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-tO^P Hk]]j 

Bequest of 
S. Stillman Berry 




Xl o :n" D 0. 35T. 

Pnnted for Benj."\Vlritc\ 


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1. 1 


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Jl to face the Title 
LXI. Common Heron - Page 421 

LXII. White Heron - - 427 

LXIII. Curlew - - 429 

LXIV. Whimbrel - - 430 

LXV. Red Shank 7 
Woodcock J 
LXVI. Cinereous Godwit • - 442 

LXVII. Red Godwit - - 443 

LXVIII. Jack Snipe? ^ _ g 

Snipe A 

1 • 


LXIX, Ruff 

LXX. Gamut * - 4$5 

Vol. II. E e LXXi 



LXXL Purr -7 

Sandpiper j & 47 

LXXII. Red Sandpiper 7 

Golden Plover S ^'^ 

LXXIII. Sanderlingi 

Dotterel 3 
LXXIV. Oyster-Catcher 
LXXV. Water-Rail 

Crake Gallinule 


- All 

- 4S2 

- 484 


J - - 496 

LXXVI. Red and Grey Scollop-toed 
LXXVII. Common Gallinule 7 
Coot \ 

LXXVIII. Dusky Grebe 
Tippet Grebe 
LXXIX. Black-chin Grebe 

Eared Grebe 

LXXX. Avoset - - 504 

LXXXI. Great Auk - - 507 

LXXXII. Little Auk? 

Razor Bill j 

LXXXIII. Lesser Guillemot 

Spotted Guillemot 
LXXXIV. Imber 7 

Northern Diver 3 
1 LXXXV. Red-throated Diver 7 , 

Black-throated Diver i 
LXXXVI. Winter Gull 1 _ 

Black-toed Gull S 
LXXXVI I. Arctic Gulls - - $$$ 







LXXXVIII. Herring Gull 



Common Gull 



} - - 538 

XC. Great and Lesser Terns 545 
XCI. Stormy Petrel 7 



XTCII. M. and F. Goosander - $$6 

XCIII. M.andF. Red-breasted 


XCIV. Bean Goose 

White-fronted Wild 


XCV. Eider Duck and Drake - 581 

XCVI. M. and F. Velvet Duck - 5 S 3 

XCVII. Wild Ducks - -591 

XCVIII. Long-tailed Duck ? 

White-throated DuckS 

XCIX. Ferruginous Duck 

Long-tailed Duck, a ^ 6or 


C. Scaup Duck 7 

Bimaculated Duck! 

CI. Garganey 

Female Garganey 

CII. Shag - - 610 

£IIL Gannet m - 612 




- 602 

- Sqjl 





N° I. Rough-legged Falcon 

Page 625 

II. Roller - 

- 624 

III. Nutcracker 

- 625 

IV. M. and F. Oriole - 

- 626 

V. Rose-coloured Ouzel 

- 627 

VI. Crane 

- 629 

VII. Egret 

- 631 

VIII. Little Bittern 

- 6 33 

IX. Spoonbill 

- 634 

Compofitions for Two Piping Bullfj 

[NCHES 708 



Vol. II. F f 

PL .331. 



rS4 fr 



BILL long, ftrong and pointed. 
NOSTRILS linear. 
TONGUE pointed.. 

TOES connected as far as the firft joint by a 
ftrong membrane. 



Heron cendre. Below, av. 182. 

Alia ardea. Gefner au. 219. 

Ardea cinerea major. Aldr. 
av. iii. 157. Scopoli, No. 

Common Heron, or Heron- 
mar/. Wil. orn. 277. 

Ardea cinerea major feu pel- 
la. Raii fyn. a<v. 98. 

Garza cinerizia groiTa. Zinan. 

Le Heron hupe. Briffon a=v. 

v. 296. tab. 35. 
Reyger. Frifch II. 199. 
Blauer Rager. Kram. 346. 
Ardea major. Lin. fyjl. 236. 
Hager. 59. 
The Heron. Br. Zool. 116. 


173. Com* 



Ardea Pella live cinerea. Gef- 
ner a-v. 2H. 

Ardea cinerea tertia. Aldr. 
av. III. 159. Wil orn. 
279. & Rati fyn. a-v. 98. 

Ardea cinerea. Lin.fyft. 236. 

Danis et Norvegis Heyre v. 

Hegre. Cimbris Skid-Heire 
Skredheire. Brunnich, 156. 

Le Heron. Briffon a<v. v. 292. 
tab. 34. 

Reyger Frifch, II. 198* 

Brit. Zool, 116. 


HIS bird is remarkably light in proporti- 
on to its bulk, fcarce weighing three 
pounds and a half: the length is three 

F f 2 feet: 


feet two inches ; the breadth five feet four inches. 
The body is very fmall, and always lean ; and the 
fkin fcarce thicker than what is called gold-beater's 
fkin. It muft be capable of bearing a long abfti- 
nence, as its food, which is fifh and frogs, cannot 
be readily got at ail times. It commits great de- 
variation in our ponds •, but being unprovided 
with webs to fwim, nature has furnifhed it with 
very long legs to wade after its prey. It perches 
and builds in trees, and fometimes in high cliffs over 
the fea, commonly in company with many others, 
like rooks. At Creffi Hall near Gojberton in lan- 
coin/hire I have counted above eighty nefts in one 
tree. It makes its neft of fticks, lines it with 
wool ; and lays five or fix large eggs of a pale 
green color. During incubation, the male paffes 
much of its time perched by the female. They 
defert their nefts during winter, excepting in Febru- 
ary 9 when they refort to repair them. It was for- 
merly in this country a bird of game, heron-hawk- 
ing; being; fo favourite a diverfion of our anceftors, 
that laws were enacted for the prefervation of the 
fpecies, and the perfon who deftroyed their eggs 
was liable to a penalty of twenty {hillings, for each 
offence. Not to know the Hawk from the Heron- 
Jhaw was an old proverb *, taken originally from 
this diverfion \ but in courfe of time ferved to ex- 

* In after times this proverb was abfurdly corrupted to, 
He does not know a hawk from a hand-faw* 



Class II. C O M M O N H E R O N. 423 

prefs great ignorance in any fcience. This bird was 
formerly much efteemed as a food ; made a fa- 
vourite dim at great tables, and was valued at 
the fame rate as a Pheafant. It is faid to be very 
long lived ; by Mr. Key/lev's account it may exceed 
fixty years * : and by a recent inftance of one that 
was taken in Holland by a hawk belonging to the 
ftadtholder, its longevity is again confirmed, the 
bird having a filver plate fattened to one leg, with 
an infcription, importing it had been before ftruck 
by the elector of Cologne's hawks in 1735. 

The male is a moil elegant bird : the weight a- 
bout three pounds and a half, the length, three feet 
three; the breadth, five feet four; the bill fix 
inches long, very ftrong and pointed : the edges 
thin and rough ; the color dufky above, yellow be- 
neath ; noftrils linear ; the irides of a deep yellow ; 
orbits and fpace between them and the bill covered 
with a bare greenifn fkin. 

The forehead and crown white, the hind part of 
the head adorned with a loofe pendent creft of long 
black feathers waving with the wind ; the upper 
part of the neck is of a pure white, and the co- 
verts of the wings of a light grey ; the back clad 
only with down, covered with the fcapulars ; the 
fore part of the neck white fpotted with a double 
xow of black: the feathers are white, long, narrow, 

* Keyjler*s Travels, I. 70, 

F f 3 unweb- 

424 BITTERN. Class 1L 

unwebbed, falling loofe over the bread ; the fca- 
pulars of the fame texture, grey (beaked with white. 
The ridge of the wing white, primaries and baf- 
tard wing black •, along the fides beneath the wings 
is a bed of black feathers, very long, foft and ele- 
gant ; in old times ufed as egrets for the hair, or 
ornaments to the cans of Knis-hts of the garter •, 
the bread, belly, and thighs white: the laft darned 
with yellow. The tail confifts of twelve fhort ci- 
nereous feathers : the legs are of a dirty green : 
the toes long, the claws fhort, the inner edge of the 
middle claw finely ferrated. 
Female The head of the female is grey: it-wants the long 

creft, having only a fhort plume of dufky feathers: 
the feathers above the breafl fhort ; the fcapulars 
grey and webbed : the fides grey. This has hi- 
therto been fuppofed to be a diftiricl fpecies from 
the former \ but later obfervations prove them to 
be the fame. 

I74. BlTn 

Le Butor. Belon a-v. 192. 

Brrind, Rordump. Gefner 
r.-j. 215. 

The Myredrombie. Turner. 

Trombone, Terrabufo. Aldr. 
aw. III. 164. 

Bittour, Bittern, or Mire- 
drum. JVil. cm. 282. 

Rati Jyn. a-j. 100. 

Botaurus, le Butor. BnlTon Danis Rordrum. Brunnich, 

Garza bionda, o di color d'oro. 

Zinan. 112. Scopoli, No. 

Rohrtrummel, Moiskuh. 

Kram. 548. 
Rohrdommel. Frifcb,\l. 205. 
Ardea ftellaris. Lin.fyfi. 239. 
Rordrum. Faun. Suec. fp. 


a-v. V. 444. tab. 37. 

Br. Zool. 

117. tab. A. 1. 

THE bittern is a very retired bird, conceal- 
ing itfelf in the midft of reeds and rufhes in 


Class II. BITTERN. 425 

marlhy places. It is with great difficulty provoked 
to flight, and when on wing has fo dull and flag- 
ging a pace, as to acquire among the Greeks the 
title of oxv<§- * or the lazy. It has two kinds of 
notes ; the one croaking, when it is difturbed : 
the other bellowing, which it commences in the 
fpring and ends in autumn. Mr. Willughly fays, 
that in the latter feafon it foars into the air with a 
fpiral afcent to a great height, making at the fame 
time a Angular noife. From the firil obfervation, 
we believe this to be the fpecies of heron that Virgil 
alludes to among the birds that forbode a tempeft. 

In ficco ludunt fulicas, notafque paludes 
Deferit, atque altam fupra volat Ardea nubem f • 

For the antients mention three kinds J ; the 
Leucon^ or white heron ; the Pellos, fuppofed to 
be the common fort ; and the Afierias^ or bittern ; 
which feems to have acquired that name from this 
circumftance of its afpiring flight, as it were at- 
tempting, at certain feafons, the very ftars; though 
at other times its motion was fo dull, as to merit 
the epithet of lazy. 

Some commentators have fuppofed this to have 
been the Taurus of Pliny ; but as he has exprefsly 
declared that to be a fmall bird, remarkable for 

* Arift. hift. an. IO56. 

■f Georg. I. 363. 

% drift, hift. an. 1006. Plin. lib,, x. c. 6c, 

Ff4 imitating - 

16 BITTERN. Class II. 

imitating the lowing of oxen, we muft deny the ex- 
planation ; and wait for the difcovery of the Ro- 
man naturalift's animal from fome of the literati 
of jirks, in which neighbourhood Pliny fays the 
'escrxp. bird was found *. In fizeit is inferior to the heron : 
the bill is weaker, and only four inches long : the 
upper mandible a little arched -, the edges of the 
lower jagged : the rictus or gape is fo wide, that 
the eyes feem placed in the bill : the irides are next 
the pupil yellow ^ above the yellow incline to ha- 
zel : the ears are large and open. The crown of 
the head is black ; the feathers on the hind part 
form a fort of fhort pendent creft : at each corner 
of the mouth is a black fpot : the plumage of this 
bird is of very pale dull yellow, fpotted, barred, 
or ftriped with black : the baftard wing, the great- 
er coverts of the wings, and the quil-feathers are of 
a bright ferruginous color, regularly marked with 
black bars : the lower belly is of a whitifh yellow : 
the tail is very iliort, and confifts of only ten fea- 
thers. The feathers on the bread are very long, 
and hang loofe : the legs are of a pale green. All 
the claws are long and (lender : the inner fide of 
the middle claw finely ferrated to hold its prey the 
better •, its hind claw is remarkably long, and be- 
ing a fuppofed prefervative for the teeth, is fome- 
times fet in filver and ufed as a tooth-pick. Befides 
this common fpecies, Mr. Edwards mentions a 

* Lib. x. c. 42. 






Class II. WHITE HERON. 4*7 

fmall one of the fize of a lapwing, mot near 
Shrewjbury. He adds no more than that the crown 
of the head was black : as this anfwers the defcrip- 
tion of a kind frequent in Switzerland and Au- 
ftria*, we imagine it to be a ftrayed bird from 
thofe parts. 

It builds its neft with the leaves of water plants 
on fome dry clump among the reeds, and lays five 
or fix eggs, of a cinereous green color. This 
bird and the heron are very apt to ftrike at the 
fowler's eyes, when only maimed. The food of the 
bittern is chiefly frogs *, not that it rejects fifh, for 
fmall trouts have been met with in their ftomachs. 
In the reign of Henry VIII. it was held in much 
efteem at our tables i and valued at one milling. 
Its flefh has much the flavour of a hare ; and no- 
thin 2 of the fifhinefs of that of the heron. 

Le Heron blanc. Belon a<v. Ardea Candida, le Heron 175. WHite, 

191. blanc. Briffbn av. V. 428. 

Ardea alba. Gefncr av. 213. Groffer weiiTer Rager. Kram, 

Turner. 346. Scopoli, No. 126. 

Wil. cm. 279. Ardea alba. Lin. fyft. 239. 

Bail fyn. av. 99. Faun. Suec. fp. 166. 

Br. Zool, 117. 


HIS bird has not fallen within our obferva- 
fcionj therefore we muft give Mr. Willughbfs 

* Kramer Blench* anim. Aufiria 9 348. 


28 WHITE HERON. Class II. 

account of it. The length to the end of the feet is 
fifty-three inches and a half, to that of the tail 
only forty ; the breadth fixty inches ; the weight 
forty ounces. 

The bill is yellowifh ; the naked fkin between 
that and the eyes green ; the edges of the eye-lids, 
and the irides, are of a pale yellow -, the legs are 
black ; the inner edge of the middle claw ferrated : 
the whole plumage is of a fnowy whitenefs. This 
bird is very common in many parts of Europe ; 
Turner fays, that in his time this fpecies bred 
(though rarely) in the fame places with the com- 
mon fort : but we believe it to be feldom found 
with us at prefent, any more than the fmall fpecies 
of crefted white heron mentioned by Leland^ un- 
der the name of Egritte y in one of the bills of fare 
in the magnificent feafts of our anceftors *. 


* LelancPs cotte&anea, Vol. 6. L' Aigrette. Brijfon av. 

v. 43.. 




Class IL 



BILL long, ilender, incurvated. 

NOSTRILS linear, placed near the bafe. 

TONGUE fliort, fharp pointed. 

TOES connected as far as the firft joint by a 

ibong membrane. 


Le Corlieu. Be/on g~j. 204. 
Arquata, five numenius. Gef- 

ner a<v. %z\. 
Arcafe Torquato. Aldr. a~j. 

III. 169. 
Wil. orn. 294. 
Rail fyn. av. 103. 
Le Courly. Brijfon av. V. 


Goifler,Brach-fcknepf. Kram, 

350. Frifchy II. 229. 
Scolopax arquata. Lin. Jyft, 

Faun. Suec. /p. 168. 
Danis Heel-fpove. Regn. Spa- 

aer. Regn. Spove. Brunnich, 

Br. Zool. 118. 

176. Cur. 

THESE birds frequent our fea coafts and 
marines in the winter time in large flocks, 
walking on the open fands ; feeding on friells, 
frogs, crabs, and other marine infects : in fummer 
they retire to the mountanous and unfrequented 
parts of the country, where they pair and breed. 
Their eggs are of a pale olive color, marked with 
irregular but diflindt fpots of pale brown. Their 
flefri is very rank and fifhy, notwithstanding an 
old EngliJIj proverb in its favour. 

Curlews differ much in weight and fize; fome Descrip. 
weighing thirty-feven ounces, others not twenty- 
two : the length of the largeft to the tip of the 


43$ W H I M B R E L Class II. 

tail twenty-five inches •, the breadth three feet five 
inches ; the bill is feven inches long : the head, 
neck, and coverts of the wings are of a pale 
brown ^ the middle of each feather black ; the 
bread and belly white, marked with narrow ob- 
long black lines : the back is white, fpotted with 
a few black ftrokes : the quil-feathers are black, 
but the inner webs fpotted with white : the tail 
white, tinged with red and beautifully barred with 
black •, the legs are long, flrong, and of a bluifh 
grey color : the bottoms of the toes flat and broad, 
to enable it to walk on the foft mud, in fearch of 

|y7« Whim- Phseopus altera, vel arquata 
jrel. minor. Gefner a-v. 499. 

Taran^olo, Girardello. Atdr, 

a<v. III. 180. 
JJ'iL cm. 294. 
Rail fyn. av. 103. 
Ednv. a'v. 307. 
Scolopax Phsopus. Lin.fyft. 

245. Scope!:, No. 132. 
Windfpole, Spof. Faun. Suec. 
/p. 169. 

Kleiner GoifTer. Kram. 350. 
Kleine Art Brachvogel or Re- 

genvogel. Frifch, II. 225. 
Le petit Courly, ou le Cour- 

lieu. Numenius minor. 

BriJJbn a-v. V. 3 1 7. tab. 

Dams Mellum-Spove. JNor- 

*veg. Smaae Spue. Br. 159. 
Br, Zool. 119. 

THE whimbrel is much leis frequent on our 
fhores than the curlew -, but its haunts, 
food, and general appearance are much the fame. 
It is obferved to vifit the neighbourhood of 
Spalding (where it is called the Curlew knot) in vaft 



jvf r 

Class II. W H I M B R E L, 4-3* 

flocks in April, but continues there no longer than 
May •, nor is it feen there any other time of year : 
it-feems at that feafon to be on its paftage to its 
breeding place, which I fufpedt to be among the 
Highlands of Scotland. 

The fpecific difference is the fize ; this never ex- 
ceeding the weight of twelve ounces. The bill is Descrip, 
two inches three quarters long ; dufky above, red 
below : the feathers on the head and neck are 
brown tinged with red, marked in the middle with 
an oblong black fpot : the cheeks of a paler color : 
the upper part of the back, the coverts of the 
wings, the fcapulars, and the farthed quil-feathers, 
are of the fame color with the neck, but the black 
fpots fpread out tranfverfely on each web : the 
quil-feathers dufky ; their fhafts white ; and their 
exterior webs marked with large femicircular 
white fpots. The bread, belly, and lower part 
of the back are white : the coverts of the tail, and 
the tail itfelf, are of a very pale whitiih brown, 
croffed with black bars. The legs and feet are of 
a dull green, and formed like thofe of the curlew. 

I received one from Invercauld, mot on the 
Grampian Hills ^ whofe length was fixteen inches 5 
the bill two : the head round, black on the top, 
divided length-ways by a white line : chin white : 
cheeks, neck, bread, and upper part of the belly 
whitiih brown, marked with dreaks of black point- 
ing down, with narrow dreaks on the neck j broad 
on the belly : lower belly and vent white : back 



W H I M B R E L. Class II. 

and coverts of the wings dufky : the fides of each 
feather fpotted with reddifh white : lower part of 
the back white : rump white barred with black i 
tail barred with dufky and white: quil-feathers 
black, with large white fpots on the inner webs ; 
the fecondaries on both webs : les;s black, 







JBILL long, flender, weak and ftrait. 
NOSTRILS linear, lodged in a furrow. 
TONGUE pointed, flender. 
TOES divided, or very flightiy connected, back 
toe very fmall. 


La BeccafTe. Belon aw. zjz. 
Rufticola, feu Perdix ruitica 

major (GrofTer fchnepff). 

Gefner av. 501. 
Aldr.av. III. 182. 
Wil. or jz. 289. 
Rati fyn. aw. 104. 
La BeccafTe. Briffbn aw, V. 

Beccaccia, Acceggia. Zinan. 

Schniffa. Sccpoli, No. 134. 

Wald fchnepf. Kram. 351. 
Frifcbf II. 226. foem. 227. 

Scolopax rufticola. Z/». jyft, 

Morkulla. /*»*. tec. fp. 

Nor-vegis Biom-Rokke, Rutte, 
quibufdam Krog-quift. Da- 
ms Holt Sneppe. Brun- 
nicb, 1 64. 

Br. Zool. 119. 

Fauna Scotica. No. 142. 

178. Wood- 

THESE birds during fummer are inhabitants 
of the Alps*, of Norway, Sweden, PoIiJIs 
Prujfia, the march of Brandenburg -f , and the nor- 
thern parts of Europe : they all retire from thofe 
countries the beginning of winter, as foon as the 
frofts commence; which force them into milder 
climates* where the ground 'is open, and adapted 
to their manner of feeding. The time of their 

* WiL orn. 290. 
f Frifcb, II. 226. 



appearance and difappearance in Sweden ; coin- 
cides mod exactly with that of their arrival in, 
and their retreat from Great Britain*. They live 
on worms and infecls, which they fearch for with 
their long bills in foft ground and moid woods. 
Woodcocks generally arrive here in flocks, taking 
advantage of the night, or a mift : they foon fepa- 
rate ; but before they return to their native 
haunts, pair. They feed and fly by night ; be- 
ginning their flight in the evening, and return the 
fame way, or through the fame glades to their 
day retreat. They leave England the latter end of 
February, or beginning of March \ not but they 
have been known to continue here accidentally. 
In Cafe-wood, about two miles from Timbridge, a 
few breed almoft annually : the young having 
been fhot there the beginning of Auguft, and were 
as healthy and vigorous as they are with us in the 
winter, but not fo well tailed : a female with egg 
was ihot in that neighbourhood in April-, the egg 

* M. de Gcer's and Dr. Wallerius's letters to myfelf. M. de 
Geer exprefies himfelf thus ; La BecaJ/e (Scolopax rufticola) 
part d'zci 'vers Vantomne, Je ne fcais pas au jufte dans quel 
mois. On la trowve ici ajjez en abondance dans Pete. Elle a 
coutume aufoleil couch ant de faire fa wolee en cercle ou tcujours en 
rond en Pair re<venant toujours dans le me me endroit a plufteurs 
reprifes, et c'ejl alors qti'on peut la tirer a ccup de fujil. En hi<ver 
qu ne <uoit aucune, elle partent alors toutes. 

M. Wallerius gave me this account of them. Scolopaces rajli- 
coltz penes nos nidificant, Sed autumnali tempore ah sunt, ac ver- 
noli redeunt, 


Class II. WOODCOCK. 435 

was the fize of that of a pigeon. They are re- 
markably tame during incubation ; a perfon who 
diicovered one on its neft, has often flood over, 
and even ftroaked it: notwithstanding which it 
hatched the young - 9 and in due time disappeared 
with them. 

Thefe birds appear in Scotland firit on the eaft- 
ern coafts, and make their progrefs from Eaft to 
JVeft. They do not arrive in Breadalbane, a cen- 
tral part of the kingdom tili the beginning or mid- 
dle of November : and the coafts of Nether Lorn*, 
or of Rojfihire, till December or January : are very 
rare in the more remote Hebrides^ or in the Orknies. 
A few Itragglers now and then arrive there. They 
are equally fcarce in Cathnefs* I do not recoiled: 
that any have been difcovered to have bred in 
North Britain. 

Their autumnal and vernal appearances on the 
coaft of Suffolk have been moil accurately marked 
by Sir* John Cidlum^ Bar*, who favoured me with 
the following curious account 

From fome old and experienced fportfmen, who 
live on the coaft, I collected the following particu- 
lars. They come over fparingly in the firft week 
of Oclober^ the greater numbers not arriving tili 
the months of November and December^ and always 
after fun-fet. It is the wind and not the moon that 
determines the time of their arrival : and it is pro- 
bable that this fhould be the cafe, as tfiey come hi- 
ther in queft of food, which fails then in the 

Vol. II. G g places 


places they leave. If the wind has favoured their 
flight, their (lay on the coaft, where they drop, is 
very fhort, if any : but if they have been forced 
to ftruggle with an adverfe gale (fuch as a (hip can 
hardly make way with) they take a day's reft, to 
recover their fatigue : and fo greatly has their 
flrength been exhaufted, that they have been taken 
by hand in Southwald ftreets. They arrive not gre- 
garious, but feparate and difperied. When the 
Red wing appears on the coaft in autumn, it is 
certain the Woodcocks are at hand ; when they 
Royfion Crozv^ they are come. Between the twelfth 
and twenty-fifth of March they flock towards the 
coaft to be ready for their departure : the firft law 
of nature bringing; them to us, in autumn; the 
fecond carrying them from us in fpring. If the 
wind be propitious, they are gone immediately ; 
but if contrary, they are detained in the neigh- 
boring woods, or among the ling and furze on 
the coaft. It is in this crifis that the fportfman 
finds extraordinary diverfion : the whole country 
around echoes with the difcharge of guns ; even 
feventeen brace have been killed by one perfon 
in a day : but if they are kept any time on the dry 
heaths, they become fo lean, that they are a prey 
hardly worth purfuing, at left eating. The inftant 
a fair wind fprings up, they feize the opportunity, 
and where the fportfman has feen hundreds one day, 
he will not find a fingle bird the next. As this 
extraordinary diverfion depends on the winds, it 



Class II. WOODCOCK. 437 

mud neceflarily be precarious -, and it according- 
ly fometimes happens, that the fportfmen on the 
coaft, for fome years together know not precifely 
the time of the Woodcocks departure. They have 
the fame harbingers (the Red wings) in fpring, 
as in autumn. 

In the fame manner we know they quit France, Migra- 
Germany and Italy ; making the northern and cold 
fituations their general fummer rendezvous. They 
vifit Burgundy the latter end of October, but con- 
tinue there only four or five weeks ; it being a dry 
country they are forced away for want of fuftenance 
by the firft frofts. In the winter they are found in 
vaft plenty as far fouth as Smyrna and Aleppo *, and 
in the fame feafon in Barbary f , where the Afri- 
cans call them, the afs of the partridge : and we 
have been told, that fome have appeared as far 
fouth as JEgypt, which are the remoteft migrations 
we can trace them to on that fide theeaftern world; 
on the other fide, they are found very common in 
Japan J. The birds that refort into the countries 
of the Levant, probably come from the defarts 
of Siberia or Tartary §, or the cold mountains of 

Our fpecies of woodcock is unknown in North 

* RuJfeVs hiji. Aleppo. 64. 

•f- Shanes travels, 253. 

X Kampfer's hijl. Japan. I. 129. 

§ Bell's travels, I. i.^3. 

G g 2 America -, 

438 WO O D C O C K. Class II. 

America ; but a kind is found there that has the 
general appearance of it \ but is fcarce half the 
fize, and wants the bars on the breaft and belly. 
Dz scrip. The weight of the woodcock is ufnally about 
twelve ounces: the length near fourteen inches: 
the breadth twenty-fix : the bill is three inches 
long, duiky towards the end, reddifh at the bafe: 
tongue flender, long, {harp, and hard at the point: 
the eyes large, and placed near the top of the head, 
that they may not be injured when the bird thrufts 
its bill into the ground : from the bill to the eyes 
is a black line: the forehead is a reddifh am-color: 
the crown of the head, the hind part of the neck, 
the back, the coverts of the wings, and the fca- 
pulars are prettily barred with a ferruginous red, 
black and grey 3 but on the head the black pre- 
dominates : the quil-feathers are dufky, indented 
with red marks. 

The chin is of a pale yellow : the whole under- 
fide of the body is of a dirty white, marked with 
numerous tranfverfe lines of a dufky color. The 
tail confifts of twelve feathers, dufky, or black on 
the one web, and marked with red on the other: 
the tips above are afh- colored, below white*, which, 
when mooting on the ground was in vogue, was the 
fign the fowler difcovered the birds by. The legs 
and toes are livid; the latter divided almoft to their 
very origin, having only a very fmall web between 
the middle and interior toes -, as are thofe of the 
two fpecies of fnipes found in England. 


Class II. G O D W I T. 439 

Godwit, Yarvvhelp, or Yar- Limofa grifea major. La 179. God 
wip. Wil. orn. 290. grande. wit. 

Raii fyn. a<v. 105. Barge grife. Brijfon av. V. 

Scolopax segocephala. Lin, zj2. Tab. 24. fig* 2. 

fyfi. 246. Br. Zool. 120. Tab, 

THIS fpecies weighs twelve ounces and a half; Descrip, 
the length is fixteen inches ; the breadth 
twenty- feven ; the bill is four inches long, turns 
up a little, black at the end, the reft a pale pur- 
ple : from the bill to the eye is a broad white ftroke: 
the feathers of the head, neck, and back, are of a 
light redclifh brown, marked in the middle with a 
dulky fpot : the belly and vent feathers white : the 
tail regularly barred with black and white. 

The fix firft quil-feathers are black \ their in- 
terior edges of a reddifh brown : the legs in forne 
are dufky, in others of a greyifh blue-, which per- 
haps may be owing to different ages : the exterior 
toe is connected as far as the firft joint of the 
middle toe, with a ftrong ferrated membrane. The 
male is diftinguifned from the female by forne black 
lines on the bread and throat - 3 which in the female 
are wanting. 

Thefe birds are taken in the fens, in the fame 
feafon, and in the fame manner with the ruffs and 
reeves, and when fattened are efteemed a great de- 
licacy, and fell for half a crown, or live fhillings 
G g 3 a piece, 

G O D W I T. Class"!!. 

a piece. A dale of the fame fpecies is placed in 
the net. They appear in fmall flocks on our coaft 
in September^ and continue with us the whole, win- 
ter ; they walk on the open fands like the curlew $ 
and feed on infects. 

M. Brijfon has figured this bird very accurately, 
but has given it the fyrionym of our green/hanks. 
"Turner fufpech this bird to have been the attagen 
or attagas of the antients. Ariftophanes names it 
in an addrefs to the birds that inhabit the fens ; 
therefore fome commentators conclude it to be a 
water- fowl; though in a line or two after he fpeaks 
of thofe that frequent the beautiful meadows of 
Marathon. He then defcribes the bird in very 
flriking terms, under the title of the attagas, the 
bird with painted wings ; and in another place he 
flyles it the [potted attagas*. This alone would 
be inefficient to prove what fpecies the poet intend- 
ed j we mud therefore have recourfe to Athenaus^ 
who is particular in his defcription of the attagas^ 
and evinces it to be of the partridge tribe. 

He fays it is lefs than that bird ; that the back 
is fpotted with different colors, fome of a pot co- 
lor, but more red ; that by reafon of the fhortnefs 
of the wings and heavinefs of the body, it is taken 

Arrays st©- vrao nfjuv womb®- H&t>wrzTou t 

Av. 249. 762. 


Class II. G O D W I T. 

eafily by the fowlers. That it rolls in the duft, brings 
many young, and feeds on feeds. 

We are forry to own our fmall acquaintance with 
the zoology of Attica, confidering the various op- 
portunities our countrymen have had of informing 
themfelves of it. We therefore cannot pronounce, 
that the atiagas ftill exifts on the plains of Mara- 
thon-, but we difcover it in Santos, an iiland of Ionia, 
a country celebrated by the antients for produ- 
cing the fineft kinds : 

Inter fapores fertur alitum primus 
lonicarum gull us attagenarum, 

Is the opinion of Martial*-, and Horace f, and 
Ptiny%* DOtn fpeak of it with applaule. Tourne* 
fort § has given us the figure of the bird ltfelf, 
which he found in the marjhes of Samos, whofe 
painted and fpotted plumage exactly anfwers the 
defcriptions of Arijlophanes and Athenaus. It is of 
the partridge genus, and known to the Italians 
by the name of Francolino. Thofe who wiih to fee 
it in its proper colors, and to be fatislied how well 
they agree with the defcriptions of the antients, 
need only confult the 246th plate of the works of 
our ingenious friend the late Mr. Edwards. 

* Epig. Lib. XIII. Ep. 6i. 

f Epod. II. 

% Lib. X. c. 48. 

§ Voy h Vol. I. 311. 4/0. ed. 

G g 4 THIS 

442 RED G O D W I T. Class. II. 

180. Cine- / | \HIS fpecies was fhot near Spalding, and 
jl^ the defcription communicated to me by the 
Rev. Doctor Buckwortb. 

The biU was two inches and a half Ions;. The 
head, neck, and back variegated with auVcolor and 
white : the tail flightly barred with cinereous. 
The throat and bread white : the laft marked 
with a few afh-colored fpots. The legs long, 
ilender, and afh-colored. 

This was about the fize of my Green Jkanks: ap- 
proaches it nearly in colors : but the bill was fo 
much thicker, as to form a fpecific diftinction. 

1S1. Red. Scolopax Lappcnica. Lin.fyft. Faun. 174. 
24-6. Br. Zool. add. plates. 

Dsscrip. / a ^ HE red godwit is fuperior in fize to the 
1 common kind : the bill is three inches three- 
quarters long ; not quite ftrait, but a little reflected 
upwards -, the lower half black, the upper yellow: 
the head, neck, breaft, fides, fcapulars, and up- 
per part of the back, are of a bright ferrugi- 
nous color : the head marked with oblong dufky 
lines : the neck is plain : the breaft, fides, fcapu- 
lars, and back varied with tranfverfe black bars, 







Class II. RED G O D W I T. 

and the edges of the feathers with a pale cinereous 
brown : the middle of the belly is white, marked 
fparingly with fimilar fpots. 

The lefTer coverts of the wings are of a light 
brown : the greater tipt with white : the fhafts and 
lower interior webs of the greater quil-feathers are 
white : the exterior webs and upper part of the in- 
terior black : the upper half of the fecondary fea- 
thers are of the fame color ; the lower half white : 
the coverts, and the lower part of the feathers of 
the tail are white ; the upper part black ; the 
white gradually leffening from the outmoft fea- 
thers on each fide : the legs are black, and four 
inches long: and the thighs above the knees are 
naked for the fpace of an inch and three-quarters. 

Thefe birds vary in their colors, foine that we 
have feen being very flightly marked with red, or 
only marbled with it on the bread : but the re- 
flected form of the bill is ever fufficient to deter- 
mine the fpecies. This is. not a very common fpe- 
cies in England; we have known it to have been 
{hot near Hull-, and have once met with it in a 
poulterer's fhop in London. Mr. Edwards has fi- 
gured a bird from Hud/on 9 s Bay, that feems related 
to this i but the difference in the colors of the 
tail, forbids our placing it among the fynonyms. 
And Linnaus omitting a defcription of that part, 
in his Fauna Suecica, obliges us to queftion whe- 
ther it be the fame with the above. 



182. Lesser. La Barge. Belon an>. 205. Fedoanoftrafecunda, the Stone 
The fecond fort of God wit, Plover Rail fyn. a>v. 105. 

the Tot anus of Aldrcvand ; Limcfa, la Barge. BriJ/on a<v. 
called at Venice, Veiola. V. 262. 

Wil. orn. 293. Br. Z00L 120. 


R. Ray (for we are not acquainted with 
Descrip. xYJL this fpecies) defcribes it thus. Its weight is 
nine ounces ; the length to the tail feventeen inches ; 
to the toes twenty-one ; its breadth twenty-eight : 
the bill like that of the former: the chin white, 
tinged with red : the neck afh-colored ; the head of 
a deep afh-color, whitifh about the eye; the back 
of a uniform brownnefs, not fpotted like that of 
the preceding : the rump encompaifed with a white 
ring : the two middle feathers of the tail black : 
the outmoft, efpecially on the outfide web, white 
almoft to the tips •, in the reft the white part grew 
lefs and lefs to the middlemoft. 

Befides thefe, Mr. Willughby mentions a third 
fpecies, called in Cornwal the Stone Curlew \ but 
defcribes it no farther than faying it has a fhorter 
and flenderer bill than the preceding. 


Class II. GREEN SHANK. 445 

Limofa, et glottis. Gefner a<v. Scolopax glottis. Lin.fyft. 245. 183. Green 

ciq, 520. Glut. Faun. Suec. Jp. 171. Shank, 

Piviero. Aldr. av. III. 207. Pivier Maggiore. Zinan. 102. 

Greater Plover of Aldro-vand. Nor-uegis Hoeft-Fugl. 167. 
Wil. or 11. 298. Brunnich. 

Raiifyn. av. 106. Br. Zool. 121. 

Tfchoket. Scopoli, No. 137. 

THESE birds are not fo common as the for- 
mer : appearing on our coafts and wet 
grounds in the v/inter time in fmall flocks. The Descrip, 
length to the end of the tail is fourteen inches, to 
that of the toes twenty ; its breadth twenty-five. 
The bill is two inches and a half long : the upper 
mandible black, ftrait, and very flender ; the lower 
reflects a little upwards : the head and upper part 
of the neck are afh-colored, marked with fmall 
dufky lines pointing down : over each eye paries 
a white line : the coverts of the wings, the fcapu- 
lars, and upper part of the back are of a brown- 
ifh. afh-color : the quil-feathers dulky, but the in- 
ner webs fpeckled with white: the bread, belly, 
thighs, and lower part of the back are white : the 
tail white, marked with undulated dufky bars : 
the inner coverts of the wings finely crofTed with 
double and treble rows of a dufky color. 

It is a bird of an elegant ihape, and fmall weight 
in proportion to its dimenfions, weighing only fix 




The legs are very long and {lender, bare above 
two inches higher than the knees. The exterior 
toe is united to the middle toe, as far as the fe- 
cond joint, by a ftrong membrane which borders 
their fides to the very end. 

Thefe birds are the Chevaliers aux pieds verds of 
the French; as thefpotted redfhanks are the Cheva- 
liers aux pieds rouges. 

\%\, Re q 


GaUinuIa erythropus. G 

av. 504. 
Totanus Aldr. av, III. vjt, 

Redfhank, or Pool-fnipe. 

U 11. cm. 299. 
Rati Jyn. crv. 1 c ~ 

5c. Totanus. Fair,:. Suec. Pp. 

Rothfufsler Kram. 353. 
Kleiner grau-und-weiibunter 

Sandlceuffer ? Fri/cb, II. 


Totanus, le Chevalier. Brijpm Hoemantopus , magnitudine 
av. V. 1S8. Tab. \7-fig. 1. inter Vanellum et Galli- 

Scolop?.x Caiidris. /,;«. ^j#. naginem minorem media. 



s itin. 2 

2?r. Zcol. 124. 


THIS fpecies is found on moil of our mores : 
in the winter time it conceals itfelf in the 
gutters •, and is generally found fmgle, or at mod 
in pair. 
De scrip. It weighs five ounces and a half: the length 
is twelve inches : the breadth twenty-one: the bill 
near two inches long, red at the bafe, black to- 
wards the point. The head, hind part of the neck, 
and fcapulars, are of a dufky afh-color, obfeurely 
fpotted with black : the back is white, fprinkled 


Class II. CAMBRIDGE. 447 

with black fpots : the tail elegantly barred with 
black and white : the cheeks, under fide of the 
neck, and upper part of the breaft are white, 
ftreaked downward with dufky lines : the belly 
white : the exterior webs of the quil-feathers are 
dufky : the legs long, and of a fine bright orange 
color : the outmofl toe connected to the middle toe 
by a fmall membrane ; the inmoft by another (till 

It breeds in the fens, and marfhes -, and flies 
round its neft when difiurbed, making a noife like 
a lapwing. It lays four eggs, whitifh tinged with 
olive, marked with irregular fpots of black chiefly 
en the thicker end. 

I DISCOVERED this in the collection of the 285. Cam. 
Rev. Mr. Green, fnot near Cambridge. bridge. 

It is larger than the common redfhank. The 
head, upper part of the neck, and the back are of 
a cinereous brown : the leffer coverts of the wings 
brown edged with dull white, and barred with 
black : the primaries dufky, whitifh on their inner 
fides : fecondaries barred with dufky and white : 
under fide of neck and bread of a dirty white : bel- 
ly and vent white: tail barred with cinereous and 
black : legs of an orange red, 


44 8 COMMON SNIPE. Class II. 

1 86. Spot ted Le chevalier rouge. Belon a<v. The other Totano. Wil. orn. 
Redshank. 207. 299. 

Aldr. a<v. III. 171. Le Chevalier rouge. Brijfon 

a<v. V. 192. 

THIS fpecies we found in the collection of Hay- 
lor White, Efq. In fize it is equal to the green- 
fhank : the head is of a pale afh-coior, marked 
with oblong ftreaks of black : the back duiky, 
varied with triangular fpots of white : the coverts 
of the wings afh-colored, fpotted in the fame man- 
manner : the quil-feathers dufky ; bread, belly, and 
and thighs white, the firft thinly fpotted with black : 
the middle feathers of the tail are afh-colored ; the 
fide feathers are whitifh, barred with black : the 
legs very long, and of a bright red. 

e 87. Com- La Becaffine ou BecafTeau. Scolopax gallinago. Lin.fyft* 

MON Sn. Belon a-v. 215. 244. 

Gallinago, feu rufticola mi- Horfgjok. Faun. 17-3. 

nor. Gefner a<v. 503. Capella coeleftis. Klein av. 

Aldr. aro. III. 184. 100. 

The Snipe, or Snite. Wil. JJlandis Myr Snippe. Norvegts 

orn. 290. Trold Ruke. Cimbris qui- 

Raiijyn. av. 1 05. bufd. Hoflegioeg. Danis 

La Beccaffine. Brijfon a<v. V. Dobbelt Sneppe , Steen 

298. Tab. 26. Jig. I. Sneppe. Br. 160. 

Pizzarda, Pizzardella. Zinan. Br. Zool. 121. 

101. Kofitza. Scopoli, No. 138. 
Moofs fchnepf. Kram. 352. 

Frijch, II. 229. 


N the winter time fnipes are very frequent in all 
our marfhy and wet grounds, where they lie 






Class II. COMMON SNIPE. 449 

concealed in the rufhes, &c. In the fummer they 
difperfe to different parts, and are found in the 
midft of our highefl mountains, as well as our 
low moors : their neft is made of dried grafs -, they 
lay four eggs of a dirty olive color, marked with 
dufky fpots ; their young are fo often found in 
England, that we doubt whether they ever entirely 
leave this ifland. When they are difturbed much, 
particularly in the breeding feafon, they foar to a 
vafl height, making a lingular bleating noife ; and 
when they defcend, dart down with vail rapidity : 
it is* alfo amufing to obferve the cock (while his 
mate fits on her eggs) poife himfeif on his wings, 
making fometimes a whiffling and fometimes a 
drumming noife. Their food is the fame with that 
of the woodcock ; their flight very irregular and 
fwift, and attended with a ihrill fcream. They are 
moil univerfal birds, found in every quarter of the 
globe, and in all climates. 

This fpecies weighs four ounces; the length, to Descrif. 
the end of the tail, is near twelve inches : the 
breadth about fourteen : the bill is three inches long, 
of a dufky color, flat at the end, and often rough 
like fhagrin above and below. The head is di- 
vided lengthways with two black lines, and three 
of red, one of the laft patting over the middle of the 
head, and one above each eye ; between the bill 
and the eyes is a dufky line: the chin is white: the 
neck is varied with brown and red. 

The fcapulars are beautifully ftriped lengthways 


45o GREAT SNIP E. Class II. 

with black and yellow : the quil-feathers are dulky, 
but the edge of the firft is white, as are the tips 
of the fecondary feathers : the quil-feathers next 
the back are barred with black and pale red: the 
bread and belly are white : the coverts of the tail 
are long, and almoft cover it : they are of a reddilh 
brown color. The tail coniiits of fourteen feathers ; 
black on their lower part, then crorTed with a 
broad bar of deep orange, another narrow one of 
black ; and the ends white, or pale orange. The 
vent feathers a dull yellow : the legs pale green : 
the toes divided to their origin. 

1 88. Great ryvHIS fpecies is rarely found in England. A 
fine fpecimen, fhot in Lancajhire, is pre- 
ferved in the Mufeum of Ajhton Lever, Efq. 

The weight eight ounces. The head divided 
lengthways by a teftaceous line, bounded on each 
fide by another of black : above and beneath each 
- ' eye is another : neck and bread of a yellowifli 
white, finely marked with femicircular lines of 
black : belly, with cordated fpots : fides undulated 
with black. 

Back, coverts of wings, and fcapulars tefcace- 
ous, {potted with black and edged with white. 
Primaries dufky. Tail mil-colored, barred with 
black. Lees black ? 


Class II. J A C K S N I P E. 


Gid, Jackfnipe, and Jud- 
cock. WiL orn. 291. 

Rail fyn. a-v. 105. 

La petite Beccaffirie. Brijfon 
a-j. V. 303. tab. 26. fig. 2. 

Pokerl. Scope/:, No. 139. 

Pizzardina. Zinan. ioi. 

Scolopax gallinula. £/». ^/?. 

Ddr»/j Roer-Sneppe. Brunnich, 

Haar-Schnepfe , Pudel-Sch- 

nepfe, Kleinfte Sclmepfe. 

Frifch, II. 231. 
Br. Zool. 121 

189. Jack 


THE haunts and food of this fpecies are the 
fame with thofe of the former \ it alio feeds 
on fmail fnails : it is much lefs frequent among us, 
and very difficult to be found, lying fo clofe as to 
hazard being 'fad on before it will rife : the flight 
is never difiant, and its motion is more fluggifh 
than that of the larger kind. 

Its weight is lefs than two ounces, inferior by 
half to that of the fnipe ; for which reafon the 
French call them deux pour un y we the half fnipe. 
The dirnenfions bear not the fame proportion*, 
the length of the fnipe being twelve inches ; this 
eight and a half: the bill an inch and a half long : 
crown of the head black, tinged with ruft color : 
over each eye is a yellow ftroke % the neck varied 
with white, brown, and pale red. The fcapular 
feathers narrow, very long, brown, bordered with 
yellow. The rump a gloify bluifh purple : the 
Vol. II. H h belly 



452 J A C K S N I P E. Class II. 

belly and vent white -, the greater quil-feathers duf- 
ky : the tail brown, edged with tawny ; confiding 
of twelve pointed feathers : the legs are of a cine- 
reous green. 


Class II. 



BILL ftraight, (lender, not an inch and half long. 
NOSTRILS fmall. 
TONGUE flender. 

TOES divided ; generally the two outmoft con- 
nected at the bottom by a fmall membrane. 



Le Vanneau, Dixhuit, Pape- Rati fyn. a<o. no. 

chieu. Belon a<v. 209. Kiwik. Kram. 353. Frifch, 
Zweiel. Gefner av. 765. II. 213. 

Pavonzino. Aldr. au» III. Tringa Vanellus. Lin. Jyfi. 

Pavoncella. Olina, 21. 
Lapwing, baflard Plover, or 

Pewit. Wil. orn. 307. 
Vanellus, le Vanneau. Brif- 
fonav. V. 94. tab. 8. Jig. I. 

Wipa, Kowipa, Blxcka.. Faun. 

Suec. fp. ij6- 
Danis Vibe, Kivit. Brunnich, 

i?r. Zool. izl. Scopoli, No. 141. 

190. Lap- 


^TpHIS elegant fpecies inhabits mod of the heaths 
A and marfhy grounds of this ifland. It lays 
four eggs, making a flight neft with a few bents. 
The eggs have an olive cad, and are fpotted with 
black. It is worthy of notice, that among water 
fowl, congenerous birds lay the fame number of 
eggs ; for example, all of this tribe, alfo of the plo- 

* This genus, the Tringa of htnnaus, wanting an Englijb 
name, we have given it that of the Sandpipers ; moil: of 
the fpecies being converfant about mores; and their note 
whittling or piping, 

H h 2 vers, 

L A P W I N G. Class II. 

vers, lay four a-piece; the puffin genus only one; 
and the duck tribe, in general, are numerous 
layers, producing from eight to twenty. 

The young as foon as hatched, run like chickens : 
the parents fhew remarkable folicitude for them, 
flying with great anxiety and clamour near them, 
driking at either men cr dogs that approach, and 
often flutter along; the ground like a wounded bird- 
to a confiderable difrance from their ned, to elude 
their purfuers - y and to aid the deceit, become more 
clamorous when mod remote from it : the eeo-s are 


held in great edeem for their delicacy \ and are fold 
by the London poulterers for three millings the 
dozen. In winter, lapwings join in vaft flocks -, 
but at that feafon are very wild : their flcfh is very 
good, their food being infects and worms. Du- 
ring October and November, they are taken in the 
fens in nets, in the fame manner that Ruffs are, 
but are not prefer ved for fattening, being killed 
as foon as caught. 

Their weight is about eight ounces : the length 
thirteen inches and a half: the breadth two feet and 
a half. The bill is black, and little more than an 
inch long-; the crown of the head of a mining; black- 
nefs : the creft of the fame color, confiding of 
about twenty (lender unwebbed feathers of unequal 
lengths, the longed are four inches : the cheeks 
and fides of the neck are white -, but beneath each 
eye is a black line : the throat and fore part of 
the neck are black : the plumage on the hind part 



mixed with white, afn-color and red : the back 
and fcapulars are of a rnoft elegant gloffy green ^ 
and the latter finely varied with purple : the leiTer 
covert feathers of the wings are of a refplendent 
black blue and green : the greater quil-feathers 
black, but the ends of the four firft are marked 
with a white fpot : the upper half of the leffer quil- 
feathers are black, the lower white : thofe next 
the body of the fame colors with the fcapulars : 
the bread and belly are white : the vent-feathers and 
the coverts of the tail orange color : xhe tail con- 
fids of twelve feathers -, the outmoft on each fide is 
white, marked on the* upper end of the inner web 
with a dufky fpot ; the upper half of all the others 
are black, tipt with a dirty white ; their lower half 
of a pure white : the legs are red : the irides hazel. 

The female is rather lefs than the male. 

Merret, in his Pinax, p. 182. fays, that there is 
in Cornwal a bird related to this ; but lefs than a 
thrufh, having blue feathers, and a long creft. 

H h 3 Le 



191. Grey. Le piuvier gris. Belon a<v* 

Pivier montane Aldr. a-v. III. 

Wil. orn. 309. 
Rati fyn a<v. III. 
Tringa fquatarola. Lin. fyfi. 

Faun. Suec. fp' 186. 

Vanellus grifeus, le Vanneau 

gris. Brijfon a<v. V. 1 00. 

tab. 9 fig. 1. 
Piviero montano. Zinan, 102. 
Bornholmis Floyte-Tyten, 

Doiken, Brunnicb, 176. 
Br Xool. 122. Scopoli, No. 


Descrip. fT weighs feven ounces : the length to the tip of 


the tail is twelve inches : the breadth twenty- 
four : the bill black, about an inch long, ftrong 
and thick : the head, back, and coverts of the 
wings black, edged with greenifh afh-color, and 
fome white : cheeks and throat white,' marked with 
oblong dufky fpots: the belly and thighs white: 
the exterior webs of the quil-feathers black : the 
lower part of the interior webs of the four firft 
white : the rump white : the tail marked with tranf- 
verle bars of black and white : the legs of a dirty 
green : the back toe very fmall. 

Thefe appear in fmall flocks in the winter time, 
but are not very common : their flelh is very de- 





JW 1£ 

Class II. RUFF. 457 

Avis pugnax. Aldr. a-v. III. mer. Brijfon a<v, v. 240. *92. Ruff, 

167. tab. 22. 

Wil. orn. 302. Danis Bruufhane. Brunnich, 

Raiijyn. a<v. 1 07. 168. 

Krofsler. Kram. 352. Streitfchnepfe, Rampfhashn- 

Tringa pugnax. Lin.Jyft. 247. lein. Frifch, II. 232, 235. 

Brufhane. )*###. 175. i?r. Z00/. 123. Scopoli, No. 

Le Combattant, on Paon de 140. 

THE males, or Ruffs, affume fuch variety of 
colors in feveral parts of their plumage, 
that it is fcarce poflible to fee two alike ; but the 
ereat length of the feathers on the neck, that gives 
name to them, at once diftinguifhes thefe from all 
other birds. On the back of their necks is a fingu- Debcrip. 
lar tuft of feathers fpreading wide on both fides. 
Thefe, and the former, in fome are black j in 
others white, yellow, or ferruginous -, but this tufc 
and the ruffs frequently differ in colors in the fame 
bird. The feathers that bear an uniformity of color- 
ing through each individual of this fex, are the 
coverts of the wings, which are brown inclining to 
afh-color : the feathers on the bread, which are 
often black or dufky : the four exterior feathers 
of the tail, which are of a cinereous brown -, and 
the four middle, which are barred with black and 
brown : the bili is black towards the end ; red at 
the bafe. The legs in all, are yellow. In moulting 
they lofe the character of the long neck-feathers, 
H h 4 nor 

RUFF. Class II. 

nor do they recover it till after their return to the 
fens the fpring following. It is then they regain 
that ornament, and at the fame time a fet of fmall 
pear fhaped yellow pimples break out in great 
numbers on their face above the bill. 

The Stags or male birds of the firft year want 
theie marks, and have fometimes been miftaken 
for a new fpecies of Tringa ; but they may be 
eafily known by the colors of the coverts of the 
wings, and the middle feathers of the tail. 

The older the birds are, the more numerous 
the pimples, and the fuller and longer the ruffs. 

The length of the male to the tip of the tail 
is one foot, the breadth two ; of the Reeve ten in- 
ches, the breadth nineteen: the weight of the former 
when juft taken is feven ounces and a half; of the 
latter only four. 

The Reeves never change their colors, which 
are pale brown : the back fpotted with black, {light- 
ly edged with white : the tail brown ; the middle 
feathers fpotted with black : the bread and belly 
white : the legs of a pale dull yellow. 

Theie birds appear in the fens in the earlier!: 
fpring, and difappear about Michaelmas. The 
Reeves lay four eggs in a tuft of grafs, the firft 
week in May\ and fit about a month. The eggs 
are white, marked with large rufty fpots. Fowlers 
avoid in general the taking of the females* not 
only becaufe they are fmaller than the males ; but 
that they may be left to breed. 


Class II. R U F F. 459 

Soon after their arrival, the males begin to ij£g 9 
that is to collect on fome dry bank near a fplafh of 
water, in expectation of the females, who refort to 

Each male keeps pofTeflian of a fmall piece of 
ground, which it runs round till the grafs is worn 
quite away, and nothing but a naked circle is left. 
When a female lights, the ruffs immediately fall 
to fighting. I find a vulgar error, that ruffs muff. 
be fed in the dark lead they fhould deflroy each 
other by fighting on admiflion of light. The truth 
is, every bird takes its ftand in the room as it 
would in the open fen. If another invades its circle, 
an attack is made, and a battle enfues. They 
make ufe of the fame action in fighting as a cock, 
place their bills to the ground and fpread their 
ruffs. I have fet a whole room full a fighting by 
making them move their (tations; and after quitting 
the place, by peeping through a crevice, feen them 
refume their circles and grow pacific. 

When a fowler difcovers one of thofe bills, he 
places his net over night, which is of the fame kind 
as thofe that are called clap or day nets, only ic is 
generally fingle, and is about fourteen yards long 
and four broad. 

The fowler reforts to his ftand at day break, 
at the diftance of one, two, three, or four hun- 
dred yards from the nets, according to the time of 
the feafon ; for the later it is, the fhyer the birds 
grow. He then makes his firft pull, taking fuch 


460 R U F F: Class II. 

birds that he finds within reach : after that he 
places his fluff: birds or ftales to entice thofe that are 
continually traverfing the fen. An old fowler told 
me, he once caught forty-four birds at the firfl: 
hawl, and in ail fix dozen that morning. When 
the ftales are fet, feldom more than two or three 
are taken at a time. A fowler will take forty 
or fifty dozens in a feafon. 

Thefe birds are found in Lincolnflrire> the IJle 
oj 'Ely -, and in the eaft riding of Tor kjhire* ; where 
they are taken in nets, and fattened for the table, 
with bread and milk, hempfeed, and fometimes 
boiled wheat ; but if expedition is required, fugar 
is added, which will make them in a fortnight's 
time a lump of fat : they then fell for two millings 
or half a crown a piece. Judgement is required 
in taking the proper time for killing them, when 
they are at the higheft pitch of fatnefs, for if that 
is neglected, the birds are apt to fall away. The 
method of killing; them is by cutting off their 

C? t JO 

head with a pair of fcirTars : the quantity of blood 
that iflues is very great, confidering the fize of 
the bird. They are drefTed like the woodcock, 
with their interlines •, and, when killed at the criti- 
cal time, fay the Epicures, are reckoned the mod 
delicious of all morfels, 

* They viiit a place called Martin-Mere in Lancajhire, the 
latter end of March or beginning of April, but do not continue 
there above three weeks. 


Class II. K N O T. 461 

Wil. cm. 302. IJlandis Sidlingar-Kall. Nor- 193. Knot, 

Rati fyn, av. 108. wegis FiserePift. Fiaer-Kurv, 

Ed'-w. a--o. 276. Fiser-Muus. Bornholmis 

Le Canut. ' Briffbn a<v. V. Rytteren. 

2 r8. Brunnich, Tringa maritima. 

Trihga canutus. Lin, fyft. 182. 

25 i. £r. Zocl 123. 
F**«; Suec. fp. 183. 

THE fpecimens that we had opportunity 6f ex- 
amining, differ a little in colors, both from 
Mr. Willughbyh defcription, and from Mr. Ed- 
ward?* figure : the forehead, chin, and lower part Descrip. 
of the neck in ours were brown, inclining to afh 
color : the back and fcapulars deep brown, edged 
with afh color : the coverts of the wings with 
white, the edges of the lower order deeply fo, form- 
ing a white bar: the, fides, and belly 
white ^ the two firft ftreaked with brown : the co- 
verts of the tail marked with white and duiky 
fpots alternately : the tail afh colored, the outmoft 
feather on each fide white : the legs were of a blu- 
ifh grey •> and the toes, as a fpecial mark, divid- 
ed to the very bottom: the weight four ounces 
and a half. 

Thefe birds, when fattened, are preferred by 
fome to the ruffs themfelves. They are taken in 
great numbers on the coafls of Lincoln/hire, in 
nets fuch as employed in taking ruffs $ with two or 



three dozens of dales of wood painted like the 
birds, placed within : fourteen dozens have been 
taken at once. Their feafon is from the begin- 
ning of Auguft to that of November. They diiap- 
pear with the firft frofts. Camden * fays they de- 
rive their name from king Canute, Knute, or Knout, 
as he is fometimes called; probably becaufe they 
were a favorite difh with that monarch. We know 
that he kept the feaft of the purification of the 
Virgin Mary with great pomp and magnificence at 
Ely, and this being one of the fen birds, it is not 
unlikely but he met with it there f. Shake/pear 
in his Othello, fpeaking of Roderigo (if Mr. Tbeo~ 
bald's reading is juft) makes the Knot an emblem 
of a dupe : 

" I have rubb'd this young Knot almoft to the fenfe ; 
" And he grows angry." Othello. 

