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Bronte Country 


J&arfearfc College ILtbrarg 

FROM THfc tlfcQjjEST OF 


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This fund Is $io t ooOi and of its income throe qua tup-th 

alt all be spent for books and one quarter 

he ndfled to the principal* 

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Its Topography, Kj^tiquities, 
krb History. 



kR.e.s. ( Eain. 

"Thank God for the green earth."— Karl Von Linnk. 

"Pan is the embodiment of the universe, and Echo is the 
mere talker about the universe. Let us go, therefore, to Pan 
himself, if we wish truly to know the universe; and to Eeho, if 
we wish only to hear about it."— Lobd Bacon. 

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Printed by Charles Greening, 

Albion Court, Kirkgate. 

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'HE country associated with the Brontes is of 
two kinds, the rural and the semi-rural or 
urban-rural. The first includes the scenes 
in Ireland connected with Patrick Bronte's 
youth; those in Essex where he held his first curacy; 
the Cornish scenes connected with Maria Branwell ; 
Haworth and the Moors ; Cowan Bridge, Tunstall, and 
Casterton. The latter embraces the scenes connected 
with Patrick's first Yorkshire curacy at Dewsbury, and 
his subsequent Yorkshire incumbencies at Hartshead 
and Thornton; the school scenes of the sisters; the 
houses they visited; all of which material is largely 

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drawn upon for the scenes in "Jane Eyre," and 
" Shirley." 

Having resided for a few years in the Heavy Woollen 
District, which even to this day is redolent with 
memories of Charlotte Bronte, it would have been 
passing strange if I had not early manifested a curiosity 
in acquiring scraps of information and anecdotes 
regarding this marvellous woman and her no less 
talented sisters, whose school-days were spent in great 
part in the Mirfield and Dewsbury districts of Yorkshire, 
while she paid many happy visits in after life to the 
neighbourhood of Birstall. Soon after my arrival in 
Yorkshire, I was brought into contact with one, who, in 
her early days, was rocked in the cradle which Charlotte 
had formerly occupied, and from her I heard a great 
deal about this unique family, who were famous no less 
for their good brains than for their good hearts, and 
who were ever remembered by former dependants as 
kindly, justice-loving superiors, who were in no way 

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respecters of persons. Patrick Bronte's curacy at 
Dewsbury, and his incumbency at Hartshead, also 
interested me, and the result was that I finally essayed 
a new departure in Bronte literature, by sketching a 
few of the scenes connected with the family in a series 
of articles in the " Yorkshire Weekly Post," during the 
winter of 1886-7. When these articles were concluded, 
it appeared to me that with an extended range of 
subjects, a more complete work might be achieved, and 
this production, THE BRONTE COUNTRY, is the 
result of my labours. 

The object of this book is to give to the reader a full 
description of the country which produced this talented 
family, and which fostered their genius, and it is hoped 
that from these pages will exhale a breath of reality in 
description which will put the reader, so to speak, into 
the position of the Brontes, and enable him to realise 
more easily the wonderful beauty of their descriptions 
of scenery, and of out-of-door life. At the same time, 

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antiquities and matters of historical interest pertaining 
tp the districts treated of, will not be awanting, so that 
the volume will not be merely a picture-book with word' 
pictures appended, but will have such a variety of 
information combined within it, that it will be likely 
to prove interesting to anyone, be be general reader, 
antiquarian, or Utteratetur. In addition to the scenes, 
and the antiquarian and general matters relating 
thereto, there is a special chapter, entitled " Collectanea 
BrontSana," in which is arranged a number of anecdotes 
and scraps of information regarding the family, which 
have come to my notice during my researches in 
connection with the acquisition of information for the 
writing of the scenes. 

In conclusion, I have to thank the editor of the 
"Yorkshire Post" for his kind permission to use the 
material of my articles in his paper. To many kind 
friends who have assisted me I return my best thanks. 
I have laid so many under contribution that it is almost 

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impossible to single out the most important. I have to 
acknowledge my indebtedness to the whole body of 
subscribers in general, and particularly to those who 
have advised Mends and relatives to subscribe. The 
Rev. Thomas Whitby, M.A., Vicar of Dewsbury, has 
been most obliging in helping me to throw some light 
on Patrick's curacy in his parish, hitherto an almost 
entirely forgotten aspect of Bronte biography. Mr. W. 
W. Yates, of the "Dewsbury Reporter," has also given 
me access to his writings on Bronte at Dewsbury. The 
Revs. H. W. Lett, Rector of Aghaderg, County Down, 
and W. Moore, Rector of Drumgooland, have thrown 
much light on the disputed point about the name 
"Bronte." Mrs. Taylor (nee Martha de Garrs), sister 
of Nancy Garrs, of Sheffield, has contributed some 
interesting anecdotes of the inmates of Haworth 
Parsonage; and her sister, Mrs, Sarah Newsome, their 
old nurse, aged 80 years, has written from Crawfords- 
ville, in the United States. There are other informants 

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whose communications have been of even greater value 
than the foregoing, but who, for various reasons, prefer 
to remain incognito. In conclusion, to all persons who 
have helped me by sending photographs,. &c, I return 
my best and heartfelt thanks. 

I am indebted to Messrs. Valentine, of Dundee, for 
the use of photographs of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and of St. Michael's Mount ; to Mr. Atkinson, of Great 
Bardfield, Braintree, for one of Wethersfield Church; 
and to Messrs. Berry of Gomersal, Cooper of Liver- 
sedge, Garrett of Dewsbury, and Smith of Batley, for 
various others ; to Mr. Manley, of Halifax, for the use 
of his beautiful impressions of Kirklees Gate House 
and Bobin Hood's Grave I am much indebted, and for 
that of Heald's Hall to J. G. Oddy, Esq., of Hallcroft 
House, Addingham. The artist, Mr. Shepherd, has 
entered con amore into the work, and he deserves my 

heartiest commendation. 

J. A. E. S. 

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Patrick Bronte's Irish home. — Aghaderg and Drumgooland. — 
St. John's College, Cambridge. — The scene of his first curacy, 
Wethersfield, in Essex. — The scene of his first Yorkshire curacy at 
Dewsbury. — Dewsbury Parish Church. — Its history .s— The Institu- 
tion of Sunday Schools in 1783, by the Rev. Matthew Powley, and 
the Bev. Hammond Boberson, his curate. — Squirrel Hall, the 
residence of Boberson on Dewsbury Moor. — Anecdotes of Bronte, 
and sketch of his career in Dewsbury Page 1 


The scene of Patrick Bronte's first incumbency at Hartshead- 
cum-Clifton. — Penzance, the home of Maria Branwell. — Guiseley 
Church, the scene of Patrick Bronte's wedding. — His house at 
Clough Lane, High town, near Hartshead. — Hartshead Church, its 
history. — Liversedge Church, and Hammond Boberson. — Anecdotes 
of Boberson. — Heald's Hall. — Bawfold's Mill and the Luddites. — 
Cartwright's and Boberson's graves in Liversedge Churchyard 

Page 40 

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Thornton, the birthplace of the three sisters and Branwell 
Bronte.— The Old Bell Chapel.— The Parsonage.— Haworth, the 
workshop of the Brontes.— Its Church and Rectory. — Their 
history.— Vandalism triumphant. — The Rev. William Grimshaw 
and his life-work Page 68 


The School Scenes of the Sisters Bronte at Cowan Bridge.— 
Tunstall Church. — Burrow, and Burrow Hall, the scene of the 
Boman Bremontac©. — Thurland Castle. — The Tunstalls of 
Thurland.— Lunedale.— Caster ton Page 85 


The West Biding School Scenes at Boe Head and Dewsbury 
Moor.— General appearance of the Heavy Woollen District of 
Yorkshire. — Importance of this district in connection with 
" Shirley."— The houses Charlotte visited.-The Rydings, Birstall.— 
Birstall and its surroundings. — Norton Conyers and " Jane Eyre." 
—Birstall Church, the Briarfield Church of " Shirley."— The 
Healds of Birstall. — Oakwell Hall. — Sir Fletcher Norton at 
Oakwell. — Anecdotes of Sir Fletcher. — The Battle of Adwalton 
Moor. — The Duke of Newcastle's portrait. — Priestley the philoso- 
pher born at Fieldhead. — The Bed House, Gomersal. — Gomersal 
and the Luddites. — The Shirley Habitation of the Primrose 
League. — Herbert Enowles, the Yorkshire Chatterton, and his 
connection with Gomersal. — Pollard Hall. — Brookroyd. — Huns- 
worth Mills, the Hollows Mill of " Shirley." — The Hollow.— 
Oakenahaw and its Cross. — Bierley Hall, and Dr. Richardson.-* 
Miss Currer of Eshton and Bierley. — The nom de plume of " Currer 

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Bell."— Kirklees and Robin Hood.— The Nnnneley of " Shirley," 
and the Ferndean Manor of " Jane Eyre." — The Dumb Steeple. 
— The Armytages of Kirklees. — Chaucer and Kirklees. — Mirfield 
Church.— Papist Hall Page 100 


The Nursery of the Bronte Genius. — Haworth and the Moors. — 
The Waterfall at Ponden Kirk.— The Crow Hill Bog Eruption.— 
Sowdens and Grimshaw. — Stanbury. — " Wuthering Heights." 

Page 160 


Scenes of Governess-ship. — Halifax and Bawdon. — Patrick Bran- 
well Bronte at Luddendenfoot and Sowerby Bridge. — Broughton- 
in-Furness. — Green Hanunerton. — Hathersage and " Jane Eyre." 
—The Vale of Hope.— The Lake District, Ac Page 177 


COLLECTANEA BRONTEAN A. —Celtic Origin of Bronte 
Genius. — The True Position of Branwell. — His Artistic and Poetic 
Attainments. — Emily, as " The Merry Monarch." — Concluding 
Bemarks Page 188 

Walking Tour Itineraries Page 195 

Notes and Addenda Page 199 

Detailed Index Page 213 

List of Subscribers Page 227 

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From original Sketches by Alexander Shepherd, AM., 
of Bradford, 

Norton Conyers 

On the Beck, Haworth 

St. John's College, Cambridge 

Wethersfield Church, Essex 

Dewsbury Old Church 

Dewsbury Church Sunday School Centenary Medal 

Squirrel Hall, Dewsbury Moor 

Dewsbury Old Vicarage 

Rev. Patrick BrontE's House, Hightown, Liversedge 

Hartshead Church 

St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall 

Liyersbdgb Church 

Dewsbury Moor Church 








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Heald's Hall, Liversedge ... ... ... ... ... 66 

Haworth Old Parsonage 78 

Haworth Old Church 80 

Haworth New Church 81 

Cowan Bridge 86 

Cowan Bridge (prom the Bridge) 88 

Tunstall Church 93 

Interior op Tunstall Church 96 

Heald's House, Dewsrurt Moor 110 

The Rydings, Birstall 115 

Birstall Church 133 

Oakwell Hall 137 

The Gate House, Kirklees 153 

Robin Hood's Grate, Kirklees 155 

The Dumr Steeple, Kirklees ... 157 

Black Bull Inn, Haworth 161 

Branwell Bronte's Chaib, Black Bull Inn 163 

Scene on Sladen Beck, near the Waterfall, Haworth 

Moor 169 

The Bronte" Waterfall, Haworth Moor 173 

On the Beck, Haworth 194 

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On k§e Beek, Hav?opi§. 

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,.T will be well, before we proceed with our 
subject, to dispel one impression which 
may, perhaps, have lingered in the minds 
of some intending readers when they saw 
this book announced. This work will not 
be in any sense a key to the scenes of the novels. It 
will deal certainly with a few of these, but the writer 
has not gone out of his way to rake up scandals and 
curiosities which might easily have been secured and 
formed, no doubt, racy reading for some persons. No ! 
we flatter ourselves we are going to provide better fare 

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for the mental digestions of our readers. To describe 
the country which produced the Brontes and fostered 
their genius shall be our task, to try to let the reader 
see it from a Bronte point of view, to attempt to show 
how, not simply the environment of lonely, heathery 
Haworth, but their other surroundings all through 
their lives, helped to build up those wonderful pieces of 
imaginative work which they produced. For after all 
they cure works of imagination more than many people 
believe. In fine, we shall leave other people's business 
alone, and attend to our own, which is to give the 
reader a picture of the Bronte Country as it is in the 
present, and as it was in the past; in short to weave 
a fabric interesting to all and tedious to none, which 
will offend no one, and, we trust, will instruct and 
amuse all who read it. After all, if we succeed, 
although in a humble way, we have a praiseworthy 
task in hand, for to instruct and amuse is about the 
highest merit to which either human conversation or 
writing can attain. Charlotte Bronte says, when 
answering the letter of a Cambridge student, who had 
expressed admiration of her writings : " You are very 
welcome to take Jane, Caroline, and Shirley for your 

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sisters, and I trust they will often speak to their 
adopted brother when he is solitary, and soothe him 
when he is sad. * * * If they can (make them- 
selves at home) and find household altars in human 
hearts, they will fulfil the best design of their creation, 
in therein maintaining a genial flame, which shall 
warm but not scorch, light but not dazzle.' 1 In like 
spirit would we commend these pages to the indulgent 

The Irish home of Patrick Bronte, the father of the 
illustrious trio of sisters, and of the talented, erring 
brother, was situated in the parish of Aghaderg, or 
Aghaderrick, near Loughbrickland, in county Down, a 
district noted for its high state of cultivation, and for the 
beauty of its scenery. It is a parish which fairly teems 
with relics, both ancient and modern. Three upright 
stones, " The Three Sisters of Greenan " (Druidical 
remains), apparently the remnant of an ancient 
cromlech, are to be seen on a gentle eminence about 
one and a half miles south west from Loughbrickland. 
Several interesting finds have been made at Meenan 
bog, such as a canoe of solid oak, evidently made by 
the aborigines. Near Scavagh, also in this parish, is 

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the "Danes' Cast," a deep ditch, now grass-grown. 
There are two lakes in the parish, Loughbrickland, and 
Loughshark, the former receiving its name from 
the speckled trout with which it formerly abounded. 
On the banks of Loughbrickland, Sir Marmaduke 
Whitchurch, to whom Queen Elizabeth granted the 
lands in 1585, built a castle, which was dismantled 
by Cromwell's army. William of Orange encamped in 
this parish in 1690, on his way to the battle of the 
Boyne, and Dutch coins are turned up by the plough 
to this day. The inhabitants are mostly farmers, the 
great part of the land being arable, but the linen 
manufacture is also carried on. 

Patrick's parents resided originally, at least at the 
time of his birth, at Lisnacreevy, in Drumballyroney 
parish, now united to Drumgooland, and latterly in 
the town-lands of Ballynaskeagh, in Aghaderg parish. 
In Patrick's time the children were baptised at, and 
attended Drumballyroney church. 

At Drumgooland church, not very far off, a 
handsome monument is erected to the memory of the 
Kev. Thomas Tighe, for forty-two years incumbent of 
this parish. This Mr. Tighe was Patrick Bronte's 

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patron, and he employed him as tutor to his boys. In 
the wall of the school-house was a very fine cross, 
built into the masonry, the shaft and cross being of 
porphyry, the plinth of granite. Captain Mayne Reid, 
the novelist, was the son of a Presbyterian minister of 
Drumgooland parish. 

Si io§n$ College, CamBpicige:. 

Incited, it is supposed, by the encouragement of his 
patron, the Rev. Mr. Tighe, rector of Drumgooland, to 
seek an English University, we find him, in 1802, at the 
gates of St, John's College, Cambridge. His name is 

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entered as follows in the register of St. John's College, 
" Admissions 1802-35, fol. 1, No. 1235, Patrick Branty, 
Ireland, Sizar. Tutors, Wood and Smith. Oet. 1. Sub. 
1802;" extracted by C. Taylor, D.D., Master of the 
College, January 22, 1887. In "Graduate Canta- 
brigienses, ,, lately published by the University, Messrs. 
Deighton, Cambridge, p. 70, "Bronte, Pat., Ish., 
A.B., 1806 ; " extracted by C. Taylor, D.D. It is thus 
evident that "Branty" has been written by the 
University authorities, but that "Bronte" is his own 
signature, as is shown by the University books, both 
when matriculating and graduating. 

Mr. Bronte, we are informed, had a brother, who 
was living some short time since in Belfast, and 
the family at Haworth were never aware that their 
father had passed under the harsh-sounding title of 
" Prunty." It is just possible that the whole story 
about the change of name is explainable by the 
vagaries of the age in regard to spelling, and that it 
was very far from the mind of Patrick to have 
coined such a high-sounding Greek name. In the 
registers of DrumbaJlyroney church, in county Down, 
are the names of the brothers and sisters of Patrick, 

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THE bbontE countby. 7 

born between 1779 and 1791, and they vary in spelling 
from "Brunty," to " Bruntee.*" The names of the 
younger members of the family are wanting, owing to a 
break in the registers ; but Patrick's youngest sister, 
who is still alive, says their name was always Bronte, 
and nothing else, and there are at the present date 
several persons who spell their name "Bronte," residing 
in Armagh and other towns in that district. A cousin 
of Charlotte's remembers Patrick preaching in 
Drumballyroney church, after ordination. He was also 
in the habit of sending twenty pounds a year to his 
mother as long as she lived. 

We have at least cleared up two or three points, 
viz., that the name "Bronte" is to be found not 
unfrequently in Ireland at the present day, and 
that Patrick neither forgot his parents nor his native 
country when he took up his abode in England. 

St. John's College, Cambridge, is supposed to have 
been founded about the time of Henry I., and the 
charter of foundation was published in 1511. It has 
very extensive patronage. At the time of Bronte's 
advent there, the Bev. William Craven, D.D., was 
Master. Among the celebrities who have passed from 

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St. John's, may be named, Eoger Ascham, William 
Cecil (Lord Burleigh), Dr. Martin Lister, the eminent 
naturalist; Matthew Prior, the poet, and in a later 
day, Heberden, the celebrated physician. We know 
little of Patrick at the University, but this is certain, 
that he drilled, along with the late Lord Palmerston 
and the present Duke of Devonshire, in a corps of 
volunteers, which was formed by the students of that 
time to resist the threatened invasion of England by 

On leaving Cambridge, Mr. Bronte took orders, and 
in October, 1806, we find him established as curate of 
Wethersfield, in Essex. Wethersfield, or Weathersfield 
as it was formerly spelt, is a populous village 
situated on the Pant or Blackwater, about seven miles 
from Braintree. The inhabitants are mostly employed 
in straw-plaiting and in raising garden seeds, especially 
carrots. The Church of St. Mary Magdalen is a 
building of some note from an antiquarian point of 
view. It consists of a Norman tower, surmounted 
by a copper spire, which has assumed a deep verdigris 
hue from the action of the weather, a nave, north 
and south aisles and chancel. Inside, there is a fine 

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carved rood screen of oak, a very uncommon ornament 

in English churches, stone sedilia, piscina, and the 

effigies of two kneeling figures in marble, male and 

female, supposed to be members of the Wentworth family, 

who had great possessions here. This monument is 

believed to be three hundred years old. Wethersfield 

is surrounded by beautiful country mansions. Among 

these may be mentioned Wethersfield Hall, Codham, 

or Goldham Hall, and Gosfield Hall.* At Goldham 

Hall, two and a half miles south east from the church, 

picturesquely situated on the Pant, it is said that Butler 

wrote his "Hudibras." At Blackmore End, where a 

church was built in 1867, dedicated to St. Mary the 

Virgin, a moat may be traced which encircled the 

ancient seat of the De Nevilles. Amid such scenes did 

Patrick Bronte labour for two years and a half. His vicar 

the Rev. Joseph Jowett, f Regius Professor of Civil Law 

at Cambridge, was non-resident, and so the raw youth 

was raised to a position of some importance. How he fell 

in love, and lost his sweetheart through the machinations 

of a " cruel " uncle, we will leave the reader to discover 

* For plates of these residences see " Excursions in Essex/' 
1819, Longmans, 
t A native of Yorkshire, born at Leeds in 1750. 

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in the pages of Augustine BirrelTs "Charlotte Bronte," 
where this amusing incident is brought to the light 
for the first time. It seems rather harsh treatment to 
the memory of the departed Patrick, that the events of 
his first curacy, the love passages of his early manhood, 
should be laid bare by the scalpel of the biographer, 
but such is the penalty of greatness, or of being the 
father of a race of literary geniuses. What position 
the Brontes might have taken in the literary world 
had their father married the comely blue-eyed farmer's 
daughter in Essex, instead of the little, delicate Cornish 
maiden, Maria Branwell, is an interesting problem 
for students of heredity. 

Mr. BirrelTs narrative informs us that Patrick Bronte 
left Wethersfield in the early part of 1809, the last 
entry in the register being that of a burial on New 
Year's Day. Mrs. Gaskell tells us that after leaving 
Essex, he next appeared as incumbent at Hartshead- 
cum-Clifton, a hamlet in Calderdale. Neither has 
Mr. Birrell been able to fill up this gap of nearly three 
years, from 1809 to 1811. The vicar of Dewsbury has 
kindly made a search of the registers of that ancient 
parish, and finds that Patrick Bronte officiated at, and 

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signed the registers at, most of the weddings celebrated 
in that church during 1809-10-11,* the then vicar, 
the Rev. John Buckworth, seldom officiating. The fact 
that Patrick Bronte was curate of Dewsbury for nearly 
three years has never been noticed in any of the 
biographical notices of the family yet published. Mrs. 
Gaskell, Wemyss Reid, F. A. Leyland, and Augustine 
Birrell are all at fault here, and yet this point could 
easily have been traced up from " Crockford " or any 
Clergy list, as the presentation to Hartshead is in the 
hands of the vicar of Dewsbury, and is usually given to 
the curate, if his age and experience are such as to 
sanction the appointment. 

We are indebted for the account of Mr. Bronte's 
life at Dewsbury to the kindness of Mr. W. W. Yates 
of Dewsbury, who, several years ago, wrote a series 
of articles on " Dewsbury Parish Church : its History 
and Associations," in the paper with which he is 
connected, "The Dewsbury Reporter." This period 
of Patrick's life has an important bearing on the 
production of " Shirley," Charlotte's most pleasantly 

* It seems he mast have officiated at Dewsbury and Hartshead 
for some time after his settlement. 

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written novel, which describes various incidents which 
took place, and sketches several well known characters 
who came under the notice of her father during his 
residence in this ancient parish. 

The Dewsbury of to-day is a very different place 
from the Dewsbury of Patrick Bronte's time. Now 
we have a large and important manufacturing town, 
reeking with smells of oil, shoddy, and chemicals, and 
through which flows an inky river, the Calder. In the 
first decade of the century the population only reached 
a fifth part of what it now is. Hand-looms were then 
the only machines in vogue. Steam and smoke were 
almost unknown, all round was a purely agricultural 
district, and the Galder was a clear, pellucid stream 
abounding in salmon and trout; riparian owners 
regularly fished with nets. But Dewsbury, though 
small in size, had stirring traditions of St. Paulinas 
preaching on the banks of the Calder in a.d. 627. It is 
believed that a stone cross was erected to commemorate 
this event prior to the establishment of a church. 
In a later day too, the Sunday school movement had 
found a home in this time-honoured parish, under 
the fostering care of the Bev. Matthew Powley, and 

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later on of the Rev. John Buckworth, Mr. Bronte's 

It was to a parish redolent with memories of the 
Evangelical Revival of last century, and where active 
parochial work was in operation, that the late curate 
of sleepy Wethersfield, with its non-resident vicar, now 
betook himself. A greater contrast could not well be 
imagined. For the ploughboy's whistle and the 
milkmaid's song, for the cleanly, smiling farmsteads, 
and a happy peasantry, he exchanged the rattle and 
click of the loom, the untidy, toil-stained, crowded 
cottages and weaving sheds, and a people half starving, 
and soon to be driven frantic by the introduction of 
machinery, which, if in the long run it advanced the 
interests of trade, for the present at least, seemed to 
those ignorant, famishing men as meaning nothing 
but death. After the kindly courtesy and deference 
displayed to their superiors by the rural peasantry, the 
brusque, independent manner of the Dewsbarians must 
have come as a great shock to Bronte; He must have 
looked back on the smiling country around Wethersfield 
with regret, when placed amid the uncongenial 
surroundings of Dewsbury. How different the contrast 

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between town and country nowadays ! In place of the 


" Heaping golden harvests of wheat, 
At the Lord knows what per quarter/' 

and the farm labourer feeling rich on ten shillings a 
week, with plenty to eat and drink, we have a despairing 
agricultural community, a gradually pauperised aris- 
tocracy, and a continual draining off by emigration of 
the best blood of the nation. On the other hand the 
manufacturer and the operative live on the fat of the 
land, and their prosperity is in great part due to the very 
cause which makes the farmer and the landowner poor, 
viz., free trade. The very thing which the maddened, 
suffering operatives dreaded, viz., the introduction of 
machinery, has been their salvation in the end. Thus 
does the whirligig of time work its revenges. 

The Dewsbury of to-day is by no means an attractive 
town. It is situated in great part, at least all the 
business premises, in the vale of Galder, at a point 
where the Batley Beck joins the main stream. The 
residential part of the town, as it does in the neighbouring 
borough of Batley, seems to gradually leave the smoke 
and machinery below it in the valley and recede more 

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and more to the top of the eminences nearly investing 
this, the capital of the heavy woollen district. We are 
always reminded of Jerusalem with its surrounding 
hills, when we look down upon Dewsbury with it& 
encircling girdle of sterile cliffs, the result of much 
quarrying and railway making. 

What a contrast does this vale of Galder now present 
to what it did in the times of the Eomans ! The now 
dry, sun-baked, smoke-stained banks, almost entirely 
destitute of trees, were then clothed with an impene- 
trable forest of oak, birch and hazel, the very 
river (Calder*) taking its name from this latter tree* 
Only small patches of cultivated land were to be seen 
anywhere, and they were exposed to the attacks of 
wild deer, cattle and boars. The place names in 
this district show what was the character of the 
surrounding country. Such names as Oakenshaw, 
Birkenshaw, Heckmondwike, Liversedge, Thornhill and 
Mirfield, have all a sylvan ring about them, and speak 
of the time when all was forest, moor and marsh ; when, 
as Charlotte Bronte says in " Shirley," it was "a region 
whose lowlands were all sylvan chase, as its highlands 

* The hazel-water, from dwr, (B J water, and coll, (B.) a hazel* 


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were breast-deep heather. 11 That there were certain 
roads existing, the names of Hollinroyd, Boothroyd, 
Brookroyd, Nunroyd, Joanroyd, all go to prove. The 
Romans had a vicinal way passing near Dewsbury 
for the use of civilians. From remains found at 
Dewsbury, Gomersal and East Ardsley, it is evident that 
this led from the fifth and eighth Iter, near Pontefract, 
and ran by way of Ossett, Dewsbury and Kirklees 
to Cambodunum (Slack), where it joined the great 
military road from Eboracum (York) to Mancunium 
(Manchester), which followed the Galder valley for some 
distance and then proceeded over the mountains. We 
have the names "Ossett Street Side," and "Long 
Causeway" in Dewsbury, which point to this route as 
being the probable one ; also a Roman camp at Kirklees, 
which was a mere temporary station. The Romans must 
have had a hard task before them in constructing these 
wonderful highways in this semi-mountainous, forest- 
clad, swampy district. They little thought that these 
impenetrable forests through which they slowly worked 
their way, with dint of axe, mattock, and spade, would 
one day be almost cleared away, leaving the country 
exposed, the dwelliugs bare to every wind that blows, 

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causing the summers to be drier and the winters to be 
colder. A few clumps of the ancient primseval forest 
are still to be seen around Dewsbury, some almost 
surrounded by chimneys belching forth their besmirching 
smoke. But planting is much wanted in this district, 
if the health of the inhabitants is to remain unimpaired. 
The poplar, which grows rapidly and soon runs its 
lease of life, can be kept in perpetual growth by 
continually putting in new roots. It seems to have 
an especial fondness for smoky districts, chemical 
vapours have little effect on it, and altogether it is 
much the best tree for a manufacturing country. The 
oak, the ancient denizen of the British forests, is one 
of the tenderest of our native forest trees, and soon 
succumbs to smoke and chemicals. There are very few 
to be seen in the Dewsbury district. Its permanent 
bark gets engrained with soot, and its leaves seem to 
be the most sensitive to foul vapours of any of our 
ordinary natives. If drainage and the denudation of large 
tracts of country of all trees is persevered in as it has 
been within the past twenty years ; if the smoke nuisance 
and river pollution are allowed to do their baleful work 
unhindered, a day will come when the people of this 

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little island will find that nature has taken its own 
revenge, that existence for animals is impossible 
without plentiful vegetation, and then, ever too late to 
remedy matters, a wholesale planting will take place. 
If the "three acres and a cow" movement should become 
more popular it will have the effect of producing a 
sturdy peasantry, the pride of their country, and of 
retaining in cultivation many plots of land which might 
otherwise be occupied by great, smoke-belching mills, 
or rows of unsightly cottages. 

A little settlement in a green valley, lay the ancient 
Dewsbury (the town by the water), when St. Paulinus 
came preaching in this veritable wilderness. The old 
clerics generally chose a well sheltered, fertile hollow for 
their settlements. Look at Kirklees, Kirkstall, Fountains, 
Jervaulx and Eivers. Baptism by immersion in 
the Galder, and the dispensation of the Sacrament 
were carried out by him in a.d. 627. It is not our 
place here to speak of the ancient cross at Dewsbury, 
with its well known inscription, " Paulinus Hie Pradicavit 
et Celebravit, a.d. 627." There have been at least 
three crosses of this description since a.d. 627. It 
is supposed that a Eoman temple may have existed 

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THE bbontE countby. 21 

here prior to the visit of the Primal Bishop of York, 
but whether that is so or not, certain Saxon remains 
show that there was a Saxon church of wood, which 
was probably destroyed by the Danes. "De^Dena" 
is mentioned in Domesday Book. Shortly after the com- 
pletion of this vast work, the manor was granted, by the 
King, to William, Earl of Warren, who in his turn, 
bestowed the church on the Priory of Lewes, a.d. 1120, 
and appropriated to it. In 1848, it was given by the King 
to his chapel of St. Stephen, Westminster. It became 
a vicarage in 1849. At the dissolution, the patronage 
passed to the Grown, where it has remained ever since. 
The original parish of Dewsbury is said to have had 
an area of 400 miles, and to have included the modern 
parishes of Thornhill, Mirfield, Kirkburton, Almondbury, 
Kirkheaton, Huddersfield, Bradford and Halifax, some 
of which still pay tithe to the mother church, viz., 
Kirkheaton, Huddersfield, Almondbury, Kirkburton, 
Bradford and Thornhill, the total annual amount being 
J611 5s. 6d. 

The present church, now in process of restoration, only 
dates back as fax as 1766-7. Various alterations have 
taken place since that time. The restoration is of a most 

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complete and tasteful character. It was commenced in 
1884, when the corner-stone of the new chancel was laid 
by Mrs. John Wormald of Raven's Lodge. j3ince that 
time, a new chancel has been built, also transepts, north 
and south porches, morning chapel, vestries and organ 
chamber, at a cost of about £14,000, raised by public sub- 
scription. On September 80th, 1887, thisnewportion was 
consecrated by Bishop Carpenter of Eipon, who preached 
an eloquent discourse on "The Power of Human Kind- 
ness. 11 The nave will also be improved, the unsightly 
galleries removed, new floors and oak pews being added.* 
As we have no intention of giving wearisome anti- 
quarian details, we will now leave the consideration of the 
interesting origin of this ancient parish and take up the 
next event which is worth recording, especially in 
connection with our subject, viz., the establishment of 
Sunday schools at Dewsbury in 1788. The Evangelical 
Bevival of the Wesleys was at this period deeply stirring 
the Church of England, and the vicar of Dewsbury was no 
exception to the general body of the clergy. Things had, 
prior to this time, been in a very sleepy state throughout 

* The re-opening of the nave has taken place since the MS. was 
sent to the press. 

