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First published, 2 vols. 4to, iSl6 
Second edition, revised by J. Stanley, I vol. 8vo, 1849 
Supplement hy B. Ottley, 1876 

2 hird edition, revised by Robert Edmund Graves and 
Sir Walter Armstrong, 2 vols. 8vo, 1S84 — 18S9 
Misprinted 1S94, 1S99, 1901-2 
Fourth edition, revised by G. C. Willia>?ison, Litt.D., 

5 vols., 1903-4. Vol. V. reprinted 1910, 1915, 

and 1 9 19. 


The most notable article in this Volume is that on Titian by Mr. Herbert Cook.^ 
Early in importance after this come those relating to four eminent artists who have 
recently died — Watts, by his old friend, Mr. M. H. Spielmann ; Whistler, by his 
recent biographer, Jlr. G. R. Dennis; Vereshchagin, by Mr. H. Rajanent; and 
Frederick Sandys, by the Editor. In each of these cases, but especially with regard 
to Whistler, an effort has been made to give the very fullest possible account of 
the artist and his v.-orks that the limits of such a dictionary as this permit. The 
list of Whistler's etchings is by far the most complete that has yet appeared. 

There is an unusually large number of biogxaphies in the volume relating 
to old Italian masters whose lives in recent years have been reconstructed, and 
whose works have received fresh and informing attention. 

In this series the contributions made by Miss Olcott as to Alvise, Bartolommeo, 
and Antonio Vivarini are of the first importance, and hardly second to them come 
the articles from the pen of Mr. R. H. Hobart Gust on the three artists of the 
Semino family ; the three of the Salimbeni ; the three of the Tiepolo family ; the 
Tressini; the two artists named Spanzotto, and Pier F. Sacchi. Miss Olcott has 
also written the article on Cosimo Tura, and those on the two Vanni, Lippo and 

The two Signorelli have been entrusted to Miss Maud Cruttwell, who has long 
made a special study of these painters, while Mr. Langton Douglas has dealt with 
that mysterious personality whose greatness has so recently come to light, the 
Sienese artist Sassetta. Solario, Salaino, and two very little-known men, Sebastiani 
and Trino, have fallen to the share of another member of the Gust family, Mrs. 
Wherry, and all that could be told respecting them she has set forth. 

It has been a particular pleasure to enlist in the service of the Dictionary the 
eminent scholar, Herr Paul Kristeller, and the irajDortant article on Squarcione from 
his pen sets to rest, finally, it is hoped, some of the vain imaginings that have 
been current as to this so-called founder of a school. 

Other Italian artists who have been treated afresh in the light of new discoveries 
are Sassoferrato, Bramantino, Savoldo, Tisio, Torbido, Varotari, and Vasari, who have 
been described by Mr. Briuton ; Leonardo da Vinci, who has been taken in hand 

• The article on Titian was, by an oversight, mentioned in the Note to Vol. IV., where another 
article written by Mr. H. Cook, that on Previtali, appeared. 


by Mr. McCurdy, Leonardo's most recent biographer ; Spinelli and Turchi, who 
have been treated of by Mr. Strutt, the writer of the book on Lippo Lippi ; the 
three Vecelli and Vavassori, who have received most careful attention from Miss 
Jourdain ; and Perugino, who, as a matter of course, has fallen to the share of 
the Editor. 

In the German School there are some notable articles, especially those from 
the pen of Mr. Campbell Dodgson oa Schongauer, Schou, the three artists of the 
name of Traut, M. Wolgemut, and the two of the name of Weiditz ; while Miss 
Constance Jocclyn Ffoulkes has reviewed a long list of the more unusual and 
difficult of the little-known German and Italian artists; writing articles upon 
Schiilein, Van Schwaz, Scotti, the two Seregno, the Master of Sigmaringen, De 
Soye, Van Staren, Stefano de' Fedeli, Strigel, Theodorich of Prague, J. Thiifel, 
Tommaso da Modena, the two artists of the Da Vaprio family, D. J. Vellert, F. de 
Vico, G. Visniara, Hans Weiditz, the two Weinschroters, the Master of Werden, 
Olmutz von Wenzel, Conrad Witz, A. and J. Woensam von Worms, N. Wurmser, 
Zavattari, and P. and M. Zoppo. 

The veteran writer, Mr. Weale, who from the very first has had charge of the 
section dealing with the old Flemish and Dutch artists, has contributed an 
unusually large number of articles to this volume, writing those on Saftleven, Saive, 
Sanders, Scorel, Snellaert, P. and H. Steenwijck, the three Stoeveres, Susenier, 
Taulier, Teylingen, Tieffental, Tillemanns, Tol, Uute Wael, Van de Capelle, A^'an der 
Goes, Van der Hagen, Van dcr Leepe, the five Van der Meeres, the three Van der 
Neers, Van der Pluym, Van der Veen, the three Van der Weydens, Van der Woestine, 
Van't Woudt, Van Voorst, Van Vucht, Van Wytevelde, Verbuys, Verwilt, De Vigilia, 
the two Volmaryns, Vrelant, J. Van Wijckersloot, F. Walschartz, C. Witz, Zegelaar, 
Zutmann, and Zyl. He has also sent in many small corrections of dates and lists 
of pictures, acquired during his unceasing researches into the history of Flemish 

Of the more strictly-called Dutch School the chief article is a very important 
one from Mr. Frank Hinder on Vermeer, containing the result of all past investiga- 
tion, and correcting the errors hitherto adopted as to this wonderful painter ; while 
of hardly less importance are the articles from the hand of Dr. Martin of the Ha;jue, 
dealing with Jan Steen, the four artists named Teniers, Ter Borch, and Terbruggen. 
Mr. Staley has contributed the article on Trocst. 

Another article that deserves attention, especially as it is one of the few 
contributed by American scholars, is the one on Van Audenaerde, written by Dr. 
H. Hochheimer. 

The baft'ing Cretan who settled in Spain and became known as El Greco is the 
subject of a long article by Mrs. Jack Henuiker-Heaton, who has translated a recent 
work on that artist written in Spanish by the leading artistic scholar of Spain, 
Senor Don M. B. Cossio ; while the head of the Spanish School, the great Velazquez, 
has fallen to the care of Sir Walter Armstrong, who has pruned and brought up 
to date the notice he contributed to an earlier edition of the Dictionary. 

In the French School the lives of Troyon and of J. A., F. L. J., and L. J. 
Watteau are the work of Mr. Staley. 

NOTE TO VOL. V. vii 

Of modem Italian artists the one deserving most attention is Segantini, and 
his biography has been written by Mr. Arthur G. Bell, who had the advantage of 
personal knowledge of that gifted man. 

In the Russian School mention has already been made of Vereshchagin, but the 
assistance of Mr. Cazalet, President of the Anglo-Russian Society, must not be over- 
looked in some corrections made by him, and especially with regard to the memoir of 
P. A. Sviedomski which he has contributed. That of Tatkeleff' is the work of the 
Editor, who has contributed several other memoirs of Russian artists. 

American artists have not been overlooked, and the names of H. Sargent, W. 
Sartain, James Sharpies, R. Sharpies, H. Stone, W. O. Stone, A. W. Thompson, 
Edwin L. Weeks, R. W. Weir, S. L. Wenban, A. Wright, and E. A. Willis represent 
this rapidly-growing body of workers. 

Turning now to the English artists, it should be mentioned that, as before, Mr. 
Dibdin has contributed the stories of the Liverpool painters, including George 
Stubbs, Tonge, the two Townes, John and J. C. Turmeau, Walker, Wallis, Richard 
Wane, and the various painters of the Williamson family, while the life of another 
Stubbs, J. H. P., has been written by his lineal descendant, Mr. H. Stubbs. Four 
other cases in which the assistance of lineal descendants has been secured, are those 
of the immortal Turner, where the information as to the family of the artist has 
been sent in by Mr. C. M. W. Turner, the memoir of Robert Kent Thomas, which 
has been carefully prepared by his daughter, Mrs. Ewen, while in the case of the 
brothers Alfred and Henry Tidey, the narratives have been compiled by their niece, 
Miss Lovering, and Miss Wallis and Mr. G. H. Wallis have contributed the life of 
•George Wallis. 

Many of the Scotsmen who have lately passed away have come to the share of 
Dr. Laing, of Dundee, who has prepared biographies of W. Bell Scott, John Smart, 
Robert Thorburn, James A. Walker, John Wallace, Robert Bruce Wallace, John 
Watson, J. D. Watson, J. W. Whymper, and W. J. Yule, as well as taking his part in 
■writing upon some of the smaller English and foreign artists who might otherwise 
have been overlooked, such as Saftleven, Salmon, Salmson, Saunier, Sayers, Schaar- 
schmidt, Schlesinger, Slocombe, Sorokin, Stanton, Steenwijck, Stuckelberg, Sundberg, 
Surat, Tourrier, De Tours, Unger, Yallance, M. L. Vermeer, Vidal, Wattier, H. 
Wilhelm, Yon, W. J. Yule, and Zalisker. 

F. W. Topham and Wimperis have been the work of Mr. Henry Walker, who 
has also contributed a long fresh account of Ziegler from special sources hitherto 

Wi-ight of Derby and J. R. Wilson have been treated of by Mr. W. Roberts, the 
biographer of Romney ; Gleeson White, the well-beloved designer, has been contributed 
by his friend Mr. Dennis ; Viscountess Templetown has been the subject of a notice 
from Mrs. Erskiue, to which Mr. Campbell Dodgson has added some special informa- 
tion; Alfred Stevens is the subject of an inspiring article from the pen of Mr. Layard; 
Tissot has been contributed by Mrs. Arthur Bell; George Wilson by his recent 
biographer, Mr. J. Bnillie ; Smetham and Lewis Wingfield by the Editor ; and Stott 
of Oldham and H. T. Wells have been supplied by Mr. Malcolm Bell, who is the 
•»uthor also of an excellent account of Daniel Yierge. 

viii NOTE TO VOL. V. 

Turner has received attention from three separate authors ; Mr Algernon Graves, 
whose knowledge of the pictures is unrivalled, having gone through the article with 
great care and made many additions and alterations, while Mr. C. M. W. Turner, 
already mentioned, has contributed the family section, and another writer some 

There are yet very many of the English artists to be mentioned. 

The medallists have not been overlooked, as their fine drawings are worthy of 
notice, and the volume contains notices of eight members of the eminent family of 
Wyon, as well as references to other leading men in the same profession, such as 
Tanner, Simon and Snelling. A few architects have been hitherto overlooked, and had 
to be referred to on account of their work in water-colour or oil ; such men as Sir 
G. G. Scott, J. D. Sodding, Smirke and Sir John Soane appearing in this volume ; 
while the writers who practised art, such as G. A. Sala, Sir George Scharf, Challoner 
Smith, and R. H. Soden Suiitb, and the collectors, as John Sheepshanks, have also 
received notice. 

Amongst the miniaturists the accounts of Scouler and John Smart call for special 
attention, while amongst English artists not hitherto properly treated, and of some- 
what lesser moment, it may be v.'ell to direct the reader to the memoirs of such men 
as William Simpson, and the Varleys, the work of Mr. Martin Hardie, who has 
also contributed many other articles, including those on C. K. Sharpe, J. Sibmacher, 
T. Sibson, A. Sisley, George Smith, W. B. Smith, W. C. Smith, G. Steell, James 
Stephenson, J. E. Stevens, A. and L. Stocks, F. Tayler, and H. J. Townsend, and also 
to the notices of the various artists of the Strutt family, of the Sharpies family, 
of J. Woltl" the animal painter, John Syer, Elijah Walton, and others. 

The rank and file constitute a very long list, far longer than in the preceding 
volumes, and the following names may be mentioned : — 

J. Saddler, John W. Saddler, Camille Saglio, G. H. Sagstiitter, H. Sagstatter, J. E. 
Saintin, — Salisbury, B. N. Salm, L. A. Salmon, H. F. Salmson, G. Saloman, Anthony 
Salvin, John Sanders, J. A. Sanders, Francis Sandford, H. Sandreuter, F. Sangainetti, 
F. Sargent, John Sartain, E. Sartori, J. F. Sartorius, J. N. Sartorius, H. Sass, A. 
Sauerweid, Noel Saunier, George Saunders, P. E. Sautai, J. L. du Sautoy, — Savill, 

F. R. Say, E. J. Schaller, E. de Schampheleer, W. Schaw, A. F. A. Scheuck, H. 
Scherenburg, K. J. N. Scheuren, F. A. H. Schielvelbeine, E. J. Schindler, G. Schirmer, 
Ivan Schischkin, A. Schleich, E. Schleich, F. Schmalzigang, M. Schmidt, P. Schobelt, 
A. Schoenn, Otto Scholderer, C. von Schraudolph, A. Schreyer, W. H. Schroeder, 

G. E. Schuback, F. A. Schubert, E. Schultz-Bricsen, L. F. Schlitzenberger, T. S. 
Schurawlew, C. Schweicli, A. Schwendy, Baron von Schwiter, J. J. Scoles, G. G. Scott, 
A. Sege, G. Seidel, A. Seifert, A. Seitz, C. Sell, L. Sellmayr, H. C. Selous, G. Semper, 
L. P. Sergent, Sarah Setchell, G. P. Seurat, J. M. Sevestre, Charlotte Sharpe, Mary 
Anne Sharpe, F. Sharpies, James Sharpies, junr., George Sheffield, T. H. Shepherd, 
W. Sheppard, Chas. Sherwin, F. S. Shuranlew, S. Sidley, A. Siegert, H. Siemiradski, 
E. Signol, P. C. Simart, W. H. Simmons, N. Simonsen, F. J. Skill, J. Skippe, E. 
Shngeneijer, Sydney Smirke, J. R. Smith, S. C. Smith, Frauz Sodar, J. P. Sodermark, 
C. F. Soerensen, P. P. Sokolow, H. Sondermann, G. A. Spangenberg, L. Spangenberg, 
C. Springer, F. G. Ssolnzeff, A. Stabli, J. P. Stafford, A. Staunard, A. G. Stannard, 


Karl Stauffer, K. K. H. Steffeck, M. Steiula, Jas. Stephanotf, F. M. F. Storelli, Thos. 
StreatfielJ, Ja?. Stuart, L. Stiirtz, N. Y. Svertschkof, Chas. Swaine, S. D. Swarbreck 
James R. Swinton, E. SwoboJa, John Syme, A. C. L. Tacke, A. Tahy, W. H. F.Talbot 
L. Tancini, James Tassie, W. Tassie, George Tattersall, John Taylor, Peter Taylor, C. 
Teja, E. Tenner, F. Tej a, E. Tepper, L. Tcrrazzi, H. J. Terry, E. Teschendorf, E. 
Tetzner, M. Than, W. Theed, E. R Thirion, C. A. E. Thomas, John Thomas, W. L. 
Thomas, Jacob Thompson, James Thomson, S. A. Thon, O. von Thoren, J. Till, L. C. 
Timbal, James Timbrell, J. J. J. Tissot, H. G. Todd, M. Todt, V. Tojetti, A. Toulmouche, 
H. Toutin, J. Toutin, Carl L. Tragardh, J. M. von Trenkwald, W. H. Trood, P. D. 
Trouillebert, G. S. Truesdell, K. A. Trutowsky, Charles P. Tschaggeny, J. B. Tiittine, 
R. S. Tyrwhitt, J. W. Upham, S. Ussi, P. Vaini, Jules E. Valadon, J. Valeutiuy, T. 
Val^rio, H. Valkenburg, G. Vanaise, J. van Bree, J. H. F. van Lerius, S. Vannutelli, 
P. A. Varin, M. L. B. Vautier, A. Veillon, C. L. Verboeckhoven, E. J. Verboecklioven, 
J. L. J. Verdier, E. Verdyen, J. Verhaz, M. C. Verlat, J. B. Vermay, A. J. Verw^e, J. G. 
Vibert, C. L. Vielcazal, T. Viero, F. Vinea, H. F. Vion, T. de Viva, F. Vizetelly, H. 
Vizetelly, W. Vogels, A. C. Voillemot, A. Vollon, A. J. J. Vollweider, J. F. Voltz, W. 
Volz, A. de Vriendt, J. A. Vrolyk, Jan M. Vrolyk, E. L. Wagrez, G. Walckiers, Henry 
Wallis, Jame.5 Ward, Isaac Ware, J. B. Waring, Robert Warthmliller, R. F. Wassmann, 
Jas. Wathen, M. L. Watson, W. H. Watts, Charles M. Webb, A. Wegelin, J. F. W. 
Wegener, K. G. Wegener, C. Weigand, J. G. Weinhold, L. Weisser, E. Welker, T. L. 
Weller, M. Welter, G. Wertheimer, F. Westin, K. Weysser, George Whitaker, J. W. 
Whittaker, N. Whittock, J. J. G. van Wicheren, F. Wichert, W. Widgery, F. 
Wieschebrink, H. G. Wieschebrink, H. Wilhelm, B. Wilkes, A. von WiUe, T. 
Willement, T. Williams, Cfesar Willich, E. A. Willis, W. G. Wills, C. H. Wilson, 
M. E. Winge, F. W. von Winterfeklt, H. Wislicenus, 0. Wisniewski, E. S. Witkamp, 
J. P. Wittkamp, J. M. Wittmer, A. E. van Woerndle, M. A. Wolff, A. Wolfl, B. Woltze, 
A. Wonseidler, L. J. Wood, W. F. Woodington, Thos. Woolner, Jos. Wright, Wm. 
Wyld, R. Yeo, E. F. You, J. M. Youngman, A. Yvon, M. Zaliski, E. K. G. 
Zimmermann, F. Zimmerrnann, J. B. A. Zo, F. Zuberbiihler. 

In all there are nearly six hundred new biographies in this Volume, and over 
three thousand corrections have been made on the last edition. 

The Editor would like to add a word in explanation of the fact (frequently 
commented upon by the reviewers) that considerable space has been given in all the 
volumes to modem men, especially those who have recently died. His reason for this 
is that the information is specially required when these artists are being constantly 
referred to and their works being collected, and the information is not readily 
obtainable outside the Dictionary without the examination of many books. He is 
aware that the space given to modern men is often disproportionate, but it is, if an 
error, an intentional one, and made in order to render the Dictionary the best modern 
work of reference. It is necessary also to state once more that the work does not 
deal with living artists. 

In conclusion, the Editor takes this opportunity of thanking all his contributors 
for what they have so kindly done for him, and tlie reviewers for the considerate 
way in which they have received and reviewed the various volumes. His thanks are 
also due to very many owners of pictures who have allowed the works in their 


popsession to be described and often photographed for use in this work ; and, lastly, 
he would thank all those critics who with much courtesy have written to him pointing 
out various errors and suggesting additions and improvements. 

It was at one time thought that a supplement might be added to this final volume 
containing notices of the painters — unfortunately a considerable number — who have 
passed away while the book has been in the press, as well as certain memoirs omitted 
in previous volumes. The volume has, however, run out to so great a length, that 
this is out of the question. The Editor, therefore, can only express the hope that 
when sufficient material shall have accumulated, he may be privileged to issue a 
supplementary volume, and with this object in view he will always be grateful for 
the assistance of his numerous readers, and begs them to be good enough to 
communicate with him (to the care of the publishers) as to any omissions or errors 
that they may at any time discover, or any special information they may be able to 


As confusion frequently arises iu the alphabetical arrangement of biographical dic- 
tionaries owing to the arbitrary mode in which it has been customary to deal with such 
names as are preceded by an article or a preposition, or by both, it has been thought 
desirable in this work to adopt the grammatical principle sanctioned by the Belgian 
Academy in regaid to the names of Flemish and French (or Walloon) origin, which 
are included in the ' Biographic Rationale.' 

The arrangement therefore is according to the following plan : 

I. Every artist having a surname is placed under that surname, cross-references being 
given from assumed names and sobriquets whenever needed. 

Thus, Correggio is entered under AUegri, Antonio. 

rintiiricchio ,, Biagio, Bernardino. 

Sehaitiano del Piomho „ Luciani, Sehasiiano. 

Tintoi'etio „ Jiobusti, Jacopo. 

{a) When the preSx to a name is an article it remains annexed, because it is an integral 
part of the name ; but when it is a preposition, it is disunited, because it indicates the place 
of origin or birth of the artist, or a teiritorial or seigneurial name. Thus, the French Le 
and La, and the equivalent Dutch and Flemish De are retained ; while the French d^, the 
Italian da and di, the German von, and the Dutch and Flemish van are rejected. 

Thus, Charles Le Brun 

is entered under 

Le Brun. 

Jan David De Ileem 


De Heem. 

Jean Francois de Troy 



Ileinrich Maria von Hess 



Isack van Ostade 



(6)' When the prefix is an article joined to or preceded by a preposition, as in the French 
dii, de la, and des, the Italian del, della, degli, dai, dagli, and dalle, the Spanish del and dt 
la, and the Dutch van der, van de, van den, and ver (a contraction for van der), it cannot be 
disunited from the proper name, because the particles together represent the genitive case 
of the article. 

Thus, Alphonse du Fresnoy is entered under Du Fresnoy. 

Laurent de La Hire „ De La Hire. 

Niccolo deW Abbate „ DeW Ablate. 

Girolamo dai Libri „ Dai Libri. 

WUlem van de Velde „ Van de Velde. 

xii NOTICE. 

(c) English artists bearing foreign names are placed under the prefix, whether it be an 
article or a preposition. 

Thus, Peter Be Wtnt is entered under De Wint. 

(d) Proper names with the prefix Si. are placed as though the word Saint were written 
in full : and similarly, M' and Mc are arranged as Mac. 

(e) Foreign compound names are arranged under the first name. 

Thus, Bcqjfiste Auhry-Lecomte is entered under Aubri/-Lecom.te. 

Juan Cano de Arevalo ,, Cano de Arevalo. 

II. An artist having no surname is placed under the name of the place from which he 
is known, or failing that, under his own Christian name 

Thus, Andrea da Bologna is entered under Bologna. 

Andrea del Sarto ,, Andrea. 

Fra Bartoloimneo „ Bartolommeo. 

III. Anonymous artists known as the Master of the Crab, the Master of tlie Die, the 
Master of the Rat-Trap, will be found under the common title of Master. 







>• • 



















• •• 












■ .* 









H. C. ... 













































. M 

. H. 









S. H. ... 












W. L. ... 

Sir "Walter Armstrong. 

J. Baillie. 

A. Lys Baldry. 

A. G. Bell. 

Clara Bell. 

Malcolm Bell. 

Lawrence Binyon. 

Selwyn Brinton. 

Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Ady). 

J. L. Caw. 

E. A. Cazalet. 

Arthur B. Chamberlain. 

Herbert Cook. 

Maud CruttweU. 

Lionel Cust. 

R. H. Ilobart Cust. 

Rev. G. S. Davies. 

G. R. Dennis. 

E. R. Dibdin. 

Campbell Dodgson. 

Langton Douglas. 

0. J. DuUea. 

Beatrice Erskine. 

Jessie Ewen. 

Constance J. Ffoulkes. 

Roger E. Fry. 

Algernon Graves. 

Robert Edmund Graves. 

Geoi'g Gronau. 

Martin Ilardie. 

Frederic Harrison. 

Mary M. Heaton. 

Sermonda Henniker- Heaton. 

H. Hochheimer. 

J. B. Stoughton Holborn. 

Charles Holroyd. 

M. Jourdain. 

Paul Ki-isteller. 

J. H. W. Laing. 


G. S. L. ... ... ... ... G. S. Layard. 

M. L. ... ... ... Mary Logan (Mrs. Berenson). 

I. L. ... ... ... ... Ida Lovering. 

E. McC. ... ... ... ... E. McCurdy. 

H. C. M. ... ... ... ... H. C. Marillier. 

W. M. ... ... ... ... W. Martin. 

D. R. M. ... ... ... ... Dora R. Meyrick. 

L. O. ... ... ... ... Lucy Olcott. 

E. J. O. ... ... ... ... E. J. Oldmeadow. 

A. O'R. ... ... ... ... Agnes O'Reilly. 

F. M. P. ... ... ... ... F. M. Perkins. 

P. P. ... ... ... ... Percy Pinkerton. 

A. H. P. ... ... ... ... A. H. Pollen. 

S. P. P. ... ... ... ... S. Pugin PoweU. 

H. R. ... ... ... ... H. Rayment. 

C. E. ... ... ... ... Corrado Ricci. 

R. R. ... ... ... ... Ralph Richardson. 

J. P. R. ... ... ... ... J. P. Richter. 

F. R. ... ... ... ... Frank Rinder. 

W. R. ... ... ... ... W. Roberts. 

E. R. ... ... ... ... Emily Robertson. 

W. B. S. ... ... ... ... William BeU Scott. 

F. S. ... ... ... ... Florence Simmonda, 

H. C. S. ... ... ... ... H. Clifford Smith. 

E. S. ... ... ... ... E. Staley. 

E. S. ... ... ... ... Elliot Stock. 

E. C. S. ... ... ... ... K C. Strutt. 

H. S. ... ... ... ... H. Stubbs. 

C. M. W. T. ... ... ... ... C. M. W. Turner. 

H. W. ... ... ... ... Henry Walker. 

G. H. W. ... ... ... ... 0. H. Wallis. 

W. H. J. W. ... ... ... ... W. H. James Weale. 

A. W. ... ... ... ... Albinia Wherry. 

A. W. ... ... .. ... Alfred Whitman, 

F. W. W. ... ... ... ... Frederic W. Wbyte. 

G. C. W. ... ... ... ... George C. Williamsoa, 



MoNA Lisa Louvre Frontispiece 


St. George and tub Dragon .... Chiesa dei Frate Levanto To face p. 2 


PORIRAIT OF THE ARTIST Uffizi OcUlery, Florence „ 12 

Madonna del Rosario Sta. Sabina, Borne „ 12 


The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian Berlin Gallery „ 20 

Two Saints National Gallery „ 20 


The Madonna and Child with Saints Berlin Gallery „ 22 

Madonna and Child National Gallery ,, 22 


The Venfjian Berlin Gallery „ 26 

The Adoration of the Shepherds National Gallery „ 26 


QnEEN Caroline (From the Mezzotint) „ 28 


St. Augustine and St. Monica National Gallery „ 34 


The Virgin in a Garden of Roses (Photogravure Plate) St. Martin's Church, 

Colmar „ 46 


Portrait of Cornelis Aern'isz van der Dussen . . . Berlin Gallery „ 56 


The Eve of the Deluge „ 58 


Madonna a.nd Child . . . Collection of Father O'Connor, KeigUey „ 60 

ludwig von SIEGEN 

Amelia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse. 1642 » 78 


Saints Berlin Gallery „ 80 

PoRTRAi'is op Sionorelli AND Fra Angelico . . . Cathedral, Orvieto „ 80 


Tayadaneega, Chief of the Mohawks. 1779 (From the Mezzotint) . , „ 94 


The Cock-Fight Berlin Gallery „ 96 



Crristoforo Longono Nationcd Gallery To face p. 98 

The Redeemer > Brera Gallery, Milari „ 100 


The Madonna and Child Berlin Gallery „ 112 


A Market Boat on the Scheldt South Kensington „ 114 

Entrance to the Zdyder Zee, Texel Island , . National Gallery „ 114 

Town and Castle of Ischia South Kensington „ 114 


The Valley of the Yare near Norwich . . . National Gallery „ 116 


The Quack Doctor Amsterdam Gallery „ 118 


Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria . . . National Gallery „ 120 


A Greek Vintage — A Dance in the Vineyard . . National Gallery „ 132 


The First of September {From the Engraving) „ 140 

DAVID TENIERS (the youngpr) 

Kermesse at Halbmond Dresden Gallery „ 168 

An Aged Woman Anticerp Gallery „ 158 

The Chateau of Teniers at Peiick .... National Gallery „ 160 

Fete adx Chaudrons . National Gallery „ 160 


Portrait of a Gentleman National Gallery „ 162 

Fatherly Advice Berlin Gallery „ 162 


View and Plan of Toledo Museum, Toledo „ 164 

The Burial of the Count of Orqaz . . . Santo Tom^, Toledo „ 166 


The Artist's S jn . . . Collection of the exors. of Mrs. Tidey „ 178 

Ranulp and Stratford Tollemache, Children of Lord Tollemache. 

(R.A. 1869.) ..... Collection of Dowager Lady Tollemache „ 178 


Christ Blessing Little Children . Collection of the exors. of Mrs. Fuller „ 178 


Antony and Cleopatra Palazzo Labbia, Venice „ 180 


Jupiter and Io Berlin Gallery „ 184 


Bacchus and Ariadne (Photogravure Plate) . . . National Gallery „ 186 

The Old Cornato Althorp Collection „ 188 

The Assumption Accademia, Venice „ 190 


Baptism OF Christ. 1723 . . . Collect ion of Mr. G. TV. Brown „ 204 

The Guardian Angel Collection of Signor F. Negri „ 204 


Scene from a Dutch Comedy The Hague Gallery „ 206 


Landscape with Cows Glasgow Gallery „ 208 

Oxen going to Plough Louvre „ 208 


The Madonna and Child with Saints . . . Berlin Gallery „ 210 



The Fightinq TiMfiRAiRE (Photogravure Plate) . . Natiowi Gallery To face p. 212 

Venice South Kensington „ 214 

Chichesteb Canal National Gailery „ 216 


The Assdmption of the Madonna National Gallery „ 226 


The Pobtinari Altab-Piece Uffizi Gallery, Florence „ 242 

A Canon with St. Victob (or St. Maitbice) {Photogravure Plate) 

Glasgow Gallery „ 242 


Landscape with Figures — A Canal Scene, Holland . Natumal Chxllery „ 248 


PORTBAIT CALLED JoHN MiLTON . . . National Portrait Gallery „ 250 


The Departure of Haqar Dresden Gallery „ 252 


The Joys and Sorrows of the Virgin Berlin Gallery „ 254 

The Seven Sacraments Antioerp Gallery „ 254 


Madonna and Child San Donato, Siena „ 256 


The Albani Altak-Piece Villa Albani, Rome „ 258 

The Delivebt o» the Kets to St. Petee . . Sidiiw Chapel, Rovie „ 260 


Christ Driving the Traders fbom the Temple . . Vienna Gallery „ 268 


Don Carlos Prado Gallery. Madrid „ 274 

Las Meninas (Photogravure Plate) .... Ein<jston Lacy, Dorset „ 276 

Philip IV. as a Sportsman Prado Gallery, Madrid „ 278 


St. Cath.\rine Glasgow Gallery ,. 280 


The Lbttteb Amtterdam Gallery „ 286 

The Music Lesson Windsor Castle „ 288 


L'ENTBfiE dd Port de Marseilles Louvre „ 290 


The Last Suppeb MHan „ 304 

Also see Frontispiece 


St. Clare Accademia, Venice „ 310 

Santa Gicstina Oallejna Bagati-Valsecchi, Milan „ 310 

The Madonna and Child with Saints .... Berlin Gallery „ 312 

(N.B. — This illustration is by request headed Luigi Vivariui rather than Alvise Tivariui.i 


Adoration of the Kings Berlin Gallery „ 314 


The Harbour of Refuge Tate Gallery „ 328 

The Vagrants (Photogravure Plate) Tate Gallery „ 328 


Bull, Cow and Calf in Landscape . . Nottingham Galleni - 334 



L'EMBABqnKMENT PODB CythSre {PhotogravwK Plate) . Old Palace. Berlin To face p. 338 

Le Grand Gilles .......... Louvre „ 338 

Studies of a Negro's Head Stockholm Gallery „ 340 


Portrait of Cardinal Manning . . . National Portrait Gallery ,, 342 

Love and Life Tate Gallery „ 344 


Sickness and Health „ 348 

A Dame's School National Gallery „ 348 


The Vision of St. Hubert Edinburgh Gallery „ 354 


Winter {From an Engraping) „ 358 

JAMES McNeill whistler 

Portrait of the Painter's Mother .... Luxembourg, Paris „ 360 

La Princesse dd Pays de la Porcklaine . . . Freer Collection „ 362 

Black Lion Wharf, Wappinq {From an Etching) „ 364 


The Mother of the Artist Br^issels „ 370 


The Letter of Introduction. 1814. . Collection of T. Brocklebank, Esq. „ 372 

Original Drawing for same i o-o 

r^ ,_ , > on one page . . ,, „ itz 

Cartoon from ' Punch ' from same J '^ ° 

The Penny Wedding. 1819 Buckingham Palace „ 374 


Lake Avebnus National Gallery „ 380 


Queen Marie Amelie Versailles „ 384 


The Crucifixion Munich „ 390 


Halt op a Hunting Party Buckingham Palace „ 396 


The Communion of St. Jerome Vatican, Rome „ 404 


The Cabin of the 'Norfolk' „ 406 

Sib James Cockburn and his Daughter .... National Gallery „ 406 


The Madonna and Child with Saints Berlin Gallery „ 414 

The Dead Christ National Gallery „ 414 


Mary Queen of Scots Chatsworih „ 416 


St. Bona VENTURA and St. Thomas Aquinas .... Berlin Gallery „ 418 





SAAL, Georg Eduard Otto, landscape painter, 
born at Coblentz in 1818, studied at Diisseldoil 
under Schirmer, but went in 1848 to Heidelberg-, 
then to Baden-Baden, and in 1870 to Paris. He 
painted mountain scenery, and, later on in life, 
scenes in the Forest of Fontainebleau. He died 
at Baden-Baden, where he was court painter, in 

SAAL, T., an indifferent engraver of vignette-; 
for books. He lived about the j-ear 1672. 

SAAR, Alois von, landscape and architectural 
painter, born at Traiskirchen, Lower Austria, in 
1799, was a student at the Vienna Academy. He 
painted in oils and water-colours ; some of his 
works are in the Vienna Gallery. He died in 1840. 

SAAVEDRA. See Del Castillo y Saavedua. 

SABATELLL Francesco, history painter, born 
at Florence in 1803, was the pupil of his father, 
Luigi Sabatelli. He studied at Rome and Venice, 
but in 1823 was invited to Florence by Leopold IL, 
and became Professor of the Academy. He died 
at Milan in 1829. 

SABATELLI, Giuseppe, painter, born at Milan 
in 1813, was a pupil of his father, Luigi Sabatelli. 
In 1834 he went to Florence, and became a Pro- 
fessor in the Academy. He painted portraits and 
historical subjects. He died at Florence in 1843. 

SABATELLI, Luigi, the elder, history painter 
and etcher, born at Florence in 1772, studied at the 
Acadeuiy of that city under Pietro Pedroni. From 
1788 to 1793 he was in Rome, and from 1795 to 
1797 in Venice. In 1808 he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of the Academy at Milan by Eugene Beau- 
harnais. Of his works we may name : 

Abigail before David ; in the Cliapel of the J'irgin at 

The Blessing of the Children ; in the Paroni Palace at 

Heliodorus driven from the Temple. 
Portrait of the Artist himself. 

The Four Great Prophets ; in St. Gaudenzio, JS'ovara. 
The Olympic Games ; in the Pitti Palace in Florence. 
The Marriage of Cupid and Psyche ; in the Busca Ser- 

beUoni Palace in Milan. 
The Adoration of God through Prophets and Patriarchs ; 

in the Church of Valmadrera at Lecvo. 
Three Sceues from the Life of Galileo. 
The Triumph of Cupid ; in the Villa Giontini at Florence. 
The Corouatiou of the Virgin ; in S. Firenze in Florence. 
The Plague of Florence. [Etchiny.) 
The Visions of the Apocalypse. (Do). 

In many of his frescoes he was assisted by his 
VOL. V. B 

son Luigi Sabatelli, the younger. He died at 
Milan in 1850. 

SABATERII, Pierre, a skilful glass-painter, of 
the 13th century, practising at Montpellier about 
1298. He decorated the cathedral with fine 
paintings on glass, which were much admired for 
their excellent composition and brilliant colour. 
His son Laurent succeeded his father in his prac- 
tice, and was an artist of much merit. 

SABBATINI, Andrea, (Sabatini.) called Da 
Salerno, a painter, was born, at Bologna about 
1480. He was the son of a wealth}- merchant, 
who, finding his son had a taste for art, took him to 
Naples, and placed him under the tuition of Raimo 
Epifanio, a painter of little celebritji, under whom 
he studied some time. He is then said to have 
obtained his father's permission to visit Perugia, 
to profit by the lessons of Perugino. On his journey 
he encountered some artists, who were so loud is 
their praise of Raphael, that Andrea digressed into 
that painter's atelier, and in a short time was found 
of sufficient ability to be intrusted by Raphael to 
execute, from his designs, some of the frescoes in 
the Vatican and in S.Maria della Pace, It is also said 
that while prosecuting his studies under Raphael, he 
was recalled to Salerno by the illness of his father, 
who died soon after his arrival. The whole of this 
Roman tale rests, however, on the unsupported 
evidence of the untrustworthy De' Dominici. So 
far as the facts are surely known, Sabbatini worked 
only at Naples, where he was soon regarded as 
the ablest artist of the school. His frescoes in S. 
Maria della Grazie have been, for the most part, 
destroyed by alterations made in that church, but 
those in the vestibule of the inner court of S. 
Gennaro dei Poveri still exist. Other works are: 


Brancacci \ ^^ Assumption of the Virgin. 
Chapel, Diiomo. J 



iS. Spirito di Palazzo. The Adoration of the Magi, 
iS', Uomenico May- \ The Madonna and Eambino, 
giore. j with St, Elisabeth and other 

Descent from the Cross, 
Adoration of the Magi. 
Miracle of St. Nicholas of Bari. 
St, Benedict enthroned among 

Six Saints, 
Two Scenes from the Life of 

St. Placidus, 
A Pieti, 


Sabbatini died at Gaeta in 1545. 


SABBATINI, Lorenzo, called Lorenzixo da 
Bologna, was born about 1530 at Bologua, wbere 
he studied under Tibaldi. After having painted 
several pictures for tlie cliurches at Bologna, lie 
visited Rome during the pontificate of (jregory 
XIII., and improved his style by study of the 
works of Raphael, iniitiitin.s;- them with such suc- 
cess, that he has been called a pupil of Raphael, 
althougli he was born some ten years after his death. 
In his smaller pictures he seems to have followed 
Parmigiano. lie was employed by the pope in the 
Capella Paolina, in the Vatican, where he painted 
several subjects from the Life of St. Paul in con- 
junction with Federigo Zuccaro. In the Sahi 
Reggia he painted a ' Triumph of Faith. '_ These 
works were executed so much to the satisfaction 
of the pope, that he was appointed superintendent 
of the decorations then going on in the Vatican. 
Sabbatini died at Rome in 1577. Of his numerous 
pictures we may name : 

Bologna. & Pietroand \ ^ jjadouna with Saii.t.s. 
.S. Paulo, j 

•^•^Jf"™ '''•■"'' 'The Crucifixion. 
Grazie, ) 

„ La 3Iorte. The Assumption. 

,. i-. Martino Mag- \ g^ jo^chim aud St. Auue. 

S.'Giacomo. St. Michael vanquishing the 
Kebel Angels. 
„ „ The Four Evaugelists. 

„ ., The Four Doctors of the 

Dre.sJeii. Galki-y, Marriage of St. Cathariue. 

Paris. Louvre. Virgin aud Cliild aud St. John. 

SABLET, Jacques Henei, brother of the nest- 
named, was born in 1749 at Morges. H>i was the 
pupil successively of Dubois and Cocher, at Lyons, 
and of Vien, in Paris. He travelled in Spain and 
lived twenty j-ears in Italy, dying in Paris in 
1803. There are five of his pictui-es in the Nantes 

SABLET, Jean Francois, was born at Morges, 
in Switzerland, in 1751, and taught the rudiments 
of art by a decorator at Lyons. He then went to 
Paris, where he studied under Vien, whom he 
accompanied to Rome, where he studied anatomy, 
ornamental design, and costume, and painted por- 
traits, genre pictures, and landscapes. He settled 
at Nantes, where, in 1812, he was commissioned 
by the town to paint six grisailles for the Bourse, 
illustrating Napoleon's visit to Nantes. After 
Waterloo these were sold and exported to America. 
Sablet died at Nantes in 1819. There are sis uf his 
works in the Nantes Museum. 

SABLON, PlEKKE, a designer aud engraver, was 
born at Chartres, in 1584, according to his inscrip- 
tion on the oval border of his own portrait : 
"Pierre Sablon Ciiaktrain. xxiii ans. 1G07." On 
the margin is inscribed : 

" Me coQtemplaut uu jour en deux diuerses gUices 
Je veis le mien Profil despainct uaiuement ; 
Lors je delibore en raoy soudaiuemeut 
De graver ce Pourtraict dout vo" voyez les traces." 

There are only three other prints known by him : 
' Lamech and Cain,' after Lucas van Leyden, 
(Bartsch, N" 14,) but left unfinished (it is the 
counterpart of the original, and has the date 15"24 
high up on the right, the 5 reversed, and the mark 
of Lucas ; at the bottom F. Sablon f. 1602 ; ' The 
Good Samaritan,' a small square print, mentioned 
in the collection of Paignon Dijonval ; and the 
portrait of Rabelais, bust turned to the right, but 
full face. This is a medallion ; on the border is 



Petersburg. Hermitaye. 



inscribed "Franc. RABEbESiDS;" in the exergue, 
'■ Sum petulantis plene caohino. Pers P. 
Sablon /." 

SACCHI, Andrea, sometimes called OucHE,born 
at Nettuno, near Rome, about the end of the IGth 
century, was the son of Benedetto Sacchi, a painter 
of little note, by whom he was first instructed ; he 
afterwards studied under Francesco Albani. On 
leaving the school of that painter he studied 
Raphael, Polidoro da Caravaggio, and the antique. 
He was favoured by Cardinal Barberini, who em- 
ployed him in his palace. Several of the public 
buildings of Rome possess his works. His ' St. 
Romuald with his Monks,' in the Vatican Gallery, 
used to be considered one of the four finest pictures 
in Rome. The composition is extremely simple; it 
represents the Saint seated in a valley of the 
Apennines, surrounded by some members of his 
order, and explaining his reasons for retiring from 
the world. The effect he has given to a group of 
six figures, all habited in white drapery, without 
the aid of contrast, is very remarkable. Sacchi 
died at Nettuno in 1661. Among his pupils were 
Lauri, Garzi, and Carlo Maratta. Additional 
works : 

SS. Paul the Hermit aud 

Portrait of Fr. Albaui. 
„ „ Himself. 

Angel cousoHug Hagar. 

Triumph of Truth. 

Repose t>f Veuus. 

Mass of St. Gregory. 

Clement VIII. 

Death of St. Anna. 

Angel appearing to Joseph. 

St. Andrew. 

Ham scoflBng at Noah. 

Juno in her Car. 
,. „ Wisdom surrounded by the 


SACCHI, Antonio, an Italian painter of the 
17th century, a native of Como. He studied at 
Rome, and is said to have died of grief in 1694, in 
consequence of having painted an ill-proportioned 

SACCHI, Carlo, painter, was born at Pavia in 
1617 (?), and learned the first rudiments of design 
in Milan from Rossi. He went to Rome, where he 
resided some time, and afterwards visited Venice. 
The works of Paolo Veronese were the particular 
objects of his imitation, and one of his best pictures, 
a ' St. James raising a dead person,' in the Osser- 
vanza, at Pavia, is painted nmch in the style of 
Paolo. "He also executed some etchings after the 
Venetian masters, among which are an 'Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds,' .'ifter Tintoretto, and an 
'Adoration of the Magi,' after P. Veronese. He 
died at Pavia in 1706. 

SACCHI, Gaspauo, of Imola, flourished in the 
early part of the 16th century, and painted many 
pictures in Ravenna and other parts of the Ro- 
magna. In the sacristy of Castel S. Pietro at 
Imola there is an altar-piece with his name, and 
the date 1517; and at Bologna, in S. Francesco-in- 
Tavola, another dated 1521. 

SACCHI, Giuseppe, the son of Andrea, painted 
portraits and historical sulijects in the 17th cen- 
tury. He was his father's pupil, and eventually 
became a friar minor. No known work of his is 
extant, but it has been surmised that a ' Sibyl,' at 
Warsaw, attributed to ' Giuseipe S;iCconi,' may be 
by him. 

6'. Carlo a Catinari. 

S. Giuseppe. 


jna. Gallery. 


[Chiesa dei Fute, Levmito 



SACCHI. M., (• r II Sacchi.) .» native of Casals, 
flo'irished in the ITtb century. He jainted in S. 
Francesco, at Casale, a picture representing a lottery 
for mirria.;e portions, in which a great assemblage 
of fathers, mothers, ar:d their daughters is intro- 
duced. At S. Agostino di Casale is a standard, 
a 'Virgin and Sain;s,' containing portraits of 
several princes of the hoiise of Gonzaga, by him. 

SACCHI, Pier Francesco, (called variously 
SACcnio, Sacchius, Sacco, and Saccus, F.:asoesco, 
or Pier Fraxcesco, surnamed il Pavese, or Pietro 
or Pier Francesco di Pavia,) has been wrongly 
recorded by Lomazzo as one of the artists who 
flourished at iiilan under Francesco Sforza. As a 
matter of fact, his works were all executed in 
the I6th century. The earliest work hy him is 
the ■ Parting of St. John the Baptist from his 
Parents,' dated 1512, in the oratory of Sea. Muria 
at Genoa. In 1514 he painted a ' t.'rucifixion with 
Saints' (now in the Berlin Museum) for the church 
of S. Francesco di Paulo at Nerri, and in 1514 
the ' Four Doctors of the Church ' (now in the 
Louvre in Paris) for the church of S. Giovanui 
di Pre, afterwards S. Ugo. Dojuraents bearing 
date Jiily 12 and 17 prove that in 1520 he was a 
member of the Council of the Guild of Painters at 
Genua; and in 1526 he completed the 'Glory of 
the Virgin, \vith Saints,' still in the church of S. 
Maria at Castello. His latest, and finest, recorded 
work is a ' Deposition ' in the church of SS. Nazzaro 
and Celso at Multedo, near Pegli ; hut there is a 
magnificent ' St. George ' in the church of the Frati 
Minori at Levanto, near Spezia, of which we give 
an illustration, that may with justice be assigned 
to him, whilst a 'St. Jerome and St. Martin,' once 
attributed to Zingaro, also in the Berlin Museun), 
is most characteristic of his peculiar style. The 
drawing and colour of his earlier work is hard and 
unpleasant in line and texture, and there is a want 
of flexibility in liis figures, but he gradually im- 
proved, and wis always fuhy alive to the beaut}' and 
interest involved in accessories, landscape, costume, 
details, &c., with which his work is apt to be even 
too overladen. His artistic tendencies are distinctly 
North Italian, with reminiscences of the deUcaey 
of feeling distinguishing the Umbro-Peruginesques 
of the Bolognese and Ferrarese School. From a 
certain similarity of type and finish in detail he 
has even been erroneously described as the master 
of Moretto. Little or nothing is known of his 
private life. 

Besides those works already mentioned, the fol- 
lowing, though not signed according to his usual 
custom, have been attributed to him : 
Berlin. JIuseum. Holy Family. (Attributed to 

SoUrio, hit icith more reason 
pcrh'ips to Cesare Jfagno.) 
JIulte.10. CA»r<rAo/55 Is^^jj y ^f g^^^^^ f,„^ ^^^ 

r, -^ %""'''■ Tti P^^io°- 
CeliO {Acicristvl-J 

Pavia. Malasi:ina Coll. Crucifixion. (Much injured.) 
,, Ch. of 6. Mickele. Frescoes and Decorations : Four 
Doctors, Symbols of the Evan- 
gelists, and Prophets. 

Ecrje. Palazzo Corsini. The Apotheosis of S. Bernardino 
of Siena. R. H. H. C. 

Mention of another Pier Francesco Pavese oo- 
casionallv occurs as early as 1460. 

SACCHIATI, Pietro, a native of Ravenna, born 
about 1598, is noticed by Basan as an engraver in 
wood and chiaroscuro after various masters. 
B 2 

SACCHIENSIS (or De Sacchio). See Licisio, 
GiovAN'Xi Antonio. 

SACCO, Scipione, (Sacchi,) a painter, and native 
of Cesena, who flourished in tlie 16th century. He 
painted a ' St. Gregory ' for the cathedral of Cesena, 
which is inscribed Csisenas, 1545; and a 'Death 
of St. Peter Martyr ' for the church of S. Domenico. 
He is said by some to have been a pupil of 

SACRAMENTO, Jcak del Santisimo. See 


SADDLER, John, Une-engraver, was bom in 
1813, and became a pupil of George Cooke, under 
whom he was employed on Turner's ' Southern 
Coast of England.' Later on he engraved the ships 
in the large plate of 'The Fighting T^meraire,' of 
which the rest was executed by Dickens and 
Willmore. Thereafter he worked with Thomas 
Laiidseer after Sir Edwin Landseer, especially 
on 'The Children of the Mist,' 'The Twins,j 
' Braemar,' and also Rosa Bonheur's ' Horse Fair.' 
From 1862 he exhibited engravings constantly 
at the Royal Academy ; after Millais from 1-62 to 
1864; 'Government House, Svdney' (J. S. Prout, 
1868); -Les Miserables' (G. Dore, 1873): 'Illus- 
tration to '-My Little Lady"' (Sir E. J. PovT^ter, 
1877); 'Hop Gardens, Kent' (C. Lawson, 1379); 
' Lieut.-Colorel Cosmo Gordon' (Sir G. Reid, 
1880) ; 'The Lady of the Woods ' (J. MacWhirter, 
1882); and 'Durham Cathedral' (H. Dawson, 
1883). His last plate was Dore's ' Vale of Tears.' 
He left unfinished a plate iifter the portrait of Mr. 
Walter of the ■ Times,' begun by F. Holl and com- 
pleted by Prof Herkomer. He was one of the 
last who worthily carried on the traditions of 
English line-engraving. He did many book illus- 
trarions also, after Millais, Tenniel, Poynter, Dore, 
and others. He was an occasional exhibitor at the 
Royal Society of British Artists as well as the 
Royal Academy. His sad death by his own hand 
in a fit of depression occurred at Wokingham, 
Berkshire, on March 29, 1892. 

SADELER. GiLLis, (JioiuiDS,) the nepUew and 
the pupil of Jan and Raphael Sadeler, was bom at 
Antwerp in 1575. After being well grounded in 
the principles of design, he took up the graver, and 
in a feu- years reached a perfection beyond that of 
his instructors. He had passed some time in Italy, 
where he engraved some plates after Italian 
painters, when he was invited to Prague by the 
Emperor Rudolph II. , who retained him in his 
service, and assigned him a pension. He enjoyed 
the favour and protection of the two succeeduig 
emperors, Matthias and Ferdinand II. He used 
the graver with a commanding facility, sometimes 
finishing his plates with surprising neatness, when 
the subject required it ; at other times working 
broadly and boldly. His plates, which are very 
numerous, represent historical subjects, portraits, 
landscapes, &c. Some are from his own designs, 
and many, particularly his portraits, are of great 
excellence. Sadeler died at Prague in 1629. He 
has been called ' The Phojnix of Engraving.' The 
following are considered his best priuts : 


The Emperor Matthias. 1616. 

The Empress Anne, his consort. 1616. 

The Emperor Ferdinand II. on horseback ; in two 

sheets. 1629. 
Burckhard Je Berlihing, Privy Counsellor to Rudolph II. 
Christopher Guarinouius Fontanus, Physician to thf 




John George Goedelman, Jurisconsult. 

Joachim Huber, Anlic Counsellor. 

Jacob Chimarrhjeus, Grand Almouer. 

Cardinal de Dietricbsteiu, Bishop of Olniiitz. 1604. 

John IMatthew Wareufels, Aulic Counsellor. 1&14. 

Adam, Baruu de Trautraansdorf . 

Siegfried de Kolouitsch. 

Ferdinand de Kolonitscb. 

Torquato Tasso, Poetctrum Princep^. 1617. 

Octavius Strada, Antiquary. 

Peter Brueghel, painter, of Brussels. 1606. 

Martin de Vos, jiainter, of Antwerp. 

Sigismond Bathori, Prince of Transylvania. 

A set of twelve plates, representing Angels with the 

Instruments of the Passion. 
A set of fifty-two Views near Eome, entitled ' Vestigi 

delle Antichita di Roma.' 
The Burning of Troy, an etching ; ^g. Sadeler, fecit, 

aqua forii. 
Charity, represented by a female figure with three 

Narcissus admiring himself in a Fountain. 
Pan and Syrinx. 
St. Sebastian dying, with an Angel drawing out the 

arrows from bis side. 
St. Dominick receiving the Institution of his Order 

from St. Peter and St. Paul. 
The scourging of Christ. 
The Crucih-xion. 
The Great Saloon at Prague ; in two sheets. 


The Emperor Rudolph II. on horseback, with a Battle 

in the background; after Ad. dc fries. 
The Virgin and Child ; aftei- Raphael. 
The Angel appearing to the Shepherds ; afiir liassane. 
The Murder of the Innocents ; a/>ei' Tintoretto. 
The Last Supper ; after ttie same. 

St. Peter called to the Anostleship ; after F. Baroccio. 
The Entombment of Christ ; after the same. 
The Scourging of Christ; after the Cavaliere d'Arpino. 
The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; after Palma Giovine. 
The Rich Man and Lazarus ; after the same. 
Angelica and Medora ; after Carlo Cai/liari. 
Hercules and Ompbale ; after B. Spranger. 
The Marys at the Tomb of Christ ; after the same. 
The Annunciation ; after Peter de Witte {Candida). 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; copied from Albert tidrer. 
Christ bearing his Cross ; the same. 
Judith with the Head of Holofernes ; after Johann van 

The Nativity ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. John ; after the 

Several sets of Landscapes ; after Brueyhel, Paul Brill, 

Roelant Savery, P. Steevens, &c. 

SADELER, Jan, engraver, was born at Brus.sels 
in 1550. The profession of liis father was to 
engrave ornaments on steel and iron, to be inlaid 
with gold or silver, and Jan Sadeler was brouglit 
up to the same business. At a very early age, 
liowever, he applied himself to the study of the 
human figure, which he drew correctly, though 
with tlie stiffness and formality of the time. He 
was nearly twenty years of age before he com- 
menced engraving on copper, wlien he executed 
some plates from the designs of Crispin Van den 
Broeck, which were so favourably received, tliat he 
was encouraged to devote his attention entirely to 
engraving. He travelled throughout Germany to 
Italy, where he divested himself, in a great degree, 
of the dry and hard maimer which is discernible in 
his earlier works. His plates are executed with 
the graver only, in a neat, clear style. His drawing 
is generally correct, and there is fine expression 
in his heads. Jan Sadeler died at Venice in 1600. 
His prints are very numerous ; the following list 
is confined to the best : 

Clement VIII., Pont. Max. 
Marie de' Medici. 

Charles, Hereditarj' Prince of Sweden. 
Otho Henry. Count Schwarzenberg. 
Sigismund Feyerabeud, the famous printer. 1587. 
George Hoefnagel, painter of Antwerp. 
Martin Luther ; in an arabesque border. 

Eight plates of the Creation of the TP'orld ; after Crispin 

Van den Brotck. 
Six of the History of Adam and Eve ; after Jfickiel 

van Coxe. 
Sixteen subjects from the Book of Genesis ; after Jll. de 

The Life of Christ ; after the same. 
Seven plates of our Saviour's Passion ; after Christopher 

A set of prints called ' The Hermits ' ; engraved in 

conjunction with his brothets ; after the same. 
The Twelve Months of the Year ; after P. Steevens. 
The Four Seasons ; after Hans Bol. 
The Four Times of the Day ; after Tiieodore Bernard. 


Dives and Lazarus ; after Bassano. (One of the three 

' Sadeler's Kitchens. ') 
Christ with Martha and Mary ; after the same. (Ditto. ) 
The Angel appearing to the Sliepherds ; after the same. 
The Nativity ; after Polidoro da Caravagcfio. 
The Virgin, with the Infant sleeping, and an Angel ; 

after An. Carracci. 
St. Jerome praying; after Gillis Mostaert. 
Mary Magdalene in meditation ; after the same. 
St. Koch, with two Pilgrims ; after the same. 
Jesus calling to Him the little Children ; after Jodocus 

de Winijhe. 
The Prodigal Son ; after the same. 
The Annunciation ; after Peter de TVitte (Candida). 
Clirist at table with the Disciples at Emmaiis ; after the 

The three Marys at the Sepulchre ; afte>- the same. 
The Last Supper; after the ^ami. 
The Martyrdom of St. Ursula; after the same. 
The Nativity ; after J, van Aachen. 
The Holy Family, with Mary Magdalene ; after the same. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 
The Last Judgment ; after the same. 
Mary Magdalene penitent ; after Federiyo Zustris. 
Christ appearing to Magdalene ; after the same. 
The Approach of the Deluge ; after Theodore Bernard. 
The Coming of the Last Day ; after the same. 
The Trinity: after Antonio Maria Viani. 
Several Landscapes ; after Paul Brill, and others. 

SADELER, Marcus, is supposed to have been 
the son of Jan Sadeler, and to have been born at 
Munich between 1589 and 1595 ; but great uncer- 
tainty hangs about his paternity, and it is not clearly 
known whether he was an engraver as well as o 
publisher of prints. He resided many years at 
Venice, whither, it is said, he was taken by Jan 
Sadeler, and it is certain that many of the prints by 
Jan, Raphael, and Gillis were published by him ; 
but only the second states have his address. Neither 
Basan, Lipowsky, nor Fiissli mention any of his 
works ; while the ' Passion series,' after Diirer, 
whicli Heller ascribes to Marcus, are without sig- 
natures or dates (the latter would range from 1607 
to 1013), although the second states have Marcus 
Sadeler's address. They are all reversed from the 
plates by Diirer. 

SADELER, Philipp, engraver, a native of 
Munich, the son of Gillis Sadeler, flourished about 
1626. He engraved portraits, landscapes, and 
pictures of saints. 

SADELER, Raphael, the younger brother of 
Jan Sadeler, was born at Brussels in 1555, and 
brought up to the same profession. Jan and Rapliacl 


travelled together through Germany, where Ra- 
phael engraved a variety of phites, after Johann 
von Aachen, Matthias Kager, Matthias Griinewald, 
and other masters. They afterwards settled at 
Venice. Following the example of his brotlier, 
Raphael Sadeler worked entirely with the graver, 
which he handled with boldness and precision. 
His drawing of the figure is correct. His printf 
are nearly as numerous as those of his brother. 
Some are very fine, particularly those after Van 
Aachen, and the portraits. Raphael Sadeler died at 
Venice in 1616. The following are his principal 
plates : 

Paul V. ; Pont. Jfax. 
S. Carlo Borromeo. 
Ernest, Archbishop of Cologne. 
Leopold of Austria, Bisliop of Salzburg aud Passau. 
Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria. 
Charles Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, ou horseback. 
John Dietmar, Abbot of Fnrsteuberg. 
HypoUtus Guarinonius, M. D. 


A set of four plates from the Life of the Virgin ; from 

his oirn dcsiyns. 
Twenty-eight plates from the Life and Passion of 

Christ ; the same. 
Mary Magdalene at the Sepulchre, with St. Peter and 

St. John ; after J. de Winghe. 
Lot aud his Daughters ; after the same. 
The Holy Family, with !5t. Elizabeth aud St. John ; 

after Jalinun ion Aachen. 
The Entombment of Christ ; after the same. 
The dead Christ in the Sepulchre, with Angels ; after 

the same. 
Mary Magdalene penitent ; after ike same. 
The .rudgment of Paris ; after the same [dated 15791. 
The Virgui aud Child ; after Pieter de If'itte. 1593. 
The Immaculate Conception ; after the same. 
The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same. 1591. 
The Hesurrection of Lazarus ; after Rottenhamer. 
The Marriage of St. Catherine ; after Uendrik Goltzius. 
A Pieta ; after J. Siradanus. 
Death seizing a Lady at a Feast ; after the same. 
The Crucifixion ; after Palma. 
The Virgin aud Child; after An. Carracci. 
The Holy Family, with St. John ; after Raplmel. 
The Annunciation ; aft-.'r Fede^-igo Zuccaro. 
The Adoration of the Slagi ; after Bassano. 1598. 
Christ at Emmaiis ; after the same ; one of the three 

Sadtler^s Kitchens. 
The Four Seasons ; after J. Stradanus. 
A set of si.^ Landscapes ; after P. Steevens. 
Two Landscapes with figures ; after Matt. Brill. 
The history of the Prodigal Sou ; in four scenes after 

Paul Brill. 
A set of prints for Kader's Bavaria Saneta et Pia, en- 
graved with the help of his son (1624-8). 
Several Allegorical subjects ; after Martin de J 'os. 
The great Battle of Prague, in eight sheets ; cousidered 

his masterpiece. 
Venus aud Adonis ; after Titian. 
SADELER, Raphael, the younger, sou and pupil 
of the last-named, worked at Venice subsequent to 
the year 1596. He afterwards accompanied his 
father to Munich, and assisted in the plates to 
Rader's ' Bavaria Saneta et Pia,' and also produced 
several plates on his own account, among them the 
following : 

The Auuunciatiou ; after C. Schtcar:. 

The Virgin and St. Anne caressing the Infant Jesus ; 

after the same. 
The Holy Family, with his name and the date 1613. 
Forest Scenery ; after J. Brueghel. 

SADELER, Tobias, supposed to be the son of 
Gillis, was also an engraver, but his works are 
very little known. He worked at Vienna about 
the year 1675. 

SADLER, Thomas, jiortrait aud miniature 
painter, was the son of a Master in Chancery. He 
practised in the reigns of Charles IL, James II., 
William III. His best works are a portrait of 
Bunyan, which has been engraved in mezzotint, 
and a miniature of the Duke of Monmouth. 

SADLER, William, a portrait painter, the son 
of a musician, was born in England, but studied 
and practised at Dublin. He was an artist of 
some ability, and died at Dublin at the end of the 
18th century. 

SAENKEDAM, Joannes, a Dutch designer and 
engraver, born at Zaandam in North Holland in 
1565, was by trade a basket-maker, and was in- 
structed in drawing and the use of the graver by 
Hendrik Goltzius and Jakob de Gheyn. Saeuredam 
died at Assendelft in 1607. He worked entirely 
with the graver, and has left a great number of 
plates. The best, perhaps, are the following : 
Susanna aud the Elders ; after a design by himself. 
Hercuies between Minerva aud Venus ; ditto. 
Lycurgns giving Laws to the Lacedemonians ; ditto. 
The Wise and the Foolish Virgins, in five plates. 1606, 

An Allegory relative to the government of the Low 

Countries by the lufauta Isabella. 1602 ; ditto. 
Tlie Prosperity of the Uuited ProWnces under the 

House of Orange ; an allegory. 1600 ; ditto. 
The stranded Whale, on the coast of Holland. 1602; 

Carel vau Mander ; after Goltzius. 
V. H. Hornanus, Poet and Physician ; alter Van 

.Tohn Cesaree, Philosopher, 
.'.-an de la Chambre, Writing-master. 
Adam and Eve iu ParadiNe ; after H. Goltzius. 
Lot and his Daughters ; after the same. 
Judith with the Head of Holofernes ; after the same. 
Susanna and the Elders ; after the same. 
Ceres, Venus, and Bacchus ; after tiie same. 
The Seven Planets, the Four Seasons, the Five Senses, 
the Four Ages, the Three Marriages at different times 
of life ; all after the same. 
The Bath of Diana ; after the same. 
A set of six plates from the History of Adam aud Eve ; 

after Ab. Bloemaert. 
Four plates from the Histories of Elijah aud Elisha; 

after the same. 
Elijah .and the Widow of Sarepta ; after the same. 1604. 
Annunciation to the .Shepherds ; after the same. 1599. 
The Prodigal Son ; after the same. 1618. 
Vertumuus and Pomona ; after the same. 1605. 
Mars and Venus ; after P. Isaacx. 

Judith with the Head of Holoferues ; after L. van Leyden. 
David with the Head of Goliah ; after the same. 
The Nativity ; after C. ean .Uaiuler. 
Paul aud Baru.abas ; after the same. 
Adam aud Eve in Paradise ; after Corn, van Haarlem. 
St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after the same. 
Angelica and Medora ; after the .^ame. 
Vertumuus aud Pomona ; after the same. 
The Grot of Pluto ; inscribed Lu.v venit in mundum, 

kc. ; after the same. 
The Death of Epamiuondas ; after P. da Caravaggia. 
Camillas breaking the Treaty of Peace between the 

Romans aud the Gauls ; after the same. 
The History of Xiobe aud he"r Children ; in eight sheets, 

forming a frieze ; after the same. 1594. 
The Entombment of (Christ ; after M.A. da Caravaggia. 
Christ in the House of Levi ; after P. Veronese. 

SAENREDAM, Pieter, son of Joannes Saenre- 
dam, was born at Assendelft in 1597. He was a 
scholar of Franz Pieterzen de Grebber,but adopted 
a different stj'le from that of his master. He 
painted architecture, particularly the interiors of 
churches, in a large and luminous manner. His 
pictures were highly esteemed in his own time, 
and are now extremely rare. A view of the Town- 
hall of the city of Haarlem, painted by him, was 


eiiliveued with a groat number of figures, repre- 
senting the solemn entry of Prince Maurice. Few 
particulars of him are recorded. He was buried 
at Haarlem on the 16th August, 1665. Works : 

Amsterdam. Jlluseun. Ch. of St. Bavon. Haarlem, 
„ „ Another Picture of the i^ame 

,, „ Two Views of the Maria-kerk, 

in Utrecht. 
» „ View in the Church of A.sseu- 

delft ; inscribed, Pieter Saen- 
redain, deie gescliildert int jner 
1649 den 2 October. 'T)ie 
figures are by Ad. v. Ostade 

Berlin. Museum. Church Interior. 

Haarlem. Museum. Interior of St. Anne's Church, 


Kotterdam. Museum. Maria-kerk, Utrecht. 

SAEY, , a Flemish painter, native of Ant- 
werp, practising in the 17th century. He painted 
chiefly architectural subjects, and worked jointly 
with Jerome Janssen, who frequently added figures 
to his backgrounds for hiiu. A certain Jacques 
Ferdinand Sae)' is mentioned in the registers as a 
pupil of Van Elirenberg in 1672, and was probably 
rehited to the above, and not identical with him, 
as there appears to be evidence that the first-men- 
tioned Saey was at work on his own account as 
early as 1660. 

SAFFT, J. C. G., a Dutch painter and engraver. 
of little importance, born at Amsterdam, 1778. 
He was a pupil of P. Barbiers, and painted land- 
scape ar.d interiors. 

SAFTLEVEN, Cornelius, (Zachtleven, S..4.rT- 
LEEEN,) painter and engraver, was born at Go- 
rinchem in 1607 ; son of Herman and Lyntgen 
Moelants. Thougli he did not equal his brother 
Herman in talent, he showed considerable skill 
in genre picturi^s, in the style of Teniers and Brou- 
wer. Several of his etchings were publisiied. His 
(lortrait was painted by Vandyke, and engraved by 
Vosterman. He died in l'''8'.i. In the Dresden 
Gallery are four esaniples of his work, and in the 
Amstf-rdam Museum, three. W. H. J. W, 

SAFTLEVEN, Herman, painter and engraver, 
born at Hotterdam in 1609. He was the younger 
brother of Cornelius Saftleven, and a pupil of Jan 
van Goyen. His views of the Rhine and Maan 
art delicately painted from nature, and crowded 
with figures. He died at Utrecht, Jan. 5, 16'S5. 
His art, though conventional, is delightful in its 
way, and his pictures are now in great request. 

Amsterdam. Museum. 

Copenhagen. Gallei'i/. 







Duboich Gall. 

Kiver View. 

View on the Rhine. 

Village on a River. 

Hilly Landscape. 

Itiver Scene. 

■\Vharf on the Rhine. 

Vintage ou the Ehine. 

Inn among iiocks. 

Vi.sta througli a Timber Bridge. 

"\''iew of Utrecht. 

Meadow-l.ind at Harvest-time. 

A series of eighteen pictures, 

including Views of Utrecht. 

Eugers, Ehrenbreitsteiu, and 

Jan Van Oldenbarnevelt and 

his Judges, the latter under 

the .shapes of animals. 
View ou the Khine. {A master- 

A View of the Ehine. 
Two Rhenish laud.^cipes. 
One Dutch l.'mdscai>e. 

Rotterdam. Museum. View on the Rhine. 
Stockholm. Gallery. Large Khine Landscape. » 

SAFVENBOM, Johann, a Swedish painter, bom 
in 1721. He studied for a time in France, under 
Joseph Vernet. In the Stockholm Gallery there is 
a 'Shipwrecli near a Fortress' by him. He died 
iu 1784. 

SAGLIO, C.oiiLLE, French painter; born at 
Strasburg in 1804 ; became a pupil of Jolivard 
and of C. Roqueplan : achieved success with 
various landscapes, his subjects being chosen 
from the scenery of the Rhine and the Rhone. He 
obtained a second-class medal at the Salon in 1846. 
He died in October 1889. 

SAGRESTANI, Giovanni Camillo, a Florentine 
painter and poet, born in 1660, studied painting in 
the school of Giusti, and also attended tliat of 
Carlo Cignani, wiiose manner he copied rather than 
emulated. He died in 1V31. 

SAGSTATTER, Gottfried Heinrich, German 
painter ; born at iluuich in 1811, where he studied 
at the Academy, being a pupil and proUg^ of 
Cornelius. After devoting his talent to allegorical 
and historical subjects he mado a greater success 
by a vivid portrayal of Bavarian peasant life, 
such as ' Bauernwirtstube,' ' Dorfpolitiker,' ' Alter 
I Fiedler,' and others. He died at Munich, December 
25, 1883. 

SAGSTATTER, Hermann, German painter; 
born at Munich in 1808 ; became a pupii of the 
Munich Academy ; at first painted genre pictures 
and scenes of peasant life, but subsequently pro- 
duced works of a religious character and altar- 
pieces for churches in Bavaria and Suabia. He 
designed the four glass windows showing the 
Prophets in the Cathedral at Cologne ; and there 
are frescoes bv him in the Landsberg Town Hall. 
He died in 1887. 

SAHLER, Louis, (Saillak,) an engraver, was 
oorn in France in 1748. He engraved some plates 
fnr the Boydells, among them the following : 

Portrait of Helena Forman ; after Buhcns. 
The Prince of Orange ; after Honthorst. 
The Eirth of Bacchu.s ; after Hevnolds. 
The Toper ; after G. Don. 
George, Prince of Wales ; after John Smart. 
The Virgin and Child ; after Domenichino. 

SAHLER, Otto Christian, an obscure engraver, 
whose name is affixed to a portrait of one Adrian 
Stalbent, a painter. He was a German goldsmith, 
and lived in the 18th century. His plates were 
imitations of drawings. 

SAILLANT, LE Pere, an Augustine monk of 
the 16th century, much esteemed for the excellence 
of his miniatures. He died at .\vignon. 

SAILMAKER, Isaac, an English painter of 
marine subjects, born in England in 163i<, was a 
pupil of George Geldorp, and was appointed by 
Cromwell to paint a view of the fleet before Mar- 
dyke. Walpole says that " a print of the con- 
federate fleet, under Sir George Rooke, engaging 
the French commanded by the Count de Toulouse, 
was engraved in 1714, from a design of Sailmaker." 
He lived to the age of 88, dying in 1721. 

SAINT ANDlifi, Simon Renard de, a portrait 
painter, born in Paris in 1614, was a pupil of 
Beaubrun, and settled at Rome. He painted two 
very good portraits of Anne of Austria. He died 
•n Paris in 1677. He lias left several etchings. 

SAIXT-AUBERT, Antoine Fran(;ois, painter, 
ivas born at Cambrai in 1715. He was educated in 


Paris, at the expense of the Archbishop of Saint- 
Albin. and afterwards became the first master of the 
Cambrai School of drawing. The Musees of Cambrai 
and Lisle possessed examples of his work. He 
died in the former city in 1788. His son, Locis 
Joseph Xioolas, also a painter, succeeded to liis 
father's post. He was bom in 1755, and died in 
1810. There is a • Christ in the Tomb ' by him in 
the Cambrai Museum. By Antoine-Louis SAi.vr- 
AlTBEKT, son of Louis Joseph Nicolas, there is a 
' Norman Coast Scene,' in the same collection. He 
wa? born in 1794, and died 1854. 

SAIXT-AUBIX, AUGUSTIN', engraver, born Ln 
Paris in 1736, was taught drawing by his brother 
Gabriel, and engraving by Etienne Fessard and 
Laurent Care. He engraved ' Leda w-ith the Swan.' 
after Veronese, and 'Venus with a Mussel-shell,' 
after Titian, and more than 300 portraits of tlie 
famous men of liis day. He died in 1807. 

SAINT-AUBIX, Charles Germain de, a French 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1721. He was the 
author of three series of plates known respectively 
as 'Essais de PapiUonneries humaines,' ' Mes petits 
bouquets,' and ' Les Fleurettes.' 

SAINT-AUBLX, Gabriel Jacques de, brother of 
the last-named, was born in Paris in 1724. He was 
a pupil of Jeaurat, CoUin de Vermont, and Boucher. 
He painted first heroic and then domestic subjects, 
and has left forty-three etchings. He died in 1780. 
His brother Louis-MiCHEL, also a painter, was em- 
ploj'ed at Sevres. 

ST. AUBYN, Catherine, is the author of some 
etchings dated from 1788 to 1798. Two drawings 
bv her of St. Michael's Mount have been engraved. 
" SAINT-AULAIRE, Felix Achille, painter, a 
native of Piedmont, born 1801. He studied under 
the elder and younger Garneray, and practised in 
France. He chiefly devoted himself to marine 
subjects. He last appeared at the Salon in 1838. 
He is also known as a lithographer. 

SAINT-EVE. Jean-Marie, engraver, bom at 
Lyons on the 9th June, 1810. He studied first at 
Lyons under V. Vibert, and subsequently in Paris 
under Richomme, and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 
In 1840 he gained the ' Prix de Rome,' and in 1848 
a medal of the first class. He engraved some im- 
portant plates, and died at Montmartre, September 
4tli, 1856. Among his best plates are : 

Portrait of Andrea del Sarto ; after that master. 
Poetry ; after Raphael. 
Theology; after the same. 

Pamphlet notices of his life and works were pub- 
lisb.ed at Lyons by J. S. Bourgeois in 1860, and by 
Dr. Charles Fraiss'e in 1862. 

SAINT-EVRE, Gillot, painter, born at Bault- 
sur-Snippe, Mame. He was for a time an officer 
of artillery, but gave up military life to devote 
himself to art. He was a frequent exhibitor at the 
Salon, and died in Paris in 1858. There are examples 
of his work at Versailles. 

SAlNT-IGNy, Jean he, a painter and engraver 
of Rouen, who nourished at the end of the 16th 
century. He wrote a book on tb.e iirst elements of 
portrait paintin.:, and died in 1C49. 

S.\LN"riX. Jules Emile, Frenoli painter ; bom 
-August 14, 1829 ; became _a pupil of Drolling, Le 
Boucher, Pieot, and the Ecole des Beaux .-\!ts. 
For over ten years he lived in America, and made 
a special study of the Indians jmd their wnya ami 
customs. Mainly a ].ortrait-painter and p sti»llist. 
though occasional genre ar.d allegorii-al subj>cts 
were successfully portrayed by him. In 1866 and 

1870 he obtained medals, and the Legion of Honour 
in 1877. He died July 14, 1894. 

SAINT-JE.\N, SiMOX, flower-painter, was horn 
at Lyons in 1808, and educated there under Fran9ois 
Lepage. He took Van Huysuin as his model, and 
rivalled his truth to nature. He died at EcuUy- 
Lyon, in 1860. Examples of his art are to be 
found in the Museums of Rouen and Lyons. 

SAINT-NON. Abb^ de, Jeax-Claude-Richarp, 
draughtsman and etcher, bom in Paris in 1730. 
His love for art induced him to sell his oflice in the 
Legislative Assembly, and to undertake a journey of 
some duration in Italy for the purpose of making 
studies from the old masters. Many of these he 
etched on his return to Paris. He brought out a 
' Voyage pittoresque dTtalie et des Royaumes de 
Naples et de Sicile,' with many plates, and also pub- 
lished a series of nineteen sheets of antique orna- 
ments and furniture, which had a favourable influ- 
ence upon decorative taste in France. He r.sually 
signed his plates S. N., or S. No. He died in 1804. 

SAINT-ODRS, Pierre Pattl de, painter, was 
born at Geneva in 1752. His father, a drawing 
master, sent him to Paris, where he entered the 
school of Vien, and in 1780 gained the Prix de 
Rome with his picture of the ' Rape of the Sabines.' 
Being however a Protestant and a foreigner he was 
not entitled to the pension, bi-.t was allowed to 
proceed to Rome some years later, under certain 
conditions. Chving to bad health he returned to 
his own country, wliere he devoted himself to por- 
trait painting. In 1803 he won the only reward 
given by the French Government in a competition 
set afoot by themselves, for the best picture on the 
subject of the 'Concordat.' His works are chiefly 
to be found at Geneva. He died at SchafEhansen 
in 1809. 

SAINT QUENTIN, a French painter, and pupil of 
Boucher, who flourished between 1760 and 1780, 
and painted landscapes and genre pictures. 

SAINT-YVES. Pierre de, historical painter, 
bom at Maubert-Fontaine in 1666. He became an 
Associate of the Academy in 1708, liis entrance 
picture being 'Jephthali's Sacrifice' (now in the 
Tours Museum). He died in Paris, March 20. 

SAITER, Daniel, (Seitek, Seuter, Syder.) 
painter, was born at Vienna in 1642 (1647). He 
went to Italy when he was very young, and studied 
for some years at Venice, under Carlo Loth. From 
Venice he went to Rome, where lie studied under 
Carlo Maratti. He was afterwards invited to the 
court of Turin, where he painted many piictures, 
among them the fresco in the Cupola of the Spednl 
Maggiore. Examples of his work are also to be 
found at Brimswick, Dresden, and in the Turin 
Gallery. He died at Turin in 1705. 

Seuter, Syder,) a German draughtsman and en- 
graver, bom at Augsburg in 1718. He was in- 
stmcted by J. E. Ridinger and G. M. Preissler. 
He lived some years in Italy, but died in the 
hospital at Augsburg in 1800. Works: 

Portrait of John Knpetzky, Painter. 

George Philip Rugeadas, Battle Painter. 

.Abraham sending away Hagar ; after C'ehsti. 
A Holy Family : afttr Andrea del ^arto. 
O'rist with Martha and Mary ; after L. da llnci. 
The Adulteress before Christ ; after Froeaccini. 
The Marriage at Caua; after P. Veronese. 
The Flight into Egypt : tjfter Albano. 

SAIVE, John B.Ai'Tisr de, born at Na'uur in 
1540, died Aprd 6, 16:i4. He left Namur after 


1578, settled at Brussels, and was official painter 
to the Duke of Parma. In Jlay 1590 he was again 
a" Naniur. In 1603 lie settled at Mechlin, became 
a member of the Guild of St. Luke, and worked 
there until his death. In 1594 he painted for the 
Archduke six pictures represeatingthe four seasons, 
and market-pieces, for which he was paid 224 
florins ; and in 1597 a figure of Christ on the cross 
forthe Town Hall of Namur, for which he received 
£40. During the last twenty years of his life he 
painted many altar-pieces for cluirclies at Mechlin 
and in the neighbourhood. His style was greatly 
influenced by Lambert Lombard. 

Namur. Museum. .Shutters of a triptych. 1576. 

Mechlin. Cathedral. David overcoming Goliath. 

,, ,, The Baptism of Christ 

(siyncd; his best work). 
„ Our Lady on ) Triptych ; EpisoJes in the 

the Dyh. j life of St. Katheriut- 

(,</..«./). w. irj. v;, 

SALA, George AnGUSxns, was born in New 
Street, Manchester Square, London, on Nov. 24, 
1828. From 1839 to 1842 he was at school in 
Paris, and showed great aptitude for drawing. At 
the age of fourteen he was sent to study under 
Carl Schiller, a miniature painter in Charlotte 
Street, Fitzroy Square. When fifteen he was 
thrown on his own resources, and from 1845 to 
1848 earned his living by painting scenery at the 
Princess' and the Lyceum Theatres. In 1847 he 
illustrated Alfred Bunn's ' Word with Punch,' and 
in 1848 Albert Smith's 'The Man in the Moon.' 
He then learned the art of etching, and in 1850 
illustrated a comic guide-book, published by 
Ackermann, with the title ' Practical E.xposition 
of J. M. W. Turner's Picture, Hail, Rain, Steam 
and Speed ' ; while later in the year his panorama 
entitled ' No Popery ' was issued by the same pub- 
lisher. In the following year Sala drew four litho- 
graphic plates with views of the Great Exhibition, 
and in 1852 engraved with Henry Aiken, junior, a 
long panoramic roll representing the procession at 
the Duke of Wellington's funeral. After this time 
his work as an artist seems to have ceased, and he 
devoted himself entirely to the journalistic work 
which made the initials G. A. S. so famous. As art 
critic of the ' Daily Telegraph ' and other papers 
he wrote extensively on matters connected with 
art, and used his influence for its true development. 
After being for thirty years perhaps the most 
pronunent journalist of his day, Sala died after a 
long illness on December 8, 1895. M. H. 

SALA, VlTALE, painter, was born at Cernusco, 
near Brienz, in 1803, and educated at Brera, where 
he painted the 'Death of Cato'; the 'Death of 
Romeo and Juliet' ; and the ' Farewell of Reguliis.' 
There are also works by him in the churches of 
Vigevano, Novara, Bosisio, Desio, and in those of 
St. Stefano, St. Lazzaro, and St. Catharine, at Milan. 
He died at Jlilan in 1835. 

SALAI, Andre.a. (S.iLAiNO, S.\lario). As the 
favourite pupil aud constant companion of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci, Andrea Salai is a very distinct 
personality, but his artistic achievements remain 
obscure. The late M. E. Mlintz discovered in 
some documents on Hungarian history a certain 
archer, Andrea Salai, who in 1461 was at Brindisi 
in the service of Naples. The similarity of name 
and correspondence of date give rise to the pre- 
sumption that this Andrea Salai, the archer, may 
have beeu the father of the artist. The first 
reference to him, however, occurs in 1495 ; in 1503 


there is an entry in Leonardo's accounts of a sum 
for shoes : whilst later on the generous painter 
provided the money for his sister's dower. In 
January 1505 Salai manifested a keen desire to do 
'^ qualche cosii galante" for Isabella d'Este, but the 
ofler was not accepted. The Marchesa's Florentine 
correspondents, however, recommended that Salai 
should advise on the valuation of Perugino's 
picture, 'The Combat of Love and Chastity' 
(Louvre), painted for her palace at Mantua. When 
Leonardo went to Kome in 1514, he (Salai) accom- 
panied him, but refused to follow his master to 
France, choosing rather to remain in his house 
outside Milan. Half of this same property was 
bequeathed to him by Leonardo, but his ultimate 
fate and the time of his death is not known. 
The master, out of affection for his pupil, is 
said to have frequently put the finishing touches 
to the latter's feebler efforts, and also allowed 
him to make use of his own cartoons. It is 
generally considered that the hand of Salai 
appears in those pictures where rosy tones and 
heavj' brown shades predominate. For this reason 
the 'Madonna in the lap of St. Ann^' (Louvre), 
catalogued as a genuine work of Leonardo, is now 
frequently attributed to his pupil. Three well- 
known replicas of this picture exist : in the Her- 
mitage (St. Petersburg), in St. Eustorgio (Milan), 
and at Madrid. The first of these examples is 
generally assigned to Salai, to whom also are 
attributed : 

The Madonna with Saints. (Brera.) 

Christ bearing the Cross. (Berlin.) A. W. 

SALAMANCA, Antonio, a very celebrated pub- 
lisher and dealer in prints, flourished about the 
middle of the 16th century. He is the supposed 
engraver of a plate after Michelangelo's ' Pietk.' on 
which is inscribed Antonius Salamanca Quod 
Potuit Imitatus Exsculpsit, This is the 
only direct piece of evidence that he practised en- 
graving, but two more plates have been ascribed 
to him : a portrait of Baccio Bandinelli, 1545, and 
the ' Creation of Animals,' after Raphael, 1548. All 
the other prints with his name have excudehat, or 
excudit, instead of exsculpsit. 

SALAMANCA, Geronimo de, a painter of the 
16th century, practising at Seville. 

SALAZAR, Juan de, a skilful illuminator of the 
16th century. He is chiefly known by his work 
fir the choir-books of the Escurial, and for the 
mass-books of Toledo. His drawing was remark- 
able for its delicacy and precision, and his colour 
for its brilliance. He died at Toledo in 1604. 

SALERNO, Andrea da. See Sabattini. 

SALIBA, Antonello da, a Sicilian painter, who 
lived in the early part of the 16th century, and 
adopted the method which Antonello da Messina 
is said to have introduced into Italy. 

SALIMBENI, Arcangelo di Leonardo, a Sienese 
master of the latter half of the sixteenth century, 
who seems to have belonued to the celebrated 
family of that name, but is himself chiefly known 
from his friendship with Federigo Zuccaro, whose 
influence is observable in his work, and from 
having been the master of his more celebrated son, 
Ventura, and stepson, Francesco Vanni. He com- 
pleted a ' Nativity ' left unfinished by Bartolommeo 
Nerooi (11 Riccio) in the church of the Carmine at 
Siena, and painted pictures for the Confraternities 
of San Bernardino, Sta. Lucia, an(i Sta. Caterina- 
in-Fontebranda. On April '20, 1567, he married 
Ba'.,tista, widow of Eugenio Vanni, mother of the 


painter Francesco Vaniii, and daughter of Giuliano 
Morelli, the Sienese goldsmith, so well known as 
the friend of Vasari and Beccafumi. Tlje most 
jonspicnous works of this master are the ' Death 
of St. Peter M;irt}-r,' in the church of S. Domenico 
at Siena, painted in 1579, and a ' Crucifixion, with 
SS. JIary ilagdalen, Koch, and Francis,' in the 
parish church of Liicignano at Val d'Arbia. A 
lunette over the door of the suppressed con%'ent of 
Monagnese, and a painting in the ante-room of the 
chapel of SS. Giovanni and Gennaro at Siena are 
also by him. He died in 1580. K. H. H. C. 

SALIMBEXI, SiMOKDio di Ventura, was horn 
in 1597, and studied under his father until the 
deatli of the latter, which occurred wjien he was 
sixteen years of age. He then entered the studio 
of Rutiiio llanetli, whose icfluence was strong 
enouah to eti'ace his earlier training, and to become 
so marked that tlie pupil's work has not infrequently 
been attributed to the master. A contemporary 
with Stefano Volpi, Ilario Casolani, Astolfo Pe- 
trazzi. Stefano Folli, and others of the late Sienese 
School, he was employed in company and in 
rivalry with them in decorating many of the 
churches and chapels of Siena. In 1619 he 
married Teodora. daugliter of Ascanio Vettori, who 
brougiit him a dowry of 700 florins, and by whom 
he had two children : Isabella, who on .June 14, 
1646, married in tlie church of S. Pietro Ovile — 
with a dowry of 350 florins — Giovaii Maria Sarti ; 
and Ventura, concerning whom but one document- 
ary notice, dated 1G50, is extant, and with whom 
apparently this branch of the Salinibeni family 
died out. Simondio appears to have resided from 
August 1622 — 1625 in a house, for which he paid 
254 lire rent, near the Fonte di S. Francesco, in 
the parish of S. Pietro Ovile, and it was for this 
church that he painted a ' Death of St. Joseph,' 
still ill the sacristy there. Documentary notices 
exist with reference to him in the years 1G26, 1627, 
1629, and 1634. In 1632, dissatisfaction arising 
with regard to a commission executed by him in 
the lower chapel of Sta. Caterina-in-Fontebranda 
(Contrada del Oca), he was involved in a lawsuit 
which lasted until 1642. This was finally decided 
against him, and his work was ordered to be 
painted out. He died suddenly in 1643, and was 
buried on September 8 in his parish church above 
mentioned. He appears also to have borne the 
additional name of BEViLACCJtiA, with which he 
signs one of the five frescoes by him in the church 
of S. Rocco (Contrada della Lupa), in Via 
Vallerozzi, Siena. R. H. H. C. 

SALIMi3EXI, Ventura di Arcangelo, son of 
Arcanu'elo Salimbeni bj' Battista ilurelli, widow of 
Eugenio Vanni, was born in January or February 
1568, christened under the names of Alessandro 
Ventura, and confirmed at the age of eight on 
June 12, 1676. Together with his half-brother, 
Francesco Vanni, he learnt the principles of 
painting under his father. At his father's death 
he travelled to Lomb irdy, and studied there the 
work of Correggio. In 1585 he executed for the 
fa§ade of the church of S. Giorgio at Siena, from 
the design of his half-brother, the striking figure 
of the p.itron saint, now preserved in the sacristy. 
In that same and the following years he was at 
Rome, painting various works. In 1591 he married 
at Rome Antonia Focari, and in the next year 
painted some scenes from the ' Life of the Virgin ' 
in Sta. Maria Maggiore, and other works in Sta. 
Maria della Pace. In 1595 he returned to Siena, 

and in 1597 was employed to restore Sano di 
Pietro's beautiful ' Coronation of the Virgin ' in 
the Palazzo Pubblico. In 1599 he was working at 
Montalcino in the church of S. Pietro, and in 1600 — 
1601 he was invited by Cardinal Bonifazio Bevil- 
acqua, of Ferrara, papal legate, to Perugia to 
execute certain works in the church of S. Pietro in 
Cassinense. These works so pleased His Eminence 
that he conferred upon the artist the title of Knight 
of the Golden Spur, and permitted him to assume 
his own surname ; wherefore he not infrequently 
8t\ les himself Ventura Bevil-WQUA Sahmbeni. At 
this time lie also carried out some decorative work 
iti S. ilaria degli Angeli, near Assisi. In 1602 
he completed the ceiling of the chapel of the SS. 
Trinita at Siena, and of the Sala Grande of the 
Knights of S. Stefano at Pisa. In the following 
year he painted a figure of ' Pisa Personified ' in 
the Sala Grande of the Palazzo Communale of that 
city. From thence he went to Rome and worked 
in the church of the Gesii, and then returning to 
Siena carried out a number of commissions in 
various churches there. In 1605 and 1608 he was 
at work, in company with Bernardino Poccetti, 
painting frescoes in the cloister of the church of 
the Annunziata at Florence, for which works he 
received 175 scudi. In 1606 he painted a 'Cruci- 
fixion ' for the Colomhini Chapel in S. Domenico 
at Siena, and, assisted by his half-brother, com- 
pleted a ' Nativity ' for the church of the Refugio, 
left unfinished by Alessandro Casolani, and exe- 
cuted other work in the same church. In 1607 he 
was again at Pisa, working in the churches of Sta. 
Cecilia, S. Francesco, and S. Frediano ; and in 
1608, after visiting Florence to complete his work 
in the cloister of the Annunziata, he returned to 
Pisa and painted a picture of 'Angels' for the 
second altar in the left aisle of the Duomo. By 
October 8 in that same year he was b.:ck in his 
native city, commissioned to make four frescoes for 
the choir of the cathedral. In 1610 he was sent for 
to Rome by Cardinal Girolamo Lancellotti to paint 
a ' Circumcision ' for the church of S. Simeone 
Lancellotti, and on occasion, through the in- 
fluence of Cardinal Francesco Sforza, of S. Flora, 
was created a Knight of Christ by Pope Paul VIII. 
(Borghese). That same year he accompanied his 
friend Agostino Tassi, the landscape painter, tn 
Genoa, where he decorated the Casa Adomo ai:d 
several of the churches there. Considering him- 
self badly treated, however, in that city, he 
returned home in 1611, and set to work to finish 
his Duomo frescoes, for which he received 7,000 
lire. In 1612 he designed a memorial for the 
Rectors of the Hospital of S. Maria della Scala, 
carried out by the sculptor Ascanio di Cortona. 
After completing other work in his native city, he 
died, at the early age of 46, in 1613, and, robed in 
the habit of a Knight of Christ, was buried on 
Novemlier 23 in his parish church of the Madonna 
della Rosa. He was an able draughtsman, and a 
painter of a certain amount of merit, but careless 
in hi.s work and too fond of amusement. He was 
also a clever engraver, and many examples of his 
plates are still extant. His wife appears to have 
predeceased him. He had bj' her seven children : 
Simondio (born 1597) ; Isabella (born January 11, 
1598 ; died, a nun, September 21, 1616) ; Alessandro 
and Lucrezia (twins, born March 1,1599; Lucrezia 
also became a nun under the name of Maria 
Angelica dell a Concezione); Laurenzio (born August 
8, 1601) ; Lucrezio ; and Maddalena (married in 



Uj30 — with a dowrj- of 2 TO florins — Austino di 
V'inetnzo da Petrojo). Of these, all except Isiibella 
and Laurenzio survived their father, and were left 
at his death to the care of their maternal grand- 
mother, Battista Focari. Ventura Salirabeni's 
pupils — besides his son Simondio — were Giovanni 
Paolo Pisani, Sebastiano Folli, Bernardino Capi- 
telli, and, at Genoa, Ottavio Ghissoni. He had, 
however, also cert;iin imitators, among whom were 
Alessandro Albini of Boh-gna (a pupil of the 
Carracci), Benedetto Bandiera of Perugia, and 
Oio. Battista Lombardelli deila Marca, who, how- 
ever — having predeceased him in 1587 — might 
be said rather to have given to than taken from 

Among the vast quantities of frescoes and other 
works left by him, the following is a fairly repre- 
sentative list : 

Florence. Cloister of the '. 
Annuaziata, j 
Fohgno. Duomo. 

Genoa. Ca^a Adorno. 
„ Ch. of S. Matteo. 

„ Ch. ofS. Francesco 

di Paola. 

Montalciuo. Ch. of S. 


Perugia. Ch.ofS.Pielro. 

Pisa. Palace of Knii/hts 

of S. Stefino. 

„ Palazzo Pubi'lico. 

„ Duomo. 

Kome. Ch. ofSta. Mana 


„ Ch. ofSta. Maria 

della Pace. 

„ Palazzo Doria. 

Siena. Ch. SS. Ti-initA. 

„ Ch.oftheSantuccio. 

„ Ch. ofS, Giorgio. 

„ Ch. of S. Ansano. 

„ Ch. ofS. Spirito. 

„ Ch. of S. Domeiiico. 

„ Chapel ofSta. Cate- 

rina della J'olte. 

„ Ch. of <S. Quirico. 

Ch. of S. Lucia. 

Ch. ofS. Paolo. 

Ch. of the Font e 

Ch. of S. Pietro 

alle Scale. 

Chapel of the Con- 

trada delV Oca. 

Compayuia di S. 



■ Frescoes. 1605-1608. 

Marri.-ige of the Virgin. 


Scenes from the Life of the 

Saint. {Ceilinff of fourth 

chapel to the left.) 

■Frescoes. (Cloister.) 

Tlie Gift of the Keys to St. 

Peter. 1.099. 
Disputa. 1600. 
Crucitiiiou. 1604. 
Stories of David and of St. 

Gregory the Great. 

Frescoes. 1602. 

Pisa Tersonified. 1603. {Sala 

del Commune.) 
Angels. 1608. (Second altar 

on the left.) 
Scenes from tlie Life of the 

Virgin. 1591'. 

S. Simeon dei Lancellotti. 

Circumcision. 1610. 

St. Jerome. 

Ceiling and wall frescoes. 1595. 

Story of S. Galgano. 161J. 

(Choir of Angels.) 
St. George (lunette). 15S5. 

(Sacristy. ) 
SS. Ansano and Micheie 

Various Saints, and Story of 

S. Giacinto. 
Crucifixiou,with various Saint'j. 

1606. (Capella VolomJnni. ) 
\ Scenes from the Life of that 
I Saint. 
Madonna. (Over the door .) 
Martyrdom of SS. Quirico and 

Giulitta (frisco). 1603. 
The Maries at the Sepulchre 

(oil). 1615. 
St. Lucy, with Angels. (Over 

the door.) 
Sta. Francesca Romana. (Sac- 

\ Scenes from the Lives of the 
J Virgin, S. Bartolommeo, 

and the Blessed Anibrogio 


I Banner. 1G03. 

) Scenes from the Life of St. 
j Catherine. 1604. 

[Lunette. 1600. (Lower chapel.) 

S. Kocco. 
Duomo. Storj' of Esther. 

„ Saints (two frescoes). 1603. 

Siena. Palazzo Pulhlico, Frescoes. (Second room of 
the Sindacd's apartments.) 

E. H. H. C. 

SALINCORNO, Mirabello, called also Uavalori, 
flourished in 1565. He was a scholar of Ridolfo 
Ghirlandajo, and was one of tlie artists .vho helped 
to paint the catafalque for the obsequies of Michel- 
angelo. It is uncertain when he died. Zani says 
he was at work in 1578. 

SALINI, ToMMASO, Cavaliere, painter, born at 
Rome in 1570 or 1575, was the son of a Florentine 
sculptor, who placed him under the tuition of 
Baccio Pintelli, an artist of little note. He became 
a respectable painter of history, and also painted 
flowers and fruit with considerable success. He 
died at Rome about 1630. 

SALIS, Carlo, was born at Verona in 1080. and 
first studied at Bologna under Giuseppe da I'Sole. 
but he afterivards became a disciple of Antonio 
Balestra, at Venice, whose style he imitated witij 
success. His best picture is an altar-piece at Ber- 
gamo, representing S. Vincenzio healing the Sick. 
He died in 1763. 

SALISBURY, — , was a popular painter, living 
in London at tlie time of the Restoration. He was 
a friend of Pepys, who mentions him several times 
in his Diary, and in 1662 writes that Salisbury has 
'•grown in less than two years' time so great a 
limner that he is become excellent, and gets a deal 
of money at it." 

SALLAERT. Antonie, (Salaert, or Sallaerts,) 
was born at Brussels about the year 1590. He 
was inscribed, as an apprentice, on the corporation 
book of the Brussels painters in 1606. His master, 
Michael de Bordeau, also taught Philippe de Cham- 
pagne. Sallaert was admitted master in 1613. 
Sallaert enjoyed the friendship of Rubens, whose 
pupil he is asserted, but without evidence, to have 
been. He was Dean of the Painters' Guild in 1633-4, 
1634-5, 1646-7 and 1647-8, so that his death can- 
not have taken place prior to l(i48, but its exact 
date is unknown. Pictures : 

Brussels. Gallery. Christ's Passion ; an allegory. 

n „ The Infanta Isahella at the 

Shooting Feast of the'Grand- 
„ „ The Procession of the ' Pucelles 

du Sablou.* 
Madrid. Gallery. The Judgment of Paris. 

Papillon mentions this artist as an engraver on 
wood. He usually marked his prints with the cipher 

;pL* [ ATI • Sometimes with the border, some- 
times without Brulliot denies that he engraved 
on wood ; but a set of the Four Evangelists and 
an ' Ecce Homo' bear his mark. 

SALLIETH, Mathias de, was bom at Prague in 
1749, and was taught engraving by J. E. Mansfeld 
of Vienna, and afterwards went to Paris and worked 
under J. Ph. Le Bas ; several prints by him are 
in Choisenl-Goufiier's 'Voyage [littoresque de la 
Grece,' ' Voyage pittoresque en France,' and ' La 
Gallerie Lebrun." Subsequently he resided in 
Holland, and employed himself on marine subjects 
after his own designs, and after pictures by Dutch 
masters. Among the best are, the ' Battle of 
Nieuport' : and three others, after D. Langendyck ; 
two after Kobell : one after A. Storck ; and one 
after Vander Capelle. He died at Rotterdam in 1 791. 

SALM, A. van. a Dutch painter of nuirines and 
views in Holland, in black and white, in imitation 
of pen-drawings. He lived about the middle of 
the 17th century. 


SALM, B. Nicolas, German painter and black- 
and-white artist; born at Cologne in 1810, where 
he first studied ; several of his drawings were 
reproduced ; decorated the Giirzenich in 1835 
with carnival scenes, and as a poitr.iit-painter 
made some success. He died at Aachen, where 
he tn.utcht drawing, in 1883. 

SAL.MEG6IA, Enea, (Salmasio,) called II 
Talpino, painter, was born at Bergamo about the 
vear 1556, lie reuuivea iii.s iirst leaching at Cre- 
"raona, under the Canipi, but afterwards became a 
pcholar of Procaocini, at Milan. He also passed 
fourteen years at Rome, where he applied himself 
to the .study of Raphael. His pictures, of which 
there are many in his native town, have much sim- 
plicity and refinement. He died at Bergamo in 
1626. Francesco and Ci.ara, the son and daughter 
of Enea Salraeggia, imitated their father's manner. 
SAL51ER0N, Cristobal Garcia, a Spanish 
painter, born at Cuenca in 1G03. He was a pupil 
of Pedro On-ente, and proved a reputable history 
and animal painter. One of his best works is a 
'Kativity,' in the church of St. Francis, at Cuenca. 
He was employed by Philip IV. to paint a bull- 
fight, held in honour of the birth-day of Charles II. 
of Spain. He died at Madrid in 1666. 

S.\LMERON, Francisco, brother of Cristobal 
Salmeron, was born at Cuenca in 1608, and was 
also a pupil of Pedro Orrente. His desire was to 
distinguish himself as acolourist, for which purpose, 
it is said, he chemically analyzed works by Titian, 
P. Veronese, Tintoretto, and the Bassani. He neg- 
lected the other essentials of art, and so, beside 
their good colour, his pictures exhibit very great 
defects. The church of S. Francisco at Cuenca has 
a ' Burial of Christ ' by him. He died at .Madrid in 

SALMIER JossE, a Flemish painter, probably a 
native of Mechlin, practising about 1620. He was 
related to the painter David fierregouts, to whom 
he gave his first lessons in art. 

SALMINCIO, Andrea, engraver, was a native of 
Boiogna, where he was a bookseller. He learnt 
engraving from Giovanni Luigi Valesio, and pro- 
duced several engra^^ngs, both on wood and on 
copper, which he marked with a monogram similar 
to that of Ant. Sallaert. 

SALMON, Adrien Alphonse, painter, bom in 
Paris ,in 1802, was a pupil of Lecourt, and entered 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1819. He was an 
occasional exhibitor at the .Salon, and at the 
Luxembourg, but was better l;nown as a restorer 
of pictures. He last apjieared at the Salon in 1848. 
SALMON, Jacqdes Pierre Francois, painter, 
born at Orleans on the 16th August 1781, was a 
pupil of Bardin and of Regnault. He was for 
some time attached to the " Ecole Centrale" of the 
department of Loiret, and afterwards worked for 
forty-five years as a professor at the College uf 
Orleans. Several views by him of scenery in the 
neighbourhood of Orleans have been engraved and 
lithographed. He died at Orleans on the 10th 
March, 1855. The Musee of that city possesses 
examples of his work. 

SALMON, Louis Adolphe, French painter and 
engravi-r ; born in Paris in 1806, wliere he studied 
at the Beaux Arts under Henrique!, Dupont, and 
Ingres ; he won the Grand Prix de Rome with his 
'Academie d"apr6s Nature.' In Italy he made 
several copies in water-colour of the Old Masters, 
and painted portraits of Pio Nono, the Princess 
Borghese, Duca di Montcbello, and others, and his 

i-ngravin.;s were from originals by Angeli, Ing;res, 
Rosso, Santi, Ary Scheffer, and Leonardo daViici. 
He obt.ainod a second-class ni'-dal in 1853, and a 
rappel in 1857, 1859, and 1863, and the L> gion of 
Hnnourin 1867. He died in Paris in September 

SALMSON, Hugo Frederik, was bom at Stock- 
holm in 1843. He came to Paris and studied umier 
Charles Comte, and also settled there. Exhibiting 
regularly, at first historical subjects, then rustic 
genre and landscape, and latterly portraits, often in 
pastel, he has had many manners. He was created 
Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1879, and OfEcer 
in 1889. His 'A la Barrifere de Dalby, a Skane 
(Suede) ' hangs in the Luxembourg, for which also 
his ' Une Arrestation dans un Village de Picardie ' 
was acijuired. Other pictures by him are ' Chez 
Grandmfere ' and ' La Petite Glaneuse' (Stockholm 
National Museum). His studies of peasant life in 
Picardy and Sweden won him popularity by their 
dainty charm, capable draughtsmanship and refined 
treatment, but his work shows a lack of individu- 
ality. He died at Lund on August 1, 1S94. 

SALOMAJSI, Geskel, Danish painter; born April 
1, 1821, at Tondern, Schleswig ; studied at the 
Copenhagen Academy under Eckerberg and Lund. 
He subsequently visited Paris, where he worked 
with Couture, and in 1860 and 1861 travelled in 
.-Mgeria. His 'News from the Crimea' is in the 
ijoteborg Museum, and other works by him include 
' Girl with Letter,' ' Opfer der Huhner,' and others. 
He also painted several portraits ; became a 
member of the Swedish Academy in 1871 : was 
appointed Court Painter in 1876; received the Vasa 
Urder in 1869, and died in 1890. 

SALOMON, Bernard, an engraver, called also 
Le petit Bernard,' Bernardus Gallus, and Bernardo 
Gallo, was born at Lyons (?) about 1520. Though 
there is a doubt as to Lyons being his birthplace, 
he certainly resided there in the last half of the 
16th century, and was engaged in book illustration. 
His best works were illustrations to the Bible and 
to Ovid's ' Metamorphoses." He is said to have had 
a son, Jean Bernard, who practised the same art as 
hi.s father, and was called Giovanni Gallo, Johannes 
Gallus, &c. 

SALT, Henry, a draughtsman, was born about 
1785 at Lichfield, where lie was also educated. He 
accompanied Lord Valentia to India in 1802, and 
furnished the iilustrations for the book of travels 
published by that nobleman in 1809. He was em- 
ployed by the Government to carry presents to 
negotiate an alliance with the King of Abyssinia, 
the artistic result of which was the publication of 
twenty-four \-iews of Abyssinia, and the Red Sea. 
In 1815 he was appointed Consul-General for 
Egypt, and devoted himself to the study of the 
antiquities of that country. He died between Cai-ro 
and Alexandria in 1827. 

SALTARELLO, Luca, (Sartarelli,) was born 
at Genoa in 1610, .and was a disciple of Domenicc 
Fiasella. At an early age he gave proofs of extra- 
ordinary ability, but going in 1635 to Rome in 
search of improvement, he there fell a victim to 
his unremitting labour while still very younsr 
Works • 
GeDOa. San Siefano. Tlie Miracle of St, Beuedict. 

„ S. Andrta, Martyrilom of St. .\udrew, 

IJsbon. Tlie Trinity. 

SALTER, Willum, historical anil portrait 
painter, was bom at Honitou in 1804, went to 
London in 1822, and became a pupil of Northcote. 



He then went to Florence, where he painted a 
picture of 'Socr.ites before the Areopagus,' and 
thence to Rome and Parma, at which latter city liis 
studies from Corregsjio became famous. In 1833 he 
returned to England, where he painted a picture of 
the ' Waterloo Banquet.' He was also employed 
in painting scenes from Shakespeare, and historical 
scenes from the lives of the Stuarts. Salter was 
a vice-president of the Society of British Artists. 
He died in London in 1875. 

SALTO, Diego de, an Augustine friar of Seville, 
who took the vov,'s in 1570, and devoted his leisure 
to illuminating. 

SALTZBURGER, P., a German engraver on 
wood, who flourished about the year 1580 ; most of 
his cuts are from the designs of Jost Amman. 

SALVA, Carniero Joaquin de, a Portuguese 
engraver, born at Oporto in 1727. He studied at 
Rome, and was appointed Professor in the School 
of Engraving at Lisbon, where he died in 1818. 

SALVADOR OF Valencia, a Spanish painter 
of the 15th century, who worked with Benozzo 
Gozzoli at Rome, and was patronized by Calixtus 
III., about 1450. 

SALVADOR CARMONA, Manoel, was an en- 
graver and designer, who was born at Madrid in 
1730, and became a pupil of Dupuis in Paris. He 
died at iladrid in 1807. His engravings are much 
esteemed. Among the more important may be 
reckoned the following: 

An Allegory in houour of Charles III. of Spain ; after 

Bacchu.s crowning his Votaries ; after Velazquez. 

A JIadonua seated on Clouds ; after JIurillo. 1SU2. 

A Madonna; after Van Dyck. 1757. 

The Resurrection; after j'an Loo, 1757. 

St. John the Baptist ; after Haphael Mentjs. 17S4. 

The Magdalene ; after the same. 

St. Ferdinand praying ; after Murillo. 1791. 

Angels appeariirg to Mary Magdalene ; after Guerciiu). 

Portrait of Franijois Boucher ; after Rodin Suedois. 

Portrait of Collin de Vermont ; after the same. 

Portrait of Charles III. ; after Raphael ilenys. 17S3. 

Portrait of Don Alfonso P." de Guzman ; after Van Dt/ck. 

Joseph, a Carmelite Monk ; after Velazquez. 

SALVADOR GOMEZ, Ldciano, supposed to be 
a brother of Vicente S. Gomez, was a pupil of 
Jacinto de Espinosa. A ' St. Barbara,' in the 
cathedral and a ' St. Erasmus,' in the Dominican 
convent, at Valencia, are ascribed to him. He 
was living' in 1662. 

SALVADOR GOMEZ, Vicente, was a native of 
Valencia, and pupil of Jacinto de Espinosa. At 
the age of fourteen he is recorded to have painted 
a series of pictures from the life of St. Ignatius 
Loyola, which gained him enough reputation to 
keep him fully employed in the Valentian churches 
and convents for the rest of his life. He was a 
skilful painter of birds and animals, also of arclii- 
lecture; and his colour was pleasing. In 1670 he 
was the Director of an academy held in the convent 
of St. Dominic, and in 1675 he executed ten scenes 
from the lives of St. Juan de Mala and St. Felix de 
Valois for the choir of the church of El Remedio. 
These are the only dates relating to liira which are 
certainly known. His pictures are numerous. 

S.4.LVAD0R, Mariano Maello, of Valencia, born 
in 1739, studied painting with Gonsalez Velazquez 
at Madrid. He was appointed painter to the King 
and Director-General of the Academy of St. Fer- 
dinand. In 1775 he was employed in Valencia, 
with Bayeu, to replace the venerable frescoes of 
Juan de Borgoiia in Toledo with daubs of his own. 
He furnished illustrations, engraved by Salvador 

Carmona, for the Infant Don Gabriel's Sallust. He 
died in 1819. 

SALVATORE D'ANTONIO, the author of a 
panel in San Niccolo, Messina, painted at the close 
of the 15th century, representing St. Francis re- 
ceiving the stigmata, is thought by some to have 
been the father of Antonello da Messina, but no 
records of his life or death exist. The latest opinion 
would make him the pupil of Antonello. 

SALVESTRINI, Bartolommeo, a Florentine 
painter of the 17th century, one of the most suc- 
cessful imitators of Jan Bilivert. He died while 
Btill young, a victim to the plague of 1630. 

SALVETTI, Francesco, a minor Florentine 
painter and engraver, born 1701. He was the 
pupil and intimate friend of Anton Domenico 
Grabbiaiii. He died in 1768. 

SALVI, Giovanni Battista, called II Sasso- 
I'ERRA'I'O from his birthplace in the March of An- 
cona, born in 1605, the son of a painter, Tarquinio 
Salvi. He is usually classed among the followers 
of the Carracci, and is said to have been more 
especially influenced by Domenichino at Naples. 
At Rome, where the greater part of his life was 
spent, he produced a large number of pictures, one 
of the best being an .iltar-piece for the Dominicans 
of Sta. Sabina on the Aventine, representing the 
Madonna del Rosario with SS. Catherine and 
Dominic ; the picture was stolen in the summer 
of 1901, but was shortly after recovered and 
restored to its place. His works, mostly Ma- 
donnas, are very frequently met with in public 
and private collections. His free copies after 
Raphael, Titian, Perugino and other masters are 
occasionally of great merit, being far superior to 
his original works, which have all the defects of 
the late 17th century, and are often chalky and 
unpleasant in colour. Among his best-known 
paintings are the following : 

Bremen. Frau Burger- } The Bladonna in prayer. One 
meister Liirman. J of the best examples of this 
composition, which he fre- 
quently repeated. Other 
examples in London, at 
Dresden, Munich, .Madrid 
and elsewhere. 

Sleep of the Infant Saviour. 
Other examples at Madrid, 
Paris and elsewhere. 

His orni Portrait. 

The Immaculate Conception. 

The Workshop of St. Joseph. 

Adoration of the Shepherds, 

The Cruciiixiou. 









North Cray, Kent, 

Other works at Berlin, Brussels, Cassel, Frank- 
fort, the Hague, Rome, St. Petersburg, Venice, 
Vienna, &c. 

SALVI, Tarquinio, a Roman painter of the 16th 
century, of whom little is known. He was a native 
of Sassoferrato, and the father and first teacher of 
Giambattista Salvi, called Sassoferrato. His only 
recorded work is a large ' Rosario,' in the Eremitani 
at Rome. It is signed and dated 1553. 

SALVIATI, Francesco. See Dei Rossi, Fran- 

SALVIATI, Giuseppe. See Porta. 

SALVIATINO. See Dei Rossi, Francesco. 

SALVIN, Anthony. The exquisite quality of 
the [lencil and pen-and-ink drawings made by this 
architect demand that he should find a place in 
' Bryan's Dictionary.' His work as an architect was 
of very high merit, aud many notable buildings 
stand as his memorial. Perhaps one of his greatest 



Alinari photo] 

[Uffizi Gallery, Floreiui 




Anderson flioto] 

[CIniicli of SIli. Siiliin,!. Jii.inui 




works was the rebuilding of the keep of Alnwick 
Castle, and next to that miiy be mentioned the 
erection for Lord Tollemache of a castle at 
Peckfortoi). The work of restoration and repair 
entrusted to him includes important repairs in the 
Tower, at Windsor Castle, and to the mined 
castles of Carisbrooke, Carnar%"on, W'arkworth, 
Alnwick, Graystoke, Dunster, and Brancepeth. 
He came of an important Durham family, and was 
particularly interested in tlie fortified castles of 
ins own and neighbouring counties, and was led 
by the study of these buildings to become in his 
time the greatest authority on such erections. 
When his architectural work was in hand he 
devoted considerable time to the preparation of 
very remarkable drawings of ancient ruins, and to 
other illustrations, showing them as he conceived 
they originally were. He resided in London for a 
considerable part of his life, but retired in 1804 to 
a house he built near Haslemere, known as Hawk's 
Fold, and there it was he died in 1881, in the 
eighty-second year of his life. 

SALVIONI, KOSALBA JIaria, painter, was bom 
at Kome in the 17th century. Sue studied under 
Sebastiano Conoa, and in 1730 was admitted an 
lionorary member of the Acaderaia Clementi of 
Bologna. In the church of tlie Minorites at 
Frascati there is a ' St. Catharine ' b}- her. 

SALVOLINI, GiDSTiNO de, called also Episcopio, 
a painter of the 16th century, belonging to the 
Roman school, but practising chiefly in his native 
town of Castel Durante, where he painted in col- 
laboration with Luzio Dolce. 

SALWAY, N., an English mezzotinter, who 
flourished about the year 1760. He engraved some 
portraits, which are not without merit. 

SALY, Jacques Franqois Joseph, (Saillt,) a 
famous French sculptor, born at Valenciennes in 
1717, was a pupil of Coustou. He is mentioned 
here as the etcher of thirty designs for vases, and 
of four for monuments. He was Director of the 
Academy in Copenhagen. In 1774 he went to 
Paris, where he died in 1776. 

SALZEA, De. See De Four. 

SALZER, Friedrich, landscape painter, born at 
Heilbronn in 1827, was instructed in the principles 
of his art by Bauniann, but afterwards went to 
Munich. He painted the backgrounds for the 
battle-pieces of Kotzebue. There is a Winter-piece 
by him in the Gallery of Stiittgart. In 1863 he 
gave up art on succeeding to his father's business, 
and died at Heilbronn in 1876. 

SAM, Engel, (or Anoelo.) bom at Rotterdam in 
169y, was a good portrait painter, but excelled 
chiefly in genre. He imitated the manner of Van 
der Werfi, and, it is said, painted a ' Flight into 
Egypt' so perfectly resembling the work of that 
master, that even experts were deceived by it. 
It is also said that he imitated Metsu. He died 
at Amsterdam in 1769. 

SAMA.CCHIN1, Orazio, painter, was born at 
Bologna in 1532, and, according to Malvasia, was 
the pupil of Pellegrino Tibaldi. He afterwards 
studied the works of Correggio, and was employed 
to paint in fresco the great chapel in the cathedral 
of Parma, contiguous to the famous cupola by that 
distinguished master. He went to Rome in the 
pontificate of Pius IV., by whom he was employed, 
in conjunction with IVlarco da Siena and others, in 
the decorations of the Sala Regia. The Dresden 
Gallery has a • Holy Family ' by this artist. 
Samacchini died at Bologna in 1577 Works : 

Bologna. .W. Xarbon-e e Felice. Coroaation of the Virgiu 

„" .S'. Giacomo Magyiore. Puri ficatiou of the Virgiu- 

„ Certosa. Last Supper. 

„ La Trintta. Grucifixioii. 

Pal. Lamhertini. The Fall of Icaru?. 

Cremona. 5. Abhondio. Frescoes on the vault. 

SAMANIEGO. Mariana. See Silva Bazan. 

SAMBACH, Fr.«z Kaspar, painter, was _ horn 
at Breslau in 1715, received his instruction in art 
from Reinert and de I'Epee, and at Vieima under 
Donner. In 1762 he became Professor of Architec- 
ture ; and in 1772 Director of Painting in the same 
academy. He painted feigned bas-reliefs in the 
style of Geeraerts and Jacob de Wit. He also 
executed some frescoes for the Jesuits' church at 
Stuhlweissenburg, and an altar-piece for the 
Franciscan church at Camischa. He died at Vienna 
in 1796. 

SAMELING, Benjamin, painter, born at Ghent 
in 1620, was brought up in the school of Franz 
Floris, in whose style he painted historical subjects 
and portraits. The church of the Jansenisis at 
Ghent has several works by him after drawings by 
Lucas de Heere. He died at Ghent in 1614. 

SAMENGO, Ambrogio, a Genoese landscape 
painter of the 17th century, the pupil of Gioy. 
Andrea Ferrari. His works are few and scarce, in 
consequence of his early death. 

SAMMARTINO. See San IMartino. 

SAMMET-BRUEGEL. See Brdegel, Jan. 

SAMSON, Jean, a French historical painter of 
the ,16th century, who, in 1633, Avas engaged in 
work for the chateau of Versailles. 

SAMUEL, George, landscape painter, was an 
exhibitor at the Academy from 1786 to 1823. He 
painted a ' View of the Thames from Rotherhithe 
Stairs,' during the frost of 1789. He was killed by 
a wall falling on him, soon after 1823. 

SAMUEL, Richard, portrait painter and en- 
graver, was an exhibitor at the Academy from 
1772 to 1779. There is an engraving after him of 
' Nine living Muses,' including Mrs. Sheridan, Mrs. 
Montagu, Angelica Kauifman, etc. In 1773 he 
gained a prize from the Society of Arts for an im- 
provement in the method of laying mezzotint 

SAN ANTONIO, Frat BARTOuuife de, was born 
at Cienpozuelos in 1708. At the age of fifteen he 
took the habit of the order of the Trinitarios des- 
calzos, and after studying philosophy and theology 
went to Rome to study painting, of which he had 
acquired the elements at Madrid. He remained in 
Italy six years, and in 1740 returned to his convent 
at Madrid, which he enriched with an immense 
number of his productions. About this time the 
Academy of S. Fernando was established, for which 
he painted an allegorical picture representing 
'Ferdinand VI. and the Catholic Religion.' for 
which he was received as a member of that body. 
The church of the Trinitarios, at _ Madrid, also 
possesses many of his works. He died on Febru- 
ary 8, 1782. 

SAN BERNARDO, II Vecchio di. See Min- 


SANCHEZ, Alonso, one of three artists employed 
to paint frescoes at the university de Alcala de 
Henares, by command of Cardinal Cisi;6ros, the 
founder. He was also employed, with live others, 
in the embellishment of the cathedral cloister at 
Toledo, for which he was p.aid in 1498. In 1608 
he was again employed in the same cathedr:.! with 
Diego Lopez and Luis de Medina. 


SANCHEZ, AXDi'.ES, ;•. native of Portillo, near 
Toledo. He was a pupil of Theotocopnli, called 
II Greco, and was commissioned in 1600 by the 
delegate of the Franciscan missionaries to paint 
certain pictures for the churches built by them 
in the Spanish colonies. 

SANCHEZ, Ci.EME.N'TE, painter, was living at 
Vall.-hiolid in 1620. He painted several pictures 
for the Dominicans of Annda de Duero. 

SANCHEZ-COELLO, Alokzo, was born at Beny- 
fiiyro, in Valencia, in 1513 or IblJ. From his style 
he appears to have studied in Italy, for his design 
resembles that of the Florentines, while in colour 
he follows the principles of the Venetians. In 
lo-il he resided at Madrid, where he formed an in- 
timacy with Sir Antonio Mor, wliom he accom- 
panied to Lisbon, when the latter was sent by 
Charles V. to paint the portraits of the royal 
family. Sanchez entered into tlie service of Don 
John, who had married Joanna, the daughter of 
Charles and sister of Philip II. , and made a con- 
siderable stay at Lisbon. At the death of Don 
John his widow recommended Sanchez to her 
brother Philip, who at once received him as his 
painter in ordinary when Mor made his sudden 
flight from Spain. He painted many portraits of 
Philip and of other members of the royal famil}'. 
He also painted the Popes Gregory XIII. andSixtus 
V. : the Dukes of Florence and Savoy ; Cardinal 
Farnese, biotlier of the Duke of Parma ; and many 
grandees of Spain. With such patronage he became 
rich, and, it is said, lived according to his fortune. 
In 1570 he painted, in cunjunction with his disciple, 
Diego de Urbina. the triumphal arch erected at 
Madrid for the entry of Anne of Austria, the wife 
of Philip II. In 1573 he entered into an engage- 
ment to decorate with suitable subjects the i)rin- 
cipal altar of the church del Espinar, executed by 
the celebrated Francisco Giralte, and for which he 
painted what may be tenned a drop-scene, to serve 
as a screen during the two last weeks in Lent. 
Notwithstanding his advanced age Philip employed 
him in 1682 in filling the Escurial with pictures. 
For this palace-monastery he painted ' St. Paul, 
the first hermit, with St. Anthony ; ' 'St. Stephen 
with St. Lawrence ; ' 'St. Vincent with St. George ; ' 
' St. Catharine with St. Inez ; ' ;md 'St Justus and 
Pastor,' in which he introduced a view of Alcala 
de Henares, and the scenerj' about it. About this 
time he painted the portrait of his fjiend, Father 
Siguenza, which is considered a c/iej'-d'oettwe. and 
has been finely engraved by Ferdinand Seluia; and 
in 1582 that of Ignatius Loyola, from casts taken 
twenty-nine years previously, and from instructions 
by Father Ribadeneyra. Notwithstanding all this 
success, however, Coello was but a second-rate 
artist. He died at Madrid in 1590. Of his works 
we may name : 

London. Xat. For. Oal. Full-length portrait of Philip 11. 
Tiladrid. Ma!>eum, Portrait of Don Carlos. 

,, „ Eugenia and several other 


„ „ The JIarri.ige of St. Catharine. 

Vienna. Gullen/. A Spa!ii.<ili Lady. 

SANCHEZ-COELLO, Isabella, who was born at 
Madrid in 1564, was instructed by her father, Alonso 
Sanchez Coello, and distinguished herself as a 
painter of portraits, which are not now, however, 
to be identified. She was also eminent in poetry 
and music, and highly esteemed for her personal 
character. She married Francisco de Herrera, and 
died at Madrid in 1612. 


SANCHEZ-COTAN, Fray Jua.n-, an eminent 
Spanish painter of Madonnas, flowers, and still- 
life, was born at Alcazar de San Juan in 1561 . he 
was the son of Bartolom^ Sanchez-Cotan, and Ap.-. 
de Quinones. He studied at Toledo under Bias de 
Prado, whose style he imitated, and under him 
made great progress in art. At first he painted 
bodi'jmies, subjects like those of Jan Fyt, but in 
1604 he became a professor of the Chartreuse of 
Paular, and painted subjects from Christ's Passion, 
the sorrows of the Virgin, and particularly Madonnas 
crowned with chaplets of flowers ; all these he 
devoted to the decoration of his convent, or 
bestowed on his brethren for their private oratories. 
From Paular Sanchez-Cotan was removed in 1612 
lo the royal Chartreuse at Granada, for which he 
painted the principal historical pictures in that 
monaster3'. It is related by Palomino that he 
painted a Crucifixion for the refectory of the con- 
vent, 80 deceptive in its appearance that birds at- 
tempted to perch on the cross ; and Cean Bermudez 
confesses that he, at first sight, mistook it for a 
piece of sculpture. Vincenzo Carducci made a 
journey from Madrid to Granada to see his works. 
Sanchez-Cotan died at Granada in 1637. 

SANCHEZ-D'AVILA, Andkes, painter, was bom 
at Toledo. He went to Paris in his youth, and 
afterwards established himself as a portrait painter 
at Vienna. He died in 1762. 

SANCHEZ DE CASTRO, Juan, of Seville, founder 
of the school of Andalusia, was born in the first 
half of the 15tli century. In 1454 he painted 
pictures for the old Gothic altar, in the chapel of 
San Josef in Seville cathedral. For the church of 
San Julian he executed a St. Christopher in fresco, 
whicli was repaired in 1775, little but the signature 
being left of the work. 

SANCHEZ, Luis, is known only as having de- 
signed in 1611 the title-page of a book called • De la 
Veneracion que se debe a las reliquias de los santos.' 
engraved by Pedro Perret, and published in Madrid. 

SANCHEZ, Manuel, a priest of Murcia, who 
was practising as a painter in 1731. 

SANCHEZ, Pedro, a Spanish painter, who was at 
work in Toledo cathedral in 1462. 

SANCHEZ SARABIA, Diego, an architectural 
draughtsman and painter of familiar subjects, was a 
member of the Academy of San Fernando in 1762. 
By desire of that body he made drawings of the 
Alhambra and of the Palace of Charles V.,at Granada. 
These are now in the Academy. Sauchez Sarabia 
died in 1779. 

SANCHO, Esteban, a Spanish painter, known 
as Maneta, from his having lost his right hand. 
He was a native of Majorca, and a pupil of Pedro 
Ferrer, and painted many pictures for tlie churches 
of his native island. He died in 1778. 

S.\N CLERICO, , an Italian scene-painter 

and decorator of much repute, practising in 1823. 
A good example of his work is the ceiling of the 
Casino degli Negozianti at Milan. 

SAN DANIELE, Battista da, was a Dalmatian, 
living at Udine and San Daniele, in the middle of 
the 15th century, and was the father of Martino da 
Ddine, surnaraed Pellegrino da San Daniele. No 
paintings by liim are now extant, but records exist 
to prove that in 1468 he contracted to paint a cur- 
tain-fall for the church of Comerzo, and in 1470 an 
altar-piece with four figures for the brotherhood of 
San Daniele di Cnstello. (Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 
' Painting in N. Italy.') 

SANDAKS, Thomas, engraver, sou of a painter 


ol' UottiTiiam, went to London, ami became r> 
member of the St. Martin's Lane Academy. He 
etched the ' Italian Fisherman,' after Yernet, and 
drew and engraved fifteen views of market towns 
in Worcestershire. He eshibited at the Academy 
down to 1775. 

SANDBERG, Johann Gdstaf, a Swedish 
painter born in 1782. In tlie Stockhohn Gallery 
there are three pictures by him — a ' Gustavus 
Adolphus II. at the battle of Stuhm,' and two single 
figure pictures. He died in 1854. 

SAJvDBY, Paul, was born at Nottingham in 
1725. He came to London when he was sixteen 
years of age, and having shown an early inclin- 
ation for art. he obtained an introduction to the 
draughtsmen's room at the Tower. He had studied 
there about two years when the late Duke of Cum- 
berland, wishing to have a survey made of the 
north and M-est parts of the Highlands of Scotland, 
young Sandby was engaged as draughtsman, under 
the inspection of Mr. David Watson. In company 
with that gentleman lie tra%-elled tlnough that most 
romantic countrj-, and, though the leading object 
of his tour was the drawing of plans, in his leisure 
hours he made many sketches of the scenery 
which surrounded him. From these designs he 
made a number of small etchings, which were 
published by Messrs. Kyland and Bryce. Soon 
after his return from his northern tour, about tlie 
j'ear 1752, he passed some time with his brother at 
Windsor, and during his resideiice there made a 
great number of drawings of views about Windsor 
and Eton, which were immediaiely purchased by 
Sir Joseph Banks at good prices. Sandby was 
ii;vited to accompany that gentleman in a tuui 
through North and South Wales, and was employed 
by Sir Watkin M'illiams Wynne to make dr.iwings 
of the picturesque scenery in that co.intry. Sandby 
was the first to infuse nature into topographical 
drawing ; his jiredecessors had been too nmch ac- 
customed to compose from prints after the " black 
m: sters," but he looked at nature with a franker 
eye. To his other acquirements Sandby added 
etching and engraving in the style known as aqua- 
tint. He was, perhaps, the first English artist who 
adopted this style, the secret of which, it is said, 
was brought into England by the Hon. Charles 
Greville, who purchased it from Le Prince, a 
French artist, and communicated it to Paul Satidby. 
His works in aquatint are very numerous, and were 
popular at the time they were published. In 1768 
he was appointed chief drawi7ig-ma6tcr at the 
Woolwich Military Academy, wliich post he re- 
signed in 1799. He died in London in 1809. 
Works : 

An Aiicieut Beech True. vVoulA Kensinyton.) 

Llaufhiif Cathedral, (/to.i 

The Eouud Temple. (7'...) 

Landscape, witli Dray and Figures. {Do.) 

Chepstow Castle. {iJu. > 

"Warwick Ca.=itle, with ]iri(ige aud 'Weir. (Do.) 

Village Street. IDo.) 

SANDBY, Thomas, brother of the aquarellist, 
Paul Sandby, was pre-eminently an architect, but 
claims mention as a clever draughtsman, of great 
artistic feeling. He was born at Nottingham in 
1721, and was, like his brother, first employed ns a 
military draughtsman. In this capacity he held an 
appointment under the chief engineer in Scotland, 
aud rendered the Government the service of giving 
the first intelligence of Prince Charles Edward's 

landing in 1745. He was subsequently appointed 
draughtsman to the Duke of Cumberland, whom he 
accompanied to Flanders, and Deputy-Hanger of 
Windsor Park. He published eight drawings illus- 
trating improvements made by him in the park, 
and many other drawings by him are in the royal 
collection at Windsor, in the British Museum, and 
i 1 the Sloane Museum. He died at the Ranger's 
House at Windsor, on the 25th June, 1798. 

SANDE-BACKHUIZEN. See Backhuizen, 

SANDER, Johann Heinrich, painter, oorn at 
Hamburg in 1810, painted sea-pieces and landscapes, 
:ind made a hit with a ' View of Heligoland.' He 
died in 1865. 

SANDERAT, Etienne, a Freneli miniaturist of 
the 15th century, known as having produced in 
1447, for Jean de Chalon, Seigneur de Vitteau, the 
• Proprietez des Choses,' illustrated with fifty 

SANDERS, Catharina, called Van HiiSi.-^ssEN. or 
Heemsen, was the daughter and pupil of Jan San- 
ders. She married Christian de Murien, the organist 
of the church of Notre Dame at Antwerp. He was 
a musician of repute in the Low Countries, and 
known generally as Christinano. He resigned his 
post in 1556, and the pair accompanied Mary of 
Hungary to Spain. Catharina painted portraits of 
small size. A tine example of tnese is to be seen in 
the Loudon National Gallery. It represents a fair- 
haired man dressed in black. In 1868, there was 
in the possession of il. Lescart, lawyer at Mous, a 
' Virgin and Child,' with a background of snowy 
landscape, painted on panel, and signed, Caterina 
de Hemisstnt pinrjebat. The dates of her birth and 
death are unknown. 

SANDERS, (or Sandbes,) Frans, a Flemisli 
painter of the 16th century, who, in 1526, painted 
a ' Last Judgment ' for the ' Salle des Plaids ' of 
the Grand Council of Mechlin. In Margaret of 
Austria's Collection there was a ' Little Madonna ' 
by him, which Albrecht Diirer greatly conunended. 

SANDERS, George L., miniaturist, was born at 
Kingliorn, in Fifeshire, in 1774. He studied under 
Smeatuii, a well-known coach-painter in Edinburgh, 
and then devoted himself to miniature painting 
and giving drawing lessons. He also produced a 
i'anorama of Edinburgh. In 1807 he went to 
London and painted numerous nuniatures, among 
them the Princess Charlotte, the Duke nf Cumber- 
land, Prince George, Lady Clementina Villiers, and 
Lord Byron. About 1812 he turned his attention 
to life-size portraits in oil, in which also he had 
:,''reat success from the commercial point of view. 
He frequently visited the continent, whence he 
brought home manj' excellent drawings from the 
Old Masters, tueniy-sis of which now hang in the 
Scottish National Gallery. His portraits are common 
in English country-houses, but few have yet found 
their way into public collections. He died in 
London in 1846. 

SANDERS, Gerard, painter, born at Wesel, in 
Holland, in 1702, was the pupil uf his father-in-law, 
Tobias van Nymegen, whom he accompanied to 
Uiisseldorf, and there continued his studies. He 
afterwards was associated with his uncle, Elias van 
Nymegen, at Rotterdam, in producing designs for 
tapestries. lie died in 1767. 

SANDERS, Jan, called Van IIemessen, or Heem- 
sen, a Flemish painter of the 16th century, was 
born at Hemixem, near Antwerp. He was a member 
of an artist family of tome repute, as to whom litt;e 



was known until the researches of recent writers 
threw some light upon their history. It is now 
established that Jan Sanders was a pupil of Hendrik 
van Cleef, the elder, in 1519, at Antwerp, and that 
in 1535 — 1537 he had himself set up an atelier 
for pupils in that city. In 1547 — 1548 he was 
Dean of the Society of Saint Luke. By his wife, 
Barbe de F&vre, he had two daugliters, Christina 
and the Catharina mentioned above. Towards the 
close of his career he migrated to Haarlem, where 
he settled. A certain similarity between his style 
and that of Quentin Matsys has caused it to be 
surmised that he was a pupil of that artist. His 
dates of birth and death are unknown, but Guic- 
ciardini, in his work published in 1666. speaks 
of him amongst deceased artists. The following 
works by liiiu are known : 

Antwerp' Museum. The Calling of St. Matthew. 

Munich. Pinakotliek. A Holy Family. 1541. 

„ ,. Isaac blessing Jacob. 

„ The Calling of St. Matthew. 

Paris. Louvre. Tobias curing bis Father's 

Blindness. (Dated 1555.) 
Vienna. Gallery. The Calling of St. Matthew. 

{Three versions.) 

„ „ St. 'SVilliam. 

„ „ St. Jerome. 

SANDERS, John. It is not possible to state 
with absolute certaintj- who this artist was, but he 
is believed to have been the son of a pastel painter 
named John Saunders, who lived at Stourbridge, 
and to have adopted a different spelling for his 
name to that used by his father. He appears at 
the Royal Academy Schools in 176'J, winning a 
silver medal in the following year, and in 1771 ' 
sending in pictures for exhibition. Even those 
that are accredited to him may possibly have 
been the work of his father, as in 1775 one edition 
of the catalogue of the Royal Academy describes 
hhn as "John Saunders, Junior." in 1778 he I 
was living at Norwich, and in 1790 at Bath, and I 
during those years his name was certainly spelt | 
without the " u." Fanny Burney refers to his j 
portrait of Princess Charlotte of Wales, and in the 
houses about Bath there are several clever portraits 
attributed to his hand. If he was the son of John 
Saunders he was probably born in 1750 ; he 
certainly died near Bristol in 1825, and he left one 

SANDERS, John, painter, practised in London, 
and exhibited at the Academy a picture of St. 
Sebastian in 1772, and a ' Jael and Sisera' in 177o. 

SANDEliS, John, probably the son of the last- 
named John Sanders, exhibited at the Academy 
from 1775 till 1820. 

SANDERS, John Arnold. This man was the 
son of John Sanders, and was born at Bath about 
1801. He executed a few clever water-colours of 
landscapes, and some admirable portraits in pencil, 
tinted with colour. He also tried miniature paint- 
ing, but when about thirty years old got into 
some difficulty with regard to one of his pupils, 
emigrated to Canada, and was afterwards lost sight 

SANDFORD, Francis, an Irish heraldic artist, 
born in County Wicklow in 1630 of a father who 
was an architect and builder of fortifications. He 
became a pursuivant at Heralds' College in 1661, 
and a Herald in 1676, but after the flight of 
Jaujes II. he sold his office at the College of Arms 
to the nest person on the roll, and retired to a 
small house in London, much dissatisfied with 
political events. Four years afterwards he died 


in Newgate Prison, where he had been confined 
for debt in January 1694, and all memory of his 
beautiful drawings, his copper-plate engravings, 
and his genealogical works, seems by that time to 
have been forgotten, so that he was buried as a 
poor man, and under somewhat distressing circum- 
stances. His great work is the 'Genealogical 
History of the Kin^s of England,' which he 
illustrated with very remarkable arnmrial en- 
gravings, and besides that he jToduced half-a- 
dozen other important heraldic works. He was 
strongly attached to the Stuart monarchs, carrying 
his enthusiasm for thom almost to the extent of a 
cult. He was an earnest Catholic, and had the 
greatest hatred of the rebellion that brought over 
William III., and it was probably owing to his 
religion and his politics that he was neglected in 
BO scandalous a I'.ianner. 

SANDHAAS, Karl, painter, born at Haslach, in 
Baden, in 1801. After some preliminary study at 
Carlsruhe, he went in 1820 to Munich, where he was 
for a time the pupil of Cornelius, and completed 
his art education at Milan. In 1822 he settled in 
Frankfort, painting chiefly devotional works from 
the New Testament history. He also etched a 
set of four fanciful plates in 1844, published under 
the name of 'Triiume und Scliiiume des Lebens,' 

SANDORS, Thomas, Dutch engraver, who settled 
in London soon after the middle of the 18th century. 
Joining the St. Martin's Lane Academy, he ex- 
hibited there till 1775. There are some views of 
Worcestershire engraved by him (1777-81). 

SANDRART, Jakob von, a nephew of Joachim 
Sandrart, was born at Frankfort in 1630, and was 
instructed in engraving by Cornelius Danckerts and 
Willem Hondius, under whom he worked first at 
the Hague and aftem-ards at Dantzic. He engraved 
a great number of plates, which are executed with 
the graver in a clear, neat style. His best prints 
are his portraits, among which are the following: 

The Emperor Endolph II. 

■ Ferdinand II. 

— — - — ■ Ferdinand III. 

Frederick, Prince of Morway. 

Sophia, Electoral Princess of Saxony. 

Ferdinand Maria, Duke of Bavaria. 

Joachim Sandrart ; inscribed Seciili iwstri ApelUs. 

Joannes Paulns Auer. Painter. 

Nagler has given a full list of his plates. He died 
at Nuremberg in 1708. 

SANDRART, Joachim von, painter and writer 
on art, was born at Frankfort in 1606, and w-as in- 
structed in the rudiments of design by Matthaus 
Merian and Theodorus de Bry. At the age of fifteen 
he went to Prague, where he worked for a time at 
engraving under Gillis Sadeler, who recommended 
him to exchange the graver for the brush. Sandrart 
then went to Utrecht, where he became a disciple 
of Gerard Honthorst. It is said that when Hunthorst 
was invited to Engl.and by Charles L, be engaged 
Sandrart to accompany him, that the king bespoke 
many pictures of hira, that he copied the portraits 
of Henry VIII,, Sir Thomas More, Erasmus, and 
others, by Holbein, for the Earl of Arundel, and 
that he remained in England till 1627, when he 
went to Venice. This however appears rather 
doubtful, though it is certain that he passed several 
years in Italy, and at Venice copied the finest 
pictures of Titian and Paolo Veronese. From 
Venice he went to Rome, where he resided some 
years, and was much employed by the Cardinal 
Barberini and the Prince Giustiniani, and was 


intrusted by the latter with the superintendence of 
the engraving's from statues in his gallery. Frona 
Rome he visited Southern Italy, returning to Ger- 
inany in 1637. Afterwards he spent some time in 
Amsterdam, but in 1649 went to Nuremberg to 
paint a picture of the Peace Congress, which con- 
tained fifty portraits. In 1672 he went to Augsburg, 
where he was employed in several considerable 
works for the Emperor Ferdinand, and for Maxi- 
milian, Duke of IBavaria. In his last years he 
resided at Nuremberg, where he established an 
academy, and composed several works on art. 
These were, ' AcademiaTedesca della Architettura. 
Soultura, e Pittura ; ' &c., 4 vols, in 2, folio, Niirn- 
berg, 1675-79; ' Iconologia Deorum, 1680;' ' Ad- 
miranda Sculptun-e Veteris Vestigia, 1680 ; ' ' Romse 
antiquae etnuvfe Theatrum, 1684 ; ' and ' Academia 
Artis Pictoriffi, 1683,' collected from Vasari, Ridolti, 
and Van Mander. But this is a Latin translation of 
what had already been publislied in the ' Academia 
Tedesca.' A uniform edition (in German) of all his 
works was published at Niirnberg, 1769-75, in 8 
vols, folio. He died at Nuremberg in 1688. Works : 

Augsburg. Ch. ofS^inna. Clirist iu the Temple. 
Munich. Pinakothek. Portrait of a AVoman in Black. 

"Wurzburg. Cathedral, Descent from the Cross. 

SANDRART, Johann Jakob von, the son of 
Jakob von Sandrart, was bom at Ratisbon in 1655. 
He learned the first rudiments of design from his 
father, and profited by the lessons of Joachim von 
Sandrart, his great uncle. He was an able designer 
as well as an engraver, and possessed a ready and 
inventive genius. We have some neatly executed 
portraits by hira, and the publications of Joachim 
von Sandrart are embellished with his spirited 
etchings. He also engraved several plates for a 
work entitled ' Suecia Antiqua et Hodiema.' He 
died at Nuremberg in 1698. The following are his 
principal independent prints : 

Elizabeth, Princess of Brandenburg ; after A. Le Clerc. 
Silvius Jacob von Dunkelmann ; after the same. 
The Holy Family ; after Joachim von Sandrart. 
The Origin of Painting ; two plates, after the same. 
The Customs of the ancient Germans ; two plates, after 

the same. 
..S^neas saving Auchises ; fro7n his own design. 

SANDRART, Lorenz von, was probably of the 
same family as the other artists of the same name. 
His name is affixed to the frontispiece for a set of 
prints from Ovid's ' Metamorphoses,' by Engel- 
brecht, published in 1700. It is also believed that 
he was a painter in enamel, and was still living in 

SANDRART, Susanna Mabia von, the daughter 
of Jakob von Sandrart, was born at Nuremberg in 
1658, and instructed in design and engraving by 
her father. She executed several plates for the 
publications of Joachim von Sandrart. She married 
the painter Hans Paul Auer, in 1683, and after his 
death the bookseller W. M. Endter of Nuremberg. 
She died at Nuremberg in 1716. We have the fol- 
lowing independent prints by her : 

The Feast of the Goiis ; after Raphael. 

The Nozze Aldubramlini ; after a design by Bartoli. 

A Bacchanalian subject ; inscribed Immoderatum dulce 

SANDREUTER, Hans, Swiss painter ; born at 
Bale in 1850. His works show the influence of 
Bocklin, whom he has been accused of imitating. 
Of this we have evidence in his ' Rebecca,' ' An 
der Himmelspforte,' ' Dolce far niente,' &c. His 
VOL. V. o 

• Landscape near B41e ' is now in the Dresden 
Gallery. He died at Rieken, near Bale, June 1, 

SANDRINO, Tommaso, bom at Brescia in 1575, 
excelled in perspective and architectural views, and 
was not unsuccessful in history. His principal 
works are the ceilings of the churches of St. Faus- 
tino, S. Domenico, and the cathedral, at Brescia. 
There are also several of his works in the public 
buildings of Milan and Ferrara. He died in 1630. 

SANDWYK, Frans van, painter, born at the 
Hague in 1641 or 1642. He was a pupil of Nicholas 
Wieling, and a member of the Pictura Society. 
Later, he became a military engineer in the service 
of the States, and was killed in battle. 

SANDYS, Antony Frederick, A.N., generally 
called Frederick Sandys, sometimes F. K. Sandys 
from his habit of signing the name Frederick 
thus, "Fk. Sandys." This clever artist was bom 
at Norwich in 1832, and educated at the Norwich 
Grammar School, applying himself at a very 
early age with earnestness to drawing and paint- 
ing. He never attended the Royal Academy 
Schools as has been stated, and was not a pupil 
either of Richmond or Lawrence. Lawrence 
he never met but for a few minutes, and his 
acquaintance with Richmond was only as that of 
a family friend, and never the relationship of pupil 
and teacher. His early life is said to have been 
influenced by the work of Jlenzel, but this also is 
an error, as never but once did he see illustrations 
of the work of this artist, and he himself stated 
that they made no impression whatever upon him. 
His education in art was entirely the work of local 
Norfolk art teachers and his own streimous in- 
dustry when he came to London and worked on 
his own account, copying pictures in the National 
Gallery. His earliest exhibit at the Royal Academy 
was in 1851, before he was twenty-one years old, 
when he sent in a crayon portrait of Lord Henry 
Loftus, following it in 1854 by a smaller one of 
the Rev. Thomas Freeman, of Norwich. In 1856 
he sent in two crayon portraits, one an anonymous 
one, and the other representing the Rev. Thomas 
Randolph. His first exhibits iu oil were two 
pictures sent in 1861, one called ' Oriana,' and the 
other a portrait of Mrs. W. H. Clabburn, of Thorpe, 
Norwich. It was about this time that he com- 
menced to do some illustrations for periodicals, 
and his first drawing was entitled ' Portent,' done 
for the 'Cornhill Magazine' in 1860. In 1861 he 
commenced to work for 'Once a Week,' and during 
that and the following year produced eleven im- 
portant illustrations as follows : — ' Yet once more 
on the Organ Play,' 'The Three Statues of Ar- 
gina,' ' From my Window,' ' Rosamond, Queen of 
the Lombards,' ' The Sailor's Bride,' ' The King at 
the Gate,' ' Jacques de Gauraont,' 'The Old Chart- 
ist,' ' Harald Harfagr,' ' The Death of King War- 
wulf,' and ' The Boy Martyr.' In the same year 
he did ' Manoli ' for the ' Cornhill Magazine,' and 
'Until Her Death' for 'Good Words.' His ex- 
hibits in the Royal Academy in 1862 were various. 
There were two pictures in oil, Mrs. Clabburn, 
senior, and ' King Pelles' Daughter bearing the 
Vessel of the Holy Grail,' one in crayons of Mrs. 
Doulton, a pen-and-ink drawing of ' Autumn,' and 
another of Mrs. Anderson Rose. In 1863 his 
drawing for ' Sleep ' appeared in ' Good Words,' 
and 'The Waiting Time' in the 'Churchman's 
Magazine,' while to the Academy he sent in three 
oil portraits, one representing Mrs. Anderson Rose, 



the same lady whom he had exhibited in pen-and- 
ink in the previous year, a picture of most marvel- 
lous execution, and two fancy portraits called 
'Vivien' and 'La Belle Ysonde.' The oil portrait 
that was perhaps his greatest achierement was 
seen at the Academy in 1864. It was called 'A 
Portrait,' but represented Mrs. Jane Lewis, of 
Roehampton, and was a most wonderful example 
of elaborate miniature manipulation, almost perfect 
in its execution. With it he sent an oil picture 
called ' Morgan Le Fay,' and a pen-and-ink draw- 
ing of ' Judith.' Two oil pictures appeared in 
1865, ' Cassandra,' and ' Gentle Spring,' and u 
grand illustration in the ' Shilling Magazine,' called 
' Amor Mundi.' In 1866 his notable oil paintin^r 
of 'Lady Rose' was exliibited, and his work ap- 
peared in the 'Argosy,' 'Quiver,' 'Once a Week,' 
and the ' Cornliill Magazine,' the following being 
the titles of tlie pictures respectively : — 'If,' 'The 
Advent of Winter,' 'Cassandra and Helen,' and 
'Cleopatra.' In 1868 he returned in his Royal 
Academy exhibits to his earlier medium of crayons, 
sending in the ' Study of a Head,' and a portrait 
of Mr. George Critchett. With them was sent in 
his great picture of ' Medea,' which was accepted, 
but rejected at the last moment. This procedure 
drew forth from his friends an indignant protest, 
and started a severe correspondence in the 'Times,' 
with a characteristic eulogy of the picture from 
Mr. Swinburne, with the result that in the follow- 
ing year the picture was hung on the line, and 
witli it was accepted a crayon portrait of Mrs. 
Barstow. In 1871 another oil portrait was sent 
in, representing Mr. W. H. Clabburn, a crayon 
portrait of the same person, and a group in crayons 
of the children of Mr. J. J. Colman. Four crayon 
portraits appeared in 1873, representing Mrs. 
William Brand, Mr. Leopold de Rothschild, Mr. 
Frederick A. Millbimk, and Mrs. Millbank. His 
exhibits in 1875 were a crayon portrait of Father 
Rossi, anotlier of Miss Ellis, one without a name, 
and an oil painting of Mrs. William Brand. In 
1876 he exliibited one crayon portrait only, Mrs. 
Charles Augustus Howell, in 1878 a similar one 
of Mr. Cj-ril Flower (now Lord Battersea), and 
in 1879 an oil portrait of Mrs. Temple Soanes. 
His exhibits in 1880, 1882, and 1883 were all in 
crayons, the two portraits in 1880 representing 
James Brand, Esq., and 'Ethel and Mabel'; those 
in 1882, Mr. Robert Browning, His Excellency the 
Hon. J. Kussell Lowell, Mr. Matthew Arnold, and 
Professor Goldwin Smith. In that year he h.'\d an 
important illustration in ' Dalziel's Family Bible,' 
entitled ' Jacob hears the Voice of the Lord.' In 
1883 he sent into the Academy a crayon portrait 
of Mrs. H. Chinnery, and in 1886 his last exhibit 
was an oil portrait of Mr. William Gilliian. 

The important work of Sandys was, however. 
by no means confined to his exhibits at the Royal 
Academy and his book illustrations. He first of 
all came before the public in connection with a 
clever satire of the pictures exhibited by Millais 
at the Royal Acadeniy in 1857, called 'Sir Isun - 
bras at the Ford.' Sandys' parody of the picture 
was a very brilliant drawing, representing Mil- 
lais, Rossetti, and Holman Hunt riding upon a 
donkey, inscribed " J. R. Oxon," and intended to 
represent Ruskin. The joke was directed against 
the Oxford Professor on account of his over-vehe- 
ment championship of Rossetti and Holman Hunt. 
It was the occasion of the first meeting between 
Rossetti and Sandj-s, and as the former artiot had 


sufficient sense of humour to take the satire in 
good part, it was the beginning of a warm friend- 
ship which sprang up between the two men, and 
lasted uninterruptedly until Rossetti's death. A' 
little later on Sandys took up his abode in K-n- 
sington, and became associated with that wonder- 
ful circle which included Swinburne and George 
Meredith, Tennyson and the Brownings, Biime- 
Jones, Madox Brown, William Morris, and others. 
It was from that time that his illustrative Wi.rk 
commenced, as previous to then in book illustra- 
tion he hiid only executed some pictures for the 
' Birds of Norfolk ' and the ' Antiquities of Nor- 
wich.' There are many works by liim which were 
never exhibited at the Royal Academy, but that 
must be mentioned. In 1862 he painted three 
notable oil pictures, ' Fair Rosamond,' ' A Vestal 
offering her Hair on a Rose-crowned Altar,' and 
' Mary Magdalene.' In 1868 his wonderful crayon 
drawing called 'Proud Maisie' appeared, perhaps 
the most vivid and dramatic work he ever exe- 
cuted, while in the same year he produced several 
symbolic figures, notable amongst which were 
'Lethe,' 'Proserpine,' ' Fate,' ' Penelope,' and ' Mi- 
randa.' Amongst his crayon portraits should also 
be mentioned Bishop Denison, of Salisbury, the 
Misses Clabburn, Lady Buxton, 1875 ; Ladj' Law- 
rence, Mrs. Samuel Hoare and her children, 1884 ; 
Mrs. George Meredith and Miss Meredith, Mrs. 
Cyril Flower (now Lady Battersea), and Miss 
Clara Flower, 1872 ; Miss Christabel Gilliian, 
1887 ; Mrs. H. P. Sturgis, 1894 ; Mrs. Palmer, 
1896; St. George, 1880, and others. About the 
year 1880 Sandys received a commission from 
Messrs. Macmillan & Co. to execute a series of crayon 
portraits of well-known literary persons, and he 
devoted many years to this work. The series, 
which remains in the possession of Messrs. Mac- 
millan, includes portraits of Robert Browning, 
Matthew Arnold, John Morley, J. H. Shorthouse, 
Lord Tennyson, Dean Church, Dr. Westcott, J. R. 
Green, Lord Wolseley, aud Mrs. Oliphant, while 
in 1891 he produced a delightful portrait of the 
children of Mr. Alexander Macmillan, and in the 
following year, portraits of the same persons, two 
girls, entitled ' A Christmas Carol.' 

Rossetti pronounced Sandys to be 'the greatest 
of living draughtsmen, and his exquisite skill in 
drawing is well represented in the wonderful 
picture of 'Proud Maisie,' now belonging to Dr. 
Todhunter, and in the studies of foliage, tree- 
trunks, branches and figures in which the artist 
delighted He was never a member of the pre- 
Raphaelite Brotherhood, nor in fact was he associ- 
ated with any society of artists at all. He lived 
in constant revolt against the Academy and all its 
works, and was in frequent conflict with every 
other artistic society, pursuing a resolute and life- 
long independence of all schools, teacliers and 
societies, and a warfare more or less with most 
artists. The methods and ideals, however, of the 
pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood were his, and his pic- 
ture of 'Autumn,' exhibited in 1862, is a wonder- 
ful example of the work of this school of artists, 
carried out to a logical issue, and with marvellous 
perfection. It is probable, however, that the repu- 
tation of Sandys will rest mainly upon liis por- 
traits of Mrs. Anderson Rose, 1863, Mrs. Jane 
Lewis, 1864; and ' Medea,' 1869. These are lumin- 
ous and f Tcible works, brilliant in colouring, full 
of detail, and exquisitely finished. They partake 
strongly of a sympathy with early Flemish work, 


especially being reminiscent of such masters as 
Van Eyck, Van der Weyden, and Memlinc. From 
these men he learned " that real regard for truthful 
expression in subject and detail which the pre- 
Raphaelites found blended with more spiritual 
qualities in fourteenth-century Florentine art." 
Towards the latter part of his life Sandys devoted 
himself to craj-on studies, which exhibit his remark- 
able technical dexterity and his decorative feeling 
fur minute details. As a draughtsman, his line in 
the modelling of the beauty of a head was full of 
exquisite sensitiveness and nervous musical qual- 
ity. He had a marvellous sense of form, but he 
was curiously lacking in the power of felicitous 
indication and in imaginative understanding. His 
crayon studies, exquisitely beautiful though they 
were, did not enhance his reputation, and it is for 
his handling of the primitive Flemish technique of 
oil painting, and for the certainty of his work in 
his half-dozen great pictures that he \vill be 
praised. Of his personal life it is hardly Bafe to 
say anything, so completely did he ruin his chances 
of a great reputation by his blameworthy and 
pitiable career. As recently as March 1894 there 
was an exhibition of his works at the Leicester 
Gallery, London, arranged by his stalwart sup- 
porter Mr. Ernest Brown, and the catalogue had 
a judicious preface by Mr. F. G. Stephens, who is 
now almost the last of the little band who worked 
with such earnestness and devotion under the 
influence of the pre-Raphaelite Movement. One 
of the finest of his works then exhibited was a full- 
length study of a girl called ' My Lady Green- 
sleeves,' now in the possession of Mr. J. S. 
Budgett of Stoke Park, Guildford. Sandys has 
frequently been the subject of magazine and 
other articles, but the only thoroughly reliable 
notice of his life and works appeared as the winter 
number of 'The Artist,' Nov. 18, 1896. It was 
written by Esther Wood, and was issued with 
extra illustrations in specially choice form, quarto, 
150 copies onl}-, and folio, twenty copies only. 
From this memoir and from personal acquaintance 
most of the above informntion is taken. There 
were articles upon him in the 'Art Journal,' 1884, 
by Mr. J. M. Grav, and others by the same author 
in the 'Hobby Horse' of 1888 and 1892, while 
Mr. Pennell wrote respecting Sandys in 'Pan,' a 
German publication, in 1895, and later on in the 
'Savoy,' 1896, and the 'Quarto,' 1896. His en- 
graved works are alluded to by Gleeson White in 
his ' English Illustration,' and they are illustrated 
in 'Tlie Art Journal,' 1894, 'Cornhill Gallery,' 
lRfi5, 'Savoy,' 1896, ' Quarto,' 1896, ' Hobby Horse,' 
1888, ' Pan,' 1895, Thorobury's ' Historical Ballads,' 
1876, Pennell's 'Modern Illustration, Pictures of 
Society,' 1866, ' Idyllic Pictures,' 1867, and Pen- 
nell's 'Pen Drawing and Pen Draughtsmen,' 1894. 
Some of his works were exhibited at Mr. Ganihart's 
Gallery, and nine were hung at the Grusvenor 
Gallery. G. C. W. 

SANDYS, Edwtn, is mentioned by Strutt as the 
engrav'T of a portrait of Sir William Petty. 

SANE, J. P., a French painter, born about the 
middle of the 18th century. He worked for some 
time at Rome, and returning to his native country, 
died in 1780 in Paris. His works are little known. 
A ' Death of Socrates ' is spoken of as showing 
considerable talent ; there are further two genre 
pictures by him in the Museum of Angers ; and 
his ' Lame Man at the Beautiful Gate of the 
Temple,' is in the church of St. Peter at Douai. 


SANESE, Maestbo Riccio. See Neboni. 

SAN-FELICE, Ferdinando, born at Naples in 
1675, was at once the patron and the scholar of 
Francesco Solimena. He attained a name among 
historical painters, and with the assistance of Soli- 
mena painted altar-pieces for several churches. 
He also painted fruit, landscapes, and perspective 
views, in which he particularly excelled ; and he 
liad the reputation of being an excellent architect. 
Solimena painted a gallery in his house, which 
afterwards became an academy for young artists. 

SAN FRIANO, Maso da. See Manzooli. 

SANGALLO, Sebastiano da, painter, born at 
Rome in 1482, son of Giuliano Giamberti, was called 
Aristotile for his knowledge of perspective and 
anatomy. He was a pupil of Perugino, but, as a 
painter, worked in the style of Michelangelo. 
He copied the ' Cartoon of Pisa ' in oil, in grisaille, 
and was one of the painters summoned to Rome by 
Buonarroti when he began the Sistine ceiling. He 
afterwards became the friend of Raphael, after 
whose designs he built the Palazzo Pandolfini, at 
Florence. As a painter most of his activity waa 
given to ephemeral work in theatres, and on the 
fagades of houses. See Milanesi's ' Vasari,' vol. vi. 
pp. 433-456. He died in 1551. 

SAN GIMIGNANO, Sebastiano da. See Mai- 


SAN GIMIGNANO, Vicenzio da. See Tajiaqni. 

SAN GIORGIO, Eusebio di, brought up in 
Perugia, was a fellow-worker with Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo and Berto di Giovanni in 1501. He was 
induced to join Pinturicchio at Siena, and painted 
the altar-piece of the Epiphany at S. Agostino, in 
Perugia. In S. Francesco at Matelica, near Fab- 
riano, is a ' Holy Family' painted by him in 1512, 
perhaps his best work. Other works of his may be 
seen at Orvieto, Assisi, and Perugia. In the cloister 
of the Capuchin Convent of S. Damian at Assisi are 
two frescoes. LennoliefE ascribes the Standard 
preserved at Cittk di Castello as an early Raphael 
to Eusebio di San Giorgio. He died in 1550. 

SAN GIOVANNI, Cavaliekk Ercole, called 
Ercolino di GniDO. This painter was a native of 
Bologna, and a favourite of Guido Reni. He 
imitated and copied the works of his instructor 
with such precision, that he is said to have deceived 
the master himself. Malvasia reports, that Guido 
having left a picture in a half-finished state, Ercole 
copied it, and placed his work on the easel of his 
master, who proceeded to finish it, without dis- 
covering the deception. Ercole was patronized by 
Urban VIII., who conferred on him the honour of 
knighthood. He died young at Rome, about the 
year 1640. 

SAN GIOVANNI, Gerabdo da. See Haarlem. 

SAN GIOVANNI, Giovanni da, called Manozzi, 
born at San Giovanni in 1590, was a pupil of 
Matteo Roselli, and executed a great number uf 
frescoes at Rome and at Florence, representing 
biblical, historical, and mythological scenes. He 
had much facility, and in his colour and cliiaroscuro 
followed Caravaggio and Spagnoletto. He died in 
1636. His best works are — 

Kesole. ^tt^Balf } Temptatiou of Christ. 

Florence. Pitti Palace. Scenes from the Life of St. 
„ „ A Hunting Party. 

„ The A cademy. A Flight to Egypt. 

„ Ojnissanii. In the Cloister ; five scenes 

from the life of S. Francesco. 
j Rome. QuattT'j Coronati. Frescoes in Semi-dome. 



SAN GIOVANNI, Maso da. See Guiw, Tom- 


SANGSTER, Samuel, an en^aver, born in 1804, 
was a pupil of Finden. He engraved for the 
annuals and for the ' Art Journal.' His best plates 
are — ' Neapolitan Peasants on their Wiiy to a Festa,' 
after Uwins ; 'The Gentle Student' and 'The 
Forsaken,' after Newton. He died in London in 

SANGDINETO, Rafael, a Spanish noble of 
the 17th century, who practised painting as an 
amateur, and was the intimate friend of Alonzo 

SANGUINETTI, Francesco. This clerer Italian 
sculptor passed the early part of his life as a 
painter, only taking up with sculpture in 1831. 
He was born, it is believed, about 1800 at Car- 
rara, and he died in 1870 at Munich, where for 
many years he had been residing. For the first 
few years of his artistic career lie was a very 
careful, even parsimonious man, saving up all ids 
money in order to acquire property, but liaving ob- 
tained it he lost it all at once owing to the fraudu- 
lent behaviour of a friend. He had a favourite 
daughter, a very lovely girl, who in the prime of 
her beauty when about nineteen was assassinated 
by a jealous lover, and this was a cause of the 
deepest sorrow to him. He formed a valuable 
collection of paintings by old masters, spending 
his money upon them rather than upon real estate, 
but was swindled out of all of them by a rasca! of 
a dealer, and finally, through the bursting of a 
bubble company with which he was concerned, 
he had to sell the very house in which he lived, 
and saw all his savings of every kind swept 
away. He will be remembered by his sculpture, 
the best of which is at Milan, but his landscapes 
were not of a very high order. He died in a 
state of great depression, overwhelmed by worries 
which had attended him throughout the whole of 
his life. 

SAN MARTINO, Marco, (or Sammaechi,) an 
Italian landscape painter and engraver, who 
flourished about 1680. It is in dispute as to whether 
he was a native of Venice or Naples. Lanzi says 
he resided at Rimini, where his pictures are more 
generally to be met with. He ornamented his 
landscapes with very beautiful small figures, in 
which he excelled. He also attempted works of a 
higher order, such as the ' Baptism of Constantine,' 
in the cathedral of Rimini, and the ' Saint preach- 
ing in the Desert,' in the college of S. Vincenzio, at 
Venice. Bartsoh (P. gr. tom. sxi.) has described 
33 prints by him, many ot which have his name in 
full, Marco San Martino. 

SANNI, Domingo Maria, a Spanish painter who 
flourished in the 18th century. In the Madrid 
Museum there are two pictures by hira, but the 
dates of his birth and death are unknown. 

SANO, E. B., a Belgian painter of ruins and 
interiors. He died at Antwerp in 1878. 

painter, was born at Siena in 1406, and principally 
instructed by Stefano di Giovanni Sassetta. Sano 
di Pietro was a most prolific artist. The Library 
at Siena possesses a Codex of the University Statutes, 
and a Breviary of the Nuns of St. Clara, with 
his miniatures, while the Academy possesses no 
fewer than 46 pictures by him. In 1428 he furnished 
the model for the font in the Baptistery of S. 
Giovanni in Siena. In 1433 he acted as valuator 
for Sassetta. He died in 1481. Most of the 

churches near Siena possess frescoes by hira, and 
many of the chief European collections paintings. 
An 'Ascension of the Virgin' in the Academy at 
Siena, a 'Coronation of the Virgin' in the Town- 
hall, and a ' Virgin and Saints ' in the church of S. 
Girolamo, in Siena,' are among his best works. His 
other chief pictures are — 

Paris. Louvre. Five Scenes from the Life of St. 

Kome. Vatican MiiSeum. Scenes from the Life of the 

Virgin. A Predella. 
Sieua. Cathedral Library, Several Antiphonaries with 


SAN SEVERINO, Jacopo di, brother of the 
elder Lorenzo di San Severino, whom he assisted 
in the fresco in San Giovanni Battista, at Urbino, 
dated 1416. 

SAN SEVERINO, Lorenzo di, was born in 
1374. In 1416 he and his brother Jacopo decorated 
the oratory of San Giovanni Battista at Urbino 
with frescoes, (which still remain, though much 
defaced by time,) representing scenes from the life 
of St. John the Baptist, and the Crucifixion. The 
latter is inscribed, " M.O.C.C.C.X.V.I. die xvii. 
Julii. Laurentius. de. Santo. Severino. et. Jacobus, 
frater. ejus. hoc. opus, fecerunt." 

SAN SEVERINO, Lorenzo di, another artist ot 
the same name, and supposed to be a son of 
Lorenzo. Three works by him exist, dated from 
1481 to 1483 ; the first is in the sacristy of a church 
at Pansola near Macerata; the second is a fresco in 
the collegiate church of Sarnano ; and the third is 
a panel in the National Gallery, representing the 
Marriage of St. Catharine, with four saints. The 
last picture is signed Laurentius II Severinaspisit. 

SANSONE, II. See Mabchesi, Giuseppe. 

SANTA CROCE, Francesco di Simone da, some- 
times called Eizo, was bom in the village of Santa 
Croce in the latter part of the 15th century. In 
his youth he went to Venice, and is thought to 
have been a pupil of Carpaccio or Previtali, both 
of whose styles he greatly afiiects, though in a 
picture of the ' Madonna aiid Saints' now in the 
church of S. Pietro Martire, Murano, he signs him- 
self a pupil of Bellini. His earliest known work is 
the ' Annunciation,' painted in 1.504 for the church 
of S. Spino, near Croce, and his latest the altar- 
piece of the Madonna and six Saints in the church 
of Chirignano, near Mestre. Pictures by him may 
be found in the Lochis Carrara Gallery, Bergamo, 
which possesses three examples, and in the Berlin 
Gallery. An ' Epiphany ' and 'Noli MeTangere' 
are in the Venice Academy. The date 1541 occurs 
upon one of his pictures (an altar-piece in a village 
church near Mestre), but its authenticity is not 
beyond dispute. The latest year anterior to it is 

SANTA CROCE, Girolamo da, a relative of 
Francesco da Santa Croce, was born in the early 
part of the 16tli century. He is said to have been 
a pupil of Bellini, and to have painted at Venice 
from 1520 (which is the date of the altar-piece 
in the church of San Silvestro, an enthroned St. 
Thomas k Becket between St. John the Baptist 
and St. Thomas) to 1549, when he completed the 
' Last Supper ' at San Martino. In 1527 he painted 
the ' Charity of S. Martin ' for the church of 
Luvigliano, near Padua: and in 1532 he executed 
fourteen frescoes representing scenes in the life of 
St. Francis of Afsisi, in the Scuola di Francesco 
della Vigna, Venice, which have now vanished. 
The convent church still contains a fresco of the- 







ILinfituiiil photo] 


\_Natknal Gallery 


(.'lirist in Benediction, and a small picture of the 
'MartjTdora of St. Lawrence.' Other works by 
this Siiinta Croce are : 

Berlin. JIusettnt. The Epiphany. 

., „ Christ carrviug His Cross. 

^ „ The Crucifixion. 

„ ^ Martyrdom of St. Sebastian. 

Dresden. Gallery. The Nativity. 

,, ., The Martyrdom of S. Lawrence. 

London. *V<rf. Gallery. T^vo figures of Saints. 

SANTAFEDE, Fabeizio, the son of Francesco 
Santafede, was born at Naples in 1560. He was 
first instructed by his father, but he afterivards 
became a scholar of Francesco Curia, and at length 
visited Rome, where he remained two years, study- 
ing the principal objects of art in that capital. On 
his return to Naples he was employed in several 
considerable works for the public edifices. For 
the church of the Nunciata he painted a ' Nativity,' 
and an ' Annunciation to the Shepherds ; ' for S. 
Maria de Constantinopoli, an ' Adoration of the 
Magi,' and for S. Maria Nuova a ceiling. He died 
at Naples in 1634. 

SANTAFEDE, Francesco, bom about 1519, was 
a Neapolitan, and a scholar of Andrea Sabbatini, 
called da Salerno. There are many of his works 
in the churches at Naples, of which the best, per- 
haps, is the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' in S. Maria 

SANT AGNESE, Stefano da, otherwise known 
as '• the Pievan of Sant Agnese," is the author of 
an enthroned Madonna, signed, and dated 1369, 
now in the Correr Museum, Venice. The .\cademy 
01 that city possesses a 'Coronation of the Virgin," 
signed by Stefano in 1381. Nothing further is 
known of him. 

SANTAGOSTINI, GiAcnrro and Agostino, the 
sons of Giacomo Santagostino, painted in the 
17th century. Among their Joint works were 
large pictures for S. Fedele in Milan. They also 
painted many works independently of each other, 
and Agostino was the author of a little treatise on 
the pictures in Milan, called ' L'Immortalita et 
Glorie del Pennello,' pubhshed in 1671. 

SANTAGOSTINO, Giacomo Astoxio, born at 
Milan in 1588, was a scholar of Giulio Cesare 
Procaccini, under whom he became a very reput- 
able artist. He painted several pictures for the 
churches of Milan, particularly for S. Lorenzo 
Maggiore, S. Maria del Lantasio, and S. Vittore. 
He died in 1648. 

SANTARELLI, Gaetaxo, painter, a noble of 
Pescia, was a pupil of 0. Dandini. He died young. 

SANTELLI, Felice, a Roman painter of the 
16th century. He painted for the church of the 
P. P. Spagnuoli del Riscatti Scalzi, in competition 
with Baglione. Lanzi mentions a signed picture 
by him in the church of Santa Rosa, at Viterbo. 

_ SANTEN, Gebabd van, a Dutch painter of battle- 
pieces, who was much patronizfed by Prince 
Frederick Henry of Orange. In 1629 he was 
received into the Guild of St. Luke, at the Hague, 
and in 1650 he was still at work. 

SANTERRE, Jean Baptiste, a French painter, 
born at Magny, near Pontoise, in 1658, was a 
pupil first of Franfois Lemaire, and then of Bon 
Boulogne. He was very careful as to his processes, 
m.iking many experiments in pigments, and finally 
restricting himself to five, on which he could, as he 
thought, depend, and delaying the varnishing of 
his pictures for ten years. His works are few. 

The best are ' Susanna and the Elders,' and a 
female portrait, in the Louvre : a " Mary Magdalene 
penitent,' and a " Saint Theresa,' at Versailles. 
Santerre formed an academy for female students, 
from which he drew many of his models. His 
portraits and domestic subjects are carefully de- 
signed and harmonious in colour. Many of his 
works have been engraved. He died in Paris in 

SANTI, ASTOXlo, a native of Rimini and a pupil 
of Cignani, died in 1700. The great promise shown 
in his early works was robbed of fruition by a 
premature death. 

SANTI, Bartolommeo, a native of Lucca, who 
studied at Bologna, and practised as a scene- 
painter and decorator in the 18th century. 

SANTI, DoMEXico, called Mesgazziko,' (Misgac- 
CIX".) was bom at Bologna in 1621, and was one 
of the ablest disciples of Agostino Metelli. He 
nearl3- equalled his instructor in painting perspec- 
tive and architectural views. The churches and 
palaces at Bologna, particularly S. Colombano, the 
Servi, and the Palazzo Ratta, possess many of his 
works, which are embellished with figures by 
Giuseppe MetelU, Gio. Antonio Burrini, and esve- 
cially by Domenico Maria Canuti. He also 
painted pictures of a small size, which are fre- 
quentlv mistaken for the works of Agostino Metelli. 
He died in 1694. 

SANTI, Giovanni, the son of a general dealer 
and the father of Raphael, was born at Castello di 
Colbordolo, in the territory of Urbino, about 1435. 
He himself was brought up to his father's trade, 
and was probably induced to study art through 
his acquaintance with Melozzo da Forli and Pietro 
della Francesca. His earliest known works are the 
frescoes in the church of S. Domenico, at Cagli, 
representing the Resurrection and a Madonna En- 
throned among four Saints. In 1483 his son 
Raphael was born in the Contrada del Monte, 
Urbino, in a house purchased by Santi in 1464. In 
1484 Santi painted an altar-piece for the church 
of Gradara, near Pesaro, representing the Virgin 
and Child, with Saints. In 1491 his wife. Magia 
Ciarla, died, leaving her son eight years old. The 
fresco still extant in Santi's house, a Virgin with 
the Sleeping Infant pressed to her bosom, is said to 
have been painted from his first wife and her little 
son Raphael. In 1492 Santi married Bemardina, 
the daughter of a jeweller named Piero di Parte. 
Giovanni Santi was one of the best Umbrian 
painters of his time. His style is simple and im- 
afEected, but there is an unpleasant coldness about 
his colouring. His best works are considered to be 
a ' Madonna witii Saints,' in the church of San 
Francesco in Urbino ; a ' Madonna with Saints,' in 
the convent of Montefiorentino, near Urbino ; a 
' Visitation of the Virgin,' in Santa Maria Nuovo, 
and a 'Madonna with Saints' in the Hospital 
Church of Santa Croce, the two last being both at 
Fano, and an ' Enthroned Madonna ' in fresco, in 
the Dominican Church at Cagli (dated 1492). He 
was a poet as well as a painter, and left a Chronicle 
in rhyme, still preserved in the Vatican, entitled 
' Gesta gloriosa del Duca Federigo d'Urbino.' He 
died at Urbino in 1494. Additional works: 

T^-^rlin. Gallery, Two altaj-pieces, 

Milan. Brera. .4n Annunciation. 

Rome. Zateran. An enthroned St. Jerome. 

Urhinn. Brotherhood of) . 

S. Sebojitian. / 

Martyrdom of St. Sebastian. 

Gallery. Madonna with four Sainta. 



SANTI, PlETKO, commonly called Pietro Bar- 
TOLI, r.nd sometimes II Pekugiko, from his birth- 
place, was born at Perugia, about tlie year 1635. 
In the early part of his life he studied under Le 
Maire and N. Poussin, and practised painting, but 
abandoned it, to devote himself entirely to engrav- 
ing, in which he greatly distinguished himself by 
the merit and number of his plates. He died at 
Rome in 1700. His plates are cliiefly etched, and 
his point is extremely free and masterly. He some- 
times marked his works P. B. F., but more fre- 
quently Petr. Ss. Bart., sc- Romce. The number 
of his prints is very considerable ; the following list 
comprises the best: 

Admiranda Romanorum Antiquitatuvi ac vetens Sculp- 

iuTtB Vestigia ; eighty-one plates, 
Somanip mntjnitudinis Monumenta ; one hundred and 

thirty-eight plates. 
Veieres arcui Augustorum triumphis iiisignes; fifty-twu 

Colonna di Marco Aurelio^ ^c, the Antoniue CoUimn ; 

seventy-eight plates. 
Colonnn Trajana, di Alfonso Ciacconi ; one hundred and 

tweuty-t'ight plates. 
Sepolcri antichi Jiomani ed Etruschi trovati in Roma ; 

one hundred and twenty-three plates. 
The Nozze AUlobrandini ; two sheets. 
Le Pitture antiche delle yroiu. di Iloina, ^c. ; assisted by 

F. Bartoli ; ninety-four plates, 1680 and 1706. 
Le antiche Lucerne sepolcrali in Koina, 1691 and 1704 ; 

one hundred and nineteen plates. 
Antiqtiissimi J'irgiliani Codicis fraymenta et pictum, ex 

Bibl. Vaticnna ; iifty-tive plates. 
Scenes from the Life of St. Peter ; after Lanfranco. 
Subjects from * Kaphael's Bible ' ; forty-two plates. 
Grottesques ; after Raphael; in.scribed Parerya atque 

ortiamenta in Vaticano^ t^c. ; forty-three plates. 
Jupiter hurling thuuderbolts at the Giants ; after Giulio 

The Birth of the Virgin; after Ailiaui. 
The Virgin and Child in the Clouds; after L. Carracci. 
Coriolanus and his Family; after An. Carracci. 
S. Carlo Borromeo led by an Angel ; after the same. 
Daniel in the Lions' Den ; after Pietro da Cortona. 
St. John preaching ; after P. F. Mola. 
The Adoration of tlie Magi ; after Raphael ; in three 

Jupiter nursed by Amalthea ; after Giulio Romano. 
Hylas carried off by Nymphs ; after the same. 
Sophouisba before Masinissa ; after the same. 
The Continence of Scipio ; after the same. 
St. Stephen ; from his own desii/n. 
St. Bernard enchaining the Devil ; do. 
Theatre erected in St. Peter's for a Canonization ; do. 
The sepulchral Monument of Pope Urban VIII ; do. 

SANTI, Raphael. See Sanzio. 

SANTI, Sebastiano, a painter, born at Venice 
in 1788, was first a restorer of pictures, and then 
a painter in fresco. His works are to be found in 
the Venetian churches. He died in 1866. 


DE, born at Toledo in 1728, was a learned writer, 
an ingenious emblazoner of state documents, and 
a skilful designer. He held an oBice as receiver of 
crown rents, and was also much emploj'ed in copy- 
ing manuscripts for the royal libraries. In these, 
and in literary pursuits, he was occupied for up- 
wards of thirty years. He assisted Bayer in the 
formation of the Index to the ancient Hebrew, 
Greek, Latin, and Spanish manu.scripts in the 
Escurial ; wrote on the topography of Spain, of 
her geograpliical position in America, and of 
matters ecclesiastical and political. But he is 
noticed here mainly for his artistic talents, as a 
p<iiiiter of landscapes, and an ornamental designer 
of frontispieces for books in Indian ink and with 


the pen. He painted in oil four views of Toledo, 
several portraits of distinguished persons, and a 
number of landscapes. He had a peculiar aptitude 
for the designing of frontispieces, and his talent 
was in great request by authors and publishers for 
that purpose. These will be found prefixed to 
many of the books printed in Spain during the 
second half of the last century. He died at Madrid 
the 13th of January, 1796. 

SANTILLA2JA, Juan de, a skilful glass painter 
of Burgos, practising towards the close of the 15th 
century. Jointly with Juan de Valdivieso he 
worked in the cathedral of Avila, where he painted 
(in 1497) four windows by the ' Altar de Gracia,' 
one of which, representing St. John, still exists. 
He also painted scenes from the life of Christ for 
the windows of the Cloister Library, and a ' Resur- 
rection,' for the cathedral. 

SANTINI. Two painters of this name were 
living at Arezzo in the 17th century. They were 
distinguished as 'the Elder' and 'the Younger.' 
Lanzi mentions a 'St. Catharine' by Santini the 
Elder in the cloister of tlie Conventual Friars of 
A rezzo. 

SANTINO de' RITRATTI. See Vandi, Sante. 

SANTIS, Orazio di, an engraver, probably a 
native of Aquila, flourished from 1568 to 1.^77, 
according to the dates on his prints, which are 
chiefly after the designs of Pompeo Aquilano. 
Bartsch has described seventeen prints by Santie, 
and supposes that there are others which have not 
come to his knowledge. Nagler has added 74 
plates of antique statues at Rome, the joint work 
of Santis and Cherubino Alberti, [ uljlished in 1584. 

See Guzman, Juan de. 

SANTO-DOMINGO, Fray Vicente de. This 
Spanish monk is entitled to notice as being the first 
instructor of Navarrete, called el Jfiido, and for 
his discernment of his pupil's talents at a very 
early age. He taught him all tliat he himself 
knew, and then very honestly advised his friends 
to send him to Italy for improvement. Four 
pictures in the church at Estrella were attributed 
to Santo-Domingo, but it is now ascertained that 
they were painted in 1659 by Navarrete, when, for 
the benefit of his health, he had permission from 
Philip II. to reside at Logrono. But Santo-Domingo 
painted the grisailles on the walls of the cloister, 
and other ])ictures which are in the convent of 
S. Catalina de Talavera de la Reyna. 

SANTO, GiEOLAMo, (SoRDO,) called Girolamo di 
Padova, an artist of the 16th century, who painted 
the facade of the Cornaro Palace, several frescoes 
in S. Francesco, and, with Parentino, scenes from 
the life of St. Benedict in S. Giustina, all at Padua. 
A curious picture of a genealogical tree in the 
Santo is also ascribed to him. Of his hfe little is 
known, but his existence can be traced as late as 

SANTO PERXNDA, was bom at Venice in 1566. 
According to Ridolfi, he was first a scholar of 
PalmaGiovine, and afterwards of Leonardo Corona, 
of Murano. He executed several considerable works 
for the Ducal palace at Venice and for the Dukes 
of Mirandola and Modena. There is a picture by 
him in the Ducal palace representing the defeat of 
the Turks by the Venetians. His ' Descent from 
the Cross ' is in the church of S. Procolo. He died 
in 1638. 

SANTO RINALDI, called II Tbomba, a painter 
of battles, landscapes, and architecture, bom at 


Hanfstdttgl photo] iBnlin Gallery 



Woodbury Co, photo] 


[National Gallery 


Florence about 1620, was a pupil of Fiirini. Though 
eminent in his day, httle is known of his history ; 
he is supposed to have died in 1676. 

SANTOS CRUZ, a Spanish pointer, who worked 
on the liigh altar of Avila cathedral, with Pedro 
Berruguete, from 1475 to 1499. 

SANTOS, Joan, a fresco painter, flourished at 
Cadiz in 1662. He was much employed in paint- 
ing standards for the Spanish navy. It is also 
recorded that he painted little pictures to please 
certain ladies of Andalusia, which may occasionally 
be found in very private cabinets. 

SANTO ZAGO, or ZASO. See Zago. 

SANTVOOKT, Dirk van, supposed to be the 
son of Anthonis Santvoort, an obscure engraver, 
painted history portraits somewhat in the manner of 
Rembrandt. He was practising in 1635 ; there are 
prints after him by Jonas Suyderhoef and Theodore 
Matham. A picture by him in the Louvre repre- 
sents 'Christ and the Two Disciples at Emmaus;' 
but his cliief excellence was in portraiture, as is 
6ho\\Ti in the group of four ladies in the Workhouse 
at Amsterdam. The date of his death is unknown. 
Fiissli mentions a certain S. van Santvoort as 
practisina: in Holland in the 18th century. 

SANTVOORT, Pietkr, a painter of Haarlem. 
The only record of him now extant is the registra- 
tion of his death in 1681, but a landscape in the 
manner of J. Van Aken has been attributed to him, 
and has been engraved. 

SANUTO, or SANNUTUS, GiULio, an Italian 
engraver, was born at Venice about the year 1530. 
His prints are executed in a coarse, heavy style, 
with single strokes, without any hatching, and 
have a certain resemblance to wood-cuts : among 
them we may name : 

Venus ami Adonis ; after Titian. 

The Marriage of the Virgin: after Raphael; with the 

engraver's mark. 
The monstrous Child, signed Jul. Sannutus Venet Fac. 

The birth of this monstrous child took place at Venice 

in 1540: the mother "was a German. 
Two winged Genii in the air supporting a globe, on 

which stands Cupid discharging an arrow to the left 

of the print ; no name of engraver. 
Dance of Bacchanals in a wood ; signed JuLirs San- 

NTTrs. F. 
ApoUo and Marsyas, after Correyipo, with the Parnassus. 

after Raphael^ in three sheets. 

SAN VITO. See Amalteo, Pomponio. 

SARABIA, Francisco Antolines, nephew of 
Josef de Sarabia, bom at Seville in 1644. studied 
for the law, but afterwards took to art, and went 
to Madrid to study in tlie school of JIurillo. He 
received a judgeship at Seville, but eventually re- 
turned to Madrid, where he took orders, and died 
in 1700. 

SARABIA, Josef de, a Spanish painter, bom at 
Seville in 1608, was first placed with Agustin del 
Castillo, and after that mastei-'s death in 1626, with 
Francisco Zurbaran. He chiefly resided at Cordova, 
where he painted many pictures and altar-pieces 
for the churches. He was not deficient in merit, but 
he took his subjects from prints by Sadeler, some 
of which were after Rubens, and imposed them on 
the ignorant as his own inventions. The best 
original work of Sarabia is the • Flight into Egypt,' 
which is entirely his own composition. He died at 
Cordova in 1669. 

SARACENI, (or Saracino, Saracini,) Carlo, 
called Veneziano, a painter, bom in Venice in 
1585. According to Baglione, he visited Rome 
during the pontificate of Clement VIII.. and 

was for some time under the tuition of Camillo 
Mariani, but afterwards studied and imitated the 
manner of Caravaggio. He returned to Venice, 
whither he had been invited to paint a picture for 
the council-chamber, but did not live to finish it. 
He died in 1625. Saraceni engraved a few plates 
from his own designs, which he signed usually 
Carolits Saracenus invent. Pictures : 

Munich. Pinakothek. The Death of the Virgin. 
„ „ St. Francis of Assisi. 

„ „ St. Jerome. 

„ S. Si7>ione. Virgin enthroned. 

„ Quirinal. Several Frescoes. 

„ Doria Palace. Repose in Egypt. 

„ Borghese Palace. Joseph interpreting Dreams. 

„ Sciarra Palace. Beheading of the Baptist. 

Venice. Manfrini Palace. Scene from the Deluge. 

SARAZANA. See Fiasei-la. 

SARAZIN DE BELMONT Louise Josephine. 
painter and lithographer, was born at Versailles in 
1790. She was a pupil of Valenciennes, and was 
several times premiated. From 1812 till 1868 she ex- 
hibited a very large number of works at the Salon, 
her subjects being principally landscape views, with 
various effects of light. Of lier essays in another 
manner we mav mention 'Gil Bias' and 'Don 
Alphonso' (1822) ; ' Herminia and Tancred ' (1824). 
Examples of her work are to be seen in the galleries 
of Angers, Nantes, and Toulouse. She died in 1871. 

SAHBOT. By an artist of this name, who flour- 
ished about 1675, we have a print of ' Christ pray- 
ing in the Garden,' supported by an angel. It is 
probably from his own design, as he adds the word 
fecit to his name. 

SARBRUCK, Bautholome von, painter, bom at 
Treves about 1590, and called Trevirensis, worked 
in Basle and in Bern, and painted several portraits 
in the style of Vandyck. 

SARGENT, Frederick, painter, exhibited por- 
traits at the Royal Academy from 1854 to 1874. 
Among tliom maybe mentioned 'The Duchess of 
Buccleuch ' (1871), and 'The Countess Spencer' 
(1874). He also painted scenes in the House of 
Conmions, the Royal Garden Party, &c. He died 
after a short illness in 1899. M. H. 

S.iRGENT, Henry, painter, was bom at Glou- 
cester, Massachusetts, on November 25, 1770. He 
studied in London under Copley and West. Re- 
turning to America, he settled at Boston, and 
painted genre and historical pictures. Several 
portraits by him are in the possession of historical 
and other societies at Boston. He died on February 
21,1845. M.H. 

SARMIENTO, Teresa, Duchess of Bejar, an 
amateur historical painter of much talent, who 
painted pictures fur various churches in Madrid, 
where slie was living towards the middle of the 
17th century. 

S.4RRABAT, Daniel, painter, bom at Paris in 
1666. Three prize pictures bv him are recorded : 
'Noah entering the Ark' (1686), 'The Deluge' 
(1687), 'Noah leaving the Ark' (1688); but he 
never took part in any public exhibitions, and 
though received by the Academy in 1702, did not 
become a full member. He died at Lyons, June 
22nd, 1748. 

SARUABAT, Isaac, a French mezzotint en- 
graver, born at Lea Andelys about 1660. He was 
one of the earliest artists of his country who prac- 
tised that mode of engraving, and his plates are 



very indifferently executed. Among others, we 
have the following prints by him : 

J. B. Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux ; after Rigaud. 
Antoiue Coypel, Painter to the King ; after iVetscher. 
Etienue Gantrel, Engraver to the King; after Largil- 

The Confessor ; in two plates ; after iV. van Haeften. 
Heraclitus, half-length ; after M. Corneille. 

SARRAGON, John, an engraver and publisher, 
who flourished about the year 16-15. His plates 
were mostly portraits. 

SARRAZIN, Be.vigne, painter, the son and pupil 
of Jacques Sarrazin, was granted a pension by 
Louis XIV. to enable him to complete his studies 
at Rome, and after his father's death was allowed to 
retain the latter's lodging in the Louvre. His only 
recorded work was a series of paintings, which he 
executed in 1674, in the chapel of the Hotel de 
Ville at Marseilles, but these were some years ago 
destroyed during an alteration of the building. He 
died in Paris in 1692. 

SARRAZIN, Jacqdes, the elder, the famous 
French sculptor, born at Noyon in 1588, painted a 
few pictures. D'Argenville speaks of a 'Holy 
Family' and four medallions at the'Minimes' in 
Paris, 80 beautiful that they might be taken for the 
work of Lesueur. In the Rennes Museum there is 
a pencil drawing by him, and Duret engraved 
some of his Madonnas. He died in Paris in 1660. 

SARRAZIN, Jean Baptiste, professor at the 
Academy of St. Luke at Paris, held an appoint- 
ment as decorative painter at the court of Louis 
X\'I. He exhibited a few landscape and marine 
views between 1762 and 1793. 

SARTAIN, Emilt, bom in Philadelphia in 1841, 
daughter of John Sartain, and a pupil in P.^.ris under 
Evariste Luminais. She worked for some time in 
Parma, and then returned to the United States and 
exhibited largely, her chief picture, 'The Reproof,' 
being shown at the Centeimial Exhibition in Phila- 
delphia in 1876, and very highly commended. She 
is said to have died in 1891, but the date is uncertain. 

SARTAIN, John, painter and engraver, was 
bom in London in 1808. After studying engraving 
in London he went to America in 1830, and in 
1842 became proprietor of ' Campbell's Magazine,' 
and editor of 'Sartain's Union Magazine,' in both 
of which his work appeared. His reputation was 
made by his mezzotint engravings, among which 
may be mentioned his ' Christ Rejected,' after 
Benjamin West; 'The Iron-Worker and King 
Solomon,' after C. Schussele; 'The Battle of Gettys- 
burg,' after P. F. Rothermel ; ' Eugenie, Empress 
of France, and the Ladies of her Court,' after 
Winterhalter; and 'William Penn,' after H. Inman. 
He made designs for several monuments, among 
them those of Lafayette and Washington at Phila- 
delphia, and also engraved several book-plates. 
He was a member of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Fine Arts. He died at Philadelphia on October 25, 
1897. M. H. 

SABTARELLI. See Saltarello, 

SARTI, Antonio, an Italian painter, practising 
about 1600, mentioned by Baldassini in his 'Storia 
di Jesi,' where he highly commends a 'Circumcision' 
in the collegiate church of Massaccio. 

SARTI, Ercole, called II Muto di Ficaeolo, 
was born at Ficarolo, a town in the duchy of Fer- 
rara, in 1593, of a respectable family, and was deaf 
and dumb from his birth. Before he was sixteen 
years of age, on the occasion of a solemn proces- 
sion, he placed on the front of his father's house 
a picture he had painted in secret, representing 

the ' Adoration of the Magi.' This unexpected 
production was the object of general astonishment, 
and its author was placed under Carlo Bononi, at 
Ferrara. He afterwards imitated the style of Ippolito 
Scarsellino, his contemporary. The principal pic- 
tures of Sarti are in the church of the Benedictines, 
in his native town. He also painted a portrait of 
Pope Sylvester, now in the Costabili Gallery. He 
died about 1637. 

SARTO. Andrea del. See Andrea d'Agnolo. 

SARTORI, Enrico, Italian painter; born at 
Parma in 1831, where he received his first instruc- 
tion ; made his name as a landscape painter, and 
six of his works, mostly views of Parma, are now 
to be seen in the Art Gallery of that city. He 
died in 1889. 

SARTORI US, Jakob Christopher, an engraver 
of Niiremberg, whose portraits and book-illus- 
trations bear dates from 1694 to 1737. 

SARTORIUS, J. F., the elder son of John N. 
Sartorius, born about 1775, and dying about 
1830. He was, like his father and grandfather, a 
painter of sporting subjects, but it is not very 
easy to distinguish his works from those of his 
father, as he frequently signed them with his 
surname only. There is a large collection of 
. works by the family at Elsenham Hall, and Sir 
Walter Gilbey wrote articles on the Sartorius 
family in ' Rally's Magazine ' for January and 
February 1897, and these are almost the onlj' 
sources of information respecting him and his 
father. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1802, and was then resident at Holborn. His 
, best picture is a portrait of the Marchioness of 
Salisbury riding at Hatfield, which appeared at 
] the Academy in 1806. He resided in 1797 in King 
j Street, Holborn, afterwards at 90, Newman Street, 
and then in King's Road, Chelsea, eventually 
moving to 3, Queen's Elms, Chelsea (wliere he 
died), and having a studio in Bedford Street, W.C. 

SARTORIUS, John N. This artist is believed to 
have been born about 1755, and is said to have 
died in 1828. He exhibited at the Royal Academy 
from 1781 to 1824, and his pictures are of sporting 
subjects, most of them horses and dogs and hunt- 
ing-scenes. Very many of them were engraved 
in mezzotint and aquatint by such engravers as 
Walker, Webb, and Peltro. His best -known 
picture, perhaps, represents the famous horse 
' Eclipse,' but this was executed from a pencil 
drawing done by his father, Francis Sartorius. 
Many of his best pictures belong to Sir Walter 
Gilbey, whose articles in ' Baily's Magazine,' Janu- 
ary and February 1897, contain all the information 
that is known respecting him. He resided first in 
Wells Street, Oxford Street, then successively at 
109, St. Martin's Lane : 2, Spur Street ; 14, Stephen 
Street ; and 9, Percy Street, Eventually he went 
to 17, Bolsover Street, and had a studio at 39, 
Bedford Street, Covcnt Garden. 

SARZANA. See Fiaselli. 

SARZETTI, Angiolo, an artist of the Bolognese 
school, _ born at Rimini. For the church of the 
Angioli, in his native town, he executed some 
paintings in oil and in fresco. He was a pupil of 
Cignani, and flourished about 1700. 

SAS, Christian, a German engraver, who flour- 
ished from about 1630 to 1660. He engraved 
several plates, among which are fortv-five scenes 
from the life of St. Philip Neri, after S'tella. There 
are some other plates by him, after II Pomerancio, 
and other masters. 
SASC, Jdlie de, {nee Lisiewska,) painter, born 


in Saxony, 1724. She was the pupil of lier father, 
Georg Lisiewski, and lived for some time at ihe 
Hajrue, where she became a member of tlie Pictura 
Society in 1767. She died at Berlin in 1794. 

SASONOFF, W.iSSiLY Kondeatiewitsch. Rus- 
sian painter ; bom in 1789 at Gomel (Mohileff), 
and studied at the St. Petersburg Academy under 
OugrumofF. His picture of 'The Grand Duke 
Dmitri Donskoi after Koulikovo ' is in the Hermit- 
age at St. Petersburg. He died in 1870. 

SASS, Henry, portrait painter, son of an artist, 
was born in London in 1788. His first work was 
the 'Descent of Ul^'sses into Hell,' and in 1816 he 
went to Rome. He never, however, obtained much 
reputation as an artist, though be was very success- 
ful as an elementary teacher. Many of the chief 
English painters of the 19th century passed through 
his school. He died in 1844. (See ' Reminiscences,' 
by W. P. Frith ; London, 1887.) 

SASSE, Richard, a water-colour painter, born 
in 1774, exhibited landscapes at the Academy from 
1791 to 1813. In 1811 he was appointed teacher 
to the Princess Charlotte, and landscape painter to 
the Prince Regent. In 1815 he travelled on the 
Continent, and eventually settled in Paris, where 
he died in 1849. He was a cousin of Henry Sass, 
but lengthened his name by an e. There are 
examples of his work at South Kensington. 

SASSETTA. See Stefano. 

SASSl, Giovanni Battista, flourislied at Milan 
in the 18th century, was a pupil of Solimena, in 
Naples, but returned in 1715 to Milan, where he 
painted several altar-pictures, and completed some 
pictures left unfinished by Pietro Giraldi. 


SASSOLI, Fabiano, a painter upon glass, who 
flourished at Arezzo in the 15th century. His son, 
Stagio, excelled his father in the same art, and 
was a collaborateur with Domenico Pecori, and 
later with the famous Guillaume de Marseilles. 

SASSONE, II. See Mengs, Anton Rafael. 

SATTLER, JoHANN Michael, born at Neuberg, 
in Austria, in 1786, was a pupil at the Vienna 
Academy, but settled at Salzburg. He painted 
panoramas, which he exhibited in the chief German 
towns. He died at Mattern, near Salzburg, in 1847. 

SAUBERLICH, Lorenz, a German engraver 
on wood, who, according to Professor Christ, pub- 
lished some wood-cuts at Wittemberg in the year 
1599. He used a cipher composed of an L. and 
an S. He is supposed to have died in 1613. 

SAUERWEID, Alexander, Russian painter and 
etcher; bom at Kurhmd in 1783; studied at the 
Dresden Academy ; in 1814 the Emperor Alexander 
summoned him to St. Petersburg. He painted 
battle-pieces somewhat in the stjdo of Horace 
Vemet, and he also published several effective 
etchings of cavalrj* and cavalry skirmishes, the 
war scenes dealing with the canipaigns of 1813 
and 1814. He died at St. Petersburg "in 1844. 

SAUNDERS, George. The artistic work that 
brings this eminent architect within the scope of 
' Bryan's Dictionary ' was chiefly a series of draw- 
ings he made of the bridges of Middlesex in 1825 
and 1826, when with other magistrates he had to 
inspect them. He also produced a fine elevation 
for the extension of the British Museum, designed 
m 1804. His architectural work no longer appears 
at the Museum, as the building he erected was 
removed in 1852. He was a great authority on 
brick architecture, and made several drawings of 
the brick churches at Verona. He was born in 

1762, spent most of his life in London, and died 
in 1839. 

SAUNDERS, Joseph, an English miniature 
painter, working in London towards the end of the 
18th century. He had an extensive practice, and 
was employed principally as a painter of ladies' 
portraits. 'From 1778 to 1797 he exhibited occa- 
sionally at the Academy. His son, R. Saonders, 
practised the same art 

SADNIER, Noel, studied under Pils and his 
father, and was a frequent exhibitor at the Salon. 
He painted genre subjects. He died in 1890, at 
the ace of forty-two. 

SAURA, MosEN Domingo, a Spanish painter of 
the 17th century, born at Lucena, in Valencia. On 
the death of his wife he became a priest, and 
devoted himself with much success to the art of 
painting. His works are numerous at Valencia. 

SAUT.4I, Paul Emile, French painter ; born at 
Amiens, January 29, 1842 ; came to Paris in 1860 
and entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts ; studied 
with Robert-Fleury and Jules Lefebvre, and from 
1865 to 1870 lived and worked in Italy. His 
works exhibited at the Salon dealt mainly with 
scenes of monastic life, such as : ' Couvent de San 
Benedetto,' ' Pelerins devant la Chapelle de San 
Pietro,' ' Interieur de Convent,' &o. He obtained 
a medal in 1870, a second-class medal in 1870, a 
third-class medal at the Exhibition of 1878, and a 
gold medal in 1889. In 1885 he received the 
Legion of Honour. He died in 1901. 

SAUTERLEUTHE, Joseph, a celebrated painter 
upon glass, born at Weingarten in 1796. He was 
a pupil of Isopi, and began his career in the china 
factory of Ludwigsburg, but in 1812 went to 
Nuremberg to perfect himself in the art of glass- 
painting. In 1837 he painted twelve windows 
for Prince Thum-and-Taxis at Ratisbon, and, 
jointly with Vortel of Munich, he executed the 
windows in the hall of the Minnesanger in the 
Landsberg Schloss at Meiningen. Fine examples 
of his art are preserved in the Hertel Collection at 
Nuremberg, consisting of paintings on glass after 
Albrecht Diirer's ' Life of the Virgin.' He died at 
Nuremberg in 1843. 

SAUTOY, Jacques L^on du, French painter; 
born in Paris, October 18, 1817 ; for a long time 
he held the Directorship of the Art School at 
Fontainebleau ; and here he died on September 22, 

S.\UVAGE,AsToiNE,called Lemire the yodnger, 
to distinguish him from his father, Gabriel Charles 
Sauvage, called Lemire. He was a French painter 
of history and portraits. He was born at Lun6- 
ville, and died in the last quarter of the 18th cen- 
tury. His wife, nee Sophie Brinisholtz, was also 
a painter. 

SAUVAGE, Jean Baptiste, a French painter of 
the 17th century. In the museum at Valenciennes 
there is by him a portrait of Jean Baptiste Rousseau. 

SAUVAGE, Joseph Gr^goire, a Flemish minia- 
ture painter and enameller of the 18th century, 
who was painter to Duke Charles of Lorraine for 
seventeen years. On the death of his jiatron he 
was reduced to great poverty, and is said to have 
died in the hospital of St. Peter at Brussels. 

SAUVAGE, PiAT Joseph, was born at Tournai 
in 1744, and studied at the Academy at Antwerp. 
He essayed several styles of painting, and finally 
adopted that of bas-relief, in which he became 
eminent. He settled for a considerable time in 
Paris, where his works were in high estimation. 



In 1808 he returned to Ins own city, where he 
taught in tlie Drawing School. His paintings in 
has relief are to be seen in the museums of Tournai, 
Antwerp, Montargis, MontpeHier, Montauban, Lille, 
and Toulouse. He imitated marbles and ancient 
terra-cottas with great success, and painted por- 
celain in enamel. Van Spaendonck occasionally 
added flowers in his pictures. He died at Tournai 
in 1818. 

SADVAGEOT, Charles Theodore, painter, born 
in Paris in 1826, was a pupil of Isabey. He ex- 
hibited landscape views of French scenery at the 
Salon from 1863 onwards, and died at Fontainebleau 
in 1883. 

SAUVAGEOT, Denis Francois, painter, born in 
Paris in 1793, was a pupil of C. iSourgeois. He 
painted landscapes and interiors, and was an occa- 
sional exhibitor at the Salon from 1822 to 1831. 

SAUVAGEOT, DfciR^E Charlotte (nee Gal- 
liot), born in Paris in 1800, was a pupil of Bouchet. 
From 1819 to 1848 she exhibited portraits and genre 

SAUVAI6NE, Lotus Paul, a French marine 
painter, and pupil of Corot and Daubigny, was 
born at Lille in 1827. He exhibited at the Salon 
from 1870 onwards, practising chiefly at Lille. He 
died at Trouville in 1885. 

SAUVAN, Philippe, painter and engraver, born 
at Aries in 1695, studied under Parocel and in 
Italy. He painted several altar-pieces in Aries 
Aix, and Avignon ; also portraits. His son Pierbb 
and his daughter Gabrielle also painted. He 
died at Avignon in 1789. There are examples of 
his work in the Museum of Avignon. 

SADVfi, Jean, a French engraver of little note, 
who, according to Basan, flourished about the end 
of the 17th century. He engraved after Guido, P. 
da Cortona, &c., also some portraits. 

SAUVE, Jean Jacques Theodore, a French en- 
graver and litliographer, was born in Paris in 1792. 
He was a pupil of David, and has left some litho- 
graphs after heads by Raphael in the Vatican 
frescoes. He died in 1869. 

SAVAGE, John, an English engraver, who re- 
sided in the Old Bailey about 1680. He engraved 
the portraits of many convicted malefactors, also 
those of some who fell in a better cause, as Walpole 
puts it. Among his portraits we may name those 

William III. and Qut-en Mary 

Bishop liatimer. 

John Alasco. 

AJgeruon Sidney. 

Archibald Campbell, Earl of Argyle. 

Henry Cornish, SlieritT of London. 

Sir Edmundbury Godfrey. 

John Gadbury, Astrologer. 

James Fitzruy, Duke of Monmouth. 

Sir Thomas Armstrong. 

Sir Henry Ohauncey, Antiquary. 

Chief Justice Sir Henry PoUexfen. 

Arthur, Earl of Torriugton. 

Charles Leigh, M.D. 

He also engraved some of the plates for Tempest's 
'Cries of London,' and Evelyn s 'Numismata.' 

SAVAGE, William, painter and engraver, was 
born about 1785. He studied in the Academy 
Schools, and published ' Practical Hints on Decor- 
ative Painting, with Illustrations engraved on wood 
and printed in colours by the type press.' London, 

SAVALO, , a skilful illuminator of the 12th 

century, practising at Arras about 1180. In the 


Library at Valenciennes there is a Gospel finely 
illuminated by him. 

SAVART, Pierre, French engraver, born in 
Paris in 1750. He produced several plates in the 
neat, iinished style of Ficquet ; among them the 
following portraits of illustrious Frenchmen : 

hauls XIV.; after Kigaud. 1771. 

Louis de Bourbon, Prince de Cond^ ; after Le Juste. 

Jean Baptiste Colbert ; after P. tie Champagne, 1773. 
J. B. La Bruyere ; a/ttr <St. Jean. 1778. 
Pierre Bayle ; after the same. 1774. 
Jean Eacine ; after ^Santerre. 1772. 
Nicholas Boileau Despreau.^ ; after liigaud ; an oval, 

Rahe\a\s\ after Sarraheit. 17(37. 
Cardinal Kichelieu ; after P. de Champagne. 
Nicholas de Gatiuat, Marcchal de France. 
Comte de Buffon ; after Drouais. 1776. 
Bossuet ; after liigaud. 1773. 
D'Alembert; after Catherine Lusuiier. 1780. 
Montesquieu. 1779. 

SAVARY, AUGUSTE, painter, born at Nantes in 
1799, a pupil of Boissier. He exhibited many 
French landscapes at the Salon from 1824 to 1859. 

SAVERY, Jakob, the elder, born at Courtrai, 
practised at Amsterdam about 1550. He was the 
father of Jakob Savery the younger, and the 
master of Willem van Nieulant. He excelled in 
painting animals, birds, and fishes. 

S.WERY, Jakob, the younger, p.iinter, was 
horn at Courtrai about the year 1545, and was a 
disciple of Hans Bol. He painted landscapes and 
animals, which he finished with great labour and 
patience, though in a hard, dry style. He died of 
the plague at in 1602. At the Hague 
there is a ' Kermesse of St. Sebastian ' by him. 

SAVERY, Jan, a Flemish painter and engraver, 
born at Courtrai in 1597. According to Huber, 
he was the nephew of Roelandt Savery, and was 
probably his scholar, as he painted landscapes in 
a similar style. He died in 1655. We have several 
etchings by this artist, from his own designs, among 
which are the following: 

A set of six mountainous Landscapes, with figures, in- 
scribed J. Savery^ fee. Nic. de Clerc. exc. 

A Landscape, with a Stag-hunt ; J. Savery, fee. H. 

A Landscape, with Samson killing a Lion ; J. C. T'iss- 
cher^ exc. 

SAVERY, Roelandt, the son of Jakob Sarery the 
elder, was born at Courtrai in 1576, and instructed 
by his brother, Jakob the younger. It has been sup- 
posed that he was afterwards a discljile of Paul Brill ; 
but this cannot be reconciled with chronology, as 
that artist had left Flanders for Italy, where he 
passed the remainder of his life, before Savery was 
of an age to profit by his instruction. The resem- 
blance of his style to that of Brill is not more ap- 
parent than to that of Brueghel, and other Flemislj 
landscape painiers of the time. Savery visited 
France in the reign of Henry IV., by whom he was 
emploj'ed in the royal palaces. Soon after his 
return to the Low Countries, he was invited to the 
court of Prague, by Rudolph II., in whose service 
he passed a great part of his life. By the direction 
of the Emperor he travelled through the Tyrol, 
where the scenery was entirely to his taste. The 
studies he made there were of great use in his later 
works. After the death of the Emperor, he settled 
at Utreclit, and died there in 16.39. Works : 

Amsterdam. R. Museum. Orpheus. 

„ ,. Landscape with Hunt. 

Dresden. Oallery. Hunting » Roar 


Hanfstiingl photo'] 


IBeilni Galh'iy 













Drestlen. Gnllery, A Mountain Torrent 

„ T-,e Ark of Noah. 

,, Five other Lauilscapes. 

London. Kat. Gallery, Orpheus charming the Beasts. 

Munich. Pinakutkek. A Boar-hunt. 

SAVERY, Solomon, (Savry,) a Dutch engraver, 
bom at Amaterdam in 1594. From his having 
engraved a few English portraits, he is said to 
have visited this country, but it is not certain that 
he did so. The following are his principal plates : 

Charles I. with a high-crowned bat, a view of West- 
minster in the background. 

Oliver Cromwell. 1U49. 

John Speed, the Historian. 

Thomas, Lord Fairfax. 

Christ driving the Money-changers out of the Temple ; 
after Rembrandt. 

SAVILL, — , was a painter living in London at 
the time of the Restoration. He painted portraits 
of Samuel Pepys and his wife, and also a miniature 
portrait of the former, for which he was paid £3. 

SAVILLE, Dorothea, an English portrait 
painter. Slie practised in London in the first part 
of the 17th century. Some of her works were 
engraved by Hollar and Thomas Cross. 

SAVOLDO, Giovanni Girolamo, was a native of 
Brescia, born about 1480 — possibly as late as 
1484-1485. Brescia at that time gave birth to 
many of the best artists of the Venetian School — 
notably to Girolamo Romanino, who was born, 
like Savoldo, at Brescia about 148.5, to Bonvicino 
or Moretto, Romanino's fellow-worker at Brescia 
in 1621, and to Moretto's own pupil Moroni, born 
about 1525. All these artists happen to be well 
represented in the National Gallery. 

Moroni's 'Brescian Nobleman' and ' Tailor' {Tay- 
liapanni) are masterpieces of his silvery manner ; 
and Savoldo's ' St. Mary Magdalen approaching 
the Sepulchre ' is, in its own way, no less at- 
tractive. This figure, with its mj'sterious charm 
(which is repeated in the Berlin Gallerj'), is 
characteristic of the artist, in his love of twiliirht 
effects and the gleam of reflected light. She 
seems less the devoted woman of the Bible story 
than some fair Venetian, stepping down to her 
gondola for the evening's rendezvous — this figure 
with the lovely face peeping archly out beneath 
the veil of white shimmering satin. Here too 
appears just that romantic element which Savoldo's 
art might have drawn from Giorgione ; just as 
he shares the love of dim liglit, which appears 
again in his ' Adoration of Shepherds ' in the same 
(National Gallery) collection, with the later 
Bassani. Savoldo's treatment of this subject 
('Adoration of Shepherds'), set in a beautiful 
Giorgionesrjue landscape, is peculiarly impressive 
in his painting in the Turin Gallery. The colour- 
ing here — -as in the beautiful painting mentioned 
next — is cold and rather Brescian tlian Vene- 
tian in character. To be noted next in the same 
collection is his ' Holy Family' ; while the grave 
sweetness of the Virgin's type reappears in a 
signed and dated (15'J7) picture at Hampton Court. 
The attendant Saints in the above painting of the 
Turin G.allery are SS. Francis and Jerome ; ami 
the present Director of that Gallery is of opinion 
that both are by the same master, and that both 
— as Lermolieff was the first to notice, though 
neither of these interesting paintings are signed 
— are by the Brescian artist, Savoldo. The Louvre 
Gallery contains two male portraits (Nos. 1518, 

1519) attributed to Savoldo : (1) Portrait of armed 
man against a glass, who is said to be Gaston de 
Foix — a ver)' clever portrait study ; (2) Grand por- 
trait of unknown man, black cap, grey-green robe, 
clean-shaved face, holds a letter in his gloved 
right hand. More important is the fine signed 
altar-piece of the Brera Gallery at Milan. The 
'Virgin and Child' are represented with SS. Peter, 
Dominic, and Jerome ; this work comes from the 
church of St. Dominic at Pesaro. A study in 
black chalk, for the head of the fine ' St. Jerome 
in the Desert,' in the late Sir Henry Layard's Col- 
lection, is also in the Louvre Gallery. In S. 
Maria del Organo at Verona, in a side chapel on 
left, is a ' Virgin and Child in the Clouds,' with SS. 
Peter, Benedict, Zeno, and Paul. Aretino, in a letter 
dated December 1548, mentions Savoldo as one 
of the famous Venetian artists of that time, though 
already touching the decline of his powers ; and 
Cav. A. Venturi adds that the Aretine calls him 
a fanciful (capriccioso) painter, alluding in this con- 
nection especially to that ' Magdalen ' already 
mentioned. Had "Romanticism" been invent. d 
in Titian's age, the later epithet might have been 
preferred. The ' Head of a Youth,' in the Borghese 
Gallery at Rome, — a half-figure, Venetian in 
feeling, with full hair and hand extended — might 
be, according to Cav. Venturi, a study for the St. 
John of the Berlin Gallery ' Deposition.' In any 
case thi.s painting is a most interesting study — 
superb in colour and strong in drawing, the rich 
flesh tones contrasting efi'ectively with the white 
linen and dark-coloured jerkin. 

Savoldo was long resident at Venice, and his 
'Adoration of the Shepherds' in S. Giobbe of 
that city is of especial beauty. A replica of 
this picture is in the Tosio Gallery of Brescia. 
His name occurs twice in the pages of the 'Ano- 
nimo,' where I find — in the excellent version 
edited by Dr. Williamson — at Venice, in the house 
of Messer Andrea di Odoni, 1532, "the large 
figure of a woman, nude, lying down, painted on 
the back of the bed by Gerolamo SavoMo of 
Brescia"; and again, in the house of Messer 
Francesco Zio at Venice, 1512 — "The canvas, 
representing Christ washing the disciples' feet, 
is by Giovanni Gerolamo of Brescia." These 
two paintings have in neither case, to my know- 
ledge, hitherto been traced, although one is said 
to be in Bucharest. Coming to Florence, we find 
among the Venetians in the second "Sala," the 
'Transfiguration of Christ' in the presence of 
SS. Peter, John, and James — a painting on wood. 
Both this, and the same subject in the Ambrosian 
Library at Milan, may be replicas of some 
original work by tlie artist on this subject ; but 
the visitor to Milan nmst on no account overlook 
the grand Brera altar-piece mentioned above. 
Aretino's verdict we have already seen, and it 
must be added that both Giorgio Vasari and Ridolfi 
(Delle Meraviglie dell' Arte) alike have a good 
word for this Brescian artist. 

If he is less distinctively Brescian, in his 
technique and feeling, than his fellow-countrymen, 
Romanino, Jloretto, or Moroni, if he comes nearer 
to Giorgione and Titian in their glow of living 
colour, he yet marks a transition from the purely 
Venetian tradition. It is through his scenes of 
twilight mystery and light imprisoned in the folds 
of silk that we are a little later to reach those cool 
silvery flesh tints of the great Brescian portraitist, 
Gian Battista Moroni. S B 



SA VOLINI,Cristofobo, painter, of ftieBulogneee 
school, a native of Cento, and a pupil of Cristoforo 
Serra. He painted a good picture of the patron 
saint for the church of S. Colombia, at Rimini. He 
was still living in 1678. 
SAVONA, II Prete di. See GniDOBONO. 
SAVOXANZI, Emilio, a nobleman of Bologna, 
born in 1680, who attached himself to painting 
when nearly arrived at manhood. He had many 
masters ; among them Lodovico Carracci, Guido, 
Guercinu, and Algardi, the sculptor. He resided 
at Ancona, and at Camerino, where he died in 
1660. His principal work is 'The Marriage of St. 
Catharine ' at Camerino. 

SAVORELLI, Gaetano. painter and draughts- 
man, flourished at Rome from 1750 to 1775. He 
is chiefly known as having made drawings from 
Giovanni da Ud'me'sgrotteschim the Loggia of the 
Vatican, from which Giovanni Ottaviani engraved. 
SAVORELLI, SedastiaKO, a priest of Forli and 
pupil of Cignani. He was practising in 1690, and 
painted for the churches of Forli and its neigh- 

SAVOYE, Daniel, portrait painter and etcher, 
was born at Grenoble in 1644, and is said to have 
been a pupil of Sebastien Bourdon. His signature. 
D. S. sc, is found on a riposo. in which the Virgin 
is seated near a fountain attended by three angels. 
Some small etchings of soldiers, and of costumes 
of the time of Louis XIII., bear the same initials. 
In the Dresden Gallery there is a portrait of the 
artist's wife by himself He died at Erlangen iu 

SAVOYEN, Carel van, was born at Antwerp in 
1619, and painted many subjects from Ovid in a 
small size ; he was fond of painting the nude, 
but his drawing was not equal to his colour. He 
died at Antwerp in 1669 (? 1680). 

SAXON, James portrait painter, a native of 

Manchester, exhibited at the Acadeniy,_ 1795, and 

then went to Edinburgh ; he returned in 1805 to 

London, but afterwards spent some prolific years 

in St. Petersburg. On his return he took up his 

residence at Glasgow, but finally came to London, 

where he died in 1816 or 1817. His portrait of Sir 

W. Scott, holding a large dog, has been engraved. 

S.iXTON, Christopbek, a native of Yorkshire 

and a domestic in the service of Thomas Sekeford, 

Esq., Master of Requests, is remembered for his 

complete set of maps of the counties of England 

and Wales, many of which he engraved himself, 

while in others he was assisted by R. Hogenberg. 

Augustine Ryther, and other engravers. M.aster 

Ryther bore "the expense of the series, which was 

published in 1579, and dedicated to QiK-en Elizabeth, 

SAY', Frederick Richard, a popular portrait 

painter of the time of George IV., and a constant 

exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He was the 

son of William Say the engraver, and his sister 

Mary Anne was the wife of J. B. Papworth, the 

eminent architect. He is believed to have been 

born in 1827, and to have died in 1860, but neither 

of these dates can be given with authority. His 

best portrait is considered to be that of Sir E. 

Bulwer Lytton, and many of his portraits were 

engraved "by Samuel Cousins. His work is to be 

seen at Drayton Manor and at Althorpe. It has 

been confused with the early work of Lawrence, to 

which it certainly bears some resemblance. 

S.iY, William, an eminent engraver in mezzo- 
tint, was horn at Lakenham, near Norwich, in 
1768. He was left an orphan at the age of five 

years, and was brought up by a maternal aunt. 
Although he showed an early inclination for art, 
he did not practise it as a profession till his arrival 
in London, when he had attained his twenty-first 
year, and was m.irried. He put himself under the 
direction of James Ward, at that time chiefly an 
engraver, and under his instruction produced his 
first plate. He was indefatigable in the art, and 
in 1807 he was appointed engraver to the Duke of 
Gloucester. He engraved about 330 plates, a few 
after the old masters, but the majority after modem 
painters. Among them we may name the Dilettanti 
Society, after Sir J. Reynolds (2) ; several for 
Turner's River Scenery; sixteen plates for the 
' Liber Studiorum ' ; two of ' Brigands,' after East- 
lake ; ' Joseph and his Brethren,' after Northcote ; 
and Hilton's ' Raising of Lazarus.' Many of his 
plates remained unpublished at the time of his death, 
which occurred on the 24th of August, 1834. The 
British Museum possesses a complete set of hia 

SAYER, James, a political caricaturist, was 
born at Yarmouth in 1748. He commenced life as 
a clerk in an attorney's office, but came to London 
in 1780. His works, which are about a hundred in 
number, were in favour of Pitt and against Fox, and 
it is said that the latter declared Sayer's pencil had 
done him more harm than all the attacks he had 
had to face in Parliament. Pitt gave him a clerk- 
ship in the Court of Exchequer, and in time he 
became Marshal of the Court, Receiver of the Six- 
penny duties, aud one of the Cursitors. On Pitt's 
death he published his ' Elijah's Mantle,' which 
was at one time ascribed to Canning. He died in 
London in 1823. 

SAYERS, Reuben W., was born in 1815. He 
made his debut at the Academy in 1846, and con- 
tinued to be an occasional exhibitor until 1867. 
He also exhibited at the British In:!titution and 
the Society of British Artists, usually domestic 
genre. His exhibited works number thirty-four. 
Some churches possess large paintings of religious 
subjects which he presented to tliem. He died in 
SAYTEK. See Seuteb. 

SAYVE, (or SAIVE,^ Jean Baptiste de, called 
Jean de Namur, from his birthphice. The earliest 
known works by him dated from the year 1576. 
He was for a time painter to the Municipality of 
his native town, which he left for Brussels, where, 
in 1590, he was painter to the Duke of Parma, 
Shortly afterwards he returned to Namur, and 
finally settled at Mechlin, where he was largely 
employed by the Guilds, and where he died in 
1624. Works : 

^^""''oalf"^" I Martyrdom of S, Catharine. 
Church ofS. \ jj^^3 ^j (j^ii^th 
Hombaut, ) 

„ Baptism of Christ. 

Cerch Arch^olo- ) .j,j^^ Judgment of Cambyee*. 
Portraits of the 'Echevins' 





His son, Jean Baptiste, also practised painting. 

sian amateur of great promise, whose ' Nun in the 
Choir of a Church' excited much attention at 
Petersburg in 1853. He was the colonel of a 
Russian Engineer Battalion, and fell at the taking 
of Sebastopol, in 1855. 

SBARBI, Antonio, a Cremonese painter, was 


[From the mtz::otint after Devis 



first a scholar of Bernasconi at Milan, and after- 
wards studied at Bologna under Lorenzo Pasinelli. 
He was invited to Piacenza by the Duke Ranucci 
Farnese, for whom he painted many pictures. He 
distinsruished himself by his representation of 
animals. He died at Milan early in the 18th 

SBINKO DA TROTINA, a miniaturist of Prague 
in the 14th century. 

SCABARI, NiccoLO, painter, bom at Vicenza 
in 1735, painted in the style of the Bassani. His 
works are to be found in the churches of Vicenza, 
Padua, and Verona. He died in 1802. 

SCACCIANI, Camillo, called Carbone, an Italian 
painter of the Roman school, who flourished to- 
wards the close of the 18th centurj-. He was a 
native of Pesaro, where there is a ' S. Andrea 
Avellino ' by him in the Duonio. 

SCACCIATI, Andrea, an Italian designer and 
engraver, born at Florence about the year 1726, 
was a pupil of Schwej-khard. In 176G he pub- 
lished, jointly with Stefano Mulinari, a set of forty- 
one plates in aquatint, from drawings by distin- 
guished masters in the collection of tlie Uffizi. 

SCACCIATI, Andrea, was bom at Florence in 
1642, and was first a scholar of Mario Balassi, but 
he afterwards studied under Lorenzo Lippi. He 
painted animals, flowers, and fruit, and was patron- 
ized by the Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was still 
living at Florence in 1704. 

SCAGLIA, Girolamo, a native of Lucca and ■ 
painter of the Florentine school, was sometimes 
called II Parmigianino. In 1672 he was at work 
in Pisa. 

SCAIARIO, Antonio, a painter of Bassano, one 
of the later disciples of the school of the Bas- 
sani, was the pupil and son-in-law of Giunibatista 
da Ponte. In allusion to his birth and training, 
he occasionally signed his works Antonio da Ponte, 
and Antonio Bassano. He died in 1640. 

SCALABRINO, Lo, a scholar of Sodoma, showed 
great poetical invention in painting grottesche. As 
a disciple of Bazzi he would rank among the 
Sienese painters ; but he was accustomed to sign 
himself Scalabrimia Pistoriensis. so that Pistoja 
seems to have been his birthplace. ! 

SCALBERG, Pierre, a French painter and en- 
graver, who resided in Paris about the year 1638. 
Of his work as a painter little is known, but he 
has left a few etchings, some from his own designs, 
others from well-known pictures, e. g. : 

Venus and Cupid ; signed and dated. 163S. 

The Eutombment of Christ ; after Raphael. 

The Battle of Constantine ; after the same. 

Diana and her Nymphs ; after Domeyiichino. 

Robert-Duraesnil, torn, iii., has ascribed forty-seven 
prints to Scalberg, who is said to have worked as 
late as 1650. 

SCALBERGE, (or Scalle Berge,) Frederic, a 
Flemish engraver, who flourished from 1623 to 
1636, as appears by the dates on his plates. This 
engraver, who signed his name sometimes Scal- 
berge, and sometimes Scalle Berge, must not be 
confounded with Pierre Scalberg. 

SCALIGERI, Bartolo, a native of Padua, was 
born about 1605, but settled at Venice, and was a 
scholar of Alessandro Varotari. Several altar-pieces 
by him are still preserved in Venice, among which 
that in the church of Corpus Domini is perhaps the 
best. The date of his decease is not recorded. 

SCALIGERI, LnciA, niece of Bartolo Scaligeri, 
was born at Venice in 1637. She distinguished 

herself by literary and linguistic powers, and was 
an excellent musician. In art she was a pupil of 
Alessandro Varotari, and painted several pictures 
for the churches of Venice. She died in 1700. 

SCALVATI, Antonio, painter, was born at 
Bologna in 1599, and a scholar of Tommaso 
Lauretti. He accompanied his master to Rome, and 
assisted him in the Sala di Constantino. Scalvnti 
was employed by Sixtus V. in the library of the 
Vatican, and excelled in portraiture, painting 
Pope Clement VIII., and many personages of hit- 
time. He died in 1622. 

SCAMINOSSI, (ScHiAMONOssi, Sciaminossi,) 
Raphael, a native of Borgo S. Sepolcro, born about 
1570, was a scholar of Raflaellino dal CoUe. He 
painted history with success, but is more known as 
an engraver than as a painter. He sometimes used 
a monogram composed of the letters R. A. S. F. 

thus tQ^ • He was still living in 1620. Among 

his plates we may name; 

The Virgin and Child ; inscribed Raphael .Schatmnoasius 

Pictor,4c. 1613. 
St. Francis preaching in the Desert ; also froyii his oini 

design. 1604. 
A set of fourteen plates entitled Mysteria rosarii 

Beata Maria Virginia. 1609. 
The Sibyls ; a set of upright plates ; from kis oxen 

The Stoning of Stephen ; after Luca Camhiaso. 
A Biposo ; after Federigo Baroccio. 

SCANDRETT, Thomas, architectural draughts- 
man, born at Worcester in 1797. In 1825 he ex- 
hibited two portraits at the Academy, and was an 
occasional exhibitor of architectural drawings. He 
died in 1870. 

SCANNABECCHI, Filippo, called Lippo di Dal- 
MASio, and also Lippo dalle Madonne, from the 
numerous pictures he painted of tlie Virgin and 
Child, was one of the earliest painters of the 
Bolognese school. He was the son of Dalmasio 
ScANNABECCHi, who painted at Bologna early in the 
14th century. There is ati example of his art in 
the gallery at Bologna. Lippo is said to have been 
a pupil of Vitale da Bologna, and to have practised 
from 1376 to 1410. His pictures are now exceed- 
ingly scarce, though Malvasia says that a family 
used not to be considered wealthy at Bologna unless 
it possessed one of his Madonnas. The dates of his 
birth and death are alike unknown, but he made 
his will in 1410. In the National Gallery, London, 
there is a ' Madonna and Child in Glorj-,' signed 
lAppus Dalmasii pinxit. It is a very poor pro- 

SCANNABECCHI, Teresa. See Muratori. 

SCANNARDI D'AVERARA, a painter practising 
at Bergamo towards the close of the loth century. 
No record of liis life and works has survived, but 
we learn from an ancient deed preserved at Bergamo, 
that in 1477 he was working as partner with Troso 
da Monza. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle sug- 
gest that the fragments of frescoes detached from 
the ruins of Santa Maria delle Grazie, and deposited 
in the Bishop's palace at Bergamo, may have been 
a product of this collaboration. 

SCANNAVINI, M. Aurelis, (Scannavesi,) was 
bom at Ferrara in 1655. He was first a scholar 
of Francesco Ferrari but afterwards vi.sited 
Bologna, where he studied for some time under 
Carlo Cignani, of whom he became one of the most 
distinguished disciples. His most considerable 
work is in the refectory of the Dominicans, at 
Ferrara. It represents the Life of St. Dominic, in 



fourteen pictures. There are many pictures by 
Scannavini in the churches at Ferrara, among others 
tlie 'Annunciation,' in the church of S. Stefano ; 
' S. Tommaso di Villanova distributing Alms to the 
Puor,' at the Agostiniani Scalzi ; and ' S. Brigida 
fainting before a Crucifix, supported by an Angel,' 
in S. Maria della Gr.izie. He died at Ferrara in 

SCARAMUCCIA, Giovanni Antonio, a painter 
of Perugia, born 1580, was a pupil of Roncalli, but 
imitated the manner of tlie Carracci, and painted a 
large number of pictures for churclies in Perugia, 
where they still exist. They are now very dark. 

SCARAMUCCIA, Luigi Pellegrini, called II 
Perugino, was born at Perugia in 1616. He was 
the son of Giovanni Antonio Scaramuocia, by whom j 
he was instructed in the elements of design ; but ] 
he afterwards frequented the school of Guido, and : 
is said to have also studied under Quercino. He 
painted several pictures for the public edifices of 
Perugia, Milan, and Bologna. He died at Milan in ; 
1680. Works : I 

Bologna. Fal. PubUico. 
Milau. Cli.of San Marco. 

Coronation of Charles V. 
St. Barbara. 

We have a few etchings by this artist, in which 
he seems to have imitated Guido. They are : 

Christ crowned with Thorns ; after Titian. 

St. Benedict praying ; after Lod. Carracci. 

Venus and Adonis ; after An. Carracci. i 

The Virgin; after the same. 

SCARAMUZZA, Francesco, Italian painter ; 
born July 15, 1803, at Sissa, near Parma, where ; 
he studied, being greatly influenced by the work : 
of Correggio. He subsequently went to Rome, 
where he found wider scope fur his talent as an 
illustrator, and his pen-drawings served to fami- 
liarize the public with his name, notably his I 
illustrations of Dante, thouirh he seemed to copy 
the manner of Cham and of Dor6 in many of these, j 
Tlie Parma Gallery possesses not a few examples 1 
of his work. He died in 1886. 

SCARPACCIA. See Carpaccio, Vittore. 

SCARSELLA, Ippolito, called Lo Scarsellino, 
painter, was born at Ferrara in the year 1551. He 
was the son of Sigismondo Scarsella, from whom 
he received his first instruclion, but he afterwards ' 
visited Venice, where he became the scholar of 
Giacomo B;i8sano, and studied the works of Paolo 
Veronese. From Venice he went to Bologna, and ! 
afterwards to Parma. On his return to Ferrara, i 
he was employed in painting pictures for the I 
churches, and there is scarcely a public building in ] 
the oit}' which does not possess some of his works. 
Scarsellino died at Ferrara in 1620. Pictures : 

Dresden. Gallery. Fliglit into Egypt. ] 

„ ., The Virgin and Child. 

Ferrara. 5. Maria Nuova, The Annunciation. 

„ „ ' The Visitation. 

„ „ The Assumption. 

„ „ Marriage at Caua. 

„ Costahili Gallery. Virgin and Child. 

„ Count Mazza. The Last Supper. 

„ Pinacoteca, The IMarriage at Cana. 

„ *S. Benedetto. The Assumption. 

„ S. Paolo. Frescoes. 

Benedictine > ^^^^tj^^ „f ^^e Kings. 
Afoaastcry. J ° 

Florence. UJizi. Judgment of P.iris. 

„ „ Virgin and Child. 

Madrid. Museum. Virgin and Child. 

SCARSELLA, Sigismondo, called Mondino, 
painter, was born at Ferrara in 1630, and was 

educated for three years in the school of Paolo 
Veronese, of whose style he was a constant, though 
not a very successful, follower. There are many 
works by him in the public edifices at Ferrara, in 
which city he died in 1614. His chief picture is 
the ' Martyrdom of St. Catharine ' in the Costabili. 

SCARSELLO, Girolamo, painter and engraver, 
a Bolognese, and pupil of Gessi, was practising 
about 1660. He worked for a time at Milan, and 
subsequently at Turin, about 1670. 

SCHAAL, Louis Jacques Nicolas, painter and 
engraver, was born in Paris, February 13, 1800. 
He was a pupil of Daguerre and of Lethiere, and 
entered the ficule des Beaux Arts in 1816. He ex- 
hibited frequently at the Salon between 1824 and 
1853, and was also the author of various treatises 
on industrial art and design, of a ' Treatise on Land- 
scape,' illustrated with twenty-four lithographs 
(1824), and of a ' Project for the Regeneration of 
the Western Empire by means of the Fine Arts,' 
with eight engravings (1859). 

SCHAARSCHMIDT, Friedrich, was born at 
Bonn in 1863, and studied at the Diisseldorf 
Academy and under Wilhelm Sohn. He painted 
landscapes, the scene of which was often laid in 
Italy, but is best known by his writings on artistic 
subjects. He was Conservator of the Diisseldorf 
Academy, and died in 1902. 

SCHACHMANN, Karl Adolph Gottlieb, 
(GoTTLOB, Gottfried,) Freiherr von, painter and 
etcher, was born at the Schloss Hermsdorf in Saxony, 
and travelled much in Norway and Sweden. His 
pictures are to be found in Saxony. He died on 
the estate of Konigshayn in 1789. 

SCHADE, Rudolph Christian, draughtsman 
an. I painter, born at Hamburg about 17G0, studied 
successively under Tischbein, Ehrenreich, and Juel 
of Copenhagen, and practised portrait-painting at 
Berlin, Dresden, and Hamburg. Many of his iior- 
traits have been engraved. He died at Hamburg 
on May 16, 1811. 

SCHADOW, Wilhelm Friedrich von, son of 
Johann Gottfried Schadow, the architect, was born 
at Berlin in 1789. He studied under his father and 
Weitsch, and later under Schirm. In 1810 he went 
with his brother Rudolph to Rome, and joined the 
' Nazarenes,'and in 1814 became a Roman Catholic. 
In 1819 he became a Professor in the Academy at 
Berlin, and acquired great reputation as a teacher. 
In 1826 he was appointed to succeed Peter von 
Cornelius as Director of the Diisseldorf Academy, 
whither his pupils, J. Hiibner, Hildebrandt, Sohn, 
and K. F. Lessing, accompanied him. He success- 
fully reorganized the Academy, and in 1829 founded 
the Art Union of Westphalia. From 1836 onwards 
lie was the object of muny attacks, being accused 
of professional intolerance, and of favouring religious 
art to the exclusion of other genres. In 1840 he 
revisited R(.me on account of his health, and in 
1859 he resigned his position. Gifted with more 
taste than originality, and with more technical 
power than poetic sentiment, he paid great attention 
to the finish of his pictures. His portraits are 
among his best works. In 1842 he was created 
honorarj- Doctor of Philosophy of the University of 
Bonn, and in 1843 lie was ennobled. He was a 
Member of the Berlin Academy, and of the Insti- 
tute of France. Wliile engaged on his last work 
he was attacked by amaurosis and became blind. 
In spite of a successful operation he painted no 
more. He died at Diisseldorf in 1862. His principal 
works are : 


Ansbach. Cathedral. A Chri^t. 

Berlin. Xat. Gallery. Christ on the Eoad to Emmaus. 
M Half-leugth portrait of a 

M .> Portrait group of Thorwald- 

sen, Wilhelm, and Rudolf 
., Theatre, A Eacchnual. 

., The Werder Church. The Four EvaugeUsts. 
Diilmen, West- J'arish ) „ ^ t, , 

phaiia. Church, j '^='**'' D°l°™^«- 

Frankfort. Museum. The Wise and Foolish Virgius. 

Hauover.Jfarket Church. Christ on the Mount of Olit'es. 
Munich. Pinakothek. The Holy Family. 
Rome. Casa Ijartoldi. Joseph's Bloody Coat. (Fresco.) 
M „ Joseph in Prison. (Do.) 

Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell, an allegory ; his last work. 

SCHAEKEN, Wilhelmus, painter, born at 
Weerd in 1754, was a pupil of Borrekens, and the 
master of van Bree. He spent two years in Italy 
after a previous sojourn of twelve years in Antwerp. 
His principal pictures are a 'Virgin,' and a 'Dead 
Christ Iviug in the Grave.' He died at Antwerp 
in 1830." 

SCHAERER, H. L., engraved several small 
landscapes, which he marked either with this 

cypher, jfe^. , or with his name, thus, H. L. 

Schaerer sculp. On a few plates he gives the 
initials of his Christian names as A. L. His chief 
prints a_re copies of Sachtleven and J. Saenredam. 
SCHAFFER, Adalbert, painter, born at Gross 
Karoly in Hungary in 1815. received his education 
in Vienna, and painted still-life, silver-plate, wine- 
glasses. &c. He died at Diisseldorf in 1871. 

SCHAFFER, Eogen Eduaed, engraver, born at 
Frankfort in 1802, entered the Stadel Institute, 
where he studied under Ulmer. He afterwards 
worked at Munich and Diisseldorf. Under Cor- 
nelius, he engraved his Dante's 'Paradise,' and 
the portrait of Niebuhr. In 1826 he returned to 
Munich, and in 18.39 was appointed teacher of en- 
graving at the Stadel Institute. In 1844 he went 
to Florence and engraved the ' Madonna della Sedia.' 
Between 1852 and 1856 he wa.s in Rome, but re- 
turned to Frankfort, where he died in 1871. Of his 
plates we may name : 

The Madonna della Sedia; after Raphael. 

The Madonna del' Gran Duca ; after the same. 

The Lower World ; after Coj^elius. 

The Judgment of Paris ; after the same. 

Rome J and Juliet ; after the saute. 

The Rape of Helen ; after tlie same. 

Two scenes from Shakespeare's ' Tempest ' ; after 

Eupbrosyne ; nfttr Steinle. 

Genevieve ; after .^teinhruck. 

The Erl Kom'g ; after Nelier. 

The Introduction of Christianity ; after Veit. 

Pot-try ; after Raphael {left unfinished). 

Madonua di Terranuova ; after the same (ditto). 

Sacred and Profane Love ; after Titian (ditto). 

SCHAFFNABURGENSIS, Matthahs, an en- 
graver on wood, who executed the cuts for a Bible, 
printed at Wittemberg in 1545. He marked his 
prints with the initials M. S. on a tablet. By 
some he has been supposed to be identical with 
Matthaus GrOnewall). 

SCHAFFNER, Martin, a painter of Ulra, who 
flourished in that ci;y, as appears by the records 
from 1508 to 1535. He painted historical subjects 
and portraits, and ranks among the good German 
masters of the period. Some of his best pictures 
are in the gallery at Schleissheira. His figures are 
noble, yet delicate, full of feeling and expression 

in the heads, but somewhat defective in colour. 
Several of his marks and dates are given by Brulliot. 
His monogram is an M with an S imposed on it. or 
the letters MSMZV, interpreted Martin Sckaffner 
Mahler zu Ulm, as on the ' Adoration of the Magi," 
formerly in the Wallerstein collection, but now 
in that of the King of Bavaria. His dates are 
said to range from 1490 to 1521 Schaffner's works 
were formerly attributed to Martin Schongauer, 
on account ofthe monogram MS. Chief works : 

Augsburg, ) 


London. Buckingham 

Munich. Gallery. 

Scenes from the Fassion. 

I Child Christ learning to walk. 

The Annunciation. 

The Presentation in the 

The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

The Death of the Virgin. 
(These pictures, which form 
Schaffner's masterpiece, were 
originally organ doors in the 
conveut of Wettenhausen, 
near Ulm.) 

Two Portraits. 

Nuremberg. Germanic 
„ Moritz-Capelie. 
Stuttgart. Mus. of An- 
Ulm. Great Church. 


> Altar-piece. 

Adoration of the Magi. 
) Four large pictures, dated 1510 

] to i5iy. 

Saints and the families of 
Christ's ancestry. 
Gallery. Several Pictures. 

SCHAFLER, (Schaffler, Scheffler,) Chris- 
TOPH Thomas, painter, was born at Augsburg about 
1700. He was of the Roman Catholic faith, and 
became for a time a lay-brother of the Order of 
Jesus, but returned to a secular life. He painted 
in oil and in fresco many pictures for churches, 
amongst which we may mention his ' Death of St. 
Benedict,' in the clmrcli formerly belonging to the 
Convent at Ettal ; and works in the monastery of 
S. Ulrich at Augsburg, in the Capuchin church at 
Eichstadt, in the old chapel at Ratisbon, and in the 
'' Congregations-Saal " at Ingolstadt. He made 
many designs for book illustrations. He died at 
Augsburg in 1756. 

SCHAGEN, GiLLls van, a Dutch painter, bom 
at Alkmaar in 1G16. He was first instructed in 
art by Solomon van Ravestein, but was afterwards 
a scholar of Pieter Verbeek. When he was twenty- 
one years of age he went to Dantzic, where he 
resided some time, and painted pictures of Dutch 
kitchens and conversations, in imitation of the style 
of Ostade. He also painted portraits with success, 
both at Daiitzic and Elbing ; among them was a 
portrait of Stanislaus, King of Poland. After an 
absence of three years, he returned to Holland, 
but his restless disposition led liiiri to visit France, 
where he was employed in copying the works of 
the best Italian and Flemish painters, for which he 
posse.ssed a particular talent. On his return to 
-•Vlkmaar he painted a picture of Admiral van 
Tromp's victory over the Spanish fleet. He has 
left one etching, a cottage scene, with an old man. 
I'here is a picture ascribed to him in the Bridgewater 
Gallery. Hedied at Alkmaar in 1668. 

SCHAUFELIN, Hans, the son of Hans Leon- 
hard Schiiufelin, left Nordlingen in 1542. and settled 
in Freiburg. To Hans are now attributed many of 
the weaker works formerly assigned to the father 
He died in 1582. 

SCHAUFELIN, Hans Leonhard, (Scheufpelin, 
ScHAnfFELam, Schetffelin,) bom at Nuremberg 



in 1490, was the pupil of Albrecht Diirer, of whose 
style he caught many of the beauties. He had a 
rich imagination, much true feeling, an intelligent 
appreciation of drapery, and much taste in exe- 
cution. In 1507 he designed two wood-engravings 
for Ulrich Pindter's ' Speculum passionis.' He 
also drew the illustrations to the 'Theuerdanok ' of 
the Emperor Maximilian, and made twenty designs 
for a ' Hochzeittanz.' In 1515 he was made burgher 
of the town of Nordlingen, and, on visiting 
Nuremberg, was recalled to Nordlingen by the 
magistrates. He died at Nuremberg in 1540. Of 
his works we may name : 

The Siege of Bethulia ; a fresco in the Torm-hall oj 

Nbrdli fiyen. 
A Last Supper ; in Ulm Cathedral. 
The Dead Christ ; in the Cathedral at Nuremberg, 
A Desceut from the Cross; in St. Georye's Church, 

Nuremberg , 
Coronatiou of the Virgin (in 16pauels, with 291 figures) ; 

ill the Church at Anhausen. 
Death of the Virgin ; in Munich Pinakoihek. 
The Virgin dying receives a Palm of Victory from an 

Angel ; in the same. 
The Coronation of the Virgin ; in the same. 
Christ on the Sea of Galilee saving St. Peter ; in the 

Christ crowned with Thorns ; in the same. 
Christ on tlie Cross ; in the same. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives ; in the same. 
The Visitation ; National Gallery., Dublin. 
The Last Supper; Berlin Museum. 
Noli me Tangere ; Cassel Gallery. 
Portrait in tlie possession of the Duke of North - 


Schaufelin did not etch himself. He frequently 
marked his works with a monogram composed of 
his initials and a shovel, a rebus on his name. 

SCHALCH, JoHANN Jacob, a landscape painter, 
was born at Schaffhausen in 1723, and was a 
scholar of Schnaezler, and of an artist of the name 
of Hamilton, at Augsburg. He visited Holland 
and England, and died in 1770. 

SCHALCKE. See Van der Schalcke. 

SCHALCKEN, Godfried, was born at Dordrecht 
in 1643. His fixther was rector of the college at 
Dordrecht, and desired to bring him up to literary 
pursuits, but becoming alive to the boy's dis 
position for painting, he placed him in the studio 
of Samuel van Hoogstraten, whence he migrated 
to that of Gerard Douw, under whom he acquired 
delicacy of finish and some skill in light and shade. 
He remained with Douw until he had established 
a certain reputation by painting small pictures of 
domestic scenes, chiefly candle-lights. He after- 
wards attempted to expand his style by the study 
of Rembrandt, but soon returned to his early manner. 

To give the most natural effect to his candle- 
light pieces, he is said to have adopted the follow- 
ing system : he placed the object he intended to 
paint in a d.ark room, with a candle, and looking 
through a small hole, painted by day what he saw 
by candle-light. His small portraits were very 
popular, and he had painted the principal families 
at Dordrecht, when he was encouraged, by the 
extraordinary success of Kneller, to visit England. 
Here, however, his success was small. There was 
no room for him. His manners, too, were against 
him, and many stories of his boorishness are told 
by the old writers. On his return to Holland he 
settled at the Hague, where he continued to practise 
his art with success, until his death in 1706. The 
chief merit of Schalcken consists in the neatness 
of his finishing, and the perfect intelligence of his 


chiaro-scuro. His touch is mellow, but too fused, 
and his colour warm and golden. Works: 

Amsterdam. R. Museum. 










London. Nat. Gallery. 

„ Dulwich Gal. 

„ Buckingham Pal. 





Portrait of Wilham III. of 

Every one to his Fancy. 
The Smoker. (Ami fnur more.) 
The Two Ages. 1673. 
Child Angling. 
Cliildren melting wax. 
Artist examining a bust of 

Venus by caudle-light. 
Old Woman reading ; life-size. 
Three Pictures of Girls with 

AVoman in Bed, putting out 

the candle. 
A Lady at her Toilet bv candle- 
Portrait of WiUiani III. l,And 

three others.) 
Lesbia weighing Jewels against 

her Sparrosv. 
Old AVoman scouring a pan. 
The Duet. 
Soldier giving Money to a 

AVoman (candle-light). 
Ceres at the Peasant's Cottage. 
Interior with Figures. {A 

Mau reading by candle-light. 
The Five AA'ise and Five Foolish 

Virgins. 1700. 
A Holy Family. 
The Penitent Magdalen. 
One Girl trying io blow out the 

candle of another. 
A Holy Family. 
Ceres in search of Proserpine. 

[And tiro more.) 
The Barber. 
Old Man reading. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. 
Vienna. Gallery. 

His sister and pupil, Maria, practised at Dor- 

SCHALCKEN, Jakob nephew and pupil of God- 
fried Schalcken, painted in the same style, so that 
his works have been mistaken for those of his 

SCHALK, Heinrioh, a miniature painter of some 
repute, born at Frankfort in 1792, died at Carlsruhe 
in 1834. 

SCHALL, Joseph, draughtsman and miniaturist, 
was practising at Breslau from 1810 to 1820. He 
worked principally in Indian ink, chalk, and pen 
and ink. 

SCHALLER. Anton, an elder brother of Johann 
Nepomuk Schaller, the sculptor, was bom at Vienna 
in 1772. He was for some time a painter on por- 
celain, but afterwards took to oil, and became pro- 
fessor of anatomy in the Academy at Vienna. 
He painted good miniature portraits. He died at 
Vienna in 1844. 

SCHALLER, Eduard, painter, son of Anton 
Schaller, was born at Vienna in 1802, and attended 
the Academy in that city. He travelled much, 
but was domiciled at Vienna, where he died in 

SCHALLER, Ernst Johannes, German painter; 
born at Wasungen (Meiningen) in 1841 ; at the 
age of sixteen went to Weimar and became a pupil 
of Preller. As a painter of animals he showed 
special talent, which led hiiu to make careful and 
exhaustive studies in the Zoological Gardens of 
Dresden and Berlin. He subsequently became 
professor at the Technical High School and the 
Art School at Berlin. His works include ' Tiger 
im Kampf,' ' Lowin mit ihren Jungen,' ' Bacchus- 


zu:;,' and 'Psyche.' He also had a share in the 
•decoration of several of the public buildings at 
Berlin and Bresluu, notably illustrating the legend 
■of Prometheus in the cupola of the Silesian Museum 
at Breslau. He died at Coburg, June 25, 1887. 

SCHALLHAS, Carl Philipp, landscape painter 
and engraver, bom at Presburg in 1767, was a 
.pupil at the Vienna Academy, of which, in 1792, he 
was appointed professor of landscape painting. He 
died at Vienna in 1797. 

SCHALTZ, Damiel, a German painter and en- 
graver, born at Dantzic, died in 1686. He excelled 
in portraits, and in the painting of animals. 

born at Brussels in 1824 ; became a pupil of E. de 
Block. He was for many years established at 
Munich, where he painted landscapes and produced 
several etchings. Of his works we may make 
mention of the following : ' Der alte Rhein bei 
■Gouda,'now in the Brussels Museum ; ' Abend- 
landschaft,' in the Hamburg Kunst-Halle ; and 
* Emte,' in the Stettin Museum. He obtained the 
Dunkerque gold medal in 186-1, the Brusse's gold 
medal in 1866, the Berlin gold medal in 1872, and 
that of Paris in 1877. He died at Molenbeek, 
March 12, 1899. 

SCHAPFF, JoBQ, according to Heineken, exe- 
cuted the cuts for a block-book on Chiromanc}' by 
Hartlieb, with the date 1448 upon it. In his ' Idea 
for a complete Collection of Prints,' Heineken has 
given a copy of one of these cuts, and nothing could 
be more rude. The name of the engraver was 
inscribed on one of the leaves, at the bottom, 3iotg 
Scfjapff in augsbourg. Zani says he was Btill at 
work in 147.S. 

SHAPPER, (or Shaper,) Johann, a German 
painter, native of Harburg, who settled in 1640 at 
Nuremberg, where he devoted himself principally 
to painting upon glass, ornamenting goblets, jugs, 
and bowls with small landscapes, battle-scenes, or 
coats-of-arms, which he executed with much 
delicacy and finish. Examples are to be seen in 
the collections of Berlin and Dresden. He died at 
Nuremberg in 1670. 

SCHARER, JoHAN.v Jakob, born at SchafTliausen 
in 1676, was a portrait painter, who practised also 
as an architect and modeller. He died in 1746. 

SCHARF, George, senior, was born in 1788 at 
Mainburg, near Munich, and was the first success- 
ful practitioner of lithography in England. He 
studied in Paris and Antwerp. In 1815 he was 
attached to the British army throughout the 
"Waterloo campaign, and in 1816 came to London. 
There he was soon largely engaged in making 
drawings for scientific works, and for the Trans- 
actions of tlie Geological Society. His travels in 
Belgium and France also afforded subjects for 
•several drawings, and he painted pictures of a 
'Sitting of Parliament ' and 'The Lord Mayor's 
Banquet.' Scharf became a member of the Insti- 
tute of Painters in Water-Colours in 1834, but re- 
signed two years later. There is a drawing of the 
Sficiety's gallery in Bond Street, by him. at South 
Kensington. He was the father of Sir George 
•Scharf, at one time Director of the National 
Portrait Gallery. Scharf died in London in 1860. 

SCHARF, Sir George, son of the above, was 
torn on December 16, 1820. He was educated at 
University College School, and after studying 
under his father and gaining medals at the Society 
■of Arts, was admitted as a student of the Royal 
Academy in 1838. His first published work was a 

VOL. V. D 

seriee of etchings entitled ' Recollections of Scenic 
Effects,' illustrating the Shakesperian and classical 
revivals by Macready at Covent Garden in 1838-9. 
In 1840 he accompanied Sir C. Fellows through 
Lvcia and Asia Minor, and was draughtsman to 
the Government expedition of 1843. His drawings 
of Lyciaii views are in the British Museum. After 
his return lie exhibited in 1845 and 1846 six 
pictures at tlie Royal Academy, and two at the 
British Institution, but his chief work was in 
illustrating books. Among these may be men- 
tioned: Fellows' 'Lycia,' 1847; Murray's 'Illus- 
trated Prayer-Book'; Macaulay's 'Lays of Ancient 
Rome,' 1847; Mihnan's 'Horace,' 1849; Kugler's 
' Handbook of Italian and German Painting,' 1851; 
Bray's 'Life of Stotliard,' 1851; Layard's works 
on Nineveh ; Dr. Smith's Classical Dictionaries ; 
Keats's Poems, 1854; and Pollock's 'Dante,' 1854. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries in 1852, and at the Society's meetings 
frequently read papers, seventeen of which, chiefly 
on portraits, were printed in ' Archsologia." He 
was appointed Art Secretary to the Manchester 
Exhibition in 1857, and on the foundation of the 
National Portrait Gallery in the same year was 
appointed its first Secretary, becoming Director in 
1882. His profound study of portraiture, and his 
shrewdness and diligence in archieological research, 
combined with his technical knowledge, enabled 
him to do most valuable service in identifying 
portraits and in correcting false titles. Among 
his published writings, in addition to the essays 
mentioned, were his 'Characteristics of Greek Art,' 
prefixed to Wordsworth's ' Greece'; s 'Catalogue 
of Pictures at Blenheim Palace,' 1860; and a 
'Catalogue Raisonne of the Pictures belonging to the 
Society of Antiquaries of London,' 1865. On being 
compelled by illness to resign his appointment at 
the National Portrait Gallery in 1895, Scharf was 
made a K.C.B., and was appointed a trustee of the 
Gallery, but he enjoyed liis honours for only a short 
period, and died on April 19, 1895. M. H. 

SCHARF, Johann, born at Vienna, July i3th, 
1722, was a botanical draughtsman and painter of 
great talent, who began life as a scullery boy in a 
convent. His taste for design manifesting itself, he 
managed to obtain work as a painter of wall-papers. 
In this position he attracted the attention of the 
botanist Jacquin, who took him info his service aa 
a flower-painter. His unceasing application so in- 
jured his health that he fell into a consumption, of 
which he died at Vienna, October 5th, 1794. 

SCHARNAGEL. FiiA.vz Sebastian, painter, born 
at Bamberg in 1791, was a pupil of Sensburg, and 
afterward of Geibel and Dorn. In 1811 he painted 
at the Academy of Munich, but returned to Bam- 
berg in 1815. and died there in 1831. His chief 
work is the ' Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.' 

SCHATEN, Hduekt, an engraver who resided ' 
at Copenhagen, and engraved several portraits 
during the latter half of the 17th century, between 
1675 and 1694. 

SCHATTENHOFEB, Amalir von, fWe Baadeb, 
burn at Erding, in Bavaria, in 176.3, was a pupil of 
Durr:er, at Munich, where she settled as a painter 
in cravons. She also etched. She died at Munich 
in 1840. 

SCHAUBUOEK, Pieter, (Schokbroek,) painter, 
born at Antwerp in 1542, was a pipil and imitator 
of Jan Brueghel. He died at Antwerp in 1605. 

Brxmswick. GatUry. John the Baptist preaching. 
Caoael. Gall try. Burning of Troy. 



Copenhagen. Gallen/. View in & Village. 
Vienna. Gallery. .£neas and Auchises. 

SCHAUFUS, a German painter and etclier, who 
flourished at Dresden in tlie 18th century. He was 
a pupil of J. E. Suhonaii, and painted miniatures, 
He also engraved some plates after Vaudyck, 
Mengs, and Solimena. 

SCHAUR, Philip. This name is appended to an 
etching of a bearded old man in spectacles, mending 
a pen, witli an hour-glass and books before him. 

SCHAW, William, There are some important 
drawings of Holyrood Palace prei^erved in Scotland 
amongst the Crowu property believed to be the 
work of William Schaw, who was Master of Works 
in the household of James \'I. He was born in 
1550, and when about forty years of age was 
employed in connection with some alterations to 
Holyrood, and some repairs at Dunfermline. He 
accompanied King James to Denmark, and some 
sketches of Danish scenery, his work, are preserved 
at Fredensborg Palace. lie attracted the attention 
of Queen Anne of Denmark when in her own 
country, and became her chamberlain in Scotland, 
and the Queen erected a tomb at Dunfermline 
Abbey to his memory. He died in April 1602, and 
was a .man who appears to have been greatly 
esteemed by all who knew him. 

SCHEBOUYEFF, Wassilvi KonsjinsRn. painter, 
born at Cronstadt, in 1777, was a pupil of the 
St. Petersburg Academy. In 1803 he went to 
Rome, where he painted a ' Decapitation of John 
the Baptist.' In 1807 he returned to St. Peters- 
burg, and became Professor of Historical Painting, 
and afterwards Director, of the St. Petersburg 
Academy. His ' St. Basil the Great,' ' St. Gregory,' 
and ' St. John Chrysostom,' are in the cathedral 
at Kasan ; his 'St. John in the Wilderness,' 'As- 
sumption of the Virgin,' and ' The Patriot Igolkine,' 
in the Hermitage. He died in 1865. 

SCHEDLER, Johann Georg, (Schaedler,) painter 
and etcher, was born at Constance in 1777. He 
devoted himself first to miniature painting, but 
afterwards took to landscapes in gouache. He 
settled at Innsbruck, where he died in 1845. 
SCHEELE NEEL. See Molesaer, Cornelis. 
SCHEERES, Henduik Jan, an obscure Dutch 
painter, the pupil of Van Hove, was born at the 
Hague in 1829, and died in 1864. 

SCHEFFER, Arnold, the son of Henri Scheffer, 
was born in Paris, and studied under his father 
and Picot. From 1859 to 1870 he exhibited occa- 
sionally at the Salon, chiefly scenes from French 
history. In the Museum at Besanfon there is a 
' Funeral Procession in honour of tlie Duke of 
Guise,' by him. He died during a visit to Venice, 
in 1873, while still young. 

SCHEFFER, Ary, painter, born at Dordrecht on 
the 12th February, 1795, was the son of Johann 
Baptist Schetfor, an artist of German extraction, 
settled in Holland, and practising as court-painter 
at Amsterdam ; and of his wife, Cornelia Lamme, 
of Dordreclit, also an artist. Ary and his brother 
Hendrik received their first instruction from their 
father, and Ary is said to have shown a precocious 
talent, and to have exhibiteii a picture when only 
twelve years old. In 1810 lie sent a portrait to 
the Amsterdam Exhibition. In the following year 
1ms father died, and Cornelia Scheffer, a woman of 
much energy and strength of character, resolved 
to take her three sons to Paris to complete their 

education. Settling in the French capital, she- 
placed both Ary and Hendrik with Pierre Gu^rin as 
pupils ; and in 1816 Ary gained the chief prize for 
painting at Antwerp, the subject of his picture 
being 'Abraham and the Three Angels.' Ary soon 
began to be favourably known in Paris as an indus- 
trious painter of small genre pictures, of whicli 
his ' Soldier's Widow,' 'Sailor's Family,' 'Sister of 
Mercy,' ' Orphans in the Churchyard,' are examples. 
These became widely popular by means of litho- 
graphs. A few more ambitious works dating from 
this early period are : ' Death of St. Louis ' (1817), 
'Socrates and Alcibiades' (1818), 'The Surrender 
of the Burghers of Calais' (1819). The year 1822 
was a marked one in his career, his reputatior> 
being greatly enhanced by a picture then exhibited, 
' The Shades of Francesca da Rimini and her Lover 
appearing to Dante and Virgil ; ' and in this same 
year he painted the ' St. Louis visiting his plague- 
stricken Soldiers,' for the church of St. Francois- 
d'Assife, in Paris. 

His early works, though painted in the French, 
manner, show a strong leaning towards the pathetic 
and emotional vein which was the characteristic 
note of his mature art. In his second period Ary 
Scheffer sought inspiration from the greater poets 
and from the Scriptures. Typical examples in both 
styles are the ' Beatrice ' and ' Francesca da Rimini,' 
exhibited at the Salon of 1835; and the 'Christ 
bearing His Cross,' ' Christ the Consoler,' and ' Rutli 
and Naomi.' Like David, Scheffer combined with 
his artistic pursuits an enthusiastic interest in 
politics, and was a warm partisan of the Orleans 
family. Introduced to them by Gerard in 1826, he 
became drawing-master to the children of Louis 
Philippe, and his professional relations with them 
soon developed into an affectionate intimacy, the- 
Princess Marie in particular being greatly attached 
to him. In 1830, when the events of the Revolution 
placed Louis Philippe on the throne, Scheffer rode 
to Neuilly in company with Thiers to tell the Prince 
he was king. Faithful to him in misfortune, 
Schefler was also with him when the outbreak of 
1848 forced him from the Tuileries. 

A journey through the Netherlands in 1829 to- 
study Rembrandt and the Flemish masters had a 
certain influence upon Schefler's later manner. 
To this belong the works suggested by Goethe's 
' Faust,' and many others inspired by the poems of 
Byron, Biirger, Schiller, Dante, &c. For the his- 
torical gallery at Versailles he painted several 
pictures, which will be found mentioned below. 
At the death, in 1839, of his mother, to whom he 
was greatly attached, he made his first and only 
essay in sculpture. Desiring that no other than 
himself should undertake the monument to her 
memory, he designed and carried out in marble a- 
full-length figure for her tomb, but the result is- 
interesting only as evidence of filial affection. 

Scheffer, who was an officer of the Legion of 
Honour, commanded a battalion of the National 
Guard during the disturbances of June, 1848, and 
his services were recognized by an offer of the 
cross of a commander, which, however, he declined.. 
His political activity brought him into contact 
with all opinions and classes, and he is said to 
have been a man of much culture and intelligence, 
and of great kindliness and benevolence of dis- 
position. His open-handed generosity prevented 
him from amassing a fortune, and in spite of the- 
large sums which he received for some of his pic- 
tures, at his death he left no savinp-s. In his- 


Han/stdngl photo] 

\National Gallery 



political career he was singularly sincere and 
upright in conviction and aims. As an artist he 
cannot be said to take a high rank, though few 
modern painters have enjoyed a greater degree of 
present popularity. His drawing is correct, and 
his taste refined and elevated, but his merit lies 
rather in poetry of sentiment and in a certain 
devotional fervour, than in individuality of treat- 
ment or artistic handling, while as a colourist 
his shortcomings are very marked. He died at 
Argenteuil, near Paris, on the 15th June, 1858. 
The following are among the better examples of his 
work : F. S. 

Ijlle. Museum. ' The Dead ride fast." 

London. Nat. Gallery. SS. Augustine and Monica. 
„ „ Portrait of Mrs. Robert Holland. 

„ IVat. Port. Gall. Portrait of Charles Dickens. 
Marseilles. Museum. Mary Magdalen. 

Montpellier. „ A Philosopher. 

Nantes. „ The Charitable Child. 

Paris. Louvre. Eberhard of 'WuTtemberg. 

„ „ The Death of Gericault. 

The Vow of the Suliot 'Women. 
Rotterdam. Gallery. Eberhard of 'Wurtemberg cut- 

ting the cloth. 
„ Eberhard mourning his son 

„ „ Three sketches. 

Versailles. Gallery. Gaston de Foix found dead 

after Ravenna. 1824. 
„ ., The Battle of Tolbiac. 

„ „ Charlemagne dictating his 

Ordinances. 1S29. 

„ „ Charlemagne receiving the 

submission of AVittekiud. 


„ „ Philip Augustus entering Paris. 

„ „ St. Louis entrusts the Regency 

to the Queen. 
„ „ The Entry of Charles VII. into 

„ „ Entry of Louis XII. into 

„ „ Louis Philippe receiving the 

1st Regiment of Hussars. 
Faust's Vision of Margaret. 
Margaret in the Church. 

Portraits of Lamartine ; Ijamennais ; Madame Gnizot, 
senr. ; his Mother; Charles Gounod; Frai^kVu ; 
Madame Taglioni ; Himself. 

SCHEFFER, Hesdbik, painter brother of Ary 
Scheffer, boru at tlie Hague in 1798, was also a 
pupil of Gu^rin. He was not without merit, though 
far behind his brotlier. His drawing was incorrect, 
and his colour cold. His principal work was a 
'Charlotte Corday,' and we may also mention: 

An Inundation in Rome. I Joan of Arc. 

Hermann and Dorothea. | Madame Roland. 

Preaching after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 
The Battle of Monte Cassel. [J'ersailles.) 

He died in Pans in 1861. 

SCHEFFER, Joh.4NK Baptist, painter and 
etcher, born at Cassel in 1773, a pupil of Tisch- 
bein, went early to Holland, where at Dort he 
married Cornelia Lamme and became the father of 
Ary Scheffer. He produced several large historical 
works, and some portraits ; among the latter that 
of King Louis of Holland. He died at Amsterdam 
in 1809. 

Evangelist, painter, born at Vienna in 1795, became 
a pupil of the Academy. His talents, however, 
attracted the attention of the Graf Franz von Salm- 
Reifferscheidt, prince-bishop of Gurk, who sup- 
plied him with the means to go to Italy. In 1817 
he painted the portrait of Pope Pius VII., who 
created him a Knight of the Order of Christ. On 
D 2 

his return to Vienna he painted a 'St. Cecilia' for 
Prince Albert of Sachsen-Teschen, and then re- 
turned to Rome. There he produced his master- 
piece, 'The Dying Cecilia, supported by two 
Angels,' now in the Vienna Gallery. He died at 
Vienna in 1822. 

SCHEFFER, Jean Gabriel, painter, born at 
Geneva in 1797, was a pupil of Regnault, and prac- 
tised for many years in Paris, exhibiting occasion- 
ally at the Salon. Among his works there shown 
were : ' The Good Samaritan,' ' Woman of Albano,' 
' Conjugating the Verb to Love' (in ten tableaux). 
He also published a number of lithographs, forming 
various series, under the following names : ' Les 
Grisettes,' ' Ce qu'on dit et ce qu'on pense,' 'Le 
Diable Boiteux a Paris.' He last appeared at tho 
Salon in 1846. 

SCHEFFER, Paul, a German painter, who is 
mentioned by De' Domenici as having painted 
pictures for the church of San Severino at Naples, 
in 1560. 

SCHEFFERS, N., a Dutch historical painter, 
born at Utrecht. He came to England when still 
young to practise his art, and had at first to submit 
to much disappointment and hardship. Later he 
gained the notice of the painter Verrio, who em- 
ployed him as his assistant. 

SCHEFFLER. See Schafler. 

SCHEGA, Franz Andreas, die-cutter and en- 
graver, is better known by his medals and portraits 
in relief than by his pictures. He was bom at 
Neustadt in Carniola in 1710. The son of a gun- 
maker, he for a time followed his father's trade, in 
which he gave evidence of artistic talent by tlie 
skill with which he engraved his guns. Late in 
life he painted portraits in pastel, some of which 
he himself engraved. He became blind in 1780, 
and died at Munich on Dec. 6, 1787. 

SCHEGGIA. See GniDi, Tommaso. 

SCHEIE, Christian Friedrich, painter, bom at 
Worms in 1737, was a pupil of Seekatz, whose style 
he copied. After travelling through France, he 
settled at Hamburg. He painted small pictures 
in oils and water-colours, principally fire effects. 
He died in the workhouse at Hamburg in 1810. 

SCHEINDEL. See Scheyndel. 

SCHEINS, Karl Lddwig, painter, was bom at 
Aix-Ja-Chapelle in 1808. He studied at Diisseldorf 
under Schimier, and painted mostly woodland and 
mountain scenes. He died at Diisseldorf in 1879. 

SCHEITZ, Andreas, (Schedtz,) son of Matthias 
Scheit!!, painter and etcher, was born at Hamburg 
in 1665. He followed the style of his father. He 
was painter to the Court of Hanover, where he died. 

SCHEITZ, Matthias, was born at Hamburg 
about the year 1645, and was a follower of Philips 
Wouwcrman, whose style he afterwards abandoned 
for that of David Teniers. He designed a series of 
Scriptural illustrations, which were engraved by J. 
de Visscher and others, and published at Luneburg 
in 1672. He died about 1700. He etched fourteen 
plates from his own designs, in a bold, free style, 
among which the following may be named : 

The Four Seasons, symbolized by the Sports of Children ; 

in fourplates ; M. Scheit:, fee. 1671. 
Two Landscapes, with figures dancing. 
An old Man playing on the Violin, and a 'Woman singing 

before the dcor of a Cottage. 
The Spectacle Merchant. 

There are pictures by him at Pommersfeld, 
Schwerin, Brunswick, and Cassel. 

SCHEL, Sebastian, a German painter, of the 



Bchool of Diirer. Amongst liis works was the 
decoration of the 'Paradise Hall,' in the royal 
palace at Innspruck. An altar-piece by him in the 
same city' bears the following inscription : " Se- 
bastian Schel, painter of Innspruck, made this 
picture by the help of God." He died in 1554. 
SCHELBEH. See Schelver. 
SCHELDE. See Van der Schelde. 
SCHELFHOUT, Andreas, landscape painter, 
born at the Hague in 1787, received his first in- 
struction from the scene painter Breckenheymer, 
and in 1815, with his 'Winter Landscape ' now in 
the Amsterdam Museum, first made himself a name. 
He painted the natural scenery of Holland, and his 
works are numerous. He was a Member of the 
Academies of Amsterdam, Brussels, Ghent, and the 
Hague. He died at the Hague in 1870. The 
Amsterdam Museum possesses a large collection of 
his works. 

SCHELLENBERG, Johann Rudolph, a Swiss 
designer and engraver, born at Basle in 1740. 
He was the son of J. U. Schellenberg. Among 
other plates, he engraved several for Lavater, and 
from the designs of Cliodowiecki ; also some of the 
portraits and ornamental prints for the ' Lives of the 
Swiss Painters,' by J. C. Fuessli. He also engraved 
a large number of plates for works on entomology. 
He died at Toss near Winterthur in 1806. 

SCHELLENBERG, Johann Ulrich, bom at 
Winterthur in 1709, was a pupil first of a house- 
painter and then of Huber in Berne. He superin- 
tended a Drawing-school in Winterthur and painted 
portraits and landscapes. He was the master of 
Anton Graff. He died at Winterthur in 1770. 

SCHELLENBERGER, Johann Jacob, a German 
engraver, who flourished about the year 1660. He 
engraved some of the plates for Prioralo's ' History 
of the Emperor Leopold.' He was living in 1674. 
SCHELLINCKS, Daniel, the brotljer of Willem 
Schellincks, was born at Amsterdam in 1638 (?), and 
painted landscapes and seaports with some success. 
He died in 1701. Several good chalk drawings by 
liim are to be seen in the Albertina Collection, 

SCHELLINCKS, Willem, (Schellings, Schel- 
LINKS,) was bom at Amsterdam in 1632, and, from 
tlie style of his pictures, is supposed to have been 
a scholar of Jan Lingelbach. He travelled through 
France, Switzerland, Italy, and it is said England. 
He painted landscapes and sea-ports, with figures. 
The sunny effect in some reminds us of Karel 
du Jardin ; his animals are well drawn, and his 
groups well composed. On the embarkation 
of Charles II. for England, at the Restoration, 
Schellincks painted a large picture of the scene for 
the family of Witsen. It contained a vast number 
of well-grouped figures. He painted the burning 
of the English Fleet in the Medway, and was also 
much employed in inserting figures in the pictures 
of Wynants and Heusch. "The works of Schellincks 
are to be found at St. Petersburg, Copenhagen, 
Frankfort, and Augsburg. He made drawings of 
Stonelienge, as it then existed, and of several other 
objects that would attract a stranger in England ; 
there is, therefore, little doubt as to his having been 
here. He died in 1678. 

SCHELTEMA, Taco, bom at Harlingen in 1760, 
distinguished himself as a portrait painter. He 
formed himself on Van Dyck. After visiting Diis- 
seldorf he went to Saxony, where he painted many 
portraits, but afterwards retumed to his own country, 
and resided alternately at Amsterdam and Rotter- 

dam. He pamted the portraits of the founders and 

directors of the Batavian Society, and numerous 
family pictures. He died in 1837. 

SCHELVER, AuGtJsr Franz, genre and battle 
painter, born at Osnaburg in 1805, was first a 
pupil of Neelmeyer, and then, with assistance from 
his native town, went to Munich for improvement. 
In 1833 he produced his picture of the Battle of 
Hanau, but hunting scenes, horse-market scenes, 
and battles constitute the principal partof his works. 
He died at Munich in 1844. In the Munich Pina- 
kothek is a picture by him of a Tyrolese wagon 
coming up a rocky pass. 

SCHENAU, (SchOnad,) Johann Eleazak. See 

SCHENCK, August Friedrich Albrkcht, 
Danish painter ; born at Gliickstadt (Holstein), 
April 2.3, 1828; became a pupil of L. Cogniet ; 
and, after working in England and Portugal, he 
went through a further course of study at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts. He settled at Ecoiien, 
near Paris, and soon made his mark at the Salon 
by several vigorous and soundly-painted composi- 
tions. Besides animals, he painted effective land- 
scapes, notably snow-scenes with horses, sheep 
and dogs. Of his works we may mention : ' Paysans 
polonais attaqu&s par des loups,' 'Troupeau de 
chfevresen detresse,' ' Moutons Montagnards,' ' Les 
Survivants du Troupeau,' &c. He obtained a 
Salon medal in 1865, and, in 1885, the Legion of 
Honour. He died at Ecouen, January 1, liiOl. 

SCHENCK, Pieter, was born at Elberfeld in 
1645, but studied drawing at Amsterdam. As an 
engraver he commenced with some topographical 
works, in which he was assisted by Gerard Valcke, 
who afterwards taught him mezzotint, in which 
proce.'is he engraved a large number of portraits. 
In 1683-4 they became partners, and it is difficult 
thenceforward to distinguish their numerous pub- 
lications from their actual performances. Augustus 
II., Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, named 
Schenck engraver to his court. Schenck died at 
Amsterdam about 1715. A long list of his prints 
is given by Nagler. There is » good collection in 
the British Museum. 

SCHENDEL, Bernard, bom at Haarlem in 
1634, was a scholar of Hendrik Mommers. He 
painted conversations and merry-makings, and v.-as 
a good draughtsman and colourist. The probable 
date of his death was about 1693. 

SCHENDEL, Petrd.s van, painter, born at Ter- 
heyden, near Breda, in North Brabant, in 1806, 
worked at the Antwerp Academy from 1822 to 
1828, under Van Bree. Wiertz, Leys, and Geerts 
were his fellow-pupils. He then returned to Hol- 
land, living successively in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, 
where he painted portraits, and the Hague. Thence 
he went to Brussels in 1845. He produced several 
Market Scenes, with effects of light, as ' Evening 
Market at Antwerp,' and 'The Fishraarket,' both in 
the National Gallery at Berlin; ' Market by Moon- 
light,' in the Pinakothek ,at Munich. He also painted 
a few subjects from sacred and profane history and 
portraits. He died at Brussels in 1870. 

SCHENK, C. WiLHELM, engraver, born at Leipsic 
about 1785, worked at the Academy, and engraved 
portraits and historical subjects for books. He 
went afterwards to Brunswick. He has left a small 
plate from Leonardo da Vinci's ' Last Supper.' 

SCHENK, S. P. See Tillemans. 

SCHENKER, S. Nikolaus, engraver, bom at 
Geneva in 1760, went in 1779 to Paris, and began 


his independent work with some plates after Scliall. 
His principal work was the ' Madonna di Foligno,' 
after Raphael. Other plates are a portrait of 
Henry IV. of France, at the age of fifteen, and one 
of Wieland, after Kiigelgen. He died in 1822. 

SCHERENBEKG, Hewians, German painter; 
bom January 20, 1826, at Swinemiinde ; became a 
pupil at the Berlin Academy in 1842, and also 
studied at Diisseldorf under Theodor Hildebrandt. 
After residence at Antwerp he returned to his 
home, and some years later entered Couture's studio 
in Paris. His first picture exhibited at Berlin was 
'Die Uiigleichen Scliwestern,' and he also helped 
Biirger to complete the decoration of the Berlin 
Rathshaus. As an illustrator Scherenberg stood 
with the first, and for years was a constant con- 
tributor to the ' lUustrirte Zeitung,' ' Kladdera- 
datsch,' and ' Fliegende Blatter.' He died at Gross 
Lichtcifelde, near Berlin, August 21, 1897. 

SCHERM, LoRENZ, engraver, born in the Rhine 
provinces about 1690, went to Amsterdam, and 
worked there from 1720 to 1735. His works are 
mainly architectural, but he also engraved a few 
landscapes with figures. 

SCHERMIER, Cornelis, a Flemish decorative 
painter, who in the 16th century worked for the 
church of S. Gudule at Brussels. 

SCHERTL, Joseph, landscape painter, was bom 
at Augsburg in 1810. He began his studies with a 
lithographer in his own city, and then, in 1832, 
went to Munich, and studied landscape under Fohr 
and Morgenstem. He is principally known by his 
pictures of the neiglibourhood of Munich. He died 
at Munich in 1869. 

SCHETKY, John Alexander, a brother of Jolin 
Christian Schetky, was born at Edinburgh in 1785. 
He was educated for the medical profession, and 
was appointed Assistant-Surgeon to tbe 3rd Dra- 
goon Guards, and with his regiment joined the 
army in the Peninsula. He was attached to the 
7th Division under Lord Dalhousie, and served till 
the end of the war. During this time all his spare 
moments were taken up with drawing from nature, 
and he sent home a number of sketches illustrative 
of the scenery in the Pyrenees, which showed a 
decided originality and much imagination. His 
artistic power was afterwards devoted principally to 
the delineation of external and internal pathology, 
and after his appointment to the General Hospital at 
Fort Pitt, Cliatliam, he contributed many valuable 
drawings to the Museum of Morbid Anatomy estab- 
lished by Sir James M'Grigor. He was promoted 
to the post of Deputy Inspector of Hospitals on 
the coast of Africa, and died off Cape Coast Castle 
in 1824. 

SCHETKY, John Christian, bom at Edinburgh 
in 1778, was a pupil of Nasmyth, and devoted him- 
self to marine painting in the style of Vandevelde. 
He held the appointment of Professor of Civil 
Drawing at the Roynl Military College at Great 
Marlow, the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth, 
and the East India College at Addiscombe, success- 
ively, during a period of forty-seven years. He 
was appointed painter in water-colours to William, 
Duke of Clarence, and was marine painter to George 
IV., William IV., and Queen Victoria respectively. 
His painting of marine subjects is respectable, and 
his accuracy in minute details of naval architecture 
unsurpassed. His principal works are : ' The Battle 
off Cape La Hogue;' 'The Endymion Frigate, 
Admiral Sir Charles Paget, relieving a French Man- 
of-War ashore on a rock-boimd coast ; ' ' The Battle 

of Trafalgar;' and 'The Sinking of the Royal 
George.' The last-named is row in the National 
Gallery. Schetky died in London in 1874. 

SCHEUBEL, JoHANN Joseph (I), painter, born 
at Ratisbon about 1675, was painter to the Prince 
Bishop, at whose expense he was sent to Venice. 
On his return he painted altar-pictures for the 
church of St. Stephen at Bamberg, (a ' Stoning of 
Stephen,' a ' Descent from the Cross,' &c.) an altar- 
piece for the Jakobskirche, and a ceiling for the 
Gangolfskirclie. He died at Ratisbon in 1778. 

SCHEUBEL, JoHANN Joseph (II), painter, son 
of Johann Scheubel, born at Bamberg about 1720, 
was pupil of Georg Desmar^es, and travelled at the 
Bishop's expense througli France and Italy. On 
his return he was appointed court painter. The 
Bishop sent him to Paris in 1776, where he painted 
four allegorical scenes in the Hotel de Ville. In 
1778 he returned to Bamberg, and died there in 1783. 
SCHEUCHZEK, Wilhelm, painter, born at 
Zurich in 1803, was a pupil of Heinrich Maurer. 
He travelled in Switzerland, and then from 1826 to 
1829 worked in the Black Forest on pictures for 
the Prince of Fiirstenberg. His landscapes were 
much valued for their truthfulness to nature and 
the freshness of their colouring. He died at 
Munich in 1866. 
SCHEUFFELIN. See Schaufelin. 
SCHEUREN, Karpar Johann Nepomuk, Ger- 
man painter and engraver ; born at Aachen, 
August 22, 1810; studied at the Diisseldorf 
Academy under Leasing and Schirmer. He 
painted landscapes not devoid of delicate poetiy, 
and executed numerous charming water-colour 
drawings which certainly will make his name 
remembered. In the Galleries of Berlin, Ham- 
burg, Hanoi-er, Cologne, Leipzig, and Munich, 
examples of his work will be found ; he obtained 
the Red Eagle Order of the second class, the 
Swedish gold medal for art and science, as well 
as other decorations. The scenery of the Rhine 
provided him with some of the most effective 
motives for his pictures. He became Professor at 
Diisseldorf in 1855, and died there June 12, 1887. 
SCHEVENHUYSEN, Anthony, a Dutch en- 
graver, who flourished about the year 1695. He 
engraved the trades of Holland in a set of one 
hundred small plates. 

SCHEYNUEL, (Scheindel,) George van, a 
Dutch engraver, who resided at Rotterdam about 
the year 1635. He engraved several plates in a 
style resembling that of Callot. His landscapes 
are filled with figures correctly drawn, and touched 
with spirit. He was a contemporary of William 
van Buytenweg, after whom he engraved some 
plates. We have, among others, tlie following 
prints by him : 

The Funeral Procession of William the Silent ; in four 

A pair of LanJscapes, with Peasants amusing themselves, 
The Tooth-drawer. 

A Village Festival, with Boors fighting. 
Ditto, with a Quack-Doctor. 
A Winter-piece, with Skaters on the ice. 
A Landscape, with a Waterfall. 
A Landscape, with a Bridge. 

A set of four Views of a Castle, one with a Windmill. 
A set of twelve Landscapes, with Dutch inscriptions. 
A set of twelve plates of European costumes. 
Twelve plates of Dutch costumes. 

Scheyndel was at work as late as 1660. 

SCHIANTESCHI, Domenico, an Italian painter 
of the 18th century. He was a pupil of the Bibieni, 



and practised at Borgo San Sepolcro, wliere he 
painted decorative perspectives in palazzi. 

SCHIAVO, Paolo, was a pupil of MaBolino da 
Tanicale, whose style he is said to have imitated. 
His ' Madonna and Child with a St, John the Baptist 
and another Saint,' now much damaged, may still 
be seen on the wall of the Canto di Nelli, at 

SCHIAVONE, Akdbea. See Meldolla. 
SCHIAVONE, Gregorio, a Dalmatian living in 
the 15th century, was a pupil of Squarcione. He 
was employed in the decorations of the Eremitani 
Chapel, Padua, and painted the ' Enthroned Virgin 
and Child,' now in the Berlin Gallery, while the 
side panels of this altar-piece, with the figures of 
St. Louis and St. Anthony of Padua, are in the 
Canons' sacristy at Padua. The National Gallery, 
London, has two pictures by him, a ' Madonna and 
Child, enthroned, with Saints,' and a 'Madonna and 
Infant Christ,' Schiavone was fond of proclaiming 
himself the disciple of Squarcione in his signatures. 
He flourished from about 1440 to 1470. 

SCHIAVONE, LucA, a decorative painter, who 
flourished at Milan about 1450. He excelled in 
desig-ning embroidery for ecclesiastics. 

SCHIAVONETTI, Luigi, engraver, born at Bas- 
sano in 1765. was the son of a stationer, and from 
his infancy displayed a taste for drawing. Before 
he weis thirteen he had made some progress with- 
out the help of a master, when he was placed 
under the tuition of Giulio Golini,by whom he was 
taught for three years, at the end of which his 
master died. He now turned his thoughts to en- 
graving. A copy of a ' Holy Family,' in line, frorn 
a print engraved by Barto Corri, after Carlo Maratti, 
gained him immediate employment from Count 
Remaudini. The works of Bartolozzi were then in 
vogue at Bassano, and Schiavonetti imitated several 
with great success. Some of his copies were 
shown to Bartolozzi by one Testoloni, as his own, 
but when Schiavonetti himself came to England, 
the deception was exposed, and Bartolozzi received 
him into his house. After working for some time 
under Bartolozzi, he set up for himself, and prac- 
tised with much success until his death, which 
happened in June, 1810, in London. 

The following are among Scliiavonetti's principal 
works : 

Events in the life of Louis XTI. ; four plates ; after 

The cartoon of Pisa; after Michel- Angela Buonarroti. 
Portrait of Vandyck, in the character of Paris. 
The Mater Dolorosa ; after Tandi/ck. 
The Lauding of the British Troops in Egypt ; after 

A set of etchings for Blair's Grave ; after Blake. 
The Canterbury Pilgrimage ; after Sto'.hard. 
Dead Christ ; after Vandyck. 
Portrait of Berchem ; after Rembrandt. 
The Death of General Wolfe, engraved from a gem by 
Marchant, in the original unpublished Museum Wors- 
leyauum. There is a copy in the smaller edition. 
Death of Virginia ; after Treskam. 
Marriage at Cana ; after Pellegrini. 
Death of Tippo Sahib; after Singleton. 
Queen Elizabeth ; after Westall. 
Portrait of the Duke of York ; after Boydell. 
Queen of Prussia and her sister ; after Ttschbein. 
Portrait of W. Blake ; after T. Bhlips. 
Plates in ' The Italian School of Design,' published by 
Ottlei/. Also, in Oiamberlaine's collection of repro- 
ductions of Italian drawings ; and ' Specimens of 
Ancient Sculpture,' published by the Society of 
•Sweet C^iina Oranges' and 'Milk Below, Maids,' for 
Wheatley's 'Cries of London.' 

SCHIAVONETTI, Niccolo, was the younger 
brother of Lui^-i Schiavonetti, and executed some 
plates in the style of that artist, though he worked 
chiefly in conjunction with him, helping him espe- 
cially in the 'Tippo Sahib' and the 'Canterbury 
Pilgrims.' He engraved in stipple 'New Mackrel' 
(published 1795) for Wheatley's ' Cries of London.' 
He did not long survive his brother, but died in 
London in 1813. 

SCHIAVONI, Felice, a painter, bom at Trieste 
in 1803, was a son and pupil of Natale Schiavoni, 
whom he followed to Vienna and Milan. He 
settled at Venice in 1830, where he painted historical 
and mythological subject-:. His best works are his 
' Descent from the Cross ' and ' Raphael painting 
the Fomarina.' He died in 1868. 

SCHIAVONI, Natale, an eminent painter and 
distinguished engraver, was born at Chioggia in 
1777. He studied engraving under RafEael Mor- 
ghen, at Florence, but in 1797 went to Venice, 
and studied under Maggioto. His first important 
work was a ' St, Francis ' for the church of that 
saint in Chioggia ; he then for a time painted 
miniature portraits. From 1802 to 1816 he lived 
in Trieste, and in which latter year he painted 
portraits of tli.,- Emperor and Empress of Austria. 
In 1825 he went to Slilan, and divided his attention 
pretty evenly between painting and engraving. 
In 1841 he painted a large altar-piece for St. An- 
tonio in Trieste, and afterivards a fine ' Magdalene,' 
now in the Belvedere, at Vienna. He painted 
many ' Bathing Venuses,' in which he could display 
bis skill in the nude ; he made a copy of Titian's 
'Assumption,' now in Russia; and produced with 
the help of his sons a large ' Adoration of the 
Magi.' His celebrity as an engraver is chiefly 
owing to his splendid plates aflcr Titian's ' As- 
sumption of the Virgin,' and ' The Entombment." 
There is also a portrait of the Marquis Manfredini, 
w'hich is considered a chef-d'oeuvre. About 1840 
he became a Professor of the Venetian Academy. 
He died in Venice in 1858. 

SCHICK, Gottlieb, an historical portrait and 
landscape painter, was born at Stuttgart in 1779. 
In 1798 he went to Paris, and commenced his 
artistic studies in the atelier of David. In 1802 he 
returned to Stiittgart, but soon went on to Home. 
He had some imagination, and his pictures are in 
many instances distinguished by simplicity and 
purity of sentiment. ' The Sacrifice of Noah,' 
' David playing before Saul,' and ' Apollo with 
the Shepherds,' tlie last in the palace at Stiittgart, 
are among his best works. There is a fine ' Eve 
at the Fountain,' by him in the Wallraf-Richartz 
Museum, Cologne. He excelled in portraiture, and 
painted several members of the Humboldt family, 
and other distinguished persons. His landse.ipes 
are of the heroic kind, enriched with subjects from 
the poets. Schick was one of the founders of 
modern German art. He died at Stiittgart in 

SCHIDONE, (ScHEDONE,) Bartolommeo, painter, 
was born at Modena in 1660. Although he is 
generally allowed to have been brought up under 
the Carracci, his works exhibit little resemblance 
to their style. He rather appears to have formed 
himself on the study, of Raphael and Correggio, 
but his style has a sharpness, severity, and dryness 
which is peculiar to him. Schidone had already 
gained some reputation at Modena, when Duke 
Ranuccio took him under his protection. He 
painted several pictures for his patron, and these. 


with many other works of art in the possession of 
tlie Duke of Modena, afterwards came into the col- 
lection of the King of Naples. In the Palazzo 
Pubblico, at Modena, lie painted the history of 
Coriolanus, and seven emblematical figures, in 
which he emulated Correggio ; and in the cathedral 
a 'St. Geminiano resuscitating a dead Child,' which 
used often to be taken for a production of that 
master. His works are extremely rare ; in con- 
sequence, it is said, of his propensity for gaming, 
in which he wasted his substance and time. His 
<ieath is said to have been occasioned by distress 
of mind, caused by losing in one night more than 
he was able to pay. It took place in 1616, at 

St. John. 

Flight into Egypt. 

Holy Family. 

Holy Family. 

Cupid with au Hour-glass. 

St. Gemigu.ano. 

Coriolauus and his mother. 

St, Jerome. 

St. John the Baptist. 

The Dinner at Simon's House. 

The Holy Family. 


St. Sebastian succoured by St. 

The Tribute-money. 
Christ presented to the People. 
The Massacre of the Innoceats. 

Several Portraits. 
Holy Family. 
Christ borne to the Tomb. 
The Entombment. 
The Last Supper. 
A Pieta. 

Descent from the Cross. 
The Disciples at Emmaus. 
The Entombment. 






Fitti Palace. 



















SCHIERTZ, August Ferdi.vand, painter, born at 
Leipsio in 1804, began in 1830 to study art, and 
painted genre, historical, and religious pictures. 
His best works are: 'Mortality,' in the Museum at 
Leipsic ; an ' Adoration of the Kings,' in the church 
of Bosenstiidt ; the ' Descent of the Holy Ghost,' 
for the church at Podelwitz. He was much em- 
ploj'ed in the restoration of old pictures. He died 
at Niederfahre, near Meissen, in 1878. 

SCHIESL, Ferdinand, engraver, born at Munich 
in 1775, was a pupil of Mettenleiter. He drew 
caricatures and engraved vignettes for books. He 
died in 1820. 

SCHIEVELBEINE, F. A. H. This German 
artist devoted the greater part of his time to 
architecture and sculpture, but, in his early career, 
he received the Grand Prize at Berlin for painting. 
Be was born at Berlin in 1817, and was a pupil 
of the local Academy, afterwards entering the 
fitudio of Prof.'Ssor Wichmann. His principal 
commission was the work he executed at St. 
Petersburg in the rebuilding of the Winter Palace, 
and in the alteration carried out to St, Isaac's 
Cathedral. His statuary at Konigsberg, and the 
frieze in the National Gallery at Berlin, represent 
his best work in sculpture. He painted two im- 
portant pictures, one called 'Winter Evening' and 
the other ' Summer Evening,' and he died in Russia 
in 1867. 

SCHIFFER, Anton, landscape painter, was born 
at Gratz in 1811. He was a student of the Aca- 
demy at Vienna. His best works are : 'A Mountain 

Panorama,' and 'View of the Muhlsturzliiirner, 
near Berchtesgaden ; ' ' View from the Schafberg, 
near Ischl ; ' ' View of the Schneeberg, in Lower 
Austria.' He died in 1876. 

SCHILBACH, J— Heinrich, landscape painter, 
was born at Barchfeld in 1798. He studied at 
Darmstadt, and in 182.H travelled in Italy, making 
many sketches, which furnished him with motives 
for finished oil-pictures. In 1828 he was appointed 
court scene-painter at Darmstadt, Among his best 
known landscapes are, a ■ View of Mayence,' a ' View 
of Rome,' and two studies of Roman scenery in 
the ThorvvaUlsen Museum at Copenhagen. He has 
left a considerable number of etchings. 

SCHILCHER, Anton von, engraver and painter, 
was born at Mindelheim in 1796. He studied at 
Munich, and entering the Bavarian army went with 
General Heydegger to Greece. He drew and 
painted military and genre picture*. He died at 
Paros in 1828. 

SCHILUER von BABINBERG, Johann, an early 
German painter, a native of Oppenheim. He was 
a contemporary of ' Master Wilhelm,' and about 
1382 was engaged to paint the high altar of 
Frankfort cathedral. 

SCHILDKROTE (The Turtle). See Danks. 

SCHILGEN, PiiiLiPP Anton, painter, born at 
Osnaburgh in 1793, studied at Diisseldorf under 
Cornelius, with whom he went to Munich in 1825. 
He executed some scenes from the Tragedies of 
iEschylus, in the Palace, after drawings by Schwan- 
thaler. In the JIunicn New Pinakothek hangs his 
' Rape of Helen,' painted in oil after a cartoon by 
Cornelius. He died in Munich in 1857. 

SCHILLER, Johann Felix von, landscape 
iniinter, born at Breslau in 1805, was educated for 
the legal profession, but afterwards devoted him- 
self to art, which he studied at Munich, and made 
the beauties of the Bavarian highlands his theme. 
He died at Munich in 1852. 

SCHILLING, Georq, bom at Unterthingau, in 
Suabia, in 1785. He painted ten landscapes, deal- 
ing with scenes in Greek life, in the palace at 
Munich. They are after drawings in water-colour 
by Rottmann. SchilUng died at Unterthingau in 

SCHILLING, Hans, a German illuminator and 
calligraphist of the 15th century, known by a 
rhymed paraphrase of the Bible in 50,000 verses, 
which he enriched with 515 grotesquely designed 
but finely coloured miniatures. He was a native 
of Hagenau. 

SCHILT, Lonis Pierre, born in Paris, Septem- 
ber 11, 1790, was one of the most celebrated of the 
painters upon Sevres porcelain. His father was a 
vivandier of the republican army, and Schilt was 
brought up entirely by his mother, who appren- 
ticed him at the age of fourteen to the china- 
painter Constant. His master treated him kindly, 
putting him into the way of earning small sums 
for himself by painting on common pottery, and 
eventually he passed into the atelier of Lefevre. 
He here attracted the attention of the painter Paris, 
who advised him to devote himself entirely to 
flower-painting, and in accordance with this counsel 
he began to attend Jussieu's courses at the Museum, 
with the result that he became an accomplished 
botanist. In 1822 he obtained employment at the 
royal manufactory at Sevres, and worked there 
with equal assiduity and success until his death in 
1859. Nine years previously he had been made 
a Knight of the Legion of Honour at the solicita- 



tion of Paul Delaroche. He published the follow- 
ing series of lithographs : ' The Moiitlia,' ' Flowers 
and Fruit,' 'The Porcelain Designer.' 

SCHIMON, FERniNAND, painter, born at Pesth 
in 1797, was first a singer and actor, and then, after 
studying art at Munich, came out as a portrait 
painter. He worked at the Loggie of the Old Pina- 
cotbek after Cornelius' designs. JNIost of liis works 
are in the Villa Rosenstein, near Stiittgart. He 
died at Munich in 1852. 

SCHINDLER, Albert, bom at Engelsberg, in 
Silesia, August 19, 1805, studied under Fendi at 
the Vienna Academy, and became a genre painter 
of much merit. His ' Dying Pilgrim ' is in the 
possession of the Emperor of Austria. He died 
at Vienna in 1861. 

SCHINULEK, Emil Jakob, German painter; 
bom at Vienna, April 27, 1842 ; studied at the 
Vienna Academy under Zimmermann, his fellow- 
pupils being Jettel, Ribarz, and Russ. His work 
showed the influence of Corot, Daubigny, Dupr6, 
and Rousseau in its close interpretations of nature, 
and his place as a landscape-painter ranks with 
the first Of his works we may mention : ' Abend 
im Prater,' ' Alpe in Steiermark,' ' Mondlandschaft,' 
' Thai des Friedens,' and the numerous delightful 
illustrations to Zedlitz's ' Waldfrauleins Geburt.' 
He was a member of the Academies of Vienna 
and Munich, and the holder of several distinguished 
decorations. He died at Westernland-am-Sylt, 
August 9, 1892. 

SCHINDLER, Johann Joseph, painter, bom at 
St. Polten in 1777, studied at the Academy at 
Vienna, and then became professor of drawing at 
the Normal School of St. Anna in that cit_v. He 
painted the altar-piece in St. Micliael's church at 
Vienna, and also engraved several plates. He 
died at Vienna in 1836. 

SCHINDLER, Karl, painter, born in 1822, was 
a pupil of Fendi. He died at Laab, near Vienna, 
in 1842. 

SCHINKEL, Karl Frikdrich, the famous Ger- 
man architect, born March 13, 1781, at Neuruppin, 
began his career in the early years of the 19th 
century, as a painter. He had been trained 
in the Academy of Architecture at Berlin, but 
time and circumstance seemed peculiarly un- 
favourable to the art in wliich he was afterwards 
to achieve distinction. In 1803 he travelled 
in Italy, painting landscapes, copying historical 
pictures, and making drawings of costumes, and 
devoting much time to the studj' of ancient 
monuments. On his return to Germany he pro- 
duced a number of landscapes with buildings, 
and viarhines sucli as a ' Panorama of Palermo,' 
and the 'Seven Wonders of the World.' Later, 
when his fame as an architect was established, 
he furnislied designs for the paintings in the 
vestibule of the Berlin Museum, and continued 
from time to time to paint landscapes and his- 
torical pictures, and projects for theatrical scenery. 
He published a few lithographs and etchings, and 
numberless illustrations to books on architecture. 
He died at Berlin, October 9, 1841. In the 
National Gallery of Berlin there are seventeen of 
his pictures. 

SCHINNAGL, Max Joseph, bom at Burghausen, 
in Bavaria, in 1694, was a pupil of his step-father, 
Joseph Kammerloher. He painted wild scenery, 
with figures by Janneck and Aigen. The galleries 
at Vienna and Augsburg possess pictures by him. 
ile died at V'ienna in 1761. 

SCHINZ, JoHANN Georg, painter, bom at Zuricb 
in 1794, was a pupil of Gessner, and painted 
Swiss landscapes. He died in 1845. 

SCHINZ, JoHANN Kaspar, born at Zurich in 
1798, painted biblical pictures. He died in 1832. 

SCHIOPPI. See Alabardi. 

SCHIRMER, Friedrich Wilhelm, landscape 
painter, bom at Berlin in 1802, was apprenticed- 
at the age of fifteen to the Royal Porcelain Manu- 
factory, and worked at the same time in the Berlin 
Academy. From 1823 he devoted himself entirely 
to art, travelling in Germany and visiting Italy. In 

1839 he was appointed teacher, and in 1840 pro- 
fessor, in the Berlin Academy. In 1845 lie revisited 
Italy, and in 1850 painted the walls of the Egyptian 
and Grecian divisions in the Berlin New Museum. 
In 1863 he again went to Italy, though he was 
suffering at the time from ill-health, and he died 
at Rome in 1865. Examples of his work are to be- 
seen in the National Gallery, Berlin. 

SCHIRMER, G., a native of Berlin, bom in 
1804, and educated at the local Academy, where- 
afterwards he became a professor. His work is 
mainly in decorative materials and in fresco, the 
most notable being tlie decoration in the castle of 
Prince Albert of Prussia, and in the New Museum 
at Berlin. In the Berlin National Gallery are two 
pictures by him, one representing Sorrento, and 
the other Sans Souci. He died at Berlin in 1866. 

SCHIRMER, Johann Wilhi-xm, landscape 
painter, born at Jiilich in 1807, learned drawing 
from an engineer, and became a bookbinder, 
which was the trade of his father. In 1826 he 
became a student in the Academy at Diisseldorf, 
and attended the studio of Schadow. In 1827 he 
founded a class, out of which a new school of land- 
scape painting arose. In 1834 he began to travel, 
making his way successivelj' through the Black 
Forest, Switzerland, Holland, and Normandy. In 
18.39 he visited Italy, and was made professor at 
the Diisseldorf Academy. In 1853 he was sum- 
moned to direct the School of Art at Karlsruhe, 
and there he died in 1863. The following picture* 
in the Berlin Gallery are by him : 

Scene in a German Forest. 

The Convent of S. Scholasticain the Sabine Mountains. 

Abraham's Entry into the Promised Land. 

The Promise in the Grove of Mamre. 

Abraliam's Intercession for Sodom and Gomorrah. 

The Fliglit of Lot. 

Hagar cast out. 

Hagar in the 'Wilderness. 

Hagar's Deliverance. 

Abraham and Isaac going to the Sacrifice. 

Offering up of Isaac. 

Abraham and Isaac's lamentation for Sarah. 

Eliezer and Rehekah at the WelL 

Burial of Abraham. 

SCHISCHKIN, IvAN.Russian painter and etch°r;. 
born at Jelabuga (Wjatka), January 13, 1831; 
became a pupil of; the Moscow Art School ; in 
1863 he won the first prize at the St. Petersburg 
Academy, and three years later he was enrolled 
as a member. He was successful as a painter of 
sylvan scenes, but as a draughtsman he won wider 
fame. Some of his pen-drawings were successfully 
reproduced by a Diisseldorf firm ; all of them deal 
with woodland scenery. He obtained the Stanis- 
laus Order and other decorations. He died at St. 
Petersburg, March 20, 1898. 

SCHITZ, Julils, landscape painter, born in 
Paris, February 9, 1817, was a pupil of R^mont 
He exhibited frequently at the Salon between 

1840 and the time of his death in 1871. He- 


■was Director of the Municipal Drawing School 
at Troyes. 

SCHIVEN06LIA, Lo. See Rainieri. 

SCHIZZONE, , an Italian painter of the 16th 

century, the friend and companion uf Vincenzio 
di S. Gimignano. His career was cut short bj- the 
troubles of 1527, for after the sack of Rome he 
appears to have abandoned art. 

SCHKUHR,Christian, draughtsman and etcher, 
was born at Pegau, in Saxony, in 1741. He 
devoted himself early in life to botany, but later 
added mechanics and optics to his pursuits, and 
was appointed meclianician to the Wittenberg 
University. He pubUslied a botanical liandbooix, 
the plates for whicli he designed and etched 
himself. He died at Wittenberg in 1811. 

SL'HLEICH, Adrian, German engraver ; born 
December 7, 181'2, at Municli, where he studied 
under S. Amsler. He established himself at 
Muiiich, and worlved exclusively at steel-engraving; 
his plates to Schiller's ' Glocke ' and Kaulbach's 
' Reinecke Fuchs,' and his reproductions uf Schran- 
dolfs frescoes for Speyer Cathedral are well known. 
He died at Munich, November 8, 1894. 

SCHLEICH, August, painter and etcher, bom 
at Munich in 1814, principally devoted himself to 
drawing animals, fie died at Munich in 1865. 

SCHLEICH, Eduard, landscape painter, was 
born at Schloss Haarhach, near Landshut, in 1812. 
He was a pupil of the Muiu'ch Academy, but his 
real teachers were the Bavarian mountains and the 
Old Masters. He travelled in Upper Italy, France, 
and the Netherlands. In 1868 he was elected 
Royal Bavarian Professor at Munich, and there he 
died in 1874. 

Berlin. 2Vat. Gal/. Evening Landscape. 

Munich, y. Pinakothek. Landscape — Isar and Bavarian 
„ A Chalet. 

SCHLEICH, JoHANK Karl, engraver, bom at 
Augsburg in 1759, learned his art under Jungwirth 
and Mettenleiter. He engraved portraits of many 
of his contemporaries, some topographical plates, 
and ' Hope nursing Love,' after Reynolds. He died 
at Munich in 1842. 

SCHLEICH, Karl, engraver, son and pupil of 
Johann Karl Schleich, was born at Augsburg in 
1788. There are by him : 

Peasant Family ; after Potter, 

The Cathedral of Katisboa. 

A View of Munich. 

Twelve Landscapes ; after JVagenlaur, Ihijardin, and 

He died at Munich in 1840. 

SCHLEISNER, Christian Andreas, painter, 
was born at Lyugby, near Copenhagen, in 1810. 
His early education was obtained at the Copen- 
hagen School of Art, but afterwards he studied 
for a time in Munich, and between 1840 and 
1842 was a travelling student of the Copenhagen 
Academy. Of this institution lie became a member 
in 1852, and a professor in 1858. His pictures 
belong to the class of genre ; many of them are 
comic. His deatli took place at Copenhagen in 
1881. Works : 
Copenhagen. Gallery. Sailors in a Beershop. 

„ „ Tinker in his "Workshop. 

Hanicb. iVew Pina- ] The Coppersmith and hU 

koihek. J" Family 

SCHLESINGER,Adam, painter, bom at Kberts- 
heim, in Rhenish Bavaria, in 1759, painted fruits. 

In the National Gallery, Berlin, are two examples 
of his art. He died in 1829. 

SCHLESINGER, Henri, was born at Frankfort 
in 1814, studied at Vienna, settled in Paris, and 
became a naturalized Frenchman and a regular 
exhibitor at the Salons (1840-89), where his por- 
traits and genre subjects were well known. He 
gained medals, of the third class in 1840, and of 
the second class in 1847, and in 1866 was admitted 
to the Legion of Honour. His portrait of the 
Sultan Mahmoud II. hangs at Versailles. Among 
his works may be mentioned, ■ Double Arret,' 
' Les Amours d'autrefois et ceux d'aujourd'hui,' 
'Jeune Fille du Maroc,' and 'Cadeaux de NoeL' 
He died in 1893. 

SCHLESINGER, Jakor, painter, born at GriJn- 
stadt in 1793, learned the first principles of art 
from his father, Johann Schlesinger, and afterwards 
studied in Mannheim and Munich. The brothers 
Boisseree employed him in restoring old pictures. 
In 1822 he was appointed professor at Berlin. 
The Sistiiie Madonna of Rapliael, Titian's daugh- 
ter, and other well-known pictures were copied by 
him. He also painted portraits, and fruit and 
flower pieces. He died at Berlin in 1855. There 
is a tracing by him from the Sistine Madonna in 
the London National Gallery. 

SCHLEY, Vam dkr. See Van der Schley. 

SCHLICHT, Abel. This artist was born at 
Mannheim in 1754. He engraved several plates 
in aquatint, which are favourably mentioned by 
Huber. He was a painter and architect as well 
as an engraver ; lie studied perspective under L. 
Quaglia, and was a professor in the Academy of 
Diisseldorf. He died in 1826. Among his plates 
we may name : 

A Storm and Shipwreck ; after Vernet. 

A Calm ; after thi same. 

A Landscape, with cattle ; after A. Vandevelde. 

A Landscape, with figures and animals ; after Berghem, 

A Landscape ; after Pyvaker. 

Several architectural Views ; after Bihiena, Pannini, 
and others. 

SCHLICHTEN, J. P. van der. See Van der 


SCHLOEPKE, Theodor, painter, first made 
his name by painting genre and horse pictures, and 
portraits. For the Duke of Mecklenburgli he 
painted a series of scenes of the Schleswig-Holstein 
war. Between 1855 to 1857 he painted at I'aris, 
under the auspices of H. Vemet, his one great his- 
torical picture, the ' Death of Niclot.' He died at 
Schwerin in 1878. 

SCHLOSSER, Leopold, landscape painter, was 
a native of Berlin. He painted a large landscape 
with two wolves in the foreground, which showed 
considerable talent. He died at Diisseldorf in 1836. 

SCHLOTTERBECK, Christian Jakob, a painter 
and engraver, but chiefly the latter, was born at 
Boblingen, in Wurtemberg, in 1755. He was the 
son of a stone-cutter, and first studied medicine, 
which he afterwards abandoned for art He 
entered the Karlsacadeniie at Wiirtemberg in 
1774, and studied engraving under J. Y. Muller. 
In 1785 he was appointed court engraver. He 
painted Duke Cliarles and King Friedrich of 
Wurtemberg, and engraved a number of por- 
traits, among which are those of Sohubart, Harper, 
Guibal,etc. Of his other plates, the principal are, 
' Titian's Mistress,' after the picture once in the Or- 
leans collection, ' Herodias with the head of John 
the Baptist,' the ' Laocoon,' and busts of Castor 



and Pollux, Minerva, Mercury, and Diana, from 
tlie antique, also some frontispieces and vignettes. 
He (lied about 1812. 

SCHLOTTEUBECK, Wii.helm Friedrich, a 
draughtsman and engraver, born in 1777 at Hart- 
ingen in Switzerland, wasascliolar of C. von Mecliel 
of Basle. He had a great predilection for aquatint, 
and it may be said that his success made that art 
popular in Germany. He engraved many large 
plates after Claude, Both, P. Hackert, ami his own 
drawings. He joined tlieChalcographic Institution 
at Dessau in 1798, where he engraved the four fine 
landscapes by Claude Lorraine, then at Cassel, 
but now in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg ; and 
in 1801 he went to reside at Vienna. From 1808 
till tlie time of his death he was occupied in 
making drawings of the picturesque scenery in the 
Tyrol, at Salzburg, and in various other parts of 
Germany and Hungary, which he engraved for 
Mullo, the Viennese publisher. He died at Vienna 
in 1819. 

SGHLOTTHAUER, Joseph, painter, born at 
Munich in 1789, was first a carpenter, though he 
devoted his leisure hours to drawing. Having 
finished several preparatory works, he was received 
as a pupil of the Academy, but a few months after 
the War of Deliverance in the Tyrol broke out, and 
Schlotthauer enlisted in a corps of volunteer sharp- 
shooters. When the war was over he returned 
to his art, and attached himself in 1819 to Cor- 
nelius, who had come to Munich to commence the 
frescoes of the Glyptothek, painting several of 
the frescoes from Cornelius' Cartoons. In 1838 he 
painted the side-altars in Bamberg Cathedral, and 
about this time his mechanical and anatomical 
studies led him to put forward a new method of 
orthopoedio treatment, for the purposes of which 
he started an institution, of which he was f<ir many 
years the manager. In 1845 he went to Pompeii 
to make researches into ancient methods of painting, 
and in the following year he invented jointly with 
Fuchs the kind of fresco painting known as stereo- 
chromy. It was used by Kaulbach in his frescoes 
for the Berlin Museum. His ' Christ crowned with 
Thorns' is his best known easel-picture, lie was 
further the author of a set of fifty-three lithograph 
plates after Holbein's 'Dance of Death' (1832). 
Among his piipils were Count Pocci, E. Linder, 
J. Schraudolph, and J. A. Fischer. He died at 
Munich in 18(;9. 

SCHLOTTHAUER, Karl, painter, was born at 
Munich in 1803. He was the pupil of his uncle, 
Joseph Schlotthauer, and painted landscapes,chiefly 
from the Bavarian Alps. He was a professor in 
the Art School of Lindau. 

SCHMALZIGATS^G, Ferdinand, German painter; 
horn February 15, 1847, at Friedrichshafen on the 
Bodensee ; became a pupil of Piloty at Munich. 
He painted animals, and one of liis works is in the 
Coh.giie iMuseum. He died 1902. 

SOHMEIDLER, Karl Gottloe, portrait painter, 
born at Nimptsch in 1772, first studied tlieology, 
but became a painter from want of means. After 
studying in the Academy at Dresden, he settled 
at Breslau, and painted portraits, among which 
were those of General Bennigsen and his wife, and 
of some members of the Prussian Royal Family. 
He died at Breslau in 1838. 

SCHMELLER, Jchann Joseph, a painter, born 
at Gross-Obringen, near Weimar, in 1796, was a 
pupil of Jagemann. The Grand Duke sent hira 
to Antwerp, in 1820, to study under Van Brie, 


and on his return he became master of the Drawing 
Scliool at Weimar. He painted two portraits of 
Goethe, and was furtner commissioned by the poet 
to make an album of portrait sketches in chalk of 
distinguished persons and friends, which work is 
still in the possession of Goettie's family. He died 
at Wieraar in 1841. 

SCHMERLING, Pauline von, flower-painter, 
was born at Vienna in 1806. Her father was a 
Freiherr J. von Koudelka in the Austrian army, 
and she was a pupil of Franz Petter. In the 
Vienna Gallery there is an excellent flower-piece 
by her. Slie died at Vienna in 1840. 

SCHMETTEKLING, Josef Adolf, was born at 
Vienna in 1758. He painted miniatures witli some 
success. He established himself in Amsterdam, 
where he died in 1828. His daughter, Christiana, 
was a painter of flowers and fruit, in water-colour. 
She was born at Amsterdam in 1796. and died 
there in 1840. Another daughter, Elizabeth, who 
followed her father's profession of, was 
established in Amsterdam in 1804. 

SCHMID, Karl August, painter, born at Neu- 
burgin 1807, studied at the Munich Academy from 
1822 to 1825, and then turned to out-door Nature. 
He made drawings for works on natural history 
and botany. He travelled through the Tyrol, Salz- 
burg, and Upper Italy, and in 1831 produced a 
series of water-colour hindscapes, illustrating his 
travels. He died in 1834. 

SCHMID, Peter, painter, born at Treves in 1769, 
displayed talent for art as a bo}', and was instructed 
in painting through the help of Count von Walters- 
dorf. He taught in Stettin, Berlin, and Frankfort 
on a new system, laying great stress on a study of 
nature, and published several books of instruction 
embodying his theories. In 1834 he became pro- 
fessor of drawing at Berlin. 

SCHMID, Simon, born at Munich in 17G0, was 
Court chaplain, and claims mention as one of the 
inventors of lithograpliy. The first essays in 
Kellheim stone were made by him. In 1788 lie 
published eighteen lithographs, some in relief, 
some in intaglio. He died at Munich in 1840. 

SCHMIDT, Eduard, painter, a native of Berlin, 
was a pupil of Blechen, and painted chiefly sea- 
pieces, from the coasts of Heligoland, England, 
and Sweden. He died in 1862. 

SCHMIDT, Georg Friedrich, born at Berlin in 
1712, was instructed in design and engraving by 
G. P. Busch, at the Berlin Academy ; but he after- 
wards went to Paris, where he became a pupil of 
Nicholas Larmessins. In 1742 he was received 
into the Paris Academy, and engraved, for his re- 
ception plate, his fine portrait of P. Mignard. In 
1744 he returned to Berlin, and was soon afterwards 
appointed engraver to the King. He resided at 
Berlin till 1757, when he was invited to St. Peters- 
burg by the Empress Elizabeth, and commissioned 
to organize a school of engraving, and to engrave 
the Emperor's portrait. He returned to Berlin in 
1762, and etched a few plates in the manner of 
Rembrandt. He died at Berlin in 1775. The 
following is a list of his better plates ; he engraved 
about 200 in all. 

The Empress Elizabeth of Russia ; after L. TocqiU. 

Michael, Count de "Worouzow ; aftir the same. 

Count Nicholas Esterliazi ; after the same. 

Fred. Hen. Louis, Prince of Prussia ; after A. X'anloo. 

Jean Paul Bignon, Abbfi de St. Quentin ; after Rigaud. 

Constautine Searlati, Prince of Moldavia. 

Ch. Gabriel de Caylus, Bishop of Auxerre ; after Fontaine. 


Loalfi de la Tour d'Auvergne, Count d'Evreux ; q/Ver 

Ch. de St. Albin, Archbishop of Cambray ; after the same. 
Pierre Mipiard ; after the same. 
Antoine Pesne ; after a picture hy himself. 
Maurice Quentin cie la Tour ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Child, with St. John ; after Vandyck. 
The Presentation in the Temple ; after Pietro Testa. 
Alexander and his Physician ; after A nn. Carracci. 
A Bust of the Virgin ; after Sassoferrato. 
Dutch Boors regaling ; after A. Ostade. 


His own Portrait, drawing. 

The Portrait of Rembrandt ; after a picture ly himself. 

The Raising of Jairus's Daughter ; after Rembrandt. 

The Presentation in the Temple ; after Dietricy. 

Lot and his Daughters ; after Rembrandt. 

The Mother of Rembrandt ; after the same. 

SCHMIDT, Heinrich, painter, born at Saar- 
briick in 1740 (1760), painted historical works, 
portraits, and landscapes. He lived chiefly at 
Naples, and was painter to the court of Hesse 
Darmstadt, and died in 1818. 

SCHMIDT, Hei.nrich Friedbich Thomas, painter 
.nnd engraver, bom at Berlin in 1780. He practised 
first at Leipsic, and afterwards at Weimar. Tliere 
are portraits by liim of Wieland, Gall, Scliiller, 
Kant, and tl)e Czar, Alexander I. 

SCHMIDT, ISAAK, born at Amsterdam in 1740, 
received his first lessons in painting from Jan Van 
Hu}-sum, and subsequently became a scholar of J. 
M. Quinkhardt, with whom he remained six years. 
After some attempts at portrait painting, in which 
he did not succeed to his wishes, be applied himself 
to landscape, and painted several good pictures in 
concert with Juriaan Andriessen. His pictures are 
not numerous, as he devoted much of his time to 
teaching, and to poetry and music. He wrote 
some comedies, and translated a ' Life of Rubens.' 
He was one of the founders of the drawing academy 
at Amsterdam in 1759, and continued to be a 
director till the time of his death, which occurred 
in 1818. His son Isaak practised portrait painting 
for a time, but eventually became a professor in the 
School of Artillery and Engineering at Delft. He 
died in 1826. 

SCHMIDT, JoHAXN Gottfried, engraver, bom 
at Dresden in 1764, studied under Rasp, and pro- 
duced many good engravings, among them a series 
of fifty portraits of theologians. 

SCHiUDT, JoHANN Heixbich, painter, was bom 
at Hildburghausen in 1749. He studied at Leipsic, 
and travelled through France and Italy, where he 
made a name by portraits in oil and pastel. In 
1775 he went to Dresden as court painter, and in 
1791 painted a ' Council of Princes at Pillnitz.' 
He executed pastel portraits of Suwarrow, Nelson, 
the Archduke Charles, Napoleon, &c., and one of 
the Princess Augusta of Saxony, now in the Dresden 
Gallery. He died at Dresden in 1829. 

SCHMIDT, Martin Joachim, painter and en- 
graver, was bom at Grafenworth, near Krems, in 
1718. He etched a number of altar-pieces and 
mythological subjects, in the manner of Rembrandt 
and Castiglione. He died in Krems in 1801. There 
are some examples of his work in the Vienna 

bCHMIDT, Mathias, painter and engraver, bom 
at Mannheim in 1749, painted landscapes, and copied 
the etchings of Karel Dujardin, Adriaan van de 
Velde, Jan Fyt, &c. He also etched a number 
of plates after original drawings by Ferdinand 
Kobell and Rembrandt. He died at Munich in 1823. 

SCHMIDT, Maximilian, Grerman painter ; bom 
August 23, 1818, at Berlin ; studied at the Berlin 
Academy and also with Begas, Karl Kriiger, and 
W. Schirmer. He travelled in Turkey, Palestine, 
Egypt, the Ionian Islands, Italy, and England, 1861 to 1870. In 1868 he was appointed 
Professor at the Weimar Art School. In 1872 he 
taught at the Konigsberg Academy, of which later 
on he was made Director. He painted landscapes 
and architectural subjects. Works by him are to 
be seen at the Galleries of Berlin, Danzig, Cologne, 
Konigsberg, Munich, Rostock, &c. He also 
executed frescoes. He obtained medals at Vienna 
and at Berlin ; was the recipient of various Orders. 
He died 1902. 

SCU-MIL'T, Ole JOrgex, draughtsman and archi- 
tect, was born at Copenhagen, July lo, 1793. 
He studied for three years at the Copenhagen 
Academy, winning various honours, and then went 
to Italy, where he devoted himself to investiga- 
tions at Pompeii and Herculaneum, and in 1830 he 
published a number of outline drawings of the 
antique frescoes, and sketches of arabesques, orna- 
ments, &c. which liiid been brought to light in 
the buried cities. He died at Hamburg, February 
27, 1848. 

SCHMIDT, WiLLKM Hendbik, painter, was 
bom at Amsterdam in 1819. At first he combined 
the study of art with his father's trade of mattress- 
making, but a tour through Germany in 1840 con- 
tributed largely to his improvement. In 1842 he 
was professor in the Delft Academy. The Museum 
at Cologne and the ilunich New Pinakothek possess 
examples of his art. He died in 1849. 

SCHMITHS, Heinbich N., (Schmitz,) engraver, 
born at Kaisersworth, near Diisseldorf, in 1758. 
His father was a fisherman, but J. L. Krahe took 
him up and introduced him to art. He learned 
copper engraving in Paris under Wille. He died at 
Diisseldorf in 1790. Of his plates we m.ay name: 

A group of Cliildren ; after Rulens. 

Our Lord and St. John ; after Scarsellino. 

Christ and the Magdalene ; after Baroecio. 

SCHMITSON, Teutwart, born at Frankfort in 
1830, a self-taught artist, was the son of an Austrian 
officer. He painted his first large picture in Diis- 
seldorf. Thence he went successively to Carls- 
ruhe, Berlin, Italy, and Vienna. He wns fond of 
animals, and often p.ainted them. He etched one 
plate, ' The Return of Venus to Paphos.' He died 
at Vienna in 1863. 

SCHMUTZ, J. Johann RuDOLrn, a Swiss painter, 
born at Regensperg, in the canton of Zurich, in 1670. 
He was a scholar of Mathias Fuessli, and at first 
applied himself to the study of historical painting, 
but failing in this he turned his thoughts to por- 
traiture, to which his genius was better adapted. 
He visited England at a period when Sir Godfrey 
Kneller was in the zenith of his reputation, and 
imitated his style. He died in London in 1715. 

SCHMUTZER, Jakob Matihias, the son of 
Andreas Schmutzer, was bom at Vienna in 1733. 
After learning the rudiments of design in iiis native 
city under Donner, he went to Paris, where he 
studied under J. G. Wille. On his return to Vienna 
he was appointed director of the Academy estab- 
lished by the Empress, IJIaria Theresa. He died 
at Vienna in 1811. Among his plates are the 
following : 

Mutius Scaivola before Porsenna ; after Rubens. 
St. Gregory repulsing Theodoeius ; after the same. 



Veuus rising from the Sea ; nfter the same. 

Neptune and Thetis ; aftir the same. 

Wolf Hunt ; after Snyders. 

Portraits of Prince Kaunitz ; after Tocque, Steincr^ and 

The Empress Maria Theresa ; after Du Creiix. 
(And several other Imperial portraits.) 

SCHMUTZER, Johann Adam, tlie eldest son of 
Jakob Matthias Schmiitzer, born about 1700 at 
Vienna, and died in 1739, was an engraver of little 

SCHMUTZER, JosEru and Andreas, brothers 
of the foregoing, were natives of V'ienna. They 
are here included in one article, as they generally 
worked juintly on the same plate, signing it Jos. 
And. or And. Jos., as one or the other had done 
most of it. Andreas died at Vienna in 1741, and 
Joseph in 1740. We have, among twenty-live 
given by Nagler, the following plates by them: 

The Emperor Cliarles VI. ; after Met/tens. 
The Empress Elizabeth Cbristian; after Auerhach. 
Qiiesteuberg ; after ■Sei/holJ. 

Two Views of a Temple ; after G. Galli Bibiena. 
Three subjects from the History of Decius ; after the 
pictures by Rubens in tbe Liechtenstein Gallery. 

SCHMUTZER, Jdseph, a painter, born at Vienna 
in 1806, was a pupil of the Academy and an ex- 
cellent lithographer after the works of the old 
Geniian masters. He died in 1837. 

SCUNAPH AN, Abbaham, painter, bom at Leyden 
in 1651, painted portraits and tigure subjects in 
the style of Mieris, but his works are only to be 
seen in the collections of the Anhalt-Dessau family, 
to which he was painter. He died in 1691. 

SCHNATZLER, JoiiANN ULr.lcH, portrait painter, 
was born at Schuffliausen in 1704. He was a 
painter of some talent, and also practised sculpture, 
but his life was spoilt by intemperance. He died 
in 176.S. 

SCHNEBBELIE, Jacob C, bom in London in 
1760, acquiring some knowledge of drawing under 
Paul Saiidby, left his business as a confectioner, 
and commenced teaching drawing. He was 
appointed draughtsman to the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and made drawings for the 'Gentleman's 
Magazine' and ' Morris's Monastic Remains.' He 
was chiefly employed on antiquarian and topogra- 
phical subjects, which he drew and etched, or 
aqua-tinted. He died in London in 1792. His 
son, ItoBEiiT Bremmel Schnebbelik, was engaged 
in drawing for the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' and 
other periodicals. He was found in his room dead, 
apparently from want, about 1849. 

SCHNl5lDER, JoHAN.v Kaspar, painter, bom at 
Mayence in 1753, was a pupil of Heideloff, and 
painted altar-pieces, landsciipes, and portraits. In 
the New Pinakothek at Munich there is a landscape 
by him. He died in 1839. 

SCHNEIDER, N. N., painter, was born in 
Brabant in the first half of the 18th century. In 
1753 he was a member of the Pictura Societj', 
at the Hague, but afterwards migrated thence to 
Amsterdam. lie painted landscapes with birds 
and game. 

SCHNELL, Friedrich, engraver, born at Darm- 
stadt in 1790, a pupil of Haldenwang, has left an 
engraving of Strassburg Cathedral, after a drawing 
by August von Bayer, which displays great care 
and attention to detail. He died in 1834. 

SCHNELL, JoHANN, a portrait painter of Basle, 
who visited England about 1720, and died at 


SCHNELLBOTZ, Gabriel, (Schnellboltz, 
ScHNELLiiOLTZ,) engraver, is said by some to 
have been bom at Merseburg, by others at Wit- 
tenberg, iu 1536. It appears that, in addition 
to his pr.ictice as a designer and engraver, ho 
carried on the business of a printer and bookseller 
at Wittenberg, and published several works there 
in 1662 and 1563. 'The mark S on a perpendicular 
arrow is the rebus of his name. 

SCHNETZ, Jean Victor, painter, bom at Ver- 
sailles in 1787, studied under David, Regnault, 
Gros, and Gerard, and, in 1810, exhibited his ' Death 
of Colbert.' In 1825 he went to Italy, and by hi» 
study there improved greatly in style and colouring, 
as may be seen by the pictures he painted about 
that time. The 'Battle of Ascalon' was the best 
of these. On his return from Italy he painted for 
several Parisian churches, among which were Notre 
Dame de Lorette and St. Severin. In 1840 he 
became director of the French Academy at Rome ; 
but from 1847 to 1852 heresided in Paris, but went 
to Rome again, returning in 1866 to Paris, and dying 
there in 1870. Works : 

Coudo at tlie Battle of Senef. (Versailles.) 

Conde at Rocroi. (Do.) 

The Battle of Ascalon. (Do.) 

Several portraits. (Do.) 

Esther and Jlordecai. (An'as.) 

Funeral in the Koman Catacombs, (yantes.) 

Ceiling of the ' Septieme Salle,' in the Louvre. 

SCHNITZER, John', an early engraver on wood, 
who flourished about the year 1486. He executed 
the cuts for the edition of Ptolemy published at 
Ulm in the above year. The Map of the World 
is ornamented with ten heads, representing the 
winds, rudely cut. It is inscribed, Inscidptum est 
per Johannem Schnitzer de Arnsheim. 

SCHNITZLER, J. Michael, painter, born at 
Neuburg in 1785, the son of a painter, settled at 
Augsburg when he was eighteen years old, and 
worked at the Academy. Ho afterwards went to 
Stiittgart, Ulm, and Munich, where he worked as a 
scene-painter at the theatre. He painted animals in 
the style of Hondekoeter. He died at Munich in 
1862. Works : 

Berlin. JVat. Gallery. Partridges on a Table. 
Munich. A'eic Pinakothek, Hawk killing a Dove. 

„ „ Three pictures of Dead Wild- 


SCHNIZER, Joseph vo.v, painter, born at Wein- 
garten, near Ravensburg, in 1792, was the son of 
an Austrian Colonel, and studied at the Munich 
Academy. In 1812 he was obliged to enter the 
army, but after serving through the campaigns of 
1813, '14, and '15, he again took to art. He painted 
several military pictures for the King of Wnrtem- 
berg, among which were the 'Storming of Sens' 
and the ' Battle of Montereau.' He died at Stiitt- 
gart in 1870. 

Hans) Veit, painter, bom at Schneeberg, in the 
Erzgebirge, in 1764, was intended for the law, and" 
studied jurisprudence till he was twenty-five, when 
he entered the art school of Oeser at Leipsic. On 
the death of his father he gave himself up entirely 
to art, and settled at Konigsberg. In 1802 he paid 
visits to Paris and Vienna, and in 1803 was ap- 
pointed teacher of drawing in the Academy at 
Leipsic, and in 1816 director and professor. He 
died at Leipsic in 1841. 

Hans), historical painter, bom at Leipsic in 1794, 


first studied under his father, Hans Veit Schnorr, 
but in 1811 went to the Academy at Vienna, and 
in 1817 to Italy. He associated in Florence with 
Kumolir, proceeding afterwards to Rome, where he 
joined Cornelius, Overbeck, Veit, and Koch, and 
formed one of the great German colony then in the 
Eternal City. On Cornelius's recommendation he 
was commissioned to paint scenes from Ariosto, in 
fresco, in the Villa Massimi. In 1825 he was in- 
vited to Munich, but before returning to Germany 
he visited Sicily. In 1827 he went to Munich, 
where he became professor in the Academy, and 
<iecorated the ' Konigsbau ' with scenes from the 
' Xiebelungen Lied.' In 1835 he accepted a com- 
mission to paint scenes from the history of CharJe- 
magne. Barbarossa, and Rudolf of Hapsburg in 
the so-called ' Saalbau.' In 1846 he obeyed a 
summons to become professor of the Dresden 
Academy and director of the Picture Gallery, 
which posts he retained till 1871, when he was 
obliged to resign on account of ill health and loss 
of sight. In 1851 he visited London, and entered 
into an agreement with De Bunsen for an illus- 
trated Bible, which came out at Leipsic in parts. 
He made cartoons for some of the windows in St. 
Paul's. He died at Dresden in 1872. Besides the 
works above noted we may name : 

Berlin. Kat. Gallery. Siegfried returning from the 

Saxon "War. {Cartoon.) 
„ „ Laying out the dead in Etzel's 

Palace. (Dc.) 
Dresden. Gallery. Visit of Ananias to PauL 

(Cartoon for St. Paul's, 

„ „ Visit of Zacliarias, Elizabeth, 

and St. John to the Holy 

UuDJch. Pinakothik. Hagen and Dankwjirt refuse to 

greet Chrimhild. 

PINAND, painter, bom at Leipsic in 1789, was the 
brother of Julius Schnorr, and received, like him, 
his first instruction from their father, Hans Veit 
Schnorr. In 1804 he went to Vienna, and at- 
tended the Academy, where lie followed the style 
of Fiiger, and made his reputation by a scene from 
Goethe's 'Faust,' now in the Belvedere at Vienna. 
He was appointed custodian of the Belvedere, in 
Vienna, where he died in 1853. He etched a few 

SCHOBELT, Pato, German painter; born 
March 9, 1838, at Magdeburg ; studied first at the 
Academies of Dtisseldorf, Berlin, and Paris, and 
fiubsequently in Paris with Gleyre ; he received a 
sum of money from the Prussian Government to 
enable him to study in Italy, and he then settled 
at Breslau, where he held the post of Art Professor. 
His • Venus and Bellona' is in the Berlin National 
■Gallery, and his 'Rape of Proserpine' and 'Triumph 
of Genius ' are well known. 'The Festival Room 
of the Cultusministerium contains work by him. 
He died at Bre.vlau, May 2, 18y3. 

SCHODLBERGER, Johann Nepomuck, painter, 
horn at Vienna in 1779, was a pupil of the Institute 
in Vienna, and painted and etched landscapes, 
most of them with figures, such as, ' A View of the 
Traunfall,' ' The Waterfall at Tivoli,' ' The Interior 
of an Italian Church,' 'An ideal Landscape.' He 
■died at Vienna in 1853. 

SCHOEMACKER-DOYER, Jakob, painter, was 
bom at Crefeld about 1792. His father, who was 
Dutch, took his sou while still a boy to Amster- 
dam, where he became the pupil of S. Aodrieaeen. 

He also studied under M. van Br^e at Antwerp, 
after which he returned to Holland, and divided 
his time between Amsterdam and Zwolle. He 
painted portraits, genre, and sometimes history. 

SCHOENMACKERS, Jan Pietersz, or Pietersz 
Jax, born at Dort in 1755, was a pupil of Jacob 
van Stry, and painted views of cities in the manner 
of Vander Heyden. His pictures are to be found 
in the best modern collections in Holland. The 
figures in them were painted by the best of his 
contemporaries. At one of the exhibitions at Dort 
there were four pictures by him, in which the 
vessels and figures were painted by J. C. Schotel, 
and a similar work is in the Amsterdam Museum. 
Schoenniiickers died in 1842. 

SCHOENN, Alois, German painter and engraver; 
born March 11, 1826, at Vienna; became a pupil 
of Ftihrich and L. Russ, and for two years (1850 
to 1851) studied with Horace Vernet in Paris. He 
went through the Italian campaign of 1848, 
travelled in the East and in Hungary, and then 
settled at Vienna, where he painted landscape and 
genre, and also scenes from Jewish popular life. 
His 'Auszug der Studenten' is in the Museum, 
Innsbruck, and ' Zigeunerlager,' ' Sturm auf Lo- 
drone,"Volkstheaterauf Chioggia'and'Egyptische 
Hochzeit ' are effective examples of his work at its 
best. He obtained the Berlin gold medal in 1875, 
the Legion of Honour in 1878, and the Karl 
Ludwig medal (Viennn) and Francis Joseph Order 
in 1882 and 1883. He died at Krumpendorf 
(Carinthia), September 16, 1897. 

SCHOEVAERDTS, (or Schovaerts,) M., a 
Flemish painter of village festivals and merry- 
makings, is supposed to have been born in 1G67. 
His pictures are frequently met with in the 
Netherlands, and possess considerable merit. His 
baptismal name has not been ascertained. He 
signed his pictures, and his two known etchings, 
M. SchoevaerdU. Two of his works have been 
engraved under the titles ' Fete de campagne Hol- 
landaise,' and ' Retour de la Fete HoUandaise.' 
There are two village scenes by him in the Gallery 
of the Louvre. He has been sometimes confounded 
with Christopher Schwartz. 

SCHOLDEKER. Otto, German painter ; bom 
in 1834, at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, where he first 
studied ; was for some years resident in London ; 
died at Frankfort, 1902. 

SCHON, Bartel. See Schokgadkr. 

SCHON, Erhard, painter and draughtsman on 
wood, a pupil or imitator of Diirer, died in 1542. 
He resided at Nuremberg, and much of his 
early work is to be found in books published, 
there or at Lyons, by the firm of Koberger, 
especially in the 'Hortulus Animae' (editions of 
1517, 1518, 1520), in the Vulgates printed at 
Lyons by Sacon and Marion in 1519, 1520, 
1521, and 1522, and in the German Bible printed 
at Nuremberg by Peypus in 1524. In all these 
works his illustrations are mixed with those 
of Springinklee. His woodcuts are very imper- 
fectly described by Bartsch. His most important 
separate cut is a large rosary (Pass. iii. 35, 243). 
He designed a pack of playing-cards. About 1528 
he had relations with Bohemian printers and pub- 
lishers, and one of his best works is a title-border, 
with tlie tree of Jesse, bearing that date, which 
appeared in a Bohemian Bible printed at Prague 
in 1529. In 1538 he issued at Nuremberg a work 
on proportion and drawing, to which he added five 
new cuts, dealing with the proportions of l^e horse, 



in the third edition of 1542. He signed his wood- 
cuts with the monogram E, to wliicb he some- 
times added a pen, the emblem of the draughtsman 
(not to be mistaken for a woodcutter's knife). C. D. 

SCHON, Friedrich Wilhelm, painter, bom at 
Worms in 1810, studied at Darmstadt and Munich. 
He painted social subjects, and lamp and fire-light 
scenes, such as — ' The reading Maiden,' ' Going to 
Church in the Bernese Oberland,' ' Return home of 
the Soldier,' ' South German Emigrants in a North 
German Port,' ' Meeting of an Art Society,' witli 
fifty portraits, &c. He published a few lithographs. 
He died at Munich in 1868. 

SCHON, JoHANN GoTTLOB, flourished at Dresden 
in the first half of the 18th century, and was a 
pupil of Alexander Thiele. He painted and etched 
several landscapes. He went in 1740 with Isinael 
Mengs to Rome, where he died. 

SCHON, LuDwiG. See Schongauer, 

SCHON, Martin. See Schonqaoer. 

SCHONBERGER, Lorenz, painter, was born at 
Voslau, near Vienna. He was a pupil of the 
Vienna Academy under Wutki. In 1798 he was 
living in Bohemia. He afterwards visited Italy, 
England, Paris, and Amsterdam. There are pictures 
by him in the Galleries of Vienna and Hamburg. 
He etched twenty plates, and died about 1840. 

SCHONBRUNNER, Karl, painter, born at 
Vienna in 1832, a pupil of the Academy under 
Fiihrich, studied also at Rome and Venice. His 
great work is ' Bishop Ambrose repulsing the 
Emperor Theodosius.' He died in the Castle of 
Hirschstetten in 1877. 

SCHONER, Gustav Friedrich Adolph, painter, 
bom at Massbach, near Schweinfurt, in 1774, was 
first a pupil of Konrad Geiger in Schweinfurt, then 
of Gratf in Dresden, and lastly of David in Paris. 
He lived for a long time in Bern, where he painted 
a portrait of Pestalozzi, and a good profile of 
Napoleon. In 1807 he went to Italy, and in after 
years we find him at Halberstadt. He executed 
several excellent copies of pictures after Guido, the 
Carracci, &c. He died at Bremen in 1841. 

SCHONFELD, Heinricu, painter, was born at 
Dresden in 1809. He at first painted scenery for 
theatres, but afterwards took to architectural paint- 
ing, chiefly of old German buildings. He died at 
Munich in 1845. 

SCHONFELDT, JoHANN Heinrich, (Schenfeld,) 
painter, was born at Biberach in 1609, and was a 
scholar of Johann Sichelbein. He visited _ the 
principal cities in Germany, and had already given 
proof of talent, when he determined to visit Italy. 
On his arrival at Rome he found employment in 
the church of S. Elisabetta de' Fornari, and in the 
Palazzo Orsini. On his return to Germany ne 
practised as an historical painter at Vienna, Munich, 
Salzburg, Augsburg, and other cities. Among his 
better works are his pictures of ' Christ on the way 
to Calvary,' and the ' Descent from the Cross,' in 
the church of the Holy Cross at Augsburg, where 
he resided in tlie latter part of his life. In the 
Senate-house of that city there is a picture by 
Schonfeldt representing the race of Hippomenes 
and Atalanta. He died at Augsburg about 1680. 
We have a few slight etchings hy Schonfeldt, among 
■which are the following : 

A Head of our Saviour. 

A pa.storal subject, with a Shepherd playing on a flute, 

unJ a Shepherdess holdiag a triangle. 

A Landscape, with a Man sitting on a rock. 
A Bacchanal with children. 

SCHONGAUER (or SCHON), Bartel, engraver, 
is supposed to have flourished at Ulm about 1479. 
According to some he was the brother of Martin 
Schongauer, whose style he followed. But his 
real name and the facts of his life are involved in 
obscurity. His prints are usually marked with 
a B. and an S. in the old German character, with 

a cross between them, thus, '\3PC^* 1''^ fo^* 

lowing plates by him may be named : 

1. on the Moimt of Olives ; a copy from one of 
M. Si-honifaner^s * Passion ' sei'ies. 

2. The Hearing of the Cross ; ditto. 

3. The Two Lovers (reversed from the plates of Israel 
van Meckenen and the Jfaster W. ). 

4. A Concert in the Garden. 

5. The Fool and the Cook. {Douce Collection, Oxford.) 

6. The Beggars with a Wheelbarrow. 

7. Mother with Children and Shield. 

S. The Peasant with Shield and Garlic Plants. 
9. Armorial Bear.ugs of the families of Kohrbach and 

10. A Family of Monkeys. 

11. A Wild Man amid ornamental foliage. 

12. Ornamental Foliage. 

(All these except No. 5 are in the British Museum). 

For fuller information as to this master see 
Naumann's Archio., Zweiter Jahrgang, § 168. 

SCHONGAUER (named SCHON), IUrtin, 
painter and engraver, was born at Colmar about 
1445-50. His ancestors had ranked among the 
patrician families of Augsburg for at least two 
centuries. The namp is derived from Schongau, 
on the Lech, in Bavaria ; "Schon" — or its equiva- 
lent " Hiib.sch " — is an epithet applied to Martin the 
artist, and not a family name ; it was used by old 
writers in many languages, a.s "Beau Martin," " II 
Bel Martino," «S:c. Caspar Schongauer, goldsmith, 
emigrated, not later than 1440, to Colmar, where he 
became a citizen in 1445. He was Uving in 1481. 
He had five sons : LuDWiG, a painter and indifferent 
engraver, Caspar, Georg, and Paul, goldsmiths, and 
Martin. The order of seniority among the brothers 
is unknown. Caspar, Ludwig and Paul received 
Diirer at Colmar in 1492, alter Martin's death ; 
Georg was Diirer's host at Basle. In 1465 Martin 
Schongauer, of Colmar, matriculated at Leipsic 
University. In 1469 he was already a house- 
holder at Colmar. Two drawings by him in the 
British Museum belong to that year, one being 
dated in the artist's own hand, the other in that of 
Diirer. It seems clear that Schongauer, in addition 
to learning the goldsmith's craft, as a foundation 
for his skill as an engraver, received his training 
as a painter in the Netherlands. Lambert Lombard, 
in a letter to Vasari, describes him as a pupil of 
Rogier van der Weyden, whose influence is ap- 
parent in Schorigauer's masterpiece, 'The Madonna 
of the Rose Garden,' dated on the back 1473, in 
St. Martin's Church, Colmar. An old copy of this 
picture, on a small scale, in the collection of Mrs. 
Gardner at Boston, preserves the complete com- 
position of the original, which has been greatly cut 
down. In 1477 Schongauer bought a new house. 
In 1488 he founded an anniversary mass for his 
parents and himself at St. Martin's. In 1489 he 
was a citizen of Breisach, and there he died, ap- 
parently unmarried, in 1491 (probably on February 
2, certainly before June). He seems to have 
painted his own portrait in 1483 : a copy of this, 
much later, by Burgkmair, is in the Munich Gal- 
lery, another old copy, with the date 1453, at Siena. 

vMie iM/r^i -uv 6U •Jarden^ oy- rJlcc 

'ff-orf^n- ch:/t< 


No picture is certified by signature or document 
as Scliongnuer's work. The pictures nearest to 
liim in style, alter the Cohnar Madonna, are two 
small 'Holy Families,' at Munich and Vienna, and 
an 'Adoration of the Sheplierds,' at Berlin. Two 
wings of an altar-piece from Isenlieim, represent- 
ing the 'Annunciation' on one side, 'The Virgin 
adoring Christ 'and ' St. Anthony ' on the other, are 
the best pictures called by his name in the Coluiar 
Museum ; the 'Passion,' in sixteen subjects, is a 
school work; so is the so-called ' Schongaiier 
Altar' in the Ulm Minster. There are more than a 
hundred engravings authenticated by his signature, 
the initials M.S., with a cross, one arm of which 
is hooked. Schongauer's Madonnas and Saints 
are distinguished by their tenderuess, purity, and 
reverence ; his type of Christ is also most retine d. 
He was not a consummate drauglitsiuan, but in 
tlie technique of liiie-engravin< was unrivalled in 
the 6fteenlh century, and scarcely surpassed by 
Diirer. His ornamental plates, such as the 'Censor' 
and ' Pastural Staff,' are extreTuely beautiful. The 
best collection of his engravings is at Berlin. A 
good one is in the British Museum. All the litera- 
ture relating to Schongaiier is cited and summarized 
in ' Bibliographie des Oiivrages et Articles con- 
cernant Martin Schongauer, &c.,' by Andr^ Waltz, 
Colmar, 1903. C. D. 

Of Schongauer's plates from his own compositions 
the following are perliaps tlie best : 

1. The Angel of the Annuuciatiou. 

2. * Ecce AnciIJa Domini.' 

3. The Angelic Salutation. 

4. The Nativity. 

5. The Small Nativity. 

*). The Adoration of the Kiags. 

7. The Flight into Egypt. 

8. The Bapti.'iin of Cliri.,t, 

9-20. A ' Passiou ' series of twelve plates. 

21. The large Keariug the Crons. 

22. ou the Cross, with several figures. 

23. Christ on the Cruss, with the \"irgin and St. Joho 


24. Christ on the Cros.s, with soldier.? dividing his 

95. The ' Large Christ ou the Cross,' with angels re- 
ceiving the blood. 

28. A Christ ou the Cross, with the Virgin and St. Jolin 
27. ' Noli me Tangere.' 

25. The small ' Virgin and Child." 

29. The large ' Virgin and Child.' 

30. Virgin and Child with Parrot and Cushion. 

31. Virgin and Child on a ]!ank, before a wattled feuce. 

32. Virgin and Child, in a Court. 

33. Virgin and Child, on a crescent moon. 

34. Death of the Virgin. 
35-46. The Twelve Apostles. 

47. St. Anthony the Hermit, with the bell and pig. 

48. St. Anthouy tormented by Demons. 

49. St. Christopher. 

50. St. George slaying the Dragon with a spear. 

51. St. George slaying the Dragon with a sword. 

52. St. George riding over the Dragon. 

53. St. James the Greater on a white horse. 

54. St. John the B.iptist, with the Agnus Dei. 

55. St. John the Evangelist writing the Apocalypse. 

56. St. Lawrence with palm and gridiron. 

57. St. Martin and the Beggar. 

58. The Archangel Michael and the Dragon. 

59. The larger St. Sebastian. 

60. The smaller St. Sebastian. 

61. St. Stephen with the Balm-branch. 

62. A Bishop. 

63. St. Agnes with Palm and Lamb. 

64. St. Barbara with Tower. 

65. The large St. Catherine of Alexandria. 

66. The small St. Catherine of Alexandria. 

67. St. Veronica with the Sudariura. 

68. The Infant Sanour with the Imperial Orb. 

69. Christ in the Act of Benediction. 

70. The • Man of Sorrows.' 

71. God the Father, enthroned. 

72. God the Father, enthroned, with the Virgin and 


73. God the Father crowning the Virgin. 

74-77. The Creature Symbols of the Four Evangelists. 

78. The Five M'ise Virgins. 

79. The Five Foolisli Virgins. 

80. Bust of a ' Foohsh Virgin.' 

81. Pea.sant going to Market, with his wife an 1 child. 

82. Man with an Ass and its Foal. 

83. Two Armed Pedestrians conversing (?). 

84. Two Yoi:ths quarrelling. 

85. Eleph.ant with Howdah (,?). 

86. An Imaginary Beast. 

87. A Stag anil Doe. 

88. A Family of Pigs. 

89. Male aiid Female Figures supporting shields. 

90. The Head of a Bishop's Pastoral staff. 

91. A Censer. 

92. A Monstrance. 

93-102. Ten I'lates of Ornamental Foliage. 

(All these, with the exception of half-a-dozen, are 
JD the British Museum.) 

SCHONINGEK, Leo, horn at Vv'eil inWiirtem- 
berg in 1811, went in 1825 to the Boisser^e Insti- 
tute to lithograph old German pictures. In 1827 
he studied at the Munich Academy under Cornelius 
and Stieler. He afterwards lithographed several 
pictui-es in the Leuchtemberg Gallery. He died in 

SCHUNMANN, Joseph, painter, was born at 
Vienna, April 19, 1799. He studied at the Vienna 
Academy, and afterwards at Home, and is known 
principally by pictures painted for various churches, 
at Trieste and Vienna. He was a member of the 
Vienna Academy. 

SCHOOCK, or SCHOOK, Hendmk, the son of 
GiSBERT ScHooCK, a painter of Bommel, bom at 
Utrecht about 1670. He painted flowers and fruit. 

SCHOOF, Gerhabdt, historical painter, was 
born .at Mechlin in the 16th century. He vcas the 
son of one Jakob Schoof, and perhaps the grand- 
son of Jan Schoof. In 1.575 he was admitted into 
the Antwerp Corporation of St. Luke, of whioli he 
was dean iu 1588. He had a large number of 
pupils. In 1612 he gave an altar-piece to the 
church of Hoboken, on condition that every year 
he and his wife should be carried to the kermesse 
in that town in a covered car and provided with a 
good dinner. In 1614 a Willem Schoof, and in 
1622-3 a Jan ScHoor, who may have been his 
sons, were inscribed on the registers of St. Luke, 
the former as a master, the latter as a pupil. 

SCHOOF, Jan, a painter of Mechlin in (he 16lh 
century. In 1514 he was commissioned by the 
magistrates of his native city to paint the council 
summoned by Charles the Bold. The picture was 
placed in the church of St. Kumbold, and waa 
destroyed by the Image-breakers. 

SCHOOF, Rudolf. A Flemish painter of this 
name was appointed to the household of Louis 
XIII. of France, and numbered Adriaan De Bie 
among his pupils. 

SCHOONEBECK, Adbiaan, a Dutch engraver, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1650. He engraved a 
variety of frontispieces and other plates fur books, 
and published, in two volumes, the 'habits' of all 
the religious orders in Europe. He died at Moscow 
in 1714. 

SCHOONJANS, Anthonie, called Parrhasius, 
born at Antwerp in 1650, was a scholar of Erasmus 
Quellin, under whom he studied until he was 
nineteen years of age, when he travelled to Italy 



in search of improvement. During a residence of 
ten years at Rome he distinguished himself by an 
esemphiry appHcation to his studies, and painted 
eotiie pictures for the churches, which gained him 
considerable reputation. In 1678 he was invited 
to the court of Vienna by the Emperor Leopold, 
who appointed hiiii his painter. The desire to visit 
England induced him to request leave of absence and 
he came to lliis country in the reign of King William. 
His portrait, painted by himself, was in the collec- 
tion at Strawberry Hill. On his way biick to Vienna 
he passed some time at Diisseldorf, where he painted 
some pictures for the Elector Palatine, who pre- 
sented him with a gold medal and chain. He died 
at Vieima in 1726. There is an example of his 
work in the Munich Piuakothek. 

SCHOOli, Nicolas van, born at Antwerp in 1666, 
painted fanciful groups, in the flower-pieces by 
Kysbraeck and others. He also made designs for 
tapestry at Antwerp and Brussels. He died at 
Antwerp in 1726. In the Museum at (ihent there 
is an equestrian portrait by him of Cliarles II. of 
Sjiain, painted when that prince was about eighteen. 
SCUOOHE, J. v., a Flemish engraver, who 
flourished about the year 1650. Among other 
.prints he engraved a plate of St. Vincent, after 
Anthonie Sallaert. 

SCHOOTEN, Fbans van, was an amateur painter 
of fruit and flowers, who practised at Leyden in the 
17tli century, and was a professor at the University. 
It is supposed that he was related to Joris van 
Schooten. In some of his pictures, figures were 
inserted bv Frederic Moucheron. 

SCH(.)OTEN, JoRis van. was born at Leyden 
about 1587. He was a pupil of Coenrad van der 
Maes of Leyden, and was already a portrait pamter 
(,f repute at the age of twenty. In 1610 he com- 
bined with other artists to sign a petition to the 
local authorities of Leyden, requesting the neces- 
fiary privileges for the formation of a Guild of St. 
Luke. The large portrait pieces of many figures 
which he usually painted are characterized by good 
colour and a knowledge of chiaroscuro, and have 
much individuality, thougli they are poor in com- 
position. Several of them were portrait groups of 
the Civil Guard or Shooting Guild of Leyden in 
the years 1626, 1628, and 1650, and are now pre- 
served in the Museum of that city, where are also 
two curious allegorical pictures. In the Rijks 
Museum at Amsterdam there is an ' Adoration of 
the Kings ' by him. Jan Lievens and Abraham 
van den Tempel were for a time his pupils. Suy- 
derhoef engraved one of his portraits, and J. G. 
Van Vliet a ' Christ and the Woman of Samaria ' ; 
it is inscribed J. van Schooten, 1636. Schooten 

died in 1658. rr, ,^ • u 

SCHOPF, Joseph, painter, born at Telfs in the 
Oberinuthal in 1745, was instructed by Martin 
Knoller. and then went in 1776 to Rome, where he 
studied Raphael and Correggio, and came under the 
influence of Mengs. On his return he painted 
frescoes for many churches in the neighbourhood 
of Innspruok. He died in 1822. 

SCHOPFER, Hans, painter, a native of Munich, 
was born about the middle of the 16th century. 
His works have been given to Hans Schaufelin and 
A. Diirer. He painted the following portraits : the 
Countess Euphrosyne of Oettingen and Benigna von 
Lamberg at Scbleissbeim. Caspar von Pienyenau 
.n the Moritz Chapel at Nuremberg ; and several 
altar-pieces, among which was one for the Pilgrims' 
Church at Ramersdorf, near Munich. He died in 

1610. He signed his works with his initials and a 
roughly-drawn spoon. 

SCHOPIN, Henry FB^ofiBic, painter, was bom 
at Lubeck, of French parents, in 1804. He studied 
in Paris under Gros, and gained the ' prix de Rome' 
in 1830. He was several times preraiated, and was 
a constant exhibitor at the Salon from 1830 onwards. 
He died in 1880. The following are examples of 
hie work : 

Douai. Museum, Tjast Moments of the Cenci. 

Metz. „ Battle of Hohenlinden. 

Toulouse. „ Jacob and Labau. 

Versailles. „ Portrait of Cambac^res. 

„ ,, Portrait of Marshal Bidal. 

„ „ The Taking of Antioch in 1098. 

And a series of pictures illus- 
trating the legend of St. S»- 
tnruimis for the chapel of the 
saint at Foutainebleau. 

SCHOPPE, Jdlids, painter, born at Berliu in 
1797. He received his art education in Rome, 
where he made a special study of the works of 
Raphael, Correggio, and Titian. In 1825 he painted 
for his reception picture at the Berlin Academy a 
'Death of Frederick William III.,' which attracted 
some attention. He decorated Prince Charles' 
country house at Glienicke, near Potsdam, with 
mythological paintings, and was also much em- 
ployed as a portrait painter. His oil pictures in 
miniature are generally more pleasing than his 
larger works. Among his most successful portraits 
are those of the Duchess of Orleans and of the 
Count and Countess von Amim. 

SCHOKN, Karl, born at Dusseldorf in 1800, 
studied at Munich under Cornelius, from 1824 to 
1827 in Paris under Gros and Ingres, and from 1832 
onwards worked in Wach's atelier at Berlin. He 
soon produced a number of pictures, among which 
were, 'Mary Stuart and Rizzio,' 'Charles V. at 
St. Yuste,' ' Cromwell before the Battle of Dunbar." 
From Berlin he went to Munich, where he pro- 
duced several works of a mythical and allegorical 
nature. He visited Italy from time to time on 
short journeys, and so supplied himself with ma- 
terial for fresh pictures. He painted in the Arcades 
of the Munich Hof-garten. In 1847 he was elected 
professor of the Munich Academy, which post he 
held till his death, which took place at Munich in 
1850. Works : 

BerUn. yational Gallery. Card-players. 

j^ „ Pope Paul III. before Luther's 

Munich. N. Piuakothek. The Deluge; unfinished, owing 

to the artist's death. 

SCHORPP, Michel, a German painter of the 
15th century, known only by a print in the ' Biblio- 
theque Nationale ' of Paris. It is a Madonna in 
the Byzantine manner, and bears the following 
inscription: Michel Shorpp, maeler m Vim, 1496. 

SCHORQUKNS, Jan, a Dutch engraver, who 
resided at Madrid about the year 1620. He was 
an excellent engraver of title-pages, of which he 
executed many for Spanish books from 1618 to 
1630. Some are signed J. van Schorquens, 
fecit, in Madrid. His best plate is a View of 
Lisbon in the official report of the coronation of 
Phillip III. 

SCHOTANUS, PiETER, a Dutch painter of the 
17th century, who probably practised as an ama- 
teur at Leeuwarden. He painted village fetes, 
battles, and kindred subjects. 

SCHOTEL, Christina, the daughter of Johnim 
Chrietianus Schotel, was born at Dordrecht in 1818. 


She was taught by her father and by her brotiier 
Petrus. and painted flowers, fruit, and still-life. 
She died at Aardenburg in 1854. 

SCHOTEL, JoiiANN Christianus, a distinguished 
marine painter, was born at Dort in 1787. He 
was a scholar of A. lleulemans, and subsequently 
of Martin Schouman. At the conclusion of his 
pupilage he devoted himself to the study of nature, 
for which purpose ho would, like Backhuysen, 
go to sea in an open boat. From 1814 to 1817 
he worked in concert witli Martin Schouman, on 
two pictures representing the retreat of the French 
from Dort, and the bombardment of Algiers. 
Schotel received honours from his own sovereign 
and other crowned heads, and was a member of 
several academies and societies of arts. His pic- 
tures were at one time eagerly sought after. He 
died at Dort the 21st of December, 1838. 

SCHOTEL, Petrus Johann, bom at Dort in 1808, 
a son and pupil of Joliann Christianus Schotel, in 
whose footsteps he followed. His best picture is 
'The Anchorage near Tesel in stormy weather.' 
He died at Dresden in 1865. 

SCHOTT, August, bom at Giessen in 1811, 
studied first under Diicor^e, and afterwards at the 
Stadel Institute, in Frankfort, and at the M'mich 
Academy. He made several pencil drawings, and 
painted small historical pictures, but aftem'ards 
became a follower of Overbeck and Steinle, several 
of whose pictures he reproduced in lithography. 
He died in 184.3. 

SCHOUMAN, Aart, a Dutch painter and en- 
graver, bom at Dort in 1710, was a painter of some 
merit, particular!}' of birds, which he painted i:; 
the manner of Hondekoeter and Weeninx. He 
also painted landscapes with animals, portraits, 
small historical pictures, and subjects from the 
poets, especially from Ovid's ■ Metamorphoses. ' He 
was a good draughtsman and colourist, and at one 
time engraved on crystal. His rather poor mezzo- 
tints are after Gerard Dou, Schalcken, Paul Potter, 
Frans Hals, &c. He resided constantly at the 
Hague, where he died in 1792. 

SCHOUMAN, Martincs, marine painter, bom at 
Dort in 1770, first studied under Versteeg, and then 
under his uncle, Aart Schouman. He excelled in 
the representation of shi[is, and of still and troubled 
waters. His chief pictures are, 'The Bombard- 
ment of Algiers,' ' The Departure of the French 
from Dort,' painted in conjunction with Schotel. 
He died in 1853. His son Isaac, born at Dordrecht 
in 1801, was liis pupil, and painted genre pictures 
and marine subjects. 

SCHOYEX, C., a Norwegian landscape painter, 
who studied under Eckersburg and Yude, and 
practised in Germany. He died while still young 
in 1870. 

SCHKAMJI, JoHANN Heinrioh, born at Teschen, 
in Austrian Silesia, made pencil-portraits of Thor- 
waldsen, Mendelssohn, Andersen, Metternich, Cor- 
nelius, Grimm, and others. He died at Vienna in 

SCHRAMM, JoHANK Michael, born at Sulzbach, 
in Bavaria, in 1772, was first a gold worker, and 
then went to Munich in 1793, where he practised 
miniature painting and engraving. In 1801 he 
went to the Academy at Vienna, and studied for 
three yeats, after which he returned and settled at 
Munich, where he died in 1835. 

SCHRAUDOLPH, Claudius von, German 
painter; bom February 4, 1843, at Munich ; became 
a pupil of his father, and subsequently worked 

VOL. V. E 

under Anschiitz and Hiltensperger at the Munich 
Academy. After travel in Italy and France he 
settled at Stuttgart, where he became Director of 
tlie Art School. Painted frescoes at the Niiremberg 
Exhibition of 1884, and his canvases, ' Faust and 
Wagner' and 'A Venetian Concert,' are well 
kno^-n. He was the recipient of many Orders of 
distinction. He died at Stuttgart in 1891. 

SCHRAUDOLPH, Johann von, born at Oberts- 
dorf, in Algau, in 1808, received his first instruction 
at tlie Munich Academy, principally under Cornelius 
and Schlotthauer. He helped tlie latter with the 
frescoes of the Glyptotliek, and then with his 
scenes from the history of Moses in the church of 
All Saints. In 1844 he went to Rome, and on his 
retum was commissioned to decorate the cathedral 
at Spires. He died at Munich in 1879. Of his 
pictures we may name : 

Munich. Pinakotkeh St. Agnes with tlie Lamb. 

„ „ The Virgin and Child. 

„ ,, Euth and Naomi. 

„ „ The Ascension of Christ. 

„ ,, The Miraculous Draught of 


„ „ Adoration of the Kings. 

„ „ Worship of the Virgin. 

„ „ Clirist healing the Sick. 

,■ „ Christ nailed to the Cross. 

SCHREIBER, Moeitz, was working at Leipoio 
from 1539 to 1556, in collaboration with one 
Heinrich Schi.'idt, a painter whose name occurs 
between 1501 and 1541, in the town archives. 
Schreiber appears to have been the better artist of 
the p.-iir. 

SCHREUEL, .Iohann Christian Albrecht, 
draughtsman and painter, bom at Maestriclit in 
1773, was an oflScer in the Dutch service, but gave 
up his profession for the practice of art. He 
studied at Berlin, and afterwards at Dresden, with 
Grassi, under whose guidance he became a good 
miniaturist, and painted portraits of many dis- 
tinguished persons. He also occupied himself 
much in making copies from the pictures in the 
Dresden Gallery. 

SCHREYER, Adolf, German painter, born May 
9, 1828, at Frankfort-on-the-Maine ; became a 
pupil of the Staedel Institute at Frankfort, and 
also studied at the Munich Academy ; went through 
the Crimean campaign as war artist, and settled 
finally in Paris in 1862. When the Franco- 
Gennan war broke out in 1870 he returned to 
Cronberg. He obtained distinction as a painter 
of battle-pieces and horses. Examples of hi.s work 
are in the Galleries of Berlin, Hamburg, Suhwerin, 
and Washington. He obtained medals in Paris in 
1864, 1865, and 1867. He died at Cronberg, July 
29. 1899. 

SCHRIECK, Otto Marcellis van. called Snuf- 
FELAER, a Dutch painter, born at Amsterdam in 
1613. It is not known by whom he was instructed, 
but he acquired considerable celebrity by his excel- 
lence in a very singular branch of art. He painted 
reptiles, insects, and curious plants, which he de- 
signed with surprising fidelity, and finished with 
extraordinary care. He resided some time in Paris, 
and afterwards visited Florence, where his talents 
were distinguished by the Grand Duke, Naples, and 
Rome, where he passed several years. He painted 
entirely from nature, to which end he is said to 
have kept a kind of museum of serpents, vipers, 
rare insects, and other curiosities. His pictures 
are found in the choicest collections in Holland. 



There is a good example of his art in the National 
Gallery. lie died at Amsterdam in 1673. 

SCHRODER, Friedrich, was born at Hesse Cassel 
in 17C8, and was a scholar of Klauber, an engraver of 
Augsburg. He confined himself chiefly to land- 
scapes, and engraved several after Swanevelt, 
Vernet, La Hire, Karel du Jardin, and Bemrocl, in 
the manner of Woollett. He also assisted in the 
backgrounds and ornamental parts of plates in 
which the figures were executed by other artists, 
among which were the ' Sabines ' by Massard, and 
' Henry IV.'s Entry into Paris ' by Toschi. 

SCHRODER, Georg Engelhard, a Swedish 
painter, Ijorn at Stockhulm in 1684. He died in 

SCHRODER, Hans, a German engraver, wlio 
flourished about tlie year 1600. He engraved some 
plates of ornamental foliage, &c. 

SCHRODER, JoHANN Heinrich, born at Meinin- 
gen in 1757, learned his art of Tischbein in Cassel, 
and practised as a portrait painter. He worked 
in Hanover and Brunswick, and then travelled 
through the Netherlands and England, where he 
painted several members of the Royal Family. 
On his return he painted a portrait of Frederick 
William II., King of Prussia. He died at Meinin- 
gen in 1812. 

SCHRODER, Karl, painter, was born at Bruns- 
wick in l.'-02. From 1817 to 1824 he attended the 
Academy Schools at Dresden, and then settled for 
a time at Munich. On his return to liis native 
town lie became known chiefly as a painter of 
humorous genre pictures, many of which were 
further popularized by lithographs. 

SCHRODER, Karl, engraver, born in 1761, at 
Brunswick, where, after studying in Augsburg and 
Paris, he settled down and engraved many plates, 
chiefly after pictures in the now dispersed Salz- 
dahlum collection, such as: 

Abraham's Sacrifice ; after Lievens. 
The Marriage Contract ; nfler Jan Steen. 
The Youug Man in the Cloak ; after Eoninck. 
Young Woman of Salzburg ; after Peine. 

He etched a few plates. 

SCHRODTER, Adolf, born in Schwedt in 1805. 
In 1820 he entered the studio of Professor Buck- 
horn, the engraver ; in 1829 he went to Dusseldorf, 
and studied under W. von Schadow ; in 1831 he 
began to paint, and in 1855 was made professor to 
the Polytechnic at Carlsruhe, wliich post he re- 
signed in 1872. He died at Carlsruhe in 1875. 
He produced many book illustrations, and the 
Berlin National Gallery contains examples of his 

SCHROEDER, WiLLlAMHowARD,English black- 
and-white artist ; the first real artist that South 
Africa produced ; best known as a caricaturist ; 
many of his political cartoons in the ' Press ' of 
Pretoria were copied by London papers ; his early 
death occurred at Pretoria, in August 1892. 

SCHROTER, JoHANN Friedrich, engraver, born 
at Leipeic in 1770, was a pupil of Bause. In 1813 
he was appointed engraver to the Leipsic Uni- 
versity. He executed some plates after Rembrandt, 
but his works were chiefly anatomical. He died at 
Leipsic in 1836. 

SCHROTER, JouANN Friedrich Karl Konstajj- 
TLS, painter, born at Schkeuditz, between Halle 
and Leipsic, in 1795. In 1811 he went to the 
Drawing School at Leipsic, and in 1817 to Dresden, 
where he entered the utelier of ProfcBSjr Pochmann. 


In 1819 he returned to Leipsic.wherehe earned his 
living by portrait-painting, which, however, he 
eventually abandoned, on the advice of Schr.orr, for 
genre. In 1826 he settled at Berlin, where iie 
died in 1835. His principal pictures are: 

Mother and Daughter Spinning. 

The Sermon. 

The Music Teacher. (National Galleiy, Uerliii.) 

The Village School. 

The Sale of a Painter's Effects. 

SCHTSCHEDRIN , Semen Fedorowitsch, 
painter, a native of St. Petersburg, who after study- 
ing at the Academy went to Italy, and on his re- 
turn became painter to Catherine II. He painted 
Italian landscapes. He died in 1804. 

SCHTSCHEDRIN, Silvester Fedorowitsch, 
painter, born at St. Petersburg in 1791, received 
his early training at the Academy under Iwanoff 
and Worobieif, and then studied in Germany and 
Italy. He showed a great talent for landscape. 
Iq the Hermitage at St. Petersburg are 'The 
Colosseum,' and the ' Lake of Nemi,' by him. He 
died at Sorrento in 1830. 

SCHDBACK, Gottlieb Emil, German painter ; 
born June 28, 1820, at Hamburg, where he became 
a pupil of G. Hardortf; he also studied with 
Cornelius and Hess at Munich, and, at Diisseldorf, 
with Jordan, while from 1843 to 1848 he worked 
at Rome. In 1856 he settled at Diisseldorf. His 
works include an altar-piece, ' Christ on the Mount 
of Olives,' a portrait of Gensler, ' Das Wieder- 
sehen,' ' Vorstellung des Neuen Schulmeisters,' 
' Ausgang aus der Kirche,' &c. He died in 1902. 

SCHUBART, Christopher, a German painter of 
the 17th century, a native of Ingolstadt. He prac- 
tised principally at Municli, but is said to have 
painted a portrait of Queen Anne of England. 

SCHUBART, Pieter, (Schubert,) was a native 
of Germany, but resided at Venice about the year 
1696. Professor Christ ascribes to him the engrav- 
ings marked with the letters P. S. d. E., which he 
interprets, " Peter Schubert de Ehrenberg." 

SCHUBERT, Franz Adgdst, German painter 
and etcher ; born at Dessau, November 10, 1806 ; 
became a pupil of Becks, and also studied at the 
Dresden Academy and at Munich under Cornelius 
and Schnorr. After residence at Florence, Rome, 
Naples, and Venice, where he worked assiduously, 
he returned, at the invitation of Cornelius, to Berlin. 
In 1860 he was appointed professor at Anhalt- 
Dessau. Hia works include ' Macht der Musik,' 
' Grablegung,' ' Urtheil Salomonis,' and many sub- 
jects of a Biblical character. Twenty-five of his 
etchings were from Santi's Psyche frescoes in the 
Farnesina. He died at Dessau in 1893. 

SCHUBERT, Johann David, painter and en- 
graver, born at Dresden in 1761, studied there 
under Hutin and Klass, and became in 1781 
painter at the porcelain works at Meissen. In 
1800 he became professor of historical painting, 
and alternate Director of the Dresden Academy. 
He executed many etchings for books. He died 
at Dresden in 1822. 

SCHUBLER, A. Q. J., a German engraver, who 
resided at Niiremberg about the year 1626. He 
was chiefly employed in engraving portraits fur the 
booksellers, which are very indifferently executed. 
He engraved part of the plates for a work entitled 
' Icones Bihliopolarum et Typograpliorum,' pub- 
lished at Aldorfand Niiremberg in 1026. 

SCHULEIN, or SCHUCHLIN, Hans, painter of 
the Bcliool of Ulm, born about 1440, died at Ulm, 


1505. The close connection between the Hof 
altar-piece (see under Wolgemut) and Schtilein's 
picture at Tiefenbronii, together with documentary 
proof of the painter's connection with Niireraberg. 
renders it probable that he was, like Wolgemut, 
a pupil of Hans Pleydenwurif in that city. Less 
dramatic and powerful than the painters of 
Niiremberg, he was endowed with a higher sense 
of beauty than they. His works are very careful 
in execution, and are remarkable for the depth and 
earnestness of the feeling, and show considerable 
knowledge of form. His colour scheme is widely 
removed from that of the Niiremberg masters, and 
is more closely related to the early school of 
Swabia of the first half of the 15th century. By 
1469 Scliiilein must already have been a painter 
of repute, for he was chosen by the Gemmingen 
family to paint the altar-piece for tlie church at 
Tiefenbronn, the burying-place of their family. 
Later on, in conjunction with his son-in-law Zeit- 
blom, he produced an altar-piece for the church of 
MiinsLer near Augsburg, and another for the church 
of St. Maurice at Lorch. He was head of the 
Painters' Guild at Ulm in 1493, and between 1497 
and 1502 was connected with the building com- 
mittee of tlie Cathedral. 
His principal works are : 

Buda-Pesth. Gallery. The Death of the MadoDua 
(signed ; much repainted. 
Formerly in the church at 
Miinster near Augsburg). 

Tiefenbronn. Parish \ History of Christ and the Ma- 
Church. j donna (dated 1409). 

The following are ascribed to him : 

Bamberg. Gallery, The Entombment. 

Dunkeisbiihl. Church ) -r-u n ■« ■ n. c •, «»«, 
of St. George, j ^'"= Crucifixion (before 1469). 

Scliloss lleffersdorf. The Lament over the Dead 

Silesia. Body of Christ (of 1483). 

Other works at Augsburg, Niiremberg, Stuttgai I. 
&c. C.J. Ff. 

SCHULER, Ch.\rles Lodis, engraver, bom at 
Strasburg in 1784-5, studied in Paris, and worked 
first at Strasburg, engraving small plates for 
almanacks, and other fugitive publications. He 
afterwards settled at Carlsruhe, where he executed 
a number of more ambitious plates, such as ' The 
Assumption of the Virj; in,' after Guido ; a 'Holy 
Family,' after Raphael. His son and pupil, EDOUAiiD, 
also practised as an engraver at Strasburg. 

SCHULER, Theopuil, bom at Strasburg in 1821, 
studied in Paris and ilunich. He was a pupil of 
Drollingand Paul Delaroche, In 1848 he executed 
the illustrations for Arnold's 'Whit Monday,' and 
at the same time painted for the Museum at Colmar 
his great allegory 'The Chariot of Death.' Ho 
made many pencil drawings for the illustrated 
magazines, and for the works Of Jules Verne, 
Victor Hugo, and ' Erckmann-Chatrian.' He died 
in 1878. 

SCHULTEN, Arnold, a landscape painter of 
the Diisseldorf school, born in 1809, entered the 
Diibseldoif Academy in 1822, and in 1849 estab- 
lished his own atelier. His earlier landscapes are 
of German scenery, but his later ones of Switzer- 
land, Bavaria, and Italy. He died in 1874. 

SCHULTHESS, Karl, painter, was born at 
Neuchatel in 1775. He taught himself drawing, 
and then gave lessons Ln his native place. After 
practising there for a time, he worked for some 
years in Dresden and Paris. Ho finally settled in 

E 2 

Neuchatel, and taught drawing at the municipal 

SCHDLTZ, Daniel (ScHiJLTz), painter and 
etcher, born at Dantzic about 1620, studied in Paris 
and Breslau, and painted many portraits. Three 
etchings of animals are assigned to Schultz. He 
died in 1686. 

SCHULTZ, JoHANN Karl, architectural and 
landscape painter, born at Dantzic in 1801, received 
his first instruction from Breysig in the Academy 
of that city. In 1820 he went to Berlin, where he 
studied under Hummel, and in 1823 to Munich, 
where from a personal acquaintance with Quaglio 
he learned much, and where he also painted his 
first pictures, the Cathedrals of Meissen and Ratis- 
bon. In 1824 he went to Italy, and his ' Interior 
of Milan Cathedral ' made his reputation. In 1832 
he was appointed Professor of Drawing and Director 
to the Art School at Dantzic. He etched several 
plates. He died at Dantzic in 1873. 

SCHULTZE, Franziska, a flower painter, borr. 
at Weimar in 1805. She modelled herself or. 
Huysum, Segliers, Mignon, and De Heeui. She 
died at Weimar in 1864. 

SCHULZ, Karl Friedrich, genre and landscape 
painter, born at Selchow in 1796, was the son of a 
baker. He served in the campaigns of 1814 and 
1815, and then appliedhimself toart at the Academy 
of Berlin. In 1821 he travelled through Holland, 
France, and England, and copied some of Van 
Eyck's works for the Berlin Museum. For a short 
time he was a teacher at the Berlin Academy. 
His ' Cuxhaven,' ' Storm at Calais,' and ' Poachers, 
are in the Berlin National Gallery. He was called 
'Jagd Schulz,' from his hunting pictures. He 
died in 1866. 

SCHULZ, Leopold, painter, born at Vienna in 
1804, studied in Vienna, Munich, and Rome where 
he painted a portrait of Gregory XVI. On his 
return he painted scenes from Homer and Theo- 
critus in the new palace at Munich. In 1837 he 
painted the Martyrdom of St. Florian for the church 
of that saint. He died in Heiligenstadt, near 
Vienna, in 1873. 

SCHDLZ-BRIESEN, Edcard, German painter, 
born May 11, 1831, at Haus Amstel, near Neuss; 
studied art under Hildebrand, Sohn, Schadow, and 
Vautier ; and at Antwerp became u pupil of 
Dykmanns and Wappers; he subsequently travelled 
in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Among his 
pictures we may mention ' Verhaftung,' ' Scene im 
Gerichtshof,' ' In Gedanken,' ' Gottesdienst auf 
dcm Lande,' &c. He is also known as a portraitist 
and an engraver ; obtained gold medals in London 
and Brussels, and an honourable mention at Berlin. 
He died at Diisseldorf, February 21, 1891. 

SCHULZE, Christian Gotti'ried, was born at 
Dresden in 1749, and learned the rudiments of de- 
sign from Charies Hutin. After being taught en- 
graving by Giuseppe Camerata, he went to Paris, 
where he profited by the lessons of J. G. Wille, 
and other eminent engravers. On his return to 
Saxony he engi-aved several portraits and other 
subjects, particularly some of the plates in the 
' Dresden Gallerv.' He died in 1819. 

SCHUMACHER, Karl Georg Christian, 
painter, born at Doberan in 1797. After receiving 
some slight instruction from Suhrlandt, he studied 
at Dresden and in Italy. On his return to Ger- 
many he painted at Schwerin some frescoes in the 
Government House, which were afterwards de- 
stroyed by fire. He was appointed court-painter 



at Schwerin, but was obliged to relinquisb his 
profession in 1863, wlien he became totally blind. 
He etched six plates, and executed three lithographs. 
SCHUMANN, JoHANN Gottlob, was born at 
Dresden in 1761. He engraved several landscapes 
in a neat, spirited style. He resided some time in 
Loudon, where he worked in conjunction with W. 
Byrne. The following are his chief plates : 

A Landscape ; after Rin/sdael. 

A View in Saxony ; after Klengel. 

Two Landscapes with animals ; after the same. 

A Landscape, Morning ; after Both ; engraved conjointly 

with TF. Byrne. 
A View of Windsor Castle ; after Hodyes ; the same. 
Scene from Oberon j after Koch. 

He died at Dresden in 1810. 

SCHUMANN, Karl Franz Jakof, painter, bom 
at Berlin in 1767, studied first under Frisch, but 
afterwards travelled in Italy. In 1801 he was 
appointed Professor of Anatomy to the Berlin 
Academy. He died in 1827. 

SCHUMER, JoHANN, a German engraver, prac- 
tising at Prague in the 18th century. He is known 
only by five plates of animals. 

SCHUMWAT, Henry C, an American minia- 
ture painter, born at Middletown, Connecticut, in 
1807. He was educated in the American Academy 
of Fine Arts, and was an Academician of the 
National Academy of Design. He commenced 
miniature j'ainting in 1829 in New York, and in 
that city spent most of his life. After a few 
years he relinquished painting on ivory for por- 
trait painting in oil, and executed portraits of the 
most notable residents of New York, Washington, 
and St. Paul's. His best-known picture is perliaps 
his portrait of Henry Clay, which he painted at 
Washington in 1S38. He died in New York in 
1884. He painted a few landscapes, but will be 
remembered by his oil portraits rather than by 
any other work. 

SCHUPPEN, H. VAN. This name (or its mono- 
gram, H. V. S., the H and V joined, the S on the 
bar of H) appears on landscapes engraved after 
Giovanni Maggi. 

SCHUPPEN, Jakob van, (Scoppen,) born in 
Paris in 1070, son of Pieter van Schuppen, studied 
under Largilliere, whose style he adopted. His 
productions as a portrait and historical painter 
gained him a reputation at Vienna, where he became 
Court painter, and Director of the Academy which 
he had helped to found. There are portraits by 
him in the Belvedere at Vienna, the Museum at 
Amsterdam, and the Lieclitenstein Gallery. He 
died at Vienna in 1751. 

SCHUPPEN, Pieter van, a Flemish designer 
and engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1G23. After 
working for a time in his native city, ho went to 
Paris, where he became a pupil of Nanteuil, and 
hence was generally known as ' le petit Nanteuil.' 
His design is correct, and he handled the burin 
with firmness and dexterity. He engraved por- 
traits, some from his own designs, and historical 
subjects after various masters. He died in Paris 
in 1702. Nagler gives a list of 119 plates by him ; 
the following are among the best : 

Louis XIV. ; after C. Le Brun. 1662. 
The Cardinal d'Este. 1662. 
The Carihnal de Mazarin ; after M'lgnari. 
The Ch.iucellor Siguier ; after C. Le Bniii. 
Fr.inijois Villani, Bishop of Tournay ; after L. Francois. 
Fram;ois M. le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois ; after Le 


Louis le Pelletier, President of the ParUament ; after 

de Largilliere. 
Frans Vander Meulen, Painter ; after the same. 
The ' Madonna della Sedia ' ; after Maphaet. 16S1. 
The Holy Family, with St. John, wlio holds a pigeon; 

after Seh. Bourdon. 
The Holy Family ; after Gaspar de Crayer. 
St. Sebastian, with an angel drawing out the arrow; 

after Vandyck. 
King David ; after Ph. de Champagne. 

Some of his portraits appeared in Perrault's 
' Hommes Illustres.' 

_ SCHURAWLBW, Thyrsus Serqewitsch, Rus- 
sian painter ; born at Saratow in 1836 ; studied at 
the St. Petersburg Academy. His best-known 
pictures are 'Blessing the Bride,' 'The Unfaithful 
Peasant,' and ' Home from the Ball.' He died at 
St. Petersburg, Sejitember 1901. 

SCHURIG, Karl Wilhelm, bom at Leipsic in 
1818, studied there, and in Dresden under Bende- 
mann, after which he spent some time in Italy, 
and then returned to Dresden, where in 1857 he 
was elected Professor to the Academy. His prin- 
cipal pictures are : a ' Resurrection,' in the church 
at Eppendorf ; 'Siegfried and Chrimhild'; 'The 
Emperor Albrecht and the Swiss Envoys ' ; and, in 
the Gallery at Dresden, ' The Bishop of Spires taking 
Persecuted Jews under his Protection.' His draw- 
ings from the old masters were much esteemed, 
among them are : 

Madonna di San Sisto ; after Raphael. 
Heads from the St. Cecilia ; after the same. 
Madonna with Child ; after Cori'eggio, 
'■ La Notte ' ; after the same. 

He died at Dresden in 1874. 

SCHURTZ, Cornelius Nicholas, an indifferent 
German engraver, who resided at Nuremberg about 
the year 1670. He was living in 1689. He en- 
graved portraits of celebrated physicians, and small 
emblematical subjects ; his prints are marked with 
his name at full length, or with the letters C. N. S., 
sometimes in a monogram. 

SCHURMANN, Anna Maeia, born at Cologne 
in 1607, from her cradle displayed extraordinary 
talents. She is said to have been able to read 
when she was only three years old, and at seven 
had made great proficiency in Latin, which she 
had acquired from occasionally overhearing her 
brothers' lessons with their tutor. Her father pro- 
cured her the means of acquiring a fuller know- 
ledge of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, which became 
BO familiar to her, that she not only wrote but spoke 
them with fluency and correctness, and mastered 
a great variety of accomplishments besides. But 
her inclusion here is justified by her powers as an 
artist. She painted her own portrait, and those of 
several of her friends, and sculptured several busts, 
some of which have been preserved. She etched 
and engraved sume plates, among which is a portrait 
of herself, signed Anna 3faria Schurmans an. 
aetat. xxxiii. cij.iacxL. a. m. s. fee-, and inscribed 
with these verses : 

Cernitis hie picta nostras in imagine vultus : 
Si negat Ars formam, gratia vestra dabit. 

At a somewhat advanced age she embraced the 
opinions of Labbada, and followed him to Altona, 
but after his death she returned to Holland, and 
settled at Wiewert, near Leeuwarden, where she 
died in 1678. There is a portrait of her, by 
Lievens. in the National Gallery. 

SCHUSCHARDT, Christian, a German painter, 


■was for a time Director of the Free School of 
Design at Weimar, where he died in 1870. 

SCHUSTKR, JoHANN Martin, born at Nurem- 
berg about 1667, was Director of the Nuremberg 
Academy, where he died in 1738. 

SCHUT, CoRNELis, was born at Antwerp in 1597, 
and was a disciple, at least, of Rubens, although 
it is not certain what the exact relation between 
them was. lie painted much in the Antwerp 
churches. Of his altar-pieces, the best are his 
' Nativity ' and ' Assumption of the Virgin ' in the 
church of tlie Jesuits ; a ' Dead Christ, with the 
Virgin and St. John,' in St. Jacques, which has 
sometimes been mistaken for a work of Vandyck ; 
the ' Martyrdom of St. George,' in the cathedra], 
and the ' Martyrdom of St. James,' in the Museum 
at Brussels. He also. painted subjects from history 
and classic fable. He is said to have visited his 
brother, Pieter Schut, at Madrid, and to have 
painted a picture on the staircase of the imperial 
college, representing St. Francis Xavier baptizing 
the Indians. Schut frequently painted figures 
within the garlands of Seghers ; he also etched a 
considerable number of plates from his own designs. 
Schut died at Antwerp in 1655. Vandyck painted 
his portrait among the eminent artists of his country. 

SCHUT, COENELIS, the younger, the son of Peter 
Schut, an engineer in the Spanish service, was born 
at Antwerp, and was partly instructed by his uncle, 
Cornells Schut, the elder ; he afterwards went with 
his father to Spain and practised at Seville. He 
was one of the founders of the Academy in that 
city, and contributed liberally to its support. Of 
his ability and character Bermudez speaks in eulo- 
gistic terms. Some of his pictures are to be found 
at Seville, and it is said that his drawings resemble 
those of Murillo, and frequently pass for such. He 
died at Seville in 1676. 

SCHUTt^R. This man engraved, about the year 
1760, a portrait of Rembrandt, then in the collec- 
tion of the Marquis Gerini, now no. 60 in the Pitti 

SCHUTER, Dan. See Saiter. 

SCHUTZ, Johann Georg, painter, bom at Frank- 
fort in 1755, son and pupil of Christian Georg 
Schiitz I. He went in 1776 to the Academy at 
Dvisseldorf, and afterwards to Rome. On his re- 
turn he painted historical and genre pictures and 
landscapes. He died in 1813. 

SCHUTZ, (or Schyz,) Karl, bom at Vienna in 
1746, was an architect, but also practised drawing 
and engra%-ing. In conjunction with Ziegler and 
Jantscha he engraved a series of views of Vienna, 
and, by himself, various landscapes and military 
scenes. .. He died in 1800. 

SCHUTZ, Hermann, a German engraver and 
pupil of Amsler. His most important work was 
a well-executed series of sketches after Genelli. 
He died at Munich in 1869. 

SCHUTZ, Christian Georg (I), painter, born at 
Flbrsheim, nearMayence, in 1718, went to Frankfort 
in 1731 to study under Hugo Schlegel, and also 
worked under Appiani. Most of his pictures are 
landscapes, of which the figures and animals were 
painted in by W. F. Hirt, and afterwards by Pforr. 
He died at Frankfurt in 1791. 

SCHUTZ, Christian Georg (II), nephew and 
pupil of Christian Georg I., was born at Flbrsheim 
1758, copied first the works of his uncle, but after- 
wards devoted himself to painting Rhine scenery 
in water-colours. About 1789 he became curator 
of the Frankfort Museum, in which capacity he 

fraudulently sold some pictures ascribed to Holbein, 
which the city had afterwards to re-purchase. He 
died in .1823. 

SCHUTZ, Franz, painter, born at Frankfort in 
1?51, son and pupil of Christian Georg I. He 
painted views in Switzerland. A journey to Milan 
exercised a very good influence over his work. He 
was a lover of wine, music, and practical jokes, and 
died at Sacconay ia 1781. 

SCHUTZENBERGER, Ludwiq Friedrich, 
French painter; born September 8, 1825, at 
Strassburg ; became a pupil of Gloyre, and studied 
in Paris at the Bcole des Beaux Arts. His 
' Terpsichore ' is in the Luxembourg, as also his 
' Centaures ' ; other works by him of note are 
' Europa,' 'Ariadne,' 'Souvenir d'Alsace,' 'La 
Femme de Potiphar,' ' Une Source,' and 'Jeanne 
d'Arc' He obtained a third-class medal in 1851, 
a second-class ditto in 1861, and a rappel in 1863, 
receiving the Legion d'Honneur in 1870. " He 
died in Paris, in April 1903. 

SCHUYLENBURGH, Hembryck van, a Dutch 
painter, practising about 16-17 at Middleburg. 

SCHWABEDA, Johann Michael, a painter of 
landscapes, fruit, and flowers, was born at Erfurt 
in 1734. He began life as a modeller in wax, but 
abandoned this for painting. In 1760 he was ap- 
pointed Court painter at Anspach, where he died in 

SCHWACH, Heixriph AronsT, German painter; 
bom September 19, 1829, at Neutitschien, Moravia ; 
studied at the Vienna Academy under Waldmiiller 
and Rahl ; completed his art studies by travel in 
Belgium, where, at Antwerp, he worked with 
Dykman ; painted historical subjects, battle-pieces, 
and portraits, though in Austria his work as the 
restorer of old pictures will best be remembered. 
He died in 1903. 

SCHWALBE, Orest. See Kiprensky. 

SCHWANFELDER, Charles Henry, animal 
painter, born at Leeds in 1773, where he chiefly 
practised. He painted animals, landscapes, and 
occaBionally portraits. He was appointed animal 
painter to George III., and afterwards to the 
Prince Regent. He died in 1837. 

SCHWARTZ, a German engraver, who resided 
at Nuremberg about the year 1626. He engraved 
portraits and a series of plates for 'Icones Bibliopo-' 
larum et Typographorum,' published at Nuremberg 
in the year above mentioned. 

SCHWARTZ, Jan. See Swart. 

SCHWARTZ, G., a military painter, practising 
at Petersburg, was born at Berlin in 1800, but 
entered the service of the Russian court and settled 
in Russia in 1830. Several of his battle-pieces are 
in the old royal Schloss at Beriin. 

SCHWARTZ, Michael, painter, an imitator of 
Diirer, who flourished at the beginning of the 16th 
century, and in 1512 executed an altar-piece for St. 
Mary's Church at Dantzic, with scenes from the 
life of the Virgin and the Passion of Christ. 

SCHWARTZENBERG, Melchior, was an en- 
graver on wood, who cut some frontispieces for 
Feyeraband the bookseller. He worked from 
about 1530 to about 1550. 

SCHWARZ, Christoph, was born at Ingolstadt 
in 1550, and became the pupil of Bocksperger, in 
Munich. He afterwards entered the school of 
Titian, and after passing some years at Venice he 
returned to Munich, where he was appiiinted painter 
to the court, and where he resided fcrthe remainder 
of his life. He painted many pictuies for the public 



buildings of JIunich, and for the Elector. Several 
of these liave been engraved by Jan Sadeler. 
Schwartz died at Munich about 1597. His works 
can be studied in Brunswick and Munich. 

SCHWAKZ, Hans, liistoncal and portrait 
painter of the IGth century, was born at Gettingen, 
in Suabia. In 1520 he was at Antwerp, and later 
made the acquaintance of Diirer, whose portrait 
he painted at the bouse of the Fiisgers. In 1540 
he married the widow of Hans Leonhard Schaufelin. 
SCHWARZ, Martin, living in the last part 
of the 15tb century, was a native of Rotlienburg. 
His pictures are sometimes attributed to Martin 
Schongauer. His principal works are: a 'Christ 
on the Cross ' in tlie cliurcli of Scliwabach, near 
Nuremberg ; an altar-picture for tlie Dominican 
church at Rotlienburg, where he lived as a 
lay member, comprising 'The Angelic Salutation,' 
' The Offering of the Three Kings,' ' The Death of 
Mary,' 'The Burial of Christ,' and ' The Virgin and 
Child.' These .ire now dispersed. 

SCHWARZ, Padl Wolfgang, an engraver, born 
at Nuremberg in 1760, studied at Basle under 
Mechel, and became in 1789 court engraver to the 
Duke of Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld. He died in 

SCHWARZENBURG, Princess Pauline von, 
bom September 2, 1774, etched sixteen views of 
her estates in Bohemia, published in 1814 and 1815, 
and other plates. 

SCHWAZ, Hans von, a Tyrolese portrait paint r 
of the 16tb century, whose works have been 
ascribed to Holbein, Amberger, Schiiufelein, Strigel 
and others. Nothing is known of his history, but 
according to certain documentary notices he was 
in the service of the Emperor Maximilian as his 
portrait painter in 1500 and 1510, and he appears 
also to liave been the favourite painter of the 
Emperor's grandson, the Archduke Ferdinand, 
when he w-as in the Tyrol, and of the powerful 
Augsburg family of the Fuggers. A member of 
this family lived at Schwaz, near Innsbruck, where 
his tomb may still be seen, and was the patron 
of Hans the painter. In all records at present 
known relating to this artist he is always called 
" Maler zu Schwaz," but his surname is unknown. 
Judging from his works it is to be assumed that 
he was taught either at Dim or Memmingen, and 
was connected with Strigel or Zeitblom. His 
principal works, according to Herr Friedlander, 
who has made a special study of this painter, are 
the following : 

Augsburg. Coll. ofi 

Prince Fuggtr Bahen- vPortrait of ULrich Fugger, 1525. 
Dresden. Galleri/. Portrait of an unknown man, 

dated 1519. 
„ „ Portrait of Joachim Kehle, 

Florence. Uffizi. Portrait of the Archduke 

Ferdinand, brother of Charles 
v., of 1524 or 1525. Auotlier 
portrait of the same at Rovi^'O 
is probably by this painter, 
though both these works an- 
ascribed to Strigel by some 
London. Bridgewater ) Portrait of a man with the 
House, j monogram n. m. and below 
JI. z. s., 1523, which is inter- 
preted as'* Maler zti Schwaz." 
Formerly as '* Melancthon by 

Piula. Private Coll. Portrait of Matthaiis Schwarz, 
grandson of Ulrich Schwarz, 
Burgomaster of Augsburg 
and agent of the Fuggers at 
Schwaz. Painted at Schwaz 
in 1526. 

Rome. MuscoNazionale. Portrait of Wolfgang Tauvelder, 
1524. Formei-ly ascribed to 

Rovereto. Portrait of a man. 

Vienna. Portrait of Moritz Weltzr of 

Eberstein, 1524. 

Worlitz. GoMisrffs ^Portrait of the King of Hun- 
Haus. j gary aud Bohemia, 1521. 
„ Portrait of Anua, liis wif*? 
Both iiKcribed to Biuckmaic 

Other works at Berlin (private coll.), Darmstadt, 
Mannheim, Weimar and elsewhere. C.J. Ff. 

SCHWED, R., a painter who flourished in the 
16th century at B.amberg, and with Georg Gl.aser 
executed a series of wall paintings in the Carmelite 
cloister,Frankfort. Copies are intheSliidel Museum. 

SCHWEGMAN, Hendrik, a flower painter and 
engraver, was born at Haarlem in 1761, and studied 
under P. van Loo. He engr.aved and coloured the 
prints for a work entitled ' Icones Plantarum rari- 
orum' ; he also etched several landscapes after E. 
van Drielst and others, in the manner of Anthonie 
Waterloo. He died at Haarlem in 181C. 

SCHWEICH, Carl, painter; born 
December 6, 1823, at Diisseldorf; studied at 
Darmstadt with Lucas and Seeger ; also at Munich 
under Rottmann, and at Antwerp with Dyckmans 
and Wappers. He settled at Diisseldorf as a 
painter of Bavarian landscapes, though in some 
portraits he showed notable capacity. The Darm- 
stadt Gallery possesses his ' Herhstmorgen.' He 
died at Diisseldorf, April 23, 1898. 

SCHWEICKAKT, JoHANN Adam, engraver, born 
at Nuremberg in 1722, studied under Preissler, and 
in Italy. He lived eighteen ye.ars in Florence, 
where he engraved several of the gems in the 
collection published by Stosch. On his return to 
Germany he produced many plates after the old 
masters, and won some reputation by his engravings 
from washed drawings. He died in 1787. 

SCHWEICKHARDT, Heinrich Wilhelm, 
painter, v.-as born at Brandenburg in 1746. He 
studied under Girolamo Lapis, and settling in the 
Hague, became Director of the Academj'. In 1786, 
in consequence of the disturbances in Holland, he 
came to England, and resided in London for several 
years. He painted landscapes and cattle, ] ar- 
ticularlj' frost-pieces, and etched a set of plates of 
nnim.als, which he dedicated to Jlr. West in 1788. 
He died in London in 1797. 

He has four distinct methods of signing his 
name, tlius : 

Ji^: St h^*zUA^?J JfS\): /c/^c<.c/ASi)/ 
/ys% ' ^ '/Si 

SCHWElZi:R, JoHANN, was a native of Heidel- 
berg, and flourished about the year 16C0. He 
worked for the booksellers. He engraved the 
frontispiece and plates for ' Parnas,sus Heidelber- 
j;ensis, omnium illustrissimae hujus academias pro- 
fessorum icones exhihens,' some of which are from 
his own drawings. Schweizer died in 1679. 


SCHWENDY, Albeht, German painter ; bom 
October 20, 1820, at Berlin, where he studied 
under Biermann, besides becoming a pupil ol' 
Neclser at Munich, and of E. Lepoittevin in Paris. 
From 1848 to 1855 he resided at Berlin, and after 
some years spent at Munich he accepted the post 
of Professor at Dessau. He mainly chose archi- 
toctural subjects, views of market-places, and the 
exteriors and interiors of cathedrals. lie died in 

SCHWERDGEBURTH, Amalie Charlotte, 
sister of Karl Schwerdgeburth the engraver, was 
born at Dresden in 1795, and went early with her 
father to Dessau, where and at Weimar she received 
her training in art. In 1822 she returned to Dres- 
den, and made a name by her copies. She died at 
Dresden in 1831. 

SCHWERDGEBURTH, Karl August, en- 
graver, was born at Gera in 1785, and became a 
pupil of the Dresden Academy. He engraved a 
few portraits, among them those of the Grand 
Duchess llaria Paulowna, the Grand Duke of 
Weimar, and Goethe. He also painted a ' Luther 
at the Diet of Wonns.' He died at Dresden in 1878. 
SCHWERDGEBURTH, Otto, son of Karl 
Schwerdgeburth, born at Weimar in 1835 (1837), 
studied first under his father, and then under 
Preller. In 1856 he went to Antwerp, where he 
painted in the Town-hall and the church of St. 
Nicolas. In 1860 he returned to Weimar, where 
he died in 1866. 

SCHWIND, lIoRnz Ludwig, Ritter von, his- 
torical painter, born at Vienna in 180-t, attended the 
Viennese Academy up to 1819, and worked under 
Ludwig Schnorr. In 1828 he went to Munich, where 
he painted twenty-nine frescoes from Tieck's poems, 
in the palace. From 1840-41 he lived in Carlsruhe, 
and painted a wall picture in the Gallery. Between 
1853- 55 he painted at the Wartburg a series of 
pictures from the life of St. Elizabeth. In 1859 
he designed thirty-four windows for Glasgow 
Cathedral. Other works by him are an altar-piece 
for the Frauenkirche, Munich, frescoes for the 
Pfarrkirche, Munich, the Loggia decoration, the 
Viennese Opera House, ' The Symphony,' a quad- 
ruple picture in the Munich New Pinakothck. 
Schwind died at Munich in 1871. 

SCHWITER, LuDwiQ August Baron von, 
German painter; born in 1809, at Menburg (Han- 
over) ; studied in Paris, which eventually became 
his home, and where for over forty years he 
worked. He was well known at one time as a 
successful portrait-painter, and he also worked at 
landscapes and genre ; obtained a third-class medal 
in 1845. He died in Paris in September 1865. 

SCHWOISER, Eduard, German painter; born 
March 18, 1827, at Briisan, Moravia ; began life as 
an artisan, but studied at the Munich Academy ; 
completed his art education by study in England, 
France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain ; accepted 
a professorship at Munich, where he resided 
permanently. His best-known works include : 
'Turnier auf dem Marienplatz,' 'Kaiser Heinrich 
IV. at Canossa,' ' Geburt der Aurora,' 'Gotter- 
morgen,' &c. Ho also executed several important 
frescoes. He was the recipient of several Orders 
and decorations. He died in September 1902. 

SCHYND.\L, (or Schendel,) Bernard, bom 
at Haerlem in 1634, was a scholar of Hendrik 
Mommers. He painted assemblies of peasants 
merry-making, in the style of J. M. Molenaer. He 
treated those subjects with considerable humour, 

and his pictures are ingeniously composed. He 
died in 1693. 

SCHYNVOET, Jakob, a Dutch engraver, who 
resided in London about the year 1700. He en- 
graved some bird's-eye views of country houses, 
from his own designs, in a style resembling that 
of John Kip. He is supposed to have worked as 
late as 1727. 

SCIACCA, TojiMASO, a Sicilian artist, a native of 
Mazzara, born about 1734. He worked at Rome 
with the Cavaliicci, and painted some large 
compositions for clmrches at Rovigo. 

SCIAMERONI, Lo. See Fueini, Francesco, 

SCIAMINOSSI, Raphael. See Scaminossi. 

SCIARPELLONI, Lorenzo. See Credi di. 

SCILLA, (or Silla,) Agostino, born at Messina 
in 1639, was a scholar of Antonio Ricci, called II 
Barbalunga. Such was the promise he evinced, 
tliat Barbalunga prevailed on the senate to settle a 
pension on him, to enable him to pursue his studies 
at Rome, where he frequented the school of Andrea 
Sacchi. After a residence of four years at Rome, 
he returned to Messina, and established an academy, 
which was much frequented until the political 
troubles of 1674 obliged him to fiy to Rome. He 
excelled in painting the he.ids of old men ; while 
the landscapes and animals in his pictures are very 
true to nature. He died at Rome in 1700. In 
some of his works he was assisted by his brother 
Giacinto, a good artist, who lived till about 1711. 
Agostino had a son, Saverio, who was also a 


SCIORINI, (or Della Sciorina,) Lorenzo, an 
Italian painter of the 16th century, a native of 
Florence, was a pupil of Bronzino. He was one 
of the artists employed to, decorate Michelangelo's 

SCITIVAUX i>e GREYSCHE, Roger de, born 
at Nancy in 1830, was a pupil of Couture. Be- 
tween 1857 and 1865 be exhibited portraits and 
genre pictures at the Salon. He died in 1870 in 

SCOENERE, Jan, (or de Scosnere,) a Flemish 
painter of the 15th century, who had an atelier for 
pupils at Ghent. He is thought to have been a 
j.upil of the Van Eycks. In 1413 he painted an 
altar-piece in collaboratii-in with Baldwin van 

SCOLARI, Giuseppe, was a native of Vicenza, 
and flourished about the year 1580. He was a 
disciple of Giovanni Battista Maganza. He painted 
history both in oil and in fresco ; and there are 
many of his works in the churches of Vicenza, 
Verona, and Venice. According to Papillon, he 
executed several wood-cuts, among them the 
following : 

The EDtombment. 

The Dead Christ, with the Virgin Mary. 

St. Jerome holding a Crucifix. 

The Rape of Proserpine. 

SCOLES, Joseph John. This clever draughts- 
man was born in 1798, and wr.s from his earliest 
days much interested in mediajval ecclesiastical 
architecture. He was a Catholic, and came under 
the influence of Dr. John Milner, who was struck 
by the beauty of many of his drawings of ancient 
vestments. The bishop recommended Mr. Joseph 
Ireland, a distant cousin, to take him into his 
ofBce, and he also interested Dr. John Lee in the 
young man, and did his best to push him forward. 



At Hartwell House, Scoles met Joseph Bononii, 
who was so attracted by him that he begged for 
his company in an arohjeological trip he was 
taking to Greece and Syria. Wliile there he made 
many excellent drawings, especially of Jerusalem 
and of buildings at Athens. After his return home 
in 1826 he coumienced work as an architect, and 
Gloucester Terrace, Regent's Park, owes very 
much of its dignity to liis work rather than to 
John Nash, who prepared the first sketch for the 
houses. He was greatly in demand amongst his 
co-religionists for architectural work, and the great 
church at Farm Street and the Oratory at Brompton 
are monuments of his skill. He also designed 
many other similar churches and some private 
and college chapels. He wrote several essays on 
Egypt and the Holy Land, and contributed several 
architectural articles to various societies to which 
he belonged, in some cases illustrating them by 
his own pencil. He died in 1803, and a full list 
of his architectural works appears in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography.' 

SCOPPA, Orazio, an Italian engraver, who 
flourished at Naples about the year 1642, and was 
probably a goldsmith. He engraved a set of fifteen 
designs for chalices, crosiers, and other ecclesi- 
astical ornaments. 

SCOPULA, Giovanni Maria, an Italian painter 
of the 13th century, a native of Irunto. His only 
recorded work is a triptych in the Campana Col- 
lection, in the Louvre, the three subjects being, 
' The Annunciation,' ' The Visitation,' and ' The Na- 
tivity.' It bears the following inscription : Joanes 
Maria Scopula de Irunto pi7ixit m Oiranto. 

SCORE, \V., portrait painter, a native of Devon- 
shire, pupil and drapery painter to Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, who exhibited portraits at the Academy 
from 1781 to 1794. 

SCOREL, John van, painter, was born at Scorel, 
a small town near Alkmaar, August 1, 1495. At 
the age of fourteen he was placed for three years 
under the tuition of an obscure artist, named 
Cornelius Willems, in Haarlem. In 1512 he went 
to Amsterdam, where he became a disciple of James 
Cornelisz. The reputation of John Gossart, who 
was at that time in the service of Philip of Bur- 
gundy, induced Scorel to visit Utrecht. He after- 
wards went to Cologne and thence to Spires, where 
he passed some time studying architecture and 
perspective, then he visited Strassburg, Basel, and 
Nuremberg, where he resided with Albert Dtirer, 
who treated him with great kindness. Then he 
travelled to Styria and Carinthia, making a long 
stay atOber-vellacli, in 1520. His next journey was 
to Venice, where he found a number of people 
assembled for a pilgrimage to Palestine, among 
them an ecclesiastic of Gouda, by whom he was 
persuaded to join the party. On his arrival at 
Jerusalem he became acquainted with the superior 
of the monastery of Sion, by whom he was shown 
the most interesting sites in the city and vicinity, 
of which he made accurate drawings. He painted 
for the convent a picture representing the ' In- 
credulity of St. Thomas ' ; on his way back he 
visited the Isle of Rhodes, where he was received 
with distinction by the grand master, who was a 
native of Germany, and painted views of the city 
and fortress. From thence he sailed for Venice, 
and afterwards visited Rome, where he was em- 
ployed by Pope Adrian VI., who was a native of 
Utrecht. He painted a whole-length portrait of 
the Pope ; this was sent to the college of Louvain, 

which bad been founded by his Holiness. After 
his death, September 14, 1523, Scorel returned to 
Utrecht, and lived with Hennan van Lochorst, 
dean of the old Minster, for whom he painted one 
of his best pictures, ' Christ's Entry into Jerusalem,' 
which was placed in a chapel of the cathedral. 
During the war with Guelders he was at Haarlem, 
where he painted for the monastery of St. John a 
' Baptism of Christ,' in which he imitated Raphael. 
Many of the principal works of Scorel were 
destroyed during the troubles in the Low Countries. 
In 1524 he was ordained, and was at first vicar of 
St. John's, 1525, and canon of St. Mary's in 1528. 
He died at Utrecht, December 6, 1562. The 'Death 
of the Virgin ' at Munich, is thought by many 
critics to be an early work of Scorel's. 

AmsterJam. iJ.J)/«.«eMm. A Magdalen. 

Dresden. Gallery. David conquering Goliath 

(given in catalogue to Bron- 

Haarleni. Muscuvi. Adam and Eve. 

,, „ Baptism of Christ. 

Hampton Court. Our Lady and Child. 

London. JVat. Gall. A Eiposo. 

„ „ Portrait of a Lady. 

Ober-vellach, ) Church. Triptych : The Family of St. 
Carintliia. j Anue ; SS. Christopher and 

ApoUonia ; signed and dated 

Prague. Rudoljinum. Triptych: Adoration of the 
Magi ; donor and family pro- 
tected by SS. Jerome and 
Lucy ; outside, St. Anne and 
St. Katherine. 

Rome. Pal. Doria. Portrait of Agatha van Schoen- 

hoven. 1529. 

Eotterdam. Museum. Portrait of a Boy. 

Utrecht. Museum. A Madonna. 

„ „ Four Portraits, one of himself. 

Warmenhui- ~i 

zen, near V Church. A Series of Pictures in tempera. 


W. II. J. W. 

SCORODOMOFF, Gabriel, (Scroudomoff,) a 
draughtsman and engraver, was born at St. Peters- 
burg about 1748, but came to England when young 
and studied under Bartolozzi, whose manner he 
imitated. It is said that he was the first Russian 
to obtain a reputation as an engraver. He lived 
in London from 1775 to 1782, and engraved 
after Reynolds, West, Hamilton, and Angelica 
Kauii'man, also a portrait of Mrs. De Louther- 
bourg from his own design. He engraved a por- 
trait of the Empress Catherine II., after F. Rocotoff, 
probably after his return to St. Petersburg, where 
he died in 1792. 

SCORZA, SiNiBALDO, born at Voltaggio, near 
Genoa, in 1589, was a scholar of Giovanni Battista 
Paggi. He painted landscapes, with well-com- 
posed groups of figures and animals, and copied 
with the pen some of Albrecht DOrer's prints. He 
died in 1631. 

SCORZINI, PiETRO, an Italian painter of the 
18th century, who studied at Bologna, and practised 
as a scene painter at Lucca. 

SCOTIN, Gerard, the elder, a French engraver, 
born at Gonesse, near Paris, in 1642. He was a 
pupil of Francois Poilly, the elder, whose style he 
imitated. Among his prints we may name : 

The Marriage of St. Catherine ; after Aless. Verotute. 

The Communion of the Magdalene ; after Domenichino. 

The Circumcision ; after P. Miynard. 

The Baptism of Christ ; after the same. 

The Presentation in the Temple ; after C. Le Brua. 

The Country Life ; after Dom. Feti. 

He died in 1715. 


Hanfstdngl photo] [Bulin Gullery 




SCOTIN, Jean Bafiiste, said to be the son of 
the elder Gerard, flourished in Paris in the first 
half of the 18th century. He engraved after H. 
Rigaud. Boucher, Watteau, Lancret, Pater, and 
other French painters. Some of his prints are 
dated as early as 1710. 

SCOTIN, Louis Gerard, the younger, the nephew 
of Gerard Scotin, was bom in Paris in 1690, and 
taught by his uncle. He came to Loudon about 
1733, to "help in the plates for a translation of 
Picart's 'Religious Ceremonies.' In 17-15 he en- 
graved two of the six plates of the ' Marriage a la 
Mode,' for Hogarth, and several plates after Frank 
Hayman. We have also by him : 

The Birth of Adonis ; after Boucher. 
Belisarius ; after Vandi/ck. 
And a file more. 

SCOTNIKOFF, Egor (Georq), an engraver, who 
flourished at the end of the 18th centur}', was a 
pupU and member of the St. Petersburg Academy, 
where he studied under Klauber. He engraved a 
' Christ on the Cross,' after Lebrun. 

SCOTT, David, a Scottish historical painter, bom 
at Edinburgh in 1806, son of the engraver Robert 
Scott, first drew and engraved a series of designs, 
after Stothard, for Thomson's ' Scottish Melodies,' 
and then commenced painting. He produced in 
1828, ' The Hopes of Early Genius dispelled by 
Death.' He became an Associate of the Scotch 
Academy in 1830. In 1832 he went to Italy, and 
on return was elected a Scottish Academician. He 
sent pictures to the Westminster Hall competitions 
of 1842 and 1844, but without success, a failure 
that c.iused him deep disappointment. He died in 
1849. David Scott's imagination was active and 
poetic, but scarcely of the kind that finds its right 
vehicle in paint. He was a good colourist, and an 
expressive rather than correct draughtsman. The 
following list comprises his best works. 

Ariel aad Caliban. (Scot. Xat. Gallery.) 

A Tintager. (Do.) 

Paracelsus lecturing. 

Peter the Hermit. 

Vasco de Gama meeting the Spirit of the Cape. (THnity 

House, Leith.) 
Orestes and the Furies. 
The Dead Rising. 
Achilles Mourning Patroclus. 

He also published several series of designs in 
outline : 
'Monograms of Man.' 1S31. 
' The Ancient Mariner.' 1S37. 
Illustrations to the ' Architecture of the Heavens,' by 

Prof. Xichols. 1S4S. 
Illustrations to the ' Pilgrim's Progress,' published after 
his death. 

Mr. W. B. Scott published a memoir of his 
brother, David Scott, in 1850. 

SCOTT, Edmund, engraver, born in London about 
1746, was a pupil of Bartolozzi. He engraved a 
portrait of the Prince of Wales, by himself, and 
several subjects after Morland, Stothard, and Ram- 
berg. He died about 1810. 

SCOTT, Sir G. Gilbert. This is not the place 
to give a full account of the architectural work of 
this eminent man, nor to refer to the various 
restorations — so-called — with which he was con- 
cerned. It may sufiije with regard to the latter 
phase of his work to declare that the Society for 
the Protection of Ancient Buildings was formed in 
direct antagonism to the practice of restoration for 
which Sir G. Scott was specially well known, and 
this Society, frequently known as the Anti-Scrape 

Societv, has from its beginning taken up a position 
of distinct antagoidsm to the energetic renovation 
associated with the name of Sir Gilbert Scott. For 
a record of his work, the reader should be referred 
to the 'Recollections' that appeared in the 'Builder' 
qnd ' Building News ' for 1878, and to the excellent 
memoir in the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
but it is well that so expert a sketcher as was Scott 
should have some notice in this volume. He was 
bom in 1811, the son of the curate of Gawcott, 
and the grandson of Scott the manufacturer. He 
inherited his love of architecture from his father, 
and commenced his training in the oSice of James 
Edmeston, afterwards being attached to the firm 
of Peto it Sons, and started on his own account in 
1834. His sketch-books are full of delightful 
drawings, not only of the buildings with which he 
was specially concerned, but with architectural 
work all over Europe, especially in Germany, and 
in some cases his most elaborate drawings recall the 
work of Prout for their wealth of exquisite detail. 
He is said at one time for amusement's sake to 
have painted a portrait. He died in his own house 
in London in 1877, leaving behind him five sons, 
two of whom followed in his profession. 

SCOTT, John, an eminent engraver of animals, 
particularly of horses and dogs, was born at New- 
castle in 1774, where he served his apprenticeship 
to a tallow-chandler. At the expiration of his time 
he engraved a series of profile portraits for Angus's 
'French Revolution,' and then came to London, 
where his friend Pollard, a Newcastle man, gave 
him lessons in drawing and engraving. Scott's 
name is to be found in the publications of Tresham 
and Ottley, in Brittou's 'Cathedral Antiquities,' 
Westall's ' Illustradons of the Book of Common 
Prayer,' &c. ; but it is in the 'Sportsman's Cabinet,' 
•D^iniel's Rural Sports,' and a 'Series of Horses 
and Dogs,' that he excels, as an engraver of 
animals, all the Englishmen who had preceded 
him. Some of his detached pieces are of great ex- 
cellence, particularly ' Breaking Cover,' after Philip 
Reinagle ; ' The Death of the Fox,' after Sawrey 
Gilpin; 'Warivick,a Famous Racer,' after 
Cooper; and a few landscapes, after Weenix, 
Gainsborough, Callcott, and others. He died at 
Chelsea in 1828. 

SCOTT, John Henderson, water-colour painter, 
the son of William Henry Scott, born February 10, 
1829, practised at Brighton, where he had a great 
local reputation as a teacher, and was an active 
member of the Brighton Fme Arts' Society. He 
wa~ an occasional exhibitor at the London Water- 
Colour Galleries, and at the chief provincial exhibi- 
tions, but reserved his work more especially for the 
Brighton Picture Gallery. He painted views of 
Sussex scenery, views in Normandy, &c. He died 
at Brighton, December 6, 1886. 

SCOTT, Mabia, the sister of William Henry 
Scott, was a water-colour painter, who practised 
at Brighton. She became a member of the Water- 
Colour Society in 1823, and was an industrious 
exhibitor of fruit and flower pieces, both under her 
maiden name, and after her marriage in 1830, as 
Mrs. Brooksbank. 

SCOTT, Robert, the best Scottish engraver of 
his time, was born on the 13th November, 1771, at 
Lanark. He was educated there and at Mussel- 
burgh, and apprenticed to Alexander Robertson, 
a landscape engraver in Edinburgh, in 1787, when 
he also entered the Trustees' Academy. His first 
successful engravings were twelve views round 



Edinburgh. He afterwards, for twenty years, exe- 
cuted the monthly prints of new houses, country 
seats, &c., for the 'Scots' Magazine,' and many 
plates for Dr. Anderson's' Bee,' Barry's ' History of 
Orkney,' 'Scenery of the Gentle Shepherd,' Burns, 
&c. &c. He died in January, 1841. Many of his 
apprentices became distinguished, among them 
John Burnett, James Stewart, John Horsburgli ; 
also William Douglas, miniature painter, and 
Thomas Brown, the writer on Natin-al History. 
Robert Scott was the father of David Scott, R.S.A., 
and Mr. W. B. Scott. 

SCOTT, Samuel, an eminent English painter of 
views and sea-pieces, was born early in the 18th 
century, in London, and there practised from about 
1725 to his death. He was the friend of Hogarth, 
and formed one in the famous water-party to 
Gravesend in 1732. His sea-pieces, chiefly in oil, 
were very popular, and he was one of the earliest 
aquarellists. In his topographical views he fre- 
quently introduced groups of well-drawn figures. 
His ' View of the Tower of London on the King's 
Birthday ' was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1771, and some of his works appeared at the Spring 
Gardens Rooms. After a long and prosperous 
career in London, he retired to Bath, where he died 
of gout, in October, 1772. There is a good portrait 
of him by Hudson in the National Gallery, where 
there are also two of his own works : ' Old London 
Bridge ' and ' Old Westminster Bridge.' 

SCOTT, William Bell, was born at Edinburgh 
on Sept. 12, 1811. His father was Robert Scott, 
the well-known engraver, whose work, chiefly man- 
sions and ruined castles, may be seen in the pages 
of the 'Scots Magazine' of the time. His mother 
was Ross Bell, a niece of Gowan, the sculptor. 
His elder brother, David, and himself soon showed 
a taste for art, delighting in the prints and illus- 
trated books BO plentiful at home, and thus came 
early under the influence of Loutherbourg, Fuseli, 
and Corbould, and. more especially, of W. Blake, 
whose designs to Blair's ' Grave ' they were never 
tired of admiring. He was educated at the High 
School. His poetic tastes were indulged from an 
early age, and it was characteristic that the boy 
naturally turned to speculative and religious 
themes. From the first, then, Art and Literature 
were his chosen mistresses. He met both Prof. 
Wilson (Christopher North) and Sir Walter Scott, 
but neither greatly encouraged his literary aspira- 
tions. In the winter of 1833-34 he made his debut 
at the Scottish Academy's Exhibition with a land- 
scape representing a hermit at prayer in a forest, a 
subject suggested by some lines by Coleridge. To 
the same period belongs a set of etchings of Loch 
Katrine and the Trossachs. His art training, be- 
sides his desultory studies at home, was supplied 
by the Trustees' Academy, where he attended the 
antique class. Robert Scott, however, who had 
always regarded his own art in a commercial 
spirit, discouraged his sons from looking forward 
to painting as a profession, and accordingly they 
learned engraving in the paternal workshop. 
David soon gave it up and went to study at Rome, 
but William's engraving of the ' Martyrs' Tombs,' 
after Thomson of Diiddingston, shows that he per- 
severed long enough to acquire proficiency in the 
art. As time passed on, however, the drudgery 
and routine of his father's business became so irk- 
some that he abandoned it and went to London in 
the spring of 1837. Till then his literary activity 
had been greater than his artistic, but now the 


latter assumed a more important place. Hoping 
to supplant the fashionable engravings of the An- 
nuals of the day, he etched a set of eight illustra- 
tions to a volume of ' Landscape Lyrics,' but these 
achieved only a barren success, and, when a set of 
etchings on steel from his water-colours of Cava. 
Her and Puritan subjects failed to find a publisher, 
he turned seriously to painting. His early studies 
in London were mainly in the direction of dramng 
from the antique at the British Museum. Among 
his earliest works were, 'The Old English Ballad 
Singer' (sold from the British Institution), 'The 
Jester' (1840), 'The Wild Huntsman,' and 'King 
Alfred disguised as a Harper' (these three shown 
at the Suffolk Street Gallery). He began to make 
friends, as indeed he had always done, and these 
friendships, frequently close and lasting, were 
always with notable, and often with famous, men ; 
among whom may be mentioned. Frith, Egg, 
Poole, Ward, Kenny Meadows, W. J. Linton, 
Leigh Hunt, G. H. Lewes, John Leech, Swinburne, 
Woolner, Uolman Hunt, and D. G. Rossetti. A 
series of symbolical designs rejiresenting ' The 
stages in life of the self-seeking man ' belongs to 
this time. His poem of ' Rosabell ' also appeared 
in Leigh Hunt's 'Repository.' In 1842, he, as 
well as his brother David, took part in the cartoon 
competition for the new Houses of Parliament, 
but both were unsuccessful. At this time, too, the 
Royal Academy rejected his ' Burgher Watch on 
the City Wall,' and the British Institution his 
' James VI., the Scottish Solomon, examining the 
Witches of North Berwick.' His acceptance of the 
Government's offer of a mastership in the School 
of Design at Newcastle may have been due to 
these discouragements. There he found an ad- 
ministrative chaos that would have daunted a less 
sanguine man, and it cost him much time and 
worry before his work went to his mind. Here he 
remained from 1843 to 1858. Interesting himself 
in the study of local antiquities, he published the 
fruits in his 'Antiquarian Gleanings in the North 
of England.' The extended continental tours in 
which he took so much pleasure began also about 
this time. During one of these to Germany, he 
visited Munich and Nuremberg, the latter as a pious 
pilgrimage suggested by his loving study of DUrer, 
whom he painted looking out on the Tliiergarten 
Hof from the balcony of his house. His poetic 
activities had continued, and in 1846 his longest 
poem, ' The Year of the World,' appeared. It was 
allegorical and philosophical, and attracted no 
popular notice ; but it brought him the warm and 
lasting friendship of Rossetti, and the close inti- 
macy thus inaugurated was valuable to both. In 
1849 his brother David (q.v.) died, and William's 
Life of his brother, written with fulness of know- 
ledge and sympathy, deserves warm praise. 
Through Rossetti he became familiar with the pre- 
Raphaelite Brotherhood, and contributed to the 
' Germ,' but it does not appear that he modified 
his artistic practice through any influence of theirs. 
In 1854 he paid his first visit to Sir Walter Trevel- 
yan at Wallington Hall, Morpeth, and the friend- 
ship which ensued led to his preparing a scheme of 
decoration for the hall, which was carried out, and 
remains as perhaps the best specimen of his artistic 
powers. He chose subjects from Border history 
and legend : ' St. Cuthbert on Fame Island,' ' The 
Building of Hadrian's Wall,' 'The Death of Bede,' 
'The Danes descending on the Coast at Tyne- 
mouth,' 'The Spur in the Dish,' 'Bernard Gilpin 





addressing the Borderers,' 'Grace Darling,' and 
' Iron and Coal.' Tliese (named in order of com- 
pletion) formed a series of eight large designs, tlie 
whole being exliibited at tlie French Gallery in 
Pall Mall in June 1861. The spandrels of the 
upper arches in the same hall were hlled in with a 
series of eighteen scenes from the ballad of ' Chevy 
Chase,' and were placed in 1870, while the lower 
pilasters were decorated by tall plants painted on 
the stone (these being executed by various hands). 
His friendship with Miss Boyd of Penkill began 
in 1859, and in the summer of the nest year he 
paid his tirst visit to her ancestral home, where he, 
in years to come, passed much of his time, where 
he did some of his best decorative work, and where 
at last he was to die. The changes incident on the 
re-organization of the central authority and the 
establishment of the Department of Science aud 
Art which led ultimately to his retirement in 
1864, at first made his position more congenial ; 
and the courses of lectures he delivered to the 
senior students were afterwards published. Freed 
from official duties, he returned to Loudon and 
settled in Elgin Read, Netting Hill. The decora- 
tions at Miss Boyd's seat at Penkill Castle, near 
Girvan, Ayrshire, consist of a scries of paint- 
ings illustrative of the 'King's Q;iair' on the 
outer wall of a spiral staircase. The work was 
done directly on the wall in oil pigments, the 
medium being wax dissolved in turpentine. Be- 
tween 1865 and 1868 the windows in the South 
Kensington Keramic Gallery occupied his atten- 
tion. They are drawn in graffito on a burnt umber 
ground, the designs showing like etchim^s in brown, 
lieigbtened and varied with bright yellow. They 
represent a pictorial history of the Keramic Arts. 
In 1870 he settled in an old house he bought at 
Chelsea. The decoration of the staircases leading 
to, and of the doors of, the Lecture Theatre at 
South Kensington was entrusted to him, but was 
never carried out, although the drawings were pre- 
pared, and are now in the Museum. In 1870 his 
' Life of Albert Dtirer,' a book long meditated, 
appeared. His poems came out in 1875 with 
etchings by himself and Mr. Alma-Tadema, and 
with a dedication to Rossetti, Swinburne, and Wni. 
Morris. In this book is comprised the best of his 
poetical work. His ' Poet's Harvest Home ' fol- 
lowed in 1882. In 1887 he was elected an Honor- 
ary Academician of the Royal Scottish Academy. 
He was also honoured with the degree of LL.U. 
For the last six years of his life he suffered much 
from angina pectoris, and in 1890, on November 
22, he died at Penkill Uastle. 

He had exhibited at the Royal Academy, Suffolk 
Street Galleries and the British Institution about 
twenty pictures in all, the last at the Academy of 
1869. His best pictures, the subjects of all of 
which are taken from historical or poetical sources, 
are, in addition to those already mentioned, 'Bell- 
ringers and Cavaliers celebrating the Entry of 
Charles II. into London ' (1841), 'Chaucer, John 
of Gaunt, and tljeir Wives,' 'King Arthur carried 
to the Land of Enchautn.ent ' (exhibited at the 
Academy in 1847, and perhaps his b(St easel 
picture), 'The Border Widow' (lf-51), ' Una and the 
Lion,' and ' The Norns watering Yggdrasil.' His 
'Eve of the Deluge' hangs in the Tate Gallery, 
and 'The Temptation of Eve' (water-colour) in 
the South Kensington Museum, where are also the 
designs for the inner court of Wallington Hall. 
On the staircase of the Literary and Philosophical 

Institute, Newcastle-on-Tyne, there is a very fine 
fresco by him 5 ft. x 4 ft., entitled ' The Building of 
the Castle,' and there are other works by him in 
private residences near Newcastle. He certainly 
prepared many drawings for fresco work in the 
Town Hall and Mansion House of the same city, 
but does not appear to have executed the paintings. 
In William Bell Scott's art we are struck by the 
exuberance of his fancy ; this, combined with his 
fine sense of style and his instinct for the pictur- 
esque, compensates largely for his somewhat faulty 
draughtsmanship and his occasional fniiiugs as a 
colourist. He always studied accessories and de- 
tails with the greatest care. In decorative orna- 
ment he is at his best ; here his faculty of invention 
and his fine taste give him high ranlc. 

His poetry is better known, perhaps deservedly 
so, than his pictorial art : many of his sonnets are 
admirable in structure and felicitous in expression. 
He was a true Scot ; and his speculative and 
metaphysical attitude of mind, as expressed in 
his poetry, was perhaps too strong for the romantic 
spirit, which, under the stimulus of Rossetti's 
example and friendship,might otherwise have given 
it a wider appeal. 

Besides writing Diirer's life he also published 
studies of the Little Masters, to which he had given 
much time, various voluines dealing popularly with 
art history, and editions of Keats, Byron, Cole- 
ridge, Shelley, Shakespeare, and Scott, with critical 
and biographical introductions. He contributed 
many articles to this Dictionary. 

His ' Autobiograpliical Notes,' edited by Prof. 
Minto, and published in two volumes in 1892, are 
full of interest,though perhaps too outspoken. From 
them, the article in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' and the obituary notices in the ' Athenaium,' 
the 'Academy,' and the 'Times,' the above has been 
compiled. An essay by H. P. Home appeared in 
the 'Hobby Horse' in 1891, dealing more par- 
ticularly with his place in literature. J. H. W. L. 

SCOTT, William Henry Stotiiard, water-colour 
painter, born March 7, 1783, was a member of the 
Old Water-Colour Society, and a constant exhibitor 
in its galleries for many years. He practised at 
Brighton, and most of his works are subjects from 
Sussex rural scenery. He died December 27, 1850. 

SCOTTI, GoTTARDO, of Piacenza, a painter 
emploj'ed at Milan in the second half of the 
15th century. In 1457 and 1458 he was ex- 
ecuting decorative work, and in the following 
year, in company with Cristoforo da Monza, 
valued an altar-piece by Ambrogio Zavattari. 
He was a member of the Guild of Painters, and 
was continually employed in the Castello and in 
the Cathedral at Milan. A triptj-ch bearing his 
signature is in the Poldi Museum at Milan, and a 
picture of similar character, with scenes from the 
life of the Madonna, belongs to Signer Achille 
Cologna in that city. Gottardo's son, Bernardo, 
is known to have painted at Cassino between 1487 
and 1500. There were several other painters of 
the name of Scotti, one of them being Stefano, the 
master of Gaudenzio Ferrari. C.J. Ff. 

SCOTTO, Felice, flourished at the end of the 
16th centur)-. He painted many pictures at Como 
for private individuals, and at S. Croce a series of 
frescoes from the life of S. Bernardo. 

SCOTTO, (or Scotti,) Francesco, an Italian en- 
graver, was born at Veui. e about 17G0. His fac 
similes of original drawings by Raphael, with others 
by Rosaspina, were published by the Abbate Celotti 



under the title ' Desegni originali di Raffaello per 
la prima volta publicata, esistenti nella Imp. Ac- 
caderaia di Belle Arti di Venezia,' 1829, folio. F. 
Sootto also engraved Leonardo da Vinci's (?) so- 
called ' Modesty and Vanity." 

SCOTTO, (or ScoTTi,) GiROLAMO, born in 1780, 
was educated in the school of Longhi, at Milan. 
He was one of the best pupils of that master. The 
following are among his best plates : 

The Madonna di San SiSto ; after Raphael. 

The Madonna di Foliguo ; after the same. 

Mater pulchrae dilectionis ; after a picture discovered at 

Genoa in 1823, and ascribed to Raphael. 
The Terranuova Madonna ; after Raphael. 
The Magdalen at the feet of' Christ ; after P. Veronese. 
Children healed by the garments of St. Philip ; after A . 

del Sarto. 

SCOTTO, Stefano, a Milanese painter, who 
fJourished at the latter part of the 15th and com- 
mencement of the 16th centuries. He was an 
admirable painter of grotteschi, and had the lionour 
of being the master of Gaudenzio Ferrari ; he is 
also believed to have taught Luini. 

SCOUGALL, George, a Scotch painter, of the 
end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries. 
He is said to have been the son of John Scougall, 
and practised portrait painting, imitating the man- 
ner of Lely. Many portraits attributed to the elder 
Scougall are so inferior in artistic merit to the work 
of that painter, and so evidently produced under 
the influence of" Lely, as to make it all but certain 
they are by the younger painter. 

SCOUGALL, John, a Scotch painter of the middle 
of the 17th century, is supposed to have been a native 
of Leith. Much obscurity exists as to his history. 
Tradition states him to have been a favourite of 
James VI., who is said to have rewarded him with 
a ring for a portrait he painted of Prince Henry, 
but existing portraits by him are dated so late in 
the 17th century as to throw much doubt on this 
story. Such are the portrait of Sir Archibald 
Primrose, Lord Clerk Register, dated 1670 (be- 
longing to Lord Rosebery), and two portraits of 
the ancestors of the Clerk family, dated 1674 (at 
Penicuik House). In the Scottish National Gallery 
there is a portrait of John Scougall, painted by 
himself, holding a ring in his hand, in supposed 
allusion to the above-mentioned legend. 

SCOULER, James, miniature painter, was a 
member of the Free Society in 1763, having 
previously exliibited with the Society of Artists. 
He is said to have gained a premium from the 
Society of Arts when only fourteen, in 1755. He 
exliibited constantly at the Royal Academy, from 
its foundation till 1787, sending chiefly miniatures, 
but occasionally crayon drawings. 

SCRETA, Karl, (Count Ssotnowsky von Za- 
WORZIC,) painter, was born of a noble family at 
Prague in 1C04. For several years he lived and 
worked at Venice, Bologna, and Florence ; in 1634 
he accompanied his friend, Wilhelm Bauer, to Rome. 
By his talents and application he obtained a high 
reputation in Italy, and was even appointed pro- 
fessor in the Academy at Bologna. On his return 
to his native country he became a member of the 
Academy at Prague, and, in 1652, principal of that 
institution. Mauy of his works have been engraved. 
In the Dresden Gallery there are ten of his pictures. 
Many of his subjects are taken from sacred history, 
and the legends of the Saints ; of the latter he de- 
lighted to paint fanciful portraits. It is recorded 
that he painted his own portrait as St. Giles, in the 


church of St. Martin, and again as St. Luke paiuting 
tlie Virgin, in the Thein-kirche, both at Prague. He 
engraved a curious plate, in two sheets, which was 
published with the title ' Pliilosophia Universa in 
Universitati Pragensi;' it is signed Car. Secreta 
fee. 1666. He died at Prague in 1674. 

SCRIVEN, Edward, engraver in the chalk and 
dotted manner, bom at Alcester, near Stratford-on- 
Avon, in 1775, was a pupil of Robert Thew. His 
work is to be seen in ' Specimens of ancient Sculp- 
ture,' published by the society of Dilettanti, in 
Dibdin's 'Aedes Althorpianae ; ' in Tresham's 
' Gallery of Pictures,' and other publications of the 
same class. He engraved Benjamin West's studies 
for the heads in his ' Christ Rejected ' ; many de- 
tached plates for Boydell and other publishers, 
after English artists ; and a series of portraits, 
chiefly after Peter Lely, of the heroines of 'Gram- 
mont's Memoirs.' He died in 1841. 

SCROPE, William, (of Castle Coombe,) an ama- 
teur painter, born 1772. He published several books 
illustrated by his own pencil, among which we may 
mention, 'The Landscape Scenery of Scotland,' 
' Days and Nights of Salmon Fishing,' and ' Days 
of Deer-stalking.' He occasionally exhibited at 
the Royal Academy, and also at the British Institu- 
tion, of which he was one of the directors. He 
died on the 20th of July, 1852. 

SCROTS, WiLLEM, a Flemish portrait painter 
of the 16th century, was appointed painter to Queen 
Mary of Hungary in 1537. He is said to have 
painted portraits of the Empress Elizabeth, mother 
of Mary of Hungary, and of Charles V. and his 
Empress, but these have disappeared. 

SCROUDOMOFF. See Scorodomoff. 

SCULPTORE, Adamo, (Gnisi ?) was born at 
Mantua in 1530, and is supposed to have been the 
sou of Gio. Bat. Sculptore. He was a draughtsman 
and engraver, forming himself on Michelangelo 
and Giulio Romano. The dates on his plates range 
from 1566 to 1577, but he seems to have begun 
engraving long before the former year ; and if the 
title-page to his series of plates after Michelangelo's 
frescoes in the Sistine Chapel be really by himself, 
lie must have lived longer than is usually supposed, 
for it is dated 1585. He signed his plates with a 
monogram composed of an 8. on the bar of an A. 
Of some 130 prints ascribed to him, the best, 
perhaps, are : 

A Holy Family with Saints ; after Giulio Romano. 
A Pieta ; after Michelangelo. 

SCULPTORE, Diana, (Ghisi ?) was born at 
Mantua about 1535, and is believed to have been a 
daughter of Gio. Bat. Sculptore. The dates on 
her sixty plates range from 1581 to 1588. About 
1579 she married the architect and sculptor, Fran- 
cesco Ricciarelli, of Volterra, after which she occa- 
sionally added his name to hers in her signatures. 
In a few instances she signed her work with the 
single word Diana, sometimes with a monogram 
composed of a D. with an S. inside it, followed with 
the word incidebat or Mantuana. She engraved 
after Raphael, Zuccari, Paris Nogari, and especially 
Giulio Romano. Her best plates are : 

The Martyrdom of St. Catherine. 

The Feast of Psyche ; after Giulio Romano. 

The Woman taken in Adultery ; after the same. 

The Lirth of John the Baptist ; after the same. 

The Eirth of .■Vpollo and Diana ; after the same. 

The Corpse of Patroclus carried off the Field ; after tin 

Christ's charge to Peter ; after Raphael. 




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SCULPTOEE, Giovanni Battista, (Ghisi?) 
called ilANTOVANO and Bebtano, was born at 
Mantua in 1503. He was architect, painter, and 
engraver, and a disciple of Giulio Komano and 
Marc' Antonio. After the death of the fonner he 
became architect-in-chief to the Duke of Mantua. 
He is said to have designed altar-pieces for Man- 
tuan churches, wliich were actually painted by 
Brusasorci, Guisoni, and Ippolito Costa. He en- 
graved about twenty plates, the dates on which 
range from 1536 to 1540. In technique they are dry, 
deficient in half-tones, but good in drawing. He 
used to be considered the head of the Ghisi family, 
but later researches have gone far to prove that his 
name was really Soulptore, Scultore, or De' Scul- 
tori, and that the word 'Sculptor,' which occasion- 
ally follows his usual signature of /. B., or 1. G., 
Mantuanus, was not a mark of condition, but a 
Latinized form of his name. His best plates are 
' A Sally of the Trojans against the Greeks,' and 
' Hercules and AntEeus,' ' David beheading Goliath ' 
(1540), and 'Mars and Venus' (1539), all after G. 
Romano. He died at Mantua in 1575. 

SEATON, John Thomas, portrait painter, was 
the son of Christopher Seaton, the gem engraver. 
He was a member of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, and exhibited at the Academy between 
1761 and 1777. About three years later he was 
practising with much success in Edinburgh, and 
was still living in 1806. 

SEBASTIANI, Lazzaro, (Bastiani, see p. 94, 
vol. i.) c. 1470 ? has been erroneously described as 
the son, brother, or pupil of Carpaccio, and the 
mistake originated by Vasari, who made a double 
personality of this artist, has since been repeated. 
The date of his birth is uncertain. He came from 
Padua and worked chiefly at Venice, where in 
1470 he was enrolled in the Guild of S. Girolamo ; 
from 1496 his artistic activity diminished, but the 
time of liis decease has not been recorded. His 
first pictures possess, to a marked degree, the dis- 
agreeable characteristics of the Paduan Scliool. 
During middle life the influence of the Vivariui 
softened the crudity of his early manner, and he 
practised with success the use of the new oil medium 
then recently introduced into Venice. Finally he 
became a successful imitator of Carpaccio, and was 
esteemed by his contemporaries as a man of sound 
judgment on artistic niatters, and was selected 
by Giovanni Bellini to assist in the valuation of 
Giorgione's frescoes in the Fondachi del Tedesclii 
at Venice. Zanetti describes him as a painter del 
modo antico, an expression which suggests that 
his style retained a certain conventionality which, 
although by no meaus incompatible with good 
work, prevented him from reaching the level of 
Carpaccio and the best artists of the Bellini group. 
His earliest known work, the ' Entombment of 
Christ,' in the Church of S. Antonio at Venice, is 
atypical work of the Squarcionesque stjde, poor in 
colour, studied in composition, and the sacred 
scene depicted with a coarse realism verging on 
the grotesque. ' Sta. Veneranda seated in glory 
with Jesus Christ,' painted for the Nuns of the 
Corpus Domine (Vienna), betrays the influence of 
Benedetto da Diana, and the latter artist, in com- 
pany with Mansueti, worked with Sebastiani in the 
Scuola of San Giovanni Evangelista at Venice. 
These decorative paintings, formerly the property 
of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, have 
been removed to the Accademia. No. 561, ' Filippo 
di Massari, the Crusader, returning from Jeru- 

salem, offers to the Confraternity of S. Giovanni 
Evangelista the relic of the True Cross,' is by 
Sebastiani. 'The Scenes from the Life of S. 
Ursula ' in the Ace, Venice, have been attributed 
to him, also some portions of the decoration of 
the S. Giorgio Scliiavone, and it is possible that 
he may have worked on them as assistant to 
Bellini and Carpaccio. In the likeness of Canon 
Giovanni degli Angeli, who kneels at the feet of 
the Virgin, in Sta. Maria e Donato at Murano, the 
Vivarini influence is manifest, and the reputation 
of Sebastiani as a portrait painter is confirmed by 
his being selected to execute the series of the Doges 
in the Hall of the Twenty. The foregoing statement 
embodies received opinions concerning this artist 
until the present time, but Mss. Pompeo, Moli- 
mente, and Gustaf Ludwig, in a work entitled 
' Vittore Carpaccio h la Confraternity de Sta. 
Ursula,' claim a more important position for 
Lazzaro Sebastiani, whom they regard as the 
master of Carpaccio, Mansueti, and Diana. _ They 
, also assign to him several pictures not hitherto 
included in his authenticated works, notably, 'The 
Doge Mocenigo praying the Virgin to deliver 
Venice from the Plague' (Nat, Gall., England). This 
assertion has aroused severe criticism, this fine pio- 
, ture ha%-ing hitherto been attributed to Bellini or 
' Carpaccio. ' The Madonna appearing to St. Francis 
[ and St. Jerome' (Royal Palace at Vienna), by Bene- 
detto di Diana, may be with some probability trans- 
' ferred to Sebastiani. He was still living in 1508. 

Asolo. St. Jerome enthroned. 

Barletta. St. Anthony of i>adiia. 

Bergamo. Lockis Carrara \ Coronation of the Virgin. 

Collection, i 1490. 

Venice. ■?. Antonio. Entombment. 

,, Correr Museum. Annunciation. 

,, Accademia. Gift of the Relic. 

,, „ S. Ouofrio and his Tree. 

{Pitta, painted for Citta- 

dello. ) 

„ „ The Nativity. 

„ „ The Dcposiiion from t!.e 


_. ^ ,7 1 Glorification of Sta. Ver.e- 

Vienna. Galler;/. j ,,^^^,^ 

„ „ FimeralofSt. Jerome. A.W. 

SEBASTIANO del PIOMBO. See Ldcian'i. 

SEBILLE, Gtsbert, a Dutch painter, of whom 
little is known, except that he lived in the middle 
of the 17th century. He painted the 'Judgment of 
Solomon ' for the Town-house of Weesp, of which 
place he was a burgomaster. There is also an 
'Assembly of the Magistrates in 1652' by him in 
that building. 

S^BRON, HiPPOLYTE, painter, born at Caudebec 
in 1801, was a pupil of Daguerre. He began his 
career by painting dioramas. Later he devoted 
himself to easel pictures, and painted chiefly church 
interiors, ruins, public buildings, &c., and occasional 
portraits. He was a constant exhibitor at tlie Salon 
from 1831 to the year of his death, which took 
place in 1879. 

SECANO, Geronimo, a Spanish painter, born at 
Saragossa in 1638. After learning the rudiments 
in his native city, he visited Madrid, where he 
studied the great masters in the royal collection, 
and returned to Saragossa an able artist. Palomino 
praises his frescoes and oil pictures in the church 
of S. Pablo. For the last twenty years of his life 
he practised as a sculptor as well as painter. He 
had many pupils. He died in 1710. 

SECCANTE, Sebastiano, was a native of Udine, 



a!id flourished at the beginning of the 16th century. 
He was a disciple of Pomponio Amalteo, and was 
a respectable painter of history and portraits. In 
the church of S. Giorgio, at Udiue, tliere is a ' Clirist 
bearing His Cross,' with angels holding the instru- 
ments of the Passion, by Seccante. He married 
the daughter of Pomponio Amalteo. 

SECCHl, Giovanni Battista, an Itahan painter 
of the 17th century. He was called Ii, Caravaggio 
and Caravaggino from the place of his birth, and 
practised about 1G19. Lanzi states him to have 
painted an ' Epiphany ' for S. Pietro in Gessato. 

SECCUIARI, GlULlo, painter, was a native of 
Modena, but was educated at Bologna, in the school 
of the Carracci. He afterwards visited Rome and 
Mantua, where he painted several pictures, which 
u-ere destroyed or carried away at the sacking of 
that city, in 1G30. There are some of his works 
in the churches at Modena. He died in 1631. 

SECHAN, PoLYCAKPE Charles, born in Paris in 
1803, was a scene painter of much repute, and in 
this capacity was engaged at the Grande Op^ra, 
where he painted the scenery for a great number 
of pieces. He was similarly employed at the 
Theatre Fran9ais, the Thdatre de i'Ambigu, and 
the Porte St. Martin, and had a large practice as a 
restorer and decorator of theatre interiors, both in 
Paris and the provinces. He painted in the Dres- 
den theatre, was charged with the decoration and 
furnishing of the Dolma-Baghtche Palace, Constan- 
tinople ; and decorated the Theatre de la Monnaie, 
Brussels. Outside his theatrical employment his 
best known works in Paris were the restoration of 
the Galerie d'Apollon in the Louvre, and the trans- 
formation of the Pantheon into the church of St. 
Geiievifeve. He died in Paris, September 14, 1874. 
SEDDING, John Dando, an ecclesiastical 
architect, born in 1838, and one of the most i 
perfect draughtsmen for leaves that has ever lived. I 
He commenced architectural work under the . 
superintendence of G. E. Street, and many ' 
churches were the result of his great knowledge. I 
Perhaps the best known is the one he did not j 
live to finish, Holy Trinity, Chelsea. His spare 
time was always given up to designing, and 
church enibroidtry, wall-papers, and decorative 
canvas owe many of their most satisfactory designs 
to his hand. He was exceedingly fond of trees 
and flowers, and although a strong supporter of 
the beauty of the formal garden with topiary work, 
he was yet an almost equal admirer of tlie " nature 
treatment" t.f gardens. He was never tired of 
drawing the leaves of plants with every conceiv- 
able variety of shape, position, and treatment, 
filling very many sketch-books with such work 
alone, and the success of his designs was very 
largely due to the perfect knowledge he had 
ac'iuircd of leaves and flowers. He was the author 
of several important essays, and he died quite 
suddenly in 1891, followed within a week by 
bis devoted wife. 

SEDDON, Thomas, landscape painter, the son of 
an eminent cabinet-maker, was born in London in 
1821. He went in 1841 to Paris to studj', and on 
his return designed for his father. In 1850 he 
took an important part in founding the North 
London School of Drawing and Modelling in Cam- 
den Town, where for some time he constantly 
taught. In 1851 he began to paint, and in 1852 
he exhibited his first work, 'Penelope.' He after- 
wards turned to landscape. In 1853 and 1854 he 
travelled with Mr. Holman Hunt in the East, arid 

setting out again two years later, he was taken ill 
at Cairo, where he died in 1856. His friends pur- 
chased and presented to the National Gallery his 
' Jerusalem and the Valley of Jehoshaphat.' 

SEDELMAYER, Jeremias Jakob, was born in 
1704, at Augsburg. He engraved some views of 
the Imperial Library at Vienna from his own de- 
signs, which were published in 1737. Also five 
plates from Gran's ceiling pictures in the same 
building. He died at Augsburg in 1761. Among 
las other plates we may name : 

Portrait of Wolff ; after Soy. 

St. Rcsalie and St. Theresa. 

Four Allegories ; after Solimena. 

SEDELMEYR, Johann Anton, a German painter 
and lithographer, born at Munich in 1797, studied 
in that city under Kobell and Georg von Dillis. 
He was a pleasing landscape painter, and litho- 
graphed a number of pictures in the Munich and 
Schleissheim Galleries. 

SEDGWICK,WiLLiAM, engraver,born in London 
in 1748, engraved under the influence of Bartolozzi 
after Angelica KaufEman, Penny, and others. He 
died about 1800. 

SEEKATZ, Johann Konrad, born at Griinstadt, 
in the Palatinate, in 1719, painted military scenes, 
scenes of peasant life, and land.scapes with figures 
in the style of Brouwer. ' Girl with a Candle,' a 
'Boy with a Chopping-block,' and a 'Boy with 
Dog,' are in the Staedel iMuseum, Frankfort. He 
died at Darmstadt in 1768. 

SEELE, Johann Baptist, painter and etcher, 
born at Morsburg in 1775, was appointed court 
painter and director of the King's Gallery at Stutt- 
gart in 1804. He painted the exploits of the 
WUrtemberg troops iu the years 1806 and 1809 in 
a series of pictures now in the Palace. He died 
in 1814. 

SEELINGER, Alfred, historical painter, a native 
of Bavaria, who painted a well-known picture, called 
' Spartacus, Gladiator.' He died at Rio de Janeiro 
in 1873. 

SEELOS, Gottfried, German painter ; born 
January 9, 1828, at Bozen ; became a pupil of 
Josef Selieny, and studied at the Vienna Academy. 
Became well known as a landscape painter; his 
best-known works include scenes from the Tyrol, 
such as ' Vogelweidhof,' ' Koloman in Tirol,' 
' Scoglio Pomo,' &c. He died at Vienna, March 
14, 1900. 

SEEMAN, Enoch, (Zeeman,) portrait pamter, 
born in llj'J4, was the son of Isaac Seeman, a por- 
trait painter of Dantzic, by whom he wasbrought 
to England. Here he painted many portraits, some 
of which have been engraved, and here he died 
in 1744. Enoch had a brother Isaac, who died in 
1751, and a son Pacl, both of whom were portrait 

SEGALA, Giovanni, born at Venice in 1663, 
was a scholar of Antonio Zanchi. A ' Conception' 
by him, painted for the Scuola della Cariti, Venice, 
is praised bv Lanzi. He died in 1720. 

fSEGANTINI, Giovanni. Of the Italian paintera 
who, during the latter part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, revived to some extent the old traditions of 
the land of art and song, none was more original 
in his work and at the same time more truly 
national in spirit than Giovanni Segantini. The 
son of parents who belonged to the middle class, 
and were at the time of his birth in very reduced 
circumstances, Giovanni was born at the mountain 
town of Arco, on the Lago di Garda, in 1858. His 


mother died when he was four years old, and liis 
father took him after her funeral to Milan, wliere 
he placed him under the care of a female relation 
who earned a scanty subsistence by going out to 
work by the day. From that time nothing was 
seen or heard of the elder Segantini, and it will 
never be known whether the complete desertion of 
his son was intentional or not. After two years of 
great unhappiness, spent chiefly alone in a garret 
whilst his guardian was absent, Giovanni ran away 
to the mountains and was adopted by some kind- 
hearted peasants,, whose animals he helped to look 
after in return for hoard and lodging. The story 
goes that his art talent was first revealed by a 
drawing on a wayside stone of one of the pigs 
under his charge, which attracted the wondering 
admiration of the simple mountaineers, wlio took 
the artist and his work to the local authorities and 
persuaded them to send him at their expense to 
the Schcol of Art at Milan. Here he made very 
rapid progress, and had soon learnt all that the 
masters could teach him. At Milan young Segantini 
had a hard struggle to live, for the aid so gener- 
ously given v.-as barely sufliciect to pay the fees 
at school, and many were the privations bravely 
endured by him in the little garret which was his 
only home, and from which he could see nothing but 
tiie roofs of a few houses and a small patch of sky. 
He was but nineteen, and was still working at the 
school courses in spite of his own conviction that 
" academies do real art harm by turning out a lot 
of painters who are not artists," when he produced 
his first oil painting, ' The Choir of the Church of 
Saa Antonio.' In this poetic composition he tri- 
umphantly achieved a task which tests the skill of 
the most practised craftsmen : the true rendering 
of the eflfect of light on an ornate interior, proving 
that he mi^-ht have secured success in otiier direc- 
tions thanthat he elected to follow. Segantini's 
art was from the first " personal and individual,'' the 
direct outcome of his own simple character, owing 
absolutely nothing to any human teacher. It was 
long, of course, before he achieved his later mas- 
tery of technique, but even his earUer pictures 
show how deep was his sympathy with the pathos 
of nature, how truly he saw into the very heart of 
the subjects which appealed to him. During his 
residence at Milan he painted many beautiful 
genre pictures, such as the well-known ' Falco- 
niera,' but all the time he was homesick for the 
mountains, and as soon as he felt that he had, as 
he expressed it, acquired "a technical method of 
colour and design quite his own," he retired to a 
lofty village of t!ie Brianza, and there settled down 
amongst the humble shepherds and tillers of the 
soil, to begin the series of pictures in which he put 
forth all the strength of his original genius. 

Among the most beautiful and remarkable of 
the Brianza compositions are : the ' Ave Maria k 
Trasbordo,' representing a boat laden with sheep 
pausing on a lal;e in the gloaming of a summer's 
day, while the shepherd and his wife perform their 
evening devotions, and the larger 'Alia Stanga,' 
which in genera! effect and the skill with which 
the groups of oxen are painted recalls the best 
work of Troyon. 

From Brianza, Segantini went up to the j^et 
higher Orison Alps, and remained for eight years at 
the remote village of Savognino. In these lofty 
solitudes he produced many an exquisite picture, 
in which he interpreted with rare fidelity the life 
of the simple-hearted mountaineers among the 

austere and rugged sarrcundings of their homes, 
representing them at work in the sheepfold, on 
the farm, or in the fields, bringing out forcibly the 
friendship between them and the animals upon whom 
they depend for their daily bread, and teachin - in- 
directly many a useful lesson of thnft, of self-denial, 
and of privation nobly borne. 

It is, of course, in his effective renderings of 
simple homely scenes from peasant life, full as they 
are of a delicately subtle insight into human nature, 
equal to that of Millet and of Bastien-Lepage, that 
Segantini was most successful, but these revealed 
one side only of his own complex character. His 
lonely wanderings in the deep silence of the Alps 
intensified the strain of mysticism recognized by 
his intimate friends when he was still a student at 
Milan, and during the last few years of his life he 
exhibited several symbolical and religious pictures, 
so unlike anything else from his hand that it is 
difficult to believe they are his work. Of these one 
of the most remarkable is the ' Amore alia Fonte 
della Vita,' or ' Love at the Fountain of Life,' in 
which two lovers are seen walking together on 
a lofty mountain meadow amongst the blooming 
tlowers of May, whilst the Angel of Love with 
outspread wings watches them from her post 
beside a spring gushing forth from the living 
rocks. Another fine picture is the 'Annunciation,' 
in which the artist has represented the angel 
sweeping down from heaven without the aid of 
wings, to deliver the Divine message, which, in 
spite of the adverse criticism it has received, 
displays extraordinary technical skill. 

Segantini died suddenly on September 28, 
1899. He was working far up in the mountains 
on a triptych for the Paris Salon when he was 
taken ill in his hut, and as no water could be 
obtained he drank melted snow, with fatal results. 

The following is a list of Segantini's chief 
pictures : 

Ave Maria a Trasbordo. 

Sorro^v Comforted by Faith. 

The Blessing of the Slieep, or St. Sebastian's Day. 

Alia Stanga (At the Tether), in the Rationed Gallery; 

SacreJ Art. 


Brianza Pipers. 

An IdyU. 

The Last Task of the Day. 

Oue More. 

In the Sheepfohl. 

A Kiss by thu Fountain. 

Two Mothers. 

The Orphans. 

A Sleeping Shepherd. 

Moonlig'nt Eliect. 

Little Sheep. 

The Bu-d's Nest. 

On the Alps after a Storm. 

Sad Hours. 

A Prayer at the Foot of the Cross, 

Sheep Shearing. 

The Potato Harvest. 

Early Mass. 

The Dun Cow. 

At Savognino. 

On the Balcooy. 

F.est iu the Shade. 

The Return to the Sheepfold. 



Ploughing in the Engadine. 

Alpine Pastures. 

Spring Pastures. 

Spring iu the Alps. 

Alpine Lan licape. 



The Spinning-WTieel. 

The Two Mothers. 

Love at the Fountain of Life. 

The Angel of Life. 

The Source of Evil. 

The Punishment of Luxury. 

The tTunatui-al Mothers. 

The Home-coniing. 

Portrait of an Old Lady. 

The Sower. 

The Annunciation. 

The Triptych : Life, Nature, Death. 

The Choir of S. Antonio. 

La Falconiera. 

The Shepherd's Income. 

The Toilers of the Earth. 

The Empty Cradle. 

Rest After Toil. 

A. G. B, 

SEGAR, Francis and William, two English 
portrait painters, brothers, who were practising in 
London in the 16th century, are mentioned by 
Meres in his 'Wifs'Comruonwealth.'published 1598. 

SEGARRA, Jayme, a Spanish painter, who, 
in the year 1530, painted an altar-piece for Notre 
Dame r!e Belen, at Reus. 

SfiGfi, Alexandre, French landscape painter ; 
born in Paris in 1817, and became a pupil of 
Cogniet and Flers, and first contributed to the 
Salon of 1844 his ' Interieur de Ferrae k Voiray ' ; 
obtained a medal in 1869, and a second-class 
medal in 1873 ; was made a Knight of the Legion 
of Honour in 1874, when he exhibited ' Un JIatin 
dans les Alpes' and 'Ferme de Karoual." His 
' Chaines de Kertregounec ' is in the Luxembourg, 
and among his most notable paintings are ' La 
Vall(5e de Courtry,' 'Les Champs k Coubron,' 
'L'Epine d'Antoigney,' 'Les Chatnigniers de 
Beauvoir,' 'La Valine de Ploukermeur,' and 'La 
Vallde de la S^e.' As an etcher of landscapes he 
was also highly successful. He died at Coubron, 
Seine-et-Oise, October 27, 1885. 

SEGHER, Anne, miniature painter, was the 
daughter of a physician at Breda, and practised in 
the 16th century. 


SEGHIZZI, Andrea, a decorative painter, bcirn 
at Bologna in 1630, was a pupil of Albani, and 
painted in Ravenna, Modena, Parma, and Bologna. 

SEGNA Di BUONAVENTURA, painter, who 
flourished at the beginning of the 14th century at 
Siena, was a pupil of Duccio di Buoninsegna. His 
chief works are a'JIajesta,' in the church of Cas- 
tiglione Fiorentino at Arezzo, 'Christ on the Cross,' 
in the Abbey of S. Fiore, a ■ Virgin with Saints,' 
in the Academy of Siena, and ' Christ on the Cross 
with the Virgin and St. John,' in the National Gallery 
in London. 

SEGOVIA, Juan de, a Spanish marine painter, 
who resided at Madrid in the middle of the 17th 

SEGUIER, John, younger brother of William 
Seguier, bom in London in 1785, studied at the 
Academy Schools, and painted views, among which 
are two of Oxford Market, and one of Kew Bridge. 
He succeeded his brother as superintendent of the 
British Institution, and died in London in 1856. 

SEGUIER, William, bom in London in 1771, 
was the son of David Seguier, a well-known picture- 
dealer of the last century. He studied under George 
Morland, and painted views in and around the 
metropolis. He was appointed keeper of the 
royal pictures, and of the National Gallery on its 
foundation in 1824. He was also superintendent 
of the British Institution, and was an active ' re- 

storer' of pictures. He died at Brighton in 

SEGURA, Antonio de, a painter and architect 
employed by Philip II. in 1680 to paint an altar- 
piece for the monastery of S. Yuste, and to copy 
Titian's ' Apotheosis of Charles V.' He died at 
Madrid in 1605. 

SEGDVIRA, DoMENico Antonio de, a Portu- 
guese painter of the 19th century. In his youth 
he showed such capacity for art, that a Portuguese 
minister sent him to Rome to studj'. In 1810 he 
returned to his native country, and practised there 
with success. 

SEIBELS, Karl, landscape painter, was a jmpil 
at the Diisseldorf Academy and of Achenbach. 
He painted scenes in Holland and Italy. He died 
at Naples in 1877. 

SEIBOLD, CuRiSTiAN, bom at Mayence in 1697 
(1703), painted portraits somewhat in the style of 
Denner. In 1749 he became painter to the Empress 
Maria Theresa. The Dresden Gallery has five of 
his portraits, including one of himself. He died at 
I Vienna in 1768. 

I SEIDEL, GnsTAV, German engraver ; born April 
1 28, 1819, at Berlin ; studied at the Academy under 
! Buchhorn and Mandel. As a line-engraver he 
' became famous by his reproduction of pictures by 
j Diige, Kaulbach, Koerner, Richter, Schadow, 
1 Vecelli, and others. He was a member of the St. 
Petersburg Academy, and died at Rudersdorf near 
Berlin in July 1901. 

SEIDL, Andreas, painter and engraver, born at 
Munich in 1760. In 1781 the Elector sent him to 
Italy, where he gained a prize at the Academy of 
St. Luke in Rome, and became a Member of the 
.Academies of Bologna and Parma. In 1787. on 
his return, he became Court-painter and Professor 
at the Munich Academy. He etched a few plates, 
chiefly ' Academies.' He died in 1834. 

SEIDLER, Caroline Louise, horn at Jena in 
1786, was instructed by Roux, and by Goethe, 
whose portrait she painted. From 1818 to 1823 
she studied in Italy, where she copied Raphael and 
Perugino. In 1823 she became teacher to the Prin- 
cesses Maria and Augusta, at Weimar, and in 1824 
curator of the Weimar Gallerj'. She painted 
portraits in oil and crayons, as well as religious, 
mythological, and romantic scenes. She died at 
Weimar in 1866. 

SEIFERT, Alfred, Hungarian painter ; bom 
September 6, 1850, at Horovic (Bohemia) ; became 
a pupil of Kirnig at Prague, and afterwards studied 
at the Munich Academy under Echter, Sthihuber, 
and Raab. His best-known works are ' Philijipine 
Welser' (in the Rudolfinum, Prague), 'Oberon,' 
'Titania,' ' Ein Gelobniss,' and ' Im Herbst.' He 
died at i^Iunich, February 4, 1901. 

SEILLER, JoiiANN Georg, of Schaffliausen, a 
mezzotint engraver, flourished about 1700. His 
plates are mostly portraits, and are good for their 
date. Among the best are : 

Portrait of the Emperor Joseph I. 

Do. J, H, Heidegger. 

Do. the Empress Eleonora. 

Do. the engraver Bartholomans Kilian. 
A Monk attempting to kiss a Girl. 

His plates are inscribed J. G. Sei/ler, fecit, or J. 
Geo7-g Seiller fecit et ex., and sometimes Joli. Georg 
Seiller scaJTusianvs fecit. 

^ SEINSHEI.M, August Kabl, Gbaf von, painter, 
lithographer, and etcher, born at Munich in 1789, 
began etching about 1809. While studying law at 


Landehut he learnt oil-painting from Simon Klota. 
Prom 1813 to 1816 he frequented the Munich 
Academy, where he studied under the Langers. 
In 1816 he went to Italy, and joined the so-called 
"Nazarenes." On his return to Munich he painted 
a ' Virgin and Child ' for the church at Grtinbach, 
a 'Charge to Peter' for the church at Vohburg, 
and other altar-pieces. lie died at Munich in 

1869. He etched ten plates, of wliich we may 
aame : 

An Old 'Woman Reading. 

A Young Woman with a Child. 

A Madonna with the Child Jesus, 

A Man's Head. 

A Roman Mother, 

SEISENEGGER, Jakob, bom in Austria in 1505, 
painted the portrait of the Emperor Charles V., 
and became in 1531 Court painter to the Grand 
Duke Ferdinand. He died at Linz in 1567. 

SEITZ, Anton, German paiuter ; born January 
23, 1829, at Roth-am-Sand, near Niiremberg, 
where he studied art under Wagner (F.) and 
Beindel, becoming subsequently a pupil of Fliiggen 
■at the Munich Academy. He painted genre 
pictures much in tlie style of Meissonier, such as 
'Landliche Briefsteller,' ' Schiitzenkonig,' ' Karten- 
*pieler,' &c. He died at Munich, November 22, 

SELB, Joseph, bom at Stockach in the Tyrol, in 
1784, was first instructed by his brother Kabl, also 
a painter, and then went in 1799 to Dttsseldorf. 
He aftervvards worked in Munich, and gained a 
name by his lithographs after Vernet, In 1816 he 
founded a Lithographic Institute. In 1820 he as- 
sociated himself with von Mannlich in carrying on 
Strixner's 'Munich Gallery.' Ho died at Munich 
in 1832. 

SELIGMANN, Johann Michael, engraver, born 
at Nuremberg in 1720, was instructed by the 
Preisslers. He visited Rome and Petersburg, and 
on his return he engraved manj' plates for botanical 
and anatomical books. He died in 1762. 

SELL, Christian, a native of the Free Town 
of Hamburg, born in that city in 1831, of an im- 
portant Hamburg family. He was a pupil of the 
Academy at Diisseldorf, afterwards entering the 
•Btudios of Hildebrandt and Schadow. He was 
specially interested in pictures representing war 
or military equipment, and in order to study his 
favourite subjects attached himself to the Prussian 
army, and went through the wars of 1866 and 

1870. There are representative pictures by him 
at Berlin, but his best work is at Leipsic, repre- 
senting the soldiers in the Thirty Years' War 
dividing booty. He has been claimed as a Dane, 
but himself preferred to be considered a Ham- 
burger, He died at Diisseldorf in 1883. 

SELLENY, Joseph, bom at Meidling, near 
'Vienna, in 1824. He studied nt the Vienna Aca- 
demy and under Ender and Steinfield, with the 
former of whom he travelled in the Tyrol and Italy. 
In 1857-59 he travelled with the Crown Prince of 
Austria, the present Emperor, to North Africa, the 
Canary and Cape Verde Islands, and the Brazils. 
He died insane in 1875. 

SELLET, James, bom in 1764, was an English 
portrait, fruit, flower, and genre painter. He died 
at Norwich in 1840. 

SELLIER, Charles FRANgois, painter, was born 

at Nancy, December 25, 18.30. He was a pupil 

of Leborne and of L6on Cogniet, and in 1857 gained 

*he ' Prix de Rome.' He subsequently became 

VOL. V. » 

keeper of the Museum of Nancy, where he died 
November 23, 1882. He executed th« paintings 
for the chapel of St. Denis, in the church of St. 
Bernard, Nancy, and the following works by him 
are in the Museum : 

The Penitent Magdalen. 
The Death of Leander. 
The Levite of Ephraim. 

A Kitchen Interior. 
Study of a Head. 
An Italian Souvenir. 

SELLMAYR, Ludwig, German painter ; born in 
1834, at Munich ; painted landscapes, animals, and 
still-life. He died in 1902. 

SELMA, Fernando, a Spanish engraver, was 
born at Valencia about 1750. He studied at 
Madrid and Paris. He is among the best of the 
Spanish engravers. His later manner resembles 
more that of Edelinck than of his master, Car- 
mona. He engraved the portraits of Cortes and 
Solis, prefixed to the quarto edition of ' Historia de 
la Conquista de Mexico,' published at Madrid in 
1783, and afterwards engraved tlie plates for the 
'Miritirae Atlas of Spain,' which occupied him 
several years. He also engraved portraits of 
Charles V., after Titian, of Magellan the navigator, 
and various others. One of his best plates is the 
' Spasimo ' of Raphael. We may also name : 

La Madonna del Pesce ; after Raphael. 

The Virgin and Child ; also after Raphael. 

Selma died in 1810. 

SELOUS, Henry C, British painter, born in 
1811 at Deptford ; admitted as a student of the 
Royal Academy about 1818, when he exhibited 
his 'Portrait of a Favourite Cat.' In 1836 he' 
published 'Outlines to Shakespeare's "Tempest."' 
In 1844 he produced for the Art Union of London 
a series of illustrations in outline of Bunyan's 
' Pilgrim's Progress.' Obtained a prize for designs 
illustrating the Life of Bruce. He also produced 
twenty plates in outline for Kingsley's ' Hereward 
the Wake.' To the Academy, British Institution, 
and Suffolk Street Galleries he was a constant con- 
tributor until 1874. His picture of 'Cassio wounded,'i 
at Suffolk Street, was the last he exhibited. He died 
at Seaworthy, North Devon, September 24, 1890. 

SEMENTI, GiAcoMO, (Semenza,) painter, was 
born at Bologna in 1580, and was a fellow-student 
with Francesco Gessi, under Denys Calvaert and 
Guido Reni. He was a clever follower of the style 
of Guido, and painted pictures for the churches at 
Bologna. Such are a ' Martyrdom of St. Cecilia,' 
in the church of St, Elena ; a ' Marriage of St. 
Catharine,' in S. Francesco ; a ' St. Sebastian,' in S. 
Michele ; and a ' Crucifixion,' in S. Gregorio. A 
'Martyrdom of St. Eugenia' is in the Bologna 
Gallery. Sementi visited Rome, where he painted 
frescoes in S. Carlo a Catinari, and in the 'Ara 
Coeli.' He died at Rome in the prime of life. 

SEMINO, Andre.*., (1526-1595,) called Semino il 
Vecchio, son of Antonio Semino, studied first with 
his father, and subsequently at Rome. His first 
recorded work is a ' Baptism of Christ,' com- 
missioned in 1552 by Adamo Centurione for the 
church of Sta. Maria degli Angeli at Genoa, and 
painted in rivalry with Luca Cambiaso, the 
brothers Lazzari, and Pantaleone Calvi. Alone, 
and in company with his brother Ottavio, he 
painted a vast number of frescoes on all sorts of 
subjects — religious, historical, classical, and myth- 
ological — for churches and palaces at Genoa, Milan, 
and Savona, A number of portraits by him, in- 
cluding one of the wife of Scipione Metelli, of 
Castelnuovo Lunigiana, and another (1582), of 



Prancesco Maria Spinola, Marcheae di Garessio, 
are also recorded. We, moreover, find notice of 
a triptych for a chapel in the church of the 
Annunziata at Genoa, representing the ' Nativity,' 
with the Angel Gabriel appearing to St. Joseph 
on one wing, and to the Shepherds on the other. 
He died at Genoa at the age of 69, and was buried 
in the church of Sta. Maria del Carmine in a family 
tomb prepared by himself in 1578. His ability, 
though commended by Lomazzo equally with that 
of his brother Ottavio, was not so great; but his 
steadiness and reliability were infinitely greater. 
He left two sons, Cesabe (died about 1615) and 
Alessanduo (died 1627), both inferior painters, by 
whom were executed ' A Martyrdom of St. Cathe- 
rine,' in the Genoese Duonio, and a 'Magdalen at 
the Feet of Christ,' in the sacristy of Sta. Maria del 
Carmine. So poorly, however, did they succeed 
that they finally abandoned the trade of painters. 
According to one authority, however, Ccsare 
worked with considerable credit at Madrid. To 
them, however, is probably due the foundation of 
the Semini family of goldsmiths, embroiderers, 
and craftsmen, recorded as residtnt and working 
at Rome at the end of the sixteenth and throughout 
the seventeenth centuries. Among the names 
mentioned are Giuseppe (concerning an accident 
to whom a (iocument dated September 18, 1620, is 
in existence), Andrea, Benedetto, Gian Maria, 
Giovanni, and Pietro. R. H. H. C, 

SEMINO, Antonio, son of a distinguished soldier 
of foreign extraction settled at Geno;i, wiis born in 
that city about 1485. He early sliowed a taste for 
art, and commenced to study under Ludovico Brea 
of Nice, who was tlien residing at Genoa as the 
guest of an Augustinian Father, uncle of the young 
artist, Teraino Piaggia. With tliis youthful painter, 
who was likewise a scholar under Brea's tuition, 
Antonio entered into friendly relations and a good- 
natured rivalry which lasted throughout their lives; 
and many pictures, including a ' Martyrdom of 
St. Andrew,' for the church dedicated to that saint 
at Genoa, are their joint productions, and bear 
both their signatures. His earliest recorded pic- 
ture is a panel of the ' Arcliangel Michael,' with a 
beautiful landscape, painted in 1526 for the Genoese 
church of Sla. Maria della Consolazione. For an 
older church, now destroyed, whicli bore this 
designation, he and Piaggia executed a number of 
frescoes in 1532, and later (1547) a ' Deposition.' 
In 1535 he was at Savona at the invitation of the 
Eiario family, where he painted a 'Nativity' and 
a 'God the Father surrounded by Angels '(in a 
lunette above) for their family chapel in the 
church of S. Domenico in that city. He had a 
special taste for landscape, in which he greatly 
excelled, was an earnest student of art, and en- 
couraged warmly the yotmger generation of 
painters. He even triid to form a school at 
Genoa, but being unable to do so, he sent his two 
eons, Andrea and Ottavio, to Rome to receive their 
artistic training. The last dated notice of him is 
1547, although it is traditionally understood tl:at 
he died in high honour and credit at an advanced 
age. Other recorded works by him are : 

Genoa. Ch. of S. Domenico. Deposition. 

The Hospital for ) ^j^^ j^-^^ f Lazarus. 
Incurables. ) ° 

„ Duomo (Chape! 't The Baptism of Christ. 

of St. John the > (Pendant to Piayyia'a 
Baptist) . J ' Birth of the Baptist.') 
K. fl. H. C. 

SEMINO, QlDLio Cksare, a Genoese, who painte<} 
a 'Crucifixion' for the church of S. Bartolomeo de- 
Sonsoles, at Toledo. He was also employed by 
Philip III. in the Palace of the Prado. 

SEMINO, Ottavio, son of Antonio Semino, and' 
brother of Andrea, was an artist of uncommon 
brilliancy and talent, but a man of very dissolute 
and irregular life. Early in his career he wa» 
banished from Genoa for having killed one of his 
apprentices, being only permitted to return on 
payment of a heavy fine to the parents of the- 
unfortunate victim. Along with his brother Andrea 
he studied first in their father's studio, and sub- 
sequently at Rome. At first also they lived and 
worked together, but Andrea at last found Ottavio's 
association so impossible that, weary of exhort- 
ation, he finally refused to reside with him any 
longer. Ottavio, however, had early secured the 
friendship of Luoa Cambiaso, and in partnership 
with that master he opened a Life-School at Genoa^ 
These two young men, puffed up at their own 
performances, even ventured to criticize the 
draughtsmanship of Titian in some well-known, 
engravings, whereby they brought down upon 
themselves the rebukes of the aged Perin del Vaga. 
Ottavio was undoubtedly a brilliant and skilful 
performer, since his decorations, exterior and in- 
terior, of the Palazzo Doria (now Invrea) were so 
much admired by Giulio Cesare Procaccino as to- 
be compared by him with tlie work of Raphael. 
Painting in oils, however, was not liis strong point, 
as may be seen by his ' Archangel Raphael ' in the 
church of S. Agostino at Savona. In his clothing 
and personal habits he was excessively untidy and 
slovenly. He died suddenly in 160-4 at Milan — 
was found dead in his chair — having left, however^ 
according to Lomazzo, one pupil of some merit, 
Cammillo Landriani. Among the many works 
executed by him the following may be here 
mentioned : 

^Annunciation. {On the doort 
of the organ.) 

Milan. Ch.'ofSta. Maria ) . 
degli Servi. j 
„ Ch.ofS.Angelo\ 

(Chapel of the J-Life of the Virgin. (Fre-icoes,'^ 
Madonna) . 

(Chapel of S.\ 
Gtrolamo). j 

Ch. ofS. Jirareo) 
(Chapel), i 

Sta. Marta } 
(Oratory), i 

Life of that Sunt. 

' Christ. 
The Four Doctors. 
The Four Evauge lists. 

St. John the Baptist. 


God the Father. 

•The Adoration of the Magi. 

The Marriage .^nd A^sumptioik 

of the Virgin. 
St. Augustine on horsrb« fc 

chastising heretics. 
The Virgin, St. John, and- 


The Last Supper. 

La Madonna della Misericordia 
with worshippers. 

R. H, H. C. 

SEMITECOLO, Niccol6, flourished at Venice in 
the second half of the 14th century. His earliest 
known painting is a ' Coronation of the Virgin,* 
dated 1351, and now in the Accadcmia at Venice.. 
In the same collection there are fourteen small 
panels by him, which have been supplemented by 
a ' Coronation of the Virgin,' by one Stefano, (who 
s\gnsh\msf:\i Stefan PUhanusSanctmAgnetispinxitf 
M.CCC.LXXX.) to form an altar-piece. In 1367 


Certosa \ 



lie painted an akar-piece with scenes from the life 
of St. Sebastian, which now hangs in separate 
pieces in the Chapter Library of the Duomo at 
Padua. Seraitecolo is known to have h'ved until 
1400, and it has been suggested that he was identical 
with Nicco!6 Paradisi {q. v.), so called from his 
residing near the bridge of that name at Venice. 

SEMOLEI, II. See Fraxco, Giovan:-i Baitista. 

SEMPELIDS, D. G, a German engraver, wlio 
flourished about the year 1530. He copied some 
of Albrecht Dtirers prints with great success. 
Among his best imitations is the ' Descent into 
Hell,' from the I.i. . of Christ. It bears tlie date 
of the original, 1512, as well as the year in which 
it was engraved, 1580. 

SEMPER, G., a celebrated architect, boru at 
Hamburg in 1804, and a student at Munich and in 
Paris. He eventually became Professor in the 
Academy at Dresden, and Professor of Architec- 
ture at Zurich. As a decorator he took a very 
high position, and his work can be seen in the 
Museum at Dresden. In arcliitectunl work his 
greatest success was the theatre in the same city. 
He became implicated in political troubles, and 
had to leave Germany very suddenly, and took up 
his abode in England, where he became an As- 
sociate of the Ruyal Academy. The latter part of 
his life was spent at Zurich, where he had gone to 
live in 1856. He travelled a good deal in Italy, 
and died rather suddenly at Rome in May 1879. 

SEN.WE, JACOPns Albertus, born at Loo in 
1758, was a painter of Flemish country feasts, in 
the style of Teniers. He painted the atelier of 
Rembrandt, with portraits of a great number of 
artists, contemporaries of that master. This he 
presented to the Academy at Ypres, and was in 
return made an honorary director. Tlie church of 
Loo has a ' Seven Works of ilercy,' by him. He 
died in Paiis in 1829. 

SENEFELDER, Aloys, the inventor of the art 
of lithography, was bom at Prague in 1771, but in 
early life went to Munich with his father, who was an 
actor. He was sent to the university of Ingolstadt, 
to study jurisprudence, but his inclination led him 
rather to the stage and the drama, in which, how- 
ever, he was unsuccessful. By his first piece. Die 
Madchenkenner, he cleared fifty florins ; hia second 
did not pay expenses. Bj- the death of his father 
hia means became straitened, and he could not afford 
the cost of printing his compositions ; he therefore 
endeavoured to devise some other method of multi- 
plication. He made experiments in engraving, 
etching, and stereot3-ping, and to avoid the expense 
of copper plates, made use of a fine piece of Kel- 
heim stone, and tried to print from it, but at first 
without much success. One day, however, when he 
had prepared a stone for etching, his mother entered 
the room and requested him to write a of the 
linen she was sending to be washed. He had not 
even a slip of paper for the purpose, having used all 
in taking proof impressions, and even his inkstand 
was dry. As the matter was urgent, he wrote the 
list on the prepared stone with the etching ground 
he had discovered for himself, intending to copy it 
at leisure. Afterwards, when about to clean off the 
writing, it occurred to him that by the application 
of nitric acid and water he might bite the stone so 
as to leave the writing in sufficient relief to print 
from. The experiment succeeded, and as soon as 
he had brought his new discovery into a practical 
form, he applied himself to making it a commercial 
success. The mere use of stone as a substitute for 

copper had been known before, but Senefelder's 
experiments led to the discovery of chemical litho- 
graphy in its full sense. Senefelder publislied an 
account of it in 1818, which was translated into 
French and English, and made the process generally 
known throughout Europe. His own practice waa 
confined to Germany, where he arrived at a com- 
petence, and devoted himself to perfecting the art. 
He died at .Munich in 1834. His brothers, Clemess, 
George, Theobald, and Karl, and Heisbich his 
son, all practised as lithographers. 

SENELLY, , an Austrian painter of tho 

19th century, the first part of whose career waa 
spent in great privation and misery. His early 
struggles seem to have affected his br.iin, for, ia 
1873, after he had obtained some recognition, ha 
became insane, and died in 1875. 

SENEX, John, an English engraver, who en- 
graved the plates for the London Almanacks, from 
the year 1717 to 1727, with the exception of that 
for the year 1723, which was by John Clarke. He 
died in 1741. 

SEXEZCOURT, Jl'les de, painter, bom at 
Saint Omer in 1816. In 1841 he settled at Bras- 
sels, where he practised portrait and genre painting. 
He died in 1866. 

SENFF, Adolf, a German painter, born at Hall6 
towards the close of the 18th century, first studied 
theology, but in 1810 decided to devote himself to 
art, and began to work in pastel under Kiigelgen 
at Dresden. He afterwards went to Rome, where 
he copied many of Raphael's masterpieces for the 
'Rafael-Saal' atSanssouci. He painted a 'JIadonna 
Enthroned,' and a ' Christ and the Canaanitish 
Woman,' but was more successful with fmit and 
flowers. His brother Karl Augdst also practised 
as a painter and engraver at Dorpat. 

SENTIES, Pierre Asthasie Thi^odore, painter, 
bom in Paris, February 23, 1801. He was a pupil of 
Gros and Regnault. He painted numerous portraits, 
Bome of which appeared at the Salon, but his best 
work is a ' Resurrection ' in the cathedral of Valence. 

SEPP, Jan Christiaan, bom at Amsterdam in 
1739, waa a painter of insects. He published 'The 
Natural History of the Insects of Holland,' in six 
volumes quarto, illustrated with some two hundred 
and fifty coloured plates, in which he was assisted 
by his son, and some other works of the same class. 
Sepp waa a member of the society Felix Meritis 
at Amsterdam, where he died in 1811. 

SEPPEZZINO, Francesco, a Genoese historical 
painter, of whom little is known except that he waa 
born in 15.30, and studied under Luca Cambiasi and 
Giambattista Castilli, and died in 1579. 

SEPTIMUS, Hercules. See Setti. 

SEPULVEDA, Mateo Nunez de, a Spanish 
painter. In 1640 Philip IV. appointed him painter 
and gilder to the Spanish Navy, partly in return 
for hia contribution of 500 ducats towards the 
expenses of the war in which his Majesty waa 
engaged. Hia patent, among other privileges, 
gave him the sole right of painting all banners, 
standards, &o., required in the navy. He is also 
said to have painted in fresco. 

SEQUEIRA, DoMiNOOS Antonio de, a Portuguese 
historical painter and designer, was bom at Lisbon 
in 1768. He gave early proofs of talent, and was 
sent to Rome in 1788. to complete his studies. He 
became a scholar of Antonio Cavallucci, and after 
apendingsome years in Italy he returned to Portugal, 
where hia works were soon in great request. Se- 
queira had much versatility, and strange alorif s are 



tolil of the eccentric methods of which he sometimes 
made use. In 1823 Sequeira visited Paris to exliibit 
his ' Last Momeots of the Poet Camoens ; ' after 
which lie went to Rome and became devout. He 
died at Rome in 1837. 

SEQUENOT, probably a native of France, flour- 
ished about the year 1671. He engraved some 
frontispieces and other plates for books. 

SEHAFIN, Peiiuo, surnamed EL GiUEGO, a 
painter of Barcelona, who, in conjunction with 
Pedro Pablo, painted the doors of tlie organ of the 
cathedral of Tarragona. 

SERAFINL See Dici Sebafini. 

SERAFINl. Se« Modena, Barnaba pa (Sup- 

SER.\NGELI, GlOACCHiNO, painter, was born at 
Milan in 1778. He studied under Uavid, in Paris, 
cxhil)iting at the Salon in the early years of the 
19tli century. His best works were, a 'Roman 
Charity,' which excited much attention by its dex- 
terous treatment of an effect of light, and a large 
'Najioleon I. addressing the Delegates of the Army.' 
On his return to Italy he decorated the Villa Som- 
mariva on Lake Como with frescoes from the legend 
of Psyche. He finally settled at Milan, where he 
became Professor to tlie Academj-. 

SEREGNO, Giovanni Angelo and Giovanni 
An'J'oxio da, two painters who lived and worked 
at Milan in the last quarter of the 15th and the 
first quarter of the IGth century. They undertook 
to paint the shutters of the or^^an in the Cathedral, 
and were paid for some part of the work in 1488, 
the final payment being made to Giovanni Angelo 
alone in 1491. Giovanni Antonio is mentioned in 
connection with BoltrafBo in 1503, and is spoken 
of as an admirable painter. Their surname appears 
to have been Mirofolis ; Giovanni Angelo is so 
called in a list of pa3inents made to him in October 
1486 for painting a figure of tlie Blessed Virgin 
and for other work. They were still living at 
Milan in 1524. 

SERENAKI, Gaspabo, a native of Palermo, 
flourished about the year 1750. He went to Rome, 
and frequented the school of Sebastiano Conca. 
On his return to Sicily he distinguished himself as 
a painter of history, both in oil and fresco. His 
jirincipal works at Palermo are the cupola of the 
Jesuits' church and an altar-piece in the monastery 
church of La Carita. 

SERGENT, Antoine Louis Franqois, engraver, 
born at Chartres in 1751, studied under S. Aubin, 
and engraved several excellent plates. When the 
French Revolution broke out he became president of 
tlie Ward of St. Jacques, and secretary to the Jacobin 
Club. He was the means of saving many people 
from the guillotine, and of performing many 
kindly deeds. He married, in 1794, Emira Mar- 
cEAU, the sister of General Marceau, and the 
divorced wife of Champion de Sernet. Slie en- 
graved several plates from drawings by her hus- 
band. For two years he was an exile in Swit- 
zerland, but on his return to Paris was active in 
artistic matters. After the 18th of Brumaire he 
went to Venice, where he published ' The Costumes 
of tlie People, Ancient and Modern,' in twenty-one 
parts. He died, blind, at Nice, in 1817. 

SERGENT, L. P., a French artist, bom at Massy 
in 1849. He was a pupil of Pils and Laurens, and 
exhibited for many years at the Salon. He ob- 
tained second-class medals in 1889 and 1890, and 
a first-class bronze medal in 1900. In 1904 lie 
had two fine pictures at the Salon, one illustrating 


a scene at the battle of Waterloo, and the other 
the battle of Wagram. For these works he would 
probably have obtained a high distinction had he 
lived. He died in June 1904, after a long illness, 
and will be remembered by the large number of 
paintings he executed of military subjects. 

SEUI, RobERT DE, painter and engraver, bom in 
Paris about 1680, was a pupil of Gazes, and then 
studied in Rome. He became painter to Cardinal 
de Rohan, and painted scenes from the life of the 
Virgin for the Capuchin Church of the Marais in 
Paris, and the ' Martyrdom of St. Fidelis ' for the 
Capuchin Church in the Rue St. Honore. He exe- 
cuted several etchings after Raphael, Bagnacavallo, 
&.C. He died about 1739. 

SERIOUS. See Soye, Philippe de. 

SEIfIN, Jan, a painter of historical subjects and 
portraits, was born at Ghent in 1678. He has 
been confounded by Balkema with his father, 
N. Serin, an historical painter of the same place, 
by whom there is a picture in the church of St. 
Martin at Tournay, ' St. Martin dividing Ids Cloak 
with a Beggar.' The elder Serin may have been 
the scholar of Erasmus Quellin, and the younger a 
scholar of Jan Erasmus, his son. Several altar- 
pieces in the churches at Ghent are attributed to 
Jan Serin, but he was more celebrated as a portrait 
painter, which profession he exercised at the Hague. 
In 1748, when he had reached his seventieth year, 
he painted the portrait of the Marquis de F6n61on, 
ambassador at the Hague, and that of the Mar- 
chioness. The precise year of his death, and that 
of his father, is not known. His son, Jan Serin 
the younger, was also a painter, and is known to 
have practised from 1740 to 1748. 

SERJIEI, Cesare, II cavaliere, painter, born in 
1510, at Orvieto, whence he went to Assisi, where 
he painted frescoes and oil pictures. He painted 
besides, pictures of ceremonies, markets, &c., in- 
troducing numbers of small figures. He died at 
Assisi in 1600. 

SERMONETA. See Siciolante. 

SERNE, Adriaan, born at Haarlem in 1773, 
painted landscapes with figures, alleys of trees, 
and views of towns, and also etched views of the 
neighbourhood of Haarlem. He was director of 
the Academy of Zwolle, where he died in 1847. 

SERRA, MiGDEL, (Serre, Serres,) was born in 
Catalonia about the year 1653. At the age of 
eight years he absconded from his mother's house, 
and managed to get to Marseilles, where he ob- 
tained instruction fjoiii an indifferent painter, and 
afterwards went to Rome. At the age of seven- 
teen he returned to Marseilles, and painted a 'St. 
Peter Martyr ' for the church of the Dominicans 
of that city, which at once established his reputa- 
tion. He was soon fully employed for the churches 
and for private patrons. He sent a picture to 
Paris which won him election as a member of 
the Academy, and an appointment as painter to 
the king. Having arrived at great honour and 
riches, he devoted the whole of his wealth to 
the succour of the poor of Marseilles during the 
plague of 1721. However, when the plague ceased, 
he returned with renewed ardour to his profession, 
and painted scenes which he had witnessed during 
the epidemic. He worked for the convent of St 
Claire de Marseilles, for the Madeleine in the same 
city, and for the Carmelites of Aix. His easel 
pictures were also in great request, and are numer- 
ous. There are about twenty in the gallery of Mar- 
seilles. He died at Marseilles in 1728. 


SERRES, Dojiixie, the younger, -n-ater-colonr 
draughtsman, was the younger son of Serres the 
elder. He is best known as a teacher of drawing, 
but exhibited landscapes at the Royal Academy 
from 1783 to 1787. After many years of labour in 
his profession, his mind became clouded by a settled 
despondency, and he entirely lost his connection as 
a teacher. For the last few years of his life he was 
supported by his brother, John Thomas Serres. 

SERRES, Do3iiNiQtJE, bom at Auch in Gascony 
in 1722. His parents designed him for the Church, 
but he ran away and went to sen, and in time be- 
came master of a trading vessel, which was captured 
by the English in 1752, and he himself brought to 
England. He then applied himself to the culti- 
vation of a native bent towards nrt, and soon ac- 
quired a reputation as a painter of sea-pieces and 
landscapes. When the Royal Academy was insti- 
tuted, he was ciiosen a member, and some years 
afterwards was appointed marine painter to George 
III. In 1792 he became librarian to the Royal 
Academy. One of his import,<int works was a 
picture of Lord Howe's victory over the combined 
Fleets of France and Spain, ofi Gibraltar, in 1782. 
He was a large contributor to the exhibitions at the 
Royal Academy for several years after its institu- 
tion. During the first ten years he exhibited about 
fort}' pictures, all of English naval actions. Many 
of them are at Hampton Court and in Greenwich 
Hospital. He died in London in 179.3. 

SERRES, John Thomas, marine painter, born in 
London in 1759, was a pupil of his father Domi- 
nique. He was drawing-master at the naval school 
at Chelsea. In 1790 he visited France and Italy. 
In 1793 he became marine painter to the king and 
drauglitsman to the admiralty. In 1801 he pub- 
lished ' The little Sea Torch for Coasting Ships,' 
with coloured plates, and in 1825 his ' Liber Nauti- 
CU9,' a handbook for marine painters. He was 
ruined by the depravity and extravagance of his 
wife, who called herself Princess of Cumberland. 
He became ban'urupt and died in the Rules of the 
King's Bench Prison in 1825. 

SERRES, Olive, landscape painter, born in 
1772, was the wife of John Thomas Serres, and 
claimed to be the daughter of Henry Frederick, 
Duke of Cumberland. Her legal father was a house 
painter at Warwick, named Wilton. Her preten- 
sions were brought before the House of Commons in 
1822. She exhibited landscapes at the Academy and 
the British Institution. She d'ied November 21, 1834. 

SERRUR, Hexei AncusTE Calixte Cesar, 
paintir, was born at Lambersart, near Lille, in 
1794. He studied first at Lille, but in 1815 was 
granted a pension by the town to enable him to 
complete his education in Paris. He there entered 
Regnault'a studio. He exhibited at the Salon from 
1819 to 1852, and died in Paris in 1865. Works : 
Arras. lluseum. BrunhiWa. 

Cathedral. St. \Yaast healing the BliuJ. 
Bordeaui Museum. Portrait of Oiarles X. 

Cimbrai. „ Death of Mazet. 

Douai. „ Razzia in Africa. 

Lille. ., Three Scenes from Homer. 

„ Chapel of the ) .j.^^ Presentation in the Temple. 

Sacred Heart, j 
Eennes. Church of St. » ^^^^^^ burying a Hebrew. 

Gennatn.} ' 

Valenciennes. Museum. The Shipwreck of Camoens. 
Versailles. „ Several Official Portraits and 


SERVAES, Hermas, a Flemish painter, born 
probably at Antwerp in 1601. He was a pupil 

of Van Dyck, was a member of the Guild of St. 
Luke in 1650, and was still living in 16G0. 

SERVANDONY, Jeak Nicholas, an eminent 
painter of theatrical scenery and architectural decor- 
ations, was bom at Lyons in 1695, and received 
his instraction in art at Piacenza from Paolo Panini, 
and at Rome under G. G. RossL His name is often 
Italianized and his birth put at Florence, but the 
trath seems to be as here stated. After a sojourn in 
Portugal, where he was much employed on decor- 
ations for ^uhVic fetes, he settled in Paris, where he 
was received with enthusiasm, and received the 
honour of knighthood. In 1749 he was invited to 
London, where he found a wife, proceeding after- 
wards to Dresden, Vienna, and Wiirtemberg. From 
1737 to 1765 he was a steady contributor to the 
Salon. In the Louvre there is a picture of ancient 
ruins by him, painted in the manner of P. Panini. 
He died in Paris in 1766. 

SERVIN, AllEDfiE Elie, painter, was bom in 
Paris ,in 1829. He was a pupil of Drolling, entered 
tlie Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1848, and gained 
several medals at the Salon. His subjects were 
chiefly landscapes and animals ; he occasionally 
painted genre pictures, and etched a few plates, 
among them one after his own picture, ' Le Puita 
de mon Charcutier.' His ' Moulin Bale ' is in the 
Marseilles Museum, and there are landscapes by him 
in the Museums of ilans and Melun. He died in 1886. 

SERVlfeRES, Eugenie, Madame, (?iee Ciiahen,) 
was born in France in 1786. She was a pupil of 
Lethiere, was premiated in 1808 and 1817, and 
exhibited occasionally at the Salon in the early 
years of the 19th century. Her ' Inez de Castro ' 
is in the Trianon. 

SERWOUTER, Pieter, a Flemish engraver, 
born at Antwerp about the year 1574. He was a 
contemporary with J. van Londcrseel, to whose 
style his bears some resemblance. Among other 
prints by him are the following : 

A set of twelve Hunts ; after D. Vinclcelooms. 

The Fall of our first Parents ; after the sanif. 

A Dutch Merrymaking; after the sawe. 

Samson killing the Lion ; after the same. 

David kilhng the Bear ; after the same. 
He marked his plates \vith a cipher composed of a 

P, an S, and a "W, thus, 5P."\V- 

SESTO, Cesaee da, called Cesarb Milanese, 
was born at Sesto Calende about 1480. He is 
generally regarded as a disciple of Leonardo da 
Vinci, but late in life he went to Rome and became 
affected by the example of Raphael. He alsa 
visited Naples and Messina, where he painted the 
' Adoration of the Magi,' now in the Naples Gallery. 
But the details of his career are little known, and 
there is much uncertainty as to his life. His work 
is very eclectic, showing traces not only of the 
influence of Leonardo and Raphael but also of 
Dosso Dossi. It is always refined, and his land- 
scapes are decorative from the effect of branching 
trees. The 'Judith,' at Vienna ; the 'Altar-piece,' 
in Sta. Trinita della Cava, near Salerno, long given 
to Sabbatini, are also by Cesare. He died at Milan 
about 1521. Other works by him : 
Madrid. Museum. Virgin and Child. 

Milan. Scotti Coll. Baptism of Christ. 

„ Brera. A Madonna. 

„ Casa Melzi. Altar-piece in several compart- 

ments, St. Koch in the centre. 
Naples. Museum. Adoration of the Kings. 

Richmond. •Si>i='. Cooi^s | virgin enthroned. 



Turin. Gallery. A Madonna. 

Venice. Manfrini Gall. Two Madonnas. 

SESTRI. See Travi. 

SETCHELL, Sarah, was born in 1813. She 
became a pleasing painter of landscapes, portraits, 
and genre subjects in water-colour. Her first ex- 
hibit was 'Fanny,' at the Koyal Academy in 1831. 
She showed in all nine pictures at the Academy, 
fifteen at Suffolk Street, and thirty-four at the New 
Water-Colour Society, of which she became a 
member in 1842. At the Gallery of the British 
Artists in 1840 she exhibited 'A Scene from 
Howitt's "Rural Life in En-land."' This was 
engraved by S. Be'iliu in 1843, and published under 
the title 'The Momentous Question,' attaining 
wide popularity. Among other typical paintings 
may be mentioned: 'Jesse and Colin' (1850); 
'Sketch at Ili{;hgate' and 'Sketch o:; Harrow 
Weald' (1853): 'Lake of Zurich ' and 'Lady in 
White Satin ' (1806). Miss Setchell ceased to 
exhibit in 18G7, and died on January 8, 1894, at 
her residence at Sudbury, Harrow. 11. H. 

SETLEZKY, Balthazar Sigismu.nd, a German 
engraver, of Polish origin, who was born at Augs- 
burg in 1G05. He died in 1770. He engraved 
after Watteau, J. M. Roos, and II. Roos. 

SETTELLA, Manfred, painter and mechanician, 
born at Milan in IGOO, was Director of the 
Academy in bis native city, and died in 1680. 

SETTI, Ercole, (or Septimus, Hercules,) an 
Italian painter and engraver, who flourished about 
the year 1560. He was a native of Modena, and 
painted altar-pieces for the churches in that city. 
He etched a few pktes and was still at work in 

SEUBERT, JoHANN Friedrich, bom at Stutt- 
gart in 1780, learned art from Ueideloff, and 
painted decorations, portraits, and flowers in 
water-colours. He became professor to the Kath- 
arinenstift in 1838. He died at Stuttgart in 1859. 

SEUPEL, J. A., an engraver of portraits, which 
lie frequently drew from the life, was born at 
Strasburg in 16G0. His plates are neatly executed 
with the graver. In several plates he imitated the 
efl'ect of mezzotint with tlie burin ; this, perhaps, 
led him to scrape a ' View of Strasburg by Night.' 
He (lied at Strasburg in 1714. 

SEURAT, Georges Pikrre, French painter; 
born December '2, 1859, in Paris ; became a student 
at the ficole des Beaux Arts ; made a special study 
of Delacroix's frescoes in the St. Sulpice ; painted 
landscapes in the Impressionist style, scenes chosen 
in Normandy and at Asniferes ; also portraits ; his 
'Cirque,' 'Poseuse,' and 'Dinianche k la grande 
Jatte,' are among his best-known works. He died 
in Paris, in March 1891. 

SEUTER. See Saiter. 

SfcVE, Gilbert de, was born in Paris in 1615. 
It is not known by whom he was instructed, but he 
was a painter of ability, and a foundation member 
of the old maitrise. Several of his portraits of dis- 
tinguished persons were engraved by Edelinck, 
Van Schuppen, Masson, and other eminent French 
engravers. His own portrait, by Nattier, is at 
Versailles. He died in Paris in 1698. 

SfeVE, Pierre de, brother of Gilbert de Seve, 
was born at Moulins in 1623. He was trained by 
his brother, and painted similar subjects. He died 
in 1695. 

SEVERING. See San Severing. 

SEVERN, JosEPU, painter, bom about 1795. He 

settled in Rome, where he worked for many years, 
frequently sending a picture to the Royal Academy 
Exhibitions in England between 1827 and 1867. 
He was the friend of the poet Keats, took him to 
Italy, and tended him during his last illness in 
1821. Severn returned to England in 1840, and 
won a premium of £100 at the Westminster Hall 
competition of 1843. In '44, '45, and '47, he wag 
less successful. He was again in Rome in 1861, 
and held the post of British Consul in that city 
until 1872, when he retired on a pension. He died 
in Rome, August 3, 1879, and was buried there, 
but in 1882 his body was removed from its first 
resting-place to a grave beside that of Keats in 
the Protestant cemetery next the pyramid of Caius 
Sestius. The following works by him are at South 
Kensington : 

Scene from ' Eloisa and Abelard.' 

Mary Stuart at Loch Leven. 

Ariel, ou a Bat. 

Nympli gathering Honeysuckle. 

Portrait of Keats. {Nat. Fort. Gallery.) 

SEVERN, Miss. See Newton, Mrs. Charles. 
SEVEliO da BOLOGNA, an early Italian painter, 
practising about 1400. He was a pupil of Lippo 
di Dalmasio. 

SEVESTRE, Jdles Marie, French painter; 

! born at Breteuil (Eure), September IG, 1820; 

I became a pupil of Corot and of Leon Cogniet ; 
made hiscZe'tuiatthe Salon of 18G4 with 'Susanna' ; 

; paiiited mythological subjects, such as 'Lida,' 'La 

I Toilette de Venus,' ' Nymphe Chasseresse,' &c. 

I Obtained an honourable mention in 1883 ; died in 

I Paris, October 3, 1901. 

born at Granada in 1027, was a pupil of one Andres 
Alonso Argtielles, and of Pedro de Moya. He 
painted several pictures for the churches of the 
Carmelite and Augustine friars at Granada, a large 
' Last Supper ' for the refectory of the Jesuits, and 
others for the monastery of St. Jerome. An ' En- 
tombment' in the Dresden Gallery is probably his 
work. He died at Granada in 1695. 

SEVIN, Jean, a Belgian architectural and 
decoiative painter, was painting in 1750. 

SEVIN, Pierre Paul, painter, born at Tournon, 
France, about 1650. He settled at Lyons, where he 
became a portrait painter of some repute. Several 
engravings were made after his designs, represent- 
ing events of Louis XIV.' s reign. They bear dates 
from 1685 to 1701. Some of his portraits were 
also engraved, among them one of Mdile. de la 
Valliere. In the Toulouse Museum there is an 
' Alexander and Diogenes ' by him. He died at 
Rome in 10)76. 

SEYDELMANN, Apollonie, of the de Forgue 
family, wife of J. C. Seydelmaim, was born at 
Venice in 1767, or Trieste in 1768. She obtained a 
great reputation for her small copies in sepia of 
the works of Raphael, Correggio, Guido, Cantarini, 
Cignani, Domenichino, Carlo Dolci, and others. 
She also excelled in miniature painting. In 1789 
she accompanied her husband to Italy, and assisted 
him in his larger works. She was a member of 
the Dresden Academy. She died at Dresden in 

SEYDELMANN, Jakob Crescentius, was bom 
at Dresden in 1760. He received his instruction 
from Bernardo Bellotti and Casanova. Subse- 
quently he went to Rome under the patronage of 
the Elector, and formed a friendship with Rafael 
Mengs, under whose advice he made m.iny draw- 


irigs from tlie antique and after tlie great Italians. 
ThfBe be finished in sepia in a manner entirely his 
own, and they sold readily to English visitors. On 
his return liome he was appointed Professor of 
Drawing to the Academy of Dresden, and he was 
elected a member of several foreign Academies. In 
1788 he commenced copying the principal pictures 
in the Dresden Gallery, for the engravers. Later 
in life he paid more visits to Rome, and was for a 
time at St. Petersburg. Several portraits and alle- 
gories bySeydehnann have been engraved. There 
is also an etching by him, after J. F. Bloenien, of 
.a figure bathing in a cavern. His vogue lasted 
until his death, which occurred at Dresden in 
SEYFFARTH, Louise. See Shaiipe. 
SEYFFEK, AaGL'ST, painter and engraver, born 
at Lauffen on the Neckar in 1774, received his 
first education in Stuttgart, and then went to 
Vienna, where he made a name by six landscape 
etchings. lie afterwards engraved some views of 
the neighbourhoods of Stuttgart and Tiibingen in 
the style of Woullett, and became Keeper of En- 
gravings in Stiittgart. He died in 1845. 

SEYFFERT, Johann Gotthold, engraver, born 
at Dresden in 17G0, was instructed in drawing by 
Oisanova, and in engraving by the elder Stblzel. 
He was employed by Uofrath Becker in engraving 
some of the plates for ' The Augusteum.' He was 
a master in the Dresden Academy. He died in 

SEYMOUR, Colonel, amateur, a successful 
painter of miniatures in the reign of Queen Anne. 

SEYMOUR, Edward, painted portraits in Eng- 
land in the tirst part of the 18th century, in the 
manner of Kneller. lie died in 1757, and was 
buried in Twickenham clmrchyard. 

SEYMOUR, James, born in London in 1702, the 
only son of a banker, who was a great lover of art, 
drew well himself, and lived in habits of intimacy 
with Sir Peter Lely and other painters of his time. 
He excelled in sketching horses, but he was a weak 
colourist, and few of his works are known. Houston 
and Burford engraved after him. He died in 
London in 1752. 

SEYMOUR, Robert, caricaturist, born in London 
in 1800, served an apprenticeship to a Spitalfields 
silk designer in his early years. He afterwards 
turned to a higher walk in art. and painted at first 
historical pictures and portraits. His attention then 
gradually turned to the illustration of books, which 
were mostly comic. Among these were ' The Odd 
Volume,' ' The Comic Magazine,' ' Figaro in Lon- 
don,' ' Vagaries in quest of the wild and won- 
derful,' ' The Book of Christmas,' ' The Looking- 
glass,' 'The Schoolmaster abroad,' ' New Readings 
of Old Authors,' and ' Humorous Sketches.' But 
Seymour will be remembered as the first illustrator 
of ' Pickwick,' and as the creator of the types of 
Pickwick, Winkle, and Tupman, on which no suc- 
cessor has contrived to improve. In 1836, how- 
ever, when only a few numbers of ' Pickwick ' had 
been published, he committed suicide. 

SEZENIUS, Valentine, a German engraver, 
who flourished about the year 1620. He engraved 
some plates of ornaments and grotteschi, which he 
usually marked with the initials V. S. 

SG UAZELLA, Andrea, (or,) an Italian 
painter of the 16th century, was a pupil of Andrea 
del Sarto, whom he accompanied to France, re- 
maining there after the return of his master to' 
Italy, and painting various pictures at the Castle 

of Semblan^ay fur Jacques de Beaune. (See De 
Laborde, La Renaissance des Arts d, la Cour de 
France.) These, however, all perished at the 
destruction of the castle in 1793, save the altar- 
piece of the chapel. On the death of Jacopo da 
Pontormo, Sgiiazella succeeded to his possessions, 
as nearest of kin, in 1557. A ' Deposition,' by 
Sguazella, was engraved by Enea Vico, with certain 
alterations, as a work of Raphael, and again, with 
the true ascription, by A. Girardet for the Musce 

SHACKLETON, Joun, portrait painter, suc- 
ceeded Kent as principal painter to George IT, 
There are portraits by him of George II. and ids 
Queen in Fishmongers' Hall, one of the King in 
the Foundling Hospital, and another in the National 
Portrait Gallery. In 1755 he was a member of 
the committee which made a futile atttmpt to found 
a Royal Academy. He died in 1767. 

SHALDERS, Georqe, water-colour painter, born 
about 1826, practised at Portsmouth, and occasion- 
ally exhibited views of Surrey, Hampshire, and 
Irish scenery at the Academy from 1848 onwards. 
In 1865 he became a member of the Institute of 
Painters in water-colours, and was a frequent ex- 
hibitor of landscapes with cattle at their galleries. 
The strain of excessive work brought on an attack 
of paralysis, and he died in 1873, after a few days' 
illness, aged 47. 

SHARP, Michael, portrait and subject painter, 
born in London, was a pupil of Sir W. Beechey, 
and studied in the Academy Schools. From 1801 
to 1818 he exhibited at the Academy portraits and 
portrait groups, but afterwards he confined himself 
to subject pictures. There is a portrait of Miss 
Duncan, in 'Tlie Honey-Moon,' by him, at South 
Kensington. He died at Boulogne in 1840. 

SHARP, William, one of the most celebrated 
of English line engravers, was born in 1749, in 
London. The son of a gunmaker, he was ap- 
prenticed to Barak Longniate, the engraver on 
plate, who was also well skilled in heraldry. At 
the expiration of his term of apprenticeship he 
commenced business as a writing engraver. His 
first essays when an apprentice had been on pub- 
licans' pewter pots, and when his friends wished to 
qualify this assertion by substituting silver tankards. 
Sharp would insist on the humbler metal. One of 
his first attempts in a higher branch was to make 
a drawing of the old lion Hector, who had lived in 
the Tower of London for thirty years, to engrave it 
on a small quarto plate, and to expose the prints 
for sale in his window. Recognition of his merit 
was, however, more widely ditiused by his engrav- 
ing, after Stothard's designs, several of the plateB 
for the ' Novelist's Magazine.' He soon rose above 
the crowd, and was employed on works of art of 
the highest order, and proved himself the worthy 
successor of Woollett, but did not, like him, extend 
his practice to landscape, except in backgrounds. 
His style is always masterly, not servilely borrowed 
from any of his predecessors or contemporaries, but 
formed by a judicious selection from the merits of 
all who excelled. These he combined and blended 
in a manner peculiarly his own, showing more of 
the artist and less of the mechanic than any other 
engraver of his time. His plate from West's 
portrait of Koseiuszko relieved him from nn un- 
pleasant and, at that time, dangerous predicament. 
He was suspected of entertaining revolutionary 
principles, and was examined before the Privy 
Council. At one of these examinations, after 



being long annoyed by questions which lie tlioiiglit 
irrelevant, he deliberately pulled out of his poclcet 
a subscription list for the portrait, handed it to 
Pitt and Dundas, requesting them to have the 
goodness to put tlieir names to it as subscribers, 
and then to pass it to the other members of the 
council. The audacity of the proposal, at such 
a time, set them laughing, and he was soon 
after liberated. Sharp was by no means qualified 
to be a conspirator ; he was fond of good cheer, 
and had a weakness for all sorts of mysticism ; 
he believed in the divine mission of Ricliard 
Brothers, in the immaculate conception of Jo- 
hanna Southcote, and in the visions of Emmanuel 
Swedenborg. The Imperial Academy of Vienna, 
and the Royal Academy of Munich, each elected 
hiiu an honorary member. Sharp died at Chiswick 
in 1824, and was buried in the same churchyard as 
Hogarth and De Loutherbourg. The following list 
embraces his principal plates : 

Portrait of John Buayan. 

„ George WashiDgtou. 

„ Samuel More ; after ll'cst. 

His owu portrait ; after E. F. Joseph. 

Portrait of tlie Earl of Arundel ; after Tan Dyek. 
„ Lord Dimdas ; after Raeburn. 

„ Kosciuszko ; after Stoikard and C. Andreas. 

„ Dr. Edward Jenner; after Chobday. 

The Magdalen ; after Guido. 

Siege and Relief of Gibraltar ; two plates, after Copley. 

Landing of Charles II. ; after H'est. 

The Doctors of the Church ; after GuiJo. 

Ecce Homo ; after the same. 

Portrait of Dr. Jolin Hunter ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

The Holy Family ; after the same. 

Lear in the Storm ; after tlie same. 

The Witch of Eudor ; after U. West. 

Alfred dividing his Loaf with a Pilgrim ; after the same. 

The Children in the Wood ; after Henwell. 

St. Cecilia ; after Domenichino. 

The Sortie from Gibraltar ; after Trumbull. 

Portrait of Tom Paine ; after Romney. 

The Portrait of Mr. Boulton ; after Reynolds. 

Interview of Charles I. with his children ; after Wood- 

Boadicea haranguing the Britons ; after Stothard. 

' Lucretia ' and ' St. Cecilia ' ; after Domenichino. 

The three Marys and dead Christ; after An. Carracn, 
from the picture at Castle Howard, but left unlinished. 

Sharp completed Woollett's unfinished plate after West's 
' Landing of Charles II.' 

The British Museum contains a complete collection 
of Sharp's engravings, in a variety of states. 

SHARPE, Charles Kirkpatbick, was born at 
Hoddam Castle, Dumfriessliire, on May 16, 1781. 
He belonged to the old Scotch family of Jilar, and 
was related to the royal race of Stewart. After 
attending classes for atime at Edinburgh University 
he entered Christ Church, Oxford, in 1798, and as 
an undergraduate was famous for his water-colour 
portraits of the Dean and his fellow-students. On 
leaving Oxford he went to reside at Edinburgh, 
and became one of the foremost antiquaries of 
Scotland, with a keen appreciation of the best in 
modern art. His work as a painter and etcher, 
and also as a poet, was that of a cultured amateur, 
but won considerable popularity. His first etching 
was a striking caricature of Mme. de Stael, on the 
occasion of her visit to Edinburgh in 1813. In 
1819 he supplied an etching to Hogg's ' Witch of 
Fife,' and in 1823 executed frontispieces for Laing's 
'Fugitive Scottish Poetry,' and other works. In 
1836 he etched frontispieces for the Abbotsford 
Club publications of the ' Romances of Otuel ' and 
' Roland and Vernagu,' and a vignette for a poem 

called ' Flora's Fete.' ' Etchings by C. K. Sharpe,' 
published at Edinburgh in 1869, contains a memoir 
of the artist, with reproductions of several drawings- 
and his twenty-seven etchings. In 1850 his liealtb 
gave way, and in March 1851 he died after a brief 
illness. M.H, 

SHARPE, Charlotte, the eldest daughter of 
William Sharpe the engraver, and sister of Louisa. 
Sharpe, who married Professor Seyffarth. Froia 
early days slie was very skilful at sketching 
portraits, and in 1817, when she is believed to- 
have been eighteen years old, slie commenced to 
exhibit. She married soon afterwards a Captain 
Morris, who turned out to be a most unsatisfactory 
person, and the sustenance of herself and her two 
cliildreu depended upon her efforts. She executed 
a great many pencil portraits tinted with colour, 
and a few water-colour landscapes, and sustained 
her children till 1849, when she died. 

SHARPE, Eliza, sister of Louisa and Charlotte- 
Sharpe, practised as a water-colour painter, and 
was elected a member of the Old Society in 1829. 
She occasionally exhibited at the Academy and at 
the Water-Colour Society's Galleries until 1872, 
when she resigned. In her last years she found 
employment chiefly as a copyist at the South 
Kensington Museum. She died at Chelsea in 

SH.'^RPE, LouLSA, born in London about 1800, 
began her career with miniatures and portraits, and 
then took to genre painting in water-colours. In 
1829, the same year as her sister, she was elected 
a member of the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours. In 1834 she married Dr. Seyfi"arth, of 
Dresden, and settled in that city, where she died in 

SHARPE, Mary Anne, a younger daughter of 
William Sharpe the engraver, and sister of Louisa 
Sharpe, who married Professor Seyffarth. She 
exhibited several portraits at the Royal Academy 
from 1820, and during a considerable part of lier 
life lived with her sister Cliarlotte, and assisted her 
very much in her struggles. Mary Anne Sharpe 
became a member of the Society of British Artists 
in 1830, and sent several of her pictures to the 
gallery of tliat Society. She was " a gentle, refined, 
retiring lady," says Miss Clayton, " beloved by all 
who knew her, talented and industrious," but 
neither she nor her sister Charlotte was as clever 
as the second daughter, Louisa, whose work waa 
particularly popular, and who was able to acquire 
a small fortune of her own. Unfortunately, a 
serious disease, believed to have been caucer, 
attacked eacli of the members of the Sharpe 
family, and occasioned their death under painful 
circumstances. Mary Anne Sharpe died in 1867. 

SHARPLES, Felix. This was the eldest son of 
James Sharpies, born in 1794, and he is believed 
to have died about 1814 in North Carolina, where 
he lived after his father's decease. He was a 
clever portrait painter, and was very popular 
amongst the settlers in that colony, in many of 
whose houses his portraits are to be found. 

SHARPLES, James, a working blacksmith, bom 
in 1825, the eldest of a very large family, and 
brought up as a boiler-maker. From his earliest 
recollection he employed himself in drawing and 
in copying all the pictures upon which he could 
lay his hands. When a lad he attended a draw- 
ing-class held at Bury, and by dint of considerable 
deprivation managed to purchase some books on 
drawing and painting, to make his own palette 


and easel, and to buy some rough colours and 
brushes, with which he set to work to paint a 
picture wliich he called ' The Forge.' He made 
four attempts at painting this picture, giving up 
each successive attempt almost in despair, but at 
length he produced it, and then determined to 
engrave it. He taught himself the process of 
steel engraving, and produced a remarkable work, 
partially in line engraving, and partially in a species 
of mezzotint, which created amongst his associates 
very considerable astonishment. He painted several 
portraits, not only of his companions, but of people 
known in the place, and produced another large 
composition entitled 'The Smithy.' He was never 
able to give up !iis whole time to artistic work, 
but only employed himself in the intervals of his 
duties at the forge. He was a man who filled up 
every spare moment of his time, travelled far and 
wide in his immediate neighbourhood to see 
pictures, and was always studying them with the 
greatest assiduity. Under happier circumstances 
and with greater encouragement lie might have 
been an eminent artist, but the demands of 
a family never enabled 1dm to relinquish his 
work. He died in 189.3. His career came 
under the notice of Dr. Smiles, who gave 
considerable attention to it in his work entitled 

SHARPLES, James. During this artist's resid- 
ence in America he spelt his name with the 
addition of a second "s," thus, Sharpless, and is 
always known in the States under this name. His 
special fame consists in the fact that George 
Washington sat to him in 1796, and the profile 
portrait which he painted had so great a reputation 
that very many copies of it were made by his wife 
and daughter Rolinda, in order to supply the 
demand for it. One of these copies is in the 
National Portrait Gallery and is the work of Mrs. 
Sharpies, and another example of her ability is to 
be seen in the same Gallery, a portrait of Dr. 
Priestley, drawn by her in pastels. Sharpies was 
born in about 1750, and was first of all intended 
for the Catholic priesthood, but, finding he had no 
vocation, became an artist. He exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1779 and 1785, but, marrying 
a lady of French extraction who had relations in 
America, he deternuned to leave England. The 
vessel in which he travelled fell into the hands of 
the French, and for a while he and his wife had to 
spend some time near Cherbourg, but he reached 
New York in 1796, and at once became popular 
for his small portraits in pastel and his miniatures. 
He died in New York in 1811, and his wife, 
leaving one son, Felix, in America, returned to 
England, where she died. 

SHARPLES, Mrs., portrait painter, bom at 
Binningham about 175.5, was the wife of an Eng- 
lish artist practising in America. On his death 
in 1811 she returned to England and exhibited 
nuniatures of General Washington and Dr. Priestley 
at the Academy. She afterwards settledat Bristol, 
where she died in 1849. Mrs. Sliarples appears 
to have succeeded to some money during the 
latter part of her life, and also was herself a 
clever artist, exhibiting many times at the Royal 
Academy, and painting pictures in oil, water- 
colour, and pastel of important people in the 
neighbourhood of Bristol. She had to do with 
the foundation of the Academy of Arts in that 
city, and gave a considerable sum of money 
towards it, besides bequeathing to it pictures by 

herself, and examples of the work of her husband, 
son, and daughter, and the remainder of her 
estate. Her son James exhibited portraits occa- 
sionally at the Academy. He practised at Bristol, 
where he died in 1839. 

SHARPLES, Rolinda, the daughter of James 
Sharpies, born about 1797, soon after the family 
had settled in New York. She was a member of 
the Society of British Artists, a clever portrait 
painter, and also produced some large subject 
pictures having to do with local events at Bristol, 
where she resided with her mother from 1812. 
She died at Bristol in 1838. 

SHAW, Hemrt, draughtsman and engraver, was 
born in London in 1800, and assisted Britton with 
his English cathedrals, supplying most of the 
illustrations for Wells and Gloucester. His first 
independent work was 'The Antiquities of Luton 
Chapel,' which was foUovred by 'Details of Gothic 
Architecture,' and a splendid series of illuminated 
works, comprising 'Illuminated Ornaments,' 'Speci- 
mens of Ancient Furniture,' ' Ancient Plate and 
Furniture,' ' Dresses and Decorations of the Middle 
Ages' (1839), 'The Eucyclopaidia of Ornament' 
(1842), 'Alphabets, Numerals, and Devices of the 
Middle Ages' (1845), 'Decorative Arts of the 
Middle Ages' (1851), 'The Handbook of Mediseval 
Alphabets,' ' Arms of the Colleges of Oxford ' 
(1855), 'Ornamental Tile Paintings' (1858). He 
died in London in 1873. 

SHAW, James, devoted himself chiefly to the 
painting of horses. He built an addition to his 
studio in Mortimer Street, Cavendish Square, for 
their accommodation. He exhibited with the 
Society of Artists in 1761, and died about 1772. 

SHAW, James, portrait painter, was a native of 
Wolverhampton, and was placed as a pupil with 
Edward Penny. He painted portraits with somo 
success, and towards the latter part of his life 
resided in Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, wheio 
he died about the year 1784. 

SHAW, Joshua, a self-taught artist, was horn at 
Bellingborough, in Lincolnshire, in 1776. He was 
left an orphan at an early age, and apprenticed 
to a country sign-painter. When his time expired 
he set up for himself in the same trade at Man- 
chester, and married. He afterwards turned to 
other branches of art, and tried his hand on flower- 
pieces, still-life, and landscape, chiefly copying 
the old masters. He came to London and exhibited 
some of his works, which attracted the attention 
of dealers, who employed him to copy landscapes 
with cattle by Berchem, Gainsborough, and others, 
which were sold as originals. After a time he 
emigrated to America, where he carried on the 
same proceedings and also developed a geiuus for 
mechanics. The date of his death is unknown. 

SHAYER, William, was born at Southampton 
in 1788. From 1824, the date of the foundation 
of the Society of British Artists, to 1873, he was 
a constant and most prolific contributor to their 
exhibitions, exhibiting frequently seven or eight, 
and occasionally twelve, works a year. He was 
elected a member in 1862. He died at Shirley, 
near Southampton, in 1879. His works mostly 
represent cattle and sheep. 

SHEE, Sir Martin Archer, born in Dublin in 
1769, was the son of a merchant. He was taught 
at the Drawing School, Dublin, but went to London 
in 1788, and entered the Academy' in 1790. On 
his arrival in London he made the acquaintance of 
Reynolds through Burke's introduction, but for 



a time suffered considerable privation through 
his refusal to ask help from his relatives. He 
soon, however, gained a footing by his portraits 
of well-known actors, such as Lewis, Stephen 
Kemble, Fawcett, Pope, and others. He also 
painted several historical pictures, ' Jephthah's 
Daughter,' 'Lavinia,' ' Belisarius,' 'Prospero and 
Miranda.' He also painted portraits of the Duke 
of Clarence, William IV., Queen Adelaide, Queen 
Victoria, and Prince Albert. In 1796 he took a 
large house in Golden Square, and married. Two 
years later he moved to the house in Cavendish 
Square in which he lived for the rest of his life. 
In 1805 he published ' Rhymes on Art' ; in 1809 a 
sequel called 'Elements of Art' ; and some years 
later ' Alasco, a Tragedy,' which was only published 
after it had been banished from the stage by 
the Lord Cliamherlain. In 1829 he published an 
anonymous novel, 'Old Court.' In 1798 he had 
been elected an associate, and, in 1800, a mem- 
ber of tlie Academy, and in 1830, on the death 
of Liwrence, he was promoted to be President. 
He died at Brighton in 1850. Shee's art was solid 
nnd commonp'ace, but not without diL'.nity. One 
of his best pictures is the portrait of Lewis, the 
actor, now in the National Gallery. 

SHEEPSHANKS, John. A few words should 
be given to tliis great collector, (who by his gift 
of two hundred and thirty-three pictures in oil, 
and two hundred and eiijhty-nine drawings and 
sketches, presented to the nalion in 1857, so 
greatly enriched the national collection,) inasmuch 
as his own water-colour sketches were distinctly 
above the average. He was born at Leeds in 
1787, and early developed a taste for picture col- 
lecting. " He was of a retiring and unostentatious 
disposition," so states a connection of his, and he 
died in London, unmarried, on October 5, 1863. 
His great gift was made with a view to the 
education of students, and he desired it should be 
open for study on Sundays as well as on week- 
days, and did not fetter the collection otherwise 
with any spec'al provisos. His own sketclies were 
generally landscapes, but in some cases were 
clever drawings in smaller size of the pictures he 
presented to the nation. Other members of his 
family were great picture collectors, and there are 
several very fine works in tlie possession of liis 
nephew, the Rev. T. Sheepshanks of Harrogate, 
especially some celebrated portraits in pastel by 

SHEFFIELD, Ge.rge, painter, was born at 
Wigton, Cumberland, on January 1, 1839. As a 
child, however, he settled with his parents at 
Warrington, and afterwards at Manchester. He 
studied at the Manchester School of Art, and for 
a time was occupied in making designs for calico- 
printing. He soon devoted his whole time to 
water-colour painting, and in 1865 left Manchester 
for Bettws-y-Coed. Here he worked assiduously 
at landscape, and in 1868 exhibited at the Royal 
Institution Academy at Manchester a view of 
Llyn Idwal, and of the Fairy Pool on the Conway. 
He was still better represented in the following 
year, and was elected an Associate of the Manchester 
Academy, becoming a full member in 1871. 
About this time he removed to Wdmslow, and 
produced a long series of pictures and black-and- 
white drawings. Among liis best sea-pieces may 
be mentioned : ' The Passing Storm — Holland,' and 
'The Scheldt' (1875); and ' Bunbeg Bar, Coast of 
Donegal ' (1876). In his later days he worked in 

oil as well, and his oil-painting ' A Hundred Years 
Ago' (1890) was purchased by the Manchester 
Corporation for the City Art Gallery. Sheffield 
exhibited in London, between 1872 and 1890, six 
landscapes at the Royal Academy. He died on 
October 2, 1892. M. H. 

SHELLEY, Samuel, painter and engraver, bom 
in Whitcchapel about 1750. He received little 
instruction in art, but greatly admiring Reynolds, 
he copied much from him, and so acquired his ex- 
cellent style, attaining in particular a tine harmony 
and richness in colour. He became famous as a 
painter of miniatures, dividing the patronage of 
the day with Cosway and Engleheart. He also pro- 
duced mythological and historical subjects in mini- 
ature, such as ' Psyche,' ' Nymphs feeding Pe- 
gasus,' 'Cupid turned Watchman,' 'Cupid solicits 
new Wings,' ' Love's Complaint to Time,' all of 
which were exhibited at the opening show of the 
Water-Colour Society in 1805. He was one of the 
original members of this society, which was planned 
at his house. The few engravings he executed 
were after his own works. He made some ill-drawn 
designs fur book illustration. He died in London, 
December 22, 1808. There are good examples of 
his miniatures at South Kensington. 

SHENTON, Henrv Chawner, engraver, boni at 
Winchester in 1803, was among the best of the 
English line engravers. He was a pupil of Geo. 
Warren, whose daughter he married. lie died in 
London in 1866, having become partially blind 
some time before. His best plates are : 

The Stray Kitten ; after Collins. 

The Loan of a Bite ; after Mulreadt/. 

Country Cousins ; after lied tf rave. 

The Generosity of Richard Cceur de Lion ; after J, 

Cross ; for the Loudon Art Union. 
Some good plates for Fhideu's ' Annual of British Art,' 

and the Annuals. 

SHEPHARD,WiLUAM. portrait painter, practised 
in the reign of Charles II. A portrait b^' him is 
extant of Thomas Killigrew, the jester, with 
his dog, engraved by Faithorne. He is said to 
have died in Y'orkshire. Francis Barlow was his 

SHEPHEARD, George, water-colour painter, 
studied in the schools of the Royal Academy, and 
from 1811 to 1830 occasionally exhibited landscapes 
from Surrey and Sussex. At South Kensington 
there are by him: 'The Vale of Health, Hamp- 
stead,' a 'Coast Scene,' and 'Roslin Chapel, near 

SHEPHEARD, George Wallwvn, water-colour 
painter, the eldest son of George Shepheard, was 
born in 1804. He travelled much in France, Ger- 
many, and Italy, and exhibited many landscape 
views and studies at the Academy from 1830 to 
1851. He died in 1852. His brother, Lewis E. 
Shepheard, also an artist, published sixteen of his 
sketches, in 1873. 

SHEPHERD, Georgl:, engraver, born about I 
1760, practised in London. He produced many 
plates, etched, and finished in mezzotint. Of these 
the best are, the ' Attitudes ' of Lady Hamilton, in 
fifteen plates, and ' The Fleecy Charge,' after Mor- 
land. He also engraved & considerable immber of 
portraits. I 

SHEPHERD, George SiDNEY, water-colour 1 
painter, exliibited at the Academy between 1831 
and 1837, He became a member of the New So- 
ciety of Painters in Water-Colours in 183.3, at about 
which lime he exhibited chiefly metropolitan build- 


iiiKs, 'Old Covent Garden Market,' 'Old London 
Hiiilge,' &c. He made drawings for C.Clarke's 
' Arcliitectura Ecclesiastica Londini,' and W. H. 
Ireland's 'England's Topographer.' At South 
Kensington tliere is by hiin, 'The Kilns, 1831,' a 
good example of his work. His name disappears 
after 1860. 

SHEPHERD, Robert, supposed to have been a 
pupil of David Loggan, was a native of England, 
and flourished about the year 1G60. He engraved 
a few laborious portraits in line, as well as reduced 
copies of Gerard Auilran's plates after Le Brun's 
' Battles of Alexander.' 

SHEPHERD, Thomas Hosmer. Very little is 
known of this topographical artist. He is believed 
to have been born about 1824, and probably died 
in 18-12. It is quite possible that he was a brother 
of George Sydney Shepherd, but the fact has not 
been determined definitely. As a young man he 
was taken up by Mr. Frederick Grace, and era- 
ployed all over London in making water-colour 
sketches of old buildings, and many hundreds of 
these drawings are now in the British Museum. 
He illustrated several books on London, and in 
many cases it is to his industry we owe the sole re- 
cord of important buildings long since swept away. 

SIIEPPARD, William, a somewhat mysterious 
portrait painter, who is mainly known from the fact 
that he painted several portraits of Thomas Killi- 
grew the dramatist. One of these is at Woburn 
Abbey, and it was engraved by Faithorne. He is 
believed to have been born about 1602, and is said 
to have died about 1600, somewhere in Italy, but 
the only fact defiuitely known about him was that 
in 1650 be was resident at Venice. 

SHERIDAN, J., portrait painter, was born in 
Kilkenny county. He studied for a time at the 
Dublin Acadeni)', and then came to London. He 
exhibited at the Academy from 1785 to 1789, but 
Ids insufficient education prevented him from reach- 
ing success. He died in London in 1790. 

SHERIFF, Charles, (or Sheruiff,) a deaf and 
dumb painter, who practised in Edinburgh in the 
second half of the 18tli century. In 1773 he 
came to London, where he was well received, and 
took a place among the fashionable miniaturists of 
the day. In 1796 he was established at Bath, where 
he remained for some years. He afterwards went 
to India and there exercised his profession with 
great success, but returned and died at Bath. 

SHERIFF, William Craig, a young Scotch 
painter, born near Haddington, October 26, 1786. 
He studied at the Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, 
and much was hoped from the great promise dis- 
played in his first important work, 'The Escape of 
Queen Mary from Lochleven.' While engaged on 
this work he was seized with a rapid consumption. 
He lived just long enough to finish his picture, 
which was engraved by W. H. Lizars, and died 
March 17, 1806, at the age of nineteen. 

SHERLOCK, William, painter and engiaver, 
1lie son of a prize-fighter, was bom at Dublin about 
1738. He studied at the St. Martin's Lane Academy, 
in London, and afterwards under Le Bas, in Paris. 
He exhibited portraits both in oil and water-colours 
with the Incorporated Society from 1764 to 1777, 
and at the Academy from 1802 to 1806. He occa- 
sionally painted miniatures, and was also known as 
an engraver, both of landscapes and portraits, his 
chief plates being a series of portrait heads for 
ismollett's 'History of England.' 

SHERLOCK, William P., painter and topo- 

graphical draughtsman, was bom about 1780. He 
imitated Richard Wilson, under whose name bis 
pictures have been occasionally sold. From 1796 
to 1810 he exhibited architectural view's at the 
Royal Academy, and in 1811 he published a series 
of soft-ground etchings, after Girtin, Payne, Powell, 
and others. He also engraved some copies of rare 
portrait plates, and drew many of the illustrations 
for Dickinson's 'Antiquities of Nottinghamshire.' 

SHERWIN, Charles, an engraver who worked 
with his brother, J. K. Sherwin, and did a few 
plates independently of him. He died in 1794, 
and is said to have been about thirty years of age. 

SHERWIN, John Keyse, an engraver, was born 
in 1761, at Eastdean, in Sussex, where his father 
was a cutter of wooden bolts for ships, a trade he 
himself followed till he was about sixteen, when 
his artistic gift attracted the attention of some 
helpful friends. He was placed first under Astley 
and then under Bartolozzi to learn drawing and 
engraving. Under these masters he made rapid 
progress, and in 1772 gained the gold medal of 
the Royal Academy for a picture of ' Coriolanus 
taking leave of his Family.' His name is to be 
found in the exhibition catalogues of the Royal 
Academy from 1774 to 1780, as an exhibitor of 
chalk drawings, some copies, some originals; 
among the latter was one dealing with the story 
of Galatea from Ovid, and another described as 
' Lconid;is taking leave of liis Family.' One of his 
drawings attracted nmcli attention ; it was called 
'The Joys of Life,' and was executed in red and 
black clialk with colour washes, in the manner of 
Bartolozzi. It is said that Bartolozzi employed 
him on his plate of ' Clytie,' after Annibale Carracci, 
but in his own larger works his style is more like 
that of Woollett than that of Bartolozzi. His 
plates from his own compositions are unpleasing, 
but 'The finding of Moses,' in which the beautiful 
Duchess of Devonshire represents the daughter 
of Pharaoh, and several other ladies of rank and 
fashion her attendants, had a great success in 
itfl time. On the death of Woollett, Sherwin was 
appointed engraver to the king. Owing to his 
many follies he fell into poverty, and died at a 
tavern which formerly stood where Swallow Street 
joins Oxford Street, in 1790. Another account 
says he died in the house of a printseller on Corn- 
hill. He was buried at Hampstead. The followir.g 
are his best plates : 

William VM, Earl of Cliatham ; after n'iltun. 

George Nugent Greuville Temple, Marquis of Bucking- 
ham ; afur Gainsltormiyh. 

Dr. Louth, Bishop of London ; after Pine. 

Captain James Cook ; after Vance. 

Sir Joshua Keynolds ; after a jju-ture hy himself. 

William ■\Voollett, Engraver to the King. 

Mrs. Siddons, iu the character of the Grecian Daughter. 

The Holy Family; after Carlo Mariitli. 

Christ bearing the Cross ; after the picture hy Guitlo in 
the chapel of Magdalene College, Oxford. 

Christ appearing to Magd.ilene ; after GuiJo's picture 
at All Souls' College, O.rford. 

The Holy Family; after Carlo Maratti. 

The Fortune-teller ; after Reynolds. 

The Death of Lord Kobert Manners ; after Stoihard 

The Holy Family ; after Pietro da Cortona. 

The Virgin and Child ; after N. Poussin. 

Noli me Taugere ; after Mengs. 

SHERWIN, William, an English engraver, born 
at Wellington, in Shropshire, and flourished from 
about 1670 to about 1711. It is not known by 
whom he was taught. His plates are not numerous, 
though he was active for many years. We have 



several portraits by liim ; he also engraved some 
frontispieces and other plates for books, from his 
own designs, among wliich are the greater part of 
the plates in the edition of 'God's Revenge against 
Murder,' printed in 16G9. Sherwin had the unusual 
honour of being named engraver to the king by 
patent Among his portraits are the following: 

Charles I. on horseback, with a view of Kichmond. 

Oliver Cromwell. 

Charles II. ; three plates, one a whole-length ; prefixed 

to Ashinole's ' Order of the Garter.' 
Catherine, his Queen. 
Christopher, Duke of Albemarle. 
William III. when Prince of Orange. 
Henry, DuUe of Norfolk. 
George I. when Elector of Hanover. 
Kicharil Atkyns, Typograph. Reg. 
Slingsby Bethell, Sheriff of London. 
Henry Scndder, B.D., I'resbyt. 
William Eamesay, M.D. 
■William Bridge, A.M., I'resbyt. 
■William Sermon, M.D. ; inscribed, W. Sherwin, ad 

vivtiin, del. it sculp. 1671 
John Gadbury, Astrol. 
Judge Powell. 1711. 

He also scraped a few indiflEereut mezzotints, 
among them the first dated English plate in that 
manner, a portrait of Charles II., inscribed GiuL 
Sherwin, f edit, 1669. 

SHIELS, \ViLLi.\M, painter, was bom in Ber- 
n-ickshire iu 1785. He practised in Edinburgh, 
but occasionally sent a picture to the Royal 
Academy between 1813 to 185-2. Though best 
known as an animal painter, he frequently painted 
genre pictures of a simple domestic character, 
'Interior of a Scotch Fisherman's Cottage,' 'Pre- 
paring for a Visitor,' &c. He died in 1857. 

SHIERCLIFFE, Edward, miniature painter, 
practised at Bristol in the second half of the 18th 
century. He was still living in 1776. 

SHIPLEY, WiLLl.\M, painter, born in 1714, was 
the originator of the Society of Arts. He was for a 
time a drawing-master at Northampton, and after- 
wards in London, where he became widely known 
as founder of tlie St. Martin's Lane Academy, once 
called 'Shipley's School.' There is a mezzotint by 
Faber of a man blowing a liglited torch, which 
beais the name of Shipley as the painter, but whether 
by tliis artist or not is uncertain. He died at 
JIaiichester, December 1803. He was the brother 
of Dr. Jonathan Shipley, Bishop of St. Asaph's, 
whose daugliter, Geobgina Shipley, was an ama- 
teur portrait painter, and exhibited at the Academy 
in 1781. She married Francis Hare Naylor, of 
Hurstmonceaux, and died in 1806. 

SHIPSTER, Robert, engraver, was a pupil of 
Bartolozzi, and practised at the close of the 18th 
century. He engraved West's 'Witch of Endor' 
in line for Macklin's Bible. 

SHORT, K., painter and draughtsman. He 
practised about the middle of the 18th century. 
Twelve pictures by him of naval engagements 
between the French and tlie Spaniards, were en- 
graved by Caroline Watson, and published by 

SHURANLEW, Fies Szeroejewitsch, Russian 
painter ; born at Saratof in 1836, where in 1855 he 
bocame a pupil of the Art Academy. His most 
famous picture, 'Before Marriage,' gained for him 
the post of Professor at this Academy. He died 
in November 1901. 

SHUTE, JouK, painter and architect, was born 
at Collumpton, in Devon. In 1563 he published a 


work, 'The first and chief grounds of Architecture,* 
embellished with numerous cuts and figures, and 
dedicated to the Queen. From this dedication we 
learn that the author had been for a time in the 
service of the Duke of Northumberland, wlio had' 
sent him into Italy in 1550, to study under the 
best architects. He is mentioned by Richard Hey- 
dook, in his translation of ' Lomazzo on Painting,' 
published 1598, as one of the English limnera 
prior to Uilliard, who practised "drawing by the 
life in small models." He died in 1563. 

SHUTER, Thomas, portrait painter, practised in 
tlie early part of the 18th century. At Westwood 
Park. Droitwich, there is a portrait by him, signed 
ami dated 1725. 

SIBELIUS, M., a Dutch engraver, born at 
Amsterdam, who practised in London from about 
the year 1775 to his death in 1785. He was 
much employed by Sir Joseph Banks in botanical 
work. He also engraved a few portraits, among 
which are : 

Cardinal Beaton ; engraved for Pennant's ' Scotland.' 

Mrs. Eudd ; after Daniel Dodd. 

SIBERECHTS, Jan, painter, born at Antwerp- 
in 1627, was the sou of Jan Siberechts, a sculptor. 
He was a pupil of Adriaen De Bye, and became 
master of the Guild of St. Luke in 1648. The Duke 
of Buckingham, passing through Handera after his 
mission to Pari.-i, met Siberechts, carried him to 
England, and employed him at Cliefden. He 
painted landscapes in the style of Berchem and 
Dujardin, and subject pictures, such as ' St. Francis 
of Assisi,' and ' Mother watching by Sleeping Chil- 
dren.' He also painted views of Chatsworth, Long- 
leat, &c. He died in London in 1703. There is a 
' Farmyard ' by him in tlie Brussels Museum. 

SIBMACHER, Johann, heraldic draughtsman 
and etcher, worked at Nuremberg daring the latter 
part of the 16th, and the beginning of the 17th 
century. His principal productions were etched 
coats-of-arms and designs of lace. His ' New 
Wappenbuch,' containing over three thousand 
plates, was pnbhshed in 1605, and was followed 
by a second part in 1609, and a complete new 
edition in 1612. His great lace book, tlie 'Newes 
Modelbuch,' was published in 1604, and has been 
constantly reissued since in various editions. Be- 
sides this he etched sets of the months, hunting- 
scenes, soldiers, designs for goldsmiths, fruits, 
topographical views, portraits, &c. He also sup- 
plied illustrations for the Portraits of the first 
twelve Roman Emperors, the Coins of the Roman 
Euiperors, and other works by Hulsius. Several 
hundreds of his plates are enumerated in Andresen's 
' Deutsche Peintre-Graveur.' Sibmacher died at 
Nuremberg in 1611. M. H. 

SIBSON, Thomas, an English subject painter 
and etcher, was bom in Slarch 1817 in Cumber- 
land, where his father was a farmer. While still a 
child he went with his family to Edinburgli, and 
was destined to a mercantile career in the office of 
his uncle. An irresistible love of art, in which he 
was entirely self-taught, took him in 1838 to- 
London, where he was engaged in book illustra- 
tion. His first venture, a wor'ic in etching entitled 
' Scenes of Life,' proved a failure, and was 
abandoned. His following works were more 
successful, among them being illustrations to 'A 
Pinch of Snuff,' S. C. Hall's 'Book of Ballads,' 
the Abbotsford edition of the Waverley Novels, ten 
etchings with letterpress, 1838, entitled ' Sketches- 
of Expeditions, from the Pickwick Club,' and 


'Illustrations of " Master Humphrey's Clock,"' 
«eventy-t\vo etcliings issued indcpemleiitly during 
llie publication of Dickens' work, 1840-1. In Sep- 
tember 1842 be went to Munich, where he worked 
in the studio of Kaulbach. Sibson had an liereditary 
tendency to consumption, and his ill-health wu's 
aggravated by the intense cold of a winter at 
Munich, necessitating his return to England. For 
tlie sake of his healtli he then started on a voyage 
to the Mediterranean, and died at Malta on 
November 28, 1844. V ,i 

SICARD, Louis AroLLlN'AiRE, a French painter 
of flowers, fruit, and still-life, born at Lyons, April 
25, 1807. He lived at Lyons, wlience he sent 
occasional pictures to the Salon from 1857 onwards. 
He died in 1881. 

SICARP, Louis, (SlCARDY,) miniature and enamel 
painter, liorn at Avignon in 1746, worked in Paris 
and exhibited miniatures, oil portraits, and 'Pier- 
rot' scenes at tlje Salon between 1791 and 1819. 
Many of these latter were engraved. He died in 

SICHELBEIN, Johann Friedricu, an obscure 
painter and engraver, was born in 1648, at Mem- 
niingen, Bavaria, where he died in 1719. 

SICHEM, VAN. Much confusion exists as to the 
life and works of the engravers of this name. No 
less than four Sichems liave been enumerated as 
engravers or draughtsmen on wood, namely, Chris- 
topher the elder, Christopher the younger, Cornelis 
and Carl. Nagler is of opinion that Cornelis 
and Christopher the younger are identical. Some 
writers have turned their name into Vichoin, 
throiigh the V being the largest letter in the mono- 
gram they used. 

SICIIE.M, CiiltiSTOPHEU TAN, the elder, appears 
to have been born, perhaps at Delft, about the 
middle of the 10th century, and seems to have 
practised at Basle, Strasburg, and Augsburg. A 
book illustrated with his cuts, ' Die 13 Orte der 
loblichen Eidgenossenschaft,' was published at Basle 
in 1573. The 180 cuts in Miiller von Marpurck's 
' Contrafacturen weitberiihmter Kriegshelden,' 
Basle, 1577, are signed with Sichem's monogram. 
The Strasburg Livy of 1590 ; a ' Beschrcibung der 
Kunst dcs Fechtens,' published at Augsburg by 
Joachim Meyer in 1600, and a Joseplius, Stras- 
burg, 1601, were also illustrated by this Sichera. 
Tliis Sicliem may be the author of the following 
portraits, on copper : 

The Emperor Charles V. : inscribed Carolus Quintut 
Iinperator, SiC Ch. r. Sichem, sculp, et exc. 

Queen Eliz.ibeth ; inscribed Elisaleta 1>. G. Angli<e, ^e. 
Ch. V. HicheiHy fecit. 

Kobert Dudley, Earl of Leicester ; C. van Sichem, sc. 
ct exc. 

Francois Yalesius, Duke of Aleni;on ; the sa7iie inscrip- 

A .set of twelve Historical subjects ; ClirtsL van Sichem, 
fecit. (Woodcuts.) 

SICHEM, CHRlSTorHi:R van, the younger, and 
Carl. What relation these were to tlie other 
Sichems it is impossible to s.iy, but they appear to 
have been contemporary with Cornelis, and all three 
may well have been tlie sons of the elder Chris- 
topher. There is but little distinction between 
their works or the monograms they used. Tlie 
following prints are attributable to Carl, who eeems 
to have made up his monogram of the initials 
K. V. S. : 

A numerous set of Portraits of the Reformera 
of the Church, published at Arul.eim in l(>oy ; en- 
titled * Iconica Hseresiarcharum.' 

A set of whole-length Portraits of the Counts of Huliaud 
and Zealand. 

SICHEM, Cornelis van, was probably born at 
Delft about 1580. He was at work in Amster- 
dam in tlie early years of the 17tli centurj', and 
is supposed to liave been a disciple of Uendrik 
Goltzius, several of whose designs lie engraved on 
wood. He also worked after Matham and Bloe- 
mart. His prints are pretty numerous. Like tliose 
of two other Sichems, they are signed with the 

monogram annexed (?^, There can be little 

doubt as to his authorship of the following prints: 

Esther before Ahasuerus ; after L. de Lcyden. 

Tlie Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Ah. Bloemaert. 

The Circumcision ; after 11. Goltzius. 

Judith with the He;id of Holoferues ; after the same. 

St. Cecilia; after the saute. 

A set of four plates, Judith, David, Samson, and Sisera ; 

after the same. 
The Four Evangelists. 

SICHLING, Lazarus Gottlieb, engraver, bom 
at Nuremberg in 1812, was a pupil of Karl Mayer 
and Albrecht Reindel, but in 1832 entered the 
atelier of Frommel, at Carlsruhe. In 1834 ho 
went to JIunicIi, Paris, and London. For nearly 
two years he worked at the "Gallery of Versailles." 
In 1839 he returned to Nuremberg, and afterwards 
went to Leipsic. His excellent engraving after 
GrafTs portrait of I^essing, led to the publication 
of a series of German portraits. He died at Leipsic 
in 1803. 

SICILIANI, Giovanni Bebnardino (Rodebigo). 
See Rodriguez. 

SICIOLANTE, GinoLAiio da, painter, was born at 
Sermoneta in 1504, and is generally called Giro- 
larao da Sermoneta. He was at first a pupil of 
Leonarda da Pistoja, and then of Perino del Vaga, 
whom he assisted in his works in the Castle of S. 
Aiigelo. He was employed by Gregory XIII. in 
the decorations of the Sala Regia in the Vatican, 
where he painted in fresco Pepin, king of France, 
giving Ravenna to the Church, after making 
Astolfo, king of the Longobardi, prisoner. Other 
frescoes are in San Luigi dei Franceschi. He was 
one of the best artists of the Roman Decadence. 
He died in 1550. Works: 

Anoona. -S. Bartolmimeo. Virgin Enthroned, with St. 
Bartholomew and other 
Berlin. Count Haczynstci's 1 ^ pjgt,^ 

Gallery, j 
Borne. S.Maria Mayyiore. Martyrdom of St. Catherine. 
„ Ara Call. The Transfiguration. 

& M. ddla I'ace. The Nativity. 

*^- /""/'» '^,¥' \ The Crucifixion. 
iipaynuou. j 

„ S. Luiyi. Baptism of Clovis. 

SICKINGER, Gregoire, a Swiss painter, prac- 
tising at the close of the 16th century. The de- 
tails of bis life are unknown, save that he appears 
to have married one Elizabeth Theitrich, at Soleure, 
in 1595. Recent discoveries have established that 
he is the same with the unknown artist mentioned 
by Nagler and Fiissli as having used for signature 
of his works the following monogram : G. +. S. 
At the confraternity of St. Luke at Soleure there 
are some pen-and-ink drawings by him, and in the 
Albertina at Vienna some engravings on wood. 
It is probable that he made designs for the glass- 
workers of his period. 

SICULO, JACoro, son-in-law of Lo Sp.igna, lived 
in the early part of the 16th century. He is said 



to liave received a commission for the decoration 
of the C.ippella Eruli, now tlie Baptistery, of the 
cathedral at Spoleto. His earliest authenticated 
production is a large domed panel in the parish 
church of S. Mamigliano. It is dated 1538, and 
shows the influence of Raphael. Frescoes by Siculo 
exist in the Paliizzo and in the church of S. Niccol6 
at Spoleto. 

SIDLEY, Samuel, a portrait painter, who was 
born in 1829, and educated at Manchester. He was 
a scholar at the Royal Academy Schools, and com- 
menced to exhibit in 1855. Two of his portraits 
are in the National Portrait Gallery, one of Bishop 
Colenso being perhaps his best work. He was the 
only person who successfully painted Professor 
Fawcett. He was a shy and somewhat retiring 
man, and never became very popular, although for 
presentation purposes hia pictures were for a wliile 
the vogue. He had to do with the founding of 
the Royal Cambrian Academy, illustrated half- 
a-dozen books, himself engraved one of his pic- 
tures, but never completed the plate. He died in 

SIEBENBURGEN, Jacob. See Coroxa. 

SIEBERT, Adolph, a deaf and dumb painter, 
born at Halberstadt in 1806, entered in 1822 Wach'a 
atelier at Berlin, and in 1830 with his 'Jupiter and 
Mercurius at the House of Philemon and Baucis,' 
gained the Academy prize and the Italian Stipen- 
dium. He died young at Rome in 1832. 

SIEGEN, LoDwiQ VON, (or Sikgen von Sechten,) 
an officer in the service of the Landgrave of Hesse- 
Cassel, who is now credited with the invention of 
mezzotint, which invention he communicated to 
Prince Rupert, by whom it was brought to England. 
He was born in Holland in 1609, his mother being of 
that country, but his father of an ancient and noble 
German family. He went to Germany in 1620 to 
receive his first education ; returned to Holland in 
1626, and remained there till 1637, when he entered 
the service of the Landgrave of Hesse. Whether 
his services were civil or military is not quite clear, 
but he had the title of lieutenant-colonel. In 1641 
he again returned to Holland, and employed that 
and part of the following year in the execution of 
his first engraving, which he produced at Amster- 
dam in August, 1642. Siegen died in the military 
•ervice of the Duke of Wolfenbuttel about the 
year 1680. The following are his best known plates : 

1. Bust portr.-iit of Amelia Elisabeth, Landgravine of 
Hesse, with a dedication, dated 1642, signed L a S. 
H. 17 in,. W. 12J. The second state of the plate has 
the date 1643. 

2. Eleonora Gonzaga, wife of the Emperor Ferdinand 
III., called by others the Qiteen of Bohemia. On the 
lower left-hand corner, G. Hondlhorst pinxit anno, and 
on the opposite corner, L. d Sieijen inventor fecit, 1643. 

3. Portrait of the Prince of Orange, inscribeil Guilhei- 
mus D. G. Princeps auriacus comes Nassaviae, etc., 
MDCXLiiii., in one row of capital letters at the bottom. 
Signed near the top, G. ilonthorst pinxii, L. ti Siegen 
inventor fecit, 1644. 

4. Portrait of the Princess of Orange, inscribed Augusta 
Maria Caroli M. B. Eeg. filia Guilhelmi Princ. Aur. 
Sponsa. In the lower left corner, Hondthorst pinxit. 
L, (i Sieijen inv. et fecit. 

5. Tlie Emperor Ferdinand III., in an oval, on the upper 
part of which is inscribed, Kom. Imperator semper 
Aug. et Boh. Kex. and on the lower part, Lud. Siegen 
in Sechten ex ... . pinxit novoq. a se invento modo 
sculpsit Anno Domini 1654. On the left at bottom 
L V S in a monogram, and the date 1654. 

6. St. Bruno, a whole-leug:th figure kneeling, turned 
towards the right, an open book before him. At the 
bottom are six verses : on the left cf the verses D'nis 

suis Patronis, kc. ; on the right. In honorera S" Brun- 
nonis, &c. La Sjn S. An. 1654. 
7. The Holy Family, (j/<er AnnihaU Carracci. Dedi- 
cated to Prince Leopold of Austria. At the bottom, 
Ludw. a Siegen humilissime offert — Annib. Caratii 
pinx. Lower down, Lodovicqa S. novosuomodo lusit. 
In the second state of the plate it is dedicated to 
Cardinal Mazarin, and has the date 1057. 

The finest exi8tin:.j collection of the works of 
Siegen and other early niezzotinters is in the 
British Museum. 

SIEGERT, August, a painter of historical 
scenes, bom at Neuvied in 1820. He studied at 
Dusseldorf, and many of his best works are to 
be seen at Hamburg. Almost all his pictures 
represent scenes from German history. He died 
in 188.3. 

SIEMIRADZKI,Hendkik, Polish painter; born 
September 15, 1843, at Charkof ; studied at the 
Petersburg Academy, and also at Munich under 
Piloty, going afterwards to Rome, where he 
permanently settled. Some of his fresco work is 
to be seen in the Church of Our Saviour at Moscow. 
His ' Torches Vivantes de N^ron,' shown at tha 
Paris Exhibition of 1878, achieved a great success, 
and, despite an offer of 120,000 francs for the 
jiictiire, the artist preferred to present it to the 
Crakow National Museum. Other works of hia 
are ' Une Caveme de Pirates,' ' Danse des Glaives,' 
' Vendeur d'Amulettes,' &c. He was a member 
of the St. Petersburg Academy, also of the Berlin 
and Stockholm Academies ; he obtained a medal 
at the Paris Exhibition in 1878, also the Legion 
d'Honneur, being made correspondent of the 
Academic des Beaux Arts in January 1889. H& 
died at Rome, September 1902. 

SIENA, Berna da (or Barna). See Barna. 

SIENA, GuiDO DA, one of the earliest of the 
Sienese painters. The name, Guido de Senis, aj pears- 
upon a 'Virgin Enthroned' over an altar in the 
church of San Domenico at Siena, It is inscribed 
with the year 1221, and upon this the Sienese have 
long based their claim to priority over the Floren- 
tines in the revival of art. Now, however, it is 
believed that the date in question should read 1281. 
In style this Madonna is thoroughly Byzantine, 
although in arrangement it bears a very strong 
resemblance to the great Cimabue in Santa Maria 
Novella at Florence. A colossal Virgin (16) in the 
Siena Gallery is probably by Guido, and is typical 
of the work he represents. 

SIENA, Lorenzo da. See Lorenzo di Pietuo. 

SIENA, Marco da. See Pino. 

SIENA, Matteo (or Matteino da). See Ma-heo. 

SIENA, Matteo di Giovani da. See Matted di 

SIENA, MiNUccio DA. See MiNUCcio. 

SIENA, Sang da. See Sang di Pietro. 

SIENA, Simgne da. See Martini. 

SIENA, Ugoling da. See Ugolino da Siena. 

SIERRA, Francisco Perez, is reckoned a Spanish 
painter, though born at Naples in 1627, and in- 
structed in art by Aniello Falcone, the master of 
Salvator Rosa. His father, a native of Gibraltar, 
was an officer in the Neapolitan army, and married 
a daughter of the governor of Calabria. While a 
student. Sierra was appointed page to one Don 
Diego de la Torre, whom he followed to Madrid. 
There he entered the school of Juan de Toledo. 
His patron, Don Diego, employed him in copying 
pictures by Spagnoletto ; and in painting a series 
of Saints for a chapel he had founded at Madrid. 


^^^^gMp»^P?T?-— .-. .. 

■ ' -V^-' 



^^ "'^ 






' (t^^^^^^I 








Later in life Sierra was appointed manager of the 
Spanisli prisons, and gave up art, except that lie 
painted flower-pieces for his amusement, some of 
which found their way into the Buenretiro. lie 
died in 1709. 

SIEURAC, FBANgois Joseph Juste, miniature 
painter, born in 1781, at Cadiz, of French parents. 
He studied at the Academy of Toulouse, and under 
Augustin, and exhibited miniatures at the Salon. 
He died at Soreze, near Toulouse, about 1832. 
Amongst his miniatures were portraits of Lord 
Byron, Sir Walter Scott, Thomas Moore, and the 
Duchesse de Berri. 

SIEURAC, HE>rRl, painter, was the son iinj 
pupil of Fran(;oi8 Joseph, and was born in Paris, 
August 15, 1823. He studied for a time und.-r 
Paul Delaroche, and exhibited at the Salon from 
1848 until his death, which took place in Paris, 
December 1863. The following are his best known 
works : 

Aix. Muuum. The Triumph of Fabius. 

Chalon-sur-Saoue. „ The Birth of Bacclius. 

Dijon. „ Faith, Hope, and Charity. 

Toulouse. „ The Renascence (an allegory). 

SIEVIER, Robert William, engraver, born in 
London in 1794, studied engraving with Young 
and Scriven, and afterwards worked in the Academy 
schools. He engraved the portraits of Lord Ellen- 
borough, after Lawrence; Lady Jane Grey, after 
Holbein; 'The Importunnte Author,' after New- 
ton, and several plates after Etty. His study 
in anatomy and modelling led him about 1823 to 
desert engraving for sculpture, in which latter art 
he achieved both distinction and popularity. Much 
of his energy was devoted to science, and in 1840 
he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He 
died in London in 1865. 

SIGALON, Xavier, painter, born at Uz^s in 
1788, learned his art from one Monrose, a pupil of 
David, and in the Nismes school of design. He 
acquired the means to go to Paris by painting 
saints for the churches of Nismes. He arrived in 
the capital in 1817, and studied under Guerin and 
Souchot His first pictures were ' The Young 
Courtezan,' now in the Louvre, ' Locusta,' ' Athaliah,' 
and 'The Vision of St. Jerome.' A 'Baptism of 
Christ' met with such a fire of criticism that he 
retired to Nismes, where he devoted himself to 
porirait painting and giving drawing lessons. On 
Thiers becoming minister, Sigalon was commis- 
sioned to copy the ' Last Judgment ' of Michel- 
angelo in the Sistine Chapel. From 1833 to 1837 
he was constantly engaged on this work, which, 
when seen, revived his reputation at home. But 
after a short visit to Paris, he returned to Rome, 
where he died of cholera the same year, in 1837. 

SIQMARINGEN,The Master of, an anonymous 
painter of the School of Ulra, who was still 
working in the sixteenth century, though he 
followed closely in the steps of earlier masters, 
especially Zeitblom. His principal work, con- 
taining see: es from the life of the Madonna, is 
in the Gallery at Sigmaringen, hence the name 
by which he is known ; an earlier work, part 
of a large altar-piece, is in the Gallery at Donaue- 
schingen. This painter was formerly confounded 
with Schiilein. 

SIGMUND III., King of the Poles, born in 1566, 
was not only a lover of the arts, but also a good 
artist. He painted an ' Allegory of the Foundation 
of a Jesuit Monastery,' which he gave to his 
daughter Anna on her marriage with the Count 

Palatine, Philip Wilhelm. The picture found its 
way to the Diisseldorf Gallery, and thence to 
Schleissheim, where it was long called a Tintoretto. 
He also painted a ' JIater Dolorosa,' now in the 
Augsburg Gallery. He died in 1632. 

SIGNOL, Emii.e, French painter ; bom in Paris, 
May 8, 1804; became a [upil of Blondel and of 
Baron Gros ; won the Prix de Rome in 1830 with 
his ' Meleager.' In 1834 he obt.ained a secoud- 
class medal, and a tirst-class medal in 1835. 
Between 1838 and 1839 he did a great deal of 
work in the G:d!erie3 at Versailles. His ' Femme 
Aduli^re,' now in the Luxembourg, was the most 
popular picture of the Salon of 1840. In that 
lie was employed in decorating the Madeleine, and 
this led to other similar work in Parisian churches. 
He was made a member of the Acad^mie des 
Beaux Arts in 1800; a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour in 1841, and an Officer in 1865. He died 
in Paris, September 1892. 

SIGNORACCIO, Bernardo and Paolo. See Del 


SIGNUKELLI, Francesco, nephew and assist- 
ant of Luca Si.irnorfUi, a mediocre painter, best 
known by his only signed work, 'The Immaculate 
Conception,' in the Church ofS. Francesco, Gubbio. 
To him are also attributed a ' Madonna and Saints ' 
in the Palazzo Pubblico, Cortona ; 'The Incredu- 
lity of St. Thomas,' in the Duomo, Cortona ; and a 
Church Standard, on which is represented ' The 
Biptism of Christ,' in the Gallery, Citti di Castello. 
His works, though without merit, have a certain 
stylistic resemblance to those of his master. He 
was still living in 1560. n.C. 

SIGNORELLI, Luca, pa'nter, born at Cortona 
about 1441, was the son of Egidio Signorelli and 
a sister of Lazzaro dei Taldi, great-grandfather of 
Giorgio Vasari. He was thus great-uncle of his 
biographer. But few facts of his youth are known 
with certainty. He was placed at an early age in 
the atdiir of Pier dei Franceschi, whom he jiro- 
bably assisted in the Arezzo frescoes, but the chief 
influence on his work was that of Antonio PoUai- 
uolo, to whom it is more than probable he was 
subsequently apprenticed. His style of painting 
is essentially Florentine, and it may with safety be 
assumed that most of his youth was spent at 
Florence. His earliest existing work — ' The Fla- 
gellation,' in the Brera, Milan — is entirely PoUaiuo- 
lesque, and his frescoes in the Sacristy of the Church 
of the Santa Casa, Loreto — also a comparatively 
early work — show the influence of Donatello and of 
Veriocchio. In 1479 he was residing at Cortona, 
where, on Sep. 6, he was elected to the Council of 
Eighteen, and shortly afterwards to the Conserva- 
tori degli Ordinamenti del Commune. The follow- 
ing year he was made one of the Priori and elected 
to the Consiglio Grande. These honour able offices, 
besides others, he continued to hold till the year of 
his death, evidence of the high consideration in 
which he was held in his native city. His first 
dated picture is the 'Madonna and Saints' in the 
Chapel of S. Onofrio in the Duomo, Perugia, exe- 
cuted in 1484. In 1488 he was elected a citizen 
of Citti di Castello in appreciation of a Church 
Standard painted by him for that town, a work 
which no longer exists. In 1491 he was among 
these invited by the Operai of the Duomo, Flo- 
rence, to judge the designs presented for the 
facade of the Cathedral, but for unknown reasons 
he did not assist. In 1497 he was commissioned 
by the monks of Monte Oliveto, near Siena, to 



paint in their cloister scenes from tlie life of St. 
Benedict He executed only eight of the frescoes, 
wliich were finished by Sodoma. His most import- 
ant work is tlie decoration of the Cappella della 
Madonna di S. Brizio, in the Cathedral of Orvieto, 
to which he devoted at least five years. He received 
the commission for the vaulting, already begun 
by Fra Angelico, in April 1499, and that for the 
walls a year later. These grand frescoes, which 
represent Dantesque conceptions of the 'Last 
Judgment,' with subordinate decorations in gri- 
saille, became like the frescoes of Masaccio in the 
Carmine, a school from which later artists drew 
their inspiration. Michelangelo, among others, 
was strongly influenced by them. Signorelli was 
assisted in the work by his son Polidoro and by 
Girolamo Genga, but their participation was con- 
fined to subordinate parts, and the entire series 
of frescoes bear evidence of the master's own 
vigorous hand. While at Orvieto he painted for 
the treasurer of the works, with a few bold strokes 
upon a tile, his own portrait, still preserved in the 
Opera del Duonio, which shows a powerful, impe- 
rious and strenuous face, with brow and jaw 
strongly developed. Occupied as he was with the 
Catliedral frescoes, he found time to continue his 
municipal duties, and was re-elected to his offices 
at Cortona. In 1508 he was sent as ambassador 
to Florence to demand permission to effect certain 
communal reforms, and the same year he went to 
Rome to paint for Julius II. in the Vatican, toge- 
ther with Perugino, Pinturicchio, and Sodoma. 
One wall at least was finished by him, but no trace 
of his work remains, since, with the exception of a 
ceiling by Perugino, the entire labour of the older 
painters was ruthlessly destroyed to make way for 
the paintings of Raphael and his scholars. In 
1512 he was again sent by his fellow-citizens as 
ambassader to Florence to congratulate the Medici 
on their return, and the following year he went to 
Rome to seek the patronage of tlie new Pope, 
Giovanni dei Medici, but without success. The 
day of the Quattrocentists was over, and, as far as 
Rome was concerned, Signorelli had outlived his 
time. He lived to the age of 82, retaining his 
health and energy up to the last, and some of his 
finest work was painted when he was between 
€0 and 70. His last work — the altar-piece in the 
CoUegiata, Foiano, painted in his last year, still 
shows great energy and force. He died in 1523, and 
was buried in the Church of S. Francesco, Cortona. 
The work of Signorelli is characterized by nobility 
ef conception, and breadth and vigour in execu- 
tion. The Titanic grandeur of his figures .antici- 
pates that of Michelangelo's ; they have the same 
solemnity, without however his tragic melancholy : 
Signorclli's views of life were more optimistic. 
He belonged to the Naturalistic School, and used 
his themes to display the human form and its con- 
struction. He was complete master of anatomy, 
and specially skilful in the rendering of compli- 
cated movement and crowded action, in which he 
has never been surpassed. At the same time his 
figures have often a grace and beauty rare among 
the realistic painters of his daj'. No more poetic 
works exist than his 'Pan' in the Berlin Gallery, 
and his ' Madonna ' of the Rospigliosi Collection, 
Rome. But his poetry was an accident, his aims 
were purely scientific. His rapidity of brush- 
work and bre.adth of tre:;tment were in advance of 
his time, and give his works an ahnost modem 
appearance. No painter has given to the human 

Bergamo. Morelli Coll. 



frame a like dea;ree of nobility, of vehemence at d 
strength, nor treated his themes with more stately 

Altenburg. Museum. Nine panels from Polyptych. 

Arcevia 5. Mtdardo. Polyptych with Predella. 

„ „ B.iptism with Predella. 1508. 

Arezzo. Gallery. Madonna, Saints, and Pro- 

phets. 1519. 
„ Dutrmo {Sacristy). Three Predella Panels : Birth 
of Virgin ; Presentation ; 
Marriage of Virgin. 
St. Rock. 
St. Sebastian. 
„ Madonna. 

K. Museum. Two wings of Altar-piece with 
Saints. 1498. 
,, Pan as God of Nature and 

M.ister of Blusic. 
,, Visitation. 

„ Portrait of Man. 

Borgo S. Sepolcro. Muni- } Church Standard, with Cnici- 
cipio. J fiiion, and SS. Antonio and 

^ FiSno. (^o"^'"*"- ] Deposition (fresco). 

Citti di Castello. Gallery. Martyrdom of St. Sebastian. 

Cortona. Suomo. Deposition with Predella. 

_ ,, Institution of Eucharist. 

„ „ Iramaculat-e Conception. 

Mailonna sjid Sainte, 1515 

Madonna and Saints. 

Dead Christ upheld by 

Angels; on reverse.Madonna 

enthroned with Saints. 
Madonna and 5a^nt^ (fresco). 
Predella : Feast in the House 

of Simon. 
Madonna and Saints with 

Crucifixion (in part). 
Holy Family. 
Madonna aud Child. 
Holy Family. 
Predella Panel : Annuncia^ 

tion : Nativity ; Adoration, 
Madonna and Child. 
Foiano. CoUegiata. Coronation of Virgin, 1523, 

with Predella (two panels 

only by StjnoreUi). 

Liverpool. Soyal /«•"«'- | Madonna. 

tute. j 
London. NationalGalUry. Circumcision (Child hy 
„ „ Madouna and Saints. 1515. 

„ „ Predella Panel : Annuncia- 


,, „ Predella Panels : Dispute on 

the Way to Emmaas ; 
Christ at Emmans. 

„ Coll. of Lord ) Predella Panels : Meeting of 

Crawford. J Joachim and Anna ; Birth 
of Virgin. 

„ Coll. of Dr. Moni. Predella Panels : Ahasuerus 
and Esther ; Two Scenes in 
Life of St. Augustiae. 


S. Domenico. 


S. Niccolo. 




Corsini Coll. 

„ Coll.ofMr.Muirl^^^^ 
Mackenzie, j 
Loreto, S. 3faria della \ Frescoes 
Santa Casa ) Cura. 
,, „ Medallions 

in Sagrestia della 
of Prophets in 

Meiningen. Ducal Palace. 
Mihiu. Mrera. 

Mont* Oliveto 


Predella Panel. 
Madonna and Saints. 1503 
Madonna and Child. 
Eight frescoes from Life of 

St. Benedict. 1497. 



IBiilin GiiUc'iy 


[CallnJiiil. Owhlo 


Mnrra (near S. Crescen- 

CittadiCastello). ziano. 

Munich. Fiaakothek. 

New Haven, Jarves Coll. 

Orvieto. Duomo. 

Opera del I>u(mu}. 





Richmond. Coll. of Sir 

Frederick Cook. 

Rome. liospiyliosi Gallei-y. 

Stirlingshire Coll. of Sir 

(Scotland) . Joh n St irl- 

Umbertide. Santa Croce. 

Urbino. Santo Spirito. 

Crucifixion and Flagellation 

Madouna and Child, 
' Fredella Panel : Adoration of 
I Magi. 

Frescoes in Chapel of Ma- 
donna di S. Brizio. 1499- 

St. Maria Maddalena. 1504. 

Portraits of Siguorelli and 
Niccolo Frauceschi {on 
tile). 1503. 

Tredella Panel : Birth of 

Seven figures (fragment of 
larger paintinii)- 

Chapel of S. Onofrio : Ma- 
douna and Saints. 1484. 
) Two fragments of Baptism. 
J Profile Portrait of Man. 

Holy Family. 



Yolterra. Duonin Sacristy. 
,» Municipio. 

,, (On stairs). 

Deposition with Predella. 

Churcli Standard (now 

divided) : Crucifixion and 

Pentecost. 1494. 
Annunciation. 1491. 
Madonna and Saints. 1491. 
S. Girolamo {fresco). JI. C. 

SIGRILLI, B., an Italian engraver, who flour- 
ished about tlie year 1760. He engraved some of 
the plates in tlie "Gerini Gallery." 

SILLET, James, flower painter, born at Nonvich 
in 1764, studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy. About 1804 he went to-King^s Ly]m, 
but in 1810 returned to Norwich, where he died 
in 1840. He chiefly excelled in miniature, but he 
also painted still-life and theatrical scenerj-, and 
illustrated Richard'.s ' History of Lynn.' 

SILLI6, Georg Victor, painter and etcher, was 
born in 1806, at Dresden, where he practised for 
many years, painting and etching military scenes. 

SILO, Adam, a marine painter, draughtsman, 
and decorator, was bom at Amsterdam in 1670. 
He was skilled in mechanics, and Peter the Great 
engaged him to teach five young Russians ship- 
building. He painted marine pieces for the Czar, 
in which the drawing of the vessels was good. 
Nine etchings of skiffs, fishing-boats, and other 
vessels, signed A. ,'}ilo inv. et feet., are extant. 
It is said that Silo lived to tlie age of 90. 

DE, Duchess of Iluescar and Arcos, born December 
14, 1750, at Madrid, was a clever amateur painter 
and modeller, and was also known as a writer of 
lyric and dramatic poetry. In 1766 she was made 
honorary member of the Academy of San Fernando, 
and later was appointed honorary director. She 
was three times married, lastly to the Duke of 
Arcos, and died in 1784. 

SILVA, Domingo Jose da, a Portuguese die- 
cutter and medallist, of the early part of the 19th 
centurj-, was also an engraver of some note. He 
was a pupil of Bartolozzi, at Lisbon, in 1814, and 
profe.ssor at the Lisbon Academy in 1836. 

SILVA, Henriquez Josfi de, a Portuguese painter, 
who was practising about 1800. He held the post 
of Director of the Academy of Painting at Rio 

SILVESTRE, (Sylvester,) a Scoto-French family 
of artists, flourished in France from about the be- 
ginning of the 17th century. The following table 
shows the relationship of its members : 
VOL. V. G 

GiIles(I500?— ). 

Ftsntnis (i6i;o ?— ). 

Israel (1021—1691). 

Charles Francois Louis the elder Alexandra Louis the younger 
(1607—1735?). (1009-1740). !1672— ). (1075—1760). 

Xicholas Charles (1693-1707). Suzanne Elisabeth (1694— ). 

Jacques Augustin (1719— 1S09). 

Augustin Francois (1702— ISol). 

SILVESTRE, Alexandre, the third son of 
Israel Silvestre, was born in 1672. He etched 
some landscapes after Louis Silvestre, his brother, 
which are not without merit. 

SILVESTRE, Augustin FRANgois, Baron de, 
painter and draughtsman, the son of Jacques 
Augustin, and the last representative of the 
family, was born in Paris, December 7th, 1762. 
He studied under his father, and in Rome, lioping 
to succeed to the office of drawing-master to tho 
royal children, which had been held by members 
of his family for a century and a half. On his 
return from Italy, however, he found that the post 
had been abolished, and in compensation, he was 
in 1782 appointed assistant-librarian to Monsieur 
(.afterwards Louis XVIII.). From this time he 
abandoned painting, and devoted himself entirely 
to scientific pursuits. He was employed under 
both the Republic and the Empiire, and yet was 
re-installed as librarian and reader to Louis 
XVIII. at the Restoration, receiving the title of 
baron. After the Revolution of 1830 he retired 
into private life, and died in Paris in September 

SILVESTRE, Charles FKAxgois de, painter, en- 
graver, and draughtsman, was the eldest son of 
Israel Silvestre, and was born in Paris, April 11, 
1667. He was the pupil of his father, of Charles 
Lebrun, and of J. Pnrrocel, but finished his studies 
in Italy. On the death of his father in 1691, he 
succeeded to the office of drawing-master to the 
French royal children, and to the apartments which 
had been occupied by Israel in the Gallery of 
the Louvre. He was ennobled by Augustus III. 
of Poland. He married Suzanne Thuret, the 
niece of Jacques Thuret, a famous clock-maker of 
the day, and died in Paris about 1738. He en- 
graved many landscapes and historical subjects 
after his own designs and those of his youngest 

SILVESTRE, Gilles, the first of the painters 
of the Silvestre family. Of Scottish origin, the name 
being originally Sylvester, they had settled in 
Lorraine at the beginning of the 16th century. 
Gilles, who was born at Nancy about 1590, married 
Elizabeth Henriet, daughter of Claude Henriet, 
painter to the Duke of Lorraine, and then, although 
no longer a youth, determined to devote himself 
to painting. His son FRANgois, born at Nancy 
about 1620, was his father's pupil, and a draughts- 
man and engraver of landscapes. 

SILVESTRE, Israel, an eminent French en- 
graver and son of Gilles Silvestre, was born at 
Nancy, in Lorraine, in 1621. He was the nephew 
of Israel Henriet, by whom he is supposed to have 
been instructed. He formed his style on Delia 
Bella and Callot, and appears to have been imi- 
tated in his turn by Sebastian Le Clerc. He 
designed, etched, and engraved a great number 
of landscapes and views, decorating them with 
small figures, correctly drawn, and touched with 
uncommon spirit. His merit recommended him to 
Louis XIV., who employed him in designing and 
engraving views of royal palaces, public festivals, 



and the places Louis had conquered. He was ap- 
pointed drawing-master to the Daupliin, and was 
made a member of the Academy. He went twice 
to Ital}', where he found many subjects. His 
plates amount to upwards of one thousand. He 
died in Paris in 1691. His daughter SnsANNE, 
who was married to tlie painter Le Moine, engraved 
a few plates. The following are among Israel's 
best works : 

A set of tweutj-one Views in Italy aud France, repre- 
senting edifices, ruius, and landscapes, with inscrip- 
tions iu French. 

A set of thii-tcen Views in Rome and the environs ; in- 
scribed Faites par Israel Silvesire, et mises en lumicre 
par Isrdd HenrUt. 

Twelve Views of gardens and fouataius ; entitled Alcune 
vedute de Giardtni e Foatane di lioma e di Tivoli^ ^r., 
with descriptions iu Italian. 

Four Views iu the Kingdom of Naples, in the form of 

A set of six Views of Sea-ports in the Kingdom of Naples; 
circular plates. 

Twenty-four Views of Italian aud otlier Sea-ports ; with 
descriptions in French ; circular plates. 

Twelve of the most remarkablo Views in Paris and the 
environs, some of which are engraved by Delia Uella. 

A View of Paris, from the Bridge of the Tuileries. 

A large View of Kome ; four sheets. 

Two Views of the Campo Vaccino, and the Coliseum at 

The grand Carousal, or Royal Kiitertainment at Paris iu 
166- ; in one hundred aud eight prints. F. Cliaveau 
engraved some of these plates. 

The Pleasures of the Enchanted Island ; nine Plates, 
with a vignette. 

* Paysages Diverses ; * seventy-four views of Palaces, 
churches, &c., in France aud Italy. 

' Vues Diverses de Roma et d' Italic ; ' one hundred and 
five views of Italian scenery. 

SILVESTUE, Jacques Augostin de, ]iaititcr, 
the son aud pupil of Nicholas Charles, was born 
in Paris, August 1, 1719. He succeeded his father 
as drawing-master to the French royal children. 
During a three years' sojourn in Kome, he made 
drawings of most of the antiquities of the city. 
His fine collection of prints was sold after his 
death, which took place in Paris, in 1809. 

SILVESTHE, Louis, called Louis the Elder, the 
second son of Isriiel Silvestre, was born in Paris, 
March 20, 1(569, and was taught by his father. 
Particulars as to his works are lacking, but he 
appears to have painted landscapes, as he was re- 
ceived at the Academy in 1705 with a work of tliat 
class. He died in Paris, in 1740. 

SILVESTRE, Louis, the younger, fourth son 
of Israel Silvestre, and the homonym of his elder 
brother, was born in Paris in 1675. He was a 
pupil of Le Brun and Bon BouUogne, and entered 
the Academy in 1702. His election picture, 'The 
Creation of Man by Prometheus,' is now at Moiit- 
pellier. Having gained a great reputation for his 
portraits and landscapes, he was invited to the 
court of Augustus III., at Dresden, whence, after a 
residence of thirty years, during part of which he 
was director of the gallery, he returned to Paris, 
and was appointed to the corresponding post there. 
He died in Paris in 1760. 

SILVESTUE, Nicholas Chaules de, the son of 
Charles Frangois, was born in Paris in 1698. He 
was drawing-master to the royal family, and died 
ill 1767. The following plates may be named : 

Ub.aldo aud the Danish Knight searching for Rinaldo iu 

the palace of Armida ; after Le Moine. 
A Hunting-piece ; after Audray, 

SILVESTRO. an early Florentine painter, was a 

Oamaldolese monk in the Convent of Santa Maria 
degli Angeli at Florence. He flourished from 
about 1350 to 1410, and was one of the best missal 
painters of bis time. A splendid mass-book, for 
his own monaster}', mentioned by Vasari, remaiueii 
there for centuries, and was praised by Leo X. in 
1513. It was brought to England by Ottley, and 
one of the miniatures from it, a birth of St. Jolin 
the Baptist, in the presence of the Virgin, is now 
in the Liverpool Institution. Others were in the 
Fuller Russell collection, now dispersed. 

SILVIO, Giovanni, a native of Venice, who 
flourished about the year 1532. He is supposed to 
have been educated in the school of Titian. In 
the Collegiata di Piovi di Sacco, near Padua, is a 
picture by him bearing the above date. It repre- 
sents St. Martin between SS. Peter and Paul, with 
three angels, two of which are supporting his 
crosier, and the third playing on the harp. 

SILVIUS, Anthony, (SYLVIUS,) whom Papillou 
calls Silvius Antonianus, are the supposed names 
of a draughtsman and wood-engraver, who used 

the monogram /{ aud flourished from 1553 to 

about 1680. It is said that he was born at Antwerp 
in 1525, and was much employed by Christopher 
Plantiii, and other printers. The names, however, 
of Silvius Antonianus seem to be a mistake. It 
appears that Papillou had observed the above 
monogram on the wood-cuts to an edition of 
Faerno's Fables, printed at Antwerp iu 1667, and 
dedicated to Cardinal Borroineo by Silvio Anto- 
niann, professor of Belles Lettres at Rome, and 
afterwards a cardinal himself, and had hastily con- 
cluded that the editor was the engraver. Nagler 
has given a catalogue of books to which the en- 
graver who used the above monogram contributed 
wood-cuts, vignettes, or title-pages. 

SILVIUS, i?ALTHASAR, a German engraver, who 
flourished about the year 1555. He executed some 
coarse plates, chiefly from his own designs. They 
are usually marked with the initials B. S. He also 
engraved after Frans Floris, Karl Van Mander, 
Jerome Bus. and others. 

SIMANOWITZ, LuDoviKE voN,M^e Reichendach, 
was born iu Stiittgart iu 1761. She painted por- 
traits of Schiller and the painter Wachter. She 
died at Ludwigsburg iu 1827. 

SIMART, P. C. This eminent sculptor deserves 
attention on account of the exquisite drawings 
whicli he made in the earlj- part of his career. 
His life was a continual struggle, as he met with 
the greatest possible opposition from liis family 
when he desired to enter the artistic profession, 
and he received practical persecution for refusing 
to take up a commercial career. He was a native 
of Troyes, boin iu 1806, but it was not till 1840 
that he acquired any eminence as a sculptor. 
Meantime, from the age of fifteen, he had sus- 
tained himself by the sale of his drawings, most 
of which represented works of sculpture, which 
he copied in the various museums he visited, and 
wliich he drew with the utmost accuracy and skill. 
He was a man of anxious and somewhat melan- 
choly temperament, and his letters, wliich have 
been published, reveal the details of a very sad 
life. Between 1840 and 1848 he was engaged upon 
his best work in sculpture, but during the last few 
years of his life he had the connnission to decorate 
the tomb of Napoleon I., and the ceiling of two 
picture galleries in the Louvre. He was never 
really happy, however, with flat decoration, his 


genius being in the direction of sculpture. After 
iiis dealh in 1857 bis works were much better 
appreciated, and at Lis native town of Troyes a 
considerable part of the local Museum is given 
op to the work of this talented artist. A little 
of the encouragement so gladly given after his 
death would have enabled him to produce 
even greater works, and would have reflected 
more honour upon the people amongst whom he 

SIMBRECHT, Mathias, was born at Munich. 
He died at Prague of the plague, in 1680, probably at 
an early age, the number of bis pictures being very 
small. It is not known where he received his first 
instruction, but the effects of a profound study 
of Raphael are visible in his works, and indicate 
a sojourn of some length in Italy. There is an 
altar-piece in the church of S. Stephen at Prague 
by him ; a ' Visitation ' in the Museum, and further 
a'' S. Rosalie ' and an ' Education of the Virgin.' 

SIMLER, JOHASX, a Swiss painter and engraver, 
born at Zurich in 1693. He studied for a short 
time under Pesne at Berlin, and was a pupil of the 
engraver Melchior FuesslL He died in 1748. 

SIMMLER, Frieduich Karl Joseph, landscape 
and animal painter, born in 1801 at Hanau, whither 
his parents had fled from the French, studied at 
Munich and Vienna. He made excursions through 
Upper Austria and Styria, studying landscape and 
animal painting. He paid long visits to Florence, 
Rome, Venice, and Naples, and, in 1829, went to 
Hanover to paint some portraits at the request of 
the Minister von Bremer. He painted in the land- 
scapes of Schullen, Booking, and Grieben, while 
Achenbach and Scheuren occasionally painted back- 
grounds 10 his cattle. In 1862 he went to live at 
Aschaffeiiburg, where he died in 1872. His three 
sons all devoted themselves to art. Works : 

View of Bergen. 

View of llutenlieim. 

Landscape with Goetz vou Berlichingen. 

Bull and Sheep. (Berlin, Racn/niski Col.) 

Dutch Landscape. (Late Bukt of Cambridge's Col.) 

SIJIMLER, Joseph, historical and portrait 
pamter, born at Warsaw in 1823, was a i upil of 
the iliuiich Academy. He painted portraits and 
historical pictures, and died at Warsaw in 1868. 

SIMilONS, JoHX, buru at Nailsea in Sumerset- 
shire, about 1715, was a house and ship's painter at 
Bristol. His name appears in the early catalogues 
of the Royal Academy as a portrait painter. There 
is an altar-piece by him in All Saints' church, 
Bristol, and another in S. Johns. Devizes. Many 
of his portraits have been engraved, among them 
that of Ferguson, the astronomer. It is said he 
was known to Hogarth, who thought well of his 
talents. In the Academy catalogues his name is 
Bometiraes printed SimmoTuls of Bristol. He died 
at Bristol, January 18, 1780. 

SIMMONS, William Henby, engraver, born in 
London, June 11, 1811. He studied engraving at 
Finden's Institute, and was for many years perhaps 
the chief of English workers in his own line. He 
first appeared at the Royal Academy with two 
plates after Frank Stone, and his last exhibited 
plate was 'A Humble Servant,' after Rosa Bon- 
heur, a proof of which was at the Academy at the 
time of his death. His last work was to etch the 
plate from 'The Lion at Ho:i.e,' which was com- 
pleted after his death by Mr. Atkinson. He died 
Nov. 6, 1882. The following is a list of his chief 
plates : 


Kiistic Beauty. 1837. 
Catherine Seyton. 1850. 

Well-bred Sitters ; after Sir E. LandsetT. 1875. 
Dominion ; after the Siime, 
Ou Trust ; after the same. 
Kuyal Sport ; after the same. 
The Sick Monkey ; after the same. 
Tamiug of '.he Shrew ; after the same. 
The Fatal Duel ; after the same. 
The Proscribed Royalist ; after Sir John Millait, 
The Lost Piece of Money ; after the same. 
Kosaliad and Celia ; after the same. 
Highland Mary ; afttr T. Fatd. 
Daddy's a-coming ; after the same. 
.Sunday in the Backwoods ; after the same, 
Tlie Poor Man's Friend ; after the same. 
A Wee Bit Fractious ; after the same. 
Baith Faither and Mither ; after the same. 
Tre Last of the Clan ; after the same. 
His only Pair ; after the same. 
New Wars to an old Soldier ; aftei- the sajne. 
A'>'.iiting for the Verdict ; after A. Solomon, 
Not Guilty ; after the same. 
Both Puzzled ; after Erskiyie 2^'ichol. 
* Steady, Johnny, Steady ! ' after the same. 
Tje Light of the AVorld ; afttr Holman Huta. 
Ciaudio and Isabella ; after the sa;tie. 
Xews of our Marriage ; after Tissot. 
Marriage of the Prince of AVales ; after Frith. 
' Luff, boy ' ; after Hook. 
.\n Old Monarch ; after Rosa Bonhtur. 
A Humble Servant ; after the same. 
And plates after Le J^une, Van Lerius, irinterhalter, and 

SIMO, or SniONE, Juan Badtista, a Spanish 
painter, and native of Valencia, in which city he 
was associated with Antonio Palomino, in 1697, 
on frescoes for S. Juan del Mercado. He accom- 
panied Palomino to Madrid, where he painted in 
the convent church of S. Felipe el Real. He left 
these paintings unfinished at his death in 1717, and 
they were completed by his son, Pedro Simo, also 
tn artist of some merit. 

SIMON DE CHALONS, a French painter of the 
16th century, a native of Chalons in Champagne. 
From about 1545 to 1565 he was established at 
Avignon, where four pictures by him, 'The Ador- 
ation of the Magi,' and ' Our Lady of Pity,' in the 
Calvet Museum, a 'Nativity' in the church of S. 
Peter, and a ' Descent of the Holy Ghost ' in the 
clmroh of S. Didier, are to be found. 

SIMON OF Bellusa. See Simose da Cusighb. 

SIMON, Jean, engraver, a native of Normandy, 
born in 1675, was trained in his owu countrj-, but 
came to England some years before the deatli of 
John Smith, and on seeing that artist's work, he 
quitted the graver, and applied himself entirely 
to scraping mezzotints. Sir Godfrey Kneller, upon 
some difference between himself and Smith, em- 
ployed Simon to engrave some of his pictures in 
mezzotint. This he did with a success which did 
not desert him when he turned to the works of 
other masters. Among his plates we may name : 

Queen Elizabeth ; after Hiltiard. 

Charles I. ; after Vandyck, 

M'illiam III. ; after Kiieller. 

Mary II. ; after Vander I'aart, 

Queen Anne ; after Kneller. 

George, Prince of Denmark. 

George I. ; after Kneller, 

Georije II.. when Prince of Wales ; after the same, 

John, Lord Cutts ; after the saute. 

William, Earl of Cadogan ; after the same. 

John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury ; after th» 

John, Lord Somers ; after the same. 
Sir William Temple ; after tlie same. 
William, Earl of Cadogan ; after La Guerre. 



Horace, Lord Walpole ; after I'anloo. 

Half-Ieugth of the Princess Mary .daughter of George II. 

AVilliam Shakespeare. 

Johu Milton. 

AJexauiler Pope. 

Joseph Addison. 

Kichard Steele. 

Peter delivered frojn Prison ; after Derchet. 

The Cartoons ; aftt:r Itajihael. 

Christ and His Apostles ; after Baroccio. 

Christ restoring Sight to the Blind ; after Laijuem. 

The Samaritan Woman ; aft<r the same. 

1 ortrait of the Hon. Mrs. Walpole ; after SI/. Dahl. 

Mary Stuart. 

Dorastus and Fauuia ; after Berchet. 

A Pastoral Landscape. 

Simon died in London about 1755. 

SIMON, PlERKE, a French engraver, born in 
Paris in 1640, is supposed to have been a pupil of 
Robert Nanteuil, to whose style his bears great 
resemblance. His best plates are his portraits, 
Bome of wliich are from his own designs. We 
have, among others : 

Louis XIT. ; after C. Le Brun. 

Louis de Uourbou, Prince de Conde ; from his own 

Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, Ducliesse de Montpensier ; 

the same. 
Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans ; the same. 
Charles d'Ailly, Due de Chaulnes ; after La Borde. 
Cardinal Kospigliosi ; after C. Maratti. 
Federigo Earoccio, Painter. 

Among his historical prints we have : 

The Martyrdom of St. Cosmus aud St. Damianus ; after 

S. Eosa. 
Moses aud the Burning Bush ; after 3'. Poiissin. 

Simon died in Paris in 1710. 

SIMON, Pierre, called the Younger, a draughts- 
man and engraver in the chalk and dotted maimer, 
was born in London before 1750. He was early 
engaged upon plates for Worlidge's ' Antique 
Gems,' and was one of the engravers employed by 
Boydell on his Shakspeare gallery, and on oilier 
pictures by contemporary painters. His best work 
was done for the Shakspeare gallery ; these are 
the plates : 

A scene from the * Tempest ' ; after Fi($cli. 

' The Merry "Wives of Windsor,' two plates, one after 
Sinirke, and the other after the liev. If. Peters. 

Scene from ' Much Ado about Nothing ' ; after the same. 

Scene from * Measure for Measure ' ; after T. Kirk. 

The ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' ; after Fuseli. 

Scene from the ' Merchant of Venice ' ; after Smirke. 

Scene from * As You Like It '; after IV. Hamilton. 

Scene from ' Taming of the Shrew '; after F, WheatU'j. 

Christopher Sly ; after Smirke. 

Scene from ' Henry IV.* ; after R. Westall. 

Scene from ' Konico and Juliet' ; after tt'. Miller. 
We may also mime : 

The Woodman; afttr Gainshoroue/h, 

Square discovered by Tom Jones in Molly Seagrim's 
bedroom ; after Doirnman. 

The Sleeping Nymph ; after Opie. 

Frances Isabella Ker Gordon ; after Sir J. Ueynolds. 

The Three Holy Children ; after the Rev. TV. Peters. 

Bust of Clytie ; after J. B. Cipriani. 

The Fair Emmeline, and a subject from the ' Vicar of 
Wakefield '; after iStothai d. 

Pierre Simon died about 1810. 

SIMON, Thomas. This very great seal en- 
graver, the younger brother of Abraham Simon 
the medallist, was the creator of the wonderful 
crown piece known as the " Petition Crown." The 
original drawing for this coin is said to have been 
in the posses.sion of the Crown for many years, but 
cannot now be fouud. The coin was submitted to ' 


the King in 1663, and was one of the most beau- 
tiful pieces of money ever struck. Simon engraved 
many of the Royal seals for Charles 11., and 
his work is of great technical excellence and re- 
markable beauty. He always took the greatest 
care that his designs and the relief of them should 
be consonant with the character of the coin or seal. 
He is believed to have been born in Guernsey, about 
1620 ; lie died in Londou in 1G65 of the plague. 

SIMON DE TROYES, a French miniaturist of the 
15th century. He worked for the church of S. 
Peter at Troyes, and died in 1450. 

SIMONAU, Franqois, a painter of the Flemish 
school, born at Bornhem in 1783. He studied at 
Bruges, and in Paris, under Gros. He came to 
England about 1815, and settled in London, where 
he had a good practice as a portrait painter. He 
died in London in 1859. There is a portrait by 
him in the Museum at Brussels. 

SIMONAU, Gdstave Adolphe, the nephew of 
Francois Simonau, was born at Bruges in 1810. 
He came to London,where his father was established 
as a lithographer. He took up painting, producing 
views of towns in water-colours, and l.'is chief work, 
' The principal Gothic Monuments of Europe," was 
lithographed by himself. Later in life he was en- 
gaged as an architectural painter in Belgium. He 
died at Brussels in 1870. 

SIMONE, Antonio di, a Neapolitan painter of 
the 18th century. He painted battle-pieces and 
landscapes, and occasionally figures in tlie pictures 
of Niccol6 Massaro. He must not be confounded 
with another Antonio di Simone, who lived in the 
17th century, and a scholar of Luca Giordano. 

SIMONE, Maestro. See Degl' Avanzi. 

SIMONE DA CUSIGHE, (pa Belluno,) sometimes 
also called Simone dal Peron, Cusighe and Peron 
both being villages near Belluno. Simone died 
before 1416, but the date of his birth is unknown. 
In 1397 he finished the altar-piece for the high 
altar in the Duomo of Belluno, receiving 440 
lire for his work. In the Baptistery at Belluno, 
there is an altar-piece in thirteen compartments by 
him, formerly in the church of S. Martino. The 
four lower i>anels were either added or entirely re- 
painted in the 17th century. Another work is : 
an altar-piece in the Casa Pagani, once in the 
church of Sala. It is in nine panels, the Virgin of 
Mercy in the centre, flanked by scenes from the 
Life of S. Bartholomew. In the same collection 
is a 'S. Anthony Abbot,' enthroned between Saints. 
In the parish church at Sala there are some remains 
of frescoes by him, and in the Chiesetta dell» 
Madonna a few small panels in tempera. 

SIMONE de' CROCIFISSI. See Bologxa, Simon e 

SIMONE PI MARTINO. See Martini, Sijiose. 

SIMONE NAPOLITANO, an early painter at 
Naples, all accounts of whom are, however, obscure 
and doubtful. He is supposed to have flourished 
about the end of the 14tli or first part of the 15tb 
century, and various pictures at Naples have been 
assigned to him, some of which, from the dates- 
inscribed upon them, have clearly not a common 
author. One of these in the church of San Lorenzo- 
Maggiore is now proved, by an inscription which 
it bears, to be the work of a Sienese painter, who 
was probably established at Naples. The following 
works at Naples are ascribed to Simone : 

The Nobles and Statesmen of the Kingilom lamenting 
the Death of King Robert. (In the nave of &. 


S. Louis of France and others at the grave of King 

Robert. 13J3. (Hefectmy of S. Chiara.) 
Saint Anthony. 1438. (S. Lorenzu Jfai/i/iore.) 
S. Louis crowning King JRobert. (S. Lorenzo Magy'ore.) 
The Crucifixion, a Triptych. 1412. (In the Uuomo.) 
Madonna della Eosa. (S'. Domenico JTaygiore.) 
A Virgin and Child, (i". Domenico Magyiore.) 

One Francesco Simone is said to have been his 
son and pupil. 

SLMONE PAPA. See P.^pa. 

SIMONEAU, Charles, an eminent French en- 
graver, born at Orleans in 1G45, was instructed 
by Noel Coypel and Guillaume Chasteau. His first 
plates were executed with the graver only, in a style 
resembling that of Poilly, but he afterwards intro- 
duced the point, particularly in tlie half-tones and 
distances. He engraved historical subjects, por- 
traits, and vignettes. He was received into the 
Academy in 1710, and died in Paris in 1728. His 
plates number about one hundred and iifty ; among 
them we may name : 

Henrietta Maria, consort of Charles I. 
The Duchess Dowager of Orleans ; after Riyavd. 
Ch. Fr. de Brienne, Bishop of Constance ; after Dumu. 
J. H. Mansart, Architect to the King ; after de Troy. 
George Villier-, Duke of Buckingham. 
The Holy Family ; after liapfael. 
The Virgin and Child, with S. John ; after ilie same. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Ann. Carracci. 
Christ and the "Woman of Samaria ; after the same. 
Hagar and Ishmael ; after A ndrea Sacchi. 
A Madonna ; afttr Fra Bartoiommeo. 
The Stoning of Stephen ; after Ann. Cay}acci. 
Christ, with Martha and Mary ; after Donieiiichijto. 
Christ's Entry into Jerusalem ; after C. Le Biuii. 
Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same. 
The Xatiiity ; after Aoel Coi/yel. 
Christ among the Doctors ; after Ant. Coypel. 
The Triumph of Galatea ; after the same. 
Veuus curing the Wound of .^ueas ; after C. de la Fosse. 
The Journey of Marie de' Medicis ; after liuhtns. 
The Conquest of Franche-Comte ; after C. Le Biiin ; 
his best print. 

SIMONEAU, Louis, the younger brother of 
Charles Simoneau, was born at Orleans in 1654. 
He appears to have formed iiis style by an imitation 
of the works of the Audrans. By combining the 
point with the graver, he gave a jileasing variety 
to his plates, and his drawing is correct. He died 
in Paris in 1727. The following are, perhaps, his 
best prints : 

Giacinto Serroni, .Archbishop of Albi. 

Antoine Amauld ; after Ph. de Champagne. 

Antoine le Slaitre. Advocate ; after the same. 

Martin de Charmois, Councillor ; after Seh. Bourdon. 

Susanna and the Elders ; after Ant. Coypel. 

Lot and his Daughters ; after the same. 

Christ with Martha and Jlary ; after the same. 

Christ bearing the Cross ; afcr Ant. Jjieu. 

The Elevation of the Cross ; after the same. 

The Crucifi.\iou ; afttr the same. 

The Assumption of the Virgin ; after a ceiling by Le 

Brim in St. Sulpice. 
The Four Times of the Day ; four plates ; after the same. 
The Four Seasons ; four plates ; after the ."^ame. 
The ceiling of the PaWliou of Aurora, in the Jardin de 

Sceaux ; in four plates ; after the same. 

SIMONEAU, PHll-irpE, the son of Charles Si- 
moneau, was instructed bj' his father. Either from 
want of talent or application, he never made much 
progress in art. We have the following prints by 
him, which do not possess much merit : 
The Rape of the Sabiues, and the Peace between the 
Romans and the Sabines ; after tie pictures by Giulio 
liomauo {? iiinaliio JIantovano) in the National 

The three Goddesses preparing for the Judgment ul 

Paris; after Perino del I'aya. 
Venus and Auouis ; after Albarw. 

SIMONELLI, Giuseppe, a Neapolitan painter, 
born 1G49. Originally the servant of Luca Gior- 
dano, he became a successful imitator of his style. 
A 'St. Nicholas of Tolentino,' which he painted for 
tlie church of Montesanto, was said to equal the 
best work of his master. He died in 1713. 

SIMONET, Jean Baptiste, au engraver of con- 
siderable merit, was born in Paris in 1742. His 
plates are chiefly after Greuze, Jloreau, Baudoin. and 
.\ubry. He engraved 'Rachel hiding her Father's 
Idols,' after Pietro da Cortona, for tlie Orleans 
Gallery, the vignettes for au edition of Ovid's 
' Metamorphoses,' published by Basan, and illus- 
trations for an edition of Racine. He died in Paris 
in 1810. 

SIMONETTI, Domenico, (called Magatta,) a 
painter of the Roman school, who flourishe 1 in the 
18th century. He is mentioned by Lanzi as having 
furnished many pictures for churches, especially 
for the Suffjagio, at Rome. 

SIMONINI, Francesco, born at Parma in 1689, 
was a scholar of Ilario Spolverini. He painted 
battles, and cavalrj' skirmishes, which were well 
composed, and handled with spirit. He lived at 
Venice, where he was still working in 175.S. 

SIMONIS-E.MPIS, Catherine Edm^e, Madame, 
a French landscape painter, born in 1806. She was 
a pupil of Watelet, and died in 1878. 

SIMONS, J. B., a Flemish painter, practising 
about 1743. He is known by two signed pictures 
in the Augustine churcli at Ghent. 

SIMONS. M., a Dutch painter of still-life, of the 
17th century. His works are mostly in America. 

SIMONSEN, Niels, painter and sculptor, was 
born at Copenhagen in 1807, and was first appren- 
ticed to a house painter, but afterwards studied in 
the Academy, and in 1826 in Lund's atelier. Later 
in his career he devoted himself for some years to 
sculpture, but finally reverted to painting, and 
worked from 1833 to 1845 at JIunich. In the 
latter year he returned and settled at Copenhagen. 
He served in the Ci^rapaign of 1848, and painted 
many of its incidents. He afterwards visited 
Sweden and Italy, and died in 1H85. Two of his 
pictures are in the Royal Danish Gallery. 

SIMPLICE, a Veronese monk, who was the pupil 
of Felice Riccio (Brusasorci). He practised at 
Rome, and died in 1654, at a very advanced age. 

SIMPOL, Claude de, (or Saint Pol,) a French 
historical painter, born at Clamecy, was a pupil of 
Boullogne. He was elected into the Academy in 
1701, but expelled in 1709, for neglecting to send 
in his reception-picture. His ' Christ at the House 
of Martha and Mary ' was engraved by Dore and 
Tardieu. He died in Paris, October 31, 1716. 

SIMPSON, Francis, an English antiquarian 
draughtsman, born in 1796. He was Mayor of 
Stamford, and practised art as a pastime. He pub- 
lished a volume of drawings from fonts, and died 
in 1801. 

SIMPSON, JouN, portrait painter, born in Lon- 
don in 1782, studied at the Academy schools, and 
was for many years assistant to Sir Thomas Law- 
rence. In 1834 he went to Lisbon, and was 
appointed painter to the Queen of Portugal. He 
returned to England, and died in London in 1847. 
In the National Gallery there is a ' Negro's Head ' 
by him, and at Windsor Castle a portrait of the 
Duke of Brunswick. 



SIMPSON, JosErn, the elder, practised in the 
reign of Queen Anne. Accordinjj to Lord Orford, 
his first employment was to engrave coats of arms 
on pewter, but liaving a turn for drawing, he foun<l 
access to a society of Artists, with whom lie Bludied 
the figure. He was afterwards emplo3-ed by Tille- 
mans to engrave his picture of Newmarket. To 
this plate lie affixed his name. He also engraved 
after Monamy, Vandevelde, Wootton, and Wyck. 
Ho lived about the year 1710. 

SIMPSON, JosErn, the younger, was tlie son of 
Joseph Simpson, and died young, in the year 173G. 
He engraved a plato of a ' Holy Family, with S. 
John, S. Si-'bastian, and several Angt-ls,' after 
Fihppo Laiiri, dated 1728, and a ' Cliarlcs 1.,' after 

SIMPSON, MAT'inKW, painter, taught drawing 
to the children of Charles I., and settled later in 
Sweden. He has left a miniature of the King, 
signed J/. S. 

SIMPSON, PiliLir, an English subject painter, 
the son of John Simpson the portrait painter, prac- 
tised in the early part of the 19th century. He 
studied in the schools of the Academy, where he 
exliibited up to 1836. There is in the Kensington 
Museum a picture, 'I will fight,' by him. 

SIMPSON, William, an English engraver, 
working in 1635. He was chiefly employed by the 
booksellers, and, among other things, engraved the 
plates for Quarles' ' Emblems.' 

SIMPSON, WiLLlASi, painter, lithographer, and 
draughtsman, was born on Oct. 28, 1823, in Carrick 
Street, Glasgow, where his father was an engineer. 
At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a 
lithograiiliic printer named Macfarlane, :ind then 
worked for Messrs. Allan and Ferguson, a Glasgow 
firm of lithographers, devoting his spare time to 
sketching from nature in water-colours. In 1851 
he came to London, found immediate employment 
with Messrs. Day and Sons, the foremost litho- 
graphers of their lime, and was at once occupied 
in producing views of the Great Exhibition. In 
1854 he commenced his career as the first war 
artist, being sent to the Crimea by Messrs. 
Colnagbi ; and for forty years was an eye-witness 
of every great war and political event in the 
history of our country. 'The Seat of War in the 
East' was published by Colnaghi in 1855, con- 
taining eighty chromo-lithographs after Simpson's 
drawings. For Queen Victoria he painted a picture 
of Balaclava, and this was followed b}' frequent 
royal commissions for water-colours of leading his- 
torical and domestic events of the Queen's reign. In 
1859, after the close of the Indian Mutiny, Simpson 
went by commission for Messrs. Day and Son to 
India. He brought back 250 water-colour draw- 
ings, but owing to the failure of the firm, fifty only 
were published as chromo-lithographs in 18(;7 
with the title ' India Ancient and Modern.' In 
1866 he became special artist to the ' Illustrated 
London News,' and visited Moscow with the 
Prince and Princess of Wales ; in 1868 he joined 
the Abyssinian Expedition, and in the following 
year travelled over the new route to India. In 
the course of this last journey he visited Jerusalem 
and made several drawings for the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. At the outbreak of the Franco- 
German war in 1870 he started at once for the 
front, and was in Paris during the Commune. He 
accompanied the Prince of Wales to India in 1875. 
visited Mycena-, Troy and Ephesus in 1877, and 
went through the Afghan War of 1878. All these 


campaigns and journeys were recorded in a ma<9 
of water-colour drawings and pencil-sketches. 
Many appeared as book-illustrations, and a large 
number were engraved on wood in the 'Illustrated 
London News.' As an artist he was an indefati- 
gable worker, but he had manifold interests as a 
student as well, and his book on 'The Buddhist 
Praying-Wheel' is a valuable contribution to the 
history of religious sj'mbolism in the East. Simp- 
son was elected a member of the Royal Institute 
in 1874, and exhibited there some fifty pictures in 
all. The Victoria and Albort Museum possesses 
over twenty of his water-colour drawings, and in 
the Art Library are two volumes containing 
several hundreds of his sketches in the Crimea 
and in India. Simpson died at Willesden on 
August 17, 1899. His Autobiography was pub- 
lished in 1903. II. II. 

SIMSON, George, a Scotch portrait painter, born 
at Dundee in 1791. When young, he worked as a 
printer, and did not devote himself to art till he 
was thirty. He became a member of the Scottish 
Academv, with whom his works were exhibited. 
He died'at Edinburgh iu 1862. 

SIMSON, William, painter, born at Dundee in 
1800, was educated at the Trustees' Academy in 
Edinburgh, and painted at first coast and river 
scenes. In 1830 he was elected a Member of the 
Royal Scottish Academy. After a stay of three years 
in Italy, he settled in 1838 in London, where he 
died in 1847. Of his pictures we may name: 

Cattle Shed. 1S42. (Snuth Kensington.) 
Gil Bias and Laura. (Do.) 
Eel Pots: sketch from nature. 1S43. (Do.) 
Scottish Peasants. 1842. (Do.) 
(Above tKO are in wattr-coloiir.) 
Boats at Dorilreclit. (Scot. Xut. GalUry.) 
Tlie Twelfth of August. (Do.) 
Solway Moss. (Do ) 
Goat Herd's Cottage, &c. (Do.) 
Hagar and Ishmael. (iJriOgemiter Galltry.) 
A Datch Family. (BoicooJ House.) 

SINGHER, Hans, (or Jean,) was born at Hesse- 
Cassel about the year 1510. He painted landscapes, 
with figures, in a free, bold manner, and chiefly re- 
sided at Antwerp, where he was received into the 
Academy in 1543. He was much employed in 
painting cartoons for tapestry. 

SINGLETON, Henry, an English historical 
paiuter, was born in London in 1766. His father 
died while he was j'ct an infant, and he was brought 
up by his uncle, a nnniature painter, by whom he 
was instructed in drawing, fie became a student 
of the Royal Academ}', and gained the gold medal 
in 1788 ; the subject being ' Alexander's Feast.' 
On that occasion he was highly praised by Reynolds. 
For more than fifty years he was a constant ex- 
hibitor at the Royal Academy, but never arrived 
at membenship. His pictures are numerous, but 
seldom exhibit much abilitj-. " Propose a subject 
to Singleton," said West, " and it will be on canvas 
in five or six hours.'' As might have been expected, 
work that cost so little was destined to a short 
existence. Some of his drawings for books were 
popular, as well as some sentimental scenes on a 
larger scale. Among his best works were ' Christ 
entering Jerusalem,' ' Christ healing the Blind,' 
' Coriolanus and his Mother,' ' Hannibal swearing 
Enmity to the Romans,' ' Storming of Seringapatam.' 
' Death of Tippoo Sahib,' and 'Surrender of Tippoo's 
Sons as Hostages' ; all of which were engravedin 
mezzotint, and were popular for a time. Two pic- 


tures of liis belonging to the National Gallery have 
been deposited in the galleries of Leicester and 
Coventry respectively. He painted also a series of 
small pictures from Shakespeare. They show more 
imagination and better colour than his larger works. 
He occasionally painted portraits. Singleton died 
in London in 1839. His sister, Sarah Singleton, 
exhibited miniatures at the Academy from 1790 to 
1820. Other miniature painters of the same name, 
who exhibited about the same time, were probably 
his relatives. 

SINJEUR, GovERT, a painter of Rotterdam, who 
painted in the manner of Philips Wouwerman, in 
the 17th century. 
SINT-JANS, Geerit van. See Haarlem. 
SINTRAMME, — , one of the earliest of the 
miniaturists. He was a monk of St. Gall, and 
practised in the beginning of the 10th century. 

SINTZENICH, Heinrich, (Sinzenich,) an en- 
graver in the chalk and dotted manner, and in 
mezzotint, was born at Mannlieim in 1752. After re- 
ceiving some elementary instruction in the academy 
of that city, he was sent to England at the expense 
of the Elector to complete his studies under Bar- 
tolozzi, with whom he remained about four years. 
On his return to his own country he was appointed 
engraver to the court, and engraved many plates 
in the English styles. He was a member of the 
Academies of Munich and Berlin. He died at 
Munich in 1812. Nagler has described fifty-four of 
his principal plates. The best are : 

Portrait of Rafael Mengs ; after himself. 
Cassandra ; after Hicktt. 

SINTZENICH, Pieter, (Sinzenich,) engraver, 
brother of Heinrich Sintzenich, was in London in 
1789. He engraved ' The Truce between the 
Romans and Sabines,' after Raphael. 

SIPMANN, Gerhard, (Sippmann.) painter, born 
at Dijsseldorf in 1790, was trained at the Diissel- 
dorf Academy and at Munich, under Langer and 
Cornelius. He painted at first portraits and his- 
torical scenes in oil, but was afterwards employed 
on arabesques for Cornelius, in the Glyptothek. 
From 1823 onwards he occasionally painted land- 
scapes. He died at Munich in 18G0. 

SIRANI, Elisabetta, the eldest daughter of 
Giovanni Andrea Sirani, born at Bologna in 1638, 
was instructed in art by her father. Her first 
public commission appears to have been won in 
1655, when she was seventeen years of age. She 
was a clever imitator of Guido, and was already 
famous, when she was poisoned by her servant 
in 1665. In spite of her early death, slie left 
upwards of a hundred and fifty pictures. We may 
name : 

Bolognu. Cerlosa. Baptism of Christ. 

„ Pinacoteca. The lofaut Chiist, «ith S. 

Authony of Padua in Adora- 
tion. And eight others. 

Munich. Pinakothek. An Allegory. 

Also pictures in the Palazzi Zampieri, Caprara, 
Zambeccari at Bologna ; and the Palazzi Corsini 
and Bolognetta at Rome. She also produced a few 
good etchings ; among them the following • 

The Virgin in the Clouds holding a Kosary, w ith the 
iufant Jesus ; from her own design. 

The \'irgin weeping, surrounded by Augels, and con- 
templating tlie emblems of Christ's Passion ; Ulisic 
bttta -Sirnni, F. 1657. 

The Holy Family ; afUr Raphael : Elisabeiha Sirani, sie 
incifjim exjtosuit. 

I The Mother of God ; after the same. 

St. Eustacius kneeling before a Cruci3.x ; E'isalietha 

Siram,f. 1656. 
The Decollation of St. John ; Elka. Sirani, f. 1657. 

SIRANI, Giovanni Andrea, born at Bologna in 
1610, was one of the favourite disciples of Guido 
Reni. After the death of his master he was 
employed to finish several of his works in the 
churches at Bologna, particularly the large picture 
of S. Brunone, at the Certosini. His first produc- 
tions resemble the second style of Guido. He 
aften\'ards adopted a more violent system of light 
and shadow, approaching that of Michelangelo da 
Caravaggio. He died in 1670. Works : 

Dologna. S. Mariino. The Crucifi-Kion. 

„ Certosa. The Feast at the House of 

Simon the Pharisee. 
„ S. Gioryiu. Marriage of the Virgin. 

„ Finacotcca. Preseutatiou in the Temple. 

He etched a few original plates, which l-.e usually 
marked with the initials G. A. S. or I. A. S. ; among 
them we may name : 

Apollo and Marsyas ; oval. 

Death of Lucretia. 

SIRCEUS, Philippe. See Soye, Philippe. 

SIRIES, Violante Be.\trix, born at Florence in 
1710, wa.s taught pastel and water-colour by 
Giovanna Fratellini. She afterwards went to 
Paris, where she studied under Boucher and 
Rigaud. Her talent was chiefly shown in portraits, 
though she occasionally attempted historical sub- 
jects, as well as flowers and fruit. On her return 
to Florence from France, she was employed to 
p.iint a large group of the Grand-Ducal Family. 
Her own portrait is in the UfBzi. She died about 

SISLEY, Alfp.ed, landscape painter, the son of 
English parents, was born in Paris on October 30, 
1840. He was a pupil of Gleyre, and at first 
worked under the influence of Corot and Courbet, 
painting conventional pictures in grej'S and browns. 
His first exhibit was at the Salon of 18GG, his 
picture being entitled ' Fenimcs allaiit au Bois,' 
and he continued to show his work there till 1870. 
Shortly after this time his friendship with Renoir 
and Manet caused an entire change in his style. 
He studied earnestly the sparkle of light in land- 
scape, and was in the vanauard of the Impressionist 
Movement in France. With Degas, Monet, Pisarro, 
Cfeanne, and others, he joined in the now historic 
Exhibition of 1874 at Nadar's Galleries in Paris. 
He lived at Moret-sur-Loing, and painted chiefly 
in the country round Paris, though he paid frequent 
visits to England, working for a considerable time 
at Hampton Court and elsewhere on the Thames. 
Among his more important pictures are : ' Bordsdu 
Loing, pres Moret,' ' Route de Louveciennes,' ' La 
Seine h, Saint-Mammes,' ' Lisifere de la Foret de 
Fontainebleau,' ' Le Pont de Moret-sur-Loing,' and 
' L'Eglise de Moret-sur-Loing.' His ' River Bank,' 
a coloured lithograph, was shown at the Exhibition 
of the International Society in London in 1898 ; 
and in the following year, after his death, his 
' Foret de Fontainebleau ' and ' La Plaine de 
Champagne.' Some studies by Sisley are in the 
Caillebotte Bequest at the Luxembourg. His life 
was somewhat embittered by want of public 
appreciation, and he died on January 29, 1899, 
at JIoret-snr-Loing. l[. H 

SISSON, — , anlrish portrait painter of the 'l8th 
century. Burke speaks of having had his portrait 
painted by him in miniature. 



SIXDENIERS, Alexandre Vincent, engraver, 
bom in Paris in 1795, worked under Villerey. He 
won a considerable reputation, and was more than 
once premiated at the Salon. He worked first in 
line, afterwards in mezzotint. He was drowned in 
the Seine, in Paris, in 1846. Plates : 

Endymion ; after Girodet. 

Charlotte Cortlay ; after Scheffer. 

The Village Bride; iftcr Greuze. 

Posting iu the Desert; after I'eniet 

Arab praying ; after the same. 

Edward I. iu Scotland ; after Delaroche. 

Napoleon and the King of Home ; after Steuljen. 

SJOLLEMA, Thierry Piebes, a Dutch painter of 
landscapes and sea-pieces, born at Terbantsterchans 
in 1760. His works are almost entirely confined to 
Friesland. There are two pictures by hiui in the 
museum at Leeuwarden. He died at Heerenwal in 

SKELTON, Joseph, engraver, flourished early 
in the 19th century. He was a younger brother 
of William Skelton, and studied in London. He 
afterwards went to Paris, and worked from the 
pictures at Versailles. His latest plates are dated 
1850. Among the works he illustrated are : 

' The Antiquities of Bristol.' 
' Cautabrigia Depicta.' 1809, 

* Oxouia Autiqua Kestaxirata.* 13:23. 
' Antiquities of Oxfordshire. ' 1823. 
'Pietas Oxouieusis.' 1828. 

* Meyrick's Arms and Armour.' 1830. 

SKELTON, William, engraver, was born in 
London in 1763. He belonged to a Yorkshire 
branch of the Cinuberland Skeltons. lie was some 
time pupil of James Basire and of William Sharp. 
When he first set up for himself, his patrons were 
Sir Richard Worsley and Charles Townley ; then 
Boydell and Macklin ; and still later, the Dilettanti 
Society, for whom some of his best engravings 
were produced. At the close of his career he pub- 
lished a series of royal portraits, from the time of 
George III. down to the accession of Victoria, 
which was commercially successful, and enabled 
him to perform many acts of charity. Skelton 
died in Upper Ebury Street in 1848. 

SKILL, F. J., a landscape painter who is be- 
lieved to have been born about 1824. He was 
a member of the Institute of Painters in Water- 
Culour, and spent some years at Venice, where ho 
executed some of bis most charming sketches. He 
exhibited frequently in Paris, but, altliough living 
in England, was comparatively little known in art 
circles of his daj-. He died, JMarch 8, 1881, of a 
broken he.irt, having failed to attract public atten- 
tion. Two of his best works are at S. Kensington. 

SKILLMAN, William, an English engraver, 
who flourished about the year 1G06. Anjong other 
plates he engraved a view of Albemarle House, 
and another of the Banqueting House, Whitehall. 

SKIPPE, John, a native of Ledbury, was a 
gentleman of education, and an amateur artist. 
He was a Gentleman Commoner of Merton College, 
Oxford, and studied landscape painting under 
Claude Vernet. Inspired by a print of LTgo da Carpi, 
after Raphael's cartoon of the 'Miraculous Draught 
of Fishes,' he engraved in chiaroscuro a luiniber of 
subjects, chiefly alier the designs of Parmigiano, 
Correggio, Raphael, and other masters of the 
Italian School, which he published from about the 
year 1770 to 1812. It is supposed that he was a 
pupil of John Baptist Jackson. The dates of his 
birth and death are unknown. 


SKIRVING, Archibald, painter, was born at 
Haddington in 1749. He studied for some time in 
Rome, and towards the close of the 18th century 
practised in London, working principally as a 
portraitist in chalk and crayon, and also painting 
miniatures in water-colours. At the begiiming of 
the 19th centur}' he was established in Edinburgh, 
where he became well known both by the excel- 
lence of his art and the humorous eccentricity of 
his character. He died in 1819. The portraits of 
Professor Dugald Stewart and William Berry in 
the National Portrait Gallery (Scotland) are by 
him, also a portrait in the Scottish National Gallery. 
Andrew Geddes etched Skirving's portrait. 

SKJOLDEBRAND, a Swedish painter, who went 
in 1799 with Acerbi to the North Cape, and on his 
return published a work on his travels. In 1804 
he also published a volume of views of the Troll- 
hatta Falls. He died in 1835. 

SKOOVGAARD, Peter Kristian, a Danish 
landscape painter, was born at Hammerhus, near 
Ringsted, in 1817. He received his first teaching 
from his mother, and then at the age of fifteen 
entered the Copenhagen Academy. His first work, 
a Moonlight Landscape, was purchased in 1836 
by Christian VIII. He afterwards travelled to Rome 
and Naples, studied Titian and Claude, but con- 
tinued faithful to Danish scenery for his subjects. 
In 1864 he became a member of the Academy at 
Copenhagen, where he died in 1876. 

SLABBAERT, Karel, (SLABBARD,) a Dutch 
genre painter, flourislied in the 17th century. It 
is supposed that he studied under Gerard Dou. 
His pictures are not common ; there is one in the 
Museum at Amsterdam, an interior with a woman 
cutting bread, and two children praying. In 1645 
he was living in Amsterdam, but he is supposed to 
have been a native of Middelberg, where he was 
buried in November, 1654. 

SLANGENBURGH, Karel Jakob Baar van, an 
obscure painter of portraits and interiors, was bom 
.at Leeuwarden in 1783. He died about 1850. 


SLATER, Joseph, an English decorative and 
landscape painter, practised early in the 18th 
century. He was engaged on decorative work at 
Mereworth Castle and at Stowe. 

SLATER, J. W., a miniature painter of some 
merit, who settled early in life in Ireland, and 
practised with success in Dublin in the second half 
of the 18tli century. He subsequently returned to 
England, and exhibited at the Academy in 1786 
and 1787. 

SLATER, T., an English engraver who flourished 
about the year 1630. He engraved, among others, 
a portrait of George Webbe, Bishop of Limerick. 

SLAUGHTER, Stephen, portrait painter, was 
practising in Ireland between 1730 and 1740. He 
afterwards became keeper of the king's pictures, 
and lived towards the close of his life at Ken- 
sington, where he died in 1765. In the National 
Portrait Gallery there is a 'Sir Hans Sloane'by 
him, and at Blenheim Palace, portraits of the Hon. 
J. and Lady G. Spencer. His sister was also an 

SLEAP, Joseph Axe, water-colour painter, was 
born in London, May 30, 1808. He was an artist 
of much ability, but his life was embittered by a 
perpetual struggle against poverty, which crippled 
his powers. He was beginning to win his way to 
fame and recognition, when he died at the age of 
fifty-one, October 16, 1859. His ' St. Paul's, from 


Paul's Wliarf,' in the Glasgow Gallery, is a good 
example of liis work. There is also at South Ken- 
sington a view of Lago Maggiore by him. His 
works are little known, as he never contributed to 
the principal London Exhibitions. 

SLEMPOP. See Vihschen, Theodor. 

SLINGELANDT, Pietek Cohnelisz van, born 
at Leyden in 1640, was a pupil of Gerard Dou. 
He followed the style of his master, and as far 
as patience and polish are concerned, he may be 
said to have equalled, if not surpassed, his in- 
structor; but in character, chiaro-scuro, and design, 
he is far inferior. Houbraken declares that he was 
occupied three whole j-ears on the family por- 
trait of the Meermans, and that he was employed 
a month in finishing a rufE He died in 1691. His 
chief works are : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Violin Player. SigueJ P. 

V. SUvyerlnnd fecit. 

Dresden. Gallei'y. The Music Lesson. 

„ „ A Singing Woman. 

Glasgow. Gallery. The Doctor's Visit. 

„ ,. A Musical Party. 

Loudon . Jjtridgeiftiter House. Cooks with Partridges. 

Munich. Pinakotliek. A Tailor's Shop. 

„ ., A Woman at a Window. 

Paris. Louvre. The Meerman Family. 

Petersbur.'. Hermitaye- A Family Group. 

SLINGENEIJER, Ernest, Belgian painter; 
bom May 23, 1823, at Loochristy, near Ghent; 
oecame a pupil of J. Wappers. He paiuted 
historical subjects, including a cycle of twelve 
notorious events in Belgiau liistory, which are at 
the Academy of Brussels. He painted the 'Bataille 
de Lepanto,' now in the Brussels Museum ; also 
many Italian genre piieces ; was a member of the 
Brussels Academy, a Commander of the Leopold 
Order. &c. He died at Brussels, April 27, 1^94. 

SLOANE, Michael, engraver, a pujnl of Bar- 
tolozzi, who practised up to the beginning of the 
19th century, and engraved the ' Notle,' after Cor- 
reggio, 'The Christening,' after Wheatley, and 
other works. 

SLOCOMBE, C. P., held important office as art 
teacher in the South Kensington Science and Art 
Department from its early d;iys at Somerset House, 
.md was connected with it for many years. He 
devoted himself to etching, and his work became 
well known and esteemed. In this medium he 
reproduced successfully many of the works of 
J. Pettie, R.A., and Frank Holl, R.A., and also 
etched after Rembrandt and the old masters. His 
original etchings are landscapes, frequently wood- 
land scenes. For the last fourteen years of his life 
he was laid aside by paralysis. He died in 1895, 
it the age of sixty-three. J. H. W. L. 

SLUYTER, P., a Dutch engraver, who flourished 
ubout the year 1700. He was principally employed 
m engraving frontispieces and other book orna- 
ments for the publications of Peter Van der Aa. 

SMAK-GREGOOR, Gillis, painter of landscapes 
and animals, was born at Dordrecht in 1770. He 
was the nephew and pupil of the Van Stxys, and 
also studied under Versteeg and Van Lei>n. He 
died in 1843. 

SMALLWOOD, William Frome, architectural 
draughtsman, born 1806, was the son of a hotel- 
keeper in Covent Garden. He was a pupil of Cot- 
tinghara, and exhibited a number of sketches at 
the Royal Academy and at Suffolk Street from 
182i3 to 1834. Many of his drawings were repro- 
duced in the 'Penny Magazine.' He died in 

SMARGIASSO. See Ciafferi. 
SMART, John, was born at Leith in 1838, and 
educated there. He was apprenticed to his father, 
an engraver and lithographer, and studied in the 
School of the Board of Manufactures, and then 
under Horatio McCuUoch, R.S.A. In 1860 he ex- 
hibited for the first time at the Royal Scottish 
Academy, ' Peeps thro' the Trees,' and constantly 
exhibited afterwards. He early gained popularity, 
and in 1871 was elected an Associate, and in 1877 
an Academician, of the Royal Scottish Academy. 
He devoted himself to landscape, and particularly 
delighted in rendering the moors and lochs and 
mountains of the Highlands of Scotland. He also 
painted in Wales and the Lowlands. He painted 
much in the open air, and his work is fresh and 
sincere, charming in colour and choice of subject. 
The tender pathos of his homely genre pictures 
made them very popular. He exhibited regularly 
at the Glasgow Institute and the Royal Academy, 
and in 1889 a Highland landscape was favourably 
received at the Salon. He was an original member 
of the Royal Scottish Society of Painters in 'Water- 
Colour. In that medium he painted a series of 
the golfing greens of Scotland. Among his best 
pictures are, 'The Graves of oor ain Folk' (1874), 
'The Gloom of Glen Ogle' (1880), 'The Land 
of the MacGregor,' 'Where Silence Reigns,' 'A 
Dream of Strathearn,' and 'Far from the Busy 
World ' (diploma picture in the Scottish National 
Gallery). He died in 1899. J. H. W; L. 

SMART, John, the most important of the 
miniature painters of the eighteenth century. He 
was born about 1741, at a small village near 
Norwich. He was educated at the St. Martin's 
Lane Academy, and then he became a pupil of 
Daniel Dodd. He exhibited first with the Incor- 
porated Society of Artists, and later on became a 
Director and Vice-President of that Society. He 
appears to have been a great friend of Richard 
Cosway, and for a while his connection with that 
artist must have been somewhat in the relationship 
of master and pupil, inasmuch as Cosway in his 
letters refers to some tuition which he gave to 
Smart. Tlie fact is a rather curious one, as there 
is no artist of that period who would appear to 
have had so little connection with Cosway as does 
Smart. His work has none of tlie flippancy of 
Cosway, but is much more serious in quality and 
subdued in colouring, while certainly no other 
artist gave such careful attention to representing 
the face. His knowledge of the anatomy of the 
human face must have been quite extraordinary, 
so perfectly are the muscles and bones represented 
in his work. His colouring as a rule is cool and 
grey, although in the faces he can be detected by 
the use of a tint somewhat too much resembling 
the colour of brick-dust to be perfectly illustrative 
of flesh. He married Edith Vere, and resided at 4, 
Russell Place, Fitzroy Square. He had one son, 
John Smart, and it is possible that he had a 
daughter also, whose married name was Dighton. 
Smart went to India in 1788, and remained in that 
country for five years. His son, John Smart, 
junior, accompanied him, and died at Madras in 
1809. The father returned to England after five 
years' sojourn abroad, settled down in London, and 
died in 1811. He was famous for his pencil draw- 
iugs, and appears to have sketched each portrait 
in pencil before he painted the miniature. A 
I large number of these pencil portraits, together 
with several of his sketch-books, came, after his 



d?ath, to Miss Smart, who appears to have been 
his only sister, and slie bequeathed them to l)er 
frreat friend Mary Smirke, tlie dangliter of Robert 
Siuirlce tlie architect, and in this way it happens 
that in tlie possession of two descendants of tlie 
Smirke family there is quite a large collection of 
pencil drawings by this artist. Two fine drawings 
esecuted by liim in India, and representing the 
two sons of Tippoo Sahib, are in the British 
.Museum. Smart was a man of short .stature, and 
i=i generally alluded to as " little John Smart.'' 
He would appear to have been a man of very high 
personal character, as Cosway refers to him as 
"honest John Smart," "good little John,'' and 
"faithful John." He was a member of the little- 
known religious sect called the Glassites or 
Sandemanians, a form of faith which will be 
notable from the fact that Michael Faraday was 
a devoted adherent of it. Smart was a man of 
very simple habits, spending nothing upon his 
clothes, and very little upon his food. Tliere are 
two distinct periods in his arts, the early works, 
done about 1770, being far more exquisite in their 
effect than were the later works. His earlier 
portraits were as a rule of very small size, and 
closely resembling enamel. They are remarkable 
for the extreme minuteness of their execution. 
His latter works, painted in Inili.i, can be known 
by the addition of a capital " I " marked under- 
neath his signature, and those miniatures and the 
portraits he executed when he returned to London 
are almost perfect examples of what miniature 
painting should be. They are distin_!;uished by a 
reserve of strength, a greatness of power, and a 
subtlety of colouring, which mark out their creator 
as a man of exalted genius. Smart was on friendly 
terms with the artist Toussaint, and many of his 
miniiiturcs are to be found in beautiful gold or 
steel frames, designed and made by this clever 
jeweller. Tliore are many fine examples of his 
miniature work in the collections of Mr. E. M. 
Hodgkins, Mr. J. Pierpoint Morgan, Sir Spencer 
Walpole, Mr. George Salting, Lord Hothfield, Earl 
Beiiuchanip, and the Duke of Richmond and 
Gordon, and one example can be seen in the 
Wallace Collection. Of his earliest enamel-like 
portraits the finest example is the portrait of Ann 
Brograve belonging to Miss Ffoulkes. Of the 
work of John Smart, junior, the most notable 
example belongs to Mr. Gerald Ponsonby. 

SMAHT, Samuel Paul, a painter of miniature 
portraits, practising in London. He exhibited at 
the Academy from 17G9 to 1787. 

SMEES, Jan, a Dutch landscape painter and 
engraver, who lluurished in the first quarter of the 
18th century, and is supposed to have died in 
1729. To judge of him by his five known etchings, 
he must have p)ainted in the manner of Jan Both. 
These etchings consist of landscapes enriched with 
figures, animals, buildings, and ruins ; and are 
signed J. in. et fecit. 

SMETHAM, jAiaiis. This artist is better known 
by his writings than his paintings. His essays on 
Reynolds and on Blake, and his letters, are 
admirable examples of bright composition and 
clear statement. He was the son of a Wesleyan 
minister, born in 1821, and was educated at a 
Wesleyan school, becoming a drawing master at 
the Normal college. He had little sympathy with 
his own literary work, and the greatest love for 
art, and a firm belief in his own ability in that 
direction, but he never was successful in claiming 


public attention. His pictures were rejected over 
and over again, and his illustrations were returned 
on his hands. Up to a certain point his work had 
excellence, but it never became really great, . 
although his early admirers, amongst whom were 
Ruskin, Rossetti, and Ford Madox Brown, 
prophesied great things about him. It appeared 
at one time as though he would join the pre- 
IJaphaelite Brotherhood, and become as eminent 
as any of them, but his work was too poetic, 
and his drawing was never quite satisfactory. 
Many of his best pictures passed into the 
[lossession of Mr. J. S. Budgett of Stoke Park, 
Guildford, who was always a warm admirer of his 
genius, and who assisted him from time to time 
with considerable generosity. He was, however, 
a disappointed and dejected man, who struggled 
all his life against opposition. For the last ten 
years of his life he was a complete invalid, all his 
physical and mental force having broken down 
from the unceasing strain of his earlier career. 
After his death in 1889 his literary work became 
better known, and the credit the world refused 
him during his life was quite freely given to his 
work after his decease. A sketchy and incomplete 
memoir of him appeared in 1891, written^ by a 
Mr. William Davies, and afiixed to an addition of 
his letters. He exhibited at the Royal Academy: 

Christ at Emmaus. 1851. 

Binl-catchers. 1852. 

The Flageolet. 1853. 

Two Portnits. 1854. 

Counting the Cost. 1855. 

Robert Levett. 18G2. 

Tlie Moorland Edge. 1863. 

The Hymn of the Last Supper. 1869. 

In the possession of Mr. Budgett are, 'The 
Hymn of the Last Supper,' 'The Women at the 
Crucifixion' (1857), 'Sad Hesper' (1871), illus- 
trating Tennyson's words in ' In Memoriam,' canto 
cxxi. f ' The First Passover,' ' All in the Wild 
March Morning,' 'The Gossips,' &c. Lady Mount 
Temple purchased the study for 'The Hymn of 
the Last S.ipper'; 'TheDrenmof Pilate's Wife' 
belongs to Mr. J. F. Hall, and other pictures in 
private hands are, 'The Lady of Shalott' (1852), 
and 'Prospero and Miranda' (1871). Messrs. 
Shepherd Brothers own 'The Death of Earl 
Siward ' and ' The Enchanted Princess.' Smetham 
executed many remarkable etchings, the best of 
which were published in book form as an 'Artist's 
Sketch Book.' He was a warm friend of Bell 
Scott, and it was due to his encouragement that 
Smetham took up with etching and carried out 
some domestic decorating work, liuskin, greatly 
admiring the genius of the man, purchased many 
of his sketches and carried on a very iiiteresting 
correspondence with him. 

SMETS, Christian, a Flemish painter of the 
16th century, a native of Mechlin. He came to 
France in 1550, and entered the service of Henri 
d'Albret, grandfather of Henry IV. 

SMEYERS, GiLLis, (or ^oiPius,) the elder, bom 
at Mechlin in 1635, was the son (?) and pupil of 
Nicolas Smeyers. He also studied under J. Ver- 
hoeven. He married Elizabeth Herregouts, daugh- j 
ter of the painter, David Herregouts, and had by i 
her three sons, Jakob (q.v.), Jan, and Justin. They 
all became painters, and were members of the i 
Guild of St. Luke at Mechlin, but only Jakob hao | 
li'ft any trace in the history of art. In 1657 | 
Gillis Smeyers was made free of the Guild of S. 


Luke, and in 1682 he was acting as treasurer for 
the society. He was the close friend of Luciis 
Franchoys II., and finished an ' Assumption ' begun 
by the latter. Smeyers died in 1710. Worlds: 

Brussels. JIuseum. St. Norbert consecrating two 

„ „ Death of St. Norbert. 

Mechlin. lluseutn. The Deans of the Tailors' Guild 

at Mechlin, 1695. 
„ Church of S. John. The Benefits of the Holy 

„ Seminary. The Resurrection of Lazarus. 

And other worlcs at Meclilin. 

SMEYERS, GiLLis, (or jEgipius.) the younger, 
painter, was the son of Jakob Smeyers, and was 
born at Mechlin in 1694. His father wished him 
to become a painter, but the young man himself 
showed a preference for historical studies. At the 
age of twenty-one, however, he decided for art as 
a profession, and started for Dijsseldorf, under the 
protection of the Baron de Loe. Here he studied 
for three years under the painter Douven, of 
Ruremonde, but was recalled to Mechlin by the 
necessities of his parents, who had both become 
blind. He maintained them in their infirmity, 
1. orking as a decorative painter wlien other com^ 
i:iissions failed, and began also to utilize his 
earh- literary studies, by writing articles for the 
■ Bibliotheca Belgica,' and for Descamps' ' Lives 
of Painters.' He was the author of u supple- 
ment to Van Mander's ' Lives of Painters,' com- 
piled a complete inventory of works of art ;it 
Mechlin, with notices of Mechlin artist.s, ami 
wrote a Life of Rubens, the MS. of which he sold 
in his old age. His talents and industry, how- 
ever, failed to secure him against poverty, for 
towards the close of his life, when attacked by 
disease, he was obliged to sell his library to gain 
admittance into the hospital at Mechlin, where he 
died in 1774. The following of his works are to 
be found at and near Mechlin : 

Portrait of the Chanoine de Laet. (Grand Seniinari/.) 
Fall of the Angels. 

History of S. Dominic. {Oiurch of S. Eomltaitt.) 
Pentecost. (Convent of the Black Xuns.) 
Allegorical Groups. {Convent of the i'oeurs .^faricolla.) 
Portrait of Cardinal d'Alsace de Boussu. (.Vuscmn.) 
The Deans of the Tailors' Guild in 1735. (Museum.) 
Episode in the History of the Dominicans. (.Tfuseuin.) 
Portraits of Children. (Xotre Bame, Hansict/ck.) 
Several Pictures. (Church of Assche.) 

SMEYERS, J.\KOB, painter, born at Mechlin in 
1657, was the son of Gillis the elder. He was his 
f ither's pupil, and entered the Guild of St. Luke 
in 1688. fie painted history and genre, but was 
more successful with portraits. In the church of 
S. Catherine at Mechlin there are a ' Temptation of 
S. Anthony' and a ' Holy Family ' by him, and in 
the convent of the Bl.ack Nuns a picture of the 
Sisters adoring the Trinity. He died at Mechlin 
in 1732. 

SMIBERT, JoHK, (Smybert,) bom at Edin- 
burgh about the year 1684, served his time with 
a common house p.ainter. He came to London, 
where he was forced to content himself with work 
for coach painters. He was afterwards employed 
in copj-ing for dealers. He studied for a time in Sir 
James Tliornhill's Academy, and then went to 
Italy, where he spent three years in copying Titian, 
Vandyck, and Kubens, and improved enough to be 
largely employed on portraits after his return. 
AVhen he had thus surmounted his early difficulties 
he was tempted to embark in the scheme of the 

Bishop of ClojTie, for the erection of a universal 
college of arts and sciences in Bermuda. The 
death of the King, his patron, put an end to the 
Bishop's project, but Smibert, who had set sail, 
had resolution enough to proceed, and settled at 
Boston, in New England. There he married a 
lady of fortune, and continued the practice of his 
art, exercising great influence on American artists. 
He died at Boston in 1751, leaving two children, 
one of whom, Nathaniel, became an artist. 

SMIES, Jakob, born at Amsterdam in 1765, 
painted a few pictures, but was better known as a 
drawing-master and illustrator of books. He died 
in 182.5. 

SMIRKE, Rlcn.^RD, antiquarian draughtsman, 
bom in 1778, was the brother of Sir Robert Smirke, 
and was brought up an artist, studying in the 
Academj' schools, where he gained a gold medal 
in 1799. Eventually he abandoned painting for 
the study of antiquities, and became known as 
an accurate draughtsman of such subjects. He 
was much emplo3-ed by the Society of Antiquaries, 
and made for that body a series of facsimiles 
from the ancient paintings in St. Stephen's Chapel. 
Westminster. He died May 5, 1815. 

SMIRKE, Robert, an excellent English painter 
of humorous and sentimental subjects, was born 
at Wigton in 1752. At the age of nineteen he 
became a student at the Royal Academy, but did 
not exhibit there till the year 1786 ; in 1792 he 
was elected an associate, and in the same year an 
academician. It is said that he painted arms on 
coach panels ; so did Catton, whose name is among 
the first forty of the Koyal Academicians. His 
pictures are numerous, and generally of small 
dimensions, as they were mostly painted to illus- 
trate plays, poems, or novels, and intended for 
the eugravers. Such compositions he carried out 
mostly in monochrome, or with but very slight 
indications of colour. His favourite subjects are 
from Scripture, English historj', Shakspeare, 'Don 
Quixote,' the ' Ar.ibian Nights,' &c. Tliose for the 
story of ' The Hunchback,' engraved by Daniell, 
are in his happiest manner. He continued to 
practise his art tiU late in life. It is said that 
las last works were the designs for the bas-reliefs 
in front of the Oxford and Cambridge Club 
House in Pall Mall, of which his sons were the 
architects. He had formerly designed the bas- 
reliefs for the Junior United Service Club, at the 
corner of Charles Street and Regent Street, also 
built under the same direction. Smirke died in 
London in 1845. A series of illustrations to ' Don 
Quixote ' have been deposited by the National 
Gallery authorities in the Mi.seum of Stoke-upon- 

SMIRKE, Sydney, a very clever architect, born 
in 1798, brother to Sir Robert and Sir Edward 
Smirke. He will be remembered for his erection of 
the Exhibition Galleries at Burlington House, the 
Pantheon in Oxford Street, the Carlton Club, and 
Gunnersbury Park, but his sketches in Sicily give 
him a right to be mentioned in this volume. He 
was a very successful man, and piopular amongst 
his brother architects. He travelled a good deal, 
and wherever he went filled his sketch-books 
with bold, fresh drawings, ofen marked by un- 
usual beauty. He died in London in 1877. 

SMIT, A.VDi'.EAS, a Dutch painter of marine 
subjects, lived about the middle of the 17th century. 
Thi.-re is a good sea-piece by him in the Berlin 
Gallery. There was also an AuxoLD Saiit, who 



lived about the siime period, and painted land- 
scapes and sea-pieces. His large pictures of marine 
subjects resemble tlie darkest of Backhuysen. There 
is a sea-piece signed A- Sniit, in the Copenhagen 
Gallery, attributed to him. Perhaps the two men 
are identical. 

SMITH, Anker, an excellent engraver of small 
plates in line for books, was born in London in 
1759. He received his education at the Merchant 
Taylors' School, aud was afterwards articled to his 
uncle, an eminent conveyancer. He soon quitted 
him, however, for an engraver of the name of 
Taylor. This master instructed liim in the me- 
chanical part of the business, and his natural talent 
soon enabled liim to surpass his teacher. He 
became an assistant to James Heath, in whose 
name he is said to have executed several plates, 
among them tlje 'Apotheosis of Handel.' Bed, who 
was now publishing an edition of the British Poets, 
engaged him to engrave the plates for it ; and he 
was soon employed by other publishers. He also 
engraved several of the jdates for Smirkc's edition 
of ' Don Quixote.' It is said that he practised 
<Jt one time under Bartolozzi. He was one of the 
engravers employed by Boydell on the ' Shakspeare 
Gallery' ; the print of 'The Death of Wat Tyler,' 
after Xorthcote, obtained his election to the Royal 
Academy. He engraved the plates for an edition 
of Shakspeare edited by Wood, for the works by 
Coombe, on ' Tlie Ancient Marbles and Terra- 
cottas in the British JIuseum'; also several plates 
after Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, and Correggio. 
He died in 1819. 

SMITH, Benjamin, an engraver in the chalk 
and dotted manner, was born in London ; the year 
of his birth is not clearly ascertained. He was a 
pupil of Bartolozzi, and was one of the engravers 
employed by Boydell on his 'Shakspeare Gallery," 
some of the best plates in which are by him. He 
engraved chiefly after contemporary painters. 
Among his works are the following : 

Christ be.aIiDg the Sick ; afUr B. West. 

St. Peter's first Sermon ; aft^r the same. 

Au Allegory of Provideuce; after J, F. liiijaud. 

An Allegory of Innocence ; after the same. 

Sigismuuda ; after Hoyatih. 

Bacchus ; after Sir J. Reynolds. 

Shakspeare nursed by Tragedy and Comedy, aud 

The Infant Shakspeare attended by Isature and the 

Passions; both after Romney. 
An equestrian Portrait of George III. ; after Beechey. 
The Portrait of Napoleon ; after Appia)ii. 
William Hogarth and his Dog ; after Hoijarth. 
The Marquis Cornwallis ; afttr Copley. 
The Annual Ceremony of Administering the Oath of 

Allegiance to the Lord Mayor elect, &c. 
Scene from ' Richard II.' ; after Mather Brown. 

Smith died in 1833. 

SMITH, Charles, portrait painter, native of the 
Orkneys, studied in London. In 1793 he resided 
in Edinburgh, and exhibited a ' Nymph ' and an 
' Infant Bacchus,' and the same year went to 
India, where he was appointed painter to the 
Great Mogul. In 1796 he returned to London, 
and exhibited an 'Andromeda,' a ' Cymon and 
Iphigenia,' and other works. In 1802 ho published 
a musical entertainment, in two acts, called a ' Trip 
to Bengal.' He etched his own portrait. He died 
at Leith in 1824. 

SMITH, Charles John, an engraver, was born 
at Chelsea in 1803. He was the son of an eminent 
surgeon, resident there for many years. He was 
instructed in the art of engraving by Charles Pyn. 


He became skilful in his profession, and was ex- 
tensively employed in the best auti([uarian and 
topographical publications of the time. Among 
these are Stothard's 'Sepulchral Effigies,' Cart- 
wright's ' Rape of Bramber,' Murray's ' Illustrations 
of Johnson,' Dibdin's ' English Tour,' and others, 
some of which were published privately. In 1828 
he engraved a series of facsinule autographs of 
illustrious persons from the reign of Richard II. 
to that of Charles II., to which biographies were 
furnished by John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. At the 
time of his death he was engaged in a work en- 
titled ' Historical and Literary Curiosities,' of_which 
six numbers were published ; the two required to 
complete it were left unfinished. He was a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries. His death occurred 
in 1838. 

SMITH, CoLViN, born at Brechin in 1795, 
studied in the schools of the Royal Academy in 
London. He went to Italy and Belgium, returned 
to Scotland, and settled in Edinburgh. He executed 
many portraits, among which one of Sir Walter 
Scott became so popular that he is said to_ have 
repeated it more than twenty times. He died in 
1875. Works: 

Edinburgh. Nat. Gallery. Portrait of Lord Melville. 
„ „ Portrait of Sir Ralph Aber- 

„ „ Portrait of Sir James Mac- 

Glasgow. Gallery. Portrait of Lord Jeffrey. 

London. Xat. Port. Gall. Portrait of Sir AValter 

SMITH, Constantin Locis F^lix, painter, was 
born in Paris, November 18, 1788. He was a pupil 
'if David and of Girodet, and studied at the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts. He exhiliited at the Salon from 
1817, and his best known works are to be found in 
tlie following galleries : 

Amiens. Museum. Andromache at Hector's 

Xi'^mes. „ Athaliah's Dream. 

Orleans. ., An Italian Landscape. 

Versailles Gallerij Amerigo Vespucci, 

., „ Louisa of Savoy, Duchess of 

„ „ Mary Adelaide of Savoy, 

Duchess of Burgundy. 

His portrait of the Regent Philip of Orleans 
was destroyed in the pillage of the Palais Royal 
in 1848. 

SMITH, Edward, an English engraver, who 
practised early in the 19th centurv. He engraved 
'Puck,' after Sir J. Reynolds, 'The Piper' and 
' Guess my Name,' after Wilkie, and ' The Contadini 
Family Prisoners,' after Eastlake. He was engaged 
on Finden's ' Royal Gallery.' 

SMITH, Ejima, water-colour painter, born about 
1787, was the daughter of John Raphael Smith. 
She was a member of the short-lived Society of 
Associated Artists in Water-colours, and in 1805 
exhibited 'Hector taking Leave of Andromache' 
at the Royal Academj'. 

SMITH, Francis, a landscape painter, whose 
name appears in some of the earlier catalogues of 
the Royal Academy, is said to have been born in 
Ital}'. He travelled in the East with Lord Balti- 
more. In 1770 he exhibited Views of Naples and 
Constantinople ; two years afterwards a ' View 
of Naples,' an ' Eruption of Vesuvius,' and an ' Old 
Temple near Pozzuoli'; and the following year 
views of London and Westminster Bridges, taken 


from the bottom of Arundel Street, Strand. There 
are soine prints after drawin.sjs bj- him of Turkish 
ceremonies in tlie seraglio. He died about 1779. 

SMITH, Frederick Coke, water-colour painter, 
was born early in the present century. He visited 
Turkey, and in 1836 completed a series of sketches 
of Constantinople, -which -were lithographed by 
J. F. Lewis. He subsequently pubhshed a set 
of sketches made in Canada. His works show 
great facility, but lack finish. He died in 1839. 

SMITH, Gaeriel, engraver, born in London in 

1724. Having learned to use the burin he went to 

Paris, where he acquired the chalk method ; and on 

his return to England began to practise it, with the 

assistance of RylanH,\vith some success. His best 

plates were for Boydell. He died in 1783. 

SMITH, GixiRGE, known as Smith of Chichester, 

was the son of a man who combined the trades of 

baker and cooper with the calling of a baptist 

minister. He was born at Chichester in 1714, and 

with his brothers studied art by painting the scenery 

in the neighbourhood. His mature works weie 

feeble imitations of Claude and Poussin, but were 

fortunate enough to be engraved by Woollett and 

others, and to win a prize from the Society of Arts ■ 

over the head of Richard Wilson. AVith his brother 

John he published fifty-three small etcliings from 

their own landscapes. Smith was a good musician. 

frequently performing at concerts, and a poet of 

some taste. He died in 1776. 

SMITH, George, painter, born in London in 
1802, was brought up as an upholsterer, but on 
coming of age resolved to be an artist, and entered 
the Academy Schools. He made such progress 
that in 1829 he won the gold medal, and was 
sent to Runic; in the following year. He returned 
to England in 1833, and practised in London, but 
his works did not meet with the recognition they 
deserved; and discouraged by his want of success, 
he fed into ill-health, and died October 15, 1838. 
At South Kensington there is by him 'Scipio 
Africanus receiving his son from AntiocUus.' 

SMITH, George, painter, was bom on Ai^ril 18, 
1829. He studied art in Mr. Cary's School, and 
was admitted a student of the Royal Academy 
Schools in 1845. As a young m^in he attracted 
the attention of C. W. Cope, R.A., and was em- 
ployed by him as his assistant in executing the 
We"stminster frescoes. One of his earliest patrons 
was the Prince Consort. His first exliibited picture 
was ' The Gipsy Girl,' at the British Institution in 
1847, and .ifter this date he showed 78 pictures 
at the Royal Academy, 25 at the British Institu- 
tion, 15 at Suffolk Street, and others at minor 
Exhibitions. He painted subjects of domestic 
genre in the style of Webster, and a good idea of 
their ch.iraoter may be gained from such titl s as 
'The Bird-Trap' (1851); 'The Launch ' (1S53) ; 
'Beware of the Dog' (1864); 'The Vah-ntir.e ' 
(1867); 'Payins? the Legacies' (1872); 'Who 
comes here ? ' (1873) ; ' Out in the Cold World ' 
(1876) ; and ' The Soldiers Wife ' (1878). In 1883 
he showed his own portrait at the Academy, and 
his last exhibits were 'Weather Permitting' and 
' Blanche,' in 1877. In the Sheepslianks Bequest 
at South Kensington are, ' Anotlier Bite' (ISoO) ; 
'Temptation— a Fruit-Stall ' (1850) ; and 'Children 
gatliering Wild Flowers' (1851). He died at Ids 
residence. 187, Muida Vale, Jan. 2, 1901. 51. H. 

SMITH, George. This painter assumed the 
name of Armfield in consequence of some of Ids 
earliest paintings having been copied with a 

forged name to them. L'nder his now, de ^jhime 
he exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1^40 to 
1862. His paintings of dt gs, game, ducks, rabbits, 
badgers, etc., were highly esteemed. He also 
exhibited at Suffolk Street and in the British 

SMITH, Herbert Luther, painter, born in 1811, 
was the younger brother of Frederick William 
Smith, the sculptor, and a student of tlie Roj-al 
Academy. He exhibited portraits in 1831 and 
1832, and, later, various Idstorical subjects. He 
was much employed bv the Queen as a copyist. 
He died March 13, 1870". 

SMITH, Jacob, an obscure English engraver, 
wlio flourished about the year 1730. Among other 
prints he engraved the portraits of Sir Isaac New- 
ton and Sir Hans Sloane, on one plate. The work 
is carried out in a single spiral line, like Mellan's 
' Sudarium of St. Veronica.' 

SMITH, Jan, a Dutch painter of the 17th century, 
painted a portrait of Adam van Vianen, which was 
engraved by Theodore van Kessel. 

SMITH, J. John, landscape painter, born in 
London about 1775. He exhibited occasionally at 
the Academy from 1813 to 1821, and etched a few- 
plates of village scenes. 

SMITH, John, landscape painter, bom at Chi- 
chester in 1717, was younger brother to Smith of 
Chichester, to whom he was inferior as an artist. 
He died at Chichester in 1764. 

SMITH, John, born at Daventry in 1652, son of 
an engraver, is considered tlie best mezzotint en- 
graver of his time. He is said to have served an 
apprenticeship to one Tillet, a painter in Moorfields. 
.As soon as he became his own master, he learned 
the art of mezzotint scraping from Isaac Becket, 
and received further instruction in it from J. Van 
der Vaart. Sir Godfrey Kneller having seen some 
of his performances, took him into his employment, 
and engaged him to engrave many of his portraits, 
which are the best of liis works. The dates on 
his plates range from 1679 to 1727. He died at 
N'ortliampton in 1742. His portrait by Kneller is 
in the National Gallery. His prints are very 
numerous; among them are the following: 

Charles II. with the Star. 

Jame.s. Duke of York, leauiug on an Anchor. 

Tlie Duke of Scbomberg on Horseback. 

Meinharil, liis Sou, when Duke of Leiuster. 

William III. | Queen Mary II. 

George, Prince of Denmark ; au oval. 

Queen jUine, when Princess of Denmark. 

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborougli. 

John. Duke of Buckingham. 

Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset. 

Charles, Earl of Halifax. 

Arnold, Earl of .ilbemarle. 

■\Yilliam, Eavl of Jersey. 

Catherine, Duchess of Eutland. 

Frances Bennet, Countess of Salisbury. 

Mary Somerset, Duchiss of Ormond, with a black Loy. 

Henrietta, Duchess of Bolton. 

Sir Richard Steele. Joseph Addison. 

Alexander Pope. William Cougreve. 

John Locke. Sir Godfrey Kneller. 

Sir Chri.stopher Wren. 1713. 

Lord Euston ; whole length. 16S9. , ,. . . , 

His own portrait; from the picture m the >ational 
Gallery. „ , 

{All the above are after Kneller.) 

Queen Mary II. with a high head-dress ; after Van der 
Vaart. . 

James Fitzroy, Duke of Monmouth ; after « issing. 

Godfried Schalckeu ; after a picture /.y himself. 

Ch&vUsXn.; after Jf. Craft. 1701-2. 

■William, Duke of Gloucester, and Beuj. Bathurst ; ajt^r 
T. Murray. ^^ 


Thomas Murray, Pictor ; au oval. 

W. 'Wychei-ley ; aftei- Sir P. Lely. 

Gulielmus Cowper, Cliyrurgus ; after J. Closterman 

The Loves of the Gods, tea Plates ; after Titian, 

Venus standing in a Shell ; after Con'eijyio, 

Cupid and Psyche ; after A. Veronese. 

Tarquin aud Lucretia; after the same. 

Time conquering Love ; after S. Vouet. 

Venus aud Adonis ; after N. Foussin. 

The Virgin and infant Christ ; after F. Baroccio. 

The Holy Family ; after C. Jfaratti. 

A ■\Vomaa asleep near a Light ; after G. Schalcken. 

The Story of Actpeou, small figures ; after F. Utrciitt. 

M. Magdalene ; aftti' G. •Schalcken, 

The Angel and Tobit ; after Elskeimer. 

SMITH, John, known as Warwick Smith, wns 
born at Irtliington, CumberlaniJ, in 1749. He was 
one of tlie early draughtsmen in water-colours. He 
accompanied Lord Warwick to Italj', where he made 
sketches. His Italian drawings date from 1786 
to 1795, and sliow a vast development of style. 
Eight of them are in the Soutli Kensington Museum. 
He was President of the Water-Colour Society in 
1816. He died in London in 1831. 

SMITH, JoHK Chai.oner. This man was the 
greatest authority upon British mezzotints, and his 
important work, a lull list of plates up to 18'20, 
was issued between 1878 and 188-t in parts. He 
collected engravings of all kinds, and was par- 
ticularly successful in making pencil drawings of 
them in a book lie carried about in his pocket, as 
an aid to the purchase of fiuer examples than he 
happened to possess at the time. He was an 
Irishman, born in 1827 at Dublin, had considerable 
work in connection with the engineering of the 
Irish railways, and died in Ireland in 1895. 

SMITH, John Ormn, an English wood-engraver, 
born at Colchester in 1799. Intended for an archi- 
tect, he prefeixed engraving, and in 1824 became a 
pupil of W. Harvey. He was much employed in 
hook-illustration. He died in 1843. Amongst the 
works for which he made woodcuts were: 

The Keuuy-^[eadows Edi'.iou of Shakespeare. 

Pa:d aud Virgiuia. 1S35. 

Herder's ' Cid,' Stuttgart. 1S39. 

Scott's Bible. 

IjA Fontaine's Fables. 

Bcraager's Songs. 

The Solace of Song. 1S37. 
Cowper's Poems. ISll. 
Thu Arabian Xights. lS-11. 

SMITH, John EAriiAEr,, painter and mezzotint 
engraver, was the son of Thomas Smith of Derby, 
the landscape painter, and was born in the year 
175'2. He commenced life as a shopman in Derby, 
but came early to London. It is not known by 
whom he was taught mezzotint and crayon draw- 
ing, but he became eminent in both. His pilates 
only amount to about one hundred and fifty. He 
led a life of business and pleasure, the latter \ re- 
dominating, and he lost the advantages fortune 
placed in his way. He had a good heart, encouraged 
merit in others, assisted George Morland, made the 
world acquainted with Chantrey's abilities, gave his 
advice kindly and generously to all artists who 
consulted him, and was no man's enemj' but his 
own. At one time he travelled as an itinerant 
portrait painter ; he also painted figure subjects in 
a style between tliose of Morland and Wheatley. 
Among his pupils were William Hilton and Peter 
de Wint. For the last three years of Iiis life 
he resided at Doneaster, where he died in 1812, 
in his 60th year. Among Ids best plates are the 

The Duke of Devonshire. 

■William Markham, .\rchbishop of York. 

Richard Kobiuson, Archbishop of Armagh. 


Joseph Dean Bourke, Archbishop ol Tuam. 

Lady Beaumont. 

Lady Caroline Montague, daughter of the Duke c( 

?Jrs. Montague. 

The Marchioness of Thomond, when Miss Palmer. 
Lady Gertrude Fitzp.itrick, daughter of the Ear! ot 

Lady Catherine Pelhani Cliutou. 
JIaster Crewe, as Henry VXIl. 
Jlaster Herbert, as the yo'Uig Bacchus. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton. 
■ Mrs. Musters. 
Lieutenaut-Geueral Sir AVilliam Boothby. 
Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans (Egalite). 
The .Student. 
The Calling of Samuel. 

{TIte ahove are all after Reynolds.) 

Vice- Admiral Sir Hyde Parker ; after Northcote. 

Miss Coghlan ; after Gainsl'Oroui/h. 

Mrs. Siddous, as the Grecian Daughter; after Laicrcnce. 

Edw. \Vortley-Montagu, a-> au Oriental ; after Peters. 

Georgi' IV. uhen Prince of "Wales ; after Gainsborough. 

Iilarie- Antoinette, Queen of France. 

William, Duke ot Portland ; after West. 

Friedrich. Priui'e of Hesse-Cassel ; after Rusca. 

Admiral Lord Duncan ; after Danloux. 

JLartiu Rytkaert ; after Van Di/ck. 

Woodward, as Petruchio; after Van der Guckt. 

Four crayon portraits by Raphael Smith are in the 
South Kensington Museum. 

SMITH, John Rubens, painter, son of John 
Raphael Smith, was born on January i!3, 1775. 
From 1796 to 1811 he had forty-eight exhibits at 
the Royal Academy. Most of these are portraits, 
bit some are subject pictures or landscapes, such 
as ' Olivia's Return ' (1797) ; ' The slighted Maid,' 
from Shakespeare's 'Lover's Complaint ' (1799) ; 
and a ' View of Reculver, near Margate ' (180'2). 

SMITH, John Thomas, engraver and writer, was 
born in 1766. His father, Natlianiel, had been a 
pupil of Roubilliac, and had formed an earlj' friend- 
ship with the younger Nollekens. At the age of 
thirteen John Thomas Smith was introduced to 
the studio of Xollekens, to whom his father 
was then principal a.ssistant. Here he had much 
practice in drawing, and after three years became 
a stude^it of the Royal Academy. Having shown 
much ability by some drawings in imitation of 
Rembrandt and Ost.ade, he became the pupil of 
Sherwin the engraver. After leaving Sherwin he 
practised as a drawing-master, but in 1791 he coni- 
ni'-nced his first independent work, 'The Antiquities 
of London and its Environs,' which he completed in 
1800, the whole consisting of ninety-six plates in 
imperial quarto. He next published ' Antiquities 
of Westminster,' illustrated with two hundred and 
forty-six engravings from subjects the greater part 
of which no longer exist, to which he afterwards 
added a Supplement. These works were followed 
by ' Ancient Topography of London,' completed 
in 1815, which contains thirty-two plates boldly 
etched in a style like that of Piranesi. In 1816 
Smith was appointed Keeper of the Prints in the 
British Museum. In that situation he found leisure 
to publish ' Vagabondiana, or Anecdotes of Men- 
dicant Wanderers through the Streets of London,' 
which he illustrated with etchings of remarkable 
beggars and other notorieties. His last publication 
was 'Nollekens and his Times.' His ' Book for a 
Rainy Day ' appeared after his death. He died in 
London, after a short illnes.s, iu 1833. 

SMITH, JosEi'H Clahendon, water-colour painter 
and engraver, was born in London in 1778. His 
father, a builder, left his son without provision, and 


[From the mezzotint ajlev Romiiev 



the boy was accordingly sent to sea. After three 
j-ears' service lie gaiued admission to Christ's 
Hospital School to study navigation. Here lie 
showed an inclination for art, which led to his 
being apprenticed to an engraver, under whom he 
worked creditably, but afterwards meeting with 
little recognition he began to practise water- 
colour, and with more success. He exliibited 
topographical subjects at the Academy from 1806 
onwards. His best work as an engraver is to be 
found in Weld's ' Topography of Killarney.' At- 
tacked by lunu disease he was ordered to Madeira, 
and died on the return voyjge in August, 1810. 
Two examples of his work are at South Kensington. 

SMITH, RoPEur IIenrv Souen, a keeper of the 
Art Gallery at South Kensington, born in 18"J2, 
who for his ex'juisite drawing' of shells must be 
considered as an artist. His first profession was 
in connection with the College of Anns in Ireland ; 
but in 1868 he became Keeper of the National Art 
Library, and did very important work at South Ken- 
sington. He will be remembered for the admirable 
catalogue of books on art he compiled, and for tlie 
attention he gave to jewellery. He never married, 
and he never produced the book on sliells for which 
he was preparing during many years of his life. 
He died in 1890, after a somewhat serious operation. 

SMITH, Samuel, engraver, born in London about 
1745, practised in landscape, and completed some 
good plates, such as 'The Finding of Moses,' after 
Zuccarelli, and a 'Niobe,' after Wilson. 

SMITH, S.\MtJEL S., an English engraver, bom 
in 1810. lie worked much for the 'Art Journal.' 
He died at St. Juhn's Wood in 1879. Amongst his 
best plates are : 

The Carrara Family ; after Easttake. 

St. Agnes ; after Doitunichino. 

SMITH, Stephen Catterson, the President of 
the Hibernian Academy, born at Shipton, Yorks, in 
1806, the son of a coach-painter. He studied at 
the Roj'al Academy classes, and began to exhibit 
in 1838. He was called over to Ireland in 1840 
to paint the portraits of the Lord Lieutenant and 
of .Mr. Wingfield, and finding that there was 
considerable demand for portraiture in Ireland, 
he settled down in that country, and there spent 
the rest of his life. He was President of the 
Royal Hibernian Academy in 1859, and continued 
in office until 1864. Four years afterwards he 
was re-elected, but was ob!i'.,'ed to relinquish the 
position. He died (juite suddenly, May 31, 1872. 

Dublin. National GalUry. Portrait of himself. 

„ „ Portrait of W. Dargan. 

„ „ Portrait of Peter Purcel!. 

» „ Portrait of Sir Philip 


« „ Portrait of John, fourth Earl 

„ ,, of Bessborough. 

„ S^al Hibernian j p^^^^^j^ ^j ,,i^^^lf 

" "{■ ""vi"*?"" } Portrait of the jVrtist's Wife. 

"^■Ueckf^j. } Portrait of J. B. Leech, Esq. 

„ ilaiision House. Portrait of Queeu Victoria. 

„ City Hall. Portr.iit of Daniel O'Connell. 

„ Castle. Portraits of several Viceroys. 

Londou. South Kensinrjton. Portrait of Lord Duugamion. 

His wife was a successful miniature painter, and 
persuaded her husband to paint a few miniatures, 
which were somewhat remarkable for their breadth 
X)f treatment ai:d grand colouring. 

SMITH, Thomas, an ingenious English land- 
scape painter, wliu resided chiefly at Derby, and 
was usually styled Smith of Derby, to distinguish 
him from the other artist of the same name who 
practised at Chichester. Without the help of a 
master he reached an eminent rank in his profes- 
sion, and was one of the first of English artists to 
explore and display the charming scenery of his 
native country. He painted many picturesque 
views in the Peak ; forty of these, engraved 
by Vivares, were published, collectively, by Boy- 
dell in 1760. Other views were engraved by 
JIason and Elliot. Smith also painted some sport- 
ing subjects. He died at the Hot Wells, Bristol, 
in 1769. 

SMITH, Tuomas Correggio, miniature painter, 
the eldest son of Smith of Derby, was brought 
up to his father's profession, for which, how- 
ever, he seems to have had very little aptitude. 
He exhibited miniatures and small portrait draw- 
ings of a verj' mediocre stamp at the Academy 
from 1785-1788. He settled at Uttoxeter, where 
he died early in the 19th century. 

SMITH, Tom, engraver, was a pupil of Charles 
Grignon, and executed some plates jointly with C. 
White. He became independent of his profession 
through coming into a fortune. On this account 
he was known among his companions as ' Squire 
Smith.' He died of fever when still a young man, 
in 1785. 

SMITH, William, born at Guildford in 1707, 
devoted himself to portraiture, but later tried 
landscape, and afterwards fruit and flowers. He 
was the eldest brother of Smith of Chichester. 
He died at Shopwyke, near Chichester, in 1764. 

SMITH, W. Boase, was a striking painter of 
marine views and landscapes. He lived at Fal- 
mouth, was a member of the Society of Western 
Artists, and did much to encourage art in the west 
of England. For thirty years he exhibited in the 
art section of the Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 
and in later years acted as judge with H. S. Tuke. 
His principal works were exhibited at Birminghani, 
Manchester, and Liverpool, his favourite subjects 
being on the Gyllan river, and in the neighbour- 
hood of Helford. His pictures were a faithful 
interpretation of nature, rendered with sympathy 
and skill. Boase Smith died at Falmouth on 
January 24, 1896, at the age of fifty-four. Jr. H, 

SMITH, William Collixgwood, landscape- 
painter, was born at Greenwich in 1815. He was 
to a large degree self-taught, but received some 
instruction from J. !>. Harding. In 1830 he ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy an oil painting of 
the north aisle of Westminster Abbey, and con- 
tinued to exhibit there and at the British Institu- 
tion until 1843, when he was elected an Associate 
of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours. His 
earlier subjects as an Associate were marine pieces, 
but afterwards he travelled in France, Switzerland, 
and Italy, and exhibited landscape and architec- 
tural views. He \\ as a rapiii worker, and his draw- 
ings are marked by breadth of effect and firmness 
of touch, though they sometimes lack the subtler 
qualities of colour andform. In 1849 he became a 
full member of the Old Water-Colour Society, and 
from 1854 to 1879 was Treasurer. During the 
forty-five years of his connection with the Society 
he exhibited two thousand d.-awings, his last work 
being a view of ' Windsor from Datchet ' for a 
collection of drawings presented as a Jubilee gift 
to the Queeu. He died at his residence on Brixton 



Hill on March 15, 1887. A small collection of his 
works was exhibited in the following winter by the 
Water-Colour Society, and his remaining works 
were sold at Christie's in March 1888. Two of his 
drawings, 'The Otter's Haunt 'and 'Arundel Park, 
Sussex,' are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 


SMITS, Frans MARcns, a Flemish painter, born 
at Antwerp in 1760. In 1779 he was studj'ing at 
the Academy at Antwerp. He was also a pupil of 
A. de Quertemont. He died at the Hospital of 
S. Elizabeth in 1833, after a life of much privation 
and poverty. At Antwerp there is a portrait of 
the painter Herreyns by him. He also painted a 
good portrait of Onimeganck. 

SMITS, LuDOLF, (or Ludewtk,) called Hart- 
camp, was born at Dort in 1635, and acquired some 
reputation as a painter of flowers and fruit, but liis 
impasto was so thin that his works are now almost 
obliterated. He was still living at Dort in 1675. 

SMITS, Nicholas, a native of Breda, and born 
about the year 1672, is mentioned as a good 
painter of historical subjects. It is said that he 
died in 1731, but the Dutch writers seem to know 
little or nothing of his history. His works are 

SMITZ, Caspar, (Smits,) a Dutch painter, who 
came to England soon after the Restoration, and 
who, from painting a great number of JIngdalenes, 
was called ' Magdalene Smith.' He visited Ireland, 
where he painted small portraits in oil, at high 
prices. His flower and fruit pieces were good. 
In his Magdalenes he generally introduced a 
thistle in the fore-ground. He died poor at Dublin 
in 1707. He engraved three mezzotints, a portrait, 
a ' Magdalene in a Grotto,' and a ' Hagar in the 

SMUGLEWICZ, LuciAN, painter, flourished at 
the end of the 18th century at Warsaw. He painted 
some frescoes in the Castle and Dominican Church 
at Lancut, in Galicia. He was the pupil of his 
father, one Lucas Smuolewicz. 

S.MYTERS, (or De Smytere.) See De Hkere. 

SMYTH, John Talfourd, engraver, born at 
Edinburgh in 1819, studied under Sir W. Allan 
and at the Trustees' Academy, though h • was 
chiefly self taught. In 1838 he went to Glasgow, 
but returned to Edinburgh, where he died in 1851. 
His chief engravings are : 

Knox distributing the Lord's Supper ; ftfifr TT'ilkU. 
Tartars dividing their Booty ; after Allan. 
The Last in ; after Mulready. 

SNAPHAAN. See Schnaphan. 

SNAYERS, Hendrik, (SNYERS,) a Flemish 
engraver, born at Antwerp about the year 1612. It 
is not ascertained from whom he learned his art of 
engraving, but he imitated the style of Scheltius k 
Bolswert with considerable success. His drawing 
is tolerably correct, and his prints exhibit much 
of the character of the masters after whom he 
worked. We have, among others, by him. 

Portrait of Prince Rupert ; after Vandyck. 

Adam Van Noort ; after jordaens. 

The "Virgin seated upon a step, surrounded bj several 

Saints ; after JHiihens. 
The Fathers of the Church ; after the same. 
The Death of St. Francis ; after the same. 

He also engraved some plates from Titian and 
other masters, and a few portraits. He signed his 
engravings Heinrich Snyers and H. Snyers. 

SNAYERS, PlETER, born at Antwerp in 1593, 
was a scholar of Sebastian Vrancx. Although 


he painted history and portraits with considerable 
success, he distinguished h'mself more by his 
battles and landscapes. He was patronized by the 
Archduke Albert, who appointed him his painter, 
and sent several of his pictures to Spain ; which 
brought him many commissions from the Spauish 
court. Yandyck painted the portrait of Snayers 
among the eminent artists of his time. He was 
still living in 1669. There are pictures by him i:i 
many public Galleries, including sixteen at Madrid. 
Tliere is a good 'Cavalry Skirmish' at Dulwich, 
and a fine ' Battle of the Forty ' at Hampton Court. 

SNELLAERT, Jan, a Fleudsh painter of the 
15th century, who is recorded as working in Ant- 
werp from 1453 to 1480, and who is discovered, by 
recent researches, to have received the freedom of 
the city in 1484. He is looked upon as the founder 
of the Antwerp school, and must have been a 
painter of considerable distinction, to judge from 
the prominent position he took in civic and artistic 
matters. He was appointed painter to Mary of 
Burgundy, and Kramm surmises that he m:iy have 
been the author of the paintings in the ancient 
chapel of the Dukes of Burgundj' at Antwerp. 
Jointly with his friend Jan Scoermoke, he was the 
lirst Dean of St. Luke, at Antwerp. 

SNELLAERT, Nicholas, son of Willem, born 
at Courtrai about 1540. In May 1586 migrated 
to Dordrecht; there admitted to Guild of St. Luke, 
May 31, 1588, married Eneken van Spertsenberg 
of Antwerp ; died 1602. 

SNELLAERT, Willeji, a Flemish painter, who 
flourished at Courtrai about 1560, and is mentioned 
by Van Mander as the first master of Pieter VIerick. 

at Mechlin in 1544, according to his epitaph. It is 
not know]i by whom he wms taught, but Karel 
van Mander, iu the ' Life of Otho Venius,' calls him 
an eminent painter of history and battles. There 
are some historical pictures by him in the Belgian 
public buildings, which prove him to have pos- 
sessed a considerable gift for ' high art.' His best 
works, however, were skirmishes and attacks of 
cavalry. He lived at Antwerp, where he was 
much employed, and was appointed court-painter 
to Albert and Isabella, the governors of the Nether- 
lands. His battle-pieces are well grouped, the 
figures and horses correctly designed, and the 
fury of the combatants fully expressed. The 
talents of Snellinck were appreciated by Van- 
dyck, who painted and etched his portrait among 
the distinguished artists of his tine. Snellinck 
worked much as a designer of patte.-ns for the 
fictories of Oudenarde. He was twice married, 
and of his numerous sons no fewer than five were 
painters, viz. Jan, born 1575 ; Daniel, bom 
1576; Gerard, born 1577; Andries, born 1587; 
Adraham, born 1597. Snellinck died at Antwerp 
iu 1638. Works: 
MechUn. ^''■ff \ The Eesurrection. 

CathSfe[' ] ^^='=^°* °^ t""^ ^"'y ^^°^^- 
Oudenarde. Ch.of Si. | ^j^ Transfiguration. 
Ivallurga.^ ° 

Ch. of Notre ) creation of Adam. 
Dame. J 

SNELLING, Matthew, portrait and miniature 
painter, practised in the reign of Charles II., paint- 
ing heads, chiefly of ladies. There is a portrait 
by him at the College of Physicians, and a portrait 
of Charles I., dated 1647, was exhibited at South 
Kensington in the Loan Collection of 1862. 



SNELLKG, Thomas. Many of tlie illustrations 
in the important works on silver and gold coinage 
issued by this eminent coin-dealer were his own 
work, and he also designed one or two medals, one 
of which was his own portrait engraved by Pingo. 
He should, therefore, receive some attention. He 
was born in 1712, lived all his life in Fleet Street, 
was a great friend of William Hunter the anato- 
mist, published some of the most important works 
on coins and tokens that have ever been issued, 
and died in 1773. 

SNELLIXKS, J., a Dutch p:iinter, who practised 
in the manner of F. iloucheron, painting landscapes 
with figures. He died at Rotterdam in 1691. 

SNIP. See Terwestex, Adgustixos. 

SNUFFELAER. See Scheieck. 

SNYDERS, Franz, painter, born at Antwerp in 
1579, received his first instruction from Hendrik 
van Balen and P. Brueghel. For some time Le 
confined himself to painting still-life, in which he 
excelled ; but he afterwards devoted his studies to 
a more difficult branch of art, in which lie won 
a unique celebrity. He painted animals and hunts 
with surprising fire and spirit. The talents of 
Snydors excited the admiration of Rubens, who 
frequently intrusted him to paint the animals, fruit, 
&c.,in his pictures, although he could do them so 
well himself. Snyders is said to have travelled in 
Italy, though others assert that he never left 
Flanders, but constantly resided at Antwerp, ex- 
cept fur a short time, when he was invited to 
Brussels by the Archduke Albert. For liira he 
painted some of his finest works, particularly a 
stag-hunt, which was sent by the Archduke to 
Philip III. of Spain, who coramissioued Snjders 
to paint several large hunting pictures, and com- 
bats of wild beasts, which are still in the old 
palace uf Buen-Retiro. He also excelled in painting 
kitchens and larders stored with game, fish, fruit, 
vegetables, &c., which are occasionally provided 
with figures by Rubens and Jordaens. Vandyck 
painted Snyders more tlian once. One example is 
at Castle Howard. Snyders died at Antwerp in 
1657. His pictures are very numerous. The fol- 
lowing are good and accessible examples : 

Antwerp. JIusiuni. Swans ami Dogs. 

Berlin. ., The Cock Fight. 

Dresden, Gallery, Kitchen, with portraits of 

Rubens and his Wife, by 
EJinburgh. Xat. Gallery. A Wolf Hunt. 

„ „ Mischevous Monkeys. {And 

ttco more,) 
Florence. rj!:n. A Eoar Hunt. 

i Hampton Court. A Boar Hunt. {And three 

t more,) 

I Madrid. Museum. Tweuty-one pictures of hunts, 

ilunich. r ::al-otltek. Int-. rior of a Kitchen. 

n „ A Boar Hunt. 

>i „ A Lioness killing a Wild Boar. 

Paris. Louvre. A St.ig Hunt. 

» ,, Paradise. 

M „ Animals going into the Ark. 

» „ A Boar Hunt. 

The Hague. JIuseiim. Stag Hunt. (Landscape by 
n „ Kitchen, with game and vege- 

tables. {Figures by liuben:^,) 

SNYERS, PiETER, born at Antwerp in 16S1, 
stjjdied his art under Alexander van Bredael. In 
17'J7 he was free of the Guild of S. Luke, and was 
ifterwards president of the Antwerp Academy. He 
is reported to have visited London, and to" have 
j)ainted portraits of various members of the 
VOL. 7. H 

nobility. A ' Rocky Landscape ' in the Antwerp 
Museum is one of his best works. Besides land- 
scapes and portraits he also painted flower-pieces 
with mnch skill. He died in 1752. 

SXYERS, PiETEB Jan, the nephew of Pieter 
Snyers, was born at Antwerp in 1696, and was 
instructed by his uncle, but when only twenty-five 
years old abandoned his profession. His works 
are consequently very scarce. His subjects were 
hunting-scenes, and he excelled in those of small 
size. He died in 1757. 

SOANE, Sir John. The Soane Museum in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields is the memorial of this 
remarkable architect, a man of the most extra- 
ordinary ideas, afHicted with eccentricity and with 
a very irritable temper. He was a Berkshire man, 
bom in 1763, his name originally being Swan. He 
changed it to Soan, and later on added an " e" to 
it. He was a pupil of George Dance and of Henry 
Holland, and in 1788 became architect to the Bank 
of England, the greater part of which he rebuilt. 
He became exceedingly wealthy through his wife, 
and was a great collector of pictures, gems, 
j manuscripts, and books. His architectural draw- 
I in:;s are marked not only by considerable know- 
ledge of classical work, but by an overpowering 
desire to use ornamentation. He bequeathed his 
house with its entire contents to the nation, fetter- 
ing the bequest with many strange regulations, 
quarrelled with both his children, and the only 
excuse he gave for refusing a baronetcy which 
was offered liira on account of his public work 
was his detennination that his son should never 
possess it He hid away some of his property in 
various places, lea\-ing instructions for his papers 
I to be examined at different distinct intervals after 
his death, many years occurring between each 
interval, and he left away from his sons all that 
he could dispose of. A great part of his fortune 
came to his j,randchildren, but a considerable part 
of his property has never been properly accounted 
for, and is thought to be still fettered by some of 
his eccentric rf gulations. He died in 1837. 
SOBLEO. See Desubleo. 
SOBRINO, Dona Cecilia, nee Morillas, bom 
1638, carved in wood, and painted ; she was par- 
ticularly skilful in tb.e execution of globes and 
maps. She is said to have had a thorough know- 
ledge of Greek, Latin, and Italian, and to have been 
well versed in various branches of science. She 
had a son and a daughter who devoted themselves 
to art, Josi and Cecilia. The latter was a Car- 
melite nun at Valladulid, where many of her 
paintings are still to be found, and died April 7, 
1646. Her mother died at Madrid, October 21, 

SOCRATES, a Greek painter, mentioned by 
Pliny na a disciple of Pausias. 

s6d.4R, Franz, French painter; bora in 1827 
at Dinant ; his early studies were perfected by 
lengthy travel ; and after working at historical 
and genre subjects Lis profoundly religious tem- 
perament caused him to choose sacred art as his 
sole means of expression. He paid visits to various 
holy places, and finally settled at Assisi. From 
Pope Leo XIIL he received the gold medal for 
Christian art. He died at Assisi, in January 1900. 
SODERMARK, Johan Per, Swedish painter; 
born June 3, 1822, at Stockholm ; studied at the 
Stockholm Academy. He was at first a soldier, 
but accompanied his father to Italy in 1845, and 
after study at the Diisseldorf Academy he became 



a pnpil of Couture in Paria. He painted military 
and historical subjects besides portraits ; was 
elected a member of the Stockholm Academy in 
1874. He died at Stockholm in September 1889. 

SODERMARK, Olaf Johan, painter, was bom 
at Stockholm in 1790. He was an officer in the 
Swedish Army, and served in several campaigns 
before lie decided upon an art career. In 1819 lie 
left the army, and later went to Munich to study, 
and eventually to Rome. He was a successful 
portraitist, and also painted many pleasing genre 
pictures. In the Stockholm Galle'ry there are two 
pictures by him, a bust portrait of the German 
artist, Franz Riepenliausen, and a study of an 
Italian girl, ' La Grazia.' His last work was a 
portrait of Jenny Lind. He died in 1848. 

SODERLVI, Mauro, painter, practised at Flo- 
rence in the 18th ceiitiir3'. He was a pupil of 
Giovanni dal Sole. In the church of San Stefano 
at Florence there is by him a ' Raising of a Dead 
Child bv S. Zanobio.' 

SODOMA, II. See Bazzi. 

SOEXS, Jan, born at Bois le Due about the 
year 1553, was first instructed by Jakob Boon, 
but afterwards became a scholar of Gillis Moes- 
taert Under that master he made great progress, 
and was considered one of the most promising 
young artists of his time. He travelled to Italj', 
where he was emplo3-ed by the Pope, and by 
several of the Roman nobility, in the embellish- 
ment of their palaces. He passed some time at 
Parma, in the service of the duke. His manner 
was animated, and the figures he introduced into 
Lis landscapes were well drawn and handled. He 
died at Parma in 1611. 

SOEREXSEN, Carl Frederik, Danish painter ; 
bom February 8, 1818, at Besserby, near Copen- 
hagen ; studied at the Copenhagen Acjdemy. In 
1846, and repeatedly, he went for long voyages on 
board Danish ships of war, and he also travelled 
in Germany, England, France, and Italy. In 1869 
he was appointed Professor. His 'An der Kiiste 
von Jutland' and ' Islandische Kiiste' are in the 
Copenhagen Gallery, while the Stockholm and 
Christiania Art Galleries contain examples of his 
work. He died at Copenhagen, January 24, 1879. 

SOEST, or ZOEST, Ge.^ard, a native of West- 
phalia, was born early in the 17th century. He 
visited England some time before the Restoration, 
with an established reputation as a portrait puinter. 
His heads are animated, in bold relief, yet highly 
finished. His draperies were usually of satin, in 
the manner of Terburg ; but he enlarged his style 
on seeing the works of Vandyck. He was more 
successful in his portraits of men than women. 
He executed a portrait of the Lord Mayor Sheldon 
and Dr. John Wallis. He died in London in 1681. 

SOEST, Jarens vox. See Jarenus. 


SOGGI, NiccoLO, painter, born at Florence in 
1480, was a disciple of Pietro Perugino. He 
painted in the style of his instructor. His chief 
residence was at Arezzo, where some of his works 
are preserved in the churches. In La Madonna 
delle Lagrime a ' Nativity ' represents him fairly. 
In 1550 he was at Rome, and working for the 
Pope. He died at Arezzo in 1554. 

SOGLIANI, Giovanni Antonio, painter, born at 
Florence in 1492, was a pupil of Lorenzo di Credi, 
whose style he imitated, as may be seen in his 
' Burial of Christ,' in the Berlin Museum. He also 
copied the manner of Fra Bartolommeo, notably in 


a ' Miraculous Conception,' with Saints, formerly in 
Santa Maria Nuova, Florence. One of his earliest 
works was a ' S. Martino,' in Or San Michele, 
Florence. In 1521 he painted the ' Martyrdom 
of S. Arcadius,' in S. Lorenzo. It is a good study 
of the nude, but with no originality. In conjunc- 
tion with Andrea del Sarto and Sodoma, he painted 
a series of subjects behind the high altar of the 
Pisan duomo. At Florence there are several 
Madonnas by Sogliani in the Accademia ; a St. 
Catherine in the Torrigiani Collection ; also a 
' Christ Washing the Apostles' Feet,' in S. M. del 
Posso, Anghiari. Ho died at Florence in 1544. 

SOGLIARI, II. See Gatti. 

SOGNI, GiusErrE, an Italian painter, bom in 
1797. He studied at the Brera, in Milan, under 
Pacetti and Sabatelli, and went to Rome for further 
instruction in 1830. He was a member of the 
Milan Academy, and held the post of Professor at 
Bologna from 1834 to 1839, and from 1839 at the 
Brera. He occasionally painted portraits, but 
devoted himself chiefly to historical pictures, the 
best known of which are the following : 

Columbus Embarking at Pales. (1829.) 

The Death of Raphael. 

The Kape of the Sabiaes. (1831.) 

Susannah. | Adam and Eve. 

Return of the Milanese after Leguano. (1837.) 

Last Hours of Beatrice Ceuci. 

Frescoes in S. Pietro al Eosario, Novara. 

In the Milan Hospital there are portraits of various 
benefactore by him. 

SOHN, Kai'.l Ferdinand, historical and portrait 
painter, born at Berlin in 1805, studied first at the 
Berlin Academy, and then in the private ateUer of 
W. Schadow, whom he accomp.anied to Diisseldorf 
in 1826. After a visit to the Netherlands, he went 
in 1830 to Italy. In 1832 he was appointed teacher, 
and in 1838 professor at the Diisseldorf Academy. 
He was an excellent portrait painter, especially of 
women ; the best of his portraits being that of the 
Countess Monti, now in the Wallraf Museum, 
Cologne. He was also particularly successful as 
a painter of the nude. Of his pictures we may 
name : 

Diana in the Bath. 

The Judgment of Paris 

The Sisters. 

Girl playing the Lute. 

Hylas seized by Water Nymphs, 

Rinaldo and Armida. 

Portrait of a Young Lady. 

The Two Leonoras. 
Komeo and Juliet. 

{Berlin GaUei-y.) 




He died at Cologne in 1867. 

SOIGNIE, Jacques JoAcniM de, painter, born 
at Mons, 1720, studied in Paris, and practised for 
a time at Lyons. He finally settled in his native 
town, where, in the JMuseum, an 'Annunciation,' 
an ' Adoration of the Shepherds,' ' Episodes in llie 
Life of Madame de Chaiital,' and other works of his, 
are to be seen. He died in 1783. 

SOITZ, G. C, a German engraver, who flourished 
about the year 15.30. He executed some of the 
portraits for the ' Templum Honoris,' published at 
Vienna in the above-mentioned year. 

SOIUS, Philippe. See Soye. 

SOJARO, II. See Gatti. 

SOKOLOFF, Peter, painter, flourished at St. 
Petersburg in the 18th century. He studied in Rome 
under Battoni, and painted historical and mytho- 
logical subjects. He was assistant professor at the 
Academy at St. Petersburg, where he died in 1791. 

SOKOLOW, Peter Petrovitsch, Russian 
painter ; born in 1821 ; a member of the St. 


Hmijstiiml photo] 

[Xiihoiia! Gallny 



Petersburg Academy, and well known throughout 
Russia as a genre painter of distinction. Among 
his works we may mention : ' Landkutsclie,' 
' Dorfbegrabniss,' ' Reise im Winter,' and ' Der 
Betrunkene.' He obtained a Paris gold medal in 
1889. He died in November 1899. 

SOLARIO, Andrea, born circa 1460, died circa 
1530. " To M. Ottone Mundler," says Morelli, " be- 
longs the credit of throwing light on the character 
of this artist." The same author, in his ' Delia Pit- 
tura Italiaua,' published in 1897, further remarks : 
" On account of the disagreement between existing 
writers concerning the most important artist of the 
Lombardo-Milanese School, I permit myself to 
speak of him at some length.'' This disagreement 
referred to by Jlorelli is amply borne out by a 
perusal of the various Dictionaries of Art. Andrea 
Solario, Salario, Andrea Mediolensis, of Milan, 
del Gobbo, or Gobbo of Milan, has been 
confused with another Milanese artist, Andrea 
Salai. He has been called a pupil of Leonardo or of 
Gaudenzio Ferrari. Burckhardt, in the ' Cicerone,' 
speaks of the influence of Mantegna in his earlier ; 
of Luini in his later works. The date of his 
birth is variously stated, as is also the place of his 
decease. The most disputed point, however, con- 
cerns his visit to Naples, said by Calvi to have 
taken place about 1513, in company with Andrea da 
Salerno (Andrea del Sirto ?), upon which occasion 
he received a commission to paint eighteen scenes 
from the life of St. Benedict for the convent of 
San Severino. and a ' Descent from the Cross ' for 
the church of S. Domenico Maggiore. In the face 
of such conflicting testimony, that of Signer Morelli 
has the advantage of being recent and concise. 
The family of this artist, which comprised among 
its members more than one architect and sculptor, 
came from the villige of Solaro in the Province of 
Corao, and settled at Milan in the hrst half of the 
fifteenth century. Here Andrea was born about 
1460. On the pictures painted during his absence 
from his native city he signs himself Andrea 
Mediolensis ; the nickname Gobbo was given to 
his brother Cristoforo, the sculptor, by reason of 
his deformity ; and he, many years older than 
Andrea, appears to have stood in loco parentis 
to the subject of this narrative. The superb 
modelling of the heads in Andrea's pictures (in 
which respect he more nearly than any other 
Lombard master approaches the standard of Leo- 
nardo) is probably due to his early training, and 
it is curious that with this sculpturesque style his 
rendering of "hands" should be inferior to that 
of many of his contemporaries. His earliest known 
works, the 'Madonnas' in the Brera and Poldi 
Pezzoli Collections at Jlilan, bear the impress of 
Milanese influence, probably that of Bartolommeo 
Suardi called Tl Bramantino. The two single 
figures of saints in the last-named collection, 
though belonging also to his early period, differ 
considerably in style, for ' St. Catharine ' is Lom- 
bard, 'St. John' Leonardesque. In the year 1490 
the brothers travelled to Venice, and there, under 
the influence of Giovanni Bellini and Antonello da 
Messina, Andrea painted the flne 'Portrait of a 
Venetian Senator,' hitherto regarded as the work 
of one of these elder artists (S^at. Gall., London). 
About three years later, Cristoforo and Andrea 
returned to Milan, and the altar-piece for St. Pietro 
Martire at Murano, given by Eugene Beauharnais 
to the Brera, was probably painted during a second 
Tisit to the city of the Lagoons. The subject of 
E 3 

this picture is the ' Virgin between St. Joseph and 
St. Jerome,' and the style has given rise to much 
controversy. Crowe and Cavalcaselle see in it 
the influence of the Florentine School of Andrea 
Verrocchio, and compare the landscape in the 
background with those of Previtali, a Bergamasque 
painter, at that time fifteen years of age. Signor 
Morelli, on the other hand, is of opinion that the 
general characteristics are Leonardesque, and that 
the Madonna resembles those of BoltrafRo. Mr. 
Berenson describes it as based on the study of 
Alvise Vivarini, in which opinion he is supported 
by other art critics of the modern school. It 
would therefore appear that Florentine, Lombard, 
Milanese, and Venetian influences united to form 
this artist's style, whilst in some of his later pic- 
tures that of the Flemish School of Antwerp is 
strikingly apparent. Three portraits — that of a 
lady, in the possession of the Miirchese d'Adda 
(Milan), of a Milanese gentleman, Giovanni Chris- 
toforo Longono (Nat. Gall., London), and of Charles 
d'Araboise (Louvre) — were probably painted be- 
tween the years 1503 and 1505. This last-named 
picture, attributed to Solario, was once supposed to 
be Louis XII., but the assumption that it represents 
Charles d'Amboise, at one time French lieutenant 
at Milan, is confirmed by the landscape, a range of 
snowy Alps, as seen from that city. This picture 
is very delicately executed, but the surface has 
been destroj-ed by a heavy coat of varnish. On 
the recommendation of Charles de Chaumont, or 
Ciamonte, as he was called in Italy, Andrea Solario 
received an important commission from Cardinal 
Georges d'Amboise, a wealthy and ambitious eccle- 
siastic. This was the decoration of a chapel in 
the Chateau Gaillon, destroyed in the Revolution 
of 1793. The Cardinal had endeavoured to secure 
the services of Leonardo, hut the latter, immersed 
in hydraulic experiments and the fortification of 
Milan, refused his offer. So highly was the work 
of Italian artists appreciated in France, that Andrea 
and his assistant received for the expenses of their 
journey seventy crowns, and for a ye:ir's wages 
three hundred and seventy livres, while the French 
workers were only paid four sous a day. Whether 
Solario lingered on in France after the completion 
of his labours at the Chateau Gaillon is unknown, but 
the ' Madonna of the Green Cushion ' (Louvre) was 
probably painted at this time. It has been sug- 
gested that he may then have paid a visit to 
Antwerp, and thus come under that Flemish in- 
fluence which is so strongly marked in such pictures 
as 'Christ carrj-ing the Cross' (Borghese Palace), 
the ' Repose in Egypt,' and the ' Ecce Ilnmo,' 
both in the Poldi Pezzoli Collection (ililan). 
About the year 1515 he received a commission to 
paint the 'Assumption of the Virgin' as an altar- 
piece for the new Sacristy at the Certosa of Pavia. 
He died, leaving it unfinished, and the work is 
said to have been completed and restored by 
Bernardino Campi in 1576. Three other portraits 
at Milan may with some degree of certainty he 
attributed to Andrea Solario : ' Cesar« Borgia,' in 
the Casa Castel Parco, styled a Raphael ; ' Cancel- 
Here Morone,' in the possession of the Duca Scotti, 
hitherto given to Leonardo ; and the equestrian 
portraitof 'Mas3imilianoSforza,'in the Casa Perego. 
This last was in bad condition, bi;t has been care- 
fully restored. There are some drawings by this 
artist in the Ambrosiana at Milan, and at Venice 
is the pen-and-ink sketch for the ' Assumption ' 
at Pavia, taken apparently from a design by his 



brother Crietoforo. Besides the important ques- 
tion as to whether Andrea Solario executed those 
frescoes at Naples, described as " belonging to the 
close of the fifteenth century, and aB showing 
Venetian and Ferrarese influence," another dis- 
puted point concerning this artist is at present 
before the world, with respect to a 'Madonna' in 
the possession of Mr. Asher Wertheiraer. This 
picture, tliough possessing the recognized charac- 
teristics of Andrea Solario, and having moreover a 
certain resemblance to a painting of the same sub- 
ject in the Brera, has on it a signature, apparently 
genuine, Antonius di Solario Venetus jnnx. 
Bergamo. Gallery. Ecce Homo. 

Brescia. Gallery. Cnrist bearing His Cross. 

„ „ Mouk adoring Clirist. 

London. National Gall. Portrait of Gio%-anni Christo- 
foro Longono. 

„ „ Portrait of a Venetian Senator. 

„ Exors. of Wick- ) gj_ ^ Magdalen. 
nam l* lower. ) 

„ Earl of NoHh-\y-^^^^ ^^j child. 

„ Rev.W. H. I Virgin and Guild. 

II ayne. j " 
,, A. Wcrthei'mer. Madonna and Child. 
Milan. Brera. Madonna. 

„ „ The Redeemer. 

„ „ Virgin between St. Joseph and 

St. Jerome. (Signed and 
dated 1495.) 
„ Foldi Pczzoli. St. Catharine. 

,, „ St. John tlie Baptist. 

Virgin, Infant, and St. Joseph. 

,1 „ A Kiposo. (Dated 1515; his 

last known work.) 

Paris. Lou vre. The Virgin of the Green Pillow. 

^ „ Portrait of Charles d'Amboise. 

„ The Crucifixion. 

„ „ TheHeadof St.JohntheBaptist. 

Pavia. Ccrtosa. Altar-piece— The Assumption. 

Peters- Leuchtenlurg \ Virgin and Child with the infant 
Gallery, j !*t. John. 
Borahtse. Christ on the way to Calvary. 
* A. W. 


SOLARIO, Antonio da, called Lo Zingaro, 
painter, was born about 1382, either at Venice, or 
at Civita di Penna, near Chieti, or according to 
Dominici, at Abnizzo, where, like Quentin Jletsys, 
he followed the trade of a blacksmith till he was 
seventeen, when he fell in love witli a daughter of 
Colaiitonio del Fiore, and became a painter in order 
to win her affections. He became a pupil of Lippo 
Dalmasii in Bologna, and then visited the princi- 
pal cities of Italy, studying under Vivarini in 
Venice, Bicci in Florence, Galassi in Ferrara, and 
the works of the old masters in Rome. He after- 
wards returned to Naples, married the lady of his 
choice, and distinguished himself as a painter. 
Among his best works are twenty frescoes in a 
court of the convent of San Severino, Naples, from 
the life of S. Benedict. A 'Madonna with Saints,' 
in the Museum, an 'Ascension of Christ, with 
Saints,' in the church of Jlonte Oiiveto, and the 
following pictures in galleries, may also be 
named : 

Dresden. Gallery. Portrait of a Young Priuce. 

„ „ Portrait of a Youug Priucess. 

(Prohahly the portraits of Alpkonso 1'., King of Arragon, 
Sicily, and Naples, and of Joanna 11., Queen of Naples.) 

Munich. rinakothek. S. Ambrose in Episcopal Dress. 

„ ,, S. Louis, Bisliop of Toulouse. 

Naples. Museum. Madouna with Saints. 

„ Monte Oiiveto. Ascension of Christ. 

P.-uis. Louvre. A Madonna. 

Solario died at Naples in 1455. 


SOLDI, Andrea, portrait and history painter, 
was born at Florence about 1682. After a visit 
to the Holy Land, he came to England, about 
1735. He was a good draughtsman, and found 
considerable employment as a portrait painter, but 
was very thriftless. He died soon after 1766. 

SOLE, DAL. See Dal Sole. 

SOLEMACKEK, J Frans, (Soolemakeb,) a 

landscape and cattle painter, of whom little is 
known. He lived at the same time as Wynants, 
Buisdael, and Berchem. It is supposed that he 
was a puiiil of the last, but of that tliere is no 
proof. He inritated Berchem in the grouping and 
forms of his cattle ; but in handling he was with- 
out the freedom of that master ; his shadows are 
black, and the general appearance of his pictures 
heavy. He painted cows, sheep, and goafs better 
than horses. His pictures are generally of small 
dimensions, always on panel, and a good specimen 
may be a locum tenens for a Berchem. There is a 
good example of his art in the Hague Museum. 

SOLERI, GloiiGio, painter and sculptor, and a 
nativeof Alessandria, flourished in the 16th century. 
He was probably a disciple of Bernardino Lanini, 
whose daughter he married, though he did not 
adopt his style. He worked at the Escurial for 
Philip II. of Spain. As a painler of portraits he 
holds a respectable position. An altar-piece, in the 
church of Alessandria, represent- 
ing the Virgin, to whom SS. Augustine and Francis 
are recommending the city of Alessandria ; and a 
S. Lorenzo kneeling before the Virgin, with a 
group of three Angels, in the church of the 
Domenicani, at Casale, which is signed with his 
name, and dated 1573, are his chief works as a 
painter of religious subjects. Soleri died in 1587. 

SOLFAROLO, II. See Tavella. 

SOLIMENA, Francesco, (Solimene,) called 
l' Abate Ciccio, was born at Nocera de Pagani, a 
small town about eighteen miles distant from 
Naples, in 1657. He was the son of Angelo 
SoLIMENA, an obscure painter, who had been a 
disciple of Cavaliere Massimo. Angelo had his 
son instructed in classical learning, and the boy 
is said to have often passed whole nights in the 
study of poetry and pliilosophy. In spite of this 
assiduous application he managed to cultivate his 
talent for art, and Cardinal Orsini, afterwards 
Pope Benedict XIII., happening to pass through 
Nocera, saw his designs, and persuaded his father 
to indulge his son's inclination. After studying two 
years under his father he went to Naples in 1674, 
where he first became a disciple of Francesco di 
Maria, but left that master to enter tlie school of 
Giacomo del Po. He afterwards went to Rome, 
where the works of Pietro da Cortona, Lanfranco, 
II Calabrese, Guido, and Carlo JIaratti were his 
models. Among his best works are a series of 
frescoes in S. Paolo JIaggiore, others at Naples 
and Monte Cassino, and the ' Last Supper,' in the 
refectory of the Conventuali at Assisi. In 1702 
he was commissioned by Philip V. of Spain to 
paint some pictures for the Royal Chapel at Madrid. 
He was the friend of Luca Giordano, and formed 
many scholars, among whom the best known are. 
Seb. Conca, C. Giaquinto, N. M. Rossi, S. Capella, 
and F. di JIura. Solimena was also a poet and 
musician. He died at Naples in 1747. 

Dresden Gallery. Death of S. Francis. 

„ „ Abduction of Hippodamia. 

j5 ,, Paris, Juno, and Iris. 

., „ Sophonisba, &c. 



," TTj^Tt^e-*- 


-*?•/' - 



Bngi photo] 

[Bifva Gallery, Milan 



Florence. Vffizi . His own Portrait. 

„ „ Diana at the Bath. 

Genoa. Due. Pal, Triumph of Mordecai. 

Madrid. Museum., The Brazen Serpent, 

., „ Prometheus. 

Milan. Brera. Meeting of a King and Pope. 

„ „ Establishment of a Religious 

Naples "S. Paolo. Conver.sion of S. Paul. 

„ „ Fall of Simon Magus. 

„ Gesit Nucno. Heliodorus driven from tho 

Paris. Louvre. The same Subject. 

Eome. CorsUii. Entry of Christ into Jerusalem. 

,v ,t S. John the Baptist. 

Vienna. Gallery. Cephalus and Aurora, and 

several others. 

SOLIS, Francisco de, a Spanish painter, born 
at Madrid in 1629, was instructed in art by his 
father, Juan de Solis, a little-known painter. 
Intended at first for the Church, lie wag led to take 
up art in earnest by the success of a picture painted 
in his eighteenth year, which attracted the notice 
of Philip IV., who directed him to put his name 
and age upon it. This brought him into public 
favour, and he obtained much employment. When 
Queen Louisa of Orleans made her solemn entry 
into Madrid, he contributed a series of paintings 
representing the labours o£ Hercules to the decora- 
tion of the city ; but tlie work which established 
his reputation was an ' Immaculate Conception of 
the Virgin, with the Dragon at her Feet.' For many 
years De Solis held an academy in his house, 
to which all young artists were admitted free 
of expense, to draw from the living model. He 
wrote an account of the lives of Spanish painters, 
sculptors, and architects, and even engraved several 
of their portraits, which he intended to publish, 
but was prevented by death. This manuscript is 
now lost. He died at JIadrid in 1684. He left 
an enormous collection of books, prints, and draw- 
ings, which he intended to bequeath to the Spanish 
nation, but as he never executed the necessary 
deeds all his treasures had to be sold. 

SOLIS, NiCLAS, engraver of the 16th century, a 
son or brother of Virgil Solis, published fifteen pi ates 
representing the Marriage Festivities of Duke 
William V. of Bavaria and the Duchess Renata of 
Lorraine in 1568. 

SOLIS, Virgil, a German engraver, bom at 
Nuremberg in 1514. He engraved both on wood 
and on copper, chiefly from his own designs. The 
copper-plates worked in the early part of his life 
resemble those of Hans Sebald Behani, but when he 
afterwards engraved after the Italian masters, he 
adopted a style more open and spirited. His 
woodcuts are similar to those of Jost Ammon, 
with respect both to composition and execution. 
His works prove him to have been a man of 
ability, though his design is formal and stiff. 
He has been sometimes called a little master. 
His prints are very numerous, amounting to 
upwards of eight hundred. He usually marked 
them with a cipher composed of a V. and an S., 

thus,^^. or''J_^. He died in 1562. Among 

his multifarious productions are the following : 


A variety of small Engravings on copper, representing 

hunting subjects ; dated 1541. 
A set of vases and ornaments for goldsmiths. 1541. 
The Marriage of Cupid and Pysche, the Assembly of tha 

Gods, Parnassus, and other subjects ; after Raphael. 
, The Bath of the Anabaptists ; copy from Aldegrever. 


Several sets of small historical subjects from the Bibls 
The Metamorphoses of Grid, in one hundred and seventy 

cuts ; published at Frankfort in 1563. 
A set of cuts for Nicholas Eeuser's Emblems. 15S1. 
Another for the Emblems of Amlreus Alciatus. 1581. 
A series of French Kings from Pharamoud to Henry III, 

SOLLAZZINO It, a Florentine painter, whose 
real name seems to have been Giolano da Monte- 
lupo, was born about 1470, In 1506 he was work- 
ing at Pistoja, in conjunction with G. B. Volponi. 
He painted an altar-piece for S, Slefano at Serra- 
valle, and other works in Casole and Pisa, in which 
latter city he died in 1543. 

SOLOilAYOR, Luis de. See Sotomayor. 

SOLOMON, Abraham, painter, was born in 
London in 1824, went in 1838 to an Art School in 
Bloomsbury, and in 1839 was admitted to the 
Academy scliools. From 1843 he contributed pic- 
tures to the Academy and British Institute. His 
' Waiting for the Verdict,' exhibited at the Academy 
in 1857, and its sequel, 'Not Guilty' (1859), estab- 
lished his reputation. Other pictures by him 
which have become well known through engrav- 
ings are, ' Third class — the P.arting,' and ' First 
class — the Return' (1854), ' Le Malade Imagin- 
aire,' and 'Consolation' (1861). His last ex- 
hibited work was ' The Lost Found,' and he died 
still young at Biarritz in 1862. 

SOLOSMEO, II, an Italian sculptor and painter, 
whose real name appears to have been Antonio di 
Giovanni, was a scholar of Andrea Sansovino the 
sculptor, and of Andrea del Sarto. In the church 
of Badia di San Fedele at Poppi there is a panel of 
the Virgin and Child, with SS. John Baptist, 
Francis, Sebastian, and John Gualberto, inscribed : 


SOLSERNUS. This name, with the date 1267, 
appears on a large mosaic of the Bj-zantine type, 
representing Christ enthroned, with the Virgin 
and S. John, on the exterior of the Cathedral at 

SOLVYNS, Frans Baltasar, a marine painter, 
born at Antwerp in 1760, was a pupil of Querte- 
mont. After gaining several prizes at the Antwerp 
Academy he went to Paris, and studied under 
Vincent. His sea-pieces, however, are not numer- 
ous, as his fondness for travel led him to visit 
India, where he found materials for some threa 
hundred coloured plates illustrating the occupa- 
tions, festivals, and costumes of the Hindoos, which, 
when published, were unsuccessful, and involved 
their author in pecuniary embarrassment. He died 
in 1824. One of his marine pieces, a view from 
Ostend, is in the palace at Vienna. 

SOLY, Arthur, an obscure English engraver, 
who lived about the year 1683. He was employed 
by Robert White, and engraved a few portraits, 
among which are the following : 

His own Portrait ; dated 1633. 
Richard Baxter. Presbyter. 1633. 

Tobias Crisp, D.O., Rector of Brinckworth, 'Wiltshire ; 
prefixed to his Sermons. 1639. 

He died about 1695. 

SOMER, Jan van, (Somere.v,) was probably a 
relation of Mathyg van Somer, and flourished 
about the year 1675. He engraved some indifferent 
mezzotints from the Dutch painters and a few 
portraits ; among them the following : 

The Duchess of Mazarine. 
Charles Louis, Elector of Bavaria. 



Michael Adriansz de Ruyter, Dutch Admiral ; after 

Karel Da Jardin. 
Peasants drinking ; after A. Both. 
Dutch Boors regaling ; after A. Ostade. 
A Flemish Concert ; after Teniers. 
A Conversation ; after Terhirg. 
A Drinking Party ; after his oicn design. 
Abraham and the Angels ; after Pieter Lastman. 

He usually marked his plates with the following 
monogram ■*•• 

SOMER, Mathys van, (Sommeben,) a Dutch 
engraver, who flourished about the year 1660. He 
engraved a set of landscapes, marked with the 
initials M. V. S., and his name is affixed to a small 
oval portrait of John Ernest, dated 1666. There 
are many other portraits by him ; among them, 
that of Oliver Cromwell. 

SOMER, Paul van, painter, was born at Antwerp 
about the year 1576, and according to Van Mander, 
resided at Amsterdam in 1604, with his brother 
Bernard, where they practised portrait painting 
with great success. Paul Van Somer soon after- 
wards visited England, where the great majority of 
his works are now to be foimd. His portrait of 
the Lord Chamberlain, William, Earl of Pembroke, 
is in St. James's Palace. He painted two pictures 
of James I., one of which was engraved by Vertue ; 
Queen Anne of Denmark, and Cliancellor Bacon 
(at Panshanger), Lord Falkland and Lady Mande- 
ville, and the Earl of Arundel and his wife (in the 
collection of the Duke of Norfolk). Van Somer 
died about the age of fortj^-tive, and was buried in 
St. Martin's-iu-the-Fields, as appears by the regis- 
ter January 5. 1621 : Faulus Vansomer 2^i<^tor 
eximius sepitltus fuit in ecdesid. Works : 

Hampton Court. Christian IV. of Denmark. 

„ James I. 

„ Anne of Denmark. 1617. 

„ James I. in his robes. 

„ Anne of Denmark. Ditto. 

Londou. 2^'^at. Tor. Gall. James I. 

„ „ Anne of Denmark. 

„ „ Lord Bacon. 

„ „ Countess of Southampton. 

Lady Morton with two other ladies. 1615. 
Sir Simon 'Westou. 160S. 
The Marquis of Hamilton. 

SOMER, Padl van, engraver, apparently of the 
same family with Jan van Somer, was born at Am- 
sterdam in 1649. After residing and working some 
time in Pnri'j, he came to England, and settled in 
London, where he died in 1694. He etched, en- 
graved, and was one of the first to scrape in mezzo- 
tint. The following are his best-known prints : 

Portrait of the Duke of Bavaria and bis Secretary. 1670. 

The Countess of Meath ; after Miynard. 

Tobit burying the Dead Hebrew ; after Scb. Bourdon. 

Moses saved from the Nde; after A'. Foussiii. 

The Baptism of Christ ; after the same. 

The Fable of the Old Man and his Ass ; a set of six 
etchings ; after Griffier. 

The Four Times of the Day ; from his own designs. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; froM the saine. 

The Holy Family ; /roM the same. 

SOMERS, Louis J., a Flemish genre painter, 
born at Antwerp in 1813. He was a pupil of De 
Braekeleer ; his best-known works are a ' Village 
School,' and ' Monks Chanting.' He died in 1880. 
SOMERVILLE, Andrew, painter, was born at 
Edinburgh about 1803. He was educated at the 
Trustees' Academy. He practised at Edinburgh, 
and in 1831 became an associate member of the 
:Royal Scottish Academy. In the following year 
he was promoted to the full membership, but died 

Bhortly after his election, in 1833. His most popular 
pictures were ' Flowers of the Forest,' and ' The 
Bride of Yarrow.' 

SOMMERAU, Ludwig, draughtsman and en- 
graver, but better known in the latter capacity, was 
born at Wolfenbiittel in 1750. He was a scholar 
of Mechel at Basle. He engraved portraits ; pic- 
tures after Guido, Domenichino, and Guercino; 
also a series of twenty plates after the tapestries 
designed by Raphael and his pupils. These were 
published at Rome in 1780, and in London in 1837, 
with six additional plates, and letterpress by 

SOMMEREN. See Somer. 

SOMPEL, Pieter van, (SOMPELEN,) engraver, 
born at Antwerp about the year 1600, was taught 
engraving by Pieter Soutman, whose style he 
followed. His plates are neat, particularly his 
portraits. The following prints by him may be 
named : 

Paracelsus ; after Soutman. 

Henry, Count of Nassau ; after the same. 

Philip of Nassau, Prince of Orange ; after the same. 

The Emperor Charles V. ; after Rubens. 

Cardinal Ferdinand, brother to Philip IV. and Governor 
of the Netherlands ; after J'andyck. 

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain ; after the same, 

Gaston, Duke of Orleans ; after the same. 

Margaret, his consort ; after the same. 

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy ; after J. tan Ei/cls. 

Frederick Henry of Nassau ; after G. llonthorst. 

Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus ; after Rubens. 

The Crucifixion ; after the same. 

Juno and Ixion ; after the same. 
The only certain date in connection with this 
master is 1643, on his 'Christ at Emmaus,' afier 

SON, Jan van, (ZOON,) the son of Joris van 
Son, was born at Antwerp about the j'ear 1650. 
Walpole calls hiin Francis. He painted similar 
subjects to those of lii.s father, by whom he was 
instructed. He came to England when young, and, 
having married the niece of Robert Streater. suc- 
ceeded to a great portion of her uncle's business. 
He painted flowers, fruit, dead game, vases, curtains 
fringed with gold, Turkey carpets, and similar ob- 
jects. He composed well ; his touch was free and 
spirited, and his colouring rich and transparent. 
He is said to have died in London in 1700, but the 
date is uncertain ; some would put it as late as 
1723. Pictures by him are to be found at Augs- 
burg, Brussels, Dresden, and Lille. 

SON, Joris van, (or ZOON,) born at Antwerp in 
1622, excelled in painting flowers and fruit. His 
pictures are well composed, his handling easy, and 
his colour transparent. His death occurred about 

SON, Nicolas de, (Antoine ?) a native of Rheim9, 
who flourished about the year 1628, imitated tlie 
style of Callot with success. We have several 
etchings by him from Callot's designs, as well as 
some from his OAvn compositions. Among them 
we may name : 

A set of small Landscapes with figures and buildings. 

The Village Fair ; after Callot. 

The Companion, representing a street, with a coach in 
the back-ground, and several female figures. 

Facade of St. Nicaise, Rheims. 

Porch of Kheims Cathedral. 

SONDER. See Cranach. 

SONDEULAND, Johann Baptist Wilhelm 
Adolph, painter and etcher, born at Diisseldoif in 
1805, was a pupil of the Academy there, under 
Cornelius and Schadow. He produced many genre 


pictures, which are distinguished by humour and 
by fertility of invention. He designed illustrations 
for Reinick's ' Painters' Songs,' for Immennann's 
' Miinchausen,' and for several religious works. He 
also etched a few plates. He died at Diisseldorf 
in 1878. 

SONDERMANN, Hermann, German painter ; 
born October 19, 1832, at Berlin ; studied at the 
Academy and with Professor Otto, at Berlin ; also 
worked at Antwerp and Diisseldorf with Schndow 
and Jordans. After some years' (1859-61) residence 
nt Berlin lie settled at Diisseldorf ; painted por- 
tnits and genre, as, for instance, ' Unsere Helden ' 
(Wiesbaden Gallery), ' Dus Kaffeekriinzchen,' ' In 
der Schule,' &c. He died at Diisseldorf, April 2, 


SONJE, Jan', painter, born at Rotterdam, flour- 
ished in the 17th century. In 1646 he entered the 
Painters' Guild at Delft, but left that city about 
1654. He painted large mountain landscapes in 
the Italian manner, with blue skies, silver clouds, 
diirk foregrounds, and figures of men and animals. 
He also painted Rhine scenery in the style of 
Sachtleven. Pictures by Sonje are to be found 
in the Museums at the Hague, Rotterdam, and 
Augsburg. He died in 1691. 
SONMANS. See Sunman. 

SONNE, JoRGEN V.4LENTIN, a Danish painter, 
born at Birkerod in Zealand, June 24, 1801, was 
destined for the army, but soon abandoned a mili- 
tury career for art. He received his first teaching 
at the Copenhagen Academy, and came out as a 
painter of military life and of animals. In 1829 he 
went to Munich, and studied for a time under Hess, 
and three years later he made liis first journey to 
Rome, where he remained for some time, painting 
principally scenes from popular life. On his return 
to his native country he painted a large number of 
peasant pictures, but the Schleswig campaign of 
1848 furnished him with subjects for many works 
in his early manner. He painted the frescoes on 
the exterior of the Thorwaldsen Museum. He be- 
came a member of the Academy in 1846, and was 
decorated with the Dannebrog Order in 1852. 
Works : 

Copenhagen. Gallery. Tyrolese defending themselves 
among their Mountniii?. 
„ The Attack on Duppel, June 5, 

„ „ The Battle of Isted. 

„ The Sortie from Fredericia, 

July 6, 1849. 
{And seven others.) 

SONNIUS, Hendbik, a Dutch painter, who 
flourished at the Hague about tlie middle of the 
ITtli century, and was a pupil of Jan van Rave- 
steijn. He was one of the forty-seven artists who, 
in 1656, founded the Pictura Society. He is said 
to have come to England, and to have died here 
at an advanced age. 


SOOLEMAKER. See Solemackeb. 

SOPOLIS, an ancient painter, mentioned by 
Pliny as flourishing at Rome about eiglity-seven 
years before Christ. 

SOPRANI, Rafeaello, born at Genoa in 1612, 
of a noble family, was an amateur landscape painter, 
and theauthor of a biography of the Ligurian artists. 

RORDICHIO. See Biagio, Bernardino. 

SORDILLO DE PEREDA, El. See Dell' Abco. 

SORDO, Giovanni del, called Mone da ?1£A, 

an Italian painter of the 18th century, a pupil of 
F. Barooci. He practised at Pisa, and had the 
repute of a skilful colourist. 

SORDO, GiROLAMO, also called Qirolamo Pado- 
vano and Girolamo del Santo, is credited with 
various frescoes of a semi-Brescian, eemi-Paduan 
class, in churches at Padua and elsewhere. Traces 
of him occur as late as 1546. 


SORDO D'URBINO. See Viviani. 

SORE, Nicolas de. See Son. 

SORELLO, Miguel, a native of Spain, born at 
Barcelona about 1700, established himself at Rome, 
where he learned engraving from Jakob Frey. He 
was one of the engravers employed on the ' An- 
tiquities of Herculaneum,' published in 1757 — 
1761. He engraved several prints after the Italian 
masters, but his principal work is a set of eight 
plates from Raphael's tapestries in the Vatican. 
He died in 1765. 

SORENSEN, Carl Friedricii, a Danish painter, 
born at Samsoe in 1818. He painted chiefly land- 
scapes and sea-pieces. For the study of marine 
effects he made trips to the Mediterranean and 
elsewhere in Danish war-ships. He won a wide 
reputation, exhibiting in London and Paris as well 
as his native cit}'. He became professor of painting 
in the Academy of Copenhagen, in which city lie 
died in 1879. In tlie Copenhagen Gallery there are 
three sea-pieces by him, and in that of Stockholm 

SORGH, Hendbik MARXENf^zooN Rokes, (or 
ZORG,) painter, was born at Rotterdam in 1621. 
He was the son of Martin Rokes, the master of the 
passage-boat from Rotterdam to Dordrecht, who, on 
account of his care and attention to passengers 
and to the commissions he received, acquired the 
appellation of Sorgh, or Careful, and the name 
descended to his son. Having shown an early 
disposition for art, the latter was sent to Antwerp, 
and placed under the tuition of Teniers the younger. 
He is also said to have studied under Willem do 
Buytenweg. His pictures represent conversations, 
fairs, fish-markets, and the interiors of Dutch apart- 
ments, with figures regaling and amusing them- 
selves, in some of which he sometimes imitated the 
style of Adriaan Brouwer. The general character 
of his works is a mixture of features from the above- 
mentioned artists. His colour is warm, his impasto 
thin and fused. He died in 1682. Works : 


R. Museum. 

A Fish Market. 



Peasant'^ Smoking. 



Labourers in the Vineyard. 



Peasants Conversing. 


A Cook and Fishermen. 


Kat. Gall. 

Boors at Cards. 


JIau and Woman Drinking. 



A Peasant Family. 


Au Ale-house Interior. 



A Kitchen. 



Peasants Quarrelling. 



A Sea-piece. 

SORIANI, NiccoLO, a Cremonese painter of the 
15th century, was the maternal uncle of Garofalo, 
to whom lie gave some early lessons. 

SORIAU, Daniel, (or Peter,) a German painter 
of the 17th century, details of whose life are un- 
known. At the Copenhagen Gallery there is a 
still-life picture by him of flowers, fruit, and 
gold and silver plate. 

SORLAY, JEROME, a French painter of the 17th 
ceutury, the pupil of Mignard. In 1664 he painted 



a ' Christ appearing to S. Peter on his Fh'ght 
from Kome.' 

SOPiNIQUE, Dominique, a Frencli engraver, 
born in Paris in 1707. He was a pupil of Charles 
Simoneau, wliose style of engraving lie followed 
with considerable success. His vignettes and other 
plates for books are neatly executed. He also en- 
graved several portraits and other subjects, among 
them the following : 

The Cardinal de Richelieu ; after Nanteurl. 

Jean Louis, Due d'Epernon ; aj'Ur the sirme. 

Louis de Bourbou, Admiral of France ; after Miynard. 

Marshal Saxe ; after Ritjaii.l. 

Diana and her Nymphs ; after Correggio. 

Dauae ; after the same. 

The Kape of the S.ibines; after L. Giordano. 

Peasants regaliug ; after Tenters. 

He died in 175(5. 

SOROKIN, Paul Semenovich, Russian painter 
and Academician ; was born in 1831. He devoted 
himself to sacred subjects, and died in 1886. 

SORKI, PiETBO, born at S. Gusm^, near Siena, in 
1556, was for some time a scholar of Arcangelo 
Salimbeni, but afterwards studied at Florence under 
Cavaliere Passignano, whose daughter he married. 
He adopted the eclectic system of liis father-in-law, 
■whom he accompanied to Venice, where he improved 
his manner by studying Paul Veronese. Less facile 
than Passignano, his colour is more durable, and 
his drawing more correct. He afterwards went to 
Genoa and Rome, and died in 1622. 

SOSIAS, a Greek vase painter, some of whose 
works are still extant. 

SOTO, Jdan de, a Spanish liistorical painter, 
born at Madrid in 1592, was one of the best 
scholars of Bartolom<5 Carducho, and assisted him 
in several of his works. While still very young, 
he was selected to decorate in fresco the queen's 
dressing-room in the palace of the Pardo. He ob- 
tained a considerable reputation with his pictures 
in oil ; they were much in tlie style of his master, 
pure in design, and harmonious in colour. The 
expectations he had raised were, however, dis- 
appointed by his earl}' death at Madrid in 1620. 

SOTO, Lorenzo de, horn at Madrid in 1634, 
was the pupil of Benito Manuel de Agiiero, whose 
manner he imitated. He painted landscapes, with 
hermits and saints and religious figure subjects. 
Among the latter a scene from the life of Sta. Rosa 
served as an altar-piece in the church of the Atocha 
at Madrid. In consequence of an attempt by 
government to tax artists, Soto abandoned painting 
and retired to Yecla, in Murcia, where he became 
collector of the royal rents. During this period of 
retirement, he painted landscapes, which are praised 
by Palomino. After an absence of about fifty years 
he returned to Madrid, but his works were looked 
at with indifference, and he was reduced to selling 
them in the public places for a subsistence. He 
died in 1688. 

SOTOMAYOR, Luis de, born at Valencia in 
1635, became a disciple of Esteban March, the 
painter of battles, but refusing to submit to that 
master's caprices, he left him for the school of 
Juan Carreno, at Madrid. After ?. time he returned 
to Valencia, where he enjoyed much success. He 
had a fine talent for composition, and was an excel- 
lent colourist. He painted a ' St. Christopher in 
company \vith Christ and the Virgin,' and a ' St. 
Augustine,' for the Augustine nunnerj- ; and for 
the Carmelites, two large scenes from the legend of 
the miraculous discovery of an image of the Virgin, 

called ' La Morenita,' which is an object of their 
great veneration. He died at Madrid in 1673. 

SOUBEYRAN, Pierre, born at Geneva in 1697 
(1708). He resided several years in Paris, where 
he engraved some of the plates, after Boucliardon, 
of antique gems in the king's cabinet, for a publi- 
cation of Slariette's. He also engraved a variety 
of plates for books after Cochin and others. Re- 
turning to Geneva in 1750, he there practised as aa 
architect, and became director of the art school. 
The following prints by him may also be named : 

The Portrait of Peter the Great ; after Caravaqtie. 
The Arms of the City of Paris ; after Bouckurdon. 
The Fair Maid of the Village ; after Boucher. 

He died in 1775. 

SOUCHON, FRANr;oiS,.born at Alais in 1786, was- 
a pupil of David, and a friend of Sigalon. He 
painted heroic landscapes and historical pictures, 
and made many excellent copies from the great 
masters. Many of his works are at Lille, where he 
was director of the Painting School from 1836- 
to 1857, and where he died in 1857. 

SOUKENS, Jan, a Dutch painter and engraver 
of the 16th century, born at Bommel. He was a 
pupil of Jan Vorsterman, and painted river views 
with figures. His two sons, Gisbert, 1685 — 1760, 
and Hendrik, 1680 — 1711, were also landscape 

SOULARY, Claude, painter, born at Lyons in 
1792, was a pupil of Revoil and of Gros. For 
forty-seven years he directed the School of Art at 
Saint Etienne, where he died in 1870, and where 
there are several of his pictures in the museum. 

SOUL^S, Eugene Edouabd, painter, born in Paris. 
He was a frequent exhibitor of landscapes in oil and 
wafer-colour at the Salon from 1831 to 1872. He 
died in 1876. 

SOUMANS. See Sunjian. 

SOUMY, Joseph Paul Maeius, engraver, was born 
at I'uy Amhlay in 1831, learned drawing in Lyons, 
and then entered the atelier of Guj-, and afterwards 
that of Bonnefond, studying engraving under Vi'^ert 
at the same time. ,1d 1852 he went to Paris, and 
worked first in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and then 
under Henriquel Dupont. In 1855 he visited Italy, 
where he painted portraits, landscapes, and genre 
pictures, and made several copies after Raphael, 
Michelangelo, &c. He also etched a portrait after 
Giorgione, and Titian's Francis I. On his return 
to France he led a desultory life, engraving for 
printsellers, and then for Flandrin, for whom his 
chief work was the ' Entry of Christ into Jerusalem ' 
Depression caused by a disease of the eyes led him 
to commit suicide at Lyons in 1863. 

SOUNES, William Henrv, was born in London 
in 1830. In 1855 he became modelling master in 
the Birmingham School of Art, and later, head 
master of tlie Shefiield School of Art. He died at 
Sheffield in 1873. In the South Kensington Museum 
there are two architectural drawings by him. 

SOURCHES, Louis-Franqois du Bouchet, 
Marquis de. Grand Provost of France, and amateur 
engraver, was born at the commencement of the 
17th century. He handled the point in the manner 
of Stefano Delia Bella, of whom it is supposed he 
took lessons during the residence of that artist iir 
Paris from 1640 to 1649. In the Bihliotheque at 
Paris are preserved nineteen pieces by him. Tliey 
are copies after Delia Bella, and are so exact that 
proofs before letters have been mistaken for the 
originals. This series is entitled ' Diuerses figures 
et Jlaneiges de Cheuaux Gravies par le Marquis d? 


Sourches. Acconiing- to le Pere Lelong (Biblio- 
th^qiie Historique de France), this artist engraved 
the portrait of JIadame de Nevelet, the wife of a 
cotmsellor of the Parliament of Paris ; but it has 
escaped the researches of Dumesnil. That writer, 
however, (torn, ii.) describes a series of twelve 
plates by Sourches which are still rarer than those 
in the French National Library. Their titles are 
as follows : 


Le Berger. 


Le Depart ponr 


L'Homme de Quality 



La Tame de Qua'ite. 


Le Promeneur. 


Le Duel. 


I^e Pecheur. 


Le Porte-drapeaa. 


Le Piiits. 


La Marchande de vieux 

11. Ramoneurs. 



Le Batelier. 

One of these, No. 4, was ascribed by Mariette and 
Gersaint to Delia Bella himself. 

SOUULEY, JerOme. See SoRL.iY. 

SOUTilAN, PlETER, a Dutch painter and en- 
graver, bom at Haarlem in 1590, was a pupil of 
Rubens, and is said to have painted historical sub- 
jects and portraits with considerable success, par- 
ticularly at the courts of Berlin and Warsaw. He 
was one of the group of Flemish engravers attached 
to the school of Rubens, who carried the vigour of 
the art to a hei,:,'ht scarcely equalled by any other 
workers with the burin. We have several plates by 
him from his own designs, and from those of Rubens 
and other masters. He appears to have aimed at 
giving a striking effect to his plates, \>y keeping 
the lights broad and clear ; but by carrying this 
notion too far, many have a slight, unfinished ap- 
pearance. The following are, perhaps, his best 
plates : 

The Fall of the Rebel Angels ; after Rubens. 

The Kout of Sennacherib ; after the same. 

Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter ; from a dTaving 

htf Rufiens, afttr Hajyfiael. 
Tlie Draught of Fishes ; after the same. 
Consecration of a Bishop ; after the same. 

SOWERBY, James, an English natural-history 
draughtsman and engraver, born in 1757. He pub- 
lished, and illustrated many works, which obtained 
for him a good reputation. He lived in Paris in 
the latter part of his career, and died in 1822. The 
following are some of the works on which he was 
engaged : 

' The Florist's Delight.' 1791. 

' English Botany.' 1790—1820. 

'English Fungi.' 1797. 

' British Mineralogy.' 1804-17. 

' Elucidation of Colours.' 1S09. 

Sir J. E. Smith's ' IconesPictai Plantarum.' 1T90-3. 

Ditto, ' Spicilegium Botanicum.' 1791-2. 

Ditto, ' Botany of New Holland.' 1793. 

Shaw's ' Zoology of Xew Holland.' 

SOYE, PHii-irPB DE, (or De SERicrs), a Dutch 
engraver, bom 1538, died after 1567, pupil of 
Cornells Cort ; engraved the compositions of 
Italian masters and a series of twenty-eight 
portraits of popes. 

SOYER, EMM.i, nee Jones, was bom in London 
in 1813. Before she was twelve years of age she 
had drawn more than a hundred portraits from life. 
In 1836 she married Soyer, the famous chef-de- 
cuisine. Besides sketches and drawings she painted 
many pictures. Her ' Jewish Boy selling Oranges ' 
was engraved by Gerard. She died in London in 

SOYER, Hass, a Flemish painter, practising at 

Ypres about 1323. He painted the portraits of the 
Count and Countess of Flanders for the municipality 
of Ypres, for which he received the sum of twenty 
sous (16s. id.). 

SOYER, Jean, a French miniaturist, who prac- 
tised at Tours at the close of the 15th century, and 
was employed in the illumination of the smaller 
Livre dUeuTCS of Anne of Brittany. 

SPACKMAN, Isaac, an English painter, practis- 
ing about the middle of the 18th century. He was 
best known as a painter of birds and animals. He 
died at Islington, January 7, 1771. 

SPADA, LiONELLO, born at Bologna in 1576. 
His parents were extremely poor, and he was 
placed in the service of the Carracci as a colour 
grinder. This employment gave him an oppor- 
tunity of picking up some knowledge, and he 
showed so much capacity for art, that his masters 
admitted him into their academj'. His progress 
was rapid, and he became an eminent member of 
the Bolognese school. After a time he turned to 
the energetic style of Caravaggio, and he went to 
Rome to study under that master. With Cara- 
vaggio he went to Naples and llalta, afterwards 
visiting Modena, Ferrara, and Reggio. On his re- 
turn to Bologna, he painted the 'Miraculous Draught 
of Fishes,' for the refectory of S. Procolo, and an 
altar-piece in the church of S. Domenico, which is 
considered his best performance. The latter part 
of his life was passed at Parma, in the service of 
the Du!;e Ranuccio, by whom he was patronized 
until the death of that prince. He did not long 
survive his protector, and died at Parma in 1622. 
He sometimes marked his pictures with a sword, 
(in Italian Spada,) crossed with the letter L. 
Works : 

Bologna. 5. Domenico. 

, S. Michele in Bosco. 













Parma. Carmelite Church. 
,, S. Sepolcro. 


Church of the 

Rome. Pal. Borghese. 

S. Jerome. 

S. Dominic burning the heret- 
ical books. 
Frescoes from the Lives of S. 
Benedict and S. Cecilia. 

Melchizedek blessing Abraham. 


David conqnering Goliath. 

His own Portrait. 

S. Cecilia. 

Fortune- Teller. 

Madonna with S. Francis. 

Cain and Abel. 

Christ on the Cross. 

Retiun of the Prodigal. 

Martyrdom of S. Christopher. 

.£neas and Anchises. 

A Concert. 

St. Jerome. 

The Slartyrdom of S. Catha- 

I David and Abigail. 

Judith and Holofemes. 
Esther and Ahasuerus. 
The Virtues. 
A Concert. 

SPAD.\, Lo. See Marescalco, Pietro. 

SPADARO, Micco. See Garghtoli. 

SPADEN, Ja:*, a Flemish painter of the 14th 
century, who practised at Louvain, and is recorded 
in the town registers, under the sobriquet of Jan 
Oliepot (oil-pot), to have worked for the Com- 
mune from 1364 onwards. He died some time be- 
fore 1394. His son Jas was also a painter. 

SPAENDOXCK. Corn'ELIS van-, brother of Gerard 
van Spaendonck, bom in 1756, was also a painter 
of flowers. He was chiefly employed at the Sfevres 



porcelain factory, but occasionally painted portraits 
in oil. He died in 1839. 

SPAENDONCK, Gerard van, a distinguished 
fruit and flower painter, was born at Tilburgh in 
Holland in 1746, and studied under the elder 
Herreyns at Antwerp. At tlie age of twenty-four 
he went to Paris, where for some time he painted 
miniatures, and fruit and flowers. His productions 
became very popular, and were purchased with 
avidity. In 1793 lie was lecturing at tlie Jardin 
des Plantes, The title-page to his ' Fleursdessin^es 
d'apres Nature' informs us that he was a member 
of the National Institute, and Professor-Adminis- 
trator of the Museum of Natural History in Paris, 
where he died in 1822. The Fruit aud Flower 
piece by him in the Louvre was in the collection of 
Louis XVI. 

SPAGIASI, Giovanni, an Italian painter, bom 
at Reggio, who died in the service of the King of 
Poland, in 1730. 

SPAGIASI, Pellkgrino, was a pupil of Fran- 
cesco Bibiena; he painted interiors and perspective 
decorations, and also worked as a scene painter. 
He died in France in 1746. 

SPAGNA, Lo. See Giovanni di Pietro. 


SPAGNUOLO. See Giovanni di Pietro. 

SPAGNUOLO, Lo. See CREsn, Giuseppe Maria. 

SPAGNUOLO Degli PESCI, Lo. See Herkera, 
Francisco de. 

SPALTHOF, N., a Dutch painter, who flourished 
about the year 1650. He is said by Descamps to 
have visited Italy, and to have studied there several 
years. He excelled in painting fairs, markets, 
carnivals, and merry-makings, somewhat in the 
style of Theodorus Helmbrecker. 

SPANGENBERG, Friedrich, historical painter, 
born at Gottingen in 1843, began his career in 
Munich under Ramberg. In 1861 he went to 
Weimar, where he painted tlie ' Triumph of the 
American Union' for the Capitol at Washington. 
After that he returned to Munich, where he pro- 
duced his ' Plundering Vandals,' and his ' Departure 
of Geiserich from Rome with Eudoxia.' He met 
>vith an accident in going up Vesuvius, and died 
in 1874. 

SPANGENBERG, Gdstav Adolf, German 
painter; burn February 1, 1828, at Hamburg, was 
a pu^iil of Kanfmann at Hamburg, and also of 
Couture and Triqueti in Paris. He also studied 
at the Hanau Gewerbeschule and the Antwerp 
Academy. From 1855 to 1857 he travelled in 
Ituly, England, and Holland, and finally established 
himself at Berlin. He painted historical and genre 
subjects, such as ' Lutlier musicirend,' ' The Pied 
Piper of Hamelin,' ' \Valpurgisnacht,'_and ' Luther 
at Worms'; also frescoes which are in the Halle 
University. He was a professor and member of 
the Berlin, Vienna, and Hanau Academies, obtain- 
ing the Berlin gold medal in 1876, and the Vienna 
medal in 1873. He died at Berlin, October 19, 

SPANGENBERG, Louis, German painter, 
brother of the above; born 1824 at Hamburg; 
became a pupil of Eisenlohr at Karlsruhe, and also 
studied with Kirchner at Munich. After lengthy 
travel in Greece, Italy, Belgium, England, and 
France, he settled at Berlin, where as a landscape 
painter he became well known by such works as 
'Im Engadin,' 'The Akropolis,' ' Osteria in Pied- 
monte.' and others. He died at Berlin, October 
17, 1893. 


SPANZOTTO, Martino. This painter at nresent 
shines chiefly with a reflected glory, since ue was 
the first master of the celebrated Giovanni Antonio 
Bazzi (Sodoma), and of the no less remarkable 
Defendente Deferrari of Chivasso, the most dis- 
tinguished painter of the Piedmontese School in 
the early 16th century. The founder of the 
Spanzotto family was probably Pietro di Capanigo 
— perhaps an artist, though this is uncertain — 
a native of Varese, who settled at Casale Mon- 
ferrato before 1470. We learn that by his wife 
Orsolina (of what family we know not), who died 
in August 1489, he had four sons, Martino, Fran- 
cesco, ViNCENZO, and Gabriele. The first three of 
these appear from extant documents to have all 
been artists, though Vincenzo was also a monk. The 
latter decorated the Sacristy-presses in Sta. Maria 
della Grazie at Milan ; while Gabriele, also a 
priest, was in 1502 elected a canon of the 
Cathedral of Casale, and Vicar-General of that 
diocese from 1525, until his death on October 28, 
1531. A portrait, now lost, but once belonging 
to the Counts d'Arco of Mantua, of the unhappy 
Bianca Maria Gaspardone (Madame de Ghallant), 
dressed as a bride, has been attributed to this 
Gabriele, but the attribution is doubtful, and it is 
generally supposed that the painting was the work 
of Martino. Padre Bruzza, on the strength of a 
document dated 11th of June, 1528, brings forward 
a son of Francesco, whom he styles Pier Francesco, 
but more recent authorities are unable to find any 
trace of such a person. 

Martino moved from Casale to Vercelli on 
August 11, 1491, and leased for a term of four, 
or five years, from Giovanni Bartolommeo of 
Conflentia, a house and a shop in the parish of Sta. 
Maria Maggiore' in that city, thus becoming a 
neighbour of the Bazzi family, whose famous 
scion had been articled to him for seven years, 
the year before (November 20, 1490). He married 
Costantina, daughter of one Antonio Pianta, be- 
longing to a noble family from Lauriano, near 
Chivasso, and at the end of his lease would seem 
to have returned to Casale, where he died some- 
time between June 13, 1524, and November 11, 
1528. He appears to have left two sons : Pier 
Antonio, of whom presently, and Giovanni Ambro- 
gio, a lawyer, who is recorded by Angiolo Salamoni 
in his ' Memorie Storico Diplomatiche degli Am- 
biasciatori, iucaricati d'afEari che la citti di Milano 
invi6 a diversi principi ' as having in 1560 gone 
in company with Camillo Castiglioni on an embassy 
to Philip II. of Spain, and being one of the Causidici 
Collegiati (members of the Guild of Notaries) of 
Milan in 1562. 

Until a comparatively recent date no well- 
authenticated work of Martino Spanzotto's was 
known to exist, and he was vaguely spoken of as 
" an unknown painter on glass" ; but in 1899 an 
undoubted and signed work (' Madonna and Child') 
was acquired by the Royal Pinacoteca at Turin, 
where it now hangs (Room 2, No. 30a). Another 
' Madonna and Child,' attributed to the AnticOt 
Scuola Piemontese, but almost certainly also by 
him, is to be found in the Albertina Collection in 
the same city (Koom 4, No. 150) ; and other 
works still have been with good reason assigned 
by competent authorities to him and his scholars, 
though as yet opinions are divided upon the point; 
the most remarkable among these being the 
curious polyptych, ' Genealogy of the Madonna, 
in the church at S. Antonio at Casale : and a 


* Nativity,' with Saints and other subjects, in the 
octagon Baptistery of the Cathedral at Chleri. 
Two glafs lunettes, probably part of a larger 
work, still preserved at the Santuario di Crea 
in Monferrato, are also with considerable show of 
probability assigned to him, and are the only 
known examples of the branch of art to which — 
but without great reason — he has been generally 
supposed to have devoted most attention. The 
works by him for which documentary evidence 
exists have unfortunately entirely vanished. Thej' 
jire : 

A polyptych, erected in 14S8 by the Tana family in 

their mortuary chapel in the church of S. Maria 

delle Grazie at Chieri. 

The decoration of a chapel in the church of S. Paolo 

at Vercelli, commissioned by the noble family of 

Ajazza, concerning which two documents dated 

January 3, 1490, and January 11, 1492, are still 


A painting representing ' S. Francis receiving the 

Stigmata,' executed for Dorotea, widow of Sigismondo 

Asinari, in 1524, for the Franciscan Chiu-ch at 

Casale. R.H.H.C. 

SPANZOTTO, Pier Antoxio. This artist, son 

of the above Martino, was working from January 

€, 154G, to the end of December 1549, in the 

Castel di S. Angelo at Rome. He is mentioned 

in a deed, dated June 1, 1561, anong the earliest 

members of the Academy of St. Luke. He had 

two daughters, Costantina, who in 1567 married 

Pietro Rignoni, a barber from Vogogna, near 

Novara; and Albina, who espoused a Florentine 

■wood-carver, Giuliano di Cazerini or Zazerini 

^perhaps Porticiiii). K.H.H.C. 

! SPARMANN,KARLCHBlSTiAN,landscapepainter, 

was born at Meissen in 1805. He became the 

pupil of Arnold at Meissen, and of Dahl at Dresden, 

and teacher of drawing to Prince Louis Napoleon, 

in Arenberg. From the latter, when he became 

Emperor of the French, he received a pension. He 

died at Dresden in 1865. 

SPARVIER, PiEP.p.E DE, a French painter, born 
1660, was a pupil of Cesare Gennari at Bologna, 
lie painted portraits and battle-pieces, and occa- 
sionally flowers. He settled at Florence, where he 
died in 1731. 

SPECCHI, Alessandro, an Italian engraver, 
who flourished from 1665 to 1706. He engraved 
a set of plates from the palaces and public buildings 
of Rome, which are executed in a spirited style. 
These engravings were published by Dora, de Rossi, 
La 1699. Speochi is supposed to have died in 1710. 
SPECKLE, Veit Rodolph, (SPECKLIN,) an 
old engraver on wood, who flourished at Strasburg 
about the year 1540. He executed a set of cuts for 
Fuchsius's ' Herbal,' published in that year, with 
a whole-length portrait of the author, portraits of 
Heinrich Fullmaurer and AJbrecht Maher, who de- 
signed the figures, and the engraver's own portrait. 
SPECKTER, Erwin, painter, was born at Ham- 
burg in 1806. He worked at Munich under Cornelius, 
but was influenced by Overbeck and Genelli. From 
Hamburg, where he painted his ' Christ and the 
Samaritan Woman at the Well,' he went in 1830 
to Italy, where he produced a ' Samson and Delilah,' 
and ' "Three JIarys at the Grave of Christ,' which 
was engraved by Schroder. In his leisure he wrote 
'Letters of an Artist from Italy.' He died at 
Hamburg in 1835. 

SPECKTER. Otto, brother of Erwin Speckter, 
was bom at Hamburg in 1807. He practised as 
a hthographer and book illustrator. In the latter 

branch of art, the following are his best works : 
Illustrations to Luther's ' Spiritual Songs,' Bellman's 
' Epistles,' Eberhard's ' Hannchen und die Kiicli- 
lein,''Pass in Boots,' and Klaus Groth's 'Quickbom, 
which last is considered his most successful achieve- 
ment. He died at Hamburg, April 29, 1871. 

SPEECIvAERT, Hans, or Jan, a Flemish painter 
of the 16th century, a native of Brussels, where 
his father worked as an embroiderer. He lived 
for some time in Italy, and worked both at Rome 
and Florence. At Rome he became acquainted 
with Arnold Mytens, and a close friendship sprang 
up between them. He died at Rome about 1577. 
Van Mander calls him an artist of great merit. 

SPEECKAERT, J., a Flemish painter, bom at 
Mechlin in 1748. He painted flowers and fruit, 
and practised for some time in his native town, 
but lived towards the close of his life at Brussels, 
where he died in 1838. 

SPEER, Martin, (or Michael,) a painter and 
engraver, was born at Ratisbon in 1700. It is 
said that he became a disciple of Solimeiia : at all 
events he imitated his manner, and engraved some 
of his allegories and martyrdoms. He painted seve- 
ral altar-pieces and historical pictures, and there are 
engravings by him after his own designs. They 
are signed 21. Speer inv. et fecit, 1742. The time 
of his death is uncertain, but Zani puts it in 1762. 
SPELT. See Van deb Spelt. 
SPENCER, Frederick, an American painter, 
born at Canistota, U.S.A., in 1805. He studied art 
in his native village, without a master. About 
1830 he settled in New York as a portrait-painter, 
where he met with much success, painting many 
distinguished persons. He became a member of 
the Academy in 1848, and in 1853 he retired to 
Canistota, where he practised until his death in 1875. 
SPENCER, Jarvis, (or Gebyase,) a painter in 
miniature and in enamel, who flourished about the 
middle of the last century. He began life in 
domestic service, but by the help of his employer 
and his family, developed his faculty for art, and 
became a fashionable painter of the da}-. He 
painted on ivory and in enamel. In 1762 he 
sent some enamel portraits to the exhibition of the 
Society of Artists, and some fine enamels bearing 
the initials G. S. are his work. He etched his 
own portrait, after Reynolds, a plate on which the 
name George Spencer was afterwards erroneously 
placed. Some portrait etchings by him in the 
British Museum prove him to have been a good 
draughtsman. He died October 30, 1763. 

SPENCER, Lavinia, Countess, {nee Bingham,) 
daughter of the Earl of Lucan, and wife of the 
second Earl Spencer, was an amateur of some 
ability. Some of her drawings were engraved, 
among others ' The Orphan," by Gillray, and ' New 
Shoes,' by Bartolozzi. She died June 8, 1831. 

SPERANZA, Giovanni, an Italian painter of the 
16th century. The dates of his birth and death are 
both unknown, though he was probably a native of 
Vicenza. Vasari states that both he and Bar- 
tolommeo Montagna, with whom he has much in 
common, were disciples of Mantegna, but there is 
no proof of their personal acquaintance with the 
Paduan master. The church of S. Giorgio, at 
Velo, in the province of Vicenza, has an enthroned 
' Virgin and Child with Saints ' by him ; and in 
the gallery of Vicenza is an ' Assumption of the 
Virgin, with S. Thomas and S. Jerome ' ; this latter 
is a reproduction of the 'Assumption,' assigned to 
Pizzolo, in the l^-emitani Chapel, Padua ; both are 



in tempera. At the Casa Nievo, Vicenza, is an oil 
painting of the ' Virgin and Child.' Other paintings 
by this artist may be found at Santa Corona and 
Santa Chiara, Vicenza, and in the Casa Piovcni, 
Padua. In his later works it is difficult to dis- 
tinguisli his hand from that of Montagna. It is 
likely that the ' Madonna with the Child holding 
a Strawberry ' in the National Gallery, and there 
ascribed to Montagna, is by Speranza ; also No. 174, 
in the Brera, at present unascribed. 'W.A. 

SPERANZA, Giovanni Battista, bom at Rome 
about the year 1610, was a disciple of Francesco 
Albano. He acquired a considerable repute as a 
painter of history, particularly in fresco. In a 
chapel in the church of S. Caterina da Siena, there 
are some subjects from the life of the Virgin, in 
fresco, by him ; and in tlie Orfanelli a ceiling re- 
presenting the Passion of our Saviour, in five com- 
partments. Speranza died in the prime of life, in 

SPERLING, HiERONYMUS, a German engraver, 
born at Augsburg about the year 1695, was a pupil 
of Preissler, at Nuremberg, and engraved some of 
the plates for a work on the churches of Vienna, 
published by J. A. Peffel, in 1724. He also en- 
graved some of the plates from statues in the gallery 
of King Augustus of Poland, at Dresden, which 
were published as a collection in 1733. He en- 
graved many portraits, chiefly after German painters, 
and a set of ' Months of the Year,' with a frontis- 
piece. He died in 1777. 

SPERLING, JoHANN Christian, a painter of 
portraits and small historical subjects, was born 
at Halle, in Saxony, in 1691. He was the son of 
Johann Heinbich Speuling, a painter of portraits 
and fancy heads, who had moved from Hamburg 
to Halle. Christian studied under his father, and 
afterwards under Adriaan Van der WerfE, at Rotter- 
dam, and adopted his manner of painting. There 
is a ' Vertumnus and Pomona' by him in the Dresden 
Gallery ; and many of his portraits of persons of 
high rank exist in Germany. They are but little 
kno%\Ti elsewhere. He died .it Ansbach in 1746. 

SPERWER, Pieter, a Flemish painter of the 
17th century, was born at Antwerp, where he prac- 
tised, and where a few of his pictures are still to be 
found. He is registered as a pupil in the records 
of the Guild of St. Luke for 1675-76. In 1703 he 
received from the States of Antwerp the sum of 
ninety florins for a portrait of the King, to be 
placed in the Hotel de Ville. 

SPEY, Martin, a painter of portraits, flowers, 
and dead game, was born at Antwerp in 1777. He 
left hia native country for Paris in 1809, and re- 
mained there till the entry of the allied army m 
1814, after which all trace of him is lost. 

SPEZZINI, Francesco, was a native of Genoa, 
and flourished about the year 1578. He was first 
a scholar of Luca Cambiasi, but he afterwards 
studied under Giovanni Battista Castelli. He visited 
Rome, where he studied Raphael, Michelangelo, 
Giulio Romano, &c. On his return to Genoa, he 
painted several pictures for the churches, particu- 
larly an altar-piece for S. Colombano, which is per- 
haps his best work. He died young, of the plague. 

SPICER, , an English mezzotint engraver, 

who flourished about the year 1770. He engraved 
some portraits after Sir Joshua Reynolds, among 
which are those of Barbara, Countess of Coventry ; 
Kitty Fisher ; and Lady Stafford. 

SPICER, Henry, painter in miniature and 
enamel, bom at Reepham, in Norfolk, was a pupil 


of Gervase Spencer. He was extensively employed, 
and reached considerable excellence as an enamel 
painter. He was a constant exhibitor with the In- 
corporated Society and with the Royal Academy, 
and was appointed portrait painter in enamel to the 
Prince of Wales. In 1776 he visited Dublin, and 
painted many Irish celebrities. He died in London 
in 1804. 

SPIEGL, Joseph, a mezzotint engraver, of whom 
nothing is known, except that he was bom in 1772, 
and received his artistic education in the Academy 
at Vienna. Five prints by him are extant : 

A Holy F-imily ; after Sassoferrato . 
Mater Dolorosa ; nfter Guido. 
Veuus and Cupid ; after N, Poussin. 
Bacchus and Ariadne ; after Gavin Hamilton. 
A Woman bathing ; after Uubens, 

SPIELBERG, Adriana, (Spilberg,) the daughter 
of Johannes Spielberg, was bom at Amsterdam in 
1646, and instructed by her father. She excelled in 
crayon portraits, though she occasionally practised 
in oil. She married the painter Breckvelt, and, 
after his death, Eglon Van der Neer. 

SPIELBERG, Johannes, (or Spilberg,) bom at 
Diisseldorf in 1619, was the son of a glass-painter 
in the service of the Elector Palatine. It was his 
father's intention to have sent him to Antwerp, to 
the school of Rubens, but that painter's death put 
an end to the project. So Spielberg went to Am- 
sterdam, where he became a scholar of Govert 
Flinck. He prosecuted his studies under that artist 
for seven years, and on leaving his school, soon 
won fame as a painter of history and portraits. 
The reputation he acquired at Amsterdam led to 
his being invited to the court of Diisseldorf, as 
painter to the Elector Palatine. He painted the 
portraits of the Electoral Family, and several his- 
torical works for the churches. For the Schloss 
he painted a series of ' Labours of Hercules.' He 
was also commissioned to paint some scenes from 
the ' Life of Christ,' which he did not live to accom- 
plish. He died in 1690. His 'Banquet of the 
Archers' Company,' in the Stadthaus at Amsterdam, 
shows clearly the influence of Van der Heist. One 
Gabriel Spielberg, who was painter to the court' 
of Spain in the 17th century, is supposed to have 
been his brother. 

SPIERINC, Nicholas, a Flemish miniaturist of 
the 15th century. He was working at Brussels in 
1469 for the Duke of Burgundy. 

SPIERINGS, Pieter, (or Spierinckx,) painter,, 
bom at Antwerp in 1633. He has sometimes been- 
mistakenly called Nicholas. He painted land- 
scapes, into which other artists occasionally intro- 
duced figures. Pieter Ykens in particular is said 
to have frequently aided him in this manner. He 
spent several years in Italy, and imitated the 
works of Salvator Rosa. It has been said that 
he died in England, but more recent researches 
show him to have died in liis native town in 1711. 
He and his wife, Maria de Jode, whose death took 
place in 1714, were both buried in the Church of St 
Jacques at Antwerp. He was the friend of Biset, 
and was one of the painters of Louis XIV. At 
Antwerp there are two large landscapes by him, 
and two in the Madrid Museum. 

SPIERRE, Claude, a French painter of the 
17th century, and brother of Fr. Spierre, the en- 
graver. He went to Rome to study, and gave 
promise of a great career, which was cut short by 
his earlv death. 

SPIERRE, FRANgois, bom at Nancy in 1643. 


went to Paris when very young, and became the 
pupil of Francois de Poiliy, whose stj'le lie for 
some time followed with success. He did not, 
liowever, confine himself to the manner of his 
master, but went to Italy, where he acquired a 
distinctive style of his own. He did not long sur- 
vive his return to his native country, but died in 
1681. The following are, perhaps, his best prints : 

Pope Innocent XI. ; engraved in the style of Mellan ; 

Pranciscus Spier, del. et sculp. 
The Grand Duke of Tuscany ; dated 1659. 
Lorenzo, Count de Marsciano ; after his own design. 
The Virgin suckling the Infant Christ ; after Corregyio. 
St. Michael defeating Satan ; after F. da Cortona. 
The Immaculate Conception ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. Catharine ; after 

the same. 
The Circumcision ; after Ciro Ferri. 
St. John preaching in the "Wilderness ; after Bernini. 
The miracle of the Loaves and Fishes ; after the same. 
Christ on a Cross suspended over a sea of blood, which 

flows from His wounds ; after the same. 

SPIERS, Albert van, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1666, and was a scholar of Willem van Ingen, 
an historical painter of some eminence. He had 
already given proof of considerable talent in his 
native country, when he determined to visit Rome. 
After passing seven years there, he went to Venice 
to improve his colour. After a residence in Italy 
of ten years he returned to Holland in 1697, and 
established himself at Amsterdam, where he was 
largely employed in decoration. He had established 
a great reputation when he fell a victim to over- 
workj in 1718. 

SPIESS, August Friedrich, engraver, was born 
at Castell, in Franconia, in 1806. He began his 
studies at the Munich Academy, under Amsler. His 
first works were, ' The Transfiguration,' and a 
' Holy Family,' after Raphael, and ' The Last 
Supper,' after Leonardo da Vinci. He produced a 
large number of historical and religious engravings, 
a.'id many excellent crayon portraits. He died at 
Munich in 1855. 

SPIESS, Heinricu, historical painter, born at 
Munich in 1831, was a pupil of the Academy under 
Voltz from 1849 to 1856, and studied later under 
Kaulbach. He was associated with Schwind in the 
execution of the Wartburg frescoes, and jointly 
with his brother, August Fr., he painted allegories 
of the sciences in the Arcades of the Maximilia- 
neain, at Munich. He died at Munich in 1875. 

SPILIMBEKGO, Irene di, was born at Udine 
about 1540. Although practising painting for her 
amusement only, she applied herself to it with all 
the zeal of a professor, and is said to have received 
lessons from Titian. Lanzi mentions three pictures 
from sacred history, by this lady, which were in his 
time in the Casa llaniago at Venice. Titian is said 
to have painted her portrait. She died in 1559. 
^SPIL'MAN, Hendrik, was born at Amsterdam in 
1721, and painted portraits and landscapes with some 
success. He engraved a few plates, among which 
are the following : 

Henry Tilly ; after C. van Noarde. 

His own Portrait ; after tlie same painter. 

Several portraits forLangendijk's History of the Counts 

of Holland. 
Six small Views in Holland, on one sheet ; inscribed 

Plaizante Landschapies, H. A'piiman, inv. tt sculp. 
View of the Rokin, Amsterdam ; after J. de Beijer. 

He also engraved three landscapes, in the style of 
bistre drawings, after Everdingen, Van Borssum, 
and Berchem. He died in Haarlem in 1784. 

SPILNBERGER, Hans, (Spielberger,) painter 
and etcher, was born at Kaschau, in Hungary, in 
1628. He worked in Italy and Augsburg, and 
afterwards settled in Vienna as court painter. He 
was carried oil by the plague in 1679, while 
travelling in Bohemia. His works include, 'St 
Peter preaching on the Day of Pentecost,' in the 
Kreuzkirche at Augsburg ; ' The Death of St. 
Benedict,' in the church of S. Emeran at Ratisbon ; 
and ' The Assumption of the Virgin,' in St. Stephen's, 
Vienna. He also etched several plates. 

SPILSBURY, F. B., an amateur painter and 
draughtsman, was a surgeon in the navy, and 
made many drawings of scenery and costumes seen 
by him during his voyages. He served in the 
Syrian campaign of 1796, and published a ' Pictur- 
esque Scenery in the Holy Land and Syria,' and, in 
1805, a book on the West Coast of Africa, illustrated 
by himself. 

SPILSBURY, John, an English engraver and 
printseller, was boru in 1730. He scraped a great 
many plates in mezzotint after Reynolds and others, 
and many portraits after his own designs. In the 
dot style he engraved a collection of gems, which 
was published in numbers. About 1782 he was 
drawing-master at Harrow School. He also kept a 
print-shop in Russell Court, Covent Garden. He 
died in 1795. Among his plates we may name : 

Miss Pond, who rode lOCO miles in 1000 hours ; from his 

own desii/u. 
A set of fourteen Heads and Busts ; in the manner of 

Rembrandt. 1767 and 176S. 
George III. when Prince of AVales. 1759. 
Queen Charlotte. 1764. 

Christian VII., King of Denmark ; after Fesche. 1709. 
Inigo Jones ; after I'nndych. 

Lady Mary Leslie decorating a Lamb ; after Reynolds. 
A young Lady with Flowers ; after the same. 
Frederick Howard, Earl of Carlisle ; after the same. 
A Boy eating Grapes ; after Rubens. 
Two Monks reading ; after the same. 
Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Rembrandt, 
The Flight into Egypt ; after Murillo. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 

The name Inigo Spilsbury, which often occurs in 
catalogues, seems to have been given to John, as 
the engraver of Van Dyck"s ' Inigo Jones,' to dis- 
tinguish him morereadilv from his brother Jonathan. 

SPILSBURY, Jonathan, the brother of John 
Sjiilsbury, exhibited portraits at the Eoyal Academy 
from 1776 to 1807. Among them were those of 
Charles Wesley, and of the Rev. J. Fletcher and 
his wife. 

SPILSBURY, Maria, painter and engraver, was 
the daughter of John Spilsbury, and was born in 
London iu 1777. She painted genre pictures, and 
was most successful in the treatment of rural life 
and of childhood. In 1807 she exhibited eight 
pictures at the Royal Academy. Many of her best 
works were engraved, one, 'A Shepherd's Family,' 
by herself. She married a Mr. John Taylor, and 
settled in Ireland, where she died. 

SPINELLI, GAsrARRl,(PARRi,) painter of Arezzo, 
born in 1387, was the son and pupil of Luca 
Spinelli. He afterwards went into the school of 
Ghiberti in Florence. The church of S. Domenico, 
Arezzo, contains a ' Crucifixion,' with the Virgin and 
figures of three saints on either side, by him, in 
fiesco. The Gallery of Arezzo possesses three 
frescoes taken from the church of Sta. Maria della 
Misericordia of that city ; and the church of San 
Francesco, a ' Last Supper,' which is now much 
damaged by time. His portrait, painted by Marco 



da Moutepulciano, is still preserved in the cloisters 
of S. Bernardo, in liis native city. He died in 1452. 

SPINELLF, LucA, commonly called Spinello 
AnETlN'O, wiis the son of Luca Spinelli, a Florentine 
Ghibeline, who about 1310 had fled to Arezzo, 
where the younger Luca was born in 1332. The 
boy was apprenticed to Jacopo del Casentino, a 
follower of Giotto, and before his twentieth year 
was a better iirtist than his master. Very few of 
his earlier works at Arezzo have been preserved. 
About 1318 we find him at Florence, painting 
frescoes in the choir of S. Maria Maggiore, in two 
chapels of the Carmine, and in one at S. Triniti, 
besides three altar-pieces for the churches of S. 
Apostolo, S. Lucia di Bardi, and S. Groce. The 
frescoes have all disappeared, but the panels re- 
main. In 1361 he was recalled to Arezzo, where 
he painted an altar-piece for the Abbey of the 
Camaldoli in the Casentino, which was removed in 
1539 to give place to one by Vasari, as well as 
many other altar-pieces and frescoes, of which an 
' Annunciation ' over the altar of S. Francesco, and 
frescoes in different parts of the church, may still 
be seen ; the bell-room contains frescoes illus- 
trating the life of St. Michael the Archangel. 
In 1384, when Arezzo was sacked, Spinello again 
went to Florence, where he was engaged by 
Don Jacopo dArezzo, Abbot of S. Miniato, and 
General of the Congregation of Monte Oliveto, 
to furnish an altar-piece for his church. The centre 
panel of this work has disappeared ; but its two 
wings, with the date 1385, and the names of Simone 
Cini, the carver, and Gabriello Saracini the gilder, 
inscribed on two members of the frame, are in 
the possession of Mons. Ramboux, superintendent 
of the Gal.ery at Cologne, while its gable and 
predella are in the Gallery of Siena. He also 
decorated the sacristy of San Miniato with frescoes 
representing scenes from the life of St. Benedict. 
Although very unskilfully restored, these still 
exist, and are very Giotto-like in composition, 
besides possessing that decorative brilliance of 
colour wliic h is one of the characteristics of the 
Siena school. His style, in fact, may be regarded 
as a link between the scliool of Giotto and that of 
Siena. In 1391-92 Spinello painted six frescoes, 
which still remain on the south wall of the Pisan 
Campo Santo, representing miracles of Sts. Potitus 
and Ephesus. These finished, he again returned 
to Florence, where in 1400 and 14Ul he painted 
scenes from the lives of SS. Philip and James 
for a chapel in Santa Croce, and an altar-piece 
for the convent of Santa Feliciti, now in the 
Accademia at Florence. It is in three compart- 
ments, of which the centre, with the 'Coronation 
of the Virgin,' is painted and signed by his 
assistant and pupil, Lorenzo di Niccolo Gtrini ; 
the figures of St. Peter, St. James, St. John, 
and St. Benedict on its right were painted and 
signed by Nicco!6 di Pietro, the father of Lo- 
renzo ; and the fisures of St. John Baptist, St. 
Matthew, and S. FelicitJi on its left were painted 
and signed by Spinello himself. The whole bears 
an inscription dated 1401. To about the same 
period must be ascribed the famous fresco, for- 
merly in S. Maria degli Angeli, at Arezzo, repre- 
senting the ' Fall of the Rebel Angels.' The 
church was destroyed in the last century, and 
the only parts of Spinello's work which were 
saved are now in the National Gallery. It is of 
this last subject that Vasari states that Spinello 
died through fright from a dream in which he 


saw the devil, who demanded of him why ho 
had painted him so frightful. But so far from 
dying at this time, Spinello accepted a commission 
to paint at Siena, where he and his son Gasparri 
or Parri, went in 1404, and worked at the decora- 
tion of the Duomo until 1405. He probably then 
returned to Florence, where he decorated Dardan* 
Accaiuoli's chapel in San Niccol6, as well as portions 
of the church. In 1408 he and his son returned 
to Siena, and decorated the Sala di Balia of the 
Palazzo Pubblico with a series of sixteen frescoes, 
illustrating the Venetian campaign against Frederic 
Barbarossa, and giving prominence to the part 
taken in it by Pope Alexander III. It is supposed 
that he then retired to Arezzo, where he died in 
1410, leaving two sons, Gasparri and Baldassare. 
Forzore Spinelli, sometimes called Luca's son, was 
his nephew. 





Academy. Madonna aud Child with Saint* ' 

and Angels. 1391. 
Jfarchese 1 A IJannerwitli the Flagellation, 
liarghiacci.y and Mary Mngdalene. 
A'ai. Uallery. St. John the Baptist, St. John, 
and St. James the Great (?). 
„ Michael and six Companions, 

from the ' Fall of the Rebel 
Angels,' formerly in S. Maria 
degli Angeli, Arezzo. 
„ Fragments from the border of 

the same. 
Academy. Death of the Virgin. 

SPINNY, GuiLLAUME DE, a native of Brussels, 
studied art in that city and in France. In 175S 
he established himself at the Hague, where he 
painted with some acceptance for many years. He 
died in 1785. 

SPIRINX, J., an indifferent engraver, who flour- 
ished about the year 1635. He engraved some 
frontispieces and other plates for books. 

SPIRINX, L., probably a relation of J Spirinx, 
engraved some frontispieces and other ornaments 
for books, dated from 1641 to 1674. This artist has 
left a few portraits, among them one of Pierre do 
la Mothe, dated 1663. " 

SPISANO, ViNCENzo, (called Lo Spisanelli,) 
painter, born at Orta, in the Milanese, in 1495, 
studied at Bologna, in the school of Denys Calvaert, 
whose style he adopted, and followed without 
deviation. His compositions are, however, less 
judicious, and his design less correct. Of his 
numerous works in the public buildings of Bologna, 
the most remarkable are, the ' Death of S. Joseph,*" 
in S. Maria Maggiore ; the ' Visitation of the 
Virgin to S. Elizabeth,' in S. Giacomo Maggiore ; 
the ' Baptism of Christ,' in S. Francesco ; and the 
' Conversion of Paul,' in S. Domenico. His easel 
pictures, most of which are in private collections 
in Bologna and its neighbourhood, arc better than 
his altar-pieces. He died in 1662. 

SPLINTER, Gekrit, is quoted by Van Mander 
as the master, at Utrecht, of Abraham Bloemaert. 
The records of Utrecht show that early in the 
16th century a family of painters of this name was 
established in the city. 

SPOEDE, Jean Jacques, a Flemish painter of 
still-life, was born at Antwerp, probably in the 
first years of the 18th century. He studied in the 
Academy of his native city, and afterwards went 
to Paris, where he became the friend and pupil of 
Watteau. His name occurs in the catalogue of 
the exhibitions held by the Paris Society of S. Luke, 
of which he was professor and rector in 1751, 1752, 


and 1753. He died in 1760. There is a portrait 
by bim in tlie Orleans Museum. 

SPOFFORTH, RoDEBT, an English engraver 
and printseller, who flourished about tlie year 1707 
From his style Strutt thinks he was a pupil of 
S. Gribelin. We have a few portraits by him, 
among them the following : 
Queen Anne. | George I. [ John Cole, M. D. 

SPOLETI, Pier-Lorenzo, a Genoese, born in 
1680, was a pupil of Domenico Piola the Elder, 
and lived for a time at Ifadrid, where he had some 
success ns a portrait painter. He died in 1726. 

SPOLVERINI, HiLARio, born at Parma in 1657, 
was a disciple of Francesco Monti. Although he 
occasionally painted historical subjects, he was 
better known for his battles, attacks of banditti, 
and assassinations, which he designed with spirit, 
and painted with a consistent vehemence. He 
was much emploj-ed by Francesco, Duke of Parma. 
There are some altar-pieces by nim at Parma, in 
the cathedral and the Certosa. He died at Piacenza 
in 1734. 

SPOONER, Charles, was born in the county of 
Wexford in the first half of the 18th century, and 
apprenticed in Dublin to John Brooks. He came 
to London on the invitation of McArdell. We have 
several mezzotint portraits and other subjects by 
him. dated from 17.52 to 1762, among which are the 
following : 

Thomas Prior ; nfter J. Van Xost. 1752. 

Major-General Sir 'Williara Johnson ; after T. Adams. 

Miss Gunning : after Cotes. 

Miss Smith ; after the same. 

Greorge Keppel, Earl of Albemarle ; after Beynolds. 

Lady Selina Hastings ; after the same, 

Garrick in the character of Lear ; after Houston. 

"Woman with a Caudle in her hand ; after Schahken. 

Peasants regaling ; after Teniers. 

A set of four plates of Youthful Amusements; after 
He died in London in 1767, aged about fiftv. 

SPOOR, W. J. L., a Flemish painter of the 18th 
century, was bom at Budel, in North Brabant. He 
was a scholar of Hendrik van Anthonissen, at Ant- 
werp. In his early pictures he imitated the manner 
of that painter; but afterwards became a copyist 
of Paul Potter, and of other landscape and animal 
painters of the Dutch school. 

SPORCKMANS, Herbert, was bom at Antwerp 
in 1619. He studied under Rubens ; received the 
freedom of the Corporation of S. Luke in 1640, 
and was dean in 1659. He died in 1690. There 
is a picture by him in the Hotel de Ville, at 

SPRAXGHER, BARTnoLOMAUS, painter, born at 
Antwerp in 1546, was the son of Joachim Sprangher, 
an eminent merchant, who destined him for com- 
mercial pursuits ; but betraying a decided inclina- 
tion for painting, ho was placed under the tuition 
of Jan Mandijn, at Haarlem, with wliom he studied 
eighteen months, when, on the death of his in- 
structor, he became a scholar of an amateur called 
Van Dalem. He afterwards travelled through 
France to Ital}-, and resided three years at Parma, 
where he studied under Bernardino Gatti, called 
II Sojaro, who had been a disciple of Correggio. 
From Parma he went to Rome, where he was 
engaged to decorate the Villa of Caprarola by 
Cardinal Farnese. He was introduced by that 
prelate to Pope Pius V., who appointed him his 
painter, and gave him apartments in the Belvidere. 
The first thing he did for the Pope was a ' Last 

Judgment,' a composition of more than five hundred 
figures, painted on a copper-plate six feet high, 
which he finished with great care. He was also 
commissioned by the Pope to paint twelve scenes 
from the Passion of our Saviour. In 1575 Sprangher 
was invited to the court of Vienna, by the Emperor 
Maximilian II., who appointed him bis principal 
painter. On the death of Maximilian, in 1576, he 
remained in the service of Rudolph II., for whom 
he was employed both at Vienna and at Prague. 
Sprangher was greatly respected by the Emperor, 
both for his abilities as a painter, and for his 
literary acquirements, which were extensive, as 
well as for his talents in conversation. In 1588 
Rudolph ennobled him and his descendants. He 
died at Prague about 1627. There is a curious 
picture by Sprangher in the magazine of the 
National Gallery ; the subject is ' Men devoured 
by Dragons.' Other works : 

Berlin. Museum. The Resurrection. 

Copenhagen. Museum. The Death of Lucretia. 
Vienna. Gallery. Portraits of himself and his 

„ „ The Virtues of Rudolph II., an 

And others at Stockholm^ 
Schleissheim, Darmstadt, and 

Spranger has left a few etchings, among which 
the best is, 
A Figure bound to a Tree, on which the initials E5. 
are reversed. 

SPRINGER, CoRXELis, Dutch painter and en- 
graver ; born May 25, 1817, at Amsterdam ; studied 
with Gaspard Karssen and chose the same ,i;enre 
as that of his master, which was views of towns. 
Some of his pictures were highl}' appreciated, 
such as ' Hotel de Ville de Nim^gue,' ' La Maison 
de Rembrandt,' ' La Ville de Z^lande,' and several 
were exhibited at the Salons and the Paris Exhibi- 
tions, notably at the 1867 Exhibition, to whicli he 
sent his ' Vue de Munster.' He obtained several 
decorations, including the Leopold Order, the 
Hague gold medal of 1857, and others. He was a 
member of the Rotterdam Academy, and died at 
Hilversum, February 18, 1891. 

SPRIXGINKLEE, Hans, is said to have resided 
in the house of Albrecht Diirer, from whom he learnt 
the principles of the art of design, and to have died 
about 1540. He was formerly ranked among wood 

engravers from the presence of his mark, /Sf\_ 

on several of the woodcuts in the ' Hortulus 
animae cum horis beataj Virginis,' &c., printed at 
Nuremberg in 1518, 1519, and 1520. All that can 
be certainly afiirmed of bim, however, is that he 
was the designer of those subjects, and that be was 
contemporary with Albrecht Diirer. Neudorfer calls 
him an illuminator, and Thausing believes liim to 
have been the author of some of the borders in the 
Prayer Book of Maximilian. 

S PRONG K. See Vekspronck. 

SPRONG, Gerard, born at Haarlem in 1600, 
was a fair painter of portraits and interiors. He 
died in 1651. There is a half-length portrait of a 
lady by him in the Louvre. 

SPROSSE, K,\BL, painter and etcher, bom at 
Leipsic in 1819. He worked at the Art Academy 
of Leipsic, under Fr. Brauer and Schnorr. About 
1838 he was employed by Dr. Puttrich of Cologne. 
In 1840 he went to Italy, where he painted several 
views of the ruins of ancient Rome, from which 



he afterwards etched twelve plates. In 1848 he 
returned to Gormanj', but in 1849 was again in 
Rome. In 1850, 1857, and 1860 he was painting 
in Venice. He also visited Greece in search of 
subjects. Besides his Italian series, he etched 
many German castles, cathedrals, &c. He twice 
exhibited in Londun. He died at Leipsic in 1874. 

SPRUYT, Charles, son and pupil of Philip 
Spruyt, was born at Brussels in 1769. After study- 
ing in Italy, he settled in Brussels, where he painted 
historical pictures, such as a ' S. Tlieresa,' ' The 
Disciples at Emmaus,' 'John, Duke of Brabant, 
rescuing his sister.' He died at Brussels in 1827. 

SPRUYT, jAKon Philips, a native of Ghent, 
where he fionrished about 1764. He worked for 
a time at Delft and the Hague, but finally settled 
in his native city. 

SPRUYT, Philip Lambert Joseph, painter, was 
born at Ghent in 1727. He received his first teach- 
ing from Mild and Van Loo in Paris, and then from 
Mengs in Rome. On his return to Belgium he 
became Professor of Drawing at the Ghent Academy, 
and by command of Maria Theresa made a cata- 
logue of all the works of art in the Belgian 
churches and convents, which he adorned with 
etchinirs. He died at Ghent in 1801. 

SPRY, William, an EiigUsh fiower-painter, who 
practised in London, and exhibited at the Royal 
Academy from 1834 to 1847. 

SPYCK, Hendrik van. portrait painter, flourished 
at the Hague about 1670. He was an artist of 
some ability, and painted the portrait of Spinuza, 
with who-^e opinions he sympathized. 

SPYERS, James, a painter of views, practised 
in London in the second part of the 18th century. 
Various landscapes by him were engraved and 
mezzotinted by Jukes and G. Wills. 


Squarzdn, or Squarzoxus,) is celebrated in the 
tradition of ancient Italian art as the founder of the 
Paduan school of painting, and as having initiated 
among North Italian artists the study of ancient 
Greco-Roman art. He is important above all 
because he is said to have educated among his 
hundred and thirty-seven pupils one of the greatest 
painters of North Italy, his adopted son Andrea 
Mantegna. Vasari, referring to Girolamo Campag- 
nola, a contemporary scholar of Padua, and the 
Paduan historiographer Bernardino Scardeone (' De 
Antiquitate Urbis Patavii,'1560) relates that Squar- 
cione, himself a very weak painter, used to instruct 
Mantegna and his other pupils not by his own 
examples but by means of casts and drawings after 
antique statues and other works of art which he 
had collected during his long journeys in Italy, 
especially in Tuscany and Rome, and even in 
Greece. S luarcione, who was therefore called the 
father of painters, is said to have been very famous 
in his time, and to have been honoured by the 
acquaintaace of very conspicuous persons, such 
as the Eni[ieror Frederick, St. Bernardino, the 
Cardinal Mezzarota, and others. 

From the study of the documents and of the 
pictures attributed to him, however, we get quite a 
different idea of his artistic importance. He was 
born at Padua in 1394, the son of the notary 
Giovanni Squarcione. In a deed of Dec. 29, 1423, 
he is called a tailor and embroiderer (^sartor et 
recamator), and it is not earlier than in 1439 that 
we find him mentioned for the first time as a 
painter. He must therefore have practised paint- 
ing only in later years, especially if he had made 


long journeys in distant countries. From 1441 to 
1463 he is mentioned in the registers of the/ra<;Ha 
(brotherhood or guild)of the Paduan painters, and in 
the account-books of St. Antonio and of the cathe- 
dral, as a painter and as providing certain drawings. 
In 1463 he is declared to have removed to Venice, 
and in 1465 he was exempted from all tuxes 
because he had pledged himseif to draw and colour 
a plan of the town and province of Padua for the 
municipality. He died, according to Scardeone, at 
Padua in 1474, at the nge of eighty. 

Only two authentic works of Squarcione can still 
be pointed out : an altar-piece in the Paduan 
Museum which, according to the still-existing 
contract, he executed in 1449 to 1452 fo.- the 
Lazzara family, and a Madonna with Child, signed 
with his name, bought by the Berlin Museum from 
the same f nuily. The altar-piece consists of five 
parts, in the centre of which St. Jerome is repre- 
sented seated in a landscape, while the others con- 
tain the figures of St. Anthony and Justina, John 
the Baptist, and Lucia on a gold ground. It is a 
very weak painting, quite in the style of the Viva- 
rini, which could easily be taken for an early work 
of Gregorio Schiavone, one of Squarcione's pupils. 
The Berlin Madonna is not much better as a 
painting, but it shows quite a different style, and 
betraj-s a great superiority in the fresh naturalistic 
motive of the composition, which is, however, obvi- 
ously borrowed from Donatello. The Child, as if 
frightened by something unaccustomed, with a 
violent movement takes refuge in his mother's arms. 

These weak pictures of quite an obsolete man- 
ner — painted at a time when Mantegna had already 
given the first imposing proof of his extraordinary 
talent — do not enable us to believe that their author 
should be regarded as the creator of a new style. 
The great difference between the two paintings has 
been universally remarked, and must suggest to us 
the suspicion that both pictures may have been exe- 
cuted, not by Squarcione himself, but by two of his 
many assist mts. The follcwing facts and consider- 
ations confirm the supposition that Squarcione, 
recoguized even by his admirers as a feeble 
painter, used to take the works of his pupils under 
his own name, and he was not so much the artistic 
as the business head of his workshop. 

In 1443 the decoration of a chapel in the church 
of the Eremitani at Padua was connnitted to 
Squarcione, who, however, as we learn from docu- 
ments and from the work itself, did not himself 
execute the frescoes, but entrusted them to his 
pupils, especially to the young Mantegna. We 
know that as early as 1448, when Mantegna was 
only seventeen years old, Squarcione made a con- 
tract with him for common work, which after- 
wards (1455) on Mantegna's demand was declared 
by the court of justice null and void because he then 
was still a minor, and because he had been deceived 
in the contract. Mantegna meantime had with- 
drawn himself from the dependence of Squarcione, 
and entered in artistic and personal connection 
with his master's rival, Jacopo Bellini, whose 
daughter he married. For this he incurred the 
enmity of his late master, who is said to have blamed 
very violently Mantegna's work in the chapel of 
the Eremitani. From an agreement between 
Pietro Calzetta, one of Squarcione's pupils, and 
Bernardo Lazzara in 1466 we learn that the draw- 
ing of Squarcione which had to serve as the sketch 
for Calzetta's painting was really not by the hand 
of the master but of that of Niccol6 Pizzolo. one of 


[Hiiiijslaiigl fiioto] 


[Beilin Gatlety 


his most talented assistants. Of a similar origin 
may have been the drawings which Squarcione 
delivered in 1462 to the Canozi di Lendinara for the 
choir stalls of II Santo. Within the limits of 
Squarcione's talents may have been works of the 
character of the two plans of Padua, which he exe- 
cuted for the government of Venice, and, as we have 
seen, for the municipality of his native town. We 
can conclude from all this that Squarcione, far from 
being a creating and inspiring artist, was obliged 
to maintain the credit of his workshop by abusing 
the talents of his young assistants. Moreover, 
nearly all important commissions for paintings at 
Padua seem to have been in his time entrusted to 
foreigners. Very eloquent also is the silence of the 
most important and learned contemporary historian 
of Padua, Michele Savonarola, who wrote in 1440, as 
regards Squarcione, whom not once does he men- 
tion as an artist. It would seem, therefore, that 
S juarcione obtained his reputation as a painter and 
a teacher only very late in life. The account of 
his theoretical method of teaching his pupils by 
models of antique statues — a method so contrary 
to the practical and naturalistic sense of the 
Quattrocento as conformable with the academical 
epirit of the late Cinquecento — is evidently the 
work of the historical reconstruction of Vasari and 
of the local patriotism of Scardeone. 

Squarcione may have been an art-loving and 
learned man and a clever manager of artists. His 
external position and his interest for antiquities 
made him very properly to be accepted as the 
educator of his adopted son and his precursor in 
the scientific and archasological studies which 
made Mantegna celebrated among learned men. 
All observations received concur to show that 
Mantegna got the great impulses for his develop- 
ment not from Squarcione but from Donatello, 
Jaoopo Bellini, and from his learned and anti- [ 
quarian friends, and that the Paduan school was not | 
the foundation of Squarcione, but obtained its stamp 
of mental and artistic independence from Andrea 
ilantegna. See Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and 
'Mintegna,' by Paul Kristeller. P. K. 

SyUARCIONE, Zoppo di. See Zoppo, Marco. 

SSOLNZEFF, Fedob Gbigorievitsch ; Russian 
painter ; born April 14, 1801, at Jaroslaw ; becani'v 
a pupil of the Petersburg Academy, and sub- 
sequently travelled abroad for purposes of study. 
He was commissioned by the Emperor Nicolas to 
paint several historical pictures at Moscow, and in 
1876 he was appointed Professor at the Academy 
of St. Petersburg. He died there on March 5, 

SSOTNOWSKI. See Screta. 

STAAL, Pierre Gustave EugSnr, painter, was 
bom at Vertus, Marne, in 1817. He entered the 
£cole des Beaux .\rts in 1838, and was a pupil of 
Paul Delaroche. He exhibited portraits, chiefly in 
pastel, at the Salon from 1839 to 1872, and in 1865 
eight etchings. He died at Ivry in 1882. 

STABEN, Hendrik, born at Antwerp in 1578, 
is said to have visited Venice when very young, 
and to have entered the school of Tintoretto. He 
could not have studied there long, however, for 
Tintoretto died before Staben reached his seven- 
teenth year. He does not appear to have remained 
long in Italy, but established himself in Paris, 
where he painted small interiors, with neatly- 
drawn figures. He died in 1658. 

STABLI, Adolk, German painter; born May 31, 
1842, at Winterthur ; studied in Munich under A. 


Lier and much influenced by the Barbizon School ; 
settled at Munich, where he worked at landscape, 
some of his subjects being chosen from Swiss 
scenery, as, for instance, ' After the Storm,' ' Parthie 
an der Limmat,' ' Uberschwemmung bei Abend- 
dammerung,' &c. He died at Munich, September 
21 1901. 

STACCOLI, Francesco, water-colour painter, 
flourished in Rome at the end of the 18th century. 
He was a pupil of A. Maron, and copied much 
from the old masters. He died in 1815. 

STACHOWICZ, Michael, painter, bom at Cracow 
in 1768, was a pupil of Molitor. He painted pic- 
tures for churches and afterwards battle pictures, 
and other scenes from Polish history. In 1817 he 
became Professor at the Lyceum of S. Barbara in 
Cracow, where he died in 1835. 

STACK, Josef Magnus, a Swedish painter, born 
at Sund, in 1812. He studied at Stockholm and 
Munich, completing his education by visits to 
Paris and Italy. He died in 1868. The following 
pictures by him are in the Stockholm Gallery: 

A Sea View by Moonlight. 1847. 

A View of Haarlem in ^V"inter. 1848. 

Kiver Scene in Dalecarlia. 1856. 

Italian Landscape. 1860. 

STACKELBERG, Otto Magnus, Baron von, 
antiquarian draughtsman, was bom at Revel in 
1787. He studied first in Dresden, and finished his 
education in Rome ; whence, in 1810, he went with 
an exploring party to Greece. The result of their 
researches was the discovery of the remains of the 
Temple of Apollo at Bassae, which are now in the 
British Museum, and of the .^ginetan marbles, 
now in the Glyptothek at Munich. Of all these 
Stackelberg made careful and exact drawings, 
which he published in 1826. He also published a 
series of views of modem Greece, drawings of 
Greek costumes and customs, and a work on ancient 
Greek sepulture. He travelled later in Italy, and 
discovered some ancient Etruscan frescoes, to 
which another book was devoted. He died at St. 
Petersburg in 1837. 

STACKHOUSE, J., an English painter of flowers 
and fruit, who practised in London towards the 
close of the 18th century. 

STADING, Eveline, born at Stockholm in 1803, 
was a pupil of Fahlcrantz. She travelled and worked 
in Germany and Italy, but died young in 1829. 

STADLER, Alois Martin, painter, bom at Imst, 
in the Tyrol, in 1792, studied at Innsbruck and 
Munich, and in Italy. In 1822 he settled in Munich, 
and painted altar-pieces for different towns in the 
Tyrol, among them an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' 
for the parish church at Imst. He died at Sterzing 
in 1841. 

STADLER, Joseph Constantine, a German en- 
graver, who worked from 1780 to 1812 in London, 
and engraved views in aquatint. Among his best 
plates are : 

The Fire of I.onilon; after Loutherhcurg . 

The Destruction of the Armada ; after the same. 

The Picturesque Scenery of Great Britain ; sii plates ; 

tffttr the same. 
Views of London, Westminster, and Blackfriar.s Tridges; 

after FaHnyton. 
Many plates for Combes' * History of the Thames.' 
A series of views of Schloss Hohenheim, AViirtemberg ; 

engraved in conjunction with 2^'icolas and Victor 


STAEVAERTS. See Stevaebts. 
STAFFORD, John Phillips, commenced his art 
life as a scene painter under Matt Morgan, but even- 



tually settled down to black-and-white work in con- 
nection with comic journalism. He was a clever 
draughtsman, and fur many years was cartoonist 
to ' Funny Folks.' He also painted in oils, and 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, ' A Race,' in 
1877; 'Two Heads are not always better than 
One,' in 1878 ; and ' St. Valentine's Day,' in 1886. 
Stafford died in March 1899, at the early age of 
forty-eight. JI. H. 

STAGNON, Antoine Marie, draughtsman and 
engraver, flourished in the second half of the 18th 
century. He was engraver of seals to the King of 
Sardinia. Among his works were forty-three plates 
of Sardinian costumes, and two volumes of Sar- 
dinian uniforms. He assisted St. Non with tlie 
plates for his 'Voyage pittoresque d'ltalie.' In 
the fifth edition of tliat work, Choffard's name was 
substituted for his on two of the plates, Kos. 36 
and 38, and Stagnon published an indignant pro- 
test in ' Les Nouvelles de la R6publique des Lettres 
et des Arts,' for May 1779, claiming their sole 

STAINIER, R., an English engraver, who prac- 
tised in London towards the close of the 18th cen- 
tury. He was chiefly engaged on portraits, but occa- 
sionally engraved subject pictures, such as 'Lindor 
ami Clara,' and ' Cleopatra,' both after Wheatley. 

STALBEMT, Adriaan van, (Staelbent,) a 
Flemish painter and engraver, was born at Antwerp 
in 1580. He painted landscapes witli small figures, 
in a style resembling that of Brueghel ; also in- 
teriors with historical subjects. He practised for 
a time at Middelburg, and visited England in the 
reign of Charles I., and is noticed by Walpole 
under the name of Stalband. He painted a ' View 
of Greenwich,' and is said to have returned rich to 
Antwerp. Vandyck painted a portrait of Stalbemt, 
which was engraved by Pontius. Stalbemt has left 
an etching representing the ruins of an English 
Abbey, with cattle and sheep. It is signed. He 
died at Putte, in Brabant, in 1662. Works : 
Amsterdam. Jitjksmuseum. A Wooded Landscape. 
Antwerp. Musetim. A Landscape. 

Berlin. „ Adoration of the Shepherds. 

Cassel. Galleri/. Landscape. 

Copenhagen. „ A View of Antwerp. 

Dresden. „ Olympic Games. 

„ „ Judgment of Midas. 

Frankfort. „ Consecration of a Church. 

Madrid. Museum. David's Triumph over Go- 


STAMM, JoHANN Gottlieb Sajtoel, was bom at 
Meissen in 1767. He practised as a copyist at 
Dresden, but also etched after Klengel, Dietrich, 
and others. He died in 1828. 

STAMPART, Frans, born at Antwerp in 1675, 
was a scholar of the younger Tyssens, and a student 
of Vandyck. He had acquired a reputation as a 
portrait painter in his native city, when he was 
invited to Vienna by the Emperor Leopold, who 
appointed him his principal painter, in which ofiBce 
he was confirmed by Charles VI. He died at 
Vienna in 1750. 

STANFIELD, George Claekson, son of William 
Clarkson Stanfield, was born in London in 1828. 
He was a pupil of his father, but was gifted with 
very little talent. He exhibited, from 1844 to 
1876, continental landscapes, marine subjects, and 
views of towns. He died at Hampstead in 1878. 

STANFIELD, William Clarkson, painter, was 
born at Sunderland in 1793. His father, James 
Stanfield, was an Irishman of a certain reputation 
as a writer, and author of an ' Essay on Biography.' 


William Stanfield began life as a sailor, and showed 
an early taste for art, drawing and sketching ships 
and marine views, and painting scenery for plays 
performed on board ship. During one of his 
voyages to Guinea he became acquainted with 
Thomas Clarkson, and a warm friendship sprang 
up between them, in token of which Stanfield 
adopted the abolitionist's surname. Whilst serving 
as a clerk in the navy, Stanfield's talent attracted 
the notice of Captain Marryat, the novelist, who 
was the first person to recommend him to art as a 
profession. In 1816 he was temporarily disabled 
by a fall on an anchor, and getting his discharge 
in 1818, he made a fresh start as scene-painter at 
the Old Royalty in Wellclose Square, a theatre 
much frequented by sailors. His reputation grow- 
ing steadily, he obtained engagements successively 
at the Coburg Theatre, Her Majesty's, and Drury 
Lane ; an early acquaintance with Douglas Jer- 
rold proved of much service to him at this period 
of his career. Whilst occupied with his profession 
he at the same time painted a number of small sea- 
pieces, and became known in Loudon as a pro- 
mising marine painter. In 1824 lie was elected a 
membei' of the Society of British Artists, with whom 
he had exhibited the previous year. A large sea- 
piece, painted in 1827, and exhibited at the British 
Institution, ' Wreckers oft' Fort Rouge,' attracted 
considerable attention. In 1829 he sent his first 
picture to the Academy, a 'View near Chalon-sur- 
Saone,' and encouraged by its favourable reception 
and by a premium of fifty guineas from the British 
Institution, he gave up scene-painting to devote 
himself to easel pictures, and started on a conti- 
nental tour, the fruits of which were shown in 
pictures exhibited during the two following years : 
' Venice,' ' Strasburg,' ' A Honflenr Fisherman,' &c. 
A fine example of his art is the ' Mount St. Michael, 
Cornwall,' which was exhibited in 1830 at the 
Academy, and ensured his election, in 1832, as an 
Associate. Three years later he rose to full 
membership, and having resigned his connection 
with the Society of British Artists, became a con- 
stant exhibitor in Trafalgar Square up to the year 
of his death, sending altogether 132 pictures to 
the Academy exhibitions. In 1836 he completed a 
large Battle of Trafalgar,' for the Senior United 
Service Club, having previously been brought pro- 
minently before the public by a commission from 
William IV. to paint ' Portsmouth Harbour,' and 
the ' Opening of New London Bridge.' To these 
large spectacular works Stanfield's manner was 
peculiarly adapted. In his easel pictures he could 
never entirely free himself from the influences of 
the theatre, and his best landscapes are marred by 
a cold staginess of efliect and of treatmeni. 
His pictures were greatly admired in their day, 
but their reputation has waned, and is not likely 
to revive. Among important works executed by 
him on commission, we may mention a series of 
large pictures painted for the Banqueting-room 
at Bowood, and another seiies for Trentham 
Hall. A visit to Italy in 1839 resulted in the 
painting of a number of views of Italian scenery, 
of which the 'Castello d'Ischia, from the Mole' 
(1841), and ' Isola Bella, Maggiore ' (1842), are 
notable examples. He also frequently treated 
Dutch coast scenery, and published a series of 
lithographic views of the Rhine, the Meuse, and 
the Moselle, and a number of coast views in Heath's 
'Annual.' His health gradually declined towards 
the close of his life, but he continued to work with 






























unabated industry, exhibiting at the Academy in 
the year of his death, which took place at Hamp- 
stead, May 18, 1867. He was buried in S. Mary's 
Roman Catholic cemetery at Kensal Green. A 
large number of his pictures were included in the 
winter exhibition at Burlington House in 1870. 
Among his other works Ave may name : 
Lontlon. If at. Gal. Entrance to the Zuyder Zee, 

Texel Island. (Ex. 1844.) 
„ „ Battle of Trafalgar. {Sketch 

for the large picture painted 
for the Senior United Ser- 
vice Club. Ex. 1836.) 
,, ,, Lake of Como. 

„ „ Canal of the Giudecca, and 

Church of the Jesuits, 
Venice. (1S36.) 
S. Kensington. Museum. Xear Cologne. (1829.) 

„ „ Market Boat on the Scheldt. 

(Ex. 1826.) 
„ „ Sands near Boulogne. (Ex. 

„ „ Town and Castle of Ischia. 

Port-na-Spani.i, near the Giant's Causeway, Antrim, 
with the Wreck of the Spanish Armada. (,)/rJ. 
The Abandoned. {Earl of Korthbrook.) 
Capture of Smuggled GooJs. (Dugdale Collection.) 
Tilbury Fort— Wind against Tide. {Tattersall Col- 
lection. ) 
Battle of Roveredo. {Royal Holloway College, Eyham^ 

STANGE, Bernhard, painter, born at Dresden, 
July 24, 1807. He was intended for the profession 
of the law, and studied for a time at Leipsic Uni- 
versity, but his admiration for Rottmann and Rahl 
caused him to devote himself to art. His tirst 
works were poetical landscapes, which had a great 
popularity in his native country. His ' Morning 
Bell,' in particular, had such success, that he re- 
peated it twenty times. In 1849 he went to Venice, 
where he began moonlight scenes, for which he 
became famous. Later he painted many historical 
and genre pictures. He died in 1880 at Sindelsdorf, 
a village in the Bavarian Highlands to which he 
had retired. There are several of his pictures in 
the New Pinakothek, Munich, and one in the 
possession of Queen Victoria. 

STANLEY, Caleb Robert, landscape painter, 
bom about 1790, studied in Italy and practised in 
London. He painted in oil and water-colours, 
and exhibited at the Academy from 1820 to 1863. 
He died in London in 1868. There are three of 
his landscapes in the South Kensington Museum. 

STANLEY, Harold John, painter, was born at 
Lincoln in 1817. He studied at Munich under 
Kaulbach. In 1845 lie painted ' King Alfred Avith 
his Code of Laws.' He afterwards travelled and 
painted in Italy. For the ' Ludwig's Album' he 
made a series of drawings illustrating 'Some 
Years of an Artist's Life.' He died at Munich in 

STANLEY, Montague, landscape painter, was 
bom at Dundee in 1809. Losing his father when 
young, he spent a wandering childhood with his 
mother, visiting New York, Nova Scotia, and 
Jamaica before he was ten years old. At the age 
of eight he played the part of ' Ariel,' and up to 
the year 1838 he followed the theatrical profession, 
in which he obtained a considerable reputation. 
From conscientious motives he quitted the stage 
and devoted himself to art, receiving instruction 
from J. W. Ewbank. He rapidly rose in public 
estimation, and was elected an Associate of the 
Scottish Academy. He died in the island of Bute 
in 1844. 


STANNAKD, Alfred, a brother of Joseph 
Stannard, born at Norwich in 1806, where he died 
in 1889. He was connected with the Norwich 
School of Art, and liis landscapes represent local 
scenery almost exclusively, the very few exceptions 
being scenes painted in Holland. He was not as 
important as his brother Joseph, but his work is 
esteemed, and is marked by some poetic charm. 
He died in 1R89. 

STANNARD, Alfred George, the son of Alfred 
Stannard, also a painter of landscapes, the date of 
whose birth was about 1864, and who died in 1885. 
He was trained by his father, and his works have 
considerable charm, and by some critics are con- 
sidered to exceed his father's in beauty. 

STANNARD, Joseph, landscape and marine 
iiuinter, was born in 1797 at Norwich, where he 

j afterwards practised. He was a pupil of Robert 

I Ladbrooke, and also studied for a time in Holland. 

' He was a member of the Norwich Society of Artists. 

: His works are chiefly coast and river scenes, with 
some portraits. He also published a set of etcliings. 

j lie died in 1830. His most important picture was 
'ine of the annual 'Water Frolic' at Thorpe, in 
which he introduced many portraits. 

STANTON, Claek, born at Birmingham in 1832, 
was educated there, and studied at the Birmingham 
School of -Art. He early manifested a love of 
drawing and modelling, and, although destined 
for a business career, was allowed to follow his 
bent, and obtained employment as designer and 
modeller with the well-known firm of Elkington 
and Co., who sent him to Italy to study. In 1855 
he came to Edinburgh, and in 1857 began to 
exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy, sending 
' The Ivy Wreath ' (a nude study) and some 
medallion portraits. He did many illustrations 
for the publishing firms of Nelson, Nimmo and 
Ballantyne, and produced many designs for cups, 
statuettes and plate for silversmiths. His work 
attracted much attention, and he was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1862, 
becoming a full Academician in 1883. In 1881 
he was appointed Curator of the Academy's Life 
School. His plastic work is marked by refinement 
rather than strength, and in reliefs he especially 
excelled. His oil and water-colour paintings, 
although somewhat conventional in style, are well 
drawn and pleasing in colour. His diploma work, 
' Eurydice ' (a high relief in plaster), is in the 
Scottish National Gallery, and in the Glasgow 
Corporation Gallery hangs a water-colour ' Girl 
with Fruit.' He died in 1894. J.H. W,L. 

STANTON, Tho.mas, landscape painter, born 
about the middle of the 18th century. He practised 
in London, painting views in which he generally 
introduced architecture. A 'View of Stonyhurst 
College' by him was engraved by Middiman. 

STANZIONI, Massimo, painter, born at Naples 
in 1585, was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Carac- 
ciolo, but received some instruction in fresco from 
Belisario Corenzio. When Lanfranco visited 
Naples, Stanzioni profited by his lessons, and also 
by those of Fabrizio Santafede. He afterwards 
visited Rome, where he applied himself to study 
the works of Annibale Carracci, and formed an 
intimacy with Guido. On his return to Naples 
he displayed an ability that enabled him to 
compete with the ablest of his contemporaries. 
There existed between Stanzioni and Spagnoletto 
a jealousy and animosity which led the latter into 
the commission of a disgraceful piece of treachery. 



Lanzi reports that Stanzioni had painted an altar- 
piece at tiie Certosa representing the dead Christ 
witii the Marys, in competition with Ribera's ' De- 
position from the Cross.' Stanzioni's picture hav- 
ing turned somewhat lower in tone, Spagnoletto 
recommended the monks to permit him to clenn it, 
when he made use of some spirit or acid by 
which the beauty of the work was entirely de- 
stroyed. The fathers applied to Stanzioni to repair 
it, which he refused to do, declaring it should 
remain as it was, that such perfidy might be 
exposed. Among liis other works at Naples are 
the ceilings of the churches of S. Paolo and del 
Gesii Nuovo, his best frescoes, and a large ' S. Bruno 
presenting the Regulations of his Order to his 
Monks ' at the Certosa. He also painted many easel 
pictures for private patrons at Naples. Stanzioni's 
works are distinguished above those of his con- 
temporaries by nobility of conception, simplicity 
of feeling, and purity of line. He formed many 
so.'iolars, among them Dom. Finoglia and Gius. 
Marullo. He died in 1656. Other works : 

Dresden. Gallery. A Genius. 

Naples. .V. Martino. Last Supper. 

„ „ Legend of S. Bruno. 

„ Trinitlldei relleyrini. S. Emidio. 

„ Pal. Cassaro. Cleopatra. 

Paris. Ij>uvre. S. Sebastian. 

Vienna. Liechtenstein Gal. Virgin and Child. 

STAPLEAUX, Michel Guislain, painter, born 
at Brussels in 1799. He was a pupil of David. 
He painted historical and genre pictures, and por- 
traits. He painted a 'Napoleon at St. Helena,' and 
portraits of other members of the Bonaparte family. 
His ' Prodigal Son ' is at Prague. Several pic- 
tures by him are in the collection of the King of 
Wurtemberg and Prince Peter of Oldenburg. He 
died in 1881. 

STAR. See Stella. 

STAR, DiRCK VAN, (Staken,) a Dutch engraver, 
who flourished in the middle of the 16th century. 
He is sometimes called a little master, although 
not one of the seven men more strictly associated 
with the title. His drawing of the figure is good, 
with well-marked extremities. His prints are dated 
from 1520 to 1550. He usually marked them with 
the initials D. and V. divided by a star, to which 

he generally added the date, thus : 

//SUU j 

The following are among the best of ins very 
numerous plates : 

1. Eve and the little Cain, 1522, J. G. (Auqusti) If). 

2. The Deluge ; 1544. 

3. Christ calling Peter and Andrew, 1523, Mey 30. 

4. St. Peter walking on the Water. 1525, Des. 30. 

5. Christ tempted by the Demon, 15:73. 

6. Christ and the Woman of Samaria. 1523. 

7. The Virgin and S. Aune, 1522, I>. C. (Decemlir.s) 31. 

8. St. Bernard, 1524, Oct. 3. 

9. St. Luke painting the Virgin, 1526. /" Jtili. 28. 

10. St. Elisabeth, 1524, Xove. 15. 

11. Venus, 1524, Oct. 20. 

12. The Faun, 1522, ^ept. 14. 

13. Man wit!; a chimerical Fish, 1522, A. G. 16. 

14. The Goldsmith, no date. 

15. The Man Asleep, 1532, Oct. 10. 

16. The Drunken Drummer, 1525, J/ert. 8. 
IT. The Drummer and a Child, 1523, Oct. 14. 
IS. The Man holding a Shield of arms, 1522. 

19. The Woman holding an Escutcheon ; lozenge; 1525. 

20. St. Christopher. 

21. A wood-cut of an Interior, with a Gallery, and 
numerous Figures. The mark near the middle, 
1526 on the left. 


Whether the initials D. V. with a starling between 
them, and the letters D. V. separated by an asterisk 
in the upper part, belong to this engraver or not, 
is a matter of dispute. 

STAREN, Dirk van, engraver, flourished circa 
1520-1550, believed to have come from the neigh- 
bourhood of Kampen. He signs with D. V. and 
a star (hence called Master of the Star), and his 
plates nearly all bear the date and day of the 
month when they were completed. His device is 
met with also on woodcuts and in stained glass. 

STARK, James, landscape painter, was bom at 
Norwich, November 19th, 1794. He was the son 
of one Michael Stark, a Scotchman, who had settled 
at Norwich, where he had a dye-works. James 
studied under Crome for three years, and then went 
to London, wliere he entered the Royal Academy 
in 1817. His first work was ' Boys Bathing.' 
After a time a painful affliction compelled him to 
return to Norwich, where he had to abandon paint- 
ing entirely for some three years. As he became 
stronger in health, he began to take part energetic- 
ally in the exhibitions of the Norwich Society of 
Artists, to which he had been elected as early as 
1812. He was also a frequent exhibitor at the 
Academy and at the British Institution, where, in 
1818, he had won a premium of £50. In 1821 he 
married Elizabeth Dinmore, and moved to Yar- 
mouth for a time. He soon returned, liowever, to 
the cathedral city, and there, in 1827, he began 
the publication of his ' Scenery of the Rivers Yare, 
Waveney, and Bure.' Shortly afterwards he 
migrated to London, moving on, in 1839, to 
Windsor, where he lived and painted for ten years. 
Returning for the last time to London in 1849, he 
died there, in Mornington Place, Regent's Park, on 
March 24th, 1859. A collection of his pictures 
was shown at Norwich in 1887. Stark's reputation 
has suffered from the frequent ascription of his 
better pictures to Crome, and from the attribution 
to him of inferior works of the Norwich school. 
The following examples of his art are in English 
public collections : 

Edinburgh. Xat. Gal. Gowbarrow Park. 
Ijondon. „ The Valley of the Yare (per- 

haps hh ntasterpiect:). 
„ <S'. Kensington. Landscape — Woody Lane uear 

,. ,, Distant View of Windsor. 

{And others in ciyculat'Oit.) 
Sheffield. Majipin Gal. Laudscape with Cattle. 

His son Arthur is a landscape and animal painter. 

STARK, Joseph, born at Graz in 1782, first 
studied theology, and then law, and afterwards 
painting at tlie Vienna Academy. In 1817 he 
became director of the Academy at Graz. In 1826 
he travelled in Italy, and produced several portraits 
and historical pictures. He etched several plates 
after his own pictures, among them a ' Christ in the 
House of Martha and Mary,' which is in the 
Academy at Venice. He died at Graz in 1838. 

STARNINA, Ghebabdo, painter, born at Florence 
in 1354 (?), was a disciple of Antonio Veneziano. 
He is entered on the lists of the Painters' Guild, in 
1387, as Gherardo d'Jacopo Stama. He painted 
history in the stifl' style which prevailed at the early 
period at which he lived. Vasari reports that he 
was invited to the court of Spain, where he painted 
some pictures for the king, for which he was 
well paid. Among the few works of his at 
Florence which have escaped the ravages of time, 
is a ' Dying St. Jerome delivering his doctrines to 




his disciples,' in the church of S. Croce. Some 
scenes from the life of the Virgin, ia a chapel of the 
cathedral at Prato, are partly attributed to Stamina. 
He is supposed to have been the master of Masolino 
da Panicale. He died at Florence in 1403? 

STARREXBERG, Johann, was born at Gron- 
ingen, and flourished from the year 1650 to 1670. 
He painted historical subjects, and frescoed 

STATTLER, Albert Cornel, painter, was born 
at Cracow in 1800. He was a pupil of Larapi, but 
went in 1817 to Rome, where he studied at the 
.•icademy of St. Luke, and came under the influence 
of Overbeck. He painted historical subjects and 
portraits and died at Rome in 1870. 

STAUFFER, Karl, Swiss painter and engraver ; 
born tft;ptember 2, 1857, at Triibschaohen ; studied 
engrairing witCi Raab and Hahu in Munich, and 
afterwards in Berlin. At first he worked at oil- 
p^iinting, but exchanged this lor engraving, in 
whicli he bid fair to reach a high level of excel- 
lence. Of his plates we may mention his ' Portrait 
of his Mother,' portraits of Adolf Menzel, Gustav 
Freytag, Kiihn, Keller, and others. His best 
wjrk can be studiei! in the Dresden and Berlin 
Coller^tions. He died at Florence, January 25, 

STAYEREN, Johan Adeiaensz van, flourishei'. 
about 1000, and if not a pupil, was a close imitator 
of Gerard Dou. His favourite subject was a hermit 
contemplating a skull, reading a book, or at hi;i 
devotions before a crucitis. As the scene is 
generally the entrance of a grotto in a wild locality, 
he introduces the trunk of an old tree coverel 
with ivy or moss. His execution is as elaborate 
as that of Gerard Dou, but his handling is not so 
clear and fluent. Works : 
Amsterdam. E. Museum. 



An Old Man Praying. 

A Hermit. 

The Schoolmaster. 

Woman Sewing. 

A Savant in his Study. 

Dutch writers mention three other artists of this 
name, Padl, Jacob, and E. ; Paul and E. are also 
said to have been pupils of Gerard Dou ; Jacob was 
a painter of fruit and flowers ; they all lived from 
about 1660 to 1700. Laborde mentions a mezzotint 
of a Man counting Money, signed P. Straverenus- 

STAYLER, Alen, illumined the choir books 
for the Abbey of St. Alban's, in the reign of 
Henry III. 

STAYNER, J., an English engraver, worked in 
London towards the close of the 18th century. 
Two line plates by him, after Collet, are known, 
and a few mezzotints. 

STECH, Andreas, a painter of Dantzic of the 
17th century, painted for the churches of Dantzic, 
Oliva, and l^epplin. In the Dantzic cathedral there 
is a 'S. Rosa' by him. He made drawings for 
books on botany and astronomy, and several por- 
traits by him have been engraved. He died in 

STEELE, Edward, nicknamed 'Count Steele,' 
was bom at Egremont, in Cumberland, about 1720. 
He studied in Paris, and imder an obscure painter 
called Wright. He practised at Kendal and York, 
whence he made tours in the northern counties, 
painting portraits at a few guineas apiece. Sterne 
was among his sitters. In 1766 he ran away with 
a young lady who was his pupil, in which exploit 
he was assisted by George Romney, who was at 
that time his scholar. The date of his death is 

unknown, but in 1759 his collection of pictures, 
prints, and drawings was sold by auction. He is 
said, however, to have been living in Ireland, with 
his wife, after that date. 

STEELL, GoDRLAY, son of John Steell, a well- 
known wood-carver, and younger l^-other of the 
sculptor Sir John Steell, R.S.A., was born at Edin- 
burgh in 1819. He was educated there, and received 
his art-training in the School of the Board of 
Manufacturers, and also under Robert Scott Lauder. 
He began to exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy 
at the age of thirteen. In 1835 he showed a model 
of a bloodhound, and thenceforward exhibited 
regularly. He was a great lover of animals, studied 
their every pose and movement, and drew them 
with admirable fidelity and vigour, so as often to 
be called the Scottish Landseer. He did a good 
deal of book illustration in his early years and 
modelled animals with skill, many of his designs 
being reproduced in silver by Edinburgh silver- 
smiths. He was for some years a successful teacher 
of modelling, in succession to his father, at the 
Watt Institute at Edinburgh. He rapidly attained 
eminence, and was much in request to paint aninuU 
portraits, and also for decorative works on a large 
scale in oil, charcoal, and tempera. His charcoal 
drawings have much merit. From 1835 till his 
death he exhibited regularly at the Royal Scottish 
Academy, of which he became an Associate in 
1846, and an Academician in 1859. Between 1865 
and 1880 he also sent ten pictures to the Royal 
Academy in London. For many years he was 
animal painter to the Highland and Agricultural 
Society, and, in 1873, on the death of Sir E. Land- 
seer, was appointed animal painter to the Queen 
for Scotland, and much of his work is in the Royal 
Collections. In 1882 he was elected Curator of 
the National Gallery of Scotland. Among his 
best pictures are: 'A Cottage Bedside in Osborne' 
(which was engraved and became exceedingly 
popular), ' Llewellyn and Gelert,' of which the 
Queen commissioned a replica ; ' The Highland 
Riiid,' ' Robbie Burns and the Field Mouse,' 'Spring 
in the Highlands,' 'A Challenge,' 'The Pass of 
Leny ; Cattle going to Falkirk Tryst,' and ' The 
Trysting Place' (in Glasgow Corporation Gallery). 
He died at Edinburgh on January 31, 1894. M, H. 
STEEN, Jan, was born at Leyden about 1626. 
His father was a brewer of respectable family, 
and probably sufficiently rich. He displayed an 
early talent for art, and was sent to study in the 
lirst place under Nicholas Knupfer, a German painter 
of historical subjects settled at Utrecht ; and from 
him transferred to the studio of Jan van Goyen 
at the Hague. Later on he came under the 
influence of Adriaen van Ostade, at Haarlem — 
that is evident in his principal works. While he 
made his studies under Jan van Goyen, of the 
Hague, he married in 1649 his daughter Margaretta, 
by whom he had four, if not five, children. The 
details of his life are obscure. That he worked 
hard is proved by the number of pictures (more 
than 500) he has left. That he was improvident 
is proved by the records of executions for debt 
which have been discovered at Haarlem by Mr. 
Van Willingen, and that his pictures sold at low 
prices is clear from a contract he made to pay the 
year's rent of his house for 1666-67 with three 
[lortraits "painted as well as he was able," the 
amount of the rent being onl}' twenty-nine florins. 
Jan Steen was entered in the Painters' Guild at 
Leyden in 1G48, but from 1649 till 1G54 he was at 



the Hague. From 1654 till 1661 he resided again 
at Leyden, and from 1661 till 1669 at Haarlem. 
In that year he returned to take possession of his 
inheritance. In 1672 he opened a tavern in the 
city at the Lange Brug (Long Bridge). Many of 
his pictures had been painted in the interval, a 
great part of which he may have spent at the 
Hague. In 1673 he married a second wife, Marie 
van Egmont, widow of Nicolas Herculens. A son 
was bom in 1674 ; and five years later Jan Steen 
himself died, and was buried in the parish church 
of St. Peter, at Leyden, February 3, 1679, leaving 
the house he had inherited from his father to hi> 
widow and children. 

A very large proportion of the works of Jan 
Steen are in English private collections. The 
annexed list is mainly restricted to pictures in 
public Galleries : 

Amsterdam. R. Museum. 

Antwerp. Miiseum. 

Berlin. Gallery. 



Copenhagen. Gallery, 



Dublin. Nat. Gallery. 
Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. 
Glasgow. Gallery. 

Hague. Museum. 

London Nat. Gallery. 
„ Bridijewater Gall. 

„ Buckingham Pal. 
,, »» 

»» " 

»» »» 

Munich. Pinacothek. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. 

»» »» 


Portrait of Himself. 
Priusjesdag. (F^tc of the Prince 

of Orange.) 
The Feast of St. Nicholas. 
The Parrot'" Cage. 
A Village Wedding. 
The Merry Home-coming. 
The Quack Doctor. 
Do.; another version. 
The Baker Oostwaard with his 

Wife and the Painter's Son. 
The Libertine. 
The ScuUery-maid. 
The Danciug Lesson. 
The Happy Family. 
The Sick Lady. 
After the Carouse. 
A Couple Drinking. 
The Sauvegarde of the Devil. 
The Journey to Emmaus. 
Samson mocked by the Philis- 

A Village Wedding. 
Garden of an Inn. 
Men Quarrelling at Cards. 
A Merry Company. 
The Ivheturicians. 
The Operation. 
Twelfth Night. 
The Gallant Offer. 
The Miser surprised by Death. 
David returning with the Head 

of Goliath. 
The Marriage at Cana. 
A Woman feeding a Child. 
The Expulsion of Hagar. 
A ViUage School. 
The Sick Lady. 
The Painter and his Family. 
The Doctor's Visit. 
Human Life. (Jan Steen's Ale- 
The Painter and his Family. 
A Doctor feeling the pulse of a 

Young Woman. 
The Dentist. 
The Menagerie. 
The Fete de Village. 
The Mu.sie Master. 
Man seUiug Fish at a House 

A School of Boys and Girls. 
Lady Dressing. 
Interior of an Ale-house. 

And others. 
Quarrel in a Tavern. 
Doctor's Visit. 
Esther before Ahasuerus. 
Doctor's Visit. 
F^te Champetre. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Drinkers. 

„ „ ' The Sick Man. 

„ „ The Tric-trac Players. 

„ „ Village Wedding. 

„ „ Tavern Scene. 

Rotterdam. Museum. The Pretended Operation. 
„ The Feast of St. Nicholas. 

Vienna. Gallery. A Village Wedding. 

„ „ ' The Prodigal Household. 

A Wedding Party ; and several others. (Duke of Wel- 
Doctor with Lady; and other pictures. {Marquis of 

Lansdowne.) W. M. 

STEEN, Jan, (of ALirMAAB,)an obscure Dutch 
painter of the 18th century, who painted historical 
and genre pictures. 
STEENREI. See Stenree. 
STEENWIJCK, Hendrik van, (Steinwtck,) 
the elder, born at Steenwijck in 1650, was a scholar 
of Jan Vredeman de Vries, an artist of reputation 
as a painter of perspectives and architectural views. 
Steenwijck painted similar subjects, in which he not 
only surpassed his instructor, but in his own way 
has scarcely been equalled by any one who has 
succeeded him. His pictures represent the interiors, 
usually Gothic, of churches and other buildings. 
He was fond of painting torchlight, with which, by 
judicious chiaroscuro, he won extremely picturesque 
effects. His pictures are usually supplied with 
figures by the Franckens and others. He worked 
at Antwerp in 1577, but in 1679 went with Lucas 
and Martin Valckeuborcht to Germany, and after- 
wards settled in Frankfort. Pieter Neefs was 
among his pupils. He died about 1604. The 
following are among his better pictures : 

Amsterdam. K. Musatm. 
Brussels. Museum. 

London. Nat. Gallery. 
„ Bridgetnater Gal. 

,, Mrs. Joseph. 

\'ieuna. Gallery. 

Interior of a Catholic Church. 

Interior of St. Peter's Church 
at Lou vain. 

luterior of an Ante-room. 

Interior of a Church by Torch- 

Interior of a Church. 

Interior of a Gothic Church. 

Dungeon Interior. (The De- 
liverance of St. Peter, dated 
1604. Sis last known work.) 

STEENWIJCK, Hendeik van, (Steinwtce.) 
the younger, the son of Hendrik Steenwijck, born 
at Amsterdam, or perhaps Frankfort, about 1680, 
was insti'ucted by his father. His pictures are 
similar in subject to those of the elder Steenwijck, 
but are usually on a larger scale. He lived in 
intimacy with Vandyck, who painted a line por- 
trait of him, of wliicli we have a print by Pontius. 
He was recommended by Vandyck to the notice 
of Charles I., who, about 1629, invited him to 
England, where he resided several years. In the 
Whitehall catalogue ten of the principal works of 
Steenwijck are to be found. The pictures he painted 
before coming to Englaud have figures by Jan 
Brueghel, Theodore van Thulden, and others, 
while he himself occasionally painted architectural 
backgrounds to Vandyck's portraits. He died in 
London in 1648. His widow, SnsANNA, settled in 
Amsterdam, and became known as a painter of 
views, whUe his son Nicholas entered the ser^•ice 
of Charles I., and is believed to have died in 
England. The younger Steenwijck's works are 
often confounded with those of his father. The 
following are good examples : 

Berlin. Museum. The Prison (dated 1640). 

Copenhagen. Gallery. Interior of a Gothic Church. 
Dresden. Gallery. Three Church Interiors, dated 

respectivelv 1609. 1611, 1614 





Florence. Vffizi. Interior of a Prison, with Be- 

heading of St. John Baptist. 

The Hague. Museum. A Public Square, with Monu- 
ments and figures. 

London. BridueKater ) Interior of a Church at Aut- 
Gallery. j werp (figures by Van Thul- 

Madrid. Gallerv- Christ brought before the High 

„ The Denial of Pet«r. 

Paris. Louvre. Chri.'^t in the House of Martha 

and Mary. (The figures at- 
tributed to Poelenburgh.) 
,, „ Interior of a Church. 

Vienna. Gallery. Two Church Interiors ; and 

Two Dungeon Interiors with 
Deliverance of St. Peter. 

maker, was a pupil of David Bailly at Leiden ; in 
1644 he became a member of the Guild of St. Luke 
8t Delft. In 1654 he ■n-as in the East Indies, but 
was back at Delft in 1655, and was still livin.' 
there in 1658. He painted still-life. W. H. J. W. 

STEENWIJCK, Nicholas, born at Breda in 
1640, excelled in painting vases, musical instru- 
ments, books, and other inanimate objects, and fish. 
He died in 1698. 

STEENWIJCK, Peter, brother of Herman, also 
learnt his art under David Bailly at Leiden ; was 
admitted into the Guild of St. Luke at Delfl on 
November 10, 1642. In 1654 he was settled at 
the Hague. He also painted still-life. 

Authority: Bredius, in 'Oud Holland,' VIII., 

1890. W. H. J. \\. 

STE EVENS, Richard. See Steve.n's. 

STEFANESCHI, Giovanni Battista, bom at 
Konta, near Florence, in 1582, was a monk, and 
is generally called I'Eremita di Monte Senario. 
He was instructed by Andrea Comodi, by Ligozzi. 
and by Pietro da Cortona, and chiefly excelled in 
copying, in miniature, the w-orks of other painters, 
in which he was much employed by Ferdinand II., 
Grand Duke of Tuscany. He died in 1659. 

STEFANI, Benedetto, a publisher and engraver, 
and native of Verona, who flourished about 1576, 
and whose name is affixed to a print in the style 
of iEnea Vice, copied from Marc Antonio's Battle 
of the Lapithse. 

STEFANI, PiETBO Degli. See Degli Stefani. 

STEFANI, ToMMASo Degli. See Degli Stefani. 

STEFANI DA FOSSANO, Ambbogio, called also 
Borgognone, Ambbogio da Fossano, and, by Lanzi, 
Ambrogio Egogni, was born probably between 
14.50 and 1460. His birthplace is usually said to 
have been Fossano, in Piedmont, hut he seems 
rather to have been born in Milan, for his father. 
Stefano, was already called ' Mediolanensis,' or a 
native of Milan. As for his name of Borgbgnone, 
some writers, notably M. Rio, believe it to have 
been given in consequence of Flemish character- 
istics in his art, others, among them the commend- 
atore Morelli, think it due merely to some ancestor, 
his father or grandfather, having lived for a time- 
in Flanders, which was then called Borgogna by 
the Italians. Ambrogio's life is so little known 
that Lanzi divided him into three different indi- 
viduals, giving to each one class of his works. 
His master was, in all probability, Vincenzo Foppa, 
to whom some critics would add Zenale and Butti- 
none. His earliest known works date from about 
1488. They were painted for the Pavian Certosa, 
where Ambrogio was at work for some years. The 
stalls and other wood-work in the choir were 
6nished by Bartolommeo de' Polli from design> 

fumishea Dy Borgognone about the year 1490. 
The latter returned to Milan in 1494, in which 
year he was at work at San Safiro. In 1497 he 
was at Lodi, painting in the church of the Incoro- 
nata. In 1508 he received a commission for an 
altar-piece in San Satiro, Bergamo, which is still 
extant. In 1512, as documents prove, he was 
back at Milan. In 1524 he painted some scenes 
from the legend of St. Sisinius in the portico of 
San Simpliciano, Milan, which have now dis- 
appeared, and he may have died very soon after. 
The date 1535, which, it was said, was upon an 
■ Assumption ' that has now disappeared from the 
church of Cremeno, in Valsassina, is so much later 
than any other record we possess of Ambrogio's 
existence, that we may put it aside, especially as 
the authenticity of the picture itself w-as doubtful. 
In Borgognone's latest works, traces of Leonardo's 
influence are visible, but otherwise he may be 
called the incarnation of the early Milanese spirit 
in art. He was to the Lombard school what Peru- 
gino was to the Dmbrian, Francia to the Bolognese, 
or Bellini to the Venetian. He had a younger 
brother, Bernardino, who often acted as his 
assistant. ^'-A- 



San Spirito. 









Kat. Gal. 


Com Barromeo. 


San Satiro. 

San Simphciano. 

Santa Maria delta 


Sant' Ambrogio. 




Sanf Eustoryio. 
S. Maria Presso 
San Celso. 



Presentation in the Temple, 
Annunciation, and Epi- 

Madonna Enthroned, 

Five predeLia panels. 
) Virgin giving friiits to the 
J infant Christ. 

Madonna Enthroned. 

Madonna Enthroned with 
Saints (.signed amhrosij 
beryognoiii op'). 

Four small predella panels 
in oil. 

Marriage of St. Catherine 
of Alesanilria. 

Two groups of family por- 

A Triptych (Virgin and 
Child ; Agony in the 
Garden ; Christ bearing 
His Cross). 

Portrait of Bishop Andrea 


Coronation of the Virgin. 

J Ceiling of the Sacristy. 

Christ disputing with the 

Christ after His Kesurrec- 

Bladonna with Saints. 
> Virgin adoring, with 
J Angels. 

Presentation in the Temple. 

St. Peter of Verona and 
a kneehng "Woman. 

St . Ambrose, wit h other 

St. Sims, with other Saints. 

St. Augustine (a fragment 
on panel). 

The Four EvangeUsts (at- 
tached to an altar-piece 
by Macrino d'Alba). 

St. Peter and St. Paul (in 
the new sacristy). 

Madonna, with SS. Sebas- 
tian and Roch. 

Virgin adoring. 

Ecce Homo. 

Virgin giWug the breast to 
£he Child. 



Pavia. Certosa. The Crucifixion. (And many 

„ Aeeademia. Christ carrying His Cross, 

with a suite of Cart'mi- 

STEFANO, ToMJiASO di, painter, called II Giot- 
TINO, from his imitation of the manner of Giotto, 
is said to have been the son and pupil of Stefano, 
called Fra Fiorentino, (see Fiorentino,) and to 
have been born at Florence about 1.S24, where he 
died in 1356. A 'Piet4' in the church of San 
Krmigio at Florence is attributed to him, and cer- 
tain frescoes at AssisL See also GioniNO. 



ZEVIO. A difference of opinion exists as to 
whether the above are one and the same, or an 
older and a younger painter. The existence of 
Stefano da Zevio (Zevio is near Verona) is well 
authenticated. He was a contemporary and fol- 
lower, and perhaps a scholar, of Vittore Pisano, 
and was burn in 1393. He was by profession a 
miniaturist, and was the grandfather of Girolamo 
dai Libri. A distinctire mark of his pictures is the 
frequent introduction of a peacock. To him Messrs. 
Crowe and Cavaloaselle assign all the paintings 
under the name of Stefano in Verona, and the two 
panels at Rome and Milan, given in the list below. 
Vasari, however, mentions one Stefano da Verona, 
a pupil of Agnolo Gaddi, and certain Veronese 
critics have contended that under this master the 
school of Verona rose to a fair level of excellence 
as early as the 14th century. They divide the 
frescoes attributed to Stefano into two classes, 
those of the 14th and those of the 15th century, 
giving the former to the master whom they claim 
as the founder of their school. 


lUasi, near ( Parish Church. Parts of a fresco, repre- 
Veroua. J seating the Virgin and 

Child and Saints. (Thi^. 
wall-painting is cited by 
some as a proof of the 
existence of the elder 
Mi 1ft" Brera. Adoration of the Kings 

(signed Stefanus piuxit, 
and dated 1435, ascribed 
in the catalogue to Ste- 
fano Fiorentino). 
Home. Palazzo Colonna. Virgin and Child (ascribed 

to Grentile da Fabriauo). 
Verona. Strada di Porta 1 Fragments of a Virgin and 

Vescovo. f Child, with St. Chris- 
topher and Seraphs. (Ou 
the front of a house.) 
„ Sant' Eufemia. A Trinity, and Glory of 

St. Augustine. 
„ „ St. Nicholas with Saints, 

and a predella. 
„ Gallery. Madonna, 

„ „ Madonna with St. Cather- 

ine. (Both ascribed to 
And other frescoes at San Zeno, Sant' Antonio, and 
San Niccolo in Verona. See * History of Painting in 
North Italy,* Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

STEFANO DA ZEVIO. See preceding article. 

STEFANO de' FEDELI, one of the painters 
who worked in the Castello of Milan in the reign 
of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, liis frescoes in one of the 
chapels there being valued by Vincenzo Foppa 
and other painters. In 1478 he undertook work 


for Ambrogio Grifo, the Court Physician and Pro- 
thonotary Apostolic, and his name appears as a 
member of the Painters' Guild at Milan in 1481. 
His brother Matted was also a painter, but no 
works by either of these artists are known. 

STEFANO DI GIOVANNI, called Sassetta. 
It was in the year 1392 that Stefano di Giovanni, 
called Sassetta, first saw the light. The earliest 
notice that exists bearing upon his artistic career 
is of the year 1427. In that year the operai 
of the Duomo of Siena set about finishing the iong- 
jiiojected font of San Giovanni. Jacopo della 
Quercia, who is generally credited with having 
been the author of the original design of the font, 
was away at Bologna, where he had been for more 
than two years. The old design, made about the 
year 1416, must have been incomplete, or have 
required modification in some way ; for in Jacopo's 
protracted absence the authorities commissioned 
Stefano di Giovanni to make a design for the 
completioH of the font. There was nothing strange 
or unusual in the course that they took in apply- 
ing to a painter for such a drawing. In those 
days Art was regarded as one, and an artist 
expressed himself in many different mediums. 
At Siena itself, Lippo Meinmi had supplied the 
design for the completion of the Mangia Tower, 
a work originally planned by two of the greatest 
architects of their age. It is impossible to say 
how much the font owes to Sassetta ; but that 
some details of it are of his invention cannot be 
doubted. For, after this, the only design of which 
any record exists, had been furnished, the work 
upon it was actively recommenced. Between the 
years 14.30 and 1432 Stefano made an altar-piece for 
the chapel of S. Bunifazio in the Siena Cathedral 
at the order of the Lady Ludovica, wife of the dis- 
tinguished knight Turino di Matteo, sometime 
operaio of the Duomo. After he had executed 
this commission, Sassetta, in the year 1433, 
painted a crucifix for the church of S. Martino, 
of which some fragments are to be seen in the 
Saracini Collection. Three years later he finished 
one of his most esquisitelj'-wrouglit works, the 
' Madonna and Saints ' in the church of the Osser- , 
vanza, near Siena. In the following year, in 1437, 
occurred the most memorable event of his career. 
On September 3 of that year he signed an 
agreement to execute an altar-piece for the church 
of S. Francesco at Borgo San Sepolcro. The artist 
engaged to execute a large ancona, iiainted on both 
sides with '-histories" and figures. It was to be the 
work of the artist's own hand, and was to be made 
as beautiful as the art of the painter could make 
it. The altar-piece was to be completed in four 
years. It was not, however, until 1444 that the 
artist received the final payment for it. The exact 
form of the ancona cannot at present be determined. 
It was removed from its place above the high 
altar of S. Francesco in the year 1762, but until 
the year 1810 it remained in the choir of the Con- | 
vent church. It was then sold to the Cav. Sergiu- 
liani di Arezzo. In the year 1823 several portions j 
of the altar-piece, including a large panel repre- 
senting ' St. Francis in Glory,' and a ' Madonna and 
Child %vith Angels,' were in the possession of the 
Priore Antonio Angehicci at Montecontieri, near , 
Asciano. The ' Jla^'donna and Child ' is missing, I 
but eleven fragments of the ancona have been 
identified. The largest panel, the 'St. Francis 
in Glory,' is in the possession of Mr. Berenson. 
Six smaller panels, representing scenes from the 




Hanfstiingl j-lioio] ^National Gallery 



life of St. Francis, are in the Chalandon Collection. 
One painting of the same series is in the Collec- 
tion of the Comte de Martel, and another, the 
' Mystical Marriage of St. Francis,' the most beauti- 
ful of all the remaining portions of the altar-piece, 
is at Cliantilly. The central panel formerly bore 
the inscription :—CKISTOFORUS FRANCISCI 

In the years that intervened between the sign- 
in-' of the contract for this ancona and its comple- 
tion, Sassetta probably visited Umbria, and painted 
the 'Madonna and Saints' in the Cathedral at 
Cortona. In the closing decade of his life Stefano 
was frequently employed upon public works in 
his native city. He painted some banners for the 
Duomo. He also designed the borders of some 
vestments for the Cathedral church, a task for 
which he was admirably fitted, as his figure of St. 
Ambrose, in the Osservanza altar-piece, proves. 
For the hospital of S. Maria della Scala he painted 
a portrait of one of tht; greatest of Sieneso Saints, 
S. Bernardino, whose fiery eloquence he had doubt- 
less often listened to in the Piazza del Campo ; 
and for the Government of the day he made certain 
little pictures, of a similar character, perhaps, to 
the tai-olette of the Biccherna still preserved 
in the Archivio at Siena. Finally, on May 3, 
1447, he was commissioned to complete the de- 
coration, in fresco, of the great Roman Gate, a 
work which Taddeo di Bartolo had begun thirty 
years before. It was whilst he was engaged upon 
this task that he received his death-blow. 'The 
work was well advanced towards completion, 
when, on some bleak winter day in 1450, the 
artist, painting on his high platform, was " stabbed 
through and through by the sharp sou'-wester," 
"percoeso dal vento marino." He died in great 
poverty, after a long and painful illness, at the 
close of that year. 

Saesetta occupies an important place in the 
history of Sienese painting. After the age of the 
great masters, the age of Duccio, of Simone Mar- 
tini and the Lorenzetti, there had subvened, owing 
to social and economic causes, a period of decad- 
ence. In the hands of artists like Bartolo di 
Fredi and Paolo di Giovanni Fei, the tradition 
graduallv degenerated, until in Andrea Vanni it 
reached its nadir. The works of Taddeo di Bar- 
tolo reveal, here and there, evidences of new life. 
But the most influential leader of the revival of 
Sienese painting in the first half of the Quattro- 
cento was S issetta. This artist was undoubtedly 
influenced by his immediate predecessors, and 
especially by Bartolo di Fredi and Paolo di Gio- 
vanni Fei. His debt to Fei, however, has been 
much exaggerated. Sassetta's true masters were 
tLe artists of the golden age of the School of Siena. 
His works are full of reminiscences of Duccio, of 
Simone Martini, and of Ambrogio Lorenzetti. In 
hig Asciano 'Nativity' he adopts a design of 
Pietro Lorenzetti, borrowing, as I have said else- 
where, some details from Bartolo di Fredi (Siena 
Gallery, No. 99). In his 'St. Francis receiving 
the Stigmata,' one of the portions of the Borgo 
San Sepolcro altar-piece, he closely follows Duc- 
cio's representation of the same subject in the 
triptych in the Royal Collection. In his ' St 
Francis before Honorius III..' in the Chalandon 
Collection, he appropriates the design of Ambrogio 
Lorenzetti's ' St. Louis of Toulouse before Pope 
Boniface,' whilst in his 8. Pietro Ovile ' An- 

nimciation ' he reveals liiniself as a close imitator 
of Simone Martini. In other works of his too he 
manifests his admiration for Sinmne. Nor did he 
only adopt some of Simone's designs and types : 
he strove to revive Simone's decorative ideal. In 
his fineness of technique, in his grace of line, in 
the cold, virginal beauty of his femnle types, in 
tlie transparency of his flesh tints, in his love of 
gurgeous vestments richly bordered and heavy 
with gold, and in various details of style, such 
as the delicately-modelled hands he paints, with 
their long, ^'raceful fingers, we can trace the in- 
fluence upon him of the greatest of Sienese 
masters. The ideal of tlie Sienese School, the 
iileal of Simone, which had become debased in 
the dreary period of art that followed upon the 
Black Death and the commercial eclipse of Siena 
— that ideal the present writer described long 
ago — in a single phrase — as an ideal of hieratic 

It is only ■within the last two or three years that 
connoisseurs and historians of art have begun to do 
justice to Sassetta ; and even now, characteristic 
as is his style, he is but imperfectly understood, 
even by those who have helped to make him 
kno^vn. Some of his most charming works, such 
as his ' Mystical Marriage of St. Francis,' and his 
' Miracle of the Sacrament,' have been attributed. 
in recently-published works, to his follower 
Sano. His 'Annunciation' has been ascribed by 
some critics to Andrea Vanni, and the frag- 
ments of the crucifix he made for the church of 
S. Martino to his follower Vecchietta. And yet 
Sassetta's peculiarities are not difficult to define. 
In his pictures we find a wonderful brilliancy and 
purity of colour. Especially characteristic is his 
manner of painting flesh : his faces and hands 
are most delicately modelled, and the flesh tints 
are transparent and subtly graduated. His heads 
are broad and round. The women that he paints 
have tall, lithe forms, with high waists, small but 
well-formed breasts, and long, straight arms. The 
eyebrow is much arched : the ej'elids are heavy, 
the iris of the eye is well-defined, and even 
prominent. The mouth is small and full, and 
there is a pronounced dimple under the lower lip. 
The ear is rather large and long, and is placed far 
back ; but it is frequently covered, and when un- 
covered has little that is peculiar or characteristic. 
In the case of personages represented standing the 
right knee is often flexed, and shows itself under- 
neath the robe. In many figures three broad, 
heavy folds hang from the centre of the waist in 
front. Above all, in his pictures there is a re- 
markable fineness of quality such as cannot be 
found even in the smaller works of the best of his 
Sienese contemporaries, Vecchietta and Giovanni 
di Paolo. Amongst the more important works of 
Sassetta are the following : 

Asciano. CoUegiataJJ | Nativity. 

Barnard Castle Bowes } ^ jji^^^j^ „f ^^^ Sacrament. 

Museum, j _ 
Chantilly. ' " ' 


The Mystical Marriage of St. 

Madouna and Saints, with 

Madonna and Saints. 

Cour-Chevemy. CM—. 

Uaude Beaumont U^. p^^^^^;^ ^^j ^^^ y^^^^ ^f 
(Lo,re etcher) the y ^ 

Comte de MarteCs I 



Florence. Mr. Beren- \ 

son's Collection. ( Saints. 
Paris. M. CAa/nndon's j Six Scenes from the Life of 

Collection, j St. Francis. 
Pienza. Museo. Madonna and Child and Saints; 

a Triptych. 
Siena. Gallery. No. 167 : The Last Supper. 

„ „ No. 16S: The Four Patron 

■ Saints of Siena. 
„ „ No. 169: St. Jerome, St. 

Gregory, St. Ambrose, and 
St. Augustine. 
„ No. 177 : Madonna and Child 

and Saints : a Triptych. 
„ No. 32o : Madonna and Cliild. 

„ Palazzo Saracini. No. 933: Adoratiou of the 

„ „ No. 1275 : Madonna and 

Saints ; a Triptych. 
^ „ Nos.1256 and 1273 : Fragmeuts 

of a Crucifix, the Virgin, St. 
John the Evangelist, and St. 
Martin and the Beggar. 
„ 5. Pietro Ovile. Annunciation. 
,, Porta Romana. Coronation of the Virgin (in 

„(near). Church o/) Madonna, St. Ambrose, and 
the Osservanza.] St. Jerome. R. L. D. 



STEFANO, Fr. di. See Francesco di Stefano. 

tine painter of the 15th century. None of hi.s works 
survive. He is said to have worked in conjunction 
with Bicci di Lorenzo on pictures for San Marco 
and the Camaldolese church. In 1468 he was paint- 
ing in the hospital of San Matteo, and in 1472 lie 
painted the marble mausoleum of Temmo Balducci, 
its founder, of which Francesco di Simone Ferrucci 
was the sculptor. 

STEFANO SANT' ANNA, an obscure Sicilian 
painter, of the early 16th century. In the churcL 
of San Dionisio at Messina there is an altar-piece of 
the patron saint enthroned, inscribed : Stephanus 
S" Anna 1519. 

STEFANONE, Maestro, painter, born at Naples 
about the year 1325, was a pupil of Maestro Simone, 
and a fellow- scholar of Gennaro di Cola. In con- 
junction with the latter, he painted some frescoes 
in the church of S.Giovanni da Naples. 
In S. Maria della Piet^ he painted a Virgin M.^ry 
and the Magdalene weeping over the dead Clirist, 
which is still well preserved. A curious ' Genealogy 
of Christ' over the entrance to the chapel of San 
Lorenzo, in the Diiomo at Naples, has been con- 
jecturally ascribed to him, also a Magdalene and 
S. Dominic, in San Domenico Maggiore. He died 
about 1390. 

STEFAN ONI, Giacomo Antonio, a native of 
Bologna, who flourished about the year 1630. He 
is said to have been both painter and engTaver. 
We have, among others, the following etchings by 

The Virgin with the infant Christ, St. John, and two 
Angels ; after Lod. Cnrracci. 

The Holy Family, with St. John ; after An. Carracci. 

Another Holy Family, with St. John presenting cherries ; 
after the same. 

The Virgin and infant Christ, with St. John ; after 
Agostitio Carracci. 

The Murder of the Inuncents ; after Guido Heni. 

The Martyrdom of St. Ursula ; after L. Pasinelli. 

STEFANONI, Pietro, an Italian engraver, born 
at Vicenza about 1600, who has left a set of forty 
etchings, from the designs of the Carracci, intended 


for use as a drawing-book. He marked his plates 
with the initials P. S. F. 

STEFFECK, Karl Konstantin Hi inrich, Ger- 
man painter ; born April 4, 1818, at Berlin ; a pupil 
of the Berlin Academy and also of Kriiger and 
Begas ; he also studied with Delaroche in Paris, 
and from 1840 to 1842 worked in Rome. In 1859 
he was appointed professor, and in 1880 became 
Director of the Konigsberg Academy. He painted 
historical aiid genre subjects, besides animals ; his 
'Spielende Hunde' is in the Berlin National 
Gallery, and his lithographs and etchings all show 
his skill in portraying animal life. He was a 
member of the Berlin and Vienna Academies, and 
obtained a Paris third-class medal in 1855 as well 
as the Legion of Honour. He died at Konigsberg, 
June 10, 1890. 

STEFFELAER, Cornelis, painter and engraver, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1797. He was a pupil 
of Kobell, and painted landscape. He died at 
Haarlem in 1861. 

STEIDL, Martin Melchior, painter, born at 
Innsbruck in the 17th century, studied under Joh. 
Andr. Wolf in Munich, and painted pictures in 
fresco and in oil. His ' Draught of Fishes ' is in 
the Dominican church at Eichstadt. He died in 

STEIFENSAND, Xaver, engraver, was born at 
Caster, near Cologne, in 1809, and received his 
first lessons from Gotzenberger and Cauer at Bonn. 
He then became a student of the Diisseldorf 
Academy, where he studied till 1833. His first 
plate was from a copy of Raphael's St. Catharine, 
by Desnoyers, after which he went to Darmstadt, 
and worked under Felsing. In 1835 he returned 
to Diisseldorf, engraved ' Shepherd and Shep- 
herdess ' after Bendemann, and several plates from 
drawings by Kaulbach, Schrbdter, and Stiike for 
editions de luxe of Schiller and Goethe. He was a 
member and professor of the Berlin Academy. He 
died at Diisseldorf in 1876. Among his other 
works we may name : 

A Madonna ; after Overbeck. 
Frederick II. ; after J. F. Schrader. 
Portrait of Lacordaire ; after Chauvin. 
Portrait of Pius IX. 
The Child Jesus ; after £. Deiicr. 

The Nativity, Visitation, and Ave Maria; after Mintrop. 
* Regina Ca?H ' ; afte'c K. MiilUr. 
The Adoratiwn of the Magi ; after P. Veronese. 
Plates after Kethel's designs for Eotteck's ' Welt- 

STEIN, Theodor Friedrich, a painter of the 18th 
century, a native of Hamburg, who painted por- 
traits in crayons. He died at Liibeck in 1788. 

STEINBRUCK, Eduard, born at Magdeburg, 
May 3, 1802. He was intended for commerce, 
and in 1817 was sent to Bremen to learn business. 
There he remained until 1822, when, being called 
to Berlin for his term of military service, he re- 
solved to embrace art as a profession, and took 
the opportunity of attending Wach's newly-opened 
atelier. In 1829 he went for a short time to Dussci- 
dorf, and later to Rome. It was not until 184C 
that he finally settled in Berlin. He had mean- 
time become well known as a painter with much 
poetic feeling, and in 1841 had been elected 
member of the Berlin Academy. He now received 
many commissions, and became very popular, both 
in his native countrj' and in America. He became 
professor at the Berlin Academy in 1854, but in 
1876 retired to Landeck in Silesia, where he died 


February 3, 1882. The following are among his 
more important works : 

Berlin. i^"l^^ Gal. The Fairy Voyage, from 

Tieck's ' Marchen.' 
„ „ Children Bathing. 

f, New Museum. Medallions for the Ceiling. 

„ Chajiel of the Schloss. The Resurrection, &c. 
„ Catholic Church of }A.AoTat\on of the Shep- 

St. Hedtcig. j herds. 
,, Chapel of the Catholic ) , ,. 

Hospital. j Altar-piece. 

Magdeburg. Church of ^St. | ^t^.pje^^ 

Sans Souci. Friedenskirche. Christ on Olivet. 

,1 „ Madonna and Child. 

„ „ Genevieve. 

STEIXER. Eduard, painter, bom at Wintertlnir 
in 1811, studied at Munich under the influence of 
Cornelius, but made his reputation as a portraitist, 
chiefly in pastel. He also made many landscape 
drawings in pen-and-ink. He died in 1860. 

STELNER, EMANnuL, p.iinter, was bom at Win- 
terthur in 1778. He painted landscapes in oil and 
water-colour, and afterwards flower pictures in 
water-colour. He etched several plates. He died 
in 1831. 

STEINER, JoHANN KoNRAD, painter, born at 
Wintenhur in 1757, studied in Geneva and Dresden. 
He afterwards went to Paris, and then travelled in 
Italy, where he drew much after Claude Lorraine. 
On his return home he devoted himself to Swiss 
landscapes in oil and water-colour, and etched a 
few plates. In 1796 he paid a second visit to 
Italy. He died in 1818. His wife Anna Barbara 
Steker w.ns .ilso a painter. 

STEINER, Johann Nepomuk, painter, born at 
I^lan in Moravia in 1725, after gaining a reputa- 
tion as a portrait painter, went to Italy, where 
lie was influenced by Mengs. On his return he 
painted altar-pieces in Iglau and the neighbour- 
hood. In 1755 he became court painter at Vienna, 
and painted some excellent portraits, among them 
those of Maria Theresa and Joseph II. He died in 

STEIXER. Kasfar, ]iainter, born at Winterthur 
in 1734, was first manager in a silk warehouse at 
Bergamo, and then took to painting portraits, 
which are warm in colour, but careless in execu- 
tion. He afterwards devoted himself to landscapes, 
and died at Bergnmo in 1812. 

STEINFELD, Fra.vz, painter, bom at Vienna 
in 1787, worked first as a sculptor at the Vienna 
Academy, and then took to landscape painting, in 
which, though self-taught, he displayed such talent 
that he was appointed painter to the court. In 
1846 he became professor at the Academy in 
Vienna, and led his pupils to study nature and 
Bnysdael. In the Vienna Gallery he has a 'View 
of Heligoland," The Deserted Mill,' and 'Dawn.' 
He also executed some etchings and lithographs. 
He died at Pisek, in Bohemia, in 1868. 

STEINFELD, Wilhelm, son and pupil of Franz 
Steinfeld, bom at Vienna in 1816, was also a painter 
of landscapes. There is a mountain scene by him 
in the Gallery at Vienna. He died at Ischl in 

STEINFDBTH, Hermann, who was bom at 
Hamburg in 1824, studied first with E. Sohn in 
Diisseldorf, and then in the Academy of that city ; 
and subsequently visited Italy. He afterwards 
resided for some time in Diisseldorf, and won him- 
self a name as an historic painter. He also made 
a series of pencil drawings in illustration of the 

Prometheus of iEschylus, and painted portraits 
He died in his native city in 1880. Pictures : 

The Entombment 1S44. 

The Education of Jupiter. 1846. {Cotoyne Museum.) 
Hylas carried away by the Nymphs. 1847. 
The Resurrection." (In St. Sicholas, Hamburg.) 
„ „ {In St. Peter's, Hamburgh 

STEINHAUSER, Pacline, nee Frank, was the 
wife of the architect Karl Steinhauser, and a painter 
of historical pictures. Her 'Esther before Aha- 
snerus ' is in the Schloss Bellevue, at Berlin. She 
died in 1866. 

STEINHEIL, Lonis Charles AtiGnsTE, painter, 
was bom at Strasburg, June 26, 1814, He studied 
under Ducaisne and David d' Angers, and tirst 
became known as a painter of portraits and flower- 
pieces. Later he produced a number of romantic 
subjects, treated in imitation of the early German 
masters. Upon his mural and glass paintings, 
however, his reputation chiefly rests. He ex- 
hibited frequently at the Salon from 1836 onwards, 
and was several times premiated. He was the 
brother-in-law of Meissonier, and his son and 
pupil, Adolphe Charles, is a young painter of 
repute in Paris. Steinheil died in 1885. The 
following are good examples of his works: 
Amiens. Cathedral. Several figures of Saints. 

Dijon. Museum. Cartoons for the * Marriage 

of the Virgin.' 
Dunkirk. Church of S. Eloi. A window painted with 

the ' Jlarriage of the 

Limoges. Cathedral. Various pictures. 

Nantes. Museum. The Mother. 

Several wall-paintings and windows in the Saint« 
Chapelle in Paris, and a ' St. George and the Dragon ' 
in the Chapel of St. George. Notre Dame. 

STEINKOPF, GoTTLOB Fkiedrich von, painter, 
born at Stiittgart in 1779, was the son and pupil of 
Johann Friedrich Steinkopf. He went to Vienna in 
1799, where he transferred his attention from en- 
graving to painting. From 1807-14 he was in Rome, 
and, under the influence of Koch, Schick, and 
Overbeck, painted ideal historical pictures. From 
1814-21 he was in Vienna, and went thence to 
Stiittgart. In 1829 he was teacher at the Stuttgart 
Art School, in 1833 professor, and in 1845 head of 
the school. His ' Cleobis and Biton ' is in the 
King of Wiirtemberg's collection, his ' Elysian 
Fields ' in the Stuttgart Gallery, He died at 
Stiittgart in 1861, 

STEINKOPF, Jouann Friedrich, painter, _wa8 
hom at Oppenheim in 1737, and went in 1755 as 
painter to the porcelain works at Ludwigsburg, in 
Wiirtemberg. He afterwards painted animal pic- 
tures in the style of Roos and Wouwerman, became 
in 1786 teacher of drawing at the Gj'mnasium at 
Stiittgart, and in 1801 court painter. He died at 
Stiittgart in 1825. 

STEINLA, MoRiTZ, engraver, whose real name 
was MCller, which he chan.i,'ed for that of Steinla 
as more distinctive, was horn at Steinla near Hilde- 
sheim in 1791. He received his first training at 
the Dresden Academy, and showing remarkable 
promise, was sent by the King of Saxony to 
Florence and to Milan, where he studied succes- 
sively under Morghen and Longhi. His first im- 
portant plate was after Titian's 'Tribute Money,' 
and was published in 1829. It was followed by a 
'Pieti' after Fra Bftrtolommeo (1830), 'The Mur- 
der of the Innocents' after Raphael (1836), the 
'Madonna della Misericordia ' after Fra Barto- 



lommeo (1838), and in 1841 and 1848 respectively 
by plates from the two gems of tlie Dresden 
Gallery, Holbein's ' Madonna ' and Raphael's ' Ma- 
donna di San Sisto.' For the former he was 
a>varded a gold medal in Paris. His last important 
work was a plate after Raphael's 'Madonna del 
Pesce,' which he executed at Madrid in 1851. On 
his returning to settle in Dresden he was appointed 
Professor of Engraving at the Academy. He died 
at Dresden, September 21, 1858. 

STEINLE, JoHANN Eduard, painter, bom at 
Vienna, July 2, 1810, was the son of an engraver. 
He was at first placed with an engraver named 
Kiainger in Vienna, studying m the Academy at 
the same time. Finding that his real inclinations 
lay towards oil painting, he entered tlie atelier of 
Leopold Kupelwieser, who hud lately returned from 
Rome, and under him became an ardent supporter 
of the lately-founded neo-German school of re- 
ligious art. In 1828 he set out for Rome with 
introductions to the chiefs of the movement. Over- 
beck and Ph. V'eit, by whom he was warmly re- 
ceived, and under their influence his art training 
was completed. He remained at Rome till 1834, 
when he returned to Vienna, and made a short 
stay in Frankfort. He was soon occupied with 
important works, one of the first being a com- 
mission from Herr von Bethmann-HoUweg to 
decorate the Castle chapel at Rheineck with frescoes 
illustrating the Beatitudes. In 1838 he spent 
some months in Munich, studying the technique 
of fresco painting under Cornelius, and shortly 
afterwards settled at Frankfort, where in 1850 he 
accepted a professorship at the Stadel Institute. 
Steinle was a member of the Academies of Berlin, 
Munich, Hanau, and Vienna, and received a gold 
medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1854. In 1876 
he undertook a series of decorative paintings for 
Strasburg Cathedral, and one of his latest com- 
missions was a ' cycle ' of religious and historic 
subjects for the cathedral at Mayence. In the 
Berlin National Gallery are the cartoons for his 
' Last Judgment,' and a scene from ' As You Like 
It.' In the Leipsic Museum are the Cartoons for 
the Church of St. jEgidius at Munster, and be- 
longing to Princess Marie Lichtenstein those for 
the chapel at Heubach-sur-Meiu. 
Virgin and Child. {Bridyewater Gallery^) 
Groups of Augels. (Cologne Catliedral. ) 
The Judgment of Solomon. 1S4S. (Kaisersaal, Frank- 

St. Peter's Sermon. {Kiga.) 

Paintings in the * iEgidienkirche at Munster. 1857. 
Frescoes in the "Wallraf Museum at Cologne, and in the 

• Marieiikirche ' .it Ai.x-la-Cliapelle. 1860—1866. 
Decoration of the Luwenstein Chapel at Heubach. 1867. 

STEINMULLER, Joseph, born at Vienna in 
1795, received his first instruction at the Academy 
of that city under Maurer, and began in 1818 as an 
engraver of portrait.s. His principal plates are the 
three which follow ; they were engraved for the 
Austrian Art Union : 

The Madonna in the Meadow ; after Raphael. 

The Virgin and Child ; after Leonardo da Vinci. 

A Madonna and Child, and two Saints ; after Perugino. 

Steinmiiller also engraved several plates for the 
' Vienna Gallery.' He died in 1841. 

STELLA. See Stern, Ignaz. 

STELLA. A family of French painters and 
engravers, of Flemish origin. The following table 
shows their genealogy, and relation with the Bou- 
zonr.ets, who also called themselves Stella: 

Jean Stella 


Francois Stella 



1603- 1C47. 

MadeUine Stella 
Married to Etienne Bo'azoilEet 




1C3S— ID91. 

STELLA, Antoine. See Bodzonnet. 

STELLA, Antoinette. See Bouzonnet. 

STELLA, Claudine. See Bodzonett. 

STELLA, Franqois, the elder, painter, son of 
Jean Stella, was born at Mechlin in l-CfiS. In 1578 
he accompanied a Jesuit friend to Koine, and there 
studied painting. On his return northwards he 
stopped at Lyons, and there married the daughter 
of a notary. He painted a large number of religious 
pictures in that city, among others a ' Descent from 
the Cross' for the C^lestins, and an ' Entombment' 
for the church of St. Jean. He died at Lyons in 

STELLA, FRANgois, younger brother of Jacques 
Stella, born at Lyons in 1601, was instructed by 
his brother, whom he accompanied to Italy. He 
painted history, but never arrived at much emi- 
nence, and was very inferior to Jacques. There 
are some pictures by him in Paris churches, among 
them an altar-piece, representing the dead Christ 
with the Virgin Mary and St. John, at Les Augustins. 
He died in Paris in 1661. 

STELLA, Fbanqoise. See Bouzonnet. 

STELLA, Jacques, an eminent French painter, 
born at Lyons in 1596, was the son of Franjois 
Stella. His father taught him the rudiments of 
design, but he was left an orphan when only nine 
years old. He had, however, at that early age, 
made such progress, that he continued his studies 
without another master. When he had reached 
his twentieth year he travelled in Italy, and passing 
through Florence, on his way to Rome, was em- 
ployed by Cosmo de' Medici to assist in the pre- 
parations for the marriage of his son Ferdinand. 
He painted several pictures for the Grand Duke, 
who assigned him apartments in his palace, with 
a pension equal to that of Callot, who was at that 
time in the same service. After a residence of seven 
years at Florence, he proceeded to Rome in 1623. 
There he studied in tlie society of Nicholasi Pousain, 
with whom he contracted an intimate acquaintance. 
Stella resided eleven years at Rome. In 1634 
he returned to France, where his talents recom- 
mended him to Richelieu, by whose favour he was 
appointed painter to the king, with a pension, and 
was presented with the order of St. Michael. His 
principal works in Paris are a ' Baptism of Christ,' 
in the church of St. Germain-le-Vieus ; an 'Annun- 
ciation,' in the chapel of the Nuns of tlie Assump- 
tion ; and a ' Christ with the Woman of Samaria,' 
at the Carmelites. Stella was more successful in 
easel pictures than in large works. His composi- 
tion is graceful, and his design correct ; but his 
\\.'orks as a whole are cold and lifeless. He died in 
Paris in 1657. The Louvre possesses two of his 
pictures, an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' on ala- 
baster, and a ' Minerva and the Muses.' Stella left 
some etchings, among them the following: 
The Descent from the Cross. 
The Ceremony of Homage to the Grand Duke of 

1 uscauy on St. John's Day. 1621. 
A Madonna. 
St. George. 
Children dancing. 

A great number of his decorative designs have 


been engraved by Edelinck, Claudine Bouzonnet 
(called Stella), the Poillys, Mellan, Paul Bosse, and 


STELLA, Jkan, painter, the first of the family, 
was born at Antwerp in 1525. Nothing is known 
of his works. He died in 1601. 

STELZER, JoHANN Jakob, a German engraver, 
who flourished about the year 1720. He engraved 
some plates for the collection of prints from the 
antique marbles in the Dresden gallery, which was 
published in 1733. 

STEIIPSIUS. See Sempelius. 

STENBOCK, Magnus Graf von. a Swedish field- 
marshal, born at Stockholm in 1764. He painted 
BOme good portraits, and executed mechanical art 
work. He died at Copenhagen in 1717. 

STENDARDO. See Bloemen, Pieter van. 

STENGLIN, .JoHANN. engraver, bom at Augs- 
burg in 1715, studied under Bodenehr, and en- 
graved after Dinglinger, Grooth, Haid, Klein, and 
De Meytens. In 1743 he received a summons to St. 
Petersburg, and engraved portraits of Russian 
Czars and members of the Royal Family. He died 
at St. Petersburg in 1770. 

STENNETT, William, amateur, was a merchant 
at Boston, in Lincolnshire, who practised, under 
the pseudonym of ' Delineator,' as an antiquarian 
draughtsman in the first part of the 18th century. 
His chief productions were drawings of Lincoln- 
shire churches, some of which were engraved, the 
best known being those of Boston and Walpole 
churches. He died poor at Boston about 1762. 

STEXREE, (or Steenree,) by some called 
WiLLEM, by others Georq, was a nephew of Cor- 
nelis Poelemburg, by whom he was instructed, and 
whose manner he followed. His birth is placed at 
Utrecht in 1600, and his death in 1648, but on 
uncertain authority. 

STENT, Peter, resided in London, and carried 
on a considerable business as a priutseller from 
1640 to 1662. It is believed that lie occasionally 
engraved. A portrait of Andrew Willet, with sis 
Latin verses, and marked with the initials P. S., 
is generally attributed to him. 

STEI'HAN, (Stephanos, or Stevens,) Jo- 
hannes, called Calcar, from his birth-place in the 
Duchy of Cleves, was bom in 1449. He worked 
for a time at Dordrecht, and in 153G went to Venice, 
and became a pupil of Titian. He imitated his 
master with much success, and painted portraits 
that have been mistaken for works of Vecelli. 
Later he also imitated Raphael. He spent the 
greater part of his life in Italy, and at Naples 
became acquainted with Vasari. who speaks of him 
in terms of higli praise, and states that he made 
the designs for the ' De humani corporis fabrica ' of 
Veaalius. It is said that he also drew the por- 
traits in the early editions of Vasari. He died at 
Naples about 1546. The following portraits are 
ascribed to him ; 

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of a Young Man. 

Paris. Louvre. Ditto. 

Vienna. Gallery. Portrait of a Mau. 

STEPHAN, Meister. See Lochser. 

STEPHANI. See Stevens, Pietek. 

STEPHANOFF, Francis Philip, was bom in 
London in 1788. He was the son of Fileter Ste- 
phanofE, and painted popular pictures in oils and 
water-colours, such as 'The Poor Relation,' 'Re- 
conciliation,' ' The Trial of Algernon Sidney.' He 
also made the drawings for Pyne's ' Royal Resid- 

ences,' and a fine series of costume portriits for 
'Garter's' -work on the coronation of George IV. 
This series is now in the South Kensington Museum. 
Another excellent series was devoted to the 'Field 
of the Cloth of Gold.' His illustrations are to be 
found in a great many other books published in 
the first half of the last century. He died at 
West Hannain, in Gloucestershire, in 1860. 

STEPHANOFF, James. This man, who was 
the brother of Francis StephanoflE, was bom in 
London about 1788. He was trained at the Royal 
Academy Schools, but did not get on well there, 
and soon left. He was one of the founders of 
the Sketching Society, and a member of the Old 
Water-Colour Society. His best work represented 
ceremonial scenes, such as the interior of the House 
of Commons, the reception of the Queen in London, 
or the Coronation. He was employed by the 
Society of Antiquaries to make water-colour draw- 
ings of church embroidery, and lie illustrated three 
or lour books on ceremonies. He died at Bristol 
in 1874. 

STEPHANOFF, N Fileter, a Russian 

painter, who settled in London in the second half 
of the 18th century. He exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1778-81. He was by profession a portrait 
painter, but in this country was chiefly employed on 
decorations for ceilings, and scenery for a circus 
in St. George's Fields. He committed suicide- 
some time before 1790. His wife, Gertrude Ste- 
PHANOFF, was a flower-}'ainter and teacher uf 
drawing. -She exhibited at the Academy in 1783 
and 1805, and died at Brompton in 1806. Her 
daughter, M. G. Stephanoff, followed the same 

STEPHENSON, James, engraver in line and 
mezzotint, was born on Nov. 20, 1828, at Man- 
chester. He was a pupil of Findon, and after 
living at Manchester, came to London in 1847. In 
1856 and 1858 he exhibited at the Royal Academy 
engravings after drawings by J. Faed, and con- 
tinued to exhibit there many of his best works,- 
among them being: 'My ain Fireside,' after T. Faed 
(1861) ; ' Tennyson,' after G. F. Watts (1862) ; 
the ' Prince of Wales,' after Sir J. W. Gordon 
(1864); ' Ophelia," after Sir J. B. Milhiis (18C6) ; 
'Osborne,' after Sir E. Landseer (1872); 'The 
Great Day of His Wrath,' 'The Last Judgment,' 
and 'The Plains of Heaven,' all after J. Martin 
(1873). In 1870 he exhibited a crayon drawing, 
' A Midnight Study,' and in 1884 an original etch- 
ing, 'The Challenge.' Among his otlier well- 
known works are "The HiKhland Whisky-Still* 
and the 'Taming of the Shrew,' after Landseer. 
Stephenson was a skilful and delicate engraver, 
and excelled not only in his larger works, but in his 
small engravings for ' Jennings' Landscape Annual,' 
and similar publications, with illustrations after 
Stothard, Turner, Collins, D. Roberts, and others. 
He died on May 30, 1886. M. H. 

STERN, Ignaz, (called Stella,) painter, was 
bom at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, about the year 1698. 
He went early in his life to Bologna, where he 
entered the school of Carlo Cignani. He painted 
for churches in Lombardy, and resided several 
years at Rome, where he was much employed 
both for public buildings and private collections. 
In the Basilica of St. John Lateran, there is an 
'Assumption' by him; he also (tainted some 
frescoes in the sacristy of S. Paolino. He also 
painted concerts, conversations, and bambocciate. 
He died at Rome in 1746. 



STETTLER, Wiluelm, was a native of Beine, 
and a scholar of Konrad Meyer at Zurich and of 
Joseph Werner at Paris. He accompanied the 
archaeologist Charles Patin in his travels through 
Holland and Italy, and designed most of the plates 
in his publications on medals and antiquities. 
Stettler died in 1708. 

STEUBEN, Karl, painter, was born at Bauer- 
bach, near Baden, in 1788. His father was an 
oiEcer in the Russian army, and he received his 
first education at the Academy of St. Petersburg, 
and then went to Paris, where he studied under 
Gerard, Robert Lefevre, and Prud'hon. In 1812 he 
exhibited for the first time. He soon made his 
mark, and was employed by the French Government 
and decorated with the cross of the Legion of 
Honour. Late in life he visited Russia, and painted 
seven scenes from the life of Christ for St. Isaac's 
cathedral. He died in Paris in 1856. Works : 


Museum. Peter the Great in a storm on 

Lake Ladoga. 1812. 


Palace. Mercury and Argus, 1822. 


Museum. Jeanne La FoUe. 


„ Esmeralda. 

Paris. St 

Germain des } St. Germain giving alms. 

Prh. i 1817. 


Cathedral. The Assumption. 

Valencieimes. Museum. Peter the Great saved by his 

mother from the Strelitz. 



Gallery. Battle of Ivry. 


„ Battle of Poitiers. 


„ Many portraits. 

Steuben's wife, ELfioNOBK, practised portrait paint- 
ing in Paris. 

STEUDTNER, Mark Christoph, born at Augs- 
burg in 1698, engraved the ' Loves of the Gods,' 
and many other subjects on copper and wood, and 
in mezzotint. He was also much employed on 
designs for goldsmiths, in conjunction with his 
brother Esajas. He died in 1736. 

STEVAERTS, (Staevaerts, Stevers, Stevens,) 
Anthonie Palamedesz, painter, was the son of 
Palamedes Stevaerts, a gem-engraver of Delft, and 
was born in that city in 1600. He painted por- 
traits and conversations, and was particularly 
successful in the rendering of groups of small 
figures in interiors, at meals or musical entertain- 
ments. He frequently painted figures in the archi- 
tectural pieces of his friend Dirk van Deelen. He 
was admitted into the Guild of S. Luke in 1621, 
and later filled the important ofiice of Deau. He 
died in 1673. Works by him : 

Berhn. Gallery. Portrait of a Young Girl. 

„ „ A Party at Table m a Park 

„ ., Portrait of a Boy. 

Brussels. Gallery. Portrait of a Man. 

„ „ The Musical Party. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. Soldiers Playing Cards in s 

Frankfort. StaM ( a Merry Party. 

Institute. ) J J 

Hague. Museum. Portrait of an Officer. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. An Interior, ladies and gentle- 
men singing. 
Vienna. Liechenstein 1 Guard-Room Interior, two pic- 

GaXlery. J tures. 
The Concert. (Belonging (1885) to the Domager Madamt 
de Jonge, at the Hague.) 

STEVAERTS, (Staevaerts, Stevbrs, Stevens,) 
Palamedes Palaiiedesz, painter, was the brother 
of Anthonie Palamedesz. It is said that his father, 
having been summoned to the court of James I. of 
England, remained for some time in London, and 


that during this sojourn Palamedes was bom, in 
1607. On the returu of the family to Delft he 
worked for a time in his brother Anthonie's studio, 
and also studied the works of Esaias van der Velde, 
devoting himself finally almost exclusively to the 
representation of battles, skirmishes, and hand-to- 
haud encounters in the manner which Esaias had 
brought into fashion. These he treated with extra- 
ordinary animation. He became a member of the 
Guild of S. Luke in 1627. He was deformed, and 
his early death in 1638, at the age of thirty, 
accounts for the rarity of his works. 

Berlin. Gallery. A Skirmish between Swedes 

and Imperialists. 
Dresden. Gallery. Cavalry Combat. 

„ „ A Cavalier with a Staff. 

Munich. Pinakothek. Cavalry attacking Musketeers 

and Pikemen. 
„ „ A Cavalry Fight. 

Vienna. Gallery. A Cavalry Charge. 

„ Liechtenstein Gal. A Skirmish of Cavalry. 

STEVENS, Alfred (1817, 1818 or 1820 — 
1675), sculptor, metal designer, and painter, burn 
at Blandford, Dorset, the son of a painter and 
house-decorator. Entering his father's Dusiness, he 
early gave evidence of artistic originality. He 
received no academic training, but was fortunate 
when sixteen years of age in attracting tlie notice 
of the Hon. and Rev. Samuel Best, who advanced 
him £60 for a visit to Italy. Here he remained 
for nine years (1833 — 1842), first copying Aretino 
Spinello's frescoes of the Life of the Virgin at 
Florence, those of Giotto and Andrea del Sarto at 
Naples, and makiug sketches at Pompeii. In 1835 
he journeyed to Rome, paj'ing his way by the use of 
his pencil and brush. 1839 found him at Venice, 
where he made admirable copies of Titian, which 
have not infrequently been mistaken for originals. 
In 1841-2 he was back at Rome, where for a short 
time he did journeyman's work for Thorwaldsen, 
devoting his spare time to a fruitful and enthusi- 
astic study of Michelangelo. All these years he 
had been deliberately aiming at the development 
of his powers along the lines of the Italian Renais- 
sance, practising eclecticism in its highest sense, 
and religiously setting himself to discover the 
proper inter-relationship between the plastic and 
graphic arts. He was determined, if possible, that 
his work should be the highest expression of the 
Latin tradition. To this end he repudiated all 
temptation to specialize, allowing his sympathies, 
as Sir W. Armstrong has put it, " to expand over 
all forms of art." By this rigid self-control he 
achieved the harmony and rhythm which came 
to be the dominant notes of his work. Doubtless 
this militated against his immediate popularity, 
but it has given him a reputation among artists 
which will last so long as his masterpieces hold 
together. To arrive at Stevens's almost unique 
([uality his work must be regarded in the mass. 
In detail he was as good as may be, but it 
is in coherence that his true greatness lies. 
Stevens founded no school. Rather was he the 
belated and perfect blossom of an almost dead 
tree. To use another of Sir W. Armstrong's 
expressive phrases, by the time he was back in 
England " he had made the aesthetic language of 
the Renaissance his mother tongue." Landing in 
1842, he was so absolutely penniless that it was 
only with borrowed money that he could return to 
Blandford, where he spent the next two years. 
In 1845 he obtained a professorship at the School 


of Design, Somerset House, a post which he held 

until 1847, designing amongst other things — such 
was his unprejudiced sympathy with all forms of 
upplied art — a railway carriage for the King of 
Denmark. In 1849 he made designs, unfortun- 
ately never carried out, for doors to the building 
in Jermyn Street, which then housed the Museum 
of Economic Geology and the School of Mines, 
but is now occujiied by the Geological Survey and 
JIuseum. In 1850 he became chief designer to 
Messrs. Hoole, Robson and Hoole, bronze and 
metal-workers, of the Green Lane Works, Sheffield, 
who at the Great Exhibition (1851) attracted con- 
siderable attention by exhibiting stoves, grates, 
firedogs, decorative panels, and what not, manufac- 
tured after Stevens's designs. These marked a 
departure in English metal-work of which the end 
is not yet. Looking at the dry-as-dust catalogue 
half-a-century later, it is hard to grasp the fact that 
these unfathered articles of commerce owed their 
origin to as great a hand and brain as ever has 
been, certainly in this country, devoted to the art 
of sculpture. In 1852 Stevens returned to London 
and designed various decorations for the precincts 
of the British Museum, of which the lions sejeanta 
are now preserved within the building. In 1856 
he came more prominently before the public in 
connection with the much-discussed Wellington 
memorial, which at last occupies in St. Paul's 
Cathedral the position for which the artist intended 
it. It is by this masterpiece that he stands to be 
judged by posterity. It proved at once the crown- 
ing triumph of his art and the crowning tragedy 
of his life. Even the shortest summary of the 
half-splendid, half-sordid story is here impossible. 
Indeed " finis " is not yet written. The contest 
still rages between those in authority who have no 
special artistic training and those who have special 
knowledge and claim to speak for the nation. A 
great responsibility rests upon all concerned to see 
that the noblest piece of architectonic sculpture in 
the country shall be subjected to no further in- 
dignity. Reference on one side and the other 
should be made to the 'Nineteenth Century 'for May 
1892, the ' Magazine of Art' for March and October 
190a, the 'Times'of January 29, 1903, the 'Saturday 
Review ' of the same date, the ' Architectural Re- 
view ' for March and August 1903, and other con- 
temporary publications. In 1876 " the badgered 
artist's thread of life," to quote the ' Magazine of 
Art,' "snapped under the humiliation and the 
strain," his death occurring at his house in Eton 
Road, which it had been his intention to turn 
into an Italian palace, loggia, courtyard, and aU 

Although Stevens's name will go down to pos- 
terity mainly as a sculptor, his original work in oils 
should not be overlooked. Amongst the most 
notable of his paintings may be mentioned the 
portraits of Mr. Leonard CoUmann in South Ken- 
sington Museum, of Mrs. Collmann in the Tute 
Gallery, and of Mr. Morris Moore, exhibited at 
Burlington House in 1901. No work of his was 
accepted by the Royal Academy during his life- 
time, but the year following his death (1876) two 
pieces of his sculpture were exhibited, and in 1890, 
at the instigation of Lord (then Sir F.) Leighton, a 
room was set apart for liis drawings and models at 
the Winter Exhibition. Some of his finest work is 
to be found in Dorchester House, Park Lane, 
whilst at South Kensington the designs for the 
Wellington Monument are open to the inspection 

of all, together with a noble collection of life 
studies in red chalk. There are two valuable 
monographs on Stevens, a small volume by Sir 
Walter Armstrong, published by ' L'Art' in 1881, 
and two large folios by Mr. H. Stannus, published 
by the Autotype Company in 1891. G. S. L. 

STEVENS, Anthonis, painter, a native of 
Mechlin, flourished in the second part of the 16th 
century, and was the head of a numerous family 
of artists. For his eldest son, see Stevens, Pieter. 
His daughter, Joanna, married a painter, Maurice 
MOEEELSE, and had a son Maokice, who was also a 
painter. His younger son, Jakob Stevens the 
elder, flourished at Mechlin at the beginning of the 
17th century, and settled at Antwerp, but later 
practised again at Mechlin, where he married in 
1614. He died before 1630, leaving, among other 
children, two sons, Jan and Jakob (q. v.). 

STEVENS, D., an English portrait painter of the 
18th century. He painted a portrait of George I., 
which was engraved by J. Faber. 

STEVENS, Francis, water-colour painter, born 
in 1781. He appears to have been a pupil of P. 
S. Munn, and his name first appears at the Royal 
Academy in 1804. Joining the Water-Colour 
Society in 1806, his works were exhibited there 
for a few years, and he assisted in forming the 
Sketching Society. He then seems to have mi- 
grated to Norfolk, as in 1810 he belonged to the 
Norwich Society of Artists. His latter years were 
spent in Exeter, where he died suddenly from 
apoplexy in 1822 or 1823. There is a volume of 
etchings of English cottages and farm-houses, 
published by liim in 1815. The following are two 
specimens of his work with the brush : 

^mlT'^ ^"'"' ^""'' } I"is""gl^ Cleeve. 1820. 

& Kensington. 

A Devonshire Cottage. 1806. 

STEVENS, Jakob, the younger, painter, the 
eon of Jakob Stevens, was born at Mechlin in 1593. 
He was his father's pupil, practised in his native 
town, and married there in 1620. Having lost his 
first wife by the plague, he married his pupil, 
Agnes Bisschops, in 1626. He died in 1662. 

STEVENS, Jan, called Db Cdypere, a Flemish 
painter of the 14th century. Details of his life 
and works are wanting. The town registers of 
Antwerp record that he was practising in that city 
in 1378. His father, Andries Stevens, also worked 
as a painter at Antwerp. 

STEVENS, Jan, painter, the son of Jakob the 
elder, was born at Mechlin in 1595. He was a 
member of the Guild of S. Luke, practising in his 
native town and at Antwerp. He died about 1627. 

STEVENS, Jan or John, a Dutch landscape 
painter, settled in England in the early part of 
the 18th century. His works were chiefly small pic- 
tures in the manner of Van Diest ; many are to 
be found in old English houses over doors and 
chimney-pieces. He died in London in 1722. 

STEVENS, Johann, (or Stephanus,) a German 
engraver, who flourished at Strasburg about the 
year 1585. His plates are frequently little more 
than outlines, but they are from his own designs, 
and prove him to have been a man of some genius. 
He generally marked them with the initials I. and 
S. and the date. 

STEVENS, John, a Scotch subject and portrait 
painter, bom at Ayr about 1793. He studied in 
the schools of the Royal Academy, where he 
obtained two silver medals iu 1818. After prao- 



tising portraiture for a time at Ayr, he went to 
Italy, where he spent the chief part of his artistic 
career. He was afoundationmember of the Scottish 
Academy. Travelhng in France, he met with 
a railway accident, which eventually brought 
about his death at Edinburgh in 1>^68. One of 
his portraits is in the National Portrait Gallery, 

STEVENS, John, an English engraver of the 
18th century, who practised in London, and en- 
graved a series of views of English scenery in 
conjunction with C. Grignon. 

STEVENS, Joseph E., painter, younger (?) brother 
of Alfred Stevens, was born in 1819 at Brussels. 
Never very robust in health, and of retiring dis- 
position, he did not become well known to the 
general public, but as an animal painter he holds 
very high rank. He was self-taught, and at an 
early age went to pursue his art sti:die,s in Paris, 
returning to Brussels in 1844. At Paris and at the 
Brussels Salon he at once won notice by his pictures 
of animals, particularly of dogs, wliich he painteil 
■with intimate sympathj' and skill. His exhibits 
at the Paris Salon from 1847 to 1870 estaWished 
his reputation. Among his best pictures may be 
mentioned : 'A Dog carrying his Master's Dinner' 
(1847); 'Tantalus' (1850); 'A Remembrance of 
Brussels Streets ' (1852; in the Ruuen Museum); 
'Flemish Bull pursued by a Dog' (1853); 'The 
Dowager's Dog' (1857); 'A poor Beast' (1859); 
' The Chimney Corner ' and ' Dog mourning his 
Master' (1861). An exhibition of thirty of his best 
works was held at the Maison d'Art in Brussels 
in 1897-98. In the Royal Gallery of Brussels there 
are five works by him : ' Brusstls in the Morning,' 
'Scene in the Dog Slarket, Paris,' 'The Forge,' 
' After Work ' and another ; and in the Antwerp 
Gallery hangs his ' Dog with the Turtle.' Stevens 
won second-class medals at the Salons of 1852, 1855. 
1857, and 1861, became a Chevalier of the Legi^'U 
of Honour in 1866, and was made an Officer of the 
Order of Leopold in 1863. He was well versed in 
the theory, practice, and history cf painting, and 
won some distinction as an art critic. He died at 
Brussels on Aug. 3, 1892. Neither Alfred nor 
Joseph Stevens were quite certain in which years 
they were born. .Joseph signed his pictures in 
many diffeient ways. -M. H. 

STEVENS, Palamedes. See Stevaerts. 

STEVENS, (or Steevens,) Pieteb, called Ste- 
PHANI, a painter, born at Mechlin in 1540, was the 
eldest son of Anthonis Stevens of Mechlin. He 
settled at Prague about 1590, and was appointed 
painter to the Emperor Rudolph II. In 1600 he 
18 said to have returned to his native town, and to 
have painted four landscapes, which Gillis Sadeler 
engraved in 1620, under the name of 'The Four 
Seasons.' He was the uncle of Maurice Moreelse 
the younger, who studied under him at Prague. 
Stevens died at Prague after 1620. In the Vienna 
Gallery there is a ' Woody Landscape with a Stag 
and Hounds ' by him, and a ' Fight with the 
Amalekites ' j two small landscapes in the Bruns- 
wick Gallery are also attributed to him. It has 
been stated that several German painters called 
Stevens or Stephani, (a name adopted by Pieter 
Stevens at Prague,) were offshoots of his family. 
The following artists are among his known and 
supposed descendants : 

Pieter Stevens the younger, his son, painter 
and engraver, practised at Prague. Anthonis 
Stevens the younger, called Stephani, his grandson, 


painter, settled at Prague in 1644, and died there in 
1672. Anthonis Stevens was also known asStevens 
of Steinf els, and had a son a frestio-painter, who died 
at the beginning of the 18th century. One Stein- 
FELS or Stevens, who worked in 1695 — 1698 at the 
convent of Waldsassen, in Bavaria, was probably 
of the family, as also a certain Paul Stevens, who 
practised at Prague in 1674. 

STEVENS, (or Stievens,) Richard, a Dutch 
painter, sculptor, and medallist, who came to 
England in the reign of Elizabeth, and designed 
and executed the monument to Radcliffe, Earl of 
Sussex, in Boreham Church, Suffolk. The Lumley 
family possesses some portraits by him, notably one 
of John, Lord Lumley, 1590, painted in the manner 
of Holbein. The curious portraits of Queen Eliza- 
beth, in a gown embroidered with sea-monsters, 
and of Mary Queen of Scots, both at Hardwicke, 
have been ascribed to him. His reputation in 
England rests chiefly on his achievements as a 

STEVENSON, Thomas, an English landscape 
painter, and pupil of Aggas, practised towards the 
end of the 17th century. He m.ade the designs for 
the Jubilee pageants of the Goldsmiths' Company, 
in the mayoralty of Sir Robert Vyner. He also 
painted portraits, two of which were engraved, 

STEVER, Gdstav Curt, historical and genre 
painter, was bom at Riga in 1823. and went in 1847 
to the Berlin Academy, whence he was summoned 
in 1850 to Stockholm, where he painted portraits 
for the Court, and for Upsala University. In 1854 he 
went to Paris, and studied in the school of Couture. 
His chief works are: 'The Death of Gottschulk, 
the Vandal King,' ' Abishag and King David,' ' The 
Transfiguration,' 'The Visitation,' '"The Last Sup- 
per,' cartoons of the Four Evangelists for the 
windows of the Schroder Mausoleum in Hamburg, 
and cartoons for the windows of S. Paul's Church in 
Schwerin. From 1859 to 1865 he worked in Ham- 
burg, but died at Diisseldorf in 1877. 

STEVERS. See Stevaerts. 

STEWARDSON, Thomas, was born at Kendal in 
1781. He went to London, and became a pupil of 
Romney. He painted portraits with considerable 
success, and was appointed to the household of 
Queen Caroline. His portrait of Grote is in the 
National Portrait Gallery. He died in London in 

STEWART, Anthont, born at Crieff, Perthshire, 
in 1773, was placed under Alexander Nasmyth in 
Edinburgh to study landscape. He made many 
sketches of Scotch scenery, but at an early period 
took to miniature, which, after some practice in 
Scotland, he adopted as his profession, and estab- 
lished himself in London. He painted the Princess 
Charlotte, and the first miniature ever done of the 
Princess Victoria. In the last fifteen years of his 
life he devoted himself entirely to painting children. 
He died in London in 1846. 

STEWART, Gilbert. See Stuabt. 

STEWART, James, an English portrait painter, 
who practised in the middle and latter half of the 
18th century. He was appointed Sergeant Painter 
to George III. in 1764, and worked for Boydell. 
■There is a portrait of G. F. Cooke by him at the 
Garrick Club. 

STEWART, James, painter and engraver, was 
born at Edinburgh in 1791. He studied under 
Robert Scott and John Burnet, and at the Trustee's 
Academy, under Graham. His first plate was 
•Tartar Brigands dividing their Spoil,' after Allan, 


on which followed ' The Murder of Archbishop 
Sharp,' and 'The Abdication of Mary Stuart,' 
after the same. At this time Stewart was teach- 
ing in Edinburgh. In 1830 he went to London, 
where he engraved Wilkie's 'Gentle Shepherd,' 
' The Pedlar,' and ' The Penny Wedding.' In 183.S 
he emigrated and went to Algoa Bay. When 
the Caffre insurrection broke out his farm was de- 
stroyed, and he and l:is family had to fly to Somer- 
set. He then fell back upon art, and by painting 
portraits and teaching he was enabled to buy 
another farm, on which he resided for many years. 
He died in the colony in 1863. 

STEYAERT, Anthonie, painter, born at Bruges 
in 1765. He studied at the Academy of his native 
town, and afterwards settled at Ghent, where he 
became a Professor at the Academy, and died in 
1863. In the church of S. Nicholas at Ghent 
there is a ' S. Anthony ' by him. 

STIELER. Joseph Karl, was born at Mayence 
in 1781. After working for a time at miniature 
paintingihe studied oil underFasel atWurzburg, and 
then went to study under Fiiger, at Vienna. In 

1805 he was painting in Poland, whence he pro- 
ceeded to Paris to work under Gerard. Then he 
painted a ' S. Charles ' for the Grand Duke of 
Frankfort, in which city he was in 1808. Between 

1806 and 1816 he visited Frankfort, Milan, Rome, 
Munich, and Vienna. In 1820 he became painter 
to the Austrian court. Among others he painted 
portraits of Goethe, Tieck, Humboldt, Schelling, 
and Beethoven. He died at Munich in 1858. 

STIEMART, FRANgois, portrait painter, born at 
Douai in 1680, was keeper of the French king's 
pictures, and decorator to the Louvre. He was 
received into the Academy in 1720, his reception 
picture being a copy after Rigaud'a portrait of 
Louis XIV. There is by him at Fontainebleau a 
picture of 'Children Playing with a Dog.' 

STIFTER, Adalbert, the poet, born at Ober- 
plan, in Bohemia, in 1806, was also known as a 
painter of miniatures. An example of his work on 
copper is in Ilerr E. Fischer's collection in Vienna. 
He died at Linz in 1868. 

STILKE, Hermann, painter, born at Berlin in 
1808, received his first instruction in the Academy 
there. In 1821 he went to Munich, and then 
accompanied Cornelius to Diisseldorf. After lie 
had, with Stiirmer, painted a ' Last Judgment ' in 
the Assize Court in Coblenz, he devoted himself to 
the frescoes in the Court garden in Munich. From 
Munich he went to Italy, and on his return in 1833 
joined Sohadow at Dvisseldorf From 1842-46 he 
was engaged on frescoes in the Rittersaal at Stol- 
zenfels, and in 1850 was painting frescoes in the 
Royal Schloss and in the new theatre, at Dessau. 
Ue died at Berlin in 1860. His 'Children of 
Edwiird IV. taken from their Mother' is in the 
National Gallery, Berlin. His wife, Hermine, was a 
clever designer of ornamental borders, initials, &c., 
for editions ' de luxe.' She died at Berlin in 1869. 

STIMMER, JoHANN Christoph, perhaps the 
younger brother of Tobins Stimmer, was bom at 
SchafEhausen in 1552. Ho distinguished himself 
as an eminent engraver on wood, and executed 
cuts from the designs of Tobias. He marked his^ 
prints with a monogram composed of the letters 

C. S. T. M., thus, ^J . But there is much dispute 

as to what should be included in his ctuvre and 
as to whether another monogram, in which C. S. 
also occurs, should be ascribed to Stimmer or to 
Vol. v. K 

Ilhristoph Maurer. Besides the cuts in the Bible, 
published at Basle in 1586, we have the following 
prints by him : 

A set of cuts for the New Testaraeut, printed at Stras- 

burg in 1588. 
A set of portraits of German savants ; pubHshed bj 

Bernard Jobio, at Strasburg, in 15S7 
A set of Emblems entitled Icones Affabrce, pubHshed by 

B. Jobio at Strasburg, in 1591. 

See also Le Suisse. 

STIMMER, Tobias, was bom at Schafiliausen the 
7th of April, 1539. It is not known under whom 
he studied, but he acquired a reputation by decor- 
ating the fa9ades of houses in his native town with 
historical subjects in fresco. He was invited to 
the court of the Margrave of Baden to paint a series 
of ancestral portraits. His frescoes have perished ; 
but his ability appears in the woodcuts from his 
designs. Tobias Stimmer also engraved on wood 
himself, and with his brother, Johann Christoph 
Stimmer, executed the cuts for the Bible published 
at Basle in 1586, and ' Novaa. Tobise Stimmeri 
sacrorum Bibliorum figuras versibus Latinis et 
Germanicis exposite,' which he had himself 
designed. Rubens declared he had studied these 
prints with attention, and recommended them to 
young artists. Among bis other works may be 
named cuts for a ' Livy,' a ' Josephus,' cuts of 
animals for a ' Neues Jagdbuch,' 1590, and a series 
of satirical drawings directed against the Pope. 
Tobias Stimmer usually marked his prints with a 

monogram composed of a T. and an S., thus ^ , 

He died in 1592 (?). 

STIRNBRANDT, Franz Xaver, was bora about 
1793. He began his career as a painter upon 
'acquer, and afterwards worked in Frankfort, orna- 
menting metal boxes. In 1813 he went to Stiittgart, 
and afterwards studied in Paris and in Rome. 
Returning to Stiittgart in 1825, he obtained a good 
practice as a portrait painter, and painted various 
members of the royal family. He died in 1880. 

STOBER, Franz, engraver, born at Vienna in 
1795, son and pupil of Josef Stober, studied at the 
Academy of Vienna under Maurer, where he gained 
several prizes. At first he worked with his father 
for books and almanacks, but in 1830 he engraved 
the portraits of the Emperor Francis and the Em- 
press Caroline Augusta, Don Miguel, and Alexander 
von Humboldt. His plates are numerous ; among 
them we may name : 

The Return of the Peasant ; after JValdmu/ler. 1835. 

The Death of Zriny ; after Krafft. 1836. 

The Spendtlirift ; tifter Bannhauser, 

The Conveut Soup ; after the same. 1839. 

The Opening of tbe Will ; after the same. 1843. 

The Novel Keading ; after the same. 1851. 

S. Catbarine of Siena ; after Rieder. 1848. 

Dolce far Niente ; after Ender. 1551. 

Madonna with the Child ; after Sassoferrato. 

The Judgment of Solomon ; after Fuhrich. 1353. 

The Sibyls ; after Raphael. 1854. 

Besides these he has also left some etchings of 
Austrian celebrities after Dannhauser. He died in 

STOBER, Franz, painter, born at Vienna in 1760, 
studied with the Jesuits, and under the painter 
Christian Brand. He afterwards piaid a visit to 
the Netherlands to study the Dutch masters. Re- 
turning to Vienna, he met with no success, and so 
settled at Spiers. He painted, among other things, 
the ' Falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen,' and a 



view of the ruins of St. James's Church at Spiers. 
He died at Vienna in 1834. 

STOCK, Andreas, resided chiefly at Antwerp, 
where (?) he was born about 1616. He is supposed 
to have been a pupil of Jakob de Gheyn the elder, 
from the similarity of their style. He engraved 
several of the plates for the ' Acad^mie de L'Espee,' 
published at Antwerp by Thibeau ; which are 
inscribed Andreas Stokius Hagw Comitis sculp. 
We have the following plates by him : 

Albrecht Diirer ; Effigies Alberti Dureri. And. Stock, sc. 

Hans Holbein ; Effigies Holheini, Pictoris celeberrimi se 
ipse pinx. A nd. C^tock, fecit. 

Lucas vau Leyden ; froiii a picture by hitnself. 

Peter Sneyers, Painter ; after A. I'andyck. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham ; after Rubens. 

The Twelve Months in the Year ; after Wildens. 

A set of eight Landscapes ; after Paul Brill. 

STOCK, Doris, (Dora,) painter, born at Leipsic 
in 1761, was a daughter of Johann Michael Stock, 
an obscure engraver. She was a member of the 
Dresden Academy, and copied many of the principal 
works in the Dresden Gallery. She also gained 
some reputation by original works. She died in 

STOCK, Martin, painter, was born at Hermann- 
stadt in 1746. He was a pupil of Meyten, and 
settled at Pressburg, where he painted altar-pieces 
and portraits. He left a set of etchings of Gipsy 
musicians. He died in 1800, having for some time 
abandoned art for trade. 

STOCKADE. See Helt-Stokade. 

STOCKER, JoRG, (Stocker,) painter of Ulm, 
who flourished from 1481 to 1525. To him are 
assigned a panel in the Neidhart Chapel at Ulm, 
and altar-pieces at Oberstadion and Dischingen. 

STOCKMANN, Jakob, painter, born at Ham- 
burg about 1700, studied in Holland under Meyering 
and M. Carr6. He painted landscapes with animals, 
and died at Hamburg in 1750. 

STOCKS, Artudr, son of Lumb Stocks, the en- 
graver, was born in London on April 9, 1846. He 
was educated at the Islington Proprietary School, 
and became a pupil of his father witli a view to 
practising as an engraver. Later he entered the 
Royal Acaderaj' Schools, and thenceforth devoted 
his attention to painting. In 1866 he exhibited his 
first picture, ' 'Tu-as a Famous Victory,' at SuflEulk 
Street. In the following year he made his first 
appearance at the Academy with ' Christmas Up- 
stairs ' and ' The Expected Letter,' and continued 
to exhibit pictures of a similar domestic type, 
marked with spirit, intellisrence, and no little talent. 
To the Academy he contributed fifty-nine pictures 
in all, among the more important being : ' A 
Review at Chelsea,' ' Mending the Old Cradle,' 
'The Best of Husbands,' 'Her Last Sacrament,' 
* Sermon Time,' ' At Last,' ' In Memory,' and in 
1877 a portrait of his father. He was also an ex- 
hibitor at the British Institution, the Dudley Gallery, 
and the Institute of Painters in Oil-Colours, and 
the Royal Institute, of which he was elected a 
member in 1882. He died on October 12, 1889. 

STOCKS, Lumb, engraver, was born on Novem- 
ber 30, 1812, at LightclifEe, Yorkshire, where his 
father was a well-known coal-owner. He attended 
a school at Horton, Bradford, and while there 
received some instruction in drawing from C. 
Cope, father of C. W. Cope, R.A. In 1827 he 
came to London, and was articled for six years to 
C. Rolls, the well-known engraver. In 1832 he 


made his first appearance at the Royal Academy 
as a miniaturist, or draughtsman in crayons, with a 
' Portrait of a young Artist,' and continued to send 
similar work till 1836. He then devoted himself 
entirely to engraving, and between 1840 and 1850 
produced a large number of plates after Stothard 
for the popular Annuals of the day, as well as 
illustrations after Meadows, Cattermole, and others, 
for Finden's ' Gallery of Art ' and similar publica- 
tions. He also contributed many plates to the ' Art 
Journal' after pictures in the Vernon Gallery and 
the Royal Collection, and engraved Callcott's 
'Raphael and the Fornarina' for the Art Union. 
His best engravings were exhibited at the Royal 
Academy from 1852 onwards, among them being : 
' The Dame School ' and ' The Rubber,' after Web- 
ster ; 'The Gentle Shepherd,' after Wilkie; ' Bed- 
time,' ' The Birthday,' and ' Claude Duval,' after 
Frith: 'The Odalisque' and 'The Sister's Kiss,' 
.ifter Leighton ; ' A Souvenir of Velazquez ' and 
'The Princes in the Tower,' after Millais ; 'Dr. 
Johnson in the Ante-chamber of Lord Chesterfield,' 
ifter Ward ; 'Nell Gwynne,' after Landseer ; and 
' The Meeting of Wellington and Bliicher after 
Waterloo,' after Maclise. Stocks was elected an 
Associate Engraver of the Royal Academy in 1853, 
became an Academician in 1872, and was made 
auditor to the Academy in 1875. He was perhaps 
the last of the old school of engravers in the pure 
line manner, and his long series of plates, executed 
in this style, felicitously interpreted the best paint- 
ings of his day. It is remarkable that his ' Spanish 
Letter-Writer,' after Burgess, exhibited as late as 
1888, was one of his most successful plates. He 
died on April 28, 1892. M. H. 

STOCKVISCH. See Stokvis. 

STOER, LoRENZ, a native of Augsburg, flour- 
ished about the year 1567. He is mentioned by 
Professor Christ as a painter and engraver on 
wood, and is said to have marked his cuts with the 

cipher ^. 

STOEVERE, John Dh, Dean of the Guild of 
St. Luke at Ghent, 1438-39. W. H. J. W. 

STOEVERE, John De, Dean of the Guild of St. 
Luke at Ghent, 1480-82 and 1493-94. W. H. J. W. 

STOEVERE, Saladin De, painter, 1434, member 
of Guild of St. Luke at Ghent. In 1444 painted 
the portraits of the donors on the shutters of a 
triptych for the Abbess of Nieuweiibossche at 
Ghent, the centre of which was executed by 
Baldwin van Wytevelde. W. H. J. W. 

STOFFE, J. V. D., a painter of battle-pieces, 
chiefly skirmishes of cavalry, flourished about the 
year 1649. His pictures are not uncommon, though 
his history is not known. They are generally small, 
on panel, spirited in action, well-drawn, and 
smoothly finished. They are sometimes attributed 
to D. Stoop, or Esaias Vandevelde. His pictures, 
when untouched, have his name, and sometimes 
the date. 

STOKADE. See Helt-Stokade. 

STOKER, Bartholomew, portrait painter, was 
the son of an upholsterer in Dublin, and studied at 
the art schools in that town, working at the same 
time under his father. He became very successful 
as a portraitist in crayons. He died at Dublin in 

STOKVIS, Hendrik, (Stokvisch,) painter, bom 
at Loenen, in the province of Utrecht, in 1768, went 
when he was seventeen years of age to Amsterdam, 
to learn drawing and painting under J. C. Schultsz. 


He studied hard from nature, and painted land- 
scapes with sheep, oxen. &c.. often in Indian ink 
and pastel. He died in 1824. The Amsterdam 
Museum possesses a good example of his art : it is 
signed E. Stokvisch. 

STOLKER, Jan, portrait painter, designer, and 
engraver in aquafortis and mezzotint, was born at 
Amsterdam in 1724. and studied portrait painting 
there under J. M. Qninkhardt, with whom he re- 
mained till he was twenty-three. He then removed 
to the Hague, where he lived nine years paintirg 
portraits and famih' groups ; moving afterwanis 
to Rotterdam, and there following the same branch 
of art. He also painted cabinet pictures. When 
about fifty he abandoned painting, and devoted 
himself to making copies in water-colours and 
Indian ink. He etched some plates after Rem- 
brandt, F. Hals, Jan Steen, Schalcken, Adriaen 
Ostade. Brekelenkam, and others. He was also 
much employed on designs for hangings and other 
decorations. There is a portrait group by him in 
the Rotterdam iluseum. He died at Rotterdam 
in 1786. 
STOLTZHIDS (Stolzids). See Stoss. 
STOLZEL, Ciibistian' Ebxst, engraver, bom at 
Dresden in 1792, was the son and pupil of Christian 
Friedrich Stolzel. He first copied the works of 
Goltzius, Preissler, Seifest, and Bervic, and then en- 
graved a ' Hagar in the Wilderness,' after Baroccio, 
and several vignettes and small portraits. In 1822 
he went on foot to Italy, where he painted land- 
scapes, engraved a ' St. Catharine ' and a ' St. John 
the Evangelist,' after Fra Angelico, and made a 
drawing of Raphael's ' Coronation of the Virgin,' 
which on his return home he engraved. He died 
in 1837. 

STOLZEL, Christian Friedrich, engraver, born 
at Dresden in 1751, studied under Schenau and 
Canale. He engraved portraits, genre and his- 
torical pictures, and landscapes, and became chief 

' engraver to and member of the Dresden Academy. 

I Among his best works we may name : 

Portrait of Schenau ; afttr Vogel. 
Christ on the Cress ; n/ttr Schenau. 
The Magdalene ; afi^r Guido Rem. 
The "Wise Man ; after ScheTutu. 

Uaich of a Kegiment of Ural Cossacks ; tifier K. A. 

He died ui 1815. 

STOM, or ST00M,MATTH«U8,wa8 born in 1643, 
probably in Flanders, and practised principally in 
Italy. He painted landscapes and battle-pieces, 
and died at Verona in 1702. Five of his pictures 
are in the Dresden Gallery. Another painter of 
the same name painted an altar-piece now in the 
church of St. Cecilia, at Messina. 

STOMME, , a still-life painter, of whom 

there is no account, who appears to have been an 
imitator, if not a scholar, of Johan Davidsz De 
Heem. A signed picture by him is in the Museum 
at Brussels. 

SrrONE, Frank, a.k.a., an English painter, was 
bom at Manchester, August 22. 1800. His fatlier 
was a cotton-spinner, and brouglit his son up to his 
own business, but at the age of twenty-four the 
young man obtained leave to study art as a pro- 
fession. He worked diligently in his new calling, 
and in 1831 came to London. His first works were 
in water-colour ; distinguished chiefly by a pretty 
sentimentality, they caught the popular taste, and 
the artist rose quickly into public favour. In 1837 
he was elected an Associate Exhibitor of the Water- 
E 2 

Colour Society, and in the same year began to con- 
tribute to the exhibitions of the Royal Academy. 
His first essays in oil had a rapid success. His 
pictures were engraved, and became \videly known. 
In 1841 he was awarded a premium of fifty guineas 
by the British Institution, and in 1843 he became 
a member of the Water-Colour Society, a distinc- 
tion which he resigned in 1847. In 1851 he was 
chosen an associate of the Royal Academy, and 
liis works began gradually to assume a higher 
character, his 'Gardener's Daughter' being a dis- 
tinct advance in achievement. Some French 
subjects treated at this period showed similar im- 
provement. His sudden death from heart disease 
look place in London, November 18, 1859. He was 
the father of Mr. Marcus Stone, R.A. The follow- 
ing are among his most popular works : ' The 
First Appeal,' 'The Last Appeal,' 'Checkmate,' 
' Mated,' ' The Course of True Love never did ran 
smooth,' and ' The Gardener's Daughter.' 

STONE, Henry, painter and sculptor, the son 
of Nicholas Stone, master mason to James I., 
was usually called Old Stone, to distinguish him 
from his younger brother, John. As a painter 
he is principally known by his excellent copies 
after Vandyck and some of the Italian masters. 
By his epitaph, which is preserved bj- Walpole, it 
appears that he passed several years in Holland, 
France, and Italy, and died in London in 1653. 
He was the last survivor of the family, and was 
buried in one grave with his father and brothers : 
the epitaph commencing, 'Four rare stones are 
gone, the father and three sons,' &c. A copy by 
him of Titian's ' Comaro Family ' is at Hampton 
Court. Many portraits ascribed to Vandyck are 
really copies by ' OM Stone.' 

STONE, HoRjVTio, a New York physician, a 
'native of New England, bom in 1810. who gave 
up all his spare time to drawing and sculpture. 
He had considerable skUl in delineating a portrait, 
but was not quite so successful when transferring 
it to the stone. Acquiring a competence through 
the medical profession, he determined to traeel 
abroM.d, and spent many years in Italy, where he 
worked very hard, making drawings of the great 
works of scnlpture to be seen in that country. He 
died in 1875. 

STONE, John, was the brother of Henry Stone, 
and followed bis father's profession of stone- 
cutter. He also copied the old masters. Thomas 
Cross is said to have taught him engraving : one 
of the plates for Dugd-ale's ' History of Warwick- 
shire ' is by him ; he also publislied anonymously 
' Enchiridion,' a book on fortification, with small 
plates engraved by himsel£ He died soon after 
the Restoration. 

STONE. WiLLiAJi Oliver, an American por- 
trait painter of some considerable repute, a Con- 
necticut man, born at Derby in 1830. For most 
of liis life he lived in New York, where he became 
a member of the Academy of Design, and where 
he exhibited with great regularity. Occasionally 
he sent over portraits to London for exhibition, 
and they were well hung at the Royal Academy. 
His most successful works represented women and 
children, but he himself was always desirous of 
painting portraits of men, and expected to produce 
some notable masterpiece in this respect. Per- 
haps his best portrait of a man represents James 
Gordon-Bennett, and one of the most charming 
portraits of women he ever painted was of a Mrs. 
Hoey. He died in 1875. 



STOOM. See Stom. 

STOOP, CoBNELis, painter, bom at Hamburg in 
1606. Few details are known of liiin, but there 
is in the Dresden Gallery a ' Rocky Cave, with 
Figures,' ascribed to him. 

STOOP, DiRCK, (Thierry, Roderigo,) a Dutch 
painter and engraver, was born at Utrecht about 
1610. He was the son of a glass-painter, Willem 
Jaksz van der Stoop, and painted cavalry engage- 
ments, hunting scenes, seaports, still-life pictmes, 
and altar-pieces, which in his time were valued very 
highly. He lived for a time at Lisbon, where he be- 
came painter to the Court, and went with the Infanta 
Catharine to London. He returned to Utrecht in 
1678, and died there in 1686. Walpole, misled by 
his use of the Portuguese equivalent, Roderigo, for 
his Christian name, Dirck or Tliierry, and by the 
asserted existence of a brother, Pieter, makes three 
men of him (vol. ii. p. 137). Works by him are to 
be found in the Galleries of Dresden, Berlin, and 
Copenhagen, in the Catliedral at Halberstadt, .fee. 
Of his etchings there are known, the plates for tlie 
lirst part of Ogilvy's translation of ' iEsop's Fables ' ; 
' Twelve breeds of Horses,' publislied in 1651 ; a 
bird's-eye view of the Battle of Solebay, fought 
between the English and Dutch fleets on the 3rd 
and 4th of June, 1665, signed Ro. Stooji,/- London, 
m the cabinet of prints at Copenhagen, and believed 
to be unique. Another unique i)rint in the same 
collection represents a panorama of the theatre of 
war, with a chart. Another rare print representing 
Oliver Cromwell dancing on the tight-rope, is 
ascribed to him. There is an impression in the 
British Museum. We may also name : 

The Kape of Helen. {British Museum.) 

A Skirmish of Cavalry. {Ditto.) 

Portrait of Charles II. 

Portrait of Catharine of Braganza, wife of Charles II., 
inscribed Catharina D. G. Maguas BritannisB, Fran- 
cis et Hiberuiie Eegina Filia Johannes IIII. Portug. 
&c. — Consecrat T. Stoop. On tlie left, below the 
inscription, Lisbona 1662. N. Jlfuuier f. 

The Title. In a cartouche, is inscribed Jl Illusfa. 
Li-*^. D. Cathai~ina Rajnha da yntn Bretanka 1). V. 
C. R. Stoop 1660 Lix". ; a general view of Lisbon, with 
sea and numerous vessels in front. 

Seven views of Lisbon and vicinity ; dedicated to Q. 

Eight large plates of Q. Catharine's procession from 
Portsmouth to Hampton Court on her arrival in 

Impressions of five plates of Dutch battles, sup- 
posed to be by Stoop, are in the British Museum. 

STOOP, Jan Pieter, is said to have been born 
in Holland in 1612, and to have painted landscapes 
and battle-pieces. He is thought to have been the 
brother of Dirck Stoop, and to have worked in 

STOOPENDAAL, Bastiaan, engraver, was a 
native of Holland, and flourished about the year 
1710. In his best plates he appears to have imitated 
the8t3'le of Cornelius Visscher, though not always 
with success. We have, among others, the follow- 
ing prints by him : 

Sixty Views in Holland, entitled Les Dilices du Diemer 

Meer ; engraved from his own dt.-^tyn.-^. 
A set of twenty-four Views near the Hague. 
Four plates representing the Departure of King Willianf 

from Holland for England, his Arrival, his Sleeting 

the Parliament, and his Coronation ; inscribed £. 

The Kobbers ; after Bamboccio ; £. Stoopendaal, sc. 
Attack on a Military Convoy ; after the same. 
A Lime-kiln ; after the same. 


The last three are fine copies from Visscher. 
Stoopendaal engraved the plates for Clarke's Caesar, 
published in 1712. 

STOOPENDAAL, Daniel, a contemporary of 
Bastiaan Stoopendaal, etched several plates after 
his own drawings. 

STOOTER, Leonard, painter, was born at Ley- 
den, and flourished in the second part of the 17th 
century. He settled at Antwerp, where he was 
received into the Guild of St. Luke. Teniers is 
said to have added the figures to a picture by 

STOPPELAER, Herbert, painter, was a native 
of Dublin, and came to London with Thomas Frye. 
He tried various means of making a living, and 
was by turns actor, painter, dramatic writer, and 
singer. He exhibited portraits with the Society 
of Arts in 1761-62, and designed some of the 
humorous subjects published by Bowles. He 
was associated with Charles Dibdin in the Pata- 
gonian Theatre, a puppet-show held over Exeter 
'Change, for which Dibdin wrote the pieces, while 
Stoppelaer painted the scenery and worked the 
puppets. For a time he was employed as an actor 
by Rich, but finding that he could live by por- 
trait painting, he seems to have abandoned his 
many other pursuits. He died in 1772. His bro- 
ther, Michael, also practised portrait painting. He 
painted a portrait of Joe Miller, in 1738, which has 
been engraved. 

STORCK, Abraham, (Stork,) painter, bom at 
Amsterdam about 1630. His master is unknown, 
but his style is formed on that of Bakhuisen. 
His pictures usually represent views of the Y, or 
the Amstel, near Amsterdam, with a variety of 
shipping and boats, and a number of small figures, 
correctly drawn, and handled with spirit. His ships 
are well drawn, his colouring clear and transparent, 
and his skies and water light and floating. One of 
his best pictures represents the arrival of the Duke 
of Marlborough at Amsterdam, with a public pro- 
cession of ships, barges, and j'achts, decorated with 
flags and full of picturesque figures. Storck painted 
figures in the landscapes of Hobbema and Mou- 
cheron, and also etched a few plates. He died at 
Amsterdam in 1710 (?). There are four good ex- 
amples of his art in the Amsterdam Museum, besides 
others at Rotterdam, Copenhagen, Dresden, and 

STORELLI, F. M. F., an Italian landscape 
painter, born at Turin in 1778, who spent most of 
his time in Paris, where he exhibited very con- 
stantly. His works can be seen in many of the 
picture galleries of Paris, especially at St. Cloud, 
while three of his portraits are to be seen at 
Versailles. He died in Paris in 1854. 

STORER, Christoph Johann, (Storrkr,) was 
born at Constance in 1611. He travelled in Italy, 
and studied at Milan under Ercole Procaccini. 
After beginning well, Storer became a mannerist, 
and not unfrcquently adopted gross ideas. He 
was, however, a good colourist. He was employed 
in decorating Milan for the solemn entry cf Philip 
IV. and Maria of Austria. He etched several prints 
of sacred and profane subjects ; these are some- 
times signed Joan Christ. Storer, sometimes Giov. 
Christ. Storer. It is said that he returned to his 
own countrj', and died in his native city in 1671. 
Several of his pictures have been engraved. 

STORER, Henry Sargant, draughtsman and 
engraver, was the son of James Storer, and worked 
jointly with him on many of his later undertakings. 









He lived for some years at Cambridge, but died 
in London, January 8, 1837. 

STORER, James, engraver, bom at Cambridge 
in 1781, worked at drawing- and engraving old 
English buildings and other antiquarian subjects. 
In the early part of his career he lived at Cam- 
bridge, but afterwards moved to London, where 
he spent the rest of his life. A list of his publica- 
tions is appended. In many of these he was 
assisted by his son, Henry Sargant. He died in 
London in 1853. 

J. Storer and J. Greig. Cowper, illustrated by a series of 
Views. ISOo. 
,^ ,. Views in North Britain, illustra- 

tive of Burns. 1S05. 
„ ,, Antiquarian and Topographical 

Cabinet. 1807-11. 
„ „ Select Views of London and its 

Environs. 1S04-5. 
„ ., The Antiquarian Itinerary. 1815 

— 131S. 
J. Storer. A description of Fonthill Abbey. 

„ .-Vncient Keliques. 1812-13. 

J. and H. S. Storer. Catbedrals of Great liritain. 

The Portfolio. 1823-4. 
„ Collegiorum Portae apud Canta- 

„ Delineations of Fountains Abbey 

STORK, Abraham, or Jan, the younger, a marine 
and landscape painter of the 18th century. It is 
said that some pictures signed A. Stork are dated 
17-12. In the Rotterdam Gallery tliere is a picture 
of the Old Harbour, Rotterdam, by him. 

STOSS, Veit, the famous Nuremberg sculptor, 
was also an engraver. He was born in 1447. It 
has been supposed that he was a native of Cracow, 
but the greater probability seems to be that he was 
born in Germany, but married a wife from Cracow. 
Between 1472 and 1495 he was more or less at 
work in Cracow, but in the latter year he seems to 
have settled finally at Nuremberg. There he lived 
a more or less disreputable life, and died, blind, in 
the Schwabach hospital in 1542, aged ninety-five. 
The plates ascribed to him were formerly given to 
a mythical Stolzen, or Stolzius, while some writers, 
Christ among them, call him Franz Stoss. The 
notion that he was the master of Martin Schon- 
gauer is inconsistent with dates. Stoss variously 
signed his baptismal name Vit, Wyt, Eit, Fit, and 
Fyt, while to his plates, as well as to his works in 
sculpture, he attached the annexed monogram : 

^'^& • ^^^ twelve plates are very rare ; the best 

of them are, perhaps, the following : 

The Raising of Lazarus. 

The Virgin kissing the body of Christ at the foot of the 

Cross. {British Jluseuni.) 
The Madonna and Child, standing. {Do.) 
The Madonna and Child, seated, in a room. (J^o.) 
The Jlartyrdom of St. Catherine of Alexandria. (Do.) 
A Gothic Capital. (Do.) 

STOTHARD, Charles Alfred, antiquarian 
draughtsman, painter, and illuminator, was the son 
of Thomas Stothard, and born in London in 1786. 
After receiving a liberal education, he became a 
student in the Royal Academy, where he showed 
great talent in drawing from the antique. His 
father being engaged to paint the staircase at Bur- 
leigh House, he accompanied him thither from 
time to time, and made drawings of the antiquities 
of that locality. This awakened in him a predi- 
lection for a pursuit in which he became eminent, 
but which eventually cost him his life. In 1811 

he exhibited a ■ Murder of Richard II. at Pontefract 
Castle,' in which the portrait of the king was 
painted from his efBgy in Westminster Abbey. 
His next undertaking was ' The Jlonumental Effi- 
gies of Great Britain,' selected from the cathedrals 
and churches, and etched throughout by him.self 
with remarkable delicacy and fidelity. In 1816 
he was deputed by the Society of Antiquaries to 
make drawings from the BayeuxTapestrie.s. While 
engaged on this work he visited the Abbey of Fon- 
tevraud, where he discovered the effigies of the 
Plantagenets, the continued existence of which had 
been doubted since the revolution. These were 
added to his work. His last undertaking was the 
illustration of 'Devonshire,' in Lysons's 'Magna 
Britannia.' For that purpose he began some trac- 
ings of the stained glass window in the church at 
Bere Ferrers, where, on Jlay 27th, 1821, heslipt'ed 
from the ladder on which be stood, and was killed 
on the spot. His wife, afterwards Mrs. Bray, 
published an account of their tour through North- 
em France, which was illustrated wHth twenty-one 
plates from designs by her husband. 

STOTHARD, Thomas, painter, was bom in 
London (at the " Black Horse," in Long Acre) in 
1755. His father, a publican, died when he was 
only five years old, and he was left to the care of 
some relations, who placed him in a school at 
Stretton, near Tadcaster, his father's birthplace, 
where he remained till he was of an age to be ap- 
prenticed. Having sbow-n an inclination for draw- 
ing, by copying some of Houbraken'e heads, his 
fi-iends placed him with a designer of patterns for 
silks. The trade declining, and his master dying 
before the expiration of his term, he was " left 
to his own resources. Having, however, minutely 
studied nature in the drawing of flowers and 
other ornaments, he at once struck out a profitable 
profession for himself by making drawings for the 
' Town and Country Magazine.' This made him 
known, and he was .soon employed on other pub- 
lications, particularly Bell's edition of the British 
Poets, and Harrison's ' Novelist's Magazine.' These 
designs attracted the notice of Flaxmau, and a 
friendship commenced between the two artists 
which was of advantage to both. Stothard then 
l>ecame a student of the Royal Acadsmy, and in 
1778 exhibited an 'Ajax defending the dead Body 
of Patroclus.' He was made an associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1785, an academician in 1794, 
deputy librarian in 1810, and librarian in 1812. It 
is said that Stothard made upwards of five thousand 
designs for books, three thousand of which were 
used. Among the more important series and single 
designs may be enumerated those for Boydell's 
' Shakespeare,' ' Rogers' Poems,' ' The Canterbury 
Pilgrims,' the ' Ceremony of the Dunmow Flitch,' 
and the ' Wellington Shield.' He painted the stair- 
case at Burleigh House, and the ceiling of the 
Advocates' Library at Edinburgh. It i.s said that 
he gave the preference, before all his other works, 
to fifteen small pictures from Bunyan's ' Pilfrrim's 
Progress.' He furnished countless designs for 
goldsmiths, and the origin of many welt-known 
pieces of English sculpture may be traced to him. 
About 1784 Stothard married, and in 1793 bought 
the house in Newman Street (No. 28), in which he 
spent the rest of his life. He died on the 27tli of 
.\pril, 1834, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 
There are portraits of him by Harlowe, Jackson, 
and Wood, and a bust in marble by Baily. His 
biography has been written by Mrs. Bray. Works: 



r. .-niioa. National Gall. The Greek Vintage. 

n m Intemperance. (.^le/c// /or <Ae 

picture at BurUiyh.) 
n „ Fdte ChampJtre. 

n » The Canterbury Pilgrims. 

{And six others.) 
„ S. Kensington. Character.? from Shakespeare. 

„ „ Twelftli Night. 

,. II Brunetta and Phillis. 

II t. Sancho and tlie Duchess. 

{And six others.) 

STOTT, William, who in later year.s adopted 
the sobriquet " of Oldham " to distinguish him.self 
from a fellow-artist of a similar name, was born 
in that city in 1858, and died suddenly at sea 
on February 25, 1900, in the course of a voyage 
undertaken for the benefit of his health, which had 
long been failing. After studying drawing in 
England he went to Paris in 1879 and entered the 
studio of G^rome, where he worked at painting 
with such energy and success that only two years 
later a picture of his, ' Le Passeur,' was accepted at 
the Salon, while in the following year his canvas 
representing boys bathing from a punt, entitled 
'La Baignadp,' was awarded a medal. After leaving 
Paris he resided for a time at Grez on the Loing, 
not far from Fontainebleau, but finally established 
himself in London. Much of his time was given 
up to landscape work, in which, especially in the 
treatment of mountain scenery, he was eminentlv 
successful, but he also painted some portraits, and a 
considerable number of imaginative figure-subjects, 
Buch as ' Venus,' 'The Nymph,' 'Diana, Twihght, 
and Dawn,' ' Faerie Wood,' ' The awakening of tlu? 
Spirit of the Rose,' &c. In all his work a profound 
sense of beauty and a delicate poetical feeling were 
conspicuous, while technically it embodied all that 
was freshest and soundest in the Parisian school of 
which he was so distinguished a pupil. i[,B. 

STOTTRUP, Andreas, portrait painter and en- 
graver, bom at Hamburg in 1754, studied from 
1771-74 at the Academy at Copenhagen, and after- 
wards settled at Hamburg. He died in 1812. 
His son. Christian Geobq, was also an engraver 
at Altona. 

STOVESANDT, Fkiedrich Adolph, landscape 
painter, was born at Dantzic in 1808, and studied 
first in his native city, then at Berlin under 
Gropius, and afterwards at the Vienna Academy. 
He died at Dantzic in 1838. 

STOW, James, line-engraver, and the son of a 
labourer, was born near Maidstone about 1770. 
In his boyhood he showed such an aptitude for art. 
that some of the gentry in the neighbourhood 
raised a subscription and apprenticed him to 
Woollett. On the death of his master he was trans- 
ferred to William Sharp, with whom he remained 
as assistant after his term of apprenticeship had 
expired. He was highly thought of in the early 
part of his career, and employed on many import- 
ant works, but he seems to have been wanting in 
steadiness and application. He fell into dissipated 
habits, and on his death left a family in poverty. 
His most important works are : 

Eight plates for Boydell's ' Shakespeare.' 1795— ISOl. 
Twelve plates for Du Koveray's ' Homer.' 1S06. 
Gainsborough's * Boy at the Stile.' 
Plates for ' Loudina Illustrata.' lSll-23. 

STRAATEN, Jan Joseph Ignatius van, a painter 
of dead game and flowers, was born at Utrecht in 
1766, and was a scholar of C. van Geelen. His 
pictures are in the style of J. Weenix, well com- 
posed and highly finished. In his landscapes he 


was assisted by his countryman, Swagers. He 
died in 1808. One Bruno van Straaten, born at 
Utrecht in 1786, may have been of the same family. 
There is a picture by him in the Rotterdam Gallery. 

BERT, sometimes called De la Rue, was born at 
Haarlem in 1631. He was a painter of portraits 
and historical subjects, and also kept a school. He 
died in 1712. His son Hendrik, born about 1665 
at Haarlem, was a landscape painter, and became 
a member of the Guild of St. Luke in his native 
town in 1687. He came to England in 1690, and 
there practised with some success, painting land- 
scape somewhat in the style of Ruysdael. (See 
Walpole, vol. ii. p. 235.) 

S'TRACK, Anton Wilhelm, born at Hayna, in 
Hesse, in 1758, was the son of a baker, and grandson 
of Joseph Heinrich Tischbein. He studied under 
Johann Anton Tischbein, and became professor 
and court painter in BUckebiirg. He painted a 
series of Westphalian landscapes, which were after- 
wards engraved. 

STRACK, LuDWio Philipp, painter, born at 
Hayna, in Hesse, in 1761, received his art education 
at Cassel. In 1783 the Duke of Oldenburg took 
him into his employment, but in 1786 he returned 
to Cassel, where he painted portraits and landscapes, 
becoming court painter to the Duke of Hesse. He 
died at Oldenlmrg in 1836. 

STRADA, Jacopo, a Milanese draughtsman, who 
flourished about the middle of the 16th century, 
was chiefly employed in making designs for new 
coins and medals, and in drawing from old ones. 
The Libraries of Vienna and Gotha have many 
volumes of such drawings. He also drew a series 
of portraits of the emperors for a work published 
by his son. 

STRADA, Vespasiano, a native of Rome, but 
of Spanish parentage, learