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Smithsonian Institution 





Bequest of 
S. Stillman Berry 

■ > i 



CRUlSTACEA. mollttsca. 

O MAILE,0 LITTUS.vemm feorettrniqixe 
^L^CtlOv/qimTti miilta iuvenitis , quam multa 
dictatis / 



Trin ted for 33 enj. White, 














March i, 1777. 



I WISH it had been in my power to have 
given a perfedl conclufion to the Zoolo- 
gy of our country: but my fmall acquaint- 
ance with Insects, and the fourth divifion 
of the Vlth clafs, Lithophyta and Zoopbyta, 
forbad me to meddle with them. The Public 
has little reafon to regret this omiffion, lince 
the univerfal genius John Reinhold For- 
ster, has hinted * a delign of undertaking 
the firft; and my late worthy friend Mr. 
Ellis, (whom Linnaeus fo juftly ftiles 
LynceusJ has in a great meafure executed the 

In my arrangement of the prefent work, 
I have taken the liberty of making a diftind 
clafsof the Crustaceous Animals ; and 
feparated them from Insects, among which 
they are ufually placed. 

* Catalogue of Britifh Infers. 2. 

a 2 I HAVE 


I have paid implicit refpecr. to the Swedijh 
Naturalist, in my cl ailing of the Vermes 
and Shells. I have on another occafion *, 
given my fentiments of that wonderful man, 
(after Ray) the greater! illuminator of the 
ftudy of Nature. I have borrowed from 
him the Latin trivial names; fometimes given 
tranflations of them; fometimes given other 
Englijh names, when I thought them more 

Gratitude prompts me to mention a 
mod irreparable lofs in my amiable friend 
Benjamin Stillingfleet, Efquire, in 
whom were joined the beft heart and the 
ableft head. Benevolence and innocence were 
his infeparable companions. Retirement 
his choice, from the mod affectionate of 
motives J. How great, yet how unnecefTary 
was his diffidence in public ! How ample, his 
inftruction in private ! How clear his infor- 
mation ! How delicate the conveyance ! The 
pupil received advantage, edified by the hu- 
mility of the mailer. Thoroughly imbued 
in Divine Philolbphy, he had an uncommon 

* Synopfis of Quadrupeds, Preface vii. 
% Mr. Gray's Letters, 288. 



infight into the ufes of every objeft of Natu- 
ral Hiftory ; and gave fan&ion to thofe ftu- 
dies, which by trivial obfervers were held 
mofl contemptible. The end of his labors 
was the good of mankind. He attempted 
to deftroy the falfe ihame that attended the 
devotee to Ornithology, the chace of the 
Infect, the fearch after the Cockle, or the 
poring over the Grafs. He proved every 
Subject to be of the greateft fervice to the 
world, by the proper remarks that might 
be made on them. The traveller, the failor, 
the hufbandman might, if they pleafed, draw 
the moft ufeful conclufions from them. The 
reader may receive the proof from his trans- 
lations of various effays, the productions of 
the Linnjean fchool; his own Calendar 
of Flora, and Obfervations on Grasses. 
How much to be lamented is this fhort 
catalogue of the works of fo great, fo good a 
man ! I fpeak not of his BfTay on Mufic, as 
foreign to the Subject. Some of his remarks 
appear in my Britijh Zoology. He thought 
me fo far deferving of his encouragement, as 
to dedicate part of his time to farther ads 
of friendihip. I received the unfinished ■ 
tokens of his regard by virtue of his promife ; 
a 3 the 


the only papers that were refcued from the 
flames, to which his modefty had devoted all 
the reft. 

Defended by fo great an example, (how- 
foever unequally I may follow it) there is 
hardly any need for an apology for the 
fubject. of the following fheets. But if any 
fhould require one, 1 take the liberty of 
delivering it in the words of my ever re- 
gretted friend : 

' From a partial confideration of things, 

* we are very apt to criticife what we ought 
' to admire; to look upon as ufelefs what 
' perhaps we fhould own to be of infinite 
( advantage to us, did we fee a little farther; 

* to be peevifh where we ought to give thanks ; 

* and at the fame time to ridicule thofe, who 
c employ their time and thoughts in exa- 
mining what we were, i. e. fome ofusmoft 

' affu redly were, created and appointed to 

c ftudy. In fhort, we are too apt to treat 

' the Almighty worfe than a rational man 

' would treat a good mechanic ; whofe 

' works he would either thoroughly exa- 

< mine, or be afhamed to find any fault with 

* them. This is the efFe& of a partial confi- 

* deration of Nature ; but he who has can- 

5 * dour 


* dour of mind, and leifure to look farther, 
g will be inclined to cry out : 

e How wond'rous is this fcene ! where all is form'd 

' With number, weight, and meafure ! all defign'd 

f For fome great end ! where not alone the plant 

f Of flately growth ; the herb of glorious hue, 

f Or food-full fubflance ; not the laboring Heed, 

( The herd, and flock that feed us ; not the mino 

f That yields us ftores for elegance, and ufe; 

r The fea that loads our table, and conveys 

f The wanderer man from clime to clime, with all 

1 Thofe rolling fpheres, that from on high fhed down 

c Their kindly influence; not thefe alone, 

' Which ftrike ev'n eyes incurious, but each mofs, 

c Each fhell, each crawling infect holds a rank 

' Important in the plan of Him, who fram'd 

c This fcale of beings ; holds a rank, which loll 

f Wou'd break the chain, and leave behind a gap 

* Which Nature's felf would rue. Almighty Being, 
€ Caufe and fupport of all things, can I view 

* Thefe objects of my wonder ; can I feel 

c Thefe fine fenfations, and not think of thee ? 

* Thou who doll thro' th* eternal round of time ; 
c Doll thro' th' immenfity of fpace exift 

* Alone, fhalt thou alone excluded be 

' From this thy univerfe f Shall feeble man 

c Think it beneath his proud philofophy 

' To call for thy affiftance, and pretend 

f To frame a world, who cannot frame a clod ?— 

' Not to know thee, is not to know ourfelves 

« Is to know nothing—nothing worth the care 

* Of man's exalted fpirit — all becomes 

' Without thy ray divine, one^reary gloom ; 
' Where lurk the monfters of phantaftic brains, 

24 « Order 


< Order bereft of thought, uncaus'd effects, 
' Fate freely a&ing, and unerring Chance. 

* Where meanlefs matter to a chaos finks 

' Or fomething lower Hill, for without thee 
' It crumbles into atoms void of force, 
' Void ofreiiftance — it eludes our thought. 
' Where laws eternal to the varying code 

* Of felf-love dwindle. Intereft, paffion, whim 

■ Take place of right, and wrong, the golden chain 
' Of beings melts away, and the mind's eye 

* Sees nothing but the prefent. AU beyond 
s Is vifionary guefs— is dream — is death.' 



O F 


Genus I. CRABS. 

Plate I. N* i. Pea. 

2. Minute. 

3. Long- horned. 

4. Broad-foot. 
II. 5. Common. 

6. Cleanfer. 

III. 7. Black-clawed. 

IV. 8. Velvet. 
A. 6. 

V. 9. Wrinkled. 

[10. Angular. 
VI. 11. Briftly. 

12, Great-clawed. 


Plate VII. N* 13. Long-clawed M. and F. 
VIII. 14. Horrid. 

15. Four- forked. 
IX. 16. Spider. 

17. Slender-legged, 
A. 18. Weymouth. 

19. Uneven. 

20. Rough. 



21. Vulgar. 


22. Spiny. 


24. Norway. 

32. Atom. 


25. Long-clawed 


26. Plated. 


27. Craw-fiih, 

30. Shrimp. 


28. Prawn. 

31. Linear. 


38. Hermit. 

O N I S C I, 


O N I S C I, &c. 

Plate XVIII. N° i. O. Pfora. 

2. Linearis. 

3. Marinus. 

4. Oceanicns. 

5. Entornpn. 

6. Oeftrum. 

7. Phalangium Balasnae." 
Scolopendra Marina. No. 

Tab. xxv. 

Class VI. WORM % 


Plate XIX. N* 6. Greater Dew-worm. 
6.A. LefTer Dew-worm. 
7. Lug-worm. 
XX. 3. Marine Hair-worm. 

10. Naked Tube-worm. 

13. Geometrical Leech, from 

Roe/el's Infects. 

14. Tuberculated Leech. 

15. Glutinous Hag. 



Diy. II. 


Plate XXL 

N*2i. Depilatory Laplysia. 
23. Warty Doris. 
22. Lemon Doris. 


25. Aculeated Aphrodite. 

26. Scaled Aph. 

35. Ruftic Ascidia. 


27. Pedunculated Aphrodita. 

28. Annulated Aph. 

29. Minute Aph. 

24. Amber Doris. 


32. Blue Nereis. 

S3. Red N. 

in. Sea ScolopendRa. 


41. Five-rowed Holothuria. 


43. Great Cuttle. 


44. Eight-armed C. 


45. Middle C. 

46. Small C. 


56. Dotted Asterias. 


58. HifpidAsT. 
59. A. Flat Ast. 


63. Beaded Ast. 

62. Lizard Ast. 


71. Ten-rayed Ast. 
74. Eatable Echinus. 



75. Cordated Ech, 

76. Oval Ech, 



Class VI. Div. III. SHELLS, 

lateXXXVI.N°i. Hairy Chiton. 

2. Marginated Ch. 

3. Smooth Ch. 


4. Common Acorn. 

5. Sulcated A. 

6. Cornifh A. 


7. Striated A. 

9. Anatiferous A. 


10. Dactyle Pholas. 

11. White Ph. 


12. Curled Ph. 

13. Little Ph. 


XLI. 14. Abrupt Myas. 
XLII. 16. Sand M. 
XLIII. 17. Painter's M. 

18. Pearl M. 
XLIV. 19. Dubious. 
XLV. 20. Pod Razor. 
22. ScymeterR. 



Plate XLVI.N 


Sheath Razor. 


Pellucid R. 


Sub-oval R. 


Kidney R. 



Fragile Telline. 


DeprefTed T. 


Carnation T. 



Flat T. 


Plain T. 



Rayed T. 

3 2 - 

Flefh-coloured T. 


Horny T. 



Aculeated Cockle, 


Fringed C. 


Edible C. 



Smooth C. 


A. Strong MactraJ 



Simpleton's M. 


Strong M. 


Large M. 


Yellow Don ax. 





Commercial Venus. 



Sicilian V. 


A. Antiquated V. 


• 5* 

, Waved V. 


A. Indented V. 



Wrinkled V. 


Antiquated V. 

5 6. 

Oval V. 




Plate LVII.N°53. Lettered Venus. 

54. Fading V. 

34. Rugged Telline. 

Vide p; 

LVIII. 5$. Orbicular Arca. 

59, Bearded A. 

LIX. 61. Great Scallop, 

LX. 62. LefTerSc. 

63. Red Sc. 

LXI. 64. Variegated Sc, 

65. Writhed Sc. 

66. Worn Sc. 

LXII. 70. Larger Anomia^ 

This ad- 

heres to the 


Oyster, N* 6g 


LXIII. 72. Rugged Mussel. 

73. Edible M. 

75. Pellucid M. 

LXIV. 74. Incurvated M. 

76.A. Short M. 

LXV. 76. Umbilicated M. 

LXVI. 77. Great M. 

LXVII. 78. SwanM. 

LXVIII. 79. Duck M. 

LXIX. 80. Brittle Nacre. 



Plate LXX. N°82. Common Gowrie, 
83. Wood Dipper. 
85. CylindricD. 
85.A. Open D. 



PlateLXXI.N°86. Oval Volute. 

87. Jona V. 


§8. Brown Whelk. 

89. Matty W. 

92. Reticulated W. 


90. Waved W. 


91. Striated W. 


94. Corvorant's foot Strombus. 


g$. Urchin Murex. 

gg. Horny M. 


96. Angulated M. Engraven 

alfo in the Frontifpiece. 


98. Defpifed M. 


100. Buccina and Murices. 



103. Minute Buccinum. 


103. Livid Top. 


104. Cornule T. 

106. Umbilical T. 

107. Tuberculated T. 

108. Land T. 


109. Perriwinkle Wreath. 

iii. Barred Wr. 

1 1 1. A. Variety of the fame. 

112. Doubled Wr, 

113. Auger Wr. 

1 17. Bident. 



Plate LXXXII. N i io. Tumid Wreath, 
* in. Studded Wr. 

i 1 6, Reverfe Wr, 
i i 8. Mofs Wr. 
i 1 9. Fafciated Wr. 
LXXXIII. 1 2 1. Rock Snail. 

123. FlatS. 

124. WhirlS. 

1 25. Dwarf S. 

126. Horny S. 
LXXXIV. 128. ExoticS. 

129. Garden S. 

132. Viviparous S. 
LXXXV. 122. Grey S. 

127. Mottled S. 
130. Shrub S. 

133. Zoned S. 
LXXXVI. 135. Eight-fpired S. 

136. Lake S. 

137. Mud S. 

138. EarS. 

139. Smoothed S. 

140. Olive S. 
LXXXVII. 141. Livid Nerite. 

142. River N. 

143. Strand N. 
LXXXVIIL 144. Tuberculated Ha- 


**** UNI- 

*«** UNIVALVE SHELLS not turbinated. 

Plate LXXXIX. 

N e i45. Common Limpet, 

146. Flat L. 

153. Striated L. 


147. Bonnet L. 

148. Inclining L. 

1 50. Tranfparent L. 

151. Smooth L. 

152. SlitL. 

154. CommonTooTH-SHELL^, 


1 55' Spiral Serpule. 

157. Intricate S. 

158. Twined S. 


162. Honey-combedSABELLA 

163. Tube S. 

161. Coarfe S. Vide tab. xxv. 

and 39. 


Beardlefs Ophidium. 

Pr.Zooli'm. Appendix, 

In Plate LXXIX is engraven the Buccinum 
decussatum from Weymouth. It is a young fhell. 
When old, the lip is revolute and granulated. 

In Plate LXIV. at the bottom, are three etch- 
ings of a Mytilus, from Weymouth : a new fpecies, 







With eight teet, or ten -, rarely fix, CANCER. 

Two of the feet clawed. CRAB. 

Two eyes, remote ; for the moft part fixed on a 

ftalk, moveable. 
Tail foliated, and fhort, lodged in a groove in the 


C, Lin. $j/J?. iO$g. Pifum. 

i. Pea* 


C».^ "\ y ITH rounded and frriooth thorax, 
entire and blunt. With a tail of 
the fize of the body, which com- 
monly is of the bulk of a pea. 

Inhabits the mufTel, and unjuftly has acquired 
the repute of being poifonous. The fwelling after 
eating of mufifels is wholly constitutional •, for one 
that is affected by it, hundreds remain uninjured. 

Vol. IV. B Crabs, 

CRABS. Class V, 

Crabs, either of this kind, or allied to them, 
the antients believed to have been the confentaneous 
inmates of the pinn<e^ and other bivalves ; which 
being too ftupid to perceive the approach of their 
prey, were warned of it by their vigilant friend. 
Oppian tells the fable prettily *. 

In clouded deeps below the Pinna hides, 
And thro' the filent paths obfcurely glides ; 
A ftupid wretch, and void of thoughtful care, 
He fprms no bait, nor lays the tempting fnare. 
But the dull fluggard boafts a Crab his friend, - 
Whofe bufy eyes the coming prey attend. 
One room contains them, and the partners dwell 
Beneath the convex of one Hoping (hell - 9 
Deep in the wat'ry vaft the comrades rove, 
And mutual int'reft binds their conftant love ; 
That wifer friend the lucky juncture tells, 
When in the circuit of his gaping (hells 
Fiih wand'ring enter -, then the bearded guide 
Warns the dull mate, and pricks his tender fide ; 
He knows the hint, nor at the treatment grieves, 
But hugs th' advantage, and the pain forgives : 
His clofing (hells the Pinna fudden joins, 
And 'twixt the prefTmg fides his prey confines ; 
Thus fed by mutual aid, the friendly pair 
Divide their gains, and all the plunder fhare. 

• Halieut, lib. ii< He calls the crab n»woptAaf, cuftos Pinna, 

C. Lin, 


Class V. CRABS, 

C Lin. Syft. 1040. Gronom. Zooph. No, 962* Minutus. 

Bapr, ii. p. 26. tab.iv.f, 1. 2. 2. Mlwute, 

Cr. with a fmooth and fomewhat fquare thorax ; 
the edges lharp ; horns fhort ; lefs than the laft. 
Inhabits our fhores among Alga. 

C. Lin. Syft. 1040. Gronoiu Zooph. No, 968. Longicornis. 

Bajier, ii. /. 26. tab* iv. /. 3. 3. Long- 


Cr. with a round fmooth thorax ; with large 
claws •, very long horns ; fize of the laft. 
Inhabits our fhores. 

Cancer latipes. Rondel, 56$. Groncu. Zoopb, No, 954, Latipes. 

Cancer latipes parvus oblongus variegatus. Plancus, 34* 4. Broad* 
tab. iii. yfg-. 7. foot. 

Cr. with a fub-cordated body •, fhort feelers 5 
angular claws ; five fmall teeth on each fide ; the 
hind legs ovated. 

C. Lin. Syji. 1043. Bajier, ii. tab. 11, f. I. Manas. 

Faun. Suec. No. 2026. Groncv. Zooph. 955. 5. Common, 

Cr. with three notches on the front; five ferrated 
teeth on each fide* claws ovated; next joint, 

B 2 toothed % 

CRABS. Class V, 

toothed ; hind feet Tubulated ; dirty green color ; 
red when boiled. 

Inhabits all our fhores ; and lurks under the 
Alga^ or burrows under the fand. Is fold j and 
eaien by the poor of our capital. 

Depurator. C. Lin. Syft. 1043. No. 23. 
6. Clean- Seb. Muf. iii. tab. xv'in.fig, 9. 


Cr. with a fub-cordated body •, thorax on each 
fide quinque-dentated ; front indented \ claws an- 
gulated -, fecond joint fpined -, hind legs have the 
two laft joints ovated and ciliated. 

A. vi. Variety with a tubercalated farface. Vide tab. iv. 

Inhabits generally the deeps ; ftcds on dead 
fidi : hence called the purifier or deanfer, as caufing 
the removal of putrid bodies. 

Fagtirus. C. Lin. Syjl. 1 044. Growv. Zccpb. No. 967. 

7. Black- Bclon. aruai. 36S. Rondel, pi/c. 560. FaVn. cuec* No. 2028. 

clawed. Merret'sPinax. 

Cr. with a crenated thorax ; foooth body ; quin- 
que-dentated front; fmooth claws with black tips ; 
hind feet fubulated. 

€ Inhabits 

Class V. CRABS. 

Inhabits the rocky coafts ; the moft delicious 
meat of any ; cafts its fhell between Chrijlmas and 

The tips of the claws of this fpecies are ufed in 
medicine ; intended to abforb acidities in the fto- 
mach and bowels. 

Cr. with the thorax quinque-dentated ; body Velutims. 
covered with fhort brown velvet-like pile \ claws 8 ' Velvet. 
covered with minute tubercles -, fmall ipines round 
the top of the fecond joint •, hind legs broadly 
ovated. This is among the fpecies taken notice of 
by Arijlotle * on account of the broad het 9 which, 
he fays, affift them in fwimming : as web-feet do 
the water-fowl. 

Inhabits the weilern coafts of Anglefea. 

Cr. with the thorax quinque-dentated ; fcrrated ; Corrugate, 
body wrinkled tranfverfely \ claws furnifhed with 9- Wrink- 
a fingle fpine on the firfl and fecond joint > fangs 
ferrated ; lail pair of legs ovated. 

Found on the fhores of She, oppofite to Loch 

Cr. with a rectangular body \ the thorax armed Angulatus. 
near the corner with two fpines \ the claws very lo - AliGXJ * 

* De Pen. dnim* lib. iv, r. 8. 

B 3 long-, 

CRABS. Class V, 

long ; the upper fangs black ; legs (lender and 

TVey mouth. From the Portland cabinet. 

Hirtellus. C, Lin. Syji. 1045. Faun. Suec. No. 2029. 

ii.Bristly. Cancer hirfutus. Rondel. 568. 

Cr. with a hairy thorax ; on both fides (lightly 
quinque-dentated \ claws ovated, (lightly echi- 
nated, and hairy -, feet, briftly and fubulated. A 
fmall fpecies ♦, of a reddifh color. 
Found beneath (tones. 

Platycheks. Cr. with a tridentated front ; thorax entire ; claws 
clawed. " °f a ^ ar g e ^ lze 5 deprefled, and greatly ciliated on 
the outiide -, only three fubulated legs on each 
fide ; body little bigger than a horfe-bean, and 
almoft round: Antenna very long and turning 
back, when not in ufe. 

Inhabits the Alga on the coaft of Anglefea and 
the Hebrides. 

Cajfi-velaunus. £ R# w ith bifurcated front •, a fpine at the corner 
clawed. of each eye ; another on each fide of the thorax 
towards the tail ; body ovated and fmooth j An- 
tenna of the length of the body ; the claws above j 
as long again as the body -, feet fubulated. The 
fuppofed female \ of the fame form -, only the 

claws not half lb long. 


Class V. CRABS. 

Inhabits the deep near Holyhead and Red- 
Wharf Anglefea. Dredged up. 

Cancer. Lin. Syft. 1047. Horridus. 

C. fpinofus. Seb. Muf. iii. tab. xxii. /. I. Gronov. Zoopb. i^.Horrid, 

No. 976. 
Fans, Trold Crabber. Pontop. Norway ii. 176. tab* p. 177. 

Cr. with a projecting bifurcated fnout, the end 
diverging ; body heart- fhaped ; and with the claws 
and legs covered with long and very fharp fpines. 
A large fpecies. 

Inhabits the rocks on the eaftern coafl of Scotland. 
Common to Norway and Scotland, as many of the 
marine animals and birds are. 

Cr. with a quadri-furcated fnout ; the two middle Fetra-odon. 
fpines the longeft j thorax fpiny ; body heart- FO rked. 
fhaped and uneven ; claws long •, legs (lender. 
Inhabits the IJle of Wight. 

Cancer. Lin. Syji. 1044. 

Faun. Suec. No. 2030. Jonfton Exang. tab. v. Jig. 13. Araneus. 

16. Spider., 

Cr. with a bifid fnout ; briftly thorax 5 body, 
h e art- fn aped, and tuberculated ; claws long and 
oblongly ovated \ legs llender, long and fubulated. 
Inhabits our Ihores. Often covered with a byjfus, 
as in fpecimen xvi. A. 

B 4 Cr. with 

CRABS/ Class V. 

Phalangium. Cr. with a bifid fiiout ; heart-(haped, fm all tuber- 

l"i Sle\- 

•er-lep'p. culated body; long claws; legs af a vaft length, 
very (lender, and hairy. 

Inhabits the depths on the coafts of Anglefea. 

Dorfettenjls. Cr, with a cordated body, rugged and bent, with 

mouth. a ^ ew ^P^ nes ; ver > 7 thick, and long claws ; and 
very (lender legs, the firft pair much longer than 
the reft. 

Weymouth. From the Portland cabinet. 

Tuberofus. Cr. with a tuberous, fmooth back; fmall claws, 
iq.Uneven. and niort legs ; fno'ut (lightly bifid. 

From the fame cabinet. 

Afper. Cr. with a cordated body 5 bifid fnout ; legs and 

to, Rouch. c j aws fa on . t h fe and the body rough and fpiny. 
From the fame cabinet. 


Class V. 


