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^^^^^'/^^.v /^/S. 

^ I ■ : 

v^ .. .\ A 



IV. F I S H. 

AJi ego defpElis quis cenfus opfque dederunt 
Naturae tnirabor o^us. Ausonius, 









All the works of the Lord are good, and he will 
give every needful thing in due feafon. 

So that a man cannot fay this is worfe than that> 
for in time they Ihall all be well approved. 

Ecdejiaftkus xxxix, 33, 34; 

'«|irD 4>.«P>i w**.^-; 

ML '*' 


Thomas Falconer, 

O F 


IT is but juftice, my dear Tom, to ad- 
drefs to you a work which was begun 
with your approbation, carried on under 
your improving ftridlures, and has fo 
often amufed us during the many plealing 
hours we have pafled together. 

At the fame time that I own the many 
advantages I have reaped from making 
you confident to the productions of an 
idle and rural pen ; let me not fail in 
my acknowlegements to our common 
friend the Hon. Daines Barrington, 
who, with unremitting ardor, and with 
an honeft freedom, has favored me with 
the moft inftrudive hints on the fubjed: 
of the following fheets. 

Would ! would to Heaven that I 
was capable of adding the third to the 
number ! But the c-rateful tribute of a 

A 2 fisih 



fiorh is all I can give to what is now be- 
come only an inftrudive memory. Sim- 
plicity of manners, zealous friendfhip, 
the promotion of all liberal arts, uni- 
verfal benevolence, v/ith its amiable at- 
tendant charity, charaderifed the Prelate 
whofe lofs I deplore. You I know will 
excufe thefe expreffions of fenfibility, 
when you recolle6t it is Dr. Littleton, 
late Bifhop of Carlisle, whom I la- 

May you live long and happy, is the 
earneft wi£h of him, who is, with the 
trueft regard. 

Your moff affcElionate kinfman^ 

A?7d faithful humble /erva?2ty 

Mard°:f'^69. Thomas Pennap. 


Page 21, 

Me **, and ** xxix. 






thofe (thefirfi) 
















Note, fecond of 












le Soup, 






, Note, on. 






without beards, 



t' 3- 







fecond book of. 






le Loup. 





to be placed under ^is ? 

to be placed, p. 309, 






Confiding of Twelve Plates, 410. Imperial, with Defcriptions. 
HI S Work will be continued and completed in Six Num- 

bers, containing Figures of undefcribed Birds and Quadru- 
peds, with fome Effays on the Indian Animals mentioned by the 
Antients, obicured by Fable, &c. 

Sold by Mr. White, Bookfeller, in Fleet-peet, and Mr. 
Walters, at Charing-Crofs. 



Itiountalns o^ Kerry, and that furprizing har- 
bour the Bulkrs of Buchan * may well be op- 
pofed to the tocksoi Blackulla, or the caverns 
oi Skiula. Sweden can no where produce a 
parallel to that happy combination of gran- 
deur and beauty in Kefwkk -f- vale, or Killar- 
ny \ lake ; nor can Europe fhew a natural won- 
der equal to the Giant's Caujeway in the north 
of Ireland, 

The excellence and number of our fprings 
(whether medicinal or incrufting) are well 
known to common inquirers. 

Our minerals are as great in quantity, as 
rich in quality : of gold, indeed we cannot pro- 
duce many Specimens, yet fafficient to fliew 
that it is found in thisilland§; but iilver is 
found in great abundance in our lead ores, 
and veins of native lilver in the copper ores 
of Muckrus, on the lake of Killarny. The 
haematites iron ores of Cumberland, and the 
beautiful columnar iron ores of the forefl: of 
Dean, are fujEiicient to difplay our riches in 
that ufeful commodity. No country produces 
fo great a quantity of tin as Corjiwall-, and 
that county, and feveral others in the north 

* Between Aberdeen and Peterhead. 

*\ In Cumberland. 

X In the County of Kerry. 

§ That our country produces gold, appears in Dr. 5i?r/^'^'s 
excellent hiftory of Cc?-«ti;i3//, p. 214. folate as the year 1753 
feveral pieces were found in what the miners cz\\Jh-eam ti-n\ 
one fpecimen was as thick as a goofe quill; others weighed 
to the value of feventeen Ihillings, tv/enty icwen fiiillings; 
and another even to the value of three guineas. 

A 2 have 


have been long noted for their inexhauftibk 
veins of copper; nor lefs famous arc the lead 
mines of Derbyfiire, Cardiganjhire and Flint^ 
Jhire, which have been worked for ages, yet 
fhew no fign of the decline of their flores. 

In all thefe, nature fports with great lux-* 
uriancy; the cryftallized lead ore oiTralee^\ 
the fibrous lead ore of 'Tipper ary^ the lami-^ 
nated lead ore of hord Hoptoiins mines; the 
cryflali^ed tins, and the figured ores of Zinky 
are equally noted for their elegance, fcarcity, 
and richnefs. 

The ore of Zmk, or Lapis Calaminarisy is 
found in vaft quantities in the counties of S>0' 
merfet and Flint; while black lead or wadd, a 
fubftance fcarce known in other kingdoms, 
abounds in the mountains of Cumberland* 

To the Swedifi Petroleum, we may oppofe 
the Well at Pitclfordy and that of St. Cathe- 
rine^ near Edenburg; our amber and our jet, 
together with our inexhauflable flrata of coal 
found in fo many parts of this kingdom, will, 
in the article of bitumens, give us the fu- 
periority over thefe fo much boafled produc- 
tions oi Sweden. 

To avoid a tedious enumeration, we fliall 
only m.ention our wonderful mines of rock 
fait; our allum and our vitriol works; our 
various marbles, alabailers, and flones ; our 
moil: excellent clays and earths -f-; all which 

• In the county of Kerry. 

t If the inquifitive reader is defirous of a farther account 
of the number and excellence of our fubterraneous produc- 


articles, and many more unnoted here, 
might have furniihcd us with an ample field 
for panegyric. 

Our botanical produ(n:ions are not lefs abun- 
dant^ but the works of Jlay., which have 
lately been much enlarged and methodized, 
according to the Linncean fyftern, by the in- 
genious Mr. Hudfon, in his Flora Anglican 
are a fufficient difplay of our vegetable riches. 
Our Zoology would be a copious fubjedt 
to enlarge on, but the w«ork in harui reilrains 
us from anticipating our readers curiplj^y. We 
might expatiate on the clouds of Poland geefe 
which breed on the 5^ ijland, or Pujins on that 
o^PrieJl holme: on our fifh, and other marine ani- 
mals j on our infedls, and the various other 
fenfitive productions of this kingdom; but we 
forbear a parade of ufelefs declamation, and 
ihall only add, that as few countries receive 
.more advantages from their natural breed of 
quadrupeds, unmixed with any beaft that 
preys op man, fo^ few .can boaft a greater 
variety of birds, whether local, or migratory,. 
Tills is a general view of the natural hifto- 
jy of our own cauntry; why then fhould we 
negledl inquiring into the various benefits that 
refuk from thefe inflances of the wifdom of 
our Creator, which his divine munificence has 
fo liberally, and fo immediately placed before 
us ? Such a negled: is certainly highly to be 

tions, we refer him to thelearned Dr. Woodward''^ catalogue 
Qii\it Englijh Fojfils^ London 1729, particularly to p. 5. 

A 3 ;blamed 



blamed, for (to exprefs ourfelves in the words 
of an eminent writer) '* the Creator did not 
*' beftow fo much curiofity, and workman-^ 
^' fliip upon his creatures, to be looked on 
** with a carelefs incurious eye, efpecially to 
** have them flighted or contemned; but to 
*' be admired by the rational part of the world, 
<* to magnify his own power to all the world, 
*' and the ages thereof; and fince the works 
'^ of the creation are all of them fo many de- 
*^ monftrations of the infinite wifdom and 
*' power of God, they may ferve to us, as fo 
** many arguments, exciting us to a conftant 
'* fear of the Deity, and a fteady and liearty 
^* obedience to all his laws".'* 

Much might be added to this fubjed:, if 
cbnfidered in a theological light; but lince 
the writings of Boyky Ray, and Derham,, 
fully prove that the fludy of natural hiftory 
enforces the theory of religion and pradrice 
of morality, we had better refer to their 
"works in general, than mangle them by imper- 
fed: quotations. 

To exalt our veneration towards the Al- 
^mighty, is the principal end of this fub- 
■blime fcience ; and next to that, the various 
benefits refulting from it to human fociety 
deferve ourferious confideration. 

To give an obvious inffcance: what won- 
derful changes have been made in human af- 
fairs by the difcovery of an obfcure mineral. 
The antients, ignorant of the application of 

« Derham's VhyS. theol. book XI. c. 2 4. 


P R E F A G E. vi; 

the magnet, timidly attempted a mere coaft- 
ing navigation i while we^ better informed of 
jthe uies of it, traverfe the wideft oceans, and 
-by the difcovery of the new world, have layed 
/Open to fcience, an inexhauftible fund of matter. 

The rife and progrefs of medicine, kept pace 
with the advancement of this mod important 
difcovery i and tho' neceflity was the parent of 
the mechanic arts, yet they alfo throve, and 
grew to maturity, under the fame influence. 

Many more inliances might be added to 
this brief view of the utility of natural know- 
ledge; but we (hall only give fome of its ufes 
in the polite arts, which have hitherto been 
too little connected with it. 

To inllance particularly in painting, its ufes 
are very exteniive : the permanency of colors 
depends on the goodnefs of the pigments; but 
the various animal, vegetable, andfoffilfubitan- 
ces (out of which they are made) can only be 
known by repeated trials ; yet the greatell 
artifts have failed in this refpedt : the 
fhadows of the divine 'Raphael have acquired 
an uniform blacknefs, which obfcures the 
£nefl produdlions of his pencil, while the 
paintings oi Holbein, Durer^ and the Ve?i€tia?i^ 
fchool, (who were admirably fkilled in the 
knowledge of pigments) ftill exiil in their 
primitive frefhnefs,. 

£ut thefe advantages are fmall, compared 
to thofe derived from the knowledge of na^ 
ture in the reprefentation of objeds : painting 
is an imitation of nature; now, who can imi- 
tate without confulting the original ? but to 

A 4 come 

viii PREFACE. 

come to what is more particularly the objedt 
of our inquiries ; animal and vegetable life 
are the elTence of landfcape, and often are fcr 
condary objects in hiftofical paintings ; even 
the fculptor in his limited province w^ould do 
v/ell to acquire a corredlnefs of defign with a 
perfed: knowledge of the mufcles of animals. 
But the painter ihould have all this and more; 
he fhould be acquainted with all their .various 
tints, their manner of living, their peculiar 
motions or attitudes, and theirplaces of abode*, 
or he will fall into maniteft errors. 

Plurimus inde labor tabulas imitando juvabit 
Egregias» operuoique typos, fed plura docebit 
Natura ante ociilos prafens, nam firmat et auget 
Vim genii, ex illaque artem experientia complet.f 

Defcrlptive poetry is flill more indebted to 
natural knowledge, than either painting or 
fculpture : the poet has the whole creation 
for his range ; nor can his art exift without 
borrowing metaphors, allufions, or defcrip- 
tions from the face of nature, which is the on- 
ly fund of great ideas. The depths of the feas, 
the internal caverns of the earth, and the pla- 
netary fyflem are out of the painter's reach; 
but can fupply the poet with the fublimeft 
conceptions : nor is the knowledge of animals 

* That great artift, Mr. Ridinger^ of Jujlurgh, exceeds 
all others in the three laft particulars ; nothing can equal his 
prints of animals for propriety of attitudes, for a juft idea of 
their way of life, and for the beautiful and natural fcenery 
that accompanies them. His fineft works are, his Wtlde 
Tbiere, Klelne Thiere^ and Jagdbare Thiere ; but there jare 
fcarce any of his performances that can fail giving pleafurc 
to all admirers of nature reprefented as hcrfelfi 

f Frefnoy de arte graphs lin, 537. 


[ xvii ] 

Explanation of References. 

Mlian. an, var, 


Aldr, av, 
Aman, a cad, 

Arijl. hiji, 


Bell's Travels, 
Belon av, 

Belon ohf. 


Borlafcs Corn. 
BriJJon quad, 

Brtjfon av* 

/^Laudii MHani Opera quse extant 
^ omnia, Cura & Opera Conradi Gef- 

neri Tigurini, fol. Tiguri. 1556. 
Nat. Hift. of Birds, by Eieazer Al- 

bin, 3 vol. 4to London, 1 738. 
ZJlyJJis Aldrovandi Ornithologia, fol; 

Francofurti, 1610, 1613. 
Carcli Linncei Amaenitates Acade- 
micje, 6 torn. 8vo. Liigd. Bat. & 
Holmies, 1749, &c. 
Arijiotelis Hiftoria de Animalibus, 
"Julio Cafare Scaligero interprete, 
fol. Tolofce, 1619. 
Artftophanis Comoediae undecim, Gr, 
& Lat. cum Scholiis antiquis, fol. 
Amftelodaml, 1710= 
into Perfta, China, &c. 2 vol. 8vo.' 

L'Hiftoire de la Nature des Oifeaux, 
avec leurs Defcriptions & naifs 
Portraits, par Pierre Belon, fol.P^- 
m, 1555. 
Les Obfervations de plufieurs Singu- 
larites & Chofes memorables trou- 
vees en Grece, Afte & Judte, par 
Pierre Belon^ fol. Paris, 1555. 
La Nature & Diverfite des PoilTons, 
&c. 8vo. tranfverf. par Pierre Be- 
lon, Paris, 1555' 
Nat. Hift. of Cornwall, by IVilliam 

Borlafe, A.M. fol. London, 1758. 
Regnum animale in Claffes IX. di- 
ftributum, a D. Brijfon, 8vo. Lugd. 
Bat. 1762. 
Ornithologie, ou Methode contenant 
la Divifion des Oifeaux, &c. Ou- 
vrage enrichi des Figures, par M. 
BrijJon, 6 torn. 4to. Paris^ 1760. 
b Br: 

[ xvlii ] 

Br. Zool. Brhljh Zoology: Clafs I. Quadru- 

peds. II. Birds. Illuftrated with 
132 Plates, imperial Paper, Lon.' 
don^ 1766. 
Br. or Brunnlch M. Th. Brunnichu Ornithologia Bo- 

realis, 8vo. Copenhagen, 1 764. 
Br Monog A Hiftory of the Eider-Duck, in 

Danijh, by Mr. Brunnich, ismo, 
Copenhagen, 1 7*^3 • 
De Buffon Hift. Nat. generale & particuliere, 

avec ia Defcription du Cabinet du 
Roy, par M. De Buffon^ 15 torn. 
4to- a Paris, ^749? &c. 
Call opufc. 'Joannis Caii Britanni Opufcula, a 5. 

^ebh edita, 8vo. London^ 1729. 
Camden Camden s Britannia, publiflied by Bi- 

(hop Gibfon, 2 vol. fol. 3d edition, 
London^ 1753* 
Cat. Carol. Nat. Pliil:. of Carolina and the Bahama 

Iflands, by Mari Catesby, 2 vol. fol. 
London, 1731. 
Charlton ex. Giialteri Charletoyii Exercitationes de 

DifFerentiis, &c. Animalium, fol. 
Londini, 1677. 
Cluf. ex. Caroli Ciufd Exoticorum Libri X. 

fol. Antuerpite, 1605. 
Crani%s Greenl. Hiftory of Greenlayid, ixc. by David 

Crantz. Tranflated from the High 
Dutch. 2 vol. 8vo. London, 1767. 
Dale's hift. of Harxvich and Dover-court, by Sarn. 

Dale, /\Xo. London, 1730. 
EgfaVs Greenl. . Defcription of Greenland, by Hans 

Egede, Miilionary in that Country 
for twenty Years. Tranflated 
from X.\\t DaJiip, ^vo. London, 1745. 
" Ediu. Nat. Hift. of Birds and other rare 

and undefcribed Animals, by George 
Edwards, 7 vol. 4:0. London, 1743, 
Faun. Suec. Caroli Linn^i Fauna Suecica, fiftf ns 

Animalia Stiecice Regni, 8vo. Hoi- 
riiiis, 1761. 
.Ge pier quad, Conrad. Gefneri Hiftoria Qua^rupe- 

dum, fol. Frankfort, 1 603. 
Gifner (iV. Gejner de Avium Natura, fol. Fran" 

cofurti, 1585. Gejner 

Gefner icon, 

Glrald. Cam. 

Grev^s miif. 


Hajfelquifi' s itin. 
Hor. Ice. 

Jonfton's Nat. Hift. 

Klein quad. 

Klein av. 
Klein ft em. 


Lin. fyft. 
Marten's Spitzberg. 

Martin's IVeJl. Jjles. 

Martin's St. Kilda. 

[ xix ] 

Icones"' Aniinalium Q^iadr. vivip. & 
ovip. quae in Hift.'Animalium Con- 
radi Gefitcri Libri 1. & II. defcri- 
buntur, fol. Tiguri^ 1560. 
Itinerarium Ca7nbriis^ Auciore Sil. 
Giraldo Camhrenfe^ cum Annot. Po- 
veli, fol. Londoni, ^S'^S' 
Catalogue of the Rarities belonging 
to the Royal Society, by Dr. N. 
Grew, fol. London, 1685. 
Det Trondhiemfie Gelflcabs Skrifccr, 

Kiohenthavn, 1 76 1. 
Fred. Hajfelquiftii Iter Palsftinum, 

8vo. Hohniis, 1757. 
Nat. Hift. o^ Iceland, by N Horrebotu, 
tranflated from the Danifio, fol. 
London, 1758. 
'Johannis yonftoni, M. D- Flifloria 
Naturalis, 2 torn. fol. Jmftelodami, 
yac. Theod. Klein Quadrupedum Dif- 
pofitio, brevifque KifL. Nat. 4to. 
Lipfta, 1 75 1. 
y. Iheod. Klein Hiftoris Avium Pro- 

dromus, 4to. Lubecis., I'JS'^- 
y Theod. Klein Steramata avium, 40 
Tabulis iEneis ornata, 410. Liffics^ 


GuUelmi Henrici Kramer Elenchus 

Vegetabilium & Animalium per 
Auftriam Inferiorem obfervatorum, 
8vo. Vienna;, Pragce & Tergefti, 

Caroli LinncEi Syftema Naturae, edit. 
12, reformata, 8vo. Holmia, I'jbb. 

Voyage into Spiizbergen and Green- 
land, by Fred. Marten, London, 

Defcription of the Weftern lilands of 
Scotland, by M. Martin, 2d edit. 
8vo. London, 1716. 

Voyage to St. Kilda, by M. Martin, 
4th edit. 8vo. London, 1753. 

b 2 


'[ XX ] 

Alerret pinax Pinax Rerum Naturallum Britanni- 

carum, Authore Chriftoph. Merret, 
l2mo, Londini, 1667. 

Meters an, A Work wrote in German^ contain^ 

ing of 200 colored Plates of various 
Animals, with the Skeleton of each, 
by yohn-Daniel Meyer, Miniature 
Painter, at NurcTpberg, 2 vol, fol. 

Morton^s Northampt. Hift. Nat- of Northamptonjhtre, by 
John Morion f A.M. fol. London^ 

Nov. Com. Petrop. Novi Commentarii Academiae Scien- 
tiarium imperialis Petropolitana, 
7 torn. 4to. Petropoli, 1750, &c. 

Ollna Uccelliera overo Difcorfo della Na- 

tura e Proprieta di diverfi Uccelli 
e in particolare di que'che Canta- 
no. Opera di Gio. Petro Olina, fol. 
in Roma, 1684. 

Plin. nat. h'tft. Plhu'i Hiftoria Naturalis, cum Notis 

Harduini, 2 torn. fol. Paris, 1723. 

PL enL Colored Figures of Birds, Reptiles 

and Infedls, publifhing at Paris^ 
under the Tide of Planches Enltt- 
rnlnees ; to which we are promifed 
an Explanation by the able Pen of 
M. de Buffon. 

Pontoppidax Nat. Hift. of Norway, by the right 

reverend Eric Pontoppidan, Bifliop 
of Bergen, tranflated from the Da- 
nij}}, fol. London, 1755. 

Profp, A'pin. Profperi Alpini Hiftorise /Egypti Pars 

prima & fecunda, 2 torn. 4to. 
Lugd. Bat. 1735. 

Rait fyn. quad. Raii Synopfis methodica Anim. Qua- 

drupedum & Serpentini Generis, 
8vo. Londini, 1 69 3. 

Raii fyn. av. Raii Synopfis methodica Avium & 

Pifcium, 8vo. London, 17 13. 

RuJcPs Alip. The Natural Hiftory of Aleppo and 

the Parts adjacent, by Alexander 
RuJJel^ M.D. 4to. London^ 1756. 

Sib. muf. 
Sib. Scot: 

sib. hift. Fife 
Smith's Kerry 

Wil. orn, 

W^orm, muf, 


[ xxi ] 

Jlberti Seba Rerum Naturalium Thc- 

faurus, 4 torn. fol. Anfterdam^ ^ 734» 

Prodromus Hiftoriae Naturalis Sco- 

tiae, Audore Roberto Sihbaldoy 

M.D. Eq. Aur. fol. Edinburgi^ 

Hiftory of the SherifFdoms of Fife 

and Kinrofs^ by Sir Robert Sibbald^ 

Edinburgh^ f61. 17 10. 
Natural and Civil Hiftory of the 

County of Kerry, 8vo. Dublin, 

Avium praecipuarum quarum apud 
Plinium & Ariftotelem Mentio eft, 
brevis & fuccindta Hiftoria, per 
D™. Gulielmum Tiirnerum^ Artium 
& Medicinse Do<5torem, i2mo. Co- 
lonia, 1544. N.B. This Book is 
not paged. 

The Ornithology of Mr. Francis 
Willoughby ; publiftied by Mr. Ray, 
fol. London, 1 678. 

Mufeum Wormianum, fol. Amftelo- 
dami, 1 655. 

Delle uova e dei Nidi degli Uccelli, 
Libro primo del Conte Giufeppg 
Zinanni, mVenezia, 1737. 


[ xxil ] 




Div. I. Hoofed Quadrupeds. 
II. Digitated Quadrupeds. 






Divifion I. 

/^Uadrupeds with hoofs, confifting 


the Horfe i 

of only one piece j fix cuttin 
teeth in each jaw 

Horns bending out la- 7 tt ^i. /^ 

terally - - - J "' '^^ ^^ ^5 

Horns tvvifted fpirally, -i 

and pointing out- C HI. the Sheep 22 
wards - " - j 

Horns bendins; back- i ,»;- ^, /^ ^ 
J ° > Iv. the Cioat 

wards " ~ ~ j 

Upright branched T 

horns, annually de- L V. the Stag 
{_ ciduous - - - J 

Cloven hoofs ; no-^ 
horns; cutting teeth / 
in each jaw, and in > VI. the Hog 
each two canine I 
teeth, or tu(ks - J 

Cloven hoofs, no 
cutting teeth » 
in the upper » 




Divifion II. 

[ xxiii ] 

Six cutting 
teeth, and 
two canine 
teeth, or 
fangs, in 
each jaw. 

V\x cutting C 
teeth in the\ 
upper jaw, J 
focr in the<v 
under, two I 
canine teeth / 
in each (^ 


Divifion II. 

J- Five toes before, four 
behind : fharp claws 
lodged in a fheath 
that may be exerted 
or drawn in at plea- 
fure : a round vifage 

Five toes before, four"] 
behind *: thick ( yTyy 
blunted claws: a C 
produced vifage J 

Five divided toes be- -j 
<^ fore, the fame be- i 

hind : a tranfverfe S. IX, 
orifice between the I 
tail and the anus J 

Five toes on each foot, 
each connected by 
a ftrong broad mem- 
brane - - - 

Five divided toes on 
each foot : fliort 
legs : fharp-pointed 
vii'age : long flender 
body - _ - 

Five toes on each foot, - 
all palmated : the 
fore-legs buried | 
deep in the fkin : 
the hind-legs placed ( 
quite backwards : 
no external ears 



the Cat 45 

the Dog 4^ 

the Badger 64 
the Otter 67 

XII. the Weefel 77 

XI. the Seal 71 

* This character is invariably obferved in the wild animals of this 
genus ; but in the dorneftic fpecies, nature fecms to Iport ; fometimes 
omitting the fifth toe behind, often forming them imperfecl, and of- 
ten furniiliing the animal with it. For a farther account of the olteo- 
logy of this part, we refer the reader to the works of M. de Biifon, 
who ought, if envy would permit, to hold the fiill place air.on^ the 
modern zoologills. 

Urit enim fulgnre fuo qui pragravat artcs 
Infra fe fofnas, 
4. ^vvo 

Two cutting 
teeth in each'* 

[ xxiv ] 

'Five toes before, four- 
behind ; a fliort tail, / 
long ears \ 

Four toes before, five 
behind; tufted ears; 
long tail, covered 
with long hairs dif- 
pofed horizontally 

Four toes before, five 
behind; naked ears; i 
long tail, covered I 
with hair difpofed I 
circularly ~ - J 

Four toes before, five -i 
behind : long taper C 
tail, without hair j 

Five toes before,fivebe. 
hind; along fnout; 
body covered with 
fpines _ - - 

Five toes before, five 
behind ; the fore- 
feet very broad ; the 
hind - feet very - 
fmall; along fnout;! 
no external ears ; \ 
fhort tail - - J 

Five toes before, fivfe-^ 
behind; long fnout; L 
long tail ~ - J 

Five toes on the fore-"] 
feet, connected by j 
thin broad mem- [ 
branes, extending 
to the hind legs, 
and from them to 
the tail ; a flying 
quadruped - - 

XIII. the Hare 87 

XIV. the Squir- 


XV. the Dor- 



XVI. the Rat 97 

XVII. the Hedge- 
hog 106 

XVIII. the Mole 

XIX. the Shrew- 
moufe 112 

V. XX. the Bat 114 


and vegetables lefs requilite, while his creative 
pen adds life and motion to every objedl. 

Frorn hence it may be eafily inferred, that 
an acquaintance with the works of nature is 
equally necefTary to form a genuine and cor- 
red: tafle for any of the above mentioned arts, 
Tafle is no more than a quick fenfibility of 
imagination refined by judgement, and cor- 
redled by experience; but experience is ano- 
ther term for knowledge *, and to judgeof na- 
tural images, we muft acquire the fame know- 
ledge, and by the fame means as the painter, 
the poet, or the fculptor. 

Thus far natural hiftory in general feems 
eonne<fted with the polite arts; but were we 
to defcend into all its particular ufes in com- 
mon life, we fhould exceed the bounds of a 
preface : it will be therefore necefTary to con- 
fine our inquiries to the invefligation of a 
fingle part of the material world, which few 
are fo ignorant as not to know is divided into 
the animal, vegetable, and foflil kingdoms. 

Vafl would be the extent of the inquiries 
into each of thefe; but tho' ambition may 
tempt us to pervade the whole field of fcience, 
yet a little experience will open to our views 
the immenfe. tra<5ls of natural knowlege, and 
we fhall find it an arduous tafk only to in- 
veftigate a fingle province, fo as to fpeak with 
precifion and certainty ; without which there 
can be no real improvements in natural hiflory. 

* See the eflay o^i the origin of our ideas of the fublime 

and beautiful. 



For thefe reafons, a partial examination of 
this fcience is all that a confiderate mind will 
aim at, which may perhaps be moil naturally 
guided to give the preference to the mofl 
exalted fubjecft of it. 

Zoology is the nobleft part of natural hiflor 
ry, as it comprehends all feniitive beings, 
from reafoning man, through eycry fpecies of 
animal life, till it delcends to that point where 
fenfe is wholly extindt, and yegetation corn- 
mences : and certainly none will deny, that 
life, and voluntary motion are fuperior to a 
'mere vegetating principle, or the more inadtjve 
itate of the foflil kingdom. 

Should wc follow the train of refledtion^ 
which naturally arife from the contemplation 
of animals, they would fwell this preface into 
a volume : and (hould we only mention the 
various ufes o^ Britijh animals in common life 
yet even thefe would greatly exceed the bounds 
to which we have thought it right to limit 
ourfelves. The knowlege of Dicetetics is a 
neceffary branch of medecine, as by a proper 
attention to that article, an obftinate diflem-^ 
per maybe eradicated, when comqion rem^edies 
,fiave failed J but this can never be attained, 
.without the fludy of Zoology, which affifts 
lis greatly in learning the different qualities 
of animal foodj and how far a difference 
of -nutriment may cor\.tribute to cure the 

Cloathing Is effential, not only to our com- 
fort, but fubfiHence; and the number of our 




manuf allures, relative to this fingle article, 
demand our care for their extenfion and im- 
provement; efpecially as the .maintenance of 
thoufands depends on thefe important branches 
of commerce; yet thefe may be enlarged, 
by difcovering new properties in animals, or 
"by the farther cultivation of thofe already dif- 
covered. The fcience of Zoology is requifite 
for eacli of thefe; and if we reiledt but a lit- 
tle on the unwearied diligence of our rivals 
-the French,, we fhould attend to every iifter 
fcience that may any ways preferve our fupe- 
xiority in manufactures and commerce. 
-..■^ Domeilic occonomy is an obje<fL of equal 
;CC>nfequence; and the author * of the Calejidar 
of 'Plora has eitabiiihed the ufes of Zoology 
in this particular, with undeniable evidence. 
This excellent writer has united a happy in- 
vention, with the moft folid judgment, and 
•certainly merits the higheft commendations, as 
a friend of human kind. Our ingenious coun- 
tryman, Mr. Stilli?2gfleet, in the fame year has 
"purfued almofl: the fame plan as far as his 
iime would permit, with equal fuccefs, and 
manifcftly proved the utility of the projed:, 
-in a learned difcourfe prefixed to his work-f-. 
If then Zoology can fuggefl fo many hints 
towards enlarging and improving our manu- 
;fad:ures and agriculture; we (hall not think 
,Durtime mifapplied, in offering tothepublick, 

* Jlex. Mai. Berger. 

t Swedijh tra&j tranflated from the armv^i, Acad. 2d Edi- 



the NATURAL HISTORY of the ^adru^ 
deds and Birds of GREAT-BRITAIN and 
IRELAND. This compilation had its pecu- 
liar difficulties 5 but the labor of travelling thro* 
a dry arrangement of the fubjeft, was very 
frequently alleviated by the beautiful fpecimens 
we met with in our progrefs : befides, we own 
with pleafure that \7e have been greatly aided 
by the lovers of natural hiflory, who fince the 
appearance of the firft edition have contributed 
to enrich the prefent with feveral valuable ob- 
fervations ', by colledting and digefting thefe 
materials, we have not only rendered the work 
more complete, but are alfo encouraged to trace 
the Britip Zoology thro' fome of the remaining 
claffes, with all poffible fpeed. 

Let therefore every merit that may appear 
in the prefent edition, and every error that 
may have been fuppreffed from the former, 
be attributed to the kind informations we have 
received from our learned and ingenious 
friends j among whom we are ambitious of 
naming, the honourable Mr. 'Dairies Barring- 
toriy William Confiable, efq; Banks, efqs 
Benjamin Stillingjieet, efq; the Reverend Doc- 
tor Williafn Borlafe, Thotnas Falconer^ efq; c^ 
Cbejler, Thomas T'ojield q^ TorkJJjire, efq; Mr. 
Flymly of Longnor, Shropjhire, Mr. Thofnas 
Bolton, of Worlyclouh, Torkjhire, the Reverend 
Mr. Farrington of Dynas, Caernarvonjhire^ 
Owen Holland, efq; of Conway, Henry Seymer, 
efq; of Hanford, Wilts, DoOiorLy/ons of Glo- 
ccjier. Doctor Colander, of the Mufeum, Mr. 


PREFACE. xiii 

Peter CoJUnfon, the Reverend Mr. White of Se/^ 
born^ Hants -y and that Father of Britijh Orni- 
thologifts Mr. George Edwards of the college 
of Phyficians. 

In the profecution of our plan, we fhall, to 
avoid the perplexity, arifing from forming a 
new fyftem, adopt (as far as relates to the ^ia~ 
drupeds and Birds) that of the ineflimable 
Kay, who advanced the ftudy of nature far be- 
yond all that went before him j and whofe abi- 
lities, integrity, and mildnefs, were no lefs an 
ornament to the human fpecies in general, than 
to his own country in particular. Yet, as this 
excellent man was in a manner the founder of 
fyftematic Zoology, fo later difcoveries have 
made a few improvements on his labors : where 
ever then he is miftaken in the arrangement of 
animals," we fhall follow the method of M. 
Brijfon; whofe merit, as a fyftematic writer 
is not yet known; or at left, not fufficiently 
aeknowleged among us *. 

We hayt, in our defcriptions, wholly omit- 
ted the anatomy of animals ; as that part, 
unlefs executed with the greateft fkill, would 
be no fmall blemifh to the reft of this per- 
formance j but the reader may judge of the 
extent of our plan, by the following heads : the 
charadler of the genus ftiall iirft be mentioned : 
then the fpecific name : the lynonyms from 
different authors ; and the genera in which 
thofe authors have placed the animal. The 

* Le Regne Animal. Paris 1756. 4to. Ornithologie, 
contenant la divifion des oyfeauXj ^c. Paris 1760J 1762, 
6 torn,. 4to. 

♦ names 


names fliall be given in feverai European lan- 
guages *; and we fhall conclude with a brief, 
but fufficient defcription, adding at the fame 
time, the various ufes, and natural hiilory of 
each individual. 

If this plan fucceeds, in promoting the 
knowledge of nature in this kingdom, we 
fliall think ourfelves amply rewarded. Could 
our exhortations avail, we fhould recommend 
this iliudy mod earneflly to every country gen- 
tleman. To thofe of an adiive turn, we might 
fay, that fo plealing and ufeful an employ- 
ment would relieve the fadium arifinp; from a 
famenefs of diveriionsj every obje6t would 
produce fome new obfervation, and while they 
might feem only to gratify themfelves with a 
prefent indulgence, they would be laying up 
a fund of ufeful knowle^e; thev would find 
their ideas infenlibly enlarged, till they com- 
prehended the whole of domeftic ceconomy, 
and the wife order of Providence. 

To thofeof afedentary difpotion, this ftudy 
would not only prove agreeable, but falutary : 
men of that turn of mind are with difficulty 
drawn from their books, to partake of the ne- 
cellary enjoyments of air and exercife^ and 
even when thus compelled, they profit lefs by 

* In the ornithology the European names are prefixed to 
the author referred to in the fynonyms, 
Italian to Aldrovand, Olina, or Zinanni. 

French BrifTon 

German Gefner or Kramer 

Swedifl) the Fauna Suecica 

Dan'ijh and Norwegian Brunnich. 




E are now to confider the clafs of reptiles, 
which are, for the moft part, obje6ls of de- 
teftation ; but however the opinion of the world 
may be, if a writer undertakes a general hillory of 
animals, he muft include them : they form at left 
one link in the chain of beings, and may therefore 
be viewed with a degree of plealure by a philofo- 
-phlc eye. 

But notwithftanding the prejudice againft this 
clafs is almoft univerfal, is it founded on reafon ? In 
fome it may be owned that the outward form is 
difagreeable, while the noxious qualities of others 
are juftly produ<5live of terror : but are we on that 
account to rejedl them ? The more fatal they are, 
the more deeply we Ihould enquire into their effefts, 
that we may be capable of relieving thofe who are 
fufferers, and fecure others from the fame misfor- 
tune. But if we duly weigh their noxious qualities, 
we fliall, with our moral poet, find 

" 411 partial evil univerfal good'^ 

The teeth of wild beafls, and of ferpents, are 
not only created as inftmments of vengeance, but 
are falutary in lelTening the numbers of thofe ani- 
mals which are highly ufeful in the degree, and only 
hurtful in their excefs •, but if their bad qualities 
are ferviceable, we are more indebted to their good 
ones than we chufe to acknowlege. 

* A ' Buf 

- L ^ J 

But, many of the animals that form this clafs arc 
of immediate benefit to mankind. The Turtle, or 
Sea-Tortoife, fiipplies the torrid zone with a whole- 
fome and delicious food, as the epicures of our own 
country can attefb. Frogs are a food in feveral 
parts, as Lizards and Serpents are in others. 

The medicinal virtues of the Viper are partly ex- 
ploded by the moderns, but time, the overthrower 
of fyftems, as well as empires, may reftore it to 
the rank h held with the antients. The Lacerta 
Scincus is, however, yet efteemed in the Eafi for its 
lalubnous qualities, and even Toads have contri- 
buted to the eale of patients in the mofl inveterate 
of all difeafes. ^ 

Had I follov.ed Linn^us, and included the Carti- 
laginous F'lfh in this clals, there would have been 
ample room for panegyric, for it is very doubtful 
whether any are pernicious ; but the ufes of many, 
either as food or for mechanical purpofes, were never 

But if the external figure of the reptile tribe is 
difgufting, they have one general beauty, an apt 
configuration of parts for their way of life, nor are 
they deflitute of their peculiar graces : the fine dif- 
pofition of plates in the fhell of the Tortoife, with 
the elegant fymmetry of their colors, muft ftrike 
even common obfervers, while the eye of the de- 
ipifed Toad has a luftre denied to more pleafing 
forms. The frolicfbme agility of Lizards enlivens 
the dried banks in hot climates, and the great affec- 
tion which fome of them fnew to mankind, fhould 

farther engage our regard and attention. 


[ XI ] 

The wreathing of the Snake, with the vivid die 
of its lldn, are certainly graceful, tho' from the 
dread of fome particular fpecies which are venemous, 
we have acquired an antipathy for the whole. The 
antients, who confidered the Serpent as an emblem 
of health, could alTociate pleafing ideas vv^ith this 
animal. We therefore find it an ornament at every 
entertainment, and in every fcene of mirth, both 
in painting and in fculpture. Virgil adopted this 
notion, and has accordingly defcribed it with every 
beauty both of form and color, 

Adytis cum liibricus unguis ah imis 
Sept em ingens gyros^ feptena volumina traxii ; 
Amplexus placide tumtdum, lapfufque per aras i 
Ccerulece cui terga notde^ macuhfus et auro 
Squamam incendebat fidgor ; ceu nubibus arms 
Milk trahit varios adverfo fole calores, 

V, 84.' 

From the deep tomb, with many a ftiining fold. 
An azure ferpent rofe, in fcales that flam'd with goldt 
Like heaven's bright bow his varying beauties Ihone 
That draws a thoufand colors from the fun : 
Pieas'd round the altars and the tomb to wind. 
His glittering length of volumes trails behind. 


But if after all fome lively writer Ihould purflie 
the Naturalifts with more wit than argument, and 
more humor than good-nature, it fhould be endured 
with patience. Ridicule is, however, not the tefi: 
of truth, tho' when joined to fatyr, it feldom fails 

*A 2 of 

[ xii ] 

of reducing the many who had rather laugh than 
think. Should this prove the cafe in the prefent 
inftance, let the author be allowed to {]<:reen him- 
feif from cenfure, by faying he writes not to the 
many, but the few j to thofe alone who can examine 
the parts with a view to the whole^ and who fcorn 
to defpife even the moft deformed, or the moft mi- 
nute work of an all-wife Creator. 


I. Tortoife i 

IL Frog 3 

HI. Lizard 13 

JV. Serpent i7 



Clafs III. 


Genus I. Body covered eitner with a fhell or flrong 
hide, divided by futures j four fin-like 
feet ; a Ihort tail. Tortoise. 


Teftudo coriacea five Mercurii gulis feptem exaratis. Lin. 

Rondel. 450 ? Ge/nerpi/c. 946 ? Jyji. 3 50. 

Teftudo coriacea ? Teftudope- Turtle. BorlafeCormuali, 2^^. 

dibus pinniformibus muti- Piatt 27. 

cis, tefta coriacea, Cauda an- 

THIS fpecies (if the tefiudo coriacea) feems com- 
mon to the Mediterranean., and to our fouthera 
feas, and is not, as far as we know, difcovered in 
any other. 

Two were taken on the coaft of Cornwall in the 
mackrel nets, of a vaft fize, a little after Midfiim- 
mer i jc^G-, the largeft weighed eight hundred pounds, 
the lefler near feven hundred. 

Doftor Borlafe firft pubhlhed thefe animals to the 
world, and difcovered them in our feas. 

B Hf 


He defcribes them as having feven fpiny or fer-, 
rated ridges running from the head to the tail, di-e- 
viding the iipper part of the back into equal parts. 

The fore legs, as appear by his figure, are remark- 
ably long and narrow, flat, fmooth, and flefliy, being 
deftitute of fcales. The color of their upper fide 
bluifn, their under fide, as well as that of the neck, 
ruddy, fpeckled with black. 

We fufped an error in the number of the hind 
legs, the figure being reprefented with four, an ex- 
cefs we never have met with in any of this genus. 

The head is painted extremely fmall, in propor-i, 
tion to the fize of the animal, whofe length was fix 
Sire. feet nine inches, and breadth from the tip of one 
fore leg to that of the other ten feet four inches. 

The covering of this fpecies is compared to that 
of the Tejiudo coriacea of Rondeletius^ which has an 
integument refembling a tough ftrong hide; and 
what is very fingular, neither that of the Cornijh fpe- 
cies, nor yet that of the French naturalift, feem by 
the figures to be divided into angular compartments 
by tranfverfe futures, like the lliells of all tortoifes 
we have ever met with. But the hiftory of this kind 
remains fi:ill very obfcure : it is therefore to be wilhr 
cd, thj^t particular attention be paid to the next that 
is taken on our coafls \ and that obfervation be made 
whether the covering is cruftaceous or coriaceous, 
that we may be afliired that thefe were the European 
kind, not the American •, it feeming not improbable 
but they might be a couple that had efcaped out of 
fome JVeJl India fiiip that had foundered, or been 
^caJ(l away near the Cornijh coail^ 



Oenus IL Body naked. 

Four legs, the feet divided into toes. 
No tail, Froos^ 


liocrooc^^, Ariji. Bifi. an. Wafler Frofche. Meyir ax. I, 

lib.'vf. C. ix. tah. 52. 

LaGrenoille. Belonpoifom, 48. Rana temporarla. R. doribpla-? 

Rana fluviorum. ^wdfe/. 217. niufculo fubangulato. Lix, 

Rana aquatica innoxia. Ge/ner Jy[i. 357. 

quad. ovip. 46. Jquaiil. 805. Groda, Fro, KlafTa, Faun, 

Rana aquaticftt Rati Jyn quad, faec. No. 1 02. 

447. Rana, Gromv. Zotph. No, 62, 

SO common and well-known an animal requires 
no defcrjption ; but fome of its properties are 
fo fingular that we cannot pafs them unnoticed. 

Its fpring or power of taking large leaps is remarks 
ably great, and it is the beil fwimmer of all four- 
footed animals. Nature hath finely adapted its parts for 
thofe ends, the fore members of the body being very 
lightly made, the hind legs and thighs very long, 
and furnilhed with very ftrong mufcles, 

While in a tadpole ftate it is entirely a water-ani* 
rnal i the work of generation is performed in that 
element, as may be feen in every pond during Ipring; 
when the female remains opprefTed by the male for 
a number of days. 

The work of propagation is extremely fingular. Genera. 
it being certain that the frog has not a penis intrans ^ ^"''' 
there appears a ftrong analogy in this cafe between 
SI certain cjafs of the vegetable kingdom and thofc 
£ % animaUi 


animals j for it is well known, that when the female 
frog depofits its fpawn, the male inftantaneoufly im- 
pregnates it with what we may call 2. farina fee cundam^ 
in the fame manner as the male Falm tree conveys 
frudlification to the flowers of the female, which 
would otherwife be barren *. 

As foon as the frogs are releafed from their tad- 
pole ftate they immediately take to land •, and if the 
weather has been hot, and there fall any refrefhing 
(howers, you may fee the ground for a confiderable 
fpace perfedlly blackened by Myriads of thefe ani- 
malcules, feeking for fome fecure lurking places. 
Some philofophers** not giving themfelves time to 
examine into this phsenomenon, imagined them to 
have been generated in the clouds, and fhowered on 
the earth -, but had they, like our Derham f , but 
traced them to the next pool, they would have 
found a better folution of the difficulty. 

As frogs adhere clofely to the backs of their ov/n 
fpecies, fo we know they will do the fame by filh : 
Walion J mentions a ftrange ftory of their deflroying 
pike i but that they will injure, if not entirely kill 
carp, is a fa6t indifputable, from the following rela- 
tion : a very few years ago on fifhing a pond belong- 
ing to Mr. P;V, of Encomh^ DorfetfJjire, great num- 
bers of the carp were found each with a frog mount- 
ed on it, the hind legs clinging to the back, the 
fore legs fixed in the corner of each eye of the filh, 
which were thin and greatly wafted, teized by car- 

• Shaivh Travels., 224. Hajfelquifi Tram. Engl. Ed. 416, 

** Rondeletius, 2 1 6. iVormiiMuJ. 327. 

f RafiPFi/domCreat, 316. % Comphie Anghr, 161, 



Tying fo difagreeable a load. Thefe frogs we ima- 
gine to have been males difappointed of a mate. 

The croaking of frogs is well known, and from 
that in fenny countries they are diftinguifhed by lu- 
dicrous titles^ thus they are ftiled Butch Nightingales 
and Bojion Wattes ; even the Stygian frogs have not 
efcaped notice, for Arificphanes hath gone farther, 
and formed a chorus of them. 

Erekekex, coax, coax, 
Brekekex, coax, coax. 
The offspring of the pools and fountains. 

Yet there is a time of year when they become 
mute, neither croaking nor opening their mouths' for f^fsi?' 
a whole month : this happens in the hot feafon, and ien<=e' 
that is in many places known to the country people 
by the name of the Paddvck Moon. 

Morton*^ endeavours to find a reafon for their filence, 
but tho' his fafts are true, he is unfortunate in his 
philofophy. Frogs are certainly endued (as he well 
obferved) with a power of living a good while under 
water without refpiration, which is owing to their 
lungs being compofed of a feries of bladders : but 
he miflakes the nature of air, when he affirms that 
they receive a quantity of cool air, and dare not open 
their mouths for a month, from a dread of admitting 
a warmer into their lungs. It is hardly neceffary to 
fay, that in whatever ftate the air was received, it 

* Cemsdy of the Frogs. ** Hijf. Northamp. 441. 

B 3 would 

i COMMON FROG* Clafs lit 

would afTimilate itfelf to the external atmofphere in 
a fiiort time. We mufl leave the fact to be ac* 
counted for by farther experiments. But from 
what we do know, we may partly vindicate Theophraf* 
iuSj and other antients, about the filenGe of the frogs 
at SeriphiiS. That philofopher affirms it, but af- 
tribes it to th.t coldnefs of the waters in that ifland ; 
Now when Monfieur Tournefort Was there, the wa- 
ters were lukewarm, and the frogs had recovered 
their voices *. Is it not probable that ^heophrafiui 
might be at Seriphus at that feafon when the frogs 
were mute, and having never obferved it elfewhere, 
might conclude their filence to be general as to the 
time, but particular as to the place. JSlian**, who 
quotes Theophrajius for the laft paflage, afcribes the 
fame filence to the frogs of the lake Pierus in Thef- 
faly, and about Cyrene in Africa : but he is fo un- 
certain a writer, that we cannot affirm whether th^ 
Ipecies of the African frogs is the fame with ours. 
Swii, Thefe, as well as all other reptiles, feed but a 

fmall fpace of the year. The food of this genus is 
flies, infeds, and fnails. Toads are faid to feed alfo 
on bees, and to do great injury to thofe ufeful in- 

During winter frogs and toads remain in a torpid 
ilate : the laft of which will dig into the earth and 
cover themfelves with almoft the fame agility as th^ 

• Tournef art's vpy, I. 142, 
•• ^lian lib* iii. ib, 35, 37, 

n. The 



Rana gibbofa. Gefmr pifc, Ri corpofe angulato, dorfo 

809, tranfverfe gibboj abdomin* ^ 

kana efculenta. Lin.JyJl.'^^'j. marginato. Ibid, 
Faun, fuse. No. zig. 

THIS differs fforrt the former irl haviftg a high 
protuberance in the middle of the back, form- 
ing a very fharp angle. Its colors are alfo more 
vividj and its marks more diftind -, the ground co- 
lor being a pale or yellowifii green, marked with rows 
of black fpots from the head to the rump* 

This and, we think, the former are eaten. We EataWc. 
have feen in the markets at Paris whole hampers 
full, which the venders were preparing for the table 
by llcinning and cutting off the fore parts, the loins 
and legs only being kept. Our flrong diflike to 
thefe reptiles, prevented a clofe examination into the 

III. The T O A D. 

^fuv^* Arjji. Hifi. an. lib. Bufo rubetarum. Kltin quad, 

ix. c. I. 40. 122. 

Bufo. Virg. Georg.I. 184. Ru- Rana Bufo. R. corpore ven- 

beta. Plin. lib. w'iu. c. 31. tricofo, verrucofo lurido fuf- 

Rubeta fc Phrynum. Gejngr coque. Lin. fyft. 354. 

pifc. 807. Rondel, 222. Padda, Tafla. Faun.Juec. No, 

Bufo five Rubeta. Raii Jyn<. ^75. 

quad. 252. Grono'V. Zooph. Ne. 64. 

THE moft defotmed and hideous of all ani- 
mals ; the body broad, the back flat, and co- 
vered with a pimply dulky hide •, the belly large, 
B 4 fwagging, 

« T O A D. Clafslir. 

fwagging, and fweliing out ; the legs fhort, and its 
pace labored and crawling : its retreat gloomy and 
filthy : in fhort, its general appearance is fuch as to 
flrike one with difguft and horror •, yet we have been 
told by thofe who have refolution to view it with at- 
tention, that its eyes are fine : to this it feems that 
Shake/pear alludes, when he makes his Juliet remark. 

Some fay the lark and loathed toad change eyes. 

As if they would have been better bellowed on fo 
charming a fongfter than on this raucous reptile. 

But the hideous appearance of the toad is fuch as ^ 
to make this one advantageous feature overlooked, 
and to have rendered it in all ages an objed of hor- 
ror, and the origin of moft tremendous inventions. 
jEliiin* makes its venom fo potent, th^t Ba/tlijj^-\\kc 
it conveyed death by its very look and breath i but 
Juvenal is . content with making the Reman ladies, 
who were weary of their hufbands, form a potion 
from its entrails**, in order to get rid of the good 

Occurrit Matrona potens, qux mollc calenura 
Porreftura viro mifcet iitieate rubetam. Sat. I. 62. 

To quench the hulband's parching thirfl, is brought 
By the great Dame, a moft deceitful draught ; 
In rich calenian wine fhe does infufe, 
(To eafe his pains) the toad's envenom'd juice. 

This opinion begat others of a more dreadful na- 
ture ; for in after-times fuperftition gave it preterna- 

* Hifi, an. lib. ix. c. ll. 
f* Sat. vi. 658. Vide ^lian Hijl. an. lib, xvU, c. 12 and 15. 


ClafsIII. T O A D. 9 

tutal powers, and made it a principal ingredient m 
the incantations of nodiirnal hags : 

Toad that under the cold ftone. 
Days and nights, has thirty-cue, 
Swelter'd venom fleeping got, 
Boil thou, frji V th' charmed pot. 

We know by the poet that this charm was in- 
tended for a defign of the firft confideration, that of 
raifmg the dead from their repofe, and bringing be- 
fore the eyes of Macbeth a hateful fecond-fight of 
the profperity of Banquo^s line. 

This Ihews the mighty powers attributed to this, 
animal by the dealers in the magic art i but the 
powers our poet indues it with, are far fuperior ta 
thofe than Gefner afcribes to it : Sbakefpear\ witches 
ufed it to difturb the dead j Gefner^s, only to ftill the 
living, t// vim coeundi ni fallor^ in viris toUerent *. 

We may add here another fuperftition in relpeft "^"^f- 
to this animal : it was believed by fome old writers 
to have a ftone in its head, fraught with great vir- 
tues medical and magical: it was diftinguilhed by the 
name of the Reptile, and called the 'Toad-Stone^ Bufo- 
mies, Crafaudine, Krottenjiein **•, but all its fancied 
powers vanifhed on the difcovery of its being nothing 
but the foffil tooth of the fea wolf^ or of fome flat- 
toothed fifh, not unfrequent in our ifland, as well a^ 
feveral other countries ; but we may well excufe this 
tale, fmce Sbakefpear has extraded from it a fimik 
of uncommon beauty : 

* Hiji. quad. ovip. 72. 

** Bait, di Beat. d$ Lap. et Ctm, 301. 303. 

%0 TOAD. CkfsIIt 

Sweet are the ufes of adverfity, 

"Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous, 

Wears yet a precious jewel in his head. 

But thefe fables have been long exploded : we 
(hall now return to the notion of its being a poifon* 
ous animal, and deliver as our opinion, that its ex- 
ceflive deformity, joined to the faculty it has of 
emitting a juice from its pimples, and a dufky li-^ 
quid from its hind parts, is the foundation of the 

That it has any noxious qualities we have been 
unable to bring proofs in the fmalleft degree fatis- 
fadlory, tho' we have heard many ftrange relations 
on that point. 

On the contrary, we know feveral of our friends 
who have taken them in their naked hands, and 
Not poi- held them long without receiving the left injury : It 
is alfo well known that quacks have eaten them, and 
have befides fqueezed their juices into a glafs, and 
drank them with impunity. 

We may fay alfo, that thefe reptiles are a common 
food to many animals ; to buzzards^ owls, Norfolk 
j)lovers, ducks, and fnakes^ who would not touch 
them were they in any degree noxious. 

So far from having venomous qualities, they have 
of late been confidered as if they had beneficent 
ones. We wifh, for the benefit of mankind, that 
we could make a favorable report of the many at- 
tempts of late to cure the moft terrible of difeafes 
the cancer^ by the application of live toads ; but, 


ClafsIII. TOAD. It 

alas, they feem only to have rendered a horrible 
complaint more loathfome. 

In a word, we may confider the toad as an animal 
that has neither good nor harm in it j that being a 
defencelefs creature, nature has furniflied it, inflead 
of arms, with a moft difgufting deformity, that 
ftrikes into almoft every Being capable of annoying 
it, a ftrong repugnancy to meddle with fo hideous 
and threatening an appearance. 

The time of their propagation is very early in Genen. 
the fpring : at that feafon the females are feen crawl- ^^^ 
ing about opprelTed by the males, who continue on 
them for fome hours, and adhere fo fail as to tear ;^> ^^^ 
the very Ikin from the Parts they flick to. We ■'^■^/^-" ^:^ 
are uncertain whether they are viviparous : Linn^us 
fays they are, and diverts us with a report he had 
heard, that the male ads the midwife to the female '\ 
in parturition. 

To conclude this account with the marvellous, thi$ 
animal is faid to have often been found in the midft 
of folid rocks, and even in the centre of growing 
trees, imprifoned in a fmall hollow, to which there 
was not the leaft adit or entrance ** : how the ani^ 
mal breathed, or how it fubfifted (fuppofing th? 
poflibility of its confinement) is pafl our compre- 
henfion. P/o/'s f folution of this phenomenon is far 
from fatisfadory ; yet as we have the great Bacon\\_ 
authority for the fadl, we do oot entirely deny our 
affent to it. 

' Syfi. Nat. 355. *• Plet't HiJI, Staff, 347. f P. 249* 
I Hat. Hifi, Cent, VI, Exj>, 570. 

W. Th« 

12 NATTER JACK. Clafs IV. 


RanaRubeta? Lin,f]Ji.'i,<^i,. R. corpore verrucofo, ano ob- 
Faun. fuec. No. loi. tufo fubtus pundato. /W. 

THIS fpecies frequents dry and fandy places: 
it is found on Putney Common, and alfo near 
Kevejhy Ahhy, Lincolnjhire, where it is called the 
Natter Ja<:k. It never leaps, neither does it crawl 
with the flow pace of a toad, but its motion is liker 
to running. Several are found commonly together, 
and, like others of this genus, they appear in the 

The upper part of the body is of a dirty yel- 
low, clouded with brown, and covered with porous 
pimples of unequal fizes : on the back is a yellow 

The under fide of the body is of a paler hue, 
marked with black fpots, which are rather rough. 

On the fore feet are four divided toes j on the 
hind five, a little webbed. 

The length of the body is two inches and a quar- 
ter-, the breadth, one and a quarter: the length of 
the fore legs one inch one-fixth j of the hind legs, 
two inches. 

We are indebted to Joje-^h Banks, efq-, for this 


Clafsin. SCALY LIZARD. tj 

Genus III, Slender naked body : four legs : 
divided toes on each : 
very long tail. Lizards. 

I. The S C A L Y L I Z A R D. 

Lscertus terreftris lutea fqua- Odla, Fyrfot. Faun>fuec. Ne. 

mofaanglica. Rail fyn. quad. 284. 

264. Lacerta. Cronov. Zooph. No. 

Plot's Hift. Staff. 252. fab. 22. 60. 

Lacerta agilis? L.cauda verti- LittleBrownLIzard.S'^^u. 225. 

cillata longiufcula fquamis Padzher pou. Borlafa Cer»- 

acutis,col]arifubtu3 fquamis •wall, 2S4. tal>. 28. 

conllrufto. Lin.fyjl. 363. 

THOSE we have feen differ in color, but agree 
in all other refpedts with the fpecies defcribed 
by Doftor Vlot. Their length from the nofe to the 
hind legs was three inches j from thence to the end 
of the tail three and three quarters. 

Along the back was a black lift ; each fide of that 
a brown one : then fucceeded a narrow ftripe, fpot- 
ted alternately yellow and brown ; beneath that a 
broad black one ; thofe ended a little beyond the 
hind legs. The belly was yellow, and the fcales 
large but even. The fcaies on the back fmall ; on 
the tail the ends projefted : thofe on the latter were 
varied with black and brown. 

The legs and feet were dufky \ on each foot were 
five toes, furniihed with claws. 




This fpecies is extremely nimble : in hot weathef 
it bafks on the fides of dry banks, or of old trees i 
but on being obferved immediately retreats to its 

The food of this fpecies, as of all the other Englijh 
lizards, is infe6ls : they themfelves of birds of prey. 
Each of our lizards are perfectly harmlefs •, yet their 
form is what ftrikes one with difguft, and has occa- 
fioned great obfcurity in their hiftory. 
Odier Related to this fpecies is the Guernfey lizard, which 

we are informed has been propagated in England 
from fome originally brought from that ifland. Wc 
have alfo heard of a green lizard frequent nearF<2r«- 
ham, which probably may be of that kind : but the 
moft uncommon fpecies we ever met with any ac- 
count of, is that which was killed near Wofcot^ in 
the parilh of Swinford^ Worcejterjhire^ in 1 741, which 
was two feet fix inches long, and four inches in 
girth. The fore legs were placed eight inches from 
iht head ; the hind legs five inches beyond thofe : 
the legs two inches long : the feet divided into four 
toes, each furnifhed with a fharp claw. Another 
was killed at Penbury^ in the fame county. Whe- 
ther thefe are not of exotic defcent, and whether the 
breed continues, is what wc are at prefent unin- 
formed of. 

n. The 



tacertus aquaticus. Gefmr Skrot-abborre, Gruffgrabbe. 

quad.cvip.^X. Faun. fuec. No. 2%l. 

Salamandra aquatica. Rati Lacerta Araencana. Set. Muf, 

fyn. quad. 273. I. tab. ig. Jig- 4, 5. 

J^acertapaluftris. L. Cauda Ian- Salamandra alepidota verru- 

ceolata mediocri, pedibus cofa. Gronov, Zooph. No* 

muticis palmis tetradaftylis. 47. 

litt./yjl. 370. 

THE length of this fpecies was fix inches and an 
half, of which the tail was three and a 

The irides yellow : the head and beginning of the 
back flat, and covered with fmall pimples or warts, of 
^ dark dufky color ; the fides with white ones : the 
belly, and the fide of the tail, was of a bright yel* 
low i the firft fpotted with black. 

The tail was comprefTed fideways, and very thin 
t;owards the upper edge, and llender towards the end. 

The fore ittt divided into four toes ; the hind in- 
to five ; all without nails, dulky fpotted with yellow* 

Its pace is flow and crawling, 

This Ipecies we have frequently feen in the fl:ate 
we defcribe, but are uncertain whether we ever met 
with it under the form of a larve. We have more 
than once found under fl:ones and old logs, fome very 
minute young lizards that had much the appear^ 
^nce of this kind : they were perfed:ly formed, and 
had not the leafl; vefl:iges of fins •, fo that circum* 
^ance joined to their being found in a dry place, re- 
(Tiote from wat^r, makes u$ imagine them to have 



never been inhabitants of that element, as it is cer- 
tain many of our lizards are in their firil ftate. 

At that period they have a fin above and below 
their tail •, that on the upper part extends along the 
back as far as the head, but both drop off as foon 
as the animal takes to the land, being then no lon- 
ger of any ufe. 

Befides thefe circumftances that attend them in 
form of a larve^ Mr. Ellis'^ has remarked certain 
pennated fins at the gills of one very common in 
moft of our ftagnating waters, and which is fre- 
quently obferved to take a bait like a fifh. 


Lacertus vulg. terrefirls ven- latis, palmis tetrad aftylis, 

tre nlgro maculate. Rait dorfo linea duplici fufca, 

Jyn. quad. 264. Lin Jyfl. 370. Faun, fuec. 

L. vulgaris. L. cauda tereti No, 183. 
jnediocri, pcdibus unguicu- 

THIS is three inches long: the body {lender; 
the tail long, flightly compreiTed, fmall and 
taper -, that and the upper part of the body of a 
pale brown, marked on each fide the back with a 
narrow black line reaching to the end of the tail : 
the belly of a pale yellow, marked with fmall dufky 
fpots ; the toes formed like thofe of the preceding. 

• Fhil. Tfan. vol. LVI. /. 191. 

IV. The 


Clafslli. VIPER. 17 


Lacertus parvus terreftris fafcus oppido rarus. Raii/yn. quad. 264. 

THIS fpecies is mentioned by Mr. Ray in his 
lift of the Englijh lizards, without any other 
defcription than is comprehended in the fynonym, 


Lacertus terreftris anguifonnis in ericetis. Raiijjn, quad. 264. 

WE remain alfo in the fame obfcurity in ref- 
pe6t to this fpecies^ It feems to be of 
that kind which connefls the ferpent and lizard ge- 
nus, having a long and very flender body, and very 
fmall legs. Such are the Seps or Lacerta Chalcidica 
of Rail fyn. quad. 272, the Lacerta anguina of Lin- 
naus^ 371, or that figured by Seha^ torn. ii. tah. 6Z, 
under the name of Vermis ferpentiformis. 

Genus IV. Long and flender bodies, covered with 
fcaly plates : no feet. Serpent. 

I. The VIPER. 

^Epil^j?. Arift.EiJi. an. lib.vX.c.v. Coluber Berus. Lin.fyji. 377. 

Vipera. Virg. Gexirg. \\\» \\'] . Hagg-orm. Faun. fiiec. No. 286. 

Plinii, lib. X. c. 42. C. Berus fcutis abdom. 146. 

Vipera. Gefner Serp. 71. fquamis caudae. 39. Ibid. 

Viper or Adder. Raii fyn. quad. Amoen. Acad. I. 527. 

285. Borl. Corn. 2^2. tab. 2S. 

VIPERS are found in many parts of this ifland, 
but the dry, ftony, and, in particular, the 
chalky countries abound with them. 

C They 

i:8 V I P E R. ClafsIIL 

They are viviparous, not but that they are hatch- 
ed from an internal egg-, being of that clafs of ani- 
mals, of whofe generation Arijiotle * fays, Ev auroj? 

^iv (aoToaei tJ riXetov cow, t^w «J"e ^woroxet, Z, e. They 

conceive a perfeft egg within, but bring forth their 
young alive. 

Providence is extremely kind in making this Ipe- 
cies far from being prolific, we having never heard 
of more than eleven eggs being found in one viper, 
and thofe are as if chained together, and each about 
the fize of a blackbird's egg. 

The viper grows feldom to a greater length than 
two feet •, tho' once we faw a female (which is nearly 
a third larger than the male) which was almofl three 
feet long. 
Defer. The ground-color of this ferpent is a dirty 
yellow •, that of the female deeper. Its back is 
marked the whole length with a feries of rhomboid 
black fpots, touching each other at the points j the 
fides with triangular ones ; the belly entirely black. 

There is a variety wholly black ; but the rhom- 
boid marks are very confpicuous even in this, being 
of a deeper and more gloffy hue than the reft. Pe- 
tiver calls it the Vi^era Anglica Nigricans. Pet. Muf. 
No. 204**. 

The head of the viper is inflated, which diftin- 

guilhes it from the common fnake. The tongue 

Teeih. forked ; the teeth fmall -, the four canine teeth 

are placed two on each fide the upper jaw : 

thefe inftruments of poifon are long, croojied, and 

* De Gen. an. lib. iii. e. 2. ' 
** Coluber Prefter. Lin.fyji. J77. Bofe. famfutc. Ko. 287. 


ClafsIIL VIPER. 19 

moveable, and can be raifed and deprefled at plea- 
fure •, they are hollow from near the point to their 
bafe, near which is a gland that fecretes, prepares, 
and lodges the poifon ; and the fame ad:ion that 
gives the wounds, forces from this gland, thro' the 
tooth, the fatal juice into it. 

Thefe iflands may be particularly thankful for the 
blefling they enjoy, in being pofTeffed of only one 
venomous animal, and that of a kind which encreafes 
fo little. 

They copulate in May^ and are fuppofed to be 
about three months before they bring forth. 

They are faid not to arrive at their full growth ia 
lefs than fix or feven years •, but that they are ca- 
pable of engendering at two or three. 

We have been often afllired by intelligent people 
of the truth of a fact mentioned by Sir Thomas 
Brown*\ who was far from a credulous writer, that , 
the young of the viper, when terrified, will run down 
the throat of the parent, and feek flielter in its belly 
in the fame manner as the young of the oppojfum 
retire into the ventral pouch of the old one. 

From this fome have imagined that the viper is fb 
unnatural as to devour its own young; we difbelieve 
the fad, it being well Known the food of thefe fer- Fo«i, 
pents is frogs, toads, lizards, mice, and, according 
to Doftor Mead, even an animal fo large as a mole. 
Thefe they fwallow entire ; which if we confider the 
narrownefs of their neck, Ihews it is capable of a 
difteniion hardly credible, had we not Ocular proofs 
of the fa(5t. 

• FuJgar errors^ \l^, 

C 2 Ij 

io viper; Clafs IIL 

It is alfo faid, from good authority, that they 
will prey on young birds ; whether on fuch as neftle 
on the ground, or whether they climb up trees for 
them as the Indian ferpents do, we are quite uncer- 
tain ; but we are well affured that this difcovery is 
far from a recent one : 

Ut ajjldens implumihus pullis avis 
Serpent turn allapjus timet *. 

