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Smithsonian Institution 






U mXiSKmoL Ili^^^B 

Bequest of 
S. Stillman Berry 






qvn fixit , cpii in -urbe foa liofpites .inpatria fiia pereonni, et cognitaone fernper 
vem elTe ^eHnt.iibi per Tneplaceaiit^fihi H-OiTniazit.non ego xllis Tisec coiilcrjpii, 
miHis vioilavi. CairicLeinBrit.Pr'eefeit . 

L o ^r d q-r . 

Printed for BenjrWhite, 

X, \ 


AT a time, when the ftudy of natu- 
ral hiftory feems to revive in Eu- 
rope; and the pens of feveral il- 
luftrious foreigners have been employed in 
enumerating the productions of their refpec- 
tive countries, we are unwilling that our 
own ifland fhould remain infenfible to its par- 
ticular advantages ; we are defirous of divert-* 
ing the aftonifhment of our countrymen at 
the gifts of nature bellowed on other king- 
doms, to a contemplation of thofe with which 
(at left with equal bounty) fhe has enriched 
our own. 

A judicious Foreigner has well remarked,, 
that an Englijhman is excufable fhould he be 
ignorant of the papal hiftory, where it does 
not relate to Great Britain ; but inexcufable 
fhould he neglecl; inquiries into the origin 
a 2 of 


of parlements, the limitation of the royal 
prerogative, and the gradual deviation from 
the feodal-to the prefcnt fyftem of govern- 

The obfervatipn is certainly juft, and the 
application appears too obvious to be pointed 
out ; yet the generality of mankind can reft 
contented with ignorance of their native foil, 
while a paffion for novelty attracts them to a 
fuperficial examination of the wonders of 
Mexicoy or japan , but thefe fhould be told, 
that fuch a paffion is a fure criterion of a 
weak judgement : utility, truth and certainty, 
fhould alone be the point at which fcience 
fhould aim ; and what knowlege can be more 
ufeful than of thofe objects with which we 
are moft intimately connected ? and where 
can we reafon with greater certainty on fuch 
points, than in our own country, where a 
conftant recourfe may be had to the fpecimen 
of what we have under confederation ? But 
thefe, and many other arguments for exa- 
mining into the productions of our own 
iiland, may here be waved, as the admirable 
LINN/EUS has difplayed them at large in 
an oration *, which for mafterly reafoning, 

* Amcen,Acad, Tom, II, p. 409. S tilling f.eet 's SwecliJbTTZ&s, 
- Tr, 1. 



and happy ingenuity,, may vie with the belt 

Yet, as that great naturalift has, in the 
fame trad:, publiilied an eulogium on Sweden j 
and as an incitement to his countrymen to 
apply themfelves to the ftudy of nature, 
enumerated the natural productions of that 
kingdom ; we mall here attempt a parallel, 
and point out to the Britijh reader, his na- 
tive riches ; many of which were probably 
unknown to him, or perhaps flightly regarded* 

Do the heights of ^orfburg, or Swucku, 
afford more inftrudlion to the naturalift than 
the mountains of 'Cumberland, or Caernarvon- 
Jhire ? whofe fides are covered with a rich 
variety of uncommon vegetables, while their 
bowels are replete with the moft ufeful mi- 
nerals. The Derby/hire hills, abounding in 
all the magnificence of caves and cliffs ; the 
mountains of Kerry, and that furprizing har- 
bour the Bullers of Bachan*, may well be 
oppofed to the rocks of Blackulla, or the ca- 
verns of Skiida. Sweden can no where pro- 
duce a parallel to that happy combination 
of grandeur and beauty in Kefwick -j- vale, or 

* Between Aberdeen and Peterhead. 
f In Cumberland. 



Killarny * lake ; nor can Europe fhew a na- 
tural wonder equal to the Giant's Caufeway 
in the north of Ireland, 

The excellence and number of our fprings 
(whether medicinal or incrufting) are wxll 
known to common inquirers. 

Our minerals are as great in quantity, as 
rich in quality : of gold, indeed, we cannot 
produce many fpecimens, yet fufficient to 
mew that it is found in this ifland -f ; but 
filver is found in great abundance in our lead 
ores, and veins of native filver in the copper 
ore of Muckrus, on the lake of Killarny. 
The haematites iron ores of Cumberland, and 
the beautiful columnar iron ores of the foreft 
of Dean, are fufficient to difplay our riches 
in that ufeful commodity. No country pro- 
duces fo great a quantity of tin as Cornwall; 
and that county, and feveral others in the 
north have been long noted for their inex- 
hauftible veins of copper ; nor lefs famous 

* In the county of Kerry. 

f That our country produces gold, appears in Dr. Borlafe'z 
Jiiflory of Cornwall, p. 214. So late as the year 1753, feveral 
pieces were found in what the miners call fiream tin ; one 
fpecimen was as thick as a goofe quill ; others weighed to 
the value of feventeen millings, twenty-feven fhillings, and 
another even to the value of three guineas. 



are the lead mines of Derby/hire, Cardigan- 
JJoire and Flintjhire, which have been worked 
for ages, yet fhew no iign of the decline of 
their ftores. 

In all thefe, nature fports with great lux- 
uriancy; the cryftallized lead ore of Tralee% 
the fibrous lead ore of Tipperary ; the lami- 
nated lead ore of Lord Hoptoun 's mines; the 
cryftalized tins, and the figured ores oi Zink s 
are equally noted for their elegance, fcarcity* 
and richnefs. 

The ore of Zi?ik, or Lapis Calaminaris, Is 
found in vaft quantities in the counties of 
Somerfet and Flint ; while black lead or wadd s 
a fiibftan.ce fcarce known in other kingdoms* 
abounds in the mountains of Cumberland. 

To the Swedijh Petroleum, we may oppofe 
the Well at Pitcbford, and that of St. Ca- 
therine's near Edinburgh. Our amber and 
our jet, together with our inexhauftible 
ftrata of coal found in fo many parts of this 
kingdom, will, in the article of bitumens, 
give us the fuperiority over thefe fo much 
boafted productions of Sweden* 

* In the county of Kerry* 

a 4 To 

viii PREFACE/ 

To avoid a tedious enumeration, we mall 
only mention our wonderful mines of rock 
■ fait ; our alium and our vitriol works; our 

various marbles, alabafters, and ftones , our 
moft excellent clays and earths * j all which 
articles, and many more unnoted here, might 
have furnifhed us with an ample field for pa- 

Our botanical productions are not lefs abun- 
dant ; but the works of Ray 9 which have 
lately been much enlarged and methodized, 
according to the Linncean fyftem, by the in- 
genious Mr. Hudfo?i 9 in his Flora Anglica, 
are a fufficient difplay of our vegetable riches. 

Our Zoology would be a copious fubject 
to enlarge on, but the work in hand re- 
trains us from anticipating our reader's curi- 
olity. We might expatiate on the clouds 
of Soland geefe which breed on the Bafs 
ijland, or Puffifis on that of Priejt holme : on 
our fun, and other marine animals ; on our 
infects, and the various other fenfitive pro- 
ductions cf this kingdom ; but we forbear a 

* If the inquifitive reader is defirous of a farther account 
pf the number and excellence of cur fubterraneous produc- 
tions, we refer him to the learned Dr. Woodward's Cata- 
ie of the Englifo Fcjjlls, London 1729, particularly to p. 5. 


P R E F A C E. ir 

Darade of ufelefs declamation, and mall only 
add, that as few countries receive more ad- 
vantages from their natural breed of quadru- 
peds, unmixed with any beaft that preys 
on man, fo, few can boaft a greater variety 
of birds, whether local, or migratory. 

This is a general view of the natural hif- 
tory of our own country; why then fliould 
we neglect inquiring into the various benefits 
that refult from thefe inftances of the wifdom 
of our Creator, which his divine munifi- 
cence has fo liberally, and fo immediately 
placed before us ? Such a neglect is certain- 
ly highly to be blamed, for (to exprefs 
ourfelves in the words of an eminent writer) 
" the Creator did not beftovv fo much 
" curiofity, and workmanfhip on his crea- 
" tures, to be looked on with a carelefs in- 
" curious eye, efpecially to have them flight- 
" ed or contemned; but to be admired by 
u the rational part of the world, to magnify 
" his own power to all the world, and the 
" ages thereof; and fince the works of the 
" creation are all of them fo many demon- 
" fixations of the infinite wifdom and power 
" of God, they may ferve to us, as fo ma- 
" ny arguments exciting us to a conftant fear 



" of the Deity, and a fteady and hearty obe- 
-*' dience to all his laws." * 

Much might be added to this fubjecT:, if 
confidered in a theological light ; but fince 
the writings of Boyle, Ray, znADerham, fully 
prove that the ftudy of natural hiftory en- 
forces the theory of religion and practice of 
morality, we had better refer to their works 
in general, than mangle them by imperfect 

To exalt our veneration towards the Al- 
mighty, is the principal end of this fublime 
fcience; and next to that, the various bene- 
fits refulting from it to human fociety de- 
ferve our ferious confideration. 

To give an obvious inftance : what won- 
derful changes have been made in human af- 
fairs by the difcovery of an obfcure mineral. 
The antients, ignorant of the application of 
the magnet, timidly attempted a mere coaft- 
ing navigation ; while we, better informed 
of the ufes of it, traverfe the wideft oceans, 
and by the difcovery of the new world, have 
layed open to fcience, an inexhauftiblefund of 

The rife and progrefs of medicine, kept 

* Derbam's Phyf. Theol. Book XI. c. 24. 



pace with the advancement of this moft im- 
portant difcovery ; and though neceffity was 
the parent of the mechanic arts, yet they alfo 
throve, and grew to maturity, under the fame 

Many more inftances might be added to 
this brief view of the utility of natural know- 
lege ; but we ftiall only give fome of its ufes 
in the polite arts, which have hitherto been 
too little connected with it. 

To iniiance particularly in painting, its ufes 
are very extenfive : the permanency of colors 
depends on the goodnefs of the pigments ; 
but the various animal, vegetable, and foffil 
fubfbnces (out of which they are made) can 
only be known by repeated trials ; yet the 
greateft artifts have failed in this refpect: the 
fhadows of the divine Raphael have acquired 
an uniform blacknefs, which obfcures the 
fineft productions of his pencil, while the 
paintings of Holbein, Durer, and the Venetian- 
fchool, (who were admirably fkilled in the 
knowlege of pigments) ftill exift in their pri-^ 
mitive frefhnefs. 

But thefe advantages are fmail, compared 
to thofe derived from the knowlege of nature 
in the reprefentation of objects : painting is 



an imitation of nature ; now, who can imi- 
tate without coniulting the original ? But 
to come to what is more particularly the 
object of our inquiries; animal and vegetable 
life are the effe nee of landicape, and often are 
fecondary objects in hiftorical paintings; even 
the fculptor in his limited province would do 
well to acquire a correclnefs of delign with 
aperfeel knowlege of the mufcles of animals. 
But the painter fhould have all this and more^ 
he fhould be acquainted with all their vari- 
ous tints, their manner of living, their pe- 
culiar motions or attitudes, and their places 
of abode % or he will fall into manifeft er- 

Plurimus inde labor tabulas imitando juvabit 
Egregias, operumque typos, fed plura docebit 
Natura ante oculos prafens, nam iirmat et auget 
Vim genii, ex illaque artem experientia completf . 

* That great artift, Mr. Rldinger, of Aujburg, exceeds all 
others in the three laft particulars ; nothing can equal his 
prints of animals for propriety of attitudes, for a juft idea of 
their way of life, and for the beautiful and natural fcenery 
that accompanies them. His fineft works are, his Wilde 
Tkiere, KleineTbiere, a.xid.Jagdbare Tbiere; but there are fcarce 
any of his performances that can fail giving pleafure to all ad- 
mirers of nature reprefented as herfelf. 

f Frefnoy de arte graph* tin, Stf* 


PREFACE. jriii 

Defcriptive poetry is ftill more indebted to 
natural knowlege, than either painting or 
iculpture : the poet has the whole creation 
for his range ; nor can his art exift without 
borrowing metaphors, allufions, or defcrip- 
tions from the face of nature, which is the 
only fund of great ideas. The depths of the 
feas, the internal caverns of the earth, and 
the planetary fyftem are out of the painter's 
reach ; but can fupply the poet with the 
fublimeft conceptions : nor is the knowlege 
of animals and vegetables lefs requifite, while 
his creative pen adds life and motion to every 

From hence it may be eafily inferred, that 
an acquaintance with the works of nature is 
equally necefiary to form a genuine and cor- 
rect tafte for any of the above mentioned 
arts. Tafte is no more than a quick fenfibi-* 
lity of imagination refined by judgement, 
and corrected by experience $ but experience 
is another term for knowlege % and to judge 
of natural images, we muft acquire the fame 
knowlege, and by the fame means as the 
painter, the poet, or the fculptor. 

* See the EfTay on the origin of our ideas of the fublime 
and beautiful* 



Thus far natural hiftory in general feems 
connected with the polite arts ; but were we 
to defcend into all its particular ufes in com- 
mon life, we mould exceed the bounds of a 
preface : it will be therefore neceffary to 
confine our inquiries to the inveftigation of 
a iingle part of the material world, which 
few are fo ignorant as not to know is divided 
into the animal, vegetable, and foffil king- 

Vaft would be the extent of the inquiries 
into each of thefe; but though ambition may 
tempt us to pervade the whole field of fci- 
ence, yet a little experience will open to our 
views the immenfe tracts of natural know- 
lege, and we mall find it an arduous talk 
only to inveftigate a fmgle province, fo as to 
fpeak with precifion and certainty ^ without 
which there can be no real improvements in 
natural hiftorv. 

For thefe reafons, a partial examination of 
this fcience is all that a confiderate mind will 
aim at, which may perhaps be moft naturally 
guided to give the preference to the moft 
exalted fubjecl of it. 

Zoology is the nobleft part of natural hif- 
tory, as it comprehends all fenfitive beings, 



from reafoning man, through every fpecies 
of animal life, till it defcends to that point 
where fenfe is wholly extinct, and vegetation 
commences : and certainly none will deny, 
that life, and voluntary motion are fuperior \ 
to a mere vegetating principle, or the more 
inactive ftate of the foffil kingdom* 

Should we follow the train of reflections 
which naturally arife from the contemplation 
of animals, they would fwell this preface 
into a volume : and fhould we only mention- 
the various ufes of Britifi animals in com- 
mon life, yet even thefe would greatly exceed 
the bounds to which we have thought it 
right to limit ourfelves. The knowlege of 
Dietetics is a neceffary branch of mediciney 
as by a proper attention to that article, an 
obftinate diftemper may be eradicated, when 
common remedies have failed -, but this can> 
never be attained, without the ftuq'y of 
Zoology, which affifts us greatly in learning 
the different qualities of animal food; and 
how far a difference of nutriment may con- 
tribute to cure the difeafe. 

Cloathing is effential, not only to our com- 
fort, but fubfiftence ; and the number of 
our manufactures, relative to this fingle ar- 


tide, demand our care for their extenfion and 
improvement ; efpecially as the maintenance 
of thoufands depends on thefe important 
branches of commerce ; yet thefe may be 
enlarged, by difcovering new properties in 
animals, or by the farther cultivation of thofe 
already difcovered. The fcience of Zoology 
is requiiite for each of thefe ; and if we reflect 
but a little on the unwearied diligence of 
our rivals the French y we mould attend to 
every fifter fcience that may any ways pre- 
ferve our fuperiority in manufactures and 

Domeftic ceconomy is an object of equal 
confequence; and the author* of the Ca- 
lendar of Flora has eflablifhed the ufes of 
Zoology in this particular, with undeniable 
evidence. This excellent writer has united a 
happy invention, with the moil folid judg- 
ment, and certainly merits the higheft com- 
mendations, as a friend of human kind. 
Our ingenious countryman, and worthy 
friend, the late Mr. St Ming fleet, in the fame 
year purfued almoft the fame plan as far as 
his time would permit, with equal fuccefs, 

* Akx* Mai. Berger* 


P R E F A C E* xvii 

and manifeftly proved the utility of the pro= 
j e 6l, in a learned difcourfe prefixed to his 
work *. 

If then Zoology can fuggeft fo many 
hints towards enlarging and improving our 
manufactures and agriculture ; we fhall not 
think our time mifapplied, in offering to the 
publick, the NATURAL HISTORY of 
the Quadrupeds and Birds of GREAT BRI- 
TAIN. ' This compilation had its peculiar 
difficulties; but the labor of travelling through 
a dry arrangement of the fubjed:, was very 
frequently alleviated by the beautiful fpeci- 
mens we met with in our progrefs : befides, 
we own with pleafure that we have been 
greatly aided by the lovers of natural hiflory, 
who fince the appearance of the firft edition 
have contributed to enrich the prefent with 
feveral valuable obfervations ; by collecting 
and digefting thefe materials, we have not 
only rendered the work more complete, but 
are alfo encouraged to trace the Britifo Zo- 
ology through fome of the remaining claffes. 

Let therefore every merit that may appear 
in the prefent edition, and every error that 

* Swedijh Tra&s, translated from the Am#n* Acad, fecond 

b may 

xfin PREFACE. 

may have been fupprefTed from the former, 
be attributed to the kind informations we 
have received from our learned and inge- 
nious friends ; among whom we are ambi- 
tious of naming the Honorable Dairies Bar* 
ringtcn; the Reverend Sir John Cnllum 9 
Baronet; the Reverend Mr. George AJhby 9 
and the Reverend Mr. Green of Cambridge $ 
William Conjiable, Efquire ; Jofeph Banks, 
Efquire ; the late Benjamin Stilling fleet 3 
Efquire; Thomas Falconer, Efquire, of 
Chejler ; Doftor John Remold Forjler ; the 
Reverend Doftor Buckworth ; the Reverend 
Mr. Hugh Davies, of Beaumaris; Mr. 
Travis, Surgeon, of Scarborough ; Mr. La* 
tham, Surgeon, of Dart ford ; Thomas Tofleld, 
of Torkjlnre, Efquire ; Mr. Plymly, of 
Longnor, Shrop/loire ; Owen Holland, Efquire, 
of Conway-, Henry Seymer, Efquire, of 
Hanford, Wilts , Doftor Lyfons, of Glocejler ; 
Dottor Solander; the late Mr. Peter Col- 
linfon ; the Reverend Mr. White, of Selborn, 
Hants ; and that Father of Britijh Ornitho- 
logies, the late Mr, George Edwards, of the 
College of Phyficians. 

In the profecution of our plan, we fhall, 
to avoid the perplexity arifing from forming 

a new 


a new fyftem, adopt (as far as relates to the 
Quadrupeds and Birds) that of the inefti- 
mable Ray, who advanced the ftudy of na- 
ture far beyond all that went before him $ 
and whofe abilities, integrity, and mildnefs, 
jsrere no lefs an ornament to the human fpe- 
cies in general, than to his own country in 
particular. Yet, as this excellent man was 
in a manner the founder of fyftematic Zo- 
ology, fo later difcoveries have made a few 
improvements on his labors : wherever then, 
he is miftaken in the arrangement, we fhall 
attempt a reform, afiifted by the more mo- 
dern fyftems, all of which owe their rife to 
the plan chalked out by our illuftrious coun- 
tryman. It is unneceflary to detain the reader 
in this place with the reafons for our devi- 
ation from the order w& obferved in our iaft 
edition, for they are given at large in the 
Prefaces to our Synopfis of Quadrupeds and 
Genera of Birds*. 

We have, in our defcriptions, wholly 
omitted the anatomy of animals ; as that 
part, unlefs executed with the greateft fkill, 
would be no fmall blemifh to the reft of this 

* Printed at Edinburgh, 1773* 

b a perform- 


performance; but the reader may judge of 
the extent of our plan, by the following 
heads : the character of the genus fhall firft 
be mentioned : then the fpecific name : the 
fynonyms from different authors ; and the 
genera in which thofe authors have placed 
the animal. The names fhall be given 
in feveral European languages * ; and we 
fhall conclude with a brief, but fufficient 
defcription, adding at the fame time, the 
various ufes, and natural hiftory of each 

If this plan fucceeds, in promoting the 
knowlege of nature in this kingdom, we fhall 
think ourfelves amply rewarded. Could our 
exhortations avail, we fliould recommend this 
ftudy moft earneftly to every country gentle- 
man. To thofe of an a&ive turn, we might 
fay, that fo pleafing and ufeful an employ- 
ment would relieve the tcedium arifing from 

* In the ornithology the European names are prefixed to 
the author referred to in the fynonyms, 

Italian to Aldrovand, Olina, or Zinanni. 

French BrifTon, or de BufFon. 

German Gefner, or Kramer. 

Swedijh the Fauna Suecica. 

Danijb and Norwegian Brunnkh. 

Carniolan Scopoli. 

a fame- 


a fanienefs of diverfions ; every object would 
produce tome new obfervation, and while 
they might feem only to gratify themfelves 
with a prefent indulgence, they would be 
laying up a fund of ufefui knowlege ; they 
would find their ideas feniibly enlarged, till 
they comprehended the whole of domeftic 
ceconomy, and the wife order of Providence. 
To thofe of a fedentary difpofition, this 
ftudy would not only prove agreeable, 
but falutary : men of that turn of mind 
are with difficulty drawn from their books* 
to partake of the neceffary enjoyments of air 
and exercife $ and even when thus compelled, 
they profit lefs by it than men of an illiberal 
education. But this inconvenience would be 
remedied, could we induce them to obferve 
and relifh the wonders of nature ; aided by 
philofophy, they would fincj in the woods 
and fields a feries of objects, that would give 
to exercife charms unknown before ; and en- 
raptured with the fcene, they will be ready 
to exclame with the poet : 

On every thorn, delightful wifdom grows j 

In every rill, a fvveet inftru&ion flows. Young 3 

Thus would the contemplative naturalifl 

learn from all he faw, to love his Creator for 

b i Ills 

xxii PREFACE. 

his goodnefs ; to repofe an implicit confi- 
dence in his wifdom ; and to revere his awful 
omnipotence. We mall dwell no longer on 
this fubjedt, than to draw this important con- 
cluiion ; that health of body, and a chearful 
contentment of mind, are the general efFefts 
of thele amufements. The latter is produ- 
ced by a ferious and pleafing inveftigation of 
the bounties of an all- wife and beneficent Pro- 
vidence j as conftant and regular exercife is 
the bell prefervative of the former. 



JElian. an. <var. 


Aldr. av. 
Aman. acad. 

Arifi. hijl. 



Bell's Trawls, 
Be Ion ay. 

Belon obf. 

CLAVDIIJEliani Opera qua? extant 
omnia, Cura & Opera Conradi Gef- 
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Nat. Hilt, of Birds, by Eleazer Albin, 

3 vol. 4to. London 9 1738. 
Vlyjjis Aidrovandi Ofnithologia, foL Fran- 

cofurti, 1610, 1613. 
Caroli Linnai Amaenitates Academical 

6 torn. 8vo. Lugd. Bat. & Holmi<e 9 

1749,. &c * 
Arijlotelis Hiftoria de Animalibus, Julio 

Ctffare Scaligero interprete, foh To* 

lof£, 1619. 
Arijlophanis Comcedias undecim, Gr. & 

Lat. cum Scholiis antiquis, fol. Am* 

Jielodami, J 7 10. 
Description of the Coafts of South and 

North Guinea, and Angola, by John; 

Burbot, in Churchill's Coll. of Voya- 
ges, Vol. V, 
into Perjia, China, Sec. 2 vol. 8vo. 1764, 
Xi'Hiftoire de la Nature des Oifeaux, 

avec leurs Defcriptions & naifs Por-* 

traits, par Pierre Belon, fol, Paris f 

Les Obfervations de plufieurs SIngularites 
& Chofes memorables trouvees en. 
Grece, AJie & Judie, par Pierre Belon 9 
fol, Paris, 1 5 55, 

h 4 Belon* 

[ xxiv ] 

Melon. La Nature & Diverfite des Poiflbns, &c, 

8vo. tranfverf. par Pierre Belcn. Paris, 

Boriafe's Corn. Nat, Hift, of Cornwall, by William Bor- 

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i?r/^» arv. Ornithologie, ou Methode contenant la 

Divifion des Oifeaux, &c. Ouvrage 
enrichi des Figures, par M. Brijfbn, 6 
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Mr. Zool. Britijh Zoology. Clafs I. Quadrupeds, 

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Br. or Brunnich. M. Th. Brunnichii Ornithologia Bofealis, 
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Br. Monog, A Hiftory of the Eider-Duck, in Danijb, 

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la Defcription du Cabinet du Roy, par 

M. De Buffon, 15 torn. 4to. a Paris, 

1749, &c. 
CafV 0/#/2\ Jcan-riis Caii Britanni Opufcula, a 5. ^^ 

edita, 8vo. Londini, 1729. 
Camden. Camden's Britannia, publiihed by Bifhop 

Gibfcn, z vol. fol. 3d edition. London^ 

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dini> 1677. 


[ XXV } 

Qkf. ex. 
Cr&niz's Greenl. 

Dale's hijl. 
Sgede's Greenl. 


Faun, Suec. 

Gesner Quad. 
Gesner Av. 
Gefner icon. 

Qirald. Cam. 
GrevSs muf. 

Caroli Clufii Exoticorum Libri X. fol. 
Ant<verpia, 1605. 

Hiiiory of 'Greenland, &c. by David Crantz. 
Tranflated from the High Dutch. 2 vol, 
8vo. London, 1767. 

of Harwich and Dover-court, by Sam, Dale 9 
4to. London, 1730. 

Description of Greenland, by Hans Egede 9 
MiiTionary in that Country for twenty 
Years. Tranflated from the Danijb, 
8vo. London, 1745. 

Nat. Hill, of Birds and other rare and 
undefcribed Animals, by George Ed* 
wards, 7 vol. 4to. London, 1743, &c. 

Caroli Linncei Fauna Suecica, fiitens Ani- 
malia Suecite Regni, 8vo. Holmia 9 

A Hiftory of the Birds of Germany, with 
colored Plates, and Defcriptions in the 
German Language, 2 vol. fol. by John 
Leonard Frifch. Printed at Berlin^ 
1734, &c. 

Conrad. Gefneri Hiftoria Quadrupedum, 
fol. Frankfort, 1603. 

Gefner de Avium Natura, fol. Franco- 
fur ti, 1585. 

Icones Animalium Quadr. vivip. & ovlp. 
quas in Hift. Animalium Conradi Gef- 
neri Libri I. & II, defcribuntur, fol. 
Tiguri, 1560. 
Itinerarium Cambrics, Auclore Sil, Gi- 
raldo Cambrenfe, cum Annot. Poveli, 
I2mo. Londini, 1585. 
Catalogue of the Rarities belonging to 
the Royal Society, by Dr. N. Grew, 
fol. London s 1^85. 

Qunner 9 

[ xxvi ] 


Hajfelquijl's it in. 

Hot: Ice. 

Jonften's Nat. Hift. 
Klein quad. 

Klein av, 
Klein Ji em. 

Liu. Syst. 

Marten's Spitzberg. 
Martin's Weft. IJles, 

Det Trondhiemfte Gelfkabs Skrifter. Kw- 

benthavn, 1761. 
Fred. Hajfelquiftn Iter Palzeftinum, 8vo. 

Holmies, 1757. 
Hiftoire Naturelle des Oifeaux. 

This is a continuation of the Natu- 
ral Hiftory by M. de Buffbn ; artd is 

to be included in five quarto volumes. 

Three only at this time are publifhed. 

The two firli volumes are the joint 

performances of M. de Buffbn and M. 

Monbeillard ; the remaining three will 

be written by the laft. 
Nat. Hilt, of Iceland, by N. Horrebonu. 

Tranflated from the Danijb, fol. Lon*> 

don, 1758. 
Johannis Jonftonz, M. D. Hifbria Na- 

turalis, 2 torn. fol. Amjielodami, 1657. 
Jac. Tbeod. Klein Quadrupedum Difpo- 

iitio, brevifque Hiri. Nat. 4to. Lipjia, 

J. Tbeod. Klein Hiitorias Avium Prodro- 

mus, 4to. Lubeea, 1750. 
J. Tbeod. Klein Sternmata avium, 40 Ta^ 

bulis iEneis ornata, 4to. Lipfia?, 1759. 
Gulielmi Henrici Kramer Elenchus Vegeta- 

bilium & Animalium per Aujlriam In- 

feriorem obfervatorum, 8vo. Vienna?, 

Prages & Tergejii, 1 756. 
Caroli Linnai Syftema Naturae, edit. 12, 

reformata, 8vo. Holmia, 1766. 
Voyage into Spitsbergen and Greenland, 

by Fred. Marten. London, 1 694. 
Defcription of the Weftern Iflands of Scot- 

land, by M. Martin, 2d edit. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1716. 


[ xxvii ] 

Martin's St. Kilda. Voyage to St. Kilda, by M. Martin, 4th 
edit. 8vo. London, 1753. 

Merret pi?iax. Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum, 

Authore Chrifioph. Merret, izmo. Lon- 
dini, 1667. 

Meyer's an. A Work wrote in German, containing 

200 colored Plates of various Animals, 
with the Skeleton of each, by John-Da- 
niel Meyer, Miniature Painter, at Nu- 
remberg, 2 vol. fol. 1748. 

Morton's Northampt. Hift. Nat. of Northamptonshire, by John 
Morton, A. M. fol. London, 17 12. 

Nov. Com. Petrop. Novi Commentarii Academic Scientiari- 
um imperials Petropolitancs, 7 torn. 
4to. Petropoli, 1750, &c. 

Olina. Uccelliera overo Difcorfo della Natura e 

Proprieta di diverfi Uccelli e in par~ 
ticolare di que'che Cantano. Opera 
di Gio. Petro Olina, fol. in Roma, 1684. 

Plin. Nat. Hiji. Plinii Hiftoria Naturalis, cum Notis 
Harduini, 2 torn. fol. Paris, 1723. 

PL Enl. Colored Figures of Birds, Reptiles and 

Infects, publifhing at Paris, under the 
Title of Planches Enluminees, 

Pontoppidan. Nat. Hilt, of Norway, by the Right Re- 

verend Eric Pontoppidan, Bifhop of 
Bergen. Tranflated from the Danijk, 
fol. London, 1755. 

Profp. Alpin. Pro/peri Alpini Hiilori«e JEgypti Pars pri- 

ma & fecunda, 2 torn. 410. Lugd. Bat. 

Raij Syn. Quad. Rait Synopfis methodica Anim. Quadru- 

pedum & Serpentini Generis, 8vo. 

Londini, 1 69 3. 

Raii Syn. A v. Raii Synopiis methodica Avium & Pif- 

cium, Svo. London, 1713. 


[ xxviii ] 

RuffePs Alep, The Natural Hiftory of Aleppo and the 

Parts adjacent, by Alexander Ruffel, 
M. D. 4to. London, 1756. 

Scopoli. Annus. I. Hiftorico-Naturalis, Johan- 

nis Antonii Scopoli. Lipjtee, 1769, 

Sib, Muf. Alberti Seba Rerum Naturalium The- 

faurus, 4 torn. fol. Amjlerdam, 1734, 

Sib, Scot, Prodromus Hiftoria? Naturalis Scotise, 

Au&ore Roberto Sibbaldo, M. D. Eq> 
Aur. fol. Edinburgi, 1684. 

Sib. Hijl. Fife, Hiftory of the Sheriffdoms of Fife and 

Kinrofs, by Sir Robert Sib bald, Edin- 
burgh, fol. 1 7 10. 

Smith's Kerry, Natural and Civil Hiftory of the County 

of Kerry, 8vo. Dublin, 1756. 

Syn, Quad. Synopfis of Quadrupeds, containing De- 

fcriptions of 292 Animals, with 31 
Plates, 8vo. 177 1. by Thomas Pennant, 

Turner. Avium praecipuarum quarum apud Pit. 

nium & Arijlotelem Mentio eft, bre vis 
& fuccinfta Hiftoria, per Dm. Guliel- 
mum Tunterum, Artium & Medicinal 
Do£torem, i2mo. Colonia, 1544* 
N. B. This Book is not paged. 

Wil. Ork. The Ornithology of Mr. Francis Wil- 

lughby ; publifhed by Mr. Ray, fol. 
London, 1678. 

Worm. Muf. Mufeum Wormianum, fol. Amfelodami, 


Zinanni. Delle uova e dei Nidi degli Uccelli, Libro 

primo del Conte Giufeppe Zinanni, in 
- V enema, 1737. 




C L A S S I. 


D i v. I. HOOFED. 




Div. I. Sect. I. WHOLE HOOFED. 




II. o x. 





[ xxxii ] 

Sect. I. With large canine teeth, feparated from 
the cutting teeth. 
Six cutting teeth in each jaw. 
Rapacious, carnivorous. 






Sect. II. With only two cutting teeth in each jaw, 
Ufually herbivorous, frugivorous. 

XII. H A R E. 





[ xxxiii ] 



D i v. IV. WING E D. 



Page 12, line 3, for infedl read infeft. P. 15, note, for maritlma read? 
laaceclata. P. i3, margin, for Domestic read 3. Domestic. P. 25, 1. 9, 
for co racles read coracles. Ibid, note, for Stanley read Stavely. P. 46, 1. 13, 
for were read are. Ibid. 1. 15,/cr agreed raai agree. P. 78, 1. 22, for out ricks 
read oat ricks. P. 79, J. 4, /or our read other. P. 89*, 90*, 91*, 92*, 93*, 
94*, 95*, 96*. P. 101, 1. 9, for fecond fatire fourth book read fourth fatire 
fecond book. P. 102, 1. 8, for Boadkla read Bcadicea. P. 115, running title, 
for Norway Rat read Brown Rat. P. 328, 1. 9, for Europaeus read 
Europaea. P. 137, 1. 12, for tedis read reclis. P. 170, running title, for Erne 
read Cinb-reous. P. 175, margin, for Xeot read Nest. P. 181, 1. 5, 
for fufcis read fafciis. Ibid. 1. 21, for tips, all read tips of all. P. 186, 1. 25, 
after twenty-feven add inches. P. 193, 1. 12, dele (the male). P. 199, 1. 10, 
for fine read five. P. 2C2, after the characler of 'the genus add Eared Owls. 
P. 203, dele Eared Owls. P. 210, 1. iS, for diffre read differ P. 220, 
1. 14, for illice read ilice. P. 222, note, for Melolantha read Melolontha. Ibid. 
for Rofd read Rcefel. P. 241, 1. 5, for difts read clefts. P. 250, 1. 17, for 
difturb read diiturbed. P. 262, 1. 9, for Cocque read Coq. P. 263, 264, 
265, running title, Wood Grous. P. 269, 270, running title, Red Grous. 
P. 275, 1. 25, for Sir read Jar. P. 286, 1. 1, for quarts read pints. Ibid. 
1. 10, for canne patiere read canne petiere. P. 294, 1. 1, for is read was. 
P. 326, 1. 18, for Sparrow read Bunting. P. 328, 1. 2, for breaft read belly. 
P. 351, 1. 13, for atri capilla read atricapilla. Ibid. 1. 24, for with white 
bar read with a white bar. P. 384, 1. penult, dele ? P. 401, laft I. for breed 
read breeder. P. 404, 1. 27, after Indian read air. P. 406, 1. 1, for mono- 
graphics read moncgraphies. Ibid. 1. 8, for tribes read tribe. P. 446, 1. 22, 
for pair read pairs. P. 461, laft 1. f:r fuch as employed read fuch as are, &c. 
"P. 485, laft 1. for table read tables. Ibid, dele preceding this clafs. P. 515, 
\. 8, for houfe read holes. P. 528, 1. 6, for above knee read above the knee. 
P. 546, 1. 18, for Larus Minuta read Sterna Minuta. P. 550, 1. 26, for 
unctions read unctuous. P. 563, note, for Knat read Gnat. P. 619, 1. 23, 
dele) and place it in the preceding line after fufpecls. P. 630, 1. 13, for one 
j cad the. P. 644, 1. 14, for fieetnefe read fleetnefs. Ibid. 1. 21, for at time 
read at the time. P. 645, 1. 8,/or cartamea read carta mea. P. 652, note f, 
for let nutter read let it flutter. For Hift. d' Oyf. read Hift. d' Oif. paffim. 

THE Book- binder is requeued to place the Plates according, 
to the numbers affixed to the figures which refer to the descrip- 


T O 





I. Horse *.,.. T * Page i 

II. Highland Bull 7 g 
Lancashire Cow) 

III. Goat - - -35 

IV. Roebuck -> * 49 
V. Wolf - - -75 

VI. FlTCHET? m > m .89 

Martin $ 

to face the Title 

VII. Weesel 

VIII. Otter 

IX. Musimon 


;el 7 




fER J 

X, Alpine Hare 

- 95 


} ■ 

Vol. I. d XI 



























Water Shrew Mouse 


LonG-eared Bat 

Great Bat 

Horse-shoe Bat 



Page j 22 



Explanation of Technical Terms 160 

Golden Eagle 

Sea Eagle 

Cinereous Eagle - 


Peregrine Falcon - 

Ealcon Gentil 

Falcon Gentil, a Variety 


Goshawk - 


Spotted Falcon 

Moor Buzzard 


Eagle Owl 

Long-eared Owl 

Short-eared Owl 

Brown Owl 

Great Female Shrike 



Red-legged Crow 

F. Cuckoo 



D < 

- 161 

- 167 
.- 170 

T *77 

- 178 

- l8l 

- l8l 

- 182 

- 184 

- 188 

- 189 

- 192 

- 193 

- 202 

- 203 

- 204 

- 2IO 

- 213 

- 219 

- 228 

- 232 


C 244 

£ .246 



[LL 1 





Plates. Page 

XXXVII. Middle and little spotte 

XXXVIII. Nuthatch 
XXXIX. Creeper 

XL. Wood Grous - * 262 

XLI. Female Wood Grous - 265 

XLII. Black Cock - 266 

XLIII. F. Grous 


XLIV. Bustard - 284 

XLV. Turtle 

Rock Pigeon 
XLVI. Ring Ouzel 

XLVII. M. and F. Blackbird 308 

JXLVIII. Chatterer - 314 

XLIX. F. Cross Bill 
L. Yellow Hammer 
Snow Bunting 
LI. M. and F. Sparrows - 3 

LII. Tree Sparrow 

Sedge Bird 
LIII. Siskin, M. and F. 
Twite, M. and F 
LIV. Greater andLEssERREDPoLLS 343 













White Wagtail T 

Yellow Wagtail V 

- Pa ge 


Sky Lark - 3 


Dartford Warbler 




Great, Blue, Cole, Marsh"? 
Titmouse - j 



Sw allow 7 
Swift i 




M. and F. Goatsuckers 



PI , 1. 



D i v. I. HOOFED. 



Hoof confiding of one piece. 
Six cutting teeth in each jaw. 


Raiijyn. quad, 62. 
Merret pinax . 166. 
Gefn. quad. 404* 
Klein quad. 4. 
De Buffbn iv. 174, 

Hor s E. 

Brit. March, Ceffyl 

Fren. Le Cheval 

Ital. Cavallo 

Span. Cavallo 

Port. Cavallo 

Germ. Pferd 

Dut* Paerd, Hengft 

Swed. Hall 

Dan. Hsft, Oeg, Hingft 

Equus auriculis brevibus erectis, 
juba longa. Brijfon quad. 69. 

Eq. Cabailus. Lin.fyji. 100. 

Eq. cauda undique fetofa. Faun, 
Suec. 47. 

Br. Zool. 1. Syn. quad. No. 1. 

Mar e. Gelding. 

Cafeg Difpaiddfarch 

LaCavale, Jument Cheval ongre 

Stut, Motfch 
Stood, Horfs 
Stod-Hsil, Hoppe 

1. Gene- 

THE breed of horfes in Great Britain is as 
mixed as that of its inhabitants : The fre- 
quent introduction of foreign horfes has 
given us a variety, that no fingle country can boaft 
Vol. I. B of: 

HORSE. Class I. 

of: mod other kingdoms produce only one kind, 
while ours, by a judicious mixture of the feverai 
fpecies, by the happy difference of our foils, and 
by our fuperior fkill in management, may triumph 
over the reft of Europe, in having brought each 
quality of this noble animal to the higheft perfec- 


In the annals of Newmarket, may be found in- 
ftances of horfes that have literally out-ftripped the 
wind, as the celebrated M. Condamine has lately 
fhewn in his remarks * on thofe of Great Britain. 
Cbildersf is an amazing inftance of rapidity, his 
fpeed having been more than once exerted equal to 
82^- feet in a fecond, or near a mile in a minute : 
The fame horfe has alfo run the round courfe at 
Newmarket, (which is about 400 yards lefs than 
4 miles) in fix minutes and forty feconds ; in which 
cafe his fleetnefs is to that of the fwiftefl Barb, as 
four to three; the former, according to Doctor 
Matfs computation, covering at every bound a 
fpace of ground equal in length to twenty-three 
feet royal, the latter only that of eighteen feet 
and a half royal. 

Horfes of this kind, derive their origin from 

* In his tour to Italy, 190. 

f M. Condamine illuilrates his remarks with the horfe, 
Starling ; but the report of his fpeed being doubtful, we 
chufe to inftance the fpeed of Childers, as indifputable and 
univerfally known. 

Arabia > 


Class I. H O R S E. 3 

Arabia -, the feat of the pureft, and moft generous 
breed. * 

The fpecies nfed in hunting, is a happy com- 
bination of the former with others fuperior in 
ftrength, but inferior in point of fpeed and line- 
age : an union of both is necefTary ; for the fa- 
tigues of the chace mud be fupported by the fpi- 
rit of the one, as well as by the vigor of the other. 

No country can bring a parallel to the ftrength 
and fize of our fiorfes deftined for the draught ; or 
to the activity and ftrength united of thofe that 
form our cavalry. 

In our capital there are inftances of fingle horfes Strength. 
that are able to draw on a plain, for a fmall fpace, 
the weight of three tuns -, but could with eafe, 
and for a continuance draw half that weight -f. 
The pack-horfes of York/hire, employed in convey- 
ing the manufactures of that county to the moil re- 
mote parts of the kingdom, ufually carry a burden 
of 420 pounds ; and that indifferently over the 
higheft hills of the norch, as well as the moft level 
roads ; but the moft remarkable proof of the 
ftrength of our Britifi horfes, is to be drawn from 
that of our mill-horfes : fome of thefe will carry at 

* For a particular account of the Arabian horfes, the reader 
is referred to No. I. in the Appendix to this volume. 

f Rolling Jhed makes it a matter of boaft, that in his time, 
five horfes could draw with eafe for a long journey 30001b, 

B 2 one 

4 HORSE. Class I, 

one load thirteen meafures, which at a moderate 
computation of 70 pounds each, will amount to 
910-, a weight fuperior to that which the lefTer fort 
of camels will bear : this will appear lefs furprifing, 
as thefe horfes are by degrees accuftomed to the 
weight ; and the diftance they travel no greater 
than to and from the adjacent hamlets. 
British Qur cavalry in the late campaigns, (when they 

had opportunity) (hewed over thofe of our allies, 
as well as of the French^ a great fupenority both 
of ftrength and activity : the enemy was broken 
through by the impetuous charge of our fquadronsj 
while the German horfes, from their great weight, 
and inactive make, were unable to fecond our ef- 
forts •, though thofe troops were actuated by the 
nobleft ardor. 
Antieht. The prefent cavalry of this ifland only fupports- 
its antient glory; it was eminent in the earlieil 
times: our fcythed* chariots, and the activity -f* 
and good difcipline of our horfes, even ftruck ter- 
ror into .C<efar 9 s legions : and the Britains, as foon 
as they became civilized enough to coin* took care 
to reprefent on their money the animal for which 
they were ib celebrated. It is now impoffible to 
trace out this fpecies •, for thofe which exift among 
the indigent of Great Britain^ fuch as the little 

* Co-uincs vocant, quorum falcatis axibus utuntur. Pomp, 
Mt.ii, lib. iii. c. 6. 

f Cafar. Com, lib. iv. Strabo. lib. iv. 


Class I. HORSE. 

horfes of Wales and Cornwall the hobbies of Ireland* 
and the fhelties of Scotland, though admirably well 
adapted to the ufes of thofe countries, could never 
have been equal to the work of war \ but probably 
we had even then a larger and ftronger breed in 
the more fertile and luxuriant parts of the iiland. 
Thofe we employ for that purpofe, or for the 
draught, are an offfpring of the German or Flemijh 
breed, meliorated by our foil, and a judicious cul- 

The Englijh were ever attentive to an exact cul- 
ture of thefe animals ; and in very early times fee 
a high value on their breed. The eiteem that our 
horfes were held in by foreigners fo long ago as the 
reign of Athelflan, may be collected from a law 
of that monarch prohibiting their exportation, ex- 
cept they were defigned as prefents. Thefe mufl 
have been the native kind, or the prohibition 
would have been needlefs, for our commerce was 
at that time too limited to receive improvement 
from any but the German kind, to which country 
their own breed could be of no value. 

But when our intercourfe with the other parts of 
Europe was enlarged, we foon layed hold of the 
advantages this gave of improving our breed. 
Roger de Belefme, Earl of Shrewjbury *, is the firfl 
that is on record : he introduced the Spani/h ftal- 
lions into his eftate in Powifland, from which that 

* Created by William the Conqueror. 

B 3 part 

HORSE. Class I. 

part of Wales was for many ages celebrated for a 
fvvift and generous race of horfes. Giraldus Cam- 
Irenfes^ who lived in the reign of Henry II. takes 
notice of it * ; and Michael Drayton, cotemporary 
with Shakefpear, fmgs their excellence in the fixth 
part of his Polyolbion. This kind was probably 
deftined to mount cur gallant nobility, or courte- 
ous knights for feats of Chivalry ', in the generous 
con teds of the tilt-yard. From thefe fprung, to 
fpeak the language of the times, the Flower of 
Courfers, whole elegant form added charms to the 
rider; and whofe activity and managed dexterity 
gained him the palm in that field of gallantry and 
romantic honor. 
Races. Notwichllanding my former fuppofition, races 

were known in England in very early times. Fitz~ 
Stephen, who wrote in the days of Henry II. menti- 
ons the great delight that the citizens of London 
took in the diverfion. But by his words, it ap- 
pears not to have been defigned for the purpofes 
of gaming, but merely to have fprung from a 
generous emulation of mewing a fuperior fkill in 

Races appear to have been in vogue in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and to have been carried 

* In ha?c tenia Wallia portione quae Pmuifia dicitur funt 

equitia peroptima, et equi emifTaria laudatiffima, de Hifpani- 

m equcrum genercfitate, quos olim Comes Slopefouri^e 

Robertas de Belefme in fines iltos adduci curaverat, originaliter 

propagati. Itin. Camb, zzz-. 


Class I. HORSE. 

to fuch excefs as to injure the fortunes of the no- 
bility. The famous George Earl of Cumberland is 
recorded to have wafted more of his eftate than 
any of his anceftors ; and chiefly by his extreme 
love to horfe-races, tiltings, and other expenfive 
diverfions. It is probable that the parfimonious 
Queen did not approve of it ; for races are not 
among the diverfions exhibited at Kennelworth by 
her favorite Leicefter. In the following reign, were 
places allotted for the fport : Croydon in the South, 
and Garterly in York/hire, were celebrated courfes. 
Cambden alfo fays, that in 1607 there were races 
near York, and the prize was a little golden bell. 

Not that we deny this diverfion to be known in 
thefe kingdoms in earlier times ; we only affert a 
different mode of it, gentlemen being then their 
own jockies, and riding their own horfes. Lord 
Herbert of Cher bury enumerates it among the fports 
that gallant philofopher thought unworthy of a 
man of honor. " The exercife, (fays he) I do 
" not approve of, is running of horfes, there being 
" much cheating in that kind ; neither do I fee 
" why a brave man mould delight in a creature 
" whofe chief ufe is to help him to run away * ." 

The increafe of our inhabitants, and the extent 

* The Life of Edward Lord Herbert of Cher bury, pub- 
lifhed by Mr. Walpole, p. 5 1 . 

Jar-vis Markham, who wrote on the management of horfes 
1599, mentions running horfes ; but thofe were only defigned 
for matches between gentleman and gentleman. 

B 4 of 

HORSE. Class I, 

of our manufactures, together with the former 
neglect of internal navigation to convey thofe ma- 
nufactures, multiplied the number of our horfes : 
an excefs of wealth, before unknown in , thefe 
iftands, increafed the luxury of carriages, and 
added to the necefiity of an extraordinary culture 
of thefe animals : their high reputation abroad, 
has alfo made them a branch of commerce, and 
proved another caufe of their vaft increafe. 

As no kingdom can boaft of parallel circum- 
flances, fo none can vie with us in the number -of 
thefe noble quadrupeds ; it would be extremely 
difficult to guefs at the exact amount of them, or 
to form a periodical account of their increafe : the 
number feems very fluctuating : William Fitz- 
Stephen relates, that in the reign of King Stephen^ 
Lcndon alone poured out 20,000 horfemen in the 
wars of thole times : yet we find that in the begin- 
ning of Queen Elizabeth's reign *, the whole king- 
dom could not fupply 2000 horfes to form our 
cavalry : and even in the year 1588, when the na- 
tion was in the molt imminent danger from the 
SpaniJJ? invafion, all the cavalry which the nation 
could then furnifh amounted only to 3000 : to ac- 
count for this difference we muft imagine, that 
the number of horfes which took the field in Ste- 
phen's reign was no more than an undifciplined 

* Vide Sir Edward Har^vcod's memorial. Harhian Mifc, 
: ; - . The number mentioned by Fitz-Stepbens is pro- 
bablv erroneous, and ought to be read 2000. 

rabble ; 

Class I. HORSE. 

rabble ; the few that appeared under the banners 
of Elizabeth^ a corps well formed, and fuch as 
might be oppofed to fo formidable an enemy as 
was then expected : but fuch is their prefent in- 
creafe, that in the late war, the number employ- 
ed was iZ-,575 5 an d fuch is our improvement in 
the breed of horfes, that mod of thofe which are 
ufed in our waggons and carnages * of different 
kinds, might be applied to the fame purpofe : of 
thofe, our capital alone employs near 22,000. 

The learned M. de Buffon has almoft exhaufted 
the fubjecl: of the natural hifiory of the horfe, and 
the other domeftic animals -, and left very little for 
after writers to add. We may obferve, that this 
molt noble and ufeful quadruped is endowed with 
every quality that can make it fubfervient to the 
ufes of mankind - 9 and thofe qualities appear in a 
more exalted, or in a lefs degree, in proportion to 
our various neceflities. 

Undaunted courage, added to a docility half 
reafoning, is given to fome, which fits them for 
military fervices. The fpirit and emulation fo ap- 
parent in others, furniih us with that fpecies, 
which is admirably adapted for the courfe; or, the 
more noble and generous pleafure of the chace. 

Patience and perfeverance appear ftrongly in 
that moll ufeful kind deftined to bear the burdens 

* It may be alib obferved, that the ufe of coaches was not 
introduced into England till the year 1564. 


io HORSE. Class I. 

we impofe on them -, or that employed in the fla- 
very of the draught. 

Though endowed with vaft ftrength, and great 
powers, they very rarely exert either to their ma- 
iler's prejudice ; but on the contrary, will endure 
fatigues, even to death, for our benefit. Provi- 
dence has implanted in them a benevolent difpofi- 
tion, and a fear of the human race, together with a 
certain confcioufnefs of the fervices we can render 
them. Moft of the hoofed quadrupeds are do- 
medic, becaufe neceflity compels them to feek our 
protection : wild beads are provided with feet and 
claws, adapted to the forming dens and retreats 
from the inclemency of the weather -, but the form- 
er, deftitute of thefe advantages, are obliged to run 
to us for artificial fhelter, and harvefted provifions; 
as nature, in thefe climates, does not throughout 
the year fupply them with neceffary food. 

But (till, many of our tame animals muft by ac- 
cident endure the rigor of the feafon : to prevent 
which inconvenience, their feet (for the extremi- 
ties fuffer firft by cold) are protected by ftrong 
hoofs of a horny fubftance. 

The tail too is guarded with long bufriy hair 
that protects it in both extremes of weather ; du- 
ring the furnmer it ferves by its pliancy and agility, 
to brufh oft the fwarms of infects, which are perpe- 
tually attempting either to (ling them, or to depo- 
fit their eggs in the reflutn \ the fame length of 

r contributes to guard them from the cold in 


Class I. HORSE. it 

winter. But we, by the abfurd and cruel cuftom 
of docking, a practice peculiar to our country, de- 
prive thefe animals of both advantages : in the lad 
war our cavalry fuffered fo much on that account, 
that we now feem fenfible of the error, and if we 
may judge from fome recent orders in refpecl to 
that branch of the fervice*, it will for the future 
be corrected. 

Thus is the horfe provided againft the two great- 
er! evils he is fubject to from the feafons : his na- 
tural difeafes are few ; but our ill ufage, or neglect* 
or, which is very frequent, our over care of him, 
bring on a numerous train, which are often fatal. 

* The following remark of a noble writer on this fubjecl is 
too fenfible to be omitted. 

* I mull own I am not poiTefTed with the Englijh rage of cut- 
' ting off all extremities from horfes. I venture to declare I 
e fhould be well pleafed if their tails, at leaft a fwitch or a 
4 nag tail, (but better if the whole) was left on. It is hardly 

* credible what a difference, efpecially at a certain feafon of 
' the year, this iingle alteration would make in our cavalry, 
' which though naturally fuperior to all other I have ever 
' feen, are however, long before the end of the campaign, 

* for want of that natural defence again It the flies, inferior to 

* all : conflantly fweating and fretting at the piccpet, tor- 
' mented and Hung off their meat and flomachs, miferable 
< and helplefs ; while the foreign cavalry brufh off the ver- 

* min, are cool and at eafe, and mend daily, inftead of pe- 

* rifhing as ours do almofi vifibly in the eye of the be- 

* holder.' 

Method of breaking Horfes, &c. by Henry Earl of 
Pembroke, p. 6% 9 



HORSE. Class I. 

Among the diftempers he is naturally fubjecl to, 
are the worms, the bots, and the ftone : the fpecies 
of worms that infecl him are the lumbrici, and 
ajcarides •, both thefe refemble thofe found in hu- 
man bodies, only larger : the bots are the eruc<e, 
or caterpillars of the oeftrus, or gadfly : thefe are 
found both in the retlum, and in the ftomach, 
and when in the latter bring on convulfions, that 
often terminate in death. 

The ftone is a difeafe the horfe is not frequently 
fubject to ; yet we have feen two examples of it j 
the one in a horfe near Highwy combe, that voided 
fixteen calculi, each of an inch and a half diameter^ 
the other was of a ftone taken out of the bladder 
of a horfe, and depofned in the cabinet of the late 
Dr. Mead-, weighing eleven ounces*. Thefe (tones 
are formed of feveral crufts, each very fmooth and 
glofly •, their form triangular; but their edges 
rounded, as if by collifion againft each other. 

The all-wife Creator hath finely limited the fe- 
veral fervices of domeftic animals towards the hu- 
man race -, and ordered that the parts of fuch, 
which in their lives have been the moft ufeful, 
fhould after death contribute the left to our benefit. 
The chief ufe that the exuviae of the horfe can be 
applied to, is for collars, traces, and other parts of 
the harnefs -, and thus, even after death, he pre- 
ferves fome analogy with his former employ. The 

* Mufeum Meadianum, p. 261. 


Class I. ASS. 13 

hair of the mane is of ufe in making wigs 5 of the 
tail in making the bottoms of chairs, floor-cloths, 
and cords ; and to the angler in making lines. 

Aiinus, Raii fyn. quad. 63. Equus afinus. Lin.fyfi. 100. 2. Ass, 

Gefn. quad. 5. Eq. caudae extremitate fetofa 

Klein, quad. 6. cruce nigra fuper humeros* 

De Buffon iv. 377. Faun. Suec. 35 *. 

Equus auriculis longis flaccidis, Br. Zool. 5. Syn. quad. No. 3. 
jubabrevi. BriJJbn quad. 70. 

Brit. Afyn, fam. Afen Germ. Efel 

Fren. L'Ane, /. L'AnefTe . Dut. Eezel 

Ital. Aiino, Miccio. /. Miccia Snved. Afna 

£/##. Afno, Borrico. f. Borrica Dan. Afen, Efel. 

Port. Afno, Burro.y. Afna, Burra 

THIS animal, tho' now fo common in all parts 
of thefe iflands, was entirely loft among us 
during the reign of queen Elizabeth ; HoIImgJhedf 
informing us that in his time, " our lande didyeelde 
no affes." But we are not to fuppofe fo ufeful an 
animal was unknown in thefe kingdoms before 
that period ; for mention is made of them fo early 
as the time of king J Ethelred^ above four hundred 

* Habitat in magnatum pr&diis rarius. Faun. Suec. 35. edit. 
1746. We imagine that fmce that time the fpecies is there 
extinct, for Linnaus has quite omitted it in the laft edition of 
the Fauna Suecica. 

f 109. 

% When the price of a mule or young afs was 12 s. Cbron. 
preciofum, 51. 


*4 ASS. Class I. 

years preceding; and again in the reign of '* Henry 
III. fo that it mud have been owing to fome acci- 
dent, that the race was extinct during the days of 
Elizabeth. We are not certain of the time it was 
again introduced ; probably in the fucceeding reign, 
when our intercourfe with Spain was renewed ; in 
which country this animal was greatly ufed, and 
where the fpecies is in great perfection. 

The afs is originally a native of Arabia, and 
other parts of the Eaft : a warm climate produces 
the largeft and the bell, their fize and fpirit de- 
clining in proportion as they advance into colder 
regions. " With difficulty," fays Mr. Adanfon> 
fpeaking of the afTes of Senegal, " did I know this 
" animal, fo different did it appear from thofe of 
" Europe : the hair was fine, and of a bright moufe 
" color, and the black lift that croffes the back 
" and moulders had a good effect. Thefe were the 
" affes brought by the Moors from the interior 
" parts of the country f ." The migration of thefe 
beads has been very flow ; we fee how recent their 
return is in Great Britain: in Sweden they are even 
at prefent a fort of rarity, nor does it appear by the 
laft hiftory of Norway J , that they had yet reached 
that country. They are at prefent naturalized in 

* In i z 17, when the Carrier arius of St. Allan's loit two afT- 
es, &c. Cbr. pr. 60. 
f Foy. Senegal. 212. 
X Pontoppidan's Nat. Hiftory of Norway* 


Class I. ASS. 15 

this kingdom ; our climate and foil feems to agree 
with them -, the breed is fpread thro' all parts j and 
their utility is more and more experienced. 

They are now introduced into many fervices that 
were before allotted to horfes ; which will prove of 
the utmoft uie in faving thofe noble animals for 
worthier purpofes, Many of our richer! mines are 
in fituations almoft inacceiTible to horfes -, but where 
thefe furefooted creatures may be employed to ad- 
vantage, in conveying our mineral treafures to their 
refpective marts : we may add too, that fince our 
horfes are become a confiderable article of com- 
merce, and bring annually great fums into thefe 
kingdoms, the cultivation of an animal that will 
in many cafes fupply the place of the former, and 
enable us to enlarge our exports, certainly merits 
our attention. 

The qualities of this animal are fo well known 3 
that we need not expatiate on them \ its patience 
and perfeverance under labor, and its indifference 
in refpecl to food, need not be mentioned; any 
weed or thifile contents it : if it gives the prefe- 
rence to any vegetable, it is to the Plantane-, for 
which we have often feen it neglect every other 
herb in the pafture. The narrow-leaved Plantane* 
is greedily eat by horfes and cows: of late years 
it has been greatly cultivated and fowed with clo- 
ver in North Wales^ particularly in Anglefea y where 

* Plant ago maritima* FL Angl. 52, 


i6 M U L E. Class L 

the feed is harvefted, and thence difperfed thro* 
other parts of the principality. 

Mule. Multts, Rati fyn. quad. 64. juba brevi. Brijjbn quad* 

G-efn. quad. 702. 71. 

Afinus biformis, Klein, quad. 6. Equus mulus, Lin.fyfi. 101. 

Charlton ex. 4. Faun. Suec* 35, edit. I. 

Equus auriculis longis ere£tis, Br. Zool. 6. 


Mul, fam. Mules 


Maulthier, Maulefel 


Le Mulet 













THIS ufeful and hardy animal is the off-fpring 
of the horfe and afs, or afs and mare ; thofe 
produced between the two laft are efleemed the 
bed, as the mule is obferved to partake lefs of the 
male than the female parent ; not but they almoft 
always inherit in fome degree the obftinacy of the 
parent afs, tho' it muft be confeifed that this vice 
is heightened by their being injudicioufly broke : 
inftead of mild ufage, which gently corrects the 
word qualities, the mule is treated with cruelty 
from the firft -, and is fo habituated to blows, that 
it is never mounted or loaded without expectation 
of ill treatment ; fo that the unhappy animal either 
prepares to retaliate, or in the terror of bad ufage, 
becomes invincibly retrograde. Could we prevale 
on our countrymen to confider this animal in the 
light its ufeful qualities merit, and pay due atten- 

Class I. MULE. 

tion to its breaking, they might with fuccefs form 
it for the faddle, the draught, or the burden. The 
fize and ftrength of our breed is at prefent fo im- 
proved by the importation of the Spanifh male 
alfes, that we fhall foon have numbers that may 
be adapted to each of thofe ufes. Perfons of the 
firft quality in Spain are drawn by them ; for one 
of which (as Mr. Clarke informs us*) fifty or 
fixty guineas is no uncommon price ; nor is it fur- 
prizing, if we confider how far they excel the 
horie in draught, in a moimtanous country ; the 
mule being able to tread fecurdy where the former 
can hardly ftand. 

This brief account may be clofed with the ge- 
neral obfervation, that neither mules nor the fpu- 
rious offifpring of any other animal generate any 
farther : all thefe productions may be looked on 
as monfters , therefore nature, to preferve the ori- 
ginal fpecies of animals entire and pure, wifely 
(tops, in inftance of deviation, the powers of pro- 

* Letters on- the Spanijb nation. 


Vol, I. C Div. 


O X. 

Class I. 


* With horns. 
** Without horns. 

II, OX, Horns bending out laterally. 

Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the 

Skin along the lower fide of the neck pendulous. 


Rail fyn. quad. 70. 

Bos cornibus levibus tereti- 

Merret pinax. 166. 

bus, furfum reflexis. 

Gefn. quad. 25, 26, 


Brijjbn quad. 


Taurus domeiticus. 

Klein, quad. 

Bos taurus. Lin.Jyft. 98. 


Bos cornibus teretibus flexis. 

Charlton ex. 8. 

Faun. Suec. 46. 

Br. Zccl.j. Syn.quad.No. 4. 





Brit. Tarw 


Ych, Eidion 


Fren. Le Taureau La Vache 

Le Bceuf 


Ital. Toro 




Span. Toro 




Port, Touro 




Germ. Stier 




Dut. Stier, Bui 




S-zved. Tiur 




Dan. Tyr 


Oxe, Stud 


THE climate of Great-Britain is above all o- 
thers productive of the greateft variety and 
abundance of wholefome vegetables, which, to 
crown our happinefs, are almoft equally diffufed 






Class L OX. 19 

thro' all its parts: this general fertility is owing to 
thofe clouded fkies, which foreigners miftakenly 
urge as a reproach on our country; but let us 
chearfully endure a temporary gloom, which 
cloaths not only our meadows but our hills with 
the richer! verdure. To this we owe the num- 
ber, variety, and excellence of our cattle, the rich- 
nefs of our dairies, and innumerable other advan- 
tages. Cafar (the earlieft writer who defcribes this 
ifland of Great-Britain) fpeaks of the numbers of 
our cattle, and adds that we neglecled tillage, but 
lived on milk and fiefh*. Strabo takes notice of our 
plenty of milk, but fays we were ignorant of the 
art of making cheefef. Mela informs us, that 
the wealth of the Britains confided in cattle : and 
in his account of Ireland reports that fuch was the 
richnefs of the paftures in that kingdom, that the 
cattle would even burft if they were fuffered to 
feed in them long at a time J. 

This preference of pafturage to tillage was deli- 
vered down from our Britijh anceftors to much > 
later times •, and continued equally prevalent du- 
ring the whole period of our feodal government : 

* Lib. 5. f Lib. 4. 

% Adeo luxuriofaherbis non laetis modo fed etiam dulclbus^ 
lit fe exigua parte diei pecora impleant, ut nifi pabulo pro- 
hibeantur, diutius pafta diffiliant. Lib. iii. c. 6. 

Hollinjhed fays, (but we know not on what authority,) that 
the Romans preferred the Britijh cattle to thofe of Liguria* 
Defc. Br. 109. 

C 2 the 

O X. Class I„ 

the chieftain, whofe power and fafety depended on 
the promptness of his vafials to execute his com- 
mands, found it his intereft to encourage thofe 
employments that favoured that difpofition; that 
vaffal, who made it his glory to fly at the firft call 
to the frandard of his chieftain, was fure to prefer 
that employ, which might be tranfa&ed by his 
family with equal fuccefs during his abfence. Til- 
lage would require an attendance incompatible with 
the fervices he owed the baron, while the former 
occupation not only gave leifure for thofe duties, 
but furnifhed the hofpitable board of hrs lord 
with ample provifion, of which the vaffal was 
equal partaker. The reliques of the larder of the 
elder Spencer are evident proofs of the plenty of cat- 
tle in his days ; for after his winter provifions 
may have been fuppofed to have been moftly con- 
fumed, there were found, fo late as the month of 
May, in fait, the carcafes of not fewer than 80 
beeves, 600 bacons, and 600 muttons*. The ac- 
counts of the feveral great feafts in after times, af- 
ford amazing inflances of the quantity of cattle 
that were confumed in them. This was owing 
partly to the continued attachment of the people 
to grazing f ; partly to the preference that the En- 
glijh at all times gave to animal food. The quan- 

* Hume's hiitory of England il. 153. 

f Polyd. Virgil Hifi.Angl. vol. i. 5. who wrote in the time 
of Htnry the VIII. fays Angli plurzs pecv.arii quam ar at ores* 


Class I. O X. 21 

tity of cattle that appear from the lateft calculation 
to have been confumed in our metropolis, is a fuf- 
ficient argument of the vafl plenty of thefe times ; 
particularly when we confider the great advance- 
ment of tillage, and the numberlefs variety of pro- 
vifions, unknown to pad ages, that are now intro- 
duced into thefe kingdoms from all parts of the 
world *. 

Our breed of horned cattle has in general been fo 
much improved by a foreign mixture, that it is dif- 
ficult to point out the original kind of thefe 
iflands. Thofe which may be fuppofed to have 
been purely Britijh are far inferior in fize to thofe 
on the northern part of the European continent: 
the cattle of the highlands of Scotland are exceed- 
ing fmall, and many of them, males as well as fe- 
males, are hornlefs : the Weljh runts are much 
larger : the black cattle of Cornwall are of the fame 
fize with the laft. The large fpecies that is now 
cultivated through mod parts of Great-Britain are 
either entirely of foreign extraction, or our own 
improved by a crofs with the foreign kind. The 
Lincolnjhire kind derive their fize from the Holfiein 

* That inquiiitive and accurate hiftorian Maitland furnifhes 
us with this table of the quantity of cattle that were con- 
fumed in London above 30 years ago, when that city was far 
lefs populous than it is at prefent. 
Beeves 98,244. Pigs 52,000. 

Calves ioj.,760. Sheep and 7 

Hogs 186,932. Lambs J 

C 3 breed % 

O X. Class I. 

breed -, and the large hornlefs cattle that are bred 
in fome parts of England come originally from Po- 

About two hundred and fifty years ago there was 
found in Scotland z. wild race of cattle, which were 
of a pure white color, and had (if we may credit 
Boethius) manes like lions. I cannot but give 
credit to the 'relation ; having feen in the woods of 
Drumlanrig in N. Britain, and in the park belong- 
ing to Chillingham caftle in Northumberland, herds 
of cattle probably derived from the favage breed. 
They have loft their manes ; but retain their color 
and fiercenels : they were of a middle fize ; long 
leg'd •, and had black muzzles, and ears : their 
horns fine, and with a bold and elegant bend. 
The keeper of thole at Chillingham faid, that the 
weight of the ox was 3$ (tones : of the cow 28 : 
that their hides were more efteemed by the tanners 
than thole of the tame; and they would give 
fix-pence per (tone more for them. Thefe cattle 
were wild as any deer: on being approached would 
inftantly take to flight and galop away at full fpeed : 
never mix with the tame fpecies ; nor come near 
the houfe unlefs conftrained by hunger in very 
ievere weather. When it is necefTary to kill any 
they are always fhot : if the keeper only wounds 
the beaft, he muft take care to keep behind fome 
tree, or his life would be in danger from the furi- 
ous attacks of the animal ; which will never defift 
fill a period is put to its life. 


Class I. O X. 23 

Frequent mention is made of our favage cattle 
by hiftorians. One relates that Robert Bruce was 
{in chacing thefe animals) preferved from the rage 
of a wild Bull by the intrepidity of one of his cour- 
tiers, from which he and his lineage acquired 
the name of Turn-Bull Fitz-Stephen * names thefe 
animals (Uri-Syheftres) among thofe that harbored 
in the great foreft that in his time lay adjacent to 
London. Another enumerates among the provifions 
at the great feaft of Nevil f archbifhop of Fork, 
fix wild Bulls \ and Sibbald arTures us that in his 
days a wild and white fpecies was found in the 
mountains of Scotland, but agreeing in form with 
the common fort. I believe thefe to have been the 
Bifontes jubati of Pliny found then in Germany, and 
might have been common to the continent and 
our ifland : the lofs of their favage vigor by con- 
finement might occafion fome change in the external 
appearance, as is frequent with wild animals de- 
prived of liberty •, and to that we may afcribe their 
lofs of mane. The Urus of the Hercynian forefc de- 
fcribed by defar, book VI. was of this kind, the 
fame which is called by the modern Germans, Au- 
rochs, i. e. Bos fylveftrisi. 

The ox is the only horned animal in thefe iflands 

* A Monk who lived in the reign of Henry II. and wrote 
a Hiftory of London, preferved in Leland's itin. VIII. 
f Leland's ColleSianea. vi. 
% Gefner Quad, 144. In Fitz-Stepben, Urus is printed TJrfus. 

C 4 that 

O X. Class I. 

that will apply his (Irength to the fervice of man- 
kind. It is now generally allowed, that in many 
cafes oxen are more profitable in the draught than 
horfes \ their food, harnefs, and fhoes being 
cheaper, and mould they be lamed or grow old, 
an old working beaft will be as good meat, and 
fatten as well as a young one. 

There is fcarce any part of this animal without 
its ufe. The blood, fat, marrow, hide; hair, horns, 
hoofs, milk, creme, butter, cheefe, whey, urine, 
liver, gall, fpleen, bones, and dung, have each 
their particular ufe in manufactures, commerce and 

The fkin has been of great ufe in all ages. The 
antient Britains, before they knew a better method, 
built their boats with ofiers, and covered them with 
the hides of bulls, which ferved for fhort * coail- 
ing voyages. 

Primum cana falix madefacto vimine parvam 
Texitur in Puppim, casfoque induta juvenco, 
Vectoris patiens, tumidum fuper emicat amnem : 
Sic Venetus ftagnante Pado 9 fulbque Brit annus 
Navigat oceano. Lucan.Yxb.'w. 131. 

* That thefe t-itilia navigia, as Pliny calls them, were not 

made for long voyages, is evident not only from their ftruc- 

ture, bat from the account given by So/inus, that the crew 

never eat during the time they were at fea. Vide C. Junii 

. 56. 


Class I. O X. 25 

The bending willow into barks they twine ; 
Then line the work with fpoils of flaughter'd kine. 
Such are the floats Venetian fifhers know, 
Where in dull marines (lands the fettling Po ; 
On fuch to neighboring Gaul, allured by gain, 
The bolder Britons crofs the fwelling main. Rowe. 

VefTels of this kind are ftill in ufe on the Irijh 
lakes ; and on the Dee and Severn : in Ireland they 
are called Curach, in England Co racks, from the 
Britijh Cwrwgl, a word fignifying a boat of that 

At prefent, the hide, when tanned and curried, 
ferves for boots, fnoes, and numberlefs other con- 
veniences of life. 

Vellum is made of calves fkin, and goldbeaters 
fkin is made of a thin vellum, or a finer part of the 
ox's guts. The hair mixed with lime is a neceiTary 
article in building. Of the horns are made combs, 
boxes, handles for knives, and drinking vefTels-, 
and when foftened by water, obeying the manufactu- 
rer's hand, they are formed into pellucid laminse for 
the fides of lanthorns. Thefe lad conveniences 
we owe to our great king Alfred, who firfc invented 
them to preferve his candle time meafurers, from 
the wind*-, or (as other writers will have it) the 
tapers that were ftt up before the reliques in the 
miferable tattered churches of that time -f. 

* Anderfori 's hiji. commerce , I. 45. 
•J- Stanleys hiji. of churches, 103, 


O X. Class I. 

In medicine, the horns were employed as alexi- 
pharmics or antidotes againft poifon, the plague, 
or the fmall-pox ; they have been dignified with the 
title of Englijb bzzoar \ and are faid to have been 
found to anfwer the end of the oriental kind : the 
chips of the hoofs, and paring of the raw hides, 
ierve to make carpenters glue. 

The bones are ufed by mechanics, where ivory is 
too expenfive -, by which the common people are 
ierved with many neat conveniences at an eaiy rate. 
From the tibia and carpus bones is procured an 
oil much uied by coach-makers and others in dref- 
fing and cleaning harnefs, and all trappings belong- 
ing to a coach ; and the bones calcined, afford a fit 
matter for tefts for the ule of the refiner in the fmelt- 
ino; trade. 

The blood is ufed as an excellent manure for fruit 
trees * •, and is the bafis of that fine color, the 
P ruffian blue. 

The fat, tallow, and fuet, furnifh us with light ; 
and are alio ufed to precipitate the fait that is drawn 
from briny fprings. The gall, liver, fpleen and 
urine, have alfo their place in the materia medica. 

The ufes of butter, cheefe, creme and milk, in 
domeftic economy ; and the excellence of the latter, 
in furnifhing a palatable nutriment for moil peo- 
ple, whole organs of digeftion are weakened, are 
too obvious to be infilled on. 

difc. of earth j p. 319. 


Class L 


Horns twilled fpirally, and pointing outwards, jjj SHEEP. 

Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the 

Ovis, Raiifyn, quad. 73. Aries, &c. Klein, quad. 13. 

Gefn. quad. 7 1 . Aries laniger cauda rotunda 
Ovis aries, ovis anglica mutica brevi BriJ/bn quad. 48. 

cauda fcrotoque ad genua pen- De Buffon. v. 1. tab. 1, 2. 

dulis. Lin. fyft. 97. Br. Zool. 10. Syn. quad. 
Ovis cornibus compreffis lunatis. No. 8. 

Faun. Suec. 45. 

4. Fle. 





Hwrd. Maharen 




Le Belier 

La brebis 

















Lamm , 










Vaedder, Vasre 


Lam, agna 
Gimmer Lam 

IT does not appear from any of the early writers, 
that the breed of this animal was cultivated for 
the fake of the wool among the Britains \ the inhabi- 
tants of the inland parts of this ifland either wen$ 
entirely naked, or were only clothed with fkins, 
Thofe who lived on the fea coafts, and were the 
moil: civilized, affected the manners of the Gauls^ 
and wore like them a fort of garments made of 
coarfe wool, called Brach^e. Thefe they probably 
had from Gaul^ there not being the left traces of 


SHEEP. Class I. 

manufactures among the Britains> in the hiftories 
of thofe times. 

On the coins or money of the Britains are feen 
imprefTed the figures of the horfe, the bull and the 
hog, the marks of the tributes exacted from them 
by the conquerors*. The Reverend Mr. Pegge 
was fo kind as to inform me that he has feen 
on the coins of Cunobelin that of a fheep. Since that 
is the cafe, it is probable that our anceftors were pof- 
fefTed of the animal, but made no farther ufe of 
it than to ftrip off the fkin, and wrap themfelves 
in it, and with the wool inmoft, obtain a comfort- 
able protection againft the cold of the winter 

This neglect of manufacture, may be eafily 
accounted for, in an uncivilized nation whofe wants 
were few, and thofe eafily fatisfied; but what is 
more furprifing, when after a long period we had 
cultivated a breed of fheep, whofe fleeces were fu- 
perior to thofe of other countries ; we ftill neglect- 
ed to promote a woollen manufacture at home. 
That valuable branch of bufinefs lay for a con- 
fiderable time in foreign hands ; and we were obli- 
ged to import the cloth manufactured from our own 
materials. There feems indeed to have been many 
unavailing efforts made by our monarchs to pre- 
ferve both the wool and the manufacture of it a- 
mong ourfelves : Henry the fecond, by a patent 

Cambden, I. Preface, cxiii. 