Cylindric body. 
Long antenna. 
Long tail 


Cancer. Lht. Syft. 1050. No. 
Aftacirs. Rondel. 538. 

2 1. Vulgar, 

L.TY7ITH a fmooth thorax; (hort ferrated 
V V fnout •, very long antenna ; and between 
them two fhorter, bifid ; claws and fangs, large, 
the greater tuberculated, the lerTer ferrated on the 
inner edge ; four pair of legs ; fix joints in the 
tail ; caudal fins rounded. 

Inhabits all the rocky mores of our ifland ; but 
chiefly where there is a depth of water. In Llyn y 
in Caernarvon/hire, a certain fin all lobfter, nothing 
different except in fize, burrows in the fand. 

Brought in vaft quantities from the Orkney ifles, 
and many parts of the eaftern coaft of Scotland, to 
the London markets. Sixty or feventy thoufand 
are annually brought, in well-boats, from the 
neighborhood of Montrofe alone *. 

Lobfters fear thunder ; and are apt to ca/l their 
claws on a great clap. I am told they will do the 
fame on firing a great gun; and that when men of 

Tour in Scotland, 1772, part. n. p. 146. 


10 LOBSTERS. Class. V. 

war meet a lobfter-boat, a jocular threat is ufed, 
That, if the matter does not fell them good lob- 
fters, they will faluie him. 

The habitation of this fpecies is in the cleared 
water -, at the foot of rocks that impend over the 
fea. This has given opportunity of examining 
more clofely into the natural hiftory of the animal, 
than many others who live in an element that prohi- 
bits moil of the human refearches, and limits the 
inquiries of the mod inquifitive. Lobflers are 
found on moft of the rocky ccafls of Great Britain, 
Some are taken by the hand -, but the greater 
quantity in pots, a fort of trap formed of twigs, 
and baited with garbage ; they are formed like a 
wire moufe-trap, fo that when the lobfler gets in, 
there is no return. Thefe are fattened to a cord 
funk into the fea, and their place marked by a 

They begin to breed in the fpring, and continue 
breeding moft part of the fummer. They pro- 
pagate more humano j and are extremely prolific. 
Doctor B after fays he counted 12,444 eggs under 
the tail, befides thofe that remained in the body, 
unprotruded. They depofit thefe eggs in the 
fand, where they are loon hatched. 

Lobflers change their cruft annually. Previous 
to their putting off their old one, they appear fick, 
languid, and reftlefs. They totally acquire a new 
coat in a few days ; but during the time that 
they remain defenceids they feek ibme very lonely 


Class V. LOBSTERS. n 

place, for fear of being attacked and devoured by 
iuch of their brethren that are not in the fame weak 

It is alfo remarkable, that Lobfters and Crabs 
will renew their claws, if by accident they are torn 
off -, and it is certain they will grow again in a few 

They are very voracious animals, and feed on 

fea-weeds, on garbage, and on all forts of dead 

Additional to this, I beg leave to give an accu- 
rate account of the natural hiftory of this animal, 
communicated to me by the ingenious Mr. Travis, 
furgeon, at Scarborough. 

e Scarborough, 25th Off. 1768. 
< S I R, 
c W E have vaft numbers of fine Lobfters 
c on the rocks, near our coaft. The large ones 
1 are in general in their bed feafon from the middle 

* of Oclober till the beginning of May. Many 

* of the fmall ones, and fome few of the larger 
c fort are good all the fummer. If they be four 
c inches and a half long or upwards, from the tip 
c of the head to the end of the back fhell, they 
6 are called fizeable Lobfters. If only four inches, 
1 they are efteemed half fize •, and when fold, two 
6 of them are reckon'd for one of fize. If they 

1 be under four inches, they are called pawks, and 

6 are 

»' LOBSTERS. Class V. 

c are not faleable to the carriers, though, in reality, 
1 they are in the fummer months fuperior to the 
' large ones in goodnefs, The pincers of one of 

* the lobders large claws are furnrfhed with 

* knobs, and thofe of the other claw are always 

* ferrated. With the former it keeps firm hold of 
1 the (talks of fubmarine plants, and with the 
s latter it cuts and minces its food very dextroufly. 
L The knobbed or numb claw, as the Fifhermen 
4 call it, is fometimes on the right and fometimes 
' on the left, indifferently. It is more dangerous 
& to be feized by them with the cutting claw than 
1 the other •, but in either cafe, the quickeft way 
8 to get di fen gaged from the creature is to pluck 
4 oil its claw. It feems peculiar to the Lobfter 
6 and Crab, when their claws are pulled off, that 

* they will grow again, but never fe large as at 

* firft. 

8 The Female or Hen Lobfter does not caft 

* h^r fhell the fame year that me depofits her ova> 
■ or, in the common phrafe, is in berry. When 
; the ova firft appear under her tail, they are very 

* fmall and extremely black-, but they become in 

* fucceffion almoft as large as ripe elder-berries 
4 before they be depofited, and turn of a dark 
1 brown color, efpecially towards the end of the 
4 time of her depofiring them. They continue full 
1 and depofiting the ova in conftant iuccefuon, as 
1 long as any of that black fubftance can be found 

1 in 

Class V. LOBSTERS. *3 

c in their body, which, when boiled, turns of a 

* beautiful red color, and is called their coral 
■ Hen Lobfters are found in berry at all times of 

* the year, but chiefly in v/inter. It is a common 

< miftake, that a berried Hen is always in perfection 

* for the table. When her berries appear large 
c and brownifh, me will always be found exhausted, 

* watery, and poor. Though the ova be call at 
' all times of the year, they feem only to come to 
6 life during the warm fummer months of July and 
c Auguft. Great numbers of them may then be 
c found, under the appearance of tad-poles, fwim- 
c ming about the little pools left by the tides among 
c the rocks, and many alfo under their proper 

< form, from half an inch to four inches in length. 

c In calling their fhells, it is hard to conceive 
c how the Lobfler is able to draw the filh of their 
6 large claws out, leaving the fnells entire and 
c attached to the fhell of their body; in which 
c ftate they are conflantly found. The flihermen 
'« fay the Lobfter pines before calling, till the fifh 
t in its large claw is no thicker than the quill of a 
' goofe, which enables it to draw its parts through 
1 the joints and narrow pafiage near the trunk. The 

* new (hell is quite membraneous at firft, but 
c hardens by degrees. Lobllers only grow in fize 
« while their fhells are in their foft ftate. They are 
« chofen for the table, by their being heavy in 
« proportion to their fize i and by the hardnefs of 

' their 

1 their (hells on their fides, which, when in per- 
c feclion, will not yield to moderate prefTuje. 

* Barnacles and other fmall fhell-fifh adhering to 

* them are efteemed certain marks of fuperior good- 

* nefs. Cock-Lobfters are in general better than 

* the Hens in winter -, they are diftinguifhed by 
4 the narrownefs of their tails, and by their having 

* a ftrong fpine upon the center of each of the 

* tranfverfe proceiTes beneath the tail, which fup- 
« port the four middle plates of their tails. The 
1 fifh of a Lobfter's claw is more tender, delicate, 

* and eafy of digeflion than that of the tail. Lob- 
V fters are not taken here in pots, as is ufual where 
1 the water is deeper and more flill than it is upon 
' our coaft. Our fifhermen ufe a bag-net fixed to 
c an iron hoop, about two feet in diameter, and 

* fufpended by three lines like a fcale. The bait is 

* commonly fifh-guts tied to the bottom and middle 

* of the net. They can take none in the day-time, 
c except when the water is thick and opake ; they 

* are commonly caught in the night, but even 

* then it is not poffible to take any when the fea 
? has that luminous appearance which is fuppofed 

* to proceed from the nereis noftiluca* In fummer, 
1 the Lobflers are found near the more, and thence 
' to about fix fathoms depth of water ; in winter, 
6 they are feldom taken in lefs than twelve or 

* fifteen fathoms. Like other infects, they are 
4 much more active and alert in warm weather 

' than 

Class V. LOBSTERS. 15 

4 than in cold. In the water they can run nim- 
4 bly upon their legs or fmall claws, and if alarmed 
c can fpring tail-foremoft, to a furprifmg diftance, 
4 as fwift as a bird can fly. The flfhermen can 
4 fee them pafs about thirty feet, and by the 
4 fwiftnefs of their motion, fuppofe they may go 
4 much farther. Athenaus remarks this circum- 
4 fiance, and fays, that the incurvated Lobflers will 
c fpring with the activity ^dolphins. Their eyes 
4 are raifed upon moveable bafes, which enables 
4 them to fee readily every way. When frightened, 
4 they will fpring from a confiderable diftance to 
4 their hold, in the rock ; and what is not lefs fur- 
4 prifing than true, will throw themfelves into 
4 their hold in that manner, through an entrance 
4 barely fufficient for their bodies to pafs \ as is 
4 frequently feen by the people who endeavor to 
4 take them at Filey Bridge, In frofty weather, 
4 if any happen to be found near the more, they 
4 are quite torpid and benumbed. A fizeable 
4 Lobfter is commonly from one pound to two in 
4 weight. There was one taken here this fummer 
4 which weighed above four, and the fifhermen fay 
4 they have feen fome which were of fix pounds, 
4 but thefe are very rare. 

4 I am, Sir, Wc! 

I conclude with faying, that the Lobfter was 

well known to the ancients, and that it is well de- 

3 fcribed 

*6 LOBSTERS. Class V, 

(bribed by Arijloile, under the name of Ar**e? * \ 
that it is found as far as the Hellefpont % and is called, 

at Ccnftantincpk, -f- Liczuda> and Lichuda. 

Hcm*rus. Cancer. Zr«. 5>>. 1053. 

22. S?,ny.. Locu:1a. la Langoufle. «&»<&/. /?>?. 535, 

L. with a front broad, armed with two large fpin^ee, 
and between them a fmaller, guards to the eyes, 
which are prominent; Antenna longer than body 
and tail : (piny at their origin \ beneath them two 
lefler ; claws fhort, imall, fmooth ; fangs fmall, 
tingle, hinged ; legs Gender and fmooth ; body and 
thorax horrid with fpines -, tail longer than that of 
the common Loblier; on each part, above, is a 
white fpct, the bottoms are crooked and ferratedj 
the tail-fin, partly membranaceous, partly crufta- 

Inhabits our rocky coafts 3 often taken about 
the promontory of Llyn, and Bardfey ifle. 

The French name of this fpecies has been bar* 
baroufly tranflated into the Long-cyfier. 

• 11:1. An. Jib. IV. C 2. 

\ BtUnHifi. PoiJ/bns. 557. 

C, It* 

Class V. LOBSTERS. 17 

C. Lin. Syji. 1053. No. 75. Faun. Suec. No. 2040. Ar8us. 

Squillalata. Ro«JtI. S *S> 23. Broad; 

L. with two broad ferrated plates before the eyes •, 
fliort furcated antenna \ body and tail flat and 

Size of the fpiny Lobfter. 

Found by Doctor Borlafe on Car eg Killas 9 in 
Mounts-Bay. Is common to the four quarters of 
the world. 

Cancer Norvegicus. Lin. Syft, 1053, Norwegicus. 

Sandfiord. Pontop. Norway, ii. 175. tab. p. 177. 2 4- iNoR " 


L. with a long fpiny fnout •, thorax (lightly fpiny $ 
body marked with three ridges ; claws very long, 
angular, and (along the angles) fpiny •, antenna 
long -, legs (lender, clawed \ tail long ; elegantly 
marked with fmooth and (hort-haired fpaces, 
placed alternately. 

Common length, from tip of the claws to the 
end of the tail near nine inches. 

Leo. Rondel. 542. Bamffius. 

25. Long 


L. with a fmooth thorax, with three (harp (lender 

fpines in front •, claws fix inches and a half long, 

Render and rough ; fangs ftraitj legs weak, briftly; 

Vol. IV. C antenna 

.iS LOBSTERS. Class V. 

antenna (lender, two inches and a half long ; tail 
and body about five inches. 

Taken near Bamff. Communicated to me by 
the Reverend Mr. Cor diner, and engraven from his 
beautiful drawing. 

Strigofus. Cancer. Lin. Sjjt* 1052. 
26. Plated. 

L. with a pyramidal fpiny fnout ; thorax elegantly 
plated ; each plate marked near its junction with 
fhort ftria •> claws much longer than the body, 
thick, echinated, and tuberculated ; the upper 
fang trifid j only three legs, fpiny on their fides ; 
tail broad. 

The largeft of this fpecies is about fix inches 

Inhabits the coafls of Anglefea ; under (tones 
and fuci. Very active. If taken, flaps its tail 
againft the body with much violence and noife. 

4ftmfi Cancer. L:n. Syjl. 1 c c 1 

27. Craw- 


L. with a projecting fnout flightly ferrated on the 
fides-, a fmooth thorax*, back fmooth, with two 
fmall fpines on each fide 5 claws large, befet with 
fmall tubercles 5 two firft pair of legs clawed \ 
the two next fubulated •, tail confifts of five joints -, 
the caudal fins rounded. 

c Inhabits 

Class V. LOBSTERS. 19 

Inhabits many of the rivers of England \ lodged 
jn holes which they form in the clayey banks. 
Cardan fays that this fpecies is a fign of the good- 
fiefs of water-, for in the beft water, they are boiled 
into the reddeft color *. 

Squilla Crangon. Rondel. 547. Serratus. 

28. P*awr« 

L. with a long ferrated fhont bending upwards ; 
three pair of very long filiform feelers -, claws 
fmall, furnifhed with two fangs ; fmooth thorax ; 
five joints to the tail ; middle caudal fin fubu- 
lated ; two outmoft flat and rounded. 

Frequent in feveral mores, amidft loofe Hones % 
fometimes found at fea, and. taken on the furface 
Over thirty fathoms depth of water; cinereous when 
frefh \ of a fine red when boiled. 

Cancer Sqailla. Lin. Syft. 105 1. Faun. Suet, No. 203 7. Squilla. 

Squilla Batava. Seb. Muf. iii. p. 55. tab. xxi. fig. 9. 10. 29, White q 

Squilla fufca. Bafter ii. 30. tab. iii.^. 5. 
Squilla Gibba. Rondel. 549. 

L. with a fnout like the prawn, but deeper and 
thinner; and feelers longer in proportion to the 
bulk •, the fab-caudal fins rather larger ; is at full, 
growth not above half the fize of the former. 

* Quoted by Plot. Hift. Stafford/. 185, 

C 2 Inhabit^- 

so LOBSTERS. Class V. 

Inhabits the coafts of Kent ; is fold in London 
under the name of the white Jhrimp, as it afTumes 
that color when boiled. 

Crangon. Cancer Crangon.- Lin. Syft. 1052. 

30. Shrimp. Squilla marina Batava. Bafter. ii. 27. tab. ii'i.jfjg. 1. II 
Reefel infect, iii. tab. lxiii. 

L. with long (lender feelers, and between them 
two thin projecting lamina ; claws with a fingle- 
hooked moveable fang •, three pair of legs ; feven 
joints in the tail -, the middle caudal fin fubulated ; 
the four others rounded and fringed ; a fpine on the 
exterior fide of each of the outmoft. 

Inhabits the fandy mores of Britain, in vail 
quantities. The mojl delicious of the genus. 

linearis. Cancer. Lin. Syft. T056. 

31. Linear. Lefler garnel or fhrimp. Marten's Spitzberg. 115. tab. P. 

L. with long (lender claws, placed very near the 
liead, with a (lender body, and fix legs on each fide ; 
is about half an inch long. 

Found in the iand, on the more of Flint/hire; 
is very frequent in Spitzbergen. 


Class V. LOBSTERS. 21 

Cancer. Lin. Syjl. 1056. Atomos, 

Mirum animalculum in corallinis, 13 c. Bafter. i. 43. tab. iv. 32. Atom. 

L. with a flender body ; filiform antenna ; three 
pair of legs near the head ♦, behind which are two 
pair of oval veficula\ beyond, are three pair of legs, 
and a flender tail between the laft pair. 

Very minute. The help of the microfcope 
often neceffary for its infpection, 

C. Lin. Syjl. IO55. No, 8 1. Pulex. 

33. Flea. 

L. with five pair of legs, and two pair of claws 
imperfect -, with twelve joints in the body. 

Very common in fountains and rivulets ; fwims 
fwiftly in an incurvated pofture on its back •, em- 
braces and protects its young between the legs; 
does not leap. 

L. Liit. Syjl. 1055. No. 82. Locufta. 

Ro/el Infett. Hi. tab. 62. 3 + . Locust, 

L. with four antenna -, two pair of imperfect claws •, 
the firft joint ovated ; body confifts of fourteen 
joints, in which it differs from the former. 

Abounds in fummer-time on the fhores, beneath 
{tones and alga > leaps about with vafl agility. 

C 3 Cancer. 

il LOBSTERS. Glass V f 

Salivas. Cancer. Lin. Syft. 1056. 

35- ?alt. 

L. with jointed body ; hands without claws •, an- 
tenna fhorter than the body 5 ten pair of legs ; tail 
iiliform, Tubulated -, very minute. 

Difcovered by Doctor Maty in the fait pans at 


Btagnalis. Cancer. Lin. Sjfi. 1056. 

36; Pl).\D. 

L. with jointed body ; hands without claws - y a bind 

Inhabits the crannies of rocks, in frefh waters ; 
fufpecled by Linnaus to be the larva of an Ephe- 

The two laft never fell under my notice. 

Mantis. C. Lin. Syji. 1 054. No. 76. 

37. Mantis. 

L. with fhort antenna \ fhort thorax^ and two 
pinnated fubftances on each fide ; three pair of 
claws with hairy ends \ the body long, divided by 
eight fegments : two fins on each fide of the tail ; 
tail conoid, with fpines on the margin. 
From the Portland cabinet. 



Class V. LOBSTERS. 23 

Cancer. Lin. Syft. 1049. Bernardus. 

38. Hermit. 

C, with rough claws ; the right claw is the longer 5 
the legs Tubulated, and ferrated along the upper 
ridge j the tail naked and tender, and furnifhed 
with a hook, by which it fecures itfelf in its lodg- 

This fpecies is parafitic, and inhabits the empty 
cavities of turbinated friells, changing its habita- 
tion according to its increafe of growth, from the 
fmall nerite 9 to the large whelk. Nature denies it 
the ftrong covering behind, which it has beftowed 
on others of this clafs, and therefore directs it to 
take refuge in the deferted cafes of other animals. 

Arlfiotle defcribes it very exactly under the name 
of KugKiviov *. By the moderns it is called the fol- 
dier, from the idea of its dwelling in a tent ; or the 
hermit^ from retiring into a cell. 

* gift. An. lib. iy. c. ^.Jib. V, f, 15. 

Q 4 










Marinus. Pallas Spicil fafc. ix, 
tab. iv. f. 6. 







VII? Phalangium Balasnas. 

Scolopendra Marina, 




II. S O F T. 





Plinii lib. xi. c. 3. 

SLOW, foft, expanding, tenacious of life, fome- 
times capable of being new formed from a 
part ; the enliveners of wet places ; without head 
or feet ; hermaphroditical ; to be diftinguifhed by 
their feelers. 

Not improperly called by the ancients, imperfeft 
animals \ being deflitute of head, ears, nofe, and 
feet, and for the moil part of eyes - 9 mod different 
from infects ; from which Linnaeus has long fince 
removed thefe works of Nature. 

They may be divided into Intestine, Soft, 
Testaceous, Lithqphytes, and Zoophytes. 


WORMS. Class VL 
The Intestine (heretofore ftyled the earthly) 
perforate all things by help of the great fimpli- 
city of their form. The Gordius pierces the 
clay, that the water may percolate-, the Lum- 
ericus, the common foil, lead it mould want 
moifture ; the Myxine, dead bodies, in order 
that they may fall innoxioufly to pieces ; the 
Teredo, wood, to promote its decay. In like 
manner, Pholades, and fome forts of muffels pe- 
netrate even rocks, to effect their difiblution. 

The Mollusca, or Soft, are naked, furnilhed 
with arms ; for the mofl part wander through the 
vafl tract of ocean -, by their phofphoreous quality 
illuminate the dark abyfs, reflecting lights to the 
heavens -, thus what is below correfponds with the 
lights above. 

Thefe Mollusca often become the inhabitants 
of teftaceous calcareous covers, which they carry 
about with them, and often they themfelves pene- 
trate calcareous bodies •, like infects, are multiplied 
into infinite variety : and exhibit, both in form 
and colors, fplendid examples of the excelling 
powers of the all-mighty Artificer. Nor are they 
without their ufes -, feveral fpecies afford a delicious 
and nounfhing nutriment. The healing art calls 
in the fnail in ccnfumptive cafes ; and the fhells 
calcined are of known efficacy in flubborn acidities. 
Shells are the great manure of lands in many pares 
of thefe kingdoms. The pearls of Great Britain 
have been celebrated from the time of Cafar. 




E R M E S. 


I. With a filiform body, of equal thicknefs ; GORDIUS. 

fmooth. HAIR-WORM, 

Gordius. Lin. Syft. 1075. Faun* §uec. No. 2068. 'dquaticus. 

Vitulus aquatieus. Gefner aq. I, Water^ 

G. /~\F a pale color, with the ends black. 

V^/ Inhabits boggy places, and clay at the 
bottom of water. 

G. Lin. Syjl. 1075. Faun. Suec. No* 2069. jfrgifla&Wi 

2. Clay* 

G. of an uniform yellow color. 

Cr. tin* 


WORMS. Class VI. 

Marinus* G. Lin. Syft & 1075. 

3. Marine. 

G. filiform, twifted fpirally and lying flat. Tab. xx. 

fig- 3- 

Common in the inteftines of the herring and other 

fea-fifh. Ariftotle * remarks that the Ballerus and 

lillo are infefted in the dog-days with a worm that 

torments them fo much, that they rife to the top 

of the water, where the heat deftroys them. Bleaks 

are obferved to rife at certain feafons to the furface, 

and tumble about for a confiderable fpace, in feem- 

ing agonies. I fufpect them to be affe&ed in the 

fame manner with thofe Ariftotelian fifh. 

ASCARIS. II. Slender filiform body, attenuated at each end, 

Vermicularis. Afcaris. Lin. Syjl. 1076. 
4. Vermi- 

Asc. With faint annular ruga ; thicker at one 
end than the other ; mouth tranfverfe. 

Inhabits, according to Linnaeus, boggy places, 
and under the roots of decayed plants ; found 
in the reflum of children and hories ; often ob- 
ferved in the dung of the laft ; emaciates children 
greatly - 9 is fometimes vomited up, 

Hifi. An. lib. viii. c. 20. 


Class VI. WORMS. 


Afcaris. Lin. Syft. 1076. Lumhrkoides* 

5. Common. 

Asc. with a (lender body, Tubulated at each end ; 
but the tail triangular; grows to the length of 
nine inches ; viviparous ; and produces vaft num- 

Inhabits the human inteftines. 

III. Slender annulated body, furnimed with a LUMBRICUS. 
lateral pore. DEW-WORM. 

Lumbricus. Lin. Sj/f. 1076. Faun. Suec, No. 2073. Terreftrzs, 

Rati infetl. 1. 6. Dew. 

L. with a hundred and forty rings; head taper; 
mouth, at the end, round ; fore part of the worm 
cylindric, the reft depreiTed ; at about one third of 
its length is a prominent annulated belt; on each 
fide of the belly a row of minute fpines, diftin- 
guifhable only by the touch ; ailiftant in motion. 
Tab. xix. Jig. 6. 

A variety only of the former ; excepting in fize 3 Mt 
relembling it. Rati infett. 2. 