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the churches of Great Britain. We are reminded of a 
Scotch parish minister who was a decided Moderate, and 
of whom it was currently reported that during all his life 
he had never written more than three sermons, which 
he used in rotation, but often altered the texts. This 
sort of thing was quite common. Non-residence, 
pluralities, the sale of advowsons, were all in full blast. 
The churches had sunk into a lethargy which, now-a- 
days, it is quite impossible to conceive of. Suddenly, 
as if by magic, the pendulum of church life, which after 
the sudden kicking of the beam in the time of the 
Protectorate had sunk low indeed, was unexpectedly 
roused to a new life. The instruction of the young, 
prayer meetings, and conventicles of all sorts and 
descriptions, were now the order of the day. The 
Kev. Matthew Powley, vicar of Dewsbury, secured as 
his curate in 1779, a young man of twenty-two years 
of age, who was highly recommended by that saintly 
man, the Bev. Henry Venn, rector of Telling, in 
Huntingdonshire, afterwards vicar of Huddersneld. 
This was the afterwards celebrated Bev. Hammond 
Koberson, of whose life we shall hereafter give a short 
sketch. At Dewsbury he remained for nine years, and 

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during his curacy, Sunday schools were established 
here in 1783. These are claimed as the first Sunday 
schools north of the Trent; Bradford, Manningham, 
Catterick, Tadcaster and Horbury all lay claim to 
priority, but what is contended by Dewsbury Church 
people is, that Dewsbury school is the only one of these 
early ventures which is now in existence. The others 
were private classes in most part. The one at Bradford 
was started in 1778, seven years before Bobert Baikes' 
inauguration of the movement. 

The Dewsbury Sunday schools were founded quite 
independently of Bobert Baikes' scheme. Boberson 
taught the children, to the number of three or four 
hundred, in cottages, the tenants of which were paid 
one shilling per Sunday for the use of their rooms. At 
this time drunkenness, dog-fighting, and bull-baiting 
were common amusements among the hand-loom 
weavers. Boberson tried to stop the bull-baiting, 
and summoned the principal offenders to the court 
at Wakefield. The magistrates refused to act, and 
dismissed the case. About this time the West Biding 
magistracy acted in a most pusillanimous manner. 
e.g., in the case of the Luddite rioters. What the 

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local authorities lacked in pluck was, however, made 
up for by the assize judges at York, who passed 
some very severe sentences, almost reminding one of 
the "Bloody Assize" of former days. Boberson, as we 
have said, was unsuccessful in his efforts. He was 
hooted all the way back to Dewsbury ; but, not to be 
daunted, he indicted the owner of the animal and the 
principal ringleaders to appear at York Assizes, and 
got a verdict against them. In 1802 a Bill was brought 
into Parliament to stop the practice, but was thrown 
out by a majority of thirteen against it. 

In no part of England at the present day are Sunday 
schools more in favour than in the West Biding of 
Yorkshire. They are quite a feature of the Dewsbury 
district. The Sunday school anniversaries and the 
Whitsuntide processions and feasts are red-letter days 
in the Sunday school calendar. But in those days it 
was far different. The classes, spread all over the 
cottages of the district, required money to keep them 
up, and many and various devices were employed to get 
it. In 1787 we read that at Chesterfield the tragedy 
of " The Gamester " was performed by amateurs 
of the town, assisted by others from Sheffield, for the 

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benefit of the Sunday schools. We are informed 
the performance gave satisfaction to the most genteel 
and crowded audience ever known in the town. In 
1807, immediately before Bronte's arrival in Dewsbury, 
a great Sunday school anniversary was held in a 
room in Aldam's Mill, lent by Mr. Halliley, whose 

BeWsBupj? C$upe5 Sanla^ Segool 
Centenary Melal. 

daughter Rachel afterwards became the wife of the 
Eev. John Buckworth, who was presented to the living 
in that year. The Halliley family figure in " Shirley " 
as the " Sykes " family, one of whom afterwards 
married the " Rev. Mr. Sweeting," a member of the 
immortal trio of curates. In June, 1880, the Dewsbury 
celebration of the centenary of Sunday schools took 

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place, when 6,000 scholars met at Crown Flats. A 
Mrs. Wharton, of Staincliffe, who attended the 
Dewsbury Sunday school before the end of last 
century, was still alive, although unable to be present. 
In 1888 Dewsbury held a special centenary for itself, 
and on that occasion a medal was struck, of which 
we give a facsimile, bearing on it effigies of the 
Rev. John Buckworth and the Rev. Hammond 
Roberson. Such was the foundation of Sunday schools 
in Yorkshire, and this subject provided Charlotte 
JSronte with a considerable amount of material for her 
realistic novel of " Shirley." 

In 1788 Hammond Roberson resigned his curacy, 
and took up his residence at Squirrel Hall, Dewsbury 
Moor, a comfortable-looking stone house, with brick 
cottage adjoining, which he used as a schoolroom. 
Here he was married,* and his career as a teacher was 
a most successful one. In 1795, he purchased Heald's 
Hall, Liversedge, and after his removal thither, where 
he still carried on his school most successfully, he was 

* His wife was a Miss Ashworth, a native of Gildersome, and 
a Baptist. It is said that he was so enraged at her continuing, 
after marriage, to ride to a Baptist chapel, that he shot her palfrey, 
so as to compel her to attend church* 

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presented to the living of Hartshead-cum-Clifton, two 
hamlets, situated about two miles from his residence. 
Here we will leave him, and will resume the thread 
of his self-sacrificing and eventful life when we are 
considering Liversedge and Hartshead, both of which 

§(juii?i?el Hall, Be-wgBcu?}? Moop, 

are intimately connected with the Bronte's, directly or 

Dewsbury has many interesting antiquities, and 
many old customs still linger about its famous church. 
For instance, " the Devil's Bell " is rung on Christmas 
Eve, in the belief that the De\il died when the Saviour 

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of the World was born. Some Shrovetide customs are 
very peculiar. At Caistor, in Lincolnshire, " the Pancake 
Bell" rings at 11-0 a.m., and the parson kicks off a 
football. The shop windows are barricaded, and a 
regular set-to takes place. At Duns, in Berwickshire, the 
Lord of the Manor, on Fastern's E'en (Shrove Tuesday) 
throws out a large hand-ball, with which the married 
and single men of the parish contend, the one to lodge 
it in the parish church, the others to take it to the 
nearest eornmill, which is at least a mile out of the 
burgh ; shops are closed and a tremendous tussle takes 
place. At Dewsbury, a more extraordinary custom still 
prevails ; when the Pancake Bell is rung the children 
of the parish assemble near the old vicarage, now used 
as the Church Institute, to see if a stone dog erected 
above the western gable will come down. The bells of 
this church are noted for their sweetness. 

Dewsbury has advanced by leaps and bounds. From 
a small town it has grown into a great manufacturing 
centre. New and handsome buildings have been and 
are being erected, such as the new Infirmary, the 
Co-operative Stores, and the Town Hall. The restora- 
tion of the parish church is a worthy work for the 

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Jubilee year. In 1862 the town was incorporated, 

and for the interest of antiquarians we now add a 

description of the arms as seen on the civic seal; 

a striking example of the skilful combination of the 

ancient and the modern. The designer of this seal 

was, rather strange to relate, a noted antiquary, 

Mr. F. A. Leyland, of Halifax, the author of "The 

Bronte Family," an able work, in two volumes, more 

particularly addressed to the task of assigning to 

Branwell Bronte his proper position as a poet in the 

ranks of our minor sons of song, of which, however, 

more anon. The full description of the seal is as follows : 

" Device, a heater-shaped shield between Gothic tracery work. 
The shield is cheque, and azure (the Arms of the Earls of 
Warren), charged with the original Saxon wheel cross, as planted 
by St. Paulinus, and described in the motto : — paulinus : mo : 
prjedicavit : et : celebrayit : a.d. 627, (Paulinus preached and 
administered the Sacrament here, a.d. 627) proper. Above the 
shield is a crest in a wreath, a sheep or fleece argent hanging 
from a cloud proper, with the Blue Gross of St. Edward the 
Confessor as a difference. In base a ribbon with motto: — 
deus : noster : eepuoium : et : virtus (God our Refuge and 
Strength), Legend in black letter: — SigxUam Commune Utomriputm 

We now return to the original subject under 
consideration, Patrick Bronte. When he came to 

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Dewsbury in 1809, he lived with the vicar in the 
vicarage,* an unpretentious ivy-covered building near 
the church, now used as the Dewsbury Church 

Mr. Bronte is still remembered by aged persons 
resident in the parish as a tall, large-boned Celt, 
strong and sinewy. He talked and preached with 
a marked Irish accent, but Dewsbury people were 
accustomed to this, for Irish curates were frequent. 
His dress in those days must have excited much 
amusement. A true son of Ulster, he wore a blue 
linenf frock coat reaching below the knee, and 
generally carried a shillelah in his hand, grasped by 
the middle in real Hibernian fashion. His diet was 
of an exceedingly frugal nature. He lived largely on 
oatmeal porridge, and he had a week's dumplings 
made at one time and consumed one every day. He 
was noted for his winning way with children, and for 
his stiff manner with the nouveaux riches. No doubt 
these latter intended to marry their daughters to him 
if they could, but Patrick's heart was in sleepy 

* He had separate apartments, 
t Linen factories are common near Aghaderg. 

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Wethersfield, and the damsels of Calderdale bad no 
attractions for him. Not that he was morose and 
unsociable, far from that, he was fluent and entertaining 
in conversation, and under the stimulus of a glass of 
wine could rattle on apace. With the poor he was a 
great favourite, and he held cottage meetings regularly 
among them. He was noted for his " hot and impetuous 
temper, especially when he saw wrong done, and it 
was only the exercise of a resolute will that at times 
prevented an outbur8t. ,, He was a great favourite of 
Mr.Buckworth's, whose name is revered in Dewsbury 
to this day, and when the vicar was once absent in 
search of health, Patrick's muse awoke and he addressed 

some verses, to the Rev. J B , which will be 

found in " Cottage Poems." This composition is in 
his poorest style, and in no way comes up to his later 
poem on the Eruption of Crow Hill Bog, where country 
scenes, animal life, and the signs of the weather are hit 
off to a nicety, and reveal, at least, a man of great 
observation, if not a true poet. 

Many anecdotes are recorded of Patrick Bronte, 
three of which are worth narration. The first of 
these we shall give in Mr. Yates' own words; and here 

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we would again acknowledge our obligations to this 
gentleman, who, along with the vicar, the Eev. Thomas 
Whitby, has furnished us with the most of the inform- 
ation regarding the Dewsbury curacy of the father of 
the Brontes. Mr. Yates says : "On one occasion his 
quick temper displayed itself publicly, yet won for 
him the admiration of those on whose behalf it was 
aroused. It was on Whit- Tuesday, 1810, the children 
of the Parish Church Sunday School, according to 
what was an annual custom, walked in procession to 
Earlsheaton, there to have, what was locally known 
as " The Sing, " which among church people, at all 
events, was a great event in the village. As the scholars 
were marching up, a tall and lusty man, seeing them 
approach, deliberately planted himself in their path 
and would not move an inch. Mr. Bronte seeing this, 
walked quickly up, and, without a word, seized the fellow 
by the collar, and by one effort flung him across the 
road, and then walked by the procession to the Town's 
Green as if nothing unusual had happened, leaving 
the obstructionist agape with surprise." Such an 
occurrence, as may be expected, caused quite a stir in 
the district, and the Irish curate was the hero of 

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the hour. This incident has been made use of by 
Charlotte in her " Shirley," where Parson Helstone 
precipitates an obstructing dissenter into the ditch. 
Helstone is Bronte in nearly all the traits of his 
character, but the ideal presentation is our old friend 
Hammond Eoberson. 

Another story of Bronte illustrates his personal 
courage, a quality which was handed down to every 
member of his family, for a more dauntless group has 
been rarely heard of. During the winter of 1809-10, 
he was walking by the side of the Calder near 
Dewsbury, when he observed a boy, an imbecile, pushed 
either intentionally or accidentally into the river, which 
was in flood, by one of his companions. He at once 
jumped into the roaring water, and though unable 
to swim, succeeded, after being carried down about 
twenty yards, in bringing the lad to land. He then 
took the half-drowned little fellow in his arms to his 
mother's house at Dawgreen, some distance off. As 
he was hurrying home, shivering in his dripping 
clothes, he met the other lads and chid them sternly. 

The calibre of the man is brought out in the next 
story. Previous to a bell-ringing competition, the 

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ringers at Dewsbury Church, being badly prepared, 
late one Sunday evening, after service, astonished the 
inhabitants who were resting in the cool of the day, 
by suddenly clashing out a merry peal, intending 
to put in an hour's practice. Bronte was perfectly 
horrified at the irreverence of this performance, and 
rushed, shillelah in hand, from the vicarage where 
he was calming his brain after the labours of the day, 
up the belfry steps, at once stopped the enthusiastic 
campanologists, and^ administered a stern rebuke on 
the levity of their conduct. We can easily understand 
how a curate of such athletic sinew, of such lofty 
courage, of such high principle and true piety would 
become a great power in the parish. We feel privileged 
in being able to bring to light this information regarding 
the early life of a man who has been if not grossly 
maligned, at least entirely misunderstood by several 
of the biographers of the Brontes. 

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&ARTSHEAD, to which living Patrick was 
presented July 20th, 1810, by the Rev. 
John Buckworth, vicar of Dewsbury, is 
a small hamlet situated on a commanding 
eminence overlooking Calderdale, about 
four miles west of Dewsbury. Hartshead has now 
been created a parish, but up till a comparatively recent 
date, it was a chapelry in the parish of Dewsbury, 
the gift of the living being, as it is at the present day, 
in the hands of the vicar of Dewsbury. 

When Bronte came here, there was no parsonage 
house, so he put up, after his marriage, at a tall house 
at the top of Clough Lane, in Hightown, a neighbouring 
hamlet in the parish of Birstall. No doubt all round 
this commanding height the eye could range for many 
miles over an open, well wooded and well watered 

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country. Now, nearly all the common lands are 
enclosed, the trees destroyed by smoke and chemical 
vapours, and the rivers and becks rendered foul by 
factory and mine refuse. Much of the moisture is also 
taken from the soil by coal pits, and springs existing 
from time immemorial have become mysteriously dry, 
as the hidden treasures of the mines have been secured. 
Still, at Hartshead much remains to please the visitor. 
The air is pure and bracing, and free from the noxious 
smoke wreaths which seem to cling to the valleys 
of Calder and Spen on either hand. The view down 
the Calder is charming. At one's feet lies the 
sunny park of Kirklees, with its ancient nunnery in 
the depths of the wood — remnant of British forest — 
with its great gnarled beeches, its ancestral yews 
and herd of deer, and the smoke of Kirklees Hall 
lazily mounting to the clouds from out an embowering 
canopy of trees. Not far off is the smoke and din 
of Brighouse, and Dewsbury and Huddersfield famish 
their quota, coping in this sylvan retreat with a 
gloomy shroud. Here is an ancient country seat 
and religious house, set down amid the bustle and 
din of towns. 

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Hartshead Churcli, dedicated to St. Peter, with its 
weather-beaten Norman tower, and its old yew tree 
is well worth a careful study. When the second Earl 
of Warren granted the living of Dewsbury to the priory 
of Lewes, this church was then in existence, that is, 
about 1120. It has been restored quite recently, but 
it still retains its Norman characteristics in a striking 
manner. Its doorway and chancel arch, although not 
so highly adorned as the church at Adel, are well 
worthy of inspection. The old candelabrum of brass 
suspended from the ceiling, the finely carved reredos, 
and the quaint stained windows in great part erected 
to commemorate members of the Armytage family 
buried here, all take one's attention. The Armytage 
vault with their crest, a hand grasping a dagger, 
and the motto " Semper paratus," is seen in the floor 
of the church. In the vestry, Patrick Bronte's minute 
signature can be inspected in the register books which 
date back as far as 1612. 

The churchyard has nothing very notable in it. 
The oldest stone is one to the memory of the Hilleley 
family of Clifton, and bears the date 1614. One bearing 
date 1756 has the following quaint inscription :— 

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" John Fearnley, who died at Wakefield on 

March 27th, 1756, aged 86 years. 
Was born at Clifton, and as appears, 
In Kirklees family lived seventeen years, 
He at that place had seven baronets seen, 
Here in his time had sixteen curates* been, 
Lived fifty years at Hightown, there was married, 
His first espoused was at Birstall buried, 
Near to the other two he here is laid, 
Waiting the resurrection of the dead." 

Among the curiosities of this upland village are the 
remains of the stocks, close to the churchyard wall 
on the highway. An ash tree grew for about a quarter 
of a century atop of the weather-worn church tower. 
The remains of a genuine Saxon cross, styled Walton's 
Cross, are to be seen by the highway side leading to 
the common. The base is only now observable. 
Presumably this structure was in existence prior to 
the founding of the church. 

The Eev. Patrick Bronte entered on his incumbency 
here on July 20th, 1810. He remained at Hartshead 
for five years, during which time he became deservedly 
popular as a preacher, so much so that when he 
exchanged with the Eev. Thomas Atkinson, incumbent 
of Thornton, the Hightown folks used often to walk 
over on a Sunday to hear their old clergyman preach. 
* Incumbents. 

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48 THE bbontE country. 

Mrs. Gaskell tells us that daring his stay here he 
was reputed as being a " very handsome fellow, full of 
Irish enthusiasm, and with something of an Irishman's 
capability of falling easily in love." During his 
incumbency here he married, in 1812, Maria Branwell, 
daughter of a Penzance trader. It is not the aim of 

St, Michael'* Mount, Cornwall. 

this work to dwell on the biography of this much written 
about family. Whether he behaved well to Miss Branwell 
or not, we are not qualified to give an opinion, but 
the fact remains that they were married in the end 
of December, 1812. The following is a copy from 
the register books of Guiseley Church, near Leeds, 
where the ceremony took place : — 

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"The Reverend Patrick Bronte (Minister of Hartshead-cum- 

Clifton) of the Parish of Birstall, and Maria Branwell, of this 

Parish, spinster, were married in this Church by license, this 

Twenty-ninth day of December, in the year One Thousand Eight 

Hundred and Twelve, 

By me, W. Morgan, Offg. Minister. 

Patrick Bronte, 
Maria Branwell, 

This marriage was solemnised between -j 

In the presence of I JoHN *■"«*. 

I Elizabeth Marton." 

Miss BranwelTs cousin, the daughter of Mr. Fennell r 

was married on the same day, by the Rev. P. Bronte, 

to the Rev. W. Morgan, at this time curate of Bradford 

Parish Church, and afterwards incumbent of Christ 

Church, Bradford. Through Bronte's intimacy with 

Mr. Morgan, he was led to an acquaintance with Miss 

Branwell, then on a visit to her uncle, Mr. Fennell, 

and thus the clerical friends married the two cousins 

from the house of Mr. John Fennell, who at this time 

was head master and governor of Woodhouse Grove 

School, near Apperley Bridge, and also a local preacher 

under the Wesleyan body. He afterwards became a 

clergyman of the Church of England, and died at 

Crosstones Vicarage, near Todmorden. His wife was 

sister to Mrs. Bronte's father. Her name was Jane 



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Guiseley Church, where the parents of the immortal 
sisters were joined in holy matrimony, is worthy of note 
in passing. The church bears traces of both Saxon 
and Norman origin, but the greater portion of the 
building is in the style of the time of Henry III. 
The Rawdons of that ilk are buried within its walls. 
The church was restored and beautified in 1862. In 
the registers are to be seen entries referring to ancestors 
of the poet Longfellow, whose forbears were natives 
of this part of Yorkshire. We find the following : — 
"1666, Dec. 4th, William Laingfellow of Borelane, 
buried. 1706-7, Feb. 2nd, Wm. son of John Longfellow 
of Gawlane, buried." 

We have little information regarding Patrick Bronte 
during his incumbency at Hartshead. We are told 
on excellent authority, that during his stay here, after 
his marriage, he was in a state of great impecuniosity, 
although Mrs. Gaskell seems to imagine that he 
was very comfortably situated. Here his two eldest 
daughters, Maria and Elizabeth were born. 

One of the older residents of Hightown remembers 
Patrick coming to their house during his incumbency at 
Hartshead to read the "Leeds Mercury, " which, at that 

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time, a weekly paper, was published daily on account 
of the war. This is the only scrap of information 
we have been able to glean about his Hartshead 
incumbency. In the early part of his time here, 
in his bachelor days, he lodged at a farm called 
Lousy, otherwise Bushy Thorn, between Hightown 
and Hartshead, with a Mr. and Mrs. Bedford, who, 
before marriage, had been upper servants at Kirklees 
Park, the "Nunneley" of "Shirley." 

During the time that Bronte was living on the breezy 
heights, down in the valley hard by, at Liversedge, 
dwelt the sturdy Hammond Roberson, his, at one time, 
predecessor in the curacy of Dewsbury, and in the 
incumbency of Hartshead, which living he resigned 
in 1800. 

Although Hammond Roberson has bulked largely 
as the model on the portrait of Matthewson Helstone 
in " Shirley,'" it must not be supposed that the immortal 
parson of that inimitable piece of West Biding life 
is intended as a caricature of the muscular incumbent 
of Liversedge. No ! far from it. Helstone is Patrick 
Bronte hit off to a nicety. It was a bold stroke for 
a daughter to sketch a faithful picture of her father's 

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character, which she pat into the body and clothed 
with the outside habiliments of another man. During 
Patrick's incumbency at Hartshead, the Luddite riots 
were in fall swing, and we are told he acquired the 
habit of carrying firearms about this time, and no 
doubt when rector of Haworth, often recounted his 
reminiscences to an admiring circle of youthful faces. 
However, as Hammond Roberson was a noted figure 
in this district during the early years of this century, 
it is not out of place to give a short biographical sketch 
of a man who did more than anyone in his day for 
the cause of the Church in West Yorkshire. 

Hammond Roberson was born at Cawston, a village in 
Norfolk, on February 5th, 1757. He was the son of 
Henry Roberson, a yeoman. Educated by a neighbouring 
vicar, he was, through the liberality of a pious 
merchant, entered on the books of Magdalen College, 
Cambridge, where he distinguished himself by appearing 
in the Mathematical Prize Tripos, and was elected 
Fellow of his college in the same year. His career at 
Dewsbury we have already traced, and bis coming to 
Heald's Hall, Liversedge, in the Spen valley. While 
riding to Hartshead from Squirrel Hall, Dewsbury 

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Moor, where he resided for seven years after resigning 
the curacy of Dewsbury, he was struck by the want 
of a church in the populous district comprising 
Heckmondwike and Liversedge, and with the irreligious 
character of the inhabitants. In his early struggles as 
a teacher, we are told, he made a vow ttfat if ever he 
became moderately wealthy, he would build a church 
as a thank-offering. After many years* teaching, both 
at Squirrel Hall and Heald's Hall, where he had 
under tuition the sons of several high-class families, he 
acquired a moderate competence, and at once set about 
getting the main design of his life carried into effect. 

The foundation stone was laid in December, 1812, by 
the Kev. W. M. Heald, vicar of the parish (Birstall). 
A pamphlet was issued shortly afterwards, entitled 
"An Account of the Ceremony of Laying the First 
Stone of Christ's Church, now building in Liversedge, 
with the Speech delivered on that occasion: By the 
Kev. Hammond Boberson, A.M., Late Fellow of Mag- 
dalen College, Cambridge. Leeds : Printed by Griffith 
Wright, < Intelligencer ' Office, New St. End. Sold by 
Hatchard, London, and all other Booksellers. 1813." 

The Luddite riots about this time were absorbing a 

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large amount of public attention ; and Liversedge was 
the scene of one of the most determined attempts of 
these misguided, starving men to destroy mill property 
and machines. Within a stone's throw of Heald's Hall, 
lay Eawfolds Mill, where Cartwright made such a 
gallant defence with a handful of military against an 
immense mob. All this is now a matter of history. 
How Eoberson assisted the mill-owner, both by his 
presence and by denouncing the riots from the pulpit, 
and what an amount of obloquy he encountered from 
the working classes thereby, is graphically set forth in 
Mrs. GaskelTs racy opening chapters of her biography 
of Charlotte Bronte; and in " Shirley" a fictitious 
account of this incident is to be found. In the spring 
of the next year (1818), the riots were well settled by 
the stern sentences passed at York Assizes. Cartwright 
was handsomely treated by the neighbouring manufac- 
turers at the instigation of Eoberson. 

Liversedge (luf, B., a flood), the overflowing sedgy 
pool, is now a considerable township, consisting of 
the hamlets of Millbridge and Littletown in the Spen 
valley, and Hightown and Eobertown, on the heights. 
The church, which was the first Gothic ecclesiastical 

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building erected in England in the present century, 
was completed in 1816, and consecrated by the 
Archbishop of York, on the 29th of August, in that 
year. Besides defraying the entire cost of the building, 
(£7,474 odd) Eoberson also endowed it with five acres 


n v IH 

laivepgexlge: (2§upc§. 

of land for churchyard. The church is a very striking 
object, situated as it is on a rocky eminence among 
the reeking chimneys of the Spen valley. The edifice 
is in the style of the fifteenth century, with tower, nave, 
side aisles, clerestory, choir, and a crypt with cells 
for interments. It is a roomy building. There is 

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little stone carving about the structure, either outside 
or in, but the general effect is very pleasing to the 
eye. The generous donor, after all expenses were paid, 
wrote to a friend as follows: — "From the best judgment 
I can form, I am still solvent; more, I have no 
ambition to be. To pay my debts is my highest 
worldly ambition. There will be a shilling left for 
the sexton to level up my grave. And there is 
Liversedge Church. No other style of building at 
all respectable could be built for the same money, 
that is my opinion. However, I fall down on my face 
and say the 'General Thanksgiving. ' " The musical 
peal of eight bells was added shortly afterwards. It 
may be interesting to the antiquarian to enumerate 
these. They were cast by Dobson, of Downham, in 
Norfolk, from cannon captured by the English at Genoa. 
The inscriptions on the individual bells are as follows: — 

(1) Fear God and honour the King. 

(2) Let as sing praises unto the Lord most high. 

(3) This peal of hells was erected. 

(4) Wm. Dohson, founder, Norfolk, 1815. 

Begnat Deus, 1815. Wm. Dobson, Downham, Norfolk, 
fecit. (Roberson gave this bell.) 

(6) My song shall be always of the loving-kindness of the Lord. 

(7) These eight bells were cast in 1814 and 1815 with brass 

ordnance taken from Genoa. 

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(8) Dejectus Tyrannus Europa Liberata Pax jam annos XX. 
optata conventa Laus Deo 1814. (This was also 
Boberson's gift.) 

These bells were pulled through the Spen Beck to 

the church by " strength of men." The tone of the 

Liversedge bells is noted all over the district, and they 

can be heard a long way, owing, it is supposed, to the 

rocky foundation on which the church is built. But 

Boberson's labours did not end here. He had also 

intended to provide a parsonage-house, and even went 

so far as to lay the foundation stone, but funds failing, 

the erection was suspended, and for twenty-one years 

it stood unfinished. However, towards the end of 

his life, his friends made a great effort, and the 

parsonage was completed. After the erection of the 

church, he employed himself actively in educational 

matters, Sunday and day schools receiving a large 

amount of attention. In 1830, he was appointed 

Canon of York. Not content with building a church 

himself, he incited others to do likewise, and it is 

stated that no less than thirty-five of his pupils built 

churches. Near Liversedge, he was instrumental in 

building churches at Cleckheaton, Kobertown, Heck- 

mondwike, and Birkenshaw, all in Birstall parish; 

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whilst in the neighbouring parish of Dewsbury, he 
was also the prime mover in the erection of those at 
Dewsbury Moor, Earlsheaton, and Hanging Heaton. 
At the consecration of Dewsbury Moor Church (St. 
John's) he preached. About March, 1880, immedi- 

DewsBtu?}? Moop C5apc§. 

ately after the foundation stone of the new Church of 
St. James had been laid, he wrote to his brother, 
Henry Eoberson, near Norwich, as follows : — " If 
churches are not useful places, I have been one of the 
greatest fools in the north, for I have spent my 
strength, time, and money in church building." 

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After a long life spent in a good cause, he passed away 
on August 9th, 1841. An east memorial window has 
been erected to him in the church, bearing the following 
inscription : — " To the glory of God, and in memory of 
the Kev. Hammond Eoberson, M.A., founder of this 
church in 1816, and its first incumbent, who died 9th 
August, 1841, aged 84 years," and his tombstone, in the 
churchyard, modest like the rest, bears the following 
inscription: — "The Eev. Hammond Eoberson, founder 
of this church in 1816, died August 9th, 1841, aged 84."* 

It may be thought that we are rather diverging from 
the main subject ; but no account of the Bronte Country 
would be complete without a considerable sketch of this 
remarkable man, round whose name cluster memories 
of Sunday school founding and church building fame, 
which no doubt powerfully acted on the youthful mind 
of Charlotte Bronte, when resident at Eoe Head in 
the immediate neighbourhood, and furnished her with 
stores of material for the production of " Shirley." 

Among the independent, free thinking, rough 

* We must acknowledge our indebtedness for a considerable 
portion of this biographical sketch, to an article on his great-uncle, 
written by the Rev. Canon Bailey, D.D., of West Farring Rectory, 
Worthing, in the " Heckmondwike Herald," for April 7th, 1887. 

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inhabitants of the district, Eoberson was looked upon 
as a vile tyrant, and his name, even to this day, is 
mentioned with unqualified detestation by the great 
mass of the aged natives who remember him. " Thoii'rt 
as wicked as Hammond," has become proverbial in 
the Spen valley, indicating a person of an obstinate 
and determined character. Still he did a great amount 
of good for the township; but he must be leader or 
nothing else, and he was thus continually coming into 
collision with the public. A great deal of this may 
have been due to the fact that he had been brought 
up under territorial influence, and the change from the 
civil and humble attitude of the agricultural peasant, 
to the boorish, brusque bluntness of manufacturing 
Yorkshire, must have been great indeed. It takes 
many men, making a change of this extraordinary 
character, a life-time to understand their surroundings 
and the population among whom they are situated. 

While treating of Liversedge Church and its founder, 
it may be interesting to note, that when Eoberson 
bequeathed the five acres for churchyard ground, he 
stipulated that all the tombs should be of one pattern, 
and also that the headstones should be of one height, 

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with a plain coping, and no ornamentation of any 
kind. One stone is still pointed out, which was, 
by the desire of the erector, ornamented with some 
elaborate scroll. The resolute cleric, hearing of it, 
repaired to the neighbouring quarry, borrowed a pick, 
and with it defaced the objectionable decoration. The 
stone remains to this day, despoiled of all embellishment, 
with the unsightly pick marks visible. His own stone 
is like the rest, and all in the old churchyard are of 
the same short, dumpy description. Mr. Koberson's 
idea was to keep out unsightly erections, but the rule also 
acts in preventing the introduction of beautiful stones. 
The grave of Cartwright, the hero of " Luddite " times, 
is in this churchyard, and the following inscription 
is placed over his ashes : — " Wm. Cartwright, of 
Eawfolds, died April the 15th, 1889, aged 64 years." 

Some curious customs are kept up at Liversedge 
Church, no doubt instituted by the " Father of Church 
principles in the West Eiding. ,, For instance, Koyal 
Oak Day (May 29th) is observed, the bells being rung 
at an early hour, and an oak branch is tied to the 
flagstaff or one of the pinnacles of the tower. This 
observance seems a most unheard-of thing in a district 

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62 THE bbontE countby. 

where the ancestors of the mass of the people about 
were "Oliver's" men in the Civil War. Again, on 
Bonfire Day (November 5th), the bells are rung 
alternately with shooting, i.e., the striking of all the 
eight clappers of the respective bells at the same 
instant. We are informed that on the evening of 
Gunpowder Day, the Eev. Hammond and his youthful 
pupils used to hold high revels at Heald's Hall, great 
bonfires, and grand displays of rockets and all kinds of 
fireworks going on for hours. 