Thus, for its young the anxious bird 
The gliding ferpent fears. 

The viper is capable of fupporting very long ab- 
flinence, it being known that fome have been kept 
in a box fix months without food, yet did not abate 
of their vivacity. They feed only a fmall part of 
the year, but never during their confinement ; for 
if mice, their favorite diet, fhould at that time be 
thrown into their box, tho* they will kill, yet they 
never will eat them. 

The poifon decreafes in violence in proportion to 
the length of their confinement : it muft be alfo 
added the virtues of its flefli (whatfoever they be) 
are at the fame time confiderably lefTened. 

Thefe animals, when at liberty, remain torpid 
throughout the winter ; yet when confined have never 
been obferved to take their annual repofe. 

The method of catching them is by putting a 
clift ftick on or near their head •, after which they 
are feized by the tail, and put inftantly into a bag. 

The viper-catchers are very frequently bit by them 
in the purfuit of their bufinefs, yet we very rarely 

f Hor. Epod. I. 

__._,— hear 

ClarsIII. VIPER. ii 

hear of the bite being fatal. The remedy, if ap- 
plied in time, is very certain, and is nothing elfe but 
fallad oil, which the viper-catchers feldom go with- 
out. The axungia viperina^ or the fat of vipers, is 
alfo another. Dodor Mead fufpefts the efficacy of 
this laft, and fubftitutes one of his own in its place *; 
but we had rather truft to vulgar receipts which per- 
petual trials have fhewn to be infallible. 

The fymptoms of the venom, if the wound is Effefisof 
neglefted, are very terrible : it firft caufes an acute 
pain in the place afFe6ted, attended with a fwelling, 
firft red, afterwards livid, which by degrees fpreads 
to the neighbouring parts ; great faintnefs, and a 
quick tho' low and interrupted pulfe enfue •, great 
ficknefs at the ftomach, bilious convulfive vomitings, 
cold fweats, and fometimes pains about the navel ; 
and in confequence of thefe death itfelf **. But the 
violence of the fymptoms depends much on the 
feafon of the year, the difference of the climate, the 
fize or rage of the animal, or the depth or fituation 
of the wound. 

Dreadful as the effe6ls of its bite may be, yet its 
flefh has been long celebrated as a noble medicine, 
Do6tor Mead cites from Pliny ^ Galen, and other an- ufes. 
tients, feveral proofs of its efficacy in the cure of 
ulcers, the elephantiajls, and other bad complaints. 
He even fays he has feen good effeds from it in an 
obftinate lepra : it is at prefent ufed as a reftorative, 
tho' we think the modern phyficians have no great 
dependence on its virtues. The antients prefcribed 

* EJJay onPoifons, 47. ** Lib. xxix. c, 3. 

C 3 it 

22 VIPER. ClafsIII. 

it boiled, and to be eaten as fifli -, for when frefh, 
the medicine was much more likely to take effed 
than when dried, and given in form of a powder or 

The antient Britons had a ftrange fuperftition in 
refpe6t to thefe animals, and of which there ftill 
remains in Wales a ftrong tradition. The account 
Pliny gives of it is as follows : we fhall not attempt 
a tranflation, it being already done to our hands in 
a fpirited manner by the ingenious Mr. Ma/on, 
which we fhall take the liberty of borrowing. 

Praterea eft ovorum genus in magna Galliarum//:7»^^, 
evnijfum Graecis. Angues innumeri aftate convoluti^ ja- 
l^vis faucium corporumque fpumis artifici complexu glo~ 
fnerantur ; anguinum appellatur. Druids Jtbilis id 
dicunt in fuhlime ja5lari^ fagoque oportere inter cipi^ ne 
tellurem attingot : profugere raptorem equo : ferpentes 
fnim infequi, donee arceantur amnis alicujus interventu* , 

But tell me yet 
From the grot of charms and fpells. 
Where our matron fiiler dwells, 
Brennus, has thy holy hand 
Safely brought the Druid wand. 
And the potent Adder-Jione, 
Gender'd 'fore the autumnal moon ? 
When in undulating twine, 
The foaming fnakes prolific join ; 
When they hifs, and when they bear 
Their wond'rous eg'g aloof in air ; 
Thence before to earth it fall. 
The Druid in his hallow'd pall. 
Receives the prize. 
And inftant flies, 
FoUow'd by the envenom'd brood, 
'Till he crofs the cryftal flood **. 

• Lih. xxix. <•• 3. 

«* Mafon^i Caraiiacus. The perfon fpeaking is a Druid. 


Clafs III. VIPER. 23 

This wondrous egg feems to be nothing more than 
a bead of glafs, ufed by the Druids as a charm to 
impofe on the vulgar, whom they taught to believe, 
that the poflefTor would be fortunate in all his at- 
tempts, and that it would gain him the favor of the 

Our modern Druidejfes give much the fame account 
of the ovUm anguinum^ Glain Neidr^ as the Welch call 
it, or the Adder-Gem^ as the Roman philofopher does, 
but feem not to have fo exalted an opinion of its pow- 
ers, ufing it only to aflift children in cutting their 
teeth, or to cure the chin-cough, or to drive away 
an ague. 

We have fome of thefe beads in our cabinet : 
they are made of glafs, and of a very rich blue color; 
fome are plain, others ftreaked : we fay nothing of 
the figure, as the annexed plate will convey a ftronger 
idea of it than words. 

C 4 11. The 

24 S N A K E.; ClafsIIL 

11. The SNAKE. 

Ei/ii J"^/?. Jriji. Eiji. an. I. f . I . culis diftinftus. Pet. Muf, 
Natrix torquata. Ge/ner. Ser- xvii. No. loi. 

pent. 63. Coluber natrix. Lin. fyji . t^^o. 

Natri^c torquata. Rati Jyn. Tomt-Orm, Snok, Ring-Orm, 

quad. 334. Faun. fuec. No. 2S8, 

Anguis vulgaris fufcus collo C. natrix fcutis abdom, 170. 

£avefcente, ventre albis ma- Squamis caudae, 60. Il>id» 

THE fnake is the largeft of the Englijh fer- 
pents, fometimes exceeding four feet in length: 
the neck is llendeti the middle of the body thickeft ; 

the back and fides covered with fmall fcales, the 
belly with oblong, narrow, tranfverfe plates. The- 
iirft Linnaeus diftinguifhes by the name of fquama, 
the laft he calls fcuta.^ and from them forms his ge- 
nera of ferpents. 

Thofe that have both fquanne and [cut a he calls 
Coluhri \ tho{e thzth2ive only f^uam^^j^ngues. The 
viper and fnake are comprehended in the iirft genns, 
the blind-worm under the fecond •, but we chufe (to 
avoid multiplying our genera) to take in the few 
ferpents we have by a fmgle genus, their marks being 
too evident to be confounded. 
Defer. The color of the back and fides of the fnake are 

dufky or brown ; the middle of the back marked 
with two rows of fmall black fpots running fron^ 
head to tail -, and from them are multitudes of lines 
of fpots croffmg the fides j the plates on the belly 
are dufky, the fcales on the fides of a bluifh white. 

On each fide the neck is a fpot of pale yellow, 
and the bafe of each is a triangular black fpot, one 
angle of which points towards (he tail. 



The teeth are fmall and ferrated> lying each fide 
the jaw in two rows. 

, This fpecies is perfe6lly inofFenfive -, it frequents 
and lodges itfelf among bufhes in moift places, and 
will readily take the water, fwimming very well. 

It preys on frogs, infeds, worms, and mice, and, 
confidering the fmallnefs of the neck, it is amazing 
how large an animal it will fwallow. 

The fjiake is oviparous : it lays its eggs in dung- Egg». 
hills, and in hot-beds, whofe heat, aided by that of 
the fun, promotes the exclufion of the young. 

During winter it lies torpid in banks of hedges, 
and under old trees^ 

III. The B L I N D-W O R M. 

The blind-worm or flow-worm. Long cripple. Borla/e Cortfu}* 

C^eci/iaTjfi^lineGrxcis. Rait 284. ta^. zB. 

fyn. <iuad. z%^. Greiu'sMuf, Anguis fragilis. Lin. fyfi. ^qz* 

48. Ormfla, Koppar-Orm. Faun* 

Cajcilia anglica cinerea fqua- fuec 289. 

mis parvis mollibus, com- A. fragilis fquamis abdominis 

paftis.Pe^.Ma/Ixvii. A^o.ioz. caudsque, 135. Ibid>. 

TH E ufual length of this fpecies is eleven inches : D«fer». 
the irides are red j the head fmall ; the neck 
ftill more (lender ; from that part the body grows 
fuddenly, and continues of an equal bulk to the 
tail, which ends quite blunt. 

The color of the back is cinereous, marked v/ith 
very fmall lines compofed of minute black fpecks ; 
the fides are of a reddifh call \ the belly dulky, both 
marked like the back. 



The tongue is broad and forky ; the teeth mi- 
nute, but numerous ; the fcales fmall. 

The motion of this ferpcnt is flow, from which^ 
and from the fmallnefs of the eyes, are derived its 
names. Like others of the genus, it lies torpid du- 
ring winter, and are fometimes found in vaft num- 
bers twifted together. 

Like the former it is quite innocent. Doftor Bor^ 
lafe mentions a variety of this ferpent with a pointed 
tail; and adds, that he was informed that a man loft 
his life by the bite of one in OxfordJIAre. We are 
inclined to think that his informant miftook the 
black or dufky viper for this kind -, for excepting 
the viper, we never could learn that there was any 
fort of poifonous ferpent in thefe kingdoms, 

[ 27 ] 



Oh Deus ampla tua^ quam funt miracula dextr^ ! 

O quam folerti fingula mente regis ! 
Divite iu gazd terras^ et mejjibus imples ; 

Nee minus ejl vafii fertilis unda maris : 
Squammiger hunc ■peragrat popultis^ prolefque parent-um 

Stipat^ et ingentes turha minuta duces. 


[ 29 ] 



NO gills, an orifice on the top of the head, thro* 
which they breathe, and ejeft water ; a flat 
or horizontal tail; exemplified in the explanatory 
plate, fig. I. by the Beaked Whale, borrowed 
from I)ak\ Hiji. Harw, 411. tab. 14. 


I. Whale. page 35 

11, Cachalot. ' 44 

III. Dolphin. 48 


BREATHING thro* certain apertures, gene- 
rally placed on each fide the neck, but in fome 
inllances beneath, in forne above, and from one to 
feven in number on each part, except in the Pipe 
Fish, which has only one. 

The mufcles fupported by cartilages, inllead of 

Explan. PI. fig. 2. the Picked Doo Fish. 
a. The lateral apertures. 

* C 2 IV. Lam- 

[ 30] 

IV. Lamprey. 

page 58 

V. Skate. 


VI. Shark. 


VII. Fishing Frog. 


VIII. Sturgeon. 


IX. Sun Fish. 


X. Lump Fish. 


XI. Pipe Fish. 



THIS divifion includes thofe whofemufcles arc 
fupported by bones or fpines, which breathe 
thro' gills covered or guarded by thin bcny plates, 
open on the fide, and dilatable by means of a cer- 
tain row of bones on their lower part each fepa- 
rated by a thin v;eb, which bones are called the 
Rddii B'ranchiofiegi^ or the Gill-covering Rciys. 

The tails of all the iifh that form this divifion, 
are placed in a fituation perpendicular to the body, 
and this is an invariable character. 

The later Icthyologifts have attempted to make 
the number of the branchioftegous rays a character of 
l\\t genera; but I found fyet too late in fome inftances, 
where I yielded an implicit faith) that their rule 
was very fallible, and had induced me into error; 
but as I borrowed ether definitions, it is to be hoped 
the explanation of the genera will be intelligible. I 


[ 31 ] 

fhould be very difingeniions, if I did not own 'my 
obligations in this refpefl to the works of Artedi, 
Dr. Gronqvius, and Linn^us, 

It is from the laft I have copied the great fedions 
of the Bony Fish into 

Apodal, Jugular, 

Thoracic, Abdominal.*, 

He founds this fyftem on a comparifon of the 
ventral fins to the feet of land animals or reptiles, 
and either from the want of them, or their particu- 
lar fituation in refpe6t to the other fins, eftabiiihes 
his fe6tions. 

In order to render them perfeftly intelligible, it 
is neceffary to refer to thofe feveral organs of move- 
ment, and fome other parts, in a perfect fifh, or 
one taken out of the three lalt fe^Stions, 

The Hadock. E?cpl. PL Ji^. 4. 
a. The pedoral fins. 


ventral fins. 


anal fins. 


caudal fin, or the tail. 

e. e. e. 

dorfal fins. 


bony plates that cover the gills. 


branchioflegous rays, and their mem- 



lateral, or fide line. 

* Vide S^. Nat. 43 2» 


[ s^ ] 

Sea. I. A P O D A L. 

THE mofl imperfeft, wanting the ventral fins ; 
illuflrated by the Conger, Jig. 3. This alfo 
exprefles the union of the dorfal and anal fins with 
the tail, as is fiound in fome few fifh. 

.XII. Eel. page 1 1 1 

XIII. Wolf Fish. 119 

XIV. Launch. 123 
XV. Morris. 125 

XVI. Sword Fish. 126 


HE ventral fins h, placed before the peroral 
fins a, as in the Hadock, fig. 4. 


XVII. Dragonet. page 130 


XIX. Codfish. ^37 

XX. Blenny. ^^^ 



\ *33 J 



HE ventral fins ^, placed beneath the perio- 
ral fins b, as in the Father Lasher, Jig. 5. 

XXL Goby. 

page 174 

XXII. Bull-Head. 




XXIV. Flounder. 


XXV. Gilt-Head. 


XXVI. Opah. 




XXVIII. Perch. 


XXIX. Stickleback. 


XXX. Mackrel. 


XXXI. Surmullet, 






Bed:. IV. A B D O M I N A L. 

THE ventral fins placed behind the perioral 
fins, as in the Minow, fg, 6. 

XXXIII. LocHE. 237 

XXXIV. Salmon. 239 
XXXV. Pike. 270 

XXXVI. Argentine. 276 

XXXVII. Atherine. 277 

XXXVIII. Mullet. 279 

XXXIX. Flying Fisk. 282 

XL. Herring. 284 

XLI. Carp. . 300 

Div. I. 







ATURE on this tribe hath bellowed an in- 
ternal ilru6ture in all refpeds agreeing with 
that of quadrupeds ; and in a few other the external 
parts in both are fnnilar. 

Cetaceous Fiih, like land animals, breathe by 
means of lungs, being deftitute of gills. This obliges 
them to rife frequently to the furface of the water to 
refpire, to deep on the furface, as well as to perform 
feveral other fundlions. 

They have the power of uttering founds, fuch as 
bellowing and making other noifes, a faculty denied 
to genuine fifh*. 

Like land animals they have warm blood, are fur- 
nilhed with organs of generation, copulate, bring 
forth, and fuckle their young, fhewing a ftrong at- 
tachment to them. 

Their bodies beneath the flcin are entirely fur- 
rounded Vv-ith a thick layer of fat (blubber) analo- 
gous to the lard on hogs. 

The number of their fins never exceeds three,' 
viz. two pedoral fips, and one back fin ; but in fome 
fpecies the laft is wanting. 

Their tails are placed horizontally or flat in reipedt 
to their bodies ^ contrary to the diredion of thofe 
of all other fiih, which have them in a perpendicular 
fite. This fituation of the tail enables them to 
force themfelves fuddenly to the furface of the water 

• Pont op. Biji. Novw. ii. 123. Blajius Anat. Animal, 288. 


to breathe, which they are fo frequently conftrained 
to do. 

Many of thefe circumflances induced Linnaus to 
place this tribe among his Mammalia^ or what other 
writers flyle quadrupeds. 

To have preferved the chain of beings entire, he 
fhould in this cafe have made the genus of Phoc^^ or 
Seals, and that of the 'J'richecus or Manati, imme- 
diately precede the whale, thofe being the links that 
conned: the Mammalia or quadrupeds with the filh -, 
for the Seal is, in refpedt to its legs, the moft imper- 
fed of the former clafs ; and in the Manati the hind 
feet coalefce, affuming the form of a broad horizon- 
tal tail. 

Notwithftanding the many parts and properties 
which cetaceous fifh have in common with land ani- 
mals, yet there ftill remain others, that in a natural 
arrangement of the animal kingdom, mull determine 
us after the example of the illuftrious Ray*, to place 
them in the rank of fifh ; and for the fame reafons, 
"that firft of fyftematic writers aifigns. 

That the form of their bodies agrees with that of 

They are entirely naked, or covered only with a 
fmooth fkin. 

They live entirely in the water, and have all the 
actions of fiih. 

* Who makes two dlvifions of fifli. 

1 Pulmoiu refpirantes. 

2 Branchiis refpirantss* 



Genus I. Cetaceous Fifh without teeth, with 

horny laminas in their mouths. Whale. 


MufJXTiTO?. Arift. Hift. an. lib. The Whale. Martens Spitzherg. 

iii. c. 12. 130. Crantz. Greenl. i. 107. 

Mufculus Plinii lib. xi. c. 37. La Baleine ordinaire. Erijfon 

Balxna.. Rondel. /{.y^.Ge/herPi/c. Get. 218. ^ 

11^. Balajna fiftulain medio capite, 

Balsena major, laminas corneas dorfo caudam verfus, acumi- 

infuperioremaxillas habens, nato. Artedjyn. 106. Sp. 106. 

iiftula donata, bipinnis. Bib. Balaena myfticetus. Lin. fyjl. 

Fhalan. 28. 1 05. Gronlands Walfifk. 

Bal^navulgarisedentula, dorfo Faun. fuec. No. /^g. 

nonpinnato. Raiijyn.pi/c.6. Balsena. Gronov. Zooph. 29. 
Balasna. Rondel. Wil. Icth. 35. 

THIS fpecies is the largeft of all animals : it is size, 
even at prefent fometimes found in the north- 
ern feas ninety feet in length; but formerly they were 
taken of a much greater fize, when the captures were 
lefs frequent, and the fifh had time to grow. Such is 
their bulk within the ar5lic circle, but in thofe of the 
torrid zone, where they are unmolefled, whales are 
flill feen one hundred and fixty feet long *. 

The head is very much difproportioned to the fize 
of the body, being one- third the fize of the filh : the 
under lip is much broader than the upper. The 
tongue is compofed of a foft fpongy fat, capable of 

* Adanfon^s 'vqy* 174. From this account we find no reafon 
to difbelieve the vaft iize of the Indian whales, of whofe bones 
and jaws, both Strabo, lib. xv. and Pliny, lib. ix. c. 3. relate, 
that the natives made their houfes, ufing the jaws for door-cafes. 
This method of building was formerly praftifed by the inha- 
bitants of Greenland, as we find from Frohijhert in his fecond 
voyage, p. 18, published in 1578. 



yielding five or fix barrels of oil. The gullet is very 
Irnall for fo vaft a fifh, not exceeding four inches in 
width. In the ntiiddle of the head are two orifices, 
thro' which it fpouts water to a vaft height, and with 
a great noife, efpecially when difturbed or wounded. 

The eyes are no larger than thofe of an ox. 

On the back there is no fin, but on the fides, be- 
neath each eye, are two large ones. 

The penis is eight feet in length, inclofed in a 
ftrong {heath. The teats in the female are placed in 
the lower part of the belly. 

The tail is broad and femilunar. 

This whale varies in color: the back of fome being 
red, the belly generally white. Others are black, 
fome mottled, others quite white, according to the 
obfervations of Marten, who fays, that their colors in 
the water are extremely beautiful, and that their &in 
is very fmooth and fiippery. 
Whale- "What is called whalebone adheres to the upper jaw, 
and is formed of thin parallel lamins, fome of the 
longeft four yards in length ; of thefe there are com- 
monly 350 on each fide, but in very old fifh more ; 
of thefe about 500 are of a length fit for ufe, the 
others being too fliort. They are lurrounded with 
long ftrong hair, not only that they may not hurt the 
tongue, but as ftrainers to prevent the return of 
their food when they dilcharge the water out of their 

It is from thefe hairs that Arijiotle gave the name 
of MurixnTofj or the bearded 'whale^ to this fpecies, 
which he tells us had in its mouth hairs inftead of 

teeth j 



teeth *; and Pliny defcribes the fame under the name 
of Mufculus **. Tho' the antients were acquainted 
with this animal, yet as far as we recoUedt, they were 
ignorant of their ufes as well as capture. 

Aldrovand\ indeed defcribes fromOppian, what he 
miftakes for whale fifhing : he was deceived by the 
word mrog, which is ufed not only to exprefs whale in 
general, but any great filh. The poet here meant 
the Jhark, and fhews the way of taking it in the 
very manner pradifed at prefent, by a ftrong hook 
baited with flefh. He defcribes too its three-fold row 
of teeth, a circumftance that at once difprqves its 
being a whale : 

Halieut, V. lln, 526. 
Whofe dreadful teeth in triple order ftand. 
Like ipears out of his mouth. 

The whale, tho' fo bulky an animal, fwims with 
vaft fwiftnefs, and generally againft the wind. 

It brings only two young at a time, as we believe 
is the cafe with all other whales. 

Its food is a certain fort of fmall fnail, and as Lirh Food* 
n^eus fays, the medufa, or fea blubber. 

The great refort of this fpecies is within the ar5fic 
circle, but they fometimes vifit our coafts. Whetlier 
this was the Britijh whale of the antients we cannot 
pretend to fay, only we find, from a line in Juvenal^ 
that it was of a very large fize, 

Tf9C*^ ^£ oy.Qiot,q VEia,<;. Ufi/i. en lib. iii. c. 12. 

^* Lih, xi. f. 37, ' I De Gais, 261. 



^anto Delpbinis BaUna Britannica major. 

Sat* X. 
As much as Britijh whales in lize furpafs 
The dolphin race. 

To view thefe animals in a commercial light, we 
muft add, that the Englijh were late before they en- 
gaged in the whale-fiihery : it appears by a fet of 
queries, propofed by an honell merchant in the year 
1575, in order to get information in the bufmefs-, 
that we were at that time totally ignorant of it, be- 
ing obliged to fend to Bifiaie for men Jkilful in the 
catching of the whale, and ordering of the oil, and cm 
cooper Jkilful to fet up thejlavedcajk*. This feems 
very ftrange •, for by the account 05lher gave of his 
travels to King Alfred, near 700 years ** before that 
period, it is evident that he made that monarch ac- 
quainted with the Norwegians pradifmg the whale- 
fifhery -, but it feems all memory of that gainful 
employ, as well as of that able voyager 05lher, and 
all his important difcoveries in the North were loft 
for near feven centuries. 

It was carried on by the Bifcayeners long before we 
attempted the trade, and that for the fake not only 
of the oil, but alfo of the whalebone, which they 
feem to have long trafficked in. The carUeft notice 
we find of that article in our trade is by Hackluyt f , 
who fays it was brought from the Bay of St. Lau- 
rence by MiEnglifh Ihip that went there for the barbes 
Sindfynnes of whales and train oil, A. D. 1594, and 
who found there feven or eight hundred whale 

* Hackluyt' i Col. 'voy. I. 4 1 4. ** Idm I. 4. 

t Hackluyt in. 194. 



Jynnes^ part of the cargo of two great Bijkaine fhips 
that had been wrecked there three years before. 
•Previous to that, the ladies ftays muft have been 
made of fplit cane or fome tough v/ood, as Mr. An- 
derfon obferves in his Diftionary of Commerce *, it 
being certain that the whale fifhery was carried on, 
for ti'ie fake of the oil, long before the difcovery of 
the ufe of whalebone. 

The great refort of thefe animals was found to be 
on the inhofpitable Iliores of Spiizhergen^ and the 
■European fhips made that place their principal fifhery, 
and for numbers of years were very fuccefsful : the 
Englijh comimenced that bufinefs about the year 
1598, and the town of /://^// had the honor of firfl 
attempting that profitable branch of trade. At 
prefent it feems to be on the decline, the quantity of 
fifh being greatly reduced by the conflant capture 
for fuch a vaft length of time : fome recent ac- 
counts inform us, that the fifhers, from a defeft of 
whales, apply themfelves to the feal fifhery, from 
which animals they extfacl an oil. This we fear 
will not be of any long continuance ; for thefe fhy 
and timid creatures will foon be induced to quit 
thofe fhores by being perpetually harrafTed, as the 
inorfe or walrus has already in a great meafure done. 
We are alfo told, that the poor natives of Greeti- 
land begin even now to fuffer from the decreafe of 
the feal in their feas, it being their principal fubfifl- 
ence •, fo that fhould it totally defert the coafl, the 
whole nation would be in danger of perifhing thro* 

* Vol. I. 442. 

D In 


Royal In old timcs the whaie feems never to have been 

taken on our coalts, but when it was accidentally 
Hung afhore : it was then deemed a royal fifh% 
and the king and queen divided the fpoil •, the king 
aflerting his right to the head, her majefty to the 
tail **. 


Ba1:Ena tripinnis nares habens La Baleine a mufeau pointuv* 

cum plicis in Brijfon Cet. 224. 

ventre. Sib.Fhalain 29, tab. i. Balaiiia liftala duplici in roflro. 

Idem. Raiifyn.pijc. 16. dorfo extreme protuberantia 

Pike-headed whale. Dale Har- ZQrn\x\{orxau Arted.fyn. \0'] . 

nxick, 410. No. 3, Balaena Boops. Lin. fyji. 106. 

Size, rr^HE length of that taken on the coaft of 
_L Scotland^ as remarked by Sir Robert Sibbald, 
was forty-fix feet, and its greateft circumference 

Defer. The head of an oblong form, floping down, and 

growing narrower to the nofe ; fix feet eight inches 
from the end of which were two fpout-holes, fepa- 
rated by a thin divifion : the eyes fmall. 

The peftoral fins five feet long, and one and an 
half broad ; on the back about eight feet and an 
half from the tail, in lieu of a back fin, was a hard 
horny protuberance : the tail was nine feet and an 
half broad. 

The belly was uneven, and formed into folds run- 
ning lengthways. 

* Item habet wareilum maris per totum regnum Balknas et 

Siurgiones C2L^tos, Sec. EdtvardiW. anno I'jtno, 
** Black/ion's. Com. I. c. 4. 


Clafs IV. F I N F I S H. 41 

The fkin extremely fmooth and bright ^ that on 
the back black ; that on the belly white. 

This fpecies takes its name from the fhape of its 
nofe, which is narrower and fliarper pointed than 
that of other whales. 

III. The FIN F I S H. 

Balsena edentula corpora firic- Le Gibbar. BriJJhn Cei. 222. 

tiorcy dorfo pinnato. Raii Balaena fillula in medio capite 
Jyti. fife. 9. Dale Harivichy tubero penniformi in extre- 

410. No. 2. nio dorfo Arted. I'yn. 107. 

Fin Fifh.A//2/-/f«'s^/>fVzi5er^.i65. Balaina Phyfaius. L'm. fyjl. 

EgedeGreenl. 65. CrantzGreenl. 106. 

I. 110. 

THIS fpecies is diilingoillied from the common 
whale by a fin on the back, placed very low 
and near the tail. 

The length is equal to that of the common kind. Defer. 
but much more ilender. It is furniflied with whale- 
bone in the upper jaw, mixed with hairs, but fhort 
and knotty, and of little value. The blubber alfo 
on the body of this kind is very inconfiderable : thefe 
circumflances, added to its extreme fiercenefs and 
agility, which renders the capture very dangerous, 
caufe the fifhers to negleft it. The natives of Green- 
land tho' hold it in great efleem, as it affords a 
quantity of flefh, which to their palate is very agree- 

The lips are brown, and like a twifted rope : the 

fpout hole is as it were fplit in the top of its head, 

thro' which it blows water with much more violence, 

and to a greater height, than the common whale. 

D 2 The 

The filhers are not fond of feeing it, for on its ap- 
pearance the others retire out of thofe feas. 

Some writers conjefture this fpecies to have been 
this €>uo-aAo?, and Thyjeter-^ or blowing whale of 0-p^ 
plan, Mlian^ and Fliny * •, but fince thofe writers 
have not left the left defcription of it, it is impofTi- 
ble to judge which kind they meant-, for in refpe6t 
to the faculty of fpouting out water, or blowings it is 
not peculiar to any one fpecies, but common to all 
the whale kind. 


Balasna tripinnis maxillam in- La Baleine a mufeau ronci. 

feriorem rotundam et fupe- BriJ/on Cei. 222. 

riore multo latiorem ha- B. fiftula dupliciin fronte max- 

bens. Sib. Phalain. 33. tab. ilia inferiore multo Latiore. 

t. 3. Arted. J'yn. 1 07. 

Idem. Raiifyn.pifc. 16. Balasnamufculus. Z/«.,^. 106* 

THE character of this fpecies is to have the 
lower lip broader than the upper, and of a 
Temicircular form. 

That taken in 1692 near Abercorn-Cajikj was fes 
Venty-eight feet long, the circumference thirty- 
five ; the ri^us or gape very wide •, the tongue fif- 
teen feet and an half long ; the mouth furnilhed 
with fhort whalebone, about three feet in length. 
On the forehead were two fpout holes of a pyramid 
xial form. 

The eyes were placed thirteen feet from the end 
pf the nofe : the peroral fins ten feet long : the 

* Oppian, Halieutf I. Z/«, 368. ^\ian HiJi. a>t. ix. c. 49* 
Plin, III/, ix. e. g. 



back fin about three feet high, placed near the tail, 
which was eighteen feet broad : the belly was full 
of folds. 

This fpecies is faid to feed on herrings. 


Butikopf. Marten^ s Spitzberg. Dak Har^vich, ji^\l. tab. 14,. 

124. Nebbe-hual, or beaked whale. 

Bottle-head, or flounders-head, Ponisp, Norwaj, I. 123. 

THIS fpecies was taken near Maldon, lyiy, and 
thus defcribed by Dale and Marten. 

The length was fourteen feet, the circum- 
ference feven and an half; the body very thick, 
the forehead high, the nofe deprefTed, and of the 
fame thicknefs its whole length, not unlike the beak 
of a bird : in the mouth were no teeth. 

The eyes large, the eyelids fmall, and placed a, 
little above the line of the mouth. The fpout hole 
was on the top of the head femicircular, with the 
corners pointed towards the tail. 

The pe6loral fins were feventeen inches long.' 
The back was placed rather nearer the tail than the: 
head, and was a foot long : the breadth of the tail 
was three feet two inches. 

Thefe fifh fometimes grow to the length of twenty 
feet i they make but little noife in blowing, are very 
tame, come very near the Ihips, and will accompany 
them for a great way. 

Belon defcribes and figures a filh very much re- 
fembling, if not the fame with this : he fays it fur- 

D 3 nifhed 


nifhed whalebone, Dont les Dames font aujourdhuy 
leurs bufies^ et arrcndijjent leurs verdugades *, by 
which it' appears, that this commodity was but 
newly known at that time in France. He adds, that 
the tongue was very good eating, and both that and 
the fielli ufed to be faked for provifion. 

Genus IL Cetaceous Filh, with teeth in the lower 
jaws only. Cachalot. 


Filli of this kind was caft afhore on Blyth fand, 
January 30, 1762 ; its length was fifty-four 

size. feet, the breadth fourteen : the upper jaw was five 
feet longer than the lower, whofe length was ten 

Defer. The head was of a moft enormous fize, veiy thick, 

and above one-third the fize of the filh : the end of 
the upper jaw was quite blunt, and near eight feet 
high : the fpout hole was placed near the end of it. 

Teeth. The teeth were placed in the lov/er jaw, eighteen 
on each fide, all pointing outwards -, in the upper jav/ 
oppofite to them were an equal number of cavities, 
in which the ends of the teetli lodged when the 
mouth was clofed. The teeth, figured in plate m. 
_No. 2, was eight inches long, the greateil: circum- 

* Belon de la nat. ISc. des Po't_yhvs, 155^, p. 6, by which it 
appears that the trench were acc^uainied with tha: article at leit 
forty years before we were. 



ference the fame. It is hollow within fide for the 
depth of three inches, and the mouth of the cavity 
very wide : it is thickeft at the bottom, and grov/s 
very fmall at the point, bending very much ; but in 
fome the flexure is more than in others. Thefe, as 
well as the teeth of all other whales, we have ob- 
ferved are very hard, and cut like ivory. 

The eyes very fmall, and remote from the nofe. 
The peftoral fins placed near the corners of the 
mouth : it had no other fin, only a large protube- 
rance on the middle of the back. 

The tail a little forked, and fifteen feet from tip 
to tip. 

The penis eight feet long. 

The figure plate ii. we borrowed from a print 
taken from the fifh publilhed by William Bingham ;' 
after directing the tail to be placed in a horizontal 

This is one of the fpecies which yield what is Sperma- 
improperly called fperma ceti, that fubllance being '^^^'* 
found lodged in the head of the filli that form this 
genus, which the French call Cachalot^ a name we 
have adopted, haying no generical term for it in 
our tongue. 

D 4 II. The 


Trumpa. Purchafs^s Pilgriines Le cachalot a dents en faucilles. 

iii. 471. BriJfonCe'. 229. 

Bal^na major in inferiore tan- The Parmacitty Whale, or Po: 

turn maxilla dentata denti- Wal fiih. Dale Harwich, £^.1^^ 

bus arcuatis falciformibus, Phyfeter microps. Lin, Jyft; 

pin nam five fpinam in dorfo 107. Aned. fyn. 104. 

habens. Sih. Phalain. 13. Caflialot, Catodon, or Pot fifh. 

tab. A. I. Raiijyn.pi/c. 15. Craniz G.reerd. 1. 1 12. 

CCORDING to SlrRokrt SMald's obferva. 
tions on one taken on the coaft of Scolland.^ 
the head v^as of an oblong form, and of fuch a 
bulk as to exceed tliat of all the reft of the body. 

The end of the upper jaw was five feet longer 
than that of the lower : a little above the middle 
of the nofe was placed the fpout hole, divided ir\ 
the middle, and covered with a lid. 
Teeth. In the lower jaw were forty-two teeth, bent like c\ 
fickle, thick in the middle, and growing fmaller 
towards each end : a fpecimen of a fmall one is en- 
graved, plate iii. No, 3, 

The eyes were very finall, not larger than thofe 
of a hadock. 

On the middle of the back was a long fpine, in. 
ftead of a fin. 

The color of this fifh was black, the fkin of a 
filky appearance, and very thin. 

The length of this fifh was fifty-two feet -, above 
feventy gallons of oil were extracted from it, and a 
great quantity of fperma ceti. 

Linnmis informs us, that this fpecies purfues and 
terrifies the porpeffcs To much, as often to drivQ 
them on fiiore. I|I. The 


Palxnaminor in inferiore max- Le petit Cachalot. BriJJon Cet, 
ilia tantum dentata fine fpi- 228. 

na aut pinna in dorfo. Sib. PhyfeterCatodon. Z/w-j^y?. 107. 

Phalain. 9. RciH Jyn. pifc. Catodon iillula in roftro. Ar- 
15. ted.fyjion. loS. 

THIS fpecies was taken on one of the Orkney 
illes, a hundred and two of different fizes being 
caft aihore ?.t one time, the largeft twenty-four feet 
in length. 

The head was rovind, the opening of the mouth 
fmall : Sihbald fays it had no fpout hole, but only 
noilrils. We rather think, that the former being 
placed at the extremity of the nofe was miftaken by 
him tor the latter. 

The teeth we have in our cabinet of this fpecies Teeth, 
(plate iii. No. 4.) are an inch and three quarters 
long, and in the largeft part, of the thicknefs of 
one's thumb. The top is quite flat, and marked 
with concentric lines •, the bottom is more flender 
than the top, and pierced with a fmall orifice. 

The back fin was wanting •, inftead was a rough 


Balxna macrocephala tripin- nentes. Sii. Pbalain. 18. 

nis, qua; in mandibula in- Rail Jyn, pifc. 16. 

feriore dentes habet minus Le Cachalot a dents pljttes. 
inflexos et in planum defir Brijfon. Cet, 230. 

NE of this fpecies was caft on the Orkney illes 

in 1687. The Ipout hole was placed in 

front, and on the middle of the back was a high 


45 D O L P H I N. CMsIV. 

fin, which Sibbald compares to the mizen maft of a 
fhip. The head abounded with yp^r^^^a ceti of the 
beft fort. 
TcEth. The teeth of this kind are very flightly bent ; 
that which we have figured, plate iii. No. i. is fe- 
ven inches three quarters in length ; the greateft 
circumference nine : it is much comprelTed on the 
fides ; the point rather blunt than fiat -, the bottom 
thin, having a very narrow but long orifice, or flit, 
hollowed to the depth of five inches and a quarter, 
and the tooth was immeried in the jaw as far as that 

Genus III. Cetaceous Fillip with teeth in 
both jaws. Dolphin. 

Sp. I, The D O L P H I N. 

AiXipK. jSrifi. Hifi, an. lib. v'l. Delphlnus corpore longo fub- 

• f. 12. A£A(pi'^. jElian.hh. tereti, roftro longo acute. 

I. c. 18. Arted.fyn. 105. 

Delphinus Plinii, lib. Ix. c. 8. ^e Dauphin. Brijon Cet. 

LeDaulphin,ou oyede mor. 233. 

Selcn Poif. 7. Delphinus Delphls. Lin. fyji. 

Delphinus. Rondel. 459. Gef- '°8. 

mr pijc. 3 1 9. Caii cpujc. 113. Dolphin . BorWe Corn-wall, 

Delphinus Antiquorum. Wil. 264. tab. 27. Craniz Greenl. 

Icib.2S. Raiijjn. pi/c. 12. I»IIS- 

ISTORIANS and philofophers feem to have 

contended who fnould invent moll fables 

concerning this fifh. It was confecrated to the Gods, 

was celebrated in the earlieft time for its fondnefs of 

the human race, was honored with the title of the 


ClafsIV. DOLPHIN, 49 

Sacred Fijh *, and diflinguifhed by thofe of Boy- 
loving^ and Philanthropifi. . It gave rife to a long 
train of inventions, proofs of the credulity and ig- 
norance of the times. 

Ariftotle fleers the cleareft of all the antients from 
thefe fables, and gives in general fo faithful a natu- 
ral hiftory of this animal, as evinces the fuperior 
judgment of that great philofopher, in comparifon 
of thofe who fucceeded him. But the elder Pliny y 
Mlian^ and others, feem to preferve no bounds in 
their belief of the tales related of this fifh's attach- 
ment to mankind. 

Pliny ** the younger, (apologizing for what he 
is going to fay) tells the ftory of the enamoured dol- 
phin of Hippo in a moft beautiful manner. It is too 
long to be tranfcribed, and would be injured by an 
abridgement -, therefore we refer the reader to the 
original, or to Mr. Melmoutlfs elegant tranilation. 

Scarce an accident could happen at fea but the 
dolphin offered himfelf to convey to fliore the un- 
fortunate. Arion^ the mufician, when flung into the 
ocean by the pyrates, is received and faved by this 
benevolent fifli. 

Inde (fide majus) tergo Delphina recurvo, 

Se memorant oneri fuppofuifTe novo. 
Ille fedens citharamque tenens, pretiumque vehendi 

Cantat, et aequoreas carmine mulcec aquas. 

Ovicf. Fajii, lib.\u 113, 

But (pafi: belief) a dolphin's arched back, 
Preferved Avion from his deftined wrack ; 
Secure he fits, and with harmonious ftrains. 
Requites his bearer for his friendly pains. 

* Athenaus, 281. »» Bpiji. lib, ix. ^/. 33. 


50 DOLPHIN. ClafsIV; 

We are at a lofs to account for the origin of thole 
fables, fmce it does not appear that the dolphin fhews 
a greater attachment to mankind than the reft of the 
cetaceous tribe. We know that at prefent the ap- 
pearance of this fifh, and the porpeffe, are far from 
being efteemed favorable omens by the feamen -, for 
their boundings, fprings and frolics in the water, are 
- held to be fure figns of an approaching gale. 

It is from their leaps out of that element that 
they ailum.e a temporary form that is not natural to 
them, but which the old painters and fculptors 
have almoft always given them. A dolphin is fcarcc 
ever exhibited by the antients in a ftrait fhape, but 
almoft always incurvated : fuch are thofe on the coin 
of Alexander the Great^ which is preferved by Belon., 
as well as on feveral other pieces of antiquity. The 
poets defcribe them much in the fame manner, and 
it is not improbable but that the one had borrowed 
from the other : 

Tumidumque pando tranfilit dorfo mare 

Tyrrhenus omni pifcis exfukat fieto, 

Agitatque gyros. Senec. 7'rag, Agam. 45a, 

Upon the Avelling waves the dolphins fliew 
Their bended backs, then fwiftly darting go. 
And in a thoufand wreaths their bodies throw. 

Defer. The natural fnape of the dolphin is almoft ftrait, 
the back being very llightly incurvated, and the 
body flender : the nofe is long, narrow, and point- 
ed, not much unlike tlie beak of fome birds, for 
which reaibn the French call it L' oye de mer. 

Teeth, It has in all forty-two teeth, twenty -one in the 
u] per jaws, and nineteen in the lower, ^ little above 




/■^cj-fl Hi-'- 

CMslV. DOLPHIN, e^t 

an inch long, conic at their upper end, fharp point- 
ed*, bending a litde in. The)^ are placed at fmall 
diftances from each other, fo that when the mouth 
is Ihut, the teeth of both jaws lock into one an- 
other : a fingle one is figured j)/<2/^ iii. No. 5. 

The fpout hole is placed in the middle of ths 

The back fin is high, triangular, and placed ra- 
ther nearer to the tail than to the head \ the perioral 
fins fituated low. 

The tail is femilunar. 

The fkin is fmooth, the color of the back and 
fides dufty ', the belly \vhitifh. 

It fwims with great fwiftnefs : its prey is fifh. 
It was formerly reckoned a great delicacy : Doc- 
tor Caius fays, that one which v/as taken in his time, 
was thought a prefent worthy the Duke of Nor- 
folk^ who diflributed part of it among his friends. 
It was roailed and drefled with porpefle fauce, made 
of cioimbs of fine white bread, mixed with vinegar 
and fugar. 

This fpecies of dolphin muft not be confounded 

with that to which feamen gives the name, the latter 

being quite another kind of fifh, the Coryph^'nay 

Hippiiris of Linn^us. p. 446. and the Dorado of the 

^ortuguefe^ defcribed by WilloKghhy^ ^. 213. 

* Phil iii. y^. J. 

U. Tlif. 

52 P O R P E S S E. ClafsIV. 

II. The P O R P E S S E. 

^u^Oiivoi. Arifi, Hift. an. lib. Le Marfouin. Brijon Cet* 

vi. c. 12. 234.. 

Turiio Plinii. lib. ix. c. 9. Delphinus corpore fere coni- 

Le Marfouin. Belon. formi, dorfo lato, roilro fub- 

Turfio. Rondel. 474. Gejner acuto. Arted. fynon. 104. 

pifc. 711. Delphinus Phocsena. Lin.fyft. 

Porpeffe. Wil. Icth. '}^l. Rati 108. 

fyn. pifc. l'^. CrafitzGreenl. Marfwin, Tumblare. Faun. 

I, 114. Kolhen^s WJi. Cape, fuec. No. 5 I. 

II. 200. 


iHESE fiili are found in vaft multitudes in 
all parts of the fea that wafh thefe iflands, 
but in greateft numbers at the time when filh of paf- 
fage appear, fuch as mackrel, herrings, and falmon, 
which they purfue up the bays with the fame eager- 
nefs as a pack of dogs does a hare. In fome places 
they almoll darken the fea as they rife above water 
to take breath : but porpeffes not only feek for 
prey near the furface, but often defcend to the bot- 
tom in fearch of fand eels, and fea worms, which 
they root out of the fand with their nofes in the 
fame manner as hogs do in the fields for their food. 

Def^j^ Their bodies are very thick towards the head, but 
grows Qender towards the tail, forming the figure 
of a cone. 

The nofe projedts a little, is much fhorter than 
that 'of the dolphin, and is furnifhed with very 
ilrong mufcles, which enables it the readier to turn 
up the fand. 

Teeth. I^ t2Lch. jaw are forty-eight teeth, fmall, fharp 
pointed, and a little moveable : like thofe of the dol- 

ClafsIV. P O R P E S S E. S3 

phin, they are fo placed as that the teeth of one jaw 
locks into thofe of the other when clofed. 

The tongue is flat, peftirtated at the edges, and 
faftened dov/n to the bottom of the mouth. 

The eyes fmall ; the fpout hole on the top of the 
the head. 

On the back is one fin placed rather below the 
middle ; on the breafl are two fins. The tail femi- 

The color of the porpeffe is generally black, and 
the belly whitifh, not but they fometimes vary ; for 
in the river St. Laurence there is a white kind ; and 
Do6lor Borlafe, in his voyage to the Scilly ides, ob- 
ferved a fmall fpecies of cetaceous filh, which he 
calls thornhacksj from their broad and fnarp fin on 
the back, fome of thefe were brown, fome quite 
white, others fpotted : but whether they were only 
a variety of this fifh, or whether they were fmall 
grampufes, which are alfo fpotted, we cannot deter- 

The porpeffe is remarkable for the vaft quantity Fat. 
of the fat or lard that furrounds the body, which 
yields a great quantity of excellent oil : from this 
lard, or from their rooting like fwine, they are 
called in many places fea hogs ; the Germans call 
them meerfchwem •, the Swedes^ marfuin ; and the 
Englijh^ porpeJJ'e^ from the Italian, porco pefce. 

III. The 

54 GRAMPUS. ClalblV. 


Orca Plinii, lib. JX. c. 6. dentata. Sih. Phalo'.n. 7, 8; 

L'oudre ou grand marfouln. Wil. Icth. 40. Raiijjn. pifc. 

Belon, 13. 15. 

Orca. Rondel. 483. Gefner pifc. L. Epaulard. BriJJon Cet. ZT,6i 

635. Leper, Springer. Delphinus orca< Lin.Jyft. 108. 

SchonenjeUey 53. Lopare, Delphinus roftro iur- 

Butflcopf. Martenh Spifzberg. ium repando, dentibus latis 

124. ferratis. Arted. Jjn. 106. 
Eala^na minor utraque maxilla 

THIS fpecies is found from the length of fifteen 
feet to that of twenty-five. It is remarkably 
thick in proportion to its length, one of eighteen 
feet being in the thickeft place ten feet diameter. 
With reafon then did Pliny call this an immenfe 
heap of tiefh, armed with dreadful teeth *. 

It is extremely voracious, and will not even fpare 
the porpeffe, a congenerous filh. It is faid to be a 
great enemy to the whale, and that it will fallen on 
it like a dog on a bull, till the animal roars with 

Teeth. '^^^ ^^^^ '^ ^^^' ^^'^ turns up at the end. There; 
are thirty teeth in each jaw •, thofe before are blunt, 
round, and (lender -, the fartheft iharp and thick : 
between each is a fpace adapted to receive the teeth 
of the oppofite jaw when the mouth is clofed. 

The fpout hole is in the top of the neck. Iii 
^refpeft to the number and fite of the fins, it agrees 
with the dolphin. 

* Cujus imago nulla reprefentatione exprimi poffitalia, quam 
Cftrnis immenfas demibustfuculentis. U^, ix. c. 6, 


ClafsIV. GRAMPUS; 55 

The color of the back is black, but on each Color. 
llioulder is a large white fpot, the fides marbled 
with black and white, the belly of a fnowy whiteiiefs. 

Thefe fometimes appear on our coafts, but are Pia". 
found in much greater numbers off the North Cape 
in Norway^ whence they are called North Capers. 
^hefe and all other whales are obferved to fwim 
againft the Wind, and to be much difturbed, and 
tumble about with unufual violence at the approach 
of a ftorm. 

Linnaus arid Artedi fay, that this Ipecies is fur- 
jiifhed with broad ferrated teeth, which as far as we 
have obferved, is peculiar to xh&Jhark tribe. We 
therefore fufpeft that thofe naturalifts have had re- 
courfe to Rondektms, and copied his erroneous ac=i 
count of the teeth : Sir Robert Sibbald^ who had 
opportunity of examining and figuring the teeth of 
this filh, and from whom we take that part of our 
defcription, giving a very different account of them. 

It will be but juftice to fay, that no one of 
bur countryrrien ever did fo much towards form-^ 
ing a general natural hiftory of this kingdom 
as Sir Robert Sibbald : he fl^etched out a fine out- 
line of the Zoology of Scotland., which compre- 
hends the greateft part of the Englift) animals, and, 
we are told, had adually filled up a confiderable 
part of it : he publifhed a particular hiftory of the 
county of Fife, and has left us a moft excellent 
hiftory of the whales which frequent the coaft of 
Scotland. We acknowledge ourfelves much indebted 
itt hinvfor information in refped to many of thofe 

E jfiilh. 

56 GRAMPUS. Clafs IV. 

fifh, few of which frequent the fouthern feas of 
thofe kingdoms, and thofe that are accidentally 
caft: afhore on our coafts, are generally cut up by 
the country people, before an opportunity can be 
had of examining them. 




THIS title is given to all fifli whofe mufcles 
are fupported by cartilages inilead of bones, 
and Comprehends the fame genera of filli to which 
Linnaus has given the name of amphibia nantes : 
but the word amphibia, ought properly to be confined 
to fuch animals who inhabit both elements, and can 
live without any inconvenience for a confiderable 
fpace, either on land or under water. This defini- 
tion therefore excludes all that form this divifion. 

Many of the cartilaginous fifh are viviparous, 
being excluded from an egg, which is hatched within 
them. The egg confifts of a white and a yolk, and 
is lodged in a cafe, formed of a thick tough fub- 
llance, not unlike foftened horn : fuch are the egg^ 
of the Ray and Shark kinds. 

Some again differ in this refpe6t, and are ovipa- 
rous ', fuch is the Sturgeon, and others. 

^They breathe either thro' certain apertures be- 
neath, as in the Rays ; on their fides as in the 
Sharks, &c. or on the top of the head, as in the 
Pipe-filh ; for they have not covers to their gills 
like the bony fifli. 

E 2 Genus 

53 L A M P R E Y. Clafs IV, 

Genus IV. Slender Eel-fhaped body ; 

Seven apeltures on each fide ; 

One on the top of the head. 

No peroral or ventral fins. Lamprey. 

Sp. I. The LAMPREY. 

La Lamproye de mer. BcIoj:: Petromyzon maculofus ordini- 

66. bus dentium circiter vjolnd. 

Larnpetra. Rondel. 398. Aried. fynon. go. 

Lampreda. Gefner. Paralip. Petromyzon marinus. P. ore 

22. pifc. 590. intuspapillofo, pinna dorfali 

Lamprey, or Lamprey Eel. pofteriori a Cauda diftinfta. 

(Vil. Icth. 105. Lin, fyfl, ^gA. Faun, fuee* 

Larnpetra. kaii Jyn. -pifc. ^z^. No. 2^2. 

Place. T AMPREYSare found at certain feafons of 
jL^ the year in feveral of our rivers, but the Severn 
is the moil noted for them *. They are fea fifh, 
but like falmon, quit the fait waters, and afcend the 
latter end' of the v/inter, or beginning of fpring, 
and after a flay of a few months return again to the 
ocean, a very few excepted. The befl feafon f6v 
them is the montlis of March., April., and May\ 
for they are more firm when jull arrived out of the 
fait water than they are afterwards, being obferved 
to be much wafled, and very flabby at the approach 
pf hot weather. 

They are taken in the nets along with falmon and 
fhad, and Ibmetimes in weeis laid in the bottom of 
the river. 

* They are aho found in the mo^ Gonfiderable of the Ssouh 
and Irifif rivers. 

CiafsIV. LAMPREY. 59 

It has been an aid cuftom for the city of Glou-^ 
cefter, annually, to prefent his majefty with a lam- 
prey pye, covered with a large raifed criift. As the 
gift is made at Chriftmas^ it is with great difficulty 
the corporation can procure any frelh lampreys at 
that time, tho' they give guinea a^piece for them, fo 
early in the feafon. 

They are reckoned a great delicacy, either when 
potted or ftewed, but are a furfeiting food, as one 
of our monarchs fatally experienced, Henry die 
Firft's death behig occafioned by a too plentiful 
meal of thefe filh. 

Lampreys are fometimes found fo large as tq 
weigh four or five pounds. 

The mouth is round and placed rather obliquely 
below the end of the nofe : the edges are jagged, 
which enables them to adhere the more ftrongly to 
the ftones, as their cuftom is, and which they do fo 
firmly as not to be drawn off without fome diffi- 

We have heard of one weighing three pounds, 
which was taken out of the EJk^ adhering to a ftone 
of twelve pounds weight, iufpended at its mouth, 
from which it was forced with no fmali pains. 

There are in the mouth twenty rows of fmail teeth, 
difpofed in circular orders, and placed far within. 

The color is duiky, irregularly marked with dirty 
yellow, which gives the fifh a difagreeable look. 

We believe that the antients were unacquainted ^"t th- 

with this fifh -, fo far is certain, that which Doctor 

Arhuthnot^ and other learned men, render the word 

lamprey^ is a fpecies unknown in our feas, being the 

E 3 vmrienci 


muroena of Ovid, Pliny\ and others, for which we 
want an Englijh name. 

The words Lampetra and Petrrmyzon, are but of 
modern date, invented from the nature of the fifh ; 
the firft a Lambendo petras, the other from Uirpoc, 
and Muo-aw, becaufe they are fuppofed to lick, or 
fuck the rocks. 


La Lamproye d'eaae doulce. Petromyzon fiuviatilis. 2 Lin, 

Belon. 6j. fyft. 394. 

LampredjE alterum genus, Gef- Nein-oga, natting. Faiin./uec. . 

tier pifc. 597. No.zgo. Petroaiyzon pinna 

Lampetra medium genus. Wil. dorfali pofteriori angulata. 

lith.loS. Rail Jyn. fife. l^. Ibid. 

Neunaugen. Kram. 282. Grono-v. Zooph. No. 159. 

Defer. rr^HIS fpecies fometimes grows to the length oi 
JL ten inches. 

The mouth is formed like that of the preceding. 
On the upper part is a large bifurcated tooth; on 
each fide are three rows of very minute ones : on 
the lower part are feven teeth, the exterior of which 
on each fide is the largeft. 

The irides are yellow. As in all the other fpecies 
between the eyes, on the top of the head, is a liriall 
orifice of great ufe to clear its mouth of the water 
that remains on adhering to the Hones, for thro* 
that orifice it ejects the water in the fame manner 
as cetaceous fifh. 

On the lower part of the back is a narrow fin, 
beneath that rifes another, which at the beginning is 


ClafsIV. PRIDE. 6i 

high and angular, then grows narrow, furroimds the 
tail, and ends near the anus. 

The color of the back is brown or dufky, and coior. 
fometimes mixed with blue ; the whole under-fide 
filvery. Thefe are found in the Thames, Severn, and 
Dee, are potted with the larger kind, and are by 
fome preferred to it, as being milder tailed. Vafb 
quantiti esare taken about Mortlake, and fold to the 
Dutch for bait for their turbot and cod fifhery» 


Une Civelle, un Lamproyon. Petromyzon branchxalis. Lint 

Belon. 6j. _ _ fyjl. 394. 

Lampetra parve et fluviatilis. Lin-ahl. Faun. fuec. No. 291. 

Rondel. pifc.Jl. zoi. Petromyzon pinna dorfall 

Lampreda minima. G^gr///?. pofteriori lineari, labio oris 

598. latere poftico lobato. Ibid, 

?nde. Plot. Ox/. 1S2. plate X. Uhlcn. iTraw. 384. 

Lampern, or Pride of the Ijis. Cromv. Zooph. No, 160. 
Wil.Icth. 104. Raiifyn.pifci,^. 

E have fqen thefe of the length of eight 
inches, and about the thicknefs of a fwan's 
quil, but they are generally much fmaller. 

They are frequent in the rivers near Oxford, par- 
ticularly the Ifis, but not peculiar to that county, 
being found in others of the EngliJJj rivers, where, 
inftead of concealing themfelves under the ftones, 
they lodge themfelves in the mud, and never are ob- 
ferved to adhere to any thing like other lampreys. 

The body is marked with numbers of tranfverfe 
lines, that pafs crofs the fides from the back to the 
bottom of the belly, which is divided from the 
mouth to the anus by a ftrait line, 

E 4 The 

$2 SKATE. ClafsIV, 

The back fin is not angular like that of the form- 
er, but of an equal breadth. The tail is lanceolated,, 
and fliarp at the end. 

Genus V. Body broad, flat, and thin. 
Five apertures on each fide 
placed beneath: 
Mouth fituated quite below. Ray. 

* With fharp teeth, 
I. The SKAT E. 

Bficrlg ? JrrJI. Hijl. an. lih. L Raia Batis. Lin.fyjl. 395. 

c, 5. lib. vi. c. 10. Oppian Raia varia, dorfo medio gla- 

Malieut. I. 103. bro, unico aculeorum ordinp 

Raia andulata five cinerea. in cauda. Arttd. fymn. 

Rondel. "^^6. Gefuer pifc.j(^i. 102. 

The Skate, orFlaire. Wil. Icth. Grontyu. Zooph. No. 157- 

6g. Raiifyn, pifc. 25. 

Size. ' I ^ HIS fpecies is the thinnefi; in proportion to its 
X bulk of any of the genus, and alfo the 
largeft:, fome weighing near two hundred pounds. 

pgf„^ The nofe, tho' not long, is fliarp pointed; above 

the eyes is a fet of fliort fpines : the whole upper 
part of that we examined was of a pale brown. 
Mr. Kay fays, fome he faw were fi:reaked with 
black : the lower part is white, marked with 
great numbers of minute black fpots. The jaws 
were covered with frnall granulated but fliarp-point- 
ed teeth. 


ClafsIV. SKATE. 63 

The tail is of a moderate length : near the end are 
two fins : along the top of it is one row of fpines, 
and on the edges are irregularly difperfed a few 
others, which makes us imagine with Mr. Ray, that 
in this refped thefe filh vary, fome having one, others 
more orders of fpines on the tail. 

It is remarked that in the males of this fpecies 
the fins are full of fpines. 

Skates generate in March and April, at which Genera- 
time they fwim near the furface of the water, feve- 
ral of the males purfuing one female. They adhere 
fo fafb together in coition, that the fifhermen fre- 
quently draw up both together, tho' only one has 
taken the bait. The females begin to caft their 
furfes, as the fifhermen call them (the bags in which 
the young are included) in May, and continue doing 
it till Sepkmher. In OSioher they are exceedingly 
poor and thin ; but in November they begin to im- 
prove, and grow gradually better till May, when 
they are in the highell perfection. The males go 
fqoner out of feafcin than the females, 

fl. The 



^^z"^. Jrifx. Hijl. an. Itb.v. c. WiLIcth.jl. Rait fyn. p'r/c 26. 

5. Oppian HalJeuf.'ii. i^i. Raia oxyrinchus. Lhi. fyjl. 

Bos owi/zV? 94. Plinii lib. ix. 395 • 

c. 24. Raia varia tuberculis decern 

Raia oxyrhinchus. ^owfl'i'/. 347. aculeatis in medis dorfo. 

Gefner pifc, 1(^2. Arted. fynon. 1 01. 

Size. YN fifhing in the Menai (the flrait that divides ^^;^- 
X g^^fii^ from Caer7mrvonJhire) July 1768, we took 
one of this fpecies whofe length was near feven feet, 
and breadth five feet two inches -, when juft brought 
on ihore, it made a remarkable fnorting noife. 

The nofe was very long, narrow, and iharp-point- 
ed, not unlike the end of a fpontoon. 

The body was fmooth, and very thin in pro- 
portion to the fize ; the upper part alli-colored, 
fpotted with numerous white fpots, and a few black 

The tail v/as thick ; towards the end were two 
fmall fins, on each iide was a row of fmail fpines, 
with another row in the middle, which run fome way 
up the back. 

The lower part of the lifh was quite white. 

The mouth very large, and furnifhed with num- 
bers of fmail fharp teeth bending inv^ards. 

On its body we found the hirudo miiricata.^ which 
adhered very ftrongly, and when taken off left a 
black imprefTion. 

This fifh has been fuppofed to be the Bos of the 
antients, which was certainly lome enormous fpecies 




of Rn)\ tho' we cannot pretend to determine thc- 
particular kind : Oppian ftyles it, 

EufiUTar^ 7raj/T£(r(ri (Air ^X/^vfTiv, 
Broadeft among fifties. 

He adds an account of its fondnefs of human 
fielh, and the method it takes of deftroying men, by 
over-laying and keeping them down by its vail: 
weight till they are drowned. Pbile gives much the 
fame relation*. We are inclined to afford them 
credit, fince a modern writer **, of undoubted au- 
thority, gives the very fame account of a fifh found 
in the South Seas, the terror of thofe employed in 
the pearl fiihery. It is a fpecies of i'oy, called 
there Mania, or the ^i//, from its furrounding 
and wrapping up the unhappy divers till they are 
fuffocated ; to guard againft which, the negroes 
never go down without a Iharp knife to defend 
themfelves againft the affaults of this terrible 
enemy. 1 

* De proprief. Anlm. 85. 
** Ulloa's^voy.l, 132. Svo. e£{» 

III. The 

^^ U O U G I^ R A Y. CUfs lY, 


Raia fullonica. Rondel. 357. Raia dorfo toto aculeato, acu- 

Gefner pifc. 797. leorum ordine fimplici ad 

Raia afpera nollras, the white oculos, duplici in canda. 

horfe. Wil. Icih. 78. Rait Arted. fyn. 101. GroKo%!., 

fyn. fife. 26. ^ooph. No, 155. 

Raia fullonica. Lin. fyft. 

THIS fpecies derives its Latin name from the 
inftruments fullers make ufe of in fmoothing 
cloth, the back being rough, with fmall fpines 
like that. 

Thefe fpines are Ipread not only over the back, 
but the upper fide of the fins and the head : near 
each eye is a femicircular order of larger fpines, and 
about the nofe are a few others ; a row of the 
fame kind go half way down the back : the tail 
is armed with a double row of ftill greater fpines. 

The color of the upper part is afli-color, mixed 
with yellow ; the lower part of the body entirely 

This fpecies we believe to be rare, having never 
met with it ; therefore are obliged to borrow our 
?iefcription from Mr. Willoughhy. 

IV. The 

Clafs IV. C R A M P R A Y. 6% 


Na^xtl. Jriji- Hifl. an. lib. v. Torpedo. Cramp Fifh. Wil, 
€. 5. ix. c. 37. Oppian Ha- Icth. 8l, Rait Jyn. ptfc. 28. 

lieut. I. 104. ii. 56. iii. 149. Sniitf/s Hiji. Waterford, 271. 

Torpedo. Flinii lib. ix. <:. 42. Rai a Torpedo. Lin.fyjl. 39 j. 

La Tremble oU Torpille. Be- Raia tota laevis. Aned. fynon, 
lo7t. 78, 81. 102. Grono'v. Zooph. No. 

Torpedo. Rondel. Gefiier pifc. 1 53. tab. 9. 

THE narcotic or numbing quality of this filli 
has been taken notice of in all ages : it is fo 
powerful when the fifh is alive, as inflantly to de- 
prive the perfon who touches it of the ufe of his 
arm, and even to afFed; him if he touches it with a 
ftick. Oppian goes fo far as to fay, that it will be- 
numb the aftonifhed fifherman, even thro' the whole 
length of line and rod. 

K«i jusvxf NAPKE (T^zTi^ov voov an OiTroXenrsff 
nXny^ ccvioi^nccc. TiTaj^oy-t'm ^' o^vvr\<riv 

HoXXot,y.i ^VA 7rx,Xo(.f/.ri<; y^ocXocy.^ TrsciVy ottXcc T£ B'npyig 
To7^ yoiP K^JraAA©^ ^"'CO ^''^'^''^ii^ TC^i^* 

The hook'd Torpedo ne'er forgets its art, 
BHt foon as flrack begins to play its part, 
And to the line applies its magic iidesj 
Without delay the fubtile power glides 
Along the pliant rod, and flender hairs. 
Then to the fifher's hand as fwift repairs : 
Amaz'd he Itands ; his arm's of fenfe bereft, 
Down drops the idle rod ; his prey is left ; 
Not lefs benumb'd, than if he had felt the whok 
©f froft's fevereft rage beiieajh the ar&i^ pole, 

es C R A M P R A Y, Clafs IV. 

But great as its powers are when the filh is in vi- 
gor, they are impaired as it declines in llrength, 
and totally ceafe when it expires. They impute no 
noxious qualities to it as a food, being commonly 
eat by the French, who find them more frequently 
on their coafls than we do on ours. 

This wonderful faculty is occafioned by a mofl 
rapid, frequent, and violent contradlion and exertion 
of its mufcles, agaiiifl; any object that touches it. 
The caufe is prettily explained by M. Reaumur*, to 
whom we refer the inquifitive reader for a farther 

We may mention a double ufe in this flrange power 
the torpedo is endued with ; the one, when it is ex- 
erted as a means of defence againfl voracious fifh, 
who are at a touch deprived of all poffibility of 
feizing their prey. 

The other is well explained by Pliny, who tells us, 
it attains by the fame powers its end in refpect to 
thofe fifh it wifhes to enfnare. Novit torpedo vim 
fuam, ipfa non torpens ; merfaqtte in limo fe occultat 
pifcium qui fecuri fupernatantes ohtorpuere, coiri- 
plens **. 
^^j.^^^ Thefe filli are fometimes found of the weight of 
fifteen pounds. 

The body is almoil circular, and is thicker than 
others of the ray kind. The fkin is foft, fmooth, 

* Hlft. de PJcaaemie des Sciences, 17 14. 
** " The torpedo is well acquainted with its own power?, 
*' tho' itfelf never afFeifled by them. It conceals itfelf in tlie 
*' mud, and benumbing the fifh that are carelefsly fwimming 
*• about, makes a ready prey of them." 


Clafs IV. T H O R N B A C K. ^9 

and of a yellowifh color, marked with large annu- 
lar fpots : the eyes very fmall, and almofc covered 
with the fkin •, behind each is a femikmar orifice ; 
the mouth is placed below, and furniilied v/ith fmall 
fharp teeth. 

Along each fide of the body Is a narrow fin ; near 
the vent .two others. The tail is thick towards the 
bafe, and grows fmall towards the end : on the up- 
per part are two finall fins placed near each other -, 
the end is round. 

Thefe fiih inhabite hot, or at leaft warm climates, 
and are very rarely taken in the Britijh feas : the 
only one we ever heard of on our coalls, being 
took off the county of JVaterford. 

** With blunt teeth. 
V. The T H O R N B A C K, 

La Raye bouclee. Belon.'jo. Raia clavata. Lin.J^J}. 2<}j, 
Raia clavata. Rondel. 353. Grononj. Zooph. No. 154. 

