondo per la lunghezza di tre piedi, e riducendo il fine di detto foro 
afoggia di battello, tuttocoperto di fcaglie di pefci, che reftano 
vagaraente intrecciate ; ma forie non ibno cosi difpofte ad artej 
bensi per accidente. 

J A>«,?«ws» ^i TJ «7r* Try? TroT^p-y?. Hift. an. IO5O, 

O I in 

190 kingfisher; ClafsIL 

in all the robes of romance. This neft was a float- 
ing one ; 

Incubat halcyone pendentibus sequore nidis *, 
It was therefore neceiTary to place it in a tranqulj 
fea, and to fupply the bird with charms to allay the 
fury of a turbulent element during the time of its in- 
cubation •, for it had, at that feafon, power over thq 
feas and the winds. 

Tiv T£ toiov, 10V r evooii, o; scr^ara (pvy.ia Kti'si* 

A ?\KVQiS';, yT^xvy-uti; Nrfji^^J "ral ts yiocKiTCt 

0^'A^u)v i^'i^x^iy. Ibeccrit. Idyl. vii. 1. 57 f. 

Thefe birds were equally favorites with ^heHs as 

with the Nereids ; 

Diledffi Iketidl Halcyones. Virg. Georg. I. 399. 

As if to their influence thefe deities owed a repofe in 
the midft of the ftorms of winter, and by their means 
were fecured from thofe winds that difturbed their 
fubmarine retreats, and agitated even the plants at 
the bottom of the ocean. 

Such are the accounts given by the Roman and 
Sicilian poets, Arijlotle and Fliny tell us, that this 
bird is moft common in the feas of Sicily : that it fat 
only a few days, and thofe in the depth of win»ter ; 
and during that period the mariner might fail in full 
fecurity ; for which reafon they were ilyled, Uakyon 

* Ovid. Met. lib, xi. 

-}- May Halcyons fmooth the waves, and calm the feas. 
And the rough fouth-eaft fink into a breeze; 
Halgcr.s oi z\\ the birds that haunt the main, 
Moil lov'd and honor'd by the Nereid train. Faixihs. 

X J^rifi, hijl. an. 541. Plin. lib. X, c. 32. lib. xvili. c. 24. 
ii?^io;:iitt r,a?f«( of the former \ and dies hakymides of the latter. 

Pel que 



Perque dies placidos hiberno tempore feptem 
Incubat hakyofie Tper.dentihns gequore nidis : 
Turn via tuta maris ; ventos cuftod^t, et arcet 
^olus egreffu *. OwV, Met. lib. xi. 

In after times, thefe words exprcfied any feafon of 
profperity : thefe were the Halcyon days of the poets ; 
the brief tranquillity j t\iQ feptem pladdi dies of human 

The poets alfo made it a bird of fong : Virgil ^ttm^ 
to place it in the fame rank with the goldfinch ; 

Littoraque hakyonem refonant, & acanthida dumi. 

Georg. III. 3380 

And Silius Italictis celebrates its mufic, and its 
floating neft : 

Cum fonat halcyone cantu, nidofque natantes 

Immota geltat fopitis fludibus unda. Lib. XIV. 275^ 

But we fufpeft that thefe writers have transferred 
to our fpecies, the harmony that belongs to the njocd 
alcedoofzht phijofopher, km w (xh ^d-iyyzreHj Ka,^t^a,vH7<x, 
iTTi rcSv i'ovAK.m "f, which was vocal and perched upon reeds. 
Arijlotle fays, it is the leil of the two, but that both 
of them have a cyanean back J. Belon labors to 
prove the vocal alcedo to be the roiijferolk, or the 
greater reed fparrow y, a bird found in France and 
fome other parts of Europe, and of a very fine note : 
it is true that it is converfant among reeds, like the 

* Alcyone com^xeh''di. 
Seven days fits brooding on her watery oefl 
A wintry queen ; her iue at length is kind, 
Calms every ftorm and hufhes every wind. Dryden^ 

t Biji. an. 892. 

J Nwroi- y.voivBov, the color of the cyanus, or lapis lazuli. 
II Le RoulTerolle, Belon wo. 221. Le RoucheroUe, Brijfon a'v. ii. 
218. Greater reed fparrow, Wil.orn. 143. Turdus arundinaceus, 
Un'M'/p. 296, 

O 4 bir4 

192 KINGFISHER. Clafs II: 

bird dcfcribed by Arijlotle ; but as its colors are very 
plain, and that ftriking charafter of the fine blue 
back is wanting, we cannot affent to the opinion of 
Belon J but rather imagine it to be one of the loft 
birds of the antients. 

Thofe who think \ye have faid too much on this 
fubjedt, fhould confider how incumbent it is on every 
lover of fcience, to attempt placing the labors of the 
antients in a juft light : to clear their works from 
thofe errors, that owe their origin to the darknefs of 
the times ; and to evince, that many of their accounts 
are ftri(5lly true ; many founded on truth ; and others 
contain a mixture of fable and reality, which cer- 
tainly mjcrit the trouble of feparation. It is much 
to be lamented that travellers, either on claffic or any 
other ground, have not been more afllduous in noting 
the zoology of thofe countries, which the antients have 
celebrated for their productions : for, from thofe Vvho 
have attended to that branch of natural knowlege, 
we have been able to develope the meaning of the 
old naturaliils ; and fettle with precifion fome few of 
the animals of the antients. 

, 7/^/y, a country crowded with travellers of all na- 
tions, hath not furnifhed a fingle writer on claffical 
zoology. The Ea/l has been more fortunate : Beion, 
the fir ft voyager who made remarks in natural hiftory 
during his travels, mentions many of the animals of 
the places he vifited, and may be very ufeful to af- 
certain thofe of Ariftotk, efpecially as he has given 
their modern Greek names. Ourcountryman, Dr. Ruf- 
feU enumerates thofe of Syria. Dr. Hojjelqwfi has 
made fome additions to the ornithology QiE^yp.; 


Ciafs IL creeper; 193 

but all thefe fall fhorc of the merits of that moll 
learned and inquifitive traveller. Dr. ^haw ; who 
with unparalled learning and ingenuity, has left be- 
hind him the mod fatisfadtory, and the moft beautiful 
comments on the animals of the antients, particular- 
ly thofe mentioned in holy writ or what relates to 
the Mgypicin mythology : fuch as do honor to our 
country, and v/e flatter ourfelves will prove incen- 
tives to other travellers, to complete what mud prove 
unequal to any one genius, be it ever fo great: 
from fuch we may be fupplied with the means of il- 
lullrating the works of the antient naturalifts ; whilH 
commentators, after loading whole pages with unen- 
lightening learning, leave us as much in the dark, as 
the age their authors wrote in. 

Genus X. The C R E E P E R, 

Le petit Grimpereau. Belon wu. Le Grimpereau. BnJ[on\\\. 6030 

57 r. Cat. Carol, app. 37. 

Certhia. Ge/her av. Z^l» Certhia familiaris. Z//r. />y?. ig^^ 

J/afr. aij. i. 424. Krypare. Faun. Suec.Jp. jo6. 

Wil. orn. 144. Trase-Pikke v. Lie-Heften. Br„ 

Raiifyn.a'v.^'j. p. 12. 

The Oxeye Creper. Charlton BaumlaufFerl. Kram. 337. 

ex.t^y Br. Zoo I. 82. plate K. 

Picchio piccolo. Zinan. 75. 

'"TT^HE creeper weighs only five drams : and next 

-^ to the crefted wren is the left of the Briti/Jj birds : 

the manner it has of ruffling its feathers, and their 


194 creeper: CkfsII. 

length give it a much larger appearance than is real. 
Defer. The length of this bird is five inches and a half: the 
breadth feven and a half: the bill is hooked like a 
fickle: the irides hazel: the legs flender: the toes 
and claws very long, to enable it to creep up and 
down the bodies of trees in fearch of infefts, which 
are its food : it breeds in hollow trees ; and lays 
fometimes twenty eggs : the head and upper part of 
the neck are brown, Itreaked with black : the rump 
is tawny : the coverts of the wings are variegated 
with brown and black : the quil-feathers dullcy, 
tipt with white, and edged and barred with tawny 
marks : the breaft and belly are of a filvery white : 
the tail is very long, and confills of twelve fliff 
feathers ; notwithftanding Mr. Willoughhy^ and 
other ornithologifls give it but ten : they are of 
a tawny hue, and the interior ends of each Hope 
off to a Doint. 


Clafs II. hoopoe; 195 

Genus XL The HOOPOE. 

I. The H O O P O E. 

JLa Huppe. Belon av. 293. La Hupe ou Puput. BriJJon av, 

Upupa. Ge/tierav. 776. ii. 455. i£'-b. 43. 

Jldr.a'v.n. 314. Upupa epops. Lin.fxjl. 183. 