194. Ash Tringa cinerea. Brunnich, Braun und Weisfbunter Sand- 
Colored. ornith. 53. lceuffer ? Frifcb, II. 237. 

Br. Z00L 1 24. 

Descrit. OpHIS fpecies weighs five ounces: the length is 

•** ten inches : the breadth nineteen : the head 

is of a brownifh afn color, fpotted with black : the 

* Camden Brit. 97 1. 

f Dugdah on embanking, 185. 

. whole 


whole neck aih. color, marked with dufky oblong 
Itreaks : the back and coverts of the wings ele- 
gantly varied with concentric femicircles of aih, 
color, black and white : the coverts of the tail 
barred with black and white: the tail aih colored, 
edged with white : the bread and belly of a pure 
white : the legs of a greenifh black : the toes bor- 
dered with a narrow membrane, finely fcolloped. 

Thefe birds appear on the mores of Flint/hire, m 
the winter time, in large Mocks. 

>~jpHIS fpecies is in the collection of Mr. Tunftal^ *95« Brown, 

is of the fize of a jack-fnipe. The bill is 
black : the head, upper parr, of the neck, and 
back, are of a pale brown, fpotted with black : 
coverts of the wings dufky, edged with dirty white: 
under fide of the neck white, ftreaked with black : 
the belly white : tail cinereous : legs black. 
Bought in the London marked 

Spotted Tringa. Edw'. a<v, Tringa macularia. 'Liii, fyft, 196. Spot- 
277. 249. ted, 

Turdus aquaticus, la Grive Br. Zoo!. 124. 
d'Eau. Brijfon a*u. V. 255. 

^T^HIS bird is common to Europe and America \ 
according to Mr, Edwards's figure, it is lefs 
than the preceding. 



Pesqrip. The bill is of the fame colors with that of the 
red fhank : the head, upper part of the neck, the 

back and coverts of the wings, are brown, in- 
clining; to olive, and marked with triangular black 
fpots : above each eye is a white line : the greater 
quil-feathers are wholly black, the leiTer tipt with 
white : the middle feathers of the tail are brown : 
the fide feathers white, marked with dufky lines : 
the whole under fide, from neck to tail, is white, 
marked with dusky fpots : the female has none 
of thefe fpots, except on the throat : the legs of 
a dusky flefh color. Mr. Edwards imagines thefe 
to be birds of paffage ; the bird he toke his de- 
fcription from was fhot in Effex. 

197. Black. T\/FR« Bolton favored us with a defcription of this 

**" fpecies (hot in Lincoln/loir e. 
Descrip. It was the fize of a thrum : the beak fhort, 

blunt at the point and dusky: the noftrils black: 
the irides yellow : the head fmall and flatted at 
top : the color white, mod elegantly fpotted with 
grey: the neck, moulders, and back mottled in 
the fame manner, but darker, being tinged with 
brown \ in fome lights thefe parts appeared of a 
perfect black and gloffy : the wings were long : 
the quil-feathers black, crofTed near their bafe 
with a white line: the throat, bread, and belly 
white, with faint brown and black fpots of a 




Class II. TURNSTONE. 46; 

lonp-ifti form, irregularly difperfed; but on the 
belly become larger and more round -, the tail 
fhort, entirely white, except the two middle fea- 
thers, which are black :. the legs long and (lender, 
and of a reddifh brown color. 

Tringa Gambetta. Lin. fyji. Totanus ruber. Brijfon, V. 198. Gam- 

248. Faun. Suec. No. 177. 192. Scopoli, No. 142. BET. 

Gambetta. Wil. orn. 300. Tringa varieguta. Brunnicb, 

Raiijyn. av. 117. Aldr. a-v. No. 181. 

^T^HIS fpecies is of the fize of the Green-Jhank : 
■*■ the head, back, and bread cinereous brown, 
fpotted with dull yellow : the coverts of the wings, 
fcapulars, cinereous, edged with yellow : the pri- 
maries dusky : the fhaft of the firft feather white : 
belly white : tail dusky, bordered with yellow : 
legs yellow. 

This fpecies has been fnot on the coafl of Lin- 

Tarnflone, or Sea Dottrel. 

La Coulon-chaud, Arenaria. 199. Turn 

Wil. orn. 311. 

Briffbn a<v, V. 132. STONE. 

Cat. Carol. J. 72. 

Tringa Morinellus. Lin. Jyft. 

Morinellus Marinus. Rail 


Jyn. a<v. 112. 

Br. Zool. 125. 

npHIS fpecies is about the fize of a thrum : the 
•* bill is an inch in length, a little prominent 


466 TURNSTONE. Class IL 

on the top •, is very ftrong ; black at the tip, and 
at the bale whitifn : the forehead and throat are 
afh colored : the head, whole neck and coverts of 
the wings are of a deep brown, edged with a pale 
reddifh brown : the fcapular feathers are of the 
fame color, very long, and cover the back : that 
and the rump are white ; the lad marked with a 
large triangular black fpot: the tail confifts of 
twelve feathers, their lower half is white, the up- 
per black, and the tips white : the quil-feathers 
are dulky, but from the third or fourth the bot- 
toms are white, which continually increafes, till 
from about the nineteenth the feathers are entirety 
of that color : the legs are fhort and of an orange 

Thefe birds take their name from, their method 
of fearching for food, by turning up fmall ftones 
with their flrong bills to get at the infects that 
lurk under them. The bird we toke our defcrip- 
tion from was fhot in Shropjhire. Mr. Ray ob- 
ferved them flying three or four in company on the 
coalts of Corneal and Merioneth/hire : and Sir Tho- 
mas Brown of Norwich difcovered them on the 
coaft of Norfolk ; communicating the picture of 
one to Mr. Ray, with the name of Morinellus ma- 
rinus> or fea dottrel. 


Ednu. 141. 

200, HeBRI' 

renaria, Le Coulon-chaud. 


Briflbn, V. 132. 

CtAssii. hebridal: ^7 

Tringa interpres. Lin. Jy/F. 

248. Faun. Suec No. 178. 

Turnitone from Hudfon's Bay. 

'npHIS fpecies is often mot in the north of 
A Scotland, and its iflands ; alio in North 

Is of the fize of a thrufh : forehead, throat, 
and belly white : breaft black : neck furrounded 
with a black collar; from thence another bounds 
the fides of the neck, and pafTes over the forehead : 
head and lower part of the neck behind white; 
the firft ftreaked with dufky lines : back ferru- 
ginous, mixed with black : coverts of the tail white, 
crofTed with a black bar : tail black, tipt with 
white : coverts of the wings cinereous brown ; the 
lower order edged with white: primaries and fe- 
condaries black ; the ends of the lad white : ter- 
tials ferruginous and black : legs rather fhortg 
and of a full orange. 

Vol. II. I i Cfoctu*. 



20 1. Green. Cinclus. Belon av. 216. 

Gallinseaquaticae fecundafpe- 

cies de nov. adjedl. Gef- 

ner a~u. 511. 
Giarolo, Gearoncello. Aldr. 

civ. III. 1S5. 
The Tringa of Aldrovand. 

Wil. cm. 300. 
Ran fyri: eev. 108. 
Tringaochropus.Zztf.^y?. 251. 
Weifpunctirto SandlcsufFer . 

Frifck, II. 239. 

Fann. Siiec. fp. r£o. 

Le Beccaffeau ou Cul-blanc, 
Tringa. Brijfon a=o. V. 
177. tab. 16. fig. 1. 

Danis Horfe-Gioeg. IJtan- 
dis Hroffagaukr. Nowegis 
Skodde Foil , Skod-de- 
Fugl. Jordgeed. Makkre- 
Goukj Rces jouke. Brun- 
nicb, 183. 

Br. Z00L 12c. 

^TpHIS beautiful fpecies is not very common in 



thefe kingdoms. The head and hind part of 

the neck are of a brownifh am color, ftreaked with 
white; the under part mottled with brown and 
white : the back, fcapulars, and coverts of the wings 
are of a dufky green, gloffy and refplendent as filk, 
and elegantly marked with fmall white fpots : the 
lefTer quil-feathers of the fame colors : the under 
fides of the wings are black, marked with nume- 
rous white lines, pointing obliquely from the edges 
of the feather to the fhaft, reprefenting the letter 
V: the rump is whiter the tail of the fame color: 
the fir ft feather plain, the fecond marked near the 
end with one black fpot, the third and fourth with 
two, the fifth with three, and the fixth with four. 

Except in pairing time, it is a folitary bird : it 
Is never found near thefea; but frequents rivers, 
lakes, and other frefli waters. In France it is 



highly efteemed for its delicate tafte ; and is taken 
with limed twigs placed near its haunts. 

Mr. Fleifcher favored us with a bird from Den* 
mark, which, in all refpects, refembled this, ex- 
cept that the fpots were of a pale ruft color: 
Linnaeus delcribes it under the title of 'Tringa lit- 
torea, Faun. Suec. fp. 185. but we believe it does 
not differ fpecifically from that above defcribed. 

Tringa Icelandica. Lin. fyji. Randbriflanger. Brunnich, 202. Red, 

inter addenda. No. 1 80, 

Tringa ferruginea Ijlandis 

Y) IRDS of this fpecies have appeared in great 
"■^ flocks on the coaft of EJfex, on the eftate of 
Col. Schutz. 

Crown of the head fpotted with black and fer- 
ruginous. The lower fide of the neck, the breafb, 
and belly of a full ferruginous color : back mark- 
ed with black and ruft color : coverts of the wings 
alh color : legs black : bill ftrong, an inch and a 
half long : the whole length of the bird ten inches. 

La Maubeche tachetee. Briffbn V. -29? 203. Aber- 


-HpHIS was communicated by the late Doctor 
•*■ David Skene of Aberdeen. 

I i 2 Bill 


Bill (lender and black : head, back, lefier co- 
verts of the wings, and the fcapulars, of a dull fer- 
ruginous color, fpotted with black : the greater co- 
verts tipt with white : quil-feathers dufky, edged 
on the exterior fide with white : bread reddifh. 
brown, mixed with dufky : belly and vent white : 
tail cinereous ; two middle feathers longer than the 
reft : legs black ; fize of the former. 

204. Com- 

Gallinula hypoleucos (Fyf- Guinetta, la Gulgnette. Brif- 

terlin). Gefiur av. 509. 
, v. III. 182. 
Wil, orn. 301. 
Rati fyn. av. 108. 
SandlaufFerl. Kraftt. 353. 
Tringa hypoleucos. Lm.fyjl. 

Snappa, Strandfutare. Faun. 

Suec. fp. 182. 

Jen a-v. V. 183. tab. 16. 

fig- >• 

Kor-vegis der lille Myrftik- 
kel. Bornbolmis Virlen. 
Brnnnich, 174. 

Br. Zool. 125. 

Martin's Sccpoli, No. 143. 


THIS fpecies agrees with the former in its man- 
ners and haunts ; but is more common : its 
note is louder and more piping than others of this 
Its weight is about two ounces : the head 


is brown, (beaked with downward black lines -, the 
neck an obfeure afh color : the back and coverts 
of the wings brown, mixed with a glofly green, 
elegantly marked with traniVerfe du/ky lines : over 
each eye is a white (broke : the bread and belly are 
of a pure white : the quil-feathers are brown, the 
firft entirely fo, the nine next marked on the inner 






JX? i?' 7 -/ 

Class IT. DUNLIN. 471 

web with a white fpot : the middle feathers of the 
tail brown -, edges fpotted with black and pale red : 
the exterior tipt and barred with white : the legs 
of a dull pale green. 

Wil. orn. 205. Danis Domfneppe, Ryle. 205. Dtjn« 
Raiifyn. a<v. 109. Brunnich, 167, & 173. lin. 

Tringa alpina. Lin. fyft. 249. Kleinfle Schnepfe, or Kleinfte 
Faun. Suec. fp. 181. SandlceufFer. Frzfch, II. 

La BeccafTme d'Angleterre. " 241. 

Brijfon av. V. 309. Br, Zool. 126. t ah. fig. 2. 

^r^HIS fpecies is at once diflinguifhed from the Descrip. 

"^ others by the fingularity of its colors. The 
back, head, and upper part of the neck are fer- 
ruginous, marked with large black fpots : the low- 
er part of the neck white, marked with fhort 
dufky flreaks : the coverts of the wings afh color : 
the belly white, marked with large black fpots, or 
with a black crefcent pointing towards the thighs : 
the tail afli colored, the two middle feathers the 
darkeft : leo;s black : toes divided to their origin. 
In fize it is fuperior to that of a lark. Thefe birds 
are found on our fea coafts ; but may be reckoned 
among the more rare kinds. They lay four eggs 
of a dirty white color, blotched with brown round 
the thicker end, and marked with a few fmall fpots 
of the fame color on the fmaller end. I received the 
eggs from Denmark \ but as I have {hot thefe birds 

in May, and again in Juguft, on the mores of 
J i 3 Flintjhire, 

472 P U R R E. Class II. 

Flint/hire^ fuppofe they breed with us ; but I never 
difcovered their neft. They are common on the 
York/hire coafls, and efteemed a great delicacy. 

206. Purre. L'Allouette de Mer. Belon Stint, in Suffix the Ox-eye. 
a<v. 213. Rail Jyn. a-u. no. 

Cinclus five Motacilla Mari- N. Com. Petr. IV. 428. 

tima, Lyfbklicker. Gefner L'Allouette de Mer, Cinclus. 

a<v. 616. Briffin av. V. 211. tab. 19. 
Giarolo. Aldr. a<v. III. 1S8. fig. 1. 

The Stint. Wil. orn. 30c;. Tringa cinclus. Lin.Jyft. 251. 

Br. Zool, 126. 

Descrip. ^TpHIS bird weighs about an ounce and a half 


length feven inches and a half; extent fourteen 


inches : the head and hind part of the neck are afh 
colored, marked with dufky lines : a white ftroke 
divides the bill and eyes : the chin white : under- 
fide of the neck mottled with brown : the back is 
of a browniih afh color: the breaft and belly 
white : the coverts of the wings and tail a dark 
brown, edged with light afh color or white : the 
greater coverts dufky, tipt with white : the upper 
part of the quil-feathers dusky, the lower white : 
the two middle feathers of the tail dusky, the reft 
of a pale afn color, edged with white: the legs of 
a dusky green •, the toes divided to their origin. 
The bill an inch and a half long, flenderand black 5 
irides dusky. 

Theie birds come in prodigious flocks on our 


Class. II. LITTLE S AND PIPER. 4 ?-3 

fea coafts during the winter : in their flight they 
perform their evolutions with great regularity -, ap- 
pearing like a white, or a dusky cloud, as they turn 
their backs or their breafts towards you. They 
leave our fhores in fpring, and retire to fome un- 
known place to breed. 

They were formerly a we'll known dim at £ur ta- 
bles i known bv the name of Stints. 

THIS is the left of the genus, fcarcely equal- 207. Little, 
ling a hedge fparrovv in fize. The head, 
upper fide of the neck, the back, and coverts of 
the wings brown, edged with black and pale ruf- 
ty brown. Bread and belly white. 

The greater coverts dusky, tipt with white : the 
primaries and fecondaries of the fame colors. The 
tail dusky* Legs black. 

This fpecimen was communicated to me by the 
Rev. Mr. Green, of trinity College, Cambridge s> 
and was fhot near that place in September. It is 
.common to North America and Europe. 

I i 4 HILL 


XXXII. BILL ftrait, no longer than the head 



TOES, wants the hind toe. 

208. Golden. Le Pluvier Guillemot. JBclon Dalekarlis Akerhona, Lappis 

az\ 260. Hutti. Faun. 190. 

Pluvialis. Gefncr a<v. 714. Pluvialis aurea,le Pluvier dore. 

Pivier. Aldr. ay. III. 206. Brijpm a<v. V. 43. Tab. 4. 

Wil. cm. 308. fig. 1. 

Rcii Jyn. a-v. in. Piviero verde. Zinan. 102. 

Brachhennl. Kram. 354. Norvegu Akerloe, Cimbris 

Rechter Brachvogel. Frifch, Brok-FugU Brunnicb, 187. 

II. 21;. Br. Zool. 128. 

Charadrius Pluvialis. Lin, 
Jyjh 254. 

THIS elegant fpecies is often found on our 
moors and heaths, in the winter time, in 
Pescrip. fmail flocks. Its weight is nine ounces : its length 
eleven inches : its breadth twenty-four : the bill is 
fhort and black : the feathers on the head, back, 
and coverts of the wings are black, beautifully 
fpotted on each fide with light yellowifh green : 
the bread brown, marked with greenifh oblong 
ilrokes : the belly white : the middle feathers of 
the tail barred with black and yellowifh green : 
the reft with black and brown : the legs black. 
We have obferved fome variety in thefe birds, but 
cannot determine whether it is owing to age or fex: 



JVP 2£>2. 



Class. II. GOLDEN PLOVER. 475 

we have feen fome with black bellies, others with a 
mixture of black and white; others with bluifri legs, 
and fome with a fmall claw in the place of the hind 

They lay four eggs, fharply pointed at the leffer 
end, of a dirty white color, and irregularly mark- 
ed, efpeciaily at the thicker end, with black blotch- 
es and fpots. It breeds on feveral of our unfre- 
quented mountains ; and is very common on thofe 
of the ifle of Rum, an4 others of the loftier He- 
brides. They make a fhrill whiftling noife : and 
may be indeed within fhot by a fkilful imitator of 
the note. 

This fpecies, on account of its fpots, has been 
fuppofed to have been the Far Mis oiAriftotle: but 
his account of the bird makes no mention of that 
diftinclion : perhaps he thought that the name im- 
plied it. The Romans feem to have been unac- 
quainted with the plover : for the name never once 
occurs in any of their writings. We derive it from 
the French Pluvier, pource qtfon le prend mieux en 
temps pluvieux qu'en nulle autre faifon*. 

Belon Oyfeaux. 26c. 




209. Long 

Le grand Chevalier d ? Ita- 
lie. Belon * Portr. d''Oy- 
feaux, 53. 

' Aldr. a<v 

Gefner a<v. 546 

Himantopus. WiL cm. 297 

Rail Jyn. au. 106. 

III. 176. 

Sibb. Scot. 19. 'Tab. II. 13. 
L' EchaiTe. Brifibnav. V. 33. 

Tab. 3. fig. 1. 
Charadrius himantopus. Lin. 
fyfi. 255. Scopoli, No. 148. 
Br. Zool. 128. <&&/. plates. 

npHIS is the moft lingular of the Britifh birds. 
-*- The legs are of a length, and weaknefs great- 
ly difproportioned to the body, which is inferior 
in fize to that of the green plover: this, added to 
the defc£t of the back toe, muft render its paces 
Descrip. aukward and infirm. The naked part of -the thigh 
is three inches and a half long-, the legs four and a 
half: theie, and the feet are of a blood red: the 
bill is black, above two inches long. The length 
from its tip to the end of the tail is thirteen inches ; 
the breadth from tip to tip of the wing twenty- 
nine inches : the forehead, and whole under fide 
of the body are white : the crown of the head, 
back, and wings black : on the hind part of the 
neck are a few black fpots : the tail is of a greyifh 
white: the wings when clofed extend far beyond it. 
Thefe birds are extremely rare in thefe ifiands : Sir 
Robert Sibbald records a brace that were fhot in 
Scotland: another was fnot a few vears aor> on Stan- 
tun-Har court common near Oxford, and we have igqii 







them often in the cabinets of the curious at Paris, 
taken on the French coails. 


Morinellus avis anglica. Gef- 

ner a<v. 615. 

Wil. orn. 309. 

Rail fyn. a<v. III. 

Camden. Brit. I. 570. 

Pluvialis minor, five mori- 
nellus, le petit Pluvier, 
ou le Guignard. Brijfon 
aw* V. 54. Tab. 4. < /g\ 2. 

Charadrius morinellus. Lin. 

fyft. 254. 
Lappis Lahul. Faun. Siiec. fp, 

Caii opufc. 96. 
Cimbris Pomerants Fugl. Nor- 

<vegis Bold Tioet. Mindre 

Akerloe. Brunnich, 185. 
i?r. Zool. 129. 

210. Dot- 

THE female dottrel, according to Mr. Willugh- 
fy-> weighs more than four ounces ; the male 
above half an ounce lefs. The length of the female 
ten inches; the breadth nineteen and a half: the 
male not fo large. The bill black, flender, de- 
prefTed in the middle, and not an inch long : the 
forehead, top and back of the head black, the 
former fpotted with white ; a broad white ftroke 
that prefies over the eyes, furrounds the whole : 
the cheeks and throat are white : the neck of a 
cinereous olive color: the middle of the feathers of 
the back, and coverts of the wings and tail olive - 9 
but their edges of a dull deep yellow : the quil- 
feathers are brown, with brown fhafts ; but the ex- 
terior fide and the fhaft of the firft feather is 
white. The tail confifts of twelve feathers of a 
farown olive color, barred near their ends with 

black 3 


478 DOTTREL. Class II. 

black, and tipped with white. The bread and 
fides are of a dull orange color j but immediately 
above that is a line of white, bounded above with 
a very narrow one of black. The belly (in the 
male) is black: thighs and vent-feathers white: 
legs yeliowiili green : toes dufky. 
Female, The colors of the female in .general are duller: 

the white over the eye is lefs ; and the crown of 
the head is mottled with brown and white. The 
white line crofs the bread is wanting. The belly 
is mixed with black and white. 
Place. Thefe birds are found in Cambridge/hire, Lincoln- 

jhire, and Derby/hire : on Lincoln-heath, and on the 
moors of DerbyJJjire they are migratory, appear- 
ing there in fmall flocks of eight or ten only in 
the latter end of April, and ftay there all May and 
part of June, during which time they are very fat, 
and much efleemed for their delicate flavor. In 
the months of April and September they are taken 
on the Wiltjhire and Berkfhire downs : they are alfo 
found in the beginning of the former month on 
the fea fide at Meales in Lancajhire, and continue 
there about three weeks, attending the barly fal- 
lows : from thence they remove northward to a 
place called Leyton Haws, and flay there about a 
fortnight -, but where they breed, or where they 
refide during winter, we have not been able to 
difcover. They are reckoned very fooliih birds, 
ib that a dull fellow is proverbially called a Dottrel. 
They were alfo believed to mimick the action of 


Class II. 


the fowler \ to ftretch out a wing when he flretch- 

ed out an arm, &c. continuing their imitation. 


gardlefs of the net that was fpreading for them. 

To this method of taking them, Michael Drayton 
alludes in his panegyrical verfes on Coryate's Crudi- 
ties : 

Moft worthy man with thee it is even thus, 
As men take Dottrels, fo haft thou ta'en us ; 
Which as a man his arme or leg doth fet, 
So this fond bird will likewife counterfeit. 

At prefent, fportfmen watch the arrival of the 
Dottrels^ and moot them - 3 the other method hav- 
ing been long difufed. 


Charadrius five hiaticula. 

Aldr. av. III. 207. 
Wil. arn. 310. 
Raiifyn. a<v. 112. 
Griefshenr.l. Kram. 354. 

fp. 187. 
Pluvialis torquata minor, le 2u.R1.tfGE® 
petit Piuvier a collier. 
Brijfon air. V. 63. Tab. 
5. fig. 2. 

Charadrius hiaticula. Lin.fyft. Bornholmis Prcefte - Krave , 
253. Scopoli} No. .147. Sand-Vrifter. Brunnich, 

Strandpipare, Grylle, Trulls, 184. Frifcb, II. 214. 

Lappis Pago. Fau?/. Suec. Sea Lark. Br. ZooL II. 383. 

IT weighs near two ounces. The length is fe- 
ven inches and a half ^ the breadth fixteen : 
the bill is half an inch long \ the upper half orange 
color j the lower black \ from it to the eyes is a 



4 8o S A N D E R L I N G, Class II. 

black line ; the cheeks are of the fame color ; the 
forehead white, bounded by a black band that 
paries over from eye to eye •, the crown of the head 
is of a fine light brown ; the upper part of the 
neck is incircled with a white collar -, the lower part 
with a black one; the back and coverts of the 
wings of a light brown ; the bread and belly 
white ; the* tail brown, tipt with a darker made; 
the legs yellow. 

Thefe birds frequent our mores in the fummer, 
but are not numerous. They lay four eggs of a 
dull whitiih color, fparingly fprinkled with black : 
at approach of winter they difappear. 

212. Sand- Sanderling, or Curwillet. the Maubeche grife. BriJ'on 

erlikg. 7/7/. cm. 303. aw, V. 256. Tab. 20. 

Baiijyn. av. 109. f.g. 2. 

Towillee. Borlafe hifi. Corn- Charadrius Caladris. Lin.fyft. 

W. 247. ' 255. 

Calidris grifea minor, la pe- Br. Zed. 129. add. plates. 


E have received this fpecies out of Lan- 
cafoire ; but it is found in greater plenty 
on the Cornijh fhores, where they fly in flocks. The 
Descrip. landerling weighs little more than one ounce three 
quarters. Its length is eight inches -, extent fifteen. 
Its body is of a more fiend er form than others of 
the genus. The bill is an inch long, weak and 
black. The head, and hind part of the neck are 


Class II. SAINT BERLIN G. 481 

afh-colored, marked with oblong black ftreaks; 
the back and fcapulars are of a brownifh grey, 
edged with dirty white -, the coverts of the wings, 
and upper parts of the quil-feathers dtifky: the 
whole under fide of the body is white -, in fome 
flightly clouded with brown. The tail confifts of 
twelve fharp pointed feathers of a deep afli color \ 
the legs are black, 







BILL long, comprefTed, the end cuneated. 
NOSTRILS linear. 

TONGUE, a third the length of the bill 
TOES, only three. 

213. Pied. La Pie, BecafTe de mer. Be- 

lon av. 203. 
Hasmatopus. Gefner a~j. 548. 
Aldr. art. III. 176. 
Wil. om. 297. 
Rail fyn. au. 1 05. 
L'Hutrier, Pie de mer. Brif- 

fon a*v. V. 38. tab. 3. fg. I. 
The Oyirer Catcher. Cat. 

Carol. I. 85. Hcematopus 

oftralegus. Lin. fyji. 257. 
Marfpitt, Strandfkjura, Faun. 

Suec. fp. 192. 

Pica marina. Caii ofufc. 62. 

N. Com. Petr. IV. 425. 

Tirma, or Trilichan. Mar- 
tin's <voy. St. Kilda. 35. 

IJlandis mas Tiaildur, fcemina 
Tilldra. Feroenfibus Kiel- 
der. NorvegisTield v. Kield, 
Glib, Strand-Skiure. Danis 
Strand-Skade . Brunnich 9 

Br. Z00L 127. 

SEA Pies are very common on mod of our 
coafts -, feeding on marine infects, oyfters, lim- 
pets, &c. Their bills, which are compreiTed fide- 
ways, and end obtufely, are very fit inflruments to 
infinuate between the limpet and the rock thofe 
fhells adhere to -, which they do with great dexte- 
rity to get at the fifh. On the coaft of France^ 
where the tides recede fo far as to leave the beds of 
oyfters bare, thefe birds feed on them \ forcing the 
{hells open with their bills. They keep infummer 
time in pairs, laying their eggs on the bare ground : 


TiX X I V 

J\T? 21o 



they lay four of a whitifh brown hue, thinly 
fpotted and ftriped with black : when any one 
approaches their young, they make a loud and 
fhrill noife. In winter they affemble in vaft flocks, 
and are very wild. 

Weight fixteen ounces ; length feventeen inches. De scrip. 
Bill three inches, compreffed, obtufe at the end, 
of a rich orange color : hides crimfon : edges of 
the eye-lids orange •, beneath the lower a white fpot. 
Head, neck, fcapulars, and coverts of the wings a 
fine biack ; in- fome the neck marked with white : 
wings du/ky, with a broad tranfverfe band of 
white: the back, bread, belly, and thighs white: 
tail (hort, confifts of twelve feathers ; the lower 
half white ; the end black : legs thick and ftrong ; 
of a dirty flefh color : middle toe connected to the 
exterior toe as far as the firft joint by a ftrong mem- 
brane : the claws dufky, fhort and flat. 

Vol, II. K k BILL 



Class 15. 


BILL (lender 7 . a little comprefled, and (lightly 

NOSTRILS fmall. 
TONGUE rough at the end. 
TAIL very fhorr. 


Water. Le RaOe noir. Belon a<v. 112. 
Gallina cinerea (aihhunlin). 
Gefner ai>. 515. 

Ralla aquatica. Aldr. a-v. 

III. 179. 
Water-rail, Bilcock, or Brook 

Ouzel. Wil. cm. 314. 
Rail fyn. av. 1 13. 
Waller hennl Kram, 348. 

Rallus aquaticus. Lin. fyjl. 

Faun. Suec.fp. 195. 
Rallus aquaticus, le Rafle 

d'Eau- Brijfonan). i^i.taB. 

\z.fig.z. Scopoli, No. 155. 

Norvegis Vand-Rixe. Feroen- 

fibus Jord-Koene. Brunnhh^ 

j?r. Zw/. .130. 


THE water rail is a bird of a long (lender 
body, with fhort concave wings. It delights 
lefs in flying than running-, which it docs very fwiftly 
along the edg;es of brooks covered with bufhes : as 
it runs, every now and then flirts up its tail ^ and in 
flying hangs down its legs : actions it has in com- 
mon with the water hen. 

Its weight is four ounces and a half. The length 
to the end of the tail twelve inches : the breadth 
fixteen. The bill is (lender, flightly incurvated, 
one inch three quarters long : the upper mandible 
black, edged with reds the lower orange colored: 






JW 226*. 

Class II. RAIL. 4^5 

the irides red : the head, hind part of the neck, 
the back, and coverts of the wings and tail are 
black, edged with an olive brown; the bafe of the 
wing is white; the quil-feathers and fecondaries 
dufky : the throat, breaft, and upper part of the 
belly are afh-colored : the fides under the wings as 
far as the rump finely varied with black and white 
bars. The tail is very fhort, confifts of twelve 
black feathers ; the ends of the two middle tipt with 
ruft-coior; the feathers immediately beneath the tail 
white. The legs are placed far behind, and are 
of a duiky Mem-color. The toes very long, and 
divided to their very origin; though the f^et are not 
webbed, it takes the water; will fwim on it with 
much eafe ; but oftener is obierved to run along 
the furface. 

This bird is properly fui generis^ agreeing with no 
other, fo forms a feparate tribe. M. Brijfon and 
Linnaeus place it with the land Rail, and Mr. 
Kay with the water hens, which have their peculiar 
characters, fo very diflincT: from the Rail, as to 
confcitute another genus, as may be obferved in th? 
generical table preceding this ciafs. 

% k 2 BILL 





BILL thick at the bafe floping to the point, the 
upper mandible reaching far up the forehead, 

WINGS fhort and concave. 

BODY compreifed. 

TOES long, divided to the origin. 

21 C. Spot- Gailinula ochra (Wynker- 
ted. nell). Gefner. aw. .513. 

Porcellana, Porzana, Grug- 

netto. Alar, av. III. 181. 

Grinetta. Wil. om.fp, 8. p. 

Rail fyn. au. 115. fp. 7. 

Rallus aquat. minor, fi*e 
Maruetta, le petit Raile 
d'Eau, ou la Mfj-ouette. 

BriJJon av. V. 1 55. tab. 13. 

fig- «« 
Couchouan ou Marouette. 

Argen-u. Lit be I. q 3 3 . tab. 25, 
Kleines gefprenkeltes WafTer- 

huhn. Frifchy II. 211. 
Rallus porzana. Lin. fyfi, 

Br. Zool. 130. 

THIS fpecies is not very frequent in Great Bri- 
tain, and is faid to be migratory. Inhabits 
the fides of fmall ftreams, concealing itfelf among 
Descrif. the bufhes. Its length is nine inches ; its breadth 
fifteen : its weight four ounces five drachms. 
The head is brown, fpotted with black ; the neck 
a deep olive, fpotted with white ; from the bill be- 
yond the eyes is a broad grey bar : the feathers of 
the back are black next their fliafts, then olive co- 
lored, and edged with white: thefcapulars are olive, 



finely marked with two fmall white fpots on each 
web : the legs of a yellowifh green. 


Le Rafle rouge cm de Genet. 

Be Ion aro, 212. 
Ortygometra, Crex. Gefner 

a-v, 361, 362. 
Aldr. av. III. 179. 
Rail, or Daker Hen. Wil. 

orn. 170. Phil, Tranfi. II. 

Rati fyn. a<v. $S. 
Corn-crek. Sib. Scot. 16. 
Corn-craker. Martin's Weft. 

Iftes, 71. . 
Rallus geniflarum, le Rafle 

de Genet, ou Roi des Cail- 

les. Brijfcn a<v 

Tab. 13. fig. 2. 
Wachtel-konig. Kram, 349. 
Rallus Crex. Lin. fyft. 261. 
Angfnarpa, Korknarr, Sey- 

dreifvver. Faun. Suec. Jp, 

Danis & Norv. Vagtel-Konge. 

Aker-Rixe. Skov-Snarre, 

Norvegis quibufda?n Ager= 

hoene. Brunnich, 192* 
Br. Zocl. 131. 
Roftz. Scopoli, No. 154. 

V. 159. 216, Crake, 

'T^HIS fpecies has been fuppofed by fome to 
■*■ be the fame with the water rail, and that it 
differs only by a change of color at a certain 
feafon of the year : this error is owing to inatten- 
tion to their characters and nature, both which 
differ entirely. The bill of this fpecies is fhort, 
ftrong, and thick ; formed exactly like that of the 
water hen, and makes a generical difdnction. It 
never frequents watery places, but is always found 
among corn, grafs, broom, or furze. It quits this 
kingdom before winter -, but the water rail endures 
our fharpeft feafons. They agree in their aver- 
fion to flight; and the legs, which are remarkably 
long for the fize of the bird, hang down whilft 

.K k 3 they 


they are on the wing -, they truft their fafety to their 
fwiftnefs of foot, and feldom are fprung a fecond 
time but with great difficulty. The land rail lays 
from twelve to twenty eggs, of a dull white color, 
marked with a few yellow fpots; notwithstanding 
this, they are not very numerous in'this kingdom. 
Their note is fmgular, refembling the word Crex 
often repeated They are in greateft plenty in 
Angle. jea, where they appear about the twentieth 
of April, fuppofed to pafs over from Ireland, where 
they abound : at their firft arrival it is common to 
fhoot feven or eight in a morning. They are found 
in moil of the Hebrides, and the Orknies. On their 
arrival they are very lean, weighing only fix ounces 5 
but before they leave this ifland, grow fo fat as to 
weigh above eight. 
De scrip. The feathers on the crown of the head, hind 

part of the neck, and the back, are black, edged 
with bay color : the coverts of the wings of the 
fame color ; but not fpotted : the tail is fhort, and 
of a deep bay : the belly- white : the legs afh-colored, 





La Poulette d'eau. Belon av. Gallinella aquatica, Porza- z17.CoM- 

none. Zinan. 109. M0K * 

Wafierhennl. Kram. 358. 

Rothblasffige Kleine Waffer- 
huhn. Frifch, II. 209. 

Fulica chloropus. Lin. fyft. 

Brumiich, 19 1. Scopoli, NOo 


Ein wafTerhen. Gefner a<v. 

Chloropus major noftra. Aldr. 

av. III. 177. 
Common Water-hen, or Moor- 

hen. Wil. orn. 312. 
Rati fyn. a<v. 112. 
Gallinula, la Poule d'eau. Br. Zool. 131. 

BriJ/bn av. VI. 3. Tab. 1. 

THE male of this fpecies weighs about fifteen 
ounces. Its length to the end of the tail 
fourteen inches : the breadth twenty-two. The 
crown of the head, hind part of the neck, the 
back, and coverts of the wings are of a fine, but 
very deep olive green. Under fide of the body cine- 
reous : the chin and belly mottled with white * 
quil-feathers and tail dufky : exterior fide of the 
fieft primary feather, and the ridge of the wings 
white : vent black : feathers juft beneath the tail 
white : legs dufky green. The colors of the plu- 
mage in the female, are much lefs brilliant than that 
of the male : in fize it is alfo inferior. Mr. Wil- 
lughby in his defcription takes no notice of the 
beautiful olive glofs of the plumage of thefe birds 1 
nor that the bill affumes a fuller and brighter red 
in the courting feafon. 

It gets its food on grafTy banks, and borders near 
K k 4 f refh 



frefh waters, and in the very waters, if they be 
weedy. It builds upon low trees and fhrubs by the 
water fide ; breeding twice or thrice in the fum- 
mer \ and when the young are grown up, drives 
Eggs. them away to fhift for themfelves. They lay feven 
eggs of a dirty white color, thinly fpotted with ruft 
color. It (hikes with its bill like a hen •, and in 
the fpring has a fhnll call. In flying it hangs 
down its legs : in running often flirts up its tail, 
and fhews the white feathers. We may obferve, 
that the bottoms of its toes are fo very flat and 
broad (to enable it to fwim) that it feems the bird 
that connects the cloven-footed aquatics with the 
next tribe; the fin toed. 


Pi. IX3SFL-. 

jsr^2is *u() 




BILL (trait and (lender. XXXVI. 

NOSTRILS minute. TqVil' 

BODY and LEGS like the Sandpiper. 
TOES furnifhed with fcalloped membranes. 

Grey Coot footed Tringa. Tringa Lobata. Lin.fyfi. 249. 218. Grey, 

Ed=w. av. 308. Faun. Suec.fp. 179. 

P.hil. Tranf. Vol. 50. Brur.nich, 171. 

Le Phalarope, Brijfon a<v. Br. ZqoL 126. 

VI. 12. 

THIS is about the (ize of the common Purre> Descrif, 
weighing one ounce. The bill black, not 
quite an inch long, flatted on the top, and chan- 
neled on each fide ; and the noftrils are placed in 
the channels : the eyes are placed remarkably high 
in the head : the forehead white : the crown of the 
head covered with a patch of a dufky hue, (pot- 
ted with white and a pale reddifh brown ; the reft 
of the head, and whole under part of the neck and 
body are white : the upper part of the neck of a 
light grey : the back and rump a deep dove color, 
marked with dufky fpots : the edges of the fca- 



pulars are dull yellow: the coverts dufky, the low- 
er or larger tipt and edged with white : the eight 
firft quil- feathers dufky °, th^ fliafts white ; the low- 
er, part of the interior fide white : the fmaller quil- 
feathers are tipt with white : the wings doled, 
reach beyond the tail : the feathers on the back are 
either wholly grey or black, edged on each fide 
with a pale red : the tail dufky, edged with afh- 
color : the legs are of a lead color : the toes ex- 
tremely lingular, being edged with fcolloped mem- 
branes like the coot: four fcollops on the exterior 
toe, two on the middle, and the fame on the in- 
terior *, each finely ferrated on their edges. 

This bird was fnot in Torkjhire, and communi- 
cated to us by Mr. Edwards. 

Red. Mr. Jobnfotfs fmall cloven Larus fidipes alter noftras. 
footed Gull. Wil. orn .355. Rail fyn. av. 132. 
Raj's collection of Englijh Edwo. av. 143. 

words, &c. p. 92. Tringa hyperborea. Lin.jyjt. 


THIS fpecies was mot on the banks of a frefh 
water pool on the ifle of Stronfa, May 1769. 
It is of the fize of the Purre. The bill is an 
inch long, black, very flender, and (trait almofl to 
the end which bends downwards : the crown of the 
head, the hind part of the neck and the coverts of 
the wings are of a deep lead color j the back and 



fcapulars the fame, ftriped with dirty yellow: the 
quil-feathers dusky; the fhafts white: crofs the 
greater coverts is a flripe of white : the chin and 
throat white : the under part and fides of the neck 
bright ferruginous : the bread .dark, cinereous: 
belly white : coverts of the tail barred with black 
and white; tail fhort, cinereous: legs and feet 

Mr. Ray faw this fpecies at Brignal in Torkfhire : 
Mr. Edwards received the fame kind from North 
America, being common to the North of Europe 
and America* 


494 c ° ° T - Class II. 

XXXVir. Short 'thick BILL, with a callus extending up the 
COOT - forehead. 

. NOSTRILS narrow and pervious. 

TOES furniflied with broad fcalloped membranes. 

&o. Com- 

La Poulle d'eau. Belon a<v. 

Rohr-hennli_ Blasfl. .&>#;». 

M ON. 

181. '\- ' " 

35 7; , 

Fulica recentiorum. Gefrier 

Weifblaeffige groiTe Waffer- 

a~u. 390. 

hulin. Fr^fc&, II. 208. 

Foliega, Follata, Fulca. Aldr> 

Fulica atra. Lin. fyft. 257 . 

a-v. ni. 39, 42. 

Blas-klacka. Faun. Suec. Jp, 

Wit. orn. 319. 


Rail fyn. a?v. 116. 

Danis Vand-Hoene, Bles- 

La Foulque, cu Morrelle. 

Kcene. Brunnicb, 190. 

Brijfon a~o. VI. 23. tab. 2. 

Br. ZgoL 132. 

fig- I- 

Lilka. Scopoli, No. 149. 

FolSga, Poion. Zinan. 108. 

Descrip. ' I ^HESE birds weigh from twenty-four to twen- 
| ty-eight ounces. Their belly is afh-colored ; 
and on the ridge of each wing is a line of white : 
every part befides is of a deep black : the legs are 
of a yellowifh green : above the knee is a yellow 

Coots frequent lakes and dill rivers : they make 
their neft among the Yufhes, with grafs, reeds, &c. 
floating on the water, fo as to rife and fall with it* 
They lay five or fix large eggs, of a dirty whi- 
tifti hue, fprinkled over with minute deep ruft co- 
lor fpotsj and we have been credibly informed that 






Class II. GREAT C O O T. 495 

they will fometimes lay fourteen and more. The 
vouno- when juft hatched are very deformed, and 
the head mixed with a red coarfe down. In win- 
ter they often repair to the fea : we have feen the 
channel near Southampton covered with them : they 
are often brought to that market, where they are 
expofed to fale, without their feathers, and fcalded 
like pigs. We once faw at Spalding, in Lincoln- 
Jhire, a coot (hot near that place that was white, 
except a few of the feathers in the wings, and a- 
bout the head. 

Fulica aterrima. Lin. 258. La grand foulque cm la 221. Great* 
Scopolt, No. iqo. Macroule. Brijfon d<u. VI. 

Greater Coot. Wil. om. 320. 28. 
Melon 182. 

THIS fpecies differs from the preceding only 
in its fuperior fize ; and the exquifke black- 
nefs of the plumage. 

Difcovered in Lancq/bire and in Scotland. 


496 TIPPET GREBE. Class II. 

XXXVIII. BILL ftrong, ftrait, friarp pointed, 
GREBE*. _ ATT ° rr 

TAIL, none. 

LEGS flat, thin, and ferrated behind with a 

double row of notches. 

:22. Tippet. Colymbus major. Gefner a-j r Rail fyn. av. 125. 

138. Colymbus, la Grebe. Brijfon 

Jldr. av. III. 104. 0-0. VI. 34. tab. 3. fig. \, 

Greater Loon, or Arsfoot. Colymbus urinator Lin.fyfi, 

Wil. orn. 339. 223 Scopoli, No. ic-2. 

Greater Dobchick. Ediv.av. Br. Zool. 133, 

360. fig. 2. 

THIS differs from the great crefted Grebe ia 
being rather lefs,-- and wanting the crefi: and 
ruff. The fides of the neck are ftriped downwards 
from the head with narrow lines of black and 
white : in other refpects the colors and marks agree 
with that bird. 

This fpecies has been mot on Reft erne- Mere in 
Cbejhires is rather fcarce in England^ but is com- 
mon in the winter time on the lake of Geneva. 
They appear there in flocks of tQn or twelve : and 
are killed for the fake of their beautiful fkins. 

* The Grebes and Divers zre. placed in the fame genus, 
z. e. of Cclymbi, by Mr. Ray and Linncsus ; but the difference 
of the feet, forbade our judicious friend, M. Brijfon, from 
continuing them together ; whole example we have followed. 






JV? 222. 


The under fide of them being drefl with the fea- 
thers on, are made into muffs and tippets \ each 
bird fells for about fourteen millings, 


Grand Plongeon de riviere, 

Belon a<v. 178. 
Ducchel. Gejher a<v. 138. 
Aldr. a<v. Ill 104. 
Avis pugnax Sva. Aldr. 169. 
Greater crefted and horned 

Dou-cker Wit orn. 340. 
Alh-coiored Loon of Dr. 

Brown, ibid. Raii fyn. aw. 

PUtfs hiji. Staff. 229. tab. 22. 
The Cargoofe. Cbarlefon ex. 

Pet. Gaz. I. tab. 43. Jig. 12. 
Colymbus criflatus. Lin. fyfi\ 

222/ Scopoti, No. 99. 

Faun. Sueic, fp._ 151. 

La Grebe hupee. Briffbn am. 
VI, 38. tab. 4. et Colym- 
bus cornutus. 45. tab. 5. 

Smergo, Fifolamanno. Zinan: 
107. ; , 

Danis Topped og Halfkraved 
Dykker , Topped Hay 
Skicere. Brunnich, 135. 

Gehoernter Scehahn, Noerike, 
Frifch, II. 183. 

Br. Zool. i^z. 

[23. UREA? 


fnr^HIS fpecies weighs two pounds and a half. 
■*• Its length is twenty-one inches : the breadth 
thirty : the bill is two inches one- fourth long ; red 
at the bafe ; black at the point : between the bill 
and the eyes is a {tripe of black naked fkin : the 
hides are of a fine pale red: the tongue is a third- 
part fhorter than the bill, (lender, hard at the end, 
and a little divided : en the head is a large duiky 
creil, feparated in the middle. The cheeks and 
throat are furround'ed with a long pendent ruif, 
of a bright tawny color, edged with black: the 
chin is white : from the bill to the eye is a hVdck 




line, and above that a white one : the hind part of 
the neck, and the back are of a footy hue: the 
rump, for it wants a tail, is covered with long foft 

The covert feathers on the fecond and third joints 
of the wing, and the under coverts are white : all 
the other wing feathers, except the fecondaries, are 
dufky, thofe being white : the bread and belly are 
of a mod beautiful filvery white, glofiy as fattin, 
and equal in elegance to thofe of the Grebe of Ge- 
neva - s and are applied to the fame ufes : the plu- 
mage under the wings is dufky, blended -with tawny : 
the outfide of the legs, and the bottom of the feet 
are dufky : the infide of the legs, and the toes 
of a pale green. 

Thefe birds frequent the Meres of ShropjJjire and 
Chejhire^ where they breed ; and in the great Eafi 
Fen in Lincoln/hire^ where they are called Gaunts. 
Their fkins are made into tippets, which are 
fold at as high a price as thofe that come from Ge- 

This fpecies lays four eggs, white, and of the 
fize of thofe of a pigeon ; the neft is formed of the 
roots of bugbane, ftalks of water lilly, pond weed 
and water violet, floating independent among the 
reeds and flags -, the water penetrates it, and the 
bird fits and hatches the eo-gs in that wet conditi- 


on ; the neft is fometimes blown from among the 
flags into the middle of the water : in thefe cir- 
cumftances, the fable of the Halcyon's neft, its 



fluftivaga domus 9 as Statius exprefles it, may in 
fome meafure be vindicated. 

Flu&ivagam lie fsepe domum, madidofque penates 
Halcyone deferta gemit ; cum pignora faevus 
Auller, et algentes rapuit Thetis invida nidos. 

Thebaid. lib. ix. 3600 

It is a careful nurfe of its young, being obferved 
to feed them mod afliduoufly, commonly with 
fmall ells y and when the infant brood are tired 3 
will carry them either on its back or under its 
wings. This bird preys on Mill, and is almoft per- 
petually diving: it does not mew much more than 
the head above water, and is very difficult to be 
fhot, as it darts down on the appearance of the led: 
danger. It is never feen on land; and though 
difturbed ever fo often, will not fly farther than 
the end of the lake. Its fkin is out of feafon about 
February ', lofmg then its bright color : and in the 
breeding time its bread is almoft bare. The flefh 
of this bird is exceffively rank : but the fat is of 
great virtue in rheumatic pains, cramps and paraly- 
tic contractions. 

Vol. II. L 1 £a«?d 

5oo EARED GREBE. Class II. 

224. Eared. Eared dobchick. Edw. a>v. Norvegis Sav-Orre, Soe-Orre. 

96. fig. 2. Bornholmis Soe-Hoene. If- 

La Grebe a Oreilles. BriJJbn landis Flauefkitt. Brunnicb, 

a--v. VI, 54. 136. 

Colymbus auritus. Lin. fyfi. Br. Zool, 133. 

223. Scopoliy No. 100. 

Descrip. /Tp^HE length of this fpecies to the rump is one 
■*■ foot ; the extent twenty-two inches : the bill 
black, flender and very (lightly recurvated : the i- 
rides crimfon : the head and neck are black ; the 
throat fpotted with white : the whole upper fide 
of a blackifli brown, except the ridge of the wing 
about the farffc joint, and the fecondary feathers, 
which are white: the breaft, belly, and inner 
coverts of the v/ings are white : the fubaxillary fea- 
thers, and fome on the fide of the rump, furrugi- 
nous : behind the eyes, on each fide, is a tuft of 
long loofe ruft colored feathers, hanging back- 
wards : the legs of a dufky green. 

Thefe birds inhabit the fens near Spalding, where 
they breed. I have feen both male and female, but 
could not obferve any external difference. They 
make their nefl not unlike that of the crefted grebe ; 
and lay four or five fmall white eggs. 






Class II. LITTLE GREBE, 501 

The black and white Dob- Br. Z00L 133^ 225. Dusky. 

chick. Ed-iv. a<v. 96. fig. 1. Colymbus nigricans ? Scopolt, 
Colymbus minor, la petite No. 101. 

Grebe. BriJJbn a<v. VI. 56. 

AnpHE length from the bill to the rump eleven Descrip. 

■*■ inches : the extent of wings twenty : the bill 
was little more than an inch long'. The crown of 
the head, and whole upper fide of the body dufky : 
the inner coverts, the ridge of the wing, and the 
middle quil-feathers were white; the reft of the 
wing dufky : a bare fkin of a fine red color joined 
the bill to the eye : the whole underfide from the 
bread to the rump was a filvery white: on the 
thighs were a few black fpots. In fome birds the 
whole neck was afh colored : fo probably they 
might have been young birds, or different in fex. 
Inhabits the Fens of Lincoln/hire. 

Le Caflagneux, ou Zoucet. Rail jyn* av. 125. 22o.LiTTLE\ 

Belon av. 177. Colymbus fluviatills, la Grebe 
Mergulus fluviatilis (Due- de Riviere, ou le Caftag- 

chelin, Arfsfufs). Gefner neux. BriJJbn av. VI. $g. 

av. 141. Colymbus auritus. Lin. Jyji. 
Trapazorola arzauolo, Piom- 223. 

bin. Aldr. av. III. 105. Kleiner Seehahn, or Noerike. 
Didapper, Dipper, Dobch- Frifcb, II. 184. 

ick, fmall Doucker, Loon, Faun. Suec. fp. 152. 

or Arsfoot. Wil orn. 340. Br. Zool. 1 34. 

>TpHE weight of this fpeciesis from fix to feven Descrip* 
■*■ ounces. The length to the rump ten inches : 
L 1 2 to 


to the end of the toes thirteen : the breadth fix- 
teen. The head is thick let with feathers, thofe 
on the cheeks, in old birds, are of a bright bay : 
the top of the head, and whole upper fide of the 
body, the neck and bread, are of a deep brown, 
tinged with red : the greater quil-feathers dufky : 
the interior webs of the lefTer white: the belly is afh 
colored, mixed with a filvery white, and fome red : 
the legs of a dirty green. 

The wings of this fpecies, as of all the other, 
are (mall, and the legs placed far behind : fo that 
they walk with great difficulty, and very feldom 
fly. They truft their fafety to diving ; which they 
do with great fwiftnefs, and continue long under 
water. Their food is fifh, and water plants. This 
Nest. bird is found in rivers, and other frefh waters. It 
forms its neft near their banks, in the water -, but 
without any fattening, fo that it rifes and falls as 
that does. To make its neft it collects an amazing 
quantity of grafs, water-plants, &c. It lays five 
or fix white eggs \ and always covers them when 
it quits the neft. It mould feem wonderful how 
they are hatched, as the water rifes through the 
neft, and keeps them wet ; but the natural warmth 
of the bird bringing on a fermentation in the vege- 
tables, which are full a foot thick, makes a hot 
bed fit for the purpofe. 


Class II. BLACK CHIN. 503 

GR. with a black chin. Fore part of the neck 227. Black 
ferruginous : hind part mixed with dufky. Chin. 
Belly cinereous and filver intermixed. Rather 
larger than the laft. 

Inhabits Tiree, one of the Hebrides. 

L I 3 Section 


A V O S E T. 

Class II. 



BILL long, fknder, very thin, deprefTed, bending 

NOSTRILS narrow, pervious, TONGUE Abort. 
LEGS very long. FEET palmated. Back toe 

very fmall. 

228. Scoop- Recurviroftra. Gefner aw. 

ING. 23I. 

Avofetta, Beccoftorto, Eec- 

coroella, Spinzago d'acqua. 

Aldr. osj. III. 114. 
W'd. cm. 521. 
Raiijyn. av. 1 17. 
The S cooper. Charlton ex. 

The crooked Bill. Dale's hift. 

Harwich, 402. 
Pktt"s hifi. Staff. 231. 

Avofetta, L'Avocette. Briffbn 
m>. VI. 538. Tab. 47. 
fig. 2. 

Krumbfchnabl. Kram. 348. 

Recurviroftra Avofetta. Lin. 
jyft. 256. Bcopoli, No. 129. 

Skarflacka, Alfit. Faun. Suec. 

fp. 191- 
Danis Klyde, .Loufugl, Fork- 
eert Regnfpove. Br. 188. 
Br. Zocl. 134. 


N Avofet that we fhot weighed thirteen 
ounces. Its length to the end of the tail was 
eighteen inches, to that of the toes twenty-two: 
the breadth thirty. This bird may at once be 
difiinguifhed from all others, by the fingular form 
of its bill ; which is three inches and a half long, 
(lender, comprefTed very thin, flexible, and of a 
fubftance like whalebone 5 and contrary to the bills 



JV.° <4Q,#. 


Class II. A V O S E T. 

of other birds, is turned up for near half its length. 
The noflrils are narrow and pervious : the tongue 
fhort : the head very round : that, and half the 
hind part of the neck black ; but above and be- 
neath each eye is a fmall white fpot : the cheeks, 
and whole under fide of the body from chin to tail 
is of a pure white : the ba'ck, exterior fcapular fea- 
thers, the coverts on the ridge of the wings, and 
fome of the lefTer quil- feathers, are of the fame co- 
lor ; the other coverts, and the exterior fides and 
ends of the greater quil- feathers, are black : the 
tail confifts of twelve white feathers : the legs are 
very long, of a fine pale blue color, and naked 
far above the knees : the webs dufky, and deeply 
indented : the back toe extremely fmall. 

Thefe birds are frequent in the winter on the 
mores of this kingdom : in Gloucejlerjhire, at the 
Severn's Mouth ; and fometimes on the lakes of 
Shropjhire. We have feen them in considerable 
numbers in the breeding feafon near Fojfdike Wajh 
in Lincoln/hire. Like the lapwing when difturbed 
they flew over our heads, carrying their necks and 
long legs quite extended, and made a fhrill noife 
(Twit) twice repeated, during the whole time. 
The country people, for this reafon, call them 
Telpers-, and fometimes diftinguifh them by the 
name of Picarini. They feed on worms and infects 
that they fcoop with their bills out of the fand -, 
their fearch after food is frequently to be difcerned 
L 1 4 on 

£o6 A V O S E T. Class II. 

on our fhores by alternate femicircular marks in 
the fand, which ihew their progrefs. They lay 
two eggs about the fize of thofe of a pigeon, 
white tinged with green, and marked with large 
black fpots. 


Class II, 



BILL ftrong, thick, comprefied. 

NOSTRILS linear ; placed near the edge of the 

TONGUE almoft as long as the bill. 
TOES, no back toe. 


Goirfugel. Chtfii exot. 36 7. 

Penguin. Wormii, 300, 

Wil, or ft. 323. 

Rati fyn. aw* 1 19. 

Ednjj. av. 147. 

Martin's <voy. St. Kilda. 27. 

Avis, Gare di&a. Sib, Scot. 

HI. 22. 
Alca major, le grand Pingoin. Br, Zool. 136 

Brifon a<v. VI. 85. Tab, 7, 

Eforokitfok *. Crantz? sGreenl, 229. Great, 

I. 82. 
Alca impennis. Lin.fyji. 210. 
Faun. Suec. fp. 140. 
IJlandis Gyr-v Geyrfugl. Nor- 

<vegis Fiasrt, Anglemaage, 

Penguin, Brillefugl. Brun- 

nich, 105. 

ACCORDING to Mr. Martin, this bird breeds 
on the ifle of St, Kilda -, appearing there the 
beginning of May, and retiring the middle of 
June, It lays one egg, which is fix inches long, 
of a white color ; fome are irregularly marked with 
purplifh lines eroding each other, others blotched 
with black and ferruginous about the thicker end : 
}f the egg is taken away, it will not lay another 

Or little wing. 


5cS G R E A T A U K. Class II. 

that feafon. A late writer * informs us, that it 
does not vifit that ifland annually, but fometimes 
keeps away for feveral years together ; and adds, 
that it lays its egg dole to the fea-mark j being 
incapable, by reafon of the fhortnefs of its wings, 
to mount higher. 

The length of this bird, to the end of its toes, 
is three feet -, the bill, to the corner of the mouth, 
four inches and a quarter : part of the upper man- 
dible is covered with fhort, black, velvet like 
feathers -, it is very ftrong, compreffed and mark- 
ed with feveral furrows that tally both above and 
below : between the eyes and the bill on each fide 
is a large white fpot : the reft of the head, the neck, 
back, tail and wings, are of a gloffy black : the 
tips of the leffer quil-feathers white : the whole un- 
der fide of the body white : the legs black. The 
wings of this bird are lb fmall, as to be ufelefs 
for flight : the length, from the tip of the longeft 
quil-feathers to the firft joint, being only four inch- 
es and a quarter. 

This bird is obferved by feamen never to wan- 
der beyond foundings-, and according to its appear- 
ance they direct their meafures, being then allured 
that land is not very remote. Thus the modern 
failors pay refpect to auguries, in the fame manner 

* Macaulaf shift. St. Kilda. p. 156. 






as Ariftophanes tells us thofe of Greece did above 
two thoufand years ago. 

