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Industrial Magazine 

VOL. V. 

January — Deccnil^er 


Printctt liy 

Thb Rmowmiio Pa km 

Colliawood. Ohio 








Thk Brownino Prkss 

INDEX FOR 1906. 


Page No. 

. Its Birth and Uses 24 

k System of Shading 71 

jirrvl to Operate Rock Drills 167 

84 for I'nloading. Storing and Re- 

I Material 380 

mate Patterns for Elbows 288 

nvcntniK 353 

:ic Stops for Hoists 412 

ic Cablcways 470 

lectric Transportation System 486 

1%-cntintc 502 

IC Safety I>rviccs for Steam En- 

Turbines and Motors 518 

lis for Transport inR Solids 560 

us for Coaling Ships 562 

Purifier 578 

vxpresfion • • 583 

n ilopper Corners 592 

min»*a>N. 646 

anil Skvli-h Ri-ci-ivtil by a Manu- 

nj{ Firm 666 

mkhafl Han^fr 666 


Papers 58 

k'ood iicatitifnl 80 

araders • 169 

int Specifications 2^ 

mipasi 236 

•re^Hiires in I-ocomotives 347 

om the San Francisco Ruins 409 

'aintini! 496 

luci Economy 558 

[*laniu-il in Vaiic<iuvcr 640 


ng a Table of S^iuares 57 

ing Barrels 64 

Subway Transportation System 153 

the Coming Tree 193 

n < treat Britain 214 

r Mixing Machines 218 

ng I >e\ ice 226 

■f* 235 

ng iliute (illustrated on page 280.282 
nir Prr>«ures of Bessemer Steel Lap 

^1 Tubes. 3 to 10 in. Dia 295 

gmrrr 302 

Power 305 

gal Force .104 

kd Pump .V49 

Brick Work 259 

J for Ship Building Vard 394 

nping Machine 398 

Page No. 

Car for Concrete 408 

Clam-Shell Bucket 409 

Car Unloading Apparatus 413 

Cheap Alcohol Great Help to Germany 414 

Coaling Locomotives 414 

Comparison of Cost of Concrete and Stone. 43s 

Coal and Ash Handling Machinery 437 

Comparative Efficiency of Pop Safety 

Valves 490 

Construction Concrete Piles without Forms 

by Rolling 553 

Conveyor 562 

Cost of a 3S-Horse Power Plant 573 

"Gosed Shop" in Schools 575 

Costliness of India Ink 590 

Can Temper Copper 558 

Coal Storage Pits at Hawthonie 618 

Coal Storafce for Retail YanI 623 

Cyclopean Bottom Dumping Buckets* 630 

Costa Rican City Contracts for Sewerage 641 

Canal Excavations 641 


Drafting Room of the Wellman-Seaver- 

Morgan Co 29 

Draftsmen's Society By-Laws 67 

Dividers 75 

Drawing Board 77 

Drafting Instrument 79 

Drawing Table 145 

Design of Cam Driver Brakes 184 

Drafting .Appliances 186 

Don't Roll Shop Drawings 194 

Design of Reinforce<l Concrete 230 

Drawing Board for Patent Office Drawings. 231 

Draftsmen's Organization that Flailed 233 

Drawing and Plotting Device 235 

Designer in a Small Shop 288 

Draftsmen's Triangle 291 

Draftsmen's Device for Drawing Letter 

Lines 303 

Developments in Electric Mine Haulage... 338 

Design in Motor Trucks 404 

Driving Reinforced Concrete Piles 418 

Drawing Board Attachment 427 

Derrick Boom Swinging Engine 488 

Draftsman's Society 509 

Differential Gear in Chain Hoist 584 


Electric vs. Steam Driven Locomotive 

Cranes 41 

Elements of Crane Construction 47 

Efficiency and Strength of Gears 51 

Electric Blue Print Machtnet $4 

Page No. 

Electricity Gains on Steam 72 

Epicycloidal Gearing 90 

Electric Railroad up the Alps ; ... 102 

Electric Blue Printer 147 

Electric Hoist Plant for Emptying Vessels. 159 

Electrotechnics 174 

Economy in Tramway Tracks 239 

Electric Hoist for Top Hook 282 

Excavations and Fills on a Belt Line 244 

Eliminating the Tracer 425 

Excavating Apparatus 485 

Examining an Old Boiler 491 

Estimating Costs 510 

Essentials of the Good Manufacture of Ce- 
ment 552 

Explosive Compound 558 

Extruded Metal 581 

Electric Towage for Canals 559 

Electrical Manufacture of Steel 640 

Extent of the Canal Job 641 

Elevators 664 


Foundry Practice 92 

French Auto Motor Jet Interrupter 120 

Falling Bodies • • 148 

Forging a Lumber Dog 226 

Follies of Some Foundry Superintendents . 238 

Friction Horse Power 347 

Fatigue of Materials 425 

Fly-Wheel Wrecks— Safety Device Falla- 
cies 580 

Force of Percussion in Hammers and 

Drills 586 

Forced Contrasts 589 

Fan Blower Design 645 

Future of Aerial Tramways 646 


Gas Engine Spark Device 182 

Grade Raising Project at Galveston 390 

Gale 413 

Growth of Iron 429 

Growth of Cement Industry 550 

Gigantic Floating Crane. 559 

Growth of Municipal Electric Lighting 574 

Government's Success in Dredging at Am- 
brose Channel 574 

Government Tests of Spokes 576 

Graphical Method of Finding the Average 
Depth for Excavation 647 


Helpful Knowledge About Electricity 16 

How the Carpenter Drives a Nail 56 

Haulage System in Mines. 86 

How to Set Valves. 89 

High Speed Steels.. 94 

Page No. 

Helpful Knowledge About Electricity 98 

Helpful Knowledge About Electricity 133 

Helpful Knowledge About Electricity 176 

Hiring Transient Help 241 

Handling Materials by Belt Conveyors.... 261 

Harris Hoist and Carrying Machine 273 

Hoisting and Conveying Apparatus 276 

Hoist .277 

How to Order Punches and Dies 350 

Hot Oil for Railroad Switches 362 

Heavy Haulage Chains 366 

Hoisting Apparatus 411 

High Duty Metal 481 

Horsepower of the Victoria Falls 488 

Hoisting and Conveying Apparatus 560 

Hoisting Facilities in Sub-stations 572 

How is this for Progress ? 576 

Heat from Friction 638 


Interesting Case of Weathered Gravel 

Slope 16 

Iron May Become Precious Metal 56 

Italy in Need of Water 70 

Industrial and Portable Track 466 

Industrial Progress .550 

Injector for Feed Water 571 

Improved Hoisting Machinery 626 


Jerusalem Engineer's Big Feat 93 

Joy Automatic Hose Coupler 102 

Jib Crane Design 533 

Japanese Industrial Energy 641 


Lubrication and Friction Stuffing Boxes.. 13 

Logging in the Northwest 82 

Layout of Piping 107 

Lubrication of Wire Rope 187 

Lacing and Lattice Work 291 

Location in the Drafting Room 357 

Lifting Magnet 382 

Leaky Valves in Pipe Lines - 418 

Latest Use of Locomotive Crane 540 

Long Distance Power 575 

Labor Being Better Paid 581 

Liquid Air 581 

Locomotive vs. Motor Cars 644 

Laying Out a Right Angle witli Tape or Cord, 652 


Modem Labor Devices i 

Machine Shop Roofs 31 

Membership of Society 38 

Method of Assigning Drawing Numbers... 55 

Measurer Unseeable Lengths 58 

Movable Head T-Squares 63 

Page No. 

IfachifK Shop Philosophy 72 

Miy Soon Meisore Infinity 80 

Mit^rial Handling Buckets 160 

Metric System 193 

Material Handling Buckets 196 

Making. Mounting, Filling and Checking 

Out of Blue Prints 227 

Manual of Drafting Room Practice J03 

Measuring the Length of Curved Arcs 363 

Method of Enlarging and Reducing Draw- 
ings 429 

Means for Distributing Mine Residues 485 

Metric Signs 511 

Metallic* 577 


New Plan in Railway Building 70 

Xon-Renllabic Bottle 193 

New Type of Engineer 241 

Natural Shape of Broken Stone 302 

New Steel City 363 

New Compressor Valves 478 

New Incandescent Lamps 480 

Sew Noiseless Gear 488 

New (^rman Electric Blast Furnace 536 

New Bearing Bar 560 

Nem- Transmission Chain 557 

Ko«e* on the Use and Power of Paper 
Frictions 587 


Oterhead Trackage Trolleys and Hoists.. 114 
Operating Mechanism for Gam Sheet 

Buckets 278 

Overhca*! Traveling Cranes 374 

Oil Karl f « tr JjiiKinc?* Slf.inRTj*. 639 

Ottjima a Manutacturiii^ Ci-titcr 640 


Ppenmatics 26 

PractKal Perspective 61 

Pbruble Rule 74 

Pancfa and Riveter Frames 103 

Pipe Bends 119 

Progress of Hoisting Machinery 124 

Pist. Present and Future of Reinforced 

Concrete as a Buildmg Material 192 

P&ramatic Eraser 237 

Pbcaig of Pipe Unions 238 

Prednct of C S. Harri* & Co., Rome. N. Y..273 

Pipe Forcing Jack 283 

Polioneter for Contractor's Use 407 

Pkiotrng 419 

Ha 00 Roof 4^5 

Problems m Gearing 428 

P^dbag Engines 491 


Page No. 

Pipe Across Isthmus 559 

Prevention of Rtist 578 

Preservation of Wood 579 

Pumping Machinery in China 581 

Pipe Coils for Heating 585 

Pnrtcctinx (ralvanize<l Iron 648 

Question Box 148- 1H2-237-5 13-592 

Roa(lin>; I)rawin>;s 59-io8 

Ruling Pen 75 

Radipactive Substance 105 

Record of Sketches Sent Out. 186 

Rail Tongs 187 

Rules of Practice 286 

Rocks for Pipe, etc 346 

Rock Drills 370 

Russian Gasoline KIcctric Train 409 

Roller Bearing 480 

Running Boring Machine by Auto 491 

Rack Rail Haulage System in Coal Mines. 493 
Relative Economy of Turbines and Rngincs 

at Varying Percent aRcs of Rating 542 

Record-Breaking Cargo 550 

Rublicr Subslilulcs 633 

Rivfle<l Joints- Sonit- Test*; f»53 

Solution of Drawing Arc Tangent to a 
Given Circle and to a Straight Line at a 

Given Point 368 

Sand and Gravel Plant 404 

Skyscraper of the Fuiuri- 415 

Something About Trusso 42i 

Stairway to Offices 431 

Smoke Prevention 476 

Saving of Driving Belts 4QI 

Standardization in British F.ngineering 498 

Stairway of Adjustable Length 508 

StifFeners in Floor Beams 511 

Symbols for Wiring Plans 511 

Steam High-Priced Here 572 

Strength of Steel Kixes-^ary in Reinforced 

Concrete 590 

Slide Rule 59" 

Seasoning Wivod 56 

Square • • 76 

Saving Time in the Drafting Room 106 

Start Fight on IMumbing Scluwl 107 

Section Liner no 

Special Application of the Electric Magnet. 117 

System 144 

Standard Sized Cards 150 

Storing of Cement 175 

Page No. 

System in a Drafting Room 183 

Scraper Excavator 224 

Shall We Organize 234 

Slide Rule 236 

Steam Shovels and Their Uses 246 

Skip or Bucket for Excavating 269 

Strength of Slag Cement 291 

Sizes of Paper 296 

Star Photo-Printing Machine 297 

Steam Fitters' Cement 348 

Speed and Pov\er Transmission 348 

Small Core Boxes 351 

Sprinkler System as a Method of Fire Pro- 
tection 364 

Special 1-Ton Electric Travelin>i^ Cranes 631 

Spark Screens Needed 639 

Stresses in Eye-Bars 650 


To Utilize Niagara's Whirlpool 102 

To Draw a Circle Tangent to Another Cir- 
cle, a Line Through a Given Point 105 

Tricks of the Trade 142 

To Straighten Tracing Cloth 233 

Telescopic Elevator 275 

Tractive Force and Hauling Power 328 

Trench Shovel or Back Action Excavator. 345 

Tug Stronger than Locomotive 362 

Template for Drawing Nuts and Bolt 

Heads 363 

Typical Arrangements of Belt Conveyors. 410 
Time and Trouble Saver for Topographical 

Draftsmen 509 

Transparent Envelope for Drawings 509 

Telpherage or Man Trolley System 526 

To Locate Position of Wrist-Pin 571 

The Size of Fir Joists 589 

The Standard Screw A. L. A. M 590 

The Wrecking Crane and Its Crew 597 

The Transmission of Power by Ropes 605 

The Manufacture of Plaster of Paris or 

Stucco from Gypsvun Rock 610 

The Motor Industry in India 639 

Temporary Illumination in Engineering 
Work 656 

Page No. 
The Possibilities of Concrete Construction 

from the Standpoint of Utility and Art 658 

The Suppression of Smoke from Steam 

Boilers 660 

Three- Ported Slide Valve for Low Pressure 

Steam Cylinders 663 

The Value of Scientific Training 667 


Underground Wires 123 

Universal Joints 127 

Unloading Coal from Cars with Clam-Shell 

Buckets 271 

Use of the Level 292 

Use of Asbestos 416 

Unique German Mercury Lamp— In Draft- 
ing Room 421 

Uses of Graphite 434 

Use of Locomotive Cranes 454 

Uncertainty of the Term Horse-Power 

When Applied to Boilers 567 

Unique German Locomoiive Crane 621 


Vessel Loading Machines 

Value of Ashes 551 

Vanadium Steel 582 


Wrought and Cast Iron Beams 33 

Why Graduates from Correspondence 

Schools are More Inventive 65 

What Water Can Do 72 

Washing Smoke 123 

Weight of a Crowd 131 

Wrought Bends in Piping 232 

Wetting Lead Pencils 290 

Wind Power 418 

Weighing Appliances for Elevators 487 

Welding Broken Dredge Bucket Arms in 

the Field 555 

Wood-Preserving Process 559 

Waterproof Cement 559 

Wireless Telegraphy and Geography 641 

Industrial Magazine. 


JANUARY. 1906. 

NO. 1 



f%^ 1 \!T.inv'^-iTsrnu»l Blur HiU R\ inmrr 
outer* (c*r cni;ni« iiiut ilvn^ttiiH icmm'tr ft»un* 

IT may be of fntere^^t to naii: some of 
Ibc earlier as well astheniorcproiifTrs* 
iii^ the mixed 
icrc it is to be 
iiftefi ai» HcU as the nioiiern Ulior savinfi^ 
-u, v-^ tnchidini^ incliiirs, hoists ami 
itcil trackf for ^upplvtttfr the ncces- 

it uinvcrsaUy employed in 
trtictton work. 
Ihe accotufMinvine illuitration* Fig, 
' ■ ' 1 »loyinij 
rout A gravity tntxcr, uhile 
• mi the tior^ and cart draw- 
:: r: , n/rete (rum a ilmtn type of 
ijiA^hihc --♦.•*] by an electric motor 
bjr belt It oti. The former view 

•b(fw« b«>vv mi car* are oftrn arranged 

in carry the material directly to the 
mixing platform which is cm the jfroitnd 
level ami needtnj^ no hoiMinf? apparatus. 

The accompanying illitstration. Fig* 
:s, shows the mixers installed in an ele- 
vated ^tnictitre, tht* material hfinic con- 
veyed directly over the machines by 
cars pa^jiing itp an incline hnilt for the 
purpose, drawing Mg. 1 showing a 
?iimilar arrangement supplying a cube 
concrete mixer, the tnu^tra1iot^ Mg. 5, 
shoeing the inclined concrete mixing 
l>bnl at the Cincinnati water work* con- 

The hoisting app;iratmi for hnrbor 
wnrk. with tloating mixing plant is 
^hrm*Tt in Fig. ^, as ti«ed in building the 
Bt!ffalo breakwater, while Fig, 7 §howt^ 
the arrangement of ihe hoisting appara* 
1 11 !i and method of nper 
mixing plant for the 
\\'e?;t Bank Kghthouse in New Yt>ri 
Lower Bay for the U. S. Ciovemment*' 

Modern meth<Kls for handling con 
cretc include hoists and conveying a 
l^aratus as shown in Figs. 8 and 
where the mixe*! concrete is seldom ff 
ever touched by hand labor, the mater- 
ial being carriecl by traveling btickets t 
the place where it is to be used as soon' 
as it is passed into the bticketi from the 
c<mitnuiju*;ly revcdving mixer. Tlic 
meajiuring is carried otit in sotne cases 
by wheelb* f «4ind and i 

in prtJiK'r \ ns, and in ^ 

stances by more accurate and labof «¥• 
ing methodfi. 

Derricks are employed very exten- 
sively in all conMructton work where 
ceniem and concrete is handled, as not- 
c«l in the view Fig. If>, large boxet be* 


ing- provided in this instance for receiv- 
ing the mixture. Where electric power 
is available electric motors are utiHzed 
to advantage for operating the hoisting 
machinery, but steam power is more 
often used from necessity. 

Among the many and important ma- 
terials used by contractors in their 
work there is none, with possibly the 
exception of iron and steel, which is so 
universally required as concrete. In 
road building, in the construction of 
larire buildings, bridges or power plants, 
in the construction of hydraulic works, 
tunnels, drainage canals, and river and 
harbor work, concrete is at present 
practically indispensable. 

The solidified mass commonly known 
as concrete, consists of sand, crushed 
stone and gravel united by Puzolan, 
Portland natural cement. Portland 
cement, as produced in America, 
England and Germany, is defined by 
the corps of encrineers of the United 
States Army as bcinc^ "the product 
obtained from the heating or calcining 
up to incipient fusion or intimate mix- 
tures, either natural or artificial, of Ar- 
gillaceous with calcareous substances, 
the calcining the product to contain at 
least 1.7 times as much of lime, of 
weieht as of the materials which eive 
the lime its hvdraulic pronerties. Tt is 
finely pulverized after calcination, and, 
therefore, additions of substances for 
the purpose of refrulatinsr certain 
properties of technical imoortance are 
allowable not exceeeding 2 per cent of 
the calcined product." 

Portland cement, according to the 
London Chamber of Commerce defini- 
tion, is "A mixture of two or more 
stu'table materials ultimately and artifi- 
ciallv mixed in the requisite propor- 
tions, and afterwards properlv calcined 
and ground, to which nothing has been 
added during or after calcination, ex- 
cepting that an addition not exceeding 
^ per cent of gynsum is permissible 
for the purpose of regulating the set- 
ting. Tf anv material whatever, except- 
ing 2 per cent of s^vpsum for the pur- 
pose of regulating the setting, be added 
to the Portland cement ch'^^^r durinqf 
or after calcination, the caricle so pro- 
duced shall not be sold as Portland 

cement, but under some other distinc- 
tive name." 

According to the definition authoriz- 
ed by the German Minister of Public 
Works, Portland cement is "a material 
resulting from the calcination carried to 
the point of incipient fusion, as an in- 
timate mixture of lime and argillaceous 
si:bstances as its essential components, 
such calcination being followed by the 
grinding of the product to the fineness 
of flour." 

Natural cement is made in the 
United States and is somewhat cheaper 
than Portland cement, but it is not 
considered to possess the strength of 
the latter. The Puzolan or slag cement 
is manufactured by grinding blast fur- 
nace slag together with slacked lime, 
but is said never to become as hard as 
Portland cement, although it is con- 
sidered by some engineers as tougher 
and less brittle than the Portland 

In the use of concrete one of the 
most important features is that the in- 
gredients be thoroughly mixed as well 
as properly balanced as to the quanti- 
ties of the various materials used. Even 
though the sand, crushed stone or 
gravel, and cement are carefully 
measured, the quantities being proper- 
ly balanced, still a very poor quality of 
concrete will result unless there is a 
thorough mixing of the ingredients. 
The mixture of concrete is accomplish- 
ed by the use of power driven machine- 
ry, and by hand, both methods giving 
satisfactory results as to the quality of 
concrete produced when the mixing is 
thoroughly done. Where a large 
amount of concrete is required the con- 
tractor^ usually provides labor saving 
machinery for mixing the concrete, al- 
though hand mixing is common where 
only a small amount is required. The 
platform generally used for hand mix- 
ing is of sufficient size to mix two 
batches at the same time if desired, one 
batch usually being used while the other 
is being prepared. 

P>V mixing concrete by machinery it 
is claimed that there is a saving of at 
least one-half as compared with the cost 
of mixing by hand. The mechanical 
labor saving concrete mixing machines 


\y ht cofijiUlerctl mider Iwo hcafk. 
pticM^ kntmn ai^ omtmuuu«i rniXiT.> ami 
^bofe kfioi%Ti m^ ImucI) mixerit, llic eon- 
»» mix s may abu he <liviil- 

ilo chh r of wh'rh MtiHjtc< 

rr ' H»ri %iirf plied by 

fram gsiii * , water 

lor». and ihc other iyi>c oi mixer in 
iMcli the wiirk ts done hy ffravity 
[wtfbnttf the necesisity of «ieatn tir other 

The hatch mixers are arranged to 
tix the concTcie in nepamte charges, 
all ul the ingredients which are 
ficcefsar)' for a batch are put into the 

Amonjj the well known rotary con- 
crete mfxer% nf the drum ty|H^ * * ' Uc 
mentiuncfl the KaitMHiu% tli th 

ami fhc McKclvrv The ig 

illtistration !^howj% a Rani** iic 

crmcretc mixer ilriven hy a separate 
engine* t>r an electric motor may be em* 
ployc<l of iix K, W. capacity, a Meam 
engine beinir tnilixed in this; instance, 
the power heinjj tran<%mined bv Inng 
ht\Xs from a separate \m\^ ir by. 

The drnm mixer of the [ r l)*pc 

!* directly conneded to a Meam engine, 
the ?iteam being Knfijdied thrnngh flex- 
ible piping from a near by boiler plant. 

V%^, Z. iUiiMim & sutomaUv i.xini.^rU nuxrr invtii hy tPiU tmiuitiiiMoii a&d tkctfic ttoior. 

tmxer at the i^me time. Then the mix- 
. ' " * xing is t't 

h is thM, 
tfmxcti. If dbcharged at t>ne time. A 
forv hatch '%% then prei>ared and th«* 
It ion b then repeated. This type 
'- fvarticularly ' ^ by 
cers. as the pr - of 

nt» can be very accurately 
. ! ir each batch, and for thiji 
[iTtsofi a very excellent quality of con- 
is priidnced, the mixing being 
to any degree desired according 
""the perto<i of time allowed for the 

ri>rtable planU are also const riKied 

' 'i are entirely selfcontained, being 
i^ed with both builcr and engine 
lor supplying ihr necessary power. 
These portable batch concrete mixers 
ha%*e an hourly capacity of th cubic fecit 
the power being ' * T ? h, p. 

vcnical engine, \ 1 with 

5team from a 12 h, p -m 

the same tnick. Tin fit 

was coriMnicieil by the Kan- ti- 

Crete Machinerv Co'^ n 'i% 

:.V>0 potmds. Tlic 1 ic 

Mixer revidvc^i cotr n ^t .r 

charging, mixing or 4* »t*^ 


it has no movable parts within the mix- 
in i^ tlrnm. To discharge, it required but 
twelve seconds throtig:h the simple re- 
versal of the chnte. A drum mixer was 
used at the work on the Meiropolitaii 
high level sewer, and special hoisting 
and conveying apparatus employed in 
connection with the drum mixer on this 
sewer const met ion work. As will he 
noted from the above, the portable and 
semi-portable drum mixers are arrang- 
ed in various ways as to their driving 
power* In some cases the steam is sup- 

izes an electric motor, a gasoline en- 
gine, or a steam engine and boiler com- 
bined, on the same truck, the power and 
mixing device as well as the means of 
transmission of power being located to- 
gether on the same frame. The steam 
engine and boiler outfit, combined with 
a McKcIvey batch concrete mixer, is a 
portable outfit of this type having a 
cafiacity of ten cubic yanls per hour. 
This portable mixing plant weighs 2,400 
pounds and is operated Ijy a two h, p. 







1 I 

Fig« 3, — I lis Lai lation employed for convey in j^ aud raising sand, cement and other material for 
concrete mixers at Washington filtraliou plaiit. 

plied through long pipes, the boiler be- 
ing located at considerable distance 
from the mixer, while the steam engine 
is directly connected to the drum. In 
other instances the engine, whether of 
the steam or gasoline type, is located 
in a separate building, long belts con- 
necting the drum mixer or cube mixer, 
as the case may be; an electric motor 
is employed being utilized in the same 
way. Still another method employed 
in connection with portable plants, 
which are entirely self-contained, util- 

The largest Ransom e Concrete Mixer 
of the portable type has an hourly ca- 
pacity of 35 cubic yards, the size of 
batch of loose material being 52 cubic 
feet. This erjuipment has a 25 h. p, 
engine, boiler and automatic water 
taidv, and is provided with a charging 
hopper, the feed opening of the machine 
being lower than that of most mixers, 
and the discharge relatively higher. Tt 
is stated thai even when operated with 
a charging hopper designee! to hold the 
entire batch, the heigtit of feed is less 

BROf^mHC^ iNOifsmtAt »Aa.4rtHr 

•hmi oC nuKi machines. The weig^ht 
• uitfil is 7,500 pounds 
at whrch I he mixer 
ti la revolution* per minute* 
W9Mh Mixing Ty^Mw 

There seeiii* to be cotL<^t4lerabIe dif- 
Icretice of opinion among the leadinf^ 
cofrtractom anil engincrrji au to the 
qimittty of water to t>e useil in the mix- 
iitff o( concrete. Some engineers are 
of the ofrinion that ftufllicient water 
dtoolff he used as villi little ram- 

to \k flone in i^ the con- 

le, A wet mixture oi this sort is 

if«ib«< f>fi**!iTrr*.I !i\ n^irir' nbol|t foUT 

may be mixe^i ait ihorongrhly a* rlrninrfl 

by corv 

cr umtl V 


Among the various batch mixers con- 
structed abroad in one buih by S, I*egg 
& Son of Leicester, Kngland, which ti 
said to mix the material very sattsfac 
torily. A vertical cyhmJcr is provided 
\%ith a vertically rotating shaft upon 
which the mixing blades are fixed. The 
shaft is driven by bevel gearing from 
below, and a small door is provided on 
the side of the mtxer from which the 

IMk I.^Drt^fUof butsdttg ami tacltne^l concrete imniits plasvtr 

cubic feet of water for each ctibtc yard 
concrete. W" ne conlracion 

«r thr fn u water others 

e It »|»anngly. 
— .,.,,, -..urence of opinion exists 
Co the t>*pe of mechanical mixing 
nrr>* lo be rniploved. Many eii* 
rr* are itron^ty tn favor of the 
[lous mixing types <iE machines* 
llQe other etjuaHy prominent men 
111 that the batch mixers produce a 
re even and high grade cotftcrete« 
cmch of the ingredients are carefully 
sttred for cAch batch, ^nd the whole 

concrete issues* the ingredients being 
chargetl at the top. 

Another type of batch mixer is con^ 
structed by Julian ScbcKil & Co* of New 
York, in which the mixing w effect* 
by oblique blades or teeth on two hcirij 
zontal parallel shafts which are revohrc 
m ofiposHe ilirectiun*, thus coniitmnll 
working the material from all siilcs t< 
the center, whence it is <ltscharged by 
slide in the bottom. The other peine 
pal types of liatch mixers and thos 
most extensively etnpk*yed arc the cx%\% 
mixers and the drum mixers^ details qV 


these types as constructed m America 
bein^ shown in the accnnipanying illns- 
I rations. 

In the School liatch niixer above re- 
ferred tOt the sand, cement, stone and 
water are all charged into tlie inixcr at 
the same time and retained there until 
thoroughly mixed, the time allowed hc- 
in^ generally from one to one and a half 
minutes. The sides and bottom of iht! 
machine are made of steel plate; the 
heads of cast iron, strong ribbed. Tlic 
shafts are of steel, stpiarc cross section, 
and as the teeth are fastened on them 
by bolts clamping around the shaft, the 
full strength of the latter is maintained. 
The teeth are of chillfd charcoal iron, 
which is very tough and hard. They 
are made of round ends, which prevent 
tile stone wedding Ijetween the teelli 
ant! the steel lining of the ntachine. 

Fig. 'i, —Inclined concrete Tiiixing plain ai Cin- 
cinnati utiter works, \im\g ciil^e mixer. 

The heads are fitted with removable 
plates directly over the shafts, held in 
place by four cap screws, TJn removing 
the screws and the l>earing Imx caps, 
the shafts (with all the gears, teeth and 
collars) can be lifted vertically out of 
the machine- The bearings are heavy 
and set out from the heads of the 
brackets. The steel sides are protected 
from wear by liners of i^-inch steel 
held in place by conntersunk machine 
screws, permitting easy renewal of the 
liners. The contents of the machine are 
discharged throngh a large i^jiening in 
the bottom, covered l>y a cast iron slide 
operated by a hand Icvcf. The mixer 

is driven bv either spur gears or link 

1 he nnxing in cube machines is done 
in the most thorr>ngh manner without 
the ai<l of any moving parts, snch as 
] (addles, shelves or discs in the cubes 
where the mixing is done. 

Idle mixer proper is a cube wdiich is 
built u|> of sheet metal securely riveted 
to angle irons and this citbe is muunied 
Ibrongh one diagonal on a hollow shaft, 
being secured to the same by having^ 
cast iron tronions. This shaft is per- 
forated on the inside of the cube for the 
water supply. Some of the standard 
machines of this type are fitted with 
large worm gears nunnUed on hollow 
shafts near one end, which is driven by 
a worm. In this machine the worm and 
gear are mounted in a self-containe 1 
dust proof, self-Oiling casing to insure 
alignment. The worm shaft is sup- 
ported in the worm case bearings antl 
also on two bracket bearings, and car- 
ries a friction Hush pulley. The engine 
is nm continuously and is inilepeudcnt 
of the action of the mixer, which is 
started or stopped bv means of the fric- 
tion pulley* A portable cube mixer w^as 
used in the construction of the Wal- 
w*orth sewers in Geveland, O. This 
machine, it will be noted, employs a 
single hopper which racks back and 
forth on the track-ways provided on aj 
steel frame. The di>or is fitted in the* 
bottom of this hopper and in this case 
the material is loaded into the hopper 
liv means of a cable way. On the steel 
frame a vertical engine is monnted. con- 
nected to the cube with spur-gearing 
and a friction clutch. This particular 
cube mixer is picked up with a derrick 
and placefl wherever desired, but these 
machines are also const rttcted, as noted 
in diagram, moimted on wheels, making 
it a cotnplete fjortable outfit for street 
work. .\ horizontal engine is shown in 
this casL- belted to the mixer. 

It is frecpiently desirable to supply 
the material for making the concrete 
through the mixers by elevating cars to 
the platform on an incline, as sht^wm in 
the accompanying Illustration, A num- 
ber of the plains utilizing this manner 
of conveying the materials to the cid>c 
mixers have been installed by the con- 


tnctorii on tlir nncmnatj water works. 
A f hiiiM is oiHTalefl 

l»; the top uf the plat- 

lorau I he hiHiLi (K*ini; H riven from the 
c^m^ r-noine which operates the mixer, 
hcsc aibc mixers, coustructcil 
r»f r^A{^ctllack & (jrie*$ of Clcvcla^ntl. 
Ol, the w^atrnnj^ tank i*» providcc! with 
a •peda) o that 

Uie <)itii]: ly dis- 

dkarx^i ior each vat* tin matter how 
Bnle •♦'^ ^^->^v much %vatcr to the full 
Cimv e tank is required. 

Tbr Minr iiKit cubc machines of this 

plantjii SLfk for inii^tance in the cnnMmc- 
lti>n of (1ock» and hreakwalcr^ » 

the Htiating c<mcrctc mixing; pi. V 

by the liuffalti lJrctlj;iii|^ toinpany m 
building the Buffalo breakwater* Re- 
volvififj cantilever cranes arc also fre- 
quently utilised in connection with ihi* 
work, tlie crane being mounted on the 
mixing plant on ihr scow. An «>utf 
of this type was utilized in the cotmruc-^ 
tii>n of the Qeveland breakwater, the 
crane having a aipacitv of three ton% 
at 50 feet radius, and natidlinf^ all the 
material to the mixer as well as all the 

. C^-tinbcinjc ami fluatitig concrrte tnixtiig p1«iil used by RiiffAlo I>redgiiig Ca. iii building 

Huffalo tircakwntcT. 

single batches 

the five- foot 

to mix hatches of two cubic 

jmlft, while the eafiacity (>er hour or 

per day for these machines depends on 

W conditions snd farilitie«i for charg- 

^ the hfypprrm and disposing of the 

sMieriat after mivmjj. The mixers 

f^Tntlv Itandle frc»in 15U yardii^ to 27r> 

' L-n liours. aceonling to the size 

r work ti is frequently 
pcv-r^ii^r^ tu employ floating mixing 

concrete from the tntxer This [>lani 
was principally for making large con- 
crete blocks weighing trom 15 to 20 
tons each. Cable ways are also exten- 
sively used in connection with mixing 
plants, at ihr Cleveland break v 
LidgcrwornJ cable* way being i 
for taking the old stone out ufc the 
breakwater to the cru?iher and also fi>r 
handling the concrete from the mixer 
to the breakwater. 

Another separate |i«>rtable etibe mix- 
er is constructed by the Mumxipal En- 



gtneering Contracting^ Company of 
Chicaj^n, 111. This machine is monnted 
on a truck and is self-contained, being 
equipped with a boiler as well as an en- 
gine of the required power for driving 
the mixer. An accompanying view 
shows the cement mixers at the Wash- 
ington filtration plant. 

Portable Gravity Concrete Mixars. 

The, following suggestions and data 
for testing cement as given by the Vul- 
canite f^^>rtlan*l Oinent Company, are 

per over the mixer; and the other steam 
derrick i^ for conveying the mixed con- 
crete away from the mixer. The little 
truck under the mixer is used for bring- 
ing the empty box under the tnixer 
when the full box is being removed. 

The ol>ject of testing cement is to as- 
certain its value as a building material, 
by determining whether it meets certain 
specified requirements. In case of 
failure of the shipment to meet the 
seven days refpurement, it should be 
held to await the results of twentv- 

Fi|f. 7. — HoisUnj; e*|i5ipment aint mcthotl of opera I ion of S ft, lenj^ili portiilOf j^ravity concrete 

mixer on fonndatioiL'i of Wi^si Bank Li^^bthouse, New York Lower Bay, 

for I*. S. Government. 

made as general and free from technical 
terms as possible in order to be more 
readily understood by the laymen^ An 
eight foot lenglli of portable gravity 
concrete mtxer was arranged for mixmg 
concrete for a foundation for the West 
Rank lighthouse, New York, Lower 
Bay» for the United States Govfrnment, 
antl a gravity concrete mixer uith sta- 
tionary platform was used on the 
Montreal harbor improvement. One 
steam derrick is for. conveying the in- 
gredients and dimiping them into a hop- 

shouhl be ex- 
shipment from 

eight -day test. Care 
ercised to protect the 
weather pending the results of these 
tests. As the methods of testing cement 
are not infallible, and since the **per- 
sonal equation" of the testor renders 
the resuhs of such tests not only rela- 
tive but frequently inaccurate, the 
cement should, in event of failure, be 
given a re-test. The test to which 
cement is subjected should be of the 
simplest character, even where the best 
facilities for making such tests are avail* 

it^oftmNirs fKpusrmAL uAcizmn 

4Me. The bett mcthcKU of §elec1ing the 
tawfiir^ the tenninAticm i>( fineness, of 
tlir proper pefcemaf^e:^ of water to be 
iB»ed« ItEnr of letttrig, temile strength 
and consistencir of vohtme. arc very 
iM|K»rtam. In rrferrr»«:r ti> fineness, it 
•csUfeiJtf in ccnu^nt 

are gcoer a and ilc- 

void of faankning iinahty. The more 
fioelf- a cement is pulverized, the 
greater will be the quantity of sand that 
caa be mixed with it and produce a 
mortar of j^iven strength, tt is usual 
u% Hetermme the percentages of fine and 

high, provided with pan and coven 
er. About l'»0 ^rams ofccnu^nt llu 
oughlydryat tVi degrees Fahrenheit 
make a convenient quantity to sieve. The 
operation of sieving is be*t accomplish- 
eti by hand method, and is complete 
whtti no nujfe than one -lent 1 1 uf one |ht 
cent pa^cs through thr sieve after one 
ntinate coniituiuus Mfting. The restdl 
should be noticed to tlie nrari st itwih 
one per cent. 

As to normal consistencv, it i> >.ug- 
geste<l that the t>erccntage of water to 
he tised m ma^<in^ tests for lime of set- 

Ft^. H - Ran titt) ilnttu mixer. sHowiti|( lueLtuxii <»f c»pmiitoti Kiiili Aicuni mgitii*. 

uar^c by mr i y weight the resi* 

iaa on cenam ^tandanl ^ieve^« u:$t]ally 
«te are known as ihe number 100 and 
•• Thr*^ strve« have about 10,000 an»l 
i^ meshes per square inch, and the 
Wts hav^ diamner^i oi .0015 and .00-^5 
iiaa taeli rc^i In specifying a 

fMacii for ce jc jiixc of wire and 

Ifcr somher ot nic^hes per inch shout i1 
ilk* br *t:ir«,1 The sieves are made of 
'h« and the frame, usually 
ifomsix to eight inches in 
two aiid one-half to four 
Vtiflti^ provided with pan and cov* 

tiog. stnrngth, and fiats for comusteRcy 

of volume is of the greatest imimrtance. 

The aim shouhl be to mix each cement 

with sufficient water to obtain a paste 

having the j^ame degree of plasticity or j 

to produee what is known as the n«»r-J 

nial ci>r 


oi water* and even dittcrent sj 

uf the same brand at dilTef**'»» 

of the year vary as to the 

water requiretl. It is ciaimeii mai wnci j 

the average cement tester a ver> plastic 

moitar w^ jvM higher and more im* 


iform results than a dry mortar. A very 
plastic mortar can be mixed much more 
readily but the pats should not, how- 
ever, be so wet as to permit shrinkage 
of the briquettes after moulding. The 
cement should be mixed under uniform 
conditions, hand method yielding the 
most uniform results ; 500 grams should 
be used for the determination of normal 
consistency. This quantity of cement 
is placed on the mixing slab or table, 
and a crater formed in the center, into 
which a trial percentage of clean water 
is poured. The material on the outer 
edge of the crater is turned into the 
center and when the water has been ab- 
sorbed by the cement the mixing is com- 
pleted by kneading the mass vigorously 
with the hands for one minute. The 
process of kneading is similar to that 
used in kneading dough. The cement 
having been worked with a trial per- 
centage of water to a plastic paste roll- 
ed into a ball about fi\'Q: centimeters in 
diameter, by tossing from hand to hand 
about half a dozen times. The ball 
is then allowed to fall from a height of 
one foot, and to be of proper consist- 
ency, should not flatten nialerially or 
crack. The deterniinalion of the rate 
of setting is a test of much practical 
value and this is determined bv measur- 
ing the time wliich elapses from the 
moment water is added till the cement 
paste ceases to be fluid and plastic, call- 
ed the "initial set," and the moment 
when it has acquired a certain degree of 
hardness called the *'hard set." The 
setting of cement is the hange 
from a plastic condition to a 
solid state, and when the cement has 
set, the process of hardening is said to 
commence. The relative degree of 
hardening at any age is measured by de- 
termining its transverse, compressive, 
adhesive or tensile strength in pounds 
per square. The more general practice 
it is stated is to measure the tensile 
strength only, and test pieces known as 
briquettes, having a section at the 
breaking point of one stjuare inch, are 
used for this purpose. These test pieces 
are made of cement mortar, preserved 
in moist air for 24 hours, then immers- 
ed in water maintained at about 70 de- 
grees Fahrenheit and. broken at inter- 

vals of seven to twenty-eight days, and 
other longer periods of time as desired. 
For testing the tensile strength eight 
of the Fairbanks, Riehle or Olsen 
machines are used, the former of these 
machines being preferred for inexper- 
ienced persons, because of its being 
more nearly automatic. The French 
system of weights and measures is most 
convenient to use because of the rela- 
tion between the gram and the cubic 
centimeter. Another important test 
which is most diffiicult to make, is the 
consistency of volume. While it is im- 
portant that cement should attain a 
great strength in a very short period 
of time, it is far more important that it 
should mainain its strength. Evidences 
of unsoundness are usually revealed by 
swelling, checking, cracking and disin- 
tegration, and a cement which shows 
none of these defects is said to be of 
constant volume. 

The mixing action of pins and de- 
flectors of the portable gravity concrete 
mixer is caused by deflectors or blades, 
each throwing the falling materials to- 
ward the opposite side of the mixer. 
J^ach colunm of falling material is m- 
terceplcd l)y columns from the other 
deflectors. The mixing action caused 
])y each pin is also shown as it divides 
the materials, striking it into two 
columns, one going to the right and one 
going to the left of the pin. Each of 
these columns is thrown violently at a 
column or stream of material coming 
from an adjoining pin or deflector in 
the same row. These various united 
streams are again divided by the next 
row of pins. The accompanying illus- 
tration shows the top of a gravity mix- 
er set up in a room ten feet square, the 
space recpiired for the gravity mixer, 
being four scjuare feet. At the top 
of the trough the pins in the upper row 
are spaced nearer together than the 
pins in the other rows in order to ex- 
clude stone larger than the desired size. 
Other illustrations and drawings show 
the portable gravity continuous mixer 
constructed at Boston, Mass., by the 
Contractors Plant Company. 

This form of concrete mixer re(|uir- 
ing no power, is said to ])e particularly 
for use about mines and in mountain- 

wlicrc the crwit frf power 

! i* iliffimlt to traiJ»- 

nery, It i^ aUo s;ii*l 

jircial *4Tvicif tin ^rniiH ciio- 

- 1--..^ m;ichtncf>* cmil<I 

< ccfMiottiy, and wlirrr 

'iiM ha%'e to 

jU cif the cti- 

ttinn **i jHiWiT, grsiv- 

to doihc mixingjt 

•mica I in its oper- 

iiiijM«*^i4 «in varimu ex- 

pftjtftucing when properly 

hifsti frrade of concrete. 

water h letl (ram a Iwirrel In a l%-5nc1i 
hnsv tri tile H|iniy- pipes. The 
I he hot turn ni tlie mixer* wha ca 
see the concrete » nixTales the water 
valve. The ujiter from the !*pniy pipe; 
strikes the mixer at ahoitt midway uf 
it!fc len^nh. Fty this arranKcmenl thr 
concrete h mixe*! dry in I he upper half 
and wet in the lower half. It ifi claimed 
for thi* mixer that cnficrete, in rolling 
over and over on the fiottum of the 
Meel trouph ten feet along» each and 
every stone being thrtiwn from side to 
side by each row of pin*, h mixed belter 

F%, 1^.- HiiiituiiE immI edtiveytQit app»nita 

veytnit app»nita* 

Intm inaxtr co 

^ anil 

mixer i of a 

filled with niittierous 

.*. staggered to mix 

sand, cement, and 

comptiHe the 

through the 

tip)H*r cml erf the 

m the firiit rt>w are 

nearer together than the t>in!s in 

iT,..^ ^,..4 III iinier iltat the *♦ 

t roA- wilig^) throa.: 
gt iLLc mixer Hithoul dogging* ihc 

At I he 
the pins 

than tt i^ po>»^ihk' t*i mix it hv hand nr 
^team, rhe trough deliver* the con- 
crete in any receptacle, wla-n it can l>e 
removed as desired. 
A |x>rtable ijravitv concrete mixer 

i\M\ the 
>anic* i\\tt: ui imxcr i^itii an cight-fo^n 
li-iiLih was arrangeil for ii%e cm the 
• vn5 of the passenger station of 
K.. . ..uhiirg and t^ke l*>ie Kailnjod* 
The cafiacitv tif this mixer is tatil to be 
governed by tbc quanuiy ymi can tcai 



to it atid tlie amount of inixc«l cnncrete 
vui! can remove from it, a^ it h i>ort* 
al)le ajul can be shifted from place to 
place ancl lum^ over the trench where 
the Concrete is to he nsetl, there is con- 
siderable saving in conveylnf^ the mixed 
concrete away from the machine. Two 
of these mixers were en)ployed at the 
power station for the Hlnehil! Street 
Railroad and conslrnctins the founda- 
tions for the hntldiniTf, chimney and cn- 
j^ine beds entirely of concrete. \n in- 

mainly of two sni>portingf posts, is sit-t 
nated a self-cunlained api>aratus whici 
measures and feeds cement, sand anc 
^^ravel, nr broken stone, as they flow 
from tlieir respective bins, Ct, C2 and 
CI which are located directly above the 
measuring and feeding apparatus. ThCj 
proportions of the aggregates can be 
varied at will by raising or lowering the 
gates, Dl, D2 and Dn, to the several] 
chutes. F!l, K"! ajid K3, through whic^ 
the aggregates (low out upon the larj>ei 

teresting arrangement for accurately 
measuring and feeding the ingredients 
to the mixer was employed in the con- 
struction of an addition to the plant of 
the Boston Manufacturing Company at 
Waltham, Mass., while tlie accompany- 
ing drawing shows the details of the ac- 
curate measurer and mechanical feeder 
which sup]ilicd the aggregates of con- 
crete through the mixer at a rate of 
two cubic yards per minute. 
On the top of the structure, consisting 

revolving drnnVp (j. The drum G forms 
a moving bottom to the chutes El, E3 
and E'^. It revolves and carries the 
stream or layers of aggregates, F1, FSl 
and b"3, which falls from the drum intc 
a coticentrating hopper^ K. Tlie con- 
cent rating hopjier empties at its lowet 
i:ni] into the concrete mixer, TL The 
apparatus is easily o|>eraled l)y one 
imskilled laborer. 

To operate the feeder the gates of the 
chutes are !^et for the given proportions 



tht- ai;;:rci»atis. The liiiis are fillc«l 
an\ •K--ircti nu-aiis. accnrdiii)^ to tlie 
i«lx:t*<ri« :hat «»litaiii n]H>ii the wnrk. 
: a;:i:Tr.:.iii> tlow «»i:i si viral inches 
It n. ; til- ill;:!: tti t*aU otT » ujxmi iht- 
*!irvuT .it thi- •irnin. which is lartjf 
i:^h !•. I'-'frn a c*»Mi|)arativeIy flat 
face iitiiUt each chute. The waj^on 

<nr other convi-ynr) is hroii^ht under the 
c«>iicrete mixer. I 'poii receiving the 
>i;;nal from the man below, tiie laborer 
inrn.s a cra:ik which revolves the drum, 
causinj; the^ ai^^rej^ates to fall into a 
concentrating^ 1h»jhht which emptier 
into tlu- mixer. 


By Ralph Scott. 

fklCTIoN IN .khnid as that fi.rce 
ifchuh aclH ln.-lwe<.n two Ihiliis at 
:r surface of ci»ntacl >o a- to resist 
:r ^Iidii.i: on tM».h oilur. TIk- ratio 
iht: t«»rvv rcijuirvd to Nli<lc .\ ImkIv 
Bi* .1 h"ri/iintal plane to 
mtriicht «if the is cai'cd the 
rflicxnt of friction. It is L-tjuiva- 
t to the tangent of the an.i;k* of 
►a»c. «hich \\i' knt'W is tl-e an;L:K' <>f 
liiati«m t«i tile ii<»ri/nntal «»t an inclinni 
PC (in winch ihi- IhmIv will just over- 
ne its tcfidencx t<i NliiU-. llu- anLjlf is 
■Dy (krnoteil by «, and the co-etTieient 
f^an^. While the force rc<|uire<l 
mcyi'c a iKnly sjiilin;^' is calUd the fric- 
B of rt^i. and the ntrce to keep it con- 
BaHy sliding is called the friction of 
ti<jn. Refer thus tt» a piston ro<l in 
^tiAni: '•"'^- I he steam is lunied on 
: the pcci «»r civ-ifticimt «.»f friction is 
•iL'ht ni v«i^ue. Then next we have 
fr-cti. n ••! rist and m»»;i«'n. tlu 11 roli- 
ir:ct:'Ti ! riction dtcreasrs materi- 
' u;!!? \i!iicu\. i< vir\ ir.uch i^reater 
■■ :'M!!f wl'-citirs of o . . \:\\^ very 
•;-!;» \\'.\\\ niinnte incr s. s f ^\ A\ w- 
•Tv*. a I'm! cniinne- t • i:'M : i.cli more 
*'\\\ with hi-jl'tr \il« :itii> np to a 
lain piHrt. and f«»ll«»\\> the laws very 
^* %khich "biain to lubricated fric- 

tii>n. I'luTeft^re tlie fasti-r an enj.:ine 
i^oiN ils |)i>ti»n r«!.! friction is drcnastd. 
!»m rvfir to V'x:^. I. \\V have a pist«'n 
ro.j packing rin*: made in units of \\\^^ 
pircis. and oMT il'i-sc ir^its in a c«i']i] 
sp^'inv:. ! I.i** pnckin . iiiii onl\ incria^i*-* 
\\'x friction. Imt tiiids to wear ilM'lf o*-: 
lIuTi arc <liiYrrent kiiuN of paclx'n:. 
liowrver, and in I'ii:. '.* shows a jnckiirj 
tliat ctMiipensatis for \\r:ir. ji jiavini: an 
adjustaide nut inside the l;t»x. I'liis is 
a new invention, of wiiicli a p^rfrci \W- 
scription is i^iven. This packing «Uvicr 
can l)e made in two forms, witb. or witii- 
• ►nt the adjnstini: nut, aiit! iiavr in its .stead 
a si-parate sprint; over each wetliic bi- 
tween tlie rinjjs which is continually 
pa.ssinj: the packiuji: in posit it »n aroun*! 
and alonjj the pistt»n nn! autl 
^land. In order to reduce fric- 

tion, wliereby fricti»»n max be reducetl. 
it is essential llial its nature, causo and 
efTect Ih- undrrsttH^!. As its nat!:e. it 
is simplv a resistance to tlu- motions k^x 
nu>vinv: parts of the !hh!\ in contact w it!i 
t»ne anotlier. b'riction is ndiicid b\ lu- 
brication, antl ari- tlividrd into three i^eii 
rral da'ists. known as lluid. i>lastic and 
si»lid lulirication. Thr first lakes up all 
i»ils, sect»nd the greases. Thirdly tlie 
class inchidts !M»li<ls as have been useil 



for lubricating, such as graphite, which 
fills irregular surfaces. Metals, though 
highly finished, still have uneven sur- 
faces, and cannot be felt by the hand or 
seen with the naked eye. Perfect lubri- 
cation prevents contact entirely, but this 
is not realized in practice. More or less 
contact by surfaces caused by wear. 
Lubricants must have no dirt or grit of 
any kind or they cut into the bearings. 
Since lubrication forms a layer between 
the surfaces, and it goes to show that in 
order to do this successfully the lubri- 
cant nuist have body of cohesion enough 
so as not to squeeze out the lubricant. 
They should not 
evaporate under 
heat. Plastic lubri- 
cants come under 
various kinds of 
greases, and are 
made by mixing 
fats and oils to- 
gether till they be- 
c o m e somewhat 
like lard. A n y 
packing device that 
does not provide 
for hd)rication cannot fill near enough 
the necessary ijualifications for practical 

In Fig. 2 this device not only allows for 
Vv'car and tear, but provides in and be- 
tween each packing ring a space for 
waste, to which lubrication is continually 
being supplied by the rod on its return 
stroke. Then, too, it has for its princi- 
pal object to provide a novel form of 
packing adapted especially for the use 
in connection with piston rods. A fur- 
ther object of it is to construct a pack- 
ing which may be readily adjusted when 
worn out without opening the stuffing 
box and without turning the gland nut. 
A still further object of the invention is 
to provide a novel form of packing 
which can be adjusted circumferencially 

A coiinnon style of 

as well as pressed longitudinally, 
arrangement consists in certain n< 
features of construction and arrar 
ment of parts hereinafter fully descril 
illustrated in the accompanying drawii 
and particularly pointed out in the 
pended claims, it being understood 1 
various changes in the form, proporti< 
size and minor details of the struct 

may be made without de])arting fi 
the spirit or sacrificing any of the adv 
tages of the invention. 

In the accompanying drawings, Fig 
I is a sectional elevation of a pack 
constructed in accordance with the 
vention. Fig. 2 is a transverse sectic 
view* of the same in the line 2 2 of Fig 
Fig. 3 is a detail perspective view of 
adjustable helix for exerting press 
circumferentially of the p:icking. 

Similar numerals of referuice are ( 
ployed to indicate corresponding p; 
throughout the several figures of 

The stufting box 10 is of ordin 
con.struction and is provided with a gl 
nut 11 for compressing the packing 
the direction of the length of the pis 



ti* Arrati^crf withtn th< ittufiing 

and fTi: the imtim n>fl is a 

iionsl h — 1, . itinnrfl of arty «uiLihlc 

i!» the Adjacent walls of itaid helix 

c ' to fcinn tapering opciiinKs 

tii«i *ii apfirDXirttalely \'- shaped. 

trtlkms of the helix arc each ap- 

iinatrlv ftemictrcular and when in 

ioct a continuous tapered helical 

od U formnl In thiit channel is 

rf a aeccmcl helix 17, the contour af 

CDt !* to that of the heUcal 

a; seconrl helix forms a 

whichf when the inemberst thereof 

inward in the tltrectitm of the 

WtU hind the MVliotK nf iht 

ncrtrr faces of the sections^ i^l the 
17 are provided with curvetl 
Of channel* IB ftir the recq>tion 
adju^ttni: helix 19, winch may be 
a helically-wound coil of 
end of the adjn<^ng helix 
iKiireil to a fixed support :^0 within 

the Muffing box» and the ojuwi^ite cml 
thereof is connected to an eyebolt tJI, 
that extend?* out thrunj^h an optnjin^; in 
the stuffing: box and receives an adjusting 
screw "i'i at a jwitnt autsitte the 1k>x. 
When the packing is tn be adjust e<l, the 
nut Tl is turned in t>nc direction or ihi- 
other, and by tiffhtening the nut the 
adjusting helix may be clampc<l nicire 
ttmiU around the helix 17 and the 
members of the packing pressed 
finnly together. In addition to this cir- 
cumferential adjustment tentling l*i 
evenly compress the packing arounfl the 
piMofi mi\ said packing n»ay als^'i be ad- 
justed nt>t only by tightening of its cir- 
cumferential band, but also tn a direc- 
tion of the length nf the piston rod. 

While the invention has |)cen described 
as applicable more especially to piston 
nnls, it will be understood that it 
also be employed in the packing of \,.: , 
ous devices wtthout departing frtun the 


Fm be carrieil to the streets on flowery 
from a ilH*ater fire is tlie 
... ^ of those who use the new 
mil ftrv eMrape« He proposes 
ive the pit en bloc with the 
attached to it» as well as the par- 
walk ittta the slreei Iiy meauit of 
ir '!i the rto*jr. runnin*^ 

• % XT^^^ ^. iads coiittnue<l to a suit- 
length outside the theater^ the 
aI*o for the simulta- 

rr«cuc -. ,-. .,>:e in the balconies 
%gf exits through specially con* 
windtnr d«)«^rs n^Hrnei) automat- 
aO at once, and lea ling to sus* 
fmtlerio which are lowered to 

the street by the same mechanism ac- 
tuating the moving pit. The theater i* 
thus emptied from gallery to pit in half 
a minute, whether the audience num- 
bers five or ri.OOO . The u *it- 
suspendeil on lunges fnuti \u., fftg 
ger*. which act as powerful single arm 
levers and turn anmtid pivots fixed be- 
low the first Imkotiy. <^>n being lower- 
etl all the outinggers and the sitspcniled 
galleries move to the side and descend 
to the street. The gearing is so ar- 
Tangetl that at the moment the nttt rig- 
ger galleries touch the street the \^ 
pit has licen retnoved from the thc^ivi 


Interesting Case of Weathered Qrave[ 

R. N. Kintiaind, 

The accompanying^ plmto^raph shows 
a iL'ravcl slope of al>Dut two years 
wcalhtTing in the L. E. & W. gravel 
pit ai Lafa\ettt% Indiana. The stakes 
"A. A/* were set level thus rletermining 

the horizontal line in the photo^aph, 
from which the slope of the bank was 
tletermined (lirectly. An iiistnimental 
ik'tcrmination of the same slope showed 
1. 47-^1 to 1. The slope in the background^ 
shows \/^73 to 1. being slightly lesa 
weathered and coarser gravel — En^ 
giiieenng Review* 


By Edmund B. Moore, 

Author of " Wire nod Wireless Telegraphy.*' 

PART \\ 

■ N the theor>' of electrical induction 
* lies the principles of nmch of the elec- 
trical apparatus which has proven of un- 
limited value, and which in the advance- 
ments of this twentieth century we could 
not, in any sense of the word, do without. 
The process of induction is perhaps one 
of the most w'onderful phenonienas 
produced by the electric current. Just 
what actually takes place in the induc- 
ing of electrical currents is still a myst- 

ery but we know^ what its effects ar^ 
and have established theories which, 
no doubt, are correct so far as the pre 
sent scientist has been able to find out 
Although there is occasionally brougl: 
to light some new discovery which fol 
a time almost contradicts the lon^ 
established laws and accepted theorie 
In December 1824, Michael Farada) 
a noted electrician, philosopher and 
chemist made several experiments 

X«^s>y righted. ttlOS, by Bdniund B. Moore, Spntifffield, Vt. 


of VI electro Uo 

atttiDpti to pr _ ric 

b iior wire bv tbe effects of an- 
"Sliber wire alio carryini; an elect ric cttr- 
rrai. An af tbe^e, him ever, were m\* 
•ocncMltil fnxti tht* >tan^ Fani(lav 
ahhoaffa many ttinei dtscoiiraj^ed was 
iK*» •*»-* Tian to give «p without Riving 
It ftntlar trial*. In ihe latter part 

o Ire obtahied pradtcal- 

\\ nil 111-i i%i(HtKi that an drctric cur- 
fCM ean he made to m^tice another in 
a different eiretiit 

If a coij ol wire is * ' r -al- 

faDOfneter and a faiir: ir ,- ^ net 
ii thmu into the coiK the needle at the 

Uiui exactly takes place m ih** ex- 
periment t$ not definitely known* Bucl 
when in any ciwiductor the nitmber of 
Ijncii of force parsing through t\ 
closcfl circuit un4lef|To a chanjjc. sinmll or' 
great, an electric current i$ induced in 
this circuit When the number of lines 
of force increase the current flows 
through the eiretiit in one direaion ati 
when they decrease the current will 
flow in exactly the opposite direction. 

We know^ that a magnetic field cxi«ti 
around a magnet and by moving it in 
or out of the coil, makes an increaaej 
and decrease in the number of lines 
force, producing elearic currents in 

rig, a&-lthiin»fcorff Coft^icBsH tifru 

smeier wtU be slightly deflected, 
that a weak electric current 
fmm& around the cot] as the magnet 
«aa tnsefted* By bringing the magnet 
rot tniide of the coil we And that 
is no movement of the needle 
rver. but iipon drawing H out 
the nee^llc of the instrument is 
led in exactly the opposite direc- 
from that in the first ease. This 
that by drawing the magnet out 
thr " '* f wire the electric current 
%am% \\ the coil in exactly the 

apposite direction from which it did 
-^;met H-as mserted. No 
u ver, flows when the mag- 
b at reii. 

opposite directions whose rate varies 
with the movement of the magnet. If 
the movement of the magnet is ^€xy 
rapid the current alternates in the same 
fapidity- A current, as in this case 
which flows first in one direction and" 
then in another is called an altenuting 

It is not absolutely necessary m pro^'^ 
ductng the induced current to have the 
conductor move t^df. An etectnc 
current b produced tn a conductor 
whai the lines of force are cut, and 
cutting may be caused by the motion of 
the conductor itself, or by the motion 
of the tines of force. 

So, in the experiment with the coil of 



wire connected with the galvanometer, 
the magnet may remain stationary and 
the coil of wire move forward and back- 
ward over the magnet. The direction 
of the current will be one way when 
moved forward over the magnet, and 
in the opposite direction when drawn 

The direction of the current produc- 
ed in the coil when the magnet is thrust 
into it is opposite from the direction of 
the hands upon a clock, and when the 
magnet is withdrawn the direction is 
reversed and is the same as the hands 
of a clock. 

This coil of wire, traversed by the 
electric current acts similar to a sole- 
noid and tends to stop the motion of 
the magnet which is moving in and out 
of the coil. Whenever an induced cur- 
rent is made by the motion of a mag- 
netic field the field belonging to the in- 
duced current tends to stop the move- 
ment of the original moving field from 
which the induced current itself was 

We know, as has been previously ex- 
plained that a wire carrying an electric 
current possesses a magnetic field 
around it. In the last few experiments 
described the lines of force belonging 
to the coil of wire, connected with the 
galvanometer, were cut by the lines of 
force of the moving magnet. Now if 
a wire carrying an electric current, 
which also possesses a field of force, is 
moved towards and away from a wire 
or other conductor, an induced current 
will immediately be set up in the 
stationary conductor or wire. This is 
because the lines or force, which be- 
long to the wire carrying the electric 
current, cut the wire or conductor 
which is at rest and an electric current 
is at once set up within the conductor 

This shows that an induced current 
may be produced in a circuit by the 
lines of force from other means than a 
magnet, as was used in our first experi- 
ment. The wire carrying the electric 
current in this last experiment was not 
in any particular shape, a straight wire 
being used. We will now substitute for 
this straight wire a comparatively 
small sized coil which, carrying a strong 
electric c!urrent, we will thrust into a 
somewhat larger coil, the two ends of 
this larger coil being connected to a 

Upon thrusting the smaller coil or 
Primary as it is more often called, 
which carries the electric current, into 
the second coil or Secondary, an in- 
duced current is at once set up in it in 
one Jliection and upon removing the 
primary coil an induced current is also 
set up but in the opposite direction 
from the first, as the needle of the gal- 
vanometer would indicate. The cur- 
rent in the secondary coil is in the op- 
posite direction when the primary is re- 
moved because the lines of force are cut 
in exactly opposite direction. 

When the motion of the primary coil 
ceases, r.f course, there are no lines of 
force being cut and as we must have 
the lines of force in a conductor cut to 
produce an induced current, then no 
current whatever will flow in the second- 
ary while the primary is not in motion, 
unless the lines of force are somewhat 
increased or decreased by other means. 

As in the case of the coil and the mag- 
net it is not necessary to have the pri- 
mary move. The primary may remain 
stationary and the outside coil move 
forward and backward over the pri- 
mary. The induced current will then 
be produced in the latter in the same 
way, flowing in one direction when the 
coil is moved over it, and then flowing 



m the opposite direction upon its re- 

Experiments have proven that by in- 
creasing and decreasing the number of 
lines of force in the first coil, althouj^ 

the previously described laws and theor- 
ies are carried diiI, is commonly caHed 
an induction coil. If the reader will 
stop a moment he will recall the fact^ 
which were [pven in part 1 of this ser- 

.t remains stationary the lines belonging ies, that static or frictional electricity 

to the magnetic field of the current in 
the pninary ioil will cut the conductor 
of the secon'fary and, of course, pro- 
<fuce an induceci current. 

This induced current in the second- 
ary is i>r.iduced only while the lines oJF 
f^rce in the piiinr.rv are increasing or 
riecreasing. \(>w by having the pri- 
T.ary coil remain ^stationary within the 
*ccondaTy am* Hy opening and closing 
ihc circuit of the primary, increases and 
♦VcTca-io'; the lines of force which cut 
!hf con«!tictor of the outside coil and 
*et< up induced current as in the numer- 
• •!is ca^rs above described. 

\\ lirn the circuit is closed in the pri- 
niarv coil the lines of force are very 
rapidly raised from naught to their 
height and as the circuit is broken the 
lines of force arc quickly reduced again 
It is during this change the increasinjr 
and decreasing of the lines of force 
which cut «he conr'uctor of the second- 
Ar\ that the induced current is produce<i. 
Th'^ is called Self Induction. By tak- 
ing the two tnds of the wire which are. 
of course, in series with a good strong 
battery and touching them together 
rapidly a bright spark will be seen 
This is caused by the self induction of 
the coil, which upon breaking of the 
circuit produce* a very high electro- 
motive force, which causes the bright 
spark to follow. 

The fundament?! principles of elec- 
tric induction should now be clear in 
the reader's mind and the practical 
««*rkinf;s of indu«tive apparatus should 
he partially M.iderftood. 

An instrument constructed for the 
production of induced currents wherein 

was produced by a machine called a 
static machine, in which it was neces- 
sary to apply some form of mechanical 
power to produce motion of the plates. 

With the aid of the induction coil a 
very weak current may be increased to 
a current having a high electro-motive 
force (E. M. F.) The increase of the 
original current, however, depends up 
on the size of the coil used. The induc- 
tion coil in its simplest form may be 
divided into four separate parts, the 
primary coil, the secondary coil, the 
soft iron core and the viherator. 

The primary coil consists of two or 
three layers of number fourteen double 
cotton covered magnet wire. The size 
of the wire will vary in diflFerent sized 
coils. This wire is wound in smooth 
la>ers uiv»n the ct>re. which is separated 
from direct contact with the wires by :i 
number of turns of shellaced |)aper. 

The core itself is made up of a huii<lle 
of soft annealed iron wires, conunonlv 
called **stove-pipi' wire." These are 
bound tightly tofjeiher and are soldered 
at the ends. This style of core is used 
because it has been found by experi- 
ments that it produces better magnetic 
effects and greatly increases the induc- 
tion than would be the case if a solid 
core was used. Eddy currents would 
also occur in the solid core, which 
would tend to reduce the efficiency of 
the coil. 

The secondary coil is now wound up- 
on the primary after being insulated by 
a number of turns of shellaced paper. 
This coil is entirely separate from the 
first in regard to electrical connections. 



thick separates the primary from the 
276 lbs. of No. 36 double silk covered 
wire which makes up the secondary. 
The discharge from the coil is deafen- 
ing, resembling the reports made from 
a machine gun. This piece of appara- 
tus is unequalled in workmanship and 
it stands a monument for tlie highest 
type of electrical engineering. 

A piece of electrical apparatus where- 
in the process of induction is used is 
commonly known as a transformer. 
These are somewhat similar in their ac- 
tions to the ordinary induction coil 
and are divided with regard to their 
work into two classes: the step up and 
the step down transformer. 

The step up transformer is used, as 
its name would suggest, to raise a cur- 
rent of high strength and low E. M. F. 
to a current of high E. M. F. and low 
strength. The step down transformer 
is the kind which is most used reducing 
a current of high E. M. F. and low 
strength to a current of great strength 
and low E. M. F. Transformers are 
used in the transformation of electrical 
power from the source of supply to the 
various places where it is to be used 
either for power, lighting or whatever 
it may be. 

In sending the electric current great 
distances it will be readily seen that the 
resistance offered by the great length of 
wire will be considerable. 

Copper wire is used altogether in 
electrical transmission because its re- 
sistance is very low compared to other 
metals. It will be clearly understood 
that if the wire used to carry the cur- 
rent is of exceedingly high resistance 
that by the time the current has reach- 
ed its destination the strength of it will 
be greatly diminished and would not be 
sufficient for commercial purposes. 

This may be overcome by increasing 
the size of the wire, which according to 

Ohm's law will reduce the resistance 
That is, if we double the size of the 
wire the resistance is halved. 

Now in sending of commercial elec- 
tric current it will be seen from the 
above that a very large copper wire 
would be necessary in order to produce 
the required amount of current at the 
further end of the line. The high price 
of copper destroys this theory as a 
commercial success on account of the 
great expense which would be envolved 
by the great size and length of the line 

Instead of using this large size cop- 
per wire and lowering the resistance, 
which would allow a moderate current 
to flow without much loss, just the re- 
verse is done. That is, a comparatively 
small wire is used which, of course, has 
a high resistance and a current of very 
high E. M. F. and low strength is forc- 
ed through the line. A current of very 
high voltage and low strength can be 
economically carried through a line of 
great distance, but it is necessary for 
power and lighting purposes that a cur- 
rent of great strength and low voltage 
be used. 

To obtain this aim the transformer 
is placed at the distant end of the line 
and the high voltage current is changed 
or transformed by the use of the stepdown 
transformer into a current of great 
strength and having a vohage which 
will not be dangerous to life when it is 
carried into buildings. 

The transformer consists of two coils 
of wire, the primary and the secondary. 
These two coils are wound upon a 
soft laminated iron core which is usual- 
ly in the form of a ring making a 
complete path for the magnetism which 
is set up by the current in the coils. 

In the step down transformer the 
primary coil consists of a great num- 



her of turns of wire which are connect- 
ed direa to the alternating hi^ vol- 
tage line. The secondary coil consists 
of a lesser number of turns and is con- 
nected to the house or local circuit. 
The raito of the number of turns in 
one coil to the number of turns in the 
other is the same as the hi^ voltage 
current i* to the desired current of the 
»econdar>\ that is, if we have a trans- 
former whose primary coil consists of 
•rne hundred turns of wire and the 
M^ondary one half that number or 
fifty and a current of 2,000 volts in force 
ts fe*! direct to the primary coil, the 
effect protluced in the secondary will 
W the vohage of the primary current 
divided by two and the strength multi- 
plied by two. In the step down trans- 
former, the voltage will be reduced and 
the strength increased in proportion to 
the construction of one coil to the other. 
If we use for the primary coil the one 
of fifty turns of wire and the secondary 
*if 1«> turns, then the induced current 
•hich will be obtained from the second- 
ary will be twice as strong in voltage, 
bm one half as weak in strength. By 
the arrangement of the turns in the 
two coils any current may be raised or 
lowered as the case may be. 

The transformer is a wonderful elec- 
trical instrument as there is no mechan- 
ical motion whatever concerned in its 

It will be recalled that with the in- 
duction coil the increase and decrease 
of the lines of force, which are neces- 
ury to cause an induced current, were 
cansed by the interrupter. In the trans- 
former no interrupter is needed be- 
ansc the original current which is fed 

to the primary coil is of itself an alter- 
nating current. These alternations 
producing the increase and decrease of 
the lines of force in the primary coil, 
which as has been explained, cut the 
conductor of the secondary and pro- 
duce the induced current. This induc- 
ed current in the secondary will be an 
increase or a decrease over the primary 
current according to the increase or de- 
crease of the turns of wire in the second- 
any over the primary. 

The two coils of a transformer are 
usually incased in an iron box which 
protects the coils from outside injury 
and also allows the two coils to be sur- 
rounded by a heavy parafine oil which 
increases the insulation between the 
primary and secondary and also aids 
in keeping them at a low temperature. 

There are many kinds of transform- 
ers now constructed for the market. 
The shape of one manufacturer's nia> 
vary from another, but the principles 
upon which they work and the ends 
that they attain are practically tlit* 
same in all makes. 

When the electrical current is to be 
sent great distances, the main line is 
usually of a very high voltage ranginj* 
nearly 2,300 volts and is run direct to 
the large transformers near the center 
of distribution which reduces the cur- 
rent to possibly 500 volts at the second- 
ary, and then lines are run from here 
carrying this 500 volt current to small 
transformers placed upon poles near 
the houses, which again transfonns 
the 600 voh current of the large trans- 
former down to 110 vohs , this being 
led into the house or factory for light- 
ing and power purposes. 




By C. C. ilAISONt 

Author of "Trigonometry Simplified.** 

PNEUMATICS is that branch of me- 
chanics which treats of the mechan- 
ical properties of gases and the machines 
by which they are used. 

The molecules of a gas has a repellant 
action upon one another, and the gas will 
expand indefinitely unless restrained. 
These molecules are supposed to be mov- 
ing through space with great velocity in 
straight lines, hence any quantity, how- 
ever small, will fill the vessel in which it 
is confined and will exert pressure upon 
the walls of the vessel. This force with 
which gases try to expand is its tensicMi, 
and is illustrated by placing a very thin 
glass bulb filled with air under the re- 
ceiver of an air pump. When the air 
in the receiver has been pumped out the 
pressure upon the outer surface of the 
bulb is greatly reduced, and the force 
exerted by the pressure of the gas con- 
fined within it is sufficient to shatter the 
walls of the bulb. 

The earth is surrounded by air com- 
prising the atmosphere to a depth vari- 
ously estimated at from fifty to several 
hundred miles. Like all other forms of 
matter, air has weight. The fact may be 
shown by weighing a quantity of air. 
Take a hollow metal sphere and accu- 
rately determine its weight, exhaust the 
air from the sphere and when again 
weighed it will be found to be lighter 
than before, the diflference being the 
weight of the air removed. 

Archimedes' Principle applies to air 
as well as water, hence if a body weighs 
less than an equal volume of air, it will 
rise in the air. This principle is applied 
to balloons. A balloon will support a 
weight equal to the diflference between 
the weight of the balloon, including the 

contained gas and the weight of 
displaced. Suppose a ballocm ai 
weigh 2,000 pounds, the gas bag 
50 feet in diameter and filled with 
gen. The volume of air displa 
about 65,480 cubic feet, and the \ 
of gas contained is about 65,450 
feet. The weight of the air displi 
.0761x65,480=4983.03 pounds, ai 
weight of the hydrogen is .00528x 
=345.68 pounds. Then the total 
of the balloon is 2,000-j-345.58=2, 
pounds. The buoyant eflfect of th< 
4,983.03—2,345.58=2,637.45 poui 

The pressure of the atmospl 
measured by the barometer. I 
shows an aneroid barometer whic 
sists of a vacuum chamber compo 
four coirugated metal discs from 
the air has been exhausted. Tl 
disc is force inward by an incre 
the pressure of the atmosphere 
forced outward when the pressi 
the atmosphere diminishes by me 
its own elasticity, aided by mean 
spring within. These movemen 
transmitted and multiplied by a : 
of levers which also act upon an 
made to move over a graduated 
They are very delicate instrumen 
are used chiefly on account of their 
bility. They are useful in mea 
the heights of mountains, the di 
heights being marked on the dial t 
respond to the pressure. 

Marviotte*s Law says, *'If the ter 
ture of a gas remain constant, the \ 
will vary inversely as the pressur 
Fig. 2 we have what is called Marv 
tube, the end a, is sealed, while b is 
A small amount of mercury is f 
into the tube, inclined to admit t 


061 at the case may be reqtttred^ 
_ the tncrcury tuiids it the zero 
jk b adi bniich. The atr in the 
ficr briiich has the same tension as 




and just balance each other 
be poyred into the tube b 
in the short branch 

reach^ c, the enclosed air ocoiples one* 
half its former volume, and the mo'cury 
in the long coUimn will be abuut 30 
inches above c* The air in the shorter 
tube is now under prc^s^ure of two at* 
tnoaperes; one of merniry and one of 
air. If more mercury be poured m un- 
til the air occupies otie-thinl itn orig^inal 
volume, the height of the column in the 
long tube will be about 60 inches ; that is, 
three aimospho'es; two of mercury and 
one of air have reduced the air lo one- 
third of its original volume. This law 
holds good up to about 30 atmospheres 
and is applicable when tlie prtsaure is 
dtnitniii^hed, as the volume increases in 
the mmc proportion as the pressure it 
decreased. If a tube nearly full of 
mercury is inverted over a mercury bath 
and lowered tintil the mercury in the 
tube antl bath is the same, the pressure 
of the air in the tube is one a^nospherc. 
Note the voltime of air in the tube, rmise 
the tube until the volume of air is dou- 
bled, then tlie difference between the 
heights of mercury in the tube and bath 
will be about 15 inches* or one-half the 
height of the barometric oolunui* The 
air now occupies twice its original vol* 
ume, but is subjected to a pressure of 
onchatf an atmosphere, and therelore 
since the weight or amount of gaa re* 
mains uocnanged whoi subjected to 
pressure^ its density varies directly as 
the pressure and inversely as the volume. 
For a given amount of gas a certain pres- 
sure, let p equal the pressure, v the 
volume and d the den«Hy, and for any 
other pressure let p* equal the pressure, 
v' the volume and d' the density. Then 
we have 

p v=p' v' 
p d'=p' d 

V d-v* d' 
and since gases vary inversely as its 
density* the weights nuy be 


BRowNfffCS mot 


an assistant The draftsmen are not al- 
lowed in this vault, consequently when 
a tracinjCf is wanted it can only be ol> 
tained through the keeper. Each drafts- 
man is numbered numerically, and for 
each tracing he gets he gives a cheque 
which bears his number. In this manner 
the keeper at a moment *s notice can lo- 
cate where any tracing is in any squad 
without much bother and loss of time. 

p^rts of the globe, and at present there 

is under way structural steel and iron 
amounting to many million tons, both for 
foreign and local trade. At present there 
are employed in their Ohio shops (one in 
Akron known as the Webster, Camp fir 
Lane division) over 600 men, exclusive 
of outside erectors and foremen on vari- 
ous jobs. The office building is made 
of red brick, four stories high, whose di- 

These tracings are kept in dust-proof 
drawers which are alphabetically ar- 
ranged, and put in the same numerically, 
regardless of size. Very rarely a mis- 
take occurs, and when such is the case it 
is rectified in short time owing to the 
method used. This manufactory is one 
of the largest of its kind in the world. 
Machinery and structural appliances are 
manufactured in these works for all 

inensions are 130x63', The drafti 
room and engineer's office is located in' 
the second floor, the former being 130'x 
40'. It is illuminated by electricity an^ 
a north light. The other floors are 
vided in several other departments and 
are all managed and kept under the mc 
modern principles. The company is re 
resented in many large cities in tiie state 
as well as abroad, including London* 


\\ roofs are for the pur- 
protecting buildings and 
I from the elements, and 

for machine shops are 
rom roofs of other build- 

the machine shop the 
p to do many thing be- 
le to do these things may 
ification of the regulation 

in some cases add to the 
will more than justify the 

Assume, for example, a 
Hrevailing type — a central 
aveling cranes and wings 
•ach side. The roof over 
Y has no function to per- 

it well !>e made to serve 
rpose except to ward off 
md no question can arise 
? usual form of const ruc- 
ind most economical? 


i is used for purlines and 
protection against the 
is greatly improved, and 
'en purlines and rafters 
Where this form of struc- 
T a foundry, as is com- 
question of ventilation or 
tniction presents itself, 
I which this is often treat- 
k well. (SeeFip. 1.) The 
makes a roof that way 
It It is simple, that it 

stands, and what more do you want? 
It is just in these points that the en- 
gineer lacks the training of the archi- 
tect, who would do the job as shown in 
Fig. i. which brings rigid points of sup- 
port under the weight of the monitor 
and the length of the compression 
member is shorter. It looks right, 
and, like other thiniij^s mechanical, when 
it looks right, it is pretty safe to con- 
clude that it is right. 

About sixty years ago. more or less, 
one Emerson designed a form of 
stationary ventilator, that no matter in 
which direction the wind blew, air 
would be drau-n up the vertical pipe. 
This is shown in Fig. 3. The same prin- 
ciple can be applied in foim<lr\' or other 
buildings where ventilation is required, 
as shown in Fig. 4. 

In the section of shops where there 
are no traveling cranes, but line shafts, 
counters, pipes, etc., the trusses 8 or 10 
feet beween centres offer special ad- 
vantages. Line shafts not over 2 1-2 
inches in size require supports and 
hangers as often as 8 feet, and 3-inch 
shafting as often as 10 feet, and there the 
frequent trusses supply a far better sup- 
port than it is possible to get where 
trusses are 20 or 30 feet apart; and 
with the lower chords made as they 
should be, of two ell or channel irons, 




Limit of Caull(ing Pitch in Boiler Viork 

to Secure a Steam Tight Joint 

Prof. PETER SCHWAMB, Mass. Inst, of Technoi^ogy. 

P^Test Pressure. V, 

_ Load X L' _ 
384 EI 


§ 3 i 

Vo =0.00035' 

Vo=0.0003' . 

P=120 lbs. 

P=150 lbs. 

P=225 lbs. 

P=120 lbs. 

P=150 lbs. 

P=225 lbs. 

5 fa -" 

persq. in. 

persq. in. 

persq. in. 

per sq. in 

persq. in. 

per .sq. in. 







































-x ^ _ - _ y 













2z 4 








2x e 




































fix 4 









fix e 









fix a 













































4x 8 



























%% 6 









ex a 












































































m . 




























Table of Safe Load on 

Binding Wires. 

Factor of Safety 10. 





Ult. Ten. Str. 

150,000 lbs. per 

sq. in. 

Ult. Ten. Str. 

100.000 lbs. per 

sq. in. 




























15 38 


16 1 30 


17 24 


18 19 


19 15 


20 12 


21 9 


22 ! 1\ 5 

'V 23 6 4 


By 8t Ann's. 


iocipal materials used in engi- 
ig constructions are timber, 
e, cast iron, wronght iron and 
ie specific gravities are : 

AV. WKICHT. j 6^ i- 
en. ft. I ctt. meter ^ « O 

40 600 0.6 

125 8,000 2.0 

100 2,560 2.6 

450 IJItOO 7.2 

iron .... 4W) 7,700 7.7 
490 7,800 7.8 

k'cights considered to be the 
krerage values. Take wrought 
rxample, when it is necessary 
e the weight for I beams, 
pieces of uniform cross sec- 
know a wrought iron bar 
n section and one yard long 
n pounds. A wrought iron 
r' and 12 feet long; its cross 
4.5 souare inches, hence its 
4 5X4 =180 pounds, while a 
of the same dimensions will 
l804-0.02X180=about 184 
id a cast iron bar will weigh 
<180=about 169 pounds, 
cross scctior of bars can be 
nputcd from their weights per 
iS if a stick of timber 15 feet 
IS 120 pounds, its weight per 
pounds, and its cross section 
= about 28.8 square inches. 

How many square inches 
ss section of a wrought iron 
ng 24 pounds per lineal foot? 
eams are to be designed the 
vhich it is to be subjected are 

known, as also the length and its maxi* 
mum bending movement may be found 
from the formtila 

I M 

— » — 
C 8 

As example, we take a cantilever 

beam whose length is six feet, breadth 2 

inches, depth 8 inches, and which is k)ad- 

ed uniformly with w pounds per linear 

foot. To find the valne of w so tfiat S 

may be 800 pounds per square inch. 





C=1J inches; I=flXM=56X6>^'. 
800 X 54 

Then from 219\l^ = = 1 1 poaud^. 

li X 12 

but a wooden beam 2X8 weighs 2 
pounds per linear foot, therefore the safe 
load would be, say 9 pounds. 

Wrought iron I beams are rolled in 
probably fourteen different depths or 
sizes; of each is a light and a heavy 
weight, and weights intermediate in 
value may also be obtained. They are 
extensively used in engineering and ar- 
chitecture. The sizes of different man- 
ufacturers agree as to depth, but vary 
slightly with regard to proportions of 
cross section, weights per foot and mo- 



ments of interia. In the following table 
the cross section is obtained from its 
weight per foot by multiplying by 3 and 
dividing by 10, in accordance with rule 
already given: 





of Fl 
I In. 


Light . 
H . . 
L . . . 
H . 
H . 
L . 
H . 
L . 
H . 
L . 
H . 











. 9 

. 9 

. 8 



In. 4 


























In. 8 




In. 4 


In finding the strength of a given I 
beam the value of ^ is taken from the 
table and I is computed from the formula 

S = 



= 7700 lbs. per 

square inch, or for example let it be re- 
quired to determine which I should be 
selected for a floor loaded with 150 
potmds per square foot, the beams to be 

of 20 feet span and spaced 12 feet apart 
between centers, and the maximum unit 
stress S to be 12,000 pounds per square 
inch. Here the uniform load on the 
beam is 12X20X150=36,000 pounds= 

I M 36000X20X12 



S 8X12000 

Turning to the tables we find that the 
light 16 inch I beam is required. The 
factor of safety for a body under stress 
is the ratio of its ultimate strength to 
the actual existing unit stress. The fac- 
tor of safety for a piece to be designed 
is the ratio of the ultimate strength to the 
proper allowable working strength. 
Thus if s t bo the ultimate, S the work- 
ing strength and f the factor of safety, 
then f = ** and s tj= f s. Thus we sec 
that the factor of safety is always an ab- 


stract number, which indicates the num- 
ber of times the working stress may be 
multiplied before the rupture of the 
body. The dimensions to be chosen for 
the beam must give a value of ^ equal 
to this numerical value, and these in gen- 
eral are determined tentatively, certain 
proportions being first assumed, but the 
selection and proper proportions and 
shapes of beams for different cases re- 



rs much judgment and experience. 
. 1 and 2 are forms of beams. For 
nee. a wrought iron beam of 4 feet 
is required to carry a rolling load 
><> pounds. Here by value of maxi- 
I M due to the load of 500 pounds 
[)00 poum! inches, and the value for 
ible load S is about 10,000 pounds 
square inch. Then 
1 00000 

=0.6 inches. 

C 10000 

nfinite number of cross sections may 
elected with this value ^. . If the 
I is to be round and of diameter I, 
kTio\% n that c=} d and I:^ 


eaoe, vd* 

=rH.6. whence d^=1.83 inches. 

PART 11. 

colunm is a prism, greater in length 
about ten times its least diameter, 
h is subjixt to compression. If tlie 
n be only about four or six times as 
as its least diametc^r the case is one 
mple compression, the constants for 
fa are given in Part I. In a case of 
ht compression failure occurs by the 
lung and splintering of the material, 
y shearing in directions oblique to 
length. In the case of a column, 
rrer. failure is apt to occur by a 
vise bending, which induces trans- 
t stresses and causes the material to 
Bghly strained under the combined 
prcssion and flexure. In designing 
Ittmn it is hence advisable that the 

cross section should be so arranged that 
the moments of inertia about the two 
principal rectangular axes may be ap- 
proximately equal. 

Take, for instance, it is required to con- 
struct a ccdumn with two I sliapes and 
two plates, as shown in Fig. 3. The I 
beams are to be light 10 inch ones, weigh- 
ing 30 pounds per linear foot, and hav- 
ing the flanges 4.32 inch wide. The 
plates are to be one-half inch thick, and 
it is required to find their length x so 
that the liability to bending about the 
two axes shown in Fig. 3. 

A cantilever beam has its upper fibres 
in tension and the lower m compression, 
while a simple beam hzf its upper fibres 
in compression and the bwer in tension. 
Evidently a beam overhanging one sup- 
port, as in Fig. 4, has its overhanging; 
I>art in condition of a cantilever, and the 
part near the other end in the condition 
of a simple beam. Therefore there must 
be a point i where stresses change from 
tension to compression, and where the 
curvature changes from positive to nega- 
tive. Tills point is called the inflection 
point; it is the point where the bending 
moment is zeio. Since the beam has 
but two supports, its reactions may be 
found by using the principle of mo- 
ments. Thus in figure 4, if the distance 
between the supports be 1, the length of 
the overhanging part be m, and the uni- 
form load per linear foot be w, the two 
reactions are 

W 1 Wm- W 1 Wni» 

R» = orR» = hWiii -f 

whose sum is equal to the total load w 
1 X w m. 


I X last month's issue of The Drafts- 
^ man we announced a new magazine, 
*'The Hoister and Conveyor." but it has 
been decided to consolidate that one and 
The Draftsman under the name of 
"Brownings' Industrial Magazine." The 
new arrangement will give a larger and 
better md>:azine, of which this is a 
sample as to make-up and size. It will 
be our aim to build up the character of 
the reading pva^s and to supply data of 
value to contractors, engineers, designers 
and draftsmen. 

Mr. Chester A. Cathcan. draftsman 
for the Elektron Mfg. Co. of Springneld. 
Mass.. has taken a position in :he draft- 
ing room at the Waliham Mf^:. Co.. of 
Waltham. Mass. 

Mr. Bo}nton. who ba> been wriiinc 
the on tool draftinj;:. \\\]\ be un- 
ab'.c 10 add rnore to the series a: presen:. 
for his work is requiring tv::/;! .^"i^re c^i 
his li-.r.e. yet he :r.ay be ?.M-: lo scrd v.s 
an s.r::c:e .xvas:o:ial!\ . 

^^■e ni:re: that liv.e to the oversight of 
:hi r::r.:tr< who ^^lO o\:t press wv-^rk the 
ii«:;t .-l-.eits were o:yiiitei"i fro-r. sone oi 
our ]Voe:r:ber issiie. Drop ns a pi'^sta' 
if \oii want v»ne. Tliere are n\o taKes. 
iXic or. Heav> Hand Wlieeis and the 
other or. Concrete Tests. Tliis nionth 
\\i ha>e a fine labie by Mr. E. 1. l^ecs. 
i-.|' h.'in.] wheels tor r-achine toVs. 

It is with dee]x?st revrret th.i: the an- 
nor.neemenl is r.wuie of the /.eath of Mr. 
Dan Wehnes. urrif:sn:;.n a: the C'.e\e:.inG 
.^rmaiure ^Vork^. sho::;\ Seff.T-e Chri>t- 
ma.N. Mr. Wehnes was a s:;:.":en: a: the 
n:cl'.: schvv.i of Centr;.; Ir.vtifr.te for sev- 
ere"; vears. .in/: his. 5^-o:k reminiie^i one of 

a growing flower, as it budded and grew 
and blossomed into a broader and clearer 
knowledge of the studies in hand. Why 
should such promising men be taken 
when there are so manv old hulks afloat? 

Almorth*s Protractor. 

The usefulness of this protractor will 
!ie reatlily appreciated by observing how 
•liiickly ami accttrately it may be adjust- 
ed to any desired angle. The fact that 
ih.e instrnmerii is so marked that it may 
be reav! or set from both sides, g^ves it a 
decide- a ".varitage over the ordinary 
hajf-circle pr -tractor. Another entirely 
■/.nivy/.e ieaf.ire. and one that means the 
savinc of ::r.ich time in many opera- 
tioTis. is I ha: Sy which any radial line, 
i:p lo so::r ar. : • Tie-half inches in length, 
::tay be ."rawr. withotit removing the in- 

Insert the reedle point at the apex of 
tr,e anc'e or center of the circle to be 
irr:id-.:a:e.'. T::rn instrument until the 
■esired dei:Tce reads from the given 
iim. Angles of greater than 90** may 
be obtained by addition as 120*'==90"4- 
."0\ etc.. etc. ' 

It \yi'A be noticed the center edge of 
crad;:a:et\ arn-i is cut awav to allow for 


1 o: pcnci. pomt. 

1 :'e nee.iie point may be easily re- 

:'^ ed by spreading slightly. 
Vhc rr •:r:iC!ors are made of spring 
::.\. rr.::'. :l-.c methods of manufacture 
ch :: ::: ;:Vsch:te accuracy and satis- 
c-aranieed or money rc- 



G. A. 

■=• Jc. ; with leather case, 65c 
Alniorth, Xcedham, Mass. 



%Hk OrgaaiuUM. 

Von Worth, Icxas. 

"Ihc Dratuniaiiy" Cleveland, U. : 
r bir — 1 have been reading wiUi a 
deal oi intercti the articles which 
Avc been publishing in late issues 
r uia^azuic, relating to tlie organi- 

ui a draitsnuui's society. 

ikaiu Loiupass" has, in the No- 
r u»5ue oi * Ihe Draitsman," pre- 
several excellent views on the sub- 
U %ji which 1 heartily endorse, iis- 
>' do 1 tavor the position he has 
in opposing the incorporation oi 
uonisni idea whidi a writer a 

or two since aSMx:iated witli the 
t>i the proposed organization. 

faa tliat labor unions have, in 
Alt heen oi baieht to members in 
instances cannot be denied, but 1 
«iuve tliat a labor union would be 
icutal to tile educational purposes 
Inch, alone, this society should be 
xed, since unionism is deiensive 

than educationaL 

&bur organization does not atiord 
embers the technical instruction, 
It which the drafting world cannot 

to rise to its rank as a profession, 
proposed society should especially 
kte literature, hold conventions and 
-age independent thinking and dis- 
Ltion of new ideas, and the stronger 
uaure oi the society is made, the 
progressive will be the members 
i. A draftsman (orms his own 
arly, but the ideas of other drafts- 
ire valuable, for *here is always 
iinf? that is valuable in our pro- 
1 that wc can learn from others, 
uld the society be organized as a 
lal one. all members would be 

together in mutual friendship, 
as if in a union, but in a far more 
nt and beneficial way. 
tn this it is seen that the only ad- 

vantage in a union over an educational 
society might possibly be in the question 
of wages, but when we probe this to the 
bottom we iind that even this gives way 
to thin air, for the simple reason that 
draftsmen are rated according to their 
ability. Nowhere is a person going to 
be compelled to work as a tracer or detail 
man, with the wages of such, if he is 
competent to do designing. The profes- 
sion is not, and never will be, so crowded 
as to cause such a state of aflfairs to ob- 

To the draftsman who thinks he is 
being overworked, I would suggest the 
saying of C. A. Pillsbury, who remarks. 
**Young men can best earn promotion 
by working overtime, if need be, to 
serve their employers' interests. There 
are vacant places ui the higher walks of 
every business and profession for those 
who follow this course." 

Hoping to soon hear of the society's 
organization being completed, I am, 
yours truly. E. RASER. 

How One Society Was SUrted. 

To the Editor of "The I>raftsinaii :** 

Dear Sir — Some of us at the Knox 
Automobile Co. have held frequent 
•'short sessions," at which wc have dis- 
cussed the advisibilitv of organizing the 
local draftsmen into a sodet}* or associa- 
tion, believing that it would be a st>urcc 
of nmtual help both socially and techni- 

We compared notes and found that 
there were about fifty "pen-pushers" of 
whose addresses we were sure, and so we 
had some short circular letters typewrit- 
ten and mailetl one to every man that we 
thought niipht be interesteil. 

Here is a copy of our "opening; 
wedge :" 

Springfield. Mass.. Nov. 7th. 1905. 

Dear Sirs — Realizing the neetl of and 
the help gained from an exchange oi 



thntijrht fffKiti fiierlianical profilcmft of 
fTfr'l fMffiiiilae Hfirl tallies hikI fr/r the 
l"ft(fffipnf fif ilif prnf(ARif»f) as a whole, 
\\v wi'^h !o HSCf^rtain llir virws held by 
Ih** flT;ift<Jn!fn nf Spiin^firld mi the for- 
tniifif.n i.f :i <;iMitM\ nf flraftsnuMi hnlh 
t)v(hMTnr:il MMij .iirhilfrtiiial. 

If V'Mi ;ii! inti-n Still aii*l wmild join 
<t!rh w «'Mirt\, will y'>n kiinHv state your 
V!e\^ < nn tin- sniijerl ? 

Voiirs vcty truly. 
hirM'i-sintMi of ilu Kni>\ Autoinohile Co. 

W t ift,n««l t\\tnl\ ti\i aiiswns, oi 
*\'vt*li t\\tnt\ wtir m ta\«M i»i jt>ininj; 

I i,'***! tlnni: t-^i ilitollui tollow.*" Inil 
Ivi- Till tni^f i.^ i;nt' to ii povsonall\.'" 
nn.: ...1, .n:,n |i,.i,i ih,. .>pinion that mo 
'•''Tv»-nl Mil.! .r-rliMt^'niiMi »ii:ttisnion 
"•\'^ I-- ir.i 1h i!Mi|i-ii :iiiil ri!i\l ;lio tavM 
t''-ii -I].! ;i,-,*:,n^t \vi' all uvr, -Jk- sa-iir 



rffjtiest is extenrlcd to you to be present, 
by tlu' ( V>mniittee on <_)rganization. 
Yours very truly. 
P. S. — Please call the attention of all 
<lraftsmen of your acquaintance lo this 

{More to come next month. ^ 

■V ^.^ 

Membership of Society. 

1 roail with some tli>pleasure the article 
m ilu" DrivnilHT nniiilKT by Mr. Lincoln- 
it c. in wbidi be rct\T> \<^ Article II. Sec- 
tion 1 of tbi- const ituiion anrl laws p>rr»- 
l>i>sisl b\ nu- for our orj::anization of 
tlraftsnien. of which he lakes exception? 
to its membership qualificaations. i. c.. 
\\\\\\ III! appiii'iints must be lijkitc male 
Aniencin-bor; nr naturalized citizens. 

lie si;i:i> thai this is an era of en- 
Iichienment atiii pi^ssibilities : and **1 
:^':i\ a.i." pi'-'ioniiiiry aiui opportunity/' 
.I'^i". .I'iK^ \\\.\ '*)ii»iii'. no: :i coii^reu man 
^. . -ivvmIk- m: liu i»..'urnc. sayini: tliiiT 
li. Itii^ V. .vk;-.". \\\\\ ^^norv'u Jraftsnitii 
;i'm !,■;'".. ;iv \ s';. appiicabie. an-j then 
v^v-ini.. Ik v.- -, .;> -r. "u. his iudirmeri." 
\-. ):. •)'.,• v!-. v.- .. :-.,: i»L allowed i-:- i«:n 
. V. .- ■ . : ,\ <v ..' . , • ■ ■■: . N , -.w doeji ^ I y 

■••r ' ■ !. ■•:^.'. iha: his employer i* 
:^. .-.. *i. \%'-.',r;. Hi ■■i-incoinite" ) wa> 
.•.■•■•■».■.■ :■ .-.rrii^-ae with those entcr- 
T\-:v!',^ .. ..r.. ^i:;ilrmer: and rathiT 
•'" • ^' •.:- :-.'> pt^s-.nor. he submits: -.t 

V - ''-. ■ : : ;mpres> the idea up-.Tii 

■■ -.^ :-..Tcrr.:t; thai hu n.aker 

■ '. -■ .i'.Siinction of hi< a>- 

• ^ »ini;e'5 politicai pre- 
: -s quite absurd, for 

■u- Tha: the Emancipa- 
^ -V, :hc colored man 
- vfr anc ,1 riirht to 

-.r.. other law requires 



the white man must rccoi^fnize the 
rt«l man in »<»cicly. There arc many 
rati: «irilrrs, cliilis. public schools, 
rlu>. railniail and trolley cars, etc., 
v:ivc evidence to substantiate this 
and there is no reason now why the 
lii:tnce of the white draftsni^m of 
•nca should Ik* niinjc^led with the col- 
man, for his degradation has been 
HHmcetl ever since the curse of 
aan E. B. HAYES. 

Queftloii Bm. 

A question box will l>e opened in our 
next issue. Send in your questions. 

In the last issue of The Draftsman in 
the article on Hydrostatics, Fig. i should 
have been iu place of Fig. 2. 

A Handy Drafting Table. 

he acc<xiipanyinp: sketch shows a 
rnicnt device for converting any 
nK>n tabic into a good and service- 


The monthly, The Pattern Maker, for- 
merly published by the Penton Publish- 
ing:^ Co.. Init now owned by the Gardner 
Publi.shing Co., has been changed and 
enlarged and is now under the title of 
Wood Craft. 




drafting table. Fig. 1 shows a side 
r of this device and Fig. 2 an end 
V attached to the table. The bracket 
» skHte<l, while the bracket B is taped 
a thumb screw by which the straight 
e C can be adjusted for any variations 
t might occur between the thickness 
tbe uble and the thickness of the 
ight edge. As seen in the sketch, it 
tcure<i to the taWc merely by a few 
d screws, and in this manner it can 
otached or detached very readily. 
an Claire, Wis. 

ft is the aim to publish a 
magazineforall woodworkers, 
but giving considerable space 
to pattern making. 

An eastern editor remarks: 
*• In selecting a name for their 
paper the publishers adopteil 
a very misleading one. as 
wood craft is .skill in hunting : 
in fact there was a quarterly sporting 
paper published in New York with the 
same title.'* 

It may be a hunting paper — hunting 
for subscribers and advertisers. 


'•'. , .J.i;>i, .M, ii.i* |M(.'c all iini<|ue in the Engincerine Journal of Canada 

• ''• '••^•» *• Itukcll, diicf it may be of interest to many of our read 

•'••■•• '* *'•*■ tlii!w«i < aUa Co, crs who arc working on diagrams of va- 

i»..»..f.i;,„. M«i^ Atit^trtiifti If a|>|>cared rious kinds. 






Industrial Magazine. 

FEBRUARY, 1906. 

NO. 2 

Electric vs. Steam Driven Locomotive Cranes* 

B> Frank C, Perk)ni. 

_ O dedde definitely in favor of 
'I* I the electric ItKornoUve crane or 
* the steam locomotive crane for 
ooBtracttug work, railway work, or even 
lenrice of large manufacturing 
is cxtreniely difficult even where 
power is available, as there are 
cimimstances which make the one 
dciinriile than the other. For in- 
it is found necessary to 

tidlize the crane at a con^idcrtihlc distance 
from the Sf*nrcc of electric j)c>wcr and 
away from the Ci>ncJucling trolley wire$ 
or third rail which su[iplie<i the current 
an electric crane would l)e useless, while 
the steam driven UKomotive crane having 
its p<:)wcr self contained could Ik* utiliied 
at any |x>int desire<L 

On the other hand, where a number of 
cranes are desired ff)r continual opermtioii, 

Pig. L— Oeniuui 




iir..i^-. •&■ 

3-ir - r ..mnri* 


ni;. ':;. 

-:• : I. It 

^ "ii: r* 

^1^ 2 T^iTi-,- ^oij stc^jii ipiutii Mtr* iT.uit. 12 vaiiahle rmiiu^ buoiu, suin*' "• migc imck 



r^]M«4 tlitQaCh Ike 

^j^ iH) « ciiiii«Uird 

fav ■ttM.liHifnl It has m total 
m-nhotft OMnieniiv^iit, of sBjocn Ibl 

The mcmnK as w^ as ^le electiic j9i 

mmes arc tmltzrd in Eo^and a& wcH as 

in America, both trjies ha\-m^ ihar ad- 

'■ '-^-ms^ ntnan^ weD knows 

of ihc Jia:ampaQ%isic 

m #i?fftimt Iravrllifife type, i», of coiine« 
flrt»rmlerit on a centrail ptmcx itation as 

n *inrl if ciirrmt i« avail- 

tl J . ^m acomm of iu utc 

flitwhrrr for fpf»rnitinK molof$, iti ma- 
cMfif tfwifri, rlertrir Ujjhtpi and variom 
fWlfk- <lfivrn nmrhrnc kioU, the electric 

tentson may be always on his work with 
the electric crane, there being no neces- 
sity for firing up and attending to faulty 
pumps and injectors. Another German 
five*ton electric kxromotive crane is 
shown in an accompanying illustration, 
V\^. J. a«i hiiilt by the Geselischaft fur 

t^riiAit ijiiTT cicktnscfae ot 

tNftI i[4v«mig:r. It vxttaimK has the ad* 
%«Mlmte ^ llie 9Jlv^in crane And in thai 
liiete <ni iin e^Hnt^ ahsience *^ «mdke and 
4m^ ^fiWi iii wisj^puwille frcufc ihe n^ 
-^ ^ «iv«ini crane, m4iSle the ^verV at- 

Eldktrisdie Indnsme of Carlsmhe L R 
iy« die moaar osed ui tins crane 
ol ihrfx pha^t ahnvatiqg current 
npe^ its locari n s ^i™^ dKiw just inside 


tftrtictiirai btitlt by engineets is 
the qoeitkin of due rcLat ion of 5lrcn{jrih 
la strcM of greater importance tliatt in 
Yel in few tlocs more empiricism 
in few i^ the accumulated cxper- 
of success and failure of greater 
iae which has notable parallels 
^ MMory of the development of the 
oliire enuie, and of macliine tools, 
of which are much indebted to 
ITiere are certain crane elements 

kqit in the ofHce, giving loads for various 
si2es of chains* wire rope, and the 
strcnj^h of the different i^tandard hooks 
u.s€iL the 8trciif^h of rods of various 
cross sections, and a <Ieal more of the 
same character, by which <Hrctn, often re- 
licaled calculations are rendered unneccs- 
sjiry. Thai there are certain points of 
gears and drums which liave lieen prev- 
iously used, and these can be taken efl 
bloc* and put on other cranes tliat vary 

r^prd to the strength **( which cal- 
are of mucli value, because Uie 
are readily obtainable by the 
of graphic statics. These are 
of wMcfa the cranes are 

hoilL and the strains on chains, hooks 
Idocks. But the main side 
and the plated frame 
are not readily caknilated. and. 
fad, are almost intariably copied or 
from previous designs that have 
iful service. In the drawin^^ 
sbofis new designs are got 
tnoch direct calculation, be- 
practice i% drawn upon, 
highly the work of a firm is 
the mote easily can modified 
be pmodoced. There are tables 

in details of design* Jibs are standard* 
ized for different radii and power, and 
these need not be recalculated. So are 
trucks, posts, ground wlieels; and then» 
too, there are standard supcrstnictitrei 
that can be taken bodily and p«it on eitliet 
portable or fixed bases* The rtaaon 



why calculations are so greatly modified 
is that though stresses can be obtained 
for certain elements with absolute pre- 
cision, and in others with a fair approxi- 
mation thereto. 

In the writer's experience there is no 
single section of a crane which has not 
been overworked, whether checks, posts, 
jibs, chains, the rods, trucks, both cast 

The checks of cranes are subject to 
great variations in design. In small 
cranes they are of cast iron; in heavy 
ones, steel plated. But many small cranes 
are cheaply made with steel plate, whik 
for permanent way cranes this type is 
always employed. Plated work is today 
thirty per cent cheaper than formerly, 
and is by far more reliable than castings. 
But castings cost still less, because Ac 
bearings are in one with the frame, while 
in plated work the bearings must be pre- 
pared separately and bolted or riveted on. 
But these are often cheaply fitted in the 
nnn of round bosses in place of the more 

and plated, traveller girders, tooth wheels, 
and drums. Accidents occur because the 
machine is called upon to perform work 
which it was not designed to do, and 
very often the cause is the reliance 
placed in past actions, which a certain 
crane did over or nearly a half century 
ago. There are few machines, speaking 
indiscriminately, that are more ill used 
than these. 

expensive divided bearings, according to 
the purchaser, of course. 

In the simplest types of the true cranes 
the elementary frame is a trians^e, com 
posed of post, jib and tie. It is embodied 
both in pieced and in portable cranes, of 
the wharf, whip, wall, derrick and many 
other types, and includes cranes in ^MA 
jibs are curved, or cranked to dear loads 
beneath. The relative diqxMitkm of the 
three members governs tiieir idalive 
strength, and these dispawtioDt axe ooo- 
trolled by the nature ol*» ^ di 

cranes have to pel 
and directior 



(nune, as shown in Fig. i , 
be most co mm c m type, called the 
Bk type arraiigeiisent The dia- 
only oorrecl when the load to be 
la single diain and the line of 
Id Ite betd pulley to the drum, 
Mfh the centre of the lie. This 
mtd for variable radius. The 
mis over a fixed pulley, at the 
jib B. the radius R of which 
lUe, except by derricking. No 
liooey can run along this 
' fhe radius of Uie load Lifted ; 
laoQ why many of these are 
derrick. That is. the jib ts 
O tti order to permit of effect- 
Hi m the radius of lift, ac- 
both in the derrick cranes 
d in many ordinary cranes that 
am the true derricks in most de- 
ng in the capacity for this 
of movement 

or ttiast, as it may be 
m vital element in all triangular 
ics, witli those few exception'* 
a wall depends on fuIiiUing the 
The stability of a crane de- 
t first place on that of the post 
\ it will do so either by break- 
or near the ground line, where 
in bending stress occurs in 
are supported in a footstep 
mnes that have top pivots in 
post would fail somewhere 
top and bottom pivots — a de- 
btor in which would be the 
ere the jib happens to be 
post Prom this point 
die jib is brought 
ground line, the better, 
regard to the racking of 
tbb is the least fovorable 
Boits are made of timber, east 
sometimes wrought iron 
built up like girder work* 
^ % toKd post bdlt up of sted 
ii ned m wharf or 

warehouse. Jibs, struts and ties are 
grouped together because they are mu- 
tually dependent A jih with a few ex- 
ceptions is not self-supporting, but is sus- 
tained by ties or with struts. From this 
point of view various forms of jibs te* 
come grouped naturally under three 
broad types — the cantilever, strut tup- 
ported, and tlie tie supponcd. The first 
arc not numerous^ the second only mod- 
erately so; the greater number of ex- 
amples come under the last named head. 
Cantilever jibs are used chiefly on some 
forms of long-armed cranes, tisually of 
the travelling type, with or without pro- 
vision for rotation, as on the Brown 
cranes and related t>pes. Having no ex- 
traneous support they are built of girders 
of semi-parabolic outlines. 

Under travelling cranes there is in- 
cluded all those which come under the 
daas of overland travellers of Goliaths 
and gantries. The term is applied ex- 
clusively to these, notwithstanding that 
the portable cranes with trucks travel on 
rails* But the term portable, or the term 
locomotive, also applied to these, dis- 
tinguishes them from the travelling 
cranes. The distinction is purely con- 
ventional, but b always understood* 
There are a number of designs, aa those 
which exist in the frames of travelling 
cranes, and are too niunerous to make 
mention of all of them. 

I*ig. 5 shows a cranked jib which » 
laced, and is of a composite type in which 
the fitting of the rods at some distance 
away from the end leaves the portion be- 
tween the anchorage and tlie foot in com- 
pression, while the length beyond the 
anchorage is subject to bending as a 
cantilever. This jib is widened at the 
dividing section to afford strength to the 
cantilever end. 

In Fig, 4 shows a simple jib head fitting 
for a chain pulley. Two pieces of ataal 
plate AA are bolted between the H tee- 



\%\^rp \\, wliirh ;4lv# pfryrnU th€ Chaifl 
fri-itn I limping fA\\A\<\r thff pullry pin D. 
Th^ rrt*finj(* arr proir»ti^pr| into br>9Scs C, 
rrvrr whirh fhr fir t^k! ryes fit, and on 
whirH thry arr rrUinH Aidrways with 
wrt^lirr- r*F'', Tn many ras#'s. al.V), arc 
ravfinifo fiffrrl in^trarl of strrl plates. 

A« ovrf flir «irrM«*s must !>€ translated 
fhrMiictt lni«« rrKh; ttml»rr of reasonable 
i\ry\\\ ;ilfi?ir lirinff ^itfTirirnt. The method 
r»f Inimnt. fiiMfrfjvrr. aflfrct.^ thr result. 
\ fni«i«. fnn\ Iw ^iiiiplr. ^vk^ I'ijj. 5. Then 
llw >\*i|^hi Mf ihr i;iiilrr«i themselves, an'l 
f^f fhp rMh and its l<^d. and its pi^sition. 

able alike for travellers, the power of 
which ranges from half ton to a hundred 
tons or more. Iron is, however, as al- 
ready remarked, little used now, being 
mostly displaced by steeL 

In use it might be supposed that over- 
much attention has been given to the oo- 
relation of material to stresses : it is well 
to point out that the question is less one 
of cost than of weight. It costs more 
to build up girders than to use rolled 
jnists. It would generally cost more than 
the value of the metal saved. But that is 
Iiardly the point at issue. The dominat- 

^ ^o^^ 


— rv 
— -t; 

\>%^ 1 • Iv s .M'.M.i* u .i riio Unjith. also, of 
Ihr \\\^fx\ IviM- P Art*vts ihc stress's on 
iHr r«i1 « t AiUc< V*. Slrev^cs on the wliceU 
*«.• 1^1-11 .mui^aU xxx ciilorlAtiM, as in- 

*t i.-rt.^v" mt'^ \\\\\ \\\< W*^ 01 The nuirt 
^v"*.— *. *n.^ ** uS.v'x M-j c^^n■»J^^r3S!S7*^n. 
y^% »tv4.* .'fl*. wS-NN*.. «*iv to \Tov<> work- 
■ffH .•'' tV f^-*f»vHk. ^iVivlTTivx OAni8«5 ttwdt 

•pKtt tn\\ Hr f>iminAt(v't ^y makii^ ifce 
•k'iirt ^«t Tfj rVir SNii-in^jN Jin^ Vftii^ 

fK^ ii«>wv»}i lYtr. l,i.Yao!x «lf| rt»ew>. T>«>C <nTJ- 

■pU-**fTv*tft ,M tnif) %tA sKy*l for TTfcxvTk. 


ing fact is, the reduction in the dead 
\\f igii: of the travelling crane. By lessen- 
ing this the stresses on die travelling 
\^hcci< and ax}es axe lessened, and less 
jvxxer :< rftqtdred for operating — a point 
of :v.;K^h imponaxxse vidi high qwed 
iTAXY^'.'frrk whidi are nofv so rrwnmtmi. 
C%\rhcT< are dc( i^xme so single a mat* 
trr as dn^ In desagxnzig there are two 
|v^iT)ts m^nd) have te he seltiBd — i^pditjr 
<iora^mi{i&. dua i$^ as <p| if.iy p d to bock- 

TO assftc die lBien3 stresses^ wUdi are 
pr«v)iK^r' >y the rip^ l uugitoJiu al move- 
TYvn: «■ rtit rrane. 


PLTHOI'GH much has been said 
i awl irritteo both in books and 
m^ 3rct Utile has bten done to 
It tbt effideiicy of the teeth of 
is the tran«mi«ioii of power, 
ia c a n a tq ucpot of which little of a 
Ills oatiire ttsi be aaid in this brief. 
qoeslkin being a |>nictical one 
it, tberefore should be one where 
ta brotight about by uiercly 
rather than by analysis. 
have been exf>erinient^ upon 
of spur gear ttiuth, and those 
Sdlert. From tme of than it is 
that a jte**' ^»* tweKe teeth, two 
b. worfcini^ in a gear of thirty-nine 
lu hai in efficiency varying from ntne- 
kr enftBm at a dow speed to ninety 
I p0 ceitum at a high speed. That 
ki average of five per centum of the 
W r ec eiv ed is wasted by friction at 
Meth and shaft bearings. This re- 
[ m probably a dose approximatioci 
for any practical case. As said 
irr« that theory can do nothing 
le sisch a qtiestion as this, but it 
mdi to indti^te probable results, 
a emse the wTiter is merely mak- 
a u gge s tioos, whifh are per- 
djr known, and in all proba- 
be found in many text books 
If a pair of tnvoliite tecth» 
move over a certain apace. 
way from the pitch point, the 
being measured on the pitch 
win do work that is theorcti- 
by this formula: 
IP R>-h 

f Kh 

F ii the co^efficient of fnction. 

H=the pressure and K and h are the 
pitch radii of the gears. The positive 
sign is to be used for gears in external. 
Ami the negative sign for those in inter- 
nal contact. The loss by friction, at 
sliown by the fonnula, decreases tlirectly 
as the iliatTKiers tncrcaj^c, ihc prop*>riion 
of the diameters being constant. The 
loss increases rapidly with the distance 
of tile point of action from the pttcii 
point, When the contact is at the pitch 
point the teeth do not slide on each other 
and there is no loss, but away from that 
point the loss is as the square of the dis- 
tance in this case, and is a still greater 
proportion in the case of the cycloidal 
tooth. Therefore a short arc of action 
tends to improve the efficiency. 

It has been salisfactorily determined 
that the loss is greater during the reced- 
ing action. Tliis is not shown by the 
fonnula, but it may be laid to a variation 
in the co-efficient f. The formula shows 
that the loss is independent of the width 
of face of the gear, and therefore strength 
can be increased by widening the face 
without increasing the friction* If the 
work of internal gearing is compared 
with that of external glaring of the 
same sizes, the losses are in the propor- 


SO that the internal gear is much the 
more eaxiomical. particularly when the 
gear and pinion are nearly of the same 
size. If the gear is twice the size of the 
pinion the loss is but one-thinl of the 
kiss when both gears are external* Small 
improvement can be efFected by putting 



A 4m;ill pini^m \t\%\f\t rather than outside 
<yf A hr^r" f(ear. A six inch pinion 
wrjrkjn^f with a ^ix fririt ^ear has but 
I.l« rimr^ thr Ms hy the same gears 
whfn thr jjrar is intrrnal. 

Therr havr ^K-rri ruany theoretical dis- 
rtiflskiris m tnany (wTifKls by the Ameri- 
mn S^rirfy of Mrrhanical Engineers. 
Thr sfrrn^th of a tfMith is the still load 
it will ('arr\ <iiis|M*ti(!r(l from its point, 
unrl tl is III ho rarr fully studied and dis- 
Itti^iiishrrl ffirm \\\v luirsc |K)wer, or the 
land thr i;rar will stnrul while in motion. 
Thr sifrit^th of a stihstance is not a 
fl^rtl limit, but will vary with different 
SAmplrs. ;ind with the same samples un- 
der rnlttrl) ditlcrrnt treatment; allow- 
Aticr must W matic for the quantity and 
•juahtx of seixior the sample has done, 
while oMirraled defects arc provide*! 
aisainst, UiMhini: but an actual tost can 
Hhr drfinitc dctennination o\ its char- 

It 1* appi>^\«maie\l that a standard 
%*ast nvM^ tx^Mh* havm^ an addcndun; 
$X^M\\ f\^nai t\^ a third of the drvular 
p^fvh wdl axcvaj:v aNMtt thr*>c ihousano 
t^XT hwndtxsl |\Mmds nmlf.plicvl bx the 
i%\^ iM \W cvat and Aj:A"in b\ the oirc;:- 
\%\ p-itx*"!*; ,\yh m ukJksN is cquA* the 
mIiv-^ji:-, ^y b^vaVinit stw>^lh. Im:: a 
^^.s^ t^N^i'd ncxrr Ne twvxs', r,p ii> irs 
n>»!-':'«*iv ^^lYiXjCtb. and t)»c Nest pr^ctw 
H t.^ ijixr It *>nl> aN>*« *>i>e^*CT»th *M the 
>i>*«i1 ii mt^t fHxssiMx Sear, s*^ that the 
fsTV^^1inft T^iV !fchi>«iM be ii^ed : M^lriplx 
rV-'W brrrh^rrsl and fiftx }>^irhis bx thr 
fuNV .M \^ Cf'ar. %r\A Jiiciain bx the oironUr 
"frto>» H^ Tfj TTN^bev anr. ^hc fTi-yhv: m-il: 
Sf tV w»fi- w.Y-V:nc: Kvt*-; ^v ^vr^ nvvh 

1- virftfik \ oft!5: ir*^i ^a: <>f 4>»ie inch 
P'N-^ irn^ i*v irvVs ^jkv. ^iV. safflx- lift 
Ji«*f'\1»\l ^•^r fvNit>dii, alth«^ ft 
^vmV: t^'^ShnKx (TsN 4N^v«ne9rimftrff||:' 

^%m\ ifhtrt ni^ r«i^ t«*» iiiMM *i 

working contact it is safe to allow doa- 
ble the load, bat care must be taken that 
both teeth are always in Ml contact 

A hardwood mortised cog has about 
one-third of the strength of a cast iron 
tooth; steel has approximately double 
the strength; wrought iron is not quite 
as strong. Small {Mnions as a rule gener- 
ally have teeth that are weak at the roots, 
and then it will increase the strength to 
shroud the gear up to its pitch line, but 
shrouding will not strengthen a tooth 
that spreads toward the base, like an in- 
volute tooth, and when the face of the 
gear is wide compared with the lengdi 
of the tooth the shroud is of little assist- 
ance. It does not increase the strength 
of a tooth to double its |Mtch, for when 
the pitch is increased the length is also 
increased, and the strength is still in di- 
rect proportion to the circular pitdi, 
while the increase has reduced the num- 
Ix^r of teeth in contact at a time. 

Cut gears and cast gears are about 
cv;ua! as to actual strength, with the ad- 
vania*:^ in fax^or of the cut gear, that hid- 
den defect5 are likely to be discovered.and 
that it is noc as liable to imdue strains on 
acc\>uTi: of defective shape. The rules for 
strength " tkvi be used for gears nm- 
r.iiu: £* ^tT.y caDSJoerabk speed, for they 
Are ir«3ided onlr for stow service, as in 
cTaT>e5. heavx- ekrraiois, power pondies, 
etc., etc 

TV horsie pcwcr of a gear is die 
aTTk-^cmt of pc^rer it mar be ckpended 
npcvn t^ cftrry m conotaal service. It is 
^TTx veT. ^<«n]ed 'ftoA on—mnal strains 
ano. imxiaca mnC daoige the mtnre of the 
mera«. Tcndem^ it mone hi Mile, wo fihst 
a tiVii>; Tha: is peiiodh irEiH 
iK^- ma^ he worddcBS vfeui it 1 
^<««'^ in ^sen-in. TUs ciSK of 
tvir is fiartinitaaik- pMkat m dK one of 



I tamfdrm ipeca, mna the contifi- 
d from !ibock and rapid varia* 
lie power carried must and does 
le strength of the metal. There 
as many rules for oomputing the 
m ffcv as there are manufacture 
ctdi foimdryman having 
r onlf good one» which he finds 
treating on the subject in 
.. .^ikm, and then he goes 
curing the |>ower down to so 
and fraction and thinks he is 
% at counting the number of 
iMJght of casting. But this so 
actkal method exists among 
writers on engineering 
the agreement is no bet* 
ihown by Cxioper and other 
ea. See the Franklin Institute 
July, 18T9-80, which shows 
ioo of twenty-four rules from 
writers applied to the 
of a five- foot gear, and then 
dtflFerent results were ob- 
g from 46 to 300 
and prortng conclusively 
object sought is not to be 
calcubtton* This variety 
, for it is always pos- 
destred power to a given 
I if a badly designed gear should 
wnple matter to find a rule to 
il was just right and must 


no rule can be called reli> 

lliat appears m<M to be the 

by Box, also Beales, in 

small gearing. Box*s 

oo many actual cases, 

ghrcs wxacmg the lowest and 

safest results, is by the 

t given 


n - number of revolutions per minute* 

Example: A gear of two frrt diame- 
ter» four inches face, two inches pitch, 
running at 150 revolutions per minute* 
will transmit 

tilarpitcli, ) 
the face. -io inches 

I ^ diaiaeter. \ 

BK = " <*'''P^ 

For level gears, take the diameter and 
pitch at the middle of the face. It is 
perfectly atlowable, although it is not 
good practice to depend upon the gear 
for from three to seven times the calcu- 
lated power, if it is new, well made and 
has no varying conditions, such as sud- 
den shock as those subjected to in auto- 

The influence of impact and continued 
senncc will be appreciated when it is 
considered that the gear in the exam* 
pie which will carr>' 11,6 horse power 
if impact is ignored, and the ultimate 
strength of the metal is the only depend* 

A mortice gear with wooden cogs will 
carry as much as or more than a rough 
cast iron gear will carry, although its 
strength is much inferior. The elasti- 
city of the wood allows it to spring and 
stand a shock that would wreck a more 
brittle tooth of much greater strength, 
and for the same reason a gear will last 
longer in a yielding wooden frame than 
it will in a frame that does not permit 
of yielding. We know little and have to 
guess at it (as it were) the horse power 
of cast gears and very much so in re- 
spect to cut gears, as we are not so fully 
posted, as there never was any expcri^ 
mental data upon which a reliable ntle 
can be founded. 