Gefner pifc, 795. R. aculeata dentibus tubercu- 
Steinroch. Schone'veUe, 59. lofis, cartilagine tranfverfa 

Thornback. Wil. Icth. 74. abdominali. Arted.fynon. 94. 

Rail Jyn. pi/c, 26. Racka. Faun./uec. No. 293, 

THIS common fifh is eafily dillinguifhed from 
the others by the rows of ilrong fharp fpines, 
difpofed along the back and tail. In a large one we 
faw, were three rows on the back, and five on the 
tail, all inclining towards its end. 

On the nofe, and on the inner fide of the fore- 
head near the eyes, were a few fpines, and others 


yo t H b R N B A C K. Clafs IV. 

were fcattered without any order on the upper part 
of the peftoral fins. 

The mouth was fmall, and filled with granulated 

The upper part of the body was of a pale afli- 
color, marked with lliort ftreaks of black, and the 
ikin rough, with fmall tubercles like Ihagreen; 

The belly white, crofTed with a ftrong femilliilar 
cartilage beneath the fldn : in general the lower 
part was fmooth, having only a few fpines on each 

The young filli have very few fpines on them, and 
their backs are often fpotted with white, and each 
fpot is encircled with black. 
^ood. This fpecies frequents our fandy Ihores, are very 

voracious, and feed on all forts of flat fifh, and are 
particularly fond of herrings ^nd fand eels, and 
fometimes eat cruflaceous animals fuch as crabs. 

Thefe fometimes weigh fourteen or fifteen pounds, 
but v/ith us feldom exceed that weight. 

They begin to generate in June, and bring forth 
their young in July and Augiifi, which (as well as 
thofe of the fkate) before they are old enough to 
breed, are called maids. The thornback begins to 
be in feafon in November, and continues fo later 
than Ikate, but the young of both are good at all 
times of the year. 

VL The 

CiafslV. STINGRAY. 71 


T^vyuv. J'rijl. Hijt. an. lib. Pallinaca marina lasvis. ////. 

viii. c. 13. ix. 37. Oppian. p'J'c. 6j. 

Halieut. I. 104. ii. 462. Fire Flaire. Rait Jyn. pifc, 

Padinaca Plinii lib,\x. c. 4^, 38. 24. 

La Paftenade de mer, Tourte- Raia Paftinaca. Lin.JyJl. 396. 

relle, ouTareronde. ^f/o//.83 Raia corpore glabro, aculeo 

Paftinaca. /?o?i^e/. 33!. Ge/tier longo anterius ierrato, Cauda 

pifc. 679. ^pterygia. Arted. fynon. lOO. 

Steckroche. GroneTepel. 6'r/?'o- Grono'v. Zooph. No. 158. 

nevelde, 58. 

THE weapon with which nature hath armed 
this fifh, hath fupplied the antients with many 
tremendous fables relating to it. P/?«jy, Mlian., * and 
Oppian.^ have given it a venom that affedls even 
the inanimate creation : trees that are flruck by it 
inftantly lofe their verdure and perilh, and rocks 
themfelves are incapable of refilling the potent 

The enchantrefs Cirte., armed her fon with a fpear 
headed with the fpine of the Trygon^ as the moil ir- 
refiftible weapon ilie could furnifh him with, and 
with which he afterwards committed parricide, unin- 
tentionally, on his father Ulyjfes, 

That fpears and darts might, in very early times, 
have been headed with this bone inftead of iron, we 
have no kind of doubt : that of another fpecies of 
this fifh being ftill ufed to point the arrows of fomc 
of the South American Indians, and is, from its hard- 
nefs, fharpnefs, and beards, a moft dreadful weapon. 

f Hi^. an. lib. ii. c. ^6. 

F But 

72 S T I N G R A Y. Clafs IV. 

But in refpetl to its venemous qualities there is 
not the ieit credit to be given to tlie opinion, tho* 
it was believed (as far as it affeded the animal 
world) by Rondeletius, Aldrovand^ and others, and 
even to this day by the fiiliermen in feveral parts 
of the kingdom. It is in fact the weapon of of- 
fence belonging to the iifn, capable of giving a very 
bad wound, and which is attended with dangerous 
fymptoms, when it falls on a tendinous part, or on 
a perfon in a bad habit of body. As to any filh 
having a fpine charged with a6lual poifon, we muft 
deny our affent to it, tho' the report is fandlified by 
the name of Lmn^us'^. 
Defer. This fpccics docs not grow to the bulk of the 

the others : that which we examined was two feet 
nine inches from the tip of the nofe to the end of 
the tail ; to the origin of the tail one foot three 
inches ; the breadth one foot eight. 

The body is quite fmooth, of a fhape almoft 
round, and is of a much greater thicknefs, and 
more elevated form in the middle than any other 
Rays^ but grows very tliin towards the edges. 

The nofe is very fharp pointed, but fhort i the 
mouth fmall, and filled with granulated teeth. 

The irides are of a gold color : behind each eye 
the orifice is very large. 

* S)/i. Nat. I. 348. He Inftances the Paftinaca, the Torpedo^ 
and the Tetrodon lineatus. The firft is incapable of conveying 
a greater injury than what refults from the meer wound. The 
fecond, from the vehemence of its fhock : and the third, by im- 
parting a pungent pain like the fling of nettles, occafioned by 
the minute fpines on its abdomen. 


Ciafs IV. STINGRAY., 73 

The tail is very thick at the beginning : the fpine Tail, 
is placed about a third the length of the former from 
the body, is about five inches long, flat on the top 
and bottom, very hard, Iharp pointed, and the two 
fides thin, and clofely and fharply bearded the whole 
way. The tail extends four inches beyond the end 
of this fpine, and grows very flender at the extre- 

Thefe fifli are obferved to Ihed their fpine, and to 
renew them annually •, fometimes the new fpine ap- 
pears before the old one drops off, and the Cornijh 
call this fpecies Cardinal 'Triloji, or three tailed, 
when fo circumftanced. 

The colour of the upper part of the body is a 
dirty yellow, the middle part of an obfcure blue j 
the lower fide white, the tail and fpine duflcy. 

"ft Genus 


ANGEL F I S H. Clafs IV. 

Genus VI. Slender body growing lefs towards 
the tail. 

Two fins on the back. 
Rough Ikin. 

Five apertures on the fides of the neck. 
Mouth, generally placed far beneath the 
end of the nofe. 

The upper part of the tail longer than 
the lower. Sharks, 

* Without the anal fin. 


Pif/?. Ariji. H'lji, an. lib. v. c. 
5, &c. Jthenaits, lib. vii. p. 

Oppian Halicnt. I. 3?8, 742. 
bquatina P'i7i. lib. ix. c. 12. 

Rhina, Ic. Squatus. iib.'X.XKU.. 

<-. II. 
L'Ange, ou Angelot de mer. 

Bdon. 69. 
Squatina. Rondel. 367. Gefner. 

pifc. 899. Wil Ictb.jg. 

Monk, or Angel Fi(h. Raiijyn. 
pifc. 26. 

Squalus fquatina. Lin. fyjl. 
398. S. pinna ani nulla, 
caudas duabus, ore termina- 
li, naribus cirrofis. Ibid. 

Sq. pinna ani carens, ore in 
apice capitis. Arted.fyn. 95. 

Crono'U. Zooph, No. 151. 

THIS is the fifn which connefbs the genus of 
rays and fharks, partaking fomething of the 
character of both •, yet in an exception to each in 
the fituation of the mouth, which is placed at the 
extremity of the head. 

It is a fifh not unfrequent on moft of our coafls, 
where it prowls about for prey like others of the 
kind. It is extremely voracious, and, like the ray, 



feeds on flounders and flat fifli, vv^hich keep at the bot- 
tom of the water, as we have often found on open- 
ing them. It is extremely fierce and dangerous to Fierce- 
be approached. We knew an inftance of a fifher- 
man, whofe leg was terribly tore by a large one of 
this fpecies, which lay within his nets in flialiow wa- 
ter, and which he went to lay hold of incautioufly. 

The afpeft of thefe, as well as the refl: of the ge- 
nus, have much malignity in them : their eyes are 
oblong, and placed lengthways in their head, funk 
in it, and overhung by the flcin, and feem fuller of 
malevolence than fire. 

Their fKin is very rough ; the antients made ufe 
of it to polilh wood and ivory *, as we do at prefent 
that of the greater dog-fifli. The flelh is now but 
little efteemed on account of its coarfenefs and 
ranknefs, yet Archefiratus (as quoted by Athen^eus^ 
p. 319) fpeaking of the fill^ of Miletus^ gives this 
the firft place in refped: to its delicacy of the whole 
cartilaginous tribe. 

They grow to a great fize ; we have feen them of Defer, 
near an hundred weight. 

The head is large, the teeth broad at their bafe, 
but flender and very fliarp above, and difpofed in 
five rows all round the jaws. Like thofe of all 
fharks, they are capable of being raifed or depreflTcd 
by means of mufcles uniting them to the jaws, not 
being lodged in fockets as the teeth of cetaceous 
fifli are. 

* Qua iigniim et ebora poliuntur. Plinii lib. ix. c. 12. 

F 3 The 

76 A N G E L F I S H. Clafs IV. 

The tongue is large ; the eyes fmall ; the pupil 
of a pale green \ the irides white, fpotted with 
brown : behind each eye is a femilunar orifice. 

The back is of a pale afh-color, and very rough ; 
along the middle is a prickly tuberculated line : the 
belly is white and fmooth. 

The peroral fins are very large, and extend hori- 
zontally from the body to a great diftance •, they 
have fome refemblance to wings, fo writers have 
given this the nam.e it bears in this work. 

The ventral fins are placed in the fame manner, 
and the double penis is placed in them, which forms 
another charafter of the males in this and the laft 

The tail is bifurcated, the upper lobe rather the 
longeft : not very remote from the end on the back 
are two fins. 

II. The 




an. lib. vi. c. lo. Opptan 

Halieut. I. 380. 
ETTJi/WTi? Jthena;t lib. vii. p. 
L'Efguillats. Belon. 61. 
Galeus acanthias. Rondel. 373. 

Gefner. pijc. Soy. 
Sperhaye, Dornhundt. Schone- 

'velde, 29. 
Galeus acanthias live fpinax^ 

WtU Icth. 56. 

The picked dog, or hound fifli. 

Rail Jyn. prfc, 21. 
Squalus fpinax. Lin.fyjl. 397. 

Sq. pinna ani nulla, dorfa- 

libus fpinofis, corpore tere- 

tiufculo. Ibid. 
Sq. pinna ani nulla, corpore 

fubrotundo. Arted. fynon.gj^. 
Hai. Faun.fuec. No, 295. Gio- 

niyv. Zooph, 14^. 

THE picked dog fifli takes its name from a Name. 
ftrong and iharp fpine placed jiift before each 
of the back fins, dillinguilhing it at once from the 
reft of the Britijh fharks. 

The nofe is long, and extends greatly beyond the Defer. 
mouth, but is blunt at the end. 

The teeth are difpofed in two rows, are fmall and 
Hiarp, and bend from the middle of each jaw to- 
wards the corners of the mouth. 

The firft back fin is placed nearer the head than 
the tail j the other is fituated very near the latter. 

The tail is finned for a confiderabie fpace beneath, 
and th€ upper part is much the longeft. 

The back is of a browniili afh-color •, the belly 

It grows to the weight of about twenty pounds. 

F 4 

III. The 

78 BASKING SHARK. Clafs lY, 

Sun-fifll. Smith' % Hiji. Ccri, ii. 292. !/(/?, Waterforii, 27 1. 

THIS fpecies has been long known to the inha- 
bitants of the fouth ^nd weft of Ireland^ and 
thofe of Caernarvonjhire and Anglefea -, but having 
never been confidered in any other than a commer- 
cial view, has till this time remained undefcribed, at 
left by any Englip writer*; and what is worfe, mif- 
taken for and confounded with the luna of Rondele- 
tius, the fame that our EngliJIo writers call iht fun- 

The Irijh and Welch give it the fame napie, from 
its lying as if to fun itfelf on the furface of the wa- 
ter j and for the fame reafon we have taken the li- 
berty of calling it the bafking ftiark. It was long 
taken for a fpecies of whale, till we pointed out the 
branchial orifices on the fides, and the perpendicular 
fite of the tail. 

Thefe are migratory fifti, or at left it is but in a 
certain number of years that theyare feen in mul- 
titudes on the IVelch feas, tho' in moft fummers a 
fingle and perhaps ftrayed fifli appears. 

* Llnr.a;iis,p. 4C0. mentions a fpecies, which in fize, and in 
fpme other refpects, refembles this ; but his differs in having 
a fmall anal fin. It is his Squalus maximus. S. dentihus caninist 
pinna dcrjali anieriore majore. Wt fays it inhabites the araic feas, 
and feeds on medufa (fea jellies) chat it rivals the whale in fize, 
h^S no orifice near the eyes, and has a fmall anal fin. 



They vifited the bays of Caernarvon/hire and An^ 
gkfea in vaft fhoals, in the fummers of 1756 *, and 
a. few fucceeding years, continuing there only the hot 
months, for they quitted the coaft about Michael-^ 
p^as^ as if cold weather was difagreeable to them. 

They had nothing of the fierce and voracious nar- 
ture of the fhark kind, and were fo tame as to fuf- 
fer themfelves to be flroked : they generally lay mor- 
tionlefs on the furface, com.monly on their bellies, 
but fometimes, like tired fwimmers, on their backs. 

Their food feemed to confift entirely of fea plants, ^°^^' 
no remains of fifh being ever difcovered in the fto^- 
machs of numbers that were cut up, except fome 
green ftuff, the half digefted parts of algjc, and the 

At certain times they were feen fporting on the 
waves, and leaping with vaft agility feverai feet out 
pf the water. 

Their length was from three to eleven yards, but 
the laft was a. rare fize. 

Their form was rather llender, like others of the 
fhark kind. 

The upper jaw was much longer than the lower. Teeth, 
^nd blunt at the end. The mouth placed beneath, 
and each jaw furnillied with numbers of fmall teeth : 
thofe before were much bent, thofe more remote in 
the jaws, were conic and Iharp pointed. 

On the fides of the neck were five large tranf- 
verfe apertures to the gills. 

* Some old people fay they recolle£l the fame fort of lifli 
yifiting thefe feas in vaft numbers about forty years ago. 



On the back were two fins ; the firft very large, 
not diredly in the middle of the back, but rather 
nearer the head •, the other fmall, and fituated near 
the tail. On the lower part were four others, viz. 
two pe6loral fins, and two ventral fins ; the laft 
placed juft beneath the hind fin of the back. Near 
thefe the male had two genitals, and between thefe 
fins was fituated the pudendum of the female. 

The tail was very large, and the upper part re- 
markably longer than the lower. 

The color of the upper part of the body was a 
deep leaden -, the belly white. 

The fl<:in was rough, like Ihagreen, but lefs fo on 
the belly than the back. 

Within fide the mouth, towards the throat, was a 
very fhort fort of whalebone. 
Liver. The livcr was of a great fize, but that of the 

female was the largeft; fome weighed above a thou- 
on, fand pounds, and yielded a great quantity of pure 
and fweet oil, fit for lamps, and alio much ufed by 
the people who took them, to cure bruifes, burns, 
and rheumatic complaints. Alarg&fifli has afforded 
to the captors a profit of twenty pounds. They 
were viviparous, a young one about a foot in length 
being found in the belly of a fifh of this kind. 

They were taken with harpoons with long lines 

fixed to them in much the fame manner as whales are^ 

and when ftruck go off with vafl rapidity, and dart 

inflantly to the bottom, taking with them forty or 

fifty fathom of line, and are a long time before they 

are quite fubdued. 



The filhers obferved on them a fort of leech of a 
reddifh color, and about two feet long, but which 
fell off when the filh was brought to the furface of 
the water, and left a white mark on the fkin. 

The fame perfons affert, that there were two fpe- 
cies of this fifh ; a leiTer fort, about two yards in 
length, which had in the mouth only three rows of 
teeth, and thofe larger than in the kind we have 
defcribed, being an inch and an half long. 

This account wf digefted from materials furnillied 
by the Rev. Mr. Farrington, and the Rev. Mr. Wil- 
liams, Redlor of Lanvair yn Hornwy, in Anglefea ; 
for it has not been our fortune to fee more of this 
fiih. than fragments of the Ikin, jaws, and what is 
ftyled whalebone : they have now in a manner quit- 
ted the coafts, fcarce one in a fummer appearing in 
thofe feas. 

♦* With 


** With the anal fin. 

Ax^iia. ? Jriji. Hiji. an, lib. v. La^^a. Tiburo. Rondel. 489. 

5. IX. c. 37. 


A i ^ . TT 1- T Canis Carcharias. Gefner fife. 

Aot.^vy\, Qppian Hahtut.v. -i^^o. "^ ■^ 

^' 36- White Shark. WiL Icih. 47. 

Kafx<x^ja? Kuwi/. Jthen. lib. Rait'^jn. pifc. 1%. 

vii. /. 310. _ Squalus carcharias. Sq. dorfo 

Lamia ? Plinii lib. ix. c. 24. piano dentibus ferratis. Lin. 

Le chien carcharien ou Perlz ^y?. ^qo. 

fifch de Norvege. Belon. ^z. Arted. fymn.'i^. Grono'v.Zooph. 

87. JVo. 143. 

$!«. f I ^HIS grows to a very great bulk, Gillius fays, 

X to the weight of four thoufand pounds j and 

that in the belly of one was found a human corps 

entire, which is far from incredible, confidering 

their vaft greedinefs after human flefh. 

They are the dread of the failors in all hot cli- 
mates, where they conftantly attend the Ihips in ex- 
pectation of what may drop overboard •, a man that 
has that misfortune perifhes without redemption : 
they have been feen to dart at him, like gudgeons to 
a worm. A m after of a Guinea fhip i^iformed me, 
that a rage of fuicide prevailed among his new 
bought flaves, from a notion the unhappy creatures 
had, that after death they fhould be reftored again to 
their families, friends, and country. To convince 
them at left that they ftiould not re-animate their 
fcodiesj he ordered one of their corpfes to be tied by 


the heels to a rope, and lowered into the fea, and tho* 
it was drawn up again as faft as the united force of 
the crew could be exerted, yet in that fhort fpace the 
iharks had devoured every part but the feet, which 
were fecured at the end of the cord. 

Swimmers very often perifh by them; fometimes 
they lofe an arm or leg, and fometimes are bit quite 
affunder, ferving but for two morfels for this rave- 
nous animal: a melancholy tale of this kind is re- 
lated in a JVeft India ballad, preferved in Mr. Percys 
reliques of ancient Englijh poetry*. 

The mouth of this fifh is furnilhed with (fome- Teeih. 
times) a fixfold row of teeth, flat, triangular, ex- 
ceedingly Iharp at their edges, and finely ferrated. 
We have one that is rather more than an inch and 
an half long. Grew** fays, that thofe in the jaws of 
a Ihark two yards in length, are not half an inch, 
fo that the fifli to which mine belonged muft have 
been fix yards long, provided the teeth and body 
keep pace in their growth -f. 

This dreadful apparatus, when the fifh is in a ftatc 
of repofe, lie quite flat in the mouth, but when he 
feizes his prey, he has power of erecting them, by 
the help of a fet of mufcles that join them to the 

The mouth is placed far beneath, for which rea- 
Ibn thefe, as well as the reft of the kind, are faid to 

* Vol. I. 351. 
** Rarities, 91. 

f Foflil teeth of this fi/h are very frequent in Maha, fome of 
which are four inches long, 


84 BLUE SHARK. Clafs IV. 

be obliged to turn on their backs to feize their prey, 
which is an obfervation as antient as the days oiPliny^. 

The eyes are large; the back broad, flat, and 
ihorter than that of other fharks. The tail is of a 
femilunar form, but the upper part is longer than the 
lower. It has vaft flrength in the tail, and can ftrike 
with great force, fo that the failors inftantly cut it off 
with an axe as foon as they draw one on board. 

The peroral fins are very large, which enables 
it to fwim with great fwiftnefs. 

The color of the whole body and fins is a light 

The antients were acquainted with this fifh ; and 
Oppian gives a long and entertaining account of its 
capture. Their flefh is fometimes eaten, but is ef- 
teemed both coarfe and rank. 


FAaux®^, Julian, an. lih. I. c. Squalus foflula triangular! In 

16. extremo dorfo, foraminibus 

Galeus glaucus. Rondel, 378. nullis ad oculos, Arted.fyn. 

Gejner pifc. 609 . 98. 

Blew {hark. Wil. Icth. 49. Squalus glaucus. Lin.Jj/Ji.^oi. 
Raiijyn, pifc. 20. 

L /y^iV relates ftrange things of the affeflion 

•*-^--' this fpecies bears to its young: among others, 
he fays, that it will permit the fmall brood, when 
in danger, to fwim down its mouth, and take Ihel- 

f Omni A autm (arniuora/utit talia afupina 've/cantur* lib.'x&.c, 24. 



ter in its belly. This fa6t has been fince confirmed 
by the obfervpAion of one of our beft icthyologiils*, 
and is no more incredible, than that the young of the 
OpGJJum fhould feek an afylum in the ventral pouch 
of its parent, a fa6l too well known to be contefted. 
But this degree of care is not peculiar to the blue 
fhark, but we believe common to the whole genus. 

This fpecies frequents many of our coafts, but 
particularly thofe of Cornwall during the pilchard 
feafon, and is at that time taken with great iron 
hooks made on purpofe. 

It is of an oblong form : the nofe extends far Defer, 
beyond the mouth : it wants the orifices behind the 
eyes, which are ufual in this genus : the noftrils are 
long, and placed tranfverfely, Artedi remarks a 
triangular dent in the lower part of the back. 

The il<:in is fmoother than that of other Iharks; 
the back is of a fine blue color ; the belly of a fil- 
very white. 

Linnaus fays, that its teeth are granulated; for our 
part we muft confefs it is a fifh that has not come 
under our examination, therefore hope to be fa- 
vored with an accurate defcription from fome Natu- 
lift, who lives on the coaft it haunts. 

We may add, that Rondeletius fays he was an eye- 
witnefs to its fondnefs for human flefh ; that thefe 
filh are lefs deftrudive in our feas, is owina to the 
Coolnefs of the climate, which is v/ell known to abate 
the fiercenefs of fome, as well as the venom of other 

* Randektm, 388* 

S3? The 

86 SEA F^ O X. ClafslV. 

VL The SEA F O X. 

AXmtts^? JHJf. Hiji. an. lib. Ctrzw^ 'Caii cpufc. ilo. 

ix. c. 37. ^lian Far. HiJl, Sea Foxi or Ape. Wil.Icth. 54; 

lib.\. f. 5. Ranjyn.pifc.zo. 

Oppian Halieut.l. 38!. iii. 144. Squalus Cauda iongiore quart! 
Vulpes PUmi. lib. ix. c. 43. ipfum corpus. Arted.Jyn. 96. 

Singe demer. Bekn.'i^. Sea Fox. Threfher. Borlaft , 
Vulpes marina. Rondel. 337. Coriiwall. 265. 

GeJ'ncr pifc. 1045. 

Tall. fT^HIS fifh is moft remarkable for the great 
\, length of the tail : the whole meafure of thai: 
we had an opportunity of examining, was thirteen 
feet, of which the tail alone was more than fix, the; 
•upper part extending greatly beyond the lower, al- 
moft in a ftrait line. 

The body was round and fhort : the nofe Ihort but 
fliarp pointed : the eyes large, and placed imme- 
diately over the corners of the mouth, which was 
fmall, and placed not very diilaiit from the end of 
the nofe. 

The teeth are fmall for the fize of the fifli, and 
placed in three rows. 

The back was aih-color •, the belly white. 

The andents ftyled this filh AAwtt^^j and Vulpes^ 
from ics fuppofed cunning. They believed, that 
when it had the misfortune to have taken a bait, it 
fwallowed the hook till it got at the cord, which it 
bit off, and fo efcaped. 

They are fometimes taken in our feas, and have 
beetv imagined t(? b? the fifh called the Threfier, 



ChfsIV. TOPE. 87 

from its attacking and beating the Grampus with 
its long tail, whenever that fpecies of whale rifes 
to the furface to breathe. 


Kuojv ? u^rifi. mjl, an. lib. vi. The Tope. JVil Icth. 5 1. Rait 

CM, fyn. pi/c. 20. 

Canicula ? Plinii lih.\x. c. /^6. Squalus naribas ori vicinis ; 

Le chien de mer, ou Canicule. foraminibus exiguis ad ocu- 

Belon, 65. los. jlrted. fynon. 97. 

Canis galeus. Rondel. 377. Squalus galeus. Lin.Jy/i. 399. 

Cefmr pifc. 1 67. Gronov. Zoopb. No. 1 42. 

ON E that was taken on our coaft the lafl year siae; 
weighed twenty-feven pounds, and its length 
was five feet ; but they grow to a greater fize, fome, 
according to Artedius, weighing an hundred pounds. 

The color of the upper part of the body and fins 
was a light cinereous ; the belly white. 

The nofe was very long, flat, and fharp pointed j 
beyond the nollrils femitranfparent. The noftrjls 
were placed very near the mouth. 

Behind each eye was a fmall orifice. The teeth were 
numerous, difpofed in three rows, fmall, very fharp, 
triangular, and ferrated on their inner edge. 

The firft back fin was placed about eighteen inches 
from the head j the other very near the tail. 

The tail finned beneath, the upper part ended 
in a fharp angle. 

This fpecies is faid by Rondeletius to be very fierce 
and voracious, even to purfue its prey to the edge of 
the fhore, 

G It5l 


Its fl<in and fiefli has an oflenfive rank fmell •, 
therefore we fuppofe Mr, Dak gave it ironically the 
title of Sweet William *, 


N£?^tac. SkuAjo?, hci^lac^ Greater Cat fifh : the Bounce. 
Artft. Hift. an. lib. v. c. lo. ^f J^- Pf- ^^\ 

VI. c. lo, II. 

Squalus ex rufo varius, pinna 

_ , a'" rr I. 1 r, ani medio interanum et cau- 

rioix.Aof? OppranHaheut.\^%x. ^^^ pinnatum. Artel fyn, 

LaRoufiete commune. i/t'/oK Oij. ot 

Canicula Ariflotelu. Rondel. Squ-il'us canicula. Z/«. A'/?. 399. 

380. Gejnerp:rc 168. ^^..^^^,^ 2. ;.. No. f^ 

Catulus major vulgaris. //^./. Greater Cat fi(h. £^-x.. 2S9. 

/<r//^. 62. 

THIS fpecies being remarkably fpotted, may 
be the fame known to antients by the names 
exprelTed in the fynonyms -, but they fo frequently 
leave fuch flight notices of the animals they mention, 
that we are often obliged to add a doubtful mark {}) 
to numbers of them. 
Defer. The weight of one we took was fix pounds three 
ounces, and yet it meafured three feet eight inches in 
length •, fo light are the cartilaginous fifh in refped 
to their fize. 

The nofe was fliort, and very blunt, not extend- 
ing above an inch and an half beyond the mouth. 
The noftrils were large, placed near the mouth, and 
covered with a large angular flap -. the head very 

* HiJ}. Harwchi 420. 



The eyes were oblong, behind each a large ori- 
fice opening to the infide of the mouth. 

The teeth fmall, fharp, fmooth at their fides, 
ftrait, and difpofed in four rows. 

Both the back fins were placed much behind, and 
nearer the tail than in common. 

The tail was finned, and below extended into a 
Iharp angle. 

The color of the whole upper part of the body^ 
and the fins, was brown, marked with numbers of 
large diftinft black fpots : fome parts of the fkin 
were tinged with red ; the belly v/as white. 

The whole was moft remarkably round, and had 
a ftrong fmell. 

We think it is this fpecies which furniilies what 
anglers call Indian grafs^ being the tendrils that iffue 
from each end of the purfc of this filh, which ard 
much more delicate and {lender than thofe of any 

The female of this fpecies^ and we believe of other 
fharks, is greatly fuperior in fize to the male •, fo that 
in this refpeft there is an agreement between the filli 
and the birds of prey*. They bring about nine- 
teen young at a time : the fifhermen believe that 
they breed at all times of the year, as they fcarce 
ever take any but what are with young. 

To this kind may be added, as a meer variety;^ 


Catulus maximus. Wil, Icth. 63. Raiifyn. plfc. 22, 
Squalus cinereus, pinnis ventraiibus diferetis* Artedifyn. ^ji 
Squalus ftellaris. Lm.fyji. 399. 
iVi?. 145. Grono'v. Zooph, 

* Vide Briiij'h Zoology, I'oh I. 130^ 

G a tht 


The chief difference feeming to be in the color 
and the fize of the fpots •, the former being gtey, 
the latter fewer but larger than in the other. 


Le mufcarol ? Belon. 64. ventralibus concretis. Artei. 

Catulus minor. Wil. lah. 6\. Jynon.gj. 

Leffer Rough Hounds or Mor- Squalus catnlus. Z/«._^jy?. 400. 

gay. Rail fyn. pifc. 22. Gronov. Zooph. No. 144. 
Squalus dorfo vario, pinnis 

THE weight of one that was brought to us by 
a fifherman was only one pound twelve 
ounces ; the length two feet two inches : it is of a 
flender make in all parts. 

The head was fiat : the noftrils covered with. a 
long flap : the nofe blunt, and marked beneath 
with numerous fmall punfbures : behind each eye 
was a fmall orifice : the back fins like thofe of the 
former, placed far behind. 

The ventral fins are united, forming as if it were 
but one, which is a fure mark of this fpecies. 

The tail finned like that of the greater dog fifh. 

The color is cinereous, ftreaked in fome parts 
with red, and generally marked with numbers of 
fmall black fpots -, but we have obferved in fomc 
that they are very faint and obfcure. 

The belly is white. 

This fpecies breeds from nine to thirteen young 
at a time, are very numerous on fome of our coafts, 
and very injurious to the filheries. 

X. The 



r«Af©J Xlioq ? Jri/f. HI/!, an. Smooth or unprickly hound* 

lib. VI. c, 10. Oppian, lib. Rait fyn. pifc. 22. 

I. 380. Squalus dentibus obtufis feu 
Galeus la^vis. Rondel, 375. Gef- granulofis. JrteJ.fyn. 93. 

ner pifc. 608. Squalus mullelus. Lin. Jy/I, 
Miiftelus Isvis primus. Wil. ji^oo. Grono'v.ZoDph, No.l^z* 

Jcth. 60. 

THIS fpecics is called fmooth, not that the 
Ikin is really fo, but becaufe it wants the 
fpines on the back, which are the charader of the 
fecond fpecies, the Picked Dog. 

The nofe extends far beyond the mouth, and the 
end blunt : the holes behind the eyes are fmall -, the 
back is lefs flat than that of others of this genus. 

The firft back fin is placed midway above the 
pefloral and ventral fins : the pectoral fins are fmall. 

The tail forked, but the upper part is much the 

The teeth refemble thofe of a Ray, rough and 

The color of the back and fides alh, and free 
from fpots J the belly filvery. 

G 3 XI. The 

g2 PORBEAGLE. Clafs IV. 

XL The P O R B E A G L E. 

The Porbeagle. Borlafe Corn-wall, 265. tab, 26. 

THE iignre of this fifh, engi\aved after a draw- 
ing by the Rev. Mr. Jago *, is preferved ia 
Do6lor Borlafeh Natural Hifrory of Cornwall. 

As it is not attended with any account farther 
than that it is a Cornijh iifh, and a fmall fpecies of 
ihark, we are obliged to form the befb defcriptioa 
we can from the print. 

The nofe appears to be very long, (lender towards 
the end, and iTiarp pointed. The mouth placed far 
beneath; the body very thick and deep, but extremely 
ilender, jufl at the fetting on of the tail. 

The firit back fin is placed almoft in the middle, 
the other pretty near the tail. 

The belly very deep : the ventral and anal fin$ 

The tail bifurcated ; the upper fork a little longer 
than the lower. 

* This gentleman was miniHer of Loo, in Corn-uall, and ap- 
pears to have been well acquainted with the Hiftory of Fiih, 
He communicated figures of feveral of the Ccrnijh fiih, with a 
brief account of each to Peii'ver, at whofe initance, as Doftor 
Derbam tells us, in the preface to Mr. Ray''& Itineraries, p. 69, 
he added them to the Synopfis Aviuin etpifdum, p. 162. A few 
others of his drawings are alfo preferved in the Natural Hiftory 
©f Coravjall, and fcera to be executed with ftill and accuracy. 



Genus VII. One aperture behind each ventral fin. 
^ Large, flat, and circular head 
and body. 

Teeth nUxTierous and fmall in the 
jav/s, roof of the mouth, and on the 
Pectoral iins broad and thick. 

Fishing Frog. 


BocrDax°^' ^'■'/^- ^'J^- ^"- ^'^^ Seheganfs, feheteufFel, fehe-,. 
iv. C.H7. Oppian Halieul. ii. tO'^e. Schone^elde, 59. 


Toad-fifh, Frog-fifli, or Sea- 

-Rana'pifcatrlx. 0.jid, Haliiut, Devi), /f'./. /.//., 85. Ran 

126 Pltmi lib. ix. .. 24. T K ^'^'' '^' r , , r 

^ Lophius orecirrofo. Artea.Jyn, 

La Grenoille de mer, ou pef- g»^ 

cheufe. Le Diable de mer, Lophius pifcatorius. Lyn. fyft. 

Bauldroy & Pefcheteau. 5^- ^q^. -^ -f^J . 

lon.']-j. L. p. depreffus capita rotundato.' 

Rana pifcatrlx. Rondel, 363. Faun fuec. No. 298. Gronov. 

Gefner pfc. 813. Zoopb. No. 207. 

THIS fingular fifli was known to the antients Nam*. 
by the name of 'BsiT^oip(j^, and Rana, and to 
lis by that of the iifhing frog, for it is of a figure 
refembling that animal in a tadpole ftate. Pliny: 
takes notice of the artifice ufed by it to take its 
prey : Eminentia fub oculis cornicula iurhato limo exe~ 
rit, cijjultantes pfcicuks attrahens, donee tarn prope 
accedanty nt ajjlliat. " It puts forth the (lender horns 
" it has beneath its eyes, enticing by that means the 
G 4 «' little 

« little fifh to play round, till they come within 
*' reach, when it fprings on them*. 
Defer. The filhing frog grows to a large fize, fome be- 
ing between four and five feet in length ; and we 
have heard of one taken near Scarborough^ whofe 
mouth was a yard wide. The filhermen on that - 
coaft have a great regard for this fifh, from a fup- 
pofition that it is a great enemy to the dog fifh**, 
and whenever they take it with their lines, always fet 
it at liberty. 

It is a filh of very great deformity : the head is 
much bigger than the whole body, is round at the 
circvimference, and flat above : the mouth of a pro- 
digious widenefs. 

The under jaw is much longer than the upper: 
the jaws are full of flender fharp teeth : in the roof 
of the mouth are two or three rows of the fame r 
at the root of the tongue, oppofite each other, are 
two bones of an elliptical form, thick fet, with very 
ftrong Iharp teeth. 

The noftrils do not appear externally, but in the 
upper part of the mouth are two large orifices that 
ferve inftead of them. 

On each fide the upper jaw are two fharp fpines, and 
others are fcattered about the upper part of the head. 

Immediately above the nofe are two long tough 
filaments, and on the back three others \ thefe are 

* Cicero, in his fecond of De Natura Deorum, gives much the 
fame account of this fifh : Rana autem marina dicuntur obyuere- 
fefe arena folere, et moveri prope aquam, ad quas, quaji ad ejcam, 
pifces cum accejferint, cotifici a ranis, aique conjumi. 

** The bodies of thefe fierce and voracious filh are often 
found in the itomach of the Fifiing Frcg. 



-^^^^uudiuuiu :]c 

JM^y^i r 


what Pliny calls cornicula, and fays it makes life of 
to attrad the little fifh. 

Along the edges of the head and body are a mul- 
titude of fhort fringed Ikins, placed at equal dif- 

The ventral fins are broad, thick, and flelhy, are 
jointed like arms, and within fide divided into fingers. 

The aperture to the gills is placed behind, each of 
thefe is very wide, fo that fome writers have ima- 
gined it to be a receptacle for the young in time of 

The back fin is placed very low near the begin- 
ning of the tail : the anal fin is placed beneath, al- 
moft oppofite the former. 

The body grows (lender near the tail, the end of 
which is quite even. 

The color of the upper part of this filh is dufky, 
the lower part white ; the fkin fmooth. 


Fifhing Frog of Mount's-Bay. 27. fg. 6. Pi>U. Tranf. vol. 
Borlafe Cornivally 266. tab, liii. 170. 

THIS is a fpecies at prefent unJcnown to us, 
except by defcription. 
It is, fays Do6lor Borlafe^ of a longer form than 
the common kind : the head more bony, rough, and 
aculeated. It had no fin like appendages round the 
head, but on each fide the thinner part of the body, 
beginning beneath the dorfal fin, and reaching within 


g6 STURGEON. Clafs IV. 

two inches of the tail, was a feries of them, each 
three quarters of an inch in length. 

At the end of the pedoral fins were fpines an inch 
and three quarters in length •, at the end of the tail 
others three quarters of an inch long. 

Genus VIII. One narrow aperture on each fide. 
The mouth placed far below, tubular 
and without teeth. 
The body long, and often angular. 


I. The S T U R G E O N. 

OyKT'/.og. Athen, lih. viii. 315, 
• A'xxi77-r)(7ioj ? Athen. p. 294.^. 

Acipenfer ? Plinh lib. ix. r. 17. 
Ovidii Halieui ? 

L'Eliurgeon, Belon. 89. 

Acipenfer. Rondel. ^\q. Gefner 
pifc. 2. 

Stufio. Gefner pifc. 

Stoer. 2chonen:elde. 9. 

Sturgeon. IVil. luh. 239. Rait 
fjn. pifc 112. 

Schirk. Kram. 383. 
Acipenfer corpore tuberculis 

fpinoils exafperato, Arted, 

Jym 91. 
Acipenfer fturio. Lin.fyfl. 403. 

Muf Ad. I red. 94. tab. 18. 

fig. 2. 
Stor. Faun.fuec. No. 299. 
Seb. Muf. iii. 101. tab. 29. 

No. 19. 

THAT tliis is the o'nc-xo? of Dcrion, as quoted 
by Athenaus, is very probable, as well from 
the account he gives of its form, as of its nature. 
He fays its mouth is always open, with which it 
agrees with the fturgeon, and that it conceals itfelf 
in the hot months : this fhews it to be a filh of a 
cold nature, v/hich is confirmed by the hiflory of 


Oafs IV. STURGEON. 97 

the European filli of this fpecies, given by Mr. 
Forfter*^ in his EfTay on the Volga^ who relates that 
they are fcarce ever found in that river in fpring or 
fummer, but in vaft quantities in autumn and win- 
ter, when they crowd from the fea under the ice, 
and are then taken in great numbers. 

"Whether the acipe?ifer is the fturgeon of the mo- 
derns, may be doubted, otherwife Ow^ would ne.- - 
ver have fpoke of it as a foreign fifli : 

Tuque peregrinis, Acipenfer, nobilis undis^ 
And, thou, a fifh in foreign feas renowned. 

It being well known that it is not uncommiOn in 
the Mediterranean.^ and even, in the mouth of the 
^iher^ at certain feafons % but this palTage leaves us 
as much in the dark as to the particular fpecies in- 
tended, by the word adpenfo\ as the defcription 
Fliny has given us ; for that philofopher relates, that 
its fcales are placed in a contrary direction to thofe 
of other filh, being turned towards the mouth, which 
difagrees with the character of all that are known 
at prefent. Whatever fifh it might be, it was cer- 
tainly the fame with the Elops^ or Helops, as appears 
both from Plijiy, and another line of the poet be- 
fore-mentioned : 

Et pretzo/us Helops nojiris inccgmtus undis. 
The pretious Helops ftranger to cur feas. 

The flurgeon annually afcends our rivers, but in 
no great numbers, and is taken by accident in the tory. 

* fhil "franj. Ivii. 552, 


^8 STURGEON. Clafs IV. 

falmon nets. It feems a fpiritlefs fii"h, making no 
manner of refinance when entangled, but is drawn 
out of the water like a lifelefs lump. It is a fiHi that 
is feldom taken far out at fea, but frequents fuch parts 
as are not remote from the asftuaries of great rivers. 
It is admired for the delicacy and firmnefs of its 
flefh, which is white as veal, and extrem.ely good 
when roafted. It is generally pickled. The moll 
we receive comes either from the Baltic rivers, or 
North America : thofe cured at Pillau have been, till 
of late, in the greateil repute ; but thro' the encou- 
ragement given by the fociety inftituted for pro- 
moting trade and manufactures, the fturgeon from 
our colonies begins to rival thofe of the Baltic. 

Great numbers are taken during fummer in the 
lakes Frifche-baff, and Curifch-haff near Pillau., in 
large nets made of fmall cord. The adjacent Ihores 
are formed into diftrids, and farmed out to compa- 
nies of filhermen, fome of which are rented for fix 
thoufand guilders, or near three hundred pounds 
per annum. 

They are found in vaft abundance in the American 
rivers in May., "June., and July., at which time they 
leap fome yards out of the water, and falling on 
their fides, make a noife to be heard in ftill weather 
at fome miles diftance*. 
CwUre. Caviare is made of the roes of this, and alfo of 
all the other forts of fturgeons, dried, faked, and 
packed up clofe. The bell is faid to be made of 
thofe of the Sterlet^*., a fmall fpecies frequent in 

• Catejhy Carol. Jpp, 33. *• Sirabhnberg'z Hifl. RuJJia, 337- 


Clafs IV. STURGEON. 99 

the Talk and Volga. * Icthyocolla, or ifing-glafs, is 
alfo made of the found of our filh, as well as that 
of the others, but the Beluga affords the beft**. 

The fturgeon grows to a great fize, to the length ^'^"• 
of eighteen feet, and to the weight of five hundred 
pounds, but it is feldom taken in our rivers of that 
bulk. The largeft we have known caught in thofe 
of Great Britain weighed four hundred and fixty 
pounds, which was taken about two years ago in the 
E/k, where they are more frequently found than ia 
Our fouthern waters. 

The nofe is very long, flender, and ends in a 
point, The eyes are extremely fmall ; the noflrik 
placed near them : on the lower part of the nofe are 
four cirri or beards : the mouth is fituated far be- 
neath, is fmall, and unfupported by any jaw bones j 
neither has it any teeth. 

The body is long, pentagonal, and covered with 
five rows of large bony tubercles : one row of 
which is placed on the back, and two on each fide. 
The whole under fide of the filh, from the end of 

* FhiL Tranf. Ivii. 354.. a very fmall quantity is|made from 
this fpecies, and that only defigned as prefents to great men, 
as Mr. Forjler affured me. 

** The antients were acquainted with the fifh that afforded 
this drug. Pliny lib xxxii. c. 7. mentions it under the name of 
Icthyocolla, and fays, that the glue that was produced from it had 
the fame title ; and afterwards adds, that it was made out of 
the belly of the fiih. The Mario, faid by Pliny lib. ix. c. 1 5. to 
be found in xht Danube and the Boryfthenes, was certainly of this 
genus, a cartilaginous filh (nullis ojjibus fpinifve interfitis) xq^qxxI' 
blingafmall porpefle (Porculo marino Jimillimm \) and very pro- 
bably may be the fame with the Beluga, which, according to 
Mr. Forjler, Phil. Tranf. Ivii. 354. has a Ihort blunt nofe, agree- 
ing in that refpeft with the porpefFe. 


the nofe to the vent, is flat ; on the back, not re- 
mote from the tail, is a fmgle fin. It has befides 
two peroral fins, two ventral and one anal fin. 
The tail is bifurcated, but the upper part much 
longer than the lower. 

The upper part of the body is of a dirty olive 
color : the lower part filvery -, the middle of the 
tubercles white. 

In the manner of breeding it is an exception 
among the cartilaginous fifh, being like the bony 
fifh oviparous, fpawning in winter. 

Genus IX. A very deep body, and as if cut off 
in the middle. 
Mouth fmall. 
Two teeth only in each jaw. 



Sun-Fifli from Mount's-Bay. Oftracion Isevis. Grfl«o'v.Zc5//&. 
Borla/e Cornwall, 268. tal\ No. 185. 
26. /^. 7. 

)ONDELETIUS has given this genus the 
fynonym of Orthragcrifcus, as if it was that 
which P/i«jy* intended by the fame name-, but the 
account left us by that Naturalift is fo brief, that 
we do not think ourfelves authorized to place it as 

♦ Lil>. xxxii. c. 2. 

ClafslV. OBLONG SUN-FISH. loi 

a fynonymous creature. He fays no more than that 
It was the greateil of fifh, and that it grunted when 
it was firfl taken, from which probably rofe the 
name, for according to Athen<£us, o^^^xyo^ia-xQ^"^, 
was that given to a young pig. We are inclined to' 
believe, that this filh had efcaped the notice of 
Pliny^ otherwife he muft have unavoidably made 
fome remark on its ftriking figure. 

They grow to a very large fize : one that was siie 
taken near Plymouth in 1734, weighing five hundred 

In form it relembles a bream, or fome deep fifh Defer, 
cut off in the middle. The mouth is very fmall, 
and contains in each jaw two broad teeth, with 
fharp edges. 

The eyes are little ; before Cvich is a fmall femi- 
lunar aperture-, the pedoral fins very fmall, and 
placed behind them. The dorfal fin, and the anal 
fin are high, and placed at the extremity of the 
body : the tail fin is narrow, and fills all the abrupt 
fpace between thofe two fins. 

The color of the back is dufky, and dappled ; 
the belly filvery : between the eyes and the peftoral 
fins are certain flreaks pointing downwards. The 
fkin is free from fcales. 

When boiled, it has been obferved to turn into 
a glutinous jelly, refembling boiled ftarch when 
cold, and ferved the purpofes of glue, on being 
tried on paper and leather. 

* Li^. iv. /, 140, 



There feems to be no fatisfadory reafon for the 
Englijh name, yet to prevent confufion from the 
multiplication of titles, we chufe to retain that it has 
been fo long known by •, but care muft be taken not 
to confound it with the fun-fifh of the Irijh^ which 
differs in all refpeds from this*. 


OrthragorlfcusfiveLunapifcls. Tetraodon mola. T. Ijbvis, 

Rondel. 424. compreflus, Cauda truncata, 

Mola5a/x';fl«;,theSun-fifli. Wil. pinna breviffima dorfali ana- 

Icth. 151. Raii/yn. pifc. 51. lique annexa. Lin.Jy/i. 412. 

Oftracion cathetoplateus fubro- Grono'v. Zooph. No. 186. 

tundus inermis afper, pinnis Sun-fifh, from Loo. Borlafe 

peftoralibus horizontalibus, ComivaU. 267. tab. 26. 

foraminibus quatuor in ca- fg'6> 
pite. ArUd.fynon. 83. 

THIS differs from the former in being much 
fhorter and deeper. The back and the anal 
fins are higher, and the aperture to the gills not fe- 
milunar, but oval. The fituation of the fins are 
the fame in both. 

This fpecies was taken off Penzance, ■ and is en- 
graved in Do6lor Borlafe's Natural Hillory of Corn- 
•wall, from one of Mr. Jagoh drawings. Both 
kinds are taken on the weftern coafls of this king- 
dom, but in much greater numbers in the warmer 
parts of Europe. 

* Fidt p. 78. 


Clafs IV. L U M P F I S H. toj 

Genus X. Thick body, arched back* 
Ventfal fins united. 
Four branchioilegous rays. 

Lump Fish. 

Lumpus anglorum. Gefmr Pa- Cyclopterus. Arted. Jynon. 27 , 

ralip. 25. Grofio=v. Zooph. No. 197. 

Scehaefs) HafFpodde, Schone- Cyclopterus Lumpus. C. cor- 

velcie. 41. pofe fquamis ofTeis angula- 

Lump, or Sea-Owl, ^ra/fV Cock to. Lin. Jyft. 414. 

paddle. Wil. Icth, 208. Sjurygg-fiflc, Stenbit, Quabb- 

Raiijyn.pifcjj. fu^ Faun. JUec. No. "^lii* , 

1. The LUMP FISH. 

THIS fmgular fifli encreafes to the weight of 
four pounds, and the length of fixteen inches : 
the fhape of the body is like that of the breams deep 
but very thick, and it fwims edgeways. The back 
is Iharp and elevated, the belly flat. 

The irides are of a cherry color \ lips, mouth, Defct& 
and tongue, of a deeper red : the jaws lined with 
innumerable fmall teeth ; the tongue very thick ; 
along the ridge of the back is a row of large bony 
tubercles-, from above the eye to within a fmall 
fpace of the tail is another row -, beneath that a 
third, commencing at the gills j and on each fide the 
belly a fourth row, confifting of five tubercles like 
the other : the whole Ikin is rough, with fmall tu» 

H On 

104 L U M P F I S H. Clafs IV. 

On the lower part of the back is a thick knob, 
improperly called a fin, being deftitute of fpines •, 
beneath that is the dorfal fin, of a brownilh hue, 
reaching within an inch of the tail : on the belly, 
jull oppoiite, is another of the fame form. The 
belly is of a bright crimfon color : the pectoral fins 
are large and broad, almoft uniting at their bafe. 
Beneath thefe is the part by which it adheres to the 
rocks, &c. It confifts of an oval aperture, fur- 
rounded with a flefhy mufcular and obtufe foft fub- 
llance, edged with fmall threaded appendages, which 
concur as fo many clafpers : tail and vent fins purple. 

By means of this part it adheres with vafl force 
to any thing it pleafes. As a proof of its tenacity 
we have known, that on flinging a fifh of this fpe- 
cies juft caught, into a pail of water, it fixed itfelf 
fo firmly to the bottom, that on taking the fifh by 
the tail, the whole pail by that means was lifted, tho* 
it held fome gallons, and that without removing the 
fifli from its hold. 

Great numbers of thefe fifh are found in the 
Greenland feas during the months of April and May, 
when they refort near the Ihore to fpawn. Their roe 
is remarkably large, which the Creenlanders boil 
to a pulp, and eat. They are extremely fat, which 
recommends them the more to the natives, who ad- 
mire all oily food : they call them Nipifets, or Cat- 
fijh^ and take quantities of them during the feafon*. 

This fifh is lometimes eaten in England^ being 
ftewed like carp, but is both flabby and infipid. 

• Cratilz*s HiJI, Greenland, I. 96. 

II. The 

Clafs IV, S E A S N A I L. 


11. The SEA S N A I L." 

Liparis ? Rondel, 272. Gefner Cyclopterus Liparis. C. cor- 

pifc. 483. pore nudo, pinnis dorfali 

Liparis noflras Dunelm et Ehoraco anali caudalique unitis. Lin» 

Sea Snail. WiL Icth. App. 17. fyji. 414. 

Rail fyn, pifc. 74. Pet. Gaz. Cyclogailer. Grono'v. Zeoph. No* 

tab. ^\. Jig. 5. 198. 
Liparis. Arted.fynon, 117. 

THE fea fnail takes its name from the foft and 
nndtuous texture of its body, refembling that 
of the land fnail. It is almoft tranfparent, and foon 
diffolves and melts away. 

It is found in the fea near the mouths of great 

The length is five inches : the color when frefh Defer. 
taken a pale brown : the fhape of the body round, 
but near the tail compreiTed fideways : the belly is 
white, and very protuberant. 

The head is large, thick, and round. There are 
no teeth in the mouth, but the jaws are very rough : 
the tongue very large. 

The orifice to the gills is very fmall. 

The pedoral fins are very broad, thin, and tranf- 
parent, and almoft unite under the throat. The 
firft ray next the throat is very long, extends far 
beyond the reft, and is as fine as a hair. Over the 
bafe of each is a fort of operculum, or lid, ending 
in a point : this is capable of being raifed or de- 
preffed at pkafure. 

H 3 Behind 


Behind the head begins the dorfal fin, which ex- 
tends quite to the end of the tail : the ventral fin 
begins at the anus, and unites with the other at the 

Beneath the throat is a round depreflion of a 
whitilh color, like the impreffion of a feal, furrounded 
by twelve fmall pale yellow tubera, by which it is 
probable it adheres to the ftones like the other 

Genus XL Nofe long and tubular. 
No orifice to the gills : 
The breathing aperture on the 
hind part of the head. 
No ventral fins.- 
The body covered with a 
flrong crufl. Pipe Fish.- 


Acus Ariftotehs Cauda ferpentl- Syngnathus barbarus. S. pinnis 

na. Sib. Scot. z\. tab. \(). cauds anique nullis, cor- 

Typhlealtera. G^yw^r///?. 1025. pore fexangulato ? Lin./yji, 

Syngnathus corpore quadran- 417. 
gulo, pinna caudas carens ? 
Arted. Spec. 3. 

THIS fpecies, defcribed by Sir Robert Sihhald, 
was two feet in length ; that we examined 
only fixteen inches. 

The nofe was an inch long, comprefi"ed fideways, 
and the end of the lower mandible turned up ; the 
aperture of the mouth was very fmalL 




The irides were red ; behind each eye was a deep 
brown line. 

The body, in the thickeft part, was about equal 
to a fwan's quil, and angular; but the angles not 
being very Iharp, they were not eafily feen till the 
filh was dried : the belly was flightly carinated, 
and marked along the middle with a dufky line. 

The general color of the fifh was an olive brown : 
the fides marked with numbers of bluifh lines point- 
ing from the back to the belly, which, in dried filh, 
feemed like the figns of fo many joints. Thole in 
a frefh fubje6t ceafed beyond the vent ; all beyond 
that was fpotted with brown. 

The dorfal fin was narrow and thin, confiding of 
thirty-eight rays, was two inches long, and placed 
rather nearer to the head than the tail. 

The vent was {tven inches from the tip of the 
nofe ; the body to that orifice was of an equal 
thicknefs, but from thence tapered to a very fmall 
point, having no mark of a fin. 

The perioral fins were alfo wanting j in fhort, all 
except the back fin. 

When this filh and the next fpecies are dried, they 
appear covered with numbers of angular crufts, 
finely radiated from their centre. 

They are viviparous ; for on crufhing one that was 
jufl taken, hundreds of very minute ones were ob- 
ferved to crawl about. 

As we want a generical name in our language for 
this genus, we call it the Pipe Fifi, from its (lender 

H 3 II. The 



L'Orueul marin. Belon. 446. tagono, cauda pinnata. jfr- 

Acus fecunda fpecies, five, ted. fynon. 2. 

acus Arijlotelis. Rondel. 229. Syngnathus acus. S. pinnis 

Typhle. Gejher pifc. 1025. caudae ani peftoralibufque 

Trummeter, Meherfchlange. radiatis, corpore feptem-an- 

Schonenjelde^ ll. gulato. Lin.JyJl. 416. 

Acus Arijiotelis feu fecunda. Kantnahl. Faun. fuee. No. ^76. 

Wil.Icth.ii^%.Raitfyn.-pifc. Syngnathus cauda pinnata. 

47. Grono<v. Zooph. No. 172, 

Syngnathus corpore medio hep- Sea-adder. Borla/e Corniv. z6y, 

THIS is fhorter and thicker than the former, 
not exceeding twelve inches in length. The 
middle of the body in fome is hexangular, in others 
heptangular. Linnaus conftitutes two Ipecies of 
them, his Syngnathus Typhle, and his Syngnathus Acus ; 
but we join with Dodtor Gronovius, in thinking them 
only varieties of the fame fifh. 

The mouth is formed like that of the former : 
the irides are yellow : clofe behind the head are the 
peroral fins, which are fmall and fhort. 

On the lower part of the back is one narrow fin ; 
beyond the vent the tail commences, which is long 
and quadrangular. 

At the extremity is a fin round and radiated. 

The body is covered with a ftrong cruft, elegantly 
divided into fmall compartments. 

The belly is white ; the other parts brown. 

Bciides thefe fpecies of hard-fkinned Pipe fiih, 
we huve been mformed, that the Syngnathus Hippo- 
campus of Linnaus., or whar the Englijh improperly 
call tlie lea horfe^ has been found on the fouthern 
fhores of this kingdom. III. The 



Acui Ariftotelis congener pifci- ralibuscaudaquecarens. Ar^ 

cuius, pueris cornubienfibus ted. jynon. 2. 

Sea Adder, Acus Lumbrici- Syngnatlius ophidion. Lin^JyJi, 

formis, au£ Serpentinus. Wil, 417. 

Icih. 160. Raiifyn.pifc. Hafsnahl, Tangfnipa. Faun, 

Syngnathus teres, pinnispedo- fuec.No. 375, 

THE little pipe fifh feldom exceeds five inches 
in length, is very flender, and tapers off to a 
point. It wants both the pectoral and tail fins ; is 
covered with a fmooth fkin, not with a cruft as the 
two former kinds are. 

The nofe is fhort and turns a little up ; the eyes 

On the back is one narrow fin. 

This fpecies is not viviparous : on the belly of the 
female is a long hollow, to which adhere the eggs, 
difpofed in two or three rows, are large, and not 

Do6lor Gronovim makes this fynonymous with the 
filh defcribed by Sir Robert Sibbald, pofTibly from 
not having an opportunity of comparing them. 
To fhew their differences the more flrongly, we 
have caufed both fpecies to be engraved in the 
fame plate, and alfo the two varieties of our fe- 
cond fpecies, 

H 4 The 


The fynonym of Serpent is ufed in feveral lan- 
guages to exprefs thefe fifh : the French call one 
fpecies Orueul, from a fort of fnake not unlike the 
blindworm : the Germans call it Meherfchldnge -, and 
the Cornijh, th.t fea adder. 


Clafs IV. 





Sea. I. 


Genus XII. Body, long, flender, and flippery* 
Noftrils tubular. 

Back, ventral, and tail fins, united. 
Aperture to the gills fmall, and 
placed behind the pedoral fins. 
Ten branchioftegous rays. Eel. 




E L. 

Eyp^tXu?. y^rij?. HiJJ. an. lib, 
iv. c. II. VI. 14. 16. Oppian 
Halieut. I. 516. iv. 450. 

AngwlWz Plinii lib. \x. c. 21. 

L'Anguille. Belon. 291. Ob/. 

Anguilla. Rondel, fiuv. 1 98. 

Gefner pifc. 40. 
Ael. Schone'veUet 14. 

The Eel. Wil. pifc. 109. Rati 
fyn.pifc. 37. , 

Mursna unicolor maxilla in- 
feriore longiore. Art id. fyn. 

Murasna anguilla. Lin, fyfl. 

426. Grono'v. Zooph. No. 1 66. 

Ahl. Faun. fuec. No. ■^01. Aal. 

Kxam, 387. 

THE eel is a very fingularfifh in feveral things 
that relate to its natural hiftory, and in fome 
refpeds borders on the nature of the reptile tribe. 

It is known to quit its element, and during 
night to wander along the meadows, not only for 


ii2 E E L: ClafslV. 

change of habitation, but alfo for the fake of prey, 
feeding on the fnails it finds in its paflage. 

During winter it beds itfelf deep in the mud, and 
continues in a Hate of reft like the ferpent kind.. 
It is very impatient of cold, and will eagerly take 
fhelter in a whifp of ftraw flung into a pond in fe- 
vere weather, which has fometimes been praftifed 
as a method of taking them. Albertus'^ goes fo far 
as to fay, that he has known eels to take fhelter in 
a hay-rick, yet all perifhed thro' excefs of cold. 

It has been obferved, that in the river Nyne** 
there is a variety of fmall eel, with a lelTer head and 
narrower mouth than the common kind, that is 
found in clufters in the bottom of the river, and is 
called the Bed-eel: thefe are fometimes rouzed up 
by violent floods, and are never found at that time 
with meat in their ftomachs. This bears fuch an 
analogy with the cluttering of blindworms in their 
quiefcent ftate, that we cannot but confider it as a 
further proof of a partial agreement in the nature 
of the two genera. 

The antients adopted a moft wild opinion about 
tioD, the generation of thefe fifh, believing them to be 
either created from the mud, or that the fcrapings 
of their bodies which they left on the ftones, were 
animated and became young eels. Some moderns 
gave into thefe opinions, and into others that were 
equally extravagant. They could not account for 

• Gefner pifc. 45. 

*• Mor/on's Hifi. Northampt. 419, Pliny obferves, that the 
eels of the lake Benacus coUedl together in the fame manner in 
the month of Qaober, poflibly to retreat from the winter's cold, 
iib, ix. c, 22. 



ClafsIV. E E L; 113 

the appearance of thefe filh in ponds that never were 
ftocked with them, and that were even fo remote as 
to make their being met with in fuch places a phas- 
nomenon that they could not folve. But there is 
much reafon to believe, that many waters are fup- 
plied with thefe fifh by the aquatic fowl of prey, in 
the fame manner as vegetation is fpread by many of 
the land birds, either by being dropped as they 
carry them to feed their young, or by paffing quick 
thro' their bodies, as is the cafe with herons -, and ' 
fuch may be occafion of the appearance of thefe 
filh in places where they were never feen before. As 
to their immediate generation, it has been fuinciently ^i^'P*" 
proved to be effected in the ordinary courfe of na- 
ture, and that they are viviparous. 

They are extremely voracious, and very deftruc- 
tive to the fry of fifh. 

No fifh lives fo long out of water as the eel : it is 
extremely tenacious of life, as its parts will move a 
confiderable time after they are flayed and cut into 

The eel is placed by Linnaeus in the genus of Mu- Defer. 
r^na, his firft of the apodal fifh, or fuch which want 
the ventral fins. 

The eyes are placed not remote from the end of 
the nofe : the irides are tinged with red ; the under 
jaw is longer than the upper : the teeth are fmall, 
fharp, and numerous : beneath each eye is a minute 
orifice : at the end of the nofe two others, fmall and 


114 ^ E L. ClafsIV. 

This fifh is furnifhed with a pair of pedoral fins, 
rounded at their ends. Another narrow fin on the 
back, uniting with that of the tail; and the anal 
fin joins it in the fame manner beneath. 

Behind the pectoral fins is the orifice to the gills, 
"which are concealed in the fkin. 
SHver Eels Vary much in their colors, from a footy hue 

to a light olive green -, and thofe which are called 
filver eels, have their bellies white, and a remarka- 
ble clearnefs throughout. 

Befides thefe there is another variety of this fifh 
Grigs, known in the Thames by the name of Grigs, and 
about Oxford by that of Grigs or Gluts. Thefe arc 
fcarce ever feen near Oxford in the winter, but ap- 
pear in fpring, and bite readily at the hook, v/hich 
common eels in that neighborhood will not. They 
have a larger head, a blunter nofe, thicker ftcin, and 
lefs fat than the common fort -, neither are they fo 
much efleemed, nor do they often exceed three or 
four pounds in weight. 

Common eels grow to a large fize, fometimes fo 
great as to weigh fifteen or twenty pounds, but that 
is extremely rare. As to inftances brought by Dak 
and others, of thefe filh encreafing to a fuperior 
magnitude, we have much reafon to fufpeft them 
to have been congers, fmce the enormous fifli they 
defcribe, have all been taken at the mouths of the 
Thames or Msdiuay. 

The eel is the moft univerfal of fiili, yet is fcarce 
ever found in the Danube, tho' it is very common 
in the lakes and rivers of U^^per Aujiria. 

' The 

ClafsIV. CONGER. 115 

The Romans held this fiili very cheap, probably 
from its likenefs to a fnake : 

Vos anguilla manet longae cognata colubrs*, 
Vcrnula riparum pinguis torrente cloaca. 

For you, is kept a fink-fed fnake-like eel. 

On the contrary, the luxurious Sybarites were Tq 
fond of jthefe filh, as to exempt from every kind of 
tribute the perfons who fold them **. 


Koyy^o?. AriJl.Hift, an, lib. Wil. Icth. Hi. Rail fyn. pifc* 

I. &c. 37. 

Ylyym. Oppian Halieut. I. Murana fupremo margine pin- 

J J, -21. nas dorfalis nigro. Arud. 

Conger. Onjidii Halieut. 115. fynon. \o. 

Pliniilib.'ix. c. 16. 20. Murasna Conger. M. roftro 
Le Congre. Belon. 1 59. tentacuhs duobus, Imea la- 
Conger. Rondel. 394. Gefnerpifc. terali ex pundis albida. Lin, 

290. fyJi- 426. 

The Conger, or Conger Eel. 

THE conger grows to a vafl fize. Do£l:or Bor- ^^^^ 
lafey to whom we are obliged for feveral in- 
formations relating to this fpecies, affure us, that 
they are fometimes taken near Mounfs-Bay of one 
hundred pounds weight -f. 

They differ from the common eel in the follow- ^'^^^^ 
ing particulars : i. Their color in general is more 
dark. 2. Their eyes much larger in proportion. 

* y^vinal. Sat.v. 103. ** Athenaus. lib. xn. p. 521. 

f We have heard of fome taken near Scartoreugh that were 
ten feet and a half long, and eighteen inches in circumference 
in the thickeft part. 

3* The 

ii6 CONGER. ClafsIV. 

3. The irides of a bright lilvery color. 4. The 
lower jaw is rather fhorter than the upper. 5. 
The fide line is broad, whitifh, and marked with 
a row of fmall fpots ; Mr. Ray fays a double row, 
but we did not obferve it in the fiih we examined. 

6. The edges of the dorfal and anal hns are black. 

7. They have more bones than the common eel, 
efpecially along the back quite to the head. 8. They 
grow to a much larger fize. 

As to the dillinftion that Mr. Ray, and other 
writers, make of the fmall beards at the end of the 
nofe, we think it not to be depended on, being 
fometimes found in both kinds, and fometimes en- 
tirely wanting. 

We believe they generate like the frelh-water 
fpecies : innumerable quantities, of what are fup- 
pofed to be their fry, come up the Severn about 
the month of jipril, preceding the Shads, which it 
is conjedured migrate into that river to feed on 
Elvers, them : they are called Elvers. They quite fwarm 
during their feafon, and are tak^^n in a kind of fieve 
made of hair-cloth, fixed to a long pole -, the filh- 
erman {landing on the edge of the v^^ater during the 
tide, puts in his net as far as he can reach, and draw- 
ing it out again takes multitudes at every fweep, 
and will take as many during one tide as will fill a 
bulhel. They are drefled, and reckoned very deli- 

Congers are extremely voracious, preying on other 
fifh, and on crabs at the time they have loft their 
Ihell, and are in a foft ftate. They and eels in ge- 
neral are alio particularly fond of carcaffes of any 


CiafsIV, CONGER. uy 

kind, being frequently found lodged in fuch that 
are accidentally taken up. 