Ufosgsi ti$ as) twv ogviSuv [MXVTzuofjcEva TStoi ts ttaS, 
Nw! tw ntel, X 2l t /MV ztm, vim ttXeT, he flog sTrsrcci. 

Aves. 597. 

From birds, in failing men inftruttions take, 
Now lye in port ; now fail and profit make. 


Razor-bill, Auk, Murre. 

Wil. orn. 325. 
Raii fyn. aft. 1 19. 
The Falk. Martin's <voy. St. 

Kilda. 3 3 . 
The Marrot. Sib. hiji. Fife, 

Ed™. a<v. 358. Jig. 2. 
Alca, le Pin^cin. BriJJon a r J. 

VI. 89. Tab. S.fg. 1. 

Alca torda. Lin. fyfi. 210. 
Tord, Tordmule. Faun. Suec. 

fP- *39- 
Norvegis Klub- Alke, Klympe. 

IJlandis Aulka, Klumbr, 

Kl u m burnevia : Groetilandis 

Awarfuk. Danis Alke. 

Brunnicb, 1 00. 

Br. Zool. 136. Scopoli, No. 


230. Razor- 

THESE fpecies weigh twenty-two ounces and Descrip. 
a half. The length about eighteen inches : 
the breadth twenty-feven. The bill is two inches 
long, arched, very ftrong and fharp at the edges ; 
the color black : the upper mandible is marked 
with four tranfverfe grooves j the lower with three ; 
the widen: of which is white, and crofTes each man- 
dible. The infide of the mouth is of a fine pale 
yellow : from the eye to the bill is a line of white : 
the head, throat, and whole upper fide of the 
body are blacky the wings of the fame color, ex- 

519 RAZORBILL. Class II. 

cept the tips of the lefTer quil-feathers, which arc 
white: the tail confifts of twelve black feathers, 
and is fharp pointed : the whole under fide of the 
body is white : the legs black. 
Place, Thefe birds, in company with the Guillemot, 

appear in our feas the beginning of February ; but 
do not fettle on their breeding places till they be- 
gin to lay, about the beginning of May. They 
inhabit the ledges of the higheft rocks that im- 
pend over the fea, where they form a grotefque 
appearance ; fitting clofe together, and in rows one 
above the other. They properly lay but one egg 
a piece, of an extraordinary fize for the bulk of 
the bird, being three inches long : it is either white, 
or of a pale fea green, irregularly fpotted with 
black : if this egg is deftroyed, both the auk and 
guillemot will lay another •, if that is taken, then 
a third : they make no neft, depofiting their egg 
on the bare rock : and though fuch multitudes lay 
contiguous, by a wonderful inftinct each diftin- 
guifhes its own. What is aifo matter of great amaze- 
ment, they fix their egg on the fmooth rock, with 
(o exact a balance, as to fecure it from rolling off; 
yet mould it be removed, and then attempted to be 
replaced by the human hand, it is extremely diffi- 
cult, if not impofiible to find its former equili- 

The esgs are food to the inhabitants of the coafts 
they frequent * which they get with great hazard ; 
being lowered from above by ropes, trufting to 



the ftrength of their companions, whofe footing is 
often fo unliable that they are forced down the 
precipice, and perifh together. 

Alca minor, le petit pingoin. Alca unifulcata. Brunnich, 231. Black 
Brijfon av.Vl. 92. Tai>.$. 102. Billed. 

Jig. 2. Br, Zool. 137.- 

Alca Pica. Lin.fyft. 210. 

THIS weighs only eighteen ounces : the length Descrxp, 
fifteen inches and a half: the breadth twenty- 
five inches. The bill is of the fame form with the 
Auk's, but is entirely black. The cheeks, chin, 
and throat are white •, in all other refpects it agrees 
with the former fpecies : we can only obferve, thae 
this was fhot in the winter, when the common fort 
have quitted the coafts. 

When this bird was killed, it was obferved to 
have about the neck abundance of lice, refembling 
thofe that infeft the human kind, only they were 
fpotted with yellow. 

The Alca Balthica of Brunnicb^ No. 115, a vari- 
ety in all refpects like the common kind, only the 
under fide of the neck white, is fometimes found 
on our coafts. 

^uphiti us 

5* 2 


Class II. 

232. Puffin. Puphinus anglicus, Ge/ner Can opufc. gy. 

av. 725. Anas arctica. Clufii Exot. 

Pica marina. Aldr. a-v. III. 104. 

92. Alca arctica. Lin.Jyfi. zi\ n 

Puffin, Coulterneb, &c. Wil. Faun. Suec. fip. 141. 

cm. 325. IJlandis Sc Ncrnieg. Lunde, 

Raiijyn. au. 1 20. bujus pulli Lund Toller. 

Edw. a-u. 358. fig. I. Dams Ifiandfk Papegoye. 

The Bowger. Martin's voy. Brunnicb, 103. 

St. Kilda. 34. 
Fratercula, le Macareux. Brifi- 

fon av 
fi- I- 

VI. 81. Tab. 6. Br.Zccl. 1 

See-Papagey, or See-Taucher. 
Frifich, II, 192. 





"^HIS bird weighs about twelve ounces : its 
length is twelve inches : the breadth from 
tip to tip of the wings extended, twenty-one inch- 
es : the bill is fhort, broad at the bafe, comprefled 
on the fides, and running up to a ridge, triangular 
and ending in a fliarp point: the bafe of the upper 
mandible is ftrengthened with a white narrow pro- 
minent rim full of very minute holes : the bill is of 
two colors, the part next the head of a bluifli grey, 
the lower part red : in the former is one tranfverfe 
groove or furrow, in the latter three : the fize of 
the bills of thefe birds vary: thofe of Prieftholm IJle 
are one inch and three quarters long; and the bafe 
of the upper mandible one inch broad : but in the 
birds from the Ifie of Man thefe proportions are 
much lefs. 

The noftrils are very long and narrow -> com- 

Class II. PUFFIN. 513 

mence at the above-mentioned rim, terminate at 
the firft groove, and run parallel with the lower 
edge of the bill. 

The irides are grey, and the edges of the eye-lids Eyes, 
of a fine crimfon: on the upper eye-lid is a fingular 
callous fubftance, grey, and of a triangular form : 
on the lower is another of an oblong form : the 
crown of the head, whole upper part of the body, Head* 
tail, and covert feathers of the wings are black ; 
but in fome the feathers of the back are tinged 
with brown : the quil- feathers are of a dufky 

The cheeks are white, and fo full of feathers as 
to make the head appear very large and almoft 
round : the chin of the fame color ; bounded on 
each fide by a broad bed of grey : from the cor- 
ner of each eye is a fmall feparation of the fea- 
thers terminating at the back of the head. The 
neck is encircled with a broad collar of black : 
but the whole lower part of the body as far as is 
under water is white, which is a circumftance in 
common with mod of this genus. 

Tail black, compofed of fixteen feathers : legs 
fmall, of an orange color, and placed fo far behind 
as to difqualify it from {landing, except quite erecl : 
reding not only on the foot, but the whole length of 
the leg : this circumftance attends every one of the 
genus, but not remarked by any naturalift, except 
Wormius, who has figured the Penguin, a bird of 
this genus, with great propriety : this makes the 


5 i4 PUFFIN. Class II. 

rife of the Puffin from the ground very difficult, 
and it meets with many falls before it gets on wing; 
but when that is effected, few birds fly longer or 
Place. Thefe birds frequent the. coafts of feveral parts 

of Great Britain and Ireland \ but no place in 
greater numbers than Prieftholm IJle*, where their 
flocks may be compared to fwarms of bees for mul- 
titude. Thefe are birds of paffage ; refort there 
annually about the fifth or tenth of April, quit the 
place (almoft to a bird) and return twice or thrice 
before they fettle to burrow and prepare for ova- 
tion and incubation. They begin to burrow the 
fir ft week in May, but fome few faye themfelves 
that trouble, and diflodge the rabbets from their 
holes, and take poffefiion of them till their return 
from the ifle. Thofe which form their own bur- 
rows, are at that time fo intent on the work as to 
fuffer themfelves to be taken by the hand. This 
tafk falls chiefly to the fhare of the males, for on 
diffection ten out of twelve proved of that fex. 
The males alio aflift in incubation \ for on diffec- 
tion feveral males were found fitting. 

The flrft young are hatched the beginning of 
July, the old ones (hew van: affection towards them ; 
and feern totally infenfible of danger on the breed- 
ing feafon. If a parent is taken at that time, and 
: ended by the wing?, it will in a fort of defpair 

* Off the coaft of Angle fie. 


Class II. PUFFIN. 5*5 

treat itfelf moft cruelly by biting every part it can 
reach; and the moment it is loofed, will never 
offer to efcape, but inflantly refort to its unfled- 
ged young: but this affection ceafes at the flated 
time of migration, which is moft punctually about 
the eleventh of Auguft, when they leave fuch young 
as cannot fly, to the mercy of the Peregrine Falcon, 
who watches the mouths of the houfe for the ap- 
pearance of the little deferted puffins which forced 
by hunger are compelled to leave their,, burrows. 
The Rev d . Mr. Hugh Davies, of Beaumaris, to 
whom I am indebted for much of this account, in- 
formed me that on the twenty-third of Augufi, fo 
entire was the migration, that neither Puffin, Ra- 
zor-Bill, Guillemot, or Tern was to be feen there, 

I mud add, that they lay only one egg, which 
differ much in form ; fo'me have one end very a- 
cute ; others have both extremely obtufe ; all are 

Their flefh is exceflive rank, as they feed on fea 
weeds and fifh, efpecially Sprats : but when pick- 
led and prefer ved with fpices, are admired by thofe 
who love high eating. Dr. Cains tells us, that in 
his days the church allowed them in lent, in (lead 
of fifh : he alfo acquaints us, that they were taken 
by means of ferrets, as we do rabbits : at prefent 
they are either dug out, or drawn from their bur- 
rows by a hooked flick : they bite extremely hard, 
and keep fuch faft hold on whatfoever they fatten, 
as not to be eafily difengaged. Their noife, when 

Vol, II. M m taken 

5i6 PUFFIN; Class II. 

taken, is very difagreeable ; being like the efforts 
of a dumb perfon to fpeak. 

Note of Sea The notes of all the fea birds are extremely 

harm or inharmonious : we have often refted un- 
der the rocks attentive to the various founds above 
our heads, which, mixed with the folemn roar of 
the waves fwelling into and retiring from the vad 
caverns beneath, have produced a fine effect. The 
fharp voice of the fea gulls, the frequent chatter 
of the guillemots, the loud note of the auks, the 
fcream of the herons, together with the hoarfe, 
deep, periodical croak of the corvorants, which 
ferves as a bafe to the reft •, has often furnifhed 
us with a concert, which, joined with the wild fee- 
nery that furrounded us, afforded, in a high de- 
gree, that fpecies of pleafure which arifes from the 
novelty, and we may fay gloomy grandeur of the 

The winter refidence of this genus, and that of 
the guillemot, is but imperfectly known : it is pro- 
bable they live at fea, in fome more temperate 
climate, remote from land ; forming thofe multi- 
tudes of birds that navigators obferve in many parts 
of the ocean : they are always found there at cer- 
tain feafons, retiring only at breeding time : repair- 
ing to the northern latitudes ; and during that pe- 
riod are found as near the Pole as navigators have 

During winter Razor-bills and Puffins frequent 
she coaft of Andalufia, but do not breed there. 


Class II. 



Hotges Marthas Spitzberg. 85. 

Little black and white Diver. 
Wil. cm. 343. 

Mergulus Melanoleucos rof- 
tro acuto brevi. Rail fyn. 
av. 125. 

Ed-zv. a-u. 91. 

Uria minor, le petit Guille- 
mot. Brijfon av. VI. 73. 

Alca alle. • Lin. fyfi. 211. 

Faun. Suec. fp. 142. 

IJlandis Halkioen, Havdirdell. 
Norvegis Soe Konge, Soe- 
ren Jakob, Perdrikker, Per- 
fnper, Boefiaer, Borrefiaer, 
Hys Thomas. Fercenjibus 
Fulkop. Groenlandis Akpa- 
liarfok. Brunnich, 106. 

Gunner tab. 6. 

Br. Zool. 137. 


/ TpHE bird our defcription was made from was 
•* taken in Lancafhire ; its bulk was not fupe- 
rior to that of a blackbird. The bill convex, 
fhort, thick, and ftrong-, its color black. That 
of the crown of the head, the hind part of the neck, 
the back, and the tail black ; the wings the fame 
color ; but the tips of the lefTer quii-feathers white : 
the inner coverts of the wings grey: the cheeks, 
throat, and whole under fide of the body white : 
the fcapular feathers black and white : the legs and 
feet covered with dirty greenim white fcales ; the 
webs black. 

Mr. Edwards has figured a bird that varies very 
little from this : and has added another, which he 
imagines differs only in fex : in that, the head and 
neck are wholly black ; and the inner coverts of the 

M m 2 wings 


5 :3 L I T T L E A U K. Class II. 

wings barred with a dirty white. We met with the 
latt in the cabinet of Doctor David Skene at Aber- 
deen -, it was fhot on the coaft north of Slams in the 
fpring of the year, 




BILL flender, ftrong, pointed. The upper man- 
dible flightlv bending; towards the end. Safe 
covered with foft ihort feathers. 

NOSTRILS lodged in a hollow near the bafe. 

TONGUE flender, almoll the length of the bill. 

TOES, no back toe. 



Guillem, Guillemot, Skont, 
Kiddavv, Sea-hen. Wil. orn. 

3. 2 4; 
Raii fyn. av. 120. 
The Lavy. Martin's <voy. St. 

Kilda t 3 2 . 
Ed-uj. cm. 359. fig. I. 
Uria, le Guillemot. Brijfon 

a<v. VI. 70. Tab. 6. fig. I. 
Lommia. N. Com. Petr. IV. 


Colymbus Troile. Lin. fyfi. 234.F00USK 

Faun. Suec. fip. 149. 
IJlandis 8c Norvegis Lomvie, 

Langivie, Lomrifvie, Stor- 

fugl. Brumiicb, 108. 
Sea-Taube, or Groenlandif- 

cher Taucher. Fri/ch 3 IL 

Br. Z00L 138. 

THIS fpecies weighs twenty-four ounces *. 
the length feventeen inches : the breadth 
twenty-feven and a half: the bill is three inches 
long; black, ftrait, and fharp pointed: 'near the 
end of the lower mandible is a frnall procefs ; 
the in fide of the mouth yellow : the feathers on the 
upper part of the bill are fnort, and foft like vel- 
vet : from the eye to the hind part of the head is a 
frnall divifion of the feathers. The head, neck, 
back, wings, and tail are of a deep moufe color; 
M m 2 the 

13 ESC?- 


the tips of the lefTer quil-feathers white : the 
whole under part of the body is of a pure white : 
the fides under the wings marked with dafky lines. 
Immediately above the thio-hs are fome long fea- 
thers that curl over them. The legs dufky. 

Thefe birds are found in amazing numbers on 
the high cliffs on feveral of our coafts, and ap- 
pear at the fame time as the auk. They are very 
fimple birds -, for notwithstanding they are ihot at, 
and fee their companions killed by them, they 
will not quit the rock. Like the auk, they lay on- 
E;q q. Iy one egg, which is very large ; fome are of a 
fine pale blue, others white, fpotted, or mod ele- 
gantly ftreaked with lines crofling each other in 
ail directions. The Rev. Mr. Low of Birfa af- 
fures me, that they continue about the Orknies the 
whole winter. 

235. Lesser. Uria Svarbag. Ringula. ^Brunnicb, No. iiq» 

//2W«Stutnefur, Svartbakur. Scopob, No. 105. 

Br. ZocL 138. 

D esc rip. /T^HE weight is nineteen ounces: the length fix- 
-*- teen inches : the breadth twenty-fix. The 
bill two inches and a half long, fhaped like the 
Guillemot's, but weaker. The top of the head, 
the whole upper part of the body, wings and tail 
are of a darker color than the former : the cheeks, 





throat, and all the lower fide of the body are 
white : from the corner of the eye is a dufky ftroke, 
pointing to the hind part of the head: the tips 
of the fecondary feathers white: the legs are black: 
the tail very fhort, and confifts of twelve feathers. 

Thefe birds frequent the Welch coafts in the 
winter time; but that very rarely: where they breed 
is unknown to us $ having never obferved them 
on the rocks among the congenerous birds. Thefe 
and the black-billed Auks haunt the Firth of Forth 
during winter in flocks innumerable, in purfuit of 
fprats. They are called there Morrots : they all 
retire before fpring. 


Greenland- clove, or Sea- 
turtle. WiL orn. 326. 

Rail fyn. a<v. 121. 

Ray's itin. 183, 192. 

Peifte. Gunner, tab. 4. 

Turtur maritimus infulae 
Bafs. Sib. hifi. Fife, 46. 

The Scraber. Martin's <voy. 
St. Kilda. 32. 

Cajour, Pynan. N. Com. Petr. 
IV. 418. 

Uria minor nigra, le petit 

Guillemot noir, Brijfonwv. 236, Black. 

VI. 7 6. 
Colymbus Grylle. Lin. fyji. 

Faun. Suec fp, 148. 
Iflandis Teifta. Norvegis Tei- 

fte. Groenlandis Sarpak, 

Brunnicb, 113. 
Groenlandifche Taube, 

Frifcb, II. 185. 
Br. Zool. 138. 

HT^HE len v gth of this fpecies is fourteen inch- Descri?, 

-*■ es: the breadth twenty-two: the bill is an 
inch and a half long ; {trait, flender, and black : 
the infide of the mouth red : on each wing is a 

M m 4 large 


large bed of white, which in young birds is fpot- 
ted : the tips of the leiTer quil-feathers, and the 
inner coverts of the wing?, are white : except 
thefe, the whole plumage is black, la winter it 
is faid to change to white : and a variety fpot- 
ted with black and white* is not uncommon in 
Scotland. The tail confifts of twelve feathers : 
the legs are red. 

Thefe birds are found on the Bafs ijle in Scot- 
land % in the ijle of St. Kilda; and, as Mr. Ray ima- 
gines, in the Fam ijlands off the coaft of Nor- 
thumberland; we have alfo feen it on the rocks 
of Llandidno in Caernarvon/hire. Except at breed- 
ing time, it keeps always at fea ; and is very diffi- 
cult to be mot, diving at the flafh of the pan. 
The Welch call this bird Cafgan Longwr, or the fai- 
lor's hatred, from a notion that its appearance 
forebodes a ftorm. It vifits St. Kilda's m March : 
makes its neft far under ground ; and lays a grey 
egg ^ or, as Steller fays, whitifh fpotted with ruft, 
and fpeckled with afti color. 

* The fpotted Greenland Dove of Mr, Edwards y plate 504 


JW 26 


-2VP 2j 




BILL ftrong, ftrait, pointed. Upper mandible 

longeft ; edges of each bending, in. 
NOSTRILS linear. 

TONGUE pointed, long, ferrated near the bafe. 
LEGS thin and flat. 
TOES, exterior the longeil : back toe joined to 

the interior by a fmall membrane. 
TAIL fhort, confiding of twenty feathers. 



Clufius's. Wilorn. 342. Brijfon av. VI. 120. Tab. 237. North- 125. II fig. I. ERN * 

Mergus maximus Farrenfis, Colymbus glacialis. Lin.Jyfi. 
five Ar&icus. Clufii exot, 221. 

Norvegis Brufen. Groenlan- 
dis Tiulik. Brunnich, orn. 

Groffe Halb-Ente, Meer- 

Noering. Fri/ch, II. 185. A, 
Br. Zeal. 139. 

Colymbus maximus flellatus 

noflras. Sib. hifi. Scot. 20. 

Tab. 15. 
Le grand Plongeon tachete. 

THE length of this fpecies is three feet five Descrip, 
inches: its breadth four feet eight: the bill 
to the corners of the mouth four inches long; 
black and firongly made. The head and neck 
are of a deep black : the hind part of the latter is 
marked with a large femilunar white band : imme- 
diately under the throat is another; both marked 
with black oblong ftrokes pointing down: the low- 
er part of the neck is of a deep black, glofTed 


524 1 M B E R. Class IL 

with a rich purple : the whole under fide of the 
body is white : the fides of the bread marked with 
black lines : the back, coverts of the wings, and fca- 
pulars, are black, marked with white fpots : thofe 
on the fcapulars are very large, and of a fquare 
fliape ; two at the end of each feather. 

The tail is very fhort, and almoft concealed 
by the coverts, which are dufky fpotted with 
white: the legs are black. Thefe birds inhabit 
the northern parts of this ifland, live chiefly at 
fea, and feed on fifh : we do not know whether 
they breed with us, as they do in Norway *, which 
has many birds in common with Scotland. In s the 
laft it is called Mur-buachaill, or the Her df man of 
the fea, from its being fo much in that element. 

&$%> Imber. Colymbus immer. Lin, fyji. Ember Goofe. Sibbald Scot, 

2ZZ. 21. Wallace Orkney, 16. 

Gefner's greater Doucker. Wil. Debes Feroe Ifles, 138. Pon- 

crn. 342. Rait Jyn, a-v. tcppidan, II. 80. 

226. No. 8. Fluder. Gef- Le grand Plongeon. BriJJon, 

ner av. 140. VI. 1 05. Tab, X. 
Immer. Brunnicb, No. 129. 

THIS fpecies inhabits the feas about the Ork- 
nies -, but in fevere winters vifits the fouthern 
parts of Great Britain, It lives as much at fea as the 
former -, fo that credulity believed that it never 
quitted the water, and that it hatched its young in 

a hole 


a hole formed by nature under the wing for that 

It is fuperior in fize to a goofe. The head 
du/ky : the back, coverts of the wings, and tail 
clouded with lighter and darker fhades of the fame. 
Primaries and tail black : under fide of the neck 
fpotted with dufky : the bread and belly filvery : 
le2;s black. 

The fkins of the birds of this genus are uncom- 
monly tough -, and in the northern countries have 
been ufed as leather. 

Greateft fpeckled Diver, or Le petit Plongeon. Brljfon 239. Speck^ 

Loon. Wil. orn, 341. a<-j. VI. 108. Tab. 10. fig. 2. LED. 

Raiifyn.a<v. 125. Mergus Stellatus, DanisSoe- 
Colymbus caudatus ftellatus. Hane. Brunnkh, 130. 

N. Com. Petr. IV. 424. Br. Zool. 139. 

fTHHIS fpecies weighs two pounds and a half: its Descrip. 

■*• length twenty-feven inches : its breadth three 
feet nine. The bill three inches long, and turns 
a little upwards ; the mandibles, when clofed at 
the points, do not touch at the fides. The head 
is of a dufky grey, marked with numerous white 
fpots : the hind part of the neck an uniform grey : 
the whole upper part of the body, and greater co- 
verts of the wings dufky, fpeckled with white: the 
leffer coverts dufky, and plain. The tail confifts 
of about twenty black feathers > in fome tipt with 



white. The cheeks and whole under fide of the 
body of a fine gloffy white : and the feathers, as 
in all this genus, which refides almoft perpetually 
on the water, are excefilvely thick, and clofe fet : 
the legs are dufky. 

Thefe birds frequent our feas, lakes and rivers 
in the winter. On the Thames they are called fprat 
loons ) for they attend that fifh during its continu- 
ance in the river. They are fubjecl: to vary in the 
difpofition and form of their fpots and colors : 
fome having their necks furrounded with a fpeckled 
ring : in fome the fpots are round, in others oblong. 

240. Red 'Edw. ofv- 97. Briffbn wu. VI. III. Tab. II. 

throated. Gunner. Tab. 2. f. 2.^ fig. 1. 

Colymbus feptentrionalis . IJlandis & Norvegis Loom v. 

Lin. fyfc. 220. Lumme , Danis Lomm „ 

Le Plongecn a gorge rouge. Brunnich, 132. 

Br. Z00L 140. 

THIS fpecies breeds in the northern parts of 
Scotland, on the borders of the lakes : but 
migrates fouthward during winter. It lays two 
torn* The fexes do not differ in colors ; and are 
a diftincl kind from the black throated, the Lumme 
of the Norwegians. Its fhape is more elegant than 
that of the others. The weight is three pounds : 
Descrip. the length, to the tail end, two feet; to that of 
the toes, two feet four inches ; the breadth three 



XT? 240, 





feet five inches. The head fmall and taper : the 
bill ft rait, and lefs ftrong : the fize about a fourth 
iefs than the preceding. The head and chin are 
of a fine uniform grey : the hind part of the neck 
marked with dufky and white lines, pointing down- 
wards : the throat is of a dull red : the whole up- 
per part of the body, tail and wings of a deep grey 
almoft dufky ; but the coverts of the wings, and 
the. back, are marked with a few white fpots : 
the under fide of the body white : the legs dufky. 

Lumme. TVorm. Muf. Brun- Colymbus arfticus. Lin, fyft. 241. Black; 

nich, No. 133. 221. Faun. Suec. No. throated. 

Northern Doucker. WiL om. Speckled Diver. Ediv. 146. 

343. Rati fyn. civ. 125. 

A SPECIES fomewhat larger than the laft. 
Bill black : front black : hind part of the 
head and neck cinereous : fides of the neck mark- 
ed with black and white lines pointing downwards : 
fore part of a glofty variable black, purple and 

Back, fcapulars, and coverts of wings black, 
marked (the two firft with fquare) the laft with 
round fpots of white : quil feathers dufky : breaft 
and belly white. Tail fhort and black : legs partly 
dufky, partly reddifh, 


5 28 BJ.ACK BACKED GULL. Class H. 

XLIII. BILL ftrong, ftrait, bending near the end ♦, an an- 

gular prominency on the lower mandible. 

NOSTRILS linear. 

TONGUE a little cloven. 

BODY light, wings large. 

LEG and back toe fmall, naked above knee. 

242. Black Wil. cm. 344. Faun. Suec.fp. 155. 

backed. Raiijyn.a<v.i2j. Danis Blaae maage, Norvegzf 

Le Goiland noir. Brijfon av. Svartbag, Havmaafe. Brun-> 

VI. 158. nich y 145. 

Larus marinus. Lin. fyji. 225. Br. Zool. 140. 

Descrip. 'TpHE weight of this fpecies is near five pounds : 
■*" the length twenty-nine inches : the breadth 
five feet nine. The bill is very ftrong and thick, 
and almoft four inches long -, the color a pale 
yellow ; but the lower mandible is marked with a 
red fpot, with a black one in the middle. The 
irides yellow : the edges of the eye-lids orange co- 
lor: the head, neck, whole under fide, tail and 
lower part of the back, are white : the upper part 
of the back, and wings, are black : the quil- 
feathers tipt with white : the legs of a pale flefh 

This kind inhabits our coafts in fmall numbers; 
and breeds in the higheft cliffs. It feeds not only 
on filh : but like the Raven, very greedily devours 



carrion. Its egg is very blunt at each end ; of a 
dufky olive color, quite black at the greater end ; 
and the reft of it thinly marked with dufky fpots. 

I have feen on the coaft of Anglefea 9 a bird that 
agrees in all refpects with this except in fize, in 
wanting the black fpot on the bill, and in the 
color of the legs, which in this are of a bright yel- 
low : the extent of wings is only four feet five : 
the length only twenty-two inches : the weight one 
pound and a half. This fpecies, or perhaps va- 
riety (for I dare not afTert which) rambles far 
from the fea,„ and has been fhot at Bulfirode y m 


Our Catara8a> I fuppofe the SkuaHoirei. Clujii Exot. $6$ 9 243. Skit a, 

Cornijh Gannet. Wil. orn 

Raiifyn. av. 1 28. 
Catarattes, Sihb. Scot. tab. 

Sea Eagle. Sihb. bift. Fife. 

Le Stercoraire raye. Briffon 

a<v. VI. 152. 
Pontopp, Nornv. II. 96. 

Larus Catara&es. Lin. fyji. 

Skua. Brunnich, ornith. 33. 
Feroenfibus Skue. IJlandis 

Skumr. Norvegis Kav-Oern, 

Brunnicb, 125. 
Brown and ferruginous Gull, 

Br. Zool. 140. 

^TpHE length of this fingular Gull is two feet: 
A the extent four feet and a half: the weight 
three pounds : the bill two inches one fourth long, 
very much hooked at the end, and very fharp: 
the, upper mandible covered more than half way 



53v S K U A G U L L. Class II. 

with a black cere or fkin as in the hawk kind : the 
noftrils placed near the bend, and are pervious. 

The feathers on the head, neck, back, fcapulars 
and coverts of the wings are of a deep brown, 
marked with riifl: color, (brighter!: in the male). 
The fhafts of the primaries are white : the end and 
exterior fide of the firft is deep brown ; the ends 
only of the reft brown : the lower parts on both 
fides being white*, the fecondaries marked in like 
manner •, forming a great bar of white. The bread, 
belly and vent ferruginous, tinged with afh color. 
The tail when fpread is circular, of a deep brown, 
white at the root 5 and with fhafts of the fame 

The legs are covered with great black fcales : 
the talons black, ftrong and crooked j the interior 
remarkably fo. 
History. This bird inhabits Norway, the Ferroe ifles, 

Shetland, and the noted rock Foula, a little weft of 
•them. It is alfo a native of the South fea. It is 
the moft formidable Gull, its' prey being not on- 
ly fifh, but what is wonderful in a web-footed bird, 
all the leffer fort of water fowl, fuch as teal, &c. 
Mr. Schroter, a Surgeon in the Ferroe ifles, relates 
that it likewife preys on ducks, poultry, and even 
young lambs *. It has all the fiercenefs of the 
eagle in defending its young *, when the inhabitants 
of thofe iflands vifit the neft, it attacks them with 

* Holer in Clm. exot, 369, Brunnich, 35, 


Class II. S K'U A G U L L; 53* 

o-reaf force, fo that they hold a knife erect over 
their heads, on which the Skua will transfix itfelf in 
its fall on the invaders. 

The Rev. Mr. Lozv, minifter of Birj\ m Ork- 
ney^ from whom an accurate hiftory of thofe 
iflands, and of Shetland may be expected, con- 
firmed to me part of the above. On approaching 
the quarters of thefe birds, they attacked him and 
his company with rnoft violent blows ; and intimi- 
dated a bold dog of Mr. Low's in fuch a manner, 
as to drive him for protection to his its alter. The 
natives are often very rudely treated by them, 
while they are attending their fheep on the hills ; 
and are obliged to guard their heads by holding 
up their fticks, on which the birds often kill them- 
felves. In Foula it is a priveleged bird, becaufe it 
defends the flocks from the eagle, which it beats 
and purfues with great fury •, fo that even that ra- 
pacious bird feldom ventures near its quarters* 
The natives of Foula on this account lay a fine on 
any perfon who deftroys one : they deny that it 
ever injures their flocks or poultry, but imagine ic 
preys on the dung of the Arffic^ and other larger 
gulls, which it perfecutes till they mute for fear. 

Mr. Ray and Mr. Smith * fuppofe this to be the 
Cornijh Gannett but in our account of that bird 
we fhall fhew that it is a different fpecies. Mr. 
Macauly-j mentions a gull that makes great ha- 

* Hift. Kerry. 
f WJi, Sf. Kilda, p. 758, 

Vol. II, N n yoke 


voke among the eggs and fea fowl of St. Kilda -, k 
is there called bullae : his defcription iuits that of 
the herring Gull\ but we fufpect he confounds thefe 
two kinds, and has transferred the manners of 
this fpecies to the latter. 

Linn aus involves two fpecies in the article Larus 
Catara5ia\ this, and the arMic bird of Mr. Ed- 
wards, birds of very different characters. M. Brif- 
fon does not feem perfectly acquainted with this 
bird -, for the fynonym of the Skua, given by him 
to his fifth gull (our brown and white gull) be- 
longs to this fpecies ; and his print of the Sterco- 
raire raye, p. 152. tab 13. torn. VI. to which he 
has given the fynonym of Mr. Edwards's arctic 
bird, feems to be the very fame which we have 
here defcribed. 

244. Black Cepphus. Aldr. av. III. $$. The Cepphus. Phil.Tranfaci. 
TOED. Wil. orn. 351. Vol. 52. 135. 

Raiijyn. av. 129. Cathara&a Cepphus, Strand- 

hoeg. Brunnich, ornith. 126. 

Descrip. fT^HIS fpecies weighs eleven ounces: its length 
A is fifteen inches : its breadth thirty-nine : the 
bill is one inch and a half long, the upper part co- 
vered with a brown cere : the noftrils like thofe 
of the former •, the end black and crooked. The 
feathers of the forehead come pretty low on the 
bill : the head and neck are of a dirty white: the 



-2VP 24$. 




hind part of the latter plain, the reft marked with 
oblong dufky fpots. 

The breaft and belly are white, croffed with 
numerous dufky and yellowifh lines : the feathers 
on the fides and the vent, are barred tranfverfely 
with black and white: the back, fcapulars, co- 
verts of the wings and tail, are black, beautifully 
edged with white or pale ruft color: the fhafts and 
tips of the quil-feathers are white: the exterior web, 
and upper half of the interior web black, but the 
lower part of the latter white : the tail confifts of 
twelve black feathers tipt with white; the two mid- 
dle of which, are near an inch longer than the 
others : the fhafts are white ; and the exterior webs 
of the outmoft feather is fpotted with ruft color. 
The legs are of a bluifh lead color : the lower part 
of the toes and webs black. 

A bird of this kind was taken near Oxford, and 
communicated to the Royal Society by Dr. Lyfons 
of Gloucefter. 

The Struntjagger, or Dung- Larus Parafiticus. Lin. fyft. 245. Arctic 

hunter. Marten's Spitz- 226. 

berg 87. Swartlaffe , Labben , Elof. 
The Ar&ic Bird. Ed-vj. a<v. Faun Suec. fp. 156. 

148. 149. Br mini ch, 127. 

THESE birds are very common in the Hebri- 
des. I faw numbers in Jura, Hay and Rum, 
N n 2 where 

534 ARCTIC GULL. Class II. 

where they breed in the heath; if difturbed they fly 

about like the lapwing, but foon alight. They are 

alfo found in the Orknies, where they appear in May, 

and retire in Auguft. It is alfo found on the coafl 

of l^orkfhire, where it is known by the name of 

Feafer. All writers that mention it agree, that it 

has the property of purfuing the lefTer gulls fo 

long, that they mute for fear, and that it catches 

up and devours their excrement before they drop 

into the water ; from which the name. Linnaeus 

wittily calls it the Parajite, alluding to its fordid 

Descrip. xhe length of this fpecies is twenty-one inches: 

the bill is dufky, about an inch and a half long, 

pretty much hooked at the end, but the {trait 

part is covered with a fort of cere. The noftrils 

are narrow, and placed near the end, like the for- 

Male. mer. In the male, the crown of the head is black: 
the back, wings, and tail dufky; but the lower 
part of the inner webs of the quil-feathers white : 
the hind part of the neck, and whole underfide of 
the body white : the tail confifts of twelve feathers, 
the two middlemoft near four inches longer than 
the others : the legs black, fmall, and fcaly. 

Female. The female is entirely brown-, but of a much 

paler color below than above : the feathers in the 

middle of the tail only two inches longer than the 

others. The fpecimen from which Mr. Edwards 

, toke the figure of his female Arftic bird, had loft 



thofe long feathers, fo he has omitted them in 
the print. 

Linnaus has feparated this from its mate, his 
Larus parqfiticus> and made it a fynonym to his Li 
Cataraftes, a bird as different from this as any other 
of the whole genus. 

Burgermeifler Martin's Spitz- Larus fufcus. Lin, fyfi. 125. 246. Her- 

berg. 84. Faun. Suec. /p. 154. ring, 

Herring Gull. Wil. orn. 345. Danis Silde-Maage. IJlandis 

Larus cinereus maximus. Rati Veydebjalla. Brunnicb, 142. 

fyn a<v 127. GrofTe Staff Moeur. Frifch 9 

Le Goiland gris. Brijfon av. II. 218. 

VI. 162. Br. Z00L 141. 

>"TpHIS gull weighs upwards of thirty ounces: the Bescri: 
■*■ length twenty-three inches ; its breadth fifty- 
two. The bill yellow, and the lower mandible 
marked with an orange colored fpot: the irides 
ftraw color: the edges of the eye-lids red: the head, 
neck, and tail white : the back, and coverts of the 
wings afn colored : the upper part of the five firft 
quil-feathers are black, marked with a white fpoc 
near their end: the legs of a pale ftefh color. Thefe 
birds breed on the ledges of rocks that hang over 
the fea : they make a large nefl of dead graft, and 
lay three eggs of a dirty white, fpotted with black. 
The young are aih colored, fpotted with brown ; 
they .do not come to their proper color the fir ft year: 
this is common to other gulls ^ which has greatly 

N n 3 multiplied 


W A G E L, 

Class II, 

multiplied the fpecies among authors, who are in- 
attentive to thefe particulars. This gull is a great 
devourer of fifh, efpecially of that from which it 
takes its name : it is a conflant attendent on the 
nets, and fo bold as to feize its prey before the fifh- 
ermens faces. 

(A.) Great grey Gull, the Cor- Larus Naevius. Lin. fyfi. 225. 

47.WAGEL. niih Wagel. IVil. orn. 349. Danis Graae-Maage. IJlandis 

Raii Jyn. av. 130. Kablabrinkar. Brunnicb, 

Le Goiland varie, ou le Gri- 150. 

fard. Briflan ohj. VI. 167. Brown and White Gull. Br. 


Zool. II. 422. 



THESE birds vary much in their fize ; one 
we examined weighed three pounds feven 
ounces: the length was two feet two inches : the 
breadth five feet fix : others again did not weigh 
two pounds and a half: the irides are dufky: the 
bill black, and near three inches long. The whole 
plumage of the head and body, above and below, 
is a mixture of white, afh color, and brown: 
the laft color occupies the middle of each fea- 
ther -, and in fome birds is pale, in others dark : 
the quil-feathers black : the lower part of the tail 
is mottled with black and white ; towards the end 
is a brown black bar, and the tips are white : the 
legs are of a dirty white. 

Some have fuppofed this to be the young of the 


Class II, WINTER GULL; 537 

preceding fpecies, which (as well as the reft of 
the gull tribe) fcarce ever attains its true colors till 
after the firft year : but it muft be obferved, that 
the firft colors of the irides, of the quil-feathers, and 
of the tail, are in all birds permanent -, thefe, as we 
have remarked, differ in each of thefe gulls fo 
greatly, as ever to preferve unerring notes of dif- 

This fpecies is likewife called by fome the Dung 
Hunter \ for the fame reafon as the laft is ftyled fo. 

Vv r inter Mew, or Ceddy Mod- Gavia Hyberna, le Mouette 248. Win- 

dy. Wil. orn. 350. d'hiver. BriJJbn av. VI. ter. 

Raii Jyn. av. 1 30. 189. 

Br. Zool, 142. 

OT^HIS weighs from fourteen to feventeen oun- Descrip. 

A ces : the length eighteen inches ; the breadth 
three feet nine. The irides are hazel : the bill two 
inches long, but the flendereft of any gull: it is 
black at the tip, whitifh towards the bafe. The 
crown of the head, and hind part, and fides of the 
neck, are white, marked with oblong dufky fpots 5 
the forehead, throat, middle of the breaft, belly, 
and rump, are white; the back and (capillars are 
of a pale grey > y the laft fpotted with brown ; the 
coverts of the wings are of a pale brown, edged 
N n 4 with 

53 3 COMMON GULL' Class II. 

with white ; the firft quil-feather is black; the fuc- 
ceeding are tipt with white : the tail is white, crof- 
fed near the end with a black bar ; the legs of a 
dirty bluifh white. 

This kind frequents, during winter, the moift 
meadows in the inland parts of England^ remote 
from the fea. The gelatinous fubflance, known 
by the name of Star Shot, or Star Gelly, owes its 
origin to this bird, or fome of the kind; being no- 
thing 1 but the half dieefted remains of earth-worms, 
en which thefe birds feed, and often difcharge 
from their ftomachs*. 

Linnaeus, p. 224. makes this fpecies fynonymous 
with the haras tridaffyhis or Tarrock; but as we 
have had opportunity of examining feveral of 
each fpecies, and iind in all thofe ilrong diftinc- 
tions remarked in our defcriptions, we mud decline 
afTenting to the opinion of that eminent naturalift, 

2<g. Com- Galedor, CrocrJa, Galetra. La Mouette cenclree. Brijfon 

HON. - m* 34* r-v.Vl. 175. tab. 16. fig. 1. 

Common Sea Mall. WiL cm. Gabbiano minore. Zina?i. 115. 

34;. Lams canus. Lin. fyft. 224. 

C mmOB Sea Mall, or Me\j\ Br. Zod, 142. Scopoli, No. 
Rail jyn. aw. ii". 104. 

HIS is the mofl numerous of the genus. It 
breeds on the ledges of the cliffs that im- 

* Vide -Iciio^s Nat, Hifi* Nortkamft, p. 353. 






jr? 243. 

Class II. KITTIWAKE, 539 

pend over the fea : in winter they are found in vaft 

flocks on all our fhores. They differ a little in De scrip, 

fize ; one we examined weighed twelve ounces and 

a half: its length was feventeen inches: its breadth 

thirty-fix : the bill yellow : the head, neck, tail, and 

whole under fide of the body, a pure white : the 

back, and coverts of the wings, a pale grey : near 

the end of the greater quil-feathers was a black 

fpot : the legs a dull white, tinged with green. 

Larus RifTa. Lin* fyfi. 224. en. Brunnich, No. 140. 2 co. Kitti- 

Ritfa IJlandisy incolis Chrijii- Kittiwake. Sibbald' 's hijl \ wake. 

anfoe, Lille Sol vet, Rotter- Scot/. 20 . 

H^HE length of this fpecies is fourteen inches : 
**" the extent three feet two. When arrived at 
full age, the head, neck, belly, and tail are of a 
fnowy whitenefs ; behind each ear is fometimes a 
dufky fpot : the back and wings grey : the exterior 
edge of the firft quil-feather, and tips of the four or 
five next, are black : the bill yellow, tinged with 
green \ iiifide of the mouth orange : legs duiky, 
with only a knob inflead of the back toe. 

It inhabits the romantic cliffs of Flamlorough- 
bead (where it is called Petrel) the Bafs IJle, the vaft 
rocks near the Caftle of Stains^ in the county of 
Aberdeen^ and Prieftbolm IJle. 

The young of thefe birds are a favorite difli 



in North Britain, being ferved up roafted, a little 
before dinner, in order to provoke the appetite; 
but, from their rank tafte and fmell, feem much 
more likely to produce a contrary effect. 

i. Tar- La Mouette cendree. Brijfon Larus tridactylus. Lin. Jyft. 

rock. av* 169. 224. 

Gavia cinerea alia. Aldr. aw. Faun. Suec. i$7<fp* 

III. 35. La Mouette cendree tachetee. 

Wil. cm. 346. Brijfon a<u. VI. 185. tab. 

Rati fyn. av. 128. 17. fig. 2. 

Br, Zool. 142. 

Descrip. / 1 ^HE length is fourteen inches; the breadth 
I three feet : the weight only feven ounces. 
The bill is black, fhort, thick, andftrong; the head 
large : the color of that, the throat, neck, and 
whole under fide are white : near each ear, and 
under the throat, is a black fpot : on the hind part 
of the neck is a black crefcent, the horns pointing 
to the throat. 

The back and fcapulars are of a bluifhgrey: the 
leffer coverts of the wings dulky, edged with grey; 
the larger next to them of the fame color; the reft 
grey : the exterior fides, and ends of the four firft 
quil-feathers are black : the tips of the two next 
black ; all the reft wholly white : the ten middle 
feathers of the tail white, tipt with black ; the two 
outmoft quite white: the legs of a dulky afli color. 



In lieu of the back toe, it has only a fmall pro- 

This fpecies breeds on Prieftholme T/Ie 9 alfo a- 
mong the former in Scotland. I muft retract my 
opinion of its being the young of that fpecies. 


Cepphus Turneri. Gefner cvv. 

2 49- 
Larus cinereus tertius. Aldr. 

a-v. III. 35. 
Pewit, or Black Cap, Sea 

Crow, Mire Crow. Wil 

orn. 347. 
Rati fyn. a<v. 128. itin. 21 J. 
Pewit. Plott's hiji. Staff. 23 1 . 

Puit. Fuller* s Brit. Worthies. 

La Mouette rieufe a pattes 

rouges. Briffbn a<v.Yl. ig6. 
Gabbiano cinerizio col roftro, 

e col li piedi roffi. Zinan. 

Larus ridibundus. Lin. fyfi. 

Br. Zool. 143. 

252. Black 

THESE birds breed in vaft numbers in the 
iflands of certain pools in the county of Staf- 
ford', and, as Dr. Fuller tells us, in another on the 
Effex (horesj alfo in the Fens of Lincoln/hire. They 
are birds of paiTage ; refort there in the fpring -, and 
after the breeding feafon difperfe to the fea coafts : 
they make their neft on the ground, with ruflies, 
dead grafs, and the like ; and lay three eggs of a 
dirty olive color, marked with black. The young 
were formerly highly efteemed, and numbers were 
annually taken and fattened for the table. Plott 
gives a marvellous account of their attachment to 
the lord of the foil they inhabit; infomuch, that 



on his death, they never fail to fhift their quarters 
for a certain time. 

Whitelock) in his annals, mentions a piece of 
ground near Port/mouth, which produced to the 
owner forty pounds a year by the fale of Pewits, 
or this fpecies of gull.. Thefe are the See-gulles that 
in old times were admitted to the noblemens ta- 

The notes of thefe gulls diftino-uim them from 
Descrip. any others j being like a hoarfe laugh. Their weight 
is about ten ounces : their length fifteen inches ; 
their breadth thirty- feven : their irides are of a 
bright hazel : the edges of the eye-lids of a fine 
fcarlet ; and on each, above and below, is a fpot 
of white feathers. Their bills and legs are of a 
fanguine red : the heads and throats black or 
dufky : the neck, and all the under fide of the bo- 
dy, and the tail, a pure white: back and wings am. 
colored : tip, and exterior edge of the firft quil-fea- 
ther black j the reft of that feather white; the 
next to that tipt with black, and marked with the 
fame on the inner web. 

A Variety. La Grr.nde Mouette blanche. Wil. orn. 348. Rati fyn. av, 
Bclon. 17c. Lams canus. Scopdi, No. 104. 

THIS was taken in a trap near my houfe, Ja- 
nuary 2£th, 1772. and feeroed» only a varie- 

* /7 ; £ Appendix. 

Class II. BROWN GULL' 543 

ty of the former. It differed in having the edges of 
the eye-lids covered with white foft feathers. The 
forepart of the head white ; the fpace round the 
eyes dufky : from the corner of each eye is a broad 
dufky bar, fnrrounding the hind part of the head •, 
behind that is another reaching from ear to ear : 
the ends, interior and exterior edges of the three 
firft quil-feathers black ; the ends and interior fides 
only of the two next black, but the fhafts and 
middle part white ; the tips of the two next white 5 
beneath a black bar : the reft, as well as the fecon- 
daries, afh color. 

In all other refpects it refembled the common 
pewit gull. The fat was of a deep orange color. 

The brown Tern. Wil. om. Sterna nigra. Lin. fyft. 227. 253. Brown, 

352. Faun. Suec.fp. 159. 

Sterna fufca. Ran fyn, a<u. Br. Z00U 143. 


"Ji/r R. Ray has left us the following obfcure ac- 

*- count of this bird ; communicated to him by 

Mr. John/on, a Ycrkfbire gentleman. " The whole Descrip. 

" under fide is white -, the upper brown : the 

" wings partly brown, partly afh color : the head 

" black : the tail not forked : thefe birds fly in 

" companies. 5 ' 


544 BROWN GULL. Class II. 

From the defcription, we fufpedt this bird to be 
the young of the greater Tern, that had not yet at- 
tained its proper colors, nor the long feathers of 
the tail, which it does not acquire till mature age. 



jve 255. 





BILL (trait, (lender, pointed. 
NOSTRILS linear. 
TONGUE (lender and (harp. 
WINGS very long. 
TAIL forked. 
TOES, a (mall back toe. 


Sterna (Stirn, Spyrer, Schnir- 

ring) Gefner av. 586. 
Aldr. av. III. 35. 
The Sea Swallow. Wil. orn. 

3S 2 - 
Rati Jyn. a<v. 131. 

Sterna major, la grande Hi- 
rondelle de mer. Brifion a<v. 
VI. 203. tab. 19. fig. I. 

Sterna hirundo. Lin.fyfi. 227. 

Tarna. Faun. Suec. fp. 159. 

The KIrmeWi mdrtwU Spzfe- 254. Great. 

berg. 92. 
Ifiandis Kria. Norvegis Tenne, 

Tende, Tendelobe, Sand- 

Tolle, Sand-Tserrne. Danis 

Tsrne. Bornholmis Kirre, 

Krop-Kirre. Brunnich, 151. 
Grauer fifcher. Kram. 345. 
Schwartzplattige Schwalben 

Moewe. Frifch, II. 219. 
Br. Zool. 144. 
Makauka. Scopoli, No. 3. 

THIS kind weighs four ounces, one-quarter .- B e $cri?< 
the length is fourteen inches \ the breadth 
thirty : the bill and feet are of a fine crimfon % 
the former tipt with black, (trait, (lender, and (harp- 
pointed : the crown, and hind part of the head, 
black : the throat, and whole under fide of the 

* A name thefe birds are known by in the North of Eng* 
land ; and which we fubltitute inllead of the old compound 
one of Sea Swallow ; which was given them on account of 
their forked tails, 


546 LESSER TERN. Class IL 

body, white : the upper part, and the coverts of 
the wings, a fine pale grey : the tail confifts of 
twelve feathers ; the exterior edges of the three 
outmoft are grey, the reft white : the exterior, on 
each fide, is two inches longer than the others : 
in flying, the bird frequently clofes them together, 
fo as to make them appear one (lender feather. 

Thefe birds frequent the fea fhores, banks of 
lakes and rivers : they feed on final! fifh, and water 
infects \ hovering over the water, and fuddenly dart- 
ing into it, catch up their prey. They breed 
among fmall tufts of rufhes -, and lay three cr four 
eggs, of a dull olive color, fpotted with black. 
All thQ birds of this genus are very clamorous. 

255. Lesser. Larus piicator (Fifcherlin , La petite Hirondelle de mer. 

Fel.) Gefner av. 587. fig. Brijfon av. VI. 206. tab. 

58S. 19. fig. 2. 

Aldr. av. III. 3^. Larus Minuta. Lin. Jyft. 22S. 

Lefler Sea Swallow. Wil. orn. Hstting Taerne. Brunnichj 

353- 1 S 2 - 

Raii fjH. av. 131. Br. Zo:l. 144. 

Descrip. rr^HE weight is onlv two ounces five grains: 
•*" the length eight inches and a half ; the breadth 
nineteen and a half. The bill is yellow, tipt with 
black : the forehead and cheeks white : from the 
eyes to the bill is a black line: the top of the head, 
and hind part black : the bread, and under fide of 
the body cloathed with feathers fo clofely kt toge- 


ther, and of fuch an exquifite rich glofs, and fo 
fine a white, that no fatin can be compared to it : 
the back and wings of a pale grey : the tail fliort, 
lefs forked than that of the former, and white : the 
legs yellow : the irides du/ky. 

Thefe two fpecies are very delicate, and feem un- 
able to bear the inclemency of the weather on our 
fhores * during winter : for we obferve they quit 
their breeding places at the approach of it j and 
do not return till fpring. 

The manners, haunts, and food of this are the 
fame with thofe of the former -> but thefe are far lefs 


Larusniger(Meyvogelin)G*?/l L'Epouvantail. Briffbn av. 2 S^* Slack 

ner av. 588. J%. 589. VI. 211. tab. 20. fig. 1. 

Aldr. a<v. III. 35. Sterna fiflipes. Lin.fyfl. 228. 

The Scare Crow. Wil. orn. Sicelandis Glitter. Brunnich, 

353- 153- 

Our black cloven-footed Gull. Kleinote Moewe. Frifcb > \\. 

Idem. 354. 220. 

Raiijyn. a<v. 131. Idem. 132. Br. Zool. 145, 

No. 6. 

'T -V HIS is of a middle fize, between the firfl and Bescri?, 

A fecond fpecies. The ufual length is ten 
inches ; the breadth twenty-four ; the weight two 
ounces and a half. The head, neck, bread, and 

Vol. II, 

• North Wales, 



£48 BLACK TERN, Class II. 

belly, as far as the vent, are black ; beyond is 
white : the male has a white fpot under its chin : 
the back and wings are of a deep afli color : the 
tail is mort and forked ^ the exterior feather on each 
fide is white ; the others afli colored : the legs and 
feet of a duiky red. Mr. Ray calls this a cloven- 
footed gull -, as the webs are depreffed in the mid- 
dle, and form a crefcent. Thefe birds frequent 
frefh waters -, breed on their banks, and lay three 
fmall eggs of a deep olive color, much fpotted with 

They are found during fpring and fummer in 
vaft numbers in the Fens of Lincoln/hire •> make 
an inceifant noife, and feed as well on flics as water 
infects and fmall fifh. 

Birds of this fpecies are feen very remote from 
land. Halm favv flocks of hundreds in the Atlantic 
ocean, midway between England and America •, and 
a later voyager allured me he faw one 240 
leagues from the Lizard^ in the fame ocean. 


pi. xcr. 




JVP 26 I 


P IE T R E L, 


BILL ftrait, hooked at the end. 

NOSTRILS cylindric, tubular. 

LEGS naked above the knees. 

BACK TOE none : inftead, a fharp SPUR points 


ing downwards. 

Wil. orn. 395. 

Lin. fyft. 213. 

257. Ful* 

Fulmar. Martin's <voy. St. 

The Mallemucke. Martin's 


Kilda. 30, Defer. weft. 

Spit zb erg. 93. 

IJles. 283. 

Hav-Heft. Gunner, tab. 1. 

Fulmer. Macautys hifi. St. 

Procellaria glacialis. Brunnich 

Kilda. 145. 

ornith. 118. 

Haffheft. Clufii exot. 3 63. 

Norvegis Hav-Heft, Malle- 

Procellaria cinerea, le Pe- 

moke V. Mallemuke..2?rzw? 

trel cendre. Brijfon av. VI. 

nich, 118. 

143. tab. 12. fig. 2. 

Br. Zool. 145. 

PI. enl. 59. 

^npHIS fpecies inhabits the ifle of St. Kilda % 
A makes its appearance there in November^ and 
continues the whole year, except September and 
Otloler\ it lays a large, white, and very brittle 
egg; and the young are hatched the middle of 
June. No bird is of fuch ufe to the iflanders as 
this : the Fulmar fupplies them with oil for their 
lamps, down for their beds, a delicacy for their 
tables, a balm for their wounds, and a medicine for 
their diftempers. The Fulmar is alfo a certain prog*- 
nofticator of the change of the wind ^ if it comes 

O02 m 

$ep F U L M A R. Class II. 

to land, no weft wind is expected for fome time^ 
and the contrary when it returns and keeps the fea. 
The whole genus of Petrels have a peculiar fa- 
culty of fpouting from their bills, to a confider- 
able diflance, a large quantity of pure oil •, which 
they do by way of defence, into the face of any 
that attempts to take them : fo that they are, for 
the fake of this panacea, feized by furprize -, as 
this oil is fubfervient to the above-mentioned medi- 
cal ufes. Martin tells us, it has been nfed in Lon- 
don and Edinburgh with fuccefs, in Rheumatic cafes. 
Bescrip. The fize of this bird is rather fuperior to that 
of the common gull : the bill very ftrong, much 
hooked at the end, " and of a yellow color. The 
noftrils are compofed of two large tubes, lodged 
in one fheath : the head, neck, whole under fide of 
the body, and tail, are white •, the back, and co- 
verts of the wings afh colored : the quil-feathers 
duiky : the legs yellowilh. In lieu of a back toe, 
it has only a fort of ipur, or (harp (trait nail. Thefe 
birds feed on the blubber or fat of whales, &c. 
which, being foon convertible into oil, fupplies 
them conftantly with means of defence, as well 
as provifion for their young, which they caft up in- 
to their mouths. They are like wife faid to feed on 
forrel, which they ufe to qualify the unctious diet 
they live on. 

Frederick Martens, who had opportunity of feeing 
vaft numbers of thefe birds at Spitsbergen, obferves, 
that they are very bold, and refort after the whale 


Class II. SHEA R-W ATER, 55 t 

fifhers in great flocks, and that when a whale is ta- 
ken, will, in fpiteof all endeavours, light on it and 
pick out large lumps of fat, even when the animal 
is alive. That the whales are often difcovered at fea 
by the multitudes of Mallemuckes flying; and that 
when one of the former are wounded, prodigious 
multitudes immediately follow its bloody track. 
He adds, that it is a mod gluttonous bird, eating 
till it is forced to difgorge its food. 

Avis Diomedea, Artenna. Procellaria Puffinus. Lin.fyft. 2 c8. Shear- 
Aldr. ay. III. 36. 213. Water. 

Manks Puffin. JFz7. or/z. 333. Puffinus, le Puffin. Br if on 

Rail fyn. a-z>. 134.. a~j. VI. 1 3 1, tab. 12. fig. 

Shearwater. Idem. 133. 1. is a variety of it. 

WiL orn. 334. Feroenjibus Skrabe. Nor^uegis 

Patines de oviedo. Rati fyn. Skraap, Pull us. Feroenjibus 
au. 191. Liere. Brunnich, 119. 

Edw. a-v, 359. Manks Petrel. Br. Zool. 146,, 

THE length of this fpecies is fifteen inches; Bescri; 
the breadth thirty-one: the weight kven- 
teen ounces : the bill is an inch and three-quar- 
ters long ; noftrils tubular, but not very promi- 
nent : the head, and whole upper fide of the body, 
wings, tail, and thighs, are of a footy blacknefs ; 
the under fide from chin to tail, and inner coverts 
of the wings, white : the legs weak, and com- 
preffed fideways ; dufky behind, whitifh before. 
Thefe birds are found in the Calf 'of Man : and 
O ^ as 

85* SHEA R-W ATER Class It 

as Mr. Ray fuppofes in the Scitty-ijles : they refort 
to the former in February, take a fhort porTefllon 
of the rabbet burrows, and then difappear till April: 
they^ lay one egg, white and blunt at each end ; 
and the young are fit to be taken the beginning of 
Auguft\ when great numbers are killed by the per- 
fon who farms the ifle : they are faked and barel- 
led ; and when they are boiled, are eaten with po- 
tatoes. During the day they keep at fea, filhing ; 
and towards evening return to their young ; cvhom 
they feed, by difcharging the contents of their 
fromachs into their mouths ; which by that time is 
turned into oil : by reaibn of the backward fituation 
of their legs they fit quite erect. They quit the 
ifle the latter end of, or beginning of Sep- 
tember; and, from accounts lately received frorrr 
navigators, we have reafon to imagine, that like 
the ftorm-finch, they are difperfed over the whole 
Atlantic ocean. 