Admitting, however, this fact, as we 
ntust, that impact is the chief ol 
the detarioration of cast gears, but white 
thus we can assume that a properly cut 
and smoothly running cut gear is much 
more reliable* No definite rule is ad* 



hered to, but we can safely as- 
sume tliat a cut gear wilJ carry 
at least three times as much power as can 
be trusted to a cast gear at the same size, 
and allowing that it ts made in the best 
manner. Speaking definitely that a cut 
gear is about three times more reliable 
than a cast gear, as already stated, we 

ma\' compute sts horse po^'er by th 
formula : 

Horse power of cut gear= cf l/ d n 


in which c =^ circular pitch. 1 

f = face, [ in inches 

d — pitch diameter i 

u = number of revolutions. 

Electric Blue Print Macltines. 

Several years ago the Buckeye Engine 
Co., Salem, O., realized tliat their sun 
printing frames were rapidly failing to 
satisfy the growing demand for blue 
prints. They were convinced that prices 
asked for electric printing machines were 
much too high and that the machines 
then on the market had radical defects 
and complications in construction which 
could be overcome. They, therefore, de- 
signed and bit i It one acording to their 
own ideas and obtained results ^vhich 
were highly satisfactory. 

It was not their intention to build 
machines for the markets but upon solici- 
tation several have been built and are in 
active service. 

A perfect contact of paper and tracing 
must be obtained to insure a good print, 
and this is one thing claimed for this 

The cost of operating is said to be 
about five cents per hundred hours for 
carbons, plus the cost of current. 

These machines are built in two sires : 
*'A" makes two prints 42 x 44, while 
style *^B'' makes prints 42 x 60-in. 

Don't always have a grudge against Don't forget that opportunity is a 

your employer. He has his faults. So valuable part of your salary. You 
have you* No one is withoot them. get experience in no other way. 


tK Urjg^ draftiog roocos, where many 
* dnnrtagB arc prodoced, then; is 
difficulty in corrcctl> 
to firawtn^s. It frc- 
^mnttf happens tliat the same number 
ii gjhrtn to two or three difTereTit draw* 
i^fi. or» Aat thrcnij^h sonic oversight, 
in a series are overlooked 
unaligned. A method 
in the drauf^httni^ department of 

bcrod I and the next 2 and the next 3, 
and so on. When a draftsman desires 
a number for a drawing he takes the lop 
sheet from the pad of drawing number 
slips and uses the number on that slip 
for his drawing. Then, in lead pencil, 
he writes on Uie shp the date of the 
completion of the drawing, its title, and 
on the bottom of the slip his name. The 
slip is then given to the stenographer in 





<^V *^ i ^mrn^t^ y^ tf ■»» ^ tf ^ ■ j^ ^m^^^ 


< ^T^^STi*^./ - 

^^ ^^^ ■ -/r^^^ ^ 

— ■ i<f I 


.^^fiJ^4: iSKj:w,..isd^ 

\ oi Am krge Eastern telephone com- 
' olnriates any aecidait of this sort. 
of il^ each called a draunn^ 
Jif, ifc made up, fifty in a pad 
Each of these sttpt measures exactly 5-in, 
so that It fits in a standard 5-in. 
desk tray. The illustration shows 
of these sjips. After the 
from the printer, each one is 
wilh a consecutive numbering 
That is, the first slip is num* 

charge of the card records. The records 
of the drawing are written up from the 
slips, which arc filed away for a short 
time and then destroyed. 

The method has given excellent salia- 
faction, there being practically no inter- 
ference ittjm the double assignment of 
numliers or from a tracing getting into 
the files without a record of it going 00 
the cards* 


y*9^'i^i^iHi, XX MWl. in course of erecti-nfn. -Jc nrirref dK zt- 

N...^j ,o,v, - ,.. p ,• .\>.in.Mi> v\xxi t'Ta^re riml»er r-f h; inner srrakc* for 

• . V ^, N^!' ^,- .X. ,». :x :o4ii:;i, "ic^ur nint ryiorniiics, and. b. ^tiic JeLrnei tbeii. 

> ; . h.x..-^ N .X? . ;i.,u-x .,; SrciLish r.i.-'At':] ::■ & hn:e" mr: iht ni?w bcifjfrig 

^•■•- ^ ^- •'••■' .'.»'. •''Ju loiiini ai ;.\:-:ir: :.:' th-t-t n. if l iiiitni: *: n &>i: 

"• -^ '-• • •■^- ^ .>•■ .». Mk V .vx V a^i an. ;. r-arijir nae' "mret n b«ri 

..i.v'. x\.. v-* ..»\,- w\^.^ .1 .h, :\r«v*;'5^ v.>^. -.- :nif rait t v:»iiii zrrrt L- 

•^ "^ * — » .^ n Kiv»\^■.1^ Mui: ...;t i;,.:.^ ;. lIh- n frr v^roL f b* irssps 

■^' • ■■ - ' ' ' ■••■ •' ■ i::^* .^ ::: :n: c^ir si-c^id:- :ni liS-1 n bird 

. > ■■ ■■*••' ' ^"^ Vi*- .. :-•: V ~U.v r" t J' .'•**' t:» " i w r 

X ■ . - XV , 


By L. e. P. 

'X'HK value of a table of squares vary- 
■ ioK by i-i6or 1-32 iu drafting room 
*- :r.|>utations is evident enough to be 
l*a<-oi \%ith«iut crmiment. What natural- 
\ 'iCcurH t«i the inquiring mind is by 
i%hat rnctho<l are the extension tables 
t»..\\ :ti print computed. 

T!u- j^rcat lalior involved either in di- 
r-xx n.iiitiplication <»r in the use of logar- 
:■: * -ui:i:eM> some "short-cut*' process. 

Vht writer madr use of such a short- 
out in the destruction of a small table 
:r-r': o i*» 50 by I -16, and while a better 
r '^ tr — i iTiav have been employed in com- 
:".:::i:;; xhv printed tables the process 
:»r«\»«l txcivdingly satisfactory and ex- 

It !•» lasi'd 4in the use of series of 
::rft rvmi-^. ami can Ust lie descrilied bv 
« c-'irrctc example: 
I 1 

Thf nr>t C(»lumn of figures contains 
:^* ^wt-n numbers; the second, the 
^^uares ; the third, the difference between 
rm*. adjacent numbers in the seawd col- 
umn, anil the fourth, the differences taken 
:>'.rt the thin! column, which are con- 

It \%il! be noted that given the topmost 
Spire* in each column, all the others may 
V 'ichvcd by simple addition ; that is. bv 
rrver*ing the process of taking differ- 
mcr%. This is true not only when the 
!::zmUrrs increase by integers, but also 
«^y^ the increment is fractional, and i* 
Tji be shown to be generally true alge- 

(2x-« 3a )a 

2.1 ■ 

Let X be the number, a the increment - 
( I -16, 1-32. or whatever else may be se- 

We can then express the series of dif- 
ferences in general terms as follows: 

No. S<|. iHtdif. 2fiddif. 

X x2 

x-fa ix-j-a*' 

x-f-2a « x4-2a)« 

x4-3a .x-:ta)- 

x-f-la ix-|-4a)^ 

Tlu-si' arc taken exactly as were the 
numerical differences alx)ve. 

The second differences^ i2a'» Inin^; 
constant show that the prixrcss is ap- 
plicable for any value of a. 

Supjiosc wc desire to con^truct a table 
beginning with 5. increasing by 1-16. 
The first step is to find the top row of 
figures and the table is in the following 
condition, ready to l)e completed by 
simple addition. 

No. S«|. Isl aif -Jnil ilif. 

llt-n- X -•» a--- \ -.i>«*r» 
i '2\-^a. A - .«;-is*HKi'j"» 

The Ci>!unin of first differences inav 
now be found by adding successivelx to 
the adjacent number the constant 
.0078125 and the column of square by 
adding to the given square the number 
adjacent to it in the column of first di* 

No. St|. No. 


25.00(NMX)00 5] 

•iA.62S90625 5,\ 

.63671 875 
rii 26.26.'i62.T0<» 5| 


5/j 26.91015625 5,% 


i Si 
2111I. dtf. =.0078125 







-H ftf^ftn- f'.f/ . l.\[)f;STRIAL MAGAZISE 

I ..r I ..iivf uiriuf III iii;ikinj; xhf addi- roll undtT in passinj^ down. Cover paste rill wrirli iiMv Ik- ;irr;irijfi-r| in one U*anl with marble paper, cloth, or front 
-"■liimii. ,1. Ji.iwti with thr first differ- oivt-r «»f ont* of the papers bound. Ad- 
iiM« wnitfii iMivvffu thr rffiuirrd just hlinrks t«.» e<Iije of back and clamp 
■♦|ti;ir» - vvrll and U*t dry. If you have done your 

I'hf -»fid diffrrfiircs. Im ifi^j rf»ii>tant. vvcirk neatly ymi will have a book to be 
nrril rifil\ tif wfittiii i iiirc fill fhf t'dj^f f)f pn»ml of. [ hind all my technical papers 
.1 .*|»;ir;i(r .|i|iid iMpir .Hid bpMi^dit ;nl tliis way. I keep my Practical Carpen- 
i;i«*nt f.i f .If h fiisf .hlT<T!-nri' ff»r adfji- ters in a letter tile till I get the number 
u*^\y dr^irt'il and then bind them. — Ij;no 

\ i!.i( nil rih.iilit.ililf .ii|v.iiit;ii:r 'if this Ranm^j. in Practical Carpenter. 

n'...!r ..i |ii.Midiirf- Ills III fhf fart that the 

-|wi,fi,.n, .11. Ml! thnkiiii: an.l Measures Unseeable Len|:ths. 

•ih I pt.i|., iix sf.iit..l hr r.uTi«-«| mi The V-"»<»th part of an inch is a milli- 

l«\ in\ ..n. \\^\.^ , .111 |MifMiiii till' opora nteior. The •i,""<'.00nth part of a milli- 
«-."i ..f ;».!diti.Mi meiiT is what Or. P. E. Shaw of 

l'n;;:lanii i> :^K*a>uring:. The unaided eye 
oann«M jn^rcoivt- miKdi less than one- 
icnih '^r a :r.:r.i:iuier. With the help of 
a :i^ioro>o>po the eye can see as little 

.i^ '. '». • :".:!!::::e:or. The measuring 

■■\ ■■"■•• "<v * : 7'-etrinij gauges 
A'!' '.cue: ■::::erer.ces of l-?=^.i)no niilli- 
■";v:c^ V-. -.:-:-:;: ::::er:cronco ha nils of 
■ C ■: ^i '^.^'" v^^^^ '^^ wveriie-n of 1- 
:" ■•■■■;.:i' !•: :'H- «:'piical lever 
:. '.,." '<". :.■-"> .'" :-> p:v'!«;.I mir- 

v:>-:s :':c :rr.TTy*T at a 
> ■ ; ..- ■■■: .w > ■: :'*t viv«'i the 

: > ".:; "^ ;. ". ■« ;.'"i": :: :hc b-. fix by 

.;;";:;' :"ij '-e -leii/Ctel. 

■*'■;■ "■<: :■■:;•/; — . :r^ : >c:ns::*ve metlioii 
V . : , ; ;t:-': -■•—:»:-- itr. I^^r. Shaw's 

s^r*:'. '^^< -»>'• :•?•£■-. -rr-r^rovev: s-.^ thai it 
,;. .;.- -i •:-.- : r-.i.r 1-i','««'.'HMi. It 

■< -^.^- ,"*^ ' ■;■•; ":■* :hf hzD-'i, hv.i work- 

.- .-;■ r '•-■■; :>: mhbcr. which 

.vx^iH ■-.-.- ;. M.p- i.r.~«Tinc a 7>:::3ey to 

■. ^."'. • '"":> !* :'iCiTtt :■:• svoid the 

.*»■.;■■. * ^:'il:'^ TiTar> and the 

. . ■ •», •i.Mi;". >atT.y pT>ecaiitioii5 

•^^1 •■■;^ ^^.r*: >Ju.f<. r»«mlnK*5 must 

.*.<. •■•.- • :T7<nrf IT* cvfirraxion. 

MliiilInK Papem. 

f w • 

". •■.«.l .t oi \\.*i».:c!i Mix'k< 
*. •».;••! • . \\ l*i"i^ ;!"'"vi.! N^vtv^th 

. -11 . . ' 
1 1 . ■ 

^;''. • 

■■*•• i' .» » '.i-v. .* •»:i :ps . : 

.:.--iiur: TnanmacTxnvr never 


By Pivf* A* Eswsfv KImo##* 

A WORKING drawini^ i5 a drawing 
which gives an the facts of fonn, 
sue and structure of an object. Its pur- 
pose is to show the workman with ac- 
mrac}' all the dimensions of an object 
mhich is to be made. This object may 
bronc already made, or it may exist only 
in the brain of the inventor or designer. 
A worWinjj drawing is. therefore, com- 
^jken of as many geometric views of an 
fjbirct as are necessary to the complete 
mKkrstanding of that object. 
A geometric view shows but two di- 



FtK. L Fig. i. 

mm$i«in> of an object. F«»r sucfi a view 
the object is supfK>sei! to be placed not 
<«!> directly below the eye, but as though 
each part « point) was directly in front 
of Of ilirectly below the eye. The differ- 
tm vicn% rctpiired in a working drawing 
are named from the part represented \\\ 
*r view. Thus: the front view rcpre- 
the view obtained by tooking di- 

rectly at the front of the object ; the tO;) 
view rq)resents the view obtained b. 
Ux>king directly down upon the top o^ 
the object, and so on with the oih^'. 

Working drawings must have two 
views of the same solid. Illustration: 
n(» one can tell what kind of a S4^)lid 
figure I represents, because* only one view 
of the solid is shown and hence it may 
represent a solid whose cross-section is 
a triangle, a scjuarc. or an hexagon. .\ow 
notice, figure 2 shows two views of onr 


Kivi. 3. Fiji 4. 

solifl: those two views give a complete 
iilea of the fonn oi the solid represented. 
The lower view sln»%s the height and 
that the edges arc parallel: the up|>er 
view shows the form of the ends of the 
same solid, and with such a drawing In- 
fore him any mechanic can shape tlie ma- 
terial with a certainty tluit can be ob- 
taincil in no other wav. 

t^t*fjiirt\.i^fyi IhUKVU^'Ir^L M^r^^ZPSE 

1. . 1. r*» •>•! Ui^vt* vi« wfc f>i Jvaa'. \W-*^y\\\ was bom in Tau: 

I i 4ii^.-^ VII rtt A\f\t^-:^\ \fi Mii-^a' -iM^eitr. on July 26. 1779. 

* ♦»•• ■-'«•••- • i'«i yr li^Mjti /^ I/1J1 ic-arrK-'i iljt trade of goldsmith, ai 

• •• t ;...t..i4u thdi iitMH* .^ Ji J>*-^i, ill hi«» native town, made the 

1 «i.M« «i(.MM. ^ it itidiif^tiUf l/ritaiiTii;4 ware produced in the U 

• I'"." < iti Hii.- tatc / iij;«y |>c St:it«w. \i\\\ \\\\< enterprise provec 

•■ '..♦'■ •.. . f Hit ?.*Iif1?. j»iil ilir >iiir<*s«*inl. He then removed to B( 

I ' I ti.t r..i... ^..ll•l^, J.M II aii<! cMtcTe'I thc emplov of the 5 

,1... 1 . 1, will, tu- ..I Im|i vi« ws l'.«iN!iiM Iron Works, and in 1839, 

■ ;...,« .;. *k^ :in cinpliive of this establishmen 

..^M. • «. ...itiii|ili iIk iitiiiilKt |ir«M!iict<1 the invention which has 

; ; il.. .l»i.,it.- .1 ill. Mtt]((t^ in pctnaiiMl his name. For this inve 

., I ., ti.. . . ii^ii IK iiitn Imiiihu-v lie- vi;is t^ivrii a gold medal fron 

,!,..,♦.. I i.*ii ii I- ..ii.n \A M;i^^;u'liiison> lliaritable Mech; 

,...| I. . I .. . « iiiit i.i.i. limn «lu*4 uni X^^iui.ition. and afterward Con 

.? ,,.M..l N.I flui. .lit -i.n^ti'i] hi.n tlu- snni of S^O.OOM as 

, . .,, ,.j, ^^,^^^ , I ,,m i , , uiiL'nl;* 1 .^1« ^v.'iv.' In 1 ^4 i the invention was 

T... i. I.,, I .. x^ U^n.ur. \i«\^ iiitf.i ;:i Tiiiiland and in 1>47 in R 

1..,. ». ^ ., «^ Ui. -.'.I. M«,l :»v:V-^ ^^'*' ^Ji-^ "■■•■■<:: ^^"'■'^f ^Jrn^ ^^* ^^^ 

'. . .. „ i.. -,.:.!.-.■■ i. }:i»^. ;•'.:•» .IT.:-.-.!; ..■ -■';■::::> he en^raged ii 

.. i -. .,..■.. ......,■ .su' N'- s:-. ..i:.: :•:;;.':.■-. ■ ." >•:.; = . SO T'lat his 

.. .',.. ■• =J, -MM^.h^.v .-. ■''■^ :».\\i- '. ;.i- V*-: a hou>rh':Jd 


« ■ >v 

t'l » .■■••» ^ 'f <* 

:., .:'.-. ■:.--:.:'; :.: :he \jcL*ne As 
v.,:.i. ■\ .1.. N.;.^«;:irrinse::s.. on M« 

• 1 \n<j 
1% . 

I. . . , • ...... K..» .1, 

1.1' -.1. .'...■■: 1- n*i:i.i; '."»: T^Jt 2-L 

«^.i!li.*i. :i .::"s:i: "lit .d.lITlLr'* 

■ :.:v .;;-. ,-: ■ .:. i;-iianii;L : 

■\.-i •. .^ ;.: ...■■• II MI. •^'- pLT! 

•11 .■ Ti/.-r- . vi .-oni*?.* :*«. 

•1'^^ ^ . .■■-.. X li.i >. •.•.; Tii.n :na- n.'V i 

'vj .. ^x;:t-.-.v, 5i..»ir,;'. . \\ nu-.i If r:c 

' -^1 '■■'.■ ^•- ' ' ■' .' 1 ; r-.i •-».-».■■. . ::!. "i r»;i^:- an-i 

.1. ... ,>,.i.^.. ^ .,.ir^ -1. . ■■•^•nf : •■ iiaTt?. 

, ....... I -Ti ■!;,■ .. t.r'flrjTU, ^. ilK'l 

, ,, I I •.....^t: 1. III. •».. 

■■ ■ ■ - '. •■ ■ ii:. :h. ;iU''»v- Ifc- 

V - " •■■ K.. n;,ri:- i:-j.ii :: 

•v ■ • •■ .^ni^l '^vv . I' ; 

"* ' ' ■ . -: i^AA. ? 

i-.r'n'ir •'.•t\c\ 1 

' ...-..., ■. ■ r. fh .ih 

'- 1 . ■ -^ .it: f TT "■iTtr-n 


By I. B. RIcli. 

W many draftsmen never wished 
'or arttslic abilities enough to draw 
sketches for the patternmaker and 
mith in ptTspective ? It is so 
to show just what you 
to in this way, in one 
I and the man who can not 
•tand this kind of a sketch has no 
rss in the mi^lcrn shop. But I 
come across mighty few drafts- 
kho are artists enough to do this 
y don't have i^o label it **this is a 
h" or whatever it happens to be. 
tches of this kind do away with 
»nfusion of the different angles of 
lion. H-ith the chances for mis- 
»tan<ling dotted lines and shad- 
iml c«mvey to the mind of the 
lan just the right idea of the 
vou want macje. 

linear perspective with its 
ing points is nut of the question 
>$t of lis and so we generally give 

re is a uay out. however, if we 
^pend a little time in getting 
If ifc-ith iscimetric perspective, 
as no horizontal lines but the 
hat are horizontal in the original 

degrees above <»r below as the 
lay he. Vertical lines remain ver- 
nd circles become ellipses. This 
f great advantage of being easily 
1 and of being capable of scaling 
:mension along the isometric 

Instead of taking the regulation 
a is nsually done, let us try i 
gle. such as a brick, and see how 
r we can show the pattern maker 
hat we want htm to know. No 

one can mistake the sketch in figure 1. 

Suppose wc have to put a few open- 
ings in this, and wc simply put in the 
lines shown in figure 2. The dimensions 
tell the whole story and still no chance 
of mistake. Of course, a good man 
who can read drawings will have no 
trouble with any of the regular draw- 
ings, but the average man will ; and then 
too, the three view drawing takes 
more time. I^xaniples of this kind 
can be extended indefinitely as 
can Ik- seen in figures three and four, 
and could be multiplied many 
times. These bring us to the circles 
wliich become ellipses in this perspective 
and which have kept some from using 
it in their work. As a matter of fact, 
this need not he the case, for the real 
use of such a perspective is for 
sketches rather than finished drawings 
and can very well be done free handed 
in nearly every case. 

Isometric has a fieM in finished draw- 
ings, and is used by some for assembly 
drawings, as it shows just where every 
piece goes an<l leaves no chance of 
making a mistake in putting together. 
Hut more of this after we have become 
accustomed to its use in simpler and 
perhaps more practical ways. 

It will be plainly seen that to draw in 
this perspective, requires either tri- 
angles or swiveling head T squares, anti 
is not as easy as the other drawings. 
This is one reason why it has not had 
more general adoption as it certainly 
had many advantages, especially from 
the fact that all the isometric dimen- 
sions can be drawn to an exact scale 



Tliifiif tiUfkuhk^ lift fApvizied, how- 
«^v«^r, l;y llir iiir of tb« new, cipedally 
rtili"! |Mi|H'r, on lli«; name r/rder at the 
i-roM i^i'ilioii |Hip«rr«, but with the lines 

ing each space as an inch or 
any other dimension, just a 
with section paper. This 
known as the D-C Iso paper j 
will be explained in a later s 

f\9k A 


%/ERY few draftsmen would under- 
^ Hkt to make a moTabte head T- 
square, because a majority of them have 
a filse idea of the accuracy required in 
such instmments. 

The instrument makers hear down 
heavily on the accuracy pedal in their 
descriptive catalogues, especially in de- 
scribing instruments made of wood, 
when, as a matter of fact, this extreme 



^ W>A\\\^\ ^Vi 


Tip 2. 



accuracy is required only in the triangles 
and scales. 

The drawinp: board requires but one 
straight edge — the working end — and 
that need not be parallel to the other end 
or exactly at right angles with the bot- 
tom and top. With the head of the T- 
s<]uare against the working end of the 
board all lines drawn along the blade will 
be parallel, reganlless of the inaccuracy 
of the other edges. 

This is also true oi lines drawn along 
the blade »>f the T-square, whether the 
blade is at true angles to the head or not. 
provided the Made is nin so loosely at- 
tached to the head as to wobble. 

The accompanying "Irawing represents 
a movable bead T-square that may be 
constructed] by any« ne with a very little 
skill with t.' 

Tlie s.iuare sV.-r.]l be one with the 
blade screv. L-vi t.' t]-i- I'.ead. not with tlie 
blade monisi-i] int' i]:e head. With .1 
fine niitcT-' ■ -x r^;;\\. ort ;i ki rf ab'V.t one- 
L-ighih mc\' '.ei;' -i": tin utI. as sliown W 
A. Fie. 1. If I'l'iTi ari nvi- scnws holdini: 
!]"i l'';i<!v I ' \\'K hx'?.'\. re:r.i-vi tlie center 
■r.i- :*'■;■! :j: iliat :» ':m S.-re a :hree-six- 
u-i'-::- -.'.'.ch W^\c xYr^'Wi^V l^laue an^] liead. 
Rean: ■.•ut this hole t.< rako a three-si\- 
luiTiiV iiic:"! st-~'ve b'>lt l<>^se]y. 

T;iKt :, -::ia]' pii-ct - •: <tiff brass and 
r\\ :: T'.. the shape sl--<\\n at B. Fig. 2, 
In the narrow end iM-re a hole large 
enouiih t. > take a X(\ 2 brass screw. Put 
this in place, with the small tongue in 
ihi saw kerf and screw to the head, as 
<ho\\n in the drawing. 

Slip a washer .mi a three-quarter inch 
l-ng sti -vo b<Mt. three-sixteonthsof an inch 
in diameter, and push the l>olt up through 
the hole l>ored in the head of the square. 
Slip a washer on ibe projecting end or 
t^n WA\ and screw on a thumb nut. Screw 
\\y< -low n tight and then remove the four 
T-e: -aininc screws, holding the blade to 
the ]-^ead, and the movable head T-squarc 

is completed. 

The operation of this square is quit: 
simple, as will be seen by the drawing. 
When it is required to change the angk 
of the blade, merely loosen the thumb 
nut, lift the spring out of engagement 
with the saw kerf, and turn the blade to 
the recjuired angle and tighten the thumb 
nut. To restore it to its original posi- 
tion it is only necessar>' to loosen the 
thumb nut. turn the blade until the 
spring falls into the saw kerf and again 
tighten the thumb nut. 

The wear on this square will be no 
greater than on the factory-made square, 
and with reasonable care it would prob- 
ably last 1 Linger. 

Concerning Barrels. 

"Maybe you wouldn't think it." said 
a man with a pine splinter for a tooth- 
pick, 'bni ] wani to tell you that this 
country r.irr;> -^-n ],immijmmi barrels anc] 
kciis an-l iha: son, every working dav 
in thr year, -r :; vearly «"»utput of 300.- 
riMnjhi.j^ ,':.i,] t'Te '/niiel States leads 
\h\: \^•■•^l■.■ ir the c-.»i:>perage business. 
Yr-v. r-MchnVi i:-"vk it, -rithcr, but tlour 
:'»esT:"i c.-.:' f- T t:a most barrels, not- 
withst;*:T lii"!;.: :C.\ vm- tl'~'ur we produce. 
CemeTVi :e;r.l> tiie siring with r,.i.oiM.i.OoO 
barrels. \\\\:\<: fi-Mir uses only '2 "J. o "•'•.- 
oiHi. Sii--:.vr calls for lo,OnO.O(»0. and 
bolts, mns. nails, etc.. take another lo. 
RfKistevi C'»tTee. spices, fruits, vegetables. 
and crockery take 5,000,000 barrels 
each, and glassware, baking powder. 
distilled liquors, cand\\ tobacco and 
cheese use from 5,000,000 to 3,000,00(» 
each, every year. Oil, iiolasses. dry 
paint, pork. glue, snuff and a lot of 
other articles call far their millions too, 
ever>- year, not to cotoit those already 
in use." 

A butcher can vsoalfy 
make both eads med. 



-Holdcn Co.* Springfield, 
lo rccci\'e onlen* for 
! erf their Architectural Dimw- 
liidiiig slcwie and brick coo- 
are lo plateii. '9x12' 

k appear In otir title page, 
no doubt receive much of 
the CoUiuwood post o(ficc, 
rood i% a suburb of Cleveland * 
i of the dty and reached by the 
^r*' branch of the Cleveland 
wtUc electric road. 
■ that the fresh air and country 
le iildild\'e to the production of 
I^t (IS heir from each 

Pneumatic Tool Co., 

manufacturers of the 

Pneumatic Hammer, report 

for 1905 as having been 

sry. Kot%vith!kianding the 

is a tendency to^ ard the 

to delay purcha<trs until 

|mning*^of the new vear, an 

\ number af onlersi was re- 

iber. The Company has 

ordered «tiiditional nuchincrr>' 

qrtos irorks which mil increase 

llply lo about 300 hammers per 

i^% from Corre»pocMleiice 
are mans lovenllve 

If mi the va^ expeuitc in the 
Ul liocs throughout the United 
1^ fisd before us dignified 
■ *« coiBpared with a half 
H rheo educalioo 

looked u]Jon as being superfluous and un* 
necissary. liul die time** being changed, 
and today no man or woman is worth 
anything who is not educated to meet 
these dc4iian<t>i, It has Uxonic %o im- 
(Mirtant to have an education for every 
calling tliai in order lo meet these in- 
evitable demands open roads in the way 
of tuition by correspondence are brought 
in vogue. The yunng nun who has am- 
bition and wantsi tn better his position 
st^irtji^ a course from a com^pondoice 
schotil. This sounds easy* but just im- 
agine what push and longing he must 
have in him lo c<»mplcte his studies ! To 
cnmmenct* with, he comes upon subjects 
which he |KTha|)s has never heard of ; he 
meets problems which only a technicat 
man can solve ; in order for him to sue- 
ccsfull> get over this, or in order to get 
more explanation he has to send to him 
school, and in turn this state of battle 
ctituinues a1! through his course. To 
help himself he ponders and thinks and 
reads up books on tlic subjects, forcing 
his tenacity, judgment, obiervatioo and 
reflci tion. anti nine out of ten cases be- 
fore he finishes his course he reaUiea 
Miinc improvement on some part or the 
whole: All this being tiroitght about bv 
ambition to study. 

We will refer to the young nmn who6e 
parents are financially able to send htm 
to a technical college. This fellow^ 
knows his father is well-to-do, and what's 
the result? He simply studies for the 
&ake of study* or* rather* pasttoie, as :t 
were. He very rarely is oat of line from 
his class, becatise his parents are ridi. 
Well take Hiis for what ii*s worth. He 
goes to ciillege for three years, as the 


/?/'Off/- f\(/\ l\f)(J.^JRl.\l. .UAGAZISE 

..I . ...I l»r ;,i,/l ;ir fhr tut\ of his term 
I. .I* • irh ;i Hif»loTri;i. whirh is a rrr.ff^- 
iiifi'.i. fli.if h' h;is ji;i«i^#vl H r^Tfain roiirs<:. 
■f lir .1111/ -.o r;i!I/#| ^fra'liMN' K<'^«i a \»ff^i 
ti'-ri Tir li'-'.'.ri'l lii^ ;il»ility. iKrailM- of 
iiinrif V '^". Hri V h;ivr to 'lo s#i arul ^>; 
lii« f.'iflirr iH :i«.^'M ialf'l with <iti(-h a t'irni. 
tf*. :t prwwl f hi til* thir*- {it*- tint many rich 
mill' 'n^u^ \ihri t:il<i- M|i ;iti iri^inrcrin^ 
ff.tttT Mt wt \\i^\\\i\ (iml th:it whrti thi* 

Itlii' I Mtilf'*: 111 I'Xri tllr UtH iwlnl^C th(*V 

•iMi|il\ II mill) Kiiitw iiiilhin^. 

Ihf ntfifi h.i^ witikcil with ^ra«hi:it<'** 
lii.iii v.Mti III ihi l.n^^r iiin\rr'*ui\*s \\h> 
i..||l«) !ii»! H'» .\ -1 .ill, ;inil thr^r nuMl WiTC 
thi linif ^piiltiti o1 \\ hilr in the sailU' 
^0:^1 . u.'ili.l ii\.« I .Mir'»]^M\«lo!UV nion 
\\h.*M .ihilm w.!" !i I i^cni/ril t;n t>c\iMiii 
till -1 Km.'uIiiIi.i riiiiii.^1^ wlii^auMho 
Im 111 • ■■•nv li ^M-'^xi- I'.Mv 'iis^xolx that 
iiM f'T '■■■ i.»K'i'.._ .m 


X -^N 

,.■*.■. ■.: \\ .v*"' 
» :■;■.*■■ \ '\ 

Iv.- . .»^ . .. 

.>{>rin||^tiL-lfi, Mass.. Nov. 4, 1 
To the Editor. 

Ih-zr Sir: As a draftsman and 
of your magazine. I would like to 
few lines to the discussion of orj 

T tKflieve that it is the duty of 
man who ])Iys the trade to be ass< 
tnjjcther. in order to protect, as we 
pronmte. the good and welfare n 
taiiu'd hy any other way. As we ai 
passing into a period of organizal 
every kind it must necessarily folio 
the workers' interest are at once ei 
Wo witness the organization 
]^io\iTs in i>articular. which is no^ 
in its iniancy at ii> present stage 
vianu'. \\\ have only to call your 
liv^n 10 the so-called "open shop" 
:%T. Mi»s: vf the enlightened w 
k:v w \s:-.a; i: -le^ns — to this end 
:.:\ . v..\ sii.vt»>sfu'. with the unorg 
\^ -s;-- Wl have but four insti 
\\: . \-; .-"u £-1 n:i: confronte 
.. > ;,:. :.: :'■■. .' > ' -•.:i.i:ng similar t 
\.. ':.v.: ''•■..:-.:-.. App'jy at th 
-.»•.-■.:.:■ T '7 Manufac 
! ■ . ■".": :\Tiz.\: "n r accept 

;. : "- ,.- "-."i 7» "'Tie." 
! " ■■ ■ "j*. !"'■». Tiv. ""i .■. 1. _ ■. i-. *»vr'j' 
v.- ■ •.:-.: :.,.: —r^^T:> I w j^uid 
^.\ :'■•.' /.^. •■.*<:-. : I'iraesmess 2 

k,^_ X, ■• 

ft.iU iC» 


■■■■: :nTs ;.r>^ .■.:."•.*: -^-rei 

"•. » 

.■•% ■.*^- 



nun Iftst niffht an<l 

I dte "Haitipiko County DrafU* 

with heiilqtuirters in 

mnioiis phases of the sttbjecl 

dJKiiisccL felcctions from ^ 

9M Ml fofth tn "The Dmfu* 

imA and conmiented upon, 

ol fi%'e of the cliarter 

ftppointed to draw up a 

and By-Laws, to be pre- 

the next meeting. 

0f Ike proposed names for the 
Springfteld Drafu^ 
lion, Hampden Cutinty 
Di Aiftodtttioii, Sprint^eld 
Asaodatkm and the Tee- 
b. Hampden Coiraty Drafts* 
was abnost nnani- 
led the moat appropriate name. 

itter of rooms, dates, clue,*i ant! 
Were cliscusscd. with the object 
f the cotutitution coinmitlee an 

1 the coocrn?^iis of opinion on 

irt mec*tiii|; wilj be held in about 
», when the enroHment is ex- 

mt . about fifty or Sev- 

an 1 ibers. 

Respeclfully yours, 


^Ihc elTorU of \V, C Fronk, 

and F. P. Barker, drafts- 

Knox Automobile Co., a 

ftsmen has been oqganizcd 

mnd the foltowii^ officers 

5i«Jrnt, \V\ C Ffonk; vice- 

H. \\\ (jiffin: secretary -treas* 

C AHw. These three, with 

and F, P. Bartcer, con- 

executive committee. Two 

mretiii^ii have been held. aivJ 

Cooititution and Bv*Laws 

Samt and Objict 
This Asaoctaiion ahall tie known a> 
the Hampden Cotm^ Draftsmen's Asso- 
ciation, and its objects shall be to pro* 
mote the arts and Hricnces connected 
with the art of drafting, the reading an 1 
discussion of technical papers and any 
other subjects of interest to the Associa* 
lion and the circulation '*f ^^u- informa- 
tion thus obtained. 


The mcniljcrship shall consist of Hon- 
orary and Active Members. Only Active 
members are entitled to vole. Honorar/ 
membership shall consist of persons of 
acknowledfifed professional eminence. 
Active memlHTship shall consist of per- 
sons who have worked one year or more 
at draftings in some drafttn)!; room. 


The officers of the Association shall be 
President, Vice-President and Secretary- 
Treasurer. These officers, toj^ether with 
two members of the Association, shall 
constitute an Executive Committee, who 
shall conduct the i^eneral buancss affairs 
of the Association. All of these offioera 
sliall boM their oi!kes for one year, or 
tmtil their successors are elected The 
Secretar\*-Trea$urer shall be exempt 
fn>m due* durini^ his term of office. 

Tbeae ofEcers named in tfte precefltni; 
article shall be elected by baUot at the 
renter annual meeting of the Af»octa- 
tiovi. Vacancies occnrinfc in any nlSce 
of the Association ^halt be filled at tiK' 
next reguhtr m^'rtinc: af the Association 
after the varancv occura. 


Rsf^tndiiurt ^ 
No expenditures, exeepi actual nm- 
QJnfr expense*, stall he antfaorixed. ex- 

,x)| hSitil M\i,'.\ INDUSTRIAL MAGAZIXE 

.X, , i ^ ii.« ..ii.N. Ill .^1 i\ iwo lliii'iU voto \\j>lu's to belong, and shall b 

. i «i., ,.„,.,l»»N .1 ilu A»iK'icHiitii pics- U\ I \\< I aciive members; same 

.,,« ^1 .« iinh «.*tu.t ih. .Oikt: on by ballot at a meeting of 

.... ... liaiiitn. a two-thirds vote of 

. ^ ^ Ikt> present electing the appl 

v» , ...,^,.^ . « ^i.iiii}. .no nuinl>^t \^lu^ ARTICLE 3. 

• ,. «\ ,1.1 .i u»mK *%\\ III. iuIhi> sihall Juitiatiou Fees and Di 

^ I* .. i« ii.» *^*. i^«HM *»ii\ jv,\^jiu\n x« Scviion 1. A fee of fifr^- 

^\ i.\ I ..»*^* ,^^lll; u »(bii\ iliru .uwinipr.nx each application fc 

* ..'.U^ 1 In >,^.,Ui\ nIiA'.I k<Vp sliip 

■ . -,1 *,«,!. ,».»*^ I '.MIS Sivri.'^r. :: Tht annui.'. dn 

^ *^ ^ ^ ; .\' .^K'- >:-.:.' rK nnf- d:«Iiar 

.\-i.> > 5: :»e- ^ear. pty 

V \ 

•'V" \ • : > 'v "'.TTTin? 

Bftowm^fcrs iNDVsrmAL magazine 


:— Pkmse let me have a small 
valoihlc columnjs to com- 
ktter in your October num* 
[I dfied A **ooci de [>liimc** Vox 
iirer to "Beam Compafui" 
tbat I did not advocate a 
(lolls I made mention in my 
pofwthle union or association, 
kith 'Beam Comfxuwi*' in a way. 
adtxicate a union pure and 
yottr conrapdndcnt [joints cut. 
union in the English 
^atmgth. joined togeth* 
we are with the same 
almost when vk*^ use the word 
and it puts me in mind of a 
land influenza, which i% six of 
doien of the other. Vox 
siuck on himself, and has 
feeltnga agattist unions and 
the difTereuce would 
if it were termed one or the 
Further I hold that any man 
^*oceited because he belongs to 
\ noblest professions, it follows 
ly that such a man is ne\'€r a 
aber ol any Aitsociation, 
' of the ptidding is the cat- 
Refer to the disturl»ances in 
labor ttnions, as he terms 
find that it conies about by 
wbo tbtnlc they deserve more, 
tbe>* really mrril it. 
had better get more ex- 
draftsmen, their salary, 
some work in. and what 
upon to do. I have no 
be a ftnt-clasa man, and 
1, but he perhaps will be 
ife his opinion someday. 
fotnsd it good policy to 
lot aipcry ntao. take the gentle- 
rtgmrdkas of trade or pro- 
^ortbcr Beam Compass as an 
stooM have better prln* 
htm than to ficorn a man be* 
m ahoamaker* 1 am led to 

believe that Beam Compass must have at 
Home time given the cobler trade a trial, 
and having learned the trade in a short 
time, \% in a position to give advice. But 
then even at that, how can a man be 
iicorned beoiuse he earns an honest liv- 

Kuough of that ugly ** Amour propre" 
Thanking you Mr. Editor for your 


To the £ditor. 

Dear Sir— I noticed in your Nov^em- 
l»er Usue, under the head ** Current 
Topics/* a reply to Vox I'opuU*s letter 
in the October number. This answer 
does not in any way approach a reply, 
and it goes to prove that your contem 
porary did not understand ^or rather did 
not care to> the sentiments contained in 
Vox Populi's letter. I am at a loss to 
know what is me:int when your conteuu 
porary says, *'The finest man to work 
for is the one who is not afraid of his 
job/' Vox Fopuli referred in his letter 
to men who had to work to hours per 
day far $75 per niinith, when nincom- 
poops (using the same expression over) 
made a better livelihood than a technical 
graduate. Vox Populi never had a job 
he was afraid of, as he has principle, — 
and \^ry conscientious at that, not to 
lake a |K>sitiou when he can not fill it, 
and that he tx^t will be must be a matter 
left to himself Perhajis your contem- 
porary is afraid of his job. if he has any. 
Under the circumstances Vox Populi has 
given him something to think over. 
Then. too« Vox Populi is in a position 
to prov*e more conclusively that there ate 
more draftsmen who are working 10 
hours jier day for $65 and $75. Any 
man who is content on this basis for al* 
wa>*s mtut be o/nm of those men of whom 
Vox PoptiU made mention when be sdd« 
' * There are men of no account in every 
cUss/' I will quote these lines for socb 



men» and is applied only to men who are 
worth more and will try to get their 

"Some tim* ago they used to sing, 
A rather j^eod old sopg, 
' Man wants but little here below, 
Kor wants that little long.' 

Hut nowadays the tune is changed, 

With music to the rhyme : 
* Draftsmen want what they are worth, 

And want it all the time!* *' 

Thanking you, Mr. Editor, for your 
space, I am "Up for More,'' 

Vox Popui.i. 

at Washington. In applying for this ex- 
amination the exact title as given at the 
head of this announcement should be 
used in the application. 

Civil Service Examination. 

The United States Service Commission 
announces an examination on February 
20-2I, 1906, to secure eligibles from 
which to make certification to fill four 
vacancies in the position of draftsman 
(permanent), at $4 per diem each, in the 
different offices of the United States Sur- 
veyors General, as follows: Two va- 
cancies at ( Jlympia, Wash. : one vacancy 
at r)oise, Idaho; and one vacancy at 
Ilioc-nix, Ariz. A number of teiii|)orar\ 
appointments are made to this position 
from time to time, and the register es- 
tablished as a result of this examination 
will be utilized in filling the vacancies in 
both temporary and i)ermanent positions 
as they may occur. 

( )n h'ebruary 14, 1906, examinations 
will take place in a large number of 
cities for positions of engine man at a 
salary of $1,000 per year. Ask for Form 
10)3. On the same date is an examina- 
tion for a machinist at $1400 per year. 

Ap|)licants should at once apply either 
to the United States Civil Service Com- 
mission, Washington. D. C or to the 
secretary of the Iwmrd of examiners at 
any |>lace mentioned in the accompanying 
list, for applications Form 1312. No ap- 
plication will be accepted i^^less properly 
executed and filed with the Commission 

New Plan in Railway Boilding. 

A railway boarding camp for the 
laborers on railroads is perhaps the 
latest illustration of the generally 
recognized principle that the bciter sur- 
roundings, moral and physical, the men 
have t)ie more and better work they do. 
The gangs of railway laborers usually 
work out of reasonable distance of 
towns, and are, therefore, practically 
homeless, and must depend on the com- 
panies for food, shelter, clothing and in- 
cidental necessities. The new plan, as 
it has been carried out, furnishes a con- 
plete boarding camp, including a cold 
storage system, so that fresh provi- 
sions may be at hand at any place and 
time. Sleeping accomodations consist 
of the common box cars provided by 
the company, to which is added portable 
iron framework. On this framework 
are installed wire mattresses w^ith iron 
frames, which provide plenty of room, 
clean and sanitary surroundings, and 
abundant ventilation. 

Italy in Need of Water. 

Water, water is the cry of Italy as in 
no other land iu the world ; not to drink, 
but to create power, so that about $25,- 
000,000 need not be spent annually, as 
at present, to buy from foreigners her 
coal for fuel. Beginning w^ith the re- 
nowned Tiber, with 500,000 horse 
power, the rivers of Italy are estimated 
to have 7^7,000 horse power, of which 
09-3,000 horse power lies in idle latency. 
Waterfalls, mountain streams, torrents 
to the number of "31,480 are credited 
with an annual potentiality of 2,642,000 
horse pov\'er, all unused. A law provid- 
ing ar mnual payment to the govern- 
ment of about 25 cents per horse power 
has retarded development, but begin- 
nings have been made, particularly in 
the river Tierno and on a waterfall in 
the river Adda, and great things arc 
foreseen in the coming davs of the elec- 
tro technical industry in Italv 




ii m nubiect thjit has 
iio^ faialory. If yati wrrv to 
ii twnty-fivc ycafs before the 
ijetioB of bhir priming anrt other 
vfiu win rraflily tinder - 
\tmve Vni right of sotm* of 
methodn. Before blue 
iittroiliiced the original 
Ffsacfi by all concemcd, and 
rlaliomte and expense aflfatr. 




f wtlh the fhiip priiti <if the 
ll wa* made on the tM^t of 
stand tin* wear and tear in 
The ink used was the genuine 
nl ikiwn from the stick. 
Sy colcired, according tu 
lerial of amstrucliun* Then, be» 
ftviniB the tlrafttni^ rcunn, it was 
itntcil uii a jituiable board «»,- 
a coat of shellac, which 
the surface frt^m becoming 
maile it wa,<liable. This was 
if ilie "cihf !ichiiol*' draflsinan 
yeari ago. In tho^ days 
marlr to represent different 
Then tracings and bhie prints 
general tiK the waahing of i 
^th a ciilnr was diiearded, and 
lith the pen was adopted, and 
many largr drafting rooms it 
thai thiis nection V *n- 

fnrnrh time, and rt v. u*d 

fftrawing. AUc% the different 
dtfferctit materials, were 
and ever> ih^aftsnan 
I Qim idem of skiing thi» clisa of 
ao nian\ rKffcrmt Mylai of 


*cctiijn lining it made the drawing very 
difficult to read in the shop. By the 
Andrew* System of Shading all your 
drawings are shaded alike in represent* 
tng the diflferent material, etc You will 
agree with a< that when a drawing is 
properly sha<led it is easier to read. 





/ for 


Don't forget In speak ycmr itatne dis- 
tinctly and in a way to Impnss it upon 
the custotncr's mini! when you ' •- 

yourself. It is worth more tti ^ x 
attention than any Imsiness card hi the 

Don't be afraid of a i^rict boss, You1l 
never learn anything from an easy one. 



'\ worVnt;iii tli«f rnn lK#lr| his terriper 
' ;m li/r!'l nit;r)i tUr thnt w worth whiU*. 

It'- r}#;ijK'r to tnUf tip a Hhj>pin;( belt 
th;in to fr^rl with rr^iii, varnish ot J(luc. 

'-./nil*' workinrn nay thrv ^lofi't need 
;inv va/;itioii; that iJ th<' Ikws takes om- 
thji'^ all lh<v iicrr). 

I hi Miaii who krcf>s onr vyv on the 
t\nt\: ati'l thf othrr r>fi ih<* foTrniati can 
hrttftlv ho|N* to MTC finythiDK except 
\v:itM . .iti'l a hni^ (lay. 

I hi in;in who i«( always talking of 
ihtM\^,tii' M)t his jfih tnakrs \hv hi^^cst 
hrlli f \\\\r]\ ihrtr thcfr is talk of a shut- 
in\> n 

^Mini ihat(««in<'ii wonhl arr(Mn))hsh a 
,m»«mI Avi\\ nuiir if Ihry diMn'l **|hmh1 so 
ftnit h iinii' in •^haipnnn^ thrir prnoils. 

N.»n I Mil tuMHr thai Iho man who 
pMilt'. hnuMtt on hi-niLi *^<^ )ian<l a half 
h»«ni ah* .III oi the \>histlr twin \\a\ in 
thr \\,\y \\.\^ v.Mnr ih.i\>h;u'k hie ono\iv:h 
fo otUrl it h M-' VI ^Mv 

Whul NN filer C«n IK>. 

liv.hMnr ,\ y\\yx\u\w\\\.\\ K\A\u\m ot 
\\,\t»! n^oi* th.\r. i^n^ thn/; »M .\ nii'c 
h\\:^y \\\\\\\\ ^*.\ nuh\^ tn lii.inictiv a\ 
^^x ^>^N .\n»i twititx M\ n\obv^< m .har.v 

\^^||^l^^•l^1^v ,^n \^V';';^^'.•.^^; >\ :u* . ,*^^ "I,^' A> 
p^\^^^ ow. -.n tK W.'.'. i Vvvk iv^r.;. 

I. • -.: • r. o\n'. vtthn'. .VVA^* '^:'^ynJk ^xS^O 
\v :*% \\.-,;, • v;-Vvv tS N;?ovo> .•^: ;*^ 

•Sit; r'-. -.w HO '.NW^N A\ osr-v^ 

it like snow before a jet of steani. 
briuUIers. h\^ a? city offices, woul 
ble into ravines with as little effo 
clover burr is carried before the \ 
stream on a front lawn. Brick 
woulrl crackle like paper, and the 
skyscrapers crumble before a strei 
that of the Mill Creek plant. It 
powerful waterwheel to withsta 
tremendous pressure. At Butte 
(^1., a single jet of water six in 
(liamotcr issues from the nozzle 
tremendous velocity of 20,000 
mimite. It impinges, on the buc 
wlijit is said to be the most p( 
sitijj^le waterwheel ever built, caus 
later to travel at the rate of nine 
milos an hour, making 400 revolt] 
mimilc. This six-inch stream ha 
paoity of 1*.\00() horse-power. Tin 
for operating the plant is conveye 
r»utto cVock through a ditch ai 
charged into a regulating reservoii 
is l.:>oo tool alxne the power hous 
nUo'. i^rcssure p'4>e lines thirty in 
.lia-.r.cTvT ooni';:ct the water to the 
ho:>c. Tlu W.tM TtViay. 

Electricity Gains on Steai 

New \"ork c::> ;»'-an5 to rece 
•,v'.r.v,.".> S i.v\-:r.c tractJoo. and ; 
•> <\jXr::-"»tri: -.•:■.< ^hh :he z^aoh 
cicciTiC >\>:tr.'.. T*iih a viei* to it 
n*>r. rr :he c^-vt-mmeni railway: 
nrt^scn: :cs:> rc,iie to an iS.'^^'-v 

^^ ^^'s:i'^'.~ A THHTlbtT OC ttStS 

rr- i:st :r. :^f w.Trkmf: «>f ibe line 
:Si \jt-i :«■.:> Vvi". c^mdiDiKiSi. TT 
■\v vf ■< •: :hi rw'cnn-ire-ior- r 
S^i- :%••: .«- ucksv. £W± cocta 
■ =». .-S.^-Ni, T^.'V'er Tnfttar vcck 

;-u-,^n;.-f -; r .r»rs T■W^ iKaEDCC 



New InventioiM. 

: following inventions have been 
lly reported for Brownings Maga- 
»y C. LeRoy Parker, Solicitor of 
is, 707 G Street, Washington, D. C. 


s construction, invented by Edward 
diet, is a mechanical device for 
y and conveniently showing in 
measures, as upon a scale of equal 
fractions of fractions and frac- 
of mixed numbers of any given 
if measure, tliereby avoiding trou- 
fm calculations. 


T7^ C 

ib,A"i' ■ a > * ifc ■ M Bty 

the illustrations F and G are two 
parts or members of the device. 
Hr made of strips of sheet metal, 
r overlapping and joined side by 
by a pin a, common to both, so as 
m dmon at a pivot. The member 
r G^ wUdi nMiy be regarded as the 

body of the device, is formed with straight 
parallel edges, the right hand edge be- 
ing radial with the pivot pin a and the 
bar being graduated at b below the pivot, 
as shown. The division marks of the 
scale b, indicating the units of measure 
and fractions thereof, extend transverse- 
ly of the bar, the unit-marks being num- 
bered in regular order downward from 
the pivot pin a. These units of measure 
may be of any length convenient or as 
may be required for any particular 
work, those shown on the part G being 
commonly three-fourths of an indi tub- 
divided into halves and fourths as shown. 
The broad bar or pivotal member F of the 
device is marked also with a series of 
curved scales I, concentric with the pin 
a, each scale being formed of a series of 
unequally spaced radial marks c. 

In contemplating the curved scales I 
the figure of the scale at the edge of the 
body G when set must be regarded as 
the numerator of a vulgar fraction and 
the terminal figure or number of the 
scale as the denominator — that is to say 
if. for example. "2" of scale A be regard- 
ed. It means two-tenths of some distance 
indicated by the scale b on the body G. 
or. likewise "4** on scale D would mean 
four-sevenths of some measure on scale 
b of the body G. It will be observed 
further that the length of the unit meas- 
ure marked on the body G is immaterial 
and only a matter of convenience, and is 
wholly independent of the length of a 
scale unit of the sliding bar H. it being 
only necessan- that the scale b be regard- 
ed and read in the same terms — indies, 
feet, yards, etc, — as the scale marked 
upon the bar H. Regarding the position 
of the bar F. it is set to indkrate one-third 
of six-inches, the scale mark on the bar 
H. numbered "«" and hidicated by the 
radial edge of the bar F. being two inches 
f --nm the body G. and this whofly witfaovt 
regard to the distance tlie scale mark 



fmfri\t^f^A "^" fm \hft hrAy G \% away 
Ufifu fh" ;»xi;»l p^/inf a. Ff the scale 
ju7ifVff\ em ihf h;ir fl ^/f a vale of feet 
'/f /if yar^U /FT //f^i^r int/rvah, the device 
n^ 4/-f v///ifM jjiv \hf' /liitance of onc- 
fliir/I of a f'#//t, yard, /-tc, with the same 
;fM!ifnry, and in dftrrmininjc this posi- 
Hori of Ihr har f*" it may l>c turned either 
»M flir q»;flf frrarl? "3" of scale B, (mv- 
lliifd of ninr, or l#i "2" of scale E, two- 
«:iitfliq of six, thrsr two marks hoin^ in 
(lir «):itiif itiKi^itinry ri'idial line, ;md what 
In Ififi- of "n** ofi tlip scale h is true of 
rvrfv »itli»r nninlirr on the scale. If the 
illilr h:ii II wrir. for example, set at 
"IM" on tlio hody (i. as shown by dotted 
llnrs. the drvirr would fxive one-third of 
thlifrrn u|M>n thr bar II, measured be- 
iwiTM the itpi^osin^ rdfifcs of the mcin- 
l»rM tl nnd V. 

This inxmtion is a o^mbinatiiMi rule 
,ind )Mt>ti:u-tiM 'M\\\, as ilhistrate\i. oom 
pii^e< ^rndrtl «c\'tions 10 and 11. oonneot- 
ril hv a hn>i:r U\ and oiitiv stvtions li^ 
.ind 11. htni:x>l to tho rentvni scotivMis at 
l.N 1> llns mle is i:Taduat<\1 as is 
m^f.Mraix W\t s<\lii>n 10 is thinroT 
ft' an if* \>\iipanuMis. tlu^rt* Tvinc a *^.<* 
prv«ion a< 'fs innoi sid<' ptTtVvaMv o\ 
<x'n.?ini: isW \{^ \\^\\ ?ov,ji:th. a!\! ir. :''-»^ 
dr^>!r<«i*yi i« :riMint<\1 a dMirnvTv^c -"o— 

Vvn^i'tiTdiVa: sW^t 17 and IS. whvV -c 
iv^'\r iv\%*<\ft%vi< fT\v« xhc Si\*tior Iv 
\^T .*-. <V»*«r ^^s^-<vt^Vls 'Max vWiS's: x^*' 
n iv'i oi •.^•"r«'**flt K\N<<' -x-ci 1!^ hsx-^'-.c 

v.\'^-.'»"^ n^""r "S ■•'•*«* **o.*.* ?'. ^> "■ 
. ••>»%=. ^.'^ ^'. !^-/ <\y ". * ^:. ,.:'.-'> Vvf'i-*." 
-. *^<\ ^s *'*-:^ -^ *«^ •'••<'• 1* ■»?^* T^^T <"* " 
• •^^. * *^*c V'*?.*** nV •,"**■ *S **^* •'^ '^^i* 

a5 in th^ xrrrr. of a damping sen 
which tn^k^ts a nut 21. sunk in a 
in the outer side of the section 10. 
When the projections from the i 
10 are within the openings 28 frc 
lonj^itudinal slots, the rule may be 
in the usual manner, the projecl 
moving through the groove in th 
tion 11. If it is desired to use t 
vice as a square the blade is s 
outwardly until the projections ar 
ated within the openings 29. A 
time the projection 32 is with: 
straight portion 33 of the section-g 
and its engagement with the side 
of said groove holds the rule secti 

"^."'"-- f' .^'^^P^ 

"■:'»e:> .u%-?i> :j ym another, 
r^:.-^^ —r/- ^: -.vlcec ir. this rosi:: 
■^"i r ;i"".p "s >rre» For ar.y :n 

•.\:< -.".^ i ■ - ynh necessLr^- :■:- 
•' -. ^ A.':, s: ■.•■^: the proieaor 
^. :^- - :*■; > :■> IT And 15. The 

• : s^'*rr>> " M- ^f swmu: in extl 
■,v>.-." .•- <-" y- meB» of die 
.... ...... ...;-,- ^^^ there dan-p 

■•. sr~.-^ """■•: rrrrentor cc this 
:- v>?-ift? * tv* o: Ncir York. 




invention, recently patented by 
i Kem, is designed to provide 
\ whereby the leaves of a drafts- 
ing pen mav 1m.* quickly and eas- 
rated for cleaning and then re- 
instantly and accurately to the 
operative relation to produce a 
tbe same width. 

wo spring leaves a and b of the 
adjustably connected by means of 
rm c, the lower leaf a having a 
i aperture for engagement by 
aded end of the screw and the 
I smooth opening for the shank 
said screw, which is provided 
^ usual miUed head c'. 
screw d a clip e is pivotally se- 
fc- one extremity to the upper pen- 
it a point between the adjusting 



od the leaf-tip, the other extrem- 
be clip extending along the pen- 
»*ard and adjacent to the handle, 
> be within convenient reach of 
er of the draftsman, 
intemiediate portion of the clip 
dcd with an upwardly extending 
whidi, tof^ether with body of clip, 
rated and cut away at one side, 
: a U-shaped opening or recess 
reception of the shank of the 
when the clip is in the closed po- 
Tbe^ of tfie boss abuts against 

the under side of the milled head d and 
forms a stop, limiting the extent of sep- 
aration of the leaves a and b. 

By the construction the draftsman 
can, when the pen needs cleaning, throw 
the clip e to one side, thus allowing the 
leaves of the pen to spring apart a dis- 
tance equal to the width of the dip-body 
e plus the additional height of the boss 
e', the leaf b of the pen itsdf contacting 
with the underside of the head c'. After 
cleaning the leaves are pressed together 
and the dip swung into position, with 
the boss under the head c', when it is 
obvious that the tips of the pen leaves 
will occupy the same rdative position as 
before deaning and the line made there- 
by will not differ in width from those 
previously made. 


This invention of Humbert Amendt is 
particularly designed to provide an in- 
strument by means of which the center 
of a drcle or line may be readily deter- 

The body portion of the instrument is 
provided with a vertically disposed slot 
2, which extends from one edge of the 
body portion to the opposite edge, form- 
ing a recess or slot in which the legs 3 3 
of my improved instrument are mounted. 
These legs are tapering in form and ter- 
minate in points 4 4. The upper ends 
of the legs are sector-shaped and are 
provided with teeth 5 5, which when the 
legs are pivotally mounted in the slot 8 
by pins 6 6, are adapted to mesh with one 
another, whereby if one of the legs is 
moved its opposing leg will be corre^ 
spondingly moved and in unison with the 
first named leg. 

The sides of the head or body portion 
1 of the instnunent are provided with 
vertically disposed bosses 7 7, and in 
these bosses are slidably mounted rods 
8 8, the upper ends of which are coo- 



hri\ri\ |yy a rrrMH hcaul 9, while the lower 
riuU of ihr nxU tcnninate in a coirnnon 
\in\\\\ 10, 'Ihr (TfiftH head 'J is provided 
with u kntirlrd htittcm or knob 11, where- 
hv Ihr hmU (;iii Ik* Krip|>cd in case it is 
drNit-rd to adjtiHt the same, these rods 
qrrvitiK furirlirmnlly a.s a pivotal point or 
fitlrriiiti for thr \vy,% 5 Ti whtMi the instru- 
ttiriit in iiNnl an a compass or dividers. 

It will be noted that in the outer edge 
if the handle is a recess 20, which is un- 
flercut to its ends to furnish ways in 
which moves a gauge member 21. In 
this gauge are slots 22 22 and 23. into 
the first two of which extend guide pro- 
jections or screws 24, while through the 
opening 23 and threaded into the handle 
operates a clamping screw 26. When 
the gauge is fixed in alignment with the 
handle, it in no wise affects its ordinary 
use; but by loosening the clamping 

/ i 

■Vt ■ 

' *•*. 





\. . 









Hv m*<^iw^^« CAn Nr «iac\5 {v^r n«- *' 

■^.V" \ V " 

.^' « -K *? 

''^'■?^=^ ibe gauge and again se- 

-.r. piJhK 32 fnmishes a gnkk 

N^^. ,\v<-x .•\cAC<r ^N •""" « ' •^'" ■'-:^ 1» Voi^ht into contact 

"^.:rr.^..Tii.r<: ibe U»de is a mend)er 

r- ».^r «hjcki pttSics a dampii^ 

<;<*-^vi :* -.^ .'rnpt^mxit vidi tbe Uade. 

V,. .v« ,v :^ 'v^.-inc a iBJB»lk extended per- 

vV'x.* s ^,'.-% .V-- '.1 j,^ f^fkk. vUdi Set in die ptaK 

.% A >. 'v^ vNf >: .^ ," .' . ;)v un,-w?rside rs ^k InnSe; so dnt 


"*;" *','». ■*■ 



be placed will hold tlie square hori- 
ally or parallel to said surface. 
xsgh the foot of this supporting 
iber is threaded a screw 2U, having 
dticed or pointed end. which \\[y.n\ 
g turned dov^n below tlie foot may 
sed as a marking {>oint. This may 
ither employed to score hncs parallel 
1 eiJgi against which the inner face 
ic handle or the gauge 21 is placed, 
pointed screw 30, operating through 
juncture of the blade, and handle 

l>e tume<l below the surface of the 
lie i«> serve as an axis or center 
r alK>ui which circles may be struck. 
lifting the blade upon the handle, as 
t>ccii previously described, this screw 
iiust be of course raised above the 

dkxwim; hoard. 
80G350 — Lewis Sommar — Dec 12, 


lis drawing-board is shown in the 
Tipanying illustration, provided with 
square, \%hich is removably and ad- 
h\\ secured thereto. The side of 


r^f t 



{ v.-_ -rj- pi^ 

1 a^B-il 

' ^ f iri''!i 

Uic drawing-board frame a is provided 
with the grooved &trip A. The elevation 
uf the right-hand &idc of tlie grooved 
btrip A, attached to tlie drawing-board 
frame a, equals tlie thickness of tlic 
drawing-board L when in position upon 
the frame, and tlie thickness of tlie draw- 
ing-boards used upon said frame is equal 
to tlie tliickness or elevation of the right- 
hand side uf tlie grooved strip A. 

A strip, K, is secured to tlie lower edge 
of the drawing-board frame a project- 
ing above tlie surface of the frame in 
order to retain the drawing-board L in 
place when the frame is inclined. It is 
to be noted that tliis drawing-board frame 
is adapted to receive any ordinary draw- 
ing-board and permits Uie immediate in- 
terchange of one board for another. 

To the blade of tlie T-square is at- 
uched tlie ruler O, adjustably comiected 
thereto in such manner as to form, with 
tlie T-square blade, a pair of parallel 
rulers. The triangle P may be employed 
a5 an auxiliary to the T-square blade and 
ruler C). The use of these devices as 
auxiliaries to the T-square obviates the 
necessity for a continual shifting or re- 
adjustment of tlie latter. 

Thib board is the invention of Lewis 


No. 807,060— Joseph F. Clutter — Dec 

19. 1905. 
This instrument, devised by Joseph F. 
Clutter, is adapted fur use as a divider, 
compass, scril>er, caliper or compass- 
culiper. The base i of the instrument is 
provided with a hollow in its bottom, 
and alM> with an opening leading from 
the side thereof into the hollow portion, 
to enable the operator to determine the 
i-xact center at which he wishes to place 
one point of the instrument and to per- 
mit of the holding of the one point — that 
is. the post or upright— to the center dur- 

/»/!"'/>y '.■/••''/? i.^r>',:iT!fiA:. magazisr 



■■•/ •.- ■••^♦Vr.'-i of rV^-.i.inef a .f * number 'A iicies. C2, formed in the 
y. -:-.. .rf -.*' •i.;.v..y "i-.i* .oriy-cwr.i >- x being oGced Aat these 

i - i'.i;s '.cttnir.;^^ :r recesses arc so placed 
"irir >' •.•*r. ±tt ann is held immovaUe by 
/ ^ ' - 5iA.-,r. „: ±e cntraiicc of the pin ci in 

>-.- of ^i.i recesses a center point C3, 
A-r:*/. 'fj !he cacremc end of said arm, 
; ^ in a !:r.e j oioing the center of the pivot 
AJtri Uifi center, from which one of the 
:iTf'^ r,i a projection a or a recess b is 
'I' srrilxrd. 









1M \ » M I I \ . I T. « M I. \ j- 

.\\\'\ •'■m\'M!. T-i i-iMifri iN^infs Iron". 
\\T^'. ! 1 .?•*•» t^l'i :\ riiN^iiIni ar\' to torn, 

. '■ ■ »\ '\\ .*-. T,^ '''■'•.•i*;Tvv ^^■^'i\ \h\> \^ 
' . ■^' '■ .It oi i\^».u;-\\; V\ T\ <lmft> 


■\ :'\^ \VnN^' I'^O'Pt^ 

^*' . * :'-. 

• t. 

^ : A' \\. N: set-r. thai the end of Ac ann 
K => s: Nrn: .^r fonned as to nanmlly 
'.r.v tV KV-re: Toin: c^ slifrfath* abovi: 
•v ■•.^' c :■: :^v upper surace of the 
sv: • ■;%% -" r^irtt;. A. i: being t b e iefa e 
., -^^.v- .. ,v.- ... rnovetheann C to any 
^-•': .:'^^• :*^; r^lste ^thcun injarr to 
V ■ '-■'•-: A: T^i cpT.ter of each of the 
■•- ^•■. -^r^-vT*^ i a:, etc. is a idi- 

^-- .'■•'-r.c ai:. throogh vUcb 

... .... ^.,.. ^,3jjjg^ 

.f.- 'Tfc^i-iiiiieBX. if it he de- 
fr rvaninfe, to 4nr B iBel Ibt* 



m one-fourth of an inch radius, to 
MCt two lines at substantially right 
Ics to each other, the ami C is turned 
its pivot until its pin ci enters the 
r or recess C2 opposite the projection 
Iced "J4". The instrument is tlien 
lipulated so that the curved edge of 
projection a4 is tanp:cnt to both of 
lines between which it is desired to 
w the curve representing the fillet, 
when this condition is attained the 
Iter end of the arm C is depressed so 
t the pointer C3 pases through the 
JI opening an and makes a hole or 
^k on the drawing-paper. A com- 
» set to the radius of one-fourth of an 
1 is now used to describe the arc fin- 
joining the two lines. 


to8.5ii— Alden C. Cochran— Dec. 

26» 1906. 
liis drafting instrument, designed by 
len C. Cochran, combines in a single 
•ce. a protractor, angle, engineer's 
le, architect's scale, and compass. 
"he reference character I in the ac- 
ipanying illustration designates 1 
rality of groups of apertures which 

f^rmcd in the plate A. The apertures 

{(•rnKd in groups for forming small 

i capital letters, and the group of 

eftnres designated by 3 are used for 

rming letters three thirty-seconds of 

ra height, the group designated 

by 5 five thirty-seconds of an inch in 
height, and so on through the numerous 
groups which arc used for forming let- 
ters from three to sixteen thirty-seconds 
of an inch in height. Each group of 
a[)erturcs is designated by a numeral 
representing the number of thirty-sec- 
ond's part of an inch of letters formed b> 
each group of apertures. The apertures 
forming each group are beveled similarly 
to the aperture F, and the apertures com- 
posing each group are connected together 
by suitable vertical lines J and horizontal 
lines K. 


The Union Oil Co. has l)een (granted 
a franchise to pipe oil across the Isthmus 
of Panama. This company secured the 
ri);ht from Colombia to lay pipes and 
later had it confirmed by Panama and 
the United States government. The 
directors think that the V. S. goveni- 
nient will soon be burning California 
crude oil in the furnaces of its dredges. 
l<xx)niotives, steam shovels and l>oats. 
It is said that the oil can \yc furnishetl 
at a rate at least one-third cheaper than 
coal. The laying; of the line will cost 
about and in addition to this 
two steamers have l>een purchaseil and 
will be converted into tankers. 

The largest single contract for railroad 
work ever let in the rnilwl States to one 
firm was awarded to Mcintosh Bros, 
of Milwaukee, who will build alxmt 
2,000 miles of road as an extension to 
the Chicago. Milwaukee and St. Paul 
railway. It will take nearly three years 
to complete the work, and the project is 
so lar>;e that there will be employment 
for a year or two for practically all the 
idle so-called common lalwr which it 
will be possible to obtain. The a\-eraKc 
cost per mile is estimatcil at 533,oco. so 

illiOW:il!i</:> ISDVaiHlAL MAGAZISE 

firm li'fl'l m |.i| -.mi'' tjji j/ii;!i;^ of 

M»«-»r«:i(. 'if ji« .1' » til. if I lM'>V«!ri*-Ill i- 
'iti f'l'il tM Mill'- I }i«- |.i(i:ili« V :i!{i)).if>ct 
iii'l I'bipl ill' I'.h^ 'lliiv run'. <-ni»-Ilt 

III': III I'll -.fl' ll Ii'Mil'A .1-. lil.'ll U IK-W 
1 fitr Ifi tl< ■• -;|i.l]M I 111'. .l|i|KM|i-'| Willi IHWS 

|<finii>l Ml I'.iir.ii ii -liiii |u)i.iiit-*«- ill jural 
!• I I iiliiiiiit . I.ip.iin '.f wnnl-. U'in^; i(* 
iiiiiH ll, liiit ihi I' Iitifiiiu', lieiiiv; 

\n 111 hitt I I III \tni t tt .1. il IS s.iiii. is 
nlin|it\ \\ ill .illnin.Hl w h«i Ilis I.Mltli •! .1 ]o1>. 
If Ihi'i liiii. llii- piMliJriii ol .iii'luttv 
t mill t-iltii iliuii I-. %nn|«l\ **\ iliMiii; 

I lu* lii I tinr . uil )*x ill.lttMIUM It \\ .is 

111 I III ■ Ni'lii I ill. II i!ii*'MHit;\ l^i I^.»'.:\ 
\H \i. lull . r- ■..•!nr \r.!'. .I-.:** I'VclUii 
ill'. • •) iM ill ilt-in in-l\'.v .r.ul « '.i r.,rv.;.:: \ 

* \ ■. ; '. V, 

'." , W .s' .'X ■ , ■ s . . , . 


■ w n 

» »MM 

> II \ 

.^ \]u 

I-".'-. . 

1 1 

ll Mt ll 

• . Mi'ii". 


u •.;-.i 

* X NS 


iiiti li 

.\ .\r.. 

^ 111 

V* : 

\ \ » ? 

May Soon Measure Infinity. 

i :-•: eight rr.:lliorith part of an inch is 
.-.!.. it tii-: physicists are rr.easuring. The 
» .. • r.-y-fiv*-: thousandth part of an inch 
!:.;i;. U: taken as the limit of measurement 
',i ri:i;(:iianical mt-asures of general appli- 
r.'iti^n. Cut we possess a physical means 
'.f nieiisurement 300 times more refineJ 
tli.iii this, and free from difficulties. This 
1- '.ne which enables us to determine with 
;tli>.Mlute accuracy to the eight millionth 
'»r :in inch, or one three-hundred thous- 
.iibiih of a millimeter. The foundation 
. if this wonderful scale is the wave length 
<»f iii^ht — a quantity which is now known 
\\ iih ureat accuracy for the most import- 
A\n linos of the spectrum. Moreover, the 
:r.ttl:.'il is rendered esthetically beautiful 
!>\ uw fact that an actual visible scale 
k\x\\ ' o pr^^^luced. composed of black in- 
■.v:'vVv:\\ ^\i::d> on a brilliant back- 
: monochromatic light 
V:\::'.\-. ::u irttTval between any two 
.-■■.■- V*..-. ■ : S'.;l'^:iv:ded into TOO parts 
i ". ". -T.i: ^ :r.:crometer eyepiece on 
■■•>.r'. :-.c :e:e>copc 

Brazil Woods BeautifuL 

?r;^;'. wcods are recom- 

.M:"i::..:i^:s. Cabinet woods of 

• f -S:ur;'. are easy to reach. 

::.>; :: cet. Because of the 

;":i:r:r.>f Lrr^cnc '^.t Brazilian? 

c ::.■.*• rri-* have been exj^^neU. 

.. .v.ri.-- «-ir. the wocds is had. 

> : ~ • ^•■:.c:"!S iTi hig-h. An Amer- 

■.:.- ■ "• :h S5.x1c1.xo is begin- 

. \-: . : s. -.-1* r: ihe besi repon? 

•- :■ .-vi-r.-in: rihssarfies by the 

:' -\-^.it'-r. n^inig asd trans- 

::. — :'nz 'i:^ zr:^rr. the 
* - \ >-.»:*■. i?^ to be !o- 

iiualm IB 90B 

Industrial Magazine. 


I ng. I^llii^b itttistps mml unmi waste. 

TH E anoual value of the forest 
products of the United States is 
glrcB m tbe twelfth census as nearly 
$^^fieo/Xxy If to this were added alt 
milenal used for fire wood, farm 
roads, etc a very much larger 
would be thoim« 
Thus 9M m direct source of wealth tlie 
of the country rank nearly with 
, fnsoenl products as second to farms, 
tioo to the presrot value the for^ 
cciuntrv have an immense 

MARCH, 1906. NO. 3 


value as a source of future supply and 
and as a protective covering for water- 
sheds, yet with all this value and the need 
for protection, the slaujjhier of the prim- 
eval forests go rapidly forward and 
some districts have been almost entirdy 

In llie nortliwest. the home of the 
cedar, fir and pine, the work of selecting, 
felling, hauling and lumbering is one of 
the greatest industries of thai fxirtion of 
the countr>*. The growth is so dense 
that much waste of young trees need be 
incurred to clear roads for the h:**»Ung 
'^f the lar^ger and better proportioned 

The Forest Service of the government 
is now studying 1.367,000 acres of for- 
est land in Washington and it is ex- 
pected It will be of great value in throw- 
ing light on the problems of protection, 
waste and future timber production. 

The reproduction of fir on logged-over 
lands is certain and rapid if the lands 
arc burned with due precaution and the 
mineral soil exposed, but uncertain if a 
proper seed bed is not affected. The ob- 
servations show that larger crops of tim- 
ber may be expected from second-growth 
forests of fir and hemlock than from any 
other kind of tree. 

The forest fires are, ho^^^ever, the 
greatest draw hacks to conservative lof- 


K^N^, J b# fori (;|4 in ihiii rtnifm are ^try 
Imkff Miul lh#^ Uev% very Jarjfc and con- 
MlfliiMiy, ifl«r I'^KicirtK a great amount 
9 it thhU h If ft cm (hf Kroiiful as shown 
In lN«* lllutlrAtlfifi^, PJrrii eaiily tUrt in 
•lirh '*ilrt*hitf'* find Inirii over larj^e 
arriiti iffl>«ti Into the ttrirdt forett. 

*l lir uuft i^rrtf'tlrnl itirihoij of overcom- 
hiK llii<i ihrnirrr in tn hurn the Rfanh as it 
H*^n Hi flir prnfirr teiiiinM. .ni*l itiin [iL-ui 
li ht'iiiy hiril wHi) Kfrfl* iilcccH^t. 

chanical means of hancUmg the "cut** of 
a large section of timber lands is today 
receiving much attention and will, no 
Hou1jt« aid in the saving of some fine 
pieces due to the great ease with which 
the logs can be reached. 

The problem of skid roads and the lo- 
cation of hauling engines is diffictilt, in 
order that each machine may cover as 
nnicli territory as possible. 

In some sections, steam hauling en- 

IW^ fWW^Ijt ^ W*!^ ftV^WI ^^ifctfj.' «^|)IPN 

H x-rl«%. 

^ M *r 1<Jfii! 





ni wiiB ifit^- * * r/J ,^| Ttitt mfirt rapts 
imf Im n h nod ibtii the log i^fj€$ 

•KMiloif Mt»d tHmtfifriK 'il^^K to the fint 
"MiiM ' )I«M MM^^fh*r Nnr i» h^joked an 
lumt Hii*tih^t iiUtniUfti iitMJ ilie log con* 
liniiM iU joMffify to (lie Inndmg where 
lti li^llli i(i f«'llifW9^ (iri* irm\n(i*rfcA to 
liNM liU'l luHili'l In »i *MuiM|f" in a rivrr 
Uf i\Um'\ hr thr MiiJt, 

TIm* Wtti' iMpr In diiiK^rd ir> tlir Irig 

pdOcji or fhcavcs are not difficult, due 
to cloie ptTw dmitj f of stumps and the im- 
mense § ize of tbem. ■ 

The pulling power of the engine de- 
pend! on the condition of the road over 
which the log must be hauled. ■ 

The drums must be large enough to 
carry five or six thousand feet of wire 
rope J4 to }i in. in diameter and anyj 
student of engineering can calculate the] 


• r>.. <• 










dibIx)4»itioii in view of the fact that the 
supply and machine ihr>f)s are oftentimes 
many mllcd distant. 

In lig, 2 two engines are located to- 
gether, one doing main hauling and the 
other doing the rolling of logs and hand- 
ling of cars, Ix)comotives are a very 
fine adjunct to any logging company's 
equipment and are always built for sharp 
curves and rough tracks, for these roads 
»re seldom put In any permanent manner. 

In some Instances, logs are rolled on 
tracks and skidded along over the ties 
by means of cable tie to the locomotive as 
fihown In the illustration. Locomotives 

have been used to pump water in case of 
fire or to aid in loading and unloading 
logs at the mill pond or yard. 

There are approximately 400 lumber 
and shingle manufacturers in the state 
of Washington alone and the railways 
carry nearly 40,000 carloads of their pro- 
ducts every year. 

Some of the large logs as shown in the 
illustrations average 40,000 shingles, 
which when laid on a roof would cover 
approximately 4,800 sq. ft. 

Photos for this article furnished by D.Kinsey, 
Sedro-Wooley, Washington. 


Hy C. C. MAISON, author of ••Trigonometry SimpUfied.'* 

UNUIiKCiKOUNU haulage, whether 
tlone by wire ro|H* or olher- 
wUe, la always carried on in two distinct 
sitagea. The first or local haulage is 
done by drawing the cars from the work- 
ing sj^ce to the gathering-up or central 
station. b>iMn the latter station the 
loadeil cars are hauled in trains to the 
Uattiiaw of the shaft cor slope, from the 
drift, as the case n^v be. In carder to 
SH^ctue ecoa>oi>\v and dispatch, it becomes 
n^c^s^rv that the local hauUge be made 
in sJhwt a tim^ as poasible^ a$ this work 
U s^i^r^Y do»e bv muJeat. and is^ more 
cQsIb^ than mechanic^ bauli^ge. F^ ^ 
siMV^ re^MK)« th^ gwewU or mechwiwU 
^^il^^ is vmk^ as Kni^ aa posaibtew 

Tl^e are fow claas««i ot wire rofe 
bs^^k^^ whicb witt constiitule the priac^ 
pajt <IWi&k>fi^ oi tbe vjbs^ns&ioa; Ain9l: 

I. Grs^yiiv ptaiiesu 

^ Ku^uhe pteai«^ 

3^ Tail rope sysleofts. 

4. Ewtb^sa rope sysJieoas. 


The conditions required for success- 
ful operation is supposed, as far as 
economy and work are concerned, may 
be said that the work is done by gravita- 
tion, but this conclusion is not always a 
correct one, for very important reasons. 
The use of gravity planes arc almost ex- 
tinct, its place being fnlfiUed by steam 
Kvoinotives. Many of diese gravity 
roads were short, and die nnniber of 
help utilized thereoo brooch die cost 
rather high. Wluk the time lost in re- 
peated stoppages for iH a fliing and at- 
taching ropes cansed a great ddagr, diere- 
ivvre in^ossibte to keqi all dK indiDes 
ruaning in soch aooofd dot die train 
irocn oee woold arriie in tine to foDow 

that of azxTtiker. tn 
onN- oose-fctirdt the 
as doise now Nr steam 
are. however. 
ages which are 
tibtese ajre seTctom 
or primary 

cf vriucfa 


inclinr hauUge ts done with 
endless rope. Fig. i shows a device 
toed in the Dorrance mnd Kcd Ash 
m Wilkes Barre, Pa,, where the 
it considerable, and separate reels, 
hf gear wheels, as shown, 
wliicli prevoits the cmrs from coming off 
the tracks tn coming tnto and leaving 
the top af the incltne. When they are 
Mi Ofverboard the running on and the run- 
MMK off ropes, both come from the under 
of the drums or reels. The one- 
lead of the ropes is caused by the 
wheels, for these make them turn 
ia opposite directions. These drums may 
be set ttader the tracks at tlve head of the 


with great advantage, if the pitch 
ii QQBrideraUe and the trains and ropes 
Such a device prevents the excessive 
d the ropes in parsing over the 
that is, the ropes running 
die tops of the reels when set under 
tracks make a smaller angle with 
fine of the haulage rope than when 
of the ropes comes from the under 

side of the drum, 'llierefure tliese reels 
laay be said Uulh: They keep the lead 
of the ropes in order when set above the 
tracksp and when set under the tracks 
tljc lead of the rope»i running on and 
ofT ihc reels is never too low. 

In engine plane haulage there are two 
cases which arc su|3crior to all other sys- 
tems. Thus: Where the scam is pitch- 
ing heavily from the shaft, where no 
type of locomotive can be successfully 
used to do the haulage as cheaply and 
ijuickly. Secondly, when the road passes 
over two Tt^trst inclines, where, how- 
ever the pilch from or to tlie shaft is »mall 
or insufficient to run the train back with 
the rope; then locomotive haulage can 
sometimes be adopted with better restihs. 
Some installations of engine plane haul- 
ages and tail rope, the engine is not 
placed in the mine, but on the sttrfacc. 
and tlie haulage rope is conducted down 
the shaft, through a bore hole for the 
purpose* The rope for haulage is fas- 
tened to the drum of tlte engine and 
leads along the tracks* held off the ground 
by means of small rollers. Each car of 
coal is fastened to the rope and pulled 
to the surface. 

Fig. 2 shows a form of coupling called 
the tail rope coupling, for connecting die 
different sections of the rope to nm the 
train into a given district. All couplings 
aim at three things: First, to secure re- 
liable connections; secondly, to provide 
a coupling link that wU] knock a» little 
as possible on the rollers, and not injure 
the coils of the rope on the hauling drum ; 
thirdly, to furnish a coupling in which 
ilie connections can be made and xm* 
made in as short a period as possible. 
The form of coupling shown in Fig* m\ 
is one of the oldest and simpteit in iste 
today, therefore given here to expfaun 
the general principle, although not by 



any luoaiiA the best, as Fig. 3 shows an- 
other form which answers the require- 
ments more fully and is called the 
"knock-off link or detaching-hook." This 
link or detaching hook is very handy 
when it becomes necessary to detach the 
rope from the cars when in motion, and 
when the hauling rope is tight. To do 
this successfully knock-off devices are 
applied. The endless rope devices of 
hauling can often be substituted with 
Ifrcat advantage for cither of the other 
thr^H* systems mentioned. The under- 
lying principle of its action is that the 
haulage is done bv a band or a series of 

aged. The unsteadiness arises from two 
causes: First, on a long lead of rope 
resting on rollers sixty feet apart, the vi- 
brations or undulations become deep and 
rigid ; second, the amount of elasticity in- 
creases with the length of the rope. These 
two causes give to the cars the jerky 
movement that has been referred to. 

In hoisting and conveying, the posi- 
tion of the train or cage cannot be seen 
by the engineman, and, as safety is re- 
quired, it must be secured by some me- 
chanical means for indicating the posi- 
tion of the train or the cage. It is im- 
portant that the engineman should know 


/c-/« J 

WikU \xf r\>|>e (h^t <!i>cr;ftlt the cars like 
4tfi cJ<^xa^^r chain doe* the ekvaior 
kfncixit^fK IV Ttsaliitr ihw. howtwr^ kt 
ikK' Ik'ttHkd C4int tak« the pbc^ of die fall 
<Vxiiatvir t^KlM^i. ihm Uie inv^ntd and 
<<^^y hiiKHI(«t» ane^ lh« <e»acl anatci^tte <if 
rt*f w^> tcaw a$ on \^«w $ide of the «id- 
!k<^ r^>pic th<t^ af^ Cull carji nw^viiis 
|W'i(fiW«yiv^ to Ihr ^^ft and t«i Ihte 
v<hw the <w(^x \Nirj6 a^^ wx^vins: inwanb 
^^ th** >«virtrtt^p*. I'V chirf dvji^dvania^ 
s^f thi^ *>^rtwx fe that th*' %^v u^htk^»^ 
*^ rr^Js^ xnn'th thi? X'atx'iniC trwesNn tha^ 
Ae v>a'rtt tr*xt< ww«*<adH'^.x, arhi w knwwx^ 
^f«HiK^ .** >otJKfch the t\ipe fe *i>^n ^tewf- 

K> regu^a^e his steam supply and when to 
apply die brake, in case die road over 
whidi the train is roDiqg is pitching. He 
al5o shoold knopir to a Coot where to 
:$K>f^ h» train or cage^ and far his direc- 
tion an indicator. F%« 4, is placed in 
tiev^ £ic3n$ hiou vhich is voffced hf a 
>K\vnm fixtfd to die dram shaft of his 

c»hfv. T\c rur. w?k> 
'Urjc^ h&5r."^ TToA 




TH K Kiting of v*ah*eft is generally con- 
wUlnmA m %Tr>' serious opcmtion. espe- 
daOf by the uiiinitialed, aiid well it may 
be, UB ED improper setting of the valves 
roeam dolbrf and cents and lots of them 
to tlie owner of the machine, and also to 
tte coal man, and plenty of profanity 
6xMii the operator* I have known shovels 
which have been on the point of being 
rejected, simply because an inexperienced 
8BO had tried to set the valves, and made 
the ihmrd act like a balky horse. The 
opcfitfan, however, is very simple, if it 
ii tflKferstood, and by observing the fol- 
lowini;^ few instructions, a lot of time. 
memey and profanity will often be saved. 
1m tlie first place in setting the valve 
it b abadutdy essential to have the crank 
pin exactly on the dead center, or at one 

s^Mm^^M m» mirrrtM^ ¥0Lvm^ 

of the stroke, and this is where the 
en lies. One cannot determine 
the crank is on the dead center 
jwit by tooking at it. as some would sup- 
poae* If yoQ have no tram, make one to 
lUa sketch, the length depending on the 
tfylc of enKvie. Then at some pmit on 
tfie fraxne of the engine make a center 
jric as Aown in the sketch. 
\ yoor tram kmg enough to reach the 
<fiac as shown in Pig. t. HaTtng 
far» turn your engine over tmtil 

the cross head has come to about one- 
half inch of the end of iu itroke» 
mark a fine line on the crosa4iead 
on the guide as shown at *'X/' Tlicn 
with a pair of dividers, with one teg in 
the center of the crank shaft scribe a 
part of a circle "M" on the crank disc 
near the outside^ as shown in Pig. 2. 
Then take your tram with one leg in the 
center pundi mark that you have made 
on the frame at **0" and with the other 
scribe a line on the circle ''M*' at an) 
point "A/* Now turn the engine over' 
(always in the direction the engine runs 
when hoisting) until the cross-head has 
gone to the end of its stroke and back 
until the mark on the cro8s4iead will 
cofne exactly to the mark X oci your 
guide. Now, take the tram with one leg 
in the center punch mark at **0*' on en- 
gine frame, make another mark (B) on 
drde "M/' Then divide the distance 
between A and B witli your divulers so 
as to get point "P." Point "P" must be 
exactly half way between A and B. Now 
turn your engine in the direction it ts to 
run until your tram has one leg in the 
point "O" on frame and the other leg at 
point "F* on crank disc, then the engine 
will be exactly on the dead center. Now 
in this position of the engine your valve 
should uncover the steam port i-i6 of 
an inch, and if this is the case your valve 
is prop^ly set for the Main or Hoisting 
engine. For the Swinging or Boom ok 
gines the port should be exactly covered. 
—From Steam Shovel News, 

The English denoorination of money 
known as a pound was once a pound 
weight of silver in its pare stale. 




THE proper formation of the curves 
of gear teeth being so meagerly 
understood by the majority of pattern- 
makers, it seems to me that it is about 
time the trade journals were giving the 
subject an airing, and to start the ball 
rolling I offer the following: — 

Gear teeth cannot be correctly laid out 
with compasses, or dividers, as the curves 
of gear teeth are no part of a circle, no 
matter how large or small the circle be, 
or what pitch the gear be. 

The curve known as the cycloid, is 
formed by rolling a generating circle 
against a straight line, or straight edge, 
as shown in Fig. i. 

If we consider A as the blade of a 
T-square, or straight ruler, and B as a 
tease circular disc, (called a generating 
circle,) and we roll the generating circle 
or disc one complete revolution against 
the straight edge, a scribing point C will 
scribe the curve D C E, which will be 
found to be half of an ellipse. The 

major diameter of an dlq>se thus formed 
win always be equal to the circamference 
of the generating cirde, and the minor 
diameter equal to twice the diameter of 
the generating drde. Now if instead of 
a straight edge as in Fig. i, we use a 
circokr disc as F. Fig. 2, tfie curve pro- 
doced win be the Epicycloid, and the 
diaracter of the curve will be affected bv 

the relation of the size of the generating 
circle to the templet F. If we use a 
generating circle whose diameter is half 
that of the templet F., a curve like R. 
passing through the points I. H. J., will 
be produced, and the generating circle 
in making one revolution, will go just 
half round the templet F. If we roll the 
generating circle K. against the inside of 
the templet F., as shown, a point in the 
generating circle would scribe the 
straight line S., which just divides the 

circle in halves. If we use a goierating 
circle one fourth size of tihe tenqdet P., 
as at L., and roD it outside of tiie tenqdet 
F. the curve prodoced wil be like I. T. 
M ., and the generating cirde in making 
one complete l e voluli on, wiD roD from 
I. to M^ just one fourth the drcomfer- 
ence of F. Again if we tike a one- 
fourth size generating drde N., and fdl 
it on the inside of the drde Aa owe 
M'. M,willbethei«idt K«vn i| 




circles, as P.« and Q., and 
M. \\ O., and M W. O. 
viH be the resiilt 

The formatioii of tbeve curves ii 
trciied in the varicMis txxiks cm Geometry, 
Ibe OKtbod betog to constnict them by 
pooits and a curved ruler. In Fig. 3 A, 
is a pan of a gear, showing teeth rolled 
Willi different si^es of generating tern- 
pfalcs. In order to roll the curves form- 
tng these teeth, it will be necessary to 
wmkt roUsttg templates and generating 
drcks ms shown in Fig. 4, the template 
A. fittinK inside the pitch line to roll the 
Scneraiing circle against to form the 
and the template B. fitting to the 
of the pitch circle to roll the gen- 
erating circle against to form the flanks 

^^bf the teeth. The generating template 
^^X*, Fig. 4, is made one* fourth size the 

I pitch drdcs A, B, of Fig. 4, and their 
TTlirifTiif are represented by L, and N, to 
Fig. a. In Fig. 3. the Teeth C. D. E. 
F* G. have both their faces and flanks 
rolled with the cpiarter sized generator. 
This makes a tooth of pleasing form and 
is cufftect where the gear is to run with 
gear having the same number of 
but if the nsate is either larger or 
the faces diould be rolled with 
idWcrent sixcd generator. In this sys- 
_ 1 Jht ianks of the gear being made are 
lo be roUed wbh a generator one-fourth 
ibr of the gemr bebg made, and the 
or that part of the tooth ouUtde 

•Jic pitch circle, is to be rolled with a 
generating circle one-fourtli size of the 
mate. Now, if we were making a gear 
to run with one whh twice as many tcctfi, 
whi)sc diameter was twice as great, we 
jihould need another set of templets E* 
and F., Fig, 4* and another generator 
« »., Fig. 4. the diameters being twice that 
ui A, B. C, Fig* 4, With this arrange- 
ment of templets, and generators, the 
teeth would appear like H, 1, J, Fig. 3, 
the Iknks being the same as C, D, E, etc., 
hut the end of the teeth would app^r 
more blunt and stout. Now there is a 
ss stem of making interchangeable gears, 
that is. nil gears of ilic same pitch to work 
together, but where small gears are to 
rnn with very large ones, the teeth of tlie 
!^mall gears are under-cut and are very 
weak. This fonn of tooth is represented 
at K, L, Fig. 3. The generating circle 
used to produce the interchangeable gear 
is one-half size of the pitch circle of a 
linear having fifteen teeth, for all sizes of 
t;cars of the same pitch. In this case the 
Hanks of the fifteen tooth gear are radial. 

or straight lines passing through the cen* 
tcr of the gear, and gears with less than 
fifteen are under-cut more and more as 
the teeth is made less ; but as the number 



of teeth is increased above fifteen the 
form of the teeth is much better, and in a 
very large gear the teeth are real stout 
The generating circle, and the radial line 
it scribes is represented by K and S, Fig. 
a. Now we can make correct gears, 
using one-eighth diameter generating cir- 
cles, represented by P and Q, Fig. 2, but 
the teeth will be as much stout-flank, and 
pointed faces, as the radial flanks are 

The one-fourth sized generator gives 
the best general results, the teeth for all 
siies being of good form, and reasonably 
stout Then roll one tooth, and take 
pains to do it well. 

The one tooth I use for a 8weq> tem- 
plate, as shown at B, Fig. 3, and fasten it 
to the center of the gear and move it to 
lay out each tooth. To lay out and make 
small gears of very coarse pitch, I lay the 
teeth out on a solid blank, and set the 
band-saw so as to give the necessary 
diift, saw them out^ sandpaper a little, 
and they are ready for the moulder. If 
you have never taken time to think about 
this subject, I would advise you (es- 
pecially if you are a patternmaker) to 
look it up and see what you can find out 
on the subject. 

R. W. J. Stewart. 


Core Prints. 
11>c shaping of core prints for patterns 
sh<L>iiM recei\-e such attention as will in- 
sure si>me de3:Tee of sameness, eq>ecially 
in the shv>p in which they are used. 

there w ere standard prints. 

To this end some discusskn has been 
enterevi into in ''Wood Craff* and Mr. 
W. M. Harwood says, "I am sending a 
drawing comparing the Gartside prints 


©if I 



I — r 


. ^ 4 

To.»Miv«th<w»rtwywinfki»K«wr- with th* c«« used ia < 
«n * CoV ««• kww «» «« nHKh tl» YoQ w« oxacc tteft «fcc <ip«- « *« 
^MM^NV mAI H w»M W fte Vrtlw if «^* « »n prats. 11«e liom fa Ihe 




I PICft 

dnwing arc cope prtats» the drag pruiu 
InvtEts onc-haif as modi taper. 

PIcaae notice that the y^" print is the 
as the Gartside, so it must look 
right" also. Notice the difference 
to the %^ pdnls. Here are the mies if 
the sketch is not tufficient: 

Rule I. All prims 154* and under in 
Amieter are as long as the large diame- 

The small en<l of the cope print is one- 
half the diameter of the large end. 

The sniaO end of drag prints is three- 
fnarths the diameter of the larger end. 

Role a. All prints over 1 54" diameter 
are i*4* long. Cope prinu are J<* less 
in diameter at the small than at the large 
end. Drag prints are 5-16'' less at the 
small emL^' The above refers to vertical 
prints oolyt iince horizontal prints need 
to be tapered. 

To the Editor. 

Dear Sir— t came across a little kink 
m the foundry the other day. A hand 
wheel was brought in. A broken-down 
job I thought ; it looked tike it. The 
rim, hub and four pieces of the arms 
were there. The hub was broken in 
two, hot that did not matter as much as 
rtbe loM of the anus. tt was a hand 
tted, ol the aame style that is used on 
tftil stock of a hithe. The huh was 
U 4* abo%*e the rim. To put in six 
^aU the same without the p:ittem 
the pn:>blem. The wheel was about 
m diameter, so the workman got a 
flaak, put down the bottom board 
the parts of the wheel on it, and 
it in. Then he made the joint 
tbe three arms on one side of the 
trit. There was a center bar in the 
lA that came down near the joint. 
\ side of the flask was rammed 
Isfied off. the pattern drawn and 
around with the arms on the 
side of the flask. The hub was 


turned too, ivs ihiu >;avff a liciier guide 
to go by. and the joint waj^ made the 
same as the other side. The cope was 
put back and ramnied up, lifted off and 
finished. I would state in connection 
with this :hat if a molder is making a 
job where there is a vacant space outside 
the bar. before the flask is lifted of! it is 
a good idea to take the trowel and cut 
square down along the bar on the out- 
side. Then if other things are nghi he 
will get a clean fit. Yours truly, 
Tuos. Watiikv 

Jerusalem Engineer's liig Feat. 

Ktiig Hezekiah, it seems, was troubled 
nvtr the bad water of Jerusalem about 
J. 500 years ago» and built a reservoir 
outside the city gates for spring water, 
which was brought thither in a tuimel, 
the construction of whid) livaK xhv fam* 
ous Simplon. 

Dr. Beriholct^ of the University of 
Basle, has identified this ancient engi* 
neering masterpiece. One of the Sirach 
manuscripu of this date states: **He^e- 
kiah fortified his city by bringing water 
thereto, and he bored through the K>lid 
rock by means of bronjse, and he col- 
lected the water in a re^nr'oir.** 

The tunnel leads into the pool of Si- 
loam and is 360 yards long. Work was 
carried on from lK)th ends, as is proved 
by an inscription in the ttmnel and by 
the marks of boring tools, picks, etc, 
which show the direction in which the 
excavation was made. What instruments 
were used for determining levels and di- 
rections, and how were errors detected^ 
Allowing for the scientific and practical 
limitations suffered by these ancient Jew^ 
ish engineers, their achievement excels 
the work of the modem Swiss and Ital- 
ian experts who executed the Simplon. 

.\n electrician is always posie<l on 
current topics* 


IN most manufacturing processes, it be- 
comes necessary to change the form of 
materials in order to bring them to the 
desired shape for use. Among the 
metals used in the construction of en- 
gineering structures, including the al- 
most endless variety of steam and gas 
engines, compressors, pumping machin- 
ery, marine and locomotive engines, 
special machinery and machine tools, it 
is evident that cast iron and steel repre- 
sent by far the chief constituents of such 
machines. For the manufacture of all the 
various parts of these structures and ma- 
chines there has been designed a great 
variety of machine tools. In these ma- 
chine tools are placed the pieces whose 
shape it is desired to change, and a prop- 
erly formed and hardened piece of steel 
is made to cut away a part of material. 
The steel used for making the tool for 
thus cutting the softer material is called 
Tool Steel. The time required to cut 
away the necessary amount of metal is 
an important factor in the cost of the 
piece under construction. It is evident 
that the relative hardness of the tool steel 
and the material it cuts, as well as the 
speed at which the cutting is attempted, 
will be important factors in the time re- 
quired to do the work and of the durabil- 
ity of the tool steel used. These facts 
have continually exerted a potent influ- 
ence upon the manufacturers of tool sted 
and they have constantly improved the 
quality of their product. On the other 
hand, the demand for strong and lighter 
materials of construction has increased 
the density and hardness of many ma- 
terials already used, and brought into 
common use new materials, such as cast 
steel, ferro steel, chilled iron, etc., and 

these have imposed severer duties oo tfie 
tool steels designed to cut thenu The 
same rivalry that has existed between 
armor plate and the projectile intended to 
pierce it has existed between the tool 
steels and the materials they are designed 
to cut. Until quite recently, the rate at 
which tool steel could cut the various 
metals was from lo to 40 feet per minute, 
varying with the metals cut and with the 
area of the cross section removed. If 
a higher rate of cutting was attempted, 
the point of the tool used became hot, 
lost its temper and immediately wore 
away. During the years 1898 to 
1900, Messrs. Taylor and White at 
the Bethlehem Steel Works, South 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, were seek- 
ing to discover what constituents could 
be combined with tool steel, and 
what special temperature treatment it 
should receive that would increase its 
cutting speed. As the result of their ex- 
periments, there was exhibited at the 
Paris Exposition of 1900 a lathe usmg a 
tool steel which removed chips of soft 
steel at a cutting speed of from 60 to 180 
feet per minute. These chips were so hot 
that they turned blue upon cooling. The 
point of the tool steel maintained its cut- 
ting edge even when running at a dull red 
glow. It was natural that to such tools 
shotild have been given the name of 
High-Speed Tool Steels. 


At the time of Taylor and White's 
first experiments, Mushct and Jessop 
tool steels of the self-hardening Qrpc 
were in general use. Accordiiig to Mr. 
F. Reiser in an article oa high-fpeed 
steel in "Stahl and Eisen/' Janvuy IS 
1903, they had the folkmif 

Carbon, 2.0 per cent; 
a, 5X> per cent ; Manganese, 2.5 
per cent: chromiun, 0.5 per cent ; silicon, 
1^ per cent. 

The tdf'hardening property is called 
into plaj hy the manganese* an element 
wlitdi fairors the combining of the car- 
bon with the iron. These steels were tern- 
pcred simply by heating to a temperature 
of 1600 degrees F. and then cooling in 
rir. Modid and Jessop tools, however, 
4fal not prove durable at high speeds, al- 
tbejr were far in advance of the 
carbon steels, and chromium 
^ mbstitated for manganese with good 
The chromium steels required an 
entirely different treatment, as was found 
by Mcisrt. Taylor and White in their 
s at the Bethlehem Steel 


I The 

exact chemical compositions of 
new tod stcds are secrets of the 
[e makers, and probably vary ; how- 
it is known that the steels contain 
fottowtng elements in varying quanti- 
: Carbon, tiuigsten, chromium, man- 
molybdenum and titanium. They 
amlly nm high in these combining ele- 
«BBts» the Taylor-WhHe steel having as 
hifb AS 12 per cent of tungsten and 4 per 
aatofdtfomhtm, while Bohler Brothers' 
Styritti fted, according to Mr. Reiser, 
baa a maximtim of 28 per cent of other 
With this increase the carbon 
has greatly decreased ; most of it 
wstli tungften, chromitim and 
r rfonents at high temperatures, 
in that state when cooled m an 

air blast and forms carbides of extreme 
hardness and durability at high tempera- 
tures. P'or best results of toughness and 
hardness these high-speed steels require 
for tempering a temperature of from 
2,000 degrees to 2,250 degrees F^ or a 
white heta bordering on the fusion point, 
and are then cooled in an air blast, lead 
batli or oil bath according to the different 
makers. Mr, Reiser in his discussion has 
for this reason correctly named them 
"superheated steels/* 


High-Speed steels, due to their hard- 
ness and durability at high temperatures, 
retain their edge when cutting at ex- 
tremely high speeds, cases having been 
iKiied in which the tool worked at dark* 
red heat without losing its edge< It was 
seen that the sjieeds obtained were from 
three to four times those obtained with 
ordinary* carbon steels. This, of course, 
means an increased output for a given 
shop and a consequent increase in the 
returns. This is not the only advantage 
of high-speed steel. It has been proved 
that such steel is more economical from 
the power standpoint* a given power re- 
moving a greater quantity of metal per 
unit of time at high speed than at slow 
speed* Of course the total power re- 
quired is increased, but the increase is 
by no means proportional to tlie increase 
in the amount of work done. 

ITiere is, however, one conditoin that 
must be carefully considered before the 
introduction of high-speed steels in a 
shop. Machine tools constructed to use 
the old carbon steels are limited in capa" 
city and will not stand the heavy strcma 
to which they would be subjected if usin|r 
high-speed steels at maximum speeds and 
feeds. This condition, however, b being 
met by the machine-tool builders, who are 
now designing and building especially 
heavy tools with powerful feed mech- 



anisnis with a view towards obtaining 
the highest possible efficiency of the steel 

The following tool steels were used in 
some trials : 

1. Styrian marked "Bdiler Rapid." 

2. Jessop's "Ark." 

3. Mclnnes' "Extra." 

4. Mushet's "Special." 

5. "Air Novo." 

6. "Rex." 

7. "Poldi." 

8. "A. and W." (Armstrong and 

The first six came from the American 
market. Poldi and "A. and W." were 
furnished by the American Radiator 
Company, having been used in its foreign 
factories. With the exception of the 
Mushet, the steels used were donated for 
the proposed tests by the makers or 
agents. The Mushet was taken from 
stock purchased in the open market. 
There are doubtless other kinds of steel 
which could have been tested, but these 
eight brands were most familiar and ac- 
cessible to the writers, and it is believed 
that they represent fairly well the brands 
commonly used at the present time by 
American manufacturers. 


The size of the bars of steel from 
which the tools were made was J4 in. 
by I in. for the steels from the American 
market. The Poldi bar was J4 in. by 
I J4 in., and the "A. and W." bar was ^ 
in. by I J4 in. The shape of the tool used 
in the tests is shown in Fig. i. The front 
clearance was I2j^**, the top rake was 
10°, and the side rake was also 10°. 
These angles were carefully main- 
tained throughout the tests, the angles 
being measured with a bevel protractor 
after each grinding. 

Experiments relating to the proper 
shape of tools have been made bv Pto- 

fessor J. T. Nicholson, and die writers 
were guided in selecting proper tool 
angles by the recommendations of his 
paper. Prof essor Nicholson says : 'Tools 
should therefore be ground for maximum 
endurance in the cutting of cast iron in 
ordinary shop practice so that their true 
cutting angles are about 81 *, or if they 
are allowed 6° clearance for working on 
the level of the lathe centers, they should 
have an included angle of about 75*. 

A tool whose cutting edge was worn 
away .002 in. after one hour's use was 
considered perfect, its durability being 
express as 100. The ratios of the dura- 
bility of any other tools to the standard 
will then be the inverse of the ratios of 
their rates of wear to the rate of wear 
of the standard. 

The horsepower lost in driving the 
lathe and countershaft was deducted from 
the total horsepower used during the 
trial, the difference being the net horse- 
power required for cutting. This was 
reduced to foot-pounds per unit area of 
cut, and plotted as ordinates upon a base 
of area of cut in a diagram. The curves 
show that the cutting force was not di- 
rectly proportional to the area of cut, but 
decresed as the are increased, and that 
the average cutting force varied from 50 
tons per square inch for soft cast iron to 
85 tons per square inch for hard cast 

It is shown that a cutting speed of 50' 
per minute is satisfactory, the durability 
being 100. If the speed is increased very 
materially, the durability decreases quite 
rapidly. It is evident that for eadi hard- 
ness of cast iron, the cutting speed allow- 
able for a maximum doraUlity eadsts 
where the vertical line indicafing cnttiiig 
speed is tangent to curves dnuhr to thpae 

(a) T 



tt a rale of 25 feci per minute ; (b) 
aH the sleeis tested bej^in to wear 
rapidly at speeds a little above 125 feet 
per fiiimite« Bctwren these two points, 
Ac rriatlofi between a safe cutting speed 
and the hardness of the cast iron seems 10 
be defiokdy expressed by the curve. It 
that cast iron of medium 
too to 120. could be cut at 125 
feet per minute just as readily as at 70 
feet per minute^ as far as any mjury to 
the tool it concerned. It must be re- 
W*nibiiiid that this curve does not take 
fano account the effect, on the cutting 
speedy of the variation in the area of cut ; 
the c:3(periments from which t*.c ctirvc 
was plotted were in all cases thtjsr in 
wliich the cut was very nearly >i in. 
depth of the cut by 1*16 in. feed, so that 
tliere ts btit a slight variation in the area 
of em in all of ibc experiments. 

(d) Generally speaking, all the steels 
proved eqttally effective. It is 
videot that there are great {K>ssi- 
abead for high-speed steels. Be* 
fare realiatng their full benefit, however. 
ceftasn ad%-atices must be made. Heavier 
Bmchiiie inoU nxMsx be built. Tlie capa- 
cily of the motors and power plants must 
Ik increased. Special hardening fur* 
w&b temperature measuring de- 
nmst be available. More must be 
cor tile chemicat and 

p hysi c a l pr^, .;... . of the varioti<i steels. 

(c ) Tool steels are now available that 
«■ cm cast iron from two to three times 
aa bst as was potsfble a few years 1^* 
When every adirantage has been taken 
irDm these possibilttfres, the con of manu- 
liUuriiig many articles shonid be ma* 
Iv retlticedi 

Some Things We ll^md About* 

The expression. "Clieck up tins r,nc 
and every other one you get/* may be 
intended to cnnvey the impression that 
you arc to check only tlic first, the third. 
the fifth, and so on. Vet the writer 
riieant viui were to check c'^try one. 

<lnr of the remarkable enterprises in 
England employing a large number of 
boys, is the Ixvant mine, sittiated at 
I^nd*i Rnd. The mine goes straight 
down for 1,000 feet and is worked out 
under the bed of the Atlantic Ocean con* 
^iflerably over a mile from the foot of the 

After experimenting for years with 
flying kites, Prof, Alexander Graham Bell 
has scored a wonderful success with his 
latest flyer, **Tlie Frost King." In recent 
\^%X$. the kite rose in the air a distance of 
ihiny fwt, carrying a weight of 227 
pounds, including a man weighing 165 
IKurnds smd ropes and lines weighing siX' 
ty-two pounds. The kite itself weighed 
sixty-one potmds, making a total of aSS 
pcnmds. The kite remained in the air 
long enough to have photographs taken. 
It rose gracefully and descended as cas» 
ily, being under perfect control during 
the entire time. 

tUloiilft, triMiiA. IK. 

a \hm 

nin$t rational of the world*! eeonomk 
«.^i!ttlarttv arc the recent Rtssstan m- 
rtucnces on the security markets every* 
where. Russian enlightenmmt and free* 
dom prumijK^ to make marketl tmprct- 
,sions on future American fannin|». 
Henry D. Raker says that agriculture 
now gives ciiiplo>nicnt to 87 'i per cent 
iif Rt&siaV populatio«i, hut Russian ag- 
ricnUure is now in a terrilik* cnnditicxL 
The Russian peasant enlightened wtD 
prove a dangerous rivaL 


By Bdmiind B. Moore, 

Author of " Wire and Wireless Telegraphy." 


THK use of electricity to mankind, A voltmeter is, roughly speaking, a 
conunercially or otherwise, makes ;::alvanometer of very high resistance, 
it necessary to be able to measure its There are many makes upon the market 
quantity in amperes, its force in volts, its and their size and shape are often adapted 
resistance in ohms, and in short an im- to their special use. The general prin- 
pimani item in the handling of elec- ciples upon which these voltmeters opc- 
tricity is to bo able to measure its mam rate are abv:>ui the same, so a description 
imiis and measure them accurately 

Anu^nii the nuv>t important electric 
uniis I hat arc common in our every day 
work arc the volt, amjx^c and ohm. 

All those have been carofully and fuli\ 
expiaiuovl in jxisi numbor> and iho reader 
slunild have attained at this siai:e of iho 
seria!, a v:^x\i practical undorstandinc and 
shi^u'd have tamiliariioii himself with the 

nuiu tcriv.s, sv^ that s;uno will be per- 
fev^:!\ v.'.u*.ci stvwl as thc\ are CvnistantU 
encv^\i!^:c:c\l ::\r\nij;:hvn:t the article. 

U 'luu ><v:u tv> the reavier a seconvtar> 
ttur.o" w <vlo\oco thtN, anvi jv^s;?iblv a iKirt 
of the r,c\: itu:tttvt\ tv> the vlij^cussion and 
exp'atuttv^t! >»f cUvtricat testing ap^xi ra- 
nt:^ but t \\i;t casuattx want my enthu- 
s>4i>nc tvadcr :h;*t it is v>t the utnK>st im- 
pv>r^AUce. es{wi;*lt\ iit the hi$:her 
br^AWx^he^ v*f out subuvt. that one should 
4X W<xi^i Nf A^fivwh^t f;iriuti,u with thetr 
tts«r ^Mvl ',Hvt4tto« 

ete\^trtc;i- u^v: vv» .»ttctt v.svM 4V< 's the 

tettr* \v»it rSo Vl^xttU?!V^^t b\ \>hrch the 

tui'^^Ni'i v>t w^U *t»;A> be vU-te»^ 

:"-e :::o5t common and adapted 

a fair understanding 




•V<^<OiVvt U 

t a ECU 
>:\\'> wi.. i:;:ve v.s 

v.^te of :rie standard makes is the 
W c>:. :i vo>-:ierer. The instrument it- 
self consists of a good sized stcd mag- 
net of a fan shape. The pedes are there- 
fore bnv>«*:r^: \-er> riear together. From 
these I Vies j^-riajcate Itnes of force which 
tho v^a^'Tc: trself produces and this 
retakes ±e space becwen the two poles a 

Vs v^A'se **-:e< of force arc ▼cry weak 
a'\l vv- ^Av\: -^x-red previoashr that if 
<o:: -v* ^Avrn; vaced wiAni a magnetic 
ric'o v**^' *i"vr< ,^: rocoe woold be samt- 

AA ^> \/>^^4hJ % Mw*^ Sjri'W^iWl^,. TV 




1ft e wtU attach to the end of each pole a 
piece of loft tron which encloses a cylin* 
dcr of tolt iron that increases the lines 
of fnroe. Also we know that iron has 
mncli greater permeability than air^ thus 
it wfll be readily seen that by substttut- 
mg ooe for the other tlie lines of force 
wH naturallY be increaiied. 

iktween the soft iron cyltnder and the 
^f is a small space through 
li,. ,.-..,,jjlioo takes place, A coil 
ot very fine silk wound wire, mounted 
m tighl fnme of copper is allowed 
Id reiate Ikrotigh a certain fixed space. 
Thb coQ is ver}' delicately sus{>ended by 
imxk lelass pivots, one at each end. The 
ooO u krpi in place and also returned to 
ks normal |K>sitioii by two light spiral 
fprioiCi placed at the ends, the tension of 
tboe beini;; ctppositc one another, 

A liffht aluminum lever is attached to 
ooe of the spiral springs and the end 
pMsrs cnrer a graduated dial which is 
fisifate CO the ottlsade of the instrument. 
Ilie diiDOifiODS on the scale represent 
tke electric pressure tinit in volts and 
from this the reading is done. 

Tlic two connecdbna with the coil are 
aadc throogb tlie two spiral springs and 
to bindiiig poets placed upon the 
of the case ol the instrument 
It ts not always desired to have the 
OHteni past full streni^th throui^h the 
enfl nf 6ne wire upon the copper frame 
ai there is nsisany sufficient resistance 
cqnnected on the circttit» this being ar- 
aafgd in snch a war from bbdins: posts 
satiw notside that it may be increased or 
^•"-♦-^sed as neccssarj\ 

the workinit parts of the hislni- 
mntL are contained in a heavy brass ease 
%i?infr a glass aperture for the graduated 
fisi t« which the pointer inrlit-ates. To 
^liii the voltaic of any current the in* 
b connected tn mwntcipa! on 

the line and the depression of the i 
key upon the face of the instrument closes 
the circuit and the lines of force produced 
by the current circulating the wire to- 
gether with the lines of force from the 
magnet cause the coil*bearing the pointer 
to move* The movement of the pointer 
is in exact projjortion with the E M F 
of the current so the number to which it 
points represents the number of volts 
passing in the circuit whicli is being 

These instruments are generally grad- 
uated with two scales, one reading in 
volts and the other in one-twentieth of a 
volt as the case may be* 

When an exceedingly strong current 
is to be measured tnnre resistance is in- 
serted with the inside roil by connecting 
to certain binding parts. By this ar* 
rangemcnt the instrument may be adapted 
to a wide range of work. 

Another style of instrument used to 
measure the voltage of a current is 
known as the Garden V^oUmcter* 

1 his instrument is operated upon the 
hot wire principle, that Is the movement 
(if die indicating needle ts caused by the 
elongation of a platinum -silver wire when 
heated by the electric current passing 
ihrougji it* The platinum-sihTr wire is 
0,0025 inches in diameter and its local 
length is about T^fi". 

I >ne end of the wire is connected with 
one of the binding posts mounted on lite 
outside of the instrument. Tt is then run 
tiown over a very delicate pivoted 
grooved wheel and up around a smaller 
grooved disc which is indirectly con- 
nected whh the ptnnter. The wire is 
nm from this small disc down to a second 
wheel similar to the first and mounted 
upon the same axis. It is then lead up 
to the other binding post from whfch the 
other connecticw is made. 



The current passing through the wire 
will raise its temperature and it will at 
once expand. The shock in the wire is 
at once taken up by a spring adjustable 
from the outside and connected to the 
small disc. 

It will be readily seen that the amount 
of expansion will be comparatively small 
so far as the value in determining the 
current's force. 

It is from the expansion through the 
small disc indirectly that the current volt- 
age must be determined, thus a very deli- 
cate mechanical multiplier is arranged so 
the movement of the pointer which 
passes over the graduated scale is greatly 
increased by tlie weak expansion of the 
unit itself. 

We will not take the space to go into 
detail with this instrument or to describe 
fully the complete action because 1 think 
the reader can obtain a general idea from 
the above and further information in re- 
gard to this instrument would not be of 
the utmt^st im|>(^rtance. 

Those instruments are not used as 
much in evcr\ day W(^rk as the one first 
described. The> are, however, very ac- 
curate and a fine reading may be ob- 
tained. are generally constructed 
to read from 30 volts up to 1 20 volts, but 
by introducing with this voltmeter suit- 
able known resistance, a much stronger 
current ma> be measured. That is, if 
the suitable resistance inserted in the cir- 
cuit of the voltmeter is equal to the total 
resistance of the wire in the voltmeter, 
the potential difi'erence v^f the current at 
the terminals of the instrument is exactly 
halved. So the introducing of this coil 
makes it necessary to nmltiply the indi- 
cated numbers on the dial of the volt- 
meter by two. 

In measuring the volume of the elec- 
tric current, or in other words, measuring 

the number of amperes in the circuit, we 
use what is termed an Ammeter. At first 
sight one would hardly notice any diflFer- 
ence in this and the voltmeter, but never- 
theless there is a slight change which 
produces somewhat different results. The 
outside appearance is, however, about the 

rip. C4— Volt Ammeter. 

The first change of importance is in 
the resistance of the coil of the ammeter. 

In measuring current strength it is de- 
sirable that the resistance of the coil be 
ns li»\\ as possible so that a very small 
amc'unt of energy will be used. 

Hie next change is the manner in 
which the instrument is connected upon 
the line. The voltmeter measuring the 
diflference in potential was connected in 
parallel with the circuit. The ammeter 
measuring the volume of the current is 
therefore connected in series on the line. 
This allows the entire volume of the cur- 
rent to pass through the instrument. It 
will be seen that a variation in the volume 
of the current carries a c or responding 
variance in the current passing through 
the ammeter and in this way the pointer 
indicates the volume of the current in 



In tbcir instrtsincsits the dial to whicli 
Kgltt lever pojttu is o( a single scale 
|wlitlc that of the vottiticler ts usually 

The high resistance of the voHmetcr 
Iwhsch ti tK)i necessary in the ammeter 
Itnakcs the instntroent a little more com- 
(pact. The eonitecticiris arc made to the 
|two btfidtng posts which are placed w\yon 
the uatside of the tiutrument. 

The Wesion voltmeter and ammeter 
are of \zty high workmanship, and con- 
stmcteil of the finest materiaL These 
mtt called some of the most accurate in- 
ju i neii l s upon the market and arc the 
io which are birgdy tised. 
C >De |*(*od pf^ftnt in re|^rd l<> titese in- 
fltrrnneols is that they are nf the dead* 
eat nstitre. That ts the pointer, after 
the dofinir of the ctituit reaches it5 pr>st 
lion quickie * ' • Ttsatrcst. 

TUt does A i.jn of the 

foiolcr, which niakeii it much easier to 
Mlow weak viUrution^ tn the current. 

The cause nf this excellent property is 
m the con^tnictiiin of the instrument* 
Tbe moving parts are constnicted of very 
fight material^ therefore, not having a 
fTrst mofoenitnn, but are easily placed at 
Also e«ld^ currents are set up in 
die copper frame upon which the coil is 
VMisnd* These ctirrenU are induced in 
the metal frame by the strong magnetic 
idci in which the coil itself is placed. 

TliCM induced currents are in the right 
4 ii ectiun 90 that the>' react upt^n the orig- 
mA ield and thus tend to stop the motion 
^ the coil from which they were pro- 

: if an explanation of this law ace 
ch^Htr on inductions prevtocisly given.) 

One other method tn which ammeten 
sr? eonsinicted is upon thr flectromag- 
aft prmrtple. 