Thefe fifh are an article of commerce in Corn- 
wall ', numbers are taken on that coaft, and exported 
to Spain and Portugal, particularly to Barcelona. 
The quantities that were fent from Mounfs-Bay for 
five years, are as follow: 




















Some are taken by a fmgle hook and line, but Capteie. 
(becaufe that way is tedious, and does not anfwer 
theexpence of time and labor) they are chiefly caught 
by Bulters, which are ftrong lines five hundred feet 
long, with fixty hooks, each eight feet afunder, 
baited with pilchards or mackrel : the Butters are 
funk to the ground by a ftone faftened to them : 
fometimes fuch a number of thefe are tied together 
as to reach a mile. 

We have been told that the fiihermen are very 
fearful of a large conger, leaft it Ihould endanger 
their legs by clinging round them ; they therefore 
kill them as foon as poffible by ftriking them on 
the navel. 

They are afterwards cured in this manner : they 
are flit, and hung on a frame till they dry, havino- 
a confiderable quantity of fat, which it i§ neceflary 



ii8 CONGER. ClafslV, 

Ihonld exude before they are fit for ufe. It is re- 
markable that a conger of a hundred weight will 
wafte by drying to twenty-four pounds -, the people 
therefore prefer the fmalleft, pofTibly becaufe they 
are fooneft cured. During the procefs there is a 
confiderable ftench ; and it is faid that in the fifhing 
villages the poultry are fed with the maggots that 
drop from the filh. 

The Po'/'tuguefe and Spaniards ufe thofe dried 
congers after they have been ground into a powder, 
to thicken and give a relilh to their foups. We 
think they are fold for about forty Ihillings the 
quintal, whicl; weighs one hundred and twenty-fix 



ClafsIV. W O L F F I S H. 119 

Genus XIII. Blunt head : long body. 
One dorfal fin reaching 
almoft from the head to tail. 
Fore teeth, conic and large. 
Grinders flat and round. 

Wolf Fish, 

I. The W O L F FISH. 

Anarrhlchas. Gefmr Paralip. /^. Steen-bider. Pontop, Norway. 

Lupus marinus C«;;>/a/?. 113. li. 151. 

Lupus marinus noftras, quern Kigutilik /. f. dentatus. Cr«»/«. 

iticola^oW. Schonevelde 45. Greenl. I. 96. 

'^^•, 5* Anarhichas. Arted. fynon. 39. 

Cat-Fifli. -5"/^. Scot, iii. 25. Anarhichas Lupus. Lin. fyft, 

tab. 16. ^30. 

Wolf Fifh, Sea Wolf, or Woof. Zee Wolf. Gronov. Muf. No, 
^ WiUcth, 130. Raii/, 44. Zooph. No. 400. 

THIS fifh feems to be confined to the northern 
parts of the globe. We find it in thefeas of 
Greenland, in thofe of Iceland* and Norway^ on the 
coafls of Scotland, and of Torkjhire, and laftly, in 
that part of the German ocean, which wafhes the 
fhores of Holland, the moft fouthern of its haunts 
we can with any certainty mention. 

It is a mofl ravenous and fierce fifh, and when 
taken faflens on any thing within its reach : the 
fifhermen dreading its bite, endeavor as foon as pofll- 

• Where it is called Steinheifer. Scbonevtldtt 45. 



120 W O L F F I S: H. ClafsIV, 

bk to beat out its fore teeth, and then kill it by 
fbiking it behind the head. Schonevelde relates, that 
its bite is lb hard that it will feize on an anchor, and 
leave the marks of its teeth in it •, and the Danifir 
and German names of Steeiikider and Steinbeijfer^ ex- 
prefs the fenfe of its great fti-ength, as if it was ca- 
pable of crufhing even fton^s with its jaws. 
Food, It feeds almoll entirely on crullaceous animals,. 

and fhell fifh, fuch as crabs, lobfters, prawns, muf- 
cles, fcollopSy large v/helks, &c. theie it grinds to 
pieces with its teeth, and fwallows with the leffei: 
fhells. It does not appear they are diffolved in the 
ftomacb, but are voided with the foeees, for which 
purpofe the aperture of the anus is wider than in 
other fifh of the fame fize. 

It is full of roe in Februmjy Msrch, and Aprils 
and fpawns in May and June. 

This fifh has fo difagreeable and horrid an ap- 
pearance,, that nobody at Scarborough except the 
fiihermen will cat it, and they prefer it to holibut- 
They always before dreiTing take off the head and 
Size. The fea woif grows to a large fize : thofe on the 

7'orkjhire coafl are fometimes found of the length of 
four feet, and, according to Daftor Gronovius^ have 
been taken near Hitland feven feet long, and even 
more. That which we examined was three feet two 
inches and an half from the tip of the nofe to the 
end of the tail : the length of the head was eight 
inches, from the gills to the vent, ten ; from thence 
to the tip of the tail, twenty and one half. 


Clafs IV. W O L F F t S H. 121 

The circumference of the head was feventeen 
inches, at the fhoiilders twenty, but near the tail 
only four and a half 

Its weight was twenty pounds and a quarten 

The head is a little flatted on the top : the nofe 
blunt ; the noftrils very fmall ; the eyes fmall, and 
placed near the end of the nofe* 

The teeth are very remarkable, and finely adapted Teeth, 
to its way of life. The fore teeth are ftrong, coni- 
cal, diverging a little from each other, ftand far out 
of the jaws, and are commonly fix ^bove, and the 
fame below, tho* fometimes there are only five in 
each jaw: thefe are fupported within-fide by a row 
of lefTer teeth, which makes the number in the up- 
per jaw feventeen or eighteen, in the lower eleven 
or twelve. 

The fides of the under jaw are convex inwards, 
which greatly adds to their ftrength, and at the fame 
time allows room for the large mufcles with which 
the head of this fifli is furnifhed. 

The dentes molares, or grinding teeth of the und^r 
jaw, are higher on the outer than the inner edges, 
which inclines their furfaces inward : they join to 
the canine teeth in that jaw, but in the upper are fe- 
parate from them. 

In the centre are two rows of flat flrong teeth, 
fixed on an oblong bafis upon the bones of the pa- 
late and nofe* 

Thefe and the other grinding teeth are often found 
fbffil, and in that ftate called Bufoniles, or Toad- 
Jiones : they were formerly much elleemed for their ' 

I 2 imaginary 

122 W O L F F I S H. CiafslV. 

imaginary virtues, and were fet in gold, and worn 
as rings. 

The two bones that form the under jaw are united 
before by a loofe cartilage, which mechanifm admit- 
ting of a motion from fide to fide, moft evidently 
contributes to the defign of the whole, viz. a faci- 
lity of breaking, grinding, and comminuting if; 
teftaceous and cruftaceous food. 

The body is long, and a little comprelTed fide- 
ways ; the llcin fmooth and ilippery : it wants the la- 
teral line. 

The pedoral fins confifl of eighteen rays, are five 
inches long, and feven and a quarter broad. 

The dorfal fin extends from the hind part of the 
head almoll to the tail j the rays in the frelh fifh are 
not vifible. 

The anal fin extends as far as the dorfal fin. 

The tail is round at its end, and confiils of thir- 
teen rays. 
Color. T^^ fides, back, and fins, are of a livid lead co- 
lor ; the two firft marked downwards wiith irregular 
obfcure duflcy lines i thefe in different fifh have dif- 
ferent appearances. 

We think ourfelves much indebted to Mr. Travis, 
Surgeon, at Scarborough, for his ingenious remarks 
on this fifh, as well as on feveral others that frequent 
that coaft, being a gentleman much fkilled in icthy- 
ology, and extremely liberal in communicating his 




ClafslV. LAUNCH. 123 

Genus XIV. Head flender. 

Body long and fquare. 
Upper lip doubled in. 
Dorfal and anal fin reaching 
almoft to the tail. 
Seven, branchioftegous rays. 



Ammodytes pifcis, ut nos vo- Sand Eels, or Launces. Rati 

cavimus pro anglUe Sandilz. fyn. pi/c 38, 165. 

Gefner Paralip. 3. Ammodytes* Arted. fynon, 29. 

Tobian, vel Tobiat, Sandtfpi- Ammodytes Toblanus. Lin, 

ring. Schone-veUe, 76. ,^^. 430. 

Ammodytes. Gefneri IVil. Icth. Tobis. Faun. fuec. 302. Qro^ 

113. no'u. Zooph. No. 404. 

THE launce is found on moft of our fandy 
Ihores during fome of the fummer months : 
it conceals itfelf on the recefs of the tides beneath 
the fand, in fuch places where the water is left at 
the depth of about a foot, and are in fome places 
dug out, in others drawn up by means of a hook 
contrived for that purpofe. They are commonly 
ufed for baits for other fifli, bvft they are alfo very 
delicate eating. 

Thefe fifh are found in the ftomachs of the Por-^ 
peffe, an argument that the laft roots up the fand with 
its nofe as hogs do the ground. 

I 3 They 

,24 LAUNCH. CUfsIV, 

Sire. They grow fometimes the length of nine or ten 

inches : the females are longer and flender than the 

The form of the body is fquare, the fides are 
rounded, and the angles not Iharp : it is neverthelefs 
long and {lender. 

The head is fmall and taper; the under jaw much 
longer than the upper : the upper jaw is moveable, 
capable of being protruded, fo that wjien open the 
gape is very wide. 

The irides are filvery. 

The dorfal fin runs almoft the whole length of 
the back, is very narrow, and confifls of fifty-eight 
rays : the pedoral fins fmall, and have twelve : the 
^us is placed much nearer the tail than the head, 
is narrow, and extends almofh to the former. 

The tail is forked, but the lobes rounded at their 

The color of the back is blue, varying with green ; 
on each fide the back is ^ narrow dufl-cy line or two. 
The fides and belly are filvery; the lateral line 


ClafsIV- M O R R I S. 12^ 

Genus XV. Small head 

Body extremely thin, comprefled 


No pedoral fins. . Morris, 


Leptocephalus, Grono'v, Zooph, Bo. 409, tab. l^^ fg' 3. 

THIS fpecies was difcoyered in the feaneari/o- 
lyhead by the late Mr. William Morris^ and 
in memory of our worthy friend we have given ic 
his name : on receiving it from Mr, Morris^ we com- 
municated it to that accurate Icthyologift Do6lor 
Laurence Theodore Groncvius, of Leyden, who has 
defcribed it in his Zocphylacium^ under the title of 
Leptocephalus, or fmall head. 

The length was four inches ♦, the head very fmall; Defer. 
the body comprefTed fideways, extremely thin, and 
almoft tranfparent, about the tenth of an inch thick, 
and in the deepeft part about one-third of an inch ; 
towards the tail it grew more flender, and ended in 
a point •, towards the head it (loped down, the head 
lying far beneath the level of the back. 

The eyes large •, the teeth in both jaws very fmall. 

The lateral line ftrait : the fides marked with 
oblique ftrokes, that met at the lateral line. 

The aperture to the gills large. 

I 4 It 

126 S W O R D F I S H. Clafs IV. 

It wanted the peroral, ventral, and caudal fins : 
the dorfal fin was extremely low, and thin, extend- 
ing the whole length of the back very near the tail. 
The anal fin was of the fame delicacy, and ex- 
tended to the fame diflance from the anus. 

Genus XVI. The upper jaw extending to a great 
length, hard, flender, and pointed. 
No teeth. 

Eight branchioftegous rays. 
Slender body. Sword Fish. 


'Si^ioci;' Ari/i. Hifi. an. lib. ii. Xiphias, i. e. Gladius pifcis. 

f. 13. viii. c. 19. Oppian. Cejner pifc. 1049. Caii opufc. 

Halieut. lib. ii. 462. iii. 442. 104. 

Xiphias. Ovid. Halieut- 97. Schwert-fifche. BchomnjeUe, 35- 

Xiphias, /. ^.Gladius P/w« 7/3. Sword- fifli. Wil. Icth. i6i, 

XXXil.c. 2.* Rail Jyn. pi/c. 52. 

L'Heron de mtXf ou grand Ef- Xiphias. Jrted. J'ynon. 47. 

padaz. Behn. \o2t Xiphias Gladius. Z/».^/?. 432. 

Xiphias. Rondel. 2^1. SweTd-f\ik..Faun./uec. No. ^o;^. 


iHIS filh fometimes frequents our coafls, but 
is much more common in the Mediterranean 
Place, fea, efpecially in the part that feparates Italy from 
Sicily^ which has been long celebrated for it : the 
promontory Pelorus*, now Capo di Faro., was a place 
noted for the refort of the Xiphias, being poflibly 
the ftation of the fpeculatores, or the perfons who 
watched and gave notice of the approach of the fifh. 

• Athtnausi 314, 


Clafs IV. S W O R D F I S H. 127 

The antient method of taking them h particu- capture, 
larly defcribed by Strabo*^ and agrees exactly with 
that pradifed by the moderns. 

A man afcends one of the cliffs that overhangs 
the fea : as foon as he fpies the filh, he gives notice 
either by his voice or by figns of the courfe it takes. 
Another, that is ftationed in a boat, climbs up the 
maft, and on feeing the fword fifli, dire6ts the row- 
ers towards it. As foon as he thinks they are got 
within reach, he defcends, and taking a fpear in his 
hand, ftrikes it into the fifli, which, after wearying 
itfelf with its agitation, is feized and drawn into the 
boat. It is much efteemed by the Sicilians, who buy 
it up eagerly, and at its firft coming into feafon give 
about fix-pence Englijh per pound. The feafon lafts 
from May till Augufi **. The antients ufed to cut 
this fifh into pieces, and fait it, whence it was called 
I'^omus 1'hurianus -f-, from 'Thurii, a town in the bay 
of Tarenfum, where it was taken and cured. 

Kircber, in his Mufurgia, has preferved a ftrangc 
incantation ufed by the Sicilian fifhermen, at the • 
capture of the Pefce Spada, as they call it, which is 
expreffed in the following unintelligible jargon : 

MamafTu di pajanu, 
Paletta di pajanu, 
MajuiTu di ftienela, 
Palettu di paenupale. 
Pale la (tagnetta, 
Mancuta Itigneta. 
Pro naftu, vardu, preflu da 
Vifu 8c da terra. 

• LiL I. /. 16. 
•• Ray's Tra'vels, I. 27 1. 

t Tomus Thurianusy quern alii Xiphiam vocant* Plinil lih, 
xxxii. c. II. 

12? S W O R D F I S H. ClafsIV. 

But this ufe of charmed words is not confined to 
Sicily ', the Irijh have their fong at the taking of the 
razor fhell ; and the Cornijh theirs, at the taking of 
the whiftle filh. 

The fword fifh is faid to be very voracious, and 
that it is a great enemy to the Tunny, who (accord- 
ing to Belon) are as much terrified with it as fheep 
are at the fight of a wolf. 

^c durus Xiphias, i^u non tniiior enjis ; 
Et favidi magna fugientes agmine Thunni. 

Ovid. Halleut. 97. 

Sharp as a fword the Xiphias does appear ; 
And crowds of flying Tumiies flruck with fear. 

€l2e# It grows to a very large fize ; the head of one, 

with the pefloral fins, found on the fhore near 
Laugha7'n^ in Caermarthenjhire, alone weighing fe- 
venty-five pounds : the fnout was three feet long, 
rough, and hard, but not hard enough to penetrate 
ihips and fink them, as Pliny pretends*. 

Sflouf. The fnout is the upper jaw, produced to a great 
length, and has fome refemblance to a fword, from 
whence the name. It is compreflTed at the top and 
bottom, and fharp at the point. The under jaw is 
four times as fhort as the upper, but likewife fharp 
pointed. The mouth is deftitute of teeth. 

The body is ilender, thickeft near the head, and 
growing lefs and lefs as it approaches the tail. 

The fkin is rough, but very thin : the color of 
the back is dufky, of the belly filvery. 

• Xiphiam, id ejl, Ghd'mm, rojiro mucronato eje^ abhoc tiaves 
^erfojas 'fsrrgi in omiiio, Plin. lib. xxxii. c . n . 

^ The 

CUfsIV, S W O R D F I S H. 129 

The dorfal fin begins a little above the gills, and 
extends almofl: to the tail : it is higheft at the be- 
ginning and the end, but very low in the middle : a 
little above the tail, on each fide, the flcin rifes and 
forms two triangular protuberances, not unlike the 
ipurious fins of the tunny. 

The pectoral fins are long, and of a fcythe-like 
form, and their firft rays the longeft. 

The anus is placed at the diftance of one-third 
part of the body from the tail j beneath are two 
^nal fins, 

The tail is ex^<5lly of the Ihape of a crefcent. 

Sea. IL 


I JO D R A G O N E T. Clafs ir. 


Genus XVII. Upper lip doubled. 

Eyes near each other. 

Two breathing apertures on the 

hind part of the head. 

Eirft rays of the dorfal 

fin very long. Dragonet. 


La tierce efpece de Exocetus ? Callionymus Lyra. C. dorfalis 

Belon. 218. prions radiis longitudine 

Dracunculus, Rondel. 304. corporis. Lin. fyft. 433. 

Dracunculus, aranei fpecies al- Faun. fuec. No. iio. 

tera. (^ejner pifc. 80. Uranofcopus, Gronov. Zooph. 

Dragon fifli. Marten's SpiiX' No. 206. 

berg, 122,. Floy-fiflce. Pontop. Norway, u. 

Yellow Gurnard. Phil. Tranf. iii. 

No. 293. Dracunculus marinus. Borla/e 

Lyra Harvicenfis. Pet. Gaz. Corntua/l. 270. Seb. Mu/l m, 

tab. 22. Dale Hariuicb. 431. 92. tab. 30. fg. 7. 

T INNyEUS has given this genus the name of 
•*-* Callionymus, a filh mentioned by feveral of the 
antients •, but the notices they have left of it are fo 
very flight, as to render it difficult to determine what 
fpecies they intended. * Pliny makes it a fynonym 
to the Uranofcopus, a fifli frequent in the Italian feas, 
but very different from our Dragonet, 2i name we 

* Lib, xxxii. f. lit 


Oafs IV. D R A G O N E T. 131 

have taken the liberty of forming, from the diminu- 
tive D.racunculus, a title given it by Rondelelius, and 
other authors. The Englijh writers have called it 
the Yellow Gurnard, v/hich having no one charader 
of the Gurnard genus, we think ourfelves obliged 
to drop that name. 

It is found as far north as Spitzhergen^ and as far Pi»cc. 
fouth as the Mediterranean fea, and is not unfrequent 
on the Scarborough coafts. We have alfo received it 
from Norway^ among feveral other curiofities which 
that honeft well-meaning prelate, Erich Pontoppi- 
dan *, made us a prefent of. 

This fpecies grows to the length of ten or twelve Defer, 
inches : the body is flender, round, and fmooth. 

The head is large, and flat at the top -, in the 
hind part are two orifices, thro* which it breathes, 
and alfo forces out the water it takes in at the 
mouth, in the fame manner as the cetaceous fifh. 

The apertures to the gills are clofed : on the end 
of the bones that cover them is a very fmgular tri- 
furcated fpine. 

The eyes are large, and placed very near each 
other on the upper part of the head, fo that they 
look upwards ; for which reafon it has been ranked 
among the Uranofcopi : the pupils are of a rich fap- 
pharine blue, the irides of a fine yellow. 

The upper jaw projeds much farther than the 
lower : the mouth is very wide : the teeth are 

• Bi/hop of Bergen. He was alfo vice-chancellor of the 
univerfity of Copenhagen, In which ftation he died, Dtcmhtr 20, 
'7^4> aged 66, much refpefted by his countrymen. 


132 D R A G O N E T. Clafs IV. 

The pectoral fins are round, and of a light-brown 
color; the ventral placed before them, are very- 
broad, and confift of five branched rays. 

The firft dorfal fin is very fingular, the firft ray 
being fetaceous, and fo long as to extend almoft to 
the tail : thofe of the fecond dorfal fins are of a mo- 
derate length, except the laft, which is produced far 
beyond the others. 

The anus is placed about the middle of the belly 5 
the anal fin is broad, and the laft ray the longeft* 
PontGppidan calls this fpecies the flying fifh : whe- 
ther it makes ufe of any of its fins to raife itfelf 
out of the water, as he was informed they did, we 
cannot pretend to fay. 

The tail is rounded and long, and confifts of ten 
Colors. The fide line is ftrait: the colors are yellow, 
blue, and white, and make a beautiful appearance 
when the fiih has been juft taken. 

II. The 



Dracunculus. WiLIcth. 136. Callionymus Dracunculus. C. 

Rail fyn. pi/c. 79. dorfalis prioris radiis corpQ- 

Cottus pinna fecunda dorfi aU re brevioribu?. Lin^fyji. 434.. 

ba. Jrted. Jynon, 77. 

THIS fpecies we received from Mr. Travis, 
Its length was only fix inches and an half. 

The head was comprefled ; the forehead floped 
down to the nofe, being not fo level as that of the 

The eyes large, and almoft contiguous. 

The mouth fmall; the teeth very minute. 

Over the gills was a ftrong trifurcated broad fpine. 

The firft dorfal fin had four rays j the firft feta- 
ceousj extending a little higher than the others, the 
laft very Ihort : the two firft rays and webs were 
yellow, the others black. 

The fecond had ten foft rays, their ends extending 
beyond the webs, which were pellucid. 

The peroral fins confifted of twenty rays, and 
were ferruginous, fpotted with a deeper caft of the 
fame : the ventral fins confifted of five broad and 
much branched rays, like thofe of the firft fpecies. 

The anal fin was white, and had ten rays ; the, 
tail had ten rays. In both fpecies they are bifurcated 
at their ends, and the ray next the anal fin in, both 
is very ftiort. 

In colors this is far inferior to the former, being 
of a dirty yellow, mixed wi^ white and (dulky fpots ^ 
jthe belly is entirely white. 

134 W E E V E R. ClafsIV. 

Genus XVIII. Lower jaw floping down* 
Gill covers aciileated. 
I Si:^ branchioflegous rays. 

Two dorfal fins. 
Anus near the breaft. We ever. 

L The W E E V E R. 

A^ay.wv ? Arifi> Hift. an. lib. Peter- manniken, Schwert- 

viii. c. 13. uElian. thji. an. fifche. Schone'velde. 16. 

/;■/;. ii> f. 50. Oppian.Halieut, The Weever. Wil. JctL z^S. 

"■^59-. „. ... . Raiifyn.pifc.<)\. 

Draco mannus Phmi lib. ix. c. Trachinus maxilla inferiore 

27. Draco, Dracunculus. //li. longiore, cirris deftituta. 

xxxii. c. II. Araneus. lib. Arted.fyn. n\. 

ix. f. 48. TrachinusDraco. Z;;t._;^. 453. 
La vive. Belon. 209. Grono'u. Zooph. No. 274. 

Draco. Rondel. 300. Gejherpi/c. Farfing, FialTing. Faun. fuec. 

77. 78. JVi?. 305, 

THE qualities of this fifh were well known to 
the antients, who take notice of them without 
any exaggeration : the wounds inflifled by its fpines 
are exceedingly painful, attended with a violent burn* 
ing, and moft pungent fhooting, and fometimes with 
an inflammation that will extend from the arm tQ 
the fhoulder*. 

It is a common notion that thefe fymptoms pro- 
ceed from fomething more than the fmall wound 
this fifh is capable of infli6ting ; and that there is a 
venom infufed into it, at left into fuch as is made by 

* It is probable that the malignity of the fymptoms arife« 
from the habit of body the perfon is in, or the part in which 
the wound is given. 


ClafsIV- W E E V E R. 135 

the fpines that form the firft dorfal fin, which is dyed 
with black, and has a moft fufpicious afpeft. The 
remedy ufed by a fiiherman in our neighbourhood is 
the fea fand, with which he rubs the place afFefted 
for a confiderable time *. 

This fiih buries itfelf in the fands, leaving only its 
nofe out, and if trod on immediately ftrikes with 
great force •, and we have feen them direft their 
blows with as much judgment as fighting cocks,- 
Notwithftanding this noxious property of the fpines, 
it is exceeding good meat. 

The Englijh name feems to have no meaning, being Name 
corrupted from the French, la vive, fo called as being 
capable of living long out of the water, according 
to the interpretation of Belon. 

It grows to the length of twelve inches, but is Defer. 
commonly found much lefs. 

The irides are yellow : the under jaw is longer 
than the upper, and Hopes very much towards the 
belly : the teeth are fmalL 

The back is ftrait, the fides fiat, the belly promi- 
nent, the lateral line ftrait: the covers of the gills 
are armed v/ith a very ftrong fharp fpine. 

The firft dorfal fin confifts of five very ftrong 
ftiarp fpines, which, as well as the intervening mem- 
branes are tinged with black ; this fin, when quief- 
cent, is lodged in a fmall hollow. 

The fecond confifts of feveral foft rays, com- 
mences juft at the end ot the firft, and continues 

* In the XJnkoerfal Mufeum for November 1765, is an inftancc 
of a perfon who was reduced to great danger by a wound from 
this fiih, and who was cured by the application of fweet oil, 
' and taking opium and 'venici treacle* 

K jdmoU 


almofl to the tail. The peroral fins are pretty broad 
and angular ; the ventral fins fmall. 
. The vent is placed remarkably forward, very near 
the throat : the anal fin extends from it to a fmall 
diftance from, the tail, is a little hollowed in the mid- 
dle, but not fo much as to be called forked. 

The fides of this fifh are marked lengthways with 
two or three dirty yellow lines, and tranfverfely by 
numbers of fmall ones : the belly is filvery. 


Araneus minor, feptentriona- Raii Jyn. pifc.gz. Wil.lcth. 
. libus Jnglis, an Otter Pike. 289. 

THIS is a fpecies which Mr. Ray fays he heard 
was found in the north of England^ but that 
he was acquainted with it only by name^ 



Genus XIX. Head fmooth. 

Seven (lender branchioflegous rays. 
Body oblong ; fcales deciduous. 
All the fins covered with a common 

Ventral fins llender, and ending in a 

Teeth in the jaws; and in the palate a 
feries of minute teeth clofely fet to- 
gether. Cod Fish. 

With three dorfal fins •, the chin bearded. 

La Morue. Belon. 121. Gadus dorfo trlpterygio, ore 

Molva. Rondel. 280. cirrato, cauda ajquali fere 

Molva five morhua altera. Gef- cum radio primo fpinofo. 

ner pifc. 88. Arted. fynon. 31J. 

Kablauw. Schone'velcie. 18. Gadus rnorhua. Li?z./yji. 436. 

Afellus major vulgaris. Wll. Grono'v, Zooph. No. ng. 

Icth. 161;. Cabblia. Faun. Jiiec. No, 

Cod-fifh, or Keeling. Raiifyn, 398. 

pifc. 53. 

THIS filli is found only in the northern part of 
the v/orld ; it is, as Rondeletius calls it, an 
ocean fifh, and never met with in the Mediterranean 
Tea *. It aff*e6ts cold climates, and feems confined 

• None (fays Captain Armftrong in his Hiftory of Minorca) 
of the Aftlli or cod fiili kind, frequent our Ihores, /. 165. 

K 3 between 


between the latitudes 66 and 50: what arc cau^^ht 
north and fouth of thofe degrees being either few in 
quantity, or bad in quahty. The Greenland fi{h are 
fmaii and emaciated tliro' want of food, being very 
voracious, and having in thofe feas a dearth of pro- 
vifion. ■: 

This locality of fituation is common to many 
other fpecies of this genus, moft of them being in- 
habitants of the cold feas, or fuch that lie within 
zones that can juft clame the title of temperate. 
There are neverthelefs certain fpecies found near the 
Canary J/Iands, called Cherny*, of which we know 
no more than the name ; but according to the un- 
fortunate Captain Glas^ are better ufted than the 
Newfoundlatid kind. 

The great rendezvouz of the cod fifh is on the 
Banks of Newfoundland^ and the other fand banks 
that lie off the coafts of Cape Breton^ Nova Scotia^ 
and New England. They prefer thofe fituations, by 
reafon of the quantity of worms produced in thofe 
fandy bottoms, which tempt them to refort there for 
food : but another caufe of the particular attach- 
ment the filh have to thefe fpots, is their vicinity to 
the polar feas, where they return to fpawn -, there 
they depofe their roes in full fecurity, but want of 
food forces them, as foon as the firft more fouthern 
feas are open, to repair thither for fubfiftence. 

Few are taken north of Iceland^ but on the fouth 

and weft coafts they abound : they are again found 

to fwarm on the coafts of Norway^ in the Baltic, off 

Jhe Orkney and the IVeftern Ifles -, after which their 

• Hiji, Canarj IJIinds, 198. 



numbers decrcafe, in proportion as they advance to- 
wards the fouth, when they feem quite to ceafe be- 
fore they reach the mouth of the Straits of Gib- 

Before the difcovery of Newfoundland., the greater 
fifheries of cod were in the feas of Iceland., and of 
our JVeftern IJles^ which were the grand refort of 
Ihips of all the commercial nations •, but it feems 
that the greateft plenty was met with near Iceland -, 
for we find Qvieen Elizabeth condefcending to afk 
permifTion to fifh in thofe feas from Chrijiian the 
IVth. of Denmark^ yet afterwards Hie fo far repent- 
ed her requeft, as to inftrud her embaffadors to that 
court, to infift on the right of a free and univerfal 
fifhery '*, 

But the Spanip., the French^ and the Bj-itons, had 
much the advantage of us in all fiflieries at the be* 
ginning, as appears by the ftate of that in the feas 
of Newfoundland in the year 1578 **, when the 
number of fhips belonging to each nation flood 
thus : 

Spaniards, 100, befides 20 or 30 that came from 
Bifcaie., to take whale for train, being about 
five or fix thoufand tons. 

Portuguefe, 50, or three thoufand tons. 

Frefich and Britons., 1 50, or feven thoufand tons. 

Englifh, from 30 to 50. 

But Mr. AnderfoUy in his Di6lionary of Commerce, 
I. i^d'i,, fays, that the French began to filh there io 

* Rymer\ Feed. xvi. 275, 425. 
*• Hackluyt'% Coll. Foj. iii. 132. 

K 3 early 

early as 1536; and we think we have fomewherc 
read, that their firll pretence for filhing for cod in 
thofe feas, was only to fupply an Englijh convent 
with that article. 

The encreafe of Ihipping that refort to thofe fer- 
tile banks, are now unfpeakable : our own country 
ftill enjoys the greateft fhare, which ought to be ef-. 
teemed our chiefeil treafure, as it brings wealth to 
individuals, and ftrength to the flate. 

All this immenfe fifhery is carried on by the hook 
and line only* ; the bait is herring, a fmall filh called 
a Capelin^ a fhell fifh called Clams, and bits of fea 
fowl; and with thefe are caught fifh fufficient to find 
employ for near fifteen thoufand Britifo feanien, and 
to afford fubfiftence to a much more numerous body 
of people at home, who are engaged in the various 
manufadtures which fo vaft a fiHiery demands. 
Food. 'pjT^g ioQi^ of the cod is either fmall fifh, worms, 

tellaceous, or cruflaceous animaals, fuch as crabs, 
large whelks, &c. and their digeftion is fo powerful, 
as to diffolve the greateft part of the fhells they 
fwallow. They are very voracious, and catch at 
any fmall body they perceive moved by the water, 
even fbones and pebbles, which are often found in 
their ftomachs, 
Vaftiy Providence hath kindly ordained that this fifh, fo 
prolific. y|-g£^j J.Q niankind, fhould be fo very prolific as to 

• We have been informed that they fifh in the depth of from 
fifteen to fixty fathoms, according to the inequality of the 
Bank, which is reprefented as a vait mountain under water above 
five hundred miles long, and near three hundred broad, and 
that feamen knew when they approach it by the great fwell of 
the fea, and the thick mifts that impend oyer it, 



fiipply more than the deficiencies of the multitudes 
annually taken. Leuwenhoek counted nine millions 
three hundred and eighty-four thoufand eggs in a 
cod fijQi of a middling fize, a number fure that will 
baffle all the efforts of man, or the voracity of the 
inhabitants of the ocean to exterminate, and ^yhich 
will fecure to all ages an inexhauflible fuppiy of 
grateful provifion. 

In our feas they begin to fpawn in January y. and 
depofite their eggs in rough ground, among rocks. 
Some continue in. roe till the beginning of,- April, 
The cod iifh in general recover quicker afterifpawrir 
ing than any other fifh, therefore it is commioil to 
take fome good ones ail the fummer. When they 
are out of feafon they are thin tailed and lQufy,.and 
the lice chiefly fix themfeives on the infide of their 

The fifh of a middling fize are moft efleemed for 
the table, and are chofen by their plumpnefs gad 
roundnefs, efpecially near the tail, by the depth of 
the fulcus or pit behind the head, and by the regular 
undulated appearance of the fides, as if they v/ere 
ribbed. The glutinous parts about the head lofe 
their delicate flavor after it has been twenty-four 
hours out of the water, even in winter, in which thefe 
and other fifh of this genus are in higheft feafon. 

The largefl that we ever heard of taken on our size, 
coafts weighed fixty-nine pounds, but the general 
weight on the Torkjloire feas is frorri fourteen to 

This fpecies is fhort in proportion to its bulk, the Defer, 
belly being very large and prominent, 

K 4 The 


The jaws are of an equal length, at the end of 
the lower is a fmall beard ; the teeth are difpofed 
in the palate as well as jaws. 

The eyes are large. 

On the back are three foft fins j the firft has four- 
teen, the two laft nineteen rays a-piece. The ven- 
tral fins are very {lender, and confifl but of fix rays ; 
the two firft: extending far beyond the others. It 
has two anal fins ; the firft: confifting of twenty, the 
laft: of fixteen rays. 

The tail is almoft even at the end : the firft: ray 
on each fide is fliort, and compofed of a ft:rong bone. 

The color of this fifti is cinereous on the back and 
lides, and commonly fpotted with yellow : the belly 
is white, but they vary much, not only in color* 
but in ftiape, particularly that of the head. 
Side line The fide line is white and broad, fl:rait, till it 
reaches oppofite the veat, when it bends towards the 

* Codlings are often taken of a yellow, orange, and even red 
color, while they remain among the rocks, but on changing 
their place afTume the color of other cod iifh. 

II. The 

ClalsIV. TORS K, ^43. 

11. The T O R S K. 

Afellus varius vel llriatus, Gadus callarias. G. triptery- 

Dorfch, Pamuchelen. Scho- gius, cirratus varius, cauda 

ne<veUe, 1 9. Wtl Ictb. 172. Integra, maxilla fuperiore 

Raiifyn. pi/c. 54. _ longiore. Lin.Jyfi. 436. 

Gadus dorio tripterygio, ore Torflc, Faun, futc, Ne» 

cirrato, colore vario, max- 307. 
ilia fuperiore longiore, cauda 
aequali. Jried. Jymn.\'^^, 

THESE filh are found in great quantities in 
the Baltic, and the northern feas, particularly 
in Brajfa Sound*, and about the Orkney IJles, and are 
fuppofed never to wander into the more fouthern 

It is a filh much efteemed for its delicacy ; the 
meat divides into flakes on being boiled, like that 
of a falmon : for which reafon, as Schonevelde tells 
us, the Germans call it Scheibendorfcb. ^ 

It never grows to a large fize, the greateft not 
exceeding thirty inches**. 

The head is fmall : the upper jaw is a little longer 
than the lower : in the iirft the teeth are difpofed in 
a fingle row ; in the upper in feveral. In the roof 
of the mouth is a rough triangular bone : at the end 
of the lower jaw is a fmall beard. 

Between the head and the firft dorfal fin is a deep 

* Where it is called Tujk. Martin's Wtji. IJles. 385. 
*• Wc find this account of its length in the M. S. Journal 
©f the late Bilhop of Meatb^ Doftor Richard Pocotk } but we 
believe it is very feJdoin they are found fo Jftrgt. 


,44 H A D O C K. Clafs IV. 

The belly is a little prominent ; the fide line 
white, broad, placed nearer the back than the belly, 
and a little incurvated. 

The dorfal fins are duflcy, the two firft fpotted r 
the back, head, and fides of a deep olive color, 
in fome whitifn, and marked with numerous yellow 
fpots : the belly white. 

The tail even at the end, and its rays foft. 

•IIL The H A D O C K. 

Aigrefin,ouaiglefin.5f/i3H. ii8. Gadus dorfo tripterygio, ore 

Tertia afellorum fpecies. Ron' cirrato, max- fup. longiore, 

del. 277. corpore albicante, caudapa- 

^ertiaafel. Sp. Egleflnas. Gtf- rum bifurca. Arted. Jynon, 

ner pifc. 86. 36. 

Pnos iivealinus veterom. 7«r- Gadus ^glefinus. G. tripte- 

ner epiji. ad Gefner. rygius cirratus albicans, cau- 

Afellus minor, Schelfifch. ^^ifo- dabiloba. Lin.Jyft.^i^- 

' ne'velde. 18. Kolja. Faun.fuec. No. 306. 

Hadock. Wil. Ictb. I'jo. Rail Gronov.Zooph. No, ^zi. 


Name.' /^UR countryman Turner conje<5lured this fpe- 
V-/ cies to have been the Ov^^, or Afiniis^ of the 
antients, and Belon, that it was the K^ jo?, and the 
HfcCaTo? of OppiaJt. We have carefully confulted 
moll of the antient naturaliils, but cannot difcover 
any marks by which we can determine the fpecies 
they intended. The words *Oi/(gp, ^'^Afinus^Afcllus., 
•fCallarias, and Bacchus, are familiarly applied 

• JriJ. Hiji. an. lib. vlil. f. 15. OppianHalieut. I. 15 I. ili. I91. 
*• Ovidii Halieut. lin. 1 3 1. Plinii lib, ix. f, 16. 17. f Lib. 

r. 17. 


ClafsIV. H A D O C K. 145 

to feveral of our fpecies of cod fifh by the more 
modern writers ; yet the antients from whom they 
are borrowed, have not authorized the application 
to any particular kind, either by defcription or any 
other method. 

Different reafons have been afTigned for giving the 
name of Oi/©^, or Afiniis to this genus, fome ima- 
gining it to be from the color of the fifh, others be- 
caufe it ufed to be carried on the backs of aiTes to 
market ; but we fhall drop this uncertain fubjedt, 
and proceed to Vv^hat we have fuller alTurance of. 

Large hadocks begin to be in roe the middle of Seafon. 
November^ and continue fo till the end of 'January j 
from that tim.e till May they are very thin tailed, 
and m.uch out of feafon. In May they begin to re- 
cover, and fome of the middling- fized fifh are then 
very good, and continue improving till the time of 
their greateft perfeftion. The fmall ones are ex- 
tremely good from May till February^ and fome even 
in February^ March^ and April, viz. thofe which are 
not old enough to breed. . 

The fiihermen afiert, that in rough weather ha* 
docks fink down into the fand, and ooze in the bot- 
tom of the fea, and fhelter themfelves there till the 
ftorm is over, becaiife in flormy weather they take 
none, and thofe that are taken immediately after a 
ftorm are covered with mud on their backs. 

In fummer they live on young herrings and other w^^ 
fmall fifh; in winter on the ftone-coated worms*, 
which the fiihermen call hadock meat, 

f A fpecies of Ser^ula, 


14^ H A D O C K. ClafsIV. 

Vaft The grand fhoal of hadocks comes periodically on 

** '* the Yorkjhire coafts. It is remarkable that they ap- 
peared in 1766 on the loth of December^ and exaftly 
on the fame day in 1767 : thefe Ihoals extended from 
the fhore near three miles in breadth, and in length 
from Flamhorough head to Tinmoiith caille, and per- 
haps much farther northwards. An idea may be 
given of their numbers by the following fadl : three 
iifhermen, within the diftance of a mile from Scarho- 
^ rough harbour, frequently loaded their cohle or boat 
with them twice a-day, taking each time about a ton 
of filh : when they put down their lines beyond the 
diftance of three miles from the fhore, they caught 
nothing but dog fifli, which fhows how exadly thefe 
fifli keep their limits. 

The beft hadocks were fold from eightpence to a 
fhilling per fcore, and the poor had the fmaller fort 
at a penny, and fometimes a halfpenny per fcore*. 

The large hadocks quit the coaft as foon as they 
go out of feafon, and leave behind great plenty of 
imall ones. It is faid that the large ones vifit the 
•coafts of Hamburgh and Jutland in the fummer. 

It is no lefs remarkable than providential, that all 
kinds of filh (except mackrel) which frequent the 
Torkjhire coaft, approach the fhore, and as if it were 
offer themfelves to us, generally remaining there as 
lono- as they are in high feafon, and retire from us 
.i: "i when they become unfit for ufe. 

* Here Mr. Tra'vis, to whom I am much obliged for a mod 
accurate account of the Yorkjhire fifh, with great humanity pro- 
jefts an inland navigation, to convey at a cheap and eafy me- 
thod, thofe gifts of Providence to the thoufands of poor manu- 
fafturers who inhabit the diftant parts of that vaft county. 


ClafsIV. H A D O C K. 147 

It is the commoneft fpecies in the London markets. 

They do not grow to a great bulk, one of four- Defer, 
teen pounds being of an uncommon fize, but thofe 
are extremely coarfe ; the bed for the table weigh- 
ing from two to three pounds. 

The body is long, and rather more flender than 
thofe of the preceding kinds : the head (lopes down 
to the nofe : the fpace between the hind part of 
the firft dorfal fin is ridged : on the chin is a Ihort 

On the back are three fins refembling thofe of the 
common cod fifh : on each fide beyond the gills is 
a large black fpot. Superftition affigns this mark 
to the impreffion St. Peter left with his finger and 
thumb when he took the tribute out of the mouth 
of a fifh of this fpecies, which has been continued 
to the whole race of hadocks ever fince that mi- 

The lateral line is black : the tail is forked. 

The color of the upper part of this fpecies is 
dulky or brown ; the belly and lower pa^t of the 
fides filvery. 

IV. The 



Afellus mollis ktus. Mr. Lif- prima officulorum triginta. 

ier apud Wil. Icth. Afp* Arted.Jynon. t,j. 

22. Gadus barbatus. G. triptery- 

Whiting Pout, Londinenjlbus. gius cirratiis maxilla inferi- 

Raiijyn. pifc. 55. ore pundlis utrinque feptem, 

Gadus dorfo tripter}'gio, ore Lin Jjift. a^-^j.Grcno-j.Zooph. 

cirrato, longitudine ad lati- No- 320. 

tudinem tripla, pinna ani Smz-Tor^. Faun./uec. No. -^ii. 

THIS fpecies nevers grows to a large fize, fel- 
dom exceeding a foot in length. 

It is diftinguiflied from all others by its great 
depth ; one of the fize abovementioned being near 
four inches deep in the bjroadeft part. 

The back is very much arched ; the mouth fmall ; 
the beard fhort. 

The firft dorfal fin is triangular, and terminates in 
a long fibre : the color of the fins and tail black : 
at the bottom ot the pedoral fins is a black fpot. 

The lateral line is white, broad, and crooked. 

The tail is even at the end. 

The color of the body is white, but more obfcure 
on the back than the belly. 

This filh was firft difcovered by Doftor Lifter^ 
and communicated by him, with feveral other fpecies, 
to Mr. i?^> 

T. The 

Clafs IV. 



V, The 


Afellus nanus, Dwergdorfch, 
Krumftert ? Scbomnjeldet 

Bib & Blinds Cornuhienjllus, 
WiL Icth. 169. 

Afellus lufcus. Raiijyn pi/c, 54. 

Gadus dorfo trlpterygio, ore 
cirrato, ofliculo pinnarum 
ventralium primo in longam 
fetam produfto. Arted.fynon, 

Gadus lufcus. Lin.JyJi. 437, 

THIS fpecies is fuppofed by Artedius to be the 
fame with the former ; but fince it does not 
appear that he had an opportunity of examining it, 
we fhall depend on the judgment of Mr. Ray, who 
had feen both, and fhall form a feparate article of it 
from his defcription, as it has not yet fell in our 

It grows to the length of one foot : the body is 
deep, and the fides comprelTed : the fcales larger 
than thofe of the cod filli, and adhere to the ikin : 
the eyes are covered with a loofe membrane, which 
it is faid the fifh can at pleafure blow up like a blad- 
der. The mouth fmallj the teeth difpofed like 
others of the kind : on the chin is a beard, which 
in grown fifh is an inch long. 

On the back are three fins ; the firft has twelve 
rays ; the middle fin, which is the iongell, has twen- 
ty-three ; the laft twenty. 

The pectoral fins have about fixteen rays ; the 
ventral fins feven or eight, the firfl: of which is very 
long and flenden 


,5o POOR. ClafsIV. 

The vent is placed at the diftance of only one- 
third the length of the whole fifh from the tip of 
the nofe ; behind the vent are two fins. 

The tail is almoft even at the end. 
Coioi* The color of the back is light olive, or dirty- 
yellow •, the belly filvery. 

It is efteemed a good eating fiih, not unlike the 
whiting in tafte. 

VL The POO R. 

Le Merlan ? Belon. 1 20. Poor or Power Cernuh. Mr. Ja- 

Anthis fecunda fpecies. Ron- go. Rait Jyn. pifc. 16^. Jig. 6. 

del. 191. Gefner pifc. 56. Gadus dorfo tripterygio, ore 

Afellus mollis minor, feu afellus cirrato, corpore fefcunciali, 

omnium minimus. Mollo ano in medio corporis. Ar' 

Fettetiis. Capelan MaJfiUee. ted. fynon. 36. 

Wil, Icth. \-]\. Gadus minutus. Lin. fyji.&fi%. 

THIS is the only fpecies of cod fifli with three 
dorfal fins that we (at this time*) are affured 
is found in the Mediterranean fea. It is taken near 
Marfeilles^ and fometimes in fuch quantities as to 
become a perfect nulance ; for no other kinds of 
fifh are taken during that time**. It is efteemed a 
good filli, but is incapable of being faked or dried : 

* Mr. Ray, who vifited the IiaJian and Sicilian Teas, and was- 
a mod diligent obferver, fays he could difcover no other kind j" 
but it is with pleafure we acquaint the reader, that our learned 
correfpondent Dodor Gouan, of McntpeUiir, will foon favor us 
with ample information on that head, it being the defign of 
that able Naturalift foon to publilh his Ictbyology, which will 
doubtlefsly point out the iifh of his own fcas. 

•f Rondel. 191. 







Ciafs IV. POO R, 151 

Bekn fays, that when it is dried in the fun, it grows 
as hard as horn ; Cefi dela que les Anglois ront 
nomme Boudzs horn. 

It is the fmallefl fpecies yet difcovered, being Defer* 
little more than fix inches long. 

On the chin is a fmall beard : the eyes are covered 
with a loofe membrane : on the gill-covers, and the 
jaws are on each fide, nine pundbiires. 

The firft dorfal fin has twelve rays ; the fecond 
nineteen ; the third feventeen. 

The pedoral fins thirteen ; the ventral fins fix : 
the firft anal fin twenty-feven -, the fecond feven* 

The color on the back is a light brown -, on the 
belly a dirty white. 

We owe the difcovery of this kind in our feas' 
to the Rev, Mr, J ago. 

** Thrc« 

152 C O A t FISH. ClafsIV. 

Three dorfal fins : chin beardlels. 

Colfifch. Behn. 1 28, Gadui dorfo tn'pterygio, ore 

Golfifcii Anglorum,^ Gefner pifc<, imberbi, maxilla inferiore 

89. longiore et lin«a lateral! 

Afeljus niger. Kolfifch, Koler. reda. Arted. fynon. i\. 

^ohotti'velde., 19. Gadus Garbonarius. Lin. Jyji. 

Cole fifh Septentrlonaliuin an~ 43S" Grono-v. Zooph. No. 

ghriim, Rawlin Pollack Cur- 317, 

7iubienjium. WtL pifc, 168. 

Raii Jyju ptfcy 54. 


HE coal fiih takes its name from the 
black color that it Ipmetimes alTumcs. Belon 
calls it the Colfifch^ imagining it was fo named by 
the Engli/h., from its producing the Icth^ocolla^ but 
Gefner gives the true etimology. 

Thefe filh are common on mofl of our rocky and 
deep coafts, but particularly thofe of the north of 
Great Britaijt. 
Younj. The young begin to appear on the Torkjhire coafl 
the beginning of July in vaft fhoals, and are at that 
time about an inch and an half long. In Augufi 
they are from three to five inches in length, and are 
taken in great numbers with the angling rod, and are 
then efteemed a very delicate fifh, but grow fo 
coarfe when they are a year old that few people will 
cat them. Filh of that age are from eight to fif- 
|e€^ inches long, and begin to have a little black- 


Clafs IV. C O A L F I S H. 153 

nefs near the gills, and on the back, and the black- 
nefs encreafes as they grow older. 

The fry is known by different names in different 
places : they are called at Scarborough Parrs, and 
when a year old, Billets. About nine or ten years 
ago fuch a glut of Parrs vifited that part, that for 
feveral weeks it was impofTible to dip a pail into the 
fea without taking fome. 

Tho' this fifh is fo little elleemed when frefh, yet 
it is faked and dried for fale ♦, a perfon laft year hav- 
ing cured above a thoufand at Scarborough. 

The coal fifh is of more elegant form than the Defer, 
cod fifh : they generally grow to the length of two 
feet and an half, and weigh about twenty-eight or 
thirty pounds at moft. The head is fmall •, the 
under jaw a little longer than the upper: the irides 
filvery, marked on one fide with a black Ipot. 

It has three dorfal fins, the firft confills of four- 
teen, the next of twenty, the lafl of twenty-two 

The peroral fins of eighteen ; the ventral of fix : 
the firft anal fin of twenty-two, the fecond of nine- 

The tail is broad and forked. 

Thefe fifh vary in colon We have feen fome 
whofe back, nofe, dorfal fins and tail were of a deep 
black ; the gill covers filver and black : the ventral 
and anal fins white -, the belly of the lame color. 

We have feen others dufky, others brown, but in 
all the lateral line was ftrait and white, and the lower 
part of the ventral and anal fins white. 

L 2 VIIL The 

154 P O L L A C 1^, ClafsIV. 


Afeiiijs virefcens, Schwartres Gadus do'rfo tripterygio, ore 

Kolmulen. Schone-veUe, 20. imberbi, max. inf. longiore, 

Arellus flavefcens 3 Gelbe Kol- linea lateral! curva. Arted. 

mulen. Ihid. Jynon. 35. 

Afellus Huitingo- Pollachius. Gadus Pollachius. Lin. fyft. 

Wil. Icth. 167. 439. Grono'v.Zooph.'No. 1').%. 

Whiting Pollack. Raiifyn.pfc, Norn.vegis Scy. Baku/its Grafik ? 

53. Faun Juec. No. 309. 

^""T^HIS fpecies is common on many of our rocky 
X coafts : during fummer they are leen in great 
.fhoals frohcking on the furface of the water, and 
flinging themfelves into a thoufand forms. They 
are at that time fo wanton as to bite at any thing 
that appears on the top of the waves, and are often 
taken with a goofe's feather fixed to the hook. They 
are a very ftrong fifh, being obferved to keep their 
llation at the feet of the rocks in the mofl turbulent 
and rapid fea. 

They are a good eating fifh : they do not grow 
to a very large fize •, at left the biggefl we have feen 
not exceeding fix or feven pounds : but we have heard 
of fome that were taken in the fea near Scarborough., 
which they frequent during winter, that weighed near 
twenty-eight pounds. 

The under jaw is longer than the upper ; the 
head and body rifes pretty high, as far as the firfl 
dorfal fin. 

The fide line is incurvated, rifing towards the 
middle of the back, then finking and running flrait 
to the tail •, it is broad, and a brown color. 


ClafsIV. V/ H I T I N G. 155 

The firll dorfal fin has eleven rays, the middle 
nineteen, the laft fixteen : the tail is a little forked. 

The color of the back is duil^y, of fome inclin- 
ing to green: the fides beneath the lateral line 
marked with lines of yellow -, the belly white. 

IX. The W H I T I N G. 

Secunda afellorum fpecies. Gadus dorfo tripterygio, ore 

Rondel. 276. imberbi corpore albo, max- 

Merlanus. Rondel. Gejher pifc. ilia fuperiore longiore. Af' 

85. ted. fynon. 34. 

Afellus candidus primus, Wit- Gadus merlangus. Lin. fyft. 

ling. Schone'velde, 17. 438- Grono'v. Zooph. No. 3 16, 

Afellus mollis major, feu al- Hvvitling, Widding. Faun-fuec, 

bus. Wil. Icth. \-]o. No. -^xo. 
Whiting. Raiifyn. ptfc. 55. 

HI TINGS appear in vafl fnoals on our 
feas in the fpring, keeping at the difi:ance 
of about half a mile to that of three from the fiiore. 
They are caught in vaft numbers by the line, and 
afford excellent diverfion. 

They are the moft delicate as well as the moil 
wholefome of any of the genus, but do not grow to 
a large fize \ the biggeft we ever faw * not exceeding 
twenty inches, but that is very uncommon, the ufual 
length being ten or twelve. 

It is a fifti of an elegant make : the upper jaw is 
the longeft •, the eyes large, the nofe fiiarp, the 
teeth of the upper jaw long, and appear over the 
lower when clofed. 

* We have been informed that whitings, from four to eight 
pounds in weight, have been taken in the deep water at the edge 

of the Dogger -Banh 



156 H A K E. ClafsIV. 

The firft dorfal fin has fifteen rays, the fecond 
eighteen, the laft twenty. 

The color of the head and back is a pale brown ; 
the lateral line white, and is crooked ; the belly 
and fides filvery ; the laft ftreaked lengthways with 

* * 

With only two dorfal fins. 
X. The H A K E. 

LcMerluz. Belon. 115. Gadus dorfo dipterygio, max- 

Afellus, oyos, ovicrxo?. Rondel. i^^^ inferiore longiore. /?;-- 

272. ted. fynon. 36. 

Merlucius. GcA^^ /i/^. 84. Gadus Merlucius. Lin. fyji, 

Afellus primus five Merluclus. 439- Faun. Juec. Ko. 314. 

Wil. Icth, 174. Gronov. Zooph. iV<7. 315. 
The Hake. Raiijyn. fife. 

A FISH that is found in vaft abundance on 
many of our coafts, and of thofe of Ireland. 
There was formerly a vaft ftationary fifhery of Hake 
on the Nympb Bank off the coaft of Waterford, im- 
menfe quantities appearing there twice a year ; the 
firft Ihoal coming in June., during the Mackrel fea- 
fon, the other in September^ at the beginning of the 
Herring feafon, probably in purfuit of thofe fifh : it 
was no unufual thing for fix men with hooks and 
lines to take a thoufand Hake in one night, befides a 
confiderable quantity of other fifh. Thefe were falted 
and fent to Spain, particularly to Bilbo a. * We are 

• Smith' % Hiji, Waterfordy 261. 


Oafs IV. H A K E. 157 

at this time uninformed of the flate of this 'fifhery, 
but find that Mr. Smithy who wrote tJie Hiftory of 
the County of Waterford^ comphiin even in his time 
(1746) of its decline. Many of the gregarious fifh 
are fubje6l to change their fituations, and defert 
their haunts for numbers of years, and then return 
again. V/e fee p. 78, how unfettled the Bajking >_ 
Shark appears to be : Mr. Smith inllances the lofs 
of the Hadock on the J Vat erf or d fhores, where they 
ufed to fwarm •, and to our own knowledge we can 
bring the capricioufnefs of the herrings, which fo 
frequently quit their ftations, as another example. 

Sometimes the irregular migration of fidi is ow- 
ing to their being followed and haraffed by an un- 
ufual number of fifh of prey, fuch as the Ihark 

Sometimes to deficiency of the fmaller fifh, which 
ferved them as food. 

And laflly, in many places to the cuftom of trawl- 
ing, which not only demolifhes a quantity of their 
fpawn, which is depofited in the fand, but alfo de- 
llroys or drives into deeper waters numberlefs worms 
and infedls, the repafl of many fifh. 

The hake is in England efleemed a very coarfe 
fifh, and is feldom admitted to table either frefh or 
faked *. 

Thefe fifh are from a foot and an half to near Defer, 
tv/ice that length : they are of a flender make, of 
a pale afh color on their backs, and of a dirty white 
on their bellies. 

• When cured it is known by the name of Poor John, 

L 4 Their 

15? LESSER HAKE. Clafs IV. 

Their head is fiat and broad •, the mouth very- 
wide ; the teeth very long and fharp, particularly 
thofe of the lower jaw. 

The firll dorfal fin is fmall, confifting of nine rays ; 
the fecond reaches from the bafe of the former al- 
moft to the tail, and is compofed of forty rays, of 
which the laft are the higheft : the peftoral fins have 
about twelve, the ventral feven; the anal thirty- 

The tail is almofl even at the end. 


Galee, claria marina. Belon. Tinea marina. Jldr. Wil. Ictfu 

126. 205. Rait Jyn. pifc. y^. 

Phycis. Rondel. 186. Ce/ner Phycis. Jrted. Jytion. Jpp. iii. 

pi/c'.'jlZ. Blennius Phycis. Un.JyJ}.\\z. 


HIS is the filh to which 'Rondektius gives the 
name of Phycis^ borrowing it from Arifiotte 
and Pliny ^ who have not fo fufficiently charafterized 
it, as to enable us to judge what fpecies they in- 
tended. It is found in the Mediterranean more fre- 
quently than in our feas, and we believe is the filli 
mentioned by Mr. Armftrong^ and Doftor Cleghorn *, 
in their Hiftories of Minorca^ under the name of 
Molio, Mollera, and Molle. It is known on the 
coafi: of Cornwall by the name of the greater forked 
beard**, where it wts firfi: difeovered by Mr. Jagd. 

* Armflrong, l6l. Cleghorn, 43. 

** Barbus major Cornubienfis cirris h'/urcatis : the great forked 
beard. Mr. Jaga. RaiiJ^n. fife 16^. fg. 7. 


ClafsIV. LESSER HAKE. 159 

We place it in this genus, as it has more the appear- 
ance of the ccd-fifh kind, the hake efpecially, than 
of the Blenny^ into which genus Linnaus has flung 
it ; we therefore have given this fpecies the name of 
the Lejj'er Hake. 

The length of one that was taken on the Flintjhire 
fhores was eleven inches and an half, its greateft depth 
three inches , but according to Doctor Borlafc^ fome 
grow to be above eighteen inches long. s 

The head Hoped down to the nofe in the fame 
eafy manner with others of this genus : the mouth 
large : befides the teeth in the jaws was a triangu- 
lar congeries of fmall teeth in the roof of the 

At the end of the lower jaw was a fmall beard. 
The firft dorfal fin was triangular-, the firft ray ex- 
tended far beyond the reft, and was very ilender : the 
fecond iin began juft behind the firft, and extended 
almoft to the tail : the ventral fins were three inches 
long, and confifted of only tv/o rays, joined at the 
bottom, and feparated or bifurcated towards the 
end : the vent was in the middle of the body : the 
anal fin extended from thence juft to the tail : the 
lateral line was incurvated : the tail was rounded. 

The color was a cinereous brown. 

XIL The 

1 66 h I N G. ClafslV. 


Barbus minor Comuhienjls cirris beard. Mr. Jago. Rail fyn, 

bifurcis. The leffer forked pij'c. 164. Jig. 8. 

WE never faw this fpecies, and having but 
very imperfefl defcriptions of it, cannot 
with any certainty pronounce it to be of this genus, 
but are unwilling to feparate them, as we found 
them united by that judicious Icthyologifl Mr» Jago. 
It is faid not to exceed five inches in length : the 
firft dorfal fin (in the print) is Ihorter than that of 
the preceding; the fecond refembles that of the other 
kind : the ventral fins bifurcated. It has a fmall 
beard, and a rounded tail, but the head is fhorter 
and more fteep ; the color black, the fkin fmooth, 
and the appearance difagreeable. 

Xlir. The LIN G. 

Ling, Lingfifche. Behn. 130. Gadus dorfodipterygio, ore fer- 

Gefner pij'c. gi^, rato, maxilla fuperiore lon- 

y[o\v^T!\2i)Qr Charletonex.pifc.-^. giore. Arted, fynon. 36. 

Afellus longus, cine Lenge. Gadus molva. Lin. fyfi. 

Schonenjeldey 18. 439- 

Ling. JVil. Icth.iji^, Raii /yn. Langa. Faun. Jucc. Ko. i\-i^. 
pi/c. 56. 

THE ling takes its name from its length, being 
corrupted from the v/ord long. It abounds 
about the Scilly IJleSy on the coafts of Scarborough, 


ClafslV. LING. i6i 

and thofe of Scotland and Ireland^ and forms a con- 
fiderable article of commerce *. 

In the Torkjhire feas they are in perfeftion from 
the beginning of February to the beginning of May^ 
and fome till the end of that month. In June they 
fpawn, depofiting their eggs in the foft oozy ground 
of the mouth of the Tees : at that time the males 
feparate from the females, and refort to fome rocky 
ground near Flamhorough Head, where the tilhermen 
take great numbers without ever finding any cf the 
female or roed fifh among them. 

While a ling is in feafon its liver is very white, and oa. 
abounds with a fine flavored oil \ but as foon as the 
fifh goes out of feafon, the liver becomes red as that 
©f a bullock, and affords no oil. The fame hap- 
pens to the cod and other fifh in a certain degree, 
but not fo remarkably as in the ling. When the 
fifh is m perfe6lion, a very large quantity of oil may 
be melted out of the liver by a flow fire, but if a 
violent fudden heat be ufed for that purpofe, they 
yield very little. This oil, which nature hoards up 
in the cellular membranes of fifhes, returns into 
their blood, and fupports them in the engendring 
feafon, when they purfue the bufmefs of generation 
with fo much eagernefs as to negled; their food. 

Vail quantities of ling is falted for exportation, as 
well as for home confumption. When it is cut or 
fplit for curing, it mull meafure twenty-fix inches or 
upwards from the fhoulder to the tail j if lefs than 

• This branch of trade was confiderable fo long ago as the 
reign of Ednjoard III. an aft for regulating the price of Lob^ 
Lingy and Cody being made in his 31ft year. 


1^2 LING. Clafsiy. 

that it is not reckoned a fizeable filli, and confe- 
quently not entitled to the bounty on exportation ; 
fuch are called Drizzles, and are in feafon all fum- 

D^rcr. The ufual fize of a ling is from three to four 
■^ feet ; but we have heard of one that was feven feet 

The body is very fiender ; the head flat ; the up- 
per jaw the longeft-, the teeth in that jaw fmall and 
very numerous •, in the lower, few, fiender, and Iharp : 
on the chin is a fmall beard. 

The iirft dorfal fin is fmall, placed near the head, 
and confifts of fifteen rays : the fecond is very long, 
reaching almoft to the tail, and confifts of fixty-five 
rays : the pedoral fins have fifteen radiated rays, 
the ventral fins fix -, the anal fixty-two : the tail is 
rounded at the end. 

color. Thefe fifli vary in color, fome being of an olive 
hue on the fides and back, others cinereous j the 
belly white. 

XIV. The 

ClafsIV. BURBOT. 163 


Strlnfias, ou Botatrifla. Belon. Eel-pout. Wil Icth. iz^. 

300. Raiz fyn. pifc. 67. 

Lota. Rondel. flwviat. 16^. Ge/- Aal-rutte, Rutte. Kram. 388. 

ner pifc. 599. Gadus dorfo dipterygio, ore 

Quappen, ElfF-qiuppen, Ti- cirrato, maxillis squalibus. 

der-quappen, Trufchen ? Arted. fynon. 38 

Schonenjelde, 49. Gadus Li"»ta, Lin. fyft. 440* 

Burbot, or Bird-bolt. Plot. Gronom- Zooph. No. 97. 

Staff. 241. tab. zz fig. 4. Lake. Faun.fmc. No. 113. 
Muftela fluviadlis noftratibus 

THIS filli is found in the Trent, but in greater piaae, 
plenty in the river PFitham, and in the great 
Eafi Fen in Lincolnjhire. It is a very delicate fifh 
for the table, tho' of a difgufling appearance when 
alive. It is very voracious, and preys on the fry 
and lefTer fiHi. It does not often take a bait, but is 
generally caught in weels. 

It abounds in the lake of Geneva, where it is called 
Lota, and it is alfo met with in the Lago Maggiore^ 
and Lugano. 

The largeft that we ever heard was taken in our Defer, 
waters weighed between two and three pounds, but 
abroad ihey are fometimes found of double that 

Their body has fome refemblance to that of an 
eel, only fhorter and thicker, and its motions alfo 
refemble thofe of that filh : they are befides very 
fmooth, flippery, and (limy. 



The head is very ugly, being flat, and Ihaped 
like that of a toad : the teeth are very fmall, but 
numerous : the irides yellow. 

On the end of the nofe are two fmall beards ; on 
the chin another : the number of its branchioftegous 
rays are feven. 

The firft dorfal fin is fhort : the fecond is placed 
immediately behind it, and extends almoft to the 
tail : the peroral fins are rounded : the ventral fins 
confift of fix rays, of which the two firft are di- 
vided near their ends from each other : the vent is 
placed in the middle of the belly, and the anal fin 
reaches almofl to the tail : the tail is rounded at 
the end. 
Color. The color of this fpecies varies ; fome are dufky, 

others of a dirty green, fpotted with black, and 
oftentimes with yellow, and the belly in fome is 
white i but the real colors are frequently concealed 
by the flime, 


Muftella vulgaris. Ronifel.zSi. Raii /jt;. pi/c 67. Rock- 

Gejner fijc. %g. ling, Mr. Jago. Raii J^n. 

Sea Loche Ceftna-, Whiftle Fifh pijc. 164. fg. 9. 
Cornubia. IVil. Icth. 121. 

THIS fpecies com^monly frequents the rocky 
fhores of thefe iilands, and is fometimes taken 
with a bait. 

It grows to the length of one foot : the head is 
large and flat : the eyes jaot remote from the end 



of the nofe : the body is long, fl^nder, and com- 
prefTed fideways, efpecially towards' the tail : at the 
end of the upper jaw are two beards s on the chin one. 

The teeth are numerous and fmall, difpofed along 
the jaws in form of a broad plate : in the roof of 
the mouth is a fet of fmall teeth, difpofed in a tri* 
angular form. 

The number of branchiollegous rays is leven. 

The firfl dorfal fin is lodged in a deep furrow juft 
beyond the head, and confift of a number of fhort 
unconnefted rays : the fecond rifes juft behind it, 
and reaches very near the tail : the pedloral fins 
are broad and round : the ventral fins fmall ; the 
fecond ray the longeft : the anal fin reaches almoft 
to the tail : the tail rounded at the end. 

The fcales are very fmall : the color of the body 
and head a reddifh yellow, marked above the lateral 
line with large black fpots : the back fin and tail are 
darker ; the vent fin of a brighter red, but all are 
fpotted. The lateral line bends in the middle, then 
pafTes ftrait to the tail. 