This fpecies inhabits alfo the Orkney ifles, where 
it makes its neft in holes on the earth near the 
fhelves of the rocks and headlands ; it is called 
there the Lyre-, and is much valued there, both on 
account of its being a food, and for its feathers. 
The inhabitants take and fait them in Auguft for 
winter provifions, when they boil them with cab- 
bage. They alfo take the old ones in March ; but 
they are then poor, and not fo well tailed as the 
young: they appear fir ft in thofe iflands in Fe- 




The Storm-finck. Clufii exot. 

Wil. orn. 395. 

Small Petrel. Ed<w. a<v. 90. 
Borlafe's Cormual. 247. tab. 

The Gourder. Smith's hiji. 

Kerry. 186. 
Affilag. Marti?z's <voy. St. 

Kilda. 34. 
Sib. hiji. Fife. 48. 
Pr ocellaria, "le Petrel. Brijfon 

ajv.Vh 140. tab. 13.^.1. 259. Stormy 
Procellaria pelagica. Lin.Jyfi. 

212. Scopoli, No. 95. 
Strom waders vogel. Faun. 

Suec. fp. 143. 
Norvegis Soren Peder. St. 

Peders Fugl, Veften-vinds 

Are Sonden-vinds Fugl, 

Uveyrs Fugl : nonnullis y 

Hare. Feroenfibus Strunkvit. 

Brim. 117. 
Little Petrel. Br, Zool. 146. 

*TT*HIS bird is about the bulk of the houfe fwal- 
A low : the length fix inches ; the extent of 
wings thirteen. The whole bird is black, except 
the coverts of the tail and vent-feathers, which 
are white : the bill is hooked at the end : the nof- 
trils tubular : the legs (lender, and long. It has 
the fame faculty of fpouting oil from its bill as the 
other fpecies : and Mr. Brunnich tells us, that the 
inhabitants of the Ferroe ifles make this bird ferve 
the purpofes of a candle, by drawing a wick 
through the mouth and rump, which being lighted, 
the flame is fed by the fat and oil of the body. Ex- 
cept in breeding time it is always at fea; and is 
feen all over the vaft Atlantic ocean, at the greater! 
diftance from land ; often following the vefTels in 
great flocks, to pick up any thing that falls from 
on board : for trial fake chopped ftraw has been 
O 4 flung 


flung over, which they would ftand on with expand- 
ed wings 5 but were never obferved to fettle on, or 
fvvim in the water: it prefages bad weather, and cau- 
tions the feamen of the approach of a tempeftv by 
collecting under the ftern of the mips : it braves 
the utmoft fury of the ftorm, fometimes fkimming 
with incredible velocity along the hollows of the 
waves, fometimes on the fummits : Clujius makes 
it the Camilla of the fea. 

Vel mare per medium flu&u fufpenfa tumenti 

Ferret iter, celeres nee tingeret sequore plantas, . Virgil. 

She fwept the Teas, and as Ihe ikim'd along, 

Her flying feet unbath'd on billows hung. Dryden. 

Thefe birds are the Cypfelli of Pliny, which he 
places among the Apodes of Ariftotle \ ■ not becaufe 
they wanted feet, but were KoxoWa *, or had 
bad, or ufelefs ones ; an attribute he gives to thefe 
fpecies, on a fuppofition they were almoft always 
on the wing. Hardouin, a critick quite unfkilled 
in natural hiitory, imagines them to be martins, the 
Cypfelli of Ariftotle f : but a little attention to the 
text of each of thofe antient naturalifts, is fuffici- 
ent to evince that they are very different birds ; the 
latter very accurately defcribes the characters of 
that fpecies of fvvaliow : while Pliny expreffes the 
very manner of life of our Petrel. 

* Arijl. i 7 , 
f P. 1067. 

tc Nidificant 


" Nidificant in fcopulis, hx, funt quse toto mart 
cernuntur: nee unquam tarn longo naves, ramque 
continue curfu recedunt a terra, ut non circumvo- 
litent eas Apodes." Lib. x. c. 39. 

In Angufi 1772, I found them on the rocks 
called MacdonaWs Table, off the north end of the 
IJle of Skie ; fo conjecture they breed there. They 
lurked under the loofe (tones, but betrayed them- 
felves by their twittering noife. 






BILL {lender, furniilied at the end with a crooked 
nail. Edges of each mandible fharply ferrated. 

NOSTRILS near the middle of the mandible. 
Small, fub-ovated. 

TONGUE (lender. 

FEET, exterior toe longer than the middle. 

260. Goos- Mergus cirrhatus (fam.) Qef- 
ander. ner wo, 134. Merganfer 

(Merrach) 135. 
Aldr. wo. III. 113. 
Goofander. Wil. cm. 335. 
Dun diver, or Sparling-fowl. 

Raii fyn. a~v. 1 34. 
Merganfer, 1' Harle. Briffbn 

wo. VI. 231. Tab. 22. 
Meer-rache. Kram. 343. 

Frifch, 11. \go, 


Mergus merganfer. 

Wrakfogel, Kjorkfogel, Ard, 

Skraka. Faun. Suec. fp. n,^. 
Fekfok. Crantz'sGreenl. I. 80. 
Skior.-And. Danis 

Skallefluger. Brunnich, 92, 

& 93 . 
Br. Zool. 147. 



THESE birds frequent our rivers, and other 
frefh waters, efpecially in hard winters ; 
they are great divers, and live on fifh. They are 
never feen in the fouthern parts of Great Britain 
during fummer ; when they retire far north to 
breed -, for in that feafon they have been mot in 
the Hebrides. They are uncommonly rank, and 
fcarcely eatable. 

The male weighs four pounds: its length is 
two feet four inches ; the breadth three feet two. 


1. xcn. 

JVP 260 , 

M . A- T\ GOO S AIN - DER. 

Class II. GOOSANDER. 5 tf 

The bill is three inches long, narrow, and finely Male. 
toothed, or ferrated : the color of that, and the 
irides, is red. 

The head is large, and the feathers on the hind 
part long and loofe : the color black, finely gloff- 
ed with green : the upper part of the neck the 
fame t the lower part, and under fide of the body 
of a fine pale yellow • the upper part of the back, 
and inner fcapulars are black : the lower part of 
the back, and the tail are afh colored : the tail 
confifts of eighteen feathers : the greater quil- 
feathers are black, the lefTer white, fome of which 
are edged with black : the coverts at the fetting 
on of the wing are black -, the reft white : the legs 
of a deep orange color. 

The dun Diver , or female, is lefs than the male : Dun Dive it, 
the head, and upper part of the neck are ferrugi- 
nous ; the throat white : the feathers on the hind 
part are long, and form a pendent crefl: the 
back, the coverts of the wings, and the tail are of a 
deep afli color : the greater quil feathers are black, 
the lefTer white : the bread, and middle of the 
belly are white, tinged with yellow. 

We believe that Belon * defcribes this fex under 
the title of Bieure oyfeau^ and afferts, that it builds 
its neft on rocks and in trees like the Corvorant. 

* Belon a<v. 163. 




Anas Longiroftra. Qefner a<v. Sraun kopfiger Tilger, 
135. Aldr. a-\ HI. 113. Taucher. Kratn. 343. 

The Serula. WiU orn, 336. Mergus ferrator. Li?:. Jyft. 

Raiijyn. a<v. 135. 20S. 

Lefler toothed Diver. Mor- Pracka. Faun. Suec. fp. 136. 

ton's Northampt. 429. . Danis Fiik-And. Brun?iich 5 

L' Harle hupe. Brijfcn av. g6. 

VI. 23*7. Br. Z00L 147. 

THIS ipecies weighs two pounds ; the length 
is one foot nine inches ; the breadth two feet 
feven : the bill is three inches long ; the lower man- 
dible red ; the upper dufky : the irides a purplifh 
red : head and throat a fine changeable black and 
green : on the firft a long pendent creft of the 
fame color : upper part of the neck, of the breaft, 
and the whole belly white : lower part of the breaft 
ferruginous, fpotted with black : upper part of the 
back black : near the letting on of the wings fome 
white feathers, edged and tipt with black : the 
exterior fcapulars black ; the interior white : lawer 
part of the back, the coverts of the tail, and fea- 
thers on the fides under the wings and over the 
thighs grey, elegantly marked with ziczag lines of 
black : coverts on the ridge of the wings dufky ; 
then fucceeds a broad bar cf white : the greater 
coverts half black, half white : the fecondaries next 
the quil feathers marked in the fame manner \ the 
reft white, edged on one fide with black : the quil 




M.&rF. red-breasted goosander 


Class II. S M E W. 

feathers dufky. Tail fliort and brown : legs orange 

The head and upper part of the neck of the 
female of a deep ruft color : the creft fhort : throat 
white : fore part of the neck and bread marbled 
with deep afh color : belly white : great quil-fea- 
thers dufky : lower half of the neareft fecondaries 
black; the upper white; the reft dufky: back, 
fcapulars, and tail afh colored. The upper half 
of the firft fecondary feathers white ; the lower 
half black : the others dufky. 

Thefe birds breed in the northern parts of Great 
Britain ; we have feen them and their young on 
Loch Mart in the county of Rofs, and in the ifle of 


La Piette. Belcn a-v. 171. 
Mergus rhenanus. Gefner av, 

Aldr av. III. in. 

White Nun. Wil. crn. 337. 

Lough Diver. 338. 

Rati fyn. av. 135. 

Mergus albellus. Lin. fyfi. 

Faun. Suec. fp. 137. 

LepetitharlehupeouIePiette. 262. Smew, 

Brififon a<v. VI. 243. Tab. 

24. fig. 1. & 2. 
Kram. 344. 
Kreutz-Ente (Crofs-Duck) 

Frifcb, II. 172. 
Cimbris Hviid Side. Brunnich^ 

Br. Zcol. 148. Scopoli, No. 89, 


TS weight is thirty-four ounces : the length 
eighteen inches; the breadth twenty-fix. The 
bill is near two inches long, and of a lead color : 




the head is adorned with a long creft, white above, 
black beneath : from a little beyond the eye to the 
bill, is a large oval black fpot, gloffed with green; 
the head, neck, and whole under fide of the body 
are of a pure white; on the lower part of the neck 
are two femilunar black lines pointing forward : the 
inner fcapulars, the back, the coverts on the ridge 
of the wing, and the greater quil-feathers are black ; 
the middle rows of coverts are white ; the next 
black, tipt with white •, the leifer quil feathers the 
fame ; the fcapulars next the wings white : the tail 
deep afh color : the legs a bluifli grey. 

The female, or lough diver, is lefs than the 
male. The marks in the wings are the fame in 
both fexes : the back, the fcapulars, and the tail 
are dulky : the head, and hind part of the neck 
ferruginous : chin, and fore part of the neck white : 
the breafl clouded with grey : the belly white ; 
the legs dufky. 

263. Red The Weefel Coot. Aid. av. Faun. Suec. fp. 138. 

headed. I- p- 84. Tab. 88. L' Harle etoile. Brijfin av. 

Mergus minutus. t,in, fyft. VI. 252. 

209. Br. Zool. 148. 

Descrip. rT"*HIS bird weighs fifteen ounces : the length 

-*• is one foot four inches -, the breadth one foot 

eleven inches : the bill is of a lead color : the head 



is flightly crefted, and of a ruft color : from be- 
yond the eyes to the bill is an oval black fpot : 
the cheeks and throat are white : the hind part of 
the neck is of a deep grey - s the fore part clouded 
with a lighter : the belly white : the back and 
tail are of a dufky am color : the legs of a pale 
afh color : the wings have exactly the fame marks 
and colors with the fmew ; and as the fpaces be- 
tween the eyes and bill are marked with a fimilar 
fpot in both, if authors did not agree to make the 
lough diver the female of that bird, we mould fup- 
pofe this to be it. 


- 5 6i WILD SWAN, Class II, 

XLVII. BILL ftrong, flat, or deprefTed, and commonly 
furnifhed at the end with a nail. Edges divided 
into fharp lamella, 

NOSTRILS fmall and oval. 

TONGUE broad, edges near the bafe fringed. 

FEET 5 middle toe the longeft. 

.264. Wild Gejher a<v. 373. Schwane. Kram. 338. 

Swan. "Wild Swan, Elk, or Hooper. Anas Cygnus ferus. Lin. fyfi. 
Wil. orn. 356. 194. 

Raizjyn. a-v. 136, Swan. Faun. Suec. fp. 107. 

Edzv. av. 150. Danis Vild Svane. Cimbris 
Le Cygne fauvage. Brijfon Snabel- Svane. Brunnich, 

a<v. VI. 292. Tab. 28. 94. 

Labod. Scopoliy No. 66. Br. Zoo/. 149. add. plates. 

THE wild fwan frequents our coafts in hard 
winters in large flocks, but as far as we can 
inform ourfelves does not breed in Great Britain. 
Martin * acquaints us, that fwans come in Oftober 
in great numbers to Lingey, one of the Weftern Ijles ; 
and continue there till March, when they retire 
more northward to breed. A few continue in 
Mainland, one of the Orknies, and breed in the lit- 
tle ides of the frefh water lochs ; but the multitude 
retires at approach of fpring. On that account, 

fwans are there the country man's almanack : on 


* Defer. Weji. IJIes, yu 


Class II. W I L D S W A N. $63 

their quitting the iflanci, they prefage good wea- 
ther ; on their arrival, they announce bad. Thefe, 
as well as moil other water fowl, prefer for the 
purpofe of incubation thofe places that are left 
frequented by mankind : accordingly we find that 
the lakes and forefts of the diftant Lapland are filled 
during fummer with myriads of water fowl, and 
there fwans, geefe, the cluck tribe, goofanders, 
divers, &c. pafs that feafon ; but in autumn return 
to us, and to other more hofpitable fhores *. 

This fpecies is lefs than the tame fwan : length Descrif. 
five feet to the end of the feet ; to that of the tail 
four feet ten inches : extent of wing feven feet 
three inches: weight from thirteen to fixteen 
pounds. The lower part of the bill is black -, the 
bafe of it, and the fpace between that and the eyes 1 , 
is covered with a naked yellow fkin ; the eyelids 
are bare and yellow : the whole plumage in old 
birds is of a pure white ; the down is very loft and 
thick : the legs black. The cry of this kind is 
very loud, and may be heard at a great diltance, 
from which it is fometimes called the Hooper. 

* Flora Lapponka, 273. Oeuvres de M. de Maupertuis. 
Tom. 111. p. 141, 175. According to the obfervation of 
that iliuitrious writer, the Lap/and lakes are filled with the 
lawes of the Knat (culex pipiens. Lin.fyji. 602.) or fome 
other infect, that depofites its eggs in the water ; which being 
an agreeable food to water fowl, is another caufe of their 
refort to thofe deferts. 

Vol. II. P p te 

564 T A M E S W A N. Class II, 

265. Tame Le Cygne. Belon av> 151. LeCygne. BriJ/bnav. VI.288. 

Swan. Gefner av. 371. Anas Cygnus manfuetus. Lin. 

Cygno, Ciiano. Aldr. av. fyji. 194. 

HI. 1. Swan. Faun. Suec. fp. 107. 

Wil. cm. 355. Schwan. Frifch, 11. 152. 

Raiijyn. a-v. 136. Dams Tarn Svane. Brunnich, 

Ednv. a<v. 150. 44. 

Plotfshijl. Staff. zzS. Br. Zool 149. add. plates. 

Descrip. rr^HIS is the largefl of the Britifh birds. It 
A is diftinguifhed externally from the wild fwan ; 
firft, by its fize, being much larger : fecondly, by 
the bill, which in this is red, and the tip and fides 
black, and the fkin between the eyes and bill is of 
the fame color. Over the bafe of the upper man- 
dible projects a black callous knob : the whole 
plumage in old birds is white •, in young ones 
afh colored till the fecond year : the legs dufky : 
but Dr. Plott mentions a variety found on the Trent 
near Rugely^ with red legs. The fwan lays fevca 
or eight eggs, and is near two months in hatch- 
ing ; it feeds on water plants, infects and fhells. 
No bird perhaps makes fo inelegant a figure out 
of the water, or has the command of fuch beautiful 
attitudes in that element as the fwan : almoft every 
poet has taken notice of it, but none with that 
juftice of defer iption, and in fo pidurefque a 
manner, as our Milton. 


Class II. TAME SWA N. §6$ 

The fwan with arched neck 
Between her white wings mantling, proudly rows 
Her ftate with oary feet. Par. Loft, J3. VII. 

But we cannot help thinking that he had here an 
eye to that- beautiful paflage in Silius Italicus on 
the fame fubjecl, though the Englijh poet has great- 
ly improved on it. 

Haud fee us Eridani flagnis, ripave Cayftri 

Innatat albus clor, pronoque immobile corpus 

Dat iluvio, et pedibus tacitas eremigat undas. Lib, XIV . 

In former times it was ferved up at every great 
feaft, when the elegance of the table was meafured 
by the fize and quantity of the good cheer. 
Cygnets are to this day fattened at Norwich about 
Chrifimas, and are fold for a guinea a piece. 

Swans were formerly held in fuch great efteern 
in England, that by an act of Edward IV. c. 6. 
" no one that poifeffed a freehold of lefs clear 
yearly value than five marks, was permitted to 
keep any, other than the fon of our fovereign lord the 
king." And by the eleventh of Henry VII. c. 17. 
the.punifhment for taking their eggs was imprifon^ 
ment for a year and a day, and a fine at the king's 
will. Though at prefent they are not fo highly 
valued as a delicacy, yet great numbers are pre=- 
ferved for their beauty ; we fee multitudes on the 
"Thames and Trent, but no where greater numbers 
than on the fait water inlet of the fea, near Ah 
botjbury in Dorfetjhire. 

P p 2 Thefe 

5 65 T A M £ S W A N. Class IL 

Thefe birds were by the ancients confecrated to 
Apollo and the Mufes -, 

• Ev&a kvwo; (AEhcodog 

Movrag SigaiTEVEi. Eurip\ IpBg* in Taar. tin. 1 104. 

And Callimachus, in his hymn upon the iflaad of 
Deles, is frill more particular: 

■ ■ Kzwttu oe &eo'j [j.t?<7rovit; aoio'oi 
Ahcviov TrazTcohov EKVtcXcocravro Kittovtzs 

"EhOG/JLOJCig W£$l AyiTMV. ETTYiEiOraV $£ hOXW 

"NLoveaw o(>v&£$, aciooTarai ttetevvqv. 
EvSev 7rai$ Tcacragh Xvgy EVECr.o-aro xocoa; ' 
¥$T£gov, 07< fcvxvoi £?r adtvEcra-tv aEicrav : 

- OyOQOV XK £7 a£'.7CC\-, l?E*&Qf&* 

When from Paflolus* golden banks 

Apollo's tuneful fongflers, fnowy fwans 

Steering their flight, feven times their circling courfe 

Wheel round the ifland, caroling mean time 

Soft melody, the favourites of the Nine, 

Thus ufhering to birth with dulcet founds 

The God of harmony, and hence fev'n firings 

Hereafter to his golden lyre he gave, 

For ere the eighth foft concert was begun 

He fprung to birth. . Dod's Callhnachus, p. 1 rtf. 

Upon this idea of their being peculiarly confecrated 
to Apollo and the Mufes, (the deities of harmony) 
feems to have been ingrafted,, the notion the an- 
tients had of fwans being endowed with a mufical 
voice. Tho' this might be one reafon for the fa- 
ble -, yet, to us there appears another ftill ftronger, 


Class II. TAME SWAN. j6? 

which arofe from the Pythagorean doctrine of the 
tranfmigration of the foul into T:he bodies of ani- 
mals ; from the belief, that the body of the fwan 
was allotted for the manfion of departed poets. 
Thus Plato makes his prophet fay, ww ^v yap tyxw 


the foul of Orpheus prefer the life of a fwan." 

After the antients had thus furnifhed thefe birds 
with fuch agreeable inmates, it is not to be doubted 
but they would attribute to them the fame powers 
of harmony, that poets poi^dTed, previous to their 
tranfmigration : but the vulgar not diftinguifhing 
between the fweetnefs of numbers, and that of 
voice, ignorantly believed that to be real, which 
philofophers and poets only meant metaphorically. 
In time a fwan became a common trope for a 
Bard ; Horace calls Pindar Dirc^eum Cygnum, and 
in one ode even fuppofes himfelf changed into a 
fwan \ Virgil fpeaks of his poetical brethren in the 
fame manner, 

Vare 9 tuum nomen 

Cantantes fublime ferent ad fydera cygnl. Eclog. IX. 

when he fpeaks of them figuratively, he afcribes to 
them melody, or the power of mufick ; but when 
he talks of them as birds, he lays afide fldtion, and 
like a true naturalift gives them their real note, 

Dant fonitum rauci per ftagna loquacia cygni. JEneid. Lib. X. L 

* De RepubL Lib. X, fab fine. 

P p 3 Thus 

£63 TAME SWAN. Class II. 

Thus he, as well as Pliny*, in fact, gave no 
credit to the mufick of fwans. Arifiotle fpeaks of 
it only by hearfay-J-, but, when once an error is 
flarted, it is not furprizing that it is adopted, 
efpecially by poets, geniufes of all others of the 
moil unbounded imaginations* For this reafon 
poets were faid to animate fwans, from the notion 
that they flew higher than any other birds, and 
Hefiod diftinguifhes them by the epithet of mwvt* 
eteprm&tai^ " the lofty flying fwans" ; Thus Ho- 
race, whilft he humbly compares himfelf to a bee, 
contenting itfelf with the creeping thyme, fends 
his Dircaum Cygnum into the clouds 

Multa Dircceiim levat aura cygiium, 

Tendit, Jntoni, quoties^ in altos 

Nubium tra&us. Ode. II. Lib. 4. 

but when he finds himfelf (truck with a true poeti- 
cal fpirit, he at once alfumes the form of this fa- 
vourite bird, 

Non ufitata nee tenui feror 

Penna, biformis per liquidum aethera 

Vates : 

— et album mutor in alitem. Ode. XX. Lib. 2* 

And doubtlefs he was on the wing in his firft ode, 

Sublimi feriam fydera vertice. 

* Lib. X. c. 33. 
f Hi/}, an. 1045. 
% Scut. Here* 1. 31 6* 


Class II. T A M E S W A N. 569 

Befides thefe opinions, the antients held another 
ftill more lingular, imagining that the fwan fore- 
told its own end : to explain this we mull confider 
the twofold chara&er of the poet, Fates and Poeta, 
which the fable of the tranfmigration continue to 
the bird, or they might be fuppofed to derive 
that faculty from Apollo* their patron deity, the 
god of prophecy and divination. 

As to their being fuppofed to fing more fweetly 
at the approach of death, the caufe is beautifully 
explained by Plato, who attributes that unufual me- 
lody, to the fame fort of Ecftafy that good men are 
fometimes faid to enjoy at that awful hour, fore- 
feeing the joys that are preparing for them on 

putting off mortality, Mavlwoi rs ekti, kou 7tfo£ih%TE$ ra ev 
A&s aya&cc, aoziri te, nai TEpTrovrai ekeivyiv rriv Yi[AE$av dictipEgovTug 

», ev tco 7t§q<t$ev xfovu f. " They become prophetic, 
and forefeeing the happinefs which they Hiall enjoy 
in another (late, are in greater ecftafy than they have 
before experienced". 

This notion, tho' accounted for by Plato^ feems 
to have been a popular one long before his time, 
for AEfchylus alludes to it in his Agamemnon % Cly- 
temneftra fpeaking of Cajfandra, fays, 

■ Yi ?£ T0l 9 HMV8 6MYIV, 

Toy VTO.TQV (/,E^ao~a Savaaifiov yoov, 

•— She like the fwan 
Expiring, dies in melody. 

* Platonis Pbado* Ed. Cantab. 1683. p, 124. 
f Ibid. 

p P 4 Gre y 

57c GREY LAG GOOSE, Class II. 

266. Grey Grey Lag, the Fen-Goofe of Raiifyn. av. 136. 

Lag. Lifter. Ph, Tro.uf. abr.ll. Gofs (the tame). Scopo/z,No. 

852. 69. 

Descrip. r £ '^HIS is our largeft fpeci^s -, the heavieft 
j[ weigh ten pounds : the length is two feet 
nine *, the extent five feet. 

The bill is large and elevated -, of a flefh color, 
tinged with yellow : the nail white : the head and 
neck cinereous, mixed with ochraceous yellow : the 
the hind part of the neck very pale - s and at the 
bafe of a vellowifh brown. 

Bread and belly whitifh, clouded with grey or 
afh color : back grey : lefTer coverts of the wings 
almoil white ; the middle row, deep cinereous 
ilightly edged with white : the primaries grey, 
tipt with black, and edged with white : fecondaries 
entirely black 5 grey only at their bafe : the fcapu- 
lars of a deep afh color, edged with white. 

The coverts of the tail, and the vtnt feathers of 
a pure white : the middle feathers of the tail duf- 
ky, tipt with white; the exterior feathers al mo ft 
wholly white. The legs of a flefh color. 
History. This fpecies refides in the fens the whole year: 

breeds there, and hatches about eight or nine 
young which are often taken, eafily made tame, 
and efteerned moft excellent meat, fuperior to the 


Class II. GREY LAG GOOSE.! 571 

domeftic goofe. The old geefe which are mot, are 
plucked and fold in the market as fine tame ones ; 
and readily bought, the purchafer being deceived 
by the fize, but their flefh is coarfe. Towards 
winter they collect in great flocks, but in all fea- 
fbns live and feed in the fens. 

The Grey Lag is the origin of the domeftic goofe ; 
it is the only fpecies that the Britons could take 
vouns;, and familiarize : the other two never breed 
here, and migrate during fummer. The mallard 
comes within the fame defcription, and is the fpe- 
cies to which we owe our tame breed of ducks : 
both preferve fome of the marks of their wild flate ; 
the soofe the whitenefs of the coverts of the tail 
and vent- feathers ; the drake its curled feathers. 
The goofe in other colors fports lefs in the tame 
kind than the other. 

Tame geefe are of vaft longevity. Mr. Willugh- Tame Goose 
by gives an example of one that attained eighty 

Tame geefe are keep in vaft multitudes in the 
fens of Lincoln/hire \ a fingle perfon will keep a 
thoufand old geefe, each of which will rear feven j 
fo that towards the end of the feafon he will be- 
come mafter of eight thoufand. I beg leave to re- 
peat here part of the hi (lory of their ceconomy 
from my tour in Scotland, in order to complete my 

During the breeding feafon thefe- birds are lodg- 
ed in the fame houfes with the inhabitants, and 


57 2 


even in their very bed-chambers : in every apart- 
ment are three rows of coarfe wicker pens, pla- 
ced one above another ; each bird has its feparate 
lodge divided from the other, which it keeps pof- 
feffion of during the time of fitting. A perfon, 
called aGozzard, i. e. Goof e- herd, attends the flock, 
and twice a day drives the whole to water ; then 
brings them back to their habitations, helping 
thofe that live in the upper ftories to their nefts, 
without ever mifplacing a fingle bird. 
Feathers. The geefe are plucked five times in the year: 
the firft plucking is at Lady-Bay, for feathers and 
quils, and the fame is renewed, for feathers only, 
four times more between that and Michaelmas, 
The old geefe fubmit quietly to the operation, but 
the young ones are very noify and unruly. I once 
faw this performed, and obferved, that goflins of 
fix weeks old were not fpared ; for their tails 
were plucked, as I was told, to habituate them 
early to what they were to come to. If the feafon 
proves cold, numbers of the geefe die by this 
barbarous cuftom. At the time, about ten pluck- 
ers are employed, each with a coarfe apron up to 
his chin. 

Vaft numbers of geefe are driven annually to 
London to fupply the markets, among them all 
the fuperannuated geefe and ganders (called here 
Cagmags) which, by a long courfe of plucking, 
prove uncommonly tough and dry. 

The feathers are a confiderable article of com- 
merce ; 

Class II. GREY LAG GOOSE. 573 

merce-, thofe from Somerfetjhire are efteemed the 
bed ; and thofe from Ireland the word. 

It will not here be foreign to the fubject to 
oive fome account of the feathers that other birds 
and other countries fupply our IJland with, which 
was communicated to us by an intelligent per- 
fon in the feather trade. 

Eider down is imported from Denmark, the 
ducks that fupply it being inhabitants of Hudforfs- 
Bay, Greenland, Iceland and Norway ; our own ifl- 
ands weft of Scotland breed numbers of thefe birds, 
and might turn out a profitable branch of trade to 
the poor inhabitants. Hudfon's-Bay alfo furnifhes 
a very fine feather, fuppoied to be of the goofe 

The down of the fwan is brought from Dant- 
zick. The fame place alfo fends us great quantity 
of the feathers of the cock and hen. The Lon- 
don poulterers fell a great quantity of the feathers 
of thofe birds, and of ducks and turkies; thofe 
of ducks being a weaker feather, are inferior to 
thofe of the goofe ; turkey's feathers are the worft 
of any. 

The beft method of curing feathers is to lay them 
in a room in an expofure to the fun, and when 
dried to put them in bags, and beat them well 
with poles to get the dirt off. 

We have often been furprized that no expe- 
riments had been made on the feathers of the Auk 
tribe, as fuch numbers refort to our rocks annu- 

574 GREY LAG GOOSE. Clvss II. 

ally, and promife, from the appearance of their plu- 
mage, to furnifh a warm and ioft feather; but we 
have lately been informed, that fome unfuccefsful 
trials have been made at Glafgow: a gentleman who 
had made a voyage to the weflern iiles, and 
brought fome of the feathers home with a laudable 
defign of promoting the trade of our own country, 
attempted to render them fit for ufe, rrrft by bak- 
ing, then by boiling them ; but their ilench was 
fo offenfive, that the Glafgow people could not be 
prevaled on to leave off their correfpondence with 
Dantzick. The difagreeabie fmell of thefe feathers 
mud be owing to the quantity of oil that all water 
fowls ufe from the glandules of their rump to pre- 
ferve and fmooth their feathers ; and as fea birds 
mud expend more of this unction than other water 
fowl, being almofb perpetually on that element, 
and as their food is entirely nTn, that oil muft re- 
ceive a great ranknefs, and communicate it to the 
plumage, fo as to render it ablbluteiy unfit for 






L'Oye prlvee, L'Oye Sau- 
vage. Belon ay 156. 158. 

Gefner a<v. 142. 158. 

Aldr a<v. Ill 42 6j. Pbil. 

Tr, IL 852. 
Tame Goofe, common wild 

Goofe. Wil. om. 358. fp* 

1, 2. 
Rail fyn. a<v. 136. _/^. 3, 4. 
L'Oye domellique, L'Oye 

Sauvage. Briffm a-u. VI. 

262, 265. 
Oca domeftica, Salvatica, 

Baletta. Zinan. 104. 

Gus dikaya. i?«/}. A r . Cow. 

Petr. IV. 418. 
Wild ganfs, Einheimifche 

ganfs. Kram. 338. Frifcb, 

ii. 155, 157. * 

Anas anfer manfuetus — ferus. 

Lin. fyft. 197. 
Gas-— will gas. Faun. Suec. 

fp. 114. 
Crantz's GreenL I. 80. 
Danis Tarn Gaas. Brunnich^ 

i?r. Zoo/. 150. 

267. Beak. 

/N X -V HE length of this fpecies is two feet feven Descrif. 

""* inches : the extent four feet eleven : the 
weight fix pounds and a half. The bill which 
is the chief fpecific diftinction between this and the 
former is fmall, much compreifed near the end, 
whitiijh and fometimes pale red in the middle •, and 
black at the bafe and nail : head and neck are 
cinereous brown, tinged with ferruginous :.. bread 
and belly dirty white, clouded with cinereous: fides 
and fcapulars dark aili color, edged with white: the 
back of a plain afh color: coverts of the tail white: 
lefTer coverts of the wings light grey, nearly 
white -, the middle deeper tipt with white : prima- 
ries and fecondaries grey, tipt with black : feet and 
legs faffron color: claws black. 

This fpecies arrives in Lincolnfmrs in autumn,. History. 



and is called there the bean goofe, from the likenefs 
of the nail of the bill to a horfe bean. They always 
light on corn fields, and feed much on the green 

They never breed in the fens ; but all difappear 
in May. They retreat to the fequeftred wilds of the 
north of Europe: in their migration they fly a great 
height, cackling as they go. They preferve a great 
regularity in their motions, fometimes forming a 
flrait line, at others affume the fhape of a wedge, 
which facilitates their progrefs *, for they cut the 
air the readier in that form than if they flew pell- 

2-63. White The laughing Goofe. Ea^v. Britfon a-v. VI. 269. 

Fs-Onted. a-v. 153. Polniiche Ganfs. Kram. 339. 

Anas erythropus (fam.), Danis Vild Gaas. Brunnicb 9 

Lin. fyfi. 197. 53. 

Fiasllgas. Faun. Stiec.fp. 116. Br. Zoo!. !fO» 
L'Oye fauvage du fiord. 

De scrip. r°Tr^ HE weight of this kind is about five pounds 
J[ and a half: the length two feet four: the 
extent four feet fix: the bill elevated, of a pale yel- 
low color, with a white nail. The forehead white : 
head and neck of the fame color with thofe of the 
former: the coverts of the wing; the primaries 
and fecondaries darker : in the tail the am. color 
predominates: it is like the two preceding, fur- 

Class II. BERNACLE. 5 yy 

rounded with a white ring. The bread and belly 
of a dirty white, marked with great fpots of black : 
the legs yellow : the nails whitifh. 

Thefe vifit the fens and other parts of England History. 
during winter, in fmall flocks : they keep always 
in marfriy places, and never frequent the corn 
lands. They difappcar in the earlieft fpring, and 
none are feen after the middle of March, Linnaeus 
makes this goofe the female of xht Bern acle\ but we 
think his opinion not well founded. 

Doctor Lifter adds two other fpecies to the lift 
of Englijh geefe ; one he calls the great Black Goofe 
or Wbilk ; the other the fmall Spanifh Goofe, which 
he fays is of the fame color with the common goofe; 
but is no larger than the Brent; but each fpecies has 
hitherto eluded our mod diligent enquiry. 

I muft conclude this fubjedt with obferving that 
the goofe was one of the forbidden foods of the 
Britons in the time of Cafar. 

I/Oye nonnette ou Cravant. La Bernache. BriJJbn a<v. VI, 269. Beiu 

Belon a<v. 158. 300. nacle. 

Brenta, vel Bernicla. Gefner Anas Erythropus (mas), Lin, 

a<v. 109. no. fyft. 197. 

Aldr. anj. III. 7$* Phil. Tr. Fisllgas. Faun. Suec./p, 116. 

II. 853. Schottische Gans. Frifch, II. 

Bernacle, or Clakis. Wil. orn, 189. 

Raiijyn. av, 137. - Anfer brendinus. Caii opufc. 

Sibb. hift. Scot. 21. 87. 

Gerard* 's Herbal, I 587. Crantz's GreenL I. 80. 

Br, Zool, 150. 

THIS bird weighs about five pounds; the Descrip, 
length is two feet one inch; the breadth four 


5?S B E R N A C L E. Class II. 

feet five inches; the bill is black, and only one inch 
three-eights long ; the head is fmall 5 the fore- 
head and cheeks white; from the bill to the eves is 
a black line ; the hind part of the head, the whole 
neck, and upper part of the breafr and back are 
of a deep black; the whole underfide of the bo- 
dy, and coverts of the tail are white; the back, 
fcapulars and coverts of the wings, are beautifully 
barred with grey, black, and white; the tail is 
black, the legs of the fame color, and fmall. 

Thefe birds appear in vail flocks during v. ? inter, 
on the north weft coafts of this kingdom : are ve- 
ry fhy and wild ; but on being taken, grow as fa- 
miliar as our tame geefe in a few days ; in Febru- 
ary they quit our fhores, and retire as far as Lap- 
land) Greenland and even Spitsbergen to breed K 

They live to a great age : the Rev, Doctor Buck- 
worth of Spalding had one which was kept in the 
family above two and thirty years; but was blind 
during the two lad: what its age was when fir ft 
taken was unknown. 

Thefe are the birds that about two hundred years 
as;o were believed to be generated out of wood, or 
rather a fpecies of fheli that is often found flicking 
to the bottoms of mips, or fragments of them ; 
and were called Tree-geefe -f*. Thefe were alfo 

* Arnam Acad. VI. 585. Barents voy. 19. 

■f The fhell here meant is thelepas anatifera. Lin.jyft. 66S. 
Argenville Conch, tab, 7. the animal that inhabits it is furnifhed 
with a feathered beard ; which, in a credulous age, was be- 
lieved to be part of the young bird. 



• thought by ibme writers to have been the Chena- 
lopeces of Pliny : they fhould have faid Chenerotes ; 
for thofe were the birds that naturalift faid were 
found in Britain ; but as he has fcarce left us any 
defcription of them ; it is difficult to fay which fpe- 
cies he intended. I mould imagine it to be the 
following; the Brent -goof e^ which is far inferior m 
fize to the wild goofe, and very delicate food *: in 
both refpects fuiting his account of the Cheneros. 

Les Canes de Mer. Behn a<u. Belgh Rotgans, Calmarienfibus 270. Brent, 
166. Prutgas. Faun. Suec.fp. 115. 

Aldr. av. III. 73. Cimbris Ray-v Rad-Gaas. 

Wil. on:. 360. Norvegis Raat-v. Raatne- 

Raiifyn. a<v. 1 37. Gaa.s. item Goul-V. Gagl. 

Bernacle. Nat. hiji. Ireland. Brnnnich, 52. 

192. Baum-Gans. Frifcb, II. 156. 

Brenta, le Cravant. Brijfon a<v. Br. Zool. 151. 

VI. 304. tab. 31. Branta Bernicla. Scopoli, No. 

Anas Bernicla. Lin. fyjl. 198. 84. 

THIS is inferior in fize to the former: the bill Descrip 
is one inch and an half long; the color of 
that, the head, neck, and upper part of the breaft 
is black ; on each fide the flendereft part of the 
neck is a white fpot - 5 the lower part of the bread, 
the fcapulars, and coverts of the wings are afh co- 
lored, clouded with a deeper made -, the feathers 

* Anferini generis funt Chenalopeces : et quibus lautiores 
epulas non novit Britannia Chenerotes, fere anfere roinores. 
Lib. x. c. 22. 

Vol. IL Qjq above 

5*p .BRENT GOOS E. Class II. 

above and below the tail are white ; the tail and 
quil-feathers black ; the legs black. 

Thefe birds frequent our coafcs in the winter : 
in Ireland they are called Bernacles, and appear in 
great quantities in Auguft, and leave it in March. 
They feed on a fort of long grafs growing in the 
water 5 preferring the root and fome part above 
it, which they dive for, bite off and leave the up- 
per part to drive on fhore. They abound near 
Londonderry, Belfaft, and Wexford; and are taken 
in flight time in nets placed a-crofs the rivers ; and 
are much efteemed for their delicacy. The Rat or 
Roadgcofe, of Mr. Wtlhghby *, agrees in fo many 
refpects with this kind, that we fufpect it only to 
be a young bird not come to full feathers : the on- 
ly difference confiding in the feathers next the bill, 
and on the throat and bread being brown. We 
have the greater reafon to imagine it to be fo as Mr. 
Bmnnich informs us that the Danijb and Norwegian 
names for this bird are Radgaas and Raatgaas, 
which agree with thofe given' it by Mr. Willughby. 
Mr. Willughby i Mr. Ray, and M. Briffan very pro. 
perly defcribe the Bernacle and Brent as different 
fpecies, but Unnaus makes thefe fynonymous, and 
defcribes the true Bernacle as the female of the white 
fronted wild gocfe. Vide Faun. Suec. 116. 

Page 561. 




5 Si 

Wormius's Eider, or Toft fea- 
thered Duck, the Cuthbert 
Duck. Wil. cm. 362. 

Raiijyn. a<v. 141. 

Great black and white Duck. 
Ed-ju. av. 98. 

Eider anas Sib. Scot. 21. 

The Colk. Martin's defcrip- 
tion of the weft em ijles. 25. 

Anfer lanuginofus, l'Oye a 
duvet. Brijfon a<v. VI. 294. 
tab. 29. et 30. 

Anas niolliflima. Lin. Jyft. 271. Eider. 

Ada, Eider, Gudunge, iEra. 

Faun. Suec.fp. 117. 
Pont op. hift. Norway. 11. 70. 
Hor. hift. Icel. 65. Debes Feroe 

137- ; 
Egede's hift. Gree7iland. 92. 
Mittek. Crantz's Green/. I. 81. 
Edder. Brunnich, 57. 66. 

Monogr. tab. 1. 2. 
Duntur Goofe. Sib. Scot. 21. 

THIS ufeful fpecies is found in the weftern 
ijles of Scotland, particularly on Oranja y 
Barra, Rona, and Heijker, and on the Farn ijles-, 
but in greater numbers in Norway, Iceland, and 
Greenland: from whence a vaft quantity of the 
down, known by the name of Eider or Edder, which 
thefe birds furnifh, is annually imported : its re- 
markably light, elaclic, and warm qualities, make 
it highly efteemed as a fluffing for coverlets, by 
fuch whom age or infirmities render unable to fup- 
port the weight of common blankets. This down 
is produced from the breaft of the bird in the breed- 
ing feafon. It lays its eggs among the (tones or 
plants, near the more: and prepares a foft bed for 
them, by plucking the down from its own bread \ 
the natives watch the opportunity, and take away 
both eggs and neft : the duck lays again, and re- 
peats the plucking of its bread -, if me is robbed 

Q^q 2 after 

#tt EIDER DUCK. Class II. 

after that, fhe will dill lay \ but the drakes mud 
fupply the down, as her flock is now exhausted -, 
but if her eggs are taken a third time, Hie wholly 
deferts the place. 

When I vifited the Farn i/Ies*, I found the 
ducks fitting, and toke fome of the nefts, the bafe 
of which- were formed of fea plants, and covered 
with the down. After feparating it carefully from 
the plants, it weighed only three quarters of arr 
ounce, yet was fo elaftic as to fill a larger fpace 
than the crown of the greater! hat. Thefe birds are 
not numerous on the ifles ; and it was obferved 
that the drakes kept on thofe moil: remote from 
the fitting places. The ducks continue on their 
nefts till you come almoft clofe to them, and when 
they rife are very flow fliers. The number of eggs- 
in each neft were from three to five, warmly bed- 
ded in the down - y of a pale olive color, and very 
large, glofiy and fmooth. 
Descrip, This kind is double the fize of the common 
duck : its bill is black ; the feathers of the fore- 
head and cheeks advance far into the bafe, fo as 
to form two very fharp angles : the forehead is of 
a full velvet black : from the bill to the hind 
part of the head is a broad black bar, palling a- 
crofs the eyes on each fide : on the hind part of the 
neck, juft beneath" the ends of thefe bars, is a 
broad pea-greea mark, that looks like a ftain - 

* July 15th, 1769. 



JST? 2J'2 


Class II. VELVET D U C K. 583 

the crown of the head, the cheeks, the neck, 
back, fcapulars and coverts of the wings are white ; 
the lower part of the breaft, the belly, tail, and 
qui! feathers are black ; the legs are green. 

The female is of a reddim. brown, barred tranf- Female 
verfely with black ; but the head and upper part 
of the neck are marked with duiky flreaks point- 
ing downward; the primary feathers are black; 
the greater or laft row of coverts of the wings, 
and the leiTer row of quil feathers tipt with white : 
the tail is dufky ; the belly of a deep brown, mark- 
ed obfcurely with black. One I weighed was 
three pounds and a half. 

Anas nigra, rofrro nigro rubro Faun. Suee. fp. iog 272. Velvets 

etluteo. Aldr. a-v. III. 97. Gunner. Tab. V. 

The black Duck. Wil. orn. Incolis Cbriftianfoe Svcerte. 

363. Norvegis Soe-Orre, Hav- 

Raiijyn.-av. 141. Orre v. Sav-Orre, quibuf- 

D ale's hiji. Harwich? 405. dam Sorte. Brunnich, 48. 

Turpan. N. Com. Petr. IV. Nordifche fchwartze Entc 

420. Frifcb, II. 165. Supl. 

La grande Macreufe. Briffon Br. Z00L i§2. Scopoli, No. 

av. VI. 423. 680 
Anas fufca. Lin.fyji.. 190. 

THE male of this fpecies is larger than the 
tame duck. The bill is broad and fhort. Descry 
yellow on the fides, black in the middle, and the 
hook red : the head, and part of the neck is black 
tinged with green: behind each ear is a white 
Q^q 3 fgoti 

5®4 S C O T E R. Class II. 

fpot; and in each wing is a white feather; all 
the reft: of the plumage is of a fine black, and of 
the foft and delicate appearance of velvet : the 
legs and feet are red -, the webs black. The female 
is entirely of a deep brown color ; the marks be- 
hind each ear and on the wings excepted : the bill 
is of the fame colors with that of the male ; but 
wants the protuberance at the bafe of it, which 
Linnaus gives the male * 

73. Scoter. Black Diver, or Scoter. Wil. La Macreufe. BnJJbn av. VI. 
orn. 366. 420. Tab. 38. fig. 2. 141. Anas nigra. Lin.fyfi. 196, 

La Macreufe. Ray's Letters, Faun Suec fp. no. 

161. Br. Zool. 153. 
Dale's bij}, Harwich, 405. 

Descrip. / I ^ HIS fpecies weighs two pounds nine ounces : 
I the length is twenty-two inches ; the breadth 
thirty-four : the middle of the bill is of a fine yel- 
low, the reft is black : both male and female want 
the hook at the end ; but on the bafe of the bill of 
the former is a large knob, divided by a fifiure in 
the middle. The tail confifts of fixteen fharp point- 
ed feathers, of which the middle are the longeft. 
The color of the whole plumage is black, that of 
the head and neck glofied over with purple : the 
legs are black. 

* Faun. Suec. laft edit, 39. 


Class II. TUFTED -DUCK. 585 

This bird is allowed in the Romijh church to be 
eaten in Lent, and is the macreufe of the French. 
It is a great diver, faid to live almoft conftantly at 
fea, and to be taken in nets placed under water. 

Un petit Plongeon efpece de Kram. 341. 274.TUFTED 

•Canard. Belon a*v. 175. Anas fuligula. Lin.fyji. 207. 

Strain's endt. Gefner a<v. 107. Wigge. Faun. Suec. fp. 132. 

Querquedula Criltata. Aldr, Norvegis Trol-And. Brunnich, 
civ. III. 91. 90. 

Wil. orn. 365. Reiger-Ente, Straufs - Ente. 

Raiifyn. a<v. 142. Frifch, II. 171. 

Le petit Morillon. BriJJbn Br. Zool. 153. Scopoli, No. 78, 
&U, VI. 41 1. Tab. 27. fig. J. 

THIS fcarcely weighs two pounds : the length Descrip. 
is fifteen inches and a half: the bill is broad, 
of a bluifh grey, the hook black : the hides of a 
fine yellow. The head is adorned with a thick, 
but iliort pendent creft. The belly, and under 
coverts of the wings are of a pure white : the 
quil feathers dufKy on their exterior fides and ends - 9 
part of their interior webs white ; the fecondaries 
white tipt with black. The reft of the plumage is 
black, varied about the head with purple : the tail 
is very fhort, and confifts of fourteen feathers : the 
legs of a bluifh grey \ the webs black. The 
female wants the creft. 

When young, this fex is of a deep brown \ and 
the fides of the head next the bill of a pale yel- 

Q^ q 4 low : 

$6 S C A V P D U C K. Class II. 

low : but it preferves the other marks of the old 
duck. In this ftate it has been defcribed in the 
Qrnith. boreal 91, under the title of anas latiroftra. 

375, Scaup. Bollenten. Gefmf tw. 120. fan av. VI. 416. 

Scaup Duck. Wil. om. 365. Danis Polik Edelmand, Bruit* 

Raiijyn, av» 142. nich, 50, 51. 

Anas marila Lin. fyfl. 196. Schwartz? vviide Elite, Frifcb^ 

Faun. Suec. fp % \\\. II, 193. 

Le petit Morillon raye. Brif- Br. Z00L 153. add. plates. 

Descrip. rT^HIS we defcribed from fome ftuft ikins very 
-*= well preferved *. It feemed lefs than the com- 
mon duck. The bill was broad, flat, and of a 
greyifh blue color : the head and neck black glof- 
fed with green : the bread black : the back, the 
coverts of the wings, and the fcapulars finely mark- 
ed with numerous narrow tranfverfe bars of black 
and grey : the greater quil feathers are duiky : 
the lener white, tipt with black : the belly is white: 
the tail and feathers, both above and below, are 
black ; the thighs barred with dufky and white 
ftrokes : the legs dulky. 

Mr. V/illughby acquaints us, that thefe birds 
take their name from feeding on fcaup, or bro- 
ken fhell fifh : they differ infinitely in colors -, fo 

* When this happens, we have recourfe to Mr. WHUghby 
for the weight and meafurenierus, whenever he hath noted 



that in a flock of forty or fifty there are not two 



Clangula. Gefmt a<v* 119. 

Aldr. a<v. III. 94. 

Wil. orn. 368. 

Raiijyn. a~o. 14.2. 

Le Garrot- BriJJcn a-v. VI. 

416. Tab. 37. Jig. 2. 
Schwartzkopfige Enten-Tau- 

cher. Frifcb, II. 183, 184. 
Eifs Ente. Kram. 341. 
Anas clangula. Lin.JyJi. 201. 

Knippa, Dopping. .FWtf. tor. 276. Golden 
.$. 122. ^ Eye. 

Norvegis Ring-Oye, Hviin- 
And v. Quiin-And, Lund- 

And. Incolis Cbrijiianfoe, 

Bruus-Kop v.Blanke-Kniv. 

Br. yo, 71. 
Br. Z00L 154. add. plates. 
Scoppli, No. 71. 

rip HIS fpecies weighs two pounds: the length is 
-*• nineteen inches; the breadth thirty-one. The 
bill is black, fhort, and broad at the bafe: the head 
is large, of a deep black gloried with green : at 
each corner of the mouth is a large white fpot ; for 
which reafon the Italians call it Quatfocchii^ or 
four eyes : the irides are of a bright yellow : the 
upper part of the neck is of the fame color with 
that of the head : the breaft and whole under fide 
of the body are white. 

The fcapulars black and white : the back, tail* 
and die coverts on the ridge of the wings, black : 
the fourteen firft quil feathers, and the four lad 
are black > the feven middlemoft white* as are 
the coverts immediately above them: the legs of an 
Orange color. 




5 88 MORILLON. Class II. 

Female. The head of the female * is of a deep brown, 

tinged with red : the neck grey : breaft and belly- 
white: coverts and fcapulars dufky and afh colored: 
middle quil feathers white ; the others, together 
with the tail, black : the legs dufky. Thefe birds 
frequent frefh. water, as well as the fea ; being 
found on the Shropjhire meres during winter. 

7, Moril- Le Morillon. 2V/ff«, 165. WiL 201. Sccpoli, No. 72. 

LON. on:. 368. Rail jyn. av. 144. Grey headed Duck. Br. ZcoL 

Anas glaucion ? Lin. fyft. Ed. 2d. II, 471. 

npHIS fpecies is rather lefs than the lad. The 
-*■ bill of a yellowifh brown : the hides gold 
color : the head of a dufky ruft color : round the 
upper part of the neck is a collar of white ; be- 
neath that a broader of grey. The back and co- 
vercs dufky, with a few white lines : the greater 
coverts dufky, with a few great fpots of white : 
the primaries black : the fecondaries white. Bread 
and belly white : tail dufky : the fides above the 
thighs black : the legs yellow. 

This was bought in the London market. I am 
doubtfull of the fex. Confult BriJJbn* VI. 406. tab. 

* The fmaller red headed Duck. Wil. ern. $6g. Raii Jyn» 
av. 143. 



Mr. Cockfield, of Stratford in EJfex, favored me 
with an account of two birds of this fpecies, fhot 
near the fame time. Both agreed in colors ; but 
one weighed twenty-fix ounces, the other only 



La Tadorne. Belon a<v. 172. 
Anas maritima. Gefner av, 

803, 804. 
Vulpanfer Tadorne. Aldr. au. 

III. 71, 97. 
Shieldrake, or burroughDuck. 

Wil. orn. 363. 
Rail fyn. an). 140. 
Anas tadorna. Lin.fyfi. 195. 
Jugas. Faun. Suec. fp. 113. 
La Tadorne. Brijfon a<v. VI. 

344. tab. 33. fig* 2. 

PL enl. 53. 

Bergander Turneri. Chenalo- 
pex Plinii. 

Danis Brand-Gaas , Grav- 
Gaas. Nowegis Ring-Gaas, 
Fager-Gaas, Ur Gaas, Rod- 
belte. Feroenfibus Hav-Sim- 
mer. IJlandis Avekong. Br. 

Kracht-Ente. Frifch, II. 166. 

Br. Zoo/, 154. 

278. Shiel- 

THE male of this elegant fpecies weighs two 
pounds ten ounces : the length is two feet ; 
the breadth three and a half. The bill is of a 
bright red, and at the bafe fwells into a knob, 
which is moil confpicuous in the fpring : the head 
and upper part of the neck is of a fine blackifh 
green ; the lower part of the neck white : the 
bread, and upper part of the back is furrounded 
with a broad band of bright orange bay : the co- 
verts of the wings, and the middle of the back are 
white; theneareft fcapulars black, the others white; 
the greater quil feathers are black ; the exterior 





webs of the next are a fine green, and thofe of 
the three fucceeding orange ; the coverts of the tail 
are white; the tail itfelf of the fame color, and ex- 
cept the two outmoft feathers tipt with black; the 
belly white, divided lengthways by a black line -, 
the legs of a pale flefh color. 

Thefe birds inhabit the fea coafts, and breed in 
rabbet holes. When a perfon attempts to take 
their young, the old birds mew great addrefs in 
diverting his attention from the brood ; they will 
fly along the ground as if wounded, till the for- 
mer are got into a place of fecurity, and then return 
and collect them together. From this inftinctive 
cunning, burner, with good reafon, imagines them 
to be the chenalopex *, or f ox-goo fe of the antients : 
the natives of the Orknies to this day call them the 
Jfygoofe, from an attribute of that quadruped. They 
lay fifteen or fixteen eggs, white, and of a roundifh 
ihape. In winter they collect in great flocks. 
Their flelh is very rank and bad. 

* Plinii, Lib. X. c. 22, 


Class IL 


59 1 

Les Canards et Ies Canes. 

Belcn a-~v. 160. 
Anas fera torquata minor. 
Anas domeftica. Gefncr a<v. 

1.13, 96. 
^r. 0*/. III. Z$, 85. 
Common wild Duck and 

Mallard. Common tame 

Duck. Wil. cm. 371,380. 
Raii jyn. a<v. 1 45, 150. 
Le Canard domeflique, le 

Canard fauvage. Brijfon 

a<u. VI 308, 318. 
Sinheimifche ent. Stock ent. 

Kram, 341. 

Anitra, Anitra falvatica, Ci- 

fone. Zinan. 105, 106. 
Anas bofchas. Anas domef- 

tica. Lin. fyfi. 205. 
Gras-and , Blanacke. Faun, 

Suec. fp. 131. 
Fera, Nor%<egis Blaaehals v. 

Gnes-And, aliis Stok-And. 

Danis Vild-And. Brun- 

rJch, 87. 
Domeftica, Danis Tam-And. 

ibid. 88. 
Wilde Ente. Frifch, II. 158. 

faemina. 159. 
Br. Zool. 155. 
Ratza. Scopoli, No. 77. 

279. Mal. 


THE mallard ufually weighs two pounds and D 
an half: the length is twenty-three inches; 
the breadth thirty-five : the bill is of a yellowifh 
green : the head and neck are of a deep and fhining 
green : more than half round the lower part of the 
neck is an incomplete circle of white : the upper 
part of the bread is of a purplifh red; and the be- 
ginning of the back of the fame color : the bread 
and belly of a pale grey 3 marked with tranfverfe 
fpeckled lines of a dufky hue. 

The fcapulars white, elegantly barred with 
brown: the fpot on the wing is of a rich purple: 
the tail confifts of twenty-four feathers. What dif- 
tinguifhes the male of this fpecies from all others 
are the four middle feathers, which are black and 



5^2 MALLARD. Class II. 

flrongly curled upwards ; but the females want 
this mark. Their plumage is of a pale reddifh 
brown, fpotted with black. The legs are of a faf- 
fron color. 

The common tame fpecies of ducks take their 
origin from thefe, and may be traced to it by 
unerring characters. The drakes, howfoever they 
vary in colors, always retain the curled feathers of 
the tail: and both fexes the form of , the bill of 
the wild kind. Nature fports in the colors of all 
domeflic animals -, and for a wife and ufeful end ; 
that mankind may the more readily diftinguifh 
and clame their refpective property. Wild ducks 
pair in the fpring, and breed in all marfhy grounds, 
and lay from ten to fixteen eggs. They abound in 
Lincoln/hire^ the great magazine of wild fowl in 
this kingdom; where prodigious numbers are taken 
annually in the decoys. 
Decoys. A decoy is generally made where there is a large 

pond furrounded with wood, and beyond that. a 
marmy and uncultivated country : if the piece of 
water is not thus furrounded, it will be attended 
with the noife and other accidents, which may be 
expected to fright the wild fowl from a quiet 
haunt, where they mean to deep (during the day- 
time) in fecurity. 

If thefe noifes or difturbances are wilful, it hath 
been held, that an action will lye againft the dis- 

As foon as the evening fets in, the decoy rifes 


Class II. MALLARD. $9 

(as they term it) and the wild fowl feed during 
the night. If the evening is fiill, the noife of 
their wings, during their flight, is heard at a very 
great diftance, and is a pleafing, though rather 
melancholy found. This rifing of the decoy in the 
evening, is in Somerfetjhire called rodding. 