We have explatned in early chapters 

how a helix of wire when traversed by an 
electric current will attract a soft piece 
of iron into it* This attraction will in- 
crease somewhat as the current in in* 

In this style of ammeter the coil con* 
sists of a helix of wire, and when this is 
connected with the curretu the attmctson 
draws a si>ft iron core into it and causes 
a light pointer, pivoted at one end to 
move over a graduated scale. In this 
way it indicates the %*nhiine of the current 
in amperes. 

'X\\n ^tyle nf in^trunieni is not as accu- 
rule as ihi^se previously described. It is 
%Try simple in operation and can be 
made very cheaply. 

For laboratory work the voltnieter and 
the ammeter arc often combined in one 
instrument either the upper or the lower 

ftg. S^ IHkJlcI Vulluirtcr 

scale being tised for the reading of volti, 
Tlic zero mark is placed in the center 
and one-half of tlie scale graduated for 
amperes and the opposite for volts. 

One of these instrumental a voltafnnne- 
ter, is showTi in one of the tllustrationi. 
The screw shown at the side of the in* 
strument Is for the pinpoae of leveling 



the instrument so that the pointer will 
rest directly opposite zero. Connections 
are made from the binding posts shown 
on the base. 

The middle part is common to botli 
readings. When it is desired to measure 
the voltage the other wire is connected 
to the part marked V and when amperes, 
to the part marked A. 

F'or light testing purposes these volt- 
meters and ammeters are also constructed 
in a pocket size, being usually in the form 
and size of a watcli. 

One of these instruments is shown in 
one of the illustrations. These little in- 
struments are practically inexpensive and 
are quite accurate for light reading. 
They are of a convenient size to be car- 
ried in the pocket and for light limited 
testing work they are invaluable. 

To Utilize Niagara's Whirlpool. 

A project has been started looking 
toward the utilizing of the power that 
may be gained from the whirlpool in the 
gorge below Niagara Falls. The idea is 
to build a pipe line between the upper and 
lower points in the rapids, and it is 
estimated that the power obtained would 
be twice as great as that of all the electric 
plants now operated at the Falls. The 
promoters say the project would net 
harm the scenic grandeur of the whirl- 

The Joy Automatic Hose Coupler. 

In order to insure a quick and posi- 
tive means of complying two sections of 
hose, the Joy coupler was devised. The 
union is formed by a cam on the male 
end carrying offset lugs. 

A quarter-turn with one hand drives 
these lugs home, the cam compressing 
the washer and making a tight joint. 
It is claimed that the higher the pressure 
the tighter the joint. The washer is a 

part of the male end but can not be 
yet when worn can be replaced easil; 
a very small cost. The couplings 
made for hose or pipe connections, 

female end being made for the la 
This style can be coupled and uncou 
very quickly and no matter how y> 
hard handling it is always ready for 
next time. 

It is made by the National Pipe 
Hose Coupler Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Electric Railroad Up the Alps. 

An electric road is being constru 
up Mt. Blanc on plans prepared b\ 

The cogwheel system is to be ado] 

The road will start from the villag 
Les Honches, thirty-two hundred 
sixty feet above sea level, and will c 
eleven thousand, seven hundred and 
feet to the upper terminus. 

The road will pass through a tu 
in the northern slope. 

The McGahey Oil Engine Comj 
have established a machine sho 
Basic City, \\i. 


lly J. ». MYHES. 

IN dciiiniiitic a punch or a rii^eter 
tfwmt, the depth of throat or ^p 
"O*' ud height of ihroai ^H" and 'h^' 
are detentiined b^- the mrc and character 
of the work to be dotie. The aire of the 
itefce on rivetcn b uMially fixed by the 
shell requtred to be riveted. 
O'* mtMl be less than this. In 
O, D* R and t are fielected ac- 
isg to jtidgnicnt of the designer, 
the strength of a ^cctiou increases 
aa the cnbe of the depth, if the fiection 
be too dc«p the compreasion flange is so 
■mdi tonger as not to be economicaL 
The tkicktie^ of the web 't** is mostly 
a ouMadcimtion of what will cast well. 
For that reason it mhotsid be thickened 
vhrre it )otn;« the heavy tension flange 
at the end of the throat, which also takes 
of the rapid transition of stresses at 
point. At '*t'* it should nsaally be 
to carry the shear, as little of 
tie dMir m carded by the flanges and 
the web ts shallow at this puint. 

Flni, decide upon the material to be 
sad and the allowable stresses in tennion, 
c i wi p f g ^*lMi i and ^hear* all of which will 

depend largely on conditions. Asmme 
the pro|K>rtions of the main !(ection and 
calculate for the stress. If not reason- 
ably near the chosen Mressc*, correct the 
first assumptions and recalculate. 

The frame is acted upon by a force 
'*W" which produces a Ijending moment 
**M'* «iK>n any section equal to the force 
times the length of the lever arm. On 
the main section the lever arm i«» the 
perpendicular distance from the line of 
action of the force *' W" to the center of 
gravity of the sectioii, and is equal to 

I^t L. Lit h lit fitc,» = length of lever 
arms in inches to various sections ; Ct 
and Cc ^distajice from center of gravity 
of section to extreme fibre of tension 
and compression flanges respectively, 

W = force applied at the die in pounds. 
If a hydraulic machine, this is taken 
equal to the effective area of the mni 
times the workitig pressure. 

S-unifonwIy disiribute<l tenj^ile stroa 
due to force **W.*' 

Ss = shearing stress carried mainly by 
web of section. 

St^teuHle stresei due to moment of 
force **VV/' 

Sc- compressive stress due to moment 
of force ''Wr 

Smt^=Aaxtmum of combined tru?»ik 

Smc ^3 mmximnm of combined com* 
pressi^T stress. 

A ^ area of section uod^ coai4dera* 

I:=:moment of tnertta of section. 

M=bending moment in indi pouodi^ 
=WL, WLu Wl ike. 

A wangle of section with center line 
of frame. 

I iMftt wail IhU fiM«mciiic torn t«Mr% 



\V cos a \V MCt MCc 

S= ; Ss := — ; St= ; Sc= ; 

A All 

Suit = S+St; Stiic=Sc— S. 

A varies as D^ I varies as D*. 

I I 

— aud — vary as D^. 
Ct Cc 

T fO c3 


^EUT .' _ ' J, ^ | /\X(S 




"1^ — r ^ 


a carriage, gap to reach the center of an 
8 ft. plate. 

We will make this frame of a steel 
casting of I section, quite deep, with 
medium stresses to insure rigidity. W= 
300,000 Ids. G = 50'. Smt = 6,000 
lbs. per sq. inch. Smc = 8,000 lbs. 
5iX22- 121 sq. in. X 21 = + 2541 ^ . ,j. 

3 X12 =30 X 19.75 = 711 SECTION 

A section can be chosen from the 
tables which will fill almost any condi- 
tion, the depth being proportioned to 
give the required value of I or I 


The dimensions of the main section 
being assumed, detennine the center of 
gravity and moment of inertia. 

Take the moments of the different 
areas of the section about some line of 
reference, and divide the algebraic sum 
of the moments by the total area, which 
gives the distance to the center of grav- 
ity from the assumed line. 

The neutral axis passes through the 
center of gravity of the section. 

The moment of inertia is equal to the 
sum of the product of each area by the 
square of its distance from the neutral 
axis, plus its moment of inertia about 
its own neutral axis. 

Example : 

Design a 150 ton punch frame, to be 
quite rigid, but as light as consistent 
with good design, being mounted upon 

A=230 sq. in. 


121 X 13.a4» + 

22 X 5.5« 

73 X 7.9t>« + 

36 X ii7.7P + 

< 5.5« _ j 

12 "" i 

= 1 

2 X 36.5 

12 X 3» 







Moment of inertia, I, = 61247 
M=WL=300.000X65.79.-^19,737,000 in. lbs. 
W 300,000 




= 1305. 

St = 

MCt 19,737,000 X 15.79 

= 5085. 

I 61,247 

Suit = S + St = 5085 -f- 1305 = 6390. 
MCc 19.737,000 X 29.21 

Sc = 


I 61247 

Smc = Sc — S = 9420 — 1305 = 8115. 
( Stresses are near enough. ) 

The vertical section is figured likewise, 
except there is no direct tension S to 
combine, but shear on the web. 

The section at an angle **a" has S = 
W X cos a 

to combine wnth the stresses due to the 
moment. The moment on this section 

The vertical .section being determined, 
the others may be proportioned from it, 
thus: 1 : li :: 0» : 0\ or Oi = 

and all other dimensions in like propor- 



ile the ordinaics, Oi, 0]« d. 
lay Ihrm oat* 1 1 will br found 
! curve b not a vtry pleajtiJig one, 
rill bmx lo be varied sotnewhat 
the web a utitform tbtekness, and 
Iht flanges tn Mnitgli! lined, keep- 
be af«a of the flan^^ the same as if 
iftiooed from Ibe above formula. 
k two or three sections for **St" 
*Sc'* by finding center of gravity 
Bonent of inertia by method given 
I, Allow a somewhat loux*r slrtss 
msitm flange of the 45 sectioiu and 
irge fittetJi for i^eeL 

m Circle Tangent to Another 
Circle m Moe and Through a 

IOIvM Point, 
time ago. a number of solutions 
ven to solve this geometrical 
tern and a few more are here added. 

itke to submit a solution of the 
To draw a circle through the 
and tangent to the circle H and 
iXY. o 

of all drdes pas»ng 
tangent to XY will lie in 
Die axis is the perpendicu- 
PP*, whose foctis is at P and whose 
etrix is the Ime XY. 
hnraith the center of the circle, drop 
^endicuUr to XY. Lay of O CT 
rlo the ndiat of the circle and draw 
r panlld to XY. Now the centers 
B circles tangent to the given circle 
Hoe XY win lie on a parabola 

whose axis is the perpendicular OOV 
whose focus is O and whose directrix 11 
the line XT'. Hence it follows that the 
center of the required circle will be at 
the intersection of these two parabolas. 
Yours truly, 

H. J. MAsmAaoon. 

Radioactive Substance. 

Ill a recent contribution to the PhUa^ 
sofhical Magazine, Mr. A. S. Eve makes 
some rather startling suggestions. He 
has specukted as to the possible amotmt 
of radioactive substance in llie earth. 
Starting with a simple experiment to de- 
termine the ionization of the air, data 
are obtained which are useti as a founda- 
tion for his argument. Fn>m his experi- 
ment be computes that if the ionization 
of the air has an average value equal to 
that which he fotmd that this corre- 
sponds to an activity which would be 
produced by one-half gramme of radium 
per cubic kilnmeter of the atmmphere. 
Upon tlie further assumption that this 
ionization value is an average for the 
worldt it is computed that to produce 
this activity of the layer of air surround- 
ing the earth, one kilometer thick, 
would require at least 600 tons of radium 
bromide. Next, following the sugges- 
tion that the increase in temperature of 
farth as the center is approached is due 
to radium, and assuming that the salts 
of this element are uniformly distrib- 
utedt this 600 tons of radium would be 
contained in a layer of the earth only a 
few meters thick. The result thus 
reached indicates the possibility of 
radioactive substances bemg much more 
abtmdant than heretofore suposed, and 
?;ti^?jests the further possibJltty that radkw 
active phenomena may play an important 
part in the life of the organic worldw-* 
FJfCtrical Retieui 


By F. W.- SALMON. C. E. 

THE man who sits on a high stool 
before a big table and looks 
serious a number of hours a day, and 
very often sharpens his pencil, is not al- 
ways the man who gets out the most 
drawings or the best. This was very 
forcibly impressed on the writer's mind 
some time ago where there were several 
changes in the office force, and amongst 
the new-comers there was one man who 
told us all of his long and varied ex- 
perience in every line of work which, as 
the writer remembers correctly, included 
air ships and various devices in the use 
of radium, and of course all such com- 
mon things as battle ships, dynamos, elec- 
tric traveling cranes, blast furnaces, gas 
engines and racing yachts had been con- 
structed in various parts of the world for 
all the great millionaires, by this young 
man whose beard was quite short. 

Of course we learned the history of 
this young man by degrees, but we were 
all very much impressed by the very com- 
plete kit of tools that he carried, which 
was certainly very attractive and seemed 
to cover about everything that a man 
could expect to use in a drafting room, 
and as chance would have it, this young 
man was put on the same table beside the 
middle-aged man who did not seem to 
have anything, and who was continually 
borrowing everything (except a two- foot 
rule) from his neighbors. Nevertheless 
the man without the tools was busy all the 
time and did get the drawings and trac- 
ings made. 

Now, the particular incident that I 
think will prove interesting to the reader 
happened shortly after dinner, before the 

engineer had returned, the ch 
man having come in, looked ai 
seriously and seeing that' ever 
busy left the office, when c 
friend with the large box of to 
out to borrow an oil can to oi 
screws on his bow-pen-compas 
he had said had got dry and > 
ing. He had been doing mc 
cussing all the forenoon about 
office, without an oil can," and 
around from one to another te 
what a beautiful silver-plated 
can had been given him in som< 
name of which I don't remem 
he always carried with him 
special grade of watch oil, bui 
had not thought to bring do^ 
office, and that he just wanted 
ours for a few minutes. Now 
draftsman always scolds ever 
mercifully that produces a 
which the lines appear to have 
on greasy cloth, so we are all c 
afraid of everything greasy, ai 
reason used to wear high wJ: 
and long white cuffs, and kc 
way from everything that h 
machinery, so nobody had an o 
our young friend with the lar] 
of small tools commenced his : 
grimage around the office, tel 
one of us what a miserable, f 
less, worthless, good-for-notl 
bad, bum-office ours was, bea 
not have an oil can. After thi 
gone through with, our frier 
any tools called the other mat 
asked him what was the matter 
he wanted, and after recchrh 

BROWmncrs in dust rial UACAZtSh 

ition be told liim he would fix hit 
MBcntB* Ao oar young friend seemed 
once jump to the conclusion that he 
d now get repaid tor all the lending 
be had done. So taking all the srnall 
over to the other man, he watched 
rub the point of a soft bUck Iciul pen* 
Vk the screw of each titstniinent and 

ri ii hack and forth, when it ap- 
tn he better lubricated than it 
Id have lieen with oil, and since that 
ne have alwmjrs taught the new* 
tri to rub a ^oft pencil on the screws 
lidr tastmmcnta with Yer>^ satis fac- 
roHiha. — 7*1^ CiBnadian Engineer. 

The Lay-out of Piping. 
Hjiteo in the illusirations used to 
■Afferent ways of piping on part of 
l^win^ ' *' ntcs the location of a 
II or t' in« of closing up the 


H lii teke for instance a sketch which 
vned in **Gfnpkile' by a well known 

ch v^ as given to rfiow the man- 
cocDiecting a beating coD to a 
k may be underHood thai the 

fellow who would put in the work would 
have sense enough to provide for closing 
up the system, and in most cases iJicre 
Uijuld be used union valves to the coil. 

Still the point we wish to rnake is that 
our sketches should be aa complete as 
|N)Sjiihlc to overcome the ignorance of the 

Start Fight on Plumbing School. 

The Iniled Association of Journeynieii 
riumbers. CJas & Steam Filters* Local 
Union is condemning the claims of a cer- 
tain traile school which advertises it can 
turn nut a finished Journeytiun plumber 
and tutcr in iliree months and fit him to 
earn from $5,00 to $8.00 per day. 

The claim which particularly incenses 
ihc Cliicago jounteymen is the one which 
;us$ures the graduates of membership in 
the union for payment of an additional 
fee of $25.00. Neediest to say the 
Union referred to is not the United As- 
sociation« but a so-called Natioful League 
of Joume>Tnen Plumbers made up of 
members who seceded from the New 
York local of the United Association. 
The league has apparently loaned its 
name to the school in question for adver- 
tising purposes. 

The position of the United Association 
on the subject of apprentices is well «*• , 
tabli$}ted and ailmitting trade school 
gradtiate^ without further apprenticeship 
IS not a part of their program. 

The tallest people are the Polynesiaits, 
that island race which include the natives 
of Samoa* New Zealand, The Marguesas 
and Hawaii. Tlie average man among 
them stands five feet ten inches. The 
shortest people are the bushmen of Af- 
rica, whose height is hut five feet, four 


By Prof. A. Edward Rhodes. 


DIMENSION is extent in any one 
direction. Dimension is only in 
one direction, as of a line, is known as 
length. When there are two dimensions, 
as of any surface, the two dimensions are 
called length and breadth. When there 
are three dimensions, as of a solid, the 
longest dimension is known as length, 
the next is known as breadth, and the 
shortest is known as thickness Thick- 
ness, however, always expresses solidity, 
and is never used to express the third 
dimension of a hollow object. The terms 
here given are applied to solids (objects) 
without refernce to position. A solid, 
when considered with regard to both di- 
mension and position, has three dimen- 
sions, one vertical, and two horizontal 
dimensions. The vertical dimension is 
known as height, and the horizontal di- 
mensions are designated by width — width 
from left to right, and width from back to 
front. When the vertical dimension is 
less than the shorter of the horizontal 
dimensions, it is sometimes known as 
thickness. It is better, however, as a 
rule, to adhere to the terms height, width 
from left to right, and width from front 
to back when speaking of objects placed 
in a definite position. 

When a solid is simple and regular, 
the facts of its form can be shown in 
two views: — the front view showing 
height, and width from left to right, and 
the top view showing width from front 
to back, and from left to right. These 
views should be placed in the same rela- 
tion to each other that they have in the 

object ; that is to say, the top view should 
be placed above the front view, etc. 
In working drawings, visible edges are 

represented by heavy lines, thus : , 

invisible edges are represented by heavy 
broken lines, thus : , construc- 
tion and dimension lines are made light 
and broken, dimension lines have arrow 
heads whose points indicate limit of di- 
mension, centre lines are made light and 
broken. Dimension, construction, and 
centre lines are sometimes finished in red 
ink to distinguish them more readily from 
the edges of the object represented. 

A solid having all its edges parallel to 
the planes of projection may be repre- 
sented by lines equal in length to the 
edges they represent. Illustration,— A 
cylinder supported in space with its axis 
perpendicular to the horizontal plane of 
projection, has for its top view a circle, 
figure 6, and for its front view an oblong, 
figure 7, placed directly under the top 
view, as in fiirure 8. 

Again, a square prism supported in 
space with its top face parallel to the 
horizontal plane of projection, and its 
front face parallel to the vertical plane 
of projection, has for its top view a 
square, figure 9, and for its front view 
an oblong, figure 10, placed directly un- 
der the top view, as in figure 11. 

In working drawings the edges only 
of the object represented are shown, 
rather than a shaded or picture surface 
of the object. 

Line shading aids materially in reading 



drawings^ as it frequently ena- 
reader to decide which face of 
:t in the higher or lower plane 
referring to another view. 

on n 

] D ■ on 

« f /» // 

ations — Fifjure 12 represents a 
Mock having a smaller square 
sting on it. Figure 13 represents 

working drawing has, in addition to lines 
representing the object, dimension lines, 
dimensions, and memoranda. 

Reading a working drawing is inter- 
preting the meaning of a given arrange- 
ment of lines, dimensions, and memo- 
randa. In other words it consists of the 
power to imagine the shape and propor- 
tions of the solid represented by the 

The bcstt way (I know) to learn to 
read working drawings, is by making 








of a square block having a square 
ough it as hown by figure 14. 
15 shows a smaller cylinder rest- 
a larger cylinder. Figure 16 
cylinder having a hole through 
iwise. Half of the front view is 
n section, this is often done as it 
le interior, as well as the exterior 
.tion of the object. 
>rking drawing is not complete 
t gives every fact that a workman 
nt to know at any time during the 
nion of the object. Therefore, a 

working drawings, both by drawing 
from the object, and by copying from 
drawings made by others. 

When an object, as a machine, is com- 
posed of several parts, think of the sev- 
eral parts as individual objects; then as 
a complete machine. Sketch the several 
parts of a complete machine, "working 
up" the views from an assembly draw- 
ing, write a description of an object from 
a drawing of it. 

Success is the result of constant en- 


npHERE i? no excuse] for "spoiling 
" good drawings with bad section 
lining when a simple and at the same 
time, very accurate little device for doing 
the lining neatly, can be secured for 
twenty cents. 

The appearance of section lining de- 
pends entirely upon the even spacing of 
the lines. In large work, where the 
lines are far apart, the spacing can be 

directions given herein he will soon have 
an accurate section liner and will not feel 
the expense. 

First purchase a paper scale, costing 
twenty cents. These scales are printed 
on bristol board and are usually one and 
three-quarter inches wide and nineteen 
inches long. They can be had with any 
kind of division, either engineers or 
architects, but the scale for this purpose 


gauged quite accurately with the eye, 
but in very small work the slightest dif- 
ference in spacing is glaringly visible. 
Nine times out of ten, when the drafts- 
man attempts such work with only his 
eye to guide him, he will turn out a bad 

While section liners are absolutely nec- 
essary in some cases, the student is not 
always prepared to stand the expense of 
purchasing one. If he will follow the 

is the engineer's, divided twenty parts to 
the inch. 

liy prolon:^ing every other division 
mark, by drawing a light line a little be- 
yond the printed lines, we secure a scale 
divided twenty parts to the inch and also 
ten parts to the inch. These divisions 
will be found to answer all purposes. 

The scale should now be cut in half, 
and one half put away for future use. 
Trim up the ends of the other half so 



(im and aids with one of the 
faiei, mud be &ure to save the 
li yoy cot off. 

im winl Ibrcc of the smallest 
dkt to be had — ^three sixteentlis 
h tn diafncter* If these cannot 
sd, larger tacks wift do if the 
e fiM off to about tliree thirty- 
I an inch. 

two of these lacks, fasten the 
le to die blade of the T-scitiare, 
in the drawing at (a) . Be sure 
tacki do not go through the 
blade and that the paints are 
ck that they i»plit it. 
he piece of blank board cut from 
[ the scale cut a small triangular 

) and fastai it to the forty-five 
triangle^ as shown in the drawing* 
third small tack. 

This conjplelcs the section liner. Its 
use should be clear from the drawing. 
To permit the free use of both hands the 
T-square can be fastened to the drawing 
(>oard by pushing a long pointed thumb 
tack through each end as shown. If done 
carefully the tacks will not split the blade. 

Section lines at an angle of either ')0**, 
45°, Oo**, or 30*^ may be made by shifting 
the indicator point b. When the triangle 
is not in use for section lining the indi- 
cator point may be turned up out of the 

The scale may be slid along the blade 
of the T-square so as to bring it to any 
poiiition, or the entire scale may be fas- 
tened to the bbde. If this is done the 
scale should be held in place by four 
tacks instead of two* 


(itcaUy edtxated men are in de- 
cmly as draftsmen, foremen 
rttendents, but tn the illustra- 
^ departments of trade 
as traveltng salesmen for 

one wofk tip a design for a 
or section fan di* 
to a motor for sucking 
a hose from all paru of the 
could be carred like gas 
lo different parts of the house and 
i atudied and by means of push 
motor cotild be started^ The 
should be small and at a price 
of the ordinary house 

A very convenient device could be 
made by attaching a pump to the front 
post of a bicycle and to be operated by 
one*half of the handle-bar as a crank or 

One-half of the handle bar coidd be 
solid with the t)Ost while the other coidd 
be arranged with thumb screw and spring 
so that in loosening, it would work free 
of the teeth or ratclict face needed to 
hold it rigid while the wheel is being 
ridden. A small metal tube could be se- 
cured to a point on the frame that would 
be conveniently reached by a snull tube 
which the rider could carry in his pocket. 

Some of the railroads are towering the 
position of the headlights ui to give bet- 



ter distribution of the rays of light on 
the track. A position selcted is directly 
in front of the boiler and practically i8 
inches lower than on the old types. 

The firm of Fonts and Hull, patent 
attorneys, 413 The Arcade, Cleveland, 
Ohio, has been changed to Bates, Fonts 
& Hull, with offices at 1028 Society for 
Savings Bldg. Mr. Hates comes to the 
firm with a wide experience in this class 
of work, and was formerly member of 
the firm of Thurston cS: Bates. 

The largest raindrops are about one- 
fifth of an inch in diameter. In order to 
determine the size the rain is allowed to 
fall into a thick layer of Hour, each drop 
forming a pellet of dough, and these pel- 
lets are compared with dough pellets ob- 
tained from drops of known size deliv- 
ered on tlie tlour bv artiticial means. 

At sea k'vel water boils at a tempera- 
ture of 2\2 degrt^s, but at a higher ele- 
vation it boils at a lower temix^rature. 
At tho hospital of St. l>eniard, in Switz- 
erland, it is -\K) degrees, 8,6cx> feet alK)ve 
sea level. In the Himalayas it has been 
found to lH>il at 180 degrees. 

lUu few [>ev>ple know the great 
strength of the paper which, when prop- 
erly printed and stam[H^d, becomes 

.\ single Treasury note measures three 
and one-eighth inches wide by seven and 
one-fourth inches long, and will suspend 
forty-one iKumds len^;:ihwise and ninety- 
one tK>unds cro.sswise. Notes are 
printed four to a sheet. A sheet will 
suspetid one hundred and eight pounds 
lengthwise and one hundre<J and seventy- 
seveii |K>nnds crosswise. 

The remarkable strength of a L'nited 
States Treasury note ina> thus be seen 
at a glance. 

More than 17,000,000 postage stamps 
are used in this country every day in the 

Dr. G. N. Brink, deputy superintend- 
ent general of education of the Philip- 
pines, says that the islands have 860 
American teachers, 5,000 native teachers 
and more than 50,000 native pupils, like 
Japanese in intellectual readiness and 

For gear cases and similar castings for 
automobile engines, where lightness is 
one of the first considerations, an alloy, 
composed of aluminum 82, zinc 15 and 
copper 3 parts, is recommended. If 
greater rigidity is required the percent- 
age of copper may be slightly increased. 

Civil Service Examioatioii. 

The v. S. Civil Service Commission 
announces an examination March 21, 
1906, at a large number of places to 
secure a proper person to fill the vacanq.* 
in the position of topographical drafts- 
man in the postoffice department at S900 
per annum. In making application to 
the U. S. Civil Service* Commission. 
Washington, D. C, ask for Form No. 
131 2. and state that it is for the abo\-e 

Pure Water Helps Eo^ines. 

People may be willing to drink im- 
pure water, but they are not willing to 
offer it to their locomotives. Purified 
water results in sure economy and ex- 
cellent bi!siness returns from the view- 
point 01" the l».K<>motive operations* and 
also relieves the shops and romidhouses 
oi a vast amount of work, which in- 
creases with tlu' u eight of locomotives 
and tho increased demand npoa them. 
Although iIk- hr<i oxst is large, retams 
are so prompt and so liberal that to do 
without water puriticatiott is pcQiKmc- 
ed follv. 

Industrial Magazine. 

VO«^ V 

APRIU 1906 

NO. 4 


Overhead Trackage Trolleys and Hoists. 

FOR tutndUiig iieavy maieriaL thesta* 
tii^ of the electric crane i^ well estab- 
b*brd, the ranjic exlrriJiii^ from 5 or <* 
Xun% u» earning a ct»nij»lctt' icxvton IiK-r*- 
noChx. For handling smaller weights the 
»uctliar% hobt» h calleil intn tisc. c.*^* 
ptraSy at pi^mti^ itiacceii^ibte to the 
crane. There tiasi l>eeii «leveI»>[KHl 

it is not to Ixr wonderctl at that this 
means of hoisting ami conveying has lic- 
conie an indispensable feature of large 
tnanufaitnrin^ cstahlishnirnt<* and f¥jwer 

Several features rtiust be con^tdereil 
in the cnvtnii uf ♦>vrrbr:i»1 Tr:it'Vage 

sv^tcnis : 

fig, l-^rtaiii Trolley. 


cU%>( of a(>|ianitt]s pos^ssing 

gcnrrail i|italttte$ <ii the larger and 

' a> large a territi>r\. 

^V frf ^teni of travchng in»l- 

hjch wftli a »ttttaMe arrangenieiU 

'4 iTa [V atMl ranire 

•l«<ir: ;1. With Midi 

iperd anti facility nf emuroU 

i«t. Means of HumKjri. 

jntl rype of track, 

.Ud Kiml t»f j>juer, 

4th. IHsiance ira^x*lcd, mltlinogii the 
last ntciittcineit feature of cixirse iti- 
flnence^ all the other*. The rmm com* 
nmn type of track i*, the I biam sertitm 
and the tn»Heyjfc ntaik. a^ rfioun in Fig. 


I, lit lliis iinlU'v is atlailu'd an <inl 
luiry cliaiii Imisi, Ijrinj^ butitl power in 
hoiitifij; ami |^rupcllin^^ Vhv problem of 
strength in a case t>f this kind is prac- 
tical ly ont' of a beam loattccl in tlie center 
and the snj>port bein>j secnre enoup^h to 
earrv Ihe beani and the load. To lift the 
lo;iil and trau?imil it along ihe track has 
iH^rn iiccoinjiHshetl hv several styles of 
httist!** all ot which have iiractically been 
eleetricallv ttriven. 

Hie arrangement of track, including 

the switches, crossovers, etc, must nec- 
essarily be left to the ingenuity of the 
{lesigner. The necessity and convenience 
should then be determined. A type of 
electric trolleys and hoists combined is 
sliown in Fig. 3, made by the Northern 
I'jigineering Works, Detroit. Mich., 

Th*^ i\>buru rrv^Ukv & Track Co.^ 
IU4\okv. XlasA*^ have U>t 31 nmajbi^ of 
y^Qtxs bicu !uakiihg a ifack ^l tolM sletl 
g4 ^ Wee <icciioa aoid .*Uitiiui^ ibei^r trol- 
ley wh^X'ls to ibc i ' .S. 'i%iis 

ukhJc atitVuds ;i vvi JUttd te^ 

wkkh fe oi A smaD 

haffidlt r^ ^ djpwiE m readi of an 

Tb I 11^ capatki of 10 to 

15 tK«t per istttiisDe, dir mofeocs hemg erf 
the dinrct current (vpe m^ die ^cafs 
etica5cd as sliown. 



t^. 4 !ktKiu> a group of 6 hoists built 
irth ftsnmce service witli 
irDile>i have hoists of special 
tkm and wrrc designed to riin 
rcen the overhe^id box crane runway 
I^Mers nhich support tlie heavy crane 
oivcr the converter. These hoists travel 
hy hunt gear as the travel is very short : 
afl motions are controlled from the lower 

this fonn, fitted nith two motors, one 

for hoisimg and the other for traveling. 
having a lifting caiiacity of three ton* 
at a speetl of 15 to 40 feet per minute, 
travel speetl 250 txi 300 feel per minute. 
The nuHoni used are uf the direct cur- 
rent ivjje and the controllers of the face 
plate type; an automatic brake suspend* 
tng the load at any point* automatic cut- 
off preventing the hiiok from rising in- 





Fig, >• 

at a hnisitng q»eed of from 20 to 
JD fed per mtnnle. They work with an 
aatxmatic lift, siutomatic stop, atitontatic 
Inke, and both motors and controllers 
M^ supplied with asbestos screens for 
frolrcfiiy iliem from the heat below. 
Tlie Shistralion shoiis one side rail the 
aifccr Yrnmni removed for better observa- 
t-.^ • ^hows operations of a hotst of 

til the trolley. 

Wliere floor control is not suitable, 
this trolley has been bnilt with a cab for 
ofjerator, Tliis construction shows I 
beams style of traek, switches, turn- 
tables, etc, for changing the direction 
of the trolley to various parts of the 

In the transfer of long material •uch 
a« rails and beams, sel(*f(nipcAV\tvt^ 



loys with chain hoisi would be attached 
at one end, and a simple trolley, as Fig. 
I, with a chain hoist could be attached 
at the other, the two trolleys near the 
track beinjj connected by means of rod 

or chain. 

When a platform was needed to carry 
sacks or loose material of any kind, the 
rod or chain connection could be ap- 










! " 

i . 



; 3^" 






i •it" 






















































































Rix^wn irollo>-s are m^d^ o\ Yale & Touiw Co., New York, 


THE mci and ad vantages of the dec 
trie ntifBcl fur shop and yard has been 
quite extensively dt§cii^sed« but magnetji 
hw ttamlitng inatertal can only Ik* ii<.ed 
m-iihm reach of the neceiiftan ciirrciU. 

Overhead cranes near the shop that arc 
dectricmlly driveti arc aljwj usied to handle 
a lifting tna^et« Inti Ici rarrv it nrtiund 
ibe yard, go into every n<>(^k and cor- 
■er where railway tracksi can be laid 
callft lor an expensive outlay for wire 
alone. To offset this, a small generator 
ptant of a twin engine and dynamo is 
tietng tfUEtalled by man>' firms who wish 
III ttse a rt»i:net. Thi* is applicable in 
piirtable and «e]f prfipellini^' cranes of the 
l*corootive type also. 

Sceam is at hand fnr the engines and 
Ibe dynamo pvts the needed current. 
allowiniE the operator free opportunity 
to eootroi the crane and n\ajjnet. The 
Cfi«mtor set «4iow» attaclied to tlit crane 
in the fllustration U made np of the 
Wcilinghciuie Twin Rnfjine with cvliti- 
4cci 4 * diameter and 4I ' in stroke and 
a djmanio of 5 H.P. at 1 10 volts. 

The power necessary f^^r a maKTU't 
jj tncbes, wetghini: complete with 
ckaiiii and eyebalts about 1,700 poundv^, 
nqutres about 15*>> am(ieres at 200 
toksv and will handle an average of 
irom eiirht to tunc nrdtnarv tnachinc 
pil^s ur similar quantity of other 

^ The cost, itidudtng interest on the in* 
is about 6* ic per hour to oper- 
ate cominnoiisly* 
The danger from lifttng^ in this man- 
er is not threat, since so few^ accidents 
Btw occum-d with magnets as com- 
with the slipping and breaking of 
and ehains* 

As a provihiun oi safciv, it \s recom- 
mended that an indepen<icni line W run 
from the generator to the point of appli* 
cation, this tine being heavily fttsed and 
connected to the generator in advance 
of the main and feeder circuit breakers, 
s«> that the opening of these through 
ovrr-hiad will tint interrn[>t the current 
supply to the magnet. 

The ca!ie is a heavy caj^ting made from 
such a grade of s?leel that when the CUr* 
rent of the energized coil is open, the 
magnet drops its U^d instantSy, so no 
time is lost* 

The striking (}ualiticH of the magnet 
was shown not long ago when a pair of 
wheels were raised to the height of the 
crane, the lia<l was released f(»r a dnifi 
of 10 feet and suddenly checked by the 
l>rakc\ Even in this sudden jar the 
magnet retained its I(>;td, which w*as then 
lowered to tlic ground. 

These lifting uuigncts are suitable for 
handling pig iron and steel, or scrap iron, 
holts, billets, slabs, cold ingots* pipes, 
sluvts, rails or, in fact, anything of odd 
shape in quantities, even under special 
conditii>ns. Several firms make a spe- 
cialty tyf designing and crmsimcttng these 
lifting magnets, and one style will aver- 
age 300 lbs. of pig iron per lift* and the 
larger size from 1,100 to 1400 p^mnds. 
In moving small materials, the ease of 
handling many pieces is a noticeable fea- 

Such sluflF as iron and steel trimmings* 
or borings, bolts, rivets and punchings, 
which are usually 90 hard to manipulate, 
are handled at the rate of from 600 to 
Uaoo pounds per lift by the larger l\\^< 
of magnets, and are particularly stiitat' 


for being rtnioved by this woudfrfiil ap- 
plication of the electric current with a 
lifting magnet. 

All the heavy work is done b} the elec- 
tric magnet and crane, and this explains 
how only a single workman in a nnniber 


London, March 3, — The largest 
steel ingot that had ever been made has 
just been cast at the Manchester works, 
Openshaw, of Sir W. C. Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co. The ingot, weighing 
120 tons, was cast on the well known 
Whitworth system of flnid pressure. 

That is» that 120 tons of molten steel 
were poured out from the melting fur- 
naces into a huge ingot mold box. itself 
weighing 180 tons. On the mold box 
being filled with molten steel, the whole 
was pushed under a monster hydraulic 
press, havini:!: a hydraulic ram 6 feet in 

diameter, with a hydraulic working pres- 
sure of three tons per square inch. This 
press is, therefore, capable of exerting a 
total actual pressure of 12,000 tons. 

The htige ingot referred to w^as» while 
in a molten condition, subjected to this 
enormous pressure, the action of this 
process being to make the ingot homo- 
geneous and sound throughout and free 
from cracks and fissures. The ingot just 
cast is ft>r the manufacture of the low 
pressure turbine motors for the 70,000- 
horsepower Cunard turbine liners. 


Application, Flexibility and Coniparativc Cast. 

AMARKHU feature in the piping 
design of a modem steam plant is 
the free use of beat pipe, rmil ven- 
rvcrntiy bends were QOt utiUxecl in this 
GOiostry lo any great e?&tent, although in 
Koropna innetice Ihev were freely em- 

Xii doubt ibc h^ prices of fittings in 
Great Bntam and on the Continent 
forced engineers to turn to bends more 
nectsaar)^ in America, but this 
tr made for better pipe lincsi, a* 
American engineers hare recently rca- 
mhh the result that bent pipe is 
iliied as freely here as abroad. 
fWnds ofTer nmny advantages to the 
n»cctianiral engineer tn the way of male- 
ing ^trofiger lincii, reducing friction, re- 
dycmg the number of joinlA and coni- 
pen^tittg for expansion* and contrary to 


Ftfp, L HoDer and hciMlirr cYinneeticm. 

foiermt belief do not add to the cost ; in 
iact* in many cases the cost is reduced. 
Sooir of the tnore common forms of 
pipe bmds and their application to steam 
fiacs are shown tn the following draw* 

I So ui 

So ur as we can ascertain, no thor- 

rmpt has ever been made to dc* 

the maximum amount of expan- 

which a l^ lonp^ or quarter bend. 

uuuld lake up in a straight run of pipe 
having both ends anchored. 

Experiments in this direction would 
have to cover a wide range of sites and 
matrriaU. for flexibility increases with 
the radius and decreases with the dia- 
tneter. ft is also greater with fnll weight j 

Fig. 2 Boiler and bcui^ler cunnectian wlim 
header i« highrr than in Fig, I 

than extra strong pipe, 'lite practical 
limit wonld also be governed by the 
strength of the material in the flanges 
<ir fittings to which the bends were 

As far as the radii of pipe bends is 
concerned, local conditions in the aver- 

Fif^. X It« viler and bc«der coonectkm with a t' 

age jw^wer plant prevent extremes in the 
way of vcr>* long bends. We have 
adopted fi\"e diameters of the pipe as a 
standard radius, which will come nearer 
than any other to suiting average re- 
quiretnents. and at the same time prodoce 



a symmetrical article. Bends shorter 
than this can be made, but they are ex- 
tremely stiff, tend to buckle in bending, 
and the metal in the outer wall is 
stretched beyond a desirable point. Very 
short bends must be made of extra strong 
pipe if a safe thickness of metal is to be 
maintained, and when it is necessary to 
use the minimum radius to which extra 

Fig, 4. Battery of three S-inch U bends con- 
nected to headers and placed in 14-inch main 
steam line to take care of expansion and con- 
traction. This combination is preferable to a 
U bend the full size of the pipe because of its 
j^reater flexibility. 

strontr pipe can be bent, sucli bends 
should be considered as fittings only, and 
not taken into account when making pro- 
vision for ex])ansion. 

During the past summer we made a 
few experiments with 8-inch U and qtiar- 
ter bends to ascertain the amount of ex- 



Fig. 5. U bend located 
m a straight run to 
allow for expansion. 

Fig. 6. Modifica- 
tion of Fig. 5 for 
limited center to 
center spaces. 

pansion they would take up, but press of 
business prevented us from carrying out 
the idea as fully as we intended. 

For the first test we bolted together a 
run of 8-inch pipe, as shown in Fig. 14. 
The bend was made of steel pipe .32 
thick, weighing 28 lbs. per foot, with 

extra heavy cast-iron fiaiiges screwed on 
and refaced. The elbows were extra 
heavy cast-iron, and the straight pipe was 
steel with extra heavy cast-iron flanges 
screwed on and refaced. The pipe was 
laid on rollers and anchored at points 
AA with indicators to detect any move- 
ment which might take place at points 
of anchorage. 

Fig. 7. Expansion loop in straight line. If 
made in a single piece, can l)e used only in 
• 8-inch or smaller sizes. 

Tkst \o. I. After the line had been 
under steam about five minutes and the 
gaui^es indicated 80 lbs. pressure, one of 
the pipe Hanges I> broke on the north 
end, one length away from the elbow. 
The total expansion was ly^ inches at 
the time the break took place. The rea- 
son for the break was the liftinir of the 

Fig. 8. V bend cross connecting two piarallel 

pipe, near the L bend, off ihc rollers, 
which would naturally throw a severe 
strain upon the line flanges. Outside 
temperature, 72 deg. 

Test No. 2 was made on the same Hue, 
At 50 lbs. pressure the line expanded on 
the short end '^i inch " * * * 

end 1% inches; tota 
lbs. pressure the e^ 
inches on the sh- 
the long end; 



150 tb»* preisarr the siHoit cud cxpandcil 
%yi kidiet and Ibc Icmf; end 1 ?k inches ; 
ll, 3 tncbedi. Al joo lbs, pressure tlu- 
cud expQUidcd 1 < j inchrii «ind tlu- 
lofii!: end iJi inches; foul 3l^ inches. 
\t jnH lb«. pre^urc the fine flange II 
aiemtti brcJce. due tu the litting of the 
line near tlic bend* As nearly a» we 
coiiJil determitie. the niaxinnnn ammtnt 
iti ihi% lift ai the elbavift wa^ i '4 inclie.%. 

l» SIlodUkBlioit of Fitf. » for nfKvm] « tni« 


IckNi in Hex I 

There w^^ mi dtppai^e at the anchors 
and the whole expansitm nf 3>» inclie;i 
«m§ taken tip by the bend. (>ut!!iide 
Ir re, ^ deij. 

*M. 3. lU*fiiTc reun tving the H- 
JBch U hend frani the line, we th(ni.4:ht 
il %%iKiH W intere!<tin>; t(» ascerUiin 
vbcihcr a bend of thi* kind w<»iil<l have 
m tendency to s^pread if the anch«ir!<i were 
removed. We accMfdhiglv t<xik ihe an* 
dnrf away and tttrm*<l in Htcatn at jckj 
Ipl pfttfure, Tlie bend spread H inch. 

tlangcft and BttiitgH were alw extra 
heavy cast-irim, 

Tk-st No. 4. Full Weight Quarter 
I*.entK Steam wan turned into the Une 
and when the gauge indicated 86 lbs. 
and the line luid expanded i\% tnche^^. 
ihe joint at flange C* coniniencetl tu l<uik. 
the lower part of the flange Ix'^ing forced 

Fig. IL CftMnovtr t«iid. r«ed mhm neea^ 
sary to Avoid other pi{)r»« pitUm* tie* 

l^iack >li^htly uit the pipe. 'Iliili was a 
remarkable rciiult, and it is difficult tu 
account for the flange n(»t breaking. 

Tkst NfK 5. Kxtra Heavy Ouarter 
Uend. The full weight quarter beml wa,% 
removed and an extra heavy bend of the 
same dimensions substitutcfl all other 

Fig. IH, Cmitpouad | 
Fig. Itf. \h \^t\\\. f>rml to «uil locnl con 


ctinditi<in^ remaining the same. Steam 
was turned on, and uhen the line had 
expandeil 'h inch, flange C broke at the 
Ifip. A new flange was pttt on, and when 
the ex|>an5ifm was 1% inches the same 
tlantie hr.»ki' at the bottom. 

9|§* Ml CMbrt ^ikI. Tliu is Mmi?timc?^ ttutde 
wmmt^MmmiL that it, «ift»ntitiic upwsirdjt sml to 

nfcsch wa^ about the natural expansicm 

It t«* the tcfttperature. 

After refiKiving the l* beml we put a 
^Barter bend at one end of the line, in 
tlie nmmer shown in Fig. 15, Tlic line 
«at rigidly anchored at piiints A A, and 
lirfd at potnl B in such a manner that 
ike pipe could n*»t lift or nii»ve laterally. 
Tlie tend wsl% nude of full weight steel 
pipe ^ thick, with extra heavy cafrt^iron 
\ icrrwed on an<l refaced. ITie line 



iMintirr T»uu an'O;: U\\^ line 

had to Ik al» i for the time, as the 

sjKia* taken up was tirgently needed. 
Tliese few ex}Hrrimrnt5 were confined to 
Ix'mis having a radiuji of five iliameters 
with short tangents. It is rea,«*inable to 
suppose that longer nwlii and tangents 



wooJd make for greater flexibility. 

As an illustration of the comparalive 
cost of full-weig:ht bends and straight 
pipe and fittings, take a 6-inch connec- 

Fig. 15, 

tion like that in Fig. 16. The value of 
a 6-inch full-weight quarter bend as 
shown, with extra heav^y cast-irc^n flanges 
and two sets of bolts and gaskets, is 

is about $57. The pipe and extra heavy 
fittings. Fig. 17A, with six sets of bolu 
and gaskets, would be worth about S76, 

An 8'inch U bend with extra heavy 
flanges, as illustrated 5n Fig. 18, is w^orth 
about $41 with bolts and gaskets. Fig, 
18A, with extra heav}' fittings, bolts and 
gaskets, costs approximately $57. 

A properly finished bend should bolt 
In place without strain. If it is necessary 
to force it into position there will always 
be a great strain upon the bolts and 
Manges, the joints will probably leak, and 
the benefits to be derived through the 

Melhoti used in testing flexibility of full weight and extni heavy (|tuirter lientls. 

approximately $23,50, while the two 
pieces of pipe, elbow, flanges, and labor, 
as shown in Fig. 16A, with four sets of 
bolts and gaskets, would be about $26. 

f — % 

use of a bend wil! be partially destroyed. 

To make a bend properly requires a 

shop equipment designed for that par- 

Fig. 16A 


Fig. t6 

~ 44' «* ^ 

Or, take a 10- inch ofl^set bend, made 
of full- weight pipe, with extra heavy 
flanges, as in Fig. 17. The cost of the 
bend, with two sets of bnlts and gaskets. 

ticular line of w^ork and a great deal of 
time and care on the part of the work- 
men. Inferior goods may be turned out 



WSL m low price. Iiut there is a limit beyond 
whieh a manufacturer tnay not go if a 
fUndard is to be maintained at a 


I It b our aim to hold to the highest pos- 
■ fible ftanilard in the product, and charge 
1 tiir lowcai price ctwn^Meni therewith, — 
Vdhe IVofld, 


WulilDf Smoke. 

lo Btrntsngham, Flngland, experiments 
arc betng undertaken to purify the 
onoke before it goes into the air. As 
Ae flDoke ptoceeds fn>m the fvintacc, it 
is Coreed by a powerful fan through a 
making j8o revolutions per 
into a tank filled with water. 
The water b agitated by perforated heat- 
er* and this process has the effect of 
the smoke which is then allowed 
to escape into the aimasphere. This 
doef away with the lUiual large 
rr. whtdi cmtpled with the saving 
of mste produce from the smoke is 
about $50.00 per ton. 

Underground Wires. 
The expense is not the only objection 
^ the telephone and telegraph cotnpanies 
IB poltiDg^ their wires underground. 
TW underground wire is very much di- 
mmhcd in power of transmission, so 
Aflt 15 milei of tmdergrouml circuits in 
Sev York euti do^ n the curent as much 
> fnilei of oirerhcad transmission. 

Which Is the Long Way? 

Much interest has been laktn in £i qtiei-] 
lion in Kyerson*s Monthly witli refer- 
ence lo Sin order received calling for 100 
sheets No. 16x48x96 galvaniJEed, to be 
rolled the long way to a radius of five 
feet Which is the long ivav ? 

Some writers admitted tliat there were 
*icvcra] good reasons lu U- given as to 
cither Fig. i or Fig. 2 Ixing the right 
wa>', but only une could be right, and that 
should be understood. 

Fig. L Fi9 i 

Many of die answers were \\\ favor of 
Fig. 2, because to roll a sheet it was 
necessary to run it through a machine 
the long way, this being the greatest di* 
mension between the edges. 

If there be any <k»utu about the way 
the sheet should l)e rolled, ask the order 
clerk for instruct it iiis« and in making an 
order be careful that no mistake ^n be 

The Awakentog at Manila. 

The new electric street railway in 
Manila, P. I., is doing wonders for the 
city. It seems to have inspired the citi- 
tens to cleanliness and activity. The 
\v<irk of building was carried on exclu- 
sively by Filipino laborers^ imder the 
direction of .\merican foremen* The 
Americans soon discovered the native 
workmen were peculiar, Tliey would 
niJt stand scolding, but great patience 
rendered them fairly active, although tt 
was difficult to keep them working more 
than four days in a week. They were 
inclined to believe that three or four 
days of consecutive labor was quhe 
enough, even at seventy -five cents a day. 


By C. C. MAISON. author of ^'Trigonometry SImpUfied.** 

DOUBTLESS many people who look 
down into the depths of hoisting 
shafts, or watch the rapid ascent and 
descent of cages during the busy hours 
of hoisting at a mine, would hesitate 
about accepting an invitation to step 
aboard and make a trip into the under- 
ground workings. 

These same people probably ride daily 
in elevators in office buildings and stores 
without giving the matter a thought ; 
and yet the conditions of operations of 
some of the "express" elevators in some 
of the highest sky-scrapers approach 
those met in mine shafts. Many ele- 
vators are, however, intrusted to mere 
bovs to run. wliile, as a rule, the men 

BlDffle Drum 

who handle the throttle of hoisting 
plants are among the most reliable of 
the employees about the works. Occa- 
sionally we read about an accident, such 
as the recent catastrophe at the Inde- 
pendence Mine in Cripple Creek, Colo., 
or the Porrance shaft at Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa. In both of these instances men were 
being hoisted out of the mine, and 
through some disarrangement of the 
mechanism, control of the engine was lost, 
the cage crashed into the head crane, and 

then, with its load of human freight, 
dropped into the shaft hundreds of feet 
below the surface, causing the distress- 
nig loss of life. 

When we consider that thousands of 
men are daily lowered into, and hoisted 
from, the mines, the infrequency of such 
accidents is one of the best possible com- 
mentaries upon the excellence of the en- 
gines used and the skill and care of the 
hoisting engineman. Such accidents will 
doubtless be of less frequent occurrence 
with the improvements constantly being 
made in hoisting engines and the greater 
care exercised in the selection of men. 
and their greater fitness for the position. 
Some states and countries allow only cer- 
tificated men to handle such positions, 
and the system has much to commend it; 
for intelligence, steadiness and experi- 
ence are necessary qualifications for 
those who may be confronted by an emer- 
gency and have to do the right thing in- 
stantly. The contrast between one of the 
complicated hoisting engines used in the 
middle deep shafts of the I^ke Superior 
region (Duluth), or rather the shafts at 
Johannesburg (South Africa), which 
are equally deep shafts, and the hand 
windlass of the prospector or the carry- 
ing of the ore to the surface on the backs 
of peons in Mexico, is very great; and 
a history of the gradual development of 
hoisting practice from stage to stage 
would be most interesting, but space per- 
mits of mere mention of the most strik- 
ing improvements during the last 50 

Compressed air forms a convenient 
and practical method of transmitting 
power to one or a number of hoisting 

iipQCftv {larticttbriy whrrc water is 
aibililc. ThU ritrlh'K] of trmtif^rnittin}.: 
imftf h^% tifitil rrrr nrccntly been df 
HI elficietio- and ciin^efiueiuty wasteful 
UmMT* anil ha^ ttecn atteiulefl with 
iHll^iiilcuUy from ilie refriKerative ac- 
pB af comprcsted air during the ex- 
B|gM cylttKler cif the engine. Re* 
finnprovenicnts in compre^^sion and 
le of air have opened up new area ci( 
llargcd and profitable field for com- 
air. o( which we have in w*e 
nirth«i^lH of nuchincrv. \(1va?i- 

wasteful of fnd. and seldom i^ive an a 
eraj^c rfliciency of over ^ to 3 poundfi 
water ev;ii.)oraled jxt p<nmd of fuel. On 
the other hand, a first class boiler plant 
fit a central Mation can Ih* nuiflo to y^ixr 
efficiency of 8 or 10 [xiundH c»f water per 
prmnd of coaL A htnstinj;; engine driven 
by atr under tht-se circuiu?%tance!< h ready 
for instant conttiniouii service sit full 
|Hiwcr and .s|K"ed. no time being lost in 
working out the water or in quicJcen- 
ing^ the fire, in case it becomejt dull, ami 
no \o3^ of *^team from the safetv valve. 

>n ^ 


— flV/ 

Mlt^lncjllrivrti Hoist 

omipre^Hed air tii hoiMtng are 
in ca^!» where one nuKlem, cen- 
kcr* air coiiipresiitiig plant can be 
operate a number of hoijvts. 
lar|>e or sntall, located so far 
i» to require o«ie or more boilers 
I bcitstitii; station, involvinic a sup- 
fuel and water for each and the 
of a$hc?^, A numlier of such 
«eattere«l almnt a mine nr quarry 
intermittently, jsmneiimcs not 
' * t raff I for hours and 
s\orked. are verv 

ill case of Mojipa^e of the hoist. With a 
hot fire utnkr the boiler, $mall boiler 
give trouble from freedng of connc 
tioni* at ntgtit, oai Sundayit, holi4lay!^ and 
require banking fires tir keeping them up 
at a cost that U large. 

Tliere is a tower crane at present em- 
ployed in Brussels in building conitruc- 
tion that i% attracting considerable at- 
lcntiim» not only among builders of such 
machinery, but among thtise engaged tn 
building c* 1 ■ ,ri. Thi^ crane is of 

r»rrman in.i »rr and operated bv 



electricity. The crane is used to remove 
huge blocks of stone from cars or wag- 
ons, and place them in position in the 
structure. The crane runs upon a track 
several hundred feet long, with a 12-foot 
gauge. The extreme height of the crane 
is 7454 feet, the total to which tlie hook 
may be raised is 713^ feet. The crane 
is designed to carry a load of 15 tons, 

Electric Driven Compressor. 

while the lifting speed is 10 tons at 15 
feet per minute. The crane is operated 
by three electric motors, one for travel- 
ling the crane on the rails, a second for 
revolving the jib, and the third for rais- 
ing or lowering the load. And an import- 
ant feature is that it can be operated on 
a 4 per cent grade in spite of the small 
gauge of the track. 

Proportioning Air Receivers. 

It very often Iiappens that shop fore- 
men are called upon to determine what 
sized air receiver is best for their pur- 
pose, and probably very few such men 
are qualified to decide this point except 
by guessing or consulting a catalog. For 
the benefit of those who may not have a 
catalog at hand, the following may be 
of service: 

First. Determine the maximum ca- 
pacity of the compressor per minute in 
free air. (Piston displacement per min- 
ute will do.) 

Second. Calculate what volume this 
air will occupy at the working pressure, 
and this will be the required volume of 
the receiver. 

This is a verv easv calculation to make. 

as the following example will illustrate: 
Suppose the maximum piston dis- 
placement of compressor per minute=65 
cubic feet. 

Working pressure = 80 pounds 
(gauge). To determine the volume of 
65 cubic feet of free air when compressed 
to 80 pounds pressure, the following 
formula may be used : 


In which \'i=Maximum piston displace- 
ment in cubic feet per minute=65. 

Po=:Working pressure (gauge) =80 

V2= Volume of tlie air at the higher 

Substituting in this formula we have: 

= 10 cubic feet, which would be the vol- 
ume of a receiver 18 inches in diameter 
and 6 feet long. 

It is therefore possible, by using the 
above formula, to determine approxi- 
mately the minimum sized receiver nec- 
essary, but in making selection a larger 
one is preferable. There is no drawback 
in having the receiver too large; a re- 
ceiver is seldom too large; in fact most 
troubles are caused by the receiver being 
too small to overcome fluctuations in 
pressure, and by not allowing the air to 
remain stationary long enough to cool 
and to deposit part of its moisture. — W. 
R, Hnlberi, Af. E,, in Compressed Air, 

Plans are being made, by which the 
city of New York will draw its water 
supply from the Catskill mountains. To 
accomplish this would require an ex- 
penditure of $162,000,000, an<i «t would 
keep an army of men 9 
Washington's busy al 


THE Hooke rtii\*rrsal Coupling is still 
OHirr used than any other type for se- 
earmg dexibtltty between gears and rear 
axle, and also between engine and change 
C«san, in automobtle work, although 
OBodtficattons uf the form are appearing 
whkli arc more compact and fully as 

A flexsbleMlisc positive coupling of a 
ipeseral form« long since used in the pro- 
fthaftn of steamships, has been 
^t into ser\nce *uch as has been 
miirr excluntvely performed by the Hooke 
a mf img heretofore. 

The flextble-di§c joint has the advan- 
tM$st oC Qo robbing of parts over each 


ixiTc where flexibility is desired. 

The power to be transmitted is never 
very great in machine work* 

The smaller the angle at which a joint 
is nm, the longer it will wear and leii 
fjowcr it will absorb. 

TTic working angle of the joints of 
some makes is purposely limhed to 45* 
on sizes up in 2". 

'ITic working angle of 2" and ij^** 






and owifequenlly no need of lubri- 
eati«in, ahh«>ugh a i^imcwhat differcni 
and anstected nccc«sity in the Hooke 


la mictitsie buililing the I ntversal 
(tvHi and u*etul fea- 

sijte^ i% limited to jp* from a straight 

llitis, 45*^ is as much as can be tx* 
pected of any joint to run. and not owr 
25 to 30* should be used where a greater 
angle cajt be avoided. 





: ■ ! 1 : 

! B C D K : F 1 Weight. 


1 to U 

! s i; ij 2A: UJ 13 lbs. 


]| to U 

■ S 

ti Ij 3 ! 2i! 15 •' 


U to2t 


6 li 3A' 2J 

17 •* 


l.\ to I: 


ft 21 4 23 

:w - 


2 to 21 


S 2ii 41 3 

3.'» •• 


2ii to 2J 


^ 2} 4A 3.1' 33 •' 


2i to 31 

10 8 2ji 5 S-\\ 3.-1 • 

In I-'ijj. 3 is shown the ring t^-pe of 
joint used for heavier work than in Fig. 




In sizes. Fig. 2. varies from '_»" to 
2^ /\ the K^re for shafts 5-16" to i-ii- 
lO", ami the largest part <>-i6'' 10 3". 

These couplings shouUl be horetl t<» 
receive the shaft or spindle, and a ta]>er 
]>in driven through lx>th pans. 


Hie working angle is purposely lim- 
ited to 30" fnnn a straight line. 

The ring is h«»llow. having a space for 
oil wliich insures ]>>sitive lubrication. 

riiTS. 2 and 3 an«l diaiiram fn^m i;rav vS: Prior Mach. Co.. Hartfonl, Conn. 


A wliitcwasluT ojvraied hv compressed air, s;iys a c«'rres]x»ndent of Locomotive 
Lii^^iru'crin^, accomplishes in two liours an amount 01 work iliat would keep one 
man busy a mrinili. The construction 01 the machine is fully explained in the il- 


\ Pipf 


«i r mwM rw form the «}»v«V-; 


^ l?Vr ^mH,9»^^m-httf^ni»»l> 

^ Om^tH* to V**^** 


AX Ant wnmwASHEK. 



THE accomfMoyiiiK illustratiotis acid 
drmwiag show the arrangement and 
chctfiod omiiKticms of the new French 
Mito-tnolor Mercury jrl interrupter, as 
dotcned by G. G;iiffe of P^ris. as well 
M Ibe marble i>h itdiboards utilised for 
a ooil wiih a current of frofti 
Jd to 30 volts, also thai desif;:ned for a 
coodnuous current nf no volts. 

Thu latest French type of turbine in- 
ter b said trt be so stmpliticd as to 
cly uispense with the independent 
fnoCior, and with it the noise i.^ avoide<]. 
ai well as the cost of such motors, with 
thdr bnuhes and driving bands. The 
coBeclors m4th their difficulties are also 


rujitrr i-* a st«niIilSed lortn of 
rnereun' jet turbine ttfie. A piece of 
aa 1)^ form is chaiim4ed by a 

^^ .. — Ihjs canal is ol»1i(]UcIy in- 
m relatkifi ti> the vrrtical axis, in 
ih M H-ay that «>n ri4ati<4i the met* 
^' ^^hich. i^hrn at rcM. fills the tower 
I lite cafial > it« by centnftigal 
driven tipwanU ami outwanl^ 

through the orifice a. so as to jet against 
four copper leeth a, connected at inter* 
vals %% ith a metal crown c» insulated from 
the rest of the apparatus. Note that the 
jet rotates, the crown and teeth arc fixed. 
The w idlh of the copper teeth depends on 
the voltage — ^ihe higher the voltage the 
imrrcmcr the teeth. This method b 
adopted to f^ecure simplicity in preference 
to the introduction of a movable rack* 
work for raising and lowering the tcetli. 

h will be noted that there are no pipes* 
cog-wheels, or complicated mechanism 
for pumping or conveying the mercury 

The containing vessel is of iron. The 
illustrations and drawings show the verti- 
cal lamina* projecting from the side in 
<*iich a way as to check the rotary move- 
ment of the fluid when the interrupter 
is in use. The upfier lir^rder of the wider 
part of the lamina marks the level to 
which the vessel should be filled with 
mercuni\ The extreme upper limit of 
the lamina in<licates tlie height to which 
ibsolute alcoliol should be added, which 
IS the insulating fluid in which the spark- 
ing takc"; place. There must nt^t be %vater 
in ihi.** alcohol, or electrolysis would re- 
sult, arul the fltn'd wouU) be no longer in- 

All mercury interrupters haixr one di>-> 
advantage, socmer nr later the mixing 
of the ntercury with the insulating fluid 
results in the formation of an emulsion, 
which is not insulating, and new fluid is 
require^!* Special precautions have been 
taken to increase the perifnl of efficient 
riuming to lite maximum. HetH*e the 
form of the rotating part*, the introduc- 
tion of vertical lamina* to check 



movement of the fluid, and the selection 
of absolute alcohol as an insulating fluid, 
because it lasts longer than oil when 
used with mercury. When a change of 
fluid becomes necessary, it is most con- 
venient to have a spare retainer, spare 
mercury, and absolute alcohol ready, so 
that the operator can continue work 
without loss of time. 

The quantity of mercury required is 
5J^ kilograms (12 pounds). It would 
be easy by tapering the bottom of the 
container to work with less mercury, but 
the lesser quantity would the sooner re- 
quire changing. 


-■'' ! 

" IM' ,JI t-XI; 




The driving system, by the direct elec- 
trical and mechanical couplings of the 
motor with the interrupter, constitutes a 
great advantage over the old types of 
turbine interrupters. The same inter- 
ruption cuts the current, both of motor 
and for coil. The motor is (^f the mag- 
netic attraction type, with fixed winding 
and rotating armature. 

The windings of the motor are noted 
at T and i". 

P is the armature carrying the palettes 
p^ and p-. The number of poles of the 
motor is equal to the number of teeth 
A in the crown C, and the armature is so 
set that, when the jet of mercury makes 
contact with one of the teeth A, the posi- 
tion is that of maximum magnetic attrac- 
tion. Interruption takes place a little be- 
fore the palattes are in position over the 
core of the electro magnet. 

The winding of the electro magnets 
is c(Minected in series with the primary 
winding of the X-ray coil. The current 
is turned on and then the armature of 
the interrupter is rotated by a smart im- 
pulse with the finger, sufficiently vigor- 
ous to start the mercury jet. The cur- 
rent then traverses the primary of the 
coil and also the winding of the electro 
motor, therefore the interrupter con- 
tinues to work automatically. 

To re.:::ulate the mmiber of interrup- 
tions, a rheostat is adjusted, which is 
placed in series with the primary winding 
of the coil, as shown in drawing. This 
is the plan recommended for in5?talla- 
tions on a main current; in this case no 
separate motor rheostat is necessary. The 
appearance of the switchboard is shown 
in illustration. 

The (JailYe-Motor Mercury Jet Inter- 
rupter works on continuous current at 
any voltage from 12 to 250 w^ithout 
change of any part of the interrupter, 
except the teeth. The lower the voltage, 
the longer the time contact necessary, 
therefore the wider the teeth. 

The mercury interrupter is very port- 
able, as it can easily be carried from 
ward to ward, or to such outside cases 
as doctors arc frequently required to at- 
tend, and, as there is nothing fragile in 
its construction, it is admirably adapted 
for army work. 

As the independent motor« witf) 
brushes and driving bdl ' Bint 


h. ihc mn^ hms hceti reduced tu n 
limam. Tlii ^nitid cnhcr ihiau 

Jly 1' by the •*p;irkttiL' 

If one Midficnly turns riff the current, the 
iiitcrruiHcr continues to run for some 
tinie in aliMilulc f^ilcncc. 


Kifdgbl of a crowd of people is 
erf tbe most itnportftiit bits of data 
r the siructural cftginecr. It 
etsn lo be une ul the most easily 
pUiiucJ , yet if b cine on which the 
^Ktiej^ differ widely, and i>fie which, 
[Hew :uiil ujifAiuUiar exctpiiuas, scr* 
U^ tmilenicaie. Tmutwinc's hand 

versity, has ma<le a number of experi- 
load of 40 lbs. fjer sq, ft may be coo- 
vidcd for as a dt.Htributed lead for all 
sidcrcd the maximum lijad to be pro- 
rtoors on which crowds of pecjjde may 

lliis might be clou bled to allow for 
vibration in case of ball rooms, drill 
roonij*. gytnnaKiums etc, 

.Mr. Lewis J- Johnson of tlanrard Urn- 

( to men nt I6H.2 lb*. »^'crKf r. ^m^m^Ai. 

iNn bridge lor turnpike am] ctimnion 
Lfiu pciibable contingency coulil 
I people to such an extent a.% to 
[moire than 80 lbs. per »q. ft. of 
(and this nia\ safety be taken as 
kiad on spans of jo or 
• feet To compensate* howe%*er, for 
we n-rommenil to adcvpt too 
[the limit for crowds.*' 

writers have ftaid **that a live 

ments anil given |>lioto» lo rfiow the con- 
dition of er<mdtn};* and amounts per sq^ 
ft. tor the weight. 

A box or eai^ 6 ft aq. was butlt, die 
men carefully weighted and arranged in 
the enclosure. 

The photos show the several degrees of ^ 
com[iactness of the crowds for the 
amount of n-eight per sqtiare fool o( 



The conclusions derived from the 
tests show that loads of i8o lbs. per sq. 
foot may actually occur in exceptional 
cases; that i6o lbs. must frequently oc- 
cur: that 140 lbs. must he common on 



^ X V* 

Fig. 2 — 8*J.7 ll)s. ])er sq. ft. (20 men averaj^ing 

Station platforms, in corridors and many 

other places frequented by lhr(3ni^s of 

people ; that 80 lbs. must be common in 

social ^atherinj^s in private homes. 

The conclusion is equally clear that 

the margin of safety in many existing 

structures designed for 80 to 100 lbs. per 

V\^. :>— 41.8 lbs per ^q. ft. ( 1(» men averaging 
150.6 lbs. on 'M\ s(|. 11. ) 

s(j. ft. (to .say nothing of 40 to 45) must 

be nuich less tlian has been .supposed. 

Probably the correct inference is that the 

experience of many years in many lands 

has demonstrated that the margin has 

been sufficient, nevertheless. 

Even if that is true, there is no rea- 
son why we should remain in the dark 
about how much a crowd of people ac- 
tually weigh. 

A New Idea in Concrete Steel Con- 

In the discussion on steel-concrete at 
the Toronto Engineer's Club, (January 
25th), it was reported that in experi- 
ments made at the testing laboratory of 
the School of Practical Science, steel, 
after being stretched beyond its elastic 
limit, was found to possess the property 
of taking unto itself another elastic limit 
beyond which it can be stretched ; analo- 
gous, we presume, to the phenomenon of 
the seried overlapping flow limits of 
ocean tides on the seashore. We under- 
stand this theory was accepted by promi- 
nent engineers present as a reliable scien- 
tific induction. And what is more im- 
portant, the stretching of structural steel 
beyond which it can be stretched ; analo- 
bcdded in concrete was actually recom- 
mended as good engineering practice. 
From what we can glean, the objective 
of this cold treatment of the steel is to 
equalize the stresses in the dissimilar ma- 
terials. But what is the price to be paid 
for this equilibrium of forces? After the 
limit stretching, is the resilient structural 
steel, as such, as perfectly adapted for its 
purpose? We should hesitate to occupy 
rooms in a sk\-scraper built in accord- 
ance with this academic drawm-wire 
theory. Awaiting with interest, formal 
statement of the case, we betake our- 
selves to a calm meditation on J. E. 
Stead's aphorism, w^hich reads thus: 
**'J1ie result of careful experiment is the 
voice of nature speaking truth, the inter- 
pretation of it is the work of falliUe hts- 
manitv." — The Canadian E\ ' 


B> Edmund B, Moor*. 

\uihof «i( "Wire «n<t WirelcM Trlffgrmphy.'* 


^T^E hmvc fiveo in ihc post articlesi a 
^^ britf expUnatioii of electrical re- 
ttoHAoet Also that the tmtt of this resi^t- 
mmet b cmUcd the Ohm. That is. the 
eoodtictcrr thrdugh which the electric 
€«fff««t pa mica tcoda to reatst somewhat 
Ais Sow of the ettmM, Tbia teatsiaoce 
««ri» greatly in difierent conductors, as 
will be explaiocd later. 

A Doled fcientist^ t>r. G. S. Ohm of 
Berlin, founded an important law by 
wUdi the current flowing in a circuit 
be calcttUUed, This taw. which 

C=Ciirrcnt a strength. E- E M F ladl 

Tlie electrical rt\^i>i;iiic<r tjf any con- 
ductor depetuls upcjn the metal from' 
which it is made, its len^h, the area of 
the < • and its temperature, 

'1 i I of tlic < )hm is equal to 

the resistance of the imemattonal oltm. 
The international nhtn is e(|ual to the 
resistance of a column of pure niercur>' 
106,3 centimeters long, the same to have 
a uniform cross section of one square 
millimeter and to conutn 1443^1 

VTfins ihe foundation of electrical meas* 
ttamia, it as follows: 

Tkr xlrrnjf f A of tUriric current ^ ancs 
*Wlfy OM tht Hictomotivi force, and 
mitf$dy as the tesutance.'* 

Td tinipltf>^ this we may state the 
aW* tti t^f* following equation: 

uffitst'* iirvsiath a 

1^ ectiotiioiifie lorea 


C = — 

granuns of mcrcur\\ The tempemture 
of thb cohjv 1 be that of melting 

ice. This u.: ... ij at the ohm was 
given by the Chicago Electrical Congress 
and is universally adripied as a standard. 
In the measurement of electrical resist- 
ance the column of mercury is subsli* 
tuted by coils of wire, usually German 
silver, as that is more conrcnieni to 
handle than the former* 

There are a vast number of ways in 
which the electrical resistance of a con- 

OiyyHf MmI laia^ hf Binuifia a» MiMf«« 




ductor may be measured, and it will not 
be necessary in this general outline to 
describe only those that are most used 
in electrical testing, these being, how- 
ever, the most simple and accurate 

The first method which we will take 
up is perhaps the simplest and the meas- 
urements may be taken in as short a 
space of time as almost any other pro- 
cess. This method is called Measure- 
ment by Substitution. The resistance to 
be measured is connected by a copper 
wire in series with a galvanometer and 
a closed circuit battery of moderate 
strength. The circuit is then closed and 
the deflection of the needle of the gal- 
vanometer carefully observed. 

Now the unknown resistance is dis- 
connected from the circuit and a vari- 
able known resistance is connected in its 
place. The circuit is again closed and 
the deflection of the needle again noted. 
If the needle does not deflect as before 
as it presumably will not, the variable 
resistance should be adjusted, added or 
cut out as the case may be until the 
needle comes to rest exactly as in the 
first case with the unknown resistance. 
Referring to Ohm's law, the resistance in 
the first case must be equal to the sub- 
stituted resistance in the latter coil, be- 
cause the E M F of the battery re- 
mains constant and the needle of the gal- 
vanometer shows that the same amount 
of current passed through its coil each 
time. Therefore, by Ohm's law the re- 
sistance of the total circuit nuist be c(|ual 
in both cases. As we know the amount 
of resistance added in the last case, the 
unknown resistance will be exactly equal 
to that. 

(lenerally the known resistance instead 
f)f being in separate coils is so arranged 
and connected in a small box. called a 
Resistance r>ox, that the variation mav he 

made at will. The coils of these resist- 
ance boxes are made of German silver 
wire which is usually silk covered. A 
similar alloy may be used but it must be 
of a suitable nature that will have a very 
low conductivity and its resistance must 
not be altered greatly by the difference 
of temperature. To avoid self induction 
in these coils the wire, instead of being 
wound upon the spools in single, is taken 
and doubled at the middle of its entire 
length and then this doubled wire is 
wound on the spools in even layers. To 
insure better and more perfect insulation 
the coils are often dipped individually 
into melted parafine. These coils are 
now fastened in rows upon the under- 
side of the top of the instnnnent. The 
two wires of each coil respectively are 
firmly soldered to two brass segments 
directly over each coil. That is, when the 
brass blocks are not directly connected by 
the plugs to one another the entire num- 
ber of coils will be in series allowing the 
current to pass through all the coils. To 
vary the resistance of this set it is so ar- 
ranged that when necessary each coil 
may be cut out of circuit or short cir- 
cuited, each independent of the odier. 
To do this small tapering brass plugs 
are inserted in especially made holes be- 
tween the brass blocks, thus throwing 
out its respective coil and the current in- 
stead of passing through the coil is car- 
ried across to the next block. If all the 
l)lugs are in i)lace there will be no re- 
sistance whatever connected in the cir- 
cuit. The resistance of the brass blocks 
being extremely low is not noticeable in 
the least. 

To allow a greater range of work the 
coils of this instrument are usually of 
different resistance. The coils of a 
commercial resistance set should con- 
sist of tenths, units, tens and hundreds 
of ohms and often much higher* This 



tlcprmls u|Min the work for which the 
set t» to be iimmI. 

in iisini^ this style of resistance boxes, 
i:rrat care should Ixr taken to have all 
otntact surfaces bright ami clean and 
thr final contact Hrnily made. The brass 
|»iut;s are proviiled with a snudl hard rub- 
l^*r hantlle which can be firmly grasped 
M» a^ to force the phij^s tightly in their 
places betwei*n the l)rass blocks. The 
tapiT uptiu the plu^s shouUl exactly cor- 
res|h.nd with the taper in the holes of 
the bl(»cks and when the plugs are in- 
K-rtid it is desirable to give them a slip^ht 
tui>t which will, as before stated, as.sure 
a cimhI contact and keep the surfac*j 
briizhi and clean. All dirt or j^rit should 
he- carefully remove<l from between these 
bra*s blinrks. f«»r if it be allowe<l to col- 
lect uih.n the surface very \uy^^T connec- 
t^'n'• would be maile an»l the resistance 
• I these joints would naturally be some- 
•Ahat increased. It should be borne in 
T*:nd that the resistance should Ix* made 
a* snull as p<issible when all the plui:s 
ari 'nome. If the above instructions are 
i-4'.i wed the resistance oi the coils only. 
s\hin one «^r more plu;rs are removed. 
A:i! be available. 

If ver\ accurate measuriti;^ is t<» Ix* 

". nr with these variable resistance b<ixes 

the teTnjHTaiure must be somewiiat taken 

"i" c*4isiderati(in. As we stated at the 

V-!nTiini: "f this present article the re- 

*:*tance varies consiHerably with the tem- 

Wniurc. Mi»st resistance boxes of 

*'ar..lard make are fitted with a name 

^^tf Matini: the temfxraiure at which 

'hf i-Mils were finallx tested in their man- 

.:Uitiire. and ti» have the accurate results 

it*m theM' Imxes they should Ik* bri»uv:ht 

t«' the ^aled temfHTalure or if this can- 

ni< he il4»ne reading should Ik* taken and 

OiVulatkins made in re^rd to the exist- 

vc tcinprrature upon the results ob- 


.\nother very simple metho<l whereby 
electrical resistance may Ix- accurately 
measured is by the I'^all of Potential 

In this methiH] the unknown resistance 
or the resistance to be measured is con- 
necte<l in series with the ammeter ( ' and 
a battery of m<xlerate .strenj^th 15. The 
voltmeter K is connected in parallel with 
the resistance. The circuit is closed and 
the readinj; of both instriunents noted. 
Then the imknown resistance of R will 
Ix* e(|tial accordinfj to Ohm's I^iw to the 
rea<linjj: of the voltmeter E divided by the 
readinj; of the ammeter C The equa 
tion will Ix* as follows: R - F -:- ('. 
R - Resistance, F, \'oltaj.:e or \i M ^' 
and C =:r Amperes or strenj^th of cur 
rent. In makinj^ this test care slmuM In- 
used not to use a heavy current that will 
increase the temperature of the wire. It 
this sIkhiUI result the reading nhtaineil 
will Ix* somewhat higher than the triu- 
resistance of that which is iH-ini; hums 

A noted I'nglish Scientist. W'iieat 
stone, whose name is widel\ knt»\\!i in 
cnmiectioii with electrical enL^iiuerinv^ in- 
venteil a method wherein tlie electrical 
resi^^taiice <»l an\ c«»n»lucti>r or >uhstance 
ma\ he very accurateiv aiitl easil\ meas- 
ured. This ineiho<l is calK«l Wheatsifme 
liridv^e .Method and the iiistriiinent u<ed 
is calle<l the Wheatstone llri»lv:e after the 

r»etore taking up the description tif 
this instrununt 1 wi-ih li» explain to m\ 
rea«ler> the |>rinciple of .sliimt i'ircuit*i. 
These are enipl.jved in the WhealsiiMie 
llriilge and if carefullx explained now 
the working and «»|Hratii>n <»f the briili:;- 
will he much better undersltxMl, 

It a Conduct! >r or wire thnmuh which 
a current i> dividetl at any p«>int 
the electric current ujjoii reaching this 
divisitiU will divide and if the re 



sistance of each branch is the same, then 
the current passing through one branch 
will equal the current flowing through the 
other, and if there is no inserted resist- 
ance in either branch so that there will 
be no accumulation of electricity any 
where in the complete circuit then the 
sum of the two divided currents will be 
equal to the original or individual cur- 
rent. If there be for any reason, notice- 
able resistance in either branch or the 
Shunt of the main branch, as it is often 
called, the current in each will be in- 
versely proportional to the resistance in 




Fig. 2. 

Diagrams 1 and 2. 

the circuits. That is, if in branch A 
there is twice as much resistance in the 
circuit as in branch B then when the cur- 
rent divides twice as much will flow 
through the branch B having one half the 
least resistance as will flow through the 
shunt A, which has twice the resistance 
.branches. We may state the above in a 

of B. Consequently the amount of cur- 
rent at the point of reunion of the shunt 
circuits wull equal the undivided current 
minus the sum of the amount lost by 
overcoming the two resistances in the 
simple form by saying that in a shunted 
circuit the individual current of its re- 
spective shunt varies inversely as the re- 
sistance through which it passes. Con- 
sequently in accordance with Ohm's Law 
if the sum of the resistance in each shunt 
circuit are equal, then the current at any 
opposite equal point of the two shunts 
will he equal, providing the source of 
E M F remains constant and the fall of 
potential along the conductor is directly 
proportional to the resistance through 
zvhich it passes. The above theories are 
used in measuring resistances by the use 
of the Wheatstone Bridge and this may 
be more clearly understood by referring 
to diagrams here reproduced. 

This consists of four branches M, N, 
X, and V. A suitable electric battery of 
moderate strength is connected at the 
points a and C. The arms M and N 
form a shunt of the circuit of the batter}' 
from the point A. M, N and V' are 
known resistances connected into the cir- 
cuit as shown. The resistance V is a 
variable resistance of wide range. Con- 
nected in parallel with the two shunt 
circuits at the points B and D is the gal- 
vanometer G w4th a key (h) for '■;hi 
ing and closing the circuit. The unknown 
resistance to be measured is connected at 
X. The contact key F in the battery cir- 
cuit being closed, the current will flow 
to the point A and then will divide, part 
taking the course A, B, C and part A, 
D. C. The difference in potential at 
the points B and D will generally, upon 
the closing of the circuit, not be equal 
but the fall of potential between the 
points A and C must be the same in 
amount as through the known resistance 



and X, MB throisi^i X aad \\ 

.Vj. before itated* the putential at B 

and D wQl nol fgcnerally be the same 

and 1900 dosing the circuit of the gal- 

G by oooiatt key h a current 

low acroits from B to D through the 

as will be indicated by 

ike ddfedioQ of the needle or if a 

ThomiMiii*! mirrcir galvanotncter is 

tued fa^ the deftcction of the lif^t upon 

tgndnatcd scale. If the current iIjcs 

doiiug the key irom B to D 

' know that there must be a difference 

o€ pnimlial between the two points. It 

9 atnjri pecctsary in the production of 

distance V* tncreaiitn^ nr riccreasing as 
the case may be until the desired balance 
has been obtained. This will be shown 
iiy the galvanometer needle remaining: 
stationary when the key h is depressed. 
Under these circumstances die bahuice 
being obtained, the ratio of the known 
resistarjce M to N will be exactly the 
same as the unknown resisLtnce X is 
to be the known variable resistance 
W 1*his may be expressed by the 

equation — 1^=-^^ The r wbtmp cts, 

Mp X and V are known. Then the fourth 
or unknown resistance X mav be found 

i«uc« Dojc umI ijMlran*^ 

currem to liave a ditlereiice 
L Now if there is a difference 
of ^cntial between B and D the fall 
of poiastkl in tlie resistance M and N 
•M X and \* ii tkol proportional It b 
vccaary, however, before we can cal- 
critte the resistance of X, which is being 
^eunrcd. to have thti( fall of piitrntbl 
01 tile branch circuits M and N and X 
Oil V proponioaal. When this has been 
oemoplighed upon closing the key h no 
omsil will flow through the fralvanom- 
«er frm B in D. 

Te obtain ibis result or a balance in the 
1*0 ctrcuiu^ we adjust the variable re* 

N ^ 

Suppoiuog the knows m* 

siMance to be M rs 4 ohms^ N ==^ 1 
ohms and the resistances varies so that 
V is equal to 5 ohms dien by sustituting : 

4|M) X 4(M> 

2(K) 6tV> t(K> 

An instrument wherein the principle 
of W^hcatstone's Bridge is carried out Is 
made up in a form which is ver>* con- 
venient for laboratory and experimental 
work. This is called the slide wire bridge 
and a good idea may be obtained from 
one of the accompanying^ illustrations 
"VVhcatstooe's Bridge Testing ScC' 



In iliis inslnuiioiu llio t\\(» amis X 
aiul \ aiv Mihsiitiiioil iov w strip of iicr- 
\\\A\\ >ilvcr wire of coinparalivcly \\\^h 
rosislanci- aiul of a uniform cross sec- 
lion. I'his wiro is sirolohoil iK'twoeii two 
brass >lrips havinii practically no notice- 
aMc resistance. At tlio ends i»f these 
Mups are place* I binilin^ ^^t^sts li>r ntak- 
nij: connections, v Opposite ami jxirallel to 
tlv.s wire are place^l three separate brass 
'^Jr'.ps cacii bciniT provided with three 
bi:uiir.i: -posts, one at each end and one in 
\\w :*v..;d'.e. The tWi^ outside strips which 
are con:uvu\; with oiu" end of the iier- 
:r.av. >i*\cr wive are provided each wi::: 
two hi'.u;*.:^^: iv^sts a: the op:v^>-:e e:^: 
ivon: \\\\\ a: whic:^ ::v co:i:vc::ons w:::: 
:he w::c a:c -\\v-o Tl^c k:\w:: t\<:s:- 
,',:'. Cv" N'. ■> c.''':*.cc'c». .-.'. *.'■*. v'*'. .■.''■ .■■'c 

.;.': \ 

in lenj^h and placed over a ji^raduatecl 
scale which is eciually divided into one 
thousand parts. As we have explained 
a balance must bo obtained between the 
points correspon<lin^ to R and D before 
the unknown resistance can be found. 
r»y moving the slider over the wire a 
certain point will be reached where no 
current will ilow through the galvanom- 
eter and when this has been found the 
(HMuts r» and D are at the same potential. 
So. there w ill be the same fall of potential 
Iviween the known resistance and the 
'eft section if the silver wire from the 
jvin: where ilie slider is placed to obtain 
:'::e ha-av.ce as tliroucrh the unknown re- 
>:s::i"Ce Ixir.i: :r.easured and the remain- 
""::i Aire • r that at the right of 
r T::e u!:kT:- wn resistance may 
. • . :';:e :':*! win*: a> in the first 
■■NT". ■.'.:'. Tt-sisiance '=. 

XT '. * 

known resistance. 

C*.' ct w".re ii n^n* 

U::: o: w:re :.\ left 

*.:|"s r.v : v.ewXs.N.iry :c- know the resistance 

■•■ s :" : ": "rcrrrsr: >i":ver wire bf- 

/...-.>: : "... ■ ' L ■ : >•/ : be of uni f • -rni 

;■>> >,;: ■ i- .: :s. :V:e re?:>iance will 

S: -.p -: : . ::> '.tr.z'.h and this 

"..: . ■■;. :>. l'.;'l >>•:•! \ :he rea-iinu 

- ^ : ■ > - — : ^7::^e care 

:•: -. » . : ■\::\'. :■.' : ""vJii-ns 

-\:"r-i -.iT.-sv. ■.%:"! rcsist- 

;. ■;: "«. -.-::• •■ zr.z >^:::-:: circuits. 

"" . - . - :i: "■•■*'.••" ver'.hewire 

. •;-.-.:.••. ;iTo".:t-'' >•:• ihai 

!»i :'. '.la,:. ' ^ > *Z a* 32. 

.-i. - ". • :- :--fs>-j:-t sh.-'.o* be 

•*■'.■ ■- ■ - li'T?.: : ~ Tc;''.:ce ihc 

^■'■: -fojii- ihe bridge 

•■• ' '.". .'. 

! i:<Tir»:n5 and is 

I -:jiini*d. 3!a«3ead of 

•■ Tsih«r w-iiir lor re- 



r. coUb urc cnoiAcd in 21 mahogany 
box anil irrsni^cd ami cunnccteii about 
Ibc sainc ^ tbctic ot ibc re«i!ti;incir Uix 
prrvicMuly ilcscrtbrtl. Tlic rcj^uiaiice of 
csdi tiiil 1% tlrttTitiinnl very accurately 
Aod thb iiiarkct] upun ihe out^ule tcr- 
ffOTilt ot the cuib, 'Ilic ^Uanometer 
of ihti ict t» a ver> sensitive insirumcnt 

ki also nmtatncd tn the box. The 

ol r tut b uuially a set of 

diloridr « 1 celU, aUi [ilaced at 

ctnl of the btix. These are connected 
ntirnlicr may \n* uited at will, 

ih:- .., ijiinc or dccrea^int; the E M F 

when fiecr^biairv* The Galvaimmeter and 

Wrtrf . -.. a., j.^i. itiouiUtHl in a can- 
'niKrii: \*Uk\ ui^ni the msirument. The 
^nkmimti restsQUKc to be measured is 
omectcd at the lwr> binding posts 

TV retutance coiIji are arranged $0 

te i wide range of work may be in- 

with these ptkrtable *et.s, the work 

far accurate niexcuremetils from 

I tn 400/X1 ohtiuu 

Wlien tistni: thiji »et the f^mt care and 

shiitilii be invcn as was ex- 

with the resistance box. All 

ilicmld lie linnly placed and their 

cf>ntact surface kept as clean as potaiUe* 
Tile complete set sluHild lie kept free 
from dirt and nnnsture. 

We havtt alreaily explained the moit] 
important iiiHtnuitents for measuring thei 
voltage and amperage of the electric cur-^ 
rent, llic electric power i\i the circuit 
may be found by mu]tipl> trig the read- ^ 
ings of the voltmeter and ammeter to- 
gether. The result obtained will be the 
power in Walts, 

The unit of electrical power or tnttgy 
is called tile Watt and may be found by 
multiplying the number of Amperes in , 
the circuit by the voltage cir E M F, 

To determine the amount of electrical 
power used by the customer of an dec* 
trie power plant for lighting or other 
purp<3ses an instrument must be so con^ 
strucled and <^pcrated as to include both 
the V(»hage and the strength of the cur- 
rent at the [Joint where tlie measurtng if 
done. The votlmetcr ami amtneler can- 
iH>t Ih* tiM'd a> the) d*» not tlelennine the 
uniu for only a brief interval of tinic. 
] am! for recording work as would be 
ticccssary in this case th.v u.uiltl K- nf 
n«> value, 

Hi'wever, an instrument by whidi tltts 
IS aceotnplished was invented by Etihu \ 
ntomson. an eminent engineer of high' 
standing, litis instrument is called the 
Integrating Wattmeter and records the 
full amount of dectrtcad energ> of tlie 
current in Kilowatts Hotirs, It a cur- 
rent of om- ' ' * - 
cuit at a prt ^ ^ 
of one hour it is called a current of one 
Watt Hour ITie unrt W ' 
ever, ven small for ci^i ' 
ing, so, for commerce a much higher one 
was adopted* for the Boarfi of TradeJ 
Tnit, which is the Kilowatt hour* The i 
Kilowatt hour is c<iual to looo Voh 
hi3tirs* I 

Tlie ThoniMm recording meter con* 

sists of a very small and delicate electric 
motor. The revolving part or armature 
is mounted upon a pivoted upright axle. 
The armature consists of many convolu- 
tions of fine wire, this being wound in 
very even layers on the armature which 
is not provided with an iron core. This 
armature with a resistance coil is con- 
nected in shunt or parallel to the main 
circuit, so that the strength of the cur- 
rent passing through the armature is de- 
termined by the difference of potential in 
the current which is being measured. 

As we stated before it is necessary to 
make the reading from the effects of both 
the strength and the EM Fof the current. 
So we connect the field coil of the motor, 
which is also without an iron core, in 

and this would not be proportional in 
any way to the watts used which is ne- 
cessary. To accomplish this, or to make 
the speed of the motor proportional to 
the watts used, a copper disk is placed 
at the lowxr end of the axle. This cop- 
per disk is allowed to rotate between the 
poles of the two powerful permanent 
magnets. The very powerful magnetic 
field that is set up between the poles of 
these magnets causes a slight resistance 
to the revolution of the disk. This drag, 
or retaining force, may be adjusted as 
necessar}^ If the meter runs too fast 
the poles of the magnet may be placed 
further away from the axle thus gaining 
more leverage upon the disk which causes 
the motor to run slower. 

Pig, 81— PtiUary Indioitor. 

series wath the main circuit so that the 
full current passes through them. The 
field in which the armature rotates is 
set up by this strong currrent of the 
main line passing through the field coils. 
Therefore, the current's strength that is 
passing through the armature combined 
with the pressure of the current in the 
fields causes the armature to rotate. 

The upper end of the axle, which also 
rotates w^ith the armature is connected 
to a clock work arrangement w^hich 
records the energy in Watts and Kilo- 
watts hours upon the face of tlie dial as 

It will be readily seen tliat unless a 
slight resistance was given to the axle of 
tl)e motor, that upon connecting it in cir- 
cuit it would at once attain a fast speed. 

There are many styles and sizes of 
recording meters now upon the market 
and all operate on about the same prin- 

Kig, S2— Rccorrling Wallwctcr. 

The Duncan Intergrating Wattmeters 
arc f>erhaps as reliable and efficient as 
any now produced. Three views of the 



are htrc §hawTi. The design and 

Dg fcauires are strictly tip to date 

embfNly many valnabtc improve- 

m nrhkh are not found in other in- 

^Sn cnttrdy new means of coropensat- 
lor friction and vibration on li^ht 
k cmpkn'cd, consisting of a small 
switch in coonectif>n with the 
compmicatiRi; coH and secured to the 

expose the bearinfi:<i, the detachable points 
of the spindle may be removed witli a 
small pair of tweezers, either through the 
opening in the collar or through the 
jewel port hole in the base of the meter. 
[*efore removing the §pinrllc port tlic 
jewel port should be taken out so as to 
give more room for operations. 

•'•a I 

-WaUnuriivr, «id«- virw, 

the meter between the series 

'fidd coils and the magnets. By simply 

— iting Ibc switch arm over the con* 

ttcts aoy d^red degree of compensation 

cn be aecttred in any instant* It is a 

vcr\' sinqdc, quick and effective means 

mA b abioltitety permanent. 

Another imptirtant feature of these in- 
MiiiiiKUta is the visible bearing which 
foite an tntpectioti of the jewel and 
^fmAi. point when the meter is in opera- 
tisQ. Wlien its collar is turned so as to 

FIf. 84— WAiiinrtrff. rroni vltr« 

ITic detachable spindle point is ncic 
threaded but is held in the end oC tlie 
spindle by magnetic attraction and is 
made from a special superior quality of 
steel wire made for this purpose. When 
handling the wire spring which holds the 
jewel port in place care should be taken 
nut to pull it down\v;inh tint alwnvs to 
one side 

The ctnmeinions an*! use oi these 
meters in regard to house wiring will be 
taken up and discui^sed fully in Later 

(To be continued 


Trkkn of the Trade. 

r I- WON WON. 

IN thi!» ^Iav of **hurr\-up ' the con- 
MAUt vMv of the ciuploxntris for more 

wotK »u ioss tinu\ To nuvl this en' 
niAnx xiKit;s:rcn sec !n« one way — that 
.Ni »^Mn\: ss\ ;vv work. The virawinj:^ arc 
*i:r,\, ;>,*' '-.tvx ,;vo ;:v.c\\n, the ^v^rts arc 

•.v.;\o.; ;:;^ ^t^ -,n A':^^^s; ho',x\cs> r.x-ss, 
.^n.i ;*v w *";o\- v:vvc:v.s av, »^:Vcr:s-vc c:* 

."^ ;■ X *vn . \v ■, 'x . • \-vx o.".'\ vvv. ,-.-.. 

•vx ,N\ : X ^ V..V ;." . .'.,\ .•-. : 

xN ■ ■ ■■ ^\- .< .X ■ -^ -.v .-;■.. . ■ 'x ■■ 

v"."' "V .."■, X X ". .">^x " '^ !x ,X " 

*>■".■ W 'x ". ^.' ^ .. V. >-■'■- .>■ "."■■ 

■, - V \ . .... X 

' X \ -. • x \ ■■ x^ ■ 

out tlie country as draftsmen are, the only 
way in which they can sort of visit to- 
irethor and swap these ideas is through 
the medium of some such magazine as 
this, and advantage should readily be 
taken of ilie cpportxmity thus afforded. 
Ii :s h.oped iliai the "tricks" contained in 
:h:> anicle r:'*ay prove of use to some, and 
^.ey — ^y call forth others. 
:':a: a chiin rr^y be thus formed 
>. a:".', sxcj 'ric of creat value to us 

:,X X :NSTXV3iEXT5. 

^ »:• 1 • -k.. :: :> very necessary 

v: ::::■: : :nc: r<r.> of a3! ink. 

: - 1 :■ -.Tr : -hamois skin 

-«: rvi: iri^>*r X:. luniade 

'. •"::«.• -r.Lr-. r.Ls ; us: enough 
-^ •--;.:. : : ". ? — iLkt ur : : remove 

, - . ■ -r- :r':^ rnc. hr:l "rtil! be 

I . . . 

^v-c' V '-. - 

'X -.. v,. 

k N ■ ■ 

X ■ '■» 

•v-v -.v ■ -k. 

: : 'L - V . \ fc- 

< ■:" :i;.^■: z^rSzvt :' kee^ 

I, ■•'.. '.:.•- -: -• t;>f •vt'* iht ■« "rk. 

■• >- . .::u: :!i: imif art brrrrel or 

\ ...-:i,M;^ , ij-anhiit frnrr "rhe pen- 

. -. '.vs. jj: anc: rti: upm. thr ciean 

- . "1. •*;!!>, - ""h*? TTii' Hj Lvroied 

-^...,^ .,,. ..,^,- ar. rrirssuy 

•' *- -< ■ ■ * "'/T liiiinc rreehsad :e^- 
•w :.-<. . h;:. sffTir rnmber«i^T^c 

■ < -v. • :: tha: ihi hand will 


k^ an 



ximbnt rtt»\v of perspiration (and cs- 
rcially is this so in warm weather), 
hich. of cours<\ rusts the instruments, 
ml nukes it j^enerally disaj^eeahle to 
M>rk. To avoid this place at a con- 
cnient part of the board some talcum 
xmder. and as often as necessary rub 
\ pinch of it u|K)n the hands. A few ap- 
plications will fill up the pores so that 
vcT> little moisture will come to the sur- 
tKr. and this may be readily absorbed 
In fresh powder. 


AH drawinp;$ should be inclosed in a 
neat border, which may vary with the 
cUs? of work, but the >;rcater part in 
Alm*fM all cases is composed of one or 
ni'-rc straijiht lines parallel to the edjje of 
the papiT. SupfMse, for example, that 
the biirder is to he of single lines one- 
Julf an inch from the edj^es ; then the 
Tihnary methinl would l>e to scale otT 
•Ju: tino-hali and draw the lines, first in 
pencil, and then in ink. However, if a 
nu'nUr «•! sheet< are to be made with 
•imilar bi»rder>. then much time may be 
^vcil bv forminj^ a small [)iece of card 
*»ar.l into a riulil anj^le triangle witn 
-^►•ui three inch >ides. an<l cuttinj^ out 

' 'hi* a smaller «iimilar irianj^le whose 
* it* are ^ne-half an inch from tin- outer 
••if^ and parallel to them resjKvtively. 
•■' placing: the sides of the triangle ti» 
« 'niiifie with the edj^es of the plate, the 
'•nirr «»f the l)order may be l<H:ated. and 
*^ treat in^ each corner successively, four 
pwm* are detennined by which the lines 
^' lie inked in .it once as there is nt» 
V^ibt as to where they end. 


IVforr inking a dr^winj^. it is well to 
ffnvive with a soft era.ser (Faber No. 
tiit ni.»*t of the pencil mark, and es- 
pfcially if a soft lead has been used, or 
if the lines are vcr>* heavy. If this is 
the ink can not adhere to the 

smooth, more or less oily, surface which 
the praphite forms, and will, therefore 
run off to the paper making a raj;K<^d 
line. On the other hand, if only enouf;^h 
of the pencil line is left to show faintly, 
then a fine jjr<H^)ve made by the pencil 
will W filled whh ink which will readily 
hold to the pafKT. and the result is a 
clean ait line. 


\>ry often it is necessary to draw a 
number of lines radially from a com- 
mon point — for instance in laying; out an 
ordinary disk cam. A simple way of 
pettinj^ lines even is to drive a fine 
needle into the board, and inrrpendicular 
to it throuj^h the center point, then by 
resting the straij^ht edpe afi:ainst the 
iK-edle an<l turninj^ it about the latter as 
an axis, any number of lines may be 
tlrawn radiatinj; from this comm«»n 
j>oint. In inkinj^ such lines, if they are 
very close together, the i)en should hi- 
drawn toward the center, because if the 
line is started near another, a blot i> 
very apt to occur, and this will Ik* drawn 
oiu with the fK*n j^ettini: wnr^^e and 
worse, while if the other nu*tho<l is used, 
the blot, it it (Kcurs at all. will be reduced 
as the line is cnntiiuied. 
i(» niviiH-: \ SM AiJ- ( ikM.K in 10 A i.\r<;k 


Not loiijLj ai:o. the writer in repre^^ent- 
in^ a ilisk (»f a dynamo armature had «>c- 
casion to divide a circle 2 inches in dia- 
meter into «>4 e(|ual jwrts. After mak- 
ing several attempts to set the dividers 
to step otT the spaces and failing every 
time b\ fn»m i-i<> to 1-8 of an inch, he 
M<»pped to do a little fij^urinjj. Now sup- 
|Mise the dividers went around i\\ times 
and '6 <^f an inch over : then in order to 
i;et ()4 <li visions the Sfvace between the 
points would have to l>e shortene<l by 
i-<)4 of 1-8 fif an inch, which is 1-752 
or .cx>i3 f>f an inch — a distance so sw 



that it is practically impossible to lay it 
off on paper, and any attempt would 
doubtless result in getting something 
under 94 divisions. Assume a circle 
drawn concentric with the original and 
with a radius sufficient to make the 
dividers, without changing the setting, 
go around exactly 94 times. The cir- 
cumference of this new circle will be 
about 34 of an inch longer than the 
original -or 6.2832 + .125 or 6.4082 
inches, and the diameter will be 2.04, and 
radius 1.02. The compass may now be 
set from i inch to 1.02 inches, the new 
circle drawn, and the dividers stepped 
around it 94 times, and then by the 
method for drawing radial lines, the cir- 
cumference of the original circle may 
be divided into 94 ec^ual parts. 


It is not the object of this short article 
to discuss machine shop systems, draft- 
ing room systems, etc., but to take up, in 
a very brief way, the systematic manner 
in which a draftsman may do work and 
thus save time and avoid complications. 
I thoroughly believe in systematic work. 
Plans carefully thought out in advance 
surely save time in the end and mean 
much more comfort for the workman. 

Let us first consider the systematic 
manner in which a free-hand sketch of 
a machine may be made. If possible, 
the several parts of the machine should 
be laid out where a good view may be 
obtained of each one, and from that 
time on should be handled as little as pos- 
sible. The best way is not to handle the 
model until it is time to take the dimen- 
sions. Taking the steps to be followed 
in free-hand sketching in their logical 
order, we would have the following: 

I. Lay each piece in such a position 
that the views may be obtained without 
disturbing the model. 

2. Study each piece carefully to de- 
termine the number of views necessar}' 
to fully illustrate the model. If a note 
will save the making of a view, do not 
hesitate to use it. For standard parts, 
such as set screws, nuts, etc., use simply 

3. Draw the views, using one sheet 
or series of sheets for castings and an- 
other for steel work. 

4. Put on all dimension lines and ar- 
row heads. 

5. Look sketch over carefully, to see 
that it fully illustrates the model and 

• that all dimension lines are in place. 

6. After all sketches are complete, 
measure the objects carefully and put 
on the dimensions. 

By reference to the above, it will be 
seen that it is not necessary to handle or 
touch the object from the time of plac- 
ing the model for sketching to the tak- 
ing of the dimensions, this means clean 
sketches and consequently clean draw- 
ings, it the draftsman sees that the parts 
are wiped off as they are taken from the 
machine and then refuses to touch them 
after placing them for sketching, he can- 
not help but have good, clean sketches. 
When taking dimensions, he needs to 
use usually only the left hand, using the 
right for handling the sketch and placing 
thereon the dimensions. 

Some draftsmen prefer a sketchbook, 
others loose sketching paper. I think a 
good combination is a sketchbook of 
the loose-leaf variety which allows the 
workman to use or work on the sheets 
separately, at the same time giving a 
chance for filing as unit. 

In detail work, drawings of castings 
should be made first, beginning with the 
largest and most complicated pieces. 
This allows the patternmaker to get the 
patterns ready by the time forging draw- 
ings are ready for the shop. This bringa 



r dranings. forcings and castings into 
r shop at alirnit the sanic time; in fact, 
»rer tfigctlitr than by any other ar- 

When inkin;: a mechanical drawing 
■^ fi»lltming will be found a convenient 
ler. which I will submit without com- 

answer for a regular drawing table with 
any degree of comfort, for the vari<jU5 
]>ositions of the t>oard necessary for dif- 
ferent i>arts of the w<irk can l>e secured 
only at great inconvenience. To tilt the 
board the left hand nnist hold it in the 
re<iuired position, and at the same time 
manipulate the T-s^iuarc and triangles. 


Group r 

(>roup 3. 

\ Object lines. 
I Black. 

I I . Arcs of circles, begin with the largest. 

2. Irregular curves. 

3. Horizontal lines, begin at the top. 

4. Vertical lines, l)egiu at the left. 

5. Oblique lines. 

1 Center, witness i 

and dimension ^ Same order as Group i. 
i lines. Red. ( 

.^ S Dimensions and Arrow Heads, 

Group 3. ^ ^.^^^ ^j^j^ ^^^^^ 

Group 4. Section lines. Black. 

Group 5. Margin lines. Black. 

j Ink in order given. 

'Hie term "witness line" in the al)4>vc 
i\ bi- new to s<inK'. an«l for that reason 
i\ re<iuire an explanation. The term 
fers ti» the line extending out from 
c r>bject line and limiting the dimen- 
m line. 

Should the system in your shop re- 
jire that the lines under jL;rou[) 2 l>e 
•a*le in black ink, it would still l)e neces- 
iT\ to ink them in a se])arate group 
I* ihev uould proablx Ik* ma<le lighter 
han the i»bject lines. 

If 'ihade lines are employed, the 
^rii|«hi lines under group one shoulil be 
*uWividetl. inking all the fine lines first 
iM tljcn all the shatle lines. The same 
■f'irr— hi»rizontal. vertical and t»hli(|ue-- 
-'>xiM fie maintained. 

A Portable Drawing Table. 

\nairnr draftsmen, e>[>eeiall> siu- 
•inrt«, Mrldoui have suitable tables ujion 
•hidi to work. The <lining. library <ir 
■BO bed ruoin table cannot be made to 

The accom|)anying drawing illustrates 
a metlunl of turning an ordinary drawing 
Ixxird into a portable drawing table at a 
trifling co.*it. Fi»r this purpose three or 
four pair of hinge butts are purchased 
at the hardware store f<^r a few cents a 
pair. The part of the hinge with the 
projecting tongue ( a I'ig. 1 ) calle<l the 
"male" and the (»ther |)art (b Fig. 2) the 
"female." Two females are screwed to 
the under side of the drawing board 
(b Fig. 2) flush with the eilge as shown 
in the drawing, and one nude is screwe<l 
in the center of the Ixmrd, alxnit t'lvv 
inches from the edge (c Fig. 2). 

A piece of one inch thick biard is m>w 
cut to fit the window, as shown. The 
Uartl being narrow can be made tu fit 
quite snugly into the groove in which the 
window sash slides by in.'^rrting it on an 
angle. Two male hinge parts are 
screwed to the upjKT edge of this boani 
(a Mg. I ). The distance between 
hinges .should 1k! the same as the dis- 



tance between the hiiiii^es on the drawing 
board, so that the parts may be slid to- 
,ijether, holding the board. The length 
and width of the window board will vary 
according to the width of the window, 
and the height of the sill from the floor. 

board, when the support is standing on 
end on the floor. To fasten the support 
in position it is only necessary to slide 
the two hinge parts together, and a sub- 
stantial drawing table is formed. The 
drawing table thus constructed may be 

It should, however, be of such width as tilted to any angle by simply moving the 


r^c / 

to bring the top of the Ix^ard about three 
feet from the ^ooy, 

VoT a support for the lower edge of 
the b(\ir(l a stout piece of board is pro- 
vided at one end with a female hinge 
[)art (d Fig. 3). The length of this sup- 
port shrnild be such that the hinge will 
be level with the hinges on the window 

lower end of the support in towards the 
wall. 'Hiree or four large brads driven 
in the bottom of the support and filed 
ofl* to leave points projecting about one- 
fourth inch will give it a firm hfrfd on 
the floor and prevent slipping. Thk 
drawing table may be tilted to any angle 
by simply moving the lower end of Ac 



i|i|M»rt in towards tlu* wall. 

In {uittint; nil tin* hinges care stumld 
* tak<-n to arran;^t* tlu-in so that tlu* 
Qfd %\\i\vs on to the r\\i\\X. If tlu'v arc 
It ••11 the ittluT way. the pressure of the 
-•Mjiiarc head aj^ainst the working end 
' the htard woulil cause it tr> slide off. 

In the Mnniner time, when it is neces- 
T\ to leave the \\indc»w o|x*n. the win- 
•w Niard can Ik- nuide secure hv driv- 
:: in small womleii wedj^es at each 

lla\iii;: j»ri»vidrd the drawing l>oard 
ith female hinj^es, male hinji^es may Ik' 
a* id in varioiw places aUnit the ro<»m. 
k!) a** nmier the tahle li»p. window sill 

• »n a l»«»ard naile<l to the wall. Thus 


'■! *t!id*nt sfcures a Ncrviccahlc |M>rtahlc 
i-aviin'^ tahle lh:it can Ik* moved ah«»iu 
»: will antl storiMJ in an out-of-the-wa> 
'.'Vi uhen not in u«k-. 

I i.:nre 4 ilhistrate> a neat drawiuji: 
•4M1 that can bo constructed by anxMUt 
*rtH a hannner. saw and chisel. 

Thr kinil tif woikI t(» usi» de[K'nds cn- 
•^r!\ iipiifi ihe maker's taste and the size 
•I hi* fN<ket-l>ook. < >ak is the best, 
ta liinc will answer. 

Thf 'it'K.'k "if the frame is f»ne antl *ine- 
'"urth b\ three inches. The to[) is luie 
^^ thick, twentv -seven inches w i<le and 
thirt\-»*i\ inches Ion;:. The cleats on 
*e rml nakc il jiossiblc to use the top 
^ the uUe lor a drawing board. 

The heij^ht of the table is thirty-five 
inches. The lej^s are twenty-nine anci 
one-half inches apart, outside measure- 
ment. They are halved together but nc»t 
flush, and held in place by keyed niort- 
ised-and-tenon joints on the cross pieces. 
The spread of the lej^s at the Ixatom is 
twenty-three inches, outside measure- 

The table may Ik' painted or finished 
in any way suits the builder's fancy, 
but probably the most satisfactory way 
would be to stain it in imit<'ition of the 
fxtpular Mission Furniture. The stain 
may Ix* purchased mixe<l and ready for 
use. requiring no skill whatever to apply. 

An Electrical Blue Printer. 

The follow inj^ account of an electric 
blue printer as made by a small company 
may prove interesting:. 

It was foun<l that there were .so man> 
prints to be made, and so many cloudy 
days to prevent rapid printing that print»i 
that should W in the shop were I)einjL; de- 
laye<l. Prices for several elivtric blue- 
printers were received : but they all 
seemed a little hij^h. Then one of the 
electrical men f»ropose<l that the com- 
pany make one for themselves. The 
su^j^^eslion wa*; adopted, and the sketch, 
which I am sending under an«»tluT cover, 
shows the apiKiratus as «lesi;:ned by Mr, 
v.. R. r»ryant. It is made »»f tin and wa** 
built by a local tinsnu'th. It was made 
of the same dimen>ions at the N»ttoni a^ 
the blueprint frame as it was intended t«» 
lower the reflector to within one or two 
inches i>f the frame when in use. I'l^m 
experimenting: with it it was fc»uiui that 
with the reflector di>w n clt>se t<» the frame 
the print wouhl lie burnt in the mi«l<lle. 
while biirely printed at the e<lfi:es. .\t a 
distance of alxnit j8 inches from the 
frame, and 3'j minutes time the U-st 
print was taken. 



The lamps used are two Adams Bag- 
nail Enclosed Arcs, direct current, and 
they are suspended directly upon cords 
running up over pulleys down to cleats 
by which the position of the reflector 
may be regulated. The manner by which 

What would be the weight if filled with 
water ? 

the reflector is slung to these cords is 
clearly :>hown in the sketch. The resis- 
tance for each lamp is sus|KMided from 
hanger board on ceiling so that their 
weight does not have to l>e handled in 
raising and lowering the reflector. 

I.. E. X'.MOR. 

Question Box. 

O. — Please give me a rule for figuring 
the c«»nlenls of a tapering tank \o ft. in 
<liameter at the l)ott(Mn antl «» tt. in dia- 
meter at the top and S ft. 7 in. high. 

.\. — To solve this, we would have to 
find the contents of a solid similar to a 
frustrum of a cone. Add together the 
area of the bottom and the top in square 
feet, and divided by two. This would 
give us the average area. Multiply this 
average by the height, which will give the 
solid contents in cubic feet. Allowing 7.5 
as the number of gallons to the cubic 
foot, which would show the number of 
gallons in the tank. Multiply the num- 
ber of cubic fet by 62.5, which will give 
us the weight of water in the tank. Add- 
ing to the weight of water in the tank 
and getting the total support it will have 
to carrv. 

Falling Bodies. 

"John, what distance will a body fall 
in three seconds? Of course the theo- 
retical distance is meant of a body fall- 
ing in a vacuum." 

"Oh! that's dead easy." said John. 
"Why. there is a formula in my hand- 
hook, and I don't know but what there is 
a table, that will tell the distance at a 
glance. I'll let you know in half a 
minute. ' 

"Yo. John," said his chum, "let us 
suppose you are passing some examina- 
tion : you would not then be allowed to 
have resource to that vade-mecum." 

John's eyes twinkled a little, for he 
had luckily been reading on this ven' 
subject the previous evening, but he did 
not think it necessary to enlighten his 
friend on this point. 

"Oh! well, said John, "I remember 
that a body falls t6.o8 ft. in the first 
second, and that the accelcratrix is .^2.16 
ft., or just twice as much, or, in other 
words, that at the end of each second tfic 
bo<ly acquires a velocity of 32.16 ft: 
hence at the end of two 



will luvc acquired an additional vclocit> 
*»f 3J.16 ft., niaktni; the velocity at that 
n> Client ^14.32 ft. 

"Since the body started from a point 
«*t rest and acquired a velocity at the end 
of tine «cc*wid of 32.16 ft., its averaj;^' 
%rlncity was 16.08 ft: therefore that i»j 
the distance it fell in one second; an<I in 
the !«anic manner the avera'ic descent in 
the next second would be 

= IS 24 ft.. 


this added to the distance fallen in 
the first second equals 64.32 ft. 

*' \t this nuMuent we fin<l the velocitv 
arvl the tiKal tiescent are represi-nted by 
the same fijjures. 

"The velocity at the end of three sec- 

•nd* would be 64.32+32.16=96,48 ft.. 

and the averajjje distance fallen in the 

third second would be 

rt4 :«» -r %.4K 


aad if we add to this 64.3? ft. it gives 
144.72 ft. as the total descent in three 

"Y«»ur answer is correct. John, and 
«-xne of the f»>rnuilas ouj;:ht not to be 
fiaril to see into from your reasoninj^. 
1 am j:oin^: ti» note «lown your explana- 
•W41 an«l als«» s«»me of the formulas.'* 
m- mass. 

'.:-" 32.16 ft. per secf^nd. 
Wrrweiirhl of a body at the surface 
! the earth. 

*- weight of a bcKlv at a j^iven dis- 
Uncf above or below the surface. 

Or-.ilistance between the center of the 
'inh and center of the body. 
R-- earth s radius -=4000 miles. 
TrrtinH- in seconds the body falls. 
V- veliicit) in feet at the end of the 
timr T. 

H- distance in feet that a ImmIv falls 
'inriiig the time T. 


M — WR ^ I)\V 





^ 2 II 

T T rr 

v:T» \vv 

II iiiV 

2 K 

"John, did \ou ever try (Iroppin;^ at 
the s;ime time nhjects as dissimilar as :i 
cork and a Inilkt !<»r a distance of sev- 
eral feet?" "No." >aid John, **I don't 
think I ever did." "Well. I have tried 
it." sai<l his friend, "and Initli objects 
will reach the ground in the same time, 
but if tliey are <ln»p|»ed a j^reater dis- 
tance, say from the second story of a 
Iniildin^. the bullet will reach the jjround 

**.\j^ain. talking;: al>«»ut weij^hl^i. put*- 
me in mind that the term mass repre- 
.sented by m may l)e taken as sijjnifyin;: 
the mechanical effect «»f a weiirht fallinj^ 
clurin.u' a second of time or through 3J.i^» 

"Yes." >aid John, "that seems like a 
i^immI explanation. Imu I shall have to ;^o 
n«>w. as it is vjottim: late." ( harlcs . /. 

From a Reader. 

Mr. liditor: 

1 am very much [»leased t«» see another 
C onstitution and laws .if a ne\\l\ «ir;ian- 
ized siH'iety of Hamp<len ("ountx Drafts- 
men. This is another evidence **\ the 
necessity of a national s<K'iet\ of ilrafls- 

1 like to re;id a i:<mm1. st»und article, full 
t»f earnest and loj^ic. such as expressed by 
Mr. Maxim t >. Freuier. on •»ri:anization. 

t onie. brothers. Ix* up ami doinv: ; yet 
enthused: have somethint: to say: let 
there appear several articles «in ori^ani- 
/at ion in the ne\t issue. 

"A I^KNi 11. Tl sllLi: " 


I»ack copies of Tin-: Duakisman can 
be secured at any lime. iMmnd volumes 
are on sale, see advertisinj^ pa«xcs. 

Send in for our si>ecial offers as pre- 
miums for new subscribers. Many ji^ood 
lliinj^s offered and each sh«>uld take ad- 
vantaj^e of them. 

Is this conventir^n year for drafts- 
men? How many can join toiLjether and 
send a delej;:ate io Clevehnid in June or 
July? Let us hear from you i^n this sub- 

The January issue has been exhausted 
but perhaps all orders can be filled before 

A lar^c number of each issue is placed 
with the newstands for sale but some arc 
returned. When the returns come in. 
the <:Undin.i: orders can be filled. 

.\s much as possible, il is intended t(^ 
make this mai^azine a **data briuijer" to 
the reader. 

Such matter that is reprinted will irive 
useful information to our readers. 

There is no doubt that subscribers of 
technical maj2:azines are lookiir^ for con- 
cise information, such as will help them 
in their work, if not at this time, per- 
haps in the near future, so put it away 
where you can lay your hands on it when 
vou want it. 

Standard Size Cards. 

Mr. \V. ( ^sb(^rne. in the American Ma- 
chinist, says: "As many thinirs can be 
just as well done any one of the several 
wavs. and as some of these wavs mav 

i^ive trouble, we try to have stand- 
ards adopted. 

"Standards are simply labor-savinj^ tie- 
vices. At first it is only the very jjreat 
and important thinjj: that is standardize<l. 
and this because the nece.ssity for il is 
very plain and the .savinj^: very jjreat. (>r it 
may be the trouble caused by the lack of 
standard is .so univer.sal that many peo- 
ple are ready for anythin'.^ that saves 
them annoyance. 

**I would like to see a standard card 
adopted by traveling salesmen." 

The writer further remarks the incon- 
sistency of the practice of having so 
many sized cards. 

\Miat should be done is to have a small 
card with the name of the firm and sales- 
man for announcement, and to have a 
3 X 5 card with informatics of suitable 

These cards would fit into the ordi- 
nary desk drawer tray and could be 
readily handled and thus kept for future 

If the user calls for a standard size 
and the maker advises it in cases where 
his opinion is asked, we will have it and 
it will be better than the dozens o£ sizes 
now in usc\ 

If they were all made of the in- 
convenient size in the lot. it would be 
better than the present state of the art. 

As the Irishman said when he was 
ficrhtinc: the mosquito. " Tis not the size 
or the dan.c:er of the thing that T object 
to, but the waste of time and the dis- 
traction that It produces/' 

Cards could be used to send to pro*- 
pective buyers any infenni^' i ^ 

^H^NfKfrs tiVnvrrHi.^f M,9GA?:tsE 


r«» lu ijivf ••ui, but riiry 

5^5, 4x0 or 55^8, 

J. Lrc^ ClrvckifKU Ohio, has 

f a mrat »i: a canl to 

of MT^^ I it^\% es* 

j.\5 and 4x^1, which arc by 


In thr iUnstraHoii, it will 

that pcrfaratiimn are tnadc so 

Jtl any iirtr rrr<?iving a 4x6 card 

a 3x5 tray, he can easily dc- 

' itwe to *tiil hi* requirement!^. 

dc^riptions ut new ma* 
r^ fnay tbus^ be pre»citted to the 
acceptable fnnn« 

can be nude with Mr* 
\ ci( this card. 

C Mabon, fi>rmer1y instructor 
ami design at CcntraJ Infiti- 
eland, and who wrote man%* 

(ii stvcraJ Lkcirical and sicani devices 
which arc tu be inanii fact tired \\\ the 
alxjve comfiany. 

The illujitratinn .*hnw^ the packing to 
t)c made by thi> cum|>any and ha.*^ proven 
the best [jacking fie vice on tlic market. 

It iit tKrin^ used b> the Krie R. K, and 
I^e Shore K. R. and ilic While Auto- 
mobile Co, 

It is the c»nly packini^ device that com- 
pens:tte5 lor frictifitt« hibrication and is 
%clf adjusting. 

Ammficmn Technical School. 

As mentioned in previou** ii»i*uc.s 01 tht» 
magazine^ a course in Concrete Steel 
Construction was under way anil the 
prospectus is now ready. 

Tlie American Technical School of 
Oevdand has been organized to ptvc 
instruction in ihiii class of work, 

Thetr aim i.^* to teach principles and 
nut to furnish ihe students with a lot of 
undigested informatk>n, nor to work off 
on them a nimibcr of hi^rh priced publica- 

There are twenty-five lessons in the 
course which is arranged mainly for en- 
gineers, contractors, draftsmen ami 
architects of the younger generation. 

lilts maga^int^ is now con* 

er fiir the Antilles Mcialic 

L~ia Mr. \lai«<in is the patent i-r 

Thi>se who are not familiar with the 
principles of mechanics are ail¥i^e«l i<* 
t.ike twelve Iriistms anangevl In ^ii|ipt> 



inent the course in Re-enforced Con- 

No branch of the engineering profes- 
sion is in greater demand today than that 
connected with re-enforced concrete. 

It is one of the future means of con- 
struction and no young man in engin- 
eering work should pass this opportunity 
to prepare himself. Address Lock 
Drawer (). 

Book Reviews. 