Gadus dorfo dipterygio, fulco Gadus muftela. G. dipterygius 

magno ad pinnam dorfi pri- cirris 5, pinna dorfali priore 

mam, ore cirrato ? Jrted., exoleta. Lin.JyJi. 440. Gro' 

Jjnon. 37. no'-v. ZoDph. No. 314. 

MR. Willoiighhy makes this fpecies with five 
beards, a variety only of the former ; but 
having opportunity of examining feveral fpecimens, 
we muii diffent ixom his opinion, having always ob- 



ferved the number of beards in the fpotted kind not 
to exceed three, nor the number in the brown kind 
to be lefs than five. The firll ray of the firft dorfal 
fin is very long. There is alfo fome dilference in 
the form as well as color, this fpecies being rather 
thicker in proportion than the former. 

Excepting thefe particulars, and the num^ber of 
beards, thefe is a general agreement in the parts of 
both. The beards on the upper jaw are four, viz. 
Tv/o at the very end of the nofe, and two a little 
^bove them : on the end of the lower jaw is afingle 

Thefe filh are of a deep olive brown, their belly 
whitifh. They grow to the fame fize as the former. 

The Cornijh fifhermen are faid to whiftle, and make 
ufe of the words Bod^ Bod vean^ when they are de- 
firous of taking this filh, as if by that they facili- 
tated the capture. In the fame manner the Sicilian 
fifhermen repeat their Mamajfu dipajanu^ &c. when 
they are in purfuit of the Szvord Fijh*. 

* Vide p. 127. 



Genus XX. Head blunt at the end, and very fteep. 
Body fmooth and flippery. 
Teeth flender. 
Body comprelTed Tideways. 
Ventral fins confifting generally of only 
two united rays. One dorfal fin. 
Six branchioftegous rays. BLENNY-f. 

With a crefted head. 

Adonis, oviexocet\is.Be!en.2\g. Blennius crifta capitis tranf- 

Galerita. Rondeh 204. Ge/ner verfa cutacea. Jrted. fymn. 

pifc, 14, 17, 18. ^ 44._ 

Alauda criftata, five Galerita. Blennius Galerita, Lin. fyft, 

Wil. Icth. 134. Rait Jyn. pifc. 44 1. 


THIS fpecies is found, tho' not frequently, on 
our rocky fhores, and is commonly about four 
or five inches long. 

On the head is a fmall creft-like fin, which it can 
ereft or deprefs at pleafure. On the top of the 
head between the eyes is a triangular lump point- 
ing backwards, and red about its edges. 

f There being no Englijh name for this genus, BUnny is given 
it, derived from the word Blennius, the generical term ufed by 
JrtediuSf who forms it from BAevkx mucus, it being of a flimy 

M The 

r68 G A T T O R U G I N E. Clafs IV. 

The fkin at the corner of the upper jaw is loofc, 
and projeds. 

From the hind part of the head almoft to the tail 
extends the dorfal fin : the ventral fin is fmall : the 
vent is placed under the ends of the peftoral fins. 

The body is fmooth and flippery : the color 
brown, and fpotted. 


Scorpioides. Rondel. 204, Gef- ad oculos, pinna ani oincu- 

nerpifc. 847. lorum viginti trium. Arttd. 

Gattorugine Venetlh. Wll. Icth. Jpion. 44.. 

132. Rail fyn. pifc. 'jz. Blennius Gattorugiiie. Z/«.yv/?. 

Blennius pinnulis duabus ad 44 z. 

THIS curious idnd was difcovered to be a Bri- 
tfjh fifh, by the Rev. Mr. IVilliams., who found 
it on the Anglefea coaft, and favored us v/ith it. 
Defer. Its length was feven inches and an half : the body 

was fmooth, and comprelTed on the fides : the belly 
a little prominent : the vent fituated as in the pre- 
ceding fifh. 

The teeth flender, almoft fetaceous, and very 
clofe fet : between the eyes was a fmall hollow, and 
above each juft on the fummit was a narrow loofe 
membrane, trifurcated at the top, which dillinguifhes 
this from all other fpecies. 

The peroral fins broad and rounded, confifting 
of fourteen rays, which extend beyond the webs, 
making the edges appear fcalloped. 




The ventral fins like thofe of others of the genus : 
the dorfal fin confilled of fourteen ftrong fpiny rays, 
and nineteen foft rays \ the laft of which were higher 
than the fpiny rays. 

The anal fin had twenty-oile rays 1 the ends in 
every fin extended beyond their webs. 

The tail was rounded at the end, and confifl:ed of 
twelve rays, divided towards their extremities. 

This fiili in general was of a dufky hue, marked 
acrofs with wavy lines : the belly of a light-afh 

The lower part of the pefloral fins, and the ends 
oi the ventral fins, of an orange color. 

With a fmooth head* 

La tierce efpece de Exocetus ? /j, Smooth Shan. Mr. J ago 

Belon. 219. _ apud Rail fyn. pifc. 164. _/^. 

Alauda non criftata. RondeU 10. 

205. Gejner pifc. 18. Blennius maxilla fupenore lon- 

Mulgranoc, & Bulcard Cornu- giore, capite fummo acumi- 

bia.Wil.lcth, 133. Rati fyn. nato Arted.fymn. 45. 

/"(A- 73- , Blennius Pholis. Zm.^y?. 443, 

Cataphradus Isevis Cornubzen- Grononj. Zooph. No. zco. • 

WE difcovered this fpecies in plenty lying un- piacc. 
der the ftones among the tang on the rocky 
coafts of Anglefea., at the lower water-mark. It was 
very a^^ive and vivacious, and would by the help 

M 2 ' , pf 


of its ventral fins creep up between the ftones with 
great facility. It bit extremely hard, and would 
hang at ones finger for a confiderable time. It was 
very tenacious of life, and would live for near a 
day out of water. 

It feeds on fliells and fmall crabs, whofe remains 
we found in its ftomach. 
Defer. The length in general was five inches : the head 

large, and Hoping fuddenly to the mouth : the irides 

The teeth (lender, very lliarp, and clofe fet : there 
were twenty-four in the upper, and nineteen in the 
lower jaw. 

The pedoral fins broad and rounded, confiding 
of thirteen rays : the ventral fins of only two thick 
rays, feparated near their ends. 

The dorfal fin confided of thirty-two foft rays, 
and reached from the hind part of the head almoft 
to the tail. 

The vent was in the middle of the body : the 
anal fin extended almoft to the tail, and confifted of 
nineteen rays, tipt with white. 

The tail rounded at the end, and compofed of 
twelve branched rays. 

The color varied, fome were quite black, but ge- 
nerally they were of a deep olive, prettily marbled 
with a deeper color -, others Ipotted with white : the 
laft often difpofed in rows above and beneath the 
lateral line. 

IV. The 



Gunnellus Cornublevfium, non- dorfali ocelHs X nigris. Lin. 

nullis Butter-fip, q. d. Lipa- Jyji. 443. Faun.fuec. No. 3 1 8. 

ris. IFil.Icth. 115. Raiijjn. Seb. Muf. iii. p. 91. tab. 30. 

/>//f. 144. _ ^ _ fg. 6. 

Blennius macuHs circiter de- Pholis maculis annulatis ad 

cem nigris limbo albicante pinnam dorfalem, pinnis 

utrinque ad pinnam dorfa- ventralibas obfoletis. Gro- 

1cm. Arted.Jynon. 45. no-v, Zooph. No. 267. 

Blennius Gunnellis. B. pinna 

THIS fpecies is found in the fame place 
with the preceding, lurking like it under 
ftones, is equally vivacious, and is ufed as a bait for 
larger filh. 

Its length is fix inches : the depth only half an 
inch : the fides very much comprefiTed, and extremely 

The head and mouth is fmall •, the laft points up- 
wards, and the lower jaw flopes confiderably towards 
the throat. 

The teeth are very fmall •, the irides whitifh. 

The peroral fins rounded, and of a yellow co- 
lor: inftead of the ventral fins are two minute 

The dorfal fin confifl: of feventy-eight fhort fpiny 
rays, and runs the length of the back almoft to the 
tail : on the top of the back are eleven round fpots, 
which reach the lower half of the dorfal fin j they 
are black, half encircled with white. 

M 3 The 


The vent is in the middle of the body ; the anal 
fin extends from it almoll to the tail. 

The tail is rounded, and of a yellow color. 

The back and fides are of a deep olive : the belly 


Muftela marina vivipara, Ael- ra ani flava. Arted.fyyion.^x^^ 

quappe, Ael-pute, Ael-mo- Blennius viviparus, B. ore icw-^ 

der. Scbone'velde, t;o. tab. 4. taculis duobus. Lin. Jyji. 

GufFer, Eelpout. Sib. Scot. iii. 443. 

25. Tanglake. Faun.fuec. No, 317, 

Muilela vivipara Schone'veldu. MuJ. Ad. Fr.l. 69. tab. 32. 

Wil. Icth. 122. Ranfyn.pifc. Enchelyopus corpore licuris va- 

69. riegato ; pinna dorfi ad cau- 

Blennius capite dorfoque fufco dam finuata. Grono-o. '/.oopb. 

flavefcente lituris nigris, pin- No. 26^. 

riCHONEFELDE firft difcovered this fpecies ; 
^ Sir Robert Sibbald afterwards found it on the 
Scotch coafts •, and hinriccus has defcribed it in his 
account of his Swedijh majefty's Mufeiim. 

We are unacquainted with this hlli ; but on the 
authority of Sir Robert Sibbald., give it a place in 
this work, borrowing our defcription from Schone-. 
velde and Lbinaiis. 

They are viviparous, bringing forth two or three 
hundred young at a time. Their fealbn of parturi-. 
tion is a little after the depth of winter. Before Mid^ 
fummer they quit the bays and fhores, and retire into 
the deep, where they are commonly taken. They 
are a very coarfe filh, and eat only by the poor, . 






^.. i 



They are commonly about a foot in length, and Defer. 
of an eel-like form : their fkin fmooth and (lippery. 

At the noftrils are two fmall beards : the jaws are 
very rough : the covers of the gills open. 

The dorfal fin commences at the hind part of the 
head, and reaches almofb to the tail ; it confifts of 
eighty rays. 

The pedloral fins are rounded, and are compofed 
of nineteen rays : the ventral fins of only four very 

The anal fins extends to and unites with the tail, 
which is fmall, and ends in a fharp point. 

The color of the back and head is a yellowifh 
brown, flained with black ftrokes : the fides a Httle 
lighter : the belly of a dirty white : the dgrfal fi.n 
marked in the fame manner as the back. 

M 4 Sea. I^ 

174 BLACK GOBY. ClafsIV. 


Genus XXI. Eyes placed near each other. 
Four branchioftegous rays. 
Ventral fins united. Goby*. 


Gobio niger. Rondel. 200. Gef- pinna dorfi fecunda oflicu- 

ner pifc. 395. lorum quatuor decim. Arted- 

Schwartzer Goeb. Schone'velde. Jynon. 46. 

36. Gobius niger. Lin.fyji. 449. 

Sea Gudgeon. Rock-fifli, Wil. Eleotris capita cathetoplateo, 

Icth. 206. Raiifyn. -pifc. 76. pinnis ventralibus concretis. 

Gobius ex nigricante varius, Groncnj. Zooph. No 281. 

IT is to this filh that Naturalifts have given the fy- 
nonym of KwSio?, and Gobio, names of certain 
ipecies mentioned by AriHotk, Pliny, and Oppian. 
The two firft have not left any charadlers for us to 
diftinguifh them by -, and Oppian at once Ihews that 
he never intended this kind, as he has placed it, among 
thofe which are armed with a poiibnous fpine. 
jirijiotk was acquainted with two fpecies •, one 
a fea fifh that frequented the rocks, another that 
was gregarious, and an inhabitant of rivers, which 
laft feems to have been our common gudgeon. 

• Formed from Gobiutt the generic name beftowed by Natu- 
tttraliits on thefe fiih. 


ClafsIV. BLACK GOBY. 175 

This fpecies grows to the length of fix inches: otfcr. 
the body is foft, flippery, and of a flender form : the 
head is rather large •, the cheeks inflated ; the teeth 
fmall, and difpofed in two rows : from the head to 
the firil dorfal fin is a fmall fulcus. 

The firfl dorfal fin confifts of fix rays •, the fecond 
of fourteen ; the peroral fins of fixteen or feven- 
teen, clofely fet together, and the middlemoft the 
longeft •, the others on each fide gradually Ihorter. 

The ventral fins coalefce and form a fort of fun^ 
nel, by which thefe filh affix themfelves immoveably 
to the rocks, fof which reafon they are called Rock- 


The tail is rounded at the end. 

The color is brown, or deep olive, mixed with 
dark ftreaks, and fpotted with black : the dorfal 
and anal fins are of a pale blue, the rays marked 
with minute black ipots. 

11, The 

iy6 SPOTTED GOBY. Clafs IV. 


Aipua ? Jihe». lih. vii. p. 284. Gobius Aphya et marfio diftus. 

Aphia, Belon. 207. Arted.fynon. 47. 

Aphya cobites. Rondel. 210. Gobius Aphya. G. fafciis 

Gefnerpi/c.6'j. Wil. pifc.zo-j, etiam pinnarum fufcis. Ltn. 

Raii/yn. pifc. 76. fyjl. 450. 

WE faw feveral of this fpecies taken laft fum- 
mer on our fandy fhores in the flirimp nets. 

The length of the largeft was not three inches : 
the nofe was blunt : the eyes large and prominent, 
(landing far out of the head : the irides fappharine ; 
the head flat •, the tongue large ; teeth in both 

The firft dorfal fin. confilled of fix rays, the fe- 
cond of eleven, and placed at fome diftance from 
the other. 

The ventral fins are united : the anal confifl of 
eleven rays : the tail is even at the end. 

The body is of a whitilh color, obfcurely fpotted 
with ferruginous : the rays of the dorfal fins, and 
the tail, barred with the fame color. 


Clafs IV, B U L L H E A D. 177 

Genus XXII. Large flat head, armed with 
fharp fpines. 
Six branchioftegous rays. 


I. The B U L L-H E A D. 

Boston. Anji. Eifi, an, lib. Iv. Cott-js alepedotus glaber, ca- 

c. 8. pite diacantho. Arted. fynon. 

Chabot. Belon. ZXT,. 76. 

Cottus. Romiel. Flu'diat. 202. Cottus Gobio. C. laevis, ca- 

Gobio capitatus. Gejher pi/c. pite fpinis duabus. Lin.fyji. 

401. 452. 

Jlen Miiller. Schivenckfelt.Sihs. Sten-fimpa, Slagg-fimpa. F«a», 

431. fuec. No. 323. 

Bull-head, Miller's Thumb. Koppe. Kram. 384. Gronov, 

WiL lah, 137. Rail Jyn. Zooph. No. 270. 
p>ijc, 76, 

THIS fpecies is very common in all our clear 
brooks ; it lies almoft always at the bottom, 
either on the gravel or under a flone : it depofits its 
fpawn in a hole it forms in the gravel, and quits it 
with great relu6lance. It feeds on water infe6ts ; 
and we found in the ftomach of one the remains of 
the frefh water fhrimp, the pukx aquatilis of Ray. 

This fifh feldom exceeds the length of three inches 
and an half: the head large, broad, flat, and thin at 
its circumference, being well adapted for infinu^ 
ating itfelf under ftones : on the middle part of the 
covers of the gills is a fmall crooked fpine turning 


i;^ P O G G E. ClafsIV. 

The eyes are very fmall : the irides yellow : the 
teeth very minute, placed in the jaws and the roof 
of the niouth. 

The body grows (lender towards the tail, and is 
very fmooth. 

The firft dorfal fin confifts of fix rays, the fecond 
of feventeen : the pedoral fins are round, and pret- 
tily fcalloped at their edges, and are compofed of 
thirteen rays -, the ventral of only four i the anal 
of thirteen ; the tail of twelve, and is rounded at 
the end. 

The color of this fifh is as difagreeable as its 
form, being dufky, mixed with a dirty yellow :- 
the belly whitilli. 

II. The P O G G E. 

Cataphradlus, Stein-bicker, Cottus Cataphraftus. C. lori- 

Miiller, Turfs-bull. Schone- catus, roftro verrucofo 2 bi- 

'velde. 30. tab. 3. fidis, capite fubtus cirrofo. 

Cataphraftus S'f^ow^Wt/;/ Sep- Lin. fyft, \'^\. 

tentr. Jnglis a Pogge. P^i/. Botn-mas. Faun. /uec. No. ^2^, 

Icth. 2U. Rati Jyn. pifc. 77. Seh. Muf. iii. tab. 28. Gronov. 

Cottus cirris plurimis corpore Zooph. No. zji, 
odlagono. Jrted. Jynon. 77. 

THE pogge is very common on moft of the 
Britijh coafts. 
It feldom exceeds five inches and an half in length, 
and even feldom arrives at that fize. 

The head is large, bony, and very rugged: the end 
of the nofe is armed with four fhort upright Ipines . 
on the throat are a number of Ihort white beards. 


ClafslV. FATHER-LASHER. 179 

The teeth are very minute, fituated in the jaws. 

The body is odagonal, and covered with a num- 
ber of ftrong bony crufts, divided into feveral com- 
partments, the ends of which project into a fharp 
point, and form feveral echinated lines along the 
back and fides from the head to the tail. 

The firft dorfal fin confills of fix fpiny rays : the 
fecond is placed juft behind the firft, and confifts of 
feven foft rays. 

The peroral fins are broad and rounded, and are 
compofed of fifteen rays. 

III. The F A T H E R-L A S H E R. 

Scorpios. O-vid. Halieut. II 6. Cottus fcorpius. C. capite fpi- 

La Scorpene. Belon. 242. nis pluribus, maxilla fuperi- 

Scorpius marinus, Waelkuke, ore paulo longiots. Lin. Jyjf. 

BulofFe, Schorp-fifche. Scho' 452. 

nevelde. 67. tah» 6. Rot-fimpa, Skrabba, Skialry- 

Scorpxnas Belonii fimilis Cor- ta. Fau?i,/uec. No, ■^z'^. 

«K^. Father-lafher. /F/7. /<r/^. Ulke. Crantx. Greenl. I. 95. 

138. Rait Jyn. pijc. 1 45. Groncv. Zooph. No. 26^-. 

Scorpius virginianus. Ide?n. Sea ScorpioH, Edw, 284. 

142. IVil. Ictb. App. 25. 

THIS filh is not uncommon on the rocky coafls 
of this ifland : it lurks under ftones, and will 
take a bait. 

It does not grow to a large fize, feldom exceeding Defer, 
(as far as we have feen in the fpecimens that are 
taken on our fhores) eight or nine inches. 

The head is very large, and has a moft formidable 
appearance, being armed with vaft fpines, which it 



can oppofe to any enemy that attacks it, by fwelling 
out its cheeks and gill covers to a large lize. 

Et capitis duro nociturus Scorpios i£}tt. 

The hurtful Scorpion wounding with its head. 

Spines. 'pj^g j^Q^g ^^^ fpace contiguous to the eyes are fur- 
nifhed with Ihort fharp fpines : the covers of the 
gills are terminated by exceeding long ones, which 
are both flrong and very Iharp pointed. 

The mouth is large: the jaws covered with rows 
of very fmall teeth : the roof of the mouth is fur- 
nifhed with a triangular fpot of minute teeth. 

The back is more elevated than that of others of 
this genus : the belly prominent : the fide-line rough, 
the reft of the body very fmooth, and grows flender 
. towards the tail. 

The firft dorfal fin confifts of eight fpiny rays -, 
the fecond of eleven high foft rays : the peftoral fins 
are large, and have fixteen •, the ventral three ; the 
anal eight : the tail is rounded at the end, and is 
compofed of twelve bifurcated rays. 

The color of the body is brown, or dufky and 
white marbled, and fometimes is found alfo ftained 
with red : the fins and tail are tranfparent, fome- 
times clouded, but the rays barred regularly with 
brown : the belly is of a filvery white. 

This kind is very frequent in the 'Newfoundland 
feas, where it is called Scolping : it is alfo as com- 
mon on the coaft of Greenland in deep water near 
ihore. It is a principal food of the natives, and the 
foup made of it is faid to be agreeable as well as 



Clafs IV. 

D O R E E. 


Genus XXIII. Body very deep, and comprefled 
fide ways. 

Very long filaments ifluing from 
the firfb dorfal fin. 
Seven branchioftegous rays. 





XaXxlvg. Athen. lib. vii. 328. 

Oppian Halieuf. T. 1 33. 
Faber ? Ovid Halieut. 110. 

Zeus idem Faber Gadibus. 

Plin. lib. IX. f. 18. 
La Doree. Belon. 146. 
Faber five Gallus marinus. 

Rondel. 328. Gefner pifc. 369. 
A Doree. Wil. Icth. 294. Rail 
Jynpifc. 99. 

Zeus ventre aculeate, Cauda m 
extreme circinato. Arted, 
fynon. 78. 

Zeus Faber. Z. cauda rotun- 
data, lateribus mediis ocello 
fufco, pinnis analibus dua- 
bus. Lin.fyji. 454. Grono'V, 
Zooph. No. 311. 

Zeus fpinofus. Muf. Fred. Ad. 
6j. tab. xxxi. 

SUPERSTITION hath made the Doree rival 
to the Hadock., for the honor of having been the 
fifh out of whole mouth St. Peter took the tribute- 
mony, leaving on its fides thofe inconteftible proofs 
of the identity of the fifh, the marks of his finger 
and thumb. 

It is rather difficult at this time to determine on 
which part to decide the difpute -, for the Doree like- 
wife afferts an origin of its fpots of a fimilar nature, 
but of a much earlier date than the former. St, 


iS2 DOR E E. Oafs IV. 

Chriftopher *, in wading thro' an arm of the fea, hav- 
ing caught a lifh of this kind e7i pajfani, as an eter- 
nal memorial of the fad, left the imprefTions on its 
fides to be tranfmitted to all pofterity. Could this 
but be eftablilhed, we Ihould not hefitate to pro- 
nounce in favor of the hadock. 

In our own country it was very long before this 
filli attracted our notice, at left as an edible one. 
We are indebted to that judicious aftor and hn 
vivant the late Mr. Sluin^ for adding a moft delicious 
filh to our table, who overcorning all the vulgar pre- 
judices on account of its deformity, has effeftually 
eftabliftied its reputation. 
pi«c. This fifli was fuppofed to be found only in the 

fouthern feas of this kingdom, but it has been dif- 
covered laft year on the coaft of Anglefea. Thofe 
of the greateft fize are taken in the Bay of Bifcay 
off the French coafts : they are alio very common 
in the Mediterranean \ Ovid muft therefore have 
ftyled it rarus Faber^ on account of its excellency 
not its fcarcity. 
Defer. The form of this fifli is hideous : its body is oval, 
and greatly comprefTed on the fides : the head large : 
the fnout vaftly projefting : the mouth very wide : 
the teeth very fmall. 

The eyes great : the irides yellow. 

* Belcn. Rondel, alfo Aldrcvand de pifc. 40. St. ChriJIopher wa* 
of a CoJo^/ ftature, as is evident from his image in the church 
of Notre Dame at Paris, and a ftill larger at Auxem : the lalt 
we think is near feventy feet high. His hiftory is exprefTed in 
his name, yo»f o^oaoo", being faid to have carried our Saviour, 
wh«n a child, orer an arm of the Tea. 


ClafslV. E) 6 R E E. 183 

The lateral line oddly diftorted, finking at each 
end, and rifing near the back in the middle : beneath 
it on each fide is a round black fpot. 

The firfl dorfal fin confifiis of ten ftrong fpiny 
rays, with long filaments, reaching far beyond their 
ends : the fecond is placed near the tail, and confifts 
of twenty-four foft rays, the middlemofi; of which 
are the longefb; 

The peroral fins have fourteen rays^ the ventral 
feven -, the firfl: fpiny, the others foft: it has two 
anal fins ; the fiffl: confifts of four fharp fpines, the 
fecond of twenty-two foft ones, and reaches very 
near the tail. 

The tail is round at the end, and confifts of fif- 
teen branched rayS. 

The color of the fides are olive, varied with light 
blue and white, and while living is very relplen- 
dent, and as if gilt, for which reafon it is called 
the Doree. 

The largeft filh we have heard of weighed twelve 

N Genus 

184 H O L I B U T. ClafsIV. 

Genus XXIV. Body quite flat, and very thin. 

Eyes, both on the fame fide the head. 
Branchioftegous rays from four to 
feven. Flounder. 

"With the eyes on the right fide. 
I. The H O L I B U T. 

KIppoglolTus. Rondel. 325. PIeurone£les oculis a dextrls, 

Gefner pij'c. 669. totus glaber. Aried.Jynon. t,i. 

Heglbutte, Hilligbutte. Scho- PlenroneiftesHippogloffus. Z/ZW. 

ne'veUe. 62. Jyft. 456. 

Holibut, Septentr. Anglis Tur- Halg-flundra. Faun.fuec. Ne. 

hot. PVil. Raiijyn, 329. Grono'v. Zooph. No. 

pifc. 33. 247. 

Size. fTT^HIS is the largeft of the genus ; fome have 
• A been taken in our feas weighing from one to 
three hundred pounds ; but much larger are found 
in thofe of Newfoundland^ Greenland^ and Iceland, 
where they are taken with a hook and line in very 
deep water. They are part of the food of the 
Greenlanders *, who cut them into large flips, and 
dry them in the fun. 

They are common in the London markets, where 
|hey are expofed to fale cut into large pieces. They 

? Crantsi. Hiji. CreenL I. 9?. 


ClafsIV. H O I. I B U T. 185 

are very coarfe eating, excepting the part which ad- ' 
heres to the fifle fins, which is extremely fat and de- 
licious, but furfeiting. 

They are the moft voracious of all flat fifh. The 
laft year there v/ere two inftances of their fwallow- 
ing the lead weight at the end of a line, with which 
the feamen were founding the bottom from on board 
a fhip, one off Flamhorough Head-, the other going 
inx.0 Tinmouth Haven: the latter was takcHj the other 
difengaged itfelf. 

The holibut, in refpe6t to its length, is the nar- Defer, 
roweil of any of this genus except the fole. 

It is perfe6lly fmooth, and free from fpines either 
above or below. The color of the UDper part is 
dufky ; beneath of a pure white. We do not count 
the rays of the fins in this genus, not only becaufe 
they "are fo numerous, but becaufe nature hath 
given to each fpecies charafters fufficient to dillin- 
guiih them by. 

Thefe flat filli fwim fideways ; for which reafon, 
Linncsiis hath ftvled them Pkurone^eSo 

N 2 11. The 

1 86 

PI A I S E. 




Paffer Cornuhienjis afperj magno oris hiatu. Mr. J ago. Raiijyn. 
fife. 163. fg, 2. 

Y the figure Mr. Jago has left of this fpecies, 
it bears a great refemblance to the holibut. 
He calls it the Whiffy and fays its mouth is large, 
its fkin hard and rough, its color a dirty alli, and 
its fiefh coarfe and good for nothing. The fkin ap- 
pears to be much fpotted, and the lateral line greatly 
incurvated at the beginning, and afterwards pro- 
ceeding in a ftrait direction to the tail. 

Ill, The P L A I S E. 

PlatefTa ? ■ Aufmili Epiji. ad. 

Theon. 62. 
Le Quarlet. Beloti. 139. 
Quadratulus. RoiM.-^i'i. Gef- 

ner pijc. 665. 
Scholle, Pladife. Schone'velde. 

Plaife. Wil Icih. 96. Rail fyn. 

pifc. 31. 

Pleuroneftes oculis et tubercu- 
lis fex a dextra capitis, late- 
ribus glabris, fpina ad anum. 
Aried, Jynon. 30. 

PJeuronedes PlatefTa. Lin.fyft. 
<^56. GronoHj. Zooph, A'o. 246. 

Skalla, Rodfputta. Faun./itec 
No. 328. 

THESE filh are very common on moft of our 
coafts, and fometimes taken of the weight of 
fifteen pounds ; but they feldom reach that fize, one 
of eight or nine pounds being reckoned a large 


Ciafs IV. FLOUNDER. 187 

The bed and largeft are taken off Rye, on the 
coaft of Suffex, and alfo off the Butch coafts. They 
Ipawn in the beginning of February. 

They are very flat, and much more fquare than 
the preceding. Behind the left eye is a row of fix 
tubercles, that reaches to the commencement of the 
lateral line. 

The upper part of the body and fins is of a clear 
brown, marked with large bright orange-colored 
fpots : the belly is white. 

.'■7/ .^ ,,r^^**S'i 


Le Flez. Belon. 141. 
PafTeris tertia fpecies. Rondel. 

319. Gejner pifc. 666, 670. 
StrufF-butte. iichonenjelde. 62. 
flounder, Fluke, or But. Wil. 

Icth. 980. Rait fyn. pifc. 32. 
Pleuronedes oculis a dextris, 

linea lateral! afpera, fpinalis 

fupinead radices pinnarum, 
dentibus obtufis. Arted.fynon. 


Pleurone£les Fle^us. Lin. Jyjl. 

457. Grono'v. Zooph. No. 243. 
Flundra, Slatt-fkadda. Faun. 

^uec. No. 327. 

THE flounder inhabits every part of the Bri- 
tijh fea, and even frequents our rivers at a 
great diflance from the fait waters ; and for this rear 
ion fome writers call it the Pajfer fiuviatilis. It ne- 
ver grows large in our rivers, but is reckoned fweeter 
than thofe that live in the fea. It is inferior in 
fize to the plaife, for we never heard of any that 
weighed more than fix pounds. 

It may very eaflly be diftinguiflied from the plaife, Defer, 
or any other fifli of this genus, by a row of fliarp 
fmall fpines that furround its upper fides, and are 



1 88 DAB. ClafsIV. 

placed juft at the junction of the fins with the body. 
Another row marks the fide-line, and runs half way 
down the back. 

The color of the upper part of the bddy is a 
pale brown, fometimes marked v/ith a few obfcure 
fpots of dirty yellow : the belly is white. 

We have met with a variety of this fifh with the 
eyes and lateral line on the left fide. Linna?us makes 
a diftincl fpecies of it under the name of Pletironec^ 
tes Pajfer, p. 459 -, but fince it differs in no other 
refpefl from the common kind, we agree with 
Do(flor Gronovius in not feparating them. 

v.. The DAB. 

La Liraande. Behn. 142. anum, dentibus obtufis. Ar-^ 

Pafler afper, five fquamofus. ted.fynon. 33. 

Rondel. 319. Gefner pifc. 665. PJeuronedes Limanda, p]. ocu- 

Dab. Wil. Icth. 97. Raiijyn. lis dextris, fquamis ciliatis, 

pifc. 32. fpinulis ad radicem pinna- 

Pleuronedles oculis a dextra, rum dorfi, aniquc. hin. 

fquamis afperis, fpina ad fyji, 457. 


iHE dab is found with the other fpecies, but is 
lefs common. It is in beft feafon during Fc" 
hruary^ March., and April : they fpawn in May and 
June., and become flabby and watery the reft of the 
fummer. They are fuperior in goodnefs to the plaife 
and flounder, but far inferior in fize, 
Defer. It is generally of an uniform brown color on the 

upper fide, tho' fometimes clouded with a darker. 
The fcales are fmall and rough, which is a charac- 

ClafslV. SMEAR-DAB. 189 

ter of this fpecies. The lateral line is extcemely in- 
curvated at the beginning, then goes quite flrait to 
the tail. The lower part of the body is white. , 

VI. The S M E A R - D A B. 

Rhombus la^vis Cortiuhienfts "J^go- ^aii fyn. pifc, 162. 
jnaculis nigris, a Kit. Mr. fg' ^' 

E found one of this fpecies at a fiihmonger's 
in London laft winter, where it is known by 
the name of the fmear-dab. 

It was a foot and an half long, and eleven inches 
broad between fin and fin on the wideft part. 

The head appeared very frnall, as the dorfal fin 
began very near its mouth, and extended very near 
to the tail. It confifted of feventy nine rays. 

The eyes were pretty near each other. The 
mouth full of fmall teeth. 

The lateral line was much incurvated for the firft 
two inches from its origin, then continued ftrait to 
the tail. 

The back was covered with fmall fmooth fcales, 
was of a light brown color, fpotted obfcurely with 
yellow. The belly white, and marked with five 
large dufky fpots. 

It was a fifh of goodnefs equal to the common 

N 4 VII. The 





Clafs IV, 

VII. The 



BayAwcro-o?. Athen. lih. viii./. 

288. Oppian Halieut. I. 99. 
La Sole. Belon. 142. 
BugloiTus. Rondel. 320. Ge/ner 

fife. 666. 
Tungen. Schcns-velde,6'^. 
Pleuronedles oculis a finirira 

corpore oblongo, maxilla 

fuperiore longiore, fquamjs 
utrinque afperis. Arted.fyn. 

Pleuronedes Solea. Lin. fyjl. 

457. Gronov. Zooph. No. 25 1. 
Tunga, Sola. Faun./uec. No. 


TH E fole is found on all our coafls, but thofe 
on the wellern fhores are much fuperior in fize 
to thofe of the north. On the former they are fome^ 
times taken of the weight of fix or feven pounds, 
but towards Scarborough they rarely exceed one 
pound ; if they reach two, it is extremely uncomr 

They are ufually taken in the trawl-net : they 
keep much at the bottom, and feed on fmall fhell 
^'^ fifh, 

Pefcr. It is of a form much more narrow and oblopg than 
any other of the genus, The irides are yellow ; the 
pupils of a bright fappharine color : the fcales ar$ 
fmall, and very rough : the upper part of the body 
is of a deep brown : the tip of one of the pedoral 
fins black : the under part of the body is white : 
the lateral line ftrait : the tail rounded at the end. 

It is a filh of a very delicate flavor j but the 
fmall foles are much fuperior in goodnefs tp Jarge 


ClafsIV. SMOOTH SOLE. 191 

pnes*. The chief filhery for them is at Blixham^ 
gnd in ^orhay. 


Solea? Ovi4.HaUeut. 124. Wil. Icth. 102., 

i^rnogloflus feu Solea Isevis, 34. 

THIS, as defcribed by Mr. Ray^ (for we have 
not feen it) is extremely thin, pellucid, and 
'Vvhite, and covered with fuch minute fcales, and 
thofe inltantly deci4vious, as to merit the epithet 

It is a fcarce fpecies, but is found in Cornwall^ 
where, from its tranfparency, it is called the Lan- 
tern Fijh. 

It is probable that Ovid intended this fpecies, by 
his Solea -, for the common kind does by no means 
fnerit his defcription, 

fulgenles SoLE^ candore* 

And Soles with white yefplendent. 

* By the antient laws of the Cinque ports, no one was to 
take foles from the ill of No'vember to the 15th of March', nei- 
ther was any body to fifh from fun-fetting to fun-riiing, that 
fhe fifh might enjoy their night-food. 

IX. The 

t^i T U R B O T. ClafslV. 


With the eyes on the left fide. 
IX. The TURBO 'T. 

Rhombus. O'vid. Halieut. Rhombus maximus afper non 

Le Turbot. Belon. 1 34. fquamofus. Raiijyn. pifc. 31. 

Rhombus^ aculeatus. Rondel. Pleuronedles oculis a finiftra, 

310. Gefner pifc. 661. corpore afpero. Arted. fynon. 

Steinbutt, Torbutt, Treen- 32. 

butt, Dornbutt. Schone- Pleuronedes maximus. Lin. 

njelde. 60. Jyji, 459. Grono'u. Zooph, No. 

Turbot. in the jiorth a Bret. 254. 

M^il. Idh. 94. Butta. Faun.fuec. No. 325^ 

Siae. ^TT^ U R B O T S grow to a very large fize ; we have 
i feen them of three and twenty pounds weight, 
but have heard of fome that weighed thirty. They 
are taken chiefly off the north coaft of Engla?id, 
and others off the Dutch coaft •, but we believe the 
laft has, in many inftances, more credit than it de- 
ferves for the abundance of its fifh. 

rifliery. The large turbots, and feveral other kinds of flat 
fifli, are taken by the hook and line, for they lye 
in deep water: the method of taking them in 
wares, or ftaked nets, is too precarious to be de- 
pended on for the fupply of our great markets, be- 
caufe it is by meer accident that the great fifh flray 
into them. 

It is a misfortune to the inhabitants of many of 
our fifliing coafts, efpecially thofe of the north part of 
■North Wales., that they are unacquainted with the 


ClafsIV. T U R B O T, 193 

mofl fuccefsfnl means of capture : for their benefit, 
and perhaps that of other parts of our iiland, we 
fhall lay before them the method praflifed by the 
fifhermenof Scarhorough^ as it was communicated 
to us by Mr. Travis. 

"When they go out to fifh, each perfon is provided 
with three lines. Each man's lines are fairly coiled Lines, 
upon a flat oblong piece of wicker-work •, the hooks 
being baited, and placed very regularly in the centre 
of the coil. Each line is furnifhed with 1 4 fcore of 
hooks, at the diftance of fix feet two inches from 
each other. The hooks are faftened to the lines upon 
fneads of twilled horie-hair, 27 inches in length. 

When fifning there are always three men in each 
coble, and confequently nine of thefe lines are faf. 
tened together, and ufed as one line, extending in 
length near three miles, and furnifhed with 2520 
hooks. An anchor and a buoy are fixed at the £rfl 
end of the line, and one more of each at the end of 
each man's lines -, in all four anchors, which are 
commonly perforated (tones, and four buoys made 
of leather or cork. The line is always laid acrofs 
the current. The tides of flood and ebb continue 
an equal time upon our coaft, and when undiflurbed 
by winds run each way about fix hours. They are 
fo rapid that the fifhermen can only Ihoot and haul 
their lines at the turn of tide ; and therefore the 
lines always remain upon the ground about fix hours*. 
The fame rapidity of tide prevents their ufmg hand- 

* In this fpace the myxine gluttnofa oi hinnceus, will frequently 
penetrate the fiih that are on the hooks, and entirely devour 
jhcm, leaving only the fkin and bones. 

lines i 

194 T U R B O T. Ciafs IV. 

lines; and therefose two of the people commonly 
wrap themlelves in the fail, and deep while the other 
keeps a ftrift look-out, for fear of being run down 
by fliips, and to obferve the weather. For ftorms 
often rife fo fuddenly, that it is with extreme dijfh- 
culty they can fometimes efcape to the Ihore, leav- 
ing their lines behind. 
Coble. The coble is 20 feet 6 inches long, and 5 feet ex- 

treme breadth. It is about one ton burthen, rowed 
with three pair of oars, and admirably conftruded 
for the purpofe of encountering a mountanous fea : 
they hoift fail when the wind fuits. 

The five-m.en boat is 40 feet long and 15 broad, 
and of 25 tons burthen : it is fo called, tho' navigated 
by fijc men and a boy, becaufe one of the men is 
commonly hired to cook, &c. and does not lliare in 
the profits with the other five. All our able fifher- 
men go in thefe boats to the herring fifliery at Tar- 
mouth the latter end of September^ and return about 
the middle of November. The boats are then laid 
up until the beginning of Lent^ at which time they 
go off in them to the edge of the Dogger^ and other 
places, to fifh for turbot, cod, ling, ilcates, &c. 
They always take two cobles on board, and when 
they come upon their ground, anchor thf^ boat, throw 
out the cobles, and filh in the fame manner as thofe 
do who go from the lliore in a coble, with this dif- 
ference only ; that here each man is provided witli 
double the quantity of lines, and inftead of v/ait- 
ing the return of tide in the coble, return to the 
boat and bait their other lines ; thus hawling one 
fet, and Ihooting another every turn of tide. They 


ClafslV. T U R B O T. 195 

commonly run into harbour twice a week to deliver 
their filh. The five-men boat is decked at each end, 
but open in the middle, and has two large lug-fails. 

The bell bait for ail kinds of fiili is frefh herring Bait, 
cut in pieces of a proper fize ; and notwithftanding 
what has been faid to the contrary, they are taken 
here at any time in the winter, and all the fpring, 
whenever the iifhermen put dov/n their nets for that 
purpofe. The five-men boats always take fome nets 
for that end. Next to herrings are the lefler lam- 
preys*, which come ail winter by land-carriage from 
Tadcajier. The next baits in efteem are fmall ha- 
docks cut in pieces, fand worms, mufcles, and lim- 
pets (called here Flidders;) and laftly, when none 
of thefe can be had they ufe bullock's liver. The 
hooks ufed here are much fmaller than thofe em- 
ployed at Iceland and Newfoundland. Experience 
has fhewn that the laro;er fifh will take a livinp- 
fmall one upon the hook, fooner than any bait that 
can be put on ; therefore they ufe fuch as the fmall 
filh can fwallow. The hooks are two inches and 
an half long in the fhank, and near an inch wide 
between the Ihank and the point. The line is made 
of fmall cording, and is always tanned before it is 

Turbots, and all the rays, are extremely delicate 
in their choice of baits. If a piece of herring or 
hadock has been twelve hours ouc.of the fea, and 
then ufed as bait, they will not touch it. 

* The Dutch alfo ufe thefe filh as baits In the turbot filhery, 
and purchafe annually from the Thames filherinen as much as 
amounis to 700/. worth, for that purpofe. 


196 PEARL. ClafsIV. 

Defer. This and the pearl are of a remarkable fauare 

form : the color of the upper part of the body is cine- 
reous, marked with numbers of black fpots of dif- 
ferent fizes : the belly is white : the ik'm is without 
fcales, J)ut greatly v/rinkled, and mixed with fmall 
fhort fpinesj" difperfed without any order. -^-/^-^ .4'Cfr^' 

X. The P , E A R L. 

La Barbue. Belon. 137. Pleuroneftes oculis a finiftris. 

Rhombus Isvis. Rondel. 312, corpora glabro. Arted. fyn. 

GeJ tier fife. 662. 3 I. 

Schlichtbutt. Schcmvelde. 60. Pleuroneftes Rhombus. Lin. 

Rhombus non aculeatus fqua- fyjl. 458. Grono^u. Zoofh.No. 

mofus the Pearl. Londinens. 249- 

Cornub. Lug-aleaf. Wil. Icth. Pigghvarf. It ix-goth. 178, 

95. Rail Jy n. fife. l\. 

IT is frequently found in the London markets, but 
is inferior to the turbot in goodnefs as well as 

The irides are yellow : the fkin is covered with 
fmall fcales, but is quite free from any fpines or in- 

The upper fide of the body is of a deep brown, 
marked with fpots of dirty yellow : the under fide 
is of a pure white. 


Clafs IV. 

G I L T-H E A D. 


Genus XXV. Covers of the gills fcaly. 
Five branchioftegous rays. 
Fore teeth fharp. 
Grinders flat. 
One dor{al fin, reaching the whole 

length of the back. 
Forked tail. 


I. The G I L T - H E A D. 

'^^va-oip^vg. Oppian Halieut. 

I. 169. 
Chryfophrys. Ovid. Halieut. lii. 
Aurata Plinii. lib. ix. c. 16. 
La Dorade. Belon. 186. Chry- 

fophry Caii opus. iiz. 
Aurata. Rondel. 115. GeJ'ner 

pifc. 1 10. 112. 

Gilt-head or Gilt-poll. Wil. 

Icth. 307. Rati fyn. pijc. 

Sparus dorfo acutiffimo, linei 

arcuata inter oculos. Arttd. 

jynon. 63. 
Sparus lunula aurea inter 

oculos. Lin. fyji. 467. 

GronoHJ. Zooph. No, 220. 

THIS is one of the pifces faxatiles, or fifh that 
haunt deep waters on bold rocky Ihores : thofe 
that form this genus, as well as the following, feed 
chiefly on fhell fifh, which they comminute with their 
teeth before they fw allow ; the teeth of this genus in 
particular being extremely v/ell adapted for that pur- 
pofe, the grinders being fiat and ftrong, like thofe of 
certain quadrupeds : befides thofe are certain bones 
in the lower part of themouth, which afTiIt in grind- 
ing their food. 


I92>' G I L T-H E A D. Clafs lY. 

They are but a coarfe fifh ; nor did the Romans 
hold them in any efteem, except they had fed on 
the Lucrine oyfter. 

Non omnis laudem preiiumque Aurata mereiur, 
Sed cui folus erit concha Lucrina cibus *. 

No pralfe, no price a Gilt-head t'cr will take. 
Unfed with oyfters of the Lucrine lake. 

Defer. ■ They grow to the weight of ten pounds : the form 
of the body is deep, not unhke that of a bream : 
the back is very iharp and of a dufky green color : 
the irides of a filvery hue : between the eyes is a 
femilunar gold color'd fpot, the horns of which 
point towards the head : on the upper part of the 
gills is a black fpot, beneath that another of purple. 

The dorfal fin extends almoft the whole length 
of the back, and confifts of twenty-four rays, the 
eleven firft fpiny, the others foft : the pedoral fins 
confift of feventeen foft rays •, the ventral of fix 
rays, the firft of which is very ftrong and fpiny : 
the anal fin of fourteen -, the three firft fpiny. 

The tail is much forked. 

It takes its name from its predominant color ; that 
of the forehead and fides being as if gilt, but the 
laft is tinged with brown. 

* Martial, lib. xiii. ep. qos 


II, The 

Clafs IV. S E A B R E A M. 199 

II. The S E A B R E A M. 

Pagur ? Ovid. Halieut. 107. Sparus rubefcens, cute ad ra- 

Le Pagrus. Belon. 245. dicem pinnarm dorfi et ani 

Pagrus. Rondel. 142. Gefner. in finum produfta. Arted, 

pifc 656. fynon, 64. 

Sea Bream. Wil. Icth. 312. Sparus Pagrus. Lyn.JyJi, /ifi<^. 

Raiijyn, pifc. 131. 

THIS fpecies grows to a fize equal with that of Defer, 
the former : its fhape and the figure of the 
teeth are much the fame. 

The irides are filvery : the iniide of the covers of 
the gills, the mouth, and the tongue, are of a fine 

At the bafe of the pectoral fins is a ferruginous 

What is peculiar to this fpecies is, that the Ikin 
at the end of the dorfal and anal fins is gathered up, 
and hides the laft rays. 

The fcales are large : the tail forked. 

The color of the whole body is red. ^^^j^^^ 

'^^■"^^ '^"*/'' -^-^"f;:^ .-y'.^..^ -f-'x,;- >'^^^V^^ 

•^/ >V • yVl ' ^ III. The 


Erama marina cauda forcipata D. JcnJIon, Raz'i fyn^ fife, i ir. 

THIS fpecies was communicated to Mr. Ray 
by his friend Mr. Jonfion, a Torkjhire gentle- 
man, who informed him it was found on the fands 
near the mouth of the Tees^ Sept. i8, 1681. 

It was a deep fiih, formed like a roch, twenty- 
fix inches long, ten broad, and grew very flender to- 
wards the tail. 

The eyes large, like thofe of quadrupeds. In 
the lower jaw were two rows of teeth, in the upper 
a fmgle row of fmiall ones. The aperture of the gills 
very large, and like thofe of a falmon : the body 

In the middle of the back was one f n extending 
almoft to the tail ; behind the vent another. 

The back black : the fides of a brio;hter color 2 
the belly quite of a filvery brightnefs. 


Clafs IV. O P A H. 


Genus XXVI. Deep body. 

Very minute fcales. 

Setaceous teeth on the tongue only. 

One long dorfal fin. Opah. 

I. The OPAH. 

Opah, or KIrg-Flfh, Pkil. I'ranf. Ahridg. vol. xi, 'ijg. tab. v. 

E have only four inftances of this fiih being 
taken in our feas, each of them in the 
Norths viz. twice off Scotland*., once o?£ Northum- 
herland, and once in Filey-Bay., Torkjhire. This laft 
was caught about two years ago, and exhibited as 
a ihew at Scarborough. 

It is of that genus which Linn^us diftinguiflies by 
the name of Chatodon, from its briftly teeth, and 
is faid to be very common on the coaft of Guinea. 

It is well defcribed by an anonymous writer in 
the London Magazine for Otfoher., 1767, which we 
fhall borrow, as the account is confirmed to us by Mr. 
T'ravis, who had an opportunity of examining one 
of the fame fpecies. 

Ne'wcafile., Sept. 12. On Saturday lafl was thrown 
upon the fands at Blyth^ a very rare and beautiful 
fifh, weighing between feventy and eighty pounds**, 

* The fifh engraved by Sir Rohert Sihbald, Hijl. Scot. tab. 6, 
and thus defcribed, is of this kind. Pi/cis fnaciilis aureis afper- 
Jus not! fcrjpius, pollices 42 longus. 

** That defcribed in the Pbilo/ophical Tranfa^mis weighed 
eighty-two pounds, 

O a Ihaped 

202 O P A H. Clafs IV. 

fliaped like the fea bream. The length was three 
feet and an half-, the breadth from back to belly 
almoft two feet •, but the thicknefs from fide to fide 
not above fix inches. 

The mouth fmall for the fize of the fifh, forming 
a fquare opening, and without any teeth in the 
jaws. The tongue thick, reiembiing that of a man, 
but rough and thick fet with beards or prickles, 
pointing backwards, fo that any thing might eafily 
pafs down, but could not eafily return back, there- 
fore thefe might ferve inftead of teeth to retain its 
prey *. The eyes remarkably large, covered with a 
membrane, and Ihining with a glare of gold. The 
cover of the gills like the falmon, 

The body diminifhes very fmall to the tail, which 
is forked, and expands twelve inches : tjie gill fins 
are broad, about eight inches long, and play hori- 
zontally : a little behind their inicrtion the back fin 
takes its original, where it is about feven inche.? 
high, but Hopes away very fuddenly, running down 
very near the tail, and at its termination becomes ^ 
little broader : the belly fins are very ftrong, and 
placed near the middle of the body : a narrow fin 
alfo runs from the anus to the tail. 

All the fins, and alfo the tail, are of a fine fcarletj 
but the colours and beauty of the rell of the body, 
which is fmooth and covered with almoil impercep- 
ticle fcales, beggars all defcription ; the upper part 
being a kind of bright green, variegated with whi- 

* The writer omitted the defcription of the toro-ue and its 
fetaceous teeth, which we fupply from the Tranfaa^m. 


ClafslV. WRASSE. 203 

tifh fpots, and enriched witli a fhining golden hue, 
much refembling the fplendor of the peacock's fea- 
thers •, this by degrees vaniOies in a bright fdver j 
and near the belly the gold begins again to predomi- 
nate in a lighter ground than on the back. 

Genus XXVII. Covers of the gills fcaly. 

Branchioftegous rays unequal in 

number *. 

Teeth conic, long and blunt at their 

ends. One tuberculated bone in the 

bottom of the throat : two above 

oppofite to the other. 

One dorfal fin reaching the whole 

length of the back : a Qender fkin 

extending beyond theendof each ray. 

Rounded tail. Wrasse. 

1. The W^R A S ,S E. 

Vieille, Poule de mer, Gallot, Wraffe, or Old Wife. Raii/jn, 

une Rofle. Belon. 248. pijc. 136. 

Turdorum undecimum genus. Labrus roftro furfum reflexo 

Rondel. 179- Gefner pifc. 1019. cauda in extreme circulari. 

Turdusvulgatiflimus. IViUIcth. Arted.fimn. 56. 

319. Labrus Tinea. Lin.JyJi. j^jj. 

THIS fpecies is found in deep wilier adjacent 
to the rocks. It will take a bait, tho* its 
ufual food is fhell-fifli, and fmall cruftacea. 

* Linmeus fays fix : this fpecies had only four ; the fecond, 
fix ', the third and fourth, five. We alfo find the fame variation 
in the rays of the fins, the numbers being d liferent in fiih of 
the fame fpecies, not only of this but of QXhj^r genera. 

O 3 It 

204 WRASSE. Clafs IV. 

It grows to the weight of four or five pounds : 
it bears fome refemblance to a carp in the form of 
the body, and is covered with large fcales. 

The nofe projeds -, the lips are large and fle(hy, 
and the one turns up, the other hangs down : the 
mouth is capable of being drawn in or protruded. 
Teeth. The irides are red : the teeth are difpofed in two 
rows ; the firft are conic, the fecpnd very minute, 
and as if fupporters to the others ~ in the throat juft 
before the gullet are three bones, two above of an 
oblong form, and one below of a triangular Ihape ; 
the furface of each rifmg into roundiili protube- 
rances : thefe are of fmgular ufe to the fifh, to 
grind its fhelly food before it arrives at the fto- 

The dorfal fin confifts of fixteen fharp and fpiny 
rays, and nine foft ones, which are much longer 
than the others. 

The pe61:oral fins large and round, and are com- 
pofed of fifteen rays, 

The ventral of fix ; the firfl Iharp and fi:rong : 
the anal of three fharp fpines, and nine flexible. 

The tail is rounded at the end, and is formed of 
fourteen foft branching rays. 

The lateral line much incurvated near the tail. 

Thefe fifh vary infinitely in color : we have fecn 
them of a dirty red, mixed with a certain duficinefs •, 




others mofl beautifully ftriped, efpecially about the 
head, with the richeft colors, fuch as blue, red, and 
yellow. Mofl of this genus are fubjeft to vary ; 
therefore care muft be taken not to multiply the 
Ipecies from thefe accidental teints, but to attend to 
the form which never alters. 

The PFelch call this fifh Gwrach^ or the old wo- Name. 
man ^ the French^ la Vieille -, and the Englijh give it 
the name of Old Wife. Why they all agree in thefe 
fynonyms it is difficult to affign a reafon, except one 
too ill-bred and malignant to pollute our page. 


Labrus bimaculata. L. pinna ad caudam. Lin. Jyfi. ^jj. 
dorlali ramentacea, macula Sci^ina bimaculata. Mus. Jd. 
fufca ia latere medio, et Fred. 1.66. tab. ^^ixx.fg. 66. 

' R. Brunnich obferved this Ipecies at Penzance, 
and referred me to Linn^us's defcription of it 
in the Mufeum Ad. Fred, where it is defcribed vmder 
the name of Sciana Bimaculata. 

The body is pretty deep, and of a light color, Defer, 
marked in the middle on each fide with a round 
brown fpot \ on the upper part of the bafe of the 
tail is another : the lateral line is incurvated. 

The branchioftegous rays are fix in number * : the 
firfi; fifteen rays of die dorfal fin are fpiny ; the other 
eleven foft, and lengthened by a feinny appendage : 
the pedoral fins confift of fifteen rays \ the ventral 

* Linnesust in his laft edition, has removed this fpecies from 
the genus of Scicena, to that of Labrus, tho' it does not agree 
with the iall in /^/V number of branchioftegous rays. 

P 4 - of 


of fix ; the firft fpiny -, the fecond and third ending 
in a (lender briltle : the anal fin is pointed ; the four 
firft rays being fhort and fpiny j the reft long and 


THE fpecies we examined was taken on the 
coaft of Anglefea j its length was eight inches. 

It was of an oblong form ; the hofe long ; the 
teeth flender ; the fore teeth much longer than the 

The eyes large : branchioftegous rays, five. 

The back fin confifted of feventeen fpiny rays, and 
thirteen foft ones -, beyond each extended a long 

The pectoral fins were round, and confifted of 
fifteen branched rays. 

The ventral fins confifted of fix rays ; the firft 

The anal fin of twelve ; the three firft fiiort, [very 
ftrong, and fpiny •, the others foft and branched. 

The tail was rounded. 

The lateral line was ftrait at the beginning of the 
back, but o-rew incurvated towards the tail. 

The body covered with large red fcales ; the covers 
of the gills with fmall ones. 

On each fide of the lower part of the back fin 
were two large fpots, and between the fin and the 
tail another. 

IV. Th« 



TFIl S was taken off the Shrry Jjles^ on the coaft 
of Anglefea ; its length was ten inches. 

The form was oblong, but the beginning of the Ddi:«, 
back a little arched: the lips large, double, and 
much turned up : the teeth like thofe of the pre- 
ceding : branchioftegous rays, five. 

The number of rays in the back, perioral, and 
ventral fins, the fame as in thofe of the former. 

In the anal fin were fifteen rays ; the three firfl: 
ilrong and fpiny. 

The tail aimoft even at the end, being very little 
rounded : tho. covers of the gills cinereous, ftriped 
with fine yellow. 

The fides marked with four parallel lines of green- c<iioT, 
ifh olive, and the fame of moft elegant blue. 

The back and belly red ; but the lafl: of a much 
paler hue, and under the throat almofl yellow. 

Along the beginning of the back fin was a broad 
bed of rich blue ; the middle part white j the reit 

At the bafe of the pedoral fi«s was a dark olive 

The ends of the anal fin, and ventral fini, a fine 

The upper half of the tail blue ; the Ipwer part . 
of its rays yellov/. 

V. Tac 



V. The G I B B O U S W R A S S E. 

THIS fpecies was taken off Anglefea : its length 
was eight inches; the greatcft depth three: 
it was of a very deep and elevated form, the back 
being vaflly arched, and very fharp or ridged. 

From the beginning of the head to the" nofe, was 
a lleep declivity. 

The teeth like thofe of the others. 
The eyes of a middling fize ; above each a dull<y 
femiliinar fpot. 

The nearell cover of the gills finely ferrated. 
The fixteen firll rays of the back ftrong and 
ipiny •, the other nine foft and branched. 

The perioral fins confifted of thirteen, the ven- 
tral of fix rays -, the firfl ray of the ventral fin was 
flrong and fharp. 

The anal fin confifted of fourteen rays, of which 
the three firft were ftrongly aculeated. 

The tail was large, rounded at the end, and the 
rays branched •, the ends of the rays extending be- 
yond the webs. 

The lateral line was incurvated tcv/ards the tail. 
The gill covers and body covered with large fcales. 
The firft were moft elegantly fpottedj and ftriped 
with blue and orange, and the fides fpotted in the 
fame manner ; but neareft the back the orange was 
difpofed in ftripes : the back fin and anal fin were of 
a fea green, fpotted with black. 


Clafs IV. GO L 13 S I N N'Y. 209 

The ventral fins and tail a fine pea green. 
The pedoral fins yellovv, marked at their bafe 
with tranfverfe flripes of red. 

VI. The G O L D S I N N Y. 

Goldfinny Cornulienfaim. Mr. J ago. Rait fyn. fife, 'y^l' fig. "^^ 



THIS and the two following fpecies were dif- 
covered by Mr. Jago on the coaft of Corn- 
tvall: we never had an opportunity of examining 
them, therefore are obliged to have recoiirfe to his 
defcriptions, retaining their local names. 

In the whole form of the body, lips, teeth, and 
fins, it refembles the Wraffe : it is faid never to ex- 
ceed a palm in length : near the tail is a remarkable 
black fpot : the firft rays of the dorfal fin are tinged 
with black. 

,The Melanurus of Rondeletius (adds he) takes its 
name from the black fpot near the tail j but in many 
inftances it differs widely from this fpecies, the tail of 
the firft is forked, that of the Ccldjinny is even at 
the end. 

Vn. Tlie 

210 C O O K. ClafsPv^ 


Comber CorTiuh. Rail fyn. fife. \6t,. Jig. 5. 

THE comber is a fmall fcaly fifli, with the fldn 
of a vermilion color. By the figure it is of 
an oblong form, and the tail rounded. 


Cook {i. e» coquus) Cornuhienjium. Rali fyn. fife. 163. _/^. 4. 

THIS fpecies, Mr. J ago fays, is fometimes taken 
in great plenty on the CornifJj coafts. It is a 
fcaly Ml, and does not grow to any great fize. The 
back is purple and dark blue ; the belly yellow. By 
the figure it feems of the fame fhape as the comber, 
and the tail rounded. 

Befides thefe fpecies we recoiled: feeing taken at 
the Giants Caufeway in Ireland., a moft beautiful kind 
of a vivid green, fpotted with fcarlet-, and others 
at Bandocran., in the county of Sligo., of a pale green. 
We were at that time inattentive to this branch of 
natural hiflory, and can only fay they were of » 
fpecies we have never fince feen. 


ClafsIV. PERCH. an 

Genus XXVIIL The edges of the gill-covers 

Seven branchioftegous rays. 
Body covered with rough fcales. 
Firll dorfal fin fpiny i the fecond 
foft *, Perch. 

1. The P E R C H. 

Tli^y.n ArtJi.Uijl, an. lib. \i. Perca lineis utrinque fex tranf- 
c. 14. verfis nigris, pinnis ventra- 

Perca Jufonii Mofella. 1 1^. libus rubrjs. Jrted.JynoTi.66. 

Une Perche de riviere. Bekn, Perca fluviatilis. P. pinnis dor- 
291. falibus diftindis, lecundara- 

Percafluviatilis. ^o«fl'^/. T^a-y/a/. diis fedecim. Lin,fyfi.\%\<t 

196. Ge/ner. pifc. 698. Grono'v. Zooph. No. 30 1. 

Ein Barfs. Schoneuelde. 55. Abborre. Faun./uec, No. 332. 

A Perch. Wil. Icth. 2C)\. Rait Perfchling, Barfchieger. ^r«z», 
J)n. pi/c. gj. 384. Wulff Borufs, No. zy. 

THE perch of Arijiotle and Aufonius is the 
fame with that of the moderns. That men- 
tioned by Oppian^ Pliny., and Athen^eus **, is a fea- 
filTi probably of the Lahrus or Sparus kind, being 
enumerated by them among fome congenerous fpe- 
cies. Our perch was rnych efteemed by the Ro^ 
fnans : 

Nee te delicias men/arum Perca, Jtleho 

jinini^enos inter pifces dignande marinis. AusONius. 

* The Ruffe is an exception, having only one dorfal iin, but 
the fourteen firft rays of it are fpiny. 

"^"^Oppian Halieui. J, 1 24. Flinii lib.ix.c, 16, Jibenauff 
fibtVii. p. ^ig, 


2.12 PERCH. ClaisIV. 

It is not lefs admired at prefent as a firm and de- 
licate fiili ; and the Dutch are particularly fond of 
it when made into a difh called Water Souchy. 

It is a gregarious fifn, and loves deep holes and 
gentle ftreams. It is a moil voracious fifh, and eager 
biter : if the angler meets with a fnoal of them, he 
is fure of taking every one. 

It is a common notion that the pike will not at- 
tack this fifh, being fearful of the fpiny fins which 
the perch ere6ls on the approach of the former. This 
may be true in refpedt to large fifh -, but it is well 
known the fmail ones are the moil: tempting bait 
that can be laid for the pike. 

The perch is a fiili very tenacious of life : we 
have known them carried near fixty miles in dry 
ftraw, and yet furvive the journey. 
Size, Thefe fifh feldom grov/ to a large fize : we once 

heard of one that was taken in the Serpentine river, 
Hyde-Park, that weighed nine pounds, but that is 
very uncommon. 
Defer. The body is deep : the fcales very roagh : the 
back much arched. 

The irides golden : the teeth fmall, difpofed in 
the jaws and on the roof of the mouth : the edges 
of the covers of the gills ferrated : on the lower end 
of the largeft is a fliarp fpine. 

The firft dorfal fin confifls of fourteen ftrong 
fpiny rays •, the fecond of fixteen foft ones : the pec- 
toral fins are tranfparent, and confiil of fourteen 
rays •, the ventral of fix •, the anal of eleven. 
The tail is a little forked. 


CiafsIV. BASSE."' 213 

The colors are beautiful : the back and part of Coiof* 
the fides being of a deep green, marked with five 
broad black bars pointing downwards : the belly is 
white, tinged with red : the ventral fins of a rich 
fear let -, the anal fins and tail of the fame color, but 
rather paler. j 

In a lake called Llyn.^Kaithlyn^ in Merionethjhire, Crooked 
is a very fingular variety of perch : the back is quite 
hunched, and the lower part of the back bone, 
next the tail, ftrangely diftorted : in color, and in 
other refpedls, it refembles the common kind, which 
are as numerous in the lake as thefe deformed filh. 
They are not peculiar to this water, for Linnaeus takes 
notice of a fimilar variety found at Fahlun, in his 
own country. 

11. The BASSE. 

Ad^&l ? Jrift. Eiji, an. lib. ^ BafTe. Wtl Icth. z-j\. Rait 

iv. c. 10. &c. fyn.pifc. S3. 

Lup'js ? 0-vid. Halleut. 112. Perca radiis pinna; dorfalis fe- 
Le Bar, le Soup. Belon. 113. cunda; tredecim, ani quatu- 

Lupus. Rondel. 26%. Gefnerpifc. ordecim. Jrted. fynon. 6g. 

(J06. Perca Labrax. Lin. fyji. 482. 

GronoHj. Zooph. No. 300. 

THE bafie is a ftrong, adive, and voracious 
fifh : Ovid calls them rapidi lupi., a name con- 
tinued to them by after- writers. 

That which we had an opportunity of examining 
was fmall ; but they are faid to grow to the weight 
of fifteen pounds, 


214 BASSE. ClafsIV. 

The irides are filvery : the mouth large : the 
teeth are fituated in the jaws, and are very fmall : in 
the roof of the mouth is a triangular rough fpace, 
and juft at the gullet are two others of a roundilh 

The fcales are of a middling fize, are very thick 
(ct^ and adhere clofely. 

The firft dorfal fin has nine ftrong fpiny rays, of 
which the firft is the fhorteft, the middlemoft the 
higheft ; the fecond dorfal fin confifts of thirteen 
rays, the firft fpiny, the others foft. 

The peftoral fins have fifteen foft rays ; the ven-. 
tral fix rays, the firft fpiny : the anal fourten rays, 
the three firft fpiny, the others foft : the tail is a lit- 
tle forked. 

The body is formed fomewhat like that of a fal- 

The color of the back is dufky, tinged with 

The belly white. In young fifti the fpace abovq^ 
the fide line is marked with fmall black Ipots. 

It is efteemed a very delicate fifti. 

III. The 

Clafs IV. 



HI. The R U 


Gernua. Belon. 186. 

PercEc fiuviatilis genus minus. 

Gefner pifc. 70I. 
A^'pvcio Caii opufc. 107. 
Ein ftuer, ftuerbarfs. Schone- 

•velde. 56. 
Cernua fiuviatilis. Wil. Icth. 

RutFe. Rait fyn. pifc, 143. 
Perca dorfo monopterygio, ca- 

pitecavernofo. Arted.fyn.d'i, 

Perca cernua. P. pinnls dorfa- 
libus unitis radiisay. fpinis 
15. Cauda bifida. Lin. jyji. 
487. Grono^.Zooph. No. 

Giers, Snorgers. Faun. fuec. 
No. 119. 

Schroll, PfafFenlaus. Schaeff, 
pifc, 37. fab. ii. Wulf Boru/sk 
No. 35, 

THIS fifli is found in feveral of the Engti/h 
flreams : it is gregarious, aflembling in large 
flioals, and keeping in the deepefl: part of the water. 

It is of a much more (lender form than the 
perch, and feldom exceeds fix inches in length. 

