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Full text of "Bryan's dictionary of painters and engravers"

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927.5 B 

Bryan, Michael 
^,j Bryan's dictionarv 

of painters and 

1185088 
J REV. ED, VOL. 2 



NY PUBLIC LIBRARY THE Bl 



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BRYAN'S DICTIONARY 



OF 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS 



IN FIVE VOLUMES 



\m>' 



CAMBRIDGE : DEIGHTON, BELL & CO. 
NEW TORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 
BOMBAY : A. H. WHEELER & CO. 






^' 



> 







BRYAN'S Dictionary 



OF 



Painters and Engravers 



NEW EDITION REVISED AND ENLARGED 

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

GEORGE C. WILLIAMSON, Litt.D. 



WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS 



VOLUME II. D-G 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

LONDON : GEORGE BELL AND SONS 

I 903 
A II rights reserved 






mh 




NOTE TO VOL. II 

Amongst English artists who have died since the issue of the last edition, and 
whose lives appear in this volume, should be mentioned those of Du Maurier, written 
by Mr. F. W. Whyte ; Kate Greenaway, by Mr. G. Somes Layard ; Charles Green, by 
Mr. Clifford Smith ; A. D. Fripp, G. A. Fripp, George D. Davidson, Sir W. Fettes Douglas 
and Walter Goodall, all by Dr. Laing ; Sir John Gilbert, Birket Foster, Louis Fagan, 
Thomas Faed, W. H. Deverell, E. U. Eddis and others. Of Old Masters whose lives 
have been re-written in the light of modern research, we would direct special atten- 
tion to the long biography of Giorgione, the work of Julia Cartwright (Mrs. H. Ady) ; 
the important article on Foppa, written by Miss Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkes, and 
those of Downman, Engleheart, Fragonard, Etienne, De Caylus, R. and N. Delaunay 
and others. 

Many of the existing biographies have been carefully examined and corrected by 
the leading experts of the day, so as to embody in them the latest information 
without violating the settled plan of the work. In this way Mr. Campbell Dodgson 
has corrected the life of Dtirer ; Professor Langton Douglas those of Benozzo Gozzoli 
and Fra Angelico ; Mr. Weale those of Gheeraert David, Hubert, Jan, Lambert and 
Margaret Van Eyck ; also Daret and Gossart ; Mr. L. Binyon those of Claude and 
Girtin ; Miss Streeter that of Filipepi (Botticelli) ; Mr. C. Holroyd those of Duccio 
and Finiguerra, almost re- writing the last ; and Mr. Lionel Cust that of Sir Anthony 
Van Dyck. 

In addition to this there are in this volume new biographies of the following 
artists — Ricliard Dadd, Eduard Daege, Michael Dahl, J. E. Dantan, E. Dardoize, 
M. Darby, William Daniell, E. T. Daniell, J. M. Donald, W. C. T. Dobson, Thomas 
Doughty, V. Deroche, Thomas Danby, J. B. E. Detaille, Sophie Desaux, M. G. 
Desboutin, N. Dixon, George T. Doo, Thomas Dove, L. De Deyster, Richard Doyle, 
A. Dedreux, Amaury Duval, Jean Duvet, F. De Braekeleer, J. L. Demarne, J. A. 
Duvaux, J. L. Dyckraans, Jules Dupre, F. J. and N. B. Dequevauviller, Mark Dessurne, 
G. Den Duyts, Karl Ebert, C. D. Eisen, Charles Escot, Edwin Ellis, Henri Evenepoel, 
Otto Faber du Faur, John Faed, James Fahey, E. F. Feron, Eugene Fichel, 
W. H. Fisk, J. P. Flandrin, Lucien Falize, J. A. J. Falquiere, Leon Faure, J. E. 
Freeman, C. T. Frere, P. E. Frere, E. Feyen-Perrin, Giacomo Favretto, C. F. Felou, 

F. Ferramola, Luis Falero, E. J. Forster, F. L. FranQais, A. Fraser, Otto FrbhUcher, 

G. Fouace, G. F. Gaillard, P. T. and C. Galle, and the younger members of that 



vi NOTE TO VOL. 11. 

family, P. V. Galland, A. Gastaldi, E. Gaujean, Karl Gehrts, W. H. L. Gruner, Noel 
Gamier, B. Galofre, Wilhelm Gentz, A. Geyer, T. Gide, J.^Gigoux, A. Gill, E. Gill, 
Margaret Gillies, David De5 Granges, E. G. Giran, P. Girardet, R. Gleichauf, James 
W. Glass, B. Goddard, N. Goeneutte, William Gosling,* Charles Gosselin, — Gouge, 
T. R. Gould, J. A. Goupil, H. P. Gray, N. E. Green, J. B. Greuze, J. E. Gridel, W. 
H. L. Grimes, H. C. Guerard, 0. E. Gunther, L. Gurlitt, J. P. Gulich, and P. L. N. 
Grolleron. 

There are thus some 130 new biographies, 17 have been corrected, added to, 
and amended, and about 500 separate corrections have been made throughout the 
volume. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



ALESSANDRO FILIPEPI, called BOTTICELLI 

The Magnificat (Pliotogravure Plate) . . . Uffizi Gallery, Florence Frontispiece 

GIROLAMO DAI LIBRI 

Madonna and Child with St. Anne .... Natiorud GcMery To face p. 2 

C. F. DAUBIGNY 

The Geape-gathekers of Burgundy Louvre „ 12 

Spring Louvre „ 12 

GHEERAERT DAVID 

A Canon and his Patron Saint National Gallery „ 14 

WILLIAM DAVIS 

View near Hale Coltm-t Collection „ 16 

HENRY DAWSON 

St. Paul's from the River Birmingham Art Gallery „ 16 

A. G. DECAMPS 

Released from School Wallace Gallery „ 22 

The Watering-place Wallace Gallery „ 22 

LUCAS DE HEERE 

Mary Tddor • » 28 

PIETER DE HOOCH 

Courtyard of a Dutch House National Gallery „ 30 

An Interior Natioiud Gallery „ 30 

PIETRO DEI FRANCESCHI, called PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA 

Sigismondo Malatesta kneeling before St. Sigismund 

Malaf<'sta Temple {San Francesco), Rimini „ 32 

The Madonna and Child with Angels and Saints and Federigo, Poke 

OF Urbino Brera Gallery, Milan „ 32 

PAUL DELAROCHE 

The Death of Queen Elizabeth Luucre „ 42 

ANTONIO DEL POLLAJUOLO 

St. Sebastian Pittl Palace, Florence „ 54 

Portrait of a Geniteman Corsini Gallery, Florence „ 64 

ANDREA DEL VERROCCIIIO 

The Baptism of Christ Accackmia, Florence „ 66 

WALTER HOWELL DEVERELL 

Scene from 'Twelfth Night' . . Mrs. A. Steele Roberts' Collection „ 64 

NATHANIEL DIXON 

The Duke OF Gbafton AS A Boy . . . . Montagu House Collection „ 76 



viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

WILLIAM DOBSON 

PoETEAiT OF Endymion Poeteb National Gallery To face p. 76 

CARLO DOLCI 

Madonna and Child PUti Palace, Florence „ 78 

PAOLO DI BONO, called PAOLO UCCELLO 

The Battle National Gallery „ 80 

GIOVANNI DOSSI, called DOSSO DOSSI 

The Archangel Michael Dresden Gallery „ 84 

GERARD DOU 

The Poulterer's Shop National Gallery ,, 84 

The Grocer's Shop Buckingimm Palace „ 84 

SIR W. FETTES DOUGLAS 

The Curiosity Shop, Rome .... Mr. John Wordie's Collection „ 8G 

PIERRE IMBERT DREVET 

Bishop Bossdet (After H. Eigrmd) ,, 88 

FRANgOIS HUBERT DROUAIS 

Amelia, ninth Baroness Conyers . Collection of the Countess of Yarborovgh „ 90 

A Lady South Kensington „ 90 

DUCCIO 

The Madonna and Child with Angels and Saints . National Gallery „ 92 

KAREL du jardin 

Landscape with Cattle reposing .... National Gallery „ 98 

Mountain Pasture Scene with Cattle . . . Buckingham Palace „ 98 

ALBRECHT DURER 

Portrait of Hieeonymus Holzschuher (Pliotogravure Plate) Berlin Gallery „ 104 

The Munich Altar-piece Munich Gallery „ 106 

The Flight into Egypt (Woodcut) „ 106 

ANTHONY VAN DYCK 

Philip Lord Wharton {Photogravure Plate) . . . .St. Petersburg „ 108 

Charles I Louvre „ 110 

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, and his Secretary Sir Philip 

MAmv/Amtia [Photogravure Plate) . . Wentworth Woodhouse Gallery „ 112 

SIR CHARLES L. EASTLAKE 

Christ lamenting over Jerusalem .... Natiotial Gallery ,. 1 IG 

GfiRARD EDELINCK 

John Dryden [After Kneller) „ 118 

AUGUSTUS L. EGG 

Beateix knighting Esmond National Gallery ,, 120 

GEORGE EXGLEHEART 

Miss Bedingfeli) UTr- J. P. Morgan's Colledion \ 

Miss Ann Pritchard Mr. George Mackey's Collection f -,^ 

A Giel (name unknown) ..... „ „ T ' 

Miss Hestee Woolley „ „ ' 

WILLIAM ETTY 

Youth at the Prow and Pleasure at the Helm . National Gallery „ 132 

JAN VAN EYCK 

Jan Arnolfini and his Wife [Photogravure Plate) . N<(tioiial Gallery „ 1.3G 

Man with a Pink Berlin Gallery „ 1.3G 

The Adoration of the Lamb St. Bavon, Glient ,, 1.3(j 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

JOHAN FABER THE ELDER 

James I Mr. De Pass' Collection To face p. 138 

THOMAS FAED 

Faults on both Sides Tate Gallery „ 140 

In Time of War Liverpool Gallery „ 142 

WILLIAM FAITHORNE 

Barbara Villiers, Dochess of Cleveland, wife of Roger Earl of Castle- 

MAiNE ........ Montagu House Collection „ 144 

Prince Rupert {After Van Dtjck) „ 144 

GAUDENZIO FERRAEI 

The Choir of Angels Saronno „ 156 

The Martyrdom of St. Catharine . . . Brera Gallery, MUan „ 156 

A. V. COPLEY FIELDING 

View in Sussex Tate Gallery „ 160 

GIOVANNI DA FIESOLE, called FRA ANGELICO 

The Great Crucifixion (Photogravure Plate) . San Marco, Florence „ 162 

The Assumption and Dormition of the Virgin . . Mrs. J. L. Gardner's 

Collection „ 162 

Christ as a Pilgrim met by two Dominicans . San Marco, Florence „ 1C2 

ALESSANDRO FILIPEPI, called BOTTICELLI 

Madonna and Child with Angel (Chigi Madonna) (Photogravure Plate) 

Mrs. J. L. Gardner's Collection „ 164 

EDWARD FISHER 

Gaurick between Tragedy and Comedy (After Beynolds) .... „ 168 

Lady Sarah Bunbury (After Reynolds) . „ 168 

THOMAS FLATMAN 

John Lord Somers, Lord High Chancellor. Dr. G. C. Williamson's Collection \ 

Sir Thomas Henshaw, Ambassador to Denmark and Norway | „ 170 

Portrait of the Artist .... Victoria and Albert Museum J 

VINCENZO FOPPA 

The Adoration of the Magi National Gallery „ 178 

MARIANO FORTUNY Y CARB6 

Portrait of a Boy . „ 180 

The Spanish Marriage (La Vicaria) . Marquis de Carcano's Collection „ 182 

J. H. FRAGONAED 

La Foire de St. Cloud . . . . M. Leopold Goldschmidtfs Collection „ 184 

TADDEO GADDI 

Christ Deposited in the Sepulchre .... Accademia, Florence „ 206 

St. Peter walking on the Sea. Spanish Chapel, Sta. Maria Novella, Florence „ 206 

THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH 

Master Buttall (The Blue Boy) (Photogravure Plate) Duke of Vf^estminster's 

Collection „ 208 

TuE Parish Clerk National Gallery „ 208 

CLAUDE GELLfiE, called CLAUDE DE LORRAINE 

Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba . . . National Gallery „ 224 

Cephalus and Procris National Gallery „ 224 

SIR JOHN GILBERT 

Richard II. resigning the Crown to Bolingbroke . Liverpool Gallery „ 240 



\v 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

LUCA GIORDANO 

The Judgment of Paris Berlin Gallery To face p. 244 

GIORGIONB 

The Jodgment of Solomon .... Mr. Ralph Banked Collection „ 24G 

The Concert Pitti Palace, Florence „ 2-18 

GOYA Y LUCIENTES 

A Lady „ 264 

JAN VAN GOYEN 

A River Scene Amsterdam Gallery „ 266 

Scene keab Amsterdam Amsterdam Gallery „ 266 

BENOZZO GOZZOLI 

The Arrival of the Three Kings . . Palazzo Biccardi, Florence „ 266 

Paradise Palazzo Biccardi, Florence „ 266 

VALENTINE GREEN 

Mart Isabella, Ddchess of Rutland {After Beynolds) .... „ 274 

Lady Betty DelmiS and her Children {After Beynolds) .... „ 274 

J. B. GKEUZE 

L'Accokd^e de Village Louvre „ 278 

Innocence Wallace Gallery „ 278 

FRANCESCO GUARDI 

Sak Giorgio Maggiore National Gallery „ 284 

TOMMASO GUIDI, called MASACCIO 

Adam and Eve driven from Paradise . . Carmine Church, Florence „ 288 

An Old Man UJfizi Galler%j, Florence „ 288 



BIOGRIPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAYERS 



DA, Abraham, an engraver, was probably a 
native of Germany, as be appears to have imitated 
the style of Theodor De Bry. There is a plate by 
him of ' The Last Supper,' executed with the graver 
in a neat but stiff style, and inscribed Abraham 
Da fecit ; from which it may be presumed that it 
is from his own design. 

DA ANNUNCIAgAO, Thomas Jose, who was 
born at Ajuda near Lisbon, in 1821, learned his 
art in the Academy of that city, and afterwards 
travelled through Spain and France. He was prin- 
cipally an animal painter, and was considered the 
best artist in that branch of art in the Peninsula ; 
but he occasionally executed genre pictures. He 
was Director of the Academy of Fine Arts at 
Lisbon, where he died in 1879. The following are 
some of his most noteworthy works : 

Lisbon. Gahria Nacianal. View of Amora. 

„ „ Two Women at a Fountain. 

„ „ View of the Penhade Franca. 

„ ,, Oxen treading out Cora at 

Ribatejo, 
„ „ After Pasture — View on the 

Tagus. 
„ „ The Sliepherd's Rest. 1852. 

DA BOS, Laurent, a painter of portraits and 
of historical and genre subjects, who was born at 
Toulouse in 17G1, was instructed by Francois An- 
dr^ Vincent, and first exhibited at the Exposition 
de la Jeunesse in 1788. Among his works may be 
mentioned : ' Mary of England, Queen of France, 
lamenting the death of her husband, Louis XII.,' 
' The Return of the Grande Arm^e,' and ' Louis 
XVI. writing his Will,' a picture painted in the 
Temple during the captivity of the royal family. 
Besides these he painted from life the portrait of 
the Dauphin (Louis XVII.). He died in Paris in 
1835. His wife, Jeanne Bernard, who was a pupil 
of Madame Guyard, also painted genre subjects. 
She was born at Luneville in 1763, and died in 
1842. 

DAGH, Jean. See Aachen, Johann von. 

DACHBRETT, Peter. See TAfiPRET. 

DA CUNHA TABORDA, Jos£, a Portuguese 
painter and architect, was born at Fundao, in the 
diocese of Guarda, in 1766. After studying paint- 
ing under Joaquim Manoel da Rocha, he went in 
1788 to Rome, where he placed himself under the 

VOL. II. B 



tuition of Antonio Cavallucci, and gained reputation 
by a picture of ' The Summoning of Cincinnatus 
to the Dictatorship.' After his return to Portugal 
he was in 1799 appointed professor at the Lisbon 
Academy, and in 1803 court painter, in which 
capacity he painted in the royal palace of Ajuda 
and the hall of the Cortes. There is no mention of 
the date of his death. 

DADD, Richard, the son of a chemist at Chat- 
ham, was born in that town in 1817. On the 
removal of his father to London to take over the 
business of a dealer in art objects, Dadd joined 
the schools of the Royal Academy, and started as 
a painter of genre pictures. In IBiiS he contributed 
for the first time to the Royal Academy, exhibiting 
a picture entitled ' Antfling.' Then followed 
'Study of a Head' (1839), 'Alfred the Great in 
Disguise of a Peasant' (1840), and in 1841 a suc- 
cessful work, 'Titania Sleeping,' which attracted 
some attention. At the exhibitions of the Society 
of British Artists he exhibited, among other 
pictures, the following in oils and water-colours — 
' Head of a Man ' (1837), ' Scene in Whitsand Bay ' 
and 'Coast Scene, Hastings' (1838), 'Don 
Quixote' and 'Boy Reading' (1839), 'Scene from 
"As you like it"' (1840), and 'When I speak, 
let no Dog bark' (1841). His most important 
work was a series of upwards of a hundred pic- 
tures with subjects chosen from Byron's ' Man- 
fred ' and Tasso's ' Jerusalem DeHvered,' which he 
painted for Lord Foley. In 1842, for Hall's ' Book 
of British Ballads,' he illustrated the ballad ' Robin 
Qoodfellow.' In the summer of the same year, in 
company with Sir Thomas Philips, to whom he 
had been introduced by his friend David Roberts, 
he left London on a journey to Egypt, travelling 
through Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor. Dadd, 
who had already showed signs of weakness of the 
brain, appears to have suilered from sunstroke in 
Egypt, and on his way home suddenly left his 
friend, and returned to London in the spring of 
1843. During the journey and the months suc- 
ceeding his return he produced some excellent 
work in water-colours, including 'Tombs of the 
Khalifs, Cairo,' ' Entrance to an Egyptian Tomb,' 
and ' Eastern Scene, Rocky Landscape,' and con- 
tributed to a Liverpool exhibition a scene entitled 
' Arabs.' The cartoon, however, which he sent to 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



the Westminster Hall competition proved the 
unsound condition of his mind. Towards the 
autumn of the same year his mind became seriously 
unhinged, and he was constantly watched by his 
father. On the 28th of October he accompanied 
his father to Cobham Park, Surrey, and there 
murdered him, and fled to France. Near Fontaine- 
bleau his attack upon a fellow-traveller led to his 
capture and identification. He was acquitted on 
the plea of insanity, and sentenced to imprison- 
ment for life in Bethlehem Hospital. During his 
confinement he was allowed to follow his profes- 
sion, and produced several highly-finished but 
eccentric works in water-colours, of which ' Christ 
rescuing St. Peter from the Waves' (185-J), 
' Sketch to illustrate the Passions— Patriotism ' 
(1857), and 'Leonidas with the Wood-cutters' 
(1873), are in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
South Kensington. He died in 1887. 

DADDI, Bernardo, a Florentine painter, was 
the contemporary and colleague of Jacopo Landini 
di Caeentino in the formation of the Academy of 
St. Luke at Florence in 1349. He was born towards 
the close of the 13th century, and was one of the 
most able of the pupils of Giotto. He painted in 
fresco the histories of St. Lawrence and St. Stephen 
in the Berardi chapel in Santa Croce, and also the 
gates of the old city of Florence ; but the only 
frescoes which remain are those representing the 
Martyrdoms of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence. In 
1346-7 he painted his best work, the miracle- 
working picture of the Virgin, which is still in 
Or San Michele at Florence. His death took 
place in 1360. 

Besides the above-mentioned, the following 
works by Daddi are extant : 

England. The Crucifixion {formerly in the 

church of St. George at Riihalla). 
1348. 
Florence. Accademia. Virgin enthroned, with two Saints 
{central portion of a small trip- 
tych, erroneously ascribed in the 
cataloyueto Bernardo Orcayna). 
1332? 
„ Ognissanti. Virgin and Child, with St. Mat- 

thew and St. Nicholas. 1328. 
Pisa. Campo Santo. Frescoes of the Tri\imph of Death, 
the Last Judgment, and the 
Inferno. 
Siena. Istituto di \ Virgin and Child, with Saints (o 

Belle Arti.] small triptych). 1336. 
^j „ Virgin and Child, with a corona 

of Saints in adoration {central 
portion of a triptych). 

DADDI, CosiMO, was a native of Florence, who 
flourished about the year 1614. He was a scholar 
of Battista Naldini, and painted historical subjects 
with much skill ; but he is better known as having 
been the master of Volterrano. Several of his 
works are noticed by Baldinucci, particularly a 
picture of the ' Visitation of the Virgin to St. Eliza- 
beth,' and some subjects from the Life of the 
Virgin, at the monastery of San Lino, at Florence. 
In the church of Or San Michele is an altar-piece, 
representing the Archangel discomfiting the rebel 
Angels. Daddi died of the plague in 1630. Zani 
says that his name was Dati, and that he painted 
in 1588. 

DADURE, Marie Michel Alphonse, a French 
portrait and historical painter, who was a pupil of 
Ingres, was bom in Paris in 1804, and died there 
in 1868. His best work is the ' Pilgrimage of St. 
Helena, Queen of Sweden.' 

DAEGE, Eduard. This artist was born in Berlin 
2 



in 1805, and was a pupil of Niedlich and Wach. 
He became a member of the Academy of Berlin 
and eventually Professor of the same school, 
where as a lad he had taken many prizes. He 
went to Italy in 1832, and this journey and the 
long time which he spent in the country had a 
marked effect upon his painting. At the National 
Gallery of Berlin there are two of his best works, 
' The Old Sacristan,' and ' The Invention of Paint- 
ing.' He died in 1883. 

DAEHLING, Heinrich Anton, a historical and 
genre painter, was bora at Hanover in 1 773. In 
1794 he went to Berlin, where he was engaged in 
miniature painting and as a teacher of drawing. 
In 1802 he visited Paris, and the study of the 
galleries there first induced him to attempt paint- 
ing in oil. From 1811 until his death he was a 
member of the Berlin Academy, and professor at 
the same from 1814 onwards. He died at Pots- 
dam in 1850. One of his most famous pictures is 
' The Descent from the Cross,' the altar-piece at the 
Garrison Church in Potsdam. In the Berlin Gal- 
lery is a ' State Entry,' painted by him. 

DAEL, Jan Frans van, an excellent painter of 
fruit and flowers, was born at Antwerp in 1764, but 
went early to Paris and settled there. He was 
self-instructed in art, but made such progress that 
he soon distinguished himself at the exhibitions, 
on one occasion obtaining the prize of 4000 francs, 
and on two others, the large gold medal. His 
stj'le is in the manner of Van Huysum and Van 
Spaendonck, although he did not confine himself 
strictly to fruit and flowers, but painted other sub- 
jects, in which such objects might with propriety be 
introduced. Two of his pictures, which he painted 
for the Empress Josephine, represent ' An Offering 
to Flora,' and ' The Tomb of Julia ' ; the latter is 
now in the Louvre. His master-piece, known as 
' La Croisee,' the fruit of three years' labour, was 
likewise purchased by the Empress Josephine, and 
is now in a private collection at Liege. He was 
also patronized by the Empress Marie Louise, who 
took one of his pictures with her to Parma. He 
died in Paris in 1^40, and was buried in the ceme- 
tery of Pere Lachaise by the side of his friend Van 
Spaendonck. The Louvre has also by him three 
pictures of ' Flowers ' and one of ' Fruit.' 

DAELE. Jan van, a Flemish landscape painter, 
who was born at Antwerp in 1530, and died in 
1601, excelled in representing mountainous and 
rocky scenery. Balkema erroneously names him 
Cornells. 

DAELENS, Dirk van. See Deelen. 
DAERINGER, Johann Georg, an Austrian his- 
torical painter, was born at Ried in 1759. He 
painted many altar pictures, and held the post of 
corrector of the Academy at Vienna, where he 
died in 1809. 

DAFFINGER, MoRiz Michael, a distinguished 
miniature painter, who has been called the Austrian 
Isabey, was born at Vienna in 1790. While 
studying at the Academy under Fiiger he showed 
considerable talent for portrait painting, which he 
improved at a later period by a study of the 
manner of Lawrence, who visited Vienna during 
the Congress of 1814. DafiEnger painted portraits 
of the Duke of Reichstadt and many of the 
nobility of the court of Vienna, and etched four 
plates, one of which was his own portrait. He 
died at Vienna in 1849. 

DA' FKDTTI, II Gobbo. See Bonzi. 

DAGIU, Francbsco, called II Capella, who 



GIROLAMO DAI LIBRI 




Hanfstangl plioto\ 



\_Ndtional Gallery 



MADONNA AND CHILD WITH ST. ANNE 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



was born at Venice in 1714, was a scholar of 
Giovanni Battista Piazzetta. He painted history, 
and was chiefly employed for the churches at Ber- 
gamo, and by the state. One of his best pictures 
is ' St. George and the Dragon,' in the church of 
San Bonate. He died in 1784. 

DAGLEY, Richard, an English subject 
painter, was born in the latter half of the 18th 
century. He was brought up at Christ's Hospital, 
and at first made designs for jewellery. From 1784 
to 1806 he exhibited domestic subjects at the 
Royal Academy. He then turned his attention to 
teaching drawing, but again appeared at the Aca- 
demy from 1815 to 1833. As a medallist he obtained 
some success, and he published works on Gems in 
1804 and 1822. His life was a continued struggle 
against poverty. He died in London in 1841. 

DAGLI OCCHIALI,Gabriele. SeeFERRANTiNi. 

DAGLI OCCHIALI, Gasparo. See Wittel. 

DAGNAN, Isidore, a French landscape painter, 
was born at Marseilles in 1794, and died in Paris 
in 1873. Among his pictures, which consist 
chiefly of views in Southern France, Italy, and 
Switzerland, are the following : 

Fontainebleau. Palace. View of Lausanne. 1822. 
„ „ View in Dauphin^. 1827. 

Versailles. Trianon. Lake of Geneva. 1822. 

„ „ View of Paris from the Quai 

de la Cit6, 1831 (one of his 

best works). 
„ „ Banks of the Vigne near 

Vaucluse. 
„ „ Valley of the Lauterbrunnen. 

1841. 
„ „ Petrarch's House. 

„ „ Old Beeches in the Forest of 

Fontainebleau. 

D'AGOTY, Gauthier. See Gaitthier d'Agoty. 

DAGUERRE, Lonis Jacques MandS, a French 
scene-painter, was born at Cormeilles-en-Parisis in 
Normandy in 1787. He studied under Degoti, and 
very soon surpassed all other masters in the art of 
theatrical decoration. In 1822, in conjunction with 
Bouton, he founded at Paris the Diorama, which 
enjoyed great popularity until its destruction by 
fire in 1839. But the great event of Daguerre's 
life was his discovery of the art of photography, 
or, as it was named after him, the Daguerreotype. 
His first experiments were made in 1826, and in 
1829 he associated himself with Niepce, who had 
since the year 1814 been endeavouring to solve the 
problem of fixing the image formed in the camera 
obscura. The discovery was ceded to the public 
in 1839, when Daguerre received a pension of 
6000 francs. He died suddenly at Petit-Bry-sur- 
Marne, near Paris, in 1851. 

DAHL, Johan Christian Clausen, a Norwegian 
landscape painter, was born at Bergen in 1788. 
His parents wished him to enter the Church, but 
lie speedily followed his own inclination for art. 
In 1811 he attended the Academy of Copenhagen, 
and in 1818 went to Dresden. Later on, he travelled 
in the Tyrol and Germany, and repeatedly visited 
his native country, whose coasts and fiords, lakes 
and towns, he painted with loving exactitude, but 
with a singular dryness. He likewise etched four 
plates. Dahl died at Dresden in 1857. His ' Storm 
at Sea,' in the Berlin Gallery, and his ' Winter 
Landscape,' in the Munich Pinakothek, are paintings 
worthy of mention. 

DAHL, Michael, a Swedish portrait painter, 
was born at Stockholm in 1656, and received some 
instruction from Ehrenstral, an esteemed Swedish 



artist. At the age of twenty-two he came to 
England, but did not at that time remain longer 
than a year ; he continued his travels in search of 
improvement through France to Italy, where he 
studied for some years, and whilst at Rome painted 
the portrait of the celebrated Queen Christina of 
Sweden. In 1688 he returned to England, where 
he found Sir Godfrey Kneller rising to the head of 
his profession ; but Dahl possessed sufficient merit 
to distinguish himself as no mean competitor. 
Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark both 
sat to him. He died in London in 1743. Amongst 
his more notable portraits should be mentioned : 

Equestrian portrait of Charles XI. of Sweden ( Wind- 
sor). Full-length portrait of Queen Anne and her 
son {National Portrait Gallertj). Portraits of Lady 
Anne Harvey, Barbara Lady Longueville, Racln'l 
Duchess of Devonshire, the Duchess of Ormond, 
Anne Countess of Carlisle, Margaret Countess of 
Pembroke, Juliana Lady Howe, and Jane Countess 
of Portland {all at Petworth Park). Mr. Arthur 
Vausittart and Anne Lady Coleraine {North Cray 
Park, Kent). 

DAHLEN, Reiner, who was born at Cologne in 
1836, was originally brought up as a saddler, but 
chose to devote himself to art, and studied at the 
Academy of Diisseldorf. He visited England, 
North America, and Paris. His works mostly 
represent horses, carriages, hunting parties, and 
so forth. Although there is a study of nature 
exhibited in his paintings, his peculiarly original 
style did not meet with much approbation. He 
died at Diisseldorf in 1874. 

DAHLSTEIN, Adgustin, a German painter who 
flourished in the middle of the 18th century, was a 
native of Cassel. He visited Sweden and Russia, 
and etched a series of 50 plates of the ' Cries of 
St. Petersburg and Moscow.' 

DAIGREMONT, M., was a French engraver, 
who flourished from about 1670 to about 1700. 
He engraved some of the plates for Berain's 
' Ornemens,' and several views of Versailles. 

DAI LIBRI, Francesco, the elder, born at Ve- 
rona in 1452, was the son of Stefano dai Libri, an 
illuminator of books. He was the father of Giro- 
lamo dai Libri, and is known as an illuminator of 
choir books for the churches of his native city. 

DAI LIBRI, Francesco, the younger, the grand- 
son of the above and son of Girolamo dai Libri, 
was born in 1500, and lived chiefly at Venice and 
at Padua. He was at first a painter of miniatures, 
but afterwards a painter in oil and an architect. 

DAI LIBRI, Girolamo, the eon of Francesco 
dai Libri, was born at Verona in 1474. He was 
brought up by his father to his own profession 
of a miniature painter and illuminator of books, 
but he soon abandoned its pursuit. His earlier 
style inclines to that of Andrea Mantegna. His 
first picture, painted when he was only sixteen, is 
in the church of Malcesine, on the Lake of Garda, 
and represents the ' Deposition from the Cross, with 
the Virgin and Saints.' In the Museum of Verona 
is a painting representing ' The Virgin, St. Joseph, 
St. John the Baptist, and St. Jerome, adoring the 
Infant Christ ' ; and at Sant' Anastasia in the 
same city, is a ' Madonna and Child with Saints, 
which is one of his earliest productions. In 1515 
he and Francesco Morone painted the organ shutters 
of Santa Maria in Organo, which are now at Mal- 
cesine. In 1526 he finished his masterpiece, the 
' Virgin and Child enthroned, between Lorenzo 
Giustiniani and St. Zeno,' at San Giorgio Maggiore 

3 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



in Verona ; and of about the same period is tlie 
' Virgin and Cliild, with SS. Anne and Joachim and 
two donors,' in the church of San Paolo in the 
same city. In 1530 were executed the 'Virgin 
and Saints,' for the church of the Vittoria Nuova, 
and the 'Virgin in Glory, with SS. Andrew and 
Peter,' for Sant Andrea; both pictures are now 
in the Gallery of Verona. Girolamo died at Ve- 
rona in 1556. Guilio Clovio and his son, Francesco 
dai Libri, were his pupils. He never painted in 
fresco, and his works are rare out of his native city. 
Pictures by him are in the foUowng collections : 

Berlin. Gallery. Virgin and Child, between SS- 

Bartliolomew and Zeno. 

London. Nat. Gallery. Madonna and Child, with Saint 
Anne. 

Paris. Louvre. Virgin and Child. 

DAIWAILLB, Jean AnousTiN, a Dutch portrait 
painter, was born at Cologne in 1786, and went 
when young to Amsterdam where he studied under 
A. De Lelie, and was director of the Academy 
from 1820 to 1826. After that time he resided at 
Rotterdam, where he was very successful in 
painting portraits, and where he died in 1850. 
There is by him one etching, which is scarce. 

DAL COLLE, Raffaello, or E affaellino, called 
also Raffaellino dal Borgo San Sepolcro, was 
born at Borgo San Sepolcro, about the year 1490. 
He was first a disciple of Raphael, but after the 
death of that master he became the scholar of 
Giulio Romano, whom he assisted in his principal 
works at Rome, and in the Palazzo del Te, at 
Mantua. Of his own compositions, the principal are 
two pictures at Borgo San Sepolcro, one of which, 
representing the ' Resurrection,' in the choir of the 
cathedral, exhibits a grandeur not unworthy of the 
great school in which he had been educated. The 
figure of Christ is dignified and majestic, and the 
terror of the guards of the sepulchre is admirably 
expressed. The other is in the church of the Con- 
ventuali, and represents the ' Assumption of the 
Virgin.' It is a graceful and impressive composi- 
tion ; and being placed near one of the best pic- 
tures of Giorgio Vasari, establishes its merit by its 
decided superiority. Raffaellino dal Colle was one 
of the artists employed by Raphael in the decora- 
tions of the Loggie of the Vatican, and painted 
one of the small cupolas in the roof with a portion 
of the history of Moses. In Citta di Castello is 
an ' Annunciation ' by him, which is a very grace- 
ful composition. An ' Entombment,' in the Servi, 
is another beautiful picture. A picture of 'The 
Virgin attended by St. Sebastian and St. Roch, 
was in the church of San Francesco at Cagli, the 
figures and landscape of which much resembled 
the manner of Raphael. In one of the chapels of 
the Olivet monks at Gubbio there are pictures by 
him, in one of which he has introduced a figure of 
Virtue, who seems to be a sister to Raphael's Sibyls. 
He assisted Bronzino and Vasari in their decor- 
ations and cartoons— the latter upon the occasion 
of the visit of Charles V. to Florence. He had 
many scholars who proved able artists, but few 
equalled him in grace and high finish ; Cristofano 
Gherardi and Giovanni de' Vecchi are noticeable 
amongst them. 

DALEN, CoENELis van, a Flemish engraver, was 
born at Antwerp about the year 1620. He was 
called ' the younger,' to distinguish him from his 
father, who was likewise an engraver, and whose 
works it is not easy to distinguish from those 
of hia son. He was instructed in engraving by 



his father, and also by Cornells Visscher, whose 
style he followed for some time. His prints occa- 
sionally resemble those of A. Blooteling, and at 
other times those of Pontius and Bolswert. He 
worked entirely with the graver, which he handled 
in a bold and free manner, and with considerable 
taste. He usually marked his plates with the 
initials G- D. We have by him several portraits, 
and a few historical subjects. 

POETBAITS. 
Catharine de' Medici ; in the back-ground the City of 

Amsterdam. 
Charles II., King of England ; after P. Nason. 
James, Duke of York; after S. Luttichuys. 
Henry, Duke of Gloucester ; after the same. 
Wilham III. 
Mary II., his Queen. 

Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland. 
John Maurice, Prince of Nassau ; after G. Flink. 
Pietro Aretino, with a book ; after Titian. 
Giovanni Boccaccio ; after the same. 
Giorgio BarbareUi, called Giorgione ; after the same. 
Sebastiano del Piombo; after Tintoretto. (The four la-st 

are thought by Kramm to be the work of Cornells 

van Dalen, the elder.) 
Anna Maria Schurman, painter ; after C. Jansseixs. 
Old Parr, aged 152 years. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VAEIOUS MASTERS. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds. 
The Yirgin, with the Infant Jesus. 
The Four Fathers of the Church ; after Rubens ; in the 

style of Pontius. 
Nature adorned by the Graces ; after the same ; m the 

manner of Bolswert. 
A Shepherd and Shepherdess ; after Casteleyn. 
The Virgin suckling the Infant Saviour ; after G. Flink. 
Venus and Cupid ; after the same. 
The Four Elements, represented by Children ; after A. 

Diepenheck. 
The Concert; after Giorgione; for the 'Cabinet de 

Reynst.' 
The Monument of Admiral CDrnelis Tromp. 

DALENS, Dirk, a Dutch landscape painter, was 
born at Amsterdam in 1659. He was the son of 
WiUem Dalens, an artist of little celebrity, who 
taught him the first lessons in the art. The prin- 
cipal works of Dalens are large landscapes, painted 
with a free and firm touch, and very agreeably 
coloured, which decorate the saloons of some of 
the principal houses in Amsterdam. He also painted 
some cabinet pictures of landscapes, with figures, 
which are deemed worthy of being placed in the 
best collections in Holland. He died in 1688. 

DALENS, Dirk, called ' the younger,' the post- 
humous son of the preceding, was bom at Amster- 
dam in 1688. He was instructed by Theodoor van 
Pee, and became a painter of landscapes with cattle 
and figures, enriched with ruins, in the manner of 
Pynacker, which are executed with great ability. 
He died in 1753. 

DA' LIBRL See Dai Libri. 

DALIPHARD, Edouard, a French landscape 
painter, was born at Rouen in 1833. He studied 
under Gustave Morin, the Director of the Rouen 
Museum, and spent a considerable time in the East, 
where he made a good collection of water-colour 
sketches. His works appeared at the Salon from 
1864 to 1876, and he also contributed to the French 
journal, ' L'Art' He died at Rouen after a long 
and painful illness in 1877. Amongst his best pro- 
ductions are : 

The Sun appearing after a Storm. 1866. 

Souvenir of the Forest of Eu. 1873. 

The flooded Farm, Poissy. 1873. 

Melancholy. 1875. 



PAINTEES AND ENGBAVERS. 



DALL, Nicholas Thomas, was a native of Den- 
mark, who settled in London as a landscape painter, 
about the year 1760. He painted some excellent 
Bcenes for Covent Garden Theatre, and his engage- 
ments in that branch of art prevented him from 
painting many pictures. In 1768 he obtained the 
first premium given by the Society for the En- 
couragement of Arts for the best landscape. He 
■was chosen an Associate of the Hoyal Academy in 
1771, and died in London in 1777. " 

DALL' ACQUA, Ckistoforo, who was born at 
Vicenza in 1734, engraved, principally for the 
booksellers, plates of various subjects, portraits, 
history, genre, landscapes, and architecture. 
Among his works may be noticed a portrait of 
Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, and an 
allegory of ' Merit crowned by Apollo,' after 
Andrea Sacchi, as well as numerous plates after 
the works of Cipriani, Houel, Joseph Vernet, and 
others. He died at Vicenza in 1787. 

DALLAMANO, Giuseppe, born at Modena in 
1679, is a remarkable instance of the progress that 
nntutored genius has sometimes made in the art 
without the help of a master. Dallamano is stated 
by Lanzi to have been hardly removed from an 
idiot; ignorant even of the alphabet, and unaided by 
professional instruction, he nevertheless reached an 
excellence in painting architectural views which 
surprised the most intelligent judges. His best 
works are in the royal palace at Turin. He died 
in 1768. 

DALL' AQUILA, Pompeo, is stated in the ' Abe- 
cedario Pittorico ' of Orlandi, to have been a good 
historical painter, both in oil and in fresco. He 
flourished in the latter part of the 16th century. 
There is a fine picture by him in the church of 
Santo Spirito in Sassia at Rome, representing the 
' Descent from the Cross,' which was engraved by 
Orazio de Santis in 1572. Several considerable 
works by him in fresco are to be seen at Aquila, 
where he was born. 

DALL' ARGENTO, Antonio. See Aleotti. 
DALL' ARZERE, Stefano, who, according to 
Ridolfi and others, was a native of Padua, painted 
numerous altar-pieces for the churches and con- 
Tents of that city. In the Chiesa degli Eremitani, 
he painted some subjects from the Old Testament, 
and two pictures of ' St. Peter' and ' St. Paul,' and 
in the church of the Servite monastery the prin- 
cipal altar-piece is by him. He flourished in the 
16th century. 
DALLE FACCIATE, Bernardino. See Barba- 

TELLI. 

DALLE GROTTESCHE, Bernardino. See 
Barbatelli. 

LMLLE MADONNE, Lippo. See Scannabeccbi. 

DALLEMAGNE, Virginie Polyxene Augustine 
Philippe, a French miniature painter, whose maiden 
name was Decagny, was a native of Beauvais. She 
was a pupil of Madame de Mirbel, and showed 
much talent in the execution of portraits in minia- 
ture and in crayons. She married Adolphe Dalle- 
magne, a landscape painter, and died at Corbeil in 
1876. 

DALLE MUSE, Bernardino. See Barbatelli. 

DALLE NINFE, Cesaee, who flourished from 
about 1690 to 1600, was a Venetian, whom we find 
mentioned by Zanetti among the imitators of Tinto- 
retto. He possessed the readiness of invention, and 
the facility of hand, for which that painter was re- 
markable, and was an excellent colourist, though 
deficient in drawing. 



DALLE NOTTI, Gerardo. See Honthobst. 
DALLE PROSPETTIVE, Agostino. See Agos- 

TINO. 

DALLE PROSPETTIVE, Mirandolese. See 
Paltronieri. 

DALLE TESTE, II Borgognone. See Giac- 
cHiNETTi Gonzalez. 

DALLEVIA, A., was an Italian engraver, who 
resided at Venice about the year 1686. Among 
other prints, he engraved a set of plates represent- 
ing triumphal processions, entitled, 'Giiiochi 
Festivi e Militari,' and pubUshed at Venice in 1686. 
They are executed in a coarse, indifferent style. 

DALLIKER, Johann Rudolph, a Swiss portrait 
painter, was born at Zurich in 1694. He visited 
successively Magdeburg, Brunswick, Cassel, Leipsic, 
Berne, and Paris, where he made the acquaintance 
of Largilliere and Rigaud. He resided at St. Gall, 
but died at SchafEhausen in 1769. Most of the 
celebrated persons of his country sat to him. 

DALLINGER, Franz Theodor, an Austrian 
painter of landscapes, fruit, and animals, was bom 
at Linz in 1710, and died at Prague in 1771. 

DALLINGER von DALLING, Alkxander Jo- 
hann, a son of Johann Dallinger von Dalling, the 
elder, was born at Vienna in 1783. He studied 
under his father, and became a landscape and 
animal painter, as well as an engraver and a 
restorer of old pictures. In the Belvedere, at 
Vienna, there is a picture by him representing ' A 
Herdsman driving Cows across a Brook.' He died 
at Vienna in 1844. 

DALLINGER von DALLING, Johann, an 
Austrian painter, was born at Vienna in 1741, and 
distinguislied himself as director of the Liech- 
tenstein Gallery. He painted animals, historical 
subjects, and large altar-pieces, most of which are 
in Russia and Poland. He died in 1806. 

DALLINGER von DALLING, Johann, a son 
of the preceding, was born in Vienna in 1782, and 
painted landscapes and animals in the old Dutch 
style, as well as portraits and conversation-pieces. 
Some of his works are in the Belvedere and 
Liechtenstein Galleries. He died at Vienna in 
1868. 

DALLWIG, Heinrich, a landscape painter, was 
born at Cassel in 1811, and died at Munich in 1857. 
He had been settled in the latter city since 1839, 
but undertook frequent tours in search of scenery 
for his brush. 
DALMASIO, Lippo di. See Scannabeccbi. 
DALMATIA, II Federighetto di. See Bf.n- 

COVICH. 

DALMAU, LoDOVico. A 'Virgin and Child ' by 
this artist is in the church of San Miguel at Barce- 
lona ; it is painted in the style of Van Eyck, and 
dated 1445. 

DAL PERON, SiMONB. See Cdsighe. 

DAL POZZO, Isabella. In the ' Nuova Guida 
di Torino,' this lady is mentioned as having painted 
a picture in the church of San Francesco at Turin, 
representing the ' Virgin and Child, with St. Blaise 
and other Saints,' which is signed, and dated 1666. 
According to Lanzi, few of her contemporaries in 
that city could have produced a more creditable 
performance. 

DAL SOLE, Giovanni Antonio Maria, was born 
at Bologna in 1606, and was brought up in the 
school of Francesco Albani. He excelled in paint- 
ing landscapes, which he decorated with groups of 
figures, gracefully designed in the style of Albani. 
He always worked with his left hand, and thus 

5 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



acquired the appellation of ' II Jlonchino dai 
Paesi.' He died in 1684. 

DAL SOLE, Giovanni Giuseppe, the son of 
Antonio dal Sole, was bom at Bologna in 1654, 
and was instructed in the first principles of design 
by his father, but he afterwards became a disciple 
of Domenico Maria Canuti, and ultimately studied 
under Lorenzo Pasinelli. Following the example 
of his last instructor, he based his system of colour- 
ing upon the study of the works of the best masters 
of the Venetian School. He imitated the agree- 
able style of Pasinelli with great success, and his 
compositior.s are embellished with landscape and 
architecture, which he introduced with admirable 
taste. In many particulars, as in the hair and 
plumes of the angels, and in the accessories, such 
as veils, bracelets, crowns, and armour, he dis- 
plays exquisite grace. He seems to have been 
inclined to treat lofty themes, and was more ob- 
servant of costume, more methodical in compo- 
sition, and better informed in architecture and 
landscape, than his master, PasinellL In these, 
indeed, he is almost unique. The most beautiful 
specimens, perhaps, are to be seen at the Casa 
Zappi in Imola, representing Evening, Night, and 
Morning, all harmonized with the sober tints be- 
longing to the subjects. There are several of the 
works of this eminent artist in the public edifices 
at Bologna. Among the most esteemed are ' The 
Incredulity of St. Thomas,' in the church of La 
Madonna di Galiera ; ' The Annunciation,' in San 
Gabrielle ; and some frescoes in San Biagio, which 
are accounted his finest works. For the Giusti 
family at Verona he executed several Scriptural 
and mythological subjects, truly beautiful. One, 
of ' Bacchus and Ariadne,' which occupied but a 
week of his time, was pronounced by artists ex- 
cellent ; yet he cancelled almost the whole, to 
remodel it according to his own idea, declaring 
that it was enough to have shown his rapidity of 
hand to satisfy others, but that it became his duty, 
by additional accuracy, to satisfy himself also. 
For executing his altar-pieces, which are few and 
valuable, as well as his pictures for private col- 
lections, which are very numerous, he demanded 
high remuneration, persevering in his determination 
to paint only with care. In his works two manners 
are observable ; the second partakes of that of 
Guido. A large portion of his pictures nearly 
approach the style of that master ; so that the 
Bumame of ' The Modem Guido,' conferred on him 
by 80 many, has not been granted as a favour, but 
as his desert. Bartsch describes three etchings by 
him ; an allegorical representation of Envy, a 
Group of Angels, after a design for a ceiling by 
Pasinelli, and another of Olympus, after the same. 
Gori mentions one of St. Francis Xavier confuting, 
or rather confounding, by his holy doctrine, the 
satraps of Japan, also after Pasinelli. Several 
portraits were etched by him in 1674, which were 
intended for the ' Felsina Pittrice,' but are not found 
in that work. He died at Bologna in 1719. 

DALTON, Richard, an engraver and draughts- 
man, was born in Cumberland about 1720. After 
passing some time in Italy and Greece, he became 
librarian to the Prince of Wales, then keeper of 
the royal drawings and medals, and finally, in 
1778, survej'or of the royal pictures. He made 
some engravings from the Holbein drawings, and 
after antique statues. He also published ' Manners 
and Customs of the Present Inhabitants of Egypt,' 
1781. His name is to be found in connection with 

6 



some of the art societies which preceded the Royal 
Academy. He died at St. James's Palace in 1791. 

DAM, Anthony van, bom at Middelburg, 
painted marine subjects of large dimensions. He 
flourished in the latter half of the last century. 

DAM, WotrxER, bom at Dort in 1726, was a 
scholar of Aart Schouman, whose manner he fol- 
lowed for some time, but ultimately became an 
imitator and cop3'ist of Cuyp and Bakhuisen. He 
died at Dort in 1785 or 1786. 

DAM A ME DEMAKTRAIS, Michel FRiNgois, 
a French painter and engraver, was born in Paris 
in 1763. After having studied in the school of 
David, he went to Russia, where he resided for 
some years. On his return to France he engraved 
and published ' Vues des principales villes de 
Russie, costumes et usages des habitants de cet 
empire,' 1813-14; 'Collection de Costumes du 
royaume de Naples,' 1818 : ' Paris et ses alentours,' 
1819. His most important picture was 'The Great 
Sanhedrim of the Jews of France and Italy,' ex- 
hibited at the Salon of 1810. He died in Paris in 
1827. 

DAMBRUN, Jean, a French line-engraver, was 
bom in Paris in 1741. He was one of the small 
band of artists to whom are due the vignettes which 
adorn many of the books issued towards the close 
of the last century which have of late become of 
such fabulous value. His best works are ' La 
Partie de Wisch,' after Moreau, for the ' Monument 
de Costume,' and ' Le Calendrier des Vieillards,' 
after Fragonard, for the ' Contes ' of La Fontaine. 
He also engraved with much delicacy Qu^verdo'a 
illustrations to the remarkable series of Almanacs 
which appeared in Paris just before the outbreak 
of the French Revolution. There is no record of 
Dambrun after 1808. 

DAME, Giles la. See La Dame. 

DAMERY, Jacob, the brother of Walter Damery, 
was a good painter of flowers, of fruit, and 
especially of vases. He was born at Li^ge in 
1619, but went to Rome when young, and remained 
there until his death, which occurred in 1685. He 
executed some etchings, among them a series of 
twelve vases, dated 1657. 

DAMERY, Simon, a Flemish historical painter, 
was bom at Liege in 1604. He was a pupil of 
Jean Taulier, who married his sister, but while yet 
very yoimg he ran away from his master and went 
to Italy. He af terward.s settled at Milan, where he 
died of the plague in 1640. 

DAMERY, Walter, the brother of Jacob Damery, 
was born at Liege in 1614. He learned the rudi- 
ments of art in his native city, but in 1636 ha 
came to England, and remained here several years, 
during which he painted a large number of por- 
traits. He afterwards went to France and then to 
Italy, where he became a scholar of Pietro da Cor- 
tona. Subsequently he returned to Paris, where he 
painted for the Carmelite church his masterpiece, 
'The Ascension of Elijah.' His productions are 
distinguished for their beautiful backgrounds and 
also for the nude figures of the children, in the 
depicting of which he exhibited great skill. He 
died at Liege in 1678. 

DAMIANI, Felice, was a native of Gubbio, who 
flourished from the year 1584 until 1606. He is by 
some supposed to have been educated in the 
Venetian school, and his picture of the 'Circum- 
cision,' in San Domenico, partakes of that style: 
but in general his works evince more of the Roman 
taste, which he probably acquired under Benedetto 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Niicci. One of his best works is ' The Decolla- 
tion of St. Paul,' at the Castel Nuovo in Recanati; 
the expression in the head of the martyr is admir- 
able, the drawing correct, and the colouring brilliant 
and harmonious. It is dated 1584. About twelve 
years afterwards he decorated two chapels in the 
church of La Madonna de' Lumi, at San Severino, 
with pictures representing the Life of the Virgin 
and the Infancy of Christ. But his most admired 
production is the 'Baptism of St. Augustine,' 
painted in 1594 for the church dedicated to that 
saint at Gubbio ; a grand composition of many 
figures, finely grouped, with an admirable expres- 
sion of piety in the heads, and enriched with noble 
architecture. He was still living in 1616. 

DAMINI, Giorgio, a brother of Pietro Damini, 
was an excellent painter of portraits, and of his- 
torical subjects of a small size. Like his brother, he 
was carried off by the plague at Venice in 1631. 

DAMINI, PlETRO, was born at Castelfranco in 
1592, and, according to Ridolfi, was a scholar of 
Giovanni Battista Novelli, who had been educated 
in the school of Palma. Such was the extraordinary 
expectation occasioned by the early display of his 
talents, that some writers have not hesitated to 
a£5rm that he would have equalled Titian if he had 
not died young, an assertion, which, as Lanzi ob- 
serves, may be regarded as a hyperbole. There 
are many of his works at Castelfranco, Vicenza, 
Crema, and particulariy at Padua, where, in the 
church of San Clemente, is his picture of ' Christ 
giving the Keys to St. Peter,' and in the church 
of II Santo, his most celebrated work, 'The 
Crucifixion, with the Virgin Mary and St. John,' a 
jiicture of extraordinary beauty, and of the most 
harmonious colour. In the cloister of the Padri 
Serviti, at Vicenza, he painted several pictures of 
the Life of St. Philip, the founder of their order. 
The style of Damini is vague and elegant, but he 
is by no means uniform. He appears to have 
frequently changed his manner, in search of greater 
perfection ; and his last works are evidently his 
best. He had acquired a distinguished reputation 
when he fell a victim to the plague in Venice in 
1631. 

DAMINI, ViNCENZO, was an excellent portrait 
painter who resided in London from 1720 to 1730. 
He is said to have been a native of Venice and a 
pupil of Pellegrini. 

DAMIS, Amedee Gustave Francois, a Belgian 
painter of flowers and fruit, was bom at Bruges in 
1811. While still young he went to Paris and 
became a pupil of Redouts. He was likewise a 
sculptor, and he decorated many of the ecclesias- 
tical edifices of Paris. In 1848 he returned to 
Bruges, and died there in 1851. 

DAMISSEN, Lucas. See De Hoet. 
DAMOPHILOS, a Greek painter and modeller 
in terra-cotta, worked in conjunction with Gorgasos 
in the Temple of Ceres at Rome in B.C. 493. 
Zeuxis is said to have been his pupiL 

DANBY, Francis, who was born near Wexford, 
Ireland, in 1793, learned the first principles of his 
art under a landscape painter named O'Connor, in 
Dublin, where his first picture, a landscape view 
called ' Evening,' was exhibited in 1812. In the 
following year, master and pupil, accompanied by 
George Petrie, set off together to seek their fortunes 
in London, but their funds becoming exhausted 
before they reached the metropolis, they stopped 
at Bristol. Here Danby managed to sell some 
drawings, and with the proceeds paid O'Connor's 



expenses to Dublin, but he himself remained in 
Bristol, and for a few years supported himself by 
giving lessons in water-colour painting, now and 
then sending a picture to the Royal Academy. In 
1825 his ' Delivery of Israel out of Egypt ' gained 
him the Associateship of the Academy, and he then 
went to live in London. In 1830, a quarrel with 
that body drove him from England, and for the 
next eleven years he lived in Switzerland, giving 
up his time to boat-building, yachting, and the 
painting of unimportant pictures on commission. 
Two works only appeared at the annual London 
Exhibitions during this long interval, the ' Golden 
Age ' and ' Rich and Rare were the Gems she wore.' 
In 1841 he returned to England, took up his 
residence at Lewisham, and began painting large 
subjects for exhibition at the British Institution and 
the Royal Academy with all his old enthusiasm. 
He died in 1861 atExmouth, where he had resided 
since 1847. The following are some of his best 
works : 

The Upas, or Poison-tree of Java (at South Kensimiton). 
Disappointed Love. Sunset at Sea after a Storm. 
The Delivery of Israel out of Kgypt (Stafford House). 
The Opening of the Sixth Seal. The Golden Age. 
Rich and Eare were the Gems she wore. The Fisher- 
man's Home, Sunrise, 1846 {National Gallery). The 
Evening Gun. 

DANBY, James Francis, an English landscape 
painter, the son of Francis Danby, A.R.A., was 
born at Bristol in 1816. His works appeared at 
the Royal Academy, and at the Society of British 
Artists, of which latter he was a member. He died 
of apoplexy in London in 1875. He excelled in 
depicting sunrise and sunset. Amongst his best 
works are : 

Loch Lomond. Dover, from the Canterbury Road, 
1849. Dumharton Eock, 1854. Morning on the 
Thames, 1860. Wreck on Exmouth Bar, 1861. 
Carrickfergus Castle, 1867. North Shields : Sunrise, 
1S69. 

DANBY, Thomas, marine painter, was the son 
of Francis Danby, A.R.A., and was born in Ireland, 
but spent his early youth chiefly at Bristol, where 
his father practised and taught drawing. He first 
exhibited in London in 1841, when he sent a small 
oil picture, 'The Wreck,' to the British Institution, 
and in 1843 he appeared at the Royal Academy 
with an illustration of one of Wordsworth's poems. 
He was elected an Associate of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours in 1867, and became a 
full member in 1870. He died March 25, 1886. 
DANCE, Nathaniel. See Holland. 
DANCKERTS, Danckert, the son of Cornelis 
Danckerts de Ry, was born at Antwerp about the 
year 1600. He succeeded his father in his busi- 
ness as a printseller, and surpassed him in his 
talent as an engraver. His plates are sometimes 
only etched, but more frequently finished with the 
graver. We have by him a considerable number 
of plates after Berchem, Wouwerman, and other 
painters. He also engraved some portraits and 
other subjects from various masters, among which 
are : 

Charles II.; Departure of Charles II. for England; 
Venus and Cupid, with a Satyr; after Titian. 
Hawking, called Het I'inJcehaantJe. A Stag Hunt, 
called De Ha rtenjagt. Four Landscapes and Figures ; 
all after Berchem. Four plates, of Landscapes and 
Figures. Six plates, the title having a Shepherd 
riding on an Ox and playing on the Flute, and a 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Shepherdess dancing. Four Landscapes ; on the 
title print is inscribed, Danckert X>anckeris fee. et 
exc. Etchings ; after H'ouweriJian. 

DANCKERTS, Hexdmk, a son of Justus Danck- 
erts, was born at the Hague about the year 1630. 
He was brought up as an engraver, and made copies 
of the works of Titian and Pahna, but afterwards 
was recommended to study painting, and went to 
Italy for improvement. On his return to Holland 
he acquired some reputation as a landscape painter, 
and was invited to England by Charles II., who 
employed him in painting views of the royal palaces, 
and of the sea-ports of England aud Wales. In 
the collection of James II. there were twenty-eight 
landscapes and views by this master. He died at 
Amsterdam about 1678. He engraved a few plates, 
as follow ; 

Charles II. ; after A. Ilcmneman. View of Amsterdam 
and the Y, with Shipping ; in three sheets. Views 
of Palaces and Sea-ports in England. 

DANCKERTS, Johannes, a son of Justus Danck- 
erts, resided at Amsterdam about the year 1660. 
He painted historical subjects with some skill, and 
etched a few plates, among which is one after 
Titian, representing ' Venus reclining on a Couch.' 

DANCKERTS, Justus, was a Dutch engraver 
who worked at Amsterdam. We have the following 
plates by him : 

William III., Prince of Orange, afterwards King of 
England. 

Oasimir, King of Poland. 

Seven plates of the Gates of Amsterdam. 

DANCKERTS DE RY, Cobnelis, a Dutch archi- 
tect and engraver, was born at Amsterdam in 1561. 
He established himself at Antwerp as a printseller, 
where he engraved several plates of portraits and 
other subjects, which are not without consider- 
able merit. He was still living in 1634. Among 
others, we have the following by him : 

Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. 

Jacob Wassenaer, Lord of Obsdam. 

Oomelis de Wit, with a battle in the background. 

Jean Calvin ; oval. 

John Casimir, Count of Nassau. 

Four Figures on Horseback, called the Monarchies ; 

representing Ninus, Cyrus, Alexander, and Csesar, 

with emblematical ornaments. 
Seven, of the Planets, with Emblems. 
The Seven Wonders of the World, with the same. 
Twelve, of the Sibyls ; full-length. 
Twelve, of Animals and Birds. 
Sixteen Views in Holland. 
One hundred Subjects from the Old Testament ; four 

on each plate. 
A set of Views of the Euins of Rome. 
Meleager and Atalanta ; an etching ; after li. Picon. 

DANCKERTS DE RY, Pieter, a celebrated por- 
trait and genre painter, who is supposed to have 
been the son of Cornells Daiickerts de Ry, was 
bom at Amsterdam in 1605. Several of his paint- 
ings have been engraved by W. Hondius. He 
went to Sweden, and died at Stockholm in 1659. 
There are by him in the Brussels Gallery portraits 
of Cornells Danckerts de Ry and his wife. 

DANDINI, Cesabe, was born at Florence about 
the year 1595. He was first a scholar of Francesco 
Curradi, but afterwards studied under Domenico 
Cresti, called Passignano, and Cristofano Allori. 
Under these masters he acquired a tolerable cor- 
rectness of design, and an agreeable tone of colour- 
ing. One of his best works is a picture of St. 

8 



Charles, with other Saints, in one of the churches at 
Ancona. He also painted easel and cabinet pic- 
tures, which were admired for their neatness and 
finish. He died in 1658. 

DANDINI, OttAviano, was the son of Pietro 
Dandini, and painted history in the style of his 
father. Some fresco paintings in the cloister of 
San Spirito, a picture of several Saints in San 
Lorenzo, and his works in the church of the Mag- 
dalene at Pescia, evince the respectability of his 
talent. He afterwards entered the Society of Jesus, 
and died about 1750. 

DANDINI, PiKTRO, the nephew of Vincenzo 
Dandini, was born about 1646. Having lost his 
father when he was only four years of age, he 
was taken under the protection of his uncle, who 
instructed him in the principles he had himself 
adopted of the style of Cortona. He afterwards 
travelled through great part of Italy, and improved 
himself by studying the great masters of the 
Venetian and Lombard schools. On his return to 
Florence he was patronized by the Grand Duke 
Cosmo III., for whom he painted many works in 
oil and in fresco. It is to be lamented that tlie 
avarice of this artist led him into a slight and neg- 
ligent manner of finishing his works ; a habit to 
which he was the more easily tempted by the pos- 
session of uncommon facility of execution. Lanzi 
mentions, as one of his most important works, the 
cupola of Santa Maria Maddalena, at Florence. In 
the church of Santa Maria Maggiore is a picture 
of St. Francis ; and in the church of the Servites 
is an altar-piece representing a saint of that order 
officiating at the altar. He died in 1712. 

DANDINI, Vincenzo, the brother of Cesare 
Dandini, was born at Florence in 1607. After re- 
ceiving some instruction from his brother, he went 
to Rome, where he studied some time under Pietro 
da Cortona, whose style he followed. He was an 
eminent painter of histor}', and, according to Or- 
landi, was made principal of the Academy at Rome, 
on succeeding to which appointment he painted a 
large picture which gained him great reputation. 
He returned to Florence, where he executed several 
works for the churches. In the church of Ognis- 
santi is an admired picture of 'The Conception.' 
He was employed in the palaces of the Grand- 
Duke ; in one of which he painted a ceiling, repre- 
senting ' Aurora with the Hours,' much in the style 
of Pietro da Cortona. He died at Florence in 1675. 

DANDRE-BARDON, Michel FBANgois. See 
Andre- Bardon. 

DANDRIDGE, Bartholomew, a portrait painter, 
was born in the early part of the 18th century. He 
obtained a considerable practice in the reign of 
George II., but died young, soon after the middle 
of the century. His portrait of Hook, the his- 
torian, is in the National Portrait Gallery. 

DANDRILLON, Pieere Charles, a French land- 
scape painter, was born in Paris in 1757. He was 
a pupil of De Machy, and in 1807 became professor 
of perspective in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He 
died in Paris in 1812. 

DANEDI, GiosEFFO, or Giuseppe, called Mont- 
alto, was the younger brother of Stefano Danedi, 
and was born at Treviglio in 1618. When young 
he went to Bologna, where he entered the school 
of Guido Reni. On leaving that master he settled 
at Turin, where he executed some works for the 
public edifices. Towards the latter part of Iiis life 
he joined his brother at Milan, where he was much 
employed. In the church of San Sebastiano is a 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



fine picture by this master of ' Tlie Massacre of the 
Innocents,' and in the Dresden Gallery is one of 
' St. Anthony of Padua caressing the Infant Jesus.' 
He died in 1688. 

DANEDI, Stefano, called Montalto, was born 
at Treviglio, in the Milanese, in 1608, and was a 
scholar of Cavaliere Morazzone. During a long 
residence at Milan, he painted a great number of 
pictures for the churches of that city, and in tlie 
State. One of his best works is 'The Martyrdom 
of St. Justina,' in Santa Maria in Pedone. He 
died at Milan 1689. 

DANET, Jean. See Ddvet. 

DANHAUER, — , (or Donader,) a German minia- 
ture painter, was a native of Swabia. He was the 
Bon of a watchmaker, and was brought up to his 
father's trade ; he afterwards went to Italy and 
studied painting under S. Bombelli, but this art 
he in turn abandoned for that of sculpture. He 
resided for many years in Russia, and died at St. 
Petersburg in 1733. 

DANHAUSEK, Joseph, born at Vienna in 1805, 
followed the principles of Peter Krafft. He visited 
Venice, and after his return painted genre pieces, 
which he executed in a pleasing and popular man- 
ner. From 1838 to 1844 he was corrector at the 
Academy at Vienna, where he died in 1845. Among 
his works the following are worthy of mention : 

The Eioter. 

FraDZ Liszt at the Piano. 

The Little Virtuoso. 

The Oculist. 

The Reasoner in the Public-house. 

DANIELE, Battista da San. See San Daniele. 
DANIELE, II Cavaliere. See Syder. 
DANIELE, Pellegeino da San. See San 

Daniele. 

DANIELL, Abraham, a miniature painter, was 

a native of Bath. He possessed considerable ability, 

and died in 1803. 

DANIELL, Edward Thomas, was born in London 
in 1804, but was bred at Norwich, learned drawing 
at the Grammar School there under Crome, and 
became one of the most original and interesting 
artists of the so-called Norwich school. In 1823 he 
entered Balliol College, Oxford, and after leaving 
the University spent some years in travelling. 
His etchings of English landscape executed during 
this period are full of the true etching spirit, with 
fine qualities of light and shadow, among the beet 
being his ' Burough Bridge.' With Crome and 
Cotman, Wilkie and Ged<les, he may claim the 
honour of anticipating the modern revival of 
etching — associated witli the names of Whistler 
and Seymour Haden. In London he was on terms 
of intimate friendship with Linnell, Turner, David 
Roberts, Dyce, and Stanfield. In 1840-41, fired 
by Roberts' sketches, Daniell travelled in Greece, 
Egypt, and Syria. At Smyrna he joined tlie 
expedition sent by the Government to bring home 
the antiquities discovered by Sir Charles Fellowes 
at Xanthus. Remaining with two other members 
of the party, he made a thorough survey of Asia 
Minor, and brought home a series of sixty-four 
water-colour drawings, now in the British Museum. 
Two of his landscapes in oil are in the gallery uf 
the Norwich Museum. In 1842 he rashly under- 
took a solitary expedition into Pisidia at the hottest 
season of the year, and falling ill at Adalia, died 
there on Sept. 23, at the age of thirty-eight, if. H. 

DANIELL, James, a mezzotint engraver, flour- 
ished in England towards the close of the 18th and 



' the beginning of the 19th century. The following 
works are by him : 

Nelson at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent ; after Sin- 
gleton. 
The Death of Captain Alexander Hood ; after Singleton. 
The Capture of Admiral Winter ; after Singleton. 
Samuel and Eli ; after Copley. 

DANIELL, Samuel, a landscape painter, the 
brother of William, and the nephew of Thomas 
Daniell, was born in 1775. He studied under 
Medland, and first exhibited at the lioyal Academy 
in 1792. He passed several years in Africa, return- 
ing to England in 1804. About a year after, he 
went to Ceylon, where he died in 1811. He made 
numerous drawings of tropical scenery, and pub- 
lished works on ' African Scenery and Animals,' 
1804-5, and ' The Scenery, Animals, and Native 
Inhabitants of Ceylon,' 1808. At the South Ken- 
sington Museum is a water-colour drawing by him : 
' r)eer and Birds in a Tropical Landscape.' 

DANIELL, THOMAs,was born at Kingston-upon- 
Thames in 1749, and commenced his artistic career 
as a painter of English landscape scenery, with 
some attempts at poetical composition. In 1784 
he went to India with his nephew, William Daniell ; 
they were absent about ten years, gathering ma- 
terials for their great work on ' Oriental Scenery,' 
which was published between the years 1796 and 
1815, in six volumes, the whole of which, with the 
exception of the volume of ' Excavations,' was 
executed by William. He seldom painted any but 
Indian subjects. In 1796 he was elected an A.s- 
sociate of the Royal Academy, and in 1799 an 
Academician. He died in London in 1840. The 
works of William Daniell are so blended with 
those of his uncle Thomas, that they may be con- 
sidered, artistically, as one, though some give the 
preference to the latter. 

DANIELL, William, a landscape painter, was 
born in 1769. In 1784 he went to India with liis 
uncle, Thomas Daniell, and assisted him in his 
drawings and sketches; he also engraved the views 
for the greater part of their ' Oriental Scenery.' 
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1795, 
and entered the Academy Schools in 1799. He 
was elected an Associate in 1807, and an Aca- 
demician in 1822. The British Institution awarded 
him a prize of £100 in 1826 for his ' Battle of 
Trafalgar.' In his later years he painted several 
panoramic views of India. He died in London in 
1837. Amongst the works which he published are : 

A Picturesque Voyage to India. 1810. 

Animated Nature. 18U9. 

Views of London. 1812. 

Views of Windsor Castle, Eton, and Virginia Water 

A Voyage round Great Britain. 1814-25. 

Illustrations of the Isl%nd of Staffa. 1818. 

The Oriental Annual. 1834-39. 

Mention should also be made of the following 
pictures by him : 

View of the Long Walk, Windsor {Royal Collection). 
Castel Nuovo {South Kertsini/tmi Bfuseum). 
Durham Cathedral. 1805. '{.South Kensington Museum.) 
Benares {South Kensington Museum). 

DANIELS, William, painter, born about 1812, 
was the son of a brickmaker at Liverpool. He 
studied drawing at the Liverpool Institution, and 
was then apprenticed to an engraver ou wood. 
At the close of his apprenticeship he set up 
as a painter in his native town, and might have 
risen to eminence in his art but for his fondness 
for drink and for jovial company. He died in 

9 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Liverpool, October 13, 1880. There are five 
portraits by him at South Kensington, among 
them those of George Stephenson, and Charles 
Kean as Hamlet. See 'Magazine of Art,' June 
1882. 

DANIELSKI, Jan Nepomucen, a Polish painter 
of portraits in oil and in miniature, was a native of 
Cracow. He was a pupil of Dominik Estreicher, 
and also painted some frescoes. He died at Cracow 
in 1844. 

DANKERTS. See Danckerts. 
DANKS, Frans, surnamed 'the Tortoise,' was 
born about 1660 at Amsterdam, where he died in 
1703. He painted historical subjects and portraits, 
and showed considerable talent in modelling and 
sculpture. 

DANLOUX, Henei Pierre, a French painter, 
born in Paris in 1753, was a pupil of J. B. L^picii^ 
and of Vien. On the outbreak of the French 
Revolution he came to England and remained here 
for ten years, gaining a high reputation for his 
portraits, many of which were in chalk. The 
Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge has by him the 
portrait of Louis XVIII. After liis return to 
France, he exhibited at the Salon of 1802 ' Le 
Supplice d'une Vestale,' a picture which met with 
much praise. His best work is a full-length por- 
trait of the Abbi Delille, now at Versailles. 
Danloux died in Paris in 1809. 

DANNECKER (or Danneker). See De Necker. 
DANNOOT, PiETER, was a Flemish engraver, 
who flourished about the year 1690. He engraved 
a plate representing the ' Head of Christ crowned 
with Thorns,' after Rubens, and a ' Portrait of Pfere 
Mastrille.' 

DANTAN, Joseph Edward, French painter, son 
of the sculptor Jean Pierre Dantan, and nephew of 
the sculptor Antoine Laurent Dantan, born iu Paris, 
August 20, 1848. Became pupil of Pilo for historical, 
and of Henri Lehmann for portrait painting. 
His first picture exliibited at the Salon of 1869 
was entitled 'An Episode in the Destruction of 
Pompeii.' He executed a great picture of 'The 
Holy Trinity' for the Bezin chapel at Marnes. 
He was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 
1880, and was killed in a carriage accident near 
Trouville in 1897. 

DANTE, GiROLAMO, called Girolamo di Tiziano 
(from having been a scholar of Titian and an 
assistant to him in some of his less important 
works), flourished at Venice from 1550 to 1580. 
It is said that in copying the originals of his 
master, he attained so higli a degree of excellence, 
that such of his pieces as were retouched by Titian 
hid defiance often to the judgment of the most 
expert connoisseurs. He also produced works of 
his own design ; the altar-piece attributed to him 
at San Giovanni Nuovo, representing ' SS. Cosmo 
and Damianus,' reflects credit on the school to 
which he belonged. 

DANTI, Girolamo, the younger brother of Vin- 
eenzio and Ignazio Danti, was born at Perugia in 
1547. He painted frescoes in the style of Vasari, 
and gave promise of becoming a great painter 
when his career was prematurely terminated by 
his death at Perugia in 1580. 

DANTI, Ignazio, Bishop of Alatri, whose secu- 
lar name was Pellegrino, a Dominican monk and 
cosmographer, was born st Perugia in 1536. He 
was a brother of Vincenzio Danti, tlie sculptor, 
and was instructed by his father, Giulio Danti, a 
goldsmith, and his aunt Teodora. At Florence he 
10 



painted the ' Tables of Ptolemy,' in 57 oil-pictures, 
and also produced a number of maps. Subsequently 
he was employed by Pope Gregory XIII. to de- 
corate the walls of the Vatican with geographic a 1 
delineations of ancient and modern Italy. The 
Pope having determined to complete the continu- 
ation of the Gallery of Raphael in conformity with 
the original plan, and to paint four subjects in every 
arcade of the gallery, all from the New Testament, 
Danti was employed by him to superintend the 
work ; the entire abandonment of a design to the 
direction of practical artists being found by experi- 
ence to be injurious to its execution, owing to 
the choice of their inferior assistants beiug liable 
to be governed by influence, avarice, or jealousy. 
The selection, therefore, was reserved to Danti, 
who, to an excellent practical knowledge of the 
art of design, united moral qualities that ensured 
success ; and under his direction the whole work 
was regulated and conducted in such a manner 
that the spirit of Raphael seemed to be resuscitated 
in the precincts of the Vatican. He was conse- 
crated Bishop of Alatri in 1583, and died at Rome 
in 1586. 

DANTI, Teodora, the aunt of Vincenzio and 
Ignazio Danti, is mentioned in the'Vite de' Pittori 
Perugini,' by Lione Pascoli, who states that she 
was born at Perugia in 1498. She painted small 
pictures, in imitation of the style of Pietro Peru- 
gino, and died in 1573. 

DANTI, Vincenzio, an Italian sculptor, architect, 
and poet, was born at Perugia in 1530. In 1555 
he cast in bronze the statue of Pope Julius III., 
which is still to be seen at Perugia, and is con- 
sidered to be his masterpiece. He afterwards 
went to Florence, where he was employed by 
the Grand-Duke Cosmo, and made many designs 
for the Escorial which were sent to Spain. He 
also painted historical subjects, which are but 
seldom mentioned, and died in 1576. 

DANUS, Miguel, a Spanish historical painter, 
who flourished about 1700, was a native of Ma- 
jorca. He studied first at Valencia, and afterwards 
in Italy in the school of Carlo Maratti. After an 
absence of several years he returned to his own 
country, where he painted, in the manner of his 
master, the pictures in the cloisters of the convent 
of tlie Socorro at Palma ; and others which are to 
be found in private collections in the island of 
Majorca. 

DANVIN, Victor Marie F^lix, a French 
landscape painter, was born in Paris in 1802. 
He studied successively under Lethiere, Gu^rin, 
Watelet, and Remond, and died in Paris in 1842. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Constance 
Am^lie Lambert, was born at Lille in 1810, and 
also painted landscapes. 

DANZEL, Jacques Claude, a French engraver, 
was born at Abbeville in 1735. He was a pupil of 
Beauvarlet, and engraved several plates in a firm, 
neat style. He died at Abbeville in 1809. We 
have by him the following prints : 
An old Man, half-length ; after Eemh-andt. 
Ciiresus sacrificing himself for love of Callirrhoe ; after 

Fnujonard ; his chef-d"c8uvre. 
Le Iloi boit, Le Gateau des Kois ; two plates ; after 

Ttll'Ojyh. 
Venus and Adonis ; after J. Bethon. 
Venus and .ffineas ; after A. Boi:ot. 
Alexander giving Campaspe to Apelles ; after Lagrenee. 
Socrates pronouncing his Discourse on the Immortality 

of the Soul ; after Sane. 
Roman Charity ; after N. N. Coypel. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Vulcan presenting to Venus the arms of .ffineas ; afttr 

Boucher. 
Neptune aud Amymone ; after the same. 
The Washerwoman ; after Greuze. 
The Rape of Proserpine; after Vien. 

DANZICA, Salomons di, is known by works 
which are finely and laboriously executed, and 
generally represent jocose subjects. His portrait 
by C. Gregori is in the Museo Fiorentino. He is 
said to have been brouglit up in Dantzic, from 
whence in 1695 he went to Italy. He died at 
Milan. 

DAPPER. See Tamm, Franz Werner. 

DARBY, Matthew, engraver and caricaturist, 
practised in London and at Bath in the second half 
of the 18th century. He kept a shop in the Strand 
for the sale of artists' materials, and advertised 
liimself as a teacher of engraving. Anthony 
Pasquin was one of his pupils. He also published 
comic drawings, among them some of H. W. Bun- 
bury's early works, and a series of ' Caricatures ' by 
various hands. He himself is said to have produced 
about three hundred caricatures. 

DAKCIS, J. Louis, was a French engraver, who 
died in Paris in 1801. His best works are : 

Les Incroyables ; after Carle Vernet. 

Les Merveilleuses ; after the same. 

L'Anglomaue ; after the same. 

La Course de Chevaux ; after the same. 

Marius at Minturnse ; after Drouais the younger. 

La Brouille ; after Guerin. 

Le Raccommodement ; after the same. 

DARDANI, Antonio, an Italiaji historical 
painter, was born at Bologna in 1677, and was a 
pupil of M. A. Toni and of J. Viani. He died in 
1735. 

DARDEL, Robert Guilladme, a French sculp- 
tor, and pupil of Pajou, was born in Paris in 1749> 
and died there in 1821. He engraved a ' Diana ' 
and an ' Endymion.' His wife engraved after hira 
' La Danse ' and ' La Musique.' 

DARDOIZE, Emile, French landscape painter 
of note, born in Paris in 1826. Though it was 
his boast that he was a pupil of no master, he kept 
pretty closely to French traditions, and deserves 
to be ranked with Harpignies or Pelouse. His 
interpretation of Nature was perhaps wanting in 
breadth, but his work had the merit of sincerity, 
his colour being most fresh and agreeable. Among 
his best-known works we may mention ' Solitude ' 
(in the Salon of 1869), 'Soleil Couchant' (1874), 
' Nuit Verte ' (1880), ' La Source ' (1882), ' Le Bois 
des Rossignols,' ' Le Bois Pierre' (1894), 'Les 
Tourterelles' (1895). He also contributed freijuently 
to some of the Paris illustrated publications such 
as 'L'lUustration,' ' Le Tour du Monde,' &c. His 
death occurred in Paris on October 30, 1901. 

P. P. 

DARET, Daniel, pupil of his brother James, 
was admitted free master into the Guild of Saint 
Luke at Tournay, February 10, 1440. In 1449 he 
was appointed court painter by Philip Duke of 
Burgundy, in succession to John van Eyck, since 
whose death the office had remained vacant. 

DAKET, James, native of Tournay, member of 
a family of artists, learned his art under Robert 
Campin, to whom he was apprenticed on April 12, 
1427; he was admittted free master into the Guild 
of Saint Luke on October 18, 1432, seven weeks 
after his fellow-apprentice, Roger De la Pasture. 
On the same day he was elected provost of the 
confraternity of Saint Luke. In 1441 he moved to 



Arras, where he resided until 1448 ; there he 
was chiefly employed in making designs for 
metal-work and tapestry. Amongst others he 
painted a cartoon in distemper of the Resurrec- 
tion, which occupied thirty-six yards of canvas. 
In 1454 he worked during nineteen daj's on the 
decorations for the festival held at Lille, known as 
the Vwu du Faisan ; he received as wage 8s. a day. 
In October 1459 he was back at Tournay. In 1468 
he was called to Bruges to design decorations of 
the palace for the marriage of Cliarles the Bold 
and Margaret of York ; on this occasion he received 
the high wage of 27s. a day. He returned again 
to Tournay and died shortly after. A large num- 
ber of paintings, formerly attributed to Roger De 
la Pasture, are now supposed to be by Daret. The 
chief of these are some life-size figures in the 
Staedel Institute, Frankfort, of the Most Holy 
Trinity, the Blessed Virgin, Saint Veronica (the 
original design of this is in the Fitzwilliain Mu- 
seum, Cambridge), and one wing of a Calvary 
triptych formerly in the priory church of FMmalle. 
An early copy of the triptych, with tlie added 
portrait of a donor, and figures in grisaille on the 
exterior, of SS. John Baptist and Julian, formerly 
in the Hospice of Saint Julian at Bruges, is now 
in the museum at Liverpool. 

Bibliography : De la Grange and Cloquet, 
'Etudes sur I'Art a Tournai.' 1888. 

W. H. J. W. 

DARET, Jean, a Flemish painter, was born at 
Brussels in 1613. He went to Italy, whence lie 
returned in 1638, and settled at Aix in Provence, 
where he painted many Scriptural subjects for the 
churches and convents of that city. He also 
painted portraits, and engraved a set of plates 
representing the Virtues. He died at Aix in 1668. 
There is an excellent portrait of a Magistrate by 
him in the Museum of Marseilles. His sons, 
Michel and Jean Baftiste, were painters who 
worked together. 

DARET DE CAZENEUVE, Piekre, a French 
portrait painter and engraver, was born in Paris in 
1604. After receiving some instruction in engrav- 
ing, lie went to Rome in search of improvement, 
and there passed a considerable time. He was 
received into the Academy of Painting in 1663, 
and died at the chateau of La Luque, near Dax 
(Landes) in 1678. Mariette sa3's that this artist 
began and finished his career with painting. He 
engraved upwards of four hundred plates, not 
without merit, but very deficient in taste and cor- 
rectness of drawing. They are frequently marked 
and among them are the following : 



D 



POR'J RAITS. 



Bust of Alexander the Great. 

Pc)pe Alexander YU. 

Cliarles I., King of Great Britain. 

Henri de Bourbon, Prince of Conde. 

Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, Princess of 

Conde. 
Marguerite Gaston, Duchess of Orleans. 
Vladislas IV., King of Poland. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 
St. .Tohn sittmg in the Desert with his Lamb ; after 

Guido. 
The Virgin sucliling the Infant ; after A. Carracci. 
St. Peter delivered from Prison ; after Domenichino, 
The Eutombmeut of Christ ; after Barocci. 
A Holy Family, with Angel presenting fruit to th" 

Infant Jesus ; after K Vouet. 
The Dead Christ, with the Marys ; after the same. 
St. Jerome; half-length; after Blanchari. 

11 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Thetis ordering Vulcan to forge arms for Acliilles 

after the same. 
A Charity with five Children ; after the same. 
The "Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizaheth ; after 

Corneitle. 
The Virgin and Infant ; after Sarazin. 

He also engraved one hundred small plates for a 
work entitled, ' La Doctrine des Moeurs,' after the 
designs of Otto van Veen, 1646 ; and a great num- 
ber of portraits for a publication entitled, 'Tableaux 
historiques, oil sont graves les illustres Franfois et 
Etrangers de I'un et 1' autre sexe ; par Pierre Daret, 
Louis Boisscvin, et B. Moncornet,' published in 
1652 and 1656. 

There was also a Pierre Daret, a painter upon 
vellum and in water-colours, who was living in 
1664. 

DARGENT, Michel, a Flemish miniature painter, 
wag born at Li^ge in 1761, and died in 1824. He 
possessed talent which was still more remarkable 
in his son, who was born at Liege in 1794, and died 
in the flower of youth in 1812. His daughter, 
Marie Josephe, who was born at Li^ge in 1789 
and died in 186)5, likewise painted miniatures. 

D'ARGENVILLE, Antoine Joseph Desallier. 
See Derallier d'Argenvili.e. 

DARIO DA TREVIGI. See Trevigi. 

DaRJOU, Henri Alfred, a French painter and 
draughtsman, born in Paris in 1832, was the son 
of Victor Darjou, a portrait painter of some abiHty. 
He studied under his father and under L^on 
Cogniet, and exhibited first at the Salon of 1853, 
from wliich time onwards he almost every year 
sent pictures which were for the most part of genre 
subjects. The paintings of Darjou have, however, 
done less for his reputation than the numerous 
designs which he made for the ' Illustration ' and 
the ' Monde illustre.' He died in Paris in 1874. 

DARLY, Jean Baptiste, was a French portrait 
painter, who flourished at Tours about 1530. He 
had a great reputation, and many persons came 
from distant parts in order to have their portraits 
painted by him. 

DARNSTADT, Johann Adolf, a German line- 
engraver, who was born at Auma, near Dippoldis- 
waida in Saxony, in 1768, was a scholar of Schulze 
and of Zingg. Amongst his works are an engrav- 
ing of Dresden after Hammer and Thurmayer, and 
some book illustrations. For his plates of 'Th<? 
Magi ' and ' The Magi among the Shepherds,' after 
Dietrich, he obtained the gold medal at Milan. 
He resided at Dresden, and died there in 1844. 

DASSONNEVILLE, Jacques, a French en- 
graver, was born in the harbour of St. Ouen near 
Rouen, in 1619. We have by this artist about fifty 
etchings, in the style of A. van Ostade, which, 
although by no means equal to the playful point of 
that m;iBter, are not without considerable merit. 

DASSY, Jean Joseph, a French historical and 
portrait painter, and lithographer, was born at 
Marseilles in 1796. He studied under Goubaud 
and Girodet-Trioson, and commenced exhibiting at 
the Paris Salon in 1819. There are several pictures 
by him at Versailles, among which are 'The Battle 
of Saucourt' and 'Charibert.' He died at Mar- 
seilles in 1865. 

DASVELT, Jan, a Dutch landscape painter, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1770. He was a pujiil 
of Hendrik Stukvisch, and, although at first only 
an amateur, he soon acquired the reputation of 
being a good artist. He excelled especially in the 
manner in which he painted the dogs which he 

12 



introduced into his pictures. He died at Amster- 
dam in 1855. 

DATHAN, Georg, was born at Mannheim in 
1703. He excelled in painting portraits and his- 
torical subjects. One of his best works, an 'Allegory 
upon the marriage of the Dauphin, son of Louis 
XV., with the Princess Marie Josephine of Poland,' 
is in the Dresden Gallery. 

DATI, CosiMo. See Daddi. 

DATTI, Natalis, was an Italian engraver, who 
flourished at Ravenna in the early part of the 16th 
century, to whom Zani, without giving any proof, 
assigns the very few plates which bear the signa- 
ture NA. DAT. and the device of a rat-trap, on 
account of which the artist is often called, The 
Master of the Rat-trap. The prints thus marked 
are small and executed entirely with the graver. 
From the resemblance of the stylo of Dati to that 
afterwards adopted by Theodor De Bry, it is pro- 
bable that the latter was his pupil. Bartsch and 
Passavant mention the following prints by him : 

The Virgin and Child, with St. Anne ; in an arch to 
the right is the Angel appearing to St. Joseph, and 
to the left an Angel appearing to St. Joachim. 

The Battle of Ravenna. 1512. 

Two Monstrous Children joined back to back. 

DAUBIGNY, Charles Francois, one of the most 
distinguished French landscape painters and etch- 
ers of recent years, was born in Paris in 1817. He 
was the son of Edme Francois Daubigny, under 
whose tuition he painted boxes, clock-cases, and 
other articles of commerce. At the age of eighteen 
he visited Italy, and on his return to France in the 
following year he entered the studio of Paul Dela- 
roche. He first exhibited at the Salon of 1838, and 
obtained medals in 1848 and 1853, besides medals 
at the Paris Universal Exhibitions of 1855 and 
1867. His etchings are characterized by their 
purity and effect. Several of them appeared in 
Curmer's ' Jardin desPlantes' and 'Beaux Arts,' 
and in the ' Artiste ; ' but the best are ' Le Buisson ' 
and ' Le Coup de Soleil,' after the pictures of Ruis- 
dael in the Louvre. Daubigny died in Paris in 
1878. He excelled in river scenes, which he often 
painted from a barge fitted up as a floating studio. 
Amongst his best works are : 

The Seine at Bezons. 1840. 
The Harvest. 1852. 
Sunrise. (In the Lille Museum.) 
The Pool of Gylien. 18<i3. 

Sluice in the Valley of Optevoz. 1855. (In the Luxem- 
bourg Gallery.) 
The Banks of the Oise. 1861. 

The Vintage. 1863. (In the Luxembourg Gallery.) 
Windmills at Dordrecht. 1872. 
Moonrise. 1877. 

Fuller details respecting this artist may be found 
in Henriet's ' C. Daubigny et son oeuvre grave,' 
Paris, 1875, 8vo. 

DAUBIGNY, Edme Fran(;'OIS, a French land- 
scape painter, was a pupil of Victor Berlin. He 
was born in Paris in 1789, and died there in 1843. 
His favourite subjects were views in Italy and in 
the environs of Paris. 

DAUBIGNY, Karl Pierre, the son of the 
famous landscape painter, was a pupil and imitator 
of his father, and painted the same class of subjects. 
Born in Paris in 1846, he gained medals in 1868 
and 1874, and died in May 1886. 

DAUBIGNY, PlERRE,aFrenchminiature painter, 
was the brother of Edme Frangois Daubigny, and 
a pupil of Aubry. He was born in Paris in 1793, 



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEKS. 



and died there in 1868. His wife, Amelie Dautel, 
was likewise a miniature painter, and a pupil of 
Aubry and of Granger. She was born in 1796 in 
Paris, where she died in 1861. 

DAUDET, Robert, a French engraver of land- 
scapes in line, was born at Lyons in 1737. He 
was the son of Robert Daudet, an engraver and 
printseller, who in 1766 sent him to Paris, whtre 
he studied under Balechou, and afterwards became 
the favourite pupil of J. G. Wille. He died in 
1824. His best works are as follow : 

Two LandscapeSjWith Figures and Cattle; after Berchem. 

An Italian Landscape, with Figures and Cattle ; after 
Both and Berchem. 

Going out to the Chase; after A. van Ostade and 
Hacke)'t. 

A Stag-Hunt ; after Wmiwerman. 

Italian Ruins ; after C. Poelemburg. 

Ruins of Palmyra ; after Cassas. 

Combat ot Horsemen ; after fan der Meulen. 

The Corsican Fishermen ; after Joseph Vernet. 

The Young "Washerwomen ; after the same. 

Roman Ruins ; two plates, after IHetrich. 

Evening ; after the same. 

Two Views of Pirna, in Saxony. 

DAULLE, Jean, a French engraver, was born 
at Abbeville in 1703. He received his first lessons 
in engraving from Doni Robart, a monk of the 
priory of St. Peter at Abbeville, and afterwards 
went to Paris, where his fellow-citizen, Robert 
Hecquet, taught him what little he himself knew. 
His merit did not remain long unnoticed, and he 
was received into the Academy in 1742. He died 
in Paris in 1763. After his death some of his 
engravings were published by his widow as his 
'CEuvre.' He engraved several portraits and plates 
of historical and other subjects, which are chiefly 
executed with the graver in a clear and firm style, 
which entitles him to rank with the ablest artists 
of his time. He marked his works J. D. The 
following are his principal plates : 

PORTRAITS. 
Catherine, Countess of Feuquieres, daughter of Pierre 

Mignard ; after Mifinard. 
Hyacinthe Rigaud, painter ; after Rujaiid ; engraved 

for his reception at the Academy in 1742. 
Marguerite de Valois, Countess of Caylus ; after the 

same. 
Charles Edward Stuart, son of the Pretender. 
Clementina, Princess of Poland, his consort ; after 

David. 
Mad.^me Favart, in the part ot ' Bastienne ; ' after 

Carle van Loo. 
Claude Deshayes Gendron, oculist ; after Rigaud. 
Jean Baptists Rousseau ; after Aved. 
Jean Mariette, engraver ; after Pesne. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Magdalen ; after Correggio ; for the Dresden 

Gallery. 
Diogenes with his Lantern ; after Spagnoletto ; for the 

same. 
Quos Ego ; after Rubens. 
The Two Sons of Rubens; after the same; for the 

Dresden Gallery. 
Neptune appeasing the Tempest ; after the same. 
Charity with Three Children ; after Albam, 
The Triumph of Venus ; after Boucher. 
Latona ; after J. Jout-enet. 
Four Marine subjects ; after Joseph Vernet. 
The Bath of Venus ; after Raoux. 
Two subjects ; after G. Metsu. 
Jupiter and Calisto ; after N. Poussin. 
St. Margaret ; after Correggio. 
Child playing with Cupid ; after Van JDgck. 

A detailed account of this artist's works is 
contained in Deligniere's ' Catalogue raisonne de 



rCEuvre grave de Jean DaulI6 d' Abbeville,' 1872, 
8vo. 

DAUMIER, HoNOR^, a French caricaturist and 
painter, was born at Marseilles in 1808. His most 
celebrated work was the series of ' Robert Macaire,' 
published in the ' Charivari.' No one ever repre- 
sented with greater truth the varied types of 
Parisian character. He became blind in 1877, and 
died in 1879 at Valmondois ( Seine- et-Oise) in a 
house given him by Corot, the landscape painter. 

DAUPHIN, Charles Claude, (or Dofin.) called 
in Italian Delkino, a French painter of historical 
subjects and portraits, was the son of Olivier 
Dauphin. He went to Turin about the year 1664, 
and worked there for the Prince of Carignaiio. 
He was also employed for the churches, but his 
works are in no great estimation, abounding as 
they do with the most ridiculous absurdities. In 
the church of San Carlo is an altar-piece by him, 
described by Lanzi as a most ludicrous composi- 
tion. He died in 1677. 

DAUPHIN, FRANgois Gustave, a French his- 
torical painter, was born at Belfort in 1804. He 
was a pupil of Hersent, and executed Scriptural 
subjects, and occasionally portraits. He died in 
Paris in 1859. 

DAUPHIN, Olivier, (or Dofin,) called in Italian 
Delfino, a French painter and engraver, was born 
in Lorraine in the early part of the 17th century. 
He was instructed by Simon Vouet, and worked, 
in particular, at the court of Modena. He etched 
several plates after the Carracci and other masters, 
but nothing is known of his works as a painter. 
He died at Bologna in 1693. 

DAUPHIN DE BEAUVAIS, Charles Nicolas, 
the son of Nicolas Dauphin de Beauvais, was borir 
in Paris in 1730, and was instructed in the art of 
engraving by his father. He died in 1783. 
Amongst other plates he engraved the following : 

Portrait of Just Aurele Meissonnier, architect. 
Le Sommeil iuterrompu ; after F. Boucher. 
Map of the Empire of Alexander. 

DAUPHIN DE BEAUVAIS, Jacques Philippe, 
the eldest son of Nicolas Dauphin de Beauvais, 
was a sculptor, who engraved three ' Livres de 
Vases ' and some views of Venice. He was born 
in 1738, and died in Paris in 1781. 

DAUPHIN DE BEAUVAIS, Nicolas, was bom 
in Paris in 1687. He learned the art of engraving 
under Jean Audran, and his works are held in 
considerable estimation. It is probable that he 
passed some time in England, as he engraved a 
part of the frescoes of tlie dome of St. Paul's, after 
Sir James Thornhill. He died in Paris in 1753. 
We have also by him : 

The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after J. Andre. 

All Saints ; after the same. 

The Resurrection ; after P. J. Cazes. 

The Four Seasons ; after the same ; four plates, en- 
graved conjointly with Besplaces. 

The Madonna of St. George ; after Correggio ; for the 
Dresden Gallery. 

St. Jerome ; after Van Dyck ; for the same. 

The Burning of jEneas's Ships, and their Metamorphosis 
into Nymphs ; after Coi/pel. 

The Companion, a subject from the Life of .Sneas ; 
after the same. 

Monument of William, Earl Cowper. 

Cupid stealing Jupiter's Thunderbolts ; after Le Sueur. 

St. Mary Magdalen in the Desert; afterB.Luti; for 
the Orozat Collection. 

The Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne ; after A'. Poussin. 

DAUTEL, Amelie. See Daubigny. 

13 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



DAUZATS, Adkien, a French landscape and 
genre painter, was born at Bordeaux in 180-t. He 
became a pupil of Gu6, and afterwards travelled in 
France, Spain, Egypt, and Palestine, for the purpose 
of making illustrations for Baron Taylor's ' Voy- 
ages pittoresques et romantiques de rancieniie 
France,' 1820-63; 'Voyage pittoresque en Es- 
pagne, en Portugal, et sur la cote d'Afrique, de 
Tanger a Tetouan,' 1826-32 ; ' La Syrie, I'Egypte, 
la Palestine et la Judee,' 1835-39, and other books. 
He was a frequent exhibitor at the Salon of genre 
subjects and interiors of churches, and was also a 
lithographer. He died in Paris in 1868. 

DAVENPORT, Samdel, an English engraver, 
was born at Bedford in 1783. He was articled to 
Charles Warren, and worked much at book illustra- 
tion, after Shenton, Corbould, and others. He 
also engraved many portraits, and was one of the 
first to practise engraving on steel. He died in 
1867. 
DA VENT, Leonard. See Thiky. 
DAVID, Charles, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris about 1600. It is not ascertained by whom 
he was instructed, but he ranks as an estimable 
artist among the engravers of his time. The exact 
date of his death is not known, but it was neither 
earlier than 1636, nor later than 1638. His plates 
are executed with the graver in a clear, firm man- 
ner, and his drawing is tolerably correct. His 
prints are held in considerable estimation. He 
usually marked his plates C- D. or C. D. F. The 
following are by him : 

Ecce Homo, or Christ shown to the People by Pilate. 

The Virgin and Infant with Angels ; after J. B.- de 
Champaigne. 

The Virgin with St. Bernard ; after P. de Chamjmiyne. 

Wisdom awaking a Man sleeping ; after the same, 

A Nurse carrying a Child ; with six verses. 

The Eonian Charity. 

Twelve plates of the Labours of Hercules ; after Frans 
Floris. 

Sixteen plates of the Cries of Eome ; after Villamena ; 
copied with such exactness that they may easily be 
mistaken for the originals. 

A set of Landscapes; after Ttf. and P. BriL 

A Man with a Snail on his Finger, with a Goat wearing 
a Crown of Snails on its Head ; after Calloi. 

DAVID, Charles, a French miniature painter, 
was born at Avignon in 1798. He was the brother 
of the eminent composer F^licien David, and was 
also a musician. He died at Avignon in 1869. 

DAVID, Claude, a French sculptor and engraver, 
was a native of Franche-Comt^. He was in Eng- 
land in 1720, and is noticed by Vertue as having 
engraved a plate from a model of a fountain 
intended to have been erected at the conduit in 
Cheapside, and comprising statues of Queen Anne 
and the Duke of Marlborough on horseback, with 
River Gods. 

DAVID, Franqois Anne, a French line-engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1741, and died in the same 
city in 1824. He was a pupil of Le Bas, and en- 
graved several portraits and other subjects in a 
neat, finished style ; among them are the following : 

PORTRAITS. 
Louis Stanislas Savier, Monsieur, afterwards Louis 

XVIII. ; after llrouais. 
Louis XVIli. ; full-length, in his robes ; after himself. 
Denis Diderot ; after L. M. ran Loo. 
Cesar Gabriel de Choiseul. Due de Praslin ; after Hofliii. 
Catharine II., Empress of Kussia ; after Mile. Lurameau. 
Gaspard Netscher, painter, his AYife and Son; after 

Netscher. 
Charles I. of England with his Family; after Van 

Dyck. I 

14 



SnBJECTS AF]EB VARIOUS MASTERS. 
Adam and Eve in Paradise ; after Santerre. 
Christ crowned with thorns ; after Titian. 
St. Cecilia ; after Raphael. 
The Dutch Sportsman ; after G. Metsu. 
The Green-Market at Amsterdam ; after the same. 
The Quack Doctor ; after Earel Du Jardin. 
The Bull ; after Paul' Potter. 

Two Views of the Gulf of Venice ; after Joseph Vernet. 
Two Views near Dunkirk ; after the same. 

DAVID, Gheeraert. Although the name of 
this painter appears to have been known to Guioci- 
ardini, Sanderus, and otlier early writers, it was 
completely lost in later times until 1860. Re- 
searches in the archives of Bruges proved that 
this 'Gerard, son of John, son of David," was a 
native of Oudewater in South Holland ; that he 
settled in Bruges in 1483, and on the 14th of 
January, 1484, was admitted as master-painter into 
the Guild of Saint Luke, and paid the usual entrance 
fee of £6. David soon acquired a good position 
in Bruges, for in 1488 we find him fourth 'vinder' 
of his guild, in 1495 and 1498 first ' vinder,' and in 
1501 ' dean," a proof that he then stood at the top 
of his profession in Bruges. In 1496, or very 
shortly after, he married Cornelia, daughter of 
James Cnoop, dean of the Guild of Goldsmiths. 
David was also a miniaturist, and as such a member 
of the Booksellers' Guild. He was also a member of 
the confraternity of ' Our Lady of the Dry Tree.' 
He was a pious and charitable man, and attained 
a great reputation both as painter and miniaturist. 
He was in good circumstances, for besides the 
house in which he lived, he rented three others as 
workshops. In 1509 he completed the picture now 
in the Museum of Rouen, and presented it as a 
gift to the convent of the Carmelites of Sion at 
Bruges. This beautiful altar-piece represents the 
Virgin and Cliild seated in the midst of angels and 
a cornpany of virgin saints. In the background to 
the right the painter has introduced his own figure, 
while his wife stands similarly placed on the left. 
The convent was suppressed by the Emperor 
Joseph in 1783, and the altar-piece sold ; it after- 
wards passed into tlie Rouen Museum. David 
died on the 13th of August, 1523, as certified by 
the register of his burial in Notre-Dame at Bruges, 
where he was laid to rest beneath the tower, his 
gravestone bearing escutcheons charged with his 
own and his wife's arms. 

It is not known where Gerard learned his art, 
but most probably at Haarlem, or under Dirk 
Bouts, hut the composition and colouring of his 
earliest known pictures show that before settling 
in Bruges he had travelled in Italy and come 
under the influence of the Venetian school, prob- 
ably of Carpaccio. Certain details such as the 
amorini, the garlands of fruit and flowers, and the 
Medicean cameos reproduced in these prove hini 
to have visited Florence. His works were formerly 
often attributed to Memlinc, with whose style they 
have a certain affinity. David lived in Bruges for 
forty years, and received many commissions not 
only from the magistrates and citizens of that city, 
but also from France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. 
He is reckoned among the most esteemed Nether- 
landish painters, remarkable among other qualities 
for his careful and truthful painting of land- 
scape. Some critics suppose indeed that his 
landscape backgrounds were executed by Joachim 
Patenir. His best authenticated works are as 
follow : 



GHEERARDT DAVID 




lianfstan^^i photo'^ 



\_Naliottal GalUty, London 



A CANON AND HIS PATRON SAINTS 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



The Judgment of Cambyses, and the Punishment of 
Sisamnes ; commissioned by the Magistrates of Bruges 
in 1488 and completed in 1498 («o«.- in the Museum 
of Bruges). 

The Blessed Virgin and Child, SS. Barbara, Mary 
Magdalene, and Katherine, and Richard De Visch 
Van der Capelle, cantor of the collegiate church of S. 
Donatian. It was painted in 1501 for the altar of S. 
Katherine in that church. 

A Canon protected by three Saints {now in the National 
Gallery). This painting was formerly the right wing 
of an altar-piece in the church of S. Donatian at 
Bruges. It was completed in 1501-2 for a certain 
Bemardin de Salviatis, the illegitimate son of a rich 
Florentine merchant, who held the office of Canon in 
the church, and is represented with three patron 
saints— SS. Donatian, Bernardine of Siena, and 
Martin of Tours. The landscape background in this 
picture is a good example of his treatment ; indeed, 
the picture altogether afford.s English students an 
excellent opportunity of judging this master, for it 
is a characteristic work, and well preserved. 

The Baptism of Christ ; a fine triptych, containing 
portraits of the donor's family. 1501-8 (in the 
Museum of Brutjes). 

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, S. Andrew, and 
S. Katherine (at Grancey le Chdtean ; Cute d'Or). 

The Virgin and Child, with Saints (altar-piece, in the 
Rouen Museum). 

S. Michael expelling the fallen angels from heaven; 
SS. Jerome, Anthony of Padua, Sebastian, Julitta, 
and Cyriacus (Imperial Gallery, Henna). 

Six panels representing three scenes in the life of S. 
Nicholas, and three in that of S. Anthony of Padua; 
formerly in the possession of Cardinal Despuig, at 
Palma, in Majorca (now in the possession of Lady 
Wantage). 

The Blesised Virgin and Child enthroned ; S. Jerome 
and S. Benedict (Municipal Palace, Genoa). 

The Carriage of the Cross and the Resurrection ; on 
the reverse, the Annunciation, in grisaille (in the 
possession of M. R. Kann, Paris). 

The Deposition from the Cross; a triptych in the 
church of S. Basil at Bruges (authenticity contested). 

These are about the only paintings that can with 
certainty be attributed to David, although many 
others are now assigned to him by critics. 

Bibliography: Weale : ' Le Beffroi,' vols, i., ii.. 
and iii. ; 'Gazette des Beaux Arts,' vols. xx. and 
xxi. ; 'Gerard David, Painter and Illuminator,' 
London, 1895. W. H. J. W. 

DAVID, Jacques Louis, an eminent French his- 
torical painter, was born at Pari.s in 1748. His father 
lost his life in a duel, and the care of his early years 
devolved on his mother, who intended that he 
should follow the profession of an architect. By 
the advice, however, of his uncle Boucher, from 
whom he received his first instruction, he became 
a pupil of Vien at the age of twenty-one. His 
master does not appear to have behaved altogether 
well to him, for, owing to pique, he prevented his 
obtaining the 'prix de Rome' in 1771. In the two 
following years he competed unsucces.sfully, and 
it was not till 1774 that lie obtained the blue ribbon 
of French art. In the next year he set out for 
Rome, accompanying Vien, who had just been ap- 
pointed director of the French Academy in that 
city. While in Italy he painted but few pictures, 
directing his attention sedulously to drawing from 
the antique. He returned to France in 1780, and 
his ' Belisarius ' procured his election at the Academy, 
for his admission into which, in 1783, he painted the 
' Death of Hector.' Shortly afterwards he married, 
and again visited Italy, and also Flanders. It wag 
during this period that he painted 'The Oath of 
the Horatii,' ' Brutus,' and other works of a similar 
character, which were the first steps in the classic 
movement of which he was the prophet, and which 



exercised an influence, not only on the politics, 
but even on the furniture and passing fashions 
of the_ day. Elected in 1792 a representative of 
Paris in the Convention, he sided with the extreme 
party of Robespierre, after whose fall he was twice 
thrown into prison, and narrowly escaped with 
his life. On his release, in 1795, he considered 
it prudent to abandon politics, and to devote him- 
self to art. He was one of the original members 
of the Institute, in connection with which he be- 
came acquainted with the first Napoleon, who ever 
proved himself his warm friend and patron. He 
made David his first painter, and gave him many 
important commissions, such as the pictures of his 
' Coronation,' the ' Distribution of the Eagles,' &c. 
This friendship effected a strange metamorphosis 
in the politics of the painter, for from an ardent 
republican he became an equally staTTch imperialist, 
80 that, on the restoration of the Bourbons, he 
Bought refuge at Brussels. In this city he remained, 
notwithstanding an offer from the King of Prussia 
of the directorship of Fine Arts at Berlin, until his 
death in 1825. The influence of David on the 
French school was very great. He rescued it from 
the littleness and trivialities to which it had been 
reduced by the followers of the Watteau school ; 
but, on the other hand, he established a despotism, 
which in several respects was baneful to the pro- 
gress of art. For many years he reigned with an 
absolute supremacy, and amongst his pupils and 
disciples were Girodet, Gros, Gerard, the elder 
Isabey, Leopold Robert, Abel de Pujol, and Ingres. 
It was not until the rise of the Romantic school, 
under the leadership of Giricault and Delacroix, 
that any real opposition was offered to the all- 
prevalent classicism. David's chief excellence is 
in the correctness of his drawing, which, however, 
it must be said, frequently becomes hard and 
statuesque, whilst his weakness is most apparent 
in his treatment of light and in his colouring, which 
is monotonous and frequently unpleasant. The 
following is a list of his chief works : 

Avignon, Museum, Death of Joseph Barra. Cher- 
bourg, Museum, Philoctetes in the Island of Lemnos. 
DubUn, National Gallery, Death of Milo. Lille, 
Museum, Belisarius asking alms, 1780. Montpellier, 
Museum, Portrait of Alphonse Leroy ; Portrait of 
M. de Joubert (sketch) ; Three studies. Nantes, 
Museum, Death of Cleonice (sketch). Paris, Louvre, 
Leonidas at Thermopylae, 1814 ; The Sabine Women, 
1799 ; The Oath of the Horatii, 1784 ; Brutus, 1789 ; 
Belisarius asking alms, 1784 ; Combat of Minerva and 
Mars, 1711; The Loves of Paris and Helen, 1788; 
Academic figure, 1779; Portrait of himself when 
young (sketch); Portrait of M. Pecoul, 1783 ; Portrait 
of Madame Pecoul ; Portrait of Pope Pius VII., 1805 ; 
Portrait of Madame R&amier (sketch) ; Portrait of 
Bailly (sketch); Comedie Franr,aise, Portrait of 
Mademoiselle Joly. Rouen, Museum, Portrait of 
Mme. Vigee Le Brun. Valence, Museum, Ugohno. 
Versailles, Jtuseutn, Bonaparte crossing Mount St. 
Bernard, 1805; The Coronation of Napoleon I. and 
the Empress Josephine, 1808 ; The Oath of the 
Army at the Champ de Mars, 1810; Portrait of 
Barere (unfinished), 1190; Portrait of Pius VII. (a 
replica of the Louvre picture). Warwick, Castle, 
Portrait of Napoleon I. 0. J. D. 

DAVID, Jean Louis, a French painter in water- 
colours, was born in Paris in 1791. He executed 
chiefly military subjects and landscapes, and died 
in Paris in 1868. 

DAVID, JEROME, a French engraver, brother to 
Charles David, was born in Paris about the year 
1638, and died at Rome about 1670. He engraved 
a considerable number of plates in the same style 

15 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 






as his brother, many of them being portraits. The 
work o£ the two brothers consists of about two 
hundred and twenty prints. Jerome marked his 
plates either with the letters H. D. F., or with the 

cipher r-W^ O"" [=[0) ^^ have by him : 

Charles I., King of England, on horseback. Henrietta 
Maria, his Queen, on horseback. Anne, Queen of 
France. Gaston, Duke of Orleans. CarJinal 
Richelieu. Giovanni Battista Montano, sculptor, 
1621. The Heads of the Philosophers, thirty-sis 
plates from his own designs. Adam and Eve driven 
from Paradise ; after himself. Christ bearing the 
Cross ; after Ercole Ferrata, 1630. Ecce Homo ; 
after Guercino. The Virgin of the Rosary ; after 
Guido, 1633. The Assumption of the Virgin ; after 
Camillo Procaccino. St. Francis of Paolo ; after 
Hobert Picou, 

DAVID, LoDOVico Antonio, was born at Liisjano 
in 1648. After studying for some time at Milan, 
under the Cavaliere Cairo and Ercole Procaccini, he 
went to Bologna, where he entered the school of 
Carlo Cignani. In the church of San Silvestro, in 
Venice, is a picture by him of the Nativity. 

DAVID, LooiS, a French engraver, was a native 
of Avignon, who worked there and at 
Rome from 1665 to 1706. We have by 
him an upright plate of the ' Descent 
from the Cross,' marked with the cipher 

DAVID, Maxime, a French miniature painter, 
was born at ChSlons-sur-Mame in 1798. He was 
a pupil of Madame de Mirbel, and died at Passy in 
1870. Three portraits of Abd-el-Kader by him are 
in the Luxembourg. 

DAVIDSON, George Dutch, the only child of 
Dundee parents, was born in 1879. A severe ill- 
ness in his seventeenth year left him an invalid, 
and for amusement he attended drawing classes. 
Enthusiastic in his new interest, he worked as 
hard as strength permitted, drawing from the 
antique and from life, and, in 1898, completed in 
water-colour his first symbolical design, ' Envy.' 
He studied Celtic ornament, and its spirit appears 
in several designs. In 1899 he visited London, 
where the early Italian masters and the Greek 
lyases most impressed him. After a short resi- 
dence in Antwerp he went to Italy and remained 
some months, chietly in Florence. Ciniabue, Gaddi, 
Memmi, Giotto, and Angelico were his constant 
study. On his return he took a studio in Dundee, 
and worked happily for a few months until, quite 
suddenly, he died, early in January 1901. His 
character was one of great sweetness, and his work 
corresponds. Refined and delicate pen drawings, 
a few lovely water-colours instinct with the early 
Italian spirit, and designs for embroidery make up 
a life-work of rare accomplishment and yet 
rarer promise. Ancient stories and beliefs, Omar 
Khayyim, and Celtic romance furnished his chief 
subjects. A memorial volume with collotype re- 
productions of his works was published in Dundee 
in 1902. J. H. W. L 

DAVIDSON, Jeremiah, a Scottish portrait 
painter, was bom in England, of Scotch parentage, 
about 1695. He had a large practice both in Edin- 
burgh and in London, and died in 1745. A por- 
trait of Richard Cooper, the engraver, by him, is 
in the National Gallery of Scotland, and a por- 
trait of Admiral Byng is in Greenwich Hospital. 
Roubiliac's statue of President Forbes in the 
Parliament House, Edinburgh, is after a portrait 
by him. 

DAVIN, C^SABiNE Henbiette Flore, a French 

16 



painter of portraits and miniatures, whose maiden 
name was Mirvault, was born in Paris in 1773. 
She studied under Suv^e, David, and Augustin, 
and afterwards established a school of drawing 
;ind painting, in which she had many pupils. 
Madame Davin died in Paris in 1844. 

DAVIS, Edward le. See Le Davis. 

DAVIS, J. P., a portrait and subject painter, 
first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1811. In 
1824 he went to Rome, and painted 'The Talbot 
Family receiving the Papal Benediction : ' whence 
his cognomen of ' Pope Davis.' He next year 
received a prize of £50 from the British Institution. 
With his friend Haydon, he was a great opponent 
of the Academy, where he did not exhibit after 
1843. He died in 1862, and after his death was 
published his ' Thoughts on Great Painters.' His 
best-known work is ' The Love-Letter,' exhibited 
at the British Institution in 1826. 

DAVIS, John Scarlett, a subject painter, was 
born at Hereford in the beginning of the 19th 
century. He studied and spent much time abroad. 
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1825 
with ' My Den,' and his views of the interiors of 
public buildings had considerable success ; but he 
fell into dissipated habits, and died soon after 1841. 
At the South Kensington Museum is a water-colour 
drawing by him of the ' Porte St. Martin, Paris.' 

DAVIS, Richard Barrett, an animal and land- 
scape painter, was born at Watford in 1782. He 
studied under Evans of Eton, under Beechey, 
and in the schools of the Royal Academy, where 
he first exhibited in 1802. He joined the Society 
of British Artists in 1829, and was appointed 
animal painter to William IV. in 1831. He died 
in 1854. Amongst his works are : 

Mares and Foals from the Royal Stud, 1806. Going 
to Market, 1814. Horse Fair, 1821. Travellers 
attacked by "Wolves, 1831. Near Virginia Water 
{South Kensington). 

DAVIS, William, a landscape painter, was born 
at Dublin in 1812. Having studied at the Dublin 
Academy of Arts, he afterwards came to Liverpool, 
where he at first practised as a portrait-painter. 
After some time he was elected a member of the 
Liverpool Academy, in which institution he was 
appointed Professor of Painting, having by this 
date almost entirely devoted himself to landscape. 
He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1851, and 
was from that time an occasional contributor. A 
picture by him called ' Harrowing ' was also in the 
international Exhibition of 1862. His landscapes 
show a trutlif ul feeling for nature, and are highly 
finished, though somewhat varying in merit. He 
died in London in 1873. 

DAWE, George, a portrait painter, was born in 
London in 1781. He was the son of Philip Dawe, 
the mezzotint-engraver, by whom he was brought 
up to his own branch of art, but he abandoned it 
for painting, after having executed a few plates of 
great merit. In 1819 he went to Russia, where 
lie painted for the Emperor about 400 portraits 
of the chiefs of the Russian army, who had, with 
the assistance of the snow, vanquished Napoleon. 
He became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 
1809, and an Academician in 1814. He made 
much money by his expedition to Russia, but did 
not live to enjoy it ; for he died six weeks after 
his return to England in 1829, and was buried in 
St. Paul's Cathedral. His portraits are reckoned 
good likenesses of the persons, but not expressive 
of character. 



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



DA WE, Henry, an engraver and subject painter, 
was bom at Kentish Town, near London, in 1790. 
He was taught by his father, Philip Dawe, the 
engraver, and he also studied in the schools of the 
Roy.-il Academy. He assisted Turner in the ' Liber 
Studiorum,' and mezzotinted many of his brother's 
portraits. As a painter, he exhibited at the Society 
of British Artists, of which he was elected a membeV 
in 1830. He died at Windsor in 1848. 

DAWE, Philip, an engraver in mezzotint, worked 
under Hogarth about 1760, and must have died 
about the end of the century. He engraved several 
subjects after George Heury Norland, and among 
other portraits by him we have those of Mrs. 
Yates, in the character of Electra, after Cotes, and 
Admiral Sir Charles Hardy, after Hudson. 

DAWSON, Henry, a landscape painter, was 
born in Hull in 1811, but came with his parents 
to Nottingham when an infant, so that he always 
regarded the latter as his native town. His parents 
were poor, and he began life in a Nottingham lace 
factory. But even while engaged in lace-making 
he continued to find time for art, and used to paint 
small pictures, which he sold at first for about half- 
a-crown each. In 1835 he gave up the lace trade 
and set up as an artist, his earliest patron being 
a hairdresser in Nottingham, who possessed a taste 
for art. In 1844 he removed to Liverpool, where 
after a time he got into greater repute, and received 
higher prices for his works. In 1849 he came with 
his family to London, and settled at Croydon, where 
BOme of his best pictures were painted. Among 
these may be reckoned ' The Wooden Walls of Old 
England,' exhibited at the British Institution in 
1853, 'The Rainbow,' 'The Rainbow at Sea,' 'London 
Bridge,' and ' London at Sunrise. ' With the ex- 
ception of six lessons from Pyne received in 1838, 
Henry Dawson was entirely a self-taught artist, and 
his art shows much originality and careful realism. 
He studied nature for himself, but he seems in 
later life to have been moved by Turner's influence 
to try more brilliant effects than he had before 
dared. Many of his works indeed are very Tumer- 
esque in treatment, though he can scarcely be called 
an imitator of Turner, for he had a distinct style of 
his own. Henry Dawson, though painting much, 
and selling his pictures for high prices in his later 
life, remained, strange to say, very little known 
except to artists and connoisseurs until the large 
and very interesting collection of his works that 
was made for the Nottingham Exhibition in 1878 
brought him wider fame. This exhibition showed 
him to be a genuine English landscape painter, of 
no great imaginative or intellectual power, but 
who delighted in nature, and represented her faith- 
fully to the best of his ability. He died in Decem- 
ber, 1878, at Chiswick, where he had for some time 
resided. M.M.H. 

DAX, Paul, was born in 1503, in the Tyrol. He 
led a very unsteady life, and after having gained 
reputation as a painter, he gave up art, and entered 
the army, engaging in several campaigns and 
the sieges of Naples, Florence, and Vienna. In 
1530 he devoted himself to glass-painting, and his 
works, which are of considerable merit, are now in 
the court-house of Innsbruck, and in the town-hall 
at Ensisheim, Alsace. He also published several 
maps of his country. His death occurred in 1561. 
Day, Alexander, a miniature painter, was born 
in 1772. He resided for several years in Rome, 
whence he brought with him on his return to Eng- 
land in 1800 many fine works by the old masters, 
VOL. IL C 



\yhich passed into the Angerstein and other collec- 
tions. Among these were Titian's ' Rape of Gany- 
mede 'and 'Venus and Adonis,' Raphael's ' St Catha- 
nne' and 'Madonna. Infant Christ, and St. John' 
(the Garvagh Raphael), Leonardo da Vinci's ' Christ 
disputing with the Doctors,' Domenichino's 'St 
Jerome and the Angel,' Annibale Carracci's ' Christ 
appearing to Simon Peter after his Resurrection,' 
and Gaspard Poussin's 'Landscape with Abraham 
and Isaac,' which are now in the National Gallery. 
His miniatures of ladies are particularly graceful 
He died at Chelsea in 1841. 

DAY, Thomas, a miniature painter, exhibited at 
the Royal Academy between the years 1772 and 
1778. He also painted water-colour landscapes and 
drew crayon portraits. 

DAYES, Edward, a water-colour painter, was 

born m 1763. He studied under W. Pether, and 

first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1786. His 

works are topographical, drawn in Indian ink, and 

tinted, with figures introduced. He also painted 

mmiatures, and engraved in mezzotint. He died 

by his own hand in 1804. Amongst his works are : 

The Royal Proce.ssion to St. Paul's in 1789. The Trial 

of Warren Ha.stings. Buckingham House, 1790. Ely 

Oatlir(lnil,1792. Windermere. Keswick Lake. View 

of Bath l^all at South Kensington). 

His wife, wiio exhibited repeatedly at the Royal 

Academy, was also a painter of miniatures. 

DEAN, Hugh Primrose, a landscape painter, 
was born in Ireland towards the middle of the 
18th century, and was known as the ' Irish Claude.' 
Assisted by Lord Palmerston, he spent several 
years in Italy, returning in 1779. He was of un- 
principled character, and in his latter years his art 
failed him. He died about 1784. Amongst the 
\yorks he exhibited at the Spring Gardens Exhibi- 
tion and at the Royal Academy were : 

View of the Danube, 1768. View of Naples, 1775. 

Morning, 1778. Evening, 1778. Eruption of Mount 

Vesuvius, 1779. The Banks of the Tiber, 1780. 

DEAN, John, an engraver in mezzotint, was a 

pupil of Valentine Green. He scraped several 

plates of portraits and other subjects in a very 

respectable style, and died in London in 1798. The 

following are among his best works : 

James, Earl of Abercorn ; George, Lord Vernon ; after 
Gaiiisboroi(i/h. James Caulfiekl, Earl of Charlemont ; 
after Liiesi/. The son of Sir Watkin Williams 
Wynne, when a child, as St. John ; Lady Elizabeth 
Herbert, afterwards Countess of Carnarvon, with 
her son ; Lady Gertrude Fitzpatrick ; after Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of 
Derby ; after Romney. The Four Evangelists ; after 
Rubens andJordaens. St. Anthony of Padua; after 
Murillo. 

DEANE, William Wood, an architectural water- 
colour painter, was born at Islington in 1825. He 
entered the schools of the Royal Academy in 1844, 
where he gained the silver medal of that year. 
He was at the same time a member of the Insti- 
tute of British Architects, from which association 
he received two premiums. Having travelled in 
Italy, he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1853 
a view of ' St. Peter's, Rome,' and continued for 
many years an occasional contributor of archi- 
tectural subjects treated in a pictorial manner. In 
1863 he relinquished the profession of an architect, 
which he had pursued, not very successfully, and 
became an Associate of the Institute of Painters in 
Water-Colours, of which in 1867 he was made a 
member. Here he exhibited until 1870, when he 
resigned, and in the following year became an 

17 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Aeaociate of the old ' Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours.' He died in 1873. His pictures display 
individuality and sympathetic blending of colours. 

DEARMAN, Thomas, a landscape and cattle 
painter, exhibited at the Royal Academy between 
1842 and 1856. He lived at Shere, near Guildford, 
and died young about 1857. 

DE BAAN. See De Baen. 

DE BACKER, Frans, was a painter of historical 
subjects and portraits, who practised in Italy and 
Germany as a portrait painter and engraver from 
about 1704 to 1752, but it is uncertain whether he 
belonged to the Dutch or Flemish families of this 
name. There are a ' Death of Abel,' after Schoon- 
jans, and a portrait of William V., Prince of Orange, 
after A. Rotterdam, engraved by him. His own 
Portrait, painted by himself at Rome in 1721, is 
in the Uffizi at Florence. 

DE BACKER, Jaques, a Flemish historical paint- 
er, who was bom at Antwerp in 1530, was the son 
of an artist of no great celebrity, from whom he 
received his instruction in art. His father dying 
when he was young, he was taken into the employ- 
ment of a dealer in pictures, named Palermo ; on 
which account he was sometimes called Jacopo 
Palermo. Whilst in the employment of this person, 
he gained a great facility of handling, and, from 
the practice of copying the works of the great 
masters, became an excellent colourist. He, how- 
ever, painted several historical pictures from his 
own designs, which are highly praised by Van 
Mander, who states him to have been one of the 
most promising young painters of his time. Three 
works, which he particularly commends, represent 
' Adam and Eve,' a ' Charity,' and the ' Crucifixion.' 
The altar-piece of the chapel of the Plantin f amilj-, 
in the cathedral at Antwerp, was painted by this 
artist ; it represents the ' Last Judgment,' and is 
a grand composition, correctly drawn, and finely 
coloured. He died at Antwerp in 1560. 

DE BACKER, Nicolaas, who was born at 
Antwerp in 1648, came to England, and was em- 
ployed by Kneller as an assistant. He also painted 
perspective views of English churches. He died 
in London in 1689. 

DEBACQ, Charles Alexandre, a French his- 
torical and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 
1804. He became a pupil of Gros, and was greatly 
appreciated in his own countrj'. There are several 
pictures by him at Versailles. He died in Paris in 
1853. 

DE BAEN, Jacobus, the son and scholar of Jan 
De Baen, was born at the Hague in 1673. When 
he was twenty years of age he came to England, 
amongst the attendants of King William. The 
celebrity of his father, and the favour of the 
court, procured him immediate employment, and 
he painted the portraits of the Duke of Gloucester 
and several of the nobility. Notwithstanding this 
flattering encouragement, his desire of seeing Italy 
induced liim to leave England ; and on his way 
to Rome he visited Florence, and was favoured 
with the patronage of the grand-duke. On his 
arrival at Rome he applied himself with much 
diligence to the study of the works of the great 
masters, and painted some portraits and conversa- 
tion pieces, which were much esteemed. He gave 
promise of surpassing his father in the art, but 
died at Vienna at the early age of twenty-seven, 
in 1700. From his gigantic build he was called 
by his comrades ' Gladiator.' 

DE BAEN, Jan, a Dutch portrait painter, was 

18 



bom at Haarlem in 1633. After receiving some 
instruction from an uncle named Piemans, he was 
sent to Amsterdam, and placed under the care of 
Jacob Backer, with whom he remained until he 
was eighteen years of age. His success in por- 
trait painting was so great that he paid but little 
attention to the other branches of the art. King 
Charles II., who had become acquainted with his 
talents during his residence on the Continent, in- 
vited him to England, where he had the honour of 
painting that monarch, and several of the nobility. 
He died at the Hague in 1702. Jan De Baen was 
a great admirer of the works of Van Dyck, whose 
style he imitated in his pictures. He painted 
many portraits of distinguished persons of the 
time, some of which are not inferior to those of 
Van Dyck. One of his best is that of John Maurice, 
Prince of Nassau, in the Gallery of the Hague. 
Louis XIV., after conquering part of Holland, was 
desirous of having his portrait painted by De 
Baen, and sent for him to Utrecht for that purpose ; 
but the painter excused himself by observing, that 
while his country was in mourning, he could not 
think it proper for him to trace the features of her 
conqueror. 

DE BAETS, Engel, a Belgian painter of por- 
traits and architectural subjects, was born at 
Everghem in 1794. He executed a great number 
of pictures, most of them views in Ghent and its 
environs, which are much esteemed. He died at 
Ghent in 1855. 

DE BAILLIU, Barend, a Flemish engraver, was 
bom at Antwerp about the year 1625. He spent 
some time in Rome, but returned to Flanders, 
where he died, although the place and the date are 
not recorded. His plates, which consist chiefly of 
portraits, with some historical subjects, are entirely 
executed with the graver. He engraved four of 
the plates for the collection of portraits of Car- 
dinals created by Innocent XI. (1676-1689), en- 
titled ' Eifigies Cardinalium nunc viventium,' pub- 
lished at Rome ; as well as the following prints, on 
which his name occurs spelled in various ways : 

The Saviour between St. Peter of Alcantara and St. 

Mary Magdalen of Pazzi ; after Lazzaro Baldi. 
St. Peter of Alcantara visited in his cell by the Virgin 

and Child ; after the same. 
St. Mary Magdfalen of Pazzi, with the Virgin raising 

her Veil ; after the same. 
St. Louis Bertrand; after Q. B. Gaulli. 
Pope Clement X. 
The Five Saints canonized by Clement S. in 1671 ; after 

Ciro Ferri. 

DE BAILLIU, Pieter, a Flemish engraver, was 
born at Antwerp in 1613. After having learned 
the first principles of engraving in his own 
country, he visited Italy for improvement, and 
there engraved some plates. He returned to Ant- 
werp after 1637, and from 1640 to 1660 engraved 
several of the works of the most celebrated of 
the Flemish masters, particularly Rubens and 
Van Dyck. Although by no means equal to Vor- 
sterman. Bolswert, or Pontius, his prints are held 
in considerable estimation. Meyer's ' Kiinstler- 
Lexikon' gives a list of 103 of his engravings, on 
which his name is found spelled in a variety of 
ways. The following are his principal works : 

P0BTRAIT8. 

Lodovico Pereira de Castro, Envoy at the Peace of 

Miinster. 
Claude de Chabot, Envoy to Miinster. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Johann Leuber, Eavoy to Miinster. 

Pope Urban VIII. 

Jacob Backer, Dutch painter ; after Backer. 

Jan Bylert, painter, of Utrecht ; after Bylert. 

Albert, Prince of Arenberg ; after Van Dyck. 

Lucy, Countess of Carhsle ; after the same. 

Antoine de Bourbon, Comte de Morel, after the same. 

Eonore d'Urf^, Comte de Chiiteauneuf ; after the same. 

SUBJECTS AFTEE VAEIOnS MASTEES. 

Heliodorus driven from the Temple ; from a drawing 
by I', van Lint, after Raphael. 

A Pieta ; after .Annibale Carracei. 

St. Michael vanquishing the Devil ; after Guido. 

The Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau ; after Mubens. 

Christ praying in the Garden ; after the same. 

The Dying Magdalen ; after the same. 

The Combat of the Lapithse ; after the same. 

The Holy Family; after Theodoor Eombouts. 

The Crucifixion ; after Van Dyck. 

The Virgin in the Clouds ; after the same. 

Rinaldo and Armida ; after the same. 

Susanna and the Elders ; after Marten Pepyn. 

The Scourging of Christ ; after Diepenbeeck. 

Christ crowned with Thorns ; after the same. 

The Discovery of the true Cross by St. Helena ; after 
P. van Lint. 

Theodosius carrying the true Cross before St. Ambrose ; 
after the same. 

Christ bound to the Pillar, with Angels holding the In- 
struments of the Passion ; after J. Thomas. 

St. Anastasius reading; after Rembrandt. 

DE BAST, DoMiNicns, a Belgian amateur marine 
painter, was bom at Ghent in 1781, and died there 
in 184'-'. Ahhough not an artist by prof ession, his 
works are highly appreciated by connoisseurs. 

DEBAY, Adgdste Htacinthe, a son of the 
eminent sculptor Jean Baptiste Joseph Debay, 
though really a sculptor, began life as an histori- 
cal painter. He was born at Nantes in 1804, and 
in 1817, when only thirteen years of age, sent his 
first portraits to the Salon. After studying under 
GroB, he obtained the ' Prix de Rome ' in 1823. Soon 
after this he gave up painting for sculpture, which 
he studied under his father, and in which he was 
very successful. His death occurred in Paris in 
1865. Some of his liistorical paintings are at 
Versailles. 

DE BEER, Aart, a Flemish painter of his- 
torical subjects and portraits, was a son of Jan 
De Beer. He was born at Antwerp in 1490, and 
admitted into the Guild of St. Luke in 1529. Re- 
ligious subjects and designs for glass-painting 
were his special pursuits. He died at Antwerp in 
1542. 

DE BEER, CoRNELis, was a Flemish painter, 
who went to Spain about 1630, and who painted 
easel pictures of considerable merit. In the Capu- 
chin church at Murcia is preserved his ' Triumph 
of the Holy Sacrament,' a composition of many 
figures with a landscape background. His daugh- 
ter, Maria Eugenia, practised the art of engraving 
at Madrid, in the middle of the 17th century, with 
considerable success. Besides an excellent frontis- 
piece for Basilio Varen's ' Guerra de Flandes,' ehe 
executed a good portrait of Prince Baltasar Carlos, 
and the plates for the work of Don Gregorio de 
Tapia y Salcedo on ' Horsemanship.' 

DE BEER, JooST, was a native of Utrecht, who 
studied under Frans Floris. He painted historical 
pictures with some success, and was patronized by 
the Bishop of Tournai. He entered the Utrecht 
Guild in 1550, and died in 1596. 

DE BEIJER, Jan, who was born at Aarau in 
Switzerland in 1705, went whilst young to Amster- 
dam and studied under C. Pronk and J. M. Quink- 
C2 



hard. He painted many excellent pictures of Dutch 
towns, some of which have been engraved by H. 
Spilman, P. van Liender, and others. He was 
still living in 1768. 

DE BIE, Adriaen, a Flemish painter, was born 
at Lierre, near Antwerp, in 1594. He received his 
first instruction in art from an obscure artist named 
Wouter Abts. At eighteen years of age he went 
to Paris, where he studied for some time under 
Rudolf Sohoof, a Fleming, who was painter to 
Louis XIII. He aftersvards visited Rome, where 
he remained eight years. In 1623, he returned 
to Flanders, and was much employed for the 
churches and in painting portraits. His most 
esteemed work was a picture of St. Eloy, in the 
collegiate church of St. Gomarus at Lierre. He 
died after 1661. He was the father of Cornelis 
De Bie, who has celebrated the works of the 
painters of his country in Flemish verse, under 
the title of ' Het Gulden Kabinet van de edele vrye 
Schilderkonst.' His works are usually marked with 
one or other of the accompanying TivN ^7r\ 
monograms. ^ _^ ^ 

DE BIE, Jacob and Marcus. See De Bye. 

DE BISSCHOP, Jan, a designer and engraver, 
who was born at the Hague, in 1646, was brought 
up to the law ; and, according to Houbraken, 
practised in the courts in Holland. His favourite 
amusement was drawing, and his performances 
excited the admiration of the artists of his time. 
He excelled in copying the pictures of the most 
esteemed masters, in small coloured drawings, very 
well drawn and highly finished. As an engraver, 
he is more deserving of notice, and he has left a 
great number of plates, principally etched, and har- 
monized with the graver, in a free and pleasing 
manner. There is great relief and richness of 
effect in his prints. His most important work was 
a series of 157 engravings from celebrated antique 
statues and sketches by eminent painters, entitled, 
' Paradigmata graphices variorum Artificum,' pub- 
lished at the Hague in 1671. This engraver 
Latinized his name into Episcopius, for which 

reason he marked his plates with the 



cipher^. 



He died at Amsterdam, in 1686. Other good 
prints by him are : 

A Bacchanalian subject. 

Christ and the Samaritan Woman ; after Annibale 

Carracei. 
Joseph distributing Corn to the Egyptians ; after B. 

Breenbergh. 
The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence ; after the same. 

DE BLOIS, Abraham, a Dutch engraver, who 
flourished from the year 1690 to 1720. He worked 
chiefly for the booksellers, by whom he was much 
employed. Among other portraits, he engraved 
that of Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, the celebrated 
physician, which was prefixed to his works pub- 
lished in 1695, and which is executed in a neat but 
formal style. He also executed part of the plates 
for the ' Figures de !a Bible,' from the designs of 
Picart and others, published at Amsterdam in 1720. 

DE BLOOT, PiETER. a native of Holland, flour- 
ished about 1650. He painted droll scenes, 
drunken frolics, and the quarrels of the peasantry, 
with much truth to nature. His works, which are 
somewhat rare, are much prized in Holland. De 
Bloot died at Antwerp in 1667. 

DEBON, FEANgois Hippolyte, a French histori- 
cal painter, was the son of Madame Sophie Debon, 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



an artist upon porcelain, who was born in Paris in 
1787, and died tliere in 1838. He was born in 
Paris in 1807, and studied first under Grus and 
afterwards under Abel de Pujol. One of his most 
important works was 'The Entrance of William 
the Conqueror into London,' which was exliibited 
at the Salon of 1855, and afterwards placed in the 
Luxembourg Gallery. His death occurred in Paris 
in 1872. 

DB BRAEKELEER, Ferdinandus, historical 
painter, was born at Antwerp in 1792. He was the 
son of Jean Ferdinand Joseph de Braekeleer and 
of Jeanne Bernardine Antoinette Seghers. He 
studied at the Antwerp Academy, and under M. 
J. van Bree. In 1819 he won the grand prize of 
the Academy, with the pension for Rome. He 
spent three years in Italy, painting historicid 
pictures (' Healing of Tobias,' ' Esau and Isaac') 
in the manner of David. After his return to 
Antwerp he perfected a manner of his own, in 
which he painted genre subjects, scenes from 
Belgian history, &c. He died in 1883, at Antwerp. 
Among his pupils were Leys, Jacobs, De Block, 
and others. Pictures by him are in the Galleries 
of Antwerp, Berlin, and Munich. 

DE BRAEKELEER, Ferdinandds, son of the 
last named, was born at Antwerp in 1829, and had 
shown some promise as a genre painter when he 
died at the age of twenty-eiRht in 1857. Another 
brother, Henri, born in 1840 at Antwerp, was a 
painter of genre, and died in 1888. 

DE BRAUWBRE, Paschatids, was an engraver 
of whom little is known. Brulliot describes the 
only etching by him known ; it is, he says, in the 
manner of Guido, and represents the executioner 
placing the head of John the Baptist in a dish 
held by the servant of Herodias ; these two figures 
occupy the foreground, and Herodias is behind 
them. It bears the date 1631. 

DE BRAY, Dirk, a painter and wood-engraver, 
was born at Haarlem in 1640, and specially depicted, 
flowers, birds, and portraits. Tliere is a small 
woodcut of the portrait of his father, Salomon De 
Bray, by this artist, dated 1664, which is very 
spiritedly executed. He also engraved 12 prints 
of fishes, poultry, hogs, &c., dated 1672, and 16 of 
birds, flowers, and figures, dated 1660. He was 
still living in 1675. 

DE BRAY, Jacob, a Dutch painter, was born at 
Haarlem about the year 1625. He was the son of 
Salomon De Bray, an obscure portrait painter, by 
whom he was instructed. Van Mander mentions 
him as a reputable historical painter, and extols a 
picture by him at Amsterdam, representing ' David 
playing on the Harp, with a number of Priests and 
Levites.' He excelled in drawing on paper with 
black and red chalk, and his works of that descrip- 
tion were much esteemed by collectors. ^ 
They are often signed with this monogram, ^J3vi 
Jacob De Bray died in 1680. Writers, 
however, differ very much respecting the dates in 
the lives of this artist and of his son of the same 
names. 

DE BRAY, Jan, an historical painter and etcher, 
was a brother of Dirk De Bray, and, like him, born 
at Haarlem. Two pictures by him, the ' Reception 
of the Orphans ' and ' Prince Frederick Henry in 
the Town Hall,' are preserved at the Haarlem 
Orphanage, and others are in the Museums of that 
city and of Amsterdam. Of his etchings, mention 
is made of 'John the Baptist in the Wilderness.' 
He died in 1697. 
20 



DE BRAY, Salomon, a poet and architect as 
well as a painter, was born at Haarlem in 1597, and 
died at the same place in 1664. He has left some 
paintings in the Orange Hall of the palace called 
the ' House in the Wood,' at the Hague. 

DEBRET, Jean Baptiste, was born in Paris in 
1768, and was instructed by David. He painted 
historical subjects, and completed his studies at 
Rome. He then returned to France, where he lived 
some years, and afterwards went to Brazil and 
became professor at the Academy at Rio de Janeiro. 
His works chiefly represent scenes in the life of 
Napoleon. In 1836 he published a ' Voyage pitto- 
resque et historique du Br^sil.' He died in Paris 
in 1848. 

DE BRIE. See De Bey. 

DE BROEN, Gerrit, a Dutch engraver, flour- 
ished about the year 1720. He was principally 
employed in engraving portraits for the booksellers. 
Among others, we have the portrait of Pieter Poicet, 
after Nicolaas Verkolje. 

DE BRUIN, CoRNELls, called at Rome Adonis, a 
Dutch portrait painter, was born at the Hague in 
1652, and was instructed by Theodoor van der 
Schuur. His passion for travelling led him when 
he was young to Italy, where he passed some 
time at Rome with Robert Duval ; he afterwards 
went to Venice, where he studied for some years 
under Johann Karl Loth. He painted portraits 
with success ; but is more distinguished by the 
publication of his travels through Persia, India, 
and other countries, with plates from his own 
designs. He died at Zijde-Balen, near Utrecht, in 
1726 or 1727. 

DE BRUYN, Abraham, a Flemish engraver, was 
born at Antwerp in 1538. He established himself 
at Cologne about the year 1577, and died there very 
old. He is ranked among the Little Masters, on 
account of his plates being usually very small. He 
engraved in the manner of Wierix, and worked 
entirely with the graver, in a neat and formal 
style, but his drawing is far from correct. It 
is believed that he worked also as a goldsmith. 
He usually marked his plates with one of these 

ciphers, _^5^5" V^H °'" ,^^' ^"'""S 
his portraits, and prints of small friezes of hunting, 
hawking, &c., which are esteemed for their neatness, 
may be mentioned : 

Philip Louis, Elector Palatine. Anne, his consort. 
Albert Frederick, Dnke of Prussia, Eleonora, his 
Duchees. ^yi^iam, Duke of Juliers. Mary, his 
Duchess. John Sambucus, physician ; a woodcut. 
Charles LS., Kiug of France. Anna, daughter of the 
Emperor Charles V. Moses and the Burning Bush. 
Four plates of the Evangelists, 1578. Christ and 
the Samaritan Woman. A Philosopher. The Seven 
Planets, 1569. The Five Senses. A set of one hun- 
dred plates, entitled ' Imperii ae Sacerdotii Omatus. 
Diversarum item Gentium peculiaris Vestitus.* 1577- 
78. (His h€St vork.) Reissued, with some addi- 
tional plates, and entitled * Omnium pene EnropEe, 
Asiie, Aphric^ atque Americse Gentium Habitus,' 
1581. Seventy-six plates of Horsemen, 1575. A set 
of small friezes of Hunting and Hawking, 1565. A 
set of twelve plates of Animals, 1583. A set of 
Arabesque Patterns. Pyramus and Thisbe; after 
Frans Floris. The Resurection of Lazarus ; after 
Crispen van den Broeck. 

DB BRUYN, Nicolaes, was the son of Abra- 
ham De Bruyn, and was born at Antwerp about 
1570. Although he was instructed by his father 
in engraving, he did not follow his example, 
either in the style of his execution, or in the size 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



of his plates. He appears to have studied and to 
have formed his manner from tlie works of Lucas 
van Leyden. His compositions are abundant, but 
he wanted taste in the selection of his forms. 
He finished his plates very neatly with the graver ; 
but there is not much efEect in his prints, from his 
ignorance of the management of the chiaroscuro. 
Notwithstanding this defect, which was very gen- 
eral at the time in which he lived, his works possess 
considerable merit. He died at Amsterdam in 1656. 
H-e signed his plates sometimes with his initials 
iV^. de £., and sometimes with one of the following 



monograms. 



MiPINX.^,ABa,fB. 



m M 



The following are his principal works : 

SUBJECTS FROM HIS OWN DESIGNS. 

Adam and Eve ia Paradise. 1600. 

Adam aud Eve standing under the Tree of the Forbidden 

Fruit. 1631. 
The Israelites with the Daughters of Madian. 
The great Festival of the Jews after six years' bondage. 

1617. 
King Balak speaking to the Prophet Balaam. 
The Prophet Jeremiah, with a Lion. 1603. 
The Vision of Ezekiel. 1600. 
David and Goliath. 1609. 
David meeting Abigail. 1608. 
The Queen of Sheba before Solomon. 1621. 
The Idolatry of Solomon. 1606. 
Nebuchatlnezzar's Dream. 
Daniel in the Lions' Den. 
Susannah accused by the Elders. 
Susannah's Accpiittal. 
The Stoning of the Two Elders. 
The Nativity of Christ. 1621. 
The Adoration of the Magi. 1608. 
The Repose in Egypt. 1621. 
The Murder of the Innocents. 1644. 
St. John preaching in the "NVUdemess. 
Christ preaching on the Mount. 
The Centurion imploring Christ. 
Christ's Entrance into Jerusalem. 
Christ bearing his Cross. 1617. 
The Crucifixion. 1610. 
The Resurrection. 1631. 
St. Paul preaching. 1621. 
St. Hubert. 1614. 

Orpheus playing, surrounded by Animals. 
A Family of Peasants. 

A Landscape, with Lions, Tigers, and Stags. 
A Spanish Assembly in a Forest. 
A set of six Patterns for Goldsmiths. 
A set of twelve of Quadrupeds. 1621. 
A set of twelve of Birds. 
A set of thirteen of Fishes. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after Lucas van 
Lei/den. 

A Miracle wrought at the Tomb of St. James ; after the 
same. 1600. 

The Golden Age ; after A. Bloemaert. 

Four Landscapes, with historical figures ; after O. van 
Coninxlo. 

Three Landscapes, with figures ; after D. Vinckebooms. 

A Landscape, with a Stag-hunt ; after Jan Briiei/hel. 

A Landscape, with Moses defending the Daughters of 
Jethro ; after J. Bol. 

Four of the "Seasons ; after M. De Vos. 

St. Cecilia ; after Eapfiael. 

A Knight on Horseback, accompanied by Time, and fol- 
lowed by the Devil ; after A. Diirer. 1618. 

DE BRY, Dirk, or Theodobus, a German en- 
graver, was born at Li^ge in 1528. He resided 
chiefly at Frankfort, where he carried on the busi- 



ness of a print and bookseller. It is not known 
by whom he was instructed in the art of engraving, 
but from his style he appears to have paid par- 
ticular attention to the works of Hans Sebald 
Beham. About the year 1587 he visited England, 
and at the suggestion of the great cosmographer 
Richard Hakluyt, who procured him many designs 
after nature, he published a large collection of 
voyages and travels in French, German, and Latin 
He died at Frankfort in 1598. This laborious 
artist worked almost wholly with the graver, in a 
neat, free style, well adapted to the subjects of 
which he made choice, such as processions and 
ceremonials, containing a great number of figures, 
which he drew correctly, and to whioli he gave 
great spirit and expression. He usually marked 

his plates T. B., or with the cipher R^. He 

engraved the plates for the four first volumes of 
Boissard's ' Romans urbis Topographia et An- 
tiquitates,' 1597-98; the two last volumes were 
completed by his sons, Johannes Theodorus and 
Johannes Israel De Bry. We have also the follow- 
ing prints by him : 

St. John in the Wilderness ; an etching ; very scarce. 

A Dance of Cavabers and Ladies. 

A Dance of Men and Women Peasants. 

A Design for a Saucer, a Head representing Pride and 
Folly, surrounded with grotesque subjects ; a circular 
plate ; scarce. 

Another Design for a Saucer, a Head of the Duke of 
Alva, with the Mask of Folly, with grotesque sub- 
jects ; circular ; scarce. 

Another Design for a Saucer, the Head of William of 
Nassau, with grotesque figures, indicative of Pru- 
dence ; circular ; scarce. 

A Medallion of Scanderbeg. 

The companion ; Donice Scanderbegi Uxor. 

The Nine Muses. 

' The Procession at the Obsequies of Sir Philip Sidney ; 
drawn and invented by Tfhomas] L[ant], Gent., and 
engraven on copper by Derick Theodore de Brie, 
in the city of London,' 1587 ; thirty-four plates. 

The Procession of the Knights of the Garter in 1576 ; 
twelve plates, dated 1578. 

A set of Portraits, entitled * Icones Virorum illustrium ' 
1597-99. 

The plates for Hariot's * A briefe and true report of the 
new found land of Virginia,' published at Frankfort 
in 1590. 

The plates for Las Casas' narrative of the cruelties of 
the Spaniards in America ; entitled ' Narratio Regio- 
num ludicarum per Hispauos quosdam devastatarum 
verissima.' 1598. 

The plates for his great work, entitled, ' CoUectiones 
Peregrinationum in Indiam Orieutalem et Indiam 
Occidentalem,' in twenty-five parts, folio. 1590 — 1634. 

Eighty-five plates of ' Emblemata.' 1592. 

DE BRY, Johannes Theodorus, the elder son 
and pupil of Dirk De Bry, was born at Liege in 
1561. He greatly assisted his father in the im- 
portant works in which he was engaged, as, 
for instance, the ' Florilegium novum,' which was 
published at Frankfort in 1612, and with the 
assistance of his brother Johannes Israel, he com- 
pleted the two volumes of Boissard's ' RomaniB 
urbis Topographia et Antiquitates,' which were left 
unfinished at his father's death. He also published 
' Emblemata secularia,' 1596, and added consider- 
ably to the collection of Portraits of Illustrious 
Persons, begun by bis father. He died at Frank- 
fort in 1623. His prints are signed with the initials 
J. T. B., or with 
one of these mono- 
grams, 



h A 



21 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



We have also the following prints by him : 

Portrait of Gerard Mercator, geographer. 

Portrait of Daniel Specklin. 

Four plates of the Elements ; J. T de Bry, inv. et fee. 

The Marriage of Eebekah ; after Baldassare Peruzzi. 

A March of Soldiers ; a frieze ; after Titian. 

Another March of Soldiers, conducting Prisoners, with 

Death riding on a Horse ; a frieze, called the 

Triumph of Death ; after the same. 
The Little Village Fair ; after H. S^. Beham. 
The Fountain of Youth ; after the same. 
The Triumph of Bacchus ; after Giulio Romano. 
The Venetian Ball ; after Theodore Bernard ; a circular 

plate. 
The Golden Age ; from the print engraved by N. De 

Bruyn ; after A . Bloemaert. 

Johannes Israel De Bry, of whom mention is 
made in the two preceding articles, is recorded as 
having died in 1611. 

DEBUCOURT, Philibert Louis. See Bdcourt. 

DE' BUONL See Dei Bdoni. 

DE BUYTENWEG, Willem, (or Buttewech,) 
a Dutch painter and engraver, was bom at Rotter- 
dam about the year 1600, but lived at Haarlem, 
and was instructed by H. Maartensz. He painted 
conversation-pieces and landscapes in a style 
which gained him much reputation. Houbraken 
designates him ' Geestige Willem' (William the 
Gay), and under this appellation he is to be found 
in the collection of Catalogues of Pictures by Hoet 
and Terwesten, as a painter of conversations and 
familiar scenes. He died in 1640. Some of his 
pictures have been engraved by G. H. Scheyndel 
and E. van de Velde. His principal work, as a 
painter, was 'The Triumph of William, Prince 
of Orange,' 1623, engraved by C. Kittenstein. He 
etched some plates from his own designs, in a 
pleasing style, among which are the following : 

Two of Women going to Market, one with Vegetables, 

the other with Fowls. 
Seven of Dresses of Noblemen. 
Six of Dresses of Ladies. 
Ten of Landscapes, with Ruins and Figures. 

DE BYE, Jacob, (or De Bie,) a Flemish en- 
graver, was born in 1581 at Antwerp, where he 
followed the profession of a picture-dealer and 
antiquary. From the style of his plates, it is not 
improbable that he learned the art of engraving in 
the school of the Collaerts. He worked wholly 
with the graver ; his execution is neat and firm, 
and his drawing tolerably correct. In conjunction 
with the Collaerts, he engraved some of the set 
of fifty plates of the ' Life, Passion, and Resur- 
rection of Christ.' after the designs of Martin De 
Vos. Several of the plates in the 'Life of the 
Virgin,' from the designs of the same painter, were 
executed by this artist, together with Philip and 
Theodoor Galle. He died in Paris about 1650. 
The following are his principal prints : 

The Medals of the Eoman Emperors, in the collection 
of the Duke d'Arschot. 1617. 

The Portraits of the Kings of France, for Mezeray's 
History ; fifty-eight plates. 

The Descendants of the House of De Croy ; about sixty 
plates. 

Portrait of Francis I. ; after M. De Vos. 

Christ healing Peter's Wife's Mother ; fine ; for Col- 
laert's set. 

The Resurrection of Lazarus ; fine ; for the same set. 

DE BYE, Marcus, (or De Bie,) a Dutch painter 
and engraver, was horn at the Hague in 1612. He 
was instructed in painting by J. van der Does, and 
produced some landscapes, with animals, in the style 

22 



of that master, which are not without merit ; but 
he is chiefly deserving of notice for the excellent 
etchings he has left us of animals, after the designs 
of Paulus Potter and Markus Gerard. He died in 
1670. We have by him: 

The fat Spitzhund. 

The Mule-driver. 

Three sets, of eight ea«h, of Cows and Oxen ; after Potter. 

A set of sixteen of Sheep ; after the same. 

A set of sixteen of Goats ; after the same. 

A set of sixteen of Lions, Leopards, Wolves, Bears, ic. ; 

after the same. 
A set of sixteen of the Natural History of the Bear ; 

after Markus Gerard. 1664. 

DECAGNY, Virginie Polyxene Adgustinb 
Philippe. See Dallemagnb. 

DE CAISNB, Henri, a Belgian historical and 
portrait painter, was bom at Brussels in 1799. 
As early as 1814 he began to study painting under 
Franfois, and in 1818 upon the advice of David he 
went to Paris and entered the studio of Girodet, 
whence he removed to that of Gros. Several 
pictures by him are at Versailles ; among them are 
the 'Entry of Charles VII. into Rouen' (1838), 
and the ' Institution of the Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem' (1842). In 1839 he completed his 
colossal work, ' Les Beiges Illustres.' He died in 
Paris in 1852. Among his best works are : 

Portraits. 

The Queen of the Belgians. 1835. 

The Duke of Orleans. 1833. 

The Princess Clementina of Orleans. 1833. 

Madame Malibran as Desdemona. 1831. 

Victor Schoelcher. 1833. 

Alphonse de Lamartine. 1839. 

historical and other subjects. 

An Indian Family in Exile. 1824. 

Milton dictating ' Paradise Lost ' to his Daughter. 1827. 

Charles I. taking leave of his Children. 1827. 

Cromwell and his Daughter. 1829. 

Mater Dolorosa. 1835. 

Hagar in the Desert. 1836. 

The Guardian Angel. 1836. {His lest work.) 

Charity. 1839. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 1841. 

DECAMPS, Alexandre Gabriel, a French his- 
torical, landscape, animal, and genre painter, was 
born in Paris in 1803. When a child, he was sent 
into a retired part of Picardy, and for three years 
ran wild in the society of peasants. He thus acquired 
a distaste for serious study, which subsequently 
proved a great hindrance to his artistic develop- 
ment, and he contracted an aversion to discipline 
and to the ordinary Jiabits of polite society. He 
subsequently studied desultorily in the studios of 
Bouchot, Abel de Pujol, David, and Ingres, and 
about this period produced many small genre 
works, pictures of dogs, horses, cattle, &c. To a 
man of his disposition, travel had a great charm, 
and he spent some j'ears in the south of France, in 
Switzerland, in Italy, and in the Levant. It was 
in the East that he found the subjects most suited 
to his genius, and his oriental pictures were the 
first of a class in which there have been many 
followers. Decamps' constant aim, however, was 
to obtain fame by historical painting. In 1834 he 
produced a ' Defeat of the Cimbri by Marius,' and 
in 1845 a series of designs illustrating the life of 
Samson. But he met with no encouragement, and 
he complained bitterly of his disappointment. 
He was awarded medals at the Salon in 1831 
and again in 1834; but his works were subee- 




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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



qnently seldom exhibited, and they were generally 
Bold without appearing in public. He died in 
1860, through a fall from his horse while hunting 
at Fontainebleaii. Decamps was a thorougli 
member of the Romantic school. His rebellion 
against systematic training in his youth precluded 
him from obtaining success in historic art. The 
representation of wild scenery and objects was his 
fcrrte, and in this he was aided in a marked degree 
by his great mastery of light and shade. Amongst 
his chief works are : 

Soldier of the Vizier's Guard. 1827. [Hertford Smse.) 

Turkish Patrol, Smyrna. 1831. (Hertford House.) 
Turkish Children near a fountain. 1833. (Duke 

d'Aumale.) 
Bertrand and Raton. {Ihike d'Aumale.) 
The Finding of Moses. 1837. 
Joseph sold by his Brethren. 1839. 
Tiu-kish Execution. 1839. (Hertford House.) 
Chikhen with Turtles. 1839. 
Village Street in the Papal States. 1839. 
Joshua commanding the Sun. 
The Guardians of the Sepulchre. 

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. (Hertford House.) 
Turkish School. I^g^g (Fodor Museum, 

The Shepherds Return \ Amsterdam.) 

Souvenir of Turkey m Asia. } ' 

The Little Pastry-Cooks. 
Avenue in a Park. (Marseilles Museum.) 
EHezer and Rebecca. 1851. 
Towing-Horses. 1842. (Louvre, Paris.) 
The Caravan, a sketch. (Louvre, Faris.) 
Huntsman and Dogs at fault. (Fodor Museum, Amster- 
dam.) O.J.D. 

DE CAUWER, Emil, was a painter of archi- 
tectural subjects, born at Ghent in 1828. He was 
a pupil of his father, Joseph De Cauwer. His 
pictures are characterized by truth and very care- 
ful execution, but the}' are lacking in artistic effect. 
Amongst them may be noted the ' Church of St. 
Martin at Oudenarde,' the 'Town Hall at Oude- 
narde,' and the ' New Synagogue at Berlin.' He 
died at Berlin in 187.S. 

DE CAUWER, Joseph, a Belgian painter, was 
born at Beveren-Waes in 1779. He studied at the 
Academies of Antwerp and Ghent, at the latter of 
which he became eventually a professor. He 
painted portraits and historical subjects, and many 
of his pupils rose to eminence. His ' Prometheus,' 
dated 1832, is in the gallery at Ghent, his ' Death of 
Our Lord," in the church of St. Bavon, and a 
' Descent from the Cross,' in that of St. Nicolas. 
He died at Ghent in 1854. 

DB CAYLUS, Anne Claude Philippe, Comte, 

(de TnBIERES, DE GRIMOARD, DE PeSTELS, DE LEVI,) 

engraver, painter, writer, and collector. He was 
born October 31, 1692. His mother was the cele- 
brated beauty, the Marquise de Caylus, cousin of 
Madame de Maintenon. When a mere lad he was 
thrown into contact with artists, and learned to 
appreciate matters of art. His life-long intimacy 
with Watteau began in 1711, at M. De Crozat's. 
He was sent on foreign service, and was present 
at the siege of Freiburg in 1713. In 1714 he was 
in Rome. The following year he journeyed to the 
East, and did not return to Paris till 1717. His 
travels gave him the opportunity for studying the 
treasures of art in the great galleries and churches. 
He became an enthusiastic collector of antiquities, 
medals, curios of all kinds, and drawings. The 
latter he copied with great care, and was speedily 
distinguished as a draughtsman. He turned his 
attention next to engraving, and gained great 
facility and success in that art. Mariette speaks 



of his "vivacity of manner." He had, as wag 
usual among the protectors of artists, his little 
c6terie of good fellows, including Bouchardon, 
Duolos, Fagan, Coll^, C. Coypel, and Watteau. He 
was elected Honorary Councillor-Amateur at the 
Academy on November 24, 1731. In 1732 he was 
at Florence with Qaburri, who spoke in the very 
highest terms of him and of his skill. He exercised 
a great influence upon the art of his time by his 
talent, his example, and his personality. His en- 
gravings are marked by truthfulness of design and 
fineness in the earlier stages of work. His coloured 
drawings and oil paintings were careful copies, or 
adaptations, of the work of the painters of the 
Fetes Galantes. He had also great admiration for 
the style of Bouchardon. As a writer, in addition 
to the biography of Watteau (1748), he wrote the 
lives of C. Coypel, Mignard, Le Moyne, and other 
painters (1715-1757), and of Bouchardon (1762). 
He died in Paris September 5, 1765. Among his 
engravings were the following : 

More than two hundred plates ; after the best pictures 

in the Royal Galleries. 
Collection of Heads ; after drawings hy Rubens and 

Van Dyck, in the Crozat Gallery. 
Suite of Heads ; after draicings by Leonardo da Vinci, 

in M. Mariette^s Cabinet. 
Six plates, History of Joseph ; after Rembrandt. 
Several plates. Life of Christ ; after Raphael. 
Twenty-four plates; after ' Caricatures ' by C. Gillot. 
Love the Teacher, and Goddess in Clouds ; after C, 

Coypel. 
Venus wounded by Love, Venus and Cupid, Acis and 

Galatea, Le Medecin, and others ; after Watteau. 

(Sixty-eight plates.) 
Fifty-eight plates ; after Boucher. 
Venus restraining Cupid, Five Senses, F^tes Galantes, 

and others ; after Bouchardon. 
Plates after Baccio BandineUi, Guercino, Titian, the 

three Carracci, Zuccari, J. Ct-sari, Lafage, and others. 

More than three hundred heads from antique gems, 

and many reproductions of coloured drawings, 

ancient and modern, in the Royal Galleries. 
(Many examples are in the Louvre.) 

DECKER, C, was a German engraver, who, 
about the middle of the 17th century, went from 
Nuremberg to Amsterdam, and there learned the art 
from Romeyn De Hooghe. He appears to have been 
much employed by the booksellers, and his plates 
are often executed in a coarse, harsh style. They 
are principally executed from his own designs ; 
and among his best are those engraved for Kircher's 
' Turris Babel,' published at Amsterdam in 1679. 
He marked his plates vrith his name or with the 

cipher ^, 

DECKER, I. De. See De Decker. 

DECKER, JoHANN Stephan, a French painter, 
was born at Colmar in 1784. At the age of twenty 
he went to Paris, where he studied under David 
and Krapf, but at the end of seven years he 
returned to his native city. In 1821 he settled at 
Vienna, and was much employed at the court in 
teaching drawing and in the execution of miniatures 
and water-colour paintings. He died at Vienna 
in 1844. 

DECKER, Paul, an architect and engraver, who 
was born at Nuremberg in 1677, designed and 
engraved for Andreas Schliiter in Berlin, and was 
by him instructed in architecture. He died in 
1713. His son, Paul Decker, excelled in painting 
history and portraits, and was for three years 
director of the Academy at Nuremberg. He died 

in 1742. 

23 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



DE CLfi, CoRNELis, a Flemish historical painter, 
who was a native of Antwerp, was received into 
the guild of St. Luke in that city in 1660-1661. 
In 1690 he painted for the ' Sodalite des Horaaie.s 
marids,' a picture representing the 'Mount of 
Olives,' as well as the figures of Christ and Pilate. 
He died in 1724. 

DE CLERCK, Hendrik, who was born at 
Brussels about 1570, was a pupil of Marten De 
Vos, and imitated that master. He painted his- 
torical subjects, of which there are several in the 
churches of the Netherlands ; but his small pictures, 
in which he may be compared to Rottenhammer 
and Van Balen, are more esteemed. He died about 
1629. Among his best works are : 

Brussels. Museum. Holy Family (triptych). 

„ „ Christ caUiug little Children to 

Him. 
„ St. James. Crucifixion. 

„ Notre-lJame. Holy Family. 
„ ,, Resurrectiou. 

Vienna. Gallery. Cephalus and Procris (in a 

Forest Landscape by Alsloot). 
1608. 

DE COCK, Fbans, a Flemish ecclesiastic, was 
born at Antwerp in 1643. His love for art led him 
to visit Rome, and after his return to Antwerp in 
1662, all his leisure time was devoted to drawing 
and painting. Although but an amateur, his por- 
traits were very successful. He died in 1709. 

DE COCK, Jan Claus, a Flemish engraver, 
flourished about the year 1660. His name is affixed 
to an etching representing the ' Martyrdom of a 
Saint.' It is executed in a bold masterly style, 
and appears to be the production of a painter. 

DE COCKQ, Paul Joseph, a Flemish historical 
painter, was born at Bruges in 1724. He was a 
pupil of Matthias De Visch, and became Director 
of the Academy at Bruges in 1775. He died in 
his native city in 1801. The following works by 
him are in the Bruges Academy : 

The Holy Trinity. 

Apollo crowning Poetry and Music. 

Landscape with old Monuments ; after Canaletto. 

DE COENE, Jean Henri, a Belgian painter of 
genre and historical subjects, was bom at Neder- 
brakel in 1798. He was a pupil of David and of 
Paelinck, and became professor in the Brussels 
Academy. He died in that city in 1866. His 
picture of the ' Incredulity of St. Thomas ' gained 
him the prize in 1827. 

DE CONINCK (or Coninqh). See De Koninck. 

DE' CONTI, Bernardino. See Dei Conti. 

DE CORT, Hendrik, a Flemish landscape painter, 
was born in 1742 at Antwerp, where he studied. 
He settled in England, and, from 1790, exhibited 
many works at the Royal Academy. He died in 
London in 1810. His landscapes, previous to his 
settling in England, were embellished with figures 
and animals painted by Ommeganck and P. van 
Regemorter. They are much in the Italian tasfe, 
with views of cities and ancient ruins, pleasingly 
coloured and neatly finished. In the Belvedere at 
Vienna there is by him a ' View of the old Castle 
of Temsch on the Scheldt at Antwerp ' (1774). 

DE COSTER, Adam, was a native of Antwerp, 
and is supposed to have been a disciple of Theodoor 
Rombouts. He painted historical subjects and por- 
traits with considerable skill ; but he particularly 
excelled in depicting gallant assemblies and festi- 
vals, which are ingeniously composed, and coloured 

24 



with great force and vigour. We have a fine print 
of a ' Concert,' engraved by L. Vorsterman, after a 
painting by this artist. 

DE COSTER, DoMiNicus, the son of the painter 
and poet Pieter Balten, was born at Antwerp in 
1560. At an early period of his life he settled at 
Augsburg, where he assumed the name of De 
Coster or Gustos, and formed a considerable estab- 
lishment as a print-seller. He died in that city in 
1612. He engraved several plates in a neat but 
somewhat formal style. Among them are : 

A set of the effigies of the German Emperors. 1601. 
Fourteen Plates, entitled ' Effigies piorum ac doctorum 

aliquot virorum.' 1594. 
Twenty-eight Plates, entitled ' Tirolensium principum 

comitum genuiuie Icones.' 1599. 
Sixty-four Portraits of the Fugger Family. 1593. 
Edward VI. 

Marco Bragadini ; after J. von Aachen. 1591. 
Charles 111., Duke of Lorraine. 1597. 
Dorothea, Duchess of Lorraine. 
Pope Sixtus V. 
Bust of Sigismund, Prince of Moldavia ; after J ton 

A achen. 
Maria Christina Carolina, his consort. 
Cosmo de' Medici. 1609. 
Rudolph II., Emperor of Germany. 
Four Plates of the Prodigal Sou ; D. Custodis inv. etfec. 
Judith with the Head of Holofernes ; after J. von 

Aachen. 
Christoph Fugger ; after the same. 
Georg Basta ; after the same. 

His three sons, Raphael, David, and Jakob, were 
also engravers ; but the first only obtained any 
celebrity. 

DE COSTER, Pieter, a painter and engraver of 
Antwerp, is usually known as Balthazar, or Bal- 
ten, or Baltens (the shortened form of Baltens- 
sone, i.e. the son of Balfen, Balthazar). His father 
was Balten Janssone de Coster, a painter. Pieter 
entered the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1540, 
and became its Dean in 1569. He died about 1598. 
He painted landscapes, village festivals, and fairs, 
in the style of Pieter Brueghel. His small figures 
are correctly drawn and neatly touched, and his 
landscapes are painted with great precision. He 
engraved portraits, and also a sacred piece, ' Suffer 
Little Children to come unto Me,' after Ambrosiua 
Francken. 

DE CRAEYER, Gaspab, a Flemish painter, was 
born at Antwerp in 1582. He was first instructed in 
the art by Raphael van Coxie of Brussels, an artist 
of little repute, whom he soon surpassed. Taking 
for his guide the works of the able artists of his 
country, and indefatigable in his study of nature, he 
gave early proof of his ability in some public works, 
so that he was received a member of the Guild in 
1607. His paintings also attracted the notice of the 
court of Brussels, and he was engaged to paint the 
portrait of the Cardinal-Infant Don Ferdinand, the 
Governor of the Low-Countries, to be sent to his 
brother, the King of Spain. This work gave so 
much satisfaction, that he was appointed painter 
to the court, with a considerable pension, and was 
also employed in the churches and public edifices. 
If De Craeyer had only looked for emolument, this 
flattering patronage, and the applause of the great, 
would have satisfied his ambition, and secured his 
fortune by fixing him at the court. But intent 
solely on excelling in his art, and desirous of that 
repose and tranquillity so essential to his work, he 
resigned his situation at Brussels, and sought the 
retirement he longed for, by removing to Ghent. 
This retreat did not diminish the reputation he 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



had acquired, and he continued to receive com- 
missions from every part of the country. It was 
at this time that he painted his fine picture for the 
refectory of the abbey of AfBeghem, whicli is one 
of his most celebrated works. It represents the 
' Centurion dismounting from his horse to prostrate 
himself before Christ.' It was this admirable pic- 
ture that procured for him the flattering homage of 
Rubens, who, on beholding it, exclaimed aloud, 
" Craeyer, nobody will surpass you." The churches 
of the principal cities in Flanders and Brabant are 
decorated with a surprising number of the works 
of this master, who spent a long life in unremitting 
labour. The biographers of the Flemish painters 
have not hesitated to place De Craeyer on a level 
with Rubens and Van Dyck. Although this high 
compliment may be rather strained, he is un- 
doubtedly entitled to rank next after them among 
the ablest artists of that school. 

His compositions are learned and judicious ; re- 
jecting all superfluity and ostentation, he aimed at 
the higher qualities of correctness and simplicity. 
Less daring than Rubens, he is always correct ; and, 
although he never soared to the height of that 
aspiring genius, his works possess both grandeur 
and dignity. His colouring is chaste and tender, 
resembling in its carnations the clear tinting of 
Van Dyck. He died at Ghent in 1669. The fol- 
lowing are the principal among his numerous 
works, in which the landscapes are painted by De 
Vadder and L. Achtschellinck : 



Amsterdam. Museum. 

Antwerp. Museuiii. 

Berlin. Gallery. 

Brussels. Museum. 



Ghent. 

LiUe. 

Madrid. 

Miuiich. 

Nancy. 

Paris. 



S. Michael. 
Museum. 

Museum. 

Gallery. 

Gnlh-ry. 
Museum. 
Louvre. 



Petersburg. Sermitnge 
Rotterdam. Museum. 
Valenciennes. Gallery. 
Vienna. Gallery. 



The Taking down from the Cross. 

Elijah in the Desert. 

Christ at Emmaus. 

The Miraculous Draught of 
Fishes. 

St. Paul and St. Anthony as 
Hermits. 

The Blessed Virgin as Pro- 
tectress of the 'Graud-Seor- 
ment de VArbalete.' 

Ascension of St. Catharine. 

Judgment of Solomon. 

Martyrdom of St. Blaise. 

Martyrdom of a Man by burying 
alive. 

The Death of the Virgin. (Hii 
principal work.) 

Virgin and Child with Saints. 

The Plague at Milan. 

Virgin and Child adored by 
Saints. 

St. Augustine. 

Portrait of the Cardinal-Infant 
Don Ferdinand of Spain, on 
horseback. 
. Pan and Syrinx. 

The Descent from the Cross. 

The Penitent Magdalen. 

The Holy Family. 



Some recent writers ascribe to him a woodcut 
representing St. Sebastian. Van Dyck painted his 
portrait, which Paulus Pontius engraved. His 



monogram is annexed : TTj 



DE CRITZ, John, Emmanuel, and Thomas, were 
decorative painters in England in the first half of 
the 17th century. John, who had the greatest 
reputation of the three brothers, was serjeant- 
painter to James I. and Charles I., in which office 
he was succeeded by Emmanuel. They painted 
scenery, ceilings, &c. John bought many pictures 
at the sale of the collection of Charles I. He died 
after 1657. 



DE CKOOCK, Hubert, a Flemish typographer 
;ind engraver on wood, was born at Bruges in 1490. 
His name is afiSxed to a large out, representing the 
Trinity, which is neatly executed, but in a stiff, 
formal style. Albrecht Diirer engraved the same 
subject, but in so superior a manner, that the print 
by De Croock may be presumed to be a copy coeval 
with the original. Besides the name, it is marked 

with the monogram ^. 

DE CUYPERE, Andries. See Stevens. 

DE DECKER, I., is mentioned by Strutt as the 
engraver of a small copy of the print representing 
the ' Treaty of Miinster,' engraved by Suyderhoef , 
after Terburg, in which he attempted to imitate the 
style of the original, but with no great success. 

DE DEYSTER, Louis, born at Bruges in 1656, 
was a pupil of John Maes. He travelled in Italy 
during six years, chiefly spent at Venice and in 
Rome with Anthony Van den Eeckhout, whose 
sister he married. He was admitted as free master 
into the Guild of S. Luke on March 4, 1688. His 
pictures are well composed, the hands and feet 
well modelled ; colour in the style of A. van Dyck. 
His etchings, which are rare, are remarkable. He 
died December 18, 1711. His j'ounger daughter, 
Anne, 1690-1747, was also a painter. Many of 
their paintings are preserved in the churclies and 
convents of Bruges. 

Bruges. Museum. Moses defending the Daughters 
of Jethro. 

Bihliogrnphy : Weale, 'Catalogue du Mus^e de 
Bruges,' 1861 ; ' Bruges et ses Environs,' 1884. 

DEDREUX, Alfred, a French historical and 
portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1812. He 
was the son of the architect Pierre Anne Dedreux, 
and nephew of P. J. Dedreux-Dorcy. He studied 
under L6on Cogniet, and painted animals as well 
as portraits. He died in Paris in 1860. 

DEDREUX-DORCY, Pierre Joseph, a French 
genre painter, was born in Paris in 1789. He 
studied for some time under Guerin. His paint- 
ings, one of which, called ' Bajazet et le Berger,' is 
in the Museum of Bordeaux, are in the style of 
Greuze. He also painted, together with G^ricault, 
a picture called ' La Baigneuse.' He died at Belle- 
vue in 1874. His surname was Dedreux, but he 
was usually called Dorcy. 

DEELEN, Dirk van, (or Delen,) a Dutch painter, 
was born at Heusden in 1605. He afterwards settled 
at Arnemuiden in Zealand, of which town he be- 
came burgomaster. He possessed not only an 
extraordinary talent in representing Italian archi- 
tecture, but was also thoroughly acquainted with 
linear and aerial perspective. He particularly de- 
voted himself to the production of views of churches 
and other buildings, and the figures in his paintings 
are mostly by Van Herp, PalameJes, Stevens, and 
Wouverman. He died at Arnemuiden in 1671. 
The following are his most important works : 



Berlin. 


Gallery. 


The Court of a Palace. 


Hague. 


Museum. 


Thfi Hall of the Biunenhof 
at the Hague. 


Lille. 


Museum. 


The Interior of a Castle. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


Players at Ball. 


Rotterdam 


Museum. 


A Musical Party. 


Vienna. 


Gallery. 


A building with columns. 



DE' FASOLI, Lorenzo. See Fasolo. 

DE' FERRARI. See Dei Ferrari. 

DE FOUR, PiETER, called De Salzea, a native 
of Liege, who flourished at the end of the 16th 
and beginning of the 17th centuries, was a scholar 

25 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



of Lambert Lombardus. There were by him in the 
cathedral at Liege two excellent altar-pieces dated 
1578 and 1580, and in the church of St. Bartholo- 
mew, a 'St. Michael,' and a 'Descent from the 
Cross,' dated 1610. 

DEFRANCE, Leonard, born at Liege in 1735, 
was a scholar of J. B. Coders. He painted his- 
torical pieces of large and small dimensions, also 
landscapes, game, fruit, flowers, and architecture. 
He was the first professor of design at the Academy 
of Liege, established by the Prince Velbruck, and 
afterwards filled the s.irae post in the school of the 
central department of Ourthe. He died at Lifee 
in 1805. 

DE' FRANCESCHI. See Dei Franceschi. 

DE FREY, Anna, a sister of Johannes De Frey, 
executed a large number of drawings from paint- 
ings by old masters, such as Jan Steen, Metsu, 
and Mieris. She was instructed by her brother-in- 
law. Jacobus Johannes Lauwers, and afterwards 
became herself a teacher of dra^ving at Mannheim, 
in which town she was married, and where she died 
in 1808. She also painted in oil. 

DE FREY, Johannes, an engraver and etcher of 
distinction, was born at Amsterdam about 1760, 
.ind was instructed in the art by Jacobus Johannes 
Lauwers. Deprived by nature of the use of his right 
hand, he had the courage to pursue the art with his 
left, and by industrious application surmounted 
every difficulty. He became distinguished in his 
profession as an able designer, and for the bold- 
ness of his graver. He engraved many prints 
after Rembrandt, Flink, G. Dou, and other masters 
of that school, which are held in estimation. He 
settled in Paris in 1814, and died there in 1834. 
Among his best plates are : 

The Anatomical Demonstration of Tulp ; after Rem- 
brandt. 1798. 

The Magistrates ; after the same. 1799. 

The Ship-builder and his Wife ; after the same. 

The Family of Tobias ; after the same. 

Portrait of Eembrandt ; after the same. 

Portrait of Eembrandt's Mother ; after the same. 

The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same. 

Isaac blessing his son Jacob ; after' G. Flink. 1798. 

The Family of G. Dou ; after G. Bon. 1798. 

The Philosopher ; after Brelcelenkamp. 1796. 

The Hermit in a Cavern reading ; after the same. 

Portrait of Admiral Marten Harpertz Tromp ; after 
Lievens. 1801. 

Portrait of G. A. Brederode ; after Baillie. 

DE FROMANTIOU, Hendrik, was a painter 
who excelled in flowers, birds, and objects of still- 
life. He was born at Nymegen in 1630, and was 
living in 1680. In the Gallery at Salzthalen is a 
beautiful flower-piece by him. It is also said that 
he painted in the manner of Rembrandt ; and that 
Wouverman gave him his daughter in marriage, 
with a large dowry. This last circumstance, if 
authentic, would be confirmatory of his artistic 
talent ; but the fact may be doubted, as Wouver- 
man never became rich by his profession, and 
died of chagrin at finding his works so much 
neglected. 

DE GAST, Michel, a Flemish landscape painter, 
was born at Antwerp in 1509, and became a mem- 
ber of the Guild of St. Luke in 1558. He appears 
to have passed the greater part of his life in Italy, 
and most of his pictures represent the ruins of 
ancient Rome and its environs. He died in 1564. 

DE GEEST, Wtbrand, called 'De Friesche 
Adelaar ' (The Frisian Eagle), was bom, probably at 
Antwerp, about the year 1691. He travelled to Italy 

26 



when young, and resided there several years, 
chiefly at Rome, where he made drawings from the 
principal statues and pictures ; and on his return 
to Holland painted historical subjects with con- 
siderable skill. He died at Antwerp in 1643. The 
plates in the book entitled ' Cabinet des Statues,' 
published at Amsterdam in 1702, are from the 
designs of his grandson, who bore the same names. 

DE GELDEK, Arent, or Aart, a Dutch painter, 
was born at Dordrecht in 1645. After studying 
for some time in his native town, under Samuel 
van Hoogstraeten, he went to Amsterdam, where 
he entered the school of Rembrandt, and became 
one of the ablest imitators of the style of that 
master. Like him he painted portraits and his- 
torical subjects, in which he exhibits the same 
imcouth choice of forms, with the same fascinating 
charm of colour ; the same eccentricities and de- 
fects, with his admirable conduct of light and 
shade, and the richness and spirit of his brush. 
In his historical pictures, he also equally set at 
nought propriety of costume, and elevation of 
sentiment. His works still captivate by their 
surprising effects. He painted from nature all 
the accompanying objects in his pictures, and 
his painting-room, crowded with armour, old 
draperies, flags, and sabres, resembled rather the 
interior of a broker's shop than the studio of an 
artist. He was most successful in his portraits, 
some of which are not unworthy of Rembrandt, 
and have been frequently attributed to that master. 
He died at Amsterdam in 1727. Among his por- 
traits is that of ' Peter the Great of Russia,' while 
his principal historical works are ' Simeon in the 
Temple,' ' Pilate binding Christ,' and ' Judah and 
Tamar.' 

DE GEMPT,B.,a Dutch animal painter, who died 
by his own hand in 1879. Amongst his works are 
' A Congress of Dogs,' and ' The Miser's Death-bed.' 

DE GHENDT, Emmanuel Jean NepomucJinb, 
a French engraver, was born at St. Nicholas in 
Flanders in 1738. He was a pupil of J. Aliamet, 
and has engraved several plates in a neat, pleasing 
style. He executed many ot the prints and vignettes 
for the ' Voyage d'ltalie ' of the Abb6 de Saint- 
Non. He died in Paris in 1815. We have also, 
among others, the following prints by him : 

L' Amour Asiatique ; after Ch. Eisen. 

Les Moissonneurs dans les Champs ; after the same. 

La pleine Mois.son ; after Isaac Moucheron. 

A View of the Fountain of Arethusa at Syracuse ; after 

Chatelet. 
The Four Times of the Day ; after Baudouin. 

DE GHEYN, Jakob, (or De Ghein,) ' the elder,' 
a Flemish designer and engraver, was born at 
Antwerp in 1565. He was instructed in drawing 
by his father, who was a glass-painter, and learned 
engraving under Hendrik Goltzius. He imitated 
the style of that master, and his plates evince a 
great command of the graver. They are executed 
in a bold, free style, and his drawing is correct, and 
not without taste. He died at Antwerp, or else- 
where, about 1625. He engraved a great number of 
plates, both from his own designs and after other 
masters, and his prints are highly esteemed. He 
generally used the cipher Tjj, The following are 
his principal works : Xl«" 

portraits. 

Tycho Brahe, the Astronomer. 

Abraham Gokevius, antiquary, of Amsterdam. 

Hugo Grotius. 

Phihp de Marniz, the disciple of Calvin. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Cosmo de' Medici. 

Sigismondo Malatesta ; circular. 

Ivan ly. VasUevich, Czar of Muscovy ; circular. 

SUBJECTS AFTER HIS OWN DESIGNS. 
Vanity ; represented as a Woman at her toilet. 
Tlie Penitent Magdalen ; a small oval. 
Mars and Venus ; two small medallions. 
A Gipsy telling a Girl her fortune. 
The Statue of the Laocoon. 
A Lion, in a landscape ; very scarce. 
A set of ten plates, called the Masks ; very scarce. 
The Twelve Roman Emperors ; circular ; line. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS AUTHORS. 

The Life and Passion of Christ ; fourteen plates ; en- 
graved by J. De Gheyn and Z. Dolendo, after G. van 
Mander. 

The Twelve Tribes of Israel ; twelve plates ; after the 
same. 

The Four Evangelists ; after Hendrik Goltzius. 

The Confusion of Tongues at the building of the Tower 
of Babel ; after C. van Mander. 

The Adoration of the Trinity ; after the same. 

The Judgmeut of Midas ; after the same. 

The Prodigal Sou ; in two sheets ; after the same. 

The Oruciiixion ; after Crispin van den Broeck. 

The Assembly of the Gods ; after the same. 1589. 

The Empire of Neptune ; afte'r W. Telrho. 1587. 

Twelve plates of Soldiers of the Guard of Rudolph 
II. ; after H. Goltzius. 

The Annunciation ; after A. Bloemaert. 

A Repose in Egypt ; after the same. 

Christ preaching to the Jews ; after the same. 

The Miracle of the Loaves ; after the same. 

Daniel in the Lions' Den ; after T. Bernard. 

Diana and Actzeon ; after the same. 

Polyphemus, with Acis and Galatea ; after C. van 
Haarlem. 

A small Landscape ; an etching ; after J. Brueghel. 

DE GHEYN, Jakob, (or De Ghein,) 'the 
younger,' son of the elder Jakob De Gheyn, was 
born at Antwerp about the year 1595. He is sup- 
posed to have studied in Italy, under A. Tempesta, 
from the resemblance in their style. In conjunc- 
tion with Cornells Boel, he executed eight plates 
for ' Les Exploits de Charles-Quint pendant la 
Guerre d'ltalie,' from designs by Tempesta. 

DE GHEYN, Willem, (or De Ghein,) a Flemish 
engraver, probably related to Jakob De Gheyn, 
was born at Antwerp, and worked in the middle of 
the 17th century in Holland and in Paris. Jointly 
with Jeremiah Falck, he engraved the Four Seasons, 
represented by French ladies, attired in the cos- 
tume of the time of Louis XII. We have also by 
him the following plates : 

The Visitation ; after Guido Bent. 
Louis XIV., when a boy, on horseback. 
Bernard, Duke of Weimar, on horseback. 

DEGL' AVANZI. See Degli Avanzi. 

DE GLEN, Jan, was a printer and wood-en- 
graver, who was born in the middle of the 16th 
century. He cut the blocks for the portraits of the 
Popes in the ' Vitse Romanorum Pontificum ' of 
his brother J. B. De Glen, which was printed in 
1597 ; and also prepared; from his own designs, the 
cuts to a work published at Liege in 1601, entitled 
' Des Habits, Mo;urs, Ceremonies et Faf one de 
f aire anciennes et modernes,' and to ' Les Merveilles 
de la Ville de Rome ' (Liege, 1631), and ' Europa, 
sive Primariarum Europje Provinciarum Ritibus, 
Cffiremoniis etVestibus.' He was still living in 1631. 

DEGLER, Franz, an Austrian historical and 
portrait painter, was born at Klausen in tne Tyrol 
in 1706. Among his works may be mentioned the 
portraits of the Emperor Charles VII. and his 



Empress, and of other high personages who were 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main at the time of their coro- 
nation, and the ten pictures of the Passion painted 
for the Capuchin church in that city, where he 
died in 1736. 

DEGLER, JoHANN, an Austrian painter, was 
born at Lazfons in the Tyrol about the year 1800. 
He was a pupil of Denifle, and had already given 
evidence of the possession of great talent when he 
died at Brixen in 1829. In the Ferdinandeum at 
Innsbruok there are by hira two pictures, and a 
chalk drawing of the ' Raising of Lazarus.' 

DEGLI AFFLITTI, Nunzio. See Ferrajuoli. 

DEGLI AMBROSI, Marco, commonly called 
Melozzo da Forli, was born at Forli in 1438. He 
is said to have been iirst instructed by Ansovino of 
Forli, who assisted Mantegna in several works, but 
he afterwards adopted much of the style of Piero 
della Francesca and Giovanni Santi of Urbino. 
Such was his desire of learning the best principles 
of the art, that, though of a noble and affluent 
family, he submitted to the menial duties of a 
domestic servant and colour-grinder to some of 
the principal painters of his time. To this vener- 
able artist is attributed the first invention of fore- 
shortening, which was afterwards carried to such 
perfection by Correggio. In the study of per- 
spective, considerable progress had been made by 
Piero della Francesca, since its alleged invention 
by Paolo Uccello, the Florentine ; but the merit of 
first painting figures in perspective, on vaults and 
ceilings, by which the illusion is rendered com- 
pletely effective, was reserved for Melozzo. He 
was patronized by the Count Girolamo Riario, with 
whom he visited Rome in 1472, and painted the 
tribune of SS. Apostoli with the 'Ascension' in 
fresco, the perspective of which was of surprising 
effect. In 1711, when the chapel was taken down 
and rebuilt, the greater part of this painting dis- 
appeared, but the figure of Christ is still preserved 
in the Quirinal. Melozzo was a member of the 
Academy of St. Luke at Rome. He died at Forli 
in 1494. Other paintings by him are : 

London. JVat. Gall. Two Allegorical Figures : Rhetoric, 

and Music. 
Paris. Louvre. Fourteen Portraits, painted for the 
Duke of Urbino. {Ascribed also to 
Justus van Ghent.) 
Rome. Barherini Fourteen Portraits belonging to the 
Palace. same series as those in the Louvre. 

„ Vatican. Sixtus IV. giving the cu.stody of the 

Vatican Library to Platiua. 

DEGLI ANTONJ, Antonello. See Antonio. 

DEGLI AVANZI, Jacopo, a Bolognese painter 
of the later years of the 14th century, is cliiefly 
known by a ' Crucifixion,' in the Colonna Gallery 
at Rome. There are three pictures in the Bologna 
Gallery also by this master. He painted, in con- 
junction with artists of no great importance, fres- 
coes in the church of the Madonna di Mezzarata, 
near Bologna, which Malvasia says were praised 
by Michelangelo and the Carr.Tcci ; they have, 
however, been whitewashed and afterwards re- 
stored, and only fragments of them remain. 
Vasari says they were completed in 1404. 

DEGLI AVANZL Simone. See Bologna. 

DEGLI INNOCENTI, Battista. See Naldini. 

DEGLI STEFANL Tommaso. Dominici, in his 
' Lives of the Neapolitan Painters,' attempts to 
prove that the art was practised at Naples by this 
master before the time of Cimabue, and that it 
had, at that early period, reached a more improved 

27 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



state at Naples than it had at Florence. Whatever' 
may be allowed for the partiality with which the 
Italian writers speak of their particular country- 
men, Dominici appears to have established the 
authenticity of his statement. This venerable 
artist was born at Naples in 1231. He grounded 
himself upon the remains of Grecian art which 
had been preserved in the temples and public 
edifices at Naples, and had painted several pictures 
for the churches of San Francesco and Santa Maria 
delle Grazie previous to the year 1260, at which 
time he was employed by the Archbishop of Naples 
to ornament tlie chapel of his palace. Several 
other works hj- him are particularly described by 
Dominici. He died in 1310. He had a brother, 
PlETRO DEGLi Stefani, who also was a painter, but 
was more celebrated as a sculptor. 

DE GRAEF, TiMOTHEDS, was a Dutch landscape 
painter, who flourished at the close of the 17th 
century. The dates of his birth and death are not 
recorded ; but Jacob Appel, of Amsterdam, was 
his pupil. The Sale Catalogues of Hoet ami 
Terwesten mention many of his pictures, par- 
ticularly landscapes and views in the vicinity of 
Amsterdam. 

DE GREBBER, Frans Pietersz, was born at 
Haarlem in 1579 ; he was a scholar of Rolam! 
Savery, and obtained honourable mention as an 
artist. He also made copies of his master's works, 
and those of Velvet Brueghel. He died in 1649. 

DE GREBBER. Pieter Fransz, a Dutch painter, 
was born at Haarlem in 1600. He was the son of 
Frans Pietersz De Grebber, who instructed him in 
the elements of design ; but he after%vards became 
a scholar of Hendrik Goltzius. He died after 
1665. He chiefly painted easel pictures, of which 
there are many in the collections in Holland. The 
Museum at Haarlem has, amongst others, ' The 
Emperor Barbarossa ' and ' The Patriarch of Haar- 
lem,' which are quite in Rubens's style ; also 
' Jacob's Sons bringing to him Joseph's Coat.' The 
Dresden Gallery also contains examples of his art. 
He has also left several engravings, and an etching 
in Rembrandt's style of ' Christ and the Woman of 
Samaria.' He had a sister, Maria De Grebber, 
who excelled in painting perspective and archi- 
tectural views. 

DE GROOS, Gerhard and Geoeg, probably two 
brothers, were working together as engravers at 
Prague about the year 1647. They produced a 
large number of portraits and pictures of Saints. 

DE GROOT, Jan, a painter and engraver in 
mezzotint, was bom at Flushing in 1650. He 
was first instructed by Adriaan Verdoel. and after 
1666 by Adriaan van Ostade. The date of his 
death is not recorded. Some of his plates are 
marked J. G. fee. or /. G. inc. The best of those 
in mezzotint are : 

Portrait of Desiderius Erasmus ; after Holbein. 
Portrait of Abr.^ham vau der Eyk ; after J'an der F.uk. 
Boy singiug, with a cup of wine ; after Van Dyek. 

DE HAAN, David, was born at Rotterdam in 
1602. He studied in Italy, and became a good 
historical painter, excelling especially in battle- 
pieces. He also painted game with great truth- 
fulness to nature. He died at Rome in 1659. 

DE HAAS, William Frederick, who was born 
at Rotterdam in 1830, studied in the Academy of 
his native city, and at the Hague under Johannes 
Bosboom. He went in 1854 to New York, where he 
became known as a painter of coast scenery. He 

28 



died at Fayal in 1880. The following are some of 
his best works : 

Sunrise on the Susquehanna. 1S67. 

Fishing Boats off Mount Desert. 1874. 

Midsummer Noon, Bideford Beach, Coast of Maine. 

1875. 
Narragausett Pier. 1877. 

DE HAEN, Abraham, a Dutch painter, born at 
Amsterdam in 1710, was a disciple of Cornells 
Pronk. He painted portraits and architectural 
subjects, and a picture of ' Game ' by him is in 
the Gallery at Christiania. He died in 1750. 

DE HANGEST, Egbert Marinus Frederik, (or 
D'Hangest,) an amateur painter, was born at 
Utrecht in 1746. While studying the law he took 
lessons in painting of "Verstegh. After finishing 
his legal studies, he set out on his travels as an 
artist, painting landscapes in the manner of Zaft- 
leven ; views on the Rhine, and rocky scenery ; 
landscapes, with lakes and rivers ; and sunsets and 
moonlights, in which he was very successful. His 
pencilling is vigorous and free, and his pictures 
would not discredit a professional artist. He died 
in 1810. 

DE HEEM, CoRNELis, the son and scholar of 
Jan Davidsz De Heem, was born at Utrecht in 
1630. Like his father he painted still-life, but 
his productions are inferior. He died at the 
Hague after 1692. 

DE HEEM, David, who was born at Utrecht in 
1570, was an excellent painter of fruit, fiowers, 
plate, crystal vessels, and other objects of still-life. 
There is a ' Group of Flowers ' by him in the 
Museum at Brussels. He died at Utrecht in 1632. 

DE HEEM, David Davidsz, a son and pupil of 
David De Heem, was a fruit painter of Utrecht in 
the 17th century. A picture by him, dated 1668, is 
in the gallery of that city, and one dated 1649 is 
at Amsterdam. 

DE HEEM, Jan, a supposed nephew of David 
De Heem, is stated to have been born at Amsterdam 
in 1603. He studied under his uncle and followed 
his manner exactl}'. There is a picture of still-life 
ascribed to him in the Museum at Amsterdam. 
His death is set down in 1650. There is, however, 
some confusion between this artist and Jan Davidsz 
De Heem, to whom the catalogues of Berlin, 
Brunswick, Munich, and Vienna assign the pictures 
marked J. De Heem. 

DE HEEM, Jan Davidsz, was born at Utrecht 
after 1600. He was the son of David De Heem, 
the flower painter, by whom he was instructed. 
His pictures bear date from 1640 to 1669, and repre- 
sent fruit, flowers, vases and ornaments of gold and 
silver, musical instruments, and similar objects of 
still-life. He was a perfect master of chiaroscuro. 
He particularly excelled in imitating the transparent 
clearness of glass and crystal, which he was fond 
of introducing into his pictures. His paintings 
were so superior to those of every artist that had 
preceded him, in similar subjects, that they were 
anxiously sought after by the most distinguished 
persons of his time, and were purchased at large 
prices. They are still held in high estimation. 
Being obliged to leave Utrecht during the troubles 
which took place in Holland in 1671, he took 
refuge at Antwerp, where he died in 1674. 

DE HEERE, Lucas, a Flemish historical and 
portrait painter, who was bom at Ghent in 1534, 
was the son of Jan De Heere, a sculptor and 
architect, and of Anna De Smytere, an excellent 
painter of miniatures. He studied for some time 



LUCAS DE HEERE 




MARY TUDOR 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



under his parents, and afterwards under Frans 
Floris at Antwerp. On leaving the studio of the 
latter he went to France, and was employed at 
Fontainebleau by the Queen-Mother, Catharine 
de' Medici, in mailing designs for tapestries for 
the royal residences. The time of his tirst visit 
to England is uncertain, but he must have been 
here in 1554, when he painted the fine portrait of 
Queen Mary which is in the collection of the 
Society of Antiquaries. On his return to Ghent 
he painted, among other portraits, that of a wealthy 
young Protestant lady, named Eleonora Carboniers, 
the daughter of the burgomaster of Vere, in Zealand. 
Her beauty and learning captivated the painter, 
but it was only after great perseverance that he 
won her as his wife. To her he addressed many 
amorous verses, for Lucas De Heere was a poet as 
well as a painter, and these he published in 1565, 
under the title, ' Den Hof en de Boomgaerd der 
Poesien.' His marriage led to a change in his 
religion, and when the Duke of Alva arrived in the 
Netherlands in 1567, and Ghent was occupied by 
a Spanish garrison, the adherents of tlie new 
faith had to flee from their homes. De Heere fled 
to England, and appears to liave remained here 
until 1577, when the edict known as the Pacifica- 
tion of Ghent enabled him to return to his native 
city. During this second visit he painted, in 
1569, the remarkable allegorical portrait of Queen 
Elizabeth, with Juno, Venus, and Pallas apparently 
fleeing before her, which is now at Hampton 
Court. Other fine examples of his art which exist 
in England are the portraits of Lord Darnley and 
his brother, Charles Stuart, dated 1563, also at 
Hampton Court, and the small full-length portrait 
of Queen Elizabeth, in the possession of the Duke 
of Portland, one of his most charming works. 
His abilities as an historical painter are best repre- 
sented by a ' Crucifixion,' painted by him in 1565 
for the church of the village of Saint-Paul, in the 
Pays de Waes. This altar-piece fully justifies the 
renown which his portraits have gained for him in 
England. Besides his paintings in oil, he com- 
pleted, in 1576, a large collection of water-colour 
drawings of costumes, which he entitled ' Theatre 
de tons les Peuples et Nations de la Terre.' This 
valuable work is now among the archives of Ghent. 
He also translated into Flemish verse the Psalms 
of David, and wrote, or at least began to write, the 
lives of the Flemish painters, in rhyme. Lucas 
De Heere died in 1584 in Paris, where he had 
taken refuge after the assassination of William 
the Taciturn. R.E.G. 

DE HEUR, CoRNELis Joseph, (or D'Heur,) a 
Flemish painter of historical subjects and interiors, 
was born at Antwerp in 1707. He studied success- 
ively under Gaspard van Opstal the younger, J. J. 
Hermans the elder, and Peeter Snyers. In 1730, 
he went to Paris, and on his return to Antwerp 
became one of the directors of the Academy. He 
died in 1762 at Antwerp, where there are in the 
Museum several works by him in grisaille. 

DE HEUSCH, Abraham, was born at Utrecht 
in 1650, and was probably related to Jakob and 
Willem De Heusch. He excelled in painting plants, 
insects, and reptiles ; which he designed and exe- 
cuted with surprising patience and labour. His 
pictures of that description are not inferior, in 
the delicate polish of their finishing, to the highly- 
wrought productions of Gerard Dou or Mieris. 
There are a few etchings of landscapes by Abraham 
De Heusch, from his own designs. 



DE HEUSCH, Jakob, called Affdruck, the 
nephew of Willem De Heusch, was born at Utrecht 
in 1657. He was instructed in art by his uncle, 
and acquired his surname from his faithful imita- 
tion of his uncle's style. Having made consider- 
able progress, he was recommended to visit Italy, 
where he passed several years. He met with very 
flattering encouragement at Rome, his pictures 
being much admired. He particularly attached 
himself to the study of the works of Salvator 
Rosa, whose picturesque style he imitated with 
considerable success. His pictures represent the 
most select views in the environs of Rome, en- 
riched with groups of charming figures, correctly 
drawn and vigorously touched. We have a few 
etchings by him of landscapes, from his own 
designs, executed in a neat but slight style. He 
died at Amsterdam in 1701. 

DE HEUSCH, Willem, was born at Utrecht 
in 1638. In 1656, or 1659, he was in Italy as a 
pupil of Jan Both, whose style ne copied. He 
died at Utrecht in 1712. One of his landscapes 
in the Louvre is very finely executed, but a better 
specimen of his art is in the Belvedere at Vienna, 
a 'Landscape at Sunset.' Landscapes from his 
brush are in the galleries of Stockholm, Copen- 
hagen, Frankfort, Brunswick, Amsterdam, Rotter- 
dam, and the Hague. He also engraved several 
Landscapes, which have become very rare. 

DEHNE, J. C, was a German engraver, who 
flourished in the first half of the 18tli century. 
He engraved several portraits for the work entitled 
' Icones Bibliopolarum et Typographorum,' pub- 
lished at Nuremberg in 1726-42. We have also by 
him a great number of plates, representing, in the 
most ludicrous manner, the gods and heroes of 
antiquity. 

DEHODENCQ, Edme Alexis Alfred, a French 
genre painter, was born in Paris in 1822. He 
was a pupil of Leon Cogniet, and first attracted 
notice by his picture of ' St. Cecilia ' at the Salon 
of 1844. He travelled much in Spain and Northern 
Africa, and from these countries derived many of 
his subjects, which are painted with great truthful- 
ness and richness of colour. He died in 1882. 
Among his best works are ; 

Virginia found dead on the sea-shore. 1849. 

A Spanish Bull-Fight. 1850. {Luxemloury Gallery.) 

The Arrest of Charlotte Corday. 1868. 

Othello. 1873. 

A Moorish Story-Teller. 1877. 

DE HOEY, Jan, (or De Hooy,) a Dutch painter, 
was born at Leyden in 1545. Van Mander says 
that he was a grandson of Lucas van Leyden and 
brother of Lucas Damissen, under whom he studied 
painting. He travelled in Italy and France, and 
made himself so acceptable at the court of Henry 
IV. that he was appointed keeper of the royal 
collections. He died at Fontainebleau in 1615. 
Lucas De Hoey, or Damissen, his brother, who was 
born at Leyden in 15.33, resided at Utrecht, and 
died there in 1604. Claude De Hoey, or Doue, 
the son of Jan, who was also a painter, died in 1660. 
He had the care of the pictures at Fontainebleau 
from the time of his father's death until 1635, 
when he resigned in favour of his nephew, Jean 
Dubois. 

DE HOND, (or De Hoxdt). See Hond. 

DE HONDECOETER, Melchior, (or D'Hon- 
DECOETER, as he invariably signed his name,) a 
member of a noble family of Brabant, was born at 
Utrecht in 1636. He first studied under his father, 

29 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Gysbert D'Hondecoeter, and then with his uncle, 
Jan Baptista Weenix, and became famous for his 
pictures of birds of rare plumage, live fowl, game, 
and similar subjects. In this branch of art he 
stands unrivalled. He also painted a few marine 
pieces, and engraved a few prints. 

From 1659 to 1663 he is mentioned in the ' Pic- 
tura' Society of the Hague. He then removed 
(in what year is not known) to Amsterdam, where 
he received the rights of citizenship in 1688, and 
where he died in 1695. His works are frequently 
met with in public galleries ; the following are 
some of the principal : 
Amsterdam. Museum. Dead Birds. 

„ „ Animals and Plants. 

„ „ The Philosophical Magpie. 

„ „ The Menagerie. 

„ „ Tlie Floating Feather. 

Berlin. Gallen/. Foreign Water-fowl in a Park. 

Brunswick. Gallery. Animals of the Ark. 
Brussels. Museum. Peacock and Poultry in a Park. 
1672. 

„ „ Cock crowing. 

Casfiel. Gallery. Cocks fighting. 

„ „ Poultry. 

Dresden. Gallery. Hen and Chicken, and Bird of 

Prey. 

„ „ A white Hen and Chicken. 

„ „ A Concert of Birds. 

„ Wild Fowl. 

Florence. Pitti Pal. Poultry. 
Frankfort. Stddd. Poultry. 

Hague. Museum. The Crow stripped of his bor- 

rowed feathers. 

„ „ The Menagerie of William III. 

at the Chateau of Loo. 

„ „ Geese and Ducks. 

„ „ Fowl and Ducks. 

Liverpool. Institution. Poultry. 
Loudon. A'at. Gall. Domestic Poultry. 

„ „ Geese and Ducks. 

Munich. Gallery. A Park with Poultry. 

Paris. Louvre. Birds in a Park. 

Petersburg. Hermitaye. Fight between a Cock and a 
Turkey. 

„ „ Trophies of the Chase. 

Venice. Academy. Poultry. 
Vienna. Gallery. A Cock and two Hens. 

„ Liechtenstein \ t>„„u...„ 
Collection. J ^O""-^- 

DE HONT, H., (or De Hondt,) is said to have 
been a scholar of David Teniers. His pictures 
represent similar scenes to those of that master, 
and sometimes approach very closely to his manner. 

DE HOOCH, PiETER, was born at Rotterdam, 
probably in 1632. His style was formed from a 
study of the works of Karel Fubritius and of 
Rembrandt. He worked at Delft and at Haarlem, 
where he died, it is said, in 1681. He painted 
interiors and portraits ; and his works are dis- 
tinguished for their brilliant effects of light, and 
admirable colour. His name has been written in 
a variety of ways — De Hooche, Hoogh, Hooghe, 
and Hooge. Out of Holland, De Hooch's paintings 
are extremely scarce ; and even in that country 
they are among the rarest art-treasures in the 
public and private galleries. The following are 
the principal : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Portrait of Himself at the age 
of 19. 
„ „ The Buttery-hatch. 

^'""'^,, 1 Morning ToUet. 
Soo^ Coll. j ° 

„ Stx Coll. The Linen-Press. 

Berlin. Gallery. A Dutch Interior. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. Persons Playing and Dancing. 

„ „ A Family Concert. 

„ „ An Interior. 

30 



Frankfort. Stddel. A Lady at her Writing-table. 

Hague. Steenyracht | ^ jj^^j^^j p^^^ 

London. Nat. Gallery. The Courtyard of a Dutch 

House. 1665. 
„ „ An Interior; two gentlemen 

conversing with a lady. 
„ „ Courtyard of a Dutch House, 

paved with bricks. 1658. 
„ Apsley House. A Lady at her Toilet. 

„ Ashburton Coll. A Woman and a Child walking 

in a street of Utrecht. 
„ Buckingham Pal. A Courtyard. 
„ „ Three Gentleman and a Lady 

Playing Cards. 1653. 
„ Noi'thbrook ) . t x • 

Coll. j An Interior. 

Munich. Gallery. Dutch Interior ; a Woman 

Reading. 
Paris. Louvre. Dutch luterior ; two Women 

and a Child, with a meal pre- 
pared on the table. 
„ „ Dutch Interior ; Card Players. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. A Lady seated at a door. 

„ „ Dutch Interior; a Lady play- 

ing the lute and singing, 
whilst a cavaUer accompanies 
her in the song. 
„ „ The Lace-maker. 

Vienna. Czernin Coll. A Painter in his Studio. 

DE HOOGHE, Rometn, a Dutch designer and 
engraver, born at the Hague about the year 1646, 
was a nephew of Pieter De Hooch. Several of his 
compositions show him to have been a man of 
great genius and readiness of invention. Few 
artists have handled the point with more spirit and 
facility than Romeyn De Hooghe, and his small 
figures and distances are executed with great deli- 
cacy and neatness. His foregrounds and principal 
figures are less happy, and there is a want of 
harmony in the effect, and in the management of 
the chiaroscuro. He founded a school of design at 
Haarlem, where he died in 1708. The number of 
his prints is very considerable, but the following 
are the principal : 

The Portrait of Michael Adriaensz De Euyter, Admiral- 
General of Holland ; very fine. 
An Allegorical Subject, in honour of Leopold II. 
Another, in honour of William, Prince of Orange. 
The Marriage of William, Prince of Orange, with the 

Princess Mary of England. 
The Entry of the Prince of Orange into London. 
The Coronation of William and Mary. 
The Army of Wilham HI. iu order of battle, on the 

banks of the Boyue ; with medallions of Eling William 

and Queen Mary. 
The Siege of Vienna by the Turks. 1683. 
The Triumphal Entry of John III., King of Poland, into 

Warsaw, after raising the siege of Vierma. 
Constantinople taken by the Turks. 
A set of plates representing the Excesses committed by 

the French in Holland. 1672, 1673. 
The Deluge of Coerverden. 
The Massacre of the two De Witts. 1672. 
The Defeat of the French at Hochstadt in 1704 ; with 

medallions of the Duke of Marlborough and Prince 

Eugene. 
The Taking of Narva by Charles XII. 
The Battle of St. Denys, near Mons ; in two sheets. 
The Jewish Synagogue at Amsterdam. 
The Entry of Louis XIV. into Dunkirk ; two sheets ; 

after Van der Meuleii. 
Charles II. of Spain, descending from his carriage to pay 

homage to the Host. 
Six Emblematical Subjects, relative to the abuses of the 

clergy of the Romish Church. 1679. 
The Fair at Arnheim. 
Twelve Figures habited in the mode of the end of the 

17th century. 



PIETER DE HOOCH 




Woodbury Co. photo\ 



COURTYARD OF A DUTCH HOUSE 



[National Calle>y 



PIETER DE HOOCH 




Hanfstangl photo'^ 



AN INTERIOR 



[National Gallery 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



DE HULST, Fbans, a Dutch landscape painter, 
was admitted in 1631 into the Guild of St. Luke 
at Haarlem, where he died in 1661. There is by 
him in the Berlin Gallery a view of a town in 
Holland. He painted in the style of Ruisdael and 
Van Goyen, but his works are seldom met with. 

DEI, Maiteo di Giovanni, was one of the most 
celebrated of the goldsmiths and workers in niello 
who flourished at Florence in the middle of the 
15th century. He executed in 1455 for the church 
of San Giovanni a pax which represented the 
' Crucifixion of Our Lord.' He also engraved for 
a pax for the confraternity of St. Paul a silver 
plate, representing the ' Conversion of St. Paul,' 
which is preserved in the Florence Gallery. It has 
never been filled in with enamel, and modern 
impressions have been taken from it. 

DEI BDONI, BnoNO, was born at Naples, and, 
according to Dominici, flourished about the year 
1430. He was a disciple of an old Neapolitan 
painter called Colantonio del Fiore, whom he as- 
sisted in several of his works, and after whose death 
he became one of the most reputable artists of his 
time. There are many of his works in the churches 
at Naples ; one of the most esteemed is a painting 
in the church of the Restituta representing ' St. 
Francis receiving the Stigmata.' He died about 
the year 1465. 

DEI BUONI, SiLVESTRO, the son of Buono de' 
Buoni, was born at Naples about the year 1420. 
After studying for some time under his father, he 
had the advantage of being instructed by Antonio 
Solario. Under that master he became an eminent 
painter of historical subjects, and was employed 
in some considerable works for the churches and 
public edifices of Naples. He died about 1480. 
The following are his best works : 

Naples. S. Caterina. Christ appearing after his 

Resurrection. 
„ S. Restituta. Virgin and Child, with SS. 

Restituta and Michael. 
„ S. Pi»tro Martire. Death of the Virgin. 
„ „ Virgin and Ctiild between two 

Saints. 
„ Monte Oliveto. Ascension. 

DEI CONTI, Bernardino, an Italian painter, is 
said to have been born at Pavia in the latter part 
of the 15th century. He died in 1525. He was a 
follower of Zenale, but little is known of his life 
or works. The following paintings, however, are 
preserved : 

Bergamo. Lochis-Carrara Madonna and Child {signed). 

Gallery. 1501. 

Berlin. Gallery. Profile of a Prelate. 1499. 

DEI CROCIFISSI, SiMONE. See Bologna. 

DEI FASOLI, Lorenzo. See Fasolo. 

DEI FERRARI, Giovanni Ajjdrea, was born at 
Genoa in 1598. He was first a scholar of Bernardo 
Castello, but he afterwards studied under Bernardo 
Strozzi. His principal historical works are his 
picture of ' Theodosius,' in the style of Castello, in 
the Jesuit church at Genoa ; ' The Nativity,' in the 
cathedral of the same city ; and in a church at 
Voltri, the ' Birth of the Virgin,' his most esteemed 
production, a composition of many figures ; the 
two last pictures are in the style of Strozzi. He 
died at Genoa in 1669. 

DEI FERRARI, Gregorio, a Genoese painter, 
was born at Porto Maurizio in 1644. He was a 
disciple of Domenico Fiasella, called II Sarzana, 
whose manner was not conformable to the genius 
of his scholar, which aimed at a style more grand 



and free. He went to Parma, where he studied 
with attention the works of Correggio, and made a 
faithful copy of the great cupola. He was also 
much employed at Turin and Marseilles. He died 
at Genoa in 1726. Of his works the most esteemed 
are his ' St. Michael,' in the Madonna delle Vigne 
at Genoa, and his ' Apollo and the Muses ' and 
' Plato and Aristotle ' in the University. The 
Palazzo Balbi, also in the same city, contains some 
pictures by him. 

DEI FERRARI, Lorenzo, the son of Gregorio 
de' Ferrari, was born at Genoa in 1680. He was 
instructed by his father, and, like him, he imitated 
the grace and suavity of Correggio. He assisted 
his father in some of his works, but surpassed 
him in foreshortening and correctness of drawing. 
He excelled in painting in fresco, but he also 
painted many pictures in oil for churches. In his 
works in the Doria Palace, he has emulated the 
vigour of the Carloni, and is little inferior to them. 
In the Carega Palace is a gallery of subjects from 
the MiXieii, which were his last works. He died 
at Genoa in 1744. 

DEI FERRARI, Orazio, was born at Voltri in 
1606, and was a scholar of Andrea Ansaldo, under 
whom he became an able painter of historical 
subjects in oil and fresco. His merit recommended 
him to the patronage of the Prince of Monaco, 
who employed him for some years. His ' Last 
Supper,' in the Oratory of the church of San Siro 
at Genoa, is alone sufficient to establish his 
reputation. This artist was high in the pubhc 
esteem when Genoa was visited in 1657 by the 
plague, which carried off a great number of the 
inhabitants, with this painter and all his family. 

DEI FIORI, Gaspako. See Lopez. 

DEI FIORI, Mario. See Ndzzi. 

DEI FRANCESGHI, Domenico, who flourished 
at Venice in the latter half of the 16th century, 
was a type-cutter and printseller. The following 
two excellent prints are by him : 

The Procession of Corpus Christi at Venice. 1565. 
The Parade of the Emperor Solyman I. at Constanti- 
nople. 1565. A very rare plate. 

DEI FRANCESGHI, Pietro di Benedetto, 
called PiERO della Francesca, and also Piero 
BoRGHESE, was born at Borgo San Sepolcro in 
Umbria about the year 1416. It is not known 
by whom he was instructed in the art of paint- 
ing, but in 1438 he made the acquaintance of 
Domenico Veneziano, and was employed by him on 
the frescoes of Sant' Egidio at Florence, whicli 
were executed between the years 1439 and 1450. 
He was a complete master of linear perspective 
and thoroughly understood all its laws, as also the 
true art of projecting shadows, and thus giving an 
additional charm to his pictures. The majority 
of his pictures were painted in oil, then a com- 
paratively new medium for colours, and he carried 
out many improvements in the usage of this vehicle. 
Between the years 1447 and 1452 it is thought that 
both Domenico and Piero were at Loretto, where 
the ceiling of the sacristy was commenced by 
them ; and it was probably at about this period that 
Piero left Domenico and went to Rome, where, in 
conjunction with Bramantino, he painted two fres- 
coes in the Vatican by order of Pope Nicholas V. 
These frescoes were afterwards removed by com- 
mand of Julius II. in order to make room foi 
Raphael's frescoes of the ' Deliverance of St. Peter 
from Prison,' and the ' Mass of Bolsena.' After 1451 

31 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Piero entered the service of Sigismondo Pandolfo 
Malatesta, Duke of Rimini, and adorned for liiin 
the chapel of the Relic in the church of San 
Francesco with a picture representing ' Malatesta 
kneeling before the enthroned St. Sigismund of 
Burgundy.' Soon afterwards he commenced the 
cycle of frescoes illustrating the Legend of the 
Cross in the church of San Francesco at Arezzo. 
This immense series commences with the Death and 
Burial of Adam, and follows the legend up to the 
Finding of the Cross by St. Helena. They are 
wonderful alike by the reality of their effects of 
light and shade, and their harmony of colour. They 
were finished about 1454. In 1445 he painted 
for the Compasrnia della Misericordia the altar- 
piece of the 'Virgin of Mercy,' with Saints and 
scenes from the Passion, now in the Hospital at 
Borgo San Sepolcro. Whilst in his native city 
he executed many commissions for altar-pieces 
and banners, some of which still remain in its 
gallery and churches. From there he went to 
Urbino, where in 1469 he entered the service of 
the Duke Federigo, and also made the acquaint- 
ance of Giovanni Santi, the father of Raphael. He 
painted for the duke a 'Flagellation,' which is 
preserved in the sacristy of the cathedral, and an 
' Apotheosis,' containing the portraits of Federigo 
da Montefeltro, and Batista Sforza, his wife. The 
last-mentioned picture is now in the Gallery of 
the UfBzi at Florence. He is also known to have 
gone to Ferrara, where he was employed by Duke 
Borso in the decorations of his palace called 
"Schifanoja," which means " Begone, dull care." 
The frescoes executed there by Piero have been 
destroyed, but the remains of others have been 
recovered, which clearly indicate the great in- 
fluence possessed by this artist over other painters 
of his time. The statement that he became blind 
in 1458 is clearly incorrect, for he was still work- 
ing in 1478, and it is probable that age alone at 
last incapacitated him from further work. Piero 
della Francesca died at Borgo San Sepolcro in 
1492. Luca Signorelli, Melozzo da Forli, Barto- 
lommeo della Gatta, and Perugino were among 
his pupils. He wrote a treatise on Perspective, of 
which there are copies in the Vatican Library and 
in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. Amongst his 
paintings may be mentioned : 

Arezzo. S.Francesco. The Legend of the Holy Cross, with 
the Vision of Constantino. 

The Resurrection. 

Portrait of a laily. (Douhtfid.) 

The Baptism of Christ. 

Portrait, said to be that of the 
Contessa Palma. (Doubtful.) 

The Nativity. 

St. Michael. 

Madonna with Saints, and Portrait 
of Federigo of Urbino. 

Virgin and Child enthroned, with 
Saints. 

Rimini. S. Francesco. St. Sigismund (Sigismondo Pan- 
dolfo Malatesta). 
Urbmo. Cathedral. The Flagellation. 
Venice. Academy. St. Jerome in the Desert. 

DEI GIANNUZZI, Giulio, often called GlULio 
Pippi, but more commonly GlULlo RoMASO, was 
born at Rome in 1492. He was apprenticed to 
Raphael when quite young, and assisted him in 
the Vatican; and he is generally considered 
Raphael's best pupil. He copied several of his 
masters Madonnas, and executed some few from 
his designs. While in Rome he painted mythical 
frescoes in the Villa Lanti, the Villa Madama, the 
32 



Borgo S. Sepolcro. 
London. Aat. Gall. 



Milan, Brera. 
Perugia. Acadtmy. 



Farnese Palace, and the church of Santa Trinita 
de' Monti. By his will, Raphael bequeathed his 
implements and works of art to his joint-executors, 
Giulio Romano and Gianfrancesco Penni, and 
entrusted to them the completion of his unfinished 
frescoes in the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican. 
In 1524 Giulio went to Mantua and entered the 
service of Duke Federigo Gonzaga. He was there 
architect for the Palazzo del T&, and, assisted by 
numerous pupils (of whom the chief were Bene- 
detto Pagni, Rinaldo Mantuano, and Primaticcio), 
decorated the interior with frescoes representing 
the ' Defeat of the Giants,' his greatest work, and 
with scenes from the ' History of Cupid and Psyche.' 
He also painted at Mantua, in the Ducal Palace, 
frescoes representing 'Diana hunting,' and the 
' History of the Trojan War,' as well as frescoes in 
the cathedral and other churches. Those in the 
cathedral, however, he was not able to complete, 
for having accepted the post of architect to St. 
Peter's at Rome, in succession to San Gallo, he was 
about to set out for that city when he died at 
Mantua in 1546. Of his easel pictures the following 
are the most famous : 



Dresden. 
Florence. 



Gallery. 



Pitti Palace. 



Genoa. San Stefano. 

London. Nat. Gallery. 
Naples. Museum. 



Paris. 



Louvre. 



Eome. S. Peter's (Sacristy). 
„ & Prassede (Sacristy) 
„ Porghese Pal. 

., Colonna Pal. 

Vienna. Gallery. 



La Madonna del Catino. 

His own Portrait. 

Madonna and Child. 

Portrait of Cardinal Accolti. 

Dance of Apollo and the 
Muses. 

The Virgin with the Lizard. 

Martyrdom of St. Stephen 
(one of his best works). 

The Infancy of Jupiter. 

La Madonna della Gatta (a 
variation of RaphaeVs 
'Perla'). 

The Nativity. 

The Holy Family. 

Triumph of Titus and Ves- 
pasian. 

Venus and Vulcan. 

Portrait of a Man. 

Madonna. 

The Flagellation. 

Madonna and CbUd. 

Madonna and Child. 

Allegory. 

St. Margaret and the Dragon. 

His son and pupil, Raffaello Pippi de' Giannuzzi, 
died in 1562, at the age of thirty. 

DEI INGANNATI, Piero. See BissoLO. 

DEI MEDICI, Maria. See Mary. 

DEI MICHIELI, Andrea, known as Andrea 
ViCENTiNO, or simply Vicentino, was born at Venice 
in 1539, and was a scholar of the elder Palma. He 
painted historical subjects in the style of his in- 
structor, and was employed in several works, 
representing subjects from the history of the 
Republic, in the Sala del Gran Consiglio, in the 
Palace of St. Mark. He also painted easel pictures 
for private collections, of which there is one in 
the Florence Gallery, representing the 'Anointing 
of Solomon, King of Israel.' He died in 1614. 

DEI MOTTI, Jacopo, was a Milanese painter in 
oil, in fresco, and on glass, who, between 1485 
and 1490, painted several windows in the Certosa 
at Pavia, and in the succeeding years decorated 
with frescoes several of its chapels. He died at 
Milan in 1505. 

Cristoforo de' Motti also practised as a painter 
in fresco and on glass at Genoa, Milan, and Pavia, 
between the years 1468 and 1514. 

DEI PAESI, Girolamo. See Muziano. 



PIETRO DEI FRANCHESCHI 



PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA 




AlDtari pih.>to\ 



{Brera Gallery, Milan 



THE MADONNA AND CHILD, WITH ANGELS AND SAINTS, AND 
FEDEKIGO, DUKE OF URBINO 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



DEI PICCINELLI, Raffaef-lo and Andrea, 
known as the Brescianini of Siena, were tlje sons 
of a dancing-master at Siena, where they flourished 
from 1507 to 1525. They were the pupils of a 
Sienese painter, named Giovan Battista Giusi, and 
they together painted an altar-piece, representing 
the ' Virgin and Child, with Saints,' which is in the 
Siena Academy, and in 1524 the ' Baptism of 
Christ,' for the baptistery of the cathedral of the 
same city. In 1525 they went to Florence, and in 
the same year Andrea, and probably RafEaello also, 
was registered in the Painters' Guild. A ' Holy 
Family ' by Andrea, who was the better artist of 
the two, is in the UfBzi Gallery at Florence, and 
another ' Holy Family,' ascribed to him, is in the 
Berlin Gallery. The beautiful altar-piece, a ' Holy 
Family,' of the church of Torre di Bibiano, long 
attributed to Baldassare Peruzzi, is also supposed 
to be by him. The brothers appear to have worked 
under the influence of Fra Bartolorameo. Rafiaello 
died at Florence in 1545. 

DEI RITRATTI, Francesco. See Negri. 

DEI ROSSI, Bernardino, who worked at Pavia, 
was one of the artists called to Milan in 1490 to 
decorate the Porta Giovia Palace of Lodovico 
Sforza. In the church of Santa Maria della Pusterla, 
Pavia, is a picture of the ' Virgin, with Saints and 
Donors,' signed and dated by him in 1491. Between 
the years 1498 and 1508 he decorated the Certosa 
of Pavia with wall paintings, of which the frescoes 
of the ' Eternal,' the ' Prophets,' and the ' Virgin 
Annunciate' still remain. In 1511 he executed 
some frescoes for the church at Vigano, belonging 
to the Carthusians of Pavia, which have now dis- 
appeared. No certain dates can be given of his 
birth or death. 

DEI ROSSI, Francesco, called II Cecchino del 
Salviati, or II Salviati, (which appellation he 
acquired from the favour and protection he 
experienced from the cardinal of that name,) and 
also Fhanzchen, was the son of Michelangelo 
de' Rossi, a weaver of velvets, and was born at 
Florence in 1510. He was a fellow-student with 
Giorgio Vasari, first under Andrea del Sarto, and 
afterwards under Baccio Bandinelli. The two 
young friends pursued their studies at Rome with 
the same intimacy, and in the church of Santa Maria 
della Pace Salviati painted the 'Annunciation' and 
'Christ speaking to St. Philip,' by which he gained 
considerable reputation. He also embellished the 
chapel of his patron, Cardinal Salviati, with a 
series of frescoes, representing the ' Life of St. 
John the Baptist.' He was employed by Pier 
Luigi Farnese to make designs for Flemish tapes- 
tries for his palace, in which he represented the 
' History of Alexander.' In conjunction with Vasari 
he ornamented the apartments of the Cancellaria 
with several paintings in fresco. From Rome he 
went to Venice, where he painted several pictures 
for the public edifices and private collections, par- 
ticularly the ' History of Psyche,' in a saloon of 
the Palazzo Grimaldi, which Vasari, with marked 
partiality for his fellow-countryman and co-dis 
ciple, calls the finest painting in all Venice. He 
afterwards visited Florence, and was employed by 
the Grand-Duke Cosmo to ornament one of the 
saloons of the Palazzo Vecchio, where he repre- 
sented the 'Triumph and Exploits of Furius 
Camillus,' composed and painted with great genius 
and spirit, and with an accuracy in the delineation of 
the arms, habiliments, and costume of ancient Rome, 
which is worthy of the most learned antiquary. 
VOL. II. D 



The restless and unsettled disposition of Salviati 
did not permit him to reside long in one place, and 
he readily complied vntli the invitation of the 
Cardinal de Lorraine to accompany him to Prance, 
where Francis I. had engaged some of the ablest 
artists of Italy in the decoration of the palace of 
Fontainebleau. He was received with distinction, 
and was treated with great kindness by Prima- 
ticcio, the superintendent of the works ; but the 
jealousy and turbulence of his nature returned 
these good offices with ingratitude and malevo- 
lence. During his stay in France he painted 
for the church of the Celestines at Paris a fine 
picture, representing the ' Taking down from the 
Cross.' The ' Incredulity of St. Thomas,' by him, 
is now in the Louvre. Dissatisfied with his situa- 
tion in France, he returned to Rome, where he fell 
into new difficulties and disputes with Daniele da 
Volterra and Pietro Ligorio. The continual agita- 
tion of his mind brought on a fever, of which he 
died, at Florence, in 1563. 

DEI ROSSI, Giovambattista, called II Rosso, 
and in France MaItre Roux, was born at Florence 
in 1494. Although he was not a disciple of 
Andrea del Sarto, he was at first an admirer of his 
manner, and afterwards improved his powers by 
studying the works of Michelangelo and Parmi- 
giano. Endowed with a ready and inventive 
genius, he scorned to be the servile imitator even 
of Buonarroti, and at an early age he ventured to 
compete with the ablest of liis contemporaries in 
the cloister of the Annunziata, where he painted 
a large fresco of the ' Assumption of the Virgin,' 
in which he displayed both originality and 
taste. After painting several other pictures for 
the churches at Florence, particularly the ' Marriage 
of the Virgin,' in San Lorenzo, he went to Rome, 
where his talents were alreadj known. There, 
among other works, he painted an altar-piece for 
Santa Maria della Pace ; and had acquired con- 
siderable celebrity when Rome was taken and 
plundered in 1527. Rosso was taken prisoner 
by the Germans, and very badly treated, but he 
at length escaped, and took refuge at Volterra, 
where he painted for the cathedral a fine picture 
of the ' Deposition from the Cross.' He after- 
wards went to Venice, but not meeting with the 
success he expected in Italy, he resolved, about 
1530, on visiting the court of Francis I. of France, 
who was at that time the great encourager of art. 
He was very favourably received by that monarch, 
who immediately engaged him in his service, and 
appointed him superintendent of the great works 
upon which he was then engaged at the palace of 
Fontainebleau. As Rosso was not less eminent 
as an architect than as a painter, he undertook the 
building of the great gallery in that palace, which 
was executed from his design, and which he decor- 
ated with several paintings and with ornaments in 
stucco, some of which were afterwards destroyed 
by his rival and competitor, Primaticcio, to make 
way for his own works. Thirteen frescoes, allusive 
to the life of Francis I., still remain, but have been 
restored by MM. Couder and Alaux. 

The style of Rosso, though singular, is grand. 
He displayed a dignity of character, a lively ex- 
pression in his heads, a tasteful arrangement of 
his draperies, an effective management of his 
light and shadow, and a daring execution ; though 
these excellences were accompanied by a wildness 
and extravagance, too frequently attached to a 
fertile and exuberant imagination. This able artist 

33 



A BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



was well versed in literature, and had a taste for 
poetry and music. His conversation was agree- 
able, and his manners polished. The possession of 
such accomplishments secured him the regard and 
good graces of Francis I. He was in the full 
possession of royal favour, and of the public 
estimation, when he sacrificed these advantages 
to a mean and unfounded suspicion. He had con- 
tracted a friendship with Francesco Pellegrini, a 
Florentine painter, who was in the habit of visiting 
him frequently, when his house was robbed of a 
considerable sum. He rashly suspected Pellegrini 
to be the robber, and brought a formal accusation 
against him. Pellegrini was in consequence of the 
charge put to the torture, and, after suffering the 
most horrible torments, was declared innocent. The 
remorse of having so unjustly exposed an innocent 
person to so dreadful a trial, preyed upon his 
mind, and he put an end to his existence by poison, 
at Fontainebleau, in 1541. The principal works of 
Rosso which exist are as follow : 
Berlin Gallery. The Four Seasons. 

Cittadi Castello. Cathedral, The Transfiguration. 
Florence. SS. Anmtnziata. The Assumption of the Virgin 
{fresco). 
„ S. Lorenzo. The Marriage of the Virgin. 

„ Fitti Palace. The Virgin enthroned, with St. 

Sebastian, St. Mary Magda- 
len, and other Saints. 
„ Uffizi, Moses driving away the Madi- 

anite Shepherds. 

„ „ The Virgin enthroned, with 

the Infant Jesus, and SS. 

Jerome and Francis. 

Fontainebleau. Palace. Francis I. crowned by Victory. 

„ „ A Sacrifice and Thanksgiving 

for the King. 
„ „ Jupiter and Europa. 

„ „ Neptune and Amphitrite. 

4, „ Alexander cutting the Gordian 

Knot. 
„ „ Francis I. in Roman costume, 

holding a grenade. 
„ ., The Burning of Troy. 

„ „ A Hurricane, m allusion to the 

Battle of Pavia. 
., „ The Triumph of Venus. 

„ „ Chiron and Achilles. 

„ „ .^sculapius at Rome. 

„ „ Cupid and Psyche. 

„ „ The Battle of the Lapithse and 

the Centaurs. 
Paris. Louvre. A Pieta. 

„ „ The Challenge of the Pierides. 

„ „ Mars and Venus (pen-and-in^ 

drawing). 
„ „ Design for a Coffer (^e?i-rtnd-/HA- 

drawiiKj). 
Petersburg. Hermitage. The Virgin and Child, with St. 
John the Baptist. 
„ „ The Madonna in glory. 

DEI ROTARI, Conte Pieteo, who was of a noble 
family of Verona, was born in 1707. For some 
time he merely practised painting as an amuse- 
ment, but his progress was so flattering, that he 
at length resolved to adopt it as a profession, 
and he became a scholar of Antonio Balestra, 
under whom he studied until he was eighteen 
years of age. He afterwards visited Venice, 
where he passed two years in studying the works 
of the best masters of that distinguished school 
of colouring. In 1727 he went to Rome, where 
he entered the school of Francesco Trevisani, and 
spent four years in studying the great works of 
art in that city. By the advantages of travel, 
and an assiduous application to his pursuit, he 
became a correct and graceful designer, and joined 

34 



to the expressive airs of his heads an elegance of 
contour, and a tasteful disposition of his draperies, 
in which he was not surpassed by any artist 
of his time. His principal works in Italy are his 
picture of the 'Annunciation,' at Guastalla ; and 
the ' Birth of the Virgin,' in the church of San 
Giovanni, at Padua. He afterwards visited the 
courts of Vienna and Dresden, where he met with 
the most flattering encouragement ; and in 1756 
was invited to St. Petersburg by the Empress of 
Russia, who appointed him her principal painter, 
in which capacity he died, in 1762. We have 
several slight but spirited etchings by this artist, 
some of which are from his own compositions, and 
others after the works of Balestra. Among them 
are the following : 

The Portrait of Filippo Baldinucci. 1726. 

St. Francis kneeling before a Crucifix ; from his own 

design. 
The Education of the Virgin ; the same. 
Abraham and the Angels ; after A. Balestra. 
David with the Head of Goliath ; after the same. 
St. Jerome ; half-length ; after the same. 
Venus and .^neas ; after the same. 

DEI SALVIATI, II Cecchino. See Dei Rossi, 
Francesco, 

DEI SERAFINI, Serafino, who was living in 
Modena in the 14th century, is known by a ' Coro- 
nation of the Virgin ' and other subjects in the 
cathedral of that city. It bears the inscription 
" Seraphinus de Seraphinis pinxit 1385 die Jovis 
x.x. I.I.I. Marcii." Although there is but little 
recorded of this artist, we may conclude that he was 
probably of some importance in his time, from 
the following inscription in a chapel, not named, 
painted by him : 

Mille trecento con septanta sei 
Erano corso gli anni del Siguore 
E'l quarto entrava quando a so honore 
Questa Capella al nobel fin minei. 
Et io. che tutta in si la storiei 
Fui Serafln da Mutina Pittore. 

DEI SERVI, Constantino, was an architect and 
painter who was living at Florence at the beginning 
of the 17th century. After studying awhile under 
Santi di Tito, he went to Germany, where he painted 
in the manner of Pourhus. His Florentine mosaics 
earned him much renown, and he also worked as 
an architect and engineer for the Sliah of Persia, 
the Prince of Wales, and the Emperor Rudolph II. 
He died in 1622. 

DEI VECCHI, Giovanni, was born at Borgo San 
Sepolcro about the year 1536. He went to Rome 
when he was young, where he first became a dis- 
ciple of Raffaellino dal Colle, but he afterwards 
studied under Taddeo Zuccheri, who was at that 
time employed by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in 
the embellishment of his palace of Caprarola, where, 
in conjunction with his instructor, he executed 
several considerable works. There are many of 
his pictures in the churches at Rome, of which a 
particular description is given by Baglione. In 
San Lorenzo in Damaso is one of his most esteemed 
productions, representing the ' Martyrdom of St. 
Lawrence ' ; in the cupola of the Chiesa del Gesii 
is a fresco of the ' Four Doctors of the Church ' ; 
and in Santa Maria in Araceli are several pictures 
from the life of St. Jerome. He died at Rome 
in 1614. 

DEI ZAGANELLI, Francesco, called Fran- 
cesco da Cotignola, was born in the latter part of 
the 15th century at Cotignola, in the Duchy of 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Ferrara. He afterwards lived at Ravenna, and 
learned liis art under Rondinello. At the Brera, 
Milan, is a ' Virgin and Child, between SS. Francis 
and Nicholas, and a kneeling patron,' signed by 
him in 1505 ; another similar subject, in which his 
brother Bernardino is said to have assisted him, 
is in the same gallery. In 1509 he painted the 
' Infant Christ,' now in the Dublin National Gallery. 
The Costabili Collection, in Ferrara, possesses a 
' St. Sebastian,' painted in 1613 ; and of about 
that time is the altar-piece now in the gallery of 
Forli, representing the ' Eternal in Glory, adored 
by the Saints on earth.' His celebrated picture 
of the ' Resurrection,' at Classe, and his esteemed 
work of the ' Baptism of Christ,' at Faenza, are 
productions that do honour to his country. He 
also painted, in 1518, an admirable picture of the 
' Madonna surrounded by Saints,' at the Osservanti 
at Parma, in which he was assisted by his brother 
Bernardino, who was an artist of considerable 
ability. Others of his most important works are 
the ' Virgin and Child, with SS. John the Baptist, 
John the Evangelist, and Bernardino'; and the two 
portraits of the Pallavic.ini family, painted in 1518, 
in the church of the Nunziata, outside the Porta 
Nuova of Parma. Signor Federico Mylius, of 
Genoa, possesses a bust of the Saviour executed 
by Francesco and his brother Bernardino. Of the 
latter 's own work only a single example is known, 
viz., a ' St. Sebastian,' belonging to Signor Frizzoni, 
of Bellaggio. Many other paintings by Francesco 
are to be met with in the galleries and churches of 
Ravenna. The date of his death is uncertain, but 
after 1518 all traces of him are lost. 

DE JAGER, Gerard, a native of Dordrecht, 
flourished about 1646. He painted marine sub- 
jects, and particularly excelled in the representation 
of still water. He was still hving in 1663. 

DE JODE, Arnold, the son of Pieter De Jode, 
the younger, was born at Antwerp in 1638. He 
was instructed in engraving by his father, but he 
never rose above mediocrity. He worked in the 
Netherlands and in Spain, and was in England in 

1666, the year of the great fire in London, and in 

1667. His best prints are portraits, though they 
are but indifferent. Among other plates, the fol- 
lowing are by him : 

PORTRAITS. 
Cardinal Pallavicini ; after Titian. 
Catharine Howard, Duchess of Lennox; after VanSvck 
Sir Peter Lely ; after Lelij. 

Alexander Browne ; preliied to his ' Ars Pictoria' ; after 
Huysmans, 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

The Education of Cupid ; after Corregyio. 1667. 

The Magdalen ; oval ; after Van Dyck. 

The Infant Christ embracing St. John ; after the same ; 

inscribed Arnoldus de Jode, sculp. Londini, tempore 

tncendii maximi. 
A Landscape ; after L. De T adder. 1658. 
Some other Landscapes ; after Jacques Fouqui'eres. 

DE JODE, Gerrit, a Flemish engraver and 
printseller, appears to have been born at Antwerp 
in 1521. He was the head of a family greatly dis- 
tinguished in the art of engraving. He executed 
several plates of historical and geographical sub- 
jects, in which his style appears to have been an 
imitation of that of Comelis Cort. He died at 
Antwerp in 1591. The following are some of his 
principal prints : 

A set of twenty-nine Portraits of the Popes. 1585. 
D2 



A Roman Triumph, in twelve sheets ; after M. Eeenic- 

kerk. 
The Crucifixion ; a large print, in three sheets ; afttr 

Michelangelo Buonarroti, but without the name of 

the painter. 
St. Jerome m meditation ; after Titian. 1565. 

DE JODE, Pieter, ' the elder,' the son of Gerrit De 
Jode, was born at Antwerp in 1570. After being 
taught the rudiments of design by his fat her, he was 
instructed in engraving by Hendrik Goltzius. He 
afterwards went to Italy for improvement, par- 
ticidarly in drawing, and engraved several plates 
from the works of the great masters. About the 
year 1601 he returned to Antwerp, where he dis- 
tinguished himself by producing various prints 
after the principal Flemish painters. He and his 
son were in 1631 in Paris, where they worked for 
some time. His drawing is very correct; and 
tliough his command of the graver is less daring 
and bold than that of his instructor, he is less 
mannered and extravagant. He died at Antwerp 
in 163-1. He engraved about a hundred plates, of 
which the following are the principal : 

portraits. 

Erycius Puteanus, (Hendrik van der Putte,) a Dutch 

savant. 
Giovanni Boccaccio ; after Titian. 
Ferdinand, Count Palatine of the Rhine ; oval ; after 

Rubens. 
Phihp III., King of Spain ; oval ; after the same. 
Francisco de Mello, Count d'Azumar. 
Ambrogio Spinola. 

various subjects. 

Tlie Five Senses ; apparently from his own desiyns. 
The Life and Miracles of St. Cfatharine of Siena ; twelve 

plates ; after Francesco Vanni. 1606. 
The Life of Christ ; thirty-six plates. 
Costumes of the People of Europe ; after S. Francken. 
The Virgin and Child ; after Titian. 
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same. 
The Holy Family ; after the same. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds; after A. van OoH. 
Christ and Nicodomus ; after the same. 
The Beheading of St. John the Baptist ; after Eubeni. 
Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter ; afltr the same. 
The Virgin fainting at the sight of Christ crowned 

with thorns ; after F. Vanni. 
The Coronation of St. Catharine ; after the same. 
The Last Judgment ; after Jean Cousin ; on twelve 

plates ; one of the largest prints known. 

DE JODE, Pieter, 'the younger,' the son of 
the elder artist of the same names, was born at 
Antwerp in 1606, and was instructed by his father, 
whom he surpassed in the taste and facility with 
which he handled the graver. He engraved up- 
wards of three hundred plates, but they are very 
unequal. His best works are his portraits, several 
of which he engraved after Van Dyck. The date 
of his death is unknown. The following are his 
most esteemed prints : 

PORTRAITS after VAN DYCK. 
Charles I. 

Henrietta Maria, his Queen. 
Tliomas AVentworth, Earl of Strafford. 
Prince Rupert. 

Catharine, Countess of Newburgh. 
Pieter De Jode, the younger. 
Jacob Jordaens, painter, of Antwerp. 
Cornells van Poeleubnrg, painter, of Utrecht. 
Jan Snellinck, painter, of Antwerp. 
Daniel Mytens, painter. 
Adam De Coster, painter, of Mechlin. 
Andreas Colyns de Nole, sculptor, of Antwerp. 
Hendrik Liberti, organist. 
Albert, Duke of Friedland, Count of Wallenstein. 

35 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Genevieve d'Urfe, Duchess de Croj. 
Jeanne de Blois. 

Jean de Tserclaes, Count de Tilly. 
Diodorus van Tulden, professor at Louvain. 
Anthony Trieste, Bishop of Ghent. 

PORTRAITS AFTER OTHER MASTERS. 

Karl Heiiirich, Baron von Mettemich ; after A. vim 

Hulle. 
August Adolph, Baron von Trautdorf ; after the same. 
Thomas Eicciardi ; after Simon T'ouei. 
Ernest, Count d'lsembcurg ; after J. JVillelorts Bosch- 

aert. 
Petrus de Francavilla, sculptor and architect ; after 

Bunel. 

SDBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

St. Augustine, crowned by Religion ; P. de Jode,fec. 
St. Francis kneeling before a Crucifix ; after Baroccio. 
The Holy Family ; after Titian. 
The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth ; after 

Ruhens. 
The Three Graces ; after the same. 
Venus rising from the Sea ; after the same. 
Cybele and Neptune ; after the same. 
St. Francis and St. Clara adoring the Infant Jesus ; after 

Gerard Se(jers. 
Christ with Nicodemus ; after the same. 
The Nativity ; after J. jordaens. 
The Miracle of St. Martin of Tours ; after the same. 
Folly and Ignorance ; after the same. 
St. Augustine supported by Angels ; after T'an Dj/ck. 
St. Augustine adoriug the Mystery of the Holy Trinity ; 

after the same. (His best vvrk.) 
Riualdo and Armida ; after the same. 
The Holy Family, with St. Anne ; after A. van Viepen- 

heek. 
An Allegory of Peace ; after the same. 
St. John the Baptist in the Desert ; after P. van Mot. 

DE JONG, LuDOLF, (De Jongh, or De Jonge,) 
was born at Overschie, a village near Rotterdam, 
in 1616. He was the son of a shoemaker, who 
intended bringing him up to the same business, 
but from his aversion to the work and strong 
disposition for art, he was placed under Cornells 
Sachtleven, with whom he passed two years. He 
afterwards studied successively under Anthony 
Palaraedes of Delft, and Jan Bijlert of Utrecht. 
He subsequently went to France, and passed 
seven years at Paris, where he met with encour- 
agement as a portrait painter, in which branch 
of art he chieflj' excelled. He also painted easel 
pictures of hunting-parties and battles, which are 
ingeniously composed and touched with spirit and 
vigour. On his return to Holland he settled at 
Rotterdam, where he was much employed. His 
most considerable work is a large picture in the 
' Salle des Princes ' in that city, containing the por- 
traits of the officers of the Company of Burghers. 
He died at Hillegersberg in 1697. 

DE JONGHE, Jean Baptiste, a Belgian land- 
scape painter, was born at Courtrai in 1785. He 
studied under Ommeganck, and travelled in Hol- 
land, France, and England. He finally settled at 
Brussels, where he had many pupils and followers. 
He exhibited his works at Paris, Lyons, Brussels, 
Amsterdam, the Hague, Vienna, &c., and obtained 
various medals. He died at Antwerp in 1844. 
Amongst his best productions are : 

Environs of Tournai (Brussels Museum). 
Stream with Cattle (Ghent Academy). 
View near Courtrai {Ghent Academy). 
Interior of a Farm {Haarlem Museum). 
Travellers Resting (Haarlem Museum). 
Flock of Sheep ; sandy road {Tournai Museum). 

DEJUINNE, Franijois Lonis, was born in Paris 
in 1786, and learned the art of painting under 
36 



Girodet. He visited Rome, where he studied the 
works of Titian, Paolo Veronese, and other great 
masters. He died in Paris in 1844. His paintings 
were mostly historical ; among them are the 
' Ascension of the Virgin ' and ' St. Genevieve ' for 
Notre-Dame de Lorette, and ' The Four Seasons ' 
for the Trianon Palace. 

DE KEMPENEER, Pieter, better known by 
his Spanish name of Pedro Campana, which has 
been translated into French as Champaigne, and 
into Flemish as Van de Velde, was a painter boni 
at Brussels in 1503, although from the character of 
his works and his subsequent life he should be 
classed with the Spanish school. He visited Italy 
early in life, and there studied the masterpieces of 
Raphael and Michelangelo. On his journey to 
Rome in 1530 he painted the triumphal arch which 
was erected at Bologna for the coronation of 
Charles V. He afterwards went to Spain, and 
subsequently to 1548 painted numerous devotional 
pictures for the churches of Seville. His master- 
piece is the ' Descent from the Cross,' which he 
painted about 1548 for the church of Santa Cruz, 
and wliich, when that church fell into ruins, was 
removed to the cathedral of Seville. This work 
compares favourably with the productions of 
Albrecht Durer. Such was at one time its life- 
like awful character that Murillo used to stand 
watching, as he said, until these holy men should 
have finished taking down the Saviour. A ' Puri- 
fication of the Virgin ' and a ' Resurrection ' by 
him, also in the cathedral, by the beauty of their 
ilesign and the luminous character of their colour- 
ing are suggestive of the highest period of Italian 
art. The parish churches of Triana and of Santa 
Maria at Carmoiia possess paintings by this 
master. De Kempeneer returned to Brussels not 
later than 1563, and died in that city in 1580. 
Besides the above-named works he has left the 
following : 

Seville, 5. Isidoro, St. Paul the Hermit ; St. Anthony, 
Abbot. 5. Pedrn, Christ bound to the Pillar; St. 
Sebastian ; St. Jerome enthroned. S. Catalina^ St. 
Jerome enthroned, with Saints. ^. Juan de la Palma^ 
Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John. {An 
early work.) 

DE KEYSER, Nicai.se, a Flemish painter, was 
born at Santvliet, near Antwerp, in 1813. He was 
a pupil of J. Jacops and of Van Br^e, and distin- 
guished himself by his battle-pieces, &o., in the 
manner of Wappers and the reactionaries of 1830. 
In 1855 he became director of the Academy of 
Antwerp. He died in 1887. 

DE KEYSER, Thomas, (until recently, named in 
error Theodoor,) was born at Amsterdam about 
the year 1595. In the Gallery at tke Hague 
is a fine picture by this Dutch painter, represent- 
ing the Four Burgomasters of Amsterdam deliber- 
ating on the honours to be paid to Marie de 
M(5dicis, on her entrance into tliat city in 1638. 
The heads are admirabl_v painted, and with a rich- 
ness of colouring nearly approaching to Rembrandt. 
The portraits of Rombout Hoogerbeets, his wife, 
and family, and two other pictures, now in the 
Museum at Amsterdam, were also painted by him. 
There is also a picture by him in the National 
Gallery, representing 'A Merchant and his Clerk.' 
He died at Amsterdam in 1679. Some of ' I • 
his works are signed with the accompanying 17^ 
monogram : rs/ 

DE KEYSER, Willem, (or De Keysar,) was 
born at Antwerp about the year 1647. He was 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



brought up as a jeweller, in which profession he 
became very eminent, but having been well edu- 
cated, and taught to draw, he had a strong inclina- 
tion for painting, and employed all his leisure hours 
in practising in miniature, enamel, and oil-colours. 
Haying painted some altar-pieces at Antwerp, his 
business called him to Dunkirk, where he painted a 
picture for the chapel of the English nuns, who 
were so pleased with it, that they persuaded De 
Keyser to go to England, and gave him letters of 
recommendation to Lord Melfort, then in favour 
with James II. The enthusiastic painter could not 
resist the proposal ; he embarked on board an 
Eng:lish vessel, and, unknown to his wife or 
family, sailed for England. His reception was 
equal to his wishes. He was introduced to the 
king, who promised to countenance him, and 
several persons of rank, who had known him at 
Antwerp, encouraged him in his new vocation. 
Transported with this prospect he sent for his 
wife, ordering her to dismiss his workmen, and 
convert his effects into money. Within half a 
year the bubble burst ; the Revolution happened, 
De Keyser's friends could no longer be Ids pro- 
tectors, his business decreased, and the pursuit of 
the philosopher's stone, to which he had recourse 
in his despair, completed his ruin. He died at 
the age of forty-five, about the year 1692. He 
left a daughter, whom he had taken great pains 
to instruct, and with success. She painted small 
portraits in oil, and copied well. 

DEKKER (or Decker). There are several 
artists of this name, either German or Dutch, 
enumerated by different writers, with admirable 
confusion in apportioning their respective works. 
Some call Cornelis Gerrits, the landscape painter, 
Coenraet, others Karel, or Hendrik, each saying 
that hie pictures resemble those of Kuisdael ; Cus- 
tos,_like Frans, is said to have painted grotesijue 
subjects ; Adriaen,to have been a scholar of Ever- 
dingen ; Jan, a painter of interiors, conversations, 
and landscapes in the manner of Murant; Hans 
was a sculptor; the others occur in the following 
articles. The Dekker whose works are best 
known in England is Frans, who painted views, 
similar to Ruisdael's, on a small scale, and also 
weavers' workshops. Brulliot, following Hei- 
necken, says that Karel was an engraver, who 
flourished about the commencement of the 18th 
century. 

DEKKER, Cornelis Gerrits (often incorrectly 
called Coenraet Decker), who was born in the 
earlier half of the 17th century, is supposed to 
have studied under Solomon Ruisdael. He died in 
poverty at Hnarlem in 1678. A good example of 
his style is a ' Wooded Landscape,' in the Rotter- 
dam Museum. There are likewise two Landscapes 
by him in the Louvre. He was of the same period 
and of the same school of landscape art as Ruis- 
dael, to whom his works were for a long time 
attributed. Adriaan van Ostade and Adriaan van 
de Velde painted figures of men and animals in his 
pictures. 

_ DEKKER, Frans, is a painter of whom but 
little is known, although his pictures possess great 
merit, and are to be met with in almost every col- 
lection. He is stated to have been born at Haarlem 
in 1684, and to have died at the same place in 1751, 
having been a pupil of Romeyn De Hooghe and of 
Bartholomeus Engels. He painted landscapes in a 
very pleasing and natural style, resembling the 
charming productions of Ruisdael, but without the 



servnity of an imitator. He also excelled in cari- 

DE koNINCK, David, (De Koning, De Koningh, 
or De C'oninck,) called Rammelaar, was born at 
Antwerp in 1636. After studying for some time 
in his native country under Jan Fyt, he travelled 
in Germany, France, and subsequently in Italy. 
He settled at Rome, and eventually died there in 
1687. His works, which are not numerous, repre- 
sent chiefly landscapes ornamented with animals 
of all descriptions, and in every respect are nearly 
as good as those of his master, Jan Fyt. At 
Ghent there is a ' Garden with domestic animals ' by 
De Koninck ; and in the Museum of Amsterdam 
there are a ' Stag-hunt ' and a ' Bear-hunt.' 

DE KONINCK, Philip, (De Koning, De Koningh, 
or De Con"inck,) was born at Amsterdam in 1619, 
and was one of the ablest scholars of Rembrandt. 
He painted historical subjects and portraits, but 
was particularly eminent in the latter, in which he 
was one of the most distinguished artists of his 
time. His colouring, though rich and harmonious, 
is clearer than that of Rembrandt, and partakes of 
the chaste and tender tinting of Van Dyck. There 
is an uncommon appearance of truth and nature in 
his heads, with a more tasteful arrangement of the 
attitudes and habiliments than is usual in the 
portraiture of the artists of his country. There is a 
fine portrait of De Koninck, by himself, in the Ufiizi 
at Florence. He died at Amsterdam in 1689. In 
the Museum of that city there is a ' Landscape 
■with Animals ' by him ; another landscape is in the 
Museum at the Hague, a replica of which is in the 
National Gallery ; another is in the Rotterdam 
Museum ; and another, which is assigned to 
Rembrandt, is in the Uffizi at Florence. A ' View 
in the Environs of Scheveningen ' is in the Brussels 
Gallery. 

DE KONINGH, Leendert, a Dutch marine and 
landscape painter, was born at Dordrecht in 1777. 
He was instructed by A.Vermeulen and M.Versteeg, 
and in 1801 came to England, but was soon com- 
pelled to leave this country on account of the 
war. He then went to Paris, and studied under 
David. Thence he returned home by way of 
Germany, and afterwards paid a second visit to 
England, where he remained till after the fall of 
Napoleon. He died at Dordrecht in 1849. 

DE LA BAER, Johannes, (or De La Barre,) a 
Flemish painter upon glass, who has been often 
confounded with Jan Barra, a Dutch engraver, was 
a native of Bois-le-Duc, and was received as a 
master into the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 
1625. He was an artist of real merit, and belonged 
entirely to the school of Rubens. The windows uf 
the chapel of the Virgin in the cliurch of St. 
Gudule at Brussels, which were for a long time 
attributed to Rubens, are known now to have been 
executed from his designs. He also engraved a 
plate of the fa9ade of the Jesuit church at Antwerp. 

DE LA BERGE, Charles Auguste, a French 
landscape painter, was born in Paris in 1805. In 
1824 he entered the studio of Berlin, the landscape 
painter, and in 1827 that of Picot, the historical 
painter. He first exhibited at the Salon of 1831, 
and in the years 1837-,S9 painted entirely from 
nature, and at the time of day which it represents, 
a ' Landscape at sunset,' which is in the Louvre. 
He died in Paris in 1842. 

DE LA BOISSIERE, Simon, was a French engi- 
neer, who also distinguished himself as an engraver. 
He was born in Paris about 1637, and executed 

37 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Beveral plates from liis own designs, and after 
Sebastien Le Clerc. There are by him : 

The Death of a Prince, surrounded by his Court. 
Several plates of Medals for Molinet's ' Historia 

Pontificum,' 1679. 
A View of the Palais Royal ; iu two sheets. 
Several plates for Desgodets' 'Traits des Edifices 

Antiques de Eome,' Paris, 1682. 

DE LA CALLEJA, Andreas, a Spanish painter, 
was born at Rioja in 1705. He was a pupil of 
G. A. Ezquerra, and was so successful in his early 
efforts that he was soon appointed by King Philip V. 
to a post of honour. Philip VI. in 1752 made him 
first Director of the newly-founded Academy at 
Madrid, and he established a school of some repute. 
But we are told that the principal occupation of 
his latter years was that of restoring the ancient 
pictures belonging to the king I It would be un- 
just to visit on him all the iniquities that have 
been perpetrated on pictures in Spain by the pro- 
cess of restoring ; for to such an extent has it been 
carried, that very few of them, really worth pre- 
serving, have escaped. His best works are in the 
churches of Santa Cruz and of San Felipe el Real 
at Madrid. He died in that city in 1785. 

DELACAZETTE, Sophie Clemence, a French 
miniature painter, was born at Lyons in 1774. She 
was a pupil of Regnault and of Augustin, and 
exhibited annually at the Salon from 1806 to 1838. 
In 1808 she sent a portrait of Mile. Barilli, which 
has been engraved by Masquelier. She died in 
Paris in 1854. 

DE LA CHAPELLE, George, a painter born at 
Caen, visited the Levant in the early part of the 17th 
century. His work is known to us by a series of 
engravings executed probablv by Nicolas Cochin. 

DE LA CORTE, Gabriel, the son of Juan de La 
Corte, was born at Madrid in 1648. Without the aid 
of a master he practised flower-painting by copying 
the works of Mario and Arellano. He arrived at 
such a degree of excellence that Antonio de Cas- 
trejon and Matias de Torres employed him to paint 
garlands of flowers to surround their mythological 
subjects. He died at Madrid in 1694. 

DE LA CORTE, JtJAN. a Spanish painter, was born 
at Madrid in 1597. He was instructed by Velaz- 
quez, and painted portraits and history, but chiefly 
excelled in battle-pieces and perspective views. He 
also painted small pictures of subjects from sacred 
history. He was painter to Philip III., and was 
continued in that situation by his successor, Philip 
IV. There are several of his pictures in the palace 
of Buen Retiro. He died at Madrid in 1660. 

DE LA CROCE, Johann NEPoiinK, an Austrian 
painter, was born at Pressano, in the T3'rol, in 1736. 
He studied under Lorenzoni, and after travelling 
in Italy, Germany, Hungary, and France, he settled 
at Burghausen. The portraits which he painted 
are estimated by Lipowski at the immense number 
of 5000, and his historical pictures at 200. There 
are many altar-pieces by him in the churches of 
Bavaria. He died in 1819. His son, Clemens de 
La Croce, who was also a painter, was born at 
Burghausen in 1783, and died in 1823. 

DELACROIX, AuGUSTE, a French marine painter, 
was born at Boulogne in 1809, and died there in 
1868. He produced some elegant sea-pieces taken 
on the French and North African coasts, and also 
painted some African genre pictures. 

DELACROIX, Ferdinand Victor Eugene, a 
French historical painter, was bom at Charenton 
St. Maurice, near Paris, in 1798. His father held 

38 



high oflice under the Republic and First Empire, 
being successively deputy in the Convention, 
minister under the Directory, and prefect of Mar- 
seilles, and subsequently of Bordeaux. Young 
Delacroix received his first instruction in the 
Lyc^e Imperial ; but on the death of his father, 
he had to make his own way in life, almost 
unaided. In 1817 he entered the studio of Gudrin, 
where amongst his fellow-pupils were G^ricault, 
Ary SchefEer, Henriquel-Dupont, and Cogniet. His 
first exhibited work, 'Dante and Virgil,' appeared 
in 1822, and achieved a great success. Through 
it he spent some time in the studio of Baron Gros, 
and might have obtained great academic honours 
but for his divergence from the prevalent classicism. 
This breach widened, and Delacroix, G^ricault, 
and others, became the recognized leaders of the 
Romantic School. The conflict between the rival 
schools was very bitter, and it was not till after the 
Revolution of 1830 that Delacroix and the Roman- 
ticists began to receive a share of the state patron- 
age which exercises so great an influence on art in 
France, iln 1831 he visited Spain, Morocco, and 
Algiers, and several important works were the 
result of this journey. In 1832, through the 
influence of Thiers, although not without great 
opposition, he received his first public commission/ 
Between th.at year and 1855 he executed decorative 
works for the Chamber of Deputies, the Library 
of the Luxembourg, the Galerie d'Apollon in the 
Louvre, the Salon de la Paix in the Hotel de Ville, 
and the Church of St. Sulpice. He was elected at 
the Academ)' in 1857. He last exhibited at the 
Salon in 1859, and died in Paris in 1863. Person- 
ally, Delacroix was a nervous man, objecting to 
visitors in his studio, although he was not deficient 
in those traits which render a man agreeable in 
society. His works show the attraction which the 
darker side of human nature had for him, and it was 
in the depiction of scenes of passion and of blood 
that he achieved his greatest successes, to which 
his excellence as a colourist no little contributed. 
Besides the decorative works already mentioned, 
the following are amongst his chief productions : 



Arras. Jlfnsettm. 

Bordeaux. Museum. 



Chantilly. Dule 

d^Anmale. 
), », 

Grenoble. Museum. 
Lille. Museum. 

Loudon.H crtford Ilou> 



Lyons. 



Museum. 



Melun. Museum. 
Montpellier. Museum. 



Nancy. Museum. 
Nantfcs. Museum. 
Paris. L(Mvre. 



Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 1853. 
Greece expiriug on the ruins of 

Mis.solonghi. 1827. 
Lion Hunting. 1854. {Destroyed 

hi/ Jin ill 1870.) 

[ The Two Foscari. 1855. 

A Moorish Guard. 
St. George. 
Medea. 1838. 
'.Death of Marino Faliero. 1827. 
Faust and Mephistopheles. 
The Last "\Yords of Marcus 

Aurehus. 1845. 
Head of Actaion. 
A Mulatto Woman. 
Charge of Arab Cavalry. 1832. 
Algerian ATomen at home. 
Daniel in the Lions' Den. 1853. 
Michelangelo in his studio. 1853. 
Portrait of Himself. 1829. 
Portrait of M. Bruyas. 1853. 
Battle of Nancy. 1834. 
The Halt. 1837. 
Dante and Virgil. 1822. 
The Massacre of Scio. 1824. 
The 28th of July, 1830. 1330. 
Algerian Women. 1834. 
Portrait of Himself. 1837. 
Jewish Wedding iu Morocco. 
1841. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Boaen. Museum. 
Toulouse, ifuseum. 



Toois. Museum. 
Versailles. Museum. 



Paris. St. Paul. Christ in the Garden of Geth- 

semane. 1S27. 
The Justice of Trajan. 1840. 
Moley-abd-el-Rahmann, Sultan of 

Morocco, leaving his palace at 

Mequinez. 1S45. 
Arab Musicians. 1848. 
Battle of TaiUebourg. 1537. 
Taking of Ckjnstautiuople by the 

Crusaders. 1841. 
Portrait of Marshal de Tourrille. 

1835. 

OJ.D. 

Delacroix also executed a considerable number 
of etchings, engravings, and lithographs, a list of 
which is to be found in Moreau's • E. Delacroix 
et son cEuvre,' Paris, 1873, 8vo. He likewise wrote 
some articles on paiBters and sculptors in the 
'Revue des Deux-Mondes.' His 'Lettres' were 
published by M. Burty in 1878, and again, with 
additions, in 1880. 

DE LA CRUZ, JuAX Paxtoja. See Paxtoja 

DE LA CeUZ. 

DE LA CRUZ, Makuel, a Spanish painter, was 
bom at Madrid in 1750, and died in the same city 
in 1792. He distinguished himself by his pictures 
in the cathedral of Carthagena and in the monastery 
of San Francisco el Grande at Madrid. In the 
Gallery of the latter city there is a painting by 
him of 'The Annual Fair at Madrid.' He also 
etched a few plates of Heads of strongly-marked 
character. 

DE LA CRUZ, Miguel, a Spanish painter of 
promise who died young, was employed in 1633 
by Charles I. of England to make copies of the 
remarkable pictures in the Alcazar of Madrid. 

DE LA FAGE, Nicolas, a French painter and 
etcher of the first half of the 17th century, was a 
native of Aries in Provence. Robert-Dumesnil 
mentions nine plates by him, among which are : 

The Virgin and Child; after Annibale Carracci. 

Anne of Austria, Queen of France. 1648. 

Louisa Mary Gonzaga, Queen of Poland. 

Francois de Yendome, Duke of Beaufort. 1649. 

DE LA FAGE. Ratmokd, a French draughts- 
man, was bom at L'Isle en Albigeois in 1656. He 
studied under Jean Pierre Rivalz at Toulouse, but 
soon left his master and went to Rome, where he | 
resided three years. He afterwards went to Paris, 
where his wonderfully facile pen-and-ink sketches 
found many admirers. Crozat possessed no less 
than three hundred of them, and the Louvre has 
now about seventy. He died at Lyons in 1684. 
Robert-Dumesnil mentions tiventy-five etchings 
by him. 

DE LA FERTE, M., was a French amateur, 
who, according to Basan, etched several small 
plates of landscapes, from the designs of Boucher 
and other masters. 

DE LA FLEUR, Nicolas Guillaoie, who was 
bom in Lorraine about 1608, was a painter of 
flowers in miniature and an etcher. He was work- 
ing at Rome in 1638, and in Paris in 1644. He died 
in Rome in 1670. His etchings, which are very rare, 
are executed with the point, and are very effective 
and tasteful. The principal of them are : 

Thirteen plates of Flowers ; copied by Danckerts. 1638. 

Twelve plates of Flowers. 1639. 

DE LA FOSSE, Charles, an eminent French 
painter, was bom in Paris in 1636. He was 
educated imder Franyois Chauveau and afterwards 
under Charles Le Brun. At the age of twenty-two 
he went to Italy, where he made such satisfactory 



progress that Colbert obtained for him the pension 
of the King, in order that he might be able to 
continue his studies. He passed two years at 
Rome, and then went for three years to Venice to 
study the works of the great colourists. He appears 
to have been less sensible to the sublime beauties 
of the Roman School, than to the seductive colour- 
ing of the Venetian, and he returned to Paris one 
of the most accomplished colourists of the French 
School. He was immediately taken into the service 
of Louis XIV.. and was first employed in painting 
four pictures for the apartments in the Tuileries. 
His next work was the marriage chapel in St. 
Eustache, where he painted in fresco ' Adam and 
Eve ' and the ' Marriage of the Virgin.' He painted 
for Versailles the 'Sacrifice of Iphigenia' and 
■ Moses saved from the Waters ' ; in the chapel 
of the palace the 'Resurrection'; and at the 
Trianon, ' Apollo and Thetis.' At Marly, he painted 
a picture of ' Bacchus and Ariadne.' These works 
brought him into great repute ; and he was received 
into the Academy in 1673, on which occasion he 
painted the ' Rape of Proserpine.' which is now in 
the Louvre. La Fosse visited England in 1689, 
and again in 1690, when he remained upwards of 
two years, during which time he was employed in 
decorating the mansion of the Duke of Montagu, 
afterwards the British Museum, in which he painted 
two ceilings, representing the ' Apotheosis of Isis ' 
and an 'Assembly of the Gods.' His principal 
work at Paris is "the fresco in the dome of the 
Invalides, which is fifty-sis feet in diameter, and 
represents ' St. Louis placing his crown and sword 
in the hands of Christ, who is accompanied by the 
Virgin, and by Angels who bear the instruments 
of °he Passion' : in the angles are the Four 
Evangelists. This immense work was finished in 
1705, and did great honour to the artist. In the 
choir of Notre-Dame he painted the ' Nativity' and 
the ' Adoration of the Magi.' Although the gemus 
of La Fosse was equal to great and copious com- 
positions, his drawing was neither elegant nor 
correct; and though he is considered to be one 
of the best colourists among his countrymen, he 
is very far distant from Titian or Paolo Veronese. 
He died in Paris in 1716. Besides the ' Rape of 
Proserpine,' the Louvre has by him ' Moses saved 
from the Waters,' the ' Annunciation of the Virgin,' 
the ' Marriage of the Virgin,' the ' Triumph of 
Bacchus,' and the ' Sacrifice of Iphigenia.' 

DE LA FOSSE, Jeak Baptiste Joseph, a French 
engraver, was bom in Paris in 1721. He was a pupil 
of Etienne Fessard, and engraved a large number 
of book-plates and vignettes after Eisen and 
Gravelot. He died in Paris about 1775. We have 
also several portraits by him after the drawings of 
Carmontelle, among which are the following : 
The Duke of Orleans on horseback. 
The same, with his Son, the Duke of Chartres. 
M. Kameau. 

The Abbe de ChauveHn. ' 
The unfortunate Calas Family. 

DE LA FOSSE. Jeax Chables, a French architect 
and draughtsman, was one of the best designers of 
ornaments, decorations, and fumiture of the reign 
of Louis XVI. In 1768 was published his ' Icon- 
ologie Histori^ue,' in which many of the plates 
were engraved by himself. 

DE LA FDENTE, Juan Leandbo, was a Spanish 
painter, who flourished at Granada from 1630 to 
1640. Although not mentioned by Palomino or by 
Pons, he was an artist of distinguished merit. He 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



followed the manner of Bassano both in subject 
and treatment, and his colouring is quite of the 
Venetian School. His pictures are to be found at 
Granada, Seville, and Madrid. 

DE LA FUENTE DEL SAZ, Julian, was a 
Hieronymite rnonk, who painted miniatures at the 
Escorial. He is known to have been living from 
1627 to 1598. 

DE LA GOURDAINE, Jean Pierre Norblin. 
See Norblin de La Gourdaine. 

DE LA GUERTl^RE, Francois, a French his- 
torical painter, was born in 1624. He etched 
seventeen plates of the Grotesques by Raphael in 
the Vatican. 

DEL AGUILA, Francisco, was a Spanish fresco 
painter, who resided at Murcia in the latter part 
of the 16th century. In 1570 he painted and 
gilded the beautiful tomb of Alfonso the Wise, 
in the cathedral of that city. 

DEL AGUILA, Miguel, a Spanish historical 
painter, was a native of Seville, wliere he died in 
1736. His pictures are valued for their near 
approach to the style of Murillo. 

DE LA HAYE, Charles, a French engraver, 
was born at Fontainebleau in 1641. He went 
to Italy, where he engraved, witli C. Bloeraaert, 
Spierre, Blondeau, and others, the paintings by 
Pietro da Cortona in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence. 
His style of engraving resembles that of Cornelis 
Bloemaert ; and though his plates want harmony, 
they possess considerable merit. The following are 
among the best : 

The Virgin and Child, with St. Catharine and other 

Saints ; after Clro Ferri, 
St. Philip Neri kneeling before the Virgin ; after the 

same. 
Coriolanus refusing to see the Roman Ambassadors ; 

after the same. 
The Grecian Philosophers in the Gardens of Academus ; 

after Romaiielli. 

DE LA HAYE, Claude, was a French portrait 
painter, who flourished at Lyons in 1564, and was 
patronized by Cliarles IX. Catharine de' Medici 
visited his studio, and sat to liiin for her portrait. 

DE LA HAYE, Reynier, a Dutch painter, was 
a native of the Hague, and there entered the Guild 
named ' Pictura ' in 1662. In 1669 he removed to 
Utrecht, and was admitted into the Guild of St. 
Luke. He painted scenes of private life, in the 
manner of Terboroh and of Metsu ; but his style 
is not so large or so light, his colouring is less 
vigorous, and Ins chiaroscuro defective. 

DE LA HELE, Isaak, a Flemish historical 
painter, was born at Antwerp about 1536. He was 
the younger son of Ysbrant de La Hele, a sculptor, 
and left his native city early in life, but whether 
he went to Italy and studied under Michelangelo 
is uncertain. Prom 1562 to 156H he was employed 
upon work for the cathedral of Toledo, and painted 
a capital picture of ' St. Nicasius,' which Pons 
mistook for the work of Berruguete, a certain proof 
of its merits. He returned to Antwerp probably 
in 1571, and was still living there in 1573. Abra- 
HAM_ DE La Hele, his elder brother, was likewise 
a painter. He was born in 1534 at Antwerp, where 
he was still living in 1564, but in 1572 we lose 
sight of him in Augsburg. 

DE LA HIRE, Laurent, (or De La Hyre,) a 
French historical and portrait painter, was born in 
Paris in 1606. He was the son of Etienne de La 
Hire, an historical painter, who had acquired some 
reputation in Poland. He studied under him, and 
from the pictures at Fontainebleau, aiming especi- 

40 



ally at the style of Primaticcio. On his return to 
Paris he spent some time in the school of Lallemand, 
then in great reputation. His colouring was some- 
what cloudy, but otherwise his execution was good, 
although he inclined to mannerism. One of his 
earliest and best pictures, ' The Martyrdom of St. 
Bartholomew,' is in the church of St. Jacques. 
In the Louvre are ten of his works, including ' St. 
Peter healing the Sick,' a ' mai ' painted for the 
cathedral of Notre-Dame in 1635, and in the Belve- 
dere is an ' Ascension of the Virgin.' In 1637 he 
painted another 'mai ' for the cathedral of Notre- 
Dame, the 'Conversion of St. Paul.' He painted 
also a large number of portraits, but in the later 
years of his life he confined himself to landscapes 
and small easel pictures. La Hire was one of 
the twelve artists who in 1648 founded the Royal 
Academy of Painting and Sculpture. He died in 
Paris in 1656. He engraved forty-six religious 
and mythological subjects and landscapes, many 
of which were from pictures by himself which 
perished during the troubles of 1793 and 1794. 
Among them are the following : 

The Holy Family, with St. .Tohn kissing the foot of the 

Infant Jesus. 
The Holy Family reposing, surrounded by Angels. 
The Holy Family, with the Palm-branch. 
The Repose in Egypt. 
The Crucifixion, with the Virgin, Magdalen, and St. 

John. 1639. 
The Conversion of St. Paul. 
The Judgment of Paris. 
Venus and Adonis. 

DE LA HIRE, Philippe, the son of Laurent de 
La Hire, was born in Paris in 1640. He at first 
devoted himself to landscape painting, and painted 
several pictures in the style of Watteau, but 
afterwards studied astronomy, and attained some 
eminence in that branch of science. He died in 
1719. 

DE LA HUERTA, Caspar, was born at Cam- 
pillo de Altobuey in Cuenca in 1645. At an early 
age, seeking instruction in Valencia, he fell into the 
hands of Jesualda Sanchez, the bustling widow of 
Pedro Infant, a third-rate painter, who continued on 
her own account her husband's school for the manu- 
facture of religious pictures. La Huerta, never- 
theless, attained some skill as a draughtsman and 
colourist, and married the widow's well-dowered 
daughter. Working for moderate prices he found 
abundant employment in the neighbouring churches 
and convents. For the Franciscans he painted the 
' Jubilee of the Porciuncula,' and for the Domini- 
cans the picture which long served as a veil to the 
wondrous image of ' Our Lady of the Forsaken.' 
He died at Valencia in 1714. The Museum of 
Valencia possesses a pleasing picture of ' Christ and 
the Virgin enthroned,' the latter with the bright 
complexion peculiar to Valencian beauty. 

DE LA HUERTA, Manuel, a Spanish monk, 
who flourished at the beginning of the 18th century, 
produced some excellent miniature paintings in the 
monastery of La Merced Calziida at Valladolid. 

DE LA HYRE. See De La Hire. 

DE LA IGLESIA, Francisco Ignacio Euiz. 
See Kdiz de La Iglesia. 

DE LA JOUE, Jacques, a French architectural 
painter, was born in 1687. He became a member 
of the Academy in 1721, and is noticed for a 
'Perspective' which he executed in 1732 at the 
Library of St. Genevieve. He also designed the 
title-page to the works of Wouwerman. Etchings 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEKS. 



have been made after him by Cochin, Tardieu, and 
others. He died in Paris in 1761. 

DE LA LIVE DE JULLY, Angb Laurent, 
Marquis de Removille, a French amateur en- 
graver, etched several subjects after Bouclier and 
Greuze ; a set of caricatures, after Saly ; and some 
portraits. He was born in Paris in 1725, and died 
in the same city in 1779. He formed a fine col- 
lection of works of art of the French School, but 
this was dispersed in 1770, in consequence of its 
owner having lost bis reason. 

DELAMAIN, Paul, a French painter of Algerian 
subjects, was born in Paris in 1821. He was a 
pupil of Leblanc and of Drolling, but, fascinated 
with a desire to visit the East, he left the studio of 
the latter to enlist in the cavalry for service in 
Algeria. In after years, when he could escape for 
a time from Paris, he went for a year or two to his 
favourite haunts, and lived on horseback and under 
canvas. Algeria has inspired many painters, but 
not one of them has represented the sentiment of 
Arab life more faithfully than Delamain. He died 
at Ornans in 1882. 

DE LA MAISON, Nicolas. See Della Casa. 

DE LA MARE-RICHART, Flobent I., a French 
portrait painter and engraver, was born at Bayeux 
in 1638, became an academician in 1677, and died 
at Versailles in 1718. His prints have a resem- 
blance to those of Lutma and Morin. Robert- 
Dumesnil has described twenty-one prints by him, 
including ' St. Jerome,' after L. de La Hire ; and 
two, an • Ecce Homo,' and the Virgin, after his 
own designs. The rest are fancy heads in the 
style of Livens, the scholar of Rembrandt. 

DE LA MONCE, Raimond Ferdinand, an archi- 
tect and designer, was born at Munich in 1678, and 
died at Lyons in 1753. He is chiefly known by his 
architectural works, but he also designed the plates 
for the beautiful French edition of Pope' s ' Essay 
on Man.' 

DELAMOTTE, William, a landscape painter 
in water-colours, was born in 1775. He studied 
for a time in the schools of the Academy, and 
under West. His works appeared at the Academy 
from 1796 to 1848, and also at the Water- 
Colour Society from 1806 to 1808. In 1803 he 
became drawing-master at the military school at 
Great Marlow. He died in 1863 at Oxford, where 
he spent the greater part of his life. His works 
are chiefly outlined with the pen and tinted. At 
the South Kensington Museum there are by him : 

Bruges. 1819. 

On the Scheldt, Antwerp in the distance. 1819. 

Li^ge, the Bridge of Arches. 

Christ Church, Oxford, from Hinksey Meadows. 

Canterbury. 1844. 

DE LANE, Solomon, a Scotch landscape painter, 
was bom at Edinburgh in 1727. He was self- 
taught, and travelled much in France, Italy, and 
Germany. Several of his pictures appeared at the 
Royal Academy between 1771 and 1784, after 
which date there is no further trace of him. 

DELANY, Mary. See Granville. 

DE LA PEIGNE, Hyacinthe, (H. Pegna, or 
Peigna,) a painter of battles and an etcher, was 
born at Brussels about the year 1700. He was at 
first engaged in the French service as an engineer's 
artist and military painter, but subsequently he 
served the Sardinian, and lastly the Austrian 
Government. He was living at Rome when in 
advanced years, and died later than 1766. The 
Imperial Gallery at Vienna possesses two ' Views 



of the Pont-Neuf at Paris ' by him. He also 
engraved an ' Attack of the French upon Col 
d'Assiette in Piedmont ; ' and pictures of his have 
been engraved by C. Franjois and A. Tischler. 

DE LA PESTA, Juan Fernandez. See Fer- 
nandez DE La Pena. 

DE LA PENA, Narcisse Virgile Diaz. See 
Diaz de La Pena. 

DE LA POINTE, F., was a native of France, 
who flourished about the year 1678. He engraved 
a plan of the environs of Paris, in nine sheets, as 
well as some views of the palace of Versailles, the 
latter in conjunction with Israel Silvestre. 

DE LA PORTE, Henri Horace Rolland. See 
Eolland de La Porte. 

DE LA QUEWELLERIE, Guillaume, a native 
of France, was probably a goldsmith. He engraved 
a set of very small plates, representing ornamental 
crosses, and other designs for jewellery. They 
are neatly executed with dark backgrounds, and 
dated 1680. 

DELARAM, Francis, an English engraver, was 
born in 1590, and died in 1627. He was contem- 
porary with Elstracke and the Van de Passes, and 
engraved several plates in the neat but formal 
style which was prevalent at that time. His 
portraits are his best works, and among them are 
the following : 

King Henry VIII. 

Queen Mary. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

James I., on horseback, with a view of London. 

Charles I., when Prince of Wales, with Richmond 
Palace iu the background. 

Henry, Prince of Wales. 

Frances, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox. 

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. 

James Montagu, Bishop of Winchester. 

John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln (afterwards Arch- 
bishop of York), with Angels playing on Musical 
In,struments. 

Sir Henry Montagu, Chief Justice of the King's Bench. 

Sir Horatio Vere, with an armed Soldier on each side. 

Robert Abbot, Bishop of Salisbury. 

Sir William Segar, Garter King at Arms. 

Sir Thomas Gresham, holding a Globe. 

George Withers, poet. 1622. 

DEL ARCO, Alonso, born at Madrid in 1625, 
was a disciple of Antonio Pereda. He was deaf 
and dumb from his birth, and was called ' El 
Sordillo de Pereda.' He was an eminent painter, 
both of history and portraits. Several of his 
pictures are mentioned by Palomino, particularly 
the ' Miraculous Conception,' and the ' Assumption 
of the Virgin,' in the cloister of the Trinitarios 
Descalzos at Madrid, and in the church of San 
Salvador is a fine picture of Santa Teresa. Cean 
Bermudez enumerates a great number of his works 
in the churches at Madrid, and in other public 
buildings throughout Spain. He died at Madrid 
in 1700. 

DE LA RIVIERE, Charles Philippe Auguste. 
See Lariviere. 

DELAROCHE, Hippolyte, (or, as he usually 
called himself, Paul,) an eminent French painter, 
was born in Paris, on the 17th of July, 1797. 
He devoted himself first to landscape painting 
under Watelet, but afterwards took to history, 
and entered the studio of Gros, under whom for 
four years he applied himself to the human figure, 
and soon became distinguished by the rapid pro- 
gress which he made. He soon began to evince 
the possession of original views, declaring his 
dissent from the hitherto prevalent " classicism " 

41 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



of the French School, which was then yielding 
to the Renaissance, but taking up a position 
between the classic and the romantic, and 
labouring to create a style in harmony with the 
temper and habits of his time. It was in 1819 
that Delaroche exhibited his first picture, ' Naph- 
thali in the Desert,' which he painted at the age 
of twenty-two, but it attracted no attention ; 
another, exhibited in 1822, the subject of which 
was ' Jehoash rescued by Jehoshabeath,' was more 
fortunate, and sufficiently indicated those powers 
which Delaroche subsequently developed and so 
judiciously tempered. In 1824 he produced three 
pictures, which won for him a gold medal. The 
first represented ' St. Vincent de Paul preaching in 
the presence of the Court of Louis XIII. ' ; the 
second, ' Joan of Arc examined in Prison by the 
Cardinal of Winchester ' ; the third, ' Saint Se- 
bastian.' The first and second of these works 
have been engraved, the second being almost as 
well known in England as in France. In 1827 
' The Capture of the Trocadero ' appeared, in 
a work which had been commissioned by the 
Government, and for which he received the cross of 
the Legion of Honour. During some years after 
this period, Delaroche painted only what our 
neighbours call "moyenSge" subjects, although 
the tenn is scarcely suitable, as comprehending 
even those that come within a century or two of our 
own time. In 1830 he produced ' The Princes in 
the Tower,' which has been so often engraved and 
lithographed, and which induced M. Delavigne to 
compose his tragedy on the same subject. Another 
highly successful picture was ' Richeli'eu on the 
Rhone, with Cinq-iVIars and De Thou ; ' as also 
was that representing 'Cardinal Mazarin presiding, 
while dying, at a game of lansquenet.' In 1831 
he exhibited the most impressive, perhaps, of all 
his works, ' Cromwell contemplating the remains 
of Charles I.,' a subject well known by the en- 
graving. In 1832 he became a member of 
the Institute. In 1833, under the ministry of 
M. Thiers, Delaroche was commissioned to de- 
corate the church of the Madeleine, for which a 
vote of public money had been passed, but on 
hearing that the Administration had confided part 
of the work to another artist he, thinking that it 
should be by one hand only, returned the money 
advanced and resigned the task. In the same year 
he was appointed a professor at the Ecole des 
Beaux- Arts. In 1834, Delaroche proceederl to 
Italy, and at Rome, in 1835, he married Anne Elisa- 
beth Louise, the only daughter of Horace Vernet, 
who was then director of the French Academy 
in that city. This lady died in 1843. Delaroche 
was amply compensated for his disappointment 
with respect to the Madeleine, by having confided to 
him the adornment of the Amphitheatre of the Ecole 
des Beaux-Arts, a task to which he devoted four 
years of assiduous labour, and completed in 1841. 
In this work he displayed great originality of con- 
ception, and obtained a great and imposing result by 
very simple means. Dramatic in his general tend- 
encies, with a mind forming images the most 
vividly true of the stirring incidents of the past, 
and embodying them by his art with an utter 
independence of preconceived systems of painting, 
though with a practical perfection arising from 
earnest study of previous works, we are not sur- 
prised that, where others would have rushed into 
allegory, he seized upon the real. How has he 
accomplished his mission ? By summoning, at 
42 



his potent will, the chiefs of the arts in past 
ages, to witness the triumphs of the labourers 
in this. How engrossingl}' the artist's heart 
was in this work may be judged by some cir- 
cumstances related of it. Delaroche, it is said, 
received the order from the Minister of the 
Interior to paint a work consisting of twenty-four 
figures, for which he was to receive the sum of 
£3000. He supplied the sketch, in conformity 
with this agreement: it was approved, and it 
was arranged that lie should finish the picture in a 
year. Subsequently he so completely altered, or 
rather enlarged, his plan, that he introduced into 
the work no fewer than seventy-five figures : and 
in executing it he occupied no less than four 
years of his life. It would have been only just 
and reasonable that his pecuniary recompense 
should have been augmented in proportion ; but 
upon a proposal to that effect being intimated 
to the painter, it was immediately declined. 
" No," said he, " of my own will I did what 
I have done ; and I will receive nothing beyond 
the stipulated sum." He added, "and I shall be 
amply paid for my labour, inasmuch as I have 
learned more from the execution of this work, 
than by all my studies that preceded it." This 
was, indeed, true patriotism — the example of a 
great mind. This work may be divided into three 
portions. In the centre, elevated on a throne, are 
the three great artists of antiquity — Apelles, 
Ictinus, and Pheidias. Beneath and around them 
are the Genius of the Arts, and allegoric figures of 
Gothic Art (said to be a portrait of the painter's 
wife), Greek Art, Roman Art, and the Renaissanse. 
Upon their right are grouped the sculptors and 
the colourists, — Claude Lorrain, Ruisdael, Potter, 
Titian, Velazquez, Rubens, and Rembrandt, and 
further on, Paolo Veronese, Correggio, Murillo, and 
Antonello da Messina. Upon their left are the 
architects and the greatest masters of Italian and 
German Art, — Michelangelo, Raphael, Leonardo, 
Holbein, and Diirer, with Poussin at the extreme 
edge. All branches of art find representatives in 
this mighty work. It is a mass of picturesque 
groups and yet a uniform whole. It may not be 
uninteresting to give a complete list of all the 
figures which go to make up this work : they are 
named in order, beginning at the spectator's left. 
Corregffio J<^an Goujon 

Taolo Veronese Celliui 

Antonello da Messina Germain Piloa 

Murillo Puget 

Van Eyck Giovanni da Bologna 

Titian Allegoric figures of Gothic 

Terborch Art, Greek Art, Roman 

Rembrandt Art, and the Renaissance 

Van der Heist Ictinus 

Rubens Apelles 

Velazquez Pheidias 

Van Dyck Delormo 

Michelangelo da Caravaggio Peruzzi 
Giovanni Bellini Erwin von Steinbach 

Giorgione Sansovino 

Ruisdael Robert de Luzarches 

Potter Palladio 

Claude Lorrain Brunellescbi 

Gaspard Poussin Inigo Jones 

Vischer Arnolfo di Cambio 

Pierre Bonteins Pierre Lescot 

Luca della Robbia Bramante 

Benedetto da Majano Mansart 

Giovanni Pisano Vignola 

Baccio Bandinelli Fra Angelico 

Donatello Marc Antonio 

Ghiberti Edelinck 

Palissy Holbein 



HIPPOLYTE (OR PAUL) DELAROCHE 




[Louvre, Paris 



THE DEATH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 



PAINTERS AND KNGRAVERS. 



Le Sueur 

Sebastiano del Piombo 

Orcagna 

Albrecbt Diirer 

Leonardo da Vinci 

Domenicliino 

Fra Bartolommeo 

Mantegna 

Giulio Eomano 



Baphael 
Perugino 
Michelangelo 
Masaccio 
Nicolas Pouasin 
Audrea del Sarto 
Cimabue 
Giotto 



The ' Hemicycle ' has been finely engraved by 
Henriquel-Dupont. During its painting, Delaroche 
made a rapid journey to Rome, which he visited 
again for the last time in 1843, when he passed 
a twelvemonth there. After the Revolution of 
1848, he declined, from generous scruples, to 
accept commissions on liberal terms for certain 
proposed works at Versailles, the Louvre, the 
Invalides, the Palais de Justice, and other public 
edifices, refusing alone to enjoy the emoluments of 
his profession, whilst his comrades in art were neg- 
lected and starving. On the 16th of December, 
1855, a disaster occurred, which nearly obliterated 
for ever the greatest work of this noble painter. 
On the day appointed for the distribution of the 
medals in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the stage 
erected for the ceremony took fire, and the famous 
' Hemicycle ' was, it seemed at first, hopelessly 
destroyed. Delaroche contemplated restoring it 
himself, but he was prevented by his death, which 
occurred in Paris on the 4th of November, 1856. It 
was afterwards restored by Robert-Fleury. Besides 
historical subjects Delaroche executed many por- 
traits of great merit. During his life-time two only 
(the Duke of Angouleme and Mdlle. Sontag) had 
been publicly shown. When, after his death, his 
collected works were exhibited, none excited more 
praise than his portraits. The most famous are 
those of M.de R^musat, the Duke of Noailles, Prince 
Adam Czartoryski, M. de Salvandy, and M. Thiers. 
As the head of a school Delaroche exercised an 
important influence on art — not only in his own 
country, but likewise abroad. He numbered among 
his pupils several Englishmen, including Mr. 
Edward Armitage, R.A., and other foreigners. 

Delaroche did not exhibit at the Salon after 
1837. The following is a list of his principal 
works arranged in the chronological order of their 
execution : 

1822. Jehoash saved by Jehoshabeath. {Louvre, but not 

exhibited.) 
„ Filippo Lippi. 

1823. St. Vincent de Paul preaching before Louis XIII. 

1824. Joan of Arc. 

1825. Children surpri.sed by a Storm. 

1826. The Death of Ago.stino Carracci. 

„ The Massacre of St. Bartholomew : Young Caumont 
de La Force saved by Du Verdelet. {Konigsbery 
Museum.) 

„ Flora Macdonald. 

1827. The Death of President Duranti. (Painted for the 

Conseil d^Etat.) 
„ The Death of Queen Elizabeth. {Louvre.) 
„ The Capture of the Trocadero. 
1829. Cardinal Richelieu on the Rhone, with Cinq-Mars 

and De Thou. {Hertford House. ) 
1330. Cardinal Mazarin on his death-bed. {Hertford 
House.) 
„ The Children of Edward IV. {iMtvre.) 
1831. Cromwell opening the coffin of Charles I. {Nismes 
Museum.) 

1834. The Execution of Lady Jane Grey. {Lord Cheyles- 

more.) 
„ Galileo. 

1835. The Assassination of the Duke of Guise. (Duke 

d'A umale.) 
„ The Earl of Strafford on his way to execution. 
{Duke of Sutherland.) 



1842 



1843. 



1853. 



1854. 
1855. 



1836. Charles I. insulted by the soldiers ot Cromwell. 

{Bridyewater Gallery.) 

1837. Napoleon in his Study. (Countess of Sandwich.) 

1838. Portrait of Peter the .Great. 

1838-41. The Hemicycle. (Ecole des Eeaux-Arts, Paris.) 

1839. The Conquerors of the Bastille in front of the Hotel 

de Ville. (Destroyed by fire at the Hdtel de Ville, 

Paris, ill 1871.) 
La Vierge a la vigne. (Destroyed by fire at Mr. 

Thomas Baring^ s in 1853.) 
The Childhood of Pico della Mirandola. {A'antes 

Museum.) 
Pilgrims at Rome. 

A Mother's Joys. (Luxembourg Museum.) 
„ Herodias. 

1844. Portrait of Pope Gregory XVI. (Versailles.) 
„ The Little Beggar. 

1845. Napoleon at Fontainebleau. (Leipsic Museum.) 
„ The Swing. (Nantes Museum.) 

1847. Charlemagne crossing the Alps. ( Versailles.) 

1848. Bonaparte crossing the Alps. 

1851. Marie Antoinette after her Condemnation. 

1852. Napoleon at St. Helena. (Edward VIL) 

„ The Last Prayer of the Children of Edward IV. 
„ Mater Dolorosa. (Liege Museum.) 

Moses exposed on the Nile. 

The Entombment of Christ. 

The Last Communion of Mary Stuart. 

Beatrice Cenci going to E-xecution. 

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane. 
., A Martyr in the time of Diocletian. 

1856. The Girondists. 

„ The Return from Golgotha. 
„ The Virgin in Contemplation. 

1857. The Virgin with the Holy Women. 

The ' (Euvre de Paul Delaroche,' published in 
folio in 1868, with a biographical notice by the 
Vicomte Henri Delaborde, consists of a series of 
eighty-six photographs from his chief paintings 
and drawings, with a descriptive account of them 
by Jules Godd^. An exhibition of his works was 
held in the Palais des Beaux-Arts in 1858. 

DE LA ROSE, Jean Baptiste, a native probably 
of Aix in Provence, was a marine painter who in 
his day enjoyed a considerable reputation. He was 
master-painter at the port of Toulon from about 
the year 1665 until his death, which appears to 
have taken place in 1687. He was succeeded as 
master-painter by his son, Pascal de La Rose, 
who died at Toulon in 1746, at about eighty years 
of age, after having resigned his office in 1731 to 
his son, Jean Baftiste de La Rose, who died before 
him at Toulon in 1740. 

DE LA ROUSSIERE, Francois, was a French 
engraver, who flourished about the middle of the 
17th century. A portrait of Michel de Castelnau, 
Ambassador from France to England in the reign 
of Elizabeth, is attributed to him by Le Long. 

DE LA RUE, Philibert BenoIt, a French 
painter and etcher, who was born in Paris in 1718, 
was a pupil of Charles Parrocel. His subjects were 
battles, landscapes, genre pictures, and portraits of 
the chief persons of his day. He also etched a 
large number of plates, principally of military 
scenes. His brother, Louis Felix de La Rde, who 
was born in Paris in 1720, and died in the same 
city in 1765, was a sculptor, who also designed 
and etched six plates of Bacchanalian subjects. 
The two brothers are often confounded. Both 
signed their works D. L. 

DE LA RUELLE, Claude, was a painter and 
designer, who lived at Nancy about 1611, and was 
court-painter to the Dukes of Lorraine. He is best 
known by his drawings, with groups of figures, for 
the engravings illustrative of the funeral ceremonies 
of Charles III. and the accession of Henry II. 

43 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



DE LAS CUEVAS, Eugenio, the son and scholar 
of Pedro de Las Cuevas, and the half-brother of 
Francisco Canailo, was bom at Madrid in 1613. 
He was chiefly employed in painting small por- 
traits, by which he gained great reputation at the 
Court of Spain, and was appointed by Philip IV. 
to instruct his son Don John of Austria in drawing. 
He died at Madrid in 1667. He was not only 
a painter, but also a poet and a musician. 

DE LAS CUEVAS, Pedro, a Spanish painter, was 
born at Madrid in 1568. According to Palomino, 
he painted several pictures for private collections, 
for which he was more employed than for public 
edifices. He gained, however, more celebrity by 
hia academy than by his own works. Some 
of the most distinguished painters of the time, 
such as Josef Leonardo, Antonio Pereda, Antonio 
Anias, and Juan Careno, were educated in his 
school, called the School of Madrid, which was 
distinguished for its extraordinary and masterly 
colouring. He died at Madrid in 1636. 

DE LAS MARINAS, Henrique, a Spanish 
marine painter, whose family name is unknown, 
was born at Cadiz in 1620. He was celebrated for 
his representations of scenes of embarkation in the 
bay of his native city, which he executed with so 
much truth and beauty that he pleased both artists 
and seamen. He is praised for the transparency 
of his water and his aerial gradations. He realized 
a large fortune, and indulged himself in travelling; 
but having arrived at Rome he never quitted it, 
dying there in 1680. His pictures are still sought 
after by amateurs, but it is uncertain under what 
name they are sold in Italy. 

DE LAS ROELAS, Jcan, called El Clerigo 
BoELAS and El Licenciado Jdan, and by Palomino 
Doctor Pablo, was descended from a noble family, 
of Flemish origin. He was born at Seville be- 
tween the years 1558 and 1560, and was brought 
up to the profession of physic, in which he had 
already taken a degree, when an inclination for 
the art of painting, which he had manifested in 
the early part of his life, induced him to devote 
himself to its study, and he travelled to Italy for 
the purpose of improvement. He went to Venice, 
where he studied for some years. Palomino says 
that he was a scholar of Titian, but as Titian 
died in 1576, when Roelas was only sixteen years 
of age, it is more probable that he received his 
instruction from a disciple of that great master. 
On his return to Seville, he was much em- 
ployed in the churches of that city, where there 
are many pictures by him, which have been com- 
pared to the works of Palma and Tintoretto. To 
rich and harmonious colouring, which he had 
acquired in the Venetian School, he added correct 
drawing and perfect acquaintance with the anatomy 
of the human figure. One of his most admired 
works is the ' Martyrdom of St. Andrew,' in the 
College of St. Thomas. He went as a canon to 
Olivares in 1624, but whether he ever practised as 
a physician is not stated. His pictures are very 
numerous in Seville. His masterpiece is the 
' Death of St. Isidore,' in the church of San Isidore ; 
another fine picture by him is the ' St. James,' 
in the chapel of that saint in the cathedral, in 
which the saint is represented riding over the 
Moors. Cean Bermudez says it is full of fire, 
majesty, and decorum. Ford, however, says 
that it is surpassed by the picture of the ' Con- 
ception,' in the Academy, and by three in the 
chapel of the University at Seville. Roelas has 
44 



been compared with Tintoretto and Carracci, and is 
certainly the best of the Andalusian painters. It 
is a subject of regret that none of his fine works 
have been engraved, as he excelled in design and 
composition, and displayed a grandeur of form and 
character which belong only to the greatest masters. 
He died at Olivares in 1625. 

DELATOUCHE, Jacqdes Ignace, a French 
painter of miniatures and portraits, was born at 
Ch41ons-6ur-Marne about the commencement of 
the 18th century. The beautifully executed canons 
for the altar of the church of Notre-Dame at 
ChMons are almost the only examples of his work 
which have not disappeared. The Chevalier Dela- 
touche, who was also a poet, died at ChSlons in 
1781. 

DE LA TOUR, Elisabeth M. {nee Simons), was 
born at Brussels in 1780. She painted portraits 
and scenes from popular life, and in 1817 received 
the prize of the Antwerp Society for the Encourage- 
ment of the Fine Arts. She was still living in 1830. 
DE LA TOUR, Maurice Qcentin, the best of 
French artists in crayons, was born at St. Quentin in 
1704. He became a pupil of Spoede, but he soon 
abandoned painting in oil for drawing in crayons. 
Early in his career he visited London, and upon 
his return to Paris he set up as an English 
portrait painter. The first works " en pastel " 
which he sent to the Salon were the portraits of 
Madame Boucher and of himself, in 1737. These 
created a great sensation, and the reputation of 
the artist increased with each succeeding Salon. 
Joseph Vernet alone shared with him the favour 
of the public. Diderot styled him a magician, and 
MM. de Goncourt call his work a mngic mirror, 
in which is seen all the talent and all the glory, all 
the wit and all the grace, of the reign of Louis 
XV. But his genius shines more brilliantly in the 
Museum of his native town than in the Louvre. 
He acquired by the exercise of his profession a 
large fortune, which he employed chiefly in the 
advancement of art. La Tour became an acade- 
mician in 1746, when he presented a portrait of 
Restout, and subsequently one of Dumont le 
Remain. Tluit of Restout he afterwards retouched 
and ruined. Some of his best works shared a 
like fate when age liad dimmed his sight and en- 
feeblf'd his hand. He exhibited for the last time at 
the Salon of 1773. Towards the close of his life 
his reason left him, and he returned in 1784 to St. 
Quentin, where he died in 1788. La Tour executed 
several portraits of Louis XV. and of his Queen, 
Marie Leszczynska, of the Dauphin at different 
ages, and, at a later period, of the Dauphiness. 
His likenesses were considered to be so true that 
when Carle van Loo painted in 1747 the fine 
portrait of Marie Leszczynska, which is now in 
the Louvre, he consented to spare the Queen the 
trouble of sitting by painting the head from a 
drawing by La Tour. Some of his works were 
of large dimensions, but his masterpiece was the 
magnificent drawing of Madame de Pompadour, 
which adorned the Salon of 1755, and is now the 
chief ornament of the collection of crayon drawings 
in the Louvre. He received for it the large sum 
of 24,000 francs. 

The Museum of St. Quentin possesses eighty-five 
of La Tours works, among which are some of 
the highest quality. There are fifteen of his draw- 
ings in the Louvre, and others in the Dresden 
(Tallery, and in the Museums of Dijon and Valen- 
ciennes. An excellent monograph on him is con- 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



tained in MM. de Goncourt's 'Art du xviiime 
eiecle. A statue by Langlet has been erected in 
luB honour at St. Quentin. R.E G. 

DE LA TRAVERSE, Charles Francois, a French 
painter, born in Paris, waa a schohir of Boucher. 
He was sent to Rome with a pension from the 
Crown to pursue his studies for six years, and 
afterwards went to Naples to explore the excava- 
tions at Herculaneum. From thence he went with 
the Marquis of Osuna to Madrid, and resided there 
for many years. He was not employed on any public 
work, but painted many small pictures for indi- 
viduals. These consisted of landscapes and flower- 
pieces, which he painted more in accordance with 
the style of the Flemish than of the Spanish School, 
especially in colour. He painted an allegory in 
honour of the birth of an Infanta of Spain, which 
was engraved by Carniona. but it did not procure 
him any royal favour. He returned to Paris, where 
he died .in 1778. 

DELATRE, Jean Marie, a French engraver, was 
born at Abbeville in 1746. He came to England 
in 1770, and worked under Bartolozzi. He en- 
graved in the chalk style after Angelica KaufEmann, 
Wheatley, Stothnrd, and Hamilton. He also fur- 
nished illustrations for Bell's 'British Poets,' and 
there is a good plate by him after Guercino's ' St. 
Cecilia.' He went to law with Copley in 1801, and 
gained a verdict for 600 guineas. He died in 
reduced circumstances at Fulham in 1845, within a 
ifw months of completing his hundredth year. 
' DELAUNAY, (or De Ladnay,) Nicolas, "the 
engraver par excellence of the French School of 
the eighteenth century." Born in Paris 1739. 
His first master was L. Lempereur. He married 
in 1768 ; his wife died in giving birth to his only 
child, a daughter, in 1770. After her death he 
went to La Havre, and there worked under the 
name of De Valnay. He was received at the 
Academy on August 28, 1789, his reception works 
being portraits of S(5bastien le Clerc, fils, and J. B. 
F. de Troy. He was also elected a member of the 
Royal Danish Academy. He had many pupils, 
one of them, F. Huot, has left a profile likeness of 
his master. He died March 22, 1792. It has 
been said of him, " None drew better, none 
interpreted better, no one prepared his plates with 
greater care, nor worked them up with greater 
brilliance, nor finished them with more perfect 
harmony." His larger plates and his elegant 
vignettes are equally admirable. He is chiefly 
remarkable as the interpreter of Fragonard, 
Badouin, and Lavreince. Bachaumont says, "His 
graver was as fertile as it was extended and gay." 
Among his works were : 

March of Silenus ; after Ruhens. 1777. 
Le Cocu Imagiuaire ; after 3Ioreau. 1773. 
Happiness of the Home (1779), and The Beloved 

Child (1785) ; after Le Prince. 
Portraits engraved for the Caziu Collection : Boileau, 

La Fontaine, Voltaire, J. B. Rousseau, Rabelais, and 

others; after Murilfhr. 1791. 
The Pleasure Party; after H'emix. 1783. 
Les Soins tardifs ^ 

La Sentinelle en defaut I .^^^ Badouin. 1785-88. 
L Epouse indiscrete C -^ 

Le Carquois 6puis6 / 

Le Billet doux -v 

La Consolation de I'Absence Ufler Lavreirice. 1785-88. 
L Heureux Moment Y •' 

Qu'eu dit I'Abbe I 

Le S^ducteur ■' 

Le Petit Joiir ; after Freud enherg. 1780. 
Portrait of Louis XV. ; after Moreau. 



after Fragonard. 
1787-91. 



Le Chiffre d' Amour 

Le Serment d'Amour 

La Bonne Mere 

Les Hasards Heureux (*The 

Swing,' IVallace Collection) 
L'Education fait tout 

And Jive others. 

His vignettes, which are most striking for 
delicacy and high finish, were : 

For ' Chefs d'CEuvre d'AntiquitS,' 3Tarmontel, 1773. 

Le Triomphe de Bacchus et d'Erigone ; after Cochin. 

L'Abeille Jiistifiee '\ 

La Fause Pudeur V after C. D. J. Eisen. 

Les Jaloux Trompes j 

DELAUNAY, (or De Launay,) Robert, brother 
and pupil of Nicolas Delaunay. Born in Paris 
1754. He was appointed engraver to the Galleries 
of the Palais Royal. His work lacks the brilliance 
and perfection of his brother's. He died in Paris 
April 20, 1814. Among iiis works are : 

Les Adieux de la Nourrice, and four others ; after Auhry. 

Les Soins Merites (washing a pet dog !) ; after Lavreince, 

Le Malheur imprevu ; after Grettze. 

Les Adieux ; after Moreau. \111. 

J'y passerai ; after Borel. 1785. 

Many portraits ; the best, J. J. Rousseau. 

Many vignettes, including ' Ex Libris Duch6' (1779), and 
' Hero et Li5andre' (1784). 

DELAUNE, firiENNB, (Deladlne, or Da Ladne,) 
e French engraver, was born in Paris, or more 
probably at Orleans, in 1518. He commenced his 
career as an engraver of medals, and is said to 
have been helped by Benvenuto Cellini, who was 
at that time living in Paris. He afterwards en- 
graved many prints after Raphael, and the Italian 
masters of Fontainebleau, and still more after the 
designs of his son Jean, with whom he passed the 
greater part of his life at Strassburg. His style was 
formed upon that of the Little Masters of Germany. 
He died at Strassburg in 1595. I*;tienne Delaune 
waa one of the most famous designers of gold- 
smith's work of his time. There are six of his 
designs in the Louvre ; two of them are for circular 
dishes representing the Histories of Moses and of 
Samson. His prints, which are generally small, 
are very numerous : they are executed entirely 
with the graver, with great dexterity of handhng, 
anil are very highly finished. He copied some of 
the prints of Marc Antonio with success. He usually 
marked his prints with the initial of his Christian 
name, S., or S. F., or S- fecit, but sometimes 
Stephanus, fecit. His works are described in 
Robert-Dumesnil's ' Peintre-Graveur,' vol. ix. The 
following are the principal : 

A set of thirty Subjects from the Old Testament. 

A set of eighteen Mythological Subjects ; oval, very- 
small. 

The Twelve Months of the Year ; circular. 

Jupiter, Neptune, Mercury, and Ceres ; four circular 
plates. 

Four Subjects from Ancient History ; oval. 

The Four Monarchies ; oval. 

Four plates of Rural Occupations ; oval. 

The Three Graces. 

David and Goliath ; after Marc Antonio. 

The Murder of the Innocents ; after the same. 

The Martyrdom of St. Felicitas ; after the same. 

The Rape of Helen ; after the same. 

The Brazen Serpent ; after Jean Cousin. This is one of 
his largest prints. 

DE LA VALLBE, Etienne, a French historica. 
painter, was born at Rouen in 1740, and became al 
Paris a pupil of Descamps and of Pierre. He went 
to Rome, where he assumed the name of LavallAe- 

45 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



PoussiN, and produced landscapes in Poussin's style. 
He became a member of the Academy in 1789, 
and died in Paris in 1793. Some of his works are 
in the Museum of Alen^on. Guyot engraved after 
him some plates of Arabesques for the decoration 
of rooms. 

DE LA VILLA-AMIL, Geronimo Pekez. See 
Pbrez de i.a Vili,a-Amil. 

DEL BARBIERE, Alkssandro. See Fei. 

DEL BARBIERE, Domenico, called Domenico 
FlORENTiNO, a painter, sculptor, and engraver, was 
born at Florence, about tlie year 1506. French 
documents mention bim by the surname of Ricoveri. 
He was a disciple of Rosso, whom he followed to 
France, when that master was invited by Francis 
I. to decorate the palaces of Fontainebleau and 
Meudon, in which works Domenico gave him much 
assistance. Vasari says that he was the best of all 
the pupils of Rosso. He was also employed after 
the death of Primaticcio to execute some frescoes 
after the designs of that master. Subsequently to 
1562 he retired to Troyes, where he painted works 
for the churches, and there he was buried in St. 
Pantaleon. Domenico del Barbiere has also left us 
some excellent engravings. He has sometimes 
been confounded with the French engraver Domin- 
ique Barriere, who lived about a century later ; but 
the style of the latter is so different from that of 
Barbiere, that the mistake will easily be discovered. 
He sometimes signed his plates with his name, 
Domenico del Barbiere; sometimes with Domen- 
ico Fiorentino ; and sometimes marked them witli 
the initials D. F. We have the following prints 
by him : 

' Gl oria,' standing on a Globe, and holding two Trumpets ; 

after Rosso. 
The Holy Family. 

The Penitent Magdalen ; after Titian. 
Cleopatra. 

The Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 
AmphiarauB with hie horses and chariot swallowed up 

in the earth ; after Jiosso. 
Venus, Mars, and Cupid ; after the same. 
An ornamental Cartouche, in which is represented 

Soldiers leaving a camp ; an etching; after the same. 
Two Anatomical Figures, and two Skeletons ; after the 

same. 
A Banquet ; after Frimatiecio. 
A Group of Saints ; from the ' Last Judgment ' of 

Mtcheiauf/elo. 
A Group of Angels ; from the same. 

DEL BARCO, Alonso, a Spanish landscape 
painter, was born at Madrid in 1645. He was a 
scholar of Antolinez, and, according to Palomino, 
painted landscapes with great success. Many of 
his works were in the palaces and private collections 
at Madrid, in which city he died in 1685. 

DEL BARCO, Garcia, a Spanish painter of 
Avila, was employed in 1476, with Juan Rodriguez, 
by the Duke of Alva, to execute ' Obra Morisca,' or 
Moorish stucco-work, in his palace of Barco de 
Avila. 

DEL BARRANCO, Bernardo Martinez. See 
Martinez del Barranco. 

DEL BASTARO, Giuseppe, was a native of 
Rome, who, according to Baglione, flourished dur- 
ing the pontificate of Urban VIII. (1623—1644). 
He painted for the churcli of Santa Maria Maggiore 
an 'Assumption of the Virgin,' and for San Giro- 
lamo, a ' Descent from the Cross,' and the ' Death 
of St. Jerome.' 

DEL BRESCIANINO, Raffaello and Andrea. 
See Dei Piccinelli. 

46 



DEL BRIZIO, Menichino. See Ambrogi. 

DEL CAIRO, II Cavaliere. See Cairo. 

DEL CASTAGNO, Andrea. See Castagno. 

DEL CASTILLO, Agustin, a Spanish painter 
in oil and fresco, was born at Seville in 1565. He 
was instructed there by Luis Fernandez, but after- 
wards took up his residence at Cordova, where he 
died in 1626. In the cathedral at Cadiz is his 
' Adoration of the Kings,' which is said to be his 
finest work. 

DEL CASTILLO, Fernando, the younger brother 
of Josef del Castillo, was born at Madrid in 1740, 
and studied sculpture with Felipe de Castro. He 
afterwards studied painting in the school of Cor- 
rado Giacuinto, and gained a prize in the Academy 
in 1757. Subsequently he was appointed painter 
to the royal porcelain manufactory at Buenretiro. 
He died at Madrid in 1777. 

DEL CASTILLO, Josef, a Spanish painter and 
engraver, was born at Madrid in 1737. His 
early promise of excellence in the art of paint- 
ing, under Josef Romeo, induced the Minister of 
State, Josef Carvajal, to send him to Rome, at 
his own expense, to study the great masters there 
under Corrado Giacuinto, with wlioin he returned 
to Madrid in 1753. He visited Rome a second 
time in 1758, and became a disciple of Preciado. 
On his return to his native city in 1764, the king 
ordered his principal painter, Mengs, to give work 
to the young artist. Mengs did so, by employing 
him on designs for the royal tapestries, and in 
painting devotional pictures for the cells of the 
Royal Convent of Salesas, as well as two portraits 
of Charles III. Castillo made drawings for the 
edition of ' Don Quixote,' published by the Madrid 
Academy ; lie etched the ' Supper at Emmaus,' 
after Cerezo, the 'Flight into Egypt,' and other 
works, after Luca Giordano, and made for the en- 
gravers small copies of the frescoes in the Retiro. 
His productions are to be met with in Madrid, at 
the Eacorial, and in various churches, convents, and 
hospitals. He died at Madrid in 1793. 

DEL CASTILLO, Jdan, the brother of Agustin 
del Castillo, was born at Seville in 1584. He 
had the advantage of being educated under Luis 
de Vargas, by whose instructions, joined to his 
own natural ability, he rose to be a distinguished 
historical painter. His principal works are at 
Seville and Granada. He enjoys the reputation 
of having been the instructor of Mnrillo, Alonso 
Cano, and Pedro de Moya. He died at Cadiz iu 1640. 

DEL CASTILLO Y SAAVEDRA, Antonio, a 
Spanish portrait painter, was born at Cordova in 
1603. He was the son of Agustin del Castillo, 
from whom he received his first instruction in 
art. At his father's death he became the pupil of 
Francisco Zurbaran, who was at that time in high 
repute. The cathedral of Cordova possesses many 
paintings by him, which bear ample testimony 
to his merit ; and had his colouring been equal to 
his composition and design, few artists of his own 
country would have surpassed him, as may be judged 
from his jiaintings of the ' Assumption of the 
Virgin,' and 'SS. Peter and Paul.' The convent 
of St. Francis at Cordova possesses a painting 
taken from llie life of that saint, which Castillo 
painted in competition with Juan de Alfaro, under 
whose name in this work will be found the story 
of the incident which led to its execution. In 1666 
he revisited Seville at the time when Murillo was 
at the zenith of his fame. On seeing the pictures 
of that great master Castillo was so struck with 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



their excellence and his own inferiority, that he 
cried " Ya muri6 Castillo I " and from that time 
sank into a state of despondency that hastened his 
death, which took place at Cordova in 1667. 

DEL CERAJUOLO, Antonio, a painter of 
Florence, who flourished in the early part of the 
16th century, was a pupil of Lorenzo di Credi, and 
subsequently an assistant of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo. 
He executed church pictures, amongst which was 
a ' Crucifixion, with St. Mary Magdalen and St. 
Francis,' now in the Pitti Palace ; but he was 
especially celebrated for his portraits. 

DELCLOCHB, Paul Joseph, a Flemish painter 
of interiors and battle-pieces, was born at Namur 
in 1716. He was the son of Pierre Delcloche, an 
almost unknown painter, from whom he received 
his first lessons in art. Whilst still very young he 
went to Paris, but returned in 1747 to Liege, where 
he painted some pictures for the Salle des Etats 
and the churches. His small pictures are full of 
life and spirit, but his larger works are much less 
successful. He died about 1752. 

DEL CONTE, Jacopo, a Florentine painter, was 
bom in 1510. He was brought up in tlie school 
of Andrea del Sarto. Few of his works are to be 
met with in Florence, as he went to Rome when 
he was young, and resided there until hia death. 
He was a respectable painter of history ; but is 
more distinguished for his excellence in portraits, 
of which he painted a greater number, and of more 
distinguished personages, than any artist of his 
time. He visited Rome during the time of Paul 
IIL, and he painted his portrait, and that of each 
succeeding pontiff until Clement VIIL, in whose 
pontificate he died. His principal historical 
works at Rome are, ' St. John preaching,' and the 
' Deposition from the Cross,' in San Giovanni 
DecoUato, the church of the Florentines ; the 
'Dead Christ,' with several figures, in the Madonna 
del Popolo ; and at the Cappuccini on Monte 
Cavallo, a'Pieta,' and 'St. Francis receiving the 
Stigmata.' He also painted a portrait of Michel- 
angelo. He died at Rome in 1598. 

DELCOUR, Jan Gillis, a Flemish painter of 
religious subjects, was born at Hamoir, near Liege, 
in 1632. He was a scholar of Geraert Douffet, 
but went to Rome and there studied for a long 
time under Andrea Sacchi and Carlo Maratti. He 
made excellent copies of some of Raphael's most 
celebrated works, which still exist at Li^ge, where 
there are also some original pictures by him in the 
churches. He died at Liege in 1694. 

DEL CROCIFISSAJO, Girolamo. See Macchi- 

ETTI. 

DE LEEUW, Jan, a Dutch engraver, was born 
at the Hague in 1660. In conjunction with Jan 
Lamsveld, he engraved the portraits for Le Yas- 
ser's ' Histoire du Regne de Louis XIII.,' published 
at Amsterdam in 1701. We have also by him the 
following portraits : 

Carolus Niellius, D. Theol. 
Jacob Wilhelm Imhof , Senator of Nuremberg. 
Joseph Justus Scaliger. 
John, Duke of Marlborough. 

Abraham Cowley; for the edition of his works published 
in 1700. 

DE LEEUW, Thomas, (or De Led,) a native 
of Flanders, was in France from 1560 to 1612. 
He was a pupil of Jean Rabel, and afterwards of 
Antoine Caron, whose daughter he married. He 
engraved at first after Cornells Cort, Sadeler, and 
Wierix, in a dry manner, but devoted himself 



afterwards to portraiture, in which he became 
one of the most distinguished artists of his time. 
He is supposed to have died about 1620. M. 
Duplessis has described the works of this engraver 
in vols. X. and xi. of Robert-Dumesnil's ' Peintre- 
Graveur.' They amount in number to 512, of which 
213 are portraits, and are generally signed with 
his name. Among others are the following: 

foktp.aits. 

Henry III., King of France and Poland. 

Louise de Lorraine, his Queen. 

Henri de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, at the age of nine 

years. 
Cesar, Duke of Vendnme, aged four years. 
Bust of Henry IV. ; after Bunel. 
Henry IV. ; after Qnesnel, 
Marie de Medicis ; after the same. 
Mary, Queen of Scotland and France. 
Charles de Bourbon, Coiuit of Soissons. 
FraD9ois de Bourbon, Prince of Couti. 
Charles de Lorraine, Duke of Mayenue. 
Henri de Savoie, Duke of Nemours. 
Henri de Montmorency, Constable of France. 
Anne, Duke de Joyeuse, Admiral of France. 
Ch.arles de Gontaut, Duke of Biron, Marshal of France. 

SUPJECTS. 

The Ecce Homo, with Angels bearing the Instruments 

of the Passion. 
Eighteen plates of the Life of the Virgin. 
The Twelve Sibyls ; from his own designs. 
Justice rewarding the Labours of the Husbandman; 

after F. Zuccheri. 
The Coronation of Louis XIII. ; after Qucsnel. 

DE LEEUW, WiLLEM, a Flemish engraver, was 
born at Antwerp in 1610. He was a disciple of Pieter 
Soutniiin, but instead of following the neat, finished 
style of that artist, his etching is bold and^ free. 
There is a coarseness and want of harmony in his 
prints, except in those after Nieulant, where he 
handled the point with the greatest fineness ; 
otherwise liis manner is well adapted to some^ of 
the subjects he engraved, particulariy his hunting 
pieces after Rubens. He died about 1665_. The 
following are his most esteemed prints, which are 
sometimes signed with his name, and sometimes 

marked with the cipher ^^^. 

Lot and his Daughters; after Ruben). 

Daniel in the Lions' Den ; after the same. 

The Virgin, supported by Angels ; called ' Mater 
Dolorosa'; after the same. 

The Martyrdom of St. Catharine; after the same; fine 
and scarce. 

Four large plates of Hunting scenes; after the same. 
The same subjects, viz. the Lion-hunt, the Boar-hunt, 
Hunting the Wolf, and the Crocodile and Hippo- 
potamus, have been engr.aved by F. Souiman. 

Tobit and his Wife ; after Rembrandt. 

David playing on the Harp before Saul ; after the same. 

Rembrandt's Wife ; after the same. 

A Female with a Veil; inscribed 'Marianne ; halt- 
length ; after the same. 

St. Francis in Meditation ; after J. Lievens. 

A set of four large -LunAsciipes; after AdrtaenNieidani 
These prints are in a more finished style than is usual 
with De Leeuw, and are scarce. 

DELEGORGUE-CORDIER, John, a French line- 
engraver, was bom at Abbeville in 1781. He 
engrav2d the 'Toilet of Venus' after Albano, 
'.fflneas and Anchises,' after Domenichino, and 
portraits of Napoleon and Josephine after Lebel, 
and Madame de Sevigne after Nanteuil. 

DELEIDI, LuiGl, an Italian painter, who was 
bora in the Bergamese in 1774, painted landscapes 

47 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



and ornaments which are particularly happy in 
their grouping and colouring. He died at Bergamo 
ia 1853. 

DE LELIE, Adriaan, was born at Tilburg in 
1755, and was a scholar of Peeters, a painter of 
tapestries and ornaments, and afterwards of Quer- 
tenmont at Antwerp. He made copies of man}' 
of the portraits by Rubens and Van Dyck at 
Diisseldorf, and also of historical pictures by 
Italian and Dutch masters. By tlie advice of Pro- 
fessor Camper, he established himself at Amster- 
dam, where he painted a great number of portraits 
and cabinet pictures ; among the latter is one of 
the celebrated amateur Jan Gildemeester showing 
his collection to a party of ladies and gentlemen, 
in which the principal pictures are readily recog- 
nised. One of his best works is that representing 
the 'Drawing Academy' of the Felix Meritis 
Society at Amsterdam. His pictures are highly 
esteemed in Holland and Germany, where they 
are to be met with in the best collections. He 
died at Amsterdam in 1820. 

DE LELIE, Jan Adriaan Antonib, who was 
born at Amsterdam in 1788, was instructed in art 
by his father, Adriaan De Lelie, and by Haan. He 
excelled in painting fruit-pieces and genre pictures; 
and also practised picture restoring. He died at 
Amsterdam in 1845. 

DELEN. See Deeles. 

DE LE PASTURE, Rogier. See Van der 
Weyden. 

DELESTRE, Jean Baptists, a French artist and 
writer upon art, was born at Lyons in 1800. He was 
a pupil of Gros, and studied also water-colour paint- 
ing and sculpture, but after a time he forsook the 
practice of art, and devoted himself to its history 
and criticism. He was a radical in politics, and 
took an active part in the revolution of 1848. He 
died in Paris in 1871. A 'Scene during the erup- 
tion of Vesuvius,' by him, is in the Museum of 
Nantes. His principal writings were ' Etudes pro- 
gressives des tetes du Cenacle peint a Milan par 
Leonard de Vinci,' 1827, and 'Gros et ees ouv- 
rnges,' 1867. 

DE LETH, Henprik, was a Dutch engraver, 
who lived at Amsterdam, where he published in 
1729 a series of views of Kennemerland, which 
are very poorly executed. 

DE LEU. See De Leeuw. 

DELF, Coppin, a French historical painter, wlio 
flourislied in the 15th century, and became painter 
in ordinary to King ReniJ and King Louis XI. He 
executed the mural paintings in the churches of 
St. Martin at Tours, St. Maurice at Angers, and 
St. Peter at Saumur, between 1456 and 1482. 

DELFF, Jacob Willemszoon, 'the elder,' a por- 
trait painter of Delft, is known by a picture of an 
'Archery-feast' in the Hotel de Ville at Delft, 
dated 1592 ; and by a ' Reconciliation of Esau and 
Jacob,' in the Belvedere at Vienna, bearing the 
date 1584. He also painted ' The Sportsman's 
Dinner,' and a portrait group of his family. Delif 
died at Delft in 1611. His works display good 
conception and execution, but are somewhat heavy 
in colouring. 

Jacob Delff had three sons, Cornells, Rochus, and 
Willem. CORNELIS Dklff, born in 1571, was a 
pupil of Cornells van Haarlem, and distinguished 
himself by very fine pictures of still life. He died 
in 1645. Rochus Delff was a portrait painter, 
and a pupil of his father. Willem Delff is 
noticed below. 

48 



DELFF, Jacob Willemszoon, ' the younger,' the 
son of Willem Jacobszoon Delff, and grandson of 
the elder artist of the same names, was born in 
1619 at Delft, where he afterwards resided. He 
was highly esteemed and much patronized by 
many celebrated personages of his country. He 
also held, with great credit to himself, several 
important civic posts, and at his death, which 
occurred at Delft in 1661, a marble monument was 
erected to his memory. He followed the style of 
Rembrandt. A Man's Portrait, by him, is in the 
Rotterdam Museum ; a Female Portrait is in the 
Stadel Institute at Frankfort ; and the figure of a 
Boy is in the Liechtenstein Gallery at Vienna. 

DELFF, Willem Jacobszoon, was a Dutch por- 
trait painter, but was more celebrated as an en- 
graver. He was born at Delft in 1580, and received 
his instruction in design from his father, Jacob 
Willemszoon DelfE. He practised for some time 
in the style of his father, but having attempted to 
engrave some plates after the portraits of Miereveld, 
whose daughter he married in 1618, his success was 
such as to induce him to abandon painting, and 
devote himself entirely to the graver, which he 
handled with uncommon freedom and precision. 
The plates he executed in the earlier part of his 
life are more neatly finished than those he after- 
wards produced, but the latter are engraved in a 
bold open style, producing a fine efiect, and the 
heads are finely drawn. His plates are some- 
times signed with his name, but at other times 

are marked with the cipher 



d)"'^ 



Delff died at Delft in 1638. A full account of his 
works will be found in Franken's ' (Euvre de 
Willem Jacobszoon Delff,' published at Amsterdam 
in 1872. The following are his principal portraits : 

Charles I. of England ; after I). 3[yiens. 
Henrietta Maria, his Queen ; afttr the same. 
Michiel Miereveld, painter ; ajter Van Dyck. 

PORTRAITS AFTER MIEREVELD. 

George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. 

Jacob Cats, poet and philosopher. 

Hugo Grotius, Syndic of Rotterdam ; fine. 

Three fine Heads of William, Maurice, and Henry, 

Princes of Orange. 
Gustavus Adolphus. King of Sweden. 
Frederick, King of Bohemia, Elector Palatine. 1632. 
Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia. 1630. 
Wolfgang William, Duke of Bavaria. 
Ga^par, Count de Coligni. 1631. 
Louise, Countess de Coligni. 1627. 
Florent, Count of Culenborch. 1627. 
Catharine, Comitess of Culenborch. 1636. 
Philip William, Prince of Orange. 1628. 
Marco Antonio de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalatro. 
Sir Dudley Carleton, Ambassador at the Hague. 
Jan Olden Barnevelt. 1617. 
Abraham van der Meer. 
Hans De Eies. 

Jacobus Triglandus, Professor at Leyden. 1636. 
Felix De Sambix, writing-master of Antwerp. 

DELFINO, Carlo Claddio. See Dadphin. 

DEL FIORE, CoLANTONio. See Tomasi, Niccola. 

DEL FIORE, Jacobello or Jacomello, flour- 
ished between 1385 and 1439. He was the son of 
Francesco del Fiore, the president of the Venetian 
Guild of Painters. His early paintings have disap- 
peared from the churches of Pesaro. Jacobello 
was elected president of his Guild in 1415, and 
held that position until 1436. In 1415 he painted 
the ' Winged Lion of St. Mark,' now in the Ducal 
Palace ; and in 1421 he was commissioned to paint 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



for the Tribunal of the " Proprio " the subject of 
'Justice, between SS. Michael and Gabriel.' The 
' Coronation of the Virgin,' ordered in 1438 for the 
cathedral of Ceneda, is still there, and in the church 
of the Hospital of San Lorenzo, at Sarravalle, are 
frescoes representing scenes from the lives of SS. 
Lawrence and Stephen, though now much injured 
by time. The Venice Academy possesses a 
' Virgin,' signed by Jacobello in 1436, and many 
other paintings by him exist in the private and 
public galleries of Venice. 

DELFOS, Abraham, a Dutch engraver, was born 
at Leyden in 1731. He engraved after Berchem, 
Teniers, and Brouwer, but his works are very 
scarce. We have by him : 

A Landscape, with Figures and Animals ; after Berchem. 

A Sea-port, with Shipping ; after the same. 

Several Views in Flanders, with Boors ; after D. Teniers. 

DEL FKATE, Cecchino, was a disciple of Era 
Bartolommeo, but no painting can with certainty 
be attributed to him. 

DELGADO, JnAN, a Spanish painter, was estab- 
lished at Madrid about the commencement of the 
18th century. He painted a picture of ' St. Francis 
Xavier,' in the Hermitage of Our Lady, near the 
bridge of Segovia, which was well coloured, but 
somewhat mannered. 

DELGADO, Pedro, a Spanish painter, was born 
at Orgaz, where he painted in 1529 for the Hermit- 
age of the Conception two large pictures, the one 
representing the ' Virgin surrounded by Saints,' 
and the other the ' Descent from the Cross ' : they 
are both in the style of the 15th century. 

DEL GARBO, Raffaellino. See Capponi. 

DEL GESSI, Ercolino. See Ruggieri. 

DEL GOBBO, Andrea. See Solario. 

DEL GRANO, Giorgio. See Gandini. 

DEL GUASTA, Ben VENUTO, called Benvenutgda 
Siena, who was born at Siena in 1436, painted much 
in that city. His earliest knovim work is an ' Annun- 
ciation ' signed ' Opus Benvenuti Joannis de Senis.' 
It was painted in 1466, and is in the church of St. 
Girolamo at Volterra. Frescoes by Benvenuto are 
in the Baptistery of Siena, and there are in the 
Gallery of that city three paintings by him. The 
National Gallery has a ' Madonna and Child en- 
throned,' with side panels. The date of his death 
is not recorded, but he was still living in 1517, for 
in that year he painted the baldacchino of the 
cathedral of Siena, on the occasion of a visit of 
Pope Leo X. to that city. 

DEL GUASTA, Girolamo, the son of Benvenuto 
del Guasta, was born in 1470. He painted in 1508 
a ' Virgin of the Snow,' which is now in the 
Oratory of St. Catharine in San Domenico at Siena, 
and in the Academy of that city are two or three 
other pictures by him. But little else remains of 
this artist, who died in 1524. 

DEL HELE, Isaak. See De La HiiLE. 

DELIEMAKER,NicoLAES,(orDeLiEMAECKERE,) 
surnamed RoosE, and sometimes called Nicolaes 
RoosE, a Flemish historical painter, was born at 
Ghent in 1601. He was the son of Jacob De 
Liemaker, a painter upon glass, and is said by 
Descamps to have been a pupil of Markus Geeraerts 
the younger, but as the latter joined his father in 
London in 1580, it is most likely that he studied 
under Otto van Veen at Antwerp. He attained a 
high rank in his profession, and in 1625 returned 
to Ghent, where he died in 1646. The Museum of 
Ghent and the churches of that city and of other 
towns of Flanders possess a great number of his 
VOU II. E 



works. His best picture is the ' Consecration of 
St. Nicholas, Bishop of Myra,' which is above the 
high altar of the church of St. Nicholas at Ghent. 

DELIGNON, Jean Louis, a French engraver, 
was born in 1755. He executed a considerable 
number of book-plates after Moreau and others, as 
well as some plates for the ' Galerie du Palais- 
Royal.' His best work, ' Le Seigneur chez son 
Fermier,' is to be found in the 'Monument du 
Costume.' He died in 1804. 

DELIN, Joannes Josephus, a Flemish historical 
and portrait painter, was born at Antwerp in 
1774. He first visited the Academies of Brussels 
and Antwerp, and afterwards continued his studies 
under Vincent in Paris. In the old church of the 
Jesuits at Antwerp there is a picture by him 
representing the ' Purification of the Virgin,' and 
in the church of St. Charles Borromeo, ' Simeon in 
the Temple.' He died in Paris in 1811. 

DELL' ABBATE FAMILY. 

Olovanni (?— 1569). 

Nlccola (1612— 1671). Pietro Paolo (?— 1676'). 

, \ : , 

Olullo Camillo (fl. about 1660). Cri«toforo Camillo 

(fl. about 1668). (fl. about 1670). 

Ercole (1563?— 1613). 

Pietro Paolo (1592—1630). 

DELL' ABBATE, Ercole, the eldest son of 
Giulio Camillo dell' Abbate, and grandson of 
Niocolo, was born at Modena about the year 1563. 
He possessed an extraordinary genius for the arts, 
which he disgraced by the depravity and intem- 
perance of his conduct. Like most artists of that 
character, his works were the productions of negli- 
gence and haste. He painted, in concurrence with 
Bartolommeo Schedone, some pictures representing 
scenes in the Life of Hercules, in the Council-hall 
at Modena. He died at Modena in 1613. The 
Modena Gallery has three works by this artist — an 
'Annunciation,' a ' Presentation in the Temple,' 
and a ' Birth of St. John the Baptist.' A ' Marriage 
of the Virgin,' in the same gallery, is by some 
attributed to Ercole dell' Abbate, and by others to 
his son, Pietro Piiolo, the younger. 

DELL' ABBATE, Niccol6, was called by the 
Italians Messer Niccol6 or Nicoolino. He was 
bom at Modena in 1512, and is said to have studied 
under his father, Giovanni dell' Abbate, who was 
a modeller in stucco, as well as a painter, and in 
the school of Antonio Begarelli, an able sculptor, 
but these statements are destitute of any proof ; it 
is, however, supposed by many that he had the 
advantage of being instructed by Correggio, which 
supposition is supported by his superior knowledge 
of foreshortening, and the boldness of his relief. 
Certain it is that the works of Correggio and 
Parmigiano produced a great effect on his style. 
One of the first performances which brought him 
into notice was his picture of the ' Martyrdom of 
St. Peter and St. Paul,' painted in 1547 for San 
Pietro at Modena, of which celebrated work 
Vasari takes no further notice than to remark, 
that one of the executioners is taken from a 
picture of Correggio at Parma (the ' Martyrdom of 
SS. Placidus and Flavia,' now in the Gallery of 
that city). Dell' Abbate's ' Martyrdom ' is now in 
the Dresden Gallery, and has been engraved by 
Folkema. He afterwards painted twelve pictures 
from the twelve books of the .dSneid, formerly in 
the castle of Scandiano, nine of which are now in 

49 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



the Modena Gallery, three having perished by fire 
in 1815, and they are alone sufficient to establish 
his reputation. Lanzi, who was well acquainted 
with their merit, says " that in the correctness of 
the figures, the beauty of the landscapes, the 
architecture, and the animals, they merit every 
praise that can be bestowed on a distinguished 
follower of the style of Raphael." Whilst in the 
prime of life, Dell' Abbate went to Bologna, where 
he painted in a portico of the Leoni Palace, now 
the Marchesino, in fresco, an ' Adoration of the 
Shepherds,' and in the Poggi Palace, now the 
Instituto, a frieze, representing an 'Assembly of 
young Men and Women,' which was perhaps more 
suited to his genius. This was composed and 
drawn with admirable taste and elegance, and has 
been engraved by Crivellari. These works were 
the admiration, and became the models, of the 
Carracci ; and Agostino wrote a sonnet in honour 
of the painter, in which, in the flowery language of 
poetry, he attributes to him "the symmetry of 
Raphael, the sublimity of Michelangelo, the truth 
of Titian, the greatness of Correggio, and the grace 
of Parmigiano." Such was the excellence of his 
work in fresco-painting, that he is said never to 
have had occasion to retouch it when dry ; 
this gave an uncommon splendour and purity to 
his colouring. In 1552 Priraaticcio prevailed on 
Deir Abbate to accompany him to the court of 
France, as the most efficient coadjutor he could find 
to assist in the important works he was about to 
undertake. Dell' Abbate, in fact, painted most of 
the frescoes from the designs of Primaticoio in the 
magnificent gallery at Fontainebleau, of which 
more particular notice will be found in the account 
of that master. After the death of Primaticcio, he 
continued to be employed by the court of France, 
and died in Paris in 1571. Of his numerous fresco 
paintings, but few, comparatively, are extant. His 
oil pictures also are extremely rare. The ' Rape of 
Proserpine,' formerly in the Orleans Gallery, but 
now in the collection of the Duke of Sutherland, is 
a favourable specimen of his skill in landscape 
painting. A ' Holy Family ' is in the possession of 
Lord Scarsdale at Kedleston Hall. 

Niccolo deir Abbate had three sons, Gitjlio 
Camillo, Cristoforo, and Camillo, all of whom 
followed liim to France, and assisted him in his 
work at Fontainebleau. The first-mentioned worked 
about 1560-61; the second from 1568 to 1570; 
and Camillo, who waa the principal assistant of 
his father, about 1570. 

DELL' ABBATE, Pietho Paolo, 'the elder,' the 
brother of Niccolo, was a native of Modena, where 
he lived all his life and died about 1575. He excelled 
in painting battle pieces, and was considered un- 
equalled, in his time, for the spirit and animation 
with which he designed horses and the attacks of 
combatants. Some of the works of this painter 
are in the Gallery at Modena. 

DELL' ABBATE, Pietro Paolo, 'the younger,' 
the son of Ercole, was born at Modena in 1592, 
and died there in 1630. He painted for the churches 
at Modena several pictures, which are spoken of 
with commendation. The Modena Gallery has a 
' Christ in the Temple ' by him. 

DELLA BELLA, Stefano, an Italian engraver, 
called in France Etienne de La Belle, was born 
at Florence in 1610. He was the son of a gold- 
smith, and is said to have been intended for his 
father's profession, but having shown a genius for 
drawing, he was placed under Cesare Dandini to 
50 



learn painting. Subsequently, a decided inclination 
for the art of engraving induced his father to 
permit him to become a pupil of Canta Gallina, 
who was also the master of Callot. He at first 
imitated the manner of Callot, but soon abandoned 
it, and adopted a style of his own. No artist has 
handled the point with more facility and finesse 
than Delia Bella. His execution is admirable, and 
his touch spirited and picturesque. He designed his 
subjects with infinite taste, and his plates produce 
a clear and brilliant effect. It is not surprising 
that some of his prints are but slightly etched, 
when we consider that the number of them 
exceeded one thousand four hundred. He visited 
Paris in 1640, where he engraved some plates for 
Henriet, the uncle of Israel Silvestre. Cardinal 
Richelieu employed him to make drawings of the 
siege and taking of the towns of Arras and La 
Rochelle, which he afterwards engraved. On his 
return to Florence, about 1650, he was appointed 
by the Grand-Duke instructor in drawing to his 
son Cosmo. He died at Florence in 1664. The 
following is a list of his principal works : 

various subjects. 

Portrait of Stefano della Bella, in a Persian costume ; 

after his own design. 
Sigismondo Boldoni, of Milan. 
Mont-Joie St. Denis, King at Arms ; very scarce. 
Horatius Gonzales ; oval ; very scarce. 
Ferdinand II., Emperor of Germany. 
Bernardo Eicci, Buffoon to Ferdinand II., on horseback 

1637. 
St. Anthony, Archbishop of Florence. (His first plate.) 
St. Anthony of Padua, mounted on a monster with two 

heads. 
Jacob and Rachel leaWng Laban. 
Jacob's Journey to Egypt. 
Battle of the Amalekites. 
St. John the Baptist, with a lamb. 
St. John the Baptist getting water with his cup. 
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus on her knee. 
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus standing on her knee. 
The Virgin suckHng the Infant Jesus. 
The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus, with St. EUzabeth 

and St. John. 
The Virgin sitting, with the Infant standing on her 

knee ; oval. 
The Virgin suclding the Infant ; after Carracci. 
A small plate of the Flight into Egypt, St. Joseph lead- 
ing the Ass. 
A round plate of the Flight into Egypt, with the heads 

of Angels. 
The Repose ui Egypt ; a round plate. 
The Repose in Egypt, with St. Joseph reading, leaning 

against a tree. 
The Holy Family, with St. John and St. EHzabeth, with 

a flowerpot. 
The Infant Jesus explaining the Scriptures to the 

Virgin and St. Joseph ; very rare. 
Effigie del glorioso Martyre Sto. Benedetto ; very scarce. 
The finding of the miraculous Image of our Lady, near 

Florence. 1633. 
The Triumph of the Church. 

St, Prospero descending from Heaven ; very scarce. 
The Tyrant Phalaris ordering Perillus to be put into the 

Brazen Bull ; after Folidoro da Caravagijio. 1634, 
A basso-reUevo, antique ; after the same. 
Lucretia ; after Parmigiano. 

Three Children carrying a plateau ; after Giddo Rem. 
A basso-rehevo, antique, a woman stopping a bull, 
Clovis on horseback, carrying off Clotilda ; scarce, 
A Seaman, of whom a beggar is asking charity, 
A Seaman, with his hand on the head of his dog, and 

other figures, 
A Child teaching a dog to sit up. 
Four Turks, half-length figures. 
Three Turks, with a boy and a negro, 
A Pole, with his battle-axe. 
A Soldier, and s Woman on horseback, with a child. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



A Florentine Sportsman, with liis gun, and a Girl 
spinning. 

A Lady holding a dog. 

Mount Parnassus ; very fine. 

An Eagle devouring a fowl, with its wings extended, 
and below two horses, and a number of spectators. 

The Eock of the Philosophers ; fine and scarce. 

The Fair, representing a Festival on the Amo ; oval. 
This plate was long attributed to Callot. 

Perspective View of the Catafalque of the Emperor Fer- 
dinand II., with the Arms of the Medici. 

A ThesisjOn the Canonization of Francesco Solano. 1639. 

Plan of the Siege of La Eochelle. 

Plan of the Siege of Arras. 

The Eeposoir, or Fite Dieu. 

View of the Pont-Neuf at Paris. (His chef-d'mivre.) 
The first impressions of this plate are without the 
weathercock on the tower of St. Germain I'Auxerrois. 

View of the Castle of Sant' Angelo. 

SETS OF PRINTS. 

Two Landscapes ; in one, a peasant carrying a basket at 
the end of a stick ; in the other, a peasant carrying 
a package on his head. 

Two Landscapes ; one with a man leading dogs ; the 
other with a man leading a horse laden with sheep. 

Six Views of the Port of Leghorn. IGbo. 

The Four Seasons ; allegorical figures in ovals. 

The Four Elements ; Landscapes and Marines. 

Eight Marine Subjects, in the style of Callot. 

Six Plates of Vases. 

Six Landscapes ; circular. 1656. 

Four charming Landscapes, with Figures. 

Four Views of Eoman Euins. 

Three Battle-pieces ; large plates. 1622, 1627, 1641. 

Eleven Plates of Moors, Hungarians, Asiatics, and 
Africans. 

Sixteen small square plates : Soldiers, Hunters, Fisher- 
men, Peasants, Children, &c. (attributed, by some, 
to Callot). 

Eighteen ; entitled RaccoHa di varii Capricci. 1646. 

Twenty-four Views of Edifices ; pubUshed by Israel 
Silvesire. 

Twenty-two sketches, &c., by Stefano della Bella. 

The Five Deaths ; ovals. (His last works.) 

The Sixth Death, plate begun by Della Bella, and 
finished after his death by G. B. Galestrucci, his 
scholar. 

DELLA CASA, Niccol6, (or Nicolas de La 
Maison,) was an engraver who flourished towards 
the end of the 16th century. From an in- 
Bcription on one of his plates, he appears to have 
been a native of Lorraine. He worked entirely 
with the graver, his productions being after the 
style of the school of Marc Antonio, but they are 
not of a high class. We have by him : 

Portrait of the Emperor Charles V. ; oval, with a border 
copied from Enea Vico ; inscribed N. D. la Casa 
Lotaringus, fecit. 

Portrait of Baccio BandinelU. 

Portrait of Henry II. of France. 1547. 

Portrait of Cosmo de' Medici. 

A plate in eleven pieces of the * Last Judgment ' by 
Michelangelo. 1543. This plate is supposed to be 
copied from a work of Beatrizet. an artist of Lorraine, 
who was engraving at Eome at that time. 

DELLA CASA, Pier Antonio. See Bernabei. 

DELLA CHIESE, Giovanni, who was living at 
Lodi in the 15th century, was one of the artists 
called by Lodovico Sforza in 1490 to decorate 
his palace of the Porta Giovia at MUan. No 
dates are known of his birth or death. He and 
his brother Matteo are the authors of the ' Corona- 
tion of the Virgin,' the organ screen, and other 
paintings in the church of the Incoronata, Lodi. 
The church of San Lorenzo, in the same town, also 
possesses some fragments of frescoes by Giovanni 
representing the 'Nativity,' &c. 



DELLA CORNA, Antonio, who lived in the 
15th and 16th centuries, was one of the artists 
called by Lodovico Sforza to decorate the Porta 
Giovia Palace at Milan in 1490. No dates are known 
of his birth or death. The Bignami Collection, 
near Cassal Maggiore, contains a picture represent- 
ing a murder taken from the Legend of St. Julian, 
signed by Antonio in 1478. 

DELL' ACQUA, Bernardino, commonly known 
as Del Aoua, a painter of Venice, went in 1587 
with Pellegrino Tibaldi to Spain, and executed 
under his direction frescoes in the Convent of the 
Escorial. Carducho mentions Dell' Acqua as an 
excellent designer and a clever fresco painter. 

DELLA CROCK, Teodoro. See Verkruys. 

DELLA FRANCESCA, Piero. See Dei 
Franceschi. 

DELLA FRATTA, Flori, who flourished about 
1540, and died young, is said to have painted the 
' Last Supper ' in San Bernardino at Fratta, which 
is executed in the style of the best masters. 

DELLA GATTA, Bartolommeo, was probably 
born at Florence in 1408, and died in 1481. He 
was a friar of the Camaldolese Convent of the 
Angeli, at Florence, and afterwards became abbot 
at Arezzo, where he covered the walls of the monas- 
tery with frescoes, and also invented an organ of 
pasteboard, which yielded soft and perfect tones. 
He assisted Signorelli and Perugino in their paint- 
ings in the Sistine Chapel between 1479 and 1486. 
His miniatures on vellum are considered valuable, 
but his paintings show want of skill as a colourist, 
although clever in details and in landscape. The 
following paintings by him still exist : 

Arezzo. To^cn Hall. Two panels represent- 

ing scenes from the 
Life of St. Eoch. 

Castiglione Fiorentino. Colle-\^ 7^^^^ ^^f ^^'^\' 
oiata r ''" Peter. Paul, 

" ' j Julian, and Michael. 

Cortona. S. Domenico. The Assumption of the 

Virgin. 

DELL' ALTISSIMO, Cristofano. See Papi. 

DELLA MARCA, Giovanni Battista, called 
also Lombardelli and II Montano, was born at 
Montenuovo in 1532. He was first a scholar of 
Marco da Faenza, and, according to Baglione, 
visited Rome in the Pontificate of Gregory XIIL, 
and there devoted himself to an imitation of the 
works of Raffaellino da Reggio, whom he assisted 
in some fresco paintings in the Vatican. In the 
church of San Pietro Montorio he painted a series 
of pictures of the ' Life of St. Francis ' ; and in 
Santa Maria de' Monti, the ' Resurrection.' There 
are several of his works in the churches at Mon- 
tenuovo. He died in 1587. 

DELL' AMATRICE, Cola. See Filotesio. 

DELLA PORTA, Bartolommeo. See Barto- 
lommeo. 

DELL' ARCA, Leonardo, was an Italian en- 
graver, who flourished about the year 1600. He 
engraved some plates of ornaments and grotesque 
figures. 

DELL' ASTA, Andrea, was bom at Bagnuoli, 
near Naples, in 1673, and was brought up in 
the school of Francesco Solimena. After passing 
several years under that master he went to Rome, 
where he studied for some time, and introduced into 
the style of his country somewhat of an imitation 
of the works of Raphael. Amongst his best 
pictures, executed on his return to Naples, were 
the ' Nativity,' and the ' Adoration of the Magi,' 

51 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



in the church of Sant' Agostino de' Scalzi. He 
died at Naples in 1721. 

BELLA STRADA, Giovanni. See Van der 
Straet. 

DELLA VECCHIA, Pietko, was born at Venice 
in 1605, and was brought up in the school of Ales- 
eandro Varotari, called II Padovanino. He did not, 
however, adopt the style of that master, but applied 
himself to an imitation of the works of Giorgione 
and Pordenone, in which he was so successful, 
that some of his pictures have been mistaken for 
the productions of those masters. His powers were 
better adapted to familiar and fancy subjects than 
to the dignity of history, and his best pictures re- 
present armed soldiers, banditti, and corps-de-garde, 
which he painted with great vigour and eilect. His 
talent in imitating the works of the old masters in- 
duced the doge and senate of Venice to employ 
him to copy in oil the historical works in mosaic 
which are in the church of St. Mark, wliich he did 
with great ability. He also painted for the same 
church two altar-pieces of his own composition, 
representing the ' Crucifixion,' and ' Our Saviour 
driving the Money-Changers out of the Temple.' 
His colouring was warm and tender, and he was 
well versed in the principles of chiaroscuro. He 
died in 1678. 

DELLA VIA, Alessasdko, was an Italian en- 
graver, who resided at Venice about the year 17,S0. 
He engraved several portraits, which are very in- 
differently executed, and a plate, representing the 
' Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. Sebastian and 
other Saints,' after Paolo Veronese. 

DELLA VITE, Giovanni. See Miel. 

DELLA VITE, Timoteo, called by Vasari 
Timoteo da Urbino, was the son of Bartolommeo 
della Vite and Calliope, the daughter of the painter 
Antonio Alberti of Ferrara, in which city he was 
born in 1469, and was brought up as a gold- 
smith. From 1490 to 1495 he was in Francia's 
workshop, where he also learned to paint, and then 
returned as master to Urbino, where he practised 
his art for fifteen years. In 1504, at the instance 
of Giampietro Arrivabene, Bishop of Urbino, he 
painted the altar-piece for the chapel of St. Martin 
in the cathedral of that city. It represents Bishop 
Arrivabene and Guidobaldo II., Duke of Urbino, 
kneeling at an altar, and above them St. Thomas a 
Becket and St. Martin. For the cathedral he also 
painted, about the year 1608, a 'Magdalen,' which 
is now in the Pinacoteca of Bologna ; and for the 
church of Sant' Agata the 'Virgin Annunciate, 
between SS. John the Baptist and Sebastian,' now 
in the Brera, Milan. In 1518 he painted the 'Noli 
me tangere,' for the Brotherhood of Sant' Angelo 
Minore, at Cagli. About 1519 he went to Rome, 
where he worked by the side of Raphael, and is 
thought by Passavant to have executed the irescoes 
of the prophets Daniel, Jonah, and Hosea, above 
the Sybils, in the church of Santa Maria della 
Pace, and is said by Vasari to have assisted even 
with the Sybils. In the Academy of St. Luke at 
Rome is a panel representing ' St. Luke painting 
the Virgin and Child in the presence of a Youth,' 
that has been assigned by Messrs. Crowe and Caval- 
caselle to Timoteo. The Berlin Gallery possesses 
a ' Madonna and Child, with Saints,' and a ' St. 
Jerome' by him. He died at Urbino in 1523, 
leaving a son, Pietro della Vite, who was a 
painter of some note. 

DELLE BATTAGLIE, II Brescianino. See 
Monti, Francesco. 

52 



DELLE BATTAGLIE, L'Obacolo. See Falcone. 

DELLE BATTAGLIE, Michelangelo. See 
Cerqdozzi. 

DELLE GIRANDOLE, Bernardo. See Bdon- 
talenti. 

DELLE GRECCHE, Domenico. See Theoto- 
copdli. 

DELLE LAME, Biagio. See Pdpini. 

DELLE MADONNE, Cakluccio. See Maratti. 

DELLE MADONNE, Vitale. See Cavalli. 

DELLERA, Giovanni, an Italian historical 
painter, was born at Treviglio in 1765. He was 
the son of a brazier, but his predilection for art 
induced him to go to Bergamo and become a pupil 
of Francesco Dagiii, called Capella. In 1785 he 
went to Rome, and there became intimate with 
Angelica Kauffmann, with whom he painted several 
pictures. He died at Florence in 1798. His best 
work is the ' Fainting of Queen Esther,' in the 
church of Alzano Mnggiore, near Bergamo. 

DELLE VITI, Giovanni. See Miel. 

DELLE, Dello, (an abbreviation of Daniello,) 
the son of Niccolo Delli, a doublet-maker, was born 
at Florence about 1404. In 1424 his father was 
condemned to death for high treason, and fled with 
his sons to Siena, from whence, about 1427, they 
went to Venice, wliere they remained for some 
time. Dello's name was registered at the Painters' 
Guild of Florence in 1433, in which year he went 
to Spain, where he acquired so great a reputation 
by the practice of sculpture and painting that 
he attained to great wealth and honour. In 
1446 he returned to Florence, and obtained the 
recognition of his title of Cavaliere, and in the 
following year painted some of the stories from 
Genesis in the cloister of Santa Maria Novella. 
About 1448 he went back to Spain, and is known 
to have been still living between the years 1464 
and 1466. He was a personal friend of Paolo 
Uccello, who painted his portrait as Shera in the 
fresco of the ' Inebriety of Noah,' in the cloister of 
Santa Maria Novella. 

DELL' OKTOLANO, Giovanni. See Benvenuto. 

DEL LUPINO. See Ldini. 

DEL MAGRO, Guglielmo. See Giraldi. 

DEL MAZO MARTINEZ, Juan Bautista. a 
Spanish painter, was born at Madrid about 1610. 
He was educated in the school of Velazquez, whose 
daughter he afterwards married, and whom he 
succeeded as court painter to Philip IV. He is 
said by Palomino to have excelled equally in 
history, portraits, and landscapes ; he also painted 
sea pieces and views of towns, but hunting pieces 
and landscapes were his best works. He possessed 
extraordinary talent in copying the works of his 
master, as well as those of Raphael, Titian, Tinto- 
retto, and Paolo Veronese: and was much employed 
by Philip IV. in copying the celebrated Venetian 
pictures in the royal collection, which task he so 
skilfully executed that his copies could with diffi- 
culty be distinguished from the originals. He died 
at Madrid in 1687. There are two portraits, a view 
of Saragossa, and several landscapes by him in the 
Madrid Gallery. 

DEL MONTE, Deodato. See Van der Mont. 

DEL MORO, Angolo. See Angolo. 

DEL MORO, Giovanni Battista. See MoRO. 

DEL NERO, Durante. See Alberti. 

DE LOOSE, Joannes JosEPHDS,a Belgian painter 
and writer on art, who was born at Zele in 1770, 
was a scholar at the Ghent Academy, where in 
1794 he obtained the first prize for drawing from 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



the model. He afterwards studied under ITerreyns 
at Mechlin, and painted Scriptural scenes for the 
churches of Ghent and other places. He has also 
left a number of portraits. In 1812 the Literary 
Society at Ghent awarded him a prize for his 
writings, and in 1820 he received a medal from 
the Royal Society of the Fine Arts in the same 
city for his ' Treatise on the present Position of 
Painting.' He died at St. Nicolas in 1849. 

DELORME, Antoine, a French designer and 
etcher of free subjects, was born in Paris in 1653, 
and died miserably in prison in 1723. 

DE LORME, Anton, who was born at Rotterdam 
in the 17th century, and was still living in 1660, 
was an architectural painter, who specially devoted 
himself to the interiors of churches and other public 
edifices, in some of which Terborch painted the 
figures. His works are very rare, and excel for the 
perspective and the illumination. A ' Church In- 
terior by candlelight' (1645) is in Warwick Castle, 
and other 'Church Interiors' are in the Berlin, 
Munich, and Stuttgart Galleries, and in the New 
York Museum. 

DELORME, Pierre Claude FRAN901S, who was 
born in Paris in 1783, studied in the school of 
Girodet, and afterwards at Rome. He distin- 
guished himself as a painter of history, and 
finished the paintings in the chapel of the Virgin 
in St. Gervais, as well as those in Notre-Dame de 
Lorette, in Paris. He painted in the style of 
Girodet. He died in Paris in 1859. 

DELORME DU RONCERAY, Marguerite 
Louise AmSlie, a French amateur engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1730. We have some neat and 
spirited etchings by her, after Bouchardon and 
other French painters ; among them the following : 

Venus rising from the Sea; after Bauckardon; finished 

with the graver by fit. AuUn. 
The Fountain of Grenelle, at Paris ; six plates ; after 

the same. These were afterwards finished with the 

graver by Tilliard and St. Aubin. 
Head of St. Paul ; larger than life ; after the cartoon 

by Pierre, for the church of St. Eoch at Paris. 
View of the Tower of Palmeraux ; after Cochin. 
A Sultan and Sultana ; after S. Picart. 

DEL PACCHIA, Gibolamo, who was born at 
Siena in 1477, was the son of a Croatian cannon- 
founder, Giovanni ' delle Bombarde.' After study- 
ing in his native city and in Florence, he went about 
1500 to Rome, and a few years afterwards painted 
an altar-piece, which has since perished, for the 
Ponrignano Monastery. He returned to Siena 
about 1508, and executed a 'Coronation of the 
Virgin,' in the style of Raphael, for Santo Spirito, 
and a 'Virgin and Child, between SS. Paul and 
Bernard' in San Cristoforo. In 1518 he executed 
an 'Annunciation' in Santo Spirito, as well as 
frescoes in the manner of Bigi for the Brother- 
hood of San Bernardino, and three scenes from the 
' Life of St. Catharine ' in the Oratorio dell' Oca. He 
worked much in conjunction with Pacchiarotti, with 
whom he produced the ' Ascension ' at the Academy 
of Siena ; but he was induced by him to enter the 
dangerous club of the Bardotti, which in 1535 was 
dispersed, upon which the two artists betook them- 
selves to France, and painted for Charies VHI. in 
the castle of Gaillon. The date of Del Pacehia's 
death is not known. Among his existing paintings 
are the following : 

London. Ifat. Gallery. Virgin and Child {assigned to 
Pacchiarotti). 



London. Duke of West- } Holy Family {assigned to Fra 

minster. j Bartotommeo). 
Munich. Gallery. St. Bernard. 

1. ,1 Virgin and Child {assigned to 

Pacchiarotti). 
Siena. Academy. Holy Family, with St. Anthony 

of Padua. 

DEL PELLICCIAIO, Gtacomo, (or Giacomo di 
MiNO,) a Sienese who lived in the 14th century, 
was the contemporary of Lippo Vanni and Luca 
Thom^, being in 1373 appointed to value one of the 
latter's pictures. His name appears in the Sienese 
records from 1362 to 1389. In 1367 he aided Bartolo 
di Maestro Fredi at Siena cathedral. He is known 
to have painted hook-covers for the Biccherna, and 
was several times a member of the Grand Council of 
Siena. The dates of his birth and death are alike 
uncertain. There exist the following works by him : 

Siena. Academy. Coronation of St. Catharine. 1362. 
„ Chiesa dei Servi. Virgin and Child, known as the 
' Madonna del Verde.' 1363. 

DEL PIOMBO, Sebastiano. See Luciani. 

DEL PO, Giacomo, the son of Pietro del Po, 
was bom in 1664, according to some accounts at 
Palermo, but according to others at Rome or 
at Naples, and was first instructed in art by his 
father, but afterwards by Nicolas Poussin. He was 
chiefly occupied in decorating the mansions of the 
Neapolitan nobility with emblematical and alle- 
gorical subjects, for which his inventive genius 
and extraordinary facility particularly qualified 
him. As is usual ^vith the majority of mechanists, 
despatch and confidence led him into the negligence 
and incorrectness of a mannerist. Rome possesses 
only two of his pictures, one in the church of Sant' 
Angelo in Pescheria, and the other in Santa Marta; 
but his talents are seen to greater advantage in his 
frescoes in the gallery of the Marquis of Genzano, 
and particularly in the palace of the Prince of 
Avellino at Naples. He died at Naples in 1726. 

DEL PO, PlETEO, was born at Palermo in 1610, 
and studied under Domenichino at Naples, during 
that celebrated painter's residence in that city. 
He painted some pictures for the churches at 
Palermo, and afterwards visited Rome, where, 
among other works, he painted a picture of St. 
Leo, for La Madonna di Costantinopoli. He 
was, however, more successful in easel pictures 
than in those of larger dimensions, and he was 
more distinguished as an engraver than as a painter. 
He died at Naples in 1692. There are several 
etchings by this artist, some of which are finished 
with the graver. They are not so correctly designed 
as might have been expected from the school in 
which he was educated. Among others are the 
following : 

St. John in the TVildemess ; after Annibale Carracci. 
The Woman of Canaan before Christ ; after the same. 
The Dead Christ on the Lap of the Virgin ; after the 

same. 
The Virgin seated on a Throne with the Infant, and a 

choir of Angels ; after Domenichino. 
The four Cardinal Virtues, with their attributes ; after 

the same. 
St. Jerome kneeling, with an Angel ; after the same. 
The Annunciation ; after N. Poussin. 
The Flight into Egypt ; after the same. 

DEL PO, Teresa, was the daughter of Pietro 
del Po. She is said to have painted in oil and in 
miniature, and has etched a few plates in the style 
of her father ; among which is ' Susannah and the 
Elders,' after Carracci. Bartsch says she engraved 

53 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONAEY OF 



in the manner of her father so closely, that it is 
difficult to distinguish their works. He describes 
sixteen prints by her, and enumerates six more 
mentioned by Fussli. The date of her birth is not 
known ; but she was a member of the Academy of 
St. Luke at Rome, and died at Naples in 1716. 

DEL POGGIO, Giovanni. See Giovanni di 
Paolo. 

DEL POLLAJUOLO, Antonio, an Italian gold- 
smith and painter, born at Florence in 1429, was 
the son of Jacopo d'Antonio de' Benci, a poulterer, 
for which reason Antonio and his brother Piero 
and their descendants took the name of ' Del 
PoUajuolo.' He was apprenticed to Bartoluccio 
Ghiberti, a goldsmith, whom he left in 1459 and 
opened a shop of his own as goldsmith, sculptor, 
and engraver. He was considered one of the most 
eminent goldsmiths of his time, and excelled in all 
the branches of that art. Soon after 1489 he went to 
Rome, where he cast and carved the Funeral Monu- 
ments of the Popes Sixtus IV. and Innocent VIII., 
and executed several commissions for the Cardinals 
Benevento and Ascanio. He next turned his at- 
tention to painting, and, in conjunction with his 
younger brother Piero, produced many paintings 
celebrated for their design, knowledge of anatomy, 
and power of colour. He also executed in niello 
several paxes for the church of San Giovanni at 
Florence. One only of these now remains: it 
represents the ' Deposition from the Cross,' and is 
in the Florence Gallery. Antonio died at Rome in 
1498. 

Vasari states that Antonio was the better artist 
of the two Pollajuoli ; but, judging from their 
early education, Piero had gained the greater ex- 
perience in painting, before they entered into 
partnership. I 

The following are their best works : Mr. Berensen 
is of opinion that the two ' Hercules ' pictures in 
the Uftizi are by Antonio, and the others by Piero: 
other authorities dilfer. 

Berlin. Museum. The Annunciation. 

*} ,, David. 

Florence. Uffizi. Hercules and Antfeus. 

^ „ Hercules and the Hydra. 

jj „ Vmdence (one of the 'Virtues' 

painted for the Mercatanzia, 
Florence). 
„ „ Profile of a Lady. 

^ „ St.JaineswithSS.Eustaceand 

Vincent {^formerly in San 
Miniato al Monte, Florence). 
London. yat. Gall. The Martyrdom of St. Sebas- 
tian {a masterpiece J 1475, 
fonnerly in San Sebastiano 
de' Servi, Florence). 
,, ,, Apollo and Daphne. 

S. Gemignano. Church. Coronation of the Virgin. 

1483. 
Turin. Gallery. The Archangel and Tobit. 

Vasari states that this artist executed several 
engravings, but Bartsch mentions only three, and 
these are now very rare. They are as follow : 

The Gladiators. 

Hercules strangling Antseus. 

Hercules fighting the Giants. 

DEL POLLAJUOLO, Pieko, who was born at 
Florence in 1443, was a younger brother of Antonio 
del PoUajuolo. He studied painting for a short 
time under Andrea del Castagno, and then entered 
the workshop of his brother, in conjunction with 
whom he worked much. It is very difficult to 
assign to each his share in these jointly-executed 

54 



productions, but it is thought that those in which 
traces of the sculptor's art are plainly discernible 
are by the hand of Antonio, and that those of 
greater pictorial excellence owe their origin to 
Piero. Piero was dead when his elder brother 
made his will in 1496. 

DEL PORTO, Giovanni Battista, was an en- 
graver who flourished about the year 1503, and was 
commonly known by the name of ' The Master of 
the Bird,' from his practice of marking his prints 
with a bird after the initials /. £. Amongst them 
there are : 

St. Sebastian on the Tree. 
Leda with the Swan. 
The Rape of Europa. 

He also executed the designs for the following 
woodcuts : 

St. Jerome with the Lions. 
Diana and Actseon. 
The Three Graces. 
The Eape of Ganymede. 

DEL POZZO, Matteo, was a pupil of Squaroi- 
one, who lived in the middle of the 16th century. 
He worked during the years 1469 to 1471 at the 
decorations of the Cappella Gattamelata in the Santo 
of Padua, where he painted a ' St, Francis.' He 
died in 1472. 

DEL PRADO, Blas, (or De Prado,) was a 
Spanish painter, who was born in the vicinity of 
Toledo, about 1540, and was a scholar of Alonso 
Berruguete. There are some of his works in the 
chapel of St. Bias at Toledo, but they are much 
injured by time and the dampness of the situation. 
At Madrid there are also some pictures by this 
artist, particularly an altar-piece in the church of 
San Pedro, representing the ' Descent from the 
Cross,' which is evidently the work of a great 
master. In the early part of his life Prado wa.) 
invited to visit the court of the Emperor of 
Morocco, to paint a portrait of his daughter, and 
returned to Spain amply rewarded for his labour. 
Whilst at Fez he painted the portraits of the 
Princesses of the Harem. He died at Madrid 
about 1600. 

DEL RICCIO, DoMENico, called Brusasorci, 
was born at Verona in 1494, and was a disciple 
of Giulio Romano. His greatest improvement, 
however, was derived from an attentive study 
of the works of Giorgione and Titian, at Venice. 
His picture of ' St. Roch,' in the church of the 
Augustinians at Verona, is entirely in the style 
of the latter, as well as some pictures of fabulous 
subjects in private collections. His genius did 
not confine itself to the style of any individual 
master ; and his works at Mantua partake of the 
depth of colouring of Giorgione, and_ of the 
graceful design of Parmigiano. His picture of 
'Phaeton,' in the ducal palace, though somewhat 
damaged by time, still charms by the ingenuity of 
the composition, the hannony of the colour, and the 
admirable fore-shortening. Brusasorci' s greatest 
merit was in fresco painting ; and in the many 
admirable works with which he embellished the 
public edifices and palaces, he united the erudition 
of the poet to the skill of the painter. His best 
historical work was the ' Cavalcade of Clement 
VIII. and Charles V. on their entry into Bologna,' 
in the saloon of the Casa Ridolfi, a grand com- 
position, which is spoken of by Lanzi in terms of 
the highest praise. He died in 1567. ' Brusasorci,' 
which signifies a ' burner of rats,' was a nickname 
given to his father because of his inflicting that 



ANTONIO DEL POLLAJUOLO 




Aliiiuri photo] [Pilli Palace, Florence 

ST, SEBASTIA 



ANTONIO DEL POLLAJUOLO 




Alinaii photo] 



[Corsiiii Gallery, Florence 



PORTRAIT OF A GENTLEMAN 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



cruel punishment on all the rats caught in his 
house. 

DEL RICCIO, Felice, called Brusasoeci 'the 
younger,' the son of Domenico del Riccio, was bom 
at Verona about the year 1540, and was first in- 
structed by his father, after whose death he con- 
tinued his studies at Florence, under Jacopo Ligozzi. 
He painted for the private collections at Verona 
several pictures of Holy Families and Madonnas, 
with angels, which were admired for their grace and 
beauty of expression. His picture of the ' Forge 
of Vulcan, with the Cyclops,' in the collection of 
Count Gazzola, is designed in the best style of the 
Florentine school, and vigorously coloured. There 
are also some altar-pieces by him in the churches at 
Verona, of which the most admired is his picture 
of ' St. Helena,' in the church dedicated to that saint. 
He died in 1605. 

DEL RINCON, Antonio, was born at Guada- 
laxara in 1446, and may be considered as the father 
of the Spanish School. He studied at Rome, and 
on his return to Spain was taken into the service 
of Ferdinand the Catholic, who appointed him his 
painter, bestowed on him the order of Santiago, 
and made him groom of his chamber. Among the 
few of his works that remain are the altar-piece 
in the church of Robledo de Chabela, a town in the 
archbishopric of Toledo, and two portraits of 
Ferdinand and Isabella, in the church of San 
Juan de los Reyes, at Toledo. Several of his works 
perished in the fire that destroyed the palace of 
the Pardo in 1608. He died in 1500. 

DEL RINCON, Fernando, was the son and 
scholar of Antonio del Rincon. He assisted Juan 
de Borgofia in various works in Toledo Cathedral, 
about 1511-14, and his name appears in the archives 
of the College of St. Ildefonso at Alcala in 1518, 
when he received 600 maravedis for polishing the 
medallion of Cardinal Cisneros. 

DEL SANTISIMO SACRAMENTO, JnAN. See 
Guzman. 

DEL SARTO, Andrea. See Andrea d'Agnolo. 

DEL SAZ, Julian de La Fuente. See De La 
Fuente del Saz. 

DELSENBACH, Johann Adam, a German en- 
graver, was bom at Nuremberg in 1687. He 
worked for some years in Vienna, but died in his 
native city in 1765. He engraved a series of forty- 
nine views in Nuremberg, between the years 1713 
and 1716, and several portraits for Roth-Scholtz's 
' Icones Bibliopolarum et Typographorum,' pub- 
lished at Nuremberg in 1726-42. He also engraved 
some plates for Scbeuchzer's Bible, as well as 
twenty-eight views in Vienna. 

DEL SERO, Guccio. See Aghinetti. 

DEL SIGNORACCIO, Paolo, called Fea Pao- 
LiNO DA PiSTOJA, and II Pistojese, was born at 
Pistoja in 1490, and died there from the effects of 
a sunstroke in 1547. He received his first instruc- 
tions from his father, Bernardino d'Antonio Detti, 
called Signoraccio, an inferior artist, by whom 
some works still remain at Pistoja. Fra Paolino 
entered the Dominican Order at an early age, and 
studied under Fra Bartolommeo, after whose death 
he finished many of his pictures. A ' Virgin and 
Child enthroned, with Saints,' by him, dated 1528, 
is in San Paolo at Pistoja ; a ' Crucifixion,' dated 
1516, is in Santo Spirito in Siena ; and in the 
Belvedere in Vienna is a ' Virgin and Child en- 
throned, surrounded by six Saints,' dated 1510. 

DEL SIGNOR GUIDO, Pietro. See Gallinari. 

DEL VAGA, Peking. See Buonaccorsi. 



DELVAUX, Edouard, a Flemish landscape 
pamter, was born at Brussels in 1806. He studied 
under Van Assche, and afterwards became director 
of the Academy at Spa, where he died in 1862. 
He loved to represent wooded scenery, and de- 
lighted particularly in enormous trees. Amongst 
his works are : 

View OD the Senne near Fozest. 

Hilly Country ; Windy Weather (Snissels Museum). 

View near the Sambre (Haarlem Museum). 

DELVAUX, Ferdinand Marie, a Belgian his- 
torical and genre painter, was born at Brussels in 
1782. He studied under Andries Lens, and twice 
visited Italy. On his way back to hie native 
country he was seized with fever, and died at 
Bologna in 1816. Amongst his best works are : 

Brussels. Franciscan > Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 
Convent. / 
„ Museum. Interior of the Cloistera of the 

Chartreuse, Rome. 
„ ,> Interior of a Nunnery at Rome. 

Ghent. Academy. Saul and David. 

DELVAUX, Remi Henri Joseph, a French en- 
graver, was born in Paris in 1748, according to some 
authorities, or at Lille in 1750, according to others. 
He engraved several plates for the ' Cabinet 
Choiseul ' and the ' Galerie du Palais-Royal,' but 
the chief occupation of his life was to reproduce 
the designs of Moreau, whose illustrations to ' Les 
Amours de Psyche et de Cupidon ' are Delvaux's 
most important work. He also engraved ' The 
Miraculous Draught of Fishes,' after Rubens ; ' The 
Hunter,' after Metsu, and several portraits. He 
died in Paris in 1823. Marie Adgustb Delvaux, 
his daughter, born in 1786, learned the art of 
engraving from him. 

DEL VERROCCHIO, Andrea, was the son of 
Domenico di Miohele de' Cioni, and was born at 
Florence in 1432. He is said to have been a pupil 
of Donatello, and like his contemporaries the 
Pollajuoli kept a goldsmith's shop. Vasari says of 
him, " He was a goldsmith, a master of perspective, 
a sculptor and carver, a painter, and a musician." 
He is chiefly celebrated for his works in bronze, 
and notably for the ' David ' now in the UfBzi 
Gallery at Florence; for the ' St. Thomas examining 
the Wounds of Christ ' in Or San Michele in the 
same city ; and for the model for the equestrian 
statue of Colleoni, at Venice. He has left but one 
authentic example of his powers as a painter — 
namely, the ' Baptism of Christ,' now in the 
Florence Academy, in respect to which Vasari 
states that he received the aid of his pupil, Leonardo 
da Vinci. Verrocchio has also the credit of having 
taught Pietro Perugino. He died at Venice in 
1488. 

DEL VISO, Cristobal, a painter, and a monk 
of the order of St. Francis, died at the end of the 
17th century at Madrid, where he resided in quality 
of commissary-general of the Indies. All the Saints 
of his order which are to be seen in the chapter- 
house of the convent of San Francisco at Cordova, 
are by him, and show his talent. 

DEL ZUCCA, Jacopo, (or Jacopo Zdcchi,) was 
born at Florence about the year 1541. He was a 
disciple of Giorgio Vasari, and assisted that master 
in several of his works. According to Baglione, 
he visited Rome when young, in the pontificate of 
Gregory XIII., where he was favoured with the 
patronage of Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici, who 
employed him in some considerable fresco works 

55 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



for his palace. There are' also several altar-pieces 
by him in the public edifices at Rome, of which 
the most worthy of notice are the ' Nativity of St. 
John,' in the church of San Giovanni DecoUato, 
and the ' Descent of the Holy Ghost,' in San Spirito 
in Borgo. He died about 1604. 

DE MAN, CoRNELis, a Dutch painter, was born 
at Delft in 1621. He travelled through Lyons to 
Lombardy, and stayed two years at Florence and 
three in Rome. He afterwards went to Venice, 
where the works of Titian, particularly his portraits, 
were the chief objects of his attention. After an 
absence of nine years he returned to Holland, and 
established himself in his native city. One of 
the most admired paintings at Delft is a large 
picture by him, containing the portraits of the 
most eminent medical men of his time, painted for 
the hall of the surgeons, which has more of the 
attributes of the Venetian than of the Dutch school. 
De Man died at Delft in 1706. There is by him in 
the Rotterdam Museum a ' Village Interior ' ; in 
the Darmstadt Gallery an 'Interior of a Gothic 
Church' ; and in the Cassel Gallery another 'Church 
Interior.' There exist also four portraits etched 
by him. 

DE MAN, J., was a Dutch painter who flourished 
in the 17th century. The Hague Gallery has a 
' Peasant Wedding ' signed with his name. 

DE MARE, PlETEE, a Dutch engraver, was born 
at Leyden in 1757, and died in the same town in 
1796. He was a pupil of Abraham Delfos. Be- 
sides the ' Great Fire of Rotterdam,' after Haas- 
broek, the 'Last Judgment,' after Lucas van 
Leyden, and some Heads after Teniers, he executed 
a large number of plates after the works of Berchem, 
Frans van Mieris, and Cornells de Visscher. 

DEMARNE, Jean Louis De Marnette, painter 
and etcher, born at Brussels in 1754, was the son 
of a Belgian officer, and of his wife, the Baroness 
Anschiitz. When only twelve years old he was 
sent to Paris, and studied in the atelier of Gabriel 
Briard. He became a successful painter of land- 
scapes with figures or cattle, in the manner of 
Berchem and Karel Dujardin. He also etched 
thirty-eight plates of similar subjects. In 1783 he 
became a member of the Academic des Beaux 
Arts. He was long employed as painter to the 
Sevres porcelain factory. He died at BatignoUes 
in 1829. In the Hermitage there are five of his 
pictures, and several were in the San Donatu 
Collection at Florence. 

DE' MEDICI, Maria. See Mary. 

DEMER, Jacob. See Domer. 

DE MEULEMEESTER, Joseph Karel, a Belgian 
engraver, was born at Bruges in 1771. Hewasapupil 
of Bervic in Paris, and afterwards studied in the 
French school of engraving at Rome. After twenty- 
two years' absence he returned to Belgium in 1820, 
and settled at Antwerp, where he died in 1836. 
His most important work was the series of draw- 
ings which he made from the fifty -two compositions 
which form the ' Bible of Raphael ' in the Loggie of 
the Vatican. These copies of the frescoes occupied 
his whole time for twelve years, and after his 
return home he undertook their reproduction, both 
by means of engraving and of water-colour, on a 
scale of one-ninth of the originals. Thirty-six 
were completed in water-colours, but twelve plates 
only were engraved at the time of his death. All, 
however, existed in outline, and these were finished, 
and the entire work published with text by the 
Baron de Reififenberg, between the years 1844 and 

56 



1853. He also engraved the ' Virgin and Child,' 
after Andrea Solario, ' Cupid triumphant,' after 
Domenichino, and the portraits of Rubens and 
Michelangelo. 

DE MEYER, H., was a Dutch landscape painter, 
who flourished about the middle of the 17th century. 
There are by him in the Amsterdam Museum, the 
' Surrender of the town of Hulst,' and the ' Departure 
of Charles II. of England from Scheveningen.' 

DE' MICHIELL See Dei Michieli. 

DE MOMPER, Feans, a Flemish landscape 
painter, who was a native of Antwerp, is inscribed 
in the ' Liggere ' of the Guild of St. Luke in that 
city in 1629-30. He died at Antwerp in 1660-61. 
There are by him in the Augsburg Gallery, 'St. 
Philip baptizing the Eunuch,' and a ' Rocky Scene,' 
in which the figures are by F. Francken and the 
animals by J. Brueghel. 

DE MOMPER, JoDOCUS, called at Rome Eer- 
vrught, a painter and etcher, was born at Antwerp 
about 1559. He was the son of Bartholomeus De 
Momper, a dealer in pictures, who is believed also 
to have painted landscapes, and to have instructed 
his son in the rudiments of the art. He entered 
the Guild of St. Luke in 1581, and became its dean 
in 1611. His pictures are frequently decorated 
with figures by the elder Teniers, Jan Brueghel, F. 
Francken, and II. van Balen. Van Dyek painted 
his portrait among the celebrated artists of his 
country, and etched a plate of it himself. De 
Momper etched a few plates of landscapes from 
his own designs, which are scarce. He died at 
Antwerp in 1634 or 1635. J. Visscher, E. van 
Panderen, and Th. Galle have engraved landscapes 
after him. His works are to be seen in the 
Galleries of Amsterdam, Bordeaux, Brunswick, 
Copenhagen, Darmstadt, Dresden, Madrid, and 
Venice, and as follow : 



Antwerp. 


GalUi-y. 


The Archduke Maximilian of 
Austria hunting. 


)» 


Cathedral 


The Repose in Egypt. 


Berlin. 


Museum. 


Rocky Landscape. 
Forest of Oaks. 


»» 


" 


Hermits. 

A Flemish Village. 


Bruges. 


A cademy. 


Horsemen attacked by Brigands. 


Brunswick 


. Gallery. 


The Four Seasons. 


Cassel. 


Gallery. 


The Tower of Babel. 


Dresden. 


Gallery. 


Rocky Landscape with Travellers 
on horseback. 


Petersburf 


;. Hermitage 


. Landscape. 



DE MOMPER. See Momper. 

DE MONI, Lodowyck, who was bom at Breda in 
1698, was a scholar of Van Kessel, of J. B. Biset, 
and of Philip van Dyk at the Hague. He studied 
the works of Gerard Dou, and imitated the manner 
of Mieris. He accompanied Philip van Dyk to 
Cassel, and afterwards settled at Leyden, where 
he died in 1771. His paintings consist of por- 
traits and genre pieces of a simple and pleasing 
character, though cold in colouring. There are 
by him : 

Amsterdam. Museum. A Woman watering Flowers. 
Hague. Gallery. The Lacemaker. 1742. 

Paris. Louvre. A Family Scene. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. A Fish-Woman. 

The Bon Vivant. 1723. 
Rotterdam. Museum. A Fish-Seller. 

DE MOOR, Karel, the elder, a Dutch painter 
and etcher, was born at Leyden in 1656. He was 
intended by his parents for one of the learned 
professions, but a decided inclination for art in- 



ANDREA DEL VERROCCHIO 




Brogi photo] 



[Accademia, Florence 



THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



duced his father to place him under the care of 
Gerard Dou. After a while he was sent to Am- 
sterdam, where he became a scholar of Abraham 
van den Tempel. The death of that painter, when 
De Moor was only sixteen years of age, obliged 
him to attach himself to other artists, and it was 
by Frans van Mieris and Godfried Schalcken that 
he was chiefly influenced. He painted in the 
town-hall at Leyden the terrible subject of ' Brutus 
condemning his two Sons to Death,' which he repre- 
sented in the most awful and impressive manner. 
The celebrity of Karel De Moor reached Italy, and 
the Grand Duke of Tuscany expressed a desire to 
place his portrait, painted by himself, among the 
illustrious artists in the UfBzi Gallery. It was ac- 
cordingly sent to Florence in 1702, and the painter 
was honoured in return with a gold medal and 
chain. He was also commissioned by the Emperor 
of Germany to paint the portraits of Prince Eugene 
and the Duke of Marlborough, and these he executed 
so much to the satisfaction of that monarch, that 
he conferred on the artist the order of knighthood. 
One of his best works is in tlie hall of the magis- 
trates at the Hague, representing the Burgomasters 
and Eschevins in the year 1719. The pictures of De 
Moor are cleverly composed, his figures are correctly 
drawn, and his colouring is clear and transparent. 
In some of his larger portraits he seems to have 
aimed at a style combining the chaste delicacy of 
Van Dyck with soiuewhat of the vigour of Rem- 
brandt. Although his works are always very 
highly finished, his touch is firm and free. De 
Moor died at Warmond in 1738. He etched a few 
portraits, from his own designs, among which are 
those of Gerard Dou, Jan van Goyen, Frans van 
Mieris, and himself. The following are some of 
his principal works : 

Antwerp. GalleTy. A Lady with a Bouquet. {Thi? 
picture hears the forged sit/ua- 
tureofG.Metsu.) 
Dresden. Gallery. A Hermit praying. 
Florence. Vffizi. His own Portrait. 

Petersburg. Hermitage, Ecce Homo. 

„ „ A Hermit. 1730. 

DE' MOTTI, Jacopo. See Dei Motti. 

DE MOUCHERON, Fredeeik. See Moucheron. 

DENANTO, Francesco, of Savoy, a painter 
and engraver on wood, worked at Venice from 
1440 to 1450, and is said to have been a disciple 
of Titian. Among other wood-cuts by him, there 
is a large one representing 'Christ healing the Lame 
Man.' It is executed in a spirited, taste 
ful style, and, being inscribed, Francis- 
cus Denanto de Sabaudia, /., is probably 
from a design of his own. The annexed 
monogram is stated to be his : 

DENBY, William, an English painter, was born 
at Great Bookham, in Surrey, in 1819. He studied 
under Dyce in the School of Design at Somerset 
House, of which he became an assistant master in 
1847. He subsequently superintended the Antique 
Department in the South Kensington School till 
his death in 1875, which was occasioned by ill- 
ness contracted at Rome a few years previously. 
Amongst the few works which he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy may be mentioned : ' The Infant 
St. John,' 'A Girl reading,' and ' St. Peter and Rhoda.' 

DEN DUYTS, Gustave, a Belgian landscape 
painter of great skill, and not only well known 
and esteemed in his own country, but also abroad. 
He is represented at the Luxembourg in Paris, but 
he will be best remembered as a designer of 



'A 



Sageants. He had actually prepared a set of 
rawings for the cars and groups for the " cortfege 
des cloches," one of the attractions of the Inter- 
national Exhibition at Brussels, when he died in 
1895. 

DE NECKER, Jobst, who also signed his name 
De Negkee and Dieneckeb, a most skilful wood- 
engraver, was a native of Antwerp. He settled at 
Augsburg about 1510, and, in conjunction with 
several other artists, executed the wood-cuts of 
Burgkmair's and Schauflein's designs. He en- 
graved the designs which the latter made to 
illustrate the allegorical poem of ' Theuerdanck,' 
and also some of those which Burgkmair made for 
the ' Triumph ' of the Emperor Maximilian. He 
was the inventor of chiaroscuro in three tints, of 
which the best example is the fine portrait of 
Hans Baumgartner, dated 1512, after the design 
of Burgkmair. His chief work is the ' Prodigal 
Son,' which appears to be likewise after Burgkmair. 
There is also by him an enlarged copy of Holbein's 
' Dance of Death,' dated 1544. He died probably 
before 1561. 

David De Neckeb and Samson De Neckbe, who 
were wood-engravers and natives of Augsburg, 
were probably his sons, and Hercules De Neckee, 
another engraver on wood, is said to have been a 
son of David De Necker. 

DE NEVE, Frans, was born at Antwerp about 
the year 1627, and for some time studied the works 
of Rubens and Van Dyck. He afterwards visited 
Rome, where he resided for some years, and on his 
return to his native country gave proof of con- 
siderable ability as a painter of historical subjects ; 
but he afterwards distinguished himself more as a 
painter of what are called heroic landscapes, witli 
subjects from history or fable, in which he exhibited 
the fertility of his genius and the refinement of his 
taste. There are the following paintings by him : 

Vienna. Gallery. The Archduke Leopold WUliam 

of the Netherlands. 
,j „ Charles II. of Spain. 

„ Liechtenstein Gal. The Judgment of Solomon. 
„ „ The Murder of the Innocents. 

De Neve likewise executed several etchings in a 
slight but very masterlystyle. They are embellished 
with figures, correctly drawn and cleverly grouped. 
Among them are : 

Narcissus. 

A Shepherdess playing the Tambourine. 

DE NEYN, Pieter, who was born at Leyden in 
1597, studied for some time under Esajas van de 
Velde, and gave promise of becoming a good 
landscape painter, in tlie manner of his master; 
but he afterwards applied liis talents to archi- 
tecture, in which he succeeded so well that he was 
appointed architect to his native city, Leyden, 
where he died in 1639. 

DENIS, Simon Alexandee Clement, called ' den 
Schelen,' was born at Antwerp in 1755. After 
studying for some time under Antonissen, he 
went, in 1786, to Italy, and there married a 
Roman lady. He afterwards settled at Naples, 
wliere he became painter to the king, and died in 
1813. Denis's pictures, which are for the most 
part landscapes, are executed in an Italian manner, 
and, with the exception of colour, are good in 
every respect. The Antwerp Museum contains 
three specimens of his art, and the Louvre one. 

DENNEL, Antoine FEANgois, a French en- 
graver, possibly a brother of Louis Dennel, was a 

57 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



pupil of Wille. He worked in Paris from 1760 
to 1815, and engraved several plates for Filhol's 
' Mus^e Fran9ais,' but his best works are the ' Essai 
du Corset,' and the ' Dedicace d'un Poeme 6pique,' 
after P. A. Wille. 

DENNEL, Louis, a French engraver, was born 
at Abbeville in 1741, and died in Paris in 1806. 
He was a pupil of Beauvarlet, in whose style he 
engraved several plates, among which are the 
following : 

The Triumph of Galatea ; after Luca Giordano. 
Pygmalion enamoured of his Statue ; after Lagrenee. 
The Triumph of Painting ; after the same. 
Painting cherished by the Graces ; after the same. 

DENNER, Balthasak, a German painter, whose 
works surprise by the toilsome servility of their 
finish, as much as they disgust by a total absence 
of all that is estimable in the art, was bom 
at Hamburg in 1685. After being instructed in 
drawing by an obscure painter of that town, he 
went to Berlin in 1707, where his works were 
admired by Frederick II. The Duchess of Bruns- 
wick-Wolfenbiittel invited him to her court in 
1720, where he painted her portrait ; and from 
thence he went to Hanover, where he met with 
so much encouragement that he came to London 
in 1721, and remained here until 1728. The only 
productions of this mechanic in the art, that have 
any claim to notice, are his heads of old men and 
women, which still find collectors among the ad- 
mirers of patient and persevering precision. There 
are examples of these at Hampton Court and in 
the Louvre, as well as in the Galleries of Beriin, 
Cassel, Copenhagen, Dresden, Florence, Munich, 
St. Petersburg, and Vienna. He died at Rostock 
in 1749. 

Brulliot mentions a B. Denner, an engraver, 
who executed some views on the Tiber after Cor- 
nells Meyer for a work published in 1683, but he 
gives no particulars of the artist. 

DENNING, Stephen Poyntz, an English mini- 
ature and portrait painter, was bom in 1795. He 
was a pupil of John Wright, and exhibited at the 
Royal Academy from 1814 to 1851, but he employed 
liimself chiefly in copying the works of other artists. 
In 1821, he became curator of the Dulwich Gallery, 
and resided at tlie college until his death in 1864. 
There is in the National Portrait Gallery a vignette 
sketch in water-colours by him of James Hogg, 
the Ettrick Shepherd. He also painted portraits 
of Isaac D' Israeli and Sir Matthew Wood, Lord 
Mayor of London. 

DENON, Baron Dominique Vivant, (or De 
NoN,) born at Chalons on the Saone in 1747, was 
one of the train of artists and literary and scientific 
men who accompanied Napoleon Bonaparte to 
Egypt ; where he wielded alternately the pen and 
the sword, it is said with equal dexterity. His 
great work on the Egyptian, expedition, the ' Voy- 
age de la Haute et Basse Egypte,' the numerous 
drawings for which were made by himself, is alone 
, sufScient to immortalize his name. Napoleon was 
warmly attached to him, made him Director-General 
of the Museums, and consulted him on all matters 
connected with the fine arts. He took but little 
interest in politics, his tlioughts being principally 
occupied by engraving, and by the fair sex, many 
of whose portraits he drew and etched during his 
diplomatic travels. He also etched the celebrated 
collection of painters' portraits in the Ufiizi Gallery 
at Florence, but his most remarkable works were 
58 



his reproductions of Rembrandt's etchings, espe- 
cially those of the ' Resurrection of Lazarus,' the 
' Death of the Virgin, ' and the painter's own portrait. 
His large etching of Luca Giordano's ' Adoration 
of the Shepherds ' opened to him in 1787 the doors 
of the Academy. One of his best-known portraits is 
that of Benjamin de La Borde, which was engraved 
by Masquelier and published in his 'Chansons.' 
Denon died in Paris in 1825, universally beloved 
for his good qualities, and admired for his talents 
and the purity of his taste. He resembled Voltaire, 
as well in his wit as in his features. 

DE NOTER, Hermanus August, the son of Pieter 
Francois De Noter, was born at Ghent in 1806. 
He was instructed by his father, and gave early 
promise of success. He painted landscapes, 
winter scenes, marine views, and subjects in the 
manner of Wouwerman. He died at Ghent in 1837. 

DB NOTER, PiETER Francois, a Flemish painter 
of landscapes and interiors, was bom at Waelhem, 
near Mechlin, in 1779. He became a professor in the 
Academy of Ghent and developed into an eminent 
painter of landscapes, marine subjects, winter 
scenes, views of the interiors of cities, and 
cathedrals. His most esteemed pictures are his 
views of cities and winter scenes ; and during 
the latter part of his career he confined his 
talents almost exclusively to the representation of 
such subjects. His pencilling was delicate ; and in 
this respect he may be considered as belonging to 
the Dutch school. His pictures are numerous and 
varied, and are to be found in the cabinets of 
Belgium, Holland, and tlie north of France. He 
also engraved a collection of landscapes, several 
of which are after Hobbema. He died at Ghent 
in 1842. Amongst his works, which show great 
minuteness of detail, are : 
Brussels. Museum. 



Ghent. Academy. 



View at Bruges. 
View from Pont Neuf, Ghent. 
Abbey of St. Pierre, Ghent. 
Winter view of Ghent. 



DENTE, Marco, called Marco da Ravenna, an 
Italian engraver, born in the latter part of the 15th 
century, was one of the most eminent pupils of 
Marc- Antonio's school. His best works, remark- 
able for their purity and care of execution, are 
copies after Baccio Bandinelli, Giulio Romano, Ra- 
phael, and more especially Marc-Antonio, whom 
he imitated in a most .|.«y <"S<0 l. T3 
deceptive manner. He a| 7^ ^!fy -U ^ 
generally used the ac- ^ 

companying monogram : 

DENTONE, II. See Curti, Girolamo. 

DEN TYN, Lambertus, was born at Antwerp 
in 1770. He was a scholar of P. van Regemorter, 
and painted interiors by candle-light, and land- 
scapes by moonlight. He died in 1816. 

DENUELLE, Alexandre Dominique, a French 
decorative painter and architect, was born in Paris 
in 1818. He studied under Delaroche, and after- 
wards served on the Commission for Historical 
Monuments. He died at Florence in 1879. He 
was largely engaged in mural paintings for 
churches, and specimens of his art will be found 
in the Abbey of St. Denis, in St. Paul at Nimes, 
St. Polycarp at Lyons, the Oratory at Birmingham, 
the Church of the Celestines at Avignon, and in 
Strassburg Cathedral. 

DEN UYL, Jan (Uil, or Vtl), is probably the 
artist by whom there are many drawings to be 
found in Holland, signed /. den Uil, or /. den 
Uyl. There are only five of his etchings described : 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



an Ox and a Sheep, a Bull, two Oxen, a Dog, and 
a Buffalo. In style they approach those of Nicolaes 
Moojaert, but do not equal them in merit. They 
appear to have been executed about the end of the 
16th century. 

DENY, Jeanne, was a French engraver of 
merit, who flourished in the last quarter of the 
18th century. She executed some of Monnet's 
and Marillier's illustrations to the ' Romans et 
Contes' of Voltaire, of Desrais's designs for the 
' Contes ' of La Fontaine, and several of the 
plates for the ' Cabinet Choiseul ' and the ' Cos- 
tumes Franjais.' 

Martial Deny, her brother, likewise engraved 
subjects for the same works. The one or the other 
engraved also ' Le Restaurant ' after Lavreince. 

DENYS, Fbans, a Flemish painter of portraits, 
who may be ranked amongst the first artists 
of his time, is very often confounded with his 
son Jacob, a painter of less account. Frans 
was a native of Antwerp, and was received into 
the Guild of St. Luke in 1631, but the dates of 
hie birth and death are not known. 

DENYS, Jacob, a Flemish painter, the son of 
Frans Denys, was born at Antwerp in 1644, and 
received into the Guild of St. Luke in 1664. He 
was a scholar of Erasmus Quellinus, the elder, 
but at an early age he went to Italy, where he 
passed the greater part of his life. His merit 
recommended him to the patronage of the Duke of 
Mantua, in whose employment he passed several 
years. He afterwards was invited to Florence, 
where he painted for the Palazzo Pitti several his- 
torical pictures, and the portrait of the Grand-Duke, 
with those of the principal personages of the court. 
After fourteen years' absence, he returned to his 
native country, and died at Antwerp in 1708. 
The style of Denys, both in his historical works 
and in his portraits, resembles that of Van Dyck, 
with something more of the Italian taste, though 
with less purity of colouring. There are in the 
Antwerp Gallery two works by him, a portrait of 
Gregorius Martens, head-man of the corporation of 
St. Luke (dated 1694), and a 'Study from the 
Living Model. ' 

DENYS, Simon Alexandre Clement. See Denis. 

DEODATE, — . The name of this engraver is 
afBxed to a portrait of Sir Theodore Mayerne, 
physician to James I. and Charles I. 

DEODATO. See Oelandi. 

DE' PA ESI, GiEOLAMO. See Muziano. 

DE PAPE, Abraham, a Dutch painter, who lived 
probably at Leyden in the middle of the 17th 
century, is said to have been a scholar of Gerard 
Dou. Balkema, who is the only writer who notices 
him, says that in the sale of Cornells van Dyck's 
collection of pictures in 1713, there was a picture 
by De Pape representing a ' Kitchen with a Woman 
paring Turnips ' ; and in Gerrit Muller's collection 
sold at Amsterdam in 1827, another of a ' Kitchen 
■with a Woman plucking a Fowl.' The latter, he 
says, is more in the manner of Brekelenkam than 
of Gerard Dou. It is now in the Hague Gallery. 
He gives no particulars relative to his birth, place 
of residence, or death, though he says he was 
worthy of the school whence he proceeded. In 
the Marquis of Bute's collection is a picture signed 
by him of a 'Woman paring Apples,' and in the 
'Exposition retrospective' held at Brussels in 
1873, was a painting by him, dated 1648, lent by 
the Comte G. Du Chastel. 

DE PASSE. See Van de Passe. 



DE PATINIR, Joachim, (or De Patenier,) was 
bom at Dinant about the year 1490. He resided 
chiefly at Antwerp, where he acquired considerable 
reputation as a landscape painter, and was admitted 
a master of the Guild of St. Luke in 1515. He 
was one of the earliest Flemish painters who painted 
landscapes independent of historj'. Many of his 
works exist, and, considering them as the earliest 
productions of their class, they fully justify the 
praise of Van Mander. In most of them is found 
a small clownish figure indecently exhibited. He 
also painted hunting scenes and battles, which, at 
that early period, were held in considerable estima- 
tion. Some historical pictures also are attributed 
to him. Those which are, perhaps, least liable to 
doubt are in the Gallery at Vienna. Albrecht 
Diirer found De Patinir to be the most agreeable 
of all the Flemish artists, and formed with him a 
close intimacy ; he also painted his portrait. De 
Patinir died at Antwerp in 1524. The following 
paintings by him may be mentioned : 

Antwerp. Museum. The Flight into Egypt. 

„ ,, The Adoration of the Magi. 

Berlin Gallery. The Conversion of St. Hubert. 

„ „ The Re.st on the Flight into Egypt. 

Brussels. Museum. Mater Dolorosa. 

London. A'at. Gall. The Crucifixion, 

,, „ St. Christopher. 

Madrid. Gallery. The Temptation of St. Anthony. 

Vienna. Academy. The Entombment. 

„ „ Christ bewailed under the Cross. 

„ Gallery. St. John the Baptist preaching. 

DEPAULIS, Alexis Joseph, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1792, and died there in 1867. 

DE PAULIS, Andreas. See Padli. 

DE PAY, Johann, was born at Riedlingen in 
Swabia in 1609, and' died at Munich in 1660. His 
own portrait, by himself, dated 1655, is in the 
Munich Gallery. 

DE PETERS, Anton, a painter and etcher, was 
born at Cologne in 1723, and studied in Paris under 
Greuze. He was raised to the rank of a noble by 
the king of France, and appointed court painter 
by the Danish king. Christian IV., as well as by 
Prince Charles of Lorraine. The Revolution drove 
him back to his native country, where he lived in 
poverty, and died at Cologne in 1795. There are 
by him : 

PAINTINGS. 

Death of Cleopatra {in miniature upon ivory). 
A Girl leaving the Bath {Herr Merlo, Coloyne). 
The Girl with the Carp. 

ETCHINGS. 

Virgin and Child, in a landscape. 

Holy Family on the Fhght to Egypt {after Eemhrandt). 

DE POORTER, Willem, a narive of Haariem, 
who flourished from 1630 to 1645, was a pupil of 
Rembrandt, and his works, executed after that 
master, display considerable merit, and are some- 
what rare. He usually painted historical subjects, 
but sometimes undertook interiors. His chef- 
d'oeuvre is 'Solomon worshipping false Gods,' in 
the possession of M. Coster in Paris. Besides this, 
there are in public galleries the following works 
by him : 

BerUn. Gallery. Samson and DeUlah. 

Brussels. Arenberg Coll. An Interior. 
Cassel. Gallery. The Circumcision. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. Mercury and Proserpine. 

„ „ Peace. 1643. 

Dresden. Gallery. Ahasuerus and Esther. 1645. 

„ The Woman taken in Adultery. 

59 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Dresden. Gallery. The Virgin and Child, with St. 
Joseph and St. Simeon ; after 
Rembrandt. 

Botterdam. Museum. An Allegory of Human Insta- 
bility. 1630. 

DEQUEVAUVILLER, Francois JAConES, son 
of Nicolas Dequevauviller. Born in Paris in 1783 ; 
pupil of his father and of Desnoyers. Among his 
works are : 

Episode in the Life of Fenelon ; after Hersent. 
Portraits of Cardinal de BeaussetS 

„ Due de Berry \. after S. Sigaud, 

„ M. de Daigrefeuille. j 

Child playing a Flute, and Jason ; after antiques. 

DEQUEVAUVILLER, Nicolas Barth^lemi 
Franqois, a French engraver. Born at Abbeville 
in 1745, he became a pupil of J. DaulM. He made 
extensive travels in Italy, along the Mediterranean, 
and in Palestine, 1781-86. His chief plates are 
distinguished by good distribution of light. The 
figures and furniture are well executed. The 
ensemble is charming, full of j-outh and pleasure. 
His grading of the different parts of his compo- 
sitions is admirable. He died in Paris in 1807. 
Among his works are : 

The Assembly, The Concert, and Le Contretemps ; 

after Lavreince. 1783. 
Bed-time, Rising, and The Dancing School ; after the 

same. 1784. 
Plates for ' Paris Bridges,' and ' Travels in Syria and 

Palestine.' 
Views at Auserre, Nimes, etc. 1780. 
Temptation of St. Anthony : after Salvator Rosa. 
Noon and Evening ; after C. Bertfhem. 
Illustrations for * An Itinerary in France,' published 

by Reville et Lavall^e, Paris, 1816. 
The Travellers ; after Jan Both. ( Uffizi, Florence.) 
The Flemish Nvu-se, and Flemish Girls bathing ; after 

C. Poelenihourg. 

DE RAM, Jan, a Dutch engraver, was bom 
about 1680. He was a scholar of Romeyn Da 
Hooghe, but was more free and correct than his 
instructor. He worked for the booksellers, and 
also engraved in mezzotint, of which style there 
is a specimen in a portrait of Christian V. , 
King of Denmark. The date of his death is not 
known. 

DERBY, Alfred Thomas, a water-colour painter, 
was born in 1821. He was the eldest son of the 
miniature painter, William Derby. After having 
studied at the Royal Academy, bis first attempts 
were in oil, but be afterwards painted in water- 
colour, assisting his father in his copies of pictures 
by well-known modern artists. After bis father's 
death he still continued in the same line, painting 
many exact and carefully-finished copies, besides 
some original works. He frequently exhibited por- 
traits at the Royal Academy. He died at Hammer- 
smith in 1873. 

DERBY, William, an English miniature painter 
and copyist, was born in 1786, at Birmingham, where 
he received instruction from Joseph Barker. In 
1808 he came to London and executed drawings 
for the ' Stafford Gallery,' and in 1825 for Lodge's 
' Portraits.' He also made copies of ancestral por- 
traits for Lord Derby. In 1838 he was struck with 
paralysis, but was able to pursue his avocations 
till his death in 1847. There are two water- 
colour drawings by him in the South Kensington 
Museum: 'A Fisherman,' and 'A Man holding a 
book.' 

DE REYN, Jan, was born at Dunkirk about 
the year 1610, and went when he was young to 

GO 



.\ntwerp, where he became a scholar of Van Dyck. 
His principal works for the churches at Dunkirk 
were the ' Death of the four Royal Martyrs,' for 
the church of St. Eloi ; and the ' Baptism of Totila,' 
for the church of the English convent. There 
are many of his portraits in private collections, 
which are little inferior to those of Van Dyck. 
The principal altar-piece in the parochial church 
of St. Martin, at Bergues St. Vinox, near Dunkirk, 
is by this master : it represents ' Herodias bringing 
the Head of St. John to Herod.' De Reyn died at 
Dunkirk in 1678. The Brussels Museum has a 
Female Portrait by him, dated 1637. 

DE' RITRATTI, Francesco. See Negri. 

DEROCHE, Victor, a French landscape painter 
of some note, was born at Lyons in 1824 (?). He 
was a frequent exhibitor at the Salon of pictures 
illustrating the beauties of tlie Seine, and generally 
somewhat melancholy in sentiment. He lived for 
many years at Montigny, near Vernon-sur-Seine, 
and died in 1886. 

DE ROORE, Jacques, was born at Antwerp in 
1686. He was the son of a goldsmith, who in- 
tended to bring him up to his own profession, but 
his father died when he was very young, and his 
mother permitted him to indulge the inclination he 
had shown for art. He was at first placed under 
the care of Louis van der Bosch, under whom 
he studied for two years, and then entered the 
school of Caspar Jacobus van Opstal. He painted 
historical subjects and conversations ; in the for- 
mer, he adopted the style of Richard van Orley, 
and in the latter imitated that of the younger 
Teniers. His works were held in the highest esti- 
mation, and he was loaded with commissions, not 
only for the collections of Brabant and Flanders, 
but also for those of Holland. When not more 
than twenty years of age he was received into the 
Academy at Antwerp, and was considered one of 
the ablest artists of his time. He was much em- 
ployed in embellishing the saloons of the principal 
mansions, and in painting the ceilings of the public 
edifices. One of his most admired performances 
was a saloon and ceiling, representing the ' History 
of Pandora,' painted for the family of Hasselaer, in 
1740. He died at Antwerp in 1747. 

DE' ROSSI. See Dei Rossi. 

DE' ROTARI, PiETRO. See Dei Rotabl 

DERSON, N., a French engraver, appears from 
the inscription on one of his prints to have been of 
Reims in Champagne. We have by this artist a 
plate of the stately fa9ade of the cathedral of 
Notre-Dame at Reims, neatly etched and finished 
with the graver, with several figures spiritedly 
touched in the style of Callot, and dated 1625. 

DERTINGER, Ernst, who was born in 1816, 
engraved after Von der Embde, T. Schiitz, W. 
Kaulbach, and other artists. He died at Stuttgart 
in 1865. 

DE RUEL, Johan Baptist, was born at Ant- 
werp in 1634. He was introduced as a singer to 
the court of the Elector of Mayence, and was 
there instructed in painting by Jan Thomas. He 
afterwards settled at Wiirzburg, where he exe- 
cuted altar-pieces and portraits. A portrait by 
him is in the Munich Gallery. He died in 1685, 
or, according to others, in 1715. 

DERUET, Claude, a painter and engraver, was 
born at Nancy, in Lorraine, in 1588, and died in 
the same town in 1660. He was a scholar of 
Claude Henriet, and living in habits of intimacy 
with his fellow-citizen Callot, he adopted the style 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



of that master, and engraved in it a few plates, of 
which the best are : 

Charles IV., Duke of Lorraine, on Horseback. 1628. 
The Carriere, or Rue Neuve, at Nancy. 
The Ducal Palace at Nancy. 

DE EUYTER, Jan, was a Dutch painter of 
Bcenes from every-day life, who was still living in 
1822. A ' Cook in a Kitchen ' by him, in the 
Amsterdam Gallery, is dated 1820. 

DE RUYTER, N., was a Flemish engraver, who 
flourished about the year 1688. He appears to 
have imitated the style of Paulus Pontius, but with- 
out much success. Among others, we have a plate 
by him representing ' Diana reposing after the 
Chase,' after Gerard Valck. 

DE RY, Danckerts. See Danckerts de Ry. 

DE RYCKE, Daniel, a Flemish painter, was a 
native of Ghent, who flourished there and at 
Bruges between the years 1462 and 1469. His 
mural and decorative paintings and portraits caused 
him to be thought one of the most distinguished 
painters of his time, but his works have unfor- 
tunately perished by the hands of the Iconoclasts. 

DE RYCKE, WiLLEM, (De Reyck, or De Kyke,) 
a Flemish painter, was born at Antwerp in 1635. 
He was brought up a goldsmith, but quitted that 
business to study painting, and made some pro- 
ficiency in history and portraits, though he never 
reached any eminence. He visited England in the 
reign of King William III., and died in London 
in 1697. He is also known as an engraver, and 
among his plates are the following : 

Susanna surprised by the Elders. 
St. Catharine before her Judges. 
Mars and Venus. 16S3. 

His daughter, Cathamna De RycKE,was a talented 
artist. 

DE RYCKER, A., was a Flemish painter, who 
in 1591 executed for the church of St. Jacques at 
Antwerp a triptych, the centre panel of which, 
representing ' Christ on the Cross, between the 
two Thieves,' has since disappeared. The wings, 
however, which contain the portraits of the donor, 
Jan Doncker, and his wife, are sufficient to place 
the painter among the most distinguished masters 
of his time. There are in the Antwerp Gallery 
the two wings of another triptych which are 
ascribed to him, but the archives of the Guild of St. 
Luke fail to afford any information about this artist. 

DE RYE, Aegidids, was a painter who flourished 
in the Netherlands about 1597, which date is on a 
' Burial of St. Catharine ' by him in the Vienna 
Gallery. 

DE RY'NG, PlETER, a Flemish painter of sub- 
jects of still-life, flourished about the middle of 
the 17th century. In the Museum at Amsterdam 
there is a picture by him, representing a table 
covered with blue velvet, on which are various 
kinds of fruit, oysters, and other shell-fish. There 
is in the Antwerp Museum a fruit piece by him, 
dated 1651, and in the Dresden Gallery is a picture 
of shell-fish and fruit with his monogram — a ring 
with a diamond. Some twenty or thirty years ago 
several of his works were brought to England by 
dealers ; but it is apprehended that they have 
changed their name, and assumed that of Jan 
Davidsz De Heem. 

DESALLIER-D'ARGENVILLE, Antoine Jo- 
seph, a French amateur and writer on art, was 
bom in Paris in 1680. He etched several plates 
of subjects and landscapes from his own designs, 



and was the author of the well-known ' Abrcge de 
la Vie des plus fameux Peintres,' published first 
in 1745-52. He died in Paris in 1765. 
DE SALZEA, Pietee. See De Fodr. 
DE SAN, Gerard, was born at Bruges in 1754, 
and studied under Legillon at the Academy of 
that city. In 1781 he travelled about France and 
to Rome, where he painted for four years, and 
received in 1782 a silver medal from the Papal 
Academy for drawing from the nude. He further 
received two gold medals from the Academy of 
Parma. On returning home he devoted himself 
to the painting of portraits, and in 1790 was made 
director of the Bruges Academy. After five years, 
however, the Revolution caused him to proceed to 
Groningen, and in 1798 he became president of 
the newly-founded Academy in that town. He 
died at Groningen in 1829. 

DESANGIVES, Nicolas, a French painter on 
glass, who acquired a great reputation early in the 
16th century for his windows in the church of St. 
Genevieve, and in the charnel-house of the church 
of St. Paul, in Paris. 

DESANI, Pietro, was born at Bologna, accord- 
ing to Malvasia, in 1595, and was a disciple of 
Lionello Spada, under whom he became a very 
fair painter of history. He resided chiefly at 
Reggio, where there was scarcely a church or a 
public edifice that did not contain some of his 
works. Among the most esteemed were the 
'Crucifixion,' with the Virgin Mary, the Mag- 
dalen, and St. John, in the Chiesa del Corpo di 
Christo, and ' St. Francis receiving the Stigmata,' 
in the church of the Padri Zoccolanti. The com- 
positions of Desani are masterly, and his drawing 
correct ; but there is a crudity and hardness in his 
colouring that give to his pictures a disagreeable 
effect. He died in 1657. 

DESAUX, (Henriette Browne,) Sophie, for- 
merly BOUTEILLIER, was born in 1829 in Paris, 
where she studied under Chaplin. She received 
medals of the third class in 1855, 1857, and 1859, 
of the second class in 1801, and of the third class 
for engraving in 1863. Of her pictures, which fre- 
quently represent oriental and North African scenes, 
the most important are : ' The Poor School at Aix,' 
' Sisters of Charitj',' 'An Apothecary's' (1859), 'The 
Toilette,' 'A Woman of Eleusis ' (1861), ' Oranges 
in Upper Egypt' (1870), and 'The Coptic Poet' 
(1874). She died in 1901. 

DES BATAILLES, Martin. See Martin, Jean 
Baptiste. 

DESBOIS, Martial, who was bom in Paris in 
1630, and died there in 1700, was an excellent 
engraver in mezzotint. He engraved 'Moses strik- 
ing the Rock,' after Ciro Ferri, and other plates 
after I^aolo Veronese, Guercino, N. Poussin, &c. 

DBSBOUTIN, Marcellin Gilbert, distin- 
guished peintre-grareur, born at Cevilly in 1823. 
After preUminary study he became a pupil of 
Couture, whose studio he entered in his twenty- 
fourth year. After eighteen years spent in Italy 
he made his debut in Paris as a portrait-painter, 
and the quality of his work at once attracted atten- 
tion. Among the best known of his portraits we 
may mention: 'Leclerc, the painter' (1876), 'Dailly, 
the actor, in the rule of Mes Bottes' (1878), ' M. 
Hyacinthe Loison and family en triptyque ' (1880), 
' Ari-stide Bruant'(1892), 'MissMaudGonne'(1894), 
' Puvis de Chavanncs ' (1896), ' Portrait de I'Auteur,' 
now at the Luxembourg, and 'La Femme au 
Chapeau,' which was purchased in 1883 by the 

61 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



State. The Luxembourg also possesses sixteen 
dry-paint engravings by bim, in which manner lie 
was particularly successful, as his etched portraits 
of Zola, Rochefort, Monet, Edmond de Goncourt 
and other celebrities attest. His various accom- 
plishments included the writing of poetry and 
dramatic pieces. Desboutin obtained an Honour- 
able Mention in 1883 ; he was made a Knight of 
the Legion of Honour in 1893, and his brilliant 
artistic career was fittingly crowned by tlie Grand 
Prix at the Universal Exhibition in 1900. After 
that date he retired to Nice, where his death 
occurred on the 23rd February, 1902. 

DESCAMPS, GniLLADME D^sie^ Joseph, a 
painter and engraver, was born at Lille in 1779. 
He was a pupil of Vincent, but, obtaining the 
" prix de Rome," he improved himself by travel- 
ling in Italy, and became court-painter of Murat in 
Naples. He died in Paris in 1858. The following 
paintings were executed by him : 

The Women of Sparta (in the Lille Museum). 1808. 

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew (in St. Andre, Lille). 

Murat on board the Ceres distributing Kewards (en- 
graved by himself). 

The Conversion of St. Augustine (in St. Eustacke, Paris). 

The Apotheosis of Cardinal Tommasi (in San Martino cli 
Monti, Rome). 

The Neapolitan Troops marching out against Capri. 

As an engraver he also produced six plates from 
the 'Fable of Psyche.' 

DESCAMPS, Jean Baptiste, a French historical 
and subject painter, was born at Dunkirk in 
1706. He studied under D'Ulin and LargiUiere, 
and painted several pictures for Louis XV., illus- 
trating that monarch's coronation and visits to 
Havre. In 1764 he was received into the Academy, 
on which occasion he painted his best known work, 
' A Mother in a Kitchen with her two Children,' 
which is now in the Louvre. His latter years were 
chiefly spent at Rouen, where he was director of a 
School of Design, which he had been instrumental 
in founding. In 1753-64 he published, ' La Vie 
des Peintres Flamands, Allemands, et Hollandois,' 
and in 1769 his 'Voyage pittoresque de la Flandre 
et du Brabant.' He died at Rouen in 1791. 

DESCOMBES, Le Chevalier, a French painter, 
was a disciple of LargiUiere, of whom he painted 
a portrait, which has been engraved by Petit. 

DES COUDRES, Lddwig, an historical, portrait, 
and genre painter, was born at Cassel in 1820, and 
pursued his first studies under J. von Schnorr, at 
the Academy of Munich. He travelled in Italy in 
1844-5, and placed himself in 1848-9 under Karl 
Sohn at Diisseldorf, where for a time he settled, 
but in 1855 he was appointed professor in the School 
of Arts at Carlsruhe, in which city he died in 1878. 
Among his best pictures we find : 

Francesca da Eimini. 1850. 

The "Weeping Magdalen. 1852. 

The Lamentation before the Burial (Carlsruhe Gallery). 
1855. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds (in possession of the 
G^'and-Duke of Baden). 1857- 

The Holy Women before the Cross (in St. Nicholas, 
Hamburg). 1863. 

Iphigeueia (in possession of the Grand-J>uke of Baden). 
1865. 

Under the Eed Cross. 1872. 

Psyche and Pan. 

Happy Existence — a child's picture. 

DESCOURTIS, Charles Melchioe, a French 

engraver, was bom in Paris in 1753, and died in 

the same city in 1820. He was a pupil of Janinet, 

and engraved in colour after his style . He executed 

62 



views in Paris and in Rome after De Machy, but his 
best works are a ' Village Fair,' a 'Village Wedding,' 
' The Quarrel,' and ' The Tambourine,' after Taunay. 

DE SEEUW, Maeinds. See Roymeeswalen. 

DESENNE,Alexandre Joseph, was born in Paris 
in 1785, and showed at an early age a taste for art. 
He was in his time the most celebrated designer of 
vignettes, and illustrated the works of no less than 
twenty-seven authors. He died in Paris in 1827. 

DE' SERAFINI, Serafino. See Dei Serafini. 

DES GODETS, Antoine, a French designer and 
ens^raver, as well as architect, was born in Paris in 
1653, and died in the same city in 1728. He pub- 
lished in 1682 a folio volume of plates, entitled, ' Lea 
Edifices antiques de Rome,' engraved from his own 
designs ; and he etched the frontispiece himself. 

DESGOFFE, Alexandre, a French landscape 
painter, was born in Paris in 1805. He studied 
under Ingres, and travelled in Italy from 1837 to 
1842. He usually introduced into his landscapes 
historical or mythological incidents, and he also 
painted some Biblical subjects. The Luxembourg 
Gallery has his ' Fury of Orestes,' and the Museum 
of Lyons his 'Cyclops.' He decorated the Salle 
des Etudes of the Bibliothfeque Nationale in 1868, 
and died in Paris in 1882. 

DES GRANGES, D., a miniature painter, said to 
have been the pupil of Peter Oliver. Of his history 
nothing is known, save that he is said to have fled 
to England on account of his holding the Catholic 
faith. Some of his best works are at Ham House, 
and there are others at Windsor Castle and Welbeck 
Abbey. 

DESHAYS DE COLLBVILLE, Jean Baptiste 
Henri, a French historical painter, was born at 
Rouen in 1729. He was first instructed by his 
father, and afterwards became a pupil of Boucher, 
whose daughter he married. He also visited Italy, 
and was received into the Academy in 1759. He 
excelled particularly in painting altar-pieces, one 
of the best of which is a ' St. Jerome,' in the church 
of Le Plessis-Piquet (Seine). Deshays died in 
Paris in 1765. He had a younger brother, Franqois 
Bedno Deshays de Colleville, who painted por- 
traits, but had not a spark of genius. 

DESJOBERT, Louis Remy Eugene, a French 
landscape painter, was born at Chateauroux in 1817, 
and died in Paris in 1863. As a specimen of his 
painting may be mentioned ' St. Ouen's Bay, 
Jersey.' 

DESMAISONS, Pierre Emile, a French litho- 
grapher, died in 1880, aged 68, at Montlignon (Seine- 
et-Oise). Amongst his most successful works are 
his reproductions of paintings by Vidal and i^douard 
Frere. 

DESMARAIS, Jean Baptiste, a French his- 
torical painter, was born in Paris in the latter part 
of the 18th century. He studied at Rome from 
1786 to 1790, and subsequently became professor 
and vice-president of the Academy at Carrara, 
where he died in 1814. 

DESMAREES, Georo, (or Des Maeees,) a 
portrait painter, was born in 1697 at Stockholm, 
where he was instructed in painting by Peter 
Martin van Meytens, whose assistant he afterwards 
became. In 1724 he made a stay in Amsterdam, 
and in the following year in Nuremberg and then 
in Venice, where he received further tuition from 
Piazzetta. In 1731 he settled in Munich, where he 
became court painter, and where he continued to 
reside till his death in 1776. A portrait of him- 
self and one of his daughter are, with a third in 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



the Munich Gallery, and other portraits by him are 
at Augsburg-. 

DESMARQUfiTS, Pauline. See Auzou. 

DESMOLES, Arnaud, a French painter on 
glass, flourished about 1510. He executed some 
windows in the cathedral at Audi, between the 
years 1509 and 1513, by order of the Cardinal de 
Sourdis. 

DESNOYERS, AucnsxE Gaspard Louis Bou- 
cher, Baron. See Bodchee-Desnoyers. 

DESPERRIERES, Madame, a French portrait 
painter, exhibited at the Salon from 1812 to 1819. 
A portrait of the Duchess of Angouleme by her is 
in the Bordeaux Museum. 

DESPLACES, Louis, a French engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1682. He engraved a considerable 
number of plates, possessing great merit, some of 
which are in the style of Gerard Audran, and 
though he was unequal to that distinguished artist, 
his drawing is correct, and his works evince ex- 
cellent taste. His best prints are those after 
Jouvenet. He worked with the point and the 
graver. He died in Paris in 1739. The following 
are his principal works : 

SUBJECTS ENGRAVED FOR THE CBOZAT COLLECTION. 

Jupiter and Danae ; after Titian. 

Paolo Veronese between Virtue and Vice ; after Paolo 

Veronese, 
Wisdom accompanying Hercules ; after the same. 
Christ washing the Disciples' Feet ; after G. Muziano. 
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Giulio Ilomano. 
The Triumph of Titus and Vespasian ; after the same. 
The Crucifixion ; after Annibale Carracci. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after Jl Calabrese. 

The Purification ; after Tintoretto. 

Diana and Actseon ; after Carlo Maratti. 

The Rape of Helen ; after Gvido. 

The Birth of Adonis ; after C. Cignani. 

The Gallery of the President Lambert ; after Le Sueur. 

The Roman Charity ; after Le £run. 

Hercules combating the Centaurs ; after the same. 

Christ healing the Sick ; after Jouvenet. 

The Elevation of the Cross ; after the same. 

The Descent from the Cross ; after the same. 

St. Bruno praying ; after the same. 

Venus prevailing on Vulcan to forge Arms for JJneas ; 

after the same. 
The Triumph of Venus ; after Antaine Coypel. 
Cupid taking refuge with Anacreon ; after the same. 
jEneas saving his Family from the Burning of Troy ; 

after the same. 

PORTRAITS. 

Mile. Duclos as Ariana ; after Largilliere. 
Evrard Titon du Tillet ; after the same. 
Marguerite B&aille, veuve Titon ; after the same. 
The Abb6 de RancS ; after Riyaud. 
Charles Francois Silvestre ; after Herav.lt. 

DESPORTES, Alexandre Franqois, a French 
painter of hunting scenes and animals, was born at 
Champigneul, in Champagne, in 1661. He was a 
scholar of Nicasius Bernaert, a Flemish painter 
then resident in Paris, who had studied under 
Snyders, but who died before his pupil had made 
any great progress in the art. Without further in- 
struction, he applied himself with great assiduity 
to the study of nature, not only in animals and 
landscape, but in perfecting himself in the draw- 
ing of the figure after the Academy model. Des- 
portes was not satisfied, as is frequently the case 
with artists in that branch, with painting the 
animals, and leaving to others the more important 
part of the picture. He painted the hunters, as 
well as their game, and his figures are well drawn 



and full of character. He was much employed by 
Louis XIV. in the palaces of Versailles, Fontaine- 
bleau, and Meudon, and was made painter to the 
king. In 1699 he became a member of the 
Academy in Paris. Walpole does not mention 
him in the 'Anecdotes,' but in 1713 he accom- 
panied the Duke of Aumont in his embassy to 
England, and here painted several pictures. He 
died in Paris in 1743. There are twenty-seven of 
his works in the Louvre. Among them is his own 
portrait, painted for his reception at the Academy 
in 1699. 

DESPORTES, Claude Franqois, an animal 
painter, and the son of Alexandre Francois Des- 
portes, was born in Paris in 1695, and died there 
in 1774. A large picture of 'Still Life' by him is 
in the Louvre ; it constituted his reception painting 
on his entry into the Academy in 1723. 

DESPORTES, Nicolas, a nephew and pupi! of 
Alexandre Francois Desportes, was born in 1718. 
He at first painted animals, but afterwards, under 
the tuition of H. Rigaud, devoted himself to por- 
trait painting. He was received into the Academy 
in 1757 with a picture of 'A Wild Boar pursued 
by a Dog.' He died in 1787 

DES PREZ, F., was a French engraver on wood, 
who resided in Paris about the year 1573. He 
executed a large plan of the town of Roohelle, 
with the additional fortifications made at the time 
it was besieged in the civil wars in 1573. It is 
inscribed, A Paris, par F. des Prez, rue Mont- 
orgueil au bon pasteur. 

DESPREZ, Lonis Jean, a French historical 
painter and architect, was born at Lyons in 1740. 
He produced some works in Paris, and then went 
to Rome, where he assisted in the production of 
the 'Voyage pittoresque de Naples.' He was 
patronized by Gustavus III., with whom he went 
to Sweden, and for whom he painted decorations, 
battle-pieces, &o. He died at Stockholm in 
1804. His ' Costumes of Swedeir ' have been 
published. 

DESROCHERS, Etienne Johandiek, a French 
engraver, was born at Lyons about 1661. He 
engraved and published upwards of 600 portraits, 
which must have had in their day some popularity, 
for in 1723 he was elected a member of the Aca- 
demy. He died in Paris in 1741. 

DES RUINES, Robert. See Robert, Hubert. 

DESSURNE, Mark, painter, born in 1825, was 
a student and frequent exhibitor at the Royal 
Acadeujy. He also contributed to the Sufl'olk 
Street and British Institution Galleries between 
1840 and 1870, and held an art mastership in 
connection with the Glasgow school of design for 
many years. He died Slay 4, 1885. 

DESTOUCHES, Paul Emile. See Detouche. 

DES TUILERIES, Bernard. See Palissy. 

DE SUBLEO, Miohele, (or De Sobleo,) was a 
native of Flanders, who went when young to 
Bologna. He was educated in the scliool of Guido 
Reni. He painted some pictures for the churches 
at Bologna, especially for that of Gesii e Maria, 
which partake of the style of his master, with 
something of the vigour of Guercino. He resided 
during a great part of his life at Venice, where 
there are several of his works, the most esteemed 
of which is an altar-piece in the church of the 
Carmelites, representing some Saints of that order. 
In the Bologna Gallery are four works by him : 
a ' St. Agnes,' a ' Virgin,' ' The Apparition of the 
Virgin to St. Augustine and others ' (from the 

63 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



church of Gesii e Maria), and ' St. John the Baptist 
preaching.' 

DETAILLE, Jean Baptists Edouard, French 
painter born in Paris, October 5, 1848. Iq early 
childhood he showed great talent for drawing ; 
and fortunately this was encouraged by his family. 
When his term of schooling came to an end he 
entered the studio of Meissonnier, whose favourite 
pupil he soon became. He sent in his first contri- 
bution to the Salon of 1867. It was entitled 'A 
Corner of the Studio ' (Meissonnier's studio), which 
received but scant notice. But the following year 
the critics spoke in terms of high praise concerning 
his ' Halt of tlie Drums,' and their eulogy was con- 
firmed in 1869 by tlie marked advance in his art 
made by the young painter, his 'Repose during 
the Manoeuvres ' being, in fact, the success of that 
year's Salon. On tbe other hand his ' Engagement 
between Cossacks and Guards, 1814,' exhibited at 
the Salon in 1870, did not meet with such favour- 
able notice. Called to serve with the colours during 
the Franco-German war, Detaille acted as secretary 
to General Pajol, and later to General Appert, a 
post whicli gave him ample opportunity to study 
military life. The jury were obliged to reject his 
picture, ' Les Vainqueurs,' submitted to the Salon 
in 1872, but nevertheless they accorded it a 
recompense. His remarkable canvas, ' Charge of 
the 1st Hussars, 1807,' was acquired for the Musde 
d« Luxembourg. M. Detaille, who, for military 
subjects, stands in the very first ranic, gained two 
medals in 1869 and 1870 ; a second-class medal in 
1872 ; a medal of honour in 1888, a Grand Prix 
at the Universal Exhibition of 1889. He was 
decorated with the Legion of Honour on November 
3, 1873, being promoted to the rank of olEcer 
on July 13, 1881. He published an album for 
children, ' Les bonnes id^es de Mile. Lili' ■ and a 
number of his designs and sketches have been 
reproduced by different modern processes. Two 
large folio volumes, ' L'arm^e franfaise : Tj'pes et 
Uniformes,' a sumptuous work, were illustrated by 
him in 1885-8. He painted with Alphonse de 
Neuville the ' Panorama de Champigny ' and the 
' Panorama de R^zonville.' He has been since 
1892 a member of the Acad&nie des Beaux Arts, 
President of the Society of French Artists, but 
has entirely given up painting. 

P.P. 

DETOUCHE, Paul Emile, called Destouches, a 
pupil of David, Gu^rin, Gros, and Girodet, was bom 
at Dampierre in 1794, and was a painter of history 
and portraits, but distinguished himself more in 
genre pieces. His pleasing scenes of family life 
are spirited and carefully executed. 'The Orphan,' 
' The Young Conscript, ' and ' The Wounded Student ' 
are considered his best paintings. He died in 
Paris, in 1874. 

DETREZ, Ambeoise, who was born in Paris in 
1811, studied at Lille, and subsequently became 
Director of the Painting School at Valenciennes, 
where he died in 1863. In the Lille Museum are 
a ' Presentation in the Temple ' and two Landscapes 
by him. 

DETROY. See Trot. 

DEUERLEIN, Johann Hierontmus, was a 
painter of Wiirzburg, who in 1619 became a pupil 
of Biiler, and was admitted in 1624 into the Brother- 
hood of St. Luke. He painted the ' Triumph of 
Death ' in the choir of St. Peter's Church at Wiirz- 
burg, and a votive picture in the cloister of the 
Cathedral. 
64 



DEUREN, 0. VAN, is only known by his signa- 
ture, and the date 1624, on a picture of a ' Hermit' 
now in the Dresden Gallery. 

DE URER, Lddwig, a son of Peter F. Deurer, was 
born at Mannheim in 1806, and studied at Nurem- 
berg, Munich, and Rome. He was an excellent 
painler of historical subjects, and painted 'The 
Knights of Malta before Jerusalem.' He died in 
1847. 

DEURER, Peter Ferdinand, a painter of history 
and portraits, who was born at Mannheim in 1779, 
studied art at Diisseldorf and Cassel. For saving 
the pictures of the gallery of his native town, during 
tlie siege by the French, he was made director of it 
and professor at the Academy. In 1826 he went 
to Rome and made a copy of Raphael's ' Burial of 
Christ,' which copy is now in the Art Hall at 
Carlsruhe. He died at Kissingen in 1844. 

DEUTSCH, Manuel. See Manuel. 

DE VADDER, Lodewijk, was born at Brussels 
about 1660. It is not known by whom he was 
instructed, but he may be ranked amongst the 
ablest landscape painters of his country. From 
the grandeur of his style, and the picturesque 
beauty of his scenery, it is probable that he 
resided some time in Italy, where he appears 
to have made the works of Titian the particular 
objects of his study, as his best productions bear 
a striking resemblance to the landscapes of that 
master. The forms of his rocks and trees are 
noble and select, and his distances are distinguished 
by a vapoury degradation. The pictures of De 
Vadder are deservedly esteemed in his native 
country, where they are found in the choicest 
collections. His merit would have been more 
generally known in England, had not his works 
been frequently imposed upon the public under 
borrowed names. He is said to have died at Brus- 
sels about 1623, but his death occurred probably 
earlier. A ' Landscape ' by him is in the Darm- 
stadt Gallery. There are a few spirited etchings 
of landscapes by this artist, executed in the style 
of Lucas van Uden. 

DE VALCK. See Valck. 

DE' VECCHI, Giovanni. See Dei Vecchi. 

DEVEMY, Louis, who was born at Lille in 1808, 
first practised as an advocate. He adopted art as a 
profession in 1845, and established himself in Paris 
in 1852. He died there in 1874. A picture of ' Still 
Life ' by him is in the Museum of his native city. 

DEVERELL, Walter Howell. This artist was 
the son of the secretary of the Schools of Design 
(now enlarged into the Science and Art Depart- 
ment), and was an artist of the greatest promise, 
who died in 1854 at the very early age of twenty- 
six. He was associated with the Pre-Rapliaelites ; 
a great friend of Rossetti, and nominated for the 
place in the B.R.P. left vacant by the resignation 
of Collinson. It was Deverell who introduced 
Rossetti to Miss Siddal, who was at that time 
sitting to him for ' Viola,' and who afterwards 
became Mrs. Rossetti. His notable works were : 
' A Scene from " Twelfth Night " ' ; ' A Lady with a 
Bird-cage,' at one time in the Leathart Collection ; 
'A Scene from "As you Like It,'" which Rossetti 
finished after the death of the artist ; and ' The 
Doctor's Last Visit,' on which Deverell was work- 
ing when he died, and which he was only just able 
to complete. He was a remarkably good-looking 
man, very genial, clever, and popular, and would 
have greatly distinguished himself had he lived. 

DEVERIA, Eugene FRAN901S Marie Joseph, 



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



who was born in Paris in 1805, was a brother of 
Achille Deveria ; he frequented the school of 
Girodet. Besides several historical pieces, he 
painted for the Museum at Versailles, the ceilings 
in the Louvre, the Palais Royal, and Notre-Dame 
de Lorette. His portraits of Marshals Brissac and 
Crevecceur are at Versailles. His own is in the 
Uffizi ; and the Louvre possesses his ' Birth of 
Henri IV.' (1827). His 'Death of Joan of Arc 'is 
in the Museum at Angers. He died at Pau in 1865. 

DEVERIA, Jacques Jean Marie Achille, born 
in Paris in 1810, was a painter and lithographer. 
He was a pupil of Lafitte and of Girodet. His 
subjects were mostly of a religious character, and 
painted in a pleasing manner. He died in Paris 
in 1857. His best claim to notice, however, rests 
upon his successful administration of the depart- 
ment of engravings in the Bibliotheque Nationale, 
to the direction of which he was appointed in 1849. 
Before that date chaos had reigned supreme, and 
it was due to Iiis patient labour, as well as to his 
refined taste and sound learning, that order by 
degrees took its place. 

DEVIGNE. See Vigne. 

DEVIS, Antony T., an English landscape 
painter, the brother of Arthur Devis, was bom in 
1729. He exhibited a few times at the Society of 
Arts and at the Royal Academy. During the latter 
part of his life he lived at Albury, in Surrey, 
where he died in 1817. His works are in the 
early manner of water-colour drawings. There is 
a Landscape by him, dated 1772, in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

DEVlS, Arthuk, was bom at Preston in Lanca- 
shire, about the year 1711, and was the pupil of 
Peter Tillemans. He painted in a variety of 
ways, sometimes portraits, but mostly small whole- 
lengths and conversation pieces. He was an ex- 
hibitor at the Society's Rooms, in the Strand, in 
1761, but never joined either the Chartered Society 
or the Royal Academy. He died at Brighton in 
1787. 

DEVIS, Arthur William, a portrait and his- 
torical painter, was born in London in 1763, and 
received his first instruction in art from his father, 
Arthur Devis. He made rapid progress, and ob- 
tained, at an earlier age than is usual, a silver medal 
from the Royal Academy, and, what was of more 
■ importance, the good opinion of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds. In his twentieth year he was appointed 
by the East India Company draughtsman to 
accompany Captain Wilson in the ' Antelope ' in a 
voyage round the world. He afterwards went 
to Bengal, where he continued the exercise of 
his art, but returned to England in 1795, and 
painted for Mr. Alexander Davison some his- 
torical pictures. His life was one of vicissitudes 
and difficulties, and was terminated by a stroke of 
apoplexy in 1822. Devis, as an historical painter, 
was equal, if not superior, to any of his day, but 
circumstances did not conduce to bring his powers 
into action. His picture of the ' Detection of Babing- 
ton's Conspiracy ' was painted in competition with 
some of the most eminent members of the Royal 
Academy, West, Northcote, Copley, Smirke, Wilkie, 
and others; and, unquestionably, was the best in 
composition, delineation of character, truth of 
colour, and management of chiaroscuro. His own 
portrait is in the composition. The National Por- 
trait Gallery possesses his portrait of Governor 
Herbert, painted at Calcutta in 1791. 

DE VISCH, Matthias, was bom at the village 
vol. II. F 



of Reningen, in 1702. He studied under Joseph 
van den Kerkhove at Bruges, became a student of 
the Academy, and obtained the first prize in 1721. 
He went to Paris in 1723 ; thence to Italy, where 
he remained nine years. On his return to Bruges 
he painted the picture of ' Hagar and Ishmael in 
the Desert ' for the church of St. James, and opened 
a school of design ; and he is remembered more 
for his zeal in furthering the knowledge of paint- 
ing among the youth uf Bruges than for any 
superior talent shown by him in the practice of it. 
He painted the portrait of Maria Theresa for the 
city of Bruges, and several for other communities 
of Flanders. He collected materials for a history 
of painting in Belgium, which he gave to 
Descamps, who made use of them for his ' Lives 
of the Flemish Painters.' De Visch died in 1765, 
it is said from over-exertion in endeavouring to 
make the students of his own Academy rival those 
of that of Antwerp, upon the restoration of the 
former after its destruction by fire in 1755. 

DE VLAMYNCK, Pierre Jean, a Belgian en- 
graver, was born at Bruges in 1795. He received 
his first instruction in drawing in the studio of 
Odevaere, after whose 'Narcisse' he executed in 
1820 his first plate. Having obtained from the 
King of the Netherlands a pension for four years, 
he went to Paris, and there, under the supervision 
of Dien, he engraved the 'Battle of Nieuport.' 
His chief work was the ' Ascension,' after Rubens, 
upon which he was engaged for many years. He 
also engraved portraits of Raphael, Rembrandt, 
Odevaere (after Diez), and Count Frederic de 
Merode. There are likewise many drawings in 
black chalk and several lithographic portraits by 
him. Besides these he executed in lithography 
some of the masterpieces of Flemish art which 
adorn his native city — Memlinc's ' Shrine of St. 
Ursula,' the triptych of the ' Mystic Marriage of 
St. Catharine,' the ' Adoration of the Magi,' and the 
' Vierge a la porame.' He died at Bruges in 1850. 

DE VLIEGER, Simon, was born at Rotterdam 
about 1600, and acquired a considerable reputation 
as a painter of sea-pieces and landscapes, although 
it is not known by whom he was instructed. He 
had the credit of being the master of Willem van 
de Velde, the younger, and, though his merit was 
eclipsed by the brilliant talents of his disciple, his 
pictures are deservedly placed in the choicest col- 
lections. In 1634 he entered the Guild at Delft, 
and in 1643 became a citizen of Amsterdam. He 
was still living in 1656, but died probably at Am- 
sterdam shortly before 1660. This painter deserves 
more notice than has been bestowed on him. His 
selections are picturesque, his compositions are not 
crowded with unnecessary objects, his execution 
is remarkably free, and in the representation of the 
effects of a gale, or fresh breeze, he approaches the 
grandeur of Ruisdael. Unfortunately his colours, 
in many instances, have faded, or vanished alto- 
gether, particularly in the sky, so that his pictures 
appear cold or murky ; still a master mind and hand 
may be discerned. He etched about twenty plates. 
The following are some of his principal works : 
Amsterdam. Museum. The Regatta. 1655. 
Antwerp. Ilustum. A Calm Sea. 
Berlin. Gallery. A Sea-piece. 

Dresden. Gallery. Storm at Sea. 

Munich. Gallery. Storm at Sea, 

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Arrival of the Prince of 

Orange at Flushing. 
Vienna. Gallery. Calm Sea, with many Ships (o 

masterpiece). 

65 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



DE VLIEGHER, Sebafyn, a Belgian painter, was 
born at Eecloo in 1806. He was at first a pupil of 
Antoon De Poorter, afterwards of Geimaert, and 
finally a student of the Academy at Ghent. He 
painted genre subjects and portraits, and became 
director of the Academy at Alost, where he died 
in 1848. 

DE VOIS, Adriaan, or Aet, was born at Leyden 
in 1641. His father was a celebrated organist, and 
was desirous of bringing his son up to the same 
profession ; but the latter had so little taste for 
music, and so decided a disposition for painting, 
that he was induced to place him under the tuition 
of Nicolaes Knupfer, a painter of some repute at 
Utrecht, with whom he continued two years, when 
he returned to Leyden, and there became a disciple 
of Abraham van den Tempel. De Vois, however, 
did not adopt the manner of either of his instruct- 
ors ; he formed an intimacy with Pieter van 
Slingeland, who had been a disciple of Gerard 
Dou, whose highly-finished style he followed with 
the greatest success. Although he occasionally 
attempted history on a small scale, his best pro- 
ductions are portraits, conversations, and domestic 
subjects, which are little inferior to the works 
of Metsu or of Mieris. His drawing is very cor- 
rect, and his colouring clear and transparent, with 
a perfect intelligence of the chiaroscuro. The 
pictures of this artist are extremely scarce, as they 
were very carefully finished, and therefore few ; 
and he is said to have passed several years of his 
life in idleness and dissipation, in consequence of 
his having married a lady of considerable fortune. 
He died at Leyden ; Balkema says in 1698. The 
following are some of his principal works : 



Antwerp. Museum. 



Amsterdam. 


Museum. 


The Fish Merchant. 


») 


?) 


The Violin Player. 




»» 


A Lady. 


Antwerp. 


Museum, 


An Old "Woman. 


Berlin. 


Gallery. 


Venus and Adonis. 1678. 


Oassel. 


Gallery. 


A Man smoking and drinking. 


Dresden. 


Gallery. 


Landscape with Women bathing. 
1666. 


„ 


» 


A Man iu a grey hat. 


» 


« 


A Shepherdess. 


Frankfort. 


Stddel. 


Head of an old Man. 


Hague. 


Gallery. 


Portrait of a Huntsman. 


Munich. 


Gallery. 


A Drinker. 


, 




A Smoker. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


Portrait of a Man seated at his 
bureau. 



DE VOLLER, Aertgen. See Claessoon. 

DE VOS. There were several painters of this 
name, nearly contemporaries, but of different fami- 
lies. As most of them painted landscapes, por- 
traits, and animals, their names and works have 
been confounded. Among them, in addition to 
those in the following articles, are, a second Pieter, 
a second Willem, a Hendrik, and other baptismal 
names, but there is very little information to enable 
the inquirer to distinguish their works. A race 
of painters of the name continues in Holland to 
this day. 

DE VOS, CORNELIS, was born at Hulst about 
1585, and became master in the Guild of St. Luke 
at Antwerp in 1608, having been mentioned in 
1599 in the ' Liggeren ' as a pupil of Remeeus ; he 
was dean of the Guild in 1619-20. He pamted 
historical pictures and portraits, the latter some- 
what in the style of Rubens. He died in 1651. 
He was a friend of Van Dyck, who painted his 
portrait. The following are some of his principal 
works : 
66 



Berlin. 

J) 
Brussels. 

Cassel. 

Madrid. 



Munich. 
Petersburg. 
Eotterdam. 
Vienna. 



Portrait of Abraham Grapheus, 
Messenger of the Corporation 
of St. Luke. 1620. 
Triptych — Adoration of the Magi. 

{From the Cathedral, Antwerp.) 
Portrait of a Geutleman and his 

Wife. 1629. 
Portrait of his Daughter. 
Portrait of the Artist and his 

Family. 
Portrait of a Man. 
Portrait of Salomon Cock. 
Venus rising from the Sea, 
Triumph of Bacchus. 
„ Apollo and the Python. 

Gallery. Family Picture. 
Hermitaye. Family Picture. 
Museum. An Allegory. 
Gallery. Baptism of Cloris. 



Gallery. 

Museum. 
Gallery. 
Gallery. 



DE VOS, CoENELis, a painter of accessories in 
other artists' productions, was, in 1633-34, received 
into the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, as a master's 
son. He is no relation to the celebrated Cornells 
De Vos. 

DE VOS, Jan, lived at Antwerp in the middle of 
the 17th century. A portrait of a Man by him is in 
the Rotterdam Museum. 

DE VOS, Lambertus, a native of Mechlin, who 
entered the Guild of St. Luke in that city in 1563, 
went to Constantinople, and there executed in 1574 
a volume of drawings of ' Oriental Costumes,' which 
is preserved in the Library at Bremen. 

DE VOS, Marten, an eminent Flemish painter, 
was born at Antwerp in 1531. He was the son of 
Pieter De Vos, an artist of sufficient ability to be 
received into the Academy at Antwerp in 1519, 
and from whom he received bis first instruction in 
painting. He had afterwards the advantage of 
frequenting the school of Frans Floris, under 
whom he studied until he was twenty-three years 
of age, when he determined to visit Italy, and 
passed some years at Rome, where he improved 
his style of design by studying with attention 
the works of the great painters of the Roman 
school. The charm of Venetian colouring led 
him to visit Venice, where he had the good 
fortune to win the esteem and friendship of Tin- 
toretto, who not only instructed him in the best 
principles of colouring, but employed him as a 
coadjutor to paint the landscapes in his pictures. 
With the aid of such advice and assistance, De 
Vos became an admirable colourist, and gained 
such reputation, that he was employed in painting 
the portraits of several of the illustrious family of 
the Medici, as well as some historical subjects 
which added to his fame. 

After an absence of eight years, De Vos returned 
to Flanders, where the celebrity he had acquired 
in Italy excited public curiosity, and he was com- 
missioned to paint several altar-pieces for the 
churches at Antwerp and other cities of the Nether- 
lands. He was also much employed as a portrait 
painter, and there is an appearance of nature in 
his heads which was unequalled at the period at 
which he lived. He was received into the Guild 
of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1559, and died in his 
native city in 1603. The following are some of his 
principal works : 

Antwerp. Mus. Christ on the Cross. 

„ „ A Triptych :— The Triumph of "| 

Christ. 1590. Formerly 
„ „ A Triptych : — lacredulity of i- in the 

St. Thomas. Cathedral. 
1574. J 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Antwerp. Afus. Birth of Christ. (From the church of the 
Capuchins at Mechlin.) 
„ „ A Triptych :— The Tribute Money, &c. 

1601. (From the church of St. Andrew at 
Antwerp.) 
„ „ A Triptych : — St. Luke painting the por- 

trait of the Virgin, &c. 1602. (Parts 
of the wings are bi/ Otho van Veen and 
Marten Fepyn. From the altar of the 
Guild of St. Luke in the cathedral.) 
„ „ Polyptych: — St. Francis of Assisi receiv- 

ing the Stigmata, &c. (From the church 
of the Recollets, Antwerp.) 
„ „ Temptation of St. Anthony. 1591. (Form- 

erly the centre-piece of a triptych over the 
altar of St. A nthony in the cathedral.) 
Bru.ssels. Mus. The Wings of a Triptych. (Portraits of 

the Donor and his Wife.) 
Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait. 

„ „ Crucifixion. 

Madrid. Gall. Raising of Lazarus. 
„ „ Samson and Delilah. 

Seville. Mus. The Last Judgment. 

The works of Marten De Vos had considerable 
influence on art in his time ; but many of them 
were destroyed by the Iconoclasts. 

His son, Marten De Vos, who was also a painter, 
was born at Antwerp in 1576. He was admitted 
into the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1607, and 
died in 1613. 

DE VOS, Paulds, the brother of Cornells De 
Vos, was born at Hulst, about the year 1600, and 
studied under Remeeus. From the subjects and 
style of his pictures, it is probable that he was a 
disciple of Frans Snyders. He painted animals and 
hunting scenes with great ability, and his works 
are little, if at all, inferior to those of that dis- 
tinguished artist. His animals, particularly his 
dogs, are drawn with correctness and spirit, and 
his colouring is clear and harmonious. He died 
in 1654. There are in the Madrid Gallery no leas 
than fifteen of his works, and in the Hermitage 
at St. Petersburg there are five. 

De vos, Pieter, the elder, a Flemish painter, 
went to Antwerp from Holland, but whether from 
Gouda or Leyden is uncertain. His name occurs 
in the archives of the Guild of St. Luke in 1519, 
and he was dean of the Guild in 1536. He is 
believed to have died in 1566. He was the father 
of Marten De Vos. 

DE VOS, PiETEB, the younger, the brother of 
Marten De Vos, was a native of Antwerp. He 
entered the Guild of St. Luke in 1554, and is 
said to have been still living in 1590. He 
painted historical subjects, but his works are little 
known. 

DE VOS, Simon, was born at Antwerp in 1603, 
and entered the Guild of St. Luke in 1620. He 
had the advantage of studying in the school of 
Rubens, under whom he became a very eminent 
painter of history and portraits. There are some 
altar-pieces by him in the churches at Antwerp, 
which have been sometimes mistaken for the works 
of his illustrious instructor. Such are his picture 
of the ' Resurrection,' in the cathedral ; the ' De- 
scent from the Cross,' in the church of St. Andrew ; 
and ' St. Norbert receiving the Sacrament,' in the 
abbey of St. Michael. Sir Joshua Reynolds com- 
mends this picture, and speaks of him as a portrait 
painter in the following terms: ''De Vos was 
particularly excellent in portraits. There is at 
Antwerp his own portrait, painted by himself, in 
black, leaning on the back of a chair, with a scroll 
of blue paper in his hand, so highly finished, in the 
broad style of Correggio, that nothing can exceed 
F 2 



it." He died in 1676. Besides the above works 
the following may be noticed : 

Berlin. Gallery. The Chastisement of Love. 

Rotterdam. Museum. Portrait of a Man. 1640. 
„ „ Portrait of a Man. 1645. 

DE VOS, WiLi.EM, the son of Pieter De Vos, the 
younger, and nephew and scholar of Marten De 
Vos, painted historical subjects in the style of his 
instructor, acquiring therein considerable reputa- 
tion. He was born probably at Antwerp, and in 
1593 entered the Guild of St. Luke, of which he 
became dean in 1600. His portrait was painted 
and etched by Van Dyck among those of the dis- 
tinguished artists of his time. 

DEVOSGE, Anatole, the son of Fran9ois De- 
vosge, was born at Dijon in 1770, and painted, after 
the manner of his master, David, several pictures, 
the subjects of which were taken from the Old 
Testament, and from mythology and Greek and 
Roman history. He succeeded hia father as director 
of the School of Art at Dijon, where he died in 1850. 

DEVOSGE, FRANgois, was a French historical 
painter, founder of the School of Design, Painting, 
and Sculpture at Dijon. He was born at Gray in 
1732, and taught by hia father, Coustou, and Des- 
hays, the painter ; his principal works are, ' The 
Nativity,' ' St. Angela,' 'St. Peter, kneeling,' 'The 
Assumption of the Virgin,' ' The Martyrdom of 
St. Marcel,' &c. He died at Dijon in 1811. 

DE VOUW, Johannes, was a Dutch landscape 
painter, of whom nothing more is known than that 
he lived in Rotterdam, and died not later than 
1691. He painted landscapes with trees and build- 
ings, and also drew maps and plans. 

DE VREE, Nicolaas, a flower painter, born at 
Utrecht about the year 1650, was celebrated in 
his day for the lightness of his pencil, and the fresh 
and natural brilliancy of his colours ; his works, 
however, are but little known out of Holland. He 
died at Alkmaar in 1702. In the Hermitage at 
St. Petersburg is a ' Park,' by him, dated 1677. 

DE VRIENT, Frans, commonly known as Frans 
Floris (the name of Floris having been borne by 
his great-grandfather, re-assumed by his father, 
and used by himself in signing his paintings), was 
born at Antwerp about 1517, and, until he was 
twenty years of age, studied sculpture under his 
uncle Claudius De Vrient. His love of painting 
induced him to change the chisel for the palette, and 
he became a scholar of Lambert Lombard, from 
whose instruction he derived great advantage. He 
afterwards visited Italy, where he studied atten- 
tively the works of Michelangelo and the antique. 
After passing some years at Rome, he returned to 
Flanders, with an ample collection of drawings he 
had made from the objects most worthy of admira- 
tion. His first productions exhibited a grander 
and more correct design, and a superior style of 
composition to what had before been witnessed by 
his countrymen, and he acquired the appellation 
of the 'Flemish Raphael.' He was patronized 
by the Counts of Hoom and Egmont, and was 
received as a master into the Guild of St. Luke 
at Antwerp in 1540. When the Emperor Charles 
V. made his entry into Antwerp, in 1549, Floris 
was engaged to paint the triumphal arches ; and 
he is said to have finished seven figures as large 
as life, with different attributes, in one day. On 
a similar occasion, when Phihp II. visited the 
Low Countries, he painted in a few hours a large 
picture representing ' Victory,' with several figures 
of slaves, and the attributes of War and Peace. 

67 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Of this subject he etched a plate, dated 1552. HiB 
death occurred at Antwerp in 1570. 

Frans Floris was the founder of a large school. 
He usually signed his paintings in full, or with a 
monogram composed of three Fs (Frans Floris 
Fecit). Among his extant works are the following : 

Amsterdam. 3Iuseum. The Nine Muses. 

„ „ Christ and the Little Children. 

„ „ A "Water Wedding at Middelburg. 

Antwerp. Museum. The Fall ot Lucifer (painted in 
1554 /(?r the altar of the Fejwers 
in the cathedral of Antwerp ; his 
best work). 
„ „ The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

^, „ Ityckaert Aertsz, the painter, as 

St. Luke. 
Berlin. Gallery. Vulcan ensnaring Mars and 

Venus. 1547. 
J, „ Venus and Cupid. 

„ „ Lot and his Daughters. 

Brussels. Museum. The Last Judgment (painted for 
JVotre-J>ame des Victoires au 
Sablon at Brussels'). 1566. 
„ „ The Adoration of the Magi. (A 

triptych, which was probably his 
last work, and was finished In/ 
Hieronymus Francken in 1571.) 
Copenhagen. Gallery. Cain and Abel. 
Dresden. Gallery. Adoration of the Shepherds. 
„ „ The Emperor Vitellius. 

„ „ The Laughing Maiden. 

„ ,, Lot and his Daugihters. 

„ „ Christ carrying his Cross. 

Florence. lffi:i. Adam and Eve. 1560. 

Hague. Gallery. Venus and Adonis. 

Madrid. Gallery. The Deluge. 

„ „ Two Portraits. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Three Ages of Man. 
Vienna. Gallery. Adam and Eve under the Tree of 

Knowledge. 
„ „ Adam and Eve driven out of 

Paradise. 
„ „ The Holy Family. 

As an etcher Frans Floris executed, among other 
plates, 'Victory,' and 'Christ washing the Dis- 
ciples' Feet ' : both from his own designs. His 
two sons, Jan Baptista and Frans De Vkient, 
were both painters. The first was assassinated at 
Brussels by the Spaniards ; the second, who was 
born at Antwerp about 1545, settled at Rome, and 
became noted for his easel pictures. They were 
both living in 1579. 

DE VRIES, Adbiaan, a Flemish portrait painter, 
was admitted as a master into the Guild of St. 
Luke at Antwerp in 1634-35. His works possess 
considerable merit, and have been attributed to 
Ferdinand Bol, to Van Dyck, and to Rembrandt. 
He died subsequently to 1650. In the Dresden 
Gallery is a male portrait by him, dated 1639. 
In the Rotterdam Museum is his portrait of 
Adriaen Adriaensz Vroesen of Rotterdam, dated 
1639, and in the Berlin Gallery is a Man's por- 
trait ascribed to him. 

Some confusion appears to exist between the 
works of this artist and those of Abraham De 
Vries, who was admitted into the Guild of St. 
Luke at the Hague in 1644, and died before 1662. 

DE VRIES, Jan (or Hans) Vredeman, was 
born at Leeuwarden, in East Friesland, in 1527. 
He was sent, when young, to Amsterdam, where 
he became a scholar of Reyer Gerritsz, under whom 
he continued five years, and applied himself with 
great assiduity to the study of perspective. In 
1549 he went to Antwerp, where he was employed, 
with others, in painting the triumphal arches which 
were erected on the public entry of the Emperor 
Charles V. and his son Philip into that city ; on 

G8 



which occasion he proved himself an artist of 
considerable ability. He was much employed in 
decorating the saloons of the principal mansions 
with perspective views, which he designed with 
such truth and effect that the illusion was com- 
plete. He travelled through Germany and Italy, 
and he everywhere met with encouragement and 
employment. After his return to Antwerp, the 
latter part of his life was principally occupied in 
making designs of architectural and other subjects 
for the print-sellers, particularly Hieronimus Cock, 
who published a great variety of prints from his 
designs. We have a book of monuments by him, 
entitled ' Cajnotaphiorum, tumulorum et mortuorum 
monumentorum vari* formse," published at Ant- 
werp in 1563. The plates are etched and finished 
with the graver, with considerable intelligence. In 
the Vienna Gallery is the ' Interior of a Church' by 
him ; and the Bordeaux Museum has a Landscape. 

DE VRIES, PAnLDS, the eldest son of Jan 
Vredeman De Vries, was born at Antwerp in 1554, 
and died in 1598. He was specially employed 
at Prague in the service of the Emperor. 

DE VRIES, RoELOF, was a Dutch landscape 
painter, who flourished at Haarlem from about 
1643 to about 1669. Buildings are often seen in 
his works. There are by him : 



Berlin. Gallery. 

Frankfort. Stadel Inst. 
Vienna, Liechtenstein Gall. 
,. Czernin Gall. 



Three Landscapes. 
Four Landscapes. 
Landscape. 
Landscape. 



DE VRIES, Salomon, born at Antwerp in 1556, 
was the second son of Jan Vredeman De Vries, by 
whom he was instructed. He painted landscapes 
ornamented with ruins, which are not badly com- 
posed, but their colouring has become dark, pro- 
ducing an unpleasant effect, and diminishing their 
value. He died at the Hague in 1604. His son, 
PiETER De Vries, who was born in 1587, was also 
a landscape painter. 

DE VRIES, Simon, (or Simon Frisius,) a Dutch 
engraver, was apparently of the same family as 
Jan Vredeman De Vries. He was born at Leeu- 
warden, in 1580, and is regarded as one of the 
first who brought etching to perfection. Abraham 
Bosse, in his treatise on the art of engraving, 
observes, that the first artist to whom he was 
indebted for intelligence vvas Simon Frisius, whom 
he thinks entitled to great credit, as being one of 
the first that handled the point with freedom and 
facility. His etchings are bold and masterly ; and 
in his hatchings he approaches the neatness and 
strength of the graver. The prints of De Vries 
are scarce, and are much esteemed. The small 
figures which he occasionally introduces into his 
landscapes are correctly drawn. lie frequently 
marked his plates S. F. fecit, but sometimes with 
the woxA fecit only. The following are his prin- 
cipal works : 

A set of twelve small heads of female Saints and Sibyls ; 

after his own designs. 
A set of Portraits ; after Hendrik Hondius. 
A set of twelve plaiies of Birds and Butterflies ; after 

Marcus Geerarts. 
Twenty-five Views and Landscapes ; entitled, Typo- 

graphia variarum Regionum ; after Matthys Bril. 1611. 
A mountainous Landscape on the Sea-coast, with 

figures ; after HendHk Goltzius. 
A Landscape, with a Tower ; after the same. 1608. 
A Landscape, with the story of Tobit and the Angel ; 

after P. Lastntan. 
A Landscape, with the Flight into Egjrpt ; after H 

Hondius. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



A Landscape, with two pastoral figures ; highly finished, 
and very scarce. 

DE WAAL. See De Wael. 
DE WAARD, Antonie, born at the Hague in 
1689, was a scholar of Simon van der Does; he 
afterwards studied in Paris. He is mentioned as 
a painter of historical subjects, portraits, land- 
scapes, and animals, and also as a decorator of 
the interiors of apartments. Of his life nothing 
further is recorded, and his works are scarcely 
known out of Holland, but it is said that they are 
esteemed there, and obtain high prices. He died 
at the Hague in 1751. 

DE WAEL, CoRNELis, (or De Waal,) a younger 
son of the elder Jan Baptist De Wael, was bom at 
Antwerp in 1594. He received his first instruc- 
tion in the art from big father ; but he afterwards 
accompanied his brother, Lucas De Wael, to Italy, 
and resided some time at Genoa, where he painted 
some pictures for the churches, but he chiefly 
excelled in painting battles, marches, skirmishes 
of cavalry, and processions, in which he gained a 
distinguished reputation. He was much employed 
by the Duke of Arschot, and painted several of 
his best pictures for Philip III., King of Spain, by 
whom they were held in the highest estimation. 
He died at Genoa in 1 662. In the Vienna Gallery is 
a ' Passage of the Red Sea ' by him, and in the Cassel 
Gallery is a ' Venetian Market Crier. ' We have by 
this artist several very spirited etchings from his 
own compositions, among which are the following : 

The Blind; \2 plates. 

The Market Sellers ; IQ plates. 

Domestic Interiors ; 20 plates. 

The Four Seasons. 

The Five Senses ; 5 plates. 

The Slaves ; 12 plates. 

DE WAEL, Jan Baptist, (or De Waal,) was 
born at Antwerp in 1557, and was a disciple of 
Frans Francken the elder. He painted historical 
subjects in the style of his master, and acquired 
sufficient celebrity to be received a member of the 
Academy in his native city, where he died in 1633. 
Van Dyok painted his portrait. His pictures are 
very rare. 

DE WAEL, Jan Baptist, (or De Waal,) a 
younger artist of the name, is stated to have been 
either the son or nephew of Cornells De Wael. We 
have by him some slight etchings, among which is 
a set of eight prints, representing the ' History of 
the Prodigal Son,' from the designs of Cornells 
De Wael, executed in 1658. 

DE WAEL, Ldcas Ja.\szen, (or De Waal,) 
the son of the elder Jan Baptist De Wael, was 
bom at Antwerp in 1591, and first instructed in 
art by his father ; but, as his genius led him to 
landscape, he was afterwards placed under the 
tuition of Jan Brueghel. He followed the style 
of his preceptor with great success, and, on leaving 
that master, he travelled to Italy, and passed some 
time at Genoa, where his works were highly 
esteemed, and he met with very flattering en- 
couragement. Although his pictures occasionally 
represent battles and attacks of cavalry, which are 
well composed, and touched with great spirit and 
animation, his most esteemed works are his moun- 
tainous landscapes and waterfalls, in which the 
scenery is extremely picturesque. He died at 
Antwerp in 1676. 

DE WEDIG, GoTTHARDT, a painter of still-life 
subjects, flourished at Cologne about 1630. An 
example of his art is in the Darmstadt Gallery. 



DE WEERT, Adeiaen, was born, according to 
Descamps, at Brussels about 1536, and studied at 
Antwerp under Christiaen van de Queborn, a land- 
scape painter little known. He aftenvards visited 
Italy, where he passed some years, and applied 
himself especially to the study of the works of 
Parmigiano. On his return to Flanders, he exe- 
cuted several pictures in the graceful style of that 
master, particulariy a series of the 'Life of the 
Virgin,' and had acquired great reputation, when the 
troubles in the Low Countries obliged him, in 1566, 
to quit Brussels and take refuge at Cologne, where 
he died soon afterwards. All the notices of this 
artist are however unsatisfactory. 

DE WEERT, Jacob, who flourished about the year 
1605, was probably a native of the Low Countries, 
though he chiefly resided in Paris. He was prin- 
cipally employed by the booksellers, and engraved 
several frontispieces and other book omamentg in 
a neat, though tasteless style. We have also by 
him a set of prints from his own designs, repre- 
senting the ' Life and Passion of Christ,' published 
by Jean Le Clerc, with French verses to each print. 
DE WETT. See also Duwett. 
DE WETT, Jacob, was a Dutch painter, who 
worked at Holyrood Palace between 1674 and 1686, 
and there painted the series of apocryphal portraits 
of the Scottish kings. 

DE WETTE, Frans, to whom are assigned, in 
Dr. Waagen's edition of Kugler, two pictures in 
the Schleissheim Gallery, — ' The Three Young Men 
in the Fiery Furnace ' and ' The Raising of Lazarus,' 
— may perhaps be identical with Jacob Willemsx 
De Wet, who was established at Haarlem in 1636, 
was master in the Guild at Alkmaar in 1637, and 
was living in that town as late as 1671. He 
executed Biblical and mythological scenes in the 
manner of Rembrandt, among which are : 

The Adulteress before Christ {Augsburg Galleiy). 
Christ in the Temple. 1635. {Brunswick Jfuseum). 
The Burning of Troy. 

DE WILDE, Frans, was a Dutch engraver, who 
was born about the year 1680. He resided at 
Amsterdam, where he etched a few very small 
plates, which are executed with great neatness and 
spirit, apparently from his own designs. Among 
others are the following: 

The Angel appearing to Abraham. 1705. 

Venus rising from the Sea. 

The Fable of the "Wolf and the Dog ; circular. 1704. 

A View of the City of Chalons. 

A View of a Sea-port. 

A Landscape, with figures. 

DE WILDE, Maria, was probably a relation of 
Frans De Wilde. She engraved a set of fifty 
plates from antique gems, which were published 
at Amsterdam in 1703. 

DE WILDE, Samdel, an English portrait painter, 
was born in 1747. He painted both in oil and 
water-colour, and exhibited dramatic portraits at 
the Royal Academy between 1788 and 1821. He 
died in 1832. Several of his portraits are at the 
Garrick Club, and amongst his other works are : 

William Farren. 
John Emery. 

Harley as Kent iu ' Kiag Lear.' 1794. {South Kensing- 
ton Museum.) 

DE WINT, Peter, a water-colour painter, was 
born at Stone, in Stafl:ordshire, in 1784. He wa.s 
descended from a Dutch family which had settled 
in America. Although intended for his father's 
profession — that of a physician — he preferred 

69 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



to follow art, and studied under John Eaplmel 
Smith, the engraver, in whose studio he became 
friendly with Hilton, the historical painter, and 
brother of his future wife. In 1807 he entered 
the schools of the Royal Academy, where he occa- 
sionally exhibited up to 1828. He joined the 
Water-Colour Society as an Associate in 1810, 
becoming a full member in 1812, and it was here 
thatmost of his works appeared. He rarely quitted 
his native country, which furnished the subjects of 
thegreaterportion of his works, and the level country 
of Lincolnshire had a great charm for him. He 
occasionally painted in oils, and four specimens 
of his work in this medium, besides a large col- 
lection of his water-colour drawings, are in the 
South Kensington Museum. He died in London 
in 1849, and was buried at the Savoy Chapel. 

Twenty-three drawings by De Wint were be- 
queathed to the National Gallery by Mr. Henderson 
in 1880, and among them are : 

Lincola Catliedral. 
Bray on the Thames. 
KuiDS of Lincoln Castle. 
Harvest Time, Lancashire. 

The water-colour drawings in the South Ken- 
sington Museum include : 

Thorubury Castle. 

Gateway at Lincoln. 

The Cricketers. 

Nottingham. 

Waltou-on-Thames. 

Hay Harvest. 

Mountain Tarn. 

Ferry on the Severn. 1840. 

Haddon Hall. 1839. 

Shap Fells, Westmoreland. 

"Wilsford, Lincolnshire. 

Rick Making, near Lincoln, 

Tutbury Castle. 

View near Salt Hill, Bucks. 

Lincoln Cathedral. 

Torksey Castle. 

Cowes Castle. 

DE WINTER, JiLLls, was born at Leeuwarden 
in 1650, and was a scholar of Richard Brakenburg, 
whose style he imitated with considerable success. 
He painted subjects similar to those of his master, 
representing Dutch boors regaling, and the recrea- 
tions of the cabaret. His pictures are little known, 
except in Holland, and even there are not held in 
much estimation. He died at Amsterdam in 1720. 

DE WIT, Jakob, was born at Amsterdam in 
1695, and when fourteen years of age was placed 
under the tuition of Albert van Spiers, an historical 
painter of some eminence, under whom he studied 
three years. The desire of contemplating the pro- 
ductions of Rubens and Van Dyck, and the other 
distinguished masters of the Flemish school, which 
embellished the public edifices at Antwerp, in- 
duced him to visit that city, where he became a 
scholar of Jacob van Hal, a painter of little 
celebrity, under whom he did not continue longer 
than two years, when he devoted himself entirely 
to the study of the works of Rubens and Van 
Dyck. In 1712 and 1713 he made drawings from 
the paintings by Rubens in the four ceiUngs of the 
Jesuits' church, in thirty-six compartments, which 
were destroyed by lightning in 1718, and we are 
indebted to De Wit for the preservation of these 
admirable compositions, which were afterwards 
engraved from his copies by Jan Punt. He was 
principally employed in painting ceilings, and the 
decorations of splendid apartments, consisting of 

70 



emblematical and allegorical subjects, which he 
composed with great ingenuity. He was particu- 
larly successful in the representation of children, 
whom he was fond of introducing into his pic- 
tures, generally at their play, and painted in 
chiaroscuro. 

In 1736 he was employed by the magistrates of 
Amsterdam in the embellishment of their great 
Council -chamber with subjects from the Old Testa- 
ment. He likewise painted several altar-pieces 
for the catholic churches in Holland, which are 
very creditable performances, and are held in con- 
siderable estimation. He died at Amsterdam in 
1764. In the Cassel Gallery are four pictures 
of the ' Four Seasons ' (represented by Children) 
signed and dated 1751 and 1752, and also two 
decorative subjects of children. In the Dresden 
Gallery is a painting (in imitation of bas-relief) of 
' Children with the attributes of the chase,' dated 
1753. The Rotterdam Museum possesses two pic- 
tures by him, ' Minerva and four Children ' and 
' Faith, Hope, and Charity,' in grisaille, dated 
1743. 

DE WITTE. There are several other artists 
of this name, in addition to those cited below, such 
as Frans, and Anthonie, who were painters ; and 
others who were engravers : but the accounts are 
much confused. 

DE WITTE, CoRNELis, (or De Wit,) a landscape 
painter of the 16th century, was a brother of Pieter 
De Witte, called Pietro Candido. 

DE WITTE, Emandel, was born at Alkmaar in 
1607, and was a scholar of Evert van Aelst, a 
painter of still-life. He did not, however, adopt 
the style of his instructor, but for some time 
applied himself to portrait painting. Not meeting 
with the encouragement he expected, he studied 
perspective and architecture, and became one of 
the most eminent artists of his country in painting- 
interior views of churches and temples, which he 
embellished with figures correctly drawn, and 
touched with great spirit. His best pictures 
represent the interiors of churches at Amsterdam, 
with groups of figures, habited in the dresses of 
the time. He died at Amsterdam in 1692. The 
following works are by him : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Interior of a Church. 
Berlin. Museum. Interior of a Church. 1667. 

„ „ Interior of the Nieuwekerk, Am- 

sterdam. 
„ „ Interior of the Synagogue, Am- 

sterdam. 1680. 
Brussels. Museum. Interior of the Church at Delft. 

„ „ Interior of a Church. 1685. 

Rotterdam. Jfuscum. The Fish Merchant. 1672. 

DE WITTE, Gaspab, was bom at Antwerp in 
1618. He visited Italy, where he remained several 
years, and on his return acquired considerable re- 
putation in painting small landscapes very highly 
finished, in which he generally introduced archi- 
tectural ruins, of which he had made sketches 
during his residence in Italy. He died at Ant- 
werp in 1680 or 1681. In the Antwerp Museum 
are two Landscapes by him — one with a ' Fortune- 
felling' for subject, dated 1667, and another with 
' Christ healing the Blind Man,' dated 1671. In 
the Vienna Gallery is a ' Landscape with Ruins of 
an Aqueduct.' 

DE WITTE, LiEVEN, known also as LiviENO 
DA Anveesa, was a painter and architect, who 
practised at Ghent in the 15th century. He de- 
voted himself to buildings and other perspective 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



subjects, but also produced historical pictures. The 
windows of the cathedral of St. Bavon in Ghent 
were painted from his designs, and he is said to 
have worked at the miniatures in the Grimani 
Breviary now in the library of St. Mark at Venice. 

DE WITTE, PiETER, called Pieter Candid, or 
PlETRO Candido, was born at Bruges in 1648. It 
is not known under whom he studied, but he 
travelled to Italy when he was young, and there 
formed an intimacy with Giorgio Vasari, whom 
he assisted in the works upon which he was 
employed in the Vatican. He painted with equal 
success in oil and in fresco, and was employed 
by the Grand-Duke of Tuscany in several con- 
siderable works in the palace at Florence, and 
designed some cartoons for tapestry. Maximilian, 
Elector of Bavaria, invited him to Munich, where 
he passed the remainder of his life. Jan Sadeler 
has engraved several prints from the works of 
this master, among which are the ' Annunciation,' 
' Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus,' the ' Holy 
Women at the Tomb of the Saviour,' and the 
'Last Supper.' He died at Munich in 1628. In 
the Vienna Gallery are the ' Death of St. Ursula,' 
and a ' Holy Family and St. Stephen,' by him. 

DE WITTE, PiETER, who was well known in 
Rome as Petrus Albus, was born at Antwerp in 
1620, and died at Rome in 1669. He painted 
landscapes in the style of Claude Lorrain. 

DEYNUM, J. B. VAN, ft Flemish painter, was 
born at Antwerp in 1620, and died in 1669. He 
excelled in painting historical subjects and land- 
scapes in distemper, and was an eminent miniature 
portrait painter. 

DEYSTER, LoDEWTK de. See De Detster. 

DE' ZAGANELLI, Francesco. See Dei Zaga- 
nelli. 

DEZALLIER D'ARGENVILLE, Antoine Jo- 
seph. See Desallier d'Argenville. 

DE ZE, — , is the name affixed to a small print 
representing ' Christ dead in the Tomb, attended 
by an Angel.' It is executed entirely with the 
graver, in a style resembling that of Jan Sadeler, 
and is apparently from the artist's own design. 

DE ZEEUW, Marinus. See Roymerswalen. 

DE ZETTER, Paul, was a native of Hanover, 
who flourished about the year 1630. He was 
chiefly employed in engraving portraits, from his 
own designs, which are executed with sufiSoient 
neatness, but in a stiff, tasteless style. He en- 
graved several plates for Boissard's collection of 
portraits. His prints are sometimes marked P. 
D. Z. fee, and sometimes with the accom- T)_ 
panying monogram : *^ 

D' HANGEST, Egbert Marinus Frederik. See 
De Hangest. 

D' HEUR, CoRNELis Joseph. See De Heus. 

D' HONDECOETER, Melchior. See De Hon- 
decoeter. 

DIAMAER, Hendrik Fraks, was a Flemish 
engraver, who flourished in the early part of the 
18t!i century. There are by him a set of Biblical 
subjects etched in the manner of Sebastian Le 
Clerc, and also a few portraits, among which is 
that of Aubert Lemire, after Van Dyck. 

DIAMANTE, Fra, was the pupil and assistant 
of Fra Filippo Lippi, and like him had been a 
novice in the Carmine of Florence. He survived 
his master, and became the guardian of Filippino 
Lippi. He seems to have been at Prato with Fra 
Filippo, and is said to have aided him in the decor- 
ations of the choir of its cathedral. In 1463 he 



was confined in his convent at Florence by order 
of his superior, and letters remain to prove that 
the ' comune ' of Prato demanded his liberty. He 
afterwards went to Spoleto, and assisted Fra Filippo 
in the frescoes of the Duomo, and received two 
hundred ducats for their completion in 1470 after 
liis master's death. From there he returned to 
Prato, where in 1470 he executed the portrait of 
the Podestd, Cesare Petrucci, in the portico of the 
palace. This work has now been destroyed, and 
it is very difiBcult to tell where Fra Diamante's 
work begins in any of the frescoes still remaining 
where the two friars worked together. The dates 
of his birth and death are unknown. 

DIAMANTINI, Giuseppe, a painter who was 
more eminent as an engraver, was born at Fossom- 
brone in 1660. He resided chiefly at Venice, 
where he distinguished himself both as a painter 
and as an engraver. In the church of San Moise 
is a picture by him of the ' Adoration of the Magi,' 
but he was more employed for private collections 
than for the churches, and must have devoted a 
great part of his time to engraving, as he has left 
a considerable number of plates, of which the 
greater part are etchings. They are executed in a 
free style, with considerable taste, and his design 
is graceful, and tolerably correct. He died at 
Venice in 1708. The following are his principal 
prints, which are frequently marked Eques Dia- 
mantinus, in. f. 

The Holy Family, with St. John holding a Cross. 

Hagar in the Desert ; oval. 

The Marriage at Cana ; after Paolo Veronese. 

The Dead Christ, supported by an Angel. 

The Death of Dido ; octagon. 

"Venus, Ceres, and Apollo. 

Mercury and Flora. 

The Fall of Phaeton. 

Mercury and Argus ; octagon. 

Venus and Adonis. 

DIANA. See Ghisi, Diana. 

DIANA, Benedetto, was a companion of Car- 
paccio and Mansueti, who lived in the latter part 
of the 15tli and early part of the 16th centuries. 
He was an inferior artist, and worked both in 
tempera and oils. He painted ' The Brethren 
distributing Alms,' in San Giovanni Evangelista, 
Venice ; and he assisted Lazzaro Bastiani in paint- 
ing the standards on the Piazza of San Marco. 
Many galleries in Venice possess paintings by 
him. In the Academy, besides other paintings, 
are the ' Virgin and Child,' formerly in Santa Lucia 
at Padua, and a 'Transtiguration.' The church of 
Santa Maria della Croce, Crema, has an altar-piece 
representing the 'Gift of the Miraculous Girdle 
to St. Thomas.' No dates can be given of his 
birth or death. 

DIAS, Gaspar, a Portuguese painter, studied 
at Rome under Raphael and Michelangelo, and on 
his return home devoted himself to the produc- 
tion of church pictures. He died at Lisbon in 1571. 

DIAS, Manoel, an historical painter, was born 
at San Sebastian in Brazil, and studied at Rome 
under Cavallucci towards the end of the 18th cen- 
tury. After his return to South America he became 
professor of drawing at Rio Janeiro. 

DIAZ, Diego Valentin, a Spanish historical 
painter, and a familiar of the Holy Office, was a 
native of Valladolid. He painted many important 
pictures for churches and monasteries, especially 
for the church of San Benito, now a barrack, and 
the convents of St. Jerome and of St. Francis, of 

71 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



which the 'Juhilee of the Porciimcula ' in the 
latter house was one of the most esteemed. His 
' Holy Family,' painted for San Benito, is now in 
the Museum at Valladolid ; but his best work was 
the altar-piece representing the ' Annunciation of 
the Virgin,' painted for the Hospital for Orphan 
Girls which he founded at Valladolid. The archi- 
tecture and perspective are in the finest style, and 
the statues introduced are admirably executed. 
Diaz died at Valladolid in 1660. He accumulated 
considerable wealth, the greater part of which he 
left for the support of this hospital, where he was 
buried, and where are preserved the portraits of 
the munificent artist and of his wife — " he a grey- 
haired sharp old man, she a dark-eyed dame." 

DIAZ, GoNZALO, a Spanish painter, was a scholar 
of Sanchez Castro. He executed in 1499 some 
small paintings for the altar of the Magdalen in 
the cathedral of Seville. 

DIAZ DE LA PENA, Naroisse Virgile, a French 
landscape painter, was born in 1809, at Bordeaux, 
where his parents, who were of Spanish extraction, 
had taken up their abode. Having been left an 
orphan at the age of ten, he was adopted by a 
Protestant clergyman at Bellevue, and from his 
earliest years he studied nature in the woods, the 
loss of his left leg being caused by sleeping on 
the grass. At the age of fifteen he was placed 
with a porcelain manufacturer, but left him in order 
to study under Sigalon. He then tried historical 
and genre subjects, but without success, and for 
several years endured great poverty. At length 
his landscapes won for him fame. He last exhibited 
at the Salon in 1859, and died at Mentone from the 
bite of a viper in 1876. Amongst his chief works 
are: 

The Nymphs in the Grotto of Calypso. 1840. 

The Dream. 1841. 

Gipsies going to a F&te. 1844. 

Interior of a Forest. 1846. 

Dogs in a Forest. 1847. 

The Promenade. 1848. 

Diana setting out for the Chase. 1848. 

A Bather tormented by Cupids. 1851. 

The Last Tears. 1855. 

The Close of a fine Day. 1855. 

La Eivale. 1855. 

Galatea. 1859. 

The following works by him are in public galleries ; 
Girl with Dogs {South Kensington). 
The Forest of Foutainebleau (Bordeaux Museum). 
Four Studies {Luxembourg Gallery). 

His eldest son, Emile Diaz, who was also a painter, 
died in 1860; at the early age of 25. 

DIBDIN, Charles, the well-known song-writer, 
who was born at Southampton in 1745, and died in 
London in 1814, occasionally practised art as an 
amateur. John Hill engraved in aquatint some 
views of Lake Scenery after him. Dibdin also, 
it is said, executed some scene-painting. 

DICEY, Frank, an English painter of portraits, 
and of genre subjects of a somewhat ambitious 
class, exhibited at the Academy and with the 
British Artists between 1865 and 1880. A portrait 
by him of the Prince of Wales was engraved by 
Scott. Dicey died in May 1888. 

DICHTL, Martin, (or DOchtl,) a German painter 
and engraver in mezzotint, practised at Nuremberg 
from 1623 to 1680. In the Gallery at Stockholm 
is a work by him called ' A Kitchen.' 

DICKINSON, William, an English engraver, 
was born in London in 1746. He obtained a pre- 
mium from the Society of Arts in 1767. His works 
72 



were published by a firm of which he was a mem- 
ber. In his later years he lived in France, still 
pursuing his profession, and he died in Paris in 
1823. Amongst his engravings are : 

Sir Joseph Banks ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 1774. 
Dr. Percy, Dean of Carlisle ; after the same. 1775. 
Viscountess Crosbie ; after the same. 1779. 
Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of Derby ; after the same. 

1780. 
Lady Taylor ; after the same. 1783. 
Miss Bamus, afterwards Lady Day ; after Romncy. 

1779. 
Admiral Lord Keppel ; after the same. 1779. 
Sir Charles Hardy ; after the same. 1781. 
Lord Grantham ; after the same. 1783. 
John, Duke of Argyll ; after Gainsborough. 
Lord Auckland ; after iSir T. Lawrence 1796. 
Napoleon 1. ; after Gerard. 1815. 
Sir E. Peel ; after NoHhcote. 1818. 

DICKSON, J., an English engraver, resided at 
Oxford about the year 1660. He engraved a por- 
trait of Edward Parry, Bishop of Killaloe, prefixed 
to his ' Antidote against the Prosperity of the 
Wicked, and the Afflictions of the Just,' published 
in 1660. 

DIDAY, Franqois, a Swiss landscape painter, 
was born at Geneva in 1812. He studied in Paris 
and travelled in Italy, but chiefly lived in his native 
country. He, however, frequently exhibited in the 
Paris Salon, where he obtained medals in 1840 
and 1841. He died in 1877, at Geneva, to wliich 
city he bequeathed his property, valued at 400,000 
francs. The following are among his best works: 

Glacier of Bosenthal. {Lausanne Museum^ 
The Oak and the Reed. {Geneva Museum.) 
The Faulhorn in Switzerland. {Neue finakothek, 

Munich.) 
Mont Saleve. ) {London International Exhibition, 

Storm in a Forest. J 1862.) 

DIEGO, — , a Spanish engraver, who in 1548 
executed at Saragossa the frontispiece for Zurita's 
' Anales de Aragon,' printed in 1562. 

DIELAI, Giovanni Francesco. See Surchi. 

DIEN, Claude Marie FRAN90IS, a French en- 
graver and painter, was born in Paris in 1787. He 
was instructed by Reboul and by Audouin, and 
died in Paris in 1865. The following works by him 
may be mentioned : 

The Sibyls ; after Raphael. 

Raphael and Perugino ; after the same. 

The Holy Family ; after the same. 

The Madonna ; after Murillo. 

The Death of Demosthenes ; after Boisselier. 

St. Scolastica ; after Lesueur. 

The Battle of Austerlitz ; after Gerard. 

DIENECKER. See De Neoker. 

DIEPENBEECK, Abraham van, was born at 
Bois-le-Duo in 1599, but most likely went to 
Antwerp about 1629. With the advantage of a 
classical education, and the tuition of Rubens, he 
was nurtured in a genial soil, and, like his great 
instructor, he treated with equal success subjects 
of history and fable. His first pursuit in art was 
painting on glass, and he produced some works 
in that branch which are highly esteemed, par- 
ticularly the windows in a chapel in the cathedral 
of Antwerp, where he represented the 'Acts of 
Mercy,' and some others i. the church of the 
Dominicans, in which he depicted the ' Life of St. 
Paul.' He abandoned glass painting soon after his 
return from Italy, whither he had been for im- 
provement, and devoted himself to oil painting 
and designing. His inventive genius, and his rare 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



facility of execution, caused him to be much em- 
ployed in designs for the publications of his time, 
particularly for the Abb^ de Marolles's ' Tableaux 
du Temple des Muses,' published at Paris in 1655, 
the plates for which were engraved by Cornelis 
Bloemaert. In the church of the Carmelites at 
Antwerp is a tine picture by this master, repre- 
senting the ' Virgin in the Clouds, with St. Ely ' ; 
and at the Recollets there were some pictures by 
him which are said by Descamps to be equal to 
those of Van Dyck. This painter was in England 
in the reign of Charles I., and was much employed 
by the Duke of Newcastle, for whom he made the 
designs for his book on ' Horsemanship.' He died 
at Antwerp in 1675. The following are some of 
his best works : 



Antwerp. Ifuseum. 

„ Cathedral. 

Berlin. Gallery. 

Bordeaux. 3Tuseutn. 
Brussels. Museum. 



Deorne. 

Dresden. 
Frankfort. 

Mtmich. 
Paris. 



Church. 

Gallery. 
Stadel. 

Gallery. 
Louvre. 



Vienna. Gallery. 



The Ecstasy of St. Bonaventura. 

St. Norbert. 

The Marriage of St. Catharine. 

The FUght of Cloelia. 

The Rape of Ganymede. 

St. Francis adoriug the Holy 

Sacrament. 
St. Norbert and the first Abbot of 

St. Michel. 
Neptune and Amphitrite. 
Portrait of a Young Man. 1665. 
I'ortrait of a Young Woman. 
Abraham and the three Angels. 
The Flight of Cloelia. 
Portraits of a Man and Woman. 
An Allegory of Mortality. 
A Pieta. 



There is an etching of a ' Peasant and his Ass,' 
by Van Diepenbeeck, which is very rare. 

DIEPRAAM, Abraham, a Dutch painter of the 
17th century, painted drolleries and drunken frolics. 
He was a scholar of Hendrik Martin Kokes, called 
Sorgh, although he did not follow the style of that 
master, but imitated the works of Adriaan Brouwer, 
in which he was not very successful. 

DIERIX, Adeiaen, known as Brooder Adriaen 
Rodriguez, of the Society of Jesus, was born at 
Antwerp in 1618, and died at Madrid in 1669. He 
went to Spain when he was about thirty, and entered 
the Imperial College at Madrid, where he entered 
the Society of Jesus, and changed his name from 
Dierix to Rodriguez, for the sake of euphony. 
He painted in the Flemish manner, for the refec- 
tory of the above-mentioned college, ' Abraham 
entertaining the three Angels,' the ' Marriage at 
Cana,' the ' Holy Family,' ' Christ at Emmaus,' 
and the ' Banquet at the house of the Pliarisee, 
with the Magdalen anointing Christ.' 

DIES, Albert Christoph, born at Hanover in 
1765, acquired the rudiments of art under a painter 
in that town. He afterwards studied under Pigage 
at Mannheim and under Mechel at Basle, and then 
visited Rome and Naples. At Rome he executed 
some landscapes in water-colour for Volpato. 
Among his works may be mentioned the twenty- 
four etchings of Italy, contributed to the 'Collection 
de Vues pittoresques de I'ltalie ' (1799), of which 
those of Tivoli are very fine. In the Belvedere at 
Vienna there are by him two landscapes in oil, both 
views near Salzburg, dated 1796 and 1797 ; these, 
however, are of le.ss importance than his water- 
colours. He died a.-'Vienna in 1822. 

DIEST, Adriaan van, was born at the Hague in 
1655. He was the son of a painter of sea-pieces, 
by whom he was instructed in the art. When he 
was seventeen years of age he came to London, 
and was employed by Granville, Earl of Bath, for 



whom he painted several views and ruins in the 
west of England. He also painted portraits, but 
did not meet with much encouragement, although 
his pictures, particularly his landscapes, possess 
considerable merit ; as a proof of which Horace 
Walpole states that there were seven pictures by 
Van Diest in Sir Peter Lely's collection. He 
etched several landscapes from his own designs, in 
a slight, masterly style. Van Diest died in Lon- 
don in 1704. Unfortunately for his reputation, he 
is generally known by his worst pictures, which 
are frequently found in old houses, on wainscots, 
or over doors, and are executed in a hasty manner, 
with much mountainous background. His better 
pictures have changed their name. 

DIETEL, Christoph and Franz Ambros. These 
artists, who were brothers, resided at Vienna in 
the early part of the 18th century. They engraved 
conjointly a set of plates, representing the principal 
fountains at Rome. Franz Ambros Dietel died at 
Vienna in 1730. 

DIETERLEIN. See Dietterlin. 

DIETISALVI. See Diotisalvi. 

DIETLER, JoHANN Friedrich, was born at 
Solothurn, in Switzerland, in 1804, and was in- 
structed in the rudiments of art by German, a 
drawing-master of that town. He distinguished 
himself as a portrait painter, and visited Paris and 
Italy, remaining also some time at Geneva; but 
he finally settled at Berne, where he died in 1874. 
He painted for the town of Solothurn ' The Burgo- 
master Wengi before the Cannon.' 

DIETRICH, Christian Wilhelm Ernst, (after- 
wards called Dietrici, or Dietricy,) a German 
artist^ was born at Weimar in 1712. He learnt 
the principles of art from his father, Johann 
Georg Dietrich, who was court-painter at Weimar, 
and was afterwards a scholar of Thiele, tlie land- 
scape painter. He established himself at Dresden, 
where he was patronized by the court, and was 
in 1729 appointed court-painter to Augustus II., 
king of Poland ; and in 1741 he received the same 
appointment with a yearly salary of 400 thalers, 
for which he was to produce yearly four cabinet 
pictures, for Augustus III., who sent him in 1742 
to Italy, where he passed some time at Rome and 
Venice. His studies in Italy do not appear to 
have had much influence on his style, which re- 
mained entirely German. His chief talent consisted 
in a successful imitation of the works of Rembrandt, 
Ostade, Poelenborch, Salvator Rosa, &c., particu- 
larly as a colourist, in which he greatly excelled. 
In 1746 he became keeper of the Dresden Gallery, 
in which he is very fully represented. He was 
also Professor in the Academy of Arts at Dresden, 
and Director of the Painting School at the Meissen 
Porcelain Factory. Dietrich also executed, after 
his own compositions, a large number of etchings, 
in which he imitated successfully the manner of 
Rembrandt and of Ostade. He died at Dresden in 
1774. The following are some of the best of his 
paintings : 
Bordeaux. Museum. Holy Family. 

„ „ Landscapes (Jive). 

Brussels. 3Iuseum. His own Portrait. 
Cassel. Gallery. Two Landscapes. 

Darmstadt. Gallery. The Parable of the AYoman and 
the Lost Penny. 
„ The Parable of the Blind leading 

the Blind. 
„ „ Evening Landscape. 

Dresden. Gallery. Fifty-four Pictures (bearing dates 
from 1739 to 1766). 

73 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Hampton Court. Pal. Nymphs in a landscape batliing. ' 
„ „ „ The "Woman taken in Adultery. 

„ „ „ The Tribute Money. 

London. Nat. Gallery. The Itinerant Musicians. 1745. 
Milan. Brera. Landscape. 

Paris. Ixmvre. The Woman taken in Adultery. 

1753. 
Petersburg. Hermitage. Eepose in Egypt. 1757. 
„ „ The Entombment. 1759. 

„ „ The Squirrel. 

„ ,, A Camera Obscura. 

„ „ Views in Italy {two). 

Vienna. Gallery. Angelappeariug to the Shepherds. 
„ „ Adoration of the Shepherds. 1760. 

Dietrich's etched work extends to nearly two hun- 
dred prints, several of which are very scarce, as he 
frequently destroyed the plate, after having taken 
ofE a certain number of impressions. His earlier 
works are marked with a monogram, composed of 
a C. and a B., but he afterwards signed them with 
his name, or with his initials, G. W. E. Z>., or 
with D. only. The following are his principal 
prints: 

SACRED SUBJECTS. 
Lot and his Daughters ; scarce. 
Abraham going to sacrifice Isaac ; scarce. 1730. 
The same subject differently composed ; very scarce. 
The Nativity. 1740. 
St. Philip baptizing the Eunuch. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; in the style of Eem- 

branilt. 
The Circumcision. 
The Flight into Egypt. 

Another of the same subject, differently composed. 
The Eepose in Egypt; scarce. 1732. 
Another Eepose in Egypt. 1734. 
The Eeturn from Egypt. 

Christ found disputing with the Doctors. 1731. 
Our Saviour heahng the Sick. 
The Prodigal Son. 

The Eesurrection of Lazarus ; in the style of Remln-amlt. 
The Descent from the Cross ; in the same style ; 

scarce. 1730. 
Another of the same subject, differently treated ; also 

in the style of Rembrandt. 1742. 
The Disciples at Emmaus ; extremely rare ; the plate 

destroyed. 
Christ appearing to the Magdalen ; unfinished. 1760. 
The Preaching of St. James. 1740. 
St. Jerome writing. 1731. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 
Famine and Pestilence ; very scarce. 1731. 
Nero on his Death-bed, tormented by Furies and the 

Shade of his Mother ; .scarce. 
Jupiter and Antiope ; one of his best etchings ; scarce. 

1735. 
The Artist in his Painting Eoom. 1730. 
The same subject with variations. 1732. 
The Quack Doctor ; in the style of Tenters. 1732. 
The Hungarian Quack Doctor. 1757. 
The Itineraut Musicians ; in the style of Ostade. The 

picture by Dietrich is in the National Gallery. 
The Alchemist in his Laboratory ; in the style of Eem- 

brandt ; scarce. 1731. 
Twenty plates of Busts and Heads ; chiefly in the man- 
ner of Rembrandt. 
About thirty-six plates of Landscapes, in the styles of 

B&i'chem, Breenbertj., Claude Lorrain, Ruisdael, and 

Salvator Rosa, and in his own manner. 

DIETRICH, JoHANN FRiEDRicn, a painter of 
historical subjects, was born at Biberaoh in 1789, 
and learned painting of Seele and HeideloS at 
Stuttgart. In 1820 he went to Rome, where he 
studied the works of the great masters, and executed 
several paintings, as well as copies, of considerable 
merit. After his return home, he was employed in 
the Hall of the Estates at Rosenstein, and painted 
in fresco for several churches. He was Professor 

74 



in the Academy at Stuttgart, where he died in 
1846. His best works are : 
The Resurrection of Christ (in Stuttyart Cathedral). 
The Visitation, the Nativity, the Adoration of the 
Magi, Christ on the Mount of Olives, the Crucifixion, 
the Entombment, and the Resurrection (in the 
Church at Bu/uch, near Carlsruhe). 
Abraham entering the Promised Land {in the Royal 

Palacey Stuttyart). 
An Adoration of the Shepherds. ) {Stuttyart 

Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus. J Gallery.) 
The Madouna di Foliguo ; after Raphael {in the Church 

at Dotternhausen). 
HeUos with the Hours. ) , .,^ ^^^ Zandhuus of Rosenstein.) 
Luna with Herse. J ^ -^ 

Christ on the Mount of Olives {in the Church of Ravens- 
bury). His last and best work. 

DIETTEKLIN, Bartholomaus, (orDiETEELEiN,) 
a painter and engraver, who flourished in the early 
part of the 17th century, was the son of a painter 
named Hilarius Dietterlin, of Strassburg. By 
him are known a very scarce plate — the ' Ascension 
of Christ ' — and a Landscape. 

DIETTEKLIN, Wendel, (Dieterlein, or Dix- 
TERLEIN,) who was born at Strassburg in 1650, was 
the grandfatlier of Bartholomaus Dietterlin. On 
the ceilings of the Lusthaus at Stuttgart there are 
paintings by him repre.senting the ' Creation,' the 
' Fall of Man,' and the ' Last Judgment,' and in the 
Belvedere at Vienna is the ' Calling of Matthew.' 
He also etched several portraits, and twelve spirited 
grotesques, and published a work on Architectural 
Design, with 209 engravings. There are 176 ori- 
ginal designs by him in the Academy at Dresden. 
He died in 1699. Some of his works have the 

monogram annexed : 

DIETZ, Feodor, a German historical painter, 
born at Neunstetten, near Krautheim, Baden, in 
1813, was instructed in the principles of art by 
Kuntz at Carlsruhe. Alter studying in the Academy 
at Municli, and at Paris under Horace Vernet and 
Alaux, he returned to Germany and there com- 
menced his career. In 1839 he became painter 
at the court of Baden, in 1862 professor at the 
Academy at Carlsruhe, and later on President of 
the German Artistic Society. He made several 
tours, and died in the course of one in 1870 at 
Gray, France. The following are some of his best 
paintings : 

The Destruction of Heidelberg by Melac {Carlsruhe 
Gallery). 

The Death of Piccolomini. 

The Death of Pappeuheim. 

Gustavus Adolphus at Liitzen, 

The Night Review of Napoleon. 

The Guard of Bailen before Paris. 

Napoleon at Wagram. 

Blucher crossing the Rhine. 

Bliicher at La Rothiere. 

Bliicher's March on Paris. 1814. {Berlin Museum.) 

The Elector Max Eraauuel of Bavaria storming Bel- 
grade in 16SS {Neue Fmakothek, Munich). 

DIETZSCH, Johann Albert, the younger brother 
of Johann Christoph Dietzsch, was born in 1720, 
and died in 1782. He engraved about twenty 
plates of views of Nuremberg and its vicinity, 
published in 1760. He also painted battle-pieces, 
landscapes, fruit, flowers, and portraits. Some of 
his landscapes have been engraved by Prestel. 

DIETZSCH, Johann Christoph, a German painter 
in water-colours, especially of landscapes, flowers, 
and fruit, was born at Nuremberg in 1710. He has 
left some plates of landscapes etched in the style 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



of Waterloo, which, though more finished, are 
very inferior to the works of that master in 
picturesque simpHcity. He died in his native city 
in 1769. There are by him the following plates : 

Portrait of Correggio. 
Portrait of Raphael. 

Sixteen Landscapes in the manner of Ruisdael and 
fVaterloo. 

DIEU, Antoine, a French painter, born in 
Paris about 1661, was a son of Edouard Dieu, an 
engraver, who died in Paris in 1703. He was 
instructed by Lebrun, and painted historical sub- 
jects and portraits in the style of his master, and 
not without merit. The ' Duke of Burgundy before 
the King,' and the ' Marriage of the l3uke of Bur- 
gundy,' are in the Museum at Versailles, but his 
best work is the portrait of ' Louis XlV. on his 
Throne,' which was engraved by Nicolas Arnoult. 
He was received at the Academy in 1722, and died 
in Paris in 1727. His brothers, Jean Died and 
Jean Baptistb Dieu, were engravers ; the former 
was born about 1658, and died in Paris in 1714. 

DIEU, Jean, called Died de Saint-Jean, father 
and son, were French painters who flourished in 
the 17th century. Jean Dieu, the elder, was also an 
etcher. Jean Dieu, the younger, who was a por- 
trait painter, was born about the year 1655, and 
died in Paris in 1696. 

DIGHTON, Denis, an English painter of battle 
scenes, the son of Dighton the caricaturist, was 
born in London in 1792. He studied in the Eoyal 
Academy, but obtained through the Prince of 
Wales a commission in the army. Resigning 
this, however, and marrying, he settled in London, 
and devoted himself to art, exhibiting at the 
Royal Academy from 1811 to 1825. Loss of the 
royal patronage, together with other causes, affected 
his reason, and he retired to Brittany, where he 
died at St. Servan in 1827. Amongst his works 
are : 

Death of Nelson [Bridgewater Collection). 
Defeat of the Turks at Klissura. 
Cavalry skirmishing {Smith Kensington) . 
Battle of Waterloo {Her Majesty's Collection). 

His wife was Fruit and Flower Painter to Queen 
Adelaide, and exhibited at the Royal Academy 
between 1824 and 1835. 

DIGHTON, Robert, an English portrait painter 
and caricaturist, was born in 1752. He exhibited 
occasionally at the Free Society of Artists and at 
the Royal Academy. In 1799 he brought out a 
' Book of Heads,' and thenceforth devoted himself 
chiefly to caricature. He died in London in 1814. 

DIGHTON, William Edward, a landscape 
painter, was a pupil of William Miiller, and after- 
wards of Frederick Goodall. He exhibited Eng- 
lish landscape scenery at the British Institution 
and Royal Academy from 1844 to 1851, after 
which he visited the East, and in 1863 sent to the 
Royal Academy two pictures, ' The Ruins of the 
Temple of Luxor' and ' Bethany.' Dighton died 
at Hampstead in 1863, aged 31. Had he lived, he 
would doubtless have made a name in the world of 
art. He left behind him many fine works, which 
are for the most part in private collections in 
Liverpool. 

DILLENS, Adolf, a Belgian genre-painter, was 
born at Ghent in 1821, and received instruction 
from his elder brother Hendrik Dillens. His first 
works were of an historical nature, but he after- 
wards devoted himself to pictures illustrating 



Zealand peasant life. He died in 1877. Amongst 
his best works are : 

The Gossip at the Window. 

Taking Toll at the Bridge {of this picture he painted 
three versions). 

Asking in Marriage. 

A Fair at West Capelle {at Paris International Ex- 
hibition, 1855). 

A Ball at Goes {at the same). 

The Juggler {at London International Exhibition, 1862). 

Skaters {in Brussels Mttseujn). 

Recruiting : Austrian Soldiers halting at a Tavern {in 
the same). 

DILLENS, Hendrik, a Belgian genre painter, 
vra.s born at Ghent in 1812, and died at Brussels in 
1872. He executed several pleasing and spirited 
paintings, among the best of which are : 

The French Trooper caressing his Child. 

The Capture of the Maid of Orleans. 

An Old Man giving Counsel to Two Youths. 

Consecration of a Church (with over 200 figures). 

DILLIS, Ignaz, a brother and pupil of Johann 
Georg von Dillis, was born at Griingiebing in 1772, 
and died at Munich in 1808. He etched some 
landscapes containing figures and animals, but 
abandoned art for the science of forestry. 

DILLIS, Johann Cantius, a Bavarian landscape 
painter and etcher, was born at Griingiebing in 
1779. He was the youngest brother of Johann 
Georg von Dillis, by whom he was instructed, and 
with whom he went, in 1805, to Italy, where he 
stayed two years. His best pictures are a ' View 
in the Environs of Grotta Ferrata,' dated 1809, in 
the Schleissheim Gallery, and a ' View of the Alps 
near Reselau,' and ' Stone Bridges near the Mills 
at Audorf,' in the Leuchtenberg Gallery. He died 
at Munich in 1866. He etched twelve plates, among 
which may be mentioned, a ' View of the Castle 
of Harlaching,' 'A Rocky Country with Mills,' and 
' A Farm Cottage hidden in Trees.' 

DILLIS, Johann Georg von, a Bavarian painter, 
was born at Griingiebing in 1759, and studied at 
the Academy of Munich and under Oefele. He 
afterwards paid frequent visits to Switzerland, 
Italy, Sicily, France, and Spain. He painted por- 
traits and landscapes, but his engagements as 
director of several picture galleries in Germany 
occupied the greater part of his time, so that his 
works are not numerous. He died at Munich in 
1841. In the Modern Gallery of that city there 
are by him a ' Landscape at Grotta Ferrata,' and a 
' View of the Tegernsee,' and in the Schleissheim 
Gallery is an 'Autumnal Picnic' He also etched 
62 landscapes. 

DINGLINGER, Sophie Friederike, who was 
born in 1736 at Dresden, and died in the same city 
in 1791, practised as a miniature painter. The 
Dresden Gallery possesses seven portraits by her 
of members of the Dinglinger family — amongst 
them her own. 

DIOLAI, Giovanni Francesco. See Surchi. 

DIONISIO FIAMMINGO. See Calvaert. 

DIONYSIUS, of Colophon, who flourished about 
the middle of the 6th century B. c, was a con- 
temporary of Polygnotus, whom he in part imitated 
and almost rivalled. The subjects which he chose 
to treat were less important; but, according to 
.ffilian, "his works exhibited the same expressive 
character, the same choice of attitudes, a similar 
attention to propriety, and the same elegant arrange- 
ment of his draperies ; but he represented the 
objects in a smaller proportion." By these expres- 

75 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



sions iElian has been supposed to explain more 
clearly a passage in the ' Poetics ' of Aristotle ; and 
it has been thought to result from his suggestion, 
that Polygnotus designed his figures larger than 
life, Dionysius the size of life, and Pauson smaller 
than life. Winckelmann, however, interprets this 
in another manner. According to that writer, 
Polygnotus painted his figures better, that is to say, 
he stamped them with grandeur above the scale 
and conformation of man, and as he usually cliose 
his subjects from mythology, or from heroic his- 
tory, his figures resembled heroes, and represented 
nature in the most perfect form of ideal beauty. 
Pauson gave to his figures a more common and 
familiar air. In the opinion of Winckelmann, 
Aristotle meant to say that the pictures of Poly- 
gnotus were in painting what tragedy is in poetry, 
and that the figures of Pauson resembled the 
characters in a comedy, which are represented 
more than ordinarily ridiculous, to render the effect 
more ludicrous. Dionysius, whom Pliny places 
amongst the most famous painters, held a sober 
medium between Polj'gnotus and Pauson, and may 
be said to have been, with respect to Polygnotus, 
what Euripides was to Sophocles ; the latter repre- 
sented his heroines as they ought to be, the former 
as they were. This characteristic procured for 
Dionysius the appellation of dvOfjuiicoypdipoe, or the 
' painter of mankind.' 

DIOTISALVI, (or Dietisalvi,) was a contem- 
porary of Duccio, who from 1259 painted miniatures 
at Siena, some of which are still preserved in the 
Academy of that city. He also produced some 
larger pictures, among which is a ' Madonna ' in 
the church of the Servi, dated 1281. 

DIOTTI, GiDSEPPE, who was born at Casal 
Maggiore in 1779, was instructed in the Academy 
at Parma, and later by Camuocini at Rome. He 
painted in fresco as well as in oil, distinguishing 
himself as a painter of historical subjects, and 
became a professor in the Academy at Carrara, 
and also in that at Bergamo, where he died in 1846. 
In the Belvedere at Vienna is a picture by him 
representing 'The Kiss of Judas,' and in the 
Milan Gallery is the ' Congress of Pontida.' Other 
noteworthy works by him are, ' Leonardo da Vinci 
and Lodovico Sforza,' and 'Tobias receiving his 
Sight.' His own portrait, dated 1821, is in the 
Ufiizi. 

DIRCKS, August, a German painter of genre 
pieces and a lithographer, was born at Emden in 
East Friesland in 1806, and studied at the Academy 
of Dusseldorf . ' The Decorated Schoolmaster,' a 
creditable work by him, is in the Gallery of that 
town. He died at Diisseldorf in 1871. 

DIRICKSEN, DiRiCK, a German engraver, worked 
at Hamburg in tbe earlier part of the 17th century, 
and was still living in 1647. He was principally 
employed by the booksellers, and engraved some 
portraits in a neat style, resembling that of the Van 
de Passes. 

DISCEPOLI, Giovanni Battista, was born at 
Lugano in 1590. He was usually called ' Lo Zoppo 
di Lugano,' from his being a cripple. Although 
be was for some time a scholar of Camillo Pro- 
caccini, he did not adopt the style of that master. 
Lanzi states that he was one of the best and 
most chaste colourists of his time. Several of his 
works are in the churches at Milan ; his pic- 
ture of ' Purgatory ' in San Carlo is particularly 
esteemed. In the Brera is an ' Adoration of the 
Magi' from San Marcellinoin Milaa Lugano and 

76 



Como also possess some of his works ; in the 
church of Santa Teresa, in the latter place, is a 
picture of that Saint, which is much admired. 
He died in 1660. 

DISTELI, Martin, was born at Olten, in Switzer- 
land, in 1802. In early life he studied art, intend- 
ing to become a painter, but afterwards gained 
some celebrity by drawing caricatures, which 
were published in the ' Distelikalender.' His Swiss 
battle-pieces indicate a strong patriotic feeling. 
He died at Solothurn in 1844. 

DITMAR, Henrik, (or Dittmarz,) was a German 
portrait painter who flourished in Hamburg and in 
Denmark in the latter half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. In the Copenhagen gallery there is by him 
a ' Hermit in his Cell,' dated 1665. He died in 
Denmark late in 1677 or early in 1678. 

DITMAR, Jan, (or Ditmer,) a Flemish engraver, 
was born in the Netherlands about 1538, and was 
admitted into the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 
1574. He engraved some plates after Martin De 
Vos, and other Flemish masters, among which is 
a print after Michiel Coxcie, representing ' Christ 
seated in the Clouds, surrounded by Angels holding 
the Instruments of the Passion and the Symbols 
of the Four Evangelists,' dated 1574. 

DITTENBERGER, Johann Gustav, an historical 
and portrait painter, was born at Neuenweg, in 
Baden, in 1799. He was at first a pupil of Rott- 
mann and Rous at Heidelberg, but in 1821 he 
entered the Munich Academy. After this he worked 
for a while in the studio of Baron Gros at Paris, 
and then removed to Rome. He returned to 
Vienna in 1831, and died in 1879. He executed a 
number of church pictures, among which we find 
'The Annunciation,' 'St. Andrew converting the 
Russians,' ' St. Severinus blessing the Land of 
Austria,' 'The Angelic Salutation' (for Olmiitz 
Cathedral), and two allegorical pictures of ' Ger- 
many ' and ' Schleswig-Holstein ' (1850). He also 
etched a number of illustrations to Schiller's poems. 
He frequently marked his works with the annexed 



monogram : 



DITTERLELN. See Dietterlin. 

DITTMARZ, Henrik. See Ditmar. 

DIXON, John, an English miniature, crayon, ai;d 
water-colour painter, was a pupil of Lely. He ex- 
celled in nymphs, satyrs, cupids, &c. He was under 
William III. keeper of the King's picture closet, 
but in his later years he became impoverished, 
and retired to Bungay, where he died in 1716. 

DIXON, John, an engraver in mezzotint, was born 
at Dublin about 1740, and died in London in 1780. 
He studied under West in his native city, and be- 
came in 1766 a member of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists. There are several fine portraits engraved 
by him after Sir Joshua Reynolds and other masters. 

DIXON, Nathaniel. Nothing whatever is 
known as to this artist, although he has been 
called by some writers the brother of John Dixon. 
No one can identify the works of John Dixon, 
unless they are those signed with a D only, which 
are usually attributed to Nathaniel Dixon ; but 
miniatures signed N. D. are frequently to be 
found, and two contemporary letters in the Wel- 
beck Collection mention casually " Nathaniel Dixon 
the limner." Several of his portraits, one very 
large in size, are at Montagu House ; there are 
also some at Ham, and a few very important ones 
in tlie Madresfield Collection, whilst one beauty is 



NATHANIEL DIXON 




THE DUKE OF GRAFTON AS A BOY 



\_Montagu House Cuiicition 



WILLIAM DOBSON 




Hanfstdngl photo ) 



National Caltcry, London 



PORTRAIT OF ENDVMION PORTER 



PAINTEES AND ENGRAVERS. 



to be found at Goodwood. His work is strong, 
well planned, and well coloured, and allied to the 
masterful portraits of Cooper. He flourished during 
the reigns of James II. and William III. G.C.W. 

DIXON, Robert, a landscape painter, was born 
in 1780. He published, in 1810-11, thirty-six views 
of ' Norfolk Scenery.' Some of his works appeared 
at the Norwich Exhibitions. At the South Ken- 
sington Museum is a ' FaiTn Yard ' by him in water- 
colours. He died in 1815. 

DIZIANI, Gasparo, an Italian caricaturist, was 
a pupil of Bastiano Eicci. He died at Venice in 
1767. In the Dresden Gallery is a ' Painter painting 
a portrait from life,' by him. 

DOBIASCHOFSKY, Franz, was born at Vienna 
in 1818, and was instructed by Fiihrich and Kuppel- 
wieser. He excelled in painting historical subjects 
and portraits, which have been praised for their 
good design and poetic feeling. He was a pro- 
fessor at the Academy at Vienna, where he died 
in 1867. Among his best works maybe mentioned 
two in the Belvedere at Vienna, viz., ' A young Man 
and Woman in a Garden,' and ' Cimburgis saved 
from the bear by Duke Ernest Ironside' (1860). 

DOBROVOLSKY, Vasily Stefanovitch, a 
Russian painter, was born in 1786. He was a 
member of the Academy of Arts, and one of the 
founders of the School for Painting and Sculpture 
at Moscow, in which city he died in 1855. 

DOBSON, William, a portrait painter, was 
born in London in 1610. He was placed as an 
apprentice to Robert Peake, a portrait painter 
and picture dealer, who was afterwards knighted 
by Charles I. From this master's instruction he 
was not likely to profit much, but he procured him 
the means of copying some pictures by Titian and 
Van Dyck, by which he acquired an excellent prin- 
ciple of colouring, and great freedom of hand. 
On leaving his master, Dobson appears to have 
lived in indigence and obscurity, until Van Dyck, 
passing a shop on Snow Hill, perceived a picture 
exposed in the window for sale, which had suffi- 
cient merit to excite his curiosity to discover the 
painter, whom he found at work in a miserable 
garret. The well-known liberality of Van Dyck 
soon released him from his wretched situaiion ; he 
afterwards introduced him to the king, and- zeal- 
ously recommended him to his Majesty's protection. 
On the death of Van Dyck, Dobson was appointed 
serjeant-painter to the king, whom he accompanied 
to Oxford, where he painted his portrait, as well as 
those of Prince Rupert and several of the nobility. 
The melancholy fate of the king was followed by 
the overthrow of the arts and elegance, and Dobson, 
who was imprudent and extravagant, became in- 
volved in debt, and was thrown into prison. He 
was released by a patron, but not long aftenvards 
he died in London in 1646. Of the painters 
of his time, Dobson appears to have approached 
nearest to the excellence of Van Dyck. ' His por- 
traits are faithful transcripts of nature, and although 
he was not equally successful in his historical pic- 
tures, the few which he painted are not without 
considerable merit. One of his best works in his- 
tory is ' Tlie Decollation of St. John,' at Wilton. 
King Charles I. styled Dobson the ' English Tinto- 
retto,' but very absurdly, as his manner of paint 
ing bears no resemblance to that of the Venetian 
master. There are in the National Portrait Gallery 
paintings by Dobson of Himself, Sir Harry Vane 
the younger, Francis Quarles the poet, and Endy- 
mion Porter; and at Hampton Court there are a 



picture of Himself and his Wife, and portraits of 
two Gentlemen. 

DOBSON, William Charles Thomas, was bom 
at Hamburg in 1817. His father was an English 
merchant in that city, and came to London in 
1825. Dobson in 1836 entered the Royal Academy 
Schools, and in 1843 received an appointment at 
the Government School of Design, then at Somerset 
House. In 1843 he became headmaster of the 
School of Design at Birmingham, but resigned the 
post in 1845 and went to Italy. From there he 
went to Germany, where he remained several 
years. On his return he exhibited pictures on 
scriptural and other subjects, at first in oil, and 
afterwards in water-colour ; the principal of which 
were: 'Tobias and the Angel' (1853), 'The Charity 
of Dorcas' (1854), 'The Almsdeeds of Dorcas' 
(1855), ' The Prosperous Days of Job ' (1856), 'The 
Child Jesus going to Nazareth with His Parents,' 
and 'Reading the Psalms' (1857), 'The Holy 
Innocents' (1858), 'The Good Shepherd' (1865), 
and ' St. Paul at Philippi,' deposited in the Diploma 
Gallery (1873) ; and among secular subjects, 'The 
Picture Book' (International Exhibition, 1862), 
'A Venetian Girl' (1879),' Mignon' and 'lone' 
(1880). His water-colour drawings included 'Tlie 
Young Nurse,"The Camellia' (1873), and 'Nursery 
Tales ' (1874). Dobson was elected Associate of 
the Royal Academy in 1867, and an Academician 
in 1872. In 1870 he was elected Associate of the 
Royal Water-Colour Society, of which, in 1875, he 
became a full member. He died at Ventnor in 1898. 

DOCENO. See Gherardi, Cristofano. 

DOCHARTY, James, a Scotch landscape painter, 
was born at Bonhill, near Dumbarton, in 1829. He 
was at first engaged with his father in calico 
manufacture, and did not turn to art till 1862. 
His works appeared at the Edinburgh Academy, 
the Glasgow Institution, and the Royal Academy. 
In 1876 failing health caused him to visit the 
Continent and the East, but he died on his return 
to Glasgow in 1878. He was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1877. Amongst 
his best works are : 

The Haunt of the Red Deer. 1S69. 

The Head of Loch Lomoud. 1873. 

Glencoe. 1874. 

The Eirer Achray. 1876. 

A Good Fishing Day. 1877. 

DODD, Daniel, was an English miniature and 
subject painter in the latter half of the 18th 
century. He was a member of the Free Society 
of Artists in 1763, where he exhibited. His chief 
works are : 

The Royal Procession to St. Paul's. 
Representation of the Royal Academy. 

DODD, Robert, a marine painter, flourished in 
the latter part of the 18th century. His pictures 
are chiefly illustrative of the doings of the British 
navy. He also represented storms at sea very 
successfully. Redgrave has been unable to trace 
his name later than 1809 in the books of the Royal 
Academy. Among his works are : 

Admiral Parker's Victory. 1781. 

The Loss of the ' Centaur.' 17S5. 

Lord Rodney's Victory. 1785. 

The British Fleet at Spithead escaping from the burning 

'Boyle.' 1796. 
Commencement of the Battle of Trafalgar. 1806. 

DODGSON, George Haydock, who was born at 
Liverpool in 1811, was at first apprenticed to 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



George Stephenson, the engineer. His duties in 

that capacity increased an innate love of art, 
and in 1836 was published a volume, illustrated 
by him, descriptive of the scenery of the Whitby 
and Pickering Railway. Giving up engineering, 
Dodgson went to London, where lie was for some 
time employed by architects and several illus- 
trated newspapers to make drawings. After a 
connection of some years with the New Society 
of Painters in Water-Colours, he was elected in 
1848 an Associate-Exhibitor of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours, and became a full 
member four years later. His contributions to 
that society were usually landscapes. He was 
especially fond of painting beech trees. Dodgson 
died in London in 1880. 
DOERBECK, Fkanz Burchaed. See Borchard 

DOERBECK. 

DOERR, Otto Erich Friedrich AnonsT, was 
born at Ludwigslust in Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 
1831, and died at Dresden in 1868. In the Dresden 
Gallery is the ' Interior of a Parisian Studio ' by him. 

DOES. See Van der Does. 

DOESBURGH, F., a Dutch engraver, flourished 
from about 1680 to 1714. He engraved a plate 
representing 'Admiral van Tromp engaging the 
English Fleet' We have also by him several 
prints of the old Roman customs ; they are etched 
and finished with the graver in a very indifferent 
style. 

DOETECUM. See Duetecum. 

DOFIN. See Dadphin. 

DOIX, FRANgois Joseph Aloyse, a French land- 
scape painter, was born in Paris in 1777. The 
Museum of Tours possesses some works by this 
artist, the date of whose death is unknown. 

DOLCE, Luzio, (or Dor,Cl,) of Castel Durante in 
the state of Urbino, who flourished in 1689, is 
commended for his altar-pieces and other pictures 
in the churches there. It is said that he was 
employed by the Duke of Urbino to paint at the 
Imperiale. He executed many works at Rome, as 
well as at Castel Durante, and resided in the 
former city for some time. There are few par- 
ticulars recorded of liim, though he is often 
mentioned with high commendation. 

DOLCI, Agnese, was the daughter of Carlo 
Dolci, and arrived at some degree of excellence in 
copying the works of her father. She also painted 
some pictures of her own composition, but never 
approached the merit of Carlo. She died in 1686. 
Among her own works are : 

Modena. Gallery. The Virgin adoring the Infant Jesus. 
Paris. Louvre. The Consecration of the Bread and 

Wine. 
Siena. Institute. Virgin and Child, with St. Joseph. 

DOLCI, Carlo, or Carlino, who was born at 
Florence in 1616, was a scholar of Jacopo Vignali. 
Without the possession of much genius or inven- 
tion, he excited considerable interest by a number 
of pleasing and highly-finished pictures, chiefly 
confined to devout subjects, and most frequently 
representing heads of our Saviour, and of the 
Virgin. These are not so much admired for par- 
ticular beauty of character, as for a soft and 
tranquil expression of devotion in the patient suf- 
fering of Christ, the plaintive sorrow of the Mater 
Dolorosa, or the compunction of a Saint in peni- 
tence. Subjects of that description he treated 
with great delicacy and tenderness. The general 
tone of his colouring is well appropriated to the 
character of his subjects, nothing is harsh or 



obstrusive, all is modest, placid, and harmonious. 
He generally painted in a small size, though there 
are at Florence some pictures by him as large as 
life. His small pictures of heads of the Madonna 
are more numerous, and are highly valued by the 
admirers of polished and laborious finishing. He 
died at Florence in 1686. There are many repe- 
titions of his small pictures by his pupils, Loma 
and Mancini, and his daughter Agnese. Many of 
his pictures are in England. The following are 
some of his best works : 



Berlin. 


Galleiy. 


St. John the Evangelist. 


Burgh ley 
House. 


Marquis of " 
Exeter, i 


Christ breaking the Bread. 


Cassel. 


Gallery. 


St. CeciUa. 


Copenhagen 


. Gallery. 


Christ. 


T» 


,j 


The Madonna. 


Darmstadt. 


Gallery. 


St. Dorothea and an Angel. 


Dresden. 


Gallery. 


The Daughter of Herodias with 
the Head of St. John the 
Baptist. 


1* 


)» 


St. Ceciha (paintedforthe Grand- 
Duke Cosmo III.). 


5) 


" 


Christ blessing the Bread and 
Wine. 

St. Catharine of Siena. 


Dulwich. 


College. 


3J 


,, 


St. Veronica. 


Florence. 


Fitti Pal. 


His own Portrait when young. 


,. 


»» 


Sleeping St. John. 


»» 


>» 


Madonna and Child. 


tf 


w 


The Duchess Vittoria della 
Rovere. 


r 




Diogenes. 
St. Peter weeping. 
St. Rosa. 1668. 
Moses. 

St. John the EvangeUst. 
St. Margaret. 1664. 
St. Andrew before the Cross. 
1646. 


" 


" 


St. Charles Borromeo. 
St. Francis Xavier. 




" 


St. Nicholas of Tolentino. 
Christ in the Garden. 
Ecce Homo. 


" 


1» 

55 


St. Casimir of Poland. 
St. Dominic. 




»' 


Vision of St. John the Evan- 
gehst. 




Corsini Pal. 


St. Sebastian. 


»» 


Uffid. 


Madonna and Child, with St. 
Salome. 


») 


)T 


St. Mary Magdalen. 




„ 


St. Galla Placidia. 1675. 




»» 
n 


His own Portrait. 1674. 

St. Lucia. 

The Saviour seated, with Saints. 

St. Peter. 

St. Simon. 


Glasgow. 


Gallei-y. 


Adoration of the Magi. 


It 




Madonna and Child. 


Loudon. National Gall. 


Virgin and Child. 


Munich. 


Gallery. 


Madonna & Child with Flowers. 
Virgin with a Lamb. 
Penitent Magdalen. 
Infant Christ. 


„ 


)» 


St. Agnes. 


»T 




Ecce Homo. 


Petersburg 


Hermitage. 


Mater Dolorosa. 


)» 


j» 


Magdalen. 




») 


St. Anthony. 
St. Catharine. 
St. Cecilia. 


Rome. 


Corsini Pal. 


St. ApoUonia. 


Vienna. 


Gallery. 


Madonna and Child. 


»' 


,» 


Sincerity. 
Mater Dolorosa. 



DOLENDO, BARTHOLOMEns, a Dutch engraver, 
was born at Leyden about the year 1560, and is 
presumed to have been instructed in engraving by 
Hendrik Goltzius. He worked entirely with the 



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



m> 




graver, in an open, clear style. There are by him 
several plates, some of which are from his own 
designs. He occasionally marked his prints with his 
name, but more frequently with one of these ciphers. 

Among other engrav- 
ings by him are the 
following : 

Jonah in the Sea, swallowed by the 'Whale ; circular. 
Jonah thrown back on the Sea-shore ; the same. 
A Dutch Merry-making ; after kis own design. 
Adam and Eve taking the Forbidden Fruit; after C. 

van 3Iander. 
Christ appearing to the Magdalen ; B, Dolendo, inv, et 

fee. 
The Holy Family ; after M. Come. 
St. John preaching in the Wilderness. 
Pyramus and Thisbe ; after Crispin van den Broeck. 
Jupiter and Ceres ; an allegorical subject ; after B. 

iSpranye}'. 
The Assumption of the Virgin. 

DOLENDO, Z.iCHARiAs, was a brother of Bar- 
tholomeus Dolendo, whom he surpassed both in 
style and in correctness. He was born at Leyden 
in 1661, and is said by Huber to have been a 
disciple of Jacob De Ghein. There are some por- 
traits by this master, which are not inferior in 
neatness to those by J. Wierix ; his plates are 
frequently marked with this cipher S^ There are 
by him : ±J. 

■William, Prince of Orange; half-length, m armour. 

1581. 
Andromeda chained to the Rock ; finely drawn ; after 

his own design. 
Adam and Eve embracing, whilst Eve receives the 

Apple from the Serpent ; after B. Spranger. 
St. Martin dividing his Cloak with two Beggars ; after 

the same. 
The Continence of Scipio ; after A . Bloemaert. 
The Virgin aud Infant, with two Angels; after J. De 

Ghein. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 
A Set of small Plates of the Gods aud Goddesses ; 

copied from the larger ones by H. Goltzius. 

DOLIVAR, Juan, is said by Huber to have been 
born at Saragossa in 1641. He studied engraving 
in Paris, and engraved some of the plates of 
ornamental and decorative subjects for Berain's 
'Ornemens.' He was also employed in the set of 
the ' Little Conquests ' of Louis XIV. His works 
are inferior to those of Le Pautre and Chauveau. 

DOLLE, William, an English engraver, was 
born in London about 1600. He was chiefly 
employed on portraits for the booksellers. These 
are sought after rather on account of their scarcity 
than their merit as engravings. Among them are 
the following : 

Sir Henry Wotton, Provost of Eton. 

Mark Frank, Master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. 

John Cosin, Bishop of Durham. 

George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. 

Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln. 

John Milton. 

Robert, Earl of Essex. 

Samuel Botley, Short-hand Writer. 

DOLOBELLA, Tommaso, a native of Belluno, 
who was born about the year 1580, and flourished 
about 1630, was according to Ridolfi a scholar of 
Antonio Vassilacchi, called Aliense. He excelled in 
painting portraits, and was invited to the court of 
Poland by Sigismund III., where he painted the 
royal family and several of the nobility, and was 
favoured with the particular protection of that 
monarch. He painted a few historical subjects, 
but is more celebrated as a portrait painter. In 



the Sala del Senate in the Ducal Palace, Venice, 
is a representation by him of 'The Doge and 

Procurators adoring the Host.' 

DOMENCHIN DE CHAVANNE, Pierre Salo- 
mon, a French landscape painter, who was born in 
Paris, in 1672. He was received into the Academy 
in 1709, the picture which he painted upon the occa- 
sion, ' Les Pasteurs,' being now in the Louvre. He 
was an artist of moderate ability, and was employed 
in the Gobelins manufactory, where he died in 1744. 

DOMENECH, Antonio, a painter of Valencia, 
who flourished in the latter half of the 16th century 
and devoted himself to Scriptural subjects, was a 
scholar of Nicolas Borras, whom he assisted in 
several of his works, and whose manner he so 
closely imitated, that even at Valencia, where the 
productions of Borras may be supposed to be 
well known, the works of Domenech are attributed 
to him. 

DOMENICHINO. See Zampieri. 

DOMENICO, Francesco, who was born at Tre- 
viso in 1488, studied under Giorgione. His own 
portrait, dated 1512, is in the Hermitage at St. 
Petersburg. 

DOMENICO, Sano di. See Sang di Pietro. 

DOMENICO DI BARTOLO. See Gherzo. 

DOMENICO di MICHELINO, who Uved in the 
15th century, was the pupil of Fra Angelico. He 
]iainted the portrait of Dante from a design by 
Baldovinetti, in the Church of Santa Maria del Fiore 
at Florence. The dates of his birth and death are 
alike unknown. 

DOMENICO DI PACE. See Beccafdmi. 

DOMENICO FIORENTINO. See Del Barbiere. 

DOMENICO VENEZIANO. See Veneziano. 

DOMENIQUE, Jean, was a native of France, 
who resided chiefly at Rome, where he died in 
1684. He was a scholar of Claude Lorrain, and 
was a successful copyist and imitator of the works 
of that master. 

DOMER, Jaques, (Doomer, or Demer,) a Dutch 
artist, was born in 1647, and flourished about 1680. 
He is better known by his drawings than by his 
pictures in oil. His manner approximates to that 
of Rembrandt, and it may be believed that his 
dark landscapes have been ascribed to the latter. 
His compositions are simple, but strikingly true. 

DOMINGO, Luis, a Spanisii painter and sculptor, 
born at Valencia in 1718, was a scholar of Hipolito 
Robira in painting, and of Bautista Balaguer in 
sculpture. The Dominican convent at Valencia 
possessed several pictures by him, among which 
was one of St. Louis Bertran. Domingo died at 
Valencia in 1767. His works in sculpture are to 
be seen in several churches of that city. 

DOMINICI, Bernardo, a Neapolitan painter 
and writer on art, flourished about the year 1740. 
He studied landscape painting under Joachim 
Franz Beiscb, a German artist, who passed some 
time at Naples, and attached himself to the clear 
and hnished style of that master. He also painted 
what are called 'bambocciate.' In 1742 and 1743, 
he published at Naples, in two volumes, ' Vite de' 
Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti Napolitaiii.' 

DOMINICI, Francesco, a native of Treviso, was 
a pupil of Paris Bordone. Ridolfi commends a 
work by him in the dome of the Banca della Com- 
pagnia della Madonna at Treviso, representing a 
' Procession of a Bishop and several Canons,' which 
is dated 1672. Dominici also excelled as a portrait 
painter, but did not survive his tliirty-fifth year. 

DONADO, Adriano, a Spanish monk of the 

79 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



order of Barefooted Carmelites at Cordova, painted 
some excellent works for his convent. He died at 
a great age in 1630. The Lille Museum has a 
' Flagellation of Christ ' by him. 

DONALD, John Milne, a Scotch artist born at 
Nairn in 1819. He began the study of art in 
Glasgow at a very early age, having from a child 
shown great desire to become an artist. In 1840 
he went to Paris, and was there for some years, and 
then he settled down in London, where for four 
years he painted, and his works were very higlily 
esteemed. Amongst his patrons and constant 
admirers was the poet-banker Rogers. After- 
wards he returned to his native land, and is never 
known to have visited England again, whilst all 
his exhibits were confined to Scottisli Galleries. 
He died in Scotland in 1866, and three of his 
finest works, ' A Highland Stream,' 'Bowling Bay,' 
and ' Loch Guil,' were exhibited at Glasgow in 1878. 
DONALDSON, Andrew, a Scotch landscape 
painter in water-colours, was born at Comber, near 
Belfast. Taken by his father, an operative weaver, 
to Glasgow, he met with an accident, which event- 
ually led to his devoting himself entirely to art, in 
the pursuit of which he visited many parts of the 
United Kingdom. He died in 1846 at Glasgow, 
where he had obtained a large teaching connection. 
In the Glasgow Corporation Galleries there are by 
him the ' Old Theatre Royal, Glasgow, after the 
fire in 1829,' and a ' Scotch Highland Village.' 

DONALDSON, John, was born at Edinburgh in 
1737, and distinguished himself as a miniature 
painter, both in enamel and water-colours. In the 
year 1764, and again in 1768, he obtained the 
premium given by the Society of Arts for the best 
picture in enamel. He occasionally amused him- 
self with the point, and etched several plates of 
beggars, after Rembrandt, which possess consider- 
able merit. He died in London in 1801. 

DONATO, of Pavia, flourished at the close of the 
fifteenth century, and is the author of a ' Christ 
crucified, between the Virgin and St. John,' in the 
hospital of Savona ; also of a ' Virgin in Glory 
with Saints' (signed in 1507), in the Louvre at Paris. 
DONATO VENEZIANO. See Veneziano. 
DONAUER, LoRENZ, was an obscure German 
engraver, by whom there is only known a work 
representing ' St. Anthony,' after Albrecht Diirer, 
which he executed about the year 1539. 

DONDUCCI, Giovanni Andrea, called II Mas- 
TELLETTA, was born at Bologna in 1575. He 
was at first a scholar of the Carracci, but did not 
long remain under their tuition. His impetuous 
disposition disdaining the control of academic pre- 
cision, he attempted to establish a new style, 
founded on a spirited and graceful design, in 
imitation of the works of Parmigiano and Tiarini, 
which he particularly admired, and a promptness 
of execution which was natural to him. The novel 
manner of Donducci was not without its admirers ; 
and he was employed in a great number of works 
for the public edifices at Bologna, where are his 
principal works. He also painted landscapes, which 
were entirely in the style of the Carracci, and were 
much esteemed, particularly at Rome. Annibale 
advised him to establish himself in that city, and 
to devote himself to those subjects ; a counsel by 
no means agreeable to Donducci. His most admired 
performance is his ' St. Irene drawing the Arrow 
from the Breast of St. Sebastian,' at the church of 
the Celestines. He died at Bologna in 1665. The 
following of his works are also preserved : 
80 



Bologna. S. Domenico 



„ & Salvatore. 

„ S. Francesco. 

„ / MeTidicantl. 

„ S. I-aolo. 

„ I'inacoteca. 
Florence. Vffizi. 
Modena. Museum. 



Paris. 



Louvre. 



St. Dominic restoring to life the 
Man killed by the furious 
Horse. 

The Storm. 

The Eesurrectiou of Christ. 

The Last Supper. 

The Flight into Egypt. 

Christ in the Garden. 

Christ bearing the Cross. 

Christ surrounded by Angels. 

Charity. 

Abraham and the Three Angels. 

Elias sleeping. 

Portrait of a Painter. 

Finding of Moses. 

St. John baptizing. 

Christ and the Virgin appearing 
to St. Francis of Assisi. 

DONELLI, Carlo, called Carlo Vimercati, who 
was born at Milan in 1660, was a scholar of the 
Procaccini. He exhibited but few of his pictures 
at Milan ; he painted more at Codogno, and in his 
best manner. He died in 1715. 

DONGEN, DiONYS van, born at Dort in 1748, 
was a scholar of J. Xavery, at the Hague. He 
painted landscapes and cattle in the manner of 
his master for some time ; but having removed 
with his parents to Rotterdam, he studied the 
works of Paul Potter, Cuj'p, Wynants, and other 
masters, which, with a constant attention to nature, 
caused a sensible alteration in his style. His 
works found ready purchasers among the English, 
French, and Germans, as well as among his own 
countrymen. He died at Rotterdam in 1819. In 
the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort is a ' Cattle-piece ' 
by him. 

DONI, Adone, (or DoNO dbi Don:,) who was 
bom at Assisi, early in the 16lh century, is said to 
have been a disciple of Pietro Perugino. His style 
retained but little of the Gothic manner of that 
master, and in his later years he abandoned the 
style of the school of Raphael, and adopted that of 
Michelangelo. He worked chiefly at Assisi, and 
after that city most at Fuligno, but all trace of 
hi£ work at the latter place has disappeared. He 
also painted in Perugia, and throughout Unibria. 
In the church of San Francesco, at Perugia, is a 
picture by this master of the ' Last Judgment ; ' 
and one of the 'Adoration of the Kings' is in 
San Pietro in the same city. There are in the 
Lower Church of the Franciscan Convent at 
Assisi frescoes by him representing the ' Preach- 
ing and Martyrdom of St. Stephen,' and in the 
small refectory is the ' Last Supper,' painted in 
1573, which was probably his last work. Doni 
died at Assisi in 1675. Vasari is wrong in stating 
that he was a nephew of Taddeo Bartoli. In the 
Berlin Gallery there is by him a ' Madonna with the 
Infant Jesus,' who is represented as reaching after 
a book which is in the Virgin's hand. 

DONNE, W., a Dutch engraver, flourished about 
the year 1680. Among other prints, he engraved 
a plate representing ' Venus and Cupid,' in a land- 
scape, with other figures in the distance, after A. 
Elsheimer. It is etched in a slight, poor style. 

DONNEKER. See De Necebr. 

DONNET, S. This artist is mentioned by Strutt 
as the engraver of a very indifferent print repre- 
senting a ' Man seated, reading a book.' 

DONNINI, GiROLAMO, was born at Correggio in 
1681, and studied first at Modena under Francesco 
Stringa, afterwards under Giovanni Giuseppe dal 
Sole at Bologna, and ultimately at Forli, under 
Carlo Cignani. He was chiefly employed in easel 







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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



pictures, although he occasionally painted larger 
works for churches. In the Madonna di Galiera, at 
Bologna, is an altar-piece representing 'St. Anthony 
of Padua.' There are some of his works in tlie 
churches of the Romagna, and at Turin, which are 
not unworthy of a scholar of Cignani. In the 
Modena Gallery are two pictures by him of the 
' Birth of Christ.' 

DONO, Paolo di, called Paolo Uccello, from 
his love of painting birds, was born at Florence in 
1397, and in early youth was apprenticed to Lorenzo 
Ghiberti, the founder of the famous bronze gates 
of the Baptistery of that city. It is doubtful from 
whom he learned to paint, or from whom he acquired 
the laws of perspective for which he became so 
famous, although it is known that Manetti taught 
him geometry. Vasari says that he wasted so 
much of his time over the study of perspective 
" that he became more needy than famous." Four 
paintings of battle-scenes executed by him for 
the Bartolini family, at Gualfonda, near Florence, 
are wonderful specimens of this artist's thorough 
knowledge of foreshortening and perspective. 
Of these designs one is in the National Gallery, 
another is in the UiEzi, a third is in the Louvre, 
and the fourth is still in private hands in Flor- 
ence. The Louvre also possesses a panel by 
this artist which contains the portraits of Giotto, 
Donatello, Brunelleschi, Giovanni Manetti, and 
himself, as the representatives of painting, sculp- 
ture, architecture, mathematics, and perspective. 
It is certain that he lived in Florence nearly all 
his life, although during some short period in it 
he may have been at Padua, since Morelli states 
that the frescoes of the palace of the Vitaliani 
were executed by him. About the year 1436 he 
painted in the cathedral at Florence the colossal 
equestrian portrait of Sir John Hawkwood, the 
adventurer and soldier. This chiaroscuro painting, 
which is in terra verde, displays a wonderful power 
of foreshortening and proportion, and is intended 
to imitate a stone statue seen aloft standing out 
from the wall of the church. His masterpieces are 
the series of frescoes imitating bas-reliefs painted 
from about 1446 to 1448 in the cloisters of Santa 
Maria Novella. These paintings represent the 
' Creation of Animals,' the ' Creation of Man,' the 
'Temptation of Eve,' the 'Expulsion from Eden,' 
' Adam and Eve labouring by the sweat of their 
brow,' the 'Sacrifice and Death of Abel,' the 
' Building of the Ark,' the ' Entry of the Animals,' 
the 'Deluge,' 'Noah's Sacrifice,' and the 'Inebriety 
of Noah.' Genuine paintings by this master are 
very rare, although records prove that he executed 
several altar-pieces for churches in Florence and 
in Urbino. Paolo died at Florence in 1475. The 
Scolopi College, near the church of Sant' Agata, at 
Urbino, possesses a predella with six subjects relat- 
ing to the theft of a pax, which Messrs. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle consider to be a genuine production by 
Paolo Uccello. His principal paintings are : 

Florence. Cathedral. Equestrian Statue of Sir John 
Hawkwood (Captain-General of 
the Florentines, known in Italy 
as Giovanni AcutoJ. — Fresco exe- 
cuted in terra verde. 
(Subjects from the Book of Genesis : 
the Creation, the Fall, the Deluge, 
Noah's Sacrifice, &c. — Frescoes 
in terra verde in the cloister ; most 
of them in part destroyed. 
Battle-piece. 



U3zi. 



vol. II. 



London. Nat. Gall. The Battle. 

Paris. Louvre. Bust portraits of Giotto, Dona- 

tello, Brunelleschi, Giovanni 
Manetti, and himself. 
„ „ Battle-piece. 

Urbino. Scolopi College. Legend of the Theft of a Pax. 

DONOSO, Josef Ximenez. See Ximenez Donoso. 

DONVE, Jean FRANgois, a French painter, was 
born at Saint-Amand in 1736. He was a pupil of 
Louis Watteau, and of Greuze, and so closely 
imitated the style of the latter that many of his 
pictures have been sold as those of his master. The 
Museum of Lille has three portraits by him, one 
being that of Sauvage, the enamel painter, and the 
other two portraits of himself. He died at Lille 
in 1799. 

DONZELLO, PiERO and Ippolito, (or Del Don- 
ZELLO,) were two brothers, the sons by different 
mothers of Francesco d' Antonio di Jacopo, bailiff 
(' donzello ') of the Signoria of Florence, and were 
both born in that city — Piero in 1451, and Ippolito 
in 1455. The teacher of Piero is unknown. Ip- 
pohto was the pupil of Neri di Bicci from 1469 
to 1471, and the brothers were companions in the 
' Studio ' at Florence up to 1480. In 1481, or soon 
after, they went to Naples to decorate the palace 
of Poggio Reale, which was tlien being built for 
Alfonso I., from the designs of Giuliano da Majano, 
and it is not unlikely that Ippolito died in that 
city. Piero died at Florence in 1509 ; but the 
death of Ippolito is not registered. They both 
assisted Antonio Sulario, called II Zingaro, in the 
frescoes in the cloisters of the monastery of San 
Severino at Naples, and in the Museum of that city 
may be seen two ' Crucifixions,' a ' Virgin and Child 
with Saints,' and other paintings assigned to them, 

DOO, George Thomas, an English engraver, 
was born in January 1800. He studied under 
Charles Heath, and published his first plate, a 
portrait of the Duke of York, after Lawrence, in 
1824. In 18'25 he visited Paris, and spent some 
time in the ateliers of the French engravers. On 
his return to London he opened a school in the 
Savoy, for study both from life and from the 
antique. He also lectured upon painting. In 1836 
he was ap|ioirited engraver in ordinary to William 
IV., and in 1842 to Queen Victoria. In 1856 he was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and in 
1857 a full nieniber. In 1861 Doo became President 
of the Artis's' Annuity Fund, and in 1863 he was 
a witness before the Royal Academy Commission 
at Westminster. He died at Sutton, Surrey, 
November 13, 1886. Among his best plates are : 

The Infant Christ ; after Raphael. EcceHomo; after 
Correfffiio. The Combat; after Etti/. John Knox 
preaching ; after H'ilkie. Pilgrims in sight of Kome ; 
after Eastlake. The Raising of Lazarus ; after Seh. 
del Fiomho. St. Augustine and St. Monit-a ; after 
Ary Sch/'^'er. Yorick and the Grisette ; after Newton. 
Gevartius (Cornelius van der Geest) ; after Vattdyrk. 
The Calmady Children; after Laurence. Sis platea 
for the ' Elgin Marbles,* published by the trustees 
of the British Museum. Several plates in Jones's 
' N tional Gallery.' 

DOOMER, Jaqdes. See Domer. 

DOOMS, Caspar, an engraver in mezzotint, 
worked at Prague from 1644 to 1675, and after- 
u'aids at Vii-nna and Mayence. His best known 
plate is an ' Ecce Homo,' after AlOreuht Diirer, 
now very rare. 

DOORNIK, Jan van, a painter of Leyden, is 
said to have produced pictures in the manner of 

81 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Wouwerman. He also painted historical subjects 
and portraits. It is not known exactly at what 
period he lived. 

DOORT, P. VAN, was a Dutch engraver, who 
worked entirely with the graver, and was a humble 
imitator of the style of Cornelis Cort. Among 
other prints by him, is one after Bernardino Pas- 
sari, representing the ' Holy Family,' in which St. 
Elizabeth is presenting an aj^ple to the Infant Christ. 

DORBAY, — , a French engraver, flourished to- 
wards the end of the 17th century. He en- 
graved, among other plates, some views of the 
Royal Palaces in France. 

DORCY, PiERKE Joseph Dedeeux. See Ded- 

REUX-DORCy. 

D0R6, LoDis Christophe Gustave Paul, a 
French historical painter and illustrator of books, 
was born at Strassburg in 1833. His name was 
originally Dorer, a not unfrequent German name, 
which he modified into the French equivalent by 
which he became so widely known. In 1848, when 
but fifteen years of age, he began to exhibit at the 
Salon landscape sketches in pen and ink which 
showed considerable ability, and in the same year 
he became one of the regular contributors to the 
' Journal pour rire.' He also contributed a large 
number of designs to the 'Journal pour tons.' 
His earliest exhibited works were the ' Battle of 
the Alma,' in the Salon of 1855, and the ' Battle of 
Inkermann,' in the Salon of 1857, but his best pic- 
ture, and that which first brought him into notice 
as a painter, was ' Paolo and Francesca da Rimini,' 
exhibited in 1863. This was followed, among 
others, by ' The Titans,' a drawing heightened 
with white, in 1866, and ' The Neophyte ' in 1868. 
Dora's ambition was to win fame as an historical 
painter, but in this he failed. Although gifted with 
marvellous fertility of imagination and wonderful 
facility of execution, he nevertheless possessed 
grave defects. Nowhere are his faults of composi- 
tion and drawing more manifest than on the enor- 
mous canvases exhibited in the Dor^ Gallery in 
London. ' Christ leaving the Prjetorium ' (1867-72) 
and 'Christ's Entry into Jerusalem' (1876), each 
measuring twenty feet in height and thirty feet in 
length, are works to which he devoted his utmost 
energy, but which add nothing to his reputation. 
Besides these his most ambitious works were his 
' Ecce Homo 1 ' (1877), and ' Moses before Pharaoh ' 
(1878-80). His ' Tobit and the Angel,' painted in 
1865, is in the Luxembourg Gallery. 

It is, however, as a designer of illustrations for 
books that the wonderful versatility of his genius 
becomes most apparent. The designs for the 
'Contes drolatiques ' of Balzac, published in 1856, 
are masterpieces of caricature, which breathe the 
true mediseval spirit. They were preceded by 
the illustrations to ' Rabelais,' issued in 1854, among 
which that of the ' Monks of Seville ' is inimitable 
in its humour, and by those to the ' Legend of the 
Wandering Jew,' issued in 1856. The ' Contes 
drolatiques ' and ' Rabelais ' are unsurpassed even 
by the designs for Dante's ' Inferno,' terrible as 
are the latter in their weird imagination. These 
were published in 1861, accompanied by a blank- 
verse translation of the text by W. M. Rossetti, 
and were followed in the same year by the illustra- 
tions to the ' Contes ' of Perrault, and in 1863 by a 
series of designs for ' Don Quixote,' which are care- 
ful studies of Spanish life. The ' Purgatorio ' and 
' Paradiso ' of Dante, completing the ' Divina Corn- 
media,' were not published until 1868. The designs 

82 



for the ' Bible ' (1865-66), Milton's 'Paradise Lest' 
(1866), Tennyson's 'Idyls of the King' (1867-68), 
La Fontaine's 'Fables' (1867), Hood's 'Poems' 
(1870), Baron Davillier's 'Espagne' (1873), Cole- 
ridge's 'Ancient Mariner' (1876), Louis Enault's 
' Londres ' (1877), the ' Orlando Furioso ' of Ariosto 
(1879), and Poe's ' Raven ' (1883)— the last work 
on which he was engaged — marked the grades in a 
constantly descending scale of genius and of power. 

Dore's reputation as an artist does not rest ex- 
clusively on his paintings and designs. He pos- 
sessed also considerable ability as a sculptor, and 
was engaged upon the nxmument to the elder 
Dumas when death struck him down. A colossal 
vase decorated with groups of figures was sent by 
him to the Exposition Universelle at Paris in 1878. 

Gustave Dor6 died in Paris in 1883. He left 
unfinished a series of illustrations to Shakespeare, 
and unaccomplished the intention to execute a 
statue of the great dramatist. The following are 
his most important pictures: 

The Battle of the Alma. {Salon, 1855.) 

The Battle of Inkermann. (Salon, 1857.) 

Paolo and Francesca da Rimini. {Salon, 1863.) 

Tobit and the Angel. 1865. {Luxembourg Gallery^ 

The Neophyte. {Salon, 1868.) 

The Mountebank's Family. {Salon, 1868.) 

Andromeda. 1868. 

The Triumph of Christianity over Paganism. 1S63. 

Christian Martyrs. 1871. 

Christ leaving the Prsetorium. 1867-72. 

The Massacre of the Innocents. 1869-72. 

The Night of the Crucifixion. 1872-73. 

The Dream of Pilate's 'Wife. 1873-74. 

Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. 1876. 

Ecce Homo! 1877. 

The Ascension. 1879. 

Moses before Pharaoh. 1878-80. 

A Day Dream. 1882. 

The Vale of Tears. 1882. E-E-G. 

DORFMEISTER, Johann Evangelist, an Aus- 
trian landscape painter, was born in 1741, and died 
in 1765. A ' Forest Party ' by him is in the Vienna 
Gallery. 

DORIGNY, LoDis, a French historical painter 
and engraver, was a son of Michel Dorigny, and 
was born in Paris in 1654. His father died when 
he was only ten years of age, and he was placed 
under the tuition of Charles Le Brun. On leaving 
that master he studied for four years at Rome, 
visited Gubbio and Foligno, and fiom thence went 
to Venice, where he resided for ten years, and 
executed many decorative paintings. He then 
went to Verona, where he passed the rest of his 
life, and gave proof of his ability as a painter 
both in oil and in fresco. In 1704 he visited Paris 
and became a candidate for admission into the 
Academy, but was excluded through the influence 
of the architect Mansard. In 1711 he was sum- 
moned to Vienna by Prince Eugene, in whose 
palace he painted the ceilings of the grand stair- 
case and of some other apartments. He died at 
Verona in 1742. His ' Susannah and the Elders ' 
is in the Bordeaux Museum. He executed some 
etchings in a free, painter-like style, among which 
are the following: 

A set of tliirty-two vignettes, with the title, from his 

own designs, for an Italian edition of the ' Pens6es 

Chretiennes' of Pere Bouhours. 
Six subjects from Ovid's Metamorphoses. 
Five Emblems of Horace ; the designs for three of these 

are in the Lou\Te. 
A View of the Amphitheatre at Verona. 
The Descent of the Saracens at the Port of Ostia ; ajter 

Saphael. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



DORIGNY, Michel, a French painter and en- 
graver, was born at St. Quentin in 1617, and was 
brought up under Simon Vouet, whose daughter 
he married. He painted historical subjects in the 
style of his master ; and some of his pictures are in 
the chateau of Vincennes. His ' Flora and Zephyr ' 
is now in the Louvre, and an ' Allegory ' by him 
is in the Madrid Gallery. He is, however, better 
known as the engraver of several plates etched in 
a bold, spirited style, but with a considerable 
degree of harshness in the effect which is very 
disagreeable. Dorigny died in Paris in 1665. The 
following are his principal plates, all of which are 
after the pictures of Simon Vouet : 

The Holy Family. 1649. 

The Nativity. 

The Adoration of the Magi ; in four sheets, in the 

manner of a frieze. 
Jupiter giving Apollo the conduct of the Chariot of the 

Sun. 
ApoUo killing the Python. 
Peace descending on the Earth. 
Venus at her Toilet. 
Venus, Cupid, and Hope, plucking Feathers from the 

"Wings of Time. 
Mercury and the Graces. 
Iris cutting the hair of Dido. 
The Eape of Europa. 

He also engraved from his own designs : 

A set of Six Bacchanalian subjects. 
A Caricature of the architect Mansard, entitled ' La 
Mansarde.* 

DORIGNY, Sir Nicolas, a French engraver, was 
the youngest son of Michel Dorigny, and was born 
in Paris in 1658. He was brought up to the bar, and 
followed that profession until he was thirty years of 
age, when, in consequence of deafness, he turned 
his thoughts to the arts, and visited Italy, where 
he remained twenty-eight years. His first plates 
were executed with the point ; and if we were to 
judge of his talent by his early prints, his reputa- 
tion would be very short of that which he acquired 
by a union of the point and the graver in his later 
productions. He took for his model the admirable 
works of Gerard Audran ; and although he by no 
means equalled that celebrated artist, either in the 
style of his drawing, or in the picturesque effect 
of his light and shade, his prints will always be 
esteemed both for their merit as engravings and 
for the importance of the subjects of which he 
made choice. In 1711 he was invited to England 
by Queen Anne to engrave the Cartoons of Raphael 
at Hampton Court, which he finished in 1719, 
and in the following year he was knighted by King 
George I. Whilst he was in England he painted 
some portraits of the nobility, but with no great 
success. He returned to France in 1725, and was 
received into the Academy in the same year. He 
exhibited some pictures of sacred subjects at the 
Salon from 1739 to 1743, and died in Paris in 1746. 
The following are his principal prints : 

Nine plates of the Seven Planets, and the Creation of 

the Sun and Moon ; after the paintings by Raphael 

in the Chigi Chapel in La Madonna del Popolo. 
The Cartoons at Hampton Court ; after t'he same ; eight 

plates, including the title. 
The Transfiguration ; after the same. 
The History of Cupid and Psyche, and the Triumph 

of Galatea, twelve plates, including the title ; after 

the paintings from the designs of Raphael, in the 

Farnesina. 
The Descent from the Cross ; after Danielle da Volterra. 
St. Peter and St. John healing the Lame Man at the 

Gate of the Temple ; after L. Cirjoli. 

G2 



The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; after Domenichino. 

The Martyrdom of St. Petrouilla ; after Guerciuo. 

St. Francis kneeling before the Virgin and Child ; after 

A. Carracci. 
St. Catharine in Meditation ; after Carlo Cignani. 
St. Peter walking on the Sea ; after Lavfranco. 
The Virgin and Child, with St. Charles Borromeo and 

St. Liborius ; after B. Lamlerti. 
The Trinity ; after Guido Reni. 
The Birth of the Virgin ; after Carlo Maratti. 
The Adoration of the Magi ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Child, with St. Charles Borromeo and St. 

Ignatius ; after the same. 
Eight plates of the paintings in the Cupola of St. Agnes ; 

after Ciro Ferri. 

DORN, Joseph, was born at Gratz-Sambach, 
near Pomraersfelden in 1759, and studied in the 
galleries of Munich, Vienna, and Diisseldorf. He 
copied to deception the cabinet pictures of Frans 
van Mieris, Gerard Dou, Terborch, Van der VVerfE, 
and others, and was particularly celebrated for 
his skill in restoring old paintings. He died at 
Bamberg in 1841. His wife, Rosalie Dorn, ex- 
celled in portrait painting ; she was the daughter 
of the historical painter Treu. 

DORNER, Johann Jakob, the elder, who was 
born at Ehrenstetten, near Freiburg in Breisgau, in 
1741, was at first a pupil of Rosch at Freiburg and 
of Ignaz Bauer at Augsburg. He afterwards visited 
Italy, the Netherlands, and Paris ; and excelled as a 
painter of historical and genre subjects. He was a 
professor and director of the Gallery at Munich in 
1770, and died in that city in 1813. In the Darm- 
stadt Gallery is a picture of ' Two Soldiers and a 
Maiden ' by him ; and in the Pinakothek at Munich, 
a ' Linen Draper,' which is a portrait of his wife, 
dated 1775. 

DORNER, Johann Jakob, a Bavarian landscape 
painter, the son of Johann Jakob Dorner the elder, 
was born at Munich in 1775. He was instructed 
in art by his father and by Mannhch, but he 
afterwards studied the works of Claude Lorrain 
and Karel Du Jardin. He travelled by himself 
through the picturesque regions of Bavaria, Switz- 
erland, and France. His works are distinguished 
for spirited composition and taste in their execu- 
tion. In 1803 he became Restorer, and in 1808 
Inspector of the Royal Gallery at Munich, and 
was subsequently elected a member of the Aca- 
demies of Hanau, Vienna, Berlin, and Munich. 
He died at Munich in 1852. The following works 
by him are in public collections : 

Berlin. Gallery. A Forest Koad. 1817. 

Cassel. Gallery. Two "Waterfalls. 

Munich, fituikothek. View of the "W^alchensee, in the 
Mountains of Upper Bavaria. 
„ „ "Waterfall, with a Huntsman. 

„ „ Landscape and Mill near Pasing. 

„ „ Landscape in the Tyrol during a 

Thunderstorm. 

DORNER, Johann Konrad, an Austrian painter, 
was born at Egg, near Bregenz, in 1810, and 
studied historical painting under Cornelius. In 
1835 he went to St. Petersburg, and there painted 
many portraits and altarpieces. He afterwards 
returned to Munich, and in 1860 went to Rome, 
where he died in 1866. He executed his best 
works whilst in Rome ; they are mostly of a re- 
ligious character. A ' Madonna and Child, with 
St. John,' and the 'Infant Christ' are in the 
Pinakothek at Munich. 

DORRELL, Edmund, an English water-colour 
landscape painter, was bom at Warwick in 1778. 

83 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1807 to 
1828, and at the Water-Colour Society from 1809 to 
1818. He died in London in 1857. There are by 
him at the South Kensington Museum : 

On the Thames. 

Landscape, with cottage, church, figures, &c. 

Fisherman and Boats, Mount Edgcumbe. 

Crowhurst, near Hastings. 

View from Box Hill. 

DORSTE, I. V. This signature appears on a 
profile portrait of a Man, in the Dresden Gallery, 
which by Vosmaer is ascribed to Geraert Drost. 

DOSSI, Battista, was an Italian painter of 
landscapes and caricatures, who was a scholar 
of Lorenzo Costa, and worked mostly in conjunc- 
tion with his brother Giovanni. In the Costabili 
Gallery at Ferrara are four landscapes by him ; 
and in San Pietro at Modeiia are other works by 
him. He also executed two fantastic landscapes 
which are in the Palazzo Borghese at Rome, and 
assisted Raphael for a short time in 1520. He 
died in 1548. The UfEzi, Florence, has a ' Female 
Saint' by him. 

DOSSI, Giovanni, commonly called Dosso Dossi, 
and sometimes Giovanni di Nicol6 di LnTERO, 
appears to have been born about the year 1479 in 
the vicinity of Ferrara. His surname is supposed 
to have been derived from the village of Dosso, in 
the province of Ferrara. He was in 1512 a disciple 
of Lorenzo Costa in Mantua. He afterwards, with 
his brother Battista, visited Rome and VenicBj and 
they there passed eleven years, studying the works of 
Giorgione and Titian, till they formed a style which 
may be called their own, and which, although not 
totally divested of the Gothic, is distinguished by 
originahty ofinvention,and great harmony of colour. 
Giovanni excelled in painting figures, in which Bat- 
tista was less successful ; but Battista distinguished 
himself as a painter of landscape, in which Lomazzo 
considers him little inferior to Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
Pordenone, and even Titian. The brothers were 
much employed by Alfonso I., Duke of Ferrara, and 
by his successor, Ercole II. They painted the 
cartoons for the tapestries in the cathedral at 
Ferrara, and for those in the church of San Fran- 
cesco, and in the ducal palace at Modena. Several 
of Dosso Dossi's frescoes are still to be seen in 
the ducal palace at Ferrara, but others were 
destroyed by fire in 1718. He excelled in portraits 
as well as historical subjects, and painted that 
of Ariosto, who employed him to make designs 
for his 'Orlando Furioso.' The poet has cele- 
brated the names of the Dossi by 
enrolling them with those of Leon- 
ardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, 
and Titian. Dosso Dossi died at Ferrara in 1542. 
The following paintings by him are known : 

Berlin. Gallery. The Fathers of the Church in 

meditation on the Mystery of 
the Immaculate Conception of 
the Virgin. 
Bergamo. Museum. Portrait of a Man. 
Dresden. Gallery. The Virgin and God the Father 

in one Glory, with the Four 
Doctors of the Church below. 
Ferrara. Certosa. The Virgin and Child, with St. 

John and two other Saints. 
„ (S Agostino. The Crucifixion, with the Virgin, 

St. John, and St. Augustine. 
„ Museum. The Virgin enthroned, crowned 

by Angels. 
„ „ St. John at Patmos. 

„ „ The Annunciation. 

84 



Ferrara. Museum. Madonna with Saints. {A very 

large picture in Jive compart- 
ments, from S. Andrea.) 
„ Ducal Pal. Decorative paintings with three 

Bacchanals. 
„ ,, The Hours of the Day. 

Florence. Vffizi. Massacre of the Innocents. 

„ „ His own Portrait. 

„ Fitti Pal. Repose in Egypt. 

London. J^^at. Gal. Adoration of the Magi. 
Milan. Brera. A Sainted Bishop with two Angels. 

1536. 
„ Amlrosiana. Mary Magdalen washing Christ's 
feet. 
Modena. Cathedral. Virgin in Glory adored by Saints. 
15-22. 
„ Carmine. A Dominican Saint and a Woman 

{alU'iforical). 
„ S. Pietro. Assumption of the Virgin. 

„ Gallery. The Nati%-ity. 

„ „ Virgjin adored by SS. George and 

Michael. 
„ „ Several Portraits, among them 

that of Alfonso I. of Ferrara 
(in the style of Titian). 
Paris, Louvre. Holy Family. 

„ „ St. Jerome. 

Rome. Borghese Pal. Circe. 

„ Doria Pal. Vanossa. 

Vienna. Gallery. St. Jerome 

DOSSIER, JIiCHEL, a French engraver, was bora 
in Paris in 1684, and died in the same city in 1750. 
He was a pupil of Pierre Drevet, and engraved 
but a very few plates, the best known of which is 
' Vertumnus and Pomona,' after Rigaud, the figure 
of Pomona being a portrait of Anne Varice de 
Valliere, wife of Jean Neyret de La Ravoye. The 
following may also be mentioned: 

The Marriage of the Virgin ; after Jouvenet 

Christ healing the two Blind Men at Jericho ; after 

Colombel. 
Christ driving the Money-Changers out of the Temple ; 

after the same. 
The Supper at the house of Simon the Pharisee ; after 

the same. 
Jean Baptiste Colbert, Marquis of Torcy ; after Rigaud. 

DOU, Gerard, was bom at Leyden in 1613, in 
the same year and the same city which had the 
glory of claiming Rembrandt as citizen. His father, 
Douwe Janszoon de Vries van Arentsvelt, who was a 
glazier, allowed his son to follow the path to which 
the boy's instincts led him, and apprenticed him, 
in 1622, to the studio of the engraver, Bartholo- 
meus Dolendo. Here young Gerard spent some 
time in mastering the art of drawing. After quit- 
ting the engraver's desk he went, in 1624, into the 
workshop of Pieter Kouwenhoven, a painter on 
glass, and in 1628 he entered the studio of the 
great Rembrandt van Ryn, but he borrowed little 
of his master's style and manner. Don's talent 
was all his own ; his pictures, though small, are 
superb specimens of the art, finished with care, and 
true to nature. 

After setting up for himself, Dou is reported to 
have worked at portrait painting ; but his manner 
was too slow and laboured to please his sitters, and 
he then took as subjects for his paintings the 
scenes of humble industry that the neighbouring 
market-place aiforded, and interiors graced by 
buxom maids. 

No details have been handed down to us of Don's 
life. It was probabl)' passed happily and quietly 
at his work. He resided — with the exception of 
two gaps, from 1651 to 1657, and again from 
1GG8 to 1672— in his native city. That he was 
a prosperous man is to be inferred from the 



GIOVANNI UOSSI 

CALLED 

DOSSO DOSSI 




Brockmann photo] [Dresden Gallery 

THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL 



GERARD DOU 




Uanfitangl photo\ \_Nationcil Gallerv 

THE POULTERER'S SHOP 



GERARD DOU 




Hanfstdngl photol Jiuckmgkam Palace 

THE GROCER'S SHOP 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



large sums for which he sold his paintings. The 
wealthy connoisseur Van Spiring gave Dou an 
annual donation of a thousand florins merely to be 
allowed to have the first choice of the pictures 
that the artist had completed at the close of every 
year. Besides this annual grant, Van Spiring paid 
the ordinary price like any other purchaser for the 
pictures which he chose. 

Gerard Dou died at Leyden in 1675, and was 
buried in the church of St. Peter. Among his 
pupils and followers were Frans van Mieris, 
Schalcken, Gabriel Metsu, and Van Slingeland. 
The following are his principal works : 

Amsterdam. Musmm. Portrait of Himself. 
Tlie Night School. 
„ „ The Hermit. 

„ „ Curiosity. 

„ „ Portraits of Pieter van der Werf, 

Burgomaster of Leyden, and 
, his "Wife. (TJie portraits are 
hi/ Dou, the landscape hy Claes 
Pietcrsz Berchein.) 
„ Six Coll. The Dentist. 

„ „ A Girl at a 'Window. 1667. 

A Candle-light Effect. 
„ Van der Hoop C. A Fish-woman. 
■Berlin. Gallery. The Penitent Magdalen. 1656. 

„ „ Portrait of an Old Woman. 

„ „ The Store-room. 

Tissels. Gallery. Portrait of Himself. 
„ Arenherg Coll. An Old \yoman sitting at a table 

covered with Gold. 
Jassel. Gallery. Bust Portrait of an Old Man, with 

a blue feather in his hat. 
Copenhagen. Gallery. A Doctor. 

„ „ A Maid. 1658? 

„ „ Bust Portrait of a "Woman. 

Oresden. Gallery. Portrait of Himself. 1647. 

>i „ A Grey Cat on a "Window-sill ; in 

the back-ground, Dou before 
his easel. 1657. 
n II A Girl plucking Grapes at a 

"Window. 1658. 
n „ Gerard Dou playing the "V"iolin. 

1665. 
n » A School-master mending his 

Pen. 1671. 
■* n The Dentist, with a Boy, whose 

tooth he has just extracted. 
1672. 
i> „ A Hermit praying. 

And nine others. 
T)ulwich. Gallery. A Ladv playing on the "Virginal. 
"loreuce. Ujfizi. Portrait of Himself. 1618. 

The Pan-cake Seller. 
Hague. Gallery. The Young Tailoress (or. The 

Young Mother). 1658. 
n „ A Yoimg "Woman holding a 

Lamp. 
London. Nat. Gal. Portr.^it of Himself. 
„ „ Portrait of his "Wife. 

>> „ The Poulterer's Shop. 

„ Buckingham Tal. An Old Man. 
I, „ A Kitehen-Maid. 1646. 

„ JBridgewater Ho. The VioUn Player. 1637. 
)i „ Portrait of Himself. 

„ Korthhrook Coll. A Lady playing the Spinet. 
„ Bute Collection. An Old Man reading. 
Mimich. Gallery. A Beggar asking Alms of an Old 

"Woman selling Vegetables. 
)t „ The Eakeress. 

„ „ Portrait of Himself. 1663. 

And eleven others. 
Paris. Louwe. The Dropsical "Woman. 1663. 

j» ), A Silver Ewer and Salver. (Fainted 

on the shutter of an ebony iox 
which formerly contained the 
painting of ' The Dropsical Wo- 
man.') 
» „ The Village Grocer. 1647. 

j» .. The Trumpeter. 

» „ The Dutch Cook. 



Paris. Louvre, A "Woman hanging up a Cock at 

a "Window. 1650. 
„ „ The Gold-weigher. 1664. 

„ „ The Dentist. 

„ „ Keading the Bible. {The old man 

and woman represented are said 
to be portraits of Gerard Dou's 
father and mother.) 
„ „ Portrait of Himself, at a "Window, 

holding his Palette andBrushes. 
„ „ Portrait of an Old Woman read- 

ing at a Table. 
Petersburg. Sermitage. A Doctor and an Old Woman. 
„ „ The Herring-seUer. 

„ „ Portrait of Himself. 1665. 

„ „ A Young Peasant Woman pre- 

paring to bathe. 
„ „ A Young Soldier preparing to 

bathe. 
„ „ A Young AVoman combing her 

hair by the side of a river. 
And si.v others. 
Vienna. Gallery. The Doctor and an Old Woman. 

1653. 
„ „ An Old Woman watering Flowers. 

„ Czernin Coll. Portrait of Himself. 

„ „ A Party playing at Cards. 

„ Liechtenstein C. Portrait of Himself. 

DOUDYNS, WiLLEM, a Dutch painter, was born 
at the Hague in 1630. He was of a distinguished 
family, and followed the art rather as an amateur 
than a professor ; but with a zeal that enabled him 
to reach a reputable rank among the painters of 
his country. After receiving some instruction 
from an obscure artist, named Alexander Petit, 
he travelled to Italy, where he passed twelve years 
studying the best productions of the art, and ac- 
quired a correctness of design and an elevation of 
taste, which distinguish his works. On his return 
to Holland, he executed several fresco paintings, 
particularly decorations for ceilings, in which, from 
his perfect knowledge of foreshortening, he ex- 
celled. Some of his works of that description are 
in the town-hall at the Hague. Two of his most 
admired easel pictures were in the possession of 
M. Van Heteren, representing ' Time discovering 
Truth,' and ' Wisdom triumphing over Vice and 
Intemperance.' Doudyns was one of the founders 
of the Academy at the Hague, of which he was 
appointed the director. He died in 1697. 

DOUE, Claude and Jean. See De Hoey. 

DOUET, — , a French engraver on wood, flour- 
ished about the year 1530. Papillon notices a 
woodcut executed by him, representing the ' Virgin 
M;iry and the Infant Christ,' after Andrea del 
Sarto. 

DOUFFET, Geeaert, (Doufeet, or Duffeit,) 
was born at Li^ge in 1594, and studied for some 
time at Antwerp in the school of Rubens, and 
afterwards in Italy. He composed and designed 
witli good taste, and his historical pictures are 
much esteemed. ' Pope Nicholas V. at the Tomb 
of St. Francis of Assisi ' (painted in 1627), 'St. 
Helena and the true Cross' (painted for the Abbey 
of St. Lawrence, Liege), and two male portraits 
(one dated 1624), are in the Munich Gallery. He 
died at Liege in 1660. 

DOUGHTY, Thomas. This clever landscape 
artist was born at Philadelphia in 1793, but did 
not adopt the artist's calling until he was nearly 
thirty years old, passing the earlier years of his life 
in mercantile pursuits. He worked for a long 
time in Paris, where he painted many of his most 
popular works, but for a sliort time he resided in 
London, finding in the suburbs of the great city 
scenes adapted to his pencil and brush. He then 

85 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



returned to America, and there he died in 185G. 
His pictures have steadily increased in value, and 
year by year their charm has been more readily 
recognized. Some of the more delightful scenes, 
which he depicted with silvery tone, grey light 
and soft harmonious colouring, were taken from 
the banks of the Susquehanna and amongst the 
Catskill Mountains. Doughty was one of the 
earliest American landscape artists who gained a 
European celebrity, and his pictures being few in 
number and executed with the utmost skill and 
great poetic feeling, wiU always be admired and 
valued. 

DOUGHTY, William, apainterandengraver, was 
a native of York In 1775 he became a pupil of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, and after an unsuccessful attempt 
as a portrait painter in Ireland, he in 1779 settled 
down in London ; but in the following year he set 
sail for Bengal, having just married a servant girl 
from Reynolds's house. His ship, however, was 
captured by the French and Spaniards, by whom 
he was brought to Lisbon, where he died in 1782. 
Two paintings which he exhibited were a ' Circe ' 
and a portrait of Sir Joshua Reynolds ; but he was 
more successful with his etchings and mezzotint 
portraits, among which are the following: 

Thomas Beckwith, the Antiquary of York. 
Thomas Gray, the Poet. 
Admiral Keppel ; after Sir Joshua Eeyjiolds. 
William Mason, the Poet ; after the same. 
Mary Palmer, the niece of Sir Joshua Reynolds, after- 
wards Marchioness of Thomond ; after the same. 
Dr. Samuel Johnson ; after the same. 

DOUGLAS, Sir William Fettes, was born at 
Edinburgh in 1822. After ten years of business life, 
whose leisure hours were devoted to art, his father, 
an accomplished amateur water-colour painter, con- 
sented to his following his bent and studying at the 
Academy. He had, however, only a few months' 
regular training. His pictures at the Royal Scottish 
Academy Exhibitions soon attracted attention, and 
he was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1851, and Royal Scottish Academician 
in 1854. He visited Italy in 1857. He first sent 
to the Academy in London in 1862. In 1869 he 
was secretary to the Royal Scottish Academy for a 
short time, and in 1877 he was appointed curator 
of the Scottish National Gallery, succeeding Sir 
Daniel Macnee as President of the Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1882. In th;it year he was knighted, 
and in 1884 he received the honour of LL.D. 
from Edinburgh University. He died at Newburgh, 
Fife, in 1891. He was early attracted to romantic, 
antiquarian and occult subjects, as the titles of his 
works indicate. Of these perhaps the best are : 
' The Astrologer,' ' The Bibliopolists ' (now in 
Soutb Kensington), ' In the Scriptorium,' ' Vesalius,' 
'The Old Curiosity Shop, Rome,' 'The Alchemist 
on the Verge of a Discovery,' ' The Spell,' and ' The 
Summons to the Secret Tribunal.' He painted also 
genre and historical subjects, a few landscapes in 
oil, and, late in life, some charming landscapes in 
water-colour. He has been termed the greatest 
Scottish painter of still life ; and the care and skill 
with which he painted old ivories, time-stained 
parchments, rich bindings, and old furniture, and 
harmonized their mellow colours, justify the title. 
His draughtsmanship was masterly, his colour at 
its best rich and glowing, and his composition 
varied and agreeable. He was, besides, a man of 
rare accomplishment, a learned antiquarian and 
historian. An illustrated monograph on him was 

86 



published by the Society for the Promotion of the 
Fine Arts in Scotland. j. H. W. L: 

DOUVEN, Johannes Pbanciscus van, was born 
at Roermond, in the Duchy of Guelders, in 1656. 
His father dying when he was young, he was 
placed under the care of a painter of Li^ge, named 
Gabriel Lambertin, who had studied in Italy, and 
had formed a collection of studies and drawings, 
which were of great utility to the progress of his 
pupil. On leaving that master he was taken into 
favour by a Spanish nobleman residing at Roermond, 
who possessed a valuable collection of the Italian 
school. He was permitted to copy and study 
these, and they were a mine of instruction to the 
young artist. His first essays were in historical 
painting; and he would probably have distin- 
guished himself in that branch, had not the flatter- 
ing invitation he received from the Elector induced 
him to visit Diisseldorf, where he painted the 
portraits of that prince and the principal personages 
of his court, and was appointed principal painter to 
the elector. This success seems to have inclined 
his future course chiefly to portrait painting ; and 
his talents were employed at almost every court in 
Germany, where he received many honourable 
marks of favour and distinction. He was also 
patronized at the court of Tuscany, where the 
Grand Duke placed his portrait in the Florentine 
Gallery. He occasionally painted easel pictures of 
historical subjects, which were correctly drawn and 
well composed. Douven died at Diisseldorf in 
1727. The following pictures are by him : 



Cassel. 



1725. 



Florence. 



Gallery. Susannah and the Elders. 
„ Eathsheba bathing. 

„ Clement Augustus, Elector of Co- 

logne. 
Uffizi. Portrait of Elizabeth Haurey. 
„ „ Portrait of Himself. 

„ „ St. Anne teaching the Virgin. 

„ „ Portrait of Maria Luisa de' Medici. 

Munich. Gallery. Portrait of the Elector Palatine, 
John WilUam. 
„ „ Portrait of a young Elector Pala- 

tine. 

His son, Bartholomeus van Douven, born at 
Diisseldorf in 1688, painted in the manner of A. 
van der WerfE. He was employed at the court of 
the Elector of Cologne, and excelled in the execution 
of portraits. The Cassel Gallery has a picture of 
the ' Three Graces ' by him, and in the palace at 
Cassel is a ' Holy Family,' known as ' La Vierge 
aux cerises,' which was taken to Paris by the 
French, but returned in 1815. There is by him in 
the Uffizi Gallery at Florence a picture containing 
medallion portraits of the Elector Palatine John 
William, and his wife Maria Luisa de' Medici, 
copied from the original by Van der Werfi: in the 
Munich Gallery. 

DOUW, Simon van, flourished at Antwerp, where 
he was free of the Guild of St. Luke in 1653-54. 
In the Lille Museum is a 'Landscape with figures' 
by him, signed and dated 1677. 

DOVE, Thomas, marine painter, began life as a 
house painter, but later entered the studio of 
George Chambers, with whom he worked for some 
time. His pictures were chiefly scenes from 
Liverpool or its neighbourhood, and he became 
well known in the north of England. Reduced to 
poverty in his old age, he died in the Whitby 
workhouse in January 1887. 

DOW, Gerard. See Don. 

DOWNES, Bernard, an English portrait painter, 
flourished in the latter half of the 18lh century. 



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1770 to 
1775, and at the Incorporated Society of Artists, 
of which he was a member. He died before 1780. 
DOWNMAN, John. It is not known for certain 
where this artist was bom. His birthplace has 
usually been given as in Devonshire, but there is 
better reason for assuming him to have been a 
Welshman, and to have been born close to Wrex- 
ham, where he died. He was certainly born in 
1750, and died at Wrexham on December 24, 
1824, aged seventy-four years. He was a student 
of the Royal Academy Schools in 1769, and be- 
came an Associate in 1795. He studied under 
Benjamin West, P.R.A., and painted a clever 
portrait of his master which is still in existence. 
He practised portrait painting in Cambridge in 
1777, visited Plymouth in 1806; and in 1807-8 
was working in Exeter. He then returned to 
London and resided there for many years, after- 
wards removing to Chester, and finally taking up 
his abode as already stated at Wrexham, where 
his daughter had married, and where she also died 
in 1840. Downman married the daughter of 
William Jackson of Exeter, the musical composer, 
who was organist of Exeter Cathedral. He painted 
subject pictures in water-colour and oil, notable 
amongst which are : 

A LaAj at Work. 1770. 

The Death of Lucretia. 1773. 

Rosahnd. {Painted for the Shakespeare Gallery.) 

The Priestess of Bacchus. 

The Keturn of Orestes. 

Tobias. 

Miss Farren and Mr. King in character. 

His greatest works, however, were his portraits 
in pencil and colour, which he painted in the 
country houses of England, and in the towns where 
he worked for a time. They are extremely clever 
pieces of portraiture, lightly and gracefully sketched 
and tinged with very charming colour. Upon 
almost all of them the artist made some pencil 
notes which greatly add to their value. He 
generally gave the name of his sitter, the date 
when the picture was painted, and in many cases 
the name of the place where it was done, or some 
description of the person, his occupation, char- 
acteristics, position, dignity or style. In some 
cases he made comments upon the way in which 
the sitter behaved himself, or the number of times 
■which he painted the same person, or alluded to 
some interesting circumstance as to himself or his 
sitter, and all these notes make his works of 
peculiar interest in the present day. Many of his 
portraits were engraved, and of this fact he also 
makes one aware by his notes. He painted in this 
sketchy manner all the great ladies of his day, 
the noblemen, actors, and notable personages as 
well as many members of the Royal families both 
of England and Prussia. Hardly any family of 
quality in England has not had some of its 
members painted by this hardworking and most 
popular artist, and his portraits are singularly 
attractive, full of character and expression, and 
those of ladies and children remarkable for their 
grace and charm. The largest collections of his 
portraits are to be found at the Manor House, 
Witley, and at Butleigh Court, Glastonbury. An 
important work on the artist is now in course of 
compilation, and will be issued by the publishers 
of this work. (j (;_ ^ff 

DOYEN, Gabriel FEAxgois, a French historical 



painter, was born in Paris in 1726. Before he had 
attained his twelfth year he entered the studio of 
Carle van Loo, and in 1746 obtained the 'grand 
prix de Rome.' On his return to Paris m 1755, he 
at once established his reputation by his ' Death of 
Virginia,' exhibited at the Salon of 1759, in which 
year he was received into the Academy upon his 
picture of ' Jupiter attended by Hebe.' He became 
a professor in 1776, and about this time he was 
employed to decorate tlie chapel of St. Gr^goire at 
the Invalides. In 1791 he went to Russia, where 
he was greatly honoured by Catharine II. and Paul 
I., for whom he executed many ceilings and other 
works. He was also appointed director of the 
Academy at St. Petersburg, in which city he died 
in 1806. His best works are 'The Triumph of 
Amphitrite,' now in the Louvre, and ' The Descent 
of the Holy Spirit,' in the chapel of St. Genevieve 
in the church of St. Roch in Paris. The sketch 
for the latter is in the Louvre. The Darmstadt 
Gallery possesses his 'Adoration of the Kings.' 
DOYEN, Le. See Le Doyen. 
DOYEN, Pierre Gabriel, a French painter, 
was bom in Paris in 1723, and died there in 1799. 
He was a member of the Academy of St. Luke, 
and may therefore be presumed to have been not 
entirely devoid of talent. 

DOYLE, John, a caricaturist, well-known as 
'H.B.,' was born in Dublin in 1797. At an early 
age he studied under an Italian landscape painter 
named Gabrielli, and also became a student in the 
Dublin Society's Drawing Academy and a pupil of 
Comerford. About 1822 he came to London, where, 
not succeeding very well as a portrait painter, he 
produced by lithography, and published, likenesses 
of the leading men of the day ; among others the 
Duke of Wellington on a white charger, and the 
Duke of York. From this time he chiefly em- 
ployed himself in producing caricatures of leading 
members of Parliament, under the initials ' H.B.' 
His death occurred in London in 1868. His political 
portraits, though caricatures, were always treated 
with a gentlemanly feeling, never descending to 
coarseness or vulgarity. The original sketches for 
610 out of the 917 to which they amounted are 
in the British Museum. A portrait of Christopher 
Moore by Doyle is in the National Gallery of 
Ireland. 

DOYLE, Richard, draughtsman and caricaturist, 
was born in London, September 1824. He was 
the second son of John Doyle (H.B.), who taught 
him from early childhood, and to such purpose 
that at the age of sixteen the boy was already an 
accomplished draughtsman. A remarkable speci- 
men of his early powers is preserved in the British 
Museum. It is a MS. Journal, illustrated with a 
large number of humorous and fanciful sketches. 
(This work was published in facsimile by Smith, 
Elder and Co. in 1885.) Other productions of 
about the same date were, 'The Eglinton Tourna- 
ment,' and ' A Grand Historical, Allegorical, and 
Classical Procession.' In 1843, two years after the 
establishment of 'Punch,' Doyle, then nineteen 
years old, was permanently engaged on the staff. 
He soon attracted attention by his cartoons of lead- 
ing statesmen, and later by a series of humorous 
designs called ' Manners and Customs of ye Eng- 
lyshe, drawn from ye Quick by Richard Doyle.' 
Akin to these were the ' Bird's-eye Views of Society,' 
contributed to the ' Comhill Magazine.' One of hia 
happiest contributions to ' Punch ' was the now 
familiar cover. Besides work of this importance, 

87 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Doyle further contributed to ' Punch ' innumerable 
small drawings, initials, and culs de lampe. His 
connection witli the periodical came to an end in 
1850, when conscientious scruples caused him to 
resign his post. A sincere Roman Catholic, he 
felt it unseemly to associate himself with attacks 
directed against Papal aggression. Henceforward 
he worked as an illustrator of books, and as a 
painter in water-colours. His original drawings 
were chiefly of Welsh and Devon scenery, into 
which he loved to introduce gracefully-fantastic 
figures of fairies, gnomes, and pixies. Among such 
the most important examples are : 

The Triumphant Entry, a Fairy Pageant. (iVai. Gal., 

Ireland.) 
The "Witch's Home. (Tuv Drawiniis.) 
The Manners and Customs of Monkeys. (Both in the 

South Kensington Museum.) 

Doyle was seized with apoplexy at the Athenaeum 
Club, December 10, 1883, and died on the next 
day. Among the books illustrated by him are : 

Thackeray's * Rebecca and Rowena.' 1850. 

Ruskin's ' King of the Golden River.' 1851. 

' The Foreign Tour of Brown, Jones, and Robinson.' 

1854. (Begun in ' Punch.') 
Thackeray's ' Newcomes.' 1853-5. 
'In Fairy Land,' Elfin scenes, with verses by Mr. 

William Allingham. 1870. 
Dickens' ' Battle of Life.' 
Leigh Hunt's ' Jar of Honey from Mount Hybla.' 

A number of his miscellaneous sketches are pre- 
served in the British Museum, and in_the Fitz- 
william Museum at Cambridge. 

DRAEGER, Joseph Anton, an historical painter, 
was born atTrevesin 1800, and died at Romein 1833. 
He studied under Kiigelgen in Dresden, but went 
in 1823 to Italy and took up his quarters in Rome, 
where he followed, as a nondescript in life and art, 
his own peculiar style of colouring. In his desire 
to attain the charm of the colours of the great 
Venetians, a very faded picture of that school led 
him to the conviction that they painted their pic- 
tures entirely in grey before putting on the bright 
colours. Working in this way he obtained an 
extraordinary clearness of colour, a good example 
of which is seen in his ' Moses protecting the 
Daughters of Jethro,' in the Berlin Gallery. 

DKAGHI, Giovanni Battista, was born at 
Genoa in 1657. He was a scholar of Domenico 
Piola, whose promptness and facility he imitated 
and acquired. He resided at Parma and Piacenza, 
where there are several of his works. They evince 
something of the design of the Bolognese school, 
with the taste of Parmigiano. In the church of 
San Francesco il Grande at Piacenza, is a picture 
by him of the 'Martyrdom of St. James.' The 
dome of Sant' Agnese, in the same city, is by this 
master ; and in the church of San Lorenzo, a pic- 
ture of the titular Saint. At Genoa there are some 
of his easel pictures in private collections. He 
died at Piacenza in 1712. 

DRAKE, Nathan, a portrait painter, flourished 
at York and Lincoln in the middle of the 18th 
century. He occasionally painted views, and was 
a member of the Society of Artists, with whom he 
exhibited from 1760 to 1780. 

DRAPENTIERE, John, an engraver, was pro- 
bably from his name a native of France. He was 
in England about the year 1691, and was employed 
by the publishers in some plates of portraits and ' 
frontispieces, which are executed with the graver 



in a neat, but tasteless style. The following 
portraits are by him . 

■\Yilliam and Mary, when Prince and Princess of Orange. 

John Graham, Viscount Dimdee. 

Tliomas White, Bishop of Peterborough. 

Benjamin Calamy, Prebendary of St. Paul's. 

Henry Cuttes, of the Middle Temple. 

Sir James Dyer, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. 

Peter Perkins, Mathematician. 

Daniel Burgess, Dissenting Minister. 1691. 

Benjamin Keach, Anabaptist Minister. 

Elias Keach. 

John Todd, A.M. 

He also engraved a satirical print of a lady 
shaving a gentleman; inscribed,' Le Beau Service.' 

DREBER, Heinrich, (called Feanz-Deeber,) 
a German landscape painter, was born at Dresden 
in 1822. Living in the house of a relation 
whose name Franz he adopted, he frequented the 
Academy of his native city, and afterwards the 
studio of Ludwig Richter. After he had gained 
the gold medal, he resided for some time in 
Munich, and in the spring of 1843 went as exhibi- 
tioner of the Dresden Academy to Rome, where 
he became a member of the Academy of St. Luke, 
and spent almost the entire remainder of his life. 
His study of Italian nature had the greatest influ- 
ence on his works, and at the same time the 
impression made upon him bj' modern French land- 
scape painters increased his desire to obtain a soft 
fusion of colours. He died in Anticoli di Campagna, 
near Rome, in 1875. His pictures, which were 
exhibited together in 1876 in the National Gallery 
at Berlin, are with few exceptions in the hands of 
private persons ; there are two in the Berhn Gal- 
ler3' — a ' Landscape, with the Hunting of Diana,' 
and 'An Autumn Morning in the Sabine Mountains.' 

DRECHSLER, Johann, a painter of flowers, was 
born at Vienna in 1756, and became a professor 
at the Academy of that city. He died at Vienna 
in 1811. He painted fruit and flower pieces in 
imitation of Van Huysum. There are examples of 
his work in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, and 
in the Vienna Gallery. 

DREUX, Alfred de, was born in Paris in 1808. 
He was a pupil of Leon Cogniet, and became a 
fashionable painter of race-horses and of equestrian 
portraits. Manj- of his pictures have been engraved. 
Among the best known are: 'The Postilion' 
(1836), 'The Imperial Guard' (1855), 'Equestrian 
Portrait of the Due de Nemours ' (1844), and several 
large hunting-pieces. He died in I860. 

]5rEVER, Adriaan van, a Dutch landscape 
and marine painter, flourished about 1673, and 
passed the greater part of his artistic life in Eng- 
land. In the Vienna Gallery there is a ' Winter 
Landscape ' by him. 

DREVET, Claude, a French engraver, the 
nephew of Pierre Drevet, was born probably at 
Lyons about 1705. He was instructed by his 
uncle, and engraved some portraits in a highly 
finished style, which renders them of considerable 
merit. He died in Paris in 1781. The following 
portraits are by him : 

Henri Oswald, Cardinal d'Auvergne ; after Rigaud. 
Charles Gaspard Guillaume de VintimiUe, Archbishop 

of Paris ; after the same. 
Philippe Louis, Count de Zinzendorf ; after the same. 
Mme. Le Bret, in the character of Ceres ; after the same. 
Pierre Calvairac, Abbot of Pontignan ; after A. Le Prieur, 

DREVET, Pierre, an eminent French engraver, 
was born at Loire in the Lyonnais in 1663. He was 
first a pupil of Germain Audran at Lyons, but 



PIERRE IMBERT DREVET 




After H. Rigaud, 1723] 



BISHOP BOSSUET 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



afterwards finished his studies in Paris under Gerard 
Audran. In 1696 he became court engraver, and 
in 1707 was made an Academician, and for his 
reception he engraved, although not until 1722, the 
portrait of Robert de Cotte. He died in Paris in 
1738. His works, which are chiefly portraits, are 
well drawn and very highly finished. The following 
prints are by him : 

SACRED SUBJECTS. 
Abrabam*s Sacrifice ; after A. Coj/pel. 
The Aunuuciation ; after the same. 
The same subject ; smaller. 
The Crucifixion ; in two sheets ; after the same. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after H. Rigaud. 

PORTBAITS. 

Charles II., King of Great Britain. 

James Francis Edward Stnart, called the Old Pretender. 

James Fitzjames, Duke of Berwick. 

Oliver Cromwell. 

Louis Xiy., full-length ; after Eigaiid. 

Louis XV., seated on his Throne ; after the same, 

Philip v., King of Spain ; after the same. 

Louis, Dauphin of France ; after the same. 

Frederick Augustus, King of Poland ; after F. de Troy. 

Francois Louis, Prince of Conde ; after Rigaud. 

Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse, with the Glove. 

The same Portrait, without the Glove. 

Ren6 Francois de Eeauveau, Archbishop of Narbonne ; 

after Rigaud. 
Andre Hercule, Cardinal de Fleury ; after the same. 
Warie de Neufchatel, Duchess de Nemoius ; after the 

same. 
Louis Antoine, Duke de Noailles ; after the same. 
Louis Hector, Duke de ViUars, Marshal of France; after 

the same. 
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg. 
Andr6 F61ibien ; after Le Brun. 
Nicolas Boileau Despr^aux ; after De Piles. 
Hyacinthe Rigaud ; from a picture by himself. 
Marie de Serre, mother of Eigaud ; after Rigaud. 
Robert de Cotte, architect ; after the same. 
Nicolas Pierre Camus de Pontcarre, first President of 

the Parliament of Rouen ; after Jouvenet. 
Jean Forest, painter ; after N. de Largilliere, 

DREVET, Pierre Imbert, the son of Pierre 
Drevet, was horn in Paris in 1697. He had the 
advantage of his father's instruction, and at a very 
early age was distinguished by the talent which he 
displayed. The works of this excellent artist may 
have been surpassed in boldness and freedom, but 
have hardly been equalled in the exquisite finish 
and clearness of his stroke. His celebrated por- 
trait of Bossuet, engraved in 1723, is one of the 
finest line-engravings which has ever been executed, 
whilst that of Samuel Bernard is scarcely less 
admirable. About 1730 he became insane, but 
engraved until the year of his death, in which he 
executed the portrait of Ren6 Pucelle. He died in 
Paris in 1739. The followingarehisprinoipal works: 

SACRED SUBJECTS. 

Adam and Eve after their Transgression; after A. Coypel. 
The same subject ; smaller ; very highly finished. 
Eebekah receiving from Eliezer Abraham's presents; 

after the same. 
The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple ; after 

Le Brun. The first work of the engraver. 
The Holy Family ; after A ntoine Dieu. 
The Presentation in"the Temple ; after Louis de Bout- 

longne. The engraver's chef-d'oeuvre. 
Christ in the Garden of Ohves, with Angels ; after J. 

Restout. 
The Resurrection ; after J. Andre. 
St. Theresa ; after J. Lingre. 

PORTRAITS. 

Louis XIV., when young, conducted by Minerva to the 
Temple of Glory ; after A. Coypel. 



Louis, Duke of Orleans ; after Charles Coypel. 

Mary Clementina Sobieska, wife of the Old Pretender ; 

after Davids. 
Francois de La Mothe F^nelon, Archbishop of Cambrai ; 

after Vivien. 
Fran(;ois Paul de Villory, Archbishop of Lyons ; after 

Santerre. 
Claude Le Blanc, Minister of War ; after Le Frieur. 
Cardinal Dubois, Archbishop of Cambrai ; after Rigaud. 
3. B. Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux ; f uU-length ; after the 

same. 
Samuel Bernard ; after the same. 
Isaac Jacques de Vertamont, Bishop of Conferans ; after 

De Troy. 
Rene Pucelle, Abb^ and Counsellor of the Parliament ; 

after Rigaud. His last work, 1739. 
Adrienne Lecouvreur, in the character of Cornelia ; 

after Charles Coypel. 

Full particulars of the works of Pierre, Pierre 
Imbert, and Claude Drevet, are to be found in M. A. 
Firmin-Didot's work ' Les Drevet,' Paris, 1876, 8vo. 

DREW, J. P., a portrait and figure painter, 
worked in London during the first half of the 19th 
century. He exhibited at the Royal Academy 
until 1852. 

DREYER, Dankvart Christian Magnus, a 
Danish landscape painter, was born in 1816 at 
Assens, where lie died in 1852. The Copenhagen 
Gallery has a ' Landscape ' by him, dated 1839. 

DRIELST, Egbert van, born at Groningen in 
1746, practised under several masters ; the last 
were H. Meyer of Haarlem, and J. Cats of Am- 
sterdam. He particularly studied the works of 
Hobbema, Ruisdael, and Wynants, and compared 
them with nature. By this course his pictures 
approached nearer to the manner and taste of the 
great masters of the preceding century than to 
tliose of his own time. The subjects he represented 
were well-wooded landscapes, with farms and 
cottages, which he ornamented with figures and 
animals, correctly designed. He was fond of the 
picturesque effects of ruined hovels, old broken 
and uprooted trees, and barren heaths. These he 
depicted with a thorough knowledge of light and 
shade, and with a colour suited to the objects. 
Sometimes, however, there is a certain degree of 
negligence or inattention to be observed in his 
pictures ; and here and there he appears to be a 
mannerist. He died in 1818. His son, Jan Vuuring 
van Drielst, an artist of much promise, was born 
in 1790, and studied under his father, but died in 
181.3. 

DRILLENBURG, Willem, a Dutch landscape 
painter, was born at Utrecht in 1625. He was for 
some time a scholar of Abraham Bloemaert, but 
abandoned the style of that painter in order to 
imitate the charming landscapes of Jan Both. 
Although he never approached the excellence of 
that master, his pictures are said by Houbraken, 
who was his scholar, to possess great merit. 

DROECH SLOOT, Joost Cornblisz. See 
Drooch Sloot. 

DROESHOUT, Jan, an engraver, was perhaps, 
from the date at which he flourished, a relation of 
Marten Droeshout. There are by him a few portraits, 
frontispieces, and other works for the booksellers, 
among which are : 

The Portrait of Richard Elton ; prefixed to his ' Compleat 
Body of the Art Military,' 1650. 

The Portrait of John Danes ; engraved for his ' Para- 
lipomena Orthographiae,' 1638. 

Two plates for Heywood's ' Hierarchie of the blessed 
Angels,' 1635. 

DROESHOUT, Marten, an engraver, who was 
probably a Dutchman, resided in England about the 

89 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



year 1623. He was chiefly employed by the book- 
sellers, and engraved some portraits, which, if they 
cannot be admired for the beauty of their execution, 
are valued for their scarcity. His best known por- 
trait is that prefixed to the first folio edition of 
' Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, 
& Tragedies,' published in 1623. The excellence 
of this likeness of the great dramatist is attested 
by the following verses of Ben Jonson, which are 
printed opposite to it : 

To the Reader. 
This Fignre, that thou here seest put, 

It was tor gentle Shakespeare cut ; 
Wherein the Grauer had a strife 

"With Nature, to out-doo the hfe : 
O, could he but haue drawne his wit 

As well in brasse, as he hath hit 
His face ; the Print would then surpafise 

All, that was euer writ in brasse. 
But, since he cannot, Reader, looke 

Not on his Picture, but his Booke. 

B.I. 

Other portraits by Droeshout are : 

James, Marquis of Hamilton. 

Thomas, Lord Coventry. 

John Donne, Dean of St. Paul's. 

Helkiah Crooke, M.D. 

John Fox, the Martyrologist. 

John Howson, Bishop of Durham. 

Lord Mountjoy Blount, afterwards Earl of Newport. 

DROLLING, Martin, a native of Oberbergheim, 
near Colmar, was born in 1752. He received his 
first lessons in art from an obscure painter of 
Schlestadt, but afterwards went to Paris and entered 
the Bcole des Beaux-Arts. He gained a momentary 
celebrity by his ' Interior of a Kitchen,' painted 
in 1815, exhibited at the Salon of 1817, and now 
in the Louvre. He usually painted interiors and 
familiar subjects of general interest. Although 
faulty in drawing and never above mediocritj', his 
works were popular during his lifetime, and many 
of them were engraved and lithographed. He died 
in Paris in 1827. The Louvre has by him a 
' Woman at a window ' and a ' Violin-Player.' 

DROLLING, Michel Martin, a French his- 
torical and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 
1786. He studied under his father, Martin Drolling, 
and under David, and obtained the ' grand prix da 
Rome ' in 1810. In 1833 he was elected a member 
of the Institute, and in 1837 became a professor of 
the ltco]e des Beaux-Arts. He died in Paris in 
1851. Amongst his best works, which are all 
conceived in the classical spirit in which he was 
brought up, are: 

Orpheus and Eurydice. 1817. 

Ulysses carrying off Polyxeua. 1S27. 

The Good Samaritan. 1822. In the Lyons Museum. 

The Death of Cardinal RicheHeu. 1831. 

Christ disputing with the Doctors : in the church of 
Notre-Dame de Lorette, Paris. 

The Communion of Marie Antoinette : tn the chapel of 
the Conciergerie, 

DROOCH SLOOT, Joost Cornelisz, (Drooo- 
SLOOT or Droech Sloot,) a landscape and his- 
torical painter of Utrecht, flourished from 1616 to 
1660. In 1616 he was admitted into the Guild of 
St. Luke at Utrecht, and in 1623-24 he became 
its dean. He gave to the hospital of St. Job, at 
Utrecht, in 1628, a picture of ' Job and his Friends,' 
the landscape part of which is said to be very 
beautiful : in 1638 he was named regent of the 
nospital. There is a portrait of him, painted by 
himself, in the manner of old Teniers ; he is 

90 



Madrid. Gallery. 
Modena. Gallery. 
Paris. Louvre. 

Petersburg. Hermitage, 
Rotterdam. Museuvt. 
Vienna. Gallery. 



seated at his easel, and his studio is furnished 
with pictures : it bears date 1630, and he appears 
about 50 years of age. Some of his works are 
signed with the annexed monogram : '7.^5^ 
As he is classed with very respectable Jlx> 
painters of the period, by writers on whose judgment 
reliance may be placed, he must not be confounded 
with Nicolaas Drooch Sloot, whose works of a like 
nature are known in England, and rank among the 
lowest of his country. The following pictures by 
Joost Drooch Sloot are in public galleries : 

Oafieel. Gallery. View of a \^Ilage. 

Dresden. Gallery. View of a Village Street. 
Hague. Museum. A Kermesse. 1652. 

A Dutch Village. 1652. 

Skaters. 

Peasants. 

Troops passing through a Village. 

1645. 
A frozen Canal in Holland. 
A Village Fete. 1649. 
Duel between the Dutch Ger- 
hards and the French Briant^s, 
1600. (Painted in 1630.) 

DROOCH SLOOT, Nicolaas, was born at Dor- 
drecht in 1 650, and is supposed to have been a scholar 
of Hendrik Mommers. He painted village wakes 
and rural assembhes, which are distinguished by a 
disgusting vulgarity of character, which is not 
compensated by the agreeable tone of his colouring, 
or the spirit of his pencil. He died in 1702. 

DROSSAART, , a Dutch painter of land- 
scapes with ruins and stag-hunts, lived in the 17th 
century. 

DROST, Geraert, a Dutch painter, was born at 
Amsterdam about the year 1638. He was brought 
up in the school of Rembrandt, and afterwards 
visited Italy, where he improved his style of design, 
by studying the works of the great masters of the 
Roman school. He died in 1690. The Cassel 
Gallery possesses a ' Christ and the Magdalen after 
the Resurrection,' by him ; and the Amsterdam 
Museum has a' Daughter of Herodias receiving the 
Head of John the Baptist.' His works have occa- 
sionally been mistaken for those of Rembrandt. 
In the Dresden Gallery there is a profile portrait 
of a man in a large hat, signed ' I. V. Doeste,' 
supposed to be by Drost ; tliere are also in the 
same gallery, an ' Old Man teaching a Boy to 
read,' and ' Argus and Mercury ' — both of which 
are ascribed to the same master. 

DROUAIS, FiiANgois Hubert, a French portrait 
painter, was born in Paris in 1727. He studied at 
first under his father, Hubert Drouais, and then 
became a pupil successively of Nonotte, Carle Van 
Loo, Natoire, and Boucher. He was received as 
an Academician in 1758 upon his portraits of the 
sculptors Coustou and Bouchardon, the former 
of which is now at Versailles, and the latter in the 
6cole des Beaux-Arts. These led to his intro- 
duction to the court, where he painted portraits of 
the whole of the Royal Family, and of most of 
the celebrities and beauties of the period. He ex- 
hibited at the Salon from 1755 to 1775, in which 
year he died in Paris. The Louvre has by him a 
picture containing the portraits of the Comte 
d'Artois, afterwards Charles X., and his sister, 
Madame Clotilde, afterwards Queen of Sardinia, 
when children. The Museum of Orleans possesses 
his charming portrait of Madame de Pompadour. 

DROUAIS, Hubert, a French portrait painter, 
was born at La Roque, near Pont-Audemer in 
Normandy, in 1699. He at first studied at Rouen, 



FRANCOIS HUBERT DROUAIS 




\Collection of the Countess of Varborough (Baroness Conyers) 
AMELIA, NINTH BARONESS CONYERS 



FRANCOIS HUBERT DROUAIS 




A LADY 



[Sout/i KensingtoH 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



but subsequently came to Paris, and entered the 
studio of l)e Troy, after wliose death he was em- 
ployed by J. B. Van Loo, A. S. Belle, Oudry, and 
Nattier. Besides painting portraits in oil, and in 
water-colours, he gained much celebrity by his 
miniatures. He was received into the Academy 
in 1730, and died in Paris in 1767. 

DROUAIS, Jean Germain, the younger son of 
Francois Hubert Drouais, was born in Paris in 
1763. He studied under his father and under 
Brenet, and then entered the school of David. In 
1784 he astonished the Academy by his picture of 
' Christ and the Woman of Canaan,' which gained 
the first prize, and is now in the Louvre. The 
next year he accompanied David to Rome, where 
he studied the works of Raphael and the antique, 
sending to Paris a study of a ' Wounded Gladiator,' 
' Marius at Minturnae,' now in the Louvre, and 
' Philoctetes breathing forth imprecations against 
the Gods,' which was his last work. He died of 
fever at Rome in 1788. 

DRUEFKEN, — , a German engraver on wood, 
who usually marked his prints with a cluster of 
grapes, is mentioned by Evelyn in his ' Sculptura.' 
Among other cuts, he executed one representing 
the King of the Boors in Hungary eaten alive by 
the rebels whom he had duped. 

DRUIVESTEYN, Aart Jansze, an amateur 
Dutch painter, was born at Haarlem in 1564. 
Van Mander speaks in very favourable terms of 
his talent as a painter of landscapes with figures, 
although, being of an opulent and distinguished 
family, he practised the art only for his amuse- 
ment. He died in 1617. 

DRUMMOND, James, a Scotch historical and 
genre painter, was born in Edinburgh in 1816. He 
studied under Sir William Allan, and first exhibited 
at the Scottish Academy in 1835, of which body he 
became an Associate in 1846, and an Academician 
in 1852. He became curator of the Edinburph 
National Gallery in 1868, and died at Edinburgh 
in 1877. He studied archaeology closely, and his 
works show great care for antiquarian details. 
Amongst the best are : 

The Return of Mary, Queen of Scots, " 

to Edinburgh after her surrender 

at Oarberry Hill. [In JVafional 

King James I. of Scotland seeing his J- Galle'ry of 

future wife at Windsor. &cotlaiid.) 

The Porteous Mob. 
Montrose on his way to execution. 

War f (^^^"^ff'^y '" '''* Queen.) 
Old kortalHy. 
Cromwell in Edinburgh. 

DRUMMOND, Samuel, an English portrait and 
historical painter, was born in London in 1765. 
He studied in the Royal Academy, of which he 
became an Associate in 1808, and afterwards 
curator of the Painting School. He died in 1844. 
Amongst his works are : 

Battle of Trafalgar. 

Death of Nelson. 

Admiral Duncan receiving the sword of Admiral De 

Winter (Greenwich Hospital). 
Charles Mathews, the elder. 
Richard Parker, leader of the Nore Mutiny. 
Sir Isambard Brunei (National Portrait GallerT/). 
Mrs. Fry (Natioiud Fortrait Gallery). 

DUBBELS, Hendrik and Dirk, are men- 
tioned by Balkema, as being found in the cata- 
logues of Hoet and Terwesten, but without any 
information as to their family, or the time at which 



they lived. He speaks of a ' River-scene ' pamted 
in the manner of Willem van de Velde, of a ' Winter- 
piece with Skaters,' which was sold in 1773 under 
the name of Pieter Dubbels, and of another, sold 
in Van der Linden Slingelandt's sale, by Hendrik 
Dubbels. This is all he could collect among his 
countrymen, respecting artiste who may claim rank 
with the best of their school as marine painters. 
In the incidental notices that occur of Hendrik 
Dubbels, he is by some called the master of Bak- 
huisen ; by others, the scholar ; the probability is 
in favour of the former. His works bear little or 
no resemblance to those of Bakhuisen or Van de 
Velde, except in their subjects; they are more 
analogous to those of Van de Capelle. In the Van 
der Hoop Collection at Amsterdam is one of great 
excellence, and many others are to be found in rich 
collections in this country, which fact proves that 
his merit has been appreciated, though, unfortu- 
nately for his reputation, it has been under a differ- 
ent name. There is by him in the Amsterdam 
Museum a ' River Scene,' and in the Copenhagen 
Gallery is a ' Sea-piece.' 

DUBBELS, Jan, a scholar of Bakhuisen, painted 
marine subjects in the manner of his master ; he 
was living in 1715. A 'Sea-piece' in the Pitti 
Palace, Florence, and a ' Calm Sea ' in the Cassel 
Gallery are ascribed to him. It is not unlikely 
that he is identical with Hendrili Dubbels. 

DUBOIS, Ambroise, was born at Antwerp in 
1543. Going in 1568 to Paris, he was employed at 
Fontainebleau and in the Louvre, made painter in 
ordinary and ' varlet de chambre ' to the king, and 
naturalized in 1601. Having been appointed painter 
to Mary de' Medici in 1606, he worked at the 
Luxembourg during her regency. Of his numerous 
works at Fontainebleau, only tho.se in the chapel of 
St. Saturnin, the series of fifteen pictures of the 
' Loves of Theagenes and Chariclea ' (one of which 
is now in the Louvre), some of the eight subjects 
of 'Tancred and Clorinda,' painted for the bed- 
chamber of Mary de' Medici (one of which, the 
' Baptism of Clorinda,' is now in the Louvre), and 
a few fragments on canvas, re-painted in the time 
of Louis Philippe, now remain. He died at Fon- 
tainebleau in 1614. Among his pupils were his two 
sons, Jean and Louis. 

DUBOIS, B., (or Dn Bois,) a French painter of 
landscapes and an etcher, was born about 1620, 
and from his etchings is supposed to have been a 
scholar of Claude Lorrain. Of his works, which 
are rare, may be mentioned, a ' Landscape with 
cattle,' another with a storm, and a third with a 
shepherd and a shepherdess. 

DUBOIS, Charles, a French painter of historical 
landscapes, flourished in the early part of the 18th 
century. He was a native of Valenciennes, and 
executed some works for the church of St. Gery in 
that city. In 1734 he sent two landscapes to the 
' Exposition de la Jeunesse ' at Paris. 

DUBOIS, Edhard, born at Antwerp in 1622, 
was a scholar of an obscure artist named Groen- 
wegen. He afterwards went to Italy, and was for 
some time in the employment of Charles Emmanuel, 
Duke of Savoy. In the reign of William III. he 
came to England, and painted landscapes and 
portraits, with little success. He died in London 
in 1699. 

DU BOIS, Elias, a native of France, was chiefly 
employed in engraving portraits. Among others, 
he engraved one of the Duke of Sully, which bears 
the date of 1614. 

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92 




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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



the novels of Sir Walter Scott, and of several other 
works. He died in Paris in 1870. 

DUBOURG, LODEWTK FABEicins, an historical 
painter, and an engraver, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1693, and died there in 1745. He was a scholar 
of De Lairesse and Jacob van Huysum. After 
producing several beautiful pictures, some of which 
may be seen at the Westerkerk, and the New 
Church at Amsterdam, he exchanged the brush for 
the graver, and executed some pretty vignettes 
and other small compositions, and also etched a 
number of plates from his own designs. His 
collection of pictures and drawings was sold at 
Amsterdam in 1776. 

DU BOYS, Heinrich, an historical painter of 
the school of Rubens, was working at Cologne up 
till his death in 1628. Several of the churches in 
that city possess pictures from his hand, as the 
' Ascension of the Virgin,' ' St. Mary at the Capi- 
tol,' together with four smaller ones fixed to the 
pillars opposite the high altar ; the ' Angel of the 
Annunciation,' and two small Saints, in the church 
of the Holy Virgin ; and the 'Taking down from 
the Cross' (1623) in that of the Greater St. Martin. 

DU BREUIL, TonssAiNT, a French painter and 
pupil of Freminet the elder, was born in Paris in 
1561. He painted at Fontainebleau in the Pavilion 
des Poesies, ' Mars and Venus,' and fourteen pic- 
tures representing the ' History of Hercules,' and in 
the Galerie des Cerfs, thirteen bird's-eye views 
of royal residences. He likewise decorated the 
Galerie des Rois in the Louvre, but this was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1661. There are many drawings 
by Du Breuil in the Louvre, but all his pictures 
seem to have perished. He died in Paris in 1602. 

DUBUFE, Claude Marie, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1790, 
and studied under David. His subjects were at 
first classical, and then scriptural, but his reputa- 
tion rests chiefly on his portraits, of which be 
produced a large number. Dubufe, who was the 
last representative of the school of David, died 
at Selle-Saint-Cloud in 1864. Amongst his chief 
works are : 

A Roman suffering starvation with his family rather 
than touch a sum of money entrusted to him. 1810. 

Christ allaying the tempest. 1819. 

Apollo and Cyparissa. 1822. 

The Birth of the Duke of Bordeaux. 1824. (Orleans 
Museum.) 

The Passage of the Bidassoa. 1824. 

Four frescoes representing ' Egypt,' &c. {Conseil (TEtat, 
Fans.) 

The Surprise. 1828. {National Gallery, London.) 

Portrait of Louis PhiHppe. 

„ „ General Montesquiou-Fezenzac ( Versailles). 
., „ Nicholas Koechlin. 1841. 
„ „ the Queen of the Belgians. 

DUBUFE, LoDis Edodaed, a French portrait 
painter, the son of Claude Marie Dubufe, was bom 
in Paris in 1820. He was a pupil of his father 
and of Paul Delaroche, and made his d^but at the 
Salon of 1839, with an ' Annunciation,' and a 
'Huntress.' His earlier works were mostly of a 
religious character, the chief of them being ' Christ's 
Entry into Jerusalem' (1845), and two scenes from 
'Clarissa Harlowe ' (1847), but from 1848 he de- 
voted himself almost exclusively to portraiture, 
for which he possessed a talent like that of his 
father. Among his best known portraits are those 
of the Empress Eugenie, the Princess Mathilde, 
Madame Roul ler, the Princess Ghika, General Fleury, 
the Count of Nieuwerkerke, M. Gounod, Jules Ja- 
niu, Alexandre Dumas the younger, Emile Augier, 



and Philippe Rousseau, the painter. His large 
picture of the 'Congress of Paris in 1856,' now at 
Versailles, the ' Prodigal Son,' exhibited in the 
Salon of 1866, and the ' Death of Adonis,' in that of 
1877, are the most important of his otlier works. 
He died at Versailles in 1883. 

DUG, Anton, who flourished in the middle of the 
17th century, would, but for two or three works by 
him which are known, have remained in obscurity. 
One signed A. Doc is in the Vienna Gallery ; it 
represents a ' Lady and Gentleman asking mercy 
of some infantry ofiBcers, who are plundering their 
house.' Another, of a similar character, is in the 
Dresden Gallery ; it bears the monogram L. D. 
(interlaced), and represents a ' Peasant and his Wife 
begging for mercy of a soldier who threatens the 
life of the husband.' The Marquis of Bute pos- 
sesses a third: a 'Guard- Room, with ladies and 
ofBcers playing trio-trac' These works are well 
executed in the style of Palamedes. 

DUC, Jacob. See Ddck. 

DUCCI, ViRGiLio, a scholar of Albani, flourished 
about 1660 ; he imitated the manner of his master, 
and painted in the cathedral of Citta di Castello 
two pictures of Tobias, which are said to be 
executed in an elegant style. 

DUCCIO, the son of Buoninsegna, was the first 
of the Sienese painters who abandoned the Byzan- 
tine manner. He is said to have been born about 
1260, but the earliest mention of him is in 1282. 
He is also reported to have been a pupil of Segna 
di Buenaventura, but the works of the latter, and 
their dates, which are between 1305 and 1326, 
show him to have been, on the contrary, Duccio's 
scholar. In 1285 he made a contract with the 
Fraternity of Santa Maria in Florence to paint an 
altar-piece of the 'Virgin and Child, with Saints,' 
for their chapel in Santa Maria Novella, but this 
picture and the ' Annunciation,' which he painted 
for Santa Triniti in Florence, no longer exist. 
In 1302 he painted a ' Madonna ' for the chapel of 
the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena, which is now lost. 
In 1308 he commenced his famous altar-piece for 
the high altar of the cathedral of Siena, which was 
finished and carried to its place with great cere- 
mony in 1311. For this painting he had agreed 
to be paid at the daily rate of sixteen soldi, but, 
owing to the enormous amount of gold and ultra- 
marine expended on it, the cost mounted up to 
2000,or,;as others say, 3000 gold florins. This picture 
was fourteen feet long, by seven feet high, and 
was painted on both sides — the front showing the 
' Virgin and Child, surrounded by various Saints 
and Angels ' ; and the back twenty-seven subjects 
from the life of Christ. These latter designs were 
paid for by a separate contract, which is likewise 
preserved, at the rate of two and a half gold florins 
each. It has now been moved from its original 
position, and the two portions of which it consisted 
have been separated and hung "in the Gallery of the 
Opera del Duomo" of the cathedral. It is the only 
undoubted work by Duccio which remains. Th& 
date of Duccio's death is unknown, but it was pro- 
bably soon after 1339. His pupils were Segna, 
IMartini, the two Lorenzetti, and perhaps Ugolino.^ 
The following paintings are also ascribed to him : 

Cologne. Bamhoux Coll. St. John the Baptist preaching. 
Two panels : St. Peter and St. 

London. National Gall. The Madonna and Child, with 
Angels ; and David with six 
Prophets above; SS. Dominic 
93 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



and Catharine on the doors. 
(A triptych.) 
Siena. Academy. Triptych — The Virgin, Child, and 
Saints. 
„ „ Virgin and Child, with four 

Saints. 
„ Hospital of Santa Triptych— The Flagellation, The 
Maria delta Scala, Crucifixion, The Entombment 
{spoiled hy restoration). 
Windsor. Castle. An Altar-piece: the Virgin aud 
Child, the Crucifixion, and other 
subjects. 

DUCERCEAU, Jacques Androuet. See An- 

DROUET-DUCEECEAU. 

DUCHANGE, Gaspard, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1662. He was a pupil 
first of Guillaume Vallet and afterwards of Jean 
Audran, and was received into the Academy in 
1707. He died in Paris in 1757. Duchange may 
be ranked among the ablest artists of his country, 
particularly for the mellowness and harmony with 
which he has combined his etching with a taste- 
ful management of the graver. His plates after 
Correggio are peculiarly expressive of the admir- 
able style of that painter. The number of his 
works is considerable ; the following are the most 
esteemed : 

portkaits. 

Fran9ois Girardon ; after Rigaud ; presented for his 
reception into the Academy in 1707. 

Charles de La Fosse, painter ; after the same ; presented 
upon the same occasion. 

Antoiue Coypel, with his Son ; after a picture by him- 
self. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

Jupiter and lo ; after Correggio. 

Jupiter and Danae ; after tin same. 

Jupiter and Leda ; after the same. 

[The best impressions of the above fine prints are before 

the name of Sornique, who retouched the plates, and 

added draperies.] 
The Entombment of Christ : after Paolo Veronese. 
Mary Magdalen washing the Feet of Christ after 

Jouvenet. 
Christ driving the Buyers and Sellers from the Temple ; 

after the same. 
The Sacrifice of Jephtha ; after A. Coypel. 
Tobit recovering his Sight ; after the same. 
Venus sleeping, with three Loves and a Satyr ; after the 

same. 
The Death of Dido ; after the same. 
The Bath of Diana ; after the same. 
Solon explaining his Laws to the Athenians ; after iV. 

Coypel. 
Trajan dispensing Justice to the People; after the same. 
Diana disarming Cupid ; after Desormeaux. 
The Birth of Mary de' Medici ; after Ruhens. 
The Landing of Mary de' Medici at MarseUles ; after 

the same. 
The Marriage of Henry IV. and Mary de' Medici ; after 

the same. 
The Apotheosis of Henry IV. and Kegeucy of Mary de' 

Medici ; after the same. 
The Interview of Mary de' Medici and her son, Louis 

XIU. ; after the same. 
The five last plates were engraved for the Luxembourg 
Gallery. 

DUCHATEL, FRANgois, (or Du Chastel,) a 
Flemish painter, born at Brussels in 1616, is said 
to have been a pupil of David Teniers the younger, 
whose style he followed in some of his pictures, 
representing village festivals ; but he is more known 
for his small family portraits and conversations 
in the manner of Gonzales Coques, and his 
pictures are not unfrequently taken for those of 
that master. He is said to have worked also in 

94 



Paris in conjunction with Van der Meulen. His 
most considerable work is a large picture in the 
Museum at Ghent, representing ' The Inaugura- 
tion of Charles II., King of Spain, as Count of 
Flanders, in 1666, in the Marche au Vendredi at 
Ghent; ' it is dated 1668, and has been engraved 
by Lucas Vorsterman. Duchatel's works are very 
rare : there is in the Louvre ' A Cavalier and two 
other persons ; ' in the Museum at Avignon, ' The 
Interior of a Guard-House;' in the Brussels Gallery, 
' Portraits of two little Girls ; ' and in the Copen- 
hagen Gallery, ' Tric-Trac Players.' The ' Panorama 
of Valenciennes,' in the Antwerp Gallery, though 
ascribed to Teniers, is set down by some critics to 
Duchatel. He died in 1694. 

DUCHEMIN, Catherine, a French flower and 
fruit painter, was born in Paris in 1630, and died 
there in 1698. She married, in 1657, the sculptor 
Girardon, and in 16G3 was received into the Aca- 
demy, being the first lady on whom this honour 
had been conferred. 

DUCHESNE, Jean Baptiste Joseph, known as 
Duchesne de Gisors, a French painter of minia- 
tures and enamels, was born at Gisors in 1770. He 
was the son of Jean Baptiste Duchesne, a sculptor, 
and a pupil of Vincent. He exhibited at first under 
the name of Duchesne, afterwards under that of 
Duchesne des Arqilleus, and finally, from 1833 
until his death, under that of Duchesne de Gisors. 
He died at Gisors in 1856. 

DUCHESNE, Nicolas, who was first painter to 
the Queen Mother, Mary de' Medici, was a mediocre 
painter in all but the direction of others. He was 
superintendent of the decorative works at Fon- 
tainebleau, where he maltreated all the artists in 
his charge. He died in 1627. 

DUCHINO. See Landriani. 

DUCHTL, Martin. See Dichtl. 

DUCIS, Louis, born in Paris in 1773, was in- 
structed by David, whom he partly imitated in his 
liistorical pieces, besides which he devoted himself 
also to genre and portrait painting. His 'Mary 
Stuart ' and ' The D6but of 'Talma ' were formerly 
in the Luxembourg Gallery. He died in 1847. 

DUCK, Jacob, a Dutch genre painter, entered 
the Guild of St. Luke at Utrecht in 1626. He 
gave a picture, representing a musical reunion, to 
the hospital of St. Job in that city. He painted 
military conversation pieces in the taste of Jan Le 
Ducq, but with less delicacy of touch and finish ; 
they are nevertheless of great beauty. His paint- 
ings are to be met with at Vienna, at Dresden, and 
at Christiania, where there is also an etching by 
him of the ' Adoration of the Kings.' Many writers 
state that this artist was the father of Jan Le 
Ducq, but this is extremely doubtful, as well by 
reason of the variation in the name, as by the fact 
that Jan Le Ducq is known to have been born at 
Haarlem in 1636, whereas Jacob Duck resided 
constantly at Utrecht from 1626 to 1646. 

pUCORNET, Louis CiSsar Joseph, a French his- 
torical painter, was born of poor parentage at LiUe, 
in 1806. He was deformed from his birth, having 
neither arms nor thighs, and only four toes to his 
right foot. While still a child, he used to pick up 
pieces of charcoal from the floor with his toes, and 
made rough sketches on the wall, which evinced so 
much promise that he received some local in- 
struction. By the help of the municipality of 
Lille, he was sent to Paris, studied under Letliiere 
and Gerard, and for a time received a pension. He 
died in Paris in 1856. His chief pictures are : 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Repentance. 1828. 

The Parting of Hector and Andromache. {Lille Museum.) 

St. Louis admiuistoring Justice. {Lille Museum.) 

Death of Mary Magdalen. 1840. {St. Andre, Lille.) 

The Repose in Egypt. 1841. 

Christ in the Sepulchre. 1843. 

Edith finding the body of Harold. 1855. 

DUCORRON, Jdles, a Belgian landscape painter, 
was born at Ath in 1770. At the age of thirty-two, 
he devoted himself to the art of painting under the 
direction of Ommeganck, and made marvellous 
progress as a landscape painter, obtaining several 
gold medals. He was afterwards director of the 
Academy at Ath, where he died in 1848. The 
Brussels Museum has by him a ' View in tlie neigh- 
bourhood of Irclionwelz, near Chievres, Hainault,' 
and a ' Gale of Wind at Sunset.' 
DUCQ, Jan Le. See Le Ddcq. 
DUCQ, JosEPHDS Feancisods, a Flemish historical 
and portrait painter, was born at Ledeghem in 
1763. He studied at Bruges, and then under Suv^e 
in Paris, where he obtained the second grand 
prize in 1800, and a medal in 1810. He also spent 
a considerable time in Italy, but returned to Bruges 
in 1815, and became a professor in the Academy. 
He died at Bruges in 1829. Amongst his chief 
works are : 

Meleager. 1804. 

Devotion of a Scythian. 1810. 

Marriage of Angelica and Medora. 1812. 

Venus emerging from the Sea. {Brussels Museum.) 

"WilJiam I., King of the Netherlands. {Bruyes Academy.) 

Van Gierdergom. {Bruges Academy.) 

DDCREUX, Joseph, a French portrait painter, 
was born at Nancy in 1737. He engraved his own 
portrait in three different characters, which were 
published in London in 1791, but he died in Paris 
in the same year. 

DUCROS, PiEEBE, a Swiss landscape painter in 
oil and water-colours, and an engraver, was born 
in 1748. He lived for a considerable time at Rome, 
and painted views of that city and its environs. He 
executed in a masterly manner twenty-four views 
of Sicily and Malta, besides numerous drawings 
made during his sojourn in Italy, some of which 
are of large dimensions. He died at Lausanne in 
1810. 

DUDERSTADT, Heinrich von, is said to have 
painted in the church of the Paulines at Gottingen, 
in 1424, the large altar-piece which is now in the 
library of that church. It represents scenes from 
the life of the Virgin and the Passion, and is 
signed, frater Ms. Dudstadens. 

DUDLEY, Thomas, an Enghsh engraver, was 
born about the year 1634. He was a pupil of 
Hollar, and though greatly inferior to that cele- 
brated artist, his prints are not without consider- 
able merit. He engraved a set of twenty-seven 
plates for Barlow's ' Life of .ffisop,' published in 
1687, as well as the following portraits : 

Richard Russell, Bishop of Portalegre. 
James Sharpe, Bishop of St. Andrew's. 
Titus Oates. 

DUETECUM, Baptista, (or Doetechum,) who 
flourished from about 1614 to 1646, was probably 
a son of either Joannes or Lucas van Duetecum. 
He engraved a set of plates representing the 
various habits and manners of the Indians. They 
are executed entirely with the graver, in a stiff, 
indifferent style. 

DUETECUM, Joannes and Lucas van, (or 
DOETECHDM,) who flourished respectively from 
about 1659 to 1585 and 1596, were natives of 



Holland, and are supposed to have been brothers. 
They etched conjointly, in a bold masterly manner, 
several large prints, representing the pompous 
funeral of the Emperor Charles V. 

DU FAUR, Cheistian Wilhelm von Fabeb. 
See Faber nn Faur. 

DUFFEIT, Geraert. See Douffet. 

DUFFIELD, William, a painter of flowers, 
fruit, and still-life, was born at Bath in 1816. He 
studied under George Lance, and afterwards in 
the schools of the Royal Academy, and under 
Wappers at Antwerp. His early works were 
portraits, but in 1849 he sent to the Royal 
Academy a fruit-piece, his first exhibited work, 
and continued to exhibit there and at the Society 
of British Artists a number of pictures of a very 
high degree of excellence. He settled in London 
in 1857, and died there in 1863. He married, in 
1850, Mary Elizabeth Rosenberg, of Bath, who 
is well known as a water-colour painter of flowers, 
birds' nests, and fish. 

DUFLOS, Claude, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris about 1662, and died in the same city 
in 1727. It is not known by whom he was in- 
structed, but his style resembles that of Fran9ois 
Poilly. We have by this artist a great number 
of plates, executed principally with the graver, 
and very neatly finished. The following are the 
most deserving of notice : 

PORTRAITS. 

Philip, Duke of Orleans ; after R. Tournieres. 
Jean Francois Paul de Gondy, Cardinal de Retz. 
Denis Francois de Chavigny, Bishop of Troyes. 
Nicolas Lyon, Procureur du Roi ; after Herluyson. 
Jean Jacques Gaudart, Conseiller du Roi ; after Largil- 

liere. 
Marc Rene de Voyer ; after Hyacinthe Rigaud, 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 
The Entombment of Christ ; after P. Feruyino ; tor the 

Crozat Collection. 
The same subject ; after Raphael. 
St. Michael discomfiting the Evil Spirit ; after the same; 

for the Crozat Collection. 
Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus; after Faolo 

J'eronese; for the Crozat Collection. 
The Adulteress before Christ ; after JV. Colomhel. 
Christ at table with the Disciples ; after Titian. 
Bust of the Virgin ; after Guido. 
The Annunciation ; after Allani. 
Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen ; after the same. 
St. CecUia ; after P. Miynard. 
The Presentation in the Temple'; after Le Sueur. 
The Descent from the Cross ; after the same. 
The Murder of the Innocents ; after Le Brun. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives ; after the same. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 
The same subject; after the same; from the print Dy 

£delinck. 
The Dead Christ, with the Virgin and St. John ; after 

the same. 
The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after the same. 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same. 
The Penitent Magdalen ; after the same. 
The Annunciation ; after A. Coy pel. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 

The Magdalen at the foot of the Cross ; after the same, 
A Concert ; after Domenichino. 
The Triumph of Galatea ; after the same, 
Cupid stung by a Bee ; after the same. 
The same subject ; smaller and circular. 
Bacchus and Ariadne ; after the same. 
The Triumph of Bacchus ; after C. Naioire. 
The Triumph of Amphitrite ; after the same. 

DUFLOS, Claude Augustin, the son of Claude 
Duflos, and, like his father, an engraver, was born 

96 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



in 1700. He is supposed to have died in 1784 or 
1785. 

DUFLOS, Francois Philoth^e, a painter and 
engraver, was born in Paris about 1710. He 
studied under De Troy, gained the ' prix de 
Rome' in 1729, lived for some time in Italy, and 
in 1740 painted his own portrait for the Uffizi. 
He died at Lyons in 1746. 

DU FOUR, N., was a native of France, who 
flourished about the year 1760. Among other 
prints, he engraved several small plates after 
Weirotter and other masters. 

DU FRESNE, Charles, a French engraver, 
executed some copies of the works of Callot and 
Albrecht Diirer, besides a few other plates, among 
which was 'The Interview between St. Nilus and 
the Emperor Otho III.,' after Domenichino. He 
flourished from about 1791 to the early years of 
the 19th century. 

DU FRESNOY, Charles Alphonse, is perhaps 
more celebrated for his poem on the art, than for 
his merit as a painter. Born in Paris in 1611, he 
was destined by his father, who was an apothecary, 
to the practice of physic, and, with that intention, 
he received the best education possible. Bis 
progress in his studies was more than usually 
promising ; he soon became well versed in the 
classics, and at an early period of his life showed 
a marked genius for poetry. His love of paint- 
ing was not less conspicuous ; and when he was 
eighteen years of age he placed himself under 
the tuition of Fran9ois Perrier, and afterwards 
entered the school of Simon Vouet. After study- 
ing under these masters for about three years, he 
formed the project of visiting Italy, although 
without any other resources than what he could 
derive from the exercise of his talent. On his 
arrival at Rome, his first attempts were views 
of the buildings and architectural ruins in the 
vicinity of that city, which, though not without 
merit, he had great difiSculty in introducing to 
public notice. He languished at Rome for two 
years, in indigence and obscurity, when Pierre 
Mignard, who had been his fellow-student under 
Vouet, arrived there. The meeting of the young 
friends was most cordial, and from that moment 
an attachment sprang up which existed during the 
remainder of their lives. Mignard, who was the 
more successful, divided with his friend his earn- 
ings ; and although he possessed greater facility 
than Du Fresnoy, he was frequently assisted by the 
counsels of his friend, and his perfect acquaintance 
with the theory of the art, of which he has given 
ample proof in his poem, ' De Arte Graphica.' 
The Cardinal of Lyons employed them in copying 
the works of Annibale Carracci, in the Farnese 
gallery ; and they were most assiduous in their 
studies after Raphael and the antique. Felibien 
has given a particular account of his works at 
Rome, of which the following are the principal : 
'The Ruins of Campo Vaccino ; ' 'A young Athe- 
nian visiting the Tomb of her Lover ; ' ' The filial 
Piety of .lEneas ; ' ' Mars finding Lavinia sleeping 
on the Banks of the Tiber,' one of his best pictures; 
' The Birth of Venus,' and ' The Birth of Cupid.' In 
1653 he left Rome to return to France, by way of 
Venice, where he was so struck with the works of 
Titian, that he wrote to his friend to rejoin him in 
tliat city, and there he remained eighteen months, 
profiting greatly by his studies. In 1656 he 
returned to Paris, where he painted, among other 
works, a picture of ' St. Margaret,' for the church 

96 



dedicated to that saint, a saloon in the ChSteau 
Raincy, and four landscapes in the Hotel d'Hervart, 
afterwards the Hotel des Postes, in which the figures 
were painted by Mignard. The remainder of his 
life was employed in preparing for publication his 
poem, which, however, did not appear until three 
years after his death. He died at Villiers-le-Bel, 
near Paris, in 1665. There are in public galleries 
the following paintings by him : 

Paris. Louvre. St. Margaret. 

„ „ Naiads. 

Vienua. Czemin Coll. The Vision of Alcmene. 

DUGGAN, Peter Paul, a native of Ireland, went 
while quite young to America. He afterwards re- 
turned to England, and resided for some years near 
London, but died in Paris in 1861. He painted 
portraits in oil, but more often worked in crayons. 

DUGHET, Gaspard, (commonly called Gaspard 
PonssiN, or Le Guasfre,) was born at Rome in 
1613. His parents Were French subjects, who had 
settled in the Eternal City. They appear to have 
been people of a kindly disposition, for about 1629 
they received into their house their fellow-country- 
man, Nicolas Poussin, then a lonely and friendless 
student in Rome, and nursed him tenderly through 
a dangerous illness. This friendship brought 
about the great painter's marriage with a daughter 
of his hosts. Nay more, Poussin, seeing the in- 
clination of the young Gaspard towards art, took 
him as his pupil, and for three years carefully 
superintended his instruction. Dughet owed much 
to the solid foundation thus laid by his brother-in- 
law, and he ever proved himself a most devoted 
disciple. He was fond of hunting, fishing, and 
out-door sports, and did not fail to profit by the 
opportunities thus afforded him of studying nature, 
and enriching his knowledge of her ever-changing 
aspects. After leaving Poussin's studio, his'inde- 
pendent nature led him, though scarcely yet twenty, 
to set up for himself ; and the progress he made in 
his art soon brought patronage. 

He spent a year at Perugia and Castiglione with 
the Duke della Cornia, who treated him with great 
consideration, and escorted him back to Rome at 
the conclusion of his visit. With another patron 
he made a trip to Milan, and after a severe illness 
the Duke della Cornia took him away again for the 
recovery of his health, and procured him many 
commissions. This trip was followed by visits to 
Florence, where he painted some decorative works 
at the Pitti Palace, and to Naples, before he once 
more settled down in Rome. 

This point may be said to mark the conclusion of 
the first period of Dughet's art, during which the 
works produced by him are to be distinguished by 
a coldness and certain want of freedom. He now 
came under the influence of Claude Lorrain, at 
this time in the zenith of his fame at Rome. The 
study of his works had a most beneficial effect on 
Dughet, and to it is due the warmth and mastery 
over light and air observable in the works of 
his maturer period. He never married, and with 
the exception of time given to sport and social 
pleasures — he was not a hermit-bachelor, but loved 
the society of genial spirits — his life was devoted 
to the pursuit of his art. The better to enable 
him to study the scenery of Rome and his loved 
Campagna, from which the subjects of the majority 
of his pictures were taken, he had four houses at 
which he spent his time : two in elevated situa- 
tions in Rome itself, one at Tivoli, and another at 
Frascati. The facility of execution which he 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



acquired was marvellous, and he is said to have 
required only one day to finish a large picture. 
Hence his works are almost innumerable, and 
specimens are found in nearly all the public and 
private collections of Europe. Besides easel works, 
he found time also to execute in fresco subjects 
from the life of the prophet Elias at the Carmelite 
Church of San Martino ai Monti at Rome. His 
finest works are in the Doria Palace, and others are 
in the Colonna and Borghese Palaces. It should 
not be forgotten that he received much assistance 
from his brother-in-law, from Pietro da Cortona, 
from Filippo Lauri, and from many others, in the 
figures introduced into his compositions ; but this 
consideration is in no way sufficient to remove 
the feeling of surprise at his wonderful fertility. 
Amongst bis pupils, the chief names are those of 
Crescenzio di Onofrio, Vincentio, and Jacques De 
Rooster of Mechlin. During his life he had saved 
30,000 Roman crowns; but his generous habits, and 
an illness of two years before his death, which took 
place at Rome in 1675, did not leave more than 
sufficient to provide for his honourable burial. 

In a brief summary of Dughet's characteristics, 
his partiality for quiet lights should first be men- 
tioned. He excels in the representation of effects 
before sunrise, and in the reproduction of the 
peaceful tones of evening. But his great strength 
lies in the portrayal of tempests. D'Argenville 
observes that no painter before him had been able 
to reproduce the effects of wind and storm in 
his pictures: the leaves seem to move, and the 
trees cease to be inanimate objects under his brush. 
His works now convey an impression of great 
grandeur and solemnity, and this sombreness has 
probably increased in the course of years by his 
predilection for painting on a dark ground. 

The drawings which he left are very finished in 
execution: some are outlined with the pen, and 
tinted with bistre or Indian ink : others are drawn 
with the pencil and touched up with white, or 
occasionally with black. There are also eight 
etchings by him, four of which are oval, inscribed 
with the Italian form of his name, Gasparo 
Duche inv. sc, Bomae, or G.D.s.-, or Gasp. Dughet 
sculpsit. 

Tlie following is a list of some of the pictures by 
which he is represented in the chief collections of 
Europe : 



Bel voir Castle. 

if )» 

Brocklesby Park. 
Cambridge 



ENGLISH GALLERIES. 

Christ and the Disciples going to 

Emmaus. 
Two other Landscapes. 
St. Jerome. 
Five other Landscapes. 



icilliam > Landscape. 



Museum.} 
Castle Howard. Three Landscapes. 

Chatsworth House. ~' 

Clumber Park. 
Corsham House. 
Dulwich. Gallery. 



Five Landscapes. 
Three Landscapes. 
Landscape, Storm. 
Destruction of Niobe. 
Conversion of St. Paul. 
Three other Landscapes. 
Land Storm. 
Hampton Court. Palace. Christ's Agony in the Garden. 
,» „ The Angels appearing to the 

Shepherds. 
Two Landscapes. 
Two Landscapes. 
Abraham and Isaac. 
Dido and jEneas. 
Four other Landscapes. 



Edinburgh. Nat. Gal, 



Isleworth. Sion House. 
Knowsley Hall. 
London. National Gal. 



London. Bridgewater ) 
House. ] 

„ Buckingham } 
Palace. } 
„ Grosvenor 

House. 

jy )» 

„ Dorchester \ 

House, J 

„ Stafford House. 

„ Hertford House. 

„ Bath House. 

Longford Castle. 
Osterley Park. 
Panshanger House. 
Petworth House. 
Wardonr Castle. 
"We I beck Abbey. 
Wilton House. 
"Windsor. Castle. 



A Storm. 

Three other Landscapes. 

Landscape. 

View of Tivoli and the Temple of 

the Sybil. 
Two other Landscapes. 

Four Landscapes. 

Landscape. 
View of Tivoh. 
Landscape. 
Two Landsc-apes. 
Four Landscapes. 
Two Landscapes, 
One Landscape. 
Two Landscapes. 
Landscape. 
Landscape. 

Jonah {Jiyures hy N. Poussin). 
Landscape, known as " Solitude." 
„ „ Two other Landscapes. 

Wobuni Abbey. Four Landscapes. 

FOREIGN GALLERIES. 



Ajaccio. 

Avignon. 

Basle. 

Berlin. 

Bordeaux. 

Cassel. 

Cherbourg. 

Dijon. 



Museum. 
Museum. 
Museum. 

Gallery. 
Museum. 

Gallery. 
3fiiseu7n. 
Museum. 



Dresden. Gallery. 

)» »» 

Florence. Uffizz. 

Pita Pal. 
Gotia. Gallery, 

Hague. Museum. 

Lausanne. Arlaud Mus 
Lille. Museum. 

Lyons. Museum. 

Madrid. Gallery. 



Milan. Pinacoteca. 

Montpellier. Museum, 



Munich. Gallery. 



Nantes. 
Nar bonne. 
Nismes. 
Oldenburg. 
Paris. 



Museum. 
Museum. 
Museum. 

Gallery. 

Louvre. 



Petersburg. Hermitage. 
Puy. Mu^eu77i. 

Quimper. Museum, 

Rome. Barberini 

Palace. 

„ Borghese Pal. 

„ Colonna Pal. 

M Corsini Pal. 

„ Doria Palace. 



Stockholm. Gallery. 



Turin. Gallery. 

Venice. A cademy. 

Vienna. Gallery. 



VOL. II. 



H 



Two Landscapes. 

Four Landscapes. 

Three Landscapes. 

Italian Landscape. 

Two Landscapes. 

Three Landscapes. 

One Landscape. 

Alpheus and Arethnsa. 

Apollo and the CumEean Sybil. 

View on a Lake. 

Three other Landscapes. 

The Fishermen. 

Several Landscapes. 

Landscape. 

Landscape. 

Three Landscapes. 

One Landscape. 

Hagar. 

St. Jerome. 

St. Mary Magdalen before the 

Cross. 
Five other Landscapes. 
St. John the Baptist as a child. 
Apollo and Daphne. 
Temple of the Sybil at Tivoli. 
Nine other Landscapes. 
Temple of the Sybil at Tivoli. 
Mountainous Landscape. 
One other Landscape. 
Three Landscapes. 
Landscape. 
Landscape. 
Landscape. 
A Landscape. 
Five Landscapes. 
Flight into Egypt. 
Oiie other Landscape. 
Finding of Moses. 

[■ Three Landscapes. 

Several Landscapes. 

Several Landscapes. 

Several Landscapes, 

St. Mary of Egypt. 

Mercury. 

A Forest. 

The Flight mto Egypt. 

St. Augustine on the sea-shore 

with an Angel. 
Death of Adonis. 
Temple of the Sybil at Tivoli. 
View of Nemi. 
Seven other Landscapes. 
The Cascades of TivolL 
Landscapes. 

The Tomb of Caecilia Metella 
A Landscape. 
A Wooded Landscape. 

97 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Vienna. Anhdulce) t j 

Alhrecht's Gal. \ I^^ndscape. 
„ Liechtenstein^ mi, t j 

Gallery, j ^^"""^ Landscapea. 
1, Harrach Gallery. Landscape. 
„ Czernin Gallery. Two Landscapes. Q. J. D. 

DUGHET, Jean, a brother of Gaspard Dughet, 
was bom at Rome in 1614, and studied under 
Nicolas Poussin, after whose works he engraved. 
He died in 1676. Of his prints the following are 
the most worthy of notice : 

The Seven Sacraments ; from the pictures painted by 
Nicolas Poussin for the Cavaliere del Pozzo, differing 
from those formerly in the Orleans collection. 

Mount Parnassus ; after the same. 

The Birth of Bacchus ; after the same. 

The Judgment of Solomon ; after the same. 

DU GUERNIER FAMILY. 

Louis (1660— ab. 1620). 
Alexandre (fl. ab. 1600). 



Louis (1614—1659). Aleiaudre (d. 1666). Pierre (1624—1674). 

DU GUERNIER, Alexandre, the elder, son of 
Louis Du Guernier the elder, and like him a painter 
of portraits and miniatures, flourished about the year 
1600. His portraits, equal to those of his father, 
are rare and much sought after. Being a Protest- 
ant, he went abroad in consequence of the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, and died in exile. 

DU GUERNIER, Alexandre, the younger, a 
landscape painter, was a younger son of Alexandre 
Du Guernier the elder. He died in Paris in 1655, 
being cut short in a career of great promise. 

_DU GUERNIER, LoDis, the elder, a French 
miniature painter, born in 1550, executed numerous 
drawings for books of hours and breviaries, as well 
as portraits of many of the most noted persons of 
his time. He painted for the Duke of Guise a book 
of prayers, in which the ladies of the court were 
represented with the attributes usually given to 
the saints. He ordinarily worked on vellum, stip- 
pling without making use of white. He died about 
1620. 

DU GUERNIER, Louis, the younger, the eldest 
Bon of Alexandre Du Guernier the elder, was born 
in Paris in 1614. He was added to the foundation 
members of the Royal Academy of Painting in 
1651, became professor in 1655, and died in Paris 
in 1659. His sister, Susanne, married the cele- 
brated historical painter, S^bastien Bourdon. 

DU GUERNIER, Louis, a French engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1677, and came to England in 
1708. He assisted Du Bosc in engraving the 
battles of the Duke of Marlborough, and executed 
some illustrations to the works of Spenser and 
Gay. He died in 1716. 

DU GUERNIER, Pierre, who was considered 
the best enamel painter of his day, was a younger 
son of Alexandre Du Guernier the elder. He 
was born in Paris in 1624, became an acade- 
mician in 1663, and died in Paris in 1674. His 
portraits are distinguished by a freshness and 
brilliancy of colour, afterwards surpassed by 
Petitot alone. 

DUGY, , a French engraver, flourished 

about the year 1760. He engraved several slight 
prints, after the works of Francois Boucher and 
other masters. 

DU HAMEEL, Alart, a goldsmith and engraver 
of the 15th centurj-, is known by a plate of ' The 
Last Judgment,' after Jerom Bosch, and a ' Church 
Tabernacle." 

98 



DU HAMEL, A. B., a French engraver, flour- 
ished about 1760. He resided in Paris, and was 
employed chiefly by the booksellers in engraving 
book-plates and portraits, among the latter being 
those of Jolyot de Crebillon and Jean Jacques 
Rousseau. 

DUIVEN, Jan, born at Gouda in 1600, was a 
scliolar of WouterCrabeth, and had a great reputa- 
tion as a portrait painter. He died in 1640. 

DU JARDIN, Karel, was born probably at 
Amsterdam about 1625. He was a pupil of 
Nicolaas Berchem, and was unquestionably the 
ablest scholar of that celebrated master. His 
progress was extraordinary, and to perfect him- 
self he travelled to Italy when he was still very 
young. On his arrival at Rome he was received 
into the Bentevogel Society, where the title of 
' Barbe de Bouc ' was conferred on him. His 
studies were assiduous and constant, and his 
pictures acquired estimation in Rome, where they 
were admired beyond those of any artist of his 
country. After a residence of several years at 
Rome he returned to Holland, where his pictures 
were not less admired than they had been in Italy, 
and he met with great success. Notwithstand- 
ing this flattering encouragement, his desire of 
revisiting Italy was so great that he left home for 
Venice, where he died in 1678. The pictures of 
Du Jardin are more conformable to the taste of 
Italy than to that of Holland, and they generally 
exhibit a warmth and brilliancy of atmosphere, 
with clear and sparkling skies. His landscapes 
are always pleasing in their scenery, and they are 
decorated with charming figures and animals, in 
which, to the truth and finish of Paul Potter, he 
unites a taste which is not found in the works of 
that celebrated cattle painter. As he died young, 
and his pictures are highly wrought up, they are 
scarce, and very valuable. The following are 
some of the best: 

Young man tasting wine. 1664. 

Ereninl' } ^'"^^ Landscapes. 

Landscape and Animals. 

The Advance Guard. 1652. 

The Betum to the shed. 

Charlatans. 

Allegory. 1663. 

Diogenes and the Boy who drinks 

with his hand. 
Maid milking a Goat. 
Ox and Goats in a Landscape. 
Smith shoeing an Ox. 
Peasants in a Landscape. 
Halt of Horsemen. 
Farrier's Shop. 
Cascade in Italy. 16T3. 
The Spinner. 
Pasturage. 
Fording a Stream. 
Tobit and the Angel. 
Calvary. 1661. 
Italian Charlatans. 1657. 
The Ford. 
The Pasturage. 
The Grove. 1646. 
Landscape and Animals. 1660. 
Portrait of a Man. 1657. 
Seven Landscapes. 
Herdsman and Cattle. 

He left about fifty-two admirable etchings of 
landscapes, figures, and animals, which are exe- 
cuted with uncommon taste and spirit. They are 
sometimes signed with his name at length, at 
other times with his initials or with a monogram. 



Berlin. 


Museum. 


Bordeaux. 
Brussels. 


Museum. 
Museum, 


Cassel. 

Copenhagen 
Dresden. 


Gallery. 

. Gallert/. 

Gallery. 


Dulwich. 


Gallery. 


Edinburgh. 


Gallery. 


Hague. 


Gallery. 


Lille. 
London. 


Museum. 
Bute Coll. 



Paris. 



Louvre. 



Petersburg. Hermitage. 
Vienna. Gallery. 



KAREL DU JARDIN 




Woodbury Co. photo\ 



LANDSCAI'E WITH CATTLE REPOSING 



{National Gallery 



Q 

< 

Q 

W 
< 







W 
U 

CO 



H 



H 

Z 

o 






PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



DUJARDIN, Louis, a Frencli engraver on wood, 
was born at Rouen in 1808, and died in Paris in 
1859. He executed some of the illustrations to 
Charles Blanc's ' Histoire des Peintres.' 

DULIN, Pierre. See Ulin, Pierre d'. 

DULLAERT, Heinman, a Dutch painter, was 
born at Rotterdam in 1636. He was the son 
of a dealer in pictures, and having shown an 
early inclination for art, he was placed in the 
school of Rembrandt. Under that able instructor 
his progress was such, that in a few years 
some of his small pictures were painted so much 
in the style of his master as to be mistaken for 
Rembrandt's own. He generally painted cabinet 
pictures of historical subjects and portraits, which 
were deservedly admired for harmony of colour, a 
vigorous touch, and a masterly effect of light and 
shade. He died at Rotterdam in 1684. 

DULONG, Jean Lcdis, a French historical and 
portrait painter, was born at Astaifort (Lot-et- 
Garonne) in 1800. He was a pupil of Gros and 
of Abel de Pujol, and died in Paris in 1868. 

DU MAURIER, George Louis Palmella Bus- 
son, humorous artist, was born in Paris in 1831. 
His mother was English, and his father, a son of 
French emigres settled in London, was a natural- 
ized British subject. Charming memories of his 
childhood and boyhood, spent chiefly at Passy with 
his parents, and at a Paris school, are to be found, 
charmingly illustrated, in the three novels, ' Peter 
Ibbetson,' ' Trilby,' and ' The Martian,' which won 
him an entirely new kind of fame in the closing 
years of his life. At the age of twenty he began 
the study of chemistry at University College, 
London, setting up shortly afterwards as an ana- 
lytical chemist in Biicklersbury. But he had 
found his true vocation in 1856, and after some 
years of study in the Latin Quarter, and at 
Antwerp, in the studio of Van Lerius (where he 
gradually lost the use of his left eye, a lifelong 
misfortune), he returned to London, and in I860 
submitted a sketch to ' Punch,' which immediately 
won him the favour of its editor, Mark Lemon. 
Critics are agreed that Du Maurier's art was at 
its best during the next ten years. Excellent 
specimens of his work for ' Once a Week ' and 
' The Cornhill,' to both of which periodicals he 
was a regular contributor during this period, are 
given by Mr. Gleoson White in his 'English 
Illustrators of the Sixties.' Many of his most 
characteristic drawings were done for books, be- 
ginning with an edition of ' Fox's Book of Martyrs,' 
published in 1865. In 1866 he illustrated Mrs. 
Gaskell's ' Wives and Daughters ' ; in 1867, Jer- 
rold's ' Story of a Feather' ; in 1868, Owen Mere- 
dith's ' Lucile,' ' The Book of Drawing-Room Plays,' 
by H. Dalton, and ' Sooner or Later,' by C. A. G. 
Brooke; and in 1869, Thackeray's 'Esmond,' to 
which he added some additional vignettes ten 
years later, when he also illustrated Thackeray's 
' Ballads.' He attained his highest level perhaps in 
some of his drawings for ' Esmond ' ; but whatever 
must be admitted in regard to his work for ' Punch,' 
there is little appreciable falling-off in his book 
illustrations in the seventies and eighties. In 
1874 he illustrated Mr. C. W. Scott's 'Round 
about our Islands,' and Mr. G. E. Sargent's ' Hur- 
lock Chase' ; in 1876, 'Songs of many Seasons,' 
by J. Brown ; in 1877, ' The Ingoldsby Legends ' 
(in collaboration), and ' Pegasus Re-saddled,' by 
H. C. Pennell; in 1882, 'Prudence,' by L. C. 
Lillie ; in 1889, 'As in a Looking-glass,' by F. C. 
n 2 



Phillips; and in 1891, 'Luke Ashleigh,' by A. 
Elwes. ' Peter Ibbetson,' ' Trilby,' and ' The Mar- 
tian,' after appearing serially in ' Harper's,' were 
published in volume form, respectively, in 1892, 
1894, 1897. In the same year, a collection of full- 
page drawings which he had contributed to ' Har- 
per's' month by month, was republished under the 
title ' English Society,' with an appreciative intro- 
duction by Mr. W. H. Howells. 

It was in 1865 that Du Maiirier joined the staff 
of ' Punch ' regularly as Leech's successor in the 
field of social satire, devoting himself chiefly, by 
Mark Lemon's advice, to the " light and graceful 
business," hut with occasional excursions into the 
fields (outside Leech's province) of the macabre 
and the grotesque. In temperament, if not in 
technique, the two artists had much in common. 
While Charles Keene's mirth-provoking characters 
seldom arouse in one feelings either of love or 
hate — hardly even of like or dislike — Leech's 
pages, as Du Maurier himself remarked, "teem 
with winning, graceful, loveable types " ; with 
" here and there a hateful one to give relief" This 
is equally true of Du Maurier's own work. There 
is feeling as well as fun in it ; sympathy as well as 
satire. To a far greater degree than Leech, he is 
a critic, not merely a spectator, of life ; the philoso- 
pher is as strong in him as the artist. It would 
be an injustice to him, therefore, to write only 
of his craftsmanship. Undoubtedly his ' Punch ' 
drawings, in course of time, lost something of 
their first freshness and simplicity, and became 
mannered and machine-made, but, at his worst, one 
may fairly apply to him another of his own judg- 
ments upon Leech : " If he shines more by what 
he has to say than by his manner of saying it, 
perhaps that is the better thing of the two to 
shine by if you cannot shine by both." There may 
be too much crofs-hatching in the representation 
of Sir Pompey Bedell's dress-clothes, but Sir Pom- 
pey himself, and Sir Gorgius Midas, and Mrs. 
Ponsonhy de Tomkyns, will live for ever. The 
flaws in Du Maurier's craftsmanship are flaws, 
moreover, that are visible to experts alone. They 
are like the solecisms of construction and slips of 
grammar which for the too sensitive literary critic 
mar the masterpieces of Thackeray and Sir Walter 
Scott. 

As a bachelor Du Maurier lived in lodgings in 
Bloomsbury with his friend Lionel Henley, after- 
wards A.R.A. In 1862 he married Miss Emma 
Wightwick, and settled down in a house near 
Hampstead Heath. His 'Punch' drawings reflect 
pleasantly the nature of his life — his active par- 
ticipation in all the functions of London Society, 
his own happy home and his holidays at Whitby 
and Scarborough, Boulogne and Dieppe. His 
faculty for hitting ofiE the characteristics of racial 
types, one of his most distinctive gifts as an 
artist, is particularly noticeable in his various 
representations of life abroad ; his Americans are 
almost his only failures. In 1881 he was elected 
a member of the Royal Society of Painters in 
Water-Colours, to whose exhibitions he had been 
contributing from time to time. In 1885 took 
place the first exhibition of his works at the Fine 
Arts Society. He died on October 8, 1896, and 
was buried in the Hampstead Cemetery. (See also 
under Keene.) F. W, W. 

DU MESNIL, Louis Michel, a French his- 
torical painter, became in 1750 professor at the 
Academy of St. Luke at Rome. He painted the 

99 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



' Visitation of the Virgin ' for the church of St. 
Jean-en-Greve at Paris, and one of the ' Beatitudes ' 
in the chapel of M. Turgot. A picture of his, 
' Belle, quel est votre dessein ? ' was engraved by 
C. Dupuis. His son, Pierbe Louis Dd Mesnil, 
who was born in 1698, and died in Paris in 1781, 
was also professor at the Academy of St. Luke, of 
which he became rector. He usually painted sub- 
jects of every-day life, some of which have been 
engraved. 

DU MONSTIER, Daniel, (Dn Moustier, or Du 
Moutier), the best known of his family, was born 
in Paris in 157-1. He was the son of Cosme and 
grandson of GeofEroy Du Monstier, and worked in 
crayons and pastels at the courts of Francis I., 
Henry IV., and Louis XIII., executing portraits of 
fjl the most distinguished personages of his time. 
His master is unknown, but as his style resembles 
that of Primaticcio, he probably studied under one 
of the Italians at the court of Francis I. He 
died in Paris in 1646. Nicolas Du Monstier, a 
son of Daniel, followed in his father's footsteps. 
He was born in Paris in 1612, was received into 
the Academy in 1665, and died in 1667. 

DU MONSTIER, Geoffroy, a French miniature 
painter, born early in the 16th century, and still 
living in 1547, was much employed at Fontaine- 
bleau by II Rosso. He likewise painted upon 
glass, and etched several plates which are described 
in Robert-Dumesnil's ' Peintre-Graveur Franpais,' 
vol. v. He is supposed to have painted in 
grisaille the following miniatures in manu- 
scripts : ' Francis I. conversing with Julius Caesar,' 
in the British Museum, and ' The Triumph of 
Petrarch,' in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris. 

DUMONT, Jacques, called Le Romain, on ac- 
count of a long sojourn which he made at Rome, 
was bom about 1700. He was an historical and 
genre painter, whose best work was his picture of 
' Hercules and Omphale,' which he painted for his 
reception at the Academy in 1728, but he had more 
reputation than talent. Some of his works were 
engraved by his contemporaries. His drawing and 
composition are good, but his colour is mediocre. 
He died in Paris in 1781. 

DD MOUSTIER. See Du Monstier. 

DUNCAN, Edward, a water-colour painter, was 
born in London in 1803. He was articled to Robert 
Havell, the aquatint engraver, and was thus afforded 
frequent opportunities of studying, and occasionally 
of copying, the works of William Havell. These 
developed his taste for drawing and the use of 
colour, and in 1831 he became a member of the 
New Society of Painters in Water-Colours, but he 
afterwards withdrew, and in 1849 was elected an 
Associate of the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours, and a full member in the following year. 
He died in London in 1882. His drawings com- 
prise a wide range of subjects, treated with much 
grace and great truthfulness to nature, but his 
larger and more important works are chiefly coast 
scenery, with shipping and craft admirably charac- 
terized. Among the best of them are the following : 

The Shipwreck. 1859. 
The Life-Boat. 1860. 
Blue Lights. 

Oyster Dredgers — Swansea Bay. 
Landiug Fish on the Sauds afc Whitby. 
Fishing Boats making for the Harbour of Boulogne — 
early morning. 

DUNCAN, TnoiiAS, was bom in 1807, at Kin- 
claven, in Perthshire, but was educated at Perth, 
100 



whither his parents had removed shortly after his 
birth. He showed very early signs of a pecuhar 
faculty by employing every moment in drawing 
such objects as struck his fancy, especially the 
portrait,s of his young companions ; and while still 
at school he painted the whole of the scenery for 
a dramatic representation of ' Rob Roy,' which he 
and his schoolfellows performed in a stable-loft. 
His parents, however, considered this use of his 
pencil an unprofitable waste of time, and placed 
him in the office of a law-writer. Released in 
time from the drudgery of the desk, and more 
than ever desirous of accomplishing his favourite 
object, he at length procured the consent of his 
father to his visiting Edinburgh, where he was 
placed under the able instruction of Sir William 
Allan, then master of the Trustees' Academy for 
the study of art, an establishment endowed by 
Government. Duncan's talent, fostered and di- 
rected by such a master, speedily developed itself, 
and he made rapid progress in the drawing of the 
human figure. The first picture which brought 
him into general notice was his ' Milkmaid ' ; and 
shortly after he exhibited his ' Old Mortality ' and 
' The Bra' Wooer.' He was appointed, at an un- 
usually early age, to one of the professorships — that 
of colour — at the newly-established Royal Scottish 
Academy, and subsequently, on the deatli of Allan, 
to the well-endowed mastership of the Trustees' 
Academy. In 1840 he sent to the Royal Academy 
his fine work, ' Prince Charles Edward and the 
Highlanders entering Edinburgh after the Battle 
of Preston Pans.' This picture brought the painter 
at once into most favourable notice. In 1841 
Duncan exhibited a most touching picture from 
the ballad of 'Auld Robin Gray,' termed 'The 
Waef u' Heart ' (now in the Sheepshanks Collec- 
tion in the South Kensington Museum) ; in the 
following year, ' Deer-stalking ' ; and in 1843, 
' Charles Edward asleep after the Battle of Cullo- 
den, protected by Flora MacDonald.' In 1844 
Duncan exhibited ' Cupid,' and ' The Martyrdom of 
John Brown of Priesthill, in 1685.' This, which is 
now in the Corporation Galleries at Glasgow, was the 
last picture by the artist exhibited in London, ex- 
cepting a portrait of himself, which, to the honour 
of his Scottish professional brethren, was purchased 
by subscription, and presented by them to the Royal 
Scottish Academy. Duncan was elected an 
Academician of the Royal Scottish Academy in 
1830, and an Associate of the Royal Academy in 
1843, but he did not long survive the latter honour, 
as he died at Edinburgh in 1845. Had his life 
been prolonged, there is no question but that he 
would have achieved a lofty position in historical 
painting ; as a colourist, indeed, he had few 
superiors. His portraits deserve mention as being 
faithfully and skilfully rendered. 

The following works by him are in the National 
Gallery of Scotland : 

Thomas Duncan. 

Anne Page inviting Slender to dinner. 

Jeannie Deans and the Bobbers. 

Portrait of Lady Stuart of AJlanbank. 

John M'Neill of Colonsay. 

Lord Colonsay. 

Bpan — a celebrated Scottish Deerhound. 

The two Friends, Child and Dog. 

DUNKARTON, Robert, a mezzotint engravei, 
was born in London in 1744. He was a pupil of 
Pether, and painted a few portraits, some of which, 
as also some portraits in crayons, were exhibited 



PAINTERS AND EXGRAVERS. 



at the Royal Academy and at Spring Gardens until 
1779. But his greatest success was gained as a 
mezzotint engraver. His plates are dated from 1770 
to 1811, after which year there is no record of him. 
He engraved in a clear, finished style several por- 
traits and historical subjects, of which the follow- 
ing are the principal: 

PORTRAITS. 
George, Lord Lyttelton ; after TVest. 
Jonas Hanw.iy ; after E. J-jlirards. 
Dr. Arne ; after O. Humphrey. 
Miss Homeck ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
John Elliot ; after N. Dance. 
Miss Bamfylde ; after W. Peters. 
James Brindley, engineer ; after Parsons. 
Miss Catley, in the character of Euphrosyne ; after 
Lawrenson, 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 
Lot and his Daughters ; after A. de Gelder. 
Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus ; after Guercino. 
Four subjects from the Life of Joseph ; aftei- the same. 

DUNKER, Balthasar Anton, a landscape 
painter and etcher, was born at Saal, near Stralsund, 
in 1746. He was a pupil of Jakob Philipp 
Hackert and of Vien, and was more distinguished 
as an etcher than as a painter. His works are after 
Roos, Van der Does, Hackert, and Schutz, and 
consist of costumes and manners of the French 
before the Revolution, illustrations of books, and 
other miscellaneous subjects. Among them were 
some excellent landscapes, as the ' Environs of 
Berne,' and views of Leghorn. He died at Berne 
in 1807. 

DUNKER, Philip Heinrich, son of Balthasar 
A. Dunker, was also an engraver, and a painter in 
water-colours. In both pursuits it seems that he 
was a copyist, as his drawings are after Kobell, 
Roos, Weenix, and others, and his engraving after 
a picture by Demarne is traced to one by Geisler. 
He died in 1836. 

D'UNKER-HENNING-LUTZOW, Karl Hin- 
DRICK, a genre-painter, was born at Stockholm in 
1829. Up to 1851 he was an officer in the Swedish 
Guards ; he afterwards studied at the Dijsseldorf 
Academy under K. Sohn, and visited Paris and 
Amsterdam. Having by an accident lost the use 
of his right arm, he quickly learnt to paint with 
his left, but he soon after succumbed to a chest 
disease, and died at Diisseldorf in 1866. He was 
Swedish court painter, and a professor and honor- 
ary member of the Royal Academj' at Stock- 
holm. The Berlin National Gallery possesses an 
'Announcement of Arrest ' by him. 

DUNLAP, William, an American painter, was 
bom at Perth Amboy, in New Jersey, in 1766. 
When only seventeen he painted a portrait of 
Washington. A group of himself and his parents, 
done in 1788, is in the collection of the New York 
Historical Society. He published in 1834 his 
' History of the Arts of Design in the United 
States,' and died in New York in 1839. 

DUNOUY, Alexandre Hyacinthe, a landscape 
painter, born in Paris in 1767, was a pupil of Briand. 
He exhibited at the Mus^e Royal in 1800 'Plusieurs 
6tudes d'apres la nature prises a Villers-Paul et 
Hyeres,' and during succeeding years many land- 
scapes and views ; in 1830 at the Luxembourg he 
exhibited ' Etudes d'apres nature a Montmorency : 
Autres prises a Jouy.' He also engraved a series 
of thirty landscapes from his own compositions, 
and some views in Italy and in the environs of 
Paris. He died in 1843. 



DUNSTALL, John, who lived in London aboui 
the year 1660, engraved a few portraits and other 
plates, which are etched and finished with the 
graver in imitation of the style of Hollar. In 
1662 he published a book of birds, beasts, flowers, 
fruit, &c., from his own designs. Among other 
portraits we have the following by him : 

Mary, Queen of James II. 

King William and Queen Mary. 

Samuel Clarke, prefixed to his ' Puritan DiWnes.' 

James XJssher, Archbishop of Armagh. 

DUNTHORNE, John, father and son, were two 
painters who practised at Colcliester in the latter 
part of the _18th century. The father painted 
portraits, whilst the son painted genre subjects, 
several of which appeared at the Royal Academy 
between 1783 and 1794. 

DUNWEGE, Victor and Heinrich, who were 
brothers, and painters of the school of Westphalia, 
executed conjointly a large altar-piece for the 
parish church of Dortmund. Though painted in 
the year 1523, it recalls the art of the 15th 
century, having a gold background, and being 
symmetrical in composition, but somewhat crude 
in colouring. It represents, in the centre, 'The 
Crucifixion ' ; on the interior of the wings, ' The 
Adoration of the Kings,' the ' Infant Jesus,' the 
'Virgin and several of her kindred;' and on the 
exterior ' The Donor kneeling before Christ,' who 
is surrounded by Saints. Similar in character 
to this altar-piece are a ' Holy Family ' in the 
Antwerp Gallery (formerly in the church of 
Calcar), and a ' Crucifixion ' in the Berlin Gal- 
lery (not now exhibited), which are ascribed to 
the brothers Dunwege. The ' Adoration of the 
Kings,' dated 1512, in the Naples Museum, is 
by a Westphalian master, resembling these artists 
in style. 

pUP^RAC, IItienne, (or Du P^eac,) a French 
painter, architect, and engraver, was born at Bor- 
deaux about 1525. He studied at Rome, and en- 
graved the ' Last Judgment,' after Michelangelo, 
and the 'Judgment of Paris,' after Raphael. He 
etched in the manner of Fontana forty plates, 
entitled 'I Vestigj dell' Antichita. di Roma,' and 
published in Rome in 1575. Henry IV. appointed 
Dup^rac architect at Fontainebleau, where he 
painted the bath-room with ' Marine Deities ' and 
the ' Loves of Jupiter and Calisto,' but these works 
were destroyed by fire in 1697. He died in Paris 
in 1604. 

DUPERREUX, Alexandre Louis Robert 
MiLLiN. See Millin Dupereeux. 

DUPLESSI - BERTAUX, Jean, a French 
draughtsman and engraver, was bom in Paris in 
1747. He engraved many plates for the 'Voyage 
k Naples et dans les Deux-Siciles ' of the Abb6 de 
Saint-Non, and for the ' Voyage en Grice ' of 
Choiseul-Gouffier, and etched some of the plates of 
the ' Galerie du Palais-Royal.' His best-known 
works, however, are those which he executed for 
the ' Tableaux historiques de la Revolution,' some 
of which are from his own designs, and the 
' Campagnes d'ltalie,' after the drawings of Carle 
Vernet. There are also plates by him in Denon's 
' Voyage en !^gypte,' the ' Musee Fran^ais,' and the 
' Mus^e Filhol.' He died in 1818 or 1819. 

DUPLESSIS, Joseph Sifrede, a French portrait 
painter, was bom at Carpentras, near Avignon, in 
1725. He was destined for the priesthood, but at 
an early age he showed his inclination for the arts. 
He was taught by his father, Duplessis the elder, 

101 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



and afterwards by Frfere Imbert. He visited Rome 
in 1745, and studied there under Subleyras ; and 
on his return home, after a short stay ax, Lyons, 
he established himself in Paris, and was received 
into the Academy in 1774. Losing his fortune in 
the Revolution, he accepted the post of conservator 
of the Museum of Versailles, where he died in 1802. 
He possessed a high reputation for his portraits, 
among which are those of Gluck (now in the 
Vienna Gallery), Franklin, Marmontel, the Abh^ 
Bossuet, and M. and Mme. Necker. 

DUPLONICH, Vedastus, a Dutch engraver, 
flourished about the year 1660. Among other 
prints, we have a few plates by him representing 
views in Holland, which are neatly engraved. 

DUPONCHEL, Chakles EuGi;NE, a French en- 
graver, born at Abbeville in 1748, was a scholar 
of Jacques Tardieu. He resided in England about 
the year 1779, and among other prints engraved a 
view of Waterford, from a drawing by Paul Sandby, 
the 'Madonna della Seggiola' of Raphael, a 'Holy 
Family ' after Andrea del Sarto, and several other 
historical subjects and portraits. He was living 
in 1804. 

DUPONT, Francois L^Sonard, called Dupont 
Watteau, a French painter, was born at Moorsel in 
1756, and studied at Lille under Louis Watteau, 
whose daughter he married in 1782. In 1798 he 
gave up art for mechanics, mth the study of 
which he had begun life. He died at Lille in 1824. 
During the years devoted to art, Dupont painted 
in all mediums and all subjects — portraits, genre 
subjects, &c. In the Lille Museum is a picture by 
him, dated 1785, of the ' Attributes of the Fine 
Arts,' and in the Glasgow Corporation Galleries is 
' The Vintage.' 

DUPONT, Gainsbokough, the nephew and pupil 
of Thomas Gainsborough, R.A., was born in 1767. 
He painted portraits and landscapes in imitation of 
the style of his uncle, and also landscapes with 
architectural ruins, in which he imitated Nicolas 
Poussin. His principal work is a large picture 
containing the portraits of the Trinity Masters, 
which is in their court-room on Tower Hill. He 
is, however, more distinguished as an engraver in 
mezzotinto, and his engravings of some of Gains- 
borough's portraits are imbued with the very spirit 
of the painter. He died in London in 1797. The 
following are his best plates : 

George III., full length ; after Gainsborough. 
Queen Charlotte, fiill length ; after the same. 
The Princess Royal, and the Princesses Augusta and 

Elizabeth, full length ; after the same. 
George, Lord Rodney, full length ; after the same. 
General Conway, full length; after Ihe same. 
Colonel St. Leger, full length ; after the same. 
Rev. Sir Henry Bate Dudley, Bart., full length ; after 

the same. 
Bev. Richard Graves, half-length, oval ; after the sam,e. 

DU PONT, Nicolas, who was bom at Brussels in 
1660, painted landscapes and architecture. The 
figures in his landscapes are attributed to Pieter 
Bout, the coadjutor of Bodewyns, in conjunction 
with whom lie painted the perspective of a grand 
palace, now in the Museum at Ghent. He died at 
Brussels in 1712. 

DU PONT, Paulds (better known as Paulds 
Pontius), an eminent Flemish engraver, was born 
at Antwerp in 1603, and was instructed in the 
art of engraving by Lucas Vorsterman ; but he 
improved his designs by the advice and friendship 
of Rubens, from whose works he engraved many 
admirable olates. Few artists have equalled him 

102 



in the correct and faithful delineation of his model ; 
and in the character and expression of his figures 
he appears to have possessed himself of the mind 
of Rubens. He was not less successful in the fine 
portraits he engraved after Van Dyck, in which 
he seems to have adapted his style to the particular 
character of the person represented. His plates 
are executed with the graver in a clear, bold style ; 
and, though he did not possess the facihty of 
Bolswert, or the delicacy of Vorsterman, his plates 
will ever be esteemed among the ablest pro- 
ductions of Flemish art. He died in 1658. The 
following are his principal works : 

POETRAITS AFTER VAN DTCR. 

Paulus Du Pont, or Pontius, Engraver. 

Peter Paul Eubens. 

Jacob De Breuck, Architect. 

Jan Wildens, Painter, of Antwerp. 

Jan van Ravesteyu, Painter, of the Hague. 

Palamedes Palamdesz, Dutch Painter. 

Theodoor van Loo, Painter, of Louvain. 

Theodoor Rombouts, Painter, of Antwerp. 

(Jornelis van der Geest, celebrated Connoisseur. 

Gerard Honthorst, Painter, of the Hague. 

Hendrik van Balen, Painter, of Antwerp. 

Adriaen Stalbent, Painter, of Antwerp. 

Daniel Mytens, Painter, of Holland. 

Gerard Seghers, Painter, of Antwerp. 

Simon De Vos, Painter, of Antwerp. 

Gaspar De Craeyer, Painter, of Ghent. 

Hendrik Steenwyck, Painter, of Antwerp. 

Gaspar Gevartius, Jurisconsult, of Antwerp. 

Nioolaas Rockox, Magistrate, of Antwerp. 

Jan van den Wouwer, Counsellor of State. 

Cffisar Alexander Scaglia, Abbot of Stophard. 

Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. 

Mary de' Medici, Queen of France. 

Francis Thomas, of Savoy, Prince of Carignan. 

John, Count of Nassau. 

Don Alvarez, Marquis of Santa Cruz. 

Don Carlos de Colonna, Spanish General. 

Don Diego FeUpe de Guzman, Marquis de Leganez. 

Mary, Princess of Aremberg. 

Henry, Count de Berghe, in armour. 

Sir Balthasar Gerbier. 

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. 

PORTRAITS AFTER RUBENS. 

Philip IV., King of Spain. 1632. 

Elizabeth of Bourbon, his Queen. 

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain. 

Ferdinand, Infant of Spain, on horseback. 

Gasparo Guzman, Duke of Olivarez. 

Cristoval, Marquis of Castel Kodrigo. 

Manuel de Moura Cortereal, Marquis of Castel 

Rodrigo. 
The Mother of Manuel, Marquis of Castel Eodrigo. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS AFTER EUBENS. 

Susannah and the Elders. 1624. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds. 
The Murder of the Innocents. In two sheets. 1643. 

Very fine. 
The Presentation in the Temple. 
Christ bearing His Cross. 
The Cruciiision, with Angels, one of whom is overcoming 

Sin and Death. 
The Dead Christ supported by the Virgin, with 

Mary Magdalen, St. Francis, and other figures ; very 

fine. 
The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 
The Assumption of the Virgin. 
The Virgin suckling the Infant Christ. 
St. Roch interceding with Christ for the Plague-stricken ; 

very fine. 
Thomyris causing the Head of Cyrus to be put into a 

Vessel of Blood. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Flight into Egypt ; after Jordaens. 
Twelfth-Night ; after the same. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



The Adoration of the Magi ; after G. Seyhers. 

The Virgin with the Infant Christ and St. Anne ; after 

the same. 
St. Francis Xavier kneeling before the Virgin and 

Child ; after the same. 
St. Sebastian, with an Angel drawing an Arrow from 

his breast ; after the same. 
A Dead Christ, supported by the Virgin ; after Van 

Iiyck. 
St. Kosalia, receiving a Crown from the Infant Jesus ; 

after the same. 
The Holy Family ; after J. van Hoeck. 
The Entombment of' Christ ; afier Titian. 

DUPONT, Pierre, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris in 1730. He is often confounded with 
Gainsborough Dupont. 

DUPPA, Richard, was an English copyist, who 
flourished in the latter half of the 18th and in 
the beginning of the 19th century. He studied 
for some time in Rome, and published two works 
containing copies of heads by Michelangelo and 
Raphael ; but he is chiefly known by his lives of 
these two painters, published in 1807 and 1816 
respectively. 

DUPRAT, , a French painter of the 18th 

century, is known by a portrait of the Princess 
of Asturias, Dona Maria Barbara, wife of Ferdi- 
nand VI., in the Madrid Gallery. No dates are 
known in connection with his life. 

DUPSfi, Jules, French painter, bom at Nantes 
in the year 1811. He learnt the rudiments of his 
art whilst assisting his father, a manufacturer of 
porcelain (in the village of Parmain, facing L' Isle- 
Adam), in decorating his pottery. He practically 
taught himself, wandering through the neighbour- 
ing country, whence he brought home studies 
painted on the spot with simple fidelity. Un- 
trammelled by any school traditions, young Dupri 
came to Paris, and at the age of twenty exhibited 
for the first time three pictures in the Salon of 
1831. Two of these, both forest scenes, were 
painted direct from nature in La Creuse, where his 
father had undertaken the management of a china 
factory belonging to the Marquis de Bonneval. 
He exhibited up to 1837, and sent seven landscapes 
to the Salon of 1839. After this for thirteen years 
he did not contribute to the Salon, but reappeared 
for the last time, in 1852, with three pictures : 
' Pastures,' ' The Outskirts of a VOlage in the 
Landes,' and ' A Sunset.' He sent a dozen works 
to the Universal Exhibition of 1867, which may be 
regarded as so many masterpieces, though he was 
only awarded a second-class medal. He had previ- 
ously obtained one at the Salon of 1833. His 
' View of the Fields near Southampton,' in 1835, 
had brought him congratulations from the most 
celebrated painters of the Romantic school. Eugene 
Delacroix was never tired of seeing and studying 
this picture. Dupr6 was passionately interested 
in the works of Constable, and assisted Theodore 
Rousseau to become known, even taking a studio 
for, and working with him. He endeavoured to 
paint on the system of etchers, merging the trees 
and background into the sky so as to represent 
the depth of air and space. At the Centenary 
Exhibition in the Champ de Mars, a fine collection 
of his works, with some of his most powerful sea- 
pieces were shovim. These were mostly painted 
during the siege of Paris, when he was shut up 
in his house at Cayeux-sur-Mer. He was the last 
painter of the Romantic school of landscape, and 
died on October 6, 1889, at L'Isle-Adam. 

DDPRfi, L^ON Victor, a French landscape 



painter, was bom at Limoges in 1816, and studied 
under his brother, Jules Dupr^. He died in 1879, 
after a long and painful illness. Amongst Ids 
works are : 

Meadows in Berry. 

Environs of St. Junien. 

Cows Drinking. 1855. {South Kensington Museum.) 

View at Argentan. 1861. 

Landscape in the Indre. 1864. 

DUPREEL, , was a French engraver of 

whom no particulars are related, but whose works 
are to be found in the 'Mus^e Franjais,' the 
'Galerie de Florence,' and other publications of 
the close of the 18th and commencement of the 
19th centuries. 

DUPRESSOIR, Joseph FEANgois, a French land- 
scape painter, was born in Paris in 1800. He 
painted chiefly views in the south of Prance, but 
sometimes ventured on historical subjects, as the 
' Battle of R^thel ' in the galleries at Versailles. 
He died in Paris in 1859. 

DUPUIS, Charles, (or Du Puis,) a French en- 
graver, was born in Paris in 1685. He was a pupil 
of Gaspard Duchange, and engraved several plates 
of portraits and historical subjects. They are etched 
with taste, and finished with the graver in a free, 
masterly style. His drawing is correct, and his 
heads are full of expression and character. He 
was a member of the Frengh Academy, and died in 
Paris in 1742. The following are his plates most 
worthy of notice : 

PORTRAITS. 
Louis XV. ; after Banc. 

Henry of Lorraine, Duke of Guise ; after Du Monstier. 
Nicolas Coustou, sculptor ; after Le Gros. 
Nicolas de LargiUiere, painter ; after Gueulain. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 
St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after C. Maratti. 
The Marriage of the Virgin ; after Carle van Loo. 
Alexander Severus giving Corn to the Romans ; after 

Noel Coypel. 
Ptolemy giving Liberty to the Jews ; after the same. 
Two of the Elements, Earth and Air; after Louis de 

Boidlonyne. 
Cupid triumphing over Pan ; after A ntoine Coypel. 
Diana reposing, with her Nymphs ; after the same. 
Kinaldo and Armida ; after the same. 
The Passage of the Ehine ; after Le Brun. 

DUPUIS, Nicolas Gabriel, the younger brother 
of Charles Dupuis, was born in Paris in 1696, and 
was instructed in the art of engraving by Gaspard 
Duchange. Although not equal to his brother, he 
possessed great merit, and was admitted a member 
of the Academy in 1754. He engraved several 
portraits and historical subiects, in the style of his 
brother. He died in Paris in 1771. There are by 
him the following prints : 

PORTRAITS. 

The Equestrian Statue of Louis XV. erected at Bor- 
deaux ; after Le Moine. 

The same, from that erected at Eennes ; after the same. 

C. F. Paul de Normand de Tournehem, Director General 
of the Arts ; after L. Tocque. 

Philips "Wouwerman, painter ; after C. J). I'lsscher. 

Gaspard Duchange ; after Van Loo. 

Jean de Betzkoy, Russian general ; after Roslin. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Guardian Angel ; after Domenico Feti ; for th{ 

Crozat Collection. 
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Paclo Veronese ; for 

the same. 
The Holy Family; after Annilale Carracci ; for the 

Dresden Gallery. 

103 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



St. Sebastian ; after L. Carracci. 

St. Nicholas and St. Francis ; after Pierre. 

Amusement of a Pastoral life; after Giorgione ; for 

the Crozat Collection. 
The Death of Lucretia ; after Guido. 
^neas saving his Father Anchises ; after Carle van Loo. 
Nymph and Satyrs ; after L. Chiron. 

DUPUIS, Pierre Franqois, an etcher and en- 
graver in mezzotint, worked in Paris in the early 
part of the 18th century. His best plate is the por- 
trait of his grandfather, Pierre Dhpuis, the flower 
painter, who was born in 1610, and died in 1682. 

DUQUE CORNEJO, Pedro, a Spanish sculptor 
and painter, was born at Seville in 1677. He was 
a pupil of Pedro Roldan for sculpture, but it is not 
known by whom he was instructed in painting. 
The pictures which he painted in oil for the Car- 
thusian priory of Santa Maria de las Cuevas, repre- 
senting St. Bruno and other monks of the order, 
and those which he painted in fresco for the monas- 
tery of San Geronimo de Buenavista, are not with- 
out merit. He had a ready invention, and produced 
numerous designs, which are much esteemed at 
Seville. He died at Cordova in 1757, and was 
buried with great pomp in the cathedral of that 
city. His works, as a sculptor and carver in wood, 
are to be seen in the cathedrals and churches of 
Seville, Cordova, Granada, and elsewhere. 

DUQDEYLAR, Paol, a French historical painter, 
born at Digne in 1771, was a scholar of David. Most 
of the subjects painted by him are taken from the 
classic poets and ancient historians, and are of an 
elevated character. The ' Judgment of Minos,' and 
' Belisarius,' both painted at Rome in 1804, are 
described by Kotzebue in his 'Souvenirs d'ltalie.' 
He was still living in 1831. 

DURAMEAU, Lonis Jacques, a French historical 
painter, was born in Paris in 1733. He was 
painter to the king, and keeper of the pictures at 
Versailles, and was received into the Academy in 
1774 upon his painting of ' Summer ' on the ceiling 
of the Gallery of Apollo in the Louvre. He also 
painted the ceiling of the theatre in the palace of 
Versailles with the subject of ' Apollo.' There are 
pictures by him in the Museums of Alen^on and 
Besanfon, and some of his historical subjects have 
been engraved by Levasseur. He died at Versailles 
in 1796. 

DUEAND, Ctrile, a French genre painter, was 
born at Bordeaux in 1790, and died there in 1840. 
An ' Interior ' by him is in the Museum of his 
native city. 

DURAND-BRAGER, Jean Baptiste Henri, a 
French marine painter, was born at Dol in 1814. 
He studied under Gudin and Eugene Isabey, and 
in 1840 accompanied the fleet which brought 
Napoleon's remains from St. Helena, which island 
afforded him subjects for various pictures. He 
spent much of his time in travelling; he went 
to Buenos Ayres with the squadron, and explored 
Uruguay and Brazil ; he accompanied the ex- 
peditions to Tangiers and Mogador, and to Mada- 
gascar, and he was in the Crimea during the 
war with Russia. He painted views of the places 
he visited, and also naval combats and sea-pieces. 
He died in 1879. There are several of his works 
in the galleries of Versailles. 

DURANT, Jean Lonis, a French portrait painter 
and engraver, was a native of Orleans. He worked 
at Geneva about 1670, but came to London about 
the year 1690. He was a very inf^ifierent en- 
graver, and was chiefly employed by the book- 

104 



sellers, for whom he engraved a variety of book 
ornaments and portraits. Among the latter is that 
of Queen Mary II., after Kneller. 

DURANTE, Conte Giorgio, an Italian painter 
of flowers and birds, was born at Brescia in 1683, 
and died in 1755. His works were eagerly sought 
after, no less for their exact imitation than for 
their tasteful composition. They are rarely met 
with out of Brescia, though several noble Venetian 
families possess a few specimens, and the best are 
to be seen in the royal collection at Turin. 

DURELLO, Simon, a German engraver, exe- 
cuted some of the portraits for the work entitled, 
' Istoria di Leopoldo Cesare,' published at Vienna 
in 1674, 

DURER, Albrbcht, the great representative 
artist of Germany, was of Hungarian descent, and 
perhaps connected with a Hungarian family of the 
name of Ajt6s, who had lived for many gener- 
ations in a little village of the same name, (Eytas, 
as Diirer writes it,) near Gyula. This name of 
Ajt6s, derived from " ajt6 " (a door), signifies the 
same as the German Thiirer or Diirer, which was 
probably a translation of it, and it is significant 
that Diirer bore the same arms — viz. the open door 
under a pent-house roof — that were borne by this 
family. Durer's ancestors lived, as he himself tells 
us, " by tending oxen and horses." Albrecht Diirer 
the elder, however, deserted this patriarchal call- 
ing, and became a goldsmith, and after passing 
some time with the great masters of that craft in 
the Netherlands, he came to Nuremberg in 1455, 
where he engaged himself to a master goldsmith, 
named Hieronymus Helper (not Haller), whose 
young daughter Barbara he married in 1467, 
taking up about the same time his rights as 
burgher and master goldsmith in the city. 
Albrecht Diirer was the third of eighteen children, 
most of whom died in infancy. His birth took 
place on May 21st, 1471, and Anton Koberger, the 
celebrated printer, was his godfather. " When I 
had learnt to write and read," says Diirer, in a 
brief family chronicle of his own compiling, "my 
father took me from school and taught me the 
goldsmith's work." But he continues, " my inclin- 
ation carried nie more towards painting." There- 
fore, his father, giving in to his desire, bound him 
apprentice in 1486 to the best Nuremberg painter 
of his time — Michel Wolgemut — to serve with him 
for three years. " During this time," writes Diirer, 
" God gave me diligence so that I learnt well. 
And when I had served my time, my father sent 
me away, and I was absent four j-ears, until 13' 
father required me back, and as Isetoutin 1490 after 
Easter, so I returned in 1494 after Whitsuntide." 
This is all Diirer tells us concerning his " Lehr-und 
Wandorjahre," nor have we much other record 
concerning them. A portrait he drew of himself 
in the looking-glass in 1484 is, however, still pre- 
served in the Albertina at Vienna, and a careful 
pen-drawing of the ' Virgin and two Angels,' dated 
1485, is to be found in the Berlin Museum ; but 
this may be a copy from some earlier master. 
Where Diirerjwent during his four " Wanderjahre" 
is not certain. Christoph Scheurl expressly states 
in one place that he made a tour through Germany, 
and both he and NeudorfEer afRrm that he was in 
Colmar in 1492, where he was entertained by 
Martin Schongauer's three brothers, as also by a 
fourth brother at Basle. The inscription on two 
portraits from which it has been argued that ha 
was at Strassburg in 1494 is open to another inter- 




&<Sffflz(/ . pAof'C 



.Ju'OA u^t/nr ntiarat'ia^ C 






A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Diirer are the ' Holy Familywith the Locust' (B. 44), 
and the 'Love Offer' (B. 93), about 1495. 'The 
Ravisher ' (B. 92) may be some years earlier. 
His noblest conceptions belong to a later date. 
Among these may be named, ' The Prodigal Son ' ; 
'The Arms of Death' (1503) ; 'Adam and Eve' 
(1504); 'The Nativity' (1504); 'The Knight, 
Death, and the Devil ' (1513) ; ' Melancholia ' 
(1514); 'St. Jerome in his Chamber' (1514); 
'The Great Fortune,' and the ' St. Eustace '(or 
' St. Hubert '). The two last are large plates of 
early date. The beautiful series known as the 
'Passion in Copper' bears dates from 1508 to 1513. 

Diirer produced six etchings during the years 
1515-18, and four dry-point plates, one of whicli 
is dated 1510 and two 1512 ; all the rest were en- 
graved with the burin. 

Diirer's connection with the Emperor Maxi- 
milian I. began in 1512, and continued till bis 
patron's death in 1519. The principal works 
which he executed for him are the marginal 
drawings in an incomplete copy (at Munich) of a 
printed prayer-book intended for the use of the 
Orderof St. George(1515); theimmense'Triumphal 
Arch,' composed of ninety-two blocks, dated 
1515, designed by Diirer but carried out in a large 
measure by his pupils ; the small Triumphal Car 
with the Burgundian Marriage in the ' Triumphal 
Procession,' and the large 'Triumphal Car,' 
designed in 1518 but not published as a woodcut 
till 1522. Diirer drew the Emperor's portrait 
at the Diet of Augsburg in 1518, and made both a 
picture and a woodcut from the drawing. 

In 1520-21 Diirer, accompanied by his wife, 
undertook a journey to the Netherlands, of which 
he has left us a detailed account in a journal he 
kept during his travels. This journal, with the 
letters written from Venice, and other correspond- 
ence and memoranda by Diirer, has been published 
in full in ' Diirer's Schriftlicher Nachlass,' edited by 
Lange and Fuhse, 1893. It is translated into 
English in the lives of Diirer by W. B. Scott and 
Mrs. Heaton. After his return from this journey, 
which appears to have been chiefly undertaken in 
order to get a ratification from the Emperor 
Charles V. of a pension that had been granted him 
by Maximilian, Diirer remained quietly working 
in Nuremberg until his death, which took place 
on April 6th, 1528. His last great work had 
been the painting of the ' Four Apostles,' grandly- 
conceived figures of SS. Peter, John, Paul and 
Mark, typifying the Four Temperaments, which he 
presented to his native city in 1526. They are 
now in the Munich Gallery. 

Besides his artistic works Diirer wrote several 
treatises — the most important being-, ' The Art of 
Mensuration' (1525) ; 'Instruction on the Fortifi- 
cation of Towns, Castles, and Places ' (1527) ; and 
the ' Treatise on Proportion,' published after his 
death in 1628. The plastic works attributed to 
him are probably without exception apocryphal. 

Diirer's art is essentially German in character, 
and tliose who only admire the Italian ideal find 
nothing in it to desire. It is the lament of many 
writers that he did not receive Italian training ; 
but those who truly appreciate his art rejoice that, 
in spite of various influences that might have 
affected it, his style remained thoroughly individual 
and German. " In creative richness of fancy, in 
extensive power of thought, and in moral energy 
and earnest striving, Diirer," writes Ltibke, "must 
be called the first of all German masters; and as 

106 



regards artistic gifts, need fear no comparison with 
any master in the world, not even with Raphael 
and Michelangelo. Notwithstanding, in all that 
concerns the true means of expression — the cloth- 
ing of the idea in the garment of exquisite form — 
he lies so deeply fettered within the bonds of his 
own limited world that he rarely rises to the same 
height of thought or expression." 

This is no doubt true to some extent. We do 
not find in Diirer's art the classic ideal of the per- 
fection of man's physical nature, nor the spiritual 
ideal of the early religious painters, nor the calm 
dignity and rich sensuous beauty of the great 
masters of the Italian Renaissance, but in it we 
find a noble expression of the German mind, with 
its high intellectual powers, its daring speculative 
philosophy, its deep-seated reverence, its patient 
laboriousness, and its love for the weird and 
grotesque. Diirer was the companion of some of 
the most learned and thoughtful men of his day. 
Luther and Melanchthon were among the number 
of his friends, and there is no doubt but the reform- 
ing spirit of the age was powerfully at work witiiin 
him, affecting his thought and art. Melanchthon 
bears testimony to his rare worth as a man by 
saying, "His least merit was his art.'' 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Neudorffer, ' Nachrichten von den vomehmsten Kiinst- 

lern und Werkleuten so innerhalb hundert Jahren 

iu Niirnberg gelebt habea.* Niimberg, 1547. 

(Edited by Lochner, 1875. The earliest account we 

have of Diirer.) 
Vasari, ' Vite de' piu eccellenti Pittori,' &c. (Edited by 

Milanesi.) 1878-82. 
Carel van Ma7ider, ' Het Schilder-Boeck.' 1604. 
Sandrart, ' Teutsche Academie.' 1675-79. 
Friedrich Cavtpe, * Reliquien von Albrecht Diirer ' (con- 
taining his letters and journal). 1828. 
Joseph Heller, 'Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht 

Diirer's.' 1827. (Only the second vol. of this work, 

containing descriptive catalogues, was published.) 
August von Eye, ' Leben und Wirken Albrecht Diirer's.' 

1869. 
W. B. Scott, 'Albert Diirer: his Life and Works.' 

1869. 
Mrs. Heaton, ' Life of Albrecht Diirer.' 1869. (Second 

edition, 1881.) 
Lochner, 'Die Personen-Namen in Albrecht Diirer's 

Briefen aus Venedig.' 1870. 
Moritz Thausincj, ' Diirer's Brief e, Tagebiicher, und 

Eeime.' 1872. 
Moritz Thausing, ' Durer, Geschichte seines Lebens 

und seiner Kunst.' 1876. (Second edition, 1884.) 
Moritz Thausing, ' Albert Diirer, his Life and Works.' 

Edited by F. A. Eaton.' 1882. 
Charles Ephrussi, ' Albert Diirer et ses dessins.' 1882. 
W. M, Conway, ' Literary Kemains of A. Diirer,* 

1889. 
Anton Springer, 'Albrecht Diirer.' 1892. 
Hanid L'urrkhardt, 'Albrecht Diirer's Aufentbalt in 

Basel.' 1892. 
Gabriel von Terey, 'Albrecht Diirer's Venetianischer 

Aufentbalt.' 1892. 
Ijxniie und Fuhse, ' Diirer's Schriftlicher Nachlass.' 

1893. 
E. Knackfuss, ' Diirer.' (Editions 3-6, 1895-99, English 

Translation, 1900.) 
Lionel Cust, ' A. Diirer. A study of his Life and 

Works.' 1897. 
>S. R. Koehler, ' Chronological Catalogue of the Engrav- 
ings, etc., of Albert Diirer.' 1897. 
J/. ZMcter, 'Albrecht Diirer.' 1900. 
Ludufig Justi, ' Konstruirte Figuren und Kopfe unter 

den Werken A. Diirer's.' 1902. 
' Studien zur Deutschen Kunstgeschichte,' nos. 6, 19, 23, 

27, 38, 39, 41. No. 41, ' Versuch einer Diirer-Biblio- 

graphie,' by H. W. Singer, enumerates about 1300 

books and articles relating to Diirer. 






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ALBRECHT DURER 




Woodcut, 1510] 



THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



PRINCIPAL PAINTINGS. 
Virgin and Child with SS. Antony and Sebastian. 

{Dresden.) 
Adoration of the Magi. 1504. ( Uffizi, Florence.) 
Feast of the Rose-Garlands. 1506. (Monasteri/ of 

Strahou; near Prague.) 
Virgin crowned by two Angels. 1506. {Berlin). 
Crucifixion. 1506. (Dresden). 

Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand. 1508. ( Vienjia.) 
Adoration of the Trinity. 1511. (Vienna.) 
Figures of the Four Apostles. 1526. (Ifumch.) 
Madonnas at Augsburg, Berlin, and Vienna. 

POBTKAITS. 

Portrait of Himself. 1493. (Late in the Felix Collec- 
tion, Leipzig.) 
„ „ 149S. (Madrid, copy at Flor- 

€71C€,) 

„ „ 1508? (JIunich.) 

Albrecht Diirer the Elder. 1494. (Uffizi.) 

,, ,, 1497. (three replicas at 

Frankfort, Sehleissheim, and Sion House.) 
A Young Man ; probably Hans Diirer. 1500. 

(Munich.) 
Oswald Krell. 1499. {Munich.) 
Michel Wolgemut. 1516. (Munich.) 
A man unknown (Hans Irahof ?). (Madrid.) 
Bernard van Orley. 1521. (Dresden.) 
Hieronymus Holzschuher. 1526. (Berlin.) 
Jacob Muffel. 1526. (Berlin.) 

DBAWIXGS. 

The richest collections are tbose of the Albertina, 
Vienna, the Koyal Print Cabinet at Berlin, and the 
Print Room at the British Museum. Other import- 
ant drawings are at Bremen, Hamburg, Florence, 
Milan, The Louvre, Windsor Castle, Chatsworth, the 
Blasius Collection at Brunswick, the Bonnat Collec- 
tion at Paris, etc. Reproductions of nearly all the 
drawings have been pubUshed by Dr. Lippmann, 
(' Zeichnungen von A. D.,' Bd. i.-iv., 1883-96,) with 
the exception of the Albertina drawings, which have 
appeared in Schcinbrunner and Meder's ' Handzeich- 
nungen aus der Albertina und anderen Sammlungen ' 
(Vienna). M.M.H. (CD.) 

DURER, Hans, a younger brother of Albrecht 
Durer, was born at Nuremberg in 1490. When, 
in 1502, they lost their father, Albrecht took the 
young Hans, a boy of twelve, under his protection, 
and gave him instruction in art. He afterwards 
became court painter to the King of Poland, at 
Cracow. His death is not recorded, though it is 
thought that he may have been dead in 16.38, for 
in that year his brother Andreas went from Nurem- 
berg to Cracow to collect debts. A few old German 
paintings with the initials H. D. and a drawing of 
the Crucifixion in the British Museum are attributed 
to Hans Diirer, but his most certain works^ are a 
part of the marginal drawings in that portion of 
the so-called Prayer-Book of Maximilian I. which 
is preserved at Besanyon. 

DURET, Pierre, a French engraver, who was 
li\nng in Paris in 1 767. He engraved several plates 
of landscapes, principally after the Dutch masters, 
among which are the following : 

A View in Holland ; after Ruisdael. 
Two Moonlight subjects ; after Van ier Neer. 
The Country Blacksmith ; after Ph. Wouicerman. 
An Italian Sea-port ; after Vernet. 

DURINGER, Daniel, a Swiss painter, born at 
Steckborn, in Thurgau, in 1720, studied at Zurich, 
and distinguished himself as an excellent painter 
and etcher of animals. He died in 1786. 

DURMER, Franz Valentin, an Austrian en- 
graver and draughtsman, was born at Vienna in 



1766. He studied at the Academy of that city, 
and executed after Guido Reni the ' Four Seasons,' 
and after Poelenborch the ' Nativity,' which are 
two of his best plates. He was still living in 1835. 

DURNO, James, an historical painter, was born 
about the year 1752. He studied first under An- 
drea Casali, and afterwards under West, and 
painted two pictures for Boydell's Shakespeare 
Gallery. The early productions of this artist gave 
promise of great ability, which was not, however, 
fulfilled. He went to Italy in 1774, and died there 
in 1795. 

DU RONCERAY, Marguerite Louise Am£lie 
Delorme. See Delormb du Roncebay. 

DURR, John, a native of Germany, flourished 
about the year 1625. He was an engraver of 
little repute, and worked chiefly for the booksellers, 
for whom, among other book-plates, he eiiK'rai'ed 
some portraits, particularly those of H. J. Ernest 
and his family, and J. Zimmer. 

DUSART, "Cornelis, the elder, flourished in 
Holland in the 17th century. In the Amsterdam 
Museum is a ' Fish Market ' by him, signed and 
dated 1653. 

DUSART, Cornelis, (or Du Sart,) a Dutch 
painter and engraver, was born at Haarlem in 1660. 
He entered the guild of that city in 1679, and died 
there in 1704. He was a pupil of Adriaan van 
Ostade, whose style he imitated with considerable 
success. His works, like those of Ostade, repre- 
sent -Dutch peasants regaling and merry-making. 
Although not equal to his master in the richness 
of his tones and the harmony of his effect,_his 
colouring is clear and agreeable, his corapositioiis 
are ingenious, and his touch very spirited. There is 
great inequality in the works of Dusart ; but some 
of his best pictures are in the following galleries : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Fish Market. 1683. 

„ „ The Ambulant Musicians. 

„ „ A Village Fair. 

„ „ A Village Inn. 

Antwerp. Museum. Interior with Peasants. 
Brussels. Museum. A Dutch Kermesse. 
Dresden. Gallery. AYoman and Child. 1679 (his ear- 
liest kyioicn tr07'k). 

„ „ Peasants Fighting. 1697. 

„ „ Nine-pins Players. 1688. 

Dulwich. Gallerv. A Peasant Famdy. 
Frankfort. Stadel Inst. A Dutch Inu. 1687. 
Glasgow. Gallery. The Musicians. 
Hague. Museum. Interior of an Inn. 

London. ^«-^^*™''^-| FamUy Scene. 
„ Bute Coll. Boors drinking. 

Petersburg. -2>"«'<- 1 a Donkey. 1681. 

^^ „ Interior of a Grocer's Shop. 

„ A Peasant Family. 

Vieima. Gallery. Peasants before an Inn. 

Dusart executed some very spirited etcliings, 
and a few plates in mezzotint, which are full of 
humorous character. The following are his best 

prints : 

plates in mezzotint. 

An old Man playing on the Violin. 

A Girl confessing to a Monk. ,,_,,. ^ ^, 

A Dutch Boor reading a Paper, and holding a Bottle. 

Monkeys regaling. 

An Indian dancing with a Girl. 

A Girl dancing with a Tea-Pot in her Hand. 

Twelve plates of the Months of the Year. 

The Five Senses. 

etchings. 
The Interior of an Alehouse, with Boors regaling. 
The Great Fair. 1685. 

107 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



The Little Fair. 1685. 

The Amorous Cobbler. 

The Village Surgeon. 1695. 

The Village Physician. 1695. 

The Inside of a Dutch Alehouse. 

A Village Festival ; after himself. 

DDSCHER. See TiJscHER. 

DUSIGN, , a portrait painter, was a son of 

Colonel Dusign. He was a pupil of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, and practised for a few years at Bath, 
where his family resided. He died at Rome in 
1770. 

DUTILLEUX, Henri Joseph Constant, a 
French landscape painter, who painted also a few 
portraits, was born at Douai_ in 1807. He studied 
under Hersent and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 
and worked at Arras from 1830 until 1860, in 
which year he removed to Paris, where he died in 
1865. There are Landscapes by him in the 
Museums of Lille and of Douai. 

DUTTENHOPER, Christian Peiedrich, a Ger- 
man engraver, was born at Gronau in Wurtemberg 
in 1778. He studied under. Klengel at Dresden, 
and is chiefly known by his landscapes after Claude, 
Poussin, Annibale Carracci, P. Bril, and various 
views in the Tyrol. He also copied Woollett's 
print of ' Solitude,' after Wilson, and was one of 
tlie artists employed on the ' Musee Napoldon.' 
He died at Heilbronn in 1846. His son, Anton 
DnxTENHOFER, who was likewise an engraver, 
and was a pupil of his father, died at Stuttgart in 
1843, at the age of 31. 

DUVAL, Amadry, painter, was born at Mont- 
rouge, Paris, in 1808. In 1826 he entered the 
atelier of Ingres, and afterwards travelled in 
Greece, where he made numerous studies and 
sketches. In 1834 he exhibited at the Salon his 
'Greek Shepherd discovering a Bas-relief,' and 
soon becamn favourably known as an able exponent 
of his master's traditions. His portrait of ' Rachel 
as the Tragic Muse,' contributed to the Exhibition 
of 1855, attracted considerable attention. He 
painted various pictures for Parisian churches, 
and executed some decorations in St. Germain 
I'Auxerrois. He died in December 1885. 

DU VAL, Charles Allen, a portrait and subject 
painter, was born in 1808. He practised at Man- 
chester, and exhibited at the Royal Academy from 
1836 till his death in 1872. Among his works are : 



The Giaoiu-. 1842. 
Columbus in chains. 1855. 
The Dedication of Samuel. 
The Morning "Walk. 1861. 



1858. 



DUVAL, Marc, called Bertin, after his brother- 
in-law, and also ' Le Sourd de Charles IX.,' a 
painter and wood-engraver, was bom at Le Mans, 
and became court painter of Charles IX. of France. 
Among his engravings, which are very rare, may 
be mentioned the Brothers Coligni and Catharine 
de' Medici. He died in Paris in 1581. 

DUVAL, Nicolaas. See Du Val, Robert. 

DUVAL, Philippe, a French painter, flourished 
about the year 1672. He was first a scholar of 
Charles Le Brun, and afterwards studied at Venice. 
He came to England in the reign of Charles II., 
and painted some historical and mythological 
subjects, one of which, dated 1672, represented 
' Venus receiving from Vulcan the Arms of .tineas.' 
He died in London in 1709. 

DU VAL, Robert, a Dutch painter, who has 
often been called in error Nicolaas Duval, was 
born at the Hague in 1644. After studying 

108 



under Nicolaas Wieling he went to Italy, and be- 
came an imitator of Pietro da Cortona. On his 
return to Holland he was employed by William, 
Prince of Orange, afterwards king of England. It 
is said that he was sent to Hampton Court to put 
in order the Cartoons of Raphael ; but whether to 
repaint, or, in modern phrase, to restore them, is not 
stated. He was appointed director of the Academy 
at the Hague, and died there in 1732. 

DU VAL, S. This artist is mentioned by Pa- 
pillon as an engraver on wood, who flourished 
about the year 1650, and was remarkable for the 
neatness and dehcacy of his execution. There are 
twenty cuts by him for the ' Histoire miraculeuse 
de Notre-Dame de Liesse.' His other prints are 
chiefly from the designs of Jacques Stella and N. 
Cochin. S. Du Val is sometimes mentioned as 
Sebastiano, and sometimes as Stefano Du Val ; 
but there is a degree of mystification about him 
which requires elucidation. He must not be con- 
founded with Sebastiano D' Vl, or D'Val, who 
lived a century earlier. 

DUVA_L-LE-CAMUS, Jules Alexandre, a 
French historical and scriptural painter, the son of 
Pierre Duval-le-Camus, was born in Paris in 1817. 
He studied under his father, to whose style his own 
has considerable afiinity, and under Drolling and 
Delaroche. He died in 1878. Amongst his chief 
works are : 

Tobit and the Angel. 

Petits Dejeuners de Marly. 

Kousseau writing ' Heloise.* 1846. 

The Bear-Hunters. 1853. 

Macbeth and the Witches. 1855. 

The Flight into Egypt. 1857. 

Jacques Clement. 1861. {Luxembourg Gallery.) 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary. 1863. 

Martyrdom of St. Laurence. 18674 

DUVAL-LE-CAMUS, Pierre, a French genre 
and portrait painter, was born at Lisieux in 1790. 
He studied under David, and became painter-in- 
ordinary to the Duchess of Berry. He died at St. 
Cloud in 1854. Amongst his works are: 

The Baptism. 1819. 

The Brothers of the Christian Doctrine. 1822. 

Interior of a Kitchen. 1824. 

Eunui. 1827. 

Labourer's Family returning from school. 1827. 

Halt of Huntsmen. 1837. 

Wolf-Hunting. 1838. 

The Blessing of Orphans. {Louvre.) 

The First Gatherings of Harvest. {Louvre.) 

Pifferaro teaching his Son. {Louvre.) 

An Interior. {Bordeaux Museum.) 

DUVAUX, Jules Antoine, painter and etcher, 
bom at Bordeaux in 1818, was a pupil of Charlet, 
and a painter of battles and military subjects 
generally. Several of his pictures are in the Ver- 
sailles Museum. He also worked much as an 
illustrative draughtsman and etcher for various 
publications. He died in 1884. 

DUVEAU, Lunis Jean Noel, a French painter, 
who was born at St. Malo in 1818, studied history 
and genre painting under L6on Cogniet in Paris, 
and afterwards visited Italy. He was successful 
in representing scenes of fisher-life in his native 
country. He died in Paris in 1867. In the Lille 
Museum is his ' Perseus and Andromeda,' painted 
in 1865. 

DUVENEDE, Marcts van, a Flemish painter, 
was born at Bruges about 1674. He went to Rome 
when he was very young, and became a scholar of 
Carlo Maratti, in whose academy he studied four 




yy ^/eAJ^^iLtO'. 






i 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



years. There are several of his pictures in the 
churches and convents of his native city, of which 
tlje most esteemed is the ' Martyrdom of St. 
Laurence' in the cliapel of St. Christopher. He 
died at Bruges in 1730. 

DUVET, Jean, (Master of the Unicom,) a French 
engraver, was born in 1481 at Langres, and died 
after 1561. Goldsmith to Francis I. and Henry 
II. of France ; engraved over sixty plates, among 
them the 'Apocalypse,' the ' Annunciation,' a series 
of animals, and several allegorical subjects, in 
which the unicorn is introduced. 
DU VIVIER, G. See Vivieb, G. de. 
DU VIVIER, Ignaz, a painter born at Rians in 
1768, was instructed by Casanova, and executed 
battle-scenes in the style of his master. He after- 
wards removed to Vienna and turned his attention 
chieily to landscapes ; a ' Waterfall ' by him is in 
the Vienna Gallery. He also etched a large number 
of landscapes and genre pictures. He died in Paris 
in 1832. 

DUVIVIER, Jean Bernard, a native of Bruges, 
was a painter of historical subjects and professor 
at the Normal School in Paris. After having been 
instructed by Hubert, Paul de Kock, and Suvee, 
he studied for six years in Italy, and his style is 
distinguished for beautiful composition, correct 
drawing, and bright colouring. He died in Paris 
in 1837. 

DU VIVIER, Louise. See under Tardieu, 
Jacques Nicolas. 

DUWETT, Gerrit, (often called De Wett, De 
Wet, De Weth, orDE Weet,) was bom at Amster- 
dam in 1616, and died there in 1679. He was a 
scholar of Rembrandt, whose manner he imitated ; 
he also painted landscapes, and was accounted a 
good colourist. Tliere is in the Copenhagen 
Gallery ' Jephthah's Daughter' by him. 

DUWETT, Jacob, (or De Wet,) was probably 
a son of Jan Diiwett. In 1677 he entered the 
Guild of St. Luke at Cologne, where he flourished 
for many years. 

DUWETT, Jan, (De Wet, De Wette, or De 
Weth,) is said to have been bom at Hamburg in 
1617, but the date of his birth was probably earlier. 
While quite young he entered the school of Rem- 
brandt at Amsterdam, and his style partakes of 
that of his master and also of that of Gerard Dou. 
He produced a large number of biblical and mjdho- 
logical pictures, many of which have been sold as 
Rembrandt's. He afterwards settled in Hamburg, 
but the date of his death is not recorded. The 
' Raising of Lazarus ' by him, dated 1633, is in the 
Darmstadt Gallery, and ' Christ in tlie Temple ' 
(1635) and the ' Burning of Troy ' are at Bruns- 
wick : other pictures by him are at Kiel and 
Copenhagen. His brother, Emanuel Duwett, (or 
De Wett,) a native of Hamburg, who was likewise 
a pupil of Rembrandt, painted landscapes in the 
style of Uytenbrouck. 

DUYNEN, Isaac van, was a native of Antwerp, 
who went in 1664 to the Hague, where he became 
a pupil of Van Beyeren, and painted sea and river 
fish very successfully. He died at the Hague in 
1688 or 1689. There is a picture of ' Cod-fish ' by 
him in the Lille Museum. 

DUYSTER, W. C, a Netherlandish painter, 
was the author of a painting representing ' Soldiers 
playing at Tric-trac ' in the Hermitage at St. Peters- 
burg. 

DYCE, William, a Scottish historical painter, 
was bom at Aberdeen in 1806, and educated at 



Marischal College, where he graduated at the age 
of sixteen. He then studied art at the Royal 
Academies of Edinburgh and London. After two 
prolonged visits to Rome, which may be said to 
have formed his style, he settled at Edinburgh in 
1830. Here, for the next few years, he painted 
portraits, and was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Scottish Academy in 1835. The year 1837 saw 
the publication of his pamphlet on art education, 
which led to his being placed at the head of the 
government Schools of Design throughout the 
country. He entered into the Westminster Hall 
competitions, and produced for the decoration of 
the Houses of Parliament ' The Baptism of Ethel- 
bert,' and the series of frescoes illustrating the 
history of King Arthur. He also painted frescoes 
for the church of All Saints, Margaret Street, 
London, and executed decorative works for the 
Queen at Osborne and Buckingham Palace. He 
was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 
1844, and an Academician in 1848. He died in 
London in 1864. The following are some of the 
chief works exhibited by him : 

Bacchus nursed by the Nymphs. 1827. 

The Infant Hercules. 1830. ~] 

The Judgment of Solomon. {A ^-rational Gallery 

cartoon.) 1836. r of Scotland. 

Francesca da Kimmi. 1837. 
James Hamilton, M.D. J 

Piety and i'aith. Sir Galahad and his Companions. 
Mercy. 

The Descent of Venus. 1836. 
St. Dunstan separating Edwy and Elgiva. 1839. 
The Christian Yoke. 1841. 

Joash shooting the Arrow of Deliverance. 1844. 
Jacob and Rachel. 1853. 
Titian's First Essay in Colour. 1S57. 
St. John leading home the Vkgin. 1860. 
George Herbert at Bemerton. ISCl. 

DYCK, Anthonis van, the eminent portrait 
painter, was born of good family at Antwerp, on 
the 22nd of March, 1599. He was the seventh 
child of a family of twelve ; his father, Frans van 
Dyck, was a silk merchant, and his mother, Maria 
Cuypers, was skilled in embroidery and other arts. 
Van Dyck was apprenticed to Hendrik van Balen 
when he was but ten years old, and in 1615 entered 
the academy of the great painter Rubens, with 
whom he remained till 1620 as his assistant. In 
1618 Van Dyck was admitted into the Guild of 
St. Luke at Antwerp. In 1620 he paid a short 
visit to England, and worked in the service of 
James I., from whom he received £100 for special 
services. In 1621 he was back in Antwerp, and 
by the advice of Rubens, set out for Italy, where 
he arrived in November 1621, and executed many 
important works. He stayed chiefly at Genoa, but 
also visited Rome, Venice, and Palermo. On his 
return to Antwerp in 1626, Van Dyck at once 
became famous as a painter both of historical 
subjects and of portraits. Among tlie chief his- 
torical works which he then executed were a 
'Crucifi.xion' for the church of St. Michael at 
Ghent, and a ' St. Augustine ' for the church of 
the Augustines at Antwerp. He was nowloaded 
with commissions, and became even a rival to 

Rubens. . , , tt i,-ii 

In 1630 Van Dyck visited the Hague— whither 
he had been invited by the Prince of Orange— and 
is said to have gone to London, but, as he did not 
meet with the encouragement which he had been 
led to believe he should receive from the English 
monarch, to have returned to Antwerp. Charles I., 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



on seeing a portrait of the musician, Nicholas 
Laniere, in 1632 invited the painter to return. 
Van Dyck was most graciously received by Charles, 
■who gave him apartments at Blackfriars, where he 
was often honoured with a visit from the king, 
who frequently sat to him. He was styled " Prin- 
cipal Painter in Ordinary to their Majesties at St. 
James's,' and on the 5th of July, 1632, he received 
the honour of knighthood. In the same month he 
received £280 for " diverse pictures by him made 
for his Majestye," and in the following year he was 
granted an annual salary of £200. From this time 
Van Dyck became the favourite painter in England : 
not only the monarch, and his wife and children, 
but all the court sat to him. He was wont to 
receive, Walpole tells us, £60 for a full-length, and 
£40 for a half-length portrait. " He was inde- 
fatigable," adds that author, " and, keeping a great 
table, often detained the persons who sat to him, 
for an opportunity of studying their countenances, 
and of retouching their pictures again in the after- 
noon." In the State Paper Office there is preserved 
a document which shows that Van Dyck charged 
Charles I. on an average about £50 for a portrait. 
He lived in a grand and almost regal manner, in 
the summer at Eltham, and in the winter at Black- 
friars. In 1634-5 Van Dyck visited Brussels and 
executed some of his finest paintings. After the 
death of Rubens in 1640 Van Dyck returned 
to Antwerp, but went to Paris in the hope of a 
royal commission there. Disappointed in this, and 
broken in health, he returned to England. 

Van Dyck died in Blackfriars, London, December 
9, 1641. Two days afterwards he was buried in the 
old cathedral of St. Paul, near the tomb of John of 
Gaunt. He bequeathed to his wife, Mary Ruthven, 
a grand-daughter of William, first Earl of Gowrie, 
and to his daughter Justiniana, all his goods, eifects, 
and moneys due to him in England from King 
Charles, the nobility, and all other persons what- 
ever, to be equally divided between them. He also 
left other legacies to his executors, to his trustees, to 
his daughter, to his sisters, to his natural daughter 
Maria Theresa, to his servants, and to the poor of 
St. Paul's and St. Anne's, Blackfriars. Lady Van 
Dyck married, as her second husband, Sir Richard 
Pryse, Bart. 

In the Museum of Antwerp the precious tables 
are still preserved in which the names of the Deans 
of the Corporation of Painters were successively 
inscribed from its foundation in 1454 until its 
extinction in 1778. Two names only in this long 
list are inscribed in capital letters — that of Rubens, 
under the date 1631, and that of Van Dyck, under 
the date 1634. 

It is, perhaps, without example in the history of 
the art, that a painter, cut off in the vigour of his 
life, should have left such a multiplicity of works, 
the number of which is perhaps not exceeded by 
those of Rubens. If we cannot, in a general view, 
place him on an equality with Rubens as an his- 
torical painter, it will be allowed that he surpassed 
him in the correctness of his design, in the delicate 
expression of his heads, in the truth and purity of 
his colouring, and in the tender blending of his 
tones. If he had less boldness of conception, and 
less fecundity of invention, his compositions are 
regulated by judgment and propriety, and it may 
be reasonably presumed, that if, like his illustrious 
instructor, he had devoted himself to tliat branch, 
and had not been chiefly engaged in portrait-paint- 
ing, he possessed the genius, as well as every other 

no 



requisite, to have reached the highest rank among 
the painters of history. 

In portraiture Van Dyck will not be denied the 
most honourable place after Titian, and it will even 
then be admitted that Titian is superior only in 
the heads of his portraits, but that in the hands 
and accessories he is inferior to Van Dyck, both in 
correctness and in elegance. Van Dyck's attitudes 
are easy and natural, and they captivate by an air 
of unafiected simplicity for which his portraits are 
singularly remarkable. His heads are full of life 
and expression, without anything of the coldness 
and insipidity which are frequently found in the 
productions of the portrait painter. Tlie pictures 
which he painted in Italy have more of the 
Venetian colouring than those of a subsequent 
period. The influence of Titian is paramount, 
and at this period even stronger than that of 
Rubens. On his return to Antwerp he recurred to 
the Flemish mode, although he occasionally blended 
the two. The earlier portraits which he painted 
in England are brilliantly coloured and carefully 
finished in all their parts ; but as business in- 
creased they were executed with more despatch, 
and much of the subordinate portion was left to be 
completed by his pupils or assistants, the head only 
being painted by the master. Besides the many 
admirable pictures which he painted of the king 
and the royal family, there are in England many 
fine portraits of distinguished personages, which 
are among the chief ornaments of the mansions of 
the nobility. 

There were no less than seventy-two portraits of 
tlie English nobility attributed to Van Dyck exhi- 
bited in the National Portrait Exhibition of 1866, 
and Smith, in his ' Catalogue Raisonn^,' gives a list 
of upwards of nine hundred and fifty works by 
this painter. There are many unnamed portraits 
in the public galleries of Europe as well as in 
private collections which are not mentioned in the 
following list. Many of these portraits, however, 
are only the work of his pupils and assistants. 

PORTRAITS BY VAN DYCK. 

Arundel, Thomas Howard, 

Earl of, and his grandson 

Thomas (afterwards 5th 

Duke of Norfolk) 
Balbi Children 
Baltimore, Anne Arundell, 

Lady. Bust 
Basset, Admiral Sir Francis. 

Full length .... 
Bedford, Ann Carr, Countess of 
Bentivoglio, Cardinal 
Berg, Count Henry de 
Bolingbroke, Family of the 

first Earl of. Seven half- 
length portraits in a garden . 
Brignole, La Marchesa de, and 

Child. Full length 
Brignole Family 
Bristol, George Digby, Earl 

of, and William Earl of 

Bedford. Full length . 
Brueghel, Jan .... 



Duke of Norfolk. 
Barl Cowper. 
Lord Arundell of War- 
dour. 

Mr. J. F. Bassett. 
Duke of Bedford. 
Pitti Palace, Florence. 
Madrid Gallery. 



Earl of Morley. 

Earl of "Warwick. 
Palazzo Brignoli,Genoa. 



Buckingham, George Villiers, 
Duke of, and liis Brother 
Francis, as boys. Full length 

Burlington, Kichard Boyle, 
first Earl of ... 

Cante Croix, Beatrice de Cu- 
sance. Princess de 

Carew, Thomas, the poet, and 
Sir William Killigrew . 



Earl Spencer. 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 



Windsor Castle. 
Duke of Devonshire. 

Windsor Castle, 
Windsor Castle. 



SIR ANTHONY VAN DYCK 




CHARLES I. 



[ The Louvye, Paris 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Carignan, Thomas Francois de, 

PriQce of Savoy . 
Carignan, Prince Thomas of, 

on karseback .... 
Carlisle, Countess of 
Carlisle, James Hay, Earl of. 

Full length .... 
Chaloner, Thomas 

Charles I. Full length, with 
horse and attendants 

Charles I. Full length, icear- 
ing the collar and badge of 
the Order of the Garter. 
Dated 1636 .... 

Charles I. Full length . 

Charles I. in armour, mounted 
on a dun-coloured horse, his 
equerry. Sir Thomas Morton, 
holdiyig the king's helmet 

Charles I. in armour. For the 
picture at Blenheim 

Charles I. Equestrian portrait. 
M. St. Antoine, bearing ^ the 
king's helmet, is on foot hy 
his side ..... 

Charles I. Equestrian portrait. 
(A replica of the Windsor 
picture.) .... 

Charles I. Half length, full 
face, with baton, helmet, and 
crown ..... 

Charles I. Three heads in 
di^erent positions, painted 
for Bernini's bust 

Charles I., standing, in armour. 

Charles I. .... 

Charles I. and Queen Henri- 
etta Maria .... 
Charles I. and Queen Henri- 
etta Maria, with their sons, 
Charles and James 
Charles I. and Queen Henrietta 

Maria 

Queen Henrietta Maria. Full 

length ..... 

Charles I., Three Children of . 

Charles, Prince of "Wales, with 

the Princesses Elizabeth, 

Mary, and Anne, and James, 

Duke of York. Dated 1637 . 

Charles, Prince of Wales, 

Princess Mary, and James, 

Duke of York, with two 

spaniels seated at their feet . 

Charles II., when a boy . 

The same, when a boy 

Charles V., on a white horse 

Charles Louis, Prince (elder 

brother of Prince Rupert) 
Charles Louis, Prince, and his 

brother Prince Rupert . 
Chesterfield,Catharine,Countess 

of. (Painted about 1636.) 

Clanbrazil, Countess of. (Painted 

in 1636.) .... 

Cleveland, Thomas Wentworth, 

. first Earl of. Full length. 

Dated 1636 .... 

Cleveland, Thomas Wentworth, 

first Earl of, with his wife 

and daughter 

Cranfield, Lady Frances, wife 

of Richard, fifth Earl of 

Dorset ..... 

Craven, William, first Earl of. 

Full length .... 

Danby, Henry Danvers, Earl 

of. Full length . 
Dauby, Henry Danvers, Earl of. 

Delawarr, Isabella Edmunds, 
Lady. Full length 



Berlin Gallery. 

Pinacoteca, Turin. 
Lord Leconfield. 

Lord Lyttelton. 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Louvre, Paris. 



The King. 

Louisa Lady Ashburton. 



National Gallery. 
Buckingham Palace. 

Windsor Castle. 
Hampton Court. 
Duke of Norfolk. 



Wind.sor Castle. 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 
Dresden Gallery. 

Duke of Grafton. 



Windsor Castle. 

Pitti Palace, Florence. 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 
Turin Gallery. 



Windsor Castle. 



Windsor Castle. 
Windsor Castle. 
Duke of Portland. 
XJfiizi, Florence. 

Vienna Gallery. 

Louvre Palace. 

Earl of Radnor. 

Earl of Denbigh. 

Earl of Verulam. 

Earl of Strafford. 

Lord Sackville. 

Earl of Craven. 

Mr. F. V. Wentworth. 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

E;irl Delawarr. 



Dellafaille, Alexander, magis- 
trate of Antwerp . 
Denbigh, William Fielding, first 

Earl of Duke of Hamilton. 

Derby, James Stanley, seventh 

Earl of, his wife, Charlotte de 

la Tr^mouille, and daughter. 

Lady Katharine Stanley 
Derby, James Stanley (Lord 

Strange), seventh Earl of. 

Full length .... 
Devonshire, Christian, Countess 

of . . ... 
De Wael, Jan and his wife 
De Wael, Lucas and Cornells . 
Digby, Lady Venetia, wife of 



Brussels Gallery. 



Earl of Clarendon. 



Earl of Derby. 
Duke of Northumber- 
land. 
Munich Gallery. 
Capitol Gallery, Rome. 



Sir Kenelm Digby 
Digby, Lady Venetia, on her 

death-bed. Bust . 
Digby, Lady Venetia, on her 

death-bed. Bust . 
Digby, Sir Kenelm . 
Digby, Sir Kenelm. Salf 

length ..... 
Digby, Sir Kenelm, and Family. 

Half lenqth, figures seated . 
Doria Family .... 
Dorset, Frances Cranfield, 

Countess of . 
Dorset, Edward Sackville, 

fourth Earl of . . . 
Dyck, Sir Anthou van. Bust . 
Dyck, Sir Antliou van 
Dyck, Sir Anthon van, and the 

Earl of Bristol 
Dyck, Sir Anthon van 
Dyck, Sir Anthou van, when 

young . . . . ■ 
Elizabeth, The Princess, and 

Duke of Gloucester, children 

of Charles I. (A study of 

heads) . . . . . 
ErtveltjAndries van, the marine 

painter . . . - 
Fernando, Don, of Austria 
Frederick Henry of Nassau, 

Prince of Orange . 
Grandison, William Villiers, 

Viscount. Full length . 
Hamilton, Mary, Duchess of, 

daughter of William, first 

Earl of Denbigh . 
Hamilton, James, first Duke of. 
Hamilton, James, first Duke of. 
Henrietta Maria, Queen . 



Windsor College. 

Dulwich Gallery. 

Earl Spencer, 
Windsor Castle. 

National Portrait Gal. 

Mr. Wingfield Digby. 
Duke of Abercorn. 

Windsor Castle. 

Lord Sackville. 
National Portrait GaL 
Louvre, Paris. 

Madrid Gallery. 
Windsor Castle. 

Munich Gallery. 



Lord Chesham. 

Augsburg Gallery. 
Madrid Gallery. 

Madrid Gallery. 

Earl of Clarendon. 



Earl of Denbigh. 
Earl of Denbigh, 
Duke of Hamilton. 
Ambrosian Library, 
Milan. 



Pro- 
Full 



Full 



Henrietta Maria, Queen. Full 

face Windsor Castle 

Henrietta Maria, Queen. Three- 
quarter face . 
Henrietta Maria, Queen. 

file ... 

Henrietta Maria, Queen. 

length . 
Henrietta Maria, Queen. 

length . . • . 

Henrietta, Maria, Queen. 

Standing by a table 
Henrietta Maria, Queen . _ . 
Henrietta Maria, Queen, with 

her dwarf. Sir Geoffrey 

Hudson .... 

Henrietta M.aria, Queen. Signed 

"J/.i?. 1632" 
Hontsum Zeger van, canon of 

Antwerp Cathedral 
Huntly, George Gordon, second 

Marquis of. Full length 
Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta 

of Spain .... 

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta 

of Spain, in her widow's dress. 
Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta 

of Spain, in her widow's dress. Louvre, Paris. 



Windsor Castle. 

Windsor Castle. 

Earl of Clarendon. 

Louisa, Lady Ashburton. 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 
Dresden Gallery, 



Earl of Northbrook. 
Earl of Radnor. 
Buckingham Palace. 
Duke of Buccleuch. 
Louvre, Paris. 
Duke of Buccleuch. 



Ill 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta 

of Spain .... Marquis of Linlithgow. 

Jones Inigo .... Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 
Killigrew, Thonaas, and Thomas 
Carew. Signed, and dated 

1628 Windsor Castle. 

{See Carew.) 
Killigrew, Mrs. Cecilia Crofts. 

Bast Mr. R. H. Cheney. 

Kirk, Madame .... Earl Cowper. 
Laud, William, Archbishop of 
Canterbury. Mulf lenyth. 
Dated IdZi .... Lambeth Palace. 
Laud, Archbishop. (Replica.) . Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 
Laud, Archbishop . . . Earl Fitzwilliam. 
Leers, Burgomaster van, of 
Antwerp, his wife and their 

son Cassel Gallery. 

Leicester, Countess of, and 
Countess of Carlisle, daugh- 
ters of Henry Percy, ninth 
Earl of Northumberland. 
Half lengths, seated near a 

fountain .... Mrs. Charles Morrison. 
Leicester, Dorothy Percy, 

Countess of . . . . Earl Spencer. 
Lemon, Mrs. Margaret . . Hampton Court. 
Lady Aubigny, Catharine 

Howard .... Windsor Castle. 

Le Koy, Philippe. Inscribed 

" JEtatis sua 34. 1630 " . Wallace Collection. 
Le Eoy, the wife of Philippe. 

Inscribed " Et. sua IG. 1631 " Wallace Collection. 
Liberti, Hendrik, organist of 

Anticerp .... Madrid Gallery. 
Liberti, Hendrik . . . Munich Gallery. 
Lflmellini Family . . . National Gallery of 

Scotland. 
Malderus, Jan, Bishop of Ant- 
werp Antwerp Gallery. 

Mallery, Karel van, the en- 
graver Munich Gallery. 

Manchester, Lord K-imbolton, 

second Earl of. Half length Duke of Manchester. 
Mary de' Medici, Queen of 

France Lille Museum. 

Mary de' Medici . . . Munich Gallery. 
Meerstraeteu, Justus van . . Cassel Gallery. 
Moncada, Francisco, Marquis 

de Vienna Gallery. 

Moncada. Francisco de, on horse- 
back. (A study of this, a 
bust, is also in the Louvre.) Louvre Palace. 

Monmouth, the Countess of . Earl of Radnor. 
Montfort, Johann van . . Uffizi, Florence. 
Montfort, John . . . Vienna Gallery. 

Morton, Anne, Countess of 

Half length .... Eail Spencer. 
Mowbray and Maltravers, 
Henry Frederick Howard, 

Lord Duke of Norfolk. 

Nassau, John, Count of . . Munich Gallery. 
Nassau, John, Count of . . Lord Ashburton. 
Nassau, John, Count of, his 
wife, son, and three daugh- 
ters. Dated 1634 . . . Earl Cowper. 
Naunton, Lady Penelope . . Dulwich Gallery. 
Neuburg, Duke Wolfgang 

Wilhelm von . . . Munich Gallery. 

Newcastle, William Cavendish, 

Duke of. Fnll length . . Earl Spencer. 
The same. Full length . . Duke of Portland. 
Newport, Mountjoy Blount, 

Earl of. Full length . . Earl of Northcote. 
Nole, Andreas Colyns de . . Munich Gailery. 
Nole, Andreas Colyns de, wife 

q{ Munich Gallery. 

Northumberland, Henry Percy, 

ninth Earl of. Bust . . Earl of Denbigh. 
Northumberland, Henry Percy, 
ninth Earl of. Full length, 

seated Lord Leconfield. 

112 



Northumberland, Algernon 

Percy, tenth Earl of. Full 
length ..... 

Northumberland, Algernon 
Percy, Earl of, his Countess, 
and their Child. Half lengths 

Odescalchi, Don Livio, nephew 
of Pope Innocent IX., standi 
ing ..... 

Orleans, Gaston, Duke of 

Oxford, The Countess of . 

Parr, Thomas, in his 151st year 

Pembroke, Philip Herbert, fifth 
Earl of, with his family 

Pembroke, Philip Herbert, fifth 
Earl of. Half length . 

Pembroke and Montgomery, 
Philip, fourth Earl of. Half 
length ..... 

Peterborough, The first Coun- 
tess of . . . . . 

Peterborough, John, Earl of, 
standing .... 

Phalsburg, Henrietta of Lor- 
raine, Princess of. Fitll 
length 

Portland, 
length 

Portland, 
Earl of. 



Countess of. Full 

Richard Weston, 
Full length 

Life size. 



Rich, Lady Isabella 

standing .... 

Richardot, Jean Grusset, and 

his son 

Richmond, The Duchess of, 

represented in the character of 

St. Agnes .... 

Richmond and Lennox, Frances 

Howard, Duchess of. Full 

length. Dated Zondem, 1633 

Richmond, Mary, Duchess of, 

daughter of George Villiers, 

Duke of Buckingham, with 

the dwarf, Mrs. Gibson 

Richmond, The Duke of, 

standing .... 

Richmond and Lennox, James 

Stuart, Duke of . . 
Richmond and Lennox, James 
Stuart, Duke of, with the 
dog which saved his life 
Richmond and Lennox. James 
Stuart, Duke of. Full length, 
standing .... 

Richmond and Leimox, James 
Stuart, Duke of. Life si:e, 
standing, with dog 
Rubens, Sir Peter Paul, cm a 
horse given him by Van Dyck 
Rupert, Prince, when twelve 
years old .... 
Rupert, Prince .... 
Eutliven, Mary (Van Dyck's 
wife), as Herminia putting 
ou Clorinda's armour . 
Hyc^^i^rt, tlte painter 
Ryckaert, Martin, the -painter . 
Scaglia, Cesare Alessandro 
Simons, Quentyn 
Snayers, Pieter, the painter 
Sny'ders, Frans 
Suyders, Frans, and wife 
Snyders, Frans, Wife of . 
Scribani, Carolius 
Solms, Amalia von {wife of 
Fringe Henry Frederick of 
Orange). . . . ^ 
Solnis, Emilie von . 
Southampton, Elizabeth, Coun- 
tess of . 
Southampton, Rachael, first 

Couutess of . 
Spinola, Andrea, Doge of 
Genoa. Full length, seated . 



Duke of Northumber- 
land. 



Marquis of Salisbury. 

Sir H.H.Campbell, Bart. 
Earl of Radnor. 
Madrid Gallery. 
Dresden Gallery. 

Wilton House. 

Dulwich Gallery. 

Earl of Carnarvon. 
Mrs. Elkington Bisset. 
Mrs. Elkington Bisset. 

Lord Iveagh. 
Lord Lyttelton. 
Mr. Ralph Bankes. 
Lady Elizabeth Pringle. 
Louvre, Paris. 

Windsor Castle. 

Marquis of Bath. 

Earl of Denbigh. 
Louvre, Paris. 
Duke of Buccleuch. 

Earl of Denbigh. 

Earl of Leicester. 

Marquand College, New 
Tork. 

Earl of Radnor. 

Vienna Gallery. 
Earl of Craven. 



Mr. J. E. Hartford. 
Madrid Gallery. 
Dresden Gallery. 
Captain Holford. 
Hague Gallery, 
Munich Gallery. 
Earl of Carlisle. 
Cassel Gallery. 
Earl of Warwick. 
Vienna Gallery. 



Vienna Gallery. 
Madrid Gallery. 

Earl Cowper. 

Earl Cowper. 

Mr. Hey wood-Lonsdale. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS, 



Spinola, The Marquis. Full 
tcinjth ..... 

Sjjinola, Polixena, Marchioness 
of Legani'S .... 

Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, 
first Earl of. Full length, in 
half armour .... 

Strafford, Thomas, first Earl 
of, and his secretary, Sir 
Fliilip Mainwaring. Half 
length, seated. 

Strafford, Thomas, Earl of 

Stuart, Lord John, and Lord 
Bernard, sons of the Duke of 
Lenncx ..... 

Sunderland, Dorothy Sidney, 
Countess of. Half length 

Sunderland, Dorothy Sidney, 
Countess of. Half length . 

Trie.st, Anthonius, Bishop of 
Ghent . . . . . 

Van den "Wouver (Waverius), 
Jan ...'.. 

Van der Borcht, Burgomaster 
of Antwerp .... 

Van der Geest, Cornells. For- 
merlg supposed to represent 
Gevartuts .... 

Villiers, George and Francis, 
sons of the JJuke of Bucking- 
ham ..... 

Wandesford, Sir Rowland. 

Warwick, Earl of, in armour . 
Wemmel, Engelbert Taie, 
Baron of ... . 
Wentworth, Lady Arabella 
■\VTiarton Philip, Lord 

"WTiarton, Lady 

Gary Family .... 

■\ybarton. Sir Thomas 

William, Prince of Orange, 
and his fancee, the Princens 
Mary, Daughter of Charles I. 

Worce.ster, Erlward Somerset, 
second Marquis of. Half 
length ..... 



Marquis of Linlithgow. 
Madrid Gallery. 

Earl of Home. 



Earl B'itzwilliam. 
Earl Fitzwilliam. 



Earl of Damley. 
Lord De L'Isle and 
Dudley. 

Earl Spencer. 

Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Amsterdam Museom. 



National Gallery. 



Windsor Castle. 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg, 
Earl of Leicester. 

Dresden Gallery. 

Earl Fitzwilliam. 

Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg, 

Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg, 

Hermitage, St, Peters- 
burg, 

Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 



Amsterdam Museum. 



Duke of Beaufort. 



SACKED SUBJECTS. 



Betrayal of Christ . 
Betrayal of Christ . 
Christ Bound .... 
Christ on the Cross . 
Cfirist on the Cross . 
Christ on the Cross . 1629 
Christ on the Cross . 
Christ healing the Paralytic 
Christ and the Pharisee . 
Christ crowned with Thorns. 

{An altered copy of Titian! s 

picture at Munich^) 
Crucifixion, The 
Crucifixion, The 
Crucifixion, The 
Crucifixion, The, (Study.) 

Dead Christ. (Small.) . 
Descent of the Holy Ghost 
Descent from the Cross . 
Ecce Homo .... 
Entombment, The . 
Entombment, The. (Study.) . 

Flight into Egypt . 

Flight into Egypt . . • . 

Four Repentant Sinners before 

Christ 

VOL. II. I 



Madrid Gallery. 
Lord Methuen. 
Vienna Gallery, 
Vienna Gallery. 
Munich Gallery. 
Antwerp Gallery. 
Lille Museum. 
Buckingham Palace. ' 
Palazzo Brignoli,Genoa. 



Madrid Gallery. 

St. Jacques, Antwerp. 

Notre-Dame, Courtray. 

Cathedral, Mechlin. 

Hermitage, St. Peteis- 
burg. 

Louvre, Paris. 

Berlin Gallery. 

Antwerp Gallery. 

Marquis of Linlithgow. 

.Vntwerp Gallery. 

Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Munich Gallery. 

Pitti Palace, Florence. 



Incredulity of St. Thomas 

Infant Saviour embracing St. 
.John ..... 

Infant C^lrist and St. John 

Ma<lonna and SS, Peter, Paul, 
anil l{<j«alia, 1629 

Madonna and Child . 

Mad<;nna and Child, (A replica 
of the Jiridgewater Gallery 
picture.) .... 

Madonna, The .... 

Madonna, as Queen of Heaven . 

Madonna and Child, with 
Saints ..... 

Madonna and Child . 

Madtjnna, Tlie, Life size. 

Madonna, The, Life size. 

Miidonna and Donor. 

Madonna and Donors 

Madonna and St, Anthony 

Madonna and Child . 

Madonna and Child . 

M;idoniia and Child, with St. 
Catharine .... 

St. Mary Magdalen . 

Magdalen, The Penitent . 

Holy Family .... 

Holy Family .... 

Hfjly Family, with the par- 
tridges, {lieplicas are in the 
Pitti Palace and in the Mu' 
seams of Nantes and Tours.) 

Holy Family .... 

Holy Family .... 

Holy Family .... 

Last Supper .... 

Marriage of St. Catharine 
Miraculous Draught of Fishes. 

(A study after Rvhens.) 
Mocking of Christ, The . 

Pieta 

Pieta ..... 

Pieta 

Pieta 

St. Anthony of Fadoa, holding 

the Infant Saviour 
St. Augu-stine in Ecstasy . 

St. Francis in Ecstasy . , 
St. Francis in Ecstasy 
St, .Jerome .... 
St. Jerome .... 
St, John the Evangelist and 

St, John the Baptist 
A Dying Saint, (A sketch in 

grisaille.) 
St. Martin dividing his Cloak. 

St. Peter 

St. Peter, Martyrdom of . 

St. Sebastian .... 

St. Sebastian . . . . 

St. Sebastian. iA sketch.) 

St. Sebastian, Martyrdom of . 

St. Sebastian, Martyrdom of . 

St. Stephen, Martyrdom of 
Samson and Delilah 
Susannah and the Elders . . 



Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Windsor Castle. 
Mrs. Morrison. 

Vienna Gallery. 
Bridgcwater House. 



Dulwich Gallery. 
Brunswick Gallery. 
Dresden Gallery. 

Louvre, Paris. 
Buckingham Palace. 
Buckingham Palace. 
TJfbzi, Florence. 
Vienna Gallery. 
Louvre, Paris. 
Brera, Mi an. 
Lord Ashburton. 
Mimich Gallery. 

Duke of Westminster. 
Vienna Gallery. 
Amsterdam Museum. 
Acad.of St, Luke,Uorae. 
Vienna Gallery. 



Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Munieli Gallery. 

Pinacoteca, Turin. 

Miss de Rothschild. 

Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Buckingham Palace. 

National Gallery. 
B<frlin Gallery. 
I'frlin Gallery. 
Munich (iallery. 
Vienna Gallery. 
Louvre, Paris. 

Brussels Gallery. 
St. Augustine's, Ant- 
werp. 
Brussels Gallery. 
Madrid Gallery. 
Dresden Gallery. 
Madrid Gallery. 

Berlin Gallery. 

Hampton Court. 

Saventhem, Belgium. 

Berlin Gallery. 

Brussels Gallery. 

JjOMvre, Paris. 

Munich Gallery. 

Earl of Warwick. 

National Gallery of 
Scotland. 

Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

LordEgcrton of Tatton. 

Vienna Gallery. 

Munich Gallery. 



Augsburg Gallery. 



MISCELLANEOUS SUB'ECTS. 
Boys blowing Soap Bubbles 

(Study 



Child's Head. 

crayrm.) 
Cupid and Psyche . 
Danae and the Golden Shower. 
Da;<lalu8 and Icarus . 
Diana and Endymion . 



Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Academy of St. Luke, 
Rome. 

Hampton Court. 

Dresden Gallery. 

Earl Si«n' er. 

Madrid Gallery. 

113 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Emperor Theodosiiis refused 
admission into the Church 
by St. Ambrose. (Copy, with 
slight alterations, of Bulieiis's 
picture in the Vienna Gallery.) 

Greenwich Palace, with Jiijures 
in the foreground, aitiong which 
are portraits of Charles I., 
Henrietta Maria, Lord A run- 
dell, and others 

Horses. (A study.) 

Rinaldo and Armida 

Eiualdo and Armida 

Silenus 

Sileuus ..... 

Study of three Horses, with 
their Riders .... 

Study of a Man on Horseback . 

Venus and Vulcan . 

Venus and Vulcan , 



National Gallery. 



Buckingham Palace. 
National Gallery. 
Louvre, Paris. 
Duke of Newcastle. 
Dresden Gallery. 
Brussels Gallery. 

Buckingham Palace. 
Augsburg Gallery. 
Vienna Gallery. 
Louvre, Paris, 



This distinguished painter occasionally occupied 
himself with the point, and has etched several 
plates, which are executed with a spirit and fire 
bordering on enthusiasm. They consist chiefiy of 
portraits of the most eminent artists of his time, 
from his own designs, animated with a vigour 
and energy which are perhaps without example. 
The following are his principal works : 

Christ crowned with Thorns; A. Van Dyck, inv. 
A Holy Family. 

PORTRAITS. 

Adam van Oort, Painter. 

Justus Suttermans, Painter, of Antwerp. 

Pieter Brueghel, Painter. 

Lucas Vorsterman, Engraver. 

Jodocus De Momper, Paiuter, 

Paulus Pontius, Eugraver. 

Jan Brueghel, Paiuter. 

Frans Fraijck, Painter. 

Jan De Wael, Painter. 

Jan Snelliux, Painter. 

Titian, with his Mistress, who is leaning on a casket, 

with a skull ; after Titian. 
Antonis Corneliasen, Amateur. 
Desiderius Erasmus. 
Sir Anthonius van Dyck. 
Philippe Le Roy. 
Frans Snyders, Painter. 
Anthonius Triest, Bishop of Ghent, 
William De Vos, Painter. 
Paulus De Vos, Painter. 
Jan van den Wouwer. 

There are several other plates attributed to Van 
Dyck, but being doubtful they are here omitted. 

These portraits form part of a series intended 
to represent the leading statesmen, warriors, and 
artists of the age. They appear to have been 
drawn originally in pencil by Van Dyck himself, 
then copied in grisiiille, in some cases perhaps 
by Van Dyck, and then engraved by the best 
engravers. The first edition was published after 
Van Dyck's death by Martin van der Enden, the 
second in 1645 by G. Hending. 

The works of Van Dyck are best studied in the 
great picture-galleries of Europe, such as the 
Louvre, Antwerp, Munich, Dresden, Cassel, Madrid, 
and St. Petersburg. In England Van Dyck is but 
scantily represented in the National collections, 
most of the finest specimens of his work being in 
the hands of private owners, or in the royal collec- 
tions at Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace. 
A fine set of his etchings and the other plates to the 
' Iconographie ' is in the Print-Eoom at the British 
Museum. Many of his finest paintings at Genoa 

114 



remain in their original positions in the palaces 
there, and in Belgium many of his altar-pieces 
remain in the churches at Mechlin, Ghent, and 
Antwerp, though in most cases seriously damaged 
by damp and neglect. Original sketches by Van 
Dyck, showing the variety of his ideas, are to be 
met with in all the great collections of drawings. 
The sketch-book used by him in Italy is in the pos- 
session of the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Lionel Oust, 'Anthony van Dyck, an Historical Study.' 

London, I3ell, 1900. {The chief work on this artist.) 
Lionel Cust, ' The Chatsworth Sketch-Book,' with 

Notes. London, Bell, 1902. 
Lionel Cust, ' Van Dyck.' London, Unicorn Press, 2 

vols., 1903. 
TF. H. Carpenter, ' Pictorial Notices : consisting of a 

Memoir of Sir Anthony van Dyck, &c.' London, 

1844, 4to. 
Alfred Michiels, ' Rubens et I'Ecole d'Anvers.' Paris, 

1854, 8vo. 
Georges Vuplessis, * Eaux-fortes de Antoine van Dyck, 

reproduites par Amand-Durand.' Paris, 1874, foUo. 
Carl Lemcke, ' Anton van Dyck.' Leipzig, 1875, 8vo. 
Fr. TFibiral, * Iconographie d'Antoine van Dyck, d'apres 

les recherches de H. Weber.' Leipzig, 1877, 8vo. 
Alfred Michiels, ' Van Dyck et ses Aleves.' Paris, 1881, 

8vo. 
Jules Guiffrey, ' AxAoine van Dyck, sa vie et son oeuvre.' 

Paris, 1882, folio.; j,. c. 

DYCK, Daniel van den. See Van den Dyck. 

DYCK, Hermann, a Bavarian painter, born at 
Wiirzburg in 1812, studied architectural and genre 
painting at Munich. His works are original and 
of great humour, and are neatly and carefully 
executed. The satirical designs for the ' Fliegende 
Blatter,' in reference to the rage for monuments, 
are incomparable. He was director of the Art 
Schools at Munich, where he died in 1874. 

DYCKMANS, Josef Laurens, a Flemish painter, 
was bom at Lierre in 1811. He was a pupil of 
Tielemans and Wappers. He painted genre pic- 
tures, portraits in small, &c., in a style of the 
minutest finish. He was Professor in the Antwerp 
Academy, and died in 1888. Pictures : 

The Blind Beggar. {National Gallery.) 
Portrait Group. (South Kensington Museum.) 

DYK, Floris van, (or Due,) a Dutch painter, 
was bom probably in 1577. After residing some 
time in Italy, he entered the Guild at Haarlem in 
1610, and became its dean in 1637. His death 
occurred probably in 1651. He executed historical 
pictures, but is better known as a painter of fruit 
and flowers, in which he excelled. 

DYK, Philip van, (or Dijk,) called 'The Little 
Van Dyck,' a Dutch portrait painter, was born at 
Amsterdam in 1680. He was instructed by Arnold 
Boonen, and painted small portraits in the style of 
his master, but was more successfully employed in 
painting subjects similar to those of Mieris and 
Metsu, representing conversations, ladies at their 
toilets, and gallant assemblies. In 1710 he estab- 
lished himself at Middleburg, but was afterwards 
invited to the Hague, where he painted some of 
his best pictures. The reputation he had acquired 
recommended him to the notice of Prince William, 
afterwards Landgrave of Hesse, who not only 
engaged him to paint several pictures, but com- 
missioned him to purchase the choicest works of 
art he could meet with in Holland and Flanders, 
for the rich collection he was then forming at 



PAINTERS AND ENORAVERS. 



Cassel. On his return to the Hague he painted the 
portraits of the Stadtholder and his family, as well 
as several pictures for the cabinet of that prince. 
He died at the Hague in 1752. The following 
works by him are in public galleries : 

Berlin. Gallery. The Lute-player. 

» V The Drawing Lesson. 

Brussels. Gallery. A Young Woman at her toilet. 

1726. 
Cassel. Gallery. The Landgrave Charles of Hesse 

and his Family. 
„ „ The Penitent Magdalen. 

Hague. Gallery. Judith. 1726. 

„ „ A Young Woman playing the 

lute. 
» „ A Young Woman at her toilet. 

,, „ The Book-keeper. 

Paris. Louvre. Sarah presenting Hagar to Abra- 

ham. 
» „ Abraham sending away Hagar 

and Isbmael. 

DYXHOORN, PiETER Aenout, a Dutch marine 
painter, was born at Rotterdam in 1810. He was 
a scholar of M. Schouman and of J. C. Schotel, 
and painted marine subjects and river scenes in 
an able manner. He died at Rotterdam in 1839. 



E 

EARLE, Augustus, a painter of historical and 
marine subjects, who, on account of his roving dis- 
position, was known as " the wandering artist," 
was the son of Ralph Earle, the American portrait 
painter, who married when studying in London, 
and left his wife and children here when he 
returned home. Augustus Earle was the intimate 
friend of Leslie and of Morse, and their fellow- 
student at the Royal Academy in 1813. Many 
years afterwards, Morse inquired of Leslie for 
their old companion Earle. " He had visited every 
part of the Mediterranean," said Leslie, " roamed 
in Africa — rambled in the United States — sketched 
in South America — attempted to go to the Cape of 
Good Hope in a worn-out Margate hoy, and was 
shipwrecked on Tristan d'Acunha, where he passed 
six months with some old tars who hutted there 
— at length a vessel touched the desolate place 
and released him. He then visited Van Diemen's 
Land, New South Wales, and New Zealand, where 
he drew from the naked figure, and saw the finest 
forms in the world addicted to cannibalism. Re- 
turning to Sydney, he, by way of variety, proceeded 
to the Caroline Islands — stopped at the Ladrones — 
looked in upon Manilla, and finally settled himself 
at Madras, and made money as a portrait painter. 
Not content, he went to Pondicherry, and there 
embarked for France, but stopped at the Mauritius, 
and after some few more calls at various places, 
found his way home. " Besides a series of views 
in New South Wales, he pubHshed with illustrations 
in 1832, ' A Narrative of a nine months' residence 
in New Zealand, in 1827 ; together with a Journal 
of a residence in Tristan d'Acunha.' He exhibited 
at the Royal Academy between the years 1806 and 
1815, and again in 1837 and 1838, after having 
■ accompanied Captain Fitzroy in the ' Beagle ' to 
South America. The following were among his 
exhibited works : 

The Judgment of Midas. 1806. 
The Battle of Poictiers. 1803. 
Banditti. 1811 and 1812. 

A Man-of-war's BoatscuttingoutaFrenchBarque. 1814 
View of the Harbour and Town of Calais. 1815. 
I 2 



Life on the Ocean. 1837. 

Divine Service on board a Man-of-war. 18.37. 

A Bivouac of Travellers in AustraUa. 1838. 

EARLE, James, an American portrait painter, 
was probably a brother of Ralph Earle. He was 
a native of Leicester, Massachusetts, and died of 
yellow fever at Charleston in 1796. 

EARLE, Ralph, an American portrait and his- 
torical painter, was born at Leicester, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1751. He painted in 1775 four scenes 
in the battle of Lexington, which are believed to 
be the first historical paintings ever executed by 
an American artist. After the peace he came over 
to England and studied under West, but he returned 
to America in 1786, and died at Bolton, Connecticut, 
in 1801. He was of intemperate habits, and left 
his wife and children in London when he returned 
to his native country. Among his works are a 
large picture of the ' Falls of Niagara,' and por- 
traits of King George III., Dr. Dwight, President 
of Yale College, and Governor Strong. 

EARLOM, Richard, a mezzotint engraver, was 
born in London in 1743. He was a pupil of Cipriani, 
and was the first artist who made use of the point 
in mezzotint work. He first engraved for Boydell, 
who in 1777 brought out the ' Liber Veritatis,' com- 
prising two hundred plates, executed by Earlom 
in the style of the original drawings by Claude 
Lorrain, which are for the most part in the pos- 
session of the Duke of Devonshire. He is especi- 
ally known for his groups of flowers after Van 
Huysum and Van Os. He also executed some 
etchings, as well as some plates in the chalk 
style. Earlom died in London in 1822. The fol- 
lowing are his principal plates : 

ETCHINGS. 
Portrait of Rembrandt ; after Memhrandt. 
Banditti and Travellers ; after Salvator Eoaa. 
Jacob wrestUng with the Angel ; after the same. 
David and Gohath ; after the same. 
Venus and Adonis ; after N. Foussin. 
The Death of Abel : after A. Sacchi. 
J!neas saving Anchises from the Buins of Troy ; after 

Tintoretto, 
The Holy Family ; after Guercino. 
Cupid bound ; after Ouido. 

PORTRAITS IN MEZZOTINT. 

William Henry, Duke of Gloucester; after Hamilton. 

Thomag Newton, Bishop of Bristol ; after West. 

Sir Edward Astley, Bart. ; after the same. 

George Augustus EUott, Lord Heathfield ; after Sir J. 

Meynolds. 
James Stuart, Duke of Eichmond ; after Van Dyck. 
The Duke of Aremberg on horseback ; after the same. 
Rubens's Wife ; after Rubens. 
Portrait of Rembrandt ; after Rembrandt. 
Rembrandt's Wife ; after the same. 
Admiral Kempenfelt ; after T, Kettle. 
James Mac Ardell, engraver. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Repose, called ' La Zingara ; ' after Correggio. 

The Virgin and Infant ; after Guercino. 

The Virgin and Infant, with St. John; after Carlo 

Dolci. 
Salvator Mundi ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Infant ; after Cantarini. 
The Infant Jesus sleeping ; after Domeniehino. 
Simeon receiving the Infant Jesus ; after Ouido. 
Christ curing the Blind ; after AnnibaU Carracci. 
Galatea; after Liica Giordano. 
The Judgment of Paris ; after the same. 
The Misers ; after Quentin Massys. 
The Holy Family ; after Rubens. 
Mary Magdalen washing the Feet of Christ ; after the 

same. 

115 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Nymphs nnd Satyrs ; after the same. 

Meleager and Atalanta ; after the same. 

The Death of Hippolytus ; after the same. 

Eubens's Son and his Nurse ; after tJie same. 

Elijah restoring to Life the Widow's Son ; after Sem- 

brandt. 
The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same. 
Susannah and the Elders ; after the same, 
A Boar attacked by a Lion ; after Snyders. 
The Fruit-Market; after Snyders and Jan van Bockhortt. 
The Fish-Market ; after the same. 
The Vegetable-Market ; after the same. 
A Fruit-piece, and a Flower-piece ; after Jan van 

Uuysum ; two plates ; extremely fine. 
David and Bathsheba ; after ji.. van der Werff; very 

fine. 
The Enchantress ; after D. Tenters. 
The Singing Master ; after G. SehalJien. 
The Interview between Augustus and Cleopatra ; after 

R. Mengs, 
The Royal Family of England ; after Zoffany. 
The Eoyal Academy ; after the same. 
Angelica and Medora ; after West, 
Cupid stung by a Bee ; after the same. 
Meleager aud Atalanta; after Richard Wilson. 
Apollo and the Nymphs ; after the same. 
A Blacksmith's Shop ; after Joseph Wright. 
An Iron Forge ; after the same. 

William Earlom, his son, who was evincing 
decided talent as an artist, was cut off in 1789, when 
only seventeen years of age. 

BASTLAKE, Sir Charles Lock, the youngest 
son of George Eastlake, solicitor to the Admiralty 
and Judge- Advocate at Plymouth, was born in that 
town, November 17, 1793. He was educated at 
the Plympton Grammar School, where Sir Joshua 
Reynolds had previously studied, and he was one 
of the first pupils of Prout, also a native of Ply- 
mouth, whom he occasionally accompanied on his 
excursions into the country to study nature. When 
fourteen years of age, he was sent to the Charter- 
house School, London, but he left in 1808 in order 
to study art under Haydon, his fellow-townsman. 
In 1809 he became a student in the Royal Academy 
Schools, and in 1814 visited Paris for a tevj months. 
In 1816, while Eastlake was employed painting 
portraits in his native town, Napoleon arrived 
there on board the ' Bellerophon,' and the young 
artist took advantage of every glimpse he could 
obtain of the ex-Emperor to make studies of him, 
by the aid of which he painted a life-size picture 
of Napoleon, standing at the gangway of the sliip, 
attended by his officers. This work, which is now 
the property of the Marquis of Lansdowne, attracted 
great attention, and was so well sold as to enable 
the painter to visit Italy in 1817. He then, in 1819, 
proceeded to Greece, on a commission from Mr. 
Harmau, his first patron, to make sketches of the 
architectural remains and the scenery of that classic 
soil. In some of these journeys he was accom- 
panied by Brockedon, the painter, and Sir Charles 
Barry, the architect. On his return, after nearly a 
year's absence, and having visited Malta and Sicily 
in the course of his tour, Eastlake painted a life- 
size picture of ' Mercury bringing the Golden Apple 
to Paris.' Shortly after the death of his father, 
which had brouglit him back to England in 1820, 
he returned to Rome, and became much occupied in 
paintina: subjects illustrative of the local features, 
inhabitants, and customs of modern Italy. He 
resided in Italy altogether fourteen years, chiefly in 
Rome and in Ferrara. He first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1823, his earliest contributions 
being scenes in which public buildings, such as 
the Castle of St. Angelo, St. Peter's, &c., were a 

116 



principal feature. These were followed by subjects 
taken from Italian life in the neighbourhood of 
Rome, subjects of banditti life, &c. Commissioned 
by the Duke of Devon.shire, he painted, in 1827, a 
picture representing the story related by Plutarch 
of ' The Spartan Isidas,' who, appearing in battle 
naked, and armed with sword and spear, was 
mistaken for a god. This picture, consisting 
of numerous figures, and of medium gallery size, 
occupied the painter nearly two years, and pro- 
duced considerable sensation amongst the artists 
and dilettanti at Rome. In England it was not 
so generally appreciated ; but its merit was ac- 
knowledged by the Royal Academy, of which body 
he was elected an Associate in 1827, the year 
of its exhibition. About this time, captivated by 
Venetian colouring, he painted some subjects of 
half- figures, life-size, sometimes of chivalrous 
character, sometimes taken from the picturesque 
peasantry of Italy. He was, in 1830, elected a 
Royal Academician. In the same year he returned 
to England, and established himself in London. 
The subjects now treated by him were undertaken 
chiefly in order to turn to account his materials 
from the costume and scenery of modern Greece. 
He varied his studies at this time by portrait- 
painting, and by his favourite half-figures in the 
Venetian style. He also occasionally treated small 
fancy subjects, and historic and modern Italian 
subjects. But henceforth his time was devoted to 
the service of art, by advice and by writing, rather 
than by any practical work. He exhibited but 
five pictures at the Royal Academy after his election 
as president. 

In the year 1841 Eastlake was appointed secre- 
tary to the Royal Commission for decorating the 
new Houses of Parliament and for the promotion 
of the Fine Arts, and he conducted the business of 
that commission until its dissolution after the death 
of its president, the Prince Consort. In 1842 he 
was made librarian of the Royal Academy, and in 
the following year he became keeper of the 
National Gallery, which ofBce, however, he resigned 
in 1847. On the death of Sir Martin Shee, in 1850, 
he was elected president of the Royal Academy 
and received the customary honour of knight- 
hood. He also became a trustee of the National 
Gallery, of which he was, in 1856, made director 
for a period of five years. This appointment was 
renewed in 1860, and again in 1865, and during his 
tenure of office he was instrumental in obtaining for 
the nation many of its greatest treasures. 

His literary productions were all connected with 
art; he edited, in 1842, a translation of Kugler's 
' Italian Schools of Painting ' (subsequently re- 
edited by his widow) ; but his chief works were 
his ' Materials for a History of Oil-Painting ' 
(1847), and ' Contributions to the Literature of the 
Fine Arts ' (1848). 

In August, 1865, Sir Charles Eastlake left Eng- 
land, exceedingly unwell, for his usual annual tour 
on the continent, taken with a view of acquiring 
further examples for the National Gallery. At 
Milan he became seriously ill, but rallying slightly, 
pushed on to Pisa, where he died December 24, 
1865. He was buried first in the English cemetery 
at Florence, but was subsequently re-interred at 
Kensal Green. The following are some of his 
principal paintings : 

The Raising of Jairus's Daughter. Brutus exhorting 
the Romans to revenge tlie Death of Lucretia. An 
Italian Ooutadina and her children. (Aow at South 



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Kensington.) Girl of Albano" leading a Blind Man 
to Mass. 1825. Mercury bringing the Golden Apple 
to Paris. Lord Byron's Dream. (Fainted at Some 
in 1827, now in the National Gallery.) Pilgrims 
ai'riviug in sight of Rome. {Royal Academy, 1823 : 
repeated in 1835, and again in ISiJU.) Una delivering 
the Red Cross Knight. 1830. Haidee, a Greek 
Girl. {Royal Academy, 1831 : now in the National 
Gallery.) A Peasant Woman fainting from the 
Bite of a Serpent. {Royal Academy, 1831 : now at 
South Kensington.) Greek Fugitives. {Royal Academy^ 
1833. ) Escape of the Carrara Family from the 
pursuit of the Duke of Milan, 1389. (Royal Academy, 
1834: a replica, of the year 1850, is in the National 
Gallery.) An Arab selling bis Captives, Monks 
endeavouring to ransom them. 1837. Gastun de 
Foil before the Battle of Ravenna. 1838. Christ 
blessing Little Children. (Royal Academy, 1840.) 
Christ lamenting over Jerusalem. {Royal Academy, 
1841 : a replica is in the Natioruil Gallery.) Hagar 
and Ishmael. (Royal Academy, 1843; his diploma 
picture.) 

EATON, Joseph 0., an American painter of 
portraits and figure subjects, both in oil and in 
water-colours, was bom in 1829. He died at 
Yonkers on the Hudson in 1875. Among his 
exhibited works were : 

Landscape : View on the Hudson. 1868. 

Greek Water-Carrier. 1872. 

Lady Godiva. 1874. 

Looking through the Kaleidoscope. 1875. 

His own Portrait. 1875. (National Academy of Design.) 

EBERHARD, Konrad, a German historical 
painter, better known as a sculptor, was one of 
the foremost artists of the so-called Nazarene 
School, which at one time gathered round Overbeck 
in Rome. He was born in 1768 at Hindelang in 
Algau, where his father and grandfather were 
sculptors and carvers. The Elector of Treves and 
Bishop of Augsburg, Clement Wenceslas, often had 
occasion to go to Hindelang, where he made the 
acquaintance of Eberhard, and induced him to 
visit the Academy of Munich in 1798 to work 
under his fellow-countryman Boos. In 1816 
he was appointed professor of sculpture at the 
Academy. Several pictures by him exist, one of 
which, ' The Adoration of the Magi,' is especially 
beautiful. He died at Munich in 1859. In most 
of his works lie was assisted by his elder brother, 
Fbanz Eberhard, an excellent sculptor, who was 
born at Hindelang in 1767, and died of cholera at 
Munich in 1836. 

EBERLE, Adam, one of the earliest and most 
gifted pupils of Cornelius, was born at Aix-la- 
Chapelle in 1805. He studied painting at the 
Diisseldorf Academy, and afterwards went with Cor- 
nelius to Munich. After commencing his career 
at Diisseldorf by painting 'The Entombment of 
Christ,' and 'St. Helena with two Angels,' be exe- 
cuted the large fresco-painting on the ceiling of the 
Odeon, representing ' Apollo among the Shepherds.' 
In 1829 he went to Rome, where he died in 1832. 

EBERLE, RoBEET, a Gennan animal painter, 
was born at Meersburg in 1815. He was first 
instructed by Bidermann at Constance, and after- 
wards went to Munich, where he studied from 
nature and the works of Van de Velde and Du 
Jardin. He especially excelled in painting sheep, 
and there is a ' Shepherdess' by him in the Modern 
Gallery at Munich. He died, through the discharge 
of a pistol, at Eberfing, near Munich, in 1859. 

EBERLEIN, Christian Nicolaus, a German 
historical painter, was born at Rudolstadt in 1720. 
He worked in Gottingen, Wolfenbiittel, and Salz- 
dahlum, and in 1775 became inspector of the 



gallery in the last-named town, and made good 
copies of many of the pictures therein. He died 
at Salzdahlum in 1788. His son. Christian Eber- 
hard Eberlein, who was also a painter, was born 
at Wolfenbiittel in 1749, and died at Gottingen iu 
1804. 

EBERLEIN, Johann Christian, was born at 
Gottingen about 1770, and died there in 1815. An 
' Italian Landscape ' by him is in the Modern Gallery 
at Munich. 

EBERMAYR, Johann Eberhard, a German Ids- 
torical painter, was born at Nuremberg in 1659. 
He studied under Johann Murrer, and afterwards 
at Venice. He died in his native city in 1692. 

EBERT, Karl, landscape painter, was born at 
Stuttgart in 1821, and studied there under Stein- 
kopf, as well as at Munich. He died in 1885. In 
the Stuttgart Gallery there are two pictures by 
him. 

ECCARDT, Johann ^gidids. See Eckhaedt. 

ECHION. See Abtion. 

ECHTER, Michael, a German historical and 
fresco painter, was born in 1810. He studied under 
Kaulhach, whom he assisted in decorating the 
staircase of the New Museum at Berlin. He died 
at Munich in 1879. 

ECKARD, Johann Chhistoph, an engraver, was 
born in 1767 at Lauilen on the Neckar, and after 
studying architecture for a while, placed himself 
under Guibat and J. G. von Miiller in the line 
which he afterwards adopted. He engraved por- 
traits and historical pictures, and worked for some 
time at Diisseldorf in the illustration of various 
works; but in 1809 he obtained an engagement 
at Munich as an engraver upon lithographic stones 
of crests and ornamental writing. He died at 
Munich after 1832. 

ECKEMANN-ALESSON.LoEENZ. See Ekemann- 
Alesson. 

ECKERSBERG, Christoffeb Vilhelm, a Danish 
painter of historical and genre subjects, sea-pieces, 
and portraits, was bom at Blaakrog, Varnas, in 
South Jutland, in 1783. He studied first in 
Aabenraa and in Flensburg; and in 1803 entered 
the Academy at Copenhagen, where he won the 
gold medal in 1809 with his ' Death of Jacob.' In 
the following year he went to Paris and entered 
David's studio, and in 1813 he visited Rome. 
Returning to Copenhagen, he was elected in 1817 
a member of the Academy, to which he presented 
'The Death of Balder.' In the following year he 
became one of its professors, and devoted much 
care, with great success, to tlie improvement of 
the talents of rising artists. In 1827 he was made 
Director of the Academy. Between the years 1818 
and 1828 he executed a series of historical pictures 
relating to the House of Oldenburg in the palace nf 
Christiansborg. He died at Copenhagen in 1853. 
Amongst his works are : 

Loke and Sigyn. 1810. {Copenhagen Gallery.) 

Portrait of Thorwaldsen. 1815. 

The Israelites crossing the Red Sea. 1815. {Copenhagen 

Gallery. ) 
Axel and "Walburg. 
Christ in Gethsemane. 1824. 
A Swedish Fishing Boat. 1833. 
The Sermon on the Mount. 1834. 
Portrait of the Princess Vilhelmiue. ^ 
A Russian Ship. 1828. (Ccpenhagm 

A Danish Boat. 183d. \ ^ /v„;/,„A 

Vessels in the Sound. 1848. i^auery.) 

Sea-piece. 1848. J 

ECKERSBERG, Johan Fredeeik, a landscape 

117 



A BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



painter, was born at Drammen in Norway in 1822. 
He was placed in a mercantile o£Bce in Christiania 
at the age of eighteen, but having previously been 
in Holland for several years, and visited Amster- 
dam, he had there imbibed a taste for art, so that 
after two years, against his father's wish, he 
relinquished his post, and entered the technical 
drawing-school at Christiania. Rapidly developing 
his talent for painting, he m 1824 obtained one of 
the Government stipends for young artists, and 
■went to Diisseldorf, where he studied landscape 
painting under Professor Schirmer. He returned 
to Christiania in 1848, where his works commanded 
a very fair sale. He married in 1850, hut two 
years later he was obliged to visit Madeira for 
his health, where, having iirst devoted his time to 
portrait painting to increase his rather slender 
funds, he travelled over the island, making sketches, 
from which he afterwards painted his magnificent 
series of pictures of Madeira. He returned to 
Christiania in 1854, and in 1859 founded in that 
city an Academy of Painting, which was soon after 
taken under Government patronage. Every summer 
from the date of his return to Norway he visited 
the most grand and picturesque spots in his native 
country, making sketches from which he after- 
wards elaborated his pictures. Eckersberg died at 
Sandvigen, near Christiania, in 1870. His ' Grand 
Panoramic Scene from a Norwegian Plateau ' was 
exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. 

ECKERT, Heinrich Ambros, a German painter 
of battle-pieces, was born at Wiirzburg in 1807, 
and was at first instructed by Fessel. In 1825 
he attended the Academy at Municli, and after- 
wards visited the Tyrol and France. Between 1835 
and 1840, in conjunction with Monten and Schelver, 
he published a work upon the German federal army, 
with two hundred coloured lithographic plates ; 
and another illustrating the return of the Russian 
troops to their homes. He died at Munich in 1840, 
while engaged upon a picture of the great review 
near that city before the Emperor of Russia. 
Besides genre subjects and battle-pieces he painted 
marine views. 

ECKHARDT, Geoeg Ludwig, a German portrait 
painter, was born at Hamburg in 1770, and died in 
1794. He was an artist of great promise, and 
wrote the ' Hamburgische Kiinstlernachrichten,' 
published in 1794. 

ECKHARDT, Johann ^gidids, (or Eccardt,) 
was a native of Germany, who visited England 
about the year 1740, and became a pupil of Jan 
Baptist van Loo. He was much employed as 
a portrait painter, about the time that Sir Joshua 
Reynolds returned from Italy. There is a print 
of Peg WofBngton, the actress, engraved by Faber, 
and another of Dr. Conyers Middleton, engraved 
by the same artist, from pictures by this painter. 
He died at Chelsea in 1779. 

ECKMAN, Eddard, a Flemish wood-engraver, 
was born at Mechlin about the year 1610. He 
engraved some wood-cuts, which are admired for 
the neatness of their execution and the correct 
drawing of the small figures. He appears to have 
taken the prints of Callot for his model, and has 
copied some of them in wood-cuts with surprising 
delicacy and spirit, particularly the plate of the 
' Fireworks on the River Arno.' He also engraved 
after Businck and Abraham Bosse. The work of 
Eckman consists of upwards of a hundred prints. 

ECKSTEIN, JoHANN, a German modeller and 
painter, lived in the 18th century, and studied 

118 



at the Royal Academy in London, where he spent 
the greater part of his life. He stayed some time 
at Potsdam, and was practising in Birmingham in 
1792. In 1796 he painted 'The Soldier's Return,' 
and a ' Family Gathering.' The Berlin Museum 
has two beautiful rehefs, signed J. E., which are 
said to be by this artist. He died in London in, or 
soon after, the year 1798. 

ECKSTEYN, Georg David, a German engraver, 
resided at Nuremberg about the year 1721. He 
engraved some of the portraits for the 'Icones 
Bibliopolarum et Typographorum,' published by 
Roth-Scholtz at Nuremberg in 1726-42. 

ECLECTICS. A name given to the Carracci 
Family. 

ECMAN, Jean, a French miniature painter, was 
born about 1641. He was received into the Academy 
in 1675, and died in Paris in 1677. 

EDDELIEN, Matthias Heinrich Elias, was 
born at Greifswalde in 1803, and in 1819 went as 
a journeyman painter to Copenhagen, where he 
attended the Academy, and executed works in gri- 
saille for Christiansborg. In 1837 he won the large 
gold medal for his picture of ' David amusing Saul 
by playing on the Harp,' and afterwards obtained a 
travelling allowance for a competitive painting of 
' Christ making Himself known to His Disciples.' 
In 1839 he went to Rome, and while there painted 
for the church at Kronborg ' Christ blessing Little 
Children.' After his return he executed his chef 
(Taeitvre, consisting of the frescoes in the chapel 
of Cliristian IV., in the cathedral of Roskilde ; 
but becoming paralysed he was unable to com- 
plete them. He died in 1852. There is in the 
Copenhagen Gallery a ' Faun plucking Grapes,' 
dated 1830. 

EDDIS, Eden Upton, was a portrait painter, a 
fellow-student and life-long companion of George 
Richmond, and divided, at one time, the world of 
fashion with his friend. He was a pupil of Sass, 
and afterwards at the Royal Academy Schools, 
and one of the medallists. At one time he was 
disposed to take up landscape work, but was 
persuaded to try portraiture, and so quickly 
obtained a success in that branch of art, that he 
relinquished all other work in its favour. His 
cleverest works were portraits of children, but 
amongst notable men whom he painted were Sydney 
Smith, Theodore Hook, and Macaulay. He was 
remarkable also for his pencil portraits, which 
were of great refinement and beauty. The last 
fifteen years of his life were passed at Shalford 
near Guildford, where he died in 1901 at the age 
of eighty-nine. He became very deaf as he grew 
old, and this deafness was one of the reasons for 
his retirement, but he was very popular as a 
raconteur down to the end of his life, as he had 
a wealth of anecdote, and a charming wit at his 
disposal, and was one of the kindest and most 
generous of men to children, and was always a 
great favourite with them. G.C.W. 

EDELINCK, Gaspard Fran(;'OIS, the youngest 
brother of Gerard Edelinck, was born at Antwerp 
in 1652. He was instructed by his brothers, Gerard 
and Jean, but did not long pursue the art of en- 
graving. He died in Paris in 1722, leaving behind 
him no work of note, except the plate of ' The 
Deluge,' after Alessandro Veronese, which had been 
commenced by his brother Jean, and was finished 
by him under the direction of Gerard Edelinck. 

EDELINCK, GERARD, a French engraver, was 
born at Antwerp in 1640, and received his instruc- 



GfiRARD EDELINCK 




After Kneller] 



JOHN DKVDEN 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



tion from Cornelis Galle. In 1666 he went to 
Paris, where he entered the studio of Frangois de 
Poilly, and was taken into the service of Lonis 
XIV., who settled a pension on him, with apart- 
ments at the Gobelins. In 1675 he received letters 
of naturalization, and in 1677 he was received 
into the Academy, and was soon after knighted by 
the King. He worked entirely with the graver ; 
and his execution is at the same time both bold 
and finished. His style is more delicate than 
that of Bolswert and Pontius, without being less 
picturesque. His plates, though exquisitely fin- 
ished, display nothing of labour or littleness. The 
size and the number of his prints evince the most 
surprising facility. The pictures of Le Brun, under 
the graver of Edelinck and Gerard Audran, appear 
to have been the works of an accomplished colour- 
ist, and assume qualities in which they were really 
deficient. Edelinck died in Paris in 1707. Robert- 
Dumesnil, in his ' Peintre-Graveur Fran^ais,' vii. 
169 — 336, describes 339 engravings by him, of 
which 200 are portraits: the following are his 
principal works. 

PORTEAITS. 
Louis XIV., bust on a pedestal ; after J. B. Corneille. 
Louis XrV., an equestrian statue, with a group of the 

eminent men of his reign ; after Bonet. 
Louis XIV. on horseback, with Providence hovering 
over him, and his Enemies overthrown at his feet ; 
in two sheets ; very fine ; after Le Brun. 
Louis XIV., bust on a sliield borne by Eeligion seated 
in a triumphal car drawn by the Four Evangelists, 
called the ' Triumph of the Church,' or the ' Extirpa- 
tion of Calvinism ; ' in two sheets ; fine and scarce ; 
after Le Brun. 
Louis XIV. giving peace to Europe ; in two sheets ; 

after Le Brun. 
Louis XrV., half-length ; after J. de La Haye. 
Louis, Duke of Burgundy ; after F. de Tray. 
E.sprit Fluchier, Bishop of Nimes ; after Rigaud. 
Charles Perrault ; after Tortebat. 
Paul Fontanier de Pelhsson. 
Jean de La Fontaine ; after Riyavd. 
Jean Racine. 

Blaise Pascal ; after L. Q. V. 
Pieter van Bouc. 
Nathanael Dilgerus. 1683. 
Titian. 

Abraham Teniers ; after a picture iy himself. 
Albrecht Diirer. 
Jean Cousin. 
Gilles Sadeler, engraver. 
Abraham Bloemaert. 

Jacques Blanch.ard ; after a picture iy himself. 
Francois Tortebat, Painter to the King ; after De Piles. 
Israel Silvestre, engraver ; after Le Brun. 
Pierre Simon, engraver ; after F. Ernou. 
Frau(^ois Chauveau, engraver ; after C. Le Fevre. 
Marten van den Bogaert, sculptor ; after Rigaud. 
Hyacinthe Rigaud, painter; after a picture by himielf. 
Jules Hardouin Mansart, architect ; after Riyaud. 
Charles Le Brun ; after N. de I,argilliere. 
Philippe de Champaigne ; after a picture by himself; 

very fine. 
Charles d'Hozier, Genealogist of France ; after Rigaud, 
Frederic Leonard, Printer to the King ; after the sajne. 
Jean Charles Parent ; after Tortebat. 
Madame Helyot, with a crucifix ; after Galliot. 
Francois Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, bust, 
with Mars and Minerva as supporters ; after Le Brun. 
Andre Hameau, Doctor of the Sorbonne ; after Vivien. 
Nicolas de Blampignon, Doctor of the Sorbonne ; after 

the same. 
Jean Rouille, Count of Meslay ; after Nanteuil. 
Charles Mouton, Musician to Louis XIV. ; after De Troy. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Holy Family, with St. Joseph, St. EUzabeth, St. 
John, and two Angels ; after the picture by Raphael 
in the Louvre, presented to Francis I. by Pope Leo X. ; 



very fine. The first impressions are before the arms 
of Colbert, the second are with the arms, and the 
third have the arms effaced, while the frame in which 
they were inserted remains. 

The Virgin Mary sewing, with the Infant sleeping in a 
Cradle, surrounded by Angels, called ' La Couseuse;' 
after Guido ; fine. 

The Holy Family, with St. Joseph presenting Flowers 
to the Infant Jesus ; after C. Maratti. 

The Holy Family, called the ' Benedicite ; ' after Le Brun. 

A Female Saint, holding a Lily, and kneeling before the 
Virgin and Infant seated on a Throne, to whom she 
presents a Book ; after Fietro da Cortona. 

The Penitent Magdalen renouncing the Vanities of the 
World ; after the picture by Le Brun, now ia the 
Louvre at Paris. The portrait is that of Madame de 
La Valliere. The first impressions are without the 
inscription, and are very scarce ; the next best are 
without the border. 

St. Louis prostrating himself before a Crucifix ; after Le 
Brun. 

St. Charles Borromeo kneeling ; afte/r the same. 

The Crucifixion, surrounded with Angels ; on two 
sheets ; after the same. 

Moses holding the tables of the Law ; after Fhilippe de 
Champaigne ; commenced by Nanteuil, and finished 
after his death by Edehnck. 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; af^er the same. 

The Virgin at the foot of the Cross ; after the same. 

St. Jerome ; after the same. 

St. Ambrose ; half-length ; after J. B. de Cliampaigne. 

St. Basil and St. Gregory ; half-length ; after the same. 

A Combat of Cavalry, four Horsemen fighting for a 
Standard, with three dead Figures on the ground ; 
after the celebrated cartoon by Leonardo da I inci. 

Alexander, accompanied by Hephiestion, entering the 
Tent of Darius ; on two sheets ; after Le Brun. The 
first impressions have the name of Goyton at the bot- 
tom. This print completes the set of the * Battles of 
Alexander ' engraved by Gerard Audran after Le Brun. 

Alexander entering the Tent of Darius ; after Mignard ; 
Edelinck's last work, finished after bis death by F. 
Drevet. 

EDELINCK, Jean, a brother of Gerard Edelinck, 
and probably younger than the latter, was born at 
Antwerp, but in what year is not known. He 
preceded his brother to Paris, and there engraved 
several plates in imitation of his style. Although 
very unequal to the works of his brother, his prints 
are not without considerable merit. He died in 
Paris in 1680. He engraved several of the statues in 
the gardens at Versailles, and there are also by him : 

The Portrait of Isbrandus de Diemerbroeck, a famous 
anatomist ; after Romeyn De Hooghe. 

The Deluge ; after Alessandro Turchi. This plate was 
finished after his death by his youngest brother, 
Gaspard Francois Edehnck. 

EDELINCK, Nicolas, the son of Gerard Ede- 
linck, was born in Paris about 1680. Although he 
had the advantage of his father's instruction, and of 
studying in Italy, he never rose above mediocrity. 
He engraved some portraits, and a few plates for 
the Crozat Collection. He died in Paris in 1730. 
Among other prints by him are the following : 

Gerard Edelinck ; after Tortebat. 
Cardinal Giulio de' Medici ; after Raphael. 
Count Baldassare Castiglione ; after the same. 
Philip, Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, on horse- 
back ; after J. Ranc. 
Adrien Baillet. 
John Dryden ; after Kneller. 
The Virgin and Infant ; after Correggio. 
Vertumnus and Pomona ; after J. Ranc. 

EDEMA, Gerard, was born in Friesland (or 
according to others, at Amsterdam), in 1652. He 
was a scholar of AUart van Everdingen, and, like 
his master, painted landscapes with rocks and 
waterfalls, chiefly from views in Norway. At the 

119 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



age of eighteen he came to England, •sphere he met 
with encouragement, and made voyages to Norway 
and Ne\vfoundland, to collect subjects for his pic- 
tures among those wild scenes of nature, for which 
he had a romantic predilection. The figures in 
his landscapes are generally painted by Th. Wyck. 
Although the pictures by Edema are painted with 
spirit, they possess little of the chaste and simple 
colouring, and the picturesque touch, which dis- 
tinguish the landscapes of Van Everdingen. He 
died at Richmond in 1700. At Hampton Court are 
a ' River Scene " and a ' Landscape ' by him. 

EDEMA, NicoLAES, born in Friesland in 1666, 
went to Surinam to paint the landscapes, plants, 
and insects of that country. He became a good 
landscape painter, as his views are after nature, 
with a good tone of colour, and a spirited touch. 
He died in London in 1722. 

EDENBERGER, J. N., a German miniature 
painter, was a native of Baden-Durlach. He 
possessed considerable talent, and was living in 
1773 at the Hague, whence he came to England, 
but returned thither in 1776. 

EDLINGER, Johann Georq, a portrait painter, 
was born at Graz in 1741. He was a pupil of 
Desmar^es, and became court painter at Munich, 
where he died in 1819. His portraits are well 
painted, and show a leaning towards the works of 
Rembrandt. Some of his portraits of eminent 
Bavarians, engraved by Friedrich John, appeared 
in 1821 under the title ' Sammlung von Bildnissen 
denkwiirdiger Manner.' 

EDLINGER, KLiRL Franz, a Saxon painter, was 
born at Dresden in 1785, and died there in 1823. 
He painted portraits, especially miniatures, but only 
one historical picture by him is known, ' Ariadne 
in Naxos.' His son, Johann Moritz Ellinger, 
who was born at Dresden in 1823, and died in 1847, 
was a portrait painter and etcher. 

EDMONDS, John W., an American painter of 
genre subjects, was born at Hudson, New York, 
in 1806. Engaged during the greater part of his 
life as a cashier in a bank, he devoted his morn- 
ings and evenings to painting ; but this constant 
toil weakened his health so much that in 1840 he 
came to Europe for rest. He first exhibited at the 
New York Academy in 1836, under an assumed 
name, 'Sammy the Tailor.' This was followed, 
among other works, by ' Dominie Sampson ' in 
1837, the 'Penny Paper' in 1839, 'Sparking' in 
1840, 'Stealing Milk' in 1843, 'Vesuvius' and 
'Florence' in 1844, 'Bargaining' in 1858, and 
'The New Bonnet' in 1869. In 1838 he was 
elected an Associate of the National Academy, and 
in 1840 an Academician. He died at his residence 
on the Bronx River in 1863. 

EDMONSTONE, Robert, a Scottish subject 
painter, was born at Kelso in 1795. He pursued 
the study of art under many difficulties, but at last 
became a student in the Royal Academy, London, 
where he first exhibited in 1818. He then went to 
the continent, and studied for a few years in Italy. 
Returning, he practised portrait painting in London 
from about 1824 to 1831, when he paid a second 
visit to Italy. He died at his native place in 1834, 
from the effects of fever contracted at Rome. His 
forte lay in works in which he introduced children. 
Amongst the pictures he exhibited were : 

Italian Boys playing at Cards. 1830. 
Venetian Water-Carriers. 1S33. 
Kissing the cliains of St. Peter 
The ^Ybite Mouse. [His last work) 
120 



Water- 
Colaur. 



EDRIDGE, Henry, a miniature painter, was 
born at Paddington in 1769. He was apprenticed 
to Pether, the mezzotint engraver and landscape 
painter, but his chief excellence lay in miniature 
portraits, which he executed in black lead and 
Indian ink, and subsequently in water-colours. 
In 178G he exhibited at the Academy 'The Weary 
Traveller,' and in 1803 portraits of King George 
III. and Queen Charlotte. He was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Academy in 1820, and died 
in London in 1821. The following are among his 
works : 

National Portrait Gallery ; 

Miirquis of Anglesey. 180S. 

Lord Auckland. 1809. 

Eobert Southey. 1804. 

National Gallery of Scotland : 
Coast Scene, with Figures. 

South Keyisington 

Chenies House, near Brambletye. 

Kick Yard, Ashford. 

Farm-House, Buckinghamshire. 1814. 

View near Bromley. 

Brighton Beach. 

Pont Neuf , Paris. 

Portrait of a Military Officer. 
EDWARDS, Edward, an historical painter, bom 
in London in 1738, was employed by Boydell 
to make drawings from the old masters for his 
publications, and by the Society of Antiquaries for 
the same purpose. He painted for Boydell's 
Shakespeare a subject from the ' Two Gentlemen 
of Verona ; ' he painted also arabesques, and pub- 
lished 52 etchings. He never arrived at distinction, 
except that he was appointed teacher of perspective 
in the Royal Academy in 1788, which situation he 
held until his death. He was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Academy in 1773, and sent pictures 
to its exhibitions pretty constantly from 1771 till 
the end of his life. He published in 1808 the 
' Anecdotes of Painters,' intended as a supplement 
to Walpole ; but in his facts he was too accurate 
to please his contemporaries, and consequently the 
work and its author were much decried. He died 
in 1806. A water-colour drawing by him, entitled 
'North Dean, Castle Eden, Durham,' is at South 
Kensington. 

EDWARDS, Edwin, a landscape painter in 
water-colours and an etcher, was born at Framling- 
liam in 1823. He was originally brought up for the 
law and practised as a proctor for many years. He 
commenced water-colour painting after a journey 
in the Tyrol, and through meeting the French artist 
Legros, in 1861, was induced to take up etching, 
on which his reputation chiefly rests. His works 
appeared at the Royal Academy, and at the Dudley 
Gallery. Amongst his best productions may be 
cited a series of etchings of English Inns. He 
died in London in 1879. 

EDWARDS, George, a natural history draughts- 
man, was born at Stratford, in Essex, in 1694. 
From 1716 to 1731 he travelled much in Holland, 
Norway, Belgium, and France in pursuit of his art. 
In 1733 he was appointed librarian to the College 
of Physicians. In 1747-51 he published ' A Natural 
History of uncommon Birds and Animals,' and 
in 1758-64 'Gleanings of Natural History.' He 
retired to Plaistow, where he died in 1773. 

ED WARDS, Sydenham, a draughtsman of animals 
and flowers, was born about 1768. He exhibited 
at the Royal Academy from 1792 to 1813. He pub- 
lished ' Cynogrnphia Britannica,' 1800, the 'New 
Flora Britannica,' 1812, and founded the ' Botanical 







'Si 






O 
S 






■5^ 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Hegister' in 1815. He also made drawings for 
Rees's 'Cyclopaedia,' the 'Flora Londinensis,' the 
' Botanical Magazine,' and the ' Sportsman's Maga- 
zine.' He died at Brompton in 1819. 

EDWIN, David, an American engraver, was 
born at Bath, in England, in 1776. He was the 
son of John Edwin, a celebrated comic actor, and 
was apprenticed to an engraver, but he ran away 
to sea, and reached America in 1797. There he 
was employed by Edward Savage, the portrait 
painter, and soon gained much reputation by his 
portraits. After twenty years' work his sight 
failed, and he was compelled to resort to various 
means in order to obtain a livelihood. He died at 
Philadelphia in 1841. 

EBCKB, (alias Eeckele,) Jan van. He settled 
in Bruges in 1534, and was admitted as master 
paintej into the Guild of Saint Luke in September 
of that year. He held the office of "vinder" in 
1542-3, 1548-9, 1551-2 and 1557-8. He died in 
November 1561, and was buried in the church of 
Saint James. Only two paintings are known to be 
by him ; both are signed with his cipher. 

1. Mater dolorosa, acopy of apaintinganteriortol492, a 
woodcut after which adorns 'Ghedenckenisse van den 
YII. Weeden Onser Liever Vrouwen,' printed at 
Antwerpby Gerard Leeu in 1492. [Bruties: Cathedral.) 

2. The Vision of Saint Bernard, and other episodes of his 
life. {Toumai : Museum.) 

EECKHOUT, Jacob Joseph, was bom at Ant- 
werp in 1793, and studied first at the Academy of 
that city. He painted historical and genre subjects, 
and portraits, and in 1829 he was elected a member 
of the Academies of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Brus- 
sels, and Rotterdam. He settled at the Hague in 
1831, and in 1839 became director of the Academy 
in that city, and after staying at Mechlin and Brussels 
he went to live in Paris in 1859. He imitated 
Rembrandt with some skill, and may be considered 
one of the most distinguished painters of the 
modern Dutch school. His compositions are ex- 
pressive and lively, and the colouring vigorous. 
Beckhout died in Paris in 1861. His best works 



The Death of William the Silent. 
Peter the Great at Zaandam. 
The Departure of the Recruits of Scheveningen. 
Collection de Portraits d'Artistes modernes, n^s dans 
le royaume des Pays-Bas. 1822. 

EECKHOUT, Van den. See Van den Eeckhout. 

EECKHOUT, Victor, a genre painter, the son 
of Jacob Joseph Eeckhout, was born at Antwerp 
in 1821. He studied under his father, and went to 
the East. He died in 1879. 

EELKAMA, Eelke Jelles, a painter of land- 
scapes, flowers, and fruit, was born at Leeuwarden 
in 1788. On account of his deafness, which was 
brought on by an illness at the age of seven, he 
was educated in the institution for the deaf and 
dumb at Groningen, where he was instnicted in 
the art of painting by G. Do San. In 1804, he 
obtained the first prize of the Academy, and his 
works were highly praised. He visited Paris and 
London, travelled in France and Switzerland, and 
afterwards painted at Haarlem and Amsterdam. He 
afterwards lost his sight, and died at Leeuwarden 
in 1839. 

EERVRUGHT. See De Momper, Jodocus. 

EGAN, James, an Irish mezzotint engraver, was 
born at Roscommon in 1799. He was employed 
in the lowest capacities by S. W. Reynolds, and, 
notwithstanding great difficulties and privations, 



persevered in the pursuit of his art. He died in 
London in 1842. His last and best plate is after 
Cattermole's ' English Hospitality in the Olden 
Time.' 

EGERTON, D. T., a landscape painter, was one 
of the original members of the Society of British 
Artists, where he exhibited in the years 1824 to 1829, 
and in 1838 to 1840. In the latter years of his life 
he travelled much in America, obtaining thus the 
subjects for several pictures, notably one of 
' Niagara.' He was murdered in Mexico in 1842. 

EGG, Augustus Leopold, the son of the eminent 
gunmaker of Piccadilly, was born in London in 
1816. Though he took to the pencil and brush 
whilst at school, he does not appear to have thought 
of adopting the arts as a profession till about the 
year 1834, when he went to Sass's Art School, and 
shortly afterwards, in 1835, be was admitted a 
student at the Royal Academy. Even thus early 
he had commenced painting pictures of Italian 
subjects, though a stranger to Italy, as well as 
scenes from the pages of Scott ; but his first work 
of importance was ' The Victim,' from ' Le Diable 
Boiteux ' of Le Sage, which was exhibited at the 
Liverpool Academy of Arts. To this he after- 
wards, in 1844, painted a companion picture. Egg 
then exhibited in London, and in 1836, and the 
following years, we find his works on the walls 
of the Society of British Artists, the British Insti- 
tution, and the Royal Academy; but owing to 
his having inherited a considerable fortune from 
his father, he was independent of his art for 
support and accordingly did not exhibit, as a rule, 
more than one work each year at the Royal 
Academy, to the exhibitions of which he sent, in 
all, twenty-eight pictures. Of these, seven are 
taken from Shakespeare, five are founded on scenes 
in well-known works of fiction, and of the re- 
mainder nine are from familiar incidents in history. 
He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy 
in 1848, and an Academician in 1860. His pictures 
are comparatively few for one who had won the 
highest honours of his profession, but he was pre- 
vented from doing more in his art by delicate 
health, which compelled him to resort to the mild 
climate of Italy and the South of France, and 
latterly to Algiers, where he died and was buried 
in 1863. 

Egg's talent was exercised in a rather peculiar 
field of study, comprising strictly historical in- 
cidents, and passages from classic fable. In the 
former class of subjects he stands quite alone ; in 
the latter, he, in some sense, occupied the same 
ground as that in which Newton and Leslie fre- 
quently laboured ; but his treatment of the latter 
class of subjects is more fanciful than that of 
either of those artists, whilst in subjects more 
properly considered as inventive, a philosophic 
spirit, somewhat melancholy in tinge, is observable, 
which they do not display. His principal works are : 

A Spanish Girl. 1838. 

Tjaugh when you can. 1839. 

Scene from " Henry IV." 1840. 

Scene from " Le Diable Boiteux." 1844. {National 

Gallerti. ) 
Buckingham rebuffed. 1846. 
The Wooing of Katbariua. (" Taming of the Shrew.") 

1847. 
Luceutio and Bianca. (" Taming of the Shrew.") 1847. 
Queen Elizabeth discovers she is no longer young. 

1848. 
Henrietta Maria in distress relieved by Cardinal de 

Ketz. 1849. 

121 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Peter the Great sees Catharine, his future Empress, for 

the first time. 1850. 
Pepys's Introduction to Nell Gwynne. 1851. 
The Life and Death of Buckingham. {Ttco pictures.) 

1855. 
The Knighting of Esmond. 1858. 
Past and Present. (Three pictures.) 1858. 
The Night before Naseby. 1859. 
Madame do Maintenon and Searron. 1859. 
The Taming of the Shrew : Dinner scene : Katharine 

and Petruchio. (His last picture. ) 1860 

EGGERS, JoHANN Karl, a German historical 
painter, born at Neu Strelitz in 1790, was in- 
structed by Matthai at Dresden. He discovered 
the old mode of fresco-painting, and was em- 
ployed in the Vatican at Rome, where he painted 
in the Braccio Nuovo. Subsequently he painted 
under the direction of Cornelius in the Museum 
at Berlin. Some of his oil-paintings are of con- 
siderable merit. He died in bis native town in 
1863. 

EGGERT, Fkanz Xaver, a German painter upon 
glass, was born at Hocbstiidt on the Danube in 
1802, and studied decorative painting at Augsburg 
and Munich ; but he afterwards devoted himself en- 
tirely to glass-painting, in conjunction with Ain- 
miiller, Hammerl, and Kirchmair, and endeavoured 
to raise that art from its long decline. He especi- 
ally distinguished himself by the magnificence of 
his ornamentation. His best works are in the new 
church of the suburb Au at Munich, in the 
cathedrals of Cologne and Ratisbon, and in several 
churches at Basle, Constance, &c. He died at 
Munich in 1876. 

EGINTON, Francis, an English painter upon 
glass, was born in 1737. He was brought up at 
Handsworth, near Birmingham, and from 1784 to 
1805 he contributed greatly to the advancement of 
the art. Among his best works are to be noted the 
' Resurrection ' in Salisbury Cathedral and in Lich- 
field Cathedral; the ' Conversion of St. Paul' in St. 
Paul's, Birmingham; 'Christ bearing the Cross' 
in Wanstead Church ; and ' Solomon and the Queen 
of Sheba ' at Arundel Castle. Besides these there 
are windows by him in St. Asaph Cathedral, 
Fonthill Abbey, and Magdalen and All Souls' 
Colleges in Oxford. He died at Handsworth in 
1805. 

EGLEY, William, a miniature painter, was born 
at Doncaster in 1798. His first employment was 
in a publisher's olBce in London, in the course of 
which occupation he found time to practise paint- 
ing, of which he had been fond from an early age. 
After a short time he determined to follow portrait 
painting as a profession, and in 1824 two of his 
pictures were exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
one of them being the portrait of Yates, the actor. 
From this time he was a very constant exhibitor, 
painting a great many portraits of members of well- 
known English families, besides several foreigners 
of distinction. One of his latest works was a por- 
trait of Foley the sculptor, which was exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1868. His death occurred 
in London in 1870. His miniatures were very 
carefully finished and pure in colour; and he was 
especially successful in his treatment of children. 

EGLOFFSTEIN, Julie von, Countess, canonesB 
of Hildesheim, born in 1792, was an amateur artist 
of much ability. She was one of the most beau- 
tiful and gifted women at the court of Weimar, 
and many of Goethe's poems bear witness to the 
lively interest which he took in her artistic develop- 
ment. She painted several portraits, including 

122 



those of the Grand-Duchess of Saxe- Weimar and 
of Queen Theresa of Bavaria. Among works of 
different character are ' Shepherds in the Roman 
Campagna,' painted in 1835, ' Hagar in the Wilder- 
ness,' 'The Exposure of Moses,' ' Italian Popular 
Life,' and others, some of which are in the posses- 
sion of the Emperor of Russia and of Queen 
Victoria. She died in 1869. 

EGMONT, Justus van, was born at Leyden in 
1602. He was in 1615 a pupil of Gaspar van den 
Hoeck, but was afterwards sent to Antwerp to be 
educated in the school of Rubens, whom he assisted 
in several of his works, particularly those relating 
to the life of Mary de' Medici, which he painted 
for the Luxembourg Palace. On leaving the 
academy of Rubens he went to Paris, where he 
was appointed painter to Louis XIII. and after- 
wards to Louis XIV., and executed several con- 
siderable works in conjunction with Simon Vouet. 
Van Egmont was one of the twelve elders at the 
establishment of the French Academy of Painting 
and Sculpture, in 1648. He died at Antwerp in 
1674. In the Vienna Gallery there is a portrait 
by him of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, and 
two others of Philip IV. of Spain. The Hague 
Gallery has a portrait of Louis XIV. by him. 
Portraits of Algernon Sydney by him are in the 
National Portrait Gallery, and at Penshurst, the 
latter painted at Brussels in 1663. 

EGOGNI, Ambrogio. See Stefani da Fossano. 

EGOROV, Aleksyei Egorovich, a Russian 
painter, was born in the steppes of the Kalmyks 
about 1776, and died at St. Petersburg in 1851. A 
'Holy Family' and the 'Scourging of Christ' by 
him are in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg. 

EHEMANT, Fhiedrich Joseph, a German land- 
scape painter, was born at Frankfort in 1804, and 
studied under Schirraer at the Dusseldorf Academy. 
He died at Munich in 1842. 

EHNLE, Adriaen Jan, a Dutch painter of his- 
torical and genre subjects, was born at the Hague 
in 1819, and studied under C. Kruseman. He died 
in 1863. Among his works are 'Cornells de Witt 
at Dordrecht ' and ' The Reception of a Child at the 
Orphan House at Haarlem.' 

EHRENBERG.WiLLEM Schubert VAN, a Flemish 
architectural painter, was born at Antwerp in 1630. 
He was received into the Guild of St. Luke in 
1662, under the name of Van Aerdenberch. It 
has also been written Hardenberg, Eerdenborch, 
Aerdenborch, Aremberch, &c. He probably died 
about 1675. He painted the architecture in 
a picture by H. van Minderhout, representing 
' Caricina before tlje King of Ethiopia,' which was 
presented by Van Ehrenberg in 1666 to the Guild 
of St. Luke, and is now in the Antwerp Museum, 
and in another by Biset, of 'William Tell,' 
formerly in the possession of the Guild of St. 
Sebastian at Antwerp, but now in the Brussels 
Gallery. The landscape part is by Hemelraet. 
In the Munich Gallery is an ' Interior of an Art- 
Collector's Gallery,' in which the architecture is 
by Van Ehrenberg, the figures by Gonzales Cocx 
and Jordaens, and in the Vienna Gallery is the 
' Interior of a Church ' by him. dated 1664. Van 
Ehrenberg added the architecture to the large 
picture in the Hague Gallery of the ' Interior of a 
Picture Gallery,' in which Gonzales Cocx put the 
figures and accessories, and the paintings are by 
the hands of various artists. 

EHRENSTRAL, David Kloecker von. See 
Kloecker. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



EHRET, Geokg Diontsios, a German botanical 
draughtsman and engraver, was born at Baden 
in 1710. After working for Jussieu in France, he 
settled in England in 1740, and supplied the illus- 
trations for Trew's ' Plantje Select®,' and Brown's 
' History of Jamaica.' He also painted a large 
botanical collection for the Duchess of Portland. 
He died in 1770. 

EIBNER, Friedrich, a German painter of archi- 
tectural subjects, was born at Hilpoltstein in 1826. 
He studied after the works of Heinrich Schonfeld, 
and travelled in Bavaria, and afterwards in Ger- 
many, France, Upper Italy, and Spain, making a 
large number of water-colour drawings of the 
places he visited. The Album for the Prince 
Metschersky, with whom he travelled in Spain in 
1860-61, may be considered his best work. He 
died at Munich in 1877. 

r^i EICHENS, Friedrioh Eduaed, a German en- 
graver, was born at Berlin in 1804. He studied 
engraving first under Buchhorn ; and then went, 
in 1827, with a grant from the government, to 
Paris, where he received instruction from Forster, 
and later to Parma, where he studied for three 
years under Toschi. He subsequently visited Flor- 
ence, Rome, Naples, Venice, and Milan. On his 
return in 1833 he became a drawing-master in 
a government school. He died at Berlin in 1877. 
Eichens engraved some of Kaulbach's frescoes in 
the Berlin Museum, and also his ' Shakespeare 
Gallery.' Among his prints are the following : 

M&donna.; after Steinbruck. 1833. 

Adoration of the Kings ; after Raphael. 1836. 

The Magdalen ; after Domenichino. 1837. 

Madonna ; after Eajfaelliiio del Garbo. 1839. 

Portrait of Mendelssohn ; after Hildebrandt. 1840. 

The Vision of Ezechiel ; after Raphael. 1841. 

Frederick the Great as Crown Prince; after Fesne. 

1846. 
' Come here ' ; after Begas. 1847. 
The Woman taken in adultery ; after Fordenone. 

EICHHORN, Albert, an architectural and land- 
scape painter, was born at Freienwalde-on-the-Oder 
in 1811, and studied under Terapeltei and Biermann 
at Berlin. In 1840 he visited Italy and Greece, 
where he made numerous sketches, which after- 
wards served him for the subjects of his paintings. 
Among his works, which are cliiefly in the posses- 
sion of the German Emperor, may be mentioned, 
' Taygetus,' ' The Temple of Plieigalia,' ' St. Peter's 
at Rome,' 'The Temple of Corinth,' 'The Cam- 
pagna,' &c. He died by suicide at Potsdam in 
1851. 

EICHHORN, Hans, a printer and wood- 
engraver of the 16th century, was employed by 
the Elector Joachim II. He died at Frankfort 
in 1583. 

EICHLER, Gottfried, an historical and por- 
trait painter, was born at Augsburg in 1677. He 
studied under Johann Heiss, but went afterwards 
to Rome to improve under Carlo Maratti. His 
'Last Supper,' in the church of the Franciscans at 
Augsburg, gives ample proof of his talent. He 
died in 1759. 

His son, Johann Gottfried Eichler, born at 
Augsburg in 1715, was a portrait painter and 
engraver in line and mezzotint. He died in 1770, 
leaving a son, Matuias Gottfried Eichler, also 
an engraver, who was born at Erlangen in 1748, 
and died at Augsburg in 1818. 

EICK, Martin van, a Dutch painter, was a 
native of Remerswaal in Zealand. He flourished 



during the first half of the 16th century, and was 
a contemporary of Pieter Aartsen. 

EIGNER, Andreas, who was born at Diedldorf, 
Upper Palatinate, in 1801, distinguished himself 
as a painter and a restorer of old pictures. He 
successfully employed alcoholic vapours, and a 
varnish of his own invention, to protect paintings 
against the destructive influence of the atmo- 
sphere. He was chiefly employed in the Galleries 
of Munich, Augsburg, Stuttgart, Carlsruhe, Basle, 
and Solothurn. He died at Augsburg in 1870. 

EIMBECK, Johann Raphon von, was an early 
German painter, about whom we have no details. 
There is by him in the cathedral of Ilalberstadt a 
triptych, representing the ' Crucifixion,' dated 1508. 

EIMMART, Georg Christoph, the elder, a Ger- 
man painter and engraver, born at Ratisbon in 
1597, painted portraits, landscapes, still-life, and 
historical subjects. He died at Nuremberg in 1660. 

EIMMART, Georg Christoph, the younger, a 
German draughtsman and engraver, was born at 
Ratisbon in 1638. He was instructed by Ids father, 
and resided at Nuremberg, where he died in 1705. 
He engraved some plates for Sandrart's ' Academia,' 
and some small etchings of ruins, buildings, and 
vases, ornamented with figures, which have con- 
siderable merit. He was also a mathematician and 
astronomer, and published in 1701 ' loonographia 
nova contemplationum de Sole.' 

EIMMART, Maria Clara, a daughter of Georg 
Christoph Eiminart the younger, was a designer 
and engraver. She was born in 1676, and usually 
worked with her father. She married the astrono- 
mer, J. H. Muller, and died at Altdorf in 1707. 

EINSLE, Anton, an Austrian portrait painter, 
was born at Vienna in 1801. He studied at the 
Academy of that city, and was largely patronized 
by the court and nobility. He died in 1871. 

EISEN, Charles Domeniqde Joseph, French 
draughtsman, painter and engraver. He was born 
at Valenciennes on August 7, 1720. His father, 
Frans Eisen, and his mother. Marguerite Guisne, 
had eight children, — Charles was the third. The 
boy's first drawing-master was his father, who 
greatly developed his son's talent for designing 
and his taste for engraving. In 1741 he went to 
Paris, and in the following year entered the studio 
of Le Bas. His talent and his sparkling wit gained 
him admission to the court, where he became 
painter and draughtsman to the King, and drawing- 
master to Madame de Pompadour. The King 
appointed him Court painter. He worked assidu- 
oush', and with marked success, taking his in- 
spirations direct from nature, but adding some- 
thing of the ideal, after the manner of Watteau 
and Boucher. His work was as various in kind 
as it was attractive in quality. Large compositions, 
decorative panels, copies of statues and fountains, 
studies of the nude and portraits, exercised his brush, 
his pencil, and his graver; as well as lovely 
designs for furniture, costumes, and all sorts of'' 
pretty things d la mode. His vignettes were 
marked by unusual delicacy and grace. Almost 
all the more important books published in France 
in his time contain his exquisite plates ; and their 
bindings testify to his good taste. Baudicour 
relates that " he engraved with a light point and 
with striking originality." He was never received 
at the Royal Academy, but the Academy of St. 
Luke opened wide its doors to him, and from 1751 
to 1774 he passed through the various grades of 
member, Professor, Councillor and Rector. He 

123 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



was also a member of the Academy of Fine 
Arts at Rouen. In 1777 he quitted Paris suddenly, 
having displeased Mme. de Pompadour, as some 
say, and settled at Brussels with his wife ; and 
he died there on January 4, 1778. Among his 
pictures were : 

Icarus and Daedalus; Salon, 1751 (piece de reception). 
The Swing (^ie/ned and dated 1771) ; Bourg Museum. 
Shepherd and Shepherdess ; The Bird's Nest ; 
ViUagers dancing ; Villagers resting ; Bordeaux 
Museum. 

The last four are in Lancret's manner, and were 
in the La Gaze Collection till 1829. The Museums 
at Alen9on and Bourg also have pictures by Eisen. 
Of his etchings and designs the following were 
most remarkable : 

Sixty-eight designs in black and red for ' Tales from La 

Fontaine.' 
Dlnstrations for an edition de luxe for * Les Fermiers 

Gen6raux/ in black chalk on vellum (published at 

Amsterdam in 1762, oriijinally in the collection of the 

Due d*Aumale). 
Henri IV. et Gabrielle d'Estr^es, black chalk and quill 

pen, engraved by Mouchy, and exhibited in 1779 at 

L'35cole des Beaux Arts in Paris ; perhaps Eisen's 

ckef-d^oeuvre. 
Bacchus arriving at Nasos, and other mythological 

subjects. 
Saint Mary nourishing Christ, and St. Jerome. , 
St. Eloy preaching (now in the church of St. Esprit, 

Paris). 
Military Exercises. 1754. 

Illustrations to Ovid's ' Metamorphoses.* 1767-70. 
Illustrations to Voltaire's * Henriade." 1771. 
{These are exquisite vignettes in red chalk on cream 

paper.) 
Diana and Endymion. "i 
Aurora. \Salon, 1774. 

Holy Family. J 

At the British Museum and at the Victoria and 
Albert Museum are many drawings, etchings by, 
and prints after, C. D. J. Eisen. 

EISEN, Franz, Belgian-French painter and 
engraver. Born at Brussels 1695. His first art 
lessons were learned in the churches and galleries 
of his native city. He had a natural talent for 
historical and genre painting. In 1714 he settled 
at Valenciennes, where his talent was speedily 
recognized. He painted important pictures for 
the church of the Brigitines, for the high altar 
of the Bdguinage, and for the refectory of the 
monastery of Vicoigne, and executed other similar 
commissions in that city. He married Marguerite 
6uisne,and liad eight children — Charles Domenique 
Joseph being the third. In 1731 he married for a 
second time Marie Frangoise Joseph Bulo, who 
also bore him a child. Professional jealousies 
arose which caused him to leave Valenciennes, 
and he bent his steps to Paris, where he arrived in 
1745. At the age of eighty-two he and his vrife 
were admitted into the Hospital for Incurables, 
where he died in 1777. 

EISENHOUT, Antonie, a Dutch painter and 
engraver, flourished at Rome about 1590. He was 
a native of Varnbourg, and was still livina: in 1619. 
It appears that he has been miscalled 'Eisenhart' 
by Christ, and that some of his works have been 
ascribed to other masters. Brulliot refers to some 
attributed to Luca Cianiberlano by Bartsch, which 
he conjectures should be given to Eisenhout. 

EISMANN, JoHANN Anton, sometimes errone- 
ously called Leismann, Lismann, or Luismon, a 
German painter of landscapes and battles, was born 

124 



at Salzburg in 1634. Without the help of a master 
he had acquired some ability in drawing, by copying 
the prints and pictures to which he had access, 
when he resolved to visit Italy for improvement, 
and went to Venice, where his natural talent, as- 
sisted by the study of the works of the best masters 
of that school, soon asserted itself. Although he 
painted battle-pieces and portraits, he was more 
celebrated for his landscapes and seaports, which he 
embellished with architecture, somewhat in the 
style of Salvator Rosa. He died at Venice in 1698. 
There are in the Dresden Gallery two ' Landscapes 
with Ruins,' which are by him, and in the Vienna 
Gallery is a ' Landscape with a Combat of Cavalry.' 
He adopted his pupil. Carlo Briseghella, who took 
the name of Eismann, and painted the same class 
of subjects as his master. Hence there is somo 
confusion in the accounts of both. 

EISMANN BRISEGHELLA, Carlo, born at 
Venice in 1679, the pupil and adopted son of 
Johann Anton Eismann — who at Venice had 
formed a friendship with his father, Mattia Brise- 
ghella — painted landscapes, sea-pieces, and battles 
in tlie style of his master. The Dresden Gallery 
contains three cavalry tights and a battle-piece by 
him. After the death of Eismann he appears to 
have settled at Ferrara. He published in 1706 an 
account of the paintings in the churches of that city. 

EISSNER, Joseph, an Austrian engraver, was 
born at Vienna in 1788. He studied under Schmut- 
zer and afterwards under Leybold, and practised on 
his own account from 1814. From 1822 he was 
drawing-master at the Academy in the Neustadt at 
Vienna, where he died in 1861. He etched a number 
of plates, and engraved, along with other historical 
subjects and portraits, the following works : 

La Madonna della Sedia ; after Raphael. 

The Praying Madonna ; after Sassof errata. 

Eembrandt's Mother ; after Rembrandt. 

The Fall of the Angels ; after Luca Giordano. 

EKELS, Jan, the elder, born at Amsterdam in 
1724, was a scholar of Dirk Dalens, the younger. 
He painted views of cities in the manner of Jan 
ten Compe. His pictures are generally of a small 
size, and are highly finished, with a good effect of 
light^and shade. He died at Amsterdam in 1781. 

EKELS, Jan, the younger, a Dutch painter of 
genre pieces and an imitator of the old masters, 
especially of J. Molenaer, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1759. Two pictures by him, one representing 
' A young Man drawing,' and the other ' A Peasant 
lighting a Pipe,' are in the Stiidel Gallery at Frank- 
fort. He died in 1793. 

EKEMANN-ALESSON, Lorenz, (or Eckemann- 
Alesson, ) a lithographic artist, was born in 
Sweden in 1791. He studied and practised his 
art at Vienna, Munich, and Augsburg, but was 
afterwards appointed by the King of Wiirtemberg 
to be professor and director of the newly estab- 
lished Lithographic Institute at Stuttgart. He 
chiefly executed landscapes and architectural views 
after Adam, P. Hess, and Wagenbauer ; but his 
best plates are ' A Forest Scene,' after Waterloo ; 
a 'Landscape,' after Wynants ; and ' Wurtemberg 
Stallions,' after R. Kunz. He produced some other 
animal pieces, and also painted landscapes with 
animals. He died at Stuttgart in 1821. 

EKMAN, Robert Wilhelm, a genre painter, was 
born at Nystad in Finland in 1808, and died at 
Helsingfors in 1873. He was educated at the 
Stockholm Academy under Sandberg; and travelled 
much, especially in Italy. His pictures consist of 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



scenes from northern life, — christenings, peasants' 
cottages, forest scenes, &c. Amongst them are : 

An old 'Woman with a Bible. 
A Dutch Sailor Fatoily. 
Kobber Scene. 

ELBURG, Hansje tan, (Elbotgh, Elbdroh, 
Elbuecht, or Elbrucht,) called Hanskin, or 
Kleyn Hansken (' Little John '), an historical 
painter, was born at Elburg, near Campen, in 
1500. He represented the figures in the manner 
of Frans Floris, and also excelled in landscapes 
and storms at sea. In Antwerp cathedral is his 
picture of 'The Miraculous Draught of Fishes.' 
In 1536 he was admitted into the Guild of St. Luke 
at Antwerp. He died in that city in 1551. 

ELDER, Charles, an historical painter, was born 
in 1821. He exhibited at the Royal Academy 
from 1845 till his death, which took place in 
London in 1851. Amongst his works are: 

Sappho. 1845. 

Florimel imprisoned. 1846. 

The Death of Mark Anthony. 1847. 

Euth gleaning. 1848. 

Kosahnd. 1850. 

Weary Travellers. 1851. 

ELDER, William, a Scottish engraver, resided 
in London about the year 1680. He was one of 
those wlio were employed by the booksellers ; 
and we have a few portraits by him, among which 
are the following: 

His own Portrait, with a fur cap. 

The same, with a wig. 

William Sancroft., Archbishop of Canterbury, 

John Pearson, Bishop of Chester. 

Ben Jonson, prefiied to his ' Works,' 1692. 

Sir Theodore de Mayeme, Physician. 

Admiral Russell. 

Sir Henry PoUerien, Chief Justice of the Common 

Pleas. 
John Eay, Naturalist. 
Richard Morton, M.D. 
George Parker, Astrologer. 
Charles Snell, Writing-master. 

ELFORD, Sir William, Bart., an amateur land- 
scape painter, was bom in Devonshire in 1747. 
From 1784 he occasionally exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, contributing landscapes, often with 
effects of sunset and of shower. He was made a 
baronet in 1800, and died at Totnes in 1837. 
There is a landscape by him at Windsor Castle. 

ELIAERTS, Jean FRANgois, a Flemish painter 
of animals, flowers, and fruit, was born in 1761 at 
Deurne-Borgerhout, near Antwerp, in the Academy 
of which city he studied. He passed his life in 
France, but died at Antwerp in 1848. In the 
Antwerp Museum is a flower-piece by him. 

ELIAS, Mathied, (Elyas, or Elie,) was born at 
Peena, near Cassel, in 1658. His parents were 
extremely poor, and he was employed when a boy 
in attending cattle, in which humble situation he 
was noticed by a painter of Dunkirk, named Philippe 
Decorbehem, tracing objects on the ground. The 
artist, struck with the singularity of the circum- 
stance and the evident disposition of the boy, pre- 
vailed on his mother to intrust him to his care. 
After instructing him for some time he sent him 
to Paris for improvement, where he met with em- 
ployment, and resided several years. On the death 
of Decorbehem, he settled at Dunkirk, and painted 
some altar-pieces for the churches in that town and 
its neighbourhood. He died at Dunkirk in 1741. 

ELIZABETH, Princess, the third daughter of 



George III., was bom in London in 1770. She 
married, in 1818, Frederick William Louis, Land- 
grave of Hesse-Homburg, and died at Frankfort 
in 1840. She was much attached to the arts of 
design, and several of the productions of her pencil 
were published, accompanied by the poetical 
effusions of the minor bards of the day, under the 
following titles : 

The Birth and Triumph of Cupid ; a poem, by Sir James 

Bland Surges, Bart. 1796. 
Cupid turned Volunteer; with poetical illustrations by 

Thomas Park. 1804. 
The Power and Progress of Genius. 1806. 
Six Poems illustrative of engravings by H. R. H. the 

Princess Elizabeth. 1813. 

_ ELKAN, David Levy, a lithographer and de- 
signer of arabesques, born at Cologne in 1808, 
studied at Diisseldorf, and became known by his 
imitations and compositions in the style of the 
middle ages. He died in his native city in 1866. 

ELLENRIEDER, Marie, the best German female 
painter of the first half of the 19th century, 
was bom at Constance in 1791. She learned the 
rudiments of art from the miniature painter Einsle, 
and in 1813 went to Munich, and studied under 
Langer in the Academy there until 1820. After 
having twice visited Rome, she became acquainted 
with Overbeck, whose art-teaching she afterwards 
followed. Soon after her return from Rome she 
painted the ' Virgin and Child,' which is considered 
her best work. Subsequently she painted altar- 
pieces and portraits, and etched twenty-four plates 
after Langer, Overbeck, Rembrandt, and Titian. 
She died at Constance in 1863. A ' St. Felicitas ' 
by her is in the possession of the Queen. 

ELLIGER, Anthonie, the son and pupil of the 
younger Ottomar Elliger, was born at Amsterdam 
iri 1701, and died at Ede in 1781. He painted 
historical, mythological, and allegorical pictures 
upon ceilings and walls. His daughter, Christina 
Maria Elliger, was a portrait painter. 

ELLIGER, Ottomar, the elder, born at Gothen- 
burg in 1633, was the son of a physician, who, 
finding in him a strong inclination for art, sent him 
to Antwerp, at that time the residence of so many 
able artists, where he became a scholar of Daniel 
Seghers. He painted flowers and fruit in the 
highly-finished style of his master, and attained 
RuflBcient ability to be invited to the court of 
Berlin, where he was appointed painter to William 
Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg. The pictures 
of this artist are almost entirely confined to 
Germany, where they are held in considerable esti- 
mation. Examples are in the Dresden Gallery and 
in the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort. He died at 
Berlin in 1679. 

ELLIGER, Ottomar, the younger, the son of 
Ottomar Elliger the elder, was bom at Hamburg in 
1666. After being instructed in the first elements 
of the art by his father, he was sent to Amsterdam, 
where he became a scholar of Michiel van Musscher, 
a painter of small portraits and conversations, under 
whom he studied a short time, but being ambitious 
of distinguishing himself in a higher walk of art, 
and the works of Gerard de Lairesse being then in 
high reputation, he entered the school of that 
eminent master, whose instruction enabled him in 
a few years to dispense with further assistance 
Elliger painted historical subjects in the style ot 
De Lairesse, which were judiciously composed 
and correctly drawn. Like his instructor, he was 
particularly attentive to propriety of costume, and 



A BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Btyle of architecture. He was employed by the | 
Elector of Mayence, for whom he painted the 
' Death of Alexander,' and the ' filarriage of Peleus 
and Thetis.' His principal works are at Amster- 
dam, where he died in 1732. In the Vienna 
Gallery is a ' Woman with Fruit ; ' in the Cassel 
Gallery are 'The Feast of Cleopatra,' and 'The 
Daughter of Herodias dancing;' and in the Bor- 
deaux Museum is an ' Allegory,' all of which are 
by him. 

ELLINGER, Abbot of Tegernsee (1017—1048), 
is stated to have illustrated a manuscript of Pliny 
the Elder with figures of the animals described in 
the text ; and in like manner the writings of other 
authors. In the Munich Library there is an Evan- 
geliarium with paintings by him. 

ELLIOT, William, an engraver, was born at 
Hampton Court in 1727. He engraved several 
landscapes, which were admired for their taste 
and freedom, and of which the best are from the 
paintings of the brothers Smith, of Chichester. 
He died in London in 1766. We have by him 
the following plates : 

A Landscape with Cattle ; after Rosa de Tivoli. 

A View near Maastricht, with Cittle ; after A. Cuyp. 

A Landscape with the Flight into Egyjit ; after Poelen- 
horch. 

A large Landscape ; after G. Smith. 

A set of four Landscapes ; after G. and T. Smith. 

A set of six plates of Horses ; after T. Smith. 

Two Landscapes, Spring and Summer ; after Van 
Goyen. 

Portrait of Helena Formau, the second wife of Eubens ; 
after Rubens. 

ELLIOT, William, a marine painter, flourished 
in the latter part of the 18th century. Amongst 
his works are two pictures of the 'British Fleet' 
(one dated 1790) at Hampton Court, and 'The 
Loss of the Andromeda.' 

ELLIOTT, Chables Loring, an American por- 
trait painter, was born at Scipio, New York, in 
1812. He began life as a clerk at Syracuse, but 
devoted all his leisure time to drawing and paint- 
ing, and about 183-t went to New York, where he 
became a pupil of Trumbull. After practising for 
about ten years in the western parts of the State he 
Bottled in New York, and is said to have painted 
more than seven hundred portraits of eminerit 
people. His likenesses are remarkable for their 
vigour and truth; indeed, that of Fletcher Harper 
was sent to the Paris International Exhibition of 
1867 as a typical example of American portraiture. 
Among his best portraits are also those of Fitz- 
Ealleok Greene, the poet, James Fenimore Cooper, 
Matthew Vassar, the painters Church and Durand, 
Governor Morgan, and Colonel Colt. _ There are 
among other works by him, ' Don Quixote,' ^' Fal- 
Btafif,' ' Andrew van Corlear the Trumpeter,' and 
' The Head of Skaneateles Lake,' which is said to 
have been the only landscape he ever painted. 
Elliott died at Albany in 1868. 

ELLIOTT, Captain Robert, R. N., an amateur 
marine painter, lived in the latter part of the 18th 
and the beginning of the 19th century. He made 
many sketches during his travels, from which 
Prout and Stanfield made drawings, and which 
were published in 1830. Amongst the works he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1784 
and 1789 were : 

The Fleet in Port Royal Harbour. 1785. 

View of the City of Quebec. 1786. 

Breaking the French Line, Lord Rodney's Action. 1787 

Fire at Kingston, Jamaica. 1783. 

126 



ELLIS, Edwin, a well-known landscape and 
marine painter. He was a native of Nottingham, 
where he was born in the year 1841. As a lad of 
fifteen he worked in a lace factory there for five 
years at lace-designing, but the occupation proved 
utterly uncongenial to him, and his life-efl'orts were 
subsequently devoted to art. He had the benefit 
of whatever instruction Henry Dawson could give 
him, and afterwards went to France to complete 
his artistic education. The principal part of his 
canvases were seascapes ; and the power of his 
brush in depicting these was universally acknow- 
ledged. He became a member of the Society of 
Royal British Artists and exhibited the utmost 
industry ; and his sudden death on April 19, 
1895, cut short a career that had as yet never 
realized its full promise. One of his early water- 
colours, full of power, was the picture entitled ' Off 
Flamborough Head,' which showed the wreck of 
a schooner in an easterly gale. This canvas is 
now in the collection of Mr. Gilbert Moss, at 
Aigburth, near Liverpool ; and some eighty-four of 
his pictures were exhibited at the Nottingham Art 
Museum in 1893; amongst them, 'After Three 
Days' Gale,' with its turbulent sea and flying clouds ; 
and also his ' Full Summer,' showing the great 
wliite Yorkshire cliffs glistening in the sunlight. 

ELLIS, Joseph F., a marine painter, bom in 
Ireland about 1780, came to London about 1818, 
and exhibited a few pictures at the Royal Academy 
and the British Institution. He is, however, chiefly 
to be remembered by his clever imitations of 
Canaletto's works, which were palmed o£E on the 
public as originals by an unscrupulous picture- 
dealer, into whose hands, through misfortunes, he 
fell. He died at Richmond, in Surrey, in 1848. 

ELLIS, William, a landscape engraver, was bom 
in London in 1747. He executed some plates in 
conjunction with William Woollett, whose pupil he 
had been ; and there are several charming prints, 
mostly landscapes, by him from the designs of 
Paul Sandhy and Thomas Heame, as well as five 
views of the ' Battle of the Nile,' in aquatint, after 
William Anderson, published in 1800. The year of 
his death is unknown. 

ELLYS, John, a portrait painter, was bom in 
1701. He studied under Thornhill and Schmutz, 
and was a follower of Van der Banck, to whose 
house and connection he succeeded. Besides hav- 
ing a large practice, he held the two crown appoint- 
ments of tapestry-weaver and keeper of the lions. 
In 1755 he was a member of the committee for 
the foundation of an Academy. Amongst his 
portraits are : 

Lord Whitworth, the diplomatist. {At Knole Park.) 
Figg, " the mighty combatant." 

ELMER, Stephen, a painter of dead game and 
objects of still-life, was elected an Associate of 
the Royal Academy in 1772, the year of his first 
exhibition, and resided principally at Farnham in 
Surrey, where he died in 1796. He represented 
subjects of still-life with great fidelity, and with a 
very spirited pencil. His son practised in Ireland 
at the close of the century. 

ELMORE, Alfred, an historical and genre 
painter, was born at Clonakilty, in the county of 
Cork, on the day of the battle of Waterloo, June 
18th, 1815. His father was a retired army surgeon, 
who when his son was about twelve years of age 
removed to London, where J'oung Elmore began 
his career by drawing from the antique in the 
British Museum. In 1832 he entered the schools 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



of the Royal Academy, and in 1834 exhibited 
there his first picture, a ' Subject from an Old 
Play.' After this he went abroad, visiting Paris, 
Munich, Venice, Bologna, Florence, and ultimately 
Rome, ■where he remained for two years. He 
returned home in 1844, and in that year exhibited 
his ' Rienzi in the Forum,' which attracted much 
notice, and with 'The Origin of tlie Guelph and 
Ghibeiine Quarrel in Florence,' exliibited in 1845, 
secured his election as an Associate in the latter 
year. His next popular picture was ' The Inven- 
tion of the Stocking Loom,' exhibited in 1847, 
and engraved for the Art Union of London. In 
1857 Elmore was elected a Royal Academician, and 
painted as his diploma work a subject from the 
" Two Gentlemen of Verona." But the best picture 
which he ever painted was that which he exhibited 
in 1860 of 'The Tuileries, 20th June, 1792,' repre- 
senting the terrible scene of Marie Antoinette as- 
sailed in her own palace by the revolutionary mob. 
One of the most impressive pictures which he ex- 
hibited after this was ' Within the Convent Walls,' 
in the Academy Exhibition of 1864. He painted 
chiefly pictures of romantic incident, the subjects of 
which were occasionally drawn from his own fancy, 
but oftener derived from fiction or poetry. His 
greatest successes, however, were won in historical 
painting. Elmore died at Kensington, January 
24th, 1881, and was buried in Kensal Green Ceme- 
tery. Besides the pictures above mentioned, the 
following are his principal works: 

The Martyrdom of St. Thomas i Becket. 1840. Fainted 
for Daniel O^Connell^ ayid now in St. Andrew^s Soman 
Catholic Church, Dublin. 

The Novice. 1843. 

The Fainting of Hero. 1846. 

The Deathbed of Eobert, King of Naples. 1848. 

Kehgious Coutroversy in the time of Louis XIV. 1849. 

Griselda. 1850. 

The Emperor Charles V. at Yuste. 1856. 

An Incident in the life of Dante. 185S. 

Marie Antoinette iu the Temple. 1861. 

The Invention of the Combing Machine. 1862. 

Lucrezia Borgia. 1863. 

On the Brink. 1865. 

After the E.xpulsion. 1873. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, and Darnley, at Jedburgh. 
1877. 

Lenore. 1871. 

ELSASSER, Fbiedrich August, a painter of 
landscapes and architectural views, was born at 
Berlin in 1810, and studied at the Academy of that 
city under Blechen, whose influence on art was at 
that time very great. In 1831 he went to Italy, 
and in 1834 and 1835 he visited Sicily. Among 
his choicest works are ; ' The Forest of Calabria, 
' The Interior of a Church at Palermo,' ' A View of 
the Ruins at Rome,' &o. The King of Prussia 
sent him the Order of the Red Eagle, and granted 
him a pension for life, which he did not long enjoy, 
as he died at Rome in 1845. His brothers, Heinrich 
and Julius Elsasser, were also landscape painters. 
The latter was bom at Berlin in 1815, and died at 
Rome in 1859. 

ELSEVIER, Aernout, a Dutch painter of land- 
scapes and conflagrations, was born about 1575 at 
Douai, but his parents removed to Leyden in 1580. 
He died after 1629. 

His son, Louis Elsevier, who was also a painter, 
was born at Leyden in 1615, and died at Delft in 
1676. 

ELSHEIMER,ADAM,(ELSHAIMEB,OrELZHEIMEE,) 

a German painter, was probably born at Frankfort 
in 1574, but the dates of his career are differently 



reported. He was the son of a tailor, and was 
placed at an early age under the care of Philipp 
Uffenbach, who, though a reputable artist, was 
soon surpassed by his disciple. Finding no 
further means of improvement in his own country, 
Elsheimer went to Rome, where he studied the 
works of the great masters, and in a short time 
his pictures, which were very distinct from the 
works of all of his contemporaries, were held in 
general estimation. He was fond of landscapes 
with figures of such importance that the land- 
scape iuterest is subordinated to that of the in- 
cident represented. His pictures were small and 
finished with the greatest perfection and detail, 
a quality then entirely new in Italy, especially 
when studied with extreme fidelity to nature. His 
power over light and shade was nearly as great as 
that of Rembrandt, who, in the next generation, 
followed out the same characteristic of intense 
chiaro-scuro. Elsheimer delighted in torchlight, 
moonlight, and the dusk of evening, all of which 
effects he represented with greater excellence than 
had before been accomplished. He possessed so 
extraordinary a memory, that it was sufScient for 
him to have looked at an object or scene once 
to draw it with the most surprising precision. 
The extreme patience and labour with which he 
finished his pictures was such, that the prices he 
received for them never sufficiently repaid him for 
the time spent upon them. If the unfortunate 
painter had been paid for them a fourth part of 
what they have since produced, he might have 
lived in affluence instead of the state of indigence 
and distress in which he passed the greater part 
of his life. As it was, he was cast into prison, 
although a man of irreproachable habits, and this 
preyed upon his mind. His only benefactor was 
Count Goudt, who purchased some of his choicest 
pictures, and has engraved seven of them in a 
highly-finished manner, well adapted to their style. 
Elsheimer is perhaps better known by these en- 
gravings than by his own pictures. ' Ceres drink- 
ing from the Witch's Goblet,' ' Jupiter and Mer- 
cury in the home of Baucis,' ' The Flight into 
Egypt,' ' Tobit and the Angel going home,' are 
among the number. The copperplate of the last 
named fell into the hands of Rembrandt, and was 
partly erased and altered by him into another 
subject. The elder Teniers, as well as Rembrandt, 
studied carefully the works of Elsheimer. He died 
in Rome in 1620. The following works by him 
are in public galleries : 

Oassel. Gallery. Meeting of EUas and Obadiah. 

Dresden. Gallery. Fhght into Egypt. 
Dulwich. College. Susannah and the Elders. 
Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait. 

„ „ Apostles. 

„ „ Saints. 

_^ „ Two Landscapes. 

Frankfort. Stddel. Paul and Barnabas at Lystra. 

„ Bacchus and the Nymphs of Nysa. 

Hague. Museum. Two Italian Land.'icapes. 

London. Nat. Gallery. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence. 
Madrid. Gallery. Ceres in the house of Becubus. 

Munich. Galler'u. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence. 

„ " Triumph of Christianity. 

', „ Burning of Troy. 

\, „ Flight into Egypt. 

„ St. John the Baptist preachmg. 

Paris. Louvre. The FUght into Egypt. 

„ The Good Samaritan. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. St. John tne Baptist in the Desert. 

„ „ A Forest. 

Rome. Sciarra Pal. Eeturn of the Prodigal Son. 
Vienna. Gallery. Kest on the Fhght into Egypt. 

127 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



ELSHEIMEK, Johann, a brother of Adam 
Elsheimer, was bom at Frankfort in 1593, and died 
previous to 1636. About 1632 be painted 'The 
Story of Virginia,' now on the Imperial Staircase 
in the Roraer at Franlifort. 

ELSHOLTZ, Lddwig, a German painter of 
genre Bubjects and battles, bom at Berlin in 1805, 
studied in the Academy of bia native city, and 
afterwards in the studio of Franz Kriiger, the 
painter of horses. His best work is ' The Battle of 
Leipsic,' painted in 1833, and now in the posses- 
sion of the German Emperor. He died at Berlin 
in 1850. In the Berlin National Gallery is ' The 
Beginning of the Fight,' dated 1834. 

ELST, PiETER VAN DER. See Van der Elst. 

ELSTER, Gottfried Rudolf, an historical 
painter who worked for some time at Diisseldorf, 
executed a number of religious pictures, among 
which are a ' Holy Family,' in the possession of the 
Prince of Hohenzollern, and some cartoons for the 
Zionskirche at Berlin. He died in that city in 1872. 

ELSTRACKE, Reginald, an engraver who 
flourished in England about the year 1620, worked 
chiefly for the booksellers, and his plates are almost 
entirely confined to portraits. These are more 
sought after for their scarcity and their connection 
with English history, than for their merit as en- 
gravings. He also engraved the title-page and 
several of the portraits for Holland's ' Baziliwlogia. 
A Booke of Kings. Beeing the true and liuely 
Efligies of all our English Kings from the Con- 
quest vntill this present.' The following portraits 
are by him : 

JameB I. 

Queen Elizabeth. 

Mary, Queen of Scots. One of his best prints. 

The same, with Lord Daruley. 

Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk. 

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. 

Gervase Babiugton, Bishop of Worcester. 

Sir Julius Cassar, Master of the EoUs. 

Sir Thomas More. 

Sir Philip Sidney. 

Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charter House. 

Edmund, Lord Sheffield. 

John, Lord Harrington. 

■William Knollys, Viscount Wallingford. 

■William Cecil, Lord Burghley. 

Gustavus Adolpbus, King of Sweden. 

Eichard Whittington. 

ELTZ, Johann Friedrich von, born in 1632, was 
one of the first artists who worked in mezzotint. 
His works are now rare ; examples of them are an 
' Ecce Homo,' after Albrecht Dtirer, and a portrait 
of Johann Philipp von Schonborn, Elector of 
Mayence, after Th. C. von Fiirstenberg. He died 
at Mavenee in 1686. 

ELVEN, Te-i ar van. See Tetar van Elven. 

ELYAS, Mathied. See Elias. 

ELZHEIMER, Adam. See Elsheimer. 

E.MBDE, Von der. See Von dee Embde. 

EMELKAET, Philippds Augustus. See 
Hemklraet. 

EMES, John, a water-colour landscape painter, 
practised about the end of the 18th century, and ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1790 and 1791. 
He also engraved Jefl^ereys' ' Destruction of the 
Spanish Batteries before Gibraltar.' 

EMLER, Bonaventura, an Austrian artist, was 
born in 1831, and studied at the Academy of 
Vienna. He became celebrated by his illustrations 
to the 'Divina Commedia' of Dante, and died in 
1862. 

128 



EMMANUEL, a Greek priest and painter, is the 
author of a picture in the Byzantine style in the 
National Gallery, London. It represents ' St. 
Cosmo and St. Damian receiving the Divine Bless- 
ing,' and is signed x^^p 'Efi^tavovt1\ itpttoQ tov TK<^vt 
('the hand of Emmanuel, priest of Tzane'). It is 
suggested, in the catalogue, that this Emmanuel 
may be identical with the Emmanuel mentioned 
by Lanzi, who lived at Venice in the 17tb century, 
and executed a painting dated 1660. 

EMMANDELLO da COMO, Era. See CoMO. 

EMMETT, William, an engraver who flourished 
about the year 1710, among other prints engraved 
a large view of the interior of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
which is executed in a neat, clear style ; as well 
as three exterior views of the same edifice. 

EMPIS, Catherine EDMis Simonis. See Simonis- 
Empis. 

EMPOLI, Jagopo da. See Chimenti. 

ENDER, Johann Nepomuk, an Austrian historical 
and portrait painter, was born at Vienna in 1793. 
In 1829 he became a professor in the Academy of 
his native city, where he died in 1854. He is dis- 
tinguished for his oil-paintings and water-colour 
drawings, and a ' Madonna and Child ' by him is in 
the Vienna Gallery. His son, Eduard Ender, is a 
well-known Viennese painter of historical and 
genre subjects, 

ENDER, Thomas, an Austrian landscape painter, 
the twin brother of Johann Nepomuk Ender, was 
born at Vienna in 1793. From the age of twelve 
he studied in the Academy of Vienna, where, in 

1816, he obtained the grand prize for painting. 
In 1836 he was appointed a tutor, and afterwards 
professor of landscape in the Academy. Through 
the patronage of the Archduke John and Prince 
Metternich, he accompanied, as draughtsman, the 
scientific expedition sent by Austria to Brazil in 

1817, and made a collection of seven hundred draw- 
ings, wliicli are now at Vienna. Three views by 
him are in the Vienna Gallery. He died in Vienna 
in 1875. In the Berlin National Gallery is his 
' Italian 'Wood Chapel.' 

ENDLICH, Philip, a Dutch engraver, was born 
at Amsterdam about the year 1700. He was a 
pupil of Bernard Picart, and was chiefly occupied 
on portraits, among which are the following : 

Hendrik, Count of Moens. 

John Taylor, a celebrated oculist. 1735. 

Juan Felipe d'Almeria, Governor of the Isle of St. 
Martin. 

Jan Gosewyn B. Alstein, ecclesiastic of Amsterdam. 
1738. 

Jan Noordbeck ; the same. 

Pieter Hollebeck ; the same. 

Leonard Beels ; the same. 

ENDRES, Bernhard, was bom at Owingen, in 
Baden, in 1805, and studied genre and historical 
painting at the Academy of Munich. Two of his 
works are in the Gallery at Carlsruhe, the portrait 
of Pope Julius II., after Raphael, and 'Christ 
bearing the Cross.' Ho died in 1874. 

ENDTER, SnsANNA Maria. See Sandeart. 

ENGEL, Karl, a German painter, was born in 
1817 at Londorf, and died in 1870 at Rodelsheini. 
The Darmstadt Gallery has a ' View of the Studio 
of the Sculptor Sclioll,' by him. 

ENGELBRECHT, Christian and Martin, two 
printsellers and engravers, who resided at Augs- 
burg, flourished about the year 1721. Christian 
Engelbreclit, conjointly with J. A. PfefEel, engraved 
some ornamental works for goldsmiths, after A. 
Morrison ; and some views for the ' History of 



GEORGE ENGLEHEART 




[Collection of J. P. Morgan, Esq. 
MISS BEDINGFELD 




{Collection of Mr. George Mackey 
MISS ANN PRITCHARU 




[Collection of Mr. George Mackey 

A GIRL 

(NAME UNKNOWN) 




[Collection of Mr. George Mackey 
MISS HESTER WOOLLEY 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



t 



Architecture,' published in 1721 by J. Hernhard. 
Martin Engelbrecht engraved some plates after 
Rugendas and other masters, and some illustrations 
for Ovid's ' Metamorphoses.' 

ENGELBRECHTSEN, Coenelis, (or Engel- 
BERTS,) the son of a wood-engraver, was bom at 
Leyden in 1468. The pictures of Jan van Eyek, 
the alleged inventor of oil-painting, being at 
that time the object of curiosity and admiration, 
Engelbrechtsen applied himself to study the works 
of that master, and is said by Van Mander to have 
been the first artist of his country that painted in 
oil. The paintings by this master which escaped 
the troubles of that country were preserved with 
great care in the church of Our Lady at Leyden. 
They represented the 'Crucifixion,' the 'Descent 
from the Cross,' ' Abraham sacrificing Isaac,' with 
some small pictures of the ' Life of the Virgin ' : 
these were well composed, and of a less 
Gothic style of design than was usual at 
the early period at which he lived. They 
sometimes bear the accompanying mark. 
His principal work was an altar-piece, 
painted for the Epitaph of the family of Lock- 
horst, in the church of St. Peter at Leyden, and 
composed of a great number of figures represent- 
ing the 'Adoration of the Lamb.' The National 
Gallery has a ' Madonna and Child ' by him. The 
Antwerp Museum has two double pictures by him: 
the one, ' St. Leonard delivering prisoners,' and 
'St. George;' the other, scenes from the life of 
St. Hubert. A ' Crucifixion ' by him is in the 
Munich Gallery. Engelbrechtsen died at Leyden 
in 1633. He is thought to be identical with the 
"Cornelis de HoUandere" who was free of the 
Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1492. 

ENGELMANN, Gottfried, a German litho- 
grapher, who also painted in water-colours, was 
born at Miihlhausen in 1788, and died there in 
1839. He was a pupil of Sennefelder, the inventor 
of lithography, and of C. von Mannlich, and he 
introduced the art into France. 

ENGELKAMS, Corxelis, (or Enghelrams,) a 
Flemish painter, born at Mechlin in 1537, excelled 
in painting historical subjects in distemper. His 
best work, representing the ' Seven Works of 
Mercy,' is in the cathedral of St. Rombout at 
Mechlin. There are several of his pictures in 
Germany, where he passed some years. At Ham- 
burg, in the church of St. Catharine, is a large 
altar-piece by him of the ' Conversion of St. Paul.' 
He died at Mechlin in 1583. 

ENGERTH, Erasmus, an Austrian artist, who 
was born at Vienna in 1796, studied at the 
Academy of his native city, and afterwards in 
Italy. On his return home he painted portraits 
and historical pictures, and also made successful 
copies from the great masters, but he subsequently 
devoted himself exclusively to the art of restoring 
paintings. He was keeper of the picture gallery 
of the Belvedere, and died at Vienna in 1871. 

ENGHELSZEN, Coenelis. See Verspronk. 

ENGLEHEART, Francis, a line-engraver, bom 
in London in 1775, was a brother to George 
Engleheart, the miniature painter. He learned 
the art as an apprentice to Joseph Collyer, and 
as an assistant to James Heath. His first inde- 
pendent works were the illustrations to Akenside, 
after Stothard, whose ' Canterbury Pilgrims' he had 
a large share in engraving, and the illustrations 
to Homer after Cook. He also engraved some of 
Smirke's drawings for ' Don Quixote,' and several 
VOL. IL K 



plates for the 'Literary Souvenir,' 'Amulet,' 
' Gem,' and other Annuals, among which is the last 
portrait of Lord Byron, after \V. E. West. He 
died in 1849. Besides the works already named, 
his best plates are : 

Duncan Gray ; after Sir David Wilkie. 
The Only Daughter ; after the same. 
The Castle ; after Cook. 
Sir Calepine rescuing Serena ; after Hilton. 

ENGLEHEART, George, miniature painter to 
George III., and brother to Francis Engleheart, 
was born at Kew in 1750. As a lad he was sent 
first to the studio of George Barret, R.A., but did 
not long remain with him, and soon became a 
pupil to Sir Joshua Reynolds, many of whose 
works he copied in miniature. In 1775 he com- 
menced to practise for himself, and from that 
time down to 1813 continued in constant work, 
painting 4853 portraits of the notable persons of 
his time, and exhibiting many at the Royal Academy. 
In 1813 he retired with a comfortable fortune, and 
left Hertford Street, Mayfair, where he had pur- 
chased considerable property, for his country home 
at Bedfont. Later on he resided with his son at 
Blackheath, and there he died in 1829. His minia- 
tures were of great beauty and are very highly 
esteemed. He left behind him a Fee Book which 
mentions the names of every person whom he 
painted between 1775 and 1813. 

See ' George Engleheart,' by G. G. Williamson, 
London, 1902. 

ENGLEHEART, Henry, son of George Engle- 
heart, born 1801, died 1885, a clever artist in 
water-colour and in pencil. His architectural 
drawings, mainly of foreign cathedrals, are of 
great beauty and refinement, and resemble the 
work of Prout. 

ENGLEHEART, John Cos Dillman, nephew 
of George Engleheart and his pupil, was born in 
1783. He was a very popular artist, and exhibited 
157 works at the Royal Academy, and many 
others at different exhibitions. His health failed 
when he was forty-four years of age, and he left 
England for Italy. On his return, being in pos- 
session of an ample fortune, he retired from his 
profession, and settled first at East Acton and 
then at Tunbridge Wells, where he died in 1862. 
His works are notable for their brilliant colouring 
and gorgeous effect, but some of his simpler por- 
traits are of supreme beauty and full of character. 

See ' George Engleheart,' by G. C. Williamson, 
London, 1902. 

ENGLEHEART, Thomas, was a brother of 
Francis Engleheart the engraver, and was chiefly 
known for his wonderful sculpture in wax, many 
examples of which he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. He was also, however, an expert 
draughtsman, working with Flaxman for Josiah 
Wedgwood, and his pencil drawings are of great 
beauty and refinement. He was born in 1745, and 
liad two sons, Timothy and Jonathan, both en- 
gravers. He died in 1786. 

ENGLEHEART, Timothy Stansfeld, a line- 
engraver, a son of Francis Engleheart, was born 
in London in 1803, and died there in 1879. He 
engraved several plates for the ' Literary Souvenir,' 
' Forget me not,' and other Annuals. 

ENGLISH, JosiAS, was an amateur engraver, 
who resided at Mortlake, where he died in 1718. 
He executed an etching of ' Christ with the Two 
Disciples at Emmaus,' after Titian, and in 1654 a 

129 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Bet of email upright plates of the ' Goda and Demi- 
gods. ' His best work is a spirited etching of a 
half-length of a ' Man regaling,' after F. Cleyn. 

ENGSTROM, Wilhelm Oscar, a Swedish animal 
painter, was born in 1831, and died at Diisseldorf 
in 1877. 

ENHDBER, Karl von, a genre painter, was born 
at Hof, in Voigtland, in 1811. He was the son of 
a civil officer, who when his son was eighteen 
months old removed to Nordlingen. After study- 
ing at the Munich Academy, he was at first 
an animal painter ; he then worked at represent- 
ations of the Thirty Years' War ; and only through 
the study of the works of Metsu and Terborch 
did he discover his true talent. He was admitted a 
member of the Munich Academy in 1858, and died 
at Munich in 1867. He excelled in characterizing 
middle-class home life, with its pleasures and 
troubles, and was gifted with natural humour, 
which was the foundation of his delicate deline- 
ation of character. To be mentioned amongst his 
works are : 

Berlin. Gallery. Return of the Munich Guards- 

man. 1844. 

Darmstadt. Gallery. Sessions Day in Bavaria. 

Munich. Gallery. A Grandfather watching his 

Grandson at play with toy 
Soldiers. 
„ „ A Carver in his Workshop. 

ENNIS, W., an Irish historical and portrait 
painter, was born in tlie first half of the 18th cen- 
tury. He studied at Dublin under Robert West, 
and afterwards in Italy, and subsequently became 
a master in the Dublin Art School. He died, 
through a fall from his horse, in the county of 
Wicklow, in 1771. 

ENS, GIOSEFFO. See Heins. 

ENSLEN, JoHANN Karl, a German landscape 
painter, who was born in 1759 and died in 1849, 
was well known in his time for his panoramas, 
which were the first introduced into Germany. 

ENSLEN, Karl Georg, an Austrian painter, 
born at Vienna in 1792, studied in the Academy of 
Berlin. He travelled in Italy, Sweden, Norway, 
and Denmark, and his panoramas give proof of a 
knowledge of excellent Hnear and aerial perspec- 
tive. He died at Lille in 1866. There is a view 
of the ' Bay of Naples ' by him in water-colours in 
the Lille Museum. 

ENSO, GiosEFFo. See Heins. 

ENSOM, William, a line-engraver, was bom in 
1796, and died at Wandsworth in 1832. He en- 
graved 'Christ blessingthe Bread,' afterCarlo Dolci, 
'St. John in the Wilderness,' after Carlo Cignani, 
and several plates for the Annuals, of which the 
best are those in the ' Bijou ' of George IV. and 
Lady Wallscourt, after Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

EPINAT, Fledrv, a painter of historical sub- 
jects and landscapes, bom at Montbrison in 1764, 
imitated his master David, with whom he went to 
Rome. He died at Pierre-Seise in 1830. 

EPISCOPIUS, Joannes. See De Bisschop. 

ERASMUS, Desiderius, the eminent scholar, 
born at Rotterdam in 1467, painted in 1484 a picture 
representing ' Christ on the Cross, with Mary and 
St. John.' This work, which is little known, is in 
the style of the old Dutch masters, and is in the 
convent of Emaus, called Steyne, near Gouda. He 
died at Basle in 1536. 

ERBETTE, Filipfo dall'. See Mazztola. 

ERCOLE Di GIULIO. See Grand:. 

ERCOLE M ROBERTO. See Grandl 

130 



ERCOLINO DI GUIDO RENI, (or Ebcole di 
Maria). See San Giovanni. 

EREDI, Benedetto, an Italian engraver, was 
born at Florence in 1750. He engraved, in con- 
junction with J. B. Cecchi, nine plates of the 
Monument of Dante, with his portrait. There are 
also by him the following plates : 

portraits. 

Luca Cambiaso, Geuoese painter ; after a picture by 

himself. 
Federigo Zucchero ; after himself. 
Angelo Bronzino ; Florentine painter. 
Annibale Carracci. 

SUBJECTS. 
The Transfiguration ; after Raphael. 
The Adulteress before Christ ; after Angelo Bromino. 
The Death of Lucretia ; after Luca Giordano. 

EREMITA DI MONTE SENARIO. See Ste- 
faneschi. 

ERHARD, Johann Chri.stoph, who was born at 
Nuremberg in 1795, was instructed by Zwinger and 
Gabler, and afterwards went to Vienna and Rome. 
Among the hundred and eighty-five plates which he 
etched are several landscapes and views of con- 
siderable merit. He committed suicide at Rome in 
1822. 

ERLINGER,GEORG,a printerand wood-engraver, 
was working at Augsburg in 1516, and at Bamberg 
from 1519 till his death in 1542. Among his wood- 
cuts, which are very scarce, is one of ' Christ on 
the Cross.' 

ERMELS, JoHANN Franz, a German painter and 
engraver, a pupil of Holtznian, was bom near 
Cologne in 164L He resided at Nuremberg, and 
painted for the church of St. Sebald in that city 
a picture of the ' Resurrection ' ; he was more suc- 
cessful, however, as a painter of landscapes, in 
which he imitated the style of Jan Both. He died 
at Nuremberg in 1699. In the Stadel Gallery at 
Frankfort is a ' Landscape ' by him, with figures 
by J. H. Roos ; and in the Vienna Gallery is a 
'Landscape with Fishermen' by him. A 'Land- 
scape ' is also in the Milan Gallery. There are by 
him a few etchings of landscapes, after Waterloo, 
Breenbergh, &c., executed with spirit and taste. 

ERRANTE, Giuseppe, bom at Trapani, in Sicily, 
in 1760, studied at Palermo and Rome, and was 
employed in the Caserta Palace, Naples. On 
account of his political opinions he was obliged to 
remove to Milan, and afterwards established him- 
self at Rome in 1810. Besides historical subjects, 
he painted portraits, in which he was especially 
successful. He died at Rome in 1821. 

ERKAR, (or Ebrard,) Johan, an artist, who 
flourished at Li^ge about 1670, etched landscapes 
after Waterloo. 

ERRARD, Charles, a French painter and archi- 
tect, was born at Nantes about 1601, and is better 
known as one of the chief founders and directors 
of the Academy at Paris than as a painter and 
engraver. He studied in Italy, where he also spent 
the greater part of his life. In 1 635 he was admitted 
a member of the Academy of St. Luke, and in 1665 
was made director of the French Academy at Rome, 
where he died in 1689. 

ERRI, Cammillo, of Modena, is known only by 
a picture of ' St. John the Baptist Preaching,' with 
the date 1577, in the Modena Gallery. 

ERSKINE, Henry David, Earl of Bochan. 
See BucHAN. 

ERTINGER, Franz, a German engraver, is said 
by some to have been bom at Colmar, by others 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



at Wyl in Swabia, in the year 1640. He resided 
chiefly at Paris, where he engraved several plates, 
which are not without merit, and where he died in 
1700. His best prints are the follo^ving: 

PORTRAITS. 
J. F. de Beughem, Bishop of Antwerp. 
Niccolo Macchiavelli. 
Gabriel du Pinau. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

The History of Achilles, in eight Plates ; afte)- Buiens ; 

the same subjects have been since engraved by Baron. 
Twelve Prints from the Metamorphoses of Ovid ; after 

the miniatures of Joseph JVerner. 
Ten Plates of the History of the Counts of Toulouse ; 

after Raymond de La Fage. 
The Marriage at Cana in Galilee ; after the same. 
A set of Friezes of Bacchanalian subjects ; after the same. 
Several Views of Towns ; after Van der ileulen ; some 

of them in the manner of Callot. 

ERVEST, Jakob, a scholar of Adam Elsheimer 
painted marine subjects, and naval combats. 

ES, Jacob van, (or Essen,) a Flemish painter, 
was born at Antwerp in 1606. He was very suc- 
cessful in the art of reproducing still-life, but 
more especially fish, which he painted with an 
almost deceptive similarity to nature. His master- 
pieces are two 'Fish Markets,' in the Vienna 
Gallery, with figures by Jordaens. The Madrid 
Gallery also has two pictures of fish and a fruit 
and flower piece by Van Es. The Stadel Gallery 
at Frankfort has a fish-piece by him. In the Ant- 
werp Museum is a good example of his still-life 
subjects, formerly in the Episcopal Palace, and in 
the Lille Museum is a picture of 'Oysters and 
Fruit,' which was formerly in the Abbey of Cysoing. 
He died at Antwerp in 1665-66. 

ESBRAT, NoiiL Kaymond, a landscape and 
animal painter, was born in Paris in 1809, and 
died there in 1856. He was a pupil of Guillon- 
Lethiere and of Watelet, and from 1844 sent 
pictures to various exhibitions. 

ESCALANTE, Juan Antonio, a Spanish painter, 
born at Cordova in 1630, was a scholar of Francisco 
Rizi, but he adopted the style of Tintoretto, as 
well in colouring as in composition. Several of 
his works in the churches of Madrid are highly 
commended by Palomino. In the church of San 
Miguel is a graceful picture of ' St. Catharine ' ; 
»nd in the church of the Espiritii Santo is an 
altar-piece of the ' Dead Christ,' with other figures, 
painted in the style of Titian. A similar picture 
in the Dresden Gallery is ascribed to him. The 
Hague Gallery has a ' Gipsy Woman telling an 
Officer's fortune.' In the Madrid Gallery are two 
works by him, 'A Holy Family,' and 'The Infant 
Christ and St. John ; ' and in the Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg, ' St. Joseph and the Infant Christ.' He 
died at Madrid in 1670. 

ESCALANTE, Juan de Sevilla Romero t. See 
Sevilla. 

ESCHINI, Angelo Maria, a painter and engraver, 
flourished at Modena in the 17th century: by him 
more than one excellent plate representing the 
' Virgin ' is known. 

ESCLAVO, El. See Pareja. 

ESCOT, Charles, French painter and pastel- 
liste ; born 1836. Excelled as a portrait painter, 
and has left a large number of portraits that show 
breadth and vigour of draughtsmanship and vivid 
intensity of colouring. His house at Gaillac was 
a veritable museum, the main attraction in this 
being some thirty copies of ' La Tour.' Escot had 
k2 



delayed his intention of bequeathing this interesting 
collection to the Museum of Albi, but his death 
occurred at Gaillac (Tarn) on May 5th, 1902, 
before he had been able to express his wish in 
proper legal form. 

ESKILSSON, Peter, a Swedish genre painter, 
was bom in 1820, in the Billeberga parish, Schonen. 
He was at first an under-ofScer in the Gota artillery 
regiment, and then a book-keeper at Goteborg; 
but by the assistance of a friend he was enabled in 
1853 to go to Diisseldorf, where he studied under 
Tidemand. In 1859 he was compelled for a time 
to become a photographer at Stockholm, but he 
afterwards illustrated Bellman, depicting the 
Swedish popular life with great humour. He 
became an associate of the Academy in 1866, and 
died at Bremo, near Sigtuna, in 1872. 

ESPAGNOLETTO. See Ribera. 

ESPARa, Juan de, or Juan el Espanol. See 
Giovanni di Pietro. 

ESPINAL, Juan de, a Spanish historical pamter, 
was a native of Seville. He was the son and pupil 
of Gregorio Espinal, who was also a painter, but 
he afterwards entered the school of Domingo 
Martinez, whose daughter he married. He was 
chosen director of the School of Design which 
Cean Bermudez and other lovers of art established 
at Seville. Cean Bermudez says that he possessed 
more genius than any of his contemporaries, and 
but for his bad training and indolence would have 
been the best painter whom Seville had produced 
since the time of Murillo. A visit to Madrid late 
in life made apparent his misspent time, and he 
returned saddened and abashed to Seville, where 
he died in 1783. His chief works were scenes 
from the life of St. Jerome, painted for the monas- 
tery of San Geronimo de Buenavista, and now in 
the Seville Museum, and some frescoes in the 
collegiate church of San Salvador. 

ESPIN6S, Benito, a Spanish flower painter, the 
son of Josef Espin6s, was a native of Valencia. 
He was appointed director of the Royal Academy 
of San Carlos in Valencia in 1787, and died about 
1817. Nine of his flower-pieces are in the Madrid 
Gallery, whilst others are in the Museum of 
Valencia, and in the Escorial. 

ESPIN6S, Josef, a Spanish painter and engraver, 
bom at Valencia in 1721, studied painting under 
Luis Martinez and Evaristo Muiioz. He painted 
for the convent of the Servites of the Foot of 
the Cross, in Valencia, pictures of ' Our Lady of 
Sorrows ' and of the founders of that order. He 
engraved in line several prints of saints, and died 
at Valencia in 1784, leaving a choice collection of 
prints, drawings, and books. 

ESPINOSA, Alonso and Andres de, Spanish 
historical painters, who dwelt at Burgos in the 
early part of the 16th century, were brothers, who 
usually worked together. In 1524, together with 
Cristobal de Herrera, they gilded and decorated 
with paintings the Lady chapel of the cathedral at 
Palencia. 

ESPINOSA, Geronimo RonRiGUEZ de, a Spanish 
painter, bom at Valladolid in 1562, was the father 
of Jacinto Geronimo de Espinosa. He married 
in 1596 Aldonza Lle6, at the Valencian town of 
Cocentayna, where he resided for many years. 
In 1600 he painted pictures of ' St. Lawrence ' and 
'St. Hippolitus,' and in the following year 'SS. 
Sebastian and Roch,'for the church of Cocentayna. 
These works were afterwards displaced, and passed 
into the hands of one Andreas Cister, a scrivener. 

131 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Dresden. 
Madrid. 



Valencia. 



In 1604-7 he executed, in conjunction with a certain 
Jayme Terol, a scholar of Fray Nicolas Borras, 
the pictures for the high altar of St. John the 
Baptist's Church, at the town of Muro. Finally 
taking up his ahode at Valencia, he died there 
about 1630. 

ESPINOSA, Jacinto Geronimo de, a son and 
scholar of Geronimo Rodriguez de Espinosa, was 
born at Cocentayna, in Valencia, in 1600. He 
studied also under Francisco Eibalta, and went 
afterwards to Italy, where he acquired a boldness 
of design and a vigour of colouring that resemble 
the style of Guercino. His best pictures are in the 
churches at Valencia, particularly in San Esteban, 
and in the chapel of San Luis Bertran in Santo 
Domingo. The principal altar-piece in the church 
of the Carmelites is by this master, representing 
the ' Transfiguration.' He died at Valencia in 1680. 
Among his works are the following : 

Gallery. St. Francis of Assisi. 
Gallery. Mary Magdalen praying. 
„ Christ at the column. 

„ St. John the Baptist. 

Museum. Christ appearing to St. Ignatius 
Loyola. 
„ „ The Communion of St. Mary 

Magdalen. 
„ „ St. Louis Bertrand on his bier. 

ESPINOSA, Juan de, bom at Puente de la 
Reyna, in Navarre, was employed in 1663 to paint 
twenty-four scenes from the life of St. Millan, 
for the monastery of St. Millan de la Cogolla. He 
executed twelve with some skill, and after his 
death the work was completed by Fray Juan Rizi. 

ESPINOSA, Juan de, a Spanish painter of fruit 
pieces, flourished towards the end of the 17th and 
the beginning of the 18th century. Nothing is 
known of his life. Two examples of his art are in 
the Madrid Gallery. 

ESPINOSA, MiGDEL DE, of Saragossa, a painter 
of good repute, was invited in 1654 by the 
Benedictine fathers, to paint for their monastery 
of St. Millan de la Cogolla. Amongst his works 
executed at the expense of the brotherhood were 
pictures of the 'Miracle of the Water turned 
into Wine,' and the ' Miracle of the Loaves and 
Fishes.' 

ESQUARTE, Pablo, a Spanish painter of the 
latter part of the 16th century, who studied at 
Valencia, but afterwards went to Venice and be- 
came a disciple of Titian. He had a great talent 
for portrait painting, and perhaps excelled in other 
departments, as the Duke of Villa Hermosa em- 
ployed him to ornament his palace and country 
residence. 

ESSELENS, Jacob, a painter of Amsterdam in 
the 17th century, is said to have been a pupil of 
Rembrandt, but his works do not corroborate the 
assertion. His pictures represent villages on the 
banks of rivers, woody landscapes, buildings with 
magnificent fountains, stag-hunts, and shipping 
pieces, painted in a clear tone of colour, and with 
figures spiritedly touched. The dates of his birth 
and death are not recorded. A picture of ' Figures 
by a River,' signed with his name, is in the 
Rotterdam Museum ; a ' Fishing Piece ' is in the 
Copenhagen Gallery ; and in the Glasgow Corpora- 
tion Galleries is a ' Rendezvous of a Hunting 
Party.' 

ESSEN, Hans von. See Ladenspelder. 

ESSEN, Jacob van. See Es. 

ESSENBECK, J. van, was born at Rotterdam in 

132 



1627, and died in 1678 ; but no further details of 
his life are recorded. In the Glasgow Corporation 
Galleries is a ' Hawking Party ' attributed to him. 
ESSEX, Richard Hamilton, an architectural 
water-colour painter, was born in 1802. He 
became in 1823 an associate of the Water-Colour 
Society, where he exhibited till 1836. His works 
also appeared at the Royal Academy. He died 
at Bow in 1855. 

ESSEX, William, a clever copyist in enamel 
of landscape and figure subjects, both by old and 
modern masters, first exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1818, and for the last time in 1862, having 
been appointed miniature painter to the Queen in 
1839. Towards the end of his life he painted a 
few miniature enamels from the life. His death 
occurred at Brighton, in 1869, at the age of 85. His 
son, William B. Essex, wlio was a portrait painter, 
died at Birmingham in 1852, aged 29. 

ESTEBAN, Rodrigo, was painter to Sancho the 
Brave, King of Castile. No work of his is known 
to exist, but an account of a payment of one 
hundred maravedis from the privy purse in 1291- 
92 is to be found in a MS. book of accounts in the 
Royal Library at Madrid. 

ESTENSE, Baldassare, of Reggio, who was 
born about 1443, has been supposed to have been 
an illegitimate scion of the house of Este, since no 
mention of his father's name ever occurs in con- 
temporary records, whilst he was called ' Estensis,' 
and received unusual promotion and rewards from 
the Dukes of Ferrara. He was a pupil of Cosimo 
Tura, and was also a medallist. In 1469 he painted 
the hkencss of Borso I. , and was ordered to present 
it in person to the Duke of Milan. From 1471 to 
1504 he was a salaried officer at the court of 
Ferrara, living first in Castel Nuovo, for which he 
painted a canvas that has perished, and after- 
wards in Castel Tedaldo, of which he was the 
governor. In 1483 he painted the portrait of Tito 
Strozzi, now in the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara. 
His will, dated 1500, is in the archives of Ferrara, 
but the exact date of his death is unknown. 

ESTORGES, J., a French engraver of the 17th 
century, who etched a plate in the style of Pietro 
del Po representing ' Christ on the Mount of 
Olives.' 

ESTRADA, Jos^ Maria, an historical and genre 
painter of Valencia, who died at Madrid in 1873. 
He has left, among other pictures, ' Diana observ- 
ing the sleeping Endymion,' ' An Eating-house,' 
and the portrait of Count Villalobos. 

ESTRADA, Juan and Ignacio, were two brothers, 
who worked together as painters, though Ignacio 
was also a sculptor. They were born at Badajoz, 
Juan in 1717, and Ignacio in 1724, and were 
instructed by their father, Manuel Estrada, but 
Juan received three years' further tuition from 
Pablo Pernicharo, at Madrid. Many of their pic- 
tures are still to be seen in the churches of Valencia, 
Ignacio having furnished the designs, and Juan 
carried out the execution. Juan died at Badajoz 
in 1792, and Ignacio in 1790. 

ETHENARD t ABARCA, Feancisco Antonio, 
a painter and engraver, the son of a German 
father, was born at Madrid. He served in the 
German body-guard under Charles II., and until it 
was disbanded in 1701 by Philip V., upon which 
he devoted himself entirely to the above branches 
of art, which he had already pursued as an amateur. 
He died at Madrid in 1710. He published a ' Philo- 
sophy of War' in 1675, and 'The Italian and 



WILLIAM ETTY 




Ha/j/siiinql pkoto] {^National Gallery^ London 

YOUTH ON THE PROW AND PLEASURE AT THE HELM 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Spanish Fencing-Master ' in 1697, and both of these 
he illustrated with engravings. 

ETLINGER, Georq, was a German engraver on 
wood, who resided at Bamberg. There is by him 
a wood-cut representing Bishop Blaize, enclosed 
in a border ornamented with symbols of the Gospel, 
and executed with great spirit. 

ETTY, William, the eminent painter, was bom 
at York, March 10,1787. "Like Rembrandt and 
Constable," writes Etty, in an autobiography pub- 
lished in the ' Art Journal ' in 1849, " my father 
also was a miller." In 1798 he was apprenticed 
to Robert Peck, a letter-press printer at Hull, as 
a compositor, " to which business," he says, " I 
served seven full years faithfully and truly, and 
worked at it three weeks as journeyman ; but 
I had such a busy desire to be a painter, that 
the last years of my servitude dragged on most 
heavily. I counted the years, days, weeks, and 
hours, till liberty should break my chains and set 
my struggling spirit free." In 1806 he was invited 
to London by his uncle, William Etty, of the firm 
of Bodley, Etty, and Bod ley, of Lombard Street. 
William Etty was himself " a beautiful dranghtsman 
in pen and ink," and saw promise in the crude per- 
formances of his young kinsman, and besides help- 
ing him during life, left him a sufficient sum after 
his death to enable him to pursue his studies. 
Arrived in town, he tells us : — " I drew from prints 
or from nature, or from anything I could ; I was 
made at home at my uncle's, I was furnished with 
cash by my brother. My first academy was in a 
plaster-cast shop, kept by Gianelli, in that lane 
near to Smithfield, immortalised by Dr. Johnson's 
visit to see ' The Ghost ' there." He soon received 
a letter of introduction to Opie, who introduced 
him to Fuseli, by whom he was admitted as a pro- 
bationer in Somerset House. He entered the schools 
of the Royal Academy in the same week as Collins ; 
and Hilton and Haydon were amongst his fellow- 
students. By his uncle's generosity, who paid one 
hundred guineas for him, Etty, in July, 1808, be- 
came an in-door pupil of Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
then residing in Greek Street, Soho. Lawrence 
frequently employed him to make copies of his 
portraits, but had little leisure to give substantial 
assistance to his pupil in his studies. When his 
year of study under Lawrence was expired, Etty 
painted from nature, and copied the old masters 
in the British Gallery : this, he says, he found 
easy, after copying Lawrence. He was also a 
constant student in the Life School of the Royal 
Academy, where his industry was indefatigable, 
yet he never gained a medal. He ventured at one 
time to send six pictures to the Academy exhibition, 
but all were rejected ; this happened year after year 
at the Academy, and at the British Gallery, but by 
discovering his defects, and by great industry 
in endeavouring to correct them, he at last con- 
quered his bad fortune. In 1811 he was comforted 
by finding one of his pictures, 'Telemachus rescuing 
Antiope,' hung at the Royal Academy, and from 
that time forward he always obtained an entrance 
for some of his works at the Academy or the 
British Institution. He painted portraits also at 
this time, but chiefly occupied himself on classical 
subjects. In 1816 he visited Paris and Florence, 
but returned home in less than three months. In 
1822 he went to Italy, visiting Venice, Florence, 
Rome, and Naples, but it was in Venice that he 
found the greatest attractions: — "Venice, the 
birth-place and cradle of colour, the hope and idol 



of my professional life." He studied in the aca- 
demy there, and was elected one of its honorary 
members. He returned to London early in 1824, 
and in the same year exhibited ' Pandora formed 
by Vulcan, and crowned by the Seasons,' which was 
bought by Lawrence, and secured his election as 
an Associate of the Royal Academy. He became 
an Academician in 1828, and it was then suggested 
to him that he should discontinue his practice in 
the Life School, where he had been accustomed for 
years to attend every evening during the session to 
paint studies in oil from the living models, as it 
was considered incompatible with the dignity of an 
Academician to continue to take his place amongst 
the students ; but he said he would rather decline 
the honour of membership than give up his studies. 
He resided in London from 1826 till 1848, when, 
owing to faihng health, he retired to his native city 
York, where he died November 13, 1849. An ex- 
hibition of Etty's works was held in the summer of 
1849 at the Society of Arts, and his 'Life' by 
Alexander Gilchrist was published in 1855. In 
his autobiography Etty has himself pointed out 
what he considered his greatest works. " My 
aim in all my great pictures lias been to paint 
some great moral on the heart : ' The Combat,' 
the beauty of mercy ; the three ' Judith ' pictures, 
patriotism, and self-devotion to her country, her 
people, and her God ; ' Benaiah, David's chief cap- 
tain,' valour ; ' Ulysses and the Syrens,' the import- 
ance of resisting sensual delights, or an Homeric 
paraphrase on the ' Wages of Sin is Death ' ; the 
three pictures of ' Joan of Arc,' Religion, Valour, 
Loyalty and Patriotism, like the modern Judith ; 
these, in all, make nine colossal pictures, as it was 
my desire to paint three times three." Besides the 
above-mentioned the following are his principal 
works : 

Sappho. 1811. 

The Coral Finders. 1820. 

Cleopatra's Arrival at Cicilia. 1821. 

The Judgment of Paris. 

Venns attired by the Graces. 

The Wise and Foolish Virgins. 

Hylas and the Nymphs. 

The Dance described in Homer's Shield. 

The Prodigal Son. 

The Bevy of Fair Women. (Milton.) 

The Bridge of Sighs, Venice. 

The Destruction of the Temple of Vice. 

The Rape of Proserpine. 

La Fleur de Lis. 

Adam and Eve at their Morning Orisons. 

The Prodigal in the depth of his Misery. 

The Prodigal's return to his Father and Mother. 

The Origin of Marriage. (Milton.) Stafford House. 

Pandora. 

The Parting of Hero and Leander. 

The Death of Hero and Leander. 

Diana and Endymion. 

The Graces : Psyche and Cupid. 

Amoret freed by Britomart from the power of the 
Enchantress. 

Zephyr and Aurora. 

Robinson Crusoe returning thanks to God for hia 
deliverance. 

In the National Gallery. 

The Imprudence of Candaules, King of Lydia. 1830. 

Window in Venice, during a Festa. 1831. 

Youth on the Prow and Pleasure at the Helm. 1832. 

The Lute-Player. 1833. 

The Dangerous Playmate. 1833. 

Study of a Man in Persiau Costume. 1834. 

Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen after His Resurrec- 
tion. 1834. 

II Duetto. 1333. 

133 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Female Bathers surprised by a Swan. 1841. 
The Magdalen. 1842. 

The Bather ' at the doubtful breeze alarmed.' 1844. 
Study for a Head of Christ. 

At South Kensington. 
Head of a Cardinal. 1844. 
Cupid sheltering Psyche. 1823. 
The Deluge (a nude female figure). 1815. 

In the National Gallery of Scotland. 
Series of three pictures illustrating the Deliverance of 

Bethulia by Judith. 1827-31. 
Benaiah, one of David's Mighty Men. 
The Combat — Woman pleading for the Vanquished. 

1825. Exhibited in 1844. 

In th^ Boyal Iiistitution, Manchester. 
Ulysses and the Sirens. 

ETZDORF, Christian Feiedrich, a landscape 
painter, and the younger brother of Johann Chris- 
tian Etzdorf, was born at Posneck, in the duchy oi 
Saxe-Meiningen, in 1807. He was educated in art at 
the Munich Academy, and at first practised porcelain 
painting, but afterwards devoted himself to land- 
scapes, in whicli he followed much the same style 
as hie brother, producing forest scenes, rocky 
valleys, and winter pieces. After his brother's 
death he returned for a while to Posneck, but 
afterwards took to the business of tanning, and 
settled first in Kissingen and finally in Wiirzburg, 
where he died in 1858. Besides his paintings he 
has left eighteen etchings of landscapes, mostly 
after his brother, and one lithograph. 

ETZDORF, Johann Christian Michel, a German 
landscape painter, was born at Posneck, in the 
duchy of Saxe-Meiningen, in 1801. He studied 
landscape painting in Munich and its environs, and 
displayed an especial talent in representing gloomy 
forests, taking as his models the works of Ruisdael 
and Van Everdingen. He visited Norway, the 
North Cape, Sweden, Iceland, and England. One 
of his best paintings is in the Modern Gallery at 
Munich ; it represents a ' Forge by the side of a 
Waterfall.' He died at Munich in 1851. 

EUMARDS, of Athens, the foremost of the early 
Greek painters, flourished about B.C. 540-500. He 
appears to have introduced a degree of chiaro- 
scuro into his pictures, which would seem to have 
been not all monochrome. It is stated that he was 
also the first to distinguish the male from the female 
figure, and to denote age and disposition in the 
depicting of his characters. 

EUPHRANOR, who was born on the Isthmus of 
Corinth, but resided at Athens, is stated to have 
lived from B.C. 375 to 335, and to have studied 
painting in the school of Aristeides. His chief 
works were in a porch in the Cerameicus at Athens. 
On the one side were the 'Twelve Gods,' and on 
the opposite side, 'Theseus, with Democracy and 
Demos,' in which picture Theseus was represented 
as the founder of the equal polity of Athens. In 
the same place was his picture of the ' Battle be- 
tween the Athenian and Boeotian Cavalry at 
Mantineia,' containing portraits of Epaminondas 
and of Gryllus, the son of Xenophon. He also 
excelled as a statuary, both in marble and metals. 
He gave a peculiar dignity to his heroes, and Pliny 
extols him for an exact symmetry in his pro- 
portions. His picture of Theseus so satisfied him 
that in comparing it with one of the same hero 
painted by Parrhasius, he exultingly observed, that 
" the Theseus of Parrhasius appeared to have been 
fed on roses, and his with flesh." 

EDPOMPDS, who flourished about B.C. 400-380, 
134 



founded the school of Sicyon upon his own princi- 
ples as opposed to the softness of the Ionian school. 
The 'Victor in the Gymnastic Combat' is one of 
his best works. Pamphilus, the master of Apelles, 
was his pupil. 

EUSEBIO Di SAN GIORGIO, a painter of Perugia 
in the early part of the 16th century, was a scholar 
of Perugino, and painted for churches. His works 
are imitations or copies after Raphael. A fresco 
of the Archangel Michael, formerly in the Palazzo 
Gualtieri at Orvieto, and now in the Leipsic 
Museum, and which has been ascribed to Signor- 
elli, is probably by Eusebio. 

EDXENIDAS, an ancient Theban painter, who 
flourished about B.C. 400 or 380, was the master of 
Aristeides, but little else is recorded respecting 
him. 

EVANS, George, a portrait painter, who flourished 
about the middle of the 18th century, was a mem- 
ber of the Incorporated Society of Artists, where 
he exhibited. He died before 1770. 

EVANS, Richard, a copyist, was employed for 
some time by Sir Thomas Lawrence to fill in the 
background and draperies of his pictures. He for 
many years resided in Rome, where he copied pic- 
tures by the old masters, besides painting some 
original portraits, and also attempting fresco- 
painting. He died at Southampton in 1871, aged 
87. The copies in the South Kensington Museum 
of the Raphael arabesques are by him ; as are also 
the following portraits in the National Portrait 
Gallery : 

Sir Tliomas Lawrence ; after La^crence. 
Lord Thurlow ; after the same. 
Thomas Taylor, the Platonist. 

EVANS, William, known as " Evans of Eton," 
a landscape painter in water-colours, was born 
at Eton in 1798, and succeeded his father as 
professor of drawing at Eton College in 1818. In 
1828 he was elected an associate, and in 1830 a 
member, of the Water-Colour Society, where he 
continued to exhibit till 1875. In his later years 
he Bufiered much- from a fractured jaw, and died 
at Eton in 1877. Amongst his best works are : 

Llanberis. 1828. 

Barmouth. 1828. 

Ferry on the Tay. 

Burnham Beeches. 

Doune Castle. 

The Gleam of Hope. 

Mill at Droxford. (South Kensington Muieum.) 

EVANS, William, an engraver and draughts- 
man, who flourished in the early years of the 19th 
century, assisted Benjamin Smith, and made draw- 
ings for Cadell's and Boydell's publications. He 
drew for Cadell's ' Gallery of Contemporary Por- 
traits ' (1822), and engraved some plates for the 
Dilettanti Society's ' Specimens of Antient Sculp- 
ture.' His portrait of James Barry, R.A. (drawn 
in chalk for the 'Gallery of Contemporary Por- 
traits ') is in the National Portrait Gallery. 

EVANS, William, a landscape painter in water- 
colours, known as " Evans of Bristol," was born 
in 1811. He lived for many years at an isolated 
spot in North Wales, where he had abimdant 
opportunity of depicting the rough mountain 
scenery in which he excelled. He became in 
1845 an Associate of the Water-Colour Society, 
and after 1852 he spent much time in Italy. He 
died in London in 1858. 

EVELYN, John, who was born at Wotton, in 
Surrey, in 1620, was an English gentleman who 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



claims a place among tlie amateur artists of his 
country, as the engraver of five small platea of his 
journey from Eome to Naples, which were 
etched in Paris in the year 1649. They bear 
the annexed monogram. He etched likewise 
a view of his own seat at Wotton, and another 
of Putney. Evelyn was the author of one of the 
earliest English publications on the subject of 
engraving, entitled ' Sculptura,' published in 1662. 
He died in London in 1706. 

EVENEPOEL, Henri, a young Belgian artist, 
whose early death at Paris in his twenty-seventh 
year cut short a career of great promise. The son 
of a musician, Evenepoel studied at first ^ in 
Brussels, and subsequently in Paris, his debut 
being made at the Salon in 1895, with certain 
portraits which created a positive sensation in the 
Parisian art world by their vigour and their almost 
brutal sincerity of touch. The young artist's work, 
however, with each succeeding year lost those 
qualities of exaggeration and grossness which 
detracted from its merit, as his later portraits, 
exhibited at the Salon, amply proved. Passing 
from portraiture to the presentment of figures 
either in natural or artificial light, the artist pro- 
duced several important works, such as his ' Moulin 
Rouge,' 'Folies Bergferes,' 'Fete des Invalides,' 
&c. He died in Paris, December 30, 1899. p. p. 

EVENOR, an eminent painter of Ephesus. who 
flourished about B.C. 420, was the father and 
instructor of Parrhasius. 

EVERDINGEN, Allart van, the younger 
brother of Cesar van Everdingen, was born at 
Alkmaar in 1612. He studied successively under 
Roeland Savery and Pieter Molyn, both of whom he 
greatly surpassed, and excelled in painting rocky 
landscapes. The talents of Van Everdingen were 
not, however, confined to subjects of that descrip- 
tion ; he painted sea-pieces and storms with sur- 
prising effect, and represented the tempest-tossed 
waves with awful and terrific fidelity. In a voyage 
which he made to the Baltic, he was shipwrecked 
on the coast of Norway, where he was under the 
necessity of remaining some time, until the vessel 
was repaired. He employed this interval in making 
sketches of the romantic wilds of that uncultivated 
country, which furnished him with admirable sub- 
jects for his pictures, in which the grand forms of 
his rocks, and the picturesque efiect of his water- 
falls, are drawn with a taste, and painted with 
a spirit, that entitled him to the appellation of 
'The Salvator Rosa of the North.' His colouring 
is simple and pure, his touch broad and facile, and 
it is evident that every object in his pictures was 
studied immediately from nature. The small 
figures with which he embellished his landscapes 
are correctly drawn, and very neatly touched. The 
admirers of etchings are indebted to this excellent 
artist for a number of plates executed in a free and 
masterly style. His prints of landscapes amount 
to about a hundred, of which eight of the largest 
and most finished are very fine. He also engraved 
a set of fifty-seven small prints for Gottsched's 
translation of ' Reynard the Fox,' published in 
1752. He sometimes signed his plates with his 
name, sometimes with the initials A. V- -r-^-r 
£., and at other times with the annexed A\» 
monogram "" '■'"■^ "*■ i'"=+o"'->"^ ir. -i- ^^ 
1675. 



He died at Amsterdam in 



Amsterdam. Museum. 



Berlin. 



Gallery. 



Norwegian Landscape. 
Landscape. 
Norwegian Waterfall. 



Berlin. Gallery. Norwegian Hilly Landscape. 

„ „ A Castle by a Eiver. 

Cassel. Gallery. Woody Landscape. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. Rocky Landscape. 1648. 
„ „ River and Eocks. 1647. 

„ „ And three others. 

Darmstadt. Gallery. Waterfall. 

„ „ A Rocky Valley. 

Dresden. Gallery. Stag-hunt. 1643. 

„ „ Four Landscapes. 

Frankfort. Stddii Jnst. Stormy Sea. 

„ „ Landscape with Mill. 

., „ Northern Landscape. 

Lille. Museum. Cascade. 1660. 

London. Bute Coll. View in Norway. 
Munich. Gallery. Landscape with Waterfall. 1656. 

„ „ Stormy Sea-coast. 

Paris. Louvre. Landscape. 

„ „ Landscape. 

EVERDINGEN, Cesar van, born at Alkmaar 
in 1606, was a scholar of Jan van Bronkhorst. He 
painted historical subjects and portraits, and was 
also an eminent architect. In 1632 he became a 
member of the Guild at his native place, and in 
1651 of that at Haarlem. One of his most 
esteemed works was in the principal church of 
Alkmaar, representing the 'Triumph of David. 
He gained great reputation by a picture he painted 
of the Portraits of the Company of Archers, for 
their hall of assembly. He died in 1679. 
His works are signed with the initials (viy^ 
G. V. jE.,or with the monogram annexed, ^i—' 
An important work by him (signed with his mono- 
gram and dated 1652) is in the Hague Gallery. It 
represents ' Diogenes in the market-place of Haar- 
lem seeking an honest man,' and contains portraits 
of the Steyn family of Haarlem. 

EVERDINGEN, Jan van, the youngest of the 
three brothers of the name, was born in 1625, and 
died in 1656. He was instructed by his brother 
Cesar, but painted only for amusement, being by 
profession an advocate. 

EVERITT, Allen Edward, a clever archee- 
ologist, who executed water-colour drawings of 
medicBval remains both in England and on the 
Continent. He was Hon. Sec. of the Royal Society 
of Artists of Birmingham from 1858 to 1882, and 
died in that year, aged fifty-eight. 

EVERSDYCK, Cornelis Willemsz, was a por- 
trait painter of Goes, who died there in 1649. In 
the Rotterdam Museum are three pictures by him, 
representing OfBcers and Members of the Company 
of Archers, called " Edele Voethoog," at Goes ; two 
of which are dated 1616 and 1624. 

EVERSDYCK, Willem, the son of Cornelis 
Eversdyck, flourished at Goes about the year 1660. 
He was a portrait painter, and several of his por- 
traits were engraved by Houbraken. A picture of 
Officers and Members of the Company of Archers, 
called " Edele Voethoog," at Goes, by him, is in 
the Rotterdam Museum. 

EVRARD, Perpete, a painter of portraits and 
miniatures, was born at Dinant about the middle 
of the 17th century, and was employed at several 
foreign courts. He died at the Hague in 1727. 

EWBANK, John Wilson, a landscape pointer, 
was born at Darhngton in 1799. Intended for the 
Roman Catholic priesthood, he was sent to Ushaw 
College, but, absconding, he apprenticed himself 
to a house-painter in Newcastle, whence he was 
taken to Edinburgh by Coulson, a decorator of 
considerable ability: he afterwards received in- 
struction from Alexander Nasmyth. He became 
one of the foundation members of the Royal 
Scottish Academy in 1826, and about that time 

135 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



produced some works of a larger character, such 
as ' George IV. at Edinburgh Castle,' ' The Entry 
of Alexander the Great into Babylon,' ' Hannibal 
crossing the Alps,' ' View of Edinburgh from 
Inchkeith,' &c. He passed the last ten or twelve 
years of his life in Sunderland, where through 
intemperance he fell into great misery and want, 
and died in 1847. His sea and shore views were 
admirable in their simplicity, while their aerial 
effect has seldom been surpassed. A ' Canal Scene 
with Shipping' is in the National Gallery of 
Scotland. 

EWODTZOON, Jan, a Dutch wood-engraver, 
who flourished at Amsterdam in the first half of 
the 16th century, executed many of the designs 
of Cornelis Teunisse or Antoniszoon, of which 
' Mucins Scsevola,' a ' Woman mounted upon an 
Ass,' and an ' Allegory upon the Flight of Time,' 
bear his signature, and the two last the dates 1536 
and 1537. 

EXIMENO, JOAQDIN, a Spanish artist, born at 
Valencia in 1674, painted fruit, flowers, birds, 
fish, and objects of still-life, which he repre- 
sented with great fidelity. He died in 1754. His 
works are classed by Cean Bermudez with those 
of his father, who bore the same Christian name, 
and in conjunction with whom he painted. Their 
pictures were much esteemed by amateurs of the 
time, and four of large size are in the church of 
Our Lady of the Pillar at Valencia. 

EXSHAW, Charles, an historical painter and 
engraver, was born at DubUn in the early part of 
the 18th century. He studied at Rome, Amsterdam, 
and probably in Paris, and engraved portraits of 
the Van Loo family, but about 1768 he came to 
London and endeavoured to start a drawing aca- 
demy. He died in 1771. His prints are chiefly 
imitations of the works of Rembrandt, and are not 
without merit. Among other plates the following 
are by him : 

A Bust of an old Man, with a round hat ; after Eem- 

brandt. 1758. 
A Head of an old Man, with a beard ; after the same. 

1758. 
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife ; after the same. 
St. Peter's Bark in the Storm ; after the same. 
A Girl carrying a Basket of Cherries, with two Boys, 

each having a Gun ; after Rubens. 

E YBEL, Adolf, a German painterof historical and 
genre subjects and of portraits, was born at Berlin 
in 1808. He studied at the Berhn Academy, and 
under Professor Kolbe, as well as in Paris under 
Delaroche. One of his most noted pictures repre- 
sents ' Richard Coeur-de-Lion with his Court listen- 
ing to Blondel's Song.' He died at Berlin in 1882. 
The following works by him may also be men- 
tioned : 

A Gleaner. 

The Battle of Fehrbellin. 

Scene from Sir Walter Scott's ' Woodstock.' 

Scene from ' Faust.' 

A Wine Party. 

EYBL, Fbanz, an Austrian portrait and genre 
painter, was born at Vienna in 1806, studied in the 
Academy of his native city, and became a member 
of it in 1843. He died in 1880. He was for some 
time custodian of the Belvedere Gallery, which 
possesses two characteristic works by him : 

An old Austrian Peasant Woman leaving Church. 

1847. 
An old Beggar, in a mountainous landscape. 1856. 

EYCK, Gaspar van, a Flemish painter of marine 
130 



subjects and sea-fights, was born at Antwerp about 
the commencement of the 17th century, and was 
received into the Guild of St. Luke in 1632. He 
died in 1673. Three pictures by him are in the 
Madrid Gallery. 

EYCK, Hubert van, if not the greatest, at least 
one of the greatest artists that ever lived, was the 
eldest of three brothers, born, according to Van 
Mander, at Maaseyck in the Duchy of Limburg, 
about the year 1366. Very little is known of liis 
history. He probably learned his art at Maas- 
tricht ; having served his apprenticeship, he appears 
to have travelled and to have visited the borders 
of the Mediterranean and the north of Italy be- 
fore settling in Ghent early in the 15th centurj'. 
The treasurers of the municipality in 1424—5 paid 
him 6s. for a couple of sketches he made by order 
of the magistrates, who in the following year 
visited his works and tipped his apprentices. He 
died on September 18, 1426, and was buried in 
the church of St. John — now the cathedral. His 
brothers, who were not burghers of Ghent, had as 
strangers to pay duties to the town on his pro- 
perties which they inherited. Bequests of paint- 
ings by Hubert occur in wills of the years 1413 
and 1426. The following pictures are admitted by 
competent critics to be by him : 

1. The three Marys at the Sepulchre. Richmond, Sir 
F. Cook. 

2. Christ on the Cross, the Blessed Virgin and Saint 
John. Berlin Museujn. 

3. The Blessed Virgin and Child, Saint Anne and F. 
Herman Steenken, vicar of the Charterhouse of 
Saint Anne ter Woestine. near Bruges, from 1402 to 
1404, and from 1406 until his death, April 23, 1428. 
Paris, Baron G. Rothschild. 

4. The Blessed Virgin and C hild standing before a hedge 
of roses ; lost. A fifteenth-century copy in the 
Berlin Museum. 

5. The Fountain of living waters ; lost. A late fifteenth- 
century copy in the Pi ado Museum, Madrid. 

G. Portrait of a young man. Herrniannstadt. 

7. The Vision of Saint Francis of Assisi. Pennsylvania, 
J. G. Johnson, Esq. An enlarged copy in the Turin 
Gallery. 

8. Eobert Poortier protected by Saint Anthony; the 
angel Gabriel on the outer side. Dexter shutter 
of an altar-piece. Copenhagen Museum. 

9. The polyptych of the Adoration of the Lamb, painted 
for Jodoc Vyt, with the exception of the panels, on 
the face of which are the figures of Adam and Eve. 
Ghent Cathedral, and Berlin Museum. 

The cypress, the stone pine, the great palm, the olive 
and the orange are all found in No. 9 ; the two first 
in No. 2 ; the cj-press, the great palm and the orange 
in No. 4 ; the palmetto in 1, 2, 7 and 8. The landscapes 
in Nos. 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 are artificially composed, not 
realistic renderings of nature. The architecture in 
3, 5 and 1 is scenic, not constructive; and in 1, 2 and 
3 Southern, not Netherlandish. \V. H. J. W. 

EYCK, Jan van, born at Maaseyck after 1380, 
is said by Van Mander to have been about twenty 
years younger than his brother Hubert ; his state- 
ment to this efi'ect, however, was probably only 
founded on their two portraits on one of the side- 
panels of the Glient altar-piece. In these portraits 
Hubert looks almost an old man, and Jan quite 
young. The Duchy of Limburg seems to hare had 
an early repute as a seat of art, and one Pol van 
Limburg, who was in the service of Jean de 
Berri from 1400 to 1416, is known to us as an 
excellent iniuiatiirist. According to tradition the 
Van Eycks sprang from an artistic family, but 
nothing is known of their father. It is probable 
that it was while Jan was living with his brother 
that the new method of oil-painting was invented, 




.Jiha/a^j'na/-. pJinU^ 






JAN VAN EYCK 



Han/std«gl pkota] \.Be,-lin Gallery 

MAN WITH A PINK 



u 

> 

> 




PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



or rather, it should be said, tliat the unsatisfactory 
methods of oil-painting pre\'iously known were 
brouglit to perfection by them. It is difficult to 
determine exactly in what the Van Eyck discovery 
really consisted, for it is certain that a process of 
mixing oil with colour was known at a much 
earlier date. It was even described by the monk 
Theophilus in his treatise, 'tractatus Lombardicus 
qualiter temperantur colores,' written in the 11th 
centur}', and sculptured reliefs and statues were 
constantly painted with oil-colours in the Nether- 
lands long before the 15th century. But the 
process invented by the Van Eycks must evidently 
have solved some liifticulty that had hitherto pre- 
vented the successful application of oil-colour to 
panel-painting, for their discovery was at once 
eagerly welcomed by artists, and the greatest 
anxiety evinced by the painters of Italy, as well 
as by those of the Netherlands, to learn the secret 
of their success. Vasari gives a grapliic account 
of the manner of the discovery, whicli in his first 
edition he attributes solely to Jan, the name of 
Hubert not being then known to him — he just 
mentions Hubert in the next edition ; other early 
writers agree in ascribing the discovery to both 
brothers, Hubert being at the time about forty 
years of age, and Jan about twenty. With regard 
to the discovery itself, it seems to have consisted 
firstly in a varnish that was siccative without 
being dark, and secondly in a liquid and colourless 
medium that could be mixed with the colours, and 
so do away with the necessity of using the old 
coloured viscous varnisli. 

It is generally said tliat Van Eyck was in the 
service of John of Bavaria, prince bishop of Li^ge; 
if so, after 1390 and before 1418, when that prince 
resigned the bishopric, and seized the country of 
Holland ; but of this there is no proof. The earliest 
mention of him is in the accounts of the treasurers 
of Holland, which show that he was engaged in 
painting at the palace of the Hague from October 
25, 1422, until September 11, 1424. John of 
Bavaria died January 6, 1425, and on the 19th of 
May following Van Eyck entered the service of 
Philip duke of Burgundy at Bruges, by whom 
he was appointed court painter and "varlet de 
chambre," with a salary of one hundred pounds 
per annum, and all the " honours, prerogatives, 
franchises, liberties, rights, profits, and emolu- 
ments thereunto appertaining." In August he 
removed with his goods and chattels to Lille, 
where he was no doubt employed on work for 
the chapel of the duke's castle which had just been 
restored. He took up his abode in a house be- 
longing to Michael Ravary, clerk of the works of 
the castle, where he resided until Midsummer 1428, 
except when absent on secret journeys undertaken 
at the duke's bidding. We are not told whither 
he went, but for the two first he was paid £91 5s., 
and £360. On October 19, 1428, he sailed for Lisbon 
with the embassy to the King of Portugal, his 
mission being to paint the Infanta Isabella; during 
his absence, besides stopping at Sandwich from 
October 20 to November 13, and at Falmouth from 
November 20 to December 2, he visited Lisbon, 
Arrayollos, Aviz, Compostella, Arjona and Cintra. 
It is probable that he was sent on other journeys, 
of which, owing to the destruction of the accounts 
of expenditure during several years, we have only 
mention of two : one, to Hesdin in 1431 ; the 
other, a secret journey to foreign parts, for the 
expenses of which he received £360. In addition 



to his yearly salary he also received considerable 
sums as gratuities. One of these was probably 
connected with a transaction of a delicate nature 
relative to a lady who became the mother of one 
of the duke's many illegitimate children. In 1431 
John bought a house and settled in Bruges. On 
July 17 in that year the two burgomasters and 
some other members of the town council went to 
see certain of his works, when they gave his 
servants a gratuity of 5s.g. About this time Van 
Eyck took to himself a wife ; to their daughter 
Livina, bornia 1434, the duke stood godfather, and 
gave her as a present six silver cups weighing 
12 marks which cost £96 l'2s.g. In 1435 John 
polychromed six of the statues adorning the front 
of the Town-house, together with the tabernacles 
in which they stood ; for this work he received 
£28 l'2s.g. He kept his office of Court painter 
until his death, which took place at Bruges on 
July 9, 1440. He was buried in the churchyard 
of Saint Donatian, but bj' request of his brother 
Lambert, on March 21, 1442, his body was removed 
into the church and reinterred in the baptistery. 
The following is a chronological list of paintings' 
by Jan : 

1421, October 30. Enthronement of S. Thoma.s of Can- 
terbury ; entirely overpainted. C'hatsworth. 

1432. Nicholas Albergati, Cardinal of Saiut Cross. 
T^ienna. 

1432. The B. Virgin and Child. Ince Hall. 

1432, October 10. Timotheus. National Gallery. 

1432, October21. Portrait of a man. National Gallery. 

1434. John Arnolfini and wife. National Galhnj. 

1436. The B. Virgin and Child, S. Donatian and Canon 
G. de Pala, protected by S. George. Bruges. 

1436. Jan De Leeuw, goklsmitli. T'ienita. 

1437. S. Barbara. Antwerp. 

1439, January 31. Head of Christ. Berlin. 
1439, June 17. Portrait of his wife. Bruges. 

1439. The Virgin and Child by a fountain. Antiverp. 

1440. N. de Maelbeka, Provost of S. Martin's, Ipres, 
kneeling before the B. Virgin and Child ; ujtjinished. 
Kessel-Loo, near Louvain. 

The Annunciation {Saint Petersburg), the B. Virgin 
and Child enthroned (Frankfort), a portrait of Bald- 
win de Lannoy (Berlin), and the B. Vir^'iu and 
Cliild, S. Katherine, the donor protected by S. 
Michael, and the Annunciation (Dresden), are also 
certainly by John. 

Port) aits of a man wearing a tau cross and hokling 
pinks (Berlin), and of Chancellor Rolin kneeUng 
before the Virgin and Child (Paris), are attributed 
by some to Jan, by others to Hubert. 

Crowe and Cav^lcaselle, 'The Early Flemish Painters,' 
1872 ; O. Set .-k, ' Kriti.sche Betrachtungen liber den 
Genter Altar,' 1889 ; L. Kaemmerer, 'Hubert und .Jan 
van Eyck,' 1890; O. Seeck, ' Die charakteristischen 
XJnterschiede der Briider van Eyck,' 1899 ; Voll, ' Die 
Werke des Jan van Eyck,' 1900. The above are the 
latest volumes on the Van Eycks. There have been 
articles since in the 'Revue de I'Ai-t Chri5tien,' 
'Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst,' 'Nineteenth Cen- 
tury,' ' Gazette des Beaux Arts,' and 'Athenaium.' 

V.H.J.W. 

EYCK, Lambeet van. The name of Lambert 
van Eyck occurs in the accounts of the Duke of 
Burgundy ; he was a brother of Hubert and Jan. 

EYCK, Margaret van. It is known that the 
Van Eyck brothers had a sister nnmeil Margaret, 
who is said by old writers to have been an excellent 
painter ; but no works can with any certamty be 
assigned to her, though her name is often to be 
met with in catalogues. She died before Jan. and 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



was buried, like her brother Hubert, in St. Bavon 
at Ghent. 

EYCK,NlC0LAAS VAN, who was born at Antwerp 
in 1627, and died in 1677, painted cavalry en- 
counters and camp scenes. In the Vienna Gallery 
is a picture by him of 'Troops quartered in a 
Village,' and in the Lille Museum is an equestrian 
portrait. He is presumed to have been a brother 
of Gaspar van Eyck. 

EYCKEN, Jean Baptists van, a Belgian his- 
torical painter, was born at Brussels in 1809, and 
studied under Navez, obtaining the first prize 
at the Brussels Academy in 1835. He died at 
Schaerbeek, near Brussels, in 1853. Amongst his 
works are the following : 

Abundance. (In the possession of the Queen.) 

St. Sebastian. 

The Crown of Thorns. 

Parmegiano at the Sacking of Rome. (Brussels Mio- 

seum.) 
Descent from the Cross. (Brussels Museum.) 
Tobit restoring his Father's Sight. 
St. Cecilia. 

EYCKENS. See Ykens. 

EYDEN, Jeremias van der. See Van der 
Etden. 
EYK, Abraham van der. See Van der Etk. 
EYNDEN, Frans van, born at Nymegen in 
1694, studied under Elias van Nymegen at Rotter- 
dam. Aided by the counsels of Chevalier Van der 
Werf, he painted Arcadian scenes, which he exe- 
cuted in the manner of Jan van Huysum, but not 
with equal perfection. His skies and distances are 
serene and delicate, and the clouds illumined by 
the sun are pleasingly reflected in the waters. His 
scenes are skilfully varied, and the different kinds 
of trees characterized with a neat and masterly 
touch ; his figures also are well painted, and dis- 
posed with judgment. He seldom signed his pic- 
tures, unless required to do so by the purchaser. 
He died at Nymegen in 1742. 

EYNDEN, Jacobds van, a nephew of Frans van 
Eynden, born at Nymegen in 1733, studied art 
under his father, and painted principally water- 
colour pictures of flowers, fruit, animals, and 
views of towns. He, however, devoted a large 
portion of his time to science. He died at 
Nymegen in 1824. 

EYNDEN, RoELAND van, the younger brother of 
Jacobus van Eynden, was bom at Nymegen in 
1747, and died at Dordrecht in 1819. Like his 
brother he devoted but a portion of his time to 
painting, and is principally known by his works 
on art and artists, of which the most important is 
the ' Geschiedenis der Vaderlandsche Schilder- 
kunst,' written in conjuncrion with Van der 
Willigen, and published in 1816-1842. 

EYNHOUDTS, Remoldds, or Romeout, a Flemish 
painter and engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1605, 
and died there in 1679. He was a pupil of Adam 
van Oort, and painted portraits ; but he is better 
known as an engraver. He executed several plates 
after Rubens, CorneUs Schut, and other painters of 
the Flemish school; and some of the prints for 
the Teniers Gallery. They are engraved in a slight, 
dark style ; and his drawing, though not very cor- 
rect, is bold and masterly. Among other prints by 
him are the following ; 

bDBJECTS AFTER RUBENS. 
The Adoration of the Magi. 
The Resurrection. 
138 



The Virgin and Child, with St. Bonaventnre and Enbene 

as St. George. 
St. Gregory, surrounded with emblematical figures. 
The Four Doctors of the Church, with St. Clara holding 

the Sacrament. 
St. Christopher. 

The Virgin with the Infant Christ, seated in a bower. 
St. Peter and St. Paul. 
The Judgment of Cambyses. 
Peace and Prosperity. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOn.S MASTERS. 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after CorneUs Sehut. 
The Trinity ; after the same. 
The Martyrdom of St. George ; after the same. 
St. Anne ; after the same. 
The Risen Saviour ; after the elder Palma. 
St John the Baptist ; after the same. 
The Dead Christ ; after the younger Palma. 
The Ascension ; after the same. 

EYRE, James, a landscape painter, was bom at 
Derby in 1802. and received instruction from 
Creswick and De Wint. He died in 1829. 

EZPELETA, — , a painter of Aragon, who ex- 
celled in miniatures and illumination, was born at 
Alagon, and died, aged 60, about the middle of the 
16th century, at Saragossa, where he illuminated 
with great delicacy many choir-books for the 
cathedral. 

EZQUERRA, Geeonimo Antonio de, who was 
a scholar of Antonio Palomino, flourished in the 
eariy years of the 18th century. A specimen of 
his skill in landscape is in the Madrid Gallery; 
it represents ' Neptune with Tritons and Nereids,' 
on a wooded sea-shore. He produced a series of 
Saints for the church of San Felipe Neri at Madrid, 
and various works for the palace of Buenretiro. 



F 



FABER, Frederic Theodore, a Belgian land- 
scape and genre painter, born at Brussels in 1782, 
was first instructed by his father, but in 1799 he 
went to Antwerp, and studied under Ommeganck. 
He afterwards established at Brussels a china 
manufactory, and abandoned painting on canvas 
for painting on porcelain. He also etched upwards 
of a hundred plates of landscapes and animals, 
some after his own designs, and others after Om- 
meganck, De Roy, and Van Assche. He died in 
1844. 

FABER, JoHAN, the elder, was one of the first 
artists who worked in mezzotint. He was born 
at the Hague about the year 1660, and came to 
London about 1687, where he executed a consider- 
able number of plates after his own designs. He 
died at Bristol in 1721. The following are his best 
works : 

The Portraits of the Founders of Colleges at Oxford 

and Cambridge. 
The Heads of the Philosophers ; after Ptibens. 
Dr. John Wallis, the mathematician ; after Kneller, 
Humphrey Lloyd, of Denbigh, antiquary. 1717. 

FABER, JoHAN, the younger, who was bom 
in Holland in 1684, was instructed by his father, 
Johan Faber the elder, and by J. van der Banck. 
He greatly surpassed his father as a mezzotint 
engraver, and was esteemed the ablest artist of his 
time in that branch of art, after John Smith. He 
died in London in 1756. Among his 165 plates, 
which are executed in a bold and free manner, 
there are . 



JOHAN FABER THE ELDER 




III Indian ink anj pencil] [De Pass Collection 

DRAWING OF JAMES I. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



The Beauties of Hampton Court ; after Kneller. 

The Forty-eight Portraits of the Members of the Kit- 

Cat Club ; after the same. 
Charles II. in his robes, seated ; after Lely. 1750. 
Edmund HaUey ; after Murray. 1722. 
A Man playing the Guitar ; after F. Hals. 1754. 
Ignatius Loyola ; after Titian. 1756. 
The Children of Frederick, Prince of Wales; after 

Du Pan. 
Caroline, Queen of George II. ; after J. van der Banck. 
Sir Isaac Newton ; after the same. 1726. 
Michael Rysbrack, sculptor ; after the same. 
Enoch Seeman, painter ; after the same. 
George Ijambert, landscape painter ; after the same. 

FABER, JoHANN, a landscape painter, was born 
at Hamburg in 1778, and died in the same city in 
1846. He worked originally at historical subjects, 
and painted the altar-piece, ' Suffer Little Children 
to come unto Me,' for St. Catharine's Church at 
Hamburg. On his journey to Italy in company 
with J. A. Koch and Reinhardt, lie was induced to 
adopt landscape painting, in which line he is best 
known. The Berlin Gallery contains a ' View of 
the Capuchin Monastery, near Naples,' by him 
(1830). 

FABER, JoHANN Theodor Eusebius, a landscape 
painter, was bora at Gottleube in 1772, and died 
at Dresden in 1852. There are two landscapes by 
him in the Dresden Gallery, one in the Harz 
mountains, and the other in the Tyrol. 

FABER, Pierre, a French engraver, who resided 
at Lyons about the year 1621. He was chiefly 
employed by the booksellers, for whom he engraved 
several plates, in a neat style, but without much 

FABER DU FAUR, Christian Wilhelm von, 
a German painter, was born at Stuttgart in 1780. 
He first devoted himself to painting, but subse- 
quently became a soldier, and as a lieutenant 
served in the Russian campaign, which he after- 
wards illustrated by his sketches in a work en- 
titled, ' Blatter aus meinem Portefeuille im Laufe 
des Feldzugs 1812,' published in 1831-44. His 
most noteworthy paintings are, ' The Passage of 
the Beresina,' a work of great merit, and ' The 
Coffee-House at Wilna.' He died at Stuttgart in 
1857. 

FABER DU FAUR, Otto, di-stinguished German 
painter of battle-scenes, was born at Ludwigsbiirg, 
in 1828, his father being a general in the Wiirtem- 
berg army with considerable artistic talent. This 
the son inherited to the full, and after a brief term 
of service, resigned his commission in order to 
devote himself entirely to art. He studied at first 
with Max de Kotzebue in Munich, and subse- 
quently in Paris with Yoon, completing his train- 
ing with Piloty, the famous historical painter. 
He was soon destined to take a foremost place 
among German artists. At the outset he took 
Piloty as his pattern, and produced historical 
pictures such as the 'Departure of Frederick V. 
from Prague,' but soon felt the fascination of 
scenes from the career of the great Napoleon. 
The retreat from Russia provided him with numer- 
ous episodes for historical treatment ; an interest- 
ing example in water-colour is now in the Luxem- 
bourg, representing 'The Passage of the Beresina.' 
The Franco-German war of 1870 also furnished 
him with subjects ; and his ' Battle of Champigny,' 
' Battle of Woerth ' (at Hamburg), and above all 
his 'Ambulance behind a Barricade' may rank 
among his best and most representative work. 
The charm of the East was not lost upon Faber 



du Faur, who, as the result of his travels in Spain 
and Morocco, brought back with him many vigorous 
sketches of Oriental life, a curious example of 
which was exhibited at the Salon in 1899, entitled 
'La Razzia.' His death occurred at Munich on 
August 17, 1901. p.p. 

H'ABIO, Pio, a painter of Udine, studied at 
Rome, and in 1678 became a member of the 
Academy of St. Luke. He afterwards returned to 
his native place, where he painted several altar- 
pieces. 

FABIUS, called Pictor, a Roman artist, de- 
scended from the celebrated family of the Fabii, 
painted principally at Rome, and in B.C. 304 
decorated the Temple of Salus on the Qnirinal 
Hill, with a representation probably of the battle 
gained by Bubulus over the Samnites. His paint- 
ings were preserved until the reign of the Emperor 
Claudius, when the above temple was destroyed 
by fire. They were probably held in little estima- 
tion, as Pliny, to whom they must have been known, 
neither acquaints us with the subjects, nor com- 
mends the execution. The art of painting in its 
rude and early forms was general in Italy, but was 
founded on the Etruscan style, which never ad- 
vanced beyond a flat polychromatic treatment. In 
the fine arts Rome owes all to Greece, and in paint- 
ing never acquired the individuality which she did 
in the other arts. That painting was then little 
respected by the Romans, and that the title of 
' pictor ' was not considered as an honourable dis- 
tinction, but rather intended to stigmatize the 
illustrious character who had degraded his dignity 
by the practice of an art which was held in no 
consideration, may be inferred from a passage of 
Cicero, in the first book of his ' Tusculan Disputa- 
tions ' : " An censemus si Fabio nobilissimo homini 
laudatum esset quod pingeret, non multos etiam 
apud nos Polycletos et Parrhasios fuisse." No 
tradition of Roman painting exists earlier than the 
time of Fabius, nor does his example appear to have 
been followed by any of his contemporaries ; for 
an interval of nearly a hundred and fifty years 
occurs before any mention is made of another 
Roman painter. 

FABRE, Francois Xavier, a French painter ot 
historical subjects, portraits, and landscapes, was 
born at Montpellier in 1766. He studied under 
Jean Coustou and under David, and obtained the 
' grand prix ' in 1787. He was at Rome in 1793, 
and afterwards went to Naples and to Florence, 
where he resided for some j'ears, becoming a 
professor in the academy, and marrying secretly 
(it is said) the Countess of Albany, after the death 
of Alfieri. He returned, to Montpellier in 1826, 
and there founded the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, of 
which he became director. He was created a 
baron in 1830. He died in 1837 at Montpellier, 
bequeathing to that city the collections of pictures, 
engravings, cameos, and books which form the 
Museum which bears his name. Amongst his chief 
works are : 

Philoctetes at Lemnos. 

Saul pursued by the Shade of Samuel. 

The Judgment of Paris. 

The Death of Milo. 

Portrait of Alfieri. (ZTffizi, Florence.) 

Portrait of the Countess of Albany. ( Uffizi, Florence.) 

Neoptolemus and Ulysses taking from Philoctetes the 

arrows of Hercules. (Louvre.) 
The Death of Abel. (Musee Fabre, Montpellier.) 
The Holy Family. {Musee Fabre, Montpellier.) 
The Death of Narcissus. {Musee Fabre, Montpellier.) 

139 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



The Family of the Kings of Etruria, Dukes of Parma. 
1804. (Madrid GaUirry.) 

FABRE, Pierre, an engraver, was a native of 
Lyons, where he worked about 1620. He executed 
the engravings for some works published at Lyons, 
representing the decorations erected in that city 
for the reception of Louis XIII. in 1622. 

FABRI, Aloisio, an engraver, was born at 
Rome in 1778, and died there in 1835. Amongst 
his many works may be mentioned four plates after 
Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican, in continuation 
of a set of engravings commenced by Volpato 
and Morghen, ' Constantine presenting Rome to 
the Pope,' ' The Oath of Leo III.,' ' The Coronation 
of Charlemagne,' and ' Charlemagne's Victory over 
the Saracens'; and eleven plates after the paintings 
of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, in continua- 
tion of a set of engravings commenced by Cunego : 
these represent ' David and Goliath,' the ' Brazen 
Serpent," Judith and Holophernes,' the prophets 
Isaiah, Daniel, Jonah, and Zachariah, and the 
Cumsan, Delphic, Libyan, and Persian Sibyls 
He also engraved 'The Magi,' after Andrea del 
Sarto. 

FABRI, Giovanni, an Italian engraver, who 
worked at Bologna in the middle of the 18th 
century, and died probably about 1790, executed 
some plates in a neat but formal style, among 
which are : 

St. Mary Magdalen ; after Pasinelli. 
Virgin and Child ; after Guido Eeni. 
St. Jerome ; after Carracci. 

FABRIANO, Allegretto (or Gritto) da. See 
Nnzi. 

FABRIANO, Antonio da, flourished in the 15th 
century, but the dates of his birth and death are 
alike uncertain. A ' Coronation of the Virgin ' in 
the Casa Morichi is attributed to him ; and also a 
'St. Jerome,' with the date 1451, in the Fomari 
Gallery at Fabriano. He was a feeble assistant of 
Gentile da Fabriano. 

FABRIANO, Francesco di Gentile da. It is 
uncertain whether this artist was the son or merely 
pupil of Gentile. He lived in the 15th century, and 
his paintings are of no very great merit. The fol- 
lowing works by him may, however, be mentioned : 
Fermo. iS. Domenico. Ave Maria. 
Kome. J'aiican. The Virgin and Child. 

FABRIANO, Gentile da. See Massi, Gentile. 

FABKIQUE, Nicolas la. See La FABBiQnE. 

FABRITIUS, Bernhard, a Dutch portrait 
painter, who flourished from about 1650 to 1672, 
was a disciple of Rembrandt, whose eminence 
he sometimes almost reached. His paintings, 
however, are not all executed with the same care, 
some of them being faulty in drawing and colour- 
ing, whilst others are bold and broad in style. The 
following works may be noted : 

Brunswick. Gallery. St. Peter in the house of Cor- 
nelius. 1659. 
Brussels. Camber!yn\„ ,. ,, ,„,„ 
Collection.\^°^^^^- 1658. 
„ „ Joan of Arc, 1657. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. The Presentation in the Temple. 

1668. 
VnrMoTt. Stddel Inst. Portrait of a Young Man. 1650. 
„ „ The Birth of St. John the Baptist. 

1669. 
Vienna. Academy. Head of a Man. 

FABRITIUS, Karel, a Dutch painter, bom at 
Delft about 1624, was a pupil of Rembrandt. He 
painted portraits and perspective views, and had 

140 



acquired considerable reputation, when he was 
killed by the blowing up of the powder magazine 
at Delft in 1654. A fine ' Head of a Man,' by him, 
in the Rotterdam Museum, was for a long time 
ascribed to Rembrandt. Fabritius was the in- 
structor of Jan ver Meer of Delft. Besides the 
above work by him there are : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Herodias with the Head of St. 
John the Baptist. {Asmbed 
in the catalogue to Drost.) 
Berlin. Gallery. Head of a Man. 

Cologne. Wallraf- "i 

Richartz VA Portrait. 
Museum, j 

FABRITIUS, Kilian, was a German landscape 
painter, who from 1633 to 1680 worked at the 
court of the Elector John George II. of Saxony. 
Many of his paintings are to be met with at 
Darmstadt, where there is in the Museum a Land- 
scape by him. At Stockholm there is ' The Expul- 
sion of Hagar,' painted in 1650 ; and in the Vienna 
Gallery is a ' Pastoral Landscape.' The following 
etchings, which are very rare, are also by him : 

Christ at the House of Nieodemus. 

The Holy Family. 1633. 

A Hunting Scene, with the Elector John George II. 

FABRIZZI, Antonio Maria, was born at Perugia 
in 1594. He went to Rome when he was very 
young ; and is said by Pascoli to have commenced 
his studies under Annibale Carracci, of whose in- 
struction he was deprived by the death of that great 
master, when he was only fifteen years of age ; and 
it does not appear that he sought the aid of any 
other instructor. His works evince ingenuity in 
composition, and great freedom of hand. He died 
at Perugia in 1649. 

FABULLUS. See Amulius. 

FACCENDA, Francesco, who worked at Perugia 
from 1760 to 1770, executed the plates of emblems 
for the edition of Cesare Ripa's 'Iconologia,' 
published at Perugia in 1764-67. 

FACCHETTI, Pietro, a painter and engraver, 
born at Mantua in 1535, was instructed by Girolamo 
and Ippolito Costa. He visited Rome in the pontifi- 
cate of Gregory XIII., and died in that city in 1613. 
Although his first essays in historical painting were 
not without merit, he abandoned that line for the 
painting of portraits ; and his portraits of some of 
the nobility were so much admired, that there was 
scarcely a person of distinction at Rome, of either 
sex, whose likeness he did not paint. His pictures 
had not only the merit of perfect resemblance, but 
were designed in a grand style, and admirably 
coloured. Facchetti was also an engraver, and 
there are two etchings by him, which are distin- 
guished for their skilful and pure design ; they 
represent a ' Holy Family ' after Raphael, and 
' Christ bearing the Cross.' 

FACCHINETTI, Giuseppe, a native of Ferrara, 
flourished in the 18th century. He was instructed 
by A. F. Ferrari, and was one of the pupils who 
chiefly helped to build up the name of the school 
to which he belonged. He painted in a vigorous 
and yet_ tender style, and achieved most of his 
success in historical, architectural, and perspective 
paintings. His works are to be found in Santa 
Caterina da Siena at Ferrara, and in other churches 
in that neighbourhood. 

FACCI, Francesco, a painter of Verona, was a 
pupil of F. Ricci. He died in 1621. 

FACCINI, Bartolommeo, a native of Ferrara, 
painted portraits and architectural pieces in the 



THOMAS FAED 




Mansell j/i /- j 



[r.ife Gallery, Luiui^>?i 



FAULTS ON BOTH SIDES 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



style of Girolamo da Carpi. He was killed by 
falling from a scafEold in 1577. There is a picture 
attributed to this artist in the Museum at Lille : 
it represents the ' Martyrdom of St. Agnes.' In 
many of his works he was assisted by his brother, 
Girolamo Faccini. 

FACCINI, PiETRO, (or Pacini,) was born at 
Bologna in 1560. He did not display any genius, 
or disposition for art, until he had arrived at the 
age of maturity ; and it is told by Malvasia, that 
being in the habit of visiting the academy of the 
Carracci, though not for the purpose of study, one 
of the pupils drew a caricature of him, which 
excited the mirth and ridicule of his fellow- 
students. On the drawing being shown to Faccini, 
he took a piece of charcoal, and, without any pre- 
vious instruction or practice, sketched a satirical 
likeness of the person who had ridiculed him, 
which astonished every one present, particularly 
Annibale Carracci, who persuaded him to study 
art, and took him under his particular tuition. His 
assiduity was so great that he practised drawing 
from the skeleton at night, and it is related that 
on one of these occasions Annibale, for a prac- 
tical joke, slily pulled the cord and caused the 
skeleton to move, which so offended Faccini that 
he left their school. He met immediately with 
employment and applause from the public, and 
even established an academy in opposition to 
that of the Carracci, which for a short time was 
respectably frequented. The delusion did not, 
however, last long : it was soon discovered that 
Faccini's design was neither correct nor tasteful, 
that his figures were uncouth and disproportioned, 
and the character of his heads without expression 
or beauty. His colouring was admirable, resembling 
the freshness of Tintoretto, and this caused Anni- 
bale to declare, on seeing his picture of the ' Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Lawrence,' in San Giovanni in Monte, 
that in his carnations he seemed to have worked 
human flesh into his colours. He died in 1C02. 
The principal works of Faccini are : 

Bologna. Finacoieca. The Marri.ige of St. Catharine. 
„ „ The Guardi.-m Saints of Bologna. 

„ ., The Virgin and Child. 

" ■ jir.„/. (The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence. 

„ S. Domenico. The Virgin appearing to St. 
Francis. 

„ *?. Taolo. The Crucifixion of St. Andrew. 

„ <S. Mattia. The Adoration of the Magi. 

Dresden. Gallery. The Marriage of St. Catharine. 

„ „ The Virgin and Child with Saints. 

Modena. Estense Gall. Study of a. Man. 

He etched also some plates, which are signed 

with the annexed monogram atti .^ 
St. Francis of Assiei. 

Two Blind Beggars ; after Annibale Carracci. 
A Boy in a Chimney Corner. 
A Dog in a landscape. 

FACHEEIS, Agostino, a painter of Bergamo, is 
noticed by Tassi in his ' Lives of the Bergamese 
Painters,' where he describes a picture by him in 
the Church of the Trinity at Borgo Sant' Antonio, 
representing ' St. Augustine with two Angels,' and 
dated 1528. 

PACINI, PiETEO. See Faccini. 

FACIUS, Geoeg Sigmund and Johann Gott- 
lieb, who were brothers and engravers, were born 
at Ratisbon, about 1750. Both studied at Brussels, 
where their father held the office of Russian consul. 
In the year 1776 they proceeded to London, in order 



to work for Alderman Boydell, and for whom they 
completed a great number of plates. They worked 
chiefly as etchers, and the impressions from their 
plates are either black or brown, or in colours. 
Tliey were both living in 1802. Among their best 
works are: 

Benjamin West and his Family ; after West. 1777. 
Apollo and the Muses ; after C. Maratti. 1784. 
Apollo with the Muses on Parnassus ; after L. Gutten- 

hrunn. 1794. 
Hector and Paris ; after Ancielica Kavfmann. 
Abraham entertaining the three Angels ; after Murillo. 
The Young BuU ; after Paulas Potter. 

FACKLER, Joseph, born at Salzburg in 1698, 
painted a picture of ' St. Rupert,' in the church of 
St. Peter in his native city. He died in 1745. 

FACTOR, Pedko Nicolas, a Spanish painter, 
was born at Valencia in 1520. The early part 
of his life was devoted to study, and he is 
said to have distinguished himself as a poet as 
well as a painter. In 1537 he entered the Fran- 
ciscan monastery of Santa Maria de Jesus, where 
he painted many of his pictures, the best of which 
is said to have been ' St. Michael triumphing over 
Lucifer.' None of his works are known to exist, 
but Cean Bermudez says that they displayed con- 
siderable skill in drawing, although somewhat poor 
in colouring. He also painted miniatures for the 
choir-books of his convent. Factor died at Valen- 
cia in 1683, and in 1786 was declared by Pope 
Pius VI. a " beato," or saint of the second order. 
Spain has produced many devout artists, but to 
Factor alone have the honours of canonization been 
accorded. 

FADING, IL. See Aleni. 

FAED, John, was born at Hurley Mill, Kirkcud- 
bright, in 1820. His bent was early shown, and 
the self-taught boy of twelve practised as a 
miniaturist until he went to Edinburgh in 1841. 
There he soon achieved great success in miniature 
painting. From 1841 he regularly exhibited at 
the Royal Scottish Academy, gradually aliandoning 
miniature for genre subjects. In 1847 he was 
elected A.R.S.A., and in 1851 became full Academi- 
cian. He removed to London in 1862, residing 
there for eighteen years, and exhibiting at the 
Royal Academy. Then he retired to his native 
place, and died at Gatehouse in 1902. Thomas 
Faed, the well-known Scottish Academician, and 
James Faed, the line-engraver, were his younger 
brothers. For subjects he went to the Bible and 
Shakespeare, and especially to Scottish history, 
poetry, and romance. Among his best pictures 
are ' The Cottar's Saturday Night,' ' Olivia and 
Viola,' ' Catherine Ley ton,' ' John Anderson my Jo,' 
'Auld Mare Maggie,' 'Annie's Tryst,' and 'The 
Poet's Dream.' These last two hang in the Scottish 
National Gallery. He was a good draughtsman, 
and had much command of pathos and humour, 
but was somewhat deficient in sense of colour, and 
his pictures often lack coherence and atmosphere. 
His careful and precise finish throughout showed 
the influence of miniature. 

FAED, THOMAS, was born on June 8, 1826, at 
Gatehouse of Fleet, in Kirkcudbright, Scotland, 
and was the son of a millwright. The village 
where he lived was a very small one, Burley 
Mill, in which the lad was born, being the only 
important house in it, the rest being very small 
cottages. His parents were poor but very hard- 
working people, very fond of reading, and of a 
degree of culture above that of their neighbours. 

141 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Aq uncle of the lad had been an engraver, and 
many of his productions hung in the mill-house, 
and were very attractive to the boy from liis 
earliest days. There was one elder brother who, 
like Thomas, was of an artistic temperament, and 
he left home early for Edinburgh to take lessons 
in the art which he loved. On the death of their 
father he recommended Thomas, who from tlie lirst 
days of boyhood had been devoted to sketching, 
and had neglected all other lessons and occupa- 
tions for the practice of drawing, to come up to 
Edinburgh and join him in his humble lodgings, 
and thither Thomas Faed made his way. He got 
into the Art School at the age of fifteen, and 
amongst his fellow-students was Orchardson. He 
commenced very quickly in the special field of 
work which he so particularly made his own, that 
of representing scenes of pathos and character 
taken from the life of the Scotch peasant, but 
although he gained admission to the Scottish 
Academy as Associate at the age of twenty-three, 
he was not satisfied with the small measure of 
success which his labours realized, and determined 
to seek wider fields of action in London. He 
came up in 1852, and in 1855 exhibited at Trafalgar 
Square the first of his important pictures, called 
' The Mitherless Bairn.' From that moment the 
artist never looked back, and, what was of peculiar 
interest, never rejected the class of subject which 
had brought him his first renown, and to the 
end of his life was faithful to the delineation 
of simple homely Scotch life witli all its mingled 
pathos, dry humour, and with all the force of its 
somewhat melancholy characteristics represented 
with unbending truth and realism. Some of his 
notable works may be mentioned : ' Only Herself,' 
'A Wee Bit Fractious,' 'From Hand to Mouth,' 
' His Only Pair,' ' From Dawn to Sunset,' ' Evange- 
line,' ' Worn Out,' ' The First Break in the Family,' 
' Lucy's Flittin',' ' The School Board in the Cottage,' 
' In Time of War,' and most notable perhaps of all, 
the picture now in the Tate Gallery called ' Faults 
on Both Sides,' in which the artist has with rare 
sense for beauty painted the face of the woman full 
of dehcate refinement and wonderful grace, and 
represented the touching scene with a mingling of 
pathos, reserve and humour which are most dexter- 
ously depicted. Faed's work was brilliant and 
harmonious, full of rich jewel-like colours marvel- 
lously combined. His technique was sure and 
definite, his handling was broad, and the quality 
of his work excellent throughout his long career. 
He outlived his popularity, as the scenes which he 
always adopted were no longer attractive to the 
public, but from an artist's point of view there is 
little that can be said against the pictures which 
he painted, so sound and wholesome are their 
subjects, so refreshing are their candour and truth, 
and so honestly are they painted that they seem able 
to last in their pristine excellence for ever. His 
work is, above all, virile, strong and direct. In 
1893 the artist was compelled to resign his 
membership of the Royal Academy, into which he 
had been admitted as Royal Academician, by 
reason of failing sight, and soon afterwards the 
sight which he had so strained in the production 
of his many works with all their minute painting 
failed him altogether, and for the seven last years 
of his hfe he was a blind man. He died August 
17, 1900. G. C. W. 

FAENZA, Giovanni Battista DA, called Bkktucci 
(the Monkey), who painted in the style of Perugino 
142 



and Pinturicchio, flourished in the early part of 
the 16th century at Faenza. In the Pinacoteca 
of that city there are various works ascribed to 
him, of which the most remarkable is a ' Majesty,' 
signed by him and bearing the date 1506. Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle also claim for Bertucci an ' Adora- 
tion_ of the Magi ' in the Berlin Gallery, there 
ascribed to Pinturicchio, and a 'Glorification of 
the Virgin ' in the National Gallery, given in the 
catalogue to Lo Spagna, who was a pupil of 
Perugino. 

FAENZA, jAforo.N'E da. See Beet0cci. 

FAENZA, Marco da. See Maechbtti. 

FAENZA, Marco Antonio da, called also Marco 
Antonio Rocchetti, an Italian painter of the earlier 
part of the 17th century, is probably the artist men- 
tioned by Vasari with the surname Figurino, who 
was one of the best disciples of Giulio Romano. 
His early paintings are of a small size, often repre- 
senting scenes in the life of St. Sebastian. The 
following works are also by him : 

Faenza. Pinacoteca. The MadonDa of the Angela. 
„ S. Kocco. St. Eoch. 1634. 

FAENZA, Ottaviano da, an Italian painter of 
the 14th century, who was instructed by Giotto, 
spent the greater part of his life at Faenza, 
where he died. There are several paintings at- 
tributed to him to be found in the neighbourhood 
of Faenza, and at Bologna. 

FAENZA, Pace da, an Italian painter, who 
flourished during the 14th century, was a pupil 
of Giotto, and is said to have executed some 
decorations in fresco on the exterior of San Gio- 
vanni at Bologna. He had a particular talent for 
representing small figures. About the year 1574 
the following works by him existed at Forii : 

The Holy Cross. 

A small picture in tempera, representing the Passion. 

Four Scenes from the Life of the Virgin. 

FAENZONE, Ferrad. See Fanzone. 

FAES, PlETER, a painter of flowers and fruit 
in the manner of Van Huysum, was born at Meir, 
near Hoogstraten, in the province of Antwerp, in 
1750. His pictures are tastefully composed and 
delicately pencilled, but are somewhat deficient in 
vigour and chiaroscuro. Many of his works were 
transferred from Laeken to Vienna. He died at 
Antwerp in 1814. 

FAES, PiETEK VAN DER. See Van der Faes. 

FAGAN, Lonis, the late sub-director of the 
Print-room at the British Museum, and the man 
who certainly by merit ought to have been head 
of that department, merits a place in this work on 
account of his own excellent artistic work no less 
than for his literary work on Art subjects. He 
was born in 1846, the son of the British Minister 
at the Court of the Two Sicilies, and his birthplace 
was Naples. His sympathies were always very 
strongly with the Italian people, whose tongue he 
spoke with the most perfect accuracy, and much 
of his life was spent in Italy, and there it was that 
he died in January 1903, in his own house in 
Florence. He had travelled far and wide, as at 
one time when in the Foreign OfBce he was with 
his father in Venezuela, and his knowledge of 
Spanish and of Spanish manners rendered him a 
valuable assistant in the settlement, for the time, 
of the boundary questions. At another time he 
was in France, and yet again in Sweden, but 
eventually at the desire of his close friend Antony 
Panizzi he took office in the British Museum in 



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



order to be near his old companion and under his 
wing, and lie then relinquished lor good his duties 
in diplomacy. Few men took a greater interest 
in the work of his department than did Fagan, 
and few worked harder to render it available to 
students and useful to the public. His lectures on 
the treasures of his beloved museum were received 
with the greatest acclamation and were most 
popular, whilst his writings on prints and draw- 
ings, his valuable catalogues, and his history of 
the Reform Club and of the British Museum, and 
his excellent hfe of Panizzi proved the brilliance 
of his power and the ability with which he devoted 
himself to his work. He will be especially remem- 
bered by artists for his volumes on the works of 
Correggio, the art of Michael Angelo, the en- 
gravings of Faitliorne, and the works of Wollett 
and Bartolozzi. He also wrote a ' History of 
Engraving,' and an important treatise on the 
Sonnets of Raffael. His water-colour drawings 
done to amuse himself during periods of ill-health 
were of much more than average excellence, 
whilst his drawings in pencil were of the utmost 
refinement and beauty. His love of Italy, his 
strong friendship for most of her greatest writers 
and skilful artists, and his passionate interest in 
her future, did not render him the more popular 
with certain persons who were narrow enough to 
resent any affection that was not devoted to 
British interests, and neither Panizzi nor Fagan 
were really appreciated at the Museum for this 
very reason. To those, however, who knew him, 
and who had sounded the vast depths of his 
knowledge and the intensity of his affection, he 
was a man greatly beloved, and a public demon- 
stration of mourning took place on the occasion of 
his decease in Florence. A brilliant and profound 
scholar and one of the kindest-hearted of men, he 
was neglected by his own countrymen and ignored 
by his old colleagues in London, but his artistic 
and literary works will keep alive his memory for 
many a generation, and insure a remembrance of 
his life's work. 

FAGAN, Robert, a portrait painter, who resided 
for some time in Rome, flourished towards the 
close of the 18th century. 

FAGE, Nicolas de la. See De La Fage. 

FAGE, Raymond de la. See De La Fage. 

FAGERPLAN, Axel Johan, a Swedish artist, 
born in West Gothland in 1788, was an historical 
and fruit painter of some renown. He died in 1865. 

FAGIVOLI, GiROLAMO, an engraver who worked 
at Bologna about 1560, published several prints 
after Correggio, Cecchino de'Salviati, and Francesco 
Mazzuola. 

FAHEY, James, painter, was born at Paddington 
April 16, 1804. He was intended for an engraver, 
and studied for a time under Swaine, who was his 
uncle. He afterwards worked at Munich and 
Paris, where he was employed as a surgical 
draughtsman. He exhibited a portrait at the 
Academy in 1825, but shortly afterwards devoted 
himself to landscape in water-colours. In 1834 he 
joined the short-hved Associated Painters in Water- 
Colours, and in the following year he, with other 
leading members of that body, formed the New 
Society, now the Institute of Painters in Water- 
Colours. He was for more than forty years 
secretary to the society. In 1856 he was appointed 
drawing-master at Merchant Taylors' School, 
whence, after twenty-seven years, he retired on a 
pension. He died December 19, 1885. 



FAHLCRANTZ, Karl Johan, a Swedish land- 
scape painter, was born in Dalecarlia in 1774. He 
was instructed by P. Ljung, a sculptor and painter, 
and depicted Northern scenery with a masterly 
touch, his twilight and moonlight scenes being 
particularly efiective. He died at Stockholm in 
1861. Among his best known works are : 
The Legend of Frithiof. 

Several Views of Stockholm, Christiania, and Sparre- 
holm, the Fortress of Bohns, the Hills of Smedje- 
bakken, Cape Framuas, the Balestrand, and the 
"Waterfall of Donare. 

FAIRAM, John. See Fayram. 

FAIRFIELD, Charles, a painter who died at 
Brompton in 1804, at the age of about forty-five, is 
chiefly known by his excellent copies of Dutch 
paintings. 

FAIRHOLT, Frederick William, a draughts- 
man, was born in 1818, in London, where his father, 
a native of Prussia, had settled as a tobacco manu- 
facturer. His first attempts in art were as a drawing- 
master and scene-painter. He was next employed 
by Charles Knight in making designs for the 
'Pictorial History of England,' 'Pictorial Shake- 
speare,' and other works. From the commencement 
of the ' Art Journal,' in 1839, he was a constant 
contributor, both as author and as artist, and about 
the same time he seems to have begun to take an 
interest in antiquities. He wrote several books on 
the pageants and costume of medieval England, 
of which the best are ' Costume in England,' 1846, 
'A Dictionary of Terms in Art,' 1854, and 'Ram- 
bles of an Archaeologist,' 1871, and he left to the 
Society of Antiquaries a collection of works on 
these subjects. He died in London in 1866. 

FAIRLAND, Thomas, an engraver and litho- 
graphic artist, was born in 1804 After having 
studied under Fuseli in the Academy, where he 
gained a silver medal for drawing from the an- 
tique, he became a pupil of Charles Heath, but 
he afterwards gave up line-engraving for litho- 
graphic drawing, and eventually devoted himself 
to portraiture, in which he was very successful. 
His reproductions of the works of Landseer and 
Hunt, as well as ' The Recruit ; or. Who'll serve 
the King ? ' and ' Left Leg foremost,' obtained 
great popularity. He executed many private por- 
traits for the Queen, whose personal regard he 
enjoyed until his death in 1852. Among other 
lithographs by him may be mentioned : 

The Poacher's Confederate ,• after Hancock. 

The Eat-catcher ; after A. Cooper. 

The Deserter. 

Mrs. Chisholm; after A. C. Sayter. 

FAIRLESS, Thomas Kerr, a landscape painter, 
was born at Hexham in 1823. He first practised 
wood-engraving under Nicholson of Newcastle, and 
then came to London, exhibiting landscapes at the 
Royal Academy from 1848 to 1851. He died at 
Hexham in 1853. 

FAIRMAN, Richard, David, and Gideon, were 
engravers of Philadelphia, who died respectively in 
the years 1821, 1815, and 1827. 

FAISTENAUEK, Andreas. See Feistenauer. 

FAISTENBERGER. See Feistenberger. 

FAITHORNE, William, the elder, an eminent 
engraver, was born in London in 1616. He was 
a pupil of Robert Peake, a painter and print- 
seller, who was afterwards knighted by Charles I., 
and under him he worked three or four years, until 
the breaking out of the Civil War, when Peake 
took up arms for the king, and Faithome was 
^ 143 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



persuaded by liis master to accompany him into 
the service. At the taking of Basing House, 
where Peake had the rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
Faithorne was made a prisoner, and was for some 
time confined in Aldersgate, during which period 
he resumed his profession, and, among other plates, 
engraved a small head of Villiers, Duke of Buck- 
ingham. With much difficulty the solicitation of 
his friends procured his release, on condition that 
he left the country. He retired to Prance, where 
he became acquainted with Robert Nanteuil, under 
whose instruction he made great improvement. 
After the year 1650, he was permitted to return to 
England, and he established himself as an engraver 
and printseller near Temple Bar, where he carried 
on a considerable trade in Italian, Dutch, and 
English prints. In 1680, however, he quitted his 
shop, and retired to a more private life in Printing- 
house Yard, Blackfriars, where he continued to 
engrave, and to draw portraits in craj'ons, an art 
which he had learned in Paris. He died in 
1691. 

The works of this excellent engraver consist 
chiefly of portraits, in which he specially excelled. 
Many of them are of an admirable execution, clear, 
brilliant, and full of colour. Previous to his journey 
to Paris, he had adopted the Flemish and Dutch 
mode of engraving; but on his return from France 
his style was greatly improved. In his historical 
prints he shows a deficiency and incorrectness of 
drawing ; and it is not, certiiinly, from these that 
a just estimate can be formed of his great ability. 
His plates are extremely numerous, some of them 
exceedingly scarce, and very valuable. When he did 
not &x his name to them, he marked them with a 

cipher composed of two Fs. 'ff' iff The follow- 
ing are his best portraits ; a more complete list 
will be found in Fagan's ' Descriptive Catalogue of 
the Engraved Works of William Faithorne," 1888. 

Sir 'William Paston, Bart. ; 1659 ; extremely fine. 
Lady Paston ; afler Van Dyck ; 1649 ; very fine. 
Margaret Smith, afterwards Lady Herbert ; after the 

same. 
Montagu Bertie, Earl of Lindsey ; after the same. 
William Sanderson ; after Z oust. 1658. 
Anne Bridges, Countess of Exeter ; after Van Dyck. 
Samuel Collins, M.D. ; TV, Faithorne ad vivum del. et 

sculp. 
John Kersey, mathematician ; after Zoust. 1672. 
John La Motte, Citizen of London. 
John, Viscount Mordaunt. 
Thomas, Earl of Elgin. 1662. 
Mary, Lady Langham. 
Henry Oary, Earl of Monmouth. 
Thomas Killigrew, with a Dog ; after TV. Skeppard. 
Thomas Stanley ; aftrr Leli/. 

Robert Bayfield ; set. 25 ; with a large hat. 1654. 
Robert Bayfield ; set. 27 ; without a hat. 
Francis Rous, Provost of Eton. 1656. 
Sir Henry Spelman. 
Thomas Hobbes. 
Samuel Leigh. 1661. 
Queen Henrietta Maria, with a Veil ; in the manner of 

Mellan. 
Thomas Mace; after Cooke; prefixed to his 'Musicks 

Monument,' 1676. 
Sir Orlando Bridgman. 
Sir John Fortescue. 
Robert Boyle ; oval. 
Ehas Ashmole ; bust, in a niche. 
William Oughtred ; in the style of Hollar 
William Harvey. 
Henry Lawes. 
John Milton ; drawn and engraved from life in 1670, 

as a frontispiece to Milton's ' History of Britain.' 
144 



John Wallis, D.D., prefixed to his ' Mechanica.' 

Sir Francis Englefield, Bart. ; oval ; extremely scarce. 

Oliver Cromwell, whole length, in armour, a large 

emblematical Print, with various deviees and mottos ; 

very scarce. 

SUBJECTS AFTER MASTERS, &C. 

The Holy Family ; after Laurent de La Hire. 

The Repose in Egypt ; after Simon T'ouet. 

Tjandscape, with a waggon ; after Rul'ens. 

Tlie Fall of Phaeton ; after Viepenheeck . 

Title-page and ten plates for Bi.shop Jeremy Taylor's 

' Great Exemplar,' or Life of Christ, 1653. 
jEueas and the Golden Branch, and ^neas killing 

Turnus; after F. Cleyn; engraved for Ogilby's 

translation of Virgil, 1654. 

FAITHORNE, William, the younger, a son of 
William Faithorne the elder, was born in 1656. 
He was insti-ucted in the elementary principles of 
design by his father, but practised a different branch 
of engraving, being chiefly engaged in scraping 
portraits in mezzotint. His merit in that line would 
have secured to him both profit and reputation ; but 
neglecting his business, he fell into distress, which 
occasioned his father much sorrow. He died not 
earlier than 1701. The following are esteemed his 
best portraits : 

Thomas Flatman, poet and painter. 

Mary, Princess of Orange ; after Hanneman. 

Sir WiUiam Reade, ocuhst to Queen Mary. 

Queen Anne, when Princess of Denmark. 

George, Prince of Denmark. 

Frederick, Duke of Schomberg ; after Dahl. 

John Dryden ; after Clostermann. 

Sir Richard Haddock ; after the same. 

John Moore, Bishop of Ely. 

Sophia, Electress of Hanover. 

Sophia Dorothea, Princess of Hanover. 

Charles XII. of Sweden ; after Ehrenstrahl. 

Mrs. Plowden ; after Clostermann. * 

FALBE, Joachim Martin, a portrait painter, 
born at Berlin in 1739, was instructed by Harper 
and A. Pesne. Several etchings after Rembrandt, 
or in the style of that master, which are attributed 
to him, and some of which are signed with Falbe's 
monogram, are in existence. In 1764 he was 
elected a member of the Academy at Berlin, in 
which city he died in 1782. 

FALCH, Johann, an animal painter, was bom at 
Augsburg in 1687, and died in 1727._ In the 
Hermitage at St. Petersburg are two pictures by 
him of insects and reptiles. 

FALCIERI, BiAGio, was bom at Brentonico in 
1628, and studied at Verona under Locatelli, and at 
Venice under Cavaliere Pietro Liberi. Among his 
works there is in the church of the Dominicans at 
Verona, a large picture of ' The Council of Trent ' ; 
in the upper part of which he has represented ' St. 
Thomas vanquishing the heretics.' There exists 
also an etching by him, executed with great spirit, 
representing ' St. Jerome in the Wilderness.' He 
died in 1703. 

FALCINI, DoMENico, an Italian engraver, 
flourished at Siena in the latter part of the 16th 
century. There are by him some woodcuts after 
Raphael and other masters, which are executed on 
three separate blocks, one for the outline, another 
for the half-tint, and the third for the dark 
shadows. He also engraved on metal. 
He marked his prints with the annexed 
cipher, but he has left one plate with a 
monogram composed of the letters D.F.F. 

FALCK, Jeremias, a designer and engraver, was 
born at Dantzic about 1619. He passed some time 
in Paris, and from the resemblance of his style 



A, 



WILLIAM FAITHORNE THE ELDER 




Large miniature after the picture by Leiy\ \_Montagu House 

BARBARA \ILLIERS, LADY CASTLEMAINE, DUCHESS OE CLEVELAND 



WILLIAM FAITHORNE 







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PRINCE RUPERT 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



to that of Cornelia Bloemaert, would appear to 
have studied the engravings of that master. On 
leaving France he went in succession to Copen- 
hagen, Stockholm, and Amsterdam, where he 
executed several plates for the celebrated cabinet 
of Reynst. Subsequently he worked ai Hamburg, 
and it is probable that he died there about 1663. 
His plates are distinguished for the splendour of 
their effect, and he engraved with equal success 
portraits and historical subjects, both of which 
have great merit. The following are among his 
best works : 

PORTRAITS. 
Louis XIII. of France ; after Justus van Egmont. 1643. 

This is considered his best work. 
Christina, Queen of Sweden ; after D, Beck. 
Peter Gembichi, Bishop of Croatia ; after the same. 
Leonard, Count of Torstenson ; after the same. 1649. 
Axel, Count of Osenstjern ; after the same. 1653. 
Adolphus John, Prince Palatine ; after the same. 
Charles Gustavus, Prince of Sweden ; after the same. 
Nell Gwynne ; after Lcty. 
Karl Gustav Wrangel ; after D. Kloclcer. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 
The Large Crucifixion ; after Van Dych. 
Christ with the Crown of Thorns ; after the same. 
The Concert ; after Giorgione. 

Esau selling his Birthright ; after Tintoretto. 1663. 
Hunters with Hares ; after the same. 
The House of Pleasure ; after Kuheyts. 
Pallas with the Shield and Lance ; after A. Bloemaert. 

1656. 
St. John preaching in the 'Wilderness ; after the same. 

1661. 
Satyr and Ceres ; after F. Snayers. 
The Virgin with the Infant uttering Blessings ; after 

Justus van Egmont. 
The Virgin with the Infant ; after J. Stella, 
Semiramia ; after Giiercino. 
The Cyclops ; after Michelangelo da Caravaggio, 

FALCKEISEN, Theodor, a Swiss designer and 
engraver, born at Basle in 1765, was instructed 
by Holzhall and Karl Guttenberg. Amongst his 
works is an excellent plate after Benjamin West's 
' Death of General Wolfe.' 

FALCKENBURG, Friedrioh von, a German 
landscape and historical painter, etched a few por- 
traits, and other subjects, in a slight, scratchy style ; 
they are marked F. V-F, He lived at Nuremberg, 
and died in 1623. 

FALCO, Agnolo. The name of this artist is 
afiBxed to a rude, coarse etching, representing a 
landscape, into which is introduced the story of 
Apollo and Daphne. Though it is incorrectly drawn 
and very indilferently executed, it appears to have 
been the work of a painter, and is from his own 
design. 

FALCO, Juan Conchillos. See Conchillos 
Faloo. 

FALCONE, Aniello, called L'Oeacolo delle 
Battaglie, was born at Naples in 1600, and was 
a scholar of Giuseppe Ribera, called Spagnoletto. 
He spent some years in France, where may still be 
met with several of his paintings, which are rare 
and highly valued. He distinguished himself as 
a painter of battles and skirmishes of cavalry, 
which he composed and designed with great fire 
and animation. He was equally correct in the 
drawing of his figures and horses, and their various 
movements are expressed with the most character- 
istic propriety. His touch is bold and free, and 
his colouring vigorous and effective. He was 
not less successful in his easel pictures than in 
those of a larger size ; and his best works were 
VOL. IL L 



esteemed little inferior to the admirable productions 
of Borgognone. Aniello Falcone was the founder 
of a large school in his native city, and was one of 
the masters of Salvator Rosa. He died at Naples 
in 1665. Among his paintings are the following: 

Madrid. Gallery. A Fight between Bomans and Ear. 
barians. 
„ „ A Fight between Turkish and Chris- 

tian Cavalry. 1631. 
Paris. Zouvre. A Fight between Turksand Christians. 

Falcone was also an etcher, and there are by hira 
twenty prints, in which he shows lively imagina- 
tion and bold and intelligent design ; they some- 
what resemble the works of Parmigiano, and are 
executed with a light and spirited point. Among 
his etchings may be mentioned : 

A battle between naked Men on foot and on horseback. 

1618. 
ApoUo and Marsyas ; after Parmeggiano. 
Four plates of Apostles : James the Less, James the 

Greater, John the Evaugelist, and Matthew. 
A young Woman sleeping and suckling a Child. 
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Raphael, 

FALCONET, Pierre Etiennb, was the .son of 
the eminent sculptor, Etienne Maurice Falconet, 
who executed the equestrian statue of Peter the 
Great at St. Petersburg. He was born in Paris in 
1741, and about 1766 came to London, where 
he became a member of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists, and painted a great number of portraits 
until 1773, about which time he returned to Paris, 
where he died in 1791. Among his works may be 
mentioned the portraits of twelve of the foremost 
artists in London, the decorations in the Chinese 
Temple at the seat of the Baroness De Grey in 
Bedfordshire, and several extravagant historical 
pieces. Earlom and others have engraved some of 
his works. 

FALCONETTO, Giovanni Antonio, was born 
at Verona in the 15th century. He was instructed 
by his father, Jacopo Falconetto, and excelled in 
painting animals and fruit. Many of his works are 
in Verona and its environs. He died at Roveredo. 

FALCONETTO, Giovanni Maria, the brother 
of Giovanni Antonio Falconetto, born in 1458 
at Verona, was both a painter and an architect, and 
seems to have devoted himself more during his 
long life to the latter profession than to the 
former. He learned the elements of painting from 
his father, Jacopo Falconetto, and is said to have 
spent twelve years of his early life in Rome, measur- 
ing and studying the ancient edifices of that city. 
He was a follower of Liberale and an imitator of 
Melozzo da Forii, and he painted largely in the 
churches of Verona. In 1493 he decorated, in 
monochrome, the cupola of the chapel of San 
Biagio in SS. Nazzaro e Celso, and displayed a 
profound knowledge of perspective effect in his 
arrangement of its various subjects. His finest 
works are the religious allegories which he executed 
from 1609 to 1516, in the church of San Pietro 
Martire at Verona. Of his panel pictures there 
remain a ' Virgin and Child, between SS. 
Augustine and Joseph,' painted in 1523, at San 
Giuseppe, Verona; an 'Annunciation,' above the 
altar of the Emilii Chapel in San Zeno, Verona ; 
an ' Augustus and the Sibyl,' in the Museum of 
that city ; and an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' in 
the Berlin Gallery. The latter years of his life 
were devoted to architecture, and his death occurred 
at Padua in 1534. 

145 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



FALDA, Giovanni Battista, an Italian archi- 
tect and etcher, was bom at Valduggia, in the 
Milanese, in 1648. It is not said by whom he was 
instructed ; but his style bears a great resenablance 
to that of Israel Silvestre. He was at Rome from 
1669 to 1691, and there are by him several designs 
and engravings of the churches, gardens, fountains, 
and public buildings of that city, distingLushed for 
their good perspective, and embellished with figures 
neatly drawn. The date of his death is not known. 
The following are among his best works: 

Two Views of the Piazza Navona. 

Two Views in Rome ; the Basilica of St. Peter's, and the 

Fountain of St. Peter's. 
A large plate of St. Peter's, and the Buildings round it. 
A View of the Interior of St. Peter's, on the occasion of 

the Canonization of St. Francis of Sales. 
A View of the Castle of St. Angelo ; after Bernini, 
The Fountains of Eome ; 31 plates. 
The Gardens of Eome ; 19 plates. 

FALDONI, Antonio, an Italian painter and 
engraver, born at Ascoli, in the Marca di Trevisano, 
about the year 1687, first studied landscape paint- 
ing under Antonio Luciano ; but his pictures are 
little known. He afterwards applied himself to 
engraving, and imitated first the style of Gilles 
Sadeler, and afterwards that of Mellan, in which 
he was very successful ; and several of his prints 
are deservedly admired. He engraved a set of 
portraits of the Doges of Venice, and the Pro- 
curators of St. Mark ; besides which, there are the 
following prints by him : 

PORTRAITS. 
Marco Eicci, painter ; after Eosalha Carriera. 
Antonio Maria Zanetti, engraver ; after the sa/w, 
Luca Carlevariis, painter and engraver. 
Sebastiano Eicci, painter. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 
A Holy Family, with Angels ; after Selastiano Eicci. 
The Conception ; after the same. 
The Nativity ; after Pietro da CuHona. 
David playing on the harp before Saul ; after G. Ca- 

merata. 
David flying from the wrath of Saul ; after the same. 
Part of the Drawings by Farmigiano for the collection 

published by Zanetti. 

FALENS, Charles van. See Valens. 

FALERI, Domenico, was a painter of the school of 
Siena, where he was born in 159.5. In the church 
of the Hospital of Monagnese in Siena is a picture 
of the ' Nativity,' and other pictures are in a Bene- 
dictine priory in the neighbourhood. He died in 

FALERO, Lnis, born in Toledo in 1851, was 
originally in the Spanish navy. He studied in 
Paris, and ultimately came over to London, where 
he died in 1896. He was well versed in astronomy, 
on which subject he executed several allegorical 
pictures, the most important being 'The Marri- 
age of a Comet,' ' Double Stars,' ' Le Conchemar,' 
'The Dream of Faust,' and 'Unto a Better 

World.' 

FALGANLGaspake, anitalian landscape pamter, 

was born at Florence in the beginning of the 17th 

century. He was a pupil of Valerio Marucelli, 

and devoted himself entirely to landscape painting, 

of which specimens are to be found in various 

Italian galleries. 

FALIZE, LnciEN, celebrated French artist and 
goldsmith. Born in 1838, he was sent to England 
to be educated, where, as a boy, his talent attracted 
the notice of Sir John Bennett. He subsequently 

146 



became a partner of M. Bapst, the Crown Jeweller 
of the Empire, whom he succeeded as official gold- 
smith to the French government, and his work 
earned for him a world-wide reputation. His 
work is characterized by intense refinement, sim- 
plicity and purity of form. He exerted a genuine 
influence, both through his writings and through 
the artists with whom he collaborated, amongst 
whom we may mention Merson, Roty, Grand- 
homme, Galld and Barrias. He was trained by 
his father, an accomplished chaser, and influenced 
by such masters as Moret-Ladessil and D(5sir6 
Attorge. He travelled much, studying antique 
art throughout Italy, and frequently visited 
England, where he knew the treasures of the South 
Kensington and British Museums by heart. His 
papers on ' Enamelling ' in the ' Gazette des Beaus 
Arts' will remain admirable essays on the subject 
of the goldsmith's craft. As a member of the 
Central Union for Decorative Art he struggled 
energetically to reanimate it and infuse new ideas ; 
and in 1879 succeeded in obtaining regular techno- 
logical exhibitions, which were most successfuh 
He attentively watched the development of modern 
English art, admiring the revival of decorative 
work here, and he never missed an exhibition of 
Arts and Crafts in London. Amongst his best- 
known creations is the magnificent toilet-set made 
for the Princess Letitia Bonaparte on the occasion 
of her marriage, where he has cleverly introduced 
certain features, such as the Imperial Eagle, in a 
design of Louis XV. style, which it would have 
seemed almost impossible to have assimilated 
successfully. His bust of 'Gallia' in ivory and 
c;old, set with topazes, is in the Luxembourg. 
The ' Sassanide Vase,' the ' Urania Clock,' the 
bas-reliefs of Marguerite de Foix and Anne de 
Bretagne, and above all his gold cup, now in 
the Mus^e des Arts Decoratifs, adhere to the 
classical traditions of the early masters of the 17th 
century. The latter work, worthy of Benvenuto 
Cellini at his best, was one of his last creations, 
though the last official work his skilful hands 
accomplished was an olive branch in beaten gold, 
which was laid on the tomb of the Emperor 
Alexander III. of Russia, by the President of the 
French Republic. He left a large number of 
sketches for jewels, diadems and medallions, drawn 
with-consummate knowledge, to his son and pupil, 
Andr6 Falize. He died from an attack of apoplexy 
in the latter part of 1897. 

FALLARO, Jacopo, an Italian painter of the 
16th century, was a contemporary with Titian. 
According to Vasari, there is in the church of the 
Jesuits at Venice, on the door of the organ, a paint- 
ing by this artist of ' Giovanni Colombini receiving 
from the Pope the cloak of the Order.' 

FALOCCO, Niccol6, a painter and native of 
Ortina, who flourished about 1740, was instructed 
by Francesco Solimena, whose works he copied 
with great success. 

FALOT, Nicolas, a French historical painter, 
flourished between the years 1576 and 1627. The 
dates of his, birth and death are unknown. 

FALQUIERE, Jean Alexandre Joseph, famous 
French sculptor, was born at Toulouse on September 
7, 1831. He was a pupil of Jouffroy, and won the 
" prix de Rome" in 1859. One of his earliest suc- 
cesses was ' Le Vainqueur au combat des Coqs,' now 
in the Luxembourg. Among his most notable works 
are, ' Tarcisius, the Martyr,' ' Ophelia,' ' Pierre Cor- 
neille' (a marble statue for the Thdatre-Frangais), 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



'Lamartine,' 'Diana,' 'Gambetta,' the 'Woman 
with a Peacock,' 'A Dancing Girl,' 'Balzac,' the 
artist being commissioned to execute this last- 
named work after the rejection by the Soci^t6 des 
gens de Lettres of Rodin's statue. Falquifere also 
completed an important statue (for Washington) 
of Lafayette ; and it was his imprudence in deter- 
mining to assist at the public unveiling atNimes of 
his statue of Alphonse Daudet, when already ail- 
ing, that brought his malady to a fatal conclusion. 
Palquifere had also won some distinction as a 
painter, gaining a medal at the Salon in 1875, his 
' Wrestlers ' and ' Cain and Abel ' receiving special 
regard. In 1870 he was decorated with the Legion 
of Honour, being promoted to the rank of orticer 
in 1878, at the close of the Universal Exhibition, 
and Commander in 1889. He was appointed pro- 
fessor at the School of Fine Arts in 1882, being 
elected a member of the Academy of Fine Arts in 
the November of that year in succession to his 
master, Jouffroy. His death occurred, as the 
immediate result of a serious operation, on April 
19, 1900. 

FALZAGALLONI. See Ferkara, Stefano da. 

FANCELLI, PiETRO, was born at Bologna in 
1764, and painted in oil and tempera in the Vene- 
tian style for churches and castles, as well as 
scenes for theatres. He died in 1850. 

FANO, Baktolommeo and Pompeo da, father and 
son, who were both painters, flourished at Fano about 
the year 1530. According to Lanzi, they painted in 
conjunction for the church of San Miohele, in that 
city, a picture of the ' Raising of Lazarus,' dated 
1534, on which he remarks that it is surprising 
to observe how little they had attended to the 
reformation and improvement which had almost 
generally been adopted by other artists of their 
time. It is painted in the Gothic style of the 
middle of the preceding century. Pompeo, how- 
ever, after the death of his father, attempted the 
more modern taste, and painted some pictures 
which gained for him considerable reputation. 
Pompeo da Fano was the first instructor of Taddeo 
Zucchero. 

FANOLI, MiCHELE, an Italian lithographer and 
engraver, who was born at Cittadella about 1807, 
studied in the Venice Academy, and under Cicog- 
nara. He spent many years in Paris, whence in 
1860 he was recalled by the Italian government to 
found a school of lithography at Milan, which he 
directed till his death in that city in 1876. He 
died poor, leaving a collection of sketches to the 
Venice Academy. Amongst his reproductions are : 

Orpheus; after Jalabert. TheHoIyWomenattheTomb; 
Our Lord and SS. Peter and John; after Landelle. 

FANSAGA, CosiMo, (or Fanzaoa,) a painter, 
sculptor, and architect, was born at Bergamo in 
1591, and was a scholar of Pietro Bernini at Rome. 
Most of his works were executed at Naples, where 
he erected a number of edifices, and in some in- 
stances decorated them with statues and pictures 
of his own production. He died in 1678. 

FANSHAWE, Catharine Maria, an amateur 
etcher, was born in London about 1775, and died 
about 1834. She etched a few historical and figure 
subjects with considerable ability. 

FANTETTI, Cesare, a designer and etcher, 
was born at Florence about the year 1660. He 
resided chiefly at Rome, where he engraved several 
plates, after his own designs and those of other 
masters. Conjointly with Pietro Aquila, he en- 
graved the plates from the paintings by Raphael 



in the Vatican, called Raphael's Bible, thirty-seven 
of the series being executed by Fantetti, and the 
remainder by Aquila. He also engraved the fol- 
lowing prints : 

Agrippina with the Ashes of her Husband ; after Franc. 

Eosa. 
Christ praying in the Garden ; after L. Carracci. 
A Charity, with three Chil'dren ; after Annihale 

Carracci. 
Latona insulted by Niobe ; after the $ame. 
Flora surrounded by Cupids ; after Ciro Ferri, 
The Death of St. Anne ; after Andrea Sacchi. 
Some Friezes, and other subjects, from various Italian 

masters. 

FANTI, Ercole Gaetano, born at Bologna in 
1687, was a pupil of M. A. Chiarini. He first 
painted in Italy stage decorations, but afterwards 
went to Vienna, where he was made Superintendent 
of the Liechtenstein Gallery. He died at Vienna 
in 1759. 

FANTI, ViNCENZo, the son of Ercole Gaetano 
Fanti, studied first under Altomonte, and then went 
to Rome and Turin, and eventually in 1744 to 
Vienna, where he succeeded his father as Super- 
intendent of the Liechtenstein Gallery. The dates 
of his birth and death are not known. His portrait 
is in the Ufiizi, Florence. 

FANTONE, Francesoa, a painter of the Bolog- 
nese School, who flourished in 1760, was the niece 
and pupil of.Gian GiosefEo dal Sole, but she after- 
wards studied under Cavazzoni. She died about 
1772. 

FANTUZZI, Antonio. See Trento, Antonio da. 

FANZAGA, Cosmo. See Fansaga. 

FANZONE, Ferrad, (or Faenzonb,) was born at 
Faenza in 1562, and, according to the Abbate Titi, 
studied at Rome under the Cavaliere Vanni, where 
he painted several frescoes in San Giovanni in 
Laterano, the Scala Santa, and the church of 
Santa Maria Maggiore. There are, however, some 
pictures at Ravenna, particularly a ' Deposition 
from the Cross,' in the church of the Dominicans, 
and a ' Probatica,' at the Confraternita di San Gio- 
vanni, which partake so much of the fine style of 
Lodovico Carracci, that Fanzone has been supposed 
to have been educated in hia academy. His de- 
sign is grand and correct, with great amenity in 
his colouring, and a fine impasto. He died in 1645. 

FA PRESTO. See Giordano, Ldca. 

FARELLI, GlACOMO, a Neapolitan painter, was 
born in 1624, and brought up under Andrea Vac- 
caro, whose style he at first followed, but he after- 
wards imitated with more success that of Guide. 
He died in 1706. Of his productions there remam 
in Santa Maria Maggiore at Naples, ' The Fall of 
the Angels,' and ' The Ascension ' ; others are in 
SS. Apostoli and Redenzione dei Cattivi. 

FARFUSOLA, Bartolommeo, a painter bom at 
Verona, flourished in the year 1640. He has left 
several pictures in the churches of Verona, among 
others a ' St. Ursula ' in the church dedicated to 
that saint. 

FARGUE. See La Fargde. 

FARINA, Pier Francesco, an Italian painter 
who lived in the latter half of the 17th century, 
and was employed in decorating the palace of 
Carlsruhe and several churches of Bologna. 

FARINATI, Giovanni Battista, called by 
Vasari Battista da Verona, and .by others in 
error Battista Zelotti and Battista^ Fontana, 
was born at Verona in 1532, and is said to have 
been instructed by Paolo, his uncle, or, according 
to others, by Antonio Badile. He was the fellow- 

147 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Btudent and friend of Paolo Veronese, with ■whom 
he co-operated in several important works in the 
public edifices at Venice, as well as in the Villa 
Soranza at Castelf ranco. He is numbered by Vasari 
among the disciples of Titian. His picture of the 
' Holy Family,' in the Lochis-Carrara Gallery at 
Bergamo, is painted entirely in the style of that 
master, and it is to his studies in that school that he 
was indebted for tlie warmth and harmony of his 
colouring. His style is marked by its grandeur, 
though inferior in grace to that of Paolo Veronese. 
As a fresco-painter he possessed especial ability. 
He died in 1592. The following paintings are by 
him: 

Venice. Palazzo Eeale. The Virtues and Study. 
Vicenza. Monte d. Pieta. The Decoration of the ra9ade. 

„ Cathedral. The Conversion of St. Taul. 

„ „ The Miraculous Draught of 

Fishes. 

FARINATI, Orazio, the son and disciple of 
Paolo Farinati, was an historical painter and 
etcher who was living at Verona in 1607. During 
his short career he gave proof of uncommon 
ability, and promised to reach an elevated rank 
among the artists of his country, when he died 
in the prime of life. He etched a few plates 
from the designs of his father, which are fre- 
quently confounded with those of the latter. There 
exist the following paintings by him : 

Verona. S. Paolo. The Descent from the Cross 
(a copy after his father). 
„ S. Maria del} ^. t.™^, irm 

Paradiso. ) St. James. 1607. 

„ „ Pope Gregory. 1607. 

„ 8. Stejfano, Descent of the Holy Ghost 

{considered his best work). 

Both father and son signed their paintings with 
a snail, and their prints, in addition to the snail, 
with their initials or full names. 

Orazio Farinati's best plates are : 

The Descent from the Cross ; after Paolo Farinati. 

1593. 
The Finding of the Cross, with St. Francis and other 

figures ; after the same. 
The Destruction of Pharaoh's Host; after the same. 

1599. 
The Holy Family, with St. John. 

FARINATI, Paolo, of the family of the Uberti, 
was bom at Verona in 1522. He was a pupil of 
Niccol6 Giolfino and A. Badile, but studied also 
the works of Parmigiano, and soon surpassed his 
instructors. To judge from the large style of his 
design, it would be thought that he had been 
brought up in the school of Giulio Romano ; and 
it is certain that he studied for some time at Mantua 
the works of that master. His death occurred in 
1606. Among his works there are : 

A Presentation in the Temple. 
Venus seated, and two Loves. 
St. Martin. 
Angels playing a Trumpet 

(water'Colotir). 
Adoration of the Magi. 
Presentation in the Temple. 

The Four Evangelists. 

The Multiplication of the 
Loaves { painted in his ^9th 
year). 

The Murder of the Innocents. 

The Emperor Constantine or* 
daring a number of Children 
to be murdered. 
„ „ Christ walking on the Sea. 

148 



Berlin. Gallery. 

Bordeaux. Museum. 

Mantna. Cathedral. 

Modena. Estense Gall. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. 

Venice. SS. Cosimo e ] 

Pamiano. J 

Verona. S. Giorgio. 

„ S. M. in Organo. 



Verona. S. M. in Organo. St. Gregory feeding the Poor. 

„ S. Giovanni in Fonte. The Baptism of Christ. 

„ Gallery. Christ before the People. 

„ SS. Nazzaro e Celso. Frescoes. 
Vienna. Gallery, A Heathen Sacrifice. 

There are several etchings by Paolo Farinati 
executed in a free, bold, and masterly style. Like 
his paintings he frequently marked them 
with the accompanying device of a snail ; 
but he sometimes signed them with his name, or 
with the initials P. F. or P. V. F. The following 
are from his own designs : 

St John. 1567. 

St. Jerome kneeling, leaning on a Bank. 

Mary Magdalen seated, with a Book and a Crucifix. 

The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus and St. John. 

Angels holding the Instruments of the Passion. 

Venus and Cupid. 1566. 

A Charity, with three Children. 

Venus and Cupid at the Forge of Vulcan. 

FARINGTON, George, a painter of historical 
subjects, was born in 1754 at Warrington, of which 
place his father was rector. He was educated 
under West, and in 1780 obtained the gold medal 
at the Royal Academy for his ' Macbeth.' This 
promising artist afterwards went to the East 
Indies, where he would undoubtedly have acquired 
both fame and fortune, had he not died in the 
prime of life in 1788. 

FARINGTON, Joseph, a landscape painter, the 
elder brother of George Farington, was born in 
1747 at Leigh, in Lancashire. He was a scholar 
of Richard Wilson, and from 1778 to 1813 he 
exhibited constantly at the Royal Academy, where 
he was elected an Associate in 1783, and an 
Academician in 1785. He was also a member of 
the Incorporated Society of Artists. His works 
are chiefly views of the scenery of Westmoreland 
and Cumberland, which have been engraved by 
Byrne, Pouncey, Medland, and others. In 1794 
he published seventy-six views of the river Thames. 
He died in 1821. The South Kensington Museum 
possesses two water-colour drawings by him. 

FARJAT, BenoIt, a French engraver, was bom 
at Lyons in 1646. He was taught the elements 
of the art by Guillaume Chasteau, whose manner 
he at first adopted ; but he afterwards went to 
Rome, and acquired a greater command of the 
graver, and a better style of design, though he 
is not always correct. He died in Rome about 
1720. There are by him some portraits, and 
various subjects from the Italian masters ; the 
following are the most esteemed : 

rOBTRAITS. 
Cardinal Federigo Coccia ; after L. David. 
Cardinal Comaro ; after tht same. 1697. 
Cardinal Tommaso Ferrari ; after the same. 1695. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 
The Holy Family, with St. John ; after Alhani. 
The Holy Family, with St. John presenting a Cross; 

after Pietro da Cortona. 
The Marriage, or, according to others, the Coronation, of 

St. Catharine ; after Agostino Carraca. 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. John presenting 

some fruit ; after Annihale Carracci. 
The Temptation of St. Anthony ; after the same. 
The Communion of St. Jerome ; after Pomenichino. 
The Death of St. Francis Xavier ; after G. B. Gaulli. 
The Marriage of the Virgin ; after C. Maratti. 
The Nativity of Christ ; after the same. 
The Kace of Atalanta ; after P. Locatelli. 

FARNBOROUGH, Amelia Long, Baroness, who 
was born in 1772, and died in 1837, was a very clever 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



amateur water-colour painter. She exhibited as 
an honorary exhibitor many drawings at the Royal 
Academy. She was a daughter of Sir Abraham 
Hume, Bart., and in 1793 married Sir Charles 
Long, afterwards Lord Farnborough. 

FARRER, Nicholas, a portrait painter, born at 
Sunderland in 1750, was a pupil of Pine, and a 
friend of Sir Joshua Reynolds and Northcote. His 
portraits, without being imitations, bear a strong 
resemblance to Sir Joshua's manner, and have 
sometimes been mistaken for that master's work. 
He painted the portraits of the Duke of Richmond 
and family. He died in 1805. 

FARRIER, Robert, a little-known painter of 
miniature portraits, domestic subjects, and scenes 
from school-boy life. He was born in 1796, ex- 
hibited at the Academy after 1818, and died in 1879. 

FARUFFINI, Fedeeico, a native of Sesto, who 
was distinguished as a painter and engraver, 
studied at Rome. His altar-pieces and other his- 
torical subjects are original in conception, but of 
especial merit is his ' Maochiavelli and Borgia,' 
which he both painted and engraved, and for which 
he obtained a medal in 1866. He died at Milan. 

FASOLO, Bernardino, the son of Lorenzo 
Fasolo, was living in the 16th century at Pavia. 
He is known to have been a member of the 
council of the Guild of Genoa in 1520, but no 
dates can be given of his birth or death. The 
following pictures are by him; 

Berlin. GalleTy. A Holy Family. 

Dresden. Gallery. Portrait of a Venetian Lady 

Paris. Louvre. Virgin and Child. 1518. 

FASOLO, GiovANANTONio, who was bom at 
Vicenza in 1528, first studied under Battista 
Zelotti ; but the brilliant reputation of Paolo Vero- 
nese induced him to enter the school of that dis- 
tinguished master, under whom he became a good 
historical painter. In the church of San Rocco at 
Vicenza is a fine picture by Fasolo, representing the 
' Pool of Bethesda,' a grand composition, executed 
in a style that would not have disgraced Paolo 
Veronese ; in the church of the Padri Servi is 
another fine picture by this master, the ' Adora- 
tion of the Magi.' In the residence of the Prefect 
of that town there are also by him three pictures 
of subjects from Roman history, representing 
' Mutius Scsevola before Porsena,' ' Horatius defend- 
ing the Bridge,' and 'Marcus CurtiuB leaping into 
the Gulf He died in 1572. 

FASOLO, Lorenzo, called Lorenzo di Pavia, 
was a Lombard painter living in the early part of 
the 16th century, who went from Pavia to Genoa, 
and was one of the artists employed by Lodovico 
Sforza in 1490 in the decorations of the Porta 
Giovia Palace at Milan. His chief work is an 
altar-piece representing ' The Deposition from the 
Cross,' which he painted in 1508, for the nuns of 
Santa Chiara, at Chiavari, where it still remains. 
The Louvre has by him ' The Family of the Vir- 
gin,' dated 1513. His death occurred before 1520. 
FASSETTI, Giovanni Battista, born at Reggio 
in 1681 of poor parents, entered the studio of 
Giuseppe Dallamano as a colour mixer, and it was 
not till he was eighteen years of age that he made 
his tirst attempt at art. He entered the studio of 
Francesco da Bibiena, and became one of the best 
decorative painters of his day. He died after 1772. 
FASSIN, Nicolas Henri Joseph de, a Belgian 
landscape painter, was born at Li^ge in 1728. 
Early in life he served in the French army, and it 



was not until he was thirty-four years of age that 
lie commenced the study of art in the Academy 
at Antwerp. He afterwards visited Italy and 
Switzerland, and resided for some time at Geneva. 
He painted a landscape for the Empress of Russia, 
for which he was handsomely rewarded, and many 
others are to be found at Liege, and in Germany 
and England. He died in his native city in 1811. 
His biography, with a list of his pictures, was 
published by Van Hust in 1837. 

FATIO, Antoine LSon Morel. See Mobkl- 
Fatio. 

FATTORE II. See Pennl 

FAUCCI, Carlo, an Italian engraver, was bom 
at Florence in 1729. He was a pupil of Carlo 
Gregori, and engraved portraits and historical 
pieces with ability. On leaving that artist, he 
engraved several plates for the collection of the 
gallery of the Marquis Gerini, and afterwards 
visited England, where he engraved some plates 
for Boydell. He died at Florence in 1784. Among 
others, the following prints are by him : 

The Birth of the Virgin ; after Pietro da Cortona. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same. 

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after Carlo Dolci. 

The Coronation of the Virgin ; after Ellens. 

A Bacchanalian subject ; after the satiie. 

Cupid ; after Guido. 

Hadouna and Child ; after the same. 

Raimondo Faucci, his nephew, assisted him in the 
execution of many of his plates. 

FAUCHERY, Augustin, a French painter and 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1800, and was in- 
structed by Gu^rin and Regnault. One of his best 
engravings is a plate of ' Mona Lisa,' after Leonardo 
da Vinci. He died in Paris in 1843. 

FAUCHIER, Laurent, a French portrait painter, 
was a pupil of Pierre Mignard. He flourished in 
the second half of the 17th century. 

FAUCUS, George. See Focus. 

FAULKNER, Benjamin Rawunson, a portrait 
painter, was born at Manchester in 1787, and until 
1813 pursued a commercial life at Gibraltar. Then, 
returning to England on account of an attack of 
the plague, he devoted himself to art, receiving his 
first instruction from his brother. After some 
study in London, he began exhibiting at the Royal 
Academy in 1821 ; but his practice was chiefly in 
i Manchester. HediedatFulham in 1849. Amongst 
his works are : 

John Dalton, the chemist. 1841. {Royal Society, London. 
John McCulloch,the geologist. (Royal Society, London^ 
Kev. Dr. Eafiles. {Lancashire Independent College.) 

FAULKNER, Joshua Wilson, a portrait painter, 
the brother of Benjamin Faulkner, was born in the 
latter part of the 18th century. He was a native of 
Manchester, where he spent the greater part of 
his life, but he exhibited at the Liverpool Institution, 
and occasionally at the Royal Academy. He died 
soon after 1820. There is a portrait of Sir John 
Ross, the Arctic discoverer, by him. 

FAUR, Christian Wilhelm von Faber du. Sea 
Faber du Faub. 

FAURAY, Antoine de. See Favray. 

FAURE, Eugene, a French painter of allegories, 
mythological subjects, and portraits, was born at 
Seyssinet, near Grenoble, in 1822. He studied 
under David d'Angers and Rude, and his first work, 
a landscape, now in the Grenoble Museum, appeared 
at the Salon in 1847. He died in Paris in 1879. 
The following are his chief works : 

149 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Dreams of Youth. 1857. 
First Steps in Love. 18C1. 
Confidence. 1863. 
Eve. 1864. 
La Source. 1878. 

FAUEE, L^ON, a French painter, and pupil of 
Eugene Delacroix, was a native of Toulouse. His 
first contribution to the Salon was a picture called 
' L'Offrande,' exhibited in 1857. He was for man 3' 
years Professor at the Art School of his native 
town, where he died in 1887. 

FAVA, GiANGiACOMO, commonly known as Mac- 
EINO d'Alba, was a painter of the old Lombard 
school, who worked from about 1496 to 1508. 
One of his best pictures, a 'Madonna ancl Child,' is 
in a chapel of the Certosa, near Pavia. The Stadel 
Institute at Frankfort possesses a ' Madonna ' by 
him, with side-pictures from the history of St. 
Joachim and St. Anne. 

FAVA, PiETRO DA, Count, a Bolognese nobleman, 
who distinguished himself not only as a patron of 
art, but also as an amateur, was born at Bologna in 
1667. He studied art under L PasinelH, and was 
the protector and friend of Donato Creti and Ercole 
Graziani. He chiefly studied the works of the 
Carracci, whose style he preferred to every other. 
In the church of San Tommaso dal Mercato at 
Bologna is an altar-piece by him of the 'Virgin 
and Infant, with St. Albert, St. Paul, and other 
Saints ' ; and at Ancona, in the cathedral, are the 
'Adoration of the Magi,' and the 'Resurrection.' 
He was a member of the Clementine Academy, 
and died in 1744. 

FAVANNB, Henri de, (or Favannes,) a painter 
of historical subjects, was horn in London in 1668. 
and was instructed by Bene Houasse. He travelled 
through England, and afterwards lived ten years 
in Spain. He then went to Paris, where he was 
elected rector of the Academy, and died in 1752. 

FAVANNE, Jacques de, (or Favannes,) the 
son of Henri de Favanne, was at tirst an en- 
graver, and was instructed by H. F. Thomassin, 
but he afterwards took to painting, and executed 
principally sea-pieces. He was residing in Pari.s 
about 1760. He is mentioned by Basan as the en- 
graver of a plate after Watteau of ' The Pleasures 
of Summer.' 

FAVRAY, Chevalier Antoine de, (or Faubat,) 
bom in 1706, was a pupil of Jean Francois deTroy, 
the younger, whom he accompanied to Rome when 
the latter was appointed Director of the Academy 
in that city. At Malta, in the service of the 
Knights of the Order, he executed several repre- 
sentations of Maltese manners and customs, one 
of which in the Louvre served for his reception 
into the Academy in 1762. A picture of the 
'Annual Thanksgiving of the Knights of St. 
John, in the church of their patron saint, for 
their deliverance from the Turks,' was sent with 
the above to Paris. In 1762 he went with the 
French ambassador, the Chevalier de Vergennes, to 
Constantinople, where he remained till 1771, when, 
on war breaking out between Turkey and Russia, 
he returned to Malta. From this time all further 
details of his life are unknown, though he seems to 
have been alive in 1789, and probably in 1791. In 
the La Caze collection in the Louvre is a picture of 
' Maltese Ladies paying a visit.' His portrait is in 
the Uffizi, Florence. 

FAVRETTO, Giacomo, painter, was born at 
Venice in 1849. He was one of the ablest of the 
little knot of Venetian painters whose practice is 
150 



founded more or less on the water-colours of Lud- 
wig Passini. His pictures are generally market- 
scenes, and are notable for the skill with which 
positive greens are employed. Towards the end 
of his life his works became popular in London. 
The best perhaps is ' A Clothes Market in Venice.' 
He died at Venice in 1887. 

FAXARDO, Juan Antonio, a Spanish painter, 
was a native of Seville, to whom Alonzo Miguel de 
Tobar was sent when a boy to learn painting. 

FAY, Joseph, a German painter, born at Cologne 
in 1813, attended from 1833 to 1841 the Academy 
at Diisseldorf, and afterwards studied at Munich, 
and at Paris under Paul Delaroche. He first 
painted historical subjects, and had a happy talent 
in representing scenes from the life and manners 
of the old Germans, but not meeting with sufficient 
encouragement, he changed his style for genre 
painting, for which purpose he visited Italy. He 
died at Diisseldorf in 1875. The following are 
among his best works : 

Samson and Delilah. 1839. {Cologne Museum.) 

Cleopatra. 

A large Frieze. {Ellerfeld Court-house.) This has 

perished, but some cartoons of it still exist. 
Thisbe listening. 
Borneo and Juliet. 1846. 
Gretchen in Prison. 1847. 

FAYERMANN, Anne Charlotte. See Bar- 
tholomew. 

FAYBAM, John, a portrait and landscape painter, 
practised in London about the year 1740. There 
are by him some slight, coarse etchings of views 
in the neighbourhood of Chelsea and Battersea, 
and also one of the Hermitage in Kew Gardens. 

FEARNLEY, Thomas, a landscape painter of 
English parentage, was born at Fredrichshall in 
Norway in 1802. After spending a short time in 
his uncle's business, he entered the Copenhagen 
Academy, and was patronized by the Crown 
Prince Oscar, for whom he painted a ' View of 
Copenhagen.' In 1828 he set out on his travels 
through Europe, and did not return to Norway till 
1836. He afterwards spent some time in England, 
and exliibited at the British Institution a 'Nor- 
wegian Cascade.' He died at Munich in 1842. 
Amongst his most noticeable works are : 

The Blue Grotto of Capri. 

The Glacier of the Grindelwald [repeated several times). 

Labrofos Waterfall. (Christiania National Gallery.) 

FEARY, John, a landscape painter, exhibited 
at the Royal Academy from 1772 to 1788. He 
obtained a premium at the Society of Arts in 1775. 

FEBRE, Valentin le. See Le Febbe. 

FEBURE, Claude le. See Lefebure. 

FEBURE, Francois le. See Le Fi;vEE. 

FECHHELM, Christian Gottlieb, a portrait and 
historical painter, born at Dresden in 1732, studied 
under Mengs, Manjocky, and Hutin, first portrait 
painting, and then miniature. In the Seven Years' 
War Maria Theresa commissioned him to paint the 
portraits of the generals engaged in that campaign 
for the Military School at Vienna. He died at 
Dresden in 1816. His son, Karl Christian, who 
was born at Dresden in 1770, and died in 1826, 
was likewise a painter, 

FECHHELM, Karl Friedeich, who was horn 
at Dresden about 1728, studied under Midler at 
Prague, and was engaged at Berlin, in the palace 
and other public places, in painting frescoes and 
architectural decorations. He died in 1785. There 
are some views of Berlin etched by him. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



FECHNER, Eduaed Clemeks, who was born at 
Gross-Sarchen, near Moscow, in 1799, was a portrait 
painter and an etcher, who studied in 1814 at 
Dresden under Grassi and Retsch. In 1820 he 
went to Munich, where he improved his style under 
Stieler. He worked some time for the Duke of 
Leuchtenherg, and visited Paris in 1825. He ex- 
celled in painting portraits of ladies and children ; 
he also executed eleven etchings in a spirited 
manner. He died in Paris in 1861. 

FEDDESjPieteb, called Pietervan Haelikgen, 
from the place of his birth, was born in 1588, and 
distinguished himself as a painter on glass. He 
also etched portraits, conversation and historical 
pieces, with a broad and spirited point. There are 
by him 119 plates, among which the most important 
are the following : 

Johannes Bogerman, the President of the Synod at 
Dordrecht. 1620. 

Martinus Hamconius. 

Charity, or Love. 

Fifty-two portraits of the Princes and Dukes of Fries- 
land, for Hamconius's Frisia (Franeker, 1620). 

The Portraits in 'Winsemius's Crovycken van VHesland 
(Franeker, 1622). 

His plates are signed P. Harlingensis, although 
not always in full. He died in 1634. 

FEDERIGHETTO di DALMATIA, II. See 
Bencovich. 

FEGATELLI, Giuseppe Maeia, a native of Bo 
logna, and pupil of C. Gennari, flourished in the 
latter half of the 17th century, and painted pictures 
for the churches of his native city. 

FEHLING, Heinbich Cueistoph, a German 
painter, born at Sangerhausen, in Thuringia, in 
1663, was instructed by Bottschildt, to whom he 
was related. After having lived several years in 
Italy, he was appointed court-painter to the Elector 
John George IV., and became director of the 
Academy and inspector of the Art Galleries at 
Dresden, where he died in 1725. In the Dresden 
Gallery is a portrait by him of Colonel Kaspar von 
Klengel, and a number of painted ceiHngs remain 
as specimens of his art in the palaces of that city. 

FEI, Alessandro di Vincenzio, called Alessan- 
DRO DEL Barbiere, an historical painter, was born 
at Florence in 1543, and was a pupil iirst of 
Ghirlandajo, afterwards of Piero Francia, and 
lastly of Maso da San Frediano. His invention 
was fertile and prompt, adapted to the great works 
which he executed in fresco, and embellished with 
architecture in a grand style. Ha was fond of 
introducing buildings and grotesque tigures into 
his paintings. His works are to be found in the 
churches and public edifices at Florence, Pistoja, 
and Messina. One of his most esteemed pictures 
is the ' Flagellation,' in the church of Santa Groce at 
Florence, in which city he died in 1592. 

FEID, Joseph, an Austrian landscape painter, was 
born at Vienna in 1807. He possessed a great 
talent in depicting foliage and forest life, and died 
at Weidling, near Vienna, in 1870. The following 
works by him are in the Vienna Gallery : 

A Scene in a Wood, with Nymphs bathing. 1828. 
A Study of the Schneeberg. 
A Forest Landscape, with a large Oak. 1841. 
A Landscape with an approaching Storm. 

FEIGL, JoHANN, an engraver, who flourished at 
Vienna in the last quarter of the 18th century, was 
a pupil of Schmutzer and of Wille. His best known 
work is, 'An old Woman washing the Head of a 
Boy,' after G. Dou. 1776 



FEISTBNAUER, Andreas, (or Faistenauer,) 
a native of Rosenheim, in Bavaria, studied at Vienna 
under StoU. He afterwards went to Munich, where 
he painted several pictures for the churches, and 
in 1658 was appointed court-painter to the Elector 
of Bavaria. The date of his death is not known. 

FEISTENBERGER, Anton, was born at Inns- 
bruck, in the Tyrol, in 1678. -He had no abler 
instructor than an obscure artist, named Bouritzsch, 
who lived at Salzburg, or Passau ; but he had an 
opportunity of studying some of the works of 
Gaspard Poussin, by which he formed for himself 
so grand a style of painting landscape, that on 
seeing his pictures, it would be supposed that he 
had visited Rome. His landscapes are embellished 
with architectural ruins, and refreshed with water- 
falls ; the forms of his trees are grand and pic- 
turesque, and his foliage is light and spirited. He 
was invited to Vienna by the Emperor of Germany, 
by whom he was employed for several years, and 
many of his best works are in the Imperial and 
Liechtenstein Galleries in that city. Other land- 
scapes by him are in the Dresden Gallery and at 
Weimar. He was not successful in drawing the 
figure, but was assisted in that branch by Hans 
Graf and Van Bredael. He died at Vienna in 
1736. 

FEISTENBERGER, Joseph, born at Innsbruck 
in 1684, was the brother of Anton Feistenberger, 
by whom he was instructed, and whom he assisted 
in some of his works. There are two landscapes 
by this artist in the Vienna Gallery. He died at 
Vienna in 1735. 

FEKE, Robert, one of the earliest American 
colonial painters, was descended from a Dutch 
family, who settled at Oyster Bay, Long Island. 
It is said that having been taken prisoner and 
carried to Spain, he there learned to paint, and on 
his return home settled at Newport, Rhode Island, 
where, among other portraits, he painted that of 
the beautiful wife of Governor Wanton, now in 
the Redwood Library. He worked also at New 
York, and in 1746 at Philadelphia, where his por- 
traits were considered the best after those of West. 
He subsequently went to Bermuda for his health, 
and died there at the age of about forty-four. 

FELICE, Simone, was an Italian engraver of the 
17th century, who, in conjunction with Giovanni 
Battista Falda. engraved a collection of prints, 
entitled ' Le Giardini di Roma.' Felice's plates 
are very neatly executed, with small figures, 
spiritedly designed, and are in no way inferior 
to the productions of Falda. 

FELICIATI, Lorenzo, an Italian painter, was 
bom at Siena in 1732, and died in 1779. Several 
pictures by this artist are to be found in the 
churches of Siena and its neighbourhood. 

FELIPE, Fray, was a Spanish miniature painter 
of the early part of the 16th century, who, in con- 
junction with Bernardino C'anderron and Alonso 
Vazquez, between 1514 and 1518 decorated a missal 
for the cathedral of Toledo. 

FELLINI, GlULio Cesabe, born about 1600, was 
a pupil of Gabriele Ferrantini and of Annibale 
Carracci. He excelled in painting horses and 
figures, and was assisted by his son Marcantonio 
Fellini. 

FELLNER, Ferdinand, a designer and painter, 
was born at Frankfort in 1799. After receiving 
a high-class education he went to Munich to study 
art, and remained there from 1825 to 1831, but later 
on he establiahed himself at Stuttgart and pub- 

151 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



lislied a number of illustrations. As a painter his 
works are less meritorious. He died at Stuttgart 
in 1859. Some of the most remarkable of his 
designs for books are : 

The Illustrations of the ' Seven Swabians.' 

Sixteen Illustrations of ' Don Quixote.' 

The Illustrations of ' Faust.' 

Five Illustrations of ' Wilhelm TeU.' 

Illustrations of ' Wallenstein,' ' The Maid of Orleans/ 

' Macbeth,' ' Romeo and Juliet,' Burger's ' Lenore,' 

' Oberon,' ' Robert,' ' Gudrun,' kc. 



His paintings bear the accompanying 1 1__| i 
monogram, and among them are the Y*p J 
following : 



Burgberg. 
Frankfort. 



Church. 
Emperor's Saloon. 



The Holy Family {partly 

painted by Filgram). 
Conrad I. 
Frederic the Beautiful. 



FELLOWES, James, a portrait painter, prac- 
tised in the first half of the 18th century. He 
was reputed to be the painter of a picture, once 
well known, of ' The Last Supper,' at St. Mary's, 
Whitechapel. 

FELOU, Charles FEANgois, the Belgian arm- 
less painter. He first saw the light at Waermaede 
in the year 1830, being born without any arms. He 
did not follow an artistic career until comparatively 
late in life, for it was not until he had passed his 
twenty-fifth year that he seriously commenced 
work as an artist. He worked entirely with his 
feet, holding his palette with his left, and using 
his brushes with the other foot. He died at 
Brussels in the seventieth year of his age. 

FELSENTHAL, Wolfgang, Edler von. See 
Kopp. 

FELSING, Georg Jakob, a German line-engraver, 
was born at Darmstadt in 1802. He was first in- 
structed by his father, Johann Konrad Felsing, but 
he afterwards visited Italy and studied at Milan 
under Longhi, and at Florence the style of Rafia- 
ello Morghen. After residing some time at Naples 
he revisited Florence, and became a professor in 
the Academy of that city, and a member of the 
Academy of Milan. He returned to Darmstadt in 
1832, when he was elected professor, and appointed 
engraver to the Court. During a stay in Paris 
he was influenced by the style of Desnoyers, and 
at Munich by the principles of the artists there. 
Felsing's plates show the talent of a great artist, 
and he worked with the graver in a clear and 
vigorous manner. He was also a member of the 
Academies of St. Petersburg, Berlin, and Vienna, 
and of the Institute of France. He died at Darm- 
stadt in 1883. His most important works are: 

Christ on the Mount of Olives; after Carlo Sold. 

1838. 
Tbe Madonna enthroned ; after Andrea del Sarto. 1830. 
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Correggio. 1831. 
The VioUnist ; after Raphael. 1833. 
Girl at the Fountain ; after Bendemann. 1835. 
The Virgin with the Infant, St. Elizabeth, and St. 

John ; after Overbeck. 1839. 
St. Genevieve in the Forest ; after Steinlriick. 
The Saviour; after Leonardo da Vinci. 1844. 
Christ with the Doctors ; after the same. 1847. 
Hagar and Ishmael ; after Kohler. 1843. 
Moses in the Bulrushes ; after the same. 1849-52. 
The Lorelei ; after Kohler the younqer. 1854. 
The Betrayal of Christ ; after Hofmann. 1861. 
St. Cecilia ; after the same. 
Christ with the Cross ; after Crespi. 
FELSING, JoHANN Konead, a German engraver, 
was born at Giessen in 1766, and learned the 
152 



elements of his art in Darmstadt. He engraved 
many portraits in the dotted manner, but was 
more particularly distinguished by his topogra- 
phical works, of which the last and best was the 
military plan of Mayence. He died at Darmstadt 
in 1819. He was the father of Johann Heineich 
Felsing, a celebrated copper-plate printer, who 
died in 1875, and of Geokg Jakob Felsing, the 
eminent engraver. 

FELTRE, MoRTO da. See Luzzi. 

FELTRINI, Andrea, called also Andrea di 
CosiMO, was a Florentine painter who excelled in 
grotesques. He was born about 1490, and died about 
1554. His works are to be met with at Florence 
on the fronts of houses, on walls, and on ceilings. 
He is called by the first name, from his having 
been a scholar of Morto da Feltre, and by the 
second from his having studied art under Cosimo 
Roselli. 

FEMINIA, Gabriel, a Spanish painter, who 
flourished at the commencement of the 18th cen- 
tury. He had the reputation of being the best 
landscape painter of his time in Spain. 

FENDI, Peter, a German genre and water- 
colour painter, engraver, lithographer, and de- 
signer, was born in 1796 at Vienna, in the academy 
of which city he studied. In 1818 he became 
draughtsman to the Cabinet of Antiquities, and 
in 1821 he went to Venice, and obtained a gold 
medal for his picture of ' The Grotto.' He pro- 
duced pictures on various subjects of German 
history and poetry, and also designed illustrations 
for Dibdin's ' Bibliographical Tour in France and 
Germany,' and for Hormayr's ' History of Vienna.' 
He died in 1842. His ' Young Girl watching a 
Lottery ' is in the Vienna Gallery, and his ' Bride ' 
appeared at the London International Exhibition 
of 1862. 

FENIS, Barthelemi, was an engraver who 
worked at Modena from 1653 to 1669, and etched 
several plates in the style of Callot. 

FENNITZER, Geoeg, who worked at Nuremberg 
towards the end of the 17th century, was an en- 
graver in chiaroscuro, especially of portraits. His 
plates are signed O. F., O. Fenn., G. Feni., or G. 
Fenitz. Among his portraits are : 

Matthaus Miiller. 

Johann Conrad Gotz. 1690. 

Fetrus Ihselburg. 

Andreas Bergmann. 1693. 

FENNITZER, Michael, who was evidently a 
relation of Georg Fennitzer, was born at Nurem- 
berg in 1641, and died there at the close of the cen- 
tury. He also was an engraver in mezzotint, and 
his best plates are ' The Last Supper,' after Adam 
Kraft's relief in the Church of St. Sebaldus at 
Nuremberg, and two or three portraits of local 
celebrities. He marked his productions with either 
his entire name or his initials. 

FENOLLO, Paolo, an Italian painter, is known 
by a ' Bacchic Scene ' in the Madrid Gallery. 

FENTZEL, Geegor, an engraver, was a native 
of Nuremberg, who worked in that city about 
1650. He engraved the ' Battle of King Alphonso 
and the Moors,' after Antonio Tempesta, and the 
portrait of General Don Balthasar Marradas, after 
F. Cleyn, as well as portraits and other illustrations 
' in the style of Jan Sadeler, mostly for the books 
of Paulus Fiirst of Nuremberg. 

FERA, Bernardino, who flourished about 1700, 
was a pupil of Solimena, and was known for hia 
frescoes and distempers. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



FERABOSCO, Girolamo. See Febrabosco. 
' FERABOSCO, Martino, a native of Italy, who 
resided at Rome, engraved the plates for the work 
entitled ' Architettura della Basilica di San Pietro 
in Vaticano,' published at Rome in 1620. 

FERABOSCO, Pietro, an Itahan painter, who 
flourished about 1616, spent the greater part of 
his life in Portugal, where his works are mostly 
to be found. 

FERDINAND, Louis Elle, the elder, a French 
painter of portraits, and an engraver, was born in 
Paris about 1612. He was the son and pupil of 
the painter Ferdinand Elle, a native of Mechlin, 
who settled in France, and was one of the in- 
structors of Nicolas Poussin. Ferdinand Elle was 
known best by his baptismal name alone, and for 
this reason his sons, Louis and Pierre, appear to 
have adopted it as a surname. Independently of 
his talent as a painter, he etched several plates, in 
a spirited and tasteful style, and the prints for a 
book, entitled ' Le Livre original de la Portraiture,' 
printed at Paris in 1644. He was one of the 
foundation members of the Academy in 1648, and 
died in Paris in 1682. There are also by htm the 
following plates : 

Portrait of a Lady ; after Van Di/ck, 
Nicolas Poussin ; F. E.pi}ixit. 
A set of six Friezes ; ajter L. Testelin. 
A set of six groups of Children ; after the same. 
Several allegorical and mythological subjects; after 
Frimaticcio. 

FERDINAND, Louis Elle, the younger, the 
eon and pupil of Louis Elle Ferdinand the elder, 
was born in Paris in 1648. He painted portraits 
with great reputation, and became a member of 
the French Academy, his reception pictures being 
a portrait of Samuel Bernard, the miniature painter, 
now in the Louvre, and a portrait of Regnaudin, 
now in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In the National 
Portrait Gallery is a likeness by him of Dr. Thomas 
Burnet, dated 1675. He died at Reims in 1717. 
His brother, Pierre Elle Ferdinand, etched a few 
plates, including 'St. Potentiana,' after Correggio, 
and died in Paris in 1G65. 

FERDINANDI, Francesco, (or Febnandi,) 
called Imperiali, an Italian painter, worked at 
Rome in 1780. There are two works by him at 
Rome, one is the ' Martyrdom of St. Eustache,' in 
the church dedicated to that saint, and the other 
is the ' Death of St. Eomuald.' 

FERG, Franz de Padla, a painter and etcher, 
was bom at Vienna in 1689. He was instructed first 
by his father, Pancrazius Ferg, and afterwards by 
J. Orient in landscape painting, and by Hans Graf 
in the drawing of figures. His reputation soon 
spread through Germany, and he was invited to 
the court of Dresden, where he passed some years. 
In 1718 he went from Brunswick to London, where 
he passed twenty years, and might have lived in 
afSuenoe and respectability, had not an imprudent 
marriage involved him in difficulties, and kept him 
in continual indigence. He is reported to have 
been found dead in the street, near the door of his 
lodging, in 1740. The landscapes of Ferg are of 
very agreeable scenery, enriched with architectural 
ruins in a very picturesque style, and bear some 
resemblance to the works of Poelenborch: his 
scenes from common life resemble those of Ostade. 
His compositions, which are happily arranged, show 
great diligence in the execution, and bear the an- 
nexed monogram -yL/r* The following are among 
his paintings 



Brunswick. Gallery. The Four Seasons. 





,, 


A Market Scene. 


", 




A Rural Feast. 


Cassel. 


Gallery. 


Sea View. 


Dresden. 


Gallery. 


Six Landscapes with ruins and 
figures. 


Florence. 


Uffizi. 


Two small Landscapes. 


Hampton 


Ct. Palace. 


Small Tiandscape. 


Vienna. 


Gallery. 


A Fair. 



w 



There is a set of eight neat and spirited etchings 
by Ferg of ruins and figures, called ' Capricci fatti 
per F. P. F.' 

FERGIONE, Bernardino, a painter of marine 
views and sea-ports, is stated by Lanzi to have 
flourished at Rome about the year 1718. Claude 
Joseph Vernet studied in Fergione's atelier on his 
arrival in Rome in 1732. 

FERGUSON, James, the Scottish astronomer, 
born near Keith, in Banffshire, in 1710, was a self- 
taught man. Though better known as an astro- 
nomer, he gained a living in Edinburgh and in 
England, for several years, by drawing miniature 
portraits in black lead. He died in 1776. 

FERGUSON, William Gow, was a native of 
Scotland, who after learning the first rudiments of 
art in his own country, passed some years on the 
continent. On his return to his native country, 
he acquired some reputation in painting dead game 
and still-hfe. He died in London about the year 
1695. Some of his smaller pictures are so excellent 
that they are frequently attributed to Weenix, to 
whose works they bear strong resemblance. In 
the Berlin Gallery is a picture of still-life, a dead 
partridge, and in the National Gallery of Scotland 
is one of ' Sculptured Ruins and Figures.' 

FERNANDEZ, Alexeo, (or Hernandez,) was a 
Spanish artist of considerable skill, who at the 
beginning of the 16th century painted for the 
convent of St. Jerome at Cordova several altar- 
pieces from the lives of Christ and the patron Saint, 
which were considered equal in execution to any 
contemporary productions. In 1508 he was em- 
ployed to paint and gild the noble reredos of the 
high-altar of Seville Cathedral, designed at the 
close of the previous century by the Flemish archi- 
tect Daneart. Fernandez remained at Seville until 
1525. A ' Madonna with Angels,' in the church of 
Santa Ana in Seville, is by his hand. 

FERNANDEZ, Antonio Arias. See Arias 
Fernandez. 

FERNANDEZ, Francisco, who was born at 
Madrid in 1605, and brought up in the school of 
Vincenzo Carducho, was one of the most ingenious 
artists of his time, and his talent gained great 
reputation for him at an early age. He was em- 
ployed by Philip IV. in the palaces at Madrid, and 
in the convent of La Victoria are pictures by him 
of the 'Death of St. Francis of Paola,' and 'St. 
Joachim and St. Anne. ' He also etched five spirited 
plates of allegories for Carducho's ' Dialogos de la 
Pintura,' 1633. He was killed in a quarrel by 
Francisco de Baras in 1646. 
FERNANDEZ, Juan Antonio Ribera t. See 

RiBERA. 

FERNANDEZ, Luis, (the elder of the name,) 
was a painter in tempera of Seville, who about the 
year 1580 was the instructor of the elder Herrera, 
Juan and Augustin del Castillo, and Francisco 
Pacheco. 

FERNANDEZ, Luis, a Spanish historical painter, 
both in oil and in fresco, born at Madrid in 1594, 
was a pupil of Eugenio Caxes. There are by 
him in the cross-walk of the convent of La Merced 

153 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Calzada scenes from the life of St. Eamon, painted 
in 1625, and in Santa Cruz were several frescoes 
and oil paintings, which perished, however, by fire 
in the 17th century. His works, executed in the 
style of his master, are distinguished for correct- 
ness of design and beauty of colouring. He died 
at Madrid in 1654. 

FERNANDEZ. Vasco, commonly known as 
Grak Vasco, or (5rao Vasco, ('Vasco the Great,') 
was a Portuguese painter, who has been variously 
cited as ' Ferdinand de Vizeu,' ' Gran Vasco de 
Vizeu,' ' Fernandez Vasco de Cazal,' or simply 
' Vasco Pereira,' or ' Vasco Fernandez.' If reliance 
can be placed on Portuguese testimony, or rather 
assertion, he was the greatest painter that ever 
lived ; not only are his pictures the most'excellent, 
but the most numerous. All in Portugal that have 
not secured a name are by Gran Vasco. Zani 
notices Vasco Pereira, a Portuguese painter, who 
worked in 1594 ; and Cean Bermudez has given an 
account of him among the Spanish artists. Count 
Raczynski, who was desirous of identifying Vasco 
Pereira with Gran Vasco, and who examined a 
small picture by the former, with the date 1575, 
abandoned that idea, and left the elucidation of the 
subject to his friend M. J. Berardo. The conclu- 
sions at which the latter arrived in 1844, and which 
do not appear to have been subsequently shaken, 
were that Gran Vasco is identical with a certain 
Vasco Fernandez, whose baptismal register shows 
him to have been the son of a painter named 
Francisco Fernandez, and to have been born in 
1552, and baptized in the church of Vizeu, though 
it is uncertain whether he was born within that 
town or in a mill in its vicinity. He flourished 
during the reign of Dom Sebastian. One of his 
paintings probably is the ' Christ on the Cross ' in 
the Misericordia at Oporto, which is ascribed to 
Holbein. 

FERNANDEZ de CASTRO, Antonio, was a 
canon of Cordova, who painted two pictures of 
' St. Ferdinand,' and the ' Virgin of the Immaculate 
Conception,' for the chapter-room of his cathedral. 
He died in 1739. 

FERNANDEZ de GUADALUPE, Pedro, a 
Spanish artist, painted in 1509-12 a number of 
wooden figures for Seville Cathedral, and in 1527 
executed for the same edifice a ' Descent from the 
Cross,' with the body of the Saviour lying upontha 
knees of Mary, as well as some other pictures, ono 
of which represented the ' Repentance of St. Peter.' 

FERNANDEZ Dfi LAREDO, Juan, one of the 
best fresco painters of his time, was born at 
Madrid in 1632, and studied under Francisco Rizi, 
whom he assisted in his works at the Retiro. He 
painted many pictures for the churches at Madrid, 
where he was killed by a fall in his own studio in 
1692. 

FERNANDEZ NAVARRETE, Juan, commonly 
called El Mudo, from having been deaf and dumb, 
was born at Logrono about 1526. An acute malady 
at the age of three years deprived him of the sense 
of hearing, and consequently of the power of learn- 
ing to speak. He received his first instruction in 
art from Fray Vicente de Santo Domingo, a monk 
of the order of St. Jerome, but subsequently went 
to Italy and studied at Venice under Titian. His 
sojourn in Italy lasted for at least twenty j'ears, and 
whilst there he availed himself of the opportunity 
of visiting the studios of the most renowned masters. 
Although there is no account of any production of 
importance by him during his stay in that country, 

154 



yet it is certain that he obtained a great reputation 
among the artists, which no doubt was augmented 
by the circumstance of his infirmity. The fame of 
El Mudo, by which name he was known in Italy, 
reached Philip II., who was commencing the decor- 
ations of the Escorial, and he was commanded to 
attend at Madrid for the purpose of being em- 
ployed on that work. He arrived there in 1568, 
and was appointed painter to the king, with an 
annual pension of 200 ducats, in addition to the 
price of his works. He had scarcely commenced 
his labours, when a serious malady compelled him 
to retire to tlie country for the benefit of air, and 
he remained for three years in his native place, 
Logrofio, on leave of absence, but receiving his 
pension as painter to the king. In 1571 he 
returned to the Escorial, bringing with him four 
large pictures which had been commanded, and for 
which he received 500 ducats. These were an 
'Assumption,' the 'Martyrdom of St. James the 
Great,' a ' St. Philip,' and a ' St. Jerome.' It is 
believed that in the first the face of the Virgin was 
the portrait of his mother, Catalina Ximenes, who 
in her youth had been very beautiful. In ad- 
dition to these four pictures he painted for the 
Escorial ' The Nativity,' ' Christ at the Pillar,' a 
' Holy Family,' and ' St. John writing the Apoca- 
lypse ' : these he finished in 1575, and for them he 
received 800 ducats. These eight pictures were 
Navarrete's principal works : unhappily three of 
them, the ' Assumption,' ' St. Philip,' and ' St. John,' 
were destroyed by fire ; the other five were saved 
and placed in the principal cloister of the monastery. 
Besides their unquestionable merit, each picture is 
remarkable for some peculiar circumstance. Thus 
the ' Martyrdom of St. James ' and the ' St. Jerome' 
are most minutely finished ; a manner which he 
did not continue in his other compositions. The 
' Christ at the Pillar,' seen in front, is an admirable 
head, which, by its meekness and beauty, contrasts 
marvellously with the ignoble features of the 
flagellators. In the ' Holy Family ' the heads are 
equally beautiful and expressive ; but, by a strange 
caprice, the painter has placed on one side of the 
fore-ground of the picture a partridge, and on the 
other, a dog and cat contending for a bone, with 
such comical contortions that it is impossible to 
regard them without laughing. In ' The Nativity,' 
El Mudo essayed to vanquish a formidable difficulty 
in painting. He has introduced three lights in the 
picture : the effluence from the holy Infant ; that 
which proceeds from the glory above, and which 
extends over the whole composition ; and that 
emitted from the torch which Joseph holds in his 
hand. The group of shepherds is the best part of 
the picture. It is related that Pellegrino Tibaldi, 
on seeing it, cried out in raptures, " Oh I gli belli 
pastori I " This exclamation gave its name to the 
picture, and it continues to be known as 'The 
Beautiful Shepherds.' In 1576 El Mudo painted 
his famous picture of 'Abraham and the three 
Angels,' for which he received 600 ducats, and about 
this time he entered into a contract with the prior, 
inspector, and treasurer of the Escorial, to paint 
thirty-two pictures, which he engaged to deliver 
within four years. Twenty-seven of these pictures 
were to be seven feet and a half in height and 
seven feet and a quarter in breadth, and the other 
five thirteen feet high and nine feet broad. In the 
contract, which is preserved in the archives of the 
monastery, all the details are specified : for example, 
the canvas of each is to be of one piece without 



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GAUDENZIO FERRARI 




Aliiiari photo] [Byera, Milan 

THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. CATHARINE 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



seam ; the work is to be entirely by the hand of Juan 
Fernandez Navarrete, and to be done either at the 
convent, at Madrid, or at Logroiio ; the figures are to 
be just six feet and a quarter in height ; if the same 
Saint is repeated several times in the pictures he is 
always to have the same visage and the same vest- 
ments ; the painter is not to put in the pictures 
either cat, or dog, or any immodest figure. He 
did not, however, live to complete this vast under- 
taking ; he painted in 1577 and 1578 the eight 
which represent the Apostles, the Evangelists, St. 
Paul, and St. Barnabas; the rest were finished in 
the following years by Alonso Sanchez Coello and 
Luis de Caravajal. El Mudo's health had always 
been delicate, and he died at Toledo in 1679. In 
the Madrid Gallery there are by him a 'Baptism of 
Christ,' 'St. Peter,' and 'St. Paul.' 
EERNANDI, Eranoesco. See Ferdinandi. 
EERNELEY, J. E., an English animal painter, 
was born in 1781, and died in 1860. He exhibited 
hunting pictures at the Royal Academy from 1818 
to 1849. 

FERON, FiRMiN Eloi, a pupil of Gros, born in 
Paris in 1802. He gained the grand prize in 
painting at I'Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1825, and 
went on soon after that to Rome, where he studied 
with great earnestness for some considerable time. 
On his return he executed several pictures for the 
Gallery at Versailles, amongst which may specially 
be named, ' The Battles of Arsur,' ' Fornous,' 
'Guntersdorff,' and ' Hollabrun.' He also painted 
'The taking of Rhodes,' 'The entrance of Charhs 
VIII. into Naples,' 'The arrival of the Duke of 
Orleans at the Hotel de Ville, July, 1830,' and 
some fine portraits of the statesmen of his time. 
He died in 1876. 

FERRABOSCO, Gibolamo, (Ferabosco, or Fora- 
Bosco,) a native of Padua, painted at Venice from 
'631 to 1659. He was a contemporary of Boschini, 
who gives to this master, and to the Cavaliere 
Liberi, the first rank among the Venetian painters 
of the time. He was more employed for private 
collections than for the churclies, and was nnioli 
engaged in portrait painting, in which he particu- 
larly excelled. Ferrabosco possessed a noble and 
penetrating genius, and united suavity with finish, 
and elegance with force ; his works were studied 
in every part, particularly in the heads. He was 
still living in 1660. In the Dresden Gallery is a 
picture of ' A Young Woman snatched from the 
hand of Death.' 

FERRACUTI, Giovanni Domenico, who, accord- 
ing to Lanzi, was a native of Macerata, flourished 
about the middle of the 17th century. He chiefly 
painted landscapes, particularly winter-pieces, 
which were much esteemed in his time. 

FERRADO, Cristobal, a Spanish painter, was 
bom at Anieva, in the principality of the Asturias, 
in 1620. He had acquired some ability from the 
instruction of an unknown artist, and afterwards 
developed into an accomplished painter from his 
own unaided practice. In 1640 he became a monk 
of the order of Santa Maria de las Cuevas, near 
Seville. He continued, however, to exercise his 
art, and painted some pictures for the altars of his 
monastery. Several of his productions are in the 
cloister of San Miguel at Seville, and otht-rs 
have been removed to the Alcazar. Towards the 
end of his life he was made rector of the Car- 
thusian Monastery of Cazaller. He died at Seville 
in 1673. 



FERRAJUOLI, Nonzio, called Ndnzio degli 
Afflitti, was born at Nocera de' Pagani, in the 
Neapolitan territory, in 1660. After studying 
some time under Luca Giordano, he went to 
Bologna, where he became a scholar of Giuseppe 
dal Sole. His first eS'orts were in historical paint- 
ing ; but his genius decidedly led him to land- 
scape in oil and fresco. He died at Bologna in 
1735. 

FERRAMOLA, Floriano, or Fioravante, a 
native of Brescia, born before 1480, the son of a 
carpenter named Lorenzo Ferramola and the 
master of Alessandro Bonvicini (Moretto). Rossi 
relates of him that when Brescia was sacked by 
Gaston de Foix in 1512, he remained calmly 
working at his easel, and being there found by a 
gang of plunderers who demanded ransom, he, 
without discontinuing his labours, told them to 
help themselves, which they quickly did, and left 
his studio an empty wreck. Happily for the artist 
his talents gained for him the protection of Gaston 
de Foix, who ordered him to paint his portrait, 
and indemnified him for his losses. He was much 
employed as a fresco-painter in the churches and 
palaces of Brescia, though very little by him now 
remains there. In 1514 he painted half-lengths of 
Apostles on the spandrels of the arches in the 
nave of S. Maria at Lovere, and between 1516-1518 
decorated the organ shutters in the old cathedral 
of Brescia, which were later removed to S. 
Faustino Maggiore and eventually to S. Maria at 
Lovere, where they are still preserved. His 
frescoes in St. Giulia at Brescia, executed in com- 
pany with a painter named ' Paolo,' were finished 
in 1527, and in that year he was painting in the 
chapel of the Holy Cross in the cathedral at 
Brescia assisted by his pupil Moretto, but he died 
before the completion of the work, in 1528. Soma 
critics attribute to him certain of the frescoes in 
S. Giulia, those in an oratory at the back of the 
choir in the church of the Carmine, an altar-piece 
in S. Maria delle Grazie, and other paintings at 
Brescia. The following may be ascribed to him 
with certainty : 

Berlin. Gallery. Madonna and Saints, dated 

1513. 
Brescia. Carmine. Lunette 'i 

fresco over W. >The Annunciation. 
door. J 

Lovere. *S'. Maria, Frescoes, dated 1514. 

„ „ The Annunciation {outer 

shutters of the organ), 
dated 1518. C. J. Ff. 

FERRAND, Jacques Philippe, who was born at 
Joigny in Burgundy hi 1653, was a miniaturist 
and painter in enamel. He was the son of a phy- 
sician to Louis XIII., and studied under Mignard 
and Samuel Bernard. In 1690 he was received 
into the Academy, on which occasion he painted a 
portrait of Louis XIV. He excelled in his art, and 
pubhshed in 1721 a work entitled, ' L'Art du feu, 
ou maniere de peindre en ^mail.' He travelled in 
Italy, England, and Germany, and died in Paris in 
1732. 

FERRANDINI, Claudio, an engraver, worked in 
Paris and Toulon in the latter part of the 18th 
century. He engraved landscapes, sea-pieces, and 
views after Claude, Fontaine, J. Vernet, S. R.Vialy, 
Teniers, &c. He died about 1790. 

FERRANTE, Giovanni Francesco, who was 
born at Bologna about 1600 was a pupU of Gessi. 

155 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



He executed several works in oil and fresco at 
Bolo^a and at Piacenza, where he died in 1652. 

FERRANTI, Decio and Agosto, father and son, 
were painters who flourished about 1500. Both of 
them painted miniatures exquisitely, and in the 
cathedral of Vigevano is an Evangeliarium and a 
Missal richly embellished by them. 

FERRANTINI, Gabmele, called Gabriele 
DAGLl OCCHIALI, from his wearing spectacles, was 
bom at Bologna about 1550, and was instructed 
in the school of DionysiuB Calvaert. He painted 
historical subjects, both in oil and fresco, in a 
pleasing and tasteful manner. Several of his 
works are in the churches at Bologna, of which 
the following are the most esteemed : in San 
Benedetto, ' St. Francis of Paola ' ; in San Mattia, 
a fine picture of ' St. Jerome ' ; in La Carita, ' St. 
Francis receiving the Stigmata ' ; and in the 
church of the Servites, the ' Descent from the 
Cross ' and the ' Birth of the Virgin.' 

FERRANTINI, Ippolito, a brother of Gabriele 
Ferrantini, was instructed by the Carracci, whom 
he imitated with success. He was a member of the 
Accademia degli Incaminati. In the church of San 
Mattia in Bologna is a picture representing ' St 
Michael.' 

FERRARA, Bono da, (or Bono Feerarese,) lived 
in the 15th centur}', and seems to have been the 
pupil of both Pisano and Squarcione. He was 
employed bj' the Dukes of Ferrara to decorate 
their castles at Migliaro and Belfiore, in 1450 and 
1452. He also painted a 'St. Christopher' in 
the chapel of the Eremitani at Padua, and he is 
said to have assisted in the decorations of the 
Cathedral of Siena in 1461. The National Gallery 
possesses a ' St. Jerome in the Desert,' by him, 
■The 'Anonimo Morelliano' refers to his work at 
Padua, and says that he painted part of the 
chapel, and that the remaining parts were done 
by Mantegna and by Ansuino da Forli. His style 
partakes of that of his master Squarcione, and also 
of that of his fellow-pupil Mantegna. Of his birth 
or death no dates can be given. 

FERRARA, Cosme da. See Tdra. 

FERRARA, Ercole da. See Grandi. 

FERRARESINO, II. See Berlinghieri, Ca- 

MILLO. 

FERRARI, Antonio Felice, the son of Fran- 
cesco Ferrari, was born at Ferrara in 1668. He 
was a painter of architecture, and distinguished 
himself by the grandeur of his style in the paint- 
ings for the palaces at Ferrara, Venice, Padua, and 
Ravenna. He died in 1720. 

FERRARI, Bernardino, who was born at 
Vigevano about 1540, painted at that place the 
chapels of San Jacopo and San Filippo. He 
imitated the style of Gaudenzio Ferrari. 

FERRARI, Difendente, a contemporary of 
Macrino, was a painter of numerous pictures, chief 
of which are a ' Pieta ' in the cathedral of Chivasso, 
altar-pieces in the cathedral of Ivrea (1519-1521), 
and a ' Nativity, with Saints ' (1531) in the church 
of Ranverso. 

FERRARI, Francesco, born at Castello della 
Fratta, near Rovigo, in 1634, was a painter of his- 
torical subjects, architecture, and landscapes. He 
was first employed in figure-painting, but after- 
wards studied decoration and scenery under 
Gabriele Rossi. He painted for the Marchese degli 
Obizzi, among other works, the theatre at San 
Lorenzo in 1650. Subsequently he was engaged 
upon theatre-decorations at Vienna, and painted in 
156 



San Francesco, the Gesii, San Giorgio, and the 
Bucci Mansion at Ferrara, and San Petronio at 
Bologna, where he executed 'The Martyrdom of 
St. Sebastian.' He died in 1708. 

FERRARI, Francesco Bianchi, called II Feari, 
an excellent artist, born in 1447, executed many 
paintings at Modena, but a great number of his 
productions have perished. A fine picture by him 
in the Louvre at Paris, representing ' The Madonna 
enthroned, with Saints and Angels,' bears bo 
striking a resemblance to Correggio's ' St. Francis ' 
in the Dresden Gallery, that it has much strength- 
ened the supposition that Correggio was Ferrari's 
pupil. He died in 1510. 

FERRARI, Gaudenzio, called by Vasari Gau- 
denzio Milanese, a painter and sculptor of the 
Lombard school, was born at Valduggia, near 
Novara, most probably in the year 1484. Nothing 
is known of his early years, or as to who was his 
first master, though he seems at one time to have 
been a pupil of Luini. That he was instructed in 
the principles of art by Girolamo Giovenone at 
Vercelli is a supposition devoid of foundation, but 
he studied under Stefano Scotto, a painter of ara- 
besques, at Milan. His greatest advance was, how- 
ever, derived from an attentive study of the works 
of Leonardo da Vinci. There is no proof that he 
was acquainted with Perugino or Raphael, or that 
he was at Rome, and painted in conjunction with 
the latter in the Farnesina and in the Vatican in 
1519 and 1520. This devotion to the study of such 
models developed his great talent so rapidly as to 
cause him so early as in 1504 to be appointed for 
the execution of a considerable work in the Cappella 
del Sacro Monte at Varallo, representing the ' Sacri- 
fice of Christ.' In 1508 he was at Vercelli. In 
1510 he painted for the commune of Arena a 
picture in six compartments, the subject of the 
principal one being ' The Virgin adoring the In- 
fant.' This, and others of his early works, was 
signed ' Gaudenzio di Vincio.' At Varallo he 
displayed great activity, and executed a con- 
siderable number of paintings and sculptures. 
He was also the instructor of many artists, as, 
Andrea Solario, Bernardino Lanini, Firmo Stello, 
Cesare Luini, and Antonio Zanotti. From 1527 
until his death at Milan, where he left unfinished 
a 'Last Supper' in Santa Maria della Passione, 
he painted in oil and fresco in several churches 
in that city and its neighbourhood. There exists 
a great number of frescoes by Gaudenzio, which 
are scarcely inferior to those of his pupil Luini, 
with whom he painted from 1532 to 1535 in San 
Cristoforo at Vercelli. The latest mention of 
him is in 1545, and it is probable that he died 
at Milan in 1549 or 1550. The different styles 
of the great masters after whom he studied 
are very discernible in his works, while here and 
there he becomes fantastical and odd. He un- 
doubtedly possessed an extraordinary fertility of 
invention, together with an elevation of style, and 
these characteristics have caused him to be con- 
sidered one of the first painters of his time. Eia 
works are not so distinguishable for a correct 
delineation of muscular anatomy as for a choice 
of diificult and uncommon attitudes, which are 
bold and striking where the subject admits. The 
following is a list of several of his works : 



Arona. 
Berlin. 

Busto Arsizio, 
near Milan. 



Church, 
Gallery, 

Church, 



Madonna and Child. 
The Annunciation. 

Several frescoes. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Cannobbio.Lagol c^^^^j_ 

Maggiore. j 

Oomo. Cathedral. 



London. 
Milan. 



3Ir. Solford. 
Brera, 



,, S. Amhrotjio. 

„ ' S. M. delle Grazie. 

» »» 

,, S. 31. della Fasstone. 

„ S.M.presso S. Celso. 

Novara. Cathedral. 

„ S. Gaudenzio. 



Paris. 



Louvre. 



Saronno, near Filffrimac/e't 

Milan. Church, j 

Turin. Gallery. 



Varallo. 



Cappella del \ 

Sacro Mo7tte. } 

Colleyiata. 



Christ bearing the Cross. 

Marriage of Mary and Jo- 
seph. 

The Flight into Egypt {in 
tempera). 

The Virgin and Angels ador- 
ing the Infant. 

Martyrdom of St. Catha- 
rine. 

Scenes in the Life of the 
Virgin ; in fresco. {For- 
merly in Santa Maria della 
Pace.) 

Adoration of the Magi. 

An Angel with a Harp. 

An Angel with a Lute. 

Presentation in the Temple. 

Virgin and Saints. 

The Flagellation of Christ. 

The Crucifixion. 1542. 

The Last Supper. Unjinished. 
1543. 

Baptism of Christ. 

An Altar-piece. 1524. 

The Virgin enthroned, sur- 
rounded by Saints. 

The Apostle Paul. 1543. 
(Formerly in Santa Maria 
delle Grazie^ Milan.) 

A Glory of Angels ; in the 
cupola. 1535. 

Christ bewailed. 

St. Peter._ 

St. Joachim driven from the 
Temple. 

Meeting of the Virgin and 
St. Elizabeth. 

The Sacrifice of Christ. 1504. 

Marriage of St. Catharine. 

The Procession of the 
Magi. 
S. M. delUGrazie. Vieia.. UOi. 

,, Scenes in the Life of Christ. 

Adoration of the Infant. 

The Birth of Mary, The An- 
nunciation,The Visitation, 
The Adoration of the Magi 
and the Shepherds, The 
Crucifixion, The Ascension 
of the Virgin, Madonna 
with Angels and Saints. 
1532-1534. 
S. Paolo. The Last Supper.