The Train Despatcher's 1 bulletin, pub- 
lished in Toledo, Ohio, is devoted to the 
interests of men in this profession. 

"House Hints" for thuse who build, 
buy, improve or rent, by C ii. Scher- 
merhorn, is a practical treatise describ- 
ing every essential detail pertaining to 
site, location, arrangement, construction, 
plastering, heating, plumbing, lighting, 
decorating and furnishing of the house. 
The book opens with the "index" ar- 
ranged so that any one of the 150 or 
more headings can he easily located. 

Many valuable suggesti(^ns are made 
on the 55 pages for the benefit of the 
amateur builder. Pages 6x9, paper 
bound, price 50 cents. Address House 
lliiUs Publishing C(>., Philadelphia, Fa. 

After twenty years experience as a 
mason, Mr. W. H. Baker has written 
"The Cement Worker's Hand Hook," a 
neat cloth bound book of 86 pages, cov- 
ering more than fifty most important 
subjects on cement and its uses in con- 
st ructi(m. 

The work is divided into invt parts: 
Properties, Mortars, Concretes, Cast Ma- 
sonry and Practical .Votes, each com- 
piled to meet the requirements of the 
common workman. 

The latter division covers manv inter- 
esting and useful notes on hair cracks, 
freezing, moulds, measurements, season- 

ing, coloring, testing and cost of cement 
work. The price of the book is 50 cents 
from Mr. W. H. Baker, VVadsworth. O. 

New Catalogues. 

Circulars and diagrams of marine gas- 
oline engines have been received from 
Gray & Prior Machine Co.', Hartford, 

Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. , are noted for 
chain blocks of every kind. Their gen- 
eral catalog describes three kinds and 
fifteen sizes, for every hoisting need. 
The Company has offices No. 9 Murray 
St., New York. 

Roller bearings are of such common that they need no introduction. The 
Standare Roller Bearing Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa., need none either. Their 
Catalogues No. 12 and 16 describe every 
possible use for such an article. 

"The Uses of Locomotive Cranes*' is 
the title of Bulletin No. 23 issued by The 
Browning Engineering Co., Cleveland, 
O. Illustrations show cranes in a great 
variety of work demonstrating their a- 
daptability to the handling of material 

Bulletin 56 of the General Pneumatic 
Tool Co., Montom Falls, N. Y. illustrates 
electric hoists. Diagrams and tables are 
quite complete, more so than usually 
given in advertising literature. 

The Brunswick Refrigerator Co., New 
Brunswick, N.J. have issued a general 
catalog on refrigerating and ice making 


The Antilles Metalic Packing C^., 191 
Bank St., Cleveland, O., announce cir- 
culars on f rictios and lubrication in stuff- 
ing boxes. They are manufacturers of 
packing for engines, pumps, compressors. 
locomotives, etc. 



streets and the method of operation. 
There are 33 miles of tunnels of a sec- 
tion 6 ft. X 7 ft. 6 in. each constructed 
under the centers of the streets of the 
city of Chicago. This underground 
freight railway system has been in ope- 
ration for several years, the subways be- 
ing extended each year until the prob- 
lem of relieving the congested area of 
this large city is being rapidly solved by 
doing away largely with the operation of 
heavy loaded trucks upon the streets. 
In the same manner as the building of 
subways and underground railway tubes 
for passenger traffic below the surface 
is intended to relieve the congested area 
of such large cities as London, Berlin, 
Paris and New York, so the building of 
this subway or tunnel system for the 
transportation of merchandise, coal, 
newspapers and mail matter, is intended 
to aid in the solution of this problem. 

This tunnel system was commenced 
several years ago by the Illinois Tele- 
phone Construction Co. under the di- 
rection of George W. Jackson as general 
manager and chief engineer; the sub- 
ways are being built under an ordinance 
granted to the Illinois Telephone and 
Telegraph Co. 

The business district of Chicago com- 
prises alx)ut one and one-half square 
miles of territory and is completely sur- 
rounded by the passenger stations and 
freight depots of the 25 trunk lines, 
which make Chicago the greatest rail- 
road center in the world. It is estimated 
that the freight handled daily at the 
freight depots in Chicago amounts to 
more than 112,000 tons, and with the 
present facilities afforded by the tunnel, 
will relieve the congestion and facilitate 
the transaction of business in the business 
section, removing about 80 per cent of 
the heavy teaming from off the streets. 

The tunnel as built is egg-shaped, with 
walls of concrete, the walls being 10 

inches thick with a 14-inch bottom. They 
are 6 feet wide and 7 feet 6 inches high, 
inside measurement, and are at an aver- 
age depth of 40 feet below grade. 

The pneumatic system of constructing 
subways was used, although a number of 
thousand feet were constructed without 
the use of air. The work is pushed day 
and night, and the 24 hours are divided 
into three eight-hour shifts. The shift 
which goes to work at 4 p. m. being 
known as the driving shift; this shift is 
relieved at midnight by another shift that 
finishes the drive, taking out the bottom 
and does the trimming. The day shift 
does the concreting. Special precantkm 
is observed at every stage of the woik. 
Half-hourly reports of the progress of 
the work are forwarded to the chief en- 
gineer's office, and by fluctuatimi of the 
air pressure, or any change in the nature 
of the soil is immediately reported to Ae 
chief engineer in person, who remains in 
touch with the work constantly. 

A great advantage is claimed for the 
concrete tunnel over a brick one, as there 
is no chance for a settling of the streets. 
in using brick it is impossible to dig a 
tunnel so true that the brick will fit snng, 
consequently they are obliged to back fill 
with clay, slabs, or other material that is 
handy : this leaves voids which are honnd 
to cause settlement. In the use of con- 
crete it is necessary to tamp the ccmcrete 
tight to get a perfect bond, and in so 
doing it fills up every void no matter how 
uneven, making it an impossibility for 
any chance of a settlement. It is with 
just pride that the management can say 
that from the time the work was started, 
up to the present date, the company has 
not received one complaint of any dam- 
age having been done to the streets of 
Chicago or adjoining property. 

It is stated that more than 175*000 
lineal feet of tunnel has been con- 

structed up to ih The 



' now rracbts every passenger de- 
pot and freight housc^ and connections 
are being made «i tth these a& well as tJie 
wholesale houses, retail 

^ mantifaaizreri, etc., z^ fast as the 
altermtians necessary in the huiUling can 
be nnfe. The &rst railroad to make pro- 
vUaOi to iiie the sobway was the I^c 
Sttre & Michigan Southern, in their new 
fretght bouse at Ctark and Taylor streets, 
Dariiii^ the months of April and May 

feeti with the iKxevvary mKrM-tn'»irs, oy- 
passt^s, etc*, in the lime maitioned above, 
is sometlitng entirely out of the ordinary* 
When it is taken into consideration that 
the general average in tunnel construc- 
tion up to the present time has been at 
the rate of two miles per year, even under 
the IktsI conditions and where the soil has 
Ix-en uniform. In carrying out the work 
it liiis l>een necessary during the past two 
niMfiths to excavate about 60,000 cubic 


live miles of tumid construct- 
the streets of Chicago. During 
of April there were construct- 
ed ia.105 lineal feet, and during the 
wmmiik ot >fay there were constructed 
tJ;6i9 Hoeal feet of tunnel, with the 
r appurtenances to make it prae- 
lo operate eleeirically propelled 
: fodl as rail*, troOey system, per* 
iiebtififr. drainage systc^m, etc. 
Tbr cnitttructttin iff tht& number of 

vards of material, and ntanufacture and 
place into position abmt 35,000 cubic 
yarils of concrete. All the excavated 
material was transp^iried through the 
completed tunnel system and deposited 
at t irant Park, at which pc»inl it 1* being 
used for filling fi»r the improvement of 
the t^rk. In connection with the same* 
there was trrn * '■ ' '1 tunnel 

about 15000 :e<l ma- 

terial daily fn>m ihe frJU^^ing buildings: 



Ueyvvortli lUiiUlin^s Majestic Building, 
Mandel lirotlicrs, Marshall Field and 
New ICdisoii Ihulding and, in fact, all 
the new buildings being erected in the 
down-town district are having their ex- 
cavated material hauled by the tunnel 
company. The benefits to the people and 
the users of the streets of Chicago has 
been very groat of late, due to the trans- 
porting of excavated material and wreck- 
age through the tunnel system. Jt has 
been the means of keeping a large num- 
ber of teams of[ the streets, which have 
previously been engaged in hauling re- 
fuse anil excavatings from the new build- 
ings. The benetits to the community are 
many, as it has already been the means 
of removing a i)art of the congestion, as 
well as keeping the streets free from dirt 
and refuse, which has always fallen off 
the NNaj^ous engaged in this class of team- 

Many structures have been built in 
New York. Boston an.i Philadelphia, 
w hich exteiul 30, 40 or 50 feet below the 
street surface, and such basements are 
now iK'ing built in Chicago, and will be 
available in a way more advantageous 
than in the alK»ve named cities, since the 
floor of the sub Uisements will be carried 
to the level of the subway. 

I >n account of the many styles of build- 
ings which are to be tapi^ed, and the 
many purtH>ses t\>r which the tunnel is 
designee!, there has been a severe tax on 
the engineers* ingenuity, as no two build- 
ings are alike, and each requires its own 
treatment. Where the tunnel connects 
with a building whose basement extends 
but one story U-low the street grade, a 
turnout w by-|.);tss is c^'iiNtructed leading 
from the main tunnel to the inside of 
the curb line where it connects with a 
shaft leading t'.» the bii-iemcnt under the 
sidewalk. S].vviii!!\ desi.i:Tie<.l elevators 
lift the cars to the ba-^etTieiU tloor. where, 
with the use of a turntable thev can be 

moved wherever they are desired. The 
elevators so far in use are tested to carry 
30.000 pounds. 

The permanent track has a gauge of 2 
feet, and the Illinois Steel Company 4^ 
inch 56 pound rail was adopted as the 
standard rail. The rail is fastened by U 
bolts to a specially designed cast iron 
chair embedded in the concrete floor of 
the tunnel. The great number of cross- 
ings and switches in use necessitated by 
all the intersections, turnouts^ or by- 
passes, leading to the different buildings, 
made it imperative that this part of the 
track system be as near perfect as could 
he made. The crossings in use iftie all 
bolted to steel plates that extend over 
the entire crossing, and this embedded in 
the concrete floor. The switches are those 
known as the split switches, and die frogs 
are constructed the same as the right 
angle crossings. 

Except at the incline at the lake front, 
where the Morgan third rail system is 
used, the overhead trolley is ^it^l^rM 
throughout. The third rail consists of a 
steel strip about one-half inch in thick- 
ness by four inches wide, clamped be- 
tween insulated wood stringers kid 
lengthwise in the center of die trade 
The rail furnishes not only the cnncnt 
for the locomotives, bat die means of 
moving the locomotive as wdl» for it is 
provided with an opening fior co^^ wheds, 
which are pressed onto die axks. A 
0000 tigure 8 trolley wire is adopted as 
the standard, held in place by Porter & 
Berg's standard bam trolley hangers 
placed 15 feet on center. 

It is intended that autixnatic section 
insulators and throw will be in use at 
all street interseccionsw This arrange- 
incnc enables the current to be cut out 
in any block <luring temporary repairs. 
without shutting: off die cuii e nt from 
any other part of the system. 

The stvle of cars aoA tkuJUk hxo- 



DOliirei used for tlits work are varied 
and mterciltni?. iJn the incline at the 
Lake irofil it wa> futtnd advisable lu use 
tbc Morpm R type of locomotive; while 
in the tmmd proper there are two types 
m Hie. vii: The Jeffrey's Standard M. 
IL looofiKiltve, aihl the General Electric 
Staoiiant U M, locomotive, The weijifht 
of the Jeffrey liKotnotive is six tons and 
m equipp e d with two i8 horsepower mo 
for* WTiile the weight of the Ctetieral 

can be lued either as a f^ondola or i flU 
c:iT, and every car is equipped with the 
M. C, B, coupler. The weight capachy 
o{ the car is 30,000 lbs. The double 
trucks are so built that the cars readSy 
</I)craic upon a curve of 15 foot radius. 
At the present lime the Ikjx cars are 
equipped wiUi the Newniaji patent dump 
br>x» which has a capacity of three and 
one-half yards. The number of loco 
motives and cars now in ti^ iit largr. 

tt u tivc tons, ikihl It IS 
! wHA two 3D horsepower motors. 
The locomtsves are of a low and com* 
The can w^hich are employed in the 
Dtt dcfgro ttod Railway Freight service 
vr the Kilbourne ft Jacobs, and the Bet- 
mmdart double truck tjrpe. The cars are 
t^ fact 6 inches in leni^th over all, and 
I 47 iochei tn wtdtli* They are %*( steel 
iron cooffrtictioa thn>U(jhout and 

:md is rapidly being increased* 

The tunnel is well lighted throughout 
b> electricity. Tlic current for light and 
power is supplied at present by the Chi- 
cago Edison Company* Power for the 
trains is furnished by a 5.CX10 bor*e|>ower 
generating plant. Direct current at 250 
volts, the rails fumiihinf: the return, ts 
the system in use. 

The Northwestern University has 
deeded a tract of land on the Oiicagn 



Kivrr, ai J4lh, l<» the I'unncl Company, 
wlwvv it wvcis its own power house. 
Thi* ctimpany also oroots large ware- 
houses where il will be possible for mer- 
ehanls whw have only limited amount of 
Mjmee U\ sltn'e a larj^e supply of goods, 
drttwiuK upon the same as needed. These 
WHrehiuises the Tompany erects on its 
i»wn property on the wesi hank of the 
river at ra\U»r street, 

\t eael\ intersection of the tunnel 
theve is an automatic telephone* anil all 
trains are operated hv this system. The 
cables lov tl\c teleplione system are hun\r 
ir\^\\\ the v\H»l ot the tunnel with a spw- 
\\k\\\ yW\\\\\w\\ avljnstsd^lc strap. i«uards 

are stationed at street intersections and 
every precaution is taken to avoid acci- 
dents. The many connections already 
made with the tunnel insured thorough 
ventilation. The floor of the tunnel is 
dry and smooth as the average cement 
pavement. The subway freight lines 
now extend from Indiana Ave. on the 
north to 15th street on the south, and 
west as far as Halsted street, and are 
rapidly being extended beyond these 
limits. This system of underground 
freight transportation will undoubtedly 
be utilized in other large cities in the near 
future, bi^th at home and abroad. 

The plant illustrated herein hatidlcs 
aSJDOO locti of coaU yearly, is situated in 
Nrt% york Harbiir, and is equip|>e<l with 
••Hunt'* electric hoUt and automatic rail- 
way* The coal h hoisted bv means of the 
electric hoist, fnmi the canal boats in 1-3 
tiiQ ttibs, cm a nuist and j^stif, to the auto- 
matic railway car, by which it is dis- 
triliuted in the yard. The car runs on an 
vatrd self-acting railway and requires 
Meani. horsie. or manual power for its 

hIioIc cost ol the plant is «i%*e<l in 
rciluclion of the pay roll* 

The unloadinjit cajKicity 
plant was 120 lon-i i>er day ; 
machinery the cajx-icity is 
day, an increase of 80 tons. 

llie [K>wer is purchased by meter at $ 
cents per horsepower hour, and costs less 
than 7 mills for each ton of coal hoisted 
and flelivered to the car. 

The labor required to operate the new 
plant, in taking the coal from the vessiel 

r#et»<T«l V»cir of riftul 

>Mth the previoius equipment the coal 
VIS hotacd by liorse power and trimmed 
lia the «tock pile. The old equipment 
«it $1^50, the tiem* one $2,800. The 
con ii( handlini^ to the %tock pile, interest 
ttrf depreciatioti tncluiletl was, with the 
«U plauit, t7^;i cents per ton : with the 
inr fliiit the cost h jli cents. This 
tfereoce of lOK cents per ton on 25,- 
tnntom per year make« an actual saving 
'*f %ij&m- Thu< ever>' t,^ months the 

for Kntt>t>tn|[ Vc 

to the Stock ptle« is as follows: Three 
shuvelers are employed in the hold of the 
%'esscl, one man operates the electric 
hoist, another man dumps the coal into 
the car. weighs it, and attends to the 
automatic railway. 

It has been found that the convenience 
of the nes^ plant t^ another important 
element in its favor. It is always readv 
fi>r fiervice by switching? on the electric 
current lor driving the hoisL WTien the 



unloading of a boat has been completed, 
the switch is opened and the attendants 
can leave the machinery at once. An- 
other important factor is the facility for 
weighing the coal. The automatic car 

stands on the scale platform while being 
filled, and the exact weight of each load 
can be noted before the car starts on its 



The timber work, fencing, automatic 
railway car, tubs, scales, pocket 
values, electric engine, blocks, fall, 
mast and gaff, for the new plant 



The horses and carts, blocks, fall fit- 
tings, tubs, mast and gaff, for the 
old plant cost |l,7d0 




Capacity 200 tons. 

Per Day. 

Capacity 120 tons. 

Per Day. 

3 shovelers, at |1.50 

1 hoister, at 2.00 

1 man to dump, weigh and 

tend automatic car, at... 1.50 
Electric power, oil, waste, 





2 shovelers, at |1.50 

3 carts, horses and driver 

at 3.00 

9 00 

1 hoisting horse and driver 
at 3 00 

3 00 

2 trimmers, at 1.75 

Interest and taxes, yearly.. 10% 
Depreciation, yearly 10% 

( Two last items based on 

a year of 125 days' work. ) 
Daily cost per ton in stock 

pile , 17ic. 

3 50 

Interest and taxes, yearly.. 10% 
Depreciation, yearly 10% 

(Two last items based on 

a year of 125 days' work. ) 
Daily cost per ton in stock 

pile 71c. 




Thus saving lo^ cents per ton on 25,000 tons, or $2,625 each year, 
months the cost of the plant is saved by the reduction of the pay roll. 

Every 13 

Automatic Kailwav Car. with Tnidc, Dumpitig Block 
'and CroM-Bar: 

ciiclaaed and niu m < 


BUCKETS far handling materials of 
mXI kinds may be divided into two 
: the ordinary round or .square 
eilbcr statiooary with bottom 
domii or the tum*over, and those that 
dig or are self-filling. 

Thefc are many styles and sizes of the 
I, the more common being the 
kind, and in late years the 
has become %o that they are made 
letf-dimiptng. self-righting and self-lock- 

Tlie boltom dump is seen in sewer 
and the placing of concrete where 
load is required to be deposited in a 


boskets must neoes&arily be carried 
nanmuiaor other » the more com- 
btiog the o\^rtica<1 wire ro|>e system . 
%Ht thtam are a great many used on a 
finale rail tramway controlled by hoist- 
mg and haulage ropeu 

r T muu 9 it luckn, nuMlr tijr The Mlmm 

la sewer work the bisckets are raised 
■i lowered by a cable hanng a hook on 
<orcad, allowing tbem to be detached 
«i ilted as fast as possible while the 
sipt wat lieilig ttaed for other puqK>ses. 
iTbiti|iiare turn-over btickcts or * 'tubs' ' 

^ Mil by a ntimlter of concerns in sistes 
coUc feet capacity, and de* 

pend on the latch on each side to sup* 
port them in the loaded position. 

The tllustration on our cover shows 
the use of the round bottom dump bucket 
handling coal. 

As seen, the cars of coal are run up an 
incline high enough to dump the coal in 
chutes, which in turn deposit it in the 
buckets alou)^ the track of the crane, 
which is self-propelling. 

J^ic,J-Tbe *S«wi»" 

TuttiHAt mckei made byC W. 
Itititt a CO. 

The buckets hold nearly a ton, and 
careful operator can handle an immeastl 
amount of coal in a short time. 

The round buckets are made in capaci- 
ties of J to I cubic yard, and the bail set 
a little below the center if to turn over, 
or placetl up near the top if for a bottom 

In systems installed by the Hroderick 
Sc Bascom Rope Co,, St, I^ouis, Mo., the 
buckets or carriers are attached to the 
traction cable by means of a clip which 
swivels in the center clip frame between 
t wo dog s, Jhns allowing t he carri er to 
hang perfectly perpendicular regardless 

1 62 


of the ascending or descending angle. 
As a carrier arrives at Lhe loading termi- 
nal il is detached automatically from the 
clip on the traction rope. The clip pass- 
ing on engages a loadetl carrier and pro- 
pels it to I lie discharging terminal, wliere 
the handle strikes a tripping device 
and allows the bucket to discharge its 
contents while in motion. Tliis bncket 
then rights itself antomatically, locks 
and tra%'els to the loading terminal, at 

tendant. These buckets are made in 
sizes varying from 2^ to 57 cubic feet. 

Sizes of round and scoop tnrn^over 
buckets are given on the data sheets in 
the supplement of this issue. 

The bottom dump buckets being made 
by the Cyclopean Iron Works Co., Jer- 
sey City, consist of square sides with a 
hinged bottom. The locking device is 
adapted to open the bottom at the ap- 
pointed time by means of a rope when 

Fis. ^--Shuvriug L^ v>i Square Bottom Dump ttuckcts. 

which fK)int the operation is again re- 
peated. In other s>*stems the buckets 
must be detached at the discharging ter- 
minal as well as at the loading terminal. 
They are mautifacturers of the G. & S, 
patent self*dumpiug, self-righting and 
self- locking backets, arranged to be 
tripped by a trigger on the wood work 
of tht: supporting system. Thus these 
buckets pass through all the above oper- 
ations without the assistance of any at- 

used under water. 

These buckets are designed with a 
vnew of handling concrete and excava- 
tions, and arranged so as to deposit the 
load in a concentrated mass^ without 
shock or injury^ to the forms or bracingsi 
in the case of work under water. 

It is claimed that with the turn -over 
style pro\*ided with a hinged lid, concrete 
or other material may be deposited in 
about the proper consistency wilhou 




Iftld from diverm. They are in this 
wmy valuable to contractors enga^^l in 
anb-aqtta work. 

Sbniilar to a bucket is the scale box 
nade by the aboire firnt, which is 
e^foifvped with a door that opens atiio- 
MaticaUy. As soon as the box is low- 
ered aoAcieiitly to pennit door chain to 
! alack, door unhooks, and when 
t boiited the content*: <1ide mil easily 

91% 4— ^cmle •» it%4«W b^ CfX%apmt> Iron Wark« Co. 

lo the June issue the snbject will be 
mttimmcd by Uking up the self filling 
type ©f bucket, commonly known as 
l^b buckets. This dt\*isian of the sub- 
^Kt will be %Try much more extended, 
Mttwill deal with the different makes 
afttr deacribiuK the principle on which 
this cia» of bucket operates. 

Curlof Stone With Steam. 
Many ha^c recently begun curing 
' hardening > stone with steam, and being 
a2ikays ready to learn any improvement 
Ikil 0tty arise, I luive the past few 
ooalhs made several tests, none of which 
acre, in mv nptnioii* satisfactory. 
HoDim' ' ken from ihe mnldtng 

I iPi.<<,ed in a chamber and 

!iubjccted to 80 pounds steam pressure 
for two, lour, six, eight and ten houf 
were all hardened accnrding to tlie time,' 
vijE. ; the ten-hour block being the sound- 
est. Rut I found that it was the easiest 
injured by acids and that the lime in the 
cement had drawn towards the surface^ 
which will cause disintegration in a few 
years just the same as blocks made in the 
crdinary way with cemeni containing an 
excess of lime, only that in the steam* 
cured blocks its interior would remain 

As the stcam^curing acts tn the nature 
of baking the cement T find that such 
blocks arc lacking in firepnxif qualities, 
viz*: blocks made with cement 1,200 dc* 
grees fireproof when stcam*cured. dis- 
color at 450 degrees and crumble at 700 
degrees, which is certainly a great re- 
duction, and docs not look well for the 
sand lime brick tndustr}% but I have not 
had the time to make tests of the latter, 

f'locks made of crushed furnace slag 
iuid cement can be more successfully 
cured by steam^ as these did not show the 
least injury by heat and were unaffected 
by acid, but why. is the question I hope 
someone better versed in chemistrx than 
I will answer. 

Ttie rei^ent heavy advance in the price 
of Portland cement has done much to 
introduce cement made of furnace sla^, 
s^:»metitncs known as Puzzalon cement* 
llereioforc I have condemnetl all *U|f ' 
cement for exposed work, but I have al- 
ways known that a ver>' great difference 
exists in this cemeni, hence f have given 
it much attention of late with very severe 
tests, and find that any cemem contain- 
ing much magnesia cannot be used in 
block work, but that cement made from 
slag that has a small per cent of magnesia | 
IS better than some Portland cement, at 
it is much stronger, but does not endure 
e X p o s u r e. — American Carpmter amd 

P ha 


LIKE all inventions whicli have in- 
augurated a new departure in applied 
science, the Pulsonieter has been much 
iuiilatcd, and since its first public exhi- 
bition in 1870, pumps have periodically 
appeared which, while professedly em- 
bodying the principles then disclosed, 
have, without exception, failed to secure 
that degree of efficiency and general 
adaptability to all kinds of uses for which 
the genuine Pulsometcr has become so 
justly famed. 

Years of practical work with the Pul- 
someter, under widely different condi* 
tions, have demonstrated the merits 
claimed for it in the most striking man- 
ner, and carefully conducted expert tests, 

ade at Stevens Institute of Technology, 
fene of the foremost engineering schools, 
have given figures for economy of per- 
formance which firmly establish it in its 
high rank of excellence among that class 
of water raising machinery with which 
it was designed to compete. They have 
entirely eradicated the erroneous impres- 
sion held b\' some that it is an unecon- 
omical machine in point of steam coa- 

The Pulsometer is a low-service pumpv 
and is not recommended for duties ex- 
ceeding about eighty feet total vertical 
Service, although there are many erected 
under most favorable conditions, operat- 
ing successfully on higher lifts; but the 
ab*3ve figures may be safely taken as a 
guide for all practical purposes. 

The main body of the Pulsometer, as 
shown in the perspective cut, Fig. i. 
and the sectional cut. Fig. 2» is a casting, 
nude in one piece and consisting of two 

bottle-shaped chambers. A, A, pla 
side by side. These are called woT\^ 
chambers. They taper towards € 
other at their upper halves and mee 
their upper ends at a point at whicl 
situated the steam valve-ball C- 1 

oscillates with a slight rolling 1 
tween seats (with which it makes a stx 
tight joint) formed at the tipper 
trance to each of die alreadj 
working chambers^ A^j 

portion B, ut the pump, cuiuatn- 
UK Ac Mftm valve^baJl C i.s <. ailed the 
lKle-|iiecet and is a separate casting 
lolled to the mam body of the pump. 
Id that H can tie readily removed for re- 
lemal when necettai^. To the upper 
pm. of this neck-piece. B, is bolted the 
lKck*cap. into vihtch the steam supply 
}ip€ is serened. 

The openings communicating between 
be chambers A. A^ and the induction 
IT foal-¥alve. chamber D are covered by 
iritaMe ^ves E. E, called suction 
Hives, their valve seats l\ F, and valve 
|nrds 1. I, which latter prevent the 
nives from opening too iar. 

A tbtrd chamber. J. called the vacuutn 
diiflriicr* stttiated behind the chambers 
at th' - lialves and between 

'•*^ UT tapering halves, 

them through the 

ri>uucJ in the induction ur foot- 

valve D, 

A fourth chamber called tlic discharge 
chamber, situated on the lower side of 
the working chambers A, A, opjjosite 
the vacuum cliamber, J, and represented 
by the dotted lines in the sectional view 
in Fig, 2, communicates with each ul the 
working chambers A, A, by passages at 
the lower half of its intersection with 
tliese chambers. Tliis discharge cham- 
ber contains the discharge vsilves E, E, 
their valve seat G, G, and the valve 
guards I, 1, which cover the passages 
leading from the chambers A, A. 

The delivery pipe, H. connects with 
the discharge opening in the top of the 
discharge chamber by means of a tlanged 

i*he induction, or foot-valve chamber 
D. contains the valve E, its valve seat F, 
and the guard I, which serve the purpose 
of holding the charge of water in the 
pump. The lower end of this chanilier 
is connected to the suction pipe by a 
flanged joint, 

K. K are oval plates covering the 
openings through which the seat, valve 
and guard are inserted to the respective 
chambers, and are fastened in position by 
means of strong clamps and boUs N, N. 
The ends of these clamps fit loosely into 
suitable recesses and are thus held in 
position white the cover plates are being 
applied. Another set of similar clamps 
and bolts serve, in a like maimer, to fas- 
ten the seats, valves and guards in place. 

The object in employing four ojietiings 
to the pump instead of two, is to make 
it possible and convenient to get at every 
square inch of the interior for thoroagh 
examination, chipping and cleaning of 
the new casting, and ease of removing 
any deposit that certain classic of work 
might help to form on the walls of the 
chambers, .iml which could not be 
reached otherwise. 







Vent plugs are inserted in the cover 
plates for the purpose of draining off 
the water in the pump to prevent its 

Near the top of each of the working 
chambers A, A, and of the vacutun 
chamber J, is a small tapped hole, into 
which is screwed a brass air check-valve 
so that its check hangs downward. 

The air check valves in the chambers 
A, A, allow a small quantity of air to be 
automatically admitted above the water, 
and ahead of the steam, separating the 
steam and the water upon their first en- 
trance, thus preventing condensation, 
and forming an air piston, ever new and 
always tight.. The air check valve in the 
chamber J likewise admits air automati- 
cally, which serves to cushion the ram 
action of the water consequent upon the 
alternate filling of each of the chambers 
A, A. 

The operation of the Pulsometer is 
sustained by alternate pressure and vac- 
uum. Steam, cushioned by a layer of 
air automaticaly admitted, as already ex- 
plained, is brought to bear directly upon 
the liquid in the pump chambers and 
forces it out through the discharge pipe ; 
the subsequent rapid condensation of the 
steam, effected by the peculiar construc- 
tion of the pump, forms a vacuum in the 
working chambers into which atmospher- 
ic pressure forces a fresh supply of liquid 
through the suction pipe. This action is 
maintained quite automatically and is 
governed by the self-acting, sensitively 
balanced steam-valve-ball in the neck of 
the pump, which obeys the combined in- 
fluences of steam pressure on one side 
and vacuum on the other. The valve- 
ball oscillates from its seat in the en- 

trance to one chamber to its seat in the 
entrance to the other chamber, serving 
the purpose of steam distribution with 
an exactitude not obtainable by hand nor 
possible by other mechanical methods. 

It will be observed that in the Pulsom- 
eter the steam is made to do double 
duty by being condensed, thereby form- 
ing the vacuum, or lifting power, after 
it has been utilized to force the liquid 
out of the chambers. 

These regularly recurring periods of 
expansion and contraction within the 
working chambers in conjunction with 
the valves arranged in their inlet and 
outlet ports, cause the pulsating flow of 

The lift of any pump may be consid- 
ered to be not more than 32 ft., theoreti- 
cally, but seldom is more than 20 at the 
lowest point of the water. 

Hence a Pulsometer like a pump 
should be set as near the water supply 
as convenient, but the higher it will work 
successfully the less the water will have 
to be forced. 

Since the steam pressure acts direct 
on llie surface of the water, the height 
to which it can be forced can be calcu- 
lated thus: 

Height in feet X 434 = pounds pres- 
sure on gauge, 

pounds pressure 

orH = 


.434 is the weight of a foot of water 
of a cross section of one square inch. 

Friction in the pipes and sediment in 
the water will reduce the height so that 
with steam at 60 lbs. pressure, we would 
not force water 136 feet, f)erhaps not 
over 100. 

Illustrations from the Pulsometer Steam Pump Co.. Whitehall Bldg.. New York City. 


firit IhioR la consider when about 
to toMAll compressed air to operate 
k drills is tbe »uisiber aad sizes of the 
■l required to do the work. This 
Bi ibc loul number of drilts that will 
in active service at one time. 
Tbe sue of the drills is determined by 
t naterial to b> * * whether st>ft, 

fH^or hard, t ^ ^vith the depth 

is desired to drill the holes, 
number of drills to use is decided 
r the npidtty w iih which the work is 
be dofie« the feasibihty of working 
ore or 1^ drills at different points tu 
Kialafe, etc. 
Whm the maximum number to be run 

ikterrmiied, the question arises as to 
list opacity of compressor is needed to 
rife dieiiL Thb depends greatly on the 
V preatitre to be used, which varies 
[u 6a potmds to lOO pounds in differ- 
II plants; the lower the air pressure* the 
u dit amocmt of air required. For 
Itt ai ioi levdp probably 80 pounds is 
k imm coimnoa p ir es stir c at the present 
tee. This seems tn be the pressure that 
l^tbe best nder avcraije con- 

Nouk but tht t rock to be drilted. 

M file hardness of the dtHl steel, are the 
bdiiai^ factors. Few drills arc worked 
Iwwmkslly w^th an* at a pressure ab<3vc 
00 pounds, on account of the rapidity 
Mr which the steel dulls, and the 
■■01 of ribraiiocu particuiar ly in hard 
^B T^ frequent sharpening and 
^big of bits greativ increases the 


I aooompanyinir table 1 shows the 
of air required to run from one 
Mlatid drills at an air pressure of 

80 pounds at sea level. It is computed 
t»n a sliding scale, determined by cxpcri* 
cncc» and gives the air required under 
usual working conditions. This means 
that with the increase in the number of 
drills used, less air is required per drills 
or that there is a decrease in the percent- 
age of ihe ntimber that will In- in simul* 
taneous opt^ratiMn. 

Tabic I -AtK KKf^t IkKl) TO OKhkATH RaND 

Rock Drilui AT Ska T.fvkl, with Air at 



' -.' (1 



No, 1 .\u. 2.Na. a, ^.". ,Na, 4|Xu.liK«.|l 

of DTiU 




or Cyl. 













07 SI 

15»! IHOI 1411 isr» m 


t * 

117 14:* "**' '*'*^ "J" "'•* ^^»" 


1141 ITS 21- 




**" ', 


Tlie anitiunt ul air thai a compressor 
should furnish to run a certain numb 
of drills at 80 pounds pressure may at 
once be determined from the table. 

To find the air requiretl for otJicr pres- 
sure ihan 80 pounds multiply the amounfcj 
given in the taWe by the foUowtng fac» ' 

Fc»r 60 pounds by 780. For 70 pounds 
by ^894, For 90 pounds by 1.105. For 



i()u poumlH by i.^^i i. 

The quantity detiTinincd, however, is 
ihc free air that a ccjinpressor should 
deliver compressed, and not its displace- 
ment capacity. 

The fip[ures ^iven lU) not take into con- 
sideration the U>ss of pressure that the 
air sustains in its transmission from the 
compressor to the drills, due to friction 
and leakage in the pipes. In a properly 
constructed line, however, these losses do 
not amount to a ^reat deal, and air is 
carried 5,ihh) ti> hvhk.) feet with a loss 
of only 3 ti^ 5 pounils in pressure. 

As the air decreases in density with the 
height ahi^ve sea level, more free air must 
be ct»mpressed at altitudes than at sea 
level to ^ive equivalent results. 

riibiv 2- 

-1'\\C1H»KS FOR .ALTlTinKS 





A»K I'Hfcv^l KK vr 1>RU 1-. 















11 7^ 




I lv».*» 

I. ill 


1 1 'J\» 



I iKc; 

I \\Z 

I Ibl 


vs li: 



I wo 

I 17V 

I :»o 


i:^ Hi 



I 102 

I . e-Jl' 



v: ^i: 


I oic. 

I U^^.» 

I :Jiil 

I ;i{i3 


\t •A> 


I iMy 



I 4;u 


U ?:■; 


I ^»s.> 


I ooO 

I K<i 


11 o\» 


\ \\\^ 

I t'<: 

I :fS9.v 



U> S? 

\ VV^ 


I ;<iv 

I ^(3 

I V^i 


\\> 10 

I vMV> 



I 4V>4 

I 04:> 


U» ^>7 

I AVv< 

I io^ 

1 ;i^ii» 

I .>!:> 

I i?y."> 


V) 70 


I 27V 


I ^i*^ 

I 76i.> 




\ :S^ 



I IK4 




I ;47V 

I .^Ui 


I SKs>^ 



I > ^ 

t U6 

I >i»4 

I 77.>. 

I «>t^ 


s ^ 

I -^TV 

I 4lK> 


I Sl«)> 

:> AW 

Haviuj> noted in Tabic i the artiount of 
air r<.\[uirv\l iv» run it certain number of 
drills ac Si» inlands pre-^suro sea level. 
muttipl\iu,< ihal aMK»unt b\ '.V factors in 
Table ^ \\\\\ i;ive the ariounc which is 
^\|uiviilenc \\y crt\vt uL various altitudes, 
cither at St^ |.s.anKl.s, or a I • v. 70, QO or 
KV iH^auKls pressure. 

For an example, assuPK* that we wish 
tv» run >i\ No. Jl drills at »o,l\»o feet alti- 

tude, and at 90 pounds pressure. From 
Table 1 we see that they require 588 
cubic feet of free air at sea level when 
rutming with air at 80 pounds pressure. 
I^'rom Table 2 we find the factor for the 
conditions given to be 1.542; hence, the 
amount of air required is 588 X 1-542 = 
906 cubic feet. 

♦Written for Mines and Minerals, by 
F. M. Hitchcock. M. E. 

On the Big^ Canal. 

Number on pay roll, 23,000. 

Shiploads Jamaica negroes arrive. 

Wages thrice that in Jamaica. 

Only digging yet is on old French 

Laborers' houses and hospitals well on 
the way. 

Probably half of machinery ordered 
has arrived. 

1 lealth i^^fficer Gorgas says yellow fev- 
er skeeter is destroyed. 

IVuble trackin.iT Panama railroad to 
carry dirt away. 

Jamaica negroes hate whites, and jostle 
them on street. 

Pananians bec»^:ning offensive in their 
sovereiiHUv over canal zone. 

Steel Outlook. 

IVinaitd for tubes immense. 

All locomotive works enlarging. 

Structural and rail mills ha^e 
run in history. 

CVders for 550.000 tons building 
shapes in last sixty days. 

Pig iron supply inadeqoate for steel 

Steel rail contracts at rate of soxxx) 
tons a week. 

Sheet and tin mills eatmig^ up Ulct 
supply to the minute. 

Biggest expiL^rt demand fer sttd prod- 
ucts in years. 

Soucheni orders im I 

double four veaxs - 

C&^n Trolley Track System. 

The roand uoiigfa **trollcy tracks'* of 
ifcc Coborn Mffr* Co*. Holyoke, Mass, 
MriMnrn tn Fif?. I» iHttttraten a dcparturr 

riingetl in two or four to a sct» cotuiccted 

bv mran<i r^i *; nit able bars. 

Track No. U 

rif 1 
ii the desiin^ of that portion of traveling 
Sfttenm. Ftg. i it full size of size No 
i and tf used for loads up to 300 Ib$ . 
No. aVj for loads up to 500; No* 4 for 
and No, 5 trp to 14000 Ihs. Tlie 
> «>r carriers arc built as shown in 
J but fcir larj^e loads : these are ar- 

Fig, 3 
I'ig. 3 ^hu\vs the irack system with a 
portion used for an t>verheail ^scales. 

Fi» 2- 

The Bagley CI r adeem. 

Power iicrapers o^terated by 

cables aitd eogines have beetl 

Icinployed iu a nuiober of casca 

for ji^rading and excavation 


They ha>"e pfD^-ed succena^ 
ful in regard to both tlie cxM 
and efficiency af the work 

The one illustrated htts a 
box-shaped bucket or scraper 
of 2* or )' steel ptate fiUcd 
with a triangular baiL 

To the bail is attached the 
I ' steel haultnjc cable, ami to 



a ring in the rear is fastened a J in. back 
haul rope, both ropes being carried as 
shown to the drums of a hoisting engine. 
The hack haul rope is passed through 
blocks fastened to trees or deadmen and 
the direction chanjjed by shifting the 

Hoist for Veneer Blocks. 

For handling the short logs or blocks 
used for makin'^ veneer, a sling is most 
convenient, as shown in this illustration. 

The track is hung directly over the 
veneer cutting machines, and runs back 
into the steam room, where the logs are 

The three-yard scraper is 6 ft. long 
and 2 ft. 6 in. deep with two knives, 
each 5 ft. 6 in. long. These are arranged 
so that when one becomes blunt, the 
scraper can be reversed and the work 

A 6-yard scraper is 8x7x3 ft. with 
knives 7 ft. 6 in. long. The smaller one 
requires an engine 9^4^10" while an en- 
gine of 10x15 ^"^ needed for the larger 

It is claimed that the machine can 
handle any soil even with boulders not 
exceeding 20 in., and that it is not nec- 
essary to plow the ground since the 
knives are arranged to do the duty of 
the latter implement. 

The machine was originally devised to 
reduce the cost of construction of the 
Tacoma Eastern Ry., where the lowest 
outside bid was 35c per cu. yd., while 
with this machine the cost was from 5 to 
IOC per cu. yd. 

With this machine and a crew of five 
men, they did the work of 15 to 30 
scraper teams. It is also used for load- 
ing ballast, a 60,000 lb. hopper car be- 
ing filled in alxiut 3 minutes with a haul 
of 300 ft. The machine is built by the 
Bagley Grader Co., Tacoiha. Wash. 

placed for some time. 

The capacity of the hoist should be 
about 50 per cent, more than the weight 

of the largest log the machine will ac- 
comodate, unless it is to he used to 
handle parts of the machine itself. 

Biggest contract ever made — Sted 
trust leases Mesaba ore lands from Great 
Northern railroad for $1^50,000,000, 


American building tnaterials arc want* aKrcciiiciil tn mnltul lltr iiiMiki>l« nf Mil 
in E^ypt. Kinni timl lifilliifiil. 

Firms in \or\ia\ desire to sell Amcri- The <ut of liimlN-r In llir ^'i^miUnu 

n desks, etc.. and they are also wanted provini r i,l < iu\ntin will irmn^it llml of 

KuKria. latt yisir l/> 1909^009^009 fri-l flfii Hit 

, - c- . will t/ii;il ;il>'Hit Ayti^00»/00$ I00I 
• a:a ^* are n.-t popular in Spain; an 

-y 't-^rt-v^.taiivc scldwi faiU to I'n vr,» ir.'lr';iiiMu ^r-- fliiif •! 

>vcde=: :* ^akrnz ezpenments with a .. . .^ 1 /' * . # i 
■pe :j»3e electric racwar. with a vinr 

:»:::-•• .r nf li-i • •- ^^ rrr..W, ..^ ;^,.^ ^^. , .. ., ^ , , .. , ,. 

::r -::i*: -^^xr* rr -I'l* •a* 

"VfT -.•nr v**** al»v^ 

rfi-r 1f7'5f '.^'iTr -^-Mfn^C fifr.* '^^ ^#-» 



Leipsic, Germany, is building the larg- 
est railway station in the world. Twenty- 
six tracks will enter it. It is to cover 
920,518 square feet of ground, and will 
cost nearly $31,000,000. 

Germany pig iron production in Oc- 
tober passed, for the first time, the mil- 
lion-ton mark. The month's output 
reached 1,006,943 tons, a gain of 16 per 
cent over October last year. 

The National Valve Co., Sandusky, 
O., which has been idle for over a year, 
has been purchased by K. M. Barnes of 
Cleveland. Parts for automobile and 
launch engines will be manufactured. 

The United States consumes all of its 
annual iron output of 35,000,000 tons. 
England consumes 6,000 tons more than 
its 14,000,000 ton output, and Germany 
3,000,0000 more than its 21,000,000 ton 

A trolley Hue owned by the city of 
(ienoa, Italy, has paid 6 per cent divi- 
dend for 1905, against 5 per cent for 
i()04 and 4 per cent for 1903. The line 
covers 45 miles and is capitalized at 

Vice Consul-General Lan^enheim, of 
Coburg, says that the Government has 
decided to build an 18-mile railway, con- 
necting Eisfeld, Schalkau, and Sonne- 
burg. the manufacturing center of the 
tov land of Germany. 

The Singer Mfff. Co. has filed plans 
for the erection of a forty-story building 
in New York, which will be higher than 
all existing skyscrapers by about 300 ft. 
and will be about 40 feet higher than 
the Washington monument. 

One brick-making company put out 
84,260.000 bricks, with an average to 

the machine of nearly 39750,000. This is 
the largest average, and the greatest total 
of brick ever made in New York state by 
any brick manufacturing plant 

The wrecking of buildings has now 
become a well defined business in the 
prosecution of which a great deal of 
capital and large numbers of men are 
employed. The business at once useful 
and lucrative, contracts being taken on a 
basis insuring large profits to the skil- 
ful and well equipped wrecker. 

The Westinghouse Company is build- 
ing twenty-five electric locomotives for 
the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
road, each costing $30,000. It is the first 
step toward substituting electricity for 
steam on this line, and the prediction is 
made that other roads will follow the lead 
within a few vears. 

The government of Switzerland has 
planned to apply electricity to all the 
government railway lines and to operate 
these lines from water-power plants, 
utilizing the mountain streams as a 
source of energ>'. Two experts have 
been sent to the United States to study 
electric railwav methods. 

Anticipating an increase in the price 
of British coal in the near future, the 
harnessing of water power is engaging 
the attention of Italy. There is said to 
be 6,000.000 horsepower available in 
that country. The British consul at 
Naples says that the annual coal bill of 
Italy is $40,000,000. most of which is 
paid to England. 

According to recent statistical state- 
ments published in the Bulletin of tfie 
Commercial Geographical society of 
Paris, the world's prodoctkm oC pctio- 
leum was divided ai 



Sutcs, 15,000,000 tons; Russia, 10,600,- 
cxx>; Sumatra, Java and Borneo, 1,000,- 
ooo;Roumania, 496,000; the East In- 
dies 404,000; all others, 250,000. 

ELYRIA, O.. March 10.— It is an- 
nounced that the Elyria Iron & Steel 
Co. will double the capacity of its 
plant in this city by the erection of 
another rolling mill, equal in size to the 
one now in operation. At present about 
,^50 men are employed. 

<-me of the Alps' railwa>s now passes 
through sixteen different tunnels and 
over fifteen viaducts. At certain points 
the track is laid within solid rock, with 
oaly a few feet between the tracks and 
the edge of the cliff. 

Looking down the mountain-side, timid 
travelers sometimes grow nervous, but 
accidents are very rare. 

A building is being constructed at 
Bridgeport, Conn., which is uifique in the 
tact that it contains no wood whatever. 
The walls are concrete, the floors are of 
a composition which is fire proof and 
Ae doors, window sills and frames are 
-f metal. It is claimed that there are 
r . r^ethrwls employed that are in the 
'r:x< c\f»cri mental. 

Experiments to ascertain whether it 
»<-ju;d be worth while incurring the ex- 
pense of claulding steam pipes laid in ap- 
;r xiTTutcly air-ti^lit stoneware pipes 
snijfr k^round, has been carried on at 
N -r^kh, Eng. The results showed that 
1: a pressure of 80 lbs. for 48 hrs. it 
«u found that unclad pipe (12 inches 
of I inch pipe) condensed 25 lbs. of 
water in two hours and the clad pipe 19 
liL in the same time, showing a loss 
«l 31 per cent, even if both pipes were in 
buried stoneware casings. 

John F. Wallace, former chief en- 
gineer of the Panama Canal Commission, 
whom Secretary Taft denounced as un- 
patriotic when he resigned a year ago, 
has gone to work for Geo. Westinghouse 
for $50,000 a year. He will direct the 
construction of a large number of elec- 
tric railways to parallel steam railroads 
in the country. It is believed that this is 
the work that Wallace contemplated 
when he resigned from the Panama Com- 

Consul Hamm, of Hull, sends the fol- 
lowing item of news which appeared in 
the Yorkshire Post of recent date: 

A correspondent is authoritatively in- 
formed that an important contract for 
supplying eight powerful six-wheeled 
c«»iipled bogie freight locomtives for the 
Manila Railway Company has, in the 
tacc of severe continental competition, 
iK'on awanlcd to Messrs. Kerr, Stuart 
& Co. (Limited), of the California 
W't^rk"^, Sti>ke-on-Trent. Early delivery 
w:i< an important feature in the placing 
fi the contract with British engineers, 
anil the locomotives arc to be shortly 
shipped lo the port of Manila. 

K( )MI' — The in)portant sanitation and 
draining works covering the |)roviiices 
of Mantua and Reggia have c«»nie to an 
entl. and at Moglia Sermide the c<m)c1u- 
sion of the task, which began in i<)Oi. 
was fittingly celebrated > estertlay by sev- 
eral thousand persons. No fewer than 
6,000 men have been employed on the 
wt>rk. Stven hundred and tifty square 
kilometers, on which stood proj>crties in- 
habited by over 60.000 persons, were 
drained by a canal. The cost of the 
undertaking has exceeded $2,000,000. 

The ceremony of mauguration con- 
sisted of opening the lock by electric 
means, thus permitting the water drained 
from the land to flow into the river Po. 


Similarity of Lawft Qovernins: Current of Electricity and Water. 

By C. C. MAISON. author of ^^Trigonometry SImpUfied.*' 

THE fact that the laws governing what 
is termed (if there is such a thing) flow 
of electricity or current through or over 
a conductor are similar to those govern- 
ing a flow of water through a pipe, and 
the units used to express in figures the 
properties of a current of electricity are 
strictly comparable to those used to ex- 
press the strength of a current of water. 
We know there are two obvious factors 
required to express in figures the flow 
of a current of water through a water 
pipe, weir, or channel, as the case may 
be, thus: The quantity and time, like- 
wise two corresponding factors express 
the factor of electricity. But here is a 
rather confusing point. To begin with : 
the real nature of the electric current, 
whether there be in reality such a thing 
we are positively and remarkably ignor- 
ant. The Hydraulic Engineer talks of 
gallons per minute, while the electrical 
en;^incer talks of amperes, which are 
coulombs (a certain quantity of elec- 
tricity per second). It is as if a gallon 
per minute were called a lake. 

It is evident, therefore, that the vol- 
ume of the flow of either a current of 
water or a current of electricity will de- 
pend upon the motive force by which it 
is impelled. The unit of electro motive 
force is termed the volt, which may be 
compared to one pound pressure per 
square inch. The analogy holds still 
further. The volume of flow of water 
through a pipe depends upon the friction 
of the water in the pipe. This friction 
depenrls upon the velocity oi the water 
in the pipe, the friction being more at 
low than \\\\i\\ velocities. T* a>ii/> de- 

pends on the size of the pipe, and to a 
lesser degree regards its smoothness, etc. 
Just as the latter does a flow of electricity 
depend on the electro motive force, and 
upon the conductor offers to the passage 
of the electricity. Then, too, as with a 
pipe, this resistance depends upon the 
size of the conductor and its material. 
We see right here where analogy fails as 
the resistance of the same conductor is 
constant regardless of the volume of the 
electric current, provided the tempera- 
ture of the conductor does not vary. A 
large current will heat a conductor more 
than a small one, and by so doing will 
increase the resistance. So that the last 
analogy does not fail. It is a universal 
law of all fluid motion that if the units 
be properly chosen to agree with one an- 
other the volume of current 

the electromotive force or pressure 
^ the resistance or friction. 

This formula is at the base of the 
science of hydrostatics as well as of elec- 
tricity, while in the former it is of very 
little direct use because, as aforesaid, the 
friction depends on the velocity of flow, 
and the flow and friction being jointly 
dependent calculations in reference be- 
comes complicated. 

Electricity, however, if the tempera- 
ture be maintained throughout, the re- 
sistance is constant, and in practice the 
range of temperature allowable before 
damage ensues being small, the effect of 
heat on the resistance is small and the 
above formula becomes practical. It is, 
in fact, used as the base of aH ' ^ ^ ' ■ U ' ic 
current calculations. W! 

C = volume of currf* 



R = Resistance, the forniuiae is 
expressed above in words, becomes when 
expresseil in letters. 

C = Jl* , which may be read R = ^ 
or E - RC In which formulae the cur- 
rent is supposed to be measured in am- 
peres, the resistance in ohms ,and the 
elccin* motive force in volts. 

A mile of firdinary telephone or tele- 
i:raph wire has a resistance of fifteen 
to twenty ohms per mile, say one ohm 
per hundred \ards. The resistance R of 
a common sixteen candle i)ower incan- 
descent lamp is about two hundred and 
fift> ohm^ wlien cold, and one hundred 
and fift> -throe nhms (approx.) when 
hot, which is the reverse of the case with 
metal o.ndiutMF'i. As the pressure E of 
nine: weight volt> such a lamp reijuires 
a current C of about sixty-four one- 
hundre<lihs of an ampere. 

E -: RC. or 62.72 = 9S >. .64. The 
watts |)cr lamp will amount to al>out 63. 
\V -T I-:C. or 62.72 " 9S X .64. The 
lamfis per horse power will amount 

toaK.uii2M. P. ^lr^,OT ti.<)^.,^l^^ 

The current of an arc lamp of 

• ne tlii'uvind candle power will amount 

'.' rue ainjHrres or more; of two thous- 

i-.i oau'lie j>.»\\cr to about ten amperes. 

For continuous current the pressures will 

U ft rty to fifty volts; for alternating^ 

current it will be from 30 to 35 volts. 

Thu^ it is seen readily that an arc lamp 

uics up one-third to two-thirds of a 

V-rsep^.Her. Those units reduced to 

ur.:i\ t"i:vtluT or. rather, if the electro 

^^\\x fnne lie one volt and the resist- 

imc '.ne ohm, the current will be one 

«.T.pere anci the power one watt. 

♦W'ing ai^in to the subject of water. 
»« have not only pressure and volume nf 
•ow per unit of time, but we have their 
podoct, Tb,: power. Consider a water 
(prcMtre m pounds per square foot > or 
kp te ci^ is equal to 

the work done per minute in foot pounds, 
thirty-three thousand of which are equal 
to one horsepower. 

Just so with electricity by the number 
of amperes is equal to the work done per 
second in watts, which is in C)hms Law 
W ^: EC. 

Seven hundred and forty-six watts 
ec|ual one horsei)ower. That is, a gen- 
erator whose output is 746 watts of elec- 
tro motive force, and operating; without 
loss. w»>uM consume one horsepower, or 
a motor without loss would deliver one 
horsepower, which is H. P. rr: ^^^ . 
I'he wall is. however, too small for most 
cinnnurciai -cquirements and in conse- 
(jueme of which electricity is muhiplied 
l)s «»iie th(»nsand or K. \V. The only 
laiigihie unit of resistance is the resist- 
ance offered by 14.4521 i^^rams of luer- 
cury at o dej^rces centij^radc of a con- 
stant cn>ss section and io^).3 centimeters 

Storini: of Cement. 

.\t tlie close of the season a «|uantily 
of cement may remain on hand, or it 
may even Ik? advisable t<^ piirrhase a 
quantity for early sprinv: use. In this 
case Ci)nsidorablc care shmild he exer- 
cised in the storajje. Select a warehouse 
or storai^e place which is as dry a^ pos- 
sible, then construct a platform raised 
sf»me six or eijjht inches alv^ve the floor 
and removed a short distance from the 

If the cement is in paper sacks or in 
barrels it will keep better than when 
packed in cloth and it is considered ad- 
visable to buy sacked cement in paper if 
it is contemplated to keep over winter. 
When the pile of cement is heavy the 
lower layers sometimes become hard 
from compression, but the quality is not 
injiired. Cement cared for as above 
mentioned can be kept either in winter 
or siitnmer and for months at a time. 


By Edmynd B. Moore, 

Author of •• Wire and Wireless Telegraphy." 


FROM the preceding articles the read- 
er has obtained a general idea of the 
fundamental principles of electricity* 
Those which we constantly come in con- 
tact with in our every day life. As we 
advance to the higher steps of this fas- 
cinating subject we will see the appli- 
cation and adaptation of the already ex- 
plained fundamental principles. 

Today there is hardly any other sub- 
ject so carefully and thoroughly studied, 
and yet so little known. 

The laws and theories which have been 
accurately worked out are as familiar to 
us as those of light, sound, etc. 

Yet electricity, itself, is as much un- 
known now as centuries ago, and we 
still go on basing our knowledge on the 
laws and theories thus far founded. 

l^>eginning with this number, we are 
goin^: to (leal with the higher branches 
of our subject. 

The principles, theories and laws which 
have been put to a practical and com- 
mercial use, showing to the reader how 
they are successfully applied in the oper- 
ation of dynamos, motors and hundreds 
of other things. 

I will caution you, however, before 
continuing further with the serial, that 
the elementary steps be thoroughly un- 
derstood and mastered. If this is done 
the succeeding articles, which will deal 
with apparatus employing these princi- 
ples, will be easily followed and much 
better understood. 

We will now venture from the some- 
what theoretical view point and take up 
the more practical and commercial side, 
beginning with Dynamo Electric Ma- 

Machinery in which mechanical en- 
ergy is converted into electrical energy, 
or electrical energy into mechanical, by 
the means of electric induction, is called 
Dynamo Electric Machinery. 

A machine wherein mechanical energy 
is converted into electrical energy by 
the means of a continuous relative mo- 
tion between two electrical conductors 
and a magnetic field or fields, causing 
the lines of the field or fields to traverse 
or cut the electrical conductor produc- 
ing the electrical current is called an 
Electric Generator or Dynamo. 

If a machine is continuously supplied 
with electrical energy to a system of 
electrical conductors, this causing a mag- 
netic force to act between the conductor 
traversed by the current and the mag- 
netic field or fields, producing a con- 
tinuous relative motion between the elec- 
trical conductor and the magnetic field 
or fields is called an Electric Motor. 

The electric generator will be first 

In preceding chapters we have ex- 
plained how electric cells and batteries 
are made and operated to produce an 
electric current. This current, however, 
being very weak, would be very immit- 

Copyrighted. 1905. by Edmund B. Moore, Springfield, Vt. 



abk for the tue of liifhtiiig, charging and 

Tbc Acthc ciifTcDi cannot be cconom- 
iaUy generated by a battery for any 
Sreat length of time on account of the 
clginical action which takes ptacc with- 
im the cdls and dcMrpys its commercial 
Taloe. This point* however, has been 
foBjr explained. It is therefore nece»* 
mry that some machine be made to gen- 
9aie a cooslanl amount of electric cur- 
rent by an economical and simple 

This ti accomplished b>' a device 

csslled an Electric Generator or Dynamo. 

A dynamo electric machine, which is 

W^ conitnicted that by applying to it me< 

energy the electric current is 

by tndoctioQ, is called a Gen- 

r, or perhaps by a more familiar 

tcrnt* tbe Dynamo* 

\ dynamo does not actually create 
akxtfictty. Instead it produces or gen- 
^adei by induction an electro-motive- 
farce, and this £. M. F. causes an dec- 
cmmtt to flow through a suitable 
conductor external to the ma- 
Tbe principle of the dynamo is on in- 
actian. (Explained in Part 5). 
By momag a strong electro magnet 
ly in and out of a solenoid* an elec- 
cnrrent is induced in the coiL A 
field c%isi% about the magnet 
and moving it through the coil causes 
Ac HtxB of force to cut the conductor 
aad produce an electric current. 

Tlie induced current may be generated 
ii ether eoodoctors than the coQ of wire* 
If for any reason tiie number of lines 
d {ofre in any eooductor of a closed 
undergo a change, small or great, 
of force decreasing or increas- 
ii^ an induced electric current will be 
art up b tfits circuit It is not neces- 
r, however, for the object producing 
!ifi0 of force to move in every case. 

The conductor itself may move over or 
cut the lines of force from the sutionaryJ 
field, and the induced current will bc^ 
produced in cither case. All that is 
necessary is to have the lines of force ■ 
cut the conductor, and this cutting may 
be done by either field or conductor. 

The result is the same in both cases. 

We Will now take a wire in the form 
of a rectangle and revolve it upon iu 
axis, between the north and south poles 
of powerful permanent magnets. It will 
be readily seen that when tlie wire is in 
a horizontal position with the poles there 
arc no lines of force being cut by its 
movements. Thus, no induced current 
whatever, is produced in the wire As 
the wire loop is turned, both halves of^ 
the loop will at once come into the field 1 
of force caused by the magneu between 
which it is being rotated. In one hi 
of the loop the number of lines of forc«l 
being cut will increase, and an induced 
current will be produced in this half it 
one direction, but through the other half 
the number of lines will decrease, thui] 
causing the induced cturcnt to flow in 
exactly an opposite direction, Tlie in- 
duced current in the two halves is pro- 
duced by the increasing and (lccreasing| 
of the lines of force as the wire is rapid- 
ly rotated from the position where there 
were no lines being cut, as when the 
wire is perpendicular and horixonul. 
During one revolution of the wire a cur- 
rent is produced that first flows in 
direction, then in the other. 

This alternating current produced 
the rotation of the wire through the Mi 
of force wiD flow in one direction durtni 
one*haIf of a revolution and in the 
posite direction the remaining half of 
the revolution. 

To make this altematiiig currem avail* 
able for use, some connections must be 
made to allow the current to flow fromJ 
the wire. This is dnnt by connecting thi' 



two ends of this wire to two brass or 
copper rings mounted upon the shaft. 
These rings are insulated from each 
other and also from the shaft itself, by 
some good insulating material, usually 
hard rubber or a specially prepared com- 
pound. Bearing upon these two rings 
are copper brushes which press suffi- 
ciently upon them to assure a good elec- 
trical contact as the rings turn with the 
wire and shaft. The brushes are 
mounted stationary and connections to 
the external circuit are made from bind- 
ing posts connected with the further end 
of these two brushes. 

These rings, through which the elec- 
tricity from the revolving wire is col- 
lected, are called Collecting Rings. 

When the electric current is gener- 
ated by machines employing the above 
principle there is a larc:e amount of mag- 

I'Mg. 35. — MaKiieto. 

netic force emanating from the perma- 
nent magnets that does not pass directly 
through the revolving wire. This loss 
tends to lower the efficiency of the ma- 
chine as to its maximum output. 

To avoid all possible loss of the lines 
of force from passing through or cut- 
ting the conducting wire, it is wound 
upon an iron core or Drum. Wire so 
wound upon a core or for the purpose 
of causing an induced current by its re- 
volving through the magnetic field be- 
tween the poles of powerful magnets, is 
called an Armature. 

This particular kind of armature is 
known as the Siemens armature after 
the inventor. Sir William Siemens. 

Siemens was an eminent inventor, 

engineer and natural philosopher. He 
was born at Lenthe, in Hanover, ori the 
4th of April, 1823. As a promoter of 
applied electricity, he is in the front rank 
and his name is associated throughout the 
engineering world at large. 

We have explained how iron has much 
greater permeability than air, so by sub- 
stituting iron for the air space in the 
armature, it causes all the lines of force 
to pass through the wire upon it. 

The E. M. F. of the current generated 
depends upon the number of lines of 
force being cut in a unit of time. The 
rate at which the lines of force, pro- 
duced from the magnet are cut, depends 
upon the penetrating strength of the 
magnetic field, the length of the conduc- 
tor upon the armature, and the speed at 
which this is revolving. 

If a conductor one centimeter in 
length is revolving across a magnetic 
field at the rate of one centimeter per 
second and this magnetic -field has the 
strength of one line per square centi- 
meter, the difference of potential in the 
circuit will be one volt. Or if a con- 
ductor cuts 100,000,000 lines of force 
per second as it revolves through a mag- 
netic field, there exists between the term- 
inals a difference in potential of one 

In the above armature only a single 
wire was used and from this last state 
ment it will be readily seen that by in- 
creasing the number of turns of wire a 
much greater number of lines of force 
will be cut, even if the other conductor 
remains the same. This is exactly what 
is done, and in the drum armature a large 
number of turns of wire are wound upon 
the soft iron core, thus allowing a much 
greater number of lines to be cut by the 
magnetic field from the pole pieces. This 
increases the E. M. F. and the efficiency 
of the machine. 

It will be noticed that the dectfidtt 





mhiA is prochsccd from this style ma- 
ch0K and collected bjr the two brus^hes 
lk€ ruigi, if m pubaitng or alter- 
cmrem. It U necessmn in ntany 
where electricity b used to have a 
dtrrem available. In fact, it 
be tepoatible to charge itm-age 
batferies or the like, direct^ nith the use 
of the a U gfiiaUn g carrem. 

To fMroAice this direct current from 

tbe electric eiirrcm induced in the re- 

moMmg drum armattire what is catled 

m Connuitator is tued. This is some- 

«|M like the coltectbg rin^s, but in- 

Msd of iiitQg^ two ae]Minite rings two 

flfwiBH or Uodu of copper are env 

floyeA, tfaeae niniitfii; leni^wise with 

tbe ihaft« one on each side. In this ma- 

wbov two coili arc used the coni- 

wtU be divided into two parts 

each titfuhited from the other by 

food durable insuUtor. This corn- 

lor Is placed at one side of the 

coil and the two ends are con- 

aMed lo each se^^ment respectively. I'hc 

kwfeca bear upon the sei^mcnts as they 

IViQltr with the armature. The brtishes 

are flaced opposite each other and in 

laji a pooiioci that they both bear up'Mi 

ittir rai|iecttve sejcmeni. As the arraa- 

ttrr h reroired, the aUematin^ current 

■daeed in the imrfnal circuit of the 

iwMuie will be lead off by these brushes 

■ ose Auction. That is, the segments 

Mf io arranjeed that ther will chani;e 

their contact with their respective brush 

as Ibt ifidaced current reverses in the 

and the coil itaelf at this potm will 

bi a vertical poaitkML The ctirrem 

wiaf in this eictema- * " ' ti 

ear directiofi^ or what i > t 

CvrenL It wfll, however, pttlaate as 

At vmattrrc b revolved between the 

ptAoi of the held ma^nets^ 

ta tMi tmo-coil artnatttre the pulsa- 
tioBS to the external circuit will he very 
and a maditne thus cqtitpped 

is of value for only telephone and line 
testing work, fieing made on a very small 
scale compared to the commercial ma* 

Also, when a machine of two coils 
equipped whh :i two segment commuta* 
lor h to be u<K?d at a heavy pressure for 
power purposes, trouble i% caused by the 
brushes sparkinj? at their contact with 
the rotating cotniimtator. 

To overcome this disadvamage in con- 
structing large machines and also to prO" 
ducc a much steadier current a number 
of coils are distributed ovef the itrma- 
ture, each Inrin^ connected exactly aa 
in the two coil armature. 

I'hat is, a large number are used and 
each coil is arrani^ed s^t that they wtJI all 
be clectricallv connec«*^'l ^vftfi fuTi Mtiif^r 

|^%. at— ^mall Dyasino (Skttiit itckiihI | 

At the union of each coil, connections 
are made with the segments upon the 
cotmmitator. If a four coil annatiire 
was used that would mean four aegintflfta 
in the commutator, one for every coll. 

To avoid eddy currents in the arma- 
ture it is usually made of a hirge number 
of metal disks stamped out and pushed 
firmly together. Each disk is dii^>ed hi 
shellac or separated from the nejtt by a 
Itght, thin sheet of paper. In this wav 
the local currents, which are stire to oc- 
cur in the solid core, are tn some respects 



done away with. Armatures so arranged 
to avoid eddy currents are said to be 

The Gramme's armature which is gen- 
erally used in the up-to-date machines, 
is made in the form of a ring and is 
often called the Ring armature. The 
first Gramme armature to be success- 
fully employed was used by its inventor 
in the year 1870. Each coil is wound 
about this ring, which, to avoid eddy 
currents, is made similar to the core of 
the drum armature. The connections of 
each coil to the commutator are the same 
as before. 

In very large machines the number of 
coils upon the armature is usually greater 
and the direct current produced in the 
external circuit will be pulsating, but so 
very rapidly that it will hardly be per- 

The invention of the electric magnet 
was a great aid to the advancement of 
modern dynamo-electric machinery. In 
the place of the heavy permanent mag- 
nets, which were used in the experi- 
mental stages of the dynamo, the light 
powerful electro magnets have taken 
their place. Instead of depending upon 
the natural magnetism which is con- 
tained in the permanent magnet, an elec- 
tric coil is wound about the legs of the 
field and by passing a current through 
it produces a very strong magnetic field, 
much stronger than could possibly be 
produced with the old type. 

The current which is used to mag- 
netize or excite these field magnets in 
the direct current machines is taken 
from the armature. The field coils may 
be either connected with the armature 
in series, shunt, or multiple. It may 
seem strange at first thought to obtain 
the exciting current from the machine 
producing the electricity. But neverthe- 
less, this is what is done. When the ma- 
chine is first started there is alwavs a 

slight trace of magnetism in the field and 
this is utilized to generate the first weak 
electric current. This slight magnetism 
which is always retained in the limbs of 
an electro magnet is called Residual 
Magnetism. As the machine gradually 
gains speed and the current increases, 
the current passing through the field will 
also increase until the machine is at run- 
ning speed and the magnetic strength of 
the magnets reaches its maximum. 

If the machine is what is called a 
Series Wound Dynamo, all the current 
generated by it will pass through the 
wire around the field core. The field 
winding in this case being connected in 
series with the external circuit. 

If it be a Shunt Wound Dynamo, only 
a portion of the current generated by the 
armature passes through the field wire, 
which is made up of a greater number of 
turns. The field windings in this case 
are connected to the armature in parallel 
or shunt. 

With the Compound Wound Dynamo 
the main current produced is made to 
pass about the field through a heavy 
wire. Also a current shunt from the 
armature passes through a small wire 
about the same fields. This compound 
method is practically a combination of 
the series and shunt windings. A great 
many advantages are given with a com- 
pound wound dynamo. The machines 
so constructed, are very self regulating 
and for this reason are used for incan- 
descent lighting and power purposes. 

With an alternating current machine 
what is known as an Excitor is used to 
generate a direct current for the mag- 
netization of the field magnets. 

An alternating current dynamo can- 
not, whatever, excite or magnetize its 
fields from the electric current generated 
by its revolving armature. 

The excitor for these alternating cur- 
rent dynamos is practically a small di- 



cnrrem dynaifno of about 210 volts. 
lUt is driven by a belt from a pulley 
on the amuiore ahait upon the 
fide from the main driving puJ* 
ley* As 9oo«i as the armature of the 
dfmano revolves, the excitor will gen- 
enatt a direct current which is allowed 
to pass through the fields by which they 
wte maf^netized* 

If the midiiffte was started rapidly and 
the 6eld cttrrenl of ihe dynamo, no mat- 
ter faow connected, was allowed to pass 
Mddenly ihroitgh the field wire, it would 
OttK lli€ mafoets to overheat and «lam- 
ip the tnsotatioii of the machine. 

To (uard agatnsl throwing a strong 
afectrk citrrefit suddenly into the field. 
Wkai is known as a Rheostat is used. 
TKi ecmsi^ of a very large amount 
of rttiiTince connected in the circuit, and 
bv the moving of a metal handle thb 
may be rot slowly out of ihc 
, allowing the current to gradually 
m strength* 
The r^tstance cofls of these rheostats 
nHule of German stiver wire and are 
bito long cotls* these bein^ placed 
ly on an insulated frame and usually 
by an insulator such as marble, 
■H; etc 

All the coils are connected with each 
_jfc«r in series and at the union of each 
I V a wire running to brass blocks on the 
face of the instrument, over which the 
lever pasKS. By simply moving the 
lever, which is also connected in the cir- 
cm» Ae complete resistance may be tn- 
Of only paniaflv so. 
The large alternating and direct cur- 
rsnl dynamos which are used in our 
hf|te modemtjeed planti^, are nearly td 
ibt stage of perfection and are con* 
smicted in many styles, shapes, and 
The style ami size of the machine 
wholly upon the use it is to be 
pal to and the power b\' which it is to 
be driven. 

In all dynamos* however good thi 
construction and designing, there is mH 
somewhat loss of power. That is, the 
current of the external circuit of the 
dynamci is less than the piiwcr which is 
used to drive it. There is a small amount 
of power loss in the dynamo windings, ' 
as rcsi-stance overcome eddy currcntti 
which lend to increase the resistance of 
the armature's rotation through friction 1 
upon the moving parts; and the effects" 
of Hysteresis, or the amount of power 
lost by the generation of heat whichj 
warms the dynamo and is unavoidable 
to a certain extent in all niachines. 

The ainoum i>f lieai j:«*nerated in an 
dynamo depends upon the rate that Ihl 
armature is turning, the strength of the 
magnetism of the field and the quality- of 
the iron in the field and ?As*> fhat .f the 

In a wtII designed machine ihes 
losses are and should be very small.- 
Consequently the power loss is only a 

The commercul efficiency is less thaO] 
the electrical efficiency on account of 
above losses. The commercial efficiency 
of any marketed machine, those accepted 
as standards, to produce the best results, 
should not be less than ninety per 



The uses to which the alternating and 
direct current dynamos are put are many. 
The most important are for furnishing 
the electric current for lighting and 
power purposes. 

Fig. JfeJ — Drum Armature with Commutator. 

One of the greatest power stations in 
the world is situated at Niagara Falls. 
The alternating current dynamos or 
Alternators as they are often called, 
weigh eighty tons each. These huge ma- 
chines are all installed in rows and are 

each driven by a turbine water wheel 
which revolves the armature. The shaft 
of the turbine answers for that of the 
alternator. The water which operates 
the wheels is led to the station through 
a long tunnel and has a fall of one hun- 
dred and forty feet. This drives the 
armature at the rate of two hundred and 
fifty turns per minute. There are a num- 
ber of these alternators at the plant and 
each produces a current of 5000 H. P. 
So perfect is the design and operation of 
these machines that the commercial 
efficiency is stated at about 97 per cent. 

The power from this plant is mostly 
traiismitted to the city of Buffalo fifteen 
miles aw^y. The loss in the transmis- 
sion is about 10 per cent. The power for 
the millions of electric lights at the Pan 
American Exposition was supplied by 
this station. 

The BufYalo street cars and a large 
number of the mills are entirely de- 
pendent upon the Falls to furnish them 
with electric power. 

The construction, operation, and uses 
of the electric motor will be carefully 
considered in our next chapter. 

(To be continued.") 


. and questions wiU be answered 
more promptly if sent directly to Kim. The department is intended to give correct answers to questions of 
general interest. Make vonr'qnestion complete. Name and address must accompany each query. alttaoiiKh 
neither will be publi.she<i. ) 

(This department is in charge of Mr. A. B. Babhitt, Hartford. Conn.. 
) nil 

I. Can a gas engine spark device be 
operated with alternating current? 

We presume your question refers to 
the application of the alternating cur- 
rent to the ordinary make and break de- 
vice as designed for direct current. 
Under these conditions we do not be- 
lieve the change would be a success. 
The alternating current is constantly 
changing in value except at the time in- 

stants of maximum and minimum value. 
The lines of force due to this current are 
also changing in number, hence the in- 
duced e. m. f. is changing. Should the 
circuit be broken w-hen the primary cur- 
rent is at its maximum, there would 
probably be a condition similar to that 
occurring when direct current is used, 
but it would hardly be po|»ible to have 
the break occur each time ^t th$ it)Stuit 
of maximum value. 


System in a Drafting Room. 

In a large I'li^iutx-ring office employing 
gi»iJ inrcc of men, il is important that 
irerxihing be gotten down to the most 
n«ilucti\e kisis and every avenue of 
^pcnse nuiNi be guarded by effeciive 
.*:crn* i^i accounting. 
« •■.u readers may be interested ti» learn 
■w <-jme tliinjjs are done at the Brown 
[•-'i*i:ni: Machinery Company's offices. 
The i«»rni of time card used by the 
T"5pli.\e> i»i shown in cut Xo. i. Kach 
1} one of these cards is filled out bv 
!e draftsman, givinjr his clock number. 

boys to do the runninp^ that would other- 
wise waste a large pcjrtion of their own 
time in going after supplies, drawings 
for reference and so on. 

The system for the filing and use of 
the record drawings in tlie safety vaults 
is very interesting. There are two large 
fireproof vaults, fitted up with more than 
UiUT and iiw hundred drawers respect- 
ivel>. Rach drawer is of a size to re- 
ceive a standard drawing sheet 24 x 36 
inches and is 3 inches deep and designed 
to hold the drawinvjs for a single con- 
tract, or more than one contract where 



fsml^k Ibe follow inf dniwtiiipi: 

oowmacf » 



WW.— !i Awovwr 


«:: •: and date, and underneath are 
:vcn data from which clerks in the office 
«:end and mark up the time t»n the 
ick* of the vouchers which will accom- 
any the month's pay, and charge up the 
ry<^ il^ainst the drawin<.^s indicated and 
!«tnbute the expt^nse to the different 
ab-orders on contracts or work. 

In the drawing room everythimj is 
)nmt Co facilitate the getinii: out of 
vorkini; drawings. 

.^nmmciators are hung over each table 
the drafumm can ring for the office 




KiK 1 

the same drawings are used and marked 
up for other and later contracts. 

Cut No. 2 shows the form of card used 
in applying: f«>r a sheet number for a new 

The head vault -keeper has an entr>' 
l>ook for keeping record i>f the drawings 
as he gives out serial numbers for them. 

Tliis card is fille<l out by the ilraftsinan 
with information full enough for thor- 
ouglily indexing the drawing, both in the 
entry book and the canl index. The 
vault-keeper assigns the sheet number 

1 84 


and makes entry in his book of the de- 
scription given on the card. This appli- 
cation must first be countersigned by the 
squad foreman as a check to prevent 
mix-ups and taking out unnecessary 
numbers, and to see that the title is de- 

The stub on the end of the card Fig. 
3 is filled out and returned to the drafts- 
man, who must see that the number and 
title are entered on the index kept by 
the squad foreman, for each contract. 

When a draftsman wishes to use a 
drawing for reference, he fills out the 
card shown in cut No. 2 and rings for a 
boy to brin^ the drawing. 

by each squad foreman, each evening, at 
the close of the days work and these 
various envelopes are taken into the vault 
for the night and returned to the squad 
foremen early next morning. 

Each Saturday afternoon every draw- 
ing must be filed in its proper place in 
the vault, and if the men need them for 
further reference, they must keep a rec- 
ord of the sheet numbers wanted and 
draw them again on Monday morning as 
though they had not had them before. 

In this way a most effective check is 
kept on the movements of each record 
drawing, of which there are now nearly 



Blue Print 

Sketch or 


Cont. or 
Order No. 


Tracing in 
Drawer No. 

Sheet No Squad . 



Name . 


FiK. a. 

A little cast iron holder or pocket is 
fastened to the front of each drawer for 
holding these cards, which are kept there 
until drawing is returned and filed, after 
which the card is destroyed. 

A man can call for any number of 
drawings for the same contract on a 
single card, or can draw the sketch en- 
velope, — or the whole drawer, — in which 
case the card shows where the drawer 
has been taken. 

No checked drawings are allowed to 
remain outside of the vault over night, 
and so all original record drawings used 
by the men during the day must be 
placed in the envelope or portfolio kept 

There are many other things of in- 
terest at the "Brown-hoist," some of 
which may form the basis of future 
articles in this magazine. 

Design of Cam Driver Brakes. 

By "Railway." 

From weight of engine on drivers, de- 
duct one-fourth, provided this amount 
is not less than 9,000 lbs. nor more than 
12,000 lbs., governing deduction by 
weight of engine. Divide this remainder 
by two in order to obtain constant for 
one side of engine, and divide this quo* 
tient by 2,500 if an d j^ ••»^** •*^-httke 


U osed and by 1400 if % six 
tncli c^rkioder is used. The result will be 
the required levcra^. 

^mfjUL on drivert* ........ ,40,000 lbs. 

Dnloci oDc*fourt)i 10,00 lbs. 

Rmiajfida' , 30,000 lbs 

Dnrfak by two. . 21 'Mnom 

(One lide of engine ... kvkio 

Divide by a.500, cotisunt *i5oo \ r^^ooo 
Cor 8 inch cylinder. 5 

required leverage is six. and as- 
the length of the cam to be 12 
tf we dWide 12 inches by the re- 
paired levcnge six we get a 2 inch ofTset 
to draw the face of the cum. 


In Fqf, I, D is the link pin in cam and 
C is the eajn screw pin. Havin^^ deter- 
upon the dift^ince between these 
iileni, draw the line B C perpcn- 
to the line of centers A A' and 
lay off on this line a distance equal to 


. J} L divulcd by the leverage, 
i at hand v^e took 12 inches 
as the distance from D to C, found the 
to l>e ^ ldvi**U the offset 2 
Thi* fTLiki^s \\\e dlxiance 1» C 2 

If the Ucc *•! the cam F G is struck 

fTrcii .fiitt^ B, the catn will give a lever* 

I, but as the brake shcies wear 

A^ iments of parts are made to 

\^^ic for this wear, the distance 

n C and D will be increased con- 

mcreasin); the leverage to a 

rr than 6 to I, 

\ for the arljustment of the 
HB warm and at the same time to keep 

the leverage below a ratio of 6 to i, the 
curve of the cam face is struck from a 
center located on the line but with a 
nidius greater than the distance B D. 
In Mg 1, the curve F (i was described 
from center E. Referring again to the 
proportions for our problem if the dis* 
tancc B R was made i}S inches the dis- 
tance from D to C could be increased 
that amount without making the leverage 
more than 6 to r To be sure the lever- 
age at first would l>e less than 6 to !• bui 
the object is not to increase it beyond that 

I A 


a ^^1 

h a ^ 


Knowing the distance between drivers, 
locate centers of cam screw pins at aa' 
bringing brake shoes Vi inch from face 
ui drivers. Draw center line aa' and lay 
off each side of tiie jierpeitdicular bisetor 
A A* points b and b . The distance from 
the center line A A' to the points b and 
h' should equal the distance B E ( Fig. i ) 
minus the distance brake slioe is located 
from face of drivers. In the problem 
used for our example, we would have l }4 
inches minus Yi inch giving the distance 
from center line to b and h\ one inch. 
The points a b an<t a' V give tlie ap- 
prf>\imate lengths of cams on which to 
r>a^e our calculations for the offset* 

From centers of cam screw pins» 1 ud 
a\ draw the arcs b H and b B\ also the 
arcs c and c' with radius equal to the 
required offset. With a as a center and 
radius, equal to the distance from a to 
b* draw arc f and with a' as a center and 
a' b as a radius, draw arc L These arcs 



will intersect A A' at K, which is the 
position of the upper corner of the cam. 
With K as a center and radius equal to 
the distance from K to the center line a 
a' draw arc g intersecting arcs b \> and 
b' B' at T and T'. These points T and 
T' will be the centers of the link pin. 

Draw center lines a T and a' T, and 
make a d, and a' d' perpendicular, re- 
spectively to these two lines, and where 
these lines intersect the arcs c and c' will 
be the centers of the cam faces. With 
d and d' as centers describe arcs 1^^ and 
F' through K, which will be the curves 
of required cams. 

The distance from the center of link 
pin to face of cam should be, where prac- 
tical, one and three-quarter inches meas- 
ured on the center line : should this meas- 
usement be incorrect, change the posi- 
tion of pin on center line and work back 
to the points b b'. Should this materially 
change the length of cam, make a new 

Keeping a Record of Sketches Sent Out. 

Many times sketches arc needed in a 
hurry. It does not pay to make a fin- 
ished drawing and then wait for the blue 
print, nor does it pay to send the sketch 
into the shop without liavinir a record of 
the same in the drafting room. 

The best way for recording these 
sketches is to use a letter copying press 
and book. Make the drawing with copy- 
ing pencil, to scale on cross-section paper 
if you please or simply free hand, and 
then make a copy in copying b(K)k. This 
book, if properly indexed, will keep a 
complete record of all the sketches. 

Don Bi:ta. 

Drafting Appliances. 

I am using some useful articles on the 
drawing board which I have never seen 
illustrated. Possibly descriptions may in- 
terest your readers. Sometime ago I ob- 
tained a two foot rule that had been divS- 

carded by a carpenter because the grad- 
uations had worn off. The hinge was 
in a good condition and it occured to me 
that it could be made into a protractor. 
I made one as represented in Fig. i and 








have been much pleased with h. I t(X)k 
♦ 4Ji the 12 inch rules and riveted in 
their places two wcxxlen strips ^4 inch 
Hide by 8'> inches lonp. 'Ilicir outside 
rd;:es were beveled and made parallel by 
:n>eninj^ a screw in the inside cud nf 
i'He Ml the strips. I then removed the 
hea«l of a machine screw and hied a 
vjixare section. an<I drove same ti^hl an<l 
^'dered to hin^ije. I procured a protrac- 
\ -r and cut away a jjortion of it, the re- 
' .iiniu'^ piece which was 115 decrees 
-pace iA J5 dei:rees left to clamp luU 
t. ' was sohlered to hinjje. 

1 lie jH»inier was then placed in posi- 
!!« n an«l a washer and thumb-nut com- 
:>!iteti ilie 1(h)1. 

It will Ik* tioticed that either edi^e can 
U used, as the j^raduated i^orlion is 
'a:-i^!. which allows it to clear top of tec 
- ".lrv 
\!'•^c iir Itss trouble was experienced 
Mvkini: up thr <lraltsman\s scale a^ 
.t-iuiacturrd by T.row n & .^harjv Mti:. 
jo oVi-rconK- this I l«M»k a piece of 
'.I-'' tiiU' ^ inch diameter 1>\ 5 inches 
- >.. ^lit it tlie full len,!th. ihe slot hciui: 
i '::tk tluniuT than douhK- iliickntss kA 
-V t'l Ha«l the tubi- plated a\u\ Npruni; 
• h: ..n xcaK- a** slmwn \\\ tV:ure 2. 
Ivi ri^ure }, i> ^hown a ver\ hand\ l«»ol 

:ch I call 

icale extension. 

't i< a 

• -! .r meinl stri|i rectangular in -liapi 
•1 1 •>! anv known lenirth. w ith a cr >o\h 
- f'lil liTi'^h. 

Through this a scale can be pushed 
for measuring distances j^realer than \2 
inches, and where a lonj^er scale would 
be inconvenient. Diflerent lengths of 
these strips could be made and used to 
ir^xxl advanta^'e. 

When shari>ening the lead in l'aber*s 
artist drawini: jx-ncil by the usual meth- 
od, on a file, the sleeve of the jKUcil is 
i^radually tiled away. To overcome this 
a piece of steel is soldered to the end ul 
the sleeve as shown in fij^ure 4. which 
leni^thens the life of the holder. 

When tracinix separate pieces it be- 
comes quite tedious waitiii'^ for the ink 
to dry Ix'fore inkinj.^ lines in the op|K)- 
>ite direction. 

An ani^le as shown in fii^ure 5, havinj^ 
pieces of cardb<»ard or other material 
"J hied to it. is very handy when one is 
extra ambitious. 

I'rid'^eport. C otm. C\ R. JossKi.VN. 

Lubrication of Wire Ropes. 

(Jucst'uni: Is it advisable to 'galvanize 
wire ropes subjected to constant IxMidini: 
aroutid sheave^ and drums? — C. G. .V. 

.his'^'i'r: Such ropi s are not usually 
so treated: hut it i^ i->^<ritial that they 
he kepi well Inhricati 1 l)\ the fre(|ueiU 
application of oil. nr s. .n:c similar ma- 
terial, free from coirosiw substances. 
\ i^'ood waterpro(.f jrap'iitt- -.grease i;ives 
satisfactorv results as a lubricator. — 
Tcchnii'iil ]VorJd. 

Standard Rail 

The illustration shows 
a design for tongs for 
handling rails by hand 
^iven in the St net ICaii- 
r.vD' four mil. 


•tffwt MjJvxLnaX 


Questions and Answers. 

This month we have opened a Ques- 
tion and Answer department in our mag- 
azine and trust it will be found useful 
and instructive to our subscribers and 

When sending in queries, write on one 
side of the paper only. No questions 
will be answered by mail, but will be 
published in due time. 

Name and address must accompany 
each question and no attention will be 
paid to anonymous requests. 

This department will be in charge of 
Mr. A. B. Babbitt and communications 
may be sent directly to him at 6i i Al- 
bany Ave., Hartford, Conn., or in charge 
of this magazine. 

It is for the readers to make this col- 
umn a success. Send in your questions. 

How Jobs Are Lost. 

It is always interesting, of course, to 
learn how young men and boys get jobs 
and hold them, and how they rise from 
lower to higher positions and increased 
pay. It ought to be equally interesting 
to learn how some employees lose their 
jobs. The Chicago Tribune, with this 
end in view, not long ago offered a 
weekly prize of $5 for the best explana- 
tion, by letter, of how a job is lost. There 
were eighty-one competitors, most of the 
letters containing frank confessions of 
the writers' shortcomings. The reasons 
assigned for discharge were as follows: 

Drink 11 

Loafed 9 

Bad company 7 

Carousing unfitted them for duty.. 7 

Swelled head 6 

Business discontinued 4 

Accused of gambling (one guilty) . 4 

Aspired to get higher jobs 4 

Refused to run errand 3 

To reduce expenses 3 

Accused of drinking 3 

Cigarettes 2 

Shirked work 2 

"Knockers" got busy 2 

P>ccause he wanted to learn English. i 
Called on girl while on duty and 

lied about it 

r»ccausc the beer froze 

Thought business couldn't run with- 
out him 

(iave the boss the wrong tip on a 


"Kidded" the boss 

Cheated to keep up with heavy 


Didn't work unless specifically told 

to do something 

( )fTcred to box with priest 

Wanted to marry boss's sister 

l)Oss boorish to women clerks 

Couldn't understand when owner 

dictated in broken English 

Forty year old stenographer wanted 

to marry him 

Manager's wife disliked him 

As might have been expected, drink 
was the one single cause assigned for the 
largest number of discharges — eleven— 
although **carousing" that unfitted the 
carousers for duty was responsible for 
seven lost jobs. And it is to be noted also 
that only eight of the eighty-one who 
were *'fired" blamed their en^rioyen for 


m Worth YcHir Salary? 

eam your salary? Are yoii 
Itiified that what you render 
\ on equivalmt for the amount 
m receive? 

jfOQ art isettiaj; $1,500 a year. 
ifident that you are worth it? 
fcgtion is ticklish and touches 
fc are more or less sensitive, 
ea the tmaller thr amount of 
more likdih«»tMl \\\vtv \% thnt 
Ijr taming it 

salar>' carries with it no in- 
nd is more within the reach 
mtDir pow'er. The generality 
to work to live, and the gen- 
leople get small salaries. 
; a clerk plodding alonf;; daily 
e of duly, that is his secon<l 
I knowtnir Jtist exactly what 
to every year, aild he is apt 

that he tum!^ out faith- 
soasetefitjcmsly* and then he 

small salary. 

he is worth more than it 

He knows very well that if 
hrow up his situation there 

dtffictitty tn filling it. 
Dscknis that he is worth all 

atid something more. 

we are rendering a dollar*^ 
TVtee for every dollar of 
liould he satisfiH with our- 

c yourself unc.i^v about 
If you are getting what you 
id yoa are sitre that you are 
yoti are* getting, why, 
ichrd a slate of contentment* 
crime a lime when you are 
than yo« are getting. Make 
Make yoor work stand out 
that h will convey this im- 

very dull employer that will 

not tee this after a time. If he penifls 

in not seeing it, why, then, you are jusli* 
fied in calling his attention to it. 

Do not presume to do this until you 
arc confident that the coast is clear for 
this kind of sailing. 

large salaries tend to make some more 
iuiportant than they really are. To be all 
salary » and to he rorunioiTplace in your 
work, requires a dead conscience. 

One hundred thousand dollars a year 
may mean only $50,000 v^orth of ser- 
vice, and may not mean that. At any 
rate, this interpretation was recently 
placed upon that kind of salary. You 
c;»nnot judge a man's worth i*» his sal- 
ary. You may determine his pull by it. 

But giving in service what you gel in 
salary makes anyone independent of any 
obligation to his employer. 

Good wages, tf they slan.- for good, 
«»uhstantia1 work, are jtist. 

Small %v acres fnr good work mean im- 


"Are yon good at lettering?** is tin* 
question a.skefl of a large per cent of 
applicants for i>«>sitions as draftsmen. 
and only a lot of practice and good copies 
will effect the result desiretl. 

( )f the many books oti the tnarket^ no 
i>ne contains as much matter and good 
fi>rms as a "Chapter on Lettering** by 
the Browning Press, Collin wood, O. 
I*rice 25 cents. Send for a copy at oticc. 

Comfrfssed <4ir announces that whh 
its issue of May it will apjiear in 
enlargcti form and under new manage- 
ment. Hereafter it will be publishctl by 
The KoMk- Co.. go-^^i West Broadway, 
New York. For ten years ComfrcsJtd i 
Air has been, and still is, tlic 
only publication tlevoted exclusively, 
and covering completely* the field of 



compressed air in all its applications. 
This field, however, has broadened so 
materially within the last few years, that 
a more comprehensive periodical is 
needed to fully meet the new conditions. 
With the May number, therefore, the 
size of Compressed Air will be 
changed to 7 x 10, it will be printed on 
better paper and in outward form will 
be on a par with the best printed ma.^a- 
zines now published. 

A special feature of the paper will be 
a department devoted to corespondence, 
a discussion of which will be encouraged 
among its readers. But probably the 
most valuable information will be con- 
tained under the heading, ''Practical 
Items for Practical Men," where data of 
direct and practical value to compressed 
air users will be discussed. 

Mr. W. L. Saunders, M. Am. Soc. K. 
E. will remain as Editor-in-Chief, W. R. 
Hulbert, M. E. will be Managing Editor 
and P. F. Kobbe. Jr., will be Business 
Manager. Contributions and correspon- 
dence from those interested in the uses 
and development of compressed air for 
industrial purposes will be gladly re- 
ceived and made use of if acceptable, 
and requests for information will be 
given prompt and courteous attention. 
All subscriptions and correspondence in 
future should be addressed to The Kobbe 
Co., 90-92 West Broadway, New York. 

The following list comprise the data 
sheets now in stock which were issued 
with The Draftsman and Broivning's In- 
dustrial Magazine: 

Rivet Spacing. 

Conventional Rivet Signs. 

Morse Tapers. 

Section Lining. 

Good Proportions for Keys. 

Dimensions of Standard Washers. 

Bosses for Washers and Bolts. 

Eye Bolts. 

Weights of Various Substances. 

Turn Buckles. 

Standard Rail Sections. 

Beams Supporting Brick Walls. 

Pipe Sizes. 

French and American EquivaL 


Gas Piping. 

Foimdation Anchor Plates. 

Sheet Iron V^entilators. 

Gray Iron Machine Hand Wheels. 

Limit of Caulking Pitch in Boi 

Tables for Permissable Stresses. 

M. C. B. & P. R. R. Standard Angl 

Compression Tests of Concrete. 

Standard Hand Wheels, Heavy. 

Dimensions of Wrought Iron Washe 

Dimension of Bonanza Grease Cup. 

Plugs and Pet Cocks. 

Bolts and Machine Screws. 

Trigonometric Functions. 

Elements of Cast Sections. 

Numbers and Equivalent Diameters 
Machine Screws. 


Brass Key Heads. 

All of these with a suitable binder w 
be sent as premium for one new sii 
scriber to Broimin^s Industrial Ma^ 
cine, at $1.00. Address Collinwood. ( 

Building Construction and Superinfe 
dence. By F. E. Kidder, C. E., P 
D., Architect, Fellow of American T 
stitute of Architects.. Author of "T 
Architects' and Builders' Pock( 
Book." Part >TTI, : Trtjs?^ed Roofs ai 
Roof Trusses. 306 ill list ration 5. Se 
tion L New Yorkr William T. Coi 
stock. One large 8vo. voL : pp. 2( 
Price. $3.00. 

This work is the las .^ series 

"Building Constructior a Superinte 
dence" from the banc 'Cidder a 


^ work of his life. It is a work 
ad bcin cn^^a^^fd on for years. 

in the pmti-ssion have had the 
>crience he has had in practical 
this character. 

:w of its panes shi»ws a careful 
"ientious discussion of the sub- 
that in clear lan^uaije. uncom- 
b\ mathematical fornuilas that 
1 only to the cnj^ineer. Simplic- 
ihorouj^hness, clear description 
explanali«>n are the character- 
the treatise. This section car- 
subject for enoui^h to meet the 

most architects and builders. 
the second and last section is 
out and will later be completed 

llowini: subjects are treated in 
hi fore us: "Types of Wooden 
ind the .Mechanical Principles 
*: "Types of Steel Trusses": 
of 1 russed R(^)fs — liracinj^ of 

an<l Iriisses": **(^pen Timber 
id Cluirch R<H)fs": "X'aulted 
iu'<l c\ilinL:>. < >ctaLronal and 
V... ifs": "I 'MJist'iiins. Armories. 
|h. |-'\|>*.siii,»n r.uildin.^s. Rtc." : 
n^ :!u I'uriiii and Truss Loads 
» .riiir.' Icrces**: "Stress Dia- 
d \\Tti<al l.'<ads f«»r Trusses 
cali\ and Tusv nimetricalh 

finition given in "Lutes and 

a lHK)klet by the National 

. Cleveland, O.. is as follows : 

Clay or mixtures for clo.sin^ 

- Su!>stances with which two 
joine<l toji^ether. 
xipls are concise, but not made 
crials hat are unobtainable as 
le C.1S4.- with such formuK'c. 
>klel is divide<l into "Water 
1 Proof. Oil Proof, Acid Proof. 

Proof to Hydro-Carbon Gase.s, Chlori 
Proof, for general purposes, such as 
elastic, gaskets, machini.sts, marine glue, 
leather, core compounds, crucible iron 
and stone and briquet ting." 

Price IOC. National lkx)k Co., 408 
Park Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 

.\o branch of mathematics is so little 
understcM)d and j^reatly feared by the 
averaj^e workman as trigonometry, yet 
it is a suDjcct not hard or tedious. 

When we see the uses to which this 
l)ranch may Ix^ extended, there is no rea- 
so!i why every mechanic should not try 
to master it. 

TripMiometry is really devoted to the 
s(»huions of trian;^des. either to find the 
iensjrths of sides or the size of ant^les. 

.**^uppose we had a triangle like the il- 
lustration and knew the len'.:lh of a side 
and an ani^le imder certain conditions we 
conjtl tind all the other parl>. 

To aid in the practical appHcation •>f 
this subject. Mr. I', l. Maison has writ- 
ten "TrijLTonometry Simplified," which is 
a neat little l)ook with many illustrati<^ns 
and tables. Price in cloth, 30 cents. 

These books, while delaye<l. are l)eing 
published by the National Hook Co.. 408 
Park Bldg.. Cleveland. O. 

The first passenger elevator or lift to 
Ix- used in this country and jx^rhaj^s the 
world was placed in the Fifth .\ve. 
Hotel. New York, in iS^^o. 

.\ hairdresser, as a rule, does a thriv- 
'\n\l business in combination Ux'ks. 



Past, Present and Future of Reinforced 
. Concrete as a Buildinn: Material. 

Only a few years ago, the method of 
reinforcing concrete structures with steel 
bars was almost untried. It is hardly 
more than five years since some of the 
railroad companies bo^i^an to replace their 
old wood and iron bri(l;::es with concrete 
steel arches. 

The natural forests of the country are 
rapidly disappearing and the price of 
lumber is j;oing up by leaps and bounds, 
some kinds having doubled in value in a 
few years. Steel is expensive and is des- 
tined to become uK^re so, and with in- 
creased demand on the mills, delivery 
within a reasonable time, becomes harder 
to get. 

At the same time the increase in engi- 
neering construction is enormous, with 
the expansion of business in all direc- 
tions, the structures of twenty, ten or 
even five years ago are being torn down 
to give place to larger and better ones. 

It is only necessary to look through 
the advertising pages of the technical 
magazines to realize to what extent en- 
gineers and contractors are now inter- 
ested in this form of construction. 
Piridges, sky-scrapers, monster hotels, 
engineering structures of all kinds are 
being built of it. 

Reinforced concrete design is at pres- 
ent where the design of steel structures 
was twenty years ago. Every would-be 
designer has a scheme of his own while 
the knowledge of principles is decidedly 
vague, and from the designer's point of 
view, it is the most rational type of con- 
struction, tensile and compressive stresses 
being taken by the material best adapted 
to receive such stresses. 

l^ngineers and the public generally 
have a great deal to learn about this ma- 
terial. Dwiu'j: to ignorance and greed, 
much faulty work has been done, and 
when some of these structures begin to 

fail, for they really ought to fail, there 
is likely to be a cry of *'I told you so" 
from the pessimistic engineers and a wail 
from the confiding public. 

There is no better field for the young 
engineer at present than to specialize on 
this material. It is necessary however 
for him to understand the principles of 
design. The old rule of thumb engineer 
and his methods, is out of date, the young 
engineer must understand how to place 
his material to the best advantage. The 
essentials are comparatively few and sim- 
j)lc. It is only necessar>' to have them 
presented in the right way. A few 
words directing a student's mind the 
right way or a problem which illustrates 
a principle may do more to clear up a 
subject than a whole treatise. 

It is with this in mind that the Amer- 
ican Technical School, Cleveland, O., has 
prepared a course in Concrete Steel Con- 
struction. Their course in Mechanics is 
also quite complete. 

Civil Service Examinations. 

The ITnited States Civil Service Com- 
mission announces an examination on 
May 23-24, 1906, to secure eligibles to 
fill a vacancy in the position of skilled 
mechanic at $1,200 per year, for service 
in the Weather Bureau at Mt. Weather. 
Va. Ask for Application Form No. 1093. 

Also an examination on June 6-7, 1906. 
to secure eligibles to fill vacancies in the 
position of draftsman at $4 per diem 
each, in the office of the Surveyor-Gen- 
eral, as follows : One vacancy each in 
Arizona, Nevada and Washington, and 
4 vacancies in Idaho. Persons who pass 
this examination will be eligible for ap- 
pointment only ill offices outside of the 
District of Columbia. Ask for Applica- 
tion Form No. 13 12. 

Applicants should apply to the U. S. , 
Civil Service Commission, WashisigtM^ J 
D. C, for information and blanks, ntatft 4 
the exact titles as given in thii^fl 



r Noo-RefilUMe Bottle. 

ipean coantries the owner of a 
compelled to manufacture the 
bio one or tiiro years, and to 

Ida the owner of a patent has 
J manufacture continuously but 
ed by law to sell at a reasona- 
jr license his right to others at 
Me price. 

>n5 in the L". S. are such that a 
« may buy up a patent and 
as soon as they please. If a 
- takes up a mining claim he is 
by law to work it every year, 
his rights are forfeited, which 
the same with patented articles, 
inventor should feel that his 
brain power is a commodity, 
some return must be received 
ws he is working for the sake 

rs sh«>ul<l l)e very careful o{ the 
y work on. ftir there is a vast 
ft thv money that is paid to the 
nt anil attorneys simply wasted, 
•stance . there has been a vast 
ime. money and brain power on 
ti» invent a non-refillable b(»tllo. 
•nt demand for a ncm-refillable 
\% out of an allegetl offer of a 
hJ Pepper of Kentucky, a whis- 
r. who, it is curently reported. 
faile<l in business, 
ibt he found that bar-keepers, 
chastni; a bottle of his stuff, 
erward refill with an inferior 

it U- known that he would give 
iT a practical bottle, and there 
an immense number of cases 
the Patent office. The prob- 
dtfficult one to solve and no 
ne manufacturers would wel- 
tvice that would prevent the 

bottle ever being used for anything else 
tlian the original stuff. 

Inventors fail to realize the difficuhies 
of manufacture of the bottle, that it 
should be of and that article can 
not be blown or molded except in certain 
definite shapes. 

I^t the waste of time, energy an<l 
money be stopped at once, or let it be 
devoted to some more necessary article. 

Catalpa the Coming Tree. 

It is expected that the marvelously 
quick growth of the catalpa tree and the 
excellence of the lumber derived from it 
are "destined to solve the problem of 
future railroad building and to furnish 
a supply of lumber for all purposes." 
Two hundred thousand catalpa trees 
planted near Dupuoin. Illinois, three 
years ago. are now thriving to .such a 
degree that it is anticipated that in a few 
years this new forest, formed in the 
heart of the prairie, will furnish many 
of the ties for the Illin(»is Central Rail- 
road. Similar forests have been planted 
in Mississippi. Whereas <xik ties la«^t, on 
the average, only Seven years, catalpa 
ties that have been in use more than thirty 
years show no sivrn of decay. The w<K>d 
is also useful for building timlKT and 
for furniture making. It is said that 
catalpa fence p<^sts have been known to 
last one hundre<l years. The seed planted 
in rich garden soil pro<luces shoots which, 
when transplanted within a year, spring 
up rapidly into trees. — Thr Voun^t^ Pco- 
f*Ic$ J Weekly, 

The Metric System. 

Rfforts are still In-ing made to inipre^^ 
Ton^ress with the ilesirahility of i>ffi- 
cially ad«)ptin'^ the Metric System of 
weights aufl measures. There i*^ no i»h- 
iection to ihe Metric Sy<tem <;o far n< 



its practicability and efficiency is con- 
cerned, but there is considerable objec- 
tion made by manufacturers on account 
of the expense and inconvenience that 
would be entailed by the change. This 
need not be considered as a momentary 
change, for the adoption of the Metric 
System would be slow and future work 
could be made up to accord with these 
measurements. If in the case of a manu- 
facturer having a large number of pat- 
terns that had been used, he could sim- 
ply continue to use these for repair parts 
of other machines and begin to make the 
patterns to the Metric System and by 
persistent application of the equivalents 
the workmen in time would become ac- 
customed to handling both styles of mea- 

It would seem that a manufacturer 
who has any foreign trade would realize 
the need of the Metric System very much 
more strongly than if he was dealing en- 
tirely at home. All the South American 
States, practically all of Europe and 
Asia and Africa, are using the Metric 
System, and to deal with these countries 
we must necessarily give them machines 
and instruments laid out with the Metric 

The enterprising and progressive Jap- 
anese Government have shown a strong 
inclination to work for the trade of the 
South American countries and are now 
planning to oust United States in that 
trade. They are using the Metric Sys- 
tem and will do anything to cater to the 
buyers of machinery in that part of the 

The Metric System has been adopted 
in England, and to become universal 
after a certain period, thus giving them 
an opportunity to study the measures and 
become acquainted with them. This is 
what should be done in the United States. 
Every draftsman and engineer and in- 

structor should begin to memorize and 
inculcate into others the advantage and 
simplicity of the Metric System. With 
the number of measures we have in this 
country it seems absurd to continue any 
longer than is absolutely necessary with 
such a complex system, if the engineers, 
draftsmen and designers become accus- 
tomed to using a centimeter as they do 
now an inch, a centimeter being a trifle 
over three-eights of an inch. 

We are preparing a card for your vest 
pocket notebook with the Metric and 
conversion tables, and hope to have these 
ready for distribution before long. 
These will no doubt help the matter of 
the adoption of the Metric System in 
this country. 

Don't Roll Shop Drawings. 

It is a poor plan to roll shop drawings. 
They never lay flat when you w^ant them. 

Pasting the blue print on tin or sheet 
iron is much more common now than 
formerly and is a very permanent way 
to do it, too. 

The paste used is white shellac and 
an application is made to both the paper 
and the sheet metal, then after laying 
the print on the plate squeeze out the 
excess juice and let dry. Then shellac 
the finished sheet and it will be ready for 
use when dry. 

This method affords a thinner sheet, 
hence more can be placed in tlie rack 
or drawers. 

To remove the sheet, hold the plate 
over a fire for a few moments and scrape 
off the paper. 

A thickness of metal of i -32-inch 
gauge is about right for 12 x 18 or for 
i8x 24, print. 

The Adjustable Axle Nut Co., Lon- 
don, Can., has been formed to make a 
ball bearing nut which will prevent 
wheels from "backing off." 


^ browning's 
Industrial Magazine 



"I HE type of material haitdiing buckets commonlx 
known as "grabs" or grap buckets arc divided 
into two styles the "orange-peel" and "clam- 

Foreign makers of buckets of this type 
designate them simply as "grabs" and arrange 
them to be handled by means of a single or 
double chain system as m this country. Most 
manufacturers build their buckets in three 
clasMMt, according to weight : hea\*>\ medium and 
liuht, depending un the class of work to be done. 
Some make two or three styles, difiTering in 
rng Aiui cl<i*^ing arrangement. 

. *»tyle,'* of buckets are used for dredging* exca%'ating, gmding, 

mining and handling all kinds and sijtes of coial, eoke, dtri^ sand, 

frmv^l, clay, broken stone and numerous other materials economically. 

lis the atngtc rope or chain type, we have nothing automatic in the 

tfBttiptng device^ the trip or trigger arrangement must be at a fixed 

pmnt or may \>c ^ 'Ted by a rope or chain as shown in some of 

felfeirtng ilht m^« 

This "Grab*' is made by Thomas Smith & Sons, Rodley, Eng., 
and is of the clam-shell shape, with a single chain to the hoisting 
engine. J 

Working on the center mast is a sliding head with a trigger which 
engages the hook on the arms connecting the two shells. 

When unloaded the shells hang apart and when placed on the 
material to be handled, the head with trigger is lowered to engage the 
hook, hence all the weight is on this in the hoisting of the grab. 

As soon as the Grab lands its 
own weight on Coal (the cross- 
head being at bottom of guides 
and the sliding block at top of 
guides) the sliding block will. 
by its own weight, and the 
over-haul of the chain, run 
down the guides until the cross- 
head pin enters the hole in bot- 
tom of shding block: this also 
lifts the balance weights, and 
the machine becomes locked. 
The Grab is now ready to dig, 
and on starting the Crane to 
"heave up/' the sliding block 
and crosshcads are pulled up 
_^ the guides at a leverage of 4 

JS' ^ '^llr^^^^ ^" ^' ^"^*^^ ^^^ Grab is com- 

J^^f?^^^/j£j^\--^^J^^^^^^^ plctely closed. The whole is 

then lifted to required height, 
which must be also so far 
through the ring that the long 
end of releasing lever has been 
depressed by the ring, and hav- 
ing passed through it, has 
swung back again against the top pin. On lowering the Grab, the 
long end of releasing lever becomes caught against the top edge or 
releasing ring, thus lifting the stop plate and turning the locking pin 
until the two notches become opposite one another, when the crosshead 
being thereby released falls from the sliding block, the blades, and 
closing rods, also with it, the piston rod gently descending at the 
same time, thus preventing shock to machine, or scattering material 


On lowering clear of the ring, the releasing lever and locking pin 
assume their positions again by means of their balance weights, and 
the machine is once more ready to be lowered into barge. 

"Tines" or teeth are fitted to lower edges of the shell for exca- 
vating in light soils. 

The manufacturer also makes a type of grab similar to some de- 
scribed later, with barrel and double rope system of hoisting. 


There are many automatic grab buckets on the market and to 
better describe them, it may be well to take some of the prominent 
ones and illustrate them under separate headings. 

It may be possible to divide the automatic buckets into two 
classes, when considering the principle on which they operate, the 

The power drum or wheel design is illustrated in Figs. 3 and 
by two lines of wire rope or chain, running to the hoisting drums of 
the engine. 

The power drum or wheel design is illustrated in Fig. 3 and 
is applied to either the orange-peel or the clam-shell bucket. 

One line of rope is attached to the top or head casting and one 
carried to the drum or wheel to whose shaft is connected two ropes 
or chains, one on each side of the drum. 

By hoisting on the drum, the latter unwinds and rolls up the side 
chains, lifting the drum shaft and thereby closing the bucket. To 
dump, the drum rope is released and the head rope held, the weight of 
material opening the bucket. 


The orange-peel bucket shown here may be constructed with 
three or more curved triangular steel plate blades and when closed 
forms a tight semi-spherical bowl, which contains the excavated ma- 
terial. The blades when open resemble sharp spades and arc riveted 
to the horizontal arms. The inner ends are attached to a central 
casting; the outer ends are hinged to the vertical connecting rods, 
which are pivoted at their upper ends to the upper center casting. The 
shape of the blade is so designed as to produce the greatest digging 
effect with the least amount of resistance. 

All bearings are bronzed-bushed and well protected against grit 
and dirt. 

The orange-peel bucket is used in heavy excavating and the 
handling of broken stone and hard pan. 



This Style of bucket is designed especially for the handling of 
loose material, such as sand, gravel, coal, etc. 

The sides of the blades and blade-arms are constructed of heavy 
steel plates and the connecting rods of solid forgings. The shoes 
or cutting edges are also made of steel plates turned up at each end 
and riveted to the sides of the blades as shown in the illustration. 
This re-enforcement of the blades, strengthens and adds greatly to 
the digging qualities of the bucket. 

One of tb^Jeatures of this bucket is the condensed form of the 
head-casing, which is a great advantage over the stiff, awkward con- 
struction of the older style with its many angles and projections. 
The superiority of this form is thoroughly appreciated if the bucket 
is used in a shaft, or hatchway, but the improvement becomes very 
apparent by the comparison of the illustration with the plantom out- 
lines of old style head. 

The bearings of the power wheel, which is mounted upon 
the shaft connecting the bowls, are well protected against grit and 
dirt, insuring long life to the bronze bushings upon which the power 
wheel revolves. 

Both of the above are of the drum or wheel type and constitute 
the principle on which a great many grab buckets in use operate. 

Illustrations of orange peel and clam shell buckets Nos. looi and 
I002 are from the North Penn Iron Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

A slight departure from the wheel or drum type is seen in the 
bucket built at Duisburg, Germany by the Duesburger Maschmenfa- 
brick J. Jaeger, and which is used with their locomotive cranes. 

A system of sheaves and chains do the hoisting and closing of 
the bucket, distributing the strain to several pins and getting greater 
leverage. The bucket is made up of plates and structural shapes, 
except for the sheaves. 

The Hone's Grab, made by the Thames Iron Works & Shipbuild- 
ing Co., England, as shown in the illustration, contains a sliding cross 
head with a chain and sheaves, all controlled by two chains from 
the engine. 

This system of operating the scoops, facilitate the movement of 
them as shown in the diagram with greater leverage and increased 
openmg than other makes of buckets abroad. 

The construction of the grab is clearly shown so that a descrip- 
tion is hardly necessary and the diagram is self-explanatory. 

These "grabs" have a 6 to 1 purchase block for applying them fo 
existing double chain cranes. 


Diagram of Ordinary Grab 


— O^'W — 

The power is applied to this bucket through a large size cast 
steel power wheel mounted on shaft about the center of the upper 
frame. Keyed to this same shaft are two small cast steel pinions. On 
the back of this frame are two other shafts which carry cast steel 
geared segments, the lower ends of which are attached to the scoops. 
These segments are arranged in pairs and geared together, being pro- 
vided with male and female teeth so that ore or other material can- 
not lodge in the same. These segments mesh with the pinions on 
power shaft above mentioned. The backs of the scoops are carried 
by steel links to pins on the opposite segments. 

The opening of the bucket is attained by chain or cable on a 
small cast iron hub also mounted on power wheel shaft. The open- 
ing motion is just the reverse of the closing. 

The whole mechanism is very powerful and at the same time 
simple, and together with the peculiar closing motion makes it very 
efficient at digging. 

The buckets are built for either ore or coal in any sizes from 
one ton up, by the Macbeth Iron Co., Cleveland, Ohio* 




.. . t I ffirt* 


Tbc Halett Bucket consists of a frame to which arc attached the 

aooopt and operating tnechanistti, the power for closing the scoops tieinv; 
^g^\_ II _ <lcrivc<l from a power 

wheel and cam mo* 
tion, which Is connect* 
ed tu the blades hy 
flat link chains. The 
gencnil arrangement 
is such that in opera, 
tion the resistance b 
reduced to a mini- 
mum, and yet the 
btjcket is enabled to 
pick up an increased 
load* the movements 
being 90 designed 
[ibal the weight of material cut out by the lilades as«iists in holding the 

bocket in the maierial, so that there is no tendency for the bucket in 

doMig to lift away and fail to pick up its load ; in fact, it recpiires less 

power to dose tbe bucket than to lift it with its load. The ratio between 

Uw power wheel aiMl the cams is such that the force obtained on the cut> 

ti ffy edges is from four to six 

times the dead weight of the 

bucket. The bocket when in 

aa open portion rests on a ver>' 

brottd area, hence the tendency 

to lip is practicmlly done away 

with. Id this position all the 

power mechanism is dear of the 

bodcel space, and the entire 

wt^fat of the bocket r^ts upon 

the scoops or faisdes, obtaining 

Ihe full effect of its weight in 

fordag Ihe cutting edges into 

the pile. The head room or 

height of frame is much less than 

m the onUiiary type of bucket 

The bockcts are made in two 

weights, the heerier weight 

'-^- designed for handling u«,^ Bucket ^i-^j 




The Jeff re) Bucket. 



heavier and more obslitiate materials ^ such as lump iron ore, limestone,] 
etc. The lighter style is for coal, sand and like materiaL The buckets 
are built in sizes ranging from 21 to 181 cubic feet capacity, by the Weli- 
man*Seaver- Morgan Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 


The Jeffery Mfg. Co., Columbus, Ohio, make two designs ofl 
buckets, one on the order of t!ie wheel or drum style, and the other 
<in the scissor principle. ^ 

In the first design a system of levurs and wheels operate the™ 
scoops in a very powerful manner The mechanism is housed in a 
casing covering the shafts and levers. 

The bucket is arranged to open quite wide and when closed occu*^ 
pies only about two-thirds of the extended position. 



The buckets present the best practice in workmanship and ma- 


The automatic bucket of the four prong and clam shell types, 
built by the Kiesler Co., 68 Pratt St., Chicago, III, have a system of 
leverage that is a distinct departure from any other means of operat- 
ing an automatic bucket. These levers reach down into the body of 
the bucket, and the power is applied where it develops the most effi- 
ciency, and not at the top of the bucket as nearly all other four prong 
and clam shell buckets are made. Another important feature is that 

ShoTflinng hard usage ojf a FJrowninif Biickei in a sLiu pil cif n blast furnace 

two of the prongs are made with a flat lip 15 inches wide and these 
prongs being about 12 inches lower (when the bucket is open) than 
the two sharp prongs, prevent any injury to either boats, cars or in 
whatever the bucket may be working. In buckets to be used for exca- 
vating or dredging these lips are made narrower. These buckets can 
be operated on any hoisting tower» crane, bridge, tramway, dredge or 
derrick using a two line hoist without any change to the machinery, 
and on a one line hoist by the addition of an idler drum and counter 
weight which is very inexpensive. Placed (not dropped) in any 

pMltofi on a pile of coal, iron ore or other material, in the act of 
dwilig, it penetrates into the materiat and lilU. This is caused by 
llic action of the levers and the sha|>e of the shell, causing it to 
settle down in the material instead of having a tendency to pull out 
M is the ca«^e in all other chain operated buckets. The action is to 
dig down instead of scraping along the pile, which eliminates the 
breakage of large lumps when working in soft coal. For working 
In boatft, it cleans out between hatchways better than others, as it 
does HOC have to be dropped and consequently can be swung to either 
»de under the deck and falling in any position will filK 

In actual working conditions, a two-ton bucket in unloading 
40-ton cars of Hocking coal, about 85 per cent was unloaded in 30 
to 35 minutes oa an average. For use in loose material such as hard 
coal, crushed atone, sand, gravel, etc.i the clam shell bucket has the 
aame superior qualities over other clam shells that the four prong has. 
It having the same system of leverage, which gives it great dosing 

It is vtry simple in construction and has few parts to get out 
of order* 


In the folk)wtng is given descriptions of the "scissor** design of 

Jrffr^ Bucket Sei»or DrsiKH 

bucket, which as ^een, applies only to the clam-shell mvU\ tnc shape 
of the spoon% being determined by the nature of the material to be 

The scissor design, as shown m the illustration, made by Jeffery 
Mfg. Co^ represents a departure in principle from most ot the buckets 
oQ the market 



The diagram shows wide spread, flat path and the makers claim 
great closing power. 

The system of levers and sheaves operated by two lines to the 
engine drums work the scoops. The diagram is no doubt descriptive 
enough for all general purposes. 


Clam shell buckets are, and have been the subject of much 
thought, and experiment during the past sixty years, in 1846 the first 
United States patent on a bucket of this description was issued. 
Since then hundreds of patents have been granted, and each year adds 
to the number. In many cases the designs are complicated and of 
questionable value, but the bucket illustrated herewith is noteworthy 
because of its simplicity, and apparent digging force. 

It will be seen that the two scoops members are hinged together 
in the ordinary way, but that the hinge end of one of the scoops extends 
beyond the hinge, forming an arm at the outer end of which is 
a sheave. At a point near the outer end of this arm is dead-ended a 
cable which passes around one of the sheaves located in the "head" 
of the frame supporting the scoops. The cable passes back around 
the sheave at the end of the arm, up to and under the second sheave in 
the "head.*' This cable, thus multiplied, forms the closing power of 

the bucket. 

To the "head" is attached a second 
cable which is used to lower the 
bucket and to hold it in position 
while opening. 

This is the manner of constructing 
and operating, when single closing 
and opening lines can be used, when 
it is desirable to operate the bucket 
from a conveying bridge, a double 
arm is provided with a sheave in 
each, and two sets of sheaves prop- 
erly located are placed in the "head" 
to correspond with the sheaves in 
the arms, and two closing cables are used, while an extra sheave is 
located on the center ot the pin which connects the different parts 
of the "head" together, around this extra sheave the openitig line 
passes, thus forming two parts of the opening line. 

These buckets are designed for all classes of work, as the scoops 
are formed to produce the best results when used in the different ni»- 



lU in which lhc>* arc to operate, for instance, iti iron ore an open 
end tcoofi 19 ron.Milercct the bcst^ while for coal^ and other loo^e ma- 
terials different formic (it *cooii?t with closed ends arc used* 


TTie first Uocket of thi.^ particular type built was one of 3 yards 
capacity on the Ughter **Re!;cue»" owned by the Great Lakes Towing 
Co^ of Cleveland, Ohio* This bucket has been subjected to severe 
nsut under advert ctrcumstances and has given satisfaction, since then 
many others have been built* all of which have proven equally satis- 
factory, anil are to be found working in iron ore, coal, sand and 
iera\*el, while several are used for excavating purposes. 