Class I. SHEEP. 

granted to the weavers in London, directed that if 
any cloth was found made of a mixture of Spanijh 
wool, it mould be burnt by the mayor*: yet 
fo little did the weaving bufinefs advance, that 
Edward the third was obliged to permit the im- 
portation of foreign cloth in the beginning of 
his reign ; but foon after, by encouraging foreign 
artificers to fettle in England, and inftrucl the 
natives in their trade, the manufacture increafed 
fo greatly as to enable him to prohibit the wear of 
foreign cloth. Yet, to mew the uncommercial ge- 
nius of the people, the effects of this prohibition 
were checked by another law, as prejudicial to trade 
as the former was falutary \ this was an act of the 
fame reign, againft exporting woollen goods ma- 
nufactured at home, under heavy penalties ; while 
the exportation of wool was not only allowed but 
encouraged. This overfight was not foon recti- 
fied, for it appears that, on the alliance that Ed- 
ward the fourth made with the king of Arragon, he 
prefented the latter with fome ewes and rams of 
the Cotefwold kind •, which is a proof of their ex- 
cellency, fince they were thought acceptable to a 
monarch, whofe dominions were fo noted for the 
finenefs of their fleeces f. 

In the firft year of Richard the third, and in the 
two fucceeding reigns, our woollen manufactures 

* Stow 419. 
f Rapin i. 605, in the note. Stow's Annates, 696. 


SHEEP. Class I. 

received fome improvements * -, but the grand rife 
of all its profperity is to be dated from the reign of 
queen Elizabeth, when the tyranny of the duke of 
Aha in the Netherlands drove numbers of artifi- 
cers for refuge into this country, who were the 
founders of that immenfe manufacture we carry 
on at preient. We have ftrong inducements to be 
more particular on the modern ftate of our wool- 
len manufactures \ but we defift, from a fear of 
digrefling too far ; our enquiries mud be limited to 
points that have a more immediate reference 
to the fludy of Zoology. 

No country is better fupplied with materials, and 
thofe adapted to every fpecies of the clothing bufi- 
nefs, than Great -Britain \ and though the fheep of 
thefe iflands afford fleeces of different degrees of 
goodnefs, yet there are not any but what may be 
ufed in fome branch of it. Hereford/hire, Devon- 
[hire, and Cote/wold downs are noted for producing 
fheep with remarkably fine fleeces •, the LincolnJJjire 
and Warwick/hire kind, which are very large, ex- 
ceed any for the quantity and goodnefs of their 
wool. The former county yields the larger! fneep in 
thefe iflands, where it is no uncommon thing to 
give fifty guineas for a ram, and a guinea for the 
admifficn of a ewe to one of the valuable males ; 

* In that cf Richard, two-yard cloths were firft made. In 
that of Henry the VIII. an Italian taught us the ufe of the 
difraff. Kerfies were alfo firft made in England about that 




Class I. SHEEP. 31 

or twenty guineas for the ufe of it for a certain 
number of ewes during one feafon. Suffolk alfo 
breeds a very valuable kind. The fleeces of the 
northern parts of this kingdom are inferior in fine- 
nefs to thofe of the fouth; but Hill are of great 
value in different branches of our manufactures. 
The Torkjhire hills furnifh the looms of that county 
with large quantities of wool ; and that which is 
taken from the neck and moulders, is ufed (mixed 
with Spanijh wool) in fome of their fined cloths. 

Wales yields but a coarfe wool -, yet it is of more 
ex ten five ufe than the fineft Segovian fleeces ; for 
rich and poor, age and youth, health and infirmities;, 
all confefs the univerfal benefit cf the flannel ma- 

The fheep of Ireland vary like thofe of Great- 
Britain. Thofe of the fouth and eaft being large, 
and their flefh rank. Thofe of the north, and the 
mountainous parts fmall, and their flefh fweet, 
The fleeces in the fame manner differ in degrees of 

Scotland breeds a fmall kind, and their fleeces are 
coarfe. Sibbald (after Boethius) fpeaks of a breed 
in the ifle of Rona, covered with blue wool ; of 
another kind in the ifle of Hirta, larger than the 
biggefl he goat, with tails hanging almoft to the 
ground, and horns as thick, and longer than thofe 
of an ox *. He mentions another kind, which is 


* Gmelin defcribes an animal he found in Siberia, that in 

many particulars agrees with this j he calls it Ruphapra coma- 

32 SHEEP. Class I. 

clothed with a mixture of wool and hair ; and a 
fourth fpecies, whofe flelh and fleeces are yellow, 
and their teeth of the colour of gold ; but the truth 
of thefe relations ought to be enquired into, as no 
other writer has mentioned them, except the cre- 
dulous BoetbiuS. Yet the laft particular is not to 
be rejected : for notwithstanding I cannot inftance 
the teeth of fheep, yet I favv in the iummer of 
1772, at Athcl houfe, the jaws of an ox, with 
teeth thickly incrufted with a gold colored pyrites >, 
and the fame might have happened to thole of fheep 
had they fed in the fame grounds, which were in 
the valley beneath the houfe. 

Eefides the fleece, there is fcarce any part of this 
animal but what is uicful to mankind. The flefh is 
a delicate and wholefome food. The fkin drefTed, 
forms different parts of our apparel ; and is ufed 
for covers of books. The entrails, properly pre- 
pared and t wiited, ferve for ftrings for various mu- 

bus arietinis ; Lir.naus ftyles it Capra ammon. Syji. 97. and 
Ge/ner, p. 934. imagines it to be the Mufimon of the antients; 
the horns of the Siberian animal are two yards long, their 
weight above thirty pounds. As we have fo good authority 
for the exigence of fuch a quadruped, we might venture to 
give credit to Boetbius's account, that the fame kind was once 
found in Hirta ; but having thrice within thefe few years had 
opportunity of examining the Mufimon, we found that both 
in the form of the horns, and the ihortnefs of the tail, it 
had the greateft agreement with tae goat, in which genus we 
have placed it No. 11. of our Sjmpjis, with the trivial name 
cf Siberian. 


Glass I. SHEEP. 33 

fical inftruments. The bones calcined (like other 
bones in general) form materials for tefts for the 
refiner. The milk is thicker than that of cows % 
and confequently yields a greater quantity of but- 
ter and cheefe \ and in fome places is fo rich, that 
it will not produce the cheefe without a mixture 
of water to make it part from the whey. The dung 
is a remarkably rich manure 5 infomuch that the 
folding of Iheep is become too ufeful a branch of 
hufbandry for the farmer to neglect. To conclude, 
whether we confider' the advantages that refult 
from this animal to individuals in particular, or 
to thefe kingdoms in general, we may with Colu- 
mella confider this in one fenfe, as the firft of 
the domeftic animals. Toft majores quadrupedes 
ovilli pecoris fecunda ratio eft ; qua prima fit Ji ad 
utilitatis magnitudinem referas. Nam id proscipue 
contra f rigor is violentiamprotegit, corporibufque noftris 
liberaliora prabet velamina -, et etiam elegantium 
menfas jucundis et numerofis dapibus exornat *. 

The iheep as to its nature, is a moft innocent 
mild and fimple animal ; and confcious of its own 
defencelefs ftate, remarkably timid : if attacked 
when attended by its lamb, it will make fome 
mew of defence, by (tamping with its feet, and 
pufhing with its head : it is a gregarious animalj, 
is fond of any jingling noife, for which reafon the 

* De re ruflica, lib. vii. c. 2, 

Vol. L D leader 

34 SHE E P. Class I. 

leader of the flock has in many places a bell hung 
round its neck, which the others will conftantly 
follow : it is lubjecl to many difeafes : fome arife 
from infects which depofite their eggs in different 
parts of the animal ; others are caufed by their 
being kept in wet paftures -, for as the fheep re 
quires but little drink, it is naturally fond of a dry 
foil. The dropfy, vertigo (the pendro of the 
Welfh) the pthifick, jaundice, and worms in the 
liver * annually make great havoke among our 
flocks : for the firft difeafe, the fhepherd finds a 
remedy by turning the infected into fields of broom -, 
which plant has been alio found to be very effica- 
cious in the fame diforder among the human 

The fheep is alfo infefled by different forts of 
infects : like the horfe it has its peculiar Oeftrus or 
Gadfly, which depofits its eggs above the nofe in 
the frontal finufes -, when thofe turn into mag- 
gots they become exceffive painful, and caufe thofe 
violent agitations that we fo often lee the animal 
in. The French fhepherds make a common prac- 
tice of eafing the fheep, by trepanning and taking 
out the maggot; this practice is fometimes ufed 
by the Englifi fhepherds, but not always with the 

ne fuccefs: befides thefe infects, the fheep is trou- 
bled with a kind of tick and louie, which magpies 
and darlings contribute to eafe it of, by lighting 
on its back, and picking the infects off. 

* Fafciola hepatica, Lin. jyjl. 648. 


pl. m 

Class I. GOAT, 35 

Horns bending backwards and almoft clofe at their IV. GOAT, 

Eight cutting teeth in the upper jaw^ none in the 


Male generally bearded. 

Raiijyn. quad. jj. Hircus cornibus interius cultra- - Domes 

Meyer's an. i. Tab. 68. tis, exterius rotundatis, infra TICa 

Charlton ex. 9. carinatis, arcuatis. Briffbn 

Klein quad. 15. quad. 38. 

Gefn. quad. 266. 26$. Capra Hircus^ Linfyft. 94. 

De Buffon. v. 59. Tab. 8. 9. Capra cornibus carinatis arcu~ 

atis, Faun* Suec. 44. 
Br. Zool. 13. Syn. quad p. 14, 

Male. Female. Kid. 

Brit. Bwch Gafr Mynn 

Fren. Le Bouc La Chevre ChevreaiS 

Ital. Becco Capra* Capretto 

Span. Cabron Cabra Cabrito 

Port. Cabram Cabra Cabrito 

Germ. Bock Geifz Bocklein 

Dut. Bok Giyt 

Swed. Bock Geet Kiidh 

Dan. Buk, Geedebak Geed Kid 

THE goat is the moft local of any of our 
domeftic animals, confining itfelf to the 
mountanous parts of thefe iflands : his moft belov- 
ed food is the tops of the boughs, or the tender 
bark of young trees -, on which account he is fo 
prejudicial to plantations, that it would be impru-* 
dent to draw him from his native rocks, except 
fome method could be thought on to obviate this 

D 2 evil 

GOAT. Class L 

evil. We have been informed, that there is a 
freeholder in the parim of Trawfvynnyd, in Me- 
rioneth/hire, who hath, for feveral years pad, broke 
the teeth of his goats fhort off with a pair of 
pincers, to preferve his trees. This practice has 
certainly efficacy fnfficient to prevent the mifchief, 
and may be recommended to thofe who keep them 
for their Angularity \ but ought by no means to be 
encouraged, when thofe animals are preferved for 
the fake of their milk* as the great falubrity of 
that medicine arifes from their promifcuous feed- 


This quadruped contributes in various inftances 
to the neceffities of human life ; as food, as phy- 
fick, and as cloathing : the whiteft wigs are made 
of its hair \ for which purpofe that of the he-goat 
is mod in requed-, the whiteft and cleared is Selec- 
ted from that which grows on the haunches, where 
it is longed and thicked -, a good fkin well hair- 
ed is fold for a guinea-, though a fkin of bad hue, 
and fo yellow as to baffle the barber's fkill to bleach, 
Will not fetch above eighteen-pence, or two mil- 

The Welch goats are far fuperior in fize, and in 
length and hnenefs of hair, to thofe of other moun- 
tanous countries. Their ufual color is white: thofe 
or France and the Alps are fhort haired, reddifh, 
and their horns fmall. We have feen the horns of 
a Cambrian he- goat three feet two inches long, and 
three feet from tip to tip. 


Class I. G O A T. 37 

The fuet of the goat is in great efteem, as 
well as the hair. Many of the inhabitants of Caer- 
narvonjhire fuffer thefe animals to run wild on the 
rocks during winter as well as fummer ; and kill 
them in Oftober^ for the fake of their fat, either by 
fhooting them with bullets, or running them down 
with dogs like deer. The goats killed for this 
purpofe, are about four or five years old. Their 
fuet will make candles, far fuperior in whitenefs and 
goodnefs to thofe made from that of the (heep or 
the ox, and accordingly brings a much greater 
price in the market : nor are the horns without 
their ufe, the country people making of them ex- 
cellent handles for tucks and penknives. The fkin 
is peculiarly well adapted for the glove manufac- 
tory, efpecially that of the kid : abroad it is 
drefTed and made into (lockings, bed-ticks, bol- 
flers*, bed-hangings, fheets, and even fhirts. In 
the army it covers the horfeman's arms, and carries 
the foot-foldier's provifions. As it takes a dye 
better than any other fkin, it was formerly much 
ufed for hangings in the houfes of people of fortune, 
being fufceptible of the richeft colors ; and when 
flowered and ornamented with gold and filver, 
became an elegant and fuperb furniture. 

* Bolfters made of the hair of a goat were in ufe in the days 
oiSaul; as appears from I. Samuel, c. 19. v. 13. The fpecies 
very probably was the Angora goat, which is only found in the 
Eaft, and whofe foft and filky hair fupplied a moil luxu- 
rious couch. Vide Syn. quad. p. 15. 

D 3 The 

38 GOAT. Class I. 

The flefh is of great ufe to the inhabitants of the 
country where it refides ; and affords them a cheap 
and plentiful provifion in the winter months, when 
the kids are brought to market. The haunches of 
the goat are frequently faked and dried, and fup- 
ply all the ufes of bacon : this by the natives is 
called Coch yr wden> or hung venifon. 

The meat of a fplayed goat of fix or feven years 
old, (which is called Hyfr) is reckoned the bed; 
being generally very fweet and fat. This makes 
an excellent party ; goes under the name of rock 
venifon, and is little inferior to that of the deer. 
Thus nature provides even on the tops of high and 
craggy mountains, not only neceffaries, but deli- 
cacies for the inhabitants. 

The milk of the goat is fweet, nourifhing and 
medicinal : it is an excellent fuccedaneum for afs's 
milk ; and has (with a tea-fpoon ful of hartfhorn 
drank warm in bed in the morning, and at four 
o'clock in the afternoon, and repeated for fome 
time) been a cure for pthifical people, before they 
were gone too far. In fome of the mountanous 
parts of Scotland and Ireland, the milk is made into 
whey, which has done wonders in this and o- 
ther cafes, where coolers and reftoratives are necef- 
ary : and to many of thofe places, there is a great 
refort of patients of all ranks, as there is in England 
to the Spaws or Baths. It is not furprizing that 
the milk of this animal is fo falutary, as it brouzes 
only on the tops, tendrils andflowers of the moun- 

Class I. GOAT. 39 

tain fhrubs, and medicinal herbs; rejecting the 
groffer parts. The blood of the he-goat dried, h 
a great recipe in fome families for the pleurify and 
inflammatory diforders *. 

Cheefe made of goats milk, is much valued 
in fome of our mountanous countries, when kept 
to proper age •, but has a peculiar tafte and flavor. 

The rutting feafon of thefe animals, is from 
the beginning of September to- November \ at that 
time the males drive whole flocks of the females 
continually from place to place, and fill the whole 
atmofphere around them with their ftrong and 
ungrateful odor -, which though as difagreeable as 
aflfa fcetida itfelf, yet may be conducive to prevent 
many diftempers, and to cure nervous and hyf- 
terical ones. Horfes are imagined to be much 
refrefhed with it % on which account many perfons 
keep a he-goat in their ftuds or ftables. 

Goats go with young four months and a half, 
and bring forth from the latter end of February to 
the latter end of .April : Having only two teats, 
they bear generally but two young, and fome- 
times three -, and in good warm paftures there have 
been inftances, though rare, of their bringing four 
at a time : both young and old are affected by the 
weather : a rainy feafon makes them thin \ a dry 
funny one makes them fat and blythe : their ex- 

* This remedy is taken notice of even by Dr. Mead in his 
monita medica, p. 35. under the articlepkuritis. The Germans 
wfe that of the Stezn-boc, or Ibex, 

D 4 ceffive 

GOAT. Class I. 

cefiive venery prevents longevity, for they feldom 
live in our climate above eleven or twelve years. 

Thefe animals with amazing fwiftnefs and fafety, 
climb up the moft rugged rocks, and afcend the 
mod dangerous places : they can ftand unmoved 
on the higheft precipices, and fo balance their 
centre of gravity, as to fix themfelves in fuch fix- 
ations with fecurity and firmnefs-, fo that we feldom 
hear of their falling, or breaking their necks. 
"When two are yoked together, as is frequently 
pradtifed, they will, as if by confent, take large and 
hazardous leaps ; yet fo well time their mutual ef- 
forts, as rarely to mifcarry in the attempt. 

The origin of the domeftic goat is the Stein- 
boc, Ibex or wild goat, Syn. quad. No. 9. a fpecies 
now found only in the *4lps 9 and in Crete, 


Class L 



Horns upright, folid, branched, annually deciduous. V. DEER. 
Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the 

Red Deer, Stag or Hart. 
Cervus Rait fyn. quad. 84. 
Char It. ex. 11 . 
Meyer's an. Tab. 22. 
Gefner quad. 326. 
Gre-xv's Mufeum, 2 1 . 
De Buffo?!, Tom. vi. 63. Tab. 
9, 10. 

Cervus cornibus teretibus ad 
lateraincurvis. Brifonquad. 

Cervus Elaphus. Lin. fyft. 

93- ., 

C. cornibus ramofis teretibus 
recurvatis. Faun. Suec. 40. 

C. nobilis. Klein, quad. 23. 

Br. Zool. 15. Syn. quad* 
No. 38. 

6. Stag, 


Hi N D. 

Young, or Calf 






Le Cerf 

La Biche 












Hirtz, Hirfch 


Hinde kalb 





Hiort, Kronhiort 





Kid, or Hind kab 

Platycerata. Plinii, lib. xi. Cervus cornuum unica et altiore 7. Fallow. 

c. 37. fummitate palmata. BriJ/on 

Eurycerata. OppianCyneg. quad. 62. 

lib. 11. lin. 293. Cervus dama. Cervus cornibus 

Fallow deer, or buck; cer- ramofis recurvatis compreffis : 

vus platyceros. Raiijyn. fummitatibus palmatis. Lin. 

quad. 85. fyft. 93. 

D ama vulgaris. Gefner quad. Faun. Suec. 42. Br. Zool. 15. 

307. Syn. quad. No. 37. 

Meyer's an. Tom. i. Tab. Cervus palmatus. Klein, quad. 

71. 25. 
De Buffon. Tom. vi. 161. 

Tab. 27, 28. 




E E R. 











Le Dain. 

La Daine 






Gamo, Corza 








Dof, Dofhiort 


Daae Dijr 

AT firft, the beads of chace had this whole 
iiland for their range ; they knew no other 
limits than that of the ocean *, nor confeffed any 
particular mailer. When the Saxons had efta- 
blifhed themfelves in the Heptarchy , they were refer- 
ved by each fovereign for his own particular diver- 
fion : hunting and war in thofe uncivilized ages 
were the only employ of the great 5 their active, 
but uncultivated minds, being fufceptible of no 
pleafures but thofe of a violent kind, fuch as gave 
exercife to their bodies, and prevented the pain 
of thinking. 

But as the Saxon kings only appropriated thofe 
lands to the ufe of forefts which were unoccupied ; 
fo no individuals received any injury : but when 
the conqueft had fettled the Norman line on the 
throne, this paflion for the chace was carried to 
an excels, which involved every civil right in a ge- 
neral ruin: it iuperfeded the confederation of religion 
even in a fuperftitious age : the village commu- 
nities, nay, even the moil facred edifices were turn- 
ed into one vail waile, to make room for animals, 
the objects of a lawlefs tyrant's pleafure. The 


Class I. DEER. 

new foreft in Hampjhire is too trite an inflance to 
be dwelt on : fanguinary laws were enacted to pre- 
ferve the game ; and in the reigns of William Rufus, 
and Henry the firft, it was lefs criminal to deftroy 
one of the human fpecies than a beaft of chafe*. 
Thus it continued while the Norman line filled 
the throne ; but when the Saxon line was reftored 
under Henry the fecond, the rigor of the foreft laws 
was immediately foftened. 

When our barons began to form a power, they 
clamed a vaft, but more limited tract for a diver- 
fion that the Englifh were always fond of. They 
were very jealous of any encroachments on their 
refpective bounds, which were often the caufe of 
deadly feuds : fuch a one gave caufe to the fatal 
day of Chevy-chace, a fact, which though record- 
ed only in a ballad, may, from what we know of 
the manners of the times, be founded on truth % 
not that it was attended with all the circumftances 
the author of that natural, but heroic compofition 
hath given it, for on that day neither a Percy 
nor a Douglas fell : here the poet feems to have 
clamed his privilege, and mixed with this fray 
fome of the events of the battle of ' Qtterbourne. 

When property became happily more divided by 
the relaxation of the feodal tenures, thefe extenfive 

* An antient hiitorian fpeaks thus of the penalties incur 
red ; Si cerium aui aprum oculos eis evellebat', amavit enim feras 
tanquam erat pater earum, M. Paris. 1 1 , 




DEER. Class I. 

hunting-grounds became more limited ; and as til- 
lage and hulbandry increafed, the beads of chace 
were obliged to give way to others more ufeful to 
the community. The vaft tracts of land before de- 
dicated to hunting, were then contracted; and in 
proportion as the ufeful arts gained ground, either 
loft their original deftination, or gave rife to the in- 
vention of Parks. Liberty and the arts feem coe- 
val, for when once the latter got footing, the for- 
mer protected the labors of the induflrious from 
being ruined by the licentioufnefs of the fportfman, 
or being devoured by the objects of his diverfion : 
for this reafon, the fubjects of a defpotic govern- 
ment ftill experience the inconveniences of vaft 
waftes, and forefts, the terrors of the neighbouring 
hufbandmen*; while in our well-regulated monar- 
chy, very few chaces remain : we ftill indulge our- 
felves in the generous pleafure of hunting, but con- 
fine the deer-kind to parks, of which Englandboafts 
of more than any other kingdom in Europe. Our 
equal laws allow every man his pleafure; but con- 
fine them in fuch bounds, as prevents them from 
being injurious to the meaneft of the community. 
Before the reformation, our prelates feem to have 
guarded fufficiently againft the want of this amufe- 
ment, the fee of Norwich in particular, being pof- 

* In Germany the peafants are often obliged to watch their 
grounds the whole night, to preierve the fences and corn from 
being deftroyed by the deer, 


Class I. D E E R. 45 

fefled about that time of thirteen parks*. They 
feem to have forgot good king Edgar's advice, Do- 
cemus etiam ut facerdos non fit senator neque acci- 
pitrarius neque potator, fed incumbat fuis libris Jicut 
ordinem ipjius decet -f. 

It was cuftomary to fait the venifon for preferva- 
tion, like other meat. Rymer preferves a warrant 
of Edward III. ordering fixty deer to be killed 
for that purpofe. 

The flag and buck agree in their nature ; only 
the latter being more tender is eafier tamed, and 
made familiar. The firft is become lefs common 
than it was formerly ; its exceflive vitioufnefs du- 
ring the rutting feafon, and the badnefs of its flefh, 
induce moil people to part with the fpecies. Stags 
are dill found wild in the highlands of Scotland, in 
herds of four or five hundred together, ranging at 
full liberty over the vail hills of the north. Some 
grow to a great fize : when I was at Invercauld 
Mr. Farquharfon allured me that he knew an in- 
ftance of one that weighed eighteen (tone Scots, 
or three hundred and fourteen pounds, exclufive of 
the entrails, head and fkin. Formerly the great 
highland chieftains ufed to hunt with the magni- 
ficence of an eaftern monarch ; affembling four or 
five thoufand of their clan, who drove the deer in- 
to the toils, or to the ftation their lairds had pla~ 

* PeachanCs Compleat Gentleman, 261. f Leges Saxon. 2j* 


a 6 DEER. Class I. 

ced themfelves in : but as this pretence was fre- 
quently ufed to colled their vaiTals for rebellious 
purpofes, an ad was pafTed prohibiting any alTem- 
biies of this nature. Stags are likewife met with on 
the moors that border on Cornwal and Devon/hire, 
and in Ireland on the mountains of Kerry, where 
they add greatly to the magnificence of the roman- 
tic fcenery of the lake of Killarny. 

The ftao-s of Ireland dunn^ its uncultivated (late, 

DO * 

and while it remained an almoft boundlefs trad 
of foreft, had an exad agreement in habit, with 
thofe that range at prefent through the wilds of 
America, They were lefs in body, but very fat; 
and their horns of a fize far fuperior to thofe of Eu- 
rope, but in form agreed in all points. Old Gi- 
raldus lpeaks with much precifion of thofe of Ire- 
land, Cervos pre nimia pinguedine minus fugere preva- 
lent es, quant o minor es funt corporis qiiantitate,- tanto 
pracellentius efferuntur, capitis et cornuum dignitate *. 
We have in England two varieties of fallow-deer 
which are faid to be of foreign origin : The beau- 
tiful fpotted kind, and the very deep brown fort, 
that are now fo common in feveral parts of this 
kingdom. Thefe were introduced here by king 

* Topogr. Hibernite. c. 19. Laivfon in his hiftory of Caro- 
lina p. 123, mentions the fatnefs of the American flags, and 
their inferiority of fize to the European. I have often {ten 
their horns, which vailly exceed thofe of our country in 
fize, and number of antlers. 


Class I. DEER. 47 

Janies the firft out of Norway *, where he patted 
fome time when he vifited his intended bride Ma- 
ry of Denmark -f\ He obferved their hardinefs ; and 
that they could endure, even in that fevere climate, 
the winter without fodder. He firft brought fome 
into Scotland, and from thence tranfported them 
into his chaces of Enfield and Epping, to be near 
his palace of Theobalds -, for it is well known, that 
monarch was in one part of his character the Ni?nrod 
of his days, fond to excefs of hunting, that image 
of war, although he detefted the reality. No 
country produces the fallow-deer in quantities 
equal to England. In France they are fcarcely 
known, but are fometimes found in the north J of 
Europe, In Spain they are extremely large. They 
are met with in Greece, the Holy Land\\, and in 
China § *, but in every country except our own are 
in a date of nature, unconfmed by man. 

They are not natives of America -, for the deer 
known in our colonies by that name are a diftincl: 
fpecies, a fort of (lag, as we have remarked p. 51, 
of our Synopfis of quadrupeds. 

The ufes of thefe animals are almoft fimilar; the 
fkin of the buck and doe is fufficiently known to 

* This we relate on the authority of Mr. Peter Collinfen. 

f One of the Welch names of this animal (Gievr-danas, or 
Danijh goat) implies that it was brought from fome of the 
Danijb dominions. Ed. Lkuoyd. Ph. tr. No. 334* 

% Pontop. Nor-way. 11. 9. Faun. Suec. fp. 42, 

|| Haffelquift. itin, 290* § Du Holds hiil 3 China* I. 315° 


48 DEE R; Glass I. 

every one ; and the horns of the flag are of great 
ufe in mechanics •, they, as well as the horns of 
the reft of the deer kind, being excefilvely com- 
pact, folid, hard and weighty-, and make excel- 
lent handles for couteaus, knives, and feveral o- 
ther utenfils. They abound in that fait, which is 
the bafis of the fpirit of Hart/horn ; and the remains 
(after the falts are extracted) being calcined, be- 
come a valuable aftringent in fluxes, which is 
known by the name of burnt Hartjhorn. Befides 
thefe ufes in mechanics and medicine, there is an 
inftance in Giraldus Cambrenfis, of a countefs of 
Chejler, who kept milch hindes, and made cheefe 
of their milk, fome of which fhe prefented to 
archbifhop Baldwin, in his itinerary through JVaks t 
in the year 1188 *. 

Girald. Camh. Iti?i« p. 2 1 6c 


} * 


:& o e b u c b: 

,% ' 



Class L 

DEE ft. 


Aofka$, Arifiotelis de Part, lik 

iii. c. 2. 
Iorcas, Dorcas, Oppian Cyneg. 

lib. ii. lin. 296. 315, 
Caprea, Plinii, lib. xi. c. 37. 
Capreolus Vulgo. Rati Jyn. quad. 

8 9- 
C«W. Brit. 11. 771. 
Meyer's anim. ii. Tab. 73. 
Capreolus, &'£. Scot, pars 3.9. 
Caprea, capreolus, Dorcas. Gef- 

ner' quad. 296. 
Merret pinax. 166, 

Cervus cornibus teretibu; v 8. Roi 

erectis. Brijfon quad. 61. 
De Buffon, Tom. vi. 289. 

Tab. 32, 33. 
Cervus minimus, Klein quad, 

Cervus capreolus, Lin.fyjl* 

C. Cornibus raiitofis tereti- 

bus ereftis, fummitate bi- 
fida, Faun. Suec. 43. Br. 

Zcol. 18. Syn. quad. No„ 

47. Tour in Scotland. 288 

Tab. xiVo 


Iwrch, fam. tyrchell 


Cabra montes 


Le Chevreuil 


Rehbock,_/kvzz. Reh 





Zorlito, Cabronzillo 


Radiur, Rabock 



Raaedijr Raaebuk 

THE roebuck prefers a niountanous woody 
country to a plain one; was formerly very 
common in Wales, in the north of England, and 
in Scotland-, but at prefent the fpecies no longer 
exifts in any part of Great -Britain, except in the 
Scottijh highlands. In France they are more fre- 
quent-, they are alfo found in Italy, Sweden, and 
Norway -, and in Afia they are met with in Siberia*. 
The firft that are met with in Great-Britain are in 
the woods on the fouth fide of Loch Rannoch, in 
Perth/hire: the laft in thofe of Langwal, on th€ 

Vol. L 

# Bell's Travels- 



DEER. Class I. 

fouthern borders of Cathnefs : but they are mod 
numerous in the beautifull forefts of Invercauld, in 
the midfl of the Grampian hiils. They are un- 
known in Ireland. 

This is the left of the deer kind, being only 
three feet nine inches long, and two feet three inches 
high before, and two feet feven behind. The 
weight from 50 to 6olb. The horns are from eight 
to nine inches long, upright, round, and divided 
into only three branches •, their lower part is ful- 
cated lengthways, and extremely rugged •, of this 
part is made handles for couteaus, knives, &c. 
The horns of a young buck in its fecond year are 
quite plain : in its third year a branch appears ; 
but in the fourth its head is complete. The body 
is covered during winter with very long hair, 
well adapted to the rigor of the highland air ; 
the lower part of each hair is alh-color ; near the 
ends is a narrow bar of black, and the points are 
yellow : The hairs on the face are black, tipped 
with afh-color •, the ears are long, their infides of a 
pile yellow, and covered with long hair ; the fpaces 
bordering on the eyes and mouth are black. Du- 
ring fummer its coat has a very different appear- 
ance, bong very fhort and fmooth, and of a bright 
reddifh color. 

The chelT, belly, and legs, and the infide of the 

lis, are of a yeiiowifh white 5 the rump is of a 

pure white: the tail is very fhort. On the outfide 


Class I. DEER. 

of the hind leg, below the joint, is a tuft of long 

The make of the roebuck is very elegant, and 
formed for agility. Thefe animals do not keep in 
herds like other deer, but only in families \ they 
bring two fawns at a time, which the female is o- 
bliged to conceal from the buck while they are very 
young. The fiefh of this creature is reckoned a 
delicate food. 

It is a tender animal, incapable of bearing great 
cold. M. de Buffon tells us that in the hard win- 
ter of 1709, the fpecies in Burgundy were almoO: 
deftroyed, and many years part before it was re- 
ftored again. I was informed in Scotland, that it 
is very difficult to rear the fawns ; it being com- 
puted that eight out of ten of thofe that are taken 
from their parents die. 

Wild roes during ilimmer feed on grafs 3 and are 
very fond of the rubus faxatilis, called in the high- 
lands the roebuck berry \ but in winter time, when 
the ground is covered with fnow, they brouze on 
the tender branches of fir and birch. 

In the old Welfo laws, a roebuck was valued at 
the fame price as a fhe-goat \ a flag at the price 
of an ox \ and a fallow deer was efteemed equal to 
that of a cow ; or, as fome fay, a he-goat *. 

It will not be foreign to the prefent fubjecl:, to Fossil 
mention the vail horns frequently found in Ireland, 

* Leges tallica t 258, 

E 2 and 



52 DEER. Class L 

and others fometimes met with in our own king- 
dom. The latter are evidently of the (lag kind, 
but much ftronger, thicker, heavier, and furnifhed 
with fewer antlers than thofe of the prefent race ; 
of thofe fome have been found on the fea-coaft of 
Lancajhire* ', and a fingle horn was dug a few 
years ago out of the fands near Chefter. Thofe 
found in f Ireland muft be referred to the elk kind, 
but of a fpecies different from the European, being 
provided with brow antlers which that wants : 
neither are they of the Moofe deer or American^ 
which entirely agrees with the elk of Europe, as 
I have found by comparifon. Entire fkeletons of 
this animal are fometimes met with, lodged in a 
white marie. Some of thefe horns are near twelve 
feet between tip and tip J. Not the fainted account 
(traditional or hiftoric) is left of the exiftence of 
thefe animals in our kingdom •, fo that they may 
poflibly be ranked among thofe remains which fof- 
filifts diftinguifh by the title of diluvian. 

Mr. Graham, factor to the Hudforfs Bay compa- 
ny, once gave me hopes of difcovering the living 
animal. He informed me that he had received 

* Ph. Tr. No. 422. 

f No. 227. Boate's Nat. Hi ft. Ireland, 137. 

1 A pair of this fize is preferved at Sir Patrick BellevSs, 
Bar>. in the county of Louth. The great difference between 
the Moofe horns and the Foffil is fhewen in Plates VII. and 
IX. cf my 8jnopJ:s cf Quadrupeds. 


Class I. DEER. *|3 

accounts from the Indians who refort to the facto- 
ries, that there is found a deer, about feven or eight 
hundred miles weft of York fort, which they call 
Wajkeffeu, and fay is vaftly fuperior in fize to the 
common Moofe. But as yet nothing has tranfpi- 
red relating to fo magnificent an animal. The dif- 
ference of fize between the modern Moofe, and the 
owners of the foffil horns may be eftimated by the 
following account. The largeft horns of the Ame- 
rican Moofe ever brought over, are only thirty- two 
inches long, and thirty-four between tip and tip. 
The length of one of the fofTil horns is fix feet 
four inches. The fpace between tip and tip near 
twelve feet. The .largeft: Moofe defcribed by any 
authentic voyager does not exceed the fize of a 
great horfe -, that which I faw (a female) was fif- 
teen hands high. But we muft fearch for much 
larger animals to fupport the weight of our foflii 
horns. If Joffelyn's, or Dudlfs Moofe of twelve feet 
in height ever exifted% we may fuppofe that to 
have been a fpecies, which as population advance 
ed, retired into diftant parts, into depths of woods 
unknown but to diftant Indians. 

* Voy. to New England, 88, New England Rarities, 19, 
Spe alfo Mr. Dudly'% account in Ph. Tranf, abridg. VIL 447, 

E 3 ** Without 



Class I 

** Without horns. 


Divided hoofs. 

Cutting teeth in both jaws. 

9. Common. Sus, feu Porcus domeiticus. 

Raiijyn. quad. 92. 

Gefner quad. 872. 

Charlton ex. 14. 

Sus caudatus auriculis ob- 
longis acutis, cauda pi- 
le fa. Br if/on quad. 74. 

jyeBuffon, Tom.X. 99. Tab. 6,7, 

Klein quad. 25. 

Sus fcrofa. Lin.fyfi. 102. 

Sus dorfo antke fetofo, cauda 

Faun. Suec. 21. 
Br. Zoo/. 19. Syn. quad. No. 54. 









Le Verrat 

La Truye 


























ACCORDING to common appearances, the 
hog is certainly the mod impure and filthy 
of all quadrupeds : we mould however reflect that 
filthinefs is an idea merely relative to ourfelves ; 
but we form a partial judgment from our own fen- 
fations, and overlook that wife maxim of Provi- 
dence, that every part of the creation mould have 
its reipeclive inhabitants. By this ceconomy of 
nature, the earth is never overlooked, nor any part 


Class I. HOG. 

of the creation ufelefs. This obfervation may be 
exemplified in the animal before us ; the hog alone 
devouring what is the refufe of all the reft, and 
contributing not only to remove what would be a 
nuifance to the human race, but alfo converting 
the moft naufeous offals into the rieheft nutriment: 
for this reafon its ilomach is capacious, and its 
gluttony exceffive ; not that its palate is infenfible 
to the difference of eatables; for where it finds vari- 
ety, it will reject the worit with as diftinguiftiing a 
tafte as other quadrupeds *. 

This animal has (not unaptly) been compared 
to a mifer, who is ufelefs and rapacious in his life, 
but on his death becomes of public ufe, by the 
very effects of his fordid manners. The hog du- 
ring life renders little fervice to mankind, except 
in removing that filth which other animals reject : 
his more than common brutality, urges him to 
devour even his own off-fpring. All other domef- 
tic quadrupeds mew fome degree of refpect to man- 
kind -, and even a fort of tendernefs [for us in our 

* The ingenious author of the Pa?z Suecus, has proved this 
beyond contradiction, having with great induftry drawn up 
tables of the number of vegetables, which each domeflic ani- 
mal chufes, or rejects : and it is found that the hog eats but 
72, and refufes 171 plants, 

The Ox eats 276. rejefts 218. 

Goat 449. 126* 

Sheep 387, 141. 

Horfe 262, 212. Aman. Acad. ii. 203. 

E 4 helplefs 


$6 HOG. Class I. 

helplefs years •, but this animal will devour infants, 
whenever it has opportunity. 

The parts of this animal are finely adapted to its 
way of life. As its method of feeding is by turning 
up the earth with its nofe for roots of different 
kinds ; fo nature has given it a more prone form 
than other animals ; a ftrong brawny neck ; eyes 
fmall, and placed high in the head ; a long fnout, 
nofe callous and tough, and a quick fenfe of fmel- 
ling to trace out its food. Its inteflines have a 
(trong refemblance to thofe of the human fpecies ; 
a circumftance that mould mortify our pride. The 
external form of its body is very unweildy ; yet, 
by the (Irength of its tendons, the wild boar (which 
is only a variety of the common kind) is enabled to 
fly from the hunters with amazing agility : the 
back toe on the feet of this animal prevents its flip- 
ping while it deicends declivities, and muft be of 
fingular ufe when purfued: yet, notwithstanding its 
powers of motion, it is by nature ftupid, inactive, 
and drowfy; much inclined to increafe in fat, which 
is difpofed in a different manner from other ani- 
mals, and forms a regular coat over the whole bo- 
dy. It is reftlefs at a change of weather, and in 
certain high winds is ib agitated as to run violently, 
fcreaming horribly at the fame time : it is fond of 
wallowing in the dirt, either to cool its forfeited 
body, or tc deftroy the lice, ticks, and other in- 
fects with which it is infefted. Its difeafes gene- 
rally arife from intemperance; meafles, impof- 


Class I. HOG. SI 

tumes, and fcrophulous complaints are reckoned 
among them. Linnaeus obferves that its flefh is 
wholefome food for athletic conftitutions, or thofe 
that ufe much exercife-, but bad for fuch as lead a 
fedentary life: it is though of mod univerfal ufe, 
and furnifhes numberlefs materials for epicurifm, 
among which brawn is a kind peculiar to Eng- 
land*. The flefh of the hog is an article of the 
firft importance to a naval and commercial nation, 
for it takes fait better than any other kind, and 
confequently is capable of being preferved longer. 
The lard is of great ufe in medicine, being an 
ingredient in various forts of plaifters, either pure, 
or in the form of pomatum ; and the briftlqs are 
formed into brumes of feveral kinds. 

This animal has been applied to an ufe in this 
ifland, which feems peculiar to Minorca and the part 
of Murray which lies between the Spey and Elgin. It 
has been there converted into a bead of draught ; 
for I have been afTured by a minifter of that coun- 
try, eye witnefs to the fact, that he had on his firft 
coming into his parifh feen a cow, a fow, and two 
■Trogues (young horfes) yoked together, and draw- 
ing a plough in a light fandy foil ; and that the 
fow was the bell; drawer of the four. In Minorca 
the afs and the hog are common help-mates, and 
are yoked together in order to turn up the land. 

The wild-boar was formerly a native of our coun- 

* Hollingjbed Defer, Brit. 109. 


58 HOG. Class I. 

try, as appears from the laws of Hoel dda % who 
permitted his grand huntfman to chace that animal 
from the middle of November to thebeginning of 
December, William the Conqueror punifhed with 
the lofs of their eyes, any that were convidled of 
killing the wild-boar, the flag, or the roebuck f ; 
and Fitz- Stephen tells us, that the vaft foreft that 
in his time grew on the north fide of London, 
was the retreat of flags, fallow-deer, wild-boars, and 
bulls. Charles I. turned out wild-boars in the 
New Foreft, Hampjhire, but they were deflroyed 
in the civil wars. 

* Leges Wallica. 41. f Leges Saxon. 292, 




Class I. DOG. 

Div. II. Sect. I. 

With large canine teeth, feparated from the 

cutting teeth. 
Six cutting teeth in each jaw. 
Rapacious, carnivorous. 

Six cutting teeth, and two canine. 
Five toes before, four behind. 
Blunt claws. Long vifage. 

Canis, Rait fyn. quad. 175. De Buffbn, Tom. v. p. 185. I0< jr AITH=? 

Charlton ex. 26. Klein quad. 63. full 

Merret pinax, 168. Canis familiaris. Lin.fyft. 56. 

Gefner quad. 160, 249, 250. Canis cauda recurva. Faun. 
Canis domefticus. Brijfon quad. Suec. 5. 

170. Brit. Zool. 23. Syn. quad. 

No, no. 

Brit. Ci, f<zm. Gaft Germ. Hund 

Fren. Le Chien Dut. Hond 

Ital. Cane Sived. Hand 

Span. Perro Dan. Hund, feem. Taeve 

Port. Cam 

DR. Caws, an Englifh phyfician, who flourifh* 
ed in the reign of queen Elizabeth, has left 
amonp- feveral other tracts relating to natural hiC 
tory, one written exprefsly on the fpecies of Brl- 
tijh dogs : they were wrote for the ufe of his learn- 



Class I. 

ed friend Ge/ner ; with whom he kept a ftrict cor- 
refpondence j and whofe death he laments in a very 
elegant and pathetic manner. 

Befides a brief account of the variety of dogs 
then exifting in this country, he has added a fyfte- 
matic table of them : his method is fo judicious, 
that we mall make ufe of the fame ; explain it by a 
brief account of each kind -, and point out thofe 

that are no longer in ufe 

among us. 



^ Hounds. 

C Terrier 


S Harrier 



• l-f 







O J 

so < 






<u \ 

"S i 


C Blood hound 

Gaze hound 
Grey hound 
Leviner, or Lyemraer 



Ph £ 

Water fpaniel, or finder 


£< So C 

« C 3 

Spaniel gentle, or comfc 

£ . 

t. to 

1— 1 


Shepherd's dog 
Mafliff, or ban dog 


O to 


I— 1 
t— 1 





Class I. DOG. 61 

The firft variety is the tferrarius or Terier, 
which takes its name from its fubterraneous em- 
ploy ; being a fmall kind of hound, ufed to force 
the fox, or other beads of prey, out of their holes ; 
(and in former times) rabbets out of their burrows 
into nets. 

The Lever arms, or Harrier ', is a fpecies well 
known at prefent ; it derives its name from its ufe, 
that of hunting the hare ; but under this head may 
be placed the fox-hound, which is only a flronger 
and fleeter variety, applied to a different chace*. 

The Sanguinarius, or Bloodhound, or the Sleut- 
houndef of the Scots, was a dog of great ufe, and in 
high efteem with our anceftors : its employ was 
to recover any game that had efcaped wounded 
from the hunter ; or been killed and flole out of 
the foreft. It was remarkable for the acutenefs of 
its fmell, tracing the loft beafl by the blood it had 
fpilt -, from whence the name is derived : This 

* Prince Griffith ap Concur (who began his reign in the 
year 1079) divided hunting into three kinds : the firft and 
nobleft fort was the Helfa ddolef which is hunting for the me- 
lody of the cry, or notes of the pack : The fecond fort was 
the Helfa gyfartha y or hunting when the animal Hood at bay : 
The laft kind was the Helfa gyffredin, i. e. common hunting ; 
which was no more than the right any perfon had, who hap- 
pened accidentally to come in at the death of the game, to 
claim a mare. Lewis's Hifi. of 'Wales, 56. 

f From the Saxon Slot the impreffton that a deer leaves of 
its foot in the mire, and bund a dog. So they derive their 
name from following the track, 


62 DOG. Class I. 

fpecies could, with the utmoft certainty, difcover 
the thief by following his footfteps, let the diftance 
of his flight be ever fo great; and through the 
mod fecret and thickeft coverts : nor would it 
ceafe its purfuit, till it had taken the felon. They 
were likewife ufed by Wallace and Bruce during the 
civil wars. The poetical hiftorians of the two he- 
roes, frequently relate very curious paflTages on' 
this fubjecl ; of the fervice thefe dogs were of to 
their mafters, and the efcapes they had from thofe of 
the enemy, The bloodhound was in great requeft 
on the confines of England and Scotland; where the 
borderers were continually preying on the herds and 
flocks of their neighbors. The true bloodhound 
was large, firong, mufcular, broad breaded, of 
a item countenance, of a deep tan-color, and 
generally marked with a black fpot above each eye. 

The next divifion of this fpecies of dogs, com- 
prehends thofe that hunt by the eye •, and whofe fuc- 
cefs depends either upon the quicknefs of their fight, 
their fwiftnefs, or their fubtility. 

The AgafauS) or Gazehound, was the fir ft : it 
chaced indifferently the fox, hare, or buck. It 
would felect from the herd the fatteft and faireft 
deer-, purfue it by the eye; and if loft for a time, 
recover it again by its fingular diftinguifhing facul- 
ty ; and fhould the beaft rejoin the herd, this dog 
would fix unerringly on the fame. This fpecies 
is now loft, or at left unknown to us. 

It muft be oblerved that the Agafaus of Dr. Caius, 


Class I. DOG. 63 

is a very different fpecies from the AgaJJeus of Op- 
pian^ for which it might be miftaken from the fi- 
militude of names : this he defcribes as a fmall kind 
of dog, peculiar to Great Britain; and then goes 
on with thefe words ; 

Tvfov, SuragxQT&TOV} bcurtoTfixw, op/towi vcoQeg. 

Curvum, macikntum, hifpidum^ cutis pigrum. 

what he adds afterwards, dill marks the difference 
more ftrongly •, 

PiWt J* aurs jxaMra txavsZoxos zrh Sty<x<T<TEu$. 

Naribus autem longe praftantijfimus eft agajfeus. 

From Oppiaris whole defcription, it is plain 
he meant our Beagle*. 

The next kind is the Leporarius, or Gre-hound. 
Dr. Caius informs us, that it takes its name quod 
pracipui gradus fit inter canes ; the firft in rank 
among dogs : that it was formerly efteemed fo, 
appears from the foreit laws of king Canute •, who 
enacted, that no one under the degree of a gentle- 
man mould prefume to keep a gre-hound ; and ftill 
more ftrongly from an old Welfh faying-, Wrth 
ei Walch^ ei Farch, a'i Filgi> yr adwaenir Bonhed- 
dig : Which fignifies, that you may know a gentle- 
man by his hawk, his horfe and his gre-hound. 

* Opp. Cyneg. lib. i. tin. 473. 476. 
Nemefianus alfo celebrates our dogs. 

Divifa Britannia mittit 
Veloces, noftri^ue orbis venantibus aptos, 


64 DOG. Class!. 

Froijjart relates a fad: not much to the credit 
cf the fidelity of this fpecies : when that unhappy- 
Prince Richard the fecond was taken in Flint caf- 
tle, his favorite gre-hound immediately deferted 
him, and fawned on his rival Bolingbroke -, as if he 
underftood, and forefaw the misfortunes of the for- 
mer *. The ftory is fo fingular, that we give it in 
the note in the words of the hiftorian. 

* Le Roy Richard a *v r oit ung levrier lequel on nommoit Math, 
tres beau levrier oultre mefure, & ne vouloit ce chien cog- 
noiftre nul homme hors le Roi, et quand le Roy vouloit che- 
vaucher, celluy qui lavoit en garde le laiffoit aller, et ce levrier 
venoit tantofi devers le Roy le feftoyer ce luy mettoient incon- 
tinent quil eftoit efchappe ies deux pieds fur les epaules. Et 
adoncques advint que le Roy et le conte Derby parlans enfemble 
en la place de la court dudit chafteau, et leur chevaulx tous 
fellez, car ils vouloient monter a cheval, ce levrier nomme 
Math qui eftoit couftumier de faire au Roy ce" que dift eft, laifTa 
le Roy et fen vint au due de Lenclaftre, et luy fill toutes telles 
contenances que paravant il avoit acouftume de faire au Roy, 
et lui aftift les deux pieds fur le col, et le commenca moult 
grandement a cherir, le due de Lenclaftre qui point ne cogno- 
ifibit ce levrier, demanda au Roy, et que veult ce levrier faire, 
coufm, dift le Roy, ce vous eft une grant fignifiance & a moy 
petite. Comment dift due lentendez vous. Je lentends dift 
le Roy, le levrier vous feftoye et receult au jourdhuy comme 
Roy d' Angleterre que vous ferez et ien feray depofe, et le levri- 
er en a cognoiffance naturelle. Si le tenez deles vous, ear il 
vous fuyura et mellongera. Le due de Lenclaftre entendit 
bien cefte parolle et nft chere au levrier le quel oncques depuis 
ne voulut fuyvre Richard de B cur deaulx fuyvit le ducde Lenclaftre. 
Chrcnicque de Froijart, torn. iv. Fueillet 72. Edition de 
Paris, 1530. 


Class I. DOG. 

The variety called the Highland gre-hound, and 
now become very fcarce, is of a very great fize, 
ftrong, deep chefted, and covered with long and 
roucrh hair. This kind was much efteemed in 
former days, and ufcd in great numbers by the pow- 
erful chieftains in their magnificent hunting matches. 
It had as fagacious noftnls- as the Blood- hound^ and 
was as fierce. This feems to be the kind Boethius 
ftyles, genus venaticum cum ceierrimum turn audaciffi- 
mum : nee modo in /eras, fed in hoftes etiam latrorief- 
que •, prsefertim fi dominum ducloremve injur iam affici 
cernat aut in eos concitetur. 

The third fpecies is the Levinarius^ or Lorarius ; 
The Leviner or Lyemmer: the firft name is deriv- 
ed from the lightnefs of the kind ; the other from 
the old word Lyemme, a thong : this fpecies being 
ufed to be led in a thong, and flipped at the game. 
Our author fays, that this dog was a kind that 
hunted both by fcent and fight ; and in the form 
of its body obferved a medium between the hound., 
and the gre-hound. This probably is the kind 
now known to us by the name of the Irijh gre- 
hound, a dog now extremely fcarce in that king- 
dom, the late king of Poland having procured 
from them as many as poflible. I have feen two 
or three in the whole ifland : they were of the kind 
called by M. de Buffon Le grand Danois, and pro- 
bably imported there by the Danes who long pof- 
fefied that kingdom. Their ufe feems originally 
to have been for the chafe of wolves with which 

Vol. I, F Ireland 

DOG. Glass I. 

Ireland fwarmed till the latter end of the laft cen- 
tury. As foon as thofe animals were extirpated, 
the numbers of the dogs decreafed •, for from that 
period, they were kept only for ftate. 

The Vertagtts, or Tumbler, is a fourth fpecies ; 
which took its prey by mere fubtility, depending 
neither on the fagacity of its nofe, nor its fwiftnefs : 
if it came into a warren, it neither barked, nor 
ran on the rabbets ; but by a feeming neglect of 
them, or attention to fomething elfe, deceived the 
objecl: till it got within reach, fo as to take it by a 
fudden fpring. This dog was lefs than the hound j 
more fcraggy, and had prickt up ears ; and by Dr. 
Caius's defcription feems to anfwer to the modera 

The third divifion of the more generous dogs, 
comprehends thofe which were ufed in fowling; 
firft, the Hifpaniolus or ipaniel : from the name it 
may be fuppofed, that we were indebted to Spain 
for this breed : there were two varieties of this 
kind, the firft ufed in hawking, to fpring the game, 
which are the fame with our darters. 

The other variety was ufed only for the net, and 
was called Index, or the fetter ; a kind well known 
at prefent. This kingdom has long been remarka- 
ble for producing dogs of this fort, particular care 
having been taken to preferve the breed in the ut> 
moft purity. They are (till diftinguifhed by the 
name of Englifi fpaniels -, fc that notwithftanding 


Class I. DOG. 6f 

the derivation of the name, it is probable they 
are natives of Great Britain. We may itrengthen 
our fufpicion by faying that the firft who broke 
a dog to the net was an Englijb nobleman of a 
moft diftinguifhed character, the great Robert 
Dudly Duke of Northumberland*. The Pointer, 
which is a dos; of foreign extraction, was unknown 
to our anceftors. 

The AquaticuS) or Fynder, was another ipecies 
ufed in fowling ; was the fame as our water fpaniel ; 
and was ufed to find or recover the same that was 

The Melitaus, or Fetor -, the fpaniel gentle or 
comforter of Dr. Cains (the modern lap dog) was 
the lad of this divifion. The Maltefe little dogs 
were as much efteemed by the fine ladies of paft 
times, as thofe of Bologna are among the modern, 
Old Hollingfhed is ridiculouGy fevere on the fair of 
his days, for their exceffive paffion for thefe little 
animals ; which is fufficient to prove it was in his 
time -J- a novelty. 

The fecond grand divifion of dogs comprehends 
the Ruftici ; or thofe that were ufed in tne country. 

The firft fpecies is the Paftoralis, or (hepherd's 
dog •, which is the fame that is ufed at prefenr, 
either in guarding our flocks, or in driving herds 
of cattle. This kind is fo well trained for thofe 

* Wood's Ath. Ox. II. 27, 

f In the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

F 2 purpofes, 

D O G. Class L 

purpofes, as to attend to every part of the herd be 
it ever fo large •, confine them to the road, and 
force in every flraggler without doing it the leaft 

The next is the Villa ticus, or Catenarius; the maf- 
tlffox band dog-, a. fpecies of great fize and ftrength, 
and a very loud barker. Manwood fays*, it de- 
rives its name from tnafe tbefefe, being fuppofed 
to frighten away robbers by its tremendous voice. 
Caius tells us that three of thefe were reckoned a 
match for a bear j and four for a lion : but from 
an experiment made in the Tower by James the 
rirfi, that noble quadruped was found an unequal 
match to only three. Two of the dogs were dis- 
abled in the combat, but the third forced the 
lion to feek for fafety by flight -f. The Englifh 
bull dog feems to belong to this fpecies \ and pro- 
bably is the dog our author mentions under the 
title of Laniarhts. Great-Britain was fo noted for 
its maiiiffs, that the Rowan Emperors appointed 
an officer in this ifiand with the title of Procurator 
Cynegii J, whole fole bufinefs was to breed, and 
tranfmit from hence to the Amphitheatre^ fuch as 
would prove equal to the combats of the place, 

Magnaque taurornm fracturi colla Britanni |j. 
And Britifo dogs fubdue the flouted bulls. 

* MatewootFi Fcrefi La-iu. 

f St civ's Ann ah, 1427. 

% Camd. Brit, in Hampjbire. 

j| Claudian de laude StiHcbonis. Lib. iii. Lin. 301. 


Class I. DOG. 69 

Gratius fpeaks in high terms of the excellency of 
the Britijh dogs, 

Atque ipfos libeat penetrare Britannos ? 
O quanta eft merces et quantum impendia fupra ! 
Si non ad fpeciem mentiturofque decores 
Protinus : haec una eft catulis jaclura Britannis. 
At magnum cum venit opus, promendaque virtus, 
Et vocat extremo prasceps difcrimine Mavors, 
Non tunc egregios tantum admirere Molojfos *. 

If Britain's diftant coaft we dare explore, 
How much beyond the coft the valued ftore ; 
If fhape and beauty not alone we prize, 
Which nature to the Britijh hound denies: 
But when the mighty toil the huntfman warms, 
And all the foul is roufed by fierce alarms, 
When Mars calls furious to th' enfanguin'd field 
Even bold Molojfians then to thefe muft yield. 

Strabo tells us, that the maftifFs of Britain were 
trained for war, and were ufed by the Gauls in 
their battles -J- : and it is certain a well-trained maf- 
tifF might be of confiderable ufe in diftreffing fuch 
half-armed and irregular combatants as the adverfa- 
ries of the Gauls feem generally to have been before 
the Romans conquered them. 

The laft divifion is that of the JDegeneres o.r Curs. 
The firfl of thefe was the Wappe^ a name derived 

* Gratii Cynegeticon. Lin, 175. 
f Strabo, Lib, iv. 

F 3 l ¥> 

DOG. Class I. 

from its note : its only ufe was to alarm the fami- 
ly, by barking, if any perfon approached the houfe. 
Of this clafs was the Verfator, or turnfpit; and 
laftly the Saltatory or dancing dog ; or fuch as was 
taught variety of tricks, and carried about by idle 
people as a mew. Thefe Degeneres were of no 
certain fhape, being mongrels or mixtures of all 
kinds of dogs. 

We mould now, according to our plan, after 
enumerating the feveral varieties of Britijh dogs, 
give its general natural hiftory ; but fince Linnaeus 
has already performed it to our hand, we fhall 
adopt his fenfe, tranflating his very words (wher- 
ever we may) with literal exaclnefs. 

CJ The dog eats flefh, and farinaceous vege- 
" tables, but not greens: its ftomach digefts bones: 
Gt it ufes the tops of grafs as a vomit. It voids 
" its excrements on a (tone : the album gracum is 
" one of the greateft encourag-ers of putrefaction. 
" It laps up its drink with its tongue : it voids 
" its urine fideways, by lifting up one of its hind 
" legs ♦, and is mod: diuretic in the company of 
" a ftrange dog. Oder at anum alter ius: its fcent 
£i is moil exquifite, when its nofe is moift: it treads 
" lightly on its toes; fcarce ever fweats; but when 
cc hot lolls out its tongue. It generally walks 
6 ' frequently round the place it intends to lye down 
Ci on: its fenfe of hearing is very quick when afleep: 
" it dreams. Prods rixa/atibus crudelis : catulit cum 
- r : arils : mordet ilia illos : coharet copula junffus : 


Class I. 


" it goes with young fixty- three days; and cornmon- 
* ly brings from four to eight at a time: the male 
" puppies refemble the dog, the female the bitch. 
" It is the moil faithful of all animals : is very 
" docible : hates ftrange dogs : will fnap at a ftone 
" thrown at it : will howl at certain mufical notes : 
" all (except the S. American kind) will bark at 
Cf ftrangers : dogs are rejected by the Maho- 
" met an s" 


Vulpes. Raiijyn. quad, 177 
Morton's Northampt. 444. 
Meyer's an. i. Tab, 36. 
Canis fulvus, pills cinereis 
inter mixtis. RriJJbn quad. 

De Buffon. Tom. VII. 75. 
Tab. 6. 

Gefner quad. 966-. 

Vulpes au&oram. HaJJelquifi Itin. 


Canis vulpes. Lin.fyft. 59. 
Canis Alopex. C, cauda recta apice 
nigro. vulpes campeftris. ibid. 
Canis cauda recta apice albo, 

Faun. Suec. 7. 
Vulpes vulgaris. Klein quad. 73. 
Br. Zool. 28. fyn. quad. N. U2» 

11. Fos, 

Brit. Llwynog, fa-m Llwynoges. Germ. Fuchs 

Fren. Le Renard Dut. Vos 

Ital. Volpe S-joed. Raff 

Span. Rapofa Dan. Rev 
Fort. Rapoza 

THE fox is a crafty, lively, and libidinous ani- 
mal : it breeds only once in a year (except 
fome accident befals its fir ft litter;) and brings 
four or five young, which, like puppies, are born 
blind. It is a common received opinion, that this 

F 4 animal. 

72 FOX. Class I. 

animal will produce with the dog kind ; which may 
be well founded - 9 fince it has been proved that the 
congenerous wolf will*. Mr. Brook, animal-mer- 
chant in Holborn, turned a wolf to a Pomeranian 
bitch then in heat : the congrefs was immediate, 
with the circumftances ufual with the canine fpecies. 
The bitch brought ten whelps, one of which I 
afterwards faw at the Duke of Gordon's in Scotland. 
It bore a great refemblance to the male parent, and 
had much of its nature : being (lipped at a weak 
deer, it inftantly caught at the animal's throat and 
killed it. The fox fleeps much in the day, but 
is in motion the whole night in fearch of prey. It 
will feed on rleili of any kind, but its favourite food 
is lambs, rabbets, hares, poultry, and feathered 
game. It will, when urged by hunger, eat carrots 
and infects ; and thole that live near the fea-coafls, 
will, for want of other food, eat crabs, fhrimps, or 

* M. de Buffon afTerts the contrary, and gives the following 
account of the experiment he had made. fen fis garder trois 
pendant deux ans, une femelle & deux males : on tenia inutilement 
de les faires acccupler cvec dcs chicanes ; quoiqu'ils n'eujjent jamais 
rvu de femelle de leur efpece, et qu'ils paruffent prefj es du befoin de 
jcuir, Us ne purent s'y determiner, Us refuferent toutes les cbiennes, 
puds des qu'c-n hur prefenta leur femelle legitime, Us la cowvrirent, 
'. sbainesy et elle produijit e petit s, Hift. Naturelle, vii. 
81, The fame experiments were tried with a bitch and a male 
fox, and with a dog and a female wolf, and as M. de Buffon 
fays with the fame ill fuccefs. Vol. v. 210, 212. but the 
fact juit cited, proves the poffibility paft conteft. 


Class I. FOX. 

fhell filh. In France and Italy, it does incredible 
damage in the vineyards, by feeding on the grapes, 
of which it is very fond. The fox is a great de- 
ftroyer of rats, and field mice •, and like the cat, 
will play with them a confiderable time, before it 
puts them to death. 

When the fox has acquired a larger prey than it 
can devour at once, it never begins to feed till it 
has fecured the reft, which it does with great addrefs. 
It digs holes in different places, returns to the 
fpot where it had left the booty ; and (fuppofing a 
whole flock of poultry to have been its prey) will 
bring them one by one, and thruft them in with 
its nofe, and then conceal them by ramming the 
loofe earth on them, till the calls of hunger incite 
him to pay them another vifit. 

Of all animals the fox has the moft fignificant 
eye, by which it expreffes every paffion of love, 
fear, hatred, &c. It is remarkably playful, but 
like all other favage creatures half reclamed, will 
on the left offence bite thofe it is moft familiar with. 

It is a great admirer of its bufhy tail, with which 
it frequently arnufes and exercifes itfelf by running 
in circles to catch it : and in cold weather wraps it 
round its nofe. 

The fmell of this animal in general is very ftrong, 
but that of the urine is moft remarkably foetid. 
This feems fo offenfive even to itfelf, that it will 
take the trouble of digging a hole in the ground, 
ftrctching its body at full length over it, and there, 


j% FOX. Class I. 

after depofiting its water, cover it over with the 
earth, as the cat does its dung. The fmell is fo 
offenfive, that it has often proved the means of the 
fox's efcape from the dogs, who have fo flrong an 
averfion to the filthy effluvia, as to avoid encount- 
ering the animal it came from. It is faid that the 
fox makes ufe of its urine as an expedient to force 
the cleanly badger from its habitation : whether that 
is the means is rather doubtful ; but that the fox 
makes ufe of the badger's hole is certain : not 
through want of ability to form its own retreat ; but 
to fave itfelf fome trouble : for after the expulfion 
of the firfc inhabitant, the fox improves, as well as 
enlarges it considerably, adding feveral chambers ; 
and providently making feveral entrances to fecure 
a retreat from every quarter. In warm weather it 
will quit its habitation for the fake of bafking in 
the fun, or to enjoy the frefh air-, but then it rarely 
lies expofed, but chufes fome thick brake, and 
generally of gorfe, that it may reft fecure from 
fnrprize. Crows, magpies, and other birds, who 
confider the fox as their common enemy, will oft- 
en, by their notes of anger, point cut its retreat. 

This animal is common in all parts of Great 
Britain, and fo well known as not to require a de- 
fcription. The fkin is furnimed with a foft and 
warm fur, which in many parts of Europe is ufed 
to make muffs and line cloaths. Vaft numbers are 
taken in Le Vallais, and the Alpine parts of Swit- 
mrfanii At Laufanne there are furriers who are 


Class L F O X. 


in poffeOion of between two and three thoufand 
flcins, ail taken in one winter. 

There are three varieties of foxes found in the 
mountanous parts of thefe iflands, which differ a 
little in form,, but not in color, from each other. 
Thefe are diftinguifhed in Wales, by as many differ- 
ent names. The Milgi or gre-hound fox, is the lar- 
ged, tailed, and bolded ; and will attack a grown 
flieep or wether : the maftiff fox is lefs, but more 
ftrongly built : the Corgi, or cur fox, is the led, and 
lurks about hedges, out-houfes, &c.- and is the 
mod pernicious of the three to the feathered tribe. 
The firft of thefe varieties has a white tag or tip to 
the tail : the lad a black. The number of thefe 
animals in general would foon become intolerable, 
if they were not profcribed, having a certain reward 
fet on their heads. 

In this place we mould introduce the wolf, a Wo^, 
congenerous animal, if we had not fortunately a 
juft right to omit it in a hidory of Briiifh quadru- 
peds. It was, as appears by Rolling fhed*, very 
noxious to the flocks in Scotland in 1577 ; nor was 
it entirely extirpated till about 1680, when the lad 
wolf fell by the hand of the famous Sir Ewin Ca- 
meron. We may therefore with confidence affert the 
non-exidence of thofe animals, notwitlidanding M. 
de Buffon maintains that the Englijh pretend to the 
contrary j. 

* Qifc. Scot, |0. f feftt ?U« 


76 FOX. Class I. 

It has been a received opinion, that the other 
parts of theie kingdoms were in early times deli- 
vered from this peft by the care of king Edgar. 
In England he attempted to effect it by commu- 
ting the punifhments for certain crimes into the ac- 
ceptance of a number of wolves tongues from each 
criminal : in Wales by converting the tax of gold 
and filver into an annual tribute of 300 wolves 
heads. Notwithstanding thefe his endeavours, and 
the affertions of fome authors, his fcheme pro- 
proved abortive. We find that fome centuries af- 
ter the reign of that Saxon monarch, thefe animals 
were again increafed to fuch a degree, as to become 
the obj eel: of royal attention; accordingly Edward 
the firft iflued out his mandate to Peter Corbet to 
fuperintend and affift in the deftruction of them 
in the feveral counties of Gloucefter, Worcefter^ 
Hereford, Salop, and Stafford*: and in the adja- 

* Pro Petro Corbet, de Lupis Capiendis, 

Rex, omnibus Ballivis, &c. Sciatis quod injunximus dilecio ct 
jideii 'riojiro Petro Corbet quod in omnibus forejlis et parcis et aliis 
locis intra comitatus noftros Gloucefter, Wygorn, Hereford, 
Salop, et Stafford, in quibus lupi poterunt inueniri lupos cum 
hominibus canibus et ingeniis fuis capiat et dejlruat modis omnibus 
quibus viderit expedire. 

Et ideo <vobis mandamus quod eidem intendentes et auxiliantes ejiis. 
Tefle rege apud Weftm. 14 Mail A. D. 1281. Rymer, vol. i. 
pars 2. p. 192. 

By the grant of liberties from king John, to the inhabi- 
tants of De-vonjbire, it appears that thefe animals were not 
then extirpated, even in that fouthern country, vide Appen- 
dix No. 


Class I. FOX. 77 

cent county of Derby* as Camden* p. 902, informs 
us, certain perfons at Wormhill held their lands by 
the duty of hunting and taking the wolves that in- 
ferred the country, whence they were filled Wolve 
hunt. To look back into the Saxon times we find 
that in Athelftan's reign wolves abounded lb in York- 
fhire* that a retreat was built at Flixton in that coun- 
ty, to defend pajfengers from the wolves* that they 
fhould not be devoured by them : and fuch ravages 
did thofe animals make during winter, particularly 
in January when the cold was fevereft, that our 
Saxon anceftors diftinguifhed that month by the 
title wolf moneth*. They alio called an outlaw 
Wolfjhed* as being out of the protection of the law, 
profcribed, and as liable to be killed as that de- 
ftructive beait. Et tunc gerunt caput lupinum, 
it a quod fine judiciali inauifitione rite pereant. Braclon 
lib. iii. Tr. 11. c. 11. alfo Knighton 2356. 

They infefted Ireland many centuries after their 
extinction in England* for there are accounts of 
fome being found there as late as the year 1710; 
the Jaft prefentment for killing of wolves being 
made in the county of Cork about that timef. 

The Bear, another voracious bead, was once Bear. 
an inhabitant of this iiland, as appears from differ- 
ent authorities: to begin with the more antient, 
Martial informs us, that the Caledonian bears were 

* Verfcegarfs Jniiq. 59. 

f Smith's hijl. Cork. II. 226. 


78 FOX. Class L 

ufed to heighten the torments of the unhappy fuf- 
ferers on the crofs. 

Nuda Caledonio fie peclora prsbuit urfo 
Non falfa pendens in cruce Laureolus *. 

And Plutarch relates, that Bears were tranfported 
from Britain to Rome, where they were much admi- 
red-}". Mr. Llzvyd^i alfo difcovered in fome old 
JVelJh MS. relating to hunting, that this animal 
was reckoned among our beafh of chace, and that 
its flefh was held in the fame efteem with that of 
the hare or boar. Many places in Wales (till retain 
the name of PennartB, or the bear's head, another 
evidence of their exigence in our country. It does 
not appear how long they continued in that princi- 
pality ; but there is proof of their infefting Scotland 
fo late as the year 1057 ||, when a Gordon, in re- 
ward for his valor for killing; a fierce bear, was di- 
reeled by the King to carry three Bears 9 heads on 
his banner. They are ftill found in the mounta- 
nous parts of France, particularly about the 
grande Chartreufe in Dauphine, where they make 
great havoke among the out-ricks of the poor farm- 
ers. Long after their extirpation out of this king- 
dom, thefe animals were imported for an end, that 

. * Martial. Lib. Sped. ep. 7. 

- L Phtarcb, as cited by Camden, p. 1227. % Raiijyn. quad. 2 1 4. 
|| Hill, of the Gordons. I, 2. 


Class I. FOX. 79 

does no credit to the manners of the times: bear- 
baiting in all its cruelty was a favorite paftime with 
our anceftors. We find it in queen Elizabeth's days, 
exhibited (tempered with our merry difports) as 
an entertainment for an ambaffador, and again 
among the various amufements prepared for her 
majefty at the princely Kenelwortb. 

Our nobility alio kept their bear-ward : twenty 
fhillings was the annual reward of that officer from 
his lord the fifth earl of Northumberland, 'when 
c he comyth to my lorde in crifimas with his lord- 
c fhippes beefts for makynge of his lordfchip paf- 
* tyme the faid xii days *, 

It will not be foreign to the iubjedl here to add, 
that our monarchs in very eariy times kept up the 
ftate of amenagery of exotic animals. Henry I. had 
his lions, leopards, lynxes, and porpentines (por- 
cupines) in his park at Woodfiock -f\ The empe- 
ror Frederick fent to Henry III. a prefent of three 
leopards in token of his royal ihield of arms, where- 
in three leopards were pictured J. The fame prince 
had alfo an elephant which (with its keeper) was 
maintained at the expence of the fheriffs of London 
for the time being [|. The other animals had their 
keeper, a man of famion, who was allowed fix- 
pence a day for himfelf and fix-pence for each 

* Northumberland Hcujbold Book. 

f Stew's hiji London I. 79. % Ibid. 

i! Idem, u8» ■ - 


go WILD CAT. Class I. 

VIII. CAT. Six cutting teeth and two canine in each jaw. 
Five toes before \ four behind. 
Sharp hooked claws, lodged in a (heath, that may 

be exerted at pleafure. 
Round head : fhort vifage : rough tongue. 

12. Wild. Felis pilis ex fufco flavicante, Morten Northampt. 443. 

et albido variegatis veftita, Gefner quad. 325. 

cauda annulis aiternatim ni- Catus iylveflris ferus vel fe* 

gris et ex fordide albo flavi- ralis eques arbor urn, Klein 

cantibus cindta. Brijfcn quad, quad. 75. 

192. Br. ZogL 22. Syn, quad. 

De Biiffb/iy Tom. vi. 20. Tab 1. No. 133. 

Brit. Cath goed Germ. Wilde katze, Boumritter 

Fren. Le Chat Sauvage Dan. Yild kat 
Span. Gato Montis 

THIS animal does not differ fpecifically from 
the tame cat ; the latter being originally of 
the fame kind, but altered in color, and in fome 
other trifling accidents, as are common to animals 
reclamed from the woods and domefticated. 

The cat in its favage flate is three or four times 
as large as the houfe-cat; the head larger, and 
the face flatter. The teeth and claws, tremen- 
dous : its mufcles very flrong, as being formed 
for rapine : the tail is of a moderate length, but 


Class I. WILDCAT. 2i 

very thick, marked with alternate bars of black and 
white, the end always black: the hips and hind 
part of the lower joints of the leg, are always black: 
the fur is very foft and fine. The general color of 
thefe animals is of a yellowim white, mixed with a 
deep grey: thefe colors, though they appear at firfl 
fight confufedly blended together, yet on a clofe 
infpedtion will be found to be difpofed like the 
ftreaks on the fkin of the tiger, pointing from 
the back downwards, rifing from a black lift that 
runs from the head along the middle of the back to 
the tail. 

This animal may be called the Briti/h tiger ; it is 
the fierceft, and mod deftruclive beaft we have ; 
making dreadful havoke among our poultry, lambs, 
and kids. It inhabits the mofl mountanous and 
woody parts of thefe iflands, living moftly in trees, 
and feeding only by night. It multiplies as fail 
as our common cats \ and often the females of the 
latter will quit their domeftic mates, and return 
home pregnant by the former. 

They are taken either in traps, or by mooting : 
in the latter cafe it is very dangerous only to wound 
them, for they will attack the peribn who injured 
them, and have ftrength enough to be no defpi- 
cable enemy. Wild cats were formerly reckon- 
ed among the beads of chace •, as appears by the 
charter of Richard, the fecond, to the abbot of 
Peterborough^ giving him leave to hunt the hare, 
fox, and wild cat. The ufe of the fur was in lining 

Vol. I. G of 


C A T, 

Class L 

of robes -, but it was efteemed not of the mod lux- 
urious kind -, for it was ordained ' that no abbefs 
c or nun fhould ufe more coftly apparel than fuch 
* as is made of lambs or cats fkins V In much, 
earlier times it was alfo the object of the fportf- 
man's diveriion. 

Felemque minacem 

Arboris in trunco longis prasfigere telis. 

Nemefiani Cynegeticon, L. 55. 

Domestic. Felis domeftica feu catus. Raii De Buffbn, Tom. vi. 3. Tab. z, 

fyn. quad. 170. 
Charlton ex. 20. 
Meyer's an. i. Tab. 
Gefner quad. 317. 
BriJJon quad. 191. 


Felis catus, Lin.jyji. 62. 
Fells cauda elongata, auribur 

asqualibus. Faun. Suec. 9. 
Br. Zool. 21. Syn. quad. No. 


Brit. Cath, maf. Gwr cath Germ. 

Fren. Le Chat But. 

Ital. Gatto Szved. 

Span. Gato Dan. 

Fort. Gato 


CyperfeKat. Huyskat, 



THIS animal is fo well known as to make a 
defcription of it unnecefTary. It is an ufeful, 
but deceitful domeftic ; active, neat, fedate, intent 
on its prey. When pleafed purres and moves its 
tail : when angry fpits, hiiTes, and ftrikes with its 
foot. When walking, it draws in its claws: it 

* Archbp. William Cor boy Ps canons, A. D. 
by Mr. T, Row in Gent. Mag. April 1774. 

127. quoted 


Glass 1. CAT. 83 

drinks little : is fond of fifh : ic wafhes its face 
with its fore-foot, {Linn&us fays at the approach of 
a ftorm:) the female is remarkably falacious; a 
piteous, fqualling, jarring lover. Its eyes mine in 
the night : its hair when rubbed in the dark e- 
mits fire : it is even proverbially tenacious of life: 
always lights, on its feet : is fond of perfumes - 9 
Alarum, Cat-mint, valerian, &c*. 