Inhabits the common foil, and by perforating, 
renders it apt to receive the rain ; devours the 

Vol. IV, D cotyledons 



34 WORMS. Class VI. 

cotyledons of plants, or part of the feed that vege- 
tates ; comes out at night to copulate ; is the food 
of moles, hedge-hogs, birds, &c. In Englijh^ 
the Dezv or Lobworm, Tab. xix. fig. 6. A. 

hitsfiinalis. Inhabits the lefTer inteftines of the human 

B. Intesti- 
nal, fpecies, chiefly of children; does not differ in the 

left from the former kinds. 

Marinus. L. marinus. Lin. Sjji 9 1077. Faun. Suec. No. 2074. Belon. 

7. Lug. aq. 44.4. 

L. with round mouth, and circular body annu- 
lated with greater and lefTer rings ; the firfl pro- 
minent ; on each of them are two tufts of fhort 
bridles placed oppofite ; the tail-part is fmooth ; 
eleg-ant ramifications are obferved to iiTue from 


among the tufts in the living worm j is foft and 
full of blood. 

Inhabits fandy mores, burying itfelf deep ; but 
its place difiinguifhable by a little rifing, with an 
aperture on the furface ; of great ufe as a bait 
for fifli. Tab. xlx.fig. 7. 

IV. Flattifh 

Class VI. Vt O R M & 3$ 

IV„ Flattilh body •, a; pore at the extremity, and on FJSCIOLA* 
the belly. 

Fafciola. Lin. Syft. 1 077. Faun. Suec. No. 2075. -Ameen* Hepatica* 
Acad. 8. Liver, 

Risfel. app. tab. xxxii. f. 5. Borlafe Nat, Hift. Cornwall, 
tab* xx. jig. 10. 

F. with an ovated body, a little fharper on the 
fore part; in the centre is a white fpot, with a line 
of the fame color pafTing towards each extremity. 
Infefls the livers of fheep and hares. 

Fafciola. Lin. Syft. 1078. Faun. Suec, No. 20760 Innftthatiu 

Lin, Syft. ed. vi. 70. tab. vi. /. 1. 9. Intes- 


F. with a long (lender body, if extended ; when 
contracted, of a fub-oval form. 

Inhabits the inteftines of frefh-water Mi ; dis- 
covered in breams and ftickkbacks* 

D 2 V. A 

3 6 W O R M S. Class VI. 

UPUNCULUS. V. A (lender lengthened body. 
rUBE-WORM. ? ; 

Mouth, at the very end ; attenuated, cy- 


Aperture on the fide of the body. 

Kudus. Slpunculus. Lin'. Sjfi. 107S. 

10. Naked. Vermis macrorhynchopterus. Rondel. Zooph. no. Ge/aer* 
aq. 1026. 
Syrinx. Bohedj'ch. marin. 93. tab. vii. fig. 6. 7. 

T. With a cylindric extended mouth, laciniated 
round the inner edges ; body rounded, taper, at 
the end globofe \ about eight inches long \ aper- 
ture at the fide, a little below the mouth. Tab. xx. 
fig. 10. 

Inhabits the Tea. 

H1RVDO. VI. Body oblong ; moves by dilating the head and 


tail, and railing the body into an arched 


lledUhiahs. H. Liu. Syfi. IO79. Ftfra. finr. #0.2079. RaiiinfeS. 3. 
II. Me d 1 - Q Srr /*/*. 425. 


L. With a brown body, marked with fix yellow 


Class VI. W O R M S. > 37 

Inhabits flanding waters. The bed of phlebo- 
tomifls, cfpecially in hemorrhoids. The practice 
is as old as the time of Pliny, who gives it the 
apt name of hirudo fangnifuga. Leeches were ufed 
inftead of cupping-glades for perfons of plethoric 
habits, and thofe who were troubled with the gout 
in the itzx.. He aiTerts, that if they left their head 
in the wound, as fometimes happened, it was in- 
curable ; and informs us, that Mejfalinus, a perfon 
of confular dignity, loll his life by fuch an acci- 
dent *. 

H. Lin. Syft. ^ Faun. Suec. No. 2078, Sanguifuga* 

Kirudo maxime apud ncs vulgaris. Rati infefl. 3. iz.^Horse, 

L. with a depreffed body; in the bottom of the 
mouth are certain great fharp tubercles or whitilh 
caruncles. The (tendered part is about the mouth ; 
the thickeft towards the tail •, the tail itfelf very 
ilender \ the belly of a yeJlowilh green ; the back 

Inhabits {landing waters. 

Leeches are good barometers, when p refer ved 
in glades, and predict bad weather by their great 
redleffnefs and change of place. 

* Lib. xxxii. c. 10. 

D 2 P» £**• 

3 S W O R M S. Class VL 

Geotnetra. K. Lin. Syfi. 1080. Faun. Suec. No. 208 3. 

13. Geome- #<sr/£/. Jpp. tab. xxxii. /! 1. 4, 


L. with a filiform body ; greenifh, fpotted with 
white ; both ends dilatable, and equally tena- 

Inhabits the fame places \ moves as if meafuring 
like a compafs, whence the name -, found on trout 
and other flfh, after the fpawning feafon. Tab. xx. 

fig- 13- 

Muricata. H. Lin. Syfi. 1080. Faun. Suec. No. 20S0. Muf. Ad. Fr.u 

14. Tuber- 9 ^, 

Culated. Hirudo marina. Rondel, aquat. 

Hirudo pifcium. Bajler, i. 82. tab. x.f. 2, 

L. with a taper body ; rounded at the greater 
extremity, and furnifhed with two fmall horns ; 
ftrcngly annulated, and tuberculated upon the rings j 
the tail dilated. 

Inhabits the fea ; adheres flrongly to fifh, and 
leaves a black mark on the fpot. Tab. xx, 
fig- 14- 

VII. Slender 

Class VI. WORMS. 


VII. Slender body, carinated beneath. MTXINE. 

Mouth at the extremity, cirrated. 
The two jaws pinnated. 
An adipofe or raylefs fin round the tail, and 
under the belly. 

M. Lin. Syji. 1080. Putaohl. Faun, Suec. No, 2086. Glutinofa. 

Muf. Ad. Fr. i. 91. tab. viii. /. 4. IS* Gluti^ 

Lampetra caeca. Wil.hlb.iQ7. Rati pifc. 36; nous. 

This fpecies is amply defcribed in the definition ; 
is about eight inches long. 

Inhabits the ocean •, enters the mouths of fifli, 
when on the hooks of lines that remain a tide under 
water, and totally devours the whole, except fkin 
and bones. The Scarborough fifhermen often take 
it in the robbed fijb, on drawing up their lines. 
They call it the bag. Linnaeus attributes to it the 
property of turning water into glue. Tab. xx. 
fig. x 5- 

D 4 Div. IL 

4© WORMS. Class VI. 


Animals of a fimple form, (naked) without a 
Shell j furniflied with members. 

UMAX. VIII. Oblong; body ; attenuated towards the tail. 

Above, is a flefhy buckler, formed convexlyj 

flat beneath. 
A lateral hole on the right fide, for its geni- 
tals, and diicharge of excrements. 

Jter. L. Lin. Syjl. 1081. Faun. Suec. No. 2088. Lift. AngU 131 

16. Black. Gejner. aq. 254. 

Sl. wholly black. 

Rufus. L. £/*, Sjy?. 108 1. F*a«. Suec, No. 2089. 

17. Brown. Lift. Angl App. 6. /«£. ii./^. 1. 

St. of a brownifh color, 

L. I/ff. 

Class VI. WORMS. 4 i 

L. Lin. Syft. iq8i. Faun, Suec. Kg. 2090. Lift. AngL Maximut. 

App. 6. tab. ii. fig. 2. 18, Great- 

Lift. AngL 127. 

Sl. with a cinereous ground ; the head reticulated 
with black \ on the back three pale lines and four 
dufky; the laft fpotted with black. 

Thefe vary ; at times, part is of an amber color. 
The larger! of the genus, five inches long. 

L. Lin. Syft. 1082. Agreftis, 

Limax cinereus parvus immaculatus. Lift. AngL 130. 19. Fexld, 

Sl. fmall, and of an uniform cinereous color \ 
are very common in gardens, and deftructive to 

Thefe have fometimes been fwallowed by perfons 
in a confumptive habit, who thought them of fer- 

h. Lin. Syft. 1082. Faun. Suec. No. 2092. , Flaunt, 


Sl. of an amber color, marked with white. 

IX. Body 

42 WORMS. Class VI. 

LJPLTSIA. IX. Body covered with membranes reflected. 
A fhield-like membrane on the back. 
A lateral pore on the right fide. 
The vent on the extremity of the back. 
Four feelers, reiembling ears. 

Depilaus. Lepus marinus. Plinii, lib. ix. c. 48. Rondel, fife. 520. 

21 Depila- Lernaea. Bohadfch. 3. tab. i. Jig. 
Tory. Laplyfia. Lin. Sjjl. 1002. 

Defcribed in the character. The fpecimen en- 
graven fhews its fize. Thofe of Italy grow to 
the length of eight inches. Pliny calls it offa 
ittformis, and placing it among -the venomous 
marine animals, fays, that even the touch is in- 
fectious. The fmell is extremely nauieous. Tab. xxi, 

fig- 2I - 

Taken off Ariglefea. 

X. Body 

Class VI. WORMS. 43 

X. Body oblong, flat beneath % creeping. poRIS, 

Mouth placed below. 
Vent behind ; furrounded with a fringe. 
Two feelers, retractile. 

ppris. Lin. Syft. J083. Bobadfcb^tab. y. Jig, 4. 5. Argo. 

22. Lemon : 

D. with an oval body, convex, marked with 
numerous punctures \ of a lemon color $ the vent 
befet with elegant ramifications. 

Inhabits different parts of our feas -, called, about 
Brighthelmftone^ the fea-lemon. Tab, xxii.j^. 22. 

Doris. Lin. Syji. 1083. Ferrucofa. 

23. Warty. 

D. of an ovated form, convex, tuberculated. 
Tab. xxi. fig. 23. 

Inhabits the fea, near Aberdeen, 

p. with the front abrupt j body has the appear- Ekarina, 
ance of a fnail -, bilamellated i fize of the figure \ * 4 * MBE|t 
amber colored. 

Taken off Angkfea, Tab, xxlv.fig. 24. 

XL Body 

44 WORM S. Class VL 

JPHRODITJ* XI. Body oval •, numbers of fafciculi, ferving the 
ufes of feet, on each fide. 
Mouth cylindric, retra&ile, placed at the ex- 
Two fetaceous feelers. 

Acuhata. Aph. Liu. Sjji. 1084. Faun, Suec. No. 2099. B after, ii. 62. 

25. Acu- tab. vi. ./rg-. 12. 

L£ATED. Mufi Ad. Fr. i. 93. 

Eraca ir.arina. oV£. Mfj/I i. tab. xc. 1. in. te£. iv, f. 7. S. 

Sea moufe. Dale's Harwich. 394. Boate's Kat. Hift, Ireland, 

Aph. with the back cloathed with fhort brown fur ; 
the fides, with rich pavonaceous, green hairs, 
mixed with (harp fpines -, vent covered with two 
fcales j belly covered with a naked fkin ; mouth 
placed beneath ; each foot conufts of a fafcicuhts 
of five or fix ftrong fpines ; on each fide about 
thirty-fix -, grows to the length of between four and 
live inches. Tew. xx'm.fg. 25. 

Inhabits all our fcasj often found in the belly 
of the cod-hTn. 

Squammata. Aph. Lin. Sjft. 1084. Bafter, ii. 66. tab. vi.^Jg. £. 
26. Scaled. 

Apk. with the back covered with two rows of 
large fcales, deciduous ± about an inch long. 


Class VI. WORMS. 45 

Taken off Angle feci. 
Tab. xxiii. fig. 26. 

Aph. with two rows of fc ales on the back, placed PeduncuJata. 
alternately; the mouth cylindric, projecting; an C u LA ted, N " 
inch long. 

Taken off Brighthelmftone. Tab. xxiv.fig. 27. 

Aph. oblong; fufiform; annulated ; fmooth, ex- Annulata. 

r . r . . . 28. Annu- 

cepting a row or minute ipines, one on each ring, LATKD . 

running along the back ; feet fmall ; fize two 

inches and a quarter ; of a pale yellow color. 

Tab. xxiv.fig. 28. 

Aph. Lepidota. Pallaf. Mifcel. Zool. 209. tab. viii. fig. 1. Minuta. 
2 * vn * l S m 29. Little. 

Aph. with fmall fc ales ; (lender; not an inch 

Taken off Anglefea. Tab. xxiv.fig. 29. 

XIL Oblong- 

4$ WORM & Class VI. 

NEREIS. XII. Oblong {lender body. 

Feet formed like a pencil of rays, and nu- 
merous on each fide. 
Mouth at the extremity, unguiculated. 
Feathered feelers above the mouth. 

Noftiluca. N. Segmentis xxiii. corpore vix confpicuo. Lin.Syfi. 1085, 
30* Nocti- No&iluca marina. Aman. Acad. 
lucous. Bafier, i. tab. iv. fig. 3. 

Thefe are the animals that illuminate the fea, like 
glow-worms, but with brighter fplendor. I have at 
night, in rowing, feen the whole element as if on 
fire round me •, every oar fpangied with them •, and 
the water burnt with more than ordinary bright- 
nefs. I have taken up fome of the water in a 
bucket, feen them for a fliort ipace illuminate it y 
but when I came to fearch for them, their ex- 
treme fmallnefs eluded my examination. 

Lacufiris. Nereis. Lin. Syjl. 1085. 
31. Bog. Rcefsl. in/eft. Polyp, tab. lxxix. 

N. with a linear jointed body, with a filiform foot 
iffuing from each ; the whole animal of the fize of 
a friort brittle of a hog \ an object of the micro- 

Inhabits wet places. 


Class VI. WORMS. 47 

Nereis. Lin. Sjft. 1086. Faun. Suec. No. 2095. Caruka. 

32. Blue, 

N. finooth •, deprefied *, with 1S4 fegments of a 
bluifh-green color, femi-pellucid ; a longitudinal 
/ulcus runs along the belly, about four inches 

Inhabits the deeps. Two figures are given, 
fig. 1. on its belly, 2. on its back, fhewing the /ul- 

N. with a very {lender deprefifed body; two black Rufa. 
fpots on the front -, attenuated at the end when it 33 * 20, 
draws in its forceps ; a blood-red longitudinal line 
along the middle of the back ; the fegments very 
numerous -, about four inches long. 
Taken off Angk/ea. Tab. xxv. fig. %%. 

Nereis. Pallaf. Mifc. p. 131. tab. ix. fg. 17. Conchilega. 

34* Shell: 

N. with a flat body, attenuated towards the tail 1 
pellucid -, about thirteen feet on each fide ; about 
the mouth a feries of very fine filaments. 

Inhabits the Saeella Tubi/ormis. No. 163. of 

this work. 

XIII. Body 

4 8 

W O R M S. 

Class VI. 


Body fixed to a fhell, rock, &;c. 
Two apertures, one on the furhmit. 
The other lower, forming a fheath, 

RuJiicaP Afc. lin.Sxft. 1087. 

35. Rustic. 

Asc. with fcabrons extremit'es -, one end bending 
upwards ; middle part fmooth ; lower flat -, of a 
brown color. 

Taken off* Scarborough. Animals of this genus 
have the facuky of fquirting out the water they 
take in. Tab. xxiii. Jig. 25. 

ACTINIA. XIV. Body oblong, round, affixing itfelf to fome 

other fubftance. 
The top dilatable, furrounded within with 

n u m b e r 1 c is tent acuta . 
Mouth the only aperture -, furnifhed v/ith 

crooked teeth. 

Sulcata. Hydra tentsculis clenuJatls, numercfifUn-ih, corpore longi- 

36. Sul- tudinniirer Uilcato. Gaertaer, tb. Tr. 1761. /. 75. tab. i. k 

cated. fg- 1. A. B. 

Ac. with a body marked with trifurcated fulci ; 

and fummit furrounded with long Ccnder tcntacula, 

9 from 

Class VI. WORMS. 49 

from 120 to aoo in number; color of the body 
pale chefnut ; of the tentacula a fea-green, varied 
with purple. 

Inhabits the rocks of the Cornijh and Anglefea 

Hydra calyciflora, tentaculis retra&ilibus variegatis corpore Pedunculate 
verrucofo. Ibid, fig* 2. A. B. C. 37. Stalky. 

Ac. with a long cylindric ftalk, expanding at top, 
and tuberculated. The tentacula difpofed in feveral 
ranges, fhort, and when open, form a radiated 
angular circumference, like a beautiful flower, 
with a fmooth polygonal difc ; the color of the 
ftalk, a fine red \ of the tentacula varied with feve- 
ral colors. This fpecies is retractile. 
Inhabits Cornwall. 

Hydra difciflora, tentaculis retra&ilibus fubdiaphanis ; Verrucofo 
corpore cylindrico, miliaribus glandulis longitudinaliter 38. Stub- 
flriato. Ibid. fig. 4. A. B. ded, 

Ac. with a long cylindric ftalk ; marked with 
elegant fmall tubercles, difpofed in ftrait lines from 
top to bottom j the circumference of the mouth 
ftriated, furrounded with fhort petals, like thofe 
of the fun-flower ; and thofe again with white ten- 
tacula, barred with brown. When drawn in, it 
aflumes the form of a bell ; and the lines of tu- 
Yol, IV. E bercks 

SO :\ WORMS. Class VI. 

bercles converge to the central of the fummit* 
Body of a pale red. 

Inhabits Cornwall. 

Kemifphcrica, Hydra difciflora, tentaculis retra&ilibus, extimo difci mar* 
39.BUTTON. gine tu-berculato. Ibid. fg. 5. A. B. 

Ac. with a fmooth fhort thick ftalk -, the edge 
of the difc furrounded with a fingle row of tuber- 
cles ; the tentacula numerous and (lender. Color 
a dull crimfon. Retractile, and flings itfelf in that 
Hate into the form of a conoid button. 
Inhabits mod of our rocky ihores. 

Pentapetala. Actinia dianthu*. Ellis. Pb. Tr* 1767./. 436. tab. xix. 
40.C1NQUE- J\ 8. 


Ac. with a circular contracted mouth •, the difc 
divided into five lobes, covered with feveral feries 
of fhort fubulated tentacula. Stalk fhort and thick. 
When contracted, afllimes the form of along white 

Inhabits the rocks near Hajlings. Sussex. 

XV. Body 

Class VI, WORMS, 


XV. Body not affixed ; naked ; gibbous. 

Many tentacula at one extremity, furround- 
ing the mouth. 


Hol. Lift. Syjl. 109 1. 

Hydra corolliflora tentaculis retra&ilibus frondoiis. 
Ph. Tr. 1761. /. 75. tab. i. b.Jig. 3. A. B. 


41. FlVE' 

H. with an incurvated cylindric body, marked with 
longitudinal rows of papilla ; out of the centre of 
each ifllie, at will, (lender feelers like the horns 
of mails; the upper extremity retractile; when 
exerted, afTumes a cordated form, furrounded at 
the apex with eight tentacula, elegantly ramified, 
of a yellow and filver color. 

Found on the more between Penfanct and New- 
land. Suppofed to inhabit the deep. 

The figure engraven to illuftrate this genus was 
dredged up near Weymouth. "Tab. xxvi.jig. 41. 

Arifiotle and Pliny make ufe of the words 
OxoSovgiix and Holothuria * ; but I mould imagine, 
from the context, that they intend thofe marine 
bodies, which modern naturalifts ftyle Zoophyta y 
perhaps Alcyonia: for both of the former make 
them analogous with plants. Yet Arifiotle hints that 
they have life ; a difcovery afiumed in later times. 

* Arljlot. Hifi. An. lib. i. r. x. dt Part. An. lib. iv. c. 5, 
Plinii Hift. Nat. lib. ix» c. 47. 

E 2 XVI. Body 


WORMS. Class VL 

LERNEA. XVI. Body oblong ; roundifh -, which affixes itfelf 
to other animals by its tentacula. 
A thorax heart-fliaped. 
Two, or three tentacula in form of arms. 

Salmcnea. L. 

42. Salmon. 

Lin. Syft. 1093. Faun. Suec* No. 2102. 

L. with an ovated body, cordated thorax, and 
two linear arms approaching nearly to each other. 

Inhabits the gills of falmon. Obferved in great 
numbers on the firft arrival of that fifti out of the 
fea ; but after being a little time in frefh waters, 
drops off and dies. The falmon is reckoned in 
higheft feafon when thefe vermes are found in them. 
Called by the fifhermen, falmon-lice. 


XVII. Eight arms placed round the mouth, with 
fmall concave diics on their infides. 
Often two long tentacula. 
Mouth, formed like a horny beak. 
Eyes, placed beneath the tentacula. 
Body flefhy, a fheath for the bread. 
A tube at the bale of the laft. 


Class VJ. WORMS. 52 

Loligo, five Calamarus. Matthiol. in Dio/ccrid. 327. Loligo. 

Loligo magna. Rondel. 506. 43. Great. 

Le ^afTercn. Belon. aquat. 342. 

Sepia. Lin. Sy/l. 1096. No. 4. Seb.Muf. iii. tab, iv.fig, I, 2. 

/W/z. Suec. No. 2107. Borlafe Cornwall, tab. xx.fig. 27, 

S. with fhort arms and long teniacula -, the lower 
part of the body rhomboid and pinnated, the upper 
thick and cylindric. 

Inhabit all our feas ; are gregarious ; fwift in 
their motions •, take their prey by means of their 
arms; and embracing it, bring it to their central 
mouth. Adhere to the rocks, when they wifh to 
be quiefcent, by means of the concave difcs that are 
placed along their arms. 'Tab. xxvn.jig. 43. 

Le Pourpre. Belon. aquat. 336. OSlopodia. 

Polypi prima fpecies. Rondel. 513. 44. Eigkt- 

Sepia. Lin* Sjjl. ^©45. No, 1. Seb.Muf. nUteb. ii. fig. 1. armed. 

S. with a (hort round body, without fins or tenta- 
cula -, with only eight arms \ connected at their 
bottom by a membrane. This is the Polypus of 
Pliny, which he diftinguifhes from the Loligo and 
Sepia, by the want of tentacula. 

Inhabits our feas. In hot climates thefe are 
found of an enormous fize. A friend of mine, 
long refident among the Indian ifles, and a dili- 
gent obferver of nature, informed me that the 
natives affirm, that fame have been feen two fa- 
it 3 thorns 

54 WORMS. Class VI. 

thorns broad over their centre, and each arm nine 
fathoms long. When the Indians navigate their 
little boats, they go in dread of them 9 and lead 
thefe animals mould fling their arms over, and 
fink them, they never fail without an ax to cut 
them off. "Tab, xxviii. fig. 44. 

Media* S. Lin. Syft. IO93. 

45. Middle. Loligo Parva. Rcndd, 508. Stb.Muf.m. tab. iv. fig. 5. 

S. with a long, (lender, cylindric body , tail finned, 
pointed, and carinated on each fide ; two long ten- 
tacula -y the body almoft tranfparent , green, but 
convertible into a dirty brown, confirming the re- 
mark of Pliny *, that they change their color thro* 
fear, adapting it, Chameleon like, to that of the place 
they are in. The eyes are large and fmaragdine. 
Tab. xxix. Jig. 45. % 

Stpiola. S. Lin. Sjfi. 1 096. 