The teeth are very fmall, and difpofed in rows. 

It has only one dorfal fin extending along the 
greateft part of the back : the firft rays like thofe 
of the perch are ftrong, fharp, and fpiny j the 
others foft. 

The pe6toral fins confifl of fifteen raysj the 
ventral of fix; the anal of eight; the two firft 
ilrong and fpiny : the tail a little bifurcated. 

The body is covered with rough compa6l fcales. 

The back and fides are of a dirty green, the lad 
inclining to yellow, but both fpotted with black. 

The dorfal fin is fpotted with black : the tail 
marked with tranfverfe bars. 

IV. The 

2i6 BLACK RUFFE. Clafs It^ 


The Black Fifh. Mr. Jago. Borlafe Corn-walL 271, tab.xxy. 

R. Jdgo has left fo l^rief a defcription of this 
fifh, that we find difficulty in giving it a 
proper clafs : it agrees with the Ruffe in the form 
of the body, and the fmallnefs of the teeth, in 
havino; a fino-le extenfive fin on the back, a forked 
tail, and being of that feftion of bony fifh, termed 
Thorndc : thefe appear by the figure, the teeth ex- 
cepted. The other characters mull be borrowed 
from the defcription. 

" It is fmooth, with very fmall thin fcales, fifteen 
" inches long, three quarters of an inch broad ; 
" head and nofe like a peal or trout -, little mouth ; 
" very fmall teeth, beginning from the nofe four 
" inches and three quarters, near fix inches long ; 
" a forked tail ; a large double noftril. Two taken 
*' at Loo^ May 26, 1721, in the Sean^ near the 
'* ihore, in fandy ground with fmall ore weed.'* 



Genus XXIX. Three branchioftegous rays. 

The belly covered with bony 


One dorfal fin, with feveral fharp 

fpines betv/een it and the head. 



La Grande EfpinochCjUn Epi- Gafterofleus aculeis in dorfo 

nard, une Artiere. Belon- tribus. Arted. fynon. 80. 

328. Gaiterofteus aculeatus. Lin.fyji. 

Pifciculi aculeati prius genus 489 Gronov.Zooph. No. ^06, 

Rondel. Jiuwat. 206. Gefner Spigg, Horn-filk. Faun, fuec. 

pifc, 8. No. 336. 

Stickleblack, Banftickic, or Stichling, Stachel-iifch. WhIJI 

Sharpling. JVil. Ictb. 341. Borufs.No. ^'j, 

Raiijyn.pifc. 1 45. 

THESE are common in many of our rivers, 
but no where in greater quantities than in 
the Feyis of Lincolnjhire., and fome of the rivers that 
creep out of them. At Spalding there are, once in 
feven or eight years, amazing fhoals that appear in 
the Wetland^ and come up the river in form of a 
vaft column. They are fuppofed to be the multitudes 
that have been waflied out of the fens by the floods 
of feveral years, and coilefted in fome deep hole,, 
'till overcharged with numbers, they are periodically 
obliged to attempt a change of place. The quan- 
tity is fo great, that they are ufed to manure the 
^and, and trials have been made to get oil from 
P a them. 



them. A notion may be had of this vaft fhoal, 
by faying that a man employed by the farmer to 
take them, has got for a confiderable time four fhil- 
lings a day by felling them at a halfpenny per 

This fpecies feldom reaches the length of two 
inches : the eyes are large : the belly prominent : 
the body near the tail fquare : the fides are covered 
with large bony plates, placed tranfverfely. 

On the back are three fharp fpines, that can be^ 
raifed or depreffed at pleafure : the dorfal fin is 
placed near the tail : the pedoral fins are broad : 
the ventral fins confift each of one fpine, or rather 
plate, of unequal lengths, one being large, the other 
fmall •, between both is a flat bony plate, reaching 
almofl to the vent : beneath the vent is a fhort 
fpine, and then fucceeds the anal fin. 

The tail confills of twelve rays, and is even at 
the end. 

The color of the back and fides is an olive green- 
the belly white ; but in fome the lower jaws and 
belly are of. a bright crimfon.. 

II. The 

Clafs IV. TEN* SPINED S. BACK. 219 

II. The T E N S P I N E D S. B A C K. 

La petite Efpinoche. Belon. Gafterolleus aculeis in dorfo 

328.^ decern. Arted. fymn. %o. 

Pifciculi aculeati alterum ge- Gafterolleus pungitius. Lin. 

nus. Rondel. Jiu-viat. 206. /yji. ^g\, Grono'v. Zooph. No. 

Ge/nerpi/c. 8. 405* 

heSev Stickleback. Wil. Icth. Benunge, Gaddfur, Gorquad* 

342. Raii/yn.pi/c. 145. Faun./uec, No. 337. 

THIS fpecies is much fmaller than the former, 
and of a more llender make. 

The back is armed with ten fliort Iharp fpines, 
which do not incHne the fame way, but crofs each 

The fides are fmooth, not plated like thofe of 
the preceding : in other particulars it refembles the 

The color of the back is olive : the belly fil- 

P 3 III. The 



Aculeatus, five Pungitius ma- Gafterofleus aculeis in dorfo 
rinus longus, Stein-bicker, qaindecim. Arted. Jynvn, 

Ersfkruper. Schonenjelde. lo. 
iab. iv. Sib. Sat. iii. 24. tab. 

Aculeatus marinus major. PFil. 
Icth.Tj\o. App.zi' Raiijyn. 
fife. 145. 


Gallerolleus fpinachia. Lin. 
Jyji^ 492. Grono'v. Zooph, 
No. 407. FauK. Jucc. Ne. 

THIS fpecies inhabits the fea, and is never 
found in frelli water. 

Its length is above fix inches : the nofe is long 
and (lender : the mouth tubular : teeth fmall. 

The fore part of the body is covered on each 
fide with a row of bony plates, forming a ridge •, 
the body afterwards grows very (lender, and is 

Between the head and the dorfal fin are fifteen 
fmall fpines : the dorfal fin is placed oppofite the 
anal fin : the ventral fins are wanting. 

The tail is even at the end. 

The color of the upper part is a deep brov/n : the 
belly white. 


ClafsIV. M A C K R E L. 


Genus XXX. Seven branchloflegous rays. 

Several fmall fins between the dorfal 
fin and the tail. Mackrel. 

I. The M A C K R E L. 

ZKOfx^^o;. Jriji. Hlft. a?z. lib. 

vi. c. 17. ix. c. 2, Athemeus. 

lib. iii. 121. vii. 321. O/- 

pian Halieut. I. 142. 
Scomber, O-vid. Halieut. 94. 

Plinii lib. ix. <:. 1 5, xxxi. c. 8. 
Macarello, Scombro. Salvian. 

241 *. 
Le Macreau. Belo7u 197. 
Scomber, Rondel. 233. Cefner 

pifc. 841. (pro 86 1.) 

Makerel. SchoneveUe. 66. 
Mackrell, or Macarel. Wil. . 

Icth. 181. Raiijyn. pifc. 58. 
Scomber pinnulls qtiinque in 

extremo dorfo, polypterygio, 

aculeo brevi ad anum. Ar» 

led. fynon. 48. 
Scomber Scomber. Z/«. fyft. 

492. Gronou. 7jOoph.No.'^o\. 
Mackrill. Faun.fnec.No.'},^^, 

THE mackrel is a fi.immer filli of palTage that 
vifits our Iliores in vaft Ihoals. It is lefs ufe* 
ful than other fpecies of gregarious fifli, being very 
tender, and unfit for carriage ; not but that it may- 
be preferved by pickling and faking, a method, we 
believe, pradlifed only in Cornwall**^ where it proves 
a great relief to tjie poor during winter. 

It was a fifh greatly efteemed by the Romans, be- Carum. 
caufe it furnifned the pretious Garum., a fort of pickle 
that gave a high relilh to their fauces, and was be- 
fides ufed medicinally. It was drawn from different 

* This is the firft opportunity we have had of loojbing into 
Sahiantis, whofe Italian fynonyms we Ijiake uft of. 

■* Borlafe Corniuall. 269. 




222 M A C K R E L. CMs IT, 

kinds of filh, but that made from the mackrel had 
the preference : the beft was made at Carthagena^ 
vaft quantities of mackrel being taken near an adjaw 
cent ifle, called from that circumftance, Scombraria*^ 
and the Garum, prepared by a certain company in 
that city, bore a high price, and was diftinguifhed by 
the title of Garum Scciorum *"*. 

This fifh is eafily taken by a bait, but the beft 
time is during a freili gale of wind, which is thence 
called a mackrel gale. 
Sue. It is not often that it exceeds two pounds in weights 

yet we heard that there was one fold lall fummer in 
London that weighed five and a quarter. 

The nofe is taper and fharp pointed : the eyes 
large : the jaws of an equal length : the teeth fmall, 
but numerous. 

The form of this fifh is very elegant. 
The body is a little compreffed on the fides : to- 
wards the tail it grows vei-y (lender, and a little an- 

The firft dorfal fin is placed a little behind the pec- 
toral fin, is triangular, and confiils of nine or ten 
ftiffrays; the fecond lies at a diflance from the other, 
and has twelve foft rays -, the perioral tv/enty -, the 
ventral fix : at the bale of the anal fin is a ftrong 

Between the lafl dorfal fin and the tail, are five 
fmall fins, and the fame number between the anal 
fin and the tail. 

* Siraho lib. iii, 109. 
** Plinii lib, xx.xi. c. 8. 


ClafsIV. TUNNY. 223 

The tail is broad and femilunar : The color of Color. 

the back and fides above the lateral line, is a fine 

green, varied with blue, marked with black lines, 

pointing downwards •, beneath the line the fides and 

belly are of a iilvery color. 

It is a mofl beautiful lilli when alive ; for nothing 

can equal the brilliancy of its color, which death 

impairs, but does not wholly obliterate. 


©u>H3?. Jrifl. Hijl. an. lib. ii. 

f. 13. &C. Athenteus.lih.'vn. 

301. OppianHalieut. in. 620. 
Thunnus. 0-vid. Bal'uut. 95. 

<)^. Plinii. lib. ix. r. 15. 
Tonno. Salwan. 1 23. 
Le Thon. Belon. 99. 
Thunnus. Rondel. 241. Gefner 

fife. 957. 
Thunnus vel orcynus. S(hone- 

njelde. 75. 

Tunny fifh, or Spanifh Mack- 
rell. Wil. Icth, ijS. Rati 
fyn.fifc. 57. 

Scomber pinnulis oiflo vel no- 
vem in extreme dorfo, ex 
falco ad pinnas ventrales. 
Arted. fynon. 49. 

ScomberThunnus. Sc. pinnulis 
utrinque ofto. Lin.JyJi. 493. 
Grofiov. Zooph. No. 305. 

THE tunny Vv^as a fifh well known to the antients, 
it made a confiderable branch of commerce • 
the time of its arrival into the Medilerranean from the 
ocean was oblerved, and itations for takino- them efta- 
blifhed in places it moil frequented ; the eminencies 
above the fifhery were fly led Ovi^voiTKOTrsra*, and the 
watchmen that gave notice to thofe below of the mo- 
tions of the fiili, QvvvoayioTToi **. From one of the for- 

* Strabo. lib. V. 1 56. 

** Oppian Halieut. iii. 638. This perfon anfwers to what the 
Cornijh call a Hiier^ who watches the arrival of the pilchards. 


• 224 T U N N Y. Clafsiv: 

mer the lover in 1'heoc'ntus threatened to take a del- 
perate leap, on account of his miftrefs's cruelty. 

flTTBo ru; GTNNHS 0"H07r{ac,£T«i 'OAtti? o y^iTrsuf. 

Do you not hear ? then, rue your Goat-herd's fate. 
For, from the rock where Olpis doth defcry 
The numerous ^hu-nny, I will plunge and die. 

The very fame ilation, in all probability, is at this 
time made ufe of, as there are very condderable 
thunny fiiheries on the coaft of Sicily^ as well as feve- 
ral other parts of the Mediterranean *, where they 
are cured, and make a great article of provifion in 
the adjacent kingdoms. They are caught in nets, 
and amazing quantities are taken, for they come in 
vaft fhoals, keeping along the Ihores. 
». They grow to a large fize, fom^etimes being found 

of above a hundred weight. 

They are not common in our feas, but are ibme- 
times taken off the well of England. 
Cefcr, j^s form is lefs elegant than that of the mackrel, 

beins rather thicker in the middle : the iaws are of 
an equal length ; the mouth black within : befides 
the teeth of the jaws, are others in the roof of the 

The firft dorfal fin is placed not remote from the 
head, and confifts of fourteen rays, and is lodged 
in a fmall channel ; the fecond is almoft contiguous 
to the other, and has the fam.e number of rays. 

* Many of them are the fame that were ufed by the antients, 
as we learn from Qfpan and others. 


Clals IV. S C A D. 22^ 

The pecftoral fin confifts of thirty-four rays -, the 
ventral fins are fmall, and have fix rays ; the anal, 
thirteen : between the laft dorfai fin and the tail, are 
from eight to ten fmall ones, and between the anal 
fin and the tail eight. 

The body near the tail is {lender, and almoft qua- 
drangular •, the tail is in the form of a crefcent. 

The color of the upper part of the body is duflcy, q^i^^^ 
varied with blue and green : the fides and the belly 

III. The S C A D. 

Sauro. Salvian. yg. 

Un- Sou_, Macreau baftard. 

Bclon. 186. 
Trachurus. Rondel. 233. 
Lacercus Bellonii. Gejmr pifc. 

Muieken, Stocker. SchonoveUe. 

Scad, Horfe-mackrell. TVsl. 

Icth . 290. Rati Jjtt. pifc. <^z. 
Scomber linea laterali aculeata, 

pinna ani officulorum 30. 

Arled.Jynon. 50. 
Scomber Trachurus. Sc. pinnis 

unitis, fpina dorfali recum- 

bente, linea laterali loricata. 

Lin.Jy/i. 494. Grono-v. Zoopb* 

No. 308. 

THAT which we examined was fixteen inches 
long : the nofe fharp -, the eyes very large ; 
the irides filvery : the lower jaw a little longer than 
the upper : the edges of the jaws were rough, but 
without teeth. 

On the upper part of the covers of the gills wdS 
a large black fpot. 

The fcalss were large and very thin : the lower 
half of the body quadrangular, and marked each 

126 SCAD. ClafsIV. 

fide with a row of thick llrong fcales, prominent in 
the middle, extending to the tail. 

The iirft dorfal fin confifted of eight ftrong fpines i 
the fecond lay juft behind it, and confifted of thirtf- 
four foft rays, and reached almoft to the tail : the 
pe(5loral fins narrow and long, and compofed of 
twenty rays : the ventral of fix branched rays. 

The vent was in the middle of the belly •, the anal 
fin extended from it to the tail, which was greatly 

The head and upper part of the body varied 
with green and blue : the belly filvery. 

This fifh was taken in the month of O^oher, was 
very firm and well tafted, having the flavor of 



Genus XXXI. Head comprefTed, fteep, and co- 
vered with fcales. 
Two branchioftegous rays. 
Body covered with large fcales, 
eafily dropping off. 



T^iyXn ? JriJ}. Hijl. an. lib. Petermanneken, Goldeken. 

ii, Oppian Halieut.Y. ^go. Schone'veUe. J^J. 

TniyM 2w>^wv. Athenaus.lib. MuWus Beilonii. ffiL Idh. 285. 

vii. 325. Rait fyn. pif:. go. 

Mullus. O^id. Halieut. 123. Tnglacapite glabra, cirns ge- 

Plimi lib.ix.c. 17. minis m maxilla inferiore. 

Triglia. s'alJan.z^S' Arted. fynon. -jx. ^ _ 

Le Rouget barbe, Surmurlet. Mullus cirns geminis, corpo- 

Belon. 170. ^^ ^"^'■°- ^^"-fsfi- 49S- <^ro~ 

"Mullus barbatus. Rondel 290. ^o"^- ^°^P^' ^°' ^86. 

Ge/aer pifc, 565. 

THIS fifh was highly efleemed by the Romans, 
and bore an exceeding high price. The ca- 
pricious epicures of Horace^ s^ days, valued it in 
proportion to its fize, not that the larger were more 
delicious, but that they were more difficult to be 
got. The price that v/as given for one in the time 
X)f Juvenal, and Pliny, is a ftriking evidence of the 
/luxury and extravagance of the age : 

Mullum Jix millihus emit 
JEquantem faJie paribus J'ejleriia iibris**. 

The lavifli flave 
Sixthoufand pieces for a Mullet gave, 
A fefterce for each pound. t)RYQEN. 

^ Sat, Jib. ii./ ii. 35. ** Ju^tnal. Sat, Iv. 48 1, 8 «. 9 d. 



But Afinius Celer *, a man of confular dignity, 
gave a ftill more unconfcionable fum, for he did not 
fcruple bellowing eight thoufand nummi, or fixty- 
four pounds eleven fliillings and eight-pence, for a 
fiih of fo fmall a fize as the mullet ; for accordino; 
to Horace^ a Mullus trilihis, or one of three pounds, 
was a great rarity, fo tliRt Juvenal's fpark muflhave 
had a great bargain in comparifon of what Celer had. 

But Seneca fays that it was not worth a farthing, 
except it died in the very hand of your gueft : that 
fuch was the luxury of the times, that there were 
flews even in the eating rooms, fo that the fifh could 
at once be brought from under the table, and placed 
on it : that they put the mullets in tranfparent vafes, 
that they might be entertained with the various 
changes of its rich color while it lay expiring **. 
Apicius-\, a wonderful genius for luxurious inven- 
tions, firft hit upon the method of fufFocating them 
in theexquifite Caj^tkaginian'^ pickle, and afterwards 
procured a rich fauce from their livers. This is the 
fame gentleman whom Plin}\ in another place, ho-» 
nors v/ith the title of Nepotum omnium' altijfimiis 
gurges%^ an cxpreffion too forcible to be rendered 
in our language 

* ?lin. I'll. IXfCiy. 

•* In cubili natant pifces : et fuh ipfa menfa capttur, quijiatitn 
transferitur in menjam : parum <viAelitr recens mullus niji qui in con- 
'via.-a manu moritur. Vilreis ollis inclufi offeruniur, et ohfer'vatur 
monentium color, quern in multas mutationes ludante Jpintu 'vcrtit- 
Seneca. Nat. Quasil:. lib. iii. c. i6. 

-f Ad omne Juxus ingernum mirus. 

X GaruM Socicrum, \idQ py iZZ'. 

f Lii>. X. c. 4S. 


We have heard of this fpecies being taken on the 
coaft of Scotland, but had no opportunity of exa- 
mining it -, and whether it is found in the weft of 
England with the other fpecies, or variety, we are, 
not at this time informed. Salvianus makes it a 
diftind fpecies, and fays, that it is of a purple co- 
lor, ftriped with golden lines, and that it did not 
.commonly exceed a palm in length : no wonder 
then that fuch a prodigy as one of fix pounds fhould 
fo captivate the fancy of the Roman epicure. 

Mr. Ray eftablifhes fome other diftinftions, fuch 
as the firft dorfal fin having nine rays, and the color 
of that fin, the tail, and the pedoral fins, being of 
a very pale purple. 

On thefe authorities we form different fpecies of 
thefe filh, having only examined what Salvianus and 
Mr. Ray call the Mullus majoTy which we defcribe 
under the title of 


Mullus major. Salvi an. 2-2,6. utrinque quatuorluteis, lon- 

Mullus major nofter et Sahi- gitudinalibus, parallelis. ^r- 

afii. 95. Cornuhierijibus . ied. fynon. jz. 

A Surmullet. Wil. Icth. 285. Mullus cirris geminis linels lu- teis longitudinalibus, Z-;««. 

Trigla capite glabro, lineis Jyft. 496. 

THIS fpecies was communicated to us by Mn 
Pitfield of Exeter : its weight was two pounds 
and an half; its length was fourteen inches •, the 
thickeft circumference eleven. It appears on the 



coaft of DevonJJjtre in May^ and retires about No^ 

The head fteep : the nofe blunt : the body thick : 
the mouth fmall : the lower jaw furnifhed with very 
fmall teeth : in the roof of the mouth is a rouo-h 
hard fpace : at the entrance of the gullet above is a 
fmgle bone, and beneath are a pair, each with echi- 
nated furfaces, that help to comminute the food be- 
fore, it palTes down. 

From the chin hung two beards, two inches and 
an half long. 

The eyes large : the irides purple : the head and 
covers of the gills very fcaly. 

The firft dorfal fin was lodged in a deep furrow, 
and confided of fix ftrong, but flexible rays •, the 
fecond of eight ; the pecloral fins of fixteen j the 
ventral of fix branched rays j the anal of feven : 
the tail is much forked. 

The body very thick, and covered with large 
fcales ; beneath them tlie color was a mofb beautiful 
rofyred*; the changes of which, under the thin fcales, 
gave that entertainment to the Roman epicures as 
above mentioned : the fcales on the back and fides 
were of a dirty orange ; thofe on the nofe a bright 
yellow : the tail a reddifh yellow. 

The fides v/erc marked lengthways with two lines 
of a light yellow color : thefe with the red color of 
the dorfal fins, and the number of their rays, Mr. 
Ray makes the chara6ler of the Cornijh Surmullet J 
thefe are notes fo liable to vary by accident, that till 

• This color is moft vivid during fummer. 



we receive further informations from the inhabitants 
of our Wefiern coafts, where thefe fifh are found, we 
fliall remain doubtful whether we have done right in 
feparating this from the former, efpecially as Do5for 
Cronovius has pronounced them to be only varieties. 

Genus XXXII. Nofe Hoping. 

Head covered with ftrorig bony 


Seven branchioftegous rays. 

Three (lender appendages at the 

bafe of the peroral fins. 


i. The GREY G U R N A R D. 

Gurnatus feu Gurnardus gi-ife- ^moc\x\\xm.Jrted.Jynon.jj\.. 

«s, the Grey Gurnard. JVil. Trigla Gurnardus, Tr. digitis 

, icth. zjg. Ranfyn.pifc.%%. ternis dorfo maculis nigris 

Trigla vario roftro diacantho, rubrifque. Lin. fyji. 457. 

aculeis geminis ad utrum- Grono'v, Zooph. No. 283. 

THE nofe pretty long, and Hoping : the end 
bifurcated, and each fide armed with three 
fhort fpines. 

The eyes very large •, above each were two fhort 
fpines : the forehead and covers of the gills fil- 
very ; the laft finely radiated. 

The teeth fmall, placed in the lower and upper 
jaws, in the roof of the mouth, and bafe of the 

Q^ Noftrlls 

232 GREY GURNARD. Clafs IV. 

Noftrils minute, and placed on the fides of the 

On the extremity of the gill covers was a flrong^ 
fharp, and long fpine : beneath that, juft above the 
pedoral fins, another. 

The firfl: dorfal fin confifted of eight fpiny rays ; 
the fides of the three firft tuberculated. 

The fecond dorfal fin of nineteen foft rays : both 
fins lodged in a groove, rough on each fide, but not 

The peroral fins tranfparent^ and fupported by 
ten rays, bifurcated from their middle : the three 
beards at their bafe as ufual. 

The ventral fins had fix rays, the firfl fpiny, and 
the fhortefl: of all. 

The anal fin nineteen, each foft. 
The tail bifurcated. 

The lateral line very prominent, and fl:rongly fer- 

The back, tail, and a fmall fpace beneath the 
fide line, were of a deep grey, covered with fmall 
fcales, and in parts fpotted with white •, the belly 
filvery. We could not perceive any yellow fpots, 
as Mr. Ray mentions, but poffibly they vary. 

IL The 




KoKJtu^? Jrijl. Eift. an, lib. 

iv. r, 9. GppianHalieut. 1. 97. 
Kojcxu^ i^oO^c?; Athenaus lib, 

vii. 309. 
Pefce capone, Cocco> Grgano. 

Sal'vian. 191. 
Le Rouget. ^f/o». 199. 
Cuculus. Rondel. 287. Gg/z?fr 

i^i/^- 305- 

Smiedeeknetht, Kurre-fifche. 
Schoneuelde. 32. 

Red Gurnard, or Rotchet. 
Wil. Ictb. 281. Raiijyn.pifc, 

Trigla tpta rubens, roftro pa- 
rum bicorni, operculis bran- 
chiarum ftriatis. Arted. fynon. 

Trigla cuculusc Tr. digitis 

ternis, linea lateral! mutiea^ 

limfyji. 497. 

THIS fpecies agrees in its general appearance 
with the tub fifh ; but in thefc particulars 

The covers of the gills are radiated : the Ipines 
are lefs and Ihorter in thofe of the red gurnard. 

The fins and body are of a fuller red : the fcales 
are larger : the head lefs : the perioral fins are 
Shorter, and edged with purple, not with blue. 


III. The 

234 PIPER. GiafslV. 

ilL The P IP E R. 

Av^x ? Jrijl. Hijh an. lib^ iv. Trigla roftro longo diacantho, 

e.g. naribus tubuloiis. Arted.fyn* 

Lyra. Rondel. 298. Gefner pifc. 74. 

516. Trigla Lyra. Tr, digitis ter- 

The Piper. JVil. Icth. ztz. nis, naribus tubulofis. Lix. 

' Raiijp. pijc. 89. fyji, 496. 

Till S fpecies is frequently taken on the Weftern 
coafts of this kingdom, and efteemed an ex- 
cellent fifh. 

The weight of one which was communicated to 
us by yiv.PJtfield*^ was three pounds and an half; the 
thickeft circumference thirteen inches, the left, which 
was next the tail, only three : the length near two feet. 

The head was very large, and that part of the 
body next to it veiy thick: the nofe divided into 
two broad plates, each terminated with three fpines : 
on the inner corner of each eye is a ftrong fpine : 
the bony plates of the head terminate on each fide 
with another. 

The covers of the gills are armed with one very 
fliarp and ftrong fpine, and are prettily ftriated : im- 
mediately over the pedloral fin is another fpine very 
large and fliarp pointed. 

The noftrils very minute : the eyes large. 

The lower jaw much ftiorter than the upper : the 
teeth in both very minute. 

* We have been informed that this fifh is found at all times 
VS (he year on the vveilern coafls^ and is taken in nets. 



Clafs IV. T U B F I S H. 235 

The firfl: dorfal fin confifted of nine very ftrong 
fharp fpines, the fecond of which is the longeft ; 
the fecond fin begins jiift behind the firft, and con- 
fifls of eighteen foft rays : the pedloral fins were , 
long, and had twelve branched rays ; the ventral 
fins fix, very flrong and thick : the anal eighteen, 
the firft fpiny : the tail fmall, in proportion to the 
fize of the fifh, and forked. 

The back on each fide the dorfal fin was armed 
with a fet of flrong and very large fpines, pointing 
towards the tail like the teeth of a faw. 

The fcales were fmall, but very hard and rough : 
the lateral line bent a little at its beginning, that 
went ftrait to the tail, and was alniofl; fmooth. 


Hirundo Aldro^. the Tub-filh, Trlgla hirundo. Tr. digi^is 

Cornub. Wil. Icth. 280. Rait ternis, linea lateral! acu^ 

Jyn. pi/c, 88. leata. Lin, Jyji. 497. 

Trigla capite aculeato, ap- Knorrhane, Knoding, Knot, 

pendicibus utrinque tribus Smed. Faun. Jitgc^.^-^llp. 

ad pinnas pedorales. Arted. 340. ','"'^''.1 

fynon. 73. .,:■■': 

THIS fpecies is of a more flender form than 
the preceding. 
The pupil of the eye is green : on the inner cor- 
ner of each are two fmall fpines. But what at 
once diftinguifhes this from the other fpecies is the 
breadth and colors of the peftoral fins, which are 
very broad, of a pale green, mofl beautifully edged, 
and fpotted with rich deep blue. 

Q. 3 The 


The dorfal fins are lodged between two rows of 
fpines, of a ferrated form : the back is of a greenifh 
caft : the fide line is rough : the fides are tinged 
with red ; the belly white. 

Thefe fifh are found on the coafl of Cornwall 
yiQ h^ve alfo taken them off Anglefea. 


Cuculus lineatus, the Streaked Gurnard. Rati fyn. pfc. 165. 

jf^. IK 

THIS is one of the Cornijh filh communicated 
to Mr. Petiver by Mr. Jago. He fays the 
head is large, and diftinguifhed with ftellated marks •, 
the eyes great ; the covering of the gills thorny -, 
the mouth fmall, and without teeth. By the figure 
the nofe feems not to be bifurcated. The peftoral 
fins large, and fpotted, beneath them three filaments : 
the color of the body red : the belly white, marked 
with many ftreaks, pointing downwards, from, the 

Mr. Jago imagines it to be the Mullis imherhis of 
Ronddeim. Wil Icth. 278. 

Sea. IV. 

Ciafs IV. 

L O C H E. 



Genus XXXIII. Eyes in the upper part of the head. 
Aperture to the gills clofed below. 
Several beards on the end of the 
upper jaw. 

Body of almoft an equal thicknefs. 
One dorfal fin. Loche. 




H E. 

La Loche franche. Belon. 321. 
Cobitis barbatula. Rondel. Jlu- 

'viat. 204. 
Cobitis fluviatilis barbatula. 

Ge/ner pifc. 404. 
Smcrling, Smerle. Schone'uelde. 

Loche, or Groundling. Wil. 

Icth.26^. Rati Jyn. pifc. IZ^, 

Cobitis tota glabra maculofa. 

corpore fubtereti. Arted. Jyr 

non, 2. 
Cobitis Barbatula. C. cirris fex 

capita inermi compreflb. 

Lin.fyji. 499. Grono'v.Zooph, 

No. 202. 
Gronling. Faun.fuec. No. 341. 
Grundel. Kram. 396. Wulf. 

Borufs. No, 40. 

THE loche is found in feveral of our fmall rivers, 
keeping at the bottom on the gravel, and is 
on that account, in fome places, called the Ground- 
ling : it is frequent on the ftream near Amejhury, in 
Wilt/hire., where the fportfmen, thro' frolick, fwallow 
it down alive in a glafs of white wine. 

The largeft we ever heard of was four inches and Defer, 
three quarters in length, but they feldom arrive to 
that fize, 

0^4 The 

43 S L O C H E. ClafsIV, 

The mouth is fmall, placed beneath, and has no 
teeth : on the upper mandible are fix fmall beards, 
one at each corner of the mouth, and four at the 
end of the nofe. 

The dorfal fin confiflis of eight rays •, the peftoral 
of eleven ; the ventral of feven ; the anal of fix : 
the tail is broad, and has fixteen or feventeen 
Color. The body is fmooth and ilippery, and almoli: of 
the fame thicknefs : the color of the head, back, 
and fides, is in fome white, in others of a dirty yel- 
low, very elegantly marked with large fpots, con- 
fifting of numberlefs minute black fpecks : the pec- 
toral, dorfal, and caudal fins are alfo fpotted : the 
belly and ventral fins of a pure white : the tail broad, 
and a little rounded. 


Clafs IV. SALMON. 239 

Genus ^XXIV. Branchioftegous rays unequal in 

Two dorfal fins •, the fecond thick, 
and without rays. Salmon, 

With teeth. 

S&lmo PJinii /i5.'ix. c. 18. Ju- Salmo roftro ultra inferiorem 

fonius. Mojel. 97. maxillam fsepe prominente. 

Salmone. Salvian. 100. Arted. fynon. 22. 

Le Saulmon. Belon. z-ji. Salmo Salar. Lin. ^7?. '509. 

Salmo. Rondel, fiuwat. 167. Gronov. Zooph. l^o. T,6g. 

Gefner pifc. %z\. Schone-velde, Lax. Faun. fuec. No. izz. 

64. Lachfs. Wulff. Borufs. No. 

Salmon. Wil. Icth. 189. Rati 42. 
fyn.pifc. 63. 

THE falmon is a northern filh, being unknown 
in the Mediterranean fea, and other warm 
climates : it is found in France in fome of the rivers 
that em.pty themfelves into the ocean*, and north as 
far as Greenland ; whether it reaches America we are 
not at this time affured : Charlevoix., Laufon., and 
Catejby do not mention it •, nor have we any authority 
for its being found there, except that of the romantic 
Lahontan. Salmons are taken in the rivers of Kamt- 
fchatka **, but whether they are of the fame fpecies 
with the European kind is not very certain. 

* Rondel, fuvi at. 1 67. - ** ////f. Kamtfch. 143. 


240 SALMON. ClafsIV. 

They are in feveral countries a great article of 
commerce, being cured different ways, by faking, 
pickling, and drying : there are ftationary fifheries 
in Iceland, Norway^, and the Baltic, but we be- 
lieve no where greater than thofe at Colraine in Ire- 
land \ and in Great-Britain at Berwick, and in fome 
of the rivers of Scotland. 

The falmon was known to the Romans but not to 
the Greeks : Pliny fpeaks of it as a fiih found in the 
rivers of Aquitaine : Aufonius enumerates it among 
thofe of the Mofel. 

Nee ie punicee rutilantem ^ifcere Sal mo 
Tranfierem, latts cujus 'vaga werbera caud/s 
Gurgite de medio Jumtnas referuntur in undas^ 
Occultus placido cum proditur aquore pulfus. 
^u loricato Jquamofus pe^ore, fronie?n 
Lubricus, et dubia fadurus fercula canee, 
Tempora longarutn fers incorrupta morarum, 
Prajlgnis maculis capitis^ cut prodiga nutat 
Al^us, opimatoque Jluens abdomine -venter. 

Nor I thy fcarlet belly will omit, 
O Salmon, whofe broad tail with whifking ftrokes 
Bears thee up from the bottom of the ftieam 
Quick to the furface ; and the fecret lafh 
Below, betrays thee in the placid deep. 
Arm'd in thy flaky mail, thy glofly fnout 
Slippery efcapes the filher's fingers ; elfe 
Thou makeft a feaft for niceft judging palates: 
And yet long uncorrupted thou remainell : 
Withfpotted head remarked, and wavy fpread. 
Of paunch immenfc o'erflowing fvide with fat. 


A Tcends TfLC falmon is a fiih that lives both in the fait and 
fivers. fj.^|T^ waters, quitting the fea at certain feafons for 

* There was about the year 1578, a pretty confiderable fal- 
njon fiftiery at Cda, in Rujjian lapland. Hacklujt. i/y. I. 416. 


ClafsIV. S A L M O N. 241 

the fake of depofiting its fpawn in fecurity, in the 
gravelly beds of rivers remote from their mouths. 
There are fcarce any difficulties but what they will 
overcome, in order to arrive at places fit for their 
purpofe : they will afcend rivers hundreds of miles, 
force themfelves againft the mod rapid dreams, and 
fpring with amazing agility over catarads of feveral 
feet in height. Salmon are frequently taken in the 
Rhine as high up as Bafil ; they gain the fources of saimoo 
the Lapland rivers * in fpite of their torrent-like '"^^'• 
currents, and furpafs the perpendicular falls of 
Leixjlip*'^^ Kennerth-f, ^nd Pont ahrglajlyn^}, xheih 
iaft feats we have been witnefs to, and feen the efforts . 
of fcores of fifh, fome of which fucceeded, others 
mifcarried during the time of our fbay. 

It may here be proper to contradid the vulgar 
error of their taking their tail in their mouth when 
they attempt to leap ; fuch as we faw, fprung up quite 
Itrait, and with a ftrong tremulous motion. 

Other particulars relating to the natural hiftory of 
this fifh,we fhall relate in our accounts of the fiflieries, 
either from our own obfervations, or from fuch as 
have been communicated to us from different places : 
the fulleft we have been favored with is from Mr. 
PoUSy of Berwick^ to whom the publick is indebted _ 
for the following very curious hiftory of the falmon fiihery, 
lifhery on the Tweed, 

* Scheff. Lap. 139. 
** Near I}ublin. 

f On the Tivy in 5ouih Wales, which Michael Drayton cele- 
brates in his Polyolbion on this account. 

X Amidit Snowdgn hills, a wild Icene in the ftyle of Sah-a- 
ior Ro/a. 


242 SALMON. ClafsIV, 

At the latter end of the year, or in the month of 
November^ the falmon begin to prefs up the rivers as 
far as they can reach, in order to fpawn j when that 
time approaches they fearch for a place fit for the 
Spawn- ptirpofe : the male and female unite in forming a 
?^S' proper receptacle for it in the fand or gravel, about 
the depth of eighteen inches •, in this the female de- 
pofits her fpawn, the male his milt, which -they 
cover carefully, as it is faid, with their tails, for after 
ipawning they are obferved to have no fkin on that 

The fpawn lies buried till fpring, if not dillurbed 
by violent floods •, but the falmon hallen to fea as 
foon as they are able, to purify and cleanfe them- 
felves, and to recover their ftrength ; for after fp awn- 
ing they become very poor and lean, and then are 
called Kipper. 

About the latter end of March the fpawn begins 
to exclude the young, which gradually increafe to 
the length of four or five inches, and are then termed 
Smelts or Sraouts : about the beginning of May the 
river is full of them •, it feems to be all alive ; there 
is no having an idea of the numbers without feeing 
them •, but a feafonable flood then hurries them all 
to the fea, fcarce any or very few being left in the 

About the middle of June the earliefl: of the fry 
begin to drop, as it were, into the river again from 
the fea, at that time about twelve, fourteen, or fix- 
teen inches, and by a gradual progrefs, increafe in 
number and fize till about the end of July, which 
is at Berwick termed the height of Gilfe time, the 


ClafsIV. SALMON. 24^ 

name given to the fifh at that age : the end of July^ 
or beginning of Augufi they leffen in number, but 
encreafe in fize, fome being fix, feven, eight, or 
nine pounds in weight •, this appears to be a furpri- 
fmg quick growth, yet we have received from a gen- q^;^,^ 
tleman at Warrington^ an inftance ilill more fo : a s'^wth. 
kipper fahnon weighing 71b. three quarters, taken 
on the 7th of 'February ., being marked with a fciflars 
on the back, fin, and tail, and turned into the river, 
was again taken the 17th of March following, and 
then was found to weigh 1 7 lb. and a half. 

The capture in the T^weed^ about the month of Capture, 
July, is prodigious ; in a good fiihery, often a boat 
load, and fometimes near two, are taken in a tide :• 
fome few years ago there were above feven hundred 
filTi tuken at one hawl, but from fifty to a hundred 
is very frequent : the coopers in Berwick then begin 
to fait both Salmon and Gilfes in pipes, and other large 
veflels, and afterwards barrel* them to fend abroad^- 
having then far more than the London markets can 
take off their hands. 

Moft: of the falmon taken before Aprils or to the 
fetting in of the warm weather, is fent frefn to Lon- 
don in bafkets, unlefs now and then the velTel is dif- 
appointed by contrary winds, of failing immediately; 
ir. that cafe the fifii is brought alhore again to the 
coopers offices, and boiled, pickled, and kitted, and 
fent to the London markets by the fame fhip, and 
frelh falmon put in the baflcets in lieu of the ftale 
ones. At the beginning of the feafon, when a fhip- 

• The falmon barrel holds above forty-two gallons, wine 


244 S A L M O N. Clafs IV 

is on the point of failing, a frefh clean falmon will 

Price, fell from a Ihilling to eighteen pence a pound, and 
moft of the time that this part of the trade is carried 
on, the prices are from five to nine fhillings per 
ftone *, the value rifing and falling according to the 
plenty of fifh, or the profpedt of a fair or foul wind. 
Some fifh are fent in this manner to London the lat- 
ter end of Septefuher, when the weather grows cooly 
' but then the fifh are full of large roes, grow very 
thin bellied, and are not efteemed either palatable 
or wholefome. 

The price of frefli fifli in the month of July, when 
they are moll plentiful, has been known to be as low 
as Si. per flone, but laft year never lefs than i6i. 
and from that to is. 6d. 

c c The feafon for fifhino- in the Tweed begins No-^ 

vemher the 30th, but the fifhermen work very little 
till after Chrijlmas •, it ends on Michaelmas-Day ; 
yet the corporation of Berwick (who are confervators 
of the river) indulge the fifhermen v^^ith a fortnight 
paft that time, on account of the change of the 

There are on the river forty-one confiderable fifh- 
eries extending upwards, about fourteen miles from 
the mouth (the others above being of no great va- 
lue) which are rented for near 5400/. per annum. 
The expences attending the fervants wages, nets, 
boats, &c. amount to 5000/. more, which together 
makes up the fum 10400/. Now in confequence 

* A ftone of falmon weighs 18 lb, looz. f, or in other 
terms, four llones, or fifty-fix pounds avoirdupoile, is only 
three llones, or forty- two pounds, fifh weight zt Ber^vk.k. 


Ci'afsIV. SALMON. U3 

the produce mull defray all, and no lefs than twenty 
times that fum of fifh will effed it, fo that 208000 
falmon mull be caught there one year with an- 

There is a misfortune attending the river Tweed, 
which is worthy a parlementary remedy ; for there 
is no law for preferving the filh in it during the 
fence months, as there is in the cafe of many other 
Britijh rivers. This being the boundary between 
the two kingdoms, part of it belongs to the city of 
Berwick^ and the whole north fide (beginning about 
two miles from the town) is entirely Scotch pro- 
perty. From fome difagreement between the par- 
ties they will not unite for the prefervation of the 
filh, fo that in fome fifheries on the north fide they 
continue killing falmon the whole winter, when the 
death of one filh is the deftruftion of thoufands. 

The legiflature began very early to pay attention 
to this important article : by the i^th. Edward!^, 
there is an aft which prohibits the capture of the 
falmon from the Nativity of our Lady to St. Mar- 
tin's Day, in the waters of the Humher^ Owfe, Trenty 
Done, Arre^ Derwent, Wharfe^ Nid, Tore^ Swaky 
and Tees ; and other monarchs in after-times, pro- 
vided in like manner for the fecurity of the filh in 
other rivers. 

Scotland pofTeffes great numbers of fine fiiheries 
on both fides of that kingdom. The falmon are 
cured in the fame manner as at Ber'wicky and a great 
quantity is fent to London in the fpring ; but after 
that time the adventurers begin to barrel and ex- 
port them to foreign countries : but we believe that 



246 SALMON. Clafs IV. 

commerce is far lefs lucrative than it was in former 
times, partly owing to the great encreafe of the 
Newfoundland fiihery, and partly to the general re- 
laxation of the difcipline of abltinence in the Ro- 
mijh church. 
Ireland. Ireland (particularly the liorth) abounds with this 
filh : the moft confiderable fifhery is at Cranna, on 
the river Ban^ about a mile and an half from Cole- 
raine. When I made the tour of that hofpitable 
kingdom in 1754, it Was rented by a neighboring 
gentleman for 62b/. a year^ who alTured me that 
the tenant, his predecefTor^ gave i6ooi. per anri. 
and was a much greater gainer by the bargain for 
the reafons before-mentioned, and on account of 
the number of poachers who deflroy the filli in the 
fence months. 

The mouth of this river faces the north, and is 
finely fituated to receive the filh that roam along 
the coaft, in fearch of an inlet into fome frefh wa- 
terj as they do all along that end of the kingdom, 
which (ippofes itfelf to the northern ocean. V/e 
have feen near Ballicajile, nets placed in the fea at 
the foot of the promontories that jut into it, which 
the falmon ftrike into as they are warideririg elofe to 
ihore, and numbers are taken by that method. 

In the Ban they fifh with nets eighteen fcore 
yards long, and are continually drawing night and 
day the whole feafon, which we think lafts about 
four months, t<vo fets of fixteen men each alter- 
nately relieving one another. The beft drawing is 
when the tide is coming in : we were told that at a 
fingle draught there were once eight hundred and 
forty fiih taken, A few 

ClafsIV. SALMON. 247 

A few miles higher up the river is a ware, where 
a confiderable number of fifh that efcape the nets 
are taken. We were lately informed, that in the 
year 1760 about 320 tons were taken in the Cranna 

The falmon are cured in this manner : they are 
firft fplit, and rubbed with fine fait ; and after ly^ 
ing in pickle in great tubs, or refervoirs, for fix 
weeks, are packed up with layers of coarfe brown 
Spanijh fait in cafks, fix of which make a ton. 
1'hefe are exported to Leghorn and Venice at the 
price of twelve or thirteen pounds per ton, but 
formerly from fixteen to twenty-four pounds each. 

The falmon is a fifh fo generally known, that a Defer. 
very brief defcription will ferve. The largeft we 
ever heard of weighed feventy-four pounds. The 
color of the back and fides are grey, fometimes 
fpotted with black, fometimes plain : the covers of 
the gills are fubjed to the fame variety : the belly 
filvery : the nofe .fliarp pointed : the end of the un- 
der jaw in the males often turns up in form of a 
hook ; fometimes this curvature is very confidera- 
ble : it is faid that they lofe this hook when they re- 
turn to the fea. 

The teeth are lodged in the jaws and on the 
tongue, and are flender, but very fiiarp. 

The tail is a little forked. 

R 11. The 

248 G R E Y. CkfsIV. 

11. The GREY. 

The Grey, i.e. cinereus feu Salmo eriox, Lin. JyJI. i^og.- 

Grifeus. Wil.Icth. \^i. Rail Gralax. Faun. fuec.'No. -546. 

fyn. pifc. 6^. _ Lachrs-forellen mic Schwarz^ 

Salmo maculis cinereis, caudas grauen flecken oder punkt- 

cyxrtmo^Q^\i-A\\. Arted.Jynoii. chens. PFulg. Bonifs. No. i^^,. 


T E are uncertain whether this is not a meer 
variety of the fahnon •, but on the authority 
of Mr. Ra)\ we defcribe them feparate. He fays 
it is a very flrong fifh, that it does not afcend the 
frefli waters till Augiijiy when it rufhes up with 
great violence^ that it is rarely taken, and not much 

We faw one laft fummer caught near Gloddaeth^ 
in Caernarvonjhire.^ which weighed twenty-two 
pounds : the body was much deeper than that of 
the falmon •, the head larger : the irides were filvery : 
the back, firft dorfal fin, the fides above the lateral 
line, were of a deep grey, fpotted with numbers of 
dark purplifh fpots : the belly filvery : the tail quite 
even at the end. The fifhermen called it a ihe 

Mr. Ray defer ibes it among the filh of the trout 

kind, communicated to him by Mr. Johnfon, who 

made his obfervations in the north of England : but 

it is not peculiar to that part, for we have heard ot 

its being taken in the river Wye, where it is known 

by the name of Sewin, or Shewin. 

III. The 




Ti'utta taurinaj aptid nbs in 
Northimibria a BuU-trout* 
Charlton, ex.pijc. 36. 

Trutta Salmonataj the Salmon 
Trout, Bull-trout* or Scurf. 
Haiifyn. pifc. 6^ . PVil. Icth, 
193.198. ^ _ ^ 

Salmo iatus, macuhs rubris ni- 

grifque, Cauda asquall. ^r- 
ted.JyHon. 24. 

Salmo trutta. S. ocellis nigrisj 
iridlbus brunneis, pinna pec- 
toral! pundlis fex. Lin.fyjt, 
509. Grono'v. Zooph.No. 367. 

Orlax, Borting. Faun, fuect. 
No. 347. 

THIS fpecies is in Ibme places called the 
bull trout, from the thicknefs and Ihortnefs 
of its head. Its fleili is white, and lefs delicate than 
that of others of this genus. 

It feldom exceeds twenty inches in length : the 
back is afh-colored : . the head and fides are marked 
with large black fpots, encircled with brown. 

The firft dorfal fin is fpotted with black : the 
pedtoral fin marked with oblong fpots : the belly- 

The tail is even at the end. 


IV. The 

2m TROUT. ClafsIV. 


Salsr. Aufonlus Mc/el 88. A Trout. Wil. Idh. 199.' Raii 
Salar et varius, Trotta. Sal- jyn. pifc.6^. 

'vian. 96. S-. maculis rubris, maxilla in- 
La Truitte. Belon. 274. feriore longlore. Arted.fynon. 

Trutta fluviatilis. RcnM. fu- 23. 

•viat. 169. Gefner pifc. 1002. Salmo Farlo. Lin- Jyji. 509. _ 

Foren, Forellen. Schone-udde. Laxoring, Forell, Stenbit. 

77. Faun, fuec. No. 348. 

IT is matter of fuq^rize that this common filh 
has efcaped the notice of all the antients, except 
Aujonius: it is alfo fingular, that fo delicate a fpecies 
jQiould be neglefted at a time when the folly of the 
table Was at its height ; and that the epicures fhould 
•TO'verlook a fifh that is found iri fuch quantities in 
the lakes of their neighborhood, when they ran- 
fa<Sled the univerfe for dainties. The milts of Mu- 
rame were brought from one place ; the livers of 
Scari from another*; and Oyjlers even from fo re- 
mote a fpot as our Sandwich *'* : but there was, and 
is a fafhion in the article of good living. The Ro- 
mans feem to have defpifed the trout, the piper, and 
the doree ; and we beheve Mr. ^in himfelf would 
have refigned the rich paps of a pregnant fow-f, the 
heels of camels ;Ji, and the tongues of Flamingos §, 
tho' drelled by Heliogabalus's cooks, for a good jowl 
of falmon with lobfter fauce. 

* Suetonius, <&//« Vitellii. ** Jwvenal Sat. iv.i^i. f Mar- 
tial lib. xiii. epig. 44. % Laittprid. vit. Heliogab. § Mar- 
tiaU lib* nil. epig. 71. 


ClafsIV. TROUT. 251 

When Aufonius fpeaks of this fifh, he makes no 
euloge on its goodnefs, but celebrates it only for its 

Purpureifque Salar ^cllams Tergore gtittis. 
With purple fpots the Salar's back is flained. 

Thefe marks point out the fpecies he intended : 
what he meant by his Fario is not fo eafy to deter- 
mine : whether any fpecies of trout, of a fize be- 
tween the falar and the falmon ; or whether the fal- 
rhon itfelf, at a certain age, is not very evident. 

Tequs inter geminos /pedes, neutrumque et ittrumque^ 
^i nee dum Salmo, w^^Salar. amhiguufque. 
Amboru7n medio Fario intercept er fub iS^vo. 

Salmon or falar, I'll pronounce thee neither ; 
A doubtful kind, that may be none, or either, 
Fario, when ftopt in middle growth. 

In fad the colors of the trout, and its fpots, vary 
greatly in different waters, and in different feafons ; 
yet each may be reduced to one fpecies. In Llyndivi^ 
a lake in South IVaks, are trouts called Cochy daily 
marked with red and black fpots as big as fiX' 
pences ; others unfpotted, and of a reddiih hue, 
that fometimes weigh near ten pounds, but are bad 

In Lough Neagh in Ireland, are trouts called there 
Buddaghs, which 1 was told fometimes weighed thirty 
pounds, but it was not my fortune to fee any during 
my ftay in the neighbourhood of that vaft water. 

R 3 Trouts 

252, TROUT. ClafsIV, 

Trouts (probably of the fame fpecies) arealfo taken 
in Hulfewater^ a lake in Cmnberland, of a much fu- 
perior fize to thofe of Lough Neagh. Thefe are fup- 
poied to be the fame with the trout of the lake of 
of Geneva^ a fifn I have eaten more than once, and, 
think but a very indifferent one. 

Crooked In the river Eynion^ not far from Machynlleth^ in 
Merionethjhire^ and in one of the S?io-ixdon lakes, are 
found a variety of trout, v/hich are naturally de- 
formed, having a ftrange crookednefs near the tail, 
refembling that of the perch before defcribed. We 
' dwell the lefs on thefe monftrous produftions, as our 
friend the Hon. Daines Barringio?/, has already givers 
an account of them in an ingenious differtation on 
fome of the Cambrian fiih, publifhed in the Philo- 
fophical 'Tranfa5fio?is of the year 1767. 

Trouts are moft voracious fifh, and afford excels 
lent diverfion to the angler : the paiTion for the fport 
of angling is fo flrong in the neighborhood of Lon- 
don^ that the liberty of fifhing in fome of the ftreams 
in the adjacent counties, is purchafed at the rate of 
ten pounds per annum. 

Thefe filh Ihift their quarters to fpawn, and, like 
falmon, make up towards the heads of rivers to de- 
pofit their roes. The under jaw of the trout is fub- 
jedt, at certain timjcs, to the famiC curvature as that 
of the falmon. 

Defer. A trout taken in Llynallet^ in Denhighjhire^ v/hich 

is famous for an excellent kind, meaiurcd feventeen 
inches, its depth three and three quarters, its weight 
one pound ten ounces : the head thick, the nofe ra- 
ther fharp : the upper jaw a little longer than the 


CiafsIV. S A M L E T. 253 

lower; both jaws, as well as the head, were of a 
pale brown, blotched with black : the teeth iharp 
and flrong, difpofed in the jaws, roof of the mouth 
and tongue, as is the cafe with the whole genus, ex- 
cept the Gzvyniad^ v/hich is toothlefs, and the Gray- 
lings which has none on its tongue. 

The back was duflcy ; the fides tinged with a 
purplifh bloom, marked with deep purple fpots, 
mixed with black, above and below the fide line 
which was ftrait : the belly white. 

The firft dorfal fin was fpotted •, the fpurious fin 
brown, tipped with red ; the perioral, ventral, and 
anal fins, of a pale brown ; the edges of the anal 
fin white : the tail very littfe forked, when ex- 

V. The S A M L E T. 

LeTacon? 5Jo». 275. Ehoracenfibus. Rail Jyn. pifc. 

Salmulus, Eerefordia Samlet 63. 

didtus. Wil. Ictb. 192. Salmoneta, a Branlin, Ray% 

Salmulus, the Samlet Here/or- Letters, 199. 

4ienfihiis, Branlin et Fingerin 

THE famlet is the left of the trout kind, is 
frequent in the Wye^ in the upper part of the 
Severn, and the rivers that run into it, in the north 
of England, and in Wales. It is by feveral imagined 
to be the fry of the falmon ; but our reafons for 
diffenting from that opinion are thefe : 

Firft, It is well known that the falmon fry never 
R 4 continue 

254 SAMLET. Giafs IV, 

continue in the frefli waters the whole year •, but as 
numerous as they appear on their firft efcape from 
the fpawn, all vanifh on the firft vernal flood that 
happens, which fweeps them into the fea, and 
leaves fcarce one behind. 

Secondly, The growth of the falmon fry is fa 
quick and fo confiderable, as fuddenly to exceed the 
bulk of the largeft famlet : for example, the fry 
that have quitted the frefh water in the fpring, net 
larger than gudgeons, return into it again a foot or 
more in length. 

Thirdly, The falmon attain a coniiderable bulk 
before they begin to breed : the famlets, on the 
contrary, are found male and female*, (diftinguifhed 
by the milt and roe) of their common fize. 

Fourthly, They are found in the frefh waters in 
all times of the year, and even at feafons when the 
falmon fry have gained a confiderable fize. It is 
well known, that near Shrewjhury (where they are 
called Samfons) they are found in fuch quantities in 
the month of Septembe'i\ that a Ikilful angler, in a 
coracle, will take with a fly from twelve to fixteen 
dozen in a day. 

They fpawn in November and December^ at which 
time thofe of the Severn puili up tov/ards the head 
of that fair river, quitting the lelfer brooks, and re- 
turn into them again when they have done. 

They have a general reiemblance to the trout, 
therefore mufl: be defcribed comparatively. 

* It has been vulgarly ini::gined, that there were no other 
than males of this Specie?. 


Clafs IV. SAMLET. 255 

Firfc, The head is proportionably narrower, and 
the mouth leis than that of the trout. 

Secondly, Their body is deeper. 

Thirdhy, They feldom exceed fix or feven inches 
in length. 

Fourthly, The pectoral fins have generally but one 
large black fpot, tho' fometimes a fingle fmall one 
attends it ; whereas the peftoral fins of the trout 
are more numeroufiy marked. 

Fifthly, The fpurious or fat fin on the back is ne- 
ver tipped with red -, nor is the edge of the anal 
fin white. 

Sixthly, The fpots on the body are fev/er, and 
not fo bright. It is alfo marked from the back to 
the fides with fix or feven. large biullli bars ; but 
this is not a certain chara6ler, as the fame is {om^- 
times found in vouna; trouts. 

Seventhly, The tail of the famlet is much more 
forked than that of the trout. 

VI. The 


C H A R R. 

Clafs IV. 



H A R R. 

L'Omble, ou Humble. Bclcit. 

L'mbla feu Humble Belcnii. 

Gefner pifc. 1005. 
Urabla minor. Gejner pifcioi^. 
Torgoch IValUs. IVeJtmorlandis 

Red Charre Lacus Winander 

mere. VVil. Icth. 196. Raii 

fyn. pifc. 65. 
Salmo vix pedalis, pinnis ven- 

tralibus rubris, maxilla in- 

feriore longiore. Arted. fyn. 

Salmo Alpinus. Lin. fyjl. 510. 

Gronov. Z.ooph. No. 372. 
Roding, Lapponibus Raud. 

Faun. Juec. No. i 24. 
Charr-fi(h. Phil. Tranf 1755. 


THE charr is an inhabitant of the lakes of 
the north, and of thofe of the mountanous 
parts of Europe. It afFefts dear and pure waters, 
and is very rarely known to wander into running 
ilreams, except into fuch whofe bottom is fimilar 
to the neighboring lake. 

It is found in vafl abundance in the cold lakes on 
the fummits of the Lapland Alps., and is almoft the 
only filh that is met with in any plenty in thofe re- 
gions •, where it would be wonderful how they fub- 
fifted, had not Providence fupplied them with in- 
numerable lar-V(e of the Gnat kind* : thefe are food 

* A pupil of Llnnaus remarks in the fourth volume of the 
Amien. Acad. p. 156, that the fame infecls which are fuch a pefl: 
to the rein deer, afford fullenance to the fifh of the vail lakes 
and rivers of Lapland. But at the fame time that we wonder 
at Linnaus'i inattention to the food of the birds and fifh of that 
country, which abound even to a noxious degree, we mull, ia 
juilice to that gentleman, acknowlege an overfight of our own 
in the fecond volume of the BritiJI? Zoology, p. 522, where wc 
give the Lapland waters only one fpecies of water plant; for 
on i more careful review of that elaborate performance, the 



Oafs IV. C H A R R. 257 

to the filh, who in their turn are a fupport to the 
migratory Laplanders 

Whilft when the folar beams falute their fight, 
Jjold and fecure in half a year of light. 
Uninterrupted voyages they take 
To the remoteft woods, and farcheft lake *. 

In fiich excnrfions thofe vacant people find a kixn- 
rious and ready repaft in thefe fifh, which they drefs 
and eat without the addition** of fauces •, for exer- 
cife and temperance render ufelefs the inventions of 

There are but few lakes in our ifland that pro- 
duce this fifn, and even thofe not in any abundance. 
It is found in IVirwj^der Mere in IFeJimorland ; m 
Llyn Shidlyn, near the foot of Snowdon ; and before 
the difcovery of the copper-mines, in thofe of Llyn- 
herris^ but the mineral fcreams ha:ve entirely deftroyed 
the filh in the laft lakes f. Whether the waters of 
Ireland afford the charr, we are uncertain, but ima- 
gine not, except it has been overlooked by their 
writers on the natural hillory of that kingdom. In 
Scotland it is found in Loch Inch, and other neio-h- 
boring lakes, and is faid to go into the Spey to 

Flora Lapponica, we dlfcover three other fpecies, viz. Scirpusf 
No. 18, Alopecurus, A'o. 38, Ranunculus, No. 234; but thofe fo 
thinly fcattered over the Lap/and lakes, as Hill to vindicate our 
^ifTertion, as to the fcarcenefs of plants in the waters of alpine 

* Prior's Sokmon. Book I. 
** ^rted. Sp. pifc. 52. 

■^ They are alio found in certain lakes in Mtrioneihjhire, 


25S CHAR R. ClafsIV. 

The largeft, and moft beautiful we ever received 
were taken in Winander Mere, and were communi- 
cated to us by the Rev. Mr. Farrijh, of Carlijle^ with 
an account of their natural hiftory. He favored me 
Math five fpecimens, two under the name of tl-te 
Cafe Charr^ male and female ; another he called the 
Gelt Cbarr, i. e, a charr which had not fpawned the 
preceding feafon, and on that account is reckoned to 
be in the greateft perfedion. The tv/o others were 
infer ibed, the RedCbarr, the Silver or Gilt Gharry the 
Car-pio Lacus Benaci, Raii fyn. pfc. 66, . which lail 
are in Wejlmorland dillinguillied by the epithet red^ 
. by reafon of the flefn aflliming a higher color than 
the other when drefled. 

On the clofell examiination, we could not difcover 
any fpecific differences in thefe fpecimens, therefore 
muft defcribe them as the fame filh, fubjeft only to 
a flight variation in their form, hereafter to be 
noted. But there is in another refped: an efTential 
difference, we mean in their (Economy, which is in 
• all beings invariable j the particulars we ihall deli- 
ver in the very words of our obliging inform.ant. 
Sravvn- The Umbla minor, or cafe charr, fpawns about 
the cafe Michaelmas, and chiefly in the river Brathy, which 
vharr. uniting with another called the Rowthay, about a 
quarter of a mile above the lake, they both fall into 
it together. The Brathy has a black rocky bottom ; 
the bottom of the Roisjthay is a bright fand, and 
into this the charr are never obferved to enter. Some 
cf them however fpawn in the lake, but always in 
fuch parts of it which are fcony, and refemble the 



Clafs IV. C II A R R. ' 259 

channel of the Brathy. They are fuppofed to be in 
the higheft perfeftion about May^ and , continue fo 
all tlie fummer, yet are rarely caught after April. 
When they are fpawning in the river they will take a 
bait, but at no other time, being commonly taken, 
as well as the other fpecies, in what they call hreafi 
nets, which are in length about twenty-four fathoms, 
and about five, where broadeft. 

The feafon which the other fpecies fpawns in is ^}^^ 

^ ^ charr, 

from the beginning of January to the end of March. 
They are never known to afcend the rivers, but al- 
Vv^ays in thole parts of the lake which are fpringy, 
where the bottom is fmooth and fandy, and the 
water warmefb. The fiihermen judge of this warmth, 
by obferving that the water feldom freezes in the 
places where they fpawn, except in intenfe frofts, 
and then the ice is thinner than in other parts of the 
lake. They are taken in greateft plenty from the 
end of September to the end of Nouemher : '2it other 
times they are hardly to be met with. This fpecies 
is much more efteemed for the table than the other, 
and is very delicate when potted. 

We mull obferve, that this account of the fpawn- 
ing feafon of the Weftmorlancl charrs, agrees very 
nearly with that of thofe of Wales^ tlie lail appear- 
ing about a month later, keep moving from fide to 
fide of the pool, and then retire into the deep wa- 
ter, where they are fometimes but rarely taken. 

This remarkable circumftance of the different 
feafon of fpawning in fiili, apparently the fame (for 
the red charr of JVinander, is certainlv not the 


26o C H A R R. Clafs IV. 

Carpio LacusBE'iiAci"') puzzles us greatly, andmakes 
us wifh that the curious, who border on that lake, 
would pay farther attention to the natural hiftory of 
thefe hill, and favor us with fome further lights on 
the fubjeft. 

We fhall now defcribe the varieties by the names 
afcribed to them in the north. 
^^^ The leng;th of the red charr to the divifion in its 

tail, was tv\'elve mcnes -, its biggeit circumference 
almofl feven. The firit dorfal fin five inches and 
three quarters from the tip of itsnofe, and confilled of 
twelve branched rays ; the firft ot which was Ihort, 
the fifth the longeft : the fat fin was very fmall 

Each of the five fiih had double noftrils, and fmall 
teeth in the jaws, roof of the mouth, and on the 

The head, back, dorfal fin, and tail of each, was 
of a dufky blue ; the fides rather paler, marked 
with numbers of bright red fpots : the bellies of the 
Red Charr were of a full and rich red ; thofe of the 
Cafe Charr rather paler ; from this particular the 
]^Felch call thefe fiili Torgoch, or red belly. 

The firil rays of the anal and ventral fins of each, 
were of a pure white -, the reft of each fin on the 
lower part of the body, tinged with red. 

The lateral line fl:rait, dividing the fifii in two 
equal parts, or nearly fo. 

The jaws in the Cafe Charr are perfectly even ; on 
the contrary, thofe of the Red Charr were unequal, 

• A fi{h well defcribeJ by Salvianus, p. 99, which bears no 
kind of refemblance to our lifh, except the generical one. 


Clafs IV. C H A R R. 261 

the upper jaw being the broadeft, and the teeth hung 

over the lower, as might be perceived on pafiing the 

iing;er over them. 

The branchioftegous rays were, on different fides 

of the fame fifh, unequal in number, viz. i2,--ii, 
11,-10, 10--9, except in one, where they were 

The Gelt^ or Barren Ckarr^ was rather more flender ^^J^ 
than the others, as being without fpawn. The back 

of a gloffy dufky blue : the fides filvery, mixed with 
blue, fpotted with pale red : the fides of the belly 
were of a pale red, the bottom white. 
The tails of each bifurcated. 
The charrs we have feen, brought from the Snow- 
don lakes, were rather fmaller than thofe of JVeJi^ 
morland: their colors paler. The fuppofed males very 
much refemble the Gelt Charr \ but that is not a cer- 
tain diftinftion of fex, for the Rev. Mr. Far- 
rington *, has told me that the filhermen do not 
make that diftindlion. 

* Who favored the Royal Society with a paper on the Welsh 
charr. Vids Fhil.Tranf, 1755. 

VII. The 

252 GRAYLING. Clafs IV. 


©■jy-KAAof. Milan, ^e an. lih. Icth.iZ-j. Rati Jyn. pifc. 62, 

x\v. c. zz. Umbra Jufonii Coregonus maxilla fuperiore 

Mofella. 90. longiore, pinna dorfi officu- 

Thymalus, Thymus. Salvian. Jorum viginti trium. Arted. 

5 1. Belon. 276. f-.non. to. 

Thymus, Umbra fluviatiHs. Salmc Thymallus. Lin. fyji. 

Rona'elfM'u. 1%J, \J2. Gef- ^iz. GrDtio-j.Zoopb. No. ■^j^, pifc.izz. Afch. AVaw. 390. 

A Grayling, or Umber. Wil. 

THE grayling haunts clear and rapid ftreams^ 
and particularly fuch that fiow thro' mounta- 
ftous countries. It is found in the rivers of Derby- 
jhire ; in fome of thofe af the north \ in the 'u!ame 
near Ludlow ; and in the Lug^ and other ftreams near 
Leominfier : it is alfo very common in Lapland •, the 
inhabitants make ufe of the guts of this iilh inftead 
-of rennet, to make the cheefe which they<get from 
the milk of the rein deer *. 

it is a voracious fifn, rifes freely to the fly, and 
-W-ill very eagerly take a bait. It is a very fwift Iwim- 
mer, and diiappears like the tranfient pafTage of a 
fhadow, from whence we believe is derived the name 
of Umbra. 