Our anceftors feem to have had a high fenfe 
of the utility of this animal. That excellent Prince 
Hoel dda, or Howel the Good, did not think it 
beneath him (among his laws relating to the prices, 
&c. of animals -J-,) to include that of the cat; and 
to defcribe the qualities it ought to have. The 
price of a kitling before it could fee, was to be a 
penny ; till it caught a moufe two-pence ; when 
it commenced moufer four-pence. It was required 
befides, that it mould be perfect in its fenfes of 
hearing and feeing, be a good moufer, have the 
claws whole, and be a good nurfe : but if it fail- 
ed in any of thefe qualities, the feller was to forfeit 
to the buyer the third part of its value. If any 
one ftole or killed the cat that guarded the Prince's 
granary, he was to forfeit a milch ewe, its fleece 
and lamb •, or as much wheat as when poured on 
the cat fufpended by its tail (the head touching the 
floor) would form a heap high enough to cover 

* Vide Lin. fyfi. 

f Leges Wallica?, p. 247, 248, 

G 2 the 

$4 CAT. Class I. 

the tip of the former *. This laft quotation is not 
only curious, as being an evidence of the fimplicity 
of ancient manners, but it almoft proves to a de- 
monftration that cats are not aborigines of thefe 
iflands ; or known to the earlieft inhabitants. The 
large prices fet on them, (if we confider the high 
value of fpecies at that time -f ) and the great care 
taken of the improvement and breed of an ani- 
mal that multiplies fo fail, are almoft certain proofs 
of their being little known at that period. 

* Sir Ed. Coke in his Reports, mentions the fame kind of 
punifhment anciently for killing a fwan, by fufpending it by 
the bill, &c. Vide, Cafe des Snvannes. 

f How el dda died m the year 948, after a reign of thirty- 
three years over South Wales, and eight years over all Wales', 


Class I. 



Six cutting teeth, two canine, in each jaw, 

Five toes before -, five behind : very long flrait 

claws on the forefeet. 
A tranfverfe orifice between the tail, and the anus. 

GE R. 

Badger, Brock, Gray, Pate, 
Taxus five Meles. Raii Jyn. 
quad. 185. 

Meyer's an. i. Tab. 31. 

Sib. Scot. 11. 

Meles pilis ex fordide albo et 
nigro variegatis veftita, ca- 
pite taeniis alternating a! bis 
et nigris variegato. BriJJbn 
quad. 183. 

De Buffon, Tom. viii. Tab. 7. 
p. 104. 

Gefner quad. 686. 

Urfus meles. Urfus cauda 
concolore, corpore fupra ci- 
nereo, fubtus nigro, fafcia 
longitudinali per oculos au- 
refque nigra. Lin. fyfi. 70. 

Coati cauda brevi. Klein quad. 

Meles unguibus anticis lon- 

giffimis. Faun. Suec. 20. 
Br. Zool. 30. Syn quad. No. 


13, Common, 


Pryf Llwyd, Pryf pen- 





Varkens Das 


Le Taiflbn, Le Blaireau 


Graf Suin 




Grevlin, Brok 





THOUGH the badger is a bead of great 
ftrength, and is furnifhed with ftrong teeth, 
as if formed for rapine, yet it is found to be 
an animal perfectly inoffenfive : roots, fruits, grafs, 
infects, and frogs are its food : it is charged with 
deftroying lambs and rabbets ; but, on enquiry, 
there feems to be no other reafon to think it a bead 
of prey, than from the analogy there is between 

G 3 its 

86 BADGER. Class L 

its teeth and thofe of carnivorous animals. Nature 
denied the badger the fpeed and activity requifite to 
efcape its enemies, fo hath fnpplied it with fuch 
weapons of offence that fcarce any creature would 
hazard the attacking it ; few animals defend them- 
felves better, or bite harder : when purfued, they 
foon come to bay, and fight with great obftinacy. 
It is an indolent animal, and fleeps much, for 
which reafon it is always found very fat. It bur- 
rows under ground, like the fox -, and forms feve- 
ral different apartments, though with only one en- 
trance, carrying in its mouth grafs in order to 
form a bed for its young. It confines kfelf to 
its hole during the whole day, feeding only at 
night : it is fo cleanly an animal as never to obey 
the calls of nature in its apartments - 3 but goes out 
for that purpofe : it breeds only once in a year, 
and brings four or five at a time. 
Descrip. The ufual length of the badger, is two feet fix 
inches, exclufive of the tail, which is but fix inches 
long : the weight fifteen pounds. The eyes are ve- 
ry fmall : the ears fhort and rounded : the neck 
fliort : the whole fhape of the body ciumfy and 
thick ; which being covered with long coarfe hairs 
like bridles, makes it appear dill more aukward. 
The mouth is furnifhed with fix cutting teeth and 
two canine teeth in .each jaw; the lower has five 
grinders on each fide, the upper five > in all thirty 

The nofe, chin, lower fides of the cheeks, and 


Class I. BADGER. %j 

the middle of the forehead, are white: each ear and 
eye is inclofed in a pyramidal bed of black \ the 
bafe of which inclofes the former ; the point ex- 
tends beyond the eye to the nofe : the hairs on the 
body are of three colors ; the bottoms of a dirty yel- 
lowifh white ; the middle black; the ends afh-co- 
lored, or grey ; from whence the proverb, As grey 
as a badger. The hairs which cover the tail are 
very long, and of the fame colors with thofe of the 
body : the throat and under parts of the body are 
black : the legs and feet of the fame color, are very 
fhort, ftrong and thick : each foot is divided into 
five toes; thofe on the fore feet are armed with long 
claws, well adapted for digging ; in walking the 
badger treads on its heel, like the bear ; which brings 
the belly very near the ground. Immediately below 
the tail, between that and the anus, is a narrow 
tranfverle orifice, which opens in a kind of pouch, 
from whence exudes a white fubftance of a very 
foetid fmell ; this feems peculiar to the badger and 
the Hyana. 

This animal is not mentioned by Ariftotk, not 
that it was unknown to the ancients, for Pliny 
takes notice of it *. 

Naturalifts once diftinguifhed the badger by the 
name of the fwine-badger, and the dog- badger ; 
from the fuppofed reiemblance of their heads to 

* Alia folertia in metu Melibus, fufflatas cutis diilentu iclus 
hominum et morfus canum arcent. Lib, viii. c. 38. 

G 4 thofe 

S3 BADGER. Class I. 

thofe animals, and fo divided them into two fpecies : 
but the moil accurate obiervers have been able to 
| difcover only one kind; that, whofe head and nofe 
'.referable thofe of the dog. 

The (kit) of the badger, when drefTed with the 
hair on, is ufed forpiftol furniture, The Highland- 
ers make their, pendent pouches of it. The hair 
is frequently ufed for making brufhes to foften the 
fhades in painting, which are called fweetening tools. 
Thefe animals are alio hunted in the winter nights 
for the fake of their flefh ; for the hind quarters 
may be made into hams, not inferior in goodnefs 
to the bed bacon. The fat is in great requeft for 
ointments and falves. 

In China it feems to be more common food than 
in Europe : for Mr. Bell * fays, he has feen about 
a dozen at one time in the markets at Pekin ; and 
that the Cbinefe are very fond of them. It does 
not appear that this animal is found in the hotter 
parts of Afia -, but is confined to the cold, or the 
temperate parts of the world. 

Bell's Travels, I, S 






Class I. 

F I J C H E T 


Six cutting teeth, two canine, in each jaw 
Sharp nofe, (lender bodies. 
Five toes before, live behind. 


Putorius. Polecat or Fitchet. De Buffbn, Tom. vii. 199. Tab. 14. Fitch 

Muftela putorius, Lin.fyft. 6j. 
Muftela fcetida, Klein quad. 63. 
Muftela flavefcente nigricans, 

ore albo, collari flavefcente. 

Faun. Suec. 16. 
Br, Zool. 37. Syn. quad. No. 


Rati fyn. quad. 199. 

Meyer's an. ii. Tab. 6. 

Charlton ex. 20. 

Gefner quad. 767. 

Muftela pilis in exortu ex ci- 
nereo albidis, colore nigri- 
cante terminatis, oris cir- 
cumferentia alba. Brijfon 
quad. 180. 

Brit. Ffwlbard Germ. litis, ulk, Buntiing 

Fren. Le Putois Dut. Bonfing 

Ital. Foetta, Puzolo Swed. Uler 

Span. Putoro Dan. Ilder 

THE length of this animal is about feventeen Descrif. 
inches, exclufive of the tail ; that of the tail 
fix. The fhape of this animal in particular, as well 
as of the whole genus, is long and flender ; the 
nofe fnarp-pointed, and the legs fnort : in fine, ad- 
mirably formed forinfinuating itfelf into the fmallr 
eft holes and paiTages, in fearch of prey : it is very 
nimble and active, runs very fart, will creep up the 
fides of walls with great agility, and fpring with 
vaft force. In running, the belly feems to touch 
the ground: in preparing to jump, it arches its 
back, which affifts it greatly * n tnat action. 

' O 9 


9 o F I T C H E T. Class I. 

The ears are fhorr, rounded and tipt with white : 
the circumference of the mouth, that is to fay, the 
ends of the lower and upper mandibles are white : 
the head, throat, breaft, legs and thighs, are whol- 
ly of a deep chocolate color, almoft black. The 
fides are covered with hafrs of two colors -, the ends 
of which are of a blackifh hue, like the other parts ; 
the middle of a full tawny color : in others ci- 

The toes are long, and feparated to the very 
origin : the tail is covered with pretty long hair. 
Manners. The fitchet is very deftructive to young game 
of all kinds, and to poultry : they generally refide 
in woods, or thick brakes ; burrowing under 
ground, forming a mallow retreat, about two 
yards in length ; which commonly ends, for its fe- 
curity, among the roots of fome large trees. It will 
fometimes lodge under hay-ricks, and in barns : 
in the winter it frequents houfes, and makes a 
common practice of robbing the dairy of the milk : 
it alfo makes great havoke in warrens. 

It will bring five or fix vouno; at a time. War- 
•reners aflert, that the fitchet will mix with the ferret; 
and they are fometimes obliged to procure an inter- 
courfe between thefe animals, to improve the breed 
of the latter, which by long confinement will abate 
its favage nature, and become lefs eager after rab- 
bets, and confequently lefs ufeful. M. de Buff on 
denies that it will admit the fitchet; yet gives 
■ r figure of a variety under the name of the Ferret 

4 Polecat, 

Class I. F I T C H E T. 9 i 

Polecat*, which has much the appearance of being 
a fpurious ohTpring. But to put the matter out of 
difpute, the following facl: need only be related : 
The Rev. Mr. Lewis, Vicar of Llanfowel in Caer- 
marthenjhire, had a tame female ferret, which was 
permitted to go about the houfe : at length it ab- 
fented itfelf for feveral days \ and on its return prov- 
ed with young : it produced nine, of a deep brown 
color, more refembling the fitchet than the ferret. 
What makes the matter more certain is, that Mr. 
Lewis had no male of this fpecies for it to couple 
with ; neither was there any within three miles, and 
thofe clofely confined. 

The ferret agrees with the fitchet in many re- 
fpecls, particularly in its thirft after the blood of 
rabbets. It may be added, that the ferret comes 
originally from Africa \\ and is only cultivated in 
Great Britain. 

Though the fmell of the fitchet, when alive, is 
rank and difagreeable, even to a proverb ; yet the 
fkin is dreft with the hair on, and ufed as other 
furs for tippets, &c, and is alfo fent abroad to 
line cloaths, 

* La Furet Putois, Tom. vii. Tab. 25 
f Km ycc>&$ aypiocg cig r t >sj<Zv(\ <p£§zu Strabo, Lib. iii. p. 144. 

Edit, Cafaub 



9 2 MARTI N. Class I. 

J5. .Martin. Martes, alias Foyna. The Martin caftaneo colore terminatis 

and Martlet. Rati jyn. quad. veftita, gutture albo. 

200. Briffon quad. 178. 

Meyer's an, ii. Tab. 4. De Bujpm, Tom. vii. 161. 

Martin, or Martern. Charlton Tab. 18. 

exer. zo. Muilela martes. Lin.fyft. 67. 

The Mertrick. Martin's Weft. M. martes. Klein, quad. 64. 

IJles, 36. M. fulvo-nigricans gula pal- 

Gefner quad. 764. lida. Faun. Suec. 15. 

Muitela pilis in exortu albidis Br. Zool. 38. Syn. quad. 

No. 154. 

Brit. Bela graig Germ. Haufs marder, flein marder 

Fren* La Fouine Dut. Marter 

Ital. Foina, Fouina Stved. Mard 

Span. Marta, Gibellina Dan. Maar. 

Manners. 1 1 AHIS is the moft beautifull of the Britifh beads 
JL of prey : its head is fmall, and elegantly form- 
ed : its eyes lively : and all its motions mew great 
grace, as well as agility : when taken young, it is 
eafily tamed, is extremely playful, and in conftant 
good humour: nature will recur, if it gets loofe; 
for it will immediately take advantage of its liberty, 
and retire to its proper haunts. It makes great 
havoke among poultry, game, fcrV. and will eat 
mice, rats, and moles. With us it inhabits woods, 
and makes its lodge in the hollows of trees ; and 
brings from four to fix young at a time. 

Descrit. The martin is about eighteen inches long; 

the tail ten, or, if the meafurement be taken to 
the end of the hair at the point, tv/elve inches. 



jy? i() 



2f? 13 

Class I. MARTIN. 93 

The ears are broad, rounded and open : the 
back, fides, and tail, are covered with a fine thick 
down, and with long hair intermixed : the bottom 
is afh-colored : the middle of a bright chefnut 
color : the tips black : the head brown, with 
fome flight cart of red : the legs and upper fides of 
the feet are of a chocolate color: the palms, or un- 
der fides, are covered with thick down like that 
on the body : the feet are broad : the claws white, 
large and fharp; well adapted for climbing trees, 
which in this country are its conftant refidence. 
The throat and bread are white : the belly of the 
fame color with the back, but rather paler: the 
hair on the tail is very long ; efpecially at the end^ 
where it appears much thicker than near the ori- 
gin of it : the hair in that part is alfo darker. But 
martins vary in their colors, inclining more or 
lefs to afh-coior, according to their ages or the fea- 
fons they are taken in. 

The fkin and excrements of this animal have a Fine Smell, 
fine mufky fcent-, and are entirely free from that 
ranknefs which diftinguifhes the other fpecies of this 
genus : the fkin is a valuable fur 5 and much ufed 
for linings to the gowns of magiftrates. 


94 PINE MARTIN. Glass I. 

1 6. Pike Martes abietum. Rail fyn. terminatis veftita, gutture 

Martin. quad. 200. flavo. Brijfon quad. 179. 

Meyer's an. ii. Tab. 5. De Buffbn, Tom. vii. i860 

Martes fylveftris. Gefner quad. Tab. 22. 

765. Br. Zool. 39. Syn. quad. 

Muflek pilis in exortu ex cine- No. 155. 
reo albidis caflaneo colore 


Bela goed 



La Marte 





Marta, Martura, Mar- 


tora, Martorello 






THIS fpecies is found in Great Britain ; but is 
much lefs common in England than the for- 
mer : it is fometimes taken in the counties of 
Merioneth and Caernarvon, as I was informed by 
my late worthy friend Mr. W. Morris, where it 
is diftinguifhed from the other kind, by the name 
of bela goed, or wood martin, it being fuppofed 
entirely to inhabit the woods ; the bela graig to 
dwell only among the rocks. Tho' this is fo 
rare in thefe pares, yet in Scotland it is the only 
kind ; where it inhabits the fir forefts, building its 
ned at the. top of the trees *. It loves a cold 
climate, and is found in much greater numbers in 
the north of Europe, than in the other parts. North 
Fur. America abounds with thefe animals. Prodigious 
numbers of their fkins are annually imported 

* Vide Sibbald's Hift. Scot. Part II. Lib. iii. p. 11. 







M U(AjU 


from Hudfon's hay and Canada. In one of the 
company's fales * not fewer than 12,370 good fkins,- 
and 2360 damaged ones were fold -, and about the 
fame time, the French brought into the port of 
Rochelle from Canada^ not lefs than 30,325. 

The principal differences between this and the 
former kind, confift in the fize, this being lefs : the 
bread too is yellow ; the color of the body much 
darker, and the fur in general greatly fuperior 
in finenefs, beauty, and value. 

The WeafelorWeefel.Muftela Muftela fupra rutila, infra al- 17. Common 

vulgaris: in Torkjhire, the ba. Brijfon quad. 173. 

Fitchet or Foumart. Rail fyn. De Buffon, Tom. vii. 235. 

quad. 195. Tab. 29. 

Girald. Cambrenf. 149. Gefner quad. 753. 

The Whitred. Sib. Scot. ii» Muflela vulgaris. Klein quad. 62, 

Br.Zool. 39. Syn.quad.No. 150. 

Brit. Bronwen Germ. Wife! 

Fren. La Belette Dut. Weezel 

Ital. Donnola, Ballottula, Benula S<wed. Vefla 

Span. Comadreia Dan. Vxfet 

Port, Doninha 

THIS fpecies is the left of the weefel kind ; b 
the length of the head and body not exceed- 
ing fix, or at mod feven inches. The tail is only 
two inches and a half long, and ends in a point : 
the ears are large ; and the lower parts of them are 
doubled in. 

* In 1743, Vide Drib's account of Hudfotfs bay, 200. 




Color. The whole upper part of the body, the head, 

tail, legs, and feet are of a very pale tawny brown. 
The whole under fide of the body from the chin 
to the tail is white ; but beneath the corners of 
the mouth on each jaw is a fpot of brown. 

Prey. This, like the reft of the kind, is very de- 

ftru&ive to young birds, poultry, and young rab- 
bets j and befides is a great devourer of eggs. It 
does not eat its prey on the place ; but after killing 
it, by one bite near the head, carries it off to its 
young, or its retreat. The weefel alfo preys upon 
moles, as appears by their being fometimes caught 
in the mole-traps. It is a remarkably active ani- 
mal, and will run up the fides of walls with fuch 
facility, that fcarce any place is fecure from it ; and 
its body is fo fmall, that there is fcarce any hole 
but what is pervious to it. This fpecies is much 
more domeftic than the others ; frequenting out- 
houfes, barns, and granaries •, where, to make as 
it were fome atonement for its depredations among 
our tame fowl, it foon clears its haunts from rats 
and mice, being infinitely more an enemy to them 
than the cat itfelf. It brings five or fix young at 
a time : its fkin and excrements are mod intole- 
rably foetid. 

This animal is confounded by Linnaeus with the 
Stoat or Ermine. He feems unacquainted with our 
weefel in its brown color *, but defcribes it in the 
white (late under the title of Snomus, or Muftela 









Glass I. STOAT. 

nivalis *. I have met with it in that circumftance, 
in the iile of Hay. 

2 9 

Muftela Candida, animal er- Fig. 2. Tab. 31. Fig. l. 

mineum, Rait fyn quad. 198 Gefner quad. 753. 

Mort. Northampt. 442. Muftela erminea. M. plan- 
Meyer's an. ii. Tab. 23, 24. tis iiffis, caudae apice atro. 

Muftela hieme alba, asftate fu- Lin. fyji. 68. Faun. Suec. 

pra rutila infra alba, caudse 17. 

apice nigro. BriJ/bn quad. Pontop. Norway. Part ii. p. 25. 

176. Br. Zool. 40. Syn. quad. No, 
De Buffbn, vii. 240. Tab. 29. 151. 

18. Stoat, 

or Ermine. 





Klein. 63, 


I/Hermine, Le Rofe- 













Armino, Armelina 

THE length of the ftoat to the origin of the tail, 
is ten inches : that of the tail is five inches 
and a half. The colors bear {o near a refemblance 
to thofe of the weefel, as to caufe them to be con- 
founded together by the generality of common 
obfervers -, the weefel being ufually miftaken for 
a fmall ftoat : but thefe animals have evident and 
invariable fpecific differences, by which they may 
be eafily known. Firft, by the fize ; the weefel 
being ever lefs than the ftoat: fecondly, the tail 
of the latter is always tipt with black, is longer in 

* Similima Ermineo fed dimidio minor ', cauda apice pilo <vix 
nno altexove albo. Faun. Suec. No. 18. Syji. Nat. 69. 

Vol. I. H proper- 


ao STOAT. Class I. 

proportion to the bulk of the animal, and more 
hairy ; whereas the tail of the weefel is fhorter, 
and of the fame color with the body : thirdly, the 
edges of the ears, and the ends of the toes in this 
animal, are of a yeilowifh white. It may be added, 
that the float haunts wood?, hedges and meadows ; 
efpecially where there are brooks, whofe fides are 
covered with fmall bufhes •, and fometimes (but lefs 
frequently than the weefel) inhabits barns, and 

other buildings. 

Ermines. In the mofl northern parts of Europe, thefe 
animals regularly change their color in winter; and 
become totally white, except the end of the tail, 
which continues invariably black ; and in that flate 
are called Ermines : I am informed that the fame 
is obferved in the highlands of Scotland. The 
flrins and tails are a very valuable article of com- 
merce in Norway, Lapland, RuJJia, and other cold 
countries -, where they are found in prodigious 

How ta- numbers. They are alfo very common in Kamt- 
fcbatka and Siberia*. In Siberia they burrow in the 
fields, and are taken in traps baited with rlefh. In 
Norway f they are either fhot with blunt arrows, 
or taken in traps made of two flat flones, one being 
propped up with a flick, to which is faftned a 
baited firing, which when the animals nibble, the 
{tone falls down and cruihes them to death. The 
Laplanders take them in the fame manner, only in- 

* BdTs Travels 7 i. 199. f Hijl. Ksrwa); ii. 25. 


K E X 

Class L S T O A T. £1 

flead of ftones make ufe of two logs of wood % 
The float is fometimes found white in Great-Britain^ 
but not frequently : and then it is called a white 
weefel. That animal is alfo found white % but may- 
be eafily diftinguifhed from the other in the ermine 
ftate, by the tail, which in he weefel is of a light 
tawny brown. With us the former is obferved to 
begin to change its color from brown to white in 
November 9 and to begin to refume the brown the 
beginning of March. 

The natural hiftory of this creature is much the 
fame with that of the weefel, its food being birds 3 
rabbets, mice, &c. its agilitythe fame, and its fcent 
equally fetid : it is much more common in England 
than that animal. 

* Qewvres de Mcwpertitis, iii< 187; 

H 2 Six 

2 OTTER. Class I. 

XI. OTTER. Six cutting teeth, two canine, in each jaw. 
Five toes on each foot ; each toe palmated. 

19. Otter. Le Loutre, Belon 26. //. 27 De Bujfbn, Tom. vii. 134. Tab. 
Lutra. The otter. Rati fyn. 11. xiii. 322. 

quad. 187. Muftela lutra. Lin.fyft. 66. 

Grew's Muf. 16. Pont op. Nornu. 2. 27. 

Morton's Northampt. 444. Lutra digitis omnibus ajquali- 
Sib. Scot. 10. bus. Faun. Suec. 12. 

Gejner quad. 687. Br. Zool. 32. Syn. quad. No. 
Lutra caftanei colons. Br if- 138. 

fon quad. 20 1. 


Dyfrgi Germ. 

Otter, Fifch Otter 


Le Loutre Dut. 



Lodra, Lodria, Lontra. S-wed. 



Nutria Dan. 



Descrip. ry^HE ufual length of this animal is three feet 
A three inches, including the tail, which is 
fixteen inches long. 

The head and nofe are broad and flat, the neck 
fhort, and equal in thicknefs to the head : the body- 
long : the tail broad at the bafe, tapers off to a 
point at the end, and is the whole way compreff- 
ed horizontally. The eyes are very fmall, and 
placed nearer the nofe than is ufual in quadru- 
peds : the ears extremely lhort, and their orifice 
narrow : the opening of the mouth is fmall, the 
lips mufcular, and capable of being brought very 


Class L OTTER. </j 

clofe together: the nofe and the corners of the 
mouth are furnifhed with very long whifkers ; fo 
that the whole appearance of the otter is fome- 
thing terrible : it has thirty-fix teeth, fix cutting 
and two canine above and below ; of the former 
the middlemoft are the left : it has befides five 
grinders on each fide in both jaws-. The legs are 
very fbort, but remarkably ftrong, broad, and tiTuf- 
cular-, the joints articulated fo loofely, that the ani- 
mal is capable of turning them quite back, and 
bringing them on a line with the body, fo as to 
perform the office of fins. Each foot is furnifhed 
with Eve toes, connected by ftrong broad webs, like 
thofe of water fowl. Thus nature in every article 
has had attention to the way of life fhe had allotted 
to an animal, whofe food is fifh \ and whofe haunts 
muft necefTarily be about waters. 

The color of the otter is entirely a deep brown, 
except two fmall fpots of white on each fide the 
nofe, and another under the chin. The fkin of this f u r, 
animal is very valuable, if killed in the winter; 
and is greatly ufed in cold countries for lining 
cloaths : but in England it is only ufed for covers 
for piftol furniture. The beft furs of this kind 
come from the northern part of Europe^ and Ame- 
rica. Thofe of N. America are larger than the 
European otters. The Indians make ufe of their 
fkins for pouches, and ornament them with bits of 
horn. The fineft fort come from the colder parts 
of that continent: where they are alfo moft nume- 
H 3 to us. 



OTTER. Class I. 

rous. Weftward of Carolina *, there are fome found 
of a white color inclining to yellow. 

The otter fwims and dives with great celerity, 
and is very deftruclive to fifh : in rivers it is always 
obferved to fwim againft the ftream, to meet its 
prey. In very hard weather, when its natural fort 
of food fails, it will kill lambs, fucking pigs, and 
poultry. It is faid that two otters will in concert 
hunt that ftrong and active fifh the falmon. One 
ftations ltfelf above, the other below the place where 
the fifh lies, and continue chafing it inceffantly till the 
falmon quite wearied becomes their prey. To fuppofe 
that they never prey in the fea is a miftake : for they 
have been often feen in it both fwimming and bring- 
ing their booty on more, which has been obferved 
in the Orknies to have been cod, and congers. Its 
flefh is excefiively rank and fifhy. The Romijh 
church permits the ufe of it on maigre-days. In 
the kitchen of the Carthnfian convent near Dijon, we 
faw one preparing for the dinner of the religious of 
that rigid order, who, by their rules, are prohibit- 
ed during their whole lives, the eating of flefh. 

It fhews great fagacity in forming its habitation: 
it burrows under ground on the banks of fome ri- 
ver or lake; and always makes the entrance of its 
hole under water; works upwards to the furface of 
the earth, and forms before it reaches the top, fe- 
yeral bolts, or lodges, that in cafe of high floods, 

f Lz-jjorf: biji, Carof, 119 


Class I. OTTER. 9 g 

it may have a retreat, for no animal affects lying 
drier, and there makes a minute orifice for the ad- 
miflion of air : it is further obferved, that this ani- 
mal, the more effectually to conceal its retreat, con- 
trives to make even this little air hole in the mid- 
dle of fome thick bufh. 

The otter brings four or five young at a time: 
as it frequents ponds near gentlemen's houfes, there 
have been inftances of litters being found in cel- 
lars, finks, and other drains. It is obfervable that 
the male otters never make any noife when taken ; 
but the pregnant females emit a moft fhrill fqueal. 

Sir Robert Sibbald, in his hiftory of Fife ', p. 49, Sea Otte*. 
mentions a Sea Otter ^ which he fays differs from the 
common fort, in being larger, and having a rougher 
coat; but probably it does not differ fpecifkally 
from the kind that frequents frefh waters. Did not 
Ariftotle place his Latax* among the animals which 
H 4 'feck 

* Toicujla h zriv te KaXz/jLEvog narap, nai to caQsgiov nai to 
troflugiov, xai swfyig, k<zi h tcatepEW) "Ka}odi . eri 5s th\q TrhctTulsgov 
£vu$pi$o$ } xqi o^ovia; syji ix v $xg E^mcra ya^ wktuo w6XhGuag f rac 

TTEDi roy TTOia/JLOV KEDKlOag EklsfAVEl TOig OoWiOV. QOiKVEl h T8-; av8gU7T8S 

7cxi ri tvufyig, nai hk afpivia'iy t ag XEy&ri, ftExgig ctv can -^o<pov ochhtv. 
to h Tgixu/Aot, £%£i v\ "hdlaX ffxTwgov, nai to Eibog (jletz^v th tjji 
0com$ TgixuiMfloh nai th ty\$ E>.a(p'd, Arifiot . Hjft. Anini. p. 
905. A 

Sunt etiam in hoc genere (fc* anhnalium quadrupedum qua 
<vi£lum ex lacubus et flwviis petunfj fiber, fatherium, fatyrium 9 
fotris, latax, qua latior lutre eft, dentefque babet robuftos s 


& OTTER. Class I. 

feek their food among frefh waters, we mould 
imagine we had here recovered this loft animal, 
which he mentions immediately after the otter, and 
defcribes as being broader. Though this muft re- 
main a doubt, we may with greater confidence fup- 
pofe the fea otter to be the Lcup marin of Belon *, 
which from a hearfay account, he fays, is found 
on the EngUJh coafts. He compares its form to 
that of a wolf, and fays, it feeds rather on fiih than 
fheep. That circumftance alone makes it probable, 
Sibbald's animal was intended, it being well known, 
the otter declines flefh when it can get fifh. Little 
flrefs ought to be laid on the name, or comparifon 
of it to a wolf ; this variety being of a fize fo fu- 
perior to the common, and its hair fo much more 
fhaggy, a common obierver might readily catch the 
idea of the more terrible beaft, and adapt his com- 
parifon to it. 
Beaver. Beavers, which are alfo amphibious animals, were 
formerly found in Great Britain ; but the breed has 
been extirpated many ages ago: the lateft accounts 
we have of them, is in Giraldus Cambrenjis\^ who 
travelled through Wales in 1 1 88 : he gives a brief 
hiftory of their manners; and adds, that in his time 

quippe quts no£iu plsrumque aggredisns^ <virgulta proximo, fuis 
dentibttfi ut ferro pr&cidat. Lutris etiam hominem mcrdet, 
nee defifttt (ut ferunt) niji fracii ojjis crepiium fenferit, Lataci 
■ duruSy inter pilum uituli marini et cer<vi. 

* Behn de la Nature des Poifons, p. 28. pi. 29. 

f Girald. Camp. If in. 178^ 179, 


Class I. OTTER. 

they were found only in the river Feivi; two or 
three waters in that principality, full bear the name 
of Llyn yr afangc '* \ or the beaver lake; which is a 
further proof, that thefe animals were found in dif- 
ferent parts of it : I have feen two of their fuppofed 
haunts ; one in the ftream that runs thro' Nant 
Frankon-, the other in the river Conway a few 
miles above Llanrwft \ and both places in all pro- 
bability had formerly been crofied by Beaver dams. 
But we imagine they mull have been very fcarce 
even in earlier times ; by the laws of Hoel dda> the 
price of a beaver's (kin (Croen Lloftlydan f ) was fixed 
at one hundred and twenty pence, a great fum in 
thofe days. 

* Raii fyn. quad. 213. 

f Lloftlydan. that is, the broad tailed animal. Leges Wnllicari 





Class I. 

D i v. II. Sect. II. 

With only two cutting teeth in each jaw, 
Herbivorous, frugivorous. 

XII. HARE. Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 

Long ears : fhort tail. 
Five toes before, four behind. 

20. C o m- Lepus, Plinii, lib. viii. c. 55. 

m N. The Hare. Raiifyn. quad. 204. 

White Hare. Mart. Korthampt. 

Sib. Sect. 1 1 . 
Meyer's an. ii. Tab. 32. 
Gefner quad. 605. 
Lepus caudatus ex cinereo ru- 

fus. BriJJbn quad. 94. 

De Buffbn, Tom. vi. 246. 

Tab. 38. 
Lepus timidus. Lin.fyjl. 77. 
Lepus cauda abrupta pupil- 

lis atris. Faun. Suec. 35. 
Lepus vulgaris cinereus. 

Klein quad. 5 1 . 
Br.Zool. 41. Syn. quad. No £ 


Brit. Yfgyfarnog, Ceinach 

Fren. Le Lievre 

Ital. Lepre, Lievora 

Span. Liebre 

Port. Lebre 

Germ. Has, Haas 

Dut. Haas 

Swed. Hare 

Dan. Hare 

TO enter on a minute defcription of fo well 
known an animal, would be to abufe the 
reader's patience ; yet to neglect pointing out the 
admirable contrivance of its feveral properties and 
part?, would be fruftrating tjie chief defign of 


Class I. HARE. 

this work : that of pointing out the Divine Wifdom 
in the animal world. 

Being a weak- and mod defenceless creature, it 
is endued, in a very diftinguifhed degree, with that 
preferving pafiion, fear : this makes it perpetually 
attentive to every alarm, and keeps it always lean. 

To enable it to receive the moil diitant notices of 
dangers, it is provided with very long ears, which 
(like the tubes made ufe of by the deaf) convey 
to it the remoter! founds. 

Its eyes are very large and prominent, adapt- Eyes, 
ed to receive the rays of light on all fides. 

To afliit it to efcape its purfuers by a fpeedy 
flight, the hind legs are formed remarkably long, 
and furnimed with ftrong mufcles : their length give 
the hare fi ngular advantages over its enemies in 
afcending fteep places •, and fo fenfible is the animal 
of this 1 , as always to make towards the riling ground 
when darted. 

As it lies always upon the ground, its feet art? 
protected above and below with a thick and warm 
coverincr of hair. 

The various ftratagems and doubles it ufes, when 
hunted, are fo well known to every fportfman, as 
not to deferve mention ; except to awaken their at- 
tention to thofe faculties nature has endowed it 
with ; which ferve at the fame time to increafe their 
amufement, as well as to prevent the animal's de= 

It very rarely leaves its form or feat in the day $ 




HARE. Class I. 

but in the night takes a circuit in fearch of food, 
always returning through the fame meufes, or pafles. 

Color. The color approaches very near to that of the 
ground ; which fecures it more effectually from the 
fight of men, and of beads and birds of prey. Pro- 
vidence has been fo careful in refpect to the pre- 
fervation of the fpecies of animals, as to caufe in 
northern countries thefe as well as many others 
to change color, and become white at the begin- 
ning of winter, to render them lefs confpicuous 
amidft the fnow. Accidental inftances of white 
hares are met with in South Britain. 

Hares differ much in fize. The fmalleft are in 
the ide of Hay : the largeft in that of Man, where 
fome have been found to weigh twelve pounds. 

Food. l ts food is entirely vegetable ; and it does great 

injury to nurferies of young trees, by eating the 
bark off: it is particularly fond of pinks, parlley, 
and birch. 

The hare never pairs ; but in the rutting feafon, 
which begins in February, the malepurfues and dis- 
covers the female, by the fagacity of its nofe. The 
female goes with young one month, brings ufually 
two young at a time; fometimes three, and very 
rarely four. Sir Thomas Brown, in his treatife on 
vulgar errors *, afferts the doctrine of fuperfetation : 
i. e. a conception upon conception, or an im- 
provement on the firft fruit before the fecond is ex- 

* P, 118. 

eluded 5 

Class I. HARE. iOi 

eluded-, and he brings this animal as an inftance; 
afTerting, from his own obfervation, that after the 
firft caft there remain fuccefiive conceptions, and 
other younglings very immature, and far from the 
term of their exclufion ; but as the hare breeds 
very frequently in the year, there is no neceflity of 
having recourfe to this accident * to account for 
their numbers. The antients were acquainted with 
this circumftance. Horace alludes to it in the 
fecond fatire of the fourth book. 

Facundi leporis fapiens fectabitur armos, 
fays the ton vivant, every man of tafte will prefer 
the wing of the fruitful hare. Pliny as a philofo- 
pher is more explicit, and affigning a moral rea- 
fon for the great encreafe of this animal gives 
the following elegant account of it. Lepus omni- 
um pr<zd<e nafcens, folus prater Dafypodem fuper- 
fcetat, aliud educans, aliud in uter o pills veftitum, aliud 
hnplume^ aliud inchoatum gerens par iter. 

Hares are very fubjecl: to fleas •, Linnaus tells us, 
that the Bakcarlians make a fort of cloth of the fur, 
called filt -, which, by attracting thofe infects, pre- 
ferves the wearer from their troublefome attacks f . 

The hair of this creature forms a great article 
in the hat manufacture; and as this country cannot 

* For a farther account of this doctrine, we refer the cu- 
rious reader toM. deBujfw\ works, vol. vi. p. 252, 279, &c 
f Faun, Suec % 25, 


102 ALPINE HARE. Class I. 

fupply a fufficient number, vaft quantities are an- 
nually imported from Ruffia and Siberia. 

The hare was reckoned a great delicacy among 
the Romans*; the Britains, on the contrary, thought 
it impious even to tafte it-f*; yet this animal was 
cultivated by them> either for the pleafure of the 
chace -, or for the purpofes of fuperftition, as we are 
informed that Boadkia, immediately before her lad 
conflict with the Romans, let loofe a hare (he had 
concealed in her bofom, which taking what was 
deemed a fortunate courfe, animated her foldiers by 
the omen of an eafy victory over a timid enemy J. 

I, Alpine. Lepus hieme albus Fcrfier hijl. nat< Alpine Hare. Syn. quad. 
Volga?. Ph. Tr. LVII. 343. No. 184. 

THE Alpine hare inhabits the fummits of the 
highland mountains, never defcends into the 
vales, or mixes with the common ipecies which is 
frequent in the bottoms: it lives among the rocks 

* Inter aves turdus, fi quid me judice verum: 

Inter quadrupedes gloria prima Lepus. Martial. 13. 92, 

f heparan et gallinam et anferem guftare fas non put ant : hcec 
tamen ciunt, animi <voliiptatifque caufa. Csefar. Com. lib. v. 

% Tavra Etif&ra T&ym f&9 ik m ko^kh, Sec. Xiphilini Epitome 
Dicnif. 173. 





ClassI. ALPINE HARE. 103 

with Ptarmigans, natives of the loftieft fuuations : 
does not run fall ; and if purfued is apt to take 
fhelter beneath ftones or in clefts of rocks: is eafi- 
ly tamed, and is very fprightly and full of frolick : 
is fond of honey, and carraway comfit?, and is 
obferved to eat its own dung before a ftorm. 

It is lefs than the common hare, weighing only 
6 lb.-^. whereas the firft weighs from eight to twelve 
pounds. Its hair is foft and full; the predomi- 
nant color grey mixed with a little black and 
tawny. This is its fummer's drefs. 

In winter it entirely changes to a fnowy white- 
nefs except the edges and tips of the ears which 
retain their blacknefs. The alteration of color be- 
gins in September, and firft appears about the neck 
and rump. In April it again refumes its grey coat. 
This is the cafe in Styria*, but in the polar tracts 
fuch as Greenland it never varies from white, the 
eternal color of the country. In the intermediate 
climates between temperate and frigid, fuch as 
Scotland and Scandinavia it regularly experiences* 
thefe vicifiitudes of color. 

* Kramer Aujlr. 315. 




Class I. 

22. Rabbet, funiculus. The Rabbet, or Lepus caniculus. Lin fyft* 

Cony. Raii fyn. quad. 205. 
Meyer's an. i. Tab. 83. 
Gejher quad. 362. 
Lepus caudatus, obfcure cinere- 

us. Br if on quad. 95. 
De Buffon Tom. vi. 303. Tab. 

50, 51. 

Lepus cauda brei'iffirna pa- 

pillis rubris. Faun. Suec. 

Cuniculus terram fodiens; 

Klein quad. 52. 
Br. Zool. 43. Syn. quad. No. 


Brit. Cwningen 
Fren. Le Lapin 
Ital. Coniglio 
Span. Conejo 
Port. Coelho 

Ger. Koniglein, Kaninchin 
Dut. Konyn 
Swed. Kanin 
Dan. Kanine 


IT is well obierved by Pliny, that nature c hath 
6 fhewed great kindnefs, in caufing thofe things 
c to be mod prolific, that are the mod harmlefs 
c and the propereft for our food *.' 

This excellent obfervation of his, cannot be 
better illuftrated than in fhewing the great fruit- 
fulnefs of this animal*, as it far exceeds that proof, 
brought by the ingenious author of the ceconomy 
of nature, in fupport of the fame quotation. The 
inftance he produces is the pigeon ; whofe increafe, 
from one pair, may in four years amount to 
14.760 f: but rabbets will breed feven times a 

* Benigna circa hoc natura, innocua et efculenta animalia 
ftecunda genera-vit. Lib. viii. c, 55. 

f Vide Swedijh EiTays, tranflated by Mr. Stillingfieet, Ed. 
ift, p. 75. 


Class I. RABBET. 


year, and bring eight young ones each time : on a 
fuppofition this happens regularly, during four 
years, their numbers will amount to 1,274,840. 

By this account, we might juftly apprehend 
being overftocked with thefe animals, if they had 
not a large number of enemies which prevents 
the too great increafe : not only men, but hawks, 
and beafts of prey, make dreadful havoke among 
the fpecies. Notwith (landing thefe different ene- 
mies, we are told by Pliny, and Strabo, that they 
once proved fo great a nuifance to the inhabitants 
of the Balearic iflands, that they were obliged to im- 
plore the affiflance of a military force from the 
Romans, in the time of Auguftus^ in order to extir- 
pate them * Their native country is Spain, where 
they were taken by means of ferrets, as we do zi 
prefent, which animals were firft introduced there 
out of Africa f : they love a temperate and a warm 
climate, and are incapable of bearing great cold., 
fo that in Sweden J they are obliged to be kept in 
houfes. Our country abounds with them ; their 
furs form a confiderable article in the hat manu* 
failures; and of late, fuch part of the fur as is f v Ri 
unfit for that purpofe, has been found as good as 
feathers for fluffing beds and bolfters. Numbers 
of the fkins are annually exported into China, The 
Englijh counties that are mod noted for thefe ani- 

* Plin. lib. viii. c. 55. Strabo, lib. iii, 

f Strafo, iii, 144. % Faun, Suec. 26* 

Vol. I. I mals 

io6 RABBET. Class 1. 

mals are Lincoln/hire, Norfolk? and Cambridge/hire, 
Methold, in the laft county, is famous for the beft 
fort for the table : the foil there is fandy, and full 
of molTes and the Carex grafs. Rabbets fwarm in 
the ifles of Orkney, where their fkins form a confi- 
derable article of commerce. Excepting otters, 
brown rats, common mice, and fhrews, no other 
quadrupeds are found there. The rabbets of 
thofe ifles are in general grey, thofe which inhabit 
the hills, grow hoary in winter. 

Formerly the filver-haired rabbets were in great 
efteem for lining of cloaths, and their fkins fold at 
three millings a piece *•, but fmce the introduction 
of the more elegant furs, the price is fallen to fix- 
pence each. The Sunk J/land-f in the Humber was 
once famous for a moufe-coloured fpecies, now ex- 
tirpated by reafon of the injury it did to the banks 
by burrowing. 

* HartliVs Legacy. f Ph. Trans. No. 361. 


Class I. S Q^ U I R R E L. 


Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 
Four toes before -, five behind. 
Tufted ears. 
Long tail cloathed with long hain 



Sciurus vulgaris. Rati fyn. quad. 

Meyer's an. i. Tab. 97. 
Gefner quad. 845. 
Sciurus rufus, quandoque grifeo 

admixto. BriJJbn quad. 104. 
De Buffon, Tom. vii. 258. Tab. 32. 
Sciurus auriculis apice barbatis, 

palmis 4-daclylis plantis 

5-daaylis. Lin. fyft. 86. 
Sciurus palmis folis faliens. 

Faun. Suec. 37. 
Sc. vulgaris rubicundus. 

Klein quad. 5 3 . 
Br. Zool. 44. Syn. quad. 

No. 206, 






Eichorn, Eichmerm- 





Scoiattolo, Schiarro, Schi- 





Ikorn, grafkin 


Harda, Hardilla, Efquilo 





THE fquirrel derives its name from the form Name, 
of its tail, (Mia, a fhade, aoa a tail, as ferv- 
ing this little animal for an umbrella. That part 
is long enough to cover the whole body, and is 
clothed with long hairs, difpofed on each fide ho- 
rizontally, which gives it a great breadth. Thefe 
ferve a double purpofe ; when erected, they prove 
a fecure protection from the injuries of heat or 
cold-, when extended, they are very inftru mental 
in promoting thofe vaft leaps the fquirrel takes from 
tree to tree. On the authority of Klein and Linnaus, 
I 2 we 

soS SQUIRREL. Class t 

we may add a third application of the form of the 
tail : thefe naturalifts tell us, that when the fquir- 
rel is difpofed to crofs a river, a piece of bark is 
the boat, the tail the fail. 

Manners. This animal is remarkably neat, lively, active, 
and provident ; never leaves its food to chance, but 
fecures in fome hollow tree a vaft magazine of nuts 
for winter provifion. In the fummer it feeds on 
the buds and young moots j and is particularly fond 
of thofe of the fir and pine, and alfo of the young 
cones. It makes its neft of the mofs or dry leaves, 
between the fork of two branches •, and brings 
four or five young at a time. Squirrels are in heat 
early in the fpring, when it k very diverting to fee 
the female feigning an efcape from the purfuit of 
two or three males, to obferve the various proofs 
they give of their agility, which is then exerted in 
full force. 

Descrip. The color of the whole head, body, tail, and legs 
of this animal, is a bright reddifh brown : the belly 
and bread white : the ears are very beautifully or- 
namented with long tufts of hair, of a deeper 
color than thofe on the body : the eyes are large, 
black, and lively: the fore teeth, ftrong, (harp, and 
well adapted to its food: the legs are fhort and muf- 
cular : the toes long, and divided to their origin j 
the nails ftrong and fharp ; in fhort, in ail refpects 
fitted for climbing, or clingino; to the fmalleft 
boughs: on the fore-feet it has only four toes, with 

a claw 

Class I. S CL U I R R E L. 109 

a claw in the place of the thumb or interior toe : 
on the hind feet there are five toes. 

When it eats or drefles itfelf, it fits erect, cover- 
ing the body with its tail, and making ufe of the 
fore-legs as hands. It is obferved, that the gullet 
of this animal is very narrow, to prevent it from dif- 
gorging its food, in defcending of trees, or in down 

I 3 Two 

f 10 



Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 
Four toes before -, five behind. 
Naked ears. 
Long tail covered with hair. 

24. Dor- Mus avellanarum minor. The 
mouse. Dormoufe or Sleeper. Rati 

fyn. quad. 2 20. 
The Dormoufe. Ed-iv. 266. 
Gefner quad, 162. 
Glis fupra rufus infra albi- 
cans. Brijfon quad. 1 15. 

De Buffbn, Tom. viii. 193. Tab. 

Mus avellanarius. Lin.fyfi. 83. 
Mus cauda longa pilofa cor- 

pore rufo gula albicante. 

Faun. Suec. 35. 
Br. Zool. 45. Syn. quad. No 


Brit. Pathew 



Fren. Le Mufcardin, Croque- 


Rothe, Wald-maus 

noix, Rat-d'or 



Ital. Mofcardinc 



THIS animal agrees with the fquirrel in its 
food, refidence, and fome of its actions: on 
firft fight it bears a general refemblance to it; but 
on a clofer inflection, fuch a difference may be 
difcovered in its feveral parts, as vindicates M. Brif- 
fon for forming a diftinct. genus of the Dormice, 
or Glires. Thefe want the fifth claw on the in- 
terior fide of their fore-feet j nor are their ears 
adorned with thofe elegant tufts of hair that diftin- 
guifh the fquirrel kind. Thefe diftinctions prevale 
in the other fpecies^ fuch as the Lerot and Loir. 


Class I. DORMOUSE. in 

Dormice inhabit woods, or very thick hedges; Manners. 
forming their nefts in the hollow of fome low tree, 
or near the bottom of a clofe fhrub : as they want 
much of the fprightlinefs of the fquirrel, they ne- 
ver afpire to the tops of trees -, or, like it, at- 
tempt to bound from fpray to fpray: like the fquir- 
rel they form little magazines of nuts, &c. for 
winter provifion ; and take their food in the fame 
manner, and fame upright pofture. The con- 
fumption of their hoard during the rigor of the 
feafon is but fmali : for they fleep moft part of the 
time ; retiring into their holes at the flrfl approach 
of winter, they roll themfelves up, and lie almod 
torpid the greater!: part of that gloomy feafon. In 
that fpace, they fometimes experience a lliort revi- 
val, in a warm funny day, when they take a little 
food, and then relapfe into their former (late. 

The fize of the dormoufe is equal to that of a Descrip, 
moufe-, but has a plumper appearance, and the 
nofe is more blunt-, the eyes are large, black, 
and prominent ; the ears are broad, rounded, thin, 
and femi-tranfparent : the fore-feet are furnifhed 
with four toes-, the hind-feet with five; but the 
interior toes of the hind-feet are deftitute of nails : 
the tail is about two inches and a half long, 
clofely covered on every fide with hair : the head, 
back, fides, belly, and tail, are of a tawny red co- 
lor ; the throat white. 

Thefe animals feldom appear far from their re- Nest* 
treats, or in any open place •, for which reafon they 

I 4 feem 


feem lefs common in England than they really are. 
They make their nefts of grafs, mofs, and dead 
leaves ; and bring ufually three or four young at a 


Class I. 



Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 
Four toes before, five behind. 
Very (lender tail ; naked., or very (lightly haired. 


Mus domeflicus major, fea 
Rattus. Raiijyn. quad. 2 17. 

Meyer's an. ii. Tab. 83. 

Gefner quad. 731. 

Mus cauda longiffima obfcure 
cinereus. BriJJbn quad 118. 

De Bufon, Tom. vii. p. 278. 
Tab. 36. 

Brit. Llygoden fferngig 

Fren. Le Rat 

Ital. Ratto, Sorcio 

Span. Raton, Rata 

Port. Rato 

Mus rattus . Lin. fyft. 8 3 . 
Mus cauda longa fubnuda cor- 

pore fufco cinerefcente. 

Faun. Suec. 33, 
Mus Rattus, mus ciftrinarius. 

Klein quad. $j. 
Bf. Zool. 46. Syn. quad. No 


Germ. Ratz 

Dut. Rot 

Snjoed. Rotta 

Dan. Rotte 

25. Black, 

THE rat is the mod pernicious of any of Manner 
our fmaller quadrupeds : our meat, corn, 
paper, cloaths, furniture, in (hort every conveni- 
ency of life is a prey to this deftrudtive creature i 
nor does it confine itfelf to thefe \ but will make 
equal havoke among our poultry, rabbets, or young 
game. Unfortunately for us it is a domeftic animal ? 
always refiding in houfes, barns, or granaries ; and 
nature has furnifhed it with fore-teeth of fuch 
ftrength, as enable it to force its way through the 
hardeft wood, or oldeft morter. It makes a lodge ? 
either for its day's residence, or for a neft for its 

ii 4 RAT. Class I. 

young, near a chimney ; and improves the warmth 
of it, by forming there a magazine of wool, bits of 
cloth, hay or draw. It breeds frequently in the 
year, and brings about fix or feven young at a time: 
this fpecies increafes fo fad, as to over-flock their 
abode ; which often forces them, through defici- 
ency of food, to devour one another : this unnatural 
difpofition happily prevents even the human race 
from becoming a prey to them: not but that there 
are inftances of their gnawing the extremities of 
infants in their fleep. 

The greater!: enemy the rats have is the weefel; 
which makes infinitely more havoke among them 
than the cat •, for the weefel is not only endowed with 
fuperior agility; but, from the form of.itsbody, can 
purfue them through all their retreats that are imper- 
vious to the former. The Norway rat has alfo 
greatly lefTened their numbers, and in many places 
almoft extirpated them : this will apologize for 
a brief defcription of an animal once fo well known. 
Pescrip. Its length from the nofe to the origin of the tail, is 
feven inches : the tail is near eight inches long : 
the nofe is fharp-pointed, and furnifhed with long 
whifkers : the color of the head and whole upper 
part of the body is a deep iron-grey, bordering on 
black; the belly is of a dirty cinereous hue; the legs 
are of a dufky color, and almoft naked : the fore- 
feet want the thumb or interior toe, having only in 
its place a claw: the hind-feet are furnifhed with five 


Class I. NORWAY RAT. 115 

Among other officers, his Britifh majefty has a King's rat- 
rat-catcher, diftinguiihed by a particular drefs, fear- 
let embroidered with yellow worded, in which are 
figures of mice deflroying wheat-fheaves. 

Mus fylveftris, Rat de bois. Mus norvegieus. Klein quad. 26. Brown, 

Brijfbn quad. 20. $6. 

Le Surmulot. De Bufo?x,Tom. Mus ex norvegia. Seb. Mus. 

viii. 206. Tab. 27. Tom. ii. 64. Tab. 63. 

Br, Zool.^rj.Syn. quad. N0.22J. 

THIS is a very large fpecies; thicker, and of Descrip. 
a ftronger make than the common rat : the 
length from the end of the nofe to the beginning of 
the tail, is nine inches - 9 the length of the tail the 
fame ; the ufual weight eleven ounces : the ears 
refemble thofe of the rat: the eyes large and black. : 
the color of the head and whole upper part of 
the body is a light brown, mixed with tawny and 
afh-color: the end of the nofe, the throat and belly, 
are of a dirty white, inclining to grey : the feet 
and legs almoft bare ; and of a dirty pale flefh-co- 
lor : the beginning of the tail is of the fame color 
as the back; the reft of the tail is covered with mi- 
nute dufky fcales, mixed with a few hairs. 

This is the fpecies well known in this kingdom Hist, 
under the name of the Norway rat -, but it is an 
animal quite unknown in Scandinavia, as we have 
been aflured by feveral natives of the countries 


ii$ NORWAY RAT. Class L 

that form that tract: and Linnaus * takes no notice 
of it in his laft fyftem. It is fit here to remark 
an error that gentleman has in fpeaking of the 
common rat, which he fays was firft brought 
from America into Europe by means of a fhip 
bound to Antwerp. The fad is, that both rat and 
moufe were unknown to the new world before it 
was difcovered by the Europeans, and the firft rats 
it ever knew, were introduced there by a fhip 
from Antwerp f. This animal never made its ap- 
pearance in England till about forty years ago J. 
It has quite extirpated the common kind wherever 
it has taken its refidence; and it is to be feared 
that we fhall fcarce find any benefit by the change; 
the Norway rat having the fame difpofition, with 
greater abilities for doing mifchief, than the com- 
mon kind. This fpecies burrows like the water rat, 
in the banks of rivers, ponds and ditches ; it takes 
the water very readily, and fwims and dives with 
great celerity : like the black fpecies, it preys on rab- 
bets, poultry, and all kind of game ; and on grain 
and fruits. It increafes moft amazingly faft, pro- 
ducing from fourteen to eighteen yoqng at a time. 
Its bite is not only fevere, but dangerous ; the 
wound being immediately attended with a great 
fwelling, and is a long time in healing. Thefe rats 

* Lin, fyfi. 83. 
f Ovalk's Eiji. of Chile in Churchill's Voy. iii. 43. 
\ This fpecies reached the neighborhood of Paris 9 about 
feventeen years ago* 


Class I. NORWAY RAT. 117 

are fo bold, as fometimes to turn upon thofe who 
purfue them, and fallen on the flick or hand of 
fuch as offer to ftrike them* 

M. Briffon defcribes this fame animal twice under 
different names, p. 170 under the title of le rat du 
hois\ and again, p. 173 under that of le rat de 
norvege. M. de Buff on fliles it le Surmulot y as re- 
fern bling the mulots, or field mice, in many re- 
fpedts ; but exceeding them in bulk. 

I fufpect that this rat came in fhips originally 
from the Eafi Indies ; a large brown fpecies being 
found there, called Bandicotes? which burrow under 
ground. Barbot* alfo mentions a fpecies inhabiting 
the fields in Guinea? and probably the fame with 

* CburcbilVs ColhVoy. 214. 



WATER RAT, Class t 

27. Wate r. Le Rat d'Eau, Belon 30. //. 

Mus major aquaticus, feu 
Rattus aquaticus. Rati 
fyn. quad. 217. 

Sorex aquaticus. Charlton 
ex. 25. 

Meyers an. ii. Tab. 84. 

Mus cauda longa pilis fupra 
ex nigro et navefcente 
mixtis, infra cinereis vef- 
titus. Brijfon quad. 1 24. 

De Buffbn, Tom. vii. 348. Tab. 

Mus amphibius. Mus cauda 

elongata pilofa plantis pal- 

matis. Lin fyfi. 82. 

Caftorcaudalinearitereti. Faun. 
Suec. 25. Ed. 1. Mus amphi- 
bius 52. Ed. 2. 

Mus aquatilis. Klein quad. 

Br. Zool. 48. Syn. quad. No. 


Brit. Llygoden y dwfr 
Fren. Le Rat d'eau 
Ital, Sorgo morgange 

Germ. WafTer maufe. W. Ratz 
Dut. Water-rot 
S-voed. Watn-ratta 
Dan. Vand-rotte 

T INNAlUS, from the external appearance of 
-*-^ this animal, has in one of his fyftems placed 
it in the fame genus with the beaver. The form 
of the head, the fnortnefs of the ears, and the thick- 
nefs of the fur and the places it haunts, vindicate in 
fome degree the opinion that naturalift was at that 
time of: but the form of the tail is fo different from 
that of the beaver, as to oblige him to reftore the 
water rat to the clafs in which he found it, in the 
fyftem of our illuftrious countryman Ray. 
Manners. The water-rat never frequents houfes ; but is 
always found on the banks of rivers, ditches and 
ponds, where it burrows and breeds. It feeds on 
fmall firti, or the fry of greater \ on frogs, infects, 


Class I. WATER RAT, 

and fometimes on roots : it has a fifty tafte ; and 
in fome countries is eaten ; M. de Buff on inform- 
ing us that the peafants in France eat it on maigre 

It fwims and dives admirably well, and con- 
tinues long under water, though the toes are divid- 
ed like thofe of the common rat ; not connected 
by membranes, as Mr. Ray imagined; and as Lin- 
naus^ and other writers, relate after him. 

The male weighs about nine ounces ; the 
length feven inches from the end of the nofe to 
the tail ; the tail five inches : on each foot are five 
toes, the inner toe of the fore-foot is very fmall; the 
firfl joint of the latter is very flexible, which mud 
aflift it greatly in fwimming, and forming its retreat. 
The head is large, the ears fmall, and fcarce appear 
through the hair : the nofe blunt, and the eyes lit- 
tle: the teeth large, ftrong, and yellow: the head 
and body are covered with thick and pretty long 
hairs, chiefly black ; but mixed with fome of a red- 
dim hue : the belly is of an iron-grey : the tail is 
covered with fhort black hairs, the tip of it with 
white hairs. 

A female that we opened had fix young ones 
in it. 





28, Field. Mus domeflicus medius. 

Raiijyn. quad. 218. 
Mus Cauda longa fupra e 

fufco flavefcens infra ex 

albo cinerefcens. Brijfon 

quad. 123. 
De Buffbn, Tom. vii. 325, 

Tab. 41. 

Brit. Llygoden ganolig. 
Llygoden y maes 

Mus fylvaticus, M. cauda longa 
palmis tetradaftylis, plantis 
pentad a&ylis, corpore grifeo 
pilis nigris, abdomine albo, 
Lin.fyft. 84. 

Faun. Suec. 36. 

Brit. Zool. 49. Syn. quad. No* 


Le Mulot 



THIS meafures from the nofe-end to the 
fetting on of the tail, four inches and half: 
the tail is four inches long : the eyes are black* 
large, and full : the ears prominent : the head and 
upper part of the body, is of a yellowifh. brown, 
mixed with fome dufky hairs : the breaft is of an 
ochre color; the reft of the under fide is white: the 
tail is covered with fhort hair. 

Thefe animals are found only in fields and 
gardens : in fome places they are called bean-mice, 
from the havoke they make among beans when firft 
fown. They feed alfo on nuts, acorns, and corn, 
forming in their burrows vail magazines of winter 

Ssepe exiguus mus 
Sub terris pofuitque domos atque horrea feck. 
Virgil Georg. I. 181. 
Often the little moufe 
Illudes our hopes \ and fafely lodged below 


Class I. HARVEST MOUSE. 121 

Hath formed his granaries. 

Doctor JDerham takes notice of this wonderful 
fagacity of theirs, in providing againft that feafon 
when they would find a defect of food abroad: 
but they provide alfo for other animals • the hog 
comes in for a {hare; and the great damage we 
fuftain in our fields, by their rooting up the ground, 
is chiefly owing to their fearch after the concealed 
hoards of the field mice. 

They generally make the neft for their young 
very near the furface, and often in a thick tuft of 
grafs ; they bring from feven to ten at a time. 

Lefs long-tailed field moufe, Br, ZcoL II. App, 498. ±g> Har« 

Syn. quad. No. 231* vest, 

THIS fpecies is very numerous in Hamp- 
/hire, particularly during harveft. . 

They form their neft above the ground, be- 
tween the ftraws of the (landing corn, andfometimes 
in thiflles : it is of a round fhape, and compofed of 
the blades of corn. They bring about eight 
young at a time. 

Thefe never enter houfes : but are often carried 
in the (heaves of corn into ricks - y and often a hun- 
dred of them have been found in a fingle rick, on 
pulling it down to be houfed, 

Vol. I. K Thofe 




Thofe that are not thus carried away in the 
fheaves, fhelter themfelves during winter under 
ground, and burrow deep, forming a warm bed 
for themfelves of dead grafs. 

They are the fmalleft of the Britijh quadru- 
peds: their length from nofe to tail is only two 
inches and a half: their tail two inches : their weight 
one fixth of an ounce. They are more (lender 
than the other long-tailed Field Moufe •, their eyes 
lefs prominent ; their ears naked, and (landing out 
of the fur ; their tail (lightly covered with hair; 
their back of a fuller red than the larger fpe- 
cies -, inclining to the color of a Dor moufe : the 
belly white -, a (trait line along the fides dividing 
the colors of the back and bellv. 

3-0. Mouse. Mus domefticus vulgaris feu Mus mufculus. M. cauda 

minor. Rati Jyn. quad. 218. elongata, palmis tetra- 

Seb. Mufeum, i. Tab, ill. f. 6. dactylis, piantis penta- 

its ikeleton. Tab. 31. dadylis. Lin.fyji. 83. 

Gefncr quad. 714. Faun. Suec. 34. 

Mus cauda longiffima, obfcure Mus minor, Mufculus vul- 

cinereus, ventre fubalbef- garis. Klein quad. 57. 

cente. Brijjon quad. 119. Br. Zool. 90. Syn. quad. 
De Biffin, Tom. vii. 309. No. 229. 

Tab. S9 . 






La Souris 




Tcpo, forice 










HIS timid, cautious, active, little animal, is 
too well known to require a defcription : ic 








is entirely domeftic, being never found in fields 5 
or, as M. Buffon obferves, in any countries unin- 
habited by mankind : it breeds very frequently in 
the year, and brings fix or feven young at a time. 
This fpecies is often found of a pure white, in 
which date it makes a moft beautifuli appearance - 7 
the fine full eye appearing to great advantage, 
amidft the fnowy color of the fur. The root of 
white hellebore zridftaves-acre, powdered and mixed 
with meal, is a certain poifon to them* 

Mus agreftis capite grandi bra- Mus agreftis* Faun. Sutc. 30. ^ 1 . Short 

chiurus. Rail fyn. quad. 218. De Buffon, Tom. vii. 369. tailed, 
Mus cauda brevi pilis e nigri- Tab. 47. 

cante et fordide luteo mixtis Klein quad. $j No. 50. 

in dorfo et faturate cinereis Br. Zool. 50. Syn. quad. No* 

in ventre veftitis. BriJJbn 233. 

quad. 125. 

Brit. Llygoden gwtta'r maes Fren. he petit Rat de 
Ital. Campagnoli champs, Le campagnol 

Dan. Skier-muus 

THE length of this fpecies, from the nofe Descrjp, 
to the tail, is about fix inches ^ the tail only 
an inch and a half: the head is very large: the 
eyes prominent: the ears quite hid in the fun 
the whole upper part of the body is of a ferrugi- 
nous color, mixed with black - 9 the belly of a 
deep alh- color : the tail is covered with fhort hair 5 

K 2 ending 


ending with a little bum, about a quarter of an inch 
long. The leg 5 , particularly the fore legs, very 
Manners. This animal makes its neft in moift meadows, 
and brings eight young at a time : it has a ftrong 
affection for them : one that was feduced into a 
wire-fap, by placing its brood in it, was fo intent 
on foilering them, that it appeared quite regardlefs 
of its captivity. The manners of this creature 
much refemble the 28th fpecies : like it, thisrefides 
under ground, and lives on nuts, acorns, but 
particularly on corn : it differs from the former in 
the place of its abode : feldom infefting gardens. 

It has been obferved that in houfing a rick of 
corn, the dogs have devoured all the mice of this 
fpecies that they could catch, and rejected the com- 
mon kind ; and that the cats on the contrary would 
touch none but the lafL 


Glass I. 

S H R E W, 


Two cutting teeth in each jaw ppinting forward 
Long flender nofe; fmall ears. 
Five toes on each foot. 


Mus araneus. Shrew, Shrew 

Moufe, or Hardy Shrew. 

Raii Jyn, quad. 239. 
Gefner quad. 747. 
Mus araneus fupra ex firfco ru^ 

fus infra albicans. Brijjon 
quad. 126. 
De Buffbn, Tom. viii. 57. 

Tab. 10. 

Sorex araneus. S. cauda cor- 
pore longiore. Lin, jyfi, 

Faun. Suec. 24. 
Mus araneus roftro produ&i- 

ore. Klein quad. 58. 
Br. Zool. 54. Syn. quad. No. 


32. Fetid. 

Brit. Llygodengoch, Chwift- 

len, Llyg 
Fren. La Mufaraigne 
Ital, Toporango 
Span, Murganho 


Germ, Spitzmaufe, Ziflmufs, 

S<wed. Nabbmus 
Dan. Naebmuus, Muufe- 

THE length of this little animal, from the Descrip* 
end of the nofe to the origin of the tail is 
two inches and a half: that of the tail, near one inch 
and a half: the nofe is very long and flender; 
and the upper mandible is much longer than the 
lower, befet with long but fine whiflcers : the ears 
are fhort, and rounded : the eyes are very fmall ; 
and, like thofe of the mole, almoft concealed in 
;he hair. The color of the head, and upper pare 

K 3 of 

126 WATER SHREW. Class I. 

of the body, is of a brownifh dufky red : the belly 
of a dirty white : the tail is covered with fhort 
dufky hairs : the leg? are very fhort : the hind legs 
placed very far back : the feet are divided into five 

Above and below are two (lender cutting teeth 
pointing forward, and on each a minute procefs : 
the reft of the teeth are fo clofely united, as to 
appear a continued ferrated bone in every jaw - 9 
the whole number is twenty eight. 

The fhrew inhabits old wall?, heaps of ftones, 
and holes in the earth : is frequently found near 
hayricks, dunghills, and necefTary houfes : is often 
obierved rooting like a fwine in ordure : it lives on 
corn, infects, and any filth: from its food or the 
places it frequents, has a difagreeable fmell : cats 
will kill but not eat it : brings four or five young 
at a time. In Auguft is an annual mortality of 
them, numbers being in that feafon found dead 
in the paths. The antients believed them to be 
injurious to cattle, an error now detected. 

Water. Musaraneusdorfonigroven- LaMufaraigned'Eau, deBuffbn. 

trequealbo. Merrct Pinax. viii. 64. 

1 6-. Water Shrew, Syn. quad. No. 

Sorex fodiens, Pallas ined. 256. 


'HIS fpecies inhabits the banks of ditches, 
and other wet fituations, and is in fome 


Class I. WATER SHREW. 127 

places called the Blind Moufe, from the fmallnefs 
of its eyes. The Germans call it Graber or digger. 
I imagine it to be the fame that the inhabitants of 
Sutherland, call the water mole, and thofe of Cathnefs^ 
the Lavellan, which the laft imagine poifons their 
cattle ; and is held by them in great abhorrence. 
It burrows in banks near the water: and accord- 
ing to M. de Buffon brings nine young. It was 
known to Dr. Merret above a century ago ; but 
loft again till within thefe few years, when it was 
found to inhabit Lincoln/hire^ and Lancajhire. Its 
length from nofe to tail is three inches and three 
quarters : the tail two inches : the nofe long and 
(lender: ears minute: eyes very fmall and hid in 
the fur : the color of the head and upper part of the 
body black : the throat, breaft, and belly afti-color$ 
beneath the tail is a triangular dufky fpot. 

K 1 Long 

128 M O h E. Class I. 

X\II. Long llender nofe, upper jaw much longer than 

MOLE, , & , rr J to 

the lower. 

No ears. 

Fore-feet very broad, with fcarce any apparent 

legs before : hind-feet very fmall. 

34. E u r 0- Talpa. The Mole, Mold-Warp, dadlylis. Brijfon quad, 
PEA K. or Want. Rati fyn-. quad. 236. 203. 

Meyer's an. i. Tab. 2. De Bu/fbn, viii. 81. Tab, 12. 

Talpa alba noltras. Seb. Mus. 1. Talpa europaeus. T. cauda- 
p. 61. :T<s£. 32. f. 1. ta, pedibus pentada&ylis. 

Sib. Scot. 11. Lin. fyji. 73. 

Gejner quad. 93 1. Faun Suec. 23. 

Talpa caudata nigricans pedi- Talpa. Klein quad < 60. 

bus anticis et poiticis penta- i?r. Zo<?/. 52. fyn. quad* 

No. 241. 

2?/7>. Gv/add, Tvvrch daear Gfrw. Maulwerf 

,P;v«. La Taupe ZW. Mol. 

lied, Talpa. Snued, Mulvad, Surk 

Span, Topo Dan. Muldvarp 

Port. Toupeira 

THERE are many animals in which the Divine 
Wifdom may be more agreeably illuirrated ; 
yet the uniformity of its attention to every article of 
the creation, even the mod contemptible, by adapt- 
ing the parts to its deftined courfe of life, appears 
more evident in the mole than in any other animal. 
A fubterraneous abode being allotted to it, the 
feeming defects of feveral of its parts, vanifh •, 
which, inftead of appearing maimed, or unfinifhed, 


Class I. MOLE. 129 

exhibit a mod ftriking proof of the fitnefs of their 

The breadth, ftrength, and fhortnefs of the fore- 
feet, which are inclined fideways, anfwer the ufe as 
well as form of hands *, to fcoop out the earth, to 
form its habitation, or to purfue its prey. Had 
they been longer, the falling in of the earth would 
have prevented the quick repetition of its ftrokes in 
working, or have impeded its courfe : the oblique 
pofition of the fore-feet, has alfo this advantage, 
that it flings all the loofe foil behind the animal. 

The form of the body is not lefs admirably con- 
trived for its way of life : the fore part is thick 
and very mufcular, giving great ftrength to the 
action of the fore-feet ; enabling it to dig its way 
with amazing force and rapidity, either to purfue its 
prey, or elude the fearch of the mod active enemy. 
The form of its hind parts, which are fmall and 
taper, enables it to pafs with great facility through 
the earth, that the fore-feet had flung behind ; for 
had each part of the body been of equal thieknefs, 
its flight would have been impeded, and its fecurity 

The fkin is mod exceflively compact, and fo tough 
as not to be cut but by a very fharp knife : the hair 
is very fhort, and clofe fet, and fofter than the fined 
filk : the ufual color is black ; not but that there are 
inftances of thefe animals being fpotted*, and a 

* Erhv. 26S, 


13Q MOLE. Class I. 

creme colored breed is fometimes found in my lands 
near Downing, 

The fmallnefs of the eyes (which gave occafion 
to the ancients to deny it the fenfe of fight*,) is to 
this animal a peculiar happinefs : a fmall degree of 
vifion is fuiBcient for an animal ever deftined to 
live under ground : had thefe organs been larger, 
they would have been perpetually liable to injuries, 
by the earth falling into them ; but nature, to pre- 
vent that inconvenience, hath not only made them 
very fmall, but alfo covered them very clofely 
with fur. Anatomifts mention (befides thefe) a 
third very wonderful contrivance for their fecurity ; 
and inform us that each eye is furnifhed with a 
certain mufcle, by which the animal has power of 
withdrawing or exerting them, according to its exi- 


To make amends for the dimnefs of its fight, 
r.he mole is amply recompenfed, by the great per- 
fection of two other fenfes, thofe of hearing and of 
fmelling : the firft gives it notice of the moft diftant 
approach of danger : the other, which is equally 
exquifite, directs it in the midft of darknefs to its 
food : the nofe alfo, being very long and {lender, 
is well formed for thrufting into fmall holes, in 
fearch of the worms and infects that inhabit them. 

* Aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae. Virg. Georg. I, 
tyfightlefs moles have dug their chamber'd lodge, 


Class I. M O L E, 131 

Thefe gifts may with reafon be faid to compenfate 
the defect of fight, as they fupply in this animal 
all its wants, and all the purpofes of that fenfe. 
Thus amply fupplied as it is, with every neceflary 
accommodation of life; we mud avoid afTenting 
to an obfervation of a moil refpeclable writer, and 
only refer the reader to the note, where he may find 
the very words of that author •, and compare them 
with thofe of our illuftrious countryman, Mr. Ray*. 

It is fuppofed that the verdant circles fo often 
feen in grafs grounds, called by country people 
fairy rings, are owing to the operations of thefe 
animals, who at certain feafons perform their bur- 
rowings by circumgyrations, which loofening the foil ? 
gives the furface a greater fertility and ranknefs of 
grafs than the other parts within or without the ring. 

The mole breeds in the fpring, and brings four or 
five young at a time : it makes its neft of mofs, and 
that always under the largeft hillock, a little below 

* La taupe fans etre aveugle, a les yeux ft petits ii cou- 
verts, qu'elle ne peut faire grand ufage du fens de la vue ; 
en dedommagement la nature lui a donne avec magnificence P ufage 
du Jtxieme fensy &c. . > 

Mr. Ray makes the latter obfervation ; but forms from it 
a conclufion much more folid and morah Teftes maximos, 
parajiatas amplijftmas, novum corpus feminale ab his diver/urn et 

feparatum -penem etiam facile omnium, ni fallor, anhnalium 

longifjimum : ex quibus colli gere eft maximam pr<z reliquis omnibus 
animalibus <voluptatem in coitu hoc abjeclu?n et vile animalculum 
perczpere, ut habeant quod ipfi invideant, qui in hoc fupremas vita 
files delirias collocant* Raiifyn. quad, 238, 239, 


i £2 MOLE. Class I. 

the furface of the ground. The mole is obferved 
to be moil active, and to caft up moil earth, im- 
mediately before rain ; and in the winter before 
a thaw; becaufe at thofe times the worms and in- 
fects begin to be in motion, and approach the fur- 
face : on the contrary, in very dry weather, this 
animal feldom or never forms any hillocks, as it 
penetrates deep after its prey, which at fuch fea- 
fons retires far into the ground. During fummer 
they run in fearch of fnails and worms in the night 
time among the grafs, which makes them the prey 
of owls. The mole mews great art in ikinning a 
worm, which it always does before it eats it ; drip- 
ping the ikin from end to end, and fqueezing out 
all the contents of the body. 

Thefe animals do incredible damage in gardens, 
and meadows •, by loofening the roots of plants, 
flowers, grafs, corn, &c. Mortimer fays, that the 
roots of Palma chrifti and white hellebore ', made 
into a paile, and laid in their holes, will deftroy 
them. They feem not to have many enemies among 
other animals, except in Scotland, where (if we may 
depend on Sir Robert Sibbald) there is a kind of 
moule, with a black back, that deftroys moles *. 
We have been affured that moles are not found in 

* Sitr. Hift. Scot. Part iii. p. 12. I did not find it was 
known at prefent. 


Class I. URCHIN. 


Five toes on each foot. 

Body covered with fhort ftrong fpines. 


Echinus fc. erinaceus terreftris. 

Raii Jyn. quad. 231. 
Meyer's an. i. Tab. 95, 96. 
Sib. Scot. 1 1. 
Erinaceus parvus noftras. Seh. 

Mus. i. p. 78. Tab. 49. f. 
1, 2. 
Erinaceus auriculis ereflis. 

Brijfon quad. 12S. 
De Buffon> Tom. viii. 28. 
Tab, 6. 

Echinus terreftris. Gefner 

quad. 368. 
Erinaceus europaeus. Lin. 

fyfl< 75- 

Erinaceus fpinofus auricula- 
tus. Faun. Suec. 22. 

Acanthion vulgaris noftras. 
Klein quad. 66. 

Br. Zool. 51. Syn. quad. No. 

35. COMMOK, 

Brit. Draenog, Draen y coed Germ. 

Fren. L'Heriffon Dut. 

Ital. Riccio • S-vjed. 