Bubbola. Olina 36. Harfogel, Pop. Faun. Suec. 
The Hoop, or Hoopoe. Wil. fp. 105. 

orn, 145. Her-fugl. Brunnich ^'^, 

Raiifyn.a'v./[2,, Widhopf, Kram.2,17- 

The Dung JBird. Charlton ex. Upupa; arquata llercoraria ; 

98. tab.Qi'^. gailus lutolus. ^/f/« 5/f«?,«v. 

FlotCsOxf. I J J. 24. tab. 25. 

^dw. 34;. Br. Zool. 83. plate L. 
PI enL 52. 

THIS bird may be readily diPcinguiflied from all 
others that vifit thefe iflands by its beautiful 
crefl, which it can ereft or deprefs at pleafure : ic 
weighs three ounces : its length is twelve inches : its Defer, 
breadth nineteen : the bill is black, two inches and a 
half long, flender, and incurvated : the tongue trian- 
gular, fmall, and placed low in the mouth : the 
irides are hazel : the creft confifts of a double row of 
feathers ; the higheft about two inches long : the 
tips are black, their lower part of a pale orange 
color : the neck is of a pale reddifh brown : the breair 
and belly white ; but in young birds marked with 
narrow duil<:y lines pointing down : the leller coverts 
of the wings are of a light brown : the back, fcapu- 
lars and wings croffed with broad bars of white and 
black : the rump is white : the tail confifts of only 
%%Ti feathers, white niarked with black, in form of a 


sg6 HOOPOE, Clafs 11. 

crefcent, the horns pointing towards the end of the 
feathers. The legs are fhort and black : the exterior 
toe is clofely united at the bottom to the mid- 
dle toe. 

According to Linnaeus it takes its name from its 
note *, which has a found fimilar to the word ; or it 
may be derived from the French huppe, or crefted : it 
breeds in hollow trees, and lays two afh-colored eggs: 
it feeds on infefts ; the antients believed that it made 
its nefl of human excrement : the country people 
in Sweden look on the appearance of this bird as 
a prefage of war j 

■ Facies armata videtur-}-. 

And formerly the vulgar in our country efteemed it a 
forerunner of fome calamity : it vifits thefe iflands 
frequently •, but not at Hated feafons, neither does 
it breed with us. 

• Faun. Suec. 2deJif. 37. 

+ OviJ fays, Tereus was changed into this bird : 

Vertitur in volucrem, cui ftant in vertice criftae, 
Prominet immodicum pro longa cufpide roftrum : 
Nomen i'/s/i; volucri. Metam. lib. vi, I. 672. 




Genus XII. The CHOUGH. 


Scurapola. Belon obf. 12. 

La Chouette ou Chouca rouge, 

Belon a'v. 286. 
Pyrrhocorax graculus faxatilis. 

(Stein-tahen, Stein-frae) Gef- 

ntr a'v. 522, 527. 
Spelvier, Taccola. Jldr. a'v. i. 

Wil. orn. 126. 
Raii/yn. a'v. 40. 

The Killegrew. Charlton ex. 75. 
Cornwall Kae. Sib. Scot. 15. 
Borlafe Corn^w. ZoS). tab. 24. 
Camden vol. i. 14. 
Le Coracias. Brijfon a'v. ii. 4» 

tab. I. 
Corvus graculus. Z/«. yj/?. 158. 
Monedula pyrrhocorax. Hajfel' 

quiji it in. 238. 

Br. Zool. 83. plate L *. 

THIS fpecies is but thinly fcattered over the 
northern world : no mention is made of ic by 
any of the Faunijls ; nor do we find it in other parts 
of Europe^ except England, and the Alps *. In Afia^ 
the idand of Candia produces it -f. In Africa., ^gypt i 
which laft place it vifits towards the end of the in- 
undations of the Nile J. Except JEgypt it affefts 
mountanous and rocky fituations j and builds its 
neft in high cliffs, or ruined towers, and lays four or 
five eggs white fpotted with a dirty yellow. It feeds 
on infedts, and alfo on new fown corn : they com- 
monly fly high, make a fhriller noife than the jackdaw, 
and may be taught to fpeak. It is a very tender bird, 
and unable to bear very fevcre weather j is of an ele- 

* Flin. nat. hijl. lib. lo, c. 

•f Belon obf. \ 7 . 

;|: HaJJ'elquiJl it in, 240, 

48. BriJJon ii. 5. 



gant, flender make, aflive, reftlefs, and thieving ; 
much taken with glitter, and fo meddling as not. to be 
trufted where things of confequence lie. It is very apt 
to catch up bits of lighted flicks ; fo that there are 
jnftanc-es of houfes being fet on fire by its means ; 
which is the reafon that Camden calls it incendiaria 
^vis. Several of the JVelJh and Cornijh families bear 
this bird in their coat of arms. It is found in Corn- 
wall, Flintjhire, Caernarvonjhire, and Anglefea^ in the 
cliffs and caftles along the fhores. 
Defer. Its weight is thirteen ounces ; thq. breadth thirty- 
three inches : the length fixteen : its color is wholly 
black, beautifully glolTed over with blue and 
purple : the legs and bill are of a bright orange 
inclining to red, the tongue almoft as long as the 
bill, and a little cloven : the claws large, hooked, 
and black. 


Clafs If. 

G R o u s: 


Genus XIIL The G R O U S. 

* With legs feathered to the feet: broad fcarlet 

** With naked legs. 


Le Coc de bois ou Faifan bruyant. 

Beloa a'v. 249. 
Urogallus major (the Male.) 

Gefner wv. 490. 
Grygallus major (the Female.) 

Gallo cedrone, Urogallus five 

Tetrao. v^ldr. anj, ii. 29. 
Gallo alpeftre, Tetrax Nemejsani 

(fem.) JU. a'v. ii. 33. 
Pavo fylveflris. GiraU. Topegr. 

Hibern. 706. 
Cock of the Mountain, or Wood. 

JVil. orn, 172. 
Haii fyn. av. 53. 
PL enL 73. 74. 

Capricalca. 5ih. Scot. 16. tab, 

14, 18. 
Le cocque de Bruyeres. BriJ/on 

av. i, 182. 
Tetrao urogallus. Lin.fyjl. 273. 
Kjader. Faun. Suec./p. 200. 
Pont Dp. ii. loi. 
Tjader-hona, Ha(JelquiJi itini 

Klein Stem. tab. 27- 
Mas NowegisTiuv, Teer, Toed- 

der, Foemina Norn;. Roey, 

BrunKuh 194. 
Aurhan. Kram. 356. 
Br. Zool. 84.' plates M.M*. 

THIS fpecles is found in no other part oi Great 
Britain than the northern highlands oi Scot- 
land', and even there not frequently. We believe 
that the breed is cxtinfl in Ireland^ where it was for- 

\ Sijuedijh edition. This bird was fhot In the ifie oiMUo, on a 
palm tree. Belon tells us, it is often found in Crete, Obf. p. 1 1. The 
Englijh tranflator of Hqfe/juijl gives a falfe name lo the bird, calling 
i( the Bl^ici Game, 


200 C R O U S. Clafs IL 

merly found ; it inhabits wooded and mountanous 
countries ; in particular, forefts of pines, birch-trees, 
and junipers ; feeding on the tops of the former, and 
berries of the Jatter ; which often infefls the fiefh 
with fuch a tafte, as to render it fcarce eatable. It 
lays from fix to eight eggs. 
Defer. The length of the male is two feet eight inches j 
the breadth three feet ten ; its weight fometimes four- 
teen pounds. The female is much lefs, the length 
being only twenty-fix inches ; the breadth forty. 
The fexes differ alfo greatly in colors. The bill of 
the male is of a pale yellow : the noftrils are covered 
with dufl<:y feathers : the head, neck and back are 
elegantly marked, flender lines of grey and black 
running tranfverfely. The feathers on the hind part 
of the head are long, and beneath the throat is a large 
tuft of long feathers. The upper part of the breaft is 
of a rich gloffy green, the reft of the breaft and the 
belly black, mixed with feme white feathers : the 
iides are marked like the neck : the coverts of the 
wings crofted with undulated lines of black and red- 
difti brown : the exterior webs of the greater quil 
feathers are black : at the fetting on of the wings is a 
white fpot •, the inner coverts are of the fame color : the 
tail confifts of eighteen feathers, the middle of which is 
the longeft •, they are black, marked on each ftde with 
a few white fpots : the vent feathers black mixed 
white. The legs very flrong, covered with brown 
feathers : the edges of the toes pedinated. 

The female differs greatly from the male : the 
bill is duiky : the throat red : the head, neck and 
back are marked with tranfverfe bars of red and black; 


Clafs IF. BLACK COCK. ioi 

the breafl has fome white fpots on ir, and the lower 
part is of a plain orange color : the tail is of a deep 
ruft color barred with black. 

\l The B L A C K C O C K. 

Uiogallus minor (the male.) Tetrao tetrix> X?'«. fyfi. zj^. 

Gcfner a'v. 493* Grygallus Orre, Faun. Sttec./p. 102. 

minor (the female.) 496. Le Coq-de-bruyercs a queue 
Fafan negro, Fafiano alpeflre, fourchue. 5r/^/r a'i;, i, 186. 

Urogallus five Tetfao minor Cimbris mas Urbane, famina 

Gallus Scoticus fylveflris. .^/rfV. Urhoene. Nor^eg^s Orrfugl. 

a<v. ii. 32. 160. Brunnich 196. 

Raii Jyn. a-u. 53, Berkhan, Schildhan. Kram, 356. 

Heath-cock, black Game, or Br. Zool. S^. ta^.M. 1. 2. 

Grousi Pp^il em. 173. 

THESE birds, like the former, are fond of 
wooded and mountanous fituations i they feed 
On bilberries, and other mountain fruits ; and in the 
winter on the tops of the h6ath. They are often 
found in woods ; this and the preceding fpecies perch- 
ing like the pheafant : in the fummer they frequently 
defcend from the hills to feed on cofn : they never 
pair ; but in the fpring the male gets upon fome emi- 
nence, crows and claps his wings * -, on which fignal 
all the females within hearing refort to him : the hen 
lays feJdom more than fix or fevert eggs. The young 
males quit their mother in the beginning of winter ; 
and keep in flocks of feven or eight till fpring •, during 

* The ruffed heathcock of Jfhericd, a bird of this genus, does 
the fame. Ediv. GL p. 80. The cock of the wood agrees too irt 
this exultation during the amorous feafon ; at which time the pea- 
fahts in the J/ps, directed by the found, have an opportunity of 
killing them. 

P thafi 

2G2 BLACK COCK. Clafs II. 

that time they inhabit the woods : they are very 
quarrelfome, and will fight together like game cocks; 
and at that time are fo inattentive to their own fafety, 
that it has often happened that two or three have 
been killed at one fliot. 
Pefcr. An old black cock will weigh near four pounds ; 
its length is one foot ten inches ; its breadth two 
feet nine : the bill is dufky : the plumage of the 
whole body black, gloffed over the neck and rump 
with a (hining blue. The coverts of the wings are of 
a dufl<:y brown : the four firll quil feathers are black ; 
the next white at the bottom •, the lower half of the 
fecondary feathers white, and the tips are of the fame 
color : the inner coverts of the wings white : the 
thighs and legs are covered with dark brown feathers i 
on the former are fome white fpots : the toes refem- 
ble thofe of the former fpecies. The tail confifts of 
fixteen black feathers, and is much forked ; the ex- 
terior feathers bend greatly outwards, and their ends 
feem as if cut off. The feathers under the tail and 
inner coverts of the wings are of a pure white. 

The female weighs only two pounds ; its length is 
one foot fix inches •, its breadth two feet fix. The 
head, neck and bread are marked with alternate bars 
of dull i-ed and black. The back, coverts of the 
wings and tall are of the fame colors, but the red is 
deeper : the inner webs of the quil feathers are mot- 
tled with black and white : the inner coverts of the 
wings are white ; and in both fexes form a white 
fpot on the fhoulder. The tail is fiightly forked ; it 
confifts of eighteen feathers variegated with red and 
black. The feathers under the tail are white, marked 


Clafs II. BLACKCOCK. 203 

with a few bars of black and orange. This bird 
hatches its young late in the fummer. It lays from 
fix to eight eggs, of a dull yellowifh white color, 
marked with numbers of very fmall ferruginous 
fpecks ; and towards the fmaller end with feme 
blotches of the fame hue. 

Befides the common fpecies of black cock, M. 
Brijjon mentions a variety found in Scotland^ under the 
name of le coq de hruyere pqnete^ or fpotted black 
cock. It differs from the common fort in being 
fpotted on the neck, bread, wings and thighs with 
red. The female is grey fpotted with black ; and 
both fexes are marked ovi their lower fides with white. 
This kind has not fallen within our notice ; but M, 
B7i£onh account has been confirmed to us by a gen- 
tleman who a few years ago vifited the Highlands of 
North Britain: it is alfo found m Sweden, and def- 
cribed by Linn^us in his Faun. Suec. fp. 201. by the 
title of Tetrao caudd hifurcd fubtus albo pmi^ata, in 
Swedijh, Racklehane or Roflare : the legs of this and 
the preceding kind are feathered only to the feet : 
they both inhabit woods in the winter ; therefore na- 
ture hath not given them the fame kind protecftion 
againft the cold, as (he has the grous and ptarmigan, 
who muft undergo all the rigor of the feafon beneath 
the fnow, or on the. bare ground. 

P 2 III. The 

204 G R O U S. ClafsIL 

III. The G R O U S. 

Gallinacampefiris. G/rflW/o/o^^r. Moor-cock, or Moor-fowl. Sih. 

Hihern. 706. Scot, i 6. 

Red Game, Gorcock, or Moor- La Gelinoce Hupee. BriJJon anj. 

cock. iriL orn. 177. i 20g. 

Lagopus altera Plinii. Rait fyn. La Gelinote d'EcofTe, Bonafa 

^X'. 54. Scotica. Idem 199. //2^. 22. f, I. 

Br.Z-JoL'6<^. plate M. 3. 

Defer. ^ I "^HE male weighs about nineteen ounces. The 
i length is fifteen inches and a half: the breadth 
twenty-fix. The bill is black : the noftrils covered 
with red and black feathers : the irides hazel colored. 
At the bafe of the lower mandible, an each Fide, is a 
white fpot : the throat is red. The plumage on the 
head and neck is of a light tawny red ; each feather is 
marked with feveral tranfverfe bars of black. The 
back and fcapular feathers are of a deeper red, and on 
the middle of each feather is a large black fpot: the 
bread and belly are of a dull purplifh brown, crofled 
with numerous narrow dufisy lines : the quil feathers 
are dulky : the tail confifts of fixreen feathers of an 
equal length, all of them (except the four middlemoft) 
arc black, and the middle feathers are barred with 
red : the thighs are of a pale red, barred obfcurely 
with black : the legs and feet cloathed to the very 
claws with thick foft white feathers ; the claws arc 
whitifh, very broad and ftrong. 

The female weighs only fifteen ounces. The colors 

in general are duller than thofe of the male : the 

bread and belly are fpotted with white : and the tips 

of fome of the coverts of the wings are of the fame 

■ _ color. 

Oafs If. G R O U S. 205 

color. The red naked part that lies above the eyes is 
lefs prominent than in the males and the ed^es nut lb 
deeply fringed. 

We believe this fpecies to be peculiar to the Britijh 
illands •, not having met with any account of it, ex- 
cept in the writings of our countrymen Mr. Ray and 
Willoughly^ and in M. Brijfon under the name oi Bonafa 
Scoiica; the fame writer defcribes it again by the title 
oi Attagen^ but his references are either to authors 
who have copied our naturalifhs, ortofuch who mean 
quite another kind. Mr. Ray feems to think his 
bird, the other Lagopus of Pliny *, or the Francolino 
of the modern Italians : but the account left us by 
Pliny feems too brief and uncertain to determine 
at this time what fpecies he intended ; and that the 
Francolino is not the fame with our grous, is evident 
from the figure of it exhibited by our accurate friend 
Mr. Edwards -f. 

Thefe birds pair in the fpring, and lay from ^ix to 
ten eggs : the young brood or packs follow the hen 
the whole fummer; in the winter they join in flocks 
of forty or fifty, and become remarkably fhy and 
wild : they always keep on the tops of the hills, arc 
fcarce ever found on the fides, and never defcend into 
the vallies j their food is the mountain berries, and 
the tops of heath. 

* Eft et alia nomine eodem, a coturnicibus magnitudine tan- 
tum difFerens, croceo tinitu cibis gratiffima. lib, x. c. 48. 
t Place 246. 

IV. The 

:o^ PTARMIGAN. Clafs IL 


La Perdris blanche. Behn anj. White Game, erroneoufly called 
259. the white Partridge. Wil. orn. 

Lagopus. Gefner a'u. 576. 176. 

Perdrjx alba feu Lagopus, Per- The Ptarmigan. Sib. Scot. 16. 

dice alpeftre. Aldr. a^v. ii. 66. Tl. enl. 129. 

Lagopus. Flinli lib. x. c. 48. A'cro--. Rype. Maslflandh, Riup- 

Tetrao Lagopus. Lin.fjji. 274. karre, is^w. Riupa. Brunnich, 

Snoripa. Faun.S-uec. fp. 203. 199. 

La Gelinore blanche. Brijjon Schneehun. Kram. 356. 

anj. i. 216. Br. Zool. 86. plates M 4. 5. 

Raii/yn. ^-x', 55. 



the name of the white game. Mr. BriJJhn * joins 

it with the white partridge of Mr. Ewards, plate 72. 

but thefe two birds differ greatly ; the former being 

above twice the fize of the Ptarmigan j and the color 

of its fummer plumage quite different; that of Mr. 