Many amusing anecdotes can be told of this extra- 
ordinary muscular Christian. Nearly all the stories 
somehow or other have a steed in them, Hammond and 
his horse being inseparable in more ways than one, for 
he always rode when abroad in his parish, and rode 
well, for he could sit the most skittish beast that 
ever reared or "buck-jumped." Even as an old man 
he was noted for his horse-taming. We have been 
told that when he resided at Squirrel Hall, Dewsbury 
Moor, he was riding out one day, when his horse 
reared, and by some extraordinary evolution became 
perched with his rider on the top of a high wall 
surrounding the yard. His legs having stuck fast 

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between the horse and the wall, he had to be assisted 
off, before the animal would condescend to come 
to terra firma. 

He loved to terrorise over anyone he could get into a 
corner, but his bark was worse than his bite, for he 
threatened vehemently, but did not act cruelly at the 
finish. A lad stole his pigeons during the hour of 
divine service. The culprit was discovered, and he had 
him on the carpet many and many a time, threatening 
him with all the pains and penalties of the law, but 
nothing ever came of it. He must have had a curious 
disposition to torture a child in this way. 

Another equestrian anecdote is worthy of permanent 
record. One Sunday, as he was riding to Hartshead to 
service, his horse became rather mettlesome and backed 
with its rider into a little coal cellar at a wayside cottage, 
constructed of upright flagstones. The more it backed 
the worse it slipped, and seeming frightened did not 
get out, but remained slipping and plunging, much to 
the delight of a crowd of loungers, who were enjoyiug 
the spectacle of " Hammond " being defeated by his 
horse. One man ran forward and said, " Will I 
take his head, sir ? " u No," thundered Roberson, 

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nettled at his interference, "you may take his tail if 
you like ; I'll manage his head." After a severe 
struggle, the unconquerable and patient clerical 
equestrian achieved his point, and trotted peacefully 
on his way. 

Mrs. Gaskell tells a good story of him pumping water 
on the servant's would-be sweetheart, but the sequel is 
omitted. Two could play at practical jokes, and the 
half-drowned swain and a few kindred spirits paid a 
midnight visit to Hammond's yard, destroyed all the 
milk pans, and poured their precious contents on the 
ground as a libation to their god, Revenge. 

As a concluding anecdote, let us give the following, 
as the circumstance narrated occurred at the end of his 
useful life, and showed the man in his true colours, 
brave to the last. He was so detested by a certain set 
of his parishioners that they, in bravado, said they 
would " roast an ox when he died." This having come 
to the Canon's ears, when near his latter end, he said, 
" I think you may tell them to get the ox ready." 
In such a spirit sunk to rest that valiant heart, which, 
ever true to its principles as the needle to the pole, cared 
as little for the applause as for the derision of men. 

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Such a man deserves to have his biography written. 

There are abundant materials for such a work, and 

there are relatives to whom the task would be an 

easy and a pleasing one. That he was an exceedingly 

eccentric man, there can be no doubt, but if it were 

only for his extraordinary perseverance as a pioneer 

in the extension of the Church in West Yorkshire, his 

eventful life is worthy of a permanent record. We 

have endeavoured to represent him in his true colours, a 

man of indomitable courage, perseverance, and tenacity 

of purpose, benevolent to a degree, self-sacrificing and 

generous, yet withal, an eccentric man with a hobby, 

in his case, a horse. When men become immaculate, 

we can look for perfection, but not till then, and in 

Hammond Boberson's case, it may be said that the 

good was not " interred with his bones," but 

has sprung to life again in church extension, 

which, since his time, has gone on without 

intermission in the Heavy Woollen District. He is 

still talked of as a " bad un," by the natives who never 

understood his excellencies, but a calm consideration 

of his character will convince anyone of candid mind, 

that he was a man of no common mould, a man before 


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his time, of whom the West Biding of Yorkshire has 
just reason to be proud. 

Heald's Hall, the residence of Boberson, is situated 
on the other side of the valley, and is a substantial 
stone house, with a large park in front. Here the 

Heall'* Hall, kivewclge:. 

Bev. Hammond was wont to carry out his equestrian 
performances. The most tractable of his horses was 
one called Buler, who could do anything at his master's 
call without the use of either bridle or whip. 

The Hollows Mill, in " Shirley," is to be seen at 
Hunsworth, further up the Spen valley, but the events, 

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connected with the riot, took place at Eawfolds, about 
midway between Liversedge and Cleckheaton. There 
is nothing there to interest the curious, a large 
spick-and-span brick erection taking the place of the 
old mill. The skilful way in which Charlotte Bronte 
tosses about and transposes the actors, scenes, and 
circumstances involved in her story, is illustrated by 
this Eawfolds mill. The descriptions of the scenery 
and the mill correspond with the Hunsworth mills, 
the circumstances, with what occurred at Eawfolds. 
We shall devote some attention to the "Hollow," 
and " Hollows Mill " in another chapter. 

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? E now come to the country which produced 
the members of the Bronte family, whose 
names have become famous ; the country, 
in which the greater part of their unevent- 
ful lives was spent, where they were born, 
suffered, and died ; the workshop where they fashioned 
and finished those masterly fictions, which will ever 
hold a foremost place in English literature. Hitherto, 
there have been but few allusions to the Children. 
We have been occupied with the country of the father 
and mother, and the interest of the work must now 
deepen. We have reached the level line, having toiled 
up the wearisome incline of details connected with 
parents. We are fairly started on our journey through 
the scenes rendered immortal by the fact that they 
were the birthplace and home of the children — the 

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subjects for the landscapes which they have painted 
in imperishable colours, and peopled with a crowd of 
actors as various in character and appearance as the 
little folks of Queen Titania's court. 

There is nothing very beautiful, nothing grand, or 
impressive, to be seen at either Thornton or Haworth. 
Under certain circumstances of season, weather, &c, as 
we shall afterwards show, this country appears to great 
advantage, and may delight a certain class of mind, but 
for the general tourist there is nothing to attract. 
He may " do " Thornton and Haworth, and feel 
woefully disappointed. To the true Bronte pilgrim, 
however, the scenes will appeal with stirring force, and 
in a Bronte fever the wayfarer may be pleased and 
instructed. Around the birthplace and home of the 
Brontes stretch bare heathery moors, with nothing to 
relieve the eye except here and there a verdant swamp, 
or a rocky height, here a rushing, brawling brook, and 
there an insignificant patch of ancient British forest. 
It is the sign of a great artist to possess the power to 
pourtray truly on canvas even a very uninteresting 
object, and just as George Eliot was able to idealise the 
prosaic surroundings of Gainsborough, Nuneaton, and 

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Bedworth, so have the Brontes succeeded in investing 
the moors with a new interest to their readers, and have 
shown that even these barren heaths are no unworthy 
theme on which to exercise the skill of the word-painter. 
Thornton, the birthplace of Charlotte, Emily, Anne, 
and Branwell Bronte, is situated about four miles west 
of Bradford. It can be conveniently visited, along with 
Haworth, in an afternoon, by taking the rail (Great 
Northern) from Bradford to Thornton. On the right, 
as we approach the town, is the Old Bell Chapel, or 
correctly designated the Church of St. James, of which 
the Bev. Patrick Bronte was incumbent. It was built 
as a chapel of ease for the Thornton portion of Bradford 
parish during the vicariate of the Bev. Caleb Kemp, in 
1612. Above the entrance is a notice board, bearing 
the inscription, "This chapel was beautified, 1818. 
P. Bronte, incumbent.' ' The building is a mean-looking 
one, with an unambitious cupola and bell. It is in the 
Gothic style, but so bare and unpretentious, as to appear 
like an old dissenting meeting-house. There are two 
other chapels of ease in Bradford parish, viz., St. 
Michael's, Haworth ; and Holy Trinity, Low Moor. 
Thornton is spelt " Torenton " in Domesday Book, " the 

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assumption being that the locality was covered with 
thorns or brushwood." The Thorntons were the first 
lords of the manor, which office is now held by Mr. W. 
S. Stanhope and Major Stocks. The principal land- 
owners are Messrs. Foster, of Queensbury, Mr. W. S. 
Stanhope, and Mr. F. S. Powell. Thornton is situated 
on a tongue of land bounded by the water-courses of 
two becks, which form the valleys of Pinchbeck and 
Bell Dean, and ultimately unite to form the Bradford 
Beck. It is an uninteresting-looking town, whose 
inhabitants are engaged in the cloth, shawl, and stone 
trades. Evidence is forthcoming to show that the cloth 
manufacture was carried on here five hundred years ago. 
In Mr. Bronte's time it was a mere hamlet of twenty-five 
cottages. Now it is a thriving little town, with 7,000 of 
a population, a railway station, free library, public baths, 
mechanics' institute, and handsome church. 

The old parsonage,* the residence of Bronte, is situated 
in Market Street. It is now occupied by Priestley 
Jowett, a butcher, who has added a three-cornered shop 
to the front of the old dwelling. Over the doorway is 

* For plates of the Parsonage and Old Bell Chapel, see Mr. 
William Scruton's "Birthplace of Charlotte Bronte." 

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the inscription, J s f being the initials of the original 
owners, John and Sarah Ashworth. It must have been 
a comparatively new house when Patrick and his family 
came to Thornton. Its internal economy is much 
altered, but one can still see the room in which 
Charlotte first drew breath. 

Mr Bronte, during his incumbency here, was an 
object of great curiosity to the dissenters. He kept 
himself very much to himself, as was his wont all 
through life, and consequently acquired a reputation 
for devotion to duty, and for sterling principle, among 
people whose good opinion was worth having. Among 
the general population, flighty, shifty, and fond of 
fuss, this independent position did not commend itself. 
One of the dissenters circulated a report to the effect 
that Mr. Bronte had been seen shaving at his bedroom 
window, on a Sunday morning, by the passers-by. 
On this story being brought to the incumbent's ears, 
he said, "I should like you to keep what I say in 
your family, but I never shaved in all my life, or 
was ever shaved by anyone else. I have so little beard 
that a little clipping every three months, is all that 
is necessary.' ' This incident will serve to show the 

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difference between the beginning of this century and 
the end. In these days of Sunday trains, Sunday 
concerts, &c, people would hardly bother themselves 
whether their clergyman shaved upon Sunday or not. 
The anecdote reminds us of another, the scene of which was 
Glasgow, the Barony Manse kitchen door, 8 a.m., temp., 
1848. Milk Boy, (to domestic) — " Is it true that the 
maister(Eev. Norman Macleod, D.D.) has broke (failed)?" 
Domestic, — " Na, na, naething o' the sort." Boy, — " A 
thocht as much, I got it frae the Frees," meaning of 
course, some member of the Free Kirk of Scotland. 

Near Thornton are some old manor houses worthy 
of a visit. Thornton Hall, situated on the slope 
of the hill, below the church, has an old stone arbour 
in the garden, over which is the inscription, " Deus 
nobis haec otia fecit." The building is now divided 
into cottages. The old Leventhorp Hall, the ancient 
seat of the Leventhorps, who held the manors of 
Leventhorp, Horton, and Clayton, is also to be seen in 
process of transformation. Headley Hall, overlooking 
Pinchbeck, is an Elizabethan building, the inscription, 
" W. Midgley, 1589," being found on the western wing. 
The Midgleys were lords of the manor for about a 

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74 THE BRONTE country. 

hundred years, from 1630. The estate has now passed 
into the hands of the Stanhope family. 

Having inspected Thornton, we begin to climb up 
the road to Denholme, a distance of about two miles. 
Everything is bare and cheerless, great sweeps of 
pasture lands bounded by blackened dry-stone dykes. 
Over this very road in 1820 travelled the Bronte family, 
when removing to Haworth, and the procession of 
carts toiling slowly up Thornton Heights is still within 
the memory of the oldest inhabitants. Mr. Abraham 
Holroyd describes their progress thus in his "Currer 
Bell and her Sisters": — "Now and then the elder 
ones in the waggon are lifted out gently by the drivers, 
that they may have a run of half -a- mile or so, to 
" strengthen their legs " as the drivers term it, and 
then are gently lifted in again. Hour after hour 
passes, and they leave Old Allen, Flappit Spring, and 
Braemoor behind, and late in the afternoon the few 
inhabitants of the quiet village of Haworth behold them 
pass up their steepest of all steep streets, and halt at 
the door of the parsonage. Thus came the Brontes 
to Haworth, strangers among strangers." 

Denholme, " the island of the Danes," is historically 

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important. Eemains of Brigantine forts have been 
found in the neighbourhood, and a Eoman road from 
Mancunium (Manchester) to Olicana (Ilkley) passes 
near this village. It came over Blackstone Edge and 
left Halifax on the right, and Cullingworth to the west. 
Between Cullingworth and Hainsworth the road was 
visible, and paved with neatly-set stones of the country, 
more than twelve feet broad, and is again found in 
several places on Harden Moor and on Bombalds 
Moor. It is styled in Drake's "Eboracum" "a Deva ad 
vallum." The lands of Denholme have passed through 
many hands within the last six hundred years. They 
belonged originally to Thorntons of that ilk. By that 
family they were given to the monks of Byland Abbey. 
After the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VHL, 
Sir Richard Tempest, who held a principal command at 
Flodden Field, was given them by his Sovereign. From 
the Tempests they passed to the Savilles, and later on to 
the Horsf alls. "Doe Park, ' ' where a compensation reser- 
voir is now situated, received its name from being a portion 
of the deer park of the Tempests, which was several 
miles in extent. The history of modern Denholme is 
the history of Messrs. Foster's enormous mills. 

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76 THE BRONTE country. 

After passing Denholme, we strike across the moors 
to Haworth. The path at first leads through swampy 
pastures, where in spring, the marsh marigold shines 
refulgent in all its golden glory, amid a galaxy of lilac 
lady's-smocks, and emerald blue forget-me-nots. On 
one occasion when we visited Thornton and Haworth, 
the air was heavy and the sky leaden ; but this lovely 
trinity of the blossoms of marshland at our feet, and the 
joyous carol of larks overhead, seemed to dissipate the 
feeling of oppression which hung over the whole face of 
nature. After a short tramp through this moist ground, 
we find ourselves in a rough, narrow lane, which brings 
us down a steep hill to a snug little homestead, bearing 
the extraordinary name of Potovens. 

After leaving this farm we soon reach the moors 
proper. There is nothing around us for miles but 
heathery expanses. The path through the heather is 
of sand as fine as that found by the seashore. The 
bilberry is scattered about the heath in great abundance, 
its porcelain-like flowers of purest pink contrasting 
beautifully in spring, with the blackened waste all 
around ; while in winter, its evergreen leaves shine out 
with a tender verdure against the darker foliage of the 

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heather. Nothing but a few bilberry bushes, clumps of 
bracken, or a little white sand seems to relieve the 
blackness of the moor, and the only sound which breaks 
the stillness is the lark's shrill carol, or the hoarse 
cackle of the grouse' as we rouse him from his heathy 
bed. From such meagre materials did Charlotte and 
Emily weave some of their finest word pictures. 
Charlotte, writing to a friend, says, " My sister Emily had 
a particular love for the moors, and there is not a knoll of 
heather, not a branch of fern, not a young bilberry leaf, 
not a fluttering lark or linnet, but reminds me of her." 

From our own standpoint, we prefer the moors to the 
coast. The ocean is no doubt grander and more awe- 
inspiring ; but the wonderful charm of the " heath-covered 
mountain " is this — that the one deep all-pervading 
colour below turns our attention to the sky, and 
impresses more on our minds the remarkable effects 
which are observable in the all-embracing curtain of the 
heavens. Thus we find that Charlotte, especially, had a 
remarkable power of describing clouds, the sun, and the 
moon. Her word-pictures are photographically correct, 
and yet imagination has fall play. She says in 
" Shirley/' u The moon rides glorious, glad of the 

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gale ; as glad as if she gave herself to its fierce caress 
with love." Swinburne says that this sentence " paints 
wind like David Cox ; and light like Turner." 

Two miles walk across the heather brings us to the 
edge of a narrow well- wooded valley, backed by moors. 

Hawoptl) 013. Papgonage. 

This is the Worth valley, in which Haworth is situated. 
At our feet lies Oxenhope, snugly ensconed among trees. 
A short half-mile's walk brings us to Haworth, which 
begins in the valley, climbs up a steep hill, and 
extends along the hill-top. An American writer has 
described it as "one long unit of building, the whole 

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affair looking like some huge saurian monster, creeping 
up the hillside, with his head near the top, and his tail 
floundering at the base." This moorland village of 
grey stone is by no means the picturesque place that it 
is described to be. Several writers on the Brontes 
have painted it as a charming hill retreat, where the 
bees in heather time enter the village street ; and the 
moors as a perfect treasure-house for the lover of 
scenery. Charlotte has told the truth about it : — 
" Mills and scattered cottages chase romance from these 
valleys ; it is only higher up, deep in among the ridges 
of the moors, that imagination can find rest for the 
sole of her foot, and even if she finds it there, she must 
be a sohtude-loving raven — no gentle dove." Haworth 
has, as Mr. Augustine Birrell says, been over-described, 
and we will let it pretty well alone. 

The church and rectory of Haworth at the present 
day are in great part new erections. Since the day 
when the old church, redolent with memories of the 
Evangelical Bevival, and of the Brontes, was swept 
away, Haworth has been nearly deserted by visitors. A 
few Americans still pay their devoirs at this literary 
shrine, now entirely robbed of all interest to Bronte 

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worshippers. The old church bore traces of great 
antiquity, and the proximity of the crosses at Stanbury 
and Oxenhope gives rise to the belief that Haworth had 
the right of sanctuary. The old rectory is now much 
altered, with a wing added, and surmounted by a 

Hav?optg oia e^upeg. 

lightning conductor. Nothing remains of the old 
church, but the tower. The Bronte memorial tablet is 
also preserved. The present church is in the perpen- 
dicular style, of the same date as the base of the tower. 
It consists of a nave of six bays, with north and south 
aisles of five bays, and a chancel three bays long, with 

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north and south aisles, or chapels, of two bays. There 
is a beautiful rectangular panel of Derbyshire alabaster 
above the altar, a sculptured copy of Da Vinci's " Last 
Supper." The pulpit, font, and altar screen, are also 
of alabaster. Altogether, it is a fine country church. We 

feel how entirely out of place it is in this rough, radical, 
dissenting community. We would rather far have the 
old meeting house-like structure of Patrick Bronte's time, 
than this grandly upholstered, spick-and-span modern 
edifice. How the people of Haworth ever allowed the 
old place to be pulled down is something no fellow can 

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understand, for it attracted pilgrims from all ends of the 

earth, and brought money and trade into the stagnant 

little town. Now, we have a church in which all the 

local manufacturers of substance are held up to posterity 

in grandly emblazoned windows, with high-sounding 

inscriptions, while the little woman who did her duty 

nobly, both in her own circle and to the world at large, 

is commemorated in a little window of mean proportions, 

but of a peculiarly appropriate character.* If it pleases 

the Haworthians, well and good, but it has displeased 

that large and increasing class who love to associate 

certain places with gifted people, and thus to drink in 

the full meaning of their lives. The present rector of 

the parish has been much abused for his action in getting 

the old church destroyed, but there is a word to be said 

for him. Why could not the old church have been left and 

a new one built on another site ? That he was bored by 

the crowds of visitors who poured into the rectory 

garden, and even wormed their way into his private 

sanctum, we have no doubt, but he might have adopted 

the easy method of allowing visitors to look round one 

* The Bronte window was erected a few years ago, by an Ameri- 
can citizen, "To the glory of God, in pleasant memory of Charlotte 
Bronte." It consists of six lights, illustrating the inscription, 
"Quamdiu fecistis uni his fratribus meis minimis mini feristis." 

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day a week, and have been solaced by the thought that 
he was giving pleasure to thousands of worthy people. 
In connection with Haworth Church, we propose to give 
a short biography of the Eev. William Grimshaw, the 
rector of Haworth from 1742 to 1768. Born at Brindle, 
near Preston, in Lancashire, in 1708, he was educated at 
the free schools of Blackburn and Heskin, and in his 
eighteenth year entered at Christ Church College, Cam- 
bridge, where he took his B. A. degree. He was ordained 
deacon in 1781. After filling curacies at Rochdale and 
Todmorden, he was presented to the living of Haworth, 
in 1742. In his youth he was idle and dissipated, 
and entered the Church, as he tells us, merely for a 
living, but became deeply impressed in 1788 with the 
responsibilities of his sacred calling. At Haworth, he 
found a most vicious, Sabbath-breaking population, 
and in a short time he almost worked miracles by his 
steady determination and earnestness. So much so was 
this the case that the Rev. John Newton, rector of 
St. Mary's, Woolnoth, the friend of Cowper, who wrote 
a life of Grimshaw, says that " Haworth is one of those 
obscure places which, like the fishing towns of Galilee, 
favoured with our Lord's presence, owe all their celebrity 

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to the Gospel." At this time the village was visited by 
the celebrated Countess of Huntingdon, Whitefield, the 
Wesleys, Eev. Henry Venn, Eev. John Newton, &c, all 
lights in the evangelical world of the day. Many amusing 
anecdotes could be told of Grimskaw. On one occasion 
the then Archbishop of York came to hold a confirmation 
service at Haworth, and to judge for himself how this 
eccentric divine divided the Word of God, set him a text 
and ordered him to preach from it. The prelate was so 
delighted and edified by the discourse, that he said to the 
assembled clergy, " I would to God that all the clergy in 
my diocese were like this good man," During his incum- 
bency the number of communicants increased from twelve 
to twelve hundred. He often preached as many as 
thirty sermons in a week, staying at friends' houses 
and gathering a congregation. We have not space to 
enumerate the many anecdotes about him. He died in 
1768, and his funeral sermon was preached by the Eev. 
Henry Venn, vicar of Huddersfield, the Eev. Mr. Eomaine 
preaching a similar discourse in London. The Eev. Mr. 
Berridge, writing to the Countess of Huntingdon, sets 
up " faithful Grimshaw " as a " model otiotcottos." 
Charles Wesley wrote two hymns on his death. 

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j^N September, 1824, Charlotte and Emily 
entered the Clergy School at Cowan Bridge, 
situated near Kirkby Lonsdale, on the 
Leeds and Kendal road. We can fancy 
the stage-coach journey from Keighley by 
Skipton, past Eshton Hall, where lived Miss Currer, the 
benefactress of the school, whose surname was afterwards 
taken as the first part of the nom de plume of "Currer 
Bell," past Giggleswick,with its ancient grammar school, 
and Ingle ton, nestling at the foot of gaunt Ingleborough, 
till the little hamlet of Cowan Bridge is reached, 
pleasantly situated on the banks of the Leek, a brawling 
brook, which rattles down a lovely valley to the Lune. 
Beaders of Mrs. Gaskell must always retain a most 
unpleasant impression of this place. It is, in reality, a 
comfortable hamlet of whitewashed cottages, situated 

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among lovely pastures, and overshadowed by splendidly 
foliaged trees. More especially noticeable is a grand 
sycamore, which, in its spreading greenery, completely 
takes a cottage under its wing. 

Cowan BpiSge. 

When we visited this hamlet, the air was redolent 
with spring flowers, and the apple blossom was in full 
glory — a snowy mass, pink-tinted — shedding a delicate 
aroma on the ozone-laden air. The Leek passes within 
a few yards of the building where the Brontes were at 
school. The Yorkshire Penny Bank is now located in 
one of the cottages into which this seminary has been 

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THE BRONTE country. 87 

transformed. It seems a useful purpose to which to put 
so notable a building. 

Charlotte Bronte's description of "Lowood" in 
" Jane Eyre," is Oowan Bridge to the life. She says, 
"Pleasure in the prospect of noble summits, girdling 
a great hill-hollow, rich in verdure and shadow ; in a 
bright beck full of dark stones and sparkling eddies. 
* * * A bright, serene May it was; days of blue 
sky, placid sunshine, and soft western or southern gales 
filled up its duration. And now vegetation matured 
with vigour; Lowood shook loose its tresses; it 
became all green, all flowery ; its great elm, ash, and 
oak skeletons were restored to majestic life ; un- 
numbered varieties of moss filled its hollows; and it 
made a strange ground-sunshine out of the wealth of its 
wild primrose plants. * * * Have I not described 
a pleasant site for a dwelling, when I speak of it as 
bosomed in hill and wood, and rising from the verge of 
a stream? Assuredly, pleasant enough; but whether 
healthy or not is another question. The forest-dell 
where Lowood lay, was the cradle of fog and fog-bred 
pestilence, which, quickening with the quickening 
spring, crept into the Orphan Asylum, breathed typhus 

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through its crowded school-room and dormitory, and 
ere May arrived, transformed the seminary into an 

The Leek is a mere runnel of water in summer, 
shallow and clear, but no doubt after winter rains, 

Cowan Bpilge:, (|pom tge BpicLge). 

or thaws, a mighty torrent, bearing down its channel 
the waters of hoary Ingleborough, which fills up the 
landscape behind the village. Leek's banks are 
befringed with hazels, alders, willows, and in its 
channel are huge blocks of limestone, which formation 

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here prevails. The whitewashed cottages under the 

umbrageous trees, the sweetly lying orchards in blossom, 

the sparkling, chattering Leek, the flower-laden air, 

and the trim, sleepy, comfortable look of everything 

and everybody in this out-of-the-way settlement, made 

up to us one of the nicest bits of rural England we 

had seen for a long time. As if to draw our minds 

away to man and his works, a train whisked past 

the hamlet as we were enjoying the quietness of the 

real country. We were informed at the post" office 

that " a few folk from Yarkshire visited the place " to 

see the Clergy Daughters' School, as a memorial of 

Charlotte Bronte. That Charlotte was miserable all 

the time she resided here, was due, we are sure, more 

to the bad culinary arrangements of the seminary, 

than to the natural surroundings of the hamlet, for 

there is not a sweeter nook in the north of England, 

and we should advise Bronte lovers to visit this district 

in preference to Haworth.* Here they will see the 

little rustic settlement, and the picturesque church of 

Tunstall, where Charlotte worshipped. It is an infinitely 

* An old cobbler, who contracted for the shoemaking and 
mending at the school, is said to have neglected his work 
shamefully, consequently leaking shoes produced bad colds. 

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more cheerful place than lonely, heathery Haworth, 
and the amount of notice to be taken of these places 
is not to be measured by the fact that Charlotte was 
educated here, and used the school, its teachers and 
scholars in her immortal " Jane Eyre ;'" but over and 
above all that, the antiquarian interest of this valley, 
is much above the average. How fever should have 
made this breezy alpine region its home, and prostrated 
the pupils of the school, is amazing. Sheltered at 
the base of Ingleborough, surrounded by a finely 
wooded country, drained by quick running, sparkling 
streams, it is the beau ideal of a health resort. That 
the house was damp and sanitarily defective, may 
account for the advent of the fell destroyer. 

The church of Tunstall is distant about three miles 
from Cowan Bridge, and the walk is one of the 
loveliest we have ever been privileged to take, 
through fields and lanes flower-gemmed, and instinct 
with a full chorus of animal life, enjoying the spring 
sunshine. The fields are gay with lambs sporting 
with their dams, the air alive with insect and bird 
music, the carpet at our feet strewn with the blossoms 
of May, the sky overhead a dome of stainless blue, the 

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THE BRONTE country. 91 

sun shining in all his strength. Trees dot the 
landscape pleasantly everywhere by the Leek's banks, 
while behind rises the massive brow of giant 
Ingleborough, keeping watch and ward over all. 
Leaving the fields, we stray on by a lane bounded on 
one side by a park wall o'ergrown with ivy in its varied 
forms of lustrous foliage, and on the other by hedges 
of bird cherry which display its gorgeous milk-white 
spikes of dazzling splendour, and throw all around a 
grand soul-pervading perfume, only matched in our 
opinion by the delicious aromatic scent of the budding 
poplar, or the resinous odour of a pine wood. In the 
hedge bottoms, violets, primroses, buttercups, anemones, 
herb Robert, wood sorrel, starwort, and blue veronica 
luxuriate, and thrown against the background of 
the leafy hedgerow, gleam out in all their varied tints 
entrancingly. We soon reach the hamlet of Burrow, 
and the entrance to Burrow Hall. This is a delight- 
fully secluded retreat, where a cluster of whitewashed 
cottages shine out beautifully in a clearing in the 
encircling mass of woods, a little stream crossing a bye- 
lane to the right. It reminds us of the forest scene in 
" As You Like It," and one almost expects to hear a 

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band of foresters bold, singing in chorus, " Under the 
Greenwood Tree." Burrow Hall is mentioned by 
Leland. It is the site of the Roman Bremontacaa. 
An altar was discovered here, dedicated to the Sabine 
deity Sangus, or Sancus. Urns, coins, and various 
vessels, a golden bulla, one of the Glein Neidoreth or 
Druid's amulets, were taken from the road leading 
from Bremontacae. The Saxons probably occupied this 
place, as evidenced in the name. 

After leaving Burrow, with the Fenwick Arms, a 
good inn, we again pass into the fields, and soon the 
turrets of Thurland Castle are seen rising above the trees, 
while within two fields' breadths, the tower of Tunstall 
Church comes into view, the edifice standing, with its 
surrounding graveyard, among fields, at some consider- 
able distance from the village of that name. Hoary 
and gaunt is this ancient building, a contrast to the 
long wavy grass, the graceful many-tinted trees which 
surround the churchyard, and the dark hollies, elders, 
and yews which encircle its base. The church is 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist, but it is mentioned 
in the will of Sir Brian Tunstall, of Thurland, slain at 
Flodden in 1518, as the Church of St. Mychaell. 

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Tunstall Church is mentioned in the Valor of Pope 
Nicholas in 1291. There are supposed to have been 
three churches on the site of the present one, which 
was built by Sir Thomas Tunstall, of Thurland, in the 
time of Henrys IV. and V. The edifice consists of a 
tower, side aisles, chancel, and spacious porch. The 
parapets are castellated, the windows ramified, the 
walls pointed, the columns angular and circled by 
broad bases. Over the south doorway are the remains 
of a coat of arms, as also in the hoary lichen- 
stained, weather-beaten tower, presumably that of 
the Tunstalls, of Thurland. The roof is almost 
flat, and great ugly gargoyles convey the water' to 
the ground. Inside the church is the damaged 
eflfigy of Sir Thomas Tunstall, the founder of the 
present building. Some say that the monumental 
erection is intended to depict Sir Brian, killed at 

Thurland Castle, now the residence of Mr. Justice 
Manisty, was in former days besieged and ruined by 
the Parliamentarians, under Colonel Kigby, in October, 
1648. The most noted of the Tunstalls was Cuthbert, 
Lord Bishop of Durham, the friend of Erasmus, who 

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died under confinement at Lambeth, November 18th, 
1559. Sir Thomas More, writing of him to Erasmus 
says : " Tonstallo, ut nemo est bonis Uteris instruction 
nemo in vita moribus, que severior, iter nemo est 
usquam, in convictu jucundior.'' 

fi m-mr hot n ill 

Inieriop of Tungtall C^upc^. 

Charlotte Bronte's connection with Tunstall Church* 

comes out in " Jane Eyre." Here it was that the Rev. 

William Carus Wilson, the patron of the Clergy School, 

was vicar, he being presented to the living in 1816, by 

* " Brocklebridge Church " in " Jane Eyre." 