The bucket is the invention of Mr, Williams of the G. H. WilUaras 
Co-, 1512 Rockefeller HIdg., Cleveland, Ohio, by whom the bucket 
» manufactured* 

If has been found necessary to omit the description of some well 
loKiirn makes of buckets, because the matter could not be obtained 
in doe time. In some cases, the makers hesitated in allowing material 
to be printedt but there was no intention to slight anyone, as this 
review Ls unbiased in every particular. 

hig. *J -Three Ton Hlectrically Operated Cra^ie at Glasgow, bculiaju.l. 





VARIOUS types of harbor cranes are employed in 
Great Britain, of German as weU tks of Kngli^h 


and electric power is 
more ioT this class of 

design and const fuel ion 
l>cing utili/cil more and 

The accomptuiying illuslralion, l-i^, i. shows 

a new uxj-Um hammer crane recctitly insialied 

at Dublin, Ireland, by the V^creinigtc Maschinen- 

fabrik Aiigshiir^ nn<l Ma^hsnt t ' tllschaft 

Nu« : A. G., while Fig. 2 shows a ihrec ton elect operated 

cmtie in operacion at Ghisgow\ Scotland, as installed by Stothert 81 Pitt. 

Ltd.* of Bath. Englmsid. 

Thlf^ portal t}^ o( jib electric crane was cunstructed for the Clyde 
Trustees and rcpresienis a form of crane largely utied in English harbor 
service. Hall portal cranes are abo largely employed of the general 
type of ibose shown in illustration. Fig. 4, the drawing, Fig, J. showing 
the consintclaon of the electric hoisiUng apparatus of one of these Eng- 
Its five-ton electric cranes at Ilcyshani harbor. 

The German lOO^ton hammer crane first mcntii>ned» it will be 
:ed tn Ft^. K is mounted on a low tower with six standards, which 
vided with very heavy trucks, so that the entire crane may be 
-iJ along cm the foundation provided far ihe purpose. Two 
ttis are prmided^ one beitig located on the top of the main girders 
tile other within the framework. The trolley carrying the heavy 
ittds tip to IOU.000 kg. may l>e operated the whole length of the super* 
ture^ which may be rotated through an entire circle if desired. 
The Midland Railway Co. have recentK installed at their new 
works in England a modern equipment of electric cranes and 
The 6ve*ton electric cranes at tleysham liarljur. installed 
hy Stothert & Pitt, Ltd., of Bath, England, are equipped with motors 



and switches of the type built by the British Westinghousc Co., the 
arrangement of motors and hoisting gear being shown in the accom- 
panying drawing, Fig. 3, while the six half-portal wharf cranes are 
shown ready for operation in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 4. 
These cranes are designed to lift five tons at a 34-foot radius and 
are worked by traction motors of the series type, the lifting motor 
having a capacity of 40 h. p. and the slewing motor an output of 7 
h. p., the speeds for lifting and slewing being respectively 100 feet 

Fig. 3 — Electric Five Ton Crane at Heysham Harbor, lyancashire, England. 

per minute and 400 feet per minute at the hook. By unshipping the 
snatch-block for double purchase and unslinging the hook at the end 
of the rope from its eye at the jib head and so using it in single pur- 
chase for lifting, half the weight can be lifted at double the speed of lift 
for full load. For the slewing motion double reduction gear is used 
and for conducting the current to the cranes about every 40 feet plug 
fittings have been provided and a twin flexible armored cable is 
utilized. The lifting drum is not keyed directly to the shaft, but is 
connected and disconnected by means of a coil friction clutch running 
loose upon the shaft when the friction clutch is disconnected. Th<! 


-— -? 

P^. #— Ftvr-Teifi C»sic« Jit HeyVluijii llarhtir. 

^•' -aBSSiiK^^Li 


-#^ t T r 

r«c. l^Nr* l*<r^ii lu»-Tuii Unmnitr t. i>ny liutAjied At l*ubliiL, IrrlAii* 

A lOO-Toii Rulary Tower Crane iit Dublin, IreJand, 

lifting motor, therefore, is never reversed and always operates in one 
direction by this arrangement. The winding drum shaft has keyed 
to it a main spur wheel, which gears directly with the pinion by single 
reduction with the lifting motor armature shaft. An electric solenoid 
is operated by a lever on the lifting controller which controls the 
lifting friction coil clutch. By moving the Hfting handle from the 
oflf position forward it is so designed that the current is allowed to 
pass through the solenoid and the clutch is placed into gear and electric 
lifting motor being started at the same time. As soon as the clutch is 
in gear resistance is cut out by further movement of the lever and the 
motor attains full speed. A mechanical brake is applied by means of 
a treadle and only two working handles are utilzed, one for operating 
the slewing mechanism and the other for controlling the lifting motion. 
At the Hey sham Harbor, the Midland Rwy. Co. also has installed 
a smaller wharf crane designed to life 2,000 lbs. at a speed of 250 feet 
per minute with a slewing speed of 40 feet per minute at the hook. 
This crane is equipped with a four h. p. motor and a 40 h. p. motor 
There are also six 1.5 ton jib cranes of the two motor type, each ofi 
which is equipped with a 3 h. p. motor for slewing and a 12 h, p. 





for lifting, the speeds being 250 feet per minute at the hook 
and 80 feet per misiiste respectively. These cranes arc of similar design 
to the larger cranes, the electrical mechanism being provided with 
oO'Voltege release so that the Hiting drum is held in case the electric 
current i^upply slicntid fail for an instant, the controller being thrown 
hack« an over-travel device al5iO being provided. At the end of the jib 
there h a curbed lever which is so arranged that when the hook rises 
against it a trigger is released by means of a cord and a weight is 
earned to fall under the influence of a dashpot, thereby stopping the 
Gfkfalg motor and ptitting on the brake automatically, the load being 
held in that positoo. Until the brake is free it is interlocked with 
the coalrolter so that the motor can receive no current. 

Br means of the **free barrel*' design or loose drum with friction 
clotch arrangement there is a great increase in the speed of lifting and 
lowering and there is les** danger of a failure on the part of the motor, 
as it is not necesary that the armature should be instantly stopped and 
reveraed, the motor being of the non-reversible type. With reversible 
it is al?io necesary to take into consideraiion the momentum 
ibc revolving armattire w»hen the hook nears the jib-head, otherwise 
the Kfttng mmor will not l»e checked soon enough, but with the free 
flrum arrangement and fricli<Hi clutch the lifting spred can be 
V. ... — v*l at a maximum and the load brought to rest instantly by 
'Operating the lever, the brake drum and the barrel only being required 
to »top, the?^e part<« having a small inertia* By this arrangement the 
curve of current for the utottir is practically horizontal line and an 
e^cemve current is not required at starting. 



The use of concrete is now so general 
and is extending so rapidly in various 
fields of construction that increased ef- 
ficiency in its manufacture has become a 
matter worthy of some attention. The 
objections to machine-mixed concrete 
have almost disappeared, it being recog- 
nized that this material possesses equal 
advantages with hand-mixed concrete, 
while for construction work requiring 
large quantities of concrete, the use of 
mixing machines is almost indispensable. 
A great variety of concrete-mixing ma- 
chines are now in use, and the writer has 

PiR« 1. 

recently made a study of their compara- 
tJvt efficiency. The purpose of the in- 
N'TStiKiitkm was to deal simply with the 
tHMWtwuc* of Ae process of mixing con- 
crt^tf by nvichine. Assuming tfie use of 
lS\x>d c^n\cm« st\^e« sand and water^ it 
was dtsirtd to determine the machine 
which \s\HiId nK>st econonucally and ef- 
fectiN^tly mix these nuiterials and pro- 
dmNf a cvHwrde of desitrtd c\>n^istency^ 
whether wtt or dn\ 

OMicrtliMnixins n^achines are of two 

general types : First, batch mixers ; Sec- 
ond, continuous mixers. 

Batch Mixers. — In this type may be in- 
cluded the following: 

(i) A revolving drum or cylinder 
(with horizontal axis), fitted inside widi 
deflectors, and capable of receiving and 
discharging a batch without stopping. 
The concrete is visible during the opera- 
tion of mixing. Fig. i. 

(2) A revolving drum formed by 
two cones (with horizontal axis). Fig. 
2. This also has inside deflectors, can 
receive and discharge a batch without 
stopping, and the concrete is visible dur- 
ing mixing. 

Fig. 2. 

(3) A revoh-ing circular pan or 
trough (with vertical axis). Fig. 3. The 
materials are deposited in the pan, and 
leveled by means of a fixed q>reader. A 
frame with radial arms carrying a series 
of plows is lowered into the pan and 
mixes the materials as fht pan revolves. 
This receives and di sc haigc s die batdi 
widK>at stoppii^. and die concrele is vis- 
ible daring the process of mbdng. 

(4) A horizontal ic f ol i ii^ cySada 
which stops to reoehpe and dncknigCy and 
mixes die 1 <■!! 1 1 li hi n iii I ii m. ■ImwiI 111 




I'his has Ik-cii adapted t<» tt>rni a 
icelc<l whjl:"!!. Fir. 4. the cylinder 
cvolveil l»\ v;earinK fp»m ihe axle. 
: tlu- k'ltcli •»! concrete may l)e 
durinu transpirtation. The cmi- 

C'tiicealed during; mixiii):. 

A hitrizMiilal iroujjh nt seini- 
ical cp»ss section. I'i^. 3. with a 
ilina! shaft carrying blades, 'these 
are set at an anj^lc s<» a> n«»l «»nly 

the inatrrial. but als4» feed llie 

: t*»uard the <!ischar)ie end. The 

.U are lhr«»\vn in and cinuTetc dis- 

I witlMiit '^loppinj' the niacliine. 

C'»ncreti- i«» visible during niixinj^;. 

\ cid» Ixix revi»lvin4 ah.jnl a 
tal axis pa^-iinj^ ihriauh t\\<» «li- 
\ iip|H.siu" ci»rners <»f the l)nx. 
riu- :raterial> are introduced 
1 a d "»r in • ne side. an«! I'u- c»»n- 
s <liscliarv:ed throuirh the same 
rile maciiine stops to receive and 
he !»atcii. ami the concrete is not 
.hirinj^ the mixing. 

\ cubical Imx revolvinjj^ ahuut a 
tal axi" as in I-'ij^. 7: see cut : but 
!Me ci»rner> tlir«»u;ih which this 
>se* cut a\\a\ to form tipenin^s 
lixin;: and dumpinj^ the batch. 
X can be lihe«l t«i «lischarj^e its 
si nee«l ni»t therefore l>e >tMpiK'd 
-1- •'[KTati«»n>. The concrete is 
huinv: mixing. 

nu'ii* Mixers. — I'nder this class 
:Tit Intled the follow inj^ : 

Vn inclined chute htte<l with 
:;:. S. The materials are ilirown 
ic up]KT end. and slide down by 

U-in;^ mixed by the ctmtinual de- 
* causetl b\ the pins. The con- 
\:sible during: the process. 

A scries of funnels placed one 
[ir other, and having; in the wide 
ot each funnel an inverte<l cone 
J a baAWr. Fij;. •>. The up|KT 
% dosed by a slide, and forms the 
far the cement, sand and stone. 

which are deposited in the order named 
and followed by the necess;iry rpiantity i»f 
\,ater. The >lide is then withdrawn and 
the materials fall by j»ravity. beini: mixed 
durinj^ their descent. The concrete is 
f<»r the most part invisible during the 
pn jcess. 

( 10) A loii}^ inclined 1n»x, Mpiare in 
section, revolvin.v; <»n its axis, as in l'*ij^. 
10. The materials are thrown in at the 
upper end, ami the concrete is discharj^cd 
at the lower end. beiu)^ practically invis- 
ible durinj4 the pnK'ess. 

I'lK- -t- I*an Omcn-le Mixer. 

MM Thi.s i> somewhat similar to \o. 

10, but the box is of c\lin«lrical form and 
is tiltetl with «leflecti>rs. as shown in I'ij^. 

1 1. 

( I J ) An open tri>uj^di or closed c\lin- 
der hitcd with a shaft on which are pad- 
illes or blades, to mix the ct»ncrele and 
feed it alon*: t«» the dischar;;;e end. as 
sh«>wn in I'i^. u. 

H».MrAkIS4i.\ oF lO.NiKKiK MIXKK>. 

Proceed in j^ to consider the two j»en- 
eral ly|K*s of c«»ncrete mixin;^ nuchines. 
it will first l)e necessary to impiire whe'' 



er all of the machines above enumerated 
actually fulfill the requirements for a 
batch mixer. The fact that a machine 
receives at one time the materials com- 
posing a batch of concrete docs not es- 
tablish it as a batch mixer. To deserve 
this title there should be a very reason- 
able certainty that the entire mass has 
commingled in the process of mixing; 
that is to say, that the mixing has not 
been performed along certain lines or 
planes. It may readily be seen that with 
a very perfect distribution of the aggre- 
gates, fairly good mixing could be per- 
formed without bringing all parts of the 
mass again and again together; but this 
nice distribution of materials does not ob- 

the distribution of cement along lines 
parallel to the axis of revolution in this 
section will vary in proportion to the 
thickness or volume of cement which is 
superimposed. That is to say, the pile of 
cement being dumped or poured with its 
greatest depth on a line at right angles 
to the axis of revolution and equally dis- 
tant from the two end planes of the re- 
volving drum or cylinder, will mix quick- 
ly with the stone and sand immediately 
underlying it, and will be carried very 
slowly and thinly towards the end of the 
drum, with result that the mass of con- 
crete composing the central section as de- 
scribed, will be much richer in cement 
than the portions of the mass next to the 

/to... ft 

iMg. 4. 

tain in the ordinary operations of con- 
crete mixing, and therefore the machine 
must be depended upon to so constantly 
change the position of the particles as to 
insure the most perfect commingling of 
the mass, and througli that condition ac- 
complish as nearly as possible the uni- 
form distribution of the cement through- 
out the batch. 

With a machine of Class i, whether 
the cement is dumped suddenly or 
poured on the aggregates, there is a de- 
cided tendency to produce concrete much 
richer in cement along the vertical sec- 
tion fat right angles to the axis of revo- 
lution) upon which the cement falls, and 

ends of the drum. To insure an equal 
distribution of the cement in such ma- 
chines, it has been recommended that the 
water be put in first, then the cement, and 
afterwards the other aggregates. In this 
case the water is made to act as a vehicle 
for the distribution of the cement. This 
treatment of cement is, to say the least, 
of doubtful practice. 

The same objections, though in a lesser 
degree, apply to Class 2. There is no 
evidence that the mass of concrete be- 
ing mixed is moved to any great extent 
in lateral directions between the vertices 
of the rotating cones. With Class 3, the 
cement is spread mechanically and quite 



over the surface of the other ag- 
es which have been [irevioiisly 
'Ilu' mass is mixed by the n»ta- 
f the |>aii i»r trough carry in.:; the 
:ates auaiiiNt the fixed plows, which 
set as t«» turn it ahemately tn the 
ind left, and are also sta^^rered 
to gradually move the mass fnmi 
Ic «tf the pan tn the nihcr. The 
« i*f tlu* maciiine de]HMi<ls up.»n the 
1> even distribution of the cement 
le Mirface of the other ajjjjregates 
the mixin;^' is commenced. ( Fij;. 

* 4 has the same restrictions with 
ice ti» the lateral movements of 
r.ide^ a"* l "lasses 2 and J, hul in 
V :iurkeii dej^ree. as it depends 
\i\fA\ tlu- n>tati(m of a cylinder 
1 :i Central axis. (Fig- 4^* 


I- : i: ■*» Tr. -11 ;^ li Concrete M i \cr . 

..I-*'* 5 the mas> of aj^grej^ates is 

li^trilmtetl b\ the rotation tif pad- 

ar:!!> f'lxeti in a revolvinj; shaft. 

rr ^ no evidence that the particles 

<n\i a Iwtch of concrete are caused 

• and rrpa>s each other in a di- 

;iarallfl to the axis of revolu- 

;;: 5». 

'.i'-'* '• i I'i^r. 6>. the planes which 
\\k :Iu- '-ides of the cubical box 
"11^ i:^ ri- vol lit ion in a very posi- 
r.TuT 'n the a;:j:re>»ates. 
"t the six planes acting alter- 

:n .iiu- revdulion of the cube, 
:-. :hr«»v\ the concrete from a plane 
n^ a curve of ascension against 
r with curve of descension : this 

uf (Hisitioii with re.;iard to the 

contents of the cube occurs with each 
one-sixth revolution t»f the cube about 
its axis, and thus the concrete is thrown 
from one side to another of the cube 
six times durin.:^ one revolution 

At the same time that those lateral 
movements of the mass of concrete arc 
IxMug alternately pnxlucd by the angles 
of the planes or side> of the cube to the 
plane of axial revolution, the whole mass 
of C(»ncrete is being lifted along the plane 
of axial revolution until the angle of re- 
jxise for the material is passed, when it 
gravitates l)ack along lines of direction 
which intersect the paths (»f these parti- 
cles projected by the alternating ix)si- 
tions of the sides of the cul)e in its revo- 

I'ig. 13 shi*.*s the apjK'arancc of a cid)c 
iK'ing rapidly rev(»lved about a diagtuial 
axis. It will be seen that the optical il- 
lusion «»f a curve is produce<l between 
these c»»nKTs which rotave in two vertical 
planes, by the intinity of change in the 
positions of the sides or planes !»f a cuIk* 
revolving t»n a diaj^'onal axis. Assiun- 

A* S C^ 

Hi)?. ♦*• Cii>>ical lUix C«hutcu- Mixt'i with ik. 

ing a level plane ••! virion pa>sing 
thrt»ugh the axi> «»t revolution t»f a cube, 
the f*K*us of a plane U-ing etpii-distant 
from the ends of the axis, the mx npjxT 
diagrams wt>uhl show consecutive views 
of a cubical box mi.xer suspen<led at its 
diagonal corners, on a hitrizt^ntal axis, 
each diagram sht»wing the tw«» visible 
sides of the culv ft»r one-sixth of a revo- 
lution. The arrow > indicate the direc- 
tion in which the concrete wi>uld l>e 
moved by the action of each plane or 



side of the box in the course of one revo- 

Fig. 7 represents a cubical mixer em- 
bodying all of the advantages shown for 


V'\%, 7. 

Class 6, and eliminating some very de- 
cided disadvantages of that class. In 
this mixer the concrete is visible during 
the entire time it is being mixed, and 
the machine receives and discharges the 
batch without stopping. 

In the continuous machines, as shown 
in Figs. 8 to 12, the aggregates pass 

Fig. 8— Oravity Concrete Mixer \\4th Pins, 
through in a continuous stream without 
being brought togetlier and mixed as a 
mass by the machine. This greatly com- 
plicates the question of uniformity with 

the resulting concrete, both as regj 
the even distribution of the cement 
the proper administration of water. 
would be useless to compare contim 
mixers with batch mixers, as the for 
fail in respects which the writer a< 
catcs as essential in the economic 
duction of good concrete. 

Table III. embodies some of the 
elusions which this review of nietl 
and machines for mixing concrete 
evolved, with reference for types 
Batch 1 25 25 5 5 5 7 

1 jai\.i 

1 1 























































































classes under discussion and their X\ 
ties for ])erforming certain fund 
which are c(^nsidered important in 
manufacture of concrete. The value 
signed to these functions though 
trary are belived to be in accord 
with the relative degre of importanc 
the functions for which thev are d 

' Discharqe 

Fig. 9— Gravity Concrete Murer with Fuj 
These values could hardly be other 
arbitrary, as perh»n« [i 

would. hold thi» < 
to the V 



ion*. The credits jjiven to contin- 

mixers in ci>lutnn A arc intended to 

the relative vahies of the c^Mitin- 

mtxers considered from the func- 


^:**-9L 9^t^i£f^ 

3 C 


fectly nii.xcd concrete. Xo ciMnparisnns 
are attempted as to cost of operation, as 
it can be readily understocKl that ma- 
chines of low efficiency an<! mininnun 
cost of operating: can in no way be com- 
pared with machines with hijjh efficiency, 
and hij^her C(»sl of operating; the jj^eat 
desideratum beinj: always the jK^rfect 

&id«> Vi«w End Vi«w. 

; 10~ Klont(atei1 Roz Oiacrete Mixer. 

of mixing only : and to com|)are 
values with the perfect value for 
ch mixer. In «>ther words it is a 
jni.'M «»f the result of the mixing; 
muMl h\ the continuous machines 

Z 11— AX'ylindrical Concrete Mixer. 

the higher :alues assigned to batch 
1^ nuuhincs on the same work, 
f varii»UN classes of machines have 
v'»n*iderrd merely fnnn the point 
fir abiliix t«» jK-rfi^rm positively the 
I'.n-* IMF pnnlucini: the most per- 

Fi>{. 12- Tnmgh Coni-reu Mixer. 

pnHluci. I am very much of the opin- 
ion that some machines pn^lucc f;ood 
concrete and others prinluce bad con- 
crete. If a iKMir machine is made to pro- 
duce p^ood concrete throuj^h takin^^ suffi- 
cient care in the manipulation, then the 
credit is not projierly with the machine, 
but is due to the manipulation. lM>r in- 
stance, a shovel is one of the most i>er- 
fect mixing: machines I have ever had 
experience with, hut the manipulation re- 
quired is intense. 77i«- best iiiiuhine for 
practical 7Kork is that which will pro- 
duce good concrete in lori^e quautities 
lath the least time and manipulation. 


new ^ Stag or •• •«» 

■^ «c«w«v<^tf Oft oi^mc ^ fK «i s 

V-.y. i:\. 


Although comparatively a new ma- 
chine, there has been enough done with 
it to prove that it is no experiment, 
though tried on different classes of ma- 

The illustrations show a derrick 
mounted on a framework built to swing 
and thereby permit the scraper or bucket 
to dump its load in a new place each 

The entire upper half of the machine, 
including the boom, engines, etc., rest 
upon from 1 8-inch diameter, extra heavy, 
single flanged, chilled car wheels which 
revolve on a 20 ft. diameter 60 lb. steel 
T-rail circle. 

A heavy center casting::: is also used for 
centering the wheels on the rail. 

The frame work carrying the track rest 
on two I2"xi4"x28 ft. timbers, forming 
the skids which are 26 ft. center to center. 

To these last skids are bolted four 4"% 
I2"xi2 ft. hard maple shoes or runners. 

The body of the machine is moved on 
7-inch diameter hard maple rollers run- 
ning on planks as a roadway. 

To hold the machine while digging, 
the front and rear rollers on each side 
are simply blocked by a piece of 4x4, 
concaved slightly. 

The A-Frame is made up of 12x12 
timbers and is 26 ft. high, extending to 
the center of the machine and strength- 
ened by two i'}4 suspension rods run 
through a 10x12 oak timber at the rear 
of the frame base. 

Scraper l)eing swung to dumping place. 



o iecore sliffnctt, the boom ts made 
iw Uro he rs spread about 40 inches at 
bMC, reinforced by several spreaders 
boha. The boixn rests on a 3- inch 
k piitiiig through main timbers sup- 
iof Iht duplies. 

or kKxaa trp to 50 ft tn length* two 
S-indi timbers are nsed and for a 
Um with a6 ft< A-frame, a 75-ft 
II is addom recommended, 
hi tecma are set and seldom moved 
r ftcclDittnfr the work, ami 10 ft i.< 

the engineer simply slacks up on tlie drag 

In ordinary diggin^;^ an engineer ought 
to average one luad in 45 seconds and ma- 
chines have dyg four buckets to the 
minute for 45 minutes straight: one 
bucket f»er minute for ten hours is a bet- 
ter calculation and jierhaps nearer the 
actual fi|HTaiimi of the tTiachtne. For a 
two yard bucket, i\\v% \*oulil mean laoo 
cu. yds* for 10 hours. 

The machine can lie used to handle a 

fro«n base of boom to center 

ke Kraptng bucket is lowered di- 
ly QDder the boom point and is put led 
Ifd the ma*. hint- by the drag Une. It 
ied in «3f>c to two times its length 
iaAig on the class of material 
IM and when filled ts hobted, the 
\g b tg in ning at the same time of the 
\ling of die bucket 
tie pofail of the bocket is held up by 
jMttion rope and when ready to dump 

clamshdl or orange-peel bucket for deep 

'ITiese machines are the product of the 
n. Cliannon Ca, Chicago, III 

Some New Inventions* 

SpecLatiy reported for this inmgaaine 
by C, I.,eroy Parker, Solicitor of Pateota, 
6^9 I- Street NAV., Washington, D, C, 
to whom all c or re sp o n dence with refer- 
ence to this matter should be addressed. 




No. 814,933. !March 13, 1906. 

/. E. Bcndickson. 
'Jliis invention relates to a novel con- 
veyinj^ device and has for its principal 
objects the provision of a simple and 
stronj^ construction of frame for sup- 
portin|:j a carrier mounted in such a man- 
ner as to be easily dumped and formed 
in such a way as to readily discharge all 

lower surface adapted to engage the head 
to prevent the rotation of the plate and 
shaft when the head is lifted into en- 
gagement with the flat surface. 

Forging a Lumber Dog. 

The lumber dog shown in the sketch is 
made of steel Jsx2xi3 in., punched at 
one end and drawn out as if for sharpen- 
ing a chisel. It is then bent about two- 

material therefrom when moved to 
dumping position. Another i>bject oi the 
invention is to provide means for c«.>n- 
trolling the dumping of the carrier and 
for keeping the frame on the trolley 

As shown the invention embodies a 
frame having a head, a bracket connected 
with the head, a shaft rotatably mounted 
<:\\ the br.icket a plate lixe<l to the shaf* 
and having a depression for receiving the 
lower part of a trolley rail, the plate ci^^n- 
stituting a guard for the trolley rail, and 
a trolley wheel mounted on the bracket 
above the guard, the plate having a flat 

thirds of the way round and the back 
drawn df>wn as thin as possible, but still 
leaving the point full width of the sted, 
or "s in. This kind of dog is commonly 

used in Oregon, says a corregKWidcat of 
the Blacksmith and 




Iff, Mounting, Rlinx and Check- 
Ins Uyt of BJtic FrinU. 
w UMStst J. ues. 

1/ Blme Prints: 

a modem tnanufacturtng shop 
I dim«riogs arc maile cif ilic product 
iucpriots are used to work from. 
red of rapid blue printttig lias led 
! tUK of the rapid paper and the 
ic Uae prim iraine. A handy dec- 
print frame that ha» been in 
rcral yeara is diown by 
the assefttbiy, by referring to 
ho the details, it will be noticed 

that the frame li of the type that u*es 
the fixed hanging arc lights and *teel re- 
Hectors huih in the hnes of a parabola. 

The main fnunc swings down from a 
hinge at the back ami the glass is held 
in a steel frame, also hinged at the back 
and supported by two wires at the front 
with a coil spring attached to reduce 
shock in opening and cl« lining. 

The pressure on the c^oth and paper is 
obtained by the weight of the glass on 
top and the main frame from below 
actuated by a counterweight on each side 
which controls a cam lever and in its 
two positions, either presses the main 


1 ig, 1 UlufTprixiting Machmr* 



frame up, or is locked in a neutral posi- 
tion, giving no pressure upwards. 

It is opened from the front by press- 
ing down the two handles A, this throws 
up the two counterweight levers B and 
puts the pressure directly on the main 
pin C, the frame being at rest. 

To close the frame, pull up on handles 
A ; this brings the cam lever B so that it 
has a right angle thrust on main frame 
casting D and in this way lifts the glass 
up with it. 

Note that the steel frame that carries 
the glass is hinged in a slotted hole in D ; 
this allows it to take a correct flat posi- 

this leaves sl i" margin all around after 
the blue print is mounted. 

To mount, first wipe oflF the sheet sted 
with a bunch of waste wet with alcohol, 
then give the blue print a coat of shellac 
on the white side, then the steel a light 
coat, place the blue print in position and 
press all air out from under with a light 
pine paddle, let dry and then coat face 
with white shellac and you have a 
mounted drawing, good for years, if nec- 

To remove the print from the sted, 
hold the sheet over a good hot forge fire 
and it will burn off, leaving a slight coat 


With tlie frame as detailed and two arc 
lamps, blue prints up to 24" x 36" can be 
made; it takes 50 seconds to make one 
with rapid paper. 
Mounting Blue Prints: 

For mounting blue prints, the writer 
has used the following method and found 
it very satisfactory for drawings from 
9" X 12" to 24" X 36". 

Use 1-32 sheet steel to mount on and 
cut to 2" larger than the blue print each 
way; then have /{>" turned back all 
around and pressed down flat and the 
corners rounded of? about yi" radius. 

of charrt'd paptT. This is easily brushed 
off and tlie surface is in good shape to 
iiinunt on again. 
Filing Blue Prints: 

If possible, keep the mounted drawings 
in the drafting room or near by and 
check out from there. 

Use the sectional case plan for fiUng 
the mounted blue prints and keq) these 
as near a size as possible. 

A case 4 foot long may be divided inb) 
twelve partitions by ^^ boards. Tbe rea- 
son for using heavy partitiCMiB 18 0^ ac- 
count of stacking up the cases ooe. ob'tiie 
other and using sheet steel, there K^ be 
a great weight to support 

In designing and arranging cases for 
filing blue prints, there is one very im- 
portant item to consider and that is, make 

inch dinKfiskms as will allow 
mbcr of ihe dmwiiig to come to the 
l^ttpper corner when 61ed. 
■ allowt the bojr to handle the 
Ki just rocking them over to find 
Set wanted and the number will be 
f fern. 

■MTse, one might say, why not 
B nusnbem on all four corner.H, but 
pireragc practice is to put them on 
nal nimcnt, if the cai^ is made cor- 
bc mtnsbcr will be at the top either 
Irawtiig IS put in. except in the case 
Kttare drawing which I think is 

buf Ottt <»/ Biuf Pnnis: 
■iler to check ool drawings, the 
ft tools are from ttie tool room. 
His necessary of course to have 
■ice to put the checks and like the 
Id drawings a good place to keep 

these is in a sectional case, 

A case (or cases) 15" deep by 18" high 
and 4 fool long, divided into three sec- 
tions with 14 drawers in each section, 
will accommodate too checks to each 

These drawers or rathers trays arc 
nothing more than a tlat board with 
fronts about i" high and brass knobs for 

Un these boards paste a blue print 
with too numbers on it. The method of 
making this is to take a piece of tracing 
cloth the size of the space to be used and 
cut out ion small squares of detail pa{ier 
of such dimensions that when pasted on 
the tracing cloth, there will be about >i' 
margin around every square. 

l*se this to make hhic prints from and 
you will get white squares with a Mue 
iliv'ding line. 



Print the drawing numbers on these 
white squares and also the size of draw- 
ing, so when a blue print is called for, 
the boy can tell just which case to find 
it in. 

For pins to place the checks on, put in 
small brads, as follows : Take a piece of 
good hard pencil eraser and make a hole 
through one end large enough for a brad 
to go through and use this as a jig; cut 
down the rubber to ^ or any height 
the brads are to project, place the brad in 
the hole, hammer it in till flush with the 
rubber and so save your fingers and at 
the same time get the pins a uniform 

With oak fronts and brass knobs, this 
makes a very presentable case and made 
on the sectional plan can be extended as 
the drawing numbers increase. 

Uniform Design of Reinforced Concrete. 


Reinforced concrete, although the 
most popular form of fireproof construc- 
tion at the present day, is a veritable 
chaos as to its dcsijLj^n. 

Quoting from a recent publication: 
''Many systems are patented and it is a 
common matter for designs to be fur- 
nished free, contingent on the designer's 
patent being used/' 

This seems to be an unnecessary state 
of affairs. Reinforced concrete should 
be standardized. Structural steel con- 
struction has been standarized until all 
mills roll the same sections. Standards 
devised by the various steel companies 
are practically uniform. There are no 
patents to speak of, and all designers tmi- 
formly adopt the standard sections rolled, 
and specify the imiform connections. 

There is no reason why reinforced 
concrete should not be brought to the 
same state of uniformity. 

Tt is true that there are at present a 
great varietv of so-called "systems" 

which have more or less merit, but it is 
also true that perfect construction can 
be and is every day being devised, which 
is not using patented forms or methods. 

Standard methods should be adopted 
in such a form that the architect engi- 
neer or contractor, is made entirely inde- 
pendent of the so-called patented **sys- 
tems," and at the same time the stand- 
ards should be so arranged so that where 
it is show^n profitable, a patented section 
could be substituted for the reinforce- 
ment shown upon the plans of the de- 

Until some systematic action is taken 
to standardize reinforced concrete, de- 
signers will be handicapped by the neces- 
sity of specifying some particular "sys- 
tem" or leaving the plans open for a free- 
for-all scrap as to who can do the work 
for the least money. 

Trii£ Akciini:cT and reinforced con- 

"What is the position of the architect 
today?" This question has been asked 
by nearly everyone in the profession. Is 
the architect to be the agent of the con- 
tractor, is he to be crowded out of the 
business by those who "design and 
build," or is he going to maintain his old 
prestige and stand firmly for his rights as 
to the character of the construction 
which is going into the building under 
his management? 

These questions must be settled at once 
and for all, and if the architect is to 
maintain his self respect and the confi- 
dence of his clients. 

At the present time there are com- 
paratively few architects who undertake 
to show upon their plans the methods 
which must be followed in the construc- 
tion of the reinforced concrete portions 
of the buildings under consideration. It 
is explained that the good methods are 
all .patented and it would be wrong to 
show anv one svstem. This is true oniv 


23 « 

extent that no contractor should 
tfivrn a pri-fcrcncc hy the sfKrcify- 
hi* system. "There arc just j^<mkI 
the sea as have ever Ixreii cau:4:ht." 
c architect shouKl assert his indc- 
icc by showing upon his plans 
€ knows ti) be a ii^ood form of ctm- 
m, and free fnnn patent royalties. 
may mean considerable study to 
Init to those who prove themselves 
? it will mean a restoration of pres- 
et now enjoyed hy many, 
■petition, where cost is to lie the 
1'^ |>i»ini. and design the battle 
I. is. t-i sa\ the least "penny wise 

► •und f«Hf|ish," if not actually 
:i:ii: i<» iTJminal nej;Iii:ence. 

rre tleNi:^niTs are to Ix* awanlcfl a 
L't u*T |»r«t.lucinj» a dcsi«;n cost- 

*> than any other, it i*i need- 

► »^\. that one will pnihably be 
d in which the insufficiency of ma- 

* the principal simrce of economy. 
iier..UN examples of failures. i>fteii 
n;^ in death, have provi-ii the 
. \*i^ |»<iund fi>olisir' principle in 
rtli.Nl .if pr<'v-edure. 

- — ^ 

N V ' 





- ^. 





> 1 



.. — __.. 

" 1 

Architects should keep before their 
minds the fact that they are held pri»- 
fessi(»nally and criminally res|)onsible for 
designs under their supervision an»l that 
no amount of bonding of a contractor 
will excuse them from not knr>wing that 
a design is incorrect. 

The only safe. professi(»nal. and >elf 
rcspectin;^ method to follow, is for the 
architect himself to educate himself \n a 
position where he can <lesign as he would 
in structural steel and permit of no tam- 
pering with his designs in the interests 
of economy, in any way which w<»uld de- 
crease the stability <»f the structure <»r 
jec»pardize his 4)n»feNsional standing. 

A Drawing Board for Patent Offke 

In the accompanying sketch which was 
sent to Am. Machinist by Mr. H. R. 
Jud«l. is shown a style of drawing Ixrnrd 
wliicli has been foun<l very useful for 
making final patent office drawings from 
original drawings, as it saves much tiuK* 
and unnecessary la\ing «»ut. 

The ih'vice consists t>f a wimuIcii Ik>x ^ 
with a piece of plate glas< H fitted into iT^ 
top as shown. I'onr deals /> are f:isl- 
eiied in the ct»rner> t»f the l>ox and a piece 
of ordinar\ wiinlow glass /:' cut to the 
>ize 1^1 the inside «»f the l)ox is placed up 
^ against these and held in place by the 
strips /•'. The holrs (#' are air holes, md 
the wintl«»w glass /•. is s«» placed as to U' 
in the center «»f the>e holes, as shown in 
the end view. Ihis arrangement keeps 
the heat from the light // away from the 
work which i> placed over the glass plate 




^ .r . -- -. • .■ J * 9 jr ^i*-nrf».n 

- - -S-- 

f ■ 








B and at the same time makes the task of 
copying the work as easy as though trac- 
ing cloth were used instead of thick pat- 
ent office paper. The light used can be a 
small incandescent light with a reflector 
/, running the wire K in through one of 
the holes G. 

This device may also be found useful 
in tracing blueprints and other similar 

Wrought Bends in Piping.'i' 


It is only a few years since the old 
time piper made all bends on the job. 
The pipe used was rarely larger than 2 
in., and the ability of the piper to put 
crooks and turns in a line of piping was, 
under the circumstances, remarkable. 

Wrought bends will save money, not 
only in the erection of a line of pi])ing, 
but in operating cost. 

As to first costs; a loni^ sweej) extra 
heavy cast iron ell, two extra heavy com- 
panion flanges, two corrugated copper 
gaskets, two sets of bolts, cutting two 
threads, and the cost of making up two 
joints, for a lo-in. pipe will be close to 
$30. To carry the above sized line 
around a corner, (Fig. 1 ), it will take 
18 ft. of pipe to measure 10 ft. each way 
in the run, allowing for the ell ; the same 
piece of pipe formed into a bend with 
the proper radius of about 8 diameters 
will reach a foot further along the line 
than the same pipe does with the ell, and 
the entire $30 for the two points is 
saved, less the cost of beanding the pipe. 
($8 to $10). 

Besides, a saving is etTected in the cost 
of covering the piping, as well as the risk 
of blow-outs at both sides of the ell or 
the rupture of the ell itself. The con- 
traction and expansion of a line of pip- 
ing may increase the strain on the el- 
bow far in excess of its factor of safety. 

With modern piping it is now possible 

to have a number of pieces of any si: 
welded together, obviating all trout 
with joints, as well as the actual risk 
their use. Such welds can be made mc 
cheaply than ordinary joints. Fig. 
shows four random lengths of pipe ma 
up into one piece about 80 ft. long a 
making a 45'' bend near each end; t 
will reach as far around a corner ir 
line of pipe as five lengths of pipe w 
an elbow at the cover. Such bends n 
be made of two or three welded leng 
of pipe and shipped easily in lots 
open cars and at an enormous savi 
over the use of ells, flanges, and or 
nary fittings. 

Fia I. 



For water pipe lines for hydrai 
work, about mines and for high h< 
water power use. there ought to be mi 
of such bends used, both for results 
use as well as for the saving effected 
the first installation. 

In laying out a pipe system n 
wrought bends it is iiT •* tp ' 

the largest radium ' 



times the nominal diameter of the 
% a good nile for the radius and 
\ larger radius can be used. Bends 
rarly always he used with random 
s as to the distance from center of 
jti to one end or both ends of the 
The straight pipe used in connec- 
rith the bend can be cut readily to 
t to cut the ends ofF a piece of pipe 
iread it after it is bent is an alto- 
• different pni|K>sition, — /:w,C- Qnd 
jf Journal. 

Blueprint Specifications. 

en a number of copies of spccifica- 
r other (taper arc wanted, and none 
ordinary mcthcxis is convenient or 
blc. make blue-prints from the 
ritten sheet, su;^j^csts a corrcspon- 
■f the . Imcrican Machinist. 
ite the matter «tut on the typewriter. 
.^ a piece of carlKtn paper in back 
'. ^heel. to ;^ive the printing density 
>ih sides of the pa|)er, then pro- 
\i::h the blue-prints in the usual 
cr I'se manifolding paper, the 
oalletl unglazed onion skin. Kor 
prints unc new carbon paper and 
the prints irom that, in which case 
ttcfs will api>ear nn a white ground. 
arl>'n paper is m*ire expensive than 
hire ikafter. — Ex. 

To Straighten Tracinf Cloth. 

writi-r in Machinery says that the 
i;: ik*th when it comes from the 
r in rolled with the glossy side in- 
but if unrolled much of the elas- 
wi!! be taken out of it and the 
tng« will then lay flat. 

DrafUmen's Orfanizatlon that 


om ten yean ago some of the 
[ in one dt Fennevlvania's 

large eastern cities, feeling somewhat 
after the fashion of the Pencil Pushers, 
who write so well in favor of a drafts- 
mens' organi7.ation, decided to form a 

Invitations were sent out, and a meet- 
ing held, with twenty-eight draftsmen 
from Pennsylvania, New Jersy and Dela- 
ware present By unanimous vote is was 
decided to organize a draftsmen's club 
for social and educatiiuial improvement. 
Then followed a series of meetings at 
which there was long and much unnec- 
cessary squabbling over by-laws and mat- 
ters of little imj)ortance, which, neverthe- 
less, consumed much valuable time, 
created dissensions, and disgusted many 
who would have made gixnl members. 
This long controversy over by-laws 
makes it evident that in f(»rming an or- 
ganization it will l)c wise for eight or ten 
draftsmen to meet and draw up by-laws, 
and not make too many. Let them set- 
tle everything, officers and all, and when 
they invite new men to join, they, the 
new men, will understand just where 
they stand and what to expi*ci : also there 
will Ik* left nothing except the (;<)()!) 
OK THK (>RGAX1Z.\T1(»\ to cause 
discussion. .\s the new members come 
in they can be assigned tti the various 
working committees, and everything will 
move harmoniiuisly. In the club men- 
tioned, many of the leadin;: spirits Ih*- 
lieved that the life of the club depended 
upcm their ability to obtain a costly 
permanent hnme where the members 
could meet together frequently, and 
where open house for visiting draftsmen 
could be f«)und. 

It was impossible to accomplish this, 
however, until a large membiTship was 
obtained, which was never done. Some 
draftsmen not approving of an organiza- 
tion s«» ex|K'nsive to the individual mem- 
ber, and other draftsmen knowing of the 
failure of an attempt to organize, by 



other draftsmen, a few years before 
waited to see whether the resuhs of our 
endeavors would be more fruitful. The, 
shall I say, unconscious influence of these 
two sets of men who witheld their sup- 
port in the beginning, not only materially 
crippled the efforts of those most zealous 
for the welfare of the club, but also re- 
strained others from lending their aid. 

The question of securing and furnish- 
ing a home was an important considera- 
tion with us, and three schemes were 
proposed for its accomplishment. One 
that was defeated practically without 
consideration, was to rent a furnished 
room for two nights a nn)nth. Another 
was for a number of the more zealous 
members, who felt able to pay annual 
dues of $15.00 to form a club, furnish it. 
and allow the general organization to use 
the rooms for a nominal sum. This did 
not prove ]K>pular for obvious reasons. 
The last scheme was to issue bonds in 
five and ten rlollar lots, to be subscribed 
for by the members. Uy this time, al- 
most a year of dittVrences of <.)pinions, 
nothing rjoing, except, as in modern 
phraseoloj^ry wc term, heated atmosphere, 
the attendance began to decrease and fin- 
ally the organization came to an end. 


1. A determination to have rooms, 
and to do things that only old established, 
and strong financial organizations can do. 

2. \rany members having a pet fad 
which must be made the ])rime reason for 
the organization's existence, or I will do 
all 1 can to prevent its success. Some 
actually did. 

3. Wasting much valuable time in 
long unnecessary squabbling over by- 
laws and other matters of little import- 

4. A class feeling against foreign born 

5. The fact that a previous attempt to 
organize had proven a failure, had the 

effect of causing many to withhold their 
support until they felt assured of a sue- | 
cessful issue. 

Now as to the formation of a drafts- 
mens' association, I believe it is well 
recognized that no profession was ever 
more in need of a society or fraternal or- 
ganization. It also seems to nie that as 
the editor of IhcKciiing's Industrial Mag- 
acijic is, perhaps, in touch with more 
members of the craft than any other per- 
son, he is the one to do the preliminary 
work. I take the liberty of suggesting 
that he write to a number of draftsmen 
whom he may know to be interested, re- 
([uest them each to submit a set of by- 
laws. These may afterwards be rear- 
ranged to form a composite set embody- 
ing the features submitted by the above 
draftsmen living and working under dif- 
ferent conditions. Browning's Industrial 
Ma^i:aciue could then print the by-laws, 
with a recjuest for the names of drafts- 
men willing to organize, or join a local 

Obviously there are many details that 
will develope and require much work on 
the part of the organizer, an<l his com- 

Shall We Organize? 

( )ur circumstances as draftsmen de- 
pends S(^mewhat upon our surrounding 
conditions and our destiny, greatly upon 
that which we wish to make it. 

The foundation for us to build upon to 
succeed with our work, is to have self- 
reliance, with confidence in those about 
us and an interest in the profession, and 
all, housed within the wails of a society. 
Are we too busy that we cannot take 
time 10 look about us. to see if something 
cannot be done to make the task easier, to 
encourage a brother, and make our draft- 
ing methods more beorf*^"'? Here w© 
are, a body of « ^ 

draftsmen, of all 



thi^ laml. each cmc hustling "mainly for 
himsrit.** ami surely there arc s<Mnc out 
i«f \\\\s number, who are willing to join 
hanits by organizing a national society 
f»i tiraitsmen. 

The Editor has been very kind and 
«tKT};etic in our behalf by publishing sev- 
eral articles auil constitutions, and he has 

• 4her^ise maile it i)ossible for our or- 
canizatiiin through the medium of this 

\Vc see in the April issue a call to 
«m«l delegates to meet at Cleveland soon. 
It liehiMives every draftsman to avail 
h:ni^lf ol this o|)|M>rtunity or to express 
\ms vicM^s. 

A *i^*iety will give mutual impn»ve- 
mctii and many advantages that we can- 
T>< 'lUain in any <ither manner. 

Ihe success of one will be the success 

• •i the other, and all linked together in 
that success. May each one have courage 
i<> lielieve in himself to do s<»mething 
*^«rth while ft»r the pn>fession. and a dc- 
lrmi:nati«*ii ti> help organize it. 

Yours respectfully, 

M-.i^aukee. Wis. 

Recent Inventions. 

>}<cially re|M»rted for Hniwuing's 

Ma;:a7ine l»y i'. I^Roy Parker. Solicilnr 

i I'atcnt*. uyi V. St. \. \V., Washinj*- 

*"^\. U. ('.. t*i whom all corre>|)*)ndencc 

* th reference ti» this matter sImuM Ik* 


N" Hi 4^5 J. March <». u/rf). 

Hciurkh Kern, 

The recently patented inventi«>n shown 
* the accompanying illustration relates 
^ cmpaues and similar instruments 
«di as dividers, calipers, etc. The prin- 
^ckfKlof the invention is to provide 

A i ■oereted in 

which the stem handle is al\\a\> main- 
tained in a vertical |M>sition with relati<»n 
to the working surface of the drawing. 

In the use of the device the stem han- 
dle fnrms the same angle with the legs ir- 
res|K»ctive of the degree of srpa ration. 

The handle in this ix»siii«Mi with rehitinii 
In the device is always maintained per- 
pemlicular to the plan of the drawings hv 
virtue (pf a forked spring mounletl in the 
handle and exteniling downwardly m» 
that its let;s nverlap on each side a rigiil 
spur carried hy a >laliiinar\ pivt»l plale. 

UKAWiNc; AM» iMoMiNr, i>i:m*|.. 

No. 814.78*;. March 13, i«)ik». 

liJuxird />. Mackititt^sh. 

In the accompan\ing view a novel 
«lrafling instrumeiU is shown, which has 
lK*en recenil\ patented. This invention 
emlxnlies a drawing and plotting iK-vice 
in which a movable su|»p4irt is eniplovnl 



lliat is provided with one or more ad- 
justable rulers or straight edges. The 
brackets in which the straight edges are 
sui)ported and the support for the struct- 
ure as a whole are so assembled that 

when the parts are adjustably set, the 
niovenient of tlie support in a direction 
parallel lu a predetermined line is as- 

r.KAM (OMl'ASS. 

\«». X1J.3J2. l\'b. 13, i<>>f'>. 

Thomas X. Bndi(er. 
In the accompanying illustration a 
n«)vel beam compass is shown which has 
been recently patented and the essential 
features of the instrument are a thin beam 
adapted to lie flat upon the paper and an 
adjustable holder capable of supporting 
or holding a pen or pencil in a position 
IL^enerally perpendicular to the beam, the 
hohler being movable upon the beam and 
having means for clamping or fixing it at 
any desired point in the length of the 
beam, together with a means for holding 
one end of the beam at the center from 
which the arc or circle is to be struck 

and around which the beam is freely 

In describing an arc from a given cen- 
ter the beam is held at one end at tlie 
center by fixing a needle-point X, as 
shown in Figure 1, into the drawing 
board through a small hole made in the 

steel tape or beam A. This hole in is 
located on the zero-mark of the beam. s<> 
that the recjuired measurements are ac- 
curately read and determined from that 


Xo. 813.1.S5. Feb. 27, upl 

n. D. Coppage. 

The accompanying view illustrates a 
new departure in slide rules. As shown 
the device comprises a straight trans- 
parent cylindrical tube, a split cylindrical 
tulK% with scales thereon, fixed within 
the transparent tube and a straight slide 
in the split cut having a side, with scales 
thereon, equivalent in width to the chord 
of the missing arc of th^ fivmV "«^1«-ttibe. 

llie device is • 



itor i'laiiipN iho ttihc for aUuit twn 
rtlrctl ami M'Vi'nlx <lc;;rocs, liavinj^ a 
tp»n loiKcniric with the exterior of 
I tulK", In -in which exteinN tan;;eiuial 
II* •ii.*^ whirli are •»!)'- >et radial to saitl 
p l«» reroive an eyelet rivel. wliicli 
IS the einl'i t«»'^ellier. Ity qraspin;; the 
let Ntweeii iliiinih and *ieoi!id finder 

nq 2 

Ho 3 

|''ai'itii: lir^l hn.;;iT luck »»! the loop 
r:\tJt'i p. -rtitin can lie pre>sc<l t<>- 
i :lw tuhr. c;m>in;; the tan;^enlial 
' !i* :.' i. ! a^ t«»L:'»:leN. whicli l«»rce 
•! :lu i».-rti««!i t»t indi..*ator which 
> ::5c :ii!»c. llio in«licat<»r can then he 
:.. :n"VeiI. \'\y^>\\ reh-a-^ini: the lira^p 

of the tin;4:ers the indicator will Ik- sn nre 
in any ptisition. The iiuiicattir may U- 
nia<le in the fi)rni uf a split cylinder hav- 
inj^ the desired frictional til u|H»n tnln- a. 

A Pneumatic Eraser. 

A typewriter eraser has been devisril 
hy 'Jhc rneuniatic l>aser Cn.. < >wens- 
lM»ro, Ky.. in which a bulb is attached at 
one end and tlie eraser has a hole thrMU,;h 
it connectinji the bulb. 

The device is held as an ordinary 
eraser with the bnlb iiiulcr the palm «»f 
the hand and by pressing slij^htly a cur- 
rent Mf air is fnrced through blow in,::; 
away the dust. 

It will in this way av^id the use i»l* 
moist tin^^ers which often smear the 
wi>rk. No doubt it would wt»rk well «»n 
iracinjis. Price is J5 cents. 

Civil Service Examinations. 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission 
announces an examination on June i^^. 
i«;c)^'), to secure elij^ibles fri»m which ti» 
make cert ificai inn t<» till vacancy in p^ 
sition Ml cn-^incer auil carpcntn a\ 
ls'»<»o.o(^ JUT annum, in Indi.ui srivi^c ;il 
W'imuba^^o, \"rl> 

Also for Mechanical .'^npti iiitciidriii. 
Ihireau «•( I'risi.n.s. Manila, at Sj.5tn» per 


• ' '• ^ t'.i'Tiiii 111 I* til ihrfri:t- i>f Mr A II. It \Rnii i. n.irttiuil C"iiii .mtl .,in -.ii. •!!•.« jM »m tn«.«i-'.| 
■' ffii4N i! *i III «!iii*tU t«i liim Thi <1» i^iHim ni i-* iiUi iiilnl !.• .jixi « •>! ;t 1 1 .iitout i<* !•> «)n< o(i"ti<. ..! 

T;«»»f«: M ik» \.-ii' .|iir*iitin i»«imil» li N.tnii .iikI .hIiIm oo iiniol .i«i*>in|Mii\ i.uh itm t\ . .«lth>>ii^li 

• ''.1 •- t.,iS!i..!i».! 

J U there a NN.k i»n the market tell- 
, ■ ■<i\ ti« n;:ure "lU ani:le>, <le'.:rees .»f 
r.f rath:. c«»s.. cut,, etc.. <»n railmads: 
^Vi think thai Iraulwine^ 't'ivil l!n- 

These are s\ hmumh. ms terms. I he 
lerm, "Scale: * Mie-half >i/i" is used I • 
show thai the ihawin;.: is hall ihr 
si/e i»I the ••hject rejn eseMlrd. Sh-uM 

ittr - l'«H-ket liiHik" will ;iive yi»u the t!ie term "^ »ne half Inch Scale " W em 

'•r:uti«»n \««n desire. 1 This ina\ be 
ainoi lhp»uv;ii the rtrownin.;: l*re>s. if 
I chiHiso. 

(. Will yitu please explain the ditYei- 
nr between one*half scale- and une- 

pl«'\etl. it means thai eacii ••tie half in. h 
ttu ihe •Irawini: represents ».iie i'imi; 1.11 
llie •'bjecl represented. Ihe lalTtr t«i-i: 
is •»iten Used m ci»nversa! Inir the l«»! 
l«iwin^ is ;^enerall\ printed <»n tlie •haw- 
ing. "Scale: ' .• inch - l f<Kit." 



The Follies of Some Foundry Super^ 
inten dents. 


I do not know whether it is ignorance 
or stnpidty on the part of some foundry 
superintendents in regard to the mixtures 
of sand for certain purposes. 

1 will give you an instance that came 
under my observation of a foreman that 
had been with a concern for some time 
and became a superintendent of another 

The shop he came from was doing a 
good class of work in green dry sand and 
loam moulding, hut somehow when he 
toi^k charge of the other foundry, all of 
his loam castings were scabby and there 
soon accumulated a large pile of bad 
castings outside the shop as high as they 
could place them with a crane. 

I thought that he would have broken 
them up but instead they accumulated 
until there were no other place to put 

Perhaps he did not get the same rc- 
([uest as 1 did at one time from the man- 
ager of the foundry of which I had 
charge. He said, "Tom, 1 have seen a 
bad casting out in the yard the i)ast two 
days. Why dc^n't you have it broken 
up? We do not wish to be l(K)king at 
our misfortunes all the time. Put it in 
the cupola. It is a good plan to get this 
eye sore out of the way as soon as you 

It surely is not for want of experience 
on the part of this sui)erintendent, for 
he had been foreman of this other foun- 
dry for nearly 20 years. He evidently 
ha<l knowledge enough or should have 
had, but he kept on experimenting with 
the loam all the time, and in one case had 
used six difTerent mixtures in one job. 
A good loam moulder can tell what it is 
as s(M)n as he has i)Ut his hand in the 
mixture. Xow what impresses me so 
forciblv is that when thev have had so 

much experience in loam moulding ami 
making such good castings, why they 
did not use the same mixture. 

There is no excuse that he couljn^t 
get the same kind of sand for the coun- 
try is full of it, but one of the causes is 
on account of the height of the oven 
which was said to be about 20 feet. This 
would cause the moulds to dry on top 
and be wet on the bottom and a loam 
mould should be thoroughly dry before 
casting to make a successful job. Even 
small castings with about 3 ft. of sur- 
face were the same. 

Here are two mixtures that have been 
relied on to give good results for dry 
sand : Three of mould sand and 6 of 
sharp sand with sufficient core compound 
to make it workable. I have seen fire 
right on the mould for some length of 
time and it did not burn it as it would 
with other mixtures. 

I'or loam, 3 moulding sand, 6 of 
moulding sand, i of manure mixed with 
thin clav wash. 

The Placing of Pipe Unions. 

The Hrowning Press, Collinwood, O. 

(ientlemen: Your article on the Lay- 
out of Piping in the March number 
prompts me to make a few remarks re- 
lating to unions and the placing thereof. 
In laying and connecting piping it is al- 
ways desirable to avoid the use of too 
many unions, but at the .same time a 
sufficient number should be introduce<l 
into the i)iping system to provide for 
changes that now and then becomes nec- 
essary and to allow of connection being 
made without unnecessary delay. Un- 
ions impro])erly placed may become a 
constant source of leakage especially so 
if placed on pipes with rigid end connec- 
tions, of c(nirse on lines of any consider- 
able length an expansion joint .^should be 
introduced miless the pipe is of small size 
and laid in such a way that the expansbn 



p by the "spring** or flexibility 
nnectitMis. (treat care should 
ctl, however, where cast iron 
r tised, as the combined strain 

pressure and expansion may 
1 to burst. C ast iron fittini^s in 
ould be use<l only on low pres- 
, they arc convenient to use in 
ere piping; must be renewed 
. as they can be removed by 
hem with a few blows of the 

In the sketch shown it would 
lie to place a union just «nit- 
e check to provi<le for taking:; 
oflF withtiut rip|>in^ up the en- 
1. If the upper (Supply pipe) 
d to the boiler by a flanjje no 
►n would be necessary, assum- 
jrse. that the plant is a small 
licated by sketch. 

Respectfully yours. 

C. M. C.M-KA.NAN\ 

\i». 2U'> \. Division St.. 

Ruffalo. X. V. 

Nny in Tramway Tracks. 


ilamm. of Hull, sends the fnl- 
'•tcnptiiin of a demonslratitMi 
ximIs. I'.nf;land. of a simple yet 
il invention connected with the 
rack: The present metlnKl of 
iinraiU i*; tti make them in onc- 
th«i. 1 1 i<i only the upjHT sur- 
I recrives any wear, and when 
m init the whole rail and con- 
lavr i»i hi' ti»rn up. and a totally 
nient put di»wn. Tlie inveiuion 
the rail int«> tuo parts — sepa- 
hirarint: Mirface from the f>or- 
nler ^uf»|Hirt It allows of the 
f the wearing surface when 
uithoitt pnlliuc up the whole 
dway or interferini; at all with 

the under girder, which is tied down to 
the concrete bed. Under this system the 
renewing of tramrails apparently becomes 
as easy as resolin|3^ a worn pair of boots. 
The invention is not in the rail.s. but in 
the machine requisite for combining the 
two sections effectively. One locomotive 
carries the three machines that are neces- 
sary, one machine for rollinjj on the up- 
per rail and two for cuttinfs^ it off when 
it is worn out. Tlie wearinjar portion of 
the rail fits down over the lower portion, 
the rollinjT-on machine bending the de- 
pending flanges inward so as to grip the 
supporting rail. These depending flanges 
are converted into cold-rolled springs, 
with an inward grip so intense that at a 
test made by the Shefl^eld Test Works 
the adhesion of the top section to the 
bottom section in a length of only i foot 
was found to be 23 tons. The cutting 
machine cuts a groove into one of the 
depending flanges of the rail to a depth 
of one-third or half the thickness of the 
metal, while the hreaking-off machine 
applied to the two flanges breaks off the 
partly cut flange, thereby releasing the 
head rail. These operations do not in 
any way injure or disturb the under T 

If each time a renewal of the rails l»s 
necessary the cost of taking up the whole 
of the track is avoided there must be a 
great saving, and the general manager 
of the Leeds tramways estimates thi*; 
economy at 53 1-3 per cent, .\noiher 
;^reat advantage claimed for the system 
is that the work of renewals can he d«»ne 
very s|>eedily at niv:ht and involves so 
small an amount of material on the roail 
that the trafllic i^i very little interfere<l 

It i*» si4i<l that oil or fat will destro* 
Portland cement. cauMng cracks an I 
even disintegration i«i a few numths 




Sf»ine daf^s laid in iS')! in London 
wen- snl)jcct to a daily avcraj^c traffic 
of .j^.(Kj<) jK' and were llioroni^Iily 
worn out in 188.4. 

Anionj; tnrs tlic dm readies an a^e 
(»f ,^^^3 years; the ivy. 450; the chestnut, 
rxK); the cedar, 8<kv. the <»ak. i.5(K), and 
the vew, 2,8(X). 

Winsled, Coini. Miss Clara Smith, 
who lives with her hrother. William 
Smith, iMi the X(>rthiield road, in 
'I honiasion, has invented an au.uer that 
will l>ore a s([uare hole. She is of in- 
;^enions mind, and carpenters say there 
is a fortune in it for her 

(ounsul Hannah, wriliuLC from Maiitle- 
huri:. says that the \ erein der IVulchcn 
/nckerindustrie has otYered a prize K^i 
.'^j.^^So for a machine that will solve the 
pri»hlem i'^i satisfactorily di^iiini: heels 
an<l headini:- them at the >amc time. 

I >r. r. I''. Shaw, «»f the I'nivi'r.siiv (.'ol- 
K\L;e. Xoiiin.uham. l-'nj:;., has comj^leU-.l 
•m apparatus makiujLi it j>ossil>le to mca>- 
me the one sovent\-millii>mh pari of an 
inch, and which will ]^ri»ve kA !.:rcal u>e 
to scientists in their researches. 

'i'ho Hrai'iHan tu'ivernmeni hw-- a]»]>r" 
printed $S*\iXX) I'M- carrvin- .»n: vrtrxcv-- 
\\v 1 .»ihri works in order U* ilc\cl«'p llu- 
e«-.v ni'.nr^ .tf Bra/il. The mailer i^ in 
»''.n\:e I'l" ilic Ministry of ln]n>:r>. 
\\a\N of C^'»mninnication, and Puhlic 
W 01 kv. al l\i ' Janeiro. 

h.nix .onv-.l.ii reports of I'ehruary l^^ 
.-•■.:;. iMird m\ !i;' ' -^n tlic ceramic pro- 
dii 1 Un..\\n .1-* '\ ..' . ■' -1 steci." which is 
m.i.l. .'I lnu!\ ]•■• \ 1 feldspar, sand. 

.ir.' ! i:«- in{<< .1 i» -:. .m»l haked in an 
■ \. I '»r p!- '.i:!. ; IS an ran hen ware i»f 

crreat hardness and durability, the cal- 
cium contained in the feldspar givinj; it 
the name "calcium steel." 

'Ihe lialdwin Locomotive Works, uf 
Philadelphia, have just contracted to sii])- 
ply 20 enj.,nnes to the Italian State Rail- 
way, delivery to be made durin^^ the CDin- 
ini; sunnncr. The machines will be tjf 
the American type, 10 simple and 10 
compound, with slijjht modifications as 
to weight and fittings to meet the neces- 
sities of the lighter Italian roads. 

Consul Smith, of Victoria, writes that 
the Minneap<>lis syndicate which pur- 
chased 43,(XiO acres of fir and cedar lands 
on X'ancouver Island estimates the land 
lo contain a billion feet of lumber. The 
company proposes to build a mill with a 
capacity of 40,000,000 to 7(),<xx:),ooo fed 
])er anmnn. A railroad will he buih tu 
the coast, an»l the company will operate 
its own tleet of tui::lx.>ais. 

(oiisul Kavndall writes from Daw- " 
>"n iliat WMfk has l>een bcL^nn \)\ the 
Canadian aui]i«»rilies hlastini^ oiu the 
P'cks uliich impede navi.i;alion up the 
i"'i»n\mile river from the ^'ukon Asa 
roult ilie work of the miners on the 
Aiiurican >i.le will he s;reatly henelilc'l: 
hm Canada will j^el the trade of the 
mines, which in the lont:: nm is worth hy 
f,ir ni.Ti- ilian the gold that come> "Ui 
i'f ;he ;:r"inul. 

An oi the wireless tck- 
;L:rapli\ s\>:<.'m of Lower C'alif<jniia is rc- 
p. Tied hv (". -nsul KaisiT. at Mazatlan. 
The irac^iiHTv installation will be nia<lc 
n: ."^^aTi I ^i .K-i Cabo. at the end of the 
piT."n>;i;a. aTi! at the port of I -a I*a/, 
in Sinoi.'.'.. l'\ a •^rman company, which 
secured :^:i c ■•i:ract. anil will install Im?ii- 
; -Mv •iiii-iy- u::i cinding machinery. c<>n- 
:ii^ii. .n- . 11; ■ iv; dynanu»s. storage batter- 


han^c ill the niakc-iip of our read- 
igcs may he iii>tcil in this issue, also 
r hea«hn};s Some more iinprove- 

will apitear in the July issue, ]kt- 
iK»re pa^es. 

r mechanical department has been 
ted by the addition of an improved 
np machine which insures a nuich 

s machine has a capacity i>f from 
icet to aNait 'n of an inch so that it 
isil\ lake care t»f any increase in the 
irsH «»f the ma.:^azine. 

re is a sample application just re- 


pmen : 

iw >t»ur Add in ttnlays Star. Am 

ar* 'if av^e was raised witii an en- 

11 k lalluT iK-inj^ an eni^ineer am at 

It unempl<»\ed." 

Y*»ur.s very truly, 

William \Vils«»n. 

:rr iJie recent shake-up in C\'ilif«»rnia 
•t the first calls fi»r help in rehuild- 
a^ fur draftsmen. 

:hitet^^is were rushed ti> jjel out plans 
rpri.vement and new buildinv^s. 

c Tv^rch of concrete j;oes on, there 
* til lie no limit to its |x»ssihilities. 
irrr* are producinj^ month after 
1 new w«»nders in this line of con- 
:>ii. i >f course, all of them are nt)i 
that the artistic sense demands, but 
n.ii^i lie a bev: inning in all thin;:s. 

nal, asking that he recommend a "cost- 
analysis engineer." 

They want an engineer who has had 
considerable field experience and (nie 
who has a good knowledge of costs. This 
engineer will be put in charge of their 
cost keeping department and will be 
called upon to estimate on future work. 

There are not many cost-analysis en- 
gineers in the country, if we mean by 
that term to designate civil engineers 
who have made such a thorough study of 
costs and cost-keeping as to entitle them 
to be called specialists. 

The field of activity for engineers as 
employees of contracting, or as contrac- 
tors themselves is greater and better than 

The day of cost -analysis engineers has 

A Nr^- Type of hnglncer. 
r iAhcT day a firm of contractors 
' the nlilor of an engineering jour- 

Hirini: Transient Help. 

Some foremen have a custom uf giv- 
ing preference to an ouisiile w<»rkman 
over their resident workmen. There are 
times when a g»M»d U»y is started in un a 
small job at Sj.oo or $3.00 a week, and 
he will Ik* very diligent in his work and 
push himself up until he is ni>t only 
caj>able of. but is actually doing a man's 
Work, and after working for several 
months for a l)i»y's wages, doing a man's 
work, it is natural f4)r the young man to 
feel that he oUj^ht to have an increase in 
wages, and sometimes after asking for 
an increase he will be given a very small 
one. Now this young man was doing the 
wi»rk of an onlinary man who was earn- 
ing $iJ.(»o or $14.(X> jKT week, and the 
young man doing the work satisfactorily, 
t<M», for a few dollars jier week. Then, 



to think of only receiving an increase of 
fifty cents or a dollar on the week, makes 
him feel discouraged, because he knows 
as well as anyobdy ought to that he is 
not being paid fair wages for the work 
he is doing. But he keeps on with the 
work and finally feels that he ought to 
say something about an increase again, 
so he accordingly asks that he be given 
as much per week as was paid the man 
who previously did the work; but for 
some reason or other the foreman thinks 
or feels that the young man is trying to 
blutT him, so he does not give him the 
amount asked for and the young man 
resigns his position. Then along comes 
(Mie of these transient workmen, possibly 
from a large city, and experienced in the 
work that this young man has been do- 
ing. Without regard to the man's habits 
or character he is asked to do this work, 
and instead of telling him the amount he 
will be paid for doing the work he is 
asked what wages he would want for 
doing the same. The applicant, of 
course, will not do the work for less than 
has hct^n paid an experienced workman, 
so the foreman puts him to work and he 
is paid $12.00 or $ a week for the 
work, and the quality of this man's work 
is far below the standard of the young 
man's whose place this journeyman is 

There are cases when a workman will 
try to run a blutl on the foreman and de- 
mand higher wages, but in a great many 
limes it is not a bluff and the person ask- 
ing the increase is simply turned down 
and the foreman will turn around and 
pa\ a stranger just whatever he asks. 

The merits oi the young man who has 
worked his way up in the factory should 
Ik* recognized and pay him a reasonable 
>;ilarv tor his services. 

ing and Guiding Appliances, Patent 
677,062 and of overlay patent 
809,095, Printing Machinery Labor 
ing Devices, has commissioned 
Thomas F. Hanlon to incorporate 
ganize and finance the Inventors 

The company will manufacture 
exploit these inventions for comnh 
purposes; also buy and sell and de 
inventions and aid other inventors 
financial way if necessary. 

Mr. Hanlon may be addressed at 
1736 "G" St., S. W., Washington, I 

Cataloi^s and Books. 

The catalog of The Monong« 
Mfg. Co., Monongahela, Pa., bears 
inscription: "Built for Work," and 1 
is no question but that they are buil 
work. The booklet describes the 1 
equipments that this company is prep 
to build, with many working diagi 
of shears and stands used in haulage 
terns. This company undertakes to de 
and equip the outside workings of 
tuminous coal mines, furnishing hau 
engines, tipples, cages, mine cars, cr 
ers and special machinery for 
economical handling of coal. 

The Harris Patent Power Hoist 
Carrying Machine manufactured b} 
S. Harris Co., Rome, X. Y., is descr 
in their catalog as being an overl: 
trolley system with automatic com 
The machine is fastened lo the cei 
anil is shown to hoist and carry the 1 
along a straight line, the trolley runr 
on a track. 


Mr. I lark W. Combs, Washington. O. 
t'.. inventt»r oi Sheet Scparaiing. l*Ved- 

''I'ifty Plumbing Charts," sho>* 
how niL^dern sanitar>-, up-to-date plu 
ing should be done. The diarts si 
sizes of pipes, height of all fixtures, ei 
piece and every fixture used in aD Id 



of a jiib. Price 25. is too reasonable for 
the inforniatidii ^iven. 

Address, lX>mestic Enjjineerinff, Jef- 
fcrs4iii St.. Cliica^o. III. 

An eij^hi pa^e fohler from The Yale & 
TiH^ne Mfj:. Cn.. </-i5 Murray St., Xew 
York. ilescrifK's Portable Electric Hoists 
an«l als4> shows some applications of these 

Tlie diagrams and tables arc quite 
c» *inple(i'. 

'!"he larjic number of orders received 
f..r 'Trij^onmetry Simplified" show that 
there has Inx-n a lon^; felt want for the 
h^ik on this branch of mathematics 
which woulil l>e simple enouj^h for the 
Mudcnt. mechanic or draftsman who 
m-vcr hail an op|)4»rtunity to study the 

The tables are standard and thor- 
'•u^hl) explained, the text is well illus- 
trated with line drawinjjs. The price is 
I.v*. wfily 50 cents. Address the Xalional 
P^..k i *K. 4(vS Park Iild>;.. Cleveland. ( ). 

I.itterin-.; ctmstitutes a lar^e j)arl of 
:he v\i»rk «»f the draftsmen and to Ix* 
*Vi'*;u! in this branch of the wt»rk re- 
i.'.r.ris much practice. '*A CHAPTER 
« 'V LETTER INC,." published by The 
Krfwninj: Press, Collinwotvl. (\, has 
been revisetl aiul now appears as the sec- 
'■nd editi<.»n in much better style. 

Sime new illustrations of alphabets 
havt- been addetl and the descriptive mat- 
ter i**r the U'^jinner in letterinjx has l)een 
rev:Mni Price, 25 cents. 

i *eM|jninj:." a tiny work containinj^ 
rnan> practical desi^^s with brief in- 
*'nicti«>ns how to make them by I). L. 
>ti«l<iard, author of "Steel Square 
P'icket 5M|uare." etc., has been receive<l. 
The authfH- has outlined what may l)e 
arcrmipltfthed durinf; hmj; winter eve- 
amcs and the su;{^cstians are ^(mkI. 

The author has also compiled a steel 
square pocket folder which jjives a lot of 
diagrams relative to the use of the car- 
penter's .sciuare. 

Hoth the b<M>k and folder are pnnluced 
on the press of Master Joy (j. Stcnldard 
and are examples of care and thonm^h 
workmanship. This lxM)klet is sent with 
the folder which is enclosed in a morocco 
case, with jxx'kets for workinj^ cards, 
car tickets, etc., for 35 cents. .Address 
I). E. Stoddard, 328 W. Raymond St., 
Indiana{>olis, Ind. 

.\ j^reat many "Pocket P»<M»ks of Me- 
chanical Engineerinjj:'* have lx»en prf»- 
(hiced hut generally the volume of matter 
necessitates a very heavy book. Mr. 
Charles M. Sames, M. IC, of Jersey City, 
\. J., has published a volume whnse di- 
mensions permit of it Ikmuj^ carried in 
the pocket without inconvenience. 

The several sections of the Ixnik con- 
tain data on the general subjtTts of 
Mathematics, Materials. Strength of Ma- 
terials, Structural and Machine Parts. 
Energ)- and Transmission of Power. 
Heat and Steam ICngine. including also 
the Turbine and the (ias I^igine, Hy- 
draulics and Hydraulic Machinerx. Ma- 
chine Shop Data antl Electrotechiiics. 

This book is made up in a handsome 
maimer, printed on thin pafHT, and con- 
tains the main facts of the data retjuired 
in engineering calculations. 

Its si/.e and arrangement will appeal to 
the engineer or draftsman who has calcu- 
lating to dt> outside nf the office where 
other IxHiks would 1k' unwieldy. The 
size is 4" x i^^n', flexible leather binding, 
price, $1.50. .\ddress C. M. Sames, 542 
liramhill .\ve„ Jersey City, X. J. 

The catalog for i<x^> <>f the Hrown & 
ShaqH* Mfg. Co., Pnwi<lence. R. I., has 
been isMied ami contains 514 pa;.;es de- 
scriptive of tlieir machine sh«»p i«h»Is and 
appliances. The ft»rmer consists .if mil]- 



ing machines, lathes, hardening and an- 
nealing furnaces, screw cutting ma- 
chines, oil pumps and accessories. 

Among the latter are a great variety of 
milling cutters, gauges, calipers, rules, 
protractors, squares and scales. A copy 
will be mailed to any address upon ap- 

A Bis: Bundle of Books. 

The Judge Co., 225 4th Ave., New 
York, will forward you a generous sup- 
ply of back numbers of Leslie's Weekly 
with an ample addition of Judges and 
other light reading, for one dollar. 

They also send a 50c bundle or a 25c 
bundle upon receipt of remittance. A 
fine collection for your money. 

A New School. 

The Corporation Correspondence Col- 
lege of Washington, D. C. is now pre- 
pared to give instruction by mail only, in 
the Art and Science of Incorporating, 
Organizing Business Corporations and 
financing them, selling their securities 
and acting as registrar and Transfer At- 
torney thereof. 

This department, the leading course in 
the College, has been recognized for its 
merits and will be of special interest to 
professional men as well as financiers, 
promoters, real estate, insurance men and 
others, because they can earn money by 
practicing this high toned profession. It 
is the first correspondence college de- 
voted exclusively to teaching this course. 

The Empire School of Structural 
Drafting, Troy, N. Y., is sending out 
their prospectus of a Correspondence 
Course of Instruction in the Office Work 
of Designing, Estimating and Detailing 
of Structural Steel Work . 

The author and com])iler of the notes 
and problems used in the lessons is a 
graduate of Civil Engineering of the 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of Troy, 
N. Y. 

The corps of instructors is composed 
entirely of practical engineers and each 
student can feel assured that his work 
will be examined, criticised and corrected 
by men who are both competent and 

The course is given in thirty-six les- 
sons and is arranged in such a manner 
that the student is given work to do 
which is identical with that of draftsmen 
in a structural shop. 

Book Reviews. 

The Signists Modem Book of Alpha- 
bets, collected and engraved by F. Dela- 
motte contains 100 designs of plain and 
ornamental, ancient and medival from 
the 8th to the 20th century with numer- 
als. The collection is especially valuable 
to architectural and engineering drafts- 
men, surveyors, masons, decorators, 
painters, lithographers, engravers, and 
carvers. Bound in cloth, 6x9^ oblong, 
with 208 pages, price $1.50, Frederick J. 
Drake & Co., Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Twentieth Century Machine Shop 
Practice, cloth, 600 pages, 400 illustra- 
tions by L. Elliott Brookes. Price $2.00, 
Frederick J. Drake & Co., Chicago, 111., 
publishers. Thjs book is intended for 
the practical instruction of machinists, 
engineers and others intereited in the use 
and operation of machinery. The divi- 
sions of the material in the book are 
Arithmetic, Algebra, Practical Geometry 
and Mensuration, Applied Mechanics, 
Properties of Steam, The Indicator, 
Horsepower and Electricity. The latter 
part of the book gives full and complete 
information upon the subjects of Meas- 
uring Devices, Machanists Tools, Shop 
Tools, Notes on Steel, Gas Furnaces, 
Shop Talks and Kinks and Medical Aid. 
Also over 50 tables. The book is well 
illustrated and the subject mattor is sim- 
ple and not too technioftl« 


JULY. 1906 

NO, 7 

Industrial Magazine 



^[E first practical Steam Excavator, or, as it 
would now be called, Steam Shovel* was de- 
signed and built by a Mr. Otis, of Boston* 
-uticwhcrc about the year 1840, This first ma- 
il inc was, of course, very rough and crude* 
lit was at the same time very effective. 
By comparing the cuts of that machine and 
those of the present time, it would be noticed 
tfyit r^iy very little departure has been made from the orif^inal 
As is to be expected, the shovels of today arc great massive 
but they all ^ork with practically no change in operation 
irom the original design. 

In spite of the effectiveness of the first shovel, very little was done 
akmf this line until about 1865. At that time the great strides made 
in rbc building of new railroads created a demand for the steam shovel. 
mud several companies began to devote almost their entire time and 
cncf|^ to tlieir manufacttire. 

From then on the demand for the shovels grew steadily, but rather 
•krwty, onti! the Chicago Main Drainage Canal was planned. The 
dta^l^ ^' *h^^ ^'^ probably done more for the education and devel- 
llpoicnt of the American contractor and his machinery^ than any other 
sinfle piece of work. 







Over Mxty s^hovct* were used nn the Drainage Canal, and as each 
RUnafacturer wan well repre^^ented. and took the opportunity of study- 
ing their own and their competitors' machines, many improvement'* 
were the natural result. 

Previous to |8S6 the car bo<lies and cranes were built almost 
entirely of woo<i, hut the extraonlinary demands made upon them 
n^lurmlly led to the une of steel, first for the crane and then for the 
entire machine. An they are now built, wood eniert^ into the construc- 
tioa only as sides and ro<>f for the enclosing house, and even that is 
b^S gradtially made of steel. 

In its stmpleil form the orthodox steam shcivel consbts of a car 
bcKly mounted upon suitable railroad trucks or traction wheels with a 
fWMnj^ni; arm at the front tnd carr^ini^ the scoop or **dipper** and 
dipper handle, and with a boiler, engines and drums on the car for 
hoistin(^ the dipper and for swinging the arm from side to side, 

Tlie dipper is in form a lar^c steel box» open at the top. and pro* 
vided with teeth aiid a sharp cutting edge. The bottom is hinged 
U» the hack, and is held slnit by a latch which can be released by the 
crmDri>»man. thu^ allowing him to drop the load wherever desired. 

Ftr«tStio«rl buttt by Thrw AutoniJiiic Sho^rl Co. ii ycmrm agu. an*t ^till in 
Qpmiiati al the jmrcb oi the C1cvt)jiiwI Brick C<». 



As originally built, the shovels were all of the "Crane" type, as 
iUoftirated by Fig. L In this construction, the upper and lower chords 
of the twinging arm arc built into one rigid structure, pivoted at the 
tsuitf end to a so<a1led mast, which is in turn held in place by a very 
hcnvy, expensive system of bracing on the car body. 

The cmoe is made up of two sections fastened together at the inner 
uid outer ends, leaving a space between them through which the 
handle of the dipper works. The outer end is provided with sheaves^, 
over which the hoisting chain for the dipper passes on its way to the 
main hoisting drams. 

The hoisting machinery is placed on the deck of the car, while the 
•winging machiner>' is carried on a frame above, supported by the 
nasi btacing. In some cases, in the early shovels, the three operations 
of hoi,^ting the dipper, thrusting it into the bank, and swinging the 
crane from side to side were performed by one pair of engines, working 
ihfCMigb friction clutches. 


I Suatn Sho%-H workit^g iti bksted rock. Built by the Vulowi Iron Work^Co. 











RnH:4%iti|C SUovcl iiicd in luitifJlitig |rniviil nesr clectnc car luir, rrccivtii^ pawcr 
frucn tixiUey lin^. ButU bf the Tbew AuiotiiAlic Shovel Co. 

The demands of today, however, are so severe that a sepjirate pair 
of engines is provided for each operation, being geared directly lo 
the part to be moved. 

The Crane type was necessarily very expensive and owing to tlie 
heavy saperstnicture required* the center of gravity was high, and thus 
made the machine more or less unstable. Then again, there was a 
practical limit to the "hci^'ht of dump" or the height over which the 
dipper would clear with the door open. 

All of these jKiint«i led to the development, about 1889, of the 
"Boom** type, Fig. 2, which is almost universal now, except in the 
smaller siied traction shovels. In this type, the swingmg arm is made 
of a heavy double boom, pivoted at the lower end to a rotating step 
casting* and suspended at the desired angle by means of tntss rods or 
boom guys, as they are called. The boom guys are joumaled to the 
top of an "A** frame, which is carried by the car, and by back guys 
nmning to the rear end of the machine. 

In the early *^*b€Kim" shovels, the A frame was very high and had 


to be taken entirely off the shovel when moving from mie place to 
Mother, but in 1893 the Bucynis Company exhibited a shovel at the 
World*!^ Pair in which the A frame was made to pass under railroad 
bridge!^ while it was in place. This is the usual practice today in all 
tftXttpt the larger sises, and even in those means is provided for simply 
lowering the A frame, instead of having to remove it con^letdly. 

1^he two pairs of engines used for hoisting and swinging are 
carried on the deck of the car, while those for forcing the dipper in 
avHt xHU of ^ bank ar« mounted on the boom, bcii^ supplied widi 
^t^am by means of a pipe having flexible connections. 

Th^ !H>om can be made of almost any desired lengtli, and can 
be 5iiT^[y^nded at such an angle as to give the reqnired free height of 
ckaravic^ und<^r the dipper door when open. 

In orAer t>d prevtiit the $hovel$ from tipping over wbco digging 
04^ t^K^ ;$%le^ iK^ are prcmded widi onu^g c is or y^dt anns at the 
fWinftt e^ whkli a»^ fitted with lar^ screws bearing on heavy bkxrk- 
11^, >>y TW>an:^ M wfck* the shox'ri is fasrened secxirely into position. 

5^WiYrt t4k>X'<>Is may be wmghh* drrided into fonr princ^al classes : 
¥>ftr>il, rt»e Railroad t>T^ in whkrh the shc«peil is inonnted od standard 
01^^^ railroad trocic!;: jl^c^«fld. the Tractinn type, in vc^nd lBat shovd 
rs moiint^yi on mi^t tittvl tra<*min m^brcls and is cajaiKie of '^ang ran 
owr an ordmar> A^onnm- r^ad : Third, the Land Drwicre trjie. in which 
t\H' sK^xvl is m<nint-^ ^^ oitlwr \»t»n wide 43au£rc rmite or carried oo 
r/^lloT's M i^rr\c -^^rx : F^nirth, th^ sf>-callcd Autnmaxir nr lirvoihdng 
txfv^ in which the machinon ij: carmd on it rcwxtm^ plarform, monnted 
'(NT! n fMir whc^kvl ha^iac. and in which the dinner ran Ht fowling liircnxgh 
a <s^mf>k*fc oirck instead <^\ fhrAiwrh ar arr o: I8f» dcpree? onlr, as in 
fhc ^fh^T olas?»6s. 

The 01a^«?^»<»s 1 and ^ art the ^nos ordinarih use-d hy Tailroad and 
<^th^r <y>ntrftotArs, and >c^nstitntc the hi: H: o: al] the nax^ixnes hnDi, 
v"1a>5s ^ is tn^yi f*rincif*a1K fhr filacer mining s^r\6^ simiiBr v^nn^ idKsne 
the machine is req«ir6d t^ dump !nt^ a hopi^r and whsir m Img reac^ 
and hieVi lift fs newl^d. Thiss 4 is ranidh ^owin^ into^Bvnr ior use 
in hrick ^rards, cement phinfs. di^spinc rellars. ptc 

1>>o v>ftc^?nen c^Trsf«»ts in ^crenera o: j. doxihle, fink ir^wsrsahie 
xenc'^^e r>: M^vt^nij. <?«ir^d ly>" means o: i, frirrior rSuteh 1Z> a lar^ 
Tx^i'jct'nc d"vm, ^r.'>'»^ T^'hv^h the hAfsfin^ chai' na^^rs astmnd Tarrions 
>^'K,v;v<^ tr th< \v\ni nATHV, and t^<*nrr tr th( dinner 4hu1 ; a dndhie 
x-TjV,- -(MV'^'NiTiv encm< *"«'^t' ^^*incin^. crarwi di^'eri''. tn ^ xtrnrn. "aie 
o?^Vev A r>«?>^'^^ frr»" ^rhv'^Vi na<^ a*"*^''""!' '. larC' ''^"te fcstenesd i:r :d» 


foot of the boom ; and a similar pair of engines geared directly to the 
dipper handle by means of a rack and pinion. 

Steam is supplied in the smaller shovels by a straight flue vertical 
boiler, and in the larger sizes by a horizontal fire box boiler of the 
locomotive type. The usual pressure carried is lOO lbs., but some recent 
shovels have been designed for as high as 140 lbs. Water is carried 
in a steel tank placed either on the deck beside the boiler or suspended 
beneath the car between the trucks. Usually both pump and injector 
feed is supplied. Fuel, generally coal, is carried on a platform hung 
at the rear end of the machine. 

The hoisting drum can be locked in any position by means of a 
brake band operated by the engineer's foot. The shovel is propelled 
by gearing and chains driven from the main hoisting engines. 

The active crew of a steam shovel consists of an engineer, a cranes- 
man and a fireman. In some cases the automatic or revolving shovel 
requires but one man, but usually even with those a fireman is needed. 

These are assisted by from four to six laborers or "pit men" who 
attend to setting the jack screws, leveling the ground in front of the 
shovel, placing track and the like. 

The working of a shovel may be briefly described as follows : The 
engineer stands on the front of the car and at one side, where he has 
a full view of the dipper and work, and where are conveniently grouped 
the levers controlling the hoisting engine throttle, the hoisting friction 
and brake lever, and the swinging throttle. The propelling levers are 
also placed at the side of his platform. 

The cranesman stands on the small platform hung from the boom 
near Its foot and operates the thrusting or boom engines and the dipper 
dump line. He also directs the pit men, except in cases where the 
work warrants a regular "pit boss." 

In digging, the engineer starts the hoisting engines and throws 
in the hoisting friction, thus raising the dipper. The cranesman then 
forces the dipper into the bank sufficiently to cause it to fill, but not 
enough to stall the engines, or tip over the machine. 

When filled, or when the dipper has been raised to its limit, as 
shown by "A," Fig. 3, the engineer stops the hoisting engines, sets the 
hoisting brake with his foot, and swings the boom and dipper over 
the car, wagon, or whatever is being loaded. 

At the same time the cranesman draws the dipper into position 
"B" and when it is over the dumping point, releases the dipper door 
latch by means of his dump line, thus dropping the load. The engineer 
at once starts swinging the boom back to the digging point, and re- 



the hoisttiig drum so that the dipper will fall to p^ijiiiion "C/* 
Tile dipper iloor closer and latches* by its own weight. By a quick 
tlim»t of the boom engine, the cranesmaii (orcein the dipper to the 
grocsfid, and the machine bi ready for a second cut. 

The operation fu^und!^ simple* hut when it is taken into considera- 
tkMi that the two mtn must work ab»»oliitely in wniMjn and go through 
the viriooj^ ci|>eratioii^ at the rate of three or four time« a minute, it 
will readiljf l*e underj»,!ix>d how skillful iliey must become. 

Ai a matter of fact, they arc anii>n^' the best paid uf such work- 
fDcn^ the rngineeni receiving on an average from $140>00 to $150.00 per 
fsionib* and the cranesmen $100.00 to $125,00. 

The raflruad Jihovel when wt^rking is run %m short sections of 
track, usually about 6 ft. long. These are carried ahead of the ma- 
cfaiac and placed in position by the pitmen a$ often ai» the limit of the 
dipper reach requires. 

The time occupied in placing the track, re!ea.sing the jack screws, 
''moving up** and reiietting the screws, seldom occupies more than four 
or fiv^ minuteit. 

With the traction sh(»vel. short lengths of heavy plank are used 
tnMead of the track sectioned, except where the ground is^ unusually 
hard* in which case the rfmvcl may be run directly on ihr >;r*>und. 

In making a through cut, such as for a railroad through a hill, 
a shovel will make an opening 18 to 20 feet wide each siide of track. 

ShoveU are rated in %xtt according to their weight and nutge from 
the amall ones* of fourteen ions, carrying a one-halt cubic* yard flip[>er, 
10 the immense machine$k used for rock excavation and weighing 
fttocty-five to one hundred lon^. and equipped vnih a rhppcr holding 
ftre cubic yards. 

They win handle a great amount of material, depending entirely^ 
of coi3r»e, upon it* character. In or*linary earth, an average stated ma- 
duDe will move two thousand "^r more cubic yard*^ per day. 

At the St, l>outs Exposition the Atlantic Fquipment Company 
a ncvK shovel which is a radical deiiarture from anything 
previous to that time. In this machine the hoisting engines, 
of being mounted on the body of the car. are placed directly 
en the swinging circK And raise and lower the dipper by means of 
wire ropes passing around suitable drums and sheaves, instead of by 
tJie cable chain used on otiicr makes. 

The particular claims made for this construction are that the 
rope«» refluce the friction losses to a very great extent, and by 
peculiar fastening to the dipper, permit of a much greater clear 



height under the dipper door with the same angle of boom. The 
placing of the hoisting engines on the swinging circle gives additional 
room on the car for the use of an extremely large boiler. 

Up to about 1900 a shovel having a dipper capacity of 3 or 3}i 
cubic yards was considered the limit. But at that time Uie Wisconsin 
Central ordered one from the Marion Company and one from the 
Bucyrus Co., each having a dipper holding 5 cubic yards. These proved 
so very successful that many of that size have since been built. 

Below is given, in tabular form, approximate general dimensions 
of a few of the various sized shovels : 














24 ton 

3a ton 

45 ton 

55 ton 

65 ton 

75 ton 

85 ton 

95 ton 





7 3 

8 4 
32 6 

35 ft 

9 9 

37 a 



39 6 


41 5 




FT nf 


21 9 

22 6 

vr lit 

















10 xl2 



12 xl6 

14 xlO 


5 X 6 
X S 
S X 8 

a xio 


5 X 6 


6 X e 




8 xlO 


48' X 
8* 4' 

54* It 
8' 6 

48' XI 
10' 8 

54" 3 

12* 4' 

54* X 

IS' 0' 

58' a 
13' 0' 

60- X 
13' 3' 

m* X 

14^ 8* 












While the shovels are generally operated by- 
been very effectively equipped with electric motr 





compressed air. The latter is especially desirable when a shovel is used 
in tunnel work, as it not only prevents the fouling of the air, as would 
occur with coal, but the exhaust from the engines aids materially in 
the ventilation of the tunnel. 

In the digging of the Gallitzen tunnel of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, a steam shovel was successfully used by fitting it with a special 
short boom and dipper handle, the boiler being used simply as a reser- 
voir to receive the air from a compressor plant located outside the 
tunnel. No other change was found necessary in the machine. 

Electrically driven shovels are being used where water- and fuel 
is scarce, as in the dry placer gold fields, and in places where the shovel 
is seldom moved long distances, as in clay and gravel pits. Electric 
railroads are using them to dig ballast, etc., the power being supplied 
from the regular trolley wire. 

The completion of the Panama Canal is largely made possible by the 
use of steam shovels, there being at present sixty-one at work, and 
many more ordered. Those in use there now are divided into thirty- 
two 95 ton machines, with five yard dippers and twenty-eight seventy 
ton with three yard dippers. 

There is also one small 45 ton shovel with 1^ cubic yard dipper, 
that Is easily transported from place to place, to take care of land 
slides and such work. 

Besides their use as a shovel, the machines can be used as a most 
effective wrecking crane by dropping out the dipper and handle and 
using a hook on the end of the hoisting chain. It is a very frequent 
sight on a large contract to see a shovel being used to replace derailed 
cars and locomotives, or for lifting large rocks or timbers, which are 
chained to the dipper. One of the illustrations shows a large rock, 
weighing probably 6 or 8 tons, resting on the dipper. 

New uses are constantly being found for steam shovels every 
year, as they are becoming better known. For instance, they are 
largely supplanting hand labor in the digging of large trunk sewers, 
etc . In this case, the shovel is generally taken off its wheels and 
mounted instead on a timber frame work spanning the trench being 
dug, and extending far enough on each side to prevent any possibility 
of the weight of the machine causing the sides to cave in. The entire 
affair is then carried on ordinary house rollers running on planks laid 
on the ground. An extra long dipper handle is substituted for the 
regular one and a special shaped dipper is generally used. 

A shovel in Chicago used in this way and carrying a 1J( ctAic 



[ dipper, dog a fewer trench twenty-twu feet deep by eleveti feet wide 
Ihrocigb *tiff clay» moving ahead at the rate of 175 to 200 feet per day. 

They are alM> being used in the ore ranfi^cs of Michigan and Mtn* 
neMtm, for stripping the overburden of earth from the ore deposits, 
oltm to the depth of seventy feet or more. This bat proven to be 
cheaper and better than the rc^nilar iiiKlrrground system of mining. 

Owing to the terrific strains to which a steam shovel \s subjected, it 
has become a decided problem to secure the proper strength without 
naktog the sise and weight of the whole machine over-run all practical 

The very best of material and constrnctton must, of course* be used 
m every part* and to secure this the builders have been forced to equip 
their plants with means of j)r«Khicing practiciilK cverv part direct from 
the raw material. 

The larger ooe.^ now make their own steet i\s well as iron castings 
and tbeir own boilers and chains. The latter are all hand made, and are 
the best produced anywhere. 

Their forge shops are supplied with the heaviest of i^team hammers 
Cor forging the large shafts, dip^ier teeth, A-frame legs, etc. They main- 
tain fully equipped laboratories, where all material is subjected to a rigid 
test before being allowed to enter into the constniction of the sliovels. 

A foroe of fkillel engineers and draftsmen is kept constantly at work 
bnproving and strengthening the designs in ever>- way |vi^ibie. and 
adqiCing the sliot'els to new work as the demand requires. 

The demand for steam shovels is so great that the plants are forced 
to mn day and night, and some of them are turning out machines at the 
rate of one every working day» and ha%^ orders enough ahead to carry 
them until the last of this year at least. 

'Vhc ^^^m shovd is strictly an American product as practically 
no heavy machines of this kind are made outside of the Ignited States. 
American built steam ithovels are now working in Norway, Swe^lrn. 
Koftftia, the diamond mines of South Africa, South America, Cut»a« 
Canada and other countries. 

\ few shovels of the revolving type are buik in England, where 
L^iir; are known as steam navvies, but they cannot In^in to compare with 
those built in the United States in any way, 

^liile it IS impomble to give any reliable 6gures on the coeit of hand* 
Vm^ nafterial with a ateam shovel, owing to the many different conditiona 
naler whidi Ihey woffc, it may be interesting to note a few examples. 

At Iron wood, Micli,« a steam shovel loaded over 430*000 tons of iron 
an in five yeais at a cost, including repairs, of 2.53 cents per too. 




A steam shovel iu Pennsylvania equipi>ed with a 2 yard dipper, dug 
hard day at an average cost of 5,1 cents per yard, whereas the cost pre- 
vious to its introduction had been 7.4 cents, with plows and scrapers, and 
10 cents wlieu plowed and loaded by hand. 

On the Knoxville, LaFollette & JelHco Railway, a 65 ton, 2| yard 
sliovel averaged 2160 cubic yards of solid granite overlaid with earthy 
working; 24 hours per day, at a cost of 2.7 cents per yard. This indtid- 
ed the cost of shooting the granite, ^ 

A small revolving shovel in Michigan averaged 350 yards of earth 
every ten hours, at a cost of 3.5 cents, replacing forty laborers and affect- 
ing a daily saving of $50.00. 

Some of the leading manufacturers are the Marion Steam Shovel 
Co,, the Bucyrus Co*, the Atlantic Equipment Co., the Vulcan Iron 
Works Co., the Thew Automatic Shovel Co., the Toledo Foundry & 
Machine Co., and the Ohio Steam Shovel Co. 

Since the above artide was written, it has been brought to the 
writer's notice that the Osgood Co., of Albany, N, Y., built the second 
shovel in about 1850, and from the first used^the boom type of design. 

Also that the first so-called "'all-steer' shovel was designed] by Mr. 
H. F. Stock somewhere about 1880, and built by the \'ulcanjIron Works 
Company for the firm of Stock & Wilcox. It was so much*more power- 
ful than the rest that it was nicknamed '* Jumbo/' 

Acknowledgment is here due the various builders and Mr, A, W. 
Robinson, Montreal, Canada, for cuts and information furnished. 



GRE-\T many equipmenta for handltnf; mate- 
ririls by means of belt conveyors arc in use, 
aful it i?* surprising the small amount of power 
I needed and the durability of the system. 

No doubt manufacturers of these systems 
have much to substantiate their claims for their 
deiitgns, and that this method is a very eco- 
nonncal means of handling materials, 
f Cootmctors are frequently confronted by the pmhlem of removing 
quantities of materials both from the excavation and to the point 
erection of the building or other work in hand. 
As this must be done in a very limited time, owing to the penalty' 
cittises almost invariably inserted in contracts covering this class of 
work, and since it must be accomplished at least cost, it is necessary 
lo tste 1 okore modem method than that of wheelbarrow or horse and 
wagon. Conveyor belts have been installed in many places and found 
to mnswer the purpwe admirably, although a^ seen the usage is very 
«cverc, especially when handling rock and coat. 

Anjone who has used ordinary rubber belts has probably found 
that the line of greatest wear is along the center of the belt 

Conveyor belts now on the market have a rubber cover, thickened 
at the center and the edges are stiffened, causing them to trough nat* 
urally. thereby following the lines of its supports without strain, 

Thb stiffening is done by running lw*o or three plies of duck a 
part of the way in from the edges. 

The idlers on which the belt runs are an important part of a belt 
ronveyor. so much so that some manufacturers refuse to sell their 
make of belt to run on some other style of idler 

Trotighing idlers are made in many different forms, the pulleys 
bcjng cajU iron or pressed steel and mounted on hollow steel shafts 
—ppo r tcJ by cast Iron brackets. 

Llibricatioo is accf - I by forcing grease into the shafts by 

cups, and ' holes in the shafts the grease works 



I^^^Simr ^ 1 ^ 

XJ.^_ ...^.Ai^-il 


•--— ^r-?f- — ■'' ~^"^^^^sy^ 

Belt conveying earth from excavation for gas tank of Mutual G«U4 Light Co., N.V.^ 

To prevent wet and sticky material from adhering to the conveyor 
belt, high speed rotary brushes with bristles of suitable fibre are 
located close to the belt at the discharge point and driven from the 
shaft of the discharge pulley. In the first illustration is seen a Robins 
Conveyor, used by F. M, Stillman & Co., of Jersey City, N. J.» for 
carrying excavated material from the site of a gas tank of the Mutual 
Gas Light Co., at the foot of East 12th street, New York. This con- 
veyor was 30 inches in width and 172 feet between centers. The 
material was delivered to the conveyor, through bridges spanning it, 
by wheeled scrapers which drew to it earth and rock from the area 
on either side. In this operation the wheeled scrapers received a full 
load, and crossing one bridge dumped it and again obtained a full 
load and discharged it through the second bridge before returning to 
the starring point. This gave a cycle of operation and a team traveled 
but a short distance to obtain a load. The earth and rock were dis- * 
charged from the head end of the conveyor into scows tied up at the 
dock. As the work proceeded the conveyor was gradually lowered, 
without special regard to maintaining a regular slope, since the con- 
veyor was successfully operated when out of vertical alignment. Tide 
water frequently covered the return belt, but in no way interfered i 
with the working of the conveyor. 

It has long been well known that there are fcw^ methods of exca- 


vstioii as economical as wheel scrapers, and in connection with Robins 
Bttit Ctmvtjofft they form a system which will excavate and dispose 
of earth and stone at a mimoium cost per yard« and in the shortest 

Another illustration is given of handling excavated maferial in 
tbm work for the foundations of the power house of the New York 
Gsaand Electric Light» Heat and Power Co. The earth was delivered 
lo the conveyor from wheel scrapers through bridges, and the exca- 
vatiiig was done by practically the same means, employed more re- 
cently by F. M. Stiliman & Co. for their work at East 12th street* New 
York, as mentioned above. The conveyor was driven at its head end 
by a small horizontal engine^ very little power being required. It was 
^objected to the roughest kind of usage; rocks weighing over 100 
l>ottnd-i were constantly dumped upon it, but never caused a moment*s 


■ r 

4t Uic nrw pUmt 
1 l\ymx^ Co. 



itopptgc durtiif; the entire work. The width of the belt was 50 inches, 
ntid the iictual t|iKuitily removed exceeded 1,200 cubic yards per day. 
'I he work wa.s alt done during very cold weather, being commenced 
Hi December, 18^-^, and finished in January, 1900. 

Perhaps no use of a conveyor is as severe on the belt as when 
carrying rock in broken fortn, and the next illustration shows a 24- 
Inch conveyor 100 feet long supplied L has, F. McCabe by die Robins 
CcMiveying Belt Co,, for removing 10,000 cubic yards of earth and 
rtick at 181sit ^street and Jerome avenue, New York. The picture shows 
a very disadvantageous circumstance under which a Rabins Belt 

i'KN3e& Imppr ^AiMi%4Moiv i>ca£ 



apprcciabk cxtcot. Ihc belt tUell, when the work w^ completed^ 
showed little d^tgod oi wear* 

LootTftctors also use the belt convey ar in carrying matcnais to 
and iruiti the coacrcte machine when building toundaiiuua. 

A wriur tn tmg^m^^nmg'LomiructtQn says: "Many oi our readcfi 
will be ait4Min»hcd at tbe small amount of power required tu handle a 
large amoiuit of materials with belt conveyors. Since the co5t oi 
nmJasD^ coocrete ti largely the cost o£ conveying the niatenaU tu and 
Iruiii the concrete mixer, any data bearing upon this subject will be 
of great interest to all contractors liaving concrete work to periorm* 
Ihat the material needed to make nearly 70 cubic yards oi concrete 
per buitr can be elevated lt> feet with a belt conveyor to the bins 
iecdtng the mixers and then conveyed away in the form oi concrete 
on another belt conveyor with an expenditure of only 7 hor:>cpowcr 
lo operate the bdtSp i& astonishing. Vet the iacu arc as stated.'' 

Alter describing how such a plant is arranged^ we shall give some 
data on the power required to run belt conveyor^ both when loaded 
and when envpty. 

\\ hile belt conveyors have been used on a number oi concrete 
plants in New York and rniladelphia, the one U£>ed by the New York 
Caotracting ^ o. in building the cuncreie walls lor the huge ga^ works 
at Aatoria, L. L» is especially interesting. The concrete mixing plant 
consists oi two Smith mixers, each discharging it^i one cubic yard 
batch onto a short belt conveyor, ^hown in the illu:^tration. This 2>hort 
conveyor dehvers the concrete through a chute into dump cars^ which 
lake the concrete away to the forms* \V hen concrete is conveyed on 
a belt it is apt tu stick to the belt, so tliat a rotating cleajisiing bru^h 
is placed at the discharge end of the belt tu keep it clean. This belt 
is 24 inches wide* 50 feet long, and travel 400 feet per minute. 

Coming now to tbe belt used to convey the sand, gravel and 
cement to the mixers, we find the real labor-saving feature of this 
ooaveying plant The sand and gravel are unloaded from scows by 
gHOMi Qi a clam-shell bucket operated b> a derrick, llie clam*shell 
ttniosded into a small hopper from which the materiab were fed into 
small duntp cars and hauled away by a '^dinkey/' which ascends an 
inclined track onto a trestle. The sand and gravel are then dumped 
btm the cars into bins under the trestle. The belt conveyor runs 
lenglliwisc of tbe trestle, under these bins, and the sand and gravel 
are fed onto the conveyor through gates in the bottoms of the bins.f 

The belt oooveyor travels 105 feet horiaoiitally tmder these bins,! 


then begins ^ts ascent to the small bins that feed the concrete mixers. 
The belt rises 3.4 feet in 125 feet, and discharges sand and gravel into 
the bins above the mixers. The belt delivers sand for a little while 
to one bin, then it delivers gravel for a while to the adjoining bin, a 
deflector being used to direct the materials as they are di3charged 
from the belt. Then the belt is used for a short time to convey bags 
of cement, so that all the materials are conveyed and elevated by this 
one belt 

It is especially worthy of note that after the sand and gravel are 
once unloaded from the scows, all the handling and convejring of the 
materials is done by power. Now as to the power required to operate 
the two belt convejrors. 

The short SO-foot conveyor that carries the concrete away from 
the mixers requires only one horsepower to run it. The long 228-foot 
conveyor that carries the materials from the storage bins up to the 
bins that feed the mixers requires only six horsepower when delivering 
100 tons of materials per hour. This long conveyor belt is 20 inches 
wide and travels at a speed of 350 feet per minute. To indicate the 
capacity of this plant we may add that the two Smith mixers have 
lurncd out 70 yards per hour, or 35 cubic yards per mixer per hour. 

\Vc began this article by saying that the amount of power re- 
quired to operate belt conveyors is surprisingly small. \Vc will add 
sonic further figures bearing upon this point. The belt conveyor plant 
above described was made and installed by the Robins Belt Conveying 
Co., New York City. Belt conveyors have been made by this company 
in large numbers for various purposes, not only in this country but in 
the mining districts of South Africa, A recent report of Government 
Mining Engineer of the Transvaal contains the following data relative 
to the power required to drive Robins belt conveyors : 

At one mine a belt conveyor ha\nng a horizontal cany of 200 feet 
and a vertical lift of 4SJ/2 feet, delivered 71.4 short tons per hour with 
an expenditure of 8,1 horsepower, including loss of power in the elec- 
tric motor used to drive the belt. 

Another belt having a horizontal carr\- of 500 feet and a vertical 
rise of 2iy2 feet, delivered 90 tons per hour, with an expenditure of 
only 8.5 horsepower, including motor losses. A test on the bdt when 
it was running unloaded showed that it took 2S horsepower to run 
the empty belt. 

The Government Mining Engineer, speaking of the rajwd growth 
of poularity of belt conveyors for handling ore, says : 


"The chief reason for the popularity of belt conveyors is the saving 
of manual labor and attendance, but, in addition to this, the work is 
performed more economically than with methods previously in vogue, 
namely, gravity and tramway and elevator or rope haulage up an 

The illustrations in this article were secured through the kindness of 
the Robins Conveying Belt Co., Park Row, New York. Other articles 
on this sVvStem of handling materials will be given in this magazine from 
time to time. 



I The ftkipSp ;is sbcnim in the photi>- 
are made in two lectjons* fast- 
Imilliii by a hinge at the top sind 
hcch at the ends near the bottom. 
skips are placed apon flat cars in 
and an ' ' ' -ind nm to thc 
narfo^k , lack. 'Vht fall 

of the hooster carries a steel I* 
with a ilti>rt dtain and hcmka 
tn the ring at the apex of the cntl§ 
»fiie bucket. While it is being huiited, 
iKifap is protectel from the sides of tht 
iklft hf mdns uf a timber frame work. 
h are (asiened light T>rails a^i 
After tbe car and skip reach the 
Aiil tbe skip ts hoisted to the surface 
tfaosferred by the traveler to the 
m m the street, uliere the hooks of 

ilie I-beam hanger arc disen^^ed frotn 
the rings of the skip, and the load hauled 
to the dnck fur r|tjtfx>sal upon ihc scow. 
At tJie dock, derricks arc provided with 
an I-beam hanger anl chains to lift the 
skips from the wa,'i>ns. The derrick used 
for thijv work is i>rovidc<t with a double* 
drum electric hoist vritli a turning gear 
for moving; the derrick Irnim. The only 
addition r<?t|uirt'fl to ihi* derrick rigging 
when using this skip is a li,^t wire rope 
attacheil tt) n htmk nn each ^tde of the 
skip ior the purpose of trippinjj the skip 
to discharge its load. These ropes con- 
nect ab*>ve the fall block ami f^ 
the rin^ on the end of a single rcij ^ i 

runs over a sheave near the end of tbt 
bixim, and from tltere passes over a 

Skffi pl«ct«l on < 

to bf taa^fl m dock 



Rticavr iKMi- tliL* font of the mast, and 
fn»tn llirn* to tlu* lioistiT, where it is con- 
ImlhMl by the holster runner. Tliis rope 
is wr;»piHMl aronnd a capstan liead and 
over a si leave ti> whieh is attaclied a 
eoiintrr weij^lil to lake nj) the slack. 

The novel feature of this skip is that, 
owiui: lo the ItK'atitMi i>f the supjiortinij: 
ch.unv it remains closed witlunn the use 
(^f the latches when raiseil by the derrick 
until the trippiiijti rojH* is operated. 

The wci^iht t>f the skij> hoMs the skip 
cloved wiihtMit the use M the latclies. 
Thevr latdics are fastenevl in the tumiel 
Ivtorc hiMNim.c up the shaft, in order lo 
ftu.ird ai:;rn'it an\ accident thai r.ii^l^.t 
ivcui h\ \\w vki]^ striking ^he S'Mcs i^:" ::ic 
shni:. Wr. .\\c nT'.]^^^ked Ivfcre ihe >kip 
*e.-i\cv ;■•, \\,i;:.^n :.>i >o c-.v-'.^ticr. ::'.\v: ::*.c 

*■ skip 


hoister runner can empty the skip at 
desired height by checking the trip] 
ropes and lowering the fall block at 
end of the booin. The trapping ropes 
vent the two outer sides of the skip 1 
falling, and the load then passes thrc 
the opening between the two halve 
the skip. 

The capacity of these skips is all 
three cubic \ards when loaded level 
the ti^p. 

Considerable lir.-e is saved over th< 
melhod «»i usin^ «!n:np wagons ai 
du:n:n\ plati.Tm i he>c skips arc n 
irtun tlie wagc»n, dumped abt:>ard 
sci'W and placed ba^*k up-^n the wage 
^^^ si.\:ii'.>. rr-.::": the time thai a 
arrives a: :ho ^'Ck ■ • the lime th 
li::i\i^ ;> v'.\ : "_ :::::':>.: wliile it t 

^\ ...;■. 

: . :::i';-'afl a d 
irir.C S.^ard in 
> ;/.>. saved at 

:>." iemck, c 
:r.'. !:::::•.. cars \ 
\T.t z\zt> and st 



lie cnntractors estimate that 25 per 
t more nutertal can be rt.^ioved in a 
icspondtng time (with the elimination 
all noise in night work) by this 
liod than by others heretofore in use 
ie»' York City. 

Ir Gei^rge IVrrine. C. K.. of 22 Will- 

iam street, and Mr. D. L. Hough, M. 
Am. Soc. C. E., of 32 East Thirty-third 
street, New York, are the designers of 
this method of handling excavated ma- 
terials. Patents have been applied for 
on the skip and its use. Illustration> 
from lin^i^incerin^. Contracture and 
Roadwastcr and Foreman, 



n a:i article in the I'diruar* issue of 
> nu.:a2inc on the labor cost of a 
crctc retaining wall at the Grand 
ttral Station. New York Ciiy. we sug- 
itd that a clam-shell bucket operated 
a !r<(i;r.i'tivc crane could be profitably 
1! in riinovin;^ broken sionc from flat 
V In the work at the (irand Central 
itfc n. 40 |KT com of the cost of mak- 
thf concrete was charged to the cost 
*i'»vclin-.: and whei'liuji; ihc broken 
fic Hence i»ur su^jjiestinii that a 
:n.*hcil l:ucket be substituted for 
li laNir. N<»w. it is well known that 
K Iiads of broken stone are unloaded 
a Mnall cost by means of clam-shell 
rkrts. hut there seems to be consider- 
c dtiubt amon^ contractors as to 
fthrr the shall«iw and narrow piles of 
Of in cars can be profitably removed 
the same manner. 

Ai;h a view to throwing light on this 
ncr, we have secured some valuable 
:a <>n the unloading of coal cars with 
mshcll buckets. 

Vt the Xavy Yard at Washington. D. 

a ]f<(imotive crane, fitted with a 50- 

kiom and a I'/^-cu. yd. Hay ward 

m-^hdl bucket has been in use for un- 

l<.»ailing coal from cars. A descripii«>n 
of the crane is as follows: Track gage. 
4 ft. 8' S in. : wheel base. 8 ft. ; greatest 
width, 9 ft. 10 in. ; maximum working 
radius, 30 ft. : hoisting speed per minute. 
250 ft.: nitatin^ speed, three revolulioiij. 
I>er minute: traveling speed. 350 ft. per 
minute: capacity, one trip j>er minute. 
The machine will lift 20,oou lbs. at a i J- 
fl. radius, and 7,500 lbs. at a 30-it. ra- 
dius. 1 he engine is a 9 .\ u-in.. double 
cylinder, double drum engine, tilled with 
the necessary clutches and brakes for 
controlling the swinging and proj>ellin.: 
movements <»f the machine. The crane 
was manufactured by the McM>ler Mfi:. 
Co., of Cleveland, ( >. 

.\ccording to data lurnislietl h\ Mr. I'. 
IC. iU-atty, commamlanl of ihe Washing- 
t«)n Xavy Yanl. the machine will unli>atl 
api)rt>ximatel> 400 tons of coal in eight 
hours. The crane used in heading c«»al 
cars from the coal bin will dip and load 
48 tons in JO minutes. In unl«>ading a 
car, the bucket easily takes out three- 
fourths of the contents of the car. The 
remainder of the coal is taken into the 
boiler house by opening bottom run to 
btmkers with a chute, and thus require*^ 



no rehandlin^. In unloading the coal, 
one car is ahead of the crane, and the 
other behind, on the same track. The 
bucket takes a load, and, without stop- 
ping the swing of the b/K)m, the cual is 
dropped ; then the second car is reached, 
and the bucket filled. Commander Beatty 
considers that this makes not only less 
work for the man handling the levers, 
but also increases the output by lo to 15 
per cent. 

A clam-shell bucket is also used at the 
Polk street plant, Chicago, of the West- 
ern Electric Co., in handling coal from 
cars to storage bin. In this case, how- 
ever, the bucket is operated by an elec- 
tric overhead traveling crane. This ma- 
chine was built by the Whiting Foundry 
it luiuipment Co., of Harvey, 111., for the 
Western Klectric Co. It is of the three- 
motor type, and has a working load ca- 
pacity of 10,000 lbs. The span, center 
and center of runway rails is y^ ft. 10 in. 
The lift (maximum vertical travel of 
hook) of the main hoist is 37 ft. The 
crane was designed to operate at the fol- 
hnving approximate speed, the speeds 
Wu\\z given in feet per minute: 

With Speed 

maximum H. P., without 
rated load, required, loail. 
Main Hoist ... 50 25 100 

l»ridge Travel. J50 25 310 

Trolley Travel. liX) 3 '4 i-*5 

Eixch motion oi the crane is operated 
by one independent motor especially de- 
signed for crane service. Kach motor is 
provideil with one improved controller 
KH\'iied in the cab. These ct>ntrollers al- 
low a wide range oi variable speevls tor 
res]>Vv:iive ini»veTnenis. when workin , in 
either direction, luich motor controller 
is governevl by a sin ^le handle which will 
start the motv»r in one direction when 
moveil (>ne wa\, and will (Operate it in the 

opposite direction when moved t 
way from the central position 
They are capable of controlling tl 
of the motor with any load and h 
ficient resistance to permit the 
starting of the lightest load. A ; 
speeds is given of from 2 feet pe: 
to full speed for hoisting and pre 
ately for other movements. 

The average travel of the < 
about 50 feet. A 2-cubic yard I 
bucket is used. 

Mr. G. A. Pennod, Factory E 
for the General Electric Co., st^ 
a 40-ton car of coal can be unk 
from ilj to 2 hours, depending 
travel of the crane for deposit 
coal. From five to six cars r. da^ 
ing for switching, etc., can be i 
in a day. It takes two men to i 
car: one man to operate the cn 
one man to shovel what coal rei 
the corners of the car which the 
on account of its bulky nature, 
pick up. 

This last oj)eration takes a 
much time as unloading with the 
alone, that is. the bulk of the c 
40-ton car can be unloaded in a 
minutes, and it takes the same 
of time for one man to shovel o 
remains. The time of this last 
tii>n can, of course, be reduced 
ting on more men. 

If we assume that a man sho^ 
at the rate of 4 tons per hour, i 
dent that the clam-shell bucket 
all the coal in a car except abou 
which must be shoveled out by 

It is appareiu from the two fc 
examples that a contractor need 
afraid that a clam-shell bucket 
clean uj^ a carl* ad of broken st< 
ficienrl\ well for practical purpoi 
— Bngini*tring--Contra 


Ind Qirrytiif JUadiine. 

bioe IS the rcsolt of years of 
to pro\'ide a ready ttieans 
piag and to^nng heavy 
ordinarily tratiiiported 
of hand trucks 
It it tdapted to Vie 
i, h&Lry freight, itc. 
tra%*et is practically a 

wm origittatly desugned 

i to hotM and carry crates 

Hi and from 

^ -, uiporianl field 

popular tnachtne. 
clutch cm the shaft oper- 
ftfel the heavier l^ad which 

the machtne is capable of handling can 
be raised or lowered, and by the move- 
ment of a second lever the load can be 
carried out or in on (he track as desirvd* 
The truck, as shown, is sns{)ciidcd frotn 
the ceiling, and the trolley is made np of 
fotir wheels as in the ordinary type. 

This machine is the product of C. S. 
Harris & Co,, Rome, X. Y, 

Echoes of f^midry incogs Conveiitioo* 

A prominent feature of the coni^ention 
of American Foundrymen's Aiaodatioo, 
at Cleveland, June 5-7, was the many 
exhibits placed there by many manufac- 
turers to ill list rate their product. 

Among these was that of the Electric 


Cf»nlrnller tV Supply Co,, of Cleveland, 
who htul mx dinpluy a complete line of 
Hinkcy vnUilfUed and tyjie "U*' con- 
Imlk-rs, t-lectrk' lirakeH, arc welders, and 
a wutkinK exhibit of fi lifting magnet 
bantUing pi^ iron. 

Vox wtrk iu und aljont a foundry, no 
uppunitUH iH so useful as a crane ec[uipped 
with a lifting magnet. 

\^ ?iliowii in I he ilinslraliou, the mag- 

tiet was o[»rr<itcd by an electric hoist to 

</emonstraleits lifting and holding power. 

A nnniljer of well-known Chi 
Moore Co.'s hoists and troUef 
shown in an exhibit which w^as 
to permit actual operation of t 
of machinery. 

All of the foundry supply hoi 

The Buckeye Milling Co, ha 
land Dry Core Compound a 
Core Fiiuder. 

The J I). Smith Foundry Su 
Cleveland, had drawings for 



m full a^Mirttiicnt nf foundry 
csfK^ctaUy a cnouUliu^ machine 
iltadifd t0 ai post and made ndiustnbk* 
Hfvyiiv work. 

TWAtteCAT Mfg. Co-. CWveUind, 
wm fepmiia tcd witli a lot of iodustrial 
art tod Incks. 

The Standard Sand & Machine Co.« 
CbveliJid. hatl iti operation various ma- 
diiiei for pfepAiing aand in a foundr>\ 
The eachibila that nsied power were 
■fitted by a 55 h,p. p» engine installed 
bj' the ft-oce-Merriam- Abbott Co., of 
Otvdaiid, who build f^as eni^ines frotii i 

Otte feature could well have l>een 
onitted* if tbc report is true, the supply* 
isf of beer, free, through a large cupola, 
K|nif»tfelatd. and a consiaut utream 
h iiml from the tap hole to all who cared 
to partake with souvenir stetuii. And so 
ikiiCDBwntioo pasaKd into history. 

Recent Inventions* 
S pt da lly reported for Brownings 
-'^arinc by C. LcRoy Parker. Solicitor 
U Patents, 639 F, St. N. W., Washing- 
lea, D. C« to whom all correspondence 
• th reference to this matter should be 


rhit eleifitor, recently patented by 
K v;icevic, consists of a number 
M vnbsianiaUy rectangtdar frames A. B, 
C, and D, preferably cooslmcted of steel 
aid ach of which camprtses four comer- 
> ooostHtng cif heavy angle irons E, 
I are connected by means of suitable 
cnMs-ban and braces F. the ai^le irons 
E of mid members B, C and D fitting 
vidlia each other and forming guides for 
CKk ocber» mdd frames being tongitudin- 
lly movable reiathdy to each other. 
WiUn the (nnermoit member D it a 
Jly-movabte car G» the comer- 

[K*t>l5 H tnr which arc rtinvahlc in trie 
comers of the frame D. Mounted in the 
lower end portions of the ^id frame A is 
a windlass J» over which cables K are 
adapted to be wound» said cables being 
cotmccicd at their other ends to the up- 
per rim of said car G and trained over a 
series of pulleys L, M» N, O. P» Q and 
R, said pulleys L bdng mounted up<in the 
lower end portion of said member A. the 
pulleys M on the upper end portion 
thereof, the pulleys N on the lower end 
portinn n( the member B» the pulleys O 
nn the upper end portion of said member 

''qi. ^i^;^ 

^sgU IN 

B, and so on^ the said pulleys being so set 
that the said cables in passing over one 
to the other thereof are maiJiuined in a 
vertical line as nearly as possible* so as 
to prevent them from running off said 
pulleys. By turning said windlass to 
wind said cables on same the said car G 
will first be raised to the upper end ol 
said frame D and before reaching the 
upper limit of its movement, which will 
be determined by suitable stops 00 laJd 
tneinber D, the said cables will raise said 
member D and succe^ivdv thereafter the 



members C and B until each of same has 
reached the upper limit of its movement. 
The number of said members or frames 
A, B, C, and D may be increased or di- 
minished as desired to attain any desir- 
able elevation, as will be obvious. 