The decoy ducks are fed with hempfeed, which 
is flung over the fkreens in fmall quantities, to 
bring them forwards into the pipes, and to allure 
the wild fowl to follow, as this feed is ib light as 
to float. 

There are feveral pipes (as they are called) 
which lead up a narrow ditch, that clofes at lad 
with a funnel net. Over thefe pipes (which grow 
narrower from the firft entrance) is a continued 
arch of netting, fufpended on hoops. It is neceffary 
to have a pipe or ditch for almofi: every wind that 
can blow, as upon this circumilance it depends 
which pipe the wild fowl will take to ; and the 
decoy-man always keeps on the leeward fide of the 
ducks, to prevent his effluvia reaching their faga- 
cious noftrils. All along each pipe, at certain in- 
tervals, are placed fkreens made of reeds, which 
are fo fltuated, that it is impoffible the wild fowl 
ihould fee the decoy-man, before they have paffed 
on tov/ards the end of the pipe, where the purfe-net, 
is placed. The inducement to the wild fowl to 
go up one of thefe pipes is, becaufe the decoy- 
ducks, trained to this, lead the way, either after 
hearing the whiftle of the decoy-man, or enticed 



M A L L A R D. Class II. 

by the hempfeed ; the latter will dive under water, 
whilft the wild fowl fly on, and are taken in the 

It often happens, however, that the wild fowl 
are in fuch a tlate of Qeepinefs and dozing, that 
they will not follow the decoy-ducks. Ule is then 
generally made of a dog, who is taught his leffon : 
he pafTes backwards and forwards between the reed 
fkreens (in which are little holes, both for the 
decoy-man to fee, and for the little dog to pafs 
through) this attracts the eye of the wild fowl, 
who not chufing to be interrupted, advance towards 
this fmall and contemptible animal, that they may 
drive him away. . The dog, all this time, by di- 
rection of the decoy-man, plays among the fkreens 
of reeds, nearer and nearer to the purfe-net \ till at 
lad, perhaps, the decoy-man appears behind a 
fkreen, and the wild fowl not daring to pafs by 
him in return, nor being able to efcape upwards 
on account of the net-covering, rufn on into the 
purfe-net. Sometimes the dog will not attract their 
attention, if a red handkerchief, or fomething very 
lingular, is not put about him. 

The general feafon for catching fowl in decoys, 
is from the latter end of Oftober till February ; the 
taking of them earlier is prohibited by an act 10. 
George II. c. 32. which forbids it from June 1, to 
OEIober 1, under the penalty of five fhillings for 
each bird deftroyed within that fpace. 

The Liticolnjhire decoys are commonly let at a 


Class II. MALLARD. 595 

certain annual rent, from five pounds to twenty 
pounds a year : and we have heard of one in So- 
merfetjhire that pays thirty. The former contri- 
bute principally to fupply the markets of London. 
Amazing numbers of ducks, wigeons, and teal are 
taken : by an account fent us of the number 
caught, a few winters pail, in one feafon, and in 
only ten decoys, in the neighborhood of Wain-fleet, 
it appeared to amount to thirty- one thoufand two 
hundred, in which is included feveraj other fpecies 
of ducks ; it is alfo to be obferved, that in the a- 
bove particular, wigeon and teal are reckoned 
but as one, and confequently fell but at half the 
price of the ducks. This quantity makes them fa 
cheap on the fpot, that we have been aiTured feve- 
ral decoy-men would be glad to contract for years 
to deliver their ducks at B oft on for ten-pence the 
couple. The account of the numbers here men- 
tioned, relates only to thofe that were fent to the 

h was cuftomary formerly to have in the fens an 
annual driving of the young ducks before they took 
wing. Numbers of people alfembled, who beat 
a vaft trad, and forced the birds into a net pla- 
ced at the fpot where the fport was to terminate. 
A hundred and fifty dozens have been taken at 
once : but this practice being fuppofed to be de- 
trimental, has been abolifhed by act of parlement. 

Vol. II. R v An* 



Class II, 

:8o. Shovel. 


Anas latiroftra (ein Breit- 

fchnabel.) Gefner a-v. 120. 
Aldr. av. III. 94." 
Wil. err,. 370. 
Rait fyn. a<v. 143. 
Phafianus marinus. Charlton 

ex. 1 05 . 
Blue-wing Shoveler (ftem.) 

Cat Carol I. 96. 
he Souchet. Brijfon aw. VI. 

329. Tab. 32. fig. I. 
SchaufH-ente,LofH-ente. JTr£;/z. 


Anas clypeata. Lin.JyJf. 200, 
Faun. Suec. fp 119. 
Kertlutock*. Kr ante's Greenh 

I. 80. 
Danis Krop-And, Korvegis 

Stok-And. Cimbris LefFel- 

And. Brunnicb, 67. 68. 
Schield-E»te, Loeffel-Ente. 

Frifchy II. 161, 162. fem. 

Br. Zool. 155. Scopoliy Ngs 


Descrip. fir^HIS weighs twenty-two ounces: its length 
JL twenty-one inches. The bill is black, three 
inches long, fpreads near the end to a great breadth, 
is fnrnifhed with a fmall hook, and the edges of 
each mandible are pe&inated, or fupphed with 
thin laminas, that lock into each other when the 
mouth is clofed. The irides are of a bright yel- 
low : the head and upper part of the neck of a 
blackifn green : the lower part of the neck, the 
bread, and the fcapulars are white: the back brown: 
the coverts of the wings of a fine iky blue ; thofe 
next the quil feathers tipt with white : the greater 
-quil feathers are dufkyj the exterior webs of thofe 
in the middle, are of a glorly green. The tail con- 
fifts of fourteen feathers -, the outmoft are white ; 

e. Broad bill. 



thofe in the middle black, edged with white : the 
beily is of a bay color : the vent feathers black : 
the legs red. The female has the fame marks in 
the wrngs as the male, but the colors are lefs 
bright : the reft of the plumage refembles that of 
the common wild duck. 


E are indebted to Mr. Bolton for the defcrip- 281. Red 
tion of this bird, who informed us that it ^ REASTED 


was fometimes taken in the decoys in Lincolnjhire. 

It is the fize of a common duck. The bill Dbscrip. 
large, broad, ferrated at the fides, and entirely of 
a browniih yellow color: the head large: eyesfmall: 
irides yellow : the bread and throat of a reddifh 
brown, the latter paler, but both quite free from 
any fpots. The back is brown, growing paler 
towards 'the fides. The tips and pinions of the 
wings grey : the quil-feathers brown ; the reft of 
a greyifh brown : the fpeculum or fpot purple, 
edged with white : in the female, the fpot is blue, 
and all the other colors are fainter. The tail is 
lhort and white : the vent feathers of a bright 
brown, fpotted with darker : the legs lhort and 
flender: the feet fmall, of a reddifh brown color. 

R r z Anas 



282. Pin- Anas caudacuta (ein fpitz- 
tail. fchwantz) Gefner a-v. 121. 

Aldr. ciru. III. 97. 
Sea Pheafant, or Cracker. 

iril. orn. 376. 
Le Canard a longue queue. 
Brijfon a-v. VI, 369. r<z£. 34. 
Schwalbenfcheif. Kram. 340. 

Raiijyn. a<v. 1 47. 

Anas acuta. Lin. fyft. 202. 

Aler, Ahlvogel. JVtoor. «SW. 

.#. 126. 
Fafan-Ente. Frifch, II. 160. 
Brunnich in append. 
Aglek. Crantz's Greenl. I. 80. 
j?r. Zoo/. 156. Scop oli, No. 73. 

Descrip, *""jpHE form of this fpecies is (lender, and the 
■^ neck long : its weight twenty-four ounces : 
its length twenty-eight inches ; its breadth one yard 
two inches. The bill is black in the middle, blue on 
the fides : the head is ferruginous, tinged behind 
the ears with purple; from beneath the ears com- 
mences a white line, which runs fome way down 
the neck *, this line is bounded by black : the hind 
part of the neck, the back, and fides are elegantly 
marked with white and dufky waved lines : the 
fore part of the neck, and belly are white. 

The fcapulars imped with black and white : the 
coverts of the wings am colored ; the loweft tipt 
with dull orange : the middle quil-feathers barred 
on their cutmoft webs with green, black and 
white : the exterior feathers of the tail are afh co- 
lored: the two middle black, and three inches 
longer than the others : the feet of a lead color. 
The female is of a light brown color, fpotted with 
black. Mr. Hartkb, in the appendix to his Lega- 






*y, tells us that thefe birds are found in great abun- 
dance in Connaught in Ireland^ in the month of Fe- 
bruary only \ and that they are much efteerned for 
their delicacy. 

Wil. om. 364.. Norvegis Ungle, Angeltafke 283. Loks 

Raiifyn, au. 145. v. Troefoerer. Feroenfibus tailed. 

Long tailed Duck. Edit), av. Oedel. IJlandis Ha-Ella v. 

280. Ha-Old. Tncolis Chrifiianfoe 

Le Canard a longue queue Gadiffen, Klaeihahn Dyk- 

d'lflande. Brijfon av> VI. ker. Brunnzcb, y$, 76. 

379. Br. Z00L 156. Scopoli, No, 

Anas glacia'lis. Lin.fyft. 203. 74. 

THIS is inferior in fize to the former. The bill Descri; 
is fhort, black at the tip and bafe, orange co- 
lored in the middle ; the cheeks are of a pale brown : 
the hind part of the head, and the neck both before 
and behind are white ; the fides of the upper part 
of the neck are marked with a large dufky bar, 
pointing downwards \ the bread and back are of a 
deep chocolate color ; the fcapulars are white, 
long, narrow, and iliarp pointed. The coverts 
of the wings, and greater quil feathers dufky ; 
the lelfer of a reddifh brown : the belly white : 
the four middle feathers of the tail are black; and 
two of them near four inches longer than the o- 


thers, which are white: the legs dufky. Thefe 
birds breed in the moil northern parts of the world, 
and only vifit our coafts in the fevered winters. 

R r 3 La 



Class II. 

284. Pochard. La Cane a telle rouffe. Belon Anas ferina. Lin.fyft. 203. 

anr. 173. Faun. Suec. fp. 127. 

Anas fera fufca, vel media Penelope, leMillouin. Briffbn 

(ein wilte grauwe ente, ttv. VI. 384. ta£. 35. 7%-. 1. 

Rotent.) Gejher a<v. 116. 
^/</r. «rp. III. 93. 
Poker, Pochard, or red head^ 

ed WIgeon. Wil. orn. 367. 
Raiifyn. av. 143. 

Dams Brun-Nakke. Norve- 
gis Rod-Nakke. Brumiich, 

Br. Zcol. 156. 

Descrip. TTS weight is about one pound twelve ounces : 
A its length nineteen inches ; its breadth two feet 
and a half. The bill is of a deep lead color: the 
head and neck are of a bright bay color : the breaft 
and part of the back where it joins the neck, are 
black : the coverts of the wings, the fcapulars, back 
and fides under the wings are of a pale grey, 
elegantly marked with narrow lines of black : the 
quil feathers dulky : the belly afh colored and 
brown : the tail confilts of twelve Ihort feathers, of 
a deep grey color : the legs lead colored : the 
irides of a bright yellow, tinged with red. 

Female. The head of the female is of a pale reddifh 

brown : the bread is rather of a deeper color : 

the coverts of the wings a plain afh color : the 

back marked like that of the male : the belly afh 

colored. Thefe birds frequent frefh water as well as 

the fea 5 and being very delicate eating, are much 

fought for in the London markets, where they are 

known by the name of Dun birds. 


Class IL W I G E O N. 6oi 

Anas rufa roflro pedibufque cinereis. Faun. Suec. fp. 47. 285. Ferru- 

g 1 NOUS. 

rTlHE defcription of this fpecies was fen t to us Descrip. 
*■ by Mr. Bolton, The weight was twenty oun- 
ces : the bill is long and flatted, rounded a little 
at the bafe, ferrated along the edges of each man- 
dible, and furnifhed with a nail at the end of the 
upper. The color a pale blue. The head, neck, 
and whole upper part of the bird is of an agreea- 
ble reddifh brown : the throat, bread and belly of 
the fame color, but paler : the legs of a pale blue ; 
but the webs of the feet black. 

This fpecies, he informed us, was killed in Lin- 
colnfhire. We do not find it mentioned by any wri- 
ter, except Linnaeus, who toke his defcription from 
Rudbeck's paintings j and adds, that it is found, 
though rarely, in the Swedifh rivers. 

Anas fiftularis (ein Pfeifente) Anas fiftularis, le Canard fif- 286.WiGe< 
Gefner aw- 121. iieur. Briffon a-~u. VI. 39 1. 

Penelope. Aldr. a<v. III. 92. tab. 35 'fg. z ' 

Wigeon, or Whewer. Wil. EifTent mit weiffer platten. 
orn. 375. Kram, 342. 

Raii fin. a<u. 146. Danis Bles-And. Brunnich t 

Anas penelops. Lin. fyft» 72. 

202. Br.Zool. 157. add. plates. 

Wriand. Faun. Suec. fp. 124. 

f I ^HE wigeon weighs near twenty-three oun- Descrip, 
-*■ ces : the length is twenty inches - 9 the breadth 
R r 4 two 


two feet three. The bill is lead colored ; the end 
of it black ; the head, and upper part of the neck 
is of a bright light bay ; the forehead paler, in fome 
aimed white : the plumage of the back, and fides 
under the wings are elegantly marked with nar- 
row, black and white undulated lines : the bread 
is of a purplifti hue, which fometimes though rare- 
ly is marked with round black fpots : the belly 
white : the vent feathers black. In fome birds the 
coverts of the wings are almoft wholly white ; in 
others of a pale brown, edged with white : the 
greater quil feathers are duiky •, the outmofl webs 
of the middle feathers of a. fine green, the tips 
black j the lad are elegantly driped with black 
and white. The two middle feathers of the tail 
are longer than the others, black and fharp point- 
Female. ed; the red am colored: the legs dufky. The 
head of the female is of a rudy brown, fpotted 
with black -, the back is of a deep brown, edged 
with a paler : the tips of the lefTer quil feathers 
white : the belly white. 

-87. Bima- >npHE length is twenty inches ; extent twenty- 
X fi ve an d a half. Bill a deep lead color : nail 

Crown, brown changeable with green, ending 
in a dreak of brown at the hind part of the head, 
with a fmall cred, Between the bill and the eye, 


JT? 27o 



-2VP 26>J. 

Class II. G A D W A L L. 603 

and behind each ear, a ferruginous fpor. The 
firlt round : the laft oblong and large. Throat of 
a fine deep purple. The reft of the head of a 
bright green, continued in flreaks down the neck. 
Breaft a light ferruginous brown, fpotted with 
black: hind part of the neck, and back, dark brown 
waved with black. 

Coverts of the wings afh colored : lower coverts 
ftreaked with rufl color: fcapulars cinereous: quil 
feathers brownilh cinereous. Secondaries of a fine 
green, ending in a fhade of black, and edged with 

Coverts of the tail a deep changeable green. 
Twelve feathers in the tail: two middlemofl black; 
the others brown edged with white. Belly dufky, 
finely granulated. Legs fmall, and yellow. Webs 

Taken in a decoy near in 1771. 

Communicated to me by Poore, Efq. 

Anas flrepera (em Leiner). 

Anas ftrepera. Lin, fyfi. 200. 

288. Gad 

Gefner a<v. 121. 

Faun. Suec. fp. 121. 


Aldr. a<v. III. 97. 

Cimbris Knarre-Gaas. Brim- 

Gadwall, or Gray. WiL cm. 

nich) 91. 


Br. Zool. 157. 

Raii fyn. av. 1 45. 

Grave mittel-ente . Fri/cb, 

Le Chipeau. Briffhn a<v, VI. 

II. 168. 

339. tab. SZ.fig. I. 

"^HIS fpecies is rather inferior in fize to the IJescrip. 



A wigeon. The bill is two inches long, black, 

604 G A R G A N E Y. Class II. 

and flat; the head, and upper part of the neck, are 
of a reddifh brown, fpotted with black •, the lower 
part, the bread, the upper part of the back, and 
the fcapulars, are beautifully marked with black 
and white lines ; the belly is of a dirty white ; 
the rump above and below is black ; the tail afh. 
colored, edged with white; the coverts on the ridge 
of the wing are of a pale reddifh brown ; thofe 
beneath are of purplifh red, the loweft of a deep 
black : the greater quil- feathers are dufky : the 
inner web of three of the leffer quil-feathers are 
white; which forms a confpicuous fpot; the legs 
are orange colored. The bread of the female is 
of a reddiih. brown, fpotted with black : the back 
of the fame color ; and though it has the fame 
marks on the wings, they are far inferior in bright- 
neis to thofe of the male. 

•89. Gar G A- La Saicelle. Bthm Ov. 175. Krickantl. Kram. 343. 

NET. Querquedula varia. Gejner Anas Querquedula. Lirt. fyft. 

av. 107. 203. 

Scavolo, Cercevolo, Garga- Faun. Suec. fp. 128. 

nctio.JUr. av.IIl. 89,90. Kriech-Ente. Frifch, II. 176. 

TJ'tl. orn. ^77. Norvegis Krek-And. Quibufd. 

Querquedula prima Alur. Saur-And. Brunnicb, 81. 

Raii fyn. av. 148*. Br. Zool. 158. Scopali, No. 

La Sarceile. Brijfon av. VI. 75. 

427. /«£. 39. 

Dsscrip. /TpHE length of this fpecies is feventeen in- 
■*' ches ; the extent twenty-eight. The bill is 


* Mr. Raj, in hisjfyn. av. 147. defcribes a duck under the 
name of Pbafeas ; in Torkjhirs it is called the widgeon : he 


JV? 28$ '. 



Class II. GARGANEY. ' £0$ 

of a deep lead color ; the crown of the head is 
dufky, marked with oblong ftreaks ; on the chin 
is a large black fpot; from the corner of each 
eye is a long white line, that points to the back of 
the neck : the cheeks, the upper part of the neck, 
are of a pale purple, marked with minute oblong 
lines of white, pointing downwards ; the bread is 
of a light brown, marked with femicircular bars 
of black: the belly is white; the lower part and 
vent varied with fpecks, the bars of a dufky hue ; 
the coverts of the wings are grey ; but the low- 
eft are tipt with white; the nrft quil- feat hers are 
afh colored ; the exterior webs of thofe in the mid- 
dle green ; the (capillars are long and narrow, and 
elegantly flriped with white, afh color, and black; 
the tail dufky : the legs lead color. 

The female has an obfcure white mark over the Female. 
eye ; the reft of the plumage is of a brownifh afh 
color, not unlike the hen teal, but the wing wants 
the green fpot, which fufficiently diftingniQies thefe 

In many places thefe birds are called the Simmer 

fays, the head and neck are brown, fpotted with triangu- 
lar black marks : the body, wings, and tail dufky, edged 
with a paler color : in the wings is a double line of white ;. 
belly white : bill and legs blue. We fufpecl it to be a young 
bird of this fpecies, but wait for further information before 
we can determine it ? 




Class IL 

290. Teal. Querquedula. Gejker&v. 106. 
Garganei. Aldr. a-v. III. 90. 
Wil. arm 377. 
Rail Jyn. aw. 147. 
La petite Sarcelle, Brijjbn av. 

VI. 436. /#£. 40. fig. 1. 
Rothantl, PfeifFantl. Kram. 

Spiegel-Entlein. Frifcb, II. 


Anas Crecca. Z»/». ^/. 204. 
Arta, Kraecka. Faun. Suec. 

fp. 129. 
Cimbris Atteling-And. Nor- 

*vegis Heftelort-And. Dam's 

Communiter Krik - And . 

Brunnich, 82, 83. 
Br. Zool. 158. add. plates. 

Descrif. at^HE Teal weighs about twelve ounces: the 
•*• length is fourteen inches \ the breadth twen- 
ty-three : the weight of a drake twelve ounces ; of 
a duck nine: the bill black: the head, and up- 
per part of the neck are of a deep bay : from the 
bill to the hind part of the head is a broad bar of 
glofiy changeable green, bounded ■ on the lower 
fide by a narrow white line : the lower part of the 
neck, the beginning of the back, and the fides un- 
der the wings, are elegantly marked with waved 
lines of black and white. 

The bread and belly are of a dirty white; the 
firft beautifully fpotted with black : the vent black : 
the tail fharp pointed, and dufky : the coverts of 
the wings brown : the greater quil-feathers duflcy ; 
the exterior webs of the lefTer marked with a glofTy 
green fpot; above that another of black, and the 
tips white : the bides whitifh ; the legs dufky. 
The female is of a brownilh afh color, fpotted 


Glass II. T E A L; 607 

with blacky and has a green fpot on the wing 
like the male. 

By the defcription Mr. Willughby has left of Summer 
the Summer Teal, p. 378. we fufpecl that it differs Tsal. 
not in the fpecies from the common kind, only in 
fex. Linnaeus hath placed it among the birds of 
his country * ; but leaves a blank in the place of 
its refidence ; and hath evidently copied Mr. Wil- 
lughby's imperfect defcription of it : and to con- 
firm our fufpicion that he has followed the error 
of our countryman ; we obferved that a bird fent 
us from the Baltic fea, under the title of anas cir- 
cia, the Summer Teal of Linnaus, was no other 
than the female of our teal. 

* Fauna Suede a, Jp. 130. 




Class II. 


BILL ftrong, ftrait; end either hooked or Hoping. 
NOSTRILS, either totally wanting, or fmall, and 

placed in a longitudinal furrow. 
FACE naked. 

GULLET naked, capable of great diitenfion. 
TOES, all four webbed. 

zgi. Corvo- Mergus Plinii lib. x. c. 33. 

rant. Le Cormorant. Be/on a-v. 161. 

Corvus aquaticus, Carbo a- 

quaticus. 136. 
Phalacrocorax. Gefner a-j. 

683. 350. 
Aldr. a<v. III. 108. 
The Cormorant. W'ri. orn. 

3 2 ?- 
Raii Jyn. av. 122. 
Pelecanus Carbo. Lin. jyfi. 


N. Com. Petr. IV. 423. 
Le Cormoran. Brijjon av. 

VI. 511. tab. 45. The 

Norvegis Skarv, Strand- Ravn. 

Danis Aalekrage. IJlandis 

Skarfur. Brunnich, 1 20, 

Scliarb, or See-Rabe. Frifcb, 

II. 187. . 
Br. Zool. 159. Scopoli, No. 




HAVE weighed a bird of this fpecies that 
exceeded feven pounds : the length three ittt 
four: the extent four feet two: the bill dufky, 
five inches long, deftitute ofnoftrils; the bafe of 
the lower mandible is covered with a naked yel- 
low ifh (kin, that extends under the chin, and forms 
a fort of pouch : a loofe ikin of the fame color 

* The learned Dr. Kay, or Caius, derives the word Cor- 
<vorant, from Corvus <vorans t from whence corruptly our word 
Cormorant. Caii opufc. gg. 


Class II. C O R V O R A N T. 609 

reaches from the upper mandible round the eyes, 
and angles of the mouth: the head and neck are 
of a footy blacknefs -, but under the chin of the 
male the feathers are white : and the head in that 
fex is adorned with a fhort loofe pendent creft ; in 
fome the crefl and hind part of the head are 
ftreaked with white. The coverts of the wings, 
the fcapulars, and the back, are of a deep green, 
edged with black, and gloffed with blue : the quil- 
feathers and tail dufky : the lad confiils of four- 
teen feathers : the breaft and belly black : in the 
midft of the lafl is often a bed of white : on the 
thighs of the male is a tuft of white feathers : 
the legs are fhort, flrong, and black -, the middle 
claw ferrated on the infide :. the irides are of a 
light afh color. 

Thefe birds occupy the highetl parts of the 
cliffs that impend over the fea : they make their Nest. 
nefls of flicks, fea tang, grafs, &c. and lay fix or e g g s, 
feven white eggs of an oblong form. In winter 
they difperfe along the mores, and vifit the frefh 
waters, where they make great havoke among the 
fifh. They are remarkably voracious, having a 
moil fudden digeftion, promoted by the infinite 
quantity of fmall worms that fill their inteftines. 
The corvorant has the ranked and moil difagreea- 
ble fmell of any bird, even when alive. Its form 
is difagreeable ; its voice hoarfe and croaking, and 
its qualities bafe. No wonder then that Milton 
fhould-make Satan perfonate this bird, to furvey 




Class II. 

undelighted the beauties of Paradife: and Jit ds r ji- 
Jing death on the tree of life *; 

Thefe birds have been trained to fifh like falcons 
to fowl. Whitelock tells us, that he had a call of 
them manned like hawks, and which would come 
to hand. He took much pleafure in them, and re- 
lates, that the bed he had was one prefented him by 
Mr. Wood, Majier of the Cor v or ants to Charles I. 
It is well known that the Chinefe make great vile of 
thefe birds, or a congenerous fort, in filhing \ "and 
that not for amufement, but profit f . 

292. Shag. Corvus aquaticus minor. Aldr. 
a<v. III. IC9. 
The Shag, called in the 
North of England the Crane. 
J I'zl. cm. 330. 
Corvus aquaticus minor. 
Graculus palmipes diclus. 
Raii fyn. av. 123. 

Ls petit Cormoran. Brijjbn 

a-u. VI. 516. 
Pelecanus graculus. Lin. Jyfi. 

Phalacrocorax criftatus. Nor- 

<vegis Top Skarv. Brunnich 

ornith. 123. 
Br. Zool. 159. 

*HpHE fhag is much inferior in fize to the corvo- 
Descrip. A rant: the length is twenty-feven inches; the 
breadth three feet fix: the weight three pounds 
three quarters. The bill is four inches long, and 
more flender than that of the preceding : the head 
is adorned with a creli two inches long, pointing 

* Paradife Loft, Book IV. !. .194, &C 
f Dubalde I. 316. 




Class II. SHAG. 611 

backward : the whole plumage of the upper part of 
this bird is of a fine and very mining green, the 
edges of the feathers a purplifh black ; but the 
lower part of the back, the head, and neck, 
wholly green : the belly is dufky : the tail con- 
fifts of only twelve feathers, of a dufky hue, 
tinged with green ; the legs are black, and like thofe 
of the corvorant. During my voyage among the 
Hebrides •, I faw feveral birds of this fpecies mot : 
they agreed in all refpecls, but in being deftitute 
of a creft ; whether they were females, a variety, 
or diftind fpecies, mud be left to future natu- 
ralifts to determine. 

Both thefe kinds agree in their manners, and 
breed in the fame places: and, what is very ft range 
in webbed footed birds, will perch and build in 
trees : both fwim with their head quite erect, and 
are very difficult to be fhot •, for, like the Grebes 
and Divers^ as foon as they fee the flafh of the gun, 
pop under water, and never rife but at a confidera* 
ble diftance. 

We are indebted for this bird to the late Mr. 
William Morris of Holyhead^ with whom we had a 
conftant correfpondence for feveral years, receiv- 
ing from that worthy man and intelligent natu- 
ralift, regular and faithful accounts of the vari- 
ous animals frequenting that vaft promontory. 

Vol, II, r. f Anfer 


G A N N E T. 

Class II, 

293. Gan- Anier Baffanus five Scoticus, 
net. Gefner a-~o. 163. 

Aldr. av. 63. 
Sula. Hoieri Chf. ex. 367. 
Hector Boetb. 6. 
Soland Goofe. Wil. orn. 528. 
Raii fyn. a<v. 122. 
Itin. 191. 269. 279. 
Sibb. hifi. Sect, 20. tab. 9. 
&'<££. hifi. Fife. 45. 47. 
Jaen van Gent. Martin's Spitz- 
berg. 97. 

Solan Goofe. Martin's voj. 

St. Kilda. 27. 
Defcript.Wcfi. I/Ies. 281. 
MacauTy's hifi. St. Kilda. 133. 
Sula Baffana, le Foil de Baf- 

fan. Brijjbn a-v. VI. 503. 

tab. 44. 
Pelecanus BaiTanus. Lin, fyft. 

Norvegis Sule, Hav-Sul. £?*•«»- 

*«v£, 1 24. 
^r. Z00/. 160. 


**TpHIS fpecies weighs feven pounds : the length 
A is three feet one inch ; the breadth fix feet 
two inches. The bill is fix inches long, ftrait al- 
moft to the point, where it inclines down - y and 
the fides are irregularly jagged, that it may hold 
its prey with more fecurity : about an inch from 
the bafe of the upper mandible is a fharp pro- 
cefs pointing forward*, it has no noftrils ; but in 
their place a long furrow, that reaches almoft to 
the end of the bill : the whole is of a dirty white, 
tinged with afh color. The tongue is very fmall, 
and placed low in the mouth : a naked fkin of a 
fine blue furrounds the eyes, which are of a pale 
yellow, and are full of vivacity : this bird is re- 
markable for the quicknefs of its fight : Martin 
tells us that Solan is derived from an IriJJj word 
expreftive of that quality. 





Srtstlrct, .jPir^s^ 

Jrt ., J/nrv*gi* >f~ ,, 

Class II. G A N N E T. 613 

From the corner of the mouth is a narrow flip of 
black bare fkin, that extends to the hind part of 
the head : beneath the chin is another, that like 
the pouch of the Pelecan, is dilatable, and of fize 
fufficient to contain five or fix entire herrings; 
which, in the breeding feafon, it carries at once to 
its mate or young. 

The neck is very long : the body flat, and very 
full of feathers : the crown of the head, and a fmall 
fpace on the hind part of the neck is buff co- 
lored : the reft of the plumage is white : the baftard 
wing and greater qnil-feather excepted, which are 
black; the legs and toes are black; but the fore 
part of both are marked with a ftripe of fine pea 
green. The tail confifts of twelve fharp pointed 
feathers, the middle of which is the longed. 

The young birds, during the firft year, differ You no. 
greatly in color from the old ones ; being of a 
duiky hue, fpeckled with numerous triangular 
white fpots ; and at that time refemble in colors 
the fpeckled Diver. Each bird, if left undifturb- Egg, 
ed, would only lay one egg in the year ; but if 
that be taken away, they will lay another ; if that 
is alfo taken, then a third; but never more that 
feafon. A wife provifion of nature, to prevent the 
extinction of the fpecies by accidents, and to fup- 
ply food for the inhabitants of the places where 
they breed ; their egg is white, and rather lefs than 
that of the common goofe: the neft is large, and Nest. 
formed of any thing the bird finds floating on the 

S f 2 water. 

bi4 G A N N E T. Class II. 

water, fuch as grafs, fea plants, fhavings, &c. 
Thefe birds frequent the Ifle of Ailfa, in the Firth 
of Clyde -, the rocks adjacent to St. Kilda, the Stack 
of Soulijkery, near the Orkneys -, the £&//§• Ifles, off 
the coaits of Kerry, If -eland *> and the Bafs Ifle, in 
the Firth of Edinburgh: the multitudes that in- 
habit thefe places are prodigious. Dr. Harvey's 
elegant account of the latter, will ferve to give fome 
idea of the numbers of thefe, and of the other 
birds that annually migrate to that little fpot. 

" "There is a fnall ifland, called by the Scotch, 
" Bafs I (land, not mere than a mile in circumfe- 
" rence ; the furface is ahncfl wholly covered du- 
" ring the months of 'May and June with nefts, eggs, 
" and young birds ; fo that it is fcarcely pojfible to 
" walk without treading on them: and the flocks of 
" birds in flight are fo prodigious, as to darken the 
" air like clouds \ and their noife is fuch, that you can- 
" not, without difficulty, hear your next neighbour's 
" voice. If you look down upon the fea, from the 
" top of the precipice, you will fee it on every fide 
a covered with infinite numbers of birds of different 
" kinds, fwimming and hunting for their prey : if in 
"failing round the ifland you furvey the hanging cliffs, 
"you may fee in every eragg or fiffure of the broken 

* This information we owe to that worthy prelate, the late 
Dr. Pcccck, Bifhop of Meath ; who had vifited the Skeligs* 
Mr. Smithy in his hiitories of Ccrk and Kerry, confounds 
this bird with the Gull defcribed by Mr. Wilhighby ; from 
whom he has evidently borrowed the whole defcription, 

" rocks, 

Class II. G A N N E T. 61 

"rocks, innumerable birds of various forts and fixes, 
" more than the ftars of heaven when viewed in a 
" ferene night : if from afar you fee the diftant 
"flocks, either flying to or from the ifland, you would 
w imagine them to be a vaft fwarm of bees *." 

Nor do the rocks of St. Kilda feem to be lefs fre- 
quented by thefe birds - 3 for Martin aflures us, that 
the inhabitants of that fmall ifland confume an- 
nually no lefs than 22,600 young birds of this 
fpecies, befldes an amazing quantity of their eggs ; 
thefe being their principal fupport throughout the 
year: they preferve both eggs and fowls in fmall 
pyramidal (lone buildings, covering them with turf 
afhes, to preferve them from moifture. This is a 
dear bought food, earned at the hazard of their 
lives, either by climbing the moft difficult and 

* Eft infula par-va, Scoti Bajfe nominant, baud amplius milk 
pajjuum circuitu amplitudo ejus clauditur. Hujus infulte fuperfi- 
cies, menjibus Maio & "Junto nidis onjis pullifque propemodum io- 
ta inftrata eft, adeo ut <vix, pr<s eorum copia pedem libere ponere 
liceat : tantaque fuper-volantium turba, ut nubium inftar, folem 
ccelumque auferant : tantufque <vociferantium clangor & ftrepitus, 
ut prop} alloquentes <vix audias. Si fubjeStum. mare inde, tan- 
quam ex edita turri 13 altijjtmo pracipitio defpexeris, idem quo- 
quo < versum i inftnitis diverforum generum avibus natantibus prte- 
desque inhiantibus, op er turn <videas. Si circumnavigando immi- 
nentem clivum fufpicere libuerit ; <videas in jzngulis prcerupti loci 
crepidinibus & receffibus, avium cujujlibet generis & magnitudi- 
nis, ordines innumerabiles, plures fane quam noSte, fereno ccelo, 
ftellce confpiciuntur . Si aduola?ites avolante/que eminus adfpexeris, 
apunt profeclo ingens examen credas. De generat. Animal. Ex 
ercit. ii. 

S f 3 narrow 

6l6 G A N N E T. Class II. 

narrow paths, where (to appearance) they can bare- 
ly cling, and that too, at an amazing height over 
the rao-ino; fea : or elfe beino; lowered down from 
above, they collect their annual provifion, thus 
hanging in midway air; placing their whole de- 
pendance on the uncertain footing of one perfon 
who holds the rope, by which they are fufpended 
at the top of the precipice. The young birds are 
a favorite dilh with the North Britons in general : 
during the feafon they are conftantly brought from 
the Bafs IJle to Edinburgh, fold at 20 d. a piece, 
are roafted, and ferved up a little before dinner as 
a whet. 

The Qannets are birds of paffage. Their firft ap- 
pearance in thofe iflands is in March ; their conti- 
nuance there till Auguft or Sept ember y according as 
the inhabitants take or leave their firft egg; but in 
general, the time of breeding;, and that of their de- 
parture, feems to coincide with the arrival of the 
herring, and the migration of that fiih (which is 
their principal food) out of thofe feas. It is pro- 
bable that thefe birds attend the herring and pilch- 
ard during their whole circuit round the Britifh 
iflands ; the appearance of the former being al- 
ways efteemed by the fifhermen as a fure prefage 
of the approach of the latter. It migrates in queft 
of food as far fouth as the mouth of the Tagus, 
being frequently feen off Lijbon during the month 
of December r plunging for Sardine, fiih refembling, 
if not the fame with our Pilchard. 

I have 

Class II. G A N N E T. 617 

I have in the month of Auguft obferved in Cathnefs 
their northern migrations : I have feen them pafting 
the whole day in flocks, from five to fifteen in each :' 
in calm weather they fly high ; in ftorms they fly 
low and near the more ; but never crofs over the 
land, even when a bay with promontories inter- 
venes, but follow, at an equal diftance, the courfe 
of the bay, and regularly double every cape. I 
have feen many of the parties make a fort of halt 
for the fake of fifliing : they foared to a vafl height, 
then darting headlong into the fea, made the wa- 
ter foam and fpring up with the violence of their 
defcent; after which they purfued their route. I 
enquired whether they ever were obferved to re- 
turn fouthward in the fpring, but was anfwered in 
the negative; fo it appears that they annually en- 
circle the whole ifland. 

They are well known on mod of our coafts Name, 
but not by the name of the Soland-Goofe. In Carn- 
ival and in Ireland they are called Gannets ; by 
the Weljh Gan. The excellent Mr. Ray fuppofed 
the Cornijh Gannet to be a fpecies of large Gull ; 
a very excufeable miftake, for during his fix months 
refidence in Cornwall he never had an opportunity 
of feeing that bird, except flying; and in the air 
it has the appearance of a gull. On that fuppofition 
he gave our Skua, p. 417. the title of Qatar a5fa y 
a name borrowed from Ariftotle*^ and which ad- 
mirably exprefTes the rapid defcent of this bird on 
* Page 1045. 

S f 4 Its 

6i8 G A N N E T. Class II. 

it? prey. Mr. Moyle firft detected this miftake*; 
and the Rev. Do&or William Borlafe, by preferring 
us with a fine fpecimen of this bird, confirms the 
opinion of Mr. Moyle-, at the fame time he favored 
us with fo accurate an account of fome part of the 
natural hiftory of this bird, that we mall ufe the li- 
berty he indulged us with 5 of adding it to this de- 

" The Gannet comes on the coafls of Cornwal 
" in the latter end of fummer, or beginning of au- 
" tumn; hovering over the Ihoals of pilchards that 
" come down to us through St. George's Channel 
" from the northern feas. The Gannet feldom 
<c comes near the land, but is conftant to its prey, 
" a fure fign to the fi (her men that the pilchards are 
" on the coafts - 9 and when the pilchards retire, ge- 
" neraliy about the end of November, the Gannets 
" are feen no more. The bird now fent was killed 
" at Chandour, near Mountjbay, Sept. 30, 1762, af- 
" ter a long ftruggle with a water fpaniel, afiifted 
" by the boatmen ; for it was ftrong and pugna- 
" cious. The perfon who took it obferved that it 
" had a tranfparent membrane under the eye-lid, 
* c with which it covered at pleafure the whole eye, 
" without obfcuring the fight or (hutting the eye- 
" lid \ a gracious provifion for the fecurity of the 
' c eyes of lb weighty a creature, whofe method of 
?* taking its prey is by darting headlong on it 

* Moyle* s Works, I. 424. 

" from 

Class IL G A N N E T. 

" from a height of a hundred and fifty feet or more 
" into the water. About four years ago, one of 
" thefe birds flying over Penzance, (a thing that 
" rarely happens) and feeing fome pilchards lying 
" on a fir-plank, in a cellar ufed for curing fifh, 
" darted itfelf down with fuch violence, that it 
" ftruck its bill quite through the board (about 
" an inch and a quarter thick) and broke its neck." 

Thefe birds are fometimes taken at fea by a 
deception of the like kind. The filhermen fallen 
a pilchard to a board, and leave it floating ; which 
inviting bait decoys the unwary Gannet to its own 

In the Cataracla of Juba * may be found many 
characters of this bird : he fays, that the bill is 
toothed : that its eyes are fiery ; and that its color 
is white : and in the very name is expreffed its 
furious defcent on its prey. The reft of his ac- 
counts favors of fable. 

We are uncertain whether the Gannet breeds in 
any other parts of Europe befides our own iflands ; 
except (as Mr. Ray fufpects, the Sula, defcribed in 
Clujius's Exotics, which breeds in the Ferroe IJles) 
be the fame bird. In America there are two fpecies 
of birds of this genus, that bear a great refem- 
blance to it in their general form and their man- 
ner of preying. Mr. Catejby has given the figure 
of the head of one, which he calls the Greater 

* Plinii, lib. x. c. 44, 

Booby ; 

6io G A N N E T. Class II. 

Booby ; his defcription fuits that of the young Gan- 
nett but the angle on the lower mandible made 
us formerly fufpect that it was not the fame bird ; 
but from fome late informations we have been fa- 
vored with, we find it is common to both conn- 
tries, and during fum.mer frequents North America. 
Like the Penguin, it informs navigators of the ap- 
proach of foundings, who on fight of it drop the 
plummet. Linnaus claffes our bird with the Pele- 
can -, in the tenth edition of his fyftem, he con- 
founds it with the bird defcribed by Sir Hans 
Sloans ', hi ft. Jam. vol. I. p. 31. preface, whofe 
colors differ from the Gannet in each flage of life : 
but in his laft edition he very properly feparates 
them. We continue it in the fame clafs, under the 
generical name of Corvorants* as more familiar to 
the Englifb ear than that of Pelecan. . 



4s?. ^v| 



Birds now extindt in Great Britain, 
or fuch as wander here accidentally. 



THIS fpecies is a native of Denmark, but was 
fhot in and is prefer ved in the Le- 

verian Mufeum. 

Its length is two feet two inches : that of the 
wing, when doled, eighteen inches : the bill 
dufky ; the cere yellow : the head, neck, and bread 
of a yellowifh white, marked in fome parts with 
oblong brown ftrokes : the belly of a deep brown : 
thighs and legs of a pale yellow, marked with 
brown: the fcapulars blotched with brown and 
yellowifh white : coverts of the wings brown, 
edged with rufl: ends of the' primaries deep 
brown; the lower parts white: the extreme half 
of the tail brown, tipt with dirty white : that next 
to the body white. Legs covered with feathers as 
low as the feet : the feet yellow. 







Jyn. eeo. 



, le Rollier. .5 


av. II. 

64. tab. 








II. R O L L E R, 

Roller. Wih cm. 131. Spranfk Kraka, jBlakraka, Al- 

lekraka. Faun. 94. 
Ift&p. 109. 
The Shagarag. Shaw's Tra- 

e VEis . 2C2. 

Ellekrage. Brunnicb, 35. 
Birk-Heker; Blaue-Racke, 
Frjtffc I. 57. 

/"\F thefe birds we have heard of only two being 
^^ feen at larse in our ifland ; one was fhofnear 
Heljlon-bridge, Cornwall and an account of it tranf- 
mitted to us by the Reverend Doctor William Bor- 
is] e. They are frequent in mo ft parts of Europe, 
and we have received them from Denmark. 

In fize it is equal to a jay. The bill is black, 
ftfair, and hooked at the point ; the bafe befet 
with bridles : the fpace about the eyes is bare and 
naked: behind each ear is alio another bare ipot, 
or protuberance : the head, neck, breaft, and belly 
are of a light bluifh green : the back, and fea- 
thers of the wings next to it, are of a reddifli 
brown : the coverts on the ridge of the wings are 
of a rich blue \ beneath them of a pale green : the 
upper part and tips of the quil-feathers are dufky; 
the lower parts of a fine deep blue ; the rump is of 
the fame color : the tail confifts of twelve feathers, 
of which the outmoft on each fide are confiderably 


Tlie ROLIM. 

. IppfJL 



/Ray(l -mt 


*PF • 

^ <£/<*•&*<& jum<> 


longer than the reft; are of a light blue, and tlpt 
with black, beneath that a fpot of deep blue ; as 
is the cafe with fuch part of the quil-feathers that 
are black above : the other feathers of the tail are 
of a dull green : the legs fhort, and of a dirty 

It is remarkable for making a chattering noife, 
from which it is by fome called Garrulus, 



Caryocataftes. Wit, em, 132, 
Ran fyn. a<v 42. 
Nucifraga, le Cafie-noix. 
Brijfon a<v. II. 59. tab. 5. 
Corvus Caryocata&e-s. Lin, 

M- 157. 

Notwecka, Notkraka. Fam, 

Suec. fp. 19. 
Tannen-Heker (Pine -Jay) 

Frifch, 1. 56. 
Edvj. 240. 
Dams Noddekrige. Norvegis 

Not-kraake. Brunnich, 34. 

>"TpHE fpecimen we toke our defcriptipn from 5 
■*- is the only one we ever heard was fhot in 
thefe kingdoms ; is was killed near Moftyn, 'Flint- 
Jhire, Oftober 5, 1753. 

It was fomewhat lefs than the jackdaw: the 
bill (trait, ftrong, and black : the color of the 
whole head and neck, bread and body, was a rufty 
brown : the crown of the head and the rump were 
plain : the other parts marked with triangular 
whiie fpots : the wings black : the coverts fpotted 




in the fame manner as the body : the tail rounded 
at the end, black tipt with white : the vent-feathers 
white : the legs dufky. 

This bird is alfo found in mod parts of Europe. 
We received a fpecimen from Denmark, by means 
of Mr. Brunnich, author of the Ornithologia Borealis, 
a gentleman to whofe friendmip we owe a nu- 
merous collection of the curiofities of his country. 

It feeds on nuts, from whence the name. 


Oriolus Galbula. Lin. fyft. TlA Witwal. Wil. orn. 198. 

160. Faun. 6W<r. No. 95. Rail Jyn. av. 68. 

Scopoliy No. 45. Kramer, 360. Le Loriot. BriJfbnW. 320. 

Oriolus. Gefnerav. 713. Aldr. Golden Thrufh. Ediv. 185. 

a<v, I. 418. 

History. ^T^HIS beautiful bird is common in feveral parts 
■* of Europe ; where it inhabits the woods, and 
hangs its neft very artificially between the ilender 
branches on the fummits of antient oaks. Its note 
is loud, and refembles its name. I have heard of 
only one being fhot in Great Britain, and that in 
South Wales. 

Descrip. It is of the fize of a thrufh : the head and whole 
body of the male is of a rich yellow : the bill red ; 







from that to the eye a black line : the wings black, 
marked with a bar of yellow : the ends of the fea- 
thers of the fame color : the two middle feathers 
of the tail black ; the reft black, with the ends 
of a fine yellow : the. legs dufky. 

The body of the female is of a dull green : the 
wings dufky : the tail of a dirty green : the ends of 
the exterior feathers whitim. 


Merula rofea. Rati fyn. a-v. . BriJJbn a<v. II. 250. 

6j. Aldr. av. II. 283. Turdus rofeus. Lin. fyft, 294. 

Wil. orn. 194. Faun. Suec. /p. 219. 

Le Merle Couleur de Rofe. Bdnxa 20. 

T\ /TR. Edwards difcovered this beautiful bird 
- Ly - S - twice in our ifland, near London, at Norwood^ 
and another time in Norfolk. The figure of this 
and the preceding, were copied, by permiflion, 
from his beautiful and accurate defigns, which we 
gratefully acknowledge, as well as every other 
afliftance from our worthy friend ^ whofe pencil 
has done as much honor to our country, as the 
integrity of his heart, and communicative difpofi- 
tion, has procured him eiteem from a numerous and 
refpectable acquaintance. 

The fize of this bird appears by the print to be De? crip 
Vol. IT, T t equal 

6 2 8 APPENDIX. 

equal to that of a dare. The bill at the point is 
black, at the bafe a dirty flefn color : the head 
is adorned with a creft hanging backwards. The 
head, creft, neck, wings, and tail are black, gloried 
with a changeable blue, purple and green : the 
bread, belly, back, and leffer coverts of the wings, 
are of a rofe color, mixed with a few fpots of 
black : the legs of a dirty orange color. 

This bird is found in Lapland, Italy, and Syria. 
About Aleppo it is called the locuft bird, pofnbly 
from its food ; and appears there only in fummer*. 
In Italy it is (tyled the fea-ftare ; and as Aldro- 
vandus fays, frequents heaps of dung 7. And Mr. 
Ekmarck J informs us, that it reticles in Lapland, ne- 
ver paffing beyond the limits of that frozen region. 
We have mentioned very oppofite climes, but be- 
lieve it to be a fcarce bird in all, at, left in Europe. 

* Rujel's hift. AUp. 70. Ta-vermer, 146. 
f Aldr. av. IL 283. 
\ Migr. civ, Amaii. acad. IV. 594. 

w A t e R 



A P P E N D I X. 629 


VI. The C R A N E. 

Le Grue. Belcn a<v. 187. tah. 33. 

Grus. Gefner av. 528. Kranich. Kram. 345. 

A Crane. Turner. Kranich. Frifeh, it. 194. 

Gru, Grua. Aldr. av. III. Ardea Grus, Lin. fyft. 234? 

132. Trana. Faun. Suec. fp. l6i» 

Wil. orn. 274. panis Trane. Brunnicb, 

Raii fyn. a<v. 95. Br. Zool. 1 18, 
La Grue. Brijjon a<v. V. 374. 

THIS fpecies was placed, in the folio edition 
of the Zoology, among the Britijh birds, on 
the authority of Mr. Ray ; who informs us, that ii> 
his time, they were found during the winter in 
large flocks in Lincolnfmre and Cambridge/hire : but 
on the ftricteft enquiry we learn, that at prefent the 
inhabitants of thofe counties are fcarcely acquaint- 
ed with them •, we therefore conclude, that thefe 
birds have forfaken our ifland. A fmgle bird 
was killed near Cambridge about three years ago 9 
and is the only in fiance I ever knew of the crane 
being feen in this ifland in our time. They were for- 
merly in high efteem at our tables, for the delicacy 
of their fleih -, for they feed only on grain, herbsj, 
or infe&s ; fo have nothing of the ranknefs of the 
pifcivorous birds of this genus. 

Tt? Is 

630 A P P E N D I X. 

Besceip. Its weight is about ten pounds-, the length fix 
feet ; the bill of a darkifh green, four inches long ; 
and a little depreiTed on the top of the upper man- 
dible : the top of the head covered with black 
briftles ; the back of the head bald and red, be- 
neath which is an afh colored fpot : from the eyes, 
of each fide, is a broad white line the whole 
length of the neck : the fore part as far as the 
bread: is black : the quil-feathers are black : the 
tail afh colored, tipt with black : all the reft of 
the plumage is afh colored. The legs are black. 

No author, except Gefner^ takes notice of a large 
tuft of feathers that fpring out of one pinion on 
each wing : they are unwebbed, and finely curled at 
the ends, which the birds have power to erect or 
deprefs ; when depreiTed they hang over and cover 
the tail. Gefner tells us, that thefe feathers ufed in 
his time to be fet in gold, and worn as ornaments in 
caps. Though this fpecies feems to have forfaken 
thefe i (lands at prefent, yet it was formerly a native, 
as we find in Willughby^ p. 52. that there was a 
penalty of twenty-pence for deflroying an egg of 
this bird ; and 'Turner relates, that he has very of- 
ten feen their young in our marfhes. Marfigli* 
fays, that the crane lays two eggs like thofe of a 
goofe, but of a bluilh color. 

* Hifu Danub. V. p. 8. 

VII. The 





10 Jaw J fun* ' y/«<fcjrd 



Lefler White Heron. Wil. Dwarf Heron. Barbot, 29. 

orn. 280. L' Aigrette. Briffbn a-v. V. 
Ardea Garzetta, Lin. fyfi. 431. 

237. Kleiner WeifTer Rager. Kram. 
Ardea Alba minor. Raiijyn. 345. 
a<v, 99. 

^X7E once received out of Angle fea^ the feathers 
of a bird (hot there, which we fufpedt to 
be the Egret; this is the only inftance perhaps 
of its being found in our country. That formerly 
this bird was very frequent here, appears by fome 
of the old bills of fare : in the famous feaft of 
Archbifhop Nevill y we find no lefs than a thoufand 
Afierides*, Egrets or Egrittes, as it is differently 
fpelt. Perhaps the efteem they were in as a deli- 
cacy during thofe days, occafioned their extirpati- 
on in ouriilands; abroad they are ft ill common, 
efpecially in the fouthern parts of Europe, where 
they appear in flocks. 

The Egret is a moft elegant bird ; it weighs a- Descrif. 
bout one pound -, the length is twenty-four inches, 
to the end of the legs thirty-two : the bill is flender 
and black : the fpace about the eyes naked and 

* God-win de PrafuL Angl. com. Island's Colled. 

T t 3 green : 


green : the irides of a pale yellow : the head adorn- 
ed with a beautiful creft, compofed of fome fhort, 
and of two long feathers, hanging backward ; thefe 
are upwards of four inches in length : the whole 
plumage is of a refplendent whitenefs : the feathers 
on the bread, and the (capillars, are very delicate, 
long, flender, and unwebbed, hanging in the light- 
eft and loofeft manner : the legs are of a dark green 
aimed black : the fcapulars and the crefc were 
formerly much elieemed as ornaments for caps 
and head-pieces ; fo that aigrette and egret came to 
fignify any ornament to a cap, though originally 
the word was derived from aigre, a caufe de P 
toigreur de fa voi:: *. 

We never met with this bird or the crane in Eng- 
land, but formed our defcriptions from fpecimens in 
the elegant cabinet of Doctor Mauduit in Paris, 

Beton av. igy 

VIII. The 





Ardeola (le Blongios) Brif- 
fon a-v. V. 497. tab. 40. 

Ardea vertice dorioque ni- 
gris, collo antice et alarum 
te&ricibus lutefcentibus . 
(Stauden Ragerl , Kleine 

Moofs-kuh.) Kram. 348. 
Boonk or long Neck. Shaw's 

Travels, 255. 
Ardea Minuta. Lin. fyft. 240. 
Kleiner Rohrdommel. Frifcb, 

II. 206. 207. 
Ed<w. civ. 275. 

THIS fpecies was fliot as it perched on one of 
the trees in the Quarry or public walks in 
Shrew/bury, on the banks of the Severn ; it is fre- 
quent in many other parts of Europe? but the only 
one we ever heard of in England. 

The length to the tip of the tail was fifteen inch- 
es, to the end of the toe twenty. The bill to the 
corners of the mouth two inches and a half long, 
dufky at the point ; the fides yellow ; the edge jag- 
ged : the bulk of the body not larger than that of 
a fieldfare. 

The top of the head, the back, and tail were 
black, gloffed with an obfcure green : the neck is 
very long, the forepart of which, the bread and 
thighs, were of a buff color : the belly and vent-fea- 
thers white : the hind-part of the neck bare of fea- 
thers, but covered with thofe growing on the fide 
T t 4. of 



634 A P • P E N D I X. 

of it: on the letting on of the wing is a large 
chefnut fpot : the lefTer coverts of a yellowifh buff; 
the larger coverts whitiiTi : the web of that next the 
back half buff and half black : the quil-feathers 
black : the legs and toes dufky ; and what is fingu- 
lar in a bird of this genus, the feathers grow down 
to the knees : the iafide of the middle claw is fer- 

For this defcription, and the drawing, we are 
indebted to Mr. Plymley. 


pelecanus feu Platea. Gefner Rail fyn. a-v. 102. 

666. Platalea Leucorodia. Lin. Jyjt. 


Albardeola. Aldr. a-v. III. 251 Faun. Suec. No. 160. 

160. BriJJbn V. 352. 

Spoon-bill. Wil. cm. 28S. Loffel-gans. Scopoli, No. 115, 


FLOCK of thefe birds migrated into the 


marfhes near Yarmouth, in Norfolk^ in April, 
1774. Thefe birds inhabit the continent of Eu- 
rope. In Mr. Ray's time, they bred annually in a 
wood at Sevenhuys, not remote from Ley den : but 
the wood is now deftroyed -, and thefe birds, with 
feveral others that formerly frequented the coun- 
try, are at prefer) t become very rare. 


S P O O 1ST B I x ;l 


APPENDIX. 6 3 s 

Mr. Jofeph Spar/ball of Tar mouth favored me 
with the following very accurate defcription : 

The length from the end of the beak to the extre- 
mity of the middle toe forty inches : breadth of the 
wings, extended, fifty-two inches : bill, length of 
the upper mandible feven inches -, of the lower fix 
three-fourths ditto : breadth of the fpoon, near the 
point, two inches ; ditto of the nether mandible 
one inch feven-eighths: breadth of both, in the 
narroweft part, near the middle, three-fourths of 
an inch : a bright orange colored fpot, about the 
breadth of a fixpence, juft above the point of the 
upper mandible, which is a little hooked, or bent 
downward at its extremity. At the angles of the 
bill, on each -cheek, a fpot of a bright orange co- 
lor : the /kin between the fides of the lower man- 
dible, and extending about three inches down- 
ward on the throat or neck, covered with very 
fine down, almoft imperceptible, which, with the 
fkin on that part, are of a very bright orange co- 
lor : irides of the eyes a bright flame color, very 
lively and vivid : the whole bill (except the above 
fpot) of a fine mining black : its upper furface 
elegantly waved with dotted protuberances : a de- 
preffed line extending from the noftrils (which are 
three-eights of an inch long, and fituate half an 
inch below the upper part of the bill) is conti- 
nued round it about one eighth of an inch from 
its edge : its fubftance has fomething of the appear- 
ance of whale bone, thin, light, and elaftic. Infidc 



of the mouth a dark a ill color, almoft black : the 
tongue (remarkably lingular) being very fhort, 
heart fhaped, and when drawn back, ferving as a 
valve to ciofe the entrance of the throat, which it 
feems to do effectually ; when pulled forward has 
the appearance of a triangular button : the ears, or 
auditory apertures large, and placed an inch be- 
hind the angles of the mouth. Plumage of the 
whole body, wings, and tail white : on the back- 
part of the head a beautiful creft of white fea- 
thers, hanging pendent behind the neck ; their 
length about five inches \ which, in the living fub- 
jecl, gives it a very beautiful appearance. 

Weight of the fowl, three days after killed, was 
three pounds and a half. 

The legs black, their length fix inches, and 
thighs the fame ; the latter naked about half their 
length -, toes connected by a fmall web, extending 
to the firft joint on each. 


APPENDIX. 6 3 ? 

No. I. 


;r ~TpHE reprefentative of this fpecies is a na- Horse, 

•** tive of Temine^ in Arabia Falix \ the proper- 
ty of Lord Grofvenour, taken from a picture in 
porTeiTion of his Lordihip, painted by Mr. Stubby 
an artift not lefs happy in reprefenting animals in 
their (tiller moments, than when agitated by their 
furious paiiions -, his matchlefs paintings of horfes 
Will be lading monuments of the one, and that of 
the lion and panther of the other. 

This horfe, by its long reiidence among us, may 
be faid to be naturalized, therefore we hope to 
be excufed for introducing it here, notwithftand- 
ing its foreign defcent. From its great beauty 
it may be prefumed that it derives its lineage from 
Monaki Shaduki^ of the pure race of horfes^ purer 
than milk *„ 

* Vide the Arabian certificate, in a following note, for 
the meaning of this phrafe. 



Arabia produces thefe noble animals in the 
higheft perfection •, firft, becaufe they take their 
origin from the wild unmixed breeds that formerly 
were found in the deferts *, which had as little 
degenerated from their primaeval form and powers 
as the lion, tiger, or any other creature which flill 
remains in a ftate of nature unchanged by the difci- 
pline of man, or harvefted provifion. 