Span. Erizo Dan. 

Port. Ourizo 


Pin-fuin, Pin-foe 

THE ufuat length of this animal, exclufive of 
the tail, is ten inches : the tail is little more 
than an inch long-, but fo concealed by the fpines, 
as fcarce to be vifible. The form of thenofe is like 
that of the hog; the upper mandible being much 
longer than the lower, and the end flat : the nof- 
trils are narrow, terminated on each fide by & 
thin loofe flap : the color of the nofe is dufky - s it is 
covered by a few fcattered hairs : the upper part 
of the head, the fides, and the rump, are clothed with 
ftrong ftiff hairs, approaching the nature of bri£ 

ties, of a yellowifh and cinereous hue. 


Descr ; 

i 3 4 URCHIN. Class I. 

Legs. The legs are fhort, of a dufky color, and almoft 

bare : the toes on each foot are five in number, 
long, and feparated the whole way : the thumb, or 
interior toe, is much fhorter than the others : the 
claws long, but weak : the whole upper part of 
the body and fides are clofely covered with ftrong 
fpines, of an inch in length, and very fharp point- 
ed : their lower part is white, the middle black, 
the points white. The eyes are fmall, and placed 
high in the head : the ears are round, pretty large, 
Teeth, and naked. The mouth is fmall, but well furnifhed 
with teeth : in each jaw are two fharp pointed cut- 
ting teeth : in the upper jaw are on each fide four 
tufhes, and five grinders : in the lower jaw on each 
fide are three tufhes, pointing obliquely forward; 
and beyond thole, four grinders. 

The hedge hog is a nocturnal animal, keeping re- 
tired in the day \ but is in motion the whole night* 
in fearch of food. It generally refides in fmall 
thickets, in hedges, or in ditches covered with 
bufhes j lying well wrapped up in mofs, grafs, or, 
leaves : its food is roots, fruits, worms, and infects - 
it lies under the undeferved reproach of fucking 
cattle, and hurting their udders ; but the fmall- 
neis of its mouth renders that impofiible. 
Manners. It is a mild, helplefs, and patient animal; 
and would be liable to injury from every ene- 
my, had not Providence guarded it with a ftrong 
covering, and a power of rolling itfelf into a ball, 
by that means fecuring the defencelefs parts. 


Class I. URCHIN. 

The barbarity of anatomifts furnifhes us with art 
amazing inftance of its patience ; one that was 
diiTe&ed alive, and whofe feet were nailed down to 
the table, endured that, and every ftroke of the 
operator's knife, without even one groan *•, 

* Claris terehrari fibi pedes et difcindi njifcera patientijjime 
ferehat ; omnes cultri iBus fine gemitu plufquam Sp art and nohzli* 
tate concoquens. Borrich : in Bias ; de Echino. 64, 


X> i y, 

136 SEAL. Class I. 

D 1 v. III. 

With fin -like feet : fore legs buried deep in the 
fkin : hind legs pointing quite backwards. 

XIX. SEAL. Cutting teeth and two canine in each jaw. 
Five palmated toes on each foot. 
Body thick at the moulders, tapering towards the 

36. Great. Sea calf, Ph. Tranf. ix. 74. Utfuk ? Crantz Greenl. i. 
Tab. 5. 125. 

Le grand Phoque, de Bujjfbn, Great leal, Sjn. quad. No. 
xiii. 345. 266. 

A SPECIES not very uncommon on the coafl 
of Scotland, particularly about the rock Hijkyr^ 
one of the weftern ifles, which grows to the length 
of twelve feet. 

A young one of this fpecies was fome years ago 
fhewen in London : notwithftanding it was fo young 
as to have fcarce any teeth, yet it was feven feet 
and a half long. 

In my voyage among the Hebrides I frequently 




Class I. 


heard of this fpecies, but did not meet with it. Mr. 
Thompfon, our m after, fhot one \ but it funk, and 
we loft it. 


Le Veau marin, ou loup de Kafligiak. Crantz's hifi. Greenl. 37 Common, 

Mer. Bilon 25. PI. 26. 
Seal, Seoile, cr Sea-calf. 

Phoca, feu vitulus mari- 

nus. Raiijyn. quad. 189. 
Sea-calf. Phil. Tranf. No. 

469. Tab. I. Abridg. 

Smith's Kerry, 84, 364. 
Borlafe' 's Corn-zu. 284. 
Worm. mufe. 289. 

Brit. Moelrhon 

Fren. Le Veau marin 

Ital. Vechio marino 

Span. Lobo marino 

1. 123. 
Le Phoque, de Bujvn, xiii. 333, 
Horr. Ice/. 88. 
Pont op. Nor-uu. ii. 125. 
BriJ/on quad. 162. 
Phoca vitulina. Lin.fyji. 56. 
Phoca. Klein quad. 93. 
Phoca dentibus caninis teclis. 

Faun. Suec. 4. 
Br„ Zool. 34. Syn. quad. No. 


Germ. Meer wolfF, Meer hund 

Dut. Zee hond 

Saved. Sial 

Dan. Sasl hund 

THE common length of thofe taken on the 
Britijh coafts, is from five to fix feet. 

The fubject that we took our defcription from, 
was a young one ; fo allowance muft be made for 
the proportions of the meafurements of thofe that 
have attained their full fize. Its length, from the 
end of the nofe to the end of the hind feet, was two 
feet nine inches ; to the end of the tail, two feet 
three inches : the head was (even inches long: the 
tail two and a half : the fore legs were deeply im- 
merfed in the fkin of the body -, what appeared out 3 
was only eight inches long : the breadth of the fore 

Vol. I. L feet, 


138 SEAL. Class I. 

feet, when extended, was three inches and a half: 
the hind legs were placed in fuch a manner, as to 
point directly backwards ; and were ten inches 
long: each hind foot, when extended, was nine 
inches and a half broad : every foot was divided 
into five toes ; and each of thofe connected by a 
ftroiig and broad web, covered on both fides with 
fhort hair. 

The toes were furniined with flrong claws, well 
adapted to aflift the animal in climbing the rocks it 
balked on : the claws on the hind feet were about 
an inch long, (lender, and (trait; except at the 
ends, which were a little incurvated. 

The circumference of the body in the thickeft 
part, which was near the moulders, was one foot 
ten inches •, but near the hind legs, where it was 
narrowed, it meafured only twelve inches. 

The head and nole were broad and flat, like thofe 
of the otter -, the neck fhort and thick ; the eyes 
large and black 5 it had no external ears, but in 
lieu of them, two (mall orifices : the noftrils were 
oblong : on each fide the nofe were feveral long 
ft iff hairs-, and above each eye, were a few of the 
fame kind. 
Ton cue. The form of the tongue of this animal is fo lin- 
gular, that were other notes wanting, that alone 
would diftinguifh it from all other quadrupeds; 
being forked, or (lit at the end. 

The cutting teeth are fingular in refpedt to their 
number, being fix in the upper jaw, and only four 


Class I. SEAL. 139 

in the lower. It has two canine teeth above and 
below, and on each fide of the jaws five grinders > 
the total thirty-four. 

The whole animal was covered with fhort hair, 
very clofely fee together : the color of that on the 
head and feet was dufky : on the body dufky, 
fpotted irregularly with white: on the back the 
dufky color predominated \ on the belly white: but 
feals vary greatly in their marks and colors, and 
fome have been found * entirely white. One that 
was taken near Chefter, in May 1766, had on its 
firft capture, the body naked like the fkin of a por- 
pefe 5 and only the head and a fmall fpot beneath 
each fore leg, hairy: it was kept alive fome time-, 
but before it died, hair began to grow over the 
whole body -f . 

The feal is common on mod of the rocky mores 
of Great Britain and Ireland, efpecially on the nor- 
thern coafts : in Wales it frequents the coafts of 
Caernarvon/hire, and Anglefey, It preys entirely 
on fifh, and never molefts the fea fowl : for I 
have feen numbers of each floating on the waves, 
as if in company. Seals eat their prey beneath the 
water ; and in cafe they are devouring any very 
oily fifh, the place is known by a certain fmoothnefs 

* In the AJkmolean Mufeum at Oxford, is a good picture of 
two white feals. 

t Vide The figure publifhed in the additional plates of the 
folio edition of this work. 

La of 


SEAL. Class I. 

of the waves immediately above. The power of 
oil in (tilling the waves excited by a (torm, is 
mentioned by Pliny : the moderns have made the 
experiment with fuccefs * •, and by that made one 
advance towards eradicating the vulgar prejudices 
againft that great and elegant writer. 

We mud acknowlege the obligations we were 
under to the Rev. Mr. Farrington of Dinas, in 
Caernarvon/hire, for feveral learned communicati- 
ons -, but in particular for the natural hiftory of 
this animal, which we mall give the public in his 
own word-;. 
Manners. ' The feals are natives of our coafts; and are 
c found mod frequently between Llyn in Caernar- 
*• vonjhire, and the northern parts of Anglefey : they 
c are feen often towards Carrig y mcelrhon, to the 
' weft of Bardfey, cr Tnys Enlli \ and the Skerries, 
1 commonly called in the Britifo language Tynys y 
1 moelrhaniad, or ieal ifland. The Latin name of 
'this amphibious animal is Phcca\\ the vulgar 
6 name is lea calf; and on that account, the male is 
c called the bull, and the female the cow ; but the 
1 Celtic appelative is Moelrhon, from the word 
' Mcely bald, or without ears, and Rbon 3 afpear or 
4 lance. 

* Phil Tranj. 1774. p. 445. 
f Doctor Cbarleion derives the word Quxv ex £taxrj, boatti 
quern edit : vide Exeratationes de dif. An. pije. p. 48. 
But I do not find any authority for his opinion. 

! They 

Class L SEA L. 

c They are excellent fwimmers, and ready di- 
c vers, and are very bold when in the fea, fwim- 
4 ming carelefsly enough about boats: their dens or 

* lodgements are in hollow rocks, or caverns, near 
'the fea; but out of the reach of the tide: in 

* the fummer they will come out of the water, to 

* bafk or fleep in the fun, on the top of large (tones, 

* or fhivers of rocks ; and that is the opportunity 
1 our countrymen take of mooting them : if they 

* chance to efcape, they haften towards their pro- 

* per element, flinging ftones and dirt behind them, 
6 as they fcramble along ; at the fame time expref- 

* fing their fears by piteous moans ; but if they 

* happen to be overtaken, they will make a vigo- 

* rous defence with their feet and teeth, till they 
c are killed. They are taken for the fake of their 
' fkins, and for the oil their fat yields : the former 
6 fell for four millings, or four and fix-pence a 

* piece; which, when dreffed, are very ufcful in 
' covering trunks, making waiftcoats, fliot pouch- 
' es, and feveral other conveniences.' 

The rlefn of thefe animals, and even of porpefes, 
formerly found a place at the tables of the great; as 
appears from the bill of fare of that vaft feaft that 
archbifhop Nevill gave in the reign cf Edward the 
fourth, in which is {ntn^ that feveral were provided 
on the occafion *. They couple about Aprils on 
large rocks, or fmall iflands, not remote from the 

* ^eland's Colleftanea, 

L 3 (bore ; 


S E A L. Class I, 

fhore ; and bring* forth in thofe vaft caverns that 
are frequent on our coafts ; they commonly bring 
two at a time, which in their infant ftate are 
covered with a whitifh down, or woolly fubftance. 
The feal-hunters in Cathnefs have aflured me that 
their orowth is fo fudden, that in nine tides from 
their birth (fifty-four hours) they will become 
as active as their parents. 

On the coaft of that county are immenfe. caverns 
opening into the fea, and running fome hundreds 
of yards beneath the land. Thefe are the refort of 
feals in the breeding time, where they continue 
till their young are old enough to go to lea, which 
is in about fix or feven weeks. The firft of thefe 
caves is near the Ord, the lad near Tbrumfter : 
their entrance fo narrow, as only to admit a boat ; 
their infide very fpatious and lofty. In the month 
of Otfober, or the beginning of November, the feal- 
hunters enter the mouths of the caverns about mid- 
night, and rowing up as far as they can, they land : 
each of them being provided with a bludgeon, 
and properly ftationed, light their torches, and 
make a great noife, which brings down the feals 
from the farther end in a confufed body with fear- 
full fhrieks and cries : at firft the men are obliged 
to give way for fear of being over-born ; but when 
the firft crowd is pari, they kill as many as draggle 
behind, chiefly the young, by finking them on the 
noie ; a very flight blow on that part difpatches 
them. When the work is over, they drag the feals 


Class I. SEA L. 145 

to the boat, which two men are left to guard. 
This is a mod hazardous employ; for fhould their 
torches go out, or the wind blow hard from fea 
during their continuance in the cave, their lives are 
loft. The young feals of fix weeks age, yield more 
oil than their emaciated dams : above eight gallons 
have been got from a fingle whelp, which fells 
from fix-pence to nine-pence per gallon ; the fkins 
from fix-pence to twelve-pence. 

The natural hiftory of this animal may be further 
elucidated, by the following extracts from a letter 
of the Rev. Dr. JVilliam Borlafe, dated Offober the 
24th, 1763. 

4 The feals are feen in the greateft plenty on the 
6 fhores of Cornwall, in the months of May, June, 
e and July, 

c They are of different fizes ; fome as large as a 
6 cow, and from that downwards to a fmall calf, 

' They feed on mod forts of fifh. which they can 
c mafter, and are feen fearching for their prey near 
c fhore, where the whiftling fifh, wraws, and 
4 polacks refort, 

c They are very fwift in their proper depth of 
c water, dive like a mot, and in a trice rife at fifty 
c yards diftance \ fo that weaker fifties cannot avoid 
6 their tyranny, except in fhallow water. A per- 
c fon of the parifh of Sennan, faw not long fince a 
6 feal in purfuit of a mullet (that ftrong and fwift 
c fifh) : the feal turned it to and fro 5 in deep water, 
? as a gre-hound does a hare : the mullet at laft 
• L & * found 

144 SEAL. Class I. 

c found it had no way to efcape, but by running 
c into fhoal water : the feal purfued ; and the for- 
c mer, to get more furely out of danger, threw it- 
c felf on its fide, by which means it darted into 
6 fhoaler water than it could have fwam in with the 
c depth of its paunch and fins, and fo efcaped. 

c The feal brings her young about the begin- 
c ning of autumn ; our rlihermen have feen two 
4 fucking their dam at the fame time, as (lie Hood 
c in the fea in a perpendicular pofition. 

4 Their head in fwnnming is always above 
c water, more fo than that of a dog. 

4 They Deep on rocks furrounded by the fea, or 
4 on the lefs accefiible parts of our cliffs, left dry 
c by the ebb of the tide; and if difturbed by any 
4 thing, take care to tumble over the rocks into 
6 the fea. They are extremely watchful, and ne- 
4 ver deep long without moving; feldom longer 
4 than a minute; then raife their head?, and if they 
c hear or fee nothing more than ordinary, lie down 
4 again, and fo on, raifing their heads a little, and 
c reclining them alternately, in about a minute's 
G time. Nature feems to have given them this 
4 precaution, as being unprovided with auricles, 
4 or external ears ; and confequently not hearing 
4 very quick, nor from any great diftance.' 

In Sir R. Sibbuld's hiftory of Scotland^ we find 
an account of another fpecies of the feal kind, 
vvhich is copied from Boethius. The animal he 
mentions is the fea-horfe, Walrus or Morfe : as this 


Glass I. SEAL. 

vaft creature is found in the Norwegian feas, we 
think it not improbable but that it may have ap- 
peared on the Scottijh coafls ♦, but having no better 
authority for it, than what is above-mentioned, we 
dare not give it a place in a Britijlo Zoology. The 
teeth of that animal are as white and hard as ivory -, 
but whether the stetpavriva ^a^, ivory bits, which 
Strabo * mentions among the articles of the Briiijh 
commerce, were made of them, or the tooth of 
the Narhwal* or of fome of the toothed whales, 
is not at this time eafy to be determined. But we 
may here remark that Solinus, in his account of 
Britain* informs us that the fine gentlemen of our 
iiland adorned the hilts of their fwords with the 
teeth of fea beads, which were as white as ivory 

* Strabo, Lib. iv. 200. 
f Polyhifi. C. XXXV. 


D 1 

146 BAT. Class I. 

D i v. IV. 

XX. BAT, With long extended toes to the fore-feet, con- 
nected by thin membranes, extending to the 

38. Great. ^a n oclu^ e de Buffon VIII. Tab. xviii. p. 128. 

Syn. quad. No. 287. 

IS a fpecies lefs common in Great-Britain than 
the fmaller. It ranges high in the air for food, 
and retires early in the fummer. 

Is the largeft we have : its extent of wing is 
fifteen inches : its length to the rump two inches 
eight tenths : of the tail one inch feven tenths. 

The nofe is (lightly bilobated : ears fmall and 
rounded : on the chin a minute verruca. Hair 
on the body a reddifh afh-color. 

They collect under eaves of buildings in vaft 
numbers. The Rev. Doctor Buchworth informed 
me that under thofe of Queen's College, Cambridge^ 
he faw taken in one night, one hundred and eighty- 
five ; the fecond night fixty-three : the third, two. 







twdlu cVi 



La Chauve-fouris a fer acheval. Horfe-fhoe Bat. Syn. quad. 39. Horse- 
De Buffon VIII. 131. 7fl£. No. 186. shoe. 

xvii. xx. 

THIS fpecies was difcovered by Mr. Latham 
Surgeon at Dartford, Kent \ who was fo oblig- 
ing as to communicate it to me. They are found 
in greateft numbers in the falt-petre houfes belong- 
ing to the powder mills ; and frequent them during 
the evening for the fake of the gnats which fwarm 
there. They have been alfo found during winter in 
a torpid (late clinging to the roof. They often feed 
on Chafers, but only eat the body. 

The length from the nofe to the tip of the tail 
is three inches and a half: the extent fourteen. At 
the end of the nofe is an upright membrane in 
form of a horfe-fhoe. Ears large 9 broad at their 
bafe, inclining backwards-, but want the little or in- 
ternal ear. The color of the upper part of the 
body is deep cinereous , of the lower whitifh. 

Ed-vj. a<v. 201. f. 3. Vefpertilio auritus. Lin. fyfi. 40. Dp n g 

Mb. iii. Tab. 10 1. ^ 47. _ eahd, 

La petite chauve fouris de V. auritus, nafo oreque lim- 

notre pays. BriJ)"on quad. plici, auriculis duplicatis, 

160. capite majoribus. Faun. 

L'oreillar. De Buffon, Tom. Suec. 3. 

yiii. 118. 127. Tab. 17. Br. Z00L $6. Syn. quad. No. 

f. 1. 292. 

THIS fpecies is the left of the Britifh bats : the 
length being only an inch and three quarters •, 
and the exfent of the fore- legs feven inches. 




Class I. 

The principal diftinction between this and the 
common kind, is the ears-, which in this are above 
an inch long, very thin, and almoft tranfparent : 
within each of thefe is a leffer ear, or at lead 
a membrane refembling one; which, as Mr. 
Edwards obferves, may poffibly ferve as a valve to 
clofe the larger, in the fleeping ftate of this a- 

41. Common. Vefpertilio. Bat, Flitter, or 

Flutter Moufe. Rail fyn. 

quad. 243. 
Short-earect Engltjb Bat. Ediv. 

a~j. 201. f. 2. 
Seb. Mus. i. 
The Rear Moufe. Charlton 

ex. 80. 
Meyer's an i. Tab. 3. 
Gefncr a~u. 766. 
Vefpertilio murini coloris, pe- 

dibus omnibus pentada&y- 

I i s . Brijfon quad. 158. 
La chauve iouris. De Biffin, 

Tom. viii. 113. Tab. 16. 
Vefpertilio murinus. Lin.fyfi. 

V. caudatus nafo oreque iim- 

plici. Faun. Suec. 2. 
V. major. Klein quad. 61. 
Vefpertilio. Plinii Lib. x, 

6. 61. 
Br, Zccl. 55. Syn. quad. No. 





La Chauve fouris 

Nottola, Notula, Spor- 
teglione, Vifprillrel- 
lo, Vilpiitrello 

Murcielago, Morcie- 

Port. Morcego 

Germ. Speckmaus, Fleder- 

Dut. Vledermuys 
S-ived. Laderlap, Fladermus 
Dan. Flagermuus, Aften- 


THIS fingular animal was placed by Plin)\ 
Gefner, Aldrovandus, and fome other natu- 
ralifts, among the birds : they did not confider, 
that it wanted every character of that order of 
animals, except the power of flying: if the irre- 

Class I. C O M M O N B A T. i 4 p 

gular, uncertain, and jerking motion * of the bat 
in the air, can merit the name of flight. No 
birds whatfoever are furniihed with teeth, or bring 
forth their young alive, and fuckle them : were 
other notes wanting, thefe would be fufficient to 
determine that the bat is a quadruped. 

The fpecies now defcribed, is the mod common: 
the ufual length of it is about two inches and a 
half: the extent of the fore-legs nine inches. 

The members that are ufually called the wings, 
are nothing more than the four interior toes of 
the fore-feet, produced to a great length, and 
connected by a thin membrane ; which extends 
alfo to the hind legs ; and from them to the tail : 
the firft toe is quite loofe, and ferves as a heel, 
when the bat walks; or as a hook, when it would 
adhere to any thing. The hind- feet are difengaged 
from the membrane, and divided into five toes, fur- 
nifhed with pretty flrong claws. The membranes 
are of a dufky color: the body is covered with 
fhort fur, of a moufe-color, tinged with red. The 
eyes are very fmall : the ears like thofe of the 

This fpecies of bat is very common in England: 
it makes its firft appearance early in the fummer, 
and begins its flight in the dufk of the evening: 
it principally frequents the fides of woods, glades, 
and fhady walks; and is alfo frequently obferved 

* The Englijh fynonym of this animal, Flitter y or Flutter 
moufe, is very expreffive of its adtion in the air, 


i 5 o COMMON BAT. Class L 

to fkim along the furface of pieces of water, in 
quell of gnats and infects : thefe are not its only 
food - 9 for it will eat meat of any kind that it bap* 
pens to find hanging up in a larder. 

The bat brings only two young at a time; which 
it fuckles from two teats placed on the bread, like 
thole of the human race. Thefe animals are capable 
of being brought to fome degree of familiarity. The 
Rev. Mr. White of Selborne has feen a bat fo far ta- 
med as to eat infects out of a perfon's hand ; and 
while it was feeding would bring its wings round 
before its mouth, hovering in the manner of birds 
of prey. 

Towards the latter end of fummer, the bat re- 
tires into caves,, ruined buildings, the roofs of hou- 
fes, or hollow trees - 9 where it remains the whole 
winter, in a ftate of inaction ; fufpended by the 
hind -feet, and clofely wrapped up in the mem- 
branes of the fore-feet. 

The voice of the bat is fomewhat like that of 
themoufe; but very low, and weak. Ovid takes 
notice both of that, and the derivation of its Latin 

Lucemque perofas 
Nocte volant, feroque tenent a vefpere nomen. 
Minimam pro corpore voceni 
Emittunt, peraguntque levi ftridore querelas. 

Met. lib. iv. 10. 
Their little bodies found 
No words, but murmur'd in a fainting found. 


Class I. C O M M O N B A T. 151 

In towns, not woods, the footy bats delight, 
And never till the dulk begin their flight; 
Till Vefper rifes with his evening flame; 
From whom the Romans have derived their name. 










R D 




Div. I. Order I. RAPACIOUS. 




A L C O N. 
O WL. 
























( 156 ) 






GR O U S. 




































XXIX. C U R L E W". 



( 157 ) 











A V O S E T. 




















( *5* ) 

EXPLANATION of some technical 


I . Cere. Cera 



4, Orbits. Or bit a 

5. Emargintitum 

6. Vibrijfte 

Baftard wing. 
Alula fpuria 



HE naked fkin that covers the 
bafe of the bill in the Hawk 

A word ufed by Linnaus to exprefs 
the fhort feathers on the forehead juft 
above the bill. In Crows thefe fall 
forwards over the noltrils. 

The fpace between the bill and the 
eye generally covered with feathers, 
but in fome birds naked, as in the 
black and white Grebe. 

The fkin that furrounds the eye, 
which is generally bare, particularly 
in the Heron and Parrot. 

A bill is called roftrum emarginatum 
when there is a fmall notch near the 
end : this is confpicuous in that of 
Butcher-birds and Thrujhes. 

Vibrijfa peclinatte, IHff hairs that 
grow on each fide the mouth, formed 
like a double comb, to be feen in the 
Goatfucker, Flycatcher ', &c. 

A fmall joint rifing at the end of 
the middle part of the wing, or the 

cubitus ; 

( *59 ) 

cubitus; on which are three or five 

8. Lefer coverts of The fmall feathers that lie in fe- 

the wings, veral rows on the bones of the wings. 
Te&rices pri- The under coverts are thofe that line 
mee the infide of the wings. 

9. Greater coverts. The feathers that lie immediate- 
Teclrices fecunda ly over the quil-feathers and fecondary 


10. Quil-feathers. The largeft feathers of the wings 5 

Primores or thofe that rife from the firfl bone. 

1 1 . Secondary feathers. Thofe that rife from the fecond. 


12. Coverts of the tail. Thofe that cover the bafe of the 

Uropygium tail. 

13. Vent-feathers. Thofe that lie from the vent to 

the tail. Crijfum Linnai. 

14. The tail. Reclrices 

15. Scapular feathers That rife from the moulders and 

cover the fides of the back. 

16. Nucha The hind part of the head. 

17. Rojlrum fubulatum A term Linnaus ufes for a ftrait 

and flender bill. 

18. To mew the ftru&ure of the feet 
of the Kingfifoer. 

1 9. Pes fcanforius The foot cf the Woodpecker formed 

for climbing. Climbing feet. 

20. Finned foot. Pes Such as thofe of the Grebes, &c. 
kbatus, pinnatus Such as are indented, a.sfg. 21. are 

M 4 called 

22. Pes tridaclylus 

( 160 ) 

called fcalloped, fuch are thofe of 
Coots and fcallop-toed Sandpipers, 

Such as want the back toe. 

23. Semi-palmated. Pes When the webs only reach half 
femi-palmatus way of the toes. 

24. Unguepojlicofejjili When the hind claw adheres to the 

leg without any toe, as in the Petrels. 

25. Digitis 4 omnibus All the four toes connected by webs 
palmatis as in the Cormorants. 

Explanation of other Linn^an 


Rojlrum cultratum WHEN the edges of the bill are 

very fharp,fuch as in that of the Cro-zv. 

Unguiculatum A bill with a nail at the end, as 

in thofe of the Goofanders and Ducks. 

Lingua ciliata When the tongue is edged with 

fine briftles, as in Ducks. 

Integra When quite plain or even. 

Lumbriciformis When the tongue is long, round 

and flender like a worm, as that of 
the Woodpecker. 

Pedes ccmpedes When the legs are placed fo far be- 

hind as to make the bird walk with 
difficulty, or as if in fetters ; as is the 
cafe with the Auks, Grebes and Divers. 

Kcres Lineares When the ncftrils are very narrow, 

as in Sea Gulls. 

Marginal With a rim round the noftrils, as in 

the Stare. 


Orffirn -P<r$e JO'O. 

Explanation of Tkohnicai. Terms 

!H /ff- 




li OIDOI, 
Printed for BerrjrWhite 



D i v. I. LAND BIRDS. 

Strong hooked BILL, the bafe covered with a I. F A L 

CERE or naked fkin. The firft joint of the 

middle toe connected to that of the outmoft by a 


Grand aigle royal. Belon av. 89. Orn. Faun. Suec./p. 54. 42. Golden- 

Aquila Germana. Ge/n. wv. 168. L' Aigle dore. Brijfon a<v. Eagle. 

Aquila, aguglia, Chryfaetos. I. 431. 

Aldr. I. 62. Golden eagle. Br. Zool. 61. 

Gnefios. Plinii lib. 10. c. 3. Tab. A. PI. Enl. 410. 

The golden eagle. Wil. orn. 8. Stein adler. Kram. 325. Sco- 

Aquila aurea, feu fulva. Rati poll. No. 1. 

fyn. a<v. 6. Le grand Aigle. Hift, 

Falco Chryfaetos. Lin. fyji, D'Oys. 1. j6. 


THIS fpecies is found in the mountanous 
parts of Ireland where it breeds in the lofti- 
eft cliffs : it lays three, and fometimes four eggs, 
of which feldom more than two are prolific; pro- 

162 GOLDEN EAGLE. Class II. 

vidence denying a large increafe to rapacious birds*, 
becaufe they are noxious to mankind ; but gracioufly 
bellowing; an almoft boundlefs one on iuch as are 
of ufe to us. This kind of eagle fometimes mi- 
grates into Caernarvon/hire, and there are inftances, 
though rare, of their having bred in Snowdon hills ; 
from whence fome writers give that trad the name 
of Creigiaifr eryrau, or the eagle rocks ; others that 
of Creigiatfr eira^ or the inowy rocks ; the latter 
feems the more natural epithet ; it being more rea- 
fonable to imagine thatthofe mountains, like Niph- 
ates in Armenia^ and Imausj in Tartary^ derived 
their name from the circumftance of being cover- 
ed with fnow, which is fure to befal them near the 
half of every year, than from the accidental ap- 
pearance of a bird on them, once only in feveral 
Descrip. The golden eagle weighs about twelve pounds; 
its length is three feet ; the extent of its wings fe- 
ven feet four inches ; the bill is three inches long, 
and of a deep blue color; the cere is yellow; the 
irides of a hazel color : the fight and fenfe of fmel- 
ling are very acute : her eyes behold afar off\ : the 
head and neck are cloathed with narrow fharp 
pointed feathers, and of a deep brown color, bor- 

* Tar; yxu.-^:oyjyjj)v oKiyoTona izavia,. A rift. hift. an. 

f Imaus incolarum lingua nivofum fignificante. Plin. 

lib. 6. c. 21. 

X Job 39, 27. Where the natural hiftory of the eagle is 
finely drawn up, 


Class II. GOLDEN EAGLE. 163 

dercd with tawny ; the hind part of the head in par- 
ticular is of a bright ruit-color. 

The whole body, above as well as beneath, is of 
a dark brown ; and the feathers on the back are 
finely clouded with a deeper {hade of the fame : the 
wings, when clofed, reach to the end of the tail : 
the quil feathers are of a chocolate color, the fhafts 
white : the tail is of a deep brown, irregularly bar- 
red and blotched with an obfcure afh color, and 
ufually white at the roots of the feathers : the legs 
are yellow, fhort, and very ftrong, being three in- 
ches in circumference, and are feathered to the 
very feet : the toes are covered with large fcales, 
and armed with moft formidable claws, the mid- 
dle of which are two inches long. 

Eagles in general are very deftructive to fawns, 
lambs, kids, and all kind of game \ particularly in 
the breeding feafon, when they bring a vaft quan- 
tity of prey to their young. Smithy in his hiftory 
of Kerry ) relates that a poor man in that county got 
a comfortable fubfiftence for his family, during a 
fummer of famine, out of an eagle's neft, by rob- 
bing the eaglets of the food the old ones brought, 
whole attendance he protracted beyond the natural 
time, by clipping the wings and retarding the flight 
of the former. It is very unfafe to leave infants 
in places where eagles frequent; there being in- 
ftances in Scotland* of two being carried off by them, 
but fortunately, 

* Martin's hift. Weft. Ijles, 299. Sib, bift, Scot. 14. 


1 64 GOLDENEAGLE. Class II. 

Ulsefum unguibus haefit onus. 

the theft was difcovered in time, and the children 
reftored unhurt out of the eagles nefts, to the af- 
frighted parents. In order to extirpate thefe per- 
nicious birds, there is a law in the Orkney ifles, 
which entitles any perfon that kills an eagle to an 
hen out of every houfe in the parifh, in which it 
was killed*. 

Eagles feem to give the preference to the carcaffes 
of dogs or cat?. Perfons, who make it their bufi- 
nefs to kill thefe birds, lay that of one or other 
by way of bait ; and then conceal themfelves within 
gun-mot. They fire the inftant the eagle alights, 
for me that moment looks about before fhe begins 
to prey. Yet quick as her fight may be, her 
fenfe of hearing feems (till more exquifite. If 
hooded crows or ravens happen to be nearer the 
carrion and refort to it firft, and give a fingle croak, 
the eagle is certain of inftantly repairing to the 
ipot, if there is one in any part of the neigh- 
Longevity. Eagles are remarkable for their longevity ; and 
for their power of fuftaining a long abftinence 
from food. Mr. Keyfler relates that an eagle died 
at Vienna after a confinement of 104 years. This 
preeminent length of days probably gave occafion 

* Camden 1 s Brit. I. 1474. The impreffion of an eagle and 
child on the coin of the IJle of Man, was probably owing to 
feme accident of this kind, 


Class II. BLACK EAGLE. 165 

to the faying of the Psalmist, thy youth is renewed 
like the eagle's. One of this fpecies, which was 
nine years in the porTefiion of Owen Holland, 
Efq; of Conway, lived thirty-two years with the 
gentleman who made him a prefent of it; but what 
its age was when the latter received it from Ireland 
is unknown. The fame bird alfo furnifhes a proof 
of the truth of the other remark, having once, 
through the neglect of fervants, endured hunger 
for twenty-one days, without any fuftenance what- 

Golden eagle, with a white ring Falco fulvus. Lin. fyft. 125. 43. Black 

about its tail. WiL orn. 59. Brijfon av.I. \zo. Hi ft. d'oys. Eagle. 
Raii fyn. a<v. 6. I. 86. 

White tailed eagle. Edw. 1. Ring-tail Eagle. Br. Z00L 

62. PL Enl 409. 

THIS bird is common to the northern parts De scrip, 
of Europe and America -, that figured by 
Mr. Edwards, differing only in fome white fpots 
on the bread, from our fpecies. It is frequent in 
Scotland, where it is called the Black Eagle, from 
the dark color of the plumage. It is very deftruc- 
tive to deer, which it will feize between the horns, 
and by inceflantly beating it about the eyes with 
its wings, foon makes a prey of the haraflcd animal. 
The eagles in the ifle of Rum have nearly extirpated 
the (lags that ufed to abound there. This fpecies 
generally builds in clefts of rocks near the deer 

forefts \ 

166 BLACK EAGLE Class II. 

forefls ; and makes great havoke not only among 
them, but alfo the white hares and Ptarmigans. 

It is equal in fize to the preceding: the bill is of 
a blackifh horn color -, the cere yellow, the whole 
body is of a deep brown, (lightly tinged with ruft 
color ; but what makes a long description of this 
kind unnecefTary, is the remarkable band of white 
on the upper part of the tail ; the end only being 
of a deep brown : which character it maintains 
through every ilage of life, and in all countries 
where it is found. The legs are feathered to the 
feet : the toes yellow, the claws black. Mr. JVil- 
highby gives the following very curious account of 
the nefl of this fpecies, p. 21. 
Nest, 'In the year of our Lord 1668, in the woodlands 

' near the river Derwent, in the Peak of Derby/tire^ 
6 was found an eagle's neft made of great fticks, 
c refting; one end on the edge of a rock, the other 
6 on two birch trees ; upon which was a layer of 
6 rufhes, and over them a layer of heath, and up- 
4 on the heath rufhes again ; upon which lay one 
4 young one, and an addle egg ; and by them a 
1 lamb, a hare, and three heath poults. The 
6 neft was about two yards fquare, and had no 
' hollow in it. The young eagle was black as a 
6 hobby, of the fhape of a gofhawk, of almoft the 
4 weight of a goofe, rough footed, or feathered 
' down to the foot : having a white ring about the • 
' tail.' 

Mr. Willugbh imagines, his firft pygargus, or 





. . .; 

Class II. S E A E A G L E. 167 

white tailed eagle, p. 61. to be but a variety of 
this, having the fame characleriftic mark, and dif- 
fering only in the pale color of the head. 

The antients believed, that the pebble, com- 
monly called the a?tites*, or eagle done, was form- 
ed in the eagle's neft •, and that the eggs could not 
be hatched without its afllflance. Many abfurd 
ftories have been raifed about this foffil, which (as 
it bears but an imaginary relation to the eagle) 
mult be omitted in a zoologic work. 

Bein-brecher, Offifraga, Meer- Sea eagle. Dale's Harwich, . . g EA 

adler, Fifch-arn, Haliseetos. 396. * gle. 

Gefner a<v. 201. 203. Martin's hiji. Weft, ijles 70. 

Haliaetos. humeri. Le grand aigle de mer. Brif- 

Auguiita barbata, Offifraga. /on a<v. i. 437. 

Aldr. av. i. 118. Sea eagle. Br. Zool. 63. PL 

Haliaeetos. P Unit lib. 10. c. 3. Enl. 112. 415. 

Sib, hift. Scot. 14. Falco offifragus. Lin. fyft. 

Sea eagle, or ofprey. WiL orn. 124. 

59. Gaafe orn. Brunnich 13. 

Raii fyn. a<v. 7. L'Orfrair. Hift. d'oys. I. 1 12. 

THIS fpecies is found in Ireland, and fevera! 
parts of Great Britain -, the fpecimen we took 
our defcription from, was fhot in the county of 
Galway : Mr. Willughby tells us there was an aery 

* If the reader's curiofity fhould be excited, we refer him 
for information to Pliny, lib. x. c. 3. lib. xxx. c. 21. to 
Boetius de gemmis, p. 375. to Dr. Woodward's catalogue of 
foffils, vol. i. p. 53. c. 268 ? 269. and Grew's Rarities, p. 297. 


i«8 S E A E A G L E. Class II. 

of them in JVhinfield-park, Weftmoreland ; and the 
eagle foaring in the air, with a cat in its talons, 
which Barlow drew from the very fact which he faw 
in Scotland* i is of this kind. The cat's refiftance 
brought both animals to the ground, when Barlow 
took them up ; and afterwards caufed the event to 
be engraved in the thirty-fixth plate of his collec- 
tion of prints. Turner fays, that in his days, it 
was too well known in England, for it made hor- 
rible deftruction among the fifli ; he adds, the 
fifhermen were fond of anointing their baits with 
the fat of this bird, imagining that it had a peculiar 
alluring quality : they were fuperftitious enough 
to believe that whenever the fea eagle hovered over 
a piece of water, the fifh, (as if charmed) would 
rife to the furface with their bellies upwards; 
and in that manner prefent themfelves to him. 
No writer fince Clujius has defcribed the fea eagle ; 
though no uncommon fpecies, it feems at prefent 
to be but little known •, being generally confound- 
ed with the golden eagle, to which it bears fome 
Descrip. The color of the head, neck and body, are the 

fame with the latter ; but much lighter, the tawny 
part in this predominating : in fize it is far fupe- 
rior -, the extent of wings in fome being nine or ten 
feet. The bill is larger, more hooked, and more 
arched -, underneath grow feveral ihort, but flrong 
hairs or bridles, forming a fort of beard. This 

* Mr. JValpoWs catalogue of engravers, p. 49. 


Class II. SEA EAGLE. 169 

gave occafion to fome writers to fuppofe it to be the 
aquila barbata or bearded eagle of Pliny. The in- 
terior fides, and the tips of the feathers of the tail, 
are of a deep brown ; the exterior fides of forne are 
ferruginous, in others blotched with white. The 
legs are yellow, ftrong and thick; and feathered but 
little below the knees ; which is an invariable fpe- 
cific difference between this and our firft fpecies. 
This nakedncfs of the legs is befides no fmall con- 
venience to a bird who preys among the waters. 
The claws are of a deep and mining black, ex- 
ceedingly large and ftrong, and hooked into a per- 
fect femicircle ; thofe of the hind and firfl toe are 
an inch and a half long. 

All writers agree, that this eagle feeds principal- F ° ° Df 
ly on fifh •, which it takes as they are fwimming 
near the furface *, by darting itfelf down on them ; 
not by diving or fwimming, as feveral authors 
have invented, who furnifh it for that purpofe 
with one webbed foot to fwim with, and another 
divided foot to take its prey with. Pliny y with his 
ufual elegance, defcribes the manner of its Billing. 
Superefi haliaetos^ clarijfima oculorum acie, librans ex 
alto fefe, vifoque in mari pifee, praceps in eum ruens, 
et difcuffis pefiore aquis rapiens. 

* Martin, fpeaking of what he calls the great eagles in the 
weftern ifles, fays, that they fallen their talons in the back of 
the fifh, commonly of falmon, which are often above water, 
or on the furface. Thofe of Greenland will even take a young 
feal out of the water. 

Vol. I. N It 

i;© ERNE. Class II. 

It alfo preys on water fowl. The fame writer 
prettily defcribes the chace, an amufernent the in- 
habitants near the large lakes formed by the Shan- 
non frequently enjoy. 

It is ftrange that authors fhould give the name 
of Nifus to the fparrow hawk, when Ovid exprefsly 
mentions this as the bird to which the father of 
Scylla was transformed. 

Quam pater ut vidit (nam jam pendebat in auras 
Et modo factus erat fulvis Hali^etos alis) 
Ibat, ut h^rentem roflro ianiaret adunco. 

A hawk from upper air came pouring down, 
('Twas Nifus cleft the air with wings new grown.) 
At Scylla' 's head his horny bill he aims. 


45. Cine re- Fygargus, or white tailed ea- Pygargus hinnularius, an 
ous. gle. Wil. orn. 61. Erne. Sib. Scot. 

Rcii fyn. a-~o. 7. Brijfon I, Vultur albiulla. Lin.fyfi. 123. 

427. Brsunfahle Adler. Frifcbl. 70. 

Ern. Br. Zool. PI. EnL 411. Gamfen geyer. Kram. 326. 

Hijt. dOys. 1. 99. Poftoina. Scopoli. No. 2. 

Descrip. f S inferior in fize to the golden eagle: the beak, 


cere and irides are of a very pale yellow \ the 
fpace between that and the eyes bare, and of a blu- 
ifh color. The head and neck are of a pale afh- 
color : the body and wings cinereous clouded with 





Ma,Al U 


brown, the quil feathers very dark: the tail white: 
the legs feathered but little below the knees, and 
of a very light yellow. The male is of a darker 
color than the female. 

The bill of this is rather ftraiter than is nfual 
in the eagle, which feems to have induced Linnxus 
to place it among the vultures -, but it can have no 
clame to be ranked with that genus, for the pygar- 
gus is wholly feathered ; whereas, the chara&erif- 
tical mark of the vulture is, that the head and neck 
are either quite bare, or only covered with down. 

Inhabits Scotland, and the Orknies, and feeds on 
fifh, as well as on land animals. 


Falconry was the principal amufementofour an- 
ceftors : a perfon of rank fcarce flirred out with- 
out his hawk on his hand ; which, in old paint- 
ings, is the criterion of nobility. Harold, af- 
terwards king of England, when he went on a 
moft important embafly into Normandy, is paint- 
ed embarking with a bird on his fift, and a dog 
under his arm * : and in an antient picture of the 
nuptials of Henry VI. a nobleman is reprefented 
in much the fame manner f ; for in thofe days, It 
was thought fufficient for noblemen's fons towinde their 

* Monfaucon monumens de la monarcbie franc oife t I. 372, 
f Mr. Walpole'; anecdotes of painting, I. 33. 

N 2 horn 


172 FALCONRY. Class II. 

horn and to carry their hawk fair, and leave ftudy 
and learning to the children of mean people *. T he 
former were the accomplimments of the times ; 
Spenfer makes his gallant Sir Triftram boaft, 

Ne is there hauke which mantleth her on pearch, 
Whether high tcwring, or accoafting low, 

But I the meafure of her flight doe fearch, 
And all her pray, and all her diet know f . 

In fhort, this diverfion was, among the old Engli/h, 
the pride of the rich, and the privilege of the poor, 
no rank of men feems to have been excluded the 
amufement: we learn from the book of St. Albans^ 
that every degree had its peculiar hawk, from the 
emperor down to the holy water clerk. Vaft was 
the expence that fometimes attended this fport; in 
the reign of James I. Sir Thomas Monfon || is faid 
to have given a thoufand pounds for a caft of 
hawks : we are not then to wonder at the rigor of 
the laws that tended to preferve a pleafure that was 
carried to fuch an extravagant pitch. In the 34th 
of Edward III. it was made felony to ileal a hawk: 
to take its eggs, even in a perfon's own ground, 
was punifhable with imprifonment for a year and 
a day -, befides a fine at the king's pleafure : in 
queen Elizabeth's reign the imprifonment was re- 
duced to three months ; but the offender was to 

* Biog. Brit, article Caxton. 

f Book VI. Canto 2. 
% A treatife on hunting, hawking and heraldry, printed at 
St Albans by Caxton, and attributed to Dame Julian Barnes. 
|| Sir Jnt, WeUion\ court of K. James. 105. 



find fecurity for his good behaviour forfeven years, 
or lie in prifon till he did. Such was the enviable 
flate of the times of old England: during the whole 
day our gentry were given to the fowls of the air, 
and the beafts of the field : in the evening they ce- 
lebrated their exploits with the mod abandoned and 
brutifh fottifhnefs : at the fame time the inferi- 
or rank of people, by the moft unjuft and arbitrary 
laws, were liable to capital punifhments, to fines, 
and lofs of liberty, for deftroying the moft noxious 
of the feathered tribe. 

According to Olearius, the diverfion of falconry 
is more followed by the Tartars and Perfians, than 
ever it was in any part of Europe. II n'y avoit 
point de butte qui n'euft Jon aigle ou fon faucon** 

Our anceftors made ufe of feveral kinds of na- 
tive hawks ; though that penetrating and faithful 
naturalift Mr. Ray^ has left us only the bare name 
of a falcon in his lift of the Englijh birds, without 
mentioning the fpecies. 

The falcons or hawks that were in ufe in thefe 
kingdoms, are now found to breed in Wales, and 
in North-Britain^ and its ifles. The peregrine fal- 
con inhabits the rocks of Caernarvon/hire. The 
fame fpecies, with the gyrfalcon, the gentil, and the 
go/hawk are found in Scotland^ and the fanner in 

We may here take notice that the Norwegian 
breed was, in old times, in high efteem with our coun- 

* Tom. I. 217. 328. 

N 3 trymen : 


174 O S P R E Y. Class II, 

trymen : they were thought bribes worthy a king. 
Jeoffrey Fitzpierre gave two good Norway hawks 
to king John, to obtain for his friend the liberty 
of exporting ioo weight of cheefe : and Nicholas 
the Dane was to give the king a hawk every time 
he came into England, that he might have free li- 
berty to traffick throughout the king's dominions*. 
They were alfo made the tenures that fome of our 
nobility held their eftates by, from the crown. 
Thus Sir John Stanley had a grant of the IJle of 
Man from Henry IV. to be held of the king, his heirs 
and fucceffors, by homage and the fervice of two 
falcons, payable on the day of his or their corona- 
tion f. And Philipp de Haftang, held his manour 
of Comber toun, in Cambridge/hire, by the fervice of 
keeping the king's falcons J. 

4.6. Osprey. Une Orfraye. Belon. a<v. 96. Bald Buzzard, or Tea eagle. 

Fifch-adler, MafTwy, Aquila Raiijyn. av. 16. 

anataria, Clanga, Planga, Fifhing hawk. Catejby's Carol. 

Percnos, Morphnos. Gef- I. Tab. 2. 

ner. a-v. 196. Falco cyanopus. Klein Stem. 

Halistus, feu aquila marina. Tab. 8. 

Gejher a-v. 804.. Falco Haliastus. Lin.fyft. 129. 

Balbuiriardus. Turneri. Blafot, Fifk-orn. Faun. Suec. 

Auguifta piurnbina, Aquilaf- fp. 63. 

tro, Haliaetus, feu Mor- Aigle de mer. BriJ/bn a<v. I. 

phnod. Aldr. av. I. 105. 440. Tab. 34. Hift. d'Oys. 

114. I. 103. 

Haliaetus. Caii opufc. 85. The Ofprey. Br. Zool. 63. Tab. 

Bald Buzzard. Wil. orn. 69. A. 1. PI. Enl. 414. 

Fifk-oern. Brunnich, p. 5. 

R. Ray places this bird among the hawks, 
inftead of the eagles, on a fuppofition that 

* Madox antiq. exchequer. I. 469, 470. 
f Bhtnt's antient tenures. 20. 
X Madox I. 6^2. 



Class II. O S P R E Y. 17$ 

Mr. Willughhy had exceeded in his account of its 
weight ; but as we had an opportunity of confirm- 
ing the words of the latter, from one of this fpecies 
juft taken, we here reftore it to the aquiline rank, 
under the name of the Ofprey : which was the name 
it was known by in England above one hundred and 
fixty years ago ; as appears by Dr. Kay, or Cairn's 
defcription of it, who alio calls it an eagle. 

This bird haunts rivers, lakes, and the fea- 
fhores. It builds its neft on the ground among Neot - 
reeds, and lays three or four white eggs of an el- 
liptical form ; rather lefs than thofe of a hen. 
It feeds chiefly on fifh *, taking them in the fame Fdod, 
manner as the fea eagle does, by precipitating itfelf 
on them, not by fwimming ; its feet being formed 
like thofe of other birds of prey, for the left is not 
at all palmated, as fome copying the errors of anti- 
ent writers, aifert it to be. The Italians compare 
the violent defcent of this bird on its prey, to the 
fall of lead into water, and call it, Auguifta piumbi- 
na, or the leaden eagle. 

The bird here defcribedwas afemale; its weight Descrip. 
was fixty-two ounces : the length twenty-three in- 
ches : the breadth five feet four inches : the wing 
when clofed reached beyond the end of the tail : 
that, as in all the hawk kind, confifts of twelve 
feathers : the two middle feathers were dufky \ 

* burner fays it preys alfo on coots, and other water fowl. 
N 4 th§ 

ij6 O S P R E Y. Class II. 

the others barred alternately on their inner webs 
with brown and white : on the joint of the wing 
next the body was a fpot of white : the quil fea- 
thers of the wings were black ; the fecondary fea- 
thers and the coverts dufky, the former having their 
interior webs varied with brown and white. The 
Head. J nner coverts white fpotted with brown. The head 
fmall and flat, the crown white marked with oblong 
dufky fpots. The cheeks, chin, belly and breaft 
white, the laft fpotted with a dull yellow : from 
the corner of each eye is a bar of brown that ex- 
tends along the fides of the neck pointing towards 
Legs, the wing. The legs very fhort, thick and flrong : 
their length being only two inches and a quarter ; 
their circumference two inches : their color a pale 
blue : the outward toe turns eafily backwards, and 
what merits attention, the claw belonging to it is 
larger than that of the inner toe ; in which it dif- 
fers from all other birds of prey ; but feems pecu- 
liarly necelTary to this kind, for better fecuring its 
flippery prey : the roughnefs of the foles of the 
feet contributes to the fame end. The difference 
in weight, and other trifling particulars, makes us 
imagine that the bird Mr. Willughby faw was a 
male -, as the females of all the hawk kind, are 
larger, (Ironger, and fiercer than the males ; the 
defence of their young, and the providing them 
food, reding chiefly on them. 


51. 21X1. 

Tlxc (fmTALCOK 

■1 m. , ;w 

Class II. GYRFALCO N. 177 

Le Gerfault. Bekn a<v. 94 F. Iflandus albus. Brunnicb 47. Gyrfal- 
Gyrfalco. Aldr. am. I. 243. 7. 8. con. 

Jer-falcon. Wil. orn. 78. Le Gerfault. Brijfon a<v. I. 
Gyrfalco. Raiijyn. a<v. 13. 370. 

White Falcon. Wih orn. Sib. Scot. 14. 

'80. Charlton Ex, 3 1 7. 

THIS elegant fpecies is not much inferior in fize Descrip. 
to the Ofprey. The hides dufky : the bill is 
very much hooked and yellow. The throat is of a 
pure white : the whole plumage of the fame co- 
lor, but marked with dufky lines, fpots or bars : 
the head, bread and belly with narrow lines, thinly 
fcattered and pointing down : the wings with large 
heart-fhaped fpots : the middle feathers of the tail 
with a few bars : the feathers on the thighs are ve- 
ry long, and of a pure white \ the legs of a pale 
blue, and feathered a little below the knees. This 
kind is fometimes found quite white: it was a 
bird in high efteem when falconry was in vogue, 
and ufed for the nobleft game, fuch as cranes and 

This is the Gyrfalco of all the ornithologifts 
except Linnaeus, whofe bird we are totally unac- 
quainted with : though he gives feveral of their 
fynonyms, his defcription differs entirely from each 
of them. Inhabits the north of Scotland -, fhot near 



48. Pere- Belon a-v. 116. Ditto. Br. Zool Tab. A *. 5. 

grine. Falco peregrinus niger. Aldr, Sparviere pellegrino femmina. 

a<v. 1. 239. Lorenzi a<v. Tab. 24. 

Blue backed falcon. Qhafl. Le Faucon pelerin. BriJJon wv. 

Ex. 73. I. 341. Hift. D' Oys. I. 249. 

Descrip. -w-jfi fl ze e q Ua l to the moor-buzzard : the bill 
A ftrong, fhort, and very much hooked, armed 
near the end of the upper mandible with a very 
fharp procefs : blue at the bafe, black at the point : 
the irides duiky. 

The feathers on the forehead whitifli : the crown 
of the head black mixed with blue : the hind part 
cf the neck black : the back, fcapulars, and coverts 
of the wings, elegantly barred with deep blue and 
black. The quil feathers dufky, marked with el- 
liptical white fpots placed tranfverfe : the inner co- 
verts croffed with black and white bars : the throat 
white : the fore part of the neck, and upper part 
of the breaft white flightly tinged with yellow, the 
laft marked with a few fmall dufky lines pointing 
downwards. The reft of the breaft, the belly, 
thighs and vent feathers, white inclining to grey, 
and crofted with dufky ftrokes pointed in their 
middle. The tail confifts of feathers of equal length, 
finely and frequently barred with blue and black. 
The legs fhort and yellow : the toes very long. 

This fpecies feems to vary : we have feen one 





that was mot in Hampjhire, jufl as it had flruck 
down a Rook and was . tearing it to pieces. The 
whole under fide of the body was of a deep dirty- 
yellow., but the black bars were the fame as in 
that above defcribed. The weight of this was two 
pounds eight ounces ; the breadth thirty eight 

This fpecies breeds on the rocks of Llandidno in 
Caernarvon/hire, That promontory has been long 
famed for producing a generous kind, as appears 
by a letter extant in Gloddaeth library, from the 
lord treafurer Burleigh to an anceftor of Sir Roger 
Moftyn, in which his lordfhip thanks him for a pre- 
fent of a fine caft of hawks taken on thofe rocks, 
which belong to the family. They are alfo very 
common in the north of Scotland-, and are fome- 
times trained for falconry by fome few gentlemen 
who frill take delight in this amufement in that part 
of Great Britain. Their flight is amazingly rapid : 
one that was reclamed by a gentleman in the mire 
oi Angus, a county on the eaft fide of Scotland, e- ~ 
loped from his mafter with two heavy bells to 
each foot, on the twenty-fourth of September ijji, 
and was killed in the morning of the twenty-fixth, 
near Moftyn, Flint/hire. 



49. Grey. Grey Falcon. Br. Zoology, 65. Ofiavo I. 137. 

THIS kind was fhot near Halifax 1762, and 
the following account tranfmitted to us by 
Descrip. Mr. Bolton, oiWorly- dough. This bird was about 
the fize of a raven : the bill was ftrong, fhort, 
much hooked, and of a bluifh color : the cere, 
and edges of the eye-lids yellow : the irides red : 
the head was fmall, flatted at the top •, the fore part 
of a deep brown ; the hind part white : the fides 
of the head and throat were creme colored : the 
belly white, marked with oblong black fpots : the 
hind part of the neck, and the back were of a deep 
grey : the wings were very long, and when clofed 
reached beyond the train : the firft of the quil fea- 
thers were black, with a white tip j the others were 
of a bluifh grey, and their inner webs irregularly 
fpotted with white : the tail was long, and wedge 
fhaped; the two middle feathers being the long- 
eft, were plain, (the color not mentioned) the reft 
fpotted : the legs were long, naked, and yellow. 







Gentil Falcon. Wtl orn. 80. Lin.fyft. 126. 5°' Gentil, 

Raiifyn. a<v. Falk. Faun. Suec. lp. 58. 

Falco gentilis. F. cere pedi- Kram. Aujlr. 328. 

busque flavis, corpore cine- Falco gentilis. Brun. No. 6. 

reomaculis fufcis, cauda fuf- Scopoli, No. 3. 

cis quatuor nigricantibus. L'Autour. Hift.d'Oys. 1.230. 

THIS fpecies of an elegant make is larger than 
the gofhawk. Cere, and legs yellow ; irides 
light yellow : pupil large and of a full black : head 
light ruft color, with oblong black fpots : whole 
under fide from chin to tail white, tinged with 
yellow : each feather marked with heartfhaped 
dufky fpots pointing down : back brown : quil 
feathers dufky ; barred on the out-moft web with 
-black, on the lower part of the inner with white. 
Coverts of the wings, and the fcapulars, brown 
edged with ruft color : wings reach only one half 
the length of the tail. The tail barred with four 
or five bars of black, and the fame of cinereous : 
the firfl edged above and below with a line of dull 
white. The very tips, all the tail feathers white. 

The young birds vary in having on their breafls 
tranfverfe bars inflead of cordated fpots, as in the 
fpecimen, Plate 

This fpecies inhabits the north of Scotland-, and 
was in high efteem as a bold and fpirited bird in 
the days of falconry. It makes its nefl in rocks. 



182 L A N N E R. Class IL 

51. Lanner. The Lanner. Wil. orn. 82. FalcoLanarius. Lin.fyjl. 129* 
Lanarius. Rati fyn. a<v. 15. Faun, Suec. fp. 62. 

THIS fpecies breeds in Ireland : the bird our 
defcription is taken from, was caught in a 
decoy in Lincoln/hire, purfuing fome wild ducks 
under the nets, and communicated to us by 'Taylor 
White Efq-, under the name of the Lanner, 
Descrip. It was lefs than the buzzard. The cere was of 

a pale greenifli blue ; the crown of the head of a 
brown and yellow clay color : above each eye, 
to the hind part of the head, pailed a broad white 
line ; and beneath each, a black mark pointing 
down : the throat white : the breaft tinged with 
dull yellow, and marked with brown fpots pointing 
downwards : the thighs and vent fpotted in the fame 
manner : back and coverts of the wings deep brown, 
edged with a paler : quil feathers dufky : the inner 
webs marked with oval ruft colored fpots : the tail 
was fpotted like the wings. 

The legs fhort and ftrong, and of a bluifh caft, 
which Mr. Willughby fays, are the characters of that 
bird. We are here to obferve, that much caution 
is to be ufed in defcribing the hawk kind, no 
birds being fo liable to change their colors the two 
or three firft years of their lives : inattention to this 




Class II. LAN * E R. 183 

has caufed the number of hawks to be multiplied 
far beyond the reality. The marks to be attended 
to as forming the characters of the fpecies, are 
thofe on the quil feathers and the tail, which do 
not change. Another reafon for this needlefs in- 
creafe of the fpecies of this tribe of birds, is ow- 
ing to the names given to the fame kinds in differ- 
ent periods of their lives, by the writers on fal- 
conry, which ornithologifts have adopted and de- 
fcribed as diftincl: kinds : even Mr. Ray has been 
obliged to copy them. The falcon, the falcon 
gentil, and the haggard, are made diftincl fpecies, 
whereas they form only one : this is explained by 
a French author, who wrote in the beginning of 
the laft century, and effectually clears up this pointy 
lpeaking of the falcon, he tells us, " S'il eft prins 
" en Juiti) Juillet & Aouft 9 vous le nommerez 
" Gentil: ft en Septembre, Oclobre, Novembre ou 
" Decembre, vous le nommerez Pellerin ou Pajfa- 
" ger : s'il eft prins en Janvier^ Feburier et Mars, 
" il fera nomme Antenere : et apres eftre mue une 
<c fois et avoir change fon cerceau, non aupara- 
w vant, vous le dires Hagar, mot Hebrieu, qui fig- 
" nifie eftranser * " 

* La fauconnerie de Charles d^ArcuJJla feigneur d'Efparron, 
p. 14. $mt edit, Paris 1607, 


184 GOSHAWK. Class II. 

52. Gos- Autour. Belon a<v. 112. I/Atour, Aflur. Brijfon a<v. 
hawk. Gefner av. 5. i. 317. 

Aldr.av.i. 181. GroffergepfeilterFalck.^r//^. 

Sib. Scot. 15. I. 82. 

Gofhawk, accipiter palumba- Aftore. Z/»a« 87. 

rius. /F/7. a«i;. 85. Falco palumbarius. Lin.fyjl. 

Rail fyn. a<v. 1 8. 130. 



HE gofhawk is larger than the common 
buzzard, but of a longer and more elegant 
form. The bill is blue towards the bafe, black 
at the tip : the cere a yellowifh green : over each 
eye is a white line ; and on the fide of the neck is. 
a bed of broken white : the head, hind part of the 
neck, back and wings are of a deep brown color : 
the breaft and belly white, beautifully marked with 
numerous tranfverfe bars of black and white : the 
tail is long, of a brownifh afh-color, marked with 
four or five dufky bars placed remote from each 

The legs are yellow : the claw of the back, and 
that of the inner toe very large and ftrong. 

This fpecies and the fparrow hawk, are diftin- 
guifhed by Mr. Willughby by the name of fhort 
winged hawks, becaufe their wings, when clofed, 
fall fhort of the end of the tail. 

The gofhawk was in high efteem among falcon- 
ers, and flown at cranes, geefe, pheafants and par- 
tridges. It breeds in Scotland, and builds its neft 




■J^zjJJc ■ 

/tfbsuj£{~ T'ot-'l' 

Class II. KITE. 185 

in trees ; is very destructive to game, and dafhes 
through the woods after its quarry with vaft im- 
petuofity ; but if it cannot catch the object of its 
purfuit almoft immediately, defifts, and perches on 
a bough till fome new game prefents itfelf. 

Le Milan royal. Belon a<v. 129. Falco milvus. Lin.fyft. 126. 53. Kite, 

Milvus. Gefn. a<v. 609. Glada. Faun, Suec.fp. $y. 

Glede, Puttok, Kyte Turneri. Le Milan royal. BriJJon av. 

Milvio, Nichio. Aid. a<v. i. 201. i. 414. Tab. 33. Hijl. 

Kite, or Glead. Wil. orn. 74. d'Oys. 1. 197. 

Milvus. Plinii lib. x. c. 10. JSFibbio. Zinan. 82. 

Raiijyn. a<v. 17. The Kite. Br. Zool. 66. 

Rother Milon. Kram. 326. Tab. A. 2. PL EnL 422. 

Glente. Brunnich 3. 

THE kite generally breeds in large forefts, or 
wooded mountanous countries : its neft is 
made externally with flicks, lined with feveral odd 
materials, fuch as rags, bits of flannel, rope, and 
paper. It lays two, or at mod three eggs : which, 
like thofe of other birds of prey, are much round- 
ed, and blunt at the fmaller end ; they are white, 
fpotted with a dirty yellow. Its motion in the air 
difringuifhes it from all other birds ; being fo fmooth 
and even, as to be fcarce perceptible ; fometimes it 
will remain quite motionlefs for a confiderable 
fpace \ at others glides through the fky, without 
the lean: apparent action of its wings : from thence 
is derived the old name of Glead, or Gkdc, from 
Vol. I. O the 

1 86 KITE. Class H. 

the Saxon Glida. Lord Bacon obferves, that when 
kites fly high, it portends fair and dry weather. 
Some have iuppoled thefe to be birds of paflage ; 
but in England they certainly continue the whole 
year. Clufius relates * that when he was in London^ 
he obferved a mod amazing number of kites that 
flocked there for the fake of the offals, &c. which 
were flung in the flreets. They were fo tame as to 
take their prey in the midfl of the greateft crowds - s 
and it was forbidden to kill them. 

The tail of this kind is fufficient to diftinguifh it 
from all other Britijh birds of prey, being forked. 
Pliny thinks that the invention of the rudder arofe 
from the obfervation men made of the various mo- 
tions of that part, when the kite was fleering 
through the airf. Certain it is that the moft 
ufeful arts were originally copied from ani- 
mals ♦, however we may now have improved up- 
on them. Still in thofe nations which are in a 
(late of nature, (fuch as the Samoieds and Efqui- 
maux) their dwellings are inferior to thofe of the 
beavers, which thofe fcarcely human beings but 
poorly copy. 
Descrip. The weight of this fpecies is forty-four ounces: 
the length twenty-feven : the breadth five feet one 
inch. The bill is two inches long, and very much 

* Be/on obf. ad finem C/us. exot. 108. 

f Iidenividentur artem gubernandi docuiiTe caudae flexibus. 
Lib. x. r. io. 


Class II. KIT E. 187 

hooked at the end : the cere yellow : irides of a 
flraw-color. The head and chin are of a light grey, 
in fome, white, marked with oblong ftreaks of 
black : the neck and bread are of a tawny red, 
but the middle of the feathers black. On the belly 
and thighs, the fpots are fewer, and under the tail 
they almoft vanifli. The upper part of the back 
is brown, the middle covered with very foft white 
down. The five firft quil feathers are black -, the 
inner webs of the others dufky barred with black, 
and the lower edges white. The coverts of the 
wings are varied with tawny black and white : the 
tail is forked, and of a tawny red : the outmofl 
feather on each fide of a darker hue than the reft ; 
and marked with a few obfcure dufky fpots: the 
thighs are covered with very long feathers : the legs 
are yellow and ftrong. 

Thefe birds differ in their colors. We have ken 
a beautiful variety fhot in Lincoln/hire that was en- 
tirely of a tawny color. 


54. Buz- Le Bufe, ou Bufard. Be/on Wald Geyer. Kram. 329. 

2 a r d. av. 100. Falco buteo. Lin. fyfi. 127. 

Buteo. Gejner. a~u. 46. Quidfogel. Faun. Suec.fp. 60. 

Bufharda Turneri. La Bafe. Brijfon a<v. I. 406. 
Buteo, feu Triorches. Aid. aw. Hifi.d'Oys. I. 206. 

I. 190. Pojana. Zinan. 85. Scopoli. 
Triorches, Buteo. Plinii lib. No. 4. 

x. c. 7. £r. Z^/. 66. Tab. A. 3. P/. 
Raii fyn. a~o. 16. £?//. 419. 

Common Buzzard,orPuttock. Oerne Falk. Brunnich p. 5. 

Wil. cm. 70. 

THIS bird is the commoner! of the hawk 
kind we have in England. It breeds in 
large woods, and ufually builds on an old crow's 
neir, which it enlarges and lines with wool, and 
other foft materials : it lays two or three eggs, 
which are fometimes wholly white \ ibmetimes fpot- 
ted with yellow. The cock buzzard will hatch and 
bring up the young, if the hen is killed*. The 
young confort with the old ones for fome little 
time after they quit the neft -, which is not ufual 
with other birds of prey, who always drive away 
their brood as foon as they can fly. This fpecies is 
very fluggifh and inactive ; and is much lefs in mo- 
tion than other hawks, remaining perched on the 
fame bough for the greater!: part of the day, and 
is found at moft times near the fame place. It 
feeds on birds, rabbets, moles and micej it will 
alio eat frogs, earth-worms and infecls. 

* Rafs Letters. 352. 








This bird is fubjed to fome variety in its co- Descrip. 
lors : we have feen fome whofe bread and belly- 
were brown, and only marked crofs the craw 
with a large white crefcent : ufually the bread 
is of a yellowifh white, fpotted with oblong ruft- 
colored fpots, pointing downwards : the chin 
ferruginous : the back of the head and neck, 
and the coverts of the wings are of a deep 
brown, edged with a pale ruft color : the fcapular 
feathers brown ; with white towards their roots ; 
the middle of the back is covered only with a 
thick white down : the ends of the quil feathers 
are dufky : their lower exterior fides afh-colored : 
their interior fides blotched with darker and lighter 
fhades of the fame : the tail is barred with black 
and am-color, and fometimes with ferruginous : 
the bar next the very tip is black, and the broadeft 
of all ; the tip itfelf of a dufky white. The hides 
are white, tinged with red. The weight of this 
fpecies is thirty-two ounces : the length twenty- Size, 
two inches \ the breadth fifty-two. 

Spotted Falcon , Br. ZooL iv. tab. II 

55. Spotted. 


WO of thefe birds have been (hot near 
Longnor^ Shropfoire. 

O 3 Size 


Size of a buzzard: bill black; cere and legs yel- 
low : irides pale yellow : crown, and hind part of 
the neck white, fpotted with light reddifh brown : 
back and fcapulars of the fame color edged with 
white. Quil feathers dufky barred with a(h color. 

Under fide of the neck, bread, belly, and thighs, 
white -, the firft ? alio the beginning of the bread 
marked with a few rufty fpots : rump white : mid- 
dle feathers of the tail barred with white, and a 
deep brown : the others with a lighter and dark- 
er brown. The legs very ftrong. 

56. Honey Le Goiran, ou Bondree. Be- 
Buzzard. k;: a--u. \ci. 

Aid. a<z\ 1. 191. 

Roney-Buzzard. Wil. cm. 72. 

Rait fyn. az<. 16. 

Froich-geyerl. Kram. 331. 

Falco Apivorus. Lin.fyfl. 130. 

Sl2g-hok. Faun. S11ec.fp.65. 

La Bondree. BriJJhn a<v. i. 

410. Hiji. d'Oys. I. 208. 
Xinan. 84. 
Br. Zool. 6 7 . Tab. A. 4. A*. 

4. PL Enl. 420. 
Mufe-Hoeg, Mufe-Baage, 

Brurmich p. 5. 

Descrip. npHE weight of this fpecies is thirty oun- 
ces : the length twenty-three inches : the 
breadth fifty-two : the bill and cere are black ; 
the latter much wrinkled: the irides of a fine yel- 
low : the crown of the head afh-colored : the neck, 
back, fcapulars, and covert feathers of the wings, 
are of a deep brown : the chin is white \ the bread 
and belly of the fame color, marked with dufky 

T ail. fpQ ts pointing downwards. The tail is long, of a 


ClassII. HONE Y BUZ ZARD. 191 

dull brown color, marked with three broad dufky 
bars ; between each of which are two or three of 
the fame color, but narrower : the legs are fhort, 
ftrong, and thick : the claws large and black. 

After the publication of the folio Zoology r , Mr. 
Plymly favored us with a variety of this fpecies, 
engraved in the additional plates, fuppofed to be 
a female, being mot on the neft: it was entirely of 
a deep brown color, but had much the fame 
marks on the wings and tail as the male; and 
the head was tinged with aih color. There were e g g s. 
two eggs in the neft, blotched over with two reds 
fomething darker than thofe of the keftril - 9 though 
Mr. Willughhy fays they are of a different color : 
that naturalift informs us, that this bird builds its 
neft with fmall twigs, which it covers with wool ; 
that its eggs are cinereous, marked with darker 
fpots : as he found the combs of wafps in the neft, 
he gave this fpecies the name of the honey-buzzard: 
he adds, that it feeds on the erucae of thofe in- 
fects, on frogs, lizards, &JV. and that it runs very 
fwiftly like a hen. 

O4 Le 




Gefner a<y. 
Aid. av. 

Moor Le fau-Perdrieux. Belon au 
Buzzard. 114. 

Circus Accipiter. 

49- . r 

Milvus sruginoius 

i. 203. 

Moor Buzzard. Wil. orn. 75. 

"Rail fyn. a~o. 17. 

Brauner rohr Geyer. Kram. 

Falco asruginoius. 

Hoenf-tjuf. Faun. Suec./p. 66. 
Pojana rofla. Zinan.%^. 
Le Bufard de marais. Brijfon 

a'v. i. 401. Hi/i. d'Oys. 1. 

Schvvartz-brauner Fifch-Gey- 

er mit dem gelben Kopf. 

Frifch. I. 77. 
Hoenfe Hoeg. Brunnich p. 5. 
Br. Tab. A. 5. 


THIS fpecies frequents moors, marfhy places, 
and heaths; it never foars like other hawks; 
but commonly fits on the ground, or on fmall bufh- 
es : it makes its neft in the midft of a tuft of grafs 
or rumes : we have found three young ones in it, 
but never happened to meet with the eggs : it is a 
very fierce and voracious bird, and is a great de- 
ftroyer of rabbets, young wild ducks % and other 
water fowl. It alio preys, like the ofprey, upon 

Its ulual weight is twenty ounces : the length 
twenty-one inches: the breadth four feet three inch- 
es : the bill is black •, cere yellow ; irides of the 
fame color : the whole bird, head excepted, is 
of a chocolate brown, tinged with ruft color: on 
the head is a large yellowifh fpot; we have feen 

f hi fome places it is called the duck hawk. 






HJEIN^ H -A. H :R 1 E IL 

Class II. HENHARRIER, 193 

fome birds of this kind with their head and chin 
entirely white; and others again have awhitifhfpot 
on the coverts of their wings ; but thefe are only 
to be deemed varieties. The uniform color of its 
plumage, and the great length and fiendernels of 
its legs, difting-uifhes it from all other hawks. 

Lanarius albus. Aldr. av. i. Le Lanier cendre. BriJJbn 58. Hen 


a<v. i. 365. the male. Hift. Harrier, 

Rubetarius humeri, dOys. 1. 212. 

Wil orn. 70. Br. Zool. 68. Tab. A. 6. PL 

Raiijyn. a<v. 17. Enl. 459. 

Blue Hawk. Ediu. 225. the Grau-weiffe Geyer. Frifch. 

male. I. 79, 80. 

Falco Cyaneus. Lin.Jyft.1z6. Brunnich 14. 

THE hen-harrier weighs about twelve oun- Descrip< 
ces : the length is feventeen inches ; .the 
breadth three feet three inches : the bill is black : 
cere, irides, and edges of the eye-lids yellow : the 
head, neck, back, and coverts of the wings, are of 
a bluim grey : the back of the head white, fpotted 
with a pale brown : the breaft, belly, and thighs, 
are white : the former marked with a few fmall 
dufky ftreaks : the fcapular feathers are of a deep 
grey, inclining to dufky : the two middle feathers 
of the tail are entirely grey ; the others only on 
their exterior webs; the interior being white, mark- 
ed with dufky bars : the legs yellow, long and 


194 RINGTAIL. Class II. 

Thefe birds are extremely deftructive to young 
poultry, and to the feathered game : they fly near 
the ground, fkimming the furface in fearch of 
prey. They breed on the ground, and never are 
obferved to fettle on trees. 

59. Rl NG- 


Subbuteo. Gefner. a<v. 48. 
Ringtail. Pygargus accipiter. 
Rati Jyn. a-v. 17. Wil. 

or ji. 70. 
Le faucon a collier 

and 480. 



PL Enl. 443, 

Une autre oyfeau St. Martin. 

Belon a<v. 104. 
Rubetarius Turneri. La fou- 

bufe. Hifi. dOys. I. 215. 
Brunnich No. 14. Br. Zool. 

68. Tab. 4. 7. 



HE ringtail weighs fixteen ounces: is 
twenty inches long; and three feet nine 
inches broad: the cere and hides yellow: on the 
hind part of the head, round the ears to the chin, 
is a wreath of fhort ftiff feathers of a dufky hue, tipt 
with a reddifh white : on the top of the head, and 
the cheeks, the feathers are dufky, bordered with 
ruft color ; under each eye is a white fpot : the 
back is dufky, the rump white, with oblong yel- 
lowifh fpots on each fhaft: the tail is long; the two 
middle feathers marked with four dufky, and four 
broad cinereous bars ; the others with three black, 
and three tawny bars ; but the tips of all, white : 
the bread and belly are of a yellow ifh brown, with 
a caft of red, and marked with oblong duiky fpots, 



but they are fubject to vary, for we have met 
with one fpecimen that had thefe parts entirely plain. 
The legs in color and fhape refemble thofe of the 

This has generally been fuppofed to be the fe- 
male of the former: but from fome late obfervations 
by the infallible rule of diffeclion, males have been 
found of this fpecies. Wilhighby fays, that the 
eggs are white, much befmeared with red. Thefe 
birds fly higher than the hen-harrier \ and I have 
feen them perch on trees. 


La CrefTerelle. Belon a-v. 125. 

Gefner a<v. 54. 

Kiftrel, Kaftrel, or Steingal, 

Aldr. a<v. 188. 

The Keftril, Stannel, Stone- 
gall, Windhover. Wil. orn. 

Rati fyn. av. 16. 

La Crefierelle. BriJJon a-v. I. 

Hift. dOys. 1. 280. 
Windwachl, Rittlweyer, 

Wannenweher. Kram, 331, 

Roethel-Geyer. Frifch. I. 84. 
fcem. Maufe-Falck. Frifch. 

I. 88. 
Falco tinnunculus. Lin. fyfi. 

Kyrko-Falk. Faun. Suec. fp. 

Kirke-Falk. Brunnich 4. 5. 
Gheppio, Acertello, Gavi- 

nello. Zinan, §8. 
Br. Zool. 68. plate A. PL 

Enl. 401. 471. 
Poftoka, Splintza, Skoltfdu 

Scopoli. No. 5. 

60. K E 

T R E L 

THE male of this beautiful fpecies weighs 
only fix ounces and a half: its length 
fourteen inches : the breadth two feet three inch- 
es : cere and legs yellow : hides dark. Its colors 
at once diftinguifh it from all other hawks : the 



i 9 6 KESTREL. Class II. 

crown of the head, and the greater part of the tail, 
are of a fine light grey, the lower end of the latter 
is marked with a broad black bar : the inner webs 
of the three feathers next the two middle barred 
with black : the tips white : the back and coverts 
of the wings are of a brick red, elegantly ipotted 
with black : the interior fides of the quil feathers 
are dufky, deeply indented with white. The whole 
under fide of the bird, of a pale ruft color, fpot- 
ted with black ; the thighs and vent only, plain. 
Female. The female weighs eleven ounces: the color 
of the back and wings are far lefs bright than thofe 
of the male : it differs too in the colors of the head 
and tail ; the former being of a pale reddifh 
brown, ftreaked with black •, the latter of the fame 
color, marked with numerous tranfverfe black 
bars : the bread is of a dirty yeilowifh white ; and 
the middle of each feather has an oblong dufky 
ftreak, pointing downwards. 

The keftrel breeds in the hollows of trees, in the 
holes of high rocks, towers and ruined buildings : 
it lays four eggs, of the fame color with thofe of 
the preceding fpecies : its food is field mice, fmall 
birds and infects •, which it will difcover at a great 
diftance. This is the hawk that we fo frequently 
fee in the air fixed in one place, and as it were 
fanning it with its wings; at which time it is watch- 
ing for its prey. It flings up the indigefted fur and 
'hers in form of a rouncl ball. When falconry 


Class II. HOBBY. 

was in ufe in Great Britain, this kind was trained 
for catching fmall birds and young partridges. 


Le Hobreau. Belon a<v. 118. 75. fsem. 
Hobbia. Turneri. 
iEfalon. Aldr. a<v. I. 187. 
The Hobby. Wil. orn. 83. 
Le Hobreau, Dendro-falco. 

BriJJbn av. I. 375. Hifi. 

d'Oys.l. 277. 

Rail fyn. an}. 15. 
Falco fubbuteo. Lin.fyfi. 127. 
Faun. Suec. /p. 59. 
Barletta. Lorenzi a<v. 45. 
Stein-Falck. Frifcb. I. 86. 
Laerke-Falk. Brunnich 10. 11. 
£r. ZW. 69. plate A. 9. /7. 
jEW. 431. 

6l. HoBBT, 

THIS bird was alfo ufed in the humbler 
kind of falconry ; particularly in what was 
called daring of larks : the hawk was caft off; the 
larks aware of their molt inveterate enemy, are 
fixed to the ground through fear; which makes 
them a ready prey to the fowler, by drawing a net 
over them. The hobby is a bird of paflfage ; but 
breeds in England, and migrates in Offober. 

The male weighs {even ounces: the length is Descrip, 
one foot •, the breadth two feet three inches : cere 
and orbits yellow: irides hazel: upper mandible 
furnifhed with a procefs : above each eye a white 
line: the crown of the head and back are of a deep 
bluifh black : the hind part of the head is marked 
with two pale yellow fpots ; each cheek with a 
large black one pointing downwards : the co- 
verts of the wings are of the fame color with the 
back, but flightly edged with ruft color : the inte- 




rior webs of the fecondary and quil feathers, are 
varied with oval tranfverfe reddifh fpots : the 
bread white, marked with oblong fpots of black : 
thighs and vent feathers, pale orange : the two 
middle feathers of the tail are entirely of a deep 
dove color : the others are barred on their interior 
fides with ruft color, and tipt with a dirty white. 
The fpots on the breaft of the female are of a 
higher color than thofe of the male : it is greatly 
fuperior in fize, its legs have a tinge of green, in 
other refpecls it refembles the former. 

62. Sparrow L'Efpervier. Belon av* 121. 
Hawk. Gefner av. 51. 

Sparhauc Turneri. 
Accipiter fringillarius, fpar- 
viero. Aldr. a<v. i. 183. 
Wil. orn. 86. 

L'Epervier, accipiter. Brijfon 
av. I. 310. Hiji. d^oys. I. 
Raii Jyn. a<v. 18. 

Sperber Frifch. I. 90. 91 . 

Kram. 332. 
Falco nifus. Lin. fyft. 130. 
Sparfhoek. Faun. Suec. fp. 

6 9 . 
Spurre-hoeg. Brunnich p. 5. 

Scopoli. No. 6. 
Br. Zool. 69. plate A. 10. A, 

11. PL Enl. 466, 467. 412. 


THE difference between the fize of the male 
and female fparrow hawks, is more dif- 
proportionate than in mod other birds of prey ; 
the former fometimes fcarce weighing five ounces, 
the latter nine ounces. The length of the male is 
about twelve inches, the breadth twenty-three : the 


Class II. SPARROW HAWK, 199 

female is fifteen inches long •, in breadth twenty- 

Thefe birds, as well as the hawk kind in general, 
vary greatly in their colors ; in fome, the back, 
head, coverts of the wings and tail, are of a deep 
bluifh grey \ in others of a deep brown, edged with 
a rufty red : the quil feathers are dusky, barred 
with black on their exterior webs, and fpotted with 
white on the lower part of their inner webs : the tail 
is of a deep am color marked with fine broad 
black bars, the tip white : the bread and belly are 
of a whitim yellow, adorned with tranfverfe waved 
bars ; in fome of a deep brown color, in others 
orange : the cere, irides, and legs yellow. The co- 
lors of the female differ from thofe of the male : the 
head is of a deep brown; the back, and coverts 
of the wings, are du/ky mixed with dove color; 
the coverts of the tail of a brighter dove color ; 
the waved lines that crofs the bread, are more 
numerous than thofe on that of the male ; and the 
bread itfelf of a purer white. 

This is the mod pernicious hawk we have ; and Manners. 
makes great havoke among pigeons, as well as 
partridges. It builds in hollow trees, in old neds 
of crows, large ruins, and high rocks : lays four 
white eggs, encircled near the blunter end with red 
fpecks. Mr. Willughby places this among the 
fhort-winged hawks \ or fuch whofe wings, when 
clofed, fall mort of the end of the tail. 



MERLIN. Class II. 

63. M e r- L'Efmerillon. Belon av. 118. L'Emerillon. Briffbn a<v. L 

'- lin.* ^Efalon. Gefner a<v. 44. 382. 

Merlina. Turneri. Smerlio, o Smeriglio. Lorenzi 

Smerlus, Smerillus. Aldr. a<v. av. tab. 18. 19. 

I. 187. Br. Zool. 70. plate A. 12. 

Wil. orn. 85. PL Enl. 468. 

Raii/yn. a<v. 15. Hiji. D'Oys. 1. 288. 

Descrip. f 1 iHE Merlin weighs near five ounces and a 
JL half: its length is twelve inches, its breadth 
twenty five. The bill is of a bluifh lead color : the 
cere of a lemon color : the irides very dark, almoft 
black : the head is ferruginous, and each feather is 
marked with a bluifh black ftreak along the fhaft : 
the back and wings are of a deep bluifh afh color, 
adorned with ferruginous ftreaks and lpots, and 
edged with the fame : the quil feathers are almoft 
black, marked with reddifh oval fpots : the under 
coverts of the wings brown, beautifully marked 
with round white fpots : the tail is five inches 
long, croffed with alternate bars of duiky and red- 
difh clay color ; on fome of the feathers of the 
fame bird are thirteen, on fome fifteen, but in one 
bird I examined, were no more tfian eight: the 
breafl and belly are of a yellowifh white, marked 
with oblong brown fpots pointing downwards : 
the legs yellow : the wings when clofed reach within 

Manners, an inch and a half of the end of the tail. This and 

* Merularius ; quia merulas infe&atur. Skimier. 


Class II. MERLIN. 201 

the preceding kind were often trained for hawking: 
and this fpecies, fmali as it is, was inferior to none 
in point offpirit: it was u fed for taking partridg- 
es, which it would kill by a fingle ftroke on the 
neck. The Merlin flies low, and is often feen along 
roads' fides, fkimming from one fide of the hedges 
to the other, in fearch of prey. 

It does not breed in England, but migrates here 
in Otlober, about the time that the Hobby difappears ; 
for the Lark-catchers obferve that in September they 
take no Merlins but abundance of Hobbies : but in 
the following month, Merlins only. 

It was known to our Britijh anceftors by the 
name of Llamyfden-, was ufed in hawking -, and its 
neft was valued at twenty-four pence. They made 
ufe of four other fpecies, but have left us only 
their names ; the Hebog or Hawk, whofe neft was 
eftimated at a pound \ the GwalcFs or Falcon's at 
one hundred and twenty pence ; the Hwyedig's or 
long winged, at twenty-four pence; and a fpecies call- 
ed Cammin or crooked bill, at four pence. The 
Penhebogyd or chief falconer, held the fourth place 
at the court of the Welch prince: but notwith- 
ltanding the hofpitality of the times, this officer 
was allowed or ly three draughts out of his horn, 
lead he mould be fuddled and neglect his birds *. 

* Leges Wallica y 253, 25. 

Vol. I. P Large 

202 E A G L E O W L. Class II. 

II. OWL. Large round HEAD, ftrong hooked BILL, no 
CERE. Feathers round the face difpofed in 
a circular form. Outmoft TOE capable of 
being turned back, and doing the office of a 
hind toe. 

64. Eagle. Bubo maximus nigri et fufci Buhu. Kram. Aufir. 323. 

colons. Sib. Scot. 14. Sova. Scopoli. No. 7. 

Great Owl, or Eagle Qml.WiL Le grand due. Brifon. I. 477. 

orri. 99. Rati fyn. au. De Buffon, I. 332. 

StrixBubo. Lin.Jyjl. 131. Eagle Owl. Br. Z00L IV. 

Uff. Faun. Suec. No. 69. Tab. VI. PL EnL 385. 

Berg Uggle, Katugl hane. 435. 

Sirom. Sondtn. 222. 

fT^HE eagle owl has been mot in Scotland and 
JL in York/hire. It inhabits inacceflible rocks 
and defert places ; and preys on hares and feather- 
ed game. Its appearance in cities was deemed an 
unlucky omen •, Rome itfelf once underwent a luf- 
tration, becaufe one of them ftrayed into the capitoL 
The antients had them in the utmoft abhorrence, 
and thought them, like the fcreech owls, the mef- 
fengers of death. Pliny ftyles it Bubo funebris & 
noclis monjlrum. 

Solaque culminibus ferali carmine Bubo 
Sape queri et lengas in fietum ducere voces. 

Vl R G I L. 





JW c 



Perch'd on the roof the bird of night complains, 
In lensthen'd fhrieks, and dire funereal drains. 

In fize it is almoft equal to an eagle, hides 
bright yellow : head and whole body finely varied 
with lines, fpots and fpecks of black, brown, ci- 
nereous, and ferruginous. Wings long : tail mort, 
marked with dulky bars. Legs thick, covered to 
the very end of the toes with a clofe and full down 
of a teftaceous color. Claws great, much hook- 
ed and dulky. - 



L'Hibou cornu. Belon anj. 136. 

Gefner a<v. 635. 

Aiio, feu Otus. Aldr. av. I. 265 . 

The Horn Owl. Wil. orn. 100. 

Rail fyn. a<v. 25. 

No&ua aurita. Sib. Scot. 14. 

Strix otus. Lin.fyfi. 132. 

Le moyen Due ou le Hibou. 

Brijfon a<v. I. 486, Hiji. 

d'Oys. I. 342. 

Horn-uggla. Faun. Suec. 

fp. 71. 
HaJJelquiJi it in, 233. 
Horn Ugle. Brunnich 16. 
Horn-eule. Kram. 323. 
Br. Zool. Plate 4. f. 1. PL 

Enl. zg. 473. 
Mala Sova. Scopoli No. 9. 
Rothe Kautzlein. Frifch I. 

65. Lo N G 


THIS fpecies is found, though not frequent- 
ly, in the north of England, in Chejhire and 
in Wales. The weight of the female, according to Descrip. 
Mr. Willughby (for we never had opportunity of 
weighing it) is ten ounces : the length fourteen 
inches and a half: the breadth three feet four 
P 2 inches : 

20 4 SHORT EARED OWL. Class II. 

inches : the irides are of a bright yellow : the bill 
black : the circle of feathers furrounding the eyes 
is white tipt with reddifh and dufky fpots, and 
the part next the bill black : the bread and belly 
are of a dull yellow, marked with (lender brown 
ftrokes pointing downwards : the thighs and vent 
feathers of the fame color, but unfpotted. The 
back and coverts of the wings are varied with deep 
brown and yellow : the quil feathers of the fame 
color, but near the ends of the outmoft is a broad 
bar of red : the tail is marked with duiky and 
reddifh bars, but beneath appears afh colored : the 
horns or ears are about an inch long, and confift of 
fix feathers variegated with yellow and black : the 
feet are feathered down to the claws. 

66. Short Br. Zool. 71. Tab. B. 3. and B. 4. Fig. 2. 


THE horns of this fpecies are very fmall, and 
each confiils of only a tingle feather; thefe 
it can raife or deprefs at pieafure -, and in a dead 
bird they are with difficulty difcovered. This 
kind is fcarcer than the former ; both are folitary 
birds, avoiding inhabited places. Thefe fpecies 
may be called long winged owls ; the wings when 
doled reaching- bevond the end of the tail ; where- 
as in the common kinds, they fall fhort of it. 





This is a bird cf parTage, and has been obferved 
to vifit Lincoln/hire the beginning of Ofiober^ and 
to retire early in the fpring-, fo probably, as it 
performs its migrations with the woodcock, its 
fummer retreat is Norway. During day it lies 
hid in long old grafs -, when difturbed, it fel- 
dom flies far, but will light and fit looking at 
one, at which time the horns may be feen very 
diftinctly. It has not been obferved to perch on 
trees, like other owls : it will alfo fly in fearch of 
prey in cloudy hazy weather. Farmers are 
fond of feeing thefe birds in their fields, as they 
clear them from mice. It is found frequently 
on the hill of Hoy in the Orknies, where it flies 
about and preys by day like a hawk. I have 
alfo received this fpecies from Lancajhire, which 
is a hilly and wooded country : and my friends 
have alfo fent it from New England and New- 

The length of the fhort eared owl is fourteen Descrip. 
inches : extent three feet : the head is fmall and 
hawk-like : the bill is dufky : weight fourteen 
ounces : the circle of feathers that immediately 
furrounds the eyes is black : the larger circle 
white, terminated with tawny and black : the fea- 
thers on the head, back, and coverts of the wings 
are brown edged with pale dull yellow : the breail 
and belly are of the fame color, marked with a 
few long narrow flreaks of brown pointing down- 
P 3 wards ; 

206 W H I T E O W L; Class II. 

wards : the thighs, legs and toes, are covered 
with plain yellow feathers -, the quill-feathers 
are dufky, barred with red : the tail is of a very 
deep brown, adorned on each fide the fhaft of 
the four middle feathers with a yellow circle 
which contains a brown fpot : the tip of the tail is 

The other European horn owl, the little horn owl, 
Scops or Petit Due of M. de Buff on y I. ^5Zy 1S un * 
known in Great Britain. 


67. White. Belon av. 143 *. Le petit Chat-huant. Brifon 

Aluco minor. Aldr. a<v. I. av. I. 503. 

272. Allocco. Zinan. 99. 

Common barn, white, or Strix flammea, Lin. fyft* 133. 

church Owl, Howlet, Faun. Suec. 73. 

madge Howlet, Gillihow- Br. Zool. 71. plate B. BL 

ter. Wil. orn. 104. Enl. 474. 

Raiifyn. av. 25. L'Effraie. Hift. d'Ois. I. 366. 

Perl-Eule. Frifch. I. 97. 

THIS fpecies is almoft domeftic : inhabiting 
for the greateft part of the year, barns, 

* This refers only to the figure, for his defcription means 
the Goatfuckeg* 


Class II. W H I T E O W L. 207 

haylofts, and other outhoufes ; and is as ufeful 
in clearing thofe places from mice, as the conge- 
nial cat : towards twilight it quits its perch, and 
takes a regular circuit round the fields, fkimming 
along the ground in queft of field mice, and then 
returns to its ufual refidence : in the breeding fea- 
fon it takes to the eaves of churches, holes in 
lofty buildings, or hollows of trees. During the 
time the you^g are in the neft, the male and fe- 
male alternately fally out in queft of food, make 
their circuit, beat the fields with the regularity of 
a fpaniel, and drop inftantly on their prey in the 
grafs. They very feldom flay out above five mi- 
nutes 5 return with their prey in their claws \ but 
as it is neceffary to fhift it into their bill, they 
always alight for that purpofe on the roof, before 
they attempt to enter their neft. 

This fpecies I believe does not hoot ; but fnores 
and hifTes in a violent manner ; and while it flies 
along, will often fcream moft tremendoufly. Its 
only food is mice : as the young of thefe birds keep 
their neft for a great length of time, and are fed 
even long after they can fly, many hundreds of 
mice will fcarcely fuffice to fupply them with food. 

Owls caft up the bones, fur or feathers of their 
prey in form of fmall pellets, after they have de- 
voured it, in the fame manner as hawks do. A 
gentleman, on grubbing up an old pollard afh that 
had been the habitation of owls for many generati- 
ons, found at the bottom many bufheis of this re- 
P 4 jected 

:o8 T A W NY O W L. Cl as s IE 

jected ftuflf. Some owls will, when they are fatis- 
fied, like dog?, hide the remainder of their meat. 

The elegant plumage of this bird makes amends 
for the uncouthnefs of its form : a circle of foft 
white feathers furround the eyes. The upper part 
of the body, the coverts and fecondary feathers of 
the wings are of a fine pale yellow : on each fide 
the (hafts are two grey and two white fpots placed 
alternate : the exterior fides of the quil feathers are 
yellow -, the interior white, marked on each fide 
with four black fpots : the lower fide of the body 
is wholly white : the interior fides of the feathers 
of the tail are white ; the exterior marked with 
fome obfcure dufky bars : the legs are feathered 
to the feet : the feet are covered with (hort hairs: 
the ed^e of the middle claw is ferrated. The ufual 
Size. weight of this fpecies is eleven ounces : its length 
fourteen inches : its breadth three feet. 

68. Tawny 

Ulula. Gefner a<v. 7J^. 

Strix ftridula. Lin.fyjl. 133. 


Strix. Alar. a<v. I. 285. 

Skrik uggla. Faun. Suec. 77. 

Common brown or ivy Owl. 

Strix Orientalis. Haffklquift itin. 

Wil. cm. 102. 

2 33- 

Rail Jyn. o~j. 25. 

Nacht Eule, Gemeine. Kram. 

Le Chat huant. Brijfon o.-j. 

3 2 4- 

I. s-co. Hifi. d'Ovs. 

Braune-Eule, or Stock-Eule? 

I. 562. 

Fri/ch, I. 96. 

Strige. "Lilian, 100. Scopo- 

Nat Ugle. Brunnich, 18. 

., No. 12. 

Br. Zed. 72. plate B. 3. PL EnL 


THIS is the Strix of Aldrcvandus^ what we call 
the Screech Owl; to which the folly of fu- 


Class II. TAWNY OWL. 209 

perflation had given the power of prefaging death 
by its cries. The antients believed that it fucked 
the blood of young children ; a fact not incredible, 
for Hajfelquift* defcribes a fpecies found in Syria, 
which frequently in the evening flies in at the win- 
dows, and deftroys the helplefs infant. 

Nodte volant puerofque petunt nutricis egentes, 
Et vitiant cuneis corpora rapta fuis. 
Carpere dicuntur la&entia vifcera roftris, 
Et plenum poto fanguine guttur habent. 
Eft illis ftrigibus nomen, fed nominis hujus 
Caufa quod horrenda (Iridere nocle folent. 

Ovid. Faft. VI. 135. 

The female of this fpecies weighs nineteen oun- Descrip. 
ces : the length is fourteen inches : the breadth 


jtwo feet eight inches : the irides are duiky : the 
ears in this, as in all owls, very large ; and their 
fenfe of hearing very exquifite. The color of this 
kind is fufficient to diftinguifh it from every other : 
that of the back, head, coverts of the wings, and 
on the fcapujar feathers, being a fine tawny red, 
elegantly fpotted and powdered with black or duiky 
fpots of various fizes : on the coverts of the wings, 
and on the fcapulars, are feveral large white fpots : 
the coverts of the tail are tawny, and quite free 
from any marks : the tail is varioufly blotched, 
barred and fpotted with pale red and black -, in 

* Bin, 255. 



the two middle feathers the red predominates : the 
bread and belly are yellowifh, mixed with white, 
and marked with narrow black ftrokes pointing 
downwards: the legs are covered with feathers 
down to the toes. 

This is a hardier fpecies than the former ; and 
the young will feed on any dead thing, whereas 
thole of the white owl mud have a conftant fupply 
of frefh meat. 

69. Brown. The grey Owl. Wil. cm. 103. Faun. Suec. 78. 

Rail Jyn. wv. 26. Ugle. Brunnicb, 19. 

La Hulote. Stiffen a<v. I. 507. Graue Eule? Frifch, I. 94, 

StrixUlula. Lin. fyji. 133. Br. Zool. 72. Plate B. 1. 

A 1 

S the names this and the precedent fpecies 
bear do by no means fuit their colors, we 
have taken the liberty of changing them to others 
more congruous. Both thefe kinds agree entirely 
in their marks ; and diffre only in the colors : in 
this the head, wings and back are of a deep brown, 
fpotted with black in the fame manner as the for- 
Descrip. mer : the coverts of the wings and the fcapulars 
are adorned with fimilar white fpots : the exterior 
edges of the four firft quil feathers in both are 
ferrated : the bread in this is of a very pale afh 
color mixed with tawny, and marked with oblong 
jagged fpots : the feet too are feathered down to the 


' v:vxxr. 

jw 6<) 

BRcrvns" owx 


=^?. ; - 

Class II. 



very claws : the circle round the face is afh-colored, 
fpotted with brown. 

Both thefe fpecies inhabit woods, where they re- 
fide the whole days in the night they are very 
clamorous ; and when they hoot, their throats are 
inflated to the fize of an hen's egg. In the dufk 
they approach our dwellings; and will frequent- 
ly enter pigeon houfes, and make great havoke in 
them. They deftroy numbers of little leverets, 
as appears by the legs frequently found in their 
nefts. They alfo kill abundance of moles, and ikin 
them with as much dexterity as a cook does a rab- 
bet. Thefe breed in hollow trees, or ruined edi- 
fices ; lay four eggs of an elliptic form, and of a 
whitifh color. 

La Cheveche. Belon av. 140, 

Noctua. Gefner a~o. 620. 

Little Owl. Wil. orn, 105. 

Raii fyn. a<v, 26. 

Ediv. 228. 

Tfchiavitl. Kram. 324. 

Faun. Suec. jg. 

La petite Chouette, ou la 

Cheveche. Briffon a<v* I. 

Strix paiTenna. Lin. jyjl. 133. 
La Civetta. Glina, 65. Scopoli, 

No. 17. 
Krak-Ugle. Brunnich, 20. 
Kleinfle Kautzlein. Frifcb, 

I. 100. 
Br. Zool. 73. plate B. 5. 



HO HIS elegant fpecies is very fare in England; 

■*■ it is fometimes found in Torkjhire, Flint/hire^ 

and alfo near London : in fize it fcarcely exceeds a 

thrum, though the fullnefs of its plumage makes 




2i2 LITTLE OWL. Class II. 

it appear larger : the irides are of a light yellow : 
the bill of a paper color : the feathers that en- 
circle the face are white tipt with black : the 
head brown, fpotted with white : the back, and 
coverts of the wings of a deep olive brown -, the 
latter fpotted with white : on the bread is a mix- 
ture of white and brown : the belly is white, 
marked with a few brown fpots : the tail of the 
fame color with the back : in each feather barred 
with white : in each adorned with circular white 
fpots, placed oppofite one another on both fides the 
maft : the legs and feet are covered with feathers 
down to the claws. 

The Italians made ufe of this owl to decoy 
fmall birds to the limed twig : the method of which 
is exhibited in Una's uccelliera, p. 65. 

Mr. Steuart, the admirable author of the Anti- 
quities of Athens, informed me that this fpecies of 
owl was very common in Attica ; that they were 
birds of paiTage, and appeared there the beginning 
of April in great numbers -, that they bred there \ 
and that they retired at the fame time as the Storks, 
whofe arrival they a little preceded. 







Order II 


Strong bill, ftrait at the bafe, and hooked at the III. SHRIKE, 
end. Each fide of the upper mandible marked 
with one notch. Outmoft toe clofely joined to 
the middlemoft as far as the firft joint. 

Le grande Pie griefche. Belon 

a<v. 126. 
Lanius cinereus. Gefner a<v. 

Skrike, nyn murder Turneri. 

Lanius cinereus, Collurio ma- 
jor. Aldr a<v. I. 199. 

Caflrica, Ragaftola. Olina, 41. 

Greater Butcher Bird, or Mat- 
tagefs ; in the North of 
England, Wierangle. Wil. 
orn. 87. 

Rail fyn. av. 18. 

Speralfter, Grigelalfter, Neun- 
todter. Kravi. 364. 

Butcher Bird, Murdering Bird 
or Skreek. Mer. Pinax, 

Cat. Carol, app. 36. 

Night Jar. Mort. Northampt. 71. Great. 

La Pie-griefche grife. BriJJon 

av. II. 141. Hift.d'Oys. 

I. 296. 
PL EnL 32. f. I. 
Lanius excubitor. Lin. fyfi. 

Warfogel. Faun. Suec. 80. 
Danijb Torn-Skade. Norvegis 

Klavert. Br. 21. 22. 
Br. Zool. 73. plate C. PI. EnL 

445- T . 

Velch Skrakoper. Scopolz, 
No. 18. 

Berg-Aelfter (Mountain Mag- 
pie) or groffer Neuntocdter. 
Frifcb, I. 59. 

THIS bird weighs three ounces : its length is 
ten inches : its breadth fourteen : its bill is 
black, one inch long, and hooked at the end ; the 
upper mandible furnifned with a fharp procefs : the 
noftrils are oval, covered with black bridles point- 
the mufcles that move the bill are 


fog downwards 


214 GREAT SHRIKE. Class II. 

very thick and ftrong; which makes the head very 
large. This apparatus is quite requifite in a fpe- 

Manners. c j es w hofe method of killing its prey is fo lingular, 
and whofe manner of devouring it is not lefs extra- 
ordinary : fmall birds it will feize by the throat, 
and ftrangle * \ which probably is the reafon the 
Germans call this bird War ch angel -J-, or the fuffo- 
cating angel. It feeds on fmall birds, young n eft- 
lings, beetles and caterpillars. When it has killed 
the prey, it fixes them on fome thorn, and when 
thus fpitted pulls them to pieces with its bill : on 
this account the Germans call it Thorntrder and 
Thornfreker. We have feen them, when confined 
in a cag-e, treat their food in much the fame man- 
ner, flicking it againft the wires before they would 
devour it. Mr. Edwards very juftly imagines that 
as nature has not given thefe birds ftreno-th fuffici- 
ent to tear their prey to pieces with their feet, as 
the hawks do, they are obliged to have recourfe 
to this artifice. 

It makes its neft with heath and mofs, lining 
it with wool and goflamer ; and lays fix eggs, of 
a dull olive green, fpotted at the thickeft end with 

Descrip. The crown of the head, the back, and the co- 

verts that lie immediately on the joints of the 
wings are afh-colored ; the reft of the coverts black : 
the quil feathers are black, marked in their middle 

*EJ-zu. Gl. III. 233. f Wil cm. 87. 



with a broad white bar 5 and except the four firft 
feathers, and the fame number of thofe next the 
body, are tipt with white : the tail confifts of 
twelve feathers of unequal lengths, the middle 
being the longeft ; the two middlemoft are black, 
the next on each fide tipt with white, and in the 
reft the white gradually increafes to the outmoft, 
where that color has either entire poffefTion, or there 
remains only a fpot of black : the cheeks are white, 
but croiTed from the bill to the hind part of the 
head with a broad black flroke : the throat, 
breaft and belly are of a dirty white : the legs are 
black. The female is of the fame color with the 
male, the bread and belly excepted, which are 
marked tranfverfely with numerous femicircular 
brown lines. 




La petite Pie griefche grife. 

Belon a<v. 128. 
Lanius tertius. Aldr. a<v. I. 

Leffer Butcher Bird, called in 

Torkjhire Flufher. Wil. orn, 

88. fp. 2. the male, 89. 

/p. 3. the female. 
Raiijyn. a*v. 18. 
Danijh Tornfkade. Nor<v. 

Hantvark. Br. 23. 
Mort. Northampt. 424. 

L'Ecorcheur. Briffbn av. II. 7 2 - Red " 

fri. BACKED, 

PL EnL 31. f. 2. Hift. d'Oys, 
I. 304 

Lanius collurio. Lin.fyfl. 136. 
Faun.Suec. 81. Tab. ILf.81. 
Dorngreul, Dornheher, Kram. 

3 6 3- 
Bufrerola, Ferlotta rofTa. Z/= 

nan^ gi. 
Br, Zool. 74. plate C. 1. 
Mali Skrakoper. Scopoli, 

No. 19. 

THE male weighs two ounces; the female Descrip 
two ounces two drams. The length of the 



former is feven inches and a half; the breadth ele- 
ven inches. The irides are hazel ; the bill refem- 
bles that of the preceding fpecies : the head and 
lower part of the back are of a fine light grey : 
acrofs the eyes from the bill runs a broad black 
ilroke : the upper parr of the back, and coverts 
of the wings, are of a bright ferruginous color ; 
the bread, belly and fides are of an elegant blof- 
fom color ; the two middle feathers of the tail are 
longed, and entirely black; the lower part of the 
others white, and the exterior webs of the outmoft 
feather on each fide wholly fo. 

In the female the ftroke acrofs the eyes is of a 
reddifh brown : the head of a dull ruft color mix- 
ed with grey : the bread, belly and fides of a dirty 
white, marked with femicircular dufky lines : the 
tail is of a deep brown ; the outward feather on 
each fide excepted, whofe exterior webs are white. 

Thefe birds build their nefts in low bullies, and 
lay fix eggs of a white color, but encircled at 
the bigger end with a ring of brownifh red. 


Class II. 



Lanius minor primus. Aldr. 

av. I. 200. 
Another ibrt of Butcher Bird. 

Wil. orn. 89. fp. 4. 
The Wood-chat. Rati Jyn, 

a<v. 19. fp. 6. 
Br. Zool. 74. plate C. 2. 
Dorngreul mit rother platten. 
Kram. 363. 

La Pie griefche roufTe. 

, Brifon 

73. Wood 

a<v. II. 147. Hi/?, 



I. 301. 

PI. Enl, 9. f. 2. 

Buferola, Ferlotta 


Zinan, 89. 

Kleiner Neuntoedter. 


I. 61. 

IN fize it feems equal to the preceding : the bill Descrip. 
is horn colored : the feathers that furround the 
bafe are whitifh ; above is a black line drawn crofs 
the eyes, and then downwards each fide the neck : 
the head and hind part of the neck are of a bright 
bay : the upper part of the back dufky : the co- 
verts of the tail grey : the fcapulars white : the co- 
verts of the wings dulky : the quil feathers black, 
marked towards the bottom with a white fpot: 
the throat, bread and belly of a yellowifh white. 
The two middle feathers appear by the drawing 
to be entirely black : the exterior edges and tips 
of the reft white : the legs black. 

The female differs: the upper part of head, neck Female. 
and body are reddifh, flriated tranfverfely with 
brown : the lower parts of the body are of a dirty 
white, rayed with brown : the tail is of a reddifh 
brown, marked near the end with dufky, and tipt 
with red. 

Vol. I, 



218 RAVEN. Class n. 

IV. CROW. Strait ftrong BILL: NOSTRILS covered with 
bridles reflected down. Outmoft TOE clofely 
connected to the middle toe as far as the firft 


74. Raven. Le Corbeau. Belon av. 279. Velch oru. Scopcli, No. 35. 
Corvus. Gefner am. 334. Corvus corax. Lin.fyji. 155. 

Corvo, Corbo. Aidr. av. I. Korp. Faun. Suec. 85. 

343. Danijh Raun. Now. K.orp. 

Wil. orn. 121. Br. 27. 

Raiifyn. a*v. 39. Rab. Kram. 333. Frifch, I. 

Le Corbeau. BriJJbn a*v. II. 8. 63. 

Br. Zool. 75. Hill. d'Oys. 
III. 13. 

Descrip. f 1 AHIS fpecies weighs three pounds : its length 
X is two feet two inches : its breadth four feet: 
the bill is ftrong and thick \ and the upper mandi- 
ble convex. The color of the whole bird is black, 
finely glofTed with a rich blue; the belly excepted, 
which is dufky. 

Ravens build in trees, and lay five or fix eggs 
of a pale green color marked with fmall brownifh 
fpots. They frequent in numbers the neighbor- 
hood of great towns ; and are held in the fame 
r fort of veneration as the vultures are in Egypt 


Haffdquift it in. 23. 






(Mj u 


and for the fame reafon -, for devouring the carcafes 
and filth, that would otherwife prove a nufance. 
A vulgar refpect is alio paid to the raven, as 
being the bird appointed by Heaven to feed the 
prophet Elijah, when he fled from the rage of 
Ahab*. The raven is a very docil bird, may be 
taught to fpeak, and fetch and carry. In clear wea- 
ther they fly in pairs a great height, making a 
deep loud noife, different from the common croak- 
ing. Their fcent is remarkably good; and their 
life prolonged to a great fpace. 

The quils of ravens fell for twelve millings the 
hundred, being of great ufe in tuning the lower 
notes of a harpfichord, when the wires are fet at 3 
confiderable diftance from the flicks. 


La Corneille- Belon a<v. 281. La Corbine. Hift.d'Oys. III. be, Car- 
Cornix (Krae). Gefner a<v* 45. rion. 

320. La Corneille. Briffbn a<v. 12. 

Cornice, Cornacchio. Aldr, Corvus corone. Lin.Jyft* 155. 

av. I. 369. Faun. Suec. 86. 

Wil. cm. 122. Krage. Br. 30. 

Rail fyn. a~u. 39, Br. Zool. 75. 

Oru. Scopoli, No. 36, 


HE crow in the form of its body agrees 
with the raven; alfo in its food, which is 

I. Kings 1 7, 

CL 2 


220 CARRION CROW. Class II. 

carrion and other filth. It will alfo eat grain and 
infects ; and like the raven will pick out the eyes 
of young lambs whenjuft dropped: for which rea- 
fon it was formerly diftingui fried from the rook, 
which feeds entirely on grain and infecls, by the 
name of the gor or gorecrow -, thus Ben John/on 
in his Foxy aft I. fcene 2. 

Vulture, kite, 
Raven and gor-crow, all my birds of prey. 

Virgil fays that its croaking foreboded rain: 
'Turn Cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce. 

It was alfo thought a bird of bad omen, efpecially 
if it happened to be feen on the left hand : 

S<epe finifira cava pr a dixit ab Hike Cornix. 

England breeds more birds of this tribe than any 
other country in Europe. In the twenty-fourth of 
Henry VIII. they were grown fo numerous, and 
thought fo prejudicial to the farmer, as to be 
confidered an evil worthy parlementary redrefs : an 
act was paiTed for their deftruclion, in which rooks 
and choughs were included. Every hamlet was to 
provide crow nets for ten years ; and all the inha- 
bitants were obliged at certain times to anemble 
during that fpace, to confult the propereft method 
of extirpating them. 

Though the crow abounds in our country, yet in 


Class IL 



Sweden it is fo rare, that Linnaeus mentions it only 
as a bird that he once knew killed there. 

It lays the fame number of eggs as the raven, 
and of the fame color : immediately after deferting 
their young, they go in pairs. Both thefe birds 
are often found white, or pied ; an accident that 
befals black birds more frequently than any o- 
thers : I have alfo feen one entirely of a pale 
brown color, not only in its plumage, but even in 
its bill and feet. The crow weighs about twen- 
ty ounces. Its length eighteen inches : its breadth 
two feet two inches. 

La Graye, Grolle ou Freux. 

Belon av. 283. 
Cornix frugivora (Roeck). 

Gefner a<v. 332. 
Aldr. av. I. 378. 
WiL orn. 123. 
Raiijyn. av. 39. 
Corvus frugilegus. Lin. fyfi. 


Le Freux, ou la Frayonne. 
Hiji. d'Oys. III. 55. 

La Corneille Moiffoneufe. 

BriJ/bn a<v. II. 1 6. 
Roka. Faun. Suec. 87. 
Spermologus, feu frugilega. 

Caii opufc. 100. 
Schwartze krau, Schwartze 

krahe. Kram, 333. Frifch, 

I. 64. 
Br. Zool. 76. 

76. Rook. 

/TpHE Rook is the Corvus of Virgil, no other 
■*■ fpecies of this kind being gregarious. 

E paflu decedens agmine magno 
Corvorum increpuit denfls exercitus alis. 

A very natural defcription of the evening return 
of thefe birds to their nefts. 

Q.3 This 

222 ROOK. Class II. 

This bird differs not greatly in its form from 
the carrion crow : the fize of the rook is fu- 
perior ; but the colors in each are the fame, the 
plumage of both being gloffed with a rich purple. 
But what diftinguifhes the rook from the crow is 
the bill , the noftrils, chin, and fides of that and 
the mouth being in old birds white and bared of 
feathers, by often thrufting the bill into the ground 
in fearch of the eruca of the Dor-beetle * , the 
rook then, inftead of being profcribed, mould be 
treated as the farmer's friend; as it clears his ground 
from caterpillars, that do incredible damage by eat- 
ing the roots of the corn. Rooks are fociable birds, 
living in vaft flocks: crows go only in pairs. They 
begin to build their nefts in March -, one bringing 
materials, while the other watches the neft, left ic 
mould be plundered by its brethren : they lay the 
fame number of egss as the crow, and of the 
fame color, but lefs. After the breeding feafon 
rooks forfake their neft- trees, and for lb me time go 
and rood elfewhere, but return to them in Auguft ; 
in Oclober they repair their nefts -f, 

* Scarab?eus melolantha. Lin.fyfi. 351. Re/el, II. Tab. I. 
t>ij}. Goed. 265. 

f Calendar of Flora. 




La Corneille emantelee. Bekn. 

ait. 285. 
Cornix varia, Marina, Hy- 

berna, (Nabelfrae.) Gefner 

an. 332. 
Cornix cinerea. Aldr. ait. I. 

Jtaiijyn. av. 39. 
Martin's Weft. IJles, 376. 
Hooded Crow. Sib. Scot. 15. 
ft. Enl. 7 6. 
fca Corneille mantelee. Briffbn 

ait, II. 19. Hift. d s Qis. 77.H00B1D# 

III. 61. 
Mulacchia cinerizia, Monac- 

chia. Zinan, 70= 
Corvus cornix, Lin.fyft. 156. 
Kraka. Faun. Suec.fp. 88. 
Grave Kran, Kranveitl. Kram. 

Graue-Krcshe (grey -Cow), 

Nebel-Krcehe (mill Crow), 

Fri/cbJ.. 65. 
Br. Zool. j6. plate D. 1. 
Urana. Scopcii, No. 37. 

TH E bill of tkis fpecies agrees in fhape with 
that of the rook, to which it bears great 
firnilirude in its manners, flying in flocks, and feed- 
ing on infects. In England it is a bird of paffage •, 
it vifits us in the beginning of winter, and leaves 
us with the woodcocks. They are found in the 
inland as well as maritime parts of our country -, 
m the latter they feed on crabs and fhelfifh. 

It is very common in Scotland.: in many parts 
of the Highlands, and in all the Hebrides, Orknies, 
and Shetlands, is the only fpecies of genuine crow ; 
the Carrion and the Rook being- unknown there. 
It breeds and continues in thofe parts, the whole 
year round. Perhaps thofe that inhabit the nor- 
thern parts of Europe, are they which migrate here. 
In the Highlands they build indifferently in all 
Q 4 kinds 

224 HOODED CRO W. Class IL 

kinds of trees : lay fix eggs : have a fhriller note 
than the common crows, are much more mif- 
chievous, pick out the eyes of lambs, and even 
of horfes when engaged in bogs : are therefore in 
many places profcribed, and rewards given for 
killing them. For want of other food, they will 
cat cran-berries and other mountain berries. 

Belon 9 Gejher, and Aldrovand, agree that this is a 
bird of paffage in their refpective countries : that 
it reforts in the breeding feafon to high moun- 
tains, and defcends into the plains on the ap- 
proach of winter. It breeds alfo in the fouthern 
parts of Germany -, on the banks of the "Danube *. 
Descrip. The weight of this fpecies is twenty-two ounces : 

the length twenty-two inches •, the breadth twenty- 
three. The head, under fide of the neck, and 
wings are black, gloried over with a fine blue : 
the breaft, belly, back, and upper part of the 
neck, are of a pale am color: the irides hazel : 
the legs black, and weaker than thofe of the 
Rook. The bottom of the toes are very broad 
and flat, to enable them to walk without finking on 
marfhy and muddy grounds, where they are con- 

Kram, 333. 


Class II. MAGPIE. 


La Pie. Belon a<v. 291. 

Pica varia et caudata. Gefner 

ait. 695. 
Aldr. am. I. 392. 
The Magpie, or Pianet. Wil, 

orte. 127. 
Rail fy 71. av. 41. 
La Pie. BnJJhn, II. 35. Hift. 

a"Oys, III. 85. 
Gazza, Putta. Zinan, 66. 

Corvus Pica. Lin.fyfi. 157. 78. Magpie, 
Skata, Skiura, Skara. Faun. 

Suec. fp. 92. 
Damp Skade, Huus Skade. 

Nor<v. Skior, Tunfugl. 

Brunnich, 32. 
Aelfter. Frifch, I. 58. 
Alfter, Kram. 335. 
Br. Zool. 77. plate D. 2. 
Praka. Scopoli, No. 38. 

THE great beauty of this very common bird 
was fo little attended to, that the editors of 
the Britijh Zoology thought fit to publifh a print 
of it afcer a painting by the celebrated Barlow. 
The marks of this fpecies are fo well known, that 
it would be impertinent to detain the reader with 
the particulars. 

We fhall only obferve the colors of this bird : 
its black, its white, its green, and purple, and the 
rich and gilded combination of gloffes on the tail, 
are at left equal to thofe that adorn the plumage of 
any other. It bears a great refemblance to the 
butcher-bird in its bill, which has a fharp procefs 
near the end of the upper mandible -, in the fhort- 
nefs of its wings, and the form of the tail, each 
feather fhortening from the two middlemoft : 
it agrees alfo in its food ; which are worms, in- 
fects, and fmall birds, It will deftroy young chick- 

226 JAY. Class II. 

ens -, is a crafty, reftlefs, noify bird : Ovid therefore 
with great juftice ftyles it, 

Nemorum convicia Pica. 

Is eafily tamed-, may be taught to imitate the 
human voice : it builds its neft with great art, co- 
vering it entirely with thorns, except one fmall 
hole for admittance -, and lays fix or feven eggs, of 
a pale green color fpotted with brown. The mag- 
pie weighs near nine ounces : the length is eigh- 
teen inches ; the breadth only twenty four. 

-n, Jay. Le Jay. Belon a-v. 289. Allonfkrika, Kornflcrika. 
Pica glandaria. Gefnerarv. 700. Fawn. Suec. fp. 90. 

Aldr. a~j. I. 393. Skov-fkade. Br. 33. 

Olinay 35. Nuff-heher. Kram. 335. 

Wil. orn. 130. Eichen-Heher (Oak-Jay), or 
Raiijyn. a<v. 41. Holtz-Schreyer (Wood- 

Ghiandaia. Zinan. 67. Cryer) . Frifch, I. 55. 

Corvus glandarius. Lin. fyji. Br. Zool. 77. plate D. 

156. Skoia, Schoga. Scopoli, No. 
Le Geav, Garrulus. Brijfonav. 39. 

W.'^.Hifi.d'Oys.Wl. 107. 

Descrip. fT^HIS is one of the moft beautifull of the Bri- 
-L tijb birds. The weight is between fix and 
kvcn ounces : the length thirteen inches •> the 
breadth twenty and a half. 

The bill is ftrong, thick and black ; about an 
inch and a quarter long. The tongue black, thin, 
and cloven at the tip : the irides white. The chin 
is white: at the angle of the mouth are two 


Class II. JAY, 227 

large black fpots. The forehead is white, ftreak- 
ed with black: the head is covered with very- 
long feathers, which at pleafure it can erect into 
the form of a creft : the whole neck, back, breaft 
and belly are of a faint purple dallied with grey; 
the covert feathers of the wings are of the fame 

The firft quil feather is black ; the exterior webs 
of the nine next are afh-colored, the interior webs 
dufky : the fix next black - 3 but the lower fides 
of their exterior webs are white tinged with blue ; 
the two next wholly black -, the lad of a fine bay- 
color tipt with black. 

The leffer coverts are of a light bay : the great- 
er covert feathers mod beautifully barred with a 
lovely blue, black and white : the reft black : the 
rump is white. The tail confifts of twelve black 
feathers. The feet are of a pale brown : the claws 
large and hooked. It lays five or fix eggs, of a 
dull whitifh olive, mottled very obfcurely with pale 
brown. The neft is made entirely of the fine fi- 
bres of roots of trees ; but has for a foundation 
fome coarfe flicks : it is generally placed on the 
top of the underwood, fuch as hazels, thorns, or 
low birch. The young follow their parents till 
the fpring : in the fummer they are very injurious 
to gardens, being great devourers of peafe and cher- 
ries ; in the autumn and winter they feed on acorns, 
from whence the Latin name. Dr. Kramer* 

* Kram. ekncb. 335. 




obferves, that they will kill fmall birds. Jays are 
very docil, and may be taught to imitate the hu- 
man voice : their native note is very loud and dis- 
agreeable. When they are enticing their fledged 
young to follow them, they emit a noife like the 
mewing of a cat. 

80. Red Scurapola. Belon. obf. 12. 
Legged. La Chouette ou Chouca rouge. 
Belon a-v. 286. 
Pyrrhocorax gracculus faxatilis 
( Stein -tahen, Stein-frae). 
Gefner a<v. 522, 527. 
Spelvier, Taccola. Aldr. av. 

1. 386. 

Wil. orn. 126. 

Raii Jyn. av. 40. 

Le Crave. Hi ft. d'' 'Oys. 

hi. 1. 

The Killegrew. Char lion ex. 

Cornwall Kae. Sih. Scot. 15. 
Borlafe Cornnxj. 249. Tab. 24. 
Camden, Vol. I. 14. 
Le Coracias. BriJJbn av. II. 

4. Tab. 1. 
Corvus gracculus. Lin. fyfi. 

Monedula pyrrhocorax. Haf- 

felquift itin. 2^8. 
Br. Zool. 83. plate L*. 
Gracula pyrrhocorax. Scopoli, 

No. 46. 

THIS fpecies is but thinly fcattered over the 
northern world : no mention is made of it 
by any of the Faunifts -, nor do we find it in other 
parts of Europe, except England, and the Alps*. 
In Afia, the ifland of Candia produces itf. In 
Africa, /Egypt : which laft place it vifits towards 
the end of the inundations of the Nile$. Except 

* Plin. nat. hijl. lib. X. c. 

f Belcn obf. 17. 

\ Hajelquijl itin. 2A0. 

.8. Briffon, II. 5. 





Class II. RED LE G G E D. 229 

JEgypt it afre&s mountanous and rocky filiations; 
and builds its neft in high cliffs, or ruined towers, 
and lays four or five eggs, white fpotted with a 
dirty yellow. It feeds on infects, and alfo on new 
fown corn : they commonly fly high, make a 
mriller noife than the jackdaw, and may be taught 
to fpeak. It is a very tender bird, and unable to 
bear very fevere weather -, is of an elegant, flender 
make •, active, reftlefs, and thieving ; much tak- 
en with glitter, and fo meddling as not to be 
trufted where things of confequence lie. It is very 
apt to catch up bits of lighted flicks ; fo that there 
are inftances of houfes being fet on fire by its 
means ± which is the reafon that Camden calls it 
incendiaria avis. Several of the Weljh and Cot* 
nijh families bear this bird in their coat of arms. 
It is found in Cornwall, Flintjhire, Caernarvon/hire^ 
and Angle/ea, in the cliffs and caftles along the 
mores ; and in different parts of Scotland as far 
as Straithnavern •, and in fome of the Hebrides. 
They are alfo found in fmall numbers on Dover 
cliff, where they came by accident : A gentleman 
in that neighborhood had a pair lent as a prefent 
from Cornwall, which efcaped, and Hocked thofe 
rocks. They fometimes defert the place for a week 
or ten days at a time, and repeat it feveral times in 
the year. 

Its weight is thirteen ounces : the breadth thir- Descrip, 
ty-three inches : the length fixteen : its color is 
wholly black, beautifully gloried over with blue 


2 3 o JACK-DAW, Class. II. 

and purple : the legs and bill are of a bright orange, 
inclining to red : the tongue almoft as long as the 
bill, and a little cloven : the claws large, hooked, 
and black. Scopoli fays that in Carniola the feet of 
fome, during autumn, turn black. 

i. Jack- 

Chouca, Chouchette, ou Chou- 

ette. Belon a<v. 286. 
Gracculus, feu monedula. Gef- 

ner a<v. 521. 
Aldr. a<v. I. 387. 
Wil. orn. 125. 
Rati fyn. a<v. 40. 
Le Choucas. Brijfon av. 24. 
Scopoli y No. 38. 
Mulacchia nera. Zinan, 70. 

Corvus monedula. Lin.fyfi. 

I5 6. 

Kaja. Faun. Suec. fp. 89. 
Danijb Alike. Now. Kaae, 

Kaye, Raun Kaate, Ra- 

age. Br. 31. 
Tagerl, Dohle, Tfchockerl. 

Kram. 334. 
Graue-Dohle. Frifch,!.^- 
Br. Zool. 78. 
Hijl. d'Oys. III. 6g. 

Descrip. 'T^ HE jack-daw weighs nine ounces : the length 
JL thirteen inches : the breadth twenty-eight. 
The head is large in proportion to its body ; 
which Mr. Willughby fays argues him to be ingeni- 
ous and crafty. The irides are white : the forehead 
is black : the hind part of the head a fine light 
grey : the bread and belly of dufky hue, inclining 
to afh-color: the reft of the plumage is black, 
flightly gloffed with blue : the feet and bill black : 
the claws very ftrong, and hooked. It is adocil 
loquacious bird. 

Jack-daws breed in (leeples, old caftles, and in 


Class II. JACK-DAW., 231 

high rocks -, laying five or fix eggs. I have known 
them fometimes to breed in hollow trees near a 
rookery, and join thofe birds in their foraging par- 
ties. In fome parts of Hampjhire they make their 
nefts in rabbet holes : they alfo build in the in- 
terfaces between the upright and tranfome^w^j of 
Stone~Henge-j z proof of the prodigious height of that 
ftupendous antiquity -, for their nefts are placed 
beyond the reach of the fhepherd-boys, who are al- 
ways idling about the fpot. They are gregarious 
birds; and feed on infects, grain, and feeds *. 

* The Caryocatactes, Wil, orn. 132. Ednv. tab. 240. a bird 
of this genus, was fhot near Mojlyn, Flintjhire, in Ottober, 
1 7S3 » ftppofed to have ftraggled from Germany, where they 
are common : and the Roller, another bird of this clafs, was 
killed near Hel/lone bridge, Cornwall, in the autumn, 1766. 
It is alfo a native of Germany ; and is far the moll beautifull 
of the European birds. As an acquaintance with thefe wander- 
ers may be agreeable to our readers, we have given its figure, 
as well as that of the former. The one is copied from Mr. Ed- 
wards', the other from a drawing by Paillou. Vide Appendix, 


232 C U C K O O. Class II. 


Bill a little arched. 


Short tongue. 

Ten feathers in the tail, 

Climbing feet. 

$2. Cuckoo. Le Coqu. Belon a<v. 132. Cuculus cznorus Lin. Jyft. 168. 

Cuculus. Gefner a<v. 362. Gjok. Fa:v:. Suec. fp. 96. 

Aldr. a<v. I. 20. Danijh Gjoeg v. Kuk. Norv. 
Cuculo. Olina 38. Gouk. Br. 36. 

Wil. orn. 97. Kuckuck. Frifch. 1. 40, 41, 42. 

Raiifyn. a<v. 23. Kucluch Zr#;«. 337. 

Le Coucou. BriJJbn av. 105. ^r. ZW. 80. plate G. G. 1. 

Kukautza. Scopoli. No. 48. 

THIS fingular bird appears in cur country ear- 
ly in the fpring, and makes the fhorteft (lay 
with us of any bird of pafTage ; it is compelled 
here, as Mr. Stillingfleet obferves, by that conftitu- 
tion of the air which caufes the fig-tree to put forth 
its fruit *. From the coincidence of the firft appear- 
ance of the fummer birds of pafTage, and the lea- 
fing and fruiting of certain plants -, this ingenious 
writer would eftablifh a natural calendar in our 
rural ceconomy ; to inftruct us in the time of fow- 
ing our moft ufeful feeds, or of doing fuch work as 
depends on a certain temperament of the air. 
As the fallibility of human calendars need not be 

* Calendar of Flora, 'via 7 . Preface throughout, 




JPP <?2. 


Class II. CUCKOO. 233 

infilled on, we muft recommend to our country- 
men fome attention to thefe feathered guides, 
who come heaven-taught, and point out the true 
commencement of the feafon * •, their food being 
the infects of thofe feafons they continue with us. 

It is very probable, that thefe birds, or at left 
part of them do not entirely quit this ifland during 
winter ; but that they feek fhelter in hollow trees, 
and lie torpid, unlefs animated by unufually warm 
weather. I have two evidences of their being heard 
to ling as early as February : one was in the latter 
end of that month 1771, the other on the fourth 
1769: the weather in the laft was uncommonly 
warm ♦, but after that they were heard no more, 
chilled again as I fuppofe into torpidity. There is 
an inftance of their being heard in the fummer 
time to fing at midnight. 

There is a remarkable coincidence between their 
fong, and the feafon of the mackerel's continuance 
in full roe ; that is from about the middle of April, 
to the latter end of June. 

The cuckoo is fiient for fome little time after his 
arrival : his note is a call to love, and ufed only by 
the male, who fits perched generally on fome dead 
tree, or bare bough, and repeats his fong, which 
he lofes as foon as the amorous feafon is over. In 
a trap, which we placed on a tree frequented by 

* In Sweden, which is a much colder climate than our own, 
the cuckoo does not appear fo early by a month. 

Vol. I. R cuckoos 

234 CUCKOO. Class II. 

cuckoos, we caught not fewer than five male birds 
in one feafon. His note is fo uniform, that his 
name in all languages feems to have been derived 
from it ; and in all other countries it is ufed in the 
fame reproachful fenfe. 

The plain fong cuckoo grey, 

Whole note full many a man doth mark, 

And dares not anfwer nay. 


The reproach feems to arife from this bird mak- 
ing ufe of the bed or neft of another to depofit its 
eggs in \ leaving the care of its young to a wrong 
parent -, but Juvenal with more juftice gives the 
infamy to the bird in whofe neft the fuppofititious 
eggs were layed, 

Tu tibi tunc curruca^zm*. 

A water-wagtail, a yellow hammer, or hedge- 
fparrow -j-, is generally the nurfe of the young cuc- 
koos ; who, if they happen to be hatched at the 
fame time with the genuine orT-fpring, quickly 
deftroy them, by overlaying them as their growth is 

* Sat. VI. 275. 
% I have been eye-witnefs to two initances : when a boy I 
faw a young cuckoo taken out of the neft of a hedge fparrow : 
and in 1773 took another out of that of a yellow hammer : 
the old yellow hammer feemed as anxious about the lofs as 
if it had been its proper offspring. 


Class II. CUCKOO. 235 

foon fo fuperior. This want in the cuckoo of 
the common attention other birds have to their 
young, feems to arife from fome defect in its 
make, that difables it from incubation ; but what 
that is, we confefs ourfelves ignorant, referring the 
inquiry to fome fkilful anatomift. A friend tells 
me that the ftomach is uncommonly large, even 
fo as to reach almoft to the vent : may not the 
preffure of that in a fitting pofture, prevent incu- 
bation ? 

This bird has been ridiculoufly believed to change 
into a hawk, and to devour its nurfe on quitting 
the neft, whence the French proverb ingrat comme 
un coucou. But it is not carnivorous, feeding only 
on worms and infects : it grows very fat, and is 
faid to be as good eating as a land rail. The 
French and Italians eat them to this day. The Ro- 
mans admired them greatly as a food : Pliny * 
fays, that there is no bird to compare with them for 

The weight of the cuckoo is a little more than Bescrif, 
five ounces -, the length is fourteen inches -, breadth 
twenty-five. The bill black, very ftrong, a little 
incurvated, and about two- thirds of an inch long. 
The irides yellow. The head, hind part of the 
neck, the coverts of the wings, and the rump are 
of a dove color 5 darker on the head and paler on 
the rump. The throat and upper part of the 

* Lib. X. C, 9, 

R 2 neck 

236 C U C K OO. Class II. 

neck are of a pale grey ; the breaft and belly white, 
crofTed elegantly with undulated lines of black. 
The vent feathers of a buff color, marked with a 
few dufky fpots. The wings are very long, reach- 
ing within an inch and a half of the end of the 
tail; the firft quil feather is three inches fhorter 
than the others ; they are duiky, and their inner 
webs are barred with large oval white fpots. 
The tail confifts of ten feathers of unequal lengths 
like thofe of the butcher bird : the two middle are 
black tipt with white 3 the others are marked with 
white fpots on each fide their fhafts. The legs are 
fhort j and the toes difpofed two backwards and 
two forwards like the woodpecker, though it is 
never obferved to run up the fides of trees. The 
female differs in fome refpe&s. The neck before 
and behind is of a brownifh red : the tail barred 
with the fame color and black, and fpotted on each 
fide the fhaft with white. The young birds are 
brown mixed with ferruginous and black, and' in 
that (tate {iave been defcribed by fome authors as 
old ones. 


Class II. WRYNECK. 237 

Weak BILL, (lightly incurvated. VI. 


TONGUE long, (lender, armed at the point. 
Ten flexible feathers in the TAIL. 
Climbins FEET. 

Le Tercou, Torcou, ou Turcot. The Emmet Hunter. Char!- 83. Wry- 
Belon a<v. 306. ton ex, 93. .neck. 

Jynx. Gefner av. 573. Jyrjx torquilla.Z-m.^/? 172. 

Aldr. a=v. I, 421. Gjoktyta. Faun. Suec.fp. 97. 

The Wryneck. Wil. orn. 138. Bended-Hals. Br. 37. 

Raiifyn. a<v. 44. Natterwindl, Wendhalfs. 

Le Torcol, Torquilla. BriJJbn Kram. 336. 

av.1V. 4. Tab. 1. Jig. 1. Dreh-Hals. Frifch, I. 38. 

Collotorto,Verticella.Z/#tf».72. Br. Zool. 80. plate F. 

Iihudefch. Scopoli, tyo. 50, 

NATURE, by the elegance of its penciling the 
colors of this bird, hath made ample amends 
for their want of fplendor. Its plumage is marked Desc&if. 
with the plained kinds. A lift of black and ferru- 
ginous ftrokes divides the top of the head and back. 
The fides of the head and neck are afh colored, 
beautifully traverfed with fine lines of black and 
reddifli brown. The quil feathers are dufky ; but 
each web is marked with ruft colored fpots. The 
chin and bread are of a light yellowim brown, 
adorned with fharp pointed bars of black. The 
tail confifts of ten feathers, broad at their ends and 
Jl 3 weak i 

23S WRYNECK. Class II. 

weak -, of a pale afh color, powdered with black 
and red, and marked with four equidiftant bars of 
black. The tongue is long and cylindric •, for the 
fame ufe as that of the woodpecker. The toes are 
alio difpofed the fame way. The bill is fhort, weak, 
and a little arcuate. The irides are of a yellowifh 

The Wryneck we believe to be a bird of pafTage, 
appearing here in the fpring before the cuckoo. 
The Weljh confider it as the forerunner or fervant 
of that bird, and call it Gwds y gcg, or the 
cuckoo's attendant: the Swedes regard it in the 
fame light*. 

The food of this fpecies is infects, but chiefly 
ants, for on examination we found the ftomach 
of one filled with their remains. As the tongue of 
this bird, like that of the Ant-bear or 'Tamandria^ 
is of an enormous length ; it poffibly not only makes 
ufe of it to pick thofe infects out of their retreat, 
but like that quadruped may lay it acrofs their path, 
and when covered with ants draw it into its mouth. 

Its weight is one ounce and a quarter: the length 
feven inches ; the breadth eleven. It takes its 
name from a manner it has of turning its head 
back to the moulders ; efpecially when terrified : 
it has alfo the faculty of erecting the feathers of the 

* Jynx hieme non apparet, vere autem remigrans, cuculi, 
poll quatuordecemdies, adventum ruricolis annuntiat. Amcen. 
acad, IV. 584. 


Class II. WRYNECK. 239 

head like thofe of the jay. Its note is like that of 
the Keftrzl, a quick repeated fqueak. Its eggs are 
white, and have fo thin a fhell that the yolk may 
be feen through it. This bird builds in the hollows 
of trees, making its neft of dry grafs, in which we 
have counted nine young. 

R 4 Strait 





long, flender 3 and armed at the 

Strait ftrong angular BILL. Noftrils covered with 

TONGUE very 

end with a fharp bony point. 
TEN (tiff feathers in the tail. 
Climbing feet, 

$4. Gaeen. L e pic mart, Pic verd, Pic 
jaulne. Belon a<v. 299. 

Gefner a-v. 710. 

Pico verde. Aldr. a-u. I. 416. 

Green Woodpecker, or Wood- 
fpite ; called alfo the Rain 
Fowl, High Hoe, and Hew- 
hole. Wil. orn. 135. 

Raii fyn. a-v. 42. 

Le Pic verd. Brijfon av. 4. 9. 

Picus viridis. Lin.jyjr. 175, 

Wedknar, Gronfpik, Grong- 

joling. Faun. Suec.fp. 99. 
HaJJelquift itin. Ter. Sank, 

Girald. C amor ens. 191. 
Danijh & Now. , Groenfpet. 

Br. 39. 
Grunfpecht. Kram. 334. 

Frifcb,!. 35. 
Br. Zool. 78. plate E. 
Deteu, Detela. Scopoli, No. 

THE wifdom of Providence in the admirable 
contrivance of the fitnefs of the parts of ani- 
mals to their respective nature, cannot be better 
illuftrated than from this genus : which we mall 
give from the obfervations of our illuftrious coun- 
tryman Mr. Ray*. 

Thefe birds feed entirely on infects : and their 
principal action is that of climbing up and down 
the bodies or boughs of trees : for the firft pnrpofe 

* flay on the Creation, p. 143, 



they are provided with a long flender tongue, 
armed with a fharp bony end barbed on each 
fide, which by the means of a curious apparatus of 
mufcles * they can exert at pleafure, darting it to 
a great length into the clifts of the bark, transfix- 
ing and drawing out the infects that lurk there. 

They make their nefts in the hollows of trees: in Nest. 
order therefore to force their way to thofe cavities, 
their bills are formed ftrong, very hard, and 
wedge-like at the end ; Dr. Derham obferves, that 
a neat ridge runs along the top, as if an artift had 
defigned it for ftrength and beauty. Yet it has 
not power to penetrate a found tree : their per- 
foration of any tree is a warning to the owner to 
throw it down. 

Their legs are fhort, but ftrong ; their thighs 
very mufcular : their toes difpofed, two backwards, 
two forward : the feathers of the tail are very ftiff, 
fharp pointed and bending downwards. The three 
firft circumftances do admirably concur to enable 
them to run up and down the fides of trees with 
great fecurity -, and the ftrength of the tailfupports 
them firmly when they continue long in one place, 
either where they find plenty of food, or while they 
are forming an accefs to the interior part of the 
timber. This form of the tail makes their flight 
very awkward, as it inclines their body down, and 
forces them to fly with fhort and frequent jerks 

* Phil. Tranf, Martin* s abridge V. p. 55. plate 2. 



when they would afcend, or even keep in a 

This fpecies feeds oftener on the ground than 
any other of the genus : all of them make their 
nefts in the hollows of trees -, and lay five or fix 
Eggs. eggs, of a beautifull femitranfparent white. 
Descrip. This kind weighs fix ounces and a half. Its 

length is thirteen inches; the breadth twenty and 
a half : the bill is dufky, triangular, and near two 
inches long : the crown of the head is crimfon, 
fpotted with black. The eyes are furrounded with 
black, beneath which (in the males only) is a 
rich crimfon mark. The back, neck, and leifer 
coverts of the wings are green. The rump of a 
pale yellow. The greater quil feathers are dufky, 
fpotted on each fide with white. The tail confifts 
of ten fliff feathers, whofe ends are generally bro- 
ken as the bird refts on them in climbing ; their 
tips are black : the reft of each is alternately bar- 
red with dufky and deep green. The whole un- 
der part of the body is of a very pale green •, and 
the thighs and vent marked with dufky lines, 
The legs and feet are of a cinereous green. 




L'epeiche, Cul rouge, Pic Picus major. Lin.JyJl. 176. 85. Great 

rouge. Belon a<v. 300. Gyllenrenna. Faun. Suec. Spotted. 

Picus varius, feu albus. Gef- fp. 100. 

ner cm. 709. Hakke-fpeet. Brunnich, 40. 

Greater fpotted Woodpecker, or Groffes Baumhackl. Kram. 

Witwal. Wil. orn. 137. 336. 

Raiijyn. av. 43. Bunt Specht. Frifch, I. 36. 

Picchio. Zinan. 73. Br. Zool. 79. plate E. 

Le grand Pic vane. Brijfon Kobilar. Scopoli, No. 53. 

a<v. IV. 34. 

THIS fpecies weighs two ounces three quar- Descrip. 
ters : the length is nine inches ; the breadth 
is fixteen. The bill is one and a quarter long, 
of a black horn color. The hides are red. The 
forehead is of a pale buff color. The crown of 
the head a gloffy black. The hind part marked 
with a rich deep crimfon fpot : the cheeks white \ 
bounded beneath by a black line that paffes from 
the corner of the mouth, and furronnds the hind 
part of the head. The neck is encircled with a 
black color. The throat and bread are of a yel- 
lowilh white. The vent feathers of a fine light 
crimfon. The back, rump, and coyerts of the tail, 
and leffer coverts of the wings are black ; the 
fcapular feathers and coverts adjoining to them are 
white. The quil feathers black, elegantly mark- 
ed on each web with round white fpots. 

The four middle feathers of the tail are black, Tail, 
the next tipt with dirty yellow ; the bottoms of 



the two outmoft black ; the upper parts a dirty 
white. The exterior feather marked on each web 
with two black fpots ; the next with two on the 
inner web, and only one on the other. The legs 
Female, are of a lead color. The female wants that beauti- 
ful crimfon fpot on the head ; «in other refpedh the 
colors of both agree. This fpecies is much more 
uncommon than .the preceding ; and keeps altoge- 
ther in the woods. 

86. Middle, Picus medius. P. albo nigroque Suec. /p. 82. Scopoli, No. 
varius, crifTo pileoque ru- 54. 

bris. Lin. fyft. 176. Faun. Le Pic varie. Brijfcn av. IV. 


THIS fpecies agrees with the preceding in 
colors and fize, excepting that the crown 
of the head in this is of a rich crimfon ; the crown 
of the head in the male of the former black \ and 
the crimfon is in form of a bar on the hind part. 

Birds thus marked have been fhot in Lancajhire> 
and other parts of England \ but I am doubtful! 
whether they are varieties, or diftindt fpecies. 






Gefner a<v. yog. Faun. Suec. Jp. 192. Scopoli. 

Aldr. a>v. I. 416. No. 55. 

LeiTer fpotted Woodpecker, Haffelquift itin. 242. 

orHickwall./^/. orn. 138. Kleiner Bunt- Specht. Frifcb. 

Raiijyn. dv. 43. I. 37. 

Picus minor. Lin. fyft. 176. Kleiner Baumhackl. Krdm. 

Le petit Pic varie. BriJJbn a<v. 336. 

iv. 41. Br. Zool. 79. plate E. 

87. Lest 

THIS fpecies is the left of the genus, fcarce Descrif 
weighing an ounce ; the length is fix inches ; 
the breadth eleven. The forehead is of a dirty- 
white : the crown of the head (in the male) of a 
beautiful crimfon : the cheeks and fides of the neck 
are white, bounded by a bed of black beneath the 
former. The hind part of the head and neck, and 
the coverts of the wings are black: the back is bar- 
red with black and white : the fcapulars and quil 
feathers fpotted with black and white: the four mid- 
dle feathers of the tail are black ; the others varied 
with black and white: the bread and belly are 
of a dirty white : the crown of the head (in the 
female) is white ; the feet are of a lead color. 

It has all the characters and actions of the greater 
kind, but is not fo often met with. 


24 6 KINGFISHER. Class IL 

VIII. KING- Strait, flrong, fharp pointed BILL. 
FISHER. Tongue fhort and pointed. 

Three lowed joints of the outmoft TOE conneded 
to the middle toe. 

8. King- Le Martinet pefcheur. Belon Piombino, Martino pefcatore, 
fisher a ' v - 2I $' Pefcatore del re. Zinan 

Ifpida (Isfogel) Gefner a~c. 571. 116. 

Aldr. av. III. 200. Isfogel. Muf. Fr. ad. 16. 

Olina 7g, 40. Scopoli.l^o. 64. 

Wil. cm. 146. Jis-fugl. Brunnich in Ap- 

Raii fyn. av. 4S. fend. 

PL Enl 77. Eisvogel. Frifch. II. 223. 

Alcedo ifpida. Lin. fyft. 179. Meerfchwalbe. Kram. 337. 

Le Martin-pecheur. Brijjbn Br. Zool. 82. plate I. 
a-v. iv. 471. 

Descrip. ry^HlS bird weighs an ounce and a quarter: its 
X length is fev tn indues ; its breadth eleven: 
it? fhspe is very clumfy, the head and bill being 
very large, and the legs difproportionably fmall : 
the bill is two inches long; the upper mandible 
black, the lov--er yellow : the irides are red : the co- 
lors of this bird atone for its inelegant form : the 
crown of the Lead, and the coverts of the wings are 
of a deep blackifh green, fpotted with bright azure: 
the fcapular feathers, and coverts of the tail are alfo 
of a moll fplendent azure: the whole underfide of 
the body is orange colored ; a broad mark of the 


?i. xxxvm 



fame pafTes from the bill beyond the -eyes ; beyond 
that is a large white fpot : the tail is fhort, and con- 
fills of twelve feathers of a rich deep blue: the feet 
are of a reddifh yellow : the three lower joints of 
the outmoft toe adhere to the middle toe : the in- 
ner toe adheres to it by one joint. 

The kingfifher frequents the banks of rivers, and 
feeds on fifh. To compare fmall things to great, 
it takes its prey after the manner of the ofprey, ba- 
lancing itfelf at a certain diftance over the water 
for a confiderable fpace, then darting below the 
furface, brings the prey up in its feet. While it 
remains fufpended in the air, in a bright day, the 
plumage exhibits a mod beautiful variety of the 
moft dazzling and brilliant colors. This ftriking 
attitude did not efcape the notice of the aruients, 
for Ibycus, as quoted by Athenaus, flyles thefe 
birds afotnves rawo-mrEfoi f, the halcyons with expanded 
wings. It makes its neft in holes in the fides of the 
cliffs, which it fcoops to the depth of three feet ; 
and lays from five to nine eggs -f- , of a moft beau- 
tiful femi-tranfparent white. The neft is very 
fetid, by reafon of the remains of the fiih brought 
to feed the young. 

This fpecies is the a\Muva$uv® m , or mute halcyon 
of Ariftotk^ which he defcribes with more preci- 

* P. 388. 
f Gefner fays he found nine young in one neft, 
% Hiftn an. 892, 1050. 



fion than is ufual with that great philofopher : after 
bis defcription of the bird, follows that of its neft, 
than which the moft inventive of the antients have 
delivered nothing that appears at firft fight more 
Nest, fabulous and extravagant. He relates, that it re- 
fern bled thole concretion that are formed by the 
fea-water •, that it refembled the long necked gourd, 
th?: it was hollow within, that the entrance was 
\ ery narrow, lb that fhould it overfet the water 
could not enter •, that it refitted any violence from 
iron, but could be broke with a blow of the hand ; 
and that it was compofed of the bones of the Be^ovn 
or fea-needle *. 

The neft had medical virtues afcribed to it ; and 
from the bird was called Halcyoneum. In a fa- 
bulous age every odd fubftance that was flung a- 
more received that name ; a fpecies of tubular coral, 
a fponge, a zoophyte, and a mifcellaneous concrete 
having by the antients been dignified with that title 
from their imaginary origin f . Yet much of this 
fcems to be founded on truth. The form of the 
neft agrees moft exactly with the curious account 
of it that Count Zinanni has favored us with J . 


* 1050. See alfo JElian. lib. ix. c. 17. Plin. lib. x. c. 32. 
f ?Hn. lib. xxx': . 8. Diofc, lib. v. c. 94. 

X Ni lifica egli nelle line degli acquidotti, o de piccoli tor- 
renti vicinc a] mare, Armando pero il nido nei fiti piu adti di 
dette ripe, acciocche l'efcrefcenza delle acque non pofla infi- 
nuarf: r.el d : mi foro ; e fa egli detto nido incavando inter- 
namente ii terreno in tondo per la lunghczza di tre piedi, e 

riducendo I 

Class II. KINGFISHER; 249 

The materials which Ariftotle fays it was compofed 
of, are not entirely of his own invention. Who- 
ever has feen the neft of the kingfifher, will obferve 
it ftrewed with the bones and fcales of flih ; the 
fragments of the food of the owner and its young : 
and thofe who deny that it is a bird that frequents 
the fea, mud not confine their ideas to our northern 
fhores ; but reflect, that birds that inhabit a fhel- 
tered place in the more rigorous latitudes, may 
endure expofed ones in a milder clime. Ariftotle 
made his obfervations in the eaft : and allows^ 
that the halcyon fometimes afcended rivers * ; pof- 
fibly to breed : for we learn from Zinanni, that 
in his foft climate, Italy, it breeds in May, in banks 
offtreams that are near the fea; and having brought 
up the firft hatch, returns to the fame place to lay 
a fecond time. 

On the foundation laid by the philofopher, fuc- 
ceeding writers formed other tales extremely abfurd ; 
and the poets, indulging the powers of imagination, 
drefTed the ftory in all the robes of romance. 
This neft was a floating one j 

Incubat halcyone pendentibus sequore nidisf . 

it was therefore neceffary to place it in a tranquil 
fea, and to fupply the bird with charms to allay the 

riducendo il fine di detto fofo a foggia di batello, tutto co- 
perto di fcaglie di pefci, che reftano vagamente intrecciate; 
ma forfe non fono cosi difpofte ad arte, bensi per accidente. 
* AvatSalvEi ?£ re sk) t« 5 Trorau'ds Hift. an. 1050, 
f OvU Met. lib. xi. 
Vol. II. S fury 

2 5 o KINGFISHER. Class II. 

fury of a turbulent element during the time of its 
incubation ; for it had, at that feafon, power over 

the feas and the winds. 

Tgv ts voloVf rov t* wpcv, o; sV%aTa (pvxlct wei* 

A'teuGVt;, yXavxcu; Nujwj rcci ts (tahira 

Ofv&m Efbc&ev. Tbeocrit. Idyl vii. I. 57. 

May Halcyons fmooth the waves, and calm the feas, 
And the rough fouth-eaft fink into a breeze \ 
Halcyons of all the birds that haunt the main, 
Moil lov'd and honor'd by the Nereid train. 


Thefe birds were equally favourites with Thetis 

as with the Nereids \ 

Dile&ae Tbetuii Halcyones. Virg, Georg. I. 399, 

As if to their influence thefe deities owed a repofe 
in the midlt of the ftorms of winter, and by their 
means were fecured from thofe winds that difturb 
their fubmarine retreats, and agitated even the 
plants at the bottom of the ocean. 

Such are the accounts given by the Roman and 
Sicilian poets. Arifiotle and Pliny tell us, that this 
bird is mod common in the feas of Sicily : that it fat 
only a few days, and thofe in the depth of winter ; 
and during that period the mariner might fail in full 

fecurity j 

Class II. KINGFISHER; 251 

fecurity ; for which reafon they were ftiled, Halcy- 
on days*. 

Perque dies placidos hiberno tempore feptem 
Incubat Halcyone pendentibus sequore nidis : 
Turn via tuta maris : ventos cuftodit, et arcet 
iEolus egreflu. Ovid. Met. lib. XI, 

Alcyone comprefs'd, 
Seven days fits brooding on her watery nefl 
A wintry queen ; her fire at length is kind, 
Calms every ftorm and hufhes every wind. Dryden. 

In after times, thefe words exprefTed any feafon 
of profperity : thefe were the Halcyon days of the 
poets j the brief tranquillity ; the feptem placidi dies 
of human life. 

The poets alfo made it a bird of fong : Virgil 
feems to place it in the fame rank with the Linnet : 

Littoraque Halcyonem refonant, & Acanthida dumi. 

Georg. III. 338. 

And Silius Italicus celebrates its mufic, and its float- 
ing neft : 

Cum fonat Halcyone cantu, nidofque natantes 
Immota geftat fopitis flu&ibus unda. 

Lib. XIV. 275. 

But we fufpect that thefe writers have transfer- 
red to our fpecies, the harmony that belongs to 

* Arifi. bifi. an. 541. Plin. lib. x. c. 32. lib. xviii. c. 24. 
Atouoveiai yijaeccci of the former ; and dies halcyonides of the 

S 2 the 

252 KINGFISHER: Class II. 

the vocal alcedo of the philofopher, *ai * pb $$syyercu 9 
xa6i£oiv8(ra etti t£v dovaKcov * 5 which was vocal and perched 
upon reeds. Arifiotle fays, it is the left of the two, 
but that both of them have a cyanean back -f. 
Belon labors to prove the vocal alcedo to be the 
roujferoky or the greater reed fparrowfc, a bird 
found in France and fome other parts of Europe, 
and of a very fine note : it is true that it is con- 
\v-rfant among reeds, like the bird defcribed by 
Ariftotle ; but as its colors are very plain, and that 
finking character of the fine blue back is wanting, 
we cannot afTent to the opinion of Belon , but ra- 
ther imagine it to be one of the loft birds of the 

Thofe who think we have faid too much on this 
fubjecl, mould confider how incumbent it is on 
every lover of fcience, to attempt placing the la- 
bors of the antients in a juft light : to clear their 
works from thofe errors, that owe their origin to 
the darknefs of the times •, and to evince, that ma- 
ny of their accounts are flrictly true; many found- 
ed on truth , and others contain a mixture of fable 
and reality, which certainly merit the trouble of re- 
paration. It is much to be lamented that travel- 

* Hift. an. 892. 

f Nwtov xutxvsov, the color of the cyanus, or lapis lazuli. 

% Le Roufferolle, Belon a<v. 221. Le Roucherolle, BriJJbn 
a-v. II. 218. Greater reed fparrow, WiL orn. 143. Turdus 
arundinaceus, Lin. fyfi, /p. 296. 


Class II. KINGFISHER. 253 

lers, either on clafik or any other ground, have 
not been more affiduous in noting the zoology of 
thofe countries, which the antients have celebrated 
for their productions : for, from thofe who have 
attended to that branch of natural knowledge, we 
have been able to develope the meaning of the old 
naturalifts -, and fettle with precifion fome few of 
the animals of the antients. 

Italy, a country crowded with travellers of all 
nations, hath not furnifhed a fingle writer on clafli- 
cal zoology. The Eaft has been more fortunate : 
Belon, the firft voyager who made remarks in na- 
tural hidory during his travels, mentions many of 
the animals of the places he vifited, and may be 
very ufeful to afcertain thofe of Ariftotle, efpeci- 
ally as he has given their modern Greek names. 
Our countryman, Dr. Riiffel, enumerates thofe of 
Syria, Dr. Haffelquift has made fome additions to 
the ornithology of Egypt : but all thefe fall fhort 
of the merits of that moil learned and inquifitive 
traveller, Dr. Shaw -, who with unparalleled learn- 
ing and ingenuity, has left behind him the mod 
fatisfactory, and the mod beautiful comments on 
the animals of the antients, particularly thofe men- 
tioned in holy writ, or what relates to the Egyp- 
tian mythology : fuch as do honor to our country, 
and we natter ourfelves will prove incentives to 
other travellers, to complete what muft prove fu- 
perior to any one genius, be it ever fo great : from 
fuch we may be fupplied with the means of illuf- 
S 1 trating 

* 5 4 KINGFISHER. Class II. 

trating the works of the antient naturalifts ; whilfl: 
commentators, after loading whole pages with un- 
enlightening learning, leave us as much in the dark, 
as the age their authors wrote in. 




Strait triangular BILL. IX. NUT- 

Short TONGUE, horny at the end, and jagged. HATCH - 

Le grand Grimpereau, le aru. III. 588. tab. 29. fig. 3. 89. ^ UT ' 

Torchepot. Belon a<v. 304. Picchio grigio, Raparino. Zi- hatch 
Picus cinereus, feu Sitta. Gef- nan. 74. 

ner a<v. 711. Notwacka, Notpacka. Faun, 
Ziolo. ^/^V\ #i/. I. 417. Suec. fp. 104. 

The Nuthatch, or Nut-job- Danijb Spcett-meife. Now. 

ber. Wil. orn. 142. Nat-Bake. Br. 42. 

/?«« ^/z. av. 47. Klener, Nuffzhacker. Kram. 
The Woodcracker. iVtf/'j 362. 

£//?• Ox. 175. Blau-fpecht. Frifcb, I. 39. 

Sitta Europaea. JL*#. .$/?. 177. Br. Zoo/. 81. plate H. 

Le Torchepot, Sitta. Brijfon Barlefs. Scopoti, No. 57. 

THE nuthatch weighs near an ounce; its Descrip* 
length is near five inches three-quarters ; 
breadth nine inches ; the bill is ftrong and flrait, 
about three quarters of an inch long •, the upper 
mandible black, the lower white : the irides hazel ; 
the crown of the head, back, and coverts of the 
wings are of a fine bluifh grey: a black flroke 
pafTes over the eye from the mouth : the cheeks and 
chin are white : the bread and belly of a dull o- 
range color ; the quil feathers dufky \ the wings 
underneath are marked with two fpots, one white 
at the root of the exterior quils ; the other black at 
the joint of the baftard wing; the tail confifts of 
twelve feathers ; the two middle are grey : the two 
S 4 exterior 

25^ NUTHATCH. Class II. 

exterior feathers tipt with grey, then fucceeds a tranf- 
verfe white fpot ; beneath that the reft is black ; 
the legs are of a pale yellow ; the back toe very 
ftrong, and the claws large. 

This bird runs up and down the bodies of trees, 
like the woodpecker tribe ; and feeds not only on 
infects, but nuts, of which it lays up a confidera- 
ble provifion in the hollows of trees : it is a pret- 
ty fight, fays Mr. Willughby, to fee her fetch a nut 
out of her hoard, place it faft in a chink, and then 
(landing; above it with its head downwards, ftrikino; 
it with all its force, breaks the (hell, and catch- 
es up the kernel : it breeds in the hollows of trees ; 
if the entrance to its neft be too large, it flops up 
part of it with clay, leaving only room enough for 
admiliion : in autumn it begins to make a chatter- 
ing noife, being filent for the greateft part of the 
year. Doffor Plott tells us, that this bird, by put- 
ting its bill into a crack in the bough of a tree, 
can make fuch a violent found as if it was rending; 
aiunder, fo that the noife may be heard at left twelve 
fcore yards. 




Class XL HOOPOE. 257 

Slender incurvated BILL. X. 

Very fhorc TONGUE. HOOPOE. 

Ten feathers in the TAIL. 

La Huppe. Belon a<v. 293. Upupa epops, Lin. fyft. 183. 90. Hoopoe. 

Upupa. Gefner a<v. 776, Harfogel, Pop. Faun. Suee. 

Aldr. a<v. II. 314. fp. 105. 

Bubbola. Qlina, 36. Ter Chaous Pococke Trav. I. 

The Hoop, or Hoopoe. Wil. 209. 

orn. 145. Her-fugl. Brunnich, 43. 

Raiijyn. a<v. 48. Widhopf. Kram. 337. 

The Dung Bird. Charlton ex. Upupa; arquata ftercoraria ; 

98. tab. 99. gallus lutofus. Klein Stem. 

P loft's Oxf. 177. a<v. 24. tab. 25. 

Edvu. 345. Br. Zool. 83. plate L. 

PL enl. 52.- Smerda kaura. Scopolz s No. 

La Hupe ou Puput. BriJJbn 62. 

a<v. III. 455. ta£. 43. 

TLJIS bird may be readily diftinguillied from De§crij? ? 
all others that vifit thefe iflands by its beau- 
tiful creft, which it can erector deprefs at pleafure : 
it weighs three ounces : its length is twelve inches : 
its breadth nineteen : the bill is black, two inches 
and a half long, (lender, and incurvated : the 
tongue triangular, fmall, and placed low in the 
mouth : the irides are hazel : phe creli confifts of 
a double row of feathers • the higher! about two 
inches long : the tips are black, their lower part of 
a pale orange color : the neck is of a pale reddifh 
brown: the breaft and belly whiter but in young 


HOOPOE. Class II. 

birds marked with narrow dufky lines pointing 
down : the lefTer coverts of the wings are of a light 
brown : the back, fcapulars and wings croffed with 
broad bars of white and black : the rump is 
white: the tail confifts of only ten feathers, white 
marked with black, in form of a crefcent, the 
horns pointing towards the end of the feathers. 
The legs are Ihort and black: the exterior toe 
is clofely united at the bottom to the middle toe. 

According to Linnaus it takes its name from 
its note*, which has a found fimilar to the word ; 
or it may be derived from the French huppe, or 
crefted : it breeds in hollow trees, and lays two 
ahVcolored eggs : it feeds on infects which it picks 
out of ordure of all kinds : the antients believed 
that it made its neft of human excrement ; fo far 
is certain, that its hole is exceffively foetid from 
the tainted food it brings to its young. The coun- 
try people in Sweden look on the appearance of this 
bird as a prefage of war ; 

Fades armata videtur. 

and formerly the vulgar in our country efleemed 
it a forerunner of fome calamity. It vifits thefe ifl- 
ands frequently ; but not at dated feaibns, neither 
does it breed with us. It is found in many parts 
of Europe, in Egypt, and even as remote as Ceylon. 
The Turks call it Tir Cbaous or the melfenger bird, 

* Faun, Suec. 2d edit. $j. 


Class II. HOOPOE. 2 59 

from the refcmblance its creft has to the plumes 
worn by the Chaous or Turkijh couriers. 

Ovid fays that Tereus was changed into this bird : 

Vertitur in volucrem, cui ftant in vertice criftae, 
Prominet immodicum pro longa cufpide roftrum : 
Nomen Epops volucri. Metam. lib. vi. 1. 672. 

Tereus, through grief, and hafte to be reveng'd, 
Shares the like fate and to a bird is chang'd. 
Fix'd on his head the crefted plumes appear, 
Long is his beak and fharpen'd as a fpear. Croxall 


2 6o CREEPER. Class II. 

XI. "Very (lender BILL, very much incurvated. 

CREEPER. Twelve feathers in the TAIL. 

91. Creep- Le petit Grimpereau. Belon Le Grimpereau. Brijjbn III. 
er. av. 375. 603. 

Certhia. Ge/ner av. 251. Cat. Carol, app. 37. 

Jldr. av. I. 424. Certhia familiaris. Lin. jyft. 

Wil. orn. 144. 184. 

Rati fyn. av. 47. Krypare. Faun. Suec.fp. 106. 

The Oxeye Creeper. Chad- Traee-Pikke v. Lie-Heilen. 

ton ex. 93. Br. p. 12. Scopoli, No. 59. 

Picchio piccolo. Zhian. 75. Grau-Specht. Frifcb, I. 39. 

BaumlaufFerl. Kram. 337. 
£;•. Zoo/. 82. plate K. 

JJ E 5 C R I P , 

THE creeper weighs only five drams : and 
next to the crefted wren is the left of the 
Britijh birds : the manner it has of ruffling its fea- 
thers, and their length give it a much larger ap- 
pearance than is real. The length of this bird is 
five inches and a half: the breadth feven and a half; 
the bill is hooked like a fickle : the irides hazel : 
the legs flender : the toes and claws very long, 
to enable it to creep up and down the bodies of 
trees in fearch of infects, which are its food : it 
breeds in hollow trees -, and lays fometimes twenty 
eggs : the head and upper part of the neck are brown, 
ftreaked with black : the rump is tawny : the co- 
verts of the wines are variegated with brown and 
black : the quil-feathers duiky, tipt with white, 


Class II. C R E. E P E R: 2 5c 

and edged and barred with tawny marks : the 
bread and belly are of a filvery white: the tail is 
very long, and confifts of twelve ftiff feathers; 
notwithstanding Mr. JVillughby and other ornitholo- 
gifts give it but ten : they are of a tawny hue ? 
and the interior ends of each flope off to a point. 


2 62 

G R O U S. 

Class \l. 


XII. Short arched BILL. 


Outmoft, and inner TOES connected to the firft 

joint of the middle toe by a fmall mem- 

* With legs feathered to the feet 

broad fcarlet 

** With naked legs. 

$2.. Wood. Le Coc de bois ou Faifan 
bruyant. Belon ay. 249. 

Urogallus major (the Male). 
Gefner ay. 490. 

Grygallus major (the Fe- 
male). 495. 

Gallo cedrone, Urogallus live 
Tetrao. Aldr. ay. II. 29. 

Gallo alpeftre, Tetrax Neme- 
fiani (fern.) Aldr. a-v. II. 

Pavo fylveftris. Girald. To- 

pogr. Hibern. 706. 
Cock of the Mountain, or 

Vv'ood. Wil. orn. 172. 
Raiijyn. a<v. 53. 

PL Enl. 

3- 74- 

Capricalca. Sib. Scot. 16. tab. 
14, 18. 

Le cocque de Bruyeres. Brijfon 
ay. I. 182. Hift. d'Ojs. 
II. 191. 

Tetrao urogallus. Lin. fyft. 

Kjader, Faun. Suec. fp. 200. 
Pont op. II. 10 1. 
Tjader-hona. Hajfelquijl itin. 


Klein Stem. tab. 27. 

Mas Norwegis Tiur, Teer, 

Toedder. Foemina Nory. 

Roey. Brunnicb, 194. 
Aurhan. Kra?n. 356. 
Auerhahn. Frifch, I. 107, 

Br. Zool. 84. plates M. M*. 

PL Enl. 73, 74. 
Devi peteln. Scopoli, No. 169. 

f Swedijb edition. This bird was fhot in the ifle of 
Alilo, on a palm tree. Belon tells us, it is often found in Crete ; 
Obf. p. 1 1. The Englijb tranllator of Hafelyuijl gives a falfe 
name to the bird, calling it the Black Game. 






Class II. G R O U S. 263 

THIS fpecies is found in no other part of 
Great Britain than the Highlands of Scot- 
land, North of Invemefs ; and is very rare even in 
thofe parts. It is there known by the name of 
Capercalze, Auer-calze, and in the old law books 
Caperkally : the laft Signifying the horfe of the 
woods •, this fpecies being, in comparifon of others 
of the genus, pre-eminently large *. We believe 
that the breed is extinct in Ireland, where it was 
formerly found. 

Giraldus Cambrenjisf defcribes it under the title 
of Peacock of the wood, from the rich green that 
fhines on the bread of the male. Boethius\ alfo 
mentions it under the name of Cape? m calze\ andtrue- 
ly defcribes its food, the extreme moots of the 
pine. He afterwards gives an exact defcription of 
the black cock, but gives it the name of the cock of 
the wood, a name now confined to this fpecies. 
Bifhop Lefsly\\ is a third of our hiftorians who 
makes mention of this bird along with two others 
of the genus, the black cock and common grous ^ 
but the Ptarmigan is overlooked by them. None 
of thefe writers were converfant in the ftudy of 
natural hiftory, therefore are very excufable for their 

* For the fame reafon the Germans call it Aur-han t or the 
Vrus or wild ox cock, 
f Topogr, Hibern. 706. % Defer. Regni Scotia, 7. 

|{ Scotia Defer, 24, 


264 G R O U S. Class II. 

It inhabits wooded and mountanous countries ; 
in particular, forefts of pines, birch trees and ju- 
nipers ; feeding on the tops of the former, and ber- 
ries of the latter ; the firft infects often the flefh 
with fuch a tafte, as to render it fcarcely eatable. 
In the fpring it calls the females to its haunts with 
a loud and ihrill voice; and is at that time fo ve- 
ry inattentive to its fafety, as to be very eafily 
(hot. It ftands perched on a tree, and defcends 
to the females on their firft appearance. They lay 
from eight to fixteen eggs ; eight at the firft, and 
more as they advance in age *. 

Thefe birds are common to Scandinavia, Ger- 
many, France, and feveral parts of the Alps. In 
our country I have feen one fpecimen at Invernefs, 
a male, killed in the woods of Mr. Chifohne, North 
of that place. 
Descrip. The length of the male is two feet eight inch- 

es ; the breadth three feet ten : its weight fome- 
times fourteen pounds. The female is much lefs, 
the length being only twenty-fix inches; the breadth 
forty. The fexes differ alio greatly in colors. 
The bill of the male is of a pale yellow : the nof- 
rils are covered with dufky feathers : the head, 
neck and back are elegantly marked, flender lines 
of grey and black running tranfverfely. The fea- 
thers on the hind part of the head are long, and 
beneath the throat is a large tuft of long feathers. 

* Sckwenckfelt Aviarium Sileji<e. 372. 


Class II. G R O U S. 265 

The upper part of the bread is of a rich glofiy 
green ; the reft of the bread and the belly black, 
mixed with fome white feathers : the fides are mark- 
ed like the neck: the coverts of the wings crofTed 
with undulated lines of black and reddiih brown : 
the exterior webs of the greater quil feathers are 
black : at the fetting on of the wings in both fexes 
is a white fpotj the inner coverts are of the fame 
color: the tail confifts of eighteen feathers, the 
middle of which is the longed ; are black, marked 
©n each iide with a few white fpots : the vent fea- 
thers black mixed with white. The legs very 
ftrong, covered with brown feathers : the edges of 
the toes pectinated. 

The female differs greatly from the male: the bill 
is duiky : the throat red : the head, neck and back 
are marked with tranfverfe bars of red and black : 
the bread has fome white fpots on it, and the lower 
part is of a plain orange color : the belly barred 
with pale orange and black ; the tips of the fea- 
thers white. The feathers of the back and fcapu- 
lars black, the edges mottled with black and pale 
reddifh brown •, the fcapulars tipt with white. The 
inner webs of the quil feathers dufky : the exterior 
mottled with dufky and pale brown. The tail is of 
a deep ruft color barred with black, tipt with white, 
and confids of fixteen feathers. 

Gefner, as Mr. Willughby * has long fince ob- 

* WiL orn. 173. Gefner a<v. 490. 495. 

Vol. I, T ferved, 

266 BLACKCOCK. Class II. 

ferved, deceived by the very different plumage of 
the male and female of this kind, has formed of 
them two fpecies. 

93. Black. Urogallus minor (the Male) . 
Gefner a<v. 493. Grygallus 
minor ( the Female) . 496. 

Fafan negro, Fafiano alpeitre, 
Urogallus five Tetrao mi- 
nor Gallus Scoticus fylvef- 
ris. Aldr. av. II. 32. 160. 

Rail fyn. a r o. 53. 

Heath-cock, black Game, or 
Grous. Wil. orn. 173. 

Tetrao tetrix. Lin.fyft. 274. 

Orre. Faun. Suec. fp. 102. 

Le Coq-de-bruyeres a queue 

fourchue. BriJJbna-v. I. 186. 

Hifi. d'Oys. II. 210. 
Cimbris mas Urhane, famina 

Urhoene. Norvegis Orrfugl. 

Brunnich, 196. 
Berkhan, Schildhau. Kram. 

.35 6 - 
Birckhahn. Frifcb, I. 109. 
Br. Zool. 85. tab. M. I. 2. 

PL Enl. 172, 173. 
Gallo sforcello Italis. Scopoli, 

No. 169. 

Manners. /"~| ["" ^ HESE birds, like the former, are fond of 
I wooded and mountanous fituations ; they 
feed on bilberries, and other mountain fruits ; and 
in the winter on the tops of the heath. They 
are often found in woods; this and the preceding 
fpecies perching like the pheafant : in the fummer 
they frequently defcend from the hills to feed on 
corn : they never pair ; but in the fpring the 
male gets upon fome eminence, crows and claps his 
wings * : on which fignal all the females within 

* The ruffed heathcock of America 9 a. bird of this genus, 
does the fame. Ed-zv. GI. p. 80. The cock of the wood a- 
grees too in this exultation during the amorous feafon ; at 
which time the peafants in the Alps, directed by the found, 
have an opportunity of killing them. 


PI xlh 

3&J ■ 


Class II. BLACKCOCK. 267 

hearing refort to him : the hen lays feldom more 
than fix or feven eggs. The young males quit their 
mother in the beginning of winter; and keep in 
flocks of feven or eight till fpring ; during that 
time they inhabit the woods : they are very quar- 
relfome, and will fight together like game cocks ; 
and at that time are fo inattentive to their own 
fafety, that it has often happened that two or three 
have been killed at one Ihot. 

An old black cock weighs near four pounds: Descrip. 
its length is one foot ten inches ; its breadth two 
feet nine: the bill dufky : the plumage of the 
whole body black, gloffed over the neck and rump 
with a mining blue. The coverts of the wings 
are of a dufky brown : the four firfl quil feathers 
are black, the next white at the bottom ; the lower 
half of the fecondary feathers white, and the tips 
are of the fame color: the inner coverts of the wings 
white : the thighs and legs are covered with dark 
brown feathers; on the former are fome white fpots: 
the toes refemble thofe of the former fpecies. The 
tail connfts of fixteen black feathers, and is much 
forked; the exterior feathers bend greatly outwards, 
and their ends feem as if cut off. The feathers un- 
der the tail and inner coverts of the wings are of a 
pure white. 

The female weighs only two pounds : its length Female. 

is one foot fix inches; its breadth two feet fix. The 

head and neck are marked with alternate bars of 

dull red and black : the breaft with dufky, black 

T 2 and 


and white •, but the laft predominates. The back, 
coverts of the wings and tail are of the fame colors 
as the neck, but the red is deeper : the inner webs 
of the quil feathers are mottled with black and 
white : the inner coverts of the wing? are white -, 
and in both fexes form a white fpot on the moulder. 
The tail is (lightly forked; it confifts of eighteen 
feathers variegated with red and black. The fea- 
thers under the tail are white, marked with a few 
bars of black and orange. This bird hatches its 
young late in the fummer. It lays from fix to eight 
eggs, of a dull yellowifh white color, marked with 
numbers of very fmall ferruginous fpecks-, and 
towards the fmaller end with fome blotches of the 
fame hue. 
Mixed Befides the common fpecies of black cock, M. 
Brijfon mentions a variety found in Scotland, under 
the name of le coq de bruyere piquet c, or fpotted 
black cock. It differs from the common fort in 
being fpotted on the neck, bread, wings and thighs 
with red. This I fuppofe to have been a fpurious 
breed between this and the former fpecies, as the 
Tetrao Hybridus of Linnaeus is. I could not learn 
that this mixed race was found at prefent in North 
Britain, perhaps becaufe the cock of the wood is 
now become fo very rare. It is alfo found in Swe- 
de?!, and defcribed by Linnaus in his Faun. Suec. 
Pp. 20 1. by the title of Tetrao caudd bifurcd fubtus 
albo pun ft at a, m Swedijb, Racklehane or Roflare: the 
legs of this and the preceding kind are feathered 



F . GROUS . js r ?^g4 


Class II. RED COCK. 

only to the feet : they both inhabit woods in the 
winter -, therefore nature hath not given them the 
fame kind protection againft the cold, as me has 
the grous and ptarmigan, who muft undergo all the 
rigor of the feafon beneath the fnow, or on the bare 


Gallina campeftris. Girald. 

topogr. Hibern. 706. 
Red Game, Gorcock, or 

Moor-cock, Wil. orn. 177. 
Lagopas altera Plinii. Rail 

fyn. av. 54. 
Moor-cock, or Moor-fowl. Sib. 
Scot. 16. 

La Gelinote Hupee. Briffbn 

a<v. I. 209. Hiji. d'Oys. 

II. 252. 
La Gelinote d'EcofTe, Bonafa 

Scotica. Idem 199. tab. 22. 

f. 1. Hift. d'Oys. II. 242. 
Br. Zool. 85. plate M. 3. 



THE male weighs about nineteen ounces. Descrip. 
The length is fifteen inches and a half: 
the breadth twenty-fix. The bill is black: the 
noftrils covered with red and black feathers : the 
irides hazel colored. At the bafe of the lower 
mandible, on each fide, is a white fpot : the throat 
is red. The plumage on the head and neck is 
of a light tawny red; each feather is marked with 
feveral tranfverfe bars of black. 

The back and fcapular feathers are of a deeper 
red, and on the middle of each feather is a large 
black fpot : the bread and belly are of a dull pur- 
plifh brown, crofTed with numerous narrow dufky 
lines : the quii feathers are duiky : the tail confifts 

T 3 of 

RED COCK. Class II. 

of fixteen feathers of an equal length, all of them 
(except the four middlemoft) are black, and the 
middle feathers are barred with red : the thighs are 
of a pale red, barred obfeurely with black, the 
legs and feet cloathed to the very claws with thick 
foft white feathers*; the claws are whitifh, very 
broad and ftrong. 

The female weighs only fifteen ounces. The 
colors in general are duller than thofe of the male : 
the bread and belly are fpotted with white : and the 
tips of fome of the coverts of the wings are of the 
fame color. The red naked part that lies above 
the eyes is lefs prominent than in the male, and the 
edges not fo deeply fringed. 

We believe this fpecies to be peculiar to the 
Britljh iflands ; not having met with any account 
of it, except in the writings of our countrymen 
Mr. Ray and Wiilughby, and in M. Brijfon under 
the name of Bonafa Scotica ; the fame writer de- 
fcribes it again by the title of Attagen^ but his 
references are either to authors who have copied 
our naturalifts, or to fuch who mean quite ano- 
ther kind. Mr. Ray feems to think his bird, the 
other Lagopus of Pliny -f , or the Francolino of the 

* The feet in the figure given by M. Brijfon are engraven 
nuked, or bare of feathers. The fpecimen probably came to 
that gentleman in that condition : his defcription in other re- 
fpedts is very accurate. 

f Eft et alia nomine eodem, a coturnicibus magnitudine 
tantum differens, croceo tinclu cibis gratimma. lib. x. c. 48. 



modern Italians: but the account left us by Pliny 
feems too brief and uncertain to determine at this 
time what fpecies he intended ; and that the Fran- 
colino is not the fame with our grous, is evident 
from the figure of it exhibited by our accurate 
friend Mr. Edwards *. 

Thefe birds pair in the fpring, and lay from fix 
to ten eggs : the young brood or packs follow the 
hen the whole fummer-, in the winter they join in 
flocks of forty or fifty, and become remarkably 
fhy and wild : they always keep on the tops of the 
hills, are fcarce ever found on the fides, and ne- 
ver defcend into the vallies; their food is the moun- 
tain berries, and the tops of heath. 


La perdris blanche. Belon a<v. 

Lagopus. Gefner a<v. $~6, 
Perdrix alba feu Lagopus, 

Perdice alpeitre. Aldr. 

av. II. 66. 
Lagopus. Plinii lib. x. c. 48. 
Tetrao Lagopus. Lin. fyfi. 

Snoripa. Faun. Suec./p. 203. 
La Gelinote blanche. BriJJon 

a<v. I. 216. 
Rail Jyn. a<v. 55. 

White Game, erroneoufly g~. Ptar Mi- 
called the white Partridge. can. 
Wil. cm. 176. 

The Ptarmigan. Sib. Scot. 16. 

PI.E11I. 129. HiJi.d'Oys.ll. 


Nor-v. Rype. Mas IJIandis, 

Riupkarre, Farm. Riupa. 

Brunnich 199^ 
Schneehuhn. Frijc/j, I. no. 
Schneehun, Kram. 356. 
Br. Zool. 86 plates M. 4. 5. 
Scopoli. No. 1 1 3, 


HIS bird is well defcribed by Mr. Willugh- 
by^ under the name of the white game. 

Plate 246 

T 4 

M. BriJJon 

272 PTARMIGAN. Class II. 

M. Brijfon * joins it with the white partridge of 
Mr. Edwards, plate 72. I have received both 
fpecies at the fame time from Norway, and am 
convinced that they are not the fame. 

Thefe two birds differ greatly; the former being 
above twice the fize of the Ptarmigan-, and the co- 
lor of its fummer plumage quite different-, that 
of Mr. Edwards' bird being marked with large 
fpots of white, and dull orange ; that of the Ptar- 
migan is of a pale brown or afh-color, elegantly 
Descrip. crofTed or motled with fmall dufky fpots, and mi- 
nute bars : the head and neck with broad bars of 
black, ruft-color, and white: the wings are white, 
but the fhafts of the greater quil-feathers black : 
the belly white. In the male, the grey color 
predominates, except on the head and neck where 
there is a great mixture of red, with bars of white: 
but the whole plumage in this fex is extremely 
elegant. The females and young birds have a 
great deal of ruft-color in them : both agree in 
their winter drefs, being intirely white, except as 
follows : in the male a black line occurs between 
the bill and the eyes ; the man of the feven firft 
quil feathers are black : the tail of the Ptarmigan 
confifts of fixteen feathers -, the two middle of which 
are am-coiored, motled with black, and tipt with 
white -, the two next black (lightly marked with 
white at their ends, the reft wholly black ; the fea- 

* Tom. I. p. 216. 


Class II. P T A R M I G A N. 273 

thers incumbent on the tail white, and almoft entire- 
ly cover it. 

The length of thefe birds is near fifteen inches; 
the extent twenty three: the weight nineteen 

Ptarmigans are found in thefe kingdoms only on 
the fummits of the higheft hills of the highlands of 
Scotland and of the Hebrides \ and a few (till inha- 
bit the lofty hills near Kefwick in Cumberland. 
They live amidft the rocks perching on the grey 
Hones, the general color of the ftrata in thofe ex- 
alted fituations: they are very filly birds, fo tame 
as to bear driving like poultry •, and if provoked 
to rife take* very fhort flights, taking a fmall circuit 
like pigeons : they tafte fo like a grous as to be 
fcarcely diftinguifhed ; like the grous they keep in 
fmall packs ; but never like thofe birds take melter 
in the heath ; but beneath loofe ftones. 

Thefe birds are called by Pliny, Lagopi, their 
feet being cloathed with feathers to the claws, as the 
hare's are with fur : the nails are long, broad and . 
hollow: the firft circumftance guards them from 
the rigor of the winter ; the latter enables them to 
form a lodge under the fnow, where they lie in 
heaps to protect them from the cold : the feet of 
the grous are cloathed in the fame manner, but 
thofe of the two firft fpecies here defcribed, which 
perch upon trees, are naked, the legs only being 
feathered, not being in want of fuch a protection. 

In Scotland they inhabit from the hill of Benlo- 


274 PARTRIDGE. Class II. 

rnond to the naked mountain of Scaroben in Cath- 
nefs, the ifle of Arran, many of the Hebrides, 
and the Orknies. 

# * 

* With naked legs. 

96. Part- La Perdris griie 012 Gouache. La Perdrix grife. Brijfon a<v. 
ridge. Belon av. 257. I. 219. 

Perdix (Waldhun) Ge/ner av. Pl.QE?tl. 27. Hiji. d'Ojs. II. 

669. 401. 

Perdix minor five cinerea. Starna- Zinan. 30. 

Aldr. av. II. 66. Agerhoene. Br. 201. 

J-Fil. cm. 166. Rebhun. Kram. 357. 

Rail fyn. av. $j. Rebhuhn. Frifcb, I. 114. 

Tetrao Perdrix. Lin.fyfi. 276. Br. Zool. 86. plate M. 

Rapphona. Faun. Suec. fp. Serebitza Scopoli, No. 175. 


Descrip. f" r^HE male partridge weighs near fifteen oun- 
1 ces ; the female near two ounces lefs : the 
length to the end of the tail thirteen inches -, the 
breadth twenty. The bill is whitifh : the crown 
of the head is brown fpotted with reddifh. white : 
behind each eye is a naked red fkin. The chin, 
cheeks and forehead of a deep orange color, 
but in the females much paler than in the other 
fex. The neck and bread are prettily marked 
with narrow undulated lines of afb-color and 
black ; and in the hind part of the neck is a ftrong 
mixture of ruft color : on the bread of the male is 

a broad 

Class II. PARTRIDGE. 275 

a broad mark in form of a horfe-moe, of a deep 
orange hue -, in the female it is lefs diftincl. 

Each feather on the back is finely marked with 
feveral femicircular lines of reddifh brown and 
black: the fcapulars with a narrow white line along 
their fhafts, and with black and cinereous undula- 
ted lines on the webs; whofe fides are marked with 
a large fpot of ruft color. The greater quil-feathers 
are dufky, fpotted on each web with pale red : it 
has eighteen feathers in the tail 5 the fix outmoft on 
each fide are of a bright ruft color tipt with white; 
the others marked tranfverfely with irregular lines 
of pale reddifh brown and black : the legs are of 
a whitifh caft. 

The nature of this bird is fo well known, that it 
will be unnecefTary to detain the readers with any Salacious. 
account of it : all writers agree, that its pafiion 
for venery exceeds that of any bird of the genus ; 
fhould the reader's curiofity be excited to fee a more 
particular account, we beg leave to refer them to 
thofe authors who have recorded this part of its 
natural hiftory *. 

The Britijh name of this bird is Kor-idr, a word 
now obfolete ; that now in ufe is Pertrifen^ bor- 
rowed from the Normans. Sdr is the generic name 
for the tribe. 

* Pliny lib. 10. c, 23. WiL orn, 168. Edw. preface to Glean- 
ings, pan 2. 

276 Q^ U A I L. Class II. 

97. Quail. La Caille. Belon av. 263. Quaglia. Zinan. 36. 

Gefner av. 334. Tetrao coturnix. Lin. Jyjf, 
Coturnix Latinorum. Aldr. a<v. 278. 

II. 6g. Wachtel. Faun. Suec./p. 206. 

Wil. cm. 169. Vagtel. Brunnich, 202. 

Raiifyn. a<v. 58. Wachtel. Kram. 357. Frifcb, 
La Caille. BriJJbn a<v. I. 247. I. 117. 

Hift. d'Oys. II. 449. Br. Zool. By. plate M. 6. 

Perpelitza Scopoli, No. 176. 

Descrip. / 1 ^HE length of the quail is feven inches and a 
JL half; the breadth fourteen: the bill is of a 
dufky color : the feathers of the head are black, 
edged with rufty brown : the crown of the head 
divided by a whitifli yellow line, beginning at the 
bill and running along the hind part of the neck 
to the back : above each eye is another line of the 
fame color : the chin and throat of a dirty white : 
the cheeks fpotted with brown and white : the 
bread is of a pale yellowifh red fpotted with 
black : the fcapular feathers and thofe on the back 
are marked in their middles with a long pale yel- 
low line, and on their fides with ferruginous and 
black bars : the coverts of the wings are reddifri 
brown, elegantly barred with paler lines bounded 
on each fide with black. The exterior fide of the 
firft quil feathers is white, of the others dufky 
fpotted with red : the tail confifts of twelve fhort 
feathers barred with black and very pale brown- 
ifh red : the legs are of a pale hue. 
4 Quails 

Class II. Q_U A I L. 277 

Quails are found in mod parts of Great-Bri- 
tain •, but not in any quantity : they are birds of 
paflage : fome entirely quitting our ifland, others 
fhifting their quarters. A gentleman, to whom 
this work lies under great obligations for his fre- 
quent afliftance, has affured us, that thefe birds 
migrate out of the neighbouring inland countries, 
into the hundreds of Efex, in Offiober, and continue 
there all the winter : if froft or fnow drive them 
out of the ftubble fields and marfhes, they retreat 
to the fea-fide \ fhelter themfelves among the 
weeds, and live upon what they can pick up 
from the alga, &c. between high and low water 
mark. Our friend remarks, that the time of their 
appearance in EJfex, coincides with that of their 
leaving the inland counties ; the fame obfervation 
has been made in Hampjhire. 

Thefe birds are much lefs prolific than the par- 
tridge, feldom laying more than fix or feven whitifri 
eggs, marked with ragged ruft colored fpots: yet 
Mr. Holland of Conway , once found a neft with 
twelve eggs, eleven of which were hatched : they 
are very eafily taken, and may be enticed any where 
by a call. 

They are birds of great fpirit ; infomuch that 
quail fighting among the Athenians was as great an 
entertainment as cock fighting is in this country: it 
is at this time a fafhionable diverfion in China, and 
large fums are betted there on the event*. The 

•Bell's Travels. I. 371. 


278 PEACOCK, &c. Class II. 

bodies of thefe birds are extremely hot ; the Cbinefe 
flfe on that account hold them in their hands in cold 
weather in order to warm themfelves*. Chaude 
comme une Caille, is a common proverb. 

The antients never eat this bird, fuppofmg them 
to have been unwholefome, as they were faid to 
feed on Hellebore. 

To the birds of this genus we mould add the 
whole tribe of domeftic land fowl, fuch as Peacocks, 
Pheafants, &c. but thefe cannot clame even an Eu- 
ropean origin. 
Peacocks. India gave us Peacocks \ and we are allured f 
they are ftill found in the wild (late, in vaft flocks, 
in the iflands of Ceylon and Java. So beautiful a 
bird could not long be permitted to be a ftranger 
in the more diftant parts \ for fo early as the days 
of Solomon\, we find among the articles imported 
in his 'Tarfhifh navie?, Apes and Peacocks. A mo- 
narch fo converfant in all branches of natural hif- 
tory, who /poke of trees, from the cedar of Libanon, 
even unto the hyjfop that fpringeth out of the wall : 
who fpoke alfo of beafts and of fowl, would certain- 
ly not neglecl furnifhing his officers with inftruc- 
tions for collecting every curiofity in the countries 
they voyaged to, which gave him a knowledge that 

* OJbeck's Voyage. I. 269. 
f Knox's biji. of Ceylon. 28. 
% Kings, I. 10. 


Class II. POULTRY, &c. 279 

diftinguifhed him from all the princes of his time. 
Mlian * relates, that they were brought into Greece 
from fome barbarous country ; and that they were 
held in fuch high efteem, that a male and female 
were valued at Athens at 1000 drachma^ or 32/. 
5 s. lod. Their next flep might be to Samos\ 
where they were preferved about the temple of Juno % 
being the birds facred to the goddefs f : and Gellius 
in his nocles Attic^ c. 16. commends the excellen- 
cy of the Samian peacocks. It is therefore probable 
that they were brought here originally for the 
purpofes of fuperftition, and afterwards cultivated 
for the ufes of luxury. We are alfo told, when 
Alexander was in India J, he found vaft numbers of 
wild ones on the banks of the Hyarotis, and was 
fo ftruck with their beauty, as to appoint a fevere 
punifhment on any perfon that killed them. 

Peacocks' crefts, in antient times, were among 
the ornaments of the Kings of England. Ernald de 
Aclent fined to King John in a hundred and forty 
palfries, with fackbuts, lorains, gilt fpurs and 
peacocks' crefts, fuch as would be for his credit. 
Maddox Antiq. Exch .1. 273. 

Our common poultry came originally from Per- Poultry. 
fia and India. Ariftophanes |] calls the cock n^o-im 
opvig, the Per/tan bird ; and tells us, it enjoyed 

* JElian de nat. an. lib. v. 21. 

\ Athenaus. lib. xiv. p. 655. 

\ <j\ Curtius. lib. ix. |{ Aves, lin. 483. 


2 8o GUINEA HEN, &c. Class II. 

that kingdom before Darius and Megabyzus : at 
this time we know that thefe birds are found in a 
ftate of nature in the ifles of Tinian *, and others 
of the Indian ocean; and that in their wild condition 
their plumage is black and yellow, and their 
combs and wattles purple and yellow -f-. They were 
early introduced into the weftern parts of the world; 
and have been very long naturalized in this country; 
long before the arrival of the Romans in this ifland, 
Ctffar informing us, they were one of the forbidden 
foods of the old Britains. Thefe were in all pro- 
bability imported here by the Phoenicians, who 
traded to Britain, about five hundred years before 
Chrift. For all other domeftic fowls, turkies, 
geefe, and ducks excepted, we feem to be indebted 
to our conquerors, the Romans. The wild fowl 
were all our own from the period they could be 
fuppofed to have reached us after the great event 
of the flood. 
Pheasants. Pheafants were firft brought into Europe from the 
banks of the P ha/is, a river of Colchis, 

Argiva primum fum tranfportata carina, 
Ante mihi notum nil, nifi Pbafis erat. 

Martial, lib. xiii. ep. 72. 

Guinea Guinea bens, the Meleagrides or Gallina numidica 

* D ] ampler' *s 'voy. I. 392. Lord An/or? s <voy. 309. 

f For this information we are indebted to governor Loten, 


Class II. GUINEA HEN, &c. rti 

of the antients, came originally from Africa*. We 
are much furprized how Belon and other learned or- 
nithologifts could poffibly imagine them to have 
been the fame with our Turkies ; fin^e the defcrip- 
tions of the meleagri left us by Athenaus and other 
antient writers, agree fo exactly with the Guinea hen$ 
as to take away (as we fhould imagine) all power 
of miftake. Athen^us (after Clytus Milejius, a dif- 
ciple of Arifiotle) defcribes their nature, form and 
colors : he tells us, " They want natural affection 
" towards their young ; that their head is naked, 
" and that on the top of it is a hard round body 
" like a peg or nail ; that from the cheeks hangs a 
" red piece of flefh like a beard ; that it has no wat- 
" ties like the common poultry; that the feathers 
" are black fpotted with white -, that they have no 
" fpurs -, and that both fexes are fo like, as not to 
" be diftinguifhed by the fight f". Varro and Pli- 

* Bo/man's hijlory of 'Guinea. 248. Voyages de Marchais III. 
323. Barbot's defer. Guinea. ChurchilVs coll. <voy. v. 29. 

f "En Te cirooyov ttpoc rot euyova to opvEov, xa\ ohiycoosi tqv 
vecotepccv, — kit aurrje. 0% "KqQqv eaoxtvov (tTwyipov, rooyyuhov e%ekqv7c4 

TVS XE<pa7wc ao~ziEo TrarjaXov Trcog h*s taxc, yva$oi$ airo t5 

eco{juzi(&~ ao^a/jLEwiv avii 7ruyuv®~ fj.ctK.gav craona, xai EPuSoolspav 
rcov opv&cov ty]v Ss roic opvuriv s7Ti rw Pvy%Ei ytvo^EvWi w mot 

way wet xa>Siaiv, &x EXEt, 5io xai ravrn xoT^oQov In au//.m 

atnav noixt'hov, fjJE'hav®- ovloc t« xpu\xa\$£r o7&7fll%Qi$ teumig - 

cxEto xai axEvroa -—>-— iraoaftl.Ymai Is slcnv at Snteiat ro'ig ccppecriv 9 
&o xat oucdiaxpnov ht to rav [jLSteayp&wv y&<§~, AtheD«US, 

6 55 . 

Vol. I. U nj 

282 T U R K Y. Class II. 

ny* take notice of their fpotted plumage, and 
the gibbous fubftance on their head : fo that from 
thefe citations we find every character of the Gui- 
nea hen, but none that agrees with the Turky. 

Barbot-f informs us that very few turkies are to 
be met with in Guinea -, and thofe only in the hands 
of the chiefs of the European forts ; the negroes 
declining to breed any on account of their ten- 
derneis which fufficiently proves them not to be 
natives of that climate. On the contrary the fame 
writer fays, that the Guinea hens, or as he calls 
them Pintadas, are found there in flocks of two 
or three hundred, that perch in trees, feed on 
worms and grafshoppers ; that they are run down 
and taken by dogs, and that their flefh is tender 
and fweet, generally white, though fometimes black. 

He alfo remarks that neither the common poultry 
or ducks are natural to Guinea, any more than 
the 'Turky, 

Neither is that bird a native of Afta : the firft 
that were feen in Perfia were brought from Venice 
by fome Armenian merchants £. They are alfo 
cultivated in Ceylon, but not found wild. 

In fact the Turky was unknown to the antient 
naturalifts, and even to the old world before the 
difcovery of America. It was a bird peculiar to 

* Varro. lib. 3. c. 9. Pliny, lib. 10. c. 26. f Barbot 217. 
\ Tavernier. 146. 


Class II. T U R K Y. 283 

the new continent, and is now the commoneft 
wild fowl of the northern parts of that country. Ic 
was firft feen in France^ in the reign of Francis I. 
and in England^ in that of Henry VIII. By the 
date of the reign of thefe monarchs, the firft birds 
of this kind muft have been brought from Mex- 
ico^ whofe conqueft was completed, A. D. 1521. 
the ihort lived colony of the French in Florida not 
being attempted before 1562 •, nor our more fuc- 
cef-ful one in Virginia^ effected till 15855 when 
both thofe monarchs were <n their graves. 

Mlian^ indeed, mentions a bird found in India* 
that fome writers have fufpe&ed to be the Turky, 
but we conclude with Gefner, that it was either the 
Peacock^ or fome bird of that genus. On confulting 
fome gentlemen who have long refided in the Indies^ 
we find, that though the Turky is bred there, it is 
only confidered as a domeftic bird, and not a na- 
tive of the country. 

* uEliani hift. an. lib. xvi. c. 2, 

U 2 Strong 





Strong BILL, a little incurvated. 
No back TOE. 

98. Great. Tfetrax. Afhenai> lib. IX. 398. 
L'Oflarde. Belon &v. 235. 
Otis, vel Biflarda. Ge/ner av. 

484, 486. 
Otis five Tarda. Aldr. av. II. 39. 
Wil. cm. 178. 
Rail fyn. av. 58. 
Guftard. Boetbiiy 7. and Sib. 

Scot. 16. 
Ed<w. Tab. 73, 74. 

L'Outarde. BriJJhn av. V. 

18. Hift. d'Oys. II. 
Otis tarda. Lin.fyft. 264. 
Faun. Suec. fp. 196. 
Trap. Kram. 355. 
Acker-Trappe. Frifcb, I. 

106. Scopoli, No. 160. 
Br. Zool. 87. plate N; PI 

Enl. 245. 

Descrip. ^"pHE buftard is the largeft of the Britijh land 
A fowl ; the male at a medium weighing 
twenty-five pounds -, there are inftances of fome 
very old ones weighing twenty-feven. The breadth 
nine feet -, the length near four. Befides the fize 
and difference of color, the male is diftinguifhed 
from the female by a tuft of feathers about five 
inches long on each fide the lower mandible. Its 
head and neck are am colored : the back is barred 
traniverfely with black and bright rufl color : the 
greater quil feathers are black: the belly white : the 
tail is marked with broad red and black bars, and 
confifts of twenty feathers : the legs duiky. 
Female. The female is about half the fize of the male : 






the crown of the head is of a deep orange, traverfed 
with black lines y the reft of the head is brown. 
The lower part of the fore-fide of the neck is afh- 
colored : in other refpecls it refembles the male, 
only the colors of the back and wings are far more 

Thefe birds inhabit moil of the open countries Place. 
of the fouth and eaft parts of this ifland, from Dor- 
fetjhire, as far as the Wolds in Torkfhire *. They 
are exceeding my, and difficult to be mot ; run 
very faft, and when on the wing can fly, though 
flowly, many miles without refting. It is faid that 
they take flight with difficulty, and are fometimes 
run down with grehounds. They keep near their 
old haunts, feldom wandering above twenty or 
thirty miles. Their food is corn and other vege- 
tables, and thofe large earth worms that appear in 
great quantities on the Downs, before fun-riiing in 
the fummer. Thefe are replete with moiflure, an- 
fwer the purpofe of liquids, and enable them to live 
long without drinking on tho^G extenfive and dry 
tracts. Befides this, nature hath given the males 
an admirable magazine for their fecurity againft 
drought, being a pouch -f, whofe entrance lies im- 
mediately under the tongue, and which is capable 

* In Sir Robert Sibbald's time they were found in the Mers, 
but I believe that they are now'extind in Scotland. 

f The world is obliged to the late Dr. Douglas for this 
4ifcovery ; and to Mr. Edwards for communicating it. 

V 3 of 


of holding near (even quarts ; and this they pro- 
bably fill with water, to fupply the hen when fit- 
ting, or the young before they can fly. Buftards 
lay only two eggs, of the fize of thofe of a goofe, 
of a pale olive brown, marked with fpots of a 
^ darker color ; they make no neft, only fcrape a 
hole in the ground. In autumn they are (in Wili- 
Jhire) generally found in large turnep fields near 
the Downs, and in flocks of fifty or more. 

99. Lesser. The French Canne-patiere. V. 24. de Buffon, II. 40. 
Wil. cm. 179. PL Enl. 10. 25. 

La petite outard. Brijfon av* Otis Tetrax. Lin.fyft. 264. 

THERE have been three or four inftances of 
this fpecies being fhot in England* but the 
fpecimens I have feen have been all female. Whe- 
ther they were accidental ftragglers from the con- 
tinent; or whether they breed here, and the male 
has efcaped the fportfman's notice, is not yet afcer- 

This bird is about the fize of a pheafant. The 
maje, which I have feen in France* varies much in 
the colors of the neck from the female, being 
black, marked tranfverlely above and below with 
a band of white. The crown of the head black 
and ferruginous. The back, fcapulars, and coverts 
of the wings varied with black and ferruginous 


Class II. T H I C K-K NEED. 

lines. The quil feathers black at their ends, white 
at their bottoms ♦, the white predominating to the 
fecondaries, which are quite white. The breaft, 
belly, and thighs white. The middle feathers of 
the tail, tawny barred with black : the reft white. 
Legs cinereous. 

The neck of the female agrees in colors with the 
back : in other refpects the marks pretty nearly 

They inhabit open countries j feed on grain, 
feeds, and infects. 


Norfolk Plover. Br. Zool. II. 

Un Oftardeau, Oedicnemus. 

Belon av. 239. 
Charadrius (Triel vel Griel). 

Gefner au. 256. 
The Stone Curlew. Wil. orn. 

Rati fyn. anj. 108. 

Le grand Pluvier, Courly de 100. Thick- 
terre. Brijfon av. V. 76. kneed. 

Tab. j. fig. 1. 

Charadrius oedicnemus. Lin. 

fyfi> 255. 

Br. Zool, 127. 

Kervari. Hajfelquijl I tin. 210? 
Engl. Ed. 200. 

THE weight of this fpecies is eighteen ounces. Descrif. 
The length to the tail eighteen inches : the 
breadth thirty fix. The head is remarkably round: 
the fpace beneath the eyes is bare of feathers, 
and of a yellowifh green : the irides yellow : the 
feathers of the head, neck, back, and fcapulars, 
and coverts of the wings are black, edged deeply 
with pale reddiili brown : the belly and thighs are 

U 4 of 

T H I C K-K NEED. Class II. 

of a pure white: the two firft quil feathers are black, 
marked on the middle of each web with a large 
white fpot. 

The tail confifts of twelve feathers ; the tips of 
the two outmoft are black, beneath is a broad white 
bar, the remaining part barred with white and 
duiky brown: in the next feathers the white leffens; 
in the middle it almoft difappears, changing it 
to a pale reddifh brown, mottled with a darker : 
its mouth very wide : the legs are of a fine yellow : 
the toes very fhort, bordered with a ftrong mem- 
brane : the knees thick, as if fwelled, like thofe 
of a gouty man - 9 from whence Belon gives it the 
name of Oedicnemus *. 

This bird feems unknown in the weftern parts 
of this kingdom ; but is found in Hampfloire, Nor- 
folk, and on Lincoln heath, where, from a fimilarity 
of colors to the curlew, it is called the Stone 
Curlew. It breeds in fome places in rabbet bo- 
roughs •, alfo among ftones on the bare ground, 
laying two eggs of a copper color, fpotted with 
a darker red. The young run foon after they are 
hatched. Thefe birds feed in the night on worms 
and caterpillars : they will alio eat toads ; and 
Gefner fays they will catch mice, which is con- 
firmed by Haflelquift. 

They make a mod piercing fhrill noife, which 
£hey begin in the evening; and are fo^loud, as to 

* From oihu, and «vw/wt. 


Class II. THIC K-K NEED. 289 

be heard near a mile in a (till night. They in- 
habit fallow lands and downs; affect dry places, 
never being feen near any waters. When they 
fly, they extend their legs ftrait out behind : are 
very fhy birds -, run far before they take to wing ; 
and often fquat : are generally feen fingle ; and 
are efteemed very delicate food. 

In habit, make, and manners, thefe birds ap- 
proach near to the Buftard, We have therefore 
removed them into that genus, from that of Plo- 

They are migratory : appear in England about 

.the middle of Aprils and retire in autumn. 


E R 





Soft (trait BILL. 

NOSTRILS lodged in a tuberous naked fkin, 

TOES divided to their origin. 

101. Com- LaPigeonprive.2fe&aflof. 313. 
m n. Columba vulgaris. Gefner a<v. 

279. Livia. 307. 

Columba domeftica. Aldr. cw. 
II. 225. 

Common wild Dove, or Pi- 
geon. Wil. orn. 180. and 
the Stock Dove, or Wood 
Pigeon*. 185. 

Rail fyn, a<v. 59, 62. 

Golob. Scopoliy No. 177. 

Le Pigeon domeftique. Brijfon 
au. I. 68. Hiji. d'Oys. 
II. 491. 

Le Bifet. 498. 

Columba Oenas. Lin. Jyft. 

Skogs dufwa, Dufwa, Hem- 

dufwa. Faun. Suec. fp. 


Kirke-Due, Skov-Due. Brun* 

nichy 203. 
Feldtaube, Hauftaube, Hohl- 

taube. Kram. 358. 
Blau-Taube, orHoltz-Taube. 

Frifch, I. 139. 
Br. Zool. 88. plate 88. 

THE tame pigeon, and all its beautifull varie- 
ties, derive their origin from one fpecies, 
the Stock Dove: the Englijh name implying its be- 
ino- the flock ox ft em from whence the other domeftic 
kinds fprung. Thefe birds, as Varro\ obferves, 
take their (Latin) name, Columba^ from their voice 

* Columba livia. Aldr. a<v. II. 234. et Oenas, feu vina- 

| De Ling. Lot. lib. IV. 







or cooing •, and had he known it, he might have 
added the Britifh, &c. for K'lommen, Kyhbman, 
Ktdm and Koltn fignify the fame bird. They were, 
and (till are in moft parts of our ifland, in a date 
of nature ; but probably the Romans taught us 
the method of making them dorneftic, and con- 
ducting pigeon houfes. Its characters in the (late Descri?. 
neareft that of its origin, is a deep bluifh afh color; 
the bread dafhed with a fine changeable green and 
purple; the fides of the neck with filming cop- 
per color ; its wings marked with two black bars, 
one on the coverts of the wings, the other on the 
quil feathers. The back white, and the tail barred 
near the end with black. The weight fourteen 

In the wild (late it breeds in holes of rocks, and 
hollows of trees, for which reafon fome writers ftile 
it columba cav emails *, in oppofition to the Ring 
Dove, which makes its neft on the boughs of 
trees. Nature ever preferves fome agreement 
in the manners, characters, and colors of birds 
reclamed from their wild Hate. This fpecies of 
pigeon foon takes to build in artificial cavities, 
and from the temptation of a ready provifion be- 
comes eafily domeflicated. The drakes of the 
tame duck, however they may vary in color, 
ever retain the mark of their origin from our Eng- 

* The Columba faxatilis, a fmall fort, that is frequent on 
moll of oar cliffs, is only a variety of the wild pigeon. 



lijh mallard, by the curled feathers of the tail : 
and the tame goofe betrays its defcent from the 
wild kind, by the invariable whitenefs of its rump, 
which they always retain in both dates. 

Multitudes of thefe birds are obferved to mi- 
grate into the fouth of England: and while the 
beech woods were fuffered to cover large tracts of 
ground, they ufed to haunt them in myriads, reach- 
ing in firings of a mile in length, as they went out 
in the morning to feed. They vifit us the lateft 
of any bird of paffage, not appearing till Novem- 
ber-, and retire in the fpring. I imagine that 
the fummer haunts of thefe are in Sweden, for Mr. 
Echnark makes their retreat thence coincide with 
their arrival here *. But many breed here, as I 
have obferved, on the cliffs of the coafl of Wales^ 
and of the Hebrides. 
Varieties. The varieties produced from the domeftic pi- 
geon are very numerous, and extremely elegant; 
thefe are diftinguifhed by names exprefllve of their 
feveral properties, fuch as Tumblers, Carriers, Ja- 
co bines, Croppers, Powters, Runts, Turbits, Owls, 
Nuns, &c. f The moft celebrated of thefe is the 
Carrier. Carrier, which from the fuperior attachment that 

# Amcen. Acad. IV. 593. 

f Vide WiL orn. Moore's Cdumharium, and a treatife oil 
dcmeitic pigeons, publiihed in 1765. The lail illurtrates the 
nanus of the birds, with feveral neat figures, 



pigeon fliews to its native place, is employed in 
many countries as the mod expeditious courier: 
the letters are tied under its wing, it is let loofe, 
and in a very fhort fpace returns to the home it was 
brought from, with its advices*. This practice 
was much in vogue in the Eaft ; and at Scande- 
roofty till of late years f , ufed on the arrival of a 
fhip, to give the merchants at Aleppo a more ex- 
peditious notice than could be done by any other 
means. In our own country, thefe aerial mefien- 
gers have been employed for a very lingular pur- 
pofe, being let loofe at Tyburn at the moment the 

* This cuftom was obferved by that legendary traveller* 
Sir John Maundevile, knight, warrior and pilgrim ; who, with' 
the true fpirit of religious chivalry, voyaged into the Emft t 
and penetrated as far as the borders of China, during the 
reigns of Edward II. and IIL 

" In that contree," fays he, " and other contrees bezonde, 
thei han a cuftom, whan thei fchulle ufen werre, and whan 
men holden {ege abouten cytee or caftelle, and thei with- 
innen dur not fenden out mefTagers with lettere, fro lord to 
lord, for to afke fokour, thei maken here letters and bynden 
hem to the nekke of a Colver, and leten the Cohver flee ; 
and the Coheren ben fo taughte, that thei fleen with tho let- 
ters to the verry place, that men wolde fend hem to. For 
the Coheres ben noryflcht in tho places, where thei ben fent 
to ; and thei fenden hem thus, for to beren here letters. And 
the Coheres retournen azen, where a3 thei ben noriflcht and 
fo they don comounly. " The voiage and travaile of Sir 
y. Maundevik, knight, ed. 1727. 

t Dr. Ruffil informs us, that the pra&ice is left off. Hijf. 
Aleppo, 66. 


2Q 4 


fatal cart is drawn away, to notify to diftant friends, 
the departure of the unhappy criminal. 

In the Eaft, the ufe of thefe birds feems to have 
been improved greatly, by having, if we may 
ufe the exprefiion, relays of them ready to fpread 
intelligence to all parts of the country. Thus the 
governor of Damiata circulated the news of the 
death of Orrilo : 

Tofto che'l Cafiellan di Damiata 
Certificofu, ch'era morto Orrilo, 
La Colcmba lafcid, ch'avea legata 
Sotto Pala la lettera col filo. 
Quelle anclo al Cairo, ed indi fu lafciata 
Un' altra altrove, come quivi e ftilo : 
Si, che in pochiffime ore ando l'awifo 
Per tutto Egitto, ch'era Orrilo uccifo *. 

But the fimple ufe of them was known in very 
early times : Anacreon tells us, he conveyed his 
billet-doux, to his beautifull Bathyllus^ by a dove, 

Eyw o' 'Avaxfsovn 
AixKcvso Too-auTa* 
Kx: vuv o\otc bceiva 
'ETTiTcXa; KCfxi^j) f. 

* l As foon as the commandant of Damiata heard that Or- 

* rilo was dead, he let loofe a pigeon, under whofe wing he 

■ had tied a letter ; this fled to Cairo, from whence a fecond 

■ was difpatched to another place, as is ufual ; fo that in a 

■ very few hours, all Egypt was acquainted with the death 

* of Orrilo.* Ariojlo, canto 15. 

f Anacreon, ode 9. e»$ Treoiri^av. 

I am 


I am now Anacreotfs flave, 

And to me entruiled have 

All the o'erflowings of his heart 

To Bathyllus to impart ; 

Each foft line, with nimble wing, 

To the lovely boy I bring. 

Taurojlhenes alio, by means of a pigeon he had 
decked with purple, fent advice to his father, 
who lived in the iile of jEgina, of his victory in 
the Olympic games, on the very day he had obtain- 
ed it*. And, at the fiege of Modena, Hirtius 
without, and Brutus within the walls, kept, by 
the help of pigeons, a conftant correfpondence -, 
baffling every ftratagem of the befieger Antony -f , 
to intercept their couriers. In the times of the 
CrufadeS) there are many more inftances of thefe 
birds of peace being employed in the fervice of war : 
Joinville relates one during the crufade of Saint 
Louis £ ; and TaJ/b another, during the fiege of Je~ 
rufakm || . 

The nature of pigeons is to be gregarious ; to lay 
only two eggs; to breed many times in the year § -, 

* ASlian <var % hift. lib. IX. 2. Pliny, lib. X. c. 24. fays, 
that fwallows have been made ufe of for the fame purpofe. 

f Pliny, lib. X. c. 37. Exclames, Quid vallum et vigil 
obfidio atque etiam retia amne pretenta profuere Anfonio, per 
<celum eunte nuncio ? 

X Joinvilk, 638. app. 35. |j Taffb, Book XVIII. 

§ So quick is their produce, that the author of the Oeconomy 
of nature obferves, that in the fpace of four years, 14,760 may 
come from a finglepair. Stilling fleet's trails, 75. 


2 9 6 RINGDOVE. Class H. 

to bill in their courtfhip ; for the male and female 
to fit by turns, and alfo to feed their young; to 
caft their provifion out of their craw into the young 
ones' mouths \ to drink, not like other birds by lip- 
ping, but by continual draughts like quadrupeds ; 
and to have notes mournful, or plaintive, 

102. Ring, Le Ramier. Belon a*v. 307. 
Phafla. Belon obf. 13. 
Palumbus. Gejher anj. 310. 
Palumbus major five torquatus. 

Aldr. a-v. II. 227. 
Colom baccio. Olina, 54. 
Ring-dove, Queeft, or Cufliat. 

Wil. orn. 185. 
Le Pigeon Ramier. Brijfon a<v. 

I. 89. Hift. a"Oys. II. 531. 
Griunik. Scopolz, No. 178. 

Raiijyn. a-v. 62. 

Columba palumbus. Lin.JyJf, 

fp. 282. 
Ringdufvva, Siutut. Faun. 208. 
Wildtaube, Ringltaube. 

Kram. 359. 
Ringel-Taube. Frifch, I. 

Dan. Ringel-due Bomholmis, 

Skude. Brunnich, 204. 
Br. Zool. 89. plate O. 


THIS fpecies forms its neftof a few dry flicks 
in the boughs of trees : attempts have 
been made to domefticate them, 5y hatching their 
eggs under the common pigeon in dove houfes ; 
but as foon as they could fly, they always took 
to their proper haunts. In the beginning of the 
winter they afTemble in great flocks, and leave 
off cooing; which they begin in March, when 
they pair. The ring dove is the largeft pigeon we 
have ; and may be at once d i It ingui fried from all 
others by the fize. Its weight is about twenty 


Class II. T U R T L E. 297 

ounces : its length eighteen inches •, its breadth 
thirty. The head, back, and coverts of the wings 
are of a bluifh a(h color: the lower fide of the 
neck and the bread are of a purplifh red, dafhed 
with alh color : on the hind part of the neck is 
a femicircular line of white ; above and beneath 
that the feathers are glofTy, and of changeable 
colors as oppofed to the light. The belly is of a 
dirty white : the greater qui! feathers are dulky ; 
the reft am colored : underneath the baftard wing 
is a white ftroke pointing downwards. 

La Turtrelle. Belon a<v. 309. Wilde Turtel taube, Kram, 103. Tur- 
Turtur. Gefner av. 316. 359* TLB* 

Turtur. Aldr. av. II. 235. Turtel-Taube. Frifch^ I. 140^ 

Tortora. Olina, 34. Le Tourterelle. BriJ/bn a<v. 
The Turtle-dove. WiL orn. I. 92. Scopoli, No. 181. 

183. Br. Z00L 89. plate O. 1. 

Raiijyn. a<v. 61. Hifi. cfOys. II. 545. 

THIS fpecies is found in Buckingham/hire^ 
Gloucefterjhire, Shropjhire, and in the Weft of 
England. They are very fhy and retired birds, 
breeding in thick woods, generally of oak : we 
believe that they refide in Buckingham/hire during 
the breeding feafon, migrating into the other coun- 
tries in autumn. 

The length is twelve inches and a half-, its breadth Descrif. 
twenty-one : the weight four ounces. The irides 

Vol. I. X are 

2 9 B T U R T L E. Class II. 

are of a fine yellow : a beautifull crimfon circle en- 
compafles the eye lids. The chin and forehead are 
whitifh: the top of the head am colored mixed with 
olive : on each fide of the neck is a fpot of black 
feathers prettily tipt with white : the back am co- 
lored, bordered with olive brown : the fcapulars 
and coverts of a reddifh brown fpotted with black: 
the quil feathers of a dufky brown, the tips and 
outward edges of a yellowifh brown : the breaft 
of a light purplifh red, having the verge of each 
feather yellow : the belly white : the fides and in- 
ner coverts of the wings bluifh. The tail is three 
inches and a half long ; the two middlemoft fea- 
thers are of a dufky brown ; the others black, 
with white tips : the end and exterior fide of the 
outmoft feathers wholly white. 


vt tt.t 



Class II, 




Strait BILL ; depreffed : the NOSTRILS fur- 
rounded with a prominent rim* 


L'Eftourneau. Be/on a<v. 321. Storno. Zinan. 69, 

Sturnus. Gefner av. 746. 

Aldr. av. II. 284. 

Stare, or Starling. Wil. orn. 

Raii Jyn. aw. 67. 

Olina, IS. 

Sturnus vulgaris. Lin. fyji, 

Stare. Faun. Suec. fp. 2 1 3. 
Hajfelquiji, Itin. 284. 

L'Etourneau Briffon a-v. II. Danis & Norvegis, Stsr. 2?r. 

439. i£/?. ^'Oyx. III. 229. 

176. Staar. Frifch, II. 217. 

Sanfonet. P/. jEW. 75. Starl. Kram. 362. 

Starl. &:0/0//, No. 189. Br. Zool. 93. plate P. 2. f. i« 

104. Stare, 

THE Stare breeds in hollow trees, eaves of 
houfes, towers, ruins, cliffs, and often in 
high rocks over the fea, fuch as thofe of the IJle 
of Wight., It lays four or five eggs, of a pale 
greenifh afh color; and makes its neft of ftraw, 
fmall fibres of roots, and the like. In winter, flares 
afTemble in vafl flocks : they colled in myriads 
in the fens of Lincoln/hire, and do great damage 
to the fen men, by roofting on the reeds, and 
X 2 breaking 

S oo STARE. Class IL 

breaking them down by their weight-, for reeds are 
the thatch of the country, and are harvefted with 
great care. 

Thefe birds feed on worms, and infecl:s - 9 and it 
is faid that they will get into pigeon houfe?, for the 
fake of fucking the eggs. Their flefh is fo bitter, as 
to be fcarce eatable. They are very docil, and 
may be taught to fpeak. 
Descftip. The weight of the male of this fpecies is about 

three ounces -> that of the female rather lefs. The 
length is eight inches three quarters : the breadth 
fourteen inches. Bill, in old birds, yellow. The 
whole plumage is black, very refplendent with 
changeable blue, purple, and copper: each feather 
marked with a pale yellow fpot. The lefTer co- 
verts are edged with yellow, and flightly gloifed 
with green. The quil feathers and tail dufky: the 
former edged with yellow on the exterior fide ; 
the laft with dirty white. The legs of a reddifl* 


Class II. 



Strait BILL, a little bending at the point, with a XVL 
fmall notch near the end of the upper mandible. Ttl & USH ' 

Outmoft TOE adhering as far as the firft joint to 
the middle toe. 

La Grive ou Siferre. Belon a<v* 

Turdus vifcivorus. Gefner a<v. 

Aldr. a<v. II. 273. 
Tordo. Olina, 25. 
Miflel-bird, or Shrite. Wil. 

orn. 187. 
Raii fyn. a<v. 64. 
Mifleltoe-thrufh, or Shreitch. 

Charlton ex. 89. 
Turdus vifcivorus. Lin.fyft. 

Tordo vifcada, Zicchio, Zi- 
nan. 39. 

La Draine. Hift. d'Oys.lll. 105. Missel, 

La groffe grive, Turdus ma- 
jor. Brijfon a<v. II. 200. 

Scopoli, No. 193. 
Biork-Traft. Faun. Suec. fp„ 

Dobbelt-Kramsfugl. Brun- 

nich, 231. 
Zariker, Mifller, Zerrer. 

Kram. 361. 
Miftel-Droflel, or Schnarre. 

Frijcb, I. 25. 
Br. Zool. 90. plate P. f. x> 

THIS is the largeft of the genus, and weighs 
near five ounces. Its length is eleven inch- 
es : its breadth fixteen and a half. The bill is 
fhorter and thicker than that of other thrufhes; 
dufky, except the bafe of the lower mandible, 
which is yellow. The hides hazel. 

Head, back, and leiTer coverts of the wings are 

of a deep olive brown. The lower part of the 

X $ back 

302 M I S S E It Class II. 

back tinged with yellow. The loweft order of 
lefTer coverts, and the great coverts brown : the 
firft tipt with white -, the lad both tipt and edged 
with the fame color. The quil feathers, and fe- 
condaries dufky ; but the lower part of the inner 
webs white. The inner coverts of the wino-s 
white. Tail brown - y the three outmoft feathers tipt 
with white. Cheeks and throat mottled with brown 
and white : breaft and belly whitilb yellow, marked 
with large fpots of black : the legs yellow. 

Thefe birds build their hefts in bullies, or 
on the fide of fome tree, generally an alh, and 
lay four or five eggs: their note of anger or 
fear is very harm, between a chatter and ikreek ; 
from whence fome of its Englifo names ; its 
fong though is very fine, which it begins, 
fitting on the fummit of a high tree, very ear- 
ly in the fpring, often with the new year, in 
blowing (bowery weather, which makes the in- 
habitants of Hatnpjhire to call it the Storm- cock. 
It feeds on infects, holly and mifleltoe berries, 
which are the food of all the thrufn kind : in fevere 
fnowy weather, when there is a failure of their 
ufual diet, they are obferved to fcratch out of the 
banks of hedges, the root of Arum^ or the cuckoo 
pint : this is remarkably warm and pungent, and 
a provifion fuitable to the feafon. 

This bird migrates into Burgundy in the months 
of Oolober and November : in Great- Britain^ con- 
tinues the whole year. The Weljh call this bird 


Class II. MISSEL. 303 

Pen y llwyn 9 or the matter of the coppice, as it will 
drive all the lefTer fpecies of thrufhes from it. 
The antients believed that the mijfeltoe (the bafis of 
bird-lime) could not be propagated but by the ber- 
ries that had pall through the body of this bird ; 
and on that is founded the proverb of Turdus malum 
Jibi cacat. 

It may be obferved, that this is the larger! bird, 
Br itijh or foreign (within our knowledge) that fings 
or has any melody in its note: the notes of all 
fuperior being either fcreaming, croaking, chat* 
tering, &c. the pigeon kind excepted, whofe flow 
plaintive continued monotone has fomething fweet- 
ly foothing in it. Thompfon (the naturalift's poet) 
in the concert he has formed among the feathered 
tribe, allows the imperfeclion of voice in the larger 
birds, yet introduces them as ufeful as the bafe in 
chorus, notwithstanding it is unpleafing by itfelf. 

The jay, the rook, the daw, 

And each harfh pipe (difcordant heard alone) 

Aid the full concert : while the Hock-dove breaths 

A melancholy murmur jhro' the whole*. 

* Seafons. Spring. I. 606, ' ■ 

X4 Li 



106. Field- La Litorne. Belon aw* 328. 
fare. Turdus pilaris Ge/her a-v. 753. 

Aldr. av. II 274. 
WiL orn, 188. 
Raiijyn. a~j. 64. 
La Litorne, ou Tourdelle. 
Brijfon a-v. II. 214. Hift. 
d'Oys. III. 301. 
Lin.fyft. 291. 
Kramsfogel, fnofkata. JF"a«». 

Suec. No. 215 
Brinauka. Scopoli, No. 194. 

Dtftf. Dobbelt Kramsfugl. 
Cimbris. Snarrer. Norve- 
gis, Graae Troll, Field- 
Troft, Nordenvinds pibe, 
Bomhoimis, Simmeren. Br* 

Kranabets vogel, Kranabeter. 
Kram. 361. 

Wacholder-Droffel, juniper 
ThrufM, or Ziemer. 
Frifcb, L 26. 

Br. Zool. 90. plate P. 2. f. 1. 

THIS bird paiTes the fummer in the northern 
parts of Europe; alfo in lower Auftria*. It 
breeds in the largeft trees -f- ; feeds on berries of 
all kinds, and is very fond of thofe of the juni- 
per. Fieldfares vifit our iflands in great flocks a- 
bout Michaelmas ^ and leave us the latter end of 
February, or the beginning of March. We fufpecl 
that the birds that migrate here, come from Nor- 
way, &c. forced by the excefllve rigor of the feafon 
in thofe cold regions-, as we find that they winter 
as well as breed in PruJJia, Auftria\, and the mo- 
derate climates. 

Thefe birds and the Redwings were the Turdi 
of the Romans, which they fattened with crums of 

* Kramer e/encb. 361. f Faun. Suec /p. 7 8. 

t Klein bijt. av. 178. 



figs and bread mixed together. Varro informs us 
that they were birds of parTage, coming in au- 
tumn, and departing in the fpring. They mu(b 
have been taken in great numbers, for they were 
kept by thoufands together in their fattening avia- 
ries * They do not arrive in France till the be- 
ginning of December. 

Thefe birds weigh generally about four ounces; d 
their length is ten inches, their breadth feventeen. 
The head is afn-colored inclining to olive, and 
fpotted with black ; the back and greater coverts 
of the wings of a fine deep chefnut; the rump 
afh-colored : the tail is black : the lower parts of 
the two middlemoft feathers, and the interior up- 
per fides of the outmoft feathers excepted; the 
firft being afh-colored, the latter white. The le^s 
are black ; the talons very ftrong. 

Varro, lib. III. c. 5. 






I07. Thros- La petite Grive. Belcn ay. Faun. Suec. fp. 217. 

tle. 226. Turdus in altiflimis. Klein 

T urdus minor alter. Gefatr fiem. a<v. lab. 13. 

arj 762. Weindrofchl, WeiffdrofchI, 

Aldr. a<v. II. 275. Sommer-drofchl. Kram. 

Storno. Olina, 18. 361. 

Mavis, Throttle, or Song Sing-Droffel, or WeiiT-droiTel. 

Thrum. Hit. cm, 188. Fri/cb, I. 27. 

Rail fyn. au. 64. Cimbris & Bornbolmis, Viin- 

La petite Grive, Turdus mi- droffel. Nor-vegis, Tale 

nor. BrifTon anj. II. 205. 

#//?. ^'O}/. III. 2S0, 
Turdus muficus. Lin. fyjf. 


Traft. Br. 236. 
2?/*. ZW. 91. plate P. f. 2. 
Drafich. Scopoli, No. 195. 

Descrip. / I "HE weight of this fpecies is three ounces: 
\ the length nine inches : the breadth thir- 

teen and a half. In colors it fo nearly refembles 
the miiTei thrufh, that no other remark need be 
added, but that it is lelTer, and that the inner co- 
verts of the wings are yellow. 

The throttle is the fined of our finging birds, not 
only for the fweetnefs and variety of its notes, but 
for long continuance of its harmony ; for it obliges 
us with its fong for near three parts of the year. 
Like the mifTel bird, it delivers its mufic from the 
top of fome high tree ; but to form its ned de- 
fcends to fome low bum or thicket : the ned is 
made of earth, mofs, and draws, and the infide is 
curioufly plaiftered with clay. It lays five or fix 


Class II. RED W I N G. 

eggs, of a pale bluiih green, marked wkh dufky 

In France thefe birds are migratory : in Burgun- 
dy ', they appear juft before vintage, in order to 
feed on the ripe grapes, are therefore called there 
la Grive de vigne* 


Le Mauvis. Belon a<v. 327. Scopoli, No. 196. 

Turd us minor. Gefner a-v. PL Enl. 51. 

761. Turdus iliacus. Lin. fy >/?< 292. 

T. Illas feu Tylas. Aldr. a-v. Klera, Kladra, Tall-Trail. 

II. 275. Faun. Suec. fp. 218. 

Redwing, Swinepipe, or Wind Rothdrofchl, WalddrofchI, 

Thrum. Wil. orn. 189. Winterdrofchl. Kram. 361. 

Raiifyn, a<v. 54. Wein-DrofTel. Roth-Droffel. 
Le Mauvis. Briffon av. If. Frifcb, I. 28. 

208. tab. 20. fig. 1. Hift. 
d'Oys. III. 309. 

i?r. Zoo/. 91. plate P. f. 2. 

108. Red- 

THESE birds appear in Great-Britain a few 
days before the .fieldfare ; they come in 
vaft flocks, and from the fame countries as the 
latter*. With us they have only a difagreeable 
piping note \ but in Sweden during the fpring iing 
very finely, perching on the top of fome tree a- 
mong the forefts of maples. They build their 
nefts in hedges, and lay fix bluiih green eggs 
fpotted with black *. 

They have a very near refemblance to the throf- Descrip, 

* Faun, Suec. fp. 218. 


308 BLACKBIRD. Class II. 

tie; but are lefs, only weighing two ounces and a 

quarter : their colors are much the fame ; only 
the fides under the wings and the inner coverts in 
this are of a reddifli orange; in the throftle yel- 
lowy above each eye is a line of yellow ifh white, 
beginning at the bill and palling towards the 
hind part of the head. The vent feathers are white. 
Befides thefe three forts of throttles, the author 
of the epitome of the art of hujbandry *, mentions a 
fourth kind under the name of the heath throfile^ 
which he commends as far fuperior to the others in 
its fong : he fays it is the left of any, and may be 
known by its dark bread; that it builds its neft by 
fome heath-fide, is very fcarce, and will fing nine 
months in the year, 

109. Black- Le Merle noir. Belon wo. 320. 
bird. Merula. Gefner av. 602. 

Jldr. av. II.' 276. 
Merlo. Zinan. 39. Olina, 29. 
Wil. or;:. 1 90. 
Rail fyn. av. 6$. 
La Merle. Brijfan a~o. II. 22". 
Hift. fOjs. III. 330. 

PL Enl 2. 
Turdus merula. Lin. 

Kohl- Trail. Faun. Suec.fp. 

Dan. & Norvegu Solfort. Br. 

Amiel, Amarl. Kram. 360. 
Schwartze Amfel. Frifcb, 1= 

Br. Zool. 92. 
Kofs. Scopoli, No. 197. 

THIS bird is of a very retired andfolitary na- 
ture : frequents hedges and thickets, in 

* Sj J. B. gent, third edit. 1685. 




jyp /oc> 

Class IL B L A C K B I R D. 309 

which it builds earlier than any other bird : the neft 
is formed of mofs, dead grafs, fibres, &c. lined 
or plaiftered with clay, and that again covered with 
hay or fmall draw. It lays four or five eggs of a 
bluifh green color, marked with irregular duiky 
fpots. The note of the male is extremely fine, 
but too loud for any place except the woods : it 
begins to fing early in the fpring, continues its 
mufic part of the fummer, defifts in the moulting 
feafon; but refumes it for fome time in Septem- 
ber, and the firft winter months. 

The color of the male, when it has attained its Descrip.- 
full age, is of a fine deep black, and the bill of a 
bright yellow : the edges of the eye-lids yellow. 
When young the bill is dufky, and the plumage 
of a rufty black, fo that they are not to be diftin- 
guifhed from the females -, but at the age of one 
year they attain their proper color. 




Class II. 

no. King 

Le Merle ou Collier. Belon 

c--j 518. 
Merula torauata. Gefner a-u. 

Merlo alpeftre. J! Jr. av. II. 

Wil. en:. 194. Rock or 

ntain-Ouzei, 195. 
Mwyalchen y graig. Camden 

Brit 795. 
Le Merle a plaftron blanc. 

S/. d'Oys. III. 540. 
Rati jyn. a-v. 63. 

Morten Northampt. 425. 

Le Merle a Collier. BriJTon av. 

II. 235. 
Turdus torquatus. Z/». _/>y?. 

Faicn. Suec. fp. Z2\. Scopoli, 

No. 198. 
Z)#;z. RingdrorTel. Nornjegis 

Ring Troll. Br. 237. 
RinglamfeL Kram. 360. 
Ringel-Amfel. Fr^cA, I. 30. 
i?/\ Zool. 92. plate P. 1. f. 1. 

De scrip. rx^.HESE birds arc fuperior in fize to the black 
A bird: their length is eleven inches; their 
breadth feventeen. The bill in fome is wholly 
black, in others the upper half is yellow : on each 
fide the mouth are a few bridles : the head and 
whole upper part of the body are dufky, edged 
\ Ith pale brown: the quil-fearhers, and the tail 
are black. The coverts of the wings, the upper 
part of the bread, and the belly are dufky, (lightly 
edged with afh-color. The middle of the breaft is 
adorned with a white crefcent, the horns of which 
point to the hind part of the neck. In fome 
birds this is of a pure white, in others of a dirty 
hue. In the females and in young birds this mark 
is wanting, which gave occasion to fome natura- 
lifts to form two fpecies of them. 

The Ring-Ouzel inhabits the Highland hills, the 
north of England, and the mountains of Wales. 


Class II. RING-OUZEL. 311 

They are alfo found to breed in Dartmoor, in 
Devon/hire, in banks on the fides of flreams. I 
have feen them in the fame fituation in Wales* 
very clamorous when difturbed. 

They are obferved by the Rev. Mr. White, 
of Selborn, near Alton, Hants, to vifit his neigh- 
bourhood regularly twice a year, in flocks of twenty 
or thirty, about the middle of April* and again 
about Michaelmas. They make it only a refting 
place in their way to fome other country -, in their 
fpring migration they only flay a week, in their 
autumnal a fortnight. They feed there on haws, 
and for want of them on yew berries. On difTe&i- 
on, the females were found full of the fmall rudi- 
ments of eggs, which prove them to be later breed- 
ers than any others of this genus, which generally 
have fledged young about that time. The places 
of their retreat is not known": thofe that breed in 
Wales and Scotland never quitting thofe countries. 
In the laft they breed in the hills, but defcend to 
the lower parts to feed on the berries of the moun- 
tain afh. 

They migrate in France at the latter feafon : and 
appear in fmall flocks about Monthard, in Bur- 
gundy, in the beginning of October, but feldom 
day above two or three weeks. Notwithstanding 
this, they are faid, to breed in Sologne and the foreft 
of Orleans. 


3 12 


III. Water- 

Merula aquatica. Ge/her a<v. 

Lerlichirollo, Aldr. a-v. 
III. 186. 

Water- craw. Turner. 

The Water- Ouzel, or Wa- 
ter-Crake. JVil. orn. 149. 

Raii fyn. av. 66. 

Sturnus cinclus. Lin. fyft. 

Wat n Hare. Faun. Suec. fp. 

Povodni Kofs. Scopoli, No. 223. 

Le Merle d'eau. Brtjffon av. v. 

Merlo aquatico. Zinan. 109. 

Norvegis, Fofle Fald, Foffe Kald, 
Qasrn Kald, Stroem-Staer, 
Bxkke Eugl. Brunnich. 230. 

Waffer-amfei, Bach-amfel. Kra. 

Br. Zool. 92. plate. P. t. f* z* 

THIS bird frequents fmall brooks/particularly 
thofe with deep banks, or that run through a 
rocky country. It is of a very retired nature, and 
never feen but nngle, or with its mate. It breeds in 
holes in the banks, and lays five white eggs adorn- 
ed with a fine blufh of red. It feeds on infects and 
fmall fifh ; and as Mr. Willughby obferves, though 
not web-footed, will dart itfelf after them quite 

Nest. under water. The neft is conftructed in a curious 
manner, of hay and fibres of roots, and lined with 
dead oak leaves, having a portico, or grand en- 
trance made with green mofs. 

Descrip. Its weight is two ounces and a half: the length 
feven inches one quarter : the breadth eleven : the 
bill is narrow, and comprefTed Tideways : the eye- 
lids are white: the head, cheeks, and hind part 


Glass II. WATE.R-OUZEL 313 

of the neck are dufky, mixed with ruft color : the 
back, coverts of the wings, and of the tail alfo duf- 
ky, edged with bluifh afh color : the throat and 
bread white : the belly ferruginous, vent feathers 
a deep afh color : the legs are of a pale blue be- 
fore, black behind: the tail fhort and black, which 
it often flirts up, as it is fitting. 

Thefe are all the birds of this genus that can 
clame a place in this work. The rofe colored ou- 
zel, JViL crn. 194. Edw. 20. a foreign bird, has 
been fhot at Norwood near London ; for its hiftory 
we refer our readers to the appendix. 

Vol. I. Y BILL 




BILL ftrait, a little convex above, and bending 
towards the point. Near the end of the lower 
mandible a fmall notch on each fide. 

NOSTRILS hid in bridles. 

Middle TOE connected at the bafe to the out- 

112. Waxen. Garrulus Bohemicus. Gefner 

av. 703. 
Aldr. a-v. I. 395. 
Bohemian Chatterer. 



cm. 133. 
Bell's Travels. I. 198. 
Silk Tail. Rait fyn. av. 
Ray^s Letters, 190. 200. 
Le Jafeur de Bolieme, Bomby- 

cilla Bohemica. Brijfon aw. 

II. 333. Scopoli. No. 20. 

Phil, tranf. No. 175. 
Ampelis garrulus. Lin. fyji. 

. 297- 
Siden-Suantz, Snotuppa. 

Faun. Suec.fp. 82. 
Sieden vel Sieben. Suands. 

Brunnich 25. 
Zuferl, Geidenfchweiffl.iTr/z/zz. 

Seiden-fchvvantz. Frifcb, I. 

Br. Zcol. 77. plate C. 1. 

THESE birds appear but by accident in South 
Britain : about Edinburgh in February, they 
come annually and feed on the berries of the moun- 
tain afh : they alfo appear as far fouth as Nor- 
thumberland^ and like the fieldfare make the berries 
of the white thorn their food. Their native coun- 
try is Bohemia, from whence they wander over Eu- 
rope, and were once fuperftitioufly confidered as 
prefages of a peftilence. They are gregarious : 



2Vi-> 112 


Class II. C H A T T E R E R. 315 

feed on grapes where vineyards are cultivated ; are 
efteemed delicious food : eafily tamed. 

The length of the bird I faw was eight inches : Descrip, 
the bill fhort, thick, and black; the bafe covered 
with black bridles -, from thence paries to the hind 
part of the head over each eye a bar of black : 
on the head is a fharp pointed creft reclining back- 
wards : the hides are of a bright ruby colour : the 
cheeks tawny : the throat black, with a fmall brift- 
ly tuft in the middle. 

The head, crefr, and back am. colored mixed with 
red : the rump a fine cinereous : bread and belly, 
pale chelhut darned with a vinaceous call: the vent 
feathers bright bay : the lower part of the tail 
black ; the end of a rich yellow : the lerTer coverts 
of the wings brown, the greater black tipt with 
white : the quil-feathers black, the three firft tipt 
with white -, the fix next have half an inch of their 
exterior margin edged with fine yellow, the interior 
with white. But what diftinguifhes this from all 
other birds are the horny appendages from the 
tips of leven of the fecondary feathers of the co- 
lor and glofs of the beft red wax ; fome have one 
more or one lefs : The legs are black. 

I think that the females want the yellow marks 
in the wings. 


3 i6 GROSBEAK. Class II, 

XVlll. BILL ftrono;, thick, convex above and below. 
GROSBEAK NQSTRIL s (m ^ and rQund> 

TONGUE as if cut off at the end 

113. Haw. Le Grofbec ou Pinfcn royal. Le Gnofbec. Brijfon av. III. 

Belon av. 373. 219. 

Coccothraufles (fteinbeifler) PL enl. 99, 100. 

Ge/ner av. 276. Loxia coccothraufles. Lin.fyfi. 

Aldr. av. II. 289. 299. 

Frofone. Olina 37. Stenkneck. Faun. Suec.fp. 222. 

Grofbeak, or Hawfinch. WtL Kernbeis, NufbeifTer. Kram. 

orn. 244. 365. 

Raiijyn. a<v. 85. Kirfchfinch ( Cherry-finch) . 

Charlton ex. 91. Frzjcb, I. 4. 

Plefchk. Scrpoli, No. 201. Brunnich. in append. 

Ed-xv. a-v. 188. The male. Br. Z00L 105. plate U. F. 1. 

THE birds we defcribe were mot in Shropjhire : 
they vifit us only at uncertain times, and are 
not regularly migrant. They feed on berries ; 
and even on the kernels of the flrongeft ftones, 
fuch as thofe of cherries and almonds, which they 
crack with the greateft facility : their bills are well 
adapted to that work, being remarkably thick and 
ftrong. Mr. Willughby tells us, they are common 
in Germany and Italy ; that in the fummer they live 
in woods, and breed in hollow trees, laying five 
or fix eggs ; but in the winter they come down in- 
to the plains. 
DttscRir. This fpecies weighs near two ounces ! its length 

is feven inches -, the breadth thirteen : the bill is of 

a fun- 





a funnel fhape; ftrong, thick, and of a dull pale 
pink color -, at the bafe are fome orange colored . 
feathers : the irides are grey : the crown of the head 
and cheeks of a fine deep bay : the chin black : 
from the bill to the eyes is a black line : the breaft 
and whole under Cidt is of a dirty flefh color : the 
neck aih-colored : the back and coverts of the 
wings of a deep brown, thofe of the tail of a yel- 
lowifh bay : the greater quil-feathers are black, 
marked with white on their inner webs. The tail 
is fhort, fpotted with white on the inner fides. 
The legs flefh color. 

The great particularity of this bird, and what 
diftinguifhes it from all others, is the form of the 
ends of the middle quil-feathers ; which Mr. Ed- 
wards juftly compares to the figure of fome of 
the antient battle-axes: thefe feathers are gloflfed 
over with a rich blue ; but are lefs confpicuous in 
the female : the head in that fex is of dull olive, 
tinged with brown -, it alfo wants the black fpot 
under the chin. 

Loxia enucleator. Lin, Jyft, Greateft Bulfinch. Ednv. 133, 114. Pine. 

299. 124. 

Tallbit, Natt-waka. Faun, Coccothrauftes Canadensis. 

Su?c. No. 223. Brijfon, III, 250. 

THESE are common to Hudfon's Bay, Sweden 
and Scotland. I have feen them flying above 
the great pine forefts of Invercauld, Aberdeen/hire. 
Y 3 I ima- 


I imagine they breed there, for I faw them Auguft 
5th. They feed on the feeds of the pine. Lin- 
tiaus fays, they fing in the night. 

It is near twice the fize of the bulfinch. The 
bill ftrong, dufky, forked at the end ; Iefs thick 
than that of the common bulfinch : head, back, 
neck, and bread of a rich crimfon : the bottoms 
of the feathers afh-color j the middle of thofe on 
the back and head black : the lower belly and vent 
afh-color : the lefTer coverts of the wings dufky, 
edged with orange ; the next with a broad ftripe 
of white : the lowed order of greater coverts with 
another ; exterior edges of the fame color : the 
quil-feathers and tail duiky ; their exterior edges 
of a dirty white : legs black : length nine inches 
and a half. There feems an agreement in colors, 
as well as food, between this fpecies and the 
crofs-bill •, one that I faw in Scotland, and believe 
to be the female, was (like the female crofs-bill) 
of a dirty green ; the tail and quil-feathers dufky. 


Class II. C R O S S-B ILLED. 

S l 9 

Loxia. Gefner a~J. 591. 

Aldr. a<v. I. 426. 

Shell -apple, or Crofs-bill. 

Wil. orn. 248. 
Raii Jyn. a<v. 86. 
Charlton ex. fj. 
£d--w. a<v. 303. 
Cat. Carol, app. 37. 
Le Bec-croife. Brijfon a<v. III. 

329. tab. 17. fig. 3. 

Loxia curviroftra. Lin. fiyft. 

KorffnafF, Kinlgelrifvare . 

Faun. Suec. fp. 224* Sco- 

poli, No. 200. 
Krumbfchnabl, Kreutzvogel. 

Kram. 365. 
Kfeutz-Schnabel, Frzfch,l.n. 
Norveg.Kors-'Nseb. Kors-fugl. 

Br. 238. 
i?r. Zool. 106, plate U. f. 2. 

15. Cross- 

THERE are two varieties of this bird : Mr. 
Edwards has very accurately figured the 
leffer, which we have feen frequently : the other 
is very rare. We received a male and female out 
of Shropshire, which were fuperior in fize to the 
former, the bill remarkably thick and fhort, more 
encurvated than that of the common kind, and 
the ends more blunt. 

Thefe birds, like the former, are inconftant vi- 
fitants of this ifland : in Germany and Switzerland* 
they inhabit the pine foreils, and breed in thofe 
trees fo early as the months of January and Febru- 
ary. They feed on the feeds of the cones of pines 
and firs ; and are very dexterous in fcaling them, 
for which purpofe the crofs ftructure of the lower 
mandible of their bill is admirably adapted-, they 
feed alfo on hemp feed, and the pips or kernels 

* Gefiner 59. Kramer Elencb, 365. 

Y 4 


320 B U L F I N C E Class II. 

of apples, and are faid to divide an apple with one 
ftroke of the bill to get at the contents. Linn<eus* 
fays, that the upper mandible of this bird is move- 
able ; but on examination we could not difcover its 
flructure to differ from that of others of the genus. 
It is an undoubted fact, that thefe birds change 
their colors ; or rather the fhades of their colors : 
that is, the males which are red, vary at certain 
feafons to deep red, to orange, or to a fort of a 
yellow : the females which are green, alter to dif- 
ferent varieties of the fame color. 

1 1 6. B u L- Le Pivoine. Belon a<v. 359. 
Finch. Afprocolos, obf. 13. 

Rubicilla, iive pyrrhula. Gef- 

ner a<v. 733. 
Mar. av. II. 326. 
Ciufolotto. Olina, 40. 
Bulfinch, Alp, or Nope. 7/7/. 

orn. 2\~ . 
Raii. fyn. a<v. 86. 
Bluttinck, Frifcb, I. 2. 
LeBouvreuil. BriJ/in av. III. 


PL enh 145. 

Monachinc, Sufolotto. Zina^. 

Loxia pyrrhula. Lin.fyft. 300. 
Domherre. Faun. Suec . /p. 

Gumpl. Kram. 365. Gimpl. 

Scopoli, No. 202. 
Dam's & Norvegis Dom-pape, 

quibufdcr.i ~Do&. -Kerre. Br. 

Br. Zool. 106. plate U. f. 3.4. 

THE wild note of this bird is not in the left 
mufical ; but when tamed it becomes re- 
markably docil, and may be taught any tune after 
a pipe, or to whittle any notes ^n the juftefl: man- 
ner : it feldom forgets what it has learned; and 

# Faun, Suec. /p. 224. 


Class II. B U L F I N C H. 3 2 * 

will become fo tame as to come at call, perch on 
its mailer's moulders, and (at command) go through 
a difficult mufical leffon. They may be taught to 
fpeak, and fome thus inftrudted are annually 
brought to London from Germany. 

The male is diftinguifhed from the female by Descrip, 
the fuperior blacknefs of its crown, and by the rich 
crimfon that adorns the cheeks, bread, belly, and 
throat of the male -, thofe of the female being of 
a dirty color : the bill is black, fhort, and very 
thick : the head large : the hind part of the neck 
and the back are grey : the coverts of the wings 
are black -, the lower croffed with a white line : the 
quil-feathers dufky, but part of their inner webs 
white: the coverts of the tail and vent feathers 
white : the tail black. 

In the fpring thefe birds frequent our gardens, 
and are very deftructive to our fruit-trees, by 
eating the tender buds. They breed about the 
latter end of May, or beginning of June, and are 
feldom feen at that time near houfes, as they chufe 
fome very retired place to breed in. Thefe birds 
are fometimes wholly black -, I have heard of a 
male bulfinch which had changed its colors after it 
jiad been taken in full feather, and with all its fine 
teints. The firft year it began to aflume a dull 
hue, blackening every year, till in the fourth it 
attained the deepeft degree of that color. This 
was communicated to me by the Reverend Mr. 
White of Selborne. Mr. Morton, in his Hiftory of 



Northampton/hire * gives another inftance of fuch a 
change, with this addition, that the year follow- 
ing, after moulting, the bird recovered its native 
colors. Bulfinches fed entirely on hemp-feed are 
apteft to undergo this change. 

117. Green. Belon c-o. 365. Verdone, Verdero, Antone. 

Affarandos, obf. 13. Zinan. 63. 

Chloris. Gefner a<v. 258. Loxia chloris. Lin. fyjl. 304. 

Aldr. a-u. II. 371. Swenfka. Faun. Suec.fp. 226. 

OJina, 26. Svenfke. Br. 242. 

Jill, cm. 246. Grunling. Kram. 368. 

Rail fyn. au. 85. Griinfinck (Greenfinch) Fri/cb 

Le Verdier. BriJJon a-v. III. I. 2. 

190. Br. Zool. 107. 
Grindling. Scopcli, No. 206. 

Deicrip. / I ^HE head and back of this bird are of a 
JL yellowim green 5 the edges of the feathers 
arc grey ; the rump more yellow : the bread of 
the fame color ; the lower belly_white: the edges 
of the outmoft quil-feathers are yellow, the next 
green, the farthell grey : the tail is a little forked : 
the two middle feathers are wholly duiky : the ex- 
terior webs of the four outmoft feathers on both 
fides the tail are yellow. The colors in the female 
are much lefs vivid than in the male. 

Thefe birds are very common in this ifland : 

Nest, they make their neft in hedges ; the outfide is 

* Page 437. 



compofed of hay or ftubble, the middle part of 
mofs, the infide of feathers, wool, and hair. Du- 
ring breeding-time, that bird which is not engaged 
in incubation, or nutrition, has a pretty way of 
fporting on wing over the bufh. They lay five 
or fix eggs of a pale green color, marked with 
blood colored fpots. Their native note has nothing 
muficai in it \ but a late writer on fin ging- birds 
fays, they may be taught to pipe or whiftie in 
imitation of other birds. 

This bird is fo eafily tamed, that it frequently 
eats out of one's hand five minutes after it is ta- 
ken, if you have an opportunity of carrying it into 
the dark ; the bird fhould be then put upon your 
finger, which it does not attempt to move from (as 
being in darknefs it does not know where to fly) 
you then introduce the finger of your other hand 
under its bread, which, making it inconvenient to 
flay upon the firft finger on which it was before 
placed, it climbs upon the fecond, where it like- 
wife continues, and for the fame reafon. When 
this hath been nine or ten times repeated, and the 
bird ftroked and carefTed, it finds that you do not 
mean to do it any harm ; and if the light is let 
in by degrees, it will very frequently eat any bruif- 
ed feed out of your hand, and afterwards continue 




BUNTING BILL ftr0n § and COnic > the fides of each man " 
dible bending inwards : in the roof of the up- 
per, a hard knob, of ufe to break and commi- 
nute hard feeds. 

1 1 8. Com- Le Proyer, Prier, ou Pruyer. Petrone, Capparone, Stardac- 
mon. Belon a-v. 266. chio. Zinan. 63. 

Emberiza alba. Gefner av. Emberiza Miliaria. Lin. fyft 


Aldr. a-v. II. 264. 
Strillozzo. Olina, 44. 
Wil. orn. 267. 
Raiifyn. a<v. 93. 
Le Proyer,- Cynchramus 

BriJJcn a-v. III. 292. 
PL EnL 30. 


Faun. Suec. fp. 228. 
Korn Larkor. Lin. it. /can. 

292. tab. 4. 
Cimbris Korn-Laerke. Norveg. 

Knotter. Brunnich 247. 
Graue Ammer. Frifch, I. 6. 
Brafler. Kram. 372. 
Br. Z00L Til. plate W. f. 7. 

Descrip. / I ^HE bill of this bird, and the other fpecies 
X of this genus, is Angularly conftrudted ; 
the fides of the upper mandible form a fharp an- 
gle, bending inwards towards the lower \ and in the 
roof of the former is a hard knob, adapted to bruife 
corn or other hard feeds. 

The throat, bread, fides, and belly are of a 
yellowifh white : the head and upper part of the 
body of a pale brown, tinged with olive \ each of 
which (except the belly) are marked with oblong 
black fpotsj towards the rump the fpots grow faint- 
er. The quil-feathers are dulky, their exterior 


Pi L 







edoes of a pale yellow. The tail is a little forked, 
of a dufky hue, edged with white ; the legs are 
of a pale yellow. 

This bird refides with us the whole year, and 
during: winter collects in flocks. 

3 2 5 

Belon a<v. 366. 

Emberiza flava. Ge/ner a<v. 

6 53- ,. . . 

Cia pagglia nccia, Lutes 

alterum genus. Aldr. av. 

II. 372. 
Wil. orn. 268. 
Yellow Hammer, Rati fyn. 

a-v. 93. 
Le Bruant. Briffbn a<v. Ill* 

PL EnL 30. f. 2. 
Sternardt. Scopoli y No. 209. 
Emberiza citrinella. Lin. fyfi. 

Groning, Golfpink. Faun. 

Suec. fp. 230. 
Ammering, Goldammering. 

Kram. 370. Frifch, I. 5. 

119. Yel. 

THIS fpecies makes a large flat neft on the Nest. 
ground, near or under a bum or hedge; the 
materials are mofs, dried roots, and horfe hair in- 
terwoven. It lays fix eggs of a white color, vein- 
ed with a dark purple: is one of our commoneil 
birds, and in winter frequents our farm yards with 
ether fmall birds. 

The bill is of a dufky hue: the crown of the head Descrip. 
is of a pleafant pale yellow ; in fome almoft plain, 
in others fpotted with brown : the hind part of 
the neck is tinged with green : the chin and throat 
are yellow : the bread is marked with an orange 
red : the belly yellow : the leffer coverts of the 
wings are green - y the others dufky, edged with ruft 

color : 

3 26 REED BUNTING. Class II. 

color : the back of the fame colors : the rump of a 
rufty red: the quil-feathers dufky, their exterior 
fides edged with yellow ifh green : the tail is a lit- 
tle forked -, the middle feathers are brown -, the 
two middlemoft edged on both fides with green ; 
the others on their exterior fides only : the inte- 
rior fides of the two outmoft feathers are marked 
obliquely near their ends with white. 

120. Reed. Schceniclus. Gefner rtv. 573, tulanusarundinaceus.2?;v^zf 

652. c.-j. IIT. 274. 

Wil. cm. 269. Emberizafchceniclus. Lin.fyft. 

Reed Sparrow. Rati fyn. a<v. 311. 

95. Saf-fparf. Faun. Suec.fp. 231. 

The Nettle-monger. Morten Rohrammering, Meerfpatz. 
Northampt. 42.. Kram. 371. 

Ror-Spurv. Brumich 251. Rohrammer (Reed-hammer) 

L'Ortulan de Rofeaux, Hor- Frifch, I. 7. 

Br. Zool 112. plate W. 

THE reed fparrow inhabits marfhy places, 
moll commonly among reeds ; from which 
Nest. it takes its name. Its neft is worthy notice for 
the artful contrivance of it, being fattened to four 
reeds, and fufpended by them like a hammock, 
about three feet above the water - 9 the cavity of the 
neft is deep, but narrow, and the materials are 
rufhes, fine bents and hairs. It lays four or five 
eggs, of a bluifh white, marked with irregular pur- 
pliih veins, elpecially on the larger end. It is a 
bird much admired for its fong, and like the night- 
ingale it finsjs in the night. 



In the male, the head, chin, and throat are Descrip, 
black : the tongue livid : at each corner of the 
mouth commences a white ring, which encircles the 
head. At approach of winter the head changes 
to hoary, but on the return of fpring refumes its 
priftine jettynefs. The whole under fide of the 
body is white. The back, coverts of the wings, 
and the fcapular feathers are black, deeply bor- 
dered with red. The two middle feathers of the 
tail are of the fame colors \ the three next black. 
The exterior web, and part of the interior of the 
outmoft feather is white. The head of the female 
is ruft-coloured, fpotted with black ; it wants the 
white ring round the neck : but in mod other re- 
fpects refembles the male. 

Great pied Mountain Finch, nus nivalis. BriJ/bn av.lll. 121. Tawny, 

or Brambling. Wil. orn. 285. 

255. Schnee-ammer -(Snow-hani- 
Raii.Jyn. a<v. 88. mer). Frifcb, I. 6. 

L'Ortolan de Neige, Hortula- Br. ZooL 112. plate f. 6. ' 

THE weight of this bird is rather more than Descrip. 
an ounce : the length is fix inches three 
quarters : the breadth twelve inches three quarters. 
The bill is very fhort ; yellow, except the point, 
which is black. The crown of the head is of a 
tawny color, darkeft near the forehead : the whole 
neck is of the fame color, but paler: the throat 


32 5 


almoft white: the upper part of the bread is of 
a dull yellow ; the breaft and whole under part of 
the body white, dallied with a yellowifh tinge. 
The back and fcapular feathers are black, edged 
with a pale reddifh brown : the rump and covert 
feathers of the tail are white on their lower half j 
on their upper, yellow. 

The tail confifts of twelve feathers, and is a 
little forked : the three exterior feathers are white : 
the two outmoft marked with a dufky fpot on the 
exterior iide ; the third is marked with the fame 
color on both fides the tip : the reft of the tail fea- 
thers are entirely dufky. The wings, when clofed, 
reach about the middle of the tail : the color, 
of as much of the fix fir ft quil-feathers as ap- 
pears in view, is dufky, flightly tipt with a red- 
difh white : their lower part on both fides white : 
in the feven fucceeding feathers the dufky color 
gradually gives place to the white; which in the 
feventh of thefe pofiefTes the whole feather, except 
a fmall fpot on the exterior upper fide of each ; 
the two next are wholly white : the reft of the 
quil-feathers and the fcapular feathers are black, 
edged with a pale red : the baftard wing, and the 
outmoft fecondary feathers are of the fame color 
with the quil-feathers : the reft of them, together 
with the coverts, are entirely white, forming one 
large bed of white. The legs, feet and claws are 
black : the hind toe is very long, like that of a 
lark, but not fo ftrait. 



Thefe birds are fometimes found in different 
parts of England -, but are not common. I am 
unacquainted with their breeding places, or their 
hiftory : are fometimes found white, and then mif- 
taken for white larks. 

3 2 9 

Emberiza nivalis. Lin. fyft. 

Snofparf. Faun. Suec. No. 

Le Pinccn de neige ou la 

niverolle. BriJ/on, III. 162. 
Cimbris, fneekok, vinter fug]. 

Norvegis. Sneefugl, Fialfler. 

Brunnich, 245. 

Avis ignota a Piperino miffa. 
Gefner au. 798. 

Scopoli, No. 214. 

Snow-bird, Ednu. 126. Egede 
Green/. 64. Marten's Spits- 
bergen, 7 3 . 

Forfter in Ph. Tr. vol LXIF, 

22. Snow. 

THE weight of this fpecies is one ounce and 
a quarter : the bill and legs black : the 
forehead and crown white, with fome mixture of 
black on the hind part of the head : the back._of 
a full black, the rump white-: the baftard wing 
and ends of the greater coverts black, the others 
white : the quil-feathers black, their bafe white : 
the fecondaries white, with a black fpot on their 
inner webs. The. middle feathers of their tail 
black -, the three outmoft white, with a dufky 
fpot near their ends : from chin to tail of a pure 

Thefe birds are called in Scotland, Snow-flakes, 
from their appearance in hard weather and in deep 

Vol. I. Z fnows, 

330 SNOW BUNTING. Class II. 

fnows. They arrive in that feafon among the 
Cheviot hills, and in the Highlands in amazing 
flocks. A few breed in the laft on the fummit of 
the higheft hills in the fame places with the Ptar- 
migans -, but the greateft numbers migrate from the 
extreme north. They appear in the Shetland iftznds, 
then in the Orknies, and multitudes of them often 
fall, wearied with their flight, on veflels in the 
Pentland 'Birth. Their appearance is a certain 
fore-runner of hard weather, and florms of fnow, 
being driven by the cold from their common re- 
treats. Their progrefs fouthward is probably thus ; 
Spitzbergen and Greenland, Hudfon's Bay, the Lap- 
land Alps, Scandinavia, Iceland, the Ferroe ifles, 
Shetland, Orhiies, Scotland, and the Cheviot hills. 
They vifit at that feafon all parts of the northern 
hemifphere, Prujfia, Auftria, and Siberia* They 
arrive lean and return fat. In Auftria they are 
caught and fed with millet, and like the Ortolan, 
grow excefTively fat. In their flights, they keep 
very clofe to each other, mingle mcft confufedly 
together ; and fling themfelves collectively into the 
form of a ball, at which inftant the fowler makes 
great havoke among them. 

* Kratrr, Auftria, 372. Be IPs Travels, I. 198. 



Letter Mountain-finch, or Morton Northampt. 423. tab. 123. Moun- 
B rambling. Wil. orn. 255. l 3-fi' 3* ^ r ' Zoc/. Ix 3« tain. 

WE are obliged to borrow the following de- Descrif, 
fcription from the account of Mr. Johnfon 
tranfmitted to Mr. Ray, having never feen the 
bird. Mr. Ray fufpecled that it was only a variety 
of the former, but Mr. Morton, having frequent 
opportunity of examining this fpecies, proves it to 
be a diftincl kind. 

According to Mr. Johnfon, its bill is fhort, thick, 
and ftrong; black at the point, the reft yellow. 
The forehead is of a dark cheftnut ; the hind part 
of the head and cheeks of a lighter ; the hind part 
of the neck, and the back are afh-colored; the 
latter more fpotted with black ; the throat is white : 
the bread and belly waved with flame color ; at the 
fetting on of the wing grey ; the five firft feathers 
sre of a blackifti brown, the reft white with the 
point of each dafhed with brown : the three out- 
moft feathers of the tail are white 5 the reft dark 
brown •, the feet black ; the hind claw as long 
again as any of the reft. The breaft of the female 
is of a darker color than that of the male. The 
fpecies, by the above-mentioned writer's account, 
is found in Torkfhire and Northampton/hire. 


33 2 


XX. FINCH. BILL perfectly conic, (lender towards the en4 

and fharp-pointed. 

124. Gold- Eeton av. 3^3. 

finch. Carduelis. Gefner a~j. 242. 
Aldr. a-o. II. 349. 
Cardelii. OJzna, 10. 
Goldfinch, or Thiitlennch. 

Wil. om. 256. 
Rati fjrr. au. 89. 
Le Chardonneret. Brifjon a<v, 

III. 53. 
PL Enl. 4. f. 1. 

Cardellino. Zinan. 59. 
Frineilla carduelis. Lin. fyji. 

Stightza. Faun. Suec.fp, 236. 
Stiglitz. Br. 257*. Scopoli; 

No. 211. 
Stiglitz. i&£;;;. 365. Diflel- 

nrick-. Frifch, I. 1. 
£.". Zoo/. 108. plate V. f. 1. 

I) E 3 C R 1" F . 


HIS is the mod beautifull of our hard bil- 
led fmall birds ; whether we confider its 
colors, the elegance of its form, or the mufic of its 
note. The bill is white, tipt with black, the bafe 
is furrounded with a rins; of rich fcarlet feathers : 
from the corners of the mouth to the eyes- is a 
black line : the cheeks are white : the top of the 
head is .black \ and the white on the cheeks is 
bounded aimed to the forepart of the neck with 
black : the hind part of the head is white : the 
back, rump, and bread, are of a fine pale tawny 
brown, lighted on the two lad : the belly is white : 
the covert feathers of the wings, in the male, are 
black : the quil- feathers black, marked in their 
middle with a beautifull yellow -, the tips white : 


Class II. G O L D F I N C H. 333 

the tail is black, but moft of the feathers marked 
near their ends with a white fpot : the legs are 

The female is diftinguiihed from the male by 
thefe notes ; the feathers at the end of the bill in 
the former are brown ; in the male black : the 
lefTer coverts of the wings are brown : and the black 
and yellow in the wings of the female are lefs bril- 
liant. The young bird, before it moults, is grey 
on the head \ and hence > it is termed by the bird- 
catchers a. grey pate. 

There is another variety of goldfinch, which 
is, perhaps, not taken above once in two or three 
years, which is called by the London bird-catchers 
a cbeverel, from the manner in which it concludes 
its jerk : when this fort is taken, it fells at a very 
high price: it is diilinguiihed from the common 
fort by a white flreak, or by two, and fometimes 
three white fpots under the throat. 

Their note is very fweec, and they are much 
efteemed on that account, as well as for their great 
docility. Towards winter they affemble in flocks, 
and feed on feeds of different kinds, particular- 
ly thofe of the thiftle. It is fond of orchards; 
and frequently builds in an apple or pear tree : its 
neft is very' elegantly formed of line mofs, liver- 
worts, and bents on the outfide ; lined firft with 
wool and hair, and then with the gofiin or cotton 
of the fallow. It lays five white eggs, marked 
with deep purple fpots on the upper end. 

Z 3 This 



This bird feems to have been the x?u<rofUT§i$* of 
Afiftotle j being the only one that we know of, 
that could be diftinguifhed by a golden fillet round 
its head, feeding on the feeds of prickly plants. 
The very ingenious tranflator -f of Virgil's eclogues 
and georgics, gives the name of this bird to the 
acalanthis or acanthi s : 

Littoraque alcyonen refcnant, acanthida dumi. 

In our account of the Halcyon of the antients, 
p. 191 of the former edition, we followed his opi- 
nion -, but having fince met with a pafTage in 
Ariftotle that clearly proves that acanthis could not 
be ufed in that fenfe, we beg, that, till we can dis- 
cover what it really is, the word may be rendered 
linnet \ fince it is impoffible the philofopher could 
diftinguifh a bird of fuch ftriking and brilliant 
colors as the goldfinch, by the epithet Koatoxgoos, or 
bad colored 5 and as he celebrates his acanthis for 
a fine note, fum' fd* t« xiyupa* *x*«$» both charac- 
ters will fuit the linnet, being a bird as remark- 
able for the fweetnefs of its note, as for the plainefs 
of its plumage. 

* Which he places among the cutav$o?aya. Scaliger reads 
the word gvo-o/jLiTfi;, which has no meaning ; neither does the 
Critic fupport his alteration with any reafons. Hiji. an. 887. 

f Dr. Martyn. 
% Hiji. an. 1055. 


Glass II. CHAFFINCH, 335 

Le Pinion. Belon av. 371. Pl.enl 54. f. 1. 125. Chaf,- 

Fringilla. Gefner av. 337. FringillacoBlebs.Z^.^y?.3i8. finch. 

Aldr. a<v. II. 356. Fincke, Bofincke. Faun. Suec. 

Olina 31. /p. 232. 

Wil. orn. 253. Buchfinck(Beachiincli)i r r//ri', 

Raiifyn. #<l\ 88. • I. 1. 

Fringuello. Zinan. 61. Finke. Kram. 367. 

Le Pincon. BriJJbn av. 148. Boiinke. JSr. 253. 

Schinkovitz. Scopoli, No. 217. i?r. Zoo/. 108. plate V. f. 2. 3. 

THIS fpecies entertains us agreeably with its 
fong very early in the year* - 9 but towards 
the latter end of fumrner aflumes a chirping note: 
both fexes continue with us the whole year. What 
is very lingular in Sweden, the females quit that 
country in September, migrating in flocks into Hol- 
land, leaving their mates behind •, in the fpring 
they return.* In Hampjhire Mr. White has ob- 
ferved fomething of this kind ; .Vail flocks of 
females with fcarcely any malesf among them. 
Their neft is almoft as elegantly conftru&ed as that 
of the goldfinch, and of much the fame materials, 
only the infide has the addition of fome large fea- 
thers. They lay four or five eggs, of a dull white 
color, tinged and fpotted with deep purple. 

The bill is of a pale blue, the tip black : the Descrip, 
feathers on the forehead black : the crown of the 
head, the hind part and the fides of the neck are 

* Aman. acad, II. 42. IV. 595. 

Z 4 of 

33 6 CHAFFINCH. Class II. 

cf a bluifh grey : the fpace above the eyes, the 
cheeks, throat, and forepart of the neck, are red : 
the fides and belly white, tinged with red : the up- 
per part of the back of a deep tawny color ; the 
lower part and rump green : the coverts on the 
very ridge of the wing black and grey -, beneath 
them is a large white fpot : the baftard wing and 
fir ft greater coverts black, the reft tip* with white: 
the quil- feathers black -, their exterior fides edged 
with pale yellow : their inner and outward webs 
white on their lower part, fo as to form a third 
white line acrofs the wing : the tail is black, ex- 
cept the cutmoft feather, which is marked obliquely 
with a white line from top to bottom; and the 
next which has a white fpot on the end of the 
inner web : the legs are dufky : the colors of the 
female are very dull : it entirely wants the red on 
the bread and other parts : the head and upper 
part cf the body are of a dirty green : the belly 
and bread of a dirty white : the wings and tail 
marked much like thole of the male. 




Le Montain. Belon anj. 372. 
Montifringilla montana. Gef- 

ner a<v. 388. 
Aldr. a-v. II. 358^ 
Fringuello montanina. Oiina 

3 2 - 
Bramble, or Brambling. WiU 

orn. 254. 
Mountain -finch. Rail fyn. a-v. 

88. ' 
Le Pincon cPardennes. Brif- 
fon av. III. 155. 

Fringilla montifringilla. Lin. 

fyA 318. 

Pinofch. Scopoli, No. 218. 
Norquint. Faun. Suec./p. 233. 
Quaker, Bofmkens Hore- 

Unge, Akerlan. Brunnich 

Nicowitz, Meeker, Piencken. 

Kram. 367. 
Bergfinck (Mountainfmch). 

Frifch) I. 3. 
£r. Zoo/. 108. plate V. f. 4. 

126. Bram.- 

P/. «//, 

enl. 54. 

f. 2. 

THIS bird is not very common in thefe iflands. 
It is fuperior in fize to the chaffinch : the 
top of the head is of a glofly black, (lightly edged 
with a yellowifh- brown : the feathers of the back 
are of the fame colors, but the edges more deeply 
bordered with brown : the chin, throat, and brealt 
are of an orange color : the lefier coverts of the 
wings of the fame color; but thofe incumbent on 
the quil-feathers barred with black, tipt with 
orange : the inner coverts at the bafe of the wings 
are of a fine yellow : the quil-feathers are d'ufky •, 
but their exterior fides edged with. yellow; the tail 
a little forked : the exterior web o\f the outmoft fea- 
ther is white, the others black, except the two mid? 
die, which are edged and tipt with am color. 

Descr}P 9 




j 27. Spar- Le Moineau, Paifie, ou Mo- 
row, iftbn. Belon av. 361. , 
Pafler. Gefner tea. 643. 
Aldr. aw. II. 246. 
PaiTera noftrale. Olina, 42. 
The Houfe-fparrow. JFz7. 

sr«. 249. 
Rail Jyn. au. 86. 
Le Moineau franc. BriJJbn aro, 

III. 72. 

/¥. **/. 6. f. 1. 55. f. 1. 

Fringilla domelHca. Lin. fyfi. 

3 2 3- 
Tatting, Grafparf. Faun. Suec. 

fp. 242. 
Danis Graae-Spurre. Korveg. 

Huus-Kald. Br. 264. 
Hauffpatz. Kram. 369. 
Br. Zool. 11. qoo. 

Descrip. f] n^HE bill of the male is black: the crown of 
the head is grey: under each eye is a black 
fpot -, above the corner of each is a broad bright 
bay mark, which furrounds the hind part of the 
head. The cheeks are white : the chin and under 
iide of the neck are black j the latter eds;ed with 
white : the belly of a dirty white : the leffer coverts 
of the wings are of a bright bay : the laft row 
black, tipt with white: the great coverts black, 
outwardly edged with red ; the quil-feathers the 
fame : the back fpotted with red and black : tail 

The lower mandible of the bill of the female is 
white: beyond each eye is a line of white: the 
head and whole upper part are brown, only on 
the back are a few black fpots : the black and 
white marks on the wings are obfcure; the lower 
fide of the body is a dirty white. 

Sparrows are proverbially falacious : they breed 




([£ I 



Class II. TREE SPARROW. 339 

early in the fpring, make their nefts under the 
eaves of houfes, in holes of walls, and very often 
in the nefts of the martin, after expelling the own- 
er. Linnaeus tells us (a tale from Albertus Mag- 
mis) that this infult does net pafs unrevenged^ 
the injured martin afTembles its companions, who 
afiift in plaiftering up the entrance with dirt ; 
then fly away, twittering in triumph, and leave 
the invader to perifh miferably. 

They will often breed in plumb-trees and apple- 
trees, in old rooks's nefls, and in the forks of 
boughs beneath them. 

PaiTerinus. Gefner av. 656. Paflere Montano. Zinan. 81. 128. Tree 

Aldr. a-v. II. 261. Fringilla montana. Lin. fyft. Sparrow* 

Ghna, 48. 324. 

WiL orn. 252. Faun. Suec, fp. 243. Scopolz, 

Raiifyn. av. 87. No. 221. 

Edw. a<v. 269. Skov-Spurre. Brunnicb, 267. 

Le Moineau de Montagne, Feldfpatz, Rohrfpatz, Kram< 

Paffer montanus. BriJJon 370. Frifch, I. 1. 

a-v. Ill, 79. Br Zool. 109. 

Grabetz. Scopoli, No. 220. 

THIS fpecies is inferior in fize to the com- 
mon fparrow. The bill is thick and black : 
the crown of the head ; hind part of the neck ; 
and the leffer coverts of the wings, of a bright 
bay : the two firlt plain ; the laft fpotted with 
black : the chin black j the cheeks and fides of 
the head white, marked with a great black fpot 


s4 o S I S K I N. Class II. 

beneath each ear : the bread and belly of a dirty 
white. Juft above the greater coverts is a row of 
feathers black edged with white -, the greater co- 
verts are black edged with run: color : quil-fea- 
thers dufky, edged with pale red: lower part of 
the back of an olive brown : tail brown : less 
ilraw color. 

Thefe birds are very common in Lincoln/hire-, 
are converfant among trees, and collect like the 
common kind in great flocks. 

129. Siskin. Belon a<v. 354. Fringilla fpinus. Lin. fyft. 

Acanthis, fpinus, ligurinus. 322. 

Ge/ner a<v. \. Sifka, Gronfifka. Faun, Suec. 

Aldr. a<v. II. 352. fp. 237. 

Lucarino. Olinc, 17, Sifgen. Brunnich, 261. 

WiL orn. 261. Zeifel, Zeiferl. Kram. 366. 

Raiijjn. wv. 91. Frifcb, I. 2. Scopoli, No. 

Le Serin. Brijjon ai>. III. 212. 

.65. Br. Zool. 109. plate V. 


THE head of the male is black: the neck 
and back green - 3 but the lhafts on the lat- 
ter are black : the rump is of a greenifh yellow : 
the throat and bread the fame : the belly white : 
the vent-feathers yellowifh, marked with oblong 
dufky fpots in their middle : the pinion quil is 
dufky edged with green : the outward webs of the 
nine next quil-feathers are green ; the green part is 
widened by degrees in every feather, till in the laft 
it takes up half the length: from the tenth almoft 


SISKIN. TSI. <fc F. 


TWITE , JVC. #r F. JVP133 

Class IL SISKIN. 34 

the lower half of each feather is yellow, the upper 
blacks the exterior coverts of the wings are black : 
the two middle feathers of the tail are black. ; the 
reft above half way are of a mod lovely yellow, 
with black tips. The colors of the female are pa- V 
ler : her throat and fides are white fpotted with 
brown -, the head and back are of a greenifh afh 
color, marked alfo with brown. 

Mr. Willughby tells us, that this is a fong bird : 
that in Suffer, it is called the barley-bird, becaufe it 
comes to them in barley-feed time. We are inform- 
ed that k vifits thefe ifiands at very uncertain 
times, like the grofbeak, &c. It is to be met with 
in the bird fhops in London, and being rather a 
fcarce bird, fells at a higher price than the merit: 
of its fong deferves : it is known there by the name 
of the Aberdavine. The bird catchers have a notion 
of its coming out of Ruffia. Dr. Kramer * informs 
us, that this bird conceals its neft with great art y 
though there are infinite numbers of young birds in 
the woods on the banks of the Danube, that feetn 
juft to have taken flight, yet no one could difcoves? 

* Kramer elench. 166, 



LINNET. Class II. 

Rati Jyn. 

a<v. 90. 
Zinan. 6 1 , 

La Linotte. Brijfon 



I3 1 

PL enL i 

;I . f. 1. 

Br. ZcoL 


330.Linket. Belon a<v. 356. 

Linaria, Henfling, Schofzling, 
Flacklin. Gefner a<v. 590. 
Haen fling. Frifch, I. 9. 
u#dr. «<z;. II. 359. 
#7/. or». 258. 

Descrip. ' I ^HE bill of this fpecies is dufky, but in the 
JL fpring afTumes a bluifh caft: the feathers 
on the head are black edged with afh color : the 
fides of the neck deep afh color : the throat marked 
in the middle with a brown line ; bounded on each 
fide with a white one : the back black bordered 
with reddilh brown : the bottom of the bread is of 
a fine blood red, which heighthens in color as the 
fpring advances : the belly white : the vent feathers 
yellowifh : the fides under the wings fpotted with 
brown : the quil-feathers are dufky ; the lower part 
of the nine firft white : the coverts incumbent on 
them black •, the others of a reddifh brown ; the 
lowed order tipt with a paler color : the tail is a 
little forked, of a brown color, edged with white ; 
the two middle feathers excepted, which are bor- 
dered with dull red. The females and young birds 
want the red fpot on the breaft; in lieu of that, 
their breads are marked with fhort ftreaks of brown 
pointing downwards : the females have alfo lefs 

white in their wings, 





Thefe birds are much efteemed for their fong*: 
they feed on feeds of different kinds, which they 
peel before they eat : the feed of the linum or flax 
is their favorite food ; from whence the name of 
the linnet tribe. 

They breed among furze and white thorn : the 
outfide of their neft is made with mofs and bents ; 
and lined with wool and hair. They lay five whitilh 
eggs, fpotted like thofe of the goldfinch. 


Linaria rubra. Gefner a<v. 591. Hampling. Faun. Suec. /p. 
Fanello marine Aldr. a<v. II. 240. 

360. Torn-Irifk. Brunnich, 263. 

Wil. orn. 260. Hauefferl, Hampfling. Kram* 
Raiijyn. a<v. 91. 3^8. 

La grande Linotte des vignes. Blut Hanfling (Bloody Lin- 

BriJJbn aw. III. 1 35. net). Fri/ch, I. 9. 

Fringilla cannabina. Lin.fyft. Br. Zool. no. 

322. Scopoli, No. 219. 

131. Red 



THIS bird is lefs than the former: on the Descrip, 
forehead is a blood colored fpot -, the reft of 
the head and the neck are of an am color : the 
bread is tinged with a fine rofe color : the back, 
fcapular feathers, and coverts of the wings, are of 
a bright reddifh brown : the firft quil-feather is en- 
tirely black ♦, the exterior and interior edges of the 
eight following are white, which forms a bar of 
that color on the wing, even when clofed : the 
fides are yellow \ the middle, of the belly white : 



the tail, like that of the former, is forked, of 
a dufky color, edged on both fides with white, 
which is broadeft on the inner webs. The head 
of the female is am color, fpotted with black : the 
back and fcapulars are of a dull brownifh red : and 
the breaft and fides of a dirty yellow, ftreaked with 
dufky lines. It is a common fraud in the bird 
fnops in London^ when a male bird is diftinguifhed 
from the female by a red breaft, as in the cafe 
of this bird, to (lain or paint the feathers, fo that 
the deceit is not eafily difcovered, without at left 
clofe infpeclion. 

Thefe birds are frequent on cur fea-coafts \ and 
are often taken in flight time near London : it is a 
familiar bird \ and is chearful in five minutes after 
it is caught. 

ij2. Less Wil. cm. 260. 
Red headed Rati fyn. az>. 91. 
Linnet. La petite Linotte des vignes. 
Brijfon a<u. III. 138. 
PL enl 151. f. 2. 
Fringilla linaria. Lin. fyft. 

Grafifka. Faun. Susc. fp. 241. 
Grafel, Meerzeifel, Tfchot- 

fcherl. Krdm. 369. 
Rothplattige Staenftiog. Frif, 

I. 10. 
Br. ZcoL III. 

Descrip. / T^HIS is the left of the linnets, being fcarce 

' half the fize of the preceding. Its bill is 

dufky, but the bafe of the lower mandible yellow : 

the forehead ornamented with a rich mining fpot of 

a purplifh red : the breaft is of the fame color, 



but not fo bright -, yet in the breads of fome we 
have found the red wanting : the belly is white : 
the back dufky, edged with reddifh brown : the 
fides in fome yellowifh, in others afh color, but 
both marked with narrow dufky lines : the quil- 
feathers, and thofe of the tail, are duiky, border- 
ed with dirty white : the coverts dufky, edged 
with white, fo as to form two tranfverfe lines of 
that color. The fpot on the forehead of the female 
is of a faffron color. The legs are dufky. 

We have feen the neft'of this fpecies on an alder 
(lump near a brook, between two or three feet 
from the ground : it was made on the outfide with 
dried (talks of grafs and other plants, and here and 
there a little wool, the lining was hair and a few 
feathers : the bird was fitting on four eggs of a pale 
bluifti green, thickly fprinkled near the blunt end 
with fmall reddifh fpots. The bird was fo tena- 
cious of her neft, as to fuffer us to take her off 
with our hand, and we found that after we had re- 
leafed her (he would not forfake it. 

This feems to be the fpecies known about Lon- 
don under the name of ft one redpoll: is gregarious. 

Vol. I. A a ho 

34-6 TWITE. Class II. 

133. Twite. Le Picaveret ? Belon cru. 358. baret. Brijfon av. III. 142, 
Wil. orn. 261. 145. 

Raiifyn. av. 91. Linaria fera faxatilis. Kleins, 
Linaria montana. Linaria mi- hiji. av, 93. 

nima. Br. Zooi. 111. 
La petite Linotte, ou le Ca- 


HIS is an inhabitant of the hilly parts of our 

country, as Mr. Wilhighby informs us. He 

fays it is twice the fize of the laft fpecies : that 

the color of the head and back is the fame with 

that of the common linnet : that the feathers on 

the throat and bread are black edged with white : 

the rump is of a rich fcarlet or orange tawny color. 

The edges of the middle quil-feathers are white, 

as are the tips of thofe of the fecond row : the two 

middle feathers of the tail are of a uniform dufky 

color ; the others edged with white. This fpecies 

is taken in the flight feafon near London with the 

linnets -, it is there called a Twite. The birds we 

examined differed in fome particulars from Mr. WiU 

Descrif. lughby\ defcription. In fize they are rather inferior 

to the common linnet, and of a more taper make : 

their bills (hort and entirely yellow : above and 

below each eye is a pale brown fpot : the edges of 

the greater coverts of the wings white ; in other 

refpects both agree. The female wants the red 

mark on the rump. 


Class II. CANARY' BIRD. 347 

Thefe birds take their name from their note, 
which has no mufic in it : it is a familiar bird, and 
more eafily tamed than the common linnet. 

We believe it breeds only in the Northern parts 
of our ifland. 

Here it may not be improper to mention the Ca- Canary 
nary bird* 9 which is of the finch tribe. It was ori- 
ginally peculiar to thofe ifles, to which it owes 
its name; the fame that were known to the antients 
by the addition of the fortunate. The happy tem- 
perament of the air, the fpontaneous productions 
of the sround in the varieties of fruits : the 
fprightly and chearful difpofition of the inhabi- 
tants-]-; and the harmony arifing from the num- 
ber of the birds found there J, procured them that 
romantic diftinclion. Though the antients celebrate 
the ifle of Canaria for the multitude of bird?, they 
have not mentioned any in particular. It is pro- 

* Wil. orn. 262. Rail fyn, a<v. 91. Vide Serin des Cana- 
ries. Brijfon a<v. III. 184. Fringilla Canaria. Lin. Jyft. 321. 

f Fortunatae infulce abundant fua fponte genitis, et fubinde 
ediis fuper aliis innafcentibus nihil Jolicitos alunt ; beatius quam 
alia urbes excultte. Mela de Jit. orb. III. 17. He then relates 
the vail flow of mirth among this happy people, by a figura- 
tive fort of expreffion, that alludes to their tempering difcre- 
tion with their jollity, and never fuffering it to exceed the 
bounds of prudence. This he delivers under the notion of 
two fountains found among them, alterum qui guftavere rifu 
folvuntur in mortem ; it a affedis remedium eft ex altero bib ere. 

X Omnes copia pomorwn, et avium omnes generis abundant, 
&c. Plin. lib. VI. C. 32. 

A a 2 bable 

34 S CANARY BIRD. Class II. 

bable then, that our fpecies was not introduced 
into Europe till after the fecond difcovery of thefe 
ifies, which was between the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries. We are uncertain when it firft 
made its appearance in this quarter of the globe. 
Behru who wrote in 1555, is filent in refpect to 
thefe birds: Gefner* is the firil who mentions them ; 
and Al&rovan&\ fpeaks of them as rarities; that 
they were very dear on account of the difficulty at- 
tending; the bringing them from fD diftant a coun- 
try, and that they were purchafed by people of 
rank alone, Olina \ fays, that in his time there 
was a degenerate fort found on the ifle of Elba, 
off the coaft of Ttafy, which came there originally 
by means of a fliip bound from the Canaries to Leg- 
horn, and was wrecked on that ifland. We once 
faw fome fmall birds brought directly from the Ca- 
nary Tfiands, that we fufpectto be the genuine fort; 
they were of a dull green color, but as they did 
not fing, we fuppofed them to be hens. Thefe 
birds will produce with the goldfinch and linnet, 
and the offspring is called a mule-bird, becaufe, 
like that animal, it proves barren* 

* Gej'ner a<v. 240, 
f Jldr. av. II. 555, 
% OUna uccel. 7, 


Class IL C A N A R Y B I R D. 349 

They are flill found * on the fame fpot to 
which we were firft indebted for the production of 
fuch charming fongfters ; but they are now be- 
come fo numerous in our country, that we are un- 
der no neceflky of croffing the ocean for them. 

* Glas's hiji, Canary IJles, 199, 

A a 3 BILL 

350 FLY-CATCHER. Class II. 

XXI. FLY- BILL flatted at the bafe ; almoft triangular: notch- 

~ ' ed near the end of the upper mandible, and befet 
with bridles. 
TOES divided to their origin. 

j 34. Spot- Stoparola. Aldr. &v. II. 324. Raiifyn. a<v. Jj. 

ted. A fmall bird without a name, Le Gobe-mouche, Mufcicapa. 

like the Stopparola of Aldr a- Brifon a<v. II. 357. tab. 35. 

•vand. Wil. om. 217. f. 3. 

ZAnan. 4c. Mufcicapa grifola. Lin.Jyft. 

The Cobweb. Morton Nor- 
thampt. 426. Br. Zo.ol. 99. plate P. 2. f, 4. 


THE fly-catcher is a bird of pafifage, appears 
in the fpring, breeds with us, and retires in 
Aiiguft. It builds its neft on the fides of trees, 
towards the middle : Morton fays in the corners 
of walls where fpiders weave their webs. We have 
feen them followed by four or five young, but 
never faw their eggs. When the young can fly 
the old ones withdraw with them into thick 
woods, where they frolick among the top branch- 
es; dropping from the boughs frequently quite 
perpendicular on the flies that fport beneath, and 
rife again in the fame direction. It will alfo take 
its [land on the top of fome ftake or pod, from 
whence it fprings forth on its prey, returning dill 
to the fame (land for many times together. They 



feed alfo on cherries, of which they feem very 

The head is large, of a brownifh hue fpotted ob- Deschif. 
fcurely with black: the back of a moufe color : the 
wings and tail dufky; the interior edges of the 
quil-feathers edged with pale yellow : the bread 
and belly white \ the fhafts of the feathers on the 
former dufky; the throat and fides under the wings 
are darned with red : the bill is very broad at the 
bafe, is ridged in the middle, and round the 
bafe are feveral fhort briftles : the infide of the 
mouth is yellow : the legs and feet fhort and black. 

Atri capilla five ficedula. Meerftfiwartz pluffle. Kra- 135. Pied* 

Aldr. a<v. II. 331. mer Auft. 377. 

Cold finch. Wil. orn. 236. Cold-finch. Br. ZooL 

Rail fyn. a<v. 77. Ed-iv. Mufcicapa atricapilla. Lin. 

30. Frifcbe^ I. 22. fyji. 326. Faun. Suec. No. 

Le Traquet d* Angleterre. 256. Tab. 1. 

Rubetra anglicana. Brif- 
fon, III. 436. 

fTp HIS is leiTer than a hedge fparrow. The bill 
-*■ and legs black : the forehead white : head, 
cheeks, and back black : the coverts of the tail Mali, 
fpotted with white : coverts of the wings dufky, 
traverfed with white bar: quil feathers dufky : the 
exterior fides of the fecondaries white ; the inte- 
rior dufky : the middle feathers of the tail black ; 
A a a the 


the exterior marked with white : the whole un- 
der fide of the body white. 
Female. The female wants the white fpot on the fore- 

head: the whole head, and upper part of the body 
duiky brown : the white in the wings lefs confpi- 
cuous : the under fide of the body of a dirty white. 
Found in different parts of England: but is a 
rare fpecies. 


Class II. SKY LARK. 


Weak BILL, (trait, bending towards the point. 
NOSTRILS covered with feathers or bridles. 
TOES divided to their origin. 
BACK TOE armed with a long and fcrait claw. 


L A R K. 

L' Alouette. Belon a<v. 269. 
Chamochilada. Obf. 12. 
Alauda fine crifta. Gejher a<v, 

Aldr. aqj. II. %6g. 
Lodola. Olina, 12. 
Common Field Lark, or 

Sky Lark, Wit. orn. 203. 
Rail fy 71. av- 69. 
L' Alouette. Brijfon av. III. 


Allodola, Panterana. Zinan. 136. Sky. 

Alauda arveniis. Lin.Jyft.2^>y, 
Larka. Faun. Suec. fp 209. 
Alauda ccelipeta. Klein Jiem, 

Tab. 15. f. 1. 
Sang-Losrke. Br. 221. 
Feldlerche. Kram. 262. Frifch. 

1. , 5 . 

Br. Zool. 93. plate S. 2. f. 7. 
Lauditza. Scopoli, No. 184. 

THE length of this fpecies is feven inches 
one- fourth : the breadth twelve and a half: 
the weight one ounce and a half: the tongue broad 
and cloven : the bill (lender : the upper mandible 
dulky, the lower yellow : above the eyes is a 
yellow fpot : the crown of the head a reddifli 
brown fpotted with deep black : the hind part of 
the head alh-color: chin white. It has the faculty 
of erecting the feathers of the head. The feathers 
on the back, and coverts of the wings dufky 
edged with reddifli brown, which is paler on the 
latter : the quil-feathers dufky : the exterior web 





SKY LARK. Class II. 

edged with white, that of the others with reddifh 
brown : the upper part of the bread yellow fpotted 
with black : the lower part of the body of a pale 
yellow : the exterior web, and half of the inte- 
rior web next to the fhaft of the firft feather of the 
tail are white ; of the fecond only the exterior web; 
the reft of thofe feathers dufky; the others are 
dufky edged with red •, thofe in the middle deep- 
ly fo, the reft very flightly : the legs dufky : foles 
of the feet yellow : the hind claw very long and 

This and the wood lark are the only birds that 
fing as they fly; this raifing its note as it foars, and 
lowering it till it quite dies away as it defcends. 
It will often foar to fuch a height, that we are 
charmed with the mufic when we lofe fight of the 
fongfter ; it alfo begins its fong before the earli- 
eft dawn. Milton, in his Allegro, moft beautifully 
exprefTes thefe circumftances : and Bp. Newton ob- 
ferves, that the beautifull fcene that Milton ex- 
hibits of rural chearfulnefs, at the fame time gives 
us a fine picture of the regularity of his life,' and 
the innocency of his own mind; thus he de- 
fcribes himfelf as in a fituation 

To hear the lark begin his flight, 
And iinging flartle the 'dull night, 
From his watch tower in the fkies, 
'Till the dappled dawn doth rife. 


Class IT. SKYLARK. 355 

It continues its harmony feveral months, begin- 
ning early in the fpring, on pairing. In the win- 
ter they aflemble in vaft flocks, grow very fat, 
and are taken in great numbers for our tables. 
They build their neft on the ground, beneath fome 
clod ; forming it of hay, dry fibres, &c. and lay 
four or five eggs. 

The place thefe birds are taken in the greateft 
quantity, is the neighbourhood of Bunftable : the 
feafon begins about the fourteenth of September, and 
ends the twenty-fifth of February, and during 
that fpace, about 4000 dozen are caught, which 
fupply the markets of the metropolis. Thofe caught 
in the day are taken in clap-nets of fiveteen yards 
length, and two and a half in breadth ; and are 
enticed within their reach by means of bits of look- 
ing-glafs, fixed in a piece of wood, and placed in 
the middle of the nets, which are put in a quick 
whirling motion, by a firing the larker com- 
mands \ he alfo makes ufe of a decoy lark. Thefe 
nets are ufed only till the fourteenth of November, 
for the larks will not dare, or frolick in the air 
except in fine funny weather -, and of courfe can- 
not be inviegled into the fnare. When the wea- 
ther grows gloomy, the larker changes his engine, 
and makes ufe of a trammel net twenty-feven or 
twenty-eight feet long, and five broad -, which is 
put on two poles eighteen feet long, and carried 
by men under each arm, who pafs over the fields 
and quarter the ground as a fetting dog 5 when 

they % 

B5 6 WOOD LARK. Class II. 

they hear or feel a lark hit the net, they drop it 
down, and lb the birds are taken. 

137. Wood, Tottavilla. Olina, 27. Faun. Suec. fp. 211. 

Wil orn. 204. Ludiierche, Waldlerche 

Raiijyn. a<v. 69. Krant. 362. 

L' Alouette de Bois ou le Dams Skcv-Lerke , Cimbris 

Cujelier. BriJJon aw. III. Heede-Leker, Lyng-Lreke. 

340. Tab. 20. fig. J. Br. 224, 

Alauda arborea. Lin. fyfi, Br. Z00L 94. plate Q^£ 3. 

2S7. Zippa, Scopoliy No. 186. 

THIS bird is inferior in fize to the (ky lark, 
and is of a fhorter thicker form ^ the colors 
are paler, and its note lefs fonorous and lefs vari- 
ed, though not lefs fweet. Thefe and the follow- 
ing characters, may ferve at once to diftinguifh it 
from the common kind : it perches on trees ; it 
whittles like the black-bird. The crown of the 
head, and the back, are marked with large black 
fpots edged with pale reddifh brown : the head is 
iurrounded with awhitifh coronet of feathers, reach- 
ing from eye to eye : the throat is of yellowim, 
white, fpotted with black : the bread is tinged 
with red: the belly white: the coverts of the wings 
are brown, edged with white and dull yellow : the 
quil-feathers duiky ; the exterior edges of the 
three firfb white ; of the others yellow, and their 
tips blunt and white : the firfb feather of the wing 
is fhorter than the fecond; in the common lark it 


Class II. TIT LARK. 

is near equal : the tail is black, the outmoft fea- 
ther is tipt with white : the exterior web, and in- 
ner fide of the interior are alio white ; in the fe- 
cond feather, the exterior web only : the legs are 
of a dull yellow ; the hind claw very long. The 
wood lark will fing in the night ; and, like the 
common lark, will fing as it flies. It builds on the 
ground, and makes its neft on the outfide with 
mofs, within of dried bents lined with a few hairs. 
It lays five eggs, dulky and blotched with deep 
brown, marks darkeft at the thicker end. 

The males of this and the laft are known from 
the females by their fuperior fize. But this fpecies 
is not near fo numerous as that of the common 


a Farloufe, Fallope ou Mattolina, Petragnola, Corri- 138. Ti 1 ?. 

L'Alouette de pre. Belt 

a<v. 272. 
Aldr. a<v. II. 370. 
Lodolo di Prato. Olina, 27. 
Wil. or n. 206. 
Raiijyn. av. 69. 
L'Alouette de prez ou la 
Farloufe. BriJJbnav. III. 343. 

era. Zinan. 55. 
Alauda pratenfis. Lin. fyjl. 

Faun, Suec. fp. 210. 
Wiefen Lerche (Meadows 

Lark) Frifch, I. 16. 
Englerke. Br. 223. 
Br. Zool 94. plates Q^ f, &. 

P. i.f. 3. 

r I ^HIS bird is found frequently in low marfhy 

**- grounds : 'like other larks it builds its neft a- 

mong the grafs, and lays five or fix eggs. Like 


358 F I E L D L A R K. Class IL 

the woodlark it fits on trees; and has a moft 
remarkable fine note, finging in all fituations, 
on trees, on the ground, while it is fporting in the 
air, and particularly in its defcent. This bird with 
many others, fuch as the thrufh, blackbird, willow 
wren, &c. become filent about midfummer, and 
refume their notes in September : hence the interval 
is the moft mute of the year's three vocal feafons, 
fpring, fummer, and autumn. Perhaps the birds 
are induced to fing again as the autumnal tempe- 
Descrip. rament refembles the vernal. It is a bird of an ele- 
gant (lender fhape : the length is five inches and 
a half: the breadth nine inches : the bill is black : 
the back and head is of a greenifh brown, fpotted 
with black : the throat and lower part of the belly 
are white : the bread yellow, marked with oblong 
fpots of black : the tail is dufky ; the exterior fea- 
ther is varied by a bar of white, which runs acrofs 
the end and takes in the whole outmoft web. The 
claw on the hind toe is very long, the feet yellow- 
ifh: the fubjecl: figured in plate P. i. of the folio 
edition, is a variety with duiky legs, mot on the 
rocks on the coaft of Caernarvon/hire. 

j-n. Field. The LeiTer Field Lark. Wil. em. 207. 

D esc rip. ^T^HIS fpecies we received from Mr. Plymly. It 
•*■ is larger than the tit lark ; the head and hind 


Class II. R E D L A R K. 359 

part of the neck are of a pale brown, fpotted with 
dufky lines, which on the neck are very faint. The 
back and rump are of a dirty green ; the former 
marked in the middle of each feather with black, 
the latter plain. The coverts of the wings dufky, 
deeply edged with white. The quil-feathers dufky $ 
the exterior web of the firfl edged with white, of 
the others with a yellowifh green. 

The throat is yellow : the breaft of the fame co- 
lor, marked with large black fpots : the belly and 
vent-feathers white : on the thighs are a few dusky 
oblong lines : the tail is dusky : half the exterior 
and interior web of the outmoft feather is white ; 
the next is marked near the end with a fhort white 
flripe pointing downwards. The legs are of a very 
pale brown \ and the claw on the hind toe very 
fhort for one of the lark kind, which flrongly dif- 
tinguifhes it from the tit lark. 

Edvu. 297. Br. Zocl. II. 239. Brijpm Suppl. 94. \ao. Re 2?, 

I MET with this fpecies in the magnificent and 
elegant Mufeum of Ashton Lever, Efq; where 
the lover of Briti/h or exotic ornithology, may 
find delight and inftruclion equally intermixed. 

This fpecies is equal in fize to the common lark. 
A white line croffes each eye, and another paries 


3<fc CRESTED LARK. Class II. 

beneath. The bill is thick : the chin and throat 
whitifh : the head, neck, back, and coverts of the 
wings of a rufty brown, fpotted with black: bread 
whitifh, with dusky fpots : belly of a dirty white : 
the middle feather of the tail black edged with 
brown : the two exterior white : legs of a pale 

This bird is common to the neighbourhood of 
London, to North America, and to the South of 
Europe \ but with us is rare. Mr, Edwards firfb 
difcovered it : he remarks, that when the wing is 
gathered up, the third primary feather reaches to 
the tip of the firft. 

141. Crest- Alauda criftata minor. Aldr, La petite alouette hupee* 
ED- o-o. II. 371. Bri_fcn a-v.lll. 361. 

Wil. cm. 2cg. Br. Zool. g$. 

Rail fyn. a~j, 69. 

/HF^HIS fpecies we find in Mr. Ray's hiftory of 

-*• EngliJJo birds ; who fays it is found in York- 

Jhire 9 and gives us only this brief defcription of it, 

from Aldrovandus : it is like the greater crefted 

lark, but much lefs, and not fo brown ; that it hath 

a confiderable tuft on its head for the imallnefs of 

its body ; and that its legs are red. We never faw 

this kind ; but by Mr. Bolton's lift of Yorkjhire 

birds, which he favored us with, we are informed 

it is in plenty in that country. 


m. :cv 









Slender BILL, with a fmall tooth near the end xxill. 

of the upper mandible. WAGTAIL, 

Lacerated TONGUE. 

Long TAIL. 

Belon a<v. 349. 

Motacilla aiba. Gefner a<v. 

Aldr. a<v. II. 323. 
Ballarina, Cutrettofa. Olina, 

Wil. orn. 237. 
Rati fyn. a<v. 75. 
La Lavandiere. Brijfon av. 

III. 461. 
Monachina. Zinan. 51. 

Pliika, Paftaritra. Scopoli, 

No. 224. 
M. alba. Lin. fyfi. 331. 
Aria, Sadefarla. Faun. Suec. 

fp. 252. 
Dams Vip-Stiert, Havre-Sseer. 

Norvegis Erie, Lin-Erie. 

Brunnich, 271. 
Weifs und fchwartze Bach- 

fleltze. Frifch, I. 23. 
Graue Bacliiblze. Kram. 374. 
2?/*. Zool. 104. 

142. White 

nO HIS bird frequents the fides of ponds, and 
-*- fmall ftreams; and feeds on infedts and 
worms, as do all the reft of this genus. Mr. JVil- 
lughby juftly obferves, that this fpecies fhifts its 
quarters in the winter ; moving from the north to 
the fouth of England, during that feafon. In 
fpring and autumn it is a conflant attendant of the 
plough, for the fake of the worms thrown up by 
that instrument. 

The head, back, and upper and lower fide of 
the neck as far as the bread are black : in fome 
the chin is white, and the throat marked with a 

Vol. I. r B b black 


black crefcent : the breaft and belly are white : the 
quil-feathers are dufky : the coverts black tipt 
and edged with white. The tail is very long, and 
always in motion. The exterior feather on each 
fide is white : the lower part of the inner web ex- 
cepted, which is dufky ; the others black : the 
bill, infide of the mouth, and the legs, are black. 
The back claw very long. 

143. Yel- 
low Wag- 

Sufurada. Bclon obf. II. 
Motacilla flava (Gale Waffar- 

fteltz). Gefner a<v. 618. 
Aldr. a>v. II. 323. 
Wil. orn. 238. 
Raii Jyn. a~u. J 5. 
Edw. av. 258. The Male. 
Codatremola. Zinan. 51. 
La Bergeronette du Prin- 

temps, Motacilla verna. 

Briffonav. III. 468. PL 
enl. 28. f I. 
Motacilla flava. Lin.fyft. 331. 

Gelb - briiflige Bachfteltze. 

Frifcb,\. 23. 
Faun. Suec. fp. 253. 
Gulfpink. Brunnich. 273. 
Gelbe Bachftelze. Kram. 374. 

Scopolz, No. 225. 
Br. Zool. ioc. 

Pes cjuf. fnr^HE male is a bird of great beauty : the bread, 
X belly, thighs, and vent-feathers, being of a 
moft vivid and lovely yellow : the throat is marked 
with fome large black fpots : above the eye is a 
bright yellow line : beneath that, from the bill crofs 
the eye is another of a dusky hue ; and beneath 
the eye is a third of the fame color : the head and 
whole upper part of the body is of an olive green, 
which brightens in the coverts of the tail; the quil- 
feathers are dusky : the coverts of the wings olive 



colored, but the lower rows dusky, tipt with yel- 
lowish white : the two outmoft feathers of the tail 
half white ; the others black, as in the former. 

The colors of the female are far more obfcure 
than thofe of the male : it wants alfo thofe black 
fpots on the throat. 

It makes its neft on the ground, in corn fields s 
the outfide is compofed of decayed ftems of plants, 
and fmall fibrous roots •, the infide is lined with 
hair : it lays five eggs. This fpecies migrates in 
the North of England^ but in Hampjhire continues 
the whole year. 

La Bergerette. Belonav. 351. La Bergeronette jaune, Mota- 14^ Grey 

Motacilla flava alia. Aldr. cilia flava. Brijfon a<v. III. Wagtail. 

am. II. 323. 471. tab. 23. Jig. 3. The 

Wil. orn. 238. Male. 

Rail fyn. am. 75. Br. Zool. 1050 
Edvj. a<v. 259. The Male* 

THE top of the head, upper part of the neck, Bescri?, 
and the back of this fpecies are airi colored ; 
nightly edged with yellowifti green : the fpace round 
each eye is afh colored : beneath and above which 
is a line of white: in the male, the chin and 
throat are black ; the feathers incumbent on the 
tail are yellow : the tail is longer, in proportion to 
its fize, than that of the other kinds : the two ex- 
terior feathers are white ; the reft black : the bread's, 
B b 2 and 


and whole under fide of the body are yellow : 
the quil-feathers are dusky ; thole next the back 
edged with yellow. The colors of the female are 
ufually more obfcure •, and the black fpot on the 
throat is wanting in that fex. 

The birds of this genus are much in motion : 
feldom perch : perpetually flirting their tails : 
fcream when they fly : frequent waters : feed on 
infects \ and make their nefts on the ground. 


Class II. N I G H T I NG ALE, 

3 6 5 

BILL flender and weak. 
NOSTRILS fmall and funk. 
Exterior TOE joined at the under part of the 
laft joint to the middle toe. 


f Thofe with tails of one color. 
** Thofe with particolored tails. 

Le Roffignol. Belon a<v. 335. 

Adoni, Aidoni. Obf. 12. 

Lufcinia. Gefner av. 592. 

Aldr. av. II. 336. 

Wil. orn. 220. 

Rati Jyn. a<v. 78. 

Le Roffignol. Brijfon av. III. 

Slauz. Scopoli, No. 227. 
Rufignulo. Zinan. 54. 

Motaciila lufcinia. Lin. Jyft. 

Nachtergahl. Faun. Suec. /p. 
244. » 

Hajfelqiiiji Itin. Ter. Sanff. 29 1 . 

Nattergale. Brunnich in ap- 

Au-vogel, Auen-nachtigall, 
Kram. 376. 

Nachtigall. Frifch, I. 21. 

Br. Zool. 100. plate S. j. f. 2, 

145. Night* 


THE nightingale takes its name from nighty 
and the Saxon word galan to ling, expref- 
five of the time of its melody. In fize it is equal 
to the redftart j but longer bodied, and more ele- 
gantly made. The colors are very plain. The head 
and back are of a pale tawny, dafhed with olive : 
the tail is of a deep tawny red : the throat, breaft, 

B b 3 and 




and upper part of the belly of a light glofTy a(h- 
color : the lower belly almoft white : the exterior 
webs of the quil-feathers are of a dull reddifh 
brown ; the interior of brownifh aih-color : the i- 
rides are hazel, and the eyes remarkably large and 
piercing : the legs and feet a deep afh-color. 

This bird, the mod famed of the feathered 
tribe, for the variety *, length, and fweetnefs of its 
notes, vifits England the beginning of April, and 
leaves us in Auguft. It is a fpecies that does not 
fpread itfelf over the ifland. It is not found in 
North Wales \ or in any of the Englijh counties 
north of it, except Torkjhire, where they are met 
with in great plenty about Done after. They have 
been alfo heard, but rarely, near Shrewjbury. It 
is alfo remarkable, that this bird does not migrate 
fo far weft as Devon/hire and Cornwall y counties 
where the feafons are fo very mild, that myrtles 
flourifh in the open air during the whole year : nei- 
ther are they found in Ireland. Sibbald places 
them in his lift of Scotch birds ; but they certainly 
are unknown in that part of Great Britain, probably 
from the fcarcity and the recent introduction of 
hedges there. Yet they vifit Sweden, a much more 
fevere climate. With us they frequent thick 

* For this reafon, Oppian, in his halieutia, 1. I. 728. gives 
the nightingale the epithet of atoKotpoow, or 'various 'voiced; and 
He/tod, (figuratively) of Trcmtofeifst, or various throated. 
Ecy« Ha: hpefcU) 1. 201. 



hedges, and low coppices ; and generally keep in 
the middle of the bum, fo that they are very rarely 
feen. They form their neft of oak leaves, a few 
bents and reeds. The eggs are of a deep brown. 
When the young firfl come abroad, and are 
helplefs, the old birds make a plaintive and jar- 
ring noife with a fort of fnapping as if in menace, 
purfuing along the hedge the pafTengers. 

They begin their fong in the evening, and con- 
tinue it the whole night. Thefe, their vigils, did 
not pafs unnoticed by the antients : the (lumbers 
of thefe birds were proverbial -, and not to reft as 
much as the nightingale^ expreffed a very bad deep- 
er*. This was the favorite bird of the Brttijh 
poet, who omits no opportunity of introducing ir, 
and almoft conftantly noting its love of folitude and 
night. How finely does it ferve to compofe part 
of the folemn fcenery of his Penferofo ; when he de« 
fcribes it 

In her faddefl fweeteil plight. 

Smoothing the rugged brow of night ; 

While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke. 

Gently o'er th' accuftom'd oak ; 

Sweet bird, that fhunn'ft the noife of folly, 

Moll mufical, moil melancholy ! 

Thee, chauntrefs, eft the woods among, 

I woo to hear thy evening fong. 

* JElian <var. hiji. 577, both in the text and note. It muft' 
be remarked, that nightingales fing alfo in the day. 

B b 4 In 


In another place he ftyles it the folemn bird\ 
and again fpeaks of it, 

As the wakeful bird 
Sings darkling, and in fhadierl: covert hid, 
Tunes her nocturnal note. 

The reader muft excufe a -few more quotations 
from the fame poet, on the fame fubjecr, ; the firft 
defcribes the approach of evening, and the retiring 
of ail animals to their repofe. 

Silence accompanied ; for beail and bird, 
They to their graffy couch, thefe to their nefts 
Were flunk ; all but the wakeful nightingale, 
She all night long her amorous defcant fung. 

When Eve paiTed the irkfome night preceding 
her fall, fiie, in a dream, imagines herfelf thus re- 
proached with lofing the beauties of the night by 
indulging too long a repofe : 

Why fleep'it thou, Eve f now is the pleafant time, 
The cool, the nlent, fave where filence yields 
To the night-warbling bird, that now awake 
Tunes fweeteft his love-labor'd fong. 

The fame birds fing their nuptial fong, and 
lull them to reft. How rapturous are the follow- 
ing lines ! how expreflive of the delicate fenfibility 
of our Milton's tender ideas ! 

The Earth 
Gave fign of gratulation, and each hill ; 
Joyous the, birds ; frefli gales and gentle airs 



Whifper'd it to the woods, and from their wings 
Flung rofe, flung odors from the fpicy fhrub, 
Difporting, till the amorous bird of night 
Sung fpoufal, and bid hafte the evening liar 
On his hill-top to light the bridal lamp. 

Thefe, lull'd by nightingales, embracing flept ; 
And on their naked limbs the flowery roof 
Shower'd rofes, which the morn repair'd. 

Thefe quotations from the bed judge of me- 
lody, we thought due to the fweeteft of our fea- 
thered choirifters -, and we believe no reader of taiie 
will think them tedious. 

Virgil feems to be the only poet among the an- 
tients, who hath attended to the circumftance of 
this bird's finging in the night time. 

Qualis populea mcerens Philomela fub umbra. 
Amiflbs queritur fcetus, quos durus arator 
Obfervans nido inwilumes detraxit : at ilia 
Flet notlem, ramoque fedens miferabile carmen 
Integrat, et mcefiis late locaqueftibus implet. 

Georg. IV. 1. 511. 

As Philomel in poplar lhades, alone, 
For her loll offspring pours a mother's moan, 
Which fome rough ploughman marking for his prey, 
From the warm nell, unfledg'd hath dragg'd away ; 
Percht on a bough, ihe all night long complains, 
And fills the grove with fad repeated flrains. 

F. Warton* 

Pliny has defcribed the warbling notes of this 
bird, with an elegance that befpeaks an exquifite 


37 o NIGHTINGALE. Class II. 

fenfibility of tafte : notwithstanding that his words 
have been cited by mod other writers on natural 
hiftory, yet fuch is the beauty, and in general the 
truth of his expreflions, that they cannot be too 
much ftudied by lovers of natural hiftory, therefore 
clame a place in a work of this kind. We muft 
obferve notwithftanding, that a few of his thoughts 
are more to be admired for their vivacity than for 
ftricl: philofophical reafoning -, but thefe few are 
eafily d i ft ingui friable. 

" Lufciniis diebus ac noclibus continuis xv. garrulus fine 
" intermiilu cantus, denfante fe frondium genuine, non in 
u noviffimum digna miratu ave. Primum tanta vox tarn parvo 
" in corpufculo, tarn pertinax fpiritus. Deinde in una per- 
" fecta muficas fcientia modulatus editur fonus : & nunc con- 
" tinuo fpiritu trahitur in longum, nunc variatur inflexo, 
" nunc diftinguitur concifo, copulatur in torto : promittitur 
" revocato, infufcatur ex inopinato : interdum & fecum ipfe 
" murmurat : plenus, gravis, acutus, creber, extentus, ubi 
" vifum eft, vibrans, fummus, medius, imus. Breviterque 
c; omnia tarn parvulis in faucibus, quae tot exquifitis tibi- 
" arum tormentis ars hominum excogitavit : ut non fit dubi- 
" um hanc fuavitatem prcemonflratam efficaci aufpicio, cum 
" in ore Steficberi cecinit infantis. Ac ne quis dubitet artis 
" effe, plures iingulis funt cantus, nee iidem omnibus, fed 
" fui cuique. Certant inter fe, palamque animofa conten- 
" tio eit. Vicla morte finit faepe vitam, fpiritu prius denci- 
" ente, quam cantu. Meditantur aliae juniores, verfufque 
" quos imitentur accipiunt. Audit difcipula intentione mag- 
" na & reddit, vicibufque reticent. Intelligitur emendatx 
*' correftio & in docente quasdam reprehenfio " *. 

* Plin. lib. ic. c. 29. 




Le Roffignol de Muraille. Be- 

Ion ji<v. 347, 
Ruticilla, five Phoenicurus 

(Sommerotele) Gefner av. 

Aldr. a<v. II. 327. 
Codoroffo. Olina, 47. 
Wil. orn. 218. 
Raiijyn. a<v. 78. 
Ruticilla. Brijfon av. III. 403. 

Culo ranzo, Culo rofib. Zz- 

###. 53. Scopoli, No. 232. 
Motacilla Phcenicurus. £*"#. 

M : 335- 
Rodftjert. /V*»». Suec.fp. 257. 
Nowegis Blod-fugl. Danis 

Roed-fliert. Brunnicb, 280. 
Schwartzkehlein (Blackthroat) 

jFV#£, I. 19. 
Waldrothfchweiffl. Kram. 376. 
Br. Zoo!. 99. plate S. f. 6. 7* 

146. Red- 

THIS alfo appears among us only in the fpring 
and fummer, and is obferved to come over 
nearly at the fame time with the nightingale. It 
makes its neft in hollow trees, and holes in walls 
and other buildings \ which it forms with mofs on 
the outfide, and lines with hair and feathers. It 
lays four or five eggs, very like thofe of the 
hedge-fparrow, but rather paler, and more taper 
at the lefs end. This bird is fo remarkably my, 
that it will forfake its neft, if the eggs are only 
touched. It has a very fine foft note; but being a 
fullen bird, is with difficulty kept alive in con- 
finement. It is remarkable in making its tail, it 
moves it horizontally as a dog does when fawning. 
The bill and legs of the male are black : the 
forehead white : the crown of the head, hind part 
of the neck, and the back are of a deep blue grey : 
the cheeks and throat black : the bread, rump 




and fides are red : the two middle feathers of the 
tail brown, the others red : the wings brown. In 
the female, the top of the head and back are of a 
deep afh-color : the rump and tail of a duller 
red than thofe of the male : the chin white \ the 
lower fide of the neck cinereous j the bread of a 
paler red, 

147. Red- 

Rubeline. Belon a-v. 348. 

Rubecula. Gefner av. 730. 

Erithacus. Aldr. a-v. II. 325. 

Oiina, 16. 

Robin Red-breaft, or Rud- 
dock. Wil. or 11. 219. 

Raiijyn. av. 78. 

Le Rouge-gorge. Brijfon av. 
III. 418. 

Pettoroffo. Zinan. 46. 

Motacilla rubecula. Lin. Jyft. 


Faun. Suec. /p. 260. 
Roed-Finke, Roed-Kielke. 

Br. '283. 
Rothkehlein. Frifch, I. 19. 
Rothkropfl. Kram. 376. 
Br. Zool. 100. plate S. 2. 
Smarnza, Tafchtza. Scopo/i, 

No. 231. 

THIS bird, though fo very petulant as to be 
at conftant war with its own tribe, yet is 
remarkably fociable with mankind : in the winter 
it frequently makes one of the family ; and takes 
refuge from the inclemency of the feafon even by 
our fire fides, tfhomfon * has prettily defcribed the 
annual vifits of this gueft. 

The Red-breast, facred to the houfhold gods, 
Wifely regardful of th' embroiling Iky, 

* In his Seafons, vide Winter, line 246. 


Class II. R E D - B R E A S T. 373 

In joylefs fields, and thorny thickets, leaves 
His Ihivering mates, and pays to trufted Man 
His annual vifit. Half afraid, he firft 
Againft the window beats ; then, brilk, alights 
On the warm hearth ; then, hopping o'er the floor, 
Eyes all the fmiling family alkance, 
And pecks, and ftarts, and wonders where he is : 
'Till more familiar grown, the table-crumbs 
Attract his flender feet. 

The great beauty of that celebrated poet conflfts in 
his elegant and juft defcriptions of the ceconomy of 
animals ; and the happy ufe * he hath made of 
natural knowlege, in defcriptive poetry, fhines 
through almoft every page of his Seafons. The 
affection this bird has for mankind, is alfo record- 
ed in that antient ballad, -f The babes in the woody 
a compofition of a mod beautifull and pathetic 
fimplicity. It is the firft tryal of our humanity : 
the child that refrains from tears on hearing that 
read, gives but a bad prefage of the tendernefs of 
his future fenfations. 

In the fpring this bird retires to breed in the 
thickeft covers, or the mod concealed holes of walls 
and other buildings. The eggs are of a dull white, 
fprinkled with reddifh fpots. Its fong is remark- 
ably fine and foft j and the more to be valued, as 
we enjoy it the greateft part of the winter, and ear- 
ly in the fpring, and even through great part of 

* Vide our Preface, 
) Pveliques of antient Englijb Poetry, Vol. III. p. 170. 




the fummer, but its notes are part of that time 
drowned in the general warble of the feafon. Many 
of the autumnal fongfters feem to be the young 
cock red-breafts of that year. 
Descrip. The bill is dufky : the forehead, chin, throat and 
bread are of a deep orange color : the head, hind 
part of the neck, the back and tail are of a deep 
am-color, tinged with green : the wings rather 
darker ; the edges inclining to yellow : the legs 
and feet dufky. 

148, Black- 

Atricapilla. Gef?ier av. 371, 

Aldr. av. II. 329. 
Wil. orn. 226. 
La Fauvette a tete noire, Cur- 

ruca atricapilla. Brijfon av. 

III. 380. 
Capinera. Zinan. 56. 
Olina, 9. Scopoli, No. 229. 
Rail fyn. a-v. 79. 

Motacilla atricapilla. Lin.fyji. 


Faun. Suec. ff>. 256. 

Hav-Skade. quibufdam Spikke. 
Br. 228. 

Moench mit der Schwartzen 
Platte (Monk with the black 
crown) Frifch, I. 23. 

Schwartz plattl. Kram. 377. 

Br. Zool. 1 01. plate S. f. 5. 

THIS bird is among the fmalleft of this tribe, 
fcarce weighing half an ounce. The crown 
of the head in the male is black : the hind part of 
the neck a light afh-color : the back and coverts of 
the wings are of a greyifh green : the quil-feathers 
and tail dufky, edged with dull green : the breaft 
and upper part of the belly are of a pale afh-color : 

the vent feathers whitifh : 

the legs of a lead color. 

Class II. B L A C K-C A P. 375 

The female is diftinguimed from the male by the 
fpot on the head, which in that is of a dull ruft-co- 
lor. The black-cap is a bird of pafTage, leaving 
us before winter. It fings very finely -, and on 
that account is called in Norfolk the mock-night- 
ingale. It has ufually a full, fvveet, deep, loud 
wild pipe •, yet the {train is of fhort continuance ; 
and his motions are defultory : but when that bird 
fits calmly, and in earned engages in fong, he pours 
forth very fweet but inward melody -, and exprelTes 
great variety of fwcet and gentle modulations, fu- 
perior perhaps to thofe of any of our warblers, the 
nightingale excepted : and while they warble, their 
throats are wonderfully diftended. 

The black-cap frequents orchards and gardens, 
The laft fpring we difcovered the neft of this bird 
in a fpritce fir, about two feet from the ground ; 
the outfide was compofed of the dried ftalks of the 
goofe grafs, with a little wool and green mofs round 
the verge ; the infide was lined with the fibres of 
roots, thinly covered with black horfe hair. There 
were five eggs of a pale reddifh brown, mottled 
with a deeper color, and fp.rinkled with a few dark 




[49. Petty- Ficedula. Gejner, 385. 

chaps. Beccafigo, or Fig eater. Wil. 
orn. 216. Raiijyn. a<v, 79. 
La Fauvette, curruca. Brijfon 

av. III. 372. 
Beccaiico cinerizio. Yjinan* 

44- . 
Motacilla Hippolais. M. vire- 

fcente cinerea fubtus flavef- 
cens abdomine albido, ar- 
tubus fufcis, fuperciliis al- 
bidis. Lin. fyjl . 330. 
Faun. Suec. fp. 248. 
Braune grafs-mucke, Kleiner 
fpottvogel. Kram. 377. 

THIS fpecies is inferior in fize to the former. 
The infide of the mouth is red : the head, 
neck, back and wings are of an olivaceous afh- 
color : the quil-feathers darker, edged with olive : 
the inner coverts of the wings yellow : the 
bread white, tinged with yellow : the belly of a 
filvery white : the tail dufky : the legs bluifh. 

Mr. Willughby lays, this bird is found in York- 
JJrire, and called the Beam-bird^ from its netting 
under beams in out-buildings, &c. 

150. Hedge. Le petit Mouchet. Belcn o-j. 

Potamida, obf. 12. 
PafTer fepium Angl. Aldr. a<v. 

II. 329. 
Curruca Eliot a (Zaunfchlip- 

fle). Gefner av. 371. 
Wil. orn. 215. 
Rail fyn. av. 79. 

La Favette de haye, ou la 
paiTe bufe. Curruca fepiaria. 
Brijfon a<v. III. 394. 

Jarnfparf. Faun. Suec.fp. 245. 

Motacilla, Modularis. Lin. 

fyft> 3 2 9; 

Braunflekkige Grafmucke 
(Brown fpctted Petty- 
chaps.) Frifch, I. 21. 

Br. Zool. plate S. 1. f. 3. 4. 



HIS bird weighs twelve drams. Its head is 
of a deep brown, mixed with am colbr, the 


Class II. H E D G E S P A R R O W. 377 

cheeks marked with oblong fpots of dirty white : 
the back and coverts of the wings are dufky, 
edged with reddifh brown : the quil-feathers and 
tail dufky : the rump brown, tinged with green : 
the throat and breaft are of a dull afh color : the 
belly of a dirty white : the fides, thighs, and 
vent-feathers are of a pale tawny brown : the legs 
of a dull flefh color. 

This bird frequents low hedges, efpecially thofe 
of gardens. It makes its neft in fome fmall bufh, 
and lays four or five eggs of a fine pale blue 
color : during the breeding feafon has a remark- 
able flirt with its wings. The male has a fliort but 
very fweet plaintive note, which it begins with the 
firft frofty mornings, and continues till a little time 
in the fpring. This is the Motacilla Modularis of 
Linnaeus; the bird which he fuppofes to be our 
hedge fparrow, and defcribes under the title of 
Motacilla curruca, * differs in colors of plumage 

as well as eggs, 

Suec. fp. 247. 

Vol, I. C c Chofu, 

378 YELLOW WREN. Class II, 

15 1. Yellow Chofti, ou Chanteur. Beion Schmittl. Kram. 378. 

a<v. 344. Le Pouillot, ou chantre. Afi- 
Trochilus. Ge/ker aw. 726. lus. Brijfon a~u. III. 470. 

Afilus. Aldr. c-j. II. 293. Motacilla trochilus. Lin.jyjk 
Little yellowiln. Bird. JVil. 338. Scopek, No. 238. 

orn. 228. Faun. Suec. fp. 264. 

Rati jyri. a-j. 8c. Spurre-Konge, Fager-Fiis. 
Echv. a~a. 278. Br. 286. 

Sclmee Rieni^ (Snow king). Br. Zoo/. 101. plate S. f. 2. 

Frijbb, I. 24. S. 2. f. 1. 

THE yellow wren frequents large moift 
woods, and places where willow trees a- 
bound from which it takes one of its names. 
D esc rip. Its weight is about two drams. The color of the 
whole upper part of the body is a dufky green : 
the wings and tail are brown, edged with yellow- 
iih green : above each eye is a yellowifh ftroke ; 
the bread, belly, and thighs vary in their color in 
different birds-, in fome are of a bright yellow, in 
others it fades almoft into white. 

It builds in hollows in the fides of ditches, mak- 
ing its nelt in the form of an egg ; with a large 
hole at the top, as an entrance : the outfide is com- 
pofed of mofs and hay, the infide lined with foft fea- 
thers. It lays commonly feven white eggs, marked 
with numerous fmall ruft colored fpots. It has alow 
plaintive note -, and is perpetually creeping up and 
down the bodies and boughs of trees. 




WWITH forehead and underfide of the l 5 2 > Scotch 
• body of a fine pale yellow : wings of 
the fame color : back and tail of a pale brown. 
Communicated by Mr. Latham of Dartford, who 
thought that it was fhot in the Highlands of Scot- 
land. It was of the fize of a wren. 

La Soulcie. Belon a-v. 345. 

Tettigon. obf. 12. 

Regulus. Gefner a<v. 727. 

Fior rancio. O/zna, 6. 

Aldr. a-v. II. 290. 

Wil. orn. 227. 

Rail fyn. av. 79. 

Ed--vj. av. 254. 

Cat. Carol, app. 36, 37. 

Kratlich. Scopoli, No. 240. 

Le Poul, ou Souci, ou Rol- 
telet hupe, Calendula. 
Brijfon a<v. III. 579. 

Motacilla regulus. Lin. fyft. 


Kongsfogel. Faun. Suec. /p. 

Sommer Zaunkoenig (Sum- 
mer Wren). Frifch, I. 24. 

Goldhannel. Kram. 378. 

Fugle-Konge- Br. 285. 

Br. Zoo!. 101. plate S. f. 3. 

153. Golden 

THIS is the left of the Britijh birds, weigh- 
ing only feventy-fix grains. Its length is 
three inches and a half; the breadth five inches : 
it may readily be diftinguiflied from all other birds, 
not only by its fize, but by the beautiful fcarlet 
mark on the head, bounded on each fide by a fine 
yellow line. The bill is dufky : the feathers of the 
forehead are green : from the bill to the eyes is a 
narrow white line: the back and the' hind part of 
C c 2 the 




Class II. 

the neck are of a dull green : the coverts of the 
wings dusky, edged with green and tipt with 
white : the quil-feathers and tail dusky, edged with 
pale green. The throat and lower part of the 
body white, tinged with green : the legs dull yel- 
low : the claws very long. It frequents woods, 
and is found principally in oak trees. Though 
fo fmall a bird it indures our winters, for we have 
frequently feen it later than Chriftmas. It is feen 
in autumn as far ncrth as the Shetland I/Jes, but 
quits the country before winter; a vaft flight 
for fo minute and delicate a bird. 

We have obferved this bird fufpended in the air 
for a confiderable time over a bum in flower, whilft 
it fung very melodioufly. The note does not much 
differ from that of the common wren, but is very 

154. When. Roytelet, Bceuf de Dieu, & Le Roitelet, Regulus. BriJJh 
Berichot. Belon a<v. 343. av* III. 425. 

Trilato, obf. 12. 
PafTer troglodytes. Gefner av. 

651. * 

Aldr. av. IT. 292. 
Reatino. Olina, 6. 
Wil. cm. 229. 
Rail fyn. a<v. 80. 
Strefch ; Storfchek. 
No. 239* 

Motacilla troglodytes. Lin* 

fyft- 337- 
Faun. Suec. /p. 261. 

Nelle-Konge. Brunnich, 284. 

Schneekoning , Konickerl, 

Zaunfchlupfrel. Kranu 

Scopoh, Schneekoenig (Snow king). 

Frifcb, I. 24. 
Br. Zool. 102. 

THE wren may be placed among the fineft 
of our finging birds. It continues its fong 


Class II. SEDGE. 381 

throughout the winter, excepting during the frofts. 
It makes its neft in a very curious manner -, of 
an oval ihape, very deep, with a fin all hole in the 
middle for ingrefs and egrefs : the external material 
is mofs, within it is lined with hair and feathers. 
It lays from ten to eighteen eggs ; and as often 
brings up as many young ; which, as Mr. Ray ob- 
ferves, may be ranked among thofe daily miracles 
that we take no notice of; that it fhould feed 
fuch a number without palling over one, and that 
too in utter darknefs. 

The head and upper part of the body of the Desgrip. 
wren are of a deep reddifh brown : above each eye 
is a ftroke of white : the back, and coverts of 
the wings, and tail, are marked with (lender 
tranfverfe black lines : the quil-feathers with bars 
of black and red. The throat is of a yellowifli 
white. The belly and fides crofled with narrow 
dufky and pale reddifh brown lines. The tail is 
crofTed with dufky bars. . 

Willow Lark, Br. Z00L II. Pafler anfrdlnaceus minor. 155. Sedce, 

241. Rati fyn. a<v. 47. 

Sedge Bird. Br. ZgoL IV. Motacilla falicaria. Lin.fyft. 

tab. X. 330. Faun. Suec. No. 249. 

Lefler Reed Sparrow. WiL La Fauvette babillarde. Brif- 

ern. 144. /on, av. III. 384. 

THIS fpecies is of a {lender elegant form : the 
bill black : the head brown, marked with 
C c 3 dufky 


dufky flreaks : over each eye a line of pure white, 
over that another of black : cheeks brown : 
throat, breaft, and belly white % the two laft tinged 
with yellow : hind part of the neck and back of a 
reddifh brown : the back fpotted with black : co- 
verts of the tail tawny : coverts of the wings 
dufky, edged with pale brown : quil- feathers duf- 
ky : tail brown, cuneiform : forming a circle when 
fpread : legs dufky. 

It is a moft entertaining polyglot, or mocking 
bird ; fitting concealed in willows or reeds, in a 
pleating but rather hurrying manner, it imitates the 
fwallow, the iky- lark, the houfe-fparrow, &c. 
fings all night, and feems to leave us before 

1*56. Grass- Tit-lark, that fings like a Alauda fepiaria, L'AIouete 

"hopper. Grafshopper. WiL orn. de BuifTon. BnJJbn a-v. III. 

209. _ 347. 

Alauda minima locuftse voce. Piep Lerche (Chirping Lark). 

LocufteJla, D. John/on, Frifch. I. 16. 

Raiifyn. a<v. 70. Alauda trivalis. Lin. fyft. 288. 

Rafs Letters, 108. Br. Zool. 95. plate Q^ f . 5. 

THIS bird was received out of Shr op/hire : it 
is the fame with that Mr. Ray defcribes as 
having the note of the grafshopper, but louder and 
fliriller. It is a moft artful bird, will fculk in the 
middle, and thickefl part of the hedge, and will 
keep running along for a hundred yards together, 
nor can it be forced out but with the greateft 
^ difficulty : 

Class II. W H E A T - E A R. 3%$ 

difficulty : it is from this covert that it emits its 
note, which fo much refembles the infect, from 
which it derives its name, as generally to be mif- 
taken for it. In the height of fummer it chirps the 
whole night : its fibilous note is obferved to ceafe 
about the latter end of July. 

The bill is very ilender, of a dufky color : the 
head, and whole upper part of the body is of a 
greenifh. brown, fpotted with black : the quil- fea- 
thers dufky, edged with an olive brown : the tail 
is very long, compofed of twelve iharp pointed 
feathers ; the two middlemoft are the longed:, the 
others on each fide grow gradually fhorter. The 
under fide of the body is of a dull yellowifh white, 
darkeft about the bread : the legs are of a dirty- 
white : the hind claw fhorter, and more crooked, 
than is nfual in the lark kind. 

* * With party colored Tails. 

Belon a<v. 352. Moteux, Vitiflora. Brif- i^.Wheat- 

Oenanthe. Gefner a<v. 629. fon av. III. 449. ear. 

Aldr. av. II. 332. Culo bianco, Fornarola, Pe- 

Wheat-ear , Fallow-fmich, tragnola. Zinan. 41. 

White-tail. Wil. orn. 233. Norvegis, Steendolp, Steen. 

Rail fyn. av. 75. Squette, Steengylpe. Brun- 

Motacilla cenanthe, Lin. nich, 276. 

fyft* 33 2, Steinfchwaker, Steinfchnap- 

Stenfquetta. Faun. Suec. fp. perl. Kra?n. 374. 

294. Bella. Scopoli, No. 230. 

Le Cul blanc, Vitrec, ou Br. Zool. 102. plate S. 1. f. 


*HT^HE wheat-ear begins to vifit us about the 

■* middle of March, and continues coming till 

C c 4 the 

384 WHEAT-EAR. Class II. 

the beginning of May : we have obferved that the 
females arrive about a fortnight before the males. 
They frequent warrens, downs, and the edges of 
hills, efpecially thofe that are fenced with ftone 
walls. They breed in the latter, in old rabbet 
burrows, cliffs, and frequently under old timber : 
their neft is large, made of dried grafs, rabbet's 
down, a few feathers, and horfe hair : and they lay 
from fix to eight eggs, of a light blue color. 

They grow very fat in autumn, and are efteem- 
ed a delicacy. About Eaftbourn in Sujfex they are 
taken by the fnepherds in great numbers, in fnares 
made of horfe hair, placed under a long turf; be- 
ing very timid birds, the motion of a cloud, or the 
appearance of a hawk, will drive them for fhelter 
into thofe traps, and fo they are taken. The num- 
bers annually enfnared in that diflrid alone, a- 
mount to about 1840 dozen, which fell ufually at 
fix-pence per dozen •, and what appears very extra- 
ordinary, the numbers that return the following 
year do not appear to be leffened ; as we are 
affured by a very intelligent perfon refident near 
that place. The reafon that fuch a quantity are ta- 
ken in the neighbourhood of Eaftbourn is, that if 
abounds with a certain^ which frequents the ad- 
jacent hills, for the fake of the wild thyme they are 
covered with, which is not only a favorite food of 
that in feci, but the plant on which it depofites its. 

e22;s ? 

Wheat-ears are much fatter in a rainy feafon than 

a dry 

Class II. W H I N - C H A T. 

a dry one, for they not only feed on infects, but 
on earth worms, which come out of the ground in 
greater numbers in wet weather than in dry. 

The head and back of the male are of a light 
grey, tinged with red : over each eye is a white 
line •, beneath that is a broad black ftroke, palling 
acrofs each eye to the hind part of the head : the 
rump and lower half of the tail are white -, the up- 
per half black: the under fide of the body is white, 
tinged with yellow; on the neck it inclines to red: 
the quil-feathers are black, edged with reddifh. 
brown. The colors of the female are more dull : 
it wants that black ftroke acrofs the eyes, and the 
bar of white on the tail is narrower. Thefe birds 
dlfappear in September, at left from the northern 
parts of this kingdom \ but in Hampjhire many of 
them continue the whole winter. 


Le Tarier. Be/on a r o> 361. 
Rubetra. Gefner a<v. 729. 
Le grand Traquet, ou le 

Tarier. Brijpm a<v. III. 

432. tab. 24. fig. I. The 

Wil. orn. 234. 
Rail fyn. av. 76. 

Motacilla rubetra. Lin. fyft. 

33 2 - 
Faun. Suec. fp. 255. Scopoli, 

No. 237. 
Geftettenfchlager. Kram. 37^. 
GrofTer Fliegenfuenger (great 

Fly-catcher). Frtfcb, J. 22, 
Br.Zool. 103. plate S. 2. f.3.4. 

158. Whin* 


THIS is in the north of England, alfo a bird 
of paftage : but we are not certain whether 
it quits this ifland, but are rather inclined to think 


3 86 STONE-CHATTER. Class II. 

it only fhifts its quarters: in the fouth it continues 
the whole year. 
Descrip. The head and back are of a pale reddifh. brown, 
regularly ipotted with black : over each eye is a 
narrow white ftroke, beneath that is a broad bed 
of black, which extends from the bill to the hind 
part of the head : the bread is of a reddifh yel- 
low : the belly paler : the quil-feathers are brown, 
edged with a yellowifh brown: the upper part of 
the wing is marked with two white fpots : the 
lower part of the tail is white, the two middle fea- 
thers excepted, which are wholly black : the up- 
per part of the others are of the fame color. 

The colors of the female are far lefs agreeable : 
in lieu of the white and black marks on the cheeks, 
is one broad pale brown one : and the white on 
the wings is in far lefs quantity than that of the 

259. Stone- 

Le Traquet ou Groulard. 

Belon a-j. 360. 
Rubetra. 'Aldr. a-v. II. 325. 
Stone-fmich, Stone-chatter, 

or Moortitling. Wih cm. 

235 * 
Raiijyn. av. 76. 

Le Traquet, Rubetra. Brif- 

Jon a~j. 

III. 428. tab. 23. fig. 1. 

The Male. 
Pontza. Scopoli, No. 236. 
Occhio di bue. Zinan. $2. 
Motacilla rubicola. Lin.fyft. 

33 z - 
CriftofH. Kram. 375. 
Br. Zool. 103. plate S. 2. f. 

5, 6- 


HIS fpecies is common during fummer, in 
gorfy grounds. In the winter they difperfe 



into marines, and other places; but do not quit 
the ifland. It is a reftlefs and noify bird, and 
perches frequently on fome bulb, chattering incef- 
fantly. The head, neck, and throat are black ; but Descrip. 
on both fides the latter is a white bar, fo that it 
appears on firft fight to be encircled with white: the 
feathers on the back are black edged with tawny : 
the lower part of the back juft above the rump is 
white : the end and exterior fide of the two out- 
moft feathers of the tail are of a pale ruft- color, 
the reft are black : the breaft is of a deep reddifh 
yellow ; the belly of a lighter hue : the quil-fea- 
thers are dufky edged with dull red-, thofe next the 
body are marked with a white fpot near their 
bottoms : the coverts of the wings are adorned 
with another. The head of the female is ferrugi- 
nous fpotted with black t, and the colors in gene- 
ral lefs vivid. In both fexes the legs are black \ 
which alfo is the character of the two preceding 
fpecies, as well as that next to be defcribed. 

Wil. orn. 236. Motacilla fylvia? Lin. fyji. 160. White- 
Raiifyn. av. 77. ^ 330. THROAT. 

La Mefange cendree, Parus Kogfnetter, Mefar. Faun. Suec. 

cinereus. BriJJ'on a?v. III. fp. 250. 

549. Br. Zool. 104. plate S. f. 4. 


HIS frequents our gardens in the fummer 
time \ in the winter it leaves us. It builds 


3 88 

W H I TE-T H R O A T. Class II. 

in low bufhes near the ground, making its neft 
externally of the tender ftalks of herbs and dry 
ftraw ; the middle part of line bents and foft grafs, 
the infide of hair. It lays five eggs of a whitifh 
green color, fprinkled with black fpots *. Its note 
is continually repeated, and often attended with 
odd gefticulations of the wings : is harm and dif- 
pleafing: is a fhy and wild bird, avoiding the 
haunt of man \ feems of a pugnatious difpofition, 
finging with an erecled creft, and in attitudes of 
Descrip. The head f tn i s bird i s f a brownifh am color, 
the throat white: the bread and belly white tinged 
with red •, (in the female wholly white :) the back 
inclines to red : the leffer coverts of the wing;s 
are of a pale brown ; the greater dufky, edged with 
tawny brown ; the quil-feathers dufky, edged with 
reddifli brown •, the tail the fame, except the up- 
per part of the interior fide and whole exterior fide 
of the outmoft feather, which are white : the legs 
are of a yellowifh brown. 

* ////. orn. 





Class II. D A R T F O R D. 389 

WWITH reddifh hides : eye-lids deep i6i.Dart- 
. crimfon. A flender bill a little curved F0RD * 
at the point : whole upper part of the head, neck, 
and back, of a dufky brown tinged with a dull 
yellow : throat, under fide of the neck, the breaft 
and belly deep ferruginous; the middle of the 
belly white ; quil-feathers dufky edged with white : 
baftard wing white : exterior fide of the interior 
feather of the tail white, the reft dufky ; and long 
in proportion to the fize of the bird : legs yellow. 

A pair of thefe were (hot on a common near 
Dartford, in April 1773, and communicated to me 
by Mr. Latham \ they fed on flies, which they 
fprung on from the furze bufh they fat on, and 
then returned to it ag-ain. 



XXV. TIT- BILL ftrait, fhort, hard, ftrong, fharp-pointed. 
MOUSE. .: •' ' , to r r ' 

a little comprelied. 

NOSTRILS round covered with bridles. 

TONGUE as if cut at the end, terminating with 

two or three bridles. 

162. Great. Nonette ou Mefange. Belcn Ltn.Jyfi. 341. 

a~j. 376. Talg-oxe. Fawn. Suec.fp. 265. 

Parus major. Gefner a~j. 640. Le groffe Aiefangeou la Char- 
Aldr. o~j. II. 319. bonniere. Briffbn c~j. III. 

Spernuzzola, ParufToIa. OH- 539. 

na, 28. PL Enl. 3. f. 1. 

Great Titmoufe, or Ox-eye. Mufvit. Brunnicb, 287. 

WiL cr?t. 240. Kohlmeife . Kram . 378. 
Rail fyn. a<v, y$. Fri/cB, I. 1 3. 

Snitza. Scopoli> No. 242. i?r. Zw/. 113. plate W. f. 4. 

THIS fpecies fometimes vifits our gardens; but 
chiefly inhabits woods, where it builds in 
hollow trees, laying about ten eggs. This, and 
the whole tribe feed on infects, which they find in 
the bark of trees ; in the fpring they do a great 
deal of mifchief in the fruit garden, by picking off 
the tender buds. Like wood-peckers they are per- 
petually running up and down the bodies of trees 
in qued of food. The bird has three chearful 
notes, which it begins to utter in the month of Fe- 
Descrip. The neac j ^d throat of this fpecies are black; 
the cheeks white -, the back green the belly of a 




yellowifh green, divided in the middle by a bed of 
black, which extends to the vent ; the rump is of 
a bluifh grey. The quil-feathers are dufky, edged 
partly with blue, partly with white: the coverts 
blue; the greater tipt with white. The exterior 
fides of the outmofl feathers of the tail are white : 
the exterior fides of the other bluifh : their inte- 
rior fides dufky : the legs lead color. Toes divided 
to the origin ; and the back toe of the whole genus 
very large and ftrong. 


Belon anj. 369. 

Parus cceruleus. Ge/ner a<v. 


Aldr. a<v, II 321. 

Blue Titmoufe, or Nun. Wil. 

cm, 242. 
Rait fyn. a<v. 74. 
La Mefange Bleue.' Brijfon 

aro. III. 544. 
Blava fnitza, Blau mandlitz. 

Scopoli, No. 244. 

PL Enl. 3. f. 2. 

Parozolino, o Fratino. Zinan. 

7 6. 
Lin. fyft. 341. 
Blamees. Faun. Suec. fp. 

Blaaemeife. Br. 288. 
Blaumeife. Kram. 379. Frifcb, 

I. 14. 
Br. Zool. 114. plate W. f. 5. 

I63. BLUE; 

'nr^ HIS bird frequents gardens, and does great 
-** injury to fruit trees, by bruifing the young 
buds in fearch of the infects that lurk under them ; 
it breeds in holes of walls, and lays about twelve 
or fourteen eggs. 

It is a very beautiful fpecies, the bill is fhort 
and dufky : the crown of the head of a fine blue: 
from the bill to the eyes is a black line : the 



392 C O L E M O U S E, Class II. 

forehead and cheeks are white : the back is of a 
yellowifh green : the lower fide of the body yellow : 
the wings and tail blue, the former marked tranf- 
verfely with a white bar : the legs of a lead color. 

164. Cole. Quatriefme efpece de Me- moufe) Frifcb, I. 13. 

fange. Belon wv. 370. La Melange a tefte noire, Pa- 

Parus ater. Gefner an). 641. rus atricapillus. BriJ/on av. 

Aldr. an). II. 321. III. 551. 

Wil. orn. 241. Cat. Carol, app. 37. 

Raii Jyn. av. 73. P. ater. Lin. fyfi. 341. 

Speermiefe, Creuzmeife. Faun. Suec. fp. 268. ScopcU, 

Kram. 379. No. 245. 

Tannen Meife (Pine Tit- Br. Zool. 114. 

Descrip. rT"AHE head of the colemoufe is black, marked 
JL on the hind part with a white fpot ; the 
back is of a greenifh grey -, the rump more 
green ; the tail and wings duiky \ the exterior 
feathers edged with green \ the coverts of the wings 
are of a duiky green ; the lowed tipt with white. 
For a farther account we beg leave to refer to the 
next defcription. 




Parus paluilris. 

Paronzino. Aldr. a<v. II. 32. 

Marfh Titmoufe, or Black- 
cap. Wit. orn. 

Rail fyn. a-v. 73. 

Frattino paluftre. Zinan. 77. 

Gefner a<v. Lin. fyn. 341. 

Entita, Tomlinge. Faun, 

Suec. fp. 269. Scopo/i, No. 

Afch Meife (Am Titmoufe) 

Frifch, I. 13. 
Hundfmeife. Kram. 379. 

165. Marsh* 

La Mefange de Marais ou Nor-vegis Graae-Meife. Brun- 

la Nonette cendree. Brijfon nich. 190. 

a<v, III. 555. Br. TjOoL 114. plate W. f. 3, 
PL enl. 3. f. 3. 

^TpHIS fpecies is called by Gefner the marfh tit- 
A rnoufe ; becaufe it frequents wet places* 
With us they inhabit woods, with the lad kind $ 
and feldom infeft our gardens : early in February 
it emits two notes, not unlike the whetting of a 

Mr. Willughby obferves, that this bird differs 
from the former in thefe particulars, ift, that it is 
bigger : 2d, that it wants the white fpot on the head : 
3d, it has a larger tail : 4th, its under fide is white : 
5th, it has lefs black under the chin : 6th, it 
wants the white fpot on the coverts of the wings. 
This laft diftinclion does not hold in general, as the 
fubjed figured in the Britijh Zoology had thofe 
fpotsj yet wanted that on the hind part of the 

Vol. L 




166. Long Belon a~o. 368. La Mefange a longue queue, 
Tailed. Parus caudatus. Gejher a-v. Parus longicaudus. Brijfon 
642. a<v, III. 570. 

Montkola. Alar. a<v. II. 319. Lin.fyjl. 342. 

/Fz7. or». 242. Alhtita. jF<z#k. Suec. /p. 83. 

lfo« ^«. «-z\ 74. Belzmeife Pfannenftiel. Kram, 
Pendolino, Paronziao. Zinan. 379. 

yj. Langfchwaentzige Meife. 
Gaugartza. Scopoli, No. 247. Frtfcb, I. 14. 

Descri?. ^pHE length is five inches and a quarter; the 
•*- breadth feven inches. The bill is black, 
very fhort, thick, and very convex, differing great- 
ly from ail others of the titmoufe kind : the bale 
is befet with fmall bridles : the i rides are of a hazel 
color. The top of the head, from the bill to the 
hind part, is white, mixed with a few dark grey 
feathers ; this bed of white is entirely furrounded 
with a broad flroke of black, which, rifing on 
each fide the upper mandible, palTes over each eye, 
unites at the hind part of the head -, and continues 
along the middle of the back to the rump : the 
feathers on each fide of this black ftroke are of a 
purpliih red, as are thofe immediately incumbent 
on the tail. The covert feathers of the wings are 
black : the fecondary and quil-feathers are dufky, 
the largeft of the latter are wholly fo -, the leffer and 
more remote have their exterior fides edged with 



The tail is the longed in proportion to the bulk 
of any Britifh bird, being in length three inches ; 
the form of it is like that of a magpie, confiding 
of twelve feathers of unequal lengths, the middle- 
mod the longed, thofe on each fide growing 
gradually fhorter -, the exterior fides, and the top 
of the interior fides of the three outmod feathers 
are white ; the red of the tail black. The cheeks 
and throat are white : the bread and whole under 
fide white, with a cad of red. The legs, fcet y and 
claws are black. 

It forms its ned with great elegance, of an oval 
mape, and about eight inches deep -, near the up- 
per end is a hole for admiffion: the external mate- 
rials are mofTes and lichens, curioufly interwoven 
with wool ; within it is lined very warmly with a 
thick bed of feathers: it lays from ten to feven- 
teen eggs. The young follow the parents the 
whole winter -, and from the flimnefs of their bodies, 
and gfeat length of tail, appear, while flying, like 
fo many darts cutting the air. They are often feen 
pading through our gardens, going progreffively 
from tree to tree, as if in their road to Come other 
place, never making any halt. 

D d 2 Left 


167. Beard- Left Butcher Bird. Brijfon av. III. 567. 

ed. Ed-~ju. a-v. 55. Parus biarmicus. Lin. fyjl, 

Bearded Titmoufe. Aldr. a-v. 342. Br. Zool. 74. plate 

1, tab. 48. Sccpcli, No. 241. C. 2. 

La mefaiige barbue, oa le Left butcher Bird. Br. Zooh 

mouitache, Parus barbatus. Ed. 2d. I. 165. 

rr^HIS fpecies is found in the marfhes near 
-*• London: we have feen it near Gloucefter-, it is 
alfo frequent among the great tracts of reeds near 
Cozvbit in Lincoln/hire^ where I fufpect they breed. 
It is of the fame fhape as the long tailed titmoufe, 
Pescrip. but rather larger. The bill is fhort, ftrong, and 
very convex •, of a box color : irides pale yellow : 
the head is of a fine grey : on each fide of the bill, 
beneath the eye, is a long triangular tuft of black 
feathers : the chin and throat are white : the mid- 
dle of the bread rlefh colored : the fides and thighs 
of a pale orange : the hind part of the neck and 
the back are of an orange bay : the fecondary fea- 
thers of the wines are black edged with orange : 
the quil-feathers duiky on their exterior, white on 
their interior fides : the leffer quil-feathers tipt with 
orange. The tail is two inches three quarters 
long : the two middle feathers of the tail are larg- 
er!:, the others gradually fnorten on each fide; the 
outmoft of which are of a deep orange color. The 
vent-feathers of the male of a pale black : of the 



female of a dull orange. The legs are of a deep 
fhining black. 

The female wants the black mark on each cheek, Female, 
and the fine flefK color on the bread : the crown , 
of the head is of a brownifh ruft color, fpotted 
with black : the outmoft feathers of the tail are 
black tipt with white. 

D d 3 Short 



Short weak BILLS. 
Very wide MOUTHS. 
Short weak LEGS. 



La petite Hirondelle. 


Hirundo ruflica. Lin, fyjl. 


**>. 378. 
Hirundo domellica. 


Ladu-Swala. Faun. Suec. fp. 

a-u. 548. 
Aldr. a*u. J I. 294. 
Houfe or Chimney Sv 

WiL : '.;. 212. 

Ra. : : . ~ 1 . 
Rondcne. Zinan. 47. 


Forftue-Svale, Mark-Sval e . 

Brunnicb, 289. 
Haus-Schvvalbe. Frifch, I. 17. 
Hauls Schvvalbe. Kram. 380. 
Br. Zool. 96. 

L' Hirondelle de Cheminee. Lauftaza. Sccpcli, No. 249. 
BriJ/on av, II. 4S6. 

THIS fpecies appears in Great Britain near 
twenty days before the martin, or any o- 
ther of the fwallow tribe. They leave us the latter 
end of September ; and for a few days previous to 
their departure, they arTemble in vaft flocks on 
houfe tops, churches, and even trees, from whence 
thev take their fiio-ht. It is now known that 
fwallows take their winter quarters in Senegal^ and 
poflibly they may be found along the whole Mo- 
rocco more. We are indebted to M. Adanfonf for 
this difcovery, who fir ft obferved them in the 

Voyage to Senegal, p. 121. 163. 


JV? 1&8 



< ? 


month of Oftober, after their migration out of Eu- 
rope, on the fhores of that kingdom: but whether 
it was this fpecies alone, or all the European kinds, 
he is filent. 

The name of chimny fwallow may almoft be 
confined to Great Britain, for in feveral other coun- 
tries they chufe different places for their nefts. In 
Sweden, they prefer barns, fo are ftyled there Ladu- 
Swala, or the barn fwallow : and in the hotter 
climates, they make their nefts in porches, gate- 
ways, galleries, and open halls. 

The houfe fwallow is diftinguifhed from all others 
by the fuperior forkinefs of its tail, and by the 
red fpot on the forehead, and under the chin. 

The crown of the head, the whole upper part of Descr-ip. 
the body, and the coverts of the wings are black, 
gloOed with a rich purplifh blue, moil refplendent 
in the male : the breafl: and belly white, that of 
the male tinged with red : the tail black ; the two 
middle feathers plain : the others marked tranf- 
verfely near their ends with a white fpot. The 
exterior feathers of the tail are much longer in the 
male than in the female. 

Its food is the fame with the others of its kind, 
viz. infects ^ for the Caking of which in their fwifteft 
flight, nature hath admirably contrived their feve- 
ral parts ; their mouths are very wide to take in 
flies, &c. in their quickeft motion -, their wings 
are long, and adapted for diftant and continual 
flight j and their tails are forked, to enable them 
D d 4 to 


to turn the readier in purfuit of their prey. This 
fpecies, in our country, builds in chimnys, and 
makes its neft of clay mixed with ft raw, leav- 
ing the top quite open. It lines the bottom with 
feathers and grafTes : and ufually lays from four to 
fix eggs, white fpeckled with red; but by tak- 
ing away one of the eggs daily, it will fucceflively 
lay as far as nineteen, as Doctor Lifter has expe- 
rienced. It breeds earlier than any other fpecies. 
The firft brood are obferved to quit the neft the 
laft week in June, or the firft in July : the laft 
brood towards the middle or end of Augvft. The 
neft being fixed five or fix feet deep within the 
chimny, it is with difficulty that the young can 
emerge. They even fometimes fall into the rooms 
below: but as foon as they fucceed,* they perch 
for a few days on the chimny top, and are there 
fed by their parents. Their next effay is to reach 
fome lcafiefs bough, where they fit in rows, and 
receive their food. Soon after they take to the 
wins, but full want fkill to take their own prey. 
They hover near the place where their parents are 
in chafe of dies, attend their motions, meet them, 
and receive from their mouths the offered fufte- 

It has a fweet note, which it emits in Auguft and 
September^ perching on houfe tops. 


Class.II. MARTIN. 


Le Martinet. Belon av. 380. 

Hirundo fylveilris. Gejher av. 
564. Frifch, I. 17. 

Aldr. av. II. 311. 

Martin, Martlet, or Marti- 
net. Wil. orn. 215. 

&z« ^?z. wv. 7 1 . 

Rondone minore, e Graffplo. 
Xinan. 48. 

Hudaurnik. Scopoli, No. 250. 

La petite Hirondelle, ou le 

Martinet a cul blanc. Brif- 

fon aw. II. 490. 
Hirundo urbica. Lin.fyft. 344. 
Hus-Swala. .F<zazz. <SW. fp. 

Speyerl. Kram. 380. 
JPak/j Bye v. Taglkioeg-Svale, 

Langelandis, Rive. i?r. 290. 
i?r. ZW. 96. plate Q^ f. 2. 

Ph. Tr. 1774. p. 196. 

169. Ma- 

^pHE Martin is inferior in fize to the former, 
•*■ and its tail much lefs forked. The head and 
upper part of the body, except the rump, is black 
gloried with blue : the bread, belly and rump are 
white : the feet are covered with a fhort white 
down. This is the fecond of the fwallow kind 
that appears in our country. It builds under the 
eaves of houfes, with the fame materials, and in 
the fame form as the houfe fwallow, only its nefi: 
is covered above, having only a fmall hole for 
admittance. We have alfo feen this fpecies build 
againft the fides of high cliffs over the fea. For 
the time that the young keep the neft, the old one 
feeds them, adhering by the claws to the outfide i 
but as foon as they quit it, feeds them flying, by 
a motion quick and almoft imperceptible to thofe 
who are not ufed to obferve it. 

It is a later breed than the preceding by fome 





days : but both will lay twice in the feafon ; and 
the latter brood of this fpecies have been obferved 
to come forth fo iateas the eighteenth of September-, 
yet that year (1766) they entirely quitted our fight 
by the fifth of Offober-, not but they fometimes con- 
tinue here much later : the martins and red wino- 


thrufhes having been feen flying in view on the 
feventh of November. Neftlinsis have been remark- 
ed in Hampshire as late as the 21ft. of Offober, 

170. Sand. L' Hirondelle de rivage. Belcn 

a-j. 379. 
Hirundo riparia, feu Drepa- 

nis. Gefner a/v. 565. 
Dardanelli. AUr.a-v. II. 312. 
Sartd Martin, or Shore Bird. 

777/. cm. 213. 
Raii fy n. av 71. 
L' Hirondelle de rivage. 

BriJJcn av. II. 506. 
Cat. Carol, app. 37. 

Rondone riparia. Zinan. 49. 

Hirundo riparia. Lin.fyji. 344. 

Strand-fwala , Back fwala. 
Faun. Suec.fp. 273. 

Danis Dig-v. Jord-fvale, Soil- 
bakke . Norveg . Sand 
Raenne. Br. 291. 

Ufer-Schwalbe (Sliore Swal- 
low) Frifcb, I. 18. 

Geftetten-fchwalbe. Kram. 

Br. Zool. 97. plate CL f. 1. 

• HP, 

'"ipHIS is the left of the genus that frequents 
"*■ Great Britain. The head and whole upper 
part of the body are moufe colored : the throat white, 
encircled with a moufe colored ring : the belly 
white: the feet fmooth and black. 

It builds in holes in fand pits, and in the banks 
of rivers, penetrating fome feet deep into the bank, 


Class II. 



boring through the foil in a wonderful manner 
with its feet, claws, and bill. It makes its neft of 
hay, flraw, &c. and lines it with feathers : it lays 
five or fix white eggs. It is the earlieft of the fwaj- 
low tribe in bringing out its young. 

La grande Hirondelie, Mou- 
tardier ou grand Martinet. 
Belon av. 377. 

Apus. Gefner a-u. 166. 

Aldr. av. II. 312. 

Black Martin, or Swift. WiL 
cm. 214. 

Raii Jyn. a~o. 72. 

;one. TLinan. 47. 

Brijfon av. II. 171. Swift. 

Le Martinet 

Hirundo apus. Lin. fyfi. 344. 
Ring-fwala. Faun, Suec. fp, 

Steen, Kirke-v. Saee-Svale. 

Br. 292. 
Speyer, groffe thurn fchvvalbe. 

Kram. 380. Scopoli, No. 

Br, Zool. 97. 

^npIrHS fpecies is the largeft of our fwallows; but 


the weight is moft difproportionately fmall 

to its extent of wing of any bird -, the former be- 
ing fcarce one ounce, the latter eighteen inches. 
The length near eight. The feet of this bird are 
fo fmall, that the action of walking and of rifing 
from the ground is extremely difficult ; fo that 
nature hath made it full amends, by furniming it 
with ample means for an eafy and continual flight. 
It is more on the wing than any other 1 wallows; its 
flight is more rapid, and that attended with a fnrill 
fcream. It refts by clinging againft fome wall, or 
Other apt body y from whence Klein ftyles this fpe- 


SWIFT. Class II. 

cies Hirundo muraria. It breeds under the eaves jof 
houfes, in fteeples, and other lofty buildings ; makes 
its neft of graifes and feathers ; and lays only two 
Pescrip. eggs, of a white color. It is entirely of a gloffy 
dark footy color, only the chin is marked with a 
white fpot: but by being fo conftantly expofed 
to all weathers, the glofs of the plumage is loft 
.before it retires. I cannot trace them to their win- 
ter quarters, unlefs in one inftance of a pair found 
adhering by their claws and in a torpid ftate, in 
February 1766, under the roof of Longnor Chapel, 
Sbropjhire : on being brought to a fire, they re- 
vived and moved about the room. The feet are 
of a particular ftructure, all the toes Handing for- 
ward -, the left confifts of only one bone -, the o- 
thers of an equal number, viz. two each ; in 
which they differ from thole of all other birds. 

This appears in our country about fourteen days 
later than the land martin ; but differs greatly in 
the time of its departure, retiring invariably about 
the tenth of Augufi, being the iirft of the genus 
that leaves us. 

The fabulous hiftory of the Mamicodiata, or bird 
of Paradife, is in the hiftory of this fpecies in great 
meafure verified. It was believed to have no feet, 
to live upon the celeftial dew, to float perpetually 
on the Indian, and to perform all its functions 
in that element. 

The Swift actually performs what has been in 
theie enlightened times difproved of the former; 


Class II. SWIFT. 405 

except the (mail time it takes in fleeping, and 
what it devotes to incubation, every other action 
is done on wing. The materials of its neft it col- 
lects either as they are carried about by the winds, 
or picks them up from the furface in its fweeping 
flight. Its food is undeniably the infects that fill 
the air. Its drink is taken in tranfient fips from 
the water's furface. Even its amorous rites are 
performed on high. Few perfons who have at- 
tended to them in a fine fummer's morning, but 
muft have feen them make their aerial courfes at 
a great height, encircling a certain fpace with an ea- 
fy fteady motion. On a fudden they fall into each 
other's embraces, then drop precipitate with a 
loud mriek for numbers of yards. This is the criti- 
cal conjuncture, and to be no more wondered at, 
than that infects (a familiar inftance) mould dif- 
charge the fame duty in the fame element. 

Thefe birds and fwallows are inveterate enemies - 
to hawks. The moment one appears, they attack 
him immediately : the fwifts foon defift ; but the 
fwallows purfue and perfecute thofe rapacious 
birds, till they have entirely driven them away. 

Swifts delight in fultry thundry weather, and 
feem thence to receive frefh fpirits. They fly in 
thofe times in fmall parties with particular violence* 
and as they pafs near fteepies, towers, or any 
edifices where their mates perform the office of 
incubation, emit a loud fcream, a fort of ferenade, 
as Mr. White fuppofes, to their refpective females. 


4 o6 SWALLOWS. Class II. 

To the curious monographics on the fwallow 
tribe, of that worthy correfpondent, I muft ac- 
k now Lege myfelf indebted for numbers of the re- 
marks above-mentioned. 


THERE are three opinions among naturalifts 
concerning the manner the fwallow tribes difpofe 
of themfelves after their difappearance from the 
countries in which they make their fummer refi- 
dence. Herodotus mentions one fpecies that refides 
in Egypt the whole year: Profper Alpinus* afTerts 
the fame •, and Mr. Loten, late governor of Ceylon, 
allured us, that thofe of Java never remove. 
Thefe excepted, every other known kind obferve 
a periodical migration, or retreat. The fwallows 
of the cold Norway -f, and of North America J, of 
the diftant Kamtfchatka%, of the temperate parts 
of Europe, of Aleppo ||, and of the hot Jamaica**, 
all agree in this one point. 

* Hirundines duplicis generis ibi obfervantur; patriae fcili- 

cet qua: nunquam ab JEgypto difcedentes, ibi perpetuo mo- 

rantur, atque peregrinse, hx funt noilratibus omnino fimiies ; 

patriae vero toto etiam ventre nigricant. Hifi. JEgypt. I. 198. 

f Pcntop. hifi. Narva. II. 98. 

I Cat. Carol. I. 51. cpp. 8. 
§ HiJ}. Kamtf. 162. 

II Rufel Alcp. 70. 

** Phil. Tranf. No. 36. 


Class II. S W A L L O W S. 407 

In cold countries, a defect of infect food on 
the approach of winter, is a fufficient reafon for 
thefe birds to quit them : but fince the fame caufe 
probably does not fubfift in the warm climates, 
recourfe mould be had to fome other reafon for their 

Of the three opinions, the firft has the utmoffc 
appearance of probability ; which is, that they re- 
move nearer the fun, where they can find a conti- 
nuance of their natural diet, and a temperature of 
air fuiting their conftitutions. That this is the cafe 
with fome fpecies of European fwallows,. has been 
proved beyond contradiction (as above cited) by 
M. Adanfon. We often obferve them collected 
in flocks innumerable on churches, on rocks, and 
on trees, previous to their departure hence; and 
Mr. Collinfin proves their return here in perhaps 
equal numbers, by two curious relations of un- 
doubted credit : the one communicated to him 
by Mr. Wright^ mailer of a fhip ; the other by the 
late Sir Charles Wager ; who both defcribed (to the 
fame purpofe) what happened to each in their 
voyages. "Returning home, fays Sir Charles ^ in the 
" fpringof the year, as I came into founding in our 
" channel, a great flock of fwallows came and kt- 
" tied on all my rigging; every rope was covered; 
" they hung on one another like a fwarm of bees; 
" the decks and carving were filled with them, 
" They feemed almoft famifhed and fpent, and were 
" only feathers and bones ; but being recruited 

" with 

408 SWALLOW S. Class II. 

tf with a night's reft, took their flight in the morn- 
"ing"*. This vaft fatigue, proves that their 
journey muft have been very great, eonfidering the 
amazing fwiftnefs of thefe birds : in all probability 
they had crofTed the Atlantic ocean, and were return- 
ing from the fhores of Senegal, or other parts of 
Africa •, fo that this account from that mod able 
and honeft feaman, confirms the later information 
of M. Adanfon. 

Mr. White, on Michaelmas day 1768, had the 
good fortune to have ocular proof of what may 
reafonably be fuppofed an actual migration of fwal- 
lows. Travelling that morning very early be- 
tween his houfe and the coaft, at the beginning 
of his journey he was environed with a thick fog, 
but on a large wild heath the milt began to. break, 
and difcovered to him numberlefs fwallows, clut- 
tered on the (landing bufhes, as if they had rooft- 
ed there: as foon as the fun burfl out, they were 
inftantly on wing, and with an eafy and placid flight 
proceeded towards the lea. After this he faw no 
more flocks, only now and then a flraggler f . 

* Phil. Tranf. Vol. LI. Part 2. p. 459. 

f In Kalm's Voyage to America, is a remarkable inflance 
of the diftant flight of fwallows ; for one lighted on the fhip 
he was in, September 2d. when he had pafled only over two 
thirds of the Atlantic ocean. His paffage was uncommonly 
quick, being performed from Deal to Philadelphia in lefs than 
fix weeks ; and when this accident happened, he was four- 
teen days fail from Cape Hinlopen. 


Class II. SWALLOWS. 409 

This rendevouz of fwallows about the fame time 
of year is very common on the willows, in the lit- 
tle iQes in the Thames. They feem to affemble 
for the fame purpofe as thofe in Hampjhire, not- 
withftanding no one yet has been eye witnefs of 
their departure. On the 26th of September lad, 
two Gentlemen who happened to lie at Maidenhead 
bridge, furnifhed at left a proof of the multitudes 
there afTembled : they went by torch-light to an 
adjacent ifle, and in lefs than half an hour brought 
afhore fifty dozen ; for they had nothing more to 
do than to draw the willow twigs through their 
hands, the birds never ftirring till they were taken. 

The northern naturalifts will perhaps fay, that 
this afTembly met for the purpofe of plunging into 
their fubaqueous winter quarters ; but was that the 
cafe, they would never efcape difcovery in a river 
perpetually fimed as the Thames, fome of them 
muft inevitably be brought up in the nets that harafs 
that water. 

The fecond notion has great antiquity on its 
, fide. Ariftotle * and Pliny -f give, as their belief, 
that fwallows do not remove very far from their 
fummer habitation, but winter in the hollows of 
rocks, and during that time lofe their feathers. 
The former part of their opinion has been adopted 
by feveral ingenious men ; and of late, feveral 
proofs have been brought of fome fpecies, at left, 

* Hijl> an. 935. 
f Lib. 10. c. 24, 

Vol. I. E e having 

410 SWALLOWS. Class II. 

having been difcovered in a torpid (late. Mr. 
Collinfon* favored us with the evidence of three 
gentlemen, eye-witnefTes to numbers of fand mar- 
tins being drawn out of a cliff on the Rhine, in 
the month of March 1762 f . And the Honorable 
Daines Barrington communicated to us the follow- 
ing fact, on the authority of the late Lord Belhaven, 
that numbers of fwallows have been found in old 
dry walls, and in fandhills near his Lordfhip's feat 
in Eaft Lothian ; not Once only, but from year to 
year ; and that when they were expofed to the 
warmth of a fire, they revived. We have alfo 
heard of the fame annual difcoveries near Morpeth 
in Northumberland, but cannot fpeak of them with 
the fame affurance as the two former : neither in 
the two laft inftances are we certain of the par- 
ticular ipecies J. 

Other witnefles crowd on us to prove the resi- 
dence of thofe birds in a torpid (late during the fe- 
vere feafon. 

Firit, In the chalky cliffs of Suffex ; as was feen 
on the fall of a great fragment fome years ago. 

Secondly, In a decayed hollow tree that was 
cut down, near Dolgelli, in Merioneth/hire. 

Thirdly, In a cliff near Whitby, TorkJhire\ where, 

* By letter, dated June 14, 1764. 

f Phil. Tranf. Vol. LIII. p. ici. art. 24. 

X Klein gives an inilance ofjkvt/is being found in a torpid 
irate, ffifi, az\ 204. 


Class II. SWALLOWS. 4" 

on digging out a fox, whole bufhels of fwallows 
were found in a torpid condition. And, 

Laftly, The Reverend Mr. Conway, of Sychton, 
Flintjkire, was fo obliging as to communicate the 
following fad : A few years ago, on looking down 
an old lead mine in that county, he obferved num- 
bers of fwallows clinging to the timbers of the 
fhaft, feemingly afleep ; and on flinging fome 
gravel on them, they juft moved, but never at- 
tempted to fly or change their place; this was be- 
tween All Saints and Chriftmas. 

Thefe are doubtlefs the lurking places of the 
latter hatches, or of thofe young birds, who are 
incapable of diflant migrations. There they con- 
tinue infenfible and rigid ; but like flies may fome- 
times be reanimated by an unfeafonable hot day 
in the midft of winter : for very near Chriftmas a 
few appeared on the moulding of a window of 
Mertcn College, Oxford, in a remarkably warm nook, 
which prematurely fet their blood in motion, hav- 
ing the fame effect as laying them before the lire 
at the fame time of year. Others have been known 
to make this premature appearance ; but as foon 
as the cold natural to the feafon returns, they 
withdraw again to their former retreats. 

I mall conclude with one argument drawn from 
the very late hatches of two fpecies. 

On the twenty-third of Qttober 1767, a mar- 
tin was feen in Southwark, flying in and out of its 
riefl: and on the twenty-ninth of the fame month, 

E e 2 four 


four or five fw 'allows were obferved hovering round 
and fettling on the county hofpital at Oxford. As 
thefe birds mud have been of a late hatch, it is 
highly improbable that at fo late a feafon of the 
year, they would attempt from one of our midland 
counties, a voyage almoft as far as the equator to 
Senegal or Goree : we are therefore confirmed in 
our notion, that there is only a partial migration 
of thefe birds s and that the feeble late hatches 
conceal themielves in this country. 

The above, are circumitances we cannot but 
alien t to, though feemingly contradictory to the 
common courfe of nature in regard to other birds. 
We muft, therefore, divide our belief relating to 
thefe two fo different opinions, and conclude, that 
one part of the fwallow tribe migrate, and that 
others have their winter quarters near home. If 
it fnouid be demanded, why fwallovvs alone are 
found in a torpid ftate, and not the other many 
fpecies of foft billed birds, which likewife difap- 
pear about the lame time? The following reafon 
may be affigned : 

No birds are fo much on the wing as fwallows, 
none fly with fuch fwiftnefs and rapidity, none 
are obliged to fuch fudden and various evolutions 
in their fight, none are at fuch pains to take their 
prey, and we may add, none exert their voice 
more inceflantly ; all thefe occafion a van: expence 
of ftrength, and cf fpirits, and may give fuch a tex- 
ture to the blood, that ether animals cannot experi- 
ence j 

Class II. SWALLOWS. 413 

ence ; and fo difpofe, or we may fay, neceffi- 
tate, this tribe of birds, or part of them, at left, 
to a repofe more lading than that of any others. 

The third notion is, even at firft fight, too a- 
mazing and unnatural to merit mention, if it was 
not that fome of the learned have been credulous 
enough to deliver, for fact, what has the ftrongeft 
appearance of impoflibility -, we mean the relation 
of fwallows pafling the winter immerfed under ice, 
at the bottom of lakes* or lodged beneath the water 
of the fea at the foot of rocks. The firft who 
broached this opinion, was Olaus Magnus,, Arch- 
bifhop of Upfal, who very gravely informs us, that 
thefe birds are often found in cluftered malTes at 
the bottom of the northern lakes, mouth to 
mouth, wing to wing, foot to foot ; and that they 
creep down the reeds in autumn, to their fubaque- 
ous retreats. That when old nTnermen difcover 
fuch a mafs, they throw it into the water again ; 
but when young inexperienced ones take it, they 
will, by thawing the birds at a fire, bring them in- 
deed to the ufe of their wings, which will conti- 
nue but a very (hort time, being owing to a pre- 
mature and forced revival *. 

That the good Archbifhop did not want credu- 
lity, in other infrances, appears from this, that a/ter 
having (locked the bottoms of the lakes with 
birds, he (lores the clouds with mice, which fome- 

* Derham's Pbyf. TheoL note d. p. 349. Pontop, kift. Norw. 
I. 99. 



times fall in plentiful fhowers on Norway and the 
neighboring countries *. 

Some of our own countrymen have given credit 
to the fubmerfion of fwallows -f- ; and Klein patro- 
nifes the doctrine ftrongly, giving the following 
hiftory of their manner of retiring, which he re- 
ceived from fome countrymen and others. They 
aiTerted, that fometimes the fwallows affembled in 
numbers on a reed, till it broke and funk with them 
to the hottom ; and their immerfion was preluded 
by a dirge of a quarter of an hour's length. That 
others would unite in laying hold of a draw 
with their bills, and fo plunge down in fociety. 
Others again would form a large mafs, by cling- 
ing together with their feet, and fo commit them- 
felves to the deep J. 

Such are the relations given by thofe that are 
fond of this opinion, and though delivered with- 
out exaggeration, mull provoke a fmile. They 
aiTign not the fmalleft reafon to account for thefe 
birds being able to endure fo long a fubmerfion 
without being fuftocated, or without decaying, in 
an clement fo unnatural to fo delicate a bird; 

* Ge/ner Icon. An. ioo. 

f'Derbam's Phyf. Thecl. 340. 349. Hildrop's Trails, II. 

X Klein hifi, a-v. 205, 206. Ekmarck migr. av. Amaen. 
acad. IV. 589. 


Class II. SWALLOWS. 415 

when we know that the otter *, the corvorant, and 
the grebes, foon perifh, if caught under ice, or en- 
tangled in nets : and it is well known, that thofe 
animals will continue much longer under water than 
any others to whom nature hath denied that par- 
ticular ftruclure of heart, neceffary for a long 
refidence beneath that element. 

* Though entirely fatisfied in our own mind ef the impoffi- 
bilty of thefe relations ; yet, defirous of ftrengthening our 
opinion with fome better authority, we applied to that able 
anatomift, Mr. John Hunter ; who was fo obliging to inform 
us, that he had differed many fwallows, but found nothing 
in them different from other birds as to the organs of refpi- 
ration. That all thofe animals which he had diffected of the 
clafs that fleep during winter, fuch as lizards, frogs, &c. 
had a very different conformation as to thofe organs. That 
all thefe animals, he believes, do breathe in their torpid flate; 
and, as far as his experience reaches, he knows they do : and 
that therefore he efteems it a very wild opinion, that terreflrial 
animals can remain any long time under water without drown- 



G O A T-S U C K E R. Class II. 


G O AT- 

BILL very more, bent at the end, bridles round 

the bafe. 
NOSTRILS tubular, very prominent. 
TAIL confiding of ten feathers, not forked. 

172. No c- L' Effraye ou Frefaye. Belon 

T U R N A L. 05f. 343. 

Caprimulgus, Geiffmelcher. 

Ge/?ier aru. 241. 
Calcobotto. Aldr. a<v. I. 288. 
Fern Owl, Goatfucker, Goat 

Owl. #7/. orn. 107. Alfo, 
Churn Owl. Rati fyn. a-v. 

26 Cfl/. Carotin. I. 8. 
Dorhawk, accipiter Cantha- 

rophagus. Charlton ex. 79. 
Xe Tette Chevre 011 Cra- 

paud volant. Brijfon av. 

II. 470. 7d£. 44. 

Covaterra. Zinanni, 94. <SVo- 

/<?//, No. 254. 
Caprimulgus europeus. Lin, 

fyft. 346. 
Natikrafa, Natfkarra, Quall- 

knarren. Faun. Suec. fp. 

Hirundo cauda squabili. H. 

caprimulga. Klein av. 8 1 . 
Nat-Ravn, Nat-Skade, Af- 

ten-bakke. Brun. 293. 
Mucken ltecker, Nachtrabb. 

Kram. 381. 
Br. Zool. 97. Tab. R. R. 1. 

J^LEIN hath placed this bird in the fwallow 
"* tribe, and ftyles it a fwallow with an undi- 
vided tail. It has mod of the characters of that 
genus ; a very fmall bill, wide mouth, fmall legs. 
It is alfo a bird of pafTage -, agrees in food with 
this genu?, and the manner of taking it : differs in 
the time of preying, flying only by night, fo with 
fome juftice may be called a nocturnal fwallow. 
It feeds on moths, knats, dorrs or chaffers ; from 
which Charlton calls it a Dorr- hawk, its food being 
entirely that fpecies of beetle during the month of 




Class II- GOAT-SUCKER, 417 

July, the period of that infect's * flight in this 

This bird makes but a fhort flay with us : ap- Migrates, 
pears the latter end of May, and difappears. in the 
northern parts of our ifland the latter end of Auguft, 
but in the fouthern (lays above a month later. 
It inhabits all parts of Great Britain, from Corn- 
wal to the county of Rcfs. Mr. Scopoli feems to 
credit the report of their fucking the teats of goats, 
an error delivered down from the days of Ariftotle. 

Its notes are mod Angular : the louden: fo much Notes. 
refembles that of a large fpinning wheel, that the 
JVelJh call this bird aderyn y dwell, or the wheel 
bird. It begins its fong mod punctually on the 
clofe of day, fitting ufually on a bare bough with 
the head lower than the tail, as exprelTed in the 
upper figure in the plate j the Ipvver jaw quivering 
with the efforts. The noife is fo very violent, as 
to give a fenfible vibration to any little building it 
chances to alight on, and euni^ this fpecies of note. 
The other is a fharp fqueak, which it repeats 
often , this feems a note of love, as it is obferved 
to reiterate it when in purfuit of the female among 
the trees. 

It lays its eggs on the bare ground; ufually Eggs, 
two: they are of a long form, of a whitifh hue, 
prettily marbled with reddifh brown, 

Scarahaus Melolontba, 


The weight of this bird is two ounces and a 
half: length ten inches and a half: extent twenty- 
two. Bill very fhort : the mouth van; : hides hazel. 
Plumage a beautiful mixture of black, white 
afh-color and ferruginous, diipofed in lines, bars 
and fpots. The male is diftinguimed from the 
female by a great oval white fpot near the end of 
the three firft quil-feathers ; and another on the 
outmoft feathers of the tail : the plumage is alfo 
more ferruginous. 

The legs fhort, fcaly and feathered below the 
knee : the middle toe connected to thofe on each 
fide by a fmall membrane, as far as the firft joint: 
the claw of the middle toe thin, broad, ierrated. 


fa* h! 

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