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Richard Toulmin North, Esq., and he resigned in 1828. 
He is the Rev. Mr. Brocklehurst of " Jane Eyre." He 
was succeeded by the Rev. Henry Currer Wilson in 
1828, who was presented by Matthew Wilson, Esq. 
This latter was a near relative of Miss Currer, of 
Eshton Hall, whose name was used in the construction 
of the nom de jpfoime of " Currer Bell." Charlotte may 
have here acquired some knowledge of the Currers, as 
she afterwards assuredly did, when resident at Haworth, 
and at Roe Head. Of this, however, more anon. One 
of the incumbents of Tunstall, the Rev. Ed. Tatham, 
objected to take the oath of allegiance to George I., and 
the Rev. Wm. Withers was appointed in his stead 
in 1718. 

When we visited Tunstall, we lay down in the 
churchyard and listened to the voice of the wind, 
soughing and sighing in the circle of trees which 
fringed the enclosure, or stirring the long grass, waving 
at our feet ; to the bustling, whirring flight of starlings, 
evidently feeding their young on the church roof; 
nothing in view but the blackened towers of Thurland, 
and the grand old battlemented church. We wished 
we could have chosen so calm a retreat where our 

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bones might rest after life's fitful fever. The words 
of Emily Bronte in "Wuthering Heights," came to 
mind: — "I lingered round them under that benign 
8 ]jy. * * # listened to the soft wind breathing 
through the grass, and wondered how anyone could 
ever imagine unquiet slumbers for the sleepers in that 
quiet earth." 

The little gallery over the porch, where the Cowan 
Bridge pupils ate their mid- day meal between sermons, 
is still to be seen.* 

Mrs. Gaskell paints this church as situated in a cold, 
unsheltered country ; but either the face of nature must 
have changed since those days, or she must never have 
seen it, for we were struck by the beautifully wooded 
country, by the cosy lanes, the flower-spangled pastures 
and hedgerows, between Cowan Bridge and Tunstall 
Church. A much more interesting excursion is this, 
than that to Haworth. Now that Ingleton is so easily 
got to, Cowan Bridge and Tunstall are readily accessible 
to the Bronte pilgrim, and the whole surroundings of 
these places are interesting alike to the naturalist, the 
antiquarian, and the general tourist. 
* See " Jane Eyre." 

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To see Casterton, to which place the Clergy 
Daughters' School was removed, one must go to 
Kirkby Lonsdale. After the removal hither, the 
seminary flourished, and Charlotte says in "Jane 
Eyre," "The school in time became a truly useful 
and noble institution." We give this extract to show 
that the eminent novelist had no animus against the 
Clergy Daughters' School as an institution ; and there 
is no doubt, from her accounts of her free and easy 
rambles about Cowan Bridge, that life, like elsewhere, 
was not all " thorn " but that " flower " also showed 
itself at times. 

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3FTEB the death of her sisters, Maria and 
;%& Elizabeth, Charlotte was sent to Eoe Head 

School, on the Leeds and Huddersfield 
road, at that time presided over by 
Miss Wooler, who was always the valued 
friend of the little shy daughter of the moorland 

The country around Eoe Head is very interesting, 
alike to the antiquarian, and to the observer of modern 
progress. The ancient and the modern jostle one 
another about in a strange medley. Here a ruined 
mansion or religious house, and there a great ugly 
block of mill buildings or rows of unsightly cottages 
meet the eye in all directions. Some general remarks 
on the district may not be out of place, as we esteem 
this our most important chapter, embracing, as it does, 

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the country depicted in " Jane Eyre " and " Shirley," 
and in it are the scenes not only of Charlotte's West 
Riding school life, but also of her life-long friendships. 
It may well be styled " The Shirley Country " as the 
greater part of that story, that wonderful realistic piece 
of West Riding life, was enacted in this neighbourhood, 
within a three miles radius of Roe Head School. 

To see this stretch of country, one must mount the 
central table-land, which lies like an inverted bowl 
between the valleys of the Batley and Spen Becks, 
tributaries of the Calder. The top of Staincliffe Church, 
near Batley, or from Knowles Hill, Dewsbury Moor, 
will suffice as vantage ground to give one a complete 
view of this urban-rural landscape. After a heavy rain, 
and in a north wind, it is seen to perfection. The 
trailing smoke-wreaths are driven from the valleys, and 
the great sweeps of greensward, washed by the baptism 
of the heavens, shine resplendent in the sun ; the towns 
black and grimy, like jewels set in an emerald back- 
ground. This clearness of the atmosphere, in a 
manufacturing district, is a very rare occurrence, and it 
is the more appreciated when it is present. Everything 
in this life has its compensations. When we live in a 

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102 THE BRONTE country. 

district contaminated with smoke and fog, where 
vegetation is soot-laden, and everything living is stunted 
and disfigured, we are thus led to look above our heads, 
where the heavens — bright with the glorious sun 
shining from a dome of stainless blue ; or angry with 
the fiery fury of the storm ; dappled over with fleecy 
cloudlets tinted by the soft, liquid, lambent shine of the 
moon; or blackened by the lowering night-cloud in 
deadly combat with the pale lamp of heaven — are ever 
present, uncontaminated, and impossible to deface. It 
was the living in lonely, heathery Haworth, and in 
this thickly-populated urban-rural district, which gave 
Charlotte her charming power of description in regard 
to the changes that are ever taking place in the 
firmament. As there are lights and shadows in human 
life, so there are lights and shadows in the landscape. 
If we have never tasted sorrow, we cannot really have 
felt joy. If we have never seen a smoke-grimed 
landscape, we cannot appreciate to the full the open, 
uncontaminated country. Thus the dwellers in towns 
have been ever the most charming describers of country 
scenes. The rare freedom of rural life seems to come 
upon them as a revelation, and they burst into an 

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THE BRONTE country. 108 

almost ecstatic delight. To the dweller in the Heavy 
Woollen District, which we are about to describe, when 
the usually muggy atmosphere is clarified by wind and 
rain, and all natural objects stand out with a vividness 
and roundness to the eye, it is like a transformation 
scene. It is like a maiden fresh from her toilet, glowing 
and rejoicing in the sunshine. Features hitherto 
undistinguishable now shine out. Here and there a 
lovely bit of colour, a dimple, a pearly tooth, or an eye, 
bright with happy health, delight the eye, long tired 
with the grimy besmirchment of everything, and we are 
almost compelled to love our mother nature, who has 
returned once more to a semblance of her pristine 
beauty. The description of such a scene is intensely 
difficult, but we may say, that speaking generally, the 
Heavy Woollen District is a vast basin, formed by the 
valleys of the two already-mentioned becks. Great 
stretches of rolling pastureland, in which repose 
straggling ugly towns and villages, conterminous with 
one another — the factories huddled together, and the 
modern mansions of the nouveaux riches congregated 
over a neighbouring height, as far out of the reach of 
smoke as possible — here a corn or turnip field, there a 

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little patch of woodland, railways crossing the landscape 
in all directions, chimneys and pit heads to right and 
left, to north and south, to east and west, and you have 
a hurried picture of the Heavy Woollen District of 

Yet it has its interest even to the »sthete. The 
play of cloud on these sweeps of greensward is 
sometimes very fine, the contrasts of nature and 
man at war, the strange mingling of the ancient 
and the modern, all give a peculiar charm to this 
part of the West Biding; and the connection of a 
novelist of the eminence of Charlotte BrontS, and her 
use of it in her novels, enhances its merits. We have 
no doubt, this statement, as to the natural beauties 
of the Heavy Woollen District, will be pooh-poohed 
by many of our readers ; but we say this much, beauty 
is in the eye of the beholder, and as a damsel with 
very ordinary attractions, may seem to one man an 
angel, and to another, a very ordinary-looking mortal ; 
so our favourite district, " The Shirley Country," may 
seem to us a great deal better than it really is. The 
fact is that for years we have looked at it in shade 
and sun, in storm and calm, in shower and in shine, 

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by day and by night ; have seen it under every kind 
of outward influence, and have found in its ever- varying 
face a solace and a blessing; have learned to love 
it as a child does its mother; have looked to see its 
aspect the first thing in the morning, and the last thing 
at night. It has sympathised with our sorrows, and 
shared our joys. It has been ever present, constant, 
and kindly. Can it be wondered then, that a true 
and tender affection has sprung up in the heart ? Can 
it be wondered at, that that love must well up to the 
surface like the sparkling spring ? 

The Heavy Woollen District abounds in places of 
interest. Connected with the Brontes are Dewsbury, 
Hartshead, Mirfield, Birstall, and Dewsbury Moor 
Churches ; Eoe Head, Heald's Hall, Dewsbury Moor, 
Kirklees Park, Oakwell Hall, The Eydings, and 
Brookroyd, Birstall, and the Eed House, Gomersal, 
Hunsworth Mills, &c. It is also rich in ecclesiastical 
remains, such as the Churches of Dewsbury, Batley, 
Birstall, Hartshead, Thornhill, and the old Priory of 
Kirklees. Among the mansions are Howley, Oakwell, 
Pollard Hall, Liversedge Hall, Kirklees, Carlinghow 
Hall, The Eydings, Thornhill Hall, Heald's Hall, and 

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Staincliffe Hall. There is also a battlefield, that of 
Adwalton Moor, and sieges were sustained by Thornhill 
Hall and Howley Hall, during the Civil Wars. 
Altogether, there is ample scope for a flowing pen, and 
we must leave this introductory portion and plunge in 
medias res. 

Eoe Head, as previously stated, stands on the Leeds 
and Huddersfield road, about five miles from 
Huddersfield. It is a roomy, comfortable-looking house, 
of Georgian date, with three tiers of old-fashioned semi- 
circular bow windows, looking out upon a sweetly- 
sloping country, backed by the woods of Kirklees — a 
little bit of uncontaminated nature among surroundings 
black and gloomy. When Charlotte was here at school, 
we are informed she was shy and plain-looking. It was 
here that she formed the life-long friendship with the 
" E." and " M." of Mrs. GaskelTs "Life," and here she 
acquired a great deal of the information used afterwards 
in the production of " Shirley." Roe Head is a place 
about which we have been able to glean very little 
information. It was built about the middle of last 
century, and is supposed to be haunted, the rustle of a 
silk dress having been heard at times in the upper 

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storey. When here, the Brontes attended Mirfield 
Church. Several of the girls, e.g., "E." and "M.," had 
friends in the neighbourhood, and on market days at 
Huddersfield, their male relatives used to pitch parcels 
over the boundary wall into the sacred precincts of the 
school. In those days the old Leeds and Huddersfield 
road passed through the present yard, and so this feat 
was rendered easy. 

The surroundings of Koe Head, no doubt, exercised 
a powerful influence upon Charlotte, and were used 
as material for the staging of the perfect West Riding 
drama of " Shirley." The manufacturing villages with 
their uncouth inhabitants, the sylvan chase of Kirklees, 
with its old world traditions, and the fine open country 
with its investing canopy of cloud, now lowering, now 
smiling as storm or sunshine rules the day, now casting 
its shadows over hill and dale, or bathing this rolling 
sweep of greensward in joyous radiance, all found a 
niche in this unique piece of literary workmanship. 
Here she began to be noticed as an observer of nature. 
Instead of joining in the games of her school-fellows, 
she used to " stand under the trees in the playground 
and say it was pleasanter. She endeavoured to explain 

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this, pointing out the shadows, the peeps of sky, &c. 
At Cowan Bridge, she used to stand in the burn, or 
on a stone, to watch the water flow by." Here also, 
the influences of the busy world touched the still life 
of the girls' boarding school. They felt in touch with 
Leeds and Huddersfleld. The passing waggons and 
their teams, the manufacturers in their traps, or riding 
on horseback to the important markets at either end, 
kept this little female colony from altogether forgetting 
that there were within a few miles, great towns, instinct 
with busy life. 

Miss Wooler's story-telling faculty, illustrating the 
walks in this exceedingly interesting district, with tales 
of olden times, made the little girl know this country 
well, and feel almost as much at home in it, as on the 
Haworth Moors. Her father's curacy at Dewsbury, 
and incumbency at Hartshead, close to Eoe Head, had, 
no doubt, enabled her to have a pretty good general 
knowledge of the Heavy Woollen District, before she 
came into it ; for the reverend gentleman was an apt 
story-teller, and used to delight to frighten his 
little fledglings by recounting many a ghostly legend 
of the Irish bogs, and doubtless the stirring times 

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of the Luddites during Patrick's incumbency at 
Hartshead, would form the theme for many an interest- 
ing hour around the rectory fire at Haworth. The 
being brought into contact with the girls of the district, 
who were mostly Radicals in politics, also sharpened 
her wits, and made her more ready to give reasons 
for her adhesion to the other side. Taken together with 
the next school where she was sent, the surroundings 
and influences at work upon her at Roe Head were 
exceedingly powerful factors in moulding her thoughts, 
and in our opinion were quite as important in their 
result, as the environment of Haworth and the moors, 
later on. 

From 1882 to 1885, Charlotte remained at home, 
and returned in the latter year as a teacher to Roe 
Head, taking her sister as a pupil with her. During 
this second period at Roe Head, she paid frequent visits 
to her friends, "E." and "M.," at Birstall and 
Gomersal, these places being within easy walking 
distance. In 1886, Miss Wooler's school was removed 
to Heald's House, Dewsbury Moor, almost the next 
building to Squirrel Hall, the first residence and school 
of Hammond Roberson. At this time, Dewsbury Moor 

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was a moor indeed, with its green expanse dotted over 
with gorse bushes and clumps of bracken. Now, it is a 
strange medley of the ancient and the modern, old 
homesteads placed alongside spick-and-span new 
cottages and mills, the natural greensward being 

Healed* House, BewdBtupjj Moop. 

gradually covered by the building requirements of the 
age. This house is rather a noteworthy one, having 
been used by the followers of George Fox as a meeting 
place, and it was also the birthplace of the Rev. W. M. 
Heald, M.D., who is believed by some persons to be the 
original of the Rev. Cyril Hall, of " Shirley," from 

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THE BRONTE* country. Ill 

which family it acquires the name of Heald's House. 
It is a large, comfortable-looking building of red brick, 
which always looks well in a manufacturing district, 
shining out against the greenery of the surrounding 
fields, and contrasting well with the blackened sandstone 
houses in the neighbourhood.* The windows of this 
residence have been altered since the days of Charlotte 
Bronte, but the house is in most part untouched. In 
the wall is a stone bearing the inscription, " Say God 
be Here. 1569. T. B. M." (the initials of the original 
owner.) Surrounding the building is an extensive 
garden and orchard, and we are told that while 
Charlotte resided here, a violent thunderstorm occurred, 
during which a fine poplar in the orchard hedge was 
struck by lightning, split in two, and the top part 
thrown into the adjoining pasture. Whether Charlotte 
made use of this incident in " Jane Eyre " or not we 
cannot say, but no doubt it made a powerful impression 
on her mind. Be this as it may, we shall have to 
consider another similar incident in connection with 
this district in this chapter. 

* The elder Heald's father was a maltster. The kilns still exist 
at Heald's House. 

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During the stay of Charlotte at Heald's House, she is 
remembered by persons still living as being a diminutive, 
shy body, dressed in a little plain cloak. Anne was a 
pupil at Dewsbury Moor, Emily having had to go back 
from Eoe Head to the moorland breezes of Haworth. 
The girls used to attend St. John's Church,* situated on 
Crow Trees Hill, Dewsbury Moor, which had only been 
consecrated some ten years previously by Archbishop 
Harcourt, the Eev. Hammond Roberson being the 
preacher on that occasion. On fine evenings they used 
to go to Dewsbury Parish Church, where the venerated 
Buckworth had just died, and been succeeded by the 
Rev. Thomas Allbutt, M.A., whose first wife was one of 
the Misses Wooler, at whose school Charlotte was now a 
teacher. On one occasion, Miss Wooler and some of 
her pupils were about to visit the first exhibition in 
Leeds, and the harness of the pony which pulled the 
covered country-cart broke, and they had to come home 
again. Mrs. Gaskell states that the air of Dewsbury 
Moor was not so bracing as the elevated region of Roe 
Head, but really, we think this is scarcely correct, for 
Heald's House is situated on the top of the inverted 
* For picture of this building, see Chapter II, 

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THE bbontE country. 113 

bowl described at the beginning of this chapter, is 
an eminently healthy locality, and residence in the 
immediate neighbourhood for six years ought to entitle 
our opinion to some weight. The fact is, the dampness 
of the atmosphere, there being a heavy clay subsoil, was 
by no means the proper residence for a consumptive 
child like Anne. No doubt Charlotte spent many happy 
days here, especially when on Saturdays and holidays 
she visited her faithful friends, " E." and " M." 

Before leaving Dewsbury Moor, let us recapitulate a 
little, and show again, in a connected form, what 
persons and places in this district are of importance. 
The institution of Sunday schools at Dewsbury, 
Hammond Eoberson's curacy and residence at Squirrel 
Hall, almost next door to Heald's House, the Halliley 
family of Dewsbury, one of whom (the Sykes of 
"Shirley") married the Eev. John Buckworth, the 
connection of the Misses Wooler with Dewsbury Church, 
and lastly, the thunderstorm and the continual visits to 
school friends at Birstall and Gomersal; all may be 
grouped together as important facts in connection with 
the production of " Shirley." Charlotte's mind was so 
saturated with the progress of Church life in the Heavy 

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Woollen District, and by the tales of the Luddite riots, 
that the novel may be said to have been simmering in 
her inventive brain for years before it was penned. 

It would be remiss in us, if, at this point, we omitted 
to say a few words on the pleasant houses where 
Charlotte spent so many happy days in this district. 
The Bydings, where she visited " E.," is a beautifully 
situated residence in the castellated style, standing on 
an eminence outside Birstall. In Charlotte Bronte's 
word- picture of " Thornfield " in " Jane Eyre," we have 
the description of this building given to the life. She 
says, "It was of proportions not vast, though con- 
siderable ; a gentleman's manor house, not a nobleman's 
seat ; battlements round the top gave it a picturesque 
look. Its grey front stood out well from the background 
of a rookery, whose cawing tenants were now on the 
wing ; they flew over the lawn and grounds to alight in 
a great meadow, from which these were separated by a 
sunk fence, and where an array of mighty old thorn 
trees, strong, knotty, and broad as oaks,* at once 
explained the etymology of the mansion's designation. 

* When Charlotte Bronte visited The Rydings, there were a 
number of fine doable thorns, red and white, in the park. 

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* Hills seeming to embrace Thornfield. * * * 

The church of the district stood nearer Thornfield ; its 
old tower top looked over a knoll between the house and 
the gates. ,, Such is the Thornfield of "Jane Eyre" 
to-day, only the noise of machinery, the presence of 
long chimneys, and the making of new roads, &c, have 
robbed it of much of its quiet seclusion, and curtailed 
its grounds to a very modest field instead of a large 
park. In former times, before the Leeds and 
Huddersfield road was cut through the park, The 
Eydings was a beautiful residence, with pleasant 
surroundings, where grottoes, waterfalls, and fish 
ponds were constructed, and in whose woods blue-bells 
and starwort wantoned in spring-time in wild beauty ; 
where game was abundant, and the hare, scampering 
from his leafy lair, was no unfrequent sight to the 
passer-by. Even yet, comparatively rare birds are shot 
in these woods, and occasionally game is observed even 
in this purely manufacturing district. 

When Charlotte visited here, a tremendous thunder- 
storm occurred, during which a chestnut tree in the 
orchard hedge was struck by lightning and thrown to 
the ground. One of the most striking pieces of word- 

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painting in " Jane Eyre " is taken up with describing 
this ; when Eochester proposes to Jane Eyre in 
the garden, which is redolent with " sweetbriar and 
southern- wood, jasmine, pink, and rose," all exhaling 
their delicious perfume in that peculiarly pungent 
manner so common before a thunderstorm. After she 
accepted him, she goes on to say, "But what had 
befallen the night ? The moon was not yet set, and 
we were all in shadow. I could scarcely see my 
master's face, near as I was. And what ailed the 
chestnut tree? It writhed and groaned; while wind 
roared in the laurel walk and came sweeping over us. 

* * * A livid, vivid spark leapt out of a cloud at 
which I was looking, and there was a crack, a crash, 
and a close, rattling peal ; and I thought only of hiding 
my dazzled eyes against Mr. Rochester's shoulder. 

* * * Eefore I left my bed in the morning, little 
Adele came running in to tell me that the great horse- 
chestnut at the bottom of the orchard had been struck 
by lightning in the night ; and to feel, through the 
open glass d'or, the breathing of a fresh and fragrant 
breeze. * * * The rooks cawed, and blither birds 
sang ; but nothing was so merry or so musical as my 

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own rejoicing heart." The night before her intended 
wedding, she says, " I am feverish : I hear the wind 
blowing : I will go out of doors and feel it." She seeks 
the shelter of the orchard, and continues, " It was not 
without a certain wild pleasure I ran before the 
wind, delivering my trouble of mind to the measureless 
air-torrent thundering through space. Descending 
the laurel walk, I faced the wreck of the chestnut tree ; 
it stood up black and riven; the trunk, split down 
the centre, gasped ghastly. The cloven halves were 
not broken from each other, for the firm base and 
strong roots kept them unsundered below, though 
community of vitality was destroyed — the sap could 
flow no more ; then great boughs on each side were 
dead, and next winter's tempests would be sure to fell 
one or both to earth. As yet, however, they might be 
said to form one tree — a ruin, but an entire ruin. * * * 
As I looked up at them, the moon appeared momen- 
tarily in that part of the sky which filled their fissure ; 
her disc was blood-red and half overcast. She seemed 
to throw on me one bewildered, dreary glance, and 
buried herself again instantly in the deep drift of cloud. 
The wind fell for a second round Thornfield; but far. 

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away over wood and water poured a wild, melancholy 
wail ; it was sad to listen to, and I ran off." Nothing 
seemed to escape the observant glance of Charlotte 
Bronte either in the heavens above or in the earth 
beneath, and the extraordinary manner in which she 
makes her characters, scenes, and weather seem to 
sympathise with one another is almost magical. We 
find the lightning-blasted tree again used as an image, 
when Rochester, blind and crippled, says he is "no 
better than the lightning-struck chestnut tree in 
Thornfield orchard." The lightning-struck tree was a 
favourite illustration with the Bronte family, for the 
father uses it in one of his sermons. 

The Rydings is undoubtedly the Thornfield Hall of 
"Jane Eyre" but much of that story is derived 
from a legend connected with a well-known country 
mansion in North Yorkshire. In the deeds of The 
Rydings, which date back to the time of Edward IV., 
the names of such owners as Beaumonts, Popeleys, 
Batts, Greens, Hopkinsons and others, are there to be 
found. In the days of Justice Walker, who lived 
here in the early part of this century, a chairing was 
held, when Lord Milton, then M.P., was entertained 

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by the owner of The Rydings. We are informed by 
one who witnessed the ceremony that his Lordship was 
but a " red-headed lad " at the time. Courts were held at 
this house before Justice Walker, who was a retired court 
physician, and the first of four members of the family 
who have been medical attendants on royalty. He was 
the great-uncle of Miss Ellen Nussey, Charlotte Bronte's 
life-long friend, and consequently is worthy of interest 
to readers of this work. * 

Although many persons are of opinion that The 
Rydings is the Thornfield Hall of "Jane Eyre," 
another party leans to the belief that Norton Conyers, 
near Ripon, the seat of Sir Reginald Graham, Bart., 
is the original. Norton Conyers is a three-storied 
manor house of the fourteenth century, and is battle- 
mented, but not to the extent of The Rydings, the 
battlements being, at the present day, at least, mere 
shams, with the embrasures built up. 

There is also the rookery and the gardens, but this 

* On the occasion of Lord Milton at The Rydings, an old dame 
of Tory politics, happening to see the victorious Viscount passing 
her door in a carriage, surrounded by a cheering mob, called out, 
",Ger on wi' ya, ah'l Milton ya," at the same time flinging her 
pattens through the carriage window, happily occasioning no 
injury to the occupant. 

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is not all. The interior of the hall, oak-panelled and 
covered with portraits of men in armour, the brass 
handles and double doors, the untenanted upper storey, 
the position of the housekeeper's room, and the broad 
oak staircase, all answer to the description in "Jane 
Eyre." Again, the lovely prospect from the upper 
windows, of the broad park, dotted with its ancient 
timber, and the vale of Yore, the church at the gates 
(Wath), the distant hills, the tout ensemble of "grove, 
pasture and green hill," might rather apply to Norton 
Conyers than to The Rydings. However, the principal 
peg which connects this ancient manor house with the 
novel, is the fact that a mad woman was kept in close 
confinement in the third storey at some time during 
the last century, but as to who she was or how she came 
there, there is no record. At page 105 of "Jane Eyre," 
we read : — " Some of the third storey rooms were 
interesting from their air of antiquity. The furniture 
once appropriated to the lower apartments, had, from 
time to time, been removed here as fashions changed ; 
and the imperfect light entering by their narrow 
casements, showed bedsteads of a hundred years old ; 
chests in oak or walnut, looking with their strange 

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THE bbontE countby. 123 

carvings of palm branches and cherubs 1 heads, like 
types of the Hebrew ark; rows of venerable chairs, 
high-backed and narrow; stools still more antiquated, 
on * whose cushioned tops were yet apparent traces 
of half-effaced embroideries, wrought by fingers that 
for two generations had been coffin dust." We are 
informed that at the time Charlotte wrote her novel, 
the third storey of Norton Conyers exactly presented this 
appearance, the late baronet, Sir Bellingham, having 
sold the neighbouring estate of Nunnington, and stored 
the furniture in the garrets at Norton Conyers. Another 
link between this mansion and Thornfield, is to be 
found at page 294, where we find : — " The old time- 
stained marble tomb, where a kneeling angel guarded the 
remains of Darner de Bochester, slain at Marston Moor, 
in the time of the Civil War." Now Sir Bichard Graham, 
the first baronet of Norton Conyers and of Netherby, Co. 
Cumberland, was mortally wounded at Marston Moor. * 

It may be thought by many persons after reading 
the above paragraph, that there is not the slightest 
doubt as to the identity of Norton Conyers with 

* In Wath Church is the tomb of Sir Richard Graham, and of 
Elizabeth, his wife. — See " Jane Eyre," page 294. 

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124 THE BRONTE country. 

Thornfield Hall, but it is worth while to take the 
pros and the cons, and show how skilfully Charlotte 
hides the identity of her scenes : — 


(1) It is a three-storied house. 

(2) The interior is entirely in unison with that of 

(8) The story of the mad woman. 

(4) The old furniture stored above, 

(5) The knight slain at Marston Moor. 

(6) The extensive prospect. 

(7) The tomb of Sir Eichard, and Elizabeth, his wife. 


(1) It is a truly battlemented residence. 

(2) The story of the thunderstorm during Charlotte 
Bronte's visit to her friend " E.," at this house. 

(8) The presence of the double-flowering thorns 
in the park, and the naming of the mansion 


The church at the gates, the rookery, the sunk 
fence, and the gardens are all equally applicable 
to the one as to the other. 

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(1) It is only two-storied, and there is little prospect 
from its windows. 

(2) It is not a house of the size and importance of 
Norton Conyers, and the garrets described in " Jane 
Eyre " are precisely like those at Norton Conyers. 

(8) There is no story of a mad woman at The 
Eydings; nor 

(4) Any connection with Marston Moor. 

The picture in the illustrated edition of "Jane Eyre" 
is certainly The Eydings, with a storey added to it. 
It is quite possible that Charlotte paid a visit to 
Norton Conyers during the lifetime of the late baronet, 
when it was often uninhabited and open to visitors, and 
hearing the story of the mad woman and the slain 
cavalier, sketched a hybrid residence in the novel, 
answering to the appearance of The Eydings outside, 
and to Norton Conyers inside. Thus we find that 
many of her scenes are so skilfully intermixed with 
incidents which occurred elsewhere, that it is impossible 
to put your finger on the exact place, and consequently 
the identification of the localities is a work of great 
uncertainty and of comparatively little moment. We 

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still adhere to our opening statement that her works are 
in great part the product of a lively imagination, and there 
is no great end to be served by peering into such things. 
We have been induced to go somewhat deeply into this 
scene, on account of having had an opportunity of 
thoroughly inspecting this ancient manor house. 

Apart from the Bronte connection, Norton Conyers is 
interesting to the antiquarian. We may say that the 
story of Cromwell having come there and insulted the 
dead body of Sir Eichard after Marston Moor, is a 
fabrication. The Eoundhead leader did assuredly pay 
a visit about this time to Ripley Castle, not very far 
distant, but he never came to the Grahams' mansion. 
There are reminiscences of a visit from James I., on 
his progress from Scotland to London for his coronation, 
in 1603, and the old oak bedstead on which he slept is 
still pointed out. Charles I. also stayed here five days 
waiting for supplies, but whether this visit took place when 
on his Scottish expeditions, or when in the time of the 
Civil War, does not seem to be accurately known. The 
bowling-green upon which he played is still to be seen. 

When Sir Richard had galloped home from Marston, 
sick unto death with his wounds, he rode his trusty 

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charger through the grand old hall, and up the broad oak 
staircase into his bedroom, where he died. The mark of 
the horse's shoe is still to be seen on a portion of an old 
step retained in the present staircase. There is a full- 
length portrait of this loyal cavalier in the hall. He was 
Gentleman of the Horse to James I., and was created a 
baronet, 20th March, 1629, by the style of Sir Eichard 
Graham, of Esk, County Cumberland. He purchased 
Netherby and the barony of Liddell, in the same county, 
of Francis, Earl of Cumberland. Sir Eichard subse- 
quently distinguished himself in the Eoyal cause at Edge 
Hill, where he lay wounded an entire night. A statue 
in the grounds of Norton Conyers commemorates this 
event. His eldest son, George, succeeded him at 
Netherby, and his* younger son, Eichard, was created a 
baronet of Norton, in 1662, on account of the services his 
father had rendered to the Eoyal House. At Norton, is 
to be seen the acknowledgment by Charles II., of a loan 
of £200 from Sir Eichard the elder, and it is probable 
that, instead of repaying this debt with interest, the 
Merry Monarch created the second son a baronet. 

Norton Conyers is beautifully situated in a large park, 
dotted over with some immense trees, many of them 

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shrouded in lustrous garlands of ivy. The great storm 
of October, 1881, caused sad havoc here as elsewhere, 
but many wood-giants still survive. The outlook 
from Norton is beautiful. To the left are seen the 
towers of Eipon Cathedral, three miles distant, while to 
the right stretches a green, sweetly undulating, wooded 
country, backed by the Wensleydale moors, through 
which slowly twist in serpentine convolutions the 
waters of the Yore. All about the house, peacocks 
are perched upon the walls, presenting a blaze of 
colour against the ancient rough-cast walls of the 
mansion. The statue erected to the memory of Sir 
Eichard, with some bird of prey emblematic of revolu- 
tion, fastening its talons on the head-piece of a warrior, 
looks calmly down upon this quiet scene — a happy contrast 
to the day when the brave knight, gashed with many a 
deadly wound, rode homewards from the fray at Marston. 
It is very easy, to anyone acquainted with the Heavy 
Woollen District, after reading " Jane Eyre," to under- 
stand how Charlotte chose her names. For instance, 
*' Fairfax" is well known around Birstall as the name of 
the Parliamentary leader at the neighbouring battle of 
Adwalton Moor, in 1643. The doctor, of " Jane Eyre," 

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(Mr. Carter) bears a suspicious resemblance in name to 
a family, the members of which practised in this district 
for at least two generations, and one of whom attended 
the Brontes at Hartshead. 