46. Small# Sepicla. Rondel. 5 19. 

S. with a fhort body, rounded at the bottom \ a 
round fin on each fide ; two tentacula. 
Taken off Flintfiire. Tab. xxix.fg. 46. 

* Lib. ix. c. 29. 

Class VI. WORMS. 55 

La Seiche. Belon. aquat.^S. Matthiol. in Dh/corid. 326. Officinalis. 

Sepia. Rondel 498. ^ 47. Office 

Seb. Muf. iii. tab. iii. j%. 1, 2. S. Officinalis. £/«. nal« 

^?. 1095. i*Wff. S»<tf. iV?. 2706. Am*n. Acad. 

S. with an ovated body ; fins along the whole of 
the fides, and almoft meeting at the bottom ; 
two long tentacula •, the body contains the bone, 
the cuttle-hone of the mops, which was formerly 
ufed as an abforbent. 

The bones are frequently flung on all our 
fhores ; the animal very rarely. 

This (in common with the other fpecies) emits, 
when frighted or purfued, the black liquor which 
the antients fuppofed darkened the circumambient 
wave, and concealed it from the enemy. . 

Xwr'a owtb $Q\Q$go<rwr,a'i i &C. 

Th* endanger'd Cuttle thus evades his fears, 
And native hoards of fluid fafety bears. 
A pitchy ink peculiar glands fupply, 
Whofe fhades the fharpeft beam of light defy. 
Purfu'd he bids the fable fountains flow, 
And wrapt in clouds eludes th' impending foe. 
The fiih retreats unfeen, while felf-born night, 
With pious (hade befriends her parent's flight *. 

# Jtnssh Tranflation of Oppian's Halieut. lib. iii. 

E 4 The 

WORMS. Class VL 

The antients fometimes made ufe of it inftead 
of ink. Perjius mentions the fpecies in his defcrip- 
tion of the noble ftudent. 

Jam liber, et bicolor pofitis membrana capilli?, 
Inque manus charts, nodofaque venit arundo. 
Turn querimur, crafTus calamo quod pendeat 

humor ; 
Nigra quod infufa vanefcat Sepia Lympha *: 

At length, his book he fpreads; his pen he takes: 

His papers here, in learned order lays -, 

And there, his parchment's fmoother fide difplays, 

But oh ! what croffes wait on fludious men, 

The Cuttle's juice hangs clotted .at our pen. 

In all my life fuch ftuff I never knew. 

So gummy thick — Dilute it, it will do. 

JV*y, now 'tis water ! Dryden. 

This animal was efteemed a delicacy by the an- 
tients ; and is eaten even at prefent by the Italians. 
Ronddetius gives us two receipts for the drefling "f, 
which may be continued to this day. Athenxus J 
alio leaves us the method of making an antique 
Cuttle-hih fauiage -, and we learn from Ariftotle |], 

Sat. iii. f De Pifc. 510. % Lib. vii. f. 326. 

Lib. viii. c. 50. Hiji. 4"» 


Class VI. W O R M S. 57 

that thofe animals are in higheft feafon, when 

XVIIL Body gelatinous, orbicular, convex above; MEDUSA. 
flat or concave beneath. 
Mouth beneath, in the middle. 
Tentacula placed below. 

Borlase'j Cornwall, p. 256. tab. xxv. jig, 7, 8. Fufca, 

48. Brown:. 

M. with a brown circle in the middle ; fixteen rays 
of the fame color pointing from the circumference 
towards the centre. On the circumference a range 
of oval tubercles, and crooked fangs placed alter- 
nately. Four ragged tentacula extend little farther 
than the body. 

BorlaseV Cornwall, p. 257, tab, xxv. Jig, 9, 10. Purpura, 

49, Purple, 

M. with a light-purple crofs in the centre; between 
each bar of the crofs, is a horfe-fhoe-ftiaped mark 
of deep purple ; from the circumference diverge 
certain rays of pale purple. Four thick tentacula^ 
Ihort, not extending farther than the body. 


58 WORMS. Class VI. 

Tuberculata. BorlaseV Cornwall, p. 257. tab. xxv.fig. 11, 12. 
50. Tuber* 


M. with fifteen rays pointing to and meeting at 
a fmall fpot in the centre. Round the edges are 
fmall oval tubera ; four plain tentacula extending 
far beyond the body. 

Undulata. Borlase'/ Cornwall, p. 257. tab. xxv.fig. 15. 
51. Waved% 

M. with undulated edges, with fangs on the pro- 
jecting parts •, four orifices beneath •, between which 
rifes a ftem, divided into eight large ragged ten- 

Lunulata. Borlase'j Cornwall, p. 258. tab. xxv.fig. 16, 17. 
52. Lunu- 


M. with the circumference tuberculated on the 
edges ; in the center of the lower part are four 
conic appendages forming a crofs ; feveral others, 
like ierrated leaves, furround it. Eight tentacula % 
not exceeding the edges of the body ♦, eight femi- 
lunar apertures, one between each tentaculum. 

Simplex. Borlase'/ Cornwall, p. 257. tab. XXV. fig. 13, 14. 

53. ArM- 

L . 

M. with a plain circumference-, four apertures be- 
neath; no tentacula. 


Class VI. WORMS. 59 

Thefe animals inhabit all our feas •, are grega- 
rious •, often feen floating with the tide in vaft 
numbers •, feed on infects, fmall fifh, &c. which 
they catch with their clafpers or arms. Many fpe- 
cies, on being handled, affect with a nettle-like 
burning, and excite a rednefs. The antients, and 
fome of the moderns, add fomething more *. They 
were known to the Greeks and Romans f , by the 
names of nvEvpa, $a,h\a<r<nos, and Pulmo marinus, 
Sea-Lungs. They attributed medicinal virtues 
to them. Diofcorides J informs us, that if rubbed 
frefh on the difeafed part, they cured the gout in 
the feet, and kibed heels. Mian || fays, that they 
were depilatory, and if macerated in vinegar, 
would take away the beard. Their phofphorous 
quality is well known ; nor was it overlooked by 
the antients. Pliny notes, that if rubbed with a 
flick it will appear to burn, and the wood to 
fhine all over §. The fame elegant naturalift re- 
marks, that when they fink to the bottom of the 
lea, they portend a continuance of bad weather. 
I muft not omit, that Ariftolle, and Athenatus after 

* Pruritamin pudendis, et uredinem in manibus et oculis 
movent, atque acrimonia fua, venerem fopitam, vel extinctam 
excitant. Rondel. 532. In feveral languages they are called 
by an obfcene name. 

f Arijl. Hiji. An, lib, v. c. 1 5. Diofcorides notis Matihiol. 
341. Plinii, lib. ix. c, 47. 

\ P. 341. (} De Animal lib. xiii. c. 27. 

§ Lib, xviii. c. 3$. 



WORMS. Class VI. 

him, give to fome fpecies the apt name of KWu, 
or the nettle, from their flinging quality *. 

The antients divided their KW»i into two claries, 
thofe that adhered to rocks, the Aftinia of Lin- 
naeus ; and thofe that wandered through the whole 
element. The laft are called by later writers Urtic<e 
Solute ; by Linnaus, Medufa ; by the common 
people Sea Gellies and Sea Blubbers. 

I do not find that the moderns make any ufe 
of them. They are left, the prey of bafking 
(harks, perhaps of other marine animals. 

ASTERIAS. XIX. DeprefTed body -, covered with a coriaceous 


coat ; furnifhed with five or more rays, 
and numerous retractile tentacula. 
Mouth in the center. 


Glacialis. Ast. Lin. Syft. 1099. Faun. Suec. No. 21 1 3. 

54. Com- Stella coriacea acutangula lutea vulgaris Lluidii. Linckii, 

bion. /. 31. tub. xxxvi. No. 61. 

Ast. with five rays deprefTed j broad at the bafe ; 
fub-angular, hirfute, yeliow -, 'on the back, a round 
flriated opercule. 

* Ariji. Hijl. An. lib. v. c. 16. Athen<eus t lib. iii. />. 90. 


Class VI. WORMS. (5| 

Thefe are found fometimes defective, or with 
only four rays. See Linckius, tab. xxxv. fig. 60. 

Common in all our feas ; feed on oyfters, and are 
very deftru&ive to the beds. 

Stella pentapetalos cancellata anomalos. Clathrata. 

Linckii, p. 32. tab. xiv. No. 23. and tab. vii. JV*. 9. cc. Cancel- 


Ast. with five fhort thick rays ; hirfute beneath \ 
cancellated above. 

Found with the former ; more rare. fab. xxx. 
fig. 1. 

Pentadaftyiofafter oculatus. Linckii, /. 31. tab. xxxvi. No. 62. Oculata. 

56J)OTTED a 

Ast. with five fmooth rays, dotted or punctured % 
of a fine purple color. 

Anglefea. "Tab. xxx. fig. $6. * 

Aftrope&en Irregularis. Linckii, p. 27. tab. vi.Jig. 13. Irregularis. 

57.Rimmed 8 

Ast. with five fmooth rays ; the fides furrounded 
with a regular fcaly rim -, on the mouth, a plate 
in form of a cinquefoil j of a reddifh hue. 


62 WORMS. Class VI. 

Hifpida. Stella coriacea acutangula hifpida. Linckii, p. 31. tab. Ix. 

58. Hispid. No. 19. 

Ast. with five rays, broad, angulated at top 5 
rough, with fhort briilles ; brown. 
Anglefea. fig. 58. 

Gibbofa. Pentaceros gibbus et plicatus, altera parte concavus. Linckii, 

59. Gib- /• 2 5- ta b> *"• &*• zo - 

sous. Borlase'j Cornwall, p. 260. tab. xxy.Jig. 25, 26. 

Ast. with very fhort broad rays (lightly projecting ; 
a pentangular fpecies, much elevated, fmall, co- 
vered with a rough fkin - 9 brown j the mouth in 
the midft of a pentagon. 

flacenta. Stella quinquefida palmipes. Linckii, p. 29. tab. 1. fig. 2. 

59.A.FLAT. Pent oppidan' 's Norway, part. ii. 179. 

Ast. with five very broad and membranaceous 
rays, extremely thin and flat. 

Tab. xxxi. fig. 59. A. 

Weymouth. From the Portland cabinet. 

Spincfa. Pentadaftylofafter fpinofus regularis. Linckii, tab. iv. No. 7, 

60. Spiky. Borlase'j Cornwall, p. 259. tab. xxv. Jig* 18. 

Ast. with five rays of almoft equal thicknefs, be- 

iet with numerous fpines. 

3 ** FIVE- 

Class VI. WORMS. 6* 


** FIVE-RAYED, with flender or ferpenti- 
form rays. 

Hirfuta, feu ftella grallatoria vel macrofceles Luidii. Linckii, Minuta. 
j>. 50. 6i« Mi- 


Ast. with a round body, and five very flender and 
long hirfute rays. 

Found by Mr. Llttyd near fenbigh. 

Stella lacertofa. Linckii, p. 47. tab. ii. No. 4. Lacertofa. 

62. Lizard* 

Ast. with five fmooth (lender rays, fcaled, jointed, 
white. Linckius calls this Lacertofa^ from the like* 
nefs of the rays to a Lizard's tail. 
Anglefea. 'Tab, xxxii. fig. 62. 

Ast. with a pentagonal indented body, fmooth Spharulattn 
abdve the aperture ; below five-pointed ; between 3 * 
the bafe of each ray a fmall globular bead -, the 
rays flender, jointed, taper j hirfute on their 

Anglefea. Tab. xxxii. fig. 6^. 


64 WORM S. Class VI. 

PentaphyUa. Borlase'j Cornwall, i>. 260. tab. xxv.fig. 24, 


Ast. with the body regularly cinquefbil •, rays 
very (lender ; hirfute on the fides, teflulated above 
and below with green, fometimes with fky-blue. 

Varia. Borlase'j Cornwall, p. z$g, tab* xxv T . fig. 21. 

65. Pied. 

Ast. with a circular body, with ten radiated 
ftreaks ; the ends of a lozenge form ; the rays 
hirfute, annulated with red. 


Aculeata* BorlaseV Cornwall, p. 259. tab. XXV. fig. 19. 

66. Radi- 

Ast. with a round body, with flreaks from its 
centre alternately broad and narrow -, the rays flen- 
der, hirfute. 


Hafiata. Borlase'j Cornwall, p. 259* tab. xxv. fig. 22. 


Ast. with a pentagonal body indented -, of a deep 
brownifh-red hue, marked with ten ochraceous 

ftreaks \ 

Class VL WORMS. 65 

ilreaks ; five of the flreaks (lender, with javelin- 
fhaped extremities ; rays hirfute, jointed. 


Borlase'-t Cornwall, p. 259, tab. XXV. fig. 20. Fijfa. 

6$. Indent- 

Ast. with a circular body, with five equidiftant 
dents, penetrating deep into the fides ; five light- 
colored ilreaks darting from the centre \ rays (len- 
der, hirfute. 


Borlase'/ Cornwall, p. 260. tab. xxv. jig. 23. Nigra. 

69. Black, 

Ast. with a "pentagonal body, black, with Rvq 
radiating Ilreaks of white ; rays hirfute olivaceous, 
teflulated with deeper (hades. 


m \ With more than FIVE RAYS, 

Stella decacnemos rofacea, feu decempeda Cornubienjium. Bifida. 
Linckii, p. 55. tab. xxxvii. Jig, 66. 70. Bifi 

Ast. with ten (lender rays, befet with tendrils on 
their fides ; the mouth furrounded with fhort fili- 
form rays. 


Vol. IV. F Stella 

66 WORMS. Class VI, 

Decacnemos. Stella decacnemos barbata, feu fimbriata, Barrslier, Linckii, 
71. Ten- /• 55« tab. xxxvii. fig. 64. 


A st. with ten very {lender rays, with numbers of 
long beards on the fides -, the body fmall, fur- 
rounded beneath with ten fmali filiform rays. 
Inhabits the wefteracoaftsof Scotland. Tab. xxxiti. 

fig- 7 1 - 

"Helianthe- Stella dodecaftis Helianthemo fimilis. Linckii, p. 42. tab* 

moldes? x\\\.fig. 28. 



Ast. with twelve broad rays finely reticulated, 
and roughened with fafciculated long papills on 
the upper part ; hirfute beneath; red. 

Thefe vary into thirteen, fuch as the Trifcaide- 
taftis of Linckius. Tab. xxxiv. fig. 54. I have 
had one of fourteen rays. 

Ariftotle and Pliny * called this genus Aru/» 9 and 
ftella marina \ fays the firft, from their refemblance 
to the pictured form of the flars of heaven. They 
afTerted that they were fo exceedingly hot, as tn- 
ftantly to confume whatfoever they touched. 

* Jriftrt. Hift. An. lib. y. e. ?$: Plinii Hift. Nat. lib. ixr 
4. So. 


Class VI. 


6 7 

Afterias caput medufe. Lin. Syji. noi 
Soe-Soele. Pontop. Norway, ii. 1 80. 

73. Arbo- 

Ast. with five rays iffuing from an angular body \ 
the rays dividing into innumerable branches, grow- 
ing flenderer as they receded from the bafe ; the 
moft curious of the genus. 

Found, as I have been told, in the north of Scot- 
land. The late worthy Doctor William Borlafe in- 
formed me that it had been taken off Cornwall. 

XX. Body covered with a futured cruft, often ECHINUS. 
furnifhed with moveable fpines. 
Mouth quinquevalve, placed beneath. 

Echinus. Lin. Syfl. 1102. Lift. Angl. 169. tab. ill* 
EjC^os ua.. Arijiot. Hiji. An. lib. iv. c . V. 
Tab. xxxiv. fig. 74. 

74. Eat- 

Ech. of a hsemifpherical form, covered with fharp 
ftrong fpines, above half an inch long ; commonly 
of a violet color, moveable •, adherent to fmall tu- 
bercles elegantly difpofed in rows. Thefe are their 
inftruments of motion, by which they change their 

This fpecies is often taken in dredging, and 
often lodges in cavities of rocks juft within low- 
water mark. 

F 2 Are 

W O R M S. Class VI. 

Are eaten by the poor in many parts of Eng- 
land^ and by the better fort abroad. In old times 
a favorite difh. They were drefTed with vinegar, 
honied wine, or mead, parfley and mint ; and 
efteemed to agree with the flojnach *. They are 
the firft dim in the famous fupper of Lentulus •}*, 
when he was made Flamen Martialis, prieft of 
Mars. By fome of the concomitant difhes, they 
feem defigned as a whet for the fecond courfe, to 
the holy perfonages, priefis, and veilals invited on 
the occafion. Many fpe'".es of fhell fifh made 
part of the feaft. The reader will perhaps find 
fome amufement in learning the tafte of the Roman 
people of fafnion in thefe articles. 

Echini^ the fpecies here defcribed. 

Oftre<e Crudx, raw oy Iters. 

Pelorida J, a fort of Mya 9 flill ufed as a food 
in fome places. Vide No. 1 5. 

Spboftdyli, a fort of Bivalve, with ftrong hinges, 
found in the Mediterranean fea. Not the griftly 
part of oyflers, as Doctor Arbuthnot conjectures. 

Patina Oftrearum. Perhaps ftewed oyflers. 

Pelorides. Balani nigri et albi j two kinds of 

Sphondyli) again. 

* Aihenaust lib. iii. p. gi. 

f Macrobzus, as quoted by Arbuthnot. 

\ Rondel. Tejlacsa, p. n. 


Class VI. WORM S. % 

Glycymerides *. A fhell. I fufpeft to be the 
fame with the Maclra Lutraria of this work, 
No. 44. 

Murices, Purpura. Turbinated fhells, whofe 
fpecies I cannot very well determine, there being 
more than one of each in the Italian feas. 

Echinus fpatagus. tin. Syfi. n 04. Lift. App. tab. 1. fig. 13. Cordatus. 



Ech. of a cordated fliape, gibbous at one end, 
and marked with a deep /ulcus at the other , co- 
vered with (lender fpines refembling bridles. Shell 
moil remarkably fragile. 
Length, two inches. *Tah. xxxiv. fig. j$. 

Lin. Syft. 1 104. Argenville, 310. tab. xxv.fig. K. Lacunofta. 

Rumpb. Mufi tab. xiv, .fig. 2. 76. Oval. 

Ech. of an oval deprefied form ; on the top of 
a purple color, marked with a quadrefoii, and the 
fpaces between tuberculated in waved rows \ the 
lower fide (ludded , and divided by two fmooth 

Length, four inches. When cloathcd, is covered 
with lhort thickfet bridles mixed with very long 

# Rondel* Tefiacta, p% 13. 

F 3 Weymouth* 

7<3 WORM S. Class VI. 

V/eymouth, from the Portland cabinet. Tab. xxxv. 

fig- 7 6 - 

Doctor Borlafe gives a figure of an Echinus, found 

in Mount's Bay, that refembles in fhape the above ; 
but I cannot, either from defcription or print, de- 
termine whether it be the young, or diftinct. Vide 
Nat, Hift. Cornwall, p. 278. tab. xxvul.fg, 26, 

Div. III. 

Class VI. SHELLS. 7% 


VERMES of the fofc kind, and fimple make, 
commonly covered with a calcareous habitation, 

Div, I. Multivalve Shells. 

I. The animal, or inhabitant of its (hell, the Doris. CHITON, 
The fhell plated, confiding of many parts, 
lying upon each other tranfverfely. 

Sect. I. Multivalve Shells. 

Ch. TT7ITH feven valves^ thick fet with Crinitus. 

W fhort hairs ^ five-eighths of an inch 

Of the natural fize. A. 1. magnified. 

Inhabits the fea near Aberdeen. Tab. xxxvi. 
fig- *i 

Ch. with eight valves ; with a ferrated reflected Marginatum 
margin, fmooth ; fize of the figure. Tab. xxxvi. N ' ATED , 

fig- 2. 

Inhabits the fea near Scarborough 

F 4 Ch. with 



Class VL 

Laws. Ch. with eight valves; quite fmooth, with a lon- 

3. Smooth. .... . . , ,. .' .. , 

gitudinal mark along the back ; a little elevated, 

Size cf a wood-loufe. Tab. xxxvi. fig. 3. 

Inhabits the fhores of Loch Broom in Weft Rofs- 

The inhabitant of this fhell is a fpecies of the 

The name Chiton^ taken from ^jtw*, Lorica, a 
coat of mail. 


II. Its animal the Triton. 

The fhell multivalve, unequal, fixed by a 
Item : or feflil. 

Balanus. Lepas. Lin. Syft. lioy. Faun, Suec. No. 2122. 

4. Common. Common Englijh Barnacle. Ellis Ph. Tr. 1758. Tab. xxxiv. 
fig- I 7* 

L. of a conoid form, fmooth, and brittle \ the lid 
or operculum fharp pointed. 

Found adhering to rocks, oyfiers, and mell-fiili 
of various forts. Tab. xxxvii. fig. 4. 

Balanoides. L. Lin. Syft. 110S. Faun. Suec. No. 21,23. Lift. Angl, tab. v. 

5. SULCAT- fig. -J.I. 


L. with flrong fulcated fhell s \ aperture fmaller in 

proportion than the former. 


Class VI. SHELLS. f$ 

Adheres to the fame bodies. Tab. xxxvii. fig. 5, 
Quere, the figure, A. 5. if not an accidental 
variety ? 

Lepas Cornubienfis. Ellis Pb.Tr. 1758. tab. xxxiv.fig. 16. Cernubi en/is „ 
Borla/e Nat. Hift. Cornwall. 6. Cornish, 

L. in form of a limpet, with a dilated bottom, and 
rather narrow aperture •, the fhell fulcated near the 
lower edges. Tab. xxxvii. fig. 6. 

L. with the (hells lapping over each other, and Striata 

7. Striat« 


obliquely flriated. 

The fea near V/eymouth. Tab. xxxviii. fig. 7, 
From the Portland cabinet. 

p. Lin.SyJf. 1 108. Tintinnalu- 

* 8. Bell. 

L. with a large deep fhell, rugged on the outfide, 
of a purple color. 

As large as a walnut. 

Found frequently adhering to the bottom of 
fhips, in great cluiters. Probably originated in 
hot climates. 

Jj. Lin. 

*$ SHELLS. Class VI. 

Anatifera. L. Lin. %?. nog. Faun. Suec. No. 2 1 20. Lift* Conch. 
9. Akati- tab. 439. 


L. confiding of five fhells, deprefTed, affixed to 
a pedicle, and in clutters. Tab. xxxviii. fig. 9. 

Adheres to fhips bottoms by its pedicles. 

The tent acuta from its animal are feathered -, and 
have given our old Englijh hiftorians and naturalifls 
the idea of a bird. They afcribed the origin of the 
Barnacle Goofe to thefe fhells. The account given 
by the Sage Gerard, is fo curious, that I beg leave 
to tranfcribe it. 