Ejffiigienfque oculos celeri k'vis UmbPvA naiatn **. 
The Umbra fwift efcapes the quickefl; eye. 

Thymalus and Thymus., are names bellowed on it on 
account of the imaginary fcent, compared by fome 

* Flora Lap, 109. ** JEman, Acad. iv. 159. 


Clafs IV. GRAYLING. 263 

to that of thyme ; but we never could perceive any- 
particular fmell. 

It is a fifh of an elegant form ; lefs deep than that Defct,' 
•of a trout : the largeft we ever heard of was taken 
, fiear Ludlow, which was above half a yard long, and 
weighed four pounds fix ounces, but this was a very 
rare inftanCe. 

The irides are filvery, tinged with yellow : the 
teeth very minute, feated in the jaws and the roof of 
the mouth, but none on the tongue : the head is 
duiky : the covers of the gills of a gloffy green : 
the back and fides of a fine filvery grey, but when 
the fifh is jull taken, varied Hightly with blue and 
gold : the fide-line is ilrait. 

The fcales large, and the lower edg^s dulky, 
forming Urait rows from head to tail. 

Th-e firil dorfal fin has twenty-one rays ; the three 
©r four firft are the fhorteft, the others almoft of 
equal lengths ; this fin is fpotted, all the others ar© 
• The tail is much forked, 




Clafs IV. 



M E 


Epelan de mer. B^Ion. 282. 
Eperlanus. Rondel. fiu--viat. 196. 

Gefner pifc. 362. 
Spirincus et Stincus. Gefner 

Paralip. 29. 
A Spyrling a Sprote. 'Turner 

epijl. ad. Geffi. 
Stindt, et Stinckfifch. Schone- 

veUe. 70. 

A Smelt. Wil Icth. Z02. Rat^ 

fyu. pifc. 66.^ 
Ofmerus radiis pinna; ani fep* 

tendecim. Jrted. fynon. 21. 
Salmo eperlanus. S. capite di- 

aphano, radiis pinna; ani 

feptendecim . Lin, fyfi. 5 1 1 • 

GroMov. Zooph. No. 
Nors, Slom. Faunfuec.No.^^Of 

TH E fmelt inhabits the feas of the northern 
parts of Europe, and we believe never is found 
as far fouth as the Mediterranean : the Seine is one. 
of the French rivers which receive it, but whether 
it is found fouth of that, we have not at prefent 
authority to fay. If we can depend on the obfer* 
vations of navigators, who generally have too muchi 
to think of to attend to the minutia of natural hif- 
tory, thefe fifh are taken in the flraits of MageU 
Ian *, and of a moft furprifing fize, fome meafuring 
twenty inches in length, and eight in circumference. 
They inhabit the feas that wafli thefe iflands the 
whole year, and never go very remote from fhore, 
except when they afcend the rivers. It is remarked 
in certain rivers that they appear a long time before 
ihey fpawn, being taken in great abundance in No^ 
vjember^ December, and January , in the Thames and 
^£S^ but in others not till February^ and in Mar^ 

Narlorcuga'i Foy. 12^* 


ClafsIV. SMELT. 265 

and April they fpawn ; after v/hich* they all return 
to the fait water, and are not feen in the rivers till 
the next feafon. It has been obferved, that they 
never come into the Merfey as long as there is any 
fnow water in the river. 

Thefe filh vary greatly in fize, but the largeft we 
ever heard of was thirteen inches long, and weighed 
half a pound. 

They have a very particular fcent, from whence 
is derived one of their Englijh names Smelt^ i. e. 
fmell it. That of Sparlings which is ufed in WaleSy 
and the north of Ejigland^ is taken from the French 
Eperlan. There is a wonderful difagreement in the 
opinion of people in refpecl to the fcent of this fifli ; 
fome afiert it flavors of the violet ; the Germans, for 
a very different reafon, diftinguifli it by the elegant 
title of SHnckfifcb**, 

It is a fiili of a very beautiful form and color : the 
head is tranfparent, and the fkin in general fo thin, 
jhat with a good microfcope the blood may be ob- 
ferved to circulate. 

The irides are filvery: the pupil of a full black t 
the under jaw is the longeft : in the front of the up- 
per jaw are four large teeth •, thofe in the fides of 
both are fmall 1 in the roof of the mouth are two 

* In the river Connuav, near Llanr'wft, and in ^q Merfey they 
never continue above three or four weeks. 

** And not without reafon, if we may depend on Linnaust 
who fays there are in the Baltic two varieties, the one, ^vnich is 
called Nors, foetidijjimus, Jiercoris inflar, which in the early fpring;, 
when the peafants come to buy it, lills all the ftreets of Upjal 
with the fmell. He adds, that at this feafon agues reign there. 
Fmn. fmc^. p. 125. 

S 2 rows 


26^6 S M E L T. Clals IV. 

. rows of teeth ; on the tongue two others of large 

The firft dorfal fin has eleven rays •, the peftoral 
fins the fame number ; the ventral eight j the anal 

The fcales are fmall, and readily drop off: the 
tail confifts of nineteen rays, and is forked. 

The color of the back is whitifh, with a caft of 

green, beneath which it is varied with blue, and then 

fucceeds a beautiful glofs of a filvery hue. 

South- Befides this fpecies is another, which was commu- 

Siu nicated to us by the Hon. Daines Barrington, who 

defcribes it in thefe words : 

The Southampton fmelt agrees with the common 
kind in having two back fins, but both of them are 
radiated j the firft with eight radii, the fecond with 
twelve ; the belly fins have only five or fix radii : 
the upper jaw is longer than the lower, and has a 
few teeth, whereas the lower has none : in color, 
tranfparency of the back and head, filver ftripes 
on the fides, forked tail, &c. it agrees nearly with 
the former, but has nothing of the violet fmell or 
tafte. It fwarms in that fea, and is the common bait 
for whiting, mackrell, flat-fifli, &c. It is eaten 
fried, is tender and fweet, and without any fmall 
bones, but muft be gutted before it is dreffed. It 
grows to three or four inches in length, but is com- 
monly much lefs. 

IX. The 

Clafs IV. 

G W I N I A D. 


IX. The G W I N I A D. 

Le Lavaret. Belon. 278. 

Lavaretus; V'li'ch Lemani \ac\M 
Bezola \'uJgo nuncupatus. 
Alius Pifcis proprius hemani 
lacus. Rondel, finviat. 162, 
163, 164. Gefner pifc. 29, 

. 3o» 3'- 
Albula nobllis, Snepel, Helte ? 

Schone-velde 12. 
Vandefius et Gevandefius. ^ib. 

Scot. 26. 
Guiniad Wallis pifcis lacus Ba- 

lenjis, Ferree (uc puto) idem. 

If'il Icth. 1 83. Raiifyn. pijc, 

Lavaretus Allohrogum, Schelley 

Cumberlandis. PVtl. Icth. 183. 

Raiifyn. pifc, 61, 

Albula ca^rulea. Scheuchzer if. 

Jlp. ii. 48!. 
Coregonus maxilla fupcriore 

longiore plana, pinna dorii 

officulorum 14. Arted. fjnojt. 

Salmo Lavaretus. Lin. £fl, 

Sijk, Stor-fijk. Fatm.fuec. No, 

Gwiniad. Phil. Tra-nf. 1767, 

21 1. 
Adelfifch, Gangfifch, Weifs- 
£fch,WeifIer Blauiing, Schna- 
pel, Wwff Borifsy 37. 
Reinankl. Kram. 389. 

THIS filh is an inhabitant of feveral of the 
lakes of the Alpine parts of Europe. It is 
found in thofe of Suiizerland, Savoy, and Italy ; of 
Norway, Sueden, Lapland*, and Scotland \ in thofe 
of Ireland, and of Cumberland; and in IVales, ini 
that of Llyntegid, near Bala, in MerionethJIjire. 

* Schaffer, in his Hiftory oi Lapland, p. 140. fays, that thefe 
fifh are caught there of the weight often or twelve pounds. We 
wifh Linnaus had executed his intention of favoring the world 
with his Lachefis Lapponica, in which he promifed a complete 
hiftory of that country. I once reminded him of it, and it \$ 
with true regret, tiiat I give his anfwer •.————Nunc nimis fsri 

Me quoque debilitat feries immenfa laborumt 

Ante meum tempus cogor et efje fenem : 
Firma ft ilia licet fol-vetur in square nwvis, 
^a nunquam liquidis Jtcca carebit aquis. 

25S G W I N I A D. Clafs IV, 

It is the fame with the Ferra of the lake of 
Geneva^ the Schelly *, of Hdfe-ivatcr^ the Pollen of 
Lciigh Neagh^ and the Vangis and Juvangis of L<?<:/:> 
Mahon. The iS'^i?/^^ have a tradition that it v/as 
iirft introduced there by the beauteous queen, thei^r 
unhappy Mary Stuart; and as in her time the Scotch 
court was much frenchined, it feems hkely that the 
name was derived from the French^ vendoife, a dace ; 
to which a flight obferver might be tempted, to 
compare it from the whitenefs of its fcales. The 
Britijh name Giviniad, or whiting, v/as bellowed on 
it for the fame reafon. 

It is a gregarious fifh, and approaches the fhores 
in vaft flioals in fpring and in fummer, which prove 
in many places a bleffed relief to the poor of inland 
countries, in the fame degree as the annual return 
of the herring is to thofe who inhabit the coafts. The 
Rev. Mr. Farrijh, of Carlijle^ wrote me word, that 
he v/as alTured by a Kulfe-'water fifherman, that laft 
fummer he took between feven and eight thoufand 
at one draught. I muft not pafs by that gentleman 
without acknowleging my obligations to him for an 
account of the Charrs and the Schelly ; he being one 
of the valuable embellifhers of this work, for whom 
I am indebted to the friendfhip of his late worthy 

The G'winiad is a fiih of an infipid tafte, and muft 
be eaten foon, for it will not keep long •, thofe that 
choofe to preferve them do it with ialt. They die 
very foon after they are taken. Their fpawning fea- 
fon in Llyntegid is in December. 

* The inhabitants of CumaerJancf gv:t this name alfo to the 
chub, from its being a fcaly filh. 




tlafs IV. G W I N I A D. 269 

It has long ago been obferved in Camhden *, that 
thefe fiih never wander into the Dee^ nor the falmon 
never ventures into the lake : this mull be allowed to 
be generally the cafe ; but by accident the firft have 
been known toftray as f(i,r 2is Llandrilio, fix miles down 
the river, and a falmon has now and then been found 
trefpaffing in the lake **, 

The largeft Gwiniad we ever heard of weighed 
between three and four pounds : we have a Ferra 
we brought with us out of Stiilzerland^ that is fifteen 
inches long ; but thefe are uncommon fizes : the 
fiih which we defcribe was eleven inches long, iti 
greatefb depth three. 

The head fmall, fmooth, and of a dulky hue : 
the eyes very large : the pupil of a deep blue : the 
nofe blunt at the end: the jaws of equal length: 
the mouth fmall and toothlefs : the branchioftegoua 
rays nine : the covers of the gills filvery, powdered 
with black. 

The back is a little arched, and (lightly carinated : 
the color, as far as the lateral line, glofTed with deep 
blue and purple, but towards the lines aflumes a 
filvery caft, tinged with gold, beneath which thofe 
colors entirely prevale. 

The fide line is quite ftrait, and confifts of a ferie$ 
of diftind fpots of a dufky hue : the belly is a little 
prominent, and quite flat on the bottom. 

The firft dorfal fin is placed almoft in the middle, 
and confifts of fourteen branched rays ; the fecond 
is thin, tranfparent, and not diftant from the tail. 

* Fol. n. 790. 

** Hon. Mr. D. Barrington'j Utter to Dr, Watfon. Phil. TranC 

^1^ P t K E: Clafs IV, 

The perioral fins had eighteen rays, the liril. the 
longefl, the others gradually Ihortening ^ the ventral, 
fins were conipofed of twelve, and the anal of fif- 
teen, all branched at their ends •, the ventral fins in 
feme are of a fine iliy blue, in others as if powdered 
with blue fpecks j the ends of the other lower fins 
are tinged with the fame color. 

The tail is very much forked : the fcales large, 
and adhere clgfe to the body. 

Genus XXXV. Upper jaw fhorter than the lower^ 
Body long, flender, comprefTed 
fide ways. 

One dorfal fin placed near 
the tail. Pike. 

I. The PIKE. 

Lucius. Jufotiil Mqfella, 122. Pike, or Pickerel, Wil. Idh^ 

Luccio. Sat-oian. 94. 236. Raii/yn. pi/c. 112. 

Le Brochct, Belo7i. 292. Itin. Efox roftro plagioplateo. Jited, 

104. Jynon. 26. 

Lucius. RcnM. flwviat. 188. Efox Lucius. Lin. Jyfl. t^\G. 

GeJ'ner pile. 500. Gronc-v. Zooph. No. 361. 

Heket, Hecht. SchoKe'vel(/e. Gjadda. Faufi. juec. No. 355* 

44. Hecht. Kram. 388. 

THE pike is common in mofl of the lakes of 
Europe, but the largeH are thofe taken in 
Lcaplandy which, according to Schaffer, are fome- 
times eight feet long. They are taken there in 
great abundance, dried, and exported for fale. The 
Jargeft fifli of this kind which we ever heard of in 
England^ weighed thirty-five pounds. 

CUfsIV. PIKE 271: 

All writers who treat of this fpecies bring in- 
ftances of its vafl Yoracioufnefs. We have known 
one that was choaked by attempting to fwallov/ one 
of its own fpecies that proved too large a morfel. 
It does not confine itfelf to feed on fiili and frogs ; 
it will devour the water rat, and draw down the 
young ducks as they are fwimming about. In a 
jnanufcript note which v/e found, p. 244, of our 
copy of Plott\ Hiilory of Staff or dfloire^ is the fol- 
lowing extraordinary fad : " At Lord Gower\ ca- 
" nal at 1'renthamj a pike feized the head of a fwan 
" as fhe was feeding under water, and gorged fo 
" much of it as killed them both. The fervants 
" perceiving the fwan with its head under water for 
*' a longer time than ufual, took the boat, and found 
" both fwan and pike dead*." 

But there are inftances of its fiercenefs ftill more 
furprizing, and which indeed border a little on the 
marvellous. Gef?ier ** relates, that a familhed pike 
in the Rhone feized on the lips of a mule that was 
brought to water, and that the beaft drew the fiih 
out before it could difengage itfelf. That people 
have been bit by thefe voracious creatures while they 
were wafhing their legs, and that they will even con- 
tend with the otter for its prey, and endeavour to 
force it out of its mouth -{-. 

Small filh lliew the fame uneafinefs and detefta- 
tion at the prefence of this tyrant, as the little 

* This note we afterwards difcovered was wrote by Mr. 
F\oif, of Oxford, who affured me he inferted it on good au- 

** Gefntr pfc. 503. f Walton. 157. 


572 PIKE. ClafsIV. 

birds do at the fight of the hawk or owl. When 
the pike lies dormant near the furface (as is fre- 
quently the cafe) the leffer filh are often obferved 
to fwim around it in vaft numbers, and in great an- 
xiety. Pike are often haltered in a noofe, and taken 
•while they he thus afleep, as they are often found in 
the ditches near the 'Thames in the month of May. 

In tlie fhallow water of the LincolnJJjire fens they 
are frequently taken in a manner peculiar, we be- 
lieve, to that county, and the ifie of Ceylon *. The 
fifhermen makes ufe of what is called a crown-net, 
■which is no more than a hemifpherical baflcet, open 
at top and bottom. He {lands at the end of one of 
the little fen-boats, and frequently puts his bafl^et 
down to the bottom of the water, then poking a 
Hick into it, difcovers whether he has any booty by 
the ftriking of the fifh ; and vaft numbers of pike 
are taken in this manner. 
Lengey;. Thc longevity of this filh is very remarkable, if 
^' we may credit the accounts given of it. Rzaczyn- 
/ki** tells us of one that was ninety years old ; but 
Gefnerf relates, that in the year 1497, a pike was- 
taken near Hatlhrun^ in Suabia, with a brazen ring 
affixed to it, on which were thofe words in Greek 
chara6lers : I am the jijh ijuhich was firjl of all put 
into this lake by the hands of the governor of the uni' 
ve?fe, Frederick the Second, the ^th of Oftober, 
12^0:" fo that the former muft have been an in- 
fant to this Methufalem of a iifh. 

* Knoxh Hift. Ceykti, 2B. 
•• Htji. Kat. Polonia, 152. 
f Iccmtififdum, 3 1 6, where a print of the ring Is given. 


CiafsIV. PIKE. 275 

Pikes fpawn in March or Aprils according to the 
coldnefs or warmth of the weather. When they 
are in high feafon their colors are very fine, being 
green, fpotted with bright yellow ; and the gills are 
of a moil vivid and full red. When out of feafon, 
the green changes to grey, and the yellow fpots turn 

The head is very flat ; the upper jaw broad, Defers 
and is Ihorter than the lower: the under jaw turns 
np a little at the end, and is marked with minute 

The teeth are very fharp, difpofed only in the 
front of the upper jaw, but in both fides of the 
lower, in the roof of the mouth, and often the 
tongue. The flit of the mouth, or the gape, is 
very wide •, the eyes fmall. 

The dorfal fln is placed very low on the back, 
jind conflft:3 of twenty-one rays y the pe<?coral of 
fifteen -, the ventral of eleven ; the anal of eighteen. 

The tail is bifurcated. 

!I. The 



Clafs It. 

JI. The SEA P I K E. 

BfXoi'tJ. JriJ?. Bijl. an. ii. c. 

15. &c. 
BfAov/ij Yot,<p\z ? Athenaus. lib. 

vii. 319. 
Acus, five Belone P//?:// hh. ix. 

r. 51. 
Acuchia. SaJvian. 6'&. 
L*Aguille, ou Orphie. Belon. 

Acus prirna fpecies. Rondd. 

•2.1-j. Gefr.zr fife. 9. 
Horn-fifck. ScboneveUe. 11. 

Horn-fifh, or Gar-fifh, jni. 

Icih.ZT^l. Rail 109. 
Efox roftro culpidato gracili 

fubtereti, et fpithamali, Jr- 

ted. Jynon. 27. 
Efox Belone. E. roftro utraque 

Kiaxilla dentata. Liu, Jyjl, 

517. Gronov. Zooph. No. 

Nabbojadda, Horngiall, Faun.^ 

fuec^ No. 156. 
See-naadeJ, back-nadel. Wulff 

Borufsi No. 70. 


TsHIS fifh which is known in many places, is 
known by the name of the Sea Needle. It 
comes in fhoals on our coafts in the beginning of 
fummer, and precedes the mackrel : it has a refem- 
blance to it in tafte, but the light green, which ftains 
the back bone of this fifh when boiled, gives many 
people a difguft to it. 

Mr. Ray tells us, that when he was in Ccrnwall, 
the fifhermen gave him the names of two fpecies of 
this fifh, one they called Girrocks^ the other Skippers ; 
thefe we may fuppofe to be the common kind, the 
other (according to Mr. J age's conjed:ure) is pro- 
bably the fame with the Sauna of Rondekthis., p. 
232, which boththofe icthyologifts agree has a fhor- 
ter nofe than the common fpecies. We have no other 
defcription of this fifh than what is left us by Ron- 
deletius., who fays, that it is fhorter and thicker than 
the other ; that the nofe is fhorter and turns up ; that 

Clafs IV. SEA PIKE, a;^ 

the edges of the jaws are ferrated ; and that between 
the anal fin and the tail it has feveral ipurious fins 
like the mackrel. We do not venture to make a 
diflinft article of this fifh, becaufe Mr. Jago has not 
pointed out the fpecific difference j but we thought 
it necelTary to give this brief defcription of it from 
Rondeletius, to fupply that defed in cafe the Saurus 
ihould prove a BriiiJJj fifh. 

The common fea pike, or fea needle, fometimes Deface 
grows to the length of three fctt, or more. 

The jaws are very long, llender, and Iharp pointed; 
tlie under extends much farther than the upper, and. 
the edges of both are armed with numbers of ihorc 
ilender teeth : the infide of the mouth is purple : the 
tongue fmall : the eyes large : the irides filvery : the 
jioftrils wide and round. 

The body is flender : the belly quite flat,; bounded 
on both fides by a rough line. 

The pe6loral fins confift of twelve rays ; the ven- 
tral fins fmall, and placed very remote from the head, 
eonfifts of fix rays, the firft fpiny. 

The dorfal fin lies on the very lower part of thd, 
back, confifts of eighteen rays ; the firft are high, 
the others lower as they approach the tail ; the anal 
fin is of the fame form, and placed oppofite the other: 
the tail is forked. 

The colors are extremely beautiful when the fifii 
is in the water : the back of a fine green, beneath 
that appears a rich changeable blue and purple : the 
fides and belly are of a fine filvery hue* 


^7^ ARGENTINE. .ClafsIV. 

Genus XXXVI. Teeth in the jaws and tongue. 
Eight branchioftegous rays. 
Vent near the tail. 
The ventral fins compofed of 
many rays. Argentine. 

I. The A R G- E N T I N E. 

Sphyrcenaparva, five fphyra?na Argentina. Arted. fynon. 17. 

iecunda fpecies. Rondel. 227, Argentina Sphyrana Lin. Jyfl, 

Gefner pijc.%%^. 518. Grow'V. Zooph» Aff. 

Pifciculus Romcs, Argentina 349. 

diftus. Wil. Icth. 229. Rail 

fyn. pifc. 108. 

THIS fpecles was communicated to us by Mr. 
Brunnich., who faw it taken off the ifle of 
Sheppy^ and is, according to Dodor Gronovhis^ com- 
mon in the mouth of the Schelde during autumn. 

It is a fmall iifh of a (lender form : the nofe is 
iharp pointed : the teeth very minute : the eyes 

On the back is one fmall fin, confiftino; of ten 
foft rays -, the peftoral of about fourteen -, the ven- 
tral of eleven 5 the anal of nine : the tail is 

The back is green : the fides beneath the lateral 
line filvery. 

Mr. JVilloiighhy\ from whom we borrow this defcrip- 
tion, fays, that the outfide of the air bladder of this 
fi{h confifts of a foiiaceous filvery fkin, which was 
jp:iade ufe of in the manufadure of artificial pearl. 


Clafs IV. A T H E R I N E. 277; 

Genus XXXVII. The upper jaw a little flat. 
Six branchioftegous rays. 
A filvery flripe along the Me, 


I. The A T H E R I N E. 

EpfetUG ? 3elo». 209. ^'^' ^'^^' 209- J^aiifyn.pifa 

EJ/riTO?, Atherina. Rondel. hi/'- „ j ,„j r Jj.a 

2.5. 216. BoJue^Epig. 66. ^^^^6 ^"°"' ^^' 

67. Gefnerpfc 71, 72. Atherina Hepfetus. A. pinna 

r -s TT r Ti . ani radiis lere duodecim. 

tus ; forte Hepletus Ronae- ,. r n --, c 0^ Z tb 

letii, vel Atherina eiufdexn. t!^ i' ^' ' t * 

•' ^0. 399. 

IT is alfo to the fame gentleman that we are in* 
debted for our knowledge of this being a Britijb 
fifli, it having been feen by him at the fame place 
with the former. 

Mr. Willoughhy defcribes it as not exceeding three 
inches and a quarter in length : its form is flender : 
the body covered with fcales, and entirely pellucid, 
except where the back bone and inteftines lie : the; 
back is fpotted with black : the fides are filvery : 
when the fcales are taken off it appears that every 
four fpots form a rhombic figure. 

On the back are two fins «, the firft confifts of 
feven, the fecond of eleven rays ; the peroral of 
fourteen ; the ventral of fix •, the anal of fourteen. 

The tail, according to Dodlor Grongvius^ bifur- 

f Muu Uthpl I. AV. 66, 


275 MULLET. Clafs tV. 

Genus XXXVni. Bodv and covers of the gilk 
clothed with large fcales. 
Six incurvated branchioftegous 
Teeth on the tong;ue and in the 


palate only. Mullet. 

I. the M U L L E T. 

Ki^ccXog, KsT^iVC. Ariji. Hiji, Cej.halus. Rondel 260. Gefner 

an. lib. v. c. 11, &c. /:/'-'• 549- 

1', _,-',,, r^^^- u ]■ , ;;; Mullet. tVil. Icth. ij\. Rait 
ILjrffj?-. Oppian Halieui' lU. ,- -/■ o 

T^^^^ i^ZZ' ^'^' ^''- ^f; -. ^d"^^h''jrted. fynon. 52. 
M^g^O^nddaueut. 37. Phnn j^^^^Jij .ephalus.M. pinna dor^ 

>^ '," 1 ' "^o ,' J' fall anteriore quinque radia- 

Cephalo. bal'vian. re. ^^ r . , ,3 ^ /^ 

Le Mulct, ^f/siz. 20c. 7 ^7 ^T •^ ^ 

:> ZDoph. ho. 397. 

THE mullet is juftly ranked by Arijiotle among 
the Vifces Liiicrales, or thofe that prefer the 
ihores to the full fea : they are found in great plenty 
on feveral of the fandy coalls of our iiland, and 
haunt in particular thofe fmall bays that have in-' 
fluxes of frelh water. ' They come in great flioals,' 
^nd keep rooting like hogs in the fand or mud^ 
leaving their traces in form of large round holes. 
Tliey are very cunning, and when furrouhded with 
a net, the whole Ihoal frequently efcapes by leaping 
over it, for when one takes the lead, the others are 
iure to follow : this circumftance is taken notice of 
by Oppian •, whether the latter part of his obferva- 
tion is true, is what we are uncertain. 

Ciafs IV. MULLET. 279 

Ksfpivg [Mu 7rXsiil'n<nv Iv dyaoii/ncri Xiuoio, 
EAj40jU,£^©^ ^oXov art zre^i^^oy.ov ri<yvoiri(r£v. 
T"^i ^' di/x^^ojcTKei XiXiYifj^ivoq xiSocroq uK^a, 
O^^og ai/co CTTTsvaccv oarrrov cr^iuog uXy^ari xii(pu> 
0^|aii<rat' j3aAii? ^l (Tccoppovog zk i.y.ccrr\<Ti' 
UoKXaKi yap ptTrvitri >ta,i h^izrcc Trucr^ocTa, (p£'k7MV 

Et S"Qy dvQP^ri^nq zypuTov r^Aov, avrig oXiB'tj 

Ap^i/U|W,£i/oj' TsrsiPvi §i [^oi^ccu aTTOTrciveTOit o^fAng. 

The Mullet * , when encircling feines indofe. 

The fatal threads and treach'rous bofom knows, 

Inftant he rallies all his vig'rous powers, 

And faithful aid of every nerve implores ; 

O'er battlements of cork up-darting flies. 

And finds from air th'efcape that fea denies. 

But fhould the firft attempt his hopes deceive. 

And fatal fpace th'imprifon'd fall receive, 

Exhaufted ftrength no fecond leap fupplies ; 

Self-doom'd to death the proftrate vidtim lies, 

Refign'd with painful expeftation waits, 

'Till thinner elements compleat his fates. Jones, 

Oppian had good opportunity of examining thefe 
fifh, for they fwarm during fome feafons on the 
coails of the Mediterranean. Near Martegues, in 
the fouth of France, abundance of mullets are taken 
in weres made of reeds placed in the fhallows. Of 
the milts of the males, which are there called Alle- 
tants, and of the roes of the females, which are 
called Botar-^ is made Botargo. The materials are 
taken out entire, covered with fait for four or five 
hours, then preffed a little between two boards or 
ftones, wafhed, and at lafl dried in the fun for 
thirteen or fourteen days**. 

* M'"* Jones, by miftake, tranflates it, the Barhel. 
** Mr. miloughbfs notes during his travels. Vids Harrises Col. 
Voy, 11. 721. 

T This 

280 MULLET Clafs IV. 

This fiih was fometimes made the infirument of 
a horrible punilliment for unfortunate gallants. It 
was in ufe both at Athens^ and at Rome-, but we 
doubt much whether it was a legal one : for we ra- 
ther fufpeft it v/as inflifted inftantaneoully by the. 
injured and enraged hufoand, at a feafon when 

Furor arma minijlrat. 

ytivenal feems to fpeak of it in that light as well as 
Horace : the former, relating the revenge taken by 
the exafperated fpoufe, defcribes it as very various ; 

Necat hie ferro, fecat ilk cruentis 
Veruerilus^ qiioJdar,i machos et Mugilis intrat'^^. 

The paiTage in Horace feems not to have been at- 
tended to by the critics •, but when he mentions the 
diftreffes that the invader of another's bed under- 
went, he moft certainly alludes to this penalty : 

DifcinSfct tunica fugiendum efi^ ac pede nudo ; 
Ne nummi pereant, aut Pyga, aut denique fama +. 

The mullet is an excellent fifh for the table, but 
at prefent not a fafhionable one. 
.Pefcr. Xhe head is almoft fquare, and is flat on the top : 

the nofe blunt : lips thick. It has no teeth, only in 
the upper lip is a fmall roughnefs : between the 
eyes and the mouth is a hard callus. 

* Zf^z'^ajAthenienfium adulteri iv s^yw dsprehenji fana fuit 
^CiOcciio^ucrKT. Raphani loco utebantur nonnutiquam mugile pifcs, 
hiterdum fcorpiom. Caufauboni animadverf : in Athenaeum, lih. I. 
(, 5. tcm. ii. edit. Lugd. 162 1, 
** Satyr. X. 316. 
t Satjr. ii. Ub. I. 132. 


ClafsIV. M U L L E T» 281 

The pnpil of the eye is black, encircled with a 
fmall filvery line : the upper part of the iris is hazel j 
the lower filvery. 

The form of the body is pretty thick, but the 
back not greatly elevated. The fcales are large and 

The firft dorfal fin is placed near the middle of 
the back, and confifts of four flrong fpines ; the 
fecond of nine foft branching rays ; the perioral has 
fixteen, the ventral fix ; the firft a ftrong fpine, the 
others foft. 

The tail is much forked. 

The color of the back is dufky, varied with blue 
and green : the fides filvery, marked with broad 
dulky parallel lines, reaching from head to tail: 
the belly is filvery. 

X^. 'Qem 

282 FLYING FISH. Clafs m 

Genus XXXIX. Head covered with fcales. 

Pedoral fins almoft as long as 
the body. 

Flying Fish, 


Hirundo Plinii lih. ix. c. z6. Mugil alatus, RofrJel 267. Ge/- 

''*■" E^wxoiTO? y.cci "A«?wi/K ? Kn-///2-. 553. /F}7. 7f//^. 233. 

j^'ieme^iS. Ii&^vilu~^^^. Op- '^'^ocxtas. Jrted.Jjnon. iB 

J>ian Halieut a: 1^7. ^sXi^ccu^ Exoca^tus yolitans. _E. abdo- 

G///fl« ii. 450. «^"^e utnnque carinato. Lm. 

Rondine. Sah^an, 1 86. M-S^O. Aman.Acad. I. 603. 

Hirondelle de mer. i?,/,«; ,89. ^'■''''""^' ^'"P"' ^°- 359- 

E can produce but a fingle inflance of this 
fpecies** being taken on the BritiJJj coafts. 
In Jtaie ij6^^ one was caught at a fmall diftance be- 
low Caermarthen^ in the river 'Towy, being brought 
up by the tide which flows as far as the town. It 
is a fifh frequent enough in the Mediterranean, and 
alfo in the ocean, where it leads a moll miferable 
life. In its own element it is perpetually harafTed 
by the Dorados, and other filh of prey. If it en- 
deavors to avoid them by having recourfe to the 
air, it either meets its fate from the Gulls, or the 
Albatrofs, or is forced down again into the mouth of 

* P/% mentions It under the fame name, lih. ix. c. 19. 
** This fifli was feen by 'John Strongs, Efq; at Caermarthenf 
who was fo obliging as to commanicate to me the account of 

it*.. . ■ ■ - . 


Clafs IV. F L Y I N G F I S H. 283 

the inhabitants of water, who below keep pace with 
its aerial excurfion. Neither is it unfrequent that 
whole fhoals of them fall on board of Ihips that 
navigate the feas of warm climates : it is therefore 
apparent, that nature in this creature hath fupplied 
it with inftruments that frequently bring it into that 
deflru(5lion it ftrives to avoid, by having recourfe to 
an element unnatural to it. 

The antients were acquainted with this fpecies : 
Pliny mentions it under the name of Hirundo, and 
fpeaks of its flying faculty. It is probable that 
Oppian intended the fame by his Xl/.aai pi^fA Jov??-, or 
the fwift fwallow fifli. What Athenaus and the laft 
cited author mean by the E^oxoiroi; and A^uvig, is not 
fo evident : they affert it quitted the water and flept 
on the rocks, from whence it tumbled with precipita- 
tion when difturbed by the unfriendly birds : on thele 
accounts Icthyologifts feem to have made it fynony- 
mous with th.t flying fijh. 

It refembles the herring in form of the body, but Defer, 
the back is flat : the fcales large and filvery : the 
dorfal fin is fmall, and placed near the tail : the pec- 
toral fins, the infl:ruments of flight, are almoft as 
long as the body : the tail is bifurcated. 

T 3 Genus 

zSi H E R R I N Go ClafsIV. 

Genus XL. Eight branchioftegons rays. 

The belly extremely fliarp, and often 
ferrated. Herring. 

I. The H E R R I N G. 

Arlngha ex cimhrids littoribus. Clupea Harengus. CI. im- 

Jo'vius. 143. maculata, maxilla inferiore 

Hareng, efpece de Chalcis. longiore. Lin. fyji. 523. 

Belon, 169. Groucv. Zocph. No. 348. 

Harengus. Rondel 222. Ge/ner sill. Faun. Juec. No. 357. «. 

Ih&^^Whone^dde. 37. Stromming. Faun. fuec. No. 

Herring. Wil.lcth, z\g. Rait 357- P- 

fyn.pifc. 103. Stromling*. Wulff. Boru/s, No.. 

Clupea maxilla inferiore longi- 50. 
ore maculis carens. Artedo 
Jjnon. 14. a. ^. 

Name, ^^ip^HE herring was unknown to the antients, 
JL notwithftanding the words ;)(,aAxi? and fj.oe,iv\.?^ 
are by tranflators rendered Hake **. The charac- 
ters given of thofe fifh are common to fuch num- 
bers of different fpecies, as render it impoffible to 
fay which they intended. 

Pkce. Herrings are found from the highefl northern lati- 
tudes yet known, as low as the northern ccafts of 
France ; and excepting one inflance brought by 
Dcd-\; of a few being once taken in the Bay of 
Tangier, are never found more foutherly. 

* The herring of the Baltic, in all refpecls is like ours, but 
** Which word, in fpite of all lexicographers, never fignified 
, any thing but the ganim or pickle. Vide p. 221. 
f Natural Hift. 0^ the Herring, p. 27. 


eiafsIV. HERRING. 285 

They are met with in vaft flioals on the coaft of 
America, as low as Carolina. In Chcfapeak Bay is 
an annual inundation of thofe liili, which cover the 
fhores in fuch quantities as to become a nufance*. 
We find them again in the feas of KarMzchatka, 
and poffibly they reach Japan ; for Kampfer men- 
tions, in his account of the fifh of that country, 
fome that are congenerous. 

The great winter rendezvous of the herring is 
within the Arctic circle : there they continue for 
many months in order to recruit themfelves after 
the fatigue of fpawning, the feas within that fpace 
fwarming with infe6l food, in a degree far greater 
than in our v^^armer latitudes. 

This mighty army begins to put itfelf in motion Migra- 
in the fpring •, we diftinguifli this vaft body by that 
name, for the word herring is derived from the Ger- 
man, Heer, an army, to exprefs their numbers. 

They begin to appear off the Shetland ides in April 
and May ; thefe are only forerunners of the grand 
Ihoal which comes in Ju7ie, and their appearance is 
marked by certain figns by the num.bers of birds, 
fuch as gannets, and others which follow to prey 
on them : but when the main body approaches, its 
breadth and its depth is fuch as to alter the appear- 
ance of the very ocean. It is divided into diftincfl 
columns of five or fix miles in length, and three or 
four in breadth, and they drive tht water before 
them with a kind of rippling : fometimes they fink 
for the fpace of ten or fi^fteen minutes, then rife 

* Catejhy Carol, ii. xxxjii. 

T 4 again 


286 HERRING. ClafsIV. 

again to the furface, and in bright weather reflect a 
variety of fplendid colors, like a field of the nnoil 
pretious gems, in which, or rather in a much more 
valuable light, jQiould this ftupendous gift of Pro- 
vidence be confidered by the inhabitants of the Bri- 
iijh iiles. 

Separa- The fitft chcck this army meets in its march fouth- 
ward, is from the Shetland iiles, which divide it in- 
to two parts ; one wing takes to the eail, the other to 
the weflern Ihores of Great-Britain^ and fill every 
bay and creek with their numbers ; others pafs on 
towards Tarmomh^ the great and antient mart of 
herrings ; they then pafs thro' the Britijh channel, 
and after that in a manner difappear. Thofe which 
take to the weft, after offering themfelves to the He- 
Irides, where the great ftationary fiftiery is, proceed 
towards the north of Ireland, where they meet with 
a fecond interruption, and are obliged to make a fe- 
cond divifion ; the one takes to the weftern fide, 
and is fcarce perceived, being foon loft in the im- 
menfity of the Atlantic ; but the other, which paffes 
into the Irijh fea, rejoices and feeds the inhabi- 
tants of moft of the coafts that border on it. 

Thefe brigades, as we may call them, which are 
thus feparated from the greater columns, are often 
capricious in their motions, and do not fnew an in- 
variable attachment to their haunts. We have had 
in our time ir-,ftances of their entirely quitting the 
coafts of Cardiganjtoire, and vifiting thole of Caer- 
narvonjhire and Flintfiire, where they continued for 
a few years, but in the prefent year have quite de- 
ferted our fea, and returned to their old feats. The 


ClafsIV. HERRING. 287 

feafon of their appearance among ns was very late, 
never before the latter end of November : their con- 
tinuance till February. 

Were we inclined to confider this partial migra- Provi- 
tion of the herring in a moral light, we might re- jnftina, 
lie6t with veneration and awe on the mighty Power 
which originally imprelTed on this rnoft ufeful body 
of his creatures, the inftind that direfts and points 
out the courfe, that bleffes and enriches thefe 
iflands, which caufes them at certain and invariable 
times to quit the vaft polar deeps, and offer them- 
felves to our expecting fleets. That benevolent Be- 
ing has never, from the earlieft records, been once 
known to withdraw this bleffing from the whole, 
tho' he often thinks proper to deny it to particulars ; 
yet this partial failure (for which we fee no natural 
reafon) fhould fill us with the mod exalted and 
grateful fenfe of his Providence, for imprefTing ib 
invariable and general inilinft on thefe filh towards 
a fouthward migration, when the whole is to be be- 
nefited, and to withdraw it only when a minute part 
is to fuffer. 

This inflindt was given them, that they might re- Spat»<ii- 
move for the fakeofdepofiting their fpawn in warm- **^* 
er feas, that would mature and vivify it more af- 
furedly than thofe of the frigid zone. It is not from 
defeft of food that they fet themfelves in motion, 
for they come to us full and fat, and on their return 
are almoft univerfally obferved to be lean and mi- 
ferable. What their food is near the pole, we are 
not yet informed ; but in our feas they feed much 
on the Onifcus Marinus^ a cruftaceous infed, and FooJ. 
fometimes on their own fry. They 

s88 HERRING. Clafs IV. 

They are in full roe the end oijme^ and continue 
in perfedlion till the beginning of winter, when they 
begin to depofit their fpawn. The young herrings 
begin to approach the fhores in July and Augufi, and 
are then from half an inch to two inches long : thofc 

Rfeturn. ^^ Torkjhire are called Herring Sile *. Tho' we have 
no particular authority for it, yet as very few young- 
herrings are found in our feas during winter, it feems 
mofl certain that they mull return to their parental 
haunts beneath the ice, to repair the vail deilruftion 
of their race during fummer, by men, fowl and 
filh. Some of the old herrings continue on our 
coafts the whole year : the Scarborough fifhermen 
never put down their nets but they catch a few; 
but the numbers that remain are not worth men- 
tion in comparifon to the numbers that return. 

Dtfcr, Herrings vary greatly in fize. Mr. Travis com- 

municated to me the information of an experienced 
fifher, who informed him that there is fometimes 
taken near 2~armcuth, a herring diftinguifhed by a 
black fpot above the nofe •, and that he once faw 
one that was tM^enty-one inches and an half long. 
He infilled that it was a different fpecies, and va- 
ried as much from the common herring as that 
does from the pilchard. This we mention in order 
to incite fome curious perfon on that coafl to a far- 
ther enquiry. 

The eye is very large : the edges of the upper jaw 
and the tongue are very rough, but the whole mouth 

* The Sueaes and Danes call the old herring Sill -, but the 
people of Slejku from whence the Anglo-Saxons came call 
the {lySjlcs. 


ClafsIV. HERRING. 289 

is void of teeth : the gill covers are very loofe, and 
open very wide -, which occafions the ahnoft inftant 
death of the herring when taken out of the water, 
which is well known, even to a proverb. 

The dorfal fin confifts of about feventeen rays, 
and is placed beyond the centre of gravity, fo that 
when the fifh is fufpended by it, the head immediately 
dips dov/n : the two ventral fins have nine rays ; the 
peftoral feventeen j the anal fourteen : the tail is 
much forked. 

The lateral line is not apparent, unlefs the fcales 
are taken off: the fides are compreffed : the belly 
fiiarply carinated, but the ridge quite fmooth, and 
not in the left ferrated. 

The fcales are large, thin, and fall off with a flight 

The color of the back and fides green, varied Color* 
with blue : the belly filvery. 

The herring fifhery is of great antiquity : the in- Fifliery, 
duftrious Dutch firft engaged in it about the year 
1 1 64 : they were in pofTelTion of it for feveral cen- 
turies, but at length its value become fojuftly to be 
known, that it gave rife to moft obftinate and well- 
difputed wars between the Englijh and them ; but 
ftill their diligence and fi-^ill gives them a fuperiority 
over us in that branch of trade. 

Our great ftations- are off the Shetland and Wefiern 
IJles^ and off the coaft of Norfolk^ in which the 
Dutch alio fhare. Yarmouth has long been famous 
for its herring fair * \ that town is obliged, by its 

* This fair was regulated by an aft, commonly called the5/<z* 
iUte of Herrings, in the 31ft year of Edward III, 


lipo HERRING. ClafsIV. 

charter, to fend to the Iheriifs of Norwich one hun- 
dred herrings, to be made into twenty-four pies, by 
them to be delivered to the lord of the manor of 
Eajl Carkton, who is to convey them to the king *. 
The facetious Doftor Fuller*^ takes notice of the 
great repute the county of Norfolk was in for this 
fifh, and, with his ufual archnefs, calls a red her- 
ring a Norfolk Capon. 

The Dutch are moll extravagantly fond of this 
filh when it is pickled. A premium is given to the 
iirfl: bufs that arrives in Holland with a lading of 
this their ambrofta^ and a vaft price given for each 
Iceg. We have been in the country at that happy 
minute, and obferved as much joy among the inha- 
bitants on its arrival, as the JEgypians lliew on 
the firfl overflowing of the Nile. Flanders had the 
honor of inventing the art of pickling herrings. 
One William Beukelen^ of Biervlet, near Sluys, hit 
on this ufeful expedient : from him was derived the 
name pickle, which we borrow from the Butch and 
German. It is very fingular that mofl nations give 
the name of their favorite dilh to the facetious atten- 
dant on every mountebank. Thus the Dutch call 
him Pickle Herring ; the Italians, Macaroni ; 
the French, Jean Pottage ; the Germans, Hans 
WuRSTf ; and we dignify him with the title of 
Jack Pudding. 

* Camlden Brit an. I. 458. 

'*'* Br itijh Worthies. zi%. 
f That is, Jack Salvage, 

II. The 

Clafs IV. PILCHARD. ^gi 


:Bi\c\izrA. Fuller's Brit. Worthies. Clupea <^' Arted.fynon. \6. 

^ ,^94- Pilchard. Borlafe Corn^aU. 

Peltzer. Schom'velde. 40. 

The Pilchard. Wil.Icth. 223. ^'^' 

Raiijyn. pi/c. 1 04. 

THE pilchard appears in vafl fhoals off the 
Cornijh coafls about the middle of July, dif- 
appear the beginning of winter, yet fometimes a 
few return again after Chrijimas. Their winter re^^ 
treat is the fame with that of the herring, and their 
motives for migrating the fame. They affedl, during 
fummer, a warmer latitude, for they are not found 
in any quantities on any of our coafts except thofe 
of Cornwall, that is to fay, from Fowey harbor to 
the Scilly ifles, between which places the fhoals keep 
fhifting for fome weeks. 

The approach of the pilchard is known by much 
the fame figns as thofe that indicate the arrival of the 
herring. Perfons, called mCornwall Huers, are placed 
on the cliffs, to point to the boats llationed off the land- 
the courfe of the filh. By the ift oi James I. c. 2^, 
filhermen are empowered to go on the grounds of 
others to hue, without being liable to adions of tref- 
pafs, wliich before occafioned frequent lawfuits. 

The emoluments that accrue to the inhabitants of 
that county are great, and are beft expreffed in the 
words of Doftor JV, Borlafe, in his accou^it of the 
Pilchard filhery. 

" It 

292 P I L C H A R D. Clafs IV. 

" It employs a great number of men on the fea, 
" training them thereby to naval affairs •, employs 
*' men, women, and children, at land, in faking, 
*' preffing, walliing, and cleaning, in making 
" boats, nets, ropes, cafks, and all the trades de- 
*' pending on their conftruftion and fale. The 
" poor is fed with the offals of the captures, the 
" land with the refufe of the fifli and fait, the mer- 
" chant finds the gains of commiiTion and honeft 
*' commerce, the fiHierman the gains of the iilh. 
" Ships are often freighted hither with fait, and 
" into foreign countries with the fifh, carrying off 
" at the fame time part of our tin. The ufual 
" produce of the number of hoglheads exported 
" each year, for ten years, from 1747 to 1756 in- 
*' clufive, from the four ports of Fawy, Falmouth^ 
" Penzance, and St. .Ives, it appears that Fawy has 
" exported yearly 1732 hogflieads ; Falmouth^ 
*' 1 46 3 1 hoglheads and two-thirds ; Penzance and 
" Mounts-Bay, 12149 hoglheads and one-third; 
" St. Ives, 1282 hoglheads: in all amounting to 
" 29795 hoglheads. Every hogfhead for ten years 
" lail paft, together with the bounty allowed for 
" each hoglhead exported, and the oil made out 
" of each hogfhead, has amounted, one year with 
" another at an average, to the price of one pound 
" thirteen fhiUings and three-pence j fo that the 
" cafh paid for pilchards exported has, at a medium, 
" annually amounted to the fum of forty-nine thou- 
" fand five hundred and thirty-two pounds iQn 
« fhiUings." 


Clafs IV. PILCHARD. apj 

The numbers that are taken at one fhooting out 
of the nets, is amazingly great. Dodcor Borlafe af- 
fured me, that on the 5th of OBoher^ 1767, there 
were at one time inclofed in .S"/. Ives\ Bay 7000 
hogftieads, each hogfliead containing 35000 fiHi, 
in all 245000000. 

This fifh has a general likenefs to the herring, °^^*'* 
but differs in fome particulars very effentially ; we 
therefore defcribe it comparatively with the other, 
having one of each fpecies before us, both of them 
of the fame length, vix, nine inches and an half. 

The body of the pilchard is lefs comprelfed than 
that of the herring, being thicker and rounder : the 
nofe is fhorter in proportion, and turns up : the un- 
der jaw is ftiorter. 

The back is more elevated : the belly lefs fliarp : 
the dorfal fin of the pilchard is placed exadly in the 
centre of gravity, fo that when taken up by it, the 
body preferves an equilibrium, whereas that of the 
herring dips at the head : the dorfal fin of the pil- 
chard we examined, being placed only three inches 
eight tenths from the tip of the nofe ; that of the 
herring four inches one tenth. 

The fcales of the pilchard adhere very clofely, 
whereas thofe of the herring very eafily drop off. 

The pilchard is in general lefs than the herring 5 
the fpecimen we defcribe being a very large one. 

The pilchard is fatter, or more full of oil. 

III. The 



Clafs IV. 


Spratti. Wzl. Lth. 221. Raii 
fyn.pifc. 105. 

Clupeaquadriuncialis, maxilla 
inferlore longiore, ventre a- 
cutiffimo. Arted.Jyfton. 17. 

Clupea Sprattus. CI. pinna 
dorfali radiis tredecim. Lin. 

fyft- 523. 

Hwufsbuk. Faun, fuse. No. 

R. Willoughhy and Mr. Ray were of opinion, 
that thefe fiih were the fry of the herring : we 
are induced to diffent from them, not only becaufe on 
comparing a fprat and young herring of equal fize, 
vit difcovered fome fpecific differences, but likewife 
for another reafon : the former vifits our coafts, and 
continue with us in ihoals innumerable, when the 
others in genei-al have retired to the great northern 

They come into the river Thames^ below bridge, 
the beginning of No'uember, and leave it in March, 
and are, during their feafon, a great relief to the 
poor of the capital. 

At Grave/end, and at Tarmontb, they are cured 
like red herrings ; they are fometimes pickled, and 
are little inferior in flavor to the Anchovy^ but the 
bones will not diflblve like thofe of the latter. Mr. 
Forjter tells me, that in the Baltic they preferve them 
in the fame manner, and call them Breitli?ig^ i. e. the 
little deep filh, as being deeper than the Stromling, 
or Baltic herring. 


Clafs IV. ANCHOVY. 295 

The fprat grows to about the length of five Defer, 
inches : the body is much deeper than that of a 
youno- herring of equal length : the back fin is 
placed more remote from the nofe than that of the 
herring, and we think had fixteen rays. But the 
great diftinftion between this fifh, the herring and 
pilchard, is the belly : that of the two firft being 
quite fmooth, that of the laft moft flrongly fer- 

IV. The A N C H O V Y. 

E^jt^auAo? ? Jri^. Hiji. an. Lycoftomus, fehe mareneken ? 

lib vi. f. ir. Schone'ueUe- 46. tab. 5. 

V,.^„^^Uy^\r,,-'? j.h TL Anchovy. Wil. Icth. zzi. Raii 

vii. c. 28c. ^r -ii r • 1 

T , . 1 ^ T, 1 c Clupea maxilla fupenore lon- 

L'Anchoy ? Belon.ib^. r . , ,. ^ 

Encraficholus ? Rondel. 211. ^1^ ' 'Jjl^on. 7. 

^r ^ /- ro Clupea encralicolus. Lin.fyjl. 

Gefner pile. 68. *^ •'■'•' 

^ 523- 

THE true anchovies are taken in vafl quanti- 
ties in the Mediterranean^ and are brought 
over here pickled. The great filhery is at Gorgoita, 
a fmall ifle weft of Leghorn. 

Mr. Ray difcovered what he fufpeded to be the 
fame fifh in the fea near Chejier *, where he de- 
fcribed them. Notwithftanding I live near that city, 
and have beenalTured by myfifherman that they are 
found in our seftuary, it never has been my fortune 
to procure one. 

* Rafs Letters, 47. 

U The 

296 SHAD. , ClafsIV. 

The EngUJh anchovy (according to Mr. Ray) is 
a palm in length, and thicker than a thumb : the 
body more {lender, but lefs comprefied than that 
of the herring, has no fcales*, and is pellucid, 
except where the back bone runs. 

It is almoft of the color of a fprat : the 
nofe is Iharp : the upper mandible longer than the 
lower : the mouth very large for the fize of tlic 
fifli : the eyes large. 




ix. c 

486. xvii. 

JnJ^. Hift. an. lib. 
Strabo lib. XV. 
566. Athetitxus. 

lib. iv. 131. vii. 328. Op- 
pi an Ihdieiit. I. 244. 

Alaufa? Aufonii Mofella. 128. 

Laccia, chiepa. Saluian. 104. 

L'Alofe. Belon. 307. 

Thriffa. Ronde'. 220. Ge/mr 
pifc. 20. 

Bayeke, Meyfifch. Schonevelde. 


Shad, or Mother of Herrings. 

Wil. Icth. 227. Rail fyn. pifc. 

Clupea apice maxilla fuperiore 
bifido, maculis nigris utrin- 
que. Arted.fynon. 15. 

Clupea alofa. CI. lateribus ni- 
gro maculatis, rofiro bifido. 
Lin.JyJi. 1^2-},. Grono=v.Zooph. 
No. 347. 

NEITHER Arifiotle., Athen^us, nor Oppian^ 
have defcribed their ©^to-tra with fuch preci- 
fion, as to induce us to tranflate it the Shad., without 
affixing to it our fceptic mark. Aufonius has been 

* Schone^jcUe fays, the fcales of his LycoJlo?nos fall off very 
readily ; perhaps Mr. Ray might fee them after they had been 
carried fome diftance, when they had loft their fcales. 


CkfslV. SHAD. 297 

equally negligent In refped to his Alaufa : all he tells 
us is, that it was a very bad fifh : 

Stridentef^ue foc'is ohfonia plebis Alausas. 

j^lau/ce crackl'mg on the embers are 
Of wretched poverty, th'infipid fare. 

But Commentators have agreed to rendef the 
O^KTiTCi of the firft, and the Alaufa of the laft, by 
the word Shad. Perhaps they were direfted by the 
authority of Strabo., who mentions the ©^itra-oc the 
fuppofed Shad., and the Ksr^su?, or Mullet., as filh that 
afcend the Nile at certain feafons, which, with the 
Tjolphin'^ of that river, he fays, are the only kinds 
that venture up from the fea for fear of the Croco- 
dile. That the tv/o firft are fifh of pafTage in the 
jVi/i?, is confirmed to us by Belonius^'^, and by 
Hajfelquifi-f. The laft fays it is found in the Medi- 
terraman near Smyrna., and on the coaft of Mgypt, 
near B^ofetto; and that in the months of Decembe'r 
and January it afcends the Nile., as high as Cairo : 
that it is ftuffed with pot marjoram, and when drelTed 
in that manner will very nearly intoxicate the eater. 

In Greai Britain the Se'uern affords this fifh in 
higher perfection than any other river. It makes its 
firft appearance there in May^ but in very warm fea- 
fons in April; for its arrival, fooner or later, de- 
pends much on the temper of the air. It contmues 

* This is the Dolphin of the Nik, a fifh now unknown to 
us. Pliny lib. v\v . c. 25. fays, it had a fharp fin oa its back, 
with which it deltroyed the crocodile, by thrufling it into the 
belly of that animal, the only penetrable place. 

** Belc?z. [tin. 98. 

t P. 385. 388. ^wf^/iy edition. 

- U 2 in 

5^98 S H A D. ClafsIV. 

in the river about two months, and then is fucceeded 
by a variety which we Ihall have occafion to men- 
tion hereafter. 

The Severn fhad is efteemed a very delicate fifli 
about the time of its f rft appearance, efpecially in 
that part of the river that fiov/s by Gloucefier^ where 
they are taken in nets, and ufually fell dearer than 
falmon : fome are fent to London, where the fifhmon- 
gers diilinguifh them from thofe of the '^hames^ by 
the French name of Alofe. 

Whether they fpawn in this river and the Wye is 
not determined, for their fry has not yet been afcer- 
tained. The old fifh come from the fea into the 
river in full roe. In the months of July and Aiiguft^ 
multitudes of bleak frequent the river near Glou- 
cejier ; fome of them are as big as a fmall herring, 
and tliefe the fifhermen erroneoufly fuipeft to be the 
fry of the fhad. Numbers of thefe are taken near 
Gloucejier in thofe months only, but none of the 
emaciated fhad are ever caught in their return*. 
Twaite. The Thames fhad does not frequent that river till 
the month of July, and is efteemed a very infipid 
coarfe fifh. About the fame time, and rather earlier, 
the variety called near Gloucejier the Twaite, makes 
its appearance, and is taken in great numbers in the 
Severn, and is held in as great difrepute as the fhad 
of the Thames. The differences between each va- 
riety are as follow : 

The true Shad weighs eight pounds, 
but their general fize is from four to five. 

* Bekn alfo obferves, that none are taken in their return on 
ks prendin msutant centre, les rivieres $ et Jamais en defcendant. 


Clafs IV. S H A D. 299 

The I'waite^ on the contrary, weighs from half a 
pound to two pounds, which it never exceeds. 

The twaite differs from a fmall fhad only in hav- 
ing one or more round black fpots on the fides j if 
only one, it is always near the gill, but commonly 
there are three or four, placed one under the other*. 

The other particulars agree in each fo exaftly, that Defer, 
the fame defcription will ferve for both. 

The head dopes down confidcrably from the 
back, which at the beginning is very convex, and 
rather fharp : the body from thence grows gradu- 
ally lefs to the tail. 

The under jaw is rather longer than the upper : 
the teeth very minute. 

The dorfal fin is placed very near the centre, is 
fmall, and the middle rays are the longeft : the pec- 
toral and ventral fins are fmall : the tail vaftly fork- 
ed : the belly extremely fharp, and moil ftrongly 

The back is of a dulky blue : above the gills color. 
begins a line of dark fpots, which mark the upper 
part of the back on each fide ; the number of thefe 
^ots is uncertain in different filh, from four to ten. 

The fides and belly are filvery. 

* I mull here acknowlege m^i' obligations to Doflor Lyfontt 
o^ Gloucejler, for his communications relating to this fifli, as well 
as to fcveral other articles relating to thofe of the Sswrn. 

U qi Ge;ius 



CJafs IV. 

Genus XLI. The mouth without teeth, 
Three branchioflegous rays. 
One dorfal fin. Car?. 

With bearded mouths. 



A R 

KvTT^ivog ? Jri^. Hifi. an. lih. 

iv. 8. vi. 40. viii. 20. ii. 

30. Oppian Halieut. I. 1 01. 

Raina Burbara. Sal'vian. 92. 
La Carpe. Belon. 267. 
Cyprinus. Rondel, fiwviat. 1 50. 

Ge/ner pi/c, 309. 
Cyprinus nobilis, edle Karpe, 

KarpfFe. Schone-uelde. -^z. 
Carp. Wil. Icth. 162. Rail fyn^ 

pifc, 115. 

Cyprinus cirrls quatuor, offi- 
culo tertio pin n arum dorfi, 
ac ani uncinulis armato. 
Arted. fynon. 3. 

Cyprinus Carpio. C. pinna ani 
radiis 9. cirris 4. pinna dor- 
ialis radio fecundo pollice 
ferrato. Lin. fyji. 525. Gro~ 
nov. Zooph.No. 330. 

Karp. Faun. fuec. No. 359. 

THIS is one of the naturalized fifh of our 
country, having been introduced here by Leo- 
nard Mafcal.^ about the year 1514*, to whom we 
were alfo indebted for that excellent apple the ppin. 
The many good things that our illand wanted be-^ 
fore that period, are enumerated in this old diftich : 

Turkies, carps, hops, pickerel, and beer. 
Came into England all in one year, 

FiiUer'h Britijh iVf^rthiesy Sufex. 113. 


Clafs rV. CARP. 301 

As to the two lafl: articles we have feme doubts, 
the others we believe to be true. Ruffta wants thefe 
fifh at this day j Sueden has them only in the ponds 
of the people of fafliion ; PoliJJj Prujpia is the chief 
feat of the carp ; they abound in the rivers and 
lakes of that country, particularly in the Frifch 
and Curifch-haffj where they are taken of a vaft fize. 
They are there a great article of commerce, and 
fent in well-boats to Sueden and Rujfta. The mer- 
chants purchafe them out of the waters of the no- 
hkjfe of the country, who draw a good revenue from 
this article. Neither are there wanting among our 
gentry, inftances of fome who make good profit of 
their ponds. 

The antients do not feparate the carp from the 
fea fifh. We are credibly informed that they are 
fometimes found in the harbor of Danizick, between 
the town and a fmall place called Hela. 

Carp are very long lived. Gefner* brings an in- 
ftance of one that was an hundred years old. They 
alfo grow to a very great fize. On our own know- 
leo-e we can fpeak of none that exceeded twenty 
pounds in weight -, but Jovius** fays, that they 
were fometimes taken in the Lacus Larius (the Lcigo 
di Como) of two hundred pounds weight ; and 
RzaczynJki-\^ mentions others taken in the Dniejier 
that were five feet in length. 

They are alfo extremely tenacious of life, and 
will live for a mofl remarkable time out of water. 

* Gefner ftfc. 312. 
** De p'tfcibus Romanis. 1 3 1, 
t HiJi.Nat.Poknia. 142. 

U 4 An 

302 CARP.,' ClafsIV. 

An experiment has been made by placing a carp in 
a net, well wrapped up in wet mofs, the mouth only- 
remaining out, and then hung up in a cellar, or feme 
cool place : the filli is frequently fed with white 
bread and milk, and is befides often plunged into 
water. Carp thus managed have been known, not 
only to have lived above a fortnight, but to grow 
exceedingly fat, and far fuperior in talle to thofe 
that ai*e immediately killed from the pond*. 
FcEcun- The carp is a prodigious breeder : its quantity 
^^^' of roe has been fometimes found fo great, that when 
taken out and weighed againft the fifh itfelf, the for- 
mer has been found to preponderate. We have for- 
bore in this work to enter into minute calculations 
of the numbers each fifh may produce. It has al- 
ready been moft fkilfully performed by Mr. Harmer^ 
and printed in the Philcfophical 1'ranfa5iions of the 
year 1767. We fhall, in our Appendix, take the 
liberty of borrowing fuch part of his tables of the 
foecundity of fifli, as will demonflrate the kind at- 
tention of Providence, towards the preferving fo 
ufeful a clafs of animals for the fervice of its other 

Thefe fifh are extremely cunning, and on that ac- 
count are by fome ftyled the river fox. They will 
fometimes leap over the nets, and efcape that way ; 
at others, will immerfe themfelves fo deep in the 
mud, as to let the net pafs over them. They are 

* Thi« was told me by a gentleman of the utmoft veracity, 
who had twice made the experiment. The fame fact is related 
by that pious Philofopher Do&n Der/:am, \nhii Fhjjico-Thedogyy 
«dit. 9th. 1737. ch. I. /, 7. «. e, 


ClafsIV. CARP. 303 

alfo very fhy of taking a bait ; yet at the fpawning 
time they are fo fimple, as to fufFer themfelves to 
be tickled, handled, and caught by any body that 
will attempt it. 

This fifh is apt to mix its milt with the roe of Spurious 
other fifh, from which is produced a fpurious breed : "^ * 
we have {een the offspring of the carp and tench, 
which bore the greateft refemblance to the firft : we 
have alfo heard of the fame mixture between the carp 
and bream. 

The carp is of a thick fhape : the fcales very large, . 
and when in befl feafon of a fine gilded hue. 

The jaws are of equal length ; there are two teeth 
in the jaws, or on the tongue ; but at the entrance 
of the gullet, above and below, are certain bones 
that a6t on each other, and comminute the food be- 
fore it pafies down. 

On each fide of the mouth is a fingle beard; above 
thofe on each fide another, but fhorter : the dorfal 
fin extends far towards the tail, which is a little bi- 
furcated ; the third ray of the dorfal fin is very 
ftrong, and armed with fharp teeth, pointing down- 
wards ; the third ray of the anal fin is conflrufted in 
the fame manner. 

U. The 



Clafs IV. 



B A R B E E.. 

Barbus. Aufonius Mo/ella. 94. 
Barbeau. Belon. 299. 
Barbus, Barbo. Salvian. 86. 
Barbus. Rondel. Jlu-viat. 194. 

Gefner pifc. 123. 
Barbe, Barbie. Schonevelde. 29. 
Barbel. Wil Icth. 259. Rail 

fyn. pifc. 121. 
Cyprinus oblongus, maxilla fu- 

periore longiore, cirris qua- 

tuor, pinna ani officuiorum 
feptem. Arted.fynon. 8. 

Cyprinus Barbus. C. pinna ani 
radiis 7. cirris 4. pinnae 
dorfi radio fecundo utrinque 
ferrato. Lin. fvft. 525. Gro- 
no-Tj. Zooph. No. 331- 

Barbe, Barbie. Wulff Bori'/s^ 
No. 52. 

THIS fifh was fo extremely coarfe, as to be over- 
looked by the antients till the time of Jufo- 
. nius, and what he fays is no panegyric on it ; for he 
lets us know it loves deep waters, and that when it 
is grown old it was not abfolutely bad. 

Laxos exerces Barbe natatus, 
Tu meliorpejore avo., tibi contigit uni 
Sprantum ex numero non inlaudatafeneclus. 

It frequents the ftill and deep parts of rivers, and 
lives in fociety, rooting like fwine with their nofes in 
the foft banks. It is fo tame as to fnffer itfelf to be 
taken with the hand -, and people have been known 
to take numbers by diving for them. In the fummer 
they move about during night in fearch of food, but 
towards autumn, and during winter, confine them- 
felves to the deepeft holes. 

, They are the woril and coarfeft of frefli water fifh, 
'and feldom eat but by the poorer fort of people, 


ClafsIV. BARBEL. 305 

who fometime boil them with a bit of bacon to give 
them a relifh. The rde is very noxious, afFefting 
thofe who unwarily eat of it with a naufea, vomiting, 
purging, and a flight fwelling. 

It is fometimes found of the length of three feet, Defcn 
and eighteen pounds in weight : it is of a long and 
rounded form : the fcales not large. 

Its head is fmooth : the nollrils placed near the 
eyes : the mouth is placed below : on each corner is 
a fmgle beard, and another on each fide the nofe. 

The dorfal fin is armed with a remarkable ftrong 
Ipine, fharply ferrated, with which it can inflid; a 
very fevere v/ound on the incautious handler, and 
even do much damage to the nets. 

The perioral fins are of a pale brown color ; the 
ventral and anal tipped with yellow : the tail a little 
bifurcated, and of a deep purple : the fide line is 

The fcales are of a pale gold color, edged with 
black : the belly is white. 

III. The 



Clafs IV. 

III. The T E N C H. 

Tinea. Aufonius Mofella. 123. 
Tinea. Jcvius. 1 24.. 
Tinea, Tenca. Salviango. 
La Tanehe. Belon. 325, 
Tinea. Rondel. Jiu^iat. 157. 

Gefner pifc. 984. 
Schley, SJye. Schonenjelde, jS. 
Tench. Wil.lcth. 251. Rail 

Cyprinus mucofus totus ni- 

grefcens, extremitate caudas 

squall. Jrted.fymn. 5. 
Cyprinus pinna ani radiis 25, 

Cauda integra, corpore mu- 

cofo, cirris 2. Lin.fyjl. 526. 

Grcncv. Zocph. No. 328. 
Suture, Linnare, Skomakare. 