Birstall is a capital central point for investigating 
the " Shirley Country." As previously mentioned, 
around this town lie the houses which Charlotte 
visited on her Saturdays and Sundays, while at 
Miss Wooler's schools at Roe Head and Dewsbury 
Moor. In the immediate neighbourhood are the real 
Fieldhead and Briar Mains, and Birstall Church 
itself is the Briarfield Church of " Shirley." Anyone 
acquainted with Birstall must have had a rather obtuse 
cranium who could not identify such names as 
Briarfield, Bed House Inn, Briar Mains, and Fieldhead, 
for there is a Briar Hall there, above The Rydings, 
while the Red House at Gomersal, the residence of the 
Taylor family, and Fieldhead, the birthplace of 
Priestley, are within a mile's walk of Birstall Church. 
Again, such names as Rushedge, Whinbury, and 
Nunneley are all suspiciously like familiar West Riding 
place-names. The names of the Yorkshire characters 
in " Shirley " have all a smack of the Heavy Woollen 

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District about them, such as Sykes, Mann, Ainley, 
Pearson, Armitage, Barraclough, and Scott. The 
clergymen, from all parts of Great Britain and Ireland, 
as at the present day, and the inevitable Scotch 
doctor, MacTurk, all seem to fit in so well 
with the Briarfield of to-day, that it was no wonder 
that the locale of " Shirley " was so soon unearthed. 
Yet the characters and scenes had no connection in 
reality, and she peoples certain well-known houses with 
inmates who never lived there, and shoves about her 
characters till they are perfectly unrecognisable as the 
originals at all, and the conclusion we have arrived at 
is that none of her characters are portraits. They are 
simply imaginative studies worked up on a framework 
of fact, and this is true, not only of " Shirley," but also 
of her other works, with perhaps the exception of 
" ViUette," where the true story of " her trivial life and 
misfortune "is sketched fearlessly. The scenes, however, 
are unerringly correct as photographs, as we shall show, 
and this is favourable for our design in writing this work, 
for in many instances the descriptions of houses and 
scenery can be given in her own words most fittingly, 
and these masterly sketches, dashed off in a few words, are 

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the beau ideal of what descriptive writing ought to be. * 
Round Briarfield Church, cluster many of the principal 
events in " Shirley." There the valiant Helstone was 
rector, and ruled his parishioners well and fearlessly. 
Here resided at the rectory, Caroline Helstone. It was 
in Briarfield churchyard that Gerard Moore dodged 
Helstone after he had escorted Caroline home from 
Fieldhead. Here the Whitsuntide school feast took place. 
The ever-to-be-remembered dialogue between Caroline 
and Shirley in the churchyard about mother Nature, 
is one of the finest jewels in a work bright with the 
touch of real genius. Shirley says, " The grey church 
and greyer tombs look divine with this crimson gleam 
on them. Nature is now at her evening prayers ; she 
is kneeling before those red hills. I see her prostrate 
on the great steps of her altar, praying for a fair night 
for mariners at sea, for travellers in deserts, for lambs 
on moors, and unfledged birds in woods. * * * 
I will stay out here with my mother Eve, in these days 
called Nature. I love her — undying, mighty being! 
Heaven may have faded from her brow when she fell in 

* Dr. MaoTurk, of Bradford, attended Charlotte Bronte in her 
last illness, in consultation with Dr. Ingham, of Haworth. 

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paradise ; but all that is glorious on earth shines there 
still. She is taking me to her bosom, and showing me 
her heart." This grand outburst of natural affection, 
this rapt reverie on the dying day, is broken in upon by 
something really startling, for immediately a small 
company of red-coats ride past, and William Farren 
issues from the church with a child screaming lustily. 
Here, we have Charlotte Bronte at her best, descriptive 
writing of the highest class combined with powerful 
imaginative work, never tedious, for immediately 
followed by the narration of incidents of strong human 
interest. Here, Shirley and Caroline spent the night 
when the followers of King Lud were marching on 
Hollows Mill. The very amusing chapters relating to 
the visit of Caroline Helstone to Gerard Moore, when 
wounded, are also relating to the Briarfield district ; and 
we have a peep inside the church, when Martin Yorke 
goes thither to communicate with Miss Helstone as to 
her lover's health, when we are told " all the lined and 
cushioned pews were empty; only on the bare oaken 
seats sat ranged the grey-haired elders and feeble 
paupers. ,, We are also told that when the Opening of 
the Ports took place on June 18th, 1812, the ringers 

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cracked a bell in Briarfield Church. The final scene of 
" Shirley " is played out in this church, when Eobert 
and Louis Moore are respectively married to Caroline 
Helstone and Shirley Keeldar. 

Birstall Church and the old vicarage are, as we are 
told in " Shirley," "pleasantly bowered in trees," and are 
prominent objects from Oakwell Hall, the Fieldhead of 
44 Shirley." Birstall is a very large parish, out of which 
several smaller parishes have in course of time been 
carved. It is the seat of a ruri-deaconry, and the vicar, 
the Bev. Canon Kemp, is the rural dean. The church 

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184 THE BRONTE country. 

is a stone building in the Gothic style, has a nave, 
aisles, chancel, and fine embattled tower, containing 
eight bells. Three buildings are supposed to have 
existed previously to the present edifice, which is almost 
entirely new in 1870, the only portion of the church of 
Henry VIH.'s time remaining being the fine embattled 
tower. The advowson of Birstall belonged to the Priors 
of Nostel, and in 1812, we find William de Birstall, 
Prior of Nostel, resigning. On the north side of the 
altar is the burial place of the Nevilles, of Liversedge 
Hall, a powerful family in olden days; and on the south 
side, that of the Batts of Oakwell Hall, both families 
now extinct in this district. The restored church, 
costing £18,000, is one of the most beautiful 
ecclesiastical buildings in the Heavy Woollen District. 
There are many fine stained windows in the church, 
one treating of the Anunciation, the Birth of Our 
Saviour, Simeon in the Temple, and the Adoration of 
the Magi, is erected "To the Glory of God, and in 
memory of the Bev. William Margetson Heald, M.A., 
Hon. Canon of Bipon, for nearly forty years the beloved 
and faithful vicar of this parish, who died September 
25th, a.d. 1875. This window is erected by the 

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congregation of this church." There is also another 
window erected to Eev. William Margetson Heald, 
M.A., by parishioners and other Mends. It consists of 
four lights, and treats of the Resurrection and Ascension. 
This, the predecessor of Canon Kemp, is supposed by 
many people to be the prototype of the Rev. Cyril Hall 
in " Shirley." During his lifetime, he never sought to 
repudiate the character, but said it might have equally 
been taken for his father, the Rev. W. M. Heald, M.A., 
M.D., who was vicar before him. The names, Heald' s Hall 
and House, are already familiar to our readers, and as 
we have previously said, Charlotte Bronte resided at 
Heald's House when Miss Wooler's school was removed 
thither from Roe Head. It is easily understood that 
the birthplace of the older Heald should have had an 
interest to Charlotte, when she frequently attended 
Birstall Church with her friends, " E." and " M." The 
elder Heald was born at Heald's House on Dewsbury 
Moor, and educated at Batley Grammar School. He 
was primarily destined for the medical profession, and 
wrote a poem called the " Brunoniad," in favour of the 
" Brunonian Theory of Medicine," which in time swept 
away the indiscriminate use of the bleeding-lancet. 

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John Brown, M.D., the author of the "Brunonian 
Theory of Medicine," was a native of Berwickshire, and 
died in comparative obscurity in London, in last 
century. His theory has been the basis of much of our 
most truly scientific treatment in modern medicine. 
Dr. Heald was a liberal in politics, and was greatly 
respected in the parish. 

There are many objects of interest in Birstall 
churchyard, for an account of which, we would refer 
the reader to Scatcherd's " Morley." We must adhere 
mainly to the subject proper, and never lose sight 
of the Brontes in our narration of historical particulars. 

About half a mile from the church, is Oakwell Hall. 
This is the Fieldhead Hall of " Shirley.' • This old 
manor house stands on a considerable eminence over- 
looking Birstall, and corresponds exactly to the striking 
sketch given in " Shirley." In front of it are the 
remains of a moat, and the strong position of the 
building, as seen from the valley below, points out 
its time of erection, as one in which the danger of 
civil war or even invasion had not entirely passed away 
from the minds of men. The date over the doorway, 
overhung with glossy ivy, is 1588, and the whole 

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character of the building is Elizabethan 


The best 

point of view from which to see this old hall, is from 
above in Fieldhead Lane, where, looking down into 
the valley, Oakwell, Birstall Church, and Gomersal, 
are all brought into one picture. A smoky haze may 

OaWl Hall. 

hang over the mansion, but round about it are green 
fields, chattering brooks, and waving woods which after 
rain look fresh and beautiful, and whether in the 
verdant dress of spring, or in the days of the sear 
and yellow leaf, help to set off to perfection this gem 
of ancient times, with all its historic associations 
clinging to it. Everyone who has read Mrs. Gaskell's 

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"Life of Charlotte Bronte," is familiar with the families 
who owned this house and lands, the Batts and the 
Fearnleys. Fairfax Fearnley, the celebrated sessions 
lawyer, who resided here after the days of the Batts, 
in last century, held a great hunting match in the 
neighbourhood, in 1768, and the antlers of the stag 
killed on that occasion are still to be seen hanging 
in the panelled hall, and depending from them a card 
containing the names of the fourteen lucky ones 
who had enjoyed the chase and dined on the venison. 
Among them, were Sir Fletcher Norton, His Majesty's 
Attorney- General, who was one of the most discourteous 
men of his time. On one occasion he was pleading 
before Lord Mansfield on some question of manorial 
right, and unfortunately said, " My Lord, I can illustrate 
the point in an instant in my own person. I, myself, 
have two little manors" (manners). The judge 
immediately interposed in his blandest manner with 
the apt retort, "We all know it, Sir Fletcher." 
On another occasion, when, as Speaker of the Commons, 
presenting the Civil List Bill, he addressed the King in 
the following extraordinary language : — "Your Majesty's 
faithful Commons have now granted to your Majesty 

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an income far exceeding your Majesty's highest wants, 
hoping that what they have given cheerftdly, your Majesty 
will spend wisely." Sir Fletcher afterwards speedily 
rose to be Solicitor-General, Attorney-General, Speaker 
of the Commons, and Lord Chief Justice, and was created 
Lord Grantley, after his father's estates near Eipon. 

Oakwell Hall is the most perfect specimen of an 
Elizabethan manor house in the Heavy Woollen District, 
and it is well preserved. For many years it has been 
used as a girls' boarding school, and it is not an 
unfitting purpose to put the old hall to, associated 
as it is, with one of England's greatest novelists, herself 
a teacher, and bound up with the history of the Civil War. 
That a semi-fortified old manor house, tenanted by the 
lords of wide acres, should come to be used as a school, 
is rather a curious coincidence, but in this immediate 
district, many old mansions have, at the present day, 
been put to a similar purpose. 

Our space will not allow us to quote from " Shirley," 
the photographically correct sketch of Oakwell, with its 
latticed windows, its peach-coloured drawing-room, 
its oak-panelled parlour. The interest in this place, 
however, is only of an antiquarian kind. If Shirley 

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Keeldar had ever had an existence, if instead of being 
the dauntless Emily Bronte she had been drawn from a 
lady of the Heavy Woollen District, there would have 
been more to take up the attention in the connection of 
" Shirley" and Oakwell. Two circumstances, however, 
cause a certain amount of fame to attach to this 
locality. The battle of Adwalton Moor, called by Hume 
Atherton Moor, took place about a mile distant from 
Oakwell. In that fight, Captain Batt, of Oakwell, 
fought on the King's side. The majority of the West 
Riding men were Parliamentarians. Here, however, in 
the midst of their own supporters, the army of the 
Parliament was ignominiously defeated by the Earl of 
Newcastle, a man more noted for his literary wife, and 
for his feats in horsemanship, than for his military 
talents. At Atherton, the King's cause prospered well, 
Lord Ferdinando Fairfax and his son, Sir Thomas, 
afterwards the great Lord Fairfax, having to retreat, 
the former to Bradford, the latter to Halifax. A lane, 
styled Warren's Lane, which runs past Oakwell, was 
the route taken by Sir Thomas in his flight. The 
Boyalist cause was at that time in the ascendant, but it 
was but a flash in the pan. The hour and the man had 

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not yet come, when the Parliament bore down all before 
them, and the brilliant, but short-sighted monarch, was 
a close captive in the hands of his enemies. Here it 
may be observed as a fact, not perhaps much dwelt 
upon by historians, that Charles I. was one of the 
greatest patrons of the arts who ever occupied the 
English throne, and during his reign artists flocked 
from all ends of the earth to the English court, where 
they received a noble welcome, and were well rewarded 
for their work. The Stuart period was one rich in 
literature and in art, and whatever virtues the House 
of Hanover may possess, they will never reign in the 
hearts of the people as did their predecessors. The lust 
for absolute power wrecked monarchs who were otherwise 
exceedingly popular, and, be it observed, no English 
court was more thrown open to the possessors of literary 
and artistic genius than that of the Stuart sovereigns. 
In connection with the Battle of Adwalton, the 
following entry occurs in the register of baptisms at 
Birstall Church: — "1648. Memorandum, that from 
about the 6 of April being this month untill the 20th day 
of Julie followinge the Earle of Newcastle's armie 
did banish such ministers as took part with the Kinge 

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and Parliament, and so diverse children were omitted." 
Thus, the vicar at that time must have been a Puritan. 
The siege of Howley Hall took place on June 20th, 
and the Battle of Adwalton Moor on June 80th, 1648. 

A fine portrait of Newcastle can be seen in the hall 
of the Drighlington Mechanics' Institute, presented by 
Colonel Tempest of Tong Hall, and we should advise 
the Bronte pilgrim to see this counterfeit presentment 
of the loyal cavalier.* 

One of the most eminent men of science ever 
produced by Yorkshire, sprang from Fieldhead, close 
to Oakwell and Adwalton Moor, in 1788, in the person 
of Joseph Priestley, eminent no less as a chemical 
pioneer, than as a popular advocate of free thought 
in religious matters. He was the discoverer of carbonic 
acid, of oxygen and many other important gases. The 
son of a Calvinistic clothier, he was destined for the 
Nonconformist ministry, and became the pastor of an 
Unitarian chapel in Leeds. Here he discovered carbonic 
acid gas. He then became private librarian to the 

* For full particulars of Adwalton fight, see the Duchess of 
Newcastle's Life of her husband, Lister's "Autobiography," 
Scatcherd's "Morley," and Markham's "Life of the great 
Lord Fairfax." 

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Earl of Shelburne, afterwards Marquis of Lansdowne, 
and during his stay in this nobleman's household, he 
gave a large part of his time to chemical researches. 
He again resumed his work as a dissenting minister 
in Birmingham, which has honoured him by the erection 
of a marble statue in 1874. He next became President 
of the dissenting college at Hackney, finally, owing 
to 'party bitterness directed towards him, becoming a 
resident in the United States in 1794, dying at 
Northumberland, Pennsylvania, in 1804. He was the 
first to render chemistry an exact science, and, although 
an uncompromising Unitarian, he was a zealous 
opponent of infidelity and showed a generosity almost 
unequalled toward those who differed from him on 
religious questions. The description of his death- 
bed scene by his son in his " Memoir, " is most 
striking, showing how bravely this honest doubter met 
the dread enemy. 

The Eed House at Gomersal is about half a mile 
distant from Oakwell, and is a picturesque residence of 
the time of Charles II., surrounded by fine trees, and 
having in front a smooth, velvety lawn. This is the 
Briarmains of " Shirley," sometimes called Yorke's 

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House. Here, lived the Taylors, school companions of 
Charlotte's, and here, many a spirited discussion took 
place between the daughter of the Church, a true Tory 
to the backbone, and the family of red-hot Eadicals, so 
typical of this district even at the present day. The 
characters of Yorke and his family will live for ever as 
true portraits of the best class of Yorkshire manufac- 
turing families, cultured and warm-hearted, and yet 
withal, rough and uncouth. Joshua Taylor (Hiram 
Yorke), was a man of great energy, and became rich by 
trade, but was of a peculiar turn of mind. An ancestor 
of his built a chapel near by the house, but it is now 
converted into cottages. This is the celebrated Briar 
Chapel of " Shirley," where the ranting scene baffles 
all description, and is a true, if strangely drawn picture 
of religious excitement, such as is common among the 
toiling masses in this district. The Bed House must 
always be an object of interest to the appreciative 
reader of " Shirley," for the scenes where Yorke and 
Mrs. Yorke figure, are among the most amusing, are 
the light and airy work which sets off to the full the 
grand solid masonry of Moore's struggles and Helstone's 

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Gomersal is not without its memories of a visit from 
Oliver Heywood in 1679. All this district is rich in 
Nonconformist memories, and is also associated with 
Luddism, for a maker of shear frames in Gomersal 
used to have his workshop guarded night and day 
during 1812. Yet, in this village, full of chapels and 
Badicals of the deepest dye, the Primrose League has 
lately founded the Shirley Habitation, and it bids fair 
to be a flourishing institution. This modern product 
of Conservatism, planting itself close by the whilom 
abode of Hiram Yorke, seems almost like a judgment 
upon his memory for the bitter anathemas which he 
hurled at the Church and State, and is one of the most 
extraordinary revenges which the whirligig of time has 
effected in this district. Shirley Keeldar was an 
uncompromising Tory, yet it shows considerable pluck 
for this organisation to have chosen Gomersal as a 
centre of operations. Charlotte Bronte little thought 
that a Conservative association would establish itself 
close by Briarmains, redolent with memories of 
Republican sentiments, stated in no measured terms. 

The next building to Bed House is Pollard Hall, a 
fine Elizabethan residence, almost lost among 

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146 THE BRONTE country. 

surrounding trees, and nearly covered by wisteria and 
other climbers. This is notable as the residence, in the 
early part of the century, of Herbert Knowles, a youthful 
poet of no mean powers, who was patronised by Lord 
Spencer and Southey. His "Lines written in Eichmond 
Churchyard " are of a very high order of merit. In the 
" Literary Gazette " of 1824, are to be found several of 
the poems of this Yorkshire Chatterton, who died at 
the early age of nineteen years.* 

Brookroyd, where Charlotte visited her friend " E." 
on several occasions, is situated opposite the Eydings, 
on the hillside, but no particular interest attaches to 
the building, so we will dismiss this in a word. It was, 
we believe, while living here as a visitor, that she 
corrected the proofs of " Shirley,' ' and yet made no 
sign to her friends of her intention of becoming an 
authoress. "We have been informed by one who saw 
her here, that she had the smallest of feet. 

Hunsworth Mills, near Cleckheaton in the Spen 
Valley, not far from Birstall and Gomersal, is the 
prototype of Hollows Mill, in "Shirley," and the 
valley of the beck, which forms one of the branches of 

* See " Leeds Worthies," by Rev. R. V. Taylor, B.A., p. 266, <fec. 

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the Spen, is The Hollow. Hunsworth is a truly retired 
retreat, standing on a little rising ground overlooking 
the Whitehall road from Leeds to Halifax. Round 
this little, quiet hamlet are several pretty bits of wood- 
land, covering the slopes of pleasant dells formed by 
the tinkling rivulets which help to form the Spen Beck. 
In May-time, their banks are covered with a rich carpet 
of flowers. The garlic, with its lily-like leaves and its 
handsome milk-white blossoms, the lady's smock, with 
its lilac petals, contrast beautifully with the full golden 
glow of the marsh marigold, in the marshy hollows; 
while by the beck sides, blue dog violets and fragile 
wood- sorrel kiss the water, and shine out sweetly in the 
sunshine. Richard Jefferies says, " the wood sorrel, 
like the purest verse, speaks to the inmost heart." 
All round, the fields are spangled with purple-tinted 
wind flowers of delicate flesh colour, golden king cups, 
and lurid purple tuberous vetch, while in the hedge- 
rows the freshly-green shoots of the bracken take away 
from the nakedness of the land. In spite of the 
surrounding collieries of the Bowling Iron Company, 
and the near proximity of Hunsworth Mills, many of 
these hollows are worth a visit. There are several 

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extensive woods, among these being Firdale, Huns- 
worth and Oakenshaw woods, all a medley of stunted 
oak, graceful birch and hazel trees. The Hunsworth 
Mills stand at the foot of the ravine which is The 
Hollow in " Shirley," and is described graphically as 
follows, in the chapter where Mrs. Pryor and Caroline 
Helstone make an excursion to its pleasant quiet: — 
" Here, when you had wandered half a mile from the 
mill, you found a sense of deep solitude ; found it in 
the shade of unmolested trees ; received it in the 
singing of many birds, for which that shade made 
a home. This was no trodden way, the freshness of 
the wild flowers attested that the foot of man seldom 
pressed them ; the abounding wild roses looked as if 
they budded, bloomed, and faded under the watch of 
solitude as in a sultan's harem. Here you saw the 
sweet azure of bluebells, and recognised in pearl-white 
blossoms spangling the grass, an humble type of some 
star-lit spot in space." The Hollow is like this still, 
only it is soot-grimed, and in the immediate neighbour- 
hood are railways, factories, blast furnaces and mines ; 
while into the beck the Oakenshaw and Huns- 
worth Mills excrete a deep logwood and indigo mixture, 

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reminding ns of the truth of Moore's prophecy in 
" Shirley," where he says, " I will pour the waters of 
Pactolus through the valley," and Caroline replies 
"I like the beck a thousand times better." Above 
Oakenshaw Mills the beck is as pure as crystal. 
Hunsworth Mills were built originally in 1785, by 
Mr. John Taylor, an ancestor of Joshua Taylor, 
the Hiram Yorke of " Shirley." Yorke Mills are 
mentioned in "Shirley," no doubt also intended for 
Hunsworth. About a mile above Hunsworth Mills is 
Oakenshaw, with a famous cross. 

Looking north from Oakenshaw, is seen the massive 
front of Bierley Hall, the birthplace of the celebrated 
botanist, Dr. Richardson. Bierley ultimately passed 
into the hands of Miss Currer, of Eshton Hall, who 
owned one of the finest libraries in England, a part 
of which is still to be seen at Sir Mathew Wilson's 
residence at Eshton Hall near Skipton. Miss Currer 
was a great public benefactress to Cleckheaton, Oaken- 
shaw, and district; and doubtless Charlotte Bronte 
heard much of this wonderful book collector, partly 
by her connection with the Cowan Bridge School and 
Tunstall Church, thejaame of Currer suggested itself 

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as a fitting christian name for the nom de plume of 
a bluestocking, and there was a masculine ring about 
it which no doubt had a fascination for a creative being 
like herself. 

The prophecies in " Shirley,'' about rows of cottages 
and enlarged mill premises, &c, have all been fulfilled 
to the letter, but the neighbourhood of Hunsworth 
is still well worth a visit when the fields and hedgerows 
are gay with spring's blossoms, and every bush and 
tree is tenanted by a lively orchestra of feathered 
songsters — but such places are only passable in May, 
for later on, everything in a manufacturing district 
gets dried up, no flowering plants but the spring blossoms 
are worth seeing, and the foliage of the trees seems 
blighted almost as soon as it has got into full leaf — 
however, we may say that The Hollow is also worthy 
of being seen in autumn when the bracken, blasted 
and tawny in some places, in others a deep green, 
forms a striking setting for a wealth of oaks, 
beeches, guelder-roses, and maples, varying in shade 
from a dull brown, crimson and lemon, to the 
brightest green, as they are seen in exposed or 
shaded situations. 

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Kirklees Park, the seat of Sir George Armytage, 
Bart., situated near Roe Head, is made use of by 
Charlotte Bronte in two of her novels, viz., in " Jane 
Eyre," as Ferndean Manor, and in " Shirley," as 
Nunneley. We have here the Nunbrook and the 
Three Nuns Inn, and no doubt the name Nunneley 
suggested itself as not at all unlike " Kirkeleya," the 
old spelling of Kirklees. 

It is not our intention to enter into a detailed 
description of this place with its interesting associations 
with Robin Hood and the old religious house founded 
by Raynerus Flandrensis in the time of Henry II. 
The subject has been written to death, and nearly all 
Yorkshire antiquarians have visited the graves of the 
bold outlaw, and of the nuns. Suffice it to say, that 
Robin Hood was no mythical character, but a 
real man, whose name can be found in the Wake- 
field manorial rolls of the time of Edward II. 
He is mentioned in Longland's "Vision of Piers 
Ploughman," in Fordun's " Scotichronicon," also by 
Fuller, Camden, and Drayton, but instead of being 
a hero of the twelfth century, he really existed in 
the fourteenth. 

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The old Gate House, from which Robin shot the arrow 
before his death, and his grave, a bowshot from the 
building, are still to be seen. As Dr. Whittaker says, 
"The noble beeches that overshadow the tombs, the 
group of deer that repose beneath, and the deep silence 
that is only interrupted by the notes of wild or the 
cries of domestic birds, all contribute to excite very 
pleasing sensations." Beyond the tombs and the 
remains of the old nunnery, there is nothing of definite 
antiquarian interest, but a Roman temporary post, on 
the road from Manchester to Tadcaster, situated near 
Robin Hood's grave.* 

As we have said more than once Charlotte Bronte's 

descriptions of scenery are photographically correct, 

and this can be appreciated to the full in the 

account of Nunneley Wood in " Shirley." At the 

present day Kirklees is a fine English deer park, with 

encircling woods, set down amid the smoke of several 

large towns. Here is the picture from "Shirley:" — 

"On Nunwood — the sole remnant of antique British 

forest in a region whose lowlands were once all sylvan 

* For particulars of Kirklees and Robin Hood, see Baines' 
44 Yorkshire, Past and Present," Vol. IV., Smith's " Old Yorkshire," 
Vol. L, " Robin Hood Ballads," <fec, <fec. 

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chase, as its highlands were breast-deep heather — slept 
the shadow of a cloud ; the distant hills were dappled, 
the horizon was shaded and tinted like mother-of-pearl, 
silver-blues, soft purples, evanescent greens, and rose- 
shades, all melting into fleeces of white cloud, pure as 

RoBin Hool'* ©pave:, Kipkleetf. 

azury snow, allured the eye as with a remote glimpse 
of heaven's foundations. * * * To penetrate into 
Nunwood is to go far back into the dim days of eld. 
* * * That break is a dell, a deep hollow cup 
lined with turf as green and short as the sod of this 

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common. The very oldest of the trees, gnarled, mighty 
oaks, crowd about the brink of this dell : in the bottom 
lie the nuns of a nunnery. * * * j know groups 
of trees that ravish the eye with their perfect, 
picture-like effects: rude oak, delicate birch, glossy 
beech, clustered in contrast ; and ash trees, stately as 
Saul, standing isolated, and superannuated wood-giants 
clad in bright shrouds of ivy." 

Referring to Kirklees mansion house, we find in 
4 * Jane Eyre:" — "The manor house of Ferndean was 
a building of considerable antiquity, moderate style, 
and no architectural pretensions, deep buried in 
a wood. * * * Ferndean is buried, as you 
see, in a heavy wood, where sound falls dull and 
dies unreverberating." Such is Kirklees at the 
present day. It is not a show place in the general 
sense of the term, and it is useless to describe it 
further after the grand word-painting of the Nunwood 
which we have ready to hand. 

Near the gates of Kirklees Park, on the Huddersfield 
road, is an extraordinary stone column generally called 
the "Dumb Steeple." It is said that this was the 
boundary of the sanctuary of Kirklees, and anyone 

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Tge DumB Steeple, Kipklee*. 

outside this pillar was doomed. It being supposed 
that Dumb Steeple is a corruption of Doomed Steeple. 
The Armytages of Kirklees, the present owners of 
the estates, are descended from John Armytage, of 
Wrigbowles, County York, living in the time of King 

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Stephen. The present baronetcy was instituted in 
1641, but there was a new creation in the time of 
George II., and the present baronet is the fifth of the 
new creation, and eighth dating from Francis, the 
original baronet. The estates have been in the hands 
of the Earls of Warren, the Savilles, Deightons, 
Bamsdens, Gargraves, and finally, in the reign of 
Elizabeth, passed into the hands of John Armitage, of 
Farnley Tyas, yeoman, the founder of the present 

Some Brontians affirm that the original of Ferndean 
Manor is to be found at Wycoller Hall, near Colne, 
a long eight miles walk from Haworth. This ancient 
seat of the Cunliffes is noted for its grand open 
circular fireplace, with stone benches round, in the 
fashion of the time of Henry VI. There used to be, 
some forty years ago, large woods surrounding this 
ruined settlement, situated on the upper waters of the 
Calder. It is a matter of indifference whether Kirklees 
or Wycoller is the original of Kochester's retreat. 

Connected with Mirfield are many objects of 
antiquarian interest. In the old church, all of which 
is demolished except the tower, Charlotte Bronte 

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worshipped. The new church, after a design of Sir 

Gilbert Scott's, is one of the finest specimens of modern 

early English Gothic in the kingdom. An old building 

at the top of Shilbank Lane, called Paper, or Papist 

Hall, is worthy of a visit, as the house to which the 

last prioress of Kirklees retired in 1539. 

One interesting reminiscence relating to Kirklees, in 

conclusion, is the fact that Chaucer's " Lytell Geste of 

Robin Hode " says, 

" Syr Boger of Donkestere, 
[And the pryoresse of Kyrkesley] , 
There they betrayed good Bobyn Hode, 
Through theyr false playe." 


" Cryst have mercy on his soule 
That dyed on the wode, 
For he was a good outlawe, 
And dyd pore men moch good." 

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^,Na previous chapter Hawortk in ita modern 
aspect has been treated of. We now 
proceed to give a short sketch of its 
surroundings, the moors. Before leaving 
this serpentine settlement let us take a 
peep at the Black Bull Inn, a comfortable hostelry 
near the church gates, where the Bronte pilgrim will 
find good cheer and a kindly welcome. Here the 
unfortunate Branwell used to hold forth to the gaping 
rustics, sometimes writing a letter with each hand on 
different subjects and holding a conversation at the 
same time. The truth of this is vouched for by 
persons still alive. The chair which he used to occupy 
is still to be seen. Since the days when the old 
church and rectory were in existence, when two 
hundred visitors used to sit down to dinner on a 

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Sunday at the board of this celebrated inn, a great 
falling off has been observed in the numbers of Bronte 
worshippers at the shrine of Haworth Church. The 
village seems asleep, in comparison with Abbotsford 
for instance. The two most noticeable things about 

Blaek Ball Inn, Hav?opJ5. 

it are its clean streets and the superabundance of inns; 
the latter, no doubt, a remnant of the times, when 
this ultima thule attracted pilgrims from all ends of 
the earth. 

As we have previously mentioned, there is nothing 

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about the Haworth moors, except their association with 
the Brontes, to attract the lover of scenery. Still, 
under certain conditions of weather and season, some 
fine effects are to be noted in the landscape. When 
Emily returned from Roe Head, suffering from nostalgia, 
like the young Swiss on foreign service, the bracing 
health-laden breezes soon restored her to health. 
These wilds will have ever a fascination for the Bronte 
pilgrim, although they had less to do with developing 
the Bronte genius than many people imagine. 

We have visited the Haworth moors in spring, 
autumn, and winter; when the tender green of the 
heather had not yet appeared, and the rich colours of 
early winter were destroyed; when the purple wastes 
were fragrant with honey-laden heath bells; when the 
blackened heath was whitened over with the year's first 
snows, and the evergreen crowberry, bilberry, club- 
mosses, and lycopods, shone out verdant against a 
background of pitchy peat, blasted heather, tawny 
bracken, and mellow-grey boulders. Winter is the time 
to see these wilds to greatest advantage. In summer, 
the heather is gorgeous, animal life is active; but the 
black moors, resplendent though they are in places with 

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glowing pinks and purples cast against a peaty back- 
ground, are nothing in comparison to the magnificent 
contrasts which are visible in early winter, when the 

Bpanwell Bponte'* Cljaip, Black Bull Inn. 

frost has nipped the bracken, when the rocks are 
mantled with mossy greenery, and the moorland 
evergreens, done with fruit bearing, shine out verdant 
amid the surrounding blackness ; when the becks are in 

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full song, and the sound of the waterfalls, replenished 
by melting snows, is highly musical. 