Edwardsh bird being marked with large fpots of 

white, and dull orange -, that of the Ptarmigan is either 

of a pale brown or afh-color, motled with fmall 

Defer, dufky fpots •, both agree in their winter drefs, being 

intirely white, except as follows : in the male a black 

line occurs between the bill and the eyes j the fhaft 

of the feven firft quil feathers are black : the tail of 

the Ptarmigan confifts of fixteen feathers ; the two 

middle of which are afh- colored, motled with black, 

and tipt with white ; the two next black flightly 

marked with white at their ends, the reft wholly 

black 5 the feathers incumbent on the tail white, and 

■^ Tom. i. p, 216. 


ClafsII. PTARMIGAN. 207 

almoft reach the end of it. The plate M 5. of the 
folio tdit'ion^ exhibits a motly variety of iha Plarmi- 
gan, at a period it had not quite affumed its fummer 
crefs : for this figure, and that of the fcaup duck^, the 
editors of the folio edition of this work, are obliged 
to their worthy countryman (by defcent) Mr. 
Edzvards^ who generoufly dedicated thefe laft ef- 
forts of his genius, to the fervice of the charity 

Thefe birds are found in this kingdom in the 
Scotifh Highlands only : their weight is near four- 
teen ounces j their length thirteen inches three- 
quarters ; their breadth twenty-three, Thefe birds 
are called by Pliny^ Lagopi^ their feet being cloathed 
with feathers to the claws, as the hare's are with fur : 
the nails are long, broad and hollow : the firfl cir- 
cumftance guards them from the rigor of the winter ; 
the latter enables them to form a lodge under the 
•fnow, where they lie in heaps to proted: themfelves 
from the cold. 

P 4 V. The 

2o8 PARTRIDGE. Cha I!. 

V. The P A R T R I D G E. 
** With naked Lees. 


La. Ferdris grife ou Gouache. Tetrao Perdrix. Lin.Jyfl. lyS. 

Belon av, 257- Rapphona. Faun. Succ./p. 205. 

Perdix (Waldhun) Gefner anj. 'i^^.Ytx^x\x'gx\{e,.Bri£onav.'\.zny 

669. Pi. enl. 27. 

Perdix minor five cinerea. Jld. Scarna. Zinan 30; 

a'v, ii. 66. Agerhoene. Br. zoi. 

Wil. orn. 166. Rebhun. Kram. 357. 

Raii/yn. av. 57. Br. Zool. 86. plate M. 

pefcr, tirS H E male partridge weighs near fifteen ounces ; 
J^ the female near two ounces lefs : the length to 
the end of the tail thirteen inches ; the breadth twenty. 
The bill is white ; the crown of- the bead is brown 
fpotted with reddifh white. The chin, cheeks and 
forehead of a deep orange color, but in the females 
much paler than in the other fex. The neck and 
bread are prettily marked with narrow undulated 
lines of afh-color and black ; and in the hind part of 
the neck is a ftrong mixture of ruit color : on the 
breaft of the male is a broad mark in form of a horfe- 
fhoe, of a deep orange hue -, in the female it is lefs 
diflintfl : each feather on the back is finely marked 
with feveral femicircular lines of reddifh brown and 
black: the fcapulars with a narrow white line along 
their fhafts, and with black and reddifh blotchy bars 
on their webs : the greater quil- feathers are dufky, 
fpotted on each web with- pale red : it has eighteen 
feathers in the tail ; the fix outmoft on each fide are 
of a bright ruft color ; the others marked tranf- 
verfely with irregular lines of pale reddilh brown an4 
black : the legs are of a whitilh caft. 


Ckfs II. Q^ U A I L. 203 

The nature of this bird is fo well known, that it: 
■will be unnecefTary to detain the readers with any ac- 
count of it : all writers agree, that its pafTion for 
v.enery exceeds that of any bird of the genus ; fhould 
tl>e r.eaders curiofity be excited to fee a more particu- 
lar account, we beg leave to refer them to thofe au- 
thors who have recorded this part of its natural 
hiftory *. 

VI. The Ct U A I L. 

La Caille. Belon a-v. zSt,. Quaglia. 7Jnan ^S. 

Gefner a'v . -^l^. Tetrao coturnix. Lin, f^JI. 2"]^. 

Coturnix Latinorum. Aldr. a.'V' Wachtel. Faun. Suec. Jp. zob^ 

ii. 69. Vagtel. Brunnich 202. 

Wil. orn. 169. Wachtel. Kram. 357, 

5a« fyn. a^v. 58. Br. Zool. Sj. plate M 6. 
La Caille. Briton a-v. i. 247- 

TH E length of the Qiiail is feven inches and a j^efcr. 
half; the breadth fourteen : the bill is of a 
iufky color : the feathers of the head are black, 
edged with rufty brown : the crown of the head is ' 
divided by a whitifli yellow line, beginning at the 
bill and running along the hind part of the neck to 
the back : above each eye is another line of the fame 
color : the chin and throat are of a dirty white : the 
cheeks fpotted with brown and white : the breafl: is 
of a pale yellowiih red fpotted with black : the fca- 
pular feathers and thofe on the back are marked in 
their middles with a long pale yellow line, and on 
their fides with ferruginous and black bars: the 

* P/itiy lib. 10. C. 2». TF--' ^rtt. 168. Edw. preface to Gleanings^. 
£ar/ 2. 


2id Q^ U A I L. Clafsir. 

coverts of the wings are reddifh brown, elegantly bar- 
red with paler lines bounded on each fide with black. 
The exterior fide of the firft quil-feather is white, 
of the others dulky fpotted with red : the tail confifts 
of twelve fhort feathers barred with black and very 
pale brownifii red : The legs are of a pale hue. 

Quails are found in moft parts of Great-Britain ; 
but not in any quantity : they are birds of paflacye ; 
feme entirely quitting ourilland, others Ihifting their 
quarters. A gentleman, to whom this work lies 
under great obligations for his frequent affiftance, 
has alTured us, that thefe birds migrate out of the 
neighbouring inland counties, into the hundreds of 
EJex, in ORober, and continue there all the winter : 
if froil or fnow drive them out of the flubble fields 
and marfhes, they retreat to the fea-fide; fhelter 
themfelves among the weeds, and live upon what 
they can pick up from the alg<:e^ &c, between high 
and lov; water mark. Our friend remarks, that the 
time of their appearance in EJfex^ coincides with that 
of their leaving the inland counties. 

Thefe birds are muchlefs prolific than the partridge, 
feldom laying more than fix or feven whitifli eggs, 
marked with ragged rufi: colored fpots : they are very 
eafily taken, and may be enticed any where by a call. 

They are birds of great ipirit j infomuch that quail 
fighting among the Jthemans was as great an enter- 
tainment as cock fighting is in this country. The 
antients never eat this bird, fuppofing them to have 
been unwholefome, as they were laid to feed on Hellebore. 

To the birds of this genus we fiiould add the whole 

tribe of domefiic land fowl, fuch as Pea&ocks^Phedfants^ 

hz, but thefe cannot clame even an European origin. 

« India 

Clafsir. PEACOCK, &c. 211 

India gave us Peacocks ; and we are afllired* they 
are ftill found in the wild ftate, in vaft flocks, in the 
iflands of Ceylon and Java. So beautiful a bird, could 
not long be permitted to be a flranger in the more 
diftant parts ; for fo early as the days 'of Solomon f, 
we find, among the articles imported in his Tharpijh 
navies, Apes and Peacocks. A monarch fo converfant 
in all branches of natural hiftory, wbo /poke of trees 
from the cedar of Libanon^ even unto the hyffop that 
fpringeth out of the wall : who fpoke alfo of beafts a7id of 
fowl, would certainly not negleft furnifhing his 
officers with inftrudlions for coUecling every curioficy 
in the countries they voyaged to, which gave him a 
knowlege that diftinguiflied him from all the 
princes of his time, ^lian J relates, that they 
were brought into Greece from fome barbarous coun- 
try ; and that they were held in fuch high efteem, 
that a male and female were valued at Athens at 1000 
drachma^ or 32/. fj. 10 d. We are alfo told, when 
Alexander was in India ^^ he found vaft numbers of 
wild ones on the banks of the Hyarotis^ and was (o 
ftruck with their beauty, as to appoint a fevere 
punifhment on any perfon that killed them. 

Our common poultry came originally from Perftii 
and India. Arifiophanes \ calls the cock 'Trsftrnt'o? oerK, 
the Perfian bird; and tells us, it enjoyed that kmg^ 
diOmhtior^ Darius 2iV\di Megabyzus : at this tinie vri 
know that thefe birds are found in a ftate of nature m 
jthe ides of finian **, and others of the Indian ocean ^^ 

* Knox's hiji. of C^lon.zZi ■ 

^ Kings i. 10. 

j Mlian de nat. an. lib. V. 21. ^^Curlius, lib. ix. 

t J'vesy tin. 483. 

#? P ampler s voy, i. 392, Lord Anjoiis nio^. 309. 