4 But what our eyes have feene, and hands have 
4 touched, we mall declare. There is a fmall 
4 ifland in Lancajhire called the Pite of Foulders> 
4 wherein are found the broken pieces of old 
4 and bruifed mips, fome whereof have been cad 
4 thither by fhipwracke, and alfo the trunks and 
4 bodies with the branches of old and rotten trees, 
4 cafl up there likewife -, whereon is found a cer- 
4 taine fpume or froth that in time breedeth unto 

* certaine fhels, in fhape like thofe of the Mufkle, 
1 but fharper pointed, and of a whitiih colour •, 

* wherein is contained a thing in form like a lace 
4 of filkc finely woven as it were together, of a 

* whitifh colour j one end whereof is fattened unto 
4 the in fide of the fhell, even as the filn of Oifters 
4 and Mufkles are : the other end is made fail 

4 unto 

Class VL SHELLS. 7 £ 

1 unto the belly of a rude mafic or lumpe, which 

* in time commeth to the fhape and form of a 
' bird : when it is perfectly formed, the fhell 
c gapeth open, and the firil thing that appeareth 
' is the forefaid lace or firing $ next come the legs 

* of the bird hanging out, and as it growtth 

* greater it openeth the fhell by degrees, till at 
4 length it is all come forth, and hangeth onely by 

* the bill: in fhort fpace after it commeth to full 
« maturitie, and falleth into the fea, where it ga- 
c thereth feathers, and groweth to fowle bigger 
i than a Mallard and lefTer than a Goofe, having 

* blacke legs and bill or beake, and feathers blacke 

* and white, fpotted in fuch manner as is our Mag- 
4 P/>, called in fome places a Pie-Annet, which 

* the people of Lancajhire call by no other name 

* than a tree Goofe : which place aforefaid, and 

* all thofe parts adjoyning, do fo much abound 

* therewith, that one of the beft is bought for three 
c pence. For the truth hereof, if any doubt, may 
c it pleafe them to repaire unto me, and I mail 

* fatisfie them by the teftimonie of good witnefTes>* 
Vide Herbal, p. 1587, 1588. 

This genus is called by Linn<eus % Lepas, a name 
that is given by the antients to the Patella, Shells 
of this clafs are called by Ariftotle^ B&Xccvoi *, from 
the refemblance fome of them bear to acorns. 
We have feen before, in the account of the fupper 

* Hifl* An. lib, V. r. 1 5. 


j6 SHELLS. Class VI. 

of Lentulus, that they were admitted to the greateft 

PHOLJS. III. Its animal an Ascidia. 

Shell bivalve, opening wide at each end, with 
feveral lefler fhells at the hinge. 

The hinges folded back, united with a carti- 

An incurvated tooth in the infide beneath the 

VoMylu:, Ph. Lin, Sjft, 1 1 10. Faun, Susc, No. 2 1 24. Lift, AngU App. 

ic. Dac- Tab. xi. Jig. 3. 

T Y L £ . 

Ph. with an oblong fhell, marked with echinated 
firics\ the too:h broad; the fpace above the hinge 
reflected, and cancellated beneath; breadth four 
inches and a half ; length one and a quarter. 
Tab. xxxix. fig, 10. 

Candidus. Ph. Lin, Sjft. nil. Lift. Angl, tab. v. fig, 39. 

II. White. 

Ph. with a brittle fhell, and fmoother than the 
former ; the tooth very (lender ; breaclth an inch 
and an half; length near an inch. Tab, xxxix. 

fg- » 

Ph. Lh, 

Class VI. SHELLS. 77 

Ph. Lin. Syft. 1 1 II. Lift. Angl tah. V. /^. 38. Crifpatus. 

Faun. Suec. No. 2125. 12, Curled. 

Ph. with a ftrong" oval {hell \ the half next to 
the hinge waved and flriated \ tooth large and 
firong \ breadth three inches and a half ; length 
one and three quarters, ^ah. xl. fig. 12. 

This genus takes its name from pwAsw, to lurk 
in cavities. A Ihell of the name of Pholis and 
Pholas, is mentioned by Ariftotk and Athenaus \ but 
I fufpecl it to be the Daffy lus of Pliny. A fpecies 
now called Datyl, abounding within the rocks of 
the Mediterranean^ is much admired as a food *. 

Ph. with a mell thinner than the former; and Parvus. 
the tooth very (lender and oblique ; in externals 
refembling the former, only never found larger 
than a hazel nut. 

I have often taken them out of the cells they 
had formed in hard clay, below high-water mark, 
on many of our mores. They alfo perforate the 
harden: oak plank that accidentally is lodged in 
the water. I have a piece filled with them, which 
was found near Penfacola in Weft Florida, and pre- 
fented to me by that ingenious naturalift the late 
John Ellis, Efquire. 

* Pliny, lib, ix. c. 6u ArmftrongsHiJt. Minorca, 173. 

I have 


SHELLS. Class VI. 

I have alfo found them in mafTes of foflil wood, 
in the fhores of Abergelli in Denbigh/hire. The 
bottom of the cells are round, and appear as if 
nicely turned with fome inftrument. 

Tab, xl. fig. 13. 

Div. II. Bivalve Shell?. 



IV. Its animal an Ascidia. 

A bivalve fhell gaping at one end. 
The hinge, for the mod part, furnifhed 
with a thick, flrong, and broad tooth, 
not inferted into the oppofite valve. 

Truncata. M. Truncata. Lin. Syfi. it 12. Faun. Suec. No. 21264 
14. Abrupt. Lift. AngU tab. v. fig. 36. 

M. TT 7ITH a broad, upright, blunt tooth, in 
V V one fhell \ the clofed end rounded ; 
the open end truncated, and gaping greatly ; 
the outfide yellow, marked with concentric 
wrinkles. Tab. xli. fig. 14. 

Lodged under flutchy ground, near low-water 
mark ; difcovered by an aperture in the flutch, 
beneath which it is found in coarfe gravel. 

M. with 

Class VI. SHELLS. 79 

M. with a brittle half-tranfparent (hell, with a hinge DedivL. 
(lightly prominent ; lefs gaping than the truncata •, ^ L 
near the open end Hoping downwards. 

Frequent about the Hebrides -, the fifti eaten by 
the gentry. 

M. Arenaria. Lin. Sjft. 1 112. Faun. Suec. No. 2127. Arenaria. 

16. Sand* 

M. with a tooth like the former ; mouth large, 
rough at the bafe^ the whole fhell of an ovated 
figure, and much narrower at the gaping end. 

Three inches and a half broad - 3 two inches long 
in the middle. Tab. xlii. 

M. Pittorum. Lin. Sjft. 1112. Faun. Snec. No. 2IQ. Lift. Pifiorum, 
Angl. App. tab. i. Jig. 4. 1 7. Paint- 


M. with an oval brittle fhell-, with a fingle longi- 
tudinal tooth like a lamina in one fhell, and two in 
the other. Tab. xliii. Jig. 1 7. 

Breadth a little above two inches ; length one. 

Inhabits rivers. 

Ufed to put water-colors in ; whence the name. 
Otters feed on this and the other frefh- water fhells. 


8o SHELL S. Class VI. 

Marganti- Lin. Sjjt. 1112. Faun. Suec. No. 2130. Li£. Anel. Apt. 
fir* tab. i. fig. 1. * ** 

18. Pearl. Scheffer Lapland, 145. 

M. with a very thick coarfe opake fhell; often 
much decorticated ; oblong, bending inward on 
one fide -, or arcuated ; black on the outfide ; ufual 
breadth from five to fix inches ; length two and a 
quarter. Tab. xliii. fig. 18. 

Inhabits great rivers, efpecially thofe which 
water the mountanous parts of Great Britain. 

This fhell is noted for producing quantities of 
pearl. There have been regular fifheries for the 
fake of this pretious article in feveral of our rivers. 
Sixteen have been found within one fhell. They 
are the difeafe of the fifth, analogous to the (lone in 
the human body. On being fqueezed, they will 
eject the pearl, and often call it fpontaneoufly in the 
fand of the ftream. 

The Con-way was noted for them in the days 
of Cambden. A notion alfo pre vales, that Sir 
Richard Wynne* of Gwydir* chamberlain to Ca- 
tharine queen to Charles II. prefented her majefly 
with a pearl (taken in this river) which is to this 
day honored with a place in the regal crown. 
They are called by the Weljh Cregin Diluw, or 
Deluge Shells, as if left there by the flood. ' 

The Irt in Cumberland was alfo productive of 

them. The famous circumnavigator, Sir John 

5 Hawkins* 

Class VI. SHELLS. Si 

Hawkins *, had a patent for fulling that river. 
He had obferved pearls plentiful in the Straits 
of Magellan, and flattered himfelf with being in- 
riched by procuring them within his own ifland. 

In the laft century, feveral of great fize were 
gotten in the rivers of the county of Tyrone and 
Donegal, in Ireland, One that weighed $6 carats 
was valued at £. 40, but being foul, loft much of 
its worth. Other fingle pearls were fold for £. 4. 
io s. and even for £. 10. The laft was fold a 
fecond time to Lady Glenlealy* who put it into a 
necklace, and refufed £. 80 for it from the 
Duchefs of Ormond f . 

Suetonius reports, that Cafar was induced to un- 
dertake his Britijh expedition for the fake of our 
pearls ; and that they were fo large that it was ne- 
ceflary to ufe the hand to try the weight of a fingle 
one J. I imagine that Cafar only heard this by 
report \ and that the cryftalline balls in old leafes, 
called mineral pearl, were miftaken for them []. 

We believe that Cafar was difappointed of his 
hope : yet we are told that he brought home a 
buckler made with Britijh pearl §, which he de- 
dicated to, and hung up in the temple of Venus 
Genetrix. A proper offering to the Goddefs of 
Beauty, who fprung from the fea. I cannot omit 

* Camden, ii. 1003. t ?#' ^r. Alridg. ii. 831, 

% Suet on. Fit. Jul. Ca>f. c. xliv. 

|| Woodward' 's Method of Foffils, 29. part ii. 

§ Pliniiy lib. ix, c. 35. Tacitus Fit. Agricolce. 

Vol. IV, G mentioning, 

U SHELLS. Class VI. 

mentioning, that notwithftanding the daffies honor 
our pearl with their notice, yet they report them to 
have been fmall and ill colored ; an imputation that 
in general they are flill liable to. Pliny * fays, that 
a red fmall kind was found about the Tbracian 
Bofphorus, in a fhell called Mya 9 but does not give 
it any mark to afcertain the fpecies. 

Dubia. M. with a rudiment of a tooth within one fhell ; 

ous. "* w **k an ova * anc ^ l ar g e hiatus oppofite to the hinge. 
Shells brown and brittle. 
Shape of a pijlachia nut. 
Length of a horfe-bean. Tab. xliv. 
Found near Weymouth. From the Portland 

P Unity lib. ix. *. 35. 

V. Its 

Class VI. SHELLS. S3 

Its animal an Ascidia, SOLEN. 

A bivalve ; oblong •, open at both ends. RAZOR, 

At the hinge, a Tubulated tooth turned back, 

often double y not inferted in the oppofite 


* With the hinge near the end. 

Lin. Syft. 1 113. Faun. Suec. No. 213 1. Lift. Angl. tab.v* Siliqua. 

Jig. 37. 20. Pod, 

Lift. Conch, tab. 409. 

S. with a flrait fhell, equally broad, compreifed, 
with a double tooth at the hinge, receiving another 
oppofite ; and on one fide another tooth fharp 
pointed, and directed downwards. Color olive, 
with a conoid mark of an afh color, dividing the 
ftiells diagonally •, one part ftriated lengthways, 
the other tranfverfely. Breadth ufually live or 
fix inches, fometimes nine. 
Tab. xlv.ftg. 20. 

Lin. Syft. 1 1 13. Lift. Conch, tab. 410. Vagina. 

21. Sheath, 

S. with a fhell- nearly cylindrical, one end margi- 

nated ; the hinge confiding of a fmgle tooth in 

each fhell placed oppofite. Shell yellow, marked 

G 2 much 

84 SHELLS. Class VI. 

much like the former; ufually about five or fix 
inches broad. 

Inhabits Red Wharf \ Anglefea. 

En/is. Lin. Syft. 1 1 14. Lift* Angl. App. tab, u.Jg.9. Lift. Conch. 

22. Scyme- tab. 411. 


S. with a fhell bending like a fcymeter, with 
hinges like thofe "of the Siliqua > and colored and 
marked like it. The fhell thin, and rounded at 
each end. Ufual breadth four or five inches. 
Tab. xlv. fig. 2 2 . 

Pellucidus. S. fub-arcuated and fub-oval •, with the hinge con- 
C j3 t £ " lifting of a fharp double tooth on one fide, receiv- 
ing a fingle one from the oppofite, with a procefs 
in each fhell, pointing towards the cartilage of the 
hinge. Shell fragile, pellucid ; about an inch 
broad. Tab. xlvi. Jig. 23. 
Inhabits Red Wharf, Anglefea. 

** With the hinge near the middle. 

Legumen. Lin. Sjft. 1 114. Lift. Conch, tab. 42c. 

24. Sub- 

S. with a ftrait fub-oval fhell; with teeth exactly 

refembling thofe of the laft, furnifhed likewife with 

fimilar proceffes \ one end is fomewhat broader than 


Class VI. SHELLS. 8 5 

the other. Ufual breadth about two inches and an 
half. Shell fub-pellucid, radiated from the hinge 
to the margin. 

Tab. xlvi. Jig. 24. 

Inhabits the fame place. 

Lin. Syji. 1 1 14. No. 37. Lift. Conch. 42 1. Cultellus. 

25. Kidney. 

S. with a kidney-maped fhell •, with a fingle tooth 
in both fides of the hinge. The fhell covered with 
a rough epidermis. Breadth near two inches •, length 
feven-eighths of an inch. 

Inhabits the fea near Weymouth. 

Tab. xlvi. Jig. 25. 

This fpecies borders on the my<e> and connects 
the genera. 

I am not acquainted with the natural hiftory of 
the two lad. The three firft lurk in the fand 
near low-water mark, in a perpendicular direction : 
and when in want of food, elevate one end a little 
above the furface, and protrude their bodies far 
out of the fhell. At approach of danger, they 
dart deep into the fand, fometimes at left two 
feet. Their place is known by a fmall dimple 
on the furface. Sometimes they are dug out of 
the fand with a fhovel ; at other times are taken 
by a bearded dart fuddenly (truck into them. They 

G 3 were 

86* SHELLS. Class VI. 

were ufed as a food by the antients. Athen<eus * 
(from Sophron) fpeaks of them as great delicacies, 
and particularly grateful to widows. 

Motxgxi Koy^cii (rwXsi/fs- Txriya 

Oblongas conchas folenes, et carne jucunda 
Conchylium, viduarum mulierum cupedise. 

Thefe are often ufed as a food at prefent \ and 
brought up to table fried in eggs. 

TELLING VI. Its animal a Tethys. 

A bivalve, generally Hoping down on one fide* 
Three teeth at the hinge. 

* Ovated. 

Fragi lis. Lin. SyJ}. 1117. No. 49. 

26. Fragile* 

T. with a very brittle white fhell, truncated at the 
narrower, and rounded at the broader end. An inch 

'Tab. xlvii. Jig. 26". 

* Lib. iii. p. 86, 

T. with 

Class VI. SHELLS. B 7 

T. with a very thick depreffed oblong (hell; white ; Depreffh. 

. 2.J. Depres- 

with concentric ftria. sed. 

Tab. xlvii. fig. 27. 

T. with very thick, broad, and deprefTed (hells, Crafa. 
marked with numerous concentric ftria. Breadth, 
an inch and three quarters 5 length, an inch and a 

Has the habit^ of the Venus borealis ; but the 
fides of this are unequal, one being more extended 
than the other. 

Tab. xlviii. fig. 28. 

Lin. Syft. 1 1 17. No. 52. Planata. 

29. Plain, 

T. with a very flat delicate (hell, marked with 
concentric lines of red y the fpace about the hinge 
brown. Breadth, two-thirds of an inch. 
Tab, xlviii. fig. 29. 

Lin. Syft. 1 1 17. JVi.. 54. Radiata. 

30. Rayed, 

T. with very convex (hells of a faint am color, 
radiated with red ; tinged within with a faint pur- 
ple. Breadth an inch and an half. 

Tab. xlix. fig. 30. 

G 4. £?«. 


Incarnata. Lin. Syft. 1 1 1 8. No. 58. Faun. Suec. No. 2.1 33. Lift. Angl. 
31. Carna- App. tab. l.fig.S. 


T. oblong, deprefled ; originally covered with a 
thick brown epidermis. When naked, of a whitifh 
color rayed with red, and crofTed again with mi- 
nute concentric ftri<s. 

Ufual breadth, one inch and three quarters. 

Tab. xlvii. fig. 31. 

Carnaria. Lin. Sjfi. 1 119. No. 66. Lift. Angl. tab. iv. fig. 25. 

32. Flesh- 

T. with a ftrong and rounded fhell, generally of 
a bloom color within and without •, externally mark- 
ed with belts of deeper red. 

Breadth about feven-eighths of an inch. 

Sometimes found quite white, as fig. 32. A. 

Tab. xlix.fig. 32. 

Trifiafdata. Lin. Syft. I I 1 9. No. 58. 

33. Tri- 


T. with a very brittle fhell, radiated like the 
T. Incarnata \ but lefler. 

Rugcfa. T. with oval fhells, marked with rugged ccncen- 

34.RUGGED. t fcjfag m This has much the habit of the My- 
tihis Lithcphagus. 


Class VI. SHELLS. 2$ 

About the fize of a filbert. 
Dredged up at Weymouth. Mifplaced among 
the Venuses. Vide tab. lvii. fig- 34- 

2tor/*/fc #//?. Cornwall, tab. xxviii. /^. 23. Cornubienfis. 

35. Cor- 

T. with oblong oval {hells, deeply ftriated parallel 

to the margin. 

Defcribed by Poclor Borlafe. 

Lin. Syft. 1 120. No. 72. Faun. Suec. No. 2138. Lift. 4ngL Cornea. 
App. tab A. fig. 1. 3^ Horn*. 

T. with round fhells very convex, marked with a 
tranfverfe furrow \ color brown. 

Size of a pea. 

Inhabits ponds and frefh waters. 

*£ab. xlix. fig. $6. 

VII. Bivalve, nearly equilateral, equivalve. CARDIUM. 

Its animal a Tethys. COCKLE. 

Two teeth near the beak : a larger (placed 

remote) on each fide j each locking into 

the oppofite. 


9 o 


Class VI. 

Acuhaium. tin. Syft. 1 122. No* 78. . 

37. Acu- 


C. with high ribs radiating from the hinge to the 
edges ; each rib fulcated in the middle •, and near 
the circumference befet with large and ftrong pro- 
ceffes, hollowed. One fide of the fhell projects 
further than the other, and forms an angle. Color 

As large as a fife. The marginal circumference 
ten inches and a half. 

Found off the Hebrides and Orknies. 

Tai.L fig. 37 . 

Echinatum. Lin, Sjft. 1122. No. 79. Faun. Suec. No. 2139. 

38. Echi- Lift. Angl. tab. v. jig. S3- Conch, tab. 324; 


C. leffer than the former, being little more than 
fix inches in circumference -, the color white -, the 
ribs echinated higher up •, has only fixteen ribs, the 
former twenty-one ; the fhape rounder. 
Found dead on many of our mores. 

39. Frin- 

Lin. Syjl. 1 1 22. No. 80. 

C. with a very brittle fhell, and delicate ; of a 
pure white ; eighteen ribs rifing into thinner fpines. 


Class VL SHELLS, 91 

Of the fize of a hazel nut. 
Tab. 1. /£. 39. 

Z/#. Syjt. 1 123. i\fo. 88. Lavigatum. 

40. Smooth. 

C. of a fub-oval fhape, fomewhat deprefTed ; of 
a deep brown color, with obfolete longitudinal 
ftria ; and a few tranfverfal, concealed by a thin 
~ Circumference fix inches and a half, 
Tab. li. fig. 40. 

Lin. Syfl. 1 1 24. iVo. 90. Faun. Suec. No. 2141. £//?. Angl. Edule. 
tab. v. fig. 34. 41. Edible, 

C. with twenty-eight deprefTed ribs, tranfverfely 
ftriated ; one fide more falient than the other. 

Common on all fandy coafts, lodged a little be- 
neath the fand \ their place marked by a deprefTed 
fpot. Delicious and wholefome food. 

Tab. 1. fig. ^i. 

VIII. Its animal a Tethys. MACTRA. 

Bivalve, unequal fided, equivalve. 
Middle tooth complicated ; with a little 
concavity on each fide ; the lateral teeth 
remote, mutually received into each other. 


92 SHELLS. Class VI. 

Stuhorum. Lin. Syfi. 1 1 26. No. 99. 
42. Simple- 

M. with femi-tranfparent ihells, fmooth, glofly -> 
white without ; purplifh within. 

Size of a hazel nut. 

Tab. Hi. fig, 42. 

Solida. Lin. Syfi. 1126. No. 100. Faun. Suec. No. 2140. Lift. Angl, 

43. Strong. tab. iv. fig. 24. 

M. with very ftrong Ihells ; in a live flate, fmooth, 
white, glofTy, and marked with a few tranfverfe 
firia, In dead Ihells, the ftria appear like high 
ribs. Vide fig. 43. A. Tab. 1. 

Lutraria. n iU Sjfi. u 2 6. iV*. 101. Jftu*. $»«. Jfr. 2I28. Zj/?. 

44. Larce. j n gi ta i % iy, fig, 19. 

M. with an oblong thin fhell -, one fide much ex- 
tended, and gaping; for which reafon Linnaus 
once placed it among the My<e. 

Breadth live inches -, length two and a half. 

Inhabits the fea near the mouth of rivers ; and 
even fometimes within the mouth. 

Tab. Hi. fig. 44. 

IX. Its 

Class VI. SHELLS, 93 

IX. Its animal a Tethys. , DQNAX. 

Bivalve, with the frontal margin very blunt. 

Lin. Syft. 1 127. No. 105. Faun. Suec. No. 2142. Lift. Angl. Frunculus. 

tab. v. 'fig. 35. 45. Yellow. 

Conch, tab. 376. / 217. 

D. with a glofTy fliell, of a whitifh color tinged 
with dirty yellow, and marked lengthways with 
many elegant minute ftri* ; the infide purple. 

Breadth an inch and a tenth. 

'Tab. \v.fig. 45. 

Lin. Syft. 1 1 27. No. 107. Denticulate* 

46. Purple, 

C. of a cuneiform lhape ; extremely blunt at one 
end, flriated like the former, ferrated at the edges; 
color within purple ; tranfverfely tinged with the 
fame on the outfide. 

Breadth, a little fuperior to the former. 

X. Its animal a Tethys. VENUS. 

Hinge with three teeth near to each other ; one 
placed longitudinally, and bent outwards. 


54 SHELLS. Class VI. 

Mercenaria. Lin. Syft. 1131. No. 123. Faun. Suec. No. 2144, Z^/?. «^«^/. 
47.C0MMER- tab. iv. _/%. 22. 
CIAL. Concb. tab. 272. 

V. with a flrong, thick, weighty fhell, covered 
with a brown epidermis ; pure white within -, 
flightly ftriated tranfverfely. 

Circumference above eleven inches. 

Thefe are called in North America Clams ; they 
differ only in having a purple tinge within. Warn- 
fum or Indian money is made of them *. 

Tab. liii. fig. 47. 

JErycina. Lin. Syft* 1 13 1. No. r22. Lift. Conch, tab. 284. 

48. Sici- 



V. with a very thick fhell, marked with high- 
ridged ribs tranfverfely ; undulated longitudi- 

Fig. 48. A. a worn fhell. 

Circumference about five or fix inches. 

Tab. IW.Jig. 48. 48. A. 

Exoleta. Lin. Syft. 1134. No. 142- 

49. Anti- 

V- with orbicular fhells, with numerous tranfverfa't 
ftri<£\ white, glofTy. 

* Burnabys Travels, p. 104. td. 2- 


Class VI. SHELLS. s $ 

Diameter about two inches. 

A. Variety of the fame, marked flrongly with 
numerous ftria, and longitudinally with a few 
ihort yellowifh lines. Vide Lift, Conch, tab. 292. 