Our winter visit, December 7th, 1886, to the waterfall 
at Ponden Kirk, is worthy of recording. Passing 
up the lane behind the rectory we pursued our 
way by a field bye-way of flagged stones, much worn, 
and standing deep with melted slush, and soon found 
the turnpike to Stanbury. As we entered the high road, 
a fine prospect greeted us. On our left, the moors were 
snow-besprinkled, giving them a distinctly piebald appear- 
ance. Over them hung heavy snow-laden clouds, which 
cast great drifting shadows here and there, while among 
these cloud shades, sunlit spaces gleamed out, lustrous 
with dark green heather, and the more verdant bilberry 
shining through it. On the right was the brook, flooded 
by the rains and snows of the previous night, rolling 
rapidly to the Aire, while, on either side, were its 
emerald-green pastures mapped out in plots by lichen- 
stained dry-stone dykes — a striking contrast. Over this 
stretched a dome of stainless blue ; the sun shone brightly 
overhead, and the greensward sparkled brilliantly with 
countless glistening diamond drops of rain. 

The road had little to interest about it, with its moss 

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grown walls, from the interstices of which, ferns peeped 
green in the short-lived, but brilliant wintry sunshine. 
On every side, the merry music of sportive, sparkling 
Springs, bursting from the hillsides in all directions, 
was a perpetual feast for the ear." 

Before us was the little village of Stanbury, reposing 
peacefully on the top of a knoll, while further west 
a great bulk of moorland covered with its wintry 
mantle, reared itself gaunt and grim, at the head of the 
valley, and loomed out like a miniature mountain in its 
hoary grandeur amid the surrounding verdure of the 
lower part of the valley. 

After a walk of about a mile and a half, we reach 

Stanbury, a neat little settlement with a Free School 

and a Wesleyan Chapel, which with its chimney stacks 

at either end, and its squat, substantial look, might easily 

be mistaken for a comfortable hostelry of the old 

coaching days. A very beautiful specimen of a Georgian 

house (date 1785,) with its solid masonry, its broad 

white lines of pointing, its roomy, contented look, the 

red curtains at the windows, and its trim old-fashioned 

* Sladen Beck, crossed before reaching Stanbury, is the scene of 
what is generally known as the Bronte Waterfall ; but one valley 
is very like another on these moors. 

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garden, all give one the feeling of home comforts, 
a warm fireside and a kindly welcome within. 

Descending the hill from this hamlet, we soon 
reached a bridge over the beck, which here rushed 
along with full-toned vehemence. Having crossed the 
alder-bordered stream, we struck along its banks till we 
came to one of the reservoirs of the Keighley Corpo- 
ration, where a splendid artificial water-shoot was 
showing to great advantage. A strong west wind was 
tossing the little lake into a wild confusion of miniature 
waves, breaking every minute pettishly on the banks. 
Immediately above the reservoir is Ponden, an extraor- 
dinary old place, where the road is so narrow that 
a long-armed man might almost touch the opposing 
walls of the houses an each side of it. Ponden House, 
the only respectable looking dwelling in the hamlet, bears 
the following inscription : — " The old house (still 
standing) was built by Robert Heaton for his son 
Michael, Anno Domini 1684. The old porch and peat 
house were built by his grandfather Robert Heaton, 
a.d. 1680. The present building was rebuilt by his 
descendant, R. H., 1801." Huge boulders scattered 
around this hamlet testify to the extraordinary results 

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occasioned by the bursting of Crow Hill bog, which 

took place during Mr. Bronte's incumbency, and was 

the cause of his preaching a sermon, and writing 

a poem.* A short walk across the fells to the left soon 

brings us to the lower part of the pass in which the 

waterfall is to be seen. 

The Poncten Kirkf Fall is a retreat of rare beauty, 

as seen under a wintry, showery sky, such as overhung 

all nature when we visited this dreary solitude. The 

beck was in full flood, and the tout ensemble of this 

desolate pass, with its foaming staircase fringed with 

winter's evergreens, will never be forgotten. At the 

lower end of the pass the heathy banks are clad with 

hazels, thorns, birches, brackens, and brambles, the 

trees all gaunt and leafless, the bracken tawny and 

blasted, shining out against the dark green heather. 

A few blood-red hips gleam on the spiny briars, the 

only bit of bright colour about. All else is dark and 

sombre, gaunt and leafless. The beck, here, has left off 

roaring over the falls ; and gurgles, sobs, and groans, as 

if tired and vexed with its efforts in passing the rocky 

* Sermon and poem can be procured at Brown's bookseller's 
shop, Haworth. Price Twopence, 
t Presumably the site of a Druidical temple. 

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staircase ; as if out of breath with its precipitate flight 
from the moors to the happy green valleys beneath. 

We ascended the pass by keeping as much in the 
bed of the stream as possible, crossing from side to side 
as the exigencies of the case demanded. By following 
this method of investigation, we could see all the nooks 
and interstices of this water- worn channel,* all the foam- 
crested corners and little whirlpools, hemmed in by 
mellow-grey boulders and heather-clad banks. 

About half-way up, we rested on a boulder and looked 
down the valley. We were shut in by an amphitheatre 
of hills, snow-speckled, and dismal, whose sides were 
perforated in every direction by countless springs, which 
poured their waters with a tinkling, trilling flow into 
the main stream, roaring lustily as it leapt from rock to 
rock. Scattered around us were great blocks of millstone 
grit, among which the heather, bilberry, crowberry, the 
bracken, and hardy northern fern, grew luxuriantly ; the 
crowberry, bilberry, and fern as green as in summer, 
the heather and bracken, frost blasted and withered, 
black and tawny. Overhead, the sky was as changeable 
as a young lad's love, at one moment bright and sunny, 
at another frowning and threatening. Arrived at the 

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top of this pass, we thought of the passage in " Jane 
Eyre," " The mountain shook off turf and flower, had 
only heath for raiment and crag for gem — where it 
exaggerated the wild to the savage, and exchanged the 
fresh for the frowning — where it guarded the forlorn 
hope of solitude, and a last refuge for silence." This is 
a masterly and rapid sketch of such a scene as 
Ponden Kirk.* 

From a rising ground near a quarry above, the 
prospect towards Kombalds Moor was most captivating. 
The greenery of the lower part of the valley, with the 
sinuous brook shining here and there, the blackened 
wastes around dusted over with snow, the moors again 
beyond, with their varied purple tints, from the palest 
slatey blue to the deepest imperial purple, all made up 
a picture at once unique and unforgetable. 

Crossing the beck, and passing a peat bed which bore 
traces of lately having been disturbed, we reached a 
rocky platform carpeted by turf, on which we are 
informed Charlotte wrote "Jane Eyre*" Into the 
valley, she and her sisters used to come with a kettle, 
and having lit a fire, enjoy an outdoor meal in summer 
* This description applies to a Derbyshire scene. 

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time. Looking down from this coign of vantage, we 
found that the best view was yet to come, for the play 
of cloud and sun upon the seething caldrons, and their 
rugged environment of rock and heath, was something 
to be remembered. A cackling grouse rose before us, as 
we left this dizzy height. But as the wintry day was 
drawing near its close, we had to betake us to the road, 
and as we neared Haworth took a last look at heathy 
hill, foaming fall, and stormy sky. Murky mountains 
of cloud big with storm hung portentously over the 
frosted, hoary height, while for a moment the sun 
peeping affrightedly over the hill "like ony timorous 
carlie," crowned these black storm-bearers with a 
glowing, golden edging, as they rested for a moment on 
a background of purest sapphire. Such was our winter 
view of the moors, and anyone- who wishes to 
thoroughly drink in the desolation of these wilds must 
see them under similar circumstances. 

Our autumn visit to the waterfall was on August 11th, 
1887. The sportsmen were preparing for the next day, 
at the Black Bull. The air was clear and bracing. 
Swallows flitted past on pliant wing, the plover piped 
his dismal note, bees and butterflies were sipping the 

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Tge Bponte WatepjWl, Mav?oi?t5 Moop. 

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sweets from the choice heathy blossom, as we wended 
our way to Ponden Kirk, now a rocky staircase innocent 
of water. The grass was burned to a brown, but still 
the bell and purple heather and ling were all in bloom. 
The yellow tormentil, the graceful feathers of the horse- 
tail, the fairy bells of the foxglove, the ruddy berries of 
the mountain ash, were all present to please the eye, 
but the verdant pastures, and the yeasty, frothy beck, 
were awanting. In quiet shady hollows, little dripping 
springs were sending pearly drops through tuffcs of 
quivering golden saxifrage, surrounded by a fitting 
framework of ferns, wood sorrel and verdant mosses. 
From the rocky platform, a few fine contrasts of pearly- 
pink bell heather, shining green bilberry and black peat 
were to be seen, but taken as a whole, the moors and 
waterfall were disappointing after the winter visit. 

It was when walking, after her marriage, to see this 
fall in its wintry water power, that Charlotte caught a 
severe cold, from which she never thoroughly recovered. 
So a melancholy interest attaches to this desolate spot. 

We recommend any real lover of scenery to see this 
region on such a day as we saw it, with its melting 
snows, its full-running, loud-tongued brooks, and its 

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grand war in the elements. Says George Searle 
Phillips: — "He who would understand nature must 
visit her in storm as well as in sunshine, in winter, as 
well as in summer. The ploughman driving his team, 
the hunter with his gun and dog ; nay, even the very 
stone-breaker upon the king's highway, is dearer to her 
than all the poets and namby-pamby walkers of the 
drawing room. , ' 

Sowdens, where Grimshaw lived, and where there is 
an inscription similar to that "H. E., 1500," in 
" Wuthering Heights," is supposed by some Haworth- 
ians to be the real Wuthering Heights, but we have 
it on the best authority, that the original is some lone 
farmstead on the moors not far from the fall, so that 
anyone who visits Ponden during a snowstorm, as we 
did, will be thoroughly able to appreciate Lockwood's 
walk from Wuthering Heights to Thrushcross Grange. 

We have not gone out of our way to hunt up the 
originals of either localities or characters, and we 
therefore adhere to our original determination, to let, as 
it were, a breath of Bronte-land in upon the reader, 
and thus place him in a position in which he can 
thoroughly enter into the spirit of the novelist. 

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' HIS chapter will be devoted to odds and ends 
of scenes connected with the Brontes. 

Emily was for six months teacher in 
a school at Low Hill, near Halifax, from 
^ which views of the Oxenhope moors were 
to be seen, and also of Kirklees and Hartshead. Here, 
as elsewhere, she suffered from an exaggerated form of 
home-sickness, and was glad to return to the superin- 
tendence of the kitchen at Haworth, where house- 
wifery and study went on at the same time, and where 
occasional walks on the moors braced her for her house- 
hold round of duties. 

Charlotte was for a brief space of time governess in 
a family at Upperwood, near Kawdon, a district well 
known to her father. From Woodhouse Grove School,* 

* The Rev. P. Bronte conducted the first examination of this 

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close by, he had married his wife, and the ceremony 
took place as before mentioned at Guiseley Church, in 
the immediate neighbourhood. Kawdon is pleasantly 
surrounded by woods, and besides Woodhouse Grove, 
there is the Baptist Training College, and the Eipley 
Convalescent Home, all beautifully situated in extensive 
grounds. Woodhouse Grove, where the Eev. John 
Fennell was first master, has been the alma mater of 
many men of eminence, including the late Sir William 
AthertoD, Attorney General, Dr. Thomas Laycock, 
Professor of Medicine in Edinburgh University, the 
eminent psychologist, &c. The Friends have also a 
school at Eawdon. The Eawdons of that ilk were an 
ancient family, whose name became merged into that 
of Hastings; Francis, Lord Eawdon and Marquis of 
Hastings, an intimate friend of the Prince Eegent, 
became K.G., Governor-General of India, and Governor 
of Malta. The " Terror," lost in the ill-fated Franklin 
Expedition, was commanded by Captain Francis 
Eawdon Moira Crozier, a relation of the Eawdon 

* See under "Rawdon," in Cudworth's "Round About Brad- 
ford," page 437. 

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THE bbontE countby. 179 

Anne Bronte was a governess for a time at Green 
Hammerton, and also in the neighbourhood of Mirfield, 
but these are matters with which we have little to 
do. Her writings, at least her novels, are decidedly 
mediocre, and although she seemed to have the power 
of writing easily, " The Tenant of Wildfell Hall," and 
" Agnes Grey," will never rank high in English fiction. 
Her verses breathe a spirit of true devotion. She had 
little of the honest doubt which characterised Charlotte 
and Emily. Her belief was of a more orthodox 

Quite lately a friend directed our attention to the 
following paragraph in the " Palatine Note Book : " — 
" Nor has the scenery of the latter portions of * Jane 
Eyre ' hitherto been rightly identified. Most people 
imagine those fine descriptions to have been inspired by 
the moorland solitudes surrounding Miss Bronte's own 
home at Haworth. But Hathersage, an obscure village 
in the Peak of Derbyshire, was the real source of her 
inspiration. The house called 'Moor House' in the 
novel, is still standing, and there are many other 
associations connected with Charlotte Bronte in this 
neighbourhood which the world knows nothing of." 

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On enquiry, we find that a family of the name of "Eyre " 
lived at Moor House, perhaps suggesting the title for 
the novel. Some of the finest word-painting in " Jane 
Eyre " is to be found in this part of the book.* 

In Hathersage Church is the sepulchral memorial of 
Robert Eyre who fought at Agincourt, his wife and 
fourteen children. This old soldier is believed to have 
been a direct descendant of the warrior who saved 
William the Conqueror's life at Hastings, when 
unhorsed and with helmet so beaten as to be powerless and 
in peril of bis life. The Rivers of " Jane Eyre " talks 
about his ancient lineage. Little John, Robin Hood's 
companion, is supposed to have been buried among the 
blue limestone rocks of Hathersage. There are Druidical 
associations connected with the rocking stones and 
rocky basins to be seen on these moors. The Vale of 
Hope is in this district, and is described to the life at 
page 859 of " Jane Eyre," in these words : — " I felt the 
consecration of its loneliness; my eye feasted on the 
outline of swell and sweep — on the wild colouring 
communicated to ridge and dell, by moss, by heathbell, 
by flower-sprinkled turf, by brilliant bracken, and 
* See pages 330, 331, 332, 338, 412. 

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mellow granite crag. These details were just to me 

* * so many pure and sweet sources of pleasure. 
The strong blast and the soft breeze; the rough and 
halcyon day; the hours of sunrise and sunset; the 
moonlight and the clouded night developed for me 

* * * the same attraction." It is a curious 
coincidence that Hathersage should be the scene of 
a large portion of "Jane Eyre," while Wirksworth 
is the scene of "Adam Bede," George Eliot's most 
popular novel. 

Charlotte's visits to the Briery on Lake Windermere,* 
and also to Bridlington, Scarborough, and even to 
London, might have been included in this work; 
and no doubt much interest has been evoked from 
their consideration, but when we get to these well- 
beaten tracks, it is difficult to strike out a new and 
original line of description. We have endeavoured 
hitherto to open up "fresh fields and pastures new" 
to the Bronte pilgrim, and we now stick to our 
original design. 

Descriptions of the country round Sowerby Bridge 

* For descriptions and pictures of the Lake District see Professor 
Knight's recent work, " Through the Wordsworth Country." 

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and Luddendenfoot connected with Branwell Bronte 
will be found in Leyland's " Bronte Family." 

Our topographical portion is now at an end. We 
have given three great periods due consideration. 
The scenes of childhood, of school life, and of adult 
life have been broadly treated. We have exercised 
no undue curiosity in peering into the originals of 
either the characters or the scenes in the novels, but 
we have given, as we imagine, a clear account of the 
surroundings of the family during all their life. The 
elder sister bulks largest in our pages, and worthily so. 
None of the other members of the family approached 
her in literary finish or imagination, and comparatively 
little is known about their particular surroundings. 
Their lives were short, and the applause of the world 
came too late. Post cineres gloria sera venit. 

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HE Bronte genius, as displayed in the trio of 
sisters and in Branwell, seems to have had 
a Celtic origin. The dual Celtic marriage — 
between an Irish Hercules and a " frail and 
fine " Cornish Celt — produced at least two 
of the finest imaginative writers of the Victorian 
period of English literature. A Cornish and an Irish 
ancestry is a very uncommon stock, and the peculiar 
idiosyncrasies of the Bronte genius, so distinctive of 
the family, and of them alone, may be accounted for 
by the unusual union of two of the most dissimilar 
types of Celt. They are a strange mixture of the 
highly-strung, impulsive, imaginative natives of Erin, 
and of the earnest, pious Cornish people. That they 
owed much to their mother we cannot prove, but we 
insist that the coalition of all that is best in the Celtic 

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nature in the persons of Patrick Bronte and Maria 
Branwell produced a family brimfdl of talent and 
intellectual force. In Kibot's book on "Heredity," 
the Bronte family occupies an unique position in the 
matter of hereditary genius. In almost no other 
instance did four members of one family shine more 
or less in one field, viz., literature. 

We must never, in studying the Brontes, lose sight 
of their race. It has been well said, that " the Irish 
temperament is chaste, proud, passionate — a volcano 
under an iceberg." Does not this coincide with the 
accounts we have of this remarkable family, and can 
we not see that many of the characters in their novels 
bear a strong resemblance to themselves? The 
Yorkshire and Irish character is as wide apart as 
the poles. This accounts for the wonderful way in 
which the Brontes could hit off the West Biding folks 
to the life, and present typical portraits of the men 
and women about them. As we have said before, 
the dwellers in towns have been ever the most successful 
delineators and word-painters of country scenes, and the 
reason is obvious. " Familiarity breeds contempt," and 
the countryman by long usage becomes so accustomed to 

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the beauties about him that he does not appraise them 
at their true value. So the stranger can often strike 
off happy and life-like sketches of those among whom 
he has migrated, better than the natives themselves. 

We have now a word to say on Branwell Bronte, 
who has met with but scant justice from the early 
Bronte biographers. It has fallen to the lot of 
Mr. F. A. Leyland in his " Bronte Family," to rescue 
the name of Patrick Branwell Bronte from the oblivion 
into which it had been sunk. Mr. Grundy in his 
" Pictures of the Past," an entertaining book of odds 
and ends, which, however, in other articles is full 
of evident exaggerations, gives a most caricatured 
picture of Branwell and his sisters ; but a reminiscence 
of about the same date, 1840, from Mr. Leyland should 
be read alongside of it to really get at the truth. 
Mr. Leyland says: — " He was slim and agile in figure, 
yet of well formed outline. His complexion was clear 
and ruddy, and the expression of his face at the time 
lightsome and cheerful. His voice had a ringing 
sweetness, and the utterance and use of his English 
were perfect." This is a very different youth from 
the rough, vulgar bumpkin of Mr. Grundy's book. 

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Mr. Grundy's description is repudiated by persons who 
knew young Bronte well. Mr. Leyland's book does 
not, as some imagine, attempt to whitewash BranwelFs 
character. No! no one can do that, but it seeks to 
show that he was a monomaniac, the victim of having 
allowed his passions to run away with him and land 
him in the bog of melancholic idleness and apathy, 
only to be roused by stimulants or opiates to anything 
like real life. Had he been sent to a retreat for 
dipsomaniacs under a watchful physician, the world 
would probably have heard more of BranwelTs writings, 
for he had, undoubtedly, in him the making of some- 
thing which he never became. "Manners make the 
man," i.e., morals make the man, and woe betide the 
youth who flings aside the reins and lets his brute 
nature carry him away. We will draw a veil over 
his sins and think only of his woes. A man suffering 
from such extreme perversion of the emotions, living 
within a stone's throw of a public house where there 
was always a warm fireside and an appreciative circle 
of village companions, could not have been placed in 
a worse position. Branwell's verses show the true 
poetic afflatus, and no one who reads them can doubt 

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his undoubted gift. As to his having written part 

of " Wuthering Heights," it is denied by everyone who 

knows anything about the subject. 

We would refer the reader to Mr. Leyland's " Bronte 

Family" for the verses, but a few may be specially 

mentioned, such as sonnets on " Landseer's Shepherd's 

Chief Mourner," an " Impromptu," " Caroline," &c. 

His lines on "Black Coomb" and " Penmaenmawr " 

are wonderfully powerful, especially in the last, where 

he goes on to encourage his drooping, heart-broken self, 

in the following lines : — 

" Let me, like it, arise o'er mortal pain, 
All woes sustain, yet never know despair ; 
Unshrinking face the grief I now deplore, 
And stand, through storm and shine, like moveless 

His usual style, however, is gloomy and despairing, 

and almost always introspective. He is very pathetic 

in one piece entitled, " On Peaceful Death and Painful 


44 Why dost thou sorry for the happy dead ? 
For if their life be lost, their toils are o'er, 
And woe and want can trouble them no more ; 
Nor ever slept they in an earthly bed, 
So sound as now they sleep, while dreamless laid, 
In the dark chambers of the unknown shore, 
Where night and silence guard each sealed door. 

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So torn from such as these thy drooping head, 
And mourn the dead alive — whose spirit flies — 
Whose life departs before his death has come, 
Who knows no Heaven beneath life's gloomy skies, 
Who sees no hope to brighten up that gloom ; 
'Tis he who feels the worm that never dies — 
The real death and darkness of the tomb." 

When he wrote these lines he had long made up his 
mind to give a negative answer to the question "Is 
life worth living ? " We cannot leave this subject 
without recommending everyone to see "The Bronte 
Family," and read the poems for themselves. That 
work has quite succeeded in placing Branwell Bronte 
among the front rank of England's minor poets. 

In concluding our notice of Branwell, we cannot do 
better than write at the bottom " Pobre," an inscription 
carved on a rude cross in Spain, which is placed over 
the body of a murdered traveller, and means simply 
4 * poor fellow." Poor Branwell ! poor fellow! thy mind 
murdered with self indulgence, has even left behind 
a few precious relics, by which we can remember thee 
and thy blasted, feverish, weary death in life ! 

We have been privileged to see several portraits 
painted by Branwell, and they show great artistic 
promise and ability. All the family were artistically 

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inclined. They were instructed by an excellent teacher, 
William Bobinson, of Leeds, who became one of the 
foremost portrait painters of the day. The Duke of 
Wellington, and the Princess Sophia, both sat to him. 
In connection with this may be mentioned Charlotte's 
wonderful power of word-painting. So exact are her 
descriptions of flowers, that it is quite possible for 
a botanist to identify the species, after reading them. 
The father was a keen observer of nature, and so were 
all the family. 

Emily Bronte is now accounted one of the minor 
poetesses of the Victorian era, having found a place in 
the " Poetesses of England " by Eric S. Robertson, M. A., 
and we hope before long to see Branwell's " Penmaen- 
mawr " acknowledged as worthy of a permanent place 
in poetical collections. 

A story of Emily, which has never yet seen the light 
of day, has come to our knowledge, and it gives one 
a lively impression of how the parsonage girls amused 
themselves when their father was from home, and helps 
to dispel the idea, which many people seem to possess, 
that the Brontes were little priggish blue- stockings who 
never indulged in a good romp. It was the 29th of 

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May, the anniversary of the v Eestoration, Haworth 
Parsonage was in a state of noisy rebellion, the father 
was from home, young feet ran lightly over the house, 
and the sound of boisterous laughter echoed every- 
where. They were celebrating the day right royally, 
by representing King Charles in the oak. Emily was 
" The Merry Monarch," and essayed to escape from her 
pursuers by stepping out of a bedroom window into the 
branches of a fruit tree which grew up the front of the 
house. Unfortunately the bough broke, and she came 
to terra firma, luckily however, unhurt. On the return 
of the father, he had the whole family on the carpet, 
but he could not by any amount of cajolery or threat- 
ening succeed in getting tq the bottom of the affair. 
Emily, however, on her death-bed confessed to her 
father. It can thus be seen that the Brontes were just 
like other children, and even in after life, Charlotte, in 
the midst of death and disappointment, had always 
a few old school friends who were faithful unto death, 
so that in reality their environment had only a very 
small influence upon them. Letters were continually 
arriving from these friends, and what with household 
duties and literary work their time was well filled up. 

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Now that the church of the Brontes has been swept 
away, and the rectory restored and enlarged, it seems 
as if nearly everything possible had been done to stamp 
out "the Bronte craze," as some of the modern 
Haworthians seem to look upon the interest taken 
by the outside public in this immortal family and its 
home. Still, notwithstanding this, new books keep 
appearing, although critics tell us that the subject has 
been written to death. This volume has many 
imperfections. It has been written hurriedly, and often 
at long intervals, when a brief period of cessation from 
professional work happily presented itself to the writer. 
That must be the excuse for its inequalities, its 
omissions, and its want of continuity. It was 
impossible to settle down for a long spell of writing at 
any time without constant interruptions. On the other 
hand, it is the work of a lover of the Brontes' works and 
lives, and if this link with the past should be the means 
of intensifying and reviving the spread of enthusiasm 
and interest in this unique little family, it will not have 
been forged in vain. Many persons pretend to be 
satiated with the Brontes and their surroundings. In 
this book, we leave the well hackneyed theme of 

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Hawortb, and travel about all over midland and 
northern England, and even into Ireland, and we hope 
that even those well satisfied ones will admit there is 
room for another Bronte book. For our own part, we 
desire a fuller biography of the family than has yet been 
written, and we trust, and are confident that such will 
yet appear, and that there are many surprises yet in 
store for students of this Celtic circle. We would, as a 
last word, commend the following quotations to the 
earnest study of those who feel satiated with Bronte' 
literature : — Thackeray, in the " Cornhill " for April, 
1860, says, " Which of her readers (Charlotte's) has 
not become her friend? Who that has known her 
books has not admired the artist's noble English, the 
burning love of truth, the bravery, the simplicity, the 
indignation at wrong, the eager sympathy, the pious 
love and reverence, the passionate honour, so to speak, 
of the woman ? " Swinburne, in his "Note on Charlotte 
Bronte," thus ends a brilliant, enthusiastic encomium : — 
"Charlotte Bronte may be expected to be read with 
delight and wonder, and re-read with reverence and 
admiration, when darkness everlasting has long since 
fallen on all human memory of their cheap scientific, 

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their vulgar erotic, and their voluminous domestic 
school, when even * Daniel Deronda ' has gone the way 
of all waxwork, when even Miss Broughton no longer 
' cometh up as a flower,' and even Mrs, Oliphant is at 
length 'cut down like the grass.' " 

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Oft ilje: Seek, Hav?opi§. 

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'AKING Leeds as a centre, take train to 
Birstall (L. & N.W.R.), changing carriages 
at Batley, distance about 9 miles. From 
Birstall station, first inspect the Parish 
Church (half a mile), then Oakwell Hall 
(1 mile), near which are the battlefield of Adwalton 
Moor, and Fieldhead, the birthplace of Priestley. 
Thence by field-path to Gomersal, Yorke's House, and 
Pollard Hall, where at one time Herbert Knowles 
resided (2 miles), then passing Gomersal Hill Top on to 
Heald's Hall, Liversedge, and Liversedge Church, by 

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way of Huddersfield road (8 J miles). Near here is 
Rawfold's Mill. The route now goes by Hightown, in 
which P. Bronte's residence should be inspected, and 
then on by Lousy Thorn Farm, where he lodged, to 
Hartshead (5 miles), where inspect Church and regis- 
ters, and also Walton Cross. A view of the ancient 
demesne of Kirklees, with its Nunnery, Gate House, and 
the Grave of Robin Hood, can be got by taking one of 
the field-paths which lead down to the Huddersfield 
road. Kirklees Park is not open to the public, except 
on rare occasions. The best route is by a path which 
takes down outside the park wall just below the 
Vicarage, and brings the tourist again on to the 
Huddersfield road, at the Three Nuns Inn, where 
excellent fare can be obtained (6 miles). The Dumb 
Steeple should be inspected, and then on through 
Mirfield to Dewsbury (10 miles). Here, after inspecting 
the Parish Church and old Vicarage, walk out to 
Heald's House and Squirrel Hall, on Dewsbury Moor 
(11 miles), and then return to Dewsbury station (total 
distance 12 miles). When at Birstall, The Rydings 
can also be inspected. The number of places to be 
visited requires a long summer day. 

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(a) Sladen Beck Waterfalls (8 miles, including 

(6) Ponden Kirk Falls (8 miles total distance). 

(c) Wycoller Hall, near Colne (17 miles total 

(d) Thornton, via Denholme, for inspecting Old 
Bell Chapel and birthplace of Charlotte Bronte (total 
distance 5£ miles). Train at Thornton. 

(e) Over moors to Hebden Bridge, one of the best 
walks from Haworth for seeing the real wildness of the 
hills (total distance 8 miles). Train at Hebden Bridge. 

All these excursions of course will include an 
inspection of Haworth, its Church and Parsonage. 
Mr. Brown, bookseller, supplies photographs, and all 
sorts of Bronte literature. Haworth is best reached by 
the Midland Kailway, from either Leeds or Bradford, 
changing carriages at Keighley. 


From Ingleton Station (Midland from Leeds or * 
Bradford), take Kirkby Lonsdale road for Cowan 

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Bridge. From thence by field-path via Burrow to 
Tunstall Church, and then back to Ingleton via Black 
Burton (total distance about 15 miles). This excursion 
requires a long summer day. 

Norton Conyers is distant 8 miles from Ripon, and 
Sir Reginald Graham is wishful for anyone interested 
in Bronte literature to inspect his ancient manor house. 
Wath Church, close by, has also associations with 
" Jane Eyre." 

< V .— HBTHERSafcE. 
Hathersage, with Moor Seats, and the Vale of Hope, 
is easily accessible from Sheffield. 

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> ECESSARILY, owing to living out of town, 
reference libraries have only been available 
on rare occasions. Information has been 
coming in in most part from correspondents, 
and in fact, owing to lack of library 
facilities, the writer has had to depend on correspondents 
almost entirely. The book scarcely comes up to the 
size originally intended, but the indulgent reader must 
be content to accept three times as many pictures as 
originally promised, in lieu of printed matter. As a 
supplementary contribution, the following notes and 
addenda are furnished as a step towards keeping faith 
with the subscribers : — 

1. See Preface. Mrs. Sarah Newsome, nee de 
Garrs, at one time nurse to the Brontes, writes as 

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follows: — "The Brontes were well brought up, and 
were good, obedient children. They were very timid 
among strangers, but lively and cheerful in their own 
home. Mr. Bronte* was a kind and loving husband and 
father, kind to all about him. Mrs. Bronte, before her 
death, requested me to remain with her children, and I 
stayed three years after her death. Charlotte came to 
see me when she was going to Brussels School, the 
second time, and that was the last time I ever met her. 
* * * Mr. Branwell, at eighteen years, was a very 
handsome young man." Mrs. Newsome was with the 
family ten years. She was the nurse who was out with 
the children on the moors when the eruption of Grow 
Hill Bog took place. They hid themselves under her 
cloak, and took refuge under a porch. 

2. See Chapter I. — Wethersfield, where Patrick 
Bronte held his first curacy, had a certain connection 
with Yorkshire in this way, that its vicar was the Rev. 
Joseph Jowett, LL.D., who was born at Leeds, in 1750. 
He was presented to this living in 1794, succeeding 
Bev. Christopher Atkinson, deceased, brother of Bev. 
Miles Atkinson, incumbent of St. Paul's, Leeds. Dr. 
Jowett was non-resident, spending only his summer 

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vacations at Wethersfield, being also Professor of Civil 
Law at Cambridge. Dr. Mansell, Master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, wrote some amusing lines about a 
little fairy garden, with narrow walks of shells and 
pellucid pebbles, closed round by a delicate Chinese 
railing, after the style of the citizen's villa described by 
Lloyd, They run as follows : — 

" A little garden, little Jowett made, 
And fenced it with a little palisade ; 
If you would know the taste of little Jowett, 
This little garden won't a little show it." 