212 GUINEA HEN, &c. Ciafs IL 

and that in their wild condition their plumage is black 
and yellow, and their combs and wattles purple and 
yellow *. They were early introduced into the 
weftern parts of the world; and have been very long 
naturalized in this country : Cafar informing us, 
they were one of the forbidden foods of the eld 

Pheafants were fiffl: brought mto Europe from the 
banks of the Pha/is^ a river of Colchis. 

Argiva primum fum tranfportata carina 
Ante mihi notiim nil, nifi Phafis erat. 

Martial, lib, xiii. ep. 72. 

Guinea hens^ the Meleagrides or Gallina numidic^ of 
the antients, came originally from Jfrica f . We 
are much furprized how Belon and other learned 
ornithologifts could pofGbly imagine them to have 
been the fame with our 'Turkies i fince the defcriptions 
of the meleagri left us by Athenaus and other antient 
writers, agree fo exadly with tht Guinea hen, as to 
take away (as we fhould imagine) all power of mif- 
take. Athenaus (after Clytus Mikfius^ a difciple of 
Arijiotle) defcribes their nature, form and colors i 
he tells us, " They want natural afFedion towards 
** their young i that their head is naked, and that 
" on the top of it is a hard round body like a peg 
** or nail i that from the cheeks hangs a red piece of 
" flefh like a beard -, that it has no wattles like the 
« common poultry ; that the feathers are black fpot- 

» For this information we are indebted to governor Loten. 

+ Bo/matt hijlory of Guinea, 248. Vej/a^es de Marchais iif. 



ClafsII. T U R K Y. 215 

" ted with white ; that they have no fpurs ; and that 
•' both fexes are folike, as not to be diftinguifhed by 
" the fight*." Varro z.ndi Pliny\ take notice of 
their fpotted plumage, and the gibbous fubflance on 
their head : fo that from thefe citations we find every 
character of the Guinea hen^ but none that agrees with 
the Turky. 

In fad, the '^urky was unknown to the antient na- 
turalifts, and even to the old world before the dif- 
covery of America. It was a bird peculiar to the ncv/ 
continent, and is now the commoneil wild fov/I of 
the nothern parts of that country. It was firft: fecn 
in France^ in the reign o^ Francis I, and in England^ m 
th^t of Henry VIII. By the date of the reign of thefe 
monarchs, the firft birds of, this kind muft have 
been brought from Mexico, whofeconqueil was com- 
pleted, A. D. 1521. The iliort lived colony of the 
French in Florida not being attempted before 1562 ; 
nor our more fuccefsful one in Virginia, efFedled till 
1585 ; when both thofe monarchs were in their 

jEHan, indeed, mentions a bird found in India J 
that fome writers have fufpeded to be the 'Turky, but 

Jty* OE a,$-opyov ffpo? ra tayova to ofviovy >tcti oMyupit tav naTt^ut, 
— -Iw mlr'^i 01 7\o(pov captityot (7Ax>j§ovj i-^oyyvXot l^tx-ovlx t?? Ki<pa,\i^; aatst^ 
vta-rToilKoi — —7rpo<; St raTi; yva.%ig utto t5 tTuy.(x]<^ a^^xjAiiriy cip,i 
Vijyuv®^ lACtxpav ffa-pxat x«» ipvBpolipa,v Tcoi/ o^v^Buv T/iv oe Tor? bjvtcrj/ 
Iti tw evyy(ii yno^ivnv} y\v moi 'auyuta, v.sCK^cr^y , ky. £%stj oto "«» to-vti) 

ToT; ci^^eaiv ^io K^ ^vi^tuji^nov Ir* to ruv iA,i>.Bxy^i^ui> yU^. Atbuensus 

f Varro. lib. 3.C. 9. Pliny. \\h. to. c, 26. 

j jEliani hiji. an. lib. xvi. C. 2. 


214 BUSTARD. Glafs 11. 

we conclude with Gefner, that it was either the Pea- 
cock, or fome bird of that genus. On confulting 
fome gentlemen who have long refided in the Indies^ . 
we find, that though the Turky is bred there, it is 
only confidered as a domeftic birdj and not a native 
of the country. 

Genus XIV. The B U S T A R D^ 


L'Oftarde. Bdona'u. 235. Edw. tab, 73, 74. 

Ocis, vel Biitarda. Lejner a^. L'Outarde. BriJJon an) . "v , 18. 

484, 486. Otis tarda. Lin.fyji. 264. 
Otis five Tarda. Aldr. av. ii. Faun. Suec.fp. i()6. 

3g. Trap. Kram. 355. 

" Wil. orn. 178. Br. ZoqL 87. plate N. 
Raiifyn. av. ^^. 

Defer, rip HE buftard is the largeft of the Briii/h land 
JL fowl •, the male at a medium weighing twenty- 
five pounds ; there are inftances of fome very old ones 
weighing twenty-feven. The breadth nine feet ; the 
length near four. Befides the fize and difference of 
color ; the male is diftinguifhed from the female by a 
tuft of feathers about five inches long on each fide the 
Icv/er mandible. Its head and neck are afii-color.ed: 
the back is barred tranfverfely with black and bright 
ruil color : the greater quil feathers are black : the 
belly white ; the tail is marked with broad red and 
black bars, and confifts of twenty feathers : the legs 


Ciafs II. BUSTARD. ^j^ 

The female is about half the fize of the male : 
the crown of the head is of a deep orange tra- 
verfed with black lines ; the reft of the head is 
brown. The lower part of the forefide of the neck 
is afli-colored : in other refpeds it refembles the 
male, only the colors of the back and wings are far 
more dull. 

Thefe birds inhabit mod of the open countries 
of the fouth and eaft parts of this ifland, from 
Dorfetjhirej as far as Merch and Lothian in Scotland *. 
They are exceeding fliy, and difficult to be fhot j 
run very fad, and when on the wing can fly, 
though fiowly, many miles without refting. It 
is faid that they take flight with difficulty, and 
are fometimes run down with grehounds. They 
keep near their old haunts, feldom wandering 
above twenty or thirty miles. Their food is corn 
and other vegetables, and thofe large earth-worms 
that appear in great quantities on the Downs^ before 
fun-rifing in the fummer. Thefe are replete with 
moifture, anfwer the purpofe of liquids, and enable 
them to live long without drinking on thofe exten- 
five and dry t'rafts. Befides this, nature hath given 
the males an admirable magazine for their fecurity 
againft drought, being a pouch -f-, whofe entrance 
lies immediately under the tongue, and which is ca- 
pable of holding near feven quarts ; and this they 
probably fill with water, to fupply the hen when 

* Sih.Scot. 1 6. 

t The world is obliged to the late Dr. Douglas for this dif- 
covery j and to Mr, Edwards for communicatirg it. 


2i6 COMMON PIGEON. Clafsll. 

fitting, or the young before they can fly. Buftards 
lay only two eggs, of the fize of thofe of a goofe, of 
a pale olive brown, marked with fpots of a darker 
color; they make no nefl;! only ferape a hole in the 
ground. In autumn they are (in IViltJhirej generally 
found in large turnep fields near the Downs, and in 
flocks of fifty or more. 

To this bird we may add the little Buftard of 
Mr. Edwards^ tab. 251. The Canne fetiere of 
the French^ Wil. orn. lyq. one of which was fliot 
in Cornwal ijs^- this being the only one that 
we have heard of in this kingdom, and probably 
a ftrayed bird, it muft be denied a place in this 



La Pigeon prive. Belon aa;. 2,1^' Le Pigeon domeftique. Brijfon 
Columba vulgaris. Gefner a'v. C'v. i. 68. 

279. Livia. 307. Le Bifet. 82. 

Columba domeilica. JUr. a'v. Colurnba Oenas. Lln.fyfi. z-jg^ 

ii. 225. Skogs dulwa, Dufwa, Hem- 
Common wild Dove, or Pigeon. dufwa. Faun. Suec./p. 207. 

Wil orn. 180. and the Stock Kiike-Diie,Skov-Due. 5r//««;f/6. 

Dove, or Wood Pigeon*. 203. 

185. Feldcaube, Hauflaube, Hohl- 
Haiijyn. a'v. 59, 62. taube. Kram. 358. 

Br. ZooL 88. plate 83. 

TH E tame pigeon, and all its beautiful varieties, 
derive their origin from one fpecies, the Stock 
Dove: the Englijh name implying its being the 

• Columba livia. AUr, av. ii. 254. et Oenas, feu vinago 233. 
3 Jiock 


ftock or fiem from whence the other domeftic kinds 
fprung. We never faw this bird in its wild condition; 
but are obliged to borrow the defcription partly from 
Mr. Willoughhy^ partly from a drawing that we were 
favored with from the magnificent colledion of ^^^y^r 
White^ efq. Its chara6ters in the ftate neareft that of 
its origin, is a deep bluifh a(h color j the bread Defer, 
dallied with a fine changeable green and purple ; the 
fides of the neck with fhining copper color ; its wings 
marked with two black bars, one on the coverts of 
the wings, the other on the quil-feathers. The back 
white, and the tail barred near the end with black. 
In the wild ftate it breeds in holes of rocks, and hol- 
lows of trees, for which reafon fome writers ftile it 
columha cavernalis * in oppofitlon to the Ring Dove, 
which makes its neft on the boughs of trees. Na- 
ture ever preferves fome agreement in the manners, 
charaders, and colors of birds reclamed from their 
wild ftate. This fpecies of pigeon foon takes to build 
in artificial cavities, and from the temptation of a 
ready provifion becomes eafily domefticated. The 
drakes of the tame duck, however they may vary in 
color, ever retain the mark of their origin from our 
Evglijh mallard, by the two curled feathers of the 
tail : and the tame goofe betrays its defcent from the 
wild kind, by the invariable whitcnefs of its rump^ 
which they always retain in both ftates. 

The varieties produced from the domeftic pigeon 
are very numerous, and extremely elegant •, thefe are 
diftinguillied bynames expreffive of their feveral pro- 

* The Columha faxatUis, a fmall fort, that is frequent on moft of 
our cliffs, is only a variety of the vv'ild pigeon. Aldr. av. ii. 22~. 

Q^ pertiesji 


parties, fuch as TumMers, Carriers, Jacohines^ Croppers, 
Pointers, Runts, 1'urbits, Owls, Nuns, &c. * The 
inoft celebrated of thefe is the Carrier, which from 
the fuperior attachment that pigeon ihews to its na- 
tive place, is employed in many countries as the moft 
expeditious courier : the letters are tied under its 
wing, it is let loofe, and in a very fhort fpace returns 
to the home it was brought from, v;ith its advices ■\. 
This pra6lice was much in vogue in the Eaft, and 
at Sca'ttderoon, till of late years J, ufed on the arrival 
of a fliip, to give to the merchants at Aleppo a more 
expeditious notice than could be done by any other 
means. In our own country, thefe aerial melTengers 
have been employed for a very fmgular purpofe, be- 
ing let loofe at Tyburn at the moment the fatal cart is 

* Vide Wil. orn. Moore's Columharium, and atreatife on domeflic 
pigeons, publifhed in 1765. The lafl illuftrates thenames of the 
birds, with feveral neat figures. 

f This cuftom was cblerved by that legendary traveller. Sir 
Jchii Maunde-vile, knight, warrior and pilgrim ; who, with the true 
fpirit of religious chivalry, voyaged into the Eaft, and penetrated as 
far as the borders of China, during the reigns of Edward II. 
and III. 

In that contrec (fays he) and other contrees bezonde, thei han a 
cuftom, whan thei fchuUe ufen werre, and whan men holden fege 
abouten cytee or caftelle, and thei with innen dur not fenden out 
meflageis with letters, fro lord to lord, for to afke fokour, thei 
maken here letters and bynden hem to the nekke of a Col<ver, and 
ieten the Col-uer flee ; and the Cdueren ben fo taughte, that thei 
fleen with tho letters to the verry place, that men welde fende hem 
to. For the Colnjeres ben noryffcht in tho places, where thei ben 
fent to; and thei fenden hem thus, for to beren here letters. And 
the Ccl-jeres retournen azen, where as thei ben norifl'cht and fo thei 
don comounly. The voiage Sc travaile of Sir J. Maunde^ile, knight, 
ed. 1727. 

t Dr. Rufel informs us, that the pra£"tice is left off. Hi/l. 

Aleppo y 66, 


CJafsir. COMMON PIGEON. 219 

drawn away, to notify to diftant friends, the depar- 
ture of the unhappy criminal. 

In the Eajl, the ufe of thefe birds feems to have 
been improved greatly, by having, if we may ufe the 
expreffion, relays of them ready to fpread intelligence 
to all parts of the country. Thus the governor of 
Damiata circulated the news of the death of Orrilo : 

Tofto che'l Caftellan di Damiata 
Certificoffi, ch'era morto Orriloy 
La Colomba lafcio, ch'avea legata 
Sotto I'ala la lettera col iilo. 
Quelle ando al Cairo, ed indi {x\. lafciata 
Un' altra altrove, come quivi e ftilo : 
Si, che in pochiffime ore ando Tavvifo 
Per tutto Egitto, ch'era Orrilo uccifo *. 

But the fimple ufe of them was known in very early 
times : Anacreon tells us, he conveyed his billet-doux, 
to his beautiful Bathyllus^ by a dove. 

"Eycu a Avccv-piovTi 

Kat WV Qi'iXq IKilvii 

I am now Anacreon^ flave. 

And to me entrufted have 

A\\ the o'erflowings of his heart. 

To Bathyllus to impart ; 

Each foft line, with nimble wing. 

To the lovely boy I bring. 

* As foon as the commandant of Damiata heard that Orrilo 
was dead, he let loofe a pigeon, under whofe wing he had tied a 
letter ; this fled to Cairo, from whence a fccond was difpatched to 
another place, as is ufual ; fo that in. a very few hours, z\\ Egypt 
was acquainted with the death of Om/i'. A)-ioJ}o,ca?ito i^. 

•J- Anacreon^ ode g. £(\- TTB^t-s^ccv. 

Q^ 2 Taurofthenes 


^aurojihenes alfo, by means of a pigeon he had 
decked with purple, fent advice to his father, who 
lived in the ille ai Mgina^ of his victory in the 
Olympic games, on the very day he had obtained it *. 
And, at the fiege of Modena^ Hirtius without, and 
Brutus within the walls, kept, by the help of pigeons, 
a conftant correfpondence ; baffling every ftratagem 
of the befieger Antony -f, to intercept their couriers: 
In the times of the Crufades, there are many more 
inftances of thefe birds of peace being employed in 
the fervice of war: Jomvilk rehtes one during the 
crufade of Saint Louis J j and TaJJd another, during - 
the fiege of Jerufalem §. 

The nature of pigeons is to be gregarious ; to lay 
only two eggs -, to breed many times in the year || •, to 
bill in their courtfhip ; for the male and female to fit 
by turns, and alfo to feed their young; to caft their 
provifion out of their craw into the young ones 
mouths; and to have a note mournful, or plaintive. 

* JElian 'var. hijl. lib. ix. 2. Pliny, lib. X. c. 24. fays, that 
fwallows have been made ufe of for the fame purpofe. 

f Pliny, lib. X. c. 37. Exclames, Quid vallum et vigil obfidio 
atque etiam retia amne pretenta profueie Antonio, per ccelum eunte 
Tiuncio ? 

X Joiwuilk, 638. app. 35. 

§ Ariojlo, canto xv. go. ■* 

II So quick is their produce, that the author of the Oeconoiny of 
■nature obferves, that in the fpace of four years, 14,760 may come 
irom a finglepair. Stillingfleet'' i tra^s. 75. 

il. The 

ciafs ir. 



II. The R I N G « D O V E. 

Le Ramier. Belon a-v. 307. 
PhafTa. Belon obf. 13. 
Palumbus. Gefner a'v. t^xo. 
Palumbus major five torquatus. 

Jidr. anj. ii. 227. 
Colombaccio. Olina 54. 
Rins;-dove, Queeft, or Gufhat. 

Wil. orn 185. 
Le Pigeon Ramier. BriJJan a=v. i. 


Rail fyn. an}. 62. 

Columba palumbus. Lin, fyjl. 

Jp, 282. 
Ringdufwa, Siutut. Faun. Succ. 

fp. 208. 
Wildcaube, RingUaube. Kra7n. 

Dan. Ringel-due, Bornholmisj 

Skude. Brunnich 204. 

Br. ZooL 89. plate O. 

THIS fpecics forms Its nefl of a few dry fticks 
in the boughs of trees : attempts have been 
made to domefticate them, by hatching their eggs 
under the common pigeon in dove-houfes j but as 
foon as they could fly, they always toke to their pro- 
per haunts. In the beginning of the winter they af- 
femble in great flocks, and leave oflf cooing ; which 
they begin in March., when they pair. The ring- 
dove is the largefl: pigeon we have ; and may be at 
once di-flinguifhed from all others by the fize. Its 
weight is about twenty ounces : its length eighteen 
inches: its breadth thirty. The head, back, and 
coverts of the wings are of a bkiifh afh color : the 
lower fide of the neck and the bread are of a purplifh 
red dafhed with afh color : on the hind part of the 
neck is a femi-circular line of white; above and be- 
neath that the feathers are glofly, and of changeable 
colors as oppofed to the light. Tiie belly is of a dirty 
white : the greater quil feathers are duflxy \ the reft 

0.3 a^^^ 


222 TURTLE. Clafs 11. 

afh colored : underneath the baftard wing is a white 
ftroke pointing downwards. 


La Turtrelle. Belona'v. 309. Rali fyn. av. 61. 

Turtur. Gefner a-v. ■^\b. Wilde Turtel taube. iS-aOT, 359. 

Turtur. Aldr.u'v.n. zi^. Le Tourterelle. Brijfon a<v. i. 

Tortora. Oliaa 34. 92. 

The Turtle-dove. WiL om. J5r. Zsc/. 89 *. plate O i . 

THIS fpecies is found in BtickinghamJIoire, Glou- 
cejlerjhire^ Shropfiire^ and in the JVeft of Eng- 
land. They are fhy and retired birds, breeding in 
thick woods, generally of oak : we believe that they 
refide in Buckinghawfbire during the breeding fcafon, 
Defer, migrating into the other countries in autumn. The 
length is twelve inches and a half; its breadth twenty- 
one. The irides are of a fine yellow : a beautiful 
crimfon circle encompafles the eye-lids. The chin 
and forehead are whitifh : the top of the head afh- 
colored mixed with olive : on each fide of the neck 
is a fpot of black feathers prettily tipt with white : the 
back afh-colored, bordered with olive brown : the 
fcapulars and coverts of a reddifh brown fpotted 
with black : the quil-feathers of a dufky brown, the 
tips and outward edges of a yellowifh brown : the 
breaft of a light purpliih red, having the verge of 
each feather yellow \ the belly white : the fides and 
inner coverts of the wins-s bluifn. The tail is three 


* The figure in the folio edition of this work feems to have 
been taken {rem a young bird. 

^ inches 



inches and a half long ; the two middJemoft feathers 
are of a dufky brown ; the others black with white 
tips : the end and exterior fide of the outmoft fea- 
thers wholly white. 


I. The 

I S S E L - B I R D. 

La Grive ou Siferre, Belon a^v. 
Gefner a'v. 

Turd us vifcivorus. 

Aldr. av. ii. 273. 
Tordo, Olina 25. 
Miffel-bird, or Shrite. Wil. orn. 

Rati fyn. a^u. 64, 
Miffeltoe-thrufh, or Shreitch. 

Charlton ex, 8g. 

Tordo vifcada, Zicchio. Zinan. 

La gro fie grive. Turd as major. 

BriJI'on a^J, ii. 200. 
Lin. Jyji. 291. 

Biork-Traft. Faun. Suec. fp. 216. 
Dobbek-Krarasfugl. Brunnich, 

Zariker, Miftler, Zerrer. Kram> 

Br- Zool. 90. plate P. f. i. 

THIS is diftinguiflied from all of the kind by its 
fuperior fize -, weighing near five ounces. Its Defer, 
length is eleven inches : its breadth fixteen and a 
half: in colors it very much refembles that v/ell 
knowa bird the Throftle ; and differs materially only 
in thefe particulars, viz. The fpots on the bread are 
larger j and the inner coverts of the wings in this are 
v/hite, in the Throftle yellow. 

Thefe birds build their nefts in buihes, or on the fide 
of feme tree, generally an afh, and lay four or five 
eggs : their note of anger or fear is very harfii, be- 
tween a chatter and a ikreek ; from whence fomc of 

0^4 ^" 

224 M I S S E L - B I R D. Clafs II. 

its EngJiJh names: its fong though is very fine, which 
it begins in the fpring, fitting on the fummit of a 
high tree. It feeds on infefls, holly and miffeltoe 
berries •, the JVeJJh call it Pen y llwyn^ or the mafter 
of the coppice, as it will drive all the leffer fpecies 
of thrulhes trom it. The antients believed that the 
mijfeltoe (the bafis of bird-lime) could not be propa- 
gated but by the berries that had pafl through the 
body of this bird ; and on that is founded the pro- 
verb of Turdus malum fibi cacat. 

It may be obferved, that this is the largefl: bird, 
Britijh ov foreign (within our knowlege) that fings or 
has any harmony in its note ; the notes of all fuperior 
being either fcreaming, croaking, chattering, &c. 
the pigeon kind excepted, whole flow plaintive con- 
tinued monotone has fomething fweetly Toothing in it. 
^hompfon (the naturalift's poet) in the concert he has 
formed among the feathered tribe, allows the imper- 
fetflion of voice in the larger birds, yet introduces 
them as ufeful as the bafe in chorus, though un- 
pleafing by itfelf : 

^ The jay, the rook, the daw. 

And each harfh pipe (difcordant heard alone) 
Aid the fall concert: while the ftock-dove breaths 
A melancholy murmur thro' the whole *. 

* Seafons. Spring, 1. 6o6. 

II. Th( 

ClafsII. FIELDFARE. 225 


La Litorne, Belon av. 32R. fp. 215, 

Tnrdus pilaris. Gefner av. jt^^)' I^'^"- Dobbelt Kramsfugl. C//». 
yildr. a'v. ii. 274. bris, Snarrer. Nor--uegis, Graae 
Wil. orn. 188. Troft, Field-Troft, Norden- 
'Raii fyn. wv. 64. Vinds Pibe, Bornholmis, Sim- 
La Litourne, ou Tourdelle. meren. 5r. 2^2. 

Bri[fo7i an}.\\, z\\, Kranabets vogel, Kranabeter. 

Lin./yji. 291. Kram. 36 ' . 

^ramsfogel, fnofeata. Faun.Suec. Br. Zoo/. 90. plate P. 2. f. I. 

THIS bird paffes the fummer in the northern 
parts of inrope -y 2X^0 in lower Aujlria*. It 
breeds in the largefl trees ; -|- feeds on berries of all 
kinds, and is very fond of thofe of the juniper. 
Fieldfares vifit our iflands in great flocks about 
Michaelmas^ and leave us the latter end o^ February^ or 
the beginning oi March. We fufpedl that the birds 
that migrate here, come from Norzvay, &c. forced by 
the exceffive rigor of the feafon in thofe cold regions ; 
as we find that they winter as well as breed m PruJJia, 
Aufiria J, and the moderate climates. 

Thefe birds weigh generally about four ounces ; Defer, 
their length is ten inches, their breadth feventeen. 
The head isafh-colored inclining to olive, and fpotted 
with black ; the back and greater coverts of the wings 
of a fine deep chefnut ; the rump afh-colored : the 
tail is black ; the lower parts of the two middlemod 
feathers, and the interior upper fides of the outmoil 
feathers excepted ; the firit being afh-colored, the 
latter white. The legs are black ; the talons very 


* Kramer elench. 361. f Fauiu Siiecfp' 78. % Klein hhj.a'v. 17S. 

lil. The 




La petite Grive. Behn a'v. 226. 
Turdus minor alter. Qefner av. 

Aldr. a^j. ii. 275. 
Storno. Olina 18. 
Mavis, Throltle, or Song tlirufh. 

TVil. orn. 188. 
Raii/)n. a<v. 64. 
La petite Grive, Turdus minor. 

Brijjfon anj. ii. 205. 

Turdus muficus. Lin.fyfi. 292. 

Faun. Suec.fp. 217. 

Turdus in altiffimis. Klein Jiem, 

anj. tab, i 3 . 
Weindrofchl ,Weiffdrofchl, Som* 

merdrofchl. Kram. 361. 
Cimhris & Bornhohms^xi.n^xoKtl» 

Norvegis, Tale Trait. Br. 236. 
Br. Zool. gi. plate P. f. 2. 

Defer. ^T^HIS fpecles weighs three ounces -, its length is 
JL nine inches ; its breadth thirteen and a half, 
for a farther defcription, the reader is referred to that 
of the firft kind. The throftle is the fined of our 
finging birds, not only for the fweetnefs and variety 
of its notes, but for long continuance of its harmony ; 
for it obliges us with its fong for near three parts of 
the year. Like the mifiel-bird, it delivers its mufic 
from the top of fome high tree; but to form its nefl 
defcends to fome low bufh or thicket; the neft is 
made of earth, mofs, and ftraws, and the infide is 
curioufly plaiftered with clay. It lays five or fix 
eggs, of a pale bluifh green, marked with da-fe 

lY. The 

Clafs II; REDWING. 227 

IV. The R E D W I N G. 

Le Mauvjs. Bejon av. 327. tal>. zo^fig. i. 

Tardus minor. Gefner a-v. 761. PA enl. 51. 

T. lUas feuTylas. Jldr. av. ii. Turdus iliacus. Lin.fyji. 2qz. 

275. Klera, Kladra, Tall-Traft. Faux, 
Redwing, Swinepipe, or Wind Suec. /p. 218. 

Thrulh. WiLorn.\o(). Rothdrofchl,WaIddrofch], Win- 
Raii fyn. a'v 54. terdrofchl. Kram. 361. 

Le Mauvis. Brijfon a-v. ii. 208. Br. Zool. gi. plate P. f. 2. 

THESE birds appear in Great-Brkain a few 
days before the fieldfare ; they come in vafl: 
flocks, and from the fame countries as the latter. 
With us they have only a difagreeable piping note ; 
but in Sweden during the fpring they fing very finely, 
perching on the top of fome tree among the forefls of 
maples. They build their nefts in hedges, and lay 
fix bluilh green eggs fpotted with black *. 

They have a very near refemblance to the throflle ; Defer. 
but are lefs, only weighing two ounces and a quarter: 
their colors are much the fame •, only the fides under 
the wings and the inner coverts in this are of a red- 
difh orange ; in the throftle yellow : above each eye 
is a line of yellowifh white, beginning at the bill and 
paffing towards the hind part of the head. The 
vent feathers are white. 