2 93- 

"Tab. liv. fig. 49. A. Tab. lvi. fig. 49. 

Lift. Conch, tab. 281. Rugofa. 

50. Wrink- 

V. with thick fhells, marked with rugofe concen- 
tric ftria. 

A. Variety, with ftria lefs elevated, and marked 
with yellowifh zigzag lines. Lift. Conch. 282. 

Length, an inchj breadth, an inch and a 

Tab. lvi. fig. 50. 

V. with thin convex orbiculated fhells, of a white Undata* 
color, tinged with yellow, and marked with thin 5I * 
concentric ftria ; waved at the edges. 

Size of a hazel nut. 

Tab. lv. fig. 51. 

V. with thin convex fhells, with a very deep obtufe Sinm/a. 
finus, or bending on the front. 


Size of the figure. 

Weymouth. From the Portland cabinet. 

Tab. lv. fig. 51. A, 


9 6 


Class VI. 

Borealis. Lin. Sjfi. 1134- No. 143'. Lift. Angl tab.'w. fig. 23. Conch, 

52. Nor- f#£. 253. fig. 88. 


V. with thin fhells, much deprefTed, marked with 
flender concentric ftria. 

Length one inch and a half ^ breadth near two 


Litterata. Lin. Syfi. 1 1 35. No. 147. Faun. Suec No. 2146. Lifi. 

53. Letter- Conch, tab. 400.^.239. 

V. with thick fhells, marked tranfverfely with fre- 
quent crenulated ftria^ fometimes fmoother -, of a 
whitifh color, ftreaked with lines refembling cha- 
racters. In Britifo fpecimens ufually faints in fo- 
reign very flrong and elegant. 

Length an inch and three quarters j breadth 
two inches and a half. 

"Tab. lvii. fig. 53. 

Defiora'a. Lin. Syfi. 1133. No. 1^2. 

54. Fading. 

V. with thin oval fhells, floated lengthways, femi- 
pellucid •, rayed with purple and white, both within 
and without. 

Size near an inch and half in breadth, 

Tiib. lvii. fig. 54, 

o V. with 

Class VI. SHELLS. 97 

V. with deprelTed rhomboidal fnells, marked with Rhomboideu 
concentric and very neat ftria, of a pale brown *5* D> Ii0 
color variegated. 

Length three quarters of an inch •, breadth an 
inch and three quarters. 

V. with ovated fhells, ftriated elegantly from hinge Ovata. 
to margin, and (lightly ftriated tranfverfely. s6, ° VAL * 

Size of a horfe-beam 

Tab. Ivi. fig, 56. 

XI, Its animal a Tethys ? ARCA. 

Shell bivalve equivalve. 

Teeth of the hinge numerous, inferted between 
each other. 

Lin. Syji. 1140. No. 1 68. Borlafe Nat. Hifi. Cornw t Tortuofa. 

tab. xxviii.7%. 15, 16. c 7 .Di*^ 

Lift. Conch, tab. 368. TOUTED. 
Mytilus Mat thiol, apud Diofcor. lib. ii. c. 5. /, 301. 

A. with a rhomboid fhell, deeply ftriated from 
the apex to the edges. 

Inhabits Cornwall. Found alfo near Weymouth. 

Tab. lviii. fig. $y t 

Vol. IV. H Lin. 

9§ SHELLS. Class VI. 

Glycymeris. Lin. Syft. 1 1 43. No* 1 81. Lift. Conch, tab. 247.7%. 82. 
58. Orbicu- 

A. with thick orbicular {hells, marked with con- 
centric firia \ white zigzagged with ferruginous; 
edges crenulated. 

Diameter about two inches. 

Tab. Iviii. fig. 58. 

Nucleus. Lin. Syfi. I14T. No. 184. 

S9- Sil- 



A. with unequally triangular fliells; fmooth, pure 
white without, filvery within ; margin finely cr*e- 

Size of a pea. 

Tab. Iviii. fig. 59. ■ 

Barlata. Lin. Syft. 1 1 4c. No. 1 70. 

6c. Frin- 

A; with oblong (hells faintly ftriated ; befet with 
Byjfus fo as to appear bearded. 

In England of the fize cf a horfe-bean, the 
foreign fpecirr.ens much larger. 

XII. Its 

Class VI. SHELLS. 


XII. Its animal a Tethys. PECTEN. 

, M -. . ' | t SCALLOP. 

Shell bivalve, unequal. 

The hinge toothlefs, having a fmall ovated 


Lin. SjJ?. 1 144. 2V*. 185. Faun. Suec. No. 2148. Z//?. Maxlmus. 
Angl. tab. v. ,/%. 29. 61. Great, 

P. with fourteen rays, very prominent and broad ; 
ftriated lengthways above and below ; ears equal. 

Grows to a large fize. 'Tab. lix. fig. 61. 

Found in beds by themfelves •, are dredged up 3 
and pickled and barrelled for fale. 

The antients fay, that they have the power of 
removing themfelves from place to place by vaft 
fprings or leaps *. This fhell was called by the 
Greeks Kth?, by the Latins Petlen, and was uied 
by both as a food ; and when dreffed with pepper 
and cummins, was taken medicinally^. 

The elegant figure of the crouching Venus, m 
the Maffei collection, is placed fitting in a fhell 
of this kind. The fculptor probably was taught 
by the mythology of his time, that the goddefs 
arofe from the fea in a fcallop. This perhaps 

* Ariji. Hift. An. lib. iv. c. 4. 
f Atben-zas, lib. in. p. 90. 

H 2 may 

ioo SHELL S. Class VI. 

may have been the concha venerea of Pliny, fo fly led 
from this circumflance. 

Another (hell has the fame name, for a different 
reafon *. 

The fcallop is commonly worn by pilgrims on 
their hat, or the cape of their coat, as a mark that 
they had croffed the fea in their way to the Holy 
Land, or to fome diftant object of devotion. 

Jacch&us. Lin, Sjfi. 1 1 44. No. 186. Lift. Conch, tab. lS^. fig. 2. 

62. Lesser. 

P. with fifteen broad rays, rounded on the flat 
fide, and moft finely tranfverfely flriated ; angu- 
Jated on the convex, and flriated lengthways \ ears 
nearly equals concave and fmooth on the upper 

A rare fpecies in Great Britain. 

Tab. lx, fir. 62. 

** Both Shells convex, 

Subrufus. Fttur. ter.ulf, fubrufus, roaculofu?, circiter 20 ftriis major i- 

6;. Red. bus, at isvibu*, donatus. Lift, Aug!, p. 185. tab. v. fig. 30. 

P. with twenty narrow rays, finely drifted ; ears 
nearly equal, and alfo ftria;ed. 

» See No. Sz. 

6 A fpc- 

Class VI. SHELLS. 101 

A fpecies feldom exceeding two inches and a 
quarter in length; the breadth nearly the fame. 
A thin fhell, generally of a fine pale red. 
Tab. lx. fig. 6$. 

Lin. Syft. 1 146. No. 199. Lift. Conch, tab. 178. Jig. 15. Varius 

64. Varie- 

P. with about thirty echinated imbricated rays ; 
(hells almoft equally convex ; one ear vaftly larger 
than the other. 

General length two inches and a half % breadth 
a little lefs. 

Color, a fordid red mixed with white. 

Often found in oyfter-beds, and dredged up 
with them. 

Tab. lxi t fig. 6 *, 

Lin. Syft. 1146. No. 200. Pufio ? 

Petten minimus anguftior inequalis £eih et afper, Sec. 65. Writh 

Lift. Angl. p. 1 86. tab. v. Jig. 31. gp. 

P. with above forty fmall rays \ with unequal 
ears ; the furface always irregularly waved or de- 
formed, as if by fome accident \ but this appear- 
ance regularly maintained. 
, Length about two inches. 
Colors commonly very brilliant reds* 
Tab. Ixi. Jig, 6$, 

H 2 -P. with 

102 SHELLS. Class VI. 

Obfolitus. P, with one large firiated ear, with frr.ooth equal 

66. Worn. « u , • r i r j i i 

ihelis; eight cbiojete rays; or a dark purple 


A fmall fpecies three quarters of an inch long. 

Tab. Ixi. fig. 66. 

Lawis. P. with unequal ribbed ears ; the reft of the fliell 

67. Smooth. ■ , ,- 1 

; entirely Imootn. 

Very Cm all, 


Glaber. Lin. Syft. H46. No. 20I, 

63. Fur- 

P. with a very thin fliell; fifteen faint rays-, 

equal ears. The inner fide of the ihelis marked 

with rays, divided by a fingle J ulcus. 

Anglefea. A fcarce fpecies. Small. 

OSTREJ. XIII. Its animal a Tethys. 

O Y S F R 

Shell bivalve, roughly plated on the outfice. 

Epulis, Lin. Syft. 114.8. No, 211. Faun. Suec. No. 2149. Lift. AngL 

69. Edible. tab. i\. f.g. 26. 

O. commonly of an orbicular form, and very 

rugged. A defcription of fo well-known a fhell 

q is 

Class VI. SHELLS. 103 

is needlefs. Varies in fize in different places. 
This is figured with an Anomia on it, No. 70. B. 

Britain has been noted for oyfters from the time 
of Juvenal % who fatyrizing an epicure, fays. 

Circus nata forent, an 
Lucrinum ad Saxum, Rutupinove edita fundo, 
Oftrea, callebat prima deprendere morfu. 

He, whether Circe's rock his oyfters bore, 
Or Lucrine lake, or diftant Rich borough' 5 ihore 
Knew at firft tafte 

The luxurious Romans were very fond of this 
fifh, and had their layers or flews for oyfters, as 
we have at prefent. Sergius Grata -f- was the firfl 
inventor, as early as the time of L. Craj/us the 
orator. He did not make them for the fake of 
indulging his appetite, but through avarice, and 
made great profits from them. Grata got great 
credit for his Lucrine oyfters , for, fays Pliny, the 
Britijh were not then known. 

The antients eat them raw, and fometimes 
roafted. They had alio a cuftom of ftewing them 
with mallows and docks, or with fiili, and efteemed 
them very nourishing t. 

Britain (till keeps its fuperiority in oyfters over 

* Satyr, iv, V. 140. f Plin. Nat. Hifi.Iib. ix.. c. 54. 

% jttbcnaus, lib. ill. p. gz, 

H 4 other 

104. SHELLS. Class VI. 

other countries. Moft of our coafts produce them 
naturally, and in fuch places they are taken by 
dredging, and are become an article of com- 
merce, both raw and pickled. The very fhells, 
calcined, become an ufeful medicine as an abfor- 
bent. In common with other fhells, prove an ex- 
cellent manure. 

Stews or layers of oyflers are formed in places, 
which nature never allotted as habitations for them. 
Thofe near Colchefter have been long famous ; at 
prefent there are others, that at left rival the former, 
near the mouth of the "Thames. The oyfters, or their 
ipats, are brought to convenient places, where 
they improve in tafte and fize. It is an error to 
fuppoie, that the fine green obferved in oyfters 
taken from artificial beds, is owing to copperas*, 
it being notorious how deftructive the fubftance 
or the iclution of in is to all fifli. I cannot give 
a better account ot the caufe, or of the whols. 
treatment of oyfters, than what is preferred in 
the learned BHhop Sprat's Hiftory of the Royal 
Society, from p. 307 to 309. 

c In the month of May the oyfters caft their 
* fpaun, (which the dredgers call their fpats :) it 
- is like to a drop of candle, and about the big- 
w nefs of a halfpenny. 

4 The fpai cleaves to Hones, old oyfter-ihells, 
c pieces of wood, and faeh-like things, at the bot- 
'• torn of the lea. which they call cidich. 

■ 'Tis 

Class VI. SHELLS. 105 

"« Tis probably conjectured, that the fpat in 
« twenty-four hours begins to have a (hell. 

8 In the month of May, the dredgers (by the 

* law of the Admiralty court) have liberty to catch 
■" all manner of cyders, of what fize foever. 

* When they have taken them, with a knife 

* they gently raife the fmall brood from the cultch, 
c and then they throw the cultch in again, to pre- 

* ferve the ground for the future, unlefs they be 
c fo newly fpat, that they cannot be fafely fevered 
i from the cultch ; in that cafe they are permitted 
c to take the Hone or fhell, &c. that the fpat is 
c upon, one fhell having many times twenty 
c fpats. 

c After the month of May, it is felony to carry 
< away the cultch, and punifhable to take any 

* other oyfters, unlefs it be thofe of fize, (that is 
c to fay) about the bignefs of an half-crown piece, 
c or when the two fhells being (hut, a fair milling 
6 will rattle between them. 

c The places where thefe oyfters are chiefly 
c catcht, are called the Pcnt-Bumharn, Maiden^ 
c and Colne waters ; the latter taking its name 
6 from the river of Colne, which paiTeth by Colne* 
6 Chefter, gives the name to that town, and runs 
4 into a creek of the fea, at a place called th^ 
6 Hythe> being the fuburbs of the town. 

' This brood and other oyfters they carry to 
c creeks of the fea, at Brickel-Sea^ Merfey, Langno, 


to6 SHELLS. Class VI; 

* Fringrego, Wmenho^ Tclejbury, and SaUcoafe, and 
4 there throw them into the channel, which they 
4 call their beds or layers, where they grow and 

* fatten, and in two or three years the fmalleft 

* brood will be oyfters of the fize aforefaid. 

4 Thofe oyfters which they would have green, 
4 they put into pits about three feet deep in the 
4 fak-marfnes, which are overflowed only atfpring- 
6 tides, to which they have (luces, and let out 
4 the fault-water until it is about a foot and half 

* deep. 

4 Thefe pits, from fome quality in the foil co- 
4 operating with the heat of the fun, will become 
4 green, and communicate their colour to the 
4 oyfters that are put into them in four or five days, 
4 though they commonly let them continue there 
4 fix weeks or two months, in which time they will 
4 be of a dark green. 

4 To prove that the fun operates in the greening, 
4 Tokftniry pits will green only in fummer-, but 
4 that the earth hath the greater power, Brickel- 
4 Sea pits green both winter and fummer : and for 
c a further proof, a pit within a foot of a green- 
4 ing-pit will not green - 9 and thofe that did green 
4 very well, will in time lcfe their quality. 

4 The oyfters, when the tide comes in, lie 
4 with their hollow (hell downwards, and when it 
4 goes out, they turn en the other fide ; they re- 
4 move not from their place, unlefs in cold weather, 

4 to cover themfelves in the Cure. 

4 The 

Class VI. SHELLS. 107 

' The rcafon of the fcarcity of oyfters, and confe- 
c quently of their dearnefs, is, becaufe they are of 

* late years bought up by the Dutch. 

c There are great penalties, by the Admiralty 
c court, laid upon thofe that fifh out of thofe 
c grounds which the court appoints, or that deftroy 
6 the culteb, or that take any oyfters that are not of 
c fize, or that do not tread under their feet, or 
c throw upon the fhore, a fifh which they call a 
4 Five-finger *, refembling a fpur-rowel, becaufe 
« that fifh gets into the oyfters when they gape, 

< and fucks them out. 

c The reafon why fuch a penalty is fet upon 
c any that mall deftroy the cultch, is, becaufe 
f they find that if that be taken away, the Oufe 

< will increafe, and the mufcles and cockles will 
6 breed there, and deftroy the oyfters, they having 
6 not whereon to ftick their fpat. 

6 The oyfters are fick after they have fpat ; 

* but in June and July they begin to mend, and 
c in Auguft they are perfectly well : the male 
c oyfter is black-fick^ having a black fubitance in 
« the fin j the female white-Jick, (as they term it) 
e having a milky fubftance in the fin. They are 

* fait in the pits, falter in the layers, but falter 
« at lea.' 

To this I beg leave to join a fort of prefent flate 
of this article, borrowed from the 84th page of 

* Asteri as glacialis* the common Sea Star. 


ioS SHELL S. Class VI. 

the Hiftory of Rochejler^ in izmo, publifhed in 

< Great part of the inhabitants of Stroud ar# 
c fopported by the fifheries, of which the oyfter 

* is moil confiderable. This is conducted by a 

* company of free dredgers, eftabliihed by pre- 
1 fcription, but fubjeft to the authority and go- 
c vernment of the mayor and citizens of Rocheftcr. 
4 In 1729 an aft of parliament was obtained, for 

* the better management of this fifhery, and for 

* confirming the jurifdiction of the faid mayor and 
c citizens, and free dredgers. The mayor holds 
c a court of admiralty every year, to make fuch 
c regulations as mall be neceffary for the well 

* conducting this valuable branch of fifhery. Seven 

* years apprenticeship entitles a perfon to the free- 

* dom of this company. All perfons catching 

* oyfters, not members of the fifliery, are liable 
« to a penalty. The company frequently buy 
i brood or fpat from other parts, which they lay 
6 in this river, where they foon grow to maturity. 
; Great quantities of thefe oyflers are fent to Lon~ 
fc don\ to Holland, Weftpbalia^ and the adjacent 
i countries. 

4FQMIJ. XIV. Bivalve, inequivalve. 

One valve perforated near the hinge : affixed 
by that perforation to iorf>e other body. 


Class VI. SHELLS. 109 

Lin. Syjl. 1 150. No. 21S. Lift. Conch, lab. zo^fig. 38. Ephippium. 


A. with the habit of an oyfter-, the one fide 
convex, the other flat -, perforated, adherent to 
other bodies, often to oyfter- fhells, by a ftrong 
tendinous ligature -, coior of infide perlaceous. 

Size near two inches diameter. 

Tab. lxii. fhews the exterior fide of the {hell ; and 
the interior of the upper valve adhering to an 

Lin. Syji. 1151. No. 221. Squammul*. 

71. Small, 

A." with {hells refembling the fcales of fifh \ 
very delicate and filvery. Much flatted. Perfo- 
rated. Very fmall. 

Adheres to oyfters 5 crabs, and lobfters, and 

The fofiil fpecies of the Anomia genus are un- 
commonly numerous in this ifland, in our chalk- 
pits and limeftone-quarries ; but are foreign to the 
work in hand. The reader v/ho wifhes to be 
acquainted with their appearance, may fatisfy 
himlelf, by confulting Lifter's Hiftory of Shells, 
appendix to the 3d book, tab. 447, &c. and Hi ft. 
an. Angl. tab. viii. and ix. Plot's Hid. Oxford/hire, 
tab. iii. and his Hiftory of Staffordjbire? tab, xi. 


no SHELLS. Class VI. 

MfriLUSr XV. Its animal an Ascidja. 

Bivalve ; often affixed to fome fubftance by 
a beard. 

Hinge without a tooth, marked by a longi- 
tudinal hollow line. 

Rugofus. Lin. Sjft. 1156. No. 249. Lift. Angl. tah. lv,ftg. 21. 

72. Rugged* 

M. with a brittle (hell, very rugged, and in fhape 
moft irregular j ufually oblong, and rounded at 
the ends. 

Length near an inch. Color whitifh. 

Always found lodged in limeftone. The outfide 
generally appears honey-combed *, but the apertures 
are too fmall for the (hell to pais through, with- 
out breaking into the cell they are lodged in. 
Multitudes are found in the fame (lone : but 
each has a feparate apartment, with a different ex- 
ternal fpirack. 

Tab, lxiii. fig. 72. 

Eduiis. Lin. Syjl. 1157. Ko. 253. Faun. Suec. No. 2156. Lift. Angl. 

73. Edible. tab. iv. Jig. 28. 

M. with a flrong (hell, (lightly incurvated on one 
fide : angulated on the other. The end near the 


Class VI. SHELLS. ill 

hinge pointed; the other rounded. Tab. Ixiii. 

fg- 73- 

When the epidermis is taken off, is of a deep 

blue color. 

Abundance of fmall pearls, called feed-pearls, 
were till of late procured from this fpecies of 
mulfel, for medical purpofes •, but I believe they 
are now difufed, fince crabs-claws and the like 
have been difcovered to be as efficacious, and a 
much cheaper abforbent. 

Found in immenfe beds, both in deep water % 
and above low-water mark. A rich food, but 
noxious to many conftitutions. Affect with fwell* 
ings, blotches, &c. falfely attributed to the pea- 
crab. The remedy oil, or fait and water. 

Ne fraudentur gloria fua littora. I mult in 
juftice to Lancajhire add, that the finefl muffels are 
thofe called Hambleton Hookers, from a village in 
that county. They are taken out of the fea, 
and placed in the river Wier, within reach of the 
tide, where they grow very fat and delicious. 

M. very crooked' on the fide, near the end ; then Mur-vatus. 
greatly dilated, and covered with a thick rough 74 ' Crook " 
epidermis. Within has a violet tinge. 

Found on the coaft of Angle fea, near Prieft- 
holme; ufually an inch and an half long. 

'Tab, lxiv. Jig. 74. 

M, with 


SHELLS. Class VI. 

Pellucidus. M. with a delicate transparent fhell, moil: elegantly 
cid. £LLU * rayed lengthways, with purple and blue; like the 
former in fhape, but more oval. Commonly fhorter 
than two inches. 

Anglefea. Found fometimes in oyfter-beds ; 
fometimes in trowling over flutchy bottoms. 
Tab. lxiii. fig. y$. 

Umhiticatu!. $/[. w jjjj a ft r0 n2 fhell, and the fpace oppofite to 
76.UMBIL1- ... , . . n ■ , .... -. 

cated. the hinge deeply inflected or umbihcated. 

The form nearly oval. The length fometimes 
five inches. 

A rare fpecies, and new. Sometimes dredged 
up off Prieftbolme ifland, Anglefea. Difcovered by 
the reverend Mr. Hugh Davies. 

The pea-crab found in this fpecies of a larger 
fize than ufual. 

Tak lxv. fig. j 6. 

tortus. jvf t w i tn a fhort, ventricofe. obtufc fhell, of a 

76.A, Short ,-■„.. 

dirty yellow color. 

Size of the figure. 

Weymouth. From the Portland cabinet. 

Tab. lxiv. fig. 76. A, 


Class VI. SHELLS. 113 

Lin.Sjfi. 115S. No. 256* Lift. Conch, tab. 356. fig. 195- Modiolus. 

y-j. Great, 

M. with a flrong fhell, with a blunted upper 
end *, one fide angulated near the middle -, from 
thence dilating towards the end, which is rounded. 

The greater! of Britijh muffels. Length from 
fix to feven inches. 

Lies at great depths* Often feizes the bait of 
the ground lines, and is taken up with the hooks* 

"Tab. lxvi. fig, 77. 

Lin. Sjift. 1 158. No* 25 7. Lift. Angl. App* tab. i. fig. 3. Cygneus* 

78* Swan* 

M. with a thin brittle fhell, very broad and con- 
vex, marked with concentric ftrias. Attenuated 
towards one end ; dilated towards the other. De- 
corticated about the hinge. 

Color, dull green. 

Length fix inches ; breadth three and a half. 

Inhabits frefh waters. Pearls are found in this 
and the following fpecies* 

Tab. lxvii. fig. j8. 

Lin. Syft. No. 258. Faun. Suec» No. 2158. Lift. Angh tab. i. Anatinus. 
fig- 2. 79, Duck. 

M. with a fhell lefs convex, and more oblong than 
the lad. Very brittle, and femi-tranfparent. Space 
round the hinges like the lafl. 

Vol. IV, I Length 

114 SHELLS. Class VI. 

Length about five inches ; breadth two and a 

Inhabits frefh waters. 

Crows feed on thefe mufTels -, and alfo on dif- 
ferent fhell-fifh. It is diverting to obferve, that 
when the ihell is too hard for their bills, they 
will fly with it to a great height, drop the Ihell 
on a rock, and pick out the meat, when the 
fhell is fra&ured by the fall. 