The Arabs place their chief delight in this ani- 
mal ^ it is to them f as dear as their family, and 
is indeed part of it : men, women, children, mares, 
and foals all lie in one common tent, and they 
lodge promifcuoufly without fear of injury. 


* Leo Africanus, who wrote in the time of Leo X. fays, 
that in his days great numbers of wild horfes were found in 
the Numidian and Arabian Deferts, which were broke for ufe. 
He adds, that the trial of their fwiftnefs was made againfr. 
the Lant, or the Oftrich; and if they could overtake either of 
thofe animals, were valued at a hundred camels. Hiji. Africa, 


f As a proof of this, receive the following lamentation of an 
Arab> obliged, thro' poverty, to part with his mare : My eyes, 
fays he, to the animal, my foul, muft I be fo unfortunate as 
to have fold tkee to fo many majlers, and not to keep thee myfelf? 
I am poor, my Antelope. Ton know well enough, my honey, 
I have brought thee up as my child ; I never -beat nor chid thee ; 
/ made as much of thee as ever I could for my life. God pre- 
ferve thee my dear eft ; thou art pretty ; thou art lovely ; God de- 
fend thee from the looks of the envious. To underitand the firft 
part of this fpeech, it muft be obferved, that it is ufual for 



This conftant intercourfe produces a familiarity 
that could not othervvife be effected ; and creates 
a tractability in the horfes that could arife only 
from a regular good ufage -, little acts of kindriefs, 
and a foothing language, which they are accuf- 
tomed to from their matters : they are quite un- 
acquainted with the fpur ; the left touch with the 
flirrup fets thefe airy courfers in motion ; they kt 
off with a fleqtnefs that furpalTes that of the 
Oftrich*, yet they are fo well trained as to flop 
in their molt rapid fpeed by the flighefl check of 
the rider : there are fometimes inflances of their 
being mounted without either bridle or faddle, 
when they fhew fuch compliance to their rider's 
will, as to be directed in their courfe by the 
meer motion of a fvvitch -f. 
Paret in obfequium hnta mo der amine virga^ 
Verb era funt pracepta fug<£, funt verb era frana J r 
Several, things concur to maintain this perfection 
in the horfes of Arabia^ fuch as the great care the 
Arabs take in preferving the breed genuine, by per- 
mitting none but ftallions of the firft form to have 

many Arabs, of the poorer rank, to join in the purchafe of a 
horfe, the original owner generally retaining one fhare. This, 
as well as moffc of the other particulars relating to the Arabian 
horfe, are taken from M. D'Arvieux's curious , account of 
Arabia, p. 167, London, 1732. 

* For an account of its fpeed, vide Adanfoits <voy. 85. 
f Tavemier's Travels, I, 63, 
X Nemefion Cyneg. 267, 

* accefs 


accefs to the mares : this is never done but in the 
prelence of a witnefs, the fecretary of the Emir, 
or fome public officer -, he a Herts the facl, records 
the name of the horfe, mare, and whole pedigree 
of each, and thefe atteftations * are carefully pre- 
fer ved, for on thefe depend the future price of the 


* The reader is here preferred with an original atteila- 
tion, fome of which M. D 9 Ar<vieux fays have been preferred 
for above 500 years in the public records. 

Taken before A BD ORR i\M AN, KADI 
of A C C A. 

The Cccafion of this prefent Writing or Inftrument is that 
at Ace a in the Houfe of Badi legal eihbliih'd Judge, appear'd 
in Court Thomas Usgate the Engliih Conful and with him 
Sheikh Mar ad Ebn al Hajj Ahdoilab, Sheikh of the County 
of Safad, and the faid Conful dcfir'a from the aforefaid 
Sheikh proof of the Race of the Grey Horfe which he bought 
of him, and He afhrm'd to be l.lonaki Shaduhi *, but he was 
not fatisiied with this but deiir'd the Testimony of the 
Arabs, who bred the Horfe and knew how he came to Sheikh 
Morad ; whereupon there appear'd certain Arabs of Repute 
whefe names are undermention'd, who teltified and declar'd 
that the Grey Horfe which the Conful formerly bought of 
Sheikh Morad, is Monaki Shaduki of the pure Race of Korfes, 
purer than Milk f, and that the Beginning of the Affair 

* Thefe are the Names of the tivo Breeds of Arab Horfes, ivbieb are reckoned 
pure ar.d true, and thoje which arc of both the e Breeds by Father and Mother, 
ere the tnofi noble ar.d free from Bafiardy, 

-p A Proverbial Exprejfor., 

' was. 


The Arabs, whole riches are their horfes, take 
all imaginable care of them -, they have it not in 
their power to give them grafs in their hot climate, 
except in the fpring; their conftant food is bar- 
ley, and that given only in the night, being never 
fuffered to eat during the day. 

In the day-time they are kept faddled at the 
door of the tent, ready for any excurlion their mas- 
ters may make; the Arabs being fond of the chace, 
and live by the plundering of travellers. The 
horfes are never hurt by any fervile employ, never 
injured by heavy burthens, or by long journie?, 
enjoy a pure dry air, due exercife, great temper- 
ance, and great care. 

was, that Sheikh Saleh, Sheikh of Alsabal, bought him of the 
Arabs of the Tribe of al Mohammadat, and Sheikh Saleh fold 
him to Sheikh Morad Ebn al Hajj Abdollah, Sheikh of Safad, 
and Sheikh Mar ad fold him to the Conful aforefaid, when thefe 
Matters appear'd to us, and the Contents were known, the 
faid Gentleman defir'd a Certificate thereof, and Teilimc- 
ny of the WitnefTes, whereupon we wrote him this Certifi- 
cate, for him to keep as a Proof thereof. Dated Friday 28 of *■ *• 2 9 January, 
the latter Rabi in the Year 1 135. 


Sheikh Jumat al Falibau of the Arab: 

of si I Mohammadat. 
Ali Ebn Taleb al Kaabz. 
Ibrahim his Brother. * 

Mohammed al Adhra Skeikh Alfarifat. 
Khamis al Kaabi* 




Every horfe in Arabia (except thofe which 'by 
way of contempt are called Guidicb, or pack horfes) 
has a degree of good qualities fuperior to thofe 
of any other places ; but it is not to be fuppofed, 
but that there are certain parts of that country, 
which have attained a higher perfection in the art 
of management than the others. 

Thus we find by fome late information *, that 
Teraine in Arabia Fzdix^ is at prefent in great- re- 
pute for its breed ; for the jockies of that part have 
acquired fuch a fuperior name, as to be able to fell 
their three year old horfes for two or three hundred 
guineas a-piece, and when they can be prevailed on 
to part with a favorite fiallion, they will not take 
lefs for it than fifteen hundred guineas. It is from 
this country that the great men in India are fup- 
plied with horfes, for India itfelf-is pofTerTed of a 
very bad kind ; thefe noble animals being much 
neglected there, from the conftant ufe of the 
Buffalo i not only in tillage, but even in riding. 

It may be allowed here to give fome account of 
the horfes of other countries, which derive their 
origin, or at left receive their improvement from 
the Arabian kind, for wherefoever the Saracens 
fpread their victorious arms, they, at the fame 
time, introduced their generous race of horfes. 

Thofe of Perfia are light, fwift, and very like 
thofe of. Arabia > but formed very narrow before : 

* Wall on horfe?, 74. 



they are fed with chopped draw, mixed with bar- 
ley, and inftead of foiling, are fed with new eared 
or green barley for about fourteen or twenty days*. 

Ethiopia has with fome writers the credit of 
having originally furniilied Arabia with its fine 
race of horfes -, but we believe the reverfe, and 
that they were introduced into that empire by the 
Arabian princes, whofe lineage to this day fills that 
throne. The horfes of that country are fpirited and 
flrong, and generally of a black color : they are 
never ufed in long journies, but only in battle or 
in the race, for all fervile work is done by mules : 
the ^Ethiopians never fhoe them, for which reafon, 
on palling through flony places, they difmount, and 
ride on mules, and lead their horfes f \ fo from this 
we may colled, that this nation is not lefs attached 
to thefe animals than the Arabs, 

JEgypt has two breeds of horfes, one its own, the 
other Arabian •, the lafl: are mod efteemed, and are 
bought up at a great price, in order to be fent to 
Conftantinople \ but fuch is the difcouragement, 
arifing from the tyranny of the government, that 
the owners often wilfully lame a promifing horfej^ 
left the Beys mould like it and force it from them. 

Barbary owes its fine horfes to the fame (lock, biu 
in general they are far inferior in point of value \, 
and for the fame reafon as is given in the lafl arti- 

* Tavernier* s Travels, I. 145. 

f Ludolpb. hiji. jEthiop. 53. 

X Uni<v, modern hiji. quotted from Mwllet and Pec9& 

Vol. II. U u cle, 


cle, the great infecurity of property under the Tur- 
kijh government. The breed was once very fa- 
mous : M. D'Arvieux* fays, that when he was 
there in 1 66 8 , he met with a mare that he thought 
worthy of the ftud of his grand Monarqiit, when 
m the height of his glory ; but Doctor Shaw in- 
forms us, that at prefent the cafe is entirely alter- 
ed f. 

Notwithstanding Spain has been celebrated of old 
for the fwiftnefs of its horfes, vet it muft have re- 
eeived great improvement from thofe brought over 
by their conquerors, the Saracens. According to 
Oppian^. thtSpanifh breed had no other merit than 
that of fketnefe, but at prefent we know that they 
have feveral other fine qualities. 

To fum up the account of this generous animal 3 
we may obferve, that every country' that boafts of a 
fine race of horfes, is indebted to Arabia, their pri- 
maeval feat. No wonder then, that the poetic ge- 
nius of the author of the book of Job^ who not on- 
ly lived on the very fpot, but even at time when the 
animal creation dill enjoyed much of its original 
perfection, mould be able to compofe that fublime 
defcription which has always been the admiration 
of every perfon of genuine tafle §. 

* D'Arvieux, 173. 

f Shaw's Travels, 238. 

I Cyneg. lib. I. V. 284. 

§ Job.- ch. XXXIX. v. 19. to 25. 



No. II. 
Of the TAKING of WOLVES, &c. 

Ex Autographo penes Dec. et Capit. Exon. 
From Bp. Lyttelton's Colleftions. 

*)fOHAN. comes Moreton omnibus hominibus 
J et amicis fuis Francis et Anglicis prefentibus 
et futuris falutem fciatis nos concef. fe reddidilTe et 
hac cartamea confirmaffe comic, baron militibus 
et omnibus libere tenentibus clericis et laicis in 
Devenefcire libertates fuas forefte quas habuerunt 
tempore Henrici Reg. proavi mei tenendas et ha- 
bendas illis et heredibus fuis de me et heredibus 
meis et nominatim quod habeant arcus et phare- 
tra?, et fagittas in terris fuis deferendas extra re- 
gardum forefte mee, et quod canes fui vel homi- 
num fuorum, non fint efpaltati extra regardum 
forefte, et quod habeant canes fuos et alias liberta- 
tes, ficut melius et liberius illas habuerunt tem- 
pore ejufd. Henrici Regis et Reifellos fuos, et quod 
capiant Capreolum, Vulpem, Cattum, Lupum 5 
Leporem, Lutram, ubicunque illam inveniunt ex- 
U u 2 tra 


tra regardum forefte mee. Et ideo vobis firmiter 
precipio, quod nullus eis, de hiis vel aliis liber- 
tatibus fuis moleftiam inferat vel gravamen. Hiis 
teftibus Witt. Mar ef call. Will, comite Sarefbur. Will. 
com. de Vernon. Steph. Ridell cancellario meo, Will, 
de Wenn. Hamone de Valoin, Roger o de Novoburgo, 
Ingelram de Pincoll. Rob. de Moritomari^ Walters 
Maltravers. Rad. Morin. Walt, de Cant eh. Gil- 
berti Morin et mukis aliis. 

Seal appendant, an armed man on horfeback, 
and on the reverfe, a fmall impreffion from an an- 
tique head — the legend broken. 



No. III. 

Of the CHOICE of his MAJESTY'S 

TO all thofe to whome this prefent Writinge 
fliall come I Sr. Anthony Pell Knight Maif- 
ter Faulkner Surveyor and Keeper of his Majef- 
ties Havvkes fend greetinge, Whereas I am cre- 
dibly informed that divers perfons who doe ufu- 
allie bringe Haukes to fell doe commonlye con- 
vey them from fhipbord and cuftome howfe be- 
fore fuch tyme as I or my fervants or deputies 
have any fight or choife of them for his Majefties 
ufe whereby his Highnefs is not nor hath not late- 
ly beene furnifhed with the number of Hawkes as 
is mod meete, Wherefore theis are in his Majefties 
name to will charge and commaund you and every 
of you that (hall at any tyme hereafter bringe any 
Hawkes to fell, That neither you nor any of you 
nor any others for you or by your appointment doe 
remove or convey awaye any of your Hawkes 
whatfoever from fhipbord or the cuftome houfe un- 
till fuch tyme as the bearer hereof my welbeloved 
friend William Spence Gent, have his firft choife 
U u 3 for 


for his Majefties fervice, And that you and every 
one of you do quietly permitt and fuflfer the faid 
JVm, Spence the bearer hereof to take his choife and 
make tryal of iuch of your Hawkes as he mall 
thinke meete with a gorge or two of meat before 
fuch tyme as his Majefties price be paide beeinge 
as hereafter followeth, viz for a Faulcon twenty fix 
millings and eight pence, for a TaiTell gentle thir- 
teene millings and four pence, for a Lanner twen- 
ty fix millings and eight pence, for a Lannarett 
thirteene millings and foure pence, for a Gofhawke 
twentie millings, for a Taffell of a Gofshawke 
thirteene millings and foure pence, for a Gerfaul- 
kon thirtie millings, for a Jerkin thirteen millings 
and fourepence, hereof fayle you not as you will 
anfwere the contrary at your perills. Dated the fix 
and twentieth day Januarie Anno Domini 162 1. 

This warrant to endure untill the 
firft daye of Augufi next comeinge. 



No. IV. 

By the Hon ble . Daines Bar ring ton. 

IN thefuburbs of London (and particularly about 
Shoreditch) are feveral weavers and other trades- 
men, who, during the months of Off okr and March,, 
get their livelihood by an ingenious, and we may 
fay, a fcientific method of bird-catching, which is 
totally unknown in other parts of Great Britain. 

The reafon of this trade being confined to f® 
fmall a compafs, arifes from there being no consi- 
derable fale for finging birds except in the metro- 
polis : as the apparatus for this purpofe is alfo 
heavy, and at the fame time mud be carried on a 
man's back, it prevents the bird-catchers going to 
above three or four miles diftance. 

This method of bird-catching rnufl have been 
long pradtifed, as it is brought to a mod fyftema- 
ticai perfection, and is attended with a very confi- 
derable expence. 

The nets are a mod ingenious piece of mecha- 
nifm, are generally twelve yards and a half long, 

U u 4 and 


and two yards and a half wide-, and no one on bare 
infpection would imagine that a bird (who is fo 
fo very quick in all its motions) could be catch- 
ed by the nets flapping over each other, till he 
becomes eye witnefs of the pullers feldom failing *. 

The wild birds fly (as the bird-catchers term it) 
chiefly during the month of Oclober, and part of 
September and November -, as the flight in March is 
much lefs confiderable than that of Michaelmafs. 
It is to be noted alfo, that the feveral fpecies of 
birds of flight do not make their appearance pre- 
cifely at the fame time, during the months of 
September ', Oftober and November. The Pippet f, 
for example, begins to fly about Michaelmafs^ and 
then the Woodlark, Linnet, Goldfinch, Chaffinch, 
Greenfinch, and other birds of flight fucceed j 
all of which are not eafily to be caught, or in any 
numbers, at any other time, and more particularly 
the Pippet and the Woodlark. 

Theie birds, during the Michaelmafs and March 
flights, are chiefly on the wing from day break 
to noon, though there is afterwards a fmall flight 
from two till night ± but this however is fo incon* 

* Thefe nets are known in moft parts of England by the 
name of day-nets or clap-nets ; but all we have feen are far 
inferior in their mechanifm to thofe ufed near London. 

■f A fmall fpecies of Lark, but which is inferior to other 
birds of that Genus in point of fong. 


APPENDIX. 6 5 t 

fiderable, that the bird-catchers always take up 
their nets at noon. 

It may well deferve the attention of the naturalift 
whence thefe periodical flights of certain birds can 
arife. As the ground however is ploughed during 
the months of Otlober and March for fowing the 
winter and lent corn, it mould feem that they are 
thus fupplied with a great profufion both of feeds 
and infe&s, which they cannot fo eafily procure at 
any other feafon. 

It may not be improper to mention another clr- 
cumftance, to be obferved during their flitting, 
viz. that they fly always againft the wind ; hence, 
there is great contention amongft the bird-catchers 
who mall gain that point, if (for example) it is 
wefterly, the bird catcher who lays his nets molt 
to the eaft, is fure almoft of catching every thing, 
provided his call-birds are good : a gentle wind 
to the fouth-weft generally produces the beft fport. 

The bird-catcher, who is a fubftantial man, and 
hath a proper apparatus for this purpofe, general* 
ly carries with him five or fix linnets (of which 
more are caught than any finging bird) two gold- 
finches > two greenfinches , one woodlark^ one redpoll^ 
a yellowhammer^ titlark^ and aberdavine, and per- 
haps a bullfinch ; thefe are placed at fmall di (lances 
from the nets in little cages. He hath, befides, 
what are called flur-birds, which are placed with- 


in the nets, are raifed upon the Jlur* 9 and gently 
let down at the time the wild bird approaches 
them. Thefe generally confift of the linnet, the 
goldfinch, and the greenfinch, which are fecured to 
the flur by what is called a hrace\\ a contrivance 
that fecures the birds without doing any injury 
to their plumage. 

It having been found that there is a fuperiority 
between bird and bird, from the one being more in 
fong than the other ; the bird-catchers contrive 
that their call birds mould moult before the ufual 
time. They, therefore, in June or July, put them 
into a clofe box, under two or three folds of 
blankets, and leave their dung; in the cao;e to raife 
a greater heat ; in which ftate they continue, be- 
ing perhaps examined but once a week to have 
freih water. As for food, the air is- fo putrid, that 
they eat little during the whole ftate of confine- 
ment, which lafts about a month. The birds fre- 
quently die under the operation J; and hence the 
value of a flopped bird rifes greatly. 


* A moveable perch to which the bird is tied, and which 
the bird-catcher can raife at pleafure, by means of a long 
firing fattened to it. 

f A fort of bandage, formed of a {lender filken fixing that is 
fattened round the bird's body, and under the wings, in fo 
artful a manner as to hinder the bird from being hurt, let 
flutter ever fo much in the raifmg. 

t We have been lately informed by an experienced bird- 


When the bird hath thus prematurally moulted, 
he is in fong, whilfb the wild birds are out of fong, 
and his note is louder and more piercing than that 
of a wild one •, but it is not only in his note he 
receives an alteration, the plumage is equally im- 
proved. The black and yellow in the wings of the 
goldfinch^ for example, become deeper and more vi- 
vid, together with a mod beautiful glofs, which 
is not to be feen in the wild bird. The bill, which 
in the latter is iikewife black at the end, in the 
flopped, bird becomes white and more taper, as do 
its legs : in (hort, there is as much difference be- 
tween a wild and a flopped bird y as there is between 
a horfe which is kept in body cloaths, or at grafs. 

When the bird-catcher hath laid his nets, he dif- 
pofes of his callbirds at proper intervals. It mud 
be owned, that there is a mod malicious joy in 
thefe call-birds to bring the wild ones into the fame 
date of captivity •> which may Iikewife be obferved 
with regard to the decoy ducks. 

Their fight and hearing infinitely excels that of 
the bird catcher. The indant that the* wild birds 
are perceived, notice is given by one to the red of 

catcher, that he purfues a cooler regimen mftoppi?zg his birds, 
and that he therefore feldom lofes one: but we fufpeel that 
there is not the fame certainty of making them moult. 

* It may be alfo obferved, that the moment they fee a hawk, 
they communicate the alarm to each other by a plaintive notef 
»or will they xmnjerk or call though the wild birds are near, 



the call-birds, (as it is by the firft hound that hits 
on the fcent, to the reft of the pack) after which, 
follows the fame fort of tumultuous 'ecftacy and 
joy. The call-birds, while the bird is at a diftance, 
do not fing as a bird does in a chamber -, they in- 
vite the wild ones by what the bird-catchers call 
Jhort jerks, which when the birds are good, may- 
be heard at a great diftance. The afcendency by 
this call or invitation is fo great, that the wild bird 
is (lopped in its courfe of flight, and if not already 
acquainted with the nets*, lights boldly within 
twenty yards of perhaps three or four bird-catchers, 
on a fpot which otherwife it would not have taken 
the left notice of. Nay, it frequently happens, 
that if half a flock only are caught, the remaining 
half will immediately afterwards light in the nets, 
and fhare the fame fate •, and mould only one 
bird efcape, that bird will fuffer itfelf to be pulled 
at till it .is caught, fuch a fafcinating power have 
the call-birds. 

While we are on this fubjecl of the jerking of 
birds, we cannot omit mentioning, that the bird- 
catchers frequently lay confiderable wagers whofe 
call-bird can jerk the longeft, as that determines 
the iuperiority. They place them oppofite to each 
other, by an inch of candle, and the bird who 

* A bird, acquainted with the nets, is by the bird-catchers 
termed a Jharper, which they endeavour to drive away, as 
they can have no fport whilft it continues near them. 



jerks the ofteneft, before the candle is burnt out, 
wins the wager. We have been informed, that 
there have been inftances of a bird's giving a hun- 
dred and feventy jerks in a quarter of an hour ; 
and we have known a linnet, in fuch a trial, per- 
fevere in its emulation till it fwooned from the 
perch : thus, as Pliny fays of the nightingale, vi&a 
morte finit fape vitam, fpiritu prius deficiente qudm 

cantu * 

It may be here obferved, that birds when near 
each other, and in fight, feldom jerk or fmg. 
They either fight, or ufe fhort and wheedling calls; 
the jerking of thefe call- birds, therefore, face to 
face, is a moft extraordinary inftance of contention 
for fuperiority in fong. 

It may be alfo worthy of obfervation, that the fe- 
male of no fpecies of birds ever fings : with birds, 
it is the reverfe of what occurs in human kind : 
among the feathered tribe, all the cares of life fall 
to the lot of the tender fex : theirs is the fatigue 
of incubation ; and the principal fhare in nurfing 
the helplefs brood : to alleviate thefe fatigues, and 
to fupport her under them, nature hath given to 
the male the fong, with all the little blandifhments 
and foothing arts \ thefe he fondly exerts (even af- 
ter courtfhip) on fome fpray contiguous to the neft, 
during the time his mate is performing her paren- 
tal duties, But that fhe fhould be filent, is alfo a- 

*' Lib, x. c, 29, 


e 5 6 APPENDIX. 

nother wife provifion of nature, for her fong would 
difcover her Heft ; as would a gaudinefs of plu- 
mage, which, for the fame reafon, feems to have 
been denied her. 

To thefe we may add a few particulars that fell 
within our notice during our enquiries among the 
bird-catchers, fuch as, that they immediately kill 
the hens of every fpecies of birds they take, being 
incapable of finging, as alio being inferior in plu- 
mage ; the pippets likewife are indifcriminately de- 
ftroyed, as the cock does net fing well : they fell 
the dead birds for three- pence or four- pence a 

Thefe fmall birds are fo good, that we are fur- 
prized the luxury of the age neglects fo delicate 
an acquisition to the table. The modern Italians 
are fond of fmall birds, which they eat under the 
common name of Beccaficos : and the dear rate a 
Roman Tragedian paid for one dim of finging birds* 
is well known. 

Another particular we learned, in converfation 
with a London bird-catcher, was the vaft price that 
is fometimes given for a fingle fong bird, which 

* Maxzme tamen injignis eft in hac memoria, Clodii JECopi 
tragici biftrionis patina fexcentis H. S. taxata ; in quo pofuit a'vei 
cantu aliquOy aut humano fermone, <vocales. Plin. lib. x. C. 
51. The price of this expenfive diih was about 6843/- 10/. 
according to Arbutbnot's Tables. This feems to have been a 
wanton caprice, rather than a tribute to epicurifm. T. P. 



had not learned to whittle tunes. The greatefl 
fum we heard of, was five guineas for a chqffincb> 
that had a particular and uncommon note, under 
which it was intended to train others : and we al- 
fo heard of five pounds ten (hillings being given 
for a call-bird linnet. 

A third ftngular circumttance, which confirms 
an obfervation of Linnaeus, is, that the male chaf- 
finches fly by themfelves, and in the flight precede 
the females ; but this is not peculiar to the chaf- 
finches. When the titlarks are caught in the begin- 
ning of the feafon, it frequently happens, that 
forty are taken and not one female among them : 
and probably the fame would be obferved with 
regard to other birds (as has been done with rela- 
tion to the wheat-ear) if they were attended to. 

An experienced and intelligent bird-catcher in- 
formed us, that luch birds as breed twice a year y 
generally have in their firft brood a majority of 
males, and in their fecond, of females, which may 
in part account for the above obfervation. 

We muft not omit mention of the bulfincb 9 
though it does not properly come under the title 
of a finging bird, or a bird of flight, as it does not 
often move farther than from hedge to hedge 5 yet 3 
as the bird fells well on account of its learning to 
whittle tunes, and fornetimes flies over the fields 
where the nets are laid \ the bird-catchers have 
often a call-bird to enfnare it, though moft of them 
can imitate the call with their mouths. It is re- 


markable with regard to this bird, that the female 
anfwers the purpofe of a call-bird as well as the 
male, which is not experienced in any other bird 
taken by the London bird-catchers. 

It may perhaps furprize, that under this article 
of finging birds, we have not mentioned the night- 
ingale, which is not a bird of flight, in the fenfe the 
bird-catchers ufe this term. The nightingale, like 
the robin, wren, and many other finging birds, 
only moves from hedge to hedge, and does not 
take the periodical flights in October and March. 
The perfons who catch thefe birds, make ufe of 
fmall trap-nets, without call- birds, and are confi- 
dered as inferior in dignity to other bird-catchers, 
who will not rank with them. 

The nightingale being the firft of finging birds, 
we mall here infert a few particulars relating to it, 
that were tranimitted to us fince the defcription 
of that bird was printed. 

Its arrival is expected, by the trappers in the 
neighborhood of London, the firft week in April-, at 
the beginning none but cocks are taken, but in 
a few days the hens make their appearance, ge- 
nerally by themfelves, though fometimes a few 
males come along with them. 

The latter are diftinguifhed from the females 
not only by their fuperior fize, but by a great 
fwelling of their vent, which commences on the 
firft arrival of the hens. 



They do not build till the middle of May, and 
generally chufe a quickfet to make their neft in. 

If the nightingale is kept in a cage, it often be- 
gins to fing about the latter end of November, and 
continues its fong more or lefs till June, 

A young Canary bird^ linnet, Jkylark, or robin 
(who have never heard any other bird) are faid 
bed to learn the note of a nightingale. 

They are caught in a net-trap ; the bottom of 
which is furrounded with an iron ring -, the net it- 
felf is rather larger than a cabbage net. 

When the trappers hear or fee them, they ftrew 
fome frefh mould under the place, and bait the 
trap with a meal-worm from the baker's fhop. 

Ten or a dozen nightingales have been thus 
caught in a day. 

Vol. II. X x No. 


No. V. 

by the Hon. DAINES BARRING- 
TON. In a letter to MATHEW 
MATY, M.D. Sec. R. S. 1773. 

From the Philosophical Transactions, Vol. LXIII. 

Dear Sir, 

AS the experiments and observations I mean 
to lay before the Royal Society relate to 

the Tinging of birds, which is a fubjedt that hath 
never before been icientifically treated of*, it may 
not be improper to prefix an explanation of fome 
uncommon terms, which I (hall be obliged to ufe, 
as well as others which I have been under a necefH- 
ty of coining. 

* Kircber, indeed, in his Mufurgia, hath given us fome 
few paffages in the fong of the nightingale, as well as the 
call of a quail and cuckow, which he hath engraved in mufical 
characters . Thefe inftances, however, only p*cve that fome 
birds have in their fong, notes which correfpond with the in- 
tervals of our common fcale of the mvmcaJ ©Save, 



To chirp, is the firft found which a young bird 
utters, as a cry for food, and is different in all 
neftlings, if accurately attended to; fo that the hear- 
er may diftiriguifh of what fpecies the birds are, 
though the neft may hang out of his fight and reach. 

This cry is, as might be expected, very weak 
and querulous ; it is dropped entirely as the bird 
grows ftronger, nor is afterwards intermixed with 
its fong, the chirp of a nightingale (for example) 
being hoarfe and difagreeable. 

To this definition of the chirp, I mull add, that 
it confifts of a fingle found, repeated at very fhort 
intervals, and that it is Common to neftlings of 
both fexes. 

The call of a bird, is that found which it is able 
to make, when about a month old •, it is, in mod 
inflances (which I happen to recollect) a repeti- 
tion of one and the fame note, is retained by the 
bird as long as it lives, and is common, generally, 
to both the cock and hen *. 

The next ftage in the notes of a bird is term- 
ed, by the bird-catchers, recordings which word is 

* For want of terms to diftinguifh the notes of birds, Bel- 
Ion applies the verb chantent, or fing, to the goofe and crane, 
as well as the nightingale. " Plufieurs oi^wy^h anient la 
unit, comme ell l'oye, la grue, & le rofiignol. " Belion's 
Hill, of Birds, p. 50. 

X x 2 probably 

662 A P P E N D I X. 

probably derived from a mufical inftrument, for- 
merly ufed in England, called a recorder *. 

This attempt in the nettling to fing, may be 
compared to the imperfect endeavour in a child to 
babble. I have known inftances of birds beginning 
to record when they were not a month old. 

This firft effay does not feem to have the lead 
rudiments of the future fong^ but as the bird 
grows older and ftronger, one may begin to per- 
ceive what the nettling is aiming at. 

Whilft the fcholar is thus endeavouring to form 
his fong, when he is once fure of a paiTage, he 
commonly raifes his tone, which he drops again 
when he is not equal to what he is attempting-, juft 
as a linger raifes his voice, when he not only recol- 
lects certain parts of a tune with precifion, but 
knows that he can execute them. 

What the nettling is not thus thoroughly matter 
of, he hurries over, lowering his tone, as if he did 
not wifh to be heard, and could not yet fatisfy 

I have never happened to meet with a paiTage 
in any writer, which feems to relate to this ftage of 

* It feems to have been a fpecies of flute, and was 
probably ufed to teach young birds to pipe tunes. 

Lord Bacon defcribes this inftrument to have been flrait, 
to have had a lefler and greater bore, both above and below, 
to have required very little breath from the blower, and to 
have had what he calls a fipfle, or Hopper. See his fecond 
Century of Experiment?. 



linging in a bird, except, perhaps, in the following 
lines of Statins : 

--- " Nunc volucrum novi 

" Queftus, inexpertumque carmen, 
" Quod tacita llatuere bruma." 

Stat. Syh. L. IV. Eel. 5. 

A young bird commonly continues to record 
for ten or eleven months, when he is able to exe- 
cute every part of his fong, which afterwards con- 
tinues fixed, and is fcarceiy ever altered *. 

When the bird is thus become perfect in his lef- 
fon, he is faid to Jing his fong round, or in all its 
varieties of pafTages, which he connects together, 
and executes without a paufe. 

I would therefore define a bird's fong to be a 
fuccefiion of three or more different notes, which 
are continued without interruption during the fame 
interval with a mufical bar of four crotchets in an 
adagio movement, or whilft a pendulum fwings four 

By the firft requifite in this definition, I mean to 

* The bird called a Twite* by the bird-catchers common- 
ly flies in company with linnets, yet thefe two fpecies of 
birds never learn each other's notes, which always continue 
totally different. 

* Br. Z00L Vol. II. p. 315. 8<z/o. prefent edition, I. p. 293. 

X x 3 exclude 


exclude the call of a cuckow, or clucking of a hen *, 
as they confift of only two notes -, whilft the fliort 
burfls of finging birds, contending with each o- 
ther (called jerks by the bird-catchers) are equal- 
ly diftinguifhed from what I term fong^ by their 
not continuing for four feconds. 

As the notes of a cuckow and hett, therefore, 
though they exceed what I have defined the call of 
a bird to be, do not amount to its fottg, I will, 
for this reafon, take the liberty of terming fuch a 
fucceflion of two notes as we hear in thefe birds, 
the varied call 

Having thus fettled the meaning; of certain 
words, which 1 (hall be obliged to make ufe of, I 
mail now proceed to ftate fome general principles 
with regard to the finging of birds, which feem to 
refult from the experiments I have been making 
for feveral years, and under a great variety of cir- 

Notes in birds are no more innate, than lan- 
guage is in man, and depend entirely upon the 
mailer under which they are bred, as far as their 
organs will enable them to imitate the founds which 
they have frequent opportunities of hearing. 

Moft of the experiments I have made on this 
fubjecl: have been tried with cock linnets, which 
were fledged and nearly able to leave their neft, on 

* The common hen, when fhe lays, repeats the fame 
note very often, and concludes with the fixth above, which 
jhe holds far a. longer time. 



account not only of this bird's docility, and great 
powers of imitation, but becaufe the cock is eafily 
diftinguifhed from the hen at that early period, by 
the fuperior whitenefs in the wing *. 

In many other forts of finging birds the male is 
not at the age of three weeks fo certainly known 
from the female ; and if the pupil turns out to be 
a hen, 

u ibi omnis 

« EfFufus labor." 

The Greek poets made a fongfter of the a*#f/ 
whatever animal that may be, and it is remarkable 
that they obferved the female was incapable of ring- 
ing as well as hen birds : 

Ezt sicriv 01 rsrliysg hk sv$m/mve$, 
fiv Tai$ yuvai£iv x (forixv <puvns £ w 5 
Comicorum Gracorum Sentential, p. 452. Ed. Steph, 

I have indeed known an inflance or two of a 
hen's making out fomething like the fong of her 
fpecies - 9 but thefe are as rare as the common hen's 
being heard to crow. 

I rather fufpect alfo, that thofe parrots, mag- 
pies, &c. which either do not fpeak at all, or very 
little, are hens of thofe kinds. 

* The white reaches alrnofl to the ihaft of the quill fea- 
thers, and in the hen does not exceed more than half of that 
(pace : it is alfo of a brighter hue. 

X x 4 I have 


I have educated nettling linnets under the three 
belt finging larks, the Jkylark^ ^oodlark, and tit- 
lark, every one of which, in ftead of the linnet's 
fong, adhered entirely to that of their refpective 

When the note of the titlark-linnet * was tho- 
roughly fixed, I hung the bird in a room with two 
common linnet?, for a quarter of a year, which were 
full in fong} the titlark- linnet, however, did not 
borrow any paiTag'es from the linnet's fong, but 
adhered ftedfaftly to that of the titlark. 

I had fome curiofity to find out whether an 
European nettling would equally learn the note of 
an African bird : I therefore educated a young lin- 
net under a "jengolina -f, which imitated its Afri- 
can mafter lb exactly, without any mixture of the 
linnet fong, that it was impofiible to diftinguifh the 
one from the other. 

* I thus call a bird which fings notes he would not have 
learned in a wild irate ; thus by a Jky lark-linnet, I mean a lin- 
net with the fkylark fong ; a nightingale-robin, a robin with 
the nightingale long, &c, 

f This bird feems not to have been defcribed fcy any of the 
ornithologies; it is of t\iz finch tribe, and about the fame fize 
with our aberdavine (or fi&in). The colors are grey and 
white, and the cock hath a bright yellow fpot upon the rump. 
It is a very familiar bird, and fings better than any of thofe 
which are not European, except the American mocking bird. 
An inftance hath lately happened, in an aviary at Hamjled, of 
a -jer.g'Jir.iis breeding with a Canary bird. 



This vcngolina-linnet was abfolutely perfect, 
without ever uttering a fingle note by which it 
could have been known to be a linnet.' In fome 
of my other experiments, however, the neftling 
linnet retained the call of its own fpecies, or what 
the bird-catchers term the linnet's chuckle, from 
fome refemblance to that word when pronounced. 

I have before ftated, that all my neftling linnets 
were three weeks old, when taken from the neft ; 
and by that time they frequently learn their own 
call from the parent birds, which I have mentioned 
to confift of only a fingle note. 

To be certain, therefore, that a neftling will not 
have even the call of its fpecies, it mould be taken 
from the neft when only a day or two old ; becaufe, 
though neftlings cannot fee till the feventh day, 
yet they can hear from the inftant they are hatch- 
ed, and probably, from that circumftance, attend 
to founds, more than they do afterwards, efpecially 
as the call of the parents announces the arrival of 
their food. 

I muft own, that I am not equal myfelf, nor can 
I procure any perfon to take the trouble of breed- 
ing up a bird of this age, as the odds againft its 
being reared are almoft infinite. The warmth in- 
deed of incubation may be, in fome meafure, fup- 
plied by cotton and fires -, but thefe delicate ani- 
mals require, in this flate, being fed almoft perpe- 
tually, whilft the nourifhment they receive mould 



not only be prepared with great attention, but 
given in very fmall portions at a time. 

Though I mn ft admit, therefore, that I havje 
never reared myfelf a bird of fo tender an age, yet 
I have happened to fee both a linnet and a gold- 
finch which were taken from their nefts when only 
two or three days old. 

The fir ft of thefe belonged to Mr. Matthews, 
an apothecary at Kenfengton, which, from a want 
of other founds to imitate, almoft articulated the 
words pretty boy, as well as fome other fhort fen- 
tences : I heard the bird myfelf repeat the words 
pretty boy -, and Mr. Matthews allured me, that he 
had neither the note or call of any bird whatfoe- 

This talking linnet died laft year, before which, 
many people went from London to hear him fpeak. 

The goldfinch I have before mentioned, was 
reared in the town of Knighton in Radnor/hire, 
which I happened to hear, as I was walking by 
the houfe where it was kept. 

1 thought indeed that a wren was finging; and I 
went into the houfe to inquire after it, as that little 
bird feldom lives long in a cage. 

The people of the houfe, however, told me, that 
they had no bird but a goldfinch, which they con- 
ceived to fing its own natural note, as they called 
it i upon which I ftaid a confiderable time in the 
room, whilft its notes were merely thofe of a 

;;/. without the lead mixture of goldfinch. 



On further inquiries, I found that the bird had 
been taken from the neft when only a day or two 
old, that it was hung in a window which Was 
oppofite to a fmall garden, whence the nettling had 
undoubtedly acquired the notes of the wren, with- 
out having had any opportunity of learning evea 
the call of the goldfinch. 

Thefe facts, which I have dated, feem to prove 
very decifively, that birds have not any innate ideas 
of the notes which are fuppofed to be peculiar to 
each fpecies. But it will pofiibly be afked, why, 
in a wild ftate, they adhere fo fleadily to the 
fame fong, in fo much, that it is well known, be- 
fore the bird is heard, what notes you are to ex- 
pect from him. 

This, however, arifes entirely from the ne(lling f s 
attending only to the initruction of the parent bird, 
whilft it difregards the notes of all others, which 
may perhaps be finging round him. 

Young Canary birds are frequently reared in a 
room where there are many other forts -, and yet I 
have been informed, that they only learn the fong 
of the parent cock. 

Every one knows, that the common houfe-fpar- 
row, when in a wild ftate, never does any thing 
but chirp : this, however, does not arife from want 
of powers in this bird to imitate others -, but be- 
caufe he only attends to the parental note. 

But, to prove this decifively, I took a com- 
mon fparrow from the neft when it was fledged, 


670 A P P E N D I X. 

and educated him under a linnet : the bird, how- 
ever, by accident, heard a goldfinch alfo, and his 
fong was, therefore, a mixture of the linnet and 

I have tried feveral experiments, in order to ob- 
ferve, from what circumftances birds fix upon any 
particular note when taken from the parents ; but 
cannot fettle this with any fort of precifion, any 
more than at what period of their recording they 
determine upon the fong to which they will adhere. 

I educated a young robin under a very fine night- 
ingale ; which, however, began already to be out 
of fong, and was perfectly mute in lefs than a fort- 

This robin afterwards fung three parts in four 
nightingale ; and the reft of his fong was what the 
bird-catchers call rubbijh, or no particular note 

I hung this robin nearer to the nightingale than 
to any other bird ; from which firft experiment I 
conceived, that the fcholar would imitate the ma- 
iler which was at the lead diftance from him. 

From feveral other experiments, however, which 
I have fince tried, I find it to be very uncertain 
what notes the neftlings will mod attend to, and 
often their fong is a mixture •, as in the inftance 
which I before dated of the fparrow. 

I muft own alfo, that I conceived, from the ex- 
periment of educating the robin under a nightin- 
gale, that the fcholar would fix upon the note 



which it firft heard when taken from the neft ; 
I imagined likewife, that, if the nightingale had 
been fully in fong, the inftruclion for a fortnight 
would have been fufncient. 

I have, however, fince tried the following expe- 
riment, which convinces me, fo much depends up- 
on circumftances, and perhaps caprice in the fcho- 
lar, that no general inference, or rule, can be laid 
down with regard to either of thefe fuppofitions. 

I educated a neftling robin under a woodlark- 
linnet, which was full in fong, and hung very near 
to him for a month together: after which, the 
robin was removed to another houfe, where he 
could only hear a ikylark-linnet. The confequence 
was, that the neftling did not ling a note of wood- 
lark (though I afterwards hung him again juft a- 
bove the woodlark-linnet) but adhered entirely to 
the fong of the fkylark-linnet. 

Having thus dated the refult of feveral experi- 
ments, which were chiefly intended to determine, 
whether birds had any innate ideas of the notes, 
or fong, which is fuppofed to be peculiar to each 
fpecies, I mall now make fome general obfervations 
on their finging; though perhaps the fubject may 
appear to many a very minute one. 

Every poet, indeed, fpeaks with raptures of the 
harmony of the groves 5 yet thofe even, who have 
good mufical ears, feem to pay little attention to it, 
but as a pleafing noife. 

I am alfo convinced (though it may feem rather 



paradoxical), that the inhabitants of London diftin- 
guifh more accurately, and know more on this 
head, than of all the other parts of the ifland ta- 
ken together. 

This feems to arife from two caufes. 

The firft is, that we have not more muiical ideas 
which are innate, than we have of language ; and 
therefore thofe even, who have the happinefs tar 
have organs which are capable of receiving a gra- 
tification from this fixth fenfe (as it hath been call- 
ed by ibme) require, however, the bed inftruction. 

The orchefira of the opera, which is confined to 
the metropolis, hath diffufed a good (tile of playing 
over the other bands of the capital, which is, by 
degrees, communicated to the fidler and ballad- 
finger in the ftreets •, the organs in every church, 
as well as thofe of the Savoyards, contribute like- 
wife to this improvement of mufical faculties in the 

If the finging of the ploughman in the country 
is therefore compared with that of the London 
blackguard, the fuperiority is infinitely on the fide 
of the latter ; and the fame may be obferved in 
comparing the voice of a country girl and London 
houfe-maid, as it is very uncommon to hear the for- 
mer fing tolerably in tune. 

I do not mean by this, to aiTert that the inhabi- 
tants of the country are not born with as good mu- 
fical organs •, but only, that they have not the fame 
opportunities of learning from others, who play 
in tune themfelves. 



The other reafon for the inhabitants of London 
judging better in relation to the fong of birds, ari- 
fes from their hearing each bird fing diflin&ly, 
either in their own or their neighbours fhops - 9 as 
alio from a bird continuing much longer in fong 
whilft in a cage, than when at liberty ; the caufe 
of which I mall endeavour hereafter to explain. 

They who live in the country, on the other 
hand, do not hear birds fing in their woods for a- 
bove two months in the year, when the confufion 
of notes prevents their attending to the fong of any 
particular bird ; nor does he continue long enough 
in a place, for the hearer to recoiled: his notes with 

Befides this, birds in the fpring fmg very loud 
indeed; but they only give fhort jerks, andfcarce- 
ly ever the whole compafs of their fong. 

For thefe reafons, I have never happened to 
meet with any perfon, who had not refided in Lon- 
don, whofe judgment or opinion on this fubject 1 
could the leaft rely upon ; and a flronger proof 
of this cannot be given, than that mod people, 
who keep Canary birds do not know that they fing 
chiefly either the titlark, or nightingale notes *. 


* I once faw two of thefe birds which came from the Ca- 
nary Ijlands ; neither of which had any fong at all ; and I have 
been informed, that a mip brought a great many of them 
not long flnce, v/hieh fang as little. 

Moil of thofe Canary birds, which are imported from the 


6 7 4 APPENDIX. 

Nothing, however, can be more marked than 
the note of a nightingale called its jug, which 
moil of the Canary birds brought from the Tyrol 
commonly have, as well as feveral nightingale^?™^, 
or particular pafTages in the fong of that bird. 

I mention this fuperior knowledge in the inhabi- 
tants of the capital, becaufe I am convinced, that, 
if others are confulted in relation to the finding f 
birds, they will only miflead, inftead of giving any 
material or ufeful information *. 

Birds in a wild ft ate do not commonly fing a- 
bove ten weeks in the year ; which is then alfo con- 
fined to the cocks of a few fpecies ; I conceive, 
that this hit circumftance arifes from the fuperior 
ftrength of the mufcles of the larynx. 

Tyrol, have been educated by parents, the progenitor of 
which was initructed by a nightingale ; our Englijh Canary 
birds have commonly more of the titlark note. 

The trarhck in thefe birds makes a fmall article of com- 
merce, as four Tyrolcze generally bring over to England fix- 
teen hundred every year ; and though they carry them on 
their backs one thoufand miles, as well as pay 20 1. duty for 
fuch a number, yet, upon the whole, it anfwers to fell thefe 
birds at 5 s. a piece. 

The chief place for breeding Canary birds is Infpruck and 
its environs, from whence they are fent to Cdnjianiinople, as 
well as every part of Europe. 

* As it will not anfwer to catch birds with clap-nets 
any where but in the neighbourhood of London, moil of the 
birds which may be heard in a country town are neftlings, 
and confequently cannot fing the fuppofed natural fong in any 

I pro- 


I procured a cock nightingale, a cock and hen 
blackbird, a cock and hen rook, a cock linnet, as 
alfo a cock and hen chaffinch, which that very emi- 
nent anatomift, Mr. Hunter* F. R. S. was fo oblig- 
ing as to dirTecl for me, and begged, that he would 
particularly attend to the ftate of the organs in the 
different birds, which might be fuppofed to contri- 
bute to ringing. 

Mr. Hunter found the mufcles of the larynx 
to be ftronger in the nightingale than in any other 
bird of the fame fize ; and in all thofe inftances 
(where he diffected both cock and hen) that the 
fame mufcles were ftronger in the cock, 

I fent the cock and hen rook, in order to fee 
whether there would be the fame difference in 
the cock and hen of a fpecies which did not fing 
at all. Mr. Hunter* however, told me, that he 
had not attended fo much to their comparative or- 
gans of voice, as in the other kinds } but that, to 
the bed of his recollection, there was no difference 
at all. 

Strength, however, in thefe mufcles, feems not 
to be the only requifite ; the birds muft have alfo 
great plenty of food, which feems to be proved 
fufficiently by birds in a cage finging the great- 
eft part of the year * 3 when the wild ones do not 


* Fiih alfo which are fupplied with a conflant fucceffion 
of palatable food, contiaue in feafoa throughout the greater!: 
part of the year; trouts, therefore* when confined in a ftew 

Vol. II. Y y and 


(as I obferved before) continue in fong above ten 

The food of finging birds confifts of plants, 
infects, or feeds, and of the two firft of thefe there 
is infinitely the greateft profufion in the fpring. 

As for feeds, which are to be met with only in 
the autumn, I think they cannot well find any great 
quantities of them in a country fo cultivated as 
England is 5 for the feeds in meadows are deftroyed 
by mowing ; in paftures, by the bite of the cattle •, 
and in arable, by the plough, when moil: of them 
are buried too deep for the bird to reach them *. 

I know well that the finging of the cock-bird 
in the fpring is attributed by many -f- to the motive 
only of pleafing its mate during incubation. 

They, however, who fuppofe this, mould recol- 
lect, that much the greater part of birds do not 
fing at all : why mould their mate therefore be de- 
prived of this folace and amufement ? 

The bird in a cage, which, perhaps, fings nine 
or ten months in a year, cannot do fo from this 
inducement j and, on the contrary, it arifes chiefly 
from contending with another bird, or indeed a- 
gainft almoft any fort of continued noife. 

and fed with minnows, are almoft at all feafons of a good fla- 
vour, and are red when drefTed. 

* The plough indeed may turn up fome few feeds, which 
may ftill be in an eatable ftate. 

f See, amongft others, M, de Buffon, in his lately-publifh- 
cd Ornithology. 



Superiority in fong gives to birds a mod amaz- 
ing afcendency over each other; as is well known 
to the bird-catchers by the fafcinating power of 
their call-birds, which they contrive mould moult 
prematurely for this purpofe. 

But, to mew decifively that the finging of a bird 
in the fpring does not arife from any attention 
to its mate, a very experienced catcher of nightin- 
gales hath informed me, that fome of thefe birds 
have jerked the inftant they were caught. He hath 
alfo brought to me a nightingale, which had been 
but a few hours in a cage, and which burft forth in 
a roar of fong. 

At the fame time this bird is fo fulky on its firft 
confinement, that he muft be crammed for feven or 
eight days, as he will otherwife not feed himfelf; 
it is alfo necefTary to tye his wings, to prevent his 
killing himfelf againft the top or fides of the cage. 

I believe there is no inftance of any bird's fing- 
ing which exceeds our black bird in fize •, and pof- 
fibly this may arife from the difficulty of its con- 
cealing itfelf, if it called the attention of its ene- 
mies, not only by bulk, but by the proportionable 
loudnefs of its notes *. 

I mould rather conceive, it is for the fame rea- 
fon that no henbird fings, becaufe this talent would 
be ftill more dangerous during incubation 5 which 

* For the fame reafon, moll large birds are wilder than the 
fmaller ones. 

Y y 2 may 

6; 3 A F FEND I X. 

may poffibly alfo account for the inferiority in 
point of plumage. 

I mall now confider how far the finging of 
birds refembles our known mufical intervals, which- 
( are never marked more minutely than to half 
notes ; becaufe, though we can form every grada- 
tion from half-note to half-note, by drawing the 
nnser gently over the firing of a violin, or cover- 
ing by degrees the hole of a flute; yet we cannot 
produce luch a minute interval at command, 
when a quarter-note for example might be required. 

Ligon^ indeed, in his hifbry of Barbadoes, hath 
the following pafTage : " The next bird is of the 
** colour of the fieldfare •, but the head is too large 
u for the body ; and for that reafon fhe is called 
" a couniellor. She performs that with her voice, 
" which no inilrument can play, or voice can fing - r 
" and that is quarter-notes, her fong being com- 
" pofed of them, and every one a note higher than 
" another." 

Ligon appears, from other parts of his work, to 
have been mufical ; but I fhould doubt much whe- 
ther he was quite fure of thefe quarter intervals, fo 
as to fpeak of them with precifion. 

Some pafifages of the fong in a few kinds of birds 
correipond with the intervals of our mufical fcale 
(of which the cuckow is a ftriking and known in- 
(rance) : much the greater part, however, of fuch 
fong is not capable of mufical notations. 

This arifes from three caufes : the firft is, that 



the rapidity is often fo great, and it is alfo fo un- 
certain when they may ftop, that we cannot reduce 
the paflages to form a mufical bar, in any time 

The fecond is, that the pitch of moil birds is con- 
siderably higher* than the moft fhrill notes ofthofe 
inftruments, which contain even the greateft com- 

I have before faid, that our ideas of a voice, 
or inftrument, being perfectly in tune or not, arife 
from comparing it with the mufical intervals to 
which we are moft accuftomed. 

As the upper and lower parts of every inftru- 
ment, however, are but feldom ufed, we are not fo 
well acquainted with the intervals in the higheft 
and loweft octaves, as we are with thofe which are 
more central ; and for this reafon the harpfichord- 
tuners find it more difficult to tune thefe extreme 

As a bird's pitch, therefore, is higher than that 
of an inftrument, we are confequently at a ft ill 

* Dr. Wallis is miftaken in part of what he fuppofes to be 
the caufe of lhrillnefs in the voice, " Nam ut tubus, fie tra.- 
is chea longior, & ftri&ior, fonum emcit magis acutum. 1 " 
Grammar, p. 3. 

The narrower the pipe is, the more fharp the pitch as he 
rightly obferves ; but the length of the tube hath jail the con- 
trary effe£t, becaufe players on the flute always infert a lon- 
ger middle-piece, when they want to make the inftrument more. 

Y y 3 greater 

68o A P P E N D I X. 

greater lofs when we attempt to mark their notes 
in mufic,al characters, which we can fo readily ap- 
ply to fuch as we can diftinguifh with precifion. 

The third, however, and unfurmountable diffi- 
culty is, that the intervals ufed by birds are com- 
monly lb minute, that we cannot judge at all of 
them from the more grofs intervals into which we 
divide our mufical octave. 

It mould therefore be recollected, by thofe who 
have contended that the Greeks and Romans were 
acquainted with fuch more minute intervals of the 
octave, that they muft infill the ancients had organs 
of fenfation, with which their degenerate potterity 
are totally unprovided. 

Though we cannot attain the more delicate and 
imperceptible intervalsin the fong of birds*, yet 
many of them are capable of whittling tunes with 
our more grofs intervals, as is well known by the 
common inftances of piping bullfinches f , and Ca- 
nary birds. 

This, however, arifes from mere imitation of 
what they hear when taken early from the neft -, 
for if the inftrument from which they learn it is 

* There have been inftances indeed of perfons who could 
whittle the notes of birds, but thefe are two rare to be argued 
from . 

f Thefe bullfinches alfo form a fmall article of com- 
merce, and are chiefly brought from the neighbourhood of 




out of tune, they as readily pipe the falfe, as the 
true notes of the compofition. 

The next point of comparifon to be made be- 
tween our mufic and that of birds is, whether they 
always fing in the fame pitch. 

This, however, I will not prefume to anfwer with 
any precifion, for the reafon I have before fug- 
gefted •, I mall, however, without referve, give the 
bed conjectures I can form on this head. 

If a dozen finging birds of different kinds are 
heard in the fame room, there is not any difagree- 
able diffonance (which is not properly refolved), 
either to my own ear, or to that of others, whole 
judgment on fuch a point I can more rely. 

At the fame time, as each bird is finging a dif- 
ferent fong, it is extraordinary that what we call 
harmony mould not be perpetually violated, as we 
experience, in what is commonly called a Dutch 
concert, when feveral tunes are played together. 

The firft requifne to make fuch founds agreeable 
to the ear is, that all the birds mould fing in the 
fame key, which I am induced to believe that they 
do, from the following reafons. 

I have long attended to the finging of birds, but 
if I cannot have recourfe to an inftrument very 
foon, I cannot carry the pitch of their notes in 
my memory, even for a very fhort time. 

I therefore defired a very experienced harpfichord- 
tuner (who told me he could recollect any particular 
note which he happened to hear for feveral hours), 

Y y 4 to 


to mark down when he returned home what he had 
obferved on this head. 

I had lately received an account from him of the 
following notes in different birds. 

F. natural in woodlarks. 

A. natural in common cocks. 
C. natural in Bantam cocks. 

B. flat in a very large cock. 

C. falling to A. commonly in the cuckow. 

A. in thrufhes. 

D. in fome owls. 

B. flat in fome others. 

Thefe obfervations furnifh five notes, viz. A. B. 
flat, C. D. and F. to which I can add a fixth, (viz. 
G.) from my own obfervations on a nightingale 
which lived three years in a cage. I can alfo con- 
firm thefe remarks of the harpfichord-tuner by hav- 
ing frequently heard from the fame bird C. and F. 

As one mould fpeak of the pitch of thefe notes 
with fome precifion, the B. flat of the fpinnet I 
tried them by, was perfectly in tune with the 
great bell of St. Paul's. 

The following notes, therefore, having been ob- 
ferved in different birds, viz. A. B. flat, C. D. F. 
and G. the E. is only wanting to complete the 
fcale ; the fix other notes, however, afford fufH- 
cient data for making fome conjectures, at leaft, 
with regard to the key in which birds may be fup- 
pofed to fing, as thefe intervals can only be found 



in the key of F. with a fharp third, or that of G. 
with a flat third. 

I muft own, I mould rather fuppofe it to be the 
latter, and for the following reafons. 

Lucretius fays (and perhaps the conjecture is not 
only ingenious but well founded) that the firft 
mufical notes were learned from birds : 

" At liquidas avium voces imitarier ore 

" Ante fuit multo, quam lssvia carmina cantu 

" Concelebrare homines poffent, cantuque juvare.'* 

Now, of all the mufical tones which can be 
diftinguifhed in birds, thofe of the cuckow have 
been moft attended to, which form a flat third, 
not only by the obfervations of the harpfichord 
tuner I have before mentioned, but likewife by 
thofe of Kircher, in his Mufurgia. 

1 know well that there have been fome late com- 
pofuions, which introduce the cuckow notes in 
a {harp third \ thefe compofers, however, did not 
trouble themfelves with accuracy in imitating 
thefe notes, and it aniwered their purpofe fufficient- 
ly, if there was a general refemblance. 

Another proof of our mufical intervals being ori- 
ginally borrowed from the fong of birds, arifes from 
mod compofitions being in a flat third, where 
mufic is fimple, and confifts merely of melody. 

The oldeft tune I happen to have heard is a 



Weljh one, called Morva Rhydland*, which is com- 
pofed in a flat third ; and if the mufic of the 
Turks and Chinefe is examined in Bu Halde and Dr. 
' Shaw, half of the airs are alfo in the minor third. 

The mufic of two centuries ago is likewife often 
in a flat third, though ninety-nine compofitions out 
of a hundred are now in the fharp third. 

The reaion, however, of this alteration feems 
to be very clear : the flat third is plaintive, and 
confequently adapted to Ample movements, fuch 
as may be expected in countries where mufic hath 
not been long cultivated. 

There is on the other hand a mod ftriking bril- 
liancy in the fharp third, which is therefore proper 
for the amazing improvements in execution, which 
both fingers and players have arrived at within 
the lad fifty years. 

When Core/IPs mufic was firfl publifhed, our 
ableft violinifts conceived that it was too difficult 
to be performed ; it is now, however, the firfl: com- 
pofuion which is attempted by a fcholar. Every 
year alio now produces greater and greater pro- 
digies upon other inftruments, in point of execution. 

I have before obferved, that by attending to a 
nightingale, as well as a robin which was educated 

* Or Rhydland Marjb, where the Weljb received a great 
defeat ; Rhydland is in Flint/hire. We find alfo, by the Or- 
pheus Britannicus, that even fo late as the time of Puree!, 
two parts in three of his compofitions are in the flat third. 



under him, I always found that the notes reducible 
to our intervals of the o&ave were precifely the 
fame j which is another proof that birds fing al- 
ways in the fame key. 

In this circumftance, they differ much from the 
human finger -, becaufe they who are not able to 
fing from the notes, often begin a fong either a- 
bove or below the compafs of their voice, which 
they are not therefore able to go through with. 
As birds, however, form the fame paffages with 
the fame notes, at all times, this miftake of the 
pitch can never happen in them. 

Few fingers again can continue their own part, 
whilft the fame paffages are fung by another in a 
different key ♦, or if other paffages are played, 
though they may agree both in harmony and time. 

As birds however adhere fo ftedfaftly to the fame 
precife notes in the fame paffages, though they 
never trouble themfelves about what is called time 
or harmony in mufic ; it follows that a compofition 
may be formed for. two piping bulfinches, in two 
parts, fo as to conftitute true harmony, though ei- 
ther of the birds may happen to begin, or flop, 
when they pleafe. 

I have therefore procured fuch an ingenious 
compofition, by a very able mufician*, which I 
fend herewith \ and it need fcarcely be obferved, 

* Mr. Zeidkr, who plays, the violincello at Covert Garden 



that there cannot poflibly be much variety in the 
part of the fecond bulfinch. See Tab. XI. in the 
Philofophical Tranfaclions, Vol. LXIII. 

Though feveral birds have great mufical powers, 
yet they feem to have no delicacy of fenfations, 
as the human finger hath ; and therefore the very 
beft of them cannot be taught to exceed the in- 
fipidity of the upper part of the flute flop of an 
organ *, which hath not the modern improvement 
of a [well. 

They are eafily impofed upon by that moft im- 
perfect cf all inftruments, a bird-call, which they 
often miitake for the notes of their own fpecies. 

I have before obferved, that perhaps no bird 
may be faid to fing which is larger than a black 
bird, though many of them are taught to fpeak : 
the fmaller birds, however, have this power of imi- 
tation ; though perhaps the larger ones have not 
organs which may enable them, on the other hand, 
to fing. 

We have the following inftances of birds being 
taught to fpeak, in the time of the Greeks and 

* Lord Bacon mentions, that in the inftrument called a 
regal/ (which was a fpecies of portable organ) there was a nigh- 
tingale flop, in which water was made ufe of to produce the 
flronger imitation of this bird's tone- See Cent. II. exper. 
172. Though this inftrument, as well as its nightingale flop, 
is now difufed, I have procured an organ pipe to be immerfed 
partly in water, which, when blown into, hath produced a 
tone very fimilar to that of birds* 



Romans^ upon which we never try the fame ex- 
periment. Mofchus addreffes nightingales and fwal- 
lows which were thus inftru&ed : 

Adonhg, wcco-at ts ^s^fSbwj, a$ wok slsp7rev t 

Ag Aatajv s3iS«a«£. 

Mofchi Idyl III. 

'Pliny mentions both a cock, thrulh, and nigh- 
tingales, which articulated * : 

" Habebant & Ctefares juvenes turdum f 9 item 
* c lufcinias Grseco atque Latino fermone dociles, 
" prsterea meditantes in diem, & affidue nova lo- 
w quentes longiore etiam contextu." 

Statins alfo takes notice of fome birds fpeaking, 
which we never attempt to teach in this manner : 

*? Hue doctas ftipentur aves, queis nobile fandi 
** Jus natura dedit, plangat Phcebeius, ales, 
* c Auditafque memor penitus demittere voces 
" Sturnus, & Aonio verfas certamine pica? % 
** Quique refert jungens iterata vocabula perdb, 
" Et quas Biftonio queritur foror orba cubili £." 

Stat, Sylv. lib. ii. eel. 4. 

* Lib. X. c. 21 & 42. 
f Ibid. The other tardus belonged to the Emprefs Jgrippina, 
X Amonglt the five birds mentioned in thefe lines of Sta- 
tins, there are four which are never taught to fpeak at pre- 
sent, viz. the cock, the nightingale, the common, and the 

red legged partridge* 


638 A P P E N D I X. 

As we find, from thefe citations, that fo many 
different forts of birds have learned to fpeak, and 


As I fuppofe, however, that perdix fignifies this laft bird, 
and not the common partridge (as it is always tranflated), it 
is proper I mould here give my reafons why I diffent from 
others, as alfo why I conceive that fturnus, in this pailage, is 
not a. ft ar ling, but the common partridge. 

None of the ancients have defcribed the plumage of the 
perdix ; but Ariftotle, 0~jid, and Pliny, inform us of what 
materials the neft of this bird is compofed, as well as where 
it is placed. 

Ariftotle fays, that the neft is fortified with wood*; and 
in another chapter f, with thorns and wood ; neither of which 
are ufed by the common partridge, which often builds in a 
country where they cannot be procured. 

On the contrary, M. de Bujfcn informs us, that the red leg- 
ged partridge, " fe tiennent fur hs montagnes qui produifent 
beaucoup de bruyeres, & de broffailles T. . 

Ovid, therefore, fpeaking of the perdix, fays, 

" ponitque in fepibus ova §," 

where the common partridge is feldom known to build. 

Pliny again informs us, " perdices fpina & frutice fie mu- 

* E7rnXuya^oiJL£vai wXljr. Lib « V « c « •« Which Stephens ren- 
ders making a covering if imocd. 

f Lib. IX. c. 8. The common partridge, however, makes its neft 
with hay and ftraw. 

% Orn. T.II. p. 433- 

§ Ovid. Ma. Lib. VIII. 1. 25S. I ihali alfo refer to 1. 237, of the fame 
book : 

" Garrula ramosa profpexit ab ilice perdix : ** 
as it is well known that the common partridge never perches upon a tree, 

" niunt 


as I have fliewn tkat a fparrow may be taught to 
fing the linnet's note, I fcarcely know what fpe- 


" niunt receptaculam, ut cont -a feras abunde valentur # '% 
as alfo in the 52c! chapter of his tenth book, that the perdix 
lays white eggs, which is not true of the common partridge. 

But there are not wanting other proofs of the conjecture I 
have here made. 

Ariftotle fpeaking of this fame bird, fays, TW (izv ffspdiaw, 
01 xaKHaQi^acnv, 01 5e Trpuari f . 

Now, the word, KaKKaQi&<n is clearly formed from the call 
of the bird alluded to, which does not at all refemble that of 
the common partridge. 

Thus alfo the author of the Elegy on the Nightingale, 
who is fuppofed by fome to be Ovid, hath the following 
line : 

" Caccabat hinc perdix, hinc gratitat improbus anfer." 
fo that the call of the bird muft have had fomething very 
particular, and have anfwered nearly, to the words KUHKaQi^Ei 
and caccabat* 

I find, indeed, that M. de Buffon contends % that the ntzp\% 
of Arijiotle does not mean the common partridge, but the 
bartavel, with regard to which, I ihall not enter into any 
difcuiTion, but only obferve, that moll of his references are 
inaccurate, and that he entirely miitakes the materials of which 
the neft is compofed, according to AriJiotWs iixth book, and 
iirffc chapter. 

But the ftrongefl: proof that perdix fignifies the red legged 
partridge is, that the Italians to this day call this bird pemice y 
and the common ioxtftarna §. 

This alfo now brings me to the proofs, of fiurnus in this 
pafTage of Statius fignifying the common partridge, and not the 

* Lib. x. c, 23. f Lib, IV. c. 9, % Orn, T. II. p. 42a § See Olina. 


6 9 o APPENDIX. 

cies to fix upon, that may be confidered as in 
capable of fuch imitations ; for it is very clear, 
from ieveral experiments before dated, that 
the utmoft endeavours will not be wanting in the 
bird, if he is endowed with the proper organs. 

It can therefore only be fettled by educating a 
bird, under proper circumftances, whether he is 
thus qualified or not ; for if one was only to de- 
termine this point by conjecture, one mould fuppofe 
that a fparrow would not imitate the fong of the 
linnet, nor that a nightingale or partridge could be 
taught to fpeak. 

And here it may not be improper to explain 
what I mean by birds learning to imitate the notes 
of others, or the human fpeech. 

parting, which I mull admit are not fo ftrong as with regard 
to the import of the word perdix. If my arguments are 
not therefore fo convincing on this head, the number of birds 
taught to fpeak by the Romans, and not by us, muft be redu- 
ced to three, as the ftarling is frequently learned to talk in 
the prefent times. 

As I cannot argue from the defcription of the habits of the 
Jfurnus, or the materials of its neft, as in the former inftance, 
I muft reft my conjecture (fuch as it is) on the two birds, al- 
moft following each other in thefe lines of Statius; on the 
common partridge being called ftarna to this day by the Ita- 
lians, and upon the Romans having had otherwife no name 
for our partridge (which is a very common bird in Italy), if 
fturnus is fuppoied to fignify only zjlarling. 


APPENDIX. 6 9 j 

If the birds differ little in fhape or fize (par- 
ticularly of the beak *) the imitation is commonly 

ib ftrong, that 

" Mire 

* It feems very obvious why the form and fize of the beak 
may be material ; but I have alio obferved, that the colour 
of a bird's bill changes, when in or out of fong ; and I am 
informed, that a cock feldom crovys much, but when his 
comb is red. 

When moll of the finch tribe are coming into long, there 
is fuch a gradual change in the colour of their bill ; thus, 
thofe of the chaffinch and linnet are then of a very deep blue, 
which fades away again, when the bird ceafes to be in fong. 

This particular mould be attended to by the ornithologift, 
in his defcription ; becaufe, otherwife, he fuppofes the colour 
of the bill to be permanent, which is by no means fo. 

This alteration, however, rather feems to be the fymptom, 
than the caufe of a bird's coming into fong, or otherwife, and 
I have never attended to this circumftance in the foft bille4 
birds fufficiently, to fay whether it holds alfo with regard 
to them. 

A very intelligent bird.-cat.cher, however, was able to progr 
nofticate, for three winters together, when a nightingale, 
which I kept fo long, was coming into fong (though there 
was no change in the colour of the bill), by the dung's being 
intermixed with large bloody fpots, which before was only 
of a dead white. 

This fame bird-catcher was alfo very fuccefsful in his 
prefcriptions for fick birds, with regard to the ingredients 
of which he was indeed very myfterious. 

He faid, that as he could not feel their pulfe, the cir^ 
cumflances which he chiefly attended to were their weighty 
as well as both the confidence and colour of their dung. 

He always frankly faid what he expecled from his prefcrip- 

Vt > L > ft Z z dogs, 

692 A P P E N D I X. 

" Mire fagaces falleret hofpites 

" Difcrimen obfcurum." Horat. 

for, in fuch inftances, the paflages are not only the 
fame, but the tone. 

Such was the event of the experiment I have 
before mentioned of the linnet educated under a 

In "my experiment, however, of teaching the 
fparrow the notes of the linnet, though the fcholar 
imitated the paffages of its mafter, yet the tone of 
the fparrow had by no means the mellownefs of the 

The imitation might therefore be ? in fome 
meafure, compared to the finging of an opera fong 
by a black-guard, when, though the notes may be 
precifely the fame, yet the manner and tone would 
diifer very much. 

Thus alfo the linnet, which I heard repeat the 
words pretty boy> did not articulate like a parrot, 
though, at the fame time, the words might be 
clearly diftinguifhed. 

The education I have therefore been fpeaking 
of will not give new organs of voice to a bird, 
and the inftrument itfelf will not vary, though 

tions, and that if fuch and fuch changes did not foon take 
place, the cafe was defperate. He frequently alfo refufed to 
prefcrib?, if the bird felt too light in the hand, or he thought 
that there was not fufficient time to bring about an alteration, 
in Lie dung. 


APPENDIX. 6 9 $ 

the notes or pafiages may be altered almoft at 

I tried once an experiment, which might indeed 
have poflibly made fome alteration in the tone of a 
bird, from what it might have been when the animal 
was at its full growth, by procuring an operator 
who caponifed a young blackbird of about fix 
weeks old ; as it died, however, foon afterwards, 
and I have never repeated the experiment, I can 
only conjecture with regard to what might have 
been the confequences of it. 

Both * Pliny and the London poulterers agree that 
a capon does not crow, which I mould conceive 
to arife from the mufcles of the larynx never ac- 
quiring the proper degree of ftrength, which feems 
to be requifite to the R nging of a bird, from Mr. 
Hunter's directions. 

But it will perhaps be afked, why this operation 
mould not improve the notes of a nettling, as much 
as it is fuppofed to contribute to the greater per= 
fection of the human voice. 

To this I aniwer, that caflration by no means 
infures any fuch confequences for the voices of 
much the greater part of Italian eunuchs are fa in- 
different, that they have no means of procuring 
a livelihood but by copying mufic, and this is 
one of the reafons why fo few compofitions are 

* Lib. X. c. 21. 

2z2 publifhsd 


publifhed in Italy, as it would ftarve this refnfe 
of fociety. 

But it may be faid, that there hath been a 
Farinelli and a Manzoli, whofe voices were fo 
diftinguifhedly fuperior. 

To this I again anfwer, that the catalogue of 
fuch names would be a very fhort one •, and that 
we attribute thofe effects to caftration, which mould 
rather be afcribed to the education of thefe fing- 

Caftration commonly leaves the human voice at 
the fame pitch as when the operation is performed; 
but the eunuch, from that time, is educated with 
a view only to his future appearance on the opera 
(rage ; he therefore manages his voice to greater 
advantage, than thole who have not fo early and 
conftant inftruction. 

Confidering the fize of many finging birds, it 
is rather amazing at what a diftance their notes may 
be heard. 

I think I may venture to fay, that a nightin- 
gale may be very clearly diflinguifhed at more than 
half a mile*, if the evening is calm. I have alfo 
obferved the breath of a robin (which exerted itfelf) 
fo condenfed in a frofty morning, as to be very 

* Monf. de Buffin fays, that the quadruped which he terms 
the buari?ie, may be heard at the diitance of a league. Ornith. 
Tcm. I. 



To make the companion, however, with accu- 
racy, between the loudnefs of a bird's and the 
human voice, a perfon mould be fent to the fpot 
from whence the bird is heard ; I mould rather 
conceive that, upon fuch trial, the nightingale 
would be diftinguifhed further than the man.. 

It muft have ftruck every one, that, in pafiing 
under a houfe where the windows are fhut, the 
finging of a bird is eafily heard, when, at the fame 
time, a converfation cannot be fo, though an 
animated one. 

Mod people, who have not attended to the notes 
of birds, fuppofe that thole of every fpecies fing 
exactly the fame notes and pa Gages, which is by 
no means true, though it is admitted that there 
is a general refemblance. 

Thus the London bird-catchers prefer the fong 
of the Kentijh goldfinches, but EJfex chaffinches ; 
and when they fell the bird to thofe who can thus 
diflinguim, inform the buyer that it hath fuch a 
note, which is very well underftood between 
them *. 

* Thefe are the names which they give to fome of the 
nightingale's notes : Sweet, Sweet jug, Jug faucet, Water 
bubble, Pipe rattle, Bell pipe, Scroty, Skeg, Skeg, Skeg, Swat 
fwat fwaty, Whitlow whitlow whitlow, from fome diilant 
affinity to fuch words. 

Z z 3 Some 


Some of the nightingale fanciers alfo prefer a 
Surry bird to thofe of Middle/ex *. 

Thefe differences in the fons; of birds of the fame 
fpecies cannot perhaps be compared to any thing 
more appoiite, than the varieties of provincial 

The nightingale feems to have been fixed upon, 
almoft univerfally, as the mod capital of finging 
birds, which fuperiority it certainly may boldly 
challenge : one reafon, however, of this bird's be- 
ing more attended to than others is, that it fings in 
the night f. 

* Mr. Benjka^jj informs us, that nightingales in Denmark 
^re not heard till May, and that their notes are not (o fweet 
or various as with us. Dr. Birch's Hiftory of the Royal So r 
piety, Vol. III. p. 189. Whilft Mr. Fletcher (who was mini- 
ster from Q^ Elizabeth to RuJJia) fays, that the nightingales in 
that part of the world have a finer note than ours. See 
Fletcher's Life, in the Biographia Britannica. 

I never could belie/e what is commonly afTerted, that the 
Czar Peter was at a confiderable expence to introduce finging 
birds near Peterjburgh ; becaufe it appears, by the Fauna 
Suecica, that they have in thofe latitudes molt of the fame 
birds with thofe of England. 

f The woodlark and reedfparrow fing likewife in the 
night; and from hence, * in the neighbourhood of Shrcwf- 
bury, the latter hath obtained the name of the willow-nigh- 
tingale. Nightingales, however, and thefe two other birds 2 
fing alfo in the day, but are not then diiHnguiffred in the ge- 
neral concert. 


APPENDIX. 6 9 f 

Hence Shakefpeare fays, 

" The nightingale, if me mould ling by day, 

" When every goofe is cackling, would be thought 

" No better a mufician than the wren." 

The fong of this bird hath been defcribed, and 
expatiated upon, by feveral writers, particularly 
Pliny and Strada, 

As I muft own, however, that I cannot affix any 
precife ideas to either of thefe celebrated defcrip- 
tions, and as I once kept a very fine bird of this 
fort for three years, with very particular attention 
to its fong:, I (hall endeavour to do it the beft juf- 
tice I am capable of. 

In the firft place, its tone is infinitely more mel- 
low than that of any other bird, though, at the 
fame time, by a proper exertion of its mufical 
powers, it can be exceffively brilliant. 

When this bird fang its fong round, in its whole 
compafs, I have obferved fixteen different begin- 
nings and cloies, at the fame time that the inter- 
mediate notes were commonly varied in their fuc- 
ceflion with fuch judgment, as to produce a mod 
pleafing variety. 

The bird which approaches neareft to the excel- 
lence of the nightingale, in this relped, is the iky 
lark*, but then the tone is infinitely inferior in 
point of mellownefs : moil other finging birds have 
not above four or five changes. 

The next point of fuperiority in a nightingale 
Z z 4 is 

6 9 $ APPENDIX. 

is its continuance of fong, without a paufe, which 
I have obferved fometimes not to be lefs than 
twenty feconds. Whenever refpiration, however, 
became neceffary, it was taken with as much judg- 
ment as by an opera finger. 

The Iky lark again, in this particular, is only fe- 
cond to the nightingale *. 

* I mail here iniert a table, by which the comparative 
merit of the - Britijb Tinging birds may be examined, the idea 
of which I have borrowed from Monf. de Piles, in his Cours de 
Peinture par Principes. I lhall not be furprized, however, 
if, as he fuggefts, many may difagree with me about parti- 
cular birds, as he fuppofes they will do with him> concerning 
the merits of painters 

As I have five columns inflead of the four which M. de 
Piles ufes, I make 20 the point of ab folate perfection, inftead 
of 1 6, which is his ltandard. 

Nightingale - 
Skylark ----- 
Woodlark - - 


Linnet ----- 
Goldfinch - - - - 
Chaffinch - - - - 
Greenfinch - - 
Hedge- fparrow - - - 
Aberdevine (or Sifkin) 


Thtulh - - - - - 
Blackbird - - 

Robin - - - - - 
Wren ----- 
Reed -fparrow - - - 
Black-cap, or theNorfoli 
Mock nightingale * 

nefs of 

J 9 



ly notes. 

! 4 
l 9 
















* Brit, Zool. 


p. 262. 















l 9 






And here I muft again repeat, that what I 
defer i be is from a caged nightingale, becaufe thofe 
which we hear in the. Ipring are fo rank, that they 
feldom ling any thing but fhort and loud jerks, 
which confequently cannot be compared to the 
notes of a caged bird, as the inftrument is over- 

I muft alfo here obferve, that my nightingale 
was a very capital bird ; for fome of them are fo 
vaftly inferior, that the bird-fanciers will not keep 
them, branding them with the name of French- 
men *. 

I have made no mention of the buliinch in this table, which 
is commonly confidered as a finging bird ; becaufe its wild 
note, without inftru&ions, is a moil jarring and difagreeable 

I have Irkewife. omitted * the redftart (which is called by 
the French Rojfignol de MurailleJ, as I am not fufficiently 
acquainted with its fong, though it is admired by many; I 
mould rather conceive, however, with Zinanni, that there is 
no very extraordinary merit in the notes. 

The London bird-catchers alfo fell fometimes the yellow 
hammer, twite and brambling f as finging birds ; but none 
of thefe will come within my definition of what may be deem- 
ed fo. 

* One mould fuppofe from this, that the nightingale-catch- 
er had heard much of the French mufic ; which is poffibly 
the cafe, as fome of them live in Spittal-fields. 

* II culo ranzo e un ucello, (per quanto dicono) molto canoro> ma 
\o tale non lo flimo. Delle uova e del nidi, p, 53* 

f They call this bird a kate. 



But it is not only in tone and variety that the 
nightingale excells ; the bird alfo fings (if I may fo 
exprefs myfelf) with fuperior judgement and tafte. 

I have therefore commonly obferved, that my 
nightingale began foftly like the ancient orators ; 
refervins; its breath to fvvell certain notes, which 
by this means had a mod aftonifhing effect, and 
which eludes all verbal defcription. 

I have indeed taken down certain paffages which 
may be reduced to our mufical intervals ; but 
though by thefe means one may [form an idea of 
fome of the notes ufed, yet it is impofTible to give 
their comparative durations in point of mufical 
time, upon which the whole effect muft depend. 

I once procured a very capital player on the flute 
to execute the notes which Kircher hath engraved 
in his Mufurgia, as being ufed by the nightingale ; 
when, from want of not being able to fettle their 
refpective lengths, it was impofTible to obferve any 
traces almoft of the nightingale's fong. 

It may not be improper here to confider, whether 
the nightingale may not have a very formidable 
competitor in the American mocking-bird*; though 
almoft all travellers agree, that the concert in the 

* Turdus Americanus minor canorus. Ray's Syn. It is caU 
led by the Indians, Contlatolli ; which is faid to fignify four 
hundred tongues. Soe alio Catejby. 



European woods is fuperior to that of the other 
parts of the globe *. 

4-3 birds are now annually imported in great 
numbers from Afia, Africa, and America, I have 
frequently attended to their notes, both fmgly and 
in concert, which are certainly not to be compared 
to thofe of Europe. 

Thorn fin, the poet, (whofe obfervations in na- 
tural hiftory are much to be depended upon) makes 
this fuperiority in the European birds to be a fort of 
compenfation for their great inferiority in point of 
gaudy plumage. Our goldfinch, however, joins to 
a very brilliant and pleafmg fong, a molt beautiful 
variety of colours in its feathers % as well as a 
moft elegant fhape. 

It mull be admitted, that foreign birds, when 
brought to Europe, are often heard to a great dif- 
advantage; as many of them, from their great 
tamenefs, have certainly been brought up by hand, 
the confequence of which I have already ftated from 
feveral experiments. The foft-billed birds alfo can- 
jBOt be well brought over, as the fuccedaneum for 

* See Rochefort's Hift. des Antilles, T. I. p. 366.— -Ph, 
Tr. Abr. Vol. III. p. 563.— and Cateiby. 

f I cannot but think, that there would be a demand for 
thefe birds in China, as the inhabitants are very fedentary, 
and bird cages are commonly reprefented as hanging in their 
rooms. I have been informed, by a Tyrokze, that his belt 
market for Canary birds was Conjlantinople. 



infers (their common food) is frefh meat, and par- 
ticularly the hearts of animals. 

I have happened, however, to hear the Ameri- 
can mocking-bird in great perfection at MeJf.VogWs 
and Scott's, in Love- Lane, Eafi cheap. 

This bird is believed to be ftill living, and haih 
been in England thefe fix years. During the fpace 
of a minute, he imitated the woodlark, chaffinch, 
blackbird, thrufh, and fparrow. I was told alfo, 
that he would bark like a dog ; fo that the bird 
feems to have no choice in his imitations, though 
his pipe comes neareft to our nightingale of any 
bird I have yet met with. 

With regard to the original notes, however, of 
this bird, we are ftill at a lofs *, as this can only 
be known by thofe who are accurately acquainted 
with the fong of the other American birds. 

Kalm indeed informs us, that the natural fong 
is excellent*; but this traveller feems not to have 
9 been long enough in America to have diftinguifh- 

ed what were the genuine notes : with us, mi- 
mics do not often fucceed but in imitations. 

I have little doubt, however, but that this bird 
would be fully equal to the fong of the nightin- 
gale in its whole compafs; but then, from the atten- 
tion which the mocker pays to any other fort of 
difagreeable noifes, thefe capital notes would be 
v always debafed by a bad mixture. 

* Vol. I. p. 219. 



We have one mocking bird in England, which 
is the fkylark ; as, contrary to a general obferva- 
tion I have before made, this bird will catch the note 
of any other which hangs near it; even after the 
fkylark note \s fixed. For this reafon, the bird-fan- 
ciers often place the fkylark next one which hath 
not been long caught, in order, as they term it, 
to keep the caged fkylark honeft. 

The queftion, indeed, may be afked, why the* 
wild fkylark, with thefe powers of imitation, ever 
adheres to the parental notes •, but it mud be recol- 
lected, that a bird when at liberty is for ever 
fhifting its place, and confequently does not hear 
the fame notes eternally repeated, as when it hangs 
in a cage near another. In a wild flate therefore 
the fkylark adheres to the parental notes •, becaufe 
the parent cock attends the young ones, and is heard 
by them for fo confiderable a time, during which, 
they pay no regard to the fong of any other bird. 

I am aware alfo, that it may be aiked, how 
birds originally came by the notes which are pecu- 
liar to each fpecies. My anfwer, however, to this 
is, that the origin of the notes of birds, together 
with its gradual progrefs, is as difficult to be traced, 
as that of the different languages in nations. 

The lofs of the parent-cock at the critical time 

for inftruction hath undoubtedly produced thofe 

varieties, which I have before obferved are in the 

.fong of each fpecies ; becaufe then the neftling hath 

either attended to the fong of fome other birds ; 



or perhaps invented fome new notes of its own, 
which are afterwards perpetuated from generation 
to generation, till fimilar accidents produce other 
alterations, The organs of fome birds alfo are 
probably fo defective, that they cannot imitate pro- 
perly the parental notes, as fome men can never 
articulate as they mould do. Such defects in the 
. parent bird mull again occafion varieties, becaufe 
thefe defects will be continued to their defcendants, 
who (as I before have proved) will only attend to 
the parental long. Some of thefe defcendants alfo 
may have imperfect organs-, which will again 
multiply varieties in the fong. 

The truth is, as I have already obferved, that 
fcarcely any two birds of the fame fpecies have ex- 
actly the fame notes, if any are accurately attended 
to, though there is a general refemblance. 

Thus mod people fee no difference between one 
fheep and another, when a large flock is before 
them. The fhepherd, however, knows each of 
them, and can fwear to them, if they are loft ; as 
can the Lincoln/hire goiherd to each goofe. 

As I now draw towards a conclufion of both my 
experiments and obfervations on the ringing of 
birds •, it may be poflibly alked, what ufe refults 
either from the trouble or expence which they have 
coft me -, both of which I admit to have been con- 

I will readily own, that no very important ad- 
vantages can be derived from them -, and yet I fhall 



not decline fuggefting what little profit they may 
poflibly be of, though at bed they fhould rather 
be confidered as what Lord Bacon terms, experi- 
ments of light, than of fruit. 

In the firft place, there is no better method of 
inveftigating the human faculties, than by a com- 
panion with thofeof animals; provided we make it 
without a moft ungrateful wifh of lowering our- 
felves, in that diftinguifhed fituation in which we 
are placed. 

Thus we are referred to the ant for an example 
of induftry and forefight, becaufe it provides a 
magazine of food for the winter, when this animal 
is in a (late of torpidity during that feafon ; nor 
are we lefs willing to fuppofe the fong of birds to 
be fuperior to our own mufical powers. 

The notes of many birds are certainly very plea- 
fing, but by no means (land in competition either 
with the human voice or our word mufical in- 
flruments ; nor only from want of the (Inking ef- 
fects of harmony in many excellent compofitionss, 
but becaufe, even when compared to our fimple 
melody, exprefTion is wanting *, without which ma- 
fic is fo languid and inanimate. 

But to return to the ufes (fuch as they are) 
which may arife from attending to the fong of birds, 
or from the experiments which I have given an ac- 
count of. 

■ The nightingale, indeed, is perhaps an exception to this 
general obfervation. 



The firft of thefe is too much neglected by the 
naturalift ; for, if the bird is not caught, the only 
means often by which either the fex or the fpecies 
can be determined is the fong. For example, if 
Motif Adanjon had informed us whether the Eu- 
ropean (wallows, which he conceived were to be 
feen during the winter at Senegal, had the fame 
notes with thofe of 'Europe, it would have been going 
one ftep further in proof of the facts which he and 
others fo much rely upon. 

Thefe experiments, however, may be faid to 
be ufeful to all thofe who happen to be pleafed 
with finging birds ; becaufe it is clear, that, by 
educating a bird under leveral forts, we may often 
make fuch a mixture, as to improve the notes 
which they would have learned in a wild (late. 

It refults alfo from the experiment of the linnet 
being educated under the Vengolina, that we may 
introduce the notes of Afa, Africa, and America, 
into our own woods ; becaufe, if that linnet had 
been fet at liberty *, the neftlings of the next fea- 
fon would have adhered to the Vengolina fong, 
who would again tranfmit it to their defendants. 

* I know well, that it is commonly fuppofed, if you fet a 
caged bird at liberty, it will neither be able to feed itfelf, nor 
otherwife live long, on account of its being perfecuted 
by the wild ones. There is no foundation, however, for this 
notion ; and I take it to arife from its affording an excufe for 
continuing to keep thefe birds in confinement, 



But we may not only improve the notes of birds 
by a happy mixture, or introduce thofe which were 
never before heard in Great Britain \ we may alfo 
improve the inftrument with which the pajTages 
are executed. 

If, for example, any one is particularly fond of 
what is called the fong of the Canary bird, it 
would anfwer well to any fuch perfon, if a nettling 
linnet was brought up under a Canary bird, jbe- 
caufe the notes would be the fame, but the inflru- 
ment which executes them would be improved, 

We learn alfo, from thefe experiments, that no- 
thing is to be expe&ed from a neftling brought 
up by hand, if he does not receive the proper in- 
ftrudtion from the parent cock : much trouble 
and fome coft is therefore thrown away by many 
perfons in endeavouring to rear nettling nightin- 
gales, which, when they are brought up and fed at 
a very confiderable expence, have no fong which 
is worth attending to. 

If a woodlark, or ikylark, was educated, howe- 
ver, under a nightingale, it follows that this charge 
(which amounts to a milling per week *) might be 
in a great mealure faved, as well as the trouble 
of chopping frefh meat every day. 

* Olina fpeaks of a pafte which is ufed in Italy for nightin f 
gales -, but I cannot find that it ever anfwers with us ; per- 
haps, they bring their nightingales up by hand, and fo ac~ 
suftom them from their earlieft infancy to fuch food. 

A a a A nights- 


A nightingale, again, when kept in a cage, does 
not live often more than a year or two ; nor does 
he fing more than three or four months •, whereas 
the fcholar pitched upon may not only be more 
vivacious, but will continue in fong nine months 
out of the twelve. 

I fear, however, that I have already dwelt too 
much upon thefe very minute and trifling advan- 
tages which may refult from my experiments and 
obfervations ; I mail therefore no longer defer fub- 
fcribing myfelf, 

Dear Sir, 

Your mod faithful, 

Humble Servant, 

Daines Barrington, 

Vol.2. P. 6Z6 


" mm 


24 1 




rf ^ f?^=B 






« frH J J I J J 



<s>— # 






. Williams Sc 

Vol.2. P. 686. 



Compofitions for two piping Bullf inches . 

r? r> A j * ^ ^ r / Pi 


No. VI. 


g)uam multee glomerantur a-ves ! ubi frigidus annus 
Trans pontum fugat, et terns immittit apricis. 


THE migration of birds, is a fubject of fo 
curious a nature, that every one who at- 
tempts to write the natural hiftory of animals, ought 
to look upon it as an eflential part of his inquiries, 
and at the fame time mould endeavour to afEgn the 
caufe why fome birds prefer certain places for their 
fummer, others for their winter refidence. 

To be qualified for this tafk, it is necefTary 
that the inquirer mould confine himfelf to one cer- 
tain tract the whole year; he mould be diligent 
in obferving the arrival, and the difappearance 
of birds \ he mould commit every obfervation to 
paper, and compare them with the remarks of 
correfpondents, on the fame fubjeci, that lie on eve- 
ry fide of him. He mould attend like wife to the 
weather ^ and to the plenty or failure of fruits and 
A a a 2 berries ^ 

7iQ A P P E N D I X. 

berries ; as on thefe accidents many curious re- 
marks may be founded. He mould cultivate an 
acquaintance with the gentlemen of the navy, and 
other fea-faring people ; he mould confulc their 
journal?, to difcover what birds light on their fhips, 
at what fealbns, in what latitudes, and in what 
weather, and from what points -, and thus trace 
them in their very courfe. 

A comparative view of the writings of thofe who 
mould embrace this part of natural hiftory, would 
throw great light on the fubject. But it is to be 
lamented, that none, except two northern natu- 
ralists, Mr. Klein and Mr. Ekmarck, have profef- 
fedly treated on this point. The fonthern parts 
of Europe, which may be fuppofed to receive, du- 
ring winter, many of our land birds, have as yet 
produced no faunijl to aftift the inquiries of the na- 
turalifls, which mult account for the imperfect: 
knowledge we have of the retreat of many of our 

We mutt not omit, however, our acknowledge- 
ments to two eminent pens that have treated this 
fubject as far as it related to rural ceconomy -, 
and, in fuch a manner, as does honour to their re- 
fpective countries; we mean Mr. Alex. Mai. Berger 
and Mr. Stittingfleet : whom we mould not men- 
tion a fecond time*, but to confefs the aid we 
here receive from their faithful attention to the fub- 
ject in queftion. 

* Fide Preface. 




We wiih that. any thing we could fay* would 
induce others of our countrymen to follow their 
example : they need not fear that the matter is 
exhaufted, for every county will furnifh new obfer- 
vations ; each of which, when compared, will ferve 
to ftrengthen and confirm the other. Such an 
amufement is worthy of every one, beneath none ; 
but would become no order of men better than our 
clergy, as they are (or ought to be) the bed 
qualified, and the moft ftationary part of the com- 
munity -, and, as this is a mixed fpecies of ftudy 
(when confidered as phyfico- theology) it is there- 
fore particularly pertinent to their profeflion. A 
moft ingenious friend, whom modefty prevents 
from putting his name to a work that renders ob- 
fervations of this kind of the utmoft facility, has 
pointed out the way, and methodized every remark 
that can occur ; the farmer, the fportfman, and the 
philofopher, will be led to the choice of materials 
proper to be inferted in that ufeful companion, the 
Naturalift's Journal*. 

From the obfervations of our friends, from thofe 
made by ourfelves, and from the lights afforded 
us by preceding writers, we mail, in the brief re- 
lation we can pretend to give, proceed in a generi- 
cal order, and as far as pofiible, trace each fpecies 
of bird to its retreat. 

* Printed for W. Sandhy, Fleet-Street, London, 1767. Price 
One Shilling and Six-pence. 

A a a 2 A few 


A few words will explain the caufe of their disap- 
pearance in thefe northern regions ; a defect of food 
at certain feafons, or the want of a fecure afylum 
from the perfecution of man during the time of 
courtihip, incubation and nutrition. 

Hawks. Eagles, and all the ignoble fpecies of this genus 

breed in Great Britain -, of the Falcons, we only 
know that which is called the Peregrine, which 
builds its neft annually in the rocks of Llandidno, 
Caernarvon/hire -, and the Gentil, and the Gojhawk 
which breed in Scotland. 

Owls, We are allured that every fpecies breeds in Eng- 

land, except the little Owl, and Jhort eared Owl. 
The laft breeds in Scotland, and the Orkney ifles, 
but migrates into England at the fame feafon as 
the Woodcocks do. Hawks and owls are birds of 
prey, and having at all times in this ifland means 
of living, are not obliged to quit their quarters. 

Shrikes. The FluJJjer, or red back Shrike, and the great 
Shrike, breeds with us •, we have not heard of the 
other, fo fufpec"t that it migrates. 

Crows. Of this genus, the Hooded Crow migrates re- 

gularly with the Woodcock. It inhabits North Bri- 
tain the whole year : a few are faid annually to 
breed on Dartmoor, in Devon/hire. It breeds alfo 
in Sweden and Anftria, in fome of the Swedi/h 
provinces it only fhifts its quarters, in others it re- 


iides throughout the year. I am at a lofs for the 
fummer retreat of thofe which vifit us in fuch num- 
bers in winter, and quit our country in the fpring. 
And for the reafon why a bird, whofe food is fuch 
that it may be found at all feafons in this country, 
fhould leave us. 

Difappears early in autumn; the retreat of this Cuckoo. 
and the following bird is quite unknown to us. 

Is a bird that leaves us in the winter. If its diet Wryneck. 
be ants alone, as feveral afTert, the caufe of its mi- 
gration is very evident. This bird difappears be- 
fore winter, and revifits us in the fpring a little 
earlier than the Cuckoo. 

Continue with us the whole year; their food be- Woodpecs- 
ing the larva of infects, which lodge themfelves at ERS ' 
all times in the bark of trees. 

Continues here through all feafons. King- 


Refides in this country the whole year. Nuthatch. 

Comes to England but by accident : we once in- Hoopoe. 
deed heard of a pair that attempted to make their 
nefl in a meadow at Selborne, Hampjhire y but were 
frighted away by the curiofity of people. It breeds 
in Germany. 

Never leaves the country. Creeper. 

A a a 4 The 

p4 A P P E N D I X. 

Grouse The whole tribe, except the §{uail y lives here all 

the year round : that bird either leaves us, or elfe 
retires towards the fea-coafts *. 

Bust arc. Inhabits our downs and their neighborhood all 
the year. 

P&boWi Some few of the Ring-doves breed here •, but the 

multitude that appears in the winter, is fo difpro- 
portioned to what continue here the whole year, 
as to make it certain that the greater!: part quit the 
country in tht fpring. It is moft probable they 
go to Sueden to breed, and return from thence in 
autumn-, as Mr. Ekmark informs us they entirely 
quit that country before winter f. Multitudes of 
the common Wild Pigeons alfo make the northern 
retreat, and vifit us in winter ; not but numbers 
breed in the high cliffs in all parts of this ifland. 
We fufpect that the Turtle leaves us in the win- 
ter, at left changes its place, removing to the fouth- 
ern counties. 

Stare, Breeds here; poffibly feveral remove to other 

countries for that purpofe, fince the produce of 
thole that continue here, feems unequal to the 
clouds of them that appear in winter. It is not 
unlikely that many migrate into Sueden, where 
Mr. Berger obferves they return in fpring. 

* Vide p. 277. of this work, 
f Amaru Acad. IV. 502 i 



The Fieldfare and the Redwing breed and pafs Thrushes. 
their fummers in Norway, and other cold countries ; 
their food is berries, which abounding in our 
kingdoms, tempts them here in the winter. Thefe 
two and the Royfton crow, are the only land birds 
that regularly and conftantly migrate into England, 
and do not breed here. The Hawfinch and Crofs- 
bill come here at fuch uncertain times, as not to 
deferve the name of birds of pafTage •, and, on that 
account, rather merit a place in the appendix than 
in the body of the work. 

The Chatterer appears annually about Edinburgh Chatter* 
in flocks during winter; and feeds on the berries 
of the mountain am. In South Britain it is an 
accidental vifnant. 

The Grojbeak and Crofsbill Come here but fel- Grosbeaks, 
dom ; they breed in Auftria. I fufpecl that the 
Pine Grojbeak breeds in the forefts of the Highlands 
of Scotland. 

All the genus inhabits this kingdom throughout Buntings. 
the year, except the greater Brambling, which is 
forced here from the north in very fevere feafons. 

All continue in fome parts of thefe kingdoms, Finches. 
except the Sijkin, which is an irregular vifitant, 
faid to come from RuJJia. The Linnets fhift their 
quarters^ breeding in one part of this ifland, and 



remove with their young to others. All finches 
feed on the feeds of plants. 

Larks, All of thefe feed on infects and worms \ yet only 

catchers, P art °f tnem C l u ^ t tne ** e kingdoms ; though the rea- 
Wagtails, fon of migration is the fame to all. The Nightin- 
Warblers. Z ale -> Black- cap^ Fly- catcher. Willow-wren, Wheat- 
ear, and White-throat, leave us before winter, 
while the fmall and delicate G olden- cr eft ed Wren 
braves our fevered frofts. We imagine that the 
migrants of this genus continue longed in Great 
Britain in the fouthern counties, the winter in thofe 
parts being later than in thofe of the north ; Mr. 
Stilling fleet having obferved feveral Wheat-ears in 
the ifte of Furbeck the i8{h of November lad. As 
thefe birds are incapable of very didant flights, 
we fufpect that Spain * or the fouth of France ', is 
their winter afylum. 

Titmice. Never quit this country; they feed on infects 
and their larvae. 

axd Goat- 

Every fpecies difappears at approach of winter. 


OF the vaft variety of water fowl that frequent 
Great Britain, it is amazing to reded how few are 



known to breed here: the caufe that principally 
urges them to leave this country, feems to be not 
merely the want of food, but the defire of a fecure 
retreat. Our country is too populous for birds fo 
fhy and timid as the bulk of thefe are : when great 
part of our ifland was a mere wade, a trad of 
woods and fen ; doubtlefs many fpecies of birds 
(which at this time migrate) remained in fecurity 
throughout the year. Egrets, a fpecies of Heron, 
now fcarce known in this ifland, were in former 
times in prodigious plenty ; and the Crane, that 
has totally forfaken this country, bred familiarly 
in our marfhes : their place of incubation, as well 
as of all other cloven footed water fowl (the Heron 
excepted) being on the ground, and expofed to 
every one : as rural ceconomy increafed in this 
country, thefe animals were more and more ,dif- 
turbed \ at length, by a feries of alarms, they were 
neceflitated to feek, during the fummer, fome lonely 
fafe habitation. 

On the contrary, thofe that build or lay in the 
almoft inacceffible rocks that impend over the 
Britifh feas, breed there {till in vaft numbers, hav- 
ing little to fear from the approach of mankind • 
the only diflurbance they meet with in general, be- 
ing from the defperate attempts of fome few to get 
their eggs, 




Herons. THE White Heron is an uncommon bird, and 

vifits us at uncertain feafons ; the common kind 
and the Bittern never leave us. 

Curlews. The Curlew breeds fometimes on our mountains; 
but, confidering the van: flights that appear in 
winter, we imagine the greater part retire to other 
countries : the Whimbrel breeds in the Grampian 
Hills, in the neighbourhood of Invercauld. 

Snipes. The Woodcock breeds in the moid woods of 

Sweden, and other cold countries.. Some Snipes 
breed here, but we believe the greater!: part retire 
elfewhere j as do every other fpecies of this genus. 

Sandpipers. The Lapwing continues here the whole year; 
the Ruff breeds here, but retires in winter ; the 
Redjhank and Sandpiper breed in this country, and 
refide here. All the others abfent themfelves during 

Plovers The long legged Plover and Sanderling vifit us 

Oyster- on ty * n w ^ ncer » tne Dottrel appears in fpring and 

catcher, in autumn, yet what is very fingular we do not 

find it breeds in South Britain, The oyfter-catcher 



lives with us the whole year. The Norfolk Plover 
and Sea Lark breed in England. The Green Plover 
breeds on the mountains of the North of England, 
and on the Grampian Hills. 

We mud here remark, that every fpecies of the 
genera of Curlews, Woodcocks, Sandpipers and 
Plovers*, that forfake us in the Tpring, retire to 
Sweden, Poland, Pruffia, Norway, and Lapland to 
breed -, as foon as the young can fly, they return 
to us again ; becaufe the frolts which fet in early 
in thole countries totally deprive them of the 
means of fubfifting ; as the drynefs and hardnefs of 
the ground, in general, during our fummer, pre- 
vent them from penetrating the earth with their 
bills, in fearch of worms, which are the natural 
food of thefe birds. 

Every fpecies of thefe twogenera continue with Rails an© 
us the whole year ; the Land Rail excepted, which su - lElt 

* Mr. Ekmarck fpeaks thus of the retreat of the whole 
tribe of cloven footed water fowl out of his country (Sweden) 
at the approach of winter ; and Mr. Klein gives much the 
fame account of thofe of Poland and Pruffia. 

Gralla (tanquam conjuratae) unanimiter in fugam fe conji- 
ciunt, ne earum unicam quidem inter nos habitantem invenire 
poflumus. Aman. Acad. IV. 588, 

Scolopaces et Glareol& incredibilibus multitudinibus verno 
tempore in Polonia et Boruffia nidulantur; appropinquante 
autumno turmatim evolant. Klein 4e a<v. errat. 187, 



is not feen here in winter. It likewife continues 
in Ireland only during the fummer months, when 
they are very numerous, as Mr. Smith tells us in 
the hiftory of Waterford, p. 336. Great numbers 
appear in Anglefea the latter end of May, it is 
fuppofed that they pafs over from Ireland^ the paf- 
age between the two iflands being but fmall. As 
we have instances of thefe birds lighting on mips in 
the Channel and the Bay of Bifcay, we conjecture 
their winter quarters to be in Spain. 


Phalaro- VISIT us but feldom ; their breeding place 
PES * is Lapland*, and other arctic regions. 

Coot. Inhabits Great Britain the whole year. 

Grebes. The great crefted Grebe, the black and white 

Grebe, and little Grebe breed with us, and never 
migrate •, the others vifit us accidentally, and 
breed in Lapland. 


Avoset. BREED near Fofsdike in Lincolnjhire \ but quit 

their quarters, in winter. They are then mot in 

* Am an. Acad. IV. 590. 



different parts of the kingdom, which they vifit I 
believe not regularly but accidentally. 

The great Auk or Pinguin fometimes breeds in Ayxs and 
St. Kilda. The Auk, the Guillemot and Puffin in- mots. 
habit moft of the maritime cliffs of Great Britain, 
in amazing numbers, during fummer. The black 
Guillemot breeds in the Bafs IJle, and in St. Kilda, 
and fometimes in Llandidno rocks. We are at a 
lofs for the breeding place of the other fpecies; 
neither can we be very certain of the winter red- 
dence of any of them, excepting of the lejfer Guil- 
lemot and black-billed Auk, which, during winter, 
viiit in vaft flocks the Frith of Forth. 

Thefe chiefly breed in the lakes of Sweden and Divers, 
Lapland, and ibme in countries nearer the Pole * 5 
but fome of the red throated Divers, the northern 
and the imber, may breed in the north of Scotland 
and its ides. 

I am uncertain where the black toed Gull breeds. Gulls. 
The Skua is confined to the Shetland IJles, the Rock 
Foula, and perhaps St. Kilda. The Arttic breeds 
in the Orknies and in the Hebrides. The reft of the 
tribe breed difperfedly on all the cliffs of Great 
Britain. The black headed on our fens and lakes. 

* Faun. Su&c. No. 150. Cranio. Greenh I. 82. 83. 



Terns. Every fpecies breeds here •, but leaves us in the 


Petrels, The Fulmar breeds in the ifle of St. Kilda, and 

continues there the whole year, except September 
and part of October % the Shearwater vifits the Ifle 
of Man in Aprils breeds there, and leaving it in 
Augufi or the beginning of September, difperfes over 
all parts of the Atlantic Ocean. The Stcrmfnch is 
feen at all diftances from land on the fame vaft 
watery tra6l, nor is ever found near fhore except 
by fome very rare accident, unlefs in the breed- 
ing feafon. We found it on ibme little rocky ifles, 
off the north of Skie. It alfo breeds in St. Kilda. 
We alfo fufpect that it nettles 'on the Blafquet ides 
off Kerry ', and that it is the Gourder of Mr. Smith*. 

Mergan- This whole genus is mentioned among the birds 
that fill the Lapland lakes during fummer. I have 
feen the young of the Red-breajled in the north of 
Scotland : a few of thefe, and perhaps of the Goo/an- 
ders may breed there. 

Ducks. Of the numerous fpecies that form this genus, 

we know of few that breed here. The Swan and 
Goofe, the Shield Duck, the Eider Duck, a few 
Shovelers, Garganies, and Teals, and a very fmall 
portion of the wild Ducks. 

* Smith's hift. Kerry, 186.- 



The reft contribute to form that , ..zing muU 
titndeof water fowl, that annually 3 at from mod 
parts of Europe to the woods and Jakes of Lapland 
and other arttic regions*, there to perform the 
functions of incubation and nutrition in full fecu- 
rity. They and their young quit their retreat in 
September, and difperfe themfelves over Europe, 
With us they make their appearance the begin- 
ning of O_ftober\ circulate firft round our fhores, and 
when compelled by fevere froft, betake themfelves 
to our lakes and rivers. Of the web-footed fowl 
there are fome of hardier conftitutions than others ; 
thefe endure the ordinary winters of the more 
northern countries, but when the cold reigns there 
with more than common rigor, repair for fhelter to 
thefe kingdoms : this regulates the appearance of 
fome of the Diver kind, as alio of the wild Swans^ 

* Barents found the Eernacles with their nefls in great nurrfs 
bers in Nova Zembla. Colled. voy. Dutch Eaft- India Company t 
8vo. 1703. p. 19. Clufiusm his Exot. 368. alio obferves, 
that the Dutch difcovered them on the rocks of that country 
and in Waygate Straits. They, as well as the other fpecies of 
wild Geefe, go very far north to breed, as appears from the 
hiftories of Greenland and Spitsbergen, by Egede and Crantz. 
Thefe birds feem to make Iceland a .retting place, as Hor* 
reboiv obferves, few continue there to breed, but only vijit 
that ifland in the fpring, and after a ihort flay, retire ftill 
further north. 

The Sujallovi taikd Shield Duck breeds in the Icy Sea, and is 
forced fouthwardonly in the very hard winters. Aman. Acad* 
IV. 585. 

Vol. II. B b b the 


the Swallow tailed Shield Duck, and the different 
fores of Goofanders which then vifit our coafts. 

Corvo- The Corvorant and Shag breed on mod of our 

high rocks : the Gannet in fome of the Scotch ides, 
and on tht eoafl: of Kerry : the two firft continue 
on our Ihores the whole year. The Gannet difper- 
fes itfelf all round the feas of Great-Britain, in 
purfuit of the Herring and Pilchard, and even as 
far as the Tagus to prey on the Sardina. 

But of the numerous fpecies of fowl here enume- 
rated, it may be obierved how very few entruft 
themfelves to us in the breeding feafon ; and 
what a diftant flight they make to perform the 
firft great dictate of nature. 

There feems to be fcarcely any but what we 
have traced to Lapland, a country of lakes, ri- 
vers, fwamps and alps *, covered with thick and 
gloomy forefts, that afford fhelter during fummer 
to theie fowls, which in winter difperfe over the 
greateft part of Europe, In thole arftic regions, 
by reafon of the thicknefs of the woods, the ground 
remains moid and penetrable to the Woodcocks, and 
other flender billed fowl : and for the web-footed 
birds f , the waters afford larva innumerable of the 


* Flora Lapponica Lectori et Proleg. 
f A difciple of Linnceus, fpeaks thus of their food, Lap- 
ponla, ubi vidtum ex iarvis et pupis culicum, altrix paravit 



tormenting Knat. The days there are long 5 and 
the beautiful meteorous nights indulge them with 
every opportunity of collecting fe rriinute a food: 
whilft mankind is very fparingly fcattered over that 
vaft northern wade. 

Why then mould Linnaus^ the great explorer 
of thefe rude deferts, be amazed at the myriads of 
water fowl th-at migrated with him out of Lap- 
land ? Which exceeded in multitudes the army of 
Xerxes \ covering, for eight whole days and nights* 
the lurface of the river Calzx*. His partial obfer- 
vation as a botanift, would confine their food to 
the vegetable kingdom, almoil denied to the Lap- 
land waters •, inattentive to a more plenteous table 
of infect food, which the all bountiful Creator had 
fpread for them in the wildernefs f. 

numinis munificentia. Aman. acad. IV. 1. 5. M. de Man- 
pertuis makes the fame obfervation, Ce ruiffeau nous con- 
duiiit a un lac fi rempli de petits grains jaunatres de la grof* 
feur du Mil que toute fon eau en etoit teinte. Je pris ces 
grains pour la Chryfalide de ouelque infe&e, &c. Qewvres ds 
M. de Maupertuis, III* II 6. 

* Flora Lapponica, 273. Aman. acad. IV. £70. 

f It may be remarked, that the lakes of mountanous rocky 
countri s in general are deftitute of plants : few or none are 
feen on thofe of Switzerland ; and Linnteus makes the fame 
obfervation in refpect to thofe of Lapland ; having, during 
his whole tour, difcovered only a fingle fpecimen of a lemna 
trifulca, or ivy leaved duck's meat. Flora Lap. No. 470. a few 
of the fcirpus lacufiris, No. 18. or bullrufh ; the alopecurus 
geniculates, No. 38. or flote foxtail grafs ; and the ranunculus 
aquatilis, No. 234. which are all he enumerates in his Prole- 
gomena to that excellent performance. 

B b b 2 No, 

7 2 & 


No. VII. 



MENTION having been fo frequently made, 
in this work, of the old Englijh feafts, and 
the fpecies of animals that formed the good cheery 
we tranfcribe from Leland an account of that given 
at the rntrcnazatton of George Nevett, archbifhop of 
Torky in the reign of Edward IV, and of the goodly 
provifion made for the fame. 
In wheat, 300 quarters. In bittors, 

In ale, 
Of ypocraife 
In oxen, 
Wylde Bulies, 
Muttons, - 
Veales, - - 
Pygges, - 
Of the 
In peacockes, 
Mallardes and 

300 tunne. 
roo tunne. 

In cranes, - 
In kyddes, 
In chyckens, 
Pigeons, - 



- 6. 

- - 1000. 
■ - - 3°4. 

- - 3°4- 
- 400. 


- 1000. 

- 2000. 

- ico dozen, 
foules called 
200 dozen. 


FefTauntes, ■ 
Egrittes, - 

Stashes, buck and roes, 

500 and mo. 
Palties of venifon colde, 

Parted dyfhes of gellies, 

Playne dyfhes of gellies, 

Colde tartes baked, 4000. 
Colde cuftardes baked, 

Hot pafties of venifon, 

Hot cuftardes, 2000. 
Pykes and breames, 608. 
Porpofes and feals, 12. 
Spices, fugared delicates, 
and wafers plentie. 


Befictes the birds in the above lift; there are 
mentioned, in the particular of the courfes*, 
Red/hanks, Styntes, Larks and Martynettes rqft ; 
if the iaft were the fame with the martin fwallow, 
our anceflors were as general devourers of fmall 
birds as the Italians are at prefent, to whom none 
come amifs. 

We mud obferve, that in the order of the 
courfes it appears, that only the greateft delicacies 
were ferved up, as we may fuppofe, to the table 
where the nobility, gentlemen, and gentlewomen 
of worfhip were feated ; and thofe feemed to have 
been dreffed with almoft as much art and difguife 
as at prefent. They had likewife their defert, or, 
as the term was, futteltie -, which was in form of 
dolphins or other animals; and fometimes recourfe 
was had to the kalendar to embellifh the table, 
and St. Paul, St. Thomas, St. Dimftan, and a 
whole multitude of angels, prophet es and patri- f, were introduced as futtelties to honor the 

As no mention is made among the dimes that 
compofed two of the courfes, of the geefe, the 
pygges, the veales, and other more fubftantial 
food, thofe muft have been allotted to the franklins 
and head yeomen in the lower hall: and thofe moll 
lingular proviiions, the porpofes and feales, inde- 

* L eland 9 s cotteflanea, vi. 2. 
i Idem, 23. 

B b b 3 licate 


licate as they may feem at prefent, in old times 
were admitted to the beft tables : the former, at 
left, as we learn from doctor Caius *, who mentions 
it not only as a common food, but even defcribes 
its fauce, 

A tranfcript from that curious publication, The 
Regulations of the Houjhold of the fifth Earl 0/ Nor- 
thumberland, begun in 15 12, will be efteemed a 
very proper appendage to a work of this nature. 
It will (hew not only the birds then in high vogue 
at the great tables of thofe days, but alfo how ca- 
pricious a thing is tafte, feveral then of high price 
being at prefent banifhed from our tables ; and o- 
thers again of uncommon ranknefs much valued by 
our anceftors. 

Thus Wegions (I give the fpelling of the time) 
See-pyeSy Sholardes, Kyrlewes, Ternes, Cfanys, Hea- 
ron-fewys, Bytters, See-gulles and Styntes, were a- 
mong the delicacies for principal feafts, or his 
Lordfhip's own wees. 

Thofe excellent birds the Teylles were not to be 
bought except no other could be got. 

Fefauntes, Bytters^ Hearon-fewys and Kyrlewes 
were valued at the fame price, twelve pence each. 

The orher birds admitted to his Lordfhip's table 
were Bufiardes^ Mallardes, Woodcokes, JVypes, 
guayles, Snypes, Pertryges, Redefloankes, Reys, 
facckes y Ktwttes, Dottrells, Larky s and fmall byrdes. 

f Cazi opufc. 113. 



The great byrdes, for the Lord's mees 9 for the 
Chambreleyn and Stewardes mees may be, as the 
ingenious editor conjectures, Fieldfares, Thrufhes 
and the like *, 

The eftimation each fpecies was held in may 
be known by the following table, to which I have 
added the modern name, and the reference to it in 
this work. 



Cranys, the Crane, 



Hearon-fewys, the Heron 5 


1 2d. 




Teylfes, Teal, 




3 6 5, 


or id.T» 

Wypes, Lapwings, 



Sea-gulls, Black-headed Gull 5 



or i"d. 4* 

Styntes, Purrs, 



a dozen. 