See "Leeds Worthies," by Kev. E. V. Taylor, B.A. 
It is just possible that Jowett's connection with 
Yorkshire had something to do with Bronte coming to 

8. See Chapter II. — Any mention of Penzance, the 
birthplace of Maria Branwell, has been omitted, but it 
is easily understood what a change it was which the 
little Cornish maiden made when she left her southern 
home, damp and showery, warmed by the Gulf Stream, 
where geraniums, myrtles, hydrangeas, and camellias 
flourish through the winter, and came to Hartshead, 
bleak, cold, and comparatively barren. 

4. See Chapter II. — Eev. Hammond Boberson. — 

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It is stated by a personal friend of Mr. Roberson's that 
he never was appointed canon of York, but only 
a prebend. We take our information as to his canonry 
from a biographical sketch written on him by his great 
nephew, the Rev. Canon Bailey, D.D., of West Farring 
Rectory, Worthing. 

5. See Chapter II. — We are informed by a native 
of the Heavy Woollen District that Hammond Roberson 
exercised his pupils in musketry drill, in anticipation of 
the rising of the Luddites, and their expected attack on 
Rawfold's Mill. Several old flint-lock muskets were 
kept at Heald's Hall for many years. 

6. See Chapter III. — The Bronte window in 
Haworth Church. — We have omitted to acknowledge our 
indebtedness to the rector (Rev. John Wade, M.A.,) 
and churchwardens of Haworth, for permission accorded 
to have a photograph taken of the Bronte window 
erected by an American citizen. Mr. E. Feather, of 
Haworth, obtained this for us, and a very beautiful 
facsimile it is. Unfortunately, our artist could not treat 
it successfully, and it had to be left out. We have, 
however, no less pleasure in acknowledging our thanks 
for favour granted. 

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7. See Chapter III. — There is, by the way, 
a mention of the Haworth district in " Drunken Barn- 
aby's Journal," as follows : 

" Thence to Kighley, where are mountains, 
Steepy, threatening, lively fountains." 

8. See Chapter IV. — It will repay the visitor to 
Cowan Bridge to go on to Kirkby Lonsdale, where 
there is a very ancient bridge, said to have been built by 
the Devil in windy weather. As he was flying over 
Gasterton, his apron-string broke, and he lost many 
stones, which accounts for the curious nature of the 
structure. The arches are of a ribbed sort. The rocks 
on the Lune are exceedingly grand, and seen in con- 
trast with the rich, fertile country around, the water at 
their bases, and the numerous water-mills, a pleasant 
picture is made up. 

9. See Chapter IV. — Casterton, to which village the 
Clergy Daughter's School was removed from Cowan 
Bridge, is pleasantly situated on the Boman road which 
ran to Appleby. 

10. See Chapter IV. — Burrow, otherwise Over- 
borough Hall, is the site of the Bremontacse of the 
Emperor Antoninus, which was a Boman station and 

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garrison. This place is mentioned by Tacitus, and 
other ancient writers. In the grounds is a very beautiful 
glen through which flows the Leek, entirely shrouded 
by trees, nothing of water to be seen, but a sullen roar 
and murmur striking the ear. For a full account of 
Tunstall and Overborough see Baines' " Lancashire,' ' 
also " Bremontacae," by Biohard Bauthmell. 

11. See Chapter V. — In the register of baptisms at 
Birstall, in addition to the entry about the Earle of 
Newcastle's army banishing the Puritan clergy, we 
have the other side of the picture as well : — " 1643. — 
Memorandum that the parliam* armie returned into 
Yorkshire after ye battell at Namptwick and did 
drive away ye Earle of Newcastle's Armie from Hallifax, 
Bradford, Leeds : the Scotts armie entered into England 
joined with the Lord Fairfax in beseiginge Yorke: 
and did overthrow Prince Bob* at Marsndon Moore." 
Prince Bupert, the dashing cavalier and brilliant 
general in many an affair of outposts, was called by 
the Parliamentarians, " Prince Bobber." So it seems 
the Birstall vicar of that day has not quite hit on 
his proper name, but seems to have got confused with 
his nickname. 

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12. See Chapter V.— The " Shirley " Habitation of 
the Primrose League was instituted at New Hall, 
Birstall, the residence of Dr. Forsyth, July 22nd, 1886. 

18. See Chapter V, — Norton Conyers was the seat of 
the Nortons from the Norman Conquest up to the time 
of Elizabeth. There are brasses in Wath Church 
commemorating members of that family. The effigies 
of Sir Darner de Rochester, and Elizabeth, his wife, 
have an angel presiding over them in " Jane Eyre," and 
a like monument is to be seen in Wath Church, 
dedicated to the memory of Sir Richard Graham, and 
Elizabeth, his wife ; Sir Richard, like Sir Darner, slain 
at Marston Moor. Charlotte Bronte was a governess 
with the Greenwood family at Swarcliffe Hall, near 4 
Ripon. The Greenwoods rented Norton Conyers, and 
doubtless Charlotte Bronte had many opportunities of 
inspecting this ghost-haunted old manor house, which 
accounts for her minute description of the interior, 

14. See Chapter V. — Near Gomersal are two 
artificial mounds of large size, said to be Brigantian 
forts, from which a clear view of the Spen and Calder 
Valleys is visible for many miles. Roman remains have 
also been found in Cleckheaton district. 

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15. See Chapter V. — Wycoller Hall. — For particulars 
and pictures of this ancient residence, situated on the 
Haworth and Colne road, see Baines' " Lancashire/' 

16. See Chapter VI. — About two miles from 
Haworth, lower down the valley, is Oakworth Hall, the 
residence of Isaac Holden, Esq., M.P. for the Keighley 
Division, where some splendid conservatories are to be 
seen on special occasions. The situation is decidedly 
elevated, about 850 feet above sea-level. 

17. See Chapter VII. — For the following account of 
Easton, near Bridlington, in the East Biding of 
Yorkshire, I am indebted to Mr. Thomas Holderness, of 
Driffield, who has supplied this, a portion of a work he 
is writing, entitled, " Bambles in the East Biding: " — 

"Pursuing the direct road from Boynton to Brid- 
lington, instead of wandering through the village and 
the wood, to the Wold Gate, a walk of a mile brings us 
to the little hamlet of Easton. It is pleasantly situated 
in the valley, but here we lose the more enchanting 
sylvan beauty of the supremely picturesque village of 
Boynton, with its fir-clad slopes, rendered still more 
attractive by the gushing melody of God's own 
harmonious choir of unpaid choristers. On the left we 

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pass Easton Bushes, a field studded with many 
extremely fine hawthorn bushes, white with fragrant 
blossom in spring, and glowing with bright red berries 
in autumn. These bushes are well known to the bird- 
nesters of Bridlington. The hamlet consists of two 
farm houses only. The one on the left hand is a 
comfortable Yorkshire residence, with the outbuildings 
and appendages of a large and well-kept farm. The 
other house, on the right hand, was the plainer of the 
two. From the earliest period of my recollection, it 
was inhabited by the kind-hearted Mr. Hudson and his 
amiable wife. Many years ago it was an exceedingly 
plain building, the windows having the old-fashioned 
leaden panes, but in squares, not diamonds ; the doorway 
was utterly devoid of mouldings, or any other kind of 
ornament, and the house was entirely without spouting. 
But the old fabric was so much improved by the good 
taste of Mrs. Hudson, as to be hardly like the same 
place. Nothing gives greater interest to any locality 
than the important events which have transpired there, 
or the distinguished personages who have resided in or 
been in any way connected with them. The recollection 
of those events or of those persons hallows the spot, 

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208 THE bbontS country. 

and we pause, spell-bound, brooding over the scenes of 
the past ; especially if the locality be so picturesque as 
the neighbourhood of Easton. This house will ever 
possess an interest with all the lovers of the great and 
the good, through its having been the spot where 
Charlotte Bronte spent a few of the happiest of her few 
really happy days. Hers was a life full of sorrow, and 
yet, amid personal and family afflictions, privations, 
and bereavements, she had that higher life which 
sustained her, and carried her nobly through them. 
In a letter to her friend " E." (Miss Nussey), written on 
the 4th of August, 1889, she says, " I think you and I 
had better adhere to our first plan of going somewhere 
together, independently of other people. I have got 
leave to accompany you for a week — or at the utmost a 
fortnight — but no more. Where do you wish to go ? 
Burlington, I should think, from what "M." says, 
would be as eligible a place as any. When do you set 
off? Arrange all these things according to your 
convenience ; I shall start no objections. The idea of 
seeing the sea— of being near it — watching its changes 
by sunrise, sunset, moonlight, and noon-day — in calm, 
perhaps in storm — fills and satisfies my mind." Mrs. 

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Gaskell, in her life of Miss Bronte, says, " She and her 
friend went to E as ton for a fortnight, in the latter part 
of September. It was here she received her first 
impressions of the sea." In a letter to " E.," dated the 
24th of October, she says, " Have you forgotten the sea 
by this time, " E." ? Is it grown dim in your mind ? 
Or can you still see it, dark, blue, and green, and foam- 
white, and hear it roaring roughly when the wind is 
high, or rushing softly when it is calm ? * * * 
I think of Easton very often, and of worthy Mr. H. 
and his kind-hearted helpmate." It is not difficult to 
imagine that a mind like Charlotte Bronte's would be 
thoroughly entranced while gazing on the ocean for the 
first time, which she would most probably do from the 
top of Bessingley Hill, on her way to Burlington by the 
coach ; and while doing so, little did she think that 
within ten years she would be the only relative who 
would follow the remains of her last-surviving and 
talented sister, Anne, to their last resting-place, near 
the rolling and roaring of that same ocean, in the 
burial-ground of the old Parish Church of Scarborough. 
La the detached portion of this burial-ground, at the 

east end of the church, is a headstone with the 


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following inscription : — " Here lie the remains of Anne 
Bronte, daughter of the Bev, P. Bronte, Incumbent of 
Haworth, Yorkshire. She died May 28th, 1849." 
[I copied this from the .stone on the 16th of June, 
1884. — Thomas Holderness, Driffield.] Some years 
ago the Hudsons retired to Bridlington, leaving their 
son on the farm. I am told that they had many little 
articles which Charlotte had given to Mrs. Hudson. 
Amongst them was a drawing, by Charlotte, of a group 
in the summer-house at Easton, which she drew while 

18. See Chapter VIL— The George Hotel at Bradford, 
was a favourite resort of BranwelTs when he resided 
in the town. There he met John James, the historian 
of Bradford, Leyland, the sculptor, &c. The late 
Abraham Holroyd mentions Mr. Bronte entertaining 
to dinner a large number of candidates for confirmation 
at the Talbot Hotel in Bradford, owing to a heavy 
snow-storm having set in. 

19, See Chapter VIIL— It is remarkable to trace the 
West Yorkshire place-names in the proper names of some 
of the characters in the Bronte novels. In ' ' Jane Eyre," 
we have Dent and Eshton, two well known places, and 

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in " Agnes Grey," we have Mr. Hatfield and Lady 
Meltham, both derived from place-names. Then again, 
such names as Ingram and Scatcherd in " Jane Eyre," 
are unmistakeably West Biding, in distribution, being 
as common as blackberries in these parts. If we take 
place-names, they are not all original. For instance 
we have Thrushcross Grange in " Wuthering Heights," 
and there is a Thruscross near Ripley, at the head 
of the Washburn Valley, again, we have Horton in 
"Agnes Grey," a well known place-name in the Bradford 
and Bibblesdale districts. Fieldheads are now legion 
in the West Biding, whether in memory of Shirley's 
old hall or not we cannot say; still Fieldhead near 
Birstall, the birthplace of Priestley, was there centuries 
ago. The Nunwood of " Shirley" is not an unknown 
place-name in the West Biding, there being a Nunwood 
near Esholt Priory in the district where Charlotte was 
a governess (Bawdon). A thorough study of the place 
and proper names in the Bronte novels would be rather 
interesting, and there is no doubt the locale of the 
writer must have been guessed at by many a one before 
the shy " Currer Bell " and her sisters were unearthed. 
20. Our concluding note is a very fine word-portrait 

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of Charlotte Bronte, by Harriet Martineau, which we 
think worth putting before our readers as a last word : — 
" There was a something inexpressibly affecting in the 
aspect of the frail little creature who had done such 
wonderful things, and who was able to bear up with 
so bright an eye, so composed a countenance, under 
not only such a weight of sorrow, but such a prospect 
of solitude. In her deep mourning dress (neat as a 
Quaker's) with her beautiful hair, smooth and brown, 
her fine eyes, and her sensible face, indicating a habit 
of self-control, she seemed a perfect household image, 
irresistibly recalling Wordsworth's description of that 
domestic treasure." 

These Notes and Addenda are certainly an omnium 
gatherum of odds and ends, many of which, however, are 
worthy of record. 

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(Compiled by the Author.) 


Adwalton Moor, 106; account of the battle, 140; registers at 
Birstall Church, relating to battle, 141 ; also in Notes. 

Aghaderg, 3, 33 ; Druidical remains at, 3 ; William of Orange at, 4. 

Ainley, Miss, 130. 

Allbutt, Rev. Thomas, 112. 

American, visitors at Haworth, 79; description of village, 79; 
citizen erects memorial window, 82 ; also in Notes. 

Anecdotes of Emily Bronte, 190; Hammond Roberson, 62, 63, 
64 ; Norman Macleod, 73; Sir Fletcher Norton, 138. 

Apperley Bridge, 49, 190. 

Arms of Dewsbury, 32. 

Armytages of Kirklees, 151, 157, 158; Arms of, 44. 

Artistic genius in Bronte family, 189. 

Ascham Roger, 8. 

Assizes at York for Luddite trials, 27. 

Atherton, Sir William, Attorney-General, 178. 


Bailey's, Rev. Canon, biographical sketch of Hammond Roberson, 

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Ballynaskeagh, 4. 

Batley Church, 105. 

Batts of Oakwell, 134, 138, 140. 

Beaumont family at The Rydings, 120. 

Beck, Batley, 16, 101 ; Spen, 101, 147. 

Bedford, Patrick's landlord at Hartshead, 51. 

Bells at Liversedge, 56; at Birstali, 133, 134. 

Bierley Hall, 149. 

Birkenshaw, 17. 

Birrell, Augustine, 12, 79. 

BIRSTALL CHURCH, 105, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136 ; its 

registers relating to Civil Wars, 141, and Notes. 
Black Bull Inn, Hawobth, 161, 172. 
Blackmore End, 11. 
Bloody Assize, 27. 

Bonfire Day at Liversedge Church aud Heald's Hall, 62. 
Boothroyd, 18. 

Bradford parish, 21 ; George Hotel and Branwell. Notes. 
Branwell, Jane and Maria, 48, 49. 
Bremontacae, Roman, 91, 92, and Notes. 
Briar Hall, Birstall, 129. 
Briarfield Church, 131. 

Bridlington, Charlotte's visit to, 181, and Notes. 
Brindle, birthplace of Grimshaw, 83. 
Brocklebridge Church, 96. 
Brocklehurst, Rev. Mr., 97. 

(a) Anne, her birthplace, 70; a pupil at Dewsbury Moor, 112; 

bad health, 113; governess at Green Hammerton and 
Mirfield, 179 ; her writings, 179 ; her grave at Scarborough, 
see Notes 

(b) Branwell, 160, 181, 185, 186, 187, 188; his chair, 160. 

See also Notes. 

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(<*) Charlotte, letter to Cambridge Student, 2 ; the influence of 
Dewsbury on her writings, 29; her birthplace, 70; her 
description of clouds, 77 ; Swinburne on her word-painting 
of wind and light, 78; her description of Haworth 
district, 79 ; her memorial window, 82 ; her school days at 
Cowan Bridge, 85; her description of Lowood, 87; her 
nom deplume of " Currer Bell," 85, 97, 149; her opinion of 
Casterton School, 99 ; she goes to Roe Head School, 100 ; 
her friendships, 101, 109 ; visits to her friends " E." and 
" M.," 109 ; she goes as a teacher to Heald's House, Dewsbury 
Moor, 112; thunderstorm at Heald's House, 111; her 
visits to The Bydings, Birstall, 114; the thunderstorm 
which took place there, and its use in " Jane Eyre," 117, 
118, 119, 120; her visit to Norton Conyers, 125, and in 
Notes ; her knowledge of the Heavy Woollen District, 129 ; 
her description of view from Briarfield Church, 131 ; her 
knowledge of the Healds of Birstall, 135 ; her visits to the 
Bed House, Gomersal, 144 ; her visits to Brookroyd, 146 ; 
her word-picture of Nunneley (Eirklees), 154, 155 ; her last 
visit to Ponden Kirk, 175 ; she is governess at Upperwood, 
Bawdon, 177 ; her visits to Windermere, Bridlington, and 
Scarborough, 181, and Notes ; her probable stay at Norton 
Conyers when a governess with the Greenwoods of Swarcliffe 
Hall, see Notes ; her correspondents, 190 ; Thackeray's and 
Swinburne's encomiums, 192, 193; Harriet Martineau's 
word-portrait of her, see Notes. 

(d) Emily, her birthplace, 70 ; her love for the moors, 77 ; she 

enters Cowan Bridge School, 85 ; goes to Boe Head, 109, 
112; as Shirley Keeldar, 140; Wuthering Heights, 176; 
her stay at Halifax as governess, 177 ; home sickness, 177 ; 
her poetry, 189; she takes the character of the "Merry 
Monarch," 190. 

(e) Patrick, his birthplace, 3; tutor at Drumgooland, 5; at 

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St. John's College, Cambridge, 5, 6 ; his mother, 7 ; 
his first curacy at Wethersfield, Essex, 8; his Dewsbury 
curacy, 12, 13, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39 ; his Cottage Poems, 
34 ; he lodges at Lousy Thorn Farm, near Hartshead, 51 ; 
marries Maria Branwell at Guiseley Church, 49 ; resides 
after marriage at Clough Lane, High town, Liversedge, 40; 
popularity as a preacher, 47 ; identity with Parson Helstone, 
of " Shirley," 51, 52 ; comes to Thornton-in-Bradford-daie, 
70 ; story as to his shaving on a Sunday, 72 ; " Birthplace 
of Charlotte Bronte," by Wm. Scruton, 71; Haworth 
Church in Patrick's time, 81. 

"Bronte Family >" by F. A. Leyland, 182, 185. 

Bronte genius, 183, 184. 

Bront£ (surname), 6. 

Brookroyd, 18, 146. 

Broughton, Bhoda, 193. 

Brown, John, M.D., author of •• Brunonian Theory," 136. 

41 Brunoniad, The," a poem by Rev. W. M. Heald, M.A., M.D., 135. 

Brunty and Bruntee, 7. 

Buckworth, Rev. John, Vicar of Dewsbury, 13, 28, 34 ; presents 
Patrick to living of Hartshead-cum -Clifton, 40 ; his marriage, 

Burrow Hall, 91, 92. 

Butler's *• Hudibras," written at Coldham Hall, Essex, 11. 


CALDER, The River, 14, 16 ; Paulinus preaches on its banks at 
Dewsbury, 14 ; derivation of name from British, 17 ; Roman 
road in valley, 18 ; Paulinus baptises by immersion in its 
waters, 20 ; Patrick rescues a drowning boy from it, 38. 

CALDERDALE, 17, 40; damsels of, 34; views of dale from 
Hartshead, 43; upper waters, 158; Luddendenfoot and 
Sowerby Bridge, 181. 

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Cambridge, St. John's College, 5 ; Patrick's signature, 6 ; date of 

foundation, 7, 8 ; Alumni of St. John's, 8. 
Camden's reference to Robin Hood, 151. 
" Caroline," a poem, by Bran well, 187. 
Caroline Helstone, 131, 132, 133, 148, 149. 
Cartwright, his defence of Rawf old's Mill, 54 ; presentation to, 54 ; 

his grave, 61. 
Casterton, 99, also in Notes. 
Cawlane, Longfellow of, 50. 

Cawston, the birthplace of Hammond Roberson, 52. 
Celt, Patrick a large-boned, 33. 
Celtic theory of Bronte* genius, 183. 
Chair, Branwell's, at Black Bull, Haworth, 160. 
Chaucer's "Lytell Geste of Robin Hode," 159. 
Charles I., 126, 141. 

Charles H., 127; Emily as the " Merry Monarch," 190. 
Chubch, Drumballyroney, 4; Drumgooland, 4; Wethersfield, in 

Essex, 8; Dewsbury, 21, 112, 113; Hartshead, 44 ; Guiseley, 

50, 178 ; Liversedge, 54, 55, 56, 57 ; Dewsbury Moor, 58, 112 ; 

Thornton (Old Bell Chapel), 70; Haworth, 80, 81, 82, 83; 

Tunstall, 90, 92, 95; Staincliffe, 101; Birstall, 105, 129, 131, 

132, 133, 134, 135, 136; Mirfield, 158, 159; Hathersage, 180. 
Civil Wars, The, 62, 126, 136, 140, 141, and Notes. 
Cleckheaton, 146, and Notes. 
Clifton, Hilleley family's grave at Hartshead, 44. 
Clough Lane, Hightown, Patrick's residence, 42. 
Coldham Hall, in Essex, 11. 
Colne, 158. 
Cottage Poems, 34. 
COWAN BRIDGE, 85, 86 ; description of, from " Jane Eyre," 87 ; 

Walk from, to Tunstall Church, 90, 91. 
Cowper, The Poet, 83. 
Cox, David, wind painting, 78. 

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Cromlech in Aghaderg Parish, 3. 

Cromwell at Ripley Castle, 126. 

Crosses, at Dewsbury, 20; Hartshead, 47; Oxenhope and 

Stanbury, 80. 
Crow ffill Bog, 34, 167. 
Crow Trees Hill, Dewsbury Moor, 112. 
Crozier, Captain Francis Rawdon Moira, 178. 
"Currer Bell and Her Sisters," by Abraham Holroyd; extract 

from, 74 ; origin of worn de plume, 85, 97, 149. 
Currer, Miss, of Eshton Hall and Bierley, 85, 97, 149. 


Danes' Cast in County Down, 4. 

"Deronda, Daniel," 193. 

DEWSBURY, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20; its Church, 21, 
22, 112, 113 ; evangelical revival at, 22, 23; origin of Sunday 
Schools at, 26, 27, 28, 29 ; customs (Devil's Bell, 31, Shrove- 
tide 31, Pancake Bell, 31); new buildings, 31; Corporation's 
seal, 32 ; old Vicarage, 33, 39 ; Patrick Bronte at Dewsbury, 12, 
33, 34, 37, 38, 39; Hammond Roberson, curate of parish, 25. 

DEWSBURY MOOR, Hammond Roberson resides at, 29 ; preaches 
at consecration of Church, 58 ; his equestrian exploits at, 62 ; 
view from, 101 ; Charlotte Bronte at, 110, 111, 112, 113. 

Domesday Book, Dewsbury in, 21 ; Thornton, 70. 

Down, County, 3, 6. 

Druidical remains, at Aghaderg, 3 ; at Hathersage, 180 ; supposed 
temple at Ponden Kirk, 167. 

Drumballyroney, 4. 

Drumgooland, 4 ; Captain Mayne Reid a native of, 5. 

Dumb Steeple, 157. 


Earlsheaton, Patrick Bronte's encounter at, 37 ; its Church, 58. 

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Easton, near Bridlington, visit of Charlotte to, see Notes. 

Eliot's, George, word-painting of uninteresting surroundings, 69. 

Elizabeth Bronte, 100. 

Equestrian Anecdotes of Boberson, 62, 63, 66. 

"Eybe, Jane" — 

Brocklebridge Church (Tunstall Church), 96. 

Brocklehurst, Rev. Mr. (Rev. Carus Wilson), 97. 

Description of Waterfall in novel, 171. 

Ferndean Manor (Kirklees and Wycoller), 151, 152, 155, 
156, 157, 158. 

Lowood (Cowan Bridge), 87. 

Proper Names in this Novel, 128, 129, and Notes. 

Quotation from " Palatine Note Book" regarding novel, 179. 

The Eyres of Moor Seats, Hathersage, 180. 

Thornfield Hall (The Rydings, Birstall), 114, 117, 118, 
119, 120. 

Thornfield Hall, Interior of (Norton Conyers, Ripon), 121, 
122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128. 

Thunderstorm Scene at, 117, 118, 119, 120. 

Tombs of Eyres in Hathersage Church, 180. 

Vale of Hope, 180. 

Writings of the novel near Waterfall, 171. 


Fennell, Rev. John, 49. 

Fieldhead, 129, 133, 136; birthplace of Priestley, 142. 

Forest, Remnant of British, at Kirklees, 43. 


"Gamester, The," performed at Chesterfield in 1787 in aid of 

Sunday Schools, 27. 
Gaskell, Mrs., 12, 13, 48, 50, 54, 112, 113, 137, 138. 
Gate House, Kirklees, 152. 

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George Eliot, 69; her "Daniel Deronda," 193. 

Glein Neidoreth, 92. - 

GOMEBSAL, Charlotte's visits to, 109, 113, 129, 143, 144, 145; 
Shirley Habitation of Primrose League at, 45; Herbert 
Knowles native of, 146 ; British Forts, see Notes. 

Graham, Sir Beginald, Bart., 121 ; Sir Richard mortally wounded 
at Marston Moor, 123 ; Sir George of Netherby, 127 ; visits 
of Royalty to the family, 126; Sir Richard's loan to 
Charles II., 127. 

Grave, Robin Hood's, 152 ; Anne Bronte's, at Scarborough, see 

Green Hammerton, 179. 

" Greenan, The Three Sisters of," 3. 

Grimshaw, Rev. William, 83, 84 ; resides at Sowdens, 176. 

Grundy, Mr., 185, 186. 

Guiseley Church, 48, 50. 


Hallileys of Dewsbury, 29. 

Hartshead-cum-Clifton, 12, 13, 41, 43; its Church, 44; its 

churchyard, 44, 47 ; Patrick Bronte at, 47, 48, 49, 50; resides 

as a bachelor at Bushy Thorn, 51; Hammond Roberson 

incumbent of this parish, 29, 80, 63. 
Hathersage, 180. 
HAWORTH, its influence on the Brontes, 2, 77, 102. 

Black Bull Inn, 160. 

Brontes' removal to Haworth, 74. 

Church, 79, 80, 81, 82. 

Description of town by an American, 79. 

Grimshaw at Haworth, sketch of life, 83. 

Haworth Moors, 162, 163, 164. 

Haworth Parsonage in a state of rebellion, 190. 

Modern aspect of Haworth, 89, 98. 

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Moorland word-pictures in " Jane Eyre," 179. 

Ponden Kirk Waterfall, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172, 175, 

Scenery about, 69. 
Walk from Thornton to, 76, 77, 78. 

Heald, Rev. Canon, M.A., the Cyril Hall of "Shirley," 135. 

Heald, Rev. W. M., M.A., M.D., 53, 110, 135; writes -The 
Brunoniad," 135. 

Heald's Hall, Liversedge, 29, 53, 62, 66. 

Heald's House, Dewsbury Moor, 109, 110, 111, 112. 


Heckmondwike, 17. 

Hercules, Patrick the Irish, 183. 

Heywood, Oliver, at Gomersal, 145. 

Hightown, Liversedge, Patrick lives at, 40. 

Hiram Yorke, 144, 145. 

Hollow, The, of " Shirley," 147, 148, 149. 

Hollows Mill (Hunsworth Mills), 66, 67, 146. 

Holroyd's, Abraham, '• Currer Bell and Her Sisters," 74. 

Hope, Vale of, in *« Jane Eyre," 180. 

Howley Hall, siege of, 106, 142. 

Huddersfield, 108. 

Huddersfield Road, 100, 106. 

"Hudibras," Butler's, written at Coldham Hall, near Wethers- 
field, 11. 

"Impromptu," by Branwell Bronte, 187. 

Ingleborough, 84, 88, 91. 

Ingleton, 84, 98. 

Inn, Three Nuns, Mirfield, 151 ; Black Bull Inn, Hawortb, 160 ; 

Fenwick Arms, Burrow, 92. 
Ireland, 3, 4, 6, 7. 

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" Jane Eyre," see under " Eyre." 

Jefferies, Bichard, 147. 

Jerusalem, resemblance of Dewsbury to, 17. 

Jervaulx Abbey, 20. 

John's, St., College, Cambridge, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Jowett, Priestley, present occupier of Thornton Old Parsonage, 

birthplace of literary Brontes, 71. 
Jowett, Bev. Joseph, LL.D., Vicar of Wethersfield, and Professor 

of Civil Law, Cambridge, 1 1 ; also see Notes. 
Justice Walker, of The Bydings, Birstall, 120, 121. 


Keeldar, Shirley, 140, 145. 

King Charles in the oak, Emily Bronte as, 190. 

Kirk, Ponden, 164 to 176. 

Kirkby Lonsdale, 99, and Notes. 

Kirklees, 43, 47, 105, 107, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157 ; Armytages of, 

151, 157, 158 ; arms of Armytages of, 44. 
Knowles, Herbert, 146. 

Lay cock, Professor Thomas, M.D., an alumnus cf Woodhouse 

Grove School, 178. 
Leek, The Biver, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91 ; see also Notes. 
Leeds and Kendal Road, 85. 
LEYLAND, F. A., author of "Bronte Family ," 13, 182, 185, 186, 

187 ; designer of Dewsbury Corporation seal, 32. 
Lightning-struck tree, 111, 120. 
Lisnacreevy, 4. 

Liversedge, 51 to 67 ; its Church, 55, 56, 57 ; its Hall, 105, 134. 
Longfellow, his ancestors at Guiseley, 50. 

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Loughbrickland, County Down, 3, 4. 

Lousy Thorn, Hartshead, the bachelor lodgings oi Patrick Bronte, 

Low Mill, Halifax, 177. 
Lud, King, 132. 
Luddites, 67, see also Notes. 


Marston Moor, Battle of, and the Grahams of Norton Coiiyers, 

123 to 128. 
McTurk, Dr., 131. 
Meenan Bog, County Down, 3. 
"Merry Monarch, The," Emily Bronte as, 190. 
Moor House in "Jane Eyre," 179, 180. 
More, Sir Thomas, on Bishop Tunstall, 96. 
Morgan, Rev. W., 49. 


Nevilles, The, of Liversedge Hall, 134. 

Newsome, Mrs. Sarah, nee de Garrs, the Brontes' nurse, see 

Preface and Notes. 
Norton Conyers, 121 to 128, see also Notes. 
Norton, Sir Fletcher, Anecdote of, 138. 
Nunwood, near Esholt Priory, see Notes. 
Nunbrook, Mirneld, 151. 
Nunneley of " Shirley," 51. 
Nunnery, Eirklees, 152 ; the last prioress of, 159. 
Nuns, The Three, Inn, 151. 
Nussey, Miss Ellen, 121. 


Oakenshaw, 148, 149. 
Oakworth Hall, see Notes. 

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Old Vicarage, Dewsbury, 33. 
Oliver Heywood at Gomersal, 145. 

" Palatine Note Book," Extract from, 179. 

Patrick Bronte, see under Bronte, Patrick; see also Notes on 

Mrs. Sabah Newsome, as to his true character. 
Penzance, 48, see also Notes. 
Phillips, George Searle, on nature, 176. 
Pollard Hall, Gomersal, the residence of Herbert Enowles, 145, 

Ponden Eirk, see under Eirk. 
Priestley, Joseph, LL.D., 142, 143. 
Primrose League, Shirley Habitation of, at Gomersal, 145, see 

also Notes. 
Priory, Eirklees, 152 ; the last prioress of, 159. 


Bawdon, 177, 178. 

Beid, Captain Mayne, a native of Drumgooland parish, 5. 

Boberson, Bev. Hammond, comes to Dewsbury as curate, 25, 26, 

27, 29 ; his work at Liversedge and in the West Biding, for 

the Church, 52 to 66. 
Bydings, The, Birstall, (Thornfield Hall), see under " Eyre, Jane," 

heading Thornfield Hall; Lord Milton at, 121 ; Justice Walker 

resides there, 121 ; Miss Ellen Nussey's residence, 121. 

Scarborough Churchyard, Grave of Anne Bronte at, see Notes. 
Sladen Beck, 165. 
Sowdens, 176. 

Spen Valley, 43, 54, 55, 57, 66 ; Hunsworth Mills (Hollows Mill) 
in, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150. 

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Sunday Schools, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. 

Swinburne's estimate of Charlotte Bronte, 192, 193. 


Thackeray's encomium on Charlotte BrontS, 192. 
Theory, Celtic, of Bronte* genius, 183, 184. 
Thornfield Hall, see under " Eyre, Jane." 
Thornton, the birthplace of the BrontSs, 70 to 74. 
Thrushcross Grange, 176, see also Notes. 
Tighe, Rev. Thomas, 5. 

Tunstall Church, Brocklebridge Church of "Jane Eyre," 92,95, 
96, 97, 98. 


Upperwood, near Bawdon, 177. 


Vandalism triumphant at Haworth, 82. 


West Biding, The father of Church principles in, Rev. Hammond 

Roberson, 61. 
West Yorkshire, The Church in, 65, 
WETHERSFIELD, in Essex, the scene of Patrick's first curacy, 

15, 34; its Church, 8; its neighbourhood, 11; Patrick's 

courtship at, 12. 
Wycoller Hall, near Come, 158, and see Notes. 


Yorkshire character, 184. 

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Abbs, C. J., Secretary Dewsbury District Infirmary. 

Ackroyd, Alfred, Highfield, Birkenshaw. 

Ackroyd, George, J.P., 5, North Park Villas, Bradford. 3 copies. 

Ackroyd, William, J.P., Wheatleys, Birkenshaw. 2 copies. 

Ainley, Sam, Healey, Batley. 

Aitken, J. Hepburn, M.B. & CM., Cemetery Boad, Batley. 

Aldam, W., J.P., Frickley Hall, Doncaster. 

Allbutt, T. Clifford, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., Carr Manor, Meanwood, 

Allott, J. H. L., M.B. & CM., Manchester Union Infirmary, 

Allott, Jos., senr., Gomersal. 

Althorpe, George, 53, St. Paul's Boad, Bradford. 2 copies. 
Anderton, Arthur, Cleckheaton. 
Anderton, William, J.P., Elm Bank, Cleckheaton. 
Andrew, Frank, 32, Chester Square, Ashton-under-Lyne. 
Andrews, William, F.R.H.S., Rose Cottage, Hessle, Hull. 
Armitage, Myles, Postmaster, Batley. 
Armytage, George John, F.S.A., Chairman Lancashire & Yorkshire 

Railway Company, Clifton Woodhead, Brighouse. 
Askham, Mrs. John, Knowles Hill Road, Dewsbury Moor. 

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Atkinson, Charles John, Brighton Street, Heckmondwike. 
Atkinson, Bobert, MJLC.S., Ripponden, Halifax. 2 copies. 

Backhouse, James, jnnr., West House, York. 

Bagshaw, Walter, Victoria Foundry, Batley. 

Balme, E. B. Wheatley, J.P., Cote Wall, Mirfield. 

Barber, Charles, Art Master, Heckmondwike. 

Barber, J. M., Northgate, Heckmondwike. 

Barker, J. E., 21, Mill Lane, Bradford. 

Barraclough, B., 33, Russell Street, Batley. 

Batley, Joseph Cooke, Timber Merchant, Heckmondwike. 

Bell, J. H., M.D., Bradford. 

Bentley, Mrs. EL, Sir Bobert Peel Inn, Heckmondwike. 

Binns, J. Arthur, Official Receiver in Bankruptcy, Bradford. 

Binns, Miss Charlotte, St. Andrew's Villas, Bradford. 

Bird, Charles, The Mathematical School, Rochester. 

Birrell, Augustine, Author of " Life of Charlotte Bronte," 3, New 

Square, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C. 5 copies. 
Blackburn, Arthur, 430, East Sixth Street, S., Boston, U.S.A. 
Blackburn, George, 430, East Sixth Street, S., Boston, U.S.A. 
Blackburn, Miss, Northgate Cottage, Almondbury. 
Blackburn, Samuel, Phoenix Mill, Brighouse. 
Blackmore, Rev. J. C, Morehard Bishop Rectory, Devonshire. 
Blakeley, J. Wesley, Ramsden Street, Liversedge. 
Bland, H., Ivy Bank, Haworth. 
Booth, John, 27, Girlington Road, Bradford. 
Bower, Bakewell, The Manor Farm, Hawarden. 
Bradley, Thos. H., Saville Estate Offices, Thornhill, Dewsbury. 
Brady, W. E., 1, Queen Street, Barnsley. 
Brailsford, Joseph, Endcliffe, Sheffield. 
Bridges, George, " The Friary," King's Lynn. 
Bridges, H. P., Healey Board Schools, Batley. 
Brierley, Morgan, Denshaw House, Delph, near Oldham. 

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Brierley, W., Proprietor Rocbe Colliery, Batley. 

Brierley, William, Bookseller, 2, Bond Street, Leeds. 2 copies. 

Brigg, Benjamin S., Burlington House, Keighley. 

Brigg, John, Eildwick House, near Leeds. 

Briggs, Arthur, J.P., Cragg Boyd, Bawdon. 2 copies. 

Briggs, Joseph, The Royds, Cleckheaton. 

Brinsley, Charles, Belle Vue House, Goole. 

Brook, John S., Aqua Villa, Dewsbury. 

Brooke, Mrs., West House, Gomersal. 

Brooke, Rev. Canon J. Ingham, M.A., Bural Dean, Thornhill 

Rectory, Dewsbury. 2 copies. 
Brooke, Thos., F.S.A., Armitage Bridge, Huddersfield. 2 copies. 
Brooks, W. Murray, The School House, Bolton Lane, Bradford. 
Brown, Miss, Bardon Grange, Weetwood, Leeds. 
Brown, R. & F., Booksellers, Haworth. 20 copies. 
Bruce, Samuel, LL.B., J.P., Wakefield. 
Burlingham, Daniel C, M.D., Hawarden. 
Burlingham, Mrs., 81, High Street, King's Lynn. 
Burnley, Charles, Heckmondwike. 
Burnley, John W., Ashfield, Heckmondwike. 
Butterfield, F., Wilsden, near Bradford. 

Caldwell, Rev. Stewart, Clayton-le-Moors, Accrington. 

Calthrop, Rev. F. J., M.A.,Tunstall Vicarage, near Kirkby Lonsdale. 

Camidge, William, Savings Bank, Tork. 

Chadwick Aqua, Chemist, Brighton Villas, Morley. 

Chadwick, S. J., Solicitor, Enowle, Mirfield. 

Chadwick, W. H., Oxford Road, Dewsbury. 

Chambers, J. E. F., The Hirst, Alfreton, Derbyshire. 

Childe, W. H., Secretary Batley Co-operative Society, Batley. 

Christie, Rev. J. J., M.A., The Vicarage, Pontefract. 

Clapham, John, J.P., The Hill, Prestwich, Manchester. 

Clapham, John Arthur, 16, Apsley Crescent, Bradford. 

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280 THE BRONTE country. 

Clark, Robert, L.R.C.P., Lancaster. 

Coles, T. Horsman, 76, Westbourne Terrace, London, W. 

Collon, W., Postmaster, Heckmondwike. 

Cook, J. F., Willow Terrace, Leeds. 

Cooke, Samuel, junr., North Bank, Muswell Hill, London, N. 

2 copies. 
Cooke, William, North Bank, 354, Muswell Hill, London, N. 

2 copies. 
Cordingley, John R., 10, Melbourne Place, Bradford. 
Cotton, John, M.I.M.E., Vere Street, Bradford. 
Cowling, Mrs., Chapel Lane, Heckmondwike. 
Crabtree, J. C, South View, Heckmondwike. 
Craven, John E., Mulcture Hall, Todmorden. 
Craven, Joseph, M.P., Ashfield, Thornton. 
Croft, Joseph, The Bank, Bradford. 
Crow, E. H., The School House, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 
Crowther, Joseph, High Street, Heckmondwike. 
Curzon, Frank, Victoria Chambers, Leeds. 
Cutler, Rev. Charles, Hathersage Vicarage, near Sheffield. 

Daniel, Rev. W. C, M.A., Boothroyd Vicarage, Dewsbury. 

Darwent, Rev. C. Ewart, M.A., Heckmondwike. 

Davies, Rev. T. G., M.A., The Vicarage, Batley. 

Davison, W. F., Providence Mills, Heckmondwike. 

Dawson, Edward, Glynn Taff, Streatham, London, S.W. 

Dawson, Samuel, Printer, Dewsbury. 2 copies. 

Day, George, J.P., Hanging Heaton, Dewsbury. 2 copies. 

Day, George, Upper George Street, Heckmondwike. 

Day, Rev. John Gilbert, Swindon Rectory, Cheltenham. 

Deane, E. E., LL.B., Official Receiver in Bankruptcy, Batley. 

Devine, Rev. F. J., Heckmondwike. 

Dewhurst, James, 13, Brunswick Place, Bradford. 

Dick, Wm., M.D., Army Meiical Department. 

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Dobie, William, M.D., Townfield House, Keighley. 

Dodgshun, Mr., Bookseller, Leeds. 6 copies* 

Donaldson, James, M.A., L.L.D., Principal of St. Andrew's 

University, N.B. 
Downing, Wm., Springfield House, Oulton, near Birmingham. 
Drake, Alderman Nathan, Westbrook Lodge, Bradford. 
Dransfield, H. B., 12, Estate Buildings, Huddersfield. 2 copies. 
Duff, Jas., C.A., Barum House, Harrison Road, Halifax. 
Dugdale, C, Haworth. 
Dunlop, George, Kilmarnock Standard, N.B. 
Dykes, Frederic, Union Bank, Wakefield. 2 copies. 
Dyson, George, Bethel Street, Brighouse. 2 copies. 
Dyson, Tom, Stone Merchant, Folly, Huddersfield. 

Eddison, John Edwin, M.D., The Lodge, Adel, Leeds. 
Eglington, Frances Sewell, The Limes, £teepham, near Norwich. 
Elliott, Stephen, Newmarket House, Stanley, near Wakefield. 
Ellis, Philemon, Bunker's Lane, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 
Elvin, Cbas. Norton, M.A., Eckling Grange, E. Dereham, Norfolk. 
Emmet, John, F.L.S., The Poplars, Boston Spa. 
Englebert, Mr., 22, Deronda Road, Heme Hill, S.E. 
Exley, Mrs. Ben, Ashfield Builds, Heckmondwike. 

Farrar, Thomas H., 45, Savile Park, Halifax. 
Fawcett, John R., Prospect Terrace, Dewsbury. 
Federer, Charles A., L.C.P., 8, Hallfield Road, Bradford. 
Fenwick-Fenwick, T., J.P., Barrow Hall, Eirkby Lonsdale. 
Ferens, Rev. J., L.Th., Senior Curate of Shipley. 
Ferguson, John, Writer, Duns, N.B. 2 copies. 
Field, James, Chapel Fold, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 
Fielden, Miss Z. M., Moorend, Haworth. 2 copies. 
Firth, F. J., 117, Petrie Street, Sheffield. 
Firth, Fred, Beevor House, Heckmondwike. 

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Firth, John, The Guardian, Cleokheaton. 

Firth, T. F., J.P., The Flush, Heckmondwike. 

Foggitt, William, Chemist, Thirsk. 

Fortune, Riley, Alston House, Harrogate. 

Foster, John, Coombe Park, Whitchurch, Oxford. 

Fowler, Rev. W., MJL, Liyersedge Vicarage, Normanton. 

Fox, Chaley, The Farm, StainclifEe. 

Fox, Councillor J. J., Ash Villa, Upper Batley. 

Fox, Duke, Uplands, Dewsbury. 

Fox, James E., Batley. 2 copies. 

Fraser, Frederick 6., Land Surveyor, 1, East Parade, Leeds. 

Freeman, Rev. John, M.A., Woodkirk Vicarage, near Wakefield. 

Freeman, S. S., Victoria Mill, Bowling, Bradford. 

Friend, A. 

Galloway, T. C, 120, Bowling Old Lane, Bradford. 
Gaunt, Mr., Carlton Road Board Schools, Dewsbury. 
Geary, Mr., Greetland Board Schools. 
George, F. W., Gledhow Grove, Chapeltown, Leeds. 
Graham, Arthur, Batley Waterworks, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 
Graham, Sir Reginald, Bart., Norton Conyers, Ripon. 2 copies. 
Gray, James, Tew Tree Cottage, Liversedge. 
Greening, Charles, Eirkgate, Bradford. 3 copies. 

Hailstone, Edward, F.S.A., Walton Hall, Wakefield. 

Hainsworth, L., 118, Bowling Old Lane, Bradford. 

Haley, Rev. J., 15, Hampton Place, Bradford. 

Haley, W. H., L.R.C.P. <fc L.R.C.S., Wakefield. 

Hall, J. Asbridge, M.R.C.S., Lockwood, Huddersfield. 

Hall, Rev. Frederick, Upper Chapel Parsonage, Heckmondwike. 

Hall, Robert, Dark Lane, Batley. 

Halliwell, William, Ironfounder, Heckmondwike. 

Hardcastle, Tom, Heald's House, Dewsbury Moor. 

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Hartley, William, West View, Hipperholme, Halifax. 

Haworth, Rev. J., St. Augustine's School, Dewsbury. 

Heaps, John W., 41, Albion Street, Batley. 

Heaton, Mrs. John, Hollybank, Heckmondwike. 

Hep worth, S. C, President Dewsbury Chamber of Commerce. 

Hewitt, Richard, 24, Sherborne Road, Bradford. 2 copies. 

Hill, John, Victoria Terrace, Morley. 

Hinohcliffe, Miss, Spring House, Dewsbury Moor. 

Hindley, Mrs., Lightcliffe House, Hornsey, London, N. 

Hirst, Arthur, Haworth Wesleyan School. 

Hirst, Charles, L.R.C.P., Ed., Morley, Leeds. 2 copies. 

Hirst, George H., Solicitor, Dewsbury. 

Hirst, J., Carlton Terrace, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 

Hirst, Mrs., Common Road, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 

Hirst, Sam, Halifax Road, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 

Holbeck, Rev. J. Lewis, St. Margaret's Vicarage, Bentham, 

Holden, Isaac, M.P., Oak worth Hall, Eeighley. 
Holmes, Richard, Advertiser Office, Pontefract. 
Holroyd, Mrs., Baptist Street, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 
Holt, Mr., c/o Dr. Young, Ardsley. 
Hordern, Isaac, Edgerton House, Edgerton, Huddersfield. 
Horsfall, John, M.A., F.R.C.S., Hillary House, Leeds. 
Houldsworth, R. M., Springfield House, Heckmondwike. 
Howarth, John, Corporation Baths, Bradford. 2 copies. 
Hutchinson, James G., 12, Melbourne Place, Bradford. 

Ibberson, Jo., Clerk to the West Riding Magistrates, Dewsbury. 

Ineson, W. J., Bath Street, Batley. 

Ingham, Amos, M.D., M.R.C.S., Manor House, Haworth. 

Ingham, John, Printer, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 

Ingham, Miss, Poppleton Hall, York. 

Ingram, John, Fairfield, Dewsbury. 2 copies. 

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Ingram, John H., 173, Albion Road, Stoke Newington, London, N. 

2 copies. 
Isherwood, W., Staincliflfe, Dewsbury. 2 copies. 

James, Rev. Evan, Senior Curate of Parish Church, and Curate- 

in-Charge of St. James* Mission Church, Dewsbury. 
Jessop, Rev. W., F.A.S., Rawdon. 
Jubb, George, J.P., Swiss House, Batley. 

Keighley, Mrs., Spring Vale, Huddersfield. 2 copies. 

Kellett, F., Wyke. 

Kelley, George, Prospect House, Liversedge. 

Kerfoot, Rev. J., 51, Burngrove Road, Sheffield. 

Kerr, Rev. G. P., B.A., Hopton Vicarage, via Normanton. 

Kerr, Rev. St. George, M.A., Staincliflfe Vicarage, Dewsbury. 

Kershaw, John, M.R.C.S. & L.R.C.P., Pudsey. 

Keyworth, Mrs., Clifton, York. 2 copies. 

Kitchenman, John, Oak Villa, Acock's Green, Birmingham. 

Knowles, Miss, South House, Gomersal. 3 copies. 

Knubley, Rev. E. Ponsonby, M.A., Staveley Rectory, Leeds. 

Law, Alfred, The Grange, Cleckheaton. 

Law, Benjamin, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, 37, Park Square, Leeds. 
Law, J. T., Architect, Batley. 
Law, William, Littleborough, Manchester. 
Laycock, Samuel, 50, Foxhall Road, Blackpool. 
Leadman, Alex. D. H., L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., Ed., Boroughbridge,York. 
Lee, P. Fox, West Park Villas, Dewsbury. 

Lees, F. Arnold, M.R.C.S. & L.R.C.P., 2, Lofthouse Place, Leeds. 
Lees, Rev. Thomas, M.A., F.S.A., Wreay Vicarage, Carlisle. 
Leighton, Miss, 10, Ganger's Croft, Haworth. 
Lewis, W. Bevan, L.R.C.P., London, Medical Director, West 
Riding Asylum, Wakefield. 2 copies. 

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Library, Bacup Co-operative Stores (J. L. Wolfenden, Secretary). 

Bradford Public (Butler Wood, Librarian). 

Heckmondwike Naturalists' Society (B.Benton, Secretary). 

Huddersfield Subscription (F. Greenwood, President, 
Edgerton Lodge, Huddersfield). 

Keighley Mechanics' Institute (J. A. Bobson, Secretary). 

Leeds (H. Morse Stephens, Librarian). 

Leeds Public (James Yates, F.B.H.S., Librarian). 

Mechanics' Institute, Heckmondwike (E. 0. Prill, Sec.) 

Mitchell, Glasgow (F. T. Barrett, Librarian). 

Plymouth Public (W. H. K. Wright, F.B.H.S., Librarian). 

Bochdale Free (Col. Fishwick, Chairman). 

Saffron Walden Public (W. Murray Tuke). 
Lidster, Miss, Teacher, 9, Clun Boad, Sheffield. 
Lindley, W. B., Chapeltown Boad, Leeds. 
Lister, Mr., Towngate, Healey, Batley. 
Lock wood, B., Bavensknowle, Kirkburton. 
Lodge, Mr., Postmaster, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 2 copies. 
Lucas, Fred H., 14, Bond Street, Dewsbury. 
Lumb, G. N., Assistant Overseer, Holyrood Terrace, Batley < 
Lund, Percy, " The Country Press," Bradford. 
Lunn, L., Woodsome Lees, near Huddersfield. 
Lupton, J. & A., Booksellers, Manchester Boad, Burnley. 12 copies. 

Macarthur, D., L.F.P.S.G. & L.B.C.P., Lofthouse. 
Maclaren, Jas. F., M.B.& CM., Azimghur,N.W.P., India. 2 copies. 
Macmillan & Bowes, Booksellers, Trinity St., Cambrid ge. 4 copies. 
Maggs, G. E. H., Solicitor, Thornycroft, Birstall. 
Marriott, C. H., J.P., Manor Lawn, Dewsbury. 
Marriott, Thomas, Solicitor, Batley. 
Marriott, W. T., J.P., Sandal Grange, Wakefield. 
Martin, Mrs., Lady Superintendent, North Biding Infirmary t 

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Matthews & Brooke, Booksellers, Bradford. 20 copies. 

Maw, William, The Infirmary, Bradford. 

McCallum, Duncan, London. 

McCormick, Rev. F., Maryport. 

Milne, S. M., Calverley House, near Leeds. 

Milner, Miss, The Cottage, Heworth Moor, York. 

Milnes, Fred, Riding Street, White Lee, Batley. 

Mitchell, Bev. Robert, B.A., The Vicarage, Hanging Heaton, 

Monkhouse, John, Kendal and County News, 33, Market Place, 

Morrison, Walter, M.P., Malham Tarn, Bell Busk. 4 copies. 
Mortimer, Charles, 791, Franklin Street, Milwaukee, Wis., U.S. 
Muirhead, George, Factor, Paxton, Berwick-on-Tweed. 
Murray, Frank, Bookseller, Moray House, Derby. 
Myers, Rev. J. W., B.A., Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 

Naughton, John, Ellesmere School, Harrogate. 

Newsholme, Arthur, M.D., Lend., 39, High Street, Clapham, 

London, S.W. 
Nixon, Edward, Savile House, Methley. 
Norman, Capt., R.N., Cheviot House, Berwick-on-Tweed. 
Norton, Mrs., Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 

Oddy, John G., Hallcroft Hall, Addingham, near Leeds. 5 copies. 

Purkin, Robert, Clerk to the Heckmondwike School Board. 
Patterson, Geo. de J., B.A., M.B., M.R.C.S., Heckmondwike. 
Payne, E. S., 6, Crimbles Street, Leeds. 
Payne, Henry, M.D., Newhill Hall, Wath-upon-Dearne. 
Pearson, George, c/o S. Pearson & Sons, Contractors, New Dock 

Works, Southampton. 
Pearson, George, 2, Parkfield Road, Bradford. 5 copies. 

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Pearson, Bev. Wm., B.D., Shipley Vicarage. 2 copies. 

Peel, Frank, Heckmondwike Herald. 

Pendleton, Bev. J. W., Oakworth Vicarage, Keighley. 2 copies. 

Pickard, William, Begistry House, Wakefield. 

Pickering, Jas., Oxford Boad, Dewsbury. 2 copies. 

Pickersgill, Charles P., Marlborough Terrace, Dewsbury. 

Pilkington, Mrs., Terregles, Dumfries. 2 copies. 

Piatt, Oliver, Prospecton, Uppermill, near Oldham. 

Pollard, Eli, Textile Instructor, Technical School, Huddersfield. 

Poole, Bichard, 78, Great Horton Boad, Bradford. 

Poppleton, Mrs., New House, Mirfield. 

Popplewell, Edwin, Common Boad, Staincliffe. 

Popplewell, Josiah, White Lee, Batley. 

Preston, Mrs. Wm., The Old Hall, Birstall. 

Pritt, T. E., Begent Lodge, Headingley, Leeds. 

Pulleine, Mrs , Clifton Castle, Bedale. 

Quarmby, W. Dawson, County Court, Dewsbury. 

Babagliati, A., M.A., M.D., Bradford. 
Bace, Bev. J. W., Biddings, Derbyshire. 

Baven, Bev. G. Milville, M.A., F.B.S.E., Crakehall Vicarage, Bedale. 
Bayner, Mrs. Simeon, Pudsey. 

Bayner, B. Blackburn Lee, Gowan Lea, Queen's Drive, Ilkley. 
Beadhead-Milnes, B., F.L.S., Holden Clough, Clitheroe. 
Beeve, Samuel, Cleckheaton. 
Benton, Bichard, White Lee, Heckmondwike. 
Beynolds, Bichard, F.I.C., 13, Briggate, Leeds. 
Bhodes, Josiah, Mount Villa, Heckmondwike. 
Bhodes, William, Liversedge Hall, via Normanton. 
Bhodes, W. Venables, Oldtield House, Heckmondwike. 
Bichardson, Benjamin Ward, M.D., F.B.C.P., 25, Manchester 
Square, London. 

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Ridge, A., 14, Buckenham Road, Sheffield. 

Ridgway, Frederick, A.R.I.B.A., Dewsbury. 

Ripon, The Most Hon. the Marquess of, E.G., Studley Royal, Ripon. 

Roberts, Henry, Grow Trees, Gomersal, near Leeds. 

Bobson, A. W. Mayo, P.R.C.S., Hillary Place, Leeds. 

Bobson, W. Frier, Southfield, Dans, N.B. 

Rodd, Rev. E. Scott, Carlinghow Vicarage, Batley. 

Roebuck, W. Denison, F.L.S., Sunnybank, Leeds. 

Rogerson, C. H., 4, Hoyle, Haworth. 

Rosebery, Right Hon. the Earl of, Dalmeny Park, Edinburgh, N.B. 

Rosenberg, Baroness Von, Akazien Hofs, Saxony. 

Russell, Miss J., 9, St. Margaret's Road, St. Leonard's-on-the-Sea. 

Saville, Jas., Architect, Heckmondwike. 

Schofield, Wm., Cambridge Road, Huddersneld. 

Scott, Joseph, Solicitor, 51, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Scruton, Wm., 35, Clough Street, West Bowling, Bradford. 

Shaw, Giles, F.R.H.S., 72, Manchester Street, Oldham. 

Sheard, George, The Woodlands, Upper Batley. 

Sheard, John F., 812, Oldham Road, Newton Heath, Manchester. 

2 copies. 
Sheard, Michael, St. Albans, High Harrogate. 
Shillito, George, Crow Nest Park, Dewsbury. 
Shives, John, M.D., Riffa House, Liversedge. 
Siddall, John, Printer, Cleckheaton. 

Smelt, George W., Hanging Heaton Board Schools, Dewsbury. 
Smith, William, F.S.A.S., Gladstone Terrace, Morley. 
Smyth, W. M. W., M.D., Kirkgate, Shipley. 
Soppitt, H. T., Rosemount, Bolton, Bradford. 
Speight, Harry, Gaythorne View, West Bowling, Bradford. 2 copies. 
Sproulle, Thos. D., M.D., Northorpe Grove, Mirfield. 
Stansfield, John, Jeremy Lane, Heckmondwike. 
Stansfield, Rev. Robert, Holy Croft, Keighley. 

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Stead, John J., Albert Cottage, Heckmondwike. 

Stead, Joseph, Ashfield Villa, Heckmondwike. 

Stead, T. Ballan, Leeds Express Office. 

Stephenson, J. N., Chemist, High Street, Heckmondwike. 

Stoney, R. W. A., Folly, Fartown, Huddersfield. 

Stuart, Charles, M.D., Hillside, Chirnside, N.B. 

Stuart, Charles, M.B., CM., Great Ayton, Northallerton. 

Stuart, Miss, 7, Lindenau Strasse, Dresden. 

Stubley, Mrs. John, Carlton Grange, Batley. 

Summersgill, James, Secretary Dewsbury Naturalists' Society, 

Moorlands Terrace, Dewsbury. 
Sutherland, John A., M.B., CM., Low House, Cleckheaton. 2 copies. 
Sugden, George, The Manor, Cleckheaton. 
Sutcliffe, Mr., Low Chapel Fold, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 
Suttie, The Honourable Lady Susan Grant, Preston Grange, 

Prestonpans, N.B. 
Swales, Rev. John, 17, Holker Street, Keighley. 
Swallow, J. H., Crossley Street, Halifax. 
Swarm, Alfred, M.D., M.R.C.S., Batley. 
Swindells, G. H., Cranbourne Road, Heaton Moor, Stockport. 
Sykes, Arthur, 7, Union Bank Yard, Huddersfield. 2 copies. 
Sykes, John, M.B., St. John's House, Cleckheaton. 

Talbot, Joseph, J.P., The Uplands, Upper Batley. 

Tattersfield, Joseph, Mirfield. 

Taylor, Henry, Plumber and Painter, Heckmondwike. 

Taylor, Rev. R. V., B.A., Melbecks Vicarage, Richmond. 

Taylor, Thos., County Coroner, J.P., The Cliffe, Wakefield. 

Taylor, Thomas, J.P., Oakwell House, Birstall. 

Taylor, — , M.D. & CM., 80, Spital Hill, Sheffield. 

Teale, J., Bookseller, 16, Southgate, Halifax. 3 copies. 

Teale,T. Pridgin, M.A., M.B.,F.R.CS., 38, Cookridge Street, Leeds. 

Tew, Thomas Will, Carleton Grange, Pontefract. 

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240 THE bbont£ country. 

Thackrah, Mrs., Spring House, Dewsbury Moor. 

Thackrah, Mrs. Thomas, Lindhurst, Dewsbury. 

Thackray, William, 3, Fairmount, Manningham, Bradford. 

Thomas, Mrs., Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 

Thompson, Bev. W., M.A., J.P., Guldrey Lodge, Sedbergh. 

Thornton, Jonas M., Croft House, Heckmondwike. 

Thornton, William, Architect, 12, Victoria Crescent, Dewsbury. 

Tinkler, Bev. John, M.A., Arkengarth Vicarage, near Richmond, 

Tinney, John, Clarence Road, Leeds. 
Titterington, Rev. T. W., M.A., Principal of Fulneok School, near 

Tomlinson, G. W., F.S.A., The Elms, Huddersfield. 
Tomson, Octavius, Bookseller, 16, Kings' Parade, Cambridge. 
Townend, George H., Goods Manager, L. & N. W. Station, Batley. 
Townley, F., 53, Alexandra Road, Shipley. 
Travis, Arthur May, Holly Bank, Bastrick. 
Triibner & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 
Tuke, W. Murray, Saffron Walden. 
Turner, J. Horsfall, Editor Yorkshire Notes and Queries, Idel, 

Bradford. 2 copies. 
Turner, Joseph, Spencer Place, Leeds. 

Turton, James, M.B.C.S., 73, Preston Boad, Brighton. 2 copies. 
Tweedale, John, junr., The Moorlands, Dewsbury. 2 copies. 

Vinter, Bev. Arthur, M.A., Woodhouse Grove, Apperley Bridge. 

Wadsworth, Fred, Cleckheaton, Norman ton. 
Walker, David, Chapel Fold, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 
Walker, Percival B., Lees House, Dewsbury. 
Walker, Mrs. Tom, Spring Mount Villas, Cleckheaton. 
Walker, Walter, High Close, Dewsbury. 
Walter, B. H. S., Park Boad, Harrogate. 

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Ward, J. Whiteley, J.P., South Royde, Halifax. 

Ware, Rev. H., Kirkby Lonsdale. 

Waugh, Edwin, The Hollies, New Brighton, Cheshire. 

Weedow, Rev. Joseph, Morton Vicarage, Bingley. 

Wharton, Miss Lillie, Cawley Hill House, Heckmondwike. 

Wheatley, J. E., & Co., Booksellers, 18, New Street, Huddersfield. 

Wheatley, J. H., J.P., The Hagg, Mirfield. 

Whitby, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Dewsbury Vicarage. 2 copies. 

White, Miss, Knowles Hill Road, Dewsbury Moor. 

White, Robert, Bookseller, Worksop. 

White, Sydney, London. 

Whitehead, S., 97, Wood View Terrace, Carlinghow, Batley. 

Whiteley, James, Richmond Terrace, South Lane, Ell and. 

Whittaker, Mr., North Parade, Batley. 

Whittaker, Mrs., Upper Stack, Stanbury Moor, Haworth. 

Whittenbury, C. W., Clifton Road, Prestwich, Manchester. 

Widnall, John, Bradford. 

Wilkinson, John Henry, F.R.G.S., Newlay Grove, Horsforth, Leeds. 

Willans, Miss Ada, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 

Willans, Miss S. E., Prospect House, Healey, Batley. 

Williams, Rev. John, Upper Poppleton Vicarage, York. 

Wilson, Edith Vaux, Eastnor, Malvern Link. 

Wilson, James, M.D., Orkney Islands. 

Wilson, John C, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., Haworth, Keighley. 4 copies. 

Wolfe, R. Inglewood, M.D., West Ardsley, Wakefield. 

Woodhead, Joseph, M.P., Longdenholme, Huddersfield. 2 copies. 

Worfolk, George N., Chemist, Ilkley. 

Wright, Sam, The Griffe, Wyke, Bradford. 

Wurtzburg, J. H., c/o Greenwood & Batley, Albion Works, Leeds. 

Yates, Mrs., Low Chapel Fold, Staincliffe, Dewsbury. 
Yates, W. W., Dewsbury Reporter. 
Young, G. W., L.S.A., West Ardsley. 

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Pbintkd by Chables Greening, 

Albion Coubt, Kibkgate. 

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^ 328 239 

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