Faun. fuec. No. 363. 
Schleihe, Schlegen. WuJff Bo- 

rufs. No. 55. 

THE tench underwent the lame fate with the 
barbel, in refpect to the notice taken of it by 
the early writers ; and even Aufonius., who iirft men- 
tions it, treats it with fuch difrefpecl, as evinces the 
great capricioufnefs of tafte •, for that fifh, which at 
prefent is held in fuch good repute, was in his days 
the rep aft only of the Canaille. 

^is non et virides vulgi folatia Tineas 77orit f 

It has been by fome called the Fhyfician of the 
lifh, and that the flime is fo healing, that the wound- 
ed apply it as a ftyptic. The ingenious Mr. Diaper^ 
in his pifcatory ecloges, fays, that even the voracious 
pike will fpare the tench on account of its healing 

TheT'^wif^ he fpares a medicinal kind : 
For when by wounds diftreft, or fore difeafe, 
He courts the falutary iifh for eafe ; 
Clofe to his fcalcs the kindphyfician glides, 
;:. „ Apjd fjveats a healing balfam from his fides *. 

* £cl. ii. 


ClafslV. TENCH. 307 

Whatever virtue its (lime may have to the inha- 
bitants of the water, we will not vouch for, but its 
fleih is a wholefome and delicious food to thofe of the 

It does not commonly exceed four or five pounds 
in weight, but we have heard of one that weighed 
ten pounds •, Salvianus fpeaks of fome that arrived 
at twenty pounds. 

They love ftill waters, and are rarely found in ri- 
vers : they are very foolifh, and eafily caught. 

The tench is thick and fhort in proportion to its Defer, 
length : the fcales are very fmall, and covered with 

The irides are red : there is fometimes, but not 
always, a fmall beard at each corner of the mouth. 

The color of the back is dulky ; the dorfal and 
ventral fins of the fame color : the head, fides, and 
belly, of a greenilh call, moft beautifully mixed with 
gold, which is in its greateil fplendor when the filh is 
in the higheft feafon. 

The tail is quite even at the end, and very broad. 

IV. The 


GUDGEON. ClafslV. 

IV. The G U D G E O N. 

Gobio. Aufonhis Mofella. 132. 
Gobio fluviatilis. Sahia», 214. 
Goujon (ie riviere. Belo?i. 322. 
Gobio fluviatilis. Rondel. Jlu- 

'viat. 206. Gefner pifc. 399 
Gudgeon. Wtl.lcth. 264. Rait 
Jyn.pifc. 123. 

Cyprinus quincuncialis macu- 
lofus, maxilla fuperiore lon- 
giore cirris duobus ad os, 
Arted. fyncn. 2. 

Cyprinus pinna ani radiis 2. 
Lvi.fyji. Nat. 526. Gronov. 
Zooph. No. 329. 


jiRlS'TOTLE mentions the gudgeon in two 
•^^ places i once as a river fifh, and again as a 
Ipecies that was gregarious : in a third place he de- 
fcribes it as a fea fifh ; we muft therefore confider 
the KwSjo? he mentions, lib. ix. c. 2. and lib. viii. c. 19. 
as the fame with our fpecies *. 

This filh is generally found in gentle ftreams, 
and is of a fmall fize : thofe few, however, that are 
caught in the Kennet, and Cole, are three times the 
weight of thofe taken ellewhere. The largeft we 
ever heard of was taken near Uxbfidge^- and weighed 
half a pound. 

They bite eagerly, and are afiembled by raking 
the bed of the river ; to this fpot they immediately 
crowd in fhoals, expeding food from this diftur- 

The fhape of. the body is thick and round : the 
irides tinged with red : the gill covers with green and 
filver : the lower jaw is Ihorter than the upper: at 
each corner of the mouth is a fmgle beard : the back 

* The gudgeon is e.iumerated araone the Syrian filh, by Dr. 
Rufel. p. 75. 


ClafsIV. BREAM. 309 

olive, fpotted with black : the fide line ftrait ; the 
fides beneath that filvery : the belly white. 

The tail is forked ; that, as well as the dorfal fin, 
is fpotted with black. 

V. The B R E A M, 

La Bremme. Belon. 318. 
Gyprinus latus five Brama. 

Rondel, fiwviat. 154. Gefner 

fife. 316, 317. 
Braflem,Brachfem. Schone^uelde 

Bream. Wil, Icth. 

Jyn. pifc. 1 16. 

Cyprinus pinnis omnibus nl 

grefcentlbus, pinna ani offi- 

culorum viginti feptem. Ar^ 

ted. fynon. 4. 
Cyprinus Brama. Lm.JyJ}.^-^\, 

Grono'V. Zooph, No, 345. 
Braxen. Faun.fuec. No, 360. 
248. Rait G^rQ.\\i\. Kram. 391. Brekmen. 

Wulff Borufs. No. 66. 

THE bream is an inhabitant of lakes, or the 
deep parts of ftill rivers. It is a fifh that is 
very little elteemed, being extremely infipid. 

It is extremely deep, and thin in proportion to its 
length. The back rifes very much, and is very 
ftiarp at the top. The head and mouth are fmall : 
on fome we examined in the fpring, were abun- 
dance of m.inute whitifh tubercles; an accident 
which Pliny feems to have obferved befals the fifh 
of the Lago Maggiore, and Lago di Como *. The 
fcales are very large : the fides flat and thin. 

The dorfal fin has eleven rays, the fecond of 
which is the longeft : that fin, as well as all 

* Duo LacuslTAUJE inradicibus Alpium. Larius et Verbanus 
appellant ur, in quihus pifces omnibus annis Vergiliarum ortu exif- 
iUTit, fquamis confpicui crebris aique praacutis, clavorum caligariuni, 
fffigig : iiec amplius quam circa eum men/emt n/t/'unjur, lib. ix. r. 18. 


3IO R U D. ClafsIV, 

the reft, are of a dufky color ; the b^ck of the fame 
hue : the fides yellowilli. 

, The tail is very large, and of the form of a cref. 



Without beards. 

The R U b. 

X^t^a,^ ? Jthenisus. lib. viii. 

355. Oppian Halieut. I. 174.. 
La Pleftia ? Belon. 309. La 

RofTe, 319. 

Finfcale. Plot's Oxf. 1 84. 
Rutilus latior, feu Rubellio 
fluviatilis a Rud, Roud, or 

Finfcale. Wil Icth. Zi^Z* 

Rait fyn. pifc. 1 1 8. 
Cyprinus. Arted.fynon. 6. "No. 8. 
Cyprinus pinna ani radiis 15. 

pinnis rubris. Lin.Jyft.Nat. 

530- " ,, 

Ruda, CarulTa. Faun.Juec. No, 



THIS iifh is found in the Cbarwell, near Ox^ 
fdrd, and in the Withajn in Lincolnjhire. 

Its body is extremely deep, like that of the bream, 
but much thicker. 

The head is fmall : the irides yellow, varying in 
Ibme almoft to rednefs : the noftrils large : the back 
vaftly arched, and Hoping off fuddenly to the head 
and tail : the fcales very large : the fide line very 
nightly incurvated. 

The dorfal fin confifts of twenty-one rays -, the 
firft very fhort, the fecond very ftrong, and ferratea 
on each fide. 

The tail a little forked. 


Clafs IV. 

R O A 



The back is of an olive color : the fides and belly 
of a gold color, with certain marks of red : the 
Ventral and anal fins, and the tail, generally of a 
deep red : the tail forked. 



R O A 


La Gardon, Rofchie 2. en An- 
gleterre. Belon. 316. 

Leucifcus. Rondel, flu-viat. 191. 

Rutilus five Rubellus fluviati- 
lis. Gefnerpifc. 820. 

Rottauge. SchoneiieUe.6'^. 

Roche. PFil. Icth. 262. Leucif- 
cus prior. Rondel. 260. Raii 
fyn. pifc. 122, 121. 

Cyprinus Jargus didus. Cyp. 

iride pinnis ventralibus as 

ani plerumque rubentibus, 

Arled. fvnon. 9, 10. 
Cyprinus Rutilus Cyp. pinna 

ani radiis 12. rubicunda. 

Lin.fyft. 529. Mort. Faun. 

fuec. No. 372. 
2ert. WulffBorufs. No. 59. 
Altl. Kram, 395. 

00 UNjy ds a roach:, is a proverb that appears to 
^ be but indifferently founded, that fifh being 
not more diftinguilhed for its vivacity than many 
others ; yet it is ufed by the French as well as usj, 
who compare people of ftrong health to their Gar- 
don., our rocah. 

It is a common filh, found in many of our deep 
ftill rivers, affeding, like the others of this genus, 
quiet waters. It is gregarious, keeping in large 
ilioals. We have never feen them very large. Old 
Walton fpeaks of fome that weighed two pounds* 
In a lift of fifh fold in the Londo'^ markets, with the 
greateft weight of each, communicated to us by an 

X intelligent 

^12 D A C E ■ ClafslV. 

intelligent fifhmonger, is mention of one whofe 
weight was five pounds. 

The roach is deep, but thin^ and the back is much 
elevated, and Iharply ridged : the leaks large, and 
fall off very eafily* 


Une vandoife, ou Dard. Bclon, pinna ani radiorum decern. 

313. Arted.fynon. 9. 

Leucifci fecunda fpecies. Ron- Cyprinus leuciicus. Cyp. pln- 

del. 192. Gcfner pijc. z6. na ani radiis 10. dorfali 9. 

Dace, or Dare. Wil, Icth. 260. Lin.JyJi. 528. 

Raii J]n. pij'c,\z\. Laugele. Mejer's Jnn. il. tab. 

Cyprinus decern digitorum, ru« a^t 

tilo longior, ec angulHor, 

THIS, like the roach, is gregarious, haunts 
the fame places, is a great breeder, very 
lively, and during fummer is very fond of frolick- 
ing near the furface of the water. This fifh and 
the roche are coarfe and infipid meat. 

Its head is fmall : the irides of a pale yellow i 
the body long and (lender : its length feldom above 
ten inches, tho' in the abovementioned lift is an ac- 
count of one that weighed a pound and an half: 
the Icales fmaller than thofe of the roach. 

The back is varied with dufky and blue : the 
fides and belly filvery : the dorfal fin dufky : the 
ventral, anal, and caudal fins red, but lefs fo than 
thgfs of the former : the tail is very much forked. 

IX. 1 he 

CJafsiy. C HUB. 313 

IX. The C H U B. 

Capito. j^nfon. Mofellu' 85. Cyprinus oblongus macrolepi- 

Squalus, Squaglio. Salnjian 84, doius, pinna ani officulorum 

Le chevefne, Teftard, Vilain. undecim, Arted. jynoyi. 7. 

Belon. 315. Cyprinus cephalus. Cyp. pinna 

Cephalus fluviatilis. Rondel. ani radiis undecim, cauda 

Jlwviat. 190. integra, corpore fubcylin- 

Capito five Cephalus fluviatilis. dnco. Lin. fyj}. ^zj. Grono'v, 

Qejner. fife. 182. Z^ooph. No. 339. 

Chub, or Chevin. Wil. Icth. Alte. Meyer's An. ii. tab. 92. 

255. Raiijyn.pi/c. iig. Rapen. Wiilff. Borufs. No. '^S. 

OAL VI ANUS imagines this fifli to have been the 
*^ Squalus * of the antients, and grounds his opi- 
nion on a fuppofed error in a certain pafTage in Colu- 
mella and Varro., where he would fubftitute the word 
Squalus inftead of Scams : Columella fays no more 
than that the old Romans payed much attention to 
their flews, and kept even the fea fifh in frefh v/ater, 
paying as much refpe6t to the Mullet and Scams as 
thofe of his days did to the Munene and Bafs. 

That the Scams was not our Chuh^ is very evident; 
not only becaufe the Chub is entirely an inhabitant 
of frelh waters, but likewife it feems improbable 
that the Romans would give themfelves any trouble 
about the worft of river fifh, when they neglected 
the moft delicious kinds ; all their attention was di- 
re6led towards thofe of the fea : the difHcuky of 
procuring them feems to have been the criterion of 

their value, as is ever the cafe with effete luxury. 

* A cartilaginous fifh, a fhark. Vide. PUn. lib. ix. c. 24. O'vid 
alfo ranks his Squalus with the fea fifli. 

£/ 3quALUS, ettenui/uffufusjanguineyivi.hvi, Halieut. 147. 

X 2 The 

314 CHUB. CiafslY. 

The chub is a very coarfe fifh and full of bones : 
it frequents the deep holes of rivers, and during 
fummer commonly lies on the furface, beneath the 
fhade of fome tree or bufh. It is a very timid fifli, 
finking to the bottom on the left alarm, even at the 
pafling of a fliadow, but they will foon refume their 
fituation. It feeds on worms, caterpillars, grafs- 
hoppers, beetles, and other coleopterous infedis that 
happen to fall into the water •, and it will even feed 
on cray-fifh. It is the only fifh of this genus that 
will rife to a fly. 

. This fifh takes its name from its head, not only in 
our own, but in other languages -, we call it Chuk^ 
according to Skinner, from the old Englijh, Cop, a 
head •, the French, Tejlard ; the Italians, Capitone. 

It does not grow to a large fize -, we have known 
fome that weighed above five pounds, but Salvianus 
fpeaks of others that were eight or nine pounds in 

The body is oblong, rather round, and of a 
pretty equal thicknefs the greateft part of the way : 
the fcales are large. 

The irides filvery ; the cheeks of the fame color : 
the head and back of a deep dufky green : the fides 
filvery, but in the fummer yellow : the belly white : 
the pectoral fins of a pale yellow : the ventral and 
anal fins red : the tail a little forked, of a brown ifh 
hue, but tinged with blue at the end. 

X. The 

ClafsIV. B L E A K. ] 315 

X. The B L E A K. 

Alharnus. Ju/on. Mofella. 126. aniofliculorum viginti. j^r- . 

i\ble ou Ablette. Belon, 319. ted. fynon. 10. 

AJburnus. Rondel. Jiu-vuit. 208. Cyprinus alburnus. Lit:, fyft. 

' Gefner. p'ljc. 23. 53'- Gromnj. Zooph. No. 336. 

Albula minor. Witinck, Witek Loja. Fami./uec. No. 373. 

and Blike. Schoneuelde. ii. Spitilaubtn, fchneiderfifchl. 

tab. 1. Kram. 395. 

Bleak. Wil hth. 263. Raiijjn. Ukeleyen. mdf. Borufs. No. 

py\- 123- . . . . 64, 

Cyprinus quincuncialis, pinna 

THE taking of thefe, Aufonius lets us know, 
was the fport of children, 

Alburnos pr^dam puerilibus hamis. _ 

They are very common in many of our rivers, 
and keep together in large fhoals, Thefe fifh feem 
at certain feafons to be affedled with the vertigo ; 
they tumble about near the furface of the water, and 
are incapable of fwimming far from the place, but 
in about two hours recover, and difappear. Filh 
thus afreded the 'Thames fifhermen call mad hkaks. 

Artificial pearls are made with the fcales of this Artifi- 
fifh, and we think of the dace. They are beat into "*jj.jj^ 
a fine powder, then diluted with water, and intro- 
duced into a thin glafs bubble, which is afterwards 
filled with wax. The French were the inventors of 
this art. Dodtor Lifier* tells us, that when he was 
at Paris, a certain artift ufed in one winter thirty 
hampers full of filh in this manufac^lure. 

* Journey to Paris, 142. 

X 3 The 


316 BLEAK. ClafsIV. 

Defer. The bleak feldom exceeds five or fix inches in 
length: their body is flender, greatly comprelTed 
fideways, not unlike that of the fprat. 

The eyes are large : the irides of a pale yellow : 

the under jaw the longeft : the lateral line crooked : 

. the gills filvery : the back green : the fides and belly 

filvery : the fins pellucid : the fcales fall off very 

eafily : the tail much forked. 

White During the month of July thofe appear in the 
^hames^ near Blackwall and Greenwich^ innumerable 
multitudes of fmall fifh, which are known to the 
Londoners by the name of White Bait. They are 
efteemed very delicious when fried with fine flour, 
and occafion, during the feafon, a vaft refort of the 
lower order of epicures to the taverns contiguous to 
the places they are taken at. 

There are various conjediures about this fpecies, 
but all terminate in a fuppofition that they are the 
fry of fome fifh, but few agree to which kind they 
owe their origin. Some attribute it to the fhad, 
others to the fprat, the fmelt, and the bleak. That 
they neither belong to the fhad, nor the fprat, is 
evident from the number of branchioftegous rays, 
which in thofe are eight, in this only three. That 
they are not the young of fmelts is as clear, becaufe 
they want the pinna adipofa^ or raylefs fin ; and that 
they are not the offspring of the bleak is extremely 
probable, fince we never heard of the white bait 
being found in any other river, notwithilanding the 
bleak is very common in feveral of the BritiJ/j 
fiireams : but as the white bait bears a greater fimi- 
larity to this fifh than to :iny other we have men- 

Oafs IV. BLEAK, 317 

tioned, we give it a place here as an appendage to 
the bleak, rather than form a diftin^t article of a filh 
which it is impoflible to clafs with certainty. 

It is evident that it is of the carp or Cyprinus ge- 
nus : it has only three branchiollegous rays, and 
only one dorfal fin ; and in refped to the form of 
the body is comprelTed like that of the bleak. 

Its ufual length is two inches : the under jaw is 
the longeft : the irides filvery, the pupil black : 
the dorfal fin is placed nearer to the head than to 
the tail, and confifts of about fourteen rays : the 
fide line is flrait : the tail forked, the tips black. 

The head, fides, and belly are fUvery j the back 
tinged with green. 

XL The 


M I N O W. 

Clafs IV. 

XL The M I N O W. 


^o^tv^ ? j^rij?. Eiji. an. vi. 

c. 13. 
Le Veron. Belon. 324. 
Pifciculus varius. RondeL jftu- 

'viat. 205. 
Phofcium qui vulgo 'veronus 

(quari varius) dicitur, Bel- 

lonius. Gefner pifc. 715. 
Elritze, Elderitze. Schom'vdde. 


Pink, minim, or minovv. Wil. 
Icth. 268. Rail fyn. pifc. 125. 

Cyprinus tridadtylus varius ob'^ 
longus teretiufculus, pinna 
ani officulorum ofto. Aried. 
fynon. 12. 

Cyprinus Phoxinus. Cyp. pin- 
na aniradiisS. macula fufca 
ad caudam, corpora pelluci- 
do. Lin./yji. 528. 



HIS beautiful fifn is frequent in many of our 
fmall gravelly flreams, where they keep in 

The body is (lender and fmooth, the fcales being 
extremely fmall. It feldom exceeds three inches in 

The lateral line is of a golden color : the back 
flat, and of a deep olive : the fides and belly vary 
greatly in different fifh ; in a few are of a rich crim^ 
fon, in others bluifh, in others white. The tail is 
forked, and marked near the bafe with a dufky 

XII. The 

Clafs IV. GOLDFISH. 319 


Kingo, the Gold Fifli. Katnp- bifurca. Lin.Jy/i. 527. Faun.. 

fer Hift. Japan. T. 1 37. Juec. tab. 2. Grono'u. Zoofh, 

Kin-yu. Du HaUe Hiji. China. iVo. 342. 

I. 19. 315, Gold Fifh. Edw. 209. 

Cyprinus auratus. Cyp. pinna Kin-yu, five carpio auratus* 

ani gemiua, cauda tranfverfa Bajler. fuhjec. II. 78. 

THESE filli are now quite naturalized in this 
country, and breed as freely in the open wa- 
ters as the common carp. 

They were firft introduced into England about 
the year 1691, but were not generally known till 
1725, when a great number were brought over, 
and prefented firft to Sir Mathew Dekker^ and by 
him circulated round the neighborhood of Lon- 
don^ from whence they have been diftributed to 
rnoft parts of the country. 

In China the moft beautiful kinds are taken in a 
fmall lake in the province of Che-Kyang. Every 
perfon of fafhion keeps them for amufement, 
either in porcellane vefTels, or in the fmall bafons 
that decorate the courts of the Cbinefe houfes. The 
beauty of their colors, and their lively motions, 
give great entertainment, efpecially to the ladies, 
whofe pleafures, by reafon of the cruel policy of 
that country, are extremely limited. 

In form of the body they bear a great refem- oefc 
blance to a carp. They have been known in this 
ifland to arrive at the length of eight inches-, in 


^20 GOLDFISH. Clafs IV, 

their native place they are faid* to grow to the fizc 
of our largeft herring. 

The noftrils are tubular, and term fort of ap- 
pendages above the nofe : the dorfal fin and the 
tail vary greatly in fliape : the tail is naturally bifid, 
but in many is trifid, and in fome even quadrifid ? 
the anal fins are the ftrongeft charaflers of this fpe- 
cies, being placed not behind one another like thofe 
of other filh, but oppofite each other like the ven- 
tral fins. 

The colors vary greatly ; fome are marked with 
a fine blue, with brown, with bright filver -, but the 
general and predominant color is gold of a moft 
amazing fplcndor ; but their colors and form need, 
not be dwelt on, fince thofe who want opportunity 
of feeing the living fifh, may furvey them exprefled 
in the moft animated manner, in the works of out- 
ingenious and honeft friend Mr. George Edwards^ 

* DuHalde, 316, 




^'ortoife^page i. The lateBifhop of C^r///7^ informed 
me that a tortoife was taken off the 
coall of Scarborough in 1748 or 
1 749. It was purchafed by a fa- 
mily at that time there, and a good 
deal of company invited to par- 
take of it. A gentleman, who was 
one of the guefts, told them it was 
a Mediterranean turtle, and not 
wholefome : only one of the com- 
pany eat of it, and it almoft killed 
him, being feized with a dreadful 
vomiting and purging. 

^oad, 7. Since the printing of that article I 

have been favored with fome very 
curious accounts of this reptile, 
which will give greater light into 
its natural hiftory than I am capa- 
ble of, from a moft unphilofophical 
but invincible averfion to the whole 
genus. The fafts that will appear 
in the following lines ferve to con- 
firm my opinion of its being an 
innoxious animal, and, I hope, will 
ferve to free numbers from a panic 
that is carried to a degree of infeli- 


city, and alfo to redeem it from a 
perfecution which the unmerited ill- 
opinion the world has conceived, 
perpetually expofes it to. 

The gentlemen I am principally 
indebted to for my informations are 
J. Arfcott, Efq; of Tehott^ in De- 
vonjhire, and Mr. Pitfield^ of Exe^ 
ter. Some of thefe accounts were 
addrefTed to Do6lor Milks, Dean 
of Exeter-, others to the worthy- 
Prelate abovementioned, to whom 
I owe thefe and many other agree- 
able correfpondencies j others again 
to myfelf. 

Mr. Arfcotfs letters give a very 
ample hiftory of the nature of the 
toad : they were both addrefled to 
Dodtor Milles, and both were the 
refult of certain queries I propofed, 
which the former was fo obligins: 
as to give himfelf the trouble of 
anfwering in a moft fatisfadory 

I fhall firft take the liberty of 
citing Mr. Arfcott\ letter of Sep- 
t ember the 23d, 1768, which men- 
tions fome very curious particulars 
of this innocent reptile, which, for 
fuch a number of years found an 
^fylumj from the good fenfe of a 


P P E N D I X. 323 

family which foared above all vul- 
gar prejudices. 

" It would give me the greatell 
*' pleafure to be able to inform you 
*' of any particulars worthy Mr. 
" Pennanfs notice, concerning the 
*' toad who lived fo many years 
" with us, and was fo great a favo- 
" rite. The greatell curiofity in 
** it was its becoming fo remark- 
" ably tame. It had frequented 
" fome Heps before the hall-door 
" fome years before my acquaint- 
'' ance commenced with it, and 
" had been admired by my father 
*' for its fize (which was of the 
" largeft I ever met with) who 
" conftantly payed it a vific every 
*' evening. I knew it myfelf 
" above thirty years, and by con- 
" ftantly feeding it, brought it to 
*' be fo tame that it always came 
" to the candle, and looked up as 
" if expe6ting to be taken up and 
'* brought upon the table, where I 
" always fed it with infeds of all 
" forts : it was fondeft of fleih 
" maggots, which I kept in bran ; 
" it would follow them, and when 
" within a proper diflance, would 
" fix its eye, and remain motion- 
" lefs for near a quarter of a mi- 

" nute. 


*' nute, as if preparing for the 
'' ftroke, which was an inftanta- 
"• neous throwing its tongue at a 
" great diftance tipon the infeft, 
" which ftuck to the tip by a gluti- 
" nous matter : the motion is quick- 
" er than the eye can follow*. 

" I always imagined that the root 
" of its tongue was placed in the 
*■'■ fore part of its under jaw, and 
" the tip towards its throat, by 
" which the motion muft be a half 
" circle; by which, when its tongue 
" recovered its fituation, the infeft 
*' at the tip would be brought to 
*' the place of deglutition. I was 
" confirmed in this by never ob- 
" ferving any internal motion in its 
" mouth, excepting one fwallow the 
*' inftant its tongue returned. Pof- 
*' fibly I might be miftaken, for I 
" never diffeded one, but contented 
" myfelf with opening its mouth, 
*' and (lightly infpeding it. 

*' You may imagine that a toad 
" generally detefted (altho' one of 
*' the moft inoffenfive of all ani- 
" mals) fo much taken notice of 
" and befriended, excited the cu- 

* This rapid capture of its prey might give occanon to the' 
report of its fafcinating powers. LiHni^:ii (ays, Infe^a in fauces 

<« riofit)^ 

appendix: 325 

" riofity of all comers to the houfe» 
" who all defired to fee it fed, fo 
*' that even ladies fo far conquered 
*' the horrors inftilled into them by 
" nurfes, as to defire to fee it. 
*' This produced innumerable and 
" improbable reports, making it 
*' as large as the crown of a hat, 
« &c. &c. This I hope will ac- 
" count for my not giving you par- 
" ticulars more worth your notice. 
" When I firft read the account in 
*' the papers of toads fucking can- 
" cerous breafts, I did not beheve 
" a word of it, not thinking it pof- 
*' fible for them to fuck, having 
*' no lips to embrace the part, and 
" a tongue fo oddly formed ^ but as 
*' the fa6i: is thoroughly verified, I 
" moft impatiently long to be fully 
" informed of all particulars re- 
" lating to it." 

Notwithftanding thefe accounts 
will ferve to point out fome errors I 
had adopted, in refped; to this reptile 
in my firft fheet, yet it is with much 
pleafure I lay before the public a 
more authentic hiftory, colledted 
from Mr. Arfcotfs fecond favor; 
the anfwer points out my queries, 
which it is needlefs to repeat* 

525 A P P E N D I X. 

Tehott^ Nov. I, 176'^. 
" In refped to the queries I fhall 
" here give the moil fatisfaftory 
" anfwers I am capable of. 

" Firft, I cannot fay how long 
'' my father had been acquainted 
" with the toad before I knew it ; 
" but when I firft was acquainted 
" with it, he ufed to mention it as 
'' the old toad I've known fo many 
" years \ I can anfwer for thirty- 
" fix years. 

" Secondly, N6 toads that I ever 
" faw appeared in the winter fea- 
" fon. The old toad made its ap- 
" pearance as foon as the warm wea- 
*' ther came, and I always concluded 
*' it retired to fome dry bank to 
" repofe till the Ipring. When we 
" new-lay'd the fteps I had two 
" holes made in the third ftep on 
" each, with a hollow of more than 
" a yard long for it, in which I 
" imagine it fiept, as it came from 
" thence at its firft appearance. 

" Thirdly, It was feldom pro-' 
" voked: neither that toad (nor the 
" multitudes I have feen tormented 
" with great cruelty) ever ftiewed 
" tlie left defire of revenge, by 
*' fpitting or emitting any juice 
*« from their pimples. Sometimes 

" upon 


" upon taking it up it Vv^ould let out 
" a great quantity of clear water, 
*' which, as I have often feen it do the 
" fame upon the fteps when quite 
" quiet, was certainly its urine, and 
" no more than a natural evacuation. 

" Fourthly, A toad has no particu- 
" lar enmity for the fpider j he ufed 
" to eat five or fix with his millepides 
" (which I take to be its chief food) 
" that I generally provided for it, be- 
" fore I found out that flefh maggots, 
" by their continual motion, was the 
" moft tempting bait j but v^hen of- 
" fered it eat blowing flies and hum- 
" ble bees that come from the rat- 
" tailed maggot in gutters, or in fhort 
" any infedl that moved. I imagine if 
" a bee was to be put before a toad, 
" it would certainly eat it to its cofl: ; 
" but as bees are feldom^ llirring at 
" the fame time that toads are, they 
" can feldom come in their way, as 
" they feldom appear after fun-rifmg, 
" or before fun-fet. In the heat of the 
" day they will come to the mouth of 
" their hole, I believe, for air. I once 
" from my parlour window obferved 
" a large toad I had in the bank of 
" a bowling-green, about twelve at 
" noon, a very hot day, very bufy and 
** adive upon the grafs ; fo uncom- 
y " mon 


" mon an appearance made me go out 
" to fee what it was, when I found an 
" innumerable fwarm of winged ants 
" had dropped round his hole, which 
*•' temptation was as irrefiftible as a 
" turtle would be to a luxurious al- 
" derman. 

" Fifthly, Whether our toad ever 
" propagated its fpecies I know not, 
" rather think not, as it always ap- 
" peared well, and not leflened in 
" bulk, which it mull have done, I 
" ihould think, if it had difcharged 
*' fo large a quantity of fpawn as toads 
" generally do. The females that are to 
" propagate in the fpring, J imagine, 
" inftead of retiring to dry holes, go 
" into the bottom of ponds, and lay 
" torpid amongft the weeds -, for to 
" my great furprize in the middle of 
" the winter, having for amulement 
" put a long pole into my pond, and 
" twilled it till it had gathered a large 
" volumiC of weed, on taking it off I 
" found many toads, and having cut 
" fome afunder with my knife, by ac- 
*' cident, to get off the weed, found 
" tiiern full of fpawn not thoroughly 
*' formed. I am not pofitive, but 
" think there were a few males in 
" March: I know there are thirty 

" males 


" males* to one female, twelve or 

" fourteen of whom I have feen cling- 

" ing round a female : I have often 

*' difengaged her, and put her into a 

" folitary male, to fee with what eager- 

" nefs he would feize her. They im- 

** pregnate the Ipawn as it is drawn 

c( -»* Qyj. -j^ jQj^g ftj-ings, like a neck- 

" lace, 

* Mr. *John Hunter has aflufed me tliat during his refidence 
at BelleiJIet he difleded fome hundreds of toads, yet never met 
with a iingle female among them. 

** I was incredulous as to the ol>/ietrkal offices of the male toad, 
but fmce the end is fo well accounted for, and the fadl eftablilhed 
by fuch good authority, belief mull take place. 

Mr. Demours, in the Memoirs of the French Academy, as 
tranflated by Dr. Tempkman, njol, I. 371. has been very particular 
in refpeft to the male toad, as afting the part of an Accoucheur ; 
his account is curious, and clames a place here : 

*' In the evening of one of the long days in fummer, Mr, 
" Demours being in the king's garden perceived two toads (ou- 
*' pled together at the edge of an hole, which was formed in part 
*' by a great ftone at the top. 

•* Curiofity drew him to fee what was the occafion of the mo- 
** tions he obferved, when two fafts equally new furprized him ; 
" the_yfr/? was the extreme difficulty the female had in laying 
** her eggs, infomuch that (he did not feem capable of being 
"• delivered of them without fome affiftance. 'T)\&fecond was, 
*' that the male was mounted on the back of the female, and 
" exerted all his ftrength with his hinder feet in pulling out the 
" eggs, whilft his forc'-feet embraced her breaft. 

" In order to apprehend the manner of his working in the 
*' delivery of the female, the reader muftobferve that the paws 
" of thefe animals, as well thofe of the fore-feet as of the hin- 
" der, are divided into feveral toes, which can perform the 
" oiEce of fingers. 

" It mull be remarked likewife, that the eggs of this fpecies 
*' of toads are included each in a membranous coat that is very 
" firm, in which is contained the embryo ; and that thefe eggs, 
" which are oblong and about two lines in length, being falten- 
" ed one to another by a Ihort but very ilrong cord form a kind 
'** ef chaplet, the beads of which are diftant from each other 

y 2 «♦ about 


" lace, many yards long, not in a large 

*' quantity of jelly, like frogs Tpawn. 
" N. B. After having held a female 
" fome time in my hand, I have, to 
" try if there was any fmell, put my 
" finger a foot under water to a male, 
" who has immediately feized it, and 
." ftuck to as firmly as if it was a fe- 
" male, ^lere, Would they feize a 
" finger or rag that had touched a 
** cancerous ulcer ? 

'- Sixthly, Infects being their footl, 
'•' 1 never faw any toad iliew any hk- 
*' ing or diflike to any plant*. 

*' Seventhly, I hardly remember 
" any perfons taking it up except 

" about the half of their length. It is by drawing this cord 
" with his paw that the male performs the fundlion of a mid- 
'' wife, and acquits himfelf init with a dexterity that one would 
" not expeil from fo lumpifh an animal. 

♦' The prefence of the obferver did not a little difcompofe 
*' the male ; for fome time he Hopped fhort, and threw on the 
** curious im/iertine?!t a fixed look that marked his difquietnefa and 
*' fear ; but he foon returned to his work with more precipita- 
*' tion than before, and a moment a// er he appeared uhdetermi- 
•* ned whether he fhould continue it or not. The female like- 
*' wife difcovcred her uneafinefs at the fight of the (Iranger, by 
*' motions that interrupted fometimes the male in his operation. 
*' At length, whether the filence and fteady pofture of thefpec- 
" tator had dillipated their fear, or that the ca/e was urgent, the 
*' male refumed his work with the fame vigour, and fuccefs- 
" fully performed his funftion." 

* This queftion arofe from an alTertion of Linnaus, that the 
toad delighted in filthy herbs. Deleciatur Coiula, Aclaa, Stachyde 
fatidis. The unhappy deformity of the animal feems to be the 
only greund of this as well as another mifreprefentation, of its 
conveying a poifon from its pimples, its touch, and even its 
breath. Ferructt la^ejcent:: t'inenata iyifvfie taSlu, anhelitti. 

" tny 


'* my father and myfclf: I do not 
" know whether it had any particular 
** attachment to us. 

" Eighhtly, In refpeil to its end, I 
*' anfwer this laft quere. Had it not 
*' been for a tame raven, I make no 
*' doubt but it wouki Jiave been now 
*' living-, who one day feeing it at 
" the mouth of its hole, pulled it out, 
*' and although I refcued it, pulled 
" out one eye, and hurt it fo, that 
*' notwitkftanding its living a twelve- 
** month it never enjoyed itfelf, and 
" had a difficulty of taking its food, 
^' mifling the mark for want of its 
*' eye : before that accident had all 
*' the appearance of perfe6t health.'* 

What Mr. Pitjield cc«nmunicated to 
me ferves farther to evince the patient 
and pacific difpofition of this poor ani- 
mal. If I am thought to dwell too 
long on the fubje6t, lei it be confider- 
ed, that thofe who have moft unpro- 
voked enemies, and feweft friends, 
clame the greateft pity, and warmeft 
vindication. Thi^ reptile has under- 
gone all forts of fcandal •, one author 
makes it the companion of an atheifl *■:, 
and Milton ** makes the devil itfelf 

* A great toad was faid to have been found in the lodgings 
ef Vatiini, at Touloujl, Fide. John/on'i Shakefpear, 
** Paradife hji> 

y 3 its 


its inmate •, in a word, all kind of 
evil paffions have been beftowed on it: 
It is but juftice therefore to fay fome- 
thing in behalf of an animal that has 
of late had fo many tryalsof its temper, 
from experiments occafioned by the new 
difcovery of its cancer-fucking quali- 
ties. It has born all the handling, teiz- 
ing, bagging, &c. &:c. without the 
left fign of a vindictive difpofition •, but 
has even made itfelf a facrifice to the 
difcharge of its office : this I know 
from the refult of much enquiry ; 
would I could contradid what is 
aflerted, p. lo, of the inefficacy of 
the tryals made of them in the moft 
horrible of difeafes •, for at this time I 
myfelf cannot bring one proof of the 
liiccefs. But I would not have any one 
difcouraged from the purfuit of the re- 
medy. Heaven opens to us gradually 
its favors : the loadjione was for ages a 
* meer matter of ignorant amaze at its 
attraftive qualities : mercury was a fup^ 
pofed poifon, and the terror of phyfi- 
cians : we now wonder at the pov/ers 
of eledlricity, and are ftill but partially 
acquainted with its ufes : the toad, the 
objed of horror even in the moft en- 
lightened times, is found to be perfedly 
innocent ; it has certainly contributed 
to the eafe (and as has been faid to the 



cure) of the unhappy cancercd •, let 
the following fads fpeak for themfelves i 
they come from perfons of undoubted 
veracity, and will fufficiently eftablifh 
the truth of the beneficent qualities of 
this animal. 

The firft paper relating to it is very 
ingenioufly drawn up by Mr. Pitfield, 
for the information of Dodor Littkto?;^ 
Bifliop of Carlijle^ (now happy) who 
immediately honored me with the copy. 

Exon, Aug, 29, 1768. 
*' Your lordlhip muft have taken 
*' notice of a paragraph in the papers, 
*' with regard to the application of 
'* toads to a cancered breaft. A pa- 
" tient of mine has fent to the neigh- 
" borhood of Hungerford, and brought 
" down the very woman on whom the 
" cure was done. I have, with all 
" the attention I am capable of, at- 
" tended the operation for eighteen or 
" twenty days, and am furprized at 
*' the phasnomenon. I am in no ex- 
" pe(5tation of any great fervice from 
" the application : the age, conftitu- 
** tion, and thoroughly cancerous con- 
" dition of the perfon, being uncon- 
" querable barriers to it. How an 
" ail of that kind, abfolutely local, in 
*' an otherwife found habit, and of a 
y 4 " likely 


" likely age, might be relieved, I can- 
" not fay. But as to the operation, 
" thus much I can affert, that there is 
*' neither pain nor nanfeoufnefs in it. 
*' The animal is put into a linen bag, 
" all but its head, and that is held to 
'* the part. It has generally inilantly. 
*' laid hold of the foulefl: part of the 
*' fore, and fucked with greedinefs 
" until it dropped off dead. It has 
" frequently happened that the crea- 
" ture has fwolen immenfely, and 
" from its agonies appeared to be in 
" great pain. I have weighed them 
** for feveral days together, before and 
*' after the application, and found 
" their increafe of weight, in the dif- 
" ferent degrees, from a drachm to 
•' near an ounce. They frequently 
** fweat exceedingly, and turn quite 
" pale: fometimes they difgorge, reco- 
*' ver, and becom.e lively again. I think 
" the whole fcene is furprifmg, and a 
" very remarkable piece of natural 
" hiftory. From the conftant inof- 
*' fenfivenefs which I have obferved in 
" them, I almoft queflion the truth of 
*' their poifonous fpitting. Many peo- 
'* pie here expect no great good from 
" the application of toads to cancers ; 
" and where the diforder is not abfo- 
*' luteiy local, none is to be expelled -, 

" where 


" where it is, and feated in any part, 
*' not to be well come at for extirpa- 
" tion, I think it is hardly to be ima- 
" gined, but that the having it fucked 
" clean as often as you pleafe, mufl 
*' give great relief. Every body 
" knows, that dogs licking of fores 
*' cures them, which is, I fuppofc, 
" chiefly by keeping them clean. If 
*' there is any credit to be given to 
" hiilory, poifons have been fucked 
" out, 

Pallentia Vulnera lamhil; 

' Ore Venera trahens. 

" are the words of Lucan on the oc- 

" cafion ; if the people to whom thefe 

" words are applied, did their cure by 

^' immediately following the injection 

" of the poifon, the local confinement 

" of another poifon brings the cafe to 

" a great degree of fimilarity. 

" I hope I have not tired your lord- 
" Ihip with my long tale, as it is a true 
" one, and in my apprehenfion a curi- 
*' ous piece of natural hiftory, I could 
" not forbear communicating it to you. 
" 1 own I thought the (lory in the pa- 
*' pers to be an invention, and when I 

*' confidercd 


" confidered the inftinctivc principle 
" in all animals of fclf prefervation, 
" I was confirmed in my difbelief ; but 
" what I have related I faw, and all 
** theory mull yield to faft. It is only 
" the Ruheta, the land toad, which 
" has the property of fucking ; I can- 
" not find any the left mention of 
" the property in any one of the old 
" naturalifts. My patient can bear to 
" have but one applied in twenty-four 
" hours : the woman who was cured 
" had them on day and night, with- 
" out intermiffion, for five weeks. 
" Their time of hangino- at the breaft 

D D 

" has been from one to fix hours.** 

The other account is of a woman 
now under the experiment, which I 
give, as delivered to me from un- 
doubted authority. If the event is 
profperous, an early opportunity fhall 
• be taken of informing the public of it 

in fome of the news-papers, with all 
circumftances of place, name, &c. 
which at prefent it is needlefs to men- 

About fix years ago a poor woman 
received a crulh on her breaft by the 
fall of a pail ; a cancerous complaint 
was the refuh. 



Laft year her diforder increafed to 
an alarming degree -, fhe had five 
wounds on her breads, one exceeding 
large, from which fragments of bone 
worked out, giving her vaft pain ; 
and at the fame time there was a 
great difcharge of thin yellow mat- 
ter : fhe was iikewife reduced to a 
meer Ikeleton. 

All her left fide and ftomach was 
much fwelled ; her fingers doughy 
and difcolored. 

On the 25th oi September, lySS, 
the firft toad was applied ; between 
that and the 29th Ihe ufed feven, and 
had that night better reft. She fwal- 
lowed with greater eafe, for before that 
time there was fome appearance of 
humor in her neck, and a difficulty of 
getting any thing down. 

October i6th, the patient better. 
It was thought proper as winter was 
coming on, and of courfe it would be 
very difficult to procure a number of 
toads, to apply more at a time, fo 
three were put on at once. The fwel- 
Hng in the arm abated, and the wo- 
man's reft was good. 

During thefe tryals flie took an in- 
fufion of Water Purfnep with Pulvis 



December i8th, continued to look 
ill, but finds herfelf better : two of 
the wounds were now healed. 

She was always moft eafy when the 
toads were fucking, of which fhe kil- 
led vaft numbers in the operation. 

January iy6^. The laft account 
that was received, informing that the 
patient was better. 

The remarks made on the animals, 
are thefe i 

Some toads died very foon after 
they had fucked ; others lived about 
a quarter of an hour, but fome lived 
much longer : for example, one that 
was applied about feven o'clock fucked 
till ten, and died as foon as it was 
taken from the breaft j another that 
immediately fucceeded continued till 
three o'clock, but dropped dead from 
the wound, each fwelled exceedingly, 
and turned of a pale color. 

Thefe toads did not feem to fuck 
greedily, and would often turn their 
heads away ; but during the time of 
fucking MTre heard to fmack their 
lips like a young child. 

As thofe reptiles are apt by their 
ftruggles to get out of the bag, the 
open end ought to be made with an 
open hem, that the firing may run the 



niore readily, and faften tightly about 
the neck. 

It would be improper to quit the 
fubjed: without mentioning the ori- 
gin of this ftrange diicovery, which 
was owing to a woman near Hungsr- 
fordy who labored under a cancerous 
complaint in her breaft, which had 
long baffled all applications. 

The account flie gives of the man- 
ner in which Ihe came by her know- 
lege is very fmgular, and I may fay 
, apocryphal. She fays of herfelf, that 

in the height of her dilbrder fhe went 
to fome church where there was a valt 
crowd : on going into a pew, (lie was 
accolled by a ftrange clergyman, who, 
after exprelTmg compalTion for her 
fituation, told her that if flie would 
make fuch an application of livino- 
toads* as abovementioned, fhe would 
be well. 

This dark flory is all we can colled 
relating to the affair. It is our opi- 
nion that Ihe flumbled upon the dif- 
covery by accident, and that having 
fet up for a cancer doclreis, flie though't 
it nccelFary to amufe the world witli 

* I have been told that (he not only maje „fe oi [[vw^ toz.U 
bat permitted the d<.ad pne. to remain a: J.c;- breaft, bvViv oF 
eaiaplafms, fer fome week?. ' / ' . » 



this myfterlaus relation *. For k 
feems very unaccountable, that this 
unknown gentleman Ihould exprefs fo 
much tendernefs for this fingle fufFerer, 
and not feel any for the many thou- 
fands that daily languifh under this 
terrible diforder : would he not have 
made ufe of this invaluable noilrum 
for his own emolument, or at left, by 
fome other means have found a method 
of making it public for the good of 

Here I take leave of the fubjed, 
which I could not do without expref- 
fmg my doubts, as to the method of 
the woman's obtaining her informa- 
tion ; but in relped: to the authenti- 
city of this new-difcovered property 
of the toad, fa£ts eftablifh it beyond 
difpute. Let the humane wifh for 
fpeedy proofs of the efficacy ; and for 
the fatisfadion of the world, let thofc 
who are capable of giving indifputabje 
proofs of the fuccefs, take the earlieft 
opportunity of making the public ac- 
quainted with fo interefting an affair. 

• Mr. Valcnune Greatraks, who about the year 1664, per- 
fuaded himfelf that he could cure difeafes, by ftrokingthem ouc 
of the parts afFefted with his hand ; and the famous Britiget 
Bojiock, of Chejhire, who worked cures by virtue of her falling 
fpittle, both came by their art in a manner fupernacural, buc 
fey faitb may ivire madi ivholr. 

A P P E N' D I X. 341 

Viper J 21.. KeyJler^vol.l\\\i7.'ij, relates, that Sir 
Kenelm Dighy iifed to feed his wife, 
who was a moft beautiful woman, 
v/ith capons fattened with the flefh of 

The traveller does not quote his 
authority •, but the lady did not long 
furvive this ftrange regimen. 

Blind worm. In Sueden is a fmall reddifli ferpent, 
26. called there the Afping, the Coluher 

Cherfea^ of Linntsus : it is fmall, and 
of a reddiih color, and its bite is faid 
to be mortal- 
May it not have been from a fer- 
pent of this Ipecies, that the man in 
Oxfordjhire received his death ? 

Glain Neidr, This reminds me of another Welch 
23. word that is explanatory of the cuf- 

toms of the antients, fhewing their 
intent in the ufe of the plant Vervains 
in their luftrations ; and why it was 
called by Diofcorides Hierohotane, or 
the facred plant, and elteemed proper 
to be hung up in their rooms. 

The Britijh name Casgan Cythrawl, 
or the Devil's averfion, may be a mo- 
dern appellation, but is likewife called 
T Dderwen fendigaid, the holy oak, 
which evidently refers to the 'Druids 
, Fliny 

342 A P F-J^J^ D I X. 

Pliny mforms us, that the Gaul^ 
ufed it in their incantations, as the Ro- 
mans and Greeks did in their luftrations. 
Terence, in his Andria, fhews us the 
Verbena was placed on altars before 
the doors of private houfes in Athens-, 
and from the fame pafTage in Pliny *, 
we find the Magi were guilty of the 
mod extravagant fuperflition about this 
herb. Strange it is that fuch a vene- 
ration fhould arife for a plant endued 
with no perceptible qualities ; and 
ftranger ftill it Ihould fpread from the 
fartheft north to the boundaries of In- 
dia. So general a confent, however, 
proves the cuftom arofe before the dif- 
ferent nations had loft all communica* 
tion with each other. 

Ba/kingShark,T\{\s> fpecies, on comparing a rude 
28. fketch of one taken in the Caernar- 

von/hire feas, with an engraving of the 
Squalus Maximus in Bifhop Gunner''^ 
Aula Nidrofiana, we find them to be 
the fame, and that it has a fmall anal 
fin, which probably was overlooked by 
the Welch fifhermen. 

SiurgeoU:, 96. The mouth of the fturgeon when dead 
is always open \ when alive it can 

* Lib. XXV, cap. 9« 



clofe or open it at pleafure, by means 
of certain mufcles, which alfo afTiil it 
in protruding or drawing it in. Pliny 
ipeaking of his Jcipenfer^ makes it 
fynonymoiis with the Elops^ ^lidam 
etim Elope M vocant. 

Ballan. This is a kind of Wrajj'e*, fent from 

Scarborough by Mr. 'Travis^ differing 
from the other fpecies. They appear 
during fummer in great fhoals off 
Filey -Bridge : the largeft weigh about 
five pounds. 

It was of the form of the common 
wrajfe^ only between the dorfal fin 
and the tail was a confiderable fink- 
' ing : above the nofe was a deep fulcus i 
on the fartheft cover of the gills was a 
deprefllon radiated from the center. 

It had only four branchioftegous 

The dorfal fin had thirty-one rays, 
twenty fpiny, eleven foft -, the lall 
branched, and much longer than the 
fpiny rays. 

The pedoral fins had fourteen -, the 
ventral fix ; the firft of which was 
fhort and fpiny : the anal twelve ; the 
three firft fpiny, the nine others 
branched and foft. 

* Fide p. 2C3. 

Z The 



The tail was rounded at the end ; 
at the bottom, for about a third part 
of the way, between each ray was a 
row of fcales. 

The color in general was yellow, 
fpotted with orange. 

The plate of this fifli is placed at 
p. 204. 





Weight of 



>y <'fffi, 


p. 302. 









April 4. 




Dec. 23. 






March 14. 






0£f. 25. 



1222 1 

•^ 2. 


Jufie 18, 






April 5. 






April 25. 




• 361 


May 2. 





March 21, 




542 1 


June 13. 




May 28. 

* Some part of the fpawn of this fifh was by accident loft, 
fo that the account here is below the reality. Fide Fhil. Tranf. 

C A T A- 

[ 345 ] 


O F T H E 

Animals defcribed in this Volume. 

With their BRITISH Names. 


1 QPlNOUSTortoife, Melwioges. 

2 O Common Frog, LlyfFant melyn. 

3 Gibbous Frog, Llyffant melyn cefn 


4 Toad, Llylfant du, LlyfFant 


5 Natter Jack, 

6 Scaly Lizard, 

7 Warty Lizard, Genau goeg ddafadenog. 

8 Brown Lizard, frech. 

9 Little Brown Lizard, leiaf. 

10 Snake-fhaped Lizard, naredig. 

11 Viper, Neidr,Neidr du, Gwiber 

12 Snake, Neidr fraith, Neidr y 


13 Blind worm, or Slow- Pwl dall. 


It is to Richard Morris, Efq; that the public is indebted for 

the Britijh names. 

Z 2 FISH. 

[-346 ] 


14 y^Ommon Whale, 

15 V->( Pike-headed 

~ Morfil CyfFredin. 



16 Fin-fifh, 


17 Round-lipped Whale, 


18 Beaked Whale, 

19 Blunt- headed Cachalot 

20 Great-headed 


21 Round-headed 


22 High-finned 

Uchel aden. 

23 Dolphin, 


24 Grampus, 

Morhwch, Morfoehyn. 

25 Porpefle, 


26 Lamprey, 

Llyfowen bendol, Llam- 


27 Lefler Lamprey, 


28 Pride, 

29 Skate, 

Cath for, morcath, 


30 Sharp-nofed Ray, 

Morcath drwynfain. 

31 Rough Ray, 

32 Cramp Ray, 


33 Thornback, 

Morcath bigog. 

34 Sting Ray, 

Morcath cefn. 

35 Angel-fifli, 


36 Picked Dog-fifh, 

Ci Pegod, Picewd. 

37 Balking Shark, 

38 White Shark, 

Morgi gvvin. 

39 Blue Shark, 

Morgi glas, y Sierc. 

40 Sea 

[ 347 1 

40 Sea Fox, 

41 Tope, 

42 Greater Dog-fifh, 

43 Leffer Dog-fiih, 

44 Smooth Hound, 

45 Porbeagle, 

46 Common Fifhing 


47 Long Fifhing Frog, 

48 Sturgeon, 

49 Oblong Sun-fifh, 

50 Short Sun-fiili, 

51 Lump-filli, 

52 Sea Snail, 

5 3 Longer Fipe-filli, 

54 Shorter 

^^ Little or 

Sea Adder, 
^6 Eel, 

57 Conger, 

58 Sea Wolf, 

59 Sand Eel, 

60 Morris, 

61 Sword-fifh, 

62 Dragonet, 

'6^ Leffer Dragonet, 

64 Weever, 

6s Leffer Weever, 

66 Common Codfilh, 

6j Torik, 

68 Hadock, 


Llwynog mor. 

Ci glas. 

Ci yfgarmes, morgi mawr 

Ci Llyfn. 

Morlyffant, Llyffanbyfg. 

Morlyffant hir. 



Mor falwen. 

Mor Neidf. 


Mor Llyfowen, Cyngyren 

Llamrhiaid, Pyfgod by- 

Mor wiber, Pigyn aftrus. 



* 6^ Whiting 

[ 348 ] 

6g Whiting Pout, 

70 Bib, 

71 Poor, 

72 Coal-fiili, 
y^ Pollack, 
74 Whiting, 
y^ Hake, 

76 LelTer Hake, 

77 Left Hake, 

78 Ling, 
yg Burbot, 

80 Spotted Whiftle-filh, 
81. Brown Whiftle-fifh, 

82 Crefted Blenny, 

83 Gattorugine, 

84 Smooth Blenny, 

85 Spotted Blenny, 

86 Viviparous Blenny, 

87 Black Goby, 

88 Spotted Goby, 

89 Bull Head, 

90 Pogge, 

91 Father Lafher, 

92 Doree, 

93 Holibut, 

94 Whiff, 
g^ Plaife, 

^96 Flounder, 

97 Dab, 

98 Smear Dab, 

Cod Iwyd. 
Cwdyn ebrill. 
Chwetlyn glas. , 

Chwitlyn gwyn. 


Llefen, Llefenan, 

Pentarw, Bawd y meli- 

Penbwl. ■ 

Sion dori. 
Lleden ffreinig. 

Lleden frech, 
Lleden 'ddu. 
Lleden gennog, Lleden 
dwfr croyw. 

gg Sole, 

[ 349 ] 

99 Sole, 

100 Smooth Sole, 
loi Turbot, 

102 Pearl, 

103 Gilt Head, 

104 Sea Bream, 

105 Lefler Sea Bream, 

106 Opah, 

107 WrafTe, 

108 Bimaculated 

109 Trimaculated 
no Striped 

111 Gibbons 

112 Goldfinny, 

113 Comber. 

114 Cook, 

115 Ballan, 

116 Perch, 

117 Bafle, 

118 RufFe, 

119 Black RufFe, 

120 Three fpined Stickle- 


121 Ten fpined 

122 Fifteen fpined 

123 Mackrel, 

124 Tunny, 

125 Scad, 

126 Red Surmullet, 

127 Striped 

Tafod yr hydd, Tafod 
yr ych. 

Lleden chwith, Torbwt. 


Peneuryn, Eurben. 

Brom y mor. 



Draenog, Gannog, 

Sil y dom, Pyfgod y 

Silod y mor. 
Macrell Sopaen. 

Hyrddyn coch. 

128 Grey 


350 ] 

128 Grey Gurnard, 

129 Red Gurnard, 

Penhaiarn llwyd, Pen- 

Penhaiarn coch. 

130 Piper, 

131 Tub Fifh, 

132 Streaked Gurnard, 

Yfgyfarnog y mor. 

133 Loche, 

Crothell yr afon. 

134 Salmon, 

135 Grey, 

136 Bull Trout, 

Gleifiedyn, Eog, Maran 

Penllwyd, Adfwlch. 

137 Trout, 

138 Samlet, 


Brith y gro, Silod bri- 


139 Charr, 


140 Grayling, 

Brithyll rheftrog, Glaf- 

141 Smelt, 

142 Gwiniad, 

143 Pike, 

144 Sea Pike, 

Mor nodwydd. Corn big. 

145 Argentine, 

146 Atherine, 

147 Mullet, 

148 Flying Fifh. 

149 Herring, 

150 Pilchard, 

Hyrddyn, Mingrwn. 

Pennog yfgaden. 
Pennog mair. 

151 Sprat, 

Coeg Bennog, Sil pen- 


152 Anchovy, 

153 Shad, 

Herlyn, Herling. 

154 Carp, 

154 Carp, 

155 Barbel, 

156 Tench, 

157 Gudgeon, 

158 Bream, 

159 Rud, 

160 Roach, 

161 Dace, 

162 Chub, 

163 Bleak, 

164 Minow, 

165 Gold Filh. 

[ 35^ ] 

Carp, Cerpyn. 
Barf byfg, y Barfog. 
Gwrachen, Ifgretten. 


Darfen, Golenbyfg. 
Penci, Cochgangen. 
Crothel y dom, Bychan 


353 1 

N D E X. 


ABDOMINAL filli 237 
Adder, fea 109 

Adder, vide Viper. 
Adder-gems, their fuppofed 

virtues 22, 23 

Anchovy 295 

Angel-hfli 74 

Jpicius, the chief of epicures 
Apoda]^ fifh , III 

Ape, fea 86 

Argentine 276 

Jrijiopbanes, his chorus of 

frogs 5 

J/miis Celer, the vaft price 

he gave for afurmullet 228 
Atherine 277 

Barbel 304 

its roe noxious 305 

Bafking fliark, the largeft ipe- 

cies _ 78, 342 

— migratory 79 

' yields great plenty of 

oil 80 

Baffe 213 

Bib, or Blinds, a kind of cod- 

iilh 149 

Billets, young coal-fifh 153 
Birdbolt 163 

Blfcayeners early engaged in 

the whale-fifhery 38 

Bleak 315 

Blenny, the crefted 167 

— . fmooth 169 

Blenny, fpotted 171 

' viviparous 172 

Blind-worm, or Slovz-wonr;, 
a harmlefs ferpent 25, 26 
Boat, the five-men, what 194 
Bony fifh 30, iii 

Botargo, what 279 

Bottle-head, a fort of whale 

Branlins, vide Samlet. 

Bream 309 

— — fea-bream 199 

lefTer 200 

Bret 192 

BritiJJ) names 345 

Biifonites^ what 9> 121 

Bulcard 169 

Bull-head 177 

Bull-trout 249 

Burbot 163 

Butter-fiih 171 
But, a name for the flounder 


Cachalot, a genus of whales 
producing fperma-ceti 44 

. the blunt-headed ib. 

. great-headed 4^ 

round-headed 47 

high-finned ibid. 

Cancers, attempts to cure by 

the application of toads ib 
Carp 300 

its longevity 301 

— — w. very tenacious of life 


3>4. .1. N D 

Cartilaginous fifh, their 

characters 57 

Cetaceous fifh, then- cha- 

radters , 33 

Charr 256 

5 gilt and red, probably 

the lame fifh 258 

Chub 313 

Coal-fifh 152 

Coble, a fort of boat 194 
Cod-fifh, the common 137 
• fifliaffedling cold cli- 
mates ibid 

• , vafl fifhery off AVi'j- 

,foundland 138, 139 

• — very prohfic 140 

Conger, how differing from 
the eel 115 

— — — , an article of com- 
merce in Cornwall 117 
Cook 210 
Comber ibid 


Dab 188 

fmear-dab 189 

Dace, or Dare 312 

Digby^ Sir Kenehn, fingular 

experiment of 341 

Dog-fifh, the picked 77 

- greater, produces what 
is called Indian grafs 89 

— — leffer 90 

Dolphin 48 

■ venerated by the an- 

tients 49 

- falfely reprefented by 
painters 50 

Doree 181 

Dragonet 130 

>■■ , the leffer 133 

Eel J will quit its element 1 1 1 

E X. 

Eel, impatient of cold 112 

, their generation 113 

, the moil univerfal of 

fifh 114 

" defptfed by the Romans. 

Eel-pout ■ 163 

, viviparous 172 

Eft, vide Lizard. 

Elvers 116 



Finfcale, vide Rud. 
Fire-flaiie, wW(? Sting Ray. 
Fifhing frog, its artifice to 

take its prey 93 

Flounder, or Fluke 187 

Flying fifh • 282 

Forked beards, the greater and 

the lefs 158, 160 

Fox, fea 86 

Frog, common 3 

, generation 4 

, periodical filence 5 

, gibbous 7 


Garmn^ a fort of pickle much 
efteeined by the antients 
Gattorugine 168 

Gilt-head, or Gilt-poll 197 
Girrock, or Skipper 274 

Glain neidr in high efieem 
with the old Britons 23 
Gloucejier city prefents the 
King annually with a lam- 
prey pye 59 
Goby, the black 174 

, fpotted 176 

Gold-lifli 319 

Goldfmny 209 


N D 








Gudgeon, Tea 


Gurnard, the yellow, 

Gurnard, grey 
• , red 


— , ftreaked 









vaft (heals of 
— faid to be the fifh out 

ot v/hofe mouth St. P^/^r 

took the tribute-money 147 
Hake 156 

leiTer, or forked beard 


left, or leffer ditto 160 

Henry I. killed by a furfeit 

of lampreys 59 

Herring 284 

■ its migrations 285 

. filhery 289 

Hierobotane, account of that 

plant 342 

Hippo, the dolphin of 49 

Holibut, its vaft fize 184 

voracioufnefs 185 

Hull, the town of, early in 

the whale fiftiery 39 


Indian grafs, what 89 

Jugular iifti 130 


King-fifti 201 

Kit, a fort of dab 189 


Lamprey, not \.\\<fmurana of 
the antients 58 

■— — its vaft terlacioufnefs 59 
— — the Icfler ibid 

Lampern, vide Pride. 
Lantern-fi(h, or fmooth fole 

Lark, fea 167 

Launce 123 

Ling 160 

Ling, a great article of com- 

Lizard, fcaly 
.. . ■- warty 
— — brown 
— — little brown 








a large kind, probably 



larves of lizards, moftly 

inhabitants of water 



m.uch admired by 





the horfe 

Majon, Mr. his fpirited tran- 

flation of Pliny's account 
of the ovum anguinum 22 

Miller's thumb 


Morris, the 



the punifhment of adul- 
terers 280 

Murana^ not our lamprey 59 





N D 


Mvriy.r-cg of Jri/iotie, our Piper 234 

v/hale 36 Piaife 1^5 

Mtifculus of Fliny, the fan.e P//«y, his account of the 



ovum an?mnii/n 



Natter-jack, a Jpecies of toad 

Newt, wW<? Lizard. 
Newfoundland^ its bank 140 
North capers, vide Grampus. 


OSiher^ an able navigator in 
King Alfred" s days 38 

Opah 201 

Otter-pike, vide LeiTer Wee- 

Ovum anguinu7n^ a druidical 
bead 22, 23 

Pollack, the wh ting 155 
Poor, or power, a kind of 
cod-filh 1^0 

Poipeffe r2 

Pi-ide 5 1 


^i'ln^ Mr. tlie aclor, firft re- 
commended the eating of 
the Doree i n England j 8 1 



iharp nofed 




67, 68 

— cramp, 
P. — — fting, the Trygon of the 

autienls 7 1 

Paddock-moon, what 5 fables relating to it ib. 

Parrs, or young coal -hfli 153 Roach '" 311 

Pearl 196 Rud 310 

Pearls, artificial, what made Ruife 215 

of 315 • the black, or black tilii 

Perch, much admired by the of Mr. Jago 216 

antients 211, 

• a crooked variety found 

in Wales 213 

Phyfet£7-y or blowing whale 

Pike 270 

its longevity 
fea, or fea-n; 



— — its important 

- 274 


Pipe-fifh, longer and fhorrer 

106, jc8 Scorpion, fea 
- little, or fea-adder icq 

Salmon 239 

leaps 24.1 

iifhery ibid 

trout, ■y/Vf ^Bull-trout. 

Samlet 253 

Sand-eel, vide Launce. 
Scad 225 

Schelly, •oideGWirnzd. 
Sc^nibraria, ap ifle, why {o 
called • 222 


I N D 

Seneca, his account of the 
luxury of the Romans in ref- 
pedl to fifh 228 

Shad 297 

Shake/pear^ his fine compi^ri- 
fon of adverfity to a toad- 
ftone 10 

Sharks 74. 

' white, their voraciouf- 

nefs 82 

bafking, its vaft fize 78 



Skate, its method of engen- 
dering 63 
Slow-worm, a harmlefs fer- 
pent 25, 26 
Smelt 264 
Smear-dab 189 
Smooth-fhan 169 
Snail, fea 105 
Snake, inoffenfive 25 
Sole 190 
Sparling, i;/W^ Smelt. 
Sprat 294 
Spermaceti, what 45 
Sperma ceti whale, vide Ca- 
Stickleback, three fpined 217 
— — , vafl: flioals of in the 
JVelland ibid 
— — , ten fpined 219 

, fifteen fpined 220 

Sting-ray, its dangerous fpine 

Sturgeon y^- ^ 342 

Surmullet, the red 227 

, extravagantly prized 

■ ~ 228 






by the Romans 

' , the firiped 


, manner of taking 

, fifhermens fong 

vious to the capture 

Tench 306 

, the phyfician of the 

fifh ibid 

Thoracic fifh 174 

Thornback 69 

Threfher, its combat with the 
grampus 86 

Toad, its deformity 7 

, ufed in incantations 9 

, its poifon, a vulgar 

error 10 

— — — , attempts to cure can- 
cers by means of live toads 
- ■-, faid to be found in the 
midfl of trees and rocks i r 
Toad, a farther account of 



this animal 
Toadftone, what 

Tornus Thurianus, what 

Torgoch, vide Charr. 

Torfk, or Tufk 

Tortoife, fpinous 

'-—, farther account of 


, crooked 





Tunny, the fifhery, very an- 
tient 223 
, taken notice of by The- 
ocritus 224 
Turbot 192 

fifhery 193 

Twaite, a variety of fhad 298 


TJlyJfes faid to have been killed 
with the fpine of tiie Try^ 
gon, or fting-ray 7 r 



I N D E X. 


Vipers, not prolific i8 

" , their teeth ibid 

— — , efFedls of the bite, and 

its cure ' 21 

, ufes 18 

Viper, the black ibid 


Weever 134 

— , its ftroke fuppofed to 

be poifonous 

, the lefler 

Whales, the common 
, vaft fize 

, place 

— — — 5 fifhery 




Whale, pike-headed 
• , round lipped 


late in it 

the EngUJh engaged *— — , gibbous 

-^ — ^— , beaked 
Whalebone, what 
Whiff, a fort of flounder 186 
Whiting 155 

Whiting-pout 148 

Whiting-pollack, vide Pol- 
Whiftle-fifh, the fpotted 164 
— - — , the brown 165 

White horfe 66 

Wolf-fifli ^ IJ9 

— , curious fl:ru<5lure of 

its teeth 1 2 1 

Wraffe, or Old Wife 203 
— — , bimaculated 205 

—*- -, trimaculated 206 

, flriped 207