This hoisting and conveying apparatus 
recently patented by Charles J. Horgen, 
New York, N. Y., is especially designed 
for loading and unloading ships. 

The operation of the device is as fol- 
lows : Assuming the stud 47 to be in the 
channel 39 and resting on the surface 42, 
and that the cable 17 is being let out, so 
that the carriage slides down the inclined 
cable II, it will be seen that when the 
carriage engages the buffer 25 the end 
of the bar 52 will engage the outer sur- 
face of the block 10. This pushes the 
bar rearwardly with respect to the cai- 
riage and swings the arms 37 about the 
shaft 36, so that the surface 42 will move 
nut of the way of the stud 42. This re- 
moves the support of the latter and it 

drops out. The weight of the pt 
now causes it to descend, taking 
the cable 17, which is being paid 
the other end under control of du 
The descent of the pulley to Ac 
place will be readily understood. 
obvious manner the catch 29 enga 
pin 27 when the carriage reaches 
sition described above, and also w 
bar 52 is pushed inwardly the pin 

gages the left-hand slot 56. Thi 
the arms 37 in the position in whi 
were forced by the bar 51, As ti 
T^y are norinally held in an elevate 



ban by tfM'ings 60, the ascent of the 
pdky 18 when the hoistmg-engine is op- 
cnlcd to raise it will cause the studs 47 
tD sKde up the cam-surface 45 and en- 
mt the cam-surface 41, which at that 
time is in registration with the slot 46. 
Farther force applied by the hoisting-en- 
{ine will operate to cause tlie studs to en- 
p{t the bar 28. which is located behind 
the slot 40, and disengage the catch 29 
it'in the pin 2j. This allows the car- 
nage to move upwardly along the caUe, 
and when this o|>cration commences the 
ituds 47 will MTttlc back onto the cam- 
nriace 4^. and this will pull the arms 37 
into their lowermost position, bringing 
than also back to central position, with 
the pin 54 between the two slots 56. 
^^'hen the carriage reaches the block 1 2. 
the catch 35 is at first in such a position 
that it cannot enj^agc the pin 33 on ac- 
o«nt of the wci^Iit on the arms 37 ; but 
the c><ntinued operation of pulling on the 
cable 17 forces the studs 47 to rise 
againn the cam-surface 40 and then to 
drop along the cam-surface 44 and turi\' 
the arms to the rear, so that the pin 54 
»i!I env;agc the riijht-hand depression 56 
and the pulley will slide off from its sup- 
^c The env:iT)e i> stopj>cd at this time 
aad the weight lowered to the deck by 
^ orilinar> means, it being controlled as 
a-aal. bv a brake or the like. Before this 
•c*Tirs the carriage is forced up the in- 
c'mf 50. so that it is left in a position 
*::h its front lower surface on the in- 
veined surface 50. and as soon as the 
leurht i* removed from the surface 42 
*« spring 57 is free to act to force the 
•arch into engagement with the pin 33. 
to a» to lock the carriage to the Uock. 
la raising the load and pulley to the 
ktnck acain the first operation is to cause 
tae ftuds 47 to engage the surface 41 and 
4rop back against the surface 42 when 
*e strain on the cable caused by the 
is removed. As the car- 

riage is held up by the surface 59 until 
this time, it will be seen that the weight 
of the pulley and load thereon will free 
the catch 35 from the pin 33 and allow 
the carriage to slide down this incline 
and then run down the inclined cable. 
From this point the operations above de- 
scribed can be repeated. 


The accompanying illustration shows a 
hoist invented by G. W. Bolbnan, of 
Pittsburg, Pa., and assigned to the Otis 
Elevator Co. 

The construction of the hoist will be 
obvious from the illustration. When the 
engine or motor is started the only load 
upon it will be the weight of the bucket, 
frame and the contents of the bucket and 

that by reason of the movement of the 
load relatively to the body of the car the 
engine or motor is enabled to acquire mo- 
mentum before it starts to raise the load 
and car together. The advantage of the 
invention in the case of two-cvlinder en- 



gines can be readily understood. For 
starting this type of engine only one cyl- 
inder is available, and the only load upon 
it will be the bucket, frame and contents 
of the bucket. The movement of the load 
independently of the body permits of both 
pistons being brought into service before 
the full weight of the bucket, frame, con- 
tents, and body b is to be raised on the 
incline. It will be understood that after 
the frame b2 has been moved against the 
stop bs of the body of the car, as shown 
in dotted lines, the continued action of 
the engine or motor wll raise both to the 
top of the incline where the contents of 
the bucket may be discharged into the 
furnace G. 


This invention relates to an operating 

mechanism for dam-shdl bu( 
object of the invention being t 
improved trolley construct 
mounting whereby the operato 
carried by the trolley and the ei 
ing, elevating, and other mov< 
the bucket is entirely under tl 
of the operator in the trolley-c 
In operation the bucket 15 
and hoisted on the hoisting-c 
As soon as it is closed, howev< 
hoisting it is necessary to star 
chinery in motion, which hois 
hold-ropes 22 to prevent acci 
of slack in these ropes. When t 
is hoisted and conveyed and 
dump, it is necessary to set bra 
the spools or drums carrying 
cables 22 and slack off on t 
cables. This throws the weig 
bucket on the hold-ropes and t! 


M jer 

/K I AK \ A\ 1 A\ \ \ ^ ^■■■. ^ 





^ rr 

m\| ! \ i i \ i . - i\: ' .XvTv l yT^ 




cpcni by gravity. In this airangement 19 on the trolley. They are actuated by 

ibc hold-caUes 22 are wound in and un- a suitable clutch thrown by the operator, 

woond from spools 20, running loose on This clutch connects the hold-rope spools 

the same shafts as the hoist-spools 16 and together, and they turn in the same direc- 

-»• il >' 


IT #• 







[^^ — 







5=. 7. 



lion with tlio same speed, due to the fric- 
tion of the lioisl-cables around the hoist- 
sp<H)l. I .ooatcd on the trolley 6 and con- 
noiMod by jjoar-whools 24. 25, 26 and 27 
\\\\\\ t^no sot of track-wheels of the trolley 
is a motor .»S for impartinjj travel to the 
lnilli\\ . suitable l)rakos -H") boinjj provided, 
as sliown. fi^r slopping and locking ihe 
tn^llov at any point of its travel. The 
trollc\ is provided with a caije 30 for the 
t^porattM. and this caj^o has installea 
therein the nooossarx ooni roller for ihe 
uiotoi and \\\c K\ei> !\«r av*:natinji the 
\-hnchos on the hold sheaves or spools 
and the nov'ossai \ lovers lor the brakes of 
tlio track -whiVis and hold sheaves or 
>|V\^ls \s iho operator in the oajio con- 
tioN aV. :he jra^\e:'.UMUs 01 the ;:\\'.o\, il 
IX oi xNMiive ossen::al :h.i: :V.e :':\^:cr ::: 
ilu* tow 01 :. acin.itod :lu- l*.o:s:- 
eab'.e ;^; Iv , r.nde: his c. :::;.'., a::.", 
thiv oar. tv avwv.v.plishod b\ :v "."ex wires 
ur-:":::;;: l^rovi;:!! \V.c 'vid^e .\-:s; electric 
p% k ;v.^s :;;;.ic'^\: :,^ :>c c.-.:-,icc ..-vi 

• v.- 

operator's cage on the trolley. 

l^his invention has recently been pat- 
ented to F. E. Hulett, of Cleveland, and 
assigned by him to the Wellman-Seaver- 

M organ Co. 


The accompanying illustration shows 
an invention recently patented by W. J. 
Sollock, t»f Riverside, Conn. 

At points where coal is unloaded, par- 
ticularly from vessels, it is desirable that 
facilities should be provided either for 
in^.mediately reloading the coal upon cars 
cr for siorini; it in pockets preparatory 
tv^ roshipmoni or for storing it through- 
o\:: a storaize area from which it may be 
rc:'vved and reloaded upon cars, as oc- 
casi.r ro::::re5. It is the object of this 
".\i: ::v :: :. prcvide an apparatus for un- 
l.u.v'.v'C coa". from anyone of several 
;.''ir.:> :r s::":-:-j".:ir.e:usly from a plurality 
. : ■.-» i":s— :.>. : r instance, the hatches of 
.. t . -Si - :.•■: ■ :-:.r.s:err:r.;r the coal either 



to any one of a itcries of pockets or to 
toy (kstird point in a storage area from 
which It may be removed and reshipped. 
This inTention, generally stated, com- 
prises one or more portable towers for 
rtmo^ing the coal from the hatches of 
itssds, a traveling crane projecting 
aboff storage-pockets and extending 
oTer a storage area, conveying means 
supported upon the crane for receiving 
the coal and transporting the same to 
puints above the storage area, and con- 

pelled by any suitable motive means to 
points opposite the towers. Tlie buckets 
b4 are then operated to remove the coal 
or other material through the hatches of 
the vessel and dump the same above the 
chutes b5 of the towers. The coal passes 
through the chutes either directly into 
the pockets C and thence into cars F, or 
it may be received by the cars E2, which 
arc supported upon the track c' above the 
pockets C and beneath the discharging 
ends of the chutes and conveyed by such 

WiIlMiii Conveyor ChuU 

irvjn^ devices also supp<irted from the 
:ranv t«tr reiihn-ing the coal from the 
r! 'ram* area ami deiKisiting the same in 
rr.f pickets preparat«»ry to rehxiding up- 
r. -ar< 
:1k- M|H'ratii>n of the device is as fol- 
*• riu- towers B8, etc.. are moved 
*■ -i^ thf irack by any suitable means to 
:• :n!* *>;»|»iiMte the hatches of a vessel A. 
Thr width of the towers is such as to per- 
sxit them to be IcKatcd opposite adjacent 
kttcbcft. The cranes D are then pro- 

cars to points ab<»ve the various chutes 
in the series remote from the point where 
the coal i< iK-ini^ unloaded, thereby en- 
abling; all of the i>»ckets in the series to 
Ik* tilU<l with ctial c»»nveyed to them from 
llu- | uhere the vessel is being un- 
hatletl. The return portion of the tracks 
c' Is siip|H.rieii at a lower level, so that 
the empty cars will pass beneath the 
{Kiths of movement of the cars E and 
pick-up E'. The coal passing from the 
chutes b^ ma\ als*) be received bv the 



I (41 A |!., ilrprtiiltiiK lioiii ilic cndlcjib irack 

Pi fftllil iniivrvril liy tlliMI) td poillls above 
llu- oliiiuH»* Bjuirr hrlwrcn iho opposite 
0itit& ni ilir luvrlllii^ cranes and dumped. 
\Vlu>ii it in ilrsltrd (»» ivmovo llio coal 
hoitt thn htoi^tK^ N^'^^'^* *'^^* pickups VJ 
fH»» npculnl, wlilch convoy the call from 
\\\\^ *|iMrti5r rtiCvi t\» |MMiUs above the pivk- 
^Mn, while thcv rtie thuti|vcd« thereby de- 
l^v^Hhu; tho \\\^\ in the |vvkets ready t\^r 

V ' ' 

■'»'Xs >'.*■ ^ ■ < . '• - ' ,' . "^ .*. ■ ,' \' 
•, . sS\ .. -'■ , •- V «•-'*' 

overcome this, the Yale & Towne Mfg. 
Co., of New York, have supplied a 
special swivelling top hook with collector 
rings and ball bearings as shown in the 
attached illustration. 

The terminals pass into the Xap hook 
down through the shank of the hook and 
thence to the insulated collector rings. 


::«K«<*« »i %N> t« ^ y Us«V 

■'.^•- v.;;ii : :■. -:i.r: with 
.1': -:::^:.'!:»i*i to the 
"wl :i V ir Ifsds in 
:-.^ ?i~:x:'i> This 
- "t: r-riK :: ?T*ivel 
•:- i-r-:-.-:!:!! -oi-^hout 
^ '.u^ T^e f.*x:ble 

■ ■: r^ .!;:* l^Tli-Tti!? ihe 

.'^.t:r- MUii:irr»fr.: is 
•.'^" n Tii;x::i :: a 



Plpt PonUcig Jack. 
por forciiif or pulling pipe horizon- 
^ unikf gr oiind where trenches could 
^BD be made is the duty of Baisett 
(n^orctni^ Jack. 

rbti jack consists of a cage, which 
Ireli oil a rack, being moved by a 
Icet levcT and pawls. 
M the front of the cage is a groove 
tor holding pipe 1^* to 4*" in 

in which the graphite depoiits of Ceylon 
are worked under native management 
ha.s attracted the uotice of outstide mining 
engineers. It is stated that a concerted 
attempt is being made to work !iome of 
the plurobaKO mines on a scientific baMS. 
with the anticipated resnll that the exist* 
ing output will be largely increajiedp 

The Standard OiJ Co. has ordered two 
"Homsby-Akroyd** oil engines of 25 H. 

JDI >t^CS Up to 

iic length of 
t rock. The cage is then released and 
loipoimry piece f 4*^ long b used and 
k fifm forced forward. A 14' 6'' piece 
llhoi ioed« and after forctog forward 
jfetf koglh, permanent section is sub* 

pipe is given a rotar>* motion by 

^of a pair of tongs while it is being 

Twt>*inch pipe is easily forced 

of 60*, the pilot being a piece 

pipe 18* tong. 

is made by tbe Duff Mfg. 

Newa Noici* 
Agent Carkton. of Almeria. 
the Alquife Mines & Ry. Co.. 
• of the largesl iron ore companies 
Spain, ium begun converting 
hematite iron ore info briqt»ettes. 



V each, which will lie shipped to i nni- 
kLing, China, and used for pumping pur* 
poses. These engines are supplied by tlie 
De l^ Vergne Machine Co,, of New 
York, who state that the use of oil en- 
gines has increased enormously in the 
past few ycars» there being now over 14,- 
000 oil engines of the •'Homsby-.^royd** 
make alone in operation. 

Actual operation in the construction 
of the new Belt Line Railroad « which is 
to encircle CleMeUnd, started June ijtlu 
This enormous undertaking will be com* 
pleted within three yearn. The irst ten 
miles was sublet to Council Bros, by 
John Marsch. Green Bay. Wis*, and 
must be completed by May isl» 1907* 
When everything is in full swing, mom J 
than a thousand men. aoo horses aod^ 
se\*eral large steam shoveb will be at 
work. Pragress of this line will be noted , 
in these columns e%xry issue, using pho-j 


The ship yards of Nagasaki, Japan, 
employ 7,000 workmen all the year 

The AUis-Chalmers Co. San Francisco 
office is now located at 906 Broadway, 
Oakland, Cal. 

The Power & Mining Machinery Co., 
Cudahy, Wis., has included two new 
cranes in their recent improvement. 

Champion Blower & Forge Co., Lan- 
caster, Pa., has recently installed several 
cranes in their new foundry building. 

The A.,T. & S.F. Ry., San Francisco, 
Cal. , has authorized the construction of a 
large electric crane for the San Francisco 

The plant of the H. K. Porter Co., 
Pittsburgh, is to be moved to Economy, 
Pa., where the company has secured a 
tract of 40 acres. 

The Seattle Car Co., Seattle, Wash., 
has increased its capitalization to $100,- 
000, and will begin the construction of a 
new plant within the next .sixty days. 

The McClintic- Marshall Construction 
Co., Pittsburg. Pa., has been awarded a 
contract for the steel work for a 2155 ft. 
steel viaduct to be built over New River, 
near Glen Lind. 

Municipal Kngineering & Contracting 
Co., Chicago, has recently built a new 
automatic charging concrete mixer de- 
signed esjx?cially for street work. It is 
self-pro[)elling and will scrape concrete 
the entire width of a 50 ft. street. 

The Daily Telegraph (London) states 
that the government has decided to aban- 
don building one of the two war ships 
of the Dreadnaught class, planned for 
the current year, and thus effect a saving 
of nearly $10,000,000 in ship building. 

The Stroudsburg Engine Works, 
Stroudsburg, Pa., announces the organ- 
ization of their company with an increas- 
ed capital stock. Preparation is now 
being made for increased output and ca- 
pacity, and the trade will find deliveries 
prompt under the present management. 

The Bucyrus Co., So. Milwaukee, Wis., 
is building 63 steam shovels, 3 railway 
cranes and one railroad pile driver for 
work at Panama. This comprises all 
the steam shovels, railway cranes and 
railroad pile drivers purchased by the 
Isthmian Canal Commission to this date. 
(April 20th. ) 

Peacock's Iron Works, Selma, Ala., 
state that they have orders for 50 cars 
from the phosphate mines in Tennessee, 
and 50 cars for sugar cane plantations in 
Louisiana, and dozens of small orders 
from all sections of the countr>'. This 
concern makes a specialty of steel trucks, 
car wheels and cars of all sizes and kinds. 

The Jeffrey Mfg. Co., Columbus. O., 
have issued a leatlet with many illustra- 
tions describing one of their coal hand- 
ling eciuipnicnts for wholesale and retail 
yards. This consists of a 750 ton wooden 
storage j)ocket, a run-around combined 
elevator and conveyor, dri\dng machin- 
ery, loading chutes and power shovel for 
scraping coal from box cars into loading 



ica] drawing ts full of conrcfi- 
and Iwcj dmwtags of thr 
le piece nude under different rules 
pfselire wopld cliflfer ^» thai ihcy 
Al be amfufting Ui ttie machinist to 
wm the drawing was sent and for 
km k vaa made* To avoid this con* 
and at tlie same time tu keep a 
from which the draftsman can 
Ralci of (^ractioe have been 

The following are submitted not be- 
cause they are considered ideal — even 
though that name is substituted for the 
^h<*p in which ilic^^e arc used — but to in- 
duce others to discuss these and subiUtt 
other rules that they may consider su- 

Every shop should have it^i Rule^ of 
I'racticc and I sincerely hop.- tliat ^na'^y 
may criticise and submit rules for tha*e 
thev do not like. 



Object lines, visible and invisible, are to be in black ink and the 
anne w*tdth. Center, witness and dimension lines to be in red ink. 

Center lines this : ^^— ■ * ■ - - — 

Witness lines thus 

Dimension lines thus; ^ IgT ^ 

I, /3 jA^ 





Uf VIvwa 

^W «M 


Select the number of views necsesary to illustrate the object, no 
in<>re. no less. When a note will save the drawing of an extra view 
do not hesitate to insert it. Use dotted lines sparingly, using section 
views in preference. 

One view is sufficient when showing circular pieces, and, when 
interior details are to be shown, make that view a section. 

ChtKvse the largest possible scale and the smallest size sheet con- 
sisteni with good work. 

Make drawing? of caisrings ard ^:TginI:^ on different sheets. Cast- 
ini:^» \ipon which verA* little machine work is to be done, may be 
dvAwn a: a reduced scale. Fx-^rpr-g> shoiald ht drawn full size if pos- 

0^ -.c A' .. :^iC v.'.ji:cr.j». 

'»^ ^,-.- r.'.j;c r.^ the 

r.zir.rteT used on one ma- 

r : in letters % inch 

:-.::. —i.\y-,v.z^. -sse the following 

' — ^'L.^l:.i"r'!e Iron. 
> .' — r-trt- Casting. 

;. :i\hz^ f. The cross of 
; sir-:i»rt :o be finished. 

•rinr-r i," :ver" in black 



■»■ — » 

^gU . l i^ -*^ ^ 

4I& r 


Use the conventional method for representing screw threads, 
except in the case of square threads. Except in the case of V threads 
always give character of thread. See Fig. 1. 

When other than standard threads are used, the threads per inch 
should be given thus: 16 P. I. When a thread is left hand, always 
call attention to the fact by note. 

When notes are used in connection with the drawing, join the 
note and the part to which it refers by a wavy black line with an arrow 
head at the drawing extremity. 

Make section lines as shown in Fig. 2, making dis-between lines 
in proportion to the area sectioned. 

For standard bolts, nuts, set screws, machine screws, split pins, 
taper pins, etc., do not make detail drawinj^s, but use bolt list. 

Make figures to read from the bottom and right of the drawing 
as you face it. Place them, if possible, so they can he erascu without 
touchinjj a line of the drawing. When a dimension comes in a sec- 
tioned area, break the section lines as in Fig. 3. 

( >n castings, give simply machinist's dimensions, ^ 
not patternmaker's. 

(iive dimensions over all as well a> sub-dinien- 
>ionN. Stavjj^er sub-dimension lines as shown in Fig. 1. 

(iive radial dimensions as shown in V'xi^. 3. Tsc 
arrow head at one end and denote center l>y (3. 

For all dimensions up to and includii^j^ 24 inches, 
give dimensions in inches; above 24 inches, in feet aiul 
inches. W hen all dimensions arc in inches, tlie inch 
marks may l>e omitted. When dimensions are in feet ^ 

and inches, use the feet and inch marks and divide 
them by a dash, thus: 3'— 5>4". 

(live ilimensions to center lines and finished surfaces. 

Keep dimensions on one view if possible, hut tii^ure to full in 
preference to dotted lines. Do not repeat dimension>. 

When giving angular dimensions, give the dcgree> to which the 
planer head will have to be set to do the work. I'se the abbreviation 
deg. instead of the degree mark. 

Think of the men who are to use the drawing and make it for them. 
Keep in mind the machines used in manufacturing the several 
parts; this will in a measure determine your dimensions. 



The Designer in the Small Shop. 


How often do we find the designer in 
the large shop criticising most severely 
the design of some tool or machine 
which is the product of a smaller shop. 
This criticism of the design is of course 
a reUcciion upon the designer, in 
many cases the criticism is most unj si. 

My attention was called to this most 
forcibly the other day, when a man, in 
looking at a special machine built in a 
small shop, was heard to remark, "Why 
did he not cast those brackets on the 
bed instead of bolting them on ?'* There 
was no question in the minds of those 
present but what the change was de- 
sirable, yet I happened to know that an 
ad<iition of four or five inches on each 
side oi the bed would have been about 
two inches tot> nuich each side to have 
passed between the uprights of the larg- 
est planer operated by the company that 
buill the machine. 

The large shop, equipped with all ap- 
pliances for machining and handliui; ma- 
terial antl with a variety oi machines 
u]>on which work may be done, does not 
hinder the designer in his work as does 
the small shop with its limited equip- 
ment. In the large shop the designer 
has to work simply for the best design, 
while his brother in the small shop is 
forced by the equipment to lay aside 
s<>mething that is best for something 
within the scope of the shop. Thus it is 
that the man of the small shop me'^ts 
problems little dreamed of by the :lo- 
signcr in the large sh(»p and is forced 
many times to use not a little in ^^enuit) 
to solve these problems. I'nder these 
circumstances the designer in the small 
shop is entitled to a great deal of credit 
for working up his design, and should 
not be criticised tiX) severely by the man 
who is sometimes considered better be- 
cause employed in a larger shop 

The best designer, from a med 
or economic standpoint, is he who 
his design to the machines and 
making up the equipment of his si 

By masterfully working out c 
whereby the small shop with its 1 
equipment may profitably turn out 
apparently beyond its capacity, the 
man shows the distinguishing eh 
eristic of the good designer. 

Approximate Patterns for Elbe 


How many of us will not use ap 
mate methods for doing work when 
lute accuracy does not demand the 
retical method? Those who do n 
working at a disadvantage and spc 
more time than is necessary, conset 
ly are expensive men, no matter 
their salary may be. 

In finding the approximate circt 
ence of a circle, would it not be 
to multiply by 22 and divide by 7 
than to multiply by the more awl 
yet more accurate constant 3.1416 
for approximate work the fonner n 
is plenty good enough. 

In finding the diagonal of a J 
would we not multiply the side 1 
constant 1.4142 rather than extra 
square root of the sum of the squa 
the sides, and to find the long di^ 
of a hexagon would wc not multi] 
the constant 1.1549 rather than to 
it out in a number of more lab 
ways? In the two latter cases, t 
suits will be inaccurate simply b< 
we cannot get a complete decimal. 

If in mathematical woric we ca 
these short cuts to advantage it 
will pay at times to resort to n 
thumb methods in oar graphical 
and I submit herewith tip^-o short nn 
of laying off, approximately, the de 
ment or pattern of two differeni 
of elbows. While these are onlv cu 



bods they will be found to ap- 
te so closely to the theoretical 
, that any trimming to fit will not 

g. I we have a view of a right 
bow in two pieces. The pattern 
vertical pipe is shown in Fig. 2. 
in Fig. 2, lay off KL equal in 
o 3H times the diameter A B. 
will be seen, is another approxi- 
one much more readily laid off 
r enough to the theoretical to be 
cially correct. Next divide KL 
r equal parts and erect perpendic- 
K L at the five points shown. 

that may be required, the pattern is com- 

Still more time may be saved by dis- 
carding Fig. I entirely, knowing the 
diameter A B and the distance B D. 
Without Fig. I the distance K L may be 
figured, laid off and divided as in the 
previous case. K P and L V will equal 
B D, and N S will equal the sum of B D 
and A B. Having given the points P, 
S and V to find R and T, connect P and 
S, also S and V, by straight lines and 
their intersections, respectively, with M 
R and O T will give the required points. 
The remainder of the figure may be 


i\ / 












B K ^ 



'iK- 1. 

Fig. 2. 

[ R and O T equal in length to 
ig. I ) and through the points R 
Iraw the straight lines 1-2 and 
king angles of 45** with K L. 
1 S equal to .\ C and L \' and 
al to B D. Find, by trial, a point 
ine X S which will be the center 
c passing through S and tangent 
ind 3-4. With the same radius 
titer on the extension of the line 
aw an arc through P tangent to 
1-2; and in a similar manner 
e same radius draw an arc 
the point \' and tangent to the 
After adding any further lap 

drawn as previously described. 

In Fig. 3 is shown elevation of three 
part elbow and in Fig. 4 we have the pat- 
teni for the vertical piece. To obtain 
this, approximately, lay off K L equal 
to 35^ times .\ B. divide into four equal 
parts and erect perpendiculars at the 
jxiints of division. Lay off on these per- 
pendiculars K P and L V equal in length 
to B D, M R and O T equal to E F and 
N S equal to .\ C. Through R draw the 
straight line 1-2. making the same angle 
with K L as C I) makes with K B. In 
a similar manner through T draw the 
line 3-4 having the angle with K L equal 



to the angle made by C D with A B. 

With a center on S N draw an arc 
through S tangent to 1-2 and 3-4. With 
a center on L V extended draw an arc 
through V tangent 3-4, and with a center 
on the extension of K P draw an arc 
through P tangent to 1-2. The same 
principle may be applied to any multi- 
part elbow. 

Wetting Lead Pencils. 

The act of putting a lead pencil to 
the tongue to wet it just before writing, 
which is habitual by many people, is one 
of the oddities for which it is hard to 

before using it. Now, this clerk always 
uses the best pencils, cherishing a good 
one with something of the pride of a 
soldier feels in his gun or his swor4 
and it hurts his feelings to have his pen- 
cils spoiled. But politeness and business 
considerations require him to lend his 
pencil scores of times a day. And often, 
after it had been wet till it was hard 
and brittle and refused to mark, his feel- 
ings would overpower him. Finally he 
got some cheap pencils and sharpened 
them, and kept them to lend. The first 
person who took up the stock pencil was 
a drayman, whose breath smelt of onions 

give any reason, unless it began in the 
days when pencils were poorer than now, 
and was continued by example to the 
next generation. A lead pencil should 
never be wet. It hardens the lead and 
ruins the pencil. This fact is known to 
newspaper men and stenographers. But 
nearly every one else does wet a pencil 
before using it. The fact was definitely 
settled by a newspaper clerk away down 
East. Being of a mathematical turn of 
mind, he ascertained by actual count that 
of 50 persons who came into his office 
to write an advertisement or a church 
notice, 49 wet a pencil in their mouths 

and whiskey. He held the point in bis 
mouth and soaked it sevend minutes, 
while he was torturing himself in the 
eflfort to write an advertisement for a 
missing bulldog. Then a sweet-lodring 
young lady came into the office, with kid 
gloves that buttoned half the length of 
her arm. She picked up the same old 
pencil and pressed it to her dainty lips 
preparatory to writing an advertisement 
for a lost bracelet. The clerk would have 
stayed her hand, even at the risk of a 
box of the best Dixon pencils, but he 
was too late. And thus that pencil passed 
from mouth to mouth for a wedc. It 



eked by people of all ranks and 
^ and all degrees of cleanliness 
cleanliness. But 'twere well to 
. Surely no one who reads this 
*r again wet a lead pencil. — From 

LKlBf and Lattice Work. 
Tins and steel structures are often 
ed of I beams or channels stayed 
gonal bars called lattice bars, 
he diagonal stays or braces of this 
do not cross each other at any 
etwcen their ends they are some- 
known as lacing and the term 
>ars is evident. 

>nie specifications bars are called 
have one rivet at each end and 
I of ab(.)ut three times the diameter 
rivet and the thickness is from % 

8 inch channels, a bar \y^ by %" 
*en found sufficient and they 
incline at an angle of 60° of the 
a column. 

Draftsman's Triangle. 

acciunpanying sketch shows an in- 
nt. in the main, familiar to all 
icn. The common celluloid tri- 
littetl with three feet, as indicated, 
's quite a useful addition to the 
5" set of tools. These feet may 
e of any material at hand, fastened 
inder side of triangle so as to ele- 
me about 1-16" from the drawing, 
arrangement as shown may have 

numerous advantages, principal among 
which are the following two : First, in a 
great many instances, during the process 
of inking (tracing) it is necessary or de- 
sirable to move back over portions not 
yet dry, which by this method is made 
possible, saving time and preventing a 
blot or smear. Again, every draftsman 
remembers that time when he could have 
made use of a little more reach, at right 
angles to working edge of triangle, when 
pinning one line to another, etc. By this 
method, the fulcrum of pen is elevated to 
a greater degree thereby allowing wider 
variation at pen point. 

It is hardly probable that blotting will 
result due to pressure of hand on tri- 
angle, during the process of line draw- 

It is handy to have such an instrument 
ready should occasion demand. 

Abovk Board. 

Strength of Slag Cement, BuUding 
Brick and of Slag Concrete. 

[A Theniii ntrnentccl for th« I>c>in-er of Riichi-lor of Si-i 
ence in Civil KnirinecniiK at Case School of A|»|>linl 
Science by D. N. Beer*, and C. C I.ankcn ; 

The objects of this thesis were to de- 
termine the strength of building brick 
made of slag and cement : sand and ce- 
ment ; and sand, stone and cement ; and 
of the slag concrete used in the construc- 
tion of the Walsh-McGuire building, 
Qeveland, ( )hio. with a view of com- 
paring the strength developed by each 
with each of the others, and with stan- 
dard building materials of each class. 

It was further tlesired to obtain a com- 
parison between the strength of this c<ni- 
crete made for actual use in a commer- 
cial way, and of concrete made in a labo- 
ratory for testing purfioses only. 

From the results obtained it was evi- 
dent that the strength of the brick in- with time; that the strength of 
the brick depends directly upon the per 
cent, of cement; that above 9* cement 



the strength increases very much more 
per additional per cent, of cement than 
below this point; and that this increase 
in strength per cent, itself increases rap- 
idly as more cement is added, up to at 
least i67o. It appears that the limit to 
this increase per cent, is reached at about 
30% for 28 day strength, and 35% for 14 
day strength. 

From the comparisons of the compres- 
sive strength of slag cement brick with 
that of ordinary brick it appears that slag 
brick poorer than 10. i are worthless as 
building material. 

As to the comparative strength of sand 
cement, and slag cement brick, the poorer 
mixes of sand and cement have no 
strength at all, while similar mixes of 
slag and cement show considerable 
strength. This difference is undoubtedly 
due to the cementing properties of the 
slag. Of the mixes richer than 10. i 
where the sand cement brick begins to 
attain strength, the slag brick develops 
the greater strength. This is also due to 
the cementing properties of the slag. 
This difference would undoubtedly be 
greater if the slag wore more finely 

I»esides that for compression, heat in ^^ 
and freezing tests were made on the 
brick. The former test was made by put- 
ting samples oi each brick in the furnace 
of the C'leveland City Forge Co.. and sub- 
jecting them to a temperature of looo"^ 
1'. for twenty-four hours. The freezing 
test was matle by putting three samples 
of each brick in one of the ice cans used 
in the manufaoiuro of artificial ice, and 
alternately freezing, thawing, drying, 
freezing, etc., three times. When frozen 
the bricks were encrusted entirely in a 
cake of ice, thus receiving a far more se- 
vere freezing test than that to which they 
vNould ever be subjected in a wall. 

All of the brick subjected to a heating 
lest by being burncii \\\ a furnace at a 

temperature of 1000** F. for twenty-four 
hours, crumbled, except the 4-1, 5-1, and 
6-1 slag cement mixes. The latter lost 
practically all their strength and were 

Some common clay brick which were 
tested showed losses of strength of over 
50% due to being frozen and thawed but 
once. The maximum loss due to freez- 
ing and thawing three times of the sla: 
cement brick was 3^/2%, and of the 
sand-stone-cement brick 29.4%. From 
this it is evident that both of these kinds 
of brick resist the action of frost better 
than the common clav brick. 

The Use of the Level. 

Leveling is the process of finding the 
difference of level of two places or the 
distance of one place above or below a 
level line through another place. 

A Ici'el surface is one parallel with the 
surface of still water and a lez'el line is 
a line in a level surface. 

With these few remarks before us, we 
ste what is to be accomplished and what 
must be kept in mind when a person is 
askeil to do leveling. 

The instruments used are the level, 
Fig. I. consisting of a telescope, tripod 
and plumb line and the leveling rod 
Fig. 2. 



fbc spirit level under the telescope as- 
s in getting the instrument in correct 
idition for work. 

jet it be considered that the man op- 
ting the level is the observer and the 
• at the rod, the rod-man, and let it 
required to find the difference in level 
two points A and B. 
rbe point at which the level is set is 
led a station and at some point about 
f way between A and B, the instru- 
nt is set up on the tripod and ad- 

Fig. 2— l-cvd Rod. 

It hUI be seen from the illustration 
It the head is controled by four milled- 
id icrews. 

\iter setting; the le^s of the tripod 
ui sufficient to brinj^ the telescope up 
with 4 or 5 inches of the eye of the 
•cnrer and as near level as possible, 
ett them firmly into the soil. 
Sving the telescope over one set of 

screws and level by turning them in or 
out with thumb and fingers but be care- 
ful not to bind them tight. 

When the bubble in the tube is cen- 
tral, swing the telcsco|)e over the other 
set of screws and repeat the process, then 
return to former position and correct for 
any variations that may have been 
caused by the second adjustment. 

The rod shown in the illustration con- 
sists of two pieces of wood, sliding one 
upon the other and held together in any 
position by a clasp 

The front surface is graduated to hun- 
dredths of a foot up to 6J^ ft. A tar- 
get slides along the front of the rod and 
is held in any position by a clamp. 

It has a square opening at the center, 
through which the division line of the 
rod opposite to the horizontal line of the 


target may be seen. It carries a vernier 
by which heights may be read to thou- 
sandths of a foot. 

If a greater height than 6* j feet is de- 
sired, the target is made fast with its 
horizontal line at 6^ 1» feet from the lower 
end and the back part of the rod moved 
up until the target is at the required 

After leveling the instrument, direct 
the rodnian to place the leveling rod ver- 
tically at A. Bring the telescope to bear 
on the rod and by signaling have the rod- 
man slide the target until its horizontal 
line is in the line of apparent level of 
the telescope or coincides with the hair 
line to be seen in the instrument. 

I^t the rodman record the height \ \' 



of target and proceed to B, find B B' 
by swinging the telescope and adjusting 
the target to suit the observer. 

The difference between A A' and B B' 
will be the difference of the level re- 

If the instrument be set up at one 
station, say at A, and the rod at the 
other, the difference between the heights 
of the optical axis of the telescope and 
the target, corrected for the curvature 
and refraction, will be the difference of 
level required. 


If the instrument be set up about equal 
distance from A and B, no correction 
for curvature of the earth need be made. 

The correction for curvature is the 
deviation of the line of apparent level 
from the level line for any distance. Let 
t. Fig. 4 represent the line of apparent 

approximately. Since c is very small 
compared with d and / = a withoat ap- 
preciable error. Since d is constant 
(7,920 miles, nearly) the correction for 
curvature varies as the square of the dis- 

For example, what is the curvatnrc 
for one mile? By substituting in the 

a2 1* 

c = = mi. = 8 in. nearly. 

d 7920 

Hence the correction for curvature 
may be found approximately, by multi- 
plying 8 by the square of the distance ex- 
pressed in miles. A correction for the 
refraction of the ray of light is some 
times made by decreasing the correction 
for curvature by i-6th of itself. 

To find the difference of level of two 
places, one of which cannot be seen from 
the other, we locate the instrument be 
tween the first station A and an inter- 
mediate place as B, Fig. 5. Find A A' 
and B B' as in the preceding case and 
record the former as a back sight and 
the latter as a fore sight. Locate the in- 
strument ahead of the point B and with 
the rod at C, find C C and record it 
with reference to the back sight B B'. 

Repeat the operation as often as neces- 

level of the place P, a the level line, d 
the diameter of the earth, then c repre- 
sents the correction for curvature. To 
compute the correction for curvature, 
t* = c (c -f d) therefore 
t» a» 

sary to carry the amount of difference 
fiom A to D, C C being a back-sight 
and D D' the foresight 

The difference betwen the sum of the 
foresights and the sum of the badcsights 
will be the difference of level required 



"awtrictor, the level is an 
; inMtiiiieiit, lUowtn^ him to io* 
mnd other foisndatjons with 
^md fipidi^. 

lor adjusting the various 
[lb€ level arc sent with each in* 
and should be followed care- 

: Pwtmures of Bes^mer Steel 
tffti TiitMS, 3 to to In. Dia. 

T. Stewart* Allegheny, Pa., 

perfecting a series of tests 

are to dctcrmnte the collapsing 

t of lap welded tubes. 

following is an extract of the re- 

from the paper as presented 

cting of the American Society 

Engineers at Chattanooga* 


trtescarch was undertaken for the 
BDf tttpplytng an urgent demand 
Bhle informattoti on the behavior 
dm wrought tubes when sub- 
m fluid collapstng pressure. Every 
nown to engineering science that 
M in the accomplishment of this 
Hng has been tised^ and every 
P effort made to get at tiie truth 
m the research yield trustworthy 
It was planned and executed un- 
r tmmcdtate direction of the au- 
ihe McKeesport w*orks of the 
[Tube Co. and has occupied for 
during a period of 4 
ttnie of from one to iiix men. 
lOne. — ^Thb series of tests was 
I tubes that were BH inches out- 
ter* for all the difiPerent com* 
I ttidaicsaes of wall, and m 
kf ^yif 5» 10, 15 and 20 feet be- 
BlBiveiie joints tending to hold 
10 a druttlar form. The chief 
this series of tests was to fur- 
for determbing which of the 
If any. were applicable 
lap-welded steel tubes, espec- 

ially when u%cil in comparatively long 
lengths, such as well casing* boiler tubes 
and long plain flues. 

Scries Two. — This series of tests was 
made on single lengths of 20 feet be- 
tween end connection, tending to hold 
the tube to a circular form. Seven sizes 
from 3 to to inches outside diameter* 
and in all the commercial thicknesses 
obtainable, have been tested to date. 
The chief purpose of these tests was to 
obtain* for commercial tubes, the manner 
in whicli the collapsing pressure of a 
tube is related to both the diameter and 
thickness of wall. 

Inapplicability of Previously Pub- 
lished Formulae. — Preparatory to en- 
tering up<:»n the present research all ex- 
isting published formulae that could be 
found were collected* and, after tlie com- 
pletion <*f series one. were tested as to 
their applicability to modem steel tubes. 
Among the formulae thus tested were 
two each by Fairbaim Unwin. Wehagc 
and Clark, and one each by Nystromt 
Grashof, Love^ Bdpaire and the Board 
of Trade (British), all of which, with 
possibly two exceptions, appear to be 
based upon Fairbalm's classical expert* 
ments, nude more than a half century 
ago, upon tubes wholly unlike the mod- 
em product. Without exception, all of 
these formulae, when thus tested, proved 
to be inapplicable to the wide range of 
conditions found in modem practice. As 
an illustration of this the very first tube 
tested in connection with this research 
failed under a pressure that exceeded by 
about joo per cent, that calcttlated by 
means of Fairbaim *s formula. 

Results of Present Research.— The 
principal conclusions to be drawn from 
the results of the present re sea rch may 
be briefly stated as follows : 

I. The length of tube, between trans- 
verse jcMnts tending to hold it to a dreu- 
lar form, has no practical influence upon 



the collapsing pressure of a commercial 
lap-welded steel tube so long as this 
length is not less than about six diameters 
of tube. 

2. The formulae, as based upon the 
present research, for the collapsing pres- 
sure of modem lap-welded Bessemer 
steel tubes, are as follows: 

P= 1,000 j 1— J 1 — 1.600 — i (a) 

P = 80,670 

— 1,38»J 


Where P = collapsing pressure, 
pounds per sq. inch. 

d = outside diameter of tube in inches. 

t = thickness of wall in inches. 

Formula A is for values of P less than 
581 pounds, or for values of ~- less 
than 0.023, while formula B is for values 
greater than these. 

These formuLT, while strictly correct 
for tubes that are 20 feet in length be- 
tween transverse joints tending to hold 
them to a circular form, are, at the same 
time, substantially correct for all lengths 
greater than about six diameter. They 
have been tested U)V seven diameters, 
ran;^in^ from 3 to 10 inches, in all ob- 
tainable commercial thicknesses of wall, 
and are known to be correct for this 

For the convenience of those who wish 
to apply these formulae to practice a table 
has been calculated, giving the collaps- 
ing pressures of all the commercial sizes 
of lap-welded tubes from 2 to 11 inches 
outside diameter. 

For those who prefer graphical 
methods Charts were constructed, with 
an explanation of their use. 

\\^hen applying these formulae, tables 
and charts to practice, it should be re- 
membered that a suitable factor of safety 
must be api.)lied. 

3. The apparent fiber stress under 
which the different tubes failed varied 
from about 7,000 pounds for the rela- 

tively thinnest to 35,000 pounds per 
square inch for the relatively thickest 
walls. Since the average yield point of 
the material was 37,000 and the tensile 
strength 58,000 pounds per square indi, 
it would appear that the strength of a 
tube subjected to a fluid collapsing pres- 
sure is not dependent alone upon either 
the elastic limit or ultimate strength of 
the material constituting it 

The result of this test when written 
up covers 87 pages of the proceedings of 
the Society of Mechanical Engineers and 
forms a part of Volume 27 of their 

Sizes of Paper. 

There are a large number of makes of 
paper but the manufacturers have con- 
fined themselves to a few general sizes. 

Papers are classed under the following 
heads, but this is not absolute, each 
maker having classes for his own particu- 
lar brand. 

These are print, book, music, cover, 
label, blotting, card boards, tag boards, 
tlat writing, linen, bond, ledger, tissue, 
wrapping, wax and parchment papers 
and straw boards. 

All of the above are made in various 
sizes and weights and nearly all sold with 
500 sheets to the ream. 

The weight mentioned is that of a ream 
except in the case of card, tag or straw 
boards where it applies to lOO sheets. 

Xames have been given to a lot of sizes 
as follows: 

''sizes of flat papers." 


Cap M X 17 

Demy 16 x 21 

Folio 17 X 22 

Medium 18x23 

Royal 19 X 24 

Double Cap 17 x 28 

Super Royal 20x28 

Double Demy 21 x 32 


*'olio ^X34 The SUr Photo-Prlotlnf Machine. 

ledium 23 X 36 (BtIiic the report of the Franklin Inatitnte throoKh 

LoVSll 24 X t8 '^ Committee on fldeacc and the Art». on the Inren* 

^ '^ tion of Prof. U. F. RondinelU. of I*hilMlelphi« 
Reprinted from Jonmal Franklin Inatitute. Jan- 

^^^— unry. 18011] 


IQX16 ^^ Franklin Institute, acting through 

j^ jj jg its Committee on Science and the Arts, 

J - ^ jg investigating the merits of the "Photo- 

I Demv . . . . 16 X 43 ^^rinting Machine/* by Prof. L. F. Ron- 

1. Med' 18x46 <i>"^"^» of Philadelphia, Pa., reports as 

2^ X "ii tol'ows : 

2-1 X 28 '^^^^ ^^ *" apparatus for producing 

ilephant 27x40 photographic prints in continuous form 

J, 2^x'U ^""^"^ tracings or other flexible transpa- 

26 X ^^ rencics of unusual length. 

'^^ ^i X ^^ '^^^ form of the apparatus under pres- 
ent consideration, to which the invent<ir 

can be secured in several has given the name of 'SUr Photo- 

o the ream and are always laid Printing Machine,** is designed esepcially 

for the practice of the blue-print and 
papers are made with a "water paper-negative processes, and was pat- 
nning through each sheet which ented March 19. 1901, Xo. 670.349. The 
c use when sketches there are to machine is adapted to print by sunlight 
rinted. or artificial light as may be most con- 
Mies to bonds, linens and led- venient, and accordingly comprises two 
is often a great disadvantage >ndeix-ndont parts, the i)rinting niach.: 

»e papers have a fine surface for P''OI>«'" ^"^ ^^"^ c'^*^^"^' ^'«*^^»"'-' apparatus 

upon which it is supported. 

... ^ The printing mechanism is contained 

parxTs arc made m sizes 16 x . *. ;• . • • . . . • .^ „ 

, 01 in a casing which is provided with ball 

22. 19 X 24 and 17 X 28 onlv, '^ , t, „ . 

, _ . . ', casters so as to be easily rolled out from 

onlv certain grades are made , • . , . 

Its support upon tracks arranged for the 

. purpose through a window for sun-print- 

lio { 17 X 22) IS the size used for j^^ j^^ ^^^j^^ j^ ^^^ ^j well-finished 

ds, bemg cut 8J4 x 11, which is ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^j^^ ^„ ^^^ ^^^^j^j^^ ^. 

d a sundard for a fiill size sheet ^^^j^,^ ^j ^j^^ p^j^^j^^ p^^^^^^ throughout 

ommercial letter writing. ^„^ ^^^ ^, ^,^^ niechanism of the appa- 

apcrs are made in sizes 22 X 28, ratus except the small electric driving 

-^5 ^ 38. 28 X 42, 30 X 44, and niot*- r and its reducing gears. These are 

>ut not in all weights and do not fi^ed on the exterior, on one side of the 

rry good surface for drawings, ^^^^ine. The casing is curved on top. 

boards are made in practically whence it runs down into a slant of about 

22^ ^2 X 28 V5. but in several 45"* and then projects to form a receiving 

anging from 2 to 8 and in a compartment at the front. The covers of 

icty of colors. the slanting and horizontal parts arc 

dtnary calling card is about 2 hinged together and to the front edge of 

rauijr of the index cards 3 ply. the casing, forming a two-leaved lid 

which, when lifted and brought forward, 
opens the machine and at the same time 
forms a projecting work table. This 
hinged cover may also be brought to rest 
in two other positions, leaving the ma- 
chine only partially open and the w^ork 
table out of the way. The curved section 
of the casing is covered with a roll-top 
shutter which serves as a covering slide 
over the exposure opening, permitting 
this to be varied in extent up to 105° for 
rays from the sun and op to 120*^ or more 
for those from the electric lamps. 

The printing is effected through a 
transparent covering-sheet which holds 
the tracing and sensitive paper down up- 

winding-roll up under an idler and 
around this dow^n to its contact with thel 
drum, the material thus forming an in- 
clined feed-apron down which the tracing 
and sensitive paper are carried into con- 
tact with the revolving drum, and thence 
around with it under the exposure open- 
ing. The printing is continued on the 
return of tlie drum, and after the print- 
ing the tracing and prints are carried up 
the inclined plane and delivered over the 
idler into the receiving compartment in 
front* The tension of the transparent 
cover can be regulated by means of a 
friction brake at one end of the winding 
roll and can be effectively controlled so 

Star Photo- Prill li 11)^ Machine, with casing closed. 

on tlvc surface of a felt-covered drum 
that revolves under the exposure opening 
concentrically with the curved lop of tlie 
casing. The transparent cover consists 
of a strip of the best tracing cloth over 
seventy fvet in lengthy permanently fast- 
ened at one end to the drum and passing 
around this to a winding roll under prop- 
er tension. The tracing cloth is carefully 
prepared so as to wind true from roll to 
drum and back again, and its edge is 
spaced oflf into feet and marked witli 
numbers which indicate the maximum 
leuji^'th nf print which may yet be made 
when part of the cover has been wound 
niT The cover-strip passes from its 

as to insure a close contact of die sensi- 
tized paper w^ith tracings on thick or 
rumpled tracing cloth at any desired 
printing speed. 

The drum is actuated from the outsidi 
by means of a reducing gear-coup!c itotn 
the motor to a driving spindle which 
passes into the casing and carries a small 
pinion on its inner end. This spindle is 
movable laterally so as to carry the pinion 
into mesh with either of two set-^ of re- 
ducing gears on the inside, one set serv- 
ing to move the drum forward at a cer- 
tain speed and the other to move it bacfc 
ward at a faster speed. The spitidJe n 
held in either positioci by means of ( 



*f'rin^ catch which fits into either of tw* 
^T-'Vcd collars carrk-d by the spindle on 
:hf iititsidc. 

Three diffcTcnt speeds arc provded for, 
:hr return in such cas<? beinj; faster than 
t-v i..n*ard motiim. The ex pt* sure goes 
^^ « luring b<.)th tlic forward and back- 
• ani movement ni the <lnim. The com- 
biru:i«>n *»i these various speeds affords a 
crddaii«'n ox nine different periods nf 
f\p«*ure, and these may furthernujre be 
wrrc 1 hv chan^in^ the lamp resistance 
attached to the motor. The use of cone 
; /^ or of an external rheostat for this 
I»rp ..c is thus advantaf^eously avoided. 

riic machine, together with its elec- 
tn.-hijht supporting frame, is built in 
three widths, affording prints up to 
thiny. forty-two and forty-eight inches 
wide respectively, all three being adapted 
to nike eootintioiis prints up to a length 




The electric-light Support of this ma- 
chine, though an extraneous feature of 
the apparatus, must yet in view of the 
practical requirements of any consi<ler- 
able drafting room or of a coninu' 



blue-printing establishment, be regarded 
as of primary importance. The support 
is so wired as to be ready for connection 
to the mains of either a two- or three- 
wire system carrying no or 220 volts, 
direct current. The lighting arrange- 
ment consists of enclosed-arc lamps, 
four, five or six of them for the three re- 
spective widths of the machine, or of a 
set of three or four Coper-Hewitt mer- 
cury lamps of the requisite length. 


The most actinic rays of light from an 
arc lamp radiate in a beam outward and 
downward from the crater formed by the 
arc in the upper carbon, and the idea is 
to so reflect all the rays as to bring about 
a zone of uniform actinic force over the 
entire surface of the exposure opening 
of the machine. To this end the lamps 
are placed directly over the axis of the 
drum, under a reflector-hood especially 
designed for the purpose upon the prin- 
ciple of reflection from the surface of an 
ellipse, as first demonstrated by the pres- 
ent inventor before the Franklin Insti- 
tute, at its meeting on December 21, 

1904. The lamp and the enclosing re- 
flector-hood are both hung from a sus- 
pension beam adapted to be raised and 
lowered on the support over the machine, 
the lamps being held to the beam in u 
fixed position and the hood by cnams that 
permit its being raised and lowered about 
the lamps. Through sight-holes placed 
for the purpose the hood can be adjusted 
over the lamps so that the arcs coincide 
with the focal line of the elliptical inner 
surface of the hood. In this position all 
the rays that strike the inner surface arc 
reflected towards the opposite focus of 
the ellipse. The suspension beam with 
its lamps and hood is then lowered until 
the ends of the reflector hood rests upon 
the bracket at the two ends of the ma- 
chine casing. Thus placed, the reflected 
light is intercepted by the cylindrical sur- 
face of the drum, reaching it and its 
overlying tracing and sensitized paper in 
rays of equal length and in directions 
uniformly normal to the surface, thus 
producing the desired area of uniform il- 
lumination. For the long tubes of the 
mercury lamps, the same principle is ap- 
plied in a form modified for the purpose. 
In either case the uniformity of illumina- 
tion which is produced is such that trac- 
ings coming within the area of the open- 
ing can be effectively printed without 
moving the drum. 

The Rondinella Photo-Printing Ma- 
chine marks a distinct advance in the 
practice of this art. Long prints, whether 
from negatives or from tracings, were 
formerly produced by simply pasting 
shorter ones together or by the obviously 
difficult and unsatisfactory method of 
making the continuous print by succes- 
sive exposures of shorter sections. To 
obviate the imperfections inevitable in 
either of these processes, various expedi- 
ents have been resorted to, one method 
being to fasten the sensitized paper with 
its over-lying flexible transparency on a 



of solBciciit sire m widtb and 
dk fprtOglllK the board lengthwise to 
^ the miterial into the best possible 
let over the convex syrfmce and 
to as even light as passible. 
to replace these crude pToced- 
a mrchaniiini for the putpotse 
some iuurti'cn years ago by 
of Chicago, III, whose in- 
was patented No« 469,244, on 

two material}*, ihc dianictcrs i^i ihc two 
roll* would be or would S4K>n become dti- 
ferent. and unequal Icn^hs of the two 
materials would be drawn otT in the same 
lime. In the course of the rotation, the 
two sheets were drawn under a succes- 
sion of scrapers spanning the exposure 
opening, the scrapers serving to smooth 
out the sheets and to force them into 
printing contact The machine seems to 

i f«r $tMr liiolo-Priitttt^ Machine and 
Mflctrie ct|iii|m€tit 

"13, 189a, In that device ihc 
and sensitixed paper were each 
tely rolled uptin spouts from 
ribfy were then drawn off together 
Ike r o tti o R of a drum to which the 
rr mdt of both were fastened Tliese 
Db were geared so as to make the 
of rrvolutioiit, bm on ac- 
the different thicknesses of the 

have lx*en tlrvi^tii csjtcoialTv for printing 
by daylight alone an^i dj»|*v,4r5 never to 
have been brought into practice. The 
Rondinella machine of 1901 is the next 
oil the record, and the first to meet the 
practical requireittents of the occasiaa. 
It has been followed by several otheriv 
most of them uttlldng a rotating drum 
00 which to effect die expoentrci, but 



manifestly retains its leading place as an 
efficient solution of the problem. 

In view of the scientific accuracy and 
mechanical thoroughness and simplicity 
with which all the various requirements 
of the process of continuous photo- 

positions and make complete plans and 
specifications for the construction of new 
plants and for the improvement of old 

In view of this, The Richardson-Love- 
joy Engineering Co,, has been formed at 



Fig* &— Star Photo-Printing Machine in its support, as used for printinji; by electric arct. 

printing have been fulfilled in this ma- 
chine, the Franklin Institute recom- 
mends the award of the John Scott Leg- 
acy Premium and Medal to the inventor, 
Trof. Lino F. Rondinella, of Philadel- 
phia, Pa* 

The Clay En^aeer. 

The clay workers of America, espec- 
ially those engaged in the manufacture 
of structural products* in which so much 
capital is invested have come to realize 
the benefits to be derived from employ- 
ing an engineer to investigate their pro- 

Columbus, O,, to contract for work along 
this line. The company will be able to 
take up all phases of handling the ma- 
terials in and about a day working plant , 

The Natural Slope of Broken Stone. 

The following tabulation of the slope 
of broken stone was given in Engmetf- 

The stone was piled in stock piles at I 
the East Basin of the Jerome Park Res- 1 
ervnir of New^ York City, 

A steam shovel was used in loading] 
the material into cars, the excavation | 



le at the bottcmi of the pile, 
per portion of the pile assumed 
slope by gravity action, in the 
ner as a "talus'* at the foot of a 

sketch below A is the angle 
and D is the distance taped on 



rll't .j^-^^'T^-i-l.! 



Angle (A) 

on Slope D 


ay ft. 




33 " 















crajie of the angle was 38* 28' 
equ(rntl\ the slope was about 

lo't Device for Drawing Letter 
SpAC« Linea. 

indy little tool I use for draw- 
space lines. To use it I place 
the T-square blade, as shown 
tch. with the pencil point on 
at the lower angle A. By the 
angle draw the line D by mov- 
mcil and tool in the direction 

of the arrow ; draw the line I)' by the 
aid of the upper angle A, and the lines 
D and D' will be 5/32 inch apart. By 
placing the pencil point at the points B 
and following the same process the iines 
C and C will be drawn A inch apart. K 
is a small knob or handle to pick it up 
by. The small rectangles with a dot in 
the center show where the notches were 
beveled off to let the pencil tilt. I made 
mine of gutta percha 1/16 iuch thick » 
but it could be made of thin wood or cel- 
luloid. — F. W. liach, in Machinrry. 

A Manual of Drafting Room Practice. 

The chief draftsmen of the large man- 
ufacturing plants where the men are 
changing frequently find it necessary to 
put before each beginner a copy of the 
** rules of practice** of that particular 
drafting room. This is done in order 
that the work of that man may conform 
as nearly as possible to what had been 
made before. 

It has been found that when a man 
changes from one drafting room to 
another that the ** rules of practice" it 
so different in many res()ects that he 
must start all over again. \n old man 
in the business generally adapts himself 
to circumstances, but a new one is often 
confused at the diversity of opinion. 

Of course, some may say that their 
practice is as good as any other, and in 
many cases there is a similarity, so that 
if all the ** rules of practice** cotild Ixr 
put up to some able committee a manual 
could no doubt be formulateil that would 
become practically universal. 

The writer has been told that certain 
concerns are ver>' strict about their draft- 
ing room data book, but aside from the 
guarding of the actual sizes of the 
machines manufactured, there is no need 
of such extreme care. 

The editor of this magazine has re- 
quested copies of drafting room practice 
from a large number of concema with 



the idea that a manual could be compiled 
giving the best of all rules and regula- 

There are a great many books on 
drawing, but few if any give the prac- 
tice as used in the largest drafting rooms 
of the country, and the instructors of 
drawing classes are at sea on the subject. 

This compilation will be introduced 
ipto the schools and colleges of the coun- 
try to enable the student to get a clearer 
idea of the requirements in the drafting 

room, and show him the uses in every- 
day practice. 

A convention of prominent draftsmen 
of the country could take up such mat- 
ters and discuss them, and no doubt 
reach conclusions that would tend to 
standardize many things connected with 
drafting room practice. 

Any one having copies of ** Rules of 
Practice ' ' in the drafting room in which 
they are at work, and can consistently 
do so, please send them to the editor of 
the magazine. 


(This department is in charge of Mr. A. B. Babhitt, Hartford, Conn., and questions will be answered 
more promptly if sent directly to him. The department is intended to give correct answers to questions of 
general interest. Make vour question complete. Name and address must accompany each query, although 
neither will l)e published,.) 

4. How do you calculate the centri 

fugal force produced by weight A, of a 
shaft governor when the bar B is 12 
inches long and the weight of A is 25 
pounds? Speed of shaft is 200 R. P. M. 
See Fisf. i. 

2936, or 

per minute and divide by 

F = 


In which W is the weight of the ro- 
tating body in pounds, R is the radius of 
revolution in feet, N the number of revo- 
lutions per minute and F the centrifugal 

Assuming the distance from the center 
of the shaft to the center of gravity of 
the weight to be eight inches and substi- 
tuting in the above formula the vaiu. 
i^iven in your question, we have, 

F = 

25X I X200» 

= 22,7. 

The centrifugal force is not dependent 
upon the length of the weight arm B, but 
varies as the radius of revolution, that is, 
the distance from the center of the shaft 
to the center of gravity of the weight. 
Having this given and the other condi- 
tions as named in your problem, to find 
the centrifugal force multiply the weight 
in pounds by the radius of revolution in 
feet times the square of the number of 

5 How strong a spring will be re- 
quired or are they just strong enough to 
overcome the centrifugal force? See 
Fig. I. 

The centrifugal force is resisted by 
these springs whose duty it is to pull the 
weights towards the shaft Any spring 
will give the right variation at some 
speed and to determine the point where 
the springs will act best, screw up the 
springs until the engine begins to "hunt" 
and then loosen them until the governor 
is sensitive yet the engine runs steadily. 


icturin^ Raw Hide Leather 
aces" is discussed in the Phoc- 
ly» A. )'.. lor April, 
lufacturc of lace is a business 
id separate from the leather 
t is CDtitined almost entirely to 
s. I'ive pat^es and from illus- 
the article. 

p where tlie sand blast is now 
fi»r cleaning crown bars and 
et>. it formerly took a 173^2 
o hours to clean a dozen bars 
tr the lot. 

r sand blast a bar is cleaned in 
linutes. <>r about half the time 
\^ the old way. — Boiler Maker. 

9u Of I'ormulac for single and 
*ression: also. Proof of Condi- 
:rmn-^ Best Proportions and 
t*nom\ fit Stage Cofn[*ression. 
and illustrations on lO pages 
lations by Edw. F. Schaefer. 
sed . /if. Mardi, 1906. 

Shop Losis, By G. C. Keith. 

paying systems, rates, lime 
check, illustrated with dia- 
i Lanadian Maehi9iery. .\pril, 

Snu'lting Assured, Dr. 
)<iiinni«>n Superintendent of 
les results of experiments in 
iciting at Sauh Ste. Marie in 
l/iiiAifUTy. March, 1906. 

Balancing of Gasoline hngines. ke- 
print of an article in the English Autocar. 
by -\rchibald Sharp. Diagrams and 
formulae in The Gas Engine, April, 190O. 

Costs In Handling Materials and 
Work i>one. 

I'rom Engineering-Contracting and 
Roadmaster and Porenian. 

The April issue of magazine is given 
the record of cost of brick work on live 
buildings forming part of a manufactur- 
ing plant. Work was done by the own- 
ers, hiring their own labor. 

Ihe cost of the work per 1000 brick 
was as follows : 

bricklayers ^ 60c per hour $410 

Helpers (o; lyYiC per hour i .87 

Carpenters (a; 20 to 22] jc per hour .77 
Handling materials 

Total labor $7.<>t) 

In this the carpenters were used to 
build scalYolds. 

Cost of materials per 1000 brick was 
$7.43 (^average) or a total of $1539 in- 
cluding lalx»r. 

This converted into cost per cu, yd. of 
inas4jnry was $7.0<>. Siune of the builil- 
ings were long and low, containing about 
equal anjounts of 9" and 13" walls, others 
with 13. 17 and 22" walls. 

Cost of Power. 

Iron Trade Reinexc. 

* Hit «»t the several itiMns consntuting 

the operating ct»st of |>Qwcr, viz., fuel, 

lab<ir, supplies, and repairs, fuel is, of 

course, the most important, and it is 



worth wliilc p^niitiiig out here how easily 
one ina\ be i^K^lcd in iiiakmg coiupar- 
isoii:» Ih:1\\ccii 6ieaiu plants aiid gas 
plants. In a liigh grade steam plant tlie 
cv^si ol c*.ul usually runs from 55 to 05 
l^^i vcnt. ot the total cost, ihis leaves 
alvHit .V |Kr cent, tor lalK^r, liie same 
amv'uui tor rcpair>, and the balance for 
>upp.iv>. In a producer gas plant on liie 
o;Vi\'t iund. ;ac tucl i:em is proporJon- 
au\> s.ra',.o;. :;: iac; iron; 35 :o 45 per 

\\ ..1. \ • •••\ «\, «<k* v'mX • dkfaki^ \, V. >«>. I .».> 

K < »-« i '. . \ p.acc> a 


;er per ccnL 01 

:uv.x\ ..; V V .v.jv^; :::^ :l:c disir:buuon ox 
\ o> i > X . X* v,v.*. > i >; .» * ". - *:*. ^*. i|iis s l^i; 01 is 1 1 

v»ji '.v' . |\.' '. \ »,"»'■• lii^v Ck>s« %,' • -■i^vrr. Slip" 

theless run with care, and intelligent at- 
tention is given when it is needed. 

In a comparatively small industrial 
producer gas plant near Buffalo, the fuel 
ct^st. at about 50 per cent, station load 
lacior, is 25 cents, per kilowatt-hour with 
a lotal operating cost under seven cents 
per kilowatt-hour, and this with coal 
vT. Sling $--30 a ton. In the large central 
<:a:icn a: Walthamstow, above men- 
lior.u^. wlicre anihracite cost $6.50 to 
S7.50 a icr., ihe :-iaI operating costs were 
1.7 ccr.:s icT 1904, which is nearly 25 per 
cl:::. less I'r.m :hc average of 11 steam 
:he same district, but 
:iz-U5 coal. At the 
. vj. r'.i::: a: Warren. Pa., pre 
"enii.r.e^. 'Jrx cZ'Si of fuel for 
lie ezzri -rr^r. and inierurban 
:: :ir? iY-.r^^ed in January 
-5 :t':i z<7 r.:-—. or 7'i cents 
. -r Tr.t 35-: :n imerurban 
■.z i.rTi^fi .5 .: ctnis per car- 
1 L-- ".r j'perirz^ schedule is 
.. .r Lz : -:r v:* fuel cost was 
i . : - : :trr r-Lr-rr.ile. witli gas 
* ::"f :•: * ..lOC irc! in this 

j^Jr -::: :>.c author 
?--ri .-;•::: :- ihe fact 

:•- V :? z -r.: :> not an 
.? .c.^ ^c arrived at 

>:i-^: : ^:u\e com- 
' ::- r-^ ^pp-icati(»n. 

7%: : r-LT.: :> by far 
: ;_*--". -^r. >pecial ap- 

T.r:-j^ icrir.;; made. 

:.n:i rr^r. ^;:as. blast 



iblcs of Five riace Squares and Ia>- 
ms and Logarithmic Secants for 
VMvy an<l Rafter work in roof de> 

s is the second edition of tables for 
raminjLr by Mr. G. D. Inskip and is 
;ed by addition of some tables and 
ictension <»f tables in former edi- 

mm contains tables of 5-place 
» an<l logarithms of feet, inches 
2tl of inches from o to 100 ft., lo- 
mic secants from o to 18 inch rise 
t. base advancing by 32ds. Also 
thmic functions, natural sines and 
es for every minute of the quad- 
decimal equivalents and explana- 
oi tables. 

rre arc 27S pages 5 J 4 x 7' j, bound 
xiblc leather. Price $3.00. Pub- 
bv Myron C. Clark. 13-21 Park 
P.ldg.. \cw York, X. Y. 

-ayton Standards," is a pocket com- 
n for the uniform design of rein- 
i concrete. It is a compilation of 
nat:r.n acc^uired from actual experi- 
cmpled with the necessary theory, 
r primary object of the writer in 
1;: those tables and details in such 
i .1^ xr* be available for the use of all. 
mable architects and engineers who 
T ! TTude a specialty of this class of 
!•• -ihow the complete drawings re- 
1 !'* properly illustrate a structure 
inforced concrete $0 that all con- 
irs bidding upon the work will bid 

on a uniform basis and upon a design 
which is entirely satisfactory to all those 

There are 1 10 pages, well arranged, 4 
:v 6, bound in flexible leather, price $3.00. 
Louis F. Drayton, Consulting Engineer, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 


^Ta^^on Steam Shovel Co., manufactur- 
ers t>f steam shovels, ballast unloa<lers. 
•Iroilges. etc.. Marion. < )hio. arc prepar- 
ing: a catalog and if they succeed as well 
as they did with their last one. it will \k a 
credit to this well known concern. 

This company's shops have a ca|xicily 
of completing one steam shovel a day. 
They have doubled their capacity in the 
last two or three years and they employ 
I.2CX) men. 

Fairbanks Steam Shovel Co.. Marion. 
< »hin. are preparing a catalog on locomo- 
tive cranes of rather a novel design. 
These cranes are rapid in action and are 
hnilt in a capacity of 5 tons. 

Xow York City, issued Bulletin Xn. 14. 
descrihini: t^ieir elevatini: and conveying 
machinery fi.r handlinv: stone, sand and 
15 707 Knowlton June 13 
ctMicrete materials, fi \ <h 24 pages. 

WFI I.M \X - Sr.WFR . MOR<l.\X 
Cn., Cleveland. O.. issncd cataloij illns- 
tratini: their electrically driven hoists: 
also bulletin on locomotive cranes, and 
urab buckets. 



\V( )kKS. Marquette, Mich., issued cat- 
aloj^ No. 5 illustrating^; their hoisting en- 
v;iiu\ rock crushers and industrial cars, 
(» X 9. 44 pages. 

MI^NT CO., Now York City, issued cat- 
alog V, which illustrates and describes 
ihoir several styles industrial dump cars, 
cai)acilies 1*2 to 8 yards, 32-page. 

iW.O, V. CRESSOX CO., Thiladel- 
phia, Ta.. issued JO-page catalog which 
contains a description of rope drives and 
advantages of various styles of gnxived 
ilrivii^g wheels nianufaciured by them. 
This also includes tables and data rela- 
tive 10 IhMse p^nver and ditTerent size 

rni' wii-Ru^w lUMST & per. 

RU'\ (^ V St. r.-^ui, CiMiiiTvje !o sciiil .-u: 
\\w\\ v\ila].^g illustr.ning ann liescribiiu 
their lioivting cnc'.no:^. 'ivo'iv^livc .^r.inos, 
vr.j'i ;ii: «lcTriv^ks awCi h\\\.^xr< cr:r.u- ilcr- 

:v\v \i \ IS rn \i Vii-RS o\. c-.r- 

vr.'.vvvv\'':'C. ':--r,"cliv. \.^. '.i^^j- \. vic- 
^^•"; :N:-\?^ ;'v-r :\;v '"X" :?-).^v-s. l^ircv: 
^•;;::\-; ";::t:;Vn:- V^'S \::'r;-- ;,;<.-■ 

:m-'-., .\'** ^:^->- ■; v; -^k*; ::-, v -i.,-^.-,;;, 

*:\\;.'. ■■' '■ ■ '"\ "^: '•*'. .v», V .-ifti*';. 

DODGE & DAY, Drexel Bldg., Phila- 
delphia, have issued a pamphlet describ- 
ing industrial plants designed by them. 

Co., Bedford, Ohio, issued bulletin Xo. 
7. 6 X 9, y2 pages, illustrating and de- 
scribing their jib crane and locomotive 
crane, steam and electrically operated 
with and without clam shell bucket. This 
bulletin also includes description of canti- 
lever crane, scraper conveyors and car 

CinXERY CO.. Cleveland, ()., arc is- 
suing their catalog on various hoistin-; 
and conveying appliances, including locf>- 
nv»iive. pillar, wrecking, overhead travel- 
ing, gantry and cantilever cranes. This 
oont.iins J50 pages. f» x o. 

CiV. Cievc'aiid. * ».. has just issued their 
X.-.. J.4 lva'.>:in describing their locomo- 
:ivi cr.^.nes. This bulletin is of special 
inures: : ■ "-/.-r.ber c^r.ipanies and con- 
v^crr.s \'r:\cu>\v't in machinery for un- 
..M.lirii: -r ■■..':d:ng cars — 16 pages, 6x0. 

^: \1X sF'i.TIXG CO., ^^ Market 
S:.. 'v"l-.icag.;. has issiaed catalogs entitled 
"Fav-^is" cm l.-t-viathan Belting. This sets 
;..r:i: •>: ::s uel* primed and profusely 
:l'i:<:r«:e."' p^icc*? wws of a number of 
4-;iciiu -.Kr.> T\-hcrc their belts are trans- 

•v.- N V ■ -is^-'j^ 


!■' k; »/K:\Ai »'»D MFC. CO., In- 
't-.iijip » -^ •n."... revised ed:ric-n 5 x 9, 84- 
:"?:^'i '.'».'< rrit?iii">c has been compiled 
:ni ; :<vniN \- :'■ :he tssnrance that it will 
I'w-:, -1:1:' ;»v^!v: enirrneers, machinists. 
n . i 1 ' V -ij » 1 - V : n ipe^flT «">r> - -f machinery 
" ^ i'^-i'i;, :. :»- liiierr rflarmg :.. the trans- 
Mi:<»^i .r. .»: p. »\\M"- by iriiTKin gearing. 


}^oiiiii Casftier, well known as the fouiidcrror Cassier s Magazine, wr.h amicmi^ Ihe score or nofe of 
Americans who tiitt dralh in the wreck of the Ocean Express al Salisbury. Ktigland, on Sunday, Jttljf 
Tsl. Thtmgh not himself on enjf nieer by training, he became impressed wilh the desirabilfl y of prc^ 
ventinjj maiter of enpiiieerm^ interest in a more |K>pnIar manner than il was generally ireaitd of in 
the technical papers. a«d in Mtl started CassierH Magazine as an iUustraled jcjurnal of engineering, 
devolt^ more especially to mechanical engineering, po^ver. etc. rather than the civil engineering 
branch, Mr, Cajwier was a mcmlK-'r of the American S<x'iety of Mechanical Engineers, the Automo- 
bile Club of America, the RepnVilicun Chib, the Camera Clnb and the MHnufactnrers' Clnb of Thila- 
delphia He i* survived by hin widow, there being no children. 


AUGUST, tdoe 

NO 8 

Industrial Magazine 



ROM the best infornmtian ttut can be obtained 
the first record of coal placed on board the 
lake vessels was at Qcvcland, between the 
^/ - years of 1850 and 1856. The next record is at 

Lorain and Ashlabula during i8go« In t88j^ 
there is a record of coal being loaded at To- 
letlti, Sandusky and Fairport. At Huron, the 
first shipment is reported in i88*j, and at Con* 
I it na*^ ui 1893 tiuit the first record a[>pcared. 
It if iloubtful if any subdivision of the industries of the country has 
as marked an advanceiiient as has followed the loading of coal 
upon the vessels at the several lake ports. The evohition has been as 
marked in the tncreaseil rapidity with which the c<ial is placed on board 
the irestds as in the dinunution of tlie cost at which it is h;indled. 

The first shipments by lake were made from the harbor of Geveland 
and between the years of 1850 and 1856, which was prior to tlte building 
of tbe Mahoning railroad. The coal» mostly from the Mahoning Valky, 
csBse by way o( canal boals, each of which held from 50 to 75 tons. 

r of Ibr maHer Uft I hi* •rttdt !• ftvin the rt-port *>f HtAtf Tn«i«rc1nr of lllnei «l Ohtt», 



Ditrini^ theic vears*, u w^n* tru^ttmiary to first &hovcI ihc coal from the 
boet on the dockii, and then, for the purjK>se of making room, it was 
whedrd lack out of the iivay. When a cargo had been collected it wai 
loadeij into barrows and wheeled on to tlie deck of the ves!iel, where it 
dumped dow^ the hatchway, allowing it to fall the full depth of the 
At the low rate of wages then prevailing, to cast the coal from the 
canal boat to the dock cost 15 cents per ton and 10 cents was paid for 



tlw IIJMiratfci* 


r dbrluirgitic tl« Umd Ixito the chutr wlilch In limi 
Oi€ bold of |1i« f^Mel 

llir cast i»u» 

wlieettng it back. Then for loading the coal into barrows and wheeling 
it on board the vessels 13 cents was paid, to which five cents fur trimming 
was added, ntakiiig a total cost for transporting the coal from the canal 
boat on board the lake vessel, 45 cents per ion. This system prevailed for 
several years, when tlie shipn)ent!» became heavier, and it became the 
CQStooi to draw the canal bo«t alongside the lake vessel. From the side 
o( the tatter a staging was built, onto which the coal was thrown and 
tlieii again shovded onto the deck of the vessel, and then into the hatches. 
TItb dispensed with the necessity of wheeling it back as was the former 



raifiwv and ti ittaui:united a »%*t(i|L: ^i lo ccttu |>cr ton. The carty car- 
(oet coQUtncd (n^m 150 to 250 tons. It na^ a rarr thing to be aUe to 
«cD marc than that amount uf coal to one party until about 1864, the 
dose of the war. In fact« 500 ton vessels were the raaxtmuni imttl about 
that time, and not tmtil after the close t>f the war vk^% a vessel of a ihoa* 
aand-ton barUcn brifu^^lu into tlie R*rvicr. In the early dayi^ U was COO- 
iidered a g!Ood day s work with as many men as ecMsId be woriced to ad^ 

FR^MT V»C1^ OF THCj LON^ CAM DU44l>afl. 

Tanui;e to load a ioo-tun vesMrl a day. In this way c<al was handled 
■ntil aome lime after the eompletum of the railroads, when a chute was 
CQoatmcted, which extended from tlie side ni the track to the hatch of 
the vcsscL Into this the coal was thrown from tlic railroad cars and 
aUowed to slide tnir> the hostt Thi!i system of handling coal was adopted 
bjr the IMg Four road at Cleveland. a!sf» at the harbors of Ashtaboia and 
Sandnsky in a small way until about the year of 1870* The first coal 
from the H^K-kinj^ N'alley was broufitht to Oeveland harbor in 1869. This 
was imksaded directly from the cars into harrows and whetlad no board 
the veaaela at a cost of x cents per ton. This was tlie moit 



means then in force. In this way during the summer of 1870 Babcock 
& Card loaded 70,000 tons, using a depot as a wharf. 

From Mr. John Stovering, it was learned that the first revolving 
crane was built by Lyman for Mr. Thomas Axworthy, and it was used 
on the Cleveland docks in 1875 and 1876. The next crane was built for 
David Barnheisel, and was placed on the Massillon Fuel Company's 
docks at Cleveland during 1876 and 1877. This machine was operated 
by Mr. Long, who afterwards designed the Long Car Dumping Ma- 
chine. The next year three more derricks were built by the Excelsior 

L »•••' 

This machitir was built by th<? Excelsior Iron Works, Cleveland, O, 

Iron Co., for Mr. McMyler, to be used on the Cleveland docks. During 
that same year two more were built for the Toledo & Ohio Central rail- 
way at Toledo and for the Wheeling & Lake Erie railway to be used at 
Huron. These were all designed for one- ton buckets, and the loading 
of 400 tons in 12 hours was regarded as a good day*s work. 

During the summer of 1879 or 1880 one was installed at Lorain and 
others at Cleveland, All of tliese derricks handled buckets, which con- 
tained a ton of coal each. They were held in position by a catch attadicd 



to the bale, and wlieii the bucket was in a position to be emptird, the 
engineer pulled a rupe, liberating the latch and the bucket tipped of its 
own weight. This reduced the price of loading from 20 lo 18 cents per 
ton. To economize further the size of the buckets w^as increased until 
18(72, when the standard bucket was made lo hold five tons of coal. 

During the summer of 1890, the Ludlow buckets with the drop bot- 
tom » was brought into use, which permitted the coal to be lowered near 


In tJiia macliine coal is dropped from l>oUom of ear iiUo t>iiii* and tht-ticc by belt conveyor 
and chute to the hold of Ihr vesjiel. 

the IxAtom of the vessel, thus saving a ^real deal nf breakage. This, and 
the increased size of the bucket reduced ihe price to about 15 cents per 
ton. The revolving derrick remainud the modern unloading machine J 
until during 1890, when the Lindslev i.'ar Dumping machine was put into* 
service on the docks of the Cleveland, Canton and Southern railway at 
Cleveland, Thts was designed by Kdward Lindsley in 1889 or 1890. It is ^ 
the pioneer of the 15 machines now located at the several lake ports. 
The plan consisted of an elevated cylinder, into which the loaded car was 



drawn, zn4 fitmi which it was l»aNiTc«i bv mcanfi of a cable incr an in* 
clinr, altachecj to ihc end. The car wa* then clamiJcd. and rcvolvinj^^ the 
crlinder it emptied the coal tntcj a chwlc to which was attached a tele- 
pfOt^ which extended into the hatch c»f the ves?iel. Tht* machine 
MllSJdPO, and has a record of emptying 125 cars in 12 hours. The 
looiticirn was not an ideal one. which necesHjtated many alterations in 
the ortf ina] p1an.^« and, as a resiiU, it met with *ome unfortunate chanjjes. 
It was also found to lack iiufhcietit i^iren^th in M)tne [>arts partially due, 
no doiuU, to the increased MJ!e of the railroad cars that were brought 


Jf .r« 

J 2 



ima use |>ending its construction. At the time of its construction, the 
aivfage cars in service were xjooo to 40,000 lbs, capacity, but the rail* 
roftds began to rapidl> chanf^e to 60,000 and too,ooo lbs. cars, but 50,000 
lb. cars were handled with difficulty. 

Care was taken to keep a constant stream of coal from the car to the 
bold of the vesad in order to avoid breakai^e. 

Coal wu handled at a cost of 14 cents per ton with additional 3 



cents for loading and trimming. 

It had the opposition and prejudice of many shippers of coal and 
vessel owners, and perhaps some opposition from labor, and, although 
it has been since removed, it was by no means a failure, as some people 
seemed to think. It will be. seen that other designers profited by Mr. 
Lindsley's experience, as they have imitated many of his valuable ideas. 

The second unloading machine was the McMyler End Dump, de- 
signed by Mr. G. H. Hullett, and first used on the Lake Shore and Mich- 
igan Southern docks at Ashtabula in June of 1895. This machine may 
be described as a traveling cantilever crane. It is supported by a pivot, 
which travels on a line of railway track paralleling the dock. On the 
tracks that support the pivot there is constructed an engine for drawing 
the car up an incline, and when it has passed the center the car and the 
trunnion are inclined by the aid of a hydraulic ram to such an angle as 
to discharge the coal into a pan and then through a telescopic chute into 
the bottom of the vessel, the railroad having equipped 2,000 of their cars 
in such a way that the end gate could be raised to allow the coal to pass 
out. When the car is emptied, the trunnion is reversed and the car is 
discharged. The machine is then moved along to opposite another track, 
as well as the next hatch, thus allowing the trimming to be done in the 
first one. This operation is repeated until the boat is loaded. By thus 
shifting the discharge of the coal the boat is able to maintain an even 
keel. Neither is it strained and the expense incident to its being moved 
is omitted. This machine cost $30,000 and has a capacity of about 12 
cars an hour. It required four men at an expense of about $10 a day to 
operate it. The rapidity of loading with the end dump machine at Ash- 
tabula was the means of inducing the larger boats while clearing from 
Buffalo to stop and load with coal. Owing to the slight delay the opera- 
tors secured a reduction in the freight rates of five cents per ton. It is 
said that this was the first instance where the large boats could be induced 
to stop on their way up the lakes. 

Another machine built by the McMyler people, which was a dupli- 
cate of the above was erected at Fairport harbor during the summer of 
1895. It was built to work with greater rapidity, and has been able 
to handle 15 cars an hour. The Pittsburg and Western Railway Com- 
pany arranged 2,000 of their cars to be operated in this trade. The ma- 
chine cost $45,000, and requires the same amount of help to operate it as 
the former. 

The next machine was the invention of Mr. Timothy Long, and was 
built by the Excelsior Iron Works of Cleveland, for the Erie Railroad. 
It went into service in September of 1895. This machine is provided 



which prevents the coal from sliding down the spouts with great rapidity. 
After the spouts are once filled with coal the breakage is greatly reduced, 
as the pan is kept filled with coal while the loading continues. The sta- 
bility, simplicity and speed and the cost of operating it is at least the 
equal of any machine yet introduced. It cost $25,000, and the first after- 
noon it started unloaded 64 cars. It has a record of 24 cars in 29 minutes. 
Its best record was while loading two vessels, when it dumped 176 cars 
in eight and one- fourth hours. During the season of 1898, between the 
1 8th of March and the ir'»th oi December, during which time there was 
lost on an average a day a week, this machine loaded over 800,000 tons 
of coal. ]'\»ur men are required \o operate it, one engineer to operate the 
cylinder, one fireman and the two chute tenders. 

Tlic fifth installation o\ car dumping machines, really the fourth in 
design, was built by the McMylcr Cctmpany for the Cuddy-Mullen Com- 
pany durinc :he simimer oi iJhk^. This was the side dumping machine, 
the car being pushed on a bridge, and thus hoisted venically to the 
lioichth oi :hc chute, where it was turned over on its side, the coal falling 


A later machine was designed by the McMyler Compsmy during 
189^ ^ben 1^0 were built, one of which was erected at Consieaut and 
the other at Lorain, in both of which the side dumping principle is re- 
tained, but instead 01 hoisting the bridge and car as before, the cradle 
remains stationar>\ being hinged at one side^ and the car is turned over» 
enipl\ing its contents into a pan ha\'ing a capadt} of from 40 to 50 tons. 
This pan is raised to the ele\aiion of the chutes, the oaicr side being 
gradually raiscHl until the coal passes inside the chute and through the 



furnaces was originated by Mr. G. H. Hullett and built and installed by 
Webster, Camp & Lane, at Youngstown in 1890. 

This machine dumped the ore into pits from which it was conveyed 
by buckets on bridges either to stock pile or to furnace cars. 

This machine was built for 50 ton cars and handled 1,000,000 tons of 
ore in 7 months. 

This method is considered more economical and satisfactory dian 
any other. 

The next was the movable car dumper designed by the above gentle- 
men and built by The Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. and instaOed at 
Johnstown, Pa., for the Cambria Steel Co. 

This machine requires the services of only one man beside the rail- 
way crew and will handle 120 cars per day. 



THIS articjc i^ wntvcn with a view of relieving* u j> 
Uie liaziness that exisu in the mtnds of so ttiuny ^i : i i ; : i 
locomorive cnjfinccrs as to the real ttieaniag of the terms **tractive 
force" and "*hauling power/' 

The subject will be confined largely to small locomotives, such as 
cootractors* *'(ltnkies'* and to locomotive cranes. In tltesc the element o( 
ipccd does not enter into the discussion to any great extent* 

The tractive force, and from it, the Itauling power of a locommive of 
mf kind, be it stram« electric or air driv'ea, is die real measure of its use^ 
Une^ and boice is of prime importance in its design and constructioiL 

Tbetc terms are often used synonymously, whereas* in fact, they really 
mem two very dtiTereni things. The tractive force of a locomotive is 
the pulling force that it exerts at the draw bar and is an inherent part of 
the locooiolivc; that b, is determined by factors within the engine itself, 
and ta not effected by any external conditions, such as the irack, number 
of can, etc 



The hauling power is a certain per cent of the tractive force and 
depends upon the road bed, the cars, the speed and other conditions. It 
is determined by dividing the tractive force by the total resistance caused 
by these factors. 

A locomotive may be compared to a stationary engine by oonsidering 
the driving wheels as taking the place of the ordinary pulley flywheel and 
the rails the place of the belt. Then the tractive force is the power the 
engine delivers at the circumference of the drivers to the rails, in the 
same manner as the power is delivered by the stationary engine to the 
machine it is running, which is less than that at the flywheel by a certain 
per cent due to the friction losses. 

The formula used to obtain this is : 


T = 


and is derived as follows: 




W=work done, 

R=resistance overcome, 

T= tractive force in pounds, 

P= rotative force acting on the driving wheel, 

p=boiler or gage pressure in pounds per square inch, 

D= diameter of cylinder in inches, 

S=stroke of engine in inches, 

d=diameter of driving wheel in inches, 
and the engine be considered as making one complete stroke or revolu- 

Then the force tending to rotate the driving wheel cm its axles is Ae 
product of the area of the piston in square inches multiplied by the steam 
pressure per square inch multiplied by the distance through wliidi it acts 
(or twice the stroke of the engine). Put into a formula, tfiis becomes: 

P= XPX2S (J) 


Again, the work dtmc h equal to the resistance overcome multiplied ^M 
bf the cUstince thrtnij>h which it acts, or the resistance the train offers H 
to being moved multiplied by the distance it is moved during one revolu* .^^1 
tioo of the driver, from which we have ^^H 

w^Rx^ra (a) ^^M 

It t$ very evident that the pcmer exerted, and the work done, must be ^^H 
equal to each other and also Uiat the resistance overcome is equiil to the ^^^1 
tncttve force. Therefore, substituting '*T" for "R" in (3) and equating ^^H 
(a) and (5) we have ^^H 

T X «d = X P X 2S (ij ^^M 

or lolving for *T" gives ^^B 

T= ^ XPX»X ^ = „ '" ■ 

When we remember that a locomotive has two cylinders, we can ^^^H 
oacd the 2 in (5) making the formula read ^^^| 






^ t 






Thus we see that the tractive force of a given engine depends entirely 
upon the steam pressure, the diameter and stroke of the engine, and the 
sixe of the dri\ing wiieds. In the case of a geared locomotive, such as a 
locomotive crane or a Shay locomotive, the size of the driving whcdis will 
be effected by the ratio of the gearing, as will be explained later. 

In v^) the factors "D/' "S" and "d" are always constant for a given 
]ocomott\T« leaving **p*^ as the variable member. In the dass of madiines 
under discussion, w here the speed seldom exceeds ten miles per hour, and 
where the ordinar>' ratio of cui-off is ^i or <i stroke, we can take the 
s^ea:« pressure at the cylinder as being 85** of the boiler or gage pressure. 

Formula v6> then becomes 

D= X -S^ P • S 

T = .7^ 


Thi< is the iheorcrical vahae for the tracifve foroe, bm in practice it 

mws: be stili funJier reduced, owing to the mtenau rnrdon of the various 
parts of l3ie locomodve, b> inuliiph-ing the liaearcical tractive force by 
the efltkriency of the locomoiiive. 

For the ordinary ccintrannrs* JcCiTrmndvc, tie dfirTency saay be taken 

as o:*^'' , ttiiis makrni: the tmal f ccmnia for trarnve f circe 

r»5 ^ -v.T'XS 


\n irrspecticm of the foTTrrala wiT. show, bi- -fbt possaoon of ""d," why 
large freigh: aud switch engines are made u-ith smal! diiiii^ wheds in 
order to ohtair great tracrh^e pcwrr and ^^y paiijengcr CBgines. where 
spewed is one of the major ccmsi deration*;, have ron^iaianvehr lai^ ones. 

Looomot:ve builders compare erurincs by the rranive pioircr dcf^doped 
per ponnd <»! ofifccnve sttam pressure per square inch on lihc prions or 

T = ^9) 

thus eliminatit^ the variable factor entirely. 

In order to realize the maximum tracth*e fc«rc:e fbt kicuH i uliv e must 
be oorr^ctly designed so ftm: h wiT. have snficient wdj^ mt 4k drivers 
to utilize the full foroe of the c>'linder power. If Ae u^jinL mtoo lig^t. 
Ae wheels m-ill *^5fcid'* or «lip around on the track, while. Sit stoa heavy, 
there mnll be jusi thai much extra dead weight to Ir merndL Tht ratio 
of mvight to tractive force varies arrordim: tf* the use to wJikli a looomo- 
tree is to be put and as eKperienoe has showr tc- 4nve the hett Tesnhs. 

In our clasf of contractors' locomotives the weight od Ihe drivers is 
<jvnera''V» mat'k- abou: fivse or six rimes tht ralmtoed trmctrwe iorcc, this 
weic^: beinc: recnired omtto: u- thi ha.*: rondirinnf of track and etiuipmenu 
ttsna* anr. ii"njivr»id?.bk ^'herc ihc^ p.'^c ir«*il 



To illttitrmte the u»e of the above formula, let us take an example as 

Wliat is the tractive force of a contractors* "dinkie** locomotive 
lunriiV ^^ following specifications: Engines 8^x14*; Driving wheels, 
fcmr aS* diameter; Uoilcr pressure 140 pounds per square inch ; Working 
weight on drivers 21.000 pounds. Saddle tank type, no tender? 

K Substituting in (8) we have 
8X8X.S5X 110 X U 
This gives a ratio between working weight and tractive force of six 
to one, whidi agrees very well with the usual practice. 

In the case of a locomotive crane where the wheels are driven b^ 
fesring instead of being directly coupled to the engine, we must first bid 
the effective diameter of the drivers. Taking a lo ton crane as an ex- 
ample, we may figure the tractive force as follows : In order to make the 
arrangement clear, reference will be made to Fig, 2, which shows, dia- 
gramalic^Uy, the arrangement of the engines, gearing, etc. of the driving 

The effective diameter of the drivers is 

26 20 t7 

— X — X — K 28 = a,«3 

SS 82 32 



1 I W7eTy//7#j 



The ;^>odiic«riow: m flic crane ^rc : Em^ne? o'xr'" : Drriii^ wheels 
&.t^' effective duitfwswT; Baiter fwe&jqire i«) jvumds jw agmre inch; 
Worlring: m^e^^ht 5&/»o potmdsL O^in^ to the ininiber rf gCMS used, wc 
cocM noi expea <3K«ct aibom $5^ dlirienry n: ihe wheds, TVicfore, 
trwtive force kecome^ bn* (S) 

i» V <• X .^ V iaf» V T 

In thfc o«*e the ncic <«f woricnij: wei^h: u truCTpe iaroe s arer 
rfv'^'N'^ t^ ^mc This is necessttt^' betcaiK^e the h{vi> nf die rnne h» to be 
frmde x^m hesi\-> m owJer ^o lift the rater, loads a: the end «c fte boanL 

C^min^: ivw^ t^^ the hwiTh^ }>cm«er. A^ noted a: the hcf^mn^, tins 
is the onotwm ^tumeid V dividhi^ the rmrtive f orre. » inmd j3»««; by 




resastioce doc to friction and other causes. The gross hauling 
eafMicily tfius found must be reduced by subtracting the weight of the 
engine and tender itom the result to get tlic net capacity* 

This, thoit can be stated as 




H— Iiauling capacity in tons, 
T= tractive force in pounds, 
R=:Ltotal resistance in pounds per loo, 

The resistance in pounds per ton to the engine is controlled by many 
s, which may be noted as follows: (a) Condition of rolling 
^b) Condition of track; (c) Curves; fd> Grades; (e) Character 
of the train and k>ad; (f) Speed. 
Taking these in order : 

(a) Condition of rolling stock. This includes journal friction, flange 
wheel friction on the track, and alignment of the trucks. When 

journals are kept well lubricated and cars are cared for as they should be, 
die resistance under lliis heading should not l>c over 2*5 to 5 pounds per 
#aaf even with the small dump cars used in contract work. 

(b) Condition of track. I1iis is the source of the greatest loss to the 
cQBtraciors' locomotive, as^ of necessit)\ the tracks must usually be laid 
inridi as little expense and time as possible, and must be in a condition to 
be easily and rapidly shifted from place to place as desired. 

On a well laid permanent track the resistance should not exceed 2*5 
10 5 pocttlds, making the total resistance due to (a) and (b) together 
awrage from 5 to 10 pounds per ton. But even the contractor who taka 
IDOd care of his cars and track has usually to figure an a resistance as 
\o0Sk as 25 to 30 pounds, while it may run as hi^h as 50 nr 60 pcnmds, if 
W b not careful of his machines. 

(c) Curves, The resistance due to curves m the track varies so greatly 
wUi tlie diarpness of the curve, the length of wheel base of the engine 
ttd carSt and the gage of the track, that no exact formula can be given 
for adculattng it. 

Arrordme to Mr. Geo. R. Henderson^ however, the empirical formula 

R< = O.fiC 

wbcie C is the ntunber of degrees in the ciarve, gives results pfacticallx 
correct (or ordinary cases. 

The civil engineer's method of designating a curve is by "degrees*'* 
TUs means the number of degrees contained in the angle formed by the 


radial lines drawn from each end of a loo foot chord of the 
center, as shown in Fi^. 3 


mSK<!^ dotf- 'A-^rTi A-5n iis^ qmxi* 5«ta: Itiu:. ani C s "iic <isainHr oaf tthc cnrve. 
ITher. ia dw JW^Otf- 1D> as utc* ;3f:^::r:j«&. !:5ij >cairwc -monuL ^ iaKiwni ats a 10 de- 

In A u %3carT^f< ^xsm^ ^ r^n:? :c :iii rmner Inu r£ -fts uraci is ahnost 
^\ai:t*N 5»T^^ ''^^ "^**^ ^^^ ■-'^ -^ Taninf re irr* rjr^^ iff ^mcnm, its meas- 
■tr^ in Accr^tx> -^jm ^ <«aij>^ S.ntmt >m &xnaim: 5r?^ ^ ^^ ikmowia radxns. 
tHht jmssii^er v^^t V ibt dc^^t^et ^c iht cnr*^, This, .wtei is Ac vjcgree of 

5P>ir tiht vj^wcau^uui' i«iJ)riuu: vtiih fc? iihtr^;. tiu^ ^xm^ms^ die for- 
tmiln r^-' hail, wrh^m. ft^iwr >it *«ite3rr -r?^ 

< *. < ( li 

:fttar. :iht ^hcrs, 46^ fc ife iln^ <imy< u :tht :t>i^« n. ^ttm:\ ^Kaing: an lie toad. 



Th« resistance in pounds per ton in the first method is 




0.37K8. (IT Ro =^a88G. 


where G is the rise in feet per mile. 

In the srconrl mi*ihcKl the force of j^avity per ton is always in direct 
proportion to the steepness of the grade. F-*- i *,nc per cent jjrade, it 
would be calculated thu<i, 

H *:nm 1 : H)0. cir R £= »» 
a 2 per t'<»T!t ;;fade 

R . 'Jim :: t : 100. or R = 10. 
'rom this we sec that the resistance in pounds per ton for any grade 
given in per cent, can be fouud frum 

Rii = «oc; (I4> 

(e) Character of the train and load. By this is meant the kind of 
cm and the load they carry. It is obvious that box cars would offer 
iiior« rcttstance to Uie air than tiat cars, and that a train of flat and box 
can dtitribitted promiscuously would pull harder than one where the 
boK cars were grouped together, since, in the latter case, each car would 
protect the one immediately Miind it, while in tlie fonner, each box car 
would pre^^em almost its entire end to the wind, (See Note.) 

This resistance is so extremely variable, however, that it cannot be 
dealt with in an article of this kind. Further, the cutUraciors* cars are so 
smali that the air resist.:nce can be safely neglected. 

(() Speed. As tn (e) the effect of this resistance will be disre- 
garded^ but a method of calculating it may be of interest. Numerous 
fofntola for the resistance due to speed have been put forth, a safe one of 

wbidi b 


iriicre S is the speed in miles per hour. 

Relitmtng again to formula (to) we must first of all calculate "R** 
Ccousidering that we have already found a value for *T'*), This must 
bt maidc up of all the various individual resistances^ or 

R - (vitluc fcnind by) a -f ^' ^ c 4* <1 "h « 4" '* ^^ 

Suppose DOW we calculate the number of loaded dump cars that the 
eagiue we used before could reasonably be expected to haul Let the cars 
he Z cubic yard capacity, in gocKl condition and weighing a,6oo pounds 
mA when empty. They are loaded with gravel weighing 2,700 pounds 
per eubic yard, and the track is in fair condition* offering a resistance, 
together with the car resistance, of 25 pounds per ton. Cars must be 
up a grade of 2.5 per cent and around a 30 degree rnrvr. Tlie 




[ niilcs per hour. The weight of the en^ne is is 
10.5 tons. 
First* W€ must find K* According to the problem the track and car 

p, R« h 25 pounds. 
For tiir cjrade wc have by (14) 

For the curve we haire bjr (12) 

'Hence ihe total R=:25+50+ 27— ro2 pounds per ton, 
fTben for the hauling capacity we have 


s 34.3gT<>*8tonH. 

'Deducting the weight of the engine, wc have 
34-3 — io.5^2j3 or, say, 24 tons as the net load that can be hauled, 
The cars, when fully loaded, will weigh 8,000 poundfi, or 4 tons 

leach* io» dividing the hauling power of the engine as just found by 

llhc loaded weight of each car we have 

that the given engine can haul under the stated conditions. 

Acccwtiing to the II. K. Porter Compitny's publication, Light Loco- 
mt^iitn, the following tables may be used for the rapid calculation of the 
approximate hauling power of a locomotive on a level track. 

For passenger, freight and industrial tracks, where both cars and 
^tncks are kept in fir<$t*class condition, the average resistance may be 
as 6.5 pounds per ton. 

For p^issenger. freight, logging and coal roads, where reasonably 
good care is uken, and the cars are of the t>est construction, an average 
of 8 pounds per ton may be used. 

KFor indtislrial, logging, coal and ore roads and the like, where the 
ti aomewfaat poor, and the cars not of the best construction or not 
aroogfaly good order, an average of 15 pounds per ton may be ttted. 
For railroad contractors, coal and ore roads, where cars with k>ose 
l«K but otherwise in good conclttlon, are used, kiggtng roads and 
U places, where four-wheeled cars of poor design are use4 a frac- 
tkmal resuiance of 30 potmds may be assumed. As a rule, however, a 

_ tracks 

^vtakcn i 


SIN'CE 1887, Hbcn Schleisinger's aptly named "Pioneer" was built for 
the Petmsylvanui Railroad, there has been a ^eat ad\rance in the 
dcsigii of small mining locomotives. While electric locomotives of 
rarious deigns have been extensively used for the principal haulage work, 
tl has been the general practice to gather the cars from the breasts and 
chatnben of the mine by mules or horses. It is .ilcMig thit« line that a new 
dectfie locomotive has been tlevolved, known as tlic gathering locomotive. 
The cost ol maintenance for mules and drivers vary with the accuracy 
of the bookkeepingt but may be placed at from $2.50 to $3,50 per day. 
Since the economy of electric haulage in mines has become so apparent^ 



there has arisen a need for an electric locomotive to meet the special 
requirements of the smaller traction work in rooms. It is not practicable 
to place a trolley wire along the room roads, and both the storage battery 
and compressed air locomotive have failed to fulfill the conditions; Ac 
first mentioned being ill adapted for rough mining usage, and the second, 
inefficient and restricted in range of action. A special arrangement of 
electric locomotives has been designed and works admirably under tiiis 

An example of such an arrangement on an electric locomotive is 
shown in Figs, i, 2, 3. This machine weighs from four to seven tons, 
and is provided with a reel carrying about 600 feet of flexible insulated 
cable. On the main and butt entries of the mine the locomotive operates 
from the overhead trolley wire in the usual manner, but when entering a 
room, or chamber in hard coal terminalogy, the trolley pole is lowered 
and the end of the cable is attached to the trolley wire. The locomotive 


then proceeds toward the face of the chamber (with the empty car), 
paying out the cable through which the current is supplied to the motors. 
On picking up its load, tlie cable is automatically rewound on the reel, 
which is now positively driven from the locomotive axle by a sprocket 
chain. Iron rails are generally used for room haulage today, but should 
wooden rails be in place, it is simply necessary to provide the locomotive 
with a double conductor cable instead of using the ordinary single con- 
ductor with rail return. 

One of the most surprising features in regard to the cq>eration of 
these cable reel devices is the long life of the cables. It might be 
expected that they would become abraided, but such is not the case, 
as the cable is carefully laid on the floor under moderate tension, and a? 
carefully rewound. Owing to this improved reel winding mechanisnu a 
flexible and well insulated cable may be expected to last a year in regular 
service before renewal is necessarw 


54 « 

Where bea?y car* are used and severe K''-*<i«*s prevail, rhe economy 
ot ibcic lacomoctirrs is f;rc.iter than in more ordinar>* conditions. In 
odicr wordi, the more severe this service, the more favorable is the show- 
ing made by such a machine. Snuill cars are, however, generally employed 
m woridng low veins, and here the gathering locomotive has the ad^^an- 
lagie over iti animal competitor in that it is unnecessary to '*brush" the 
roof or take up the tloor to make headroom for the males. In the anthra- 
cite dbtrict, where the haulage conditions arc parii' * ' severe, thcic 
locomotives are regularly doing the work of ten t n mutes, A 

i tevcn ton locomotive of this type has hauled headed cars out of a dipping 
chamber where the grade was so steep that four mules in tandem were 
required to tlne^ a sini?Ie r;ir. With \]\v ]vs% severe ronrlitii>n?« in the 


bftiiminous coal fields, experience has shown that a fi%'e tun electric 
(itbertng locomotive ma)' be expecteil to displace from five to seven 
mn]^* The success and ecunomy of this method of haulage is therefore 
seen to be a practical certaituy. 

The gathering capacity of the locomotive umkr - • - v»T-fnn« 
Aoutd be from too to 125 cars per day. Under un^ tiN. 

this may go as low as 50 to 60 cars per day, and where cimditions are 
|ood, the output per locomotive may reach 150 cars. The average output 
per mttle is from jo to 40 carf», altliough uniler exceptionally favoriMe 
circtimstances^ this may reach 50 ears. In many mines, however* where 
and string teams must be used, the output per mule 
low as I s and 20 cars. When it is considered that llic 


average cost per mule per day is 50c, that each mule must have a driver, 
a great saving in the use of these locomotives is apparent. 

Since the introduction of these gathering locomotives, there are a 
number of mines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia which have been 
opened, developed and operated wthout a mule in the mine. 

In the use of larger locomotives for main haulage the tendency is 
toward the use of a locomotive of 10 to 12 tons, and, when additional 
power is required, two of such locomotives are operated in tandem, 
making a 20 or 24 ton locomotive. In some cases 8 ton locomotives are 
used in this way, and there are some in use as high as 14 tons in weight, 
each, making: a total in locomotive of 28 tons. 

With 50 or 60 lb. rails maintained in good condition, a 20-ton four- 
wheel locomotive is entirely practicable and has the important advantage 
of simplicity. Where the rails are light, however, and it is necessary to 
distribute the weight over a longer wheel-base, a different design is 
essential. Six wheel locomotives weighing twenty tons have been built, 
but because of the long rigid wheel base and practical operating difficul- 
ties, they are open to serious objections. The tandem locomotive, on 
the other hand, has a short rigid base in each unit and can. therefore, suc- 


ccssfully negotiate sharp curves. The wci}ij:ht is perfectly distributed on 
the four pairs of driving wheels and there is no tendency to overload any 
of the motors. As a consequence the wear and tear on the track will be 
less. In addition to this either of its units may, in emergency, be operated 
singly. The hu'oniotivc shown in Fig. 3 consists of two ten-ton locomo- 


lives coupled mechanically and electrically. One of the machines is 
equipped with a four-motor controller, in the reversing cylinder of which 
is !ncoqx»rated a commutating switch so that the locomotive may be 
t*»perated in cither direction with the four motors in parallel or in serirs- 
parallcl. This method of control effects a considerable economy in the 
current consumption, since with the four motors in series-parallel the 
locomotive will develop a given draw-bar pull with half the current that 
is required with the motors all in parallel. The brake mechanism on this 
locomotive is arranged so as to apply the brakes simultaneously on each 
of the eight drives. In a coal mine with a large output these locomotives 
are advantageously employed to haul coal from side tracks where the cars 
have been previously assembled by gathering locomotives. 

Tuniing now to the method of distributing the current, recently a 
three-wire system has been applied to mine haulage. In the anthracite 
field 275 volts is the customary potential for electric haulage, but the low 
\T>ltage often involves high line losses, especially in view of the fact that 
the electric hoists on the slopes are operated from the same conduit. Many 


1 1 




-.rhisJ^ ft ft 

• ■ '* -^ 
L-l L 


For :*.'ii V I<K-iitnotive<» frmii a *fiii V i-ircuit 

such hoists require 150 h<!rscp<»\\er or nu>re ana are often li»catod at con- 
siderable distances inun the iHjwer si.>urce so that a j>rohibitive investment 
in feeder copper would be re(|uired to secure a low line drop in a two wire 
line. This problem has been satisfactorily solved b\ a<l«.>pting the three- 
wire system in the manner shown in Fig. 4. Two 275- volt electric gen- 
erators are operated in series with the neutral acting as the track return. 
The 250-volt electric mining locomotives are operated on each side of the 
three wire system, while the hoist motors are operated across the S50-voIt 
circuit as shown. This system of distribution, while permitting the use 
01 250 volts for locomotive operation, secures also the advantages of 530 
volt transmission for the hoists. 

Rftittir • N'llc —The atMi\-« nrlK'lr wnn wrritten tiy a fUaff ci*rrr«p(milrnt rhotucrafth u«rtl in Fig 
I ftlMfw* • jcffrr% Mfff. Co '• lw«>ni4>tivr riuitfifrr«ph« and ctit« u«c<) in ¥'x%* 3 anil 4 were fumi«heit 
*iy lh« Cmerml klrciric Co Fig 3 by r.«MMtnmn Mf||. C«i nnd d»td by r. R W<m«1 iSttslmm. 




A belt line is being constructed around 
Cleveland, and work is proja^ressing rap- 
idly at several places. Mr. John Marsch 
has the general contract, and sections 
have been sublet to various contractors. 

In crossing the countr>' south and 
west of the city, many deep ravines must 
be either filled or bridged. 

Mr. W. F. Carey has the contract to 
fill a ravine approximately 1,000 feet 
across on the road level and 200 feet 

deep at the greatest depth. 

This fill will require about one million 
yards of dirt, and it will take nearly a 
year to do the work. 

Two steam shovels are hard at work 
loading side dump cars, which are pushed 
to the base of the fill and unloaded. 

One shovel, a 40 ton Bucyrus, is loca- 
ted at the side of a natural knoll of 
earth, which will be taken off clean with 
the base of the fill. 




The other shovel, a 65 ton Ruc>tus. 
is diKging into the sick* of a hill back 
from the location of the fill. 

Since the natural slope of the earth on 
embankments is about 1.3 to 1, it will 
be sc«rn that the base of the fill will con- 
tain an area on which a larj^e force can 
work easily. 

It is estimated tha: this fill will cost 
5i %'"»■( "X> more than a bridge, but the 
permanent nature of it will offset the 
extra cost. 

The Newburg & South Shore R. R. 
put in a spur west of the Hrecksville road 
on which the macliiner>' and supplies 
wcrv transported. 

The shovels were let down the hill at 
an angle of 45 to their present level by 
means of cables and winches, and the coal 
carried in baskets to enable the men to 
get a start. Chutes are being built to 
carry coal to a level to deposit into the 
dump cars, which are handled by dinkey 
locomotives of narrow gauge. 

The illustration given shows the 65 
too shovel at work, with side dump cars 
and "dinkey** locomotive. 

The Shaw Electric Crane Co., of Mus- 
kegon. Mich., has a government contract 
for eight wharf cranes for unloading 
Mipplies and material from ships for use 
in the construction of the Panama Canal. 
They are to be of special design, com- 
poaedofa derrick mounted on trucks, 
and capable of telf-propulsion along a 
track 00 the wharf. The derrick carries 
a fanlanctng arm or boom which extends 
out over the ship, and upon which a 
trolley for carrying the load is mounted, 
capacity of the cranes is eight tons 

The Columbia Wagon Co., Columbia. 
Pa., is making extensive additions to 
its blacksmith shop and warehouse, as 
well as spending a great <leal of money 
on new machinery. They expect this 
new improvement when completed to 
enable them to increase their capacity 
one-third over this year, which is the 
very best year they have had. 

A sight of particular interest is the 
monster grab system at the (vrant mine 
of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. This 
is the largest ore stripping and hoisting 
apparatus of its kind ever devised, and if 
the results of its operation are as success- 
ful as anticipated .similar installations are 
expected to Ixr made at other properties 
on the Mcsabi. The plant has l)een con- 
structed with two towers, each about 175 
feet high and 1,150 feet apart, ))etween 
which stretch heavy lock cable wire ropes. 
The grab, which weighs about 30 tons, 
will carry approximately twenty tons of 
ore or twenty yards of gravel at a load. 
It is operated on four trucks, each of 
which is provided with four wheels that 
run on four 2 J inch cables. As designed, 
the grab will pick up its load of ore or 
earth as the case may l)e. will raise it to 
the proper height, convey it the specified 
distance and drop it into the waiting car. 
the entire operation being calculated to 
consume two minutes. The towers are 
erected on tracks, and thus may l)e moved 
as occasion demands. The system is 
operated by electrical power. 

Parsons Steam Excavator Co., 
, Iowa, has recently completed 
and practical steam shovel 
dK Peopk's Construction Co.. of 

Trench Shovel or Back Action 

This IN IK' i>i >tcani slu»vcl is rather a 
uni(|uc piece nt machinery in tliat it 
stands u]x>ii tlu' sulid i:round at the eiul 
of the trencii and digs tow an U itself. 

.vfter the (lip]KT is filled and raised \o 
the center nl the crane, il iiiav be 'iwiniv: 
and tluin|K'd nn eiilier side. 



VUv ilippor will raise and dump to a on the shipper shaft ai the ;>::r.: ci crane 

lu'iiilu i)l ton toot in the clear with the with hoisting chain Ji in. iiar-.tier. 
diHU Dpcn. The boiler is upright, 54 in. Li^rr.t:t:. 

VUv nuohino is sol f-proi oiling and ^ ,^^- ^ "^- ^^?^^- ^'^^''^ ^37 :-'^-e^ ^"^ "^■ 

naNols on hoavy o.ik plank placed fore- ^iameier. 

Mu\ .lit undor iho wheels whose tiros are The great advantage :n .-z^t^'iziz '.'.c 

1-* m. wide. rr.achine 0:1 solid gTCur.i is th^t :t leaves 

... . , . . , . '.^.c trcricii cii'c:: am ZTtt. 5- 5-: trevens 

Iho \\hoo;s ,;ro p.acov: ou:s:de o: c.-.r .^^ . . " .. _.^^ ._ v,^". .- :.. 

o.;>-.".\ •.•.p>v': W ■..::'.: v": wheels. 0::: :: !; ! " 

. .,1....^ > 

. .::s ::: 2 :::::: e r.-.iy :.< used 25 an ord:.> 
:.T r.::--. ^r.::'. by rer::%-:n^ the 'iack- 
j.::::\^ ztlt.z i.T.i ss'i r.i'.'S'lr.z a regular 

:.:. -■-... If ?.'^ ::^ei by T. A. 
^...i?\.r ^t . : :- .-S.'.i:z' Pa., for 
:■.:-■>: -^ 1 -irct i:::h ir.L .v as highly 
^ :.; — : >i i-i-L. ."_".trs r.zve been scli 


Her Pressures in Locomotives. 

has been poinicil axn by many who 

studied the subject that the hft 
e boiler under the high preosures 
ii$eil is very much less than with a 
ly lower pressure ; and that for this 
n, if for no other, such as econ- 
in both up-keep and repairs, as well 

the matter of keepinjj the engine 
mmission without the necessity of 
; it up for repairs, it would seem 

advisable to restrict the pressures. 
K for very special cases, 
e adoption of high boiler pressures 
laturally led up to the introduction 
impound engines; and this has ef- 
1 a very considerable economy in 
x>nsumption, which goes far to off- 
ic destructive results brought about 
t high pressures. .\t the same time, 
( been pointed t)ut that a pressure 
'5 pounds for simple engines and 
or compound ought to give all the 
s in the way of efficient working 
I could reasonably be expected, 
rf. Go&s, of Purdue, has been con- 
ig experiments upon ihe effects of 
high pressures, and he has reache<l 
Miclusion that any attempt to in- 
r boiler pressures beyond those n(»w 

would lead only to disappointment 
erative working results. Certain 
are possible, but these will he miMc 
neutralized by increase<l leaka:j:e, 
y an augmentation of the difficulties 
lintenance and operation. He is 
1 a.^ (»f the opinion that even the 
'mmU. which is now accepted as the 

stan<lard for modern practice, will be 
found finally to be too high for the best 
results, when it comes to a question of 
the balance sheet. 

Friction Horse Pdwer. 


From certain tests, which were re- 
cently made in a car shop, a c<>)pcr sht^ip, 
a box factory and a machine shop, it was 
found that an average of about 6o jkt 
cent of the power developed by the en- 
gine is consumed in running the main 
shafts and belting. 

In cases where light work is done and 
the machines well arranged with regard 
to the shafting probably lo per cent less 
power could be allowe<l with safety, for 
friction horse power absorbed by shaft- 
ing, belts, etc. 

It is always economy to give especial 
care to the oiling of bearings, the adjust- 
ing of the same and proper alignment of 
all shafts. Pulleys of large diameters are 
counter shafts and narrow fast running 
belts also aid materially in the reduction 
of the friction horse power. 

In locations where either the cost of 
fuel or water is high it might be well to 
guard against ihi^ excessive loss by fric- 
tion by the installation of electrical trans- 

Racks for Pipe. etc. 

The accompanying drawing shows a 
good iorm of standard for a pipe rack. 
Two or m<ire oi these standards may be 
used tt) form a rack according to the 


W\\\f\\\ ill ilir |iipr to Ik* lu'ld. Speed and Power TransmissioiL 

I hf M.iiiil.iiil rniisists of a pipc of suit- yi,g factor of safety for a pulley may 

alilf M/t' .111(1 \v\\y\\\\ srrcwctl into a cast ^^ greatly above the speed ai which the 

linn Imm'. \'\w Mipportinjr arms arc belt will transmit power owing to centri- 

\\u\y\v ^^\ iMsi iiou. Thcso amis arc ad- f^^^al force. At 5,250 feet per minute. 

. laced leather belts transmit a maximum 

I o\ pmver: and riveted belts at 6.325 feet 

^-j^ per minute. Supposing a belt could be 

pi run safely at a speed of 9.250 fee: per 

• ■> ] minute, it would transmit an amount of 

M . • • ' ^ p-.nver scarcely appreciable, for the belt 

V ^ ti^k * ' r.\ w.'iild lift ir->m :he pullev. leaving an 

^I.Jt-.V*.'^ ■" .:t. '•-: .r.r oii>:i::: between. 

^V- A Good Bearing Metal. 

A ::::x:ure c:::>:>::r.c •'•: ^c^ per cent 

.:.!::-"■.";:-". J5 r<r ccr.:. zir.c and 23 per 

."J-: ::•- : r-> ir i'lry which :> excel- 

--: ;.> i "reir-^ -retal. I: :? li^it in 

c <•-:. '*-i> I iiz' ie^rre* of hardness 

i~i i "ircrfrite".; ' — -eirfr.g point 

\ OmU OMktfC fM- Sccam mod CyKn- 

>. s 

.1^ X" -/^A". . .' . , .■•* '. ""v .'.:.*""■ ^" 
.'. .V Nx"^v .'- ,v '.■ '■ "J.- X /c: : 
. "s X .t . .'. ". '. ■■, . '"s" ,' "^ .i '•«'» rv''. • *v' 

-. :"• s^r -':-ij.J:L^ ci.?kt^ n".ay be 

- v.\ >.v^ - X -'».'■ '•■-'- '-■=-•- i--'- — "i^v' -:■ ^^ follow- 

^^ .' ^ •. ^ x I";;. *' "^ 'ir-'-v: .^' '^tx\y Manilla 

v^. ■ ■, X vx: .' ^ ■ :.'i: :-.^ :c.::k'' ?i!i:iiJ'i "rt; m : -: :o the 

V4- . ^ X ? X, -i'x -i'-."^; . :!'-• : .r.MMT t^L zj zzt ordin- 

\.. , .,. >;\ %v.-vv. ■.«::!*•: rirm; cLsk*:?. This 

■«..'<. -;: i;: : :Tit'j :i; jCiiic-i :- l>:«!led 

•'^' -". :• ; TV rrizrrir? irii then 

'.. -. ::...!vL;:1*»:'S^ lii-.-^iiri ICC Or I 10 it 

^ ' : T^.'w .n'i>4i. ini iii55«-'i :C trixing 

% •: :r\. !:.:!'c:;!t2s« hu'-Tni*; f :rr: a b':ack 

::x: sxr::ic:;. T!r>f gasket 

^' ■■■ -^ •'.:: .11 v!::ii vie iri will 

>i«;«iH '?v«3j*%^ ^;m«v*«h. . -^•.::r^•• nxr-i;:i«i ir_i effi- 

• V * ^ - -x' i-^x V ^'.^i^- ■ !'ij T^wwiMr^ jf Steam 

- - » ■- "- - • ^ :5- :u' i5» v; rii: de- 

•• •- . N, -^N.: ni-" jtfirr zsici for 

-'*•■• •^ ■ • ■'.-.: It: ii::i.:vi-: :.. 

.X. . » I . ■,■ >.\: ■ ■ .1 X \\".. . '. 

' . • .> ..1 , \.V .^ ■• . ■. vX .'.:.■•■ • ' 

. ■!--i-.; ' .• . -X -•■■'■ ■: • X • l.»V 



k is commonly rated at two 
cr and one with a sixteen foot 
rated at four horsepower. If 
er were utilized fi)r compress- 
he results obtained would be as 

rill compress 9.6 cu. ft. of free 

min. to 100 lbs. ^a;^e. 
k'ill compress 1 1 cu. ft. of free 

min. to 80 lbs. j^a^^e. 
^ill compress 19 cu. ft. of free 

min. to 100 lbs. gage, 
.ill compress 22. cu. ft. of free 

min. to 80 lbs. gage. 
K)ve results were calculated on 
nption that 15 per cent be al- 
r friction in the air compress- 
ine, but probably for an appara- 
his kind a greater allowance 
t made. As large a receiver as 
should be used to take care of 
nittent nature of the power sup- 
it practicable to use wind-power 
pneration of electricity. 

A Cape Cod Pump. 


TOSts and winter weather are 
i<i to the year's crop of cran- 
nless these dcstn.»ying elements 
rome by fl<xMling the bogs with 
n the section referred to ab<n'e, 
ommonly done by opening the 

gates of an adjacent reservoir or pond 
and allowing the water to overflow the 
cranberry plant. 

This is an easy matter, as the lK>g is 
level and has a series of irrigating 
ditches, the whole surrounded by an em- 
bankment for retaining the water. When 
the level of the bog is above the water 
level, it is necessary to pump this water 
and the design of the pump in general 
use is very simple yet the machine is very 

The driving shaft of the pump is ver- 
tical, and the pump itself is entirely sub- 
merged. The design and dimensions of 
the one which came under the writer's 
observation were as follows: Below the 
lower bearing and at the end of the ver- 
tical shaft was fastened the disc A, twen- 
ty-four inches in diameter, with the hub 
C projecting down to the end of the shaft 
as shown in Fig. i. This disc was en- 
tirely surrounded by a circular drum 
eight inches deep, with the exception of 
the outlet D through which the water 
was forced. 

To the lower part of the disc were 
fasteneil two blades E and E,' These 
were not plac-ed radially but, being fast- 
ened to the hub which was about four 
and one-half inches in diameter, were 
brought over to one side of the center 
thus allowing m* |>ocket in which the 

^:^:^mss^ : 







water could be held. The arrow ind:- 
calfs the direction of rotation of the 

In P'ij;. 2 are shown two views of the 
blades which are fastened to the lower 
part of the disc. The small ledges at 
the bottom and on the end form a shal- 
low sciH)p which forces the body of water 
alou)^ ill front of it and does not allow 
much to escape below or around the end. 
The pump has a rectangular outlet eight 
l\v eij;hteen inolies and when running 310 
revolutions pumps about 3.200 gallons 
|>er minute. The lift is six leet. 

/v> £ 


iC^> .*^'j:-.-,^c-. :: Nci-.ij: nev"e&NAr> ro txsc i 

inches in diameter, the pump pulley is 
22 inches and the belt is 8 inches wide. 

The air cylinder of an air compressor 
should be lubricated with the best grade 
of mineral oil of light body and high 
flash test. It should not be of a coking 
nature, for if it is, it carbonizes on the 
inside surfaces of the air heads and 
valves and not only prevents the valves 
from acting properly, but' it frequently is 
the cause of accidents. The air cylinder 
requires but a small quantity of oil and 
after the machine has been running long 
enough for the cylinders to acquire 
smooth and polished surfaces, two or 
three drops per minute will be found a 
sufficient amount to keep the cylinder 
and its valves in satisfactory condition.— 
Practical Engineer. 

How to Order Punches and Dies. 

^Sving ic the difficulty w^e have at 

:::v.r>. says Joseph Ryerson & Son, Chi- 

c.^i:., r.'... experienced in ascertaining 

i-ry," vTrders ihe kind of punches desired 

"r \ :.ur c-r.omers. we give herewith a few 

sUiTCt^-^tijci;. ^\h:rh. if followed, we be- 

■v^ c \N i!. >^v: rr-nsiderable time and cor- 

-:>p;r!ji7ir; The bother of sending in 

:.-.; rr.iktr r«unche> to be duplicated 

;. -». ">; /. -'ni iwiv with. 

/ *^~ z 


^ V 


^ 5 '^^ 

'•I '-• tfaMi»r Fttndi. 

i. ... •» 


» .^- 

■'• ■^■•■-« V -^ 



I he illustration shown will easily en- 
able one to determine by comparison 
whether the punch to be replaced 'is a 
machine punch or for a forged or cast 
steel screw punch. When ordering ma- 
chine punches and dies, the number 
which appears on both punch and die 
should be given and the make of the ma- 
chine in which they are to be used stated. 
In case the numbers cannot be found, it 
will be necessary to give the dimensions 
of both punch and die as designated by 
the letters. A, D and C and D. 

When ordering screw punches and 
dies, it is necessary to state whether 
punch and die are for a forged or cast 
steel screw punch and to give the number 
of the tool. Dimensions referring to the 
above cuts will be sufficient in case the 
number of the tool is unknown. The only 
dimension to determine the die in this 
case is the diameter of the hole. 

Makinf^ Small Core Boxes. 

The making of small core boxes and 
other hollow pieces of wood that should 
be semi-circular in cross section is one 
of the many jobs in every shop. The 
hoUiiw fxmion should be an exact half 
circle with its center on the edge of the 
piece nf wood. Take another block an<l 
clamp toccther in the vise so that their 
end views appear, as in Fig. i. and in- 
*cril»c a semi-circle on the piece to be 

cut. Then draw lines along on top of the 
block the width of the semi-circle. 
aad draw a semi-circle on the oppo- 
site end. If a table saw is at hand that 
can be raised and lowered, a series of 
cuts may be made lengthwise, as shown 
in Fig. 2. 

If no saw is at hand, fasten the block 
securely in the vise and gouge out the 
wood down nearly to the circle, testing 
the work with the corner of the square, 
as shown in Fig. 4. 

When we learn the great principle that 
any angle inscribed in a semi-circle is a 
right angle, we see that the corner of 
the square, being a right angle, will fit 
down in the hollow when it is a true semi- 

The box can thus be tested as the work 
proceeds, and when the material is cut 
out to the horizontal lines and the square 
just touches everywhere the box may 
then be sandpapered and shellaced. — 
Practical Machinist. 

A short rule fi>r finding the change re- 
quired in the length of U'lt when one of 
the inilleys on which it runs is changed 
for one <>f dilTcrent size, is as fi>llows: 
Take three times the difference between 
the diameters of the pulleys and divide 
by two. The result will be the length of 
belt to cut out or put in. 


^'' *' n 






The Art of Inventing. 


A most interesting example of the evo- 
lution of an invention is that of the 
cord-knotter of the self-binding har- 
vester. The problem here was to de- 
vise a mechanism which would take 
])lace of the human hands in tying a 
knot in a cord whc^sc ends had mechan- 
ically been brought together around a 
bundle of grain. 

The first step was to select the knot 
which could be tied by the simplest mo- 
tions. The knot which the inventor se- 
lected is that shown in Fig. lo, and is a 
form of bow-knot. 

The problem was to find how this knot 
could be tied with the smallest number 
of fingers, making the smallest numlxT 
of simple movements. As anyone would 
ordinarily tie even this simple knot, the 
movements would be so numerous and 
complex as to seem impossible of per- 
formance by mechanism. The inventor, 
by the study of his problem, found that 
this knot could be tied by the use of only 
two fingers of one hand, and by very 
simple movements. The knots will best 
be luiderstood by following the motions 
of fingers in tying the knot. Us- 
ing the first and second fingers of the 
right hand, they are first swept outward 
and backward in a circular path against 
the two strands of the cord to be tied, 
shown in l^^ig. t. 

The fingers continue in their circular 
motion backward, so that the strands of 
the cnrd are wrapped around these fin- 

gers, as shown in lug. 2. 

Continuing their circular motion, the 
fingers approach the strands of the cord 
between the twisted portion and a part 
of the machine which holds the ends of 
the cord, and the fingers spread apan 
as shown in Ing. 3, so that they can pass 
over and grasp the strands thus ap- 
proached, as shown in Fig. 4. 

The fingers then draw back through 
the loop which has been formed about 
them, the fingers holding the grasped 
jxirtion of the strands, as shown in 
iMg. :;. 

Fip. 0. 

The knot is finished by the completion 
of the retracting movement of the fingers 
through the loop, thus forming the bow 
of the knot as shown in Fig. 6. 

The inventor found that one finger 
could have a purely rotary movement, as 
if it were fixed on the arm and unable to 

Ally of the arm* itid the 
betfig a» if the mrm roUltd 
but the second ftngcr must 
capable of moving lovrard 
from ihc firit finger to per form the 


movrmcnt of Fig. 3, and the 
luovatictit of Fig. 4 by which 
cofih Tlic inventor ac- 
frfifTi his cxhattsiivc analysiii 
iblcin, and his imreislion or dis- 
of the proper finger molioiif, had 
* "♦ devise the very simpk- 
. »ce iUtuiratefl in Fijj. 1 7 
liii tingcfs. 
W index finger of the haini h rvp 
md by the fiiiga- S, which is in- 
p with the iliaft K The aeccmd fin- 
I ' ' Tid it rrpresente^l by the 
a b pivoted to the firs: 
r by the pin 1, The graxpini; move- 
of the n is accootplisbed by 

riag I li; on the shank U\ 

iu opening movement in caused by 
ravel of an an' ' ^n roil LT, on 
*ear rnd uf iht ^ 1 ftngrr, over 

on the bearit^; of the sltafv 
aIj I by the Himin:^ nf a 

action of an intcnnitietit gear* The ne- 
cessity of drawing the fingers tiackward 
to accomplish the movemcni between 
Figs. 14 and 16 was avoided by causing 
the tied bundle to have a mution away 
from the fingers as it is expelled from 
the machine, the relative motion between 
the fingers and the knot being the same 
as if the fingers drew iKick. 

Thus the accomplishment of a seem* 
ingly almost impossible function was 
rcn«lcred mechanically simple by an cvo- 
luhMii from the human hand* after an 
exhaustive and ingenious analysis of the 
cftnditiotis involved. 

It will be seen from the examples I 
have given that the constructive part of 
inv(Ti rijusts of evolution, and it 

i-i ilv I at ion of previously known 

element ft in new relations (tiiting the 
uttn rltnirtus in its bfciade*i sense )» 
I Im rcN iltN n( such ucw association mav, 

themselves* be ireaied as elements of tlie 
next sta;;e of ikvelopcnent. but tn the last 
•5 ' \itd or created 

muii alKi be apparent, that pure 
ri.i^**n aitd method, while not taking the 
place of the mvenii\i! faculty, can dear 



the way for the cxericsc of that faculty 
and very greatly reduce the demands 
upon it. 

Where it is desired to make a broadly 
new invention on fundamentally diflferent 
lines from those before — having first 
studied the art lo find the results needed, 

the qualiiics of Uk- nKitcriai or <»riK'r 
absolutely cv ait nulling oomliliuns should 
be exhaustively considered : hui at tlie 
lime of making the inventive ettorl. the 
details should be dismissed from the 
mind oi how results already obtained in 
the art were t^Dtten. k hie should en- 
di'.'ivor to conceive how he would accom- 
p'.isli the dcsin-tl result if he were at- 
tempt in t; the pn.b!c:n be fori- an\ one else 
had ever solved it. In "IIut words, ho 
shiuld endeavor \*^ pr-"-v:-.le himself with 

::u- i:na.::^inn- 

10 idea eiomcnts r-n \\\v. 

ij-*n w: 
T.ind as 

o;'or:i;o. In: 

.li>-riis< fr'"'ni !i 


'A\\c\\ .!> ;■•■»>>: 1 1. r :::i- -mI wa\ > 
;r^i. o;r:r.L:i;> :',;i\c l»een as^^- 
:':] \\'\\\^ 'x.wv \\\^ i'najLiina::-;:! 
i-- ■■■..:«■ ::!;.■■:■ ::; ■■■ric;inal and. 
.■I ! \k'.\i. V :>".i;:.-:i> than l.»o- 
' -■ •'•'■' -".w:-- ,r. t!io mca7:> 
■--:1/. !rvt ■:: ■ -. n■.^^ tmnlish tho 

desired result, and should then, before 
experimenting, go to the art to see 
whether or not these means have before 
been invented. He would probably find 
that some of the elements, at least, have 
been better worked out than he has 
worked them out. Of course, mechani- 
cal dictionaries, and other sources of me- 
chanical elements and movements will be 
found useful in arriving at means for 
acconiplishing certain of the motions, if 
the invention be a machine. Many im- 
]>ortant inventions have been made by 
]>ersons whose occupation is wholly dis- 
connected with the art in which they are 
inventing, because their minds were not 
l>rejudiced by what had already been 
d )ne. While such an effort is likely to 
possess more originality than that on the 
]>art of a person in the art, there is. of 
ronrse, less probability of its being thor- 
ou:rhly practical. The mind well stored 
with the old ways of solving the problem 
will, of course, be less likely to repeat 

:::i oi till- ;yii>:akos of I lie earlier inven- 
:-. h\:: :: will also not be as apt to 
s:-:kc i-u: on distinctly original lines. 
i: :s >.. ir.'il. already, of the old fonns 
:' ;i>Sivia:i.-n of the elements as to be 
\s> :ikcl> to think oi assix^iating them 



a<lly new rclaiiinis. 
Iiing should be considered inipos- 
until it has been conclusively 
J out or tried by experiments 
leave no room for doubt. It is no 
mt reason for believing a thing 
work because immemorial tradi- 
>r those skilled in the art, say it 
3C work. Many an important im- 
nent has been condemned as im- 
able, by those in the art, before it 
en tried. 

onception which an inventor has 
striving for unsuccessfully will 
mes come to him at a time of unac- 
led mental stimulation. The slight 
ation of the movement of a train 
•s. and the sound of music, have 
nown to produce this effect. The 
nscious mind, after havinjj been 
eil by a full consideration of the 
m to be solved, will sometimes 
ihe problem without conscious cf- 
«i the part of the inventor, 
inventing a machine to operate 
my given material, the logical way 
work from the tool to the power. 
id or tools should first be invented, 
le motions determined which are 
{ivcn to them. The proper p:earing 
Xs to produce from the power each 
I for each tool should then be in- 
1. It should then be considered if 
jf each train of jjearinjx cannot be 
led. so as to make one pari do the 
jf a part in each train ; in short, to 
• the machine to its lowest terms, 
iimally a mechanism will be in- 
1 whiv'h is cxcec!in;:!y inj^enious, 
hich it i<; afterwards seen how to 
fy. v: really at the expense of its 
•nt ingenuity. This simplification 
r at the ^sacrifice of the pride of the 
or. but such consi(lerati«>n as 
ie*>. durability ami certainty of 
leave n«» choice in the matter. It 
nnietimcs l>e found th:it a single 

part can be made to actuate several parts, 
by the interposition of elements which 
reverse the motion taken from such part, 
or which take only a component of the 
motion of such part, or the rcsulunt of 
the motion of such part and some other 
part. Where a machine involves the con- 
joint action of several forces, it can be 
more thoroughly studied, if it is found 
there are positions of the machine in 
which one force or motion only is in op- 
eration, the neglect of the others in such 
position being eliminated, and thus the 
elements making up the resuluini effect 
can be intelligently controlled. 

The drawing board can be made a 
great source of economy in producing in- 
ventions. If the three principal views 
of all the essentially different positions 
of the parts of a machine arc drawn, it 
will often be found that defects will be 
brought to light which would not other- 
wise have been observed until the ma- 
chine was put into the metal. 

It is desirable to see the whole inven- 
tion clearly in the mind before beginning 
to draw, but if that cannot be done, it is 
often of j^real assistance to draw what 
can be seen, and the clearer perception 
given by the study of the parts already 
drawn, assists the mind in the ciuicepiion 
of the remaining parts. 

If the improvement which it is sought 
to make is a process, it should first be 
considered whether any radically differ- 
ent prLHress can be conceived of. and if 
so. whether or not it is better than the 
old prcK-ess. and the rca>«"»n lov its de- 
fects, and whether it is possible to cure 
those ilefects. If the old pn>cess appears 
to he in the right general direction, it 
should be considered whether one t>f the 
old steps cannot with advantage be re- 
placed by a new one. or whether the 
order of performini; the steps cannot be 
chanijed to advantage. I have in mind 
one process in which a reversal t>f the 
order of steps resullctl in j^ivin.: the 



product certain desirable qualities which 
had before been sought for, but could 
not be obtained. 

It is sometimes desirable not only to 
invent a good process of producing a 
product, but to control all feasible pro- 
cesses of producing the product. Such 
a case occurred where the product itself 
had been patented, and it was desirable 
to extend the monopoly beyond the time 
when the patent on the product should 
expire. There were two steps or opera- 
tions which were essential to the produc- 
tion of the product, and the inventor, by 
reference to permutations, saw that there 
were but three orders in which those 
steps could be performed : first, the order 
A-B, then the older B-A. and then both 
steps together. The order A-B was the 
old order, which did not produce an 

Txw r^M-nliiil p.irt!. i-f tin .'i'*! kii.itlcr. 

Fig. 6. 

article having the desired qualities. The 
inventor therefore, proceeded to invent 
ways by which the steps could be per- 
formed together, and then by which they 
could be performed in the reverse order, 
and the patenting such two processes 
would cover generically all possible ways 
of making the article and secure the de- 
sired results of putting himself in posi- 
tion to control the monopoly after the 
patent on the article had expired, be- 
cause no one could make the article with- 
out using one of his two processes. 

In inventing compositions of matter 
there is one inventor who, if he is seek- 
ing for a certain result, will take a chem- 
ical dictionary and make every possible 
combination of every substance that 
could by any possibility be an ingredient 
t»f that which he desires to produce. It 
is as if he were seeking to locate a vein 
oi mineral in a given territory, and, in- 
stead of observing the geographical and 
geological formation, and thus seekins; 
tf> arrive at the most probable location 
of the vein, he should dig up every fo<">i 
«'f earth throughout the whole territory, 
in order finally to locate the vein. This 
method is exceedingly exhaustive, but 



n*>t a|)|»fal t'l iiiu' :i< iiivulviti}^ much 
*iM.' ill tilt* inventive faculties, 
ventinv: Iia«> iKi'i'ine su much <»f a 
cc, that it Miic is will in;: tn spend 
icnt time and nmnev \o enable a 

»i*!tii: v*i»rp> "i iiivenii>r> i»i m.> at the 
i-r i\iiaustivel\. ahni»>t any p.issible 
if.iiii Hixvilvin.: hill a n'asnnable ad- 
c ;ti the art can he piTtected. 

jocation of the Drafting Room. 

"HKM I>M.\N. 

!i> artivle ma> ni»t chanjL:e the lo- 
•1 "I draiiin;^ r«»*»ms for shnp.^ al- 
. i^t;4bli>lK-<l. luit i< written with a 
•i :-- a^^i'^t tli'ise \\hi» nia>. *^imiikt 
a'a'T. Jh- called up«'n l<> arrani:e a 
:: ;inl especially Inok after the rela- 
■ -1 !:u- 'Ira win,: r«w>m in the sh«»p. 
■'.r Tir^t i-^seniial> are i:nnd li^dit ami 
: \rMl:!a:i«»n. Any ciie who has re 
' : -r 'ii- e\es or lor those of his 
V.V., 1, u:!! ;idmr. tlie fi»rmer true 
. .1 ■. a;!', j.: .liab!> a«.:ree that L:"'»d 
' -iV 11 i* de>iral»le. l^ir. \\ithi»ul it. 
'. --11 1 Hi'. line iatii:ned and ilull. 
•.ikvj;: .'i \\\\'s rennnd'' nu- ••f a visit 
\v a *h"r: time a;:(» tn a >hi'p havin,i; 
Kirt mental draft in;: n»Mm> where 
'e wa> a ilecided aiul vi^il)!!- tiifier- 

cnce in the condition nt the men (hic to 
the lack, in one of the departments, oi 
that one essential — vcnlilati<iii. The 
riM»m referred to was on the top rt*»or. 
directly under the roof, windows on (jne 
si<le only, and havinj; but one dnnr. The 
distance from llo<»r to ceiling; ct»ultl not 
have la-en m«jre than ten feel, and «ine 
can imajjine the c«>ndition of the air and 
ihe luit:ht nf the thermometer when ihe 
temperature mitside re;:istered ei.^hl) - 
tive. I ne;:lected U) say that the wind'»w> 
of this room were on the southwol wall 
of the biiildin;: and that the visit wa> 
matle in the aftern<Min. when the nnim 
was at its w<>r>l. 

When (lueslioneil, tme '^f the men re- 
nurked that in July il was >omeiimes 
necessary lt» put ice on the bulb ni ihe 
ihermomeler lo keep the mercury from 
f(»rcinj; the top of the lube olY. while an- 
other said they could not use the ;;lazed 
side i»f the tracinj: cloth as ihe heal 
melted the j:elatitie. 1 caimol prove that 
either of these statements is true, but 1 
do say ihat if obliiieil lo decide iKMween 
ihe f«»ri:e shop and that drafting nH»m. 
an<l il was a matter \*\ per>onal c«nnfi»rt. 
I think I shiuild ch^MKe ihe farmer, as 
there 1 couKl j:et the benefit of an -h:- 
casional breeze. 

i M' c<»urse. in arraiivjin;: a draftiiij: 
pinm. other departments have to be C\.»n- 
sideretl but 1 fear that this branch some- 
times <!(X*s ni»t ^c\ what it deserves. 
When a number of ditTerent kinds of 
machine < are manufactured, these are 
usually matle in their respective ilepart- 
menls: and I m<'Sl ihorMii-^hly believe in 
the depart :nental ilraftiui: r<»"m under 
the-ie coniliii<»n>. Have each ilrawinv: 
riHun a- near its tiwn department a> il 
is i>ossible \o ^{:\ it. thus avoiding un- 
necessary >leps and wasteil lime. To 
the head draftsman. wln> i^ called upini 
to inspect tin i shed W'^rk and ii> confer 
with the fi>reinan on new w-^rk pa^sinv: 


lhnui^:li the shop, this means not only a a north and west exposure the light will 

savin^^ of lime hiil a belter command of be more uniform, less brilliant and con- 

the rt)oni iin«lrr his charge. sequently more satisfactory to the drafts- 

I rrnuMnlHT full well a drafting room man. For the past seven years I have 

that was across the street and up two had charge of a room located in the 

llijihts from the machine shop and, even northwest corner and have found it 

thonjili a tele])hone had been installed, I much more satisfactory than many in 

spent many a weary hour tramping up which 1 have been employed, and e>- 

and down those stej)s that might have j)ecially those located in the southwest 

l»een ijevotetl ti> less active yet more part of the building. 

eHicienl service. 1 also have in mind There are some objections wherever 

the drafting riH>m oi a company whose the room may be placed, but the only 

pnuluct is a sta]>le article used in every objection I can see to the location re- 

ntachine shop and who design ami man- ferred to above is that the blue prim 

ufacture their own machines for mak- nH>m may possibly have to be in some 

ing their j^nnluct. Phis room was \o- oihcr part oi the building. This is tnie 

catcd at one end oi the j^lani, while the but your blue print room has for its 

machine shop wa*i at the other extreme wi^rkman one whose wages are not great 

end. This was not a small plant eiilier. enough to be an important item in the 

and after Icaxiuj: the drawing rvv^m. c\]HMi>e column, and an electric bell will 

witidiniL; \onv wax anv^ng a nest t^f auio- suinrir-n him to the drawing room at 

matic mav^iiiTU^. vk-.i'^^^ing down two slion n. •lice. 

llii:]Us or wai;:nc i"»m the clexaiorto take li ::i.'<o w^io are working in some of 

\o\i down \*>n \\v.y\ ai ;!ie etid of aK^-.t: the /irafiins: r..V'mN of our c«.»untry could 

ton r.unv.U'v \,;i wiT. ,i:-r":\<- a\ the r.;- v\;ci>> lht:':i>five> ihroUiih the columns 

cliv.u^ vV.. p ; Ivv V, ;:vv;:" •> :■!,•: \tr\ v : t>:< P-'-tx^- ^ **«.*<'l >ure we would hear 

:r;wli, 1^;:; -Vv'^'v :: w..;:M t^k< ,::'» s.-^'i wr^ v-*:cre>::"g things regardins^ 

1i\x y"l ;>.vx .'-i^^ 'v\ok :;r.! :. :t!T t. v';:: "isT/ikis :;';;:t wtrr "la :e where rooms 

ri:-i; ».:;iW-";i^ ".v ^ "'1 v";;-.'"<i \ . ';: .;... 

^.-t \ • r.\: 'rv,,: : v ' \ .■.■;■. . \ ■ . v ^ ' e/: w : : \ : : u -S - ; p) ch, >c fin ci >kr: ch : f a simple 

no:-;h p{^\\ wvv: . \p.-.<;':\ . . ^-n-k': <.-'-\ ."li \\^; xv'-.t':- ": have fncni ver}' useful. 

oi:*- svk'-ic "v m'- ; ^wr.:*.' -i.,- -,:-; : ;.-v; ;..> i: ::■;;. \ hf r«f i"i:ne :r- r::hers 1 

■T-. jN<- v,%r;'-u-^ v; S' - --K -X* : ?;■'' '"«;-rv':' s'.'h~ii: ::. 3: ccnirrti :o me 

:vc: ^:!T he'": ' ■•• '\ <..--■"• Tin.; ^^\'v'. ■-.. • .-v-r^ h;..:"* r.»rir»i>>t> :'".i: :f '^^c 

r:\ -.v I'.' -^ '■ V V, \ V- .^ v ,''\ ... •• S;;.--. \.!-v*- -r -^'^ ra>f- i> naof ^f cedar. 

W I 


:-.»i:;.te . 



::: r;-::." 

.: t:i 

.'Ui^ht or 

■»\ V 


:'i:-,r:- '. 



risr: f 



.1- , 

'■.■"»;? pi: 





be used 

Dmftsnuui'5 kink. 


c V- 


^. pTn^= 

^ - 1^ t ^- fc ^ !! ;: H SK 2* 2£ 



was i^railiiatcd like a scale 1 could set 
the ciini|ia.s$es to any desired place with- 
imt iisiiij: a rule, which often is very 

A study of the sketch will show the de- 
vice. The distance iK'tween the i)oints in 
sketch shown is 4;^", usin^ the left hand 
eili:e i»f the movinj^ menilxT (a) of the 
trains as indicator. 

In niarkiu}^ the t>eain. place pointed 
tram in the «lesired position, say alniut inch ln»m en«l <>f iK-ani and move the 
"ther train so that the distance iK'tween 
lead and |>(>int is one inch. Mark the 
Uani at the e<lj;e of the trams. The 
ri;*ht hand mark will Ik* the first inch. 
Then take a rule and mark oft to any 
Ic^ireil len^^'th. 

I liave U-en u>inji this fnr some time, 
atiti lia\r li»untl it very handy, s|K»cially 
!.'r iIi-Hi^n sketches: where any j^jreat ac- 
K iiracx is not iKvessiiry. Where this is 
THolcil the screw aMjustment will l>e used 
.nd Ml In standard scale as usual. 

Kdwiii Inhnson. 

Cost of Brickwork. 

: 111 ,i»s: .►{ Iiri.'kwnrk max ho dividc<l 
:Tit ■ :v\" prini'ipal parts, cnst of mater- 
'.-iN and i". .st Ml lal»or. 

! *»r i-iimmon hrickwork the ci»sl of 
•'*MttcriaN is a lairJN constant (|namit\, 
^'-i: the lalK»r ct»st varies j^reatly, dei»i*n<l- 
•n;: **u the cla^is of wt>rk and rates of 
A av:es. 

Ilrickwork in huildin^s is usually rtj;- 
rircd an<l pai<l fi»r at so much |ht 
i«all nu'asiire. This is an arhilrary 
«,iiantitv and is a very different thinji; 
r>. 'TU kiln c«»unt or the actual numl)er of 
hrick I'he rule usually adopted hy en- 
^•TutTs. In to fi;^ure 14 hrick |H*r M|uare 
!,-■: i.i I," wall: Ji hrick per Sipiare ftiot 
..f i.V." wall, etc., dediictini: all «HK*n- 
*.uz^. In other w«>rds 7 hrick are al- 
ii wcil jier sipiare fiMit U)t each half hrick 
thickness «»f wall. Fij^uretl this way a 

"thoiLsantl" hrick represeius 4X .s<j. ft. uf 
13; j" wall or practically two cu. yds. 
and will be used in this sense throughout 
the present article. Masons fre«|uently 
figure 22yj hrick jH-r scjuare f(M»t of 13" 
wail, include ail o]H'nin^s ami fij^ure cor- 
ners twice. 

Some arbitrary rule is necessary Ik'- 
cause of the variation in size of brick 
matle by different manufacturers and in 
the thickness of the mortar joints. 

.\n averaj^e size brick is H'4" to H'j" 
Ion.:, 4" wide and J' 4" to j.\h" thick, al- 
thou;;h in .some locilities brick will Ik* 
found measuring </' x 4'4'' x 2^ j" ami in 
Xew York City many are use<l as small 
as 7'/' X 3'," X >. Hrick S'.. x 
4" X 2-4" with ^s" to '.»" joints will lax 
up al>out <^X) brick |kt M. 

r.rick are hou;:ht by kiln count or the 
actual numlKT and the price varies from 
S4.(X) to S7.4x> piT .M. at the yanl. 

I'ive to six <lollars |kt M. at the yard 
is a fair price. t«) which must Ik* a<ldetl 
the freight i»r hauling'. 

The amount of mortar uscil tiepends 
on the thickness uf the j«»ints and the 
propnrlion »>f nii>rtar in llu- wall will be 
al)ont as foll«»ws : 

I'or -^8 jt>inls '4 

l*<»r ' j" jiMiit^i 1-3 

I-'or "s " joints J-;; 

or as a "th«in>an«r* brick et|u;ds approxi- 
mately two cu. yds., the aiiMunt I'f mor- 
tar reijuired jkt M. will W: 

With -^x" joints ^ .i on. yd. 

With »/' joints j-:^ cu. yd. 

With 's" joints 4-;; on. y<l. 

T»> make up a cu. \<1. x>i 1 to 3 mortar 
retpiires alx»ut .S5 cu. vds. of sand and 
2 bbls. of lime or portland cement. Ml 
cement mortar is sehloin used except in 
enjtrineerinv: >trueturfs i.r umlerj^n»nnd 
work. XX bile linu* nutrtar is nsi-il .mK in 
the chea|KT cla^'^es **\ work and sh»»uM 
never Ik* iiseil in verx heavy work or 
when ex|)osed U* dampness. 



The usual practice is to use both lime 
and cement in the mortar, the relative 
proportions varying greatly according to 

One part lime and one part cement to 
six parts sand is a common specification 
hut also one seldom lived up to. Figur- 
ing sand at $.50 per cu. yd., lime at $.50 
per bl)l. or $.20 per bu. and cement at 
^'•75 P^J* ^^^^^' ^^^c materials for a cu. yd. 
of morlar would cost for 1 to 3 lime 
.S5 cu. yds. sand at .50 $ .43 

J bbls. lime at .so 1. 00 

Total $1.43 

l'\>r I to I to 2 mortar: 

.85 cu. yds. sand at $.50 $ .43 

1 .n bbl. lime at $,50 50 

1.0 bbl. oomoni at $1.75 1.75 



Vor I to 3 cement mortar: 

.85 cu. yds. sand at $.50 S .43 

2.0 bbls. comont at $1.75 3.50 

Ti^tal S3.03 

i>no tbousand brick. 8^4" x 4" x 2^4", 
piled lip solid wilboul mortar, equals 
i.(>5 on. yds. If brick cost S6.50 per M. 
the Ci^si per cu. yd. would be $3.06 or 
ptt\oiioall\ the same as cement mortar, 
but more ilian the mortar where part 
lime is used. 

«.Vment mortar d^vs not "work" easily, 
boinc bard for the bricklayers to spread. 
It is paiilv on this account that cement 
is so seldom used withrut adding: a: 
leas: a s'lvi'l portion •-■! '::r.e. 

The c/.>t o: the s;i:-i.": :-?.•■.■ Ne oracticril- 

i\ n.-'tlvr.c ^\ i'.orc 

. -ut of the 

The ::^^-• ^ 

-.-: —:-i\ be Jiivided :r: -• 
V'-:.-k\\- ers. l.^b-.rer> an."' 

An average first-class bricklayer 
should lay about as follows, in 9 hours: 

In 9" walls 1 100 to 1400 

In 13" walls 1300 to 1600 

In 18-22" walls 1500 to 2200 

Heavy foundations. 3000 to 

The number of openings, pilasters and 
corners makes a big difference in the 
amount of brick laid. Working on 
narrow piers, projections, etc., a man 
might find it difficult to lay 500 brick in 
9 hours. The writer knows of one job 
on which four bricklayers, two of whom 
were the contractors, were building a 
3' o" wall, the footing for a warehouse. 
They ran out of brick. Two cars were 
set one afternoon containing 20,000 brick 
and the next day the four bricklayers put 
ihem all in the wall, an average of 5,000 
(kiln count) a piece. No mortar boards 
were used, the mortar being dumped on 
the wall and spread with shovels, trow- 
els being used for the outside 4" only. 
In addition to the usual materials two 
"eighths" of beer were used. How much 
this increased the rate oi laying I am not 
prepared to say. 

Bricklayers are paid all the way from 
30 to 70 cents per hour, but 60 cents is 
probablv the rate most commonly met 

To tend each bricklayer, keeping him 
supplied with brick and mortar and 
building scaffolds from one to two labor- 
ers are usually requirei receiving from 
^7 - ^o 30 ^^ ^^'^^ 4^ cents per ho * 
where hod carriers' unions have forced 
t]:c price up. The usua] rate is 20 to 
J2- r cents per hoar. 

iu buildings hariiur several stories. 
such as stores, warehouses, etc.. where 
the materials ran be d'jmped on tlie 
cr--»und f5oor raified t:"^ the proper sxory 
•:-: an elevator. ;inn d:>:rii*iited in wheel- 
^ip.rrows tc the wh.", :he labor zr^y fall as 
'. w rt> Si aV- rif-' M i>i bailding5 of 



this dasSp only one scaffold need be 
cnvtcd tor each story, the joist serving 
tor the lower half of the wall. 

< »n one story factory buildings with 
hi^h -gables where the scaflfolds have to 
lie carrieu all the way up and everything 
handled in hods the labor will run $2.00 
10 $4.00 per M with laborers at 20 cents. 

The cost of getting materials on the 
icri*und varies greatly depending on con- 

In cities where the brick yards arc 
close at haiid the brick are usually de- 
livered in wagons by the manufacturers, 
VI ho make a uniform charge to cover the 
c«»st i»f delivery to any part of the city. 

Where the brick have to be shipped in 
nn cars, then utiloaded and battled some 
•j:>tance. the freight and battling may 
ammmt to several dollars per M. 

< >ver ^< od paved streets a team can 
easily haul 1,500 brick, but over poor 
*\\n ri»aiN 500 mii^iht make a big load. 

The ftillowing tables give the acitial 
. '.t •»! laving Something <>ver a million 
*ir:/k m tive oiie-storv factory buildings 
fiTTniiiL: part <A a large manufacturing 
p!aiit p. rick ct»vi S5.«)»> and S5.J5 at the 
xarU, the avera;:e price IxMug $5.08. 


P.ri.k. «ilSr,> $5.(»S ptr M S4/V 

tlnck frti;^lit l.lj 

>anJ. ' .• cu. >d. (11 .4M J3 

>an.| frrij^ht 13 

< Vriient, 44 bbls. (5> S2.00 88 

I :*iu-. J hu. (li .JO 40 

i .ttal materials 



llldR Nn 

*, ■•firtitrr* 

18 8 4 6 

l.ltfl I rtT 3 14 IW 3 111 1 fC 
:^) 71 m 1 15 AT .77 

^ -1 . Art ins 1 1 l«i 1 Ifi 1 in 1 111 1 irt I 111 
Total UT«>r f» X p(<A 1^75 ^M HM 57 W 

This makes the average total for ma- 
tcriaU and labor $15.39. 

The cost per cu. yd. would be just 
half this or 


459 brick ^ $5.(^ $2.34 

IJrick freight 5O 

y^ cu. yd. sand 1 1 

. 4 cu. yd. sand freight c/> 

,22 bbls cement @ $2.00 44 

I bu. lime @ .20 20 

Total materials $3-7' 


r.ricklaycrs $J.o8 

Laborers 93 

Carpenters 3<) 

Unloading materials 58 

Total labor '^i^jl^ 

rf)tal materials $3.71 

Total material and lalx>r $7.'*) 

< )n all the buiUlings except -\o. 1 
bricklayers were paitl Oo cents jht hour 
and foreman 65 cents. On No. i local 
bricklayers from the town near which 
the plant was built were used at 50 cents 
per liniir. They proved too expensive, 
however, and l«»r the balance «»t the 
work bricklayers were iinpurteil from a 
large city at u> cents. 

The hoilcarriers and m<»rtar men were 
develojK'd truiii l»»cal lalxircfN and paid 
17^ J cents per hour. 

Buildings No. 1 and 2 were long an<l 
low. Containing aNait equal amounts ^^\ 
i)" and 13" walls. 

l*uildinv;s \ns. 3 and 4 were higher 
anil containeil a somewhat larger pru- 
pi^rtion of 13" walls. Tart of the brick 
work in No. 4 started from steel lintles 
at some distance ab«»ve the tlonr line, 
which explains the higher cost •>! scaf- 

Ihiilding No. 5 was hij^her t''an an\ 
of the others and ccmtained m«»re brick. 
It was comjwscd of 13" walls with s<'»nie 
18" ami 22". which acccmnts for the 

Hot Oil for Railroad Switches. 


lower (list i»f laying, althouj^^h l)cttcr one cable beinp: up to 100 words a minute 

fnrrinafiOii|» was responsible for part of under present conditions. About 90 per 

thin. cent of these are sent in code or cypher. 

The sra(T«»I(|s were erected by car- 

penters at jn and Jt2\\i cents per hcuir, 
drawn fruni other parts of the work 

when neiMhMl *^^^* j;reatest difficuhy that railroads 

Ihe cost of .mloadin- the brick, sand. ^^^'^^'^^ «^> contend with in winter time is the 

hnu' and een,ent uas all charged under l>I<>ckinf,^ of switches with snow and ice. 

nne hea.l. ?i.i(» hein^: the average ior i'^> overcome this serious condition at- 

Ihe job. Teams were paid ,^0 cents per ^^^"M>^^ ^'^^'^ been made to heat the 

hour. The materials had to he hauled '^^^^^^'^^^''^ '''''^' electricity, but that has 

an averav:e o\ 1 -^ of a mile over counlr) l>^^>y^;» expensive and dangerous. Steam- 

Allowinj: Ji^.S.s as the ]>roper propi>r- , • , -i • , • 1 r 

, . I r .1. K^:,i. developed m which oil is used in place of 

tion to charge to unU.admi: the hnok. * . ... 

, , , . , _.,! I steam -hot oil ol a special qualitv cir- 

iheu- cost delnered on the iLiiound would s \ ^ ' 

culatod thrmiirh pipes placed between 

. the ties. The advantaj;e of oil over .'^team 
JyoS » vi.tifiviRht 4 .S5 h;luhllg^ i, Uiat it mains the heat better, ami will 
»»iC ^7-^^ 1^'^ i^xx>. ,,^^^ ^;.]^iii ^, 2- dej^rees below zero. Fur- 
It ihi^ woik were tiiiured In the rules, if il should chill, it will not 
fix^juentlx r.NvNl In m.i^iMis, i JJ j briok expand and hurst the pipes as water 
]Vi M|\i;ire l^vM kA \^' wall, i^poniuiis in- wvniM when freezinii. 
chhlod> the eost ]vr M. would Iv alvml 

^' ^ ^ ^^ -.^^ : ^< ^^^-.^^ Tu|? Stronger than Locomotive. 

S v\:. \\ \ \\\ K>ox. 

;io K;>v,;: \ve.. '"•■^- :■ •rsq.v'w i-r .-i :he averaize itiij is 

heated switches have ali?o met with but 
little success. A new svsteni has been 


k^ 1. 


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:«;:: >::!! ::> y.\.\\':.'^ f^rcc is i:ri-i:er. The 
'-.: ' . : .'i ..'•: •::"! 'tive. un.A-r fav-Table 
.."! \:r •:>. > .•:^t-:h:ra :; c^^c-Ajuaner oi 
:■; ^^;:j:.::: ■:: vx .:r:^ t-rs. ind c.'::]d not 
'I ■.::. '■i.'4>e ! u ::!*. ar.\ hrm^vLvr. ■: ]vwer, 
V ::'■ vi.^-i.'iM :r. p -w er ♦v-.'.i'.: si:np!\ 
.'.-.■.M iln ";r:\\Ts :■- slip ihe track. 
".■■:■ ;"::> -ch^.c \t. Jesicrin*: i-.CL»:no- 

\ • i '^ ; : u ; . " : •! ! e rs i re >; ■ r«r ;o r-rt : ..-'n e^i 
^r.: :'». * r:-; p-.^luce:! is hire'y suHi- 
\'-: : .:.;:>i :*n ;:r:vcr> :: slip. The 
1-: .- ."li."' 1 1 !.rct .■: ^ i-Cvimxive is 

i: :-u '^o •':■»: ;.^ ::h- j.iad n ..'iir; riKwe. 
i.t: :- :*H v e:^^ir 1: rcui :::: w::h a 

.;x TV:>is:*.". r-.v rhi- iiT«iwhkr. wer a 

' -. -^-.ii •: ;. :i;^ netwnds .ttj the sfz^ 
. -^ -TH ;in,. r^^.^pclicr and :he pno'Vi 

•'1. r^'nnc-'.svr bladeisv. 



. IX F. Muqihy, the master mc- 
: of the (treat I^kes l)re(l>;e and 
Co.. has found that a 7^)ohp. tug 
»reak a 7'^-in. rope with a steady 
A'hile many locomotives of double 
i»rse|H>wer couKl not break it with- 
ftvin^ a start, 

en the motion of a tu}^ is retarded 
rce liecomes enormous. The tuf^js 
f«ir breaking ice in rivers some- 
eiiC4>unter sheets of ice so thick 
ki'ill not crack immediately. The 
ire of the prow then actually pul- 
s the ice for a short <listance and 
irjies it vertically. 

late lor Drawing Nuts and Bolt 

ier> hantly template for <lrawinj^ 
ind lx»Il heads can l>e made as here 
L It is made of thin transparent 
•id and facilitates what is perhaps 
'•Ht commonly re|KMted work to l)e 
i»n a drawinvj. Lines are ruled on 
emplate which, when used, are 

1 Mver the ceiUer line on the draw- 
ukI the curved outlines can then he 
". The template can Ik* made very 
K by usinjjj the Ixiw spring <lividers 
h after re]K*ated use will have cut 
the celhiloi<i enou};;h to allow the 
« to be easily remove<l. — W'inamac 

Mcasurlnf the Leogth of Curved Arcs. 

The accompanyinf;; sketch shows an at- 
tachment for beam com]>asses for meas- 
urinjj the len^^h of curve<l lines. The 
circumference of the wheel is (> inches. 


and is divided into if) parts, each part 
beinj^ e(|al to -^s inch, an<l the space be- 
tween I and J Ikmuj^ ecpial to '4 of d 
inches or i ' .» inches. — . / Mc Alpine in 
Am. Machinist, 

A New Steel City. 

A new steel-workinvj city is \)n:\\\^ 
createil on the shores of Lake Michi- 
jjan a few mile^i east of C'hicap), 
just over the ln<lian state line. 
The entire city^ will Ik- built stari- 
mj^ with the bare j^mund. .Mills will 
1k' erecle<l for the manufacture of all 
kinds of steel, and when completed will 
employ I5.(xx) workmen. It will Ik* a 
nuwlel city, in which the In-st ideas i>i 
the leadin}<: experts will Ik* emUHlieti. ami 
all the public utilities will Ik' laid out to 
Ik'si advantage, as there are no streets t(. 
tear up as yet. ami no buildinj^s in the 
way of doinj:: these thinjjjs ri^ht. 

What J!>\ and satisfacti«»n it l)e 
to the enj^ineers ami architects who are 
planning ami supervising; this j^reat pro- 

It is seldom that men have such an 
opportunity as this to plan and lay out 
the work on a l)are field and where so 
nmch capital will be involveti. 



TIm Sprinkler Syitem ai a Method of 
Fire Protection. 

I lir sprinkler syslcin of fire protection 
W'hirli i« in extensive use in warehouses, 
fju'liirieN, mills, stores and other large 
liniltlini^s in which the danger of fire is 
imminent heeanse of wooden construc- 
tion t»r inllatnmahlo gixnls. Compared 

lance is called a "head," is a small brass 
fitting which screws into a T in the pipe, 
heading up. The opening in the head 
is 1/2 inch an^ this is kept closed by a cap 
soldered to a sort of spring. The solder 
or amalgam is melted at a definite tem- 
perature say 155° F. When the tem- 
perature rises to this degree the solder 
melts and releases the spring, which 





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- ■ .r *i:;itiv". -■<,:> :m. r.'ir u'.^l *.Ii:»v> ir^* hilf inch 

' '-r' '■: ■ ' - -. ■ ■ c =-■«; :::: 7Mf fcrii-: >:rikes 

^ ■■•.^..•, . ::: .-»: t.ti :■: th* hf^i and 

..: ri.i,-.,.;.: ■ *- <*i--; \--. :! ;." .ii-irTTiT^ "w-.Tr.r: <3uhe 

>;-i^v. :;'■>. ;" .'.:*:>.■ .1; -.^ !ii; '■;*.ir4>» T?u pr."*": :f the 

'^inii^.^ -..:<'. '-.•i»v'': :•' :nr*^ nr;a«*>r Tir Sf de:n- 

V f.\' -- •-'-:-.-•:■. •» . - .-ivmr — j:rr.~ 'Jne 

• '>.': -'-V- •■•.-- • -. * ,-.. •••. '.. : »»:-i-: ;rv v^ :■ have 



11 set off by a leak in a nearby steam 

,n installing the plant in the Wash- 
Ti iVosby mills, where wc are doing 
• own work, the first thinj; toward pip- 
a ri<M>r. after the position of the main 
rr has iKHrn determined, is to make a 
n lit the tloi^r, showing the riser, the 
in feeder and the small pipe, with the 
i«Is. as they arc cxj^ected in be placed. 

made out, and then the men use the blue 
prints as a guide in doing the work. Of 
course there are many problems that 
arise in installing the system to the best 
advantage and the inspection is very 
strict. All of these problems must be 
decided before the pipe goes in and in a 
mill where the machines are piled up to 
the ceiling and sometimes reach the \\\*» 
floors, there are many special cases where 




. f» . " 






% »^ 

• •*.-- = ' '. ft. ^ *.»•%•* ^*jl BwcJl«f 5 

e distance between heads altnig the 
:» is eight feel, and the distance be- 
rrn lines parallel to the beams and at 
ht angle> to the jf)ints being ten feet, 
lere a bay, <>r the space between two 
■n beams is over ten feet it is required 
! there be two lines, i )n the plan is 
• pu: the number of heads, and from 
* the Mze of pipe required is found. 
rjm the plan the list of material is 

Tiu- -ikic* i»l>»Tt n«i ^priiikli ro arc %h«i\t n i« 
ttiTi>uk:h th< l*tii)iltiit{ 

ii is difliciili ii» i'«»ver the space properly. 
The sprinkler gang, in our case, con- 
>isis "if a foreman and ••leven men. The 
foreman divides his men into smallet 
gangs for doing particular parts cf the 
work. I'irst, there is the big pipe gang, 
which hanilles all the connecting pipe 
and the main risers and feeders. After 
they have installed these and connected 
to the pump, the fitters juit in what is 



( :il1ril thr jiiinpiTs and fnnn there put in 
llir •tujallri pipr which rises from the T 
Ml thr main tVeder. and terminates in an- 
ulhrt r tai'in^ at i ij^^ht anjL^les to the main 
Irrdei. whirh is enmuvted to the small 
nms. I See hiiiure. ) After the pipe is 
.dl \\\ a eonple <A tnen put in the heads, 
which ate set m Is in the small feeder or 
pipe Inu-N 

Ha\mi: p\u \\\ ail the heads and com- 
puted the s\>tv'!n. a test i< made with air 
l»» locate diancc leaks The air is lurTUNi 
:i, -lied iMi each ilv^r. 

locate c! 
i»n an»l 5^»cn ajc 
wtili ^Jtstiitv ','.o*: 
a;^ \t;c: ::v 
\!.;' ^,"c*N ,;r\! 

.•.<;ev, 1 
:v;vs h.uc 

lor >CN ■ 


Heavy Haulage Chains. 

The accompanying illustrations show 
the design of the roller chain used on in- 
cline for conveying cars to the charging 
floor of open hearth furnaces. 

This chain is a design of the Wellman- 
Seave^-^^o^gan Co., who are pioneers 
and special builders of open hearth plants 

In the wtirk, the furnaces are charged 
w iih the aid of a machine having a lon^ 
ra:n. i»n the end of which is a head which 
n:s i»ne end vf the steel trough known as 
::ie char^^in;: U.'X. 

r>.ese > xe> are !'.>aded with malaria! 
:v. ::-e \xzi while 3 of them stand (.m a .1:: ' :!:c .^ir> arc tiicii pushed by hand 
: :''.;. :>. : f :::e ir.c'.ine. This chain is 
:r \ 1 1;. : ^^-:': s^^erii' *:::k>. I-vated every 
« •;;: -. r^ i'r-. vc ::ie surface oi 
: . -.'.>:<:<- -r. ■.:^>. :. enca;xe the axle 

\\ --W 


V,- - 

* -r'xc: ^ears an'i mor:^r 

" ^ ' r ~c I . 

r cv-nveyin;; 

■ --- . *-,. 

spr-vkel at 

-■ "i > ."sr^ 

;. : :■ a shaft 

: - 1 ■• 

r:: i^erir. the 

--'■-"^' . 

kc-'C-i 'lirect 

: :'■: i- 

: J.:: 1 height 

:-•: ::~-_L 

:l vary the 

:." ^ ":" 

Ji"*. u:us to 


- :-': - 

:!:r.e is pro- 

'». ~ w- !■; . I 

: ! chan- 

:*<: <:»;•: j^ 

"ks carry - 

:*i; .'J.:" 


..- : ^ 1-':.- 

■." :: which 

•••: :ni 

- . r. :he up- 

't v- -: — 

■•r ■ x'.\i pn> 

". .1*11: :." 

•' i : Ic ff^r 

"s. -«?t ^n- i: 25vration of 









(This department is in charg^e of Mr. A. B. Babkitt, Hartford, Conn., and questions will be answered 
more promptly if sent directly to him. The department is intended to give correct answers to questions of 
general interest. Make your question complete. Name and address must accompany each quer}*, although 
neither will be published.) 

6. I want to draw an arc tangent, to 
a given circle, and to a straight line at a 
given point. Is the enclosed solution 
correct ? It seems to work out all right, 
but I cannot prove it. 

Your solution is correct, and as it will 
probably be of interest to our readers, I 
will present it. R is the given circle, 
MN the given line and A the point o/i 
the line. To find O. Erect a perpendicu- 
lar at A. With radius of R and A as a 
center draw an arc cutting the perpen- 

dicular drawn through A at A'. With 
radius equal to the distance from A to B 
and with A' as the center, draw an arc 
cutting R at B'. Produce B B' to its in- 
tersection with the perpendicular through 
A, thus giving the point O. 

Proof: A BB'A = ^ B'AA', sides 
equal, therefore < BB' A = < B'AA', 
therefore < OB'A = < OAB', supple- 
ments to equal angles, therefo.e B'O = 

7. When asked what the three great- 
est powers were, I answered, ** Incline, 
plane and pulley." Am I right ? 

There are many combinations of 
mechanism but there are only two prim- 
ary elements, namely, the lez'cr and the 
inclined plane. Power is transmitted by 
the lever throuj^h circular or angular ac- 
tion, that is, motion about an axis; while 
in the inclined plane power is transiiiittetl 
by rectilinear action. The principle of 
the lever is the basis of the pulley, wheel 
ami axle, etc. : that of the inclined plane 
is the basis «»f the wed<2:e and the screw. 


man with the muck-rake is behind 
es— he should use a >teain-shovel. 
I Steam Shozcl Xncs. 

o-sinr\ hotel in New York is 
L It iua\ well stand £or the ex- 
i>n iNjini after one's expression of 
at the marvels of modern build- 
:rprise. --/:.v. 

rep«»rted that experiments in the 
electricity tti promote the jj:rowth 
I crops arc bcinj; carried on m the 
of Worcestershire. England. The 
ity is discharjjed from overhead 
suspended i6 feet above the 
, from poles loo yards apart. The 
is j;enerated by a dynamo driven 
ior>ep«>wer oil engine at the farm 
»$, and is transformed to high 
e and distributed over the wires, 
rent going to earth through the 
1 ccinse<|uently through the crop 
growing beneath the wires thus 

ikiL of Iron Ore, By 
lliompson in The ling, and 
Journal for July 7, '06. II- 

»n* of the furnace and electric 

i4)ns arc given. 

'.IF< lRir.M.I,V-r)l»KRATEn RaGGAGE 

ha* been built for experimental 
by the FVnnsylvania Railroad. It 
of an ordinary baggage truck 
Morage-battery equipment, op- 
by twisting the guiding handle, 
the handle is dropped, the truck 

is stopped automatically. When the 
power is cut off the truck cannot be 
moved, the driving wheels being auto- 
matically locked by a magnet brake.— 
ting. Record, 

Comparative Tests of Alcohol and 
Gasoline recently made in internal com- 
bustion engines indicate a very high op- 
erating economy from alcohol, though it 
has only about 70 per cent of the ther- 
mal value of gasoline. The superior 
economy with alcohol, which has been 
put as high as jo per cent, is due in part 
to the higher pre-ignition compression. 
This showing is of considerable impor- 
tance in view of the removal next year 
of the internal revenue tax on denatured 
alcohol, which will, it is said, j)ermit the 
commercial product to be sold for abinit 
the present price of gasoline. Ii is gen- 
erally considered that alcohol may he 
used in standard gasoline engines with 
some slight modifications in the car- 
buretor or vaporizing devices. — ling. 

The cost of pumping water at Chicagt) 
is given as 2.28 cts. per 1,000 gallons in 
a report recently made to the Commis- 
sioner of Public Works by Mr. John 
Kricson. City Engineer. The cost is 
further classified as follows: For water 
that pro<luces revenue, 6.14 cts. per 1,000 
gallons pumped : for water that produces 
revenue and water furnished free, 543 
cts. ; for all water pumped, 2.28 cts. As 
to the distribution, it appears that 1 5*^ is 
metered water paid for, 22*^ i^ unme- 



IrriMl water paid for, 5% is furnished 
fi rr ( inchidinj; that for the city's use and 
for lin* purptisrs) ; this leaves 58% of tiie 
total amount pumped classed as **unac- 
eoimted for." The cost of pumpiuj;? is 
Miid to he a very fair averajjo, hut varies 
Ktli^htlv from year to year, dependinj; on 
the price of ct>al. etc. Ihe cost as jjiven 
inchides iltat of sptvial sewerajre works 
loi the reason that they are for the pro- 
tection of the purit> k^X the water supply. 

W nh a ^Ov; \\\ drill, usiuij air at 70 

jv^uuxlv. psc^NWJc. >;anini: bit ^->4 :n., 

i\\\\\ \\\\\s\\\\\^ hw \ : \\\ ^ ;hc :uno 

cd *»x^ xt».-.-* I tvv^: t> ,iNu: ^; :r.!nu:c< :r. 

v ^ ■ \ 'v ■«, ^ ' 

increases one to three inches. 


The common rule is half span in feet 
plus two equals depth in inches and one- 
third of the depth equals the thickness. 

Thus a 14 foot span is 14 -=- 2 + 2 = 
9 inches deep and 9-^-3 = 3 inches 

A simple formula for the strength of a 
tir beam, allowing a factor of safety of 
7. is W = bd= 4- L, where W — safe 
load cwts. «listributed. b = breadth in 
inches, d = depth in inches. L = span in 

Then a u x 3 inch joist over 14 ft. 
span eoua! b*!- -^- L = 3 X 9" -^- ^71 
cw:>. .!i>:nbi!:ed. 

A>>::n::nc :>.e ;'>ist l*> be 12 inche:^ 
ji^vtr: :r 15 inches center to center, this 
A :: c-ve i 5*i:e : ad cfi 14 X 15-32 -J- 
:"• j: = >^', : :".h:. per siTperficial ioo\. 

-.-: :"'i* "-."t :> tha: six tenths of the 
-.V." -^ frn: i-.,ii'> :he depth in inches. 

-"^ > .v> : :>:: fr>ir. in feet equals the 

":.- -^ :': -si-'i rxi-r-lc as bet«">re. a 

. - ..." :.-■ ^ ^ = S_i inches ileep. 

-=-■-> ■-::>. -es thick. 

•';• -.. : - . — :> icrp t- -r evefv 

' . <..:'. -* .-v-u>- r:-ju.*s 1-3 depth. 

' . * : - ~ «-r. ^:«.-. - j '^ 14 = 7 

. •■.•- ».•.'; : ■: >:•■• = J 1-3 inches 

•,■- -j^ '^ ~ •■ *-;^~: f. r '-rdinary 


Maii\ coniplinicntary remarks have 
bcm iiia<lo about our July issue, and we 
trust that some improveroeDt will be seen 
m «»ur August issue also. 

"A tliapter on I-etterinji^," second 
ctlitHui. is receivinjj a amount of 
attention, i )r<lers are very numerous. 
Trice 250. 

I)imensi«»ns of I'ipe, Fittinjjs and 
\alvcs. als4», is having a bi^ sale, for 
there is nn lunik <m the market like it. 
The tables an<l diav;rams are taki> frt)m 
the actual fibjects and comprises all kinds 
'•t articles usimI on tlrawinj^s of pijK* 
*Mrk. I 'rice 5(X\ The I'rowninjj: Press 
l"llin\\o«Ml. ( ). 

The National l»»K)k Co., 408 Pari: 
liMv:., ilrveland. < ).. are jjradually ob- 
tarninj; a sttK*k of Ixniks for enjjineers, 
Ic^ij^ners. draftsmen and students an<l 
•ant the names of men in these lines uf 
*'rk to mail lists to ai any new articles. 
Th^ ct>m}>any will also handle supplies 
anilas larjje an assortment as convenieiU 
**n he carried as so<in as [>ossible. Tc» 
aranjje f«»r thi> an<l jjive their cust«»mers 
»*many advantages as jiossible, a limited 
•mmbtr •»! Nhares of the treasury stcK*k 
^»i* been set aside to Ixr sold. A pros- 
prctu< will !>e mailed t«> any writinjj for 
^Tic, and it is a }»«khI pro|K)sition to con- 
*J«Ifr. This Ci»m|>any is the pul>lisher (»f 
fnijiioofnetry Simplified ( j)rice 3(X' ) and 
•^r olucatifmal IxMiks. 

Practical (iuide for Firemen, from 
the iHMi of the well known writer. Mr. \V. 
H. W'akeman. New Haven, Conn., con- 
tains instructions and sujijjestions for the 
care and manaj^ement of Steam Hoilers, 
Pum[)s, Injectors. Traps and (iages. 
This lKX)k in its second edition, size 
4ljx(). Ixmnd in f)oards and cloth, well 
illustrated ami printed. The author's 
characteristic style, that of sim[>licity. 
prevails ami the reader is j^iven nnich 
valuable information in the well arranged 
chapters. I**or jKirticulars of price, etc.. 
ad<lress the author. 

Wire Rope and its .\pplication to the 
Transmission of Power, etc.. i> the title 
of a neat lxH>klet isMied by The Trenton 
Iron C'(».. Trent! »n. .\. I. lioimd in cloth, 
it is a very serviceable Ixiok on the uses 
and strength of wire rope, including 
sheave> and tackle blmks. This com|Km\ 
also issue a jwikt Ixumd IxMiklet on T*he 
.\pplication of Wire Roik' ti» liaulaj^e. 
Shafts and Inclined Planes, written by 
.Mr. Wm. Hewitt. .M. K. This is well il- 
lustrated and is a complete discourse on 
this subject. 


Niles-Iiemcnt-Pond Co.. New York, 
issued a .small catalog; consisting princi- 
pally of illustrations showing their trav- 
eling cranes operating in stone yards, 
lumber yards, freight yards, etc. 6x9, 
20 pages. 



Pittsburgh Blue Print Co.. Pittsburgh. 
Catalog issued by this company gives 
interesting descriptions and illustrations 
of their various forms of electric blue 
print machines, such as used by some of 
the largest concerns in the I'nited States, 
which number over a hundred. The 
catalog contains 28 pa^s, 6x9. 

Smith Storage Hattcry Co.. Hingham- 
ton, N. v.. Catalog No. 2 gives illustra- 
tions and s|K*citlcalions of their processed 
j)late storage battery, and their different 
forms as used for [x>\ver plant, automo- 
bile and stationary gas engine service. 
The calaK>g contains ^v^ pages. 6x9. 

Craig, Rid>;e\vay vS: Son Co., Coates- 
ville, Pa., has issued a bulletin on steam- 
hydraulic elevators, which contains some 
very gocKl illustrations. It has a novel 
feature in that it ijives the names of sev- 
eral millionaire cxnuvrns having their 
elevators in use. 6x9, 16 |xiges. 

The Cycloivan Iron Works Co., Jersey 
City, issueil the sixth tH.lition of their 
catalog on CycloiH\ui Buckets. This 
contains some spk'udid illustrations, to- 
gether with prices, weights, etc. 6x9, 

The .\nierican Manufacturing Co., 
New York, has issued a very neat catalog 
entitled "The lUue Hook of Rope Trans- 
mission." This contains ()o pages of 
good descriptions, illustrations, etc. 
Size, 0x8. 

Alfred Hox vS: Co . Philadelphia, have 
issued a catalog descriptive of their 
cranes. Thi^ ct)nlains several illustra- 
tions and discriptions of electric, belt 
drivt'u. traveling;, jib. pillar and railway 
power elation cranes. 7^x10.], 55 pages. 

l\>ur W'heil Drive Wagon Co., Mil- 
wauKLu. This company has issued a 

very interesting catalog showing their 
motor truck in the service of different 
indu.stries and working under various 
conditions. 7x10, 24 pages. 

Sprague Electric Co., of Xew York, 
issued bulletins giving many illustrations 
of their electric hand power traveling 
cranes and hoists, capacities ranging 
from I to 10 tons. Size of page 8xioi. 
This is sent out. in a paper binder. 

John A. Roebling*sSonsCo., Trenton. 
N. J., issued a catalog having the differ- 
ent applications of their wire rope classi- 
fied in a convenient and interesting man- 
ner with many illustrations. This catalog 
also gives the size of wire rope manufac- 
tured by this company, and cuts of wire 
rope accessories. It contains 164 pages, 
9.^x6.^, and is put up in a heavy binder. 

Reading Crane & Hoist Works. Read- 
ing, Pa., issued crane catalog No. 40, 
superseding No. 30, which contains illus- 
trations and specifications of their hand 
and electric traveling cranes, ranging in 
capacity from i to 25 tons. Size 6x9. 
Sole agent, H. R. Blethen. Park Row, 
New York. 

Alliance Machine Co., Alliance. Ohio, 
has issued an extensive catalog describing 
their overhead traveling cranes, ranging 
in capacity from 2 to 40 tons. This 
gives some very good illustrations show- 
ing their cranes operating in foundries, 
steel yards, machine shops, etc. It also 
illustrates some of their steam hammers, 
ore crushers, etc. 8x11, 48 pages. 

Main Helting Co., Chicago. Catalog 
on Leviathan Conveyors issued by this 
company contains some excellent illus- 
trations showing this equipment in oper- 
ation. The catalog also contains descrip- 
tions, together with price list 8x10. 14 


WtntsmspcMt Wire Rope Co., Witliiittift^ 
port* Pa. OUalog No, 1 7 iastied by thb 
co mpm y omtaias vmliuible dmU, illustni- 
lioos lod docriptioDs relali%'e to wire 
rope, tU U9e!i» etc. In the back of Ihii 
n • form of infortnatioo blank. By fill- 
tug oQt name and sending to Ibe above 
compsay. the rope best suited for service 
neqttifiKl will be recomroeoded, 

D. Rotmd & Son. Clevehmd, Ohio, 
hsTe braed a caUlog on chain blocks, 
portable cranes, trolleys, etc. This con- 
abu of descriptions, illustrations, price 
Va/L^ etc. As a supplement to this catalog 
the abo\*e company publishes a discount 
aheel applying to contents of catalog. 

The Bogcoe Dietzgcn Co., of Chicago, 
has iMtied a catmlog on drawing materials 
And amvejring instruments. This con- 
tatm many illustrations including metric 
acAtea* drawiag outfiu, pocket and sur- 
veying eonpatfcs, in fact all instruments 
«aeil b}- the draftsman or sur\*eyor, and 
wtll be found exceedingly \^1uable to 
tboae dasaei of industry. 

The Franklin Portable Crane ft Hoist 
Co.r Franklin. Pa. This company has 
iimad a small but %Try neal catalog ap- 
plyiiig to their crane and hoist. This 
cootatna aome excellent cuts, together 
with dimeosiooa and prioea* 4x74, 24 

The Yak & Towne Mfg* Co,, New 
Y^ork, has itaned a catalog containing 
geoefal information, spedficaliotta, tUoSi. 
etc,, ol their chain blocks, 
, craba« troUeya, electric hoists and 
s for same. 6x9, 65 pages. 

Lane Mfg. Co.» Montpelier: Vl. 
iamafcA by thja company on power 

traveling cranes conuins many valwabtoj 
illustrations, together with interesting 
desert pttOAs applying to same, This 
type of crane is Anderson's patent, an<| j 
made only by the I^ne Co. 

De LaVergne Machine Co, , New York . 
has issued a most interesting catalog on 
ice and refrigerating machinery. This 
contains exceedingly good views of the 
interiors of Ijoth domestic and foreign 
houses, showing this machine in opera- 
tion. It might Ijc stated here that the 
book is illustrated by half-tones, and the 
views are arranged in an artistic andj 
clever manner. 

Cleveland Crane & Car Co,, Wickliffe, 
Ohio, has issued the following four bul* 
letins: **G," Hand and Electric Jib, 
Post and Car Crane Types ; ** H/* Hand < 
Power Traveling Cranes ; **J/* Electric 
Traveling Cranes, and " K/' Electric 
Hoists. These are all very well illus. 
trated, and the descriptions are exceed* 
ingly good. 

Mesta Machine Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
A very extensive catalog has been issued 
by this company applying to Corilat 
engines, rolling mill machinery and 
gears* This is illustrated by very good 
half -tones, which have been arranged In 
a very artistic manner. The cover Is tn 
four colors well put together. Upon the 
whole it is a fine pierce of work. 

Pawling ft Hamischfeger, MUwaokse» < 
have issued an exoeUent catalof applyiair^ 
to their cranes. This is splendidly illmk 
trated by many excellent half-tones. It 
also contaitts a partial Itsl of users of 
their equipment, same being arranged in 
a very neat manner. 9Xtt» 140 pagei 



Classified Advertisements. 


'^ HEAVY 'type. Rates are 3 Cents per woi^d. cash with (^rder. 


WANTKD — Machinists, toolmakers. draftsmen, do 
you want to increase your salafS* ? They all say that 
Saunders* enlarged edition "Hand ik>ok Practical Me- 
chanics" exactly fills the bill for \-aluab)e shop kinks, 
rules, etc.. figured out by simple arithmetic and draw- 
i ■ nijHrs; also most complete reference taotes in existence, 
many, taken fn)m uotelx>oks of best mechanics in the 
country. Pocket size. Price, post {Mid, cloth, only |1.00; 
le«ither, Sl.Z^i. Atrcuts wanted. Ikx>k sells itself. Dig 
mbney. C.II.SAUNDKKS. 21<n*urchase St.,Roston.Ma8s. 

* WANTKD Salesman for ]Kickin^ device for locomo- 
tives and engines of all (le.scri])tion. Greatest device 
v.! ever invtnltti. I;hrjrc field. No oilier ncetl apply but 
Al man who has had experience and aciiuaintance in 
thiW' line for Indiana ami Pennsylvania. Salarj' and 
commission. i;<Mni proposition for right party. Ad- 
dross llox 31 Browning's industrial Magazine. 

SOLICITORS waiite<l in every manufacturing city. It 
will i>ay yon to investigate our plans. Send at ouceand 
get ready for fall trade. lk)x SJ. H. Iiul. Mag. 

(>NR sot of lx)oks of Int. Cor. Schools for course in 
mechanical drawing. ^Jox 32. B. Ind. Mag. Aug. 

Positions Opsn. 

Draftsmen— Two ex iH'rioncoi detailers and checkers 
on ornamental Iron work. Salary <100 to «Hft». Perma- 

Railroad Draftsmen— A half dozen ex|>erienced men 
for railroad oflTioe and field work. Salary jTn to $Uh. 

Mill Draftsman an«l I^nRiiieer to h»y out machinery 
aii<l general ]alant e(iuipinent. Salary Vl2) to c^lT.i. Must 
hv first-ehis.s an<l i-xpeneiiceti. Draftsmen .'jii first ola'S men for ]>ositions 
ill all iKiils of ihi- country. Siilarv inugiiiK from <fV> to 

Mivhniiiriil Draftsmen 2."> e\perieno-d men on ma- 
cliiiierv and general oiiKiiu-ering woik. Salary j^Ul to 

Technical (fiadiiates 'Si nuchanioal an«i civil engi- 
noeriiiK i;ia<hiales for jHKsitiims in all iKiils o( the coun- 
try. Salary jld to j\i(l. 

Inslrumeiilmeii fir?.* -class with twti to five 
years' e\|KrieiKe. Salary fl(X» or less. acvMrding to 

AlH>ve ])ositio!is an- open to members and those who 
will 1h'o>iiu- nil- 111 hers of 

Ths Cisvsiand Enginssring Agsncy 
Ross Building. CIsvsland. O. 


V**\U\ Monadinvk Hl«-«k. CJiioaKo, i^mtjiiniiig the list 
I l.']*» jKi-it ion M.prii lilt lull nii-al nun with the Kngi- 
ri-tliiK .\^i-iirv v"hir:if;ii. , tl 

SMND lOoiitsfiii till I.isi isMii- 4.1 Tilt I-jiginoering 
\V«»ihl Monadinvk Hl«-«k. CJiioaKo, i^mtjiining the list 

oM.'iii ]Ni-<'- .1. ..:... 1 ... :.i. -1. ., 

rniK . 

\ .sT.XMl' 111 in. I:*; \«ni niii UulKiiiiof VikmiU IVniitinns 
ii<-\ iMil i|jiil\ ) t.ii ilLiltMiu-ii, iu^iiu-1-is. siiiK:riiitend- 
(-ill-, tiiii nit II aiitl siIi*.Micii C1<-\i liiiitl l\ii);inccring 
.\y:t luy. Ki's«- HiiiMiiij;. ^ U\ti;inil. iMiiii 

sl-:.\l» Ilk-, fill Mm pimt .«! si:iii«):ird i.Mind Iicad and 
«.r| s*i,xv Ni/,., M J.; Klll.l-Kr. J.Vtl K. Thi.mprAtl St.. 
|-Iiil.iili1|>1ii.« I'.i 

siiMi.nii \i. \i u • 

tliii ■. i\ il)i «>ni '..i.-ki I 
1.1 • )ii-i s .iii<1 ill •!! ".iitrn 
I M II l.l.tiUv, M..:,,H..ii \]\ 

I!i.iir- iiiltiii^ J'lii!*. lwt» 
: inbuilt I •« :i! I hilt lis IhioL- 
>.im;>li '.y iii.iil hk- AiUlres*. 

Patent, roller-bearing, best self-lubricating device 
ever int^n^l. Dirt proof. I^ubricants will not le.ik 
out or spdner. l«ouis Villatte. 3 Burdick Block. Waler- 
town. N. V 

SKND TKN CKNTS for blue print of diagrammatic 
drawing of automobile gasoline motor, with rofercn(t: 
notes showing cimnectious. WM. SIMPSON bXi Cauld- 
well Ave.. New York. 

FOR SAI^E— A bargain, set of Int. Cor. Schools text 
books of electrical engineering course; 5 volumes, mo- 
rocco binding, latest edition, good as new. Also the 
Am. Sch. of Cor. Compendium of Drawing 2 vols com- 
plete. $4.m the two vols. C. F. DeB., 1401 Bushwick 
ave., Brooklyn N. Y. 

$1.00 FOR THE LAW on any legal proi>osition. r. S. 
Patents. «U0; Designs. joO; I^f)els. «2t»; Trademarks. 52.'): 
Copyrights, ^.'i. Protect your inventions, writings ami 
goods. Address. THK IIANI,ONS, Attorneys. 

Washinglcm' 1). C. 

OOnn ^^^^ CALENDAK rAp i a CEHTS. Agts wanteii. 
ZZUUAd.Wm. Buchanan ■vil I U WiKxlf.jrd. Va. 

Draftsman's Tabls. r. S. standard, steam, gas and 
water pipe tapping sizes. Five cents in stamps. K. K 
MKYKR. Allegheny. Pa. ly 

Be a Coiporatlon Lawyer. How to organize and finance 
business companies for any purpose under any laws for 
*6.U>. Address Corporation fHanlon) Col lege [Washing- 
ton. D. C. 

C^O +^/^ C^ 1 f\ P^r month extra money can be 
M^^ Lvi ^> 1 vy earned by one man in each shop, 
and without the slightest interference with regular 
duties. Proprietors favor the plan. Address 

POPULAR MKCHANICS. Journal Bldg.. Chicago. 


FOR SALK— (>ne>(M)lb. steam hammer. <me 150 lb. 
steam hammer, Kocond-hand. in grxxl repair. 

THK I^ANK Tool, CO.. Cleveland 

FOR S.ALK - i.»as or gasoline engine, fi or 8 h p. Hair- 
t)anks. Morse Co. Good as new. Buckeye Milling Ccl. 
Cleveland. O. 

FOR SAI,K CHKAP— One large upright Harns-Cor'.i>.s 
comi>ound ctmdensing engine. tW h, p. NC»RTON ^i: 
CO.. Royal Insurance Bldg.. Chicago. 



For use in the South. Send full particulars with 
location for inspt.>ction. and lowest price, to 

Ths Nsw Yoric Purchasing Agsncy, 

i Incorporated) 
76 Pins SL, Nsvtf York. 


NOW READY — 'Trigonometry Siinplificxl,' :*)c 
"Lute** anil Cement-*." Itic. "Ccnieht \Vorkcr>i" Hand- 
IwMk ."lit. Lis:s free. NATIONAL B(H>K CO.. *« 
Park nidg . Cleveland. O. 

• l.KTTKRlNt; iV:. "TINTrNG.'-aOc. •Diraen*ion> 
of Pi|Hr I'll tings and Valves." fiOc. "Wireless Tele- 
gmpliy. ' :t»c. Bmwniug's Industrial Maganne fuur 
nionllis. 3'k:. Browning Preat, CoUiuwood. Ohio. 

Industrial Magazine 


HE common Itfttng machine in the large shops 
t*Mlay is the overhead traveling crajic. and is the 
T suit of ninch simU ami expetise. 

The overhead traveler would no doubt ite 
nearly as old as the jiU crane or derrick if the 
building; and material at hand had been sufB- 
cienl to warrant lis use. 

To support such a machine the buitding must 
be of sufllcient Mrength to carr>* the load, and 
not until the manufacture of iron and steel tsa 
tlir pncKiit sliapes could tliiii be accomplished. 

Butll*tip members were not thought of at the titne the early de* 
mg^TB laid out the work for the first overhead traveletis, yet they recog- 
wnwtd thai the dbtance belween sup|K>rts uieant heavy bradng. This 
was aceonplihhed by means of trusts rod<i aud standards, and the croaa* 
^cdioti of the girder was determined by the material at hand. 

The chief poiutii to be ob^^erved in the design of overhead travxrlers 
m tile making of the main girders sufficiently strong for the weight they 
wtO be recitiired to support, and in those worked by hand power the 




gnrmg »hoa1d 1»eof csptrcially good conslructtoti, Cer it must be borne in 
l«ifod that the gross weight of both traveler and load has to be nio\^ 
time the crane is put in operation. 
The early cranes were hancl driven and built of timtier beants and 
tight iron truss and tie rods. 

A girder of rolled shapes and tritased rods is used today where light* 
in desired with a long span. The end of the girders rest on truck 
rbeeb which run on a track supported by the building. The design and 
tniction of these supports ure tnatters that must receive as much 
attention as the girders and mechanism of the traveler. 

Xo doubt the first design of traveler employing power was the one 
^receti'ing it from a square shaft revolving on brackets near the wall of 
the building on the trac k girders. This type is still seen in operation in 
^this conntry in the shops of the Washington Navy Yard. The fjower 
* ail movements was transferred by shafts and gears from this main 


^ 4»m 




eirtc Trttt«llti|| Crunr* ittv ^honkti in the in»*tfiiik>fi Tile NfPpCf ts • 109 Um 
Id mink t vo flu toti tn*llrr>% THU mmr im uard Im tUtiftiim tcvoantivftt hum 
'. Tb9 l«wrr ttmrnr U « *S* tan, uml l» r(|tti|j|Mtl wlih m d loia nuxlltety tatoL 



shaft. The brackets were arranged on counterweights so as to return to 
place as soon as the crane had passed. 

No radical changes have been made in the general outline of travelers 
in the past few years, and only in the driving mechanism will we see the 
iraprovement. The motor with its wires and easy control has taken the 
place of the revolving shaft and its bobbing brackets. The type of con- 
trollers and the manner of application of power are the points ou which 
ever>' m ami fact urer bases his claims of superiority for his machine. 



Built for the W*U and uut Wiirks of the I^ke Erie Iroti Co. by the Atnerican MachiJie 
iifc MainifacturitiK Co. . CTcvcland. Ohiu. This crane has a span of 'y* feet, inaxiiniim capacity erf 
15 tons nnil a *peedl of 400 feet jier mimtle Tlie speed of the main hoist i«70 fcH per minute 'and 
of the trolley 'JlW feet per minute. The runway is9l> feet above ground. 

Wheels, girders, motors, track. Sic., are much alike, but rigidity, 
ease of movement and maximum work on minimum power are necessary 
factors in the design of a crane of this type. 

The rope drive has received some attention, too, for it is a good way 
to apply the power for such work where electric current is not available. 
In this make of crane the rope is run along the building supports of the 
girders, and by means of sheaves the powder is transferred to the hoisting 
mechanism. Friction gearing is used in the mechanism, and would no 
doubt aid in starting the load easier than with tooth gears. 



With electric crane builders the speeds vary with the ideas of the 
designers, but the following table will show the average of the dimen- 
sions given : 

in Tons. 


Speeds in 


Bridge Travels 
Feet per Min. 

Trolley Speed 
Ft. per Min. 


of Auxil'y 

Hoist in 


Aux. Hoist 


25 to 60 
40 to 100 

300 to 4.50 100 to 150 


20 to 75 

300 to 4.50 


30 to 75 


20 to 50 

300 to 400 


3 to5 

50 to 100 


10 to 50 

250 to 350 

3 to 5 

50 to 100 


10 to 40 

250 to 350 

3 to 10 

50 to 100 


10 to 35 

250 to 350 *' 1 5 to 10 

40 to 100 


10 to 30 

250 to 350 

5 to 10 

25 to 70 


8 to 30 

200 to 300 

5 to 10 

25 to 60 


8 to 30 

200 to 250 *• . 10 to 15 

20 to 00 


6 to 25 

200 to 250 '* 15 to 20 



5 to 18 

200 to 250 ** 15 to 20 
203 to 250 *' 20 to 25* 



5 to 15 



5 to 1 5 

200 to 250 '• 20 to 25 


The general practice is to wind motors for 220 volts and alternating 


FOR years the magnet has been aii tnicrcsting freak of nature; a 
thing that delighted everybody and provided ajtiusemcnl and 
instruction for the >oung. 
b there anyone who has nut known the jo>-s of a horsc-shoc magnet ? 
Th€ pteasure of making pins fly through the air, of abstracting a 
neighbor's stcd pen from his desk in schcxil. of trying to see just how 
big a tack or nait diould he liefore it refused to yield to one's 5.pecial play- 

Then it was found that the magnet of that shape did not work for- 
ever, that is, it lost Kime of its prnver and that a sniall bar w.ts ;tlwa\s 
placed across the ends when the magnet was laid away. 

There must be an energy giving agent to make the ntagnet permanent 
and experimenters found that the electric current would restore the 

To energize a piece of iron it w^a^ found that the current could be 
best carried into it by m€:itn of wire wound around it and constant ex- 
perimenting has shown just what it needed in this direction. 

Btii the lifting magnet as a practical part of tlic working world was 
not thoogbt of till recently. About twelve years ago lite first magnet was 
ptst inlo operation. Its mission was to carr>' plates from one part of the 
mitl to another and the carrying capacity of a magnet weitrlitng in itseli 
260 pounds was found to be 14,000 pounds. 

The magnet was hung by chains and ring to the crane hook and the 
operator of tlie crane controlled the current to the majcnet, A man on 
the ground usttally placed the magnet and as the current was turned on, 
rode with the load to the pile and did the signaling for the release of 
the load, 

Ar first men dreaded to work under plates or loads handled in this 
way for they thought the current would be unreliable. 

If the current failed for an instant, of course the load would fall, 
bm statistics show that thrre have been fewer accidents in shops where 
diey are used than where the old style of chains, hooks ami so on are 
flill bi pperation* 


This iiingTiet i*. known as No. 2 T\\it S Lifting Maifiict, hmll by the Electric CofitroUtt *nd 
e^ppXy Co.. Clcveliiod, oliio. ami Is in aperaiioti at the Netvburgh niitU of Am, Steel & Wire Co 



iifttng force, which amid be used in handling of these tnotiblcsomc 

The majrneU arc made of different sizes and varying capacity. 

The Kleclric Controller *Sf Supi»Iy Co/s No* 2 Type SliftinK magnet 
51^ diametcf, weighing 5,40*3 pounds, requiring 4' t* head room, con* 
fosnes «tt average of 27 atniMffvs at lao volts for excitation, which is 6 
K. W*. or 8 electrical horse power. 

Tb* Electric Controller & Supply Co/s No. 2 Tyix* S magnet will 
handle sktiU cracker balls up to 20,000 pounds in weight. 

It bandies the |iieces to be broken, breaks them and then handles 
I die broken pieces. 

When fiperaled from ordinarv electric overhead traveling crane, this 
magnet will handle 20 to 50 tons per hour of scrap used by Open Hearth 
Fomaces. For 24 hours day allowing 4 hours delays this is 400 to 600 
loos* If operate<l from a fast crnne the amount may Ixr ?naterially in- 

urriNO MAOtirr hanoono rreei. puatcs. 

TIiIb «i«gSWt tokwnrtt »• tlir Klt-rtrir CnttlmUrr K Miit|i1> Cti • S*x » Typ* ¥ lifting M«g^ 
•Mt sM «rn» fufittghnl to lliv Imp*' ... ,f Vt4Aliofiift, jApAfi for tim«g |>t«1r» u|i 10 

1 1 •' tlikit hy « wkle t^ la Ions, fr^ m \rttk«l po«iiioa «ii«l «|*t*l>iiic mnd luiltl- 

kw« fiv. t*. in i* x*Ucr whitr ta^Kg rhrrt*,. ^ * %hij» 



This magnrt is made for general use by ihc Browaing EDg[ineeTiiif Cc Clcveiaiid. O, 

The amount of work accomplished by a crane and niagnet depends 
on dimensions and whether the material is stacked or in indiscriminate 

An average lift of machine cast pig iron for this magnet is 1250 
pounds^ and for sand cast pig 1 1 50 pounds when unloading railway cars. 
Heav>* melting stock, such as bull heads and crop ends of billets, rails or 
structural shapes average 1240 pounds per lift: machinery scraps 900 
pounds ; loose tin, 500 pounds ; miscellaneous junk dealers* scrap, 400 
to Soo pounds Typical lifts of this magnet in handling finished pro- 
ducts are as follows : One cast iron sewer pipe, 3 feet in diiimeter, 
weighing 2.000 pounds ; eight standard T rails, 100 lbs. per yard. 8,000 
Ids. per lift ; miscellaneous angles up to 20 feet long, 25 pieces per lift ; 
4'x4' angles, 37 ' long, 10 pieces per lift, weight of lift 4.5S0 lbs* ; steel 
pipe, 5' diameter, 30* long, seven pipes per lift, weight per lift 3,000 lbs. 

This magnet saves from Si 5 to $35 per day of 24 hours, and it is 
said that it is entirely possible to save as much as $50 per day. 



The'^ raising by mcanft of a heavy nmgoet of kegu or light boxen full 
of oMnl articleji is rather an tinpracticabk* way to handle tbem, ticcause 
in fayiteriog them they rtuist be set down gently to ax'oid breaking* 

The weight of the magnet h enough to crunh the wood tf it is allowed 
to rot on the keg or boxes. With a light magnet thiA meant cif hiinilling 
is pOMible where the operator is careful. 

Tlie type of magnet ^^hown in Cut 5 will carry a plate right up to the 
«le of a !ihip and holtt it while it h lieiug riveted in place. 

Il will be noticed that the type of han^^cr of this magnet adapti iuelf 
to the angle of the lift, llie weight of the plate would then swing It 
nemrly vertical. 

The illustrations give clearly the nature of design and some of the 
uses of magnets of the prominent manufacturers and it would be hard to 
mbow or tell of the eadlesa variety of work to which apparatus of this 
Idod can be applied. 

AU of the abo%'e data as to the amount of material which may be 
handled per lift applies^ to the Klectric Controller & Supply Co/a mag- 

^-. X' 

cr or 

I rflBwii is tte i 



nets, and represent average performance under actual service conditions. 

The illustration Fig. 2 was furnished by the Cleveland Armature 
Works, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Below is a Browning Magnet handling rails. This magnet^was'car- 
ried by a locomotive crane. 


AN unparalleled engineering feat, is that of raising the grade of the 
city of Galveston, Texas, now well under way. The first of the 
measures adopted for the protection of this city was the sea wall 
begun in .\pril. 1902, having a total height of 17 feet above the mean low 
water level. This great sea wall is now almost completed having cost a 
million and a half dollars. 

It is not generally well known that Galveston is at present the second 
cx|K»ri city of the United States and is therefore of vast commercial im- 
pi>rtaiKe. The entire world has marvelled at the astonishing attempt of 
this numicipality with the aid of the county and state to elevate the whole 
city uith its streets, parks and houses above the rto(xl limit. 

In September, Kjoo, the terrible flood destroyed more than five thou- 
sand lives and property valued at about forty millions of dollars. The resi- 
dence <listrict was almost entirely wiped out, Galveston being flotxled to 
a heij^hi oi 15.7 feet above mean low water. 

This great project of raising the grade involved the filling in (»t an 
area of alx ut two Si|uare miles back of the retaining sea wall. This work 
involve<l abi)Ut eleven million cubic yards of filling, the average hoing to 
a depth of alx^ut 8 feet and in some places from 18 to 20 feet. 

( )ne of the engineering difficulties encountered was the problem of 
where to obtain this vast amount of material with a short carry. ( )ne of 
the suggestions was to use (ordinary pumping dredges discharging over 
he sea wall, but this was subject to the objections of not only the wave 
motion at sea, but the stripping of the protecting beach. 

Another suggestion was by half loading hopper dredges which steam 
to distributing stations on the sea front or bay front, but again this was 
found to be unfeasible on account of the danger of storms, the wave mo- 
tion, and. if distributed from the l>ay. from the hindrance to traffic. 

( >ther plans considered included the use i)f long suction pipes run 
seaward from shore stations which were to discharge over the sea wall, 
also by dredging and piping from a l»rrow pit west of the city on the 
Galveston Island, as well as by dredge, grab and steam shovel, using cars 
from a similar borrow pit. 



All of these methods were objected to on account of financial diffi- 
cuhios, the cost of relay stations, or stripping the protecting beach, while 
the jijrcat borrow pits would limit the growth of the city. On account of 
the j^reat impediment to business, the plan of hydraulic dredging along 
the wharf front and piping through the streets was dropped and finally 
the solution was found in the plan of Lindon \V. Bates, the well known 
engineer wlu> has heen urging the adoption of the Lake and Lock Canal 
at Panama in profcrenco to the sea level canal. 

The method finally adopted and now being employed to advantage 
includes the use of a distributing canal dug parallel and just inside of the 
soa wall, like a nu^at inside the fortifications of such cities as Antwerp. 
Holgium, nnd Ounkirk, 1- ranee. 

I'.ngineer Hates claimed that this scheme had the following advan- 
tages, that material from the canal could be used to back up the sea wall 
and the iiistrihution could be effect ed wiihoui an expensive relay system 
and without the disturbance of business in any way. the drainage water 
trowing into the canal and penniiing the emplo\Tnent of large up to date 
hvtiranlio dredges, without disturbini: the outer beach in the slightest 

T-ic ohann is *'{ the 1V»\ ciuso iv :he ciiv an-i ihe navv::ab]e waters 

-VIE »-^i^«»»».i..»C D«»EDOZ ^C*«» «M»««H ^* c««.v£srrDK 




are \Mi\n^ deepened which alone is an improvement considered worth two 
million dollars, while the business center is not interfered with by pipes 
or its streets injured by waste water and the dredges are working con- 
tinuously under shelter, there being absolutely no danger from storms. 

The completion of this great project of raising the grade of Gal- 
vesi«.Mi U) a heii^rht well above the rioxl level will place a definite limit to 
:hc Mienace which has alwaxs shadowed the fine export city of America. 
■>ircctlv after the great >t«»rm it was pn3p*osed by many that the city be 
.rii.i«»ned, but after many plans had been discussed in the legislature «/ 
•-ic >:ate "f Texas for the pr 'tec::- n of the City oi Galveston, the sea wall 
via'.' ■!K!i!«liiijL: the distributtn:^ canal, was considered a S4.»lution of the 
>:■ ir'v:" \ million dollars was set asile for the construction of the 
r<a A.i!! .\hich was the firs: :^*c.i-i:'e ■'•: precauti-.n. and this concrete wall, 
: '.hv ^!r'»n-4e>t fK)Ssible c:rs:r-:j:>:ci. is ver.- nearly completed, with a 
■- -..a! !rn<th ••! nearly three rtr- : '■'-->lJl: r-.iles Without such a wall the 
^.- .t' :iLiI waves would :.■- j.^^ :!:; j::y evt:: ::' ra:se«d. while even with 
^ . ii X .V ill and with">ii: :!^ : ?' 'r^' ::-e^u::«:c :•: the ;;rade. there would be 

-*^ ^;ir :: ire Srir.c retained by it. if the 
' y* - l:.: Tcc '-~'e :tsc!f a ;L;reat evil as it 

. - "irt^-i > : ■. : — :I": n i '.'.ars v.»ted by 

:»: -: : r:*«i ::^ :' vri'vest >n i<- the upper 

:*< ^~:.i~ -< *?-.::M:r.i:s in the con- 

'*<:: "f! "^ - ^ ■-'"-^ '" with 'Ui public 

^ .-..M. *^ - :■;-.:! s ':<e-r^ c.n veyed to 

, -iorr*- '^ :«: f.".ri. ^r i the excava- 

*^c>i :■ * ■ ^i. -* ll' 

^ '• - V . 'c -^ iisctirSr". the wliole 

X ^ ■•■.. — -:re 'f s^kr.i ar. 1 water 

•iOV"v^ • ..: r rh-: i.^ri'tripanx ini: 

^ !-' '^ . . *.. : s;ir?".is v^ater bein^i: 

^ -.V - -^ * T'e '-i.\.-i^y ind street 

'. -^v ;.-. . * -^Mf-v ire^i^e? will be 

*■■'— ^ - - - . ~-^.f ^-r-^f a^ they ijo. 

^ -' * "'^ ^* -Vve thr CTcatest 

^ ^ -■•• > - > ,~«fi* r'-^e navisrable 

'-^^ ■ . ^ -^ . ^^ . iss<\s T^:\v c«"«n- 

r ..r tlic tidal wav-< -. 

'■-'■ ■ 'V. tlu.' I'.'vver ^"-J. ■• 

rtr--vt;n: t!ic retur* : 

'■■•r -.i:;. '^ funds - .--•: 

iV: r r raisin c ::*e ^-i. 

: •'.. i-rd upi-r 7 :.i- 

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lTnin«]«tion of artictr in i'.crman Magaxinr. "Zeilichrifl Dr* Verenr* Dcutacher Infrnieure." 

AT the last meeting of the Institution of Naval Architects, Mr. L. 
Twaddell described the cableway which has been used for some- 
time at the yards of The Tahner Shipbuilding & Iron Co,, at Yar- 
row uii Tyne. 

At both ends of the bedding a portal is placed, which is fastened to 
the foundations by means of pins on which the portal can turn. The 
portals are connected to each other by means of wire ropes as shown in 
picture No. i, 2, 3. The dead weight of the portals keep the ropes taut^ 
but in adddition to this, a number of ropes run from the top of the portal 
to the ground where they are anchored. The portal is made up to two 30 
meter long j>osts and kept apart by two parabolic girders as shown in 
picture 4 and 5. 

Three runways for man-trolleys are suspended from these portals. 
The distance between both portals is such as to allow the trolleys to cover 

Fiffs i and ri 



■«C^«."^*" ^i.j 

■*t "vr* - «**^ ? 



Pictures 6 and 7 show the trolleys running between the connecting; 
girders of the portals posts. These trolleys carry the running rope, whicli 
is fastened in the center of the trolley. Each trolley has two vertical 
axles with two wheels. These axles are supported on the outside of the 
cords of the connecting girders. These trolleys are also fitted with four 
rollers with horizontal axles, which run on horizontal rails fastened to 
the connection girders. Each trolley is run by a 12 H. P. reversible elec- 
tric motor, and the motors belonging to the corresponding trolleys on 
each side of the bedding are operated by the same controller from the 
operator's stand at one of the trolleys; for handling the load, a man- 
trolley is running on each one of the ropes, and the design of these man- 
trolleys is shown in picture number 8 and c>. The hoistincj: drum is placed 







FiK« 4 ami .' 

in the center of the trolley, and tlie racking drums, one on each side, in- 
dicated by "a." These drums get their power from a 35 H. P. electric 
motor, which is operated from the operator's platform as shown in pic- 
ture No. 8. The racking ropes are wound on the rackinjj drums several 
times, and both ends arc fastened at the trolleys niiuiinj^ on the connec- 
tion girders. The band brake for hoisting and racking drums are op- 
erated by hand, and each of the 3 man-trolleys have a capacity of 3 tons. 
The racking speed is 180 meters per minute; hoisting speed with 
3-tons load, 30 meters per minute, and with i-ton load, 46 meters per 
minute. The trolleys running on the connecting girders have a speed of 
7.6 meters per minute ; the nmning ropes 197 millimeters circumference 



consists of six stranded wire ropes and have a breaking load of 175 tons. 
In addition to the ropes suspended between the portals, there are also 
three copper trolley wires strung from portal to portal to carry current 
to the trolleys. The whole plant, which seems to work to satisfaction,, 
was made by the Af. Henderson Co., in Aberdeen. In smaller scale and 
for smaller load cableways has been used for several years at shipbuild- 
in>i yards in America. These cableways are of course, a whole lot cheaper 
than the bridjjo tramways and turret cranes, but as to the safety in hand- 
linv; the loads wo tlon*t know. 



THK IIROWX HOISTI\(i MACHINK CO. sliuiied the car-diiinp- 
ing machine question carefully, and determined to produce a ma- 
chine that would effect the following results: 

1. Handle the coal without breakage. 

2. Keep the vessel on even bilge and keel while loading. 

3. Put the entire cargo aboard without moving the vessel. 

4. Ixttid the vessel rapidly and economically. 

5. Handle the loaded and empty cars to and from the machine, 
doing away with a locomotive and train-crew. 

It is claimed that no other machine bas been proiluced that embodies 
all of these features, while their machine accomplishes them perfectly. 

The conspicuous elements of their car-dwnping machines are: 

The car-tipping device or cradle, into which the car is run and then 
clamped, which then turns over with the car and discharges its contents. 

The transfer-tubs and tub-cars, into which the coal is dumped from 
the car in the cradle. 

llie overhead traveling cranes, which take the tubs from ihc tuh- 
hanilling cars and lower them into the hold of the vessel. 

The car-pushing device and system of tracks by which the h>aded 
and empty cars are put into and taken out of the machines. 

When the cradle is in its lowest position, as shown in the picture, a 
Kaded car of coal is pushed into same by the operator with the car- 
pti^hing device, or "ground-hog" (commonly called because it rests in a 
pit between the tracks when not in use so that the cars can pass over it). 
<>nce in the cradle, which will take any size gondola or hopper-car. from 
the largest to the smallest, the car is quickly clamped on the top and 
Mdcs with hydraulic clamping-bars, and the engines set in motion, slowly 
turning the cradle over until the car is upside down, wheels in the air. as 
^hown in the picture. 

During the process of overturning the car, the coal has rolled, not 
fallen, from the car into six hopper compartments attached to the cradle, 
and these six hoppers have each of them entered a transfer-tub. also 
4iown in the picture. These hopper-compartments have doors which are 



automatically released on touching the bottom of the transfer-tub, there- 
fore when the cradle is returned to its original position the car of coal is 
left in these six transfer tubs, where it has been very carefully placed, not 
having been dropped or broken in any manner. It is necessary to put 
the coal in these oblong tubs so that it can be lowered by the cranes into 
the vessels. When the cradle has returned to its former position, the 
empty car is pushed out by the next loaded car coming in, and runs by 
gravity to the empty track ; then the loaded car is clamped in place and 
the operation repeated. In the meantime, however, the tub-handling car 
containing the tubs just filled is pulled away by the operator from in front 
of the hoppers, and a car containing empty tubs takes its place. 

Two overhead steam traveling cranes running over the machine at 
a speed of 600 feet per minute having telescopic rams (to pass the masts 
of vessels) which work independently of the rest of the machine, now 
take these tubs one at a time from the tub-handling car and lower them 
carefully in the ship's hold, where, after touching the ship's bottom or the 
top of the coal-pile, the doors are released and the coal gently rolls out 
as the tub is pulled away. The crane-operator then returns the empty 
tub to its proper position on the tub-handling car, taking the next filled 
tub and dumping it in the same manner. When all the tubs on this 
car are emptied it is returned to the hoppers for another load. The 
craoe-operator can dump the tubs in the center of the hatch or at either 
aide of same, and can distribute the coal to all hatches, and by this dis- 
tribution of the coal it is possible to keep the vessel trimmed at all times 
and to keep the boat on an even keel. 

Two overhead cranes arc ample to handle 5.000 tons in ten hours, 
and the tipping device is able to handle twice as much. Therefore, with 
the simple addition of two extra overhead cranes, one car dumper would 
have a capacity of 10,000 tons in ten hours. 


THERE is a great variety of arrangements of belt conveyors but we 
shall limit this article to those examples which typify the more 
:;eneral applications. 
The ends of a belt conveyor are referred to as the head end and tail 
end. The head end is not, as often supposed, the end where the material 
is fed to the belt, but it is the discharge end. While the large pulley 
is sometimes shown at the head end and sometimes at the tail, it may be 
reversed in almost ever>^ case. 

The simplest arrangement is shown by Fig. i, which illustrates a 
level or inclined conveyor receiving its load at the tail end and discharging 
it at the head end. Fig. 2, shows a level or inclined conveyor receiving at 
several points, and discharging at the head end. 


Fiji 1— Le\-cl or inclined conveyor receiving its load at tail end and discharging 
it at head end. 

yy 'A^ -^^ r^ <^^ 

Fig. 2 Ivcvel or inclined conN-ej-or ^ecei^-ing at several points and discharging 
at head end. 

The incline at which the conveyor will work depends upon ( i ) The 
consistency of the material conveyed, and (2) The method m which the 
material is fed to the belt. If tlie material is damp or wet. and so tends. 
to adhere to the belt, the incline can be steeper. If the material is fed 
continuously to the belt the incline may be steeper also. 

With the larger sizes of cobbles or boulders up to 30*, the maximum 
safe inclination of a conveyor is iS"" ; with smaller sizes of stones up to 4", 
continuously fed to the conveyor, a safe angle is 20®. With dry sands or 
gravel 22 *" is safe ; and if these are damp they may be carried at as steep 
an angle as 25"*. Material in the form of porridge can be carried at only 
a slight inclination depending on its consistency. Material may be car- 
ried down hill on a belt conveyor as well as up an incline. 



When possible, it is good practice to place an elevating conveyor on 
a curved incline. Fig. 3 illustrates such a conveyor receiving from bins. 
The radius of the curve should not be less than 250 feet, for if it were, 
the belt would pull, and fail to ride in its proper position on the idlers. 

Fig H~Htr>-atinK omvc^'or receiving from l»in» Jtci placed ft» to permit <>f a ciir^'e<1 
incline- nidiu!^ to tie not lem than SWfeet 

When a conveyor is receiving from bins which extend too close to the 
head end to permit of a curved incline a tripper is placed at the proper 
distance from either end to admit of the proper angle on the inclined 
part of the conveyor. This arrangement gives us a combination level 
and incline conveyor as shown by Fig. 4. 


A^ ^ 

Kig I HlrvaliiiK cimvtvor receiving from bins extemling too close to head 
rnd to ix-rmit of ctir\e<l incline. 

V\\i. 5 illustrates a level convey(»r with movable tripper. Movable 
trippers are used when it is desired that a conveyor discharge its load 
evenly al«»ng its entire length, as. for instance, into a continiioii> r(»\\ of 


l-ig .'1 l.cM-l o>u\v\«ir with niuva!>lr tripper 

.\s siiown by Fig. 6, a movable tripper is sometimes used on a com- 
bination incline and level conveyor. Fig. 7 shows an elevating and dis- 
tributing conveyor receiving load at the tail end and discharging by a 
series of automatic fixed trippers. 

Fif <l— Klerating crm\t*yor with incline. di«Krharging into hinn. with moving iripiier 



The operation of the fixed tripper is made automatic by having it 
deliver into a two-way chute, one branch of which delivers into the 
hopper or bin alongside the conveyor, the other branch leading back 
upon the belt. When the hopper is full, the material backs up in the 
side chute and flows into the straight chute, from which it is returned to 
the belt. It is then carried to the next tripper, when it is discharged, 
until the hopper at that point has been filled also, when it is again carried 
to the next, and so on. 


Hlevating and distributing conveyor receiving load at tail end and discharging 
by means of a scries of automatic fixed trippers. 

Level conveyors may be so arranged as to go by an obstruction, as, 
for example, a small lake or pond. In gravel pits the material is fre- 
quently carried long distances to the railroad cars, and a combination of 
level conveyors at right angles with trippers at. the intersections is used. 
The material is carried up an incline, Anally, to the head, and emptied 
into the cars. The material is put onto the belt either by hand, a grab 
bucket or a steam shovel. 

Illustrations from Robin Conveyor Belt Co.. New York 


jpl and Oravel Plant. 

PpMdtrt* 1'^ Mich a coniinon 
that wt wonder at mankind 
1 apparutiiH to convert thecov- 
dc earth into a merchantable 
ktn »cmc llimRS are so plcnti- 

|l dirt is often apptted to the 
t of sand, fcravclt loam, shale. 
[biii it is the first two that the 
fn on the front cover has to 

ftrc good sand and gravel for 
Hrposies is often qttite a prob* 
^Iractors and it became. evident 
jiras a field for this product so 
fe Drpdj?e Co. began the work 
^o Ri\ytr at Columbus, O. 
always easy to gel good sharp 
lo this case the riverbed was 
for the crude material. 
rt dre<!ge built by the Lake 
Dock Co,. Sandusky, O. dign 
si from the ri\*er and deposits 
on tbe acow. From the scow 
d material was hoisted to the 
ipper by meaits of a derrick 
a, grab bucket. This storage 
i capadty of tioo cu. yds. and 
i to boM g grades of gravel and 

in crusher is used to take care 
Ba ol stone so that every 

pg from the n%xr bed in the 

Dd am! gravel is utilized. 

Material passes through a re* 
with se\ eral sizes of open- 
it the diflerent grades to 

€onve>ors that carry it totnns. 

Teams and wagons drive up to the 
storage bins and receive through cliutes 
the kind or grade of material needed. 

The grab bucket will handle joo cu, 
yds. in 1 1 working houni. 

The inachiner>' of the entire plant is 
ofieraied from tioilcrs which u§e two car- 
loads I So ton ) of coal per month and this 
supply is handled by the Harward grab 
bucket. The giavel jiells for 6<ic per yd. 
and the ^and for 8oc but it costs more to 
produce the gravel than the sand. 

The plant is an extremely interesting 
and profitable one and will no doubt lx^ 
the model for like concerns throughout 
tbe country, where sand is not plentiful 
on the surface of the ground. 

The dredge, conveyor and derrick are 
the means employed to convert a waste 
to a marketable commodity. 

The der tick was built by the Iksbhie 
Foundry ^ Machine Co., Niagara Falls, 
N. v.. and is a sample of Iheir^teel built 

New Design in Motor Trucks. 

Nothing is more interesting to an in 
dividtial, or a large corporation than 
some appnrattss or new in\*cntion that is 
capable of doing a certain cla>e» of H*ork 
cheaper. The new installation will often 
coe%t mort than the old, but if it helps in- 
crease production, decrease cost of main- 
tenance, or as a labor saving machine tt 
should tie welcomed with open hands. 

It is only within the last 6ve years 
that the automobile has come into prora- 
tnence. both as a pleasure and a commer- 
cial vehicle. In case of the former the 


BROIVNfNG'S ISDr'^Rf n V ta tZ!\E 

I of ooca |Kleiisure drive* is greatly 
vmd\ in cajKr of the Utter gnfnfer 
emu be carried a greater distance in 

the fornier the desigiid were along 
tne of lightnes&i and speed with fuel 
lug eapacily as great as po!isibte. 
e development of pleasure vehibles 
neA carried out to a wonderful ex* 
lad the principles of design have 
Uiken as the l»asis for the cabs, hos- 
uragons* etc., etc. 

r de1iver>' WTigons the principle of 
ear axle drive has been followed al- 
entirely and the brake and steering 
Htttm is all the same. To Lijtply 
r to all four wheels and also to steer. 
»itrol the speed would lie quite a 

bil impreasiott, one might Ijelieve 
V complkated. but an inspection of 
leetiasiism of the Four- Wheel Drive 

Wagon Co.. trucks shows it to be of 
great sttnplicily. 

The power is applied from engines 
through shafts and lie\*el gears, and the 
steering accomplished by swinging all 
wheels ujwn the vertical pivot by which 
they arc connected to axles and all wheels 
move at the same time, Tiie rear wheels 
follow in the path of the front wheels. 

The brakes are of the internal expand- 
ing type, which do not in any way inter- 
fere wnlh the steering. These brake** arc 
very powerful and a necessity where 
heavy loads are carried on hilly streets. 

The tires of these wagons are of a sjiec* 
ial wood type» which have proven to be 
more ^i^erviailile than rubber, an<l the vosx 
of maintenance is therefore reduced to a 

The tires are built up of rock elm. sec- 
tors having steel wedges at the interscc* 
tion with a heavy ring shrunk over a 


poi.T woMHS IN rnc oiSTAMce with arc am shovci. im thc ronccitouNo 



shoulder. A. new set can be placed at a 
cost o{$75-CK>. 

The eUKiiie is a special design of 45 H. 
P. at 7 50 revolutions, and has four vert- 
ical cylinders with six inch bore and six 
inch stroke, water cooled, oiled by splash 
and mechanical sight feed oiler. The 
ignition* is by dry battery with vibrator 
coil and independent timer or high tension 
magneto with single nonvibratingcoil. 

For heavy haulage there would be 
man\ udvantages in a four wheel drive 
aa ih*r proiKrlling force would be greater, 
;ind iliisj iirrangcmcnt of steering would 
aid greatly in congested districts. 

Tlic: ilhis»tralions shows one of the ma- 
chiuc=> hauling a load of sugar weighing 
i4.oix.* lbs. , seven tons on the motor truck 
aud ti\e i>u the trailer, and it is evident 
ihat r^iKh .1 truck is capable of pulling a 
grcaicr l»*ad trom the ease with which 
the vva^ ilrawn. 

Leveling Oround for Upson Bolt & Nut 
Co. Building. 

Several years ago the Upson Xul Co. 
built buildings for their works in the 
manufacturing district of Cleveland. 
The Erie R. R. run their tracks through 
a cut near the plant. 

The growth of the business necessi- 
tated the addition of more buildings, but 
to do so it was either move or go up on 
a high hill behind the plant. 

The hill or ridge of earth was pur- 
chased and contracts let for the total 
removal of this hindrance. 

Xear the opposite side of the ridijc is 
the Cuyahoga river, which is navigable 
for vessels of considerable draught. 

Tt was estimated that there was about 
300,000 yds. to remove and The National 
Construction Co. undertook to do the 





Ptins were laid lo sell the dirt to the 
•*Xickd Pbte** R. R. by loadinjj cars 
OBk timcks af the Erie R. R. and to the 
city for filling and grading pur|K»!^eK. 

Thb did not go inia effect so that 
trada were laid for ''dinky" locomotives 
and itde dump cars to a "'dump" at the 
nrrr edge wliere the dirt slid into scows 
add was then towet! .in! iut^, Kake Erie 
and drposfted. 

Tht Standard Construction Co. re- 
eesire the dirt at the scuws and tow it 
away. The scows hold about 20 cars 
ol dirt atid a tcow has been loaded in 37 

Each car holds 3 to 4 dipper loads 
from the big steam shovel which digs 
the material out of the hill. 

Mr. R, C Kimble is superintendent 
of construction^ who says that about 
itefOOo yds, have been removed. 

Thm $iteaiti !&hovel is a Buc>'rus 
«f 70 l€>n rapadty. and , as shown. 
lifBpidly teftriog away the hill. 

A trmeh b dag along on the 
top ot the bill lo aid in avoiding 
Inavy falls of dirt as the sho\Tl 
vof ward. 

Tlw Polaofiicter for Contractors 

• «a«f twti. tftti > 

Tbe Pubodneter requires no 
spcdal foutidalioin, and if it be 
lo place it in a sUitionar> 
\ a ftaod ran be .%uppl]t:d 
i Id cQt* In a suspended 
it is itsed for ainking 
and shafts and in connec- 
^with «ewcra, cofferdams, ex* 
operatioiis in positions 
H ia tmpractieable to pro- 
L fMiodatioa for a pump the 
PalHMDetcr may be hung from 
k pfftjitting beam, pole ortripod 
\ ttd ar r aoged with stiit^iblc 
taekie to be towered or rai?ttrd at 

will. Proper flexible steam or water 
connections should in such caaes ba pro- 

Id quarrying or rock excavating where 
blasting is necessar>', and frequent, the 
Pulsomcter may, by means of the det* 
rick» be quic*cly liftetl out of danger and 
immediately be placed in position again 
when blasting ojierations are over. It 
has no projecting or breakable parts to 
be injured by rough usage. 

Its capability of operation while in sus* 
pension and of being lowered or raised 
and hnnii^ about without at all interrupt- 
ing iu work, the Pulsometer stands with- 
out a rival* 

Steam is a<lmitted at the top. or neck 
of the pump, enters whichever one of the 
working chaml»ers the steam vmlve ball 
baa left open at the time, and the expaad- 
ing in it. forces the liquid downward and 



through the passage leading to the dis- 
charge chamber; the discharge valve 
opens and the liquid passes through the 
discharge pipe. 

The Pulsometer Steam Pump Com- 
pany, 23 Battery Place, New York, 
who are the sole owners in the United 
States of C. H. Hall's Pulsometer Pat- 
ents continue sending out to all parties 
interested their catalog describing in de- 
tail the uses and action of their pumps 
under various conditions, it also contains 
21 tables of useful information. For ex- 
ample Friction of Water in Pipes, Area 
of Circles and their Circumference, Pro- 
perties of Saturated Steam, and a table 
showing Safe Working Steam Pressure 
for Iron Boilers of Different Sizes. 

A Car for Concrete. 

In the construction of a low cost con- 
crete culvert on the Xashville, Giatta- 
nix>ga & St. Louis Ry. a drop-bottom 
car (^see cut) of 1 cubic yard capacity, 
ninninij on 30-incli i::an'^e tram tracks. 

conveyed all concrete from the mixer to 
the wall. The hinged bottom doors of 
this car were closed with a latch, which 
was withdrawn by means of a lever at 
the side of the car to dump the load. 
After dumping, the bottom doors closed 
automatically, and were latched by the 
lever above referred to. A trestle span- 
ning the entire culvert, with the deck at 
a sufficient height to clear the top of the 
arch when completed, was constructed 
out of the old car sills, and longitudinal 
tracks were built on the same directly 
above each wall, two small turntables 
connecting the longitudinal tracks with 
a cross track that extended to the mixer. 
This arrangement permitted dumping the 
concrete into its final position in the wall 
without rehandling. After reaching a 
point 2 feet above the spring line, one 
of the tracks was removed and the other 
shifted to a position directly above the 
center of the arch, so as to reduce the 
h-^ndlint: '"'f concrete to a minimum. 


P\air^ of Framiog. Dt^ii* of BoMom Ooor. 

N»«»-viire, Ch«tt«r»ooOft A St Lmi« Ry, 



Three men wcrr rcumred to handle the 
car. anrl thr\ made ihr round lri|i when 
f^>tfig to the cxlreme end of the culvert 
in about three minutes, the mixer in the 
meantime discharging into a small hop- 
per, which was discharged into the car 
up »n its return. 

A Rotstea daMline-Electric Train. 

Kxpcrinicnts have been lately carried 
cm at St. Petersburg with a train using 
a new system of gasoline-electric loco- 
ni4»tive, in which a gasoline engine is 
ciKTihined with an electric motor outfit. 
The train is made up of six steel cars 
nv Hinted on two double-axle bogies. The 
platf«»nns are connected with the bogies 
by means of ball-bearing pivots. The 
jjauge of track is 30 inches and the wheel 
diameter 12 inches. The rails of the 
\ i^ni>lc type wei.::h \2 pounds per yard. 
Each car weighs 0.7 ions, and the load 
k about 2 tons. .\t the head of the 
train is placed a car which is like the 
others on the outside, but it contains in 
the interior a generating set consisting 
of a t ierman gasoline motor of 35 horse- 
piiwer. running at 800 revolutions per 
minute. To the motor shaft is coupled 
a Bergmann dynamo. The gasoline 
nv»tor is of the four-cylinder tvpe and 
ha* 5.6-inch b<:)re and 6.4-inch stroke. 
Ojfjper water jackets are used on the 
cvlinders. Speetl regulation is secured 
b. var>ing the proportion of gas in the 
mixture. The dynamo is designed to fur- 
nish 142 amperes and 120 volts at a 
^peeil of 780 R. V. M. The weight of 
the gasoline motor is 0.4 ton. and that of 
the dynaim> 0.8 ton. while the total 
t^civrht of the locomotive car. including 
^ gallons of water, is 2.3 tons. ( )n each 
of the bof^ies of the cars of the train is 
Hispended an electric motor, which drives 
the axle b>' a I to 5 reduction gearin;.;. 
Til if^ 1 10 pounds each, and 

they nperate un a current of 60 volts, 
which h fumi*hc(l h\ cables from the 
dynamo in the locomotive car. The two 
motors of each car are connected in 
scries. Their speed is 1,000 R. P. M. A 
four-conductor cable connects all the cars 
with the locomotive. The motorman can 
regulate the speed of the train by a con- 
troller placed on the front car. This 
new system is said to operate well. — 
Scicfitific American. 

Brick from the San Francisco Ruins. 

.\n important feature in the rebuilding 
of San Francisco will be the disposition 
to be made of the many millions of fallen 
bricks from the ruins. Many of the best 
will be used after cleaning, a number of 
machines designed for that purpose be- 
ing in use. The structural engineers' 
organization has taken up the subject 
of investigating the feasibility of utiliz- 
ing brick bats in making concrete for 
building purposes. Several instances of 
their successful use in the vicinity of San 
Francisco are on record. The effects of 
the earthquake have demonstrated that 
concrete containing broken brick has 
stood as well as almost any other con- 

Recent Inventions. 

(Sprciallv reportctl for Hruwtiing'ft Induttrial MAfcastnr 
bv C I>rov Purkrr. Solicitor of l*mtciitsi No flBH F St.. 
N' W . WAshinffton. D l> 


The accompanying illustration shows 
a clam-shell bucket invented by (iurdon 
H. Williams, of Cleveland, (^hio. which 
carries an electric motor for operating h. 

.\ssuming the bucket to be closed, as 
illustrated, the front end of the scoop 
members will fall by gravity until the 
links D assume the vertical position, the 
rear end of the scoop members mean- 
while being lifted. This action is due 
to the relative ligations of the shafts C 



C and the upper ends of the links D D, 
as pointed out above. The contents of 
the bucket can thus be discharged with 
ihc expenditure of a very small amount 
of force. The motor now being ope- 
rated, the complete opening operation 
can be accomplished, as desired, through 
ihc bevel-gears H', H*, pinion H*', main 
j:ear V. pinions b, sectors C O, and arms 


Tilt* primary object of this invention, 
!fCtMn]y patented by Robert Kaltenbach 
and Justin Griess. Jr., is to provide 

bars which are pivotally connected to 
the rear portions of the trays to a bail 
with which the bucket is centrally pro- 
vided, with the pivotal connections be- 
tween the said bars and the bail arran^jed 
below the axis of the bail, with the piv- 
otal connections between the bail and 
the bars attached to one of the trays ar- 
ranged at one side of the axes of the 
levers, and with the pivotal connections 
between the bail and the bars attached 
to the other tray arranged at the oppo- 
site side of the said axes, so as to ad- 
vantageously place the trays of the 
bucket when open relative to the bed or 

"i." : 

•: :\:*:\.i\ — . 

; ,*i. ».T.' 

:mk :* 


'**t :•.•:■>.'■: i 

►, ■ '<,• 

ar^«. i^JvT 

i " -^ * 

— K -..i.-t- 

*v :■,' ' 

""tv - 

^. ■ 

■•"•: :i:«:s-,- 

:.^ *. ; 

NiKHK'- r- 

. .; :: :«; >;\ca)i'a:er^ or oper- 

> -. j-Tii V ire. when tlif 

!' :':■• Ju.n: .\ -.^ed and suspended 

:• ^-i'*: . X *t 1,'vv: "t^*. -t '»■». r*:c :i rni:enal. opened by 

! i;,i-. r:":'ri: Tin.NJr.L^ .*• 'H: '^K ^-\ ''• .*. rtu bucket ar.d contents 

V..:'; ■•: :»:i:'<':«: s ::.n vs »» ^r ntvit- h^^.::•:^ :n; rxvie? R and releasing 

.i.i: .- :i:-: ' 'ij ^:' \: . -K" hu -v-o*-.^v'>*:rK: ro^^tjs '.r. The bucket 

..:' i; '".• - \ ?. 'v-i ;,. ■..•r.'* \ K^t -i»v-- -^ •■>;,'»• > . ictuatini: the 



b ujAm wiitdtng uji i>r piilK 
cable *;, Dniy unc cable (j 
The arrangement of pans 
hat the tray-actuating mechan- 
the center of gravity of the 
low enough relative to the 
*0f Ihe trays when the 
to that there is no liability 
to tip when the bucket is 
an uneven pile or bed of 
Each tray is abo provided at 
er lide of the forward portiun of 
torn thereof with teeth t, which 
tibiy spaced laterally of the said 
id arc shown formed upon plates 
dty secured to the said bottrmi. 
id teeth project toward and Jioine* 
leyiMKi the forward and cutiin>; 
I the said bottom and are spaced 

L miter ends a suitable distance 
iKaid bottom. The tectli arc 
I to enter the pile or bed of ma- 
y be operated upon in advance of 

F" ig edges of the trays an<l have 
jy to prevent upward displacc- 
Ihe trays ihtrtng the operation 



>t«T|Nc; Ainv\KATt^S, 

boUltng apparatus, recently 
Jolin W. Johnson, of Tren* 
load-carrying rojx' is ad- 
rebtirm to the hoisting level 
the cam-lever 23 in a con* 
ion to enable its free end to 
with the load that is to be 
hoisting^rope is unwound 
boisthig-dmm until the free 
2-lever and the short 
ting-beam have been 
the king end of the hoisting- 
been lowered to starting i>osi- 
the load has been secured 
if unwound from the drum 
"drafl exercised thereon, thus 
e the hoist ing*rope u|*on the drum 
I drvating the load, as will be 

readily understootl To $iwing the load 
into convenient discharging position, it 
is only necessary to trip the stop mem- 
ber 16 by means of the foot-lever iR, 
when the mast will be free to swing upon 
its axis, the ropes 22 and 2j being guided 
through the segmental slot in the cap 
member. While the mast is swung to 
discharging pc>sition the shaft 316 of the 
winding-drum is obviously disconnected 
from the shaft 45 of the drum 46: but 
the hoisling-dnnn is prevented from ro- 
tating reversely by the pawl 4a engaging 
the ratchet-wheel 41. After the load has 
l>ecn dumped and the mast has been re- 




stored to its initial position the pawl 4a 
is ilisengaged frotn the ratchet-wheel 41^ 
thu!» |H*nnitting the hoistrng-ro^Kf to be 
imwound from the drum sufficiently to 
restore the h<. ' ini to its initial 

load- receiving . , the unwinding 

of the hoisting-rope from the hoisting 
drum obviously resulting in the winding 
of the draft-rope upon the drum 46, By 
manipulating the shipping*lever 55 the 



Chtap Akohoi Qreat Help to Qermany. 

Arts and Crafts Have Flourished With 

Cheaper Product— New Possibilities 

In Heat, Light and power. 