Befides thefe three forts of throflles, the author of 
the epitome of the art of htisbandryf, mentions a fourth 
kind under the name of the heath throflle^ which he 
commends as far fuperior to the others in its fong: 

* Fam. Suec.fp. 218. 

t B}]. K gent, third edit. 16S5. 


228 BLACKBIRD. Clafs II. 

he fays it is the left of any, and may be known by its 
dark breaft ; that it builds its neft by fome heath-fide, 
is very fcarce, and will fing nine months in the year. 

V. The B L A C K B I R D. 

Le Merle noir. Belon a-v. 320. PI. enl. 2. 

Merula. Gefmranj. 602. Turdus merula. Lin.JyJI. 295. 

Jldr. a-v ii. 276. Kohl-Traft. Fau7i. Suec./p. 220. 

Merlo. Zinan. 39. Olina 2g, Dan. Sc Nor'vegis SoIforC. Br^ 

Wil, orn. 190. 234. 

Rail fyn. a'v. 65. Amftl, Amarl. Kram. 360. 

La Merle. BriJJon anj. ii. 227. Br. Zool. 92. 

'HIS bird is of a very retired and folitary na- 
ture ; frequents hedges and thickets, in which 
it builds earlier than any other bird : the nefb is 
formed of mofs, dead grafs, fibres, ^c. lined or 
plaiftered with clay, and that again covered with hay 
or fmall ftraw. It lays four or five eggs of a bluifli 
green color, marked with irregular dulky fpots. 
The note of the male is extremely fine, but too loud 
\ for any place except the woods : it begins to fing 
early in the fpring, continues its mufic part of the 
fummer, defifts in the moulting feafon ; but refumes 
it for fome time in the firft winter months. 
Defer. The color of the male, when it has attained its full 

age, is of a fine deep black, and the bill of a bright 
yellow : the edges of the eyelids yellow. When 
young, the bill isdufi^y, and the plumage of a rufty 
black, fo that they are not to be diftinguilhed from 
the females -, but at the age of one year they attain 
their proper color. 

VI. The 

Ciafs 11. R I N G - O U Z E L; 229 


Le Merle ou Collier. Belon anj. Eaii Jyn. a^v. 6c. 

3 1 8. Morton Northampt. 42^. 

Merula torqaata. Ge/ner anj. Le Merle a Collier. Brijfon a'v* 

607. ii. 235. 

Merlo alpeftre. Aldr. av. ii. Turdus corquatus. Lin.fyjl. 296. 

282. Faun. Suec.fp. 221. 

Wil orn. 194. Rock or Moun- Dan. Ringdroflel. Noyvegis 

tain-ouzel. 195. Ring Troll. i?r. 237. 

Mwyalchen y graig. Camden Ringlamfel. Kram. 360. 

Brit. 795. Br. ZqcJ. 92. plate P. i. f. i, 

HE ring-ouzel inhabites the mountanous 
parts of thefe iflands; and are found in fmall 
flocks of five or fix. In fize they are fuperior to the Defer, 
black bird : their length is eleven inches ; their breadth 
feventeen. The bill in fome is wholly black, in 
others the upper half is yellow : on each fide the 
mouth are a few bridles : the head and whole upper 
part of the body are dufky, edged with pale brown: 
the quil-feathers, and the tail are black. The coverts 
of the wings, the upper part of the breafl, and the 
belly are dufky, flightly edged with afli-color. The 
middle of the breaft is adorned with a white crefcent, 
the horns of which point to the hind part of the neck: 
In fome birds this is of a pure white, in others of a 
dirty hue. In the females and in young birds this 
mark is wanting, which gave occafion to fome natu- 
raliils to form twofpeciesof them. 

VII. The 

230 WATER-OUZEL, Clafs IT. 

VII. The W AT E R - O U Z E L: 

Meru!a aquatlca. Gefner av. Le Merle d'eau. Brifon a'v.y* 

608. 252. 

Lerlichirollo. Aldr. a-v.u\. \'i6. Merlo aquatico. Zinan. loq. 

Water-craw. Turner. AVi^^^/j, Fofle FaldsFolTeKald, 
The Water-ouzel, or Water- Qutern Kald, Stroem-St^er, 

crake. JVil. orn. 149. Bskke Fugl, Brunnich. 2^0. 

Raitjyn. av. 66. Waffer-amfel, Bach-amfel. ^^za. 
Sturnus cinclus. Lin.fyft. 290. 374. 

Watnftare. Faun. Suec./p. 214. Br. Zool. g2. plate P. i. f. 2. 

THIS bird frequents fmall brooks, particularly 
thofe with fteep banks, or that run through a 
rocky country. It is of a very retired nature, and is 
never feen but fingle, or with its mate. It breeds in 
holes in the banks, and lays five white eggs adorned 
with a fine bluili of red. It feeds on infects and fmall 
fifli ; and as Mr. Willoughhy obferves, though not 
web~footed, will dart itfelf after them quite under 
water. The neft is conftrufted in a curious manner, 
of hay and fibres of roots, and lined Vvith dead oak 
leaves, having a portico, or grand entrance made with 
green mofs. 
TH r Its weisiht is two ounces and a half: the length 

feven inches one quarter: the breadth eleven: the 
bill is narrow, and comprefTed fideways : the eyelids 
are white : the head, cheeks, and hind part of the 
neck are dufls:y, mixed v/ith ruft color : the back, 
coverts of the wings, and of the tail alfo dusky, 
edged with bluiOi afh-color : the throat and breaft 
white : the belly ferruginous, vent feathers a deep 
afli-color : the legs are of a pale blue before, black 

behind ; 

Clafs II. 



behind : the tail fhort and black, which It often flirts 
up, as it is fitting. 

Thefe are all the birds of this genus that caa 
clame a place in this work. The rofe colored ouzel, 
Wil. orn^ 194. Edw. 20. a foreign bird, has been 
fhot at Norwood near London ; for its hiftory we refer 
our readers to the appendix. 

Genus XVII. The STARE. 

I. The STAR E. 

L'Eftourneau. Belon av. -s^zi. 

Sturnus. Ge/ner an;, 746. 

jlldr. a<u. ii. 284. 

Stare, or Starling. Wil. orn. 196. 

Raiijyn. anj, 67. 

L'Etourneau. Brijfon av. ii. 

Sanlonet. PL enl. 75. 

Storno. Zinan. 6g> 

Olina 18. 

Sturnus vulgaris. Lln.fyjl, 290. 

Stare. Faun.Suec. fp. 213. 

Hajfelquifl. it in. 284. 

Danis & Nowegis Stasr. Br. 210, 

Starl. Kram. 362. 

Br. Zool. 93. plate P. 2. f. i. 

'"T^HE Stare breeds in hollow trees, eaves of houfes, 
-^ towers, ruins, cliffs, and often in high rocks 
over the fea, fuch as thofe of the IJle oi Wight. \i 
lays four or five eggs, of a pale greenifh afh color : 
and makes its neft of ftraw, fmall fibres of roots, and 
the like. In winter flares aflemble in vafl flocks, 
and feed on worms and infers. Their flelli is fo re- 
markably bitter as to be fcarce eatable ; they are very 
docil birds ; and may be taught to fpeak. 

The weight of the male of this fpecies is about three j^^f^-j. 
ounces j that of the female rather lefs. The length is 
eight inches three quarters : the breadth fourteen 


232 STAR E. ClafslL 

inches and a half : the bill is an inch and one -fourth 
long, ftrait, very much deprefled, and the bafe of 
the lower mandible deeply furrowed on each fide : 
the noflrils are oval furrounded by a prominent rim : 
the tongue is hard, horny and cloven : the irides 
hazel, whiter on their upper part : the feathers on the 
head, neck and upper part of the back are black, 
varied with a moft beautiful green and purple as op- 
pofed to different lights ; the tips of thefe on the 
head are of a yellowifh brown •, thofe on the neck are 
white : their form is fingular, being long, narrow 
and pointed : the lower part of the back, the rump, 
the coverts of the wings, and the lower part of the 
bread are black gloifed with green ; the tips of the 
feathers of all except thofe on the breaft are yellowifh, 
thofe of the latter white : the belly is glofled over 
with a deep purple : the vent feathers are black, very 
nightly tinged with green, and their edges are white: 
the firft and fecond quil-feathers are dusky, and the 
lower part of their exterior fide is ilightly edged with 
a reddilh yellow : the exterior webs of all the others 
are alfo dusky •, the interior incline to afh-color, but 
both are edged with the fame color as the former, only , 
more deeply on the feathers next the back:, beneath 
this yellowifli border that adorns the leffer quil- 
feathers is another of black : a changeable green 
alfo marks their exterior fides. The tail is fhort ; 
the Vv^ings reach, when clofed, within half an inch of 
the end : the middle of each feather is of a deep afli-' 
color ; then fucceeds a border of black edged with a 
yellowifh red. The legs and feet are black tinged 
Vv'ith red.