3 *- 

a dozen c 







Bytters, Bitterns, 






Reys, Land Rails f, 

4io 3 


* p. 104. 424. 

f I imagine the Keys to be the Land Rail, not the Reeve 

the female of the Ruff, for that bird feems not to be ia 

vogue in thofe days. Old Drayton does not even mention it 

in his long catalogue of birds, but fets a high value upon 

The Rayle which feldom comes but upon rich men's fpits *, 

* Polyolbion. Canto XXV, 

B b t? 4 Sholarde^ 





Sbclardes, Shovelers, 



Kyrkzves^ Curlews, 

3 62 > 





Sea Pies, 















4 d. 

a dozen. 

Gre&t birds, 



Small birds. 

1 2d. 

a dozen. 



for two dozens. 


& V V ' E N D I X. 


No. VIII. 






1. r^i OLDEN Eagle, 

2. VJ Black Eagle, 

3. Sea Eagle, 

4. Cinereous, 

5. Ofprey, 

6. Gyrfalcon, 

p Peregrine Falcon, 

8. Grey, 

*9» Gentil, 

10. Lanner, 

11. Gofhawk, 
j2. Kite, 

13. Buzzard, 

14. Spotted, 

Eryr melyn. 
Eryr tinwyn. 
Eryr cynrTonwyn. 
Pyfg Eryr : Gwalch 

y weilgi. 
Hebog chwyldro. 
Hebog tramor, Cani- 


Hebog, Gwakh. 
Hebog mirain. 
Hebog gwlanog. 
Hebog Marthin. 
Bod teircaill. 
Bod mannog. 

15. Honey 



15. Honey Buzzard, 

16. Moor Buzzard, 

17. Hen-Harrier, 

18. Ringtail, 

19. Keftrel, 

20. Hobby, 

21. Sparrow Hawk, 

22. Merlin, 

Bod y mel. 
Bod y gwernh 
Barcud glas. 
Bod tinwyn* 
Cudyll coch. 
Hebog yr Hedydd. 
Corwalch, Llymyften, 


o w 

* 1. Eagle, 

2. Long eared, 

3. Short eared, 

4. White, 

5. Tawny, 

6. Brown, 

7. Little, 

Y Ddylluan fawr. 
Dylluan gorniog. 
Dylluan giuftiogc 
Dylluan wen. 
Dylluan frech. • 
Aderyn y Cyrph< 
Coeg Ddylluan* 



1. Great, 

2. Red backed, 

3. Wood char, 

Cigydd mawr. 
Cigydd cefn-goch, 
Cigydd glas. 




i. Raven, 

2. Carrion, 

3. Rook, 

4. Hooded, 

5. Magpie, 

6. Jay, 

7. Red legged, 

8. Jackdaw, 

R O W. 


Bran dyddyn. 


Bran yr Jwerddon. 


Screch y Coed. 

Bran big goch. 




1. Cuckoo, Cog. 


j. Wryneck, 

Gwas y gog, Gwdd< 



1. Green,, 

Cnocell y coed, Delor 
y derw. 

2. Great 



2. Great fpotted, Delor fraith. 

f 2. Middle. 
4. Left fpotted, Delor fraith beiaf. 



1. Kingfifher, Glas y dorian, 


N U T II A T C H. 

1. Nuthatch, Delor y enau. 


1. Hoopoe, Y Goppog. 


1. Creeper, Y Grepianog. 


APPENDIX. ? 3> - 

G R O U S. 

i. Wood, 

Ceiliog coed. 

2. Black, 

Ceiliog dii. 

3- Red > 

Ceiliog Mynydd, Jar 


4. Ptarmigan, 

Coriar yr Alban. 

5. Partridge, 

Coriar, Petrifen. 

6. Quail, 

Sofliar, Rhine. 



1. Great, Yr araf ehedydd. 

* 2. LefTer, Araf ehedydd Lleiaf, 

3. Thick-kneed, Y Glin-brarT. 


1. Common, Colommen. 

2. Ring, Yfguthan. 

3- Turtle, Colommen fair, Tur- 






i. Stare, 

Drydwen, Drydwy* 


i. Miflcl, 

2. Fieldfare, 

3. Throttle, 

4. Redwing, 

5. Blackbird, 

6. Ring-ouzel, 

7. Water-ouzel, 

Trefg!en,Pen y Llwyn. 
Cafeg y ddryecin. 
Aderyn bronfraith. 
Soccen yr eira, Y dref- 

clen goch. 

Mwyalch, Aderyn du» 
Mwyalchen y graig. 
Mwyalchen y dwfr. 


1. Waxen, - Sidan-gynffon. 

G R O S B E A K/ 

1. Haw, Gylrmbraff. 

2. Pine 


* 2. Pine. 
3. Crofs-billed, 

4. Bulfinch, 

5. Green, 


Y Chwybanydd, 
Rhawn goch. 

Y Gegid, Llinos 




1. Common, 

2. Yellow, 

3- Reed > 

4. Tawny, 

5. Snow, 

6. Mountain, 

Bras y ddruttan, Bras 

yr yd. 
Llinos felen. 
Golfan y cyrs. 
Golfan rhudd. 
Golfan yr eira, 
Yr Olfan lciaf. 


F I N 


1. Gold, 

2. Chaff, 

3. Brambling^ 

4. Sparrow, 

Gwas y Sierri. 
Afgell arian, Wine* 
Bronrhuddyn y my- 

Aderyn y to, Golfan. 
5. Tree 



Golfan y mynydd. 

5. Tree Sparrow, 

6. Sifkin, 

7. Linnet, 

8. Red-headed Linnet, 

9. Lefs red-headed Linnet, Llinos bengoch leiaf. 
10. Twite, Llinos fynydd. 

Y Ddreiniog. 


Llinos bengoch. 



1. Spotted, 
2 • Pied, 

Y Gwybedog. 
Clochder y mynydd. 


R K, 

1. Sky, 

2. Wood, 
3- Tit, 

Hedydd, Uchedydd* 
Hedydd y coed. 
Cor Hedydd. 

4< Field, 
5. Red, 

Hedydd y cae. 
Hedydd rhudd. 

6. Crefted, 

Hedydd coppog. 


W A 

G T A I L. 

t. White, 

Brith y fyches, Tin- 

figl y gwys. 

2. Yel- 

A P P E 

2. Yellow, 
3- Gre Y> 

N D I X. 

Brith y fyches felen. 
Brith y fyches Iwyd. 




i. Nightingale, 
2. Redftart, 


Rhonell goch. 

3. Redbreaft, 

YrHobigoch. Bron 

4. Blackcap, 

5. Pettychaps, 

6. Hedge, 

7. Yellow, 

Penddu'r brwyn. 
Y Ffigyfog. 
Llwyd y gwrych. 
Dryw'r helyg. Sy- 


* 3. Scqtch. 
9. Golden- crefled, 

Yfwigw, Sywlgw. 

10. Wren, 

11. Sedge, 

12. Grafs hopper, 


Hedydd yr helyg. 
Gwich hedydd, 

23. Wheatear, 

14. Whinchat, 

15. Stonechatter, 

16. Whitethroat, 
•17. Dartford. 

Tinwyn y cerrig. 
Clochder yr eithin. 
Clochder y cerrig. 

Y gwddfgwyn. 

Vol. II. 







i. Great,. 

2. Blue, 

3. Cole, 

4. Marfti, 

5. Longtailed ? 

6. Bearded, 

Y Benloyn fwyaf. 

Y Lleian. 

Y Benloyn lygliw. 
Penloyn y cyrs. 

Y Benloyn gynffonhir* 

Y Barfog. 



1. Chimney, 

2. Martin, 

3. Sand, 

4. Swift, 

Gwennol, GwenfoL 
Marthin Penbwl. 
Gennol y Hennydd. 
Marthin du. 



1. No&urnal, 

Aderyn y droell, 






i. Common, 

2. Bittern, 

3. White, 

Cryr glas. 
Aderyn y bwnn, 

Bwmp y Gors, 

Cryr gwyn. 



1. Curlew, 

2. Whimbrel, 

Coeg ylfinhir. 


N I P 

1. Woodcock, 

2, Godwit, 

f 3. Cinereous, 

4. Red, 

5. LefTer, 

6. Greenfhank, 

7. Redfhank, 
* 8. Cambridge* 

9. Spotted, 

C c 2 

Rhoftog llwyd 
Rhoftog rhudd, 
Cwttyn du, 

Coefgoch mannog. 
10. Common, 



10. Common, 
ii. Great, 
12. Jack, 

yfnittan, y Fyniar. 




i. Lapwing, 
2. Grey, 

3- Ruff, 

4. Knot, 

5. A Hi colored, 

6. Brown, 

7. Spotted, 

8. Black, 

* 9. Gambet, 
10. Turnftone, 

* 11. Hebridal, 

12. Green, 

13. Red, 

* 14. Aberdeen,. 

15. Common, 

16. Dunlin, 

17. Purre, 
*iS. Little, 

Cwttyn llwyd. 
Yr Ymiaddgar. 

Y Cnut. 

Y Pibydd glas. 

Y Pibydd rhudd. 

Y Pibydd mannog, 

Y Pibydd du mannog. 

Huttan y mor. 

Y Pibydd gwyrdd. 

Y Pibydd coch. 

Pibydd y traeth. 
Pibydd rhuddgoch. 
Llygad yr ych. 

Y Pibydd lleiaf. 

P L O V E 

1. Golden 


Cwttyn yr aur. 

2. Long 


2\ Long legged, Cwttyn hirgoes, 

3. Dottrel, Huttan. 

4. Ringed, Mor Hedydd. 

5. Sanderling, Llwyd y tywod. 


j. Pied, Piogen y mor, 

R A I L. 

j. Water, Cwtiar, 


1. Spotted, Dwfriar fan nog, 

2. Crake. Rhegen yr yd. 

3. Common, Dwfriar. 



1. Grey, Pibydd llwyd llydan- 

C c 3 2. Red, 




2. Red, 

Pibydd coch llydan- 





i. Common, 
2. Great, 

Jar ddwfr foel. 

Jar ddwfr foel fwyaf. 


i. Tippet, 

2. Great crefted, 

3. Eared, 

4. Dufky, 

5. Little, 

6. Blackchin, 

Gwyach. Tindroed. 
Gwyach gorniog. 
Gwyach gluftiog. 
Gwyach leiaf, 
Harri gwlych dy big. 
Gwyach gwddfrhudd, 

A V 

1. Scooping, 

j. Great, 

O S E T. 

Pig mynawd. 

U K. 

Carfil mawr. 

2. Razor 


2. Razor-bill, Carfil, Gwalch y pen- 


3. Black-billed, Carfil gylfinddu. 

4. Puffin, Pwffingen. 

5. Little, Carfil bach. 



1. Foolifh, 


2. Leffer, 


3. Black, 

Gwilym d&, 


E R, 

f. Northern, 

Trochydd mawr. 

* 2. Imber, 


3. Speckled, 

Trochydd back. : 

4. Red-throated, 

Trochydd gwddfgoch 

5. Black-throated, 

Trochydd gwddfdu, 


G U 

L L, 

i, Black-backed, Gwylan gefn°ddu ? 

2. Skua, Gwylan frech, 

C c 4 3, Black 





Yr Wylan yfgafn. 



Gwylan y Gogledd. 


Herring, ■ 

Gwylan benwaig. 



Gwylan riidd a gwyn. 



Gwylan y gweunydd. 



Gwylan lwyd, Hue- 





Gwylan gernyw. 



Yr wylan benddu. 



Yr wylan fechan. 




i. Great, 

2. Letter, 

3. Black, 

Y for-wennol fwyaf. 

Y for-wennol leiaf, 
Yfcraean ddu. 



1. Fulmar, 

2. Shear-water, 

3. Stormy, 

Gwylan y graig. 
Pwrnngen Fanaw. 
Cas gan Longwr. 


A P P E N D I X. 




i. Goofander, 

2. Red-breafted, 

3. Smew, 

4. Red- headed, 

Hwyad ddanheddog. 
Trochydd danheddog, 
Lleian wen. 
Lleian ben-goch. 


D U 

1. Wild Swan, 

2. Tame Swan, 
* 3. Grey Lag, 

4. Bean Goofe, 

5. White fronted, 

6. Bernacle, 

7. Brent, 

8. Eider, 
9: Velvet, 

10. Scoter, 

11. Tufted, 

12. Scaup, 

13. Golden eye, 

14. Morillon, 
15. Shieldrake, 

: k. 

Alarch gwyllt, 
Gwydd wyllt. 
Gwyran fan yw, 
Hwyad fwythblu: 
Hwyad felfedog. 
Y for-Hwyad ddu. 
Hwyad goppog. 
Llygad arian. 
Llygad aur. 
Hwyad benllwyd. 
Hwyad yr eithin, 
Hwyad fruith. 

16. Mallard, 



16. Mallard, Cors Hwyad, Garan 

Hwyad, Hydnwy. 

17. Shoveler, Hwyad lydanbig. 

18. Red breafted Shoveler, Hwyad fron-goch ly- 


19. Pintail, 

20. Long tailed, 

21. Pochard, 

22. Ferruginous, 

23. Wigeon, 
*24» Bimaculated, 

25. Gadwall, 

26. Garganey, 

27. Teal, 

Hwyad gynffonfain. 
Hwyad gynffon gwen- 

Hwyad bengoch. 
Hwyad frech. 

Y gors Hwyad lwyd. 
Hwyad addfain. 
Cor Hwyad, Crach 


I, Corvorant, 

Mulfran, Morfran, 

2. Shag, 

Y Fulfran leiaf. 

3. Gannet, 

Gan, Gans. 

P P E N D I X. 

* i. Rough legged Falcon, 
2. Roller, Y Rholydd, 

3. Nutcracker, 



3. Nutcracker, 

Aderyn y cnau. 

•4. Oriole, 

Y Fwyalchen felan. 

5. Rofe colored Ouzel, 

Y Fwyalchen goch.. 

6. Crane, 


7. Egret, 

Cryr coppog lleiaf. 

8. Little Bittern, 

Aderyn y bwnn lleiaf. 

*9. Spoon-bill, 

Y Llydan-big. 

fc # * The birds marked * are not in the ottavo edition, 176$, 



No. IX. 

REPTILES, Extra-Britannic. 

SINCE the great ufe of Mr. Ray's Sylbge ftir- 
pium Europ^earum extra Britannias* has 
been fo fully approved by the travelling Botanift, 
it is thought a fimilar enumeration of the fpecies 
of certain clafies of the animal kingdom would be 
equally agreeable and ferviceable to the travelling 
Zoologift. It comprehends the Extra-Britannic 
quadrupeds, birds, and reptiles o£ Europe, formed 
from the works of the general naturalifts, from 
the Fauna of different countries, and from my own 
obfervations. The arrangement of.the fubjects are 
according to the excellent method of our country- 
man Mr. Ray, a little altered, or reformed. As 
there are not at this inftant Englijh names for mod 
of the articles, we have been obliged to fubflitute 
thofe ufed by Uwueus and other foreign writers \ 
but to gratify the Englijh reader's curiofity, who 
may wifti for fuller accounts of the quadrupeds in 
his own language, we refer him in the fecond co- 
lumn to our own fynopfis of Quadrupeds ; and in 
refpect to the birds, to the Englijh edition of Mr. 
Willughby's Ornithology, 

* Stirpium Europaarum extra Britannias nafcentium Sylloge, 






I Bcs Urus 


II O-vis Strepficeros 


III Capra Rupicapra 




IV Cervus Alces 


V Skt 

VI Cc 

VII Felis 

A per Sylveftris 102 

Lin. Syn. nop. Place. 

99 4 Lithuania 
ibid. 5 Italy 

98 8 B. Hungary 

Calmuck country 

9$ 10 Alps, Pyrenees 
ibid. 9 Alps 

97 11 Corfica, Sardinia 

ibid. 30 Ukraine 

92 35 N. of the Baltic 

93 36 z&V. 

54 Germany, France, 




58 in Almoft all the con- 


59 113 Lapland 

6z 13$ Many parts of Eu~ 



A P P E N 


VIII Vrfus Araos 69 

Maritimus 70 

Lufcus, et 71 

MuftelaGulo 67 

IX Viverra Genetta 65 

Zibellina 68 

Perouafca p. 

X Lutra MuftelaLutreola 66 

XI Cafior Fiber 78 

Mofchatus 79 

XII Hyftrix Criftata 76 

XIII MarmottaMus Marmotta 81 

Cricetus 82 


Lemmus 80 

Citellus 80 


XIV Sciurus Volans 88 

Glis 87 

Mus quercinus 84 

XV Jerboa Mus Jaculus 85 
XVI Mus ^ Gregarius 84 

XVII Trichechus Rofmarus 49 


XVIII Vefpertilio Serotina 
Barbaftella ' 

D I X. 

Syn. no/}. Place. 


1 3 8 Many parts of Eu- 

139 Nova Zembla 

140 N. of the Baltic 

171 Spain 
156 Lapland 
I'M Note, Poland 

174 Sweden 

190 N. of Europe 

192 Ruffia 

193 Italy 

197 Alps, Poland 

200 Germany 

201 S. of Ruffia 

202 Lapland 

203 S. of Europe 

204 Poland 

221 Poland 

217 S. of Europe 

218 ibid. 

223 Calmucks country 
234 Germany, Sweden 

263 Within the polar 

288 France 

289 ibid. 

290 ibid. 

?M ibid, 








I Vultur Vultur 


WiL orn. Place. 
Brif.l. 453 66 Alps, Italy 

r Raiifyn. io 64 67 Spain, Mi- 

II Falco 

Leucocephalus Lin. 


HI Strix 

North f 




Morphno congener Raiifyn. 7 



Lin. 1 25 


St. Martini 

Briff.l. 443 



Brunnich No. 



Lin. 1 29 






13 26 No. 5 


| J 327 ~ ^ 
^1 3-8-7 




^329 —12 


Lin. 132 



JTr. 323 iV<?. 3 


f Countries the other fide the Baltic* 




A P. P E N D I %, 

* * Nyftea 

IV Lanius Infauilus 

Wil. orn. Place. 

Lin. 132 North 

Scop. No. 1 3 Carniola 

Lin. 1 3 3 North 

Lin. 138 197? North? 

Major Gefneri$ 8 1 BriJ.YL.itfi 88 Germany 



#7/. war. Place. 

V Cor-jus Caryocatadtes Z/». 157 132 Germany N. 

— 158 Alps 

— 159 ' 131 Europe 
fajjim J. 

— 160 198 ibid. 

— 169 Spain 

— 173 135 Europe 

— 177 Norway 

— 182 147 Ita. S.ofEu, 


VI Coracias Garrulus 

VII Oriolus Galbula 
VIII Cuculus Glandarius 

IX Picus Martius 

X Merops Apiafter 

I&erocephala Brifl.lV '. 537 148 ibid. 
XI Certbia Muraria — 184 Italy 

X Thofe with this word refer to all the continent, except 
the extreme north, Lapland, &c. 



III. G A L L I N j£, 

XllTetrao *NemeJianus Sco. No. 171 
Betulinus No 

Lagopus Bru. No 

Boiiafia Lin. 

* * Rufus — 

Francolinus — 

Alchata — 276 167JV0.5 Pyrenees 

Graeca(Perdix) Brif. I. 241 169 S. of Eu 

Montana 224 

Trida&yla Shaw's tra.253 Spain 

XIII Otis Tetrax Lin. 264 17c) France, 


IV. P A S S E R E S. 

Wil. orn. Place. 












. pafftm 




2 7S 



Vol. II. 


Sco. No. 




2US Lin. 






















Wil. orn> 

, Plac& 

XVI Alauda Criftata 






















XVII Emberiza Hortulanus 











269 zivolo ibid. 


Sco. No. 







XVIII Pringilla Lapponica 









2 6 S 




2 6; 







ISrif.UL 82 





. 7 ibid. 




2 ibid. 


9 1 

250 — 

4 ibid* 



250 — 

5 ibid. 




13 ibid. 


2 4 

250 — 

6 Dalma- 




bou rg 



I- 3 


XIX Mctacilla Schoenobanus 


3 2 9 










A P P 

E N 

D I X. 


cm. Place. 


331 Strapazino 

233 ibid. 





335 3tia Alder, 

218 Sweden 




Curruca minor Bri. Ill 

• 374Borin. Wil 

. 2 \6 Italy 


37 6 







389 Boarina 

217 Italy 

Ruticilla Gibraltar 








422 Spipola 

234 Bologna 

Currucagrifea nzev. App.Yl. 112 


Sco. No. 

















XX Parus Criftatus 


340 " 

£42 Ger- 





Brun. p. 73 


KXlHirundo Melba 





$co. No, 

, 167 

Spain, & 


D d d 2 









XXII Plaiaka Leucorodia 





XXlllJrdta Grus 


2 34 



















2 39 



Candida minor 

Bri. V 






Botaurus major 



Botaurus minor 


Botaurus ftriatus 


Botaurus rufus 



Botaurus naevius 




281 No. 9 Italy 

Cancroph. caftaneus 



Cancroph. rufus 



— 7 

Cancroph. naevius 


Cancroph. luteus 



-8 Italy 

Viridis Belgica 



Ardea alba 

Sco. Nt 

). 127 


XXIV Tantalus Falcinellus 





XXV Numeni-us Danicus 








A P P E N D I X. 759 

Wil. orn. Place. 
XXVI Scolopax Fufca Lin. 243 

Anflralis Sco. No. 94 Camiolft 

XXVII Tringa Gambetta Lin. 248 

Striata ? 

Totanus nseviys BriJf.Y. 2,00* 
Cinclus torquatus 216 

Calidris grifea 233 

Calidris nsevia 229 

Bononienfis major no 

Erythropus Sco. No. 14^ 
Undata Brun. — 183 

XX VIJI Pratincola Krameria Kramer 3% 1 L. 345 No. 12 Auftria 

XXIX Cbaradrius Alexandrinus Lin. 253 
Apricarius 254 

Luteus parvus France 

XXX Gallinula Grinetta Wil. orn. 315 Italy 

Serica ibid. ibif, 

Major 313 

Porphyrio Balearicus novus Minorca 


XXXI Phalaropus Platyrhynchus BrunnichNo. 172 North 

Ddd 3 VII, 





Wil. orn 

. Place. 

XXXII Phanicbfteru. 

r Ruber 


230 32c 

) S. of Fr. 

XXXIII Corrira 



Il8 231 

; Italy 

XXXIV Mergus 




Scop. No. 





Scop. No. 









XXXVI Sterna 



SrL VI. 


KXXVll Anas 

Niveus (anfi 

it) Sri. IV. 



Mofcoviticus ? 277 360 

Spectabilis Lin. 195 North 

Glaucion 201 367 

Hiftrioriica 204 North 

Mufcaria Raii fyn. 146 375 

Ferroenfis Bri. VI. 466 Ferroe 

Subterranea Scop. No. $3 Carniola 

Cinerea K.^iNo. 14 Auftria 

XXXVIII Pelecanus Onocrotalus Lin* 

215 327 Danube: 





* P E D A T A: 

With Feet. 


Rana Bombina Lin. 355 Sweden 

Arborea 357 Raiifyn. qua. 231 Germany 

Lacerta Chamsleon Lin. 364 Raiifyn. qua. 276 S. of Europe 

Salamandra 371 273 ibid. 

Orbicularis 365 264 Naples 

Marmorata 368 S. of Europe 

Aurata ibid. ibid. 

Umbra? 367 ibid. 

Seps 363 ibid. 

Chalcides 366 Raiifyn. qua. 272 ibid. 

Tefudo Corticata Rondel. p ij ?. 445 Mediterranean 

Orbicularis Lin. 351 S. of Europe 

Graeca 352 Raiifyn. qua. 253 ibid. 

Lutaria ibid. 254 ibid. 

** A P O D I A. 

Without Feet. 

Serpentes Anguis JEfculapii, Plinii lib. xxix. c. 4. Raiifyn. qua. 29 1 

Coluber Cherfea Lin. 377 Wulff. Boruff. 10 Sweden 
Afpis Lin. 378 Strom. Sondm. 193 Fr. Norway 

Jaculus Wulff. Boruff. 13 Pruffia 

D d d 4 INDEX, 


T O 


[To be inferted immediately before the Index of Birds.] 

VOL. I. Page 280. 


COME account of the barbarous cuflom of 
Cock-fighting, fo frequent, till of late years, a 
favorite amufement among fome of all ranks in 
this kingdom, will be no improper appendage to 
the hiflory of our domeftic birds. 

If it can be any apology for fo cruel a diver- 
fion, we may plead that it was in ufe among the 
moft polite people of antiquity : firft invented, 
in all probability, by the Athenians, and borrowed 
from them by other nations, in particular by the 
Romans, who introduced it into our iflands. 

At Athens was an annual feaft, attended with 
Cock-fighting, inflituted by Themiftocks in honor 
of the birds from whofe fighting he received an 
omen of his fuccefs againft the Perjians. He ob- 
ferved, that thefe birds fought for mere glory ; 
neither for the gods of their country, nor tombs 



of their anceftors, nor yet for their children : *• 
fetting before his foldiers every motive to excite 
their valor, which they had fuperior to thefe 
birds. This feftival was ftiied Axext^uwv aytav; and 
became anniverfary. 

The Cock-pit, or TnXfcj was in the theatre 
where the public games were exhibited, and was 
in form of a fquare ftage, not round, like the 
modern pits. The game of Cock-fighting lafted 
but one day; for originally it was confidered partly 
as a religious and partly as a political inftitution, 
i But the cuftom was foon abufed, and Cock- 
matches grew frequent among private people. 
The barber Meidias and Callias fought a main: 
thefe gentlemen were p in all probability, alfo cele- 
brated Cock-feeders, or at left Quail-feeders, be^ 
ing called O^Tjyr^oso* -, for it is certain that the 
antients prepared their birds for battle : great fums 
were layed on the event; and the Lanifia> or 
Cockers, frequently totally ruined by their pur- 
fuits of the diverfion f. 

The cuftom fpread foon, as is fufpefted, from 
Athens to Pergunius and glnoas. In the firft were 
annual Cock-matches : and their neighbours, the 
Dardami Troasy feem equally addicted to the di- 
verfion, as is evident from their coins, which had 
on them two fighting cocks. 

Om two antient gems, in the collection of Mr, 

* ^Elian. Far. HiJL ii. c. 20. 
■J- Columella) lib. viii. c. z. 

10 milium 


William Hamilton §, are ftrong memorials of this 
cuftom : on one is a Cock, with his head creft, 
carrying in his bill a palm-branch, in token of 
victory over another, which (landing before with 
a drooping head. On the other, are two in the 
aclion of fighting, and a moufe above, running 
away with an ear of corn, the caufe of the battle : 
from both thefe reprefen tat ions, it is evident that 
the antients neither trimmed their Cocks, nor cue 
off their combs and wattles. 

The race of birds moil efteemed by the antients, 
was that of TandgM, a city of Beeoiia, the Ifle of 
Rhodes, Chalcis in Euboea, and the country of Me- 
dia *. They preferred the larger kind, or what 
we call Shakebars. The hens of Alexandria in 


Egypt, called MovoQo^oi, were highly valued fof 
breeding fpirited chickens j-. 

From Greece the diverfion was- carried to Rome: 
but did not arrive at the heighth of folly as it did 
at Athens. The Romans delighting more in quail 
fightings, as the Chinefe do at this time. But we 
are told, that the fraternal hatred between Bajfianus 
and Get a, fons of the emperor Severus, began when 
they were boys, from a quarrel they had about 
their Quails and Cocks t. 

The Britons had poultry before the arrival of 
C*far> but they owe the barbarous cuftom of 

§ Archaologia, vol. HI. tab- ix. 
* Plin. Nat. ffift. lib. x. •c.iij 
T Geofonic. lib. xiv. c. j, 
4 Meridian, iii. § 33, 



Cocking to the Romans. Yet it does not occur 
among our writers, till the time of Henry II. when 
Fiiz-Stepbens § mentions it as the fchool-boys di- 
ver/ion on Carnelevaria, or Sbrove-Tuefday. Ed* 
ward III. disapproved and prohibited Cock-fight- 
ing j[. But that barbarous prince Henry VIII. 
gave it fo much encouragement as to build a 
theatre, near Whitehall, for that purpofe, to this 
day known by the name of the Cockpit. At length 
CHver Cromweily in 1654, by a humane edict, 
fuppreiTed thefe difgraceful meetings; which, after 
his time, revived with full fury: yet it is fome 
confolation, in this profligate age, that whatibever 
other follies rlouriHi, this lofes credit, and drops 
(excepting among the dregs of the people) into 
the utmoft difrepute *. 

§ p. 4;. |i lilaitland London, i. 15L 

* It will be injuflice not to fay, that almoft the whole of this 
is borrowed from the memoir on this fubject, by that able 
antiquary the Rev. Mr. Pegge. See drchaolcgia, vol. iii. 132. 



VOL. I. Page 290. 

CEnas five vinago. Wil, Orn. 185. 

'"T'HIS bird has been confounded with the Wild 
Pigeon, and the Rock Pigeon, and made the 
origin of the domeftic kind. I firft had an op- 
portunity of correcting my error, * by feeing the 
true Stock Dove in the Lever ian Mufeum, which 
fatisfied me that Mr. Willughby, with great juftice, 
defcribed it as a diftincl fpecies. 

It is equal in fize to the common kind, perhaps Sizs. 
larger. The weight of a male is fourteen ounces : 
its extent of wing, twenty-fix inches : its length, 

The bill is of a light red : the head, neck, and Color. 
upper part of the back, of a dark grey ; the lower 
part, and rump, changes into an elegant light 
grey : the primary feathers of the wings, are dufky : 
coverts and fecondaries, deep grey, marked with 
two black fpots on the exterior webs : the lower 
half of the exterior webs of the two outermoft fea- 
thers of the tail, are white : the reft, cinereous, 
with their ends black. 

The fides of the neck, of a variable glofTy 
green : the breaft, of pale purplifh or vinaceous 
color : the belly cinereous : legs red. 

Breeds in hollow flocks of trees, and fometimes. Plac*. 

on the tops: from which it derives its name of 

* By Linnaeus alfoj who makes it fynonymous with, th? 
Tarns Pigeon, 



Stock Dove, or Wood Pigeon : in oppofition to the 
other, which breeds in holes of rocks, fleeples, and 
towers. Thofe are refldent in this kingdom : the 
former generally migratory : a few breed in the 
woods in Sujfex, * and perhaps other fouthern parts 
of Great Britain. Their eggs have been hatched 
under tame Pigeons ; but the young, as foon as 
they could fly, have betook themfelves to their 
favage ftate. Thefe perch on trees : the true Wild 
or Rock Pigeon rarely or never. It has alio 
marks different: in particular the lower part of 
the back, and the rump, are never of any other 
color than white. Yet, as Pigeons are frequently 
feen among our tame flocks, with grey back and 
rumps, it is highly probable, that notwithstanding 
the above experiment may fometimes fail, yet 
both kinds may have contributed to Hock our 

Gentlemen who have pigeon-houfes near feme 
of the lofty cliffs which impend over the fea, fel- 
dom preferve the pigeons in them the whole year : 
tempted by food, they will vifit and continue 
fometime in the houfe, but ufually fly to the rocks 
to breed. 
Michation The Stock Doves migrate into the fouth of 
England, in great multitudes, mNevem^eti and 
while the beech woods were fuffered to cover 
large tracts of ground, came in myriads, reaching 
in firings of a mile in length, when they went in 

* Mr. lat bam Rivet t. 



the morning to feed. They retire in the fpring : 
I fuppofe into Sweden-, for Mr. Ekmark makes their 
retreat from that kingdom coincide with the time 
of their appearance here. 

VOL. I. Page 385. 

Cul blanc gris, Brijfon iii. 552. tab. xxl. 

A Bird of this fpecies was (hot near Uxbridge. 

The crown and back were of a tawny 
brown; the under fide of the neck, of a- dull 
brownifh yellow : from bill to eye paiTed an ob- 
fcure duiky line. Qui! feathers and fecondaries 
black, edged with tawny and white : tail, like the 
common Wheat-Ear ; but the edges were marked 
with pale tawny. 

In the Linn^an Syftem, p. 332. it is made a va- 
riety of the common Wheat-Ear. 

VOL. II. Page 574. 

^TRANSFER to the Grey-lac Goose, p. 570, 
all the fynonyms prefixed, by miftake, to the 
Bean Goose, 



VOL. II. Page 620. 

Sula. *TpHIS variety of the Gannet was fent to me in 
Auguft 1779, by Hugh Stodart, efq; of Tre- 
ganwy, in Caernarvon/hire. I do not recollect that 
it has been obferved in Europe fince the days of 
Dr. ffoier> a phyfician at Bergen, who procured 
it from the perroe IJles, and fent it to his friend 
Clufius. It has fince been feen frequently in Falk- 
land IJlandy and in the South Seas, efpecially on 
the coafts of New Holland and New Zealand. 
Seamen call it the Port Egmont Hen. 

This bird differs from the common Gannet 
only in thofe particulars : in having fome of the 
fecondaries feathers black •, and the middle feathers 
of the tail of the fame color : whereas both, in 
the common fort, are entirely white. 

VOL. III. Page 179. 

Gadus virens, Lin. Syfi. 438. Faun. Suec. N° 309. 

Grskx* *"pHE Green Cod-Fifh is beardlefs; fmooth, of 
dufky green on the back; and filvery in every 
other part: jaws, of equal lengths: fide line, 
ftrait : tail forked. 

I was favored by Sir John Cullum y bart. with 
the notice of this fpecies being BritiJJj; he obferved 
numbers of them which had been taken in the Ger- 
man ocean ; none exceeded {cv^n inches in length. 
LiNNiEus does not attribute to them a greater 
fize than that of a Perch. 




ABERDAVINE, - - 341. 

Acanthis, what fuppofed to be, - 334. 

jEfopus, his dim of finging birds, - - 656^ 

Agafaus, Agajfeus, what dogs, - - - 63. 

America, no rats there originally, - - 116. 

Anacreon, mentions the carrier pigeon, - 294. 

Apcdes, of Arijlotk, - - - - 554. 

Ariofto, his account of the carrier pigeon, - 294. 
Arijlophanes, mentions the ufe failors made of the flight 

of birds, - 509, 

Afs, _ . . . I3< 

t not originally a native of Britain, - 14. 

Afterias, what bird, - - - 425, 

Attagas or Attagen, what bird, - - 440. 

Auk, the greater, or Penguin, - - 507. 

- common or Razor-bill, 5 

black-billed, - - - 511. 

little, - - - - 517. 

AvOSET, - * • - - 5O4. 


764 INDEX. 



Badger, - - 85. 

Barley bird or Siikin, - - 340. 
Barrington, the Honourable Daines, of the fmall 

birds of flight by, 649. 

— 1 EfTay on finging birds by, = 66o« 

Ba/s lile, number of birds on, - - 614. 

Bat, great, - 146. 

long-eared, - 147. 

— horfe-moe, ... ibid. 

« common, = 148. 

■ a tame one, - 150. 

Bears, once found in Britain, - - 77. 

Beaver, now extinct, - - g6. 
Belon , the firfl traveller who made remarks in natural 

hiftory, - - - - 253. 

Bernacle, - 577. 

Bifon Scoticus, - - - 23, 

Bittern, - - 424. 

- the AJlerias of the antients, - 425, 

. the little, - - 427, 633, 

Black-bird, ... 308. 

Black-cap, - - 374. 
Black-cock, 'vide Grous. 

fpotted, - - 268. 

Blood-hound, its ufe, - - 6l, 

Boadicea, her ufe of the hare, - - 102. 

Boar, wild, once found in England, - 57, 

Bots, what, - - - 12. 

Brambling, - - 337, 

Brawn, a dim peculiar to England, - - 57. 

Brent goofe, - - - - 579. 

Britain, its natural advantages, - - Preface. 

Bruce, Robert K, of Scotland faved from a wild bull, 23. 


I N D 



Buck, or fallow-deer, 
Bulfinch, - 

Bulls, wild, - 

Bunting, common, 

, — . yellow, - - 




. ■ 1 its migration, 

. — mountain, 

Bustard, great, - - 

. letter, 

- thick-kneed, 

B utcher- bird, vide Shrike. 

. left, vide bearded Titmouse. 

Buzzard, bald, or Ofprey, 
. honey, 

- moor, 

- (potted, 



3 2 4- 









Cagmag, what - - 

Canary bird, 

Caper calze, vide cock of the wood. 

Carrier-pigeon, its ufes, 

Cat, domeltic, 

■ its value formerly, 

odd penalty for Healing the Prince's, 

1 wild, = 

Cataracla or Skua, 
1 a name applied to the gannet, 



2 3 . 




?66 INDEX. 


Cattle, wild Hill in Britain y - - 22. 

Cavalry, Britijh, refpe&able, - - - 4. 

■ poor Hate of in Queen Elizabeth's time, - 8. 

numerous in the time of King Stephen, - ibid. 

Cepphus, gull, - - . S3 2 4 

Chaffinch, - - „ 33 c. 

Chariots, fcythed, of the Britains, - * 

Chatterer, waxen, - - 314. 

Cheefe, not made by the Britains, - - jg. 

Chenalopex, - - > . rg . 

Chenerotes, - 1-70. 

Chevy Chace, the ftory not improbable, - 43. 

C bitters, a horfe, his fpeed, - - 2. 

XgwrofUTgis, of Arifiotle, - - - 334. 

Churn owl, - . _ 4 , 6# 

Cloven footed water fowl, - „ 421. 

Coaches, when firft ufed in England, n. 

Cock, common, or poultry, - b 270. 

wild only in India, - «. . ~ 280. 

— the black or grous, - - 266. 

— of the wood, ... 262. 
Coddy moddy gull, - „-' # 
Cornijh chough, - . „ 22 g^ 

tarrock, - 

Ccrnix of Virgil, _ 
Country Gentlemen, the ltudy of natural hiitory recom- 
mended to, - . . Preface. 

Coldfinch, or pied Flycatcher, - . , ?Ii 

Colemoufe, - _ 

Coot, common, - . 

& c "> - - 495- 

Coracles, or leathern boats, - - 24, 2c. 

CbRVORANT, - - . ■ 608. 

its voracioufnefs, - _ 6 o t 

1 — Satan faid by Milton to have afiumed the 

form of this bird, = ibid. 



INDEX. 7 6 7 


Crake, or land rail, ... 487. 

Crane, - 629. 

Creeper, - 260. 

Crofsbill, - - - 3*9- 

Crow, - 218. 

■ carrion, - - - 219* 
Roy ft on, or hooded., - - 223. 

■ red-legged, ,.;,:- 228. 
Cuckoo, - - - 232. 

. why a name of reproach, - 234, 

Curlew, -■--,'- 429. 

£one, - - - 287. 

Cypfelli, Plinii, - . - ** 5-54. 


Decoys, an account of, - 592. 

Deer, fallow, or buck, - - 41, 46% 

Didapper, or little grebe, - - 501. 

Diver, northern, - 523. 

- Imber, ? - - 524. 

fpeckled, - 525,. 

— red-throated, - - $26. 

. black-throated, - - 527. 

Divinity, how far natural hiftory may promote theendof, Preface, 

Docking of horfes, an abfurd cuftom, - 11. 

Doc, - - - 59, 

» ■ fetting, - , .. 66. 

. lap, - - - 67. 

- fhepherd's, - . - ibid. 
" ■■ Englijh, in high eiteem with the Roma?is, - 63. 
Dormouse, - no. 
Dottrel, - - - 477. 
Dove, turtle^ « - '«• 297. 


;6£ INDEX. 


Dove, ring, ... 296. 

Greenland, - - - 521. 

Duck, - ... ^ z> 

• wild and tame, - - $91* 

Eider, - - - 5 g r . 

— velvet, - - - 5 8j. 

fccter, - - - 5 g 4 . 

ferruginous, ~ - . So\. 

. morillon, or grey headed, - rgg # 

— tufted, - - - 5 8 5 . 

fcaup, - - - 5 g 6 . 

pintail, - - - S9 s. 

Duck, long tailed, - ^ egg. 

» bimaculated, - 5 02j 

Ducks, v\ild, vafl drivings formerly, - rgr 

Dun-bird, the female pochard, - . 5 C0< 

Dun-diver, or female goofander, - - CC j t 

or ferula, - - 55 g. 

Dunlin, - - - - 471. 

Eagle, golden, - - - ^ u 

ringtail or black, - - 16* 

fea, - - - i6 7 . 

Eagles carry away children, - - 163. 

their longevity, - - 164. 

Edgar, king, his advice to the clergy, - 45* 

: — did not extirpate wolves out of Wales, - 75. 

Egret, - - - 631. 

Eider duck, ... ^g|. 

Etefavrna ^cOsta of Straho, * - 145. 


I N D 


Elk, or wild fwan, 
Ember goofe, 
Epeps of Ovid, 
Ermine, - 

how taken in Lapland and Siberia, 

Erne, or cinereous Eagle, 




Falcon, peregrine, 



■ rough-legged, 

— fpotted, 


Fallow deer, the fpotted, 

■ deep brown, 
Fallow fmich, or wheat*ear, 
Feather trade, 

Fern owl, 

Ferret, originally of Africa, 

will produce with the polecat, 

Ferruginous duck, 


Finch, - 

Fin footed water fowl, 


Flight, fmall birds of 

Flycatcher, fpotted, 


Fogs, apology for thofe of Britain, 
Fortunate IJles, famous for birds, 










77 o INDEX. 


Fox, - _ . 71. 

— will produce with the dog kind, - 72. 

■ ' varieties of, - - - 75. 

Frefnoy, his obfervation, - . Preface. 

Troijfart, his flory of a greyhound, - 64. 

Fulmar, its ufes in the ifle of St. Kilda, - 549, 


GadWal or grey, - 663. 

Gallinule, fpotted, ... ^g6 # 

— — — crake, ... 487. 

——————— common, - - 4^9* 

Gambet, - 465. 

Gannet, - - - - 612. 

its ufes to the inhabitants of St. Kilda, - 615. 

Dr. W. Harvey, his elegant account of thefe 

birds, - - - 614. 

Garganey, - 604. 

Geefe, tame, how often plucked, - - 572. 

Goat, - - - - 35. 

- Welch, the largefl, - - 36. 

- its milk medicinal, ... 38. 
Goatsucker, ... 4x4. 
Godwit, - - - 439* 

■ not the Attagas - - 440. 

cinereous, ... 442. 

■ red, ... ibid. 
— — Cambridge, - 447 • 

• the lefTer, - 444- 

Golden-eye, - - - 587. 

Goldfinch, - - 332. 

■' not the Acanthi 's, - - ibid. 


I N D E X. 772 


Goorander, - - - 556. 

Goofe, wild, - - - 575. 

bean, - - - - ibid. 

Grey-lag, - - - 570, 

— . origin of the common tame, ■> 571. 

the brent, - 579. 

. the rat or road, - - - 580. 

■ white- fronted, - *. - 576. 

Goihawk, - 184. 

Grebe, tippet, - 496- 

. great crefted, - 497. 

■ its floating neft, - - 498. 

■ of Geneva, our grebe, - > • ibid. 

— eared, - - - 500. 

dufky, - 501." 

. little or dobchick, - - ibid. 

« — • — its Angular neft, - - 502. 

. black-chin, - - 503. 

Greenfinch, - 322* 
Greenfhank, - - 445, 
Gre-hound, - - - - 63, 
Grey-headed duck, - - ' - 588. 
Grosbeak, haw, - 316. 
U- pine, - - i 317. 

— — — crofs-billed, - = 319. 

green, » 322. 

Grous, wood, - - - . 262. 

. black, - 266. 

■ red, - 269. 

■ white or Ptarmigan, - - 271. 
Guillemot, foolifh, - - - 519. 

— ■ leffer, - - - 520. 

— — ■ blatk, - - ° 521, 

Gumea-hen, - . - - 280. 

Gull, black-backed . - - 528. 

Vol, II. E e e Gull, 

7?2 I N D EX. 

Gull, Skua, . . . 529* 
its iiercenefs, . • vSO. 

black-toed, . . . 532. 

ar&ic, . . . 533, 

herring, . . , 555. 

wagel, . . . 536. 

winter, . . . 557 

— — common, . . . 538. 

■ Kittiwake, . . . 539, 

■ — black-head, . . . 541, 

brown, . . . 543, 

cloven-footed, • . # 547, 

— — — — Mr. Johnfon*s f . . • 492. 

Gyr falcon, 



Halcyon of the ancients, . . 247, 

days, what, . . . 251. 

Halt at os, . . . . 167. 

Hare, common, . . • 98. 

* — alpine, . . • 102. 

■ a food forbidden to the Britains, , ihid. 

Hawfinch, . . . . 316. 

Hawks, the Welch, . . . 201 

fubjed to change their colors, . 182. 

« warrant for the King's, • . 647. 

Hedge-hog, <vide Urchin. 

Hedge-fparrow, . • . 376. 

Hen-harrier, . . , 193. 

Herbert, Lord, his cenfure of races, . • 7. 

Heron, common, . . . 421. 

« — white, . . . 427. 

> nefts of, numerous in one tree, . 422. 


index. m 


Himantopus, . . • * 47°* 

Hinds, milch, kept by a Countefs of Chejler, « 48. 
Hobby, . , . .297. 

Hog, ..... 54. 

■ not an undiftinguifhing feeder, . 55* 

- its parts finely adapted to its way of life, « 56. 
» ufed as a beaft of draught, . . £7. 
Hoofed quadrupeds, domeftic, why, , 10. 
Hoopoe, . . . 257. 
• believed by the vulgar to portend war, . 258. 
Hooper, or wild fwan . » . 562. 
Horns foffil, . . . ci. 
Horse, Britijh, . . , Is 
Arp,bian> . . . ^37* 

Perjian, . . , fy 2 . 

JEthicpian and JEgyptian 9 . . 642. 

its fwiftnefs, . . „ 2. 

— — firength, . .• . «» 

— Spanijh y when firfl: introduced, . t, 

■ numbers, . » 0. 

« natural hiftory and ufes, » . ihid. 

Hunting, Englijh very fond of, . ' . 42. 
Hulbandry or rural ceconomy, hoiv far indebted to 

Zoology, . . t Pre/ate, 

jackdaw, • . • . « 230, 

Jackfnipe, . . . a 45 j, 

James I. his pafllon for hunting, . < 47, 

1 his combat of the lion and Britijb dogs, 68, 

Jay, . t 226. 

Ittber s 4 " ♦ , 524. 

E e e 2 Keftrel, 


N D 





the Halcyon of the ancients, 
the mute Halcyon of Ariftotle, 
its neft 


— art of fteering taken from, 
Kittiwake, Gull, 
Knot, . , 

1 - taken in nets, 

l 95 . 



altera of Pliny, uncertain what bird, 


Lanner, .... 

Lanthorns, when invented, 

Lapland, the great rendezvous of water-fowl during 

fummer, . . 723 

Lapwing, . . . . 453 

' taken in nets, . . 454 

Lark, iky, 
— — wood, 




■ crefted, 

-— willow, 











hat ax of Arijiotle, 
La-vellan, a fort of fhrew, 

. red-headed, 

lefs red-headed, 

London, quantity of cattle confumed there, 

Loon, vide grebe, 

Lucan, defcribes the Coracle, 

Lumme, . , 




34 2 






Martin (beaft) 


■ numerous in North America, 

Martin (bird) 

— 5 black or fwift, , 


Maftiff, Britijh, trained for war, 

Maftiffs, three overcome a lion, 

Maundeville, Sir John, his account of the carrier 

Meleagrides, the Guinea hens, 

Menagery, royal, 

Merganser, . . ^ 

■ red breafted, , 

_ red headed, 


Mew, winter, . , 

Migration of fwaliows, 

— of Britijh birds in general, 

Milton, his fine image of the fkylark, 

— elegant 4efcription of the nightingale^ 

E e e 3 









pigeon, 293. 







IN D E X. 

Milton his beautiful and natural description of the 

Avan, .... 565. 

Miffel thrufh, f . . 301. 

: *- the largeii bird that iings, . 303. 

Mole, . . . . 128. 

Moor-hen,, . . . 489. 

Moofe-deer, horns foffile of a fpecies now unknown, 52. 

Morfe, fufpe&ed to be Britijh, . . 144. 

Mouflon^ mujimon, a fort of fheep, . . 32. 

Moufe, long tailed field, . . 120. 

fhort tailed, . . . 123. 

common, ... 122. 

■ harveft, . . . 121. 

Mule, . 16. 

1 errors in breaking, , , ibid. 

Xei-ell, Archbiihop, his great feaft, . 726. 

Nightingale, . . . 365. 

Pliny's -beautiful defer iption of its fong, 369, 

Norway rat, or brown, . . 115. 

Nutcracker, . . . 625. 

Nuthatch, „ . . 255. 


OtSTERCATCHERj . , , 4&2 # 

Oppian's defcription of the beagle, « , 63. 

Oriole, . , . . 626. 

Orpbeus, his foul faid to have tranfmigrated into the 

bodyofafwan, . . . 567. 


IN D E X. 


Ofprey, • • 

Otter, • * 

. confidered as a fifli by the Carthufans, 

. fea, of Sir R. Sibbald, 

Ovid, his account of the bat, 

_ of the hoopoe 

Ouzel, ring, or rock, . . - 

- ' water, 
— rofe colored, 

Owl, eagle, » . • 
■ long-eared, 

- white, » » 
* brown, 

» - - tawny, • 






Painter, his merit founded on his knowledge of 

Partialis of Arifiotk, 
Parks, numerous in England, 
Partridge, . ... 

■ white, or white Grous, 

Pafturage, richnefs of the Britijh and Irijb, 
Peacock, an Indian bird, 

Penguin, the great auk, . , 
Penbebogydd, or chief falconer of the Welch court, 
Petrel, . - . « 
■ its faculty of fpouting oil. » 
ftormy, . * 


E e e 4 





2 7 K 
2 7 8. 



37 & 

77** I N D E X. 


Pewit, or Lapwing, - - . 453. 

-— - gull, its former value, - - 541. 

Phalarofe, grey, - r 491. 

^-j red, - - - 492. 

Pheafant, not originally Britijh, -- - 280. 

fea, - - - 59 8. 

Pie, fea, - 482. 

Pigeon, common, - = 290. 

— carrier, its ufes, - - 292. 

Pintail duck, - 598. 

Plover, golden, » 474. 

— ringed, - - - 479. 

long-legged, - - 476. 

Norfolk , vide. Buftard,- - - 287, 

Pochard, - - 600. 
Poetry, can fcarcely exift without the aid of natural 

hiftory, - '-> - - Preface. 

Pole-cat, or Fitchet, - 89. 

i 1 — faid to produce with the ferret, ' - 90. 

Poultry, common, introduced by the Phoenicians ', 280, 

Procurator Cjnegii, what, - - 68. 

Proviiions, *hat animals ufed as, by the old Englijb, 726* 

Ptarmigan, or white grous, - - 271. 

Purhn, - 512. 

— its natural affection, - - 514. 

— — - ancient method of taking, - - 515. 

Manks, - - - 551. 

Purre, - 472. 

Quadrupeds, digitated, - - 59. 

~ — 1 hoofed, - - 1. 

- — n pinnated, - - 136, 

winged, - - H^* 


I N 







-its vaft fruitfulnefs, 

Races, account of, 
Rail, water, -» 

■^ land, or crake, - 

Rams, great price of, 1- ~ . - 

Rat, black, - 

1 brown, or Norway, 

< — — of uncertain origin, - 

— water, 

• — — catcher, the king's, r 

Raven, * 

Razor-bill, or auk, - - - 

— —- great fize of its egg, 

Red-breaft, - 

endeared to children by the old fong, 

babes in the nvood, - - 

Red-game, wide grous. 
Red !hank, 

— — — the fpotted, - 

Red-ftart, - 

Red-wing, -. - , , - .•■*- 
fore-runner of woodcocks, 


Ridinger, the engraver, his merit, 



Ring-tail, or black eagle, 













I N D E X. 



Rook, the Corpus of Virgil, 

Royfton crow, 

R lift" and reeve, 

1 how fattened, 







Sanderling, ■ * 




< — afh-colored, 


■ ■ ■ 1 fpotted, 

— — — black, 

*—————-— Hebridaly 



■■ — Abe r 'dee?: , 

• " common, 

1 little, 



Scoter, " 

Sea-fowl, their harfh note, 

Sea-lark, or ringed plover, 

— pie, or Oister.catcher, 
Seal, great, 

— — - common 

once ufed at great feafts as food, 

— how taken in Catbnefs t 
Serula, ~* 



462 = 






J N D E X. 781 


Shag, - t 610. 

Sbavj, Rev. Dr. his euloge, - - 253. 

Shearwater, * - - 551- 

Sheep, ' - - - 27. 

» — of Hirtaov St. KiMa, * . - 31. 

■ u trepanning of, - - ■ - 34. 

Shieldrake, - 589. 

1 — pofiibly the Cbenalopex Plinii, - 590. 

Shoveler, - - 596. 

red breafted, - - - 597, 

Shrew, fetid, - 125. 

m water, - - - 126. 

Shrike, great, - - - 213, 

— — red backed, - - - 215, 

Silius Italicus, his fine defcription of the fwan, - 565, 

his account of the Halcyon, - - 251. 

Silk-tail, r - - - 314. 
Singing birds, EfTayon, by the Honourable Dai nes 

Barrington, - - - 660. 

their great emulation, * ^S5 m 

— — vaft power of voice, - ibid. 

Sifkin, - 340/ 

Skua, - S 2 9» 

Sly goofe, the fhieldrake, - - 589. 

Smew, - - r - 559* 

Snipe, - - - - 433. 

' " — common, - - - 448.' 

great, - - - 450, 

■ jack, - - - - 451. 

Soland goofe, - - - 612. 

Spain, probably the winter refort of fome of our fmall 

birds of pafTage, - - - 716. 

Sparrow, - ■ - - - 338. 

tree, * » - 339. 

Sparrow hawk, • -• * 19&, 


782 INDEX. 


Spoon bill, - - - - 634. 

Squirrel, - 107. 

Stag, - - - - 41, 

■ where now found wild, - - 45. 

■ ■ Irijb, formerly fmall with great horns, - 46, 

— fevere puniihment for killing, - - 58. 
Stare, - - 299. 
Star (hot, or Star gelly, what, - - 538. 
Statins, his account of the Halcyon !s neft, - 499. 
Stint, or purre, - 472. 
Stoat, - - ^ - 89. 

— the ermine, when white, - - 90. 
Stone, horfes fubjecl to, - - 12. 
Stone chatter, - 386. 
Stone curlew, - 287. 
Stcparola, - - - - 350, 
Storm finch, or petrel, - - 553. 
Superfaetation, hares faid to be fubjeft to, - 100. 
Swallow, - - '- 398. 
— — — difappearance of, - - 406* 
• found during winter in a torpid ftate, 410. 

fea, <vide Tern, 

Swan, wild, - - - 562. 

■ tame, - '■ . t 564. 
1 punifhment for killing, - - 84. 

— in high efteem formerly, - - 565. 

— facred to Apollo and the Mufes, - - 566. 

— finging before its death, - - 569. 
Suppofed origin of that fable, - - "5°7- 
Swift, - 403. 


Tarrock, -» 540. 


I N 


1H fends advice of his fuccefs in the Olympic 

games by a pigeon, - - 295. 

Teal, - 606. 

fummer, - 607. 

Tern, the great, ... 545. 

— •. — lefier, - - 54.6. 

black, *-. v '. '" - 547. 

Theocritus, his account of the Halcyon, - 250* 

Thorn/on, the naturalift's poet, - - 303. 

Throttle, - - - .306. 

Thrush, - 301. 

Titlark, - 357. 

Titmouse, great, -'.'*■- 390. 

, — t>lue, - - - 391. 

— cole, - - - 392. 

marfh, - 393. 

long-tailed, - - 394. 

— bearded, - 396. 

Tringee, <vide fandpipers, 

Tufted duck, - - - 585. 

Turky, an American bird, - - 282. 

Tumbully a furname, whence derived, - 23. 

Turnftone, •- - 465. 

Turtle, - *'" - - 297. 

fea, - - - 521. 

Twite, - - - - 346, 


Velvet duck, 

Venifon, falted for ufe, 

Virgil's celebrated Jimile of the nightingale, 

Vitilia navigia, what 


3 6 9« 


784 INDEX.' 

Urchin, - - 133. 

1 its great patieace under torture, - 136. 

Urusy - - - . 23. 


Wagel Cornijh) ~ 536. 

Wagtail, white, = - - 361* 

*— yellow, - 362. 

grey, - - - 363. 

Warblers, - 365. 

' hedge, - - - 376. 

— yellow, - - 378. 

■ • - ■ Scotch, - - _ 379' 

- golden-crefled, - s - ibid. 

*— fedge, - - - 381. 

— ■ grafshopper, - - 382. 

» Dartford, - - 380. 

Wajkejfeu, a great American deer, - - 53. 

Water-ouzel, - - - - 312. 

Water-hen, - - 489. 

W T ater-rat, - - * - 118. 

Webbed-footed water-fowl, - 504. 

Weesel, - - - 89*. 

common, - - ~ 95 *■ 

— coot, - - - 560. 

Welch names of birds, - - - 731. 

Wheat-ear, - - * 383. 

Whimbrel, - 430. 

Whinchat, - 385. 

White-throat, * 387, 

Wigeon, - - * a 601. 


I N D E X. 7 8£ 


Winter mew, - - 537. 

Wolf, - - - 75. 

when extirpated, ~ /&/. 

■ not by K. Edgar, -.■.'„_ #/,£ 

— — writ for the taking wolves, &c. •= - 645. 

Wolf-moneth, - ** , * • yj, 

Wolf-fhed, - - s ibid. 

Wood-chat, - - - - 217. 

Woodcock, - - - • 433- 

its migration, - 4i7» 

Wood-lark, - - - ~ 356. 

Woodpecker, curious ftru&ure of, - - 240, 

green, - - . ibid. 

— great fpotted, - - - 243, 

. middle, - - iM 244. 

left fpotted, » - . 24c, 

Wood-pigeon, or Ring Pigeon, - . 206. 

Woollen manufacture, long neglecled, - - 28, 

. its fuccefs here what owing to, 30. 

Wool, where the beft, - - v - ibid. 

Wren, - - - - -380, 

Writ of Edward I. for extirpating wolves out of 

England, - y£ f 

another for taking of wolves, &c. in Devon* 

Jbire, - - * 5^ a 

Wryneck, - "- A 2 g« 

fore-runner of the Cuckoo, * » 23.8 

Yellow-hammer, or Bunting* a * j 2 | a 


786 INDEX. 


Zoology, claffical, too much neglected by travel- 
lers, - • - - - 252.