Berlin, July 27.— (Special).— The dis- 
tillation of alcohol has for many years 
been an important feature of agricultural 
life in Germany, the annual production 
for the whole empire being even 20 years 
ago, about 80,000,000 gallons. Quite 80 
|>er cent of the alcohol is distilled from 
potati>e$, the remainder being obtained 
from grain, fruit and the by-products of 
the sugar and beer industries. 

li'p to about 10 years ago the alcohol 
thus obtained was consumed at home in 
the form of ^rituous liquors, and was 
cxpi>rted in its raw state in large quan- 
tities. Since 18S7 denatured alcohol, to 
be used for technical purposes, has been 
tree of duty, and the export of alcohol. 
CKcq>t in the form of spirituous liquors. 
1-vas vcr> considerably fallen oil, C>n the 
i^ther hand the amount of alcohol usrd 
i..r rovhnica'. purp^^iscs has IXCREASKl^ 
Mc>RF TU \\ 51V PKR CEN'T since 

\h.»u: naxxvxx^ ^;/.]ons 01 A-coho'. arc 
oonsiimovi Annua;l\ '.n ;hc manuAactiire 
ox cclluioin. varnish, etc., and abotn 4,- 
iW^.tW- iiaili»n> '.n the rnanufactnrc . * 
vinc^^ift!. Increasinjr'iv l^rin qoantitic-s 
arc W".n\: usoaI also- ir. :]u- r!i;*nufac:urc of 
smokclrsv n»'W»icr. hii: it i> in rh( cctic ra- 
tion of Pi^WKR. an,i HKM 
Tha: tbr i7orTi;ir ak-oh»V. nnvliK-f-:*^ so^ 
thoiv nv*»<: pror-.i<inc f»i:;irc. 
A, *; i i4,ii'= 

\ la^iir :«*■ o."»nvjr'\ ftlrobo' ir.<roa«; of 
petro]ctrr f»'«- ns^ in privau- hrniscs has 
been plaowl or. rhc niarkrcl. and is selling 
b>' ten? 01 thousands, ^t a 00s: of no 
nv^rc rhar rhr o.^st of petrolcn"- n C'vcs 
a ^r<*a.!^ ^ipht of ^t'wand^ pi-^wcr Thr 

flame gives off little heat, the light is 
white, briUiant and yet soft ; diere is no 
smell, and the lamps cannot get dirty. 
It has been proved that there is no dan- 
ger of explosion. Different forms of 
lamps with higher candle power arc made 
for lighting railway stations, puWic 
streets, farm buildings, etc. 

Equally successful efforts have been 
made to introduce a type of motor to be 
driven by alcohol. The alcohol motors 
are both stationary and mobile, ar'! are 
employed chiefly for supplying po vcr for 
farm machiner>*, ptmips, saw anf other 
mills and electric light plants. In 1904 
they consumed 800,000 gallons of al- 
cohol. To encourage its use the asso- 
ciation has made a special price for al- 
cohol used for motors, about 16 cents 
per gallon. Transport wagons driven by 
alcohol are also made capable of draw- 
ing a load of six tons. Alcohol automo- 
biles are undergoing severe tests at the 
hands of the ^jerman military author- 

Alcoho: is used furthermore in Ger- 
Tiiany for a multirude of smaller domestic 
purposes and the consumption is rapidly 

It has tieen cajcnlated that the crop of 
potatoes pr:»djred on two and one-half 
arres of bnd yields akohoi sufficient to 
iicht ^2 srroc: lamps for 12 months, or tr> 
iir:vc a five-horsepower alcohol motor 10 
hours per :iay, excepting Sunday, f<T 
ihrci months. 

CcuiUng ljM)MiMtives. 

The N v.. \, H. & H. R. R. at 

Nru Ha^'^M,. Tonn., has a system of coal- 
ing: l«voni.i:vt< a. shown in the accom- 
fianvtnjL iUnsrrattons. 

Coal is disrhar^^ed from barges at Ae 
wha-f h\ n^oans of clam shell buckets, 
whn^v :ra">.*ors i: into dump cars which 
arc c-avi: -rfin^-oimrer weight return 



and oprfBtc luiottiitkmlly on the clevitefl 
irrvtlr C C C 

The trestles arc built to cover consid- 
erable space for storage purposes and 
tbe cars discharge onto the piles. (See 
page 159, May issue this magazine, for 
iHustration of drop bottom bucket.) 

On the ground under these storage 
piles are tracks running from them and 
converging at D where all cars, by use 
of the switch back E, can be brought 
within reach of the hoist F which is 
shown in the picture. 

ciial |i> the locorrii ' on through trains 
r*ijtiirin!T to be r< : 1 and also to any 
engines coming through on side tracks. 
All operations from loading the drop 
bottom buckets at the storage piles to 
the dropping of the coal into the tender 
are by hand except the hoisting of the 
drop bottom buckets from the car truck 
below to the platform above. 

The Skyscraper of the Future. 

Although we have not yet perfecte*! 
our method of constructing skyscra|KT«^ 



S>^ HI iig^^wg^3 

■ Ijk. , ^ U 



' 'Ti UIV llCtk b 


drop bottom buckets and these are loaded 
at the storajje piles, pushed out by hand 
on the ground tracks to the hoist h\ 
where the buckets are hoisted by the 
piQar jib crane and steam engine, and 
dumped into push cars on the bridge G, 
ffMuming the main line and side tracks. 
These cars are pushed to any point 
a locomotive may be waiting for 

qaling plant quickly supplies 

6 TOWAGE T/f/^i.i\o 

of such a mammoth size it is not difficult 
to imagine that in the future they will 
boast of 100 story buildings. Step by 
step we have advanced from the wooden 
hut to the thirty story skyscraper. Prac- 
tically, we have reached the limit in alti- 
tude with the present type of buildings. 
Xow we must develop something differ- 
ent, something larger. 

We mav not be readv for the one hun- 



shaft 45 may l)c iinshipi)ed from the 
shaft 3() of the hoisting-drum, and the 
latter may then be operated manually by 
means of the crank 43, provided for the 


This invention of I^'rancis H. Kohl- 
hraker, of Xaniicoke, Pennsylvania, has 
particular reference to safety devices or 
stops for hoists or elevators employed 
particularly at mines. I'lc ohjcsn h^Mu.: 

saving time and trouble of resetting said 

In the operation when the parts are in 
the position shown and the sleeve lockeJ 
to the shaft 22 should there be an over- 
winding or the cage moved too high its 
cross-bar will engage the trip-lever, 
forcing it upward, and this upright 
movement of the trip-lever will move the 
lever 14 above the lever 16, thus perniii- 
ting said lever 16 to swing and slacken 
the cable 18. As the cable slacken^; *'iv 

Ui^: i«iil\ t<^ priAi/ic :\ :hnViiA'-va'vo c;:i- 

off nxvhanisni ihai i^iav he o]x^r*^:ea b\ 

the cage should i: rise tix- hicli *"= its 

j^U by overw uiihrii: »^i ihc ho:>:inj:- 

engine iirxim, hu: :.■ pr/viiic --iic^r.s li:- 

'ty under the vv•^.:r^^'. .■■:■ ;>ic o:K"::ifi:r 

ifcjr the \-alvo or va'vos :r,n} be 

Uld the brAkc se: :.- "invirtVitv s: c 

cine sh^^i^L: arv , i ::-c v 

mgi l K Kvon*»o r.isArrar.ce. 

weighted anr, jo will cause the swin^in:: 
uprighi i»j tv swing oui of engagement 
wiih the end of the arm 2S. Then the 
weighted ar:ns extended from the shaft 
will cause a rotan nx^vement thereof, 
iinmediate'y caosing the valve or valve> 
and also lightening the brake. As bei^^e 
>:ated, :: may be necessar> at times to 
clo5^ rhe valves and set the brake when 
the capf is in any oiher position than at 
the ic(p. Therefore in such emergency 
the eninT>efr crasins :he lever ^o. draw- 




tfie ilofj 52 out of its cngaKt^itK'iit 
the ilccvc 27, and then, as tlit lever 
fe k^ytd to ihc shaft, the lever inay be 
rtiUte«l to time the valves and operate 
the brake. 


This afipamtus for which a patent ^a^ 
recifmly bsued to Alcide Uuqtiet and 
AHiert Crochet, of Minerva, la , is built 
of Mich height as to bring the rake d 
abiive the level of the car-fliK>r, which is 
shown at Y, and the carrier-belt, which 
carries away the unU>adetl material. i» 

wv India?** un the cahle^ i» rehixcd by re- 
versing the engine, the weight-% I 1 re- 
Store the rake- frame to its position above 
the car. By locating the pulleys n n on 
the cross-head N of the swinging guide* 
rods B B (which bear the rake) the pull 
(jf the cables \\ W in carrying the rake 
back over the car from the gravity of 
weights 1 [ is parallel with the guide- 
rods, and no lifting strain is put on the 
rods B R thereby. In this movement, 
however, the trolley K (which supports 
and regulates the height of the rake- 
frame and horizontal rod*) follows the 

at Z beside the car-track and at a 
level than the car -floor. Now 
wbcn the loaded cars are run in on the 
track ajid %iopped beneath tlie rake the 
latter li made ta rake off the load onto 
Itir carrier-beh as follows: TTie wind- 
wf op of the cable C on the drum G 
oosci the rake- frame and rake to move 
iovani the windlaij, dropping the ma- 
feriml oirrr the side of the car-floor onto 
ihr cwrier. When the tension of the 

rake-fraine back and forth, being imme- 
diately above it at all times. If the rake 
is to operate on the tup of the load, it is 
raised to that level by .timply winding up 
the cable C on the windla^is, and if it is 
to be lowered the cable is paid out in 

.\ gale blowing 80 miles an hoar ex- 
ens a pressure of neari> 3a pounds to 
the square foot. 


ni^oirx/xG's industrial magazine 

ij§mky Valves in Pipe Lines. 

I.caky valvos in pipe lines are in most 
cases due t(» I lie abuse of the valve. There 
iwv a niuuluT of ways in which this abuse 
orrurs. When the line is laid cement is 
improperly used, j^cts into the pipe and 
ihcu lodges on the valve seat. Again, 
I he pipe is sometimes threaded longer 
than is ueeessary, with the result that it 
iv MMVwed against the partition of the 
valvc» iujurinij it. The lighter valves are 
s\Muetin\es sprung by the wrong applica- 
tion of pipe wrenches, while the attempt 
t^^ St lain leakiuj^ stutVmg Ivxes, insteavi of 
io)v\ckmi; thcM\ is often :he cause of 
:r.nch \\\\\u\ :o a va!ve. — Ccmf^ri'sscd 

Wind IHi^^r, 

'. '/.c c ' ; c ; . *^ • c c: .v^: *. : x^ \\ :r.d :> ; .\ c r 
p* ,i c ^ *c,* . . N : s ". '. s '.".*. c V r' ,* '.v. ' v •.•.i .1 :':* ^^ ;: v.; 

> • -. 

;C .>■■■ 

V' "v^ \"'^ ' \ V-' ■ ■.■*.■. ''^ •">,^, 

V , :-i, V •■ 

•■ -»■. X S 

>L ■ ■ xl. 

\ V*. >■ 

V \. . . 

per square foot) are sufHciently rare tu 
be the subject of special record in the 
Weather Bureau. 

An effective wind motor should be able 
to work at good advantage up to, say 5 
pounds per square foot pressure at fairl\ 
uniform speed, and should be robust 
enough to stand up against winds of 50 
and 60 miles an hour without going by 
the board. For certain uses, such as 
pumping, speed regulation is not neces- 
sary ; but if wind power is to be included 
as a resource in the great power situa- 
tion, even on a small scale, regulation is 
necessary, and it has thus far been car- 
ried out only to a ver}- 1 united extent. 

I: is probable that winds may be re- 
lied up.-n i:r ::ie ordinary uses of agri- 
culiural c-'::::::uniiies, although they do 
:::•: fjrr::. save :n the region of the 
:raies. ir.y::::::^ like a reliable source of 
p:-.ver. r:r :::e larger work of power 
vr^iuc::::: tr.ey cannot well be regarded 
:: and in certain districts they 
''.iible even for casual use.— 

.- ,c. 

■\-. ■'■' -tv ^ 

Dri\iD£ Reinforced Concrete Piles. 

.' : ■ ■; : • : : ; . . . r> ire now -ii splacing 

' » .. ■ : . ;^ :: >:rr.e ex:en:. especially 

.:v> :- r:-rc :n >il: water where 

*••; :x "i- • >r.-r :»:m destroys wooden 

'. -:>c V^ i :*:orri:e rfe, being heav>'. 

;.''■:!: X "r-rii-d is ^_i::ck:\ as the 

• ■ 'o: : .- I: :jJ<^> iS •::: ti fleer. 

. • -.-^ . >i 1 ,' c-jriTr pile fn>m tlk- 

/- ' ■■ :.;.:■; • :«. :>::::: tor driv- 

■< : .. JC :: Jr :>.-t pile re- 

:: -.> :- ." :»a: t^- ^x- b^j-ys. delivered 

.K^. .... .. ^. -,.«• 3C-:ii:e< per minute. 

''^^r r^ii^ :.-: i>cs^~j:tt'd and placed 
'■ rv-rv^*^: V. :.- -;v^ i!-.ry can be 
..■?v "i,^. - ?^.:: T*^ ayjr-.e time a- 




TIk: thorough painting of metal 
bridges is of great importance. The 
members of iron or steel bridges do not 
commonly wear out from use but the> 
do detonate materially through the action 
of rust. Iron or steel exposed to the 
action of the atmpospher will soon rust, 
and the process will continue rapidly. A 
paint that will preserve metal work from 
rusting must aflTord a coating that is 
absolutely impervious to air, moisture, or 
gases ; it must protect the metal from the 
destructive influence of oxygen, which 
will attack it rapidly when moisture is 
present. .\ paint consists of a pij^ent 
or cok>ring body, ground and carried in 
suspension in linseed oil or other suit- 
able carrier. The value of the pigment 
\-anes according to the fineness with 
which it is ground: the greater the pro- 
portion of finely ground and well mixed 
pigment the paint contains, the better it 
will generally be. 

The kinds of paint most coiumonly 
ufed for metal bridges are red lead, 
white lead, asphaltum, graphite, iron 
oxide, and various patented mixtures. 
Patented paints are generally looked 
upon with suspicion until their value has 
been demonstrated. The most reliable 
paints for metal work are red lead and 
asphaltum. Of these, red lead is the bet- 
ter, while asphaltum is, in its first cost 
the cheaper. Red lead is believed to be 
The best paint that can be used for the 
priming coat on iron work. Other paints. 
h-:>wever. are sometimes preferred for the 
• tn^ide «ir finishing coat. 

CoasuUir Reports. 

The enterprise of one Chinaman is 
noted in the report of Consul Thomwell 
Ha>-nes in this issue. Mr. Chang Chien, 
of Chnikiang, has established several 
teictsle* cocion-seed oil, and flour-mills. 

silk factory, soap factory, machine shop, 
etc., in all 11 establishments. Not con- 
tent with this, Mr. Chien has 19 addi- 
tional enterprises projected or in the 
course of erection, all for modem equip- 
ments with steam and electric power. 
Furthermore, Mr. Chien owns a fleet 
of steam launches, is preparing to estab 
lish a dockyard and build these boats 
himself, and is active in every industrial 
line having a promise of success. Amer- 
ican exporters would do well to get in 
touch with this energetic capitalist at 


The iron miners of Lorraine, on tjie 
French-German border, use acetylene 
lamps at their work. 

During the year ended May, 1906, 
over 168.000 tons of coal reached Colon, 
Panama, aU from the United States. 

The noise of a railroad train can be 
heard 2.800 yards through the air and 
the whistle of the locomotive 3,300 

The salaries committee of Stockport. 
England, has advanced the salary of the 
municipal draughtsman $2.50 a year — 
about 4 cents a week. 

All authorities agree in stating that 
the ancient inhabitants of Ireland must 
have been very familiar with gold and 
well accustomed to its use. 

Though willow grows in wet places, 
it is naturally one of the dryest woods. 
It contains only 26 per cent, water. Oak 
contains 34 per cent. 



A meeting of the government board to 
iiu|>ervi8c the installation of government 
exhibits at tiie Jamestown exposition, has 
been held. An effort will be made to 
e(|ual the exhibit at Portland. 

A curious well in Canada produces 
sand, instead of water. This sand comes 
up in u lino stream, like a fountain. The 
force which drives it to the surface from 
a depth of ux) feet has not yet been dis- 
co vereiL 

\\*ashinj;ton : Chief Engineer Ste- 
vens, of Panama canal, cabled to Wash- 
inKlon Tluirsday appointment of Jos. 
Ripley as princijxil assistant engineer. 
He was formerly sui>erinien.lenT o^ tUe 
Sauli Stc. Marie canal. 

.\ |vamphlet on the eleciric livomotive5 
dci^V<ited for ihe Simplon tunnel has been 
forwarded h> Consul Tame* EL Dunning, 
ot Milan, and will be kvmed bv the 

Bureau of Manufacturers to American 
electrical construction firms. 

A new amalgamation of steam fitting 
workers has been styled the Enterprise 
Association of Steam, Hot Water, Hy- 
draulic Sprinkler, Pneumatic Tube, Ice 
Machines and General Pipe Fitters of 
New York and Vicinity. The agree- 
ment extends from Jan. i, I9(>7» to Jan. 
I, 1910, and is one of the longest on 
record. The fitters get an advance from 
$4.50 to $5 per day. 

The shell and boilers of the new Cun- 
arder being built at Wallsend, England. 
are said by Consul Metcalf to be con- 
structed of the largest, steel plates in the 
world. They arc Silicon steel, weighing 
10 tons each. The boilers alone will 
weigh over 1,000 tons. Massive ingots 
and slabs weighing 12 and 14 tons are 
continually passing through the rolling 
-.Tiiils there iVt this work. 





Oerman Mercury Uainps io 
Drafting Rooms. 


Ik accofiqNmyifig ihustrations show 
coostnictsoii and arrani^cmcnt of a 
pog^ bracket and standard mercury 
trie lamp of Gertnan construction, as 

as the riteostal employed In con- 
km with the operation of the same, 
eslpied by Hans Boas, of Berlin, 
ttb German quicksilver lamp«i arc 
Iped tirsdy in German draftin;; 
Bs and shops for lighting service. 

arc said to be particularly well 
pled for thii work, being restful to 

the eye^ supplying an abundance of 
light for even the clojest work, and 
being economical in operation. 

As in American photoengraving es- 
tablishments, thig form of lamp has been 
u^cd extensively in place of the f<H'using 
arc Ump» so in German phtHographic c%- 
tablishments as well as photo-engraving 
rooms the type of lamps shown in the 
illustrations have been utilized to ad- 
vantage. The light is from 7 to lo times 
as brilliant as an ordinary incandescent 
Ianip« and three or four times greater 
than the Nernst lamp, while it is said to 
be at least three times the brilliancy of 
the Osmium lamp, and in i^ome cases 

i^M^ su^^onreo rnoM the ccilimi 

42 2 


floiiblc the illiiniiiiatin^ pnwer of the 
ordinary arc ligliL Ttic current coii- 
suniptkni is said to be .5 watts per 
candle, the efficiency only being approx- 
imated by the other higlicst efficient 
electric light, the new flame lamp coming 
the nearest to the efficiency of the mer- 
cury lamp, h'or portrait work inmi 2 
to 3 lamps are employed operating either 
singly on the no volt circuit, or two 
lamps in series on 220 volts, while these 
tVernian lamps have also been cnii- 
structcd for operating separately on the 
220 volt circuit, an adjustable rhetj^tal 
being utilized as shown in the accom- 

panying illustration which can be 
nected for operation with any of 
three methods. The carrcjit utilized 
with the 50 volt lamp is 4 to 5 amperes, 
a beautiful violet light being emitted. 
The current employed on 80 volts or' 
more is only 2.5 amperes, the lamp burn- 
ing warm and emitting a whiter light 
than with the 50 volt current above men- 
tinnedj when the lamp bums practically 


\\ ilh normal operation of 75 volts a 
current of from 2,% to 5.5 is utilized, the 
lamp producing a full candle power witb 
llie normal temperature. 

These tjerman lamps designed bv 
Hans Boas are one metei long, and are 
constructed of glass tubing J^ inches in 
diameter. In order to increase the 
candle power for photographic work 
where large areas are to be Hghtd. 
lUnible lamps are provided in the sanic 
I'rame, operated on 220 volts. Vat 
standard upon which the mercury lamp 
is mounted is adjustable, so as to be 
turned in any direction, reflecting tlie 
light as desired, and the hanging lamp* 
are also provided with a tilling devic** 
which can be manipulated by means of 
the chains shown in the illustration. 

Something About Trusses. 

A truss is a simple framed structure 
:i imposed of straight members so con- 
nected as to act as a rigid body. It is 
constructed to resist the action of force 
by transferring it from one position it^ 
another. While the truss as a whole 
resists the effect of the external force? 
acting on it in much the same manner as 
a solid beam resists shear and bending 
moments, each individual member of the 
truss is subjected only to direct or con> 
pressive stress in the direction of it$ 
length. In order to bring this about, the 
external forces must be applied at the 
joints of the truss, through which thef 




the .Htructare ss a whole, 
iintfilest truss- is a triangle, aiul 
iv imss \% merely a combination of con* 
trtaii|;Ies« As the triangle cannot 
Us form %o long as the length of 
cadi of its sides remains the same, it is 
prmiiir> and essentia) clement of the 

external forces are tlic loads, in* 

the wdght of the structure itself. 

1*1 tVirces. or reactions* 

which tends to dis- 

the slnidttre or change its fornu 

li;c en. a tru^<i i^ any 

[ struct ur< i^ned that the re- 

frocit the sttpcrimposed static 
are venical. 

4YmtiietricaI truss is a truss so de 

that if ft could be folded at the 

ttpcm itself in ^uch manner that 

ends would come togetlier^ all 

IT members in the tw*o 

h;ilvcs fit the truss would cotncide. 
X'early all trusses arc symmetrical 

A simple tniss is a truss whose endi 
simply rest on the points of support 
without being rigidly fixed to them, A 
cantilever truss is one which extends be- 
yond its supports* 

The theoretical span of a simple truss 
is the distance between the centres nf its 
supporUn. The truss is divided into a 
certain number of parts or sections, us* 
ually of equal lengths, v The 

panel Icngtlis are the h -unces 

between the joints of the loaded chord. 

When mentionetl without reference to 
their positions in the trns*. those mem- 
bers which resist c«nnpre**ive stresses are 
called struts, or eompressioa membert, 
and thf«e which resist tensile stresses are 
called tie.H, or tension members. Each in- 
dividual member, however is usuallv 



mentioned with reference to its position 
in the structure. When the diagonal 
members of a truss are compression 
members, they are called braces; the 
counters are called counterbraces. 

A compression member can resist a 
certain amount of tension also; but a 
member designed to resist tension only is 
not usually capable of resisting compres- 
pression. When it is desired that a ten- 
sion member shall resist a small amount 
of compression also, the form of the 
member must usually be changed. 


The Howe truss was deraed bj Wil- 
liam Howe, in 1840. It is as excellent 
form and is much used in this c ountry in 
localities where timber is cheap. For 
trusses constructed entirely of metal, 
however, it is not as economical as the 
Pratt truss. 

In the modem types of the Howe truss 
the lower chord is usually constructed of 
metal. Such a truss for a through bridge 
is represented in the figure. 

The essential difference between a 

i>ia(;ram of nowK tri'ss 



W hen the loads on a simple truss are 
downward?, as is nearly always the case, 
the upper chord is always in compres- 
sion and the lower chord always in ten- 
sion. In the web system the struts and 
ties alieniate. 

The favorite style of truss now used 
for mtxierate spans is what is commonly 
known as the IVatt truss which was jxit- 
ented in i?^ by Thos. W. and Caleb 
Pratt. As a metal structure ii pv^ssesses 
advantages over al! other tonus \»« 

Howe truss and a Pratt truss is that in 
the fonvAr all vertical niembtr" are licf 
i^tensiiMi members), and ail haM<'iial 
n:embers are struts (compression mem- 
bers) while in the latter tlie opposite > 
the case. T!ie method of cunsir:ictinu a 
diagram of stresses is practically the 
same lor Ixnh trusses. 

I he duties of diagonal and vertiL*al 
nwmbcrs in the Howe tnisfr arc the re- 
ver>ie of what they are in the Vr^vi 
\T\\y<. The n>aximum stress in any vero- 
caI w * b •ncmhcr of a Howe truss, and in 



it rticctm^ tt at the upper 
occur when the joint at the foot 
lof ihc vertical member and ;ill the joints 
I at Uie fi^ht are loouled, the others be* 
[mg ufilosiled, 


The ventcaJ web members of the Praii 
Iru4§ are struts whiJe the diagonal mem- 
[brr* are lie^. 

In a Pratt tniis. the maximum stress 

[ m ill ucvur hi the diagonal web member in 

[may panel when all joints at the right 

the panel are fully loaded and the 

at the left of it are not loaded. 

lis comlition Hill also give the maxi- 

Ifintm stress (of opposite character) in 

the vertical member which meets the 

dtaicocial in the unloaded chord. 


f>ilch on Roofs. 

ibie gives the nuni 
[tmim p: ui inches to the foot* 

' fijc all different kinds of roofing ma- 

Asphalt and composition J/j 

Im 1 

[ Corrugated iron . i 

iroti i 



th- 6 

Slur 4 

Tile*, Terra-coiu 4 

— National BtfUder, 

effect MTcms to cxhau§f the material or 
tire it out, so to speak; whence the 
name fatiguf of mtfaU is applied to this 
phenomenon* Later experiments have 
shown that the true cause of the phe> 
nomenun lies in the imperfections and 
tack of homogeneity of the material. 

Tlie follow injj law was discovered by 
A. Woehler. after a series of experi- 
ments, and is known as VVochler's law. 

'* Rupture may be caused not only by 
a force exceeding the ultimate s^trcugfb, 
but by the repeated or prolonged actim 
of forces below the iilt»rra^e ^ir^ngih. 
When these forces a/*, alternately ap- 
plied, the unit stress that finiUy causes 
rupture depends upon the raneje of 
stress, that i^, up^m the Jiffccncc be- 
tween the alternately applied forces, Ai 
:hi< rliffereiice increai^es, ih.* number uf 
.upplicatiuns necessary to prxluce rupture 
liCsUJues less/' 

The fatigue of metals is, therefore, of 
great importance in the design of ^udi 
structures as brdges whicli ar; subjejted 
to varying stresses, whether of the same 
or of opposite kinds : and it w»II be read- 
ily seen that the resistance of a membei 
can not be accurately determined from 
considerations of ultimate strength only, 
biit the phenomentin uf fatigue must l>e 
taken into account. 

Tbe Fatlrue of Materials. 

The uliinute strcngtii of a material is 
tile ^reate^t stress to which it can be 
sokfccttd by a force applied gradually 
lod for 1 moderate length of time, tt 
ixcitn 91 ot just before rupture* Ex- 
perimefits have shown, however, that 
vben force* below the ultimate strength 
are conitftiitly or repeatedly applied. 
tkay may ftnally produce rupture; their 

EHminatlnf the Tracer. 

or «i.iJii ruatiii. 
( Kmnt ' AvirHcaB MMkkaAA. "'f 

Considering the various means em» 
ployed to reduce the **cc^l of produc- 
tion/' doing away with unnecessary 
lalxir is pmbably liest understood, when 
it restilts <lirectly in the dismissal of 
hands hitherto iieen>ed essential — with a 
conseituent saving on the pay-roll. The 
designers and detailers mav be consid* 
ered necessary factors ; if the tracers are 
to he elintinated a means mtist he sub* 



stituted whereby the equivalent of their 
work may be prochiced at a saving. Re- 
cently the writer had the opportunity of 
investigating a machine designed with 
this end in view, which was arranged to 
coat a drawing made on detail paper with 
a hot wax solution producing a degree 
of transparency resembling tracing 
paper, the lines of the drawing remain- 
ing perfectly sharp — the result being 
that a good blue print might be made 
from the original drawing thus pre- 
pared. When a correction is necessary 
on the drawing, the wax coating is re- 
moved with a solvent which leaves the 
surface of the paper in its original state ; 
after the correction is made it is neces- 
sary to run the sheet through the ma- 
chine in order to again resore its trans- 
parency. It will be seen that this method 
solves the tracing problem, a!> <in un- 
skilled man may operate tne machine, 
turning out work as fast as it can be run 
through. So far it must be acknowl- 
edged that a saving has been effected : 
but as no firm would think of using its 
original drawing each time a i)rint is re- 
quired, it becomes evident that a brown 
or black print must be taken from which 
to make the blue prints. The first cost of 
one of these machines might also make 
the adoption of this process prohibitive 
for small shops, and possibly for large 
plants, in the face of the fact that the 
same results may be attained with the 
plan adopted by the writer, which con- 
sists in making the original drawing on a 
touirh, translucent, white paper, from 
which the brown prints may be made di- 
rect — with no processing. With care 
in the selection, a paper may be pur- 
chased that will stand a reasoable amount 
of erasing and will take pencil and ink 
as well as any detail paper. 

The original drawing is put away in 
»iafety. while the brown ])rint is filed in 

place of the usual tracing. As in the 
former case, blue prints are made from 
this brown print, which, however, results 
in a negative print, having blue nnes on a 
white ground. If it is desired to have 
white lines on a blue ground as in the 
regular blue print (from a tracing), a 
second brown print must be made from 
the first. This second brown print is 
called a positive, and resembles the orig- 
inal drawing, insomuch that the lines are 
dark against a white ground. There is 
practically no objection to using the neg- 
ative print for the blue process aside 
from the difficulty of making alterations 
on it, owing to the lines being trans- 
parent and the ground opaque, which 
necessitates the use of a drawing fluid 
that will dissolve this opaque ground 
where a new line is required, and also 
wherever it is desired to eliminate a line, 
the white or transparent line on the 
brown print must be painted out with 
opaque ink. 

Xow, in the case of the second brown 
print, or positive, made from the first, 
the ground is white and the lines brown. 
so it is very easily altered. If it is neces- 
sary to draw in some lines, it is done 
with ink as on the original drawing;: 
and when an erasure is called for an 
erasing fluid (a weak solution of K( )H* i 
is applied to the objectionable lines, 
which disappear immediately. 

Where this method is used, involvin.;^ 
the positive and negative brown j)rint^. 
it is recommended that one cla^s «f 
work such as patternmaking be done 
from the negative ; so that all the prints, 
or as many as practical, sent to the pat- 
tern shop, have blue lines on a white 
ground and those sent to the machine de- 
partments for example be made from the 
positive, having white lines on a blue 
ground. The contrast between the two 
sets of prints is very desirable and tak- 

mfnrxfXG's fNDVSTRt.ii maga/jxe 


Ot Uiis H; ^vsivm niiiy be 
ti|IM to Ti t i >pccial reijiiire- 

At best A tmciiig \s uiercly a C4>p> lii 
I the oHginal and requires verv accurate 
j;, whereas a photo print is an ex- 
rqiroduelioQ of the original draw- 
reducing the chances of 

OwtAg to the small outlay at tlic »urt 

ts pfotiftbly advisable to prc^utnc tlut 

interested party would best make sonic 

^Irimls along the above lines to satisfy 

If 00 the points which are sure to 

bmughl up in contention with the 

of a new plan. It is possible 

cooditJatis may be found where the 

pr seemji indi>f>en!Lahle. but so far 

tiiL wnicr has failed tu hnd an instaince 
where this system or si>mc part of it 
eottld not be installed to advantage, 
E* FAaaiKGTON CffANOi.Ka» 

Dniwtos? Board Atlachmefit* 

The accomfianyini: drawing illustrates 
a parallel rule attachment for a drawinj; 
board of at)out ^j inches bv 20 inches 

l^he rule A has a steel spindle H of 
about % inch diameter along the top face* 
and is supported at each end by a small 
bearing C. Outside of these bearings, two 
iimall wheels, U, of about 10 teeth. iO 
pitch, ;4 inch wide, are fixed to the 
!ipind1c W, These wheels gear into two 
flicks. <I. let into the face of the ilraw* 






ing board. I^xed to the rule, and bear- 
ing on the under side of the board are 
two small springs E. These springs keep 
the rule flat on the board. If the racks 
are fixed down to the board with only 
one screw in the center of either rack 
the board has a better chance to expand 
or shrink without aflFecting the parallel 
motion. The spindle B is covered by a 
curved piece of wood F which forms a 
very convenient means of moving the 
rule about. This attachment gives an ex- 
cellent parallel m(nit)n. and is cheap 
R. \V. Dickinson, 
Accrington, Eng. 

ProMems in Qearins* 


Some years ago, while designing a ma- 
chine, I ran up against an interesting 
problem in wheel gearing, one that every 
young draftsman should work out and 
give a place in his note book. Its solu- 
tion not only is interesting, but a knowl- 
edge of it may save trouble, in my case 

.^:--. -' 

it almost got to the shop before the error 
in speed calculation was noticed, and ow- 
ing to the peculiar construction of the 
machine it would have been quite costly 
to have made the necessary changes after 
the machine was built, as sometimes is 
done ; to say nothii^ about the che^ feel- 
ing a fellow would experience if the thing 
did not work right. In Figures i and 
2.2 is a small gear rigidly secured to the 
support I. 3 is a gear having the same 
number of teeth as the gear i. 5 is a 
crank mounted to rotate in the support 7, 
and is for carr>'ing the gear 3 through 
the path 8. The problem is by turning 
the handle 6 one revolution, how many 
revolutions will the gear 3 make about 
its axis 4? 

Xow having satisfied yourself in re- 
gards the above, try the following: 

In figures 3 and 4, i is a gear rigidly 
secured to the support 10. 6 is a car- 
rier rotatively mounted in the upright 9. 
2 is a gear fitted to rotate on the pin 5 
earned by the piece 6, and driven by the 


cfi/ '"S'i^ 


= ■ 




1, ih^ gear fitted to rotate on the 
[pin 4 carried by the piece 6, and driven 
ttie i^r 2. Question. — If the gears 
Ig a, 3 have the same number of teeth, 
many titmf^ will the gear 3 nuke 
: its axis if the crank S is turned one 
revohjttoii? Another one. What diflfer- 

bccn open for half an hour that could 
not lie put back until some of the iron- 
work had been reduced. The bridge 
had been built for some thirteen years, 
and had been opened and closed during 
that time many hundreds of times* There 
is little doubt in mv mind that iron heated 


eaee, if any* wotild it make it the gear 3 
be placed furtlier from the gear 
I, tfaal is say that the centres of the three 
scan were in a straight line instead of 
fgrmtng a triangle as shown? 

and cooled aUcrnaiely docs {lemtanently 

Orowth at Iron, 

WStsmm MarriotL an Rnglish t ivil en- 
r. writing lu the London Times con- 
an article abottt the ^'growth of 

I haire never seai this in prim before, 
nor have I heard the term used, but dur- 
ing an experience of over thirty )ears 
I have felt sure that such has been the 
cmsc. Ralls that have fitted swing 
bridges with plenty of clearance have had 
to be shortened repeatedly year after 
1 only recently I have known an 
ot a swing bridge which had 

Method of Enlarging or Reducing 

Very often it is desired to reduce or 
enlarge drawings, scroll designs, letter*, 
lamps, etc. This can be done to scale o? 
by proportional dividers but perhaps the 
simplest and quickest method is as shoi^n 
in Fig. I, 

The only dimension necessary to lay 
off is the distance shown at -4 B which 
of course ts the dimension desired for 
the reduced or enlarged copy. Fig* i 
shows the method for reducing which 
also applies for enlarging, ft will be 
noticed that large and small rectangles 
are drawn with a diagonal line thnmich 



each, and to these lines points are pro- 
jected, and from there to the space 
where the copy is desired. The inter- 
section of these lines are ponits of the 

Fig. 2 shows line C reversed from that 
shown in Fig. i which causes the copy 
to become reversed. This is especially 
convenient where it is desired to obtain 
a right and left of any object. In mak- 

of error. The diagonal line should of 
course be at 45 degrees in this case. In 
actual use, dashes cutting the diagonals 
are sufficient, instead of the construction 
lines shown in the above cuts. WiXAJdAC. 

Licensing Engineers and Surveyors. 

Mr. Ernest McCullough in Engineer- 
ing World is advocating the licensing of 
Engineers and Surveyors. 




Pl«. 1. A M«tkod of ItodvotBflr to* 8cal« of • DiuwtB*. "^ | ^^^^^^ , Iv. •. Okaagtac fl^om misht to Lan BMi. 

ing the third view of an object when de- 
tailing it is more convenient to plot it as 
shown in Fig. 3 than by the usual method 
of scaling each dimension as it can be 
done much quicker and with less chance 


The idea of the writer is that the gov- 
ernor of each state should appoint an 
examining board consisting of (i) a 
professor of civil engin^ring. (2) a pro- 
fessor of some law school, (3) tome en- 
gineer recommended hy the board of 4i^ 
rectors of the stale eng^ineer*s sock'fy, 
(4) some engineer recommendexl by ihe 
society of engineers having the largea 
membership in the state outside of ihe 
atitie society, (5) some engineer recora- 
sd by the couniy surveyor* of ibc 
none of die members to be in the 
V of any municipality hiviitg a 
idin to ex ceed fo^i oo unle^j ^aid ^ 
e i» in a d qmim e ul dmyd with 



the ^nrrcyiD;: ami prcsenaticm of prop- 
erty IttSCf. 

The bcttrd shall have a president and 
scciTUr>* atid seal and hold it& meetings 
mt fomc central point After the ex- 
aminations have determined the standing 
of the applicant and a license is issued 
it it to be signed by secretary of state 
and a bond of $1^000.00 given. 

Fees would have to be paid by the 

ant to the extent of about $25.00. 

Evciy licensed surveyor would have 

seal and all work signed by him and 

artng his seal would be considered 

bcie evidence in any court in the 


Scctit^n of the law should provide for 
in which the licensed sur- 
dr» his wurk. 
(Such laws would mitigate many of 
nrils now existing. There is no reasoti 
doctors, lawyers and some others 
lie so ^'protected" in the collection 
ol their bills when their services are sr> 
nnsch nf a farce as is somchmes thc 

ca^e. An enjjineer or surveyor or draftl- 
man or any technical man must *'do some* 
thin>;" before he j^ets any pay.— KdJ 

Stairway to Offices. 

A very convenient form of outside 
stairway is shown by the accompanying 
illustration. The design is very simple 
and it may be constructed quite cheaply. 

The steps arc supported on angles 
fastened to 10" standard channels on 
either side. Each step is made up of two 
5" X Ji" boards so that when the edge of 
one board beconjes wurn from use the 
rear one may be placetl forward. 
The channels are bracal on the bottom 
by iYm* rtat bars, Concrete blocks, 
16'* X 16" support the structure. 

The croaswotk is made of two 10' 
channel, and the floor of the s^ime mate* 
Hal as the steps, but the planks are not 
driv*en up tight. By doing thi^^ water 
does not stand on the upper surface* 

This crns«;\valk is 5 ' 6* wide between 

iTnucTufiAL 3TAjna TO omcas ON secoMO ruooM or auiu>iMa 



chuimt^lH, and the planks rest on 33 
auKlrs rivetcil to the back of the 
channi^ls ^^^ Ik»1o\v the flange. A 6 
Ik'4UM is phiotnl half-way lietween 
i'hanuolH luulor the planks. The chan 
ui*ls aie \4 o' lon>j l^tween supports 
Cimia>»r Ih^Us ^' in diameter were 
to' W\\\ I ho planks to the angles, 
iadin>^ is ^^ hij;h and made of 
\\UM\|»ht nxm piiv. 




nRotrxtxc's industrial magazise 

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the shop. I include a sketch of the truss 
connection which may be of interest. 
The building is of Mexican adobe or 
sun-dried brick, which has a very low 
bearing value which limits the height of 
the walls and therefore the head room, 
so that the crane was required to operate 

weakness, and that the chain containing 
the least number will be the stronger. 
This is not true, for the longer the link, 
the greater will become the knudding 
action at the ends when going over 
sheaves and pulleys and the larger the 
sheaves must be if the chain is to work 

IT Mb alUf AHOrttr T li fcM — p- X \ - "| 


oil O II Ol^|« » 

Two .1 iW* lor TnjlWy 



One uf these (ot EMh Trvllvy 


in a space of 3 feet below the truss. We 
took up a little more than that with the 
camber rods, but kept within a very sat- 
isfactory limit, and the crane works very 
smoothly, both the bridg:e and trolley 
moving easily under load, the heaviest 
load being an 18-inch lathe with about a 
1 2- foot bed. 

E. T. H. 

upon them without undue wear.- 

The following rule is a good method 
for determining the safe working load 
of- a chain; D = diameter of iron in 
eighths of an inch; D* X O.ill = safe 
load in tons. This gives for a ^-in. 
chain a working load of 6 X 6 X 0.1 n 
= 3.996 tons. — Compressed Air. 

Chain Design. 

In working iron bars up into a chain, 
it is easy to see that the longer each in- 
dividual link, the less will be the number 
of welds, and the cheaper the resulting 
chain in first cost. It is sometimes 
claimed that each weld is a source of 

Uses of Qraphlte. 

Graphite is used for making refrac- 
tor\- crucibles, stove polish, foundn 
facings, paint, and lead pencils; as a 
lubricant, and in powder glazing, dectro* 
t>*ping, and steam packing. 

For the making of cmdble dyitiDaK 
grafdiite is required; tiie fiiiroas or hiiK 


ty is us«d, becuiAc its supc- \, Inad %;»!.! 50 

hling qualities add to the strength I'lrtJct-n stom 1 .50 

crucible. The quantity of tht Uibor and form* i 50 

nl used for making lead pencils is ., , . — 

•rativciy small, but tJie qualitv •^*'*'"e » ««»•>; .$5.SC 

be of the best. For use as a lubri- —SatnuHc Amfncan. 

• liigll ifVade of the crj'stalline pro- ~ ~ ~ 
U csMBttil. But material of an in- 

r Rrade is employed in the manu- ^" ^ ^*y^^' '"«?'>'■ "' * *o=«' *»>• 

re of stove polish, of foundry fac- '" ^^'- Lincotnitc sounds very reasonable 

and of Kraphite paint, which is '" *"> *'"*^ *^° ^^^ '^**' '""'y dcal">gs at 

to protect iron work (as in smoke- *" *"'' ^^^ colored man. .And as to the 

^ iron roofs, elevated steel struc- conmtercial side of the subject, can ^ive 

r<«c.) While crystalline Kraphite il''><'x.-imi»lc ; A well-known autom.>bile 

id to some extent, its special proper- factory was giving $t>5.oo per monUi to a 

•re not abwrfutely required, and colored Kraduati- of .1 prominent tcch- 

! the amorphnres variety, both na- "'<^*' ■''*''^'^' ^''«" "^" another one of the 

and artificial, is largely employed «'*** '^^^ receiving less than $125.00 per 

wsc purposes. month. 

Kflforts to defend corresjxindcnce 

isHfton of Cost of Concrete and schoiils, so long as Scranton solicitors arc 

Stone Masonry. with us, is obnoxious to alt of us. Is it 

e eoM ot concrete and .stone ma- *"> '^°"'*" "''^" ^'"'^ '"*"'»«^ **''^"' "'«5' 

varict largely with the local con- ''PP'-' "'^"> ?'=»"* '*>'' ^''^f'* '''«^" '''"'^• 

m and the character of the work '''^"'" solicitors arc collecting money 

hidi they arc used; but there are *^'*> ''"^^ *'".V'^^*^'' "^^"^ "* ""* ?"•"«« 

few places where concrete masonr>- "^ ^ *"^ * ""■' 

only cheaper than stone msonry. Ma«"Pd«i County Draftsmen's .Asso- 

tetter. being much stronger and <^'^'"'" **"""'*' Jnn<H:rnt enough. Have 

sttitabie in manv wavs. This fact ^^"^ ^'''" '"''' *"> ''^* Manutacturcrs" A»- 

mmg more generaliv recogni/d. s«'»<'on '^at a part of the duty of the 

lore than one quarry which in for- """"^a*'"""'* «" «" "*«> «^*-''»*'n shop* 

rcan produced bulhling stone is '"'« "■<^*""« ^'^'^'^ employes in ways in 

producing crushed stone for cm- ^""^^ "* '^'^^P "*"• ^""^ " '^"^ "^"^ 

The following figures give a gen- P*'*^'^ *'°""<^ ''<'^*' •*"' """^ "' ''"^ P'^-^^ 

^ of the comparative cost of brick ';*"'* £'* <l™f"™«n o* ^hc kind they want 

|jran.l cncrete, per cubic yard: -*V . , , , 

■ ' It seems that m four years Mr. Brown 

■ '""' ^ ing should have been able to prove that 
*'* • • -^i'?? a draftsman's paper can not be made 
Td cenicju 1 .50 profitable, though there are enough and 

* •*•*•* .50 to spare, men in the traile to have given 

-••• 25 him a subscriptitm list that would merit 

any advertiser's .ittention. 

■ •'*•' • .S8.00 As the man at the t> ing over a 

coxcacTK tile of Browning's rmJi; . Magaxine, 

Ipba cement JaxJO the following can be oflTered : 



Why must a ninety-men drafting room 
ask fifteen minutes over forty-eight hours 
for a week's work? That quarter of an 
hour strikes many ones who do not watch 
the clock either, as an index of the treat- 
ment one must expect in working for 
the company. 

Fort Worth's lil-Raiser must hold our 
heads as a machine able to do the same 
work any hour of the twenty-four we run 
it : that is, if he is where he must "make 
a showing," but if not, only one of the 
rest of us laying over a board, let his ar- 
gument be for per hour wages and then 
see how little overtime is necessary. 

Vox Populi must be a fighter and as 
such should crowd his way into pleasant 
places as have some '^fierce" draftsmen 
we know. Though a fighter he is not 
Irish, but English or else he would un- 
derstand our American slang, which is 
good because it condenses in a few word^ 
wliat would take a waste of words to 
describe. Xot being in "the muck-raking 
business" will have to let his personal re- 
marks pass. 

Rules of Practice have no terrors save 
to the poor letterers and it is often won- 
dered if the big office at East Pittsburg 
cxiXNTts a draftsman to make letters ac- 
cording to standard: is the reason they 
are always hunting for men? What a 
thinning out there would be of the ranks 
it a man had to make his lettering as cor- 
rect as the views and dimensions! 

T. C. 

En^neerinir Review-. 

The Constitution of Hydraulic Ce- 
ments : a paper read at the XXIX an- 
nual meeting of the association of 
(Herman Portland Cement Manufacturers 
at Rcrlin. ( Tennany. by Dr. W. Michaelis. 
This article ir. Tunc issue of CemnU and 
r.v.r, Sc^k's, comprises o^'er nine pages 
•' :V«r-^ ■.:'?:(■ kv\c\ descriprve matter. 

The excellent article on air furnaces 
by Ralph H. West, in The Foundry for 
August is so well illustrated that every 
designer should have a copy if he would 
be posted on this class of melting fur- 

Metric System for Buildings. 

Change to the Frendi System of Weights 

and Measures Favored by Many 

Managers, Architects, and 


Many well know building managers 
throughout the country have been inter- 
viewed recently by the New York Herald 
in regard to the possible adoption of a 
metric system of measurements for build- 
ings. Among those interviewed were: 
Thos. A. Hall, president of the Building 
Managers' Association of Chicago, S. G. 
McMeen, a Chicago Consulting Engineer 
and Hcnr>- F. Homboshl. who planned 
the buildings of the Carnegie Institute in 

The conclusions of the Xew York 
paper, based upon its interviews with 
those most directly interested in buildiiii: 
problems, are expressed as iolk>\vs : 

"Builders, constructors of great piles 
of steel and masonry which have of late 
years been reared in Xew York, as well 
as those engaged in erection of dwelling- 
houses, are heartily in favor of the adop- 
tion of a metric system of measurements. 
Beginning with die architect. x\\t 
draughtsman, the maker of structural 
iron work, and including the mason, car- 
penter and plumber, ill engaged in con- 
struction of houses bdicve they will be 
sa^ed much unnecesswy ind foolish fitr- 
uring if Cangress ^-iD pass a law making 
the nsse of the ineiric equivalents com- 
polsor>' in this coontnT." 













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Industrial Magazine 

VOC- 5 OCTOBER. 1906 NO 10 

Coal and Ash HaiKlIiii^ii" Machinery, 

lie the fuel and the ash from funiacei for 
Mg be they for home nr f(jr power ha?* 
iilways been a problem of more i)r less im» 

As the form of fumsice and its size, loo, 
proRresseil from tlie hand fired to those of me- 
chanical Moktng the prnhlem h^^ gniwn. Iti 
the earlv ilays nf hand firing the fnel wa* 
thrown into the furnace with a sho%*el> if tt i%*as 
BftalL. and the ash removed with like instrument and carted away in a 

Ami thrse are in so general use today they must be classed not imly 
m the **pioiiccrs*' but as the **stayer'* in the manner in whicli coal and 
ftihes are hanilleil. 

The coal was dumped into the butler room as near the furnace dt>or$ 
MM pi>Asible or in llie nearby yard for the space bef«>rr the boilers was soine- 
limes rather mefiger. 

Xexf came the boiler room can, for bringing coal from the yard 
0€ stctraice bins to boiler but they are filled by hand, moved b>' hand and 
cither dumped or left standing before the boiler until unloaded. 
Thcv are also used iot Uie transfer of ashes. 


Industrial Magazine 

VOL 9 OCTOOCR. 1906 NO 10 

Coal and Ash Hdndlinj^; Macliliierw 

M I (> han<nc the fuel and the ash from funmees for 
A I htating be ihey for hon*c ur for power ha^ 
,^^^B^ alwa>s been a problem of more i>r less im- 

^^^B As the form of ftimace and its sire. ton. 

^^^^^H^|aM I tTM^ rested from the hand Bretl to those of inc* 

Hj^^^^^^^^H chanical stoking the problem ha$ thrown. In 

^^^^^^^^5 ^^^^ ^-^^ly ^^^y^ <^»f hand firing the fuel was 

thrown into the furnace with a shnveK if it was 
tmill. and the ash rrmo%'ed with like tnstnmient and carted away in a 

And these arte in i^o general use today they must be cbisse^l not only 
a* the *>io«icefs" but as the *v.*ta\*cr" tn the manner in whidi coal and 
aftbcs are handled. 

The coal was dumped into the boiler room as near the furnace doors 
MB pQiatble Qit m tlie nearby yard for the space before the boilers was soinc- 
times rather meajjer. 

Xcxt came the boiler room cars, for brinf:^ing coal from the yard 
or storage binii to lK>iler but they are filled by hand, moved by hand and 
dtfaer dumpeil or left standing before the bi>iler until unloaiteti. 

Thev Are also used tor the transfer of ashes. 



As llif plants hecame large enough to supply large power units 
ihe problem of the econoiiiical stoking and handling o£ materials faced 
the (lo:^igner and the result is some of the most automatic machinery ever 

Hie location of ix)wcr plants in suitable position is often a difficult 
timllcr when acccs.sibtliiy in regard to fuel, water and labor supply are 

To make the niachiner\' labor saving has been the aim of ever>' 
designer and will be seen in the large plants that this has been done. 

W'itJi conveyors, storage hoppers, automatic weighing machines, 
chutes* jrates and mechanical stokers little need of labor is seen in a mam- 
nitHh U>iler plant of today. Then machiner\^ for handling coal and ashes 
ijt c*>nrtne\l to the larger plants although an ash convwor may be often 
f^Miml on a hami tilleti mechanical stoker pfauit of 230 horse power. 

lite titel prt^lcm is a Urge one in a great many plants today and the 
handling of it liefore it arrives inside the boiler ixxnn should be considered 
l<>gether with the latter. 

THE eArr. BucKer mf«D <imm t 


SuiiH" nmnaj^tTs jnvk'r tcj Ite on the safe side by providing coal stor- 
fij^c vanN aiiil rolmndlc the fuel, rather than rely on the railroads to sup- 
lit \ rr^inlnrly tu I he Cfniveyors to larg^e hoppers above the boiler, 

ThcHe lio[>[K*rs deliver the coal to the stokers or to the floor before 
(lie hollcr.s ihrnu^h chutes fitted with suitable gates, 

(l)iUvH shijuld be tlesijjned to avoid choking and the gates should be 
hnrd lo t*[HM\ hut easy lo cU»se so to avoid a rapid flow of coaK 

\xx the lUdinner of firing and handling inside the plant be what ft 
limy the *torai*e outside is ven* desirable. 

\i ncjir a water-wax where boats can tie up loaded with coal a ven- 
Mlkfthle arrati|;x^u>eni is the hoist, grab bucket and cable railway. 

In iH^e lK^^^ n the c\^i is handled from the hold of the vessel 

h\ ^ %K\>t9^^ hn: ^ xo ft, distatit and rehamlled h\ a i-nvr'v..r u» the 

blotter fimwic^ at a t^nal expense of ^^i cenu per loti. 

A^ any atv Tigdi sad flcxibilixy can be «^taisied 

H ipf> t^KOc<Htii\|n.^ , ^^ xoAcns viieir llirre are beaTv grades 

W ^'^w<1^ man> cHaw^yrs ol iiir^aime m &e Ime are ncxs^jy. The track 
is it<m : * / cange adsd d»e carres «pe ortra haih la it. ladius, ihos 
t^fcuWfc^v rrtir** e^^*^^ -^rt -^^ ^ie %ard «• bmKfifwr. 


C4Hitjnuotis cahtcs arc often used to which the cars are gripped at any 

irnit and arc drawn along the tracks until the ^p is released or the rail* 

ly fiuiy he built lo form a continuous lo*ip» and the car j>asse5 over the 

lire route automatically dumping: at any desired (joint. The cable may 

tlrawn tiack and forth by a reversing engine or b>* a winch driven b>- 

or fthaftinfT. 

The cost of handling material by a continuous automatic railway is 

email, the distance having very little lo do with the expense. Tlie 

is priiKipaliy in loading the cars as the workman does not accom* 

ny them. 

The cars nm the whole length of the track and dump atttDmaticatly 

rer «et and return to the loailtng place, thus reducing the cost of 

the coal tw the expense of loading the cars and ccvst of \xyifttf 

ive the cable. 

The lumiiling of roal lo storage by an overhead bridge and a grab 



1_%1 U ^^ 


Bucket is hoisted and nin up the incline and dumped into the hopper to the stoker. Crane speed dOO 
feet i>er minute. H oi si in jj speed of bucket. 40 to 80. Built by the McMyler Mfg. Co.. Cleveland. 
O . for Howanl .\xlc Works, and considered sufficient for 10,000 H. P. 



^ " 'if 1* 

- 1 

■. \ :: 


- -x^- ■ ■ 


. ^ 1 

i V-- 


■llllll 'V 



grab bucket is used, as iliey are free from the troubles that arise irom 

steam and water pipes necessary for steam operation- 
Few locations are so isolated that electric power can not be had that 

designers are generally safe in deciding on its use. 

The desigjier of a large power plant should keep in mind from the 

beginning the necessity of sufficient head room if bunkers and coovcjors 

arc to be used. 

This is essential in view^ of the fact that walks are required akmg the 

path of the conveyor which should be horizontal if any distance is corered 

so to keep coal of all hoppers on a level by hand trinmiing. 

Incline runs are undesirable w itli scraper and trndECt conTC¥Ofs and 

impracticable for belts unless less than 22 degrees. 

Scraper conveyors are ^-asteful of power and not to be rccotmnaided 

because of great friction of the material a^^ainst llie sides and bottm ol 

the trough. 

• If 



\\x\\ luvn Inuiul piiro nihhcr is entirely unaffected by the siilphur.>::> ac:a> 
whu'h aie in all o*m1 ashes and which have a strong corrosive action :n 
u\M» and slivl. 

\ lo wwU Kohins Ik^lt carries the ashes prr.ihiced at the Ninety-sixth 
>< l\»\\v^^ Plant ot ihe Metropolis St. Ry. G».. New York. This p'ar.t 
^av a \apav*::\ y^i 7v\v\\> horse p^n\e^ an! tlu* ash pr"b*eni :> a seri tis cnc 

:> :n excellent c:'niit::n. 

"x v.v:\v*\vM .*.a> ivon :n i.^r >!x vears 

•^ Va-r.- 

^;^>o v^av.c • \;\ .v ">t.. :■ a '.vantaiie iri hani.tns: c-i^a- 

V . .x ;x^ * ^ • \* ; , ^ V . " ": \ x' \ . ' r o *. v.: : o v r i ". : ■ s-::al! : :::r.r cars. Ar. :! ■ ust rati :*n 
» w '\^ \c v',;:\' '^ c"^-" >* .^'"c ::> rar.^e f act::n -.vith a system 
^ Xx^ N . '>:^- x\^^: .: .-.v'a:."^: a '..c crar.e ::r handling 

' V ' ; . • V . .1 \ * ■:.: / :^ 5 ; i ;j. . - : :"- :r. :":: ies en^neer, 

% N ^ N ' \ xN "x v. "^ ;,■'. •':;''i>:. 

V V V ^. . . •. . •,:<:: rLTi.t :> .m 8S0 

\\* N \ .- ... - - ; i : ri's - TiTxIrl tracks in 

^, V -. V ^ . ■ —--i;;. • : :t;-s :.r 1 rrcveyors 

.^ ' ^'. , .^ ^ - ■ ;.- .:.' '■ '^- : r r.>:Ser. If a 



hrfe supply is to be retained tt all times ^eat strength of building must 
be provided^ 

A vrry interesting coal and ash handling plant is that at the power 
house oi the Scioto N'alley Traction Co., Reese's Station, C>, 

All incoming coal is brought in cars to a track over a pit with one 
boppered side anri thus slides out where it can be reached with a grab 
bucket. A imckct of 48 cu. ft. is used to carry coal from car or \ni to 
bins over boilers or to stock pile. 




Sdoto \'«Ury Trmaicm Co 

Inmiediaidy over the fire room and in the center of the hutlding 
kmgitudtnalhv is a bin which holds two cars of coaL This bin is ul 
ar' .ni?ttructiiin and provifled with two discharge gates in 

it% . i with valves controlled by hand. 

I hese gates discharge into hoppers which travel 00 a runway ex- 
tending along the front of the biiilers and serve the stokers* 

The^ traveling hoppers are provided with motors and their move- 


inont along the runway is controlled from the floor of the fire room 
through pendant chains attached to the controller. 

These hoppers are run under the storage bin and filled with coal, 
which is carried by them to the stokers and distributed. 

Over the storage bin is placed a hopper made of 2x1/^ inch bars, ij^ 
inch apart. This hopper discharges onto an inclined headed flight con- 
veyor five feet between centers and 30 inches wide leading to a Jeffery 
24x30 inch coal crusher driven by a 20 H. P. motor. 

All the coal used in the entire plant is discharged onto the diamond 
screen or grizzley ; that which is of the proper size and all fine coal falls 
through the bars into the storage bin ; these lumps which are too large are 
carried by the conveyor to the crusher, by which they are reduced to the 
desired size and from which the crushed coal falls into the bin. 

For the storage pile back of the boiler house, a steel trestle has been 
built which supports the runway. The trestle is 150 ft. long, 50 ft. high, 
30 ft. wide at the base and spans the ash pit and the one into which the 
coal is dumped from the hopper bottom cars. 

The storage space is 120x30 ft. in which 1,000 tons of run of mine 
bituminous coal can be stored. 

The runway also extends into the building over the diamond screen. 
The storage space is covered with concrete and is well drained. 

The bucket will hold 2400 pounds of lump coal and 3,000 pounds of 
screenings and is operated from a trolley which traverses the runway over 
the pit and storage pile. 

The trolley is equipped with two slow speed D. C. crane type series 
motors, one of 25 H. P. for hoisting the bucket and one of 5 H. P. for 
traversing the trolley. 

The cost of unloading and distributing coal by this method with labor 
at 15 cents per hour and current at 2 cents per K. W. per hour, 
is as follows : Unloading from cars and placing directly into the bin, one 
cent per ton; unloading from car and placing in stock pile, 75-100 cents: 
taking ashes from pit and placing into car, 8-10 cents per ton. 

The bucket will take 99 per cent of the coal in the car, leaving only 
one per cent to be handled by hand. 

The ashes fall into hoppers which extend into the basement and are 
dumped into a cart and wheeled to the pit where they are hoisted to cars 
by fhe grab bucket. 

The pit will hold about five car loads of ashes. 

Practically all managers of power plants are alive to the necessity of 

ft record of the boilers' performance, and the weighing of coal — and 
too, — is carefully considered. This type of machinery- is 



very mtcrcsting to engineers M o\tt the Union not only in connection 
with jiower plants Inil for equipping railways, antl in fact c\'ery plant 
liiiere it is desirable to keep an accurate check upon coal weighed to cars 
or barges to storage ; to automatic stokers and to boilers. 

As we have received numerous inquiries regarding such equipment, 
inquiry on our part develops the fact that this ty{>e of automatic scales 
is of the simplest possible construction : operated entirely by gravity of 
the falling material when same is free rtinning; llowing down an angle 
of say 45 degrees. On a pnxiuct which is damp, or for any reason likely 
to dog the scale, tlie Company furnishes a patent agitating device, requir- 
ing only slight power to operate it — the same can easily be operated by 
a, foot lathe. All machines are fitted with cotmters which automatically 
register every dump of ihe scale; and by the use of this apparatus the 
engineer is able at all lintos tn dcctdc as lo the best quality t»f ct*:\\ fur 


VmA tfl tilt l*o«irtceiiili »L ] 

. CIllCVgQv 



his use. also to trace any negligence on the part of firemen. This feature 
of tlie scales was the means of locating for the engineer, at the above 
station, a heavy loss in coal fed to one boiler due to the carelessness of 
one of the firemen. The economy secured by the use of this machinery 
has induced many t(^ install it. 

.\11 these scales slnnv an absolute balance of every weighing. 

The accuracy of the machine may be determined at any time by 
simply removing llie weights and balancing the empty hopper. This ac- 
curacy is always assurctl when the machine is prc^perjy erected and ad- 
justed and the coal ci^i forms in size to tl'.at specified for the size of scale, 
(iiven ilie size coal specified fi^r each machine, the ci^mpany guaranttee to 
weigh within i per cent. 

They also claim that the discharge from the hopper will n*>i cause 
it to vibrate, injuring the delicate knife edges. The Richards«>n is said 
x^^ be the only autumatij scale entirely free from such vibration. 

It is said that they can be installed in less height than any other auto- 
matic scale oi the same cajxicitw 

The\ are made in varit>us sizes, weighing frrm lOO lbs. per dump, 
up lo (\oco lbs. They may be c< 'ustrucied to weigh up to ('* l*.'n<. 

The scales are made stationary, movable on wheels cr overhead 


The Use of Locomotive Cranes. 

Rv \\\ H. Waitk. 

OF the nmnv modem devices for the rapid and economical handling at 
material, few. if any. have exceeded the locomotive crane in growth 
and effectivencsfi. Practically unknown a dccailc or two a^o» cxccj>t 
in very large plants and on wharves for unloading ocean steamers, the 
locomoUve crane was considered somewhat of a luxnry. But it has been 
ao ' smplified* and reduced in cost that, today, it is a modest 

bii' i where a crane of some size cannot W used to advantage. 

Before going into any description of the various uses to which 
a locomotive crane can be put with profit, it might l>e well to if* ^ 
just what kind of a ntarhrnc is meant by this name. A locomotive cran 
broadly speaking, a self propelling car, capable of running on a railroad 
track (of varimts gauges) and equipped with a bot>m or a derrick by 
means of which the toad can be picked up and deposited anywhere within 
the length of the trackway and on either side of it within tlte reach of 





the boom. On the car is mounted the machinery for hoisting the load, 
swinging it from side to side, and for propelling the car along the track in 
either direction. 

A locomotive crane differs from an overhead traveling crane by being 
able to run on a surface track and so is not confined to any particular 
runway. As usually built it is a very effective switch engine, capable of 
hauling a number of loaded cars. 

While originally used only in large operations around steel and iron 
plants and the like, locomotive cranes are now to be found in almost every 
class of work ; handling stone in rock quarries and yards, digging sand 
and foundations, handling coal in power plants and storage yards, coal- 
ing locomotives and cleaning ash pits, piling logs and timber both in the 
forest and at the mill, and what not. Every day finds a new use for them. 

The locomotive crane for industrial purposes, considered apart from 
the railroad or wrecking crane, is built in sizes ranging from i,ooo to 
40,oco pounds maxinuuu capacity, and with ?. reach of up to forty or fifty 
feet on each side of the center line of the track. They are operated by 
steam, electricity or compressed air. and in some few cases by hydraulic 





The Mcam opemted erancs arc by far the mint pofnilar, as they are 
emirely self c " ' and $o arc tnd i * ' ' riH. The 

electric and a i cranes are, of ti -. range to 

that covered by ihi? conductors. Air can, of courae^ be stored in tank* 
OQ tht crane and chnrfi^ed at a central stabon, but even then they have by 
no rncaiii the range oi the steam crane. 

Taking the cranes to order of their sire we have, fir«t, the stnall 
atr tnachinr illuMraied tn fig<». (i) and (2). Theite are built with capac- 
ities of from pound* to lo.cxio pounds and a lift of about twelve feet 
at a fixed radius of %t\tn to twelve feet. They arc not strictly locomotive 
cranes as they arc not self propelling but can be easily pushed from place 
to place by hand. The air i* supplied at abtmi 8<i jjounds pressure through 
pipes laid around the grounds^ and pnwided with nutlct^i at mnvrnirnt 
points to which the crane is connected by rubber hose. 

The cranes are equipped, as shown, with an air cylinder ai die it>ui oi 
the boom acting directly on the ht>ii*iing cable, and also with a cylinder 
in the base, by %vhich the upper part can be fcwung around through a full 
circle on a ball bearing turnuble, ITic air for the hoisting cylinder is ad- 




ftre^^ «B X *J»^:5 * " !V<" ^ * C ** 'vr* " 

E^rr-^ic c:»i«^%c •■■ 

•^■3^ MAST. 

" _;- ::i Jt:::er pm. 

':**: ~J.:rrlal has to 

:.- - - .-s-:i-.:e. a case 

- Tiii-c .">r: :> unload 
: •■: :-ir>: 

- M.r : ;• f .X miles of 
.-,•: - --^'i cnnes. they 

': • .:.•.■■--:.— ' Mils an J 

:r. ;> >ri:;-: before. 
.^ •- v- il.intages. 

- -:';-i > -■- danger 

. -i. > :i:«;:iitjC::nably 

.;. i.-i: viriT tanks 

> i -^M:y :n 
-^ --e. The 

■ DwmiUitlNc • t>jf lioa t*t \ht »hed« at At. Umiii riit»Mr. laftdlflig on cars mmd tevlSiig Aw^f lo 




caWc intf» stntablc Mation^ arran^ctl at rDnvcincnt puinis iit the yard, 
and the drum h provided with means of taking up or paying out tht* cMc 
aulomalkally as fast as the crane goes backward or forward. 

A ver>' ingetiions arrangement h in use in the yards of the IJnk-KcU 
COm Xicctiiwn, Pa., where the current is carried to posts placed at the side 
of the track, but far enough from it to safely clear a car. Each post is 
high enough to reach \n the top of the lower base of the crane and carrie.^ 
a ne4£ative and ptisiii^T pole. Contact is made lietween these and the 
crane by means of two parallel bars, fastened to the lower base in <iuch 
a manner as to be always pressed against the {mles. The posts are set 
ekiie enough together to insure contact with at least one post continually. 

Lxicomotive cranes arc commonly ratnl by their lifting capacity at 
to feet radius from the tenter line of the track. Thus, a standard 15- 
Um crane will lift a h^d of 15 tons at a distance of 10 feet from the center 
&1C of the track, and will abo swing it armtnd ihrtnigh a full circle 
and carry^ it from place to place along the tjack. All tJiree operations — 
hrii*ting. swingin;; and traveling — can be done simultaneously. The 


WcUmatt'ftr««-vr-Motiniti Co buitdtr*. 


lift ' !■ i rcA5c*i, of cciurjic, Sks> the houm is lowered smd the 

rc;i^.. ^icalcr, until at 40 Icci^ the usual niiiximum reach, the 

ij-ton lU'cmly lift about 2]/^ tons ITiesc figures are based upon 

the craocs working* on a track havini; a standard^ or 4 Sy/' gage 

V^^,....< fcvice* arc made to increase the capacities of kiconiotive 
cranes jrkttig with a long reach, but they jihoutd be a»ed tmly 

when absolutely ncce5sar>% as none are entirely satisfactory. The 
method mo*t employed \s to fasten a targe counterwciijht to the revoJ%-ing 
part of the crane« the ui^ual w^y being to bang it under the boiler This 
bm a aeriouf dtsadv-anuge, however* in the fact that, should the Itoad be 
toddenly dropped for any cattse, the crane is liable to be lipped over back- 

Another method and the most effective where it can be used* is to 
provide the crane with extra wheels running on a wide gaoge track. 
These stability wheels are about tlirce inches snialler in diameter then 
the regular gauge wheels and are pressed on the ends of the lame axles. 


which are made long enough for the purpose. The wide gauge track is 
lni<l Duly at the place where the extra heavy loads are to be lifted and 
have the rail heads about two inches higher than those of the regular 
tniok, wilh the ends depressed enough to bring them down to the regular 

( >rdinarily the crane runs on the standard gauge, the small diameter 
of iho "stability" wheels allowing them to clear the regular track at 
crossings, etc. lUu when the wide gauge track is reached the stability 
wheels come into use. raising the crane entirely off the inside rails. This, 
of course increases the leverage of the body of the crane and so enables 
it to pick up just that nuich greater load at the end of the boom. 

>^iill auv^iluT way is to equip the crane with outriggers extending 
several tWi eaoli side of the car and having the ends provided with jack 
screws thai n^si on hKvking, Of course their use is restricted to places 
wheix^ the K\id d^vs not have to be moved along the track. When not in 
\)se the ouTri;i5:ers are pushed imdcr the body of the crane out of the way 
so \\\A\ the\ do tun interfere wilh i:s regular use. 

The l\\v.*^ of the crane can be :r,ade in various lengths and shapes to 
>r,'it ;he pv.q\\<c for which i: is c.esired. By equipping the crane with a 
<isv,5Kic dr,i:v.. a CiA^;^ she'.'; or v^rAn4:e pee! bucket can be used. The double 
ou::v, v^vs r;o; intcricro ir. a:i\ way \v::h crdinaTA* use of the crane. 

Ihe ^xVo:v:\;:':\:r.^ -.'nstr.^'.i. :'< -A-iy. ^!ve a gocsi idea of the many 
;*.vvv ;,> w '*-,-'- . -c . *. ;>.csi- 'v..^'* ■.:";■> c^.r. >: r»u:- 

Industrial and Portable Track. 

the name implies, the^e tracks arc u*ccl for all WmA% of industrial 
purposes, either to remain peniianenlly placed tir lo be shiftetl 
around* as the work tnay require* Their main advantages are 
H^ht weight, stability and resistance, ai3d tlie fact Uiat the ground on 
which they arc to go needs, in many cases, no preparation at all ; in other 
cases, only very little. Their usefulness is today sa well recognized 
bf all that nothing further need be said. Every up-to-date contractor 
uses them; for instance, for carr ncrcte and buildini^ tnaterials, etc, 

instead of the heavy §ccond-hati au\ railroad raili^ of fornu-r limes. 

They arc tn use in mines, plantations, factory yards, buUdtngs. etc., and 
everywhere elise where material has to be transported, either temporarily 
or permanently. They occupy very little space, can be laid quickly by any 
onltnary workman and permit reaching points and corners, which without 
them would be tnaccessible, thereby saving both time and money, and 

•nllt ^f tut C W. Ilnfti Cu^ Mew Y«r1u M *V. 



avoiilinj; trouble I'lnd annoyance, and systematizing the work from begin- 
nini^; tn end. 

( )f i*()m*sc. while tlic principle always remains the same, the details of 
iNMistrurtion vary to suit circumstances. A contractor, for instance, 
haiullini; a few Ions of concrete, several thousand bricks, etc., for a short 
time (hirini; the construction of a building, does not require the same 
etjuipnient which would he used in a factory w-here heavy machiner\'. raw 
athl linishetl material is heinv; constantly transported from yard to shop 
and t'roni shop to warehouse. And the sugar plantation which carries 

-MC SIDE O^niflc C*>^S ,JSCC ""O^ COAt^ AS^SCS. ETC. 

u'i^ :i*> :' r,^::r;.a.i caTmiM use the 

. ; -:• -r-,^ v-;-:. ;: -;! «sht-> :ri p.-wer plants, 

\".- :*->t ■r:^::. .;.:'. : . : ;. raHrCiad is thought 

v... r^^v 'k;. ':- ThW >ej:i:»T3>, say from 

\- r.- c:,--. . iTM:^ r*"''P'" rjr:i::3ons and 

:v ,.; .-^ :j.- :>s . .- -j.y-. :c- !b>. of 

i.. ::' r^r .?;• ■'^.- : vc:cr.> :r tc-ns and 





has 8 wheels, and cjirries a Umd of 20 Uins, the weight to be earned un the 
rati is JO tonn on 8 wheels, or nearly 4 tons on each wheel, so a rail 
wr-- *-•" ' It least 40 \h%. jier yard should he used* The carrying capacity 
qI XT rail, under 25 Ib^., cannot be calculated by ihe same rule, lie- 

in the first place they are designed on different principleit. and in the 
leeond place they are used under different c*mdiiions, ITie cajxiciiy uf 
these light rails depends to a much greater extent ithaji Uiai of the 
heairier ones) upon the conditions under which they arc used * the ground, 
the kind of floor, distance l>etwecn ties and many other items, which must 
all be taken into consideration. To give an approximate idea, the fullovv- 
tng can be taken as standard for a 4 wheeled car 

Rails weighing per >ard— Carrying capacity. 

S and 9 lbs ... a to j tons 

1:1 " ,.,.. .2^4 to 4 *• 

16 •• ^J/i to 5 •• 

~~ m '' 4Vi to 8 '* 

load:* are based on carcrul caicuutitiri>v. for rail* iJiat have been 
in use, with ties 3 feet between centers and for continuous or ordinary use. 
The rails occasionally will stand a heavier load ; under favorable condi- 

CLCcmic i.oco»«oTive aho iNDutritrAL cai^ 

HaUtbyC W Hunt Co 


tions even the maximum loads can be increased; in short, the above 
capacities are only a general average. 

The second question is that of the gauge of track. This is of the 
greatest importance, as on it depends very often the success, financial and 
otherwise, of the road. The standard wide gauge of most countries is 
j/-Sy/' (1435 mm.), but there is no standard narrow gauge, each manu- 
facturer, each country or even each branch of industry having a different 
one, si) that a prospective user of an industrial railroad is generally very 
much at sea to select the proper gauge. If the gauge is wide, the road is 
very expensive to build, requiring longer ties, more ballast, wider bridges, 
etc., and on account of the greater width required, may not be built in 
places where a narrower gauge could easily be used, and consequently 
the road would lose much of its usefulness. In reference to the cost of 
buildinti: roads it mi<^ht be stated here, that all other conditions being 
equal, the cost of building a road of 36" or i meter gauge is about 40 to 
50 per cent higher than for a road of 24" gauge. If the gauQ^e is too nar- 
row, it cannot handle the quantity of freight, and is therefore of little 
use. It has been determined in actual practice that for most industrial 
purposes the gauge of 24" is most practicable, because it combines lowest 
first cost with greatest efficiency, and has many of the advantages of wider 
gauges with all the benefits of a narrow gauge, and allows the running 
of cars of sufficient width to take care of all requirements of an average 
industrial .railroad. It is for this reason that nearly 90 per cent of all 
such railroads are built for this gauge, and it is recommended strongly, 
as it is being recognized as the standard of narrow gauges. A narrower 
gauge should only be used if the space is limited, as for instance, in mines, 
very narrow buildings, etc. : a wider one, only if the traffic is very heavy, 
or very wide cars are needed, or where the locomotives are so heavy 
and large that they cannot be built for that gauge, or, finally, if the road 
is connected or is to connect with roads of another gauge. The Ernst 
Wiener Co. of Xew York say : "We have made 24" our standard narrow 
gauge, but also keep in stock material for 18", 20". 30" and 36* and can 
manufacture equipment for any gauge of track, including tracks that re- 
quire outside flanged wheels." 

The next question is the connection between the rails. In most cases 
the regular fishplate connection will answer ihe purpose. If, however, the 
tracks are not to be kept in place any length of time, but w31 require 
frequent change of location, it is better to use a connection which will 
not require bolting, but will, nevertheless, connect the rails satisfactorily, 
such as light angle plates, angle shoes, etc. 



iluniping tub. These tubs are constructed of steel of box forn: w::h :w o 
bottom doors hinged at opposite sides which open after the tub has de- 
scended to a fixed point, dumping the coal at a central p.j:ni en the 
lender, the position oi the doors when open preventing spilling of the coal. 
These tubs are counterweigh ted when empty in such a manner that the 
counterweight pulls them back again into p-'^sition to be filled again, while 
ihe fillevi tubs, being heavier than the counterweight, descend slowly under 
the jvrtect control of the operator, who releases them by pulling on a pen- 
viarit h.anJ chain. l\v pj'Iir.g on this chain and releasing the tub, 
:ho\ ai!:;:::a:ica'.!y iescer.c. d'jrr.p. return and >xrk ^^em5eIves in their 
:\ >.>:::::: ai^iin bein^ reacy t:r filling, this being done by one of the 
-'.xr-i:. r> rw:r.^ a prv:*er valve ::r the p*jrp»:se. 

The vV*i'. p-.vket is c^rnstr^rtei :r steel ar.i is cf the stispended form, 
th;: > its .i::.; St:."' :: which •^<e the if a filled bag sus- 
•xr.-f.: :r " tA : :• :r.:?. :'::> ::: — ''■err.^ :-r.t thit cr:r:^iises greatly in 
: .e .•^<; . : ■•: Mti-J.*. :-: :hc z—r.-rizv. t.. I: :s cli~.ei that a pocket of this 
tvc ->:•.: -:ri> S,' vi;:- :.:': !:s> -ir.z-rS. S.-jl". i st-re*. r-:cket of the same 



and stimgth of other con!(tniction« I1ie pocket ii huiig^ from 
g trdc r i ttifipartcd on four steel posts which rest 00 stone foundations. 
It I J coifcred with a corrugated iron roof, having sliding: covers over 
hatches throtspfh which the coal is dumped. 

In many mining districts the engineering diflicufties encountered in 
bv* • " vays ft»r the traniportation of ore arc so great and the cost 

i'l n and maintenance so high that aerial wire rope tramways 

are utilized instead for transporting the material from the mines over great 
diitaiices. The accompanying illustrations show the details of construe- 


TO wens or akhia^. thamwavs 
t'vnl t*jr Konh Amrhtmm Copper Cd,^ fCncvatpniciii W70 

operation of an automatic aerial cableway constructed at En* 
I. Wyo„ for the North American Copjjer Co,, which is one of 
I(^ge%t in this country, passing over a watershed or continental di\nde 
Ml an altitude of more than 10,000 feet and having a total lengtli of about 
16 miles* This wire rope tramway was installed as the most economical 
meant for bringing the ore from the mines tfi the smeller and was fur* 
nislied by th« A, Leschen Sons' Rope C^o. of St. Louts, Mo. The total 
ilistance from the mines of the North Amertcan Copper Co. at Encamp- 



mnit, W'vo.. to llio smellcT below is about 84,500 feet, and 800.000 lbs. 
t»l «»n- air transported each day of ten hours, the buckets each having 
.1 rapaiitv of (^5 cu. ft. The towers which support the cables are located 
at intrivals troui a hundred feet or more to over 2,000 feet. There are 
Ihiee loni; spans on the upper sections of this aerial cableway. varying in 
leniilh lioni !>\x^ ft. to .mw-^ ft. In the building of this tramway con- 
st nuiiou iani)>s were established alone the line and the timber for the 
towels hauled troni ueii^iihorinir forests, the entire installation requiring 
s\ho\\\ si\ juonths. Tlie lower tennina! of this cablewav was installed 

» Xx ■ • ."»■ • i*' . 

-."^x .J** •.^'* •-, *•« *.• • 4 

y.KT ter- 

■. :->:r;2c:ed 

C'^i clients 

>ij::.n as 

^ .:^ iniire 

. : :!:;: :»vo 

:'.*.e er.'-i 

: -. . re is 


delivered at the lower terminal of the second section it is allowed to 
fall into a large storage bin, the buckets being automatically discharged; 
In a similar manner the two lower sections are connected and by the 
aid of the large receiving bin either the upper or the lower sections of the 
cableway may be operated separately or at the same time. There are ten- 
sion or anchorage stations provided at intervals of about 5,000 feet to 
care for the take-up and stretch of the track ropes. It is stated that the 
highest tower on this cableway is nearly 70 feet high, the elevation of the 
rope saddle being 9.993 feet above the sea level. The engines used for 
operating the several sections of the cableway are installed at the junction 
or transfer point and heav>' beveled gearing is employed for transmitting 
the power to the automatic aerial wire rope tramways. The two track 
ropes arc from i to i .25 inches in diameter and are constructed of crucible 
steel. The empty buckets as well as the loaded buckets travel on these 
stationar)' ropes, being propelled by means of a traction rope about J4 of 
an inch in diameter also made of crucible steel. The buckets are attached 
to the traction rope by means of a special clip and the shape of the flanges 
and grooves of the sheaves are such as to accommodate the shape of the 
clip on the traction rope so that this rope always rests in the sheave 
whether a bucket is passing over a tower or not, and a skip is used on the 
towers to guide the traction rope in the groove of the sheave in case it 
becomes displaced from any reason whatever. The buckets are attached 
to the traction rope by flat clips with a button shaped end by means of 
two forged bands which encircle the rope and have the lay of the rope 
forged in them. It is claimed that it is practically impossible for the 
bnckets to slip on the line irrespective of the load or the grade on account 
of the positive hold the clips have on the rope, and the uncertainty of de- 
pending on friction or compression is avoided. To the bottom of the 
buckets, which hold a trifle less than 7 cu. ft,, there is a pin attached 
which is used in connection with the automatic discharging devices at the 
unloading terminal. While the bucket is in transit the clip is engaged 
between the two trips but when the bucket reaches a terminal, one trip is 
drom>ed back allowing the clip to pass out of the housing and the bucket 
is thus detached from the cableway. The sliding frame is raised by a 
curved bar at each terminal and the trip is moved back. The bucket is 
also attached to the clip in a similar manner and the trips are liKked to 
prevent opening. There are no attendants required as the entire operation 
is automatic. At the tension stations one section of the track rope is 
anchored to a tension take-up device while the other section is anchored 
to the ground. The travel of the bucket is not interrupted but passes by 
the tension station without diflSculty. a rail connecting both sections. 


Smoke Prevention. 

By F. L. Nrwbli« 

THE Automatic Smoke Preventer and 
Fuel Fconomizcr which is herein illus- 
trated and described, is manufactured 
and «nid under the original Thomas and other 
patents, owned by the Automatic Smoke Pre- 
venter Co.. of New York. The following will 
»h4>w the device i* not new and untried ; the 
increased use of bituminous coal and the at- 
tending complaints of smoke nuisance have 
caused the appearance of this article. 

The first impression of the uninitiated is 
anticipated ; this device is not to be classed 
with the many so-called smoke consumers and 
preventers, but is entirely distinct in con- 
struction, operation and principle of smoke 
eKminatton, also being automatic 

This device does not consume the smoke. 

but it so mixes the furnace gases with air 
automatically, that complete combustion takes 
place, with the result of high temperature and 
no smoke. 

It is therefore easily seen that the device 
not only prevents smoke, but greatly increases 
the boiler efficiency. 

It is inexpensive, positively prevents smoke 
or soot, saves lo to i8 per cent in fuel account, 
is independent of fireman and requires no at- 
tention; does not reduce steam pressure when 
firing, requires no motive power whatever, 
costs almost nothing to maintain and meets 
all requirements of law and successfully burns 
low grade fuels, garbage, leather shavings and 
all waste without smoke or odor. This device 
does this and has done it for seven years and 
users must beware of subterfuges. 

In presenting a brief explanation of this de- 
vice for perfecting combustion in the use of 

T)i^mmjt^9^Um^aic jSm^Ke^ JF^MjUer . 


biuimnuMi'% iind oiiht ^oH coaJs in b<ii(er fur- 
nnccs, wc !*latc tincfiuivocally that the appar- 
atus xi^^d actually nccampHshcs all that is 
cUiniPcl by the inventors^ as may be found by 
reftrcncc lo those that have been in use for 
the pa«t seven years. This is accomplished 
by the timely introduction of heated air and 
«uperhe:Ucd steam mto the combustion cham- 
ber of llie furnace. // has mt'cr recorded a 


It is known, scientifically, th«il carburetted 
hydrogeti and other compounds of carbon re- 
quire great quantities of atnutsphciic air to 
effect their combination; yet no means have 
heretofore been adopted, practically, of ascer- 
taining what quantities are supplied, and they 
h*ve been treated as though no such propor- 
liouii were necessary. It is known, scientifi- 
cally, that the relative proportions in which 
the constituents of atmospheric air combine 
are definite* yct» practically all seem to have 
«ip|>eared wholly indifferent to the distinct na- 
nir<^ of Oiese constituents, or their effect ni 

^^ M .^. 

^.^ c •< v-<: A !, t R* h iM 


mSmfK V^lVCv IS cUCCfTQ imwiMVI mciB sho mv 

•Kit ikc««iftc4 ^ XTmifAt tKm W»4s tts %» minj rtwr 
Tkt aiMrfiurtiiiin wkk^ dumK»er»9«^ die 

burning of coal rs both physical and chemiC 
physical, because an intimate mixture and a 
suitable proportion of the elements concerned 
are essential to the completeness of their com- 
bination ; chemical, because unfortunately for 
the special object of the furnaces, which is 
to generate steam, the less important clement, 
hydrogen, is precisely that which demands the 
preference and must have its share of oxygen 
before the demands of the staple ctemem* car- 
bon» can be satisfied. The steam wishotjt thr 

K. V. Tunocl Co. Hollers nil c<|uipp«d« bdtit ii«l- 

lit cotild not ful5U the purpose any more tlian 
itr in quantity without mixture. Tbe etrdinal 
condition on which complete cotnbitjtioii of 
coal in boiler furnaces is effected is the qtudc 
Ami complete intermixture of the gaseous ele- 
menis of combustiofi — the Air and tlse com- 
hostibk gmses o( the fueL 


mam iBQunEm 

Tht pr^foakm whadk the gaseous or r6U- 
ide fwts of ihe fed bears to thai wiiidi » 
piQe4 ]Md GvpslNe of complete c nnpo uatioti €n 
« toww i mt imtWKCt gnXe ntJisr afely tie oon- 
s iil eTt d m um tkwHh in tbe case of ociibiif 
t j lM ■ ii>o » $ ODoL Use air for tlic 
of tisB ^iseotts iMilcfiil cutnoi bs 
niifti od'tsMXiCi^ estibcf dnoosb int. 
df file cme IttfSk or hf opcniof tiic door hi 
tht taw esse tlie air b ikiinvod of ill 



; r>r^,:;-^»^ 

the tolid fuel, ind 

^^^ ._ .^.. _ , oil the combuftibte 

i lEe&re tficy on he bartied ; and in the 

rlitttr Oit, the aitr which would enter, by rea- 
■tt of Its pmponionite masi, would produce 
Pcooliag IniiKnce and coctld not by ttscK be 
C— virtkinlly mixed to as properly lo support 
BtlWhMWlOU of the ItACS. 
Tlw wnkmtl^oa of the Ba«eou» nuteri^iis of 
iIm f»6l is belt lecompltfthed by inrroducing 
ikfmmh 1 fiiamWr of jeu or tmalt orifices the 
necefiary fupply of dry tteam, »o that it may 
mtrr in i divided form and rapidly mix the 




"' ' ftuUi Micks Sv^ minute* aAer Artng 

n S 

rael JQ 

ajr with the heated JT^es of the 
•ach pro|>orticm$ as to effect their 
contliatlioii, mid this is iust what 
4cvtoe oooi^ 
Mm te homiiif of cc4ce (or when the coal 
it bonded down to a dear and red fire), al- 
thfi^ilh oawitiBttioci on the grate may appear 
ID he perfect* little or no flame be produced 
wnd no onoke whatever made, yet there may 
it a great afnomil of tiielot beat to«t owing 
to te focmatkui of etrbook oxide. If this 
orbo i ik oxide dots i»ot l&nd a freih supply 
of Miiflm% biatod i(r (oxygen) at the 
pp o y tr plaet. It otcessarily pasaes off on* 
borord. Thti It obrtated by the Thomas 
titiuba plat lining itid fnel-ia^ng device. 

% t99brBm pracliedbr» on the large scale 
of Ibc fwriLace, thoae chcmtca) truths which 
av« to weQ known to every labor atory\ the in- 
vmlor of tbts devke has succeeded m accom* 
gfiiiiJQg wttb ait toexpensive and absolutely 
afipafatus perfect conbttStioii in tbc 

furnace (making all fuels smokeless and thdr 
lumrt odorless), utiltj^ng a maximum of the 
fccjit unilt. and incrcaiing the efficiency while 
let*ening the qujintity of fuel rcijuircd by lo 
to i8 per cent 

yctnoo or onMMws. 

To accomptiih the desired end, superheated 
»teani is introduced through jets at the time 
of finngt over the furnace doors and into tht 
fireplace above the foel. The steam acts as 
a "poker** to sllr abool and inlermiji the air 
(or oxygen) with gase^ arising from the fuel, 
and thu» completes the intermixture required 
for effecting complete combuttion. The sup- 
ply of extemat air is introduced through a 
damper in the furnace door that is automatic- 
ally regulated by the device, and pasting 
throut^h a perforated baffle plate i% heated be* 
fore reaching the fire, as will be *een by the 
accfim]»ain inj? drawing and description, 

Recognumg that furnaces are not all alike, 
that even those of the same make differ 

N. V- tuoiici Co. 

Aoothrr *tui 

what in their action^ it regtilates each asid 
every installation so that steam and hc4ted air 
sliall be admitted to the (ire only just to la 
as the fire needs them completely to 
sume smoke and volatile gases given o6F 
fresh coal is thrown in. This time var 
from one to two minutet, according to 
of furnace, boiler and coal used. 

Aiide from the ilirect eeofUMny o! fuel cf* 
fected by more complete eomboftfon fi tht 
fire box, this device increases the e^> 



ttir tinili-i liy pii'vc'iitiiiK (U'posits of soot on 
li'iili-i \\\\n'\ ami ill the stack. It is known 
ilhii .1 «lr|insit uf s(M»t oni'-cighth inch thick 
nil tulii-i will ilivicMsf hoilor efficiency 15 to 
.Ml pel rnil. riarlioally no soot is found on 
tiiiir-. wlirir liir fnrnai'e is eiiuii)pe(l with the 
I liuin.i'. ilf\ III'. 


I It ohnvtiou hioiiiilu ayiaiiisi ilu* use of 
.» train lit up to ilu- prr'^riit time has been It il.onpi'MN ihr liie U»\. vleorea^ex life of 
li.'iiii. anil ilo%-N tint ci'tM'.onu.o i"uo!. \b\> \> 
l»t'iaU'.\' It h.iN hrrii o\v\'xNive'> u^eJi anil nn- 

♦ -^niiiu .r*\ app'ii**' StvM'.r. a'lvu* will ::ot 
N»iih* r . .1-1 j'.oiu' w:'* •^^: nvi!Vk*o \\\\\ >:o;i:n 

\^\^\ \y ,;.\! ;:• :,*<x .•'xV . ,v,;;r:;:v\i i:: ::;c r:i;h: 
t»\.^»!'r*-i .. ;••,- »,»: ;'•,' : ■»;■•.•. V.MO. .;:*..; *." :;-e 

dashpot room above the piston, the action of 
the valve is in such manner that during the dis- 
charge period — when the valve remains on its 
seat — the compressed air finds its way through 
the hollow spindle into the dashpot. 

Assuming the valve to begin the suction 
stroke the air in the clearance spaces expands 
while the pressure of the air enclosed in the 
dashpot cannot decrease so rapidly through 
the small opening. This means that the pre- 
vailing; pressure will force the piston down- 
ward with a force depending upon the area 
of t:ie pist'.«n thus securing full va!ve opening. 
1: :he valve is arranged vertically the springs 
n:ay be %i:sper.sed with as the motion of the 
v.i!ve r.ikcs place in the same perfect manner 
ri< ::::r!:cr.-»u> :es:s have proven. 

Tl-.c air or.Ziir.ed in :he dashpot is forced 
r:.:k ::: . \:x r. lir.ier wher. the valve is clos- 
■■*:. : irc'.ri serves j- cus::J'.r.. 


Kep: sma . 
irtiuence of 

. s :.-7< o: suction 

■"" . . ■ en. for a 
i" :■ 7 45 anii 

>: * J5. The 
r: .:- r:r:ke is in 
:■: -^: ;s :o be in 
'■■: •- \ = from it> 
.-■ .-: :>.e dashpot 

1. -i :: :he new 




Tite chsel feature Het in a little atsxiltary 
tiItc mfho%e f tin dkm ic ii to prevml the air — 
wbidi dorttig the upward motion of the valve 
ti dii^lati^ to relttm ai loon a& the opcninf, 

I tn the auxiliary valve ti dosed by the 
imhrt pfQ^if. the retnaining air hrgtn« to act 
at eaahioQ and prevent i the vaK^e from %tnk- 
i^f igaimt its guide. On the return stroke 

valve proper » On the way between thii opeu- 
tng down to the potition of the valve on its 
»eat the tpring it in tention and remaini lO 
until the next discharge fttroke taket ptacc, 
when the »pring pulU the vilvt npidly from 

tiM gif b«tw«cii the v^.^. ...^U Its guide ex* 
pgodi, dicrsMtt in ^r^iure therefore and of- 
fcra Icii rv^tiilsnce %o Ibe prc%<.iirr required to 
the vmlve on the next stroke. Another 
i valve it tbown in Fig. y the peculiar* 
i^ ol thit valve tic« in the action of the 

it* tear 1 ht ijinng u Ciimprc*setl, however^ 
when the valve on its upward motion has over* 
lapped the cage opening, thus ttoring Qp 
energy for the downward closing stroke 

^Xnother discharge valve is shown in Fig# 4. 
It is fitted with dashpol and piston and « 
«^cries of little hofes^ covered by a diftc shaped 


TW tprifii in the po«ll<m of the mlve tWvt 
Itl qpcntfii in die vtlw ogt it balaneed, 
i i e 0DI loaded oiccpl for the weight of the 

pnescisre plate, conitecu tlie 
valvte and the guide with the 
dertit&ih the dat^V^poi ^Hok^ *tbft, 




between the valve and its guide therefore, can 
escape when the Valve proper is opened. 

The action of the valve is that shown in 
Fig. 5 is easily understood from the sketch. 

New Incandescent Lamp. 

ANOTHER modification of the familiar 
many. The improvement this time h 
incandescent lamp is reported from Ger- 
a new metallic filament which combines the 
notable features of cheapness to manufacture, 
comparatively long life, and what is more im- 
portant, small consumption of energy per 
candle power. While the details of the fila- 
ment have not been published, owing to the 
pending of patents, it is rumored that tung- 
sten is an important element in it, and that 
the honor of the invention belongs to Dr. 
Hans Kuzel, of Baden. According to some 
figures from the official organ of the Vienna 
Electrical Society a i6-candle i/ower lamp may 
be operated with an expenditure of the energy 
of approximately 20 watts, which is less than 
half the current consumption required with 
the familiar carbon now in vogue. 

A Roller Bearing. 
By Lons Villatte. Watertown, N. Y. 

IN the accompanying drawings: Figure i 
is a top or plan view ; Figure 2 is an 
end elevation, one-half shown in sec- 

Referring to the drawing i denotes the shaft 
to which is secured a hardened steel sleeve 2. 
Said sleeve may be secured to the shaft i in 
any suitable manner, but is prefcrab'y fixed 
to the same by means of the key and lock 
screws as shown. 

On each end of the sleeve 2 are arranged 
bearing ring 3 through which the shaft i is 
adapted to pass. The rings 3 are provided on 
their inner sides with annular flanges 4 fitted 
over the ends of the sleeve 2 forming caps. In 
the rings 3 a series of bearing apertures 5 
and bolt holes 6. Journaled in the bearing 
apertures 5 are anti-friction rollers 7, the ends 
of Ti'hich are reduced where they enter said 
apertures so that a shoulder is formed on said 
roller thereby prezenting any longitudinal shift- 
ing morement of the same, A z*aluable advan- 
tage 07'er the conical end rollers. 

Through the bolt hole 6 are passed the ends 
of clamping bolts 8, said ends being reduced, 

thereby forming shoulders on said bolts which 
are engaged by the inner edge of the rings 3. 
A nut is applied to the outer ends of said bolts, 
thereby clamping the same and said rings firm- 
ly in place. The rings and rollers 7 are en- 
caced within a hardened steel box 9, the inner 
surface of which forms annular bearings for 
the rollers and in which the same are adapted 
to turn with the rotation of the shaft I. 

The inner diameter of box 9 near each end 
is enlarged, as shown at 10, whereby the bear- 
ings rings 3 are accommodated. The box g 
is octagonal in shape on its outer side and is 

eS^T^r. 2. 

ds-* n 

adapted to fit within an octagonal shaped open- 
ing in a pedestal or support 12 or of any de- 

On each end of box 9 a cap 23 secured by 
means of the screws 26, and caps having a re- 
cess 24 to receive a packing ring 25, the inner 
edge of which is adapted to closely engage the 
peripherj- of the shaft i thereby preventing the 
entrance of dirt and also preventing the spat- 
tering or splashing ont of the lubricating oil 
from tihe inner side of the bearing. Said pack- 
ing ring is sccared in place Iqr means of a 
metal boldiqf riqg «sJ acrews afi. 



In one side of the box 9 is formed an oil 
hole 13 in line with an oil hole 14 formed in 
said pcdesul. 

The pedestal \2 is formed on each end of 
inwardly projecting annular flanges 23, the 
apper faces of which are recessed as at 24 to 
receive a packing ring 25. On the packing 
rings 25 is arranged a circular holding ring 
which IS adapted to be secured to the flanges 
ly by means of the screws 26. 

The rollers 7 are lubricated by means of oil 
pasMng from the oil cup through the aligned 
oil holes 13 and 14 into the space within the 
box 9 into which said rollers are located and 
which pass to the lower side of said box where 
It may stand and throuKh which each roller 
must pass as the same is revolved.— thereby 
immersing or bathing said rollers in the oil 
at each and every revolution of the shaft, thus 
keeping the part^ well lubricate<I and thereby 
making of Ihis mi*tntion the only reliable self 
imhriealimg defice cz'er known. 

In a roller bearing constructed as herein 
•►hown and dcMrnbed it will be seen that the 
ffction will be taken up by the roller, thereby 
presenting or materially ^letrcsing the wear 
of :l,e parts, as also a great eci)nomy of power 

h'r *m the foregoinic <le'»crii>tion taken in 
Consideration with the <lrawirg the construc- 
; n an J operation of the invention will he 
read:!y understood without requiriii;^ a more 
exten-led explanation. 

High Duty Metal. 

IT is a well known fact that the a>j>per 
erally suffer a marked reduction in 
alloys known as brass and bn)n/e ^c:\- 
-:rength with increajc of temperature. This 
'*** of strength is not generally taken into 
.3tC(»un; because the deterioration is >!o\v up 
:o A certain point, and this point is above the 
temperature of *iteam or air at the UMial pres- 
sure* At abt>ut the temperature of 150 to 
!7? pounds steam the loss begins to be very 
r -p-il. and at ab lut 400° F there is a su«l- 
drn marked drop in tenacity. From that 
pr^int to 500** F the loss is ver>- rapid and 
the strength of the material is seriously af- 

In drtigning their new line of Extra Heav> 
and Medinm Presto re Brass Valves, the West- 
ern Tnbe Com^tsijf, Kewanee, 111., determined 
to nm tlK OMlal which would show the small- 

est percentage of kiss in this respect that it 
was possible to obuin, the same metal to have 
other qualities which are essential in a valve 
at all times and particularly in a valve for use 
under high pressure. 

In endeavoring to secure this metal, an 
effort was made through the Secretary of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
to collect all of the existing literature upon the 
subject, and it was discovered that practically 
all that has been determined on this question 
is the results of the experiments of the British 
Admiralty in 1H77 as described on page ,^09 
of Kent's Manual. Having found that no fur- 
ther light was to be obuined from past re- 
searches, this company inaugurated an ex- 
haustive series of tests with a larg^ numbi'r 
of mixtures of copper, tin. zinc and other 
metals, with the purpose of determining for 
itself absolutely the best metal fur :ts pur- 

I hese experiments have extended through 
a period oi eight months, and the statements 
made abuve have been fully corroborated and 
emphasized. For instance, it was found that 
an alloy that i> very commonly in use as 
^tean1 metal and would be called a fairly good 
metal for ih:s puri)o>e. showe.l a drop in 
tensile strength of as much as jS |>er cent 
when raised to the tenieprature of 407*' F, 
which i> al>>ui the teinperaiKre *>i xteam 
under J50 pounds pre'«>iire w::lj.>::: Nr.perlieai- 
ing. It wa; assnnieil i! tl::> :.:'.ii'er.uure 
would be a fair one at whi^'li iv> in. ike the>e 
lest:=. inasmuch as cngineerinK pr.'.i*iive i> lend- 
ing strongly in these <ia\ h tt> the oi steam 
at alK»ut this pre>>ure, <»r superheated from 
a lower pressure to this temperature 

Another metal which has been considered an 
excellent mixture and is fre<|uently used by 
valve makers fi»r valves of hisher grade and 
designed for higher pressure, showed 2J per 
cent loss under the s mie conditions 

The well known "government" mixture, as 
it ha'i been called, con>i>tin)j oi JV pirts of 
copper. 10 of tin and J .»f /inc. was found 
to he as little affected by th'-i extr.i«»rdinary 
increase of temperature as any alloy which 
has ever been used, as far as known, in the 
manufacture *>f valves. The "gt»venrnent" 
mixture wa^ found to have as an average of 
a large numlnrr of bars teMed, a co!«! tensile 
strength of 33.6 U {x^unds per Miuare inch. 
When raise<l to 407** F. and again tested, the 
temperature being maintained coi\5.VikXv\. ^v^ 
the lesl. \he \euvAe <lTetv^\\v iVcv^j^^ >» 



pounds per square inch, showing a loss of 
nearly 9 per cent 

They say that after making all of their ex- 
periment, they have arrived at an alloy which 
is practically of the same tensile strength as 
the above mixture when cold, as it shows an 
ultimate strength of 33,520 pounds per square 
inch at 70° R, and further, it shows an 
ultimate strength of 31,627 pounds per square 
inch at 407° R, the loss being only 5.6 per 

A table is appended which shows in sum- 
marized form the results of these experi- 
ments upon six different alloys, as follows: 

Tensile Tensile Loss 
Strength Strength Per 

Alloy at 70° R at 407° R Cent. 

No. 1 21,790 15,640 28.2 

No. 2 29,010 22,410 22.4 

No. 3 24,510 22,059 9-5 

No. 4 zifi^Z 30,675 8.8 

No. 5 33,710 31,305 7.1 

No. 6 33.520 31,627 5.6 

No. I is the steam metal alluded to above 
and which is in common use among valve 

No. 2 is a metal which this company use 
at times and is fairly strong and durable at 
comparatively low temperatures. 

No. 3 represents one of their earlier ex- 
periments illustrating the advance along the 
line of research, but indicates too low tensile 

No. 4 is the "government" mixture, so 

No. 5 is one of their later attempts, and No. 
6 is the mixture which has finally been adopted 
and is called by them "High Duty" Metal. 

In addition to the rare quality of maintaining 
the high tensile strength at high temperatures, 
this metal also shows wearing qualities which 
are very remarkable; and as wearing qualities 
in the moving parts of a valve are of the ut- 
most imiKDrtance. the "government" mixture 
was again taken as the unit or standard, and 
it was found, by means of a special machine 
in which the movements of the parts of a 
valve were imitated exactly under extreme 
conditions of friction and at high temperature, 
that this metal wore away at about one-third 
the rate shown by the "government" mixture 
mentioned above. 

This alloy hiis also been found to be very 
tough, resisting shock or water hammer with 
greater success, and is. in fact, far less brittle 
than any other of the metals tested. 

In strength under compression it again 
showed marked superiority, as the flow of 
the metal was extremely uniform under high 
pressures, much more so than any other alloy 
upon which these tests were made. 

Further, and this is very important, this 
metal makes sound, tight castings. These tests 
prove this conclusively, and this quality works 
to the benefit of the user equally with the 

In every respect, then, this "High Duty" 
Metal may be said to be the metal par ex- 
cellence for the manufacture of valves and 
cocks for extreme temperatures and pressures, 
and we believe it to be well named. 

They are taking this means of announcing 
that their entire lines of Medium Pressure 
Brass Valves, designed for pressures ranging 
between 125 and 175 pounds, and our new line 
of Extra Heavy Brass Valves, designed for 
pressures up to 250 pounds, are now and will 
hereafter be made of this "High Duty" Metal. 

They are also prepared to furnish any of 
their goods now made of excellent standard 
brass mixture, made up in this "High Duty" 
Metal, thus giving their customers the ad- 
vantage of valves having over 40 per cent 
greater strength and efficiency in the lighter 
weights at an advance in cost of about 25 per 

In general, they believe that they have dis- 
covered a metal whose name is expressive of 
its substantial merit, and that its use marks 
a long step in advance in valve construction. 

Foreign Industrial News. 

Iceland will have a system of land telegraphv 

this fall. 

A market for bicycles at Nankin, China, is 
said to be created by the extension of macad- 
amized carriage roads around that city, bring- 
ing the total length up to 40 miles. 

Galvanized sheets from Germany are sup- 
planting the British product in Roumania. 
states a London report. Textiles, agricultural 
machinery, tin plates, and roofing sheets are in 
strong demand in Roumania. 

A steel passenger car has recentiv been com- 
pleted in Pittsburg for the Southern Railway 
which is regarded as the beginning of the 
genera! use of steel instead of wood for all 
kmds of railway cars. The car is 74 feet 6 
inches long over all, and weighs 110.000 



pounds. There was no wood used in its con- 
fttnictton except for the interior decorations, 
and that wood was made fireproof. It is said 
that the car could not be telescoped in a 
collision, neither could the ends be smashed 
tn, and furthermore, it is noncombustible. Two 
other cars of similar nature are under con- 
struction. If generally used, such cars would 
greatly reduce the dangers of railway travel. 

The remittances to China made by coolies 
or laborers at work in other coumries is now 
estimated to reach $50,000,000 annually, in- 
cluding $5jooaooo said to be sent home by the 
mdentured coolies in the Transvaal mines. 
This is one way China meets her adverse 
balance of trade. 

to go into Lake submarine torpedo lN>at$. 'I he 
Ivrm is expecting similar orders from the 
German Government. 

The Central S>outh .African Railway's ad- 
ministration is considering the question of 
establishing a steel plant to deal with scrap. 
Of thi« the administration owns a large quan- 
tity, but can tind no local use or market for 
tt. .\ similar plant, owned by a company, is 
in course of erection at Ziiurfontein. '1 ransvaal. 

In i8g6 tin was quoted in the English market 
at liTO per ton. It is now quoted in the same 
nurket at about $Q70 per ton. Sudden fluctua- 
tions have carried it as high a^ $i.04J. Mar- 
ket manipulations cause part of this rise, but 
the increased demand for the metal has caused 
a! lea*t one-half of the general increase. 

The engineering work cttntemplated or dis- 
cussed in Manchuria and Mongolia includes 
ra'Iroad maintenance and improvement, and 
:ncrea«ed railroad mileage, both by the Chinese 
ami Japanese, and. possibly, in northern Man- 
churia, by the Russians; wharf-building opera- 
::on« at the port of Newchwang. and road 
!Kiilding by bt>th Japanese and Chinese. 

Creovjte oil is a developing article of ox- 
^•r: fr«*m Sunderland. England, to the United 
StJte*. writes Consul Metcalf. of N'ewoa>tlc. 
Crri»*nte i» l>eing more extensively used in 
Kmrrica fi»r the pre5ervaii<m of lumber, and 
the creo*i«^ic oil is produced very cheaply in 
Kru'and from the coal tar refu.'ie of the gas 

The largest marine gasoline engine in the 

Ik • 'fid IS about to be shipped from Baltimore 

• . Ku«<ta It is of 1,600 horsep«>wcr. and is 

■ ne of four ordered by the Crar*s G<ivernment 

I j*t ni ^iixono from White & Middleton 

The amount of lumber sent from Nova 
Scotia to American ports this year is very 
large, reports Consul-General Holk>way, of 
Halifax. The cut in Annapolis and Corn- 
wallis exceeds any cut known there for many 
years. The lumber shipped from CornwaHis 
is largely supplied by the New York Lumber 
Company, which owns 45,000 acres at Gas- 
peraux Lake. 

With the object of further improving and 
devekjping industries, the department of agri- 
culture and commerce of Japan is to dispatch 
agents to Europe and America to make pur- 
chases of up-to-date machinery. For example, 
dyeing and weaving machinery will be pur- 
chased, to be rented to those so circumstanced 
as to be able to use it to advantage umter 

In the OefKirtment of the Landes hundreds 
<»f |>ortabIe steam engines are employed in 
the pine forests for sawing, and the present 
high price of turpentine and pine wood makes 
this department an exceptionally rich field. 
Large seniii>ortahIc engines of from 80 to 
500 horsepower for producing electric currents 
are now t'uiding their way into Bor<lcaux from 

.\n attempt is ah*»ni to Ixr made by an 
.•\ustro- Hungarian firm to utilize the reeds and 
ru>hes of the Danube delta in the manuf«icture 
of s.ick>. It is said that very successful ex- 
periments have been nuide with a view of 
prixlucing cloth suitable for sacks from these 
products, .ind that the t'lrm in question have 
arranged to spend $ in the construction 
of a factory either at Galatz or in the delta for 
the manufacture of thi* article. Similar ex- 
jwrimenit have Ihhmi made in the past but 
without ^iatisfactory resrltv 

A great building l>-v)m :> nnv% in progres.^ 
in Rio de Janeiro ami i^ likely to he f*»ilowed 
by similiar movement> in a number i»f Hraril- 
ian citie> The style «»f building in Brazil 
involves the us eof con'»i<lerable cement, and 
the very large amount of street paving now in 
progress in Rio de Janeiro i< constructed ui>on 
a foundation of unusual <!epth, composed of 
concrete in which there are three parts of 
sand, six (Kirts of crushed stone, and one of 



liKl rl;««« rtMurnt I \\v Itra/iliaii citKinccrs cause it costs too much to maintain this de- 

Mtr iiiMniMu to rnncitt riHiM ruction in many partment. The models are to be distributed 

Hni« io;»il«. Iimlm^s, wator tanks, tunnels. among educational institutions. Mr. R. C 

«irp« \\\\ \hv ^\K\\\ hills of Hia;ilian oilies— Gill has been keeper of the models for 40 years, 

in \m\. \\w nio< of lomoni arc vciy general. 

\\w tniuv^vinu int\MCvj \\\ what '.> termed 
**io\XM ut r'r w.mK '.vvj: ,',^;-.c :r. Kv'k^^ra. v»:: 
\ 1 . w'^-T- K'*v K»v> ■■•.iCv Sn'-.> .^.-ii" ^\- 

\ v.- 


Wreckers Well Paid. 

N'ew York — Wreckers have recovered near- 
ly $,;*x*.coo of cargo from the hold of the 
:rc:»:>.:er Drurr.elzier, which went ashore 
^^■r:>:::u5 werjk. 1904, and sank. The prize 
:: .i. \rc c^rz: :? a Sjaooo automobile. 

New Inventions. 

: :• : a rr. j: :r v : r. :: : r ? -.ive >ee r. . pecia. iy 
.-; :'-: ?-.-iiT -;> Miiizine by C Le- 


'*.. -^h:-. •*:-« -r.-r- 



ented by Willtam J. Selleck, of Riverside, 
G>nn., is to provide a loading apparatus by 
means of which moving cars may be success- 
ively filled with material automatically as they 
pass a given point without requiring them to 

The apparatus is so arranged that an ap- 
proaching car trips a lever which discharges a 
loiad of coal into this car and returns it to a 
position to be filled whereupon an oncoming 
car will repeat the operation. 


THIS invention, recently patented by 
August Ludwig Emil Bcrgert, of Johan- 
nesburg. Transvaal* has especial refer- 
ence t4i apparatus intended for distributing 
m:nc residues— that is to say, to apparatus in- 
tended for ctuiveying to and dumping or de- 
positing <uch residues upon a mine dump or 
depo»:t;ng site. 

The apparatus comprises a wheeled frame or 
carriage which is adapted to traverse a track 
or rails la:d (»n the flump or depositing site, 
qpon the top <»f which frame or carriage is 
Mounted a structure which pivotally supports 
a boom or jib carrving an endless conveyor 
belt or band, ontt> the receiving end of which 
:* >d the material to be conveyo<l and dis- 
:r bated. 

The structure which is mounted on the car- 
riage is constructed to provide a curved track 
radial to the pivot or point about which the 
boom swings, upon which radial track m vehicle 
which supports the boom at or in proximity 
to the center of its length is free to travel as 
the boom is swung to either side of the main 
track or the rails upon which the wheeled car- 
riage runs. 

The boom carrying the conveyor-belt at its 
rear extremity in such a way that it can 
swing in the plane of the carriage to either 
side of the main track and so that it may oscil- 
late about its longitudinal axis to prevent the 
belt bcng inclined transversely when the boom 
is swung to either side of the main track. 


IX this apparatus the inventor, K. H. Page, 
of Los Angeles, California, employs a 
reversible scraper having two cutting 
edges adapted to be hauled in an operative 
condition on each trip back and forth across a 
ditch, canal, or other ground it is desired to 
remove. With the scraper is associated moans 
for holding it in the required condition during 
the excavating and loading operation and when 
fully loaded, said means being also effective in 
dumping the scraper when it reaches the point 
of disduirgo. 

Machior fur l>i»tribiitinK Minr Keii<U%c% 



.-^* »','«. 

Showing I'se of Bxcax'ating Apparatus. 

In the practical operation of the scraper the 
cables can be so controlled as to prevent said 
scraper from dumping itself when its cutting 
edge is in contact with extra hard ground or 
roots. In case the scraper encounters an ob- 
struction the strain on the cables can be in- 
creased by the operation of an engine on one 
side of the ditch to overcome the tendency of 
the scraper to tilt or turn. It is evident that 
after hauling the scraper to the dumping-place 
adjacent to one of the derricks the other set 
of cables and drums can be brought into ser- 
vice for reversing the position of the scraper 
and for hauling it in an opposite direction in 
a way to cut through the >oil and load itself 

scraper in the reversed position may be dumped 
in the manner described, and said scraper can 
thereafter be reversed, so as to operate when 
moving in the first-named direction. (Indicated 
by the arrow.) 

wuii: Ai^: 


THE object of this invention, recently pat- 
ented by George C. Schroeder, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, is to provide a system hav- 
ing a car or carrier which is adapted to travel 
upon a suspended cable or track. Said car or 
carrier is fitted with an electric motor which 
constitutes a prime mover and furnishes the 
motive power. Suspended, preferably, above 
and extending parallel with each other arc 
frmr current-wires, two oi them adapted to act 
for transmitting the current to the motor and 
two of them adapted to act as return wires. 
The motor is provided with four trolley arms, 
each of which is adapted to come in contact 
with one of the said current-wires, and each 
of the said trolley-arms is electrically con- 
nected with the said motor. 

The prime object of the system is to so ar- 
range rhc apparatus that the car may be sent 
b.ack and forth upon the cable, stopped at any 
desired point, and made to travel at any de- 
sired rate of speed. The movement of the car 
in either direction is controlled by the manipu- 
■ation of switches and a pole-changer located 
at cither terminal station or a way statior. 
Each car or motor is provided with a means 
to prevent rocking thereof in the line of trave! 
and also to guide the car around the cur\-e5. 
S^iivl means also prevents any tendency of the 
motor to climb or jump the track The trol- 
Icy-arms are also arranged so as to prevent 
lateral rocking of the car. Said tro!!ey-arms 
arc mounted upon a base whidi is pivoted to 
the top of the frame of the motor, so that the 




*a.«i :r.«"'.r> .unis may follow the wires while 
•-r T.. :..r :, r.iunthnu a curve in the track. 

WlJi.HlS.. AI'I'l.lSNt IS For ei.f.vators. 

I\ :'v- i'^vcniion. >*hich forms the <;iihject 
Mi.iTV r "f a patent recently i^'^ueil to 
\;.!«n \krr. i»f Ifelenii. Montana, there 

• r'.-.:r«.l :.. .'He end of a cr.>s< •'haft 16 an 
■ j'i..: r *: irm .-r i>i»:n:er 2},. the onier end of 

• :.:i :• .1 I.iptfd to travel t»\er a uradiiaied arc 
-: t".:i: - -ifurtd !<► the frame of the elevator. 

: 'Ti- tifi!'- I n tlr> imiicatint; arm 2y is a 

' ^!:: ->r pi>e -?5. which may l)e adjusted 

A iT \ and :r»m the ^hafl 1 6 fi»r t'le purpose 

: . ••.::i:vrSa'.iiuink{ the v^ei^ht *>f the scale 

: ,*: ■rn: x:u\ tlie memhc-rs U'twecn the plat- 

• "f \rA :;u* -h.if: If left free. tii«' indicating; 
-■-. .M W'.n'd dt -cend '^wv the arc and jndi- 
.*•' :"''T; tin- \\e!K}i! of atiy Inad i>!accd on 

• r p'alfonn, and \\\ <»rder ti> pnveni thi> 
•■• ..•"•.«-n: .Iiir:TiK the reception of the loail 

•■ *- '^Iicatinjr arm is held elrvafe<l and the 

. " p!.i!:«»rm i* lout-red inti> c«MUact with 

' '* ■»■ !!■ rn of tile elevate »r hy a latch 27, that 

. ,»rr:cil hy a pin jH. and is proviiled with a 

: !»!»> oprratinK handle Hh by which il may 

•-- turned to present the face of the latch 

.r.^Wr the indicating arm or m«>ved from un- 

der the arm in order to allow the latter to 

Prior to the reception of the load the at- 
tendant raises the indicating arm to the high* 
est point and turns the latch to the full-line 
position, so that the platform 20 will be low- 
ered into contact with the bottom of the 
elevator. The load may then be placed on the 
platform without jar or shock, and after the 
reception of the load the attendant turns the 
latch 27 and frees the indicating arm, the latter 
lowering: to a position necessary to counter- 

'•I'.inco Mu- and nid;c:ile it"* weight on the 
arc J4 After the load is raised the arm is 
.ivj.i-.n rat-^cd ti» niopcrativc position and the 
• ►ail rece:v:nji; platform loweretl against the 
li »tt»im «»f the elevator Ihc indic.iting arm 
•^ then locked in place, and the elevator is 
• •IH'raleil in the u>ua! manner to r.i>.' or lower 
tlir load 



A New Noiseless Gear. 

A patent on a noiseless gear, the invention 
of F. E. Bocorelski, -superinitendent of the 
Baush Machine Tool G>mpany, Springfield, 
Mass, has been applied for. It consists of a 
cai-t irorti blank, with a sleeve upon which are 
fitted three rings, each of a different material 
— bronze, tiber, and steel. These sections are 
held in place by a key and by three riveted 
pins, thus forming of the four materials a 
practically solid gear blank. 

An exhaustive test of one of these gears has 
been made in a 42 inch Haush boring mill in 
mesh with a cast iron gear. The desired 
noiseless quality, commonly aci:)mplished by 
rawhide .uul similar gears, was demonstrated, 
and also the wearing quality, which was the 
inventor's chief purpose. 

The gear wore no faster than its quickest 
wearing member. It does not get out of sliafKr, 
and wears longer than a solid steel gear. 
There is also, as the test proved, ample 
strength in the new gear. — The Iron Af^e, 
Sept. 27. \go(\ 

An Increasing I'se of Scrap. 

The increase in scrap used in 1904 over the 
total un 1900 is 24.0 i)er cent. In the same 
pcritMl pig iron production increased 19.6 per 
cent. 1 he a'vnsumption of scrap in the four 
years, thorofor, increa>ed about one and one- 
f«nir:li times as rapidly as tlie c<>nsumption of 
pig iron. This is particularly imp..'>rtant be- 
cau.M' the year 1904 was not as good a year 
for H^nip outciMne a> was 1900. 

It i- wi'll undorsu>Hl that the future nuist 
place more and niv^re deiHMide:ice upt>n scrap 
as raw material. The increasing use oi scrap 
and the m.aking of Ivtter steel, by al]o> ing and 
othe7wi>e. so tliat wIkto tine ton is now re- 
quired for a given puij^ise the future will re- 
quire le>s than nnc ti>n. must bo depended up- 
on ti» mitigate the etYect<. Not oi the iron ore 
famine which has Sien i>yetlicle.i in Si^mt qnar- 
ter>, but i»f tlie >te.'nii'>- increasii^g market 
value '■'! iron <»ri'. 

It ca!ini»: Ik- said \et that the scrap u>ed is 
ma-ie in:** better -tee; :!i:in it was. but it is 
ni»t impr.>!>.i!>!e within the lifetime of the 
f»rc-ent L'l-r'er.iri.tTi -irap will be made into 
^tei ' •: u!;-.'! .1 i:-\i:i r-inmber oi \'*r.< wil! 
perl', trvn a :i::n]i ^re.iti- -e:\ico tlian t'.ie .^ame 
nnnii"'* 'f :■■;'- ••* :!k (|n.'i'',:\ u!:ich tha: <crap 
>'-*;■•— f 'J "! •:- '!.'.> / '.•• /'■.'»; .i^r. .Sept. 27, 


Horsepower of the Victoria Falls. 

It is estimated that if the Victoria Falls, 
situated on the Zambezi river, in the territory 
of the British South Africa Company, could be 
utilized to generate electricity by means of 
turbines, the power developed would be equal 
to 200,000 11. P. 

Derrick Boom Swinging Engine. 

The opposite illustration represents a Double 
Cylinder, Double Friction Drum Hoisting En- 
gine and Boiler with patent Boom Swinger 
attaclied to front part of frame such as man- 
factured by The Contractors' Plant Mfg. Co., 
Buffalo. X. Y. 

The small illustration of scow derrick illus- 
tn^es the aplication of engine to derrick con- 
nection wi