'Tab. Ixviii. fig. yg. 

PINNA. XVI. Its animal a Slug. 

Bivalve, fragil, furnifhed with a beard. 

Gapes at one end. Hinge without a tooth. 

Fragilis. P. with a very thin femi-pellucid whitifh Ihell, 
So.Brittle moft p a k e near t0 t h e a p ex# Marked on the 

furface with longitudinal (lender ribs, roughened 
with concave fcales -, and the whole traverfed 
by innumerable finey?r/^. 

In young fhells the ribs and fcales are almoftob- 
folete. The valves of leffer tranfverfe diameter. 

The largeft about five inches and a half long ; 
and three and a quarter broad in the broadeft, part. 
The figure is of a broader fpecimen than ufual. 

Dredged up at Weymcuth. From the Portland 

Tab. lix. fig. 80. 

3 I faw 

Class VI. SHELLS. u 5 

I faw fpecimens of fome vaft Pinna, found bgens. 
amons; the farther Hebrides ', in the collection of 
Doctor Walker, at Moffat. They were very rugged 
on the outfide, but I cannot recollect whether they 
were of the kind found in the Mediterranean or Weft 

Div. III. Univalve Shells 
"With a regular fpire. 

XVII. Its animal a Slug. CTPRjEA, 

Shell fub-oval, blunt at each end. GOWRIE; 

The aperture the length of the fhell, lon- 
gitudinal, linear. Toothed. 

Lin. Syft. 1 1 80. No. 364. Lift. AngL tab. iii. Jig. 17. Conch. Pediculus. 
tab. 706, 707. Jig. 56 and 57. g2 » Com- 


C. with numerous flrise, fome bifurcated. Varies* 
with having three brown fpots on the back. 

Tab. lxx. Jig. 82. 

This genus is called Cypr^r, and Venerea, from 
its being peculiarly dedicated to Venus \ who was 
faid to have endowed a (hell of this genus with the 

I 2 powers 

n6 SHELLS. Class VI. 

powers of a Remora, (o as to impede the courfe of 
the fhip which was fent by Periander, tyrant of 
Corinth^ with orders to caflrate the young nobility 
of Corcyra *. 


XVIII. Its animal a Slug. 
Shell fub-oval. 
Aperture oblong, fmooth. 
One end a little convoluted, 

Lignaria. Lin - fyft. 1 I 

S3. Wood. 

Lift, Conch . tab. 714. Jig, 71 

B. of an oval form, and ftriated traniverfely. Is 
narrower towards one end, which is a little um- 
bilicated. Of a dirty color, like fome woods, 
whence the trivial name. The infide of the fhell 
vifible to the very end, through the columella. 
Length about two inches. Tab. \xx.Jig. 83. 

84. Ob- 

Lin Sjft. 1183. No. 37$. 

B. with a brittle fnell, more obtufe at the end 5 
and the inner fide lapping over the columella, fo as 
to render it invifible. 

Poffibly a young fhell of the B, Ampulla f 

Found near Wevmcuth. 

• Plinth Hi* ix. f- 25. xxxii. e, u 


Class VI. SHELLS, n; 

Lift. Conch, tab. 714. fig. 70. Cylindracea. 

8$. Cylin- 


B. white, cylindric, a little umbilicated at the end. 
About twice the fize of a grain of wheat. 
Tab. lxx, ftg. $5. 

B. with one end much produced, and fufiform. Patula. 

85. A. Open, 

The aperture very patulous. 

Weymouth. From the Portland cabinet. 

Tab. lxx. fig. 85. A. 

XIX. Its animal a Slug. VOLUTJ. 

a • l u t VOLUTE, 

Aperture narrow, without a beak. 

Columella pleated. 

Lin. Sjft, 1 1 87. No. 394. £//?. CW:£. tab. 835. 

V. exactly oval •, acuminated at each end-, with a Tomatiiis. 
fingle fold near the mouth, or upper part of the Oval. 
columella. With five fpires. Striated fpirally. 
Pale red, with white fiafci*. 


Tab. lxxi. fig. 86. 

V. with a very thin brittle fhell, with two fmall Jonenfis. 

r • 87. |ONA< 

fpires. ' J 

I 3 Inhabits 

:*i3 SHELLS. Class VI. 

Inhabits the ifle of Jona, or T Columb-kil. 
Tab. \xxufig. $j. 

BUCCINVM. XX. Its animal a Slug. 

WHELK. Aperture oval, ending in a fhort canal. 

Pullus. Lin.Sjfi. 1201. No. 458. Guahieri. tab. 44. /£. N. Z//?. 

88. Brown. c**<r£. *«£. 971./^. 26. 

B. with five fpires ftriated, waved, and tubercu- 
lated, Aperture wrinkled j upper part replicated. 

Length five-eighths of an inch. 

fab. \xx\i.fig. 88. 

Lapillus: Lin. Sjft. I 202. No. 467. i^w. <SW. No* 2 16 1. Lift. Ajigl. 

89. Massy. f*£. iii-J%« 5> 6- I//?. Conch, tab, 965. 

B. with about five fpires, often obfolete 5 infide 
of the mouth (lightly toothed. A very (Irong 
thick (hell, of a whitifh color. 

A variety yellow ; or fafciated with yellow on a 
white ground ; or fulcated fpirally, and fometimes 

See figures $g. tab. lxxii. 

In many, which I fufpect to be (hells not 
arrived at full growth, the lip is thin and cultra- 


Class VI. SHELLS. 119 

Length near an inch and a half. 

Inhabits (in vaft abundance) rocks near low- 
water mark. 

This is one of the Englifo fhells that produces 
the purple dye, analogous to the purpura of the 
antients : our fhell has been made ufe of as an ob- 
ject of curiofity. 

The antient has been long fince fuperfeded by 
the introduction of the infect Coccus Cacli, or the 
Cochineel beetle. The fhells were of the genus of 
Murex, mentioned by Ldnna us, pp. 12 14, 12 15. 
But one was a fort of Buccinum. Pliny defcribea 
both *. The fineft was the Tyrian. 

c Tyrioque ardebat Murice lana j s 

A ftrong expreflion of Virgil, who defcribes the 

* Glowing with the Tyrian Murex. 5 

The fpecies of fhells are found in various parts 
of the Mediterranean. Immenfe heaps of them are 
to be feen about Tarentum -f to this day, evincing 
one place where this precious liquor was extracted. 

The procefs of obtaining the Englijh Purpura 
is well defcribed by Mr. William Cole, of Briftol, in 
j 684, in the following words J. 

* Lib. ix. c. 36. f Baron Riedefel's Travels, p. 174. 

I Ph. Tr. Abr. ii. 826. 

I 4 « The 

no SHELLS. Class VI. 

* The 9iells being harder than moft of other 

* kinds, are to be broken with a fmart ftroke with 
f a hammer, on a plate of iron, or firm piece of 
c timber, (with their mouths downwards) lb. as 
c net to crufh the body of the fifh within g the 
1 broken pieces being pick'd off, there will appear 

* a white vein, lying tranfverfely in a, little furrow 
6 or cleft, next to the head of the fifh, which 
4 muft be digged cut with the ftiff point of a. 

* horfe-hair pencil, being made fhort and taper- 

* ing. The letters, figures, or what elfe fhall be 
c made on the linnen, (and perhaps filk too) will 

* prefently appear of a pleafant light-green color, 

* and if placed in the fun, will change into the 

* following colours, i. e. if in winter, about neon; 

* if in the fummer, an hour or two after fun- riling, 
c and fo much before fetting ; for in the heat of 
' the day, in fummer, the colours will come on 
1 fo fair, that the fuccefilan of each colour will 
4 fcarcely be diftinguifhed. Next to the firft light* 
4 green, it will appear of a deep-green, and in 
4 few minutes change into a fea-green. after which, 

* in a few minutes more, it will alter into a 
4 watcher-blue ; from that, in a little time more, 
1 it will be of a purplifti-red •, after which, lying 
4 an hour or two, (fuppofing the fun (till fhining) 

* it will be of a very deep purple-red, beyond 

* which the fun can do no more. 

4 Bet then the lad and mod beautiful colour, 

* after warning in fcalding water and foap, will 

' (the 

Class VI. SHELL S. tl% 

* (the matter being again put into the fun or 

* wind to dry) be of a fair bright crimfon, or near 

* to the prince's colour, which afterwards, not- 

* withflanding there is no ufe of any fliptick to 

* bind the colour, will continue the fame, if well 

* ordered; as I have found in handkerchiefs, 

* that have been warned more than forty times ; 
' only it will be fomewhat allayed, from what it 

* was, after the firft warning. While the cloth 

* fo writ upon lies in the fun, it will yield a very 

* flrong and foetid fmell, as if garlick and ajfa- 
■ fcetida were mixed together.' Syft. 1204. No* 475. Faun, Suec. No. 2165. Lift. Vndatum. 

JngL tab. iii. Jig. 2. 90. Waved. 

ffifi. Conch. J ah. g6 2. Jig. 14. 

B. with feven fpires, fpirally ftriated, and deeply 
and tranfverfely undulated. 

Length three inches. 

Inhabits deep water. 

Tab. Ixxiii. fig. 90. 

B. Leve tenue ftriatum et undatum .£//?. Angl p. 157. tab. iii. Striatum. 
fS- 3* 91. Striat- 


B. with eight fpires, with elevated firia* undulated 
near the apex. 

Length near four inches. 

Tab, lxxiv. fig. 91. 

L fn. 

J22 SHELLS. Class VI; 

Reticulatum. Lin. Byft. 1204. No. 476. Lift. Conch, tab. 966. Jig. 21. 
92. Reti- 

B. with fpires fcarcely raifed, and ftrongly reticu- 
lated ; of a deep brown color, and of an oblong 
oval form. The aperture white, gloffy, and den- 

Size of a hazel-nut. 

Tab. lxxii. fig. 92. 

Minumm. b. with five fpires, ftnated fpirally •, ribbed trani- 
93. Small. r% * - ' v ■ J 


Size, lefs than a pea. 

Found alfo in Norway. Vide Aft. Nidr. torn, iv. 

tab. 16. fig. 25. 

Tab. lxxix. 

ST'ROMBUS XXI. Its animal a Slug, 
Shell univalve, fpiral. 

The opening much dilated, and the lip 
expanding, produced into a groove. 

Pes Pelecani. Lin. Sjft. 1207. No. '490. Faun. Suec No. 2164. Lift. 
94. Corvo- Conch, tab. $66. Jig. min. 
rant's FOOT 

Str. with ten fpires, tuberculated along their 
ridges, with the lip expanding and digitated. The 


Class VI. SHELLS. 123 

fpires end in a moll exquifite point. Length 
about two inches. Extent of the expanfe an inch 
and a quarter. 
Tab. Ixxv. fig. 94. 

XXII. Its animal a Slug. MUREX. 

The aperture oval; the beak narrows into a 
canal or gutter, a little afcending. 

Lin. Syjt. 1206. No. 526. Gualtieri. tab. 49. Jig. H. Erinaceus. 


M. with an angular fhell, furrounded with tu- 
bular ribs ; each rib ending with its mouth on the 
angle. Confifts of fix fpires on the whole ; a moll 
rugged (hell. The aperture exactly oval; the 
gutter or canal covered. 

Length rear two inches. 

"Tab. lxxvi. fig. 95. 

M. with hvt or fix fpires, the body ventricofe : Carinatus. 
the fpires Hung into angulated ridges. The aper- ?^ TED *, GU " 
ture icmi circular. 

Length near four inches. 

From the Portland cabinet. 

Tab. lxxvii. fig % 96. 


124 SHELLS. Class VI. 

Antiquum Lin. Sv/?. 1222. No. 558. Gualtieri, tab. 46. E. Faun. Suec* 
97. An- No, 2165. 

M. with eight fpires finely ftriated •, the firft 
very ventricofe. Color a dark dirty yellow. Length 
three inches and a half. 

pefpetlus. Lin. Sjft. 1222. No. 559. Faun. Suec. No. 2166. Lift. AngU 
98. Despi- tab, iii.j?g> I. 


M. with eight fpires. The firft large, ventricofe, 
and produced ; the others more prominent than 
thofe of the preceding. Striated and ibmewhat 
rugged. The outfide white, the infide glofly 
and yellow. 

Length near five inches. 

Inhabits the deep fea. Dredged up in plenty 
with oyfters. Eaten by the poor j but oftener ufcd 
for baits for cod and ray. 

Tab. lxxviii. fig. 98. 

Corneus. Lin, Syft. 1244. No. 565. Lift. Angl. tab. in- fig. 4* Conch. 

99. HornEy. tab. 9 1 3 .fig. 5 . 

M. with a narrow oblong fhell of eight ftriated 
fpires. Snout much produced. Color pure white, 
covered with a brown epidermis. 


Class VL SHELLS, 125 

Length near three inches. 
Tab. lxxvi. fig. 99. 

M. with an oblong (hell of fix fpires, neatly rib- Cojiatus. 

Jf.^ 7 . IOO.RlBBED* 

bed. vide tab. lxxix. 
. Minute. 

Anglefea. Inhabits alfo Norway. A3. Nidr. 
torn. iv. tab. 16, fig. 26. 

M. with a narrow oblong fhell, acuminated fpires, Acuminatus. 
Dbed. \ 

ribbed. Vide tab. lxxix. ioi.Shar* 

tin. SyJI. 1226. No. 578. Decollates? 

102. Short- 

A fpecies offered with doubts. Perhaps acci- 
dentally mutilated. Let the critical conchyliolo- 
gift confuk tab. lxxix. 

XXIII. Its animal a Sure. rROCHU$< 

Shell conic. 

Aperture fub-triangular. 

26 SHELLS, Class VI. 

Ziziphinus. Lin. Syft. 1 231, No. 599. Lift- Conch, tab. 616. No. I 
103. Livid. Lift. Angl. tab. iii. jig. 14. Faun. Suec. No. 2168. 

Tr. with a fharp apex, imperforated bottom ; with 
a ftria elevated above the reft. Each is fmooth. 
The color livid, much fpotted with deep red. 
Tab. lxxx. fig. 103. 

Conulus. Lin% Sy jf t I230 , Not S9 g. 

104. Co- 


Tr. with an imperforated bafe, and a prominent 
line along the fpires. Scarcely diftincl: from the 

Tab. lxxx. fig. 104. 

Exafperatus. Trochus pyramidalis parvus, ruberrimus fafciis crebris exaf- 
105.R0UGH. peratus. Lift. Conch, tab. 616. Jig. 2. 

I am unacquainted with this fpecies -, fo refer the 
reader to Lifter, who defcribes it as above ; and 
marks the figure with A. as an Englijh fhell. 

Vmbilicaris. Lin. Syft. 1229. No. 592. Lift. Concb. tab. 641. Jig. 3 1, 32. 
106. Umbi- Lift. Angl. tab. iii. /£. 15. 


Tr. with a perforated bafe, and of a convex conic 

form •, dirty white waved with purple. Varies 

'much in colors. 

A mod 

Class VI. SHELLS. 127 

A mod common fhell on all our mores. 
Tab. lxxx. fig. 106. 

Lin. Syft. izzg.No. 590. Cinerarius. 

I06*. ClNE« 


T. with a perforated bafe; fpires a little prominent. 
Of a cinereous color, ftriped obliquely. 

Size of a pea. 


Lin.SyJi. 1228. No. 585. Magus. 

107. Tuber- 


Tr. with a perforated bafe 5 fomewhat deprelTed : 
ftriated ; with the ridges of the fpires rifing into 
blunt diftinct tubercles. Color white, ziz-zagged 
with red. 

When the upper coat is taken off, the next is of 
a rich mother-of-pearl color. 


Tab. lxxx. fig. 107. 

Minute, conic, livid. Temflris. 

A new fpecies, difcovered in the mountains of Io8 ' AN1 
Cumberland, by Mr. Hudfon. 

Tab. lxxx. fig. 108, 

XXIV. Its 

128 SHELLS. Class VI. 

fVRBO. XXIV. Its animal a Slug, 


Aperture round, 

* Ventricofe. 

Littoreus. Lin. %?. 1252. No. 607. LiJt.AngL tab. iii. fi?. 9. faun* 

109. Perri- Suec. No. 2169. 


T. with five fpires, the firfb ventricofe, in younger 
fubjects flriated fpirally ; in the old fmooth, and 
of a dufky color. 

Tab. lxxxi. fig. 109. 

Abundant on moft rocks, far above low-water 
mark. The Szvcdi/h peafants believe, that when 
thefe fhells creep high up the rocks* they indicate 
a ftorm from the fouth. 

They are called Pern'-dvinkles; are fold com- 
monly in London, and eaten by the poor^ as they 
are in moil parts of the kingdom. 

Turnips. W- Ar -Z l * tab - "■ A- 5- 
110. Tumid. 

T. with five tumid fpires, the firft ventricofe, 

and all mod elegantly flriated j of a pale-red 


A rare fhell. Inhabits woods in Cambridge/hire, 

and fome other counties in England, 

Tab. lxxxii. fig. no. 

10 ** Taper. 

Class VI. SHELL S. X 2 9 

** Taper. 

Lin. Syjt. 1237. No. 631. Faun. Suec. No. 2170. Lift. Conch* Clathrus. 
tab. 588.Jfc.51. J"- Bar- 

T. with a taper fhell of eight fpires, diflinguifhed 
by elevated divifions, running from the aperture to 
the apex. 

A. A variety ? Pellucid -, ridges very thin. 

Thefe are analogous to that curious and ex- 
pen five fhell the Wentle-trap. 

T. with about twelve fpires of a dufky color, finely Tubevcufota. 
tuberculated. *" D ,' 

From the coaft of Northumberland. 

'Tab. lxxxii. fig. *iii. 

Lin. Sift. 1239, No. 6^. Lift. Angl. tab. ui.jlg. 7. Duplicate. 

112. Doub- 

T. with a flrong taper fhell, each fpire marked 
with two prominent ftria. Has about twelve 

Found by Doclor Lifter at Scarbor&igh^ who 
fays it was five inches long. 

Tab. lxxxi. fig, 112. 

Vol. IV. K Lin. 

igo SHELL S. Class VI. 

Terebra. Lin. Syft. II 39. No, 645. Seb. Muf, in. tab. \\\. fig. 40. 

1 13. Auger. Lift* Angl, tab. \\\,fig. 8. Faun, Suec. No. 2171. 

T. with a taper fhell of twelve fpires, fpirally 

Tab. \xxxufig. 113. 

Alius. i\ Wlt h eight fpires, ftriated tranfverfely ; white, 

ii4.White. . _ _ ? r ' * ' 

Tab. lxxix. 

Laws. T. with eight fmooth ipires, nearly obfolete. 

j 15. Smooth cf a ^ \ xx ' lXt 

Both about a third of an inch long. Found 

on the fhores of Angle/eg. 

Perverfus. Lin. Syfl, 125O. No. 650. Faun. Suec. No. Lift. Angl. tab.W. 
116. Re- /£• »« 


T. with eleven fpires of a duflcy color. The 
mouth turned a contrary way to moft others of the 

Length four-tenths of an inch ; very taper. 

Found in mofles, efpecially among the Hypna. 

Tab. lxxxii. fig. 116. 


Class VI. SHELLS. 131 

Lin. Sjfi. 1249, No. 649. Lift. Conch, tab. 41. Jig. maj. BUens. 

117. Bi- 

T. at firfl fight to be diftingulihed from others 
of this genus by two teeth in the aperture. Agrees 
with the laft in the contrary turn of the fpires, 
which are twelve in number, and of a dufky 

Tab. lxxxi. 

Lin. Sjft. 1249. No* 651. Faun. Suec. No. 2 1 73. Lfi. Mu/corum, 
Angl. tab. 11. fig. 6. Conch, tab. 41. fig. min. 1 18. Moss, 

T. of an oval fhape, of the fize of a grain of white 
muftard. With four fpires, very mining and 

Found with the Perverfus. 

Tab. Ixxxi'u fig. 11 3. 

Buccinum exiguum fafciatum k radiatum. Fafciatus. 

Lift. Conch, tab. 19. fig. 14. 1 19. Fas- 


T. with fix fpires \ white, marbled or fafciated 
with black. 

Length half ari inch. 

Very frequent in Anglefta^ in fandy foils near the 

Tab. lxxxiLj%. 119. 

K 2 T. with 

132 SHELLS. C* ass VI, 

Ufa*. 1 . with four fpires, the hrft ventncofe ; of a deep 

j 20. Ulva. 11, 
brown color ; aperture oval. 

Size of a grain of wheat. 

Tak Ixxxvi. fig. 120. 

Inhabits the Ulva Laftuca on thefnores of Flint - 


HELIX. XXV. Its animal a Slug. 

Shell fpiral, fub-pellurid. 
Semi-lunar aperture. 

* DeprelTed. 

Lapicida. Lin.Syft. 1 24 1. No. 656. Lift. Angl. tab. ii. fig, 14. Faun, 

121. Rock. Suec. No. 2174. 

Sn. with five fpires, externally carinated or de- 
prefied to an edge. Umbilicated ; of a deep 
brown color. 

A land (hell. Inhabits clefts of rocks. ^ 

Tab. lxxxiii. fig. 121. 

Albella. Lin. Sjfi. 1242. No. 658. Lift. Angl. tab. H. fig. 13. Gualtieri, 

122. GREY. tab. in. fig. Q. Faun. Smc. No. 2175. 

Sn. with five fpires rounded on the outfide. Thin, 
prettily fafciatsd along the fpires with brown and 
white. Deeply umbilicated. 

6 Inhabits 

Class VI. SHELLS. m 

Inhabits dry fandy banks, 
"Tab. Ixxxv.fig. 122. 

Lin. Syfi. 1242. No. 662. Lift. Angl. tab. ii. fig. 27. PJanorbis. 
Gualtieri, tab. iv. Jig. E. E, Faun. Suec. No. 2176. 123. Flat. 

Snt. with a very flat brown fhell, (lightly carinated 
on the outfide ; the aperture oblique. 

Inhabits ponds. 

"Tab. lxxxiii. fig. 121. 

Lin* Syft. 1243. No. 66j. Lift. Angl. tab. \\* fig. 28. Gualtieri. Vortex* 

tab.iv.fig.G. G. 1 24. Whirl, 

Lift. Conch, tab. 13%. fig. 43. Faun. Suec. No. 2178. 

Sn. with a very flat thin (hell, and fix fmall fpires. 
The outmoft carinated. 

Found with the former. 

Tab. lxxxiii. fig. 124. 

Sn. with four fpires ; the exterior very large. Ttiana. 
Thick in proportion to its diameter. Umbili- 

Whether a young, or a variety of the follow- 
ing ? 

Tab. lxxxiii. Jig. 125. 





Class VI. 

Corneal Lin. Syft. 1243. No. 67 I. Lift. Angl. tab. ii. jig. 2.6* GuaJ- 

126.H0RNY. fieri, tab. iv. D. D. i^a*. S«£c. 2I7Q. 

Sn. with four rounded fpires. Umbilicated ; of 
a horny appearance. 

Found in cull deep riyers, and in ponds. The 
largeft of the BritiJIo depreffed fpecies. 

Tab. lxxxiii. 

** Ventricofe. 

Vufefcetts. Ccchlea dilute rufefcens, aut fabalbida, finu ad umbilicuin 

127. Mot- exiguo, circinato. Lift. Angh tab. ii. fig. 12. 


Sn. with four fpires, and minutely umbilicated ; 
the exterior fpire fub-caririate4. Of a pale browniih 
red mottled with white. 

Inhabits woods. 

T&&. lxxxv. fig. 127, 

Tomatia. Porcatia Dicfccr. lib. ii. c. 9. p. 30$. Gefner. Aq. 655. 

j 28. Exo- Lin. Syft. 1244. No, byj. Lift. Angl. tab. ii. fig. 1. Faun. 

tic. Suec. No. 2183. 

S>j. with five fpires moil remarkably ventricofe. 
Slightly umbilicated. Fafciated with a lighter and 
deeper brown. 

9 Inhabits 

Class VI. SHELLS. j 3s 

Inhabits the woods of the fouthern counties of 

A naturalized fpecies, introduced, as is faid, 
by Sir Kenelm Dighy \ whether for medical pur- 
pofes, or as a food, is uncertain. Tradition fays, 
that to cure his beloved wife of a decay was the 

They are quite confined to our fouthern counties. 
An attempt was made to bring them into 
Northampton/aire *, but they would not live there. 

Thefe are ufed as a food in feveral parts of 
Europe during Lent % and are preferved in an 
Efc erg attire, or a large place boarded in, with 
the floor covered half a foot deep with herbs, 
in which the fnails neftie and fatten -{-. They were 
alfo a favorite dim with the Romans, who had their 
Cochlearia, a nurfery fimilar to the above. Fulvius 
Hirpnus I was the flrft inventor of this luxury, a 
little before the civil wars between Cefar and Pom- 
pey. The fnails were fed with bran, and fodden 
wine. If we could credit Varro ||, they grew fo 
large, that the fhells of fome would hold ten 
quarts! People need not admire the temperance of 
the fupper of the younger "Pliny §, which confided 
of only a lettuce a-piece, three snails, two eggs, 
a barley cake, fweet wine, and fnow ; in cafe his 

* Morton, 41$. f Addifon's Travels, 272. 

% Pliny, lib. x. c. 56. j| DeRe Rujlica, lib. iii. c. 14. 

§ Epifh lib. i. Epijl. xv. 

K 4 fnails 

fjo SHELLS. Class VI. 

fnails bore any proportion in fize to thofe of Hir. 

pi nus. 

Its name is derived not from any thing relating 
to an orchard, but from UZ^x, an operculum, k 
having a very ftrong one. Tins feems to be the 
fpecies defcribed by Pliny, lib. viii. c. ^g, which 
he fays was fcarce -, that it covered itfelf with the 
opercle, and lodged under ground ; and that 
they were at firfi found only about the maritime 
dips, and more lately near Velitr*. 

Tab. lxxxiv. fig, 12 8. 

Hor ten/is. 
129. Gar- 

Coch'ea vulgaris major puila maculata et fafciata hortenfis. 

Lift, Angl, tab. ii. fig. 2. Gualtieri, tab. i. fig. C. 
Helix lucorum. Lin. Syfi. 1247. No. 692. Lift. Conch* 

tab, 49. fig. 47. The common garden fnail. 

Sn\ in form like the laft, but lefTer, and not 
Umbilicated and clouded, or mottled with browns. 
Thefe are often ufed with fuccefs in confumptive 

ca r cs. 

Tab. lxxxiv. fig. 129. 

Arbuftorum. Lin, Syfi. 1245. No. 68c. Lift. AngL tab. ii, fig. 4. Faun. 
130. Shrub. Suec. No: 2184. 

Sn\ with a glofly (hell, brown> marked with a 
fingfc black fpirai fafcik : the rim of the aperture 
reflects a little. Sub-umbilicated. Varies with 
deeper *r.d lighter colors. 


Class VI. SMELLS. 137 

Inhabits woods. 
Tab. Ixxxv.fig. 130. 

Lin.Syft.l2tf. No. 691. Guahieri. tab. 5. fig. P. Lift. Nemoralh. 
Comb. tab. S7- Lift. AngL tab. ii. fig. 3. 131. VariE« 


Sn. with a glofify fhell*, very thin and pellucid. 
The aperture awry. Varies infinitely : often yel- 
low, or light green, or red fafciated with black or 
white, along the fpires. Often quite plain. 
Inhabits woods and gardens. 


Lin. Syft. 1247. No. 690. Lift. AngL tab. ii. fig. 1 8. Conch. Vivipara* 
tab. 126. fig. 26. Faun. Suec. No. 2185. 13^ Vm ' 


Sn. with fix ventricofe fpires, umbilicated. The 
aperture almoft round. Color brown, with dufky 
fpiral fafcite. 

Inhabits ftagnant waters, and femi-ftagnant 

Tab. lxxxiv. fig. 132. 

Lin. Sjft. 1245. No. 68 1. Gualtisri. tab. \iufig. L. Zonaria. 

133. Zon- 

Snt. with five fpires ; the firft very ventricofe. 
Slightly umbilicated. Fafciated ipirally with narrow 
ftripes of white, dufky, and yellow. 
Inhabits dry banks. 

Variety \ 

%S& SHELLS. Class VI. 

Variety? of the former. A fhell of a plain 

color, with the apex a little more projecting. 
Fig. 133. A. 

PeUuclda. Cochlea terreftris umbiiicata pellucida Havefcens. Guakisri, 
134. Pel- tab. ii. fig. G. 


Sn\ a very thin pellucid fhell, of a yellowifh- 
green color. Very brittle. With four fpires, the 
firft very tumid. 

Found by me only once ; in SbrcpJJJre. 

*** Cf a taper Form. 

Oactta? Lin. Syfi. 124S. No. 69S. Gualtieri. tab. S.fg. B. ? 



Sn. with eight fpires of a brown color. My fpe« 
cimen was mutilated. 

Inhabits ponds. 

Tab. lxxxvi. fig. 135. 

**** Ovated, imperforated. 

'alts. I*** &jft' I2 -J9* Ko. 703. Lift. Angl. tah. *L.fig. 21. Catch* 

136. Lake. fa &' l2 l'fig- *!• Faun. Suec. No. 218S. 

Sn. with fix fpires 3 the firft very large and ventri- 


Class VI. SHELLS. 1 3 9 

cole, and the laft quite pointed. Very brittle; 
Length two inches one eighth. 

Inhabits ft ill waters ; is, with others of the 
kind, the food of trouts. 

In younger fpecimens is a duplicature of the 
fhell, from the aperture fpreading along the firft 
fpire ; as in Jig. A. In old fhells it vanifhes. 

B. Another, which I fufpedt to be alfo a va- 
riety : lefter and fomewhat ftronger. Perhaps the 
Helix lineofa of Linnaus 7 No. yo6. Lift. Angl. 
tab. ii. No. 22, 

'Tab. lxxxvi. fig. 136. A. B. 

Lin* By ft. 1249. No. 705. Lift. Angl. tab. \\. fig. 24. Conch. Putris. 
tab. 123. Jig. 23. Faun. Suec. No. 2189. I-,y # Mud» 

Sn. with the firft fpire vaftiy large and tumid, 
The two others very fmall. 

Inhabits ponds, &c. 

T'ab. lxxxvi. fig. 137. 

tin. Syft. 1250. No. 708. Lift. Angl. tab. \\. fig. 23. Conch. Auricularia* 
tab. 123. fig. 22. Faun. Suec. No. 2192. 138. Ear, 

Sn. with a very ventricofe firft fpire, fub-urnbili- 
cated. The laft forms a minute apex. Color yel- 
low. Very brittle. 

Inhabits ponds. / 

Tab. lxxxvi. fig. 138. 


i 4 o SHELLS. Class VI. 

Lavigatum? Lin.Syft. 1 250. No. yog, 


Sn. with only two fpires : the firft very ventricofe ; 
the other very minute, and placed laterally. Of a 
pale-red color. Pellucid. 

Inhabits ponds. 

Tab. lxxxvi. fig. 139. 

Tentaculala. Lin. Syft. 1249. No. 707. Lift. Angl. tab. ii. fig. 19. Cotuh. 
140. Olive. ta h, l^z.fig. 32. Faun. Susc. No. zigi. 

Sn. of an oval fub-conic form, with five fpires. 
Clouded with brown. 

Inhabits ponds. 

Tab. lxxxvi. fig. 140. 

NERITA. XXV. Its animal a Slug. 


' Shell gibbous, flattifh at bottom. 

Aperture femi-orbicular. 

Glaitcuw. Lin. Syft. 125; i. No. 716. Lift. Angl. tab.'iii. Jig. 10. Faum 

141. Livid. Sutc. No. 2197. 

N. with five fpires, umbilicated. Of a livid color. 
The fpires marked with fhort brown {tripes \ but 
it varies in colors. 
fab. lxxxrii. fig, 141, 

Class VI. SHELLS. i 4l 

Lin. Syft. 1253. No. 723. Lift. Angl tab. 11. fig. zo. Conch, flwviatilis. 
tab. 141. fig. 3%. Faun. Suec. No. 2194. RlVER 

N. with only two fpires. Brittle, dufky, marked 
with white fpots. 

Not half the fize of a pea. 

Inhabits ftill rivers and Handing waters. 

Tab. lxxxviii. fig. 142; 

Lin. Syft. 1253. No. 725. Lift. Angl. tab. ill. fig. II, 12, 1 3. Littoralh, 
Conch, tab. 607. fig. 39, &c. Faun. Suec. No. 2195, l43.STR.AKi> 

N. with a thick fhell, with four fpires. Generally 
of a fine yellow. Varies greatly into other colors, 

Large as a horfe-bean. 

Common at the fea rocks. 

Tab. lxxxvii. fig. 143. 

XXVI. Its animal a Slug. HALIOTIS* 

Shell of the fhape of a human ear, with a 

row of orifices along the furface. 
The fpire near one end turned in. 

Lin. Syft. 1256. Lift. Conch, tab. 6lt. Lift. Angl. tab. in, Tubercufata 
& m l6 ' 144.TUBB*- 


H. with a rough fhell, the infide like mother-of- 


142; SHELLS. Class VI. 

Inhabits the fea near Guernfey ; alfo frequently 
eaft up on the fouthern fHores of Bevcnjhire. 
When living adheres to rocks. 

This was the \nr%<; uygix 3 the wild limpet, and 
laXxarTios 2<r, the fea ear of Ariftotle *. 

Tab. Ixxxviii. fig. 144. 

Div. IV. Univalve Shell; 

Without a regular fpire. 

PATELLA. XXVII. Its animal a Slug. 
LIMPET. Con ; c f}idl5 wkhout fpires# 

Vulgata. Lin. Sjft. 1 258. No. 758. Lift, Angl. t ah. V. Jig. 40. Faun, 

145. Com- Suec, No. 2199. 


P. with rough prominent /n>, and fliarply crenated 
edges. Vertex pretty near the centre. The edges 
often in old fubjects are almoft fmooth. 
Tab. lxxxix. fig, 145. 

Deprefa. Lift. Conch, tab. 538. j%. inf. 

146. Flat. 

P. much deprefied ; the vertex approximating 
nearly to one edge. More oblong than the former. 
Tab. lxxxix. fig. 146. 

* HJr. A: ■ ' -r«4r 


Class VI. SHELLS. 143 

Lin. Sjfi. 1259. No. j6i. Gualtieri. tab. ix.fig. w. Hugafica. 

i^j. BON- 

P. with a white acuminated filiated {hell, the top 
turning down like a Phrygian bonnet. 
'Tab. xc. 7%-. 147. 

Patella vertice intorto, &c. Gualtieri. tab. ix.fig. 10, Intorta* 



P. with an elevated (hell, (lightly ftriated; the 
vertex bending, but not hocked. 

Inhabits Anglefea. Found on the (hores 

Tab. xc.fig. 148. 

Lin. Sjfi. 1260. No. 769. Z//?. Angl. tab. u.fig* 32. Conch. Lacuftriu 
tab. 141. _/g-. 39. Faun. Suec. No. 2200. 149. LakEa 

P. with a (hell almoft membranaceous ; the top 

Inhabits frelh waters. 

Lin. Sjfi. 1260. ifo. 770. Lift. Conch, tab. 543. /£. 27. ?ellacid&. 

150. Trans- 

P. with a pellucid (hell, marked longitudinally 

with rows of rich blue fpots. The vertex placed 

near one edge. * 

Inhabits the fea rocks of Cornwall. 

Tab. xc.fig* 150. 


144 SHELL S. Class VI. 

L**vis, Patella l&vis fufca. Lift, Conch, tab. 542* jig. 26. 

15 1. Smooth 

P. with a fmooth and glofiy tell, fomewhat de 
prefled ; the apex inclining. 

Found on the fhores near Bamff. 

Tab. xc. fig. 151. 

Tijura. Lin. Sjfi. 1261. No. 778. lift. Conch, tab. 543. fg. 28. 

152. Slit. 

P. with a white fhell> of an elevated form, vertex 
inclining ; elegantly ftriated and reticulated. Has 
a remarkable flit in front. 

Inhabits the feas of the Weft of England. 

Tab. xc. fig. 152. 

Graca? l in% fya l2 £ 2m 2f . 7 g 0# Lift. Conch, tab. 527. Jig. 2. 

153. Stri- 

P. with an oblong fhell, perforated vertex, ftriated 
roughly to the edges. 

Inhabits the Weft of England. 

Tab. lxxxix. fig. 153. 

This genus was called by the Greeks \ewx$ 9 and 
is mentioned by Arifiotle and Athen^ns * ; who 
acquaint us, that it was ufed for the table -, and alfo 

* ArifioU Hift. An. lib. iv. c. 4. dibenaus, lib. iii. /. 85. 


Class VI. SHELLS. 

inform us of its nature of adhering to rocks. Art- 
ftophanes with much humour fpeaks of an old 
woman who (luck as clofe to a young fellow as a 
JLepas to a rock. 

Linnaeus has adopted the Latin name of Patella, 
a fort of difh ; and has applied it (as fome other 
modern writers have before) to this genus. 


XXVIII. Its animal a Terebella. 
A (lender tubiform (hell. 


Lin. Syft. 1263. No. 786. Lift. Conch, tab. S^7'fS' 2 ' Eaun. Entalis* 
Suec.N0.2zo1. 154.. Com- 


D. with a {lender mell, a little bending. Pervious. 
Length near an inch and a half. 
Inhabits mod of our feas* 
Tab. xc.j%. 154. 

XXIX. Its animal a Terebella. BERPVLA. 

Tubular (hell adhering- to other bodies. 

Lin. Syft. 1264.* No. 794. Faun. Suec. No. 2204* 


S. with a fhell fpiral or wreathed, like the cornu 

Vol. IV. L Very 

i 4 6 SHELLS. Class VI. 

Very fmall \ adhering to fhells, eriiftacea and alg<e. 
Tab. xci. fig. 155. 

Triquetra. Lin. Syft. 1265. No. 795* Faun. Suec. No. 2206. 
156. Angu- 

S. with a triangular fhell, irregularly twirled. 

Adheres to (in a creeping form) ftcnes and othe^ 


Intricata. Lin, Sjft. 1 265. No. 796. 

157. Com- 

S. with a flender fhell greatly entwined, 

Adheres to fhells, &c. mcil intricately twifted. 

Tab. xci. fig. 15?. 

Contortvpli- Lin- Syft. 1266. No. 799. Lift, Conch, tab. 29. Jig. D* 
cata. Faun. Suec. No. 2205* 

158. Twin- 

S. with a flrong, rugged, angulated fhell, entwined, 

Adheres to fhells, &a 

Tab. xci. fig. 158. 

Vertr.icularis. Lin. Syft. 1267. No. 805. Ellis Coral, tab. xxxviii./?. z. 

159. Worm. 

S. with a Gender, incurvated, taper, and rounded 

According to Mr. £//;j, inhabits all our coafts. 

3 Ils 

Class VI. SHELLS. 147 

Its animal a Terebella. TEREDO. 

Shell flender, bending. PIERCER. 

Lin. Syft. 1267. No. 807. Faun. Suec. No. 2087. Navalis. 

160. Ship- 

Juftly called by Linnaeus cahmitas navium. Was 
imported from the Indies. Penetrates into the ftouteft 
oak plank, and effects their deftrucYion. 

XXX. Its animal a Nereis. SABELIA. 

A tubular covering, fabricated with land 
and broken fhells, coherent by a gluti- 
nous cement. 

Lin. Syfi. 1268. No. 8ll. Bajler fubfef. Up. 80. tab. 9. fig. 4. Rudis. 

161. Coarse* 

S. with a fingle cafe formed of larger fragments 
of fhells, with little or no fand. 

Found near Weymouth^ lodged in the fhell of a 
bivalve. The animal is reprefented magnified in 
"Tab. xxvi. marked A. A. 

Lin. Syji. 1268. No. 812. Ellis Corah tab. xxxvh /. 90. Ahveolata. 

162. Honey- 

S. with numerous tubes placed parallel ; with the 

orifices open, forming in the mafs the appearance 

L 2 of 

X4* SHELLS. Class Vt 

of the furface of honey-combs : compofed chiefly 
of fand, with very minute fragments of fhells. The 
tubes fometimes above three inches long. 

Found on the weftern coafts of Anglefea\ near 
Crkcetby Caernarvon/hire -, and near Yarmouth. It 
covers the rocks for a confiderable fpace near low- 
water mark. 
Tak Ysin.fig. 162. 

Tubiformis. Nereis cylindracea belgica. Pallas. Mifc. Zool. p. 211. tab. ix. 
163. Tube. fig* 3- 

S. with a cafe of a taper (trait form 5 made up of 
minute particles of fand, moft elegantly put toge- 

Its animal defcribed at No. 34. 

Common on all our fandy fhores. 

Tab. xcii. Jig. 163. 

F 1 N I S. 

E R R A 



Page 5 6. — ' — /VSipunculus 

read Siphunculus. 

74. — Barnacle 

— — Bernacle. 

In the P'ates. 

Plate XXV. —N° 41. 

Plate XXVI. 

LIX. — N° 80. 

— Lxr. 





ACORN-Aiell, 7 2 

Actinia, - " - • 48 

Aphrodita, » 44 

Arborefcent Sea Star, - - 67 

Anomia, - 109 

Ascaris, «<■ ^32 

Ascidia, - 48 

Ar«Jio?, - - * 16 

Ar^, - 66 



BalleruS) - - - - 32 

Blubber, Sea, -. ■ » - 60 

Buccinum, - - - 118 

Bulla, - -> 116 


Cardium, » ,. - 89 

C«r/*r brings from Britain a fhield made of its pearls, 81 

Chiton, - * 71 

L 3 Clams, 



Clams, - - r 94 

Cocblearia, * •? 1 35 

Cockle, ■* 89 

Concha 'venerea, - - 1 00 

Conway river once noted for pearls, • 80 
Crows, their policy to get at the meat of the muffel, 114 

Cuttle-fifli ink, - - 56 

. faufage - - ibid. 

CYPRiEA, - • 115 


Vatyl, a fort of P kolas, - - 76 

Dentalium, - - 145 

Dew-worm, its manners, - » 33 

Dipper, - ? 116 

PONAX, - 93 

Doris, • 43 


Echinus, • 67 

■ eaten by the Romans, - 6$ 
?gg» Sea, <vide Echinus. 

Efcaigatoire - - • 135 


Gellies, fea 60 

Gerard, his tale of the goofe bearing (hell, - 74 

>Gowrie, - - 115 

« facred to Venus, - • ibid. 


Hag, - 39 

H.-.LIOTIS, - - 141 

Meton Hookers, a fine muiTel - III 

m : t Crab, its inftii^cl, - - 23 

Hirp nus, his art of fattening fnails, - 135 

Holcthuria, - 51 

I. Irijb 

INDEX. i 5 i 

Irijh pearls of large fize, - - 8 1 

Irt river, its pearls, - » *&;£ 

Juvenal) his account of the ink of the Sepia, 56 

■ Britijb oy Iters, • 1 03 

K., - • 2? 

KT£»f» • » - OQ 


Laplysia, - » 42 

Leeches, their ufes • 37 

Lepas, - - 72, 77 

Aiirocq ccygia, - - J42 

Z^/flj anatifera, • •'' 74 

Leniulus, his famous fupper - 68 

LlMAX, - - 40 

Limpet, r - 142 

Lobsters, their hiftory, - - o 

■ ■■ fear thunder, - - /£, 
• — v aft activity, - - H 

■ — known to Ariftotle, - 16 

Long oyfter, what, - - 17 

Lucrine lake, its oyfters, - .' J03 

Lumbricus, - -5 

Lungs, fea, - • ^ 


MACTRA, • gi 

MlDUSA, mj 

excites burning pain when handled, 59 

— cured kibed heels, - /£. 

11 phofphorous, - - H, 


m index; 


MeJJalinus, lofes his life by a Leech, - 37 

MUREX, - - I23 

Murjces, a difli in Lentulus's fupper, - 68 

— productive of the purple dye, - J19 

Mya, 78 

" a fpecies producing' pearls, - 80 

Mytilus. Mussel, - - no 

• •- noxious to many conflitutions, ■■ 11 1 

Myxine, - "39 


Nacre, - 1 114 

Nereis, • 46 

■ illuminates the ocean> » ibid. 

Nerita, - „ - 140 

Nettle, Sea, - » 59 


OXoSagia - - - 5 1 

Oppian, his account of the Pinr.ophylax crab, 2 

' -— — Sepia, or Cuttle, • 55 

Grata Sergius, inventor of flews for oyfters, - 103 

Oftre& crud<£, r - 68 

Oysters, - - 102 

— ■ Britijh, in great repute at Rome, - 103 

■ > — Oyfter-beds, account of, -. 104 


Patella, - 9 145 

Patina ojirearum, a Roman dim, - 68 

Pearls, Britijb, - - 81, 113 

Pecten, -. - 99 

Pelorides, - 68 

Pholas, penetrates wood and ftones, - • 73 

Piercer, - - 147 


INDEX 153 


Pinna, - - 114 

Ilnvo(pvXa^ 9 - * 2 

Pliny, the younger, his fupper, -. 135 

Pomatia, - - ihidm 

Purple dye, the Syrian, - 119 

— the Britijh, how produced, - ibid. 

Purpura, - • 69 


Razor-fall, - 83 

— — — a food, 26 

Rutupium, or Ricbborougb, its oyfter celebrated by Juvenal, 103 


Sabella, - » 147 

Saufage, the cuttle-rifli of the Greeks, * 56 

Scallops, - - - 99 

how drefTed by the Greeks - *£/<£ 

■ the fhell in which Venus rofe from the fea, ibid, 

1 worn by pilgrims, - - 100 

Sepia, - 52 

1 Indian, their vail fize, - - 53 

How the Sepia efcapes danger, - 55 

2/i7rta, - ^ fto. 

Serpula, - - 145 

Snail, - - 132 

Snails fattened for food, - 135 

Solen, - 83 

■ grateful to widows, - - 86 

Zi/Am?, - - ibid. 

Spbondyli, - • 68 

Star, Sea, - 60 

deftru&ive to oyflers, » *i/V. 

£/*//* marina, - 66 

Strombus, - - -122 


N D E X. 


Tellina, = - 86 

Teredo, - - • 147 

Tillo, - 32 

Tooth-shell, - - j^r 

Top, - - - I2 £ 

Trochus, - - ibid. 

Turbo, - - -128 

V. U. 

Venus, fhell, - - - 99 

Voluta, - - - 118 

Unices Soluta, - - - 60 


Wampum, what made of, - 94 

Whelk, - - - 118 

Worms, account of, from Li 'una us, - 31 

Wreath, - - 128 

N. B. The Binders are requefled to place all the Plates at 
the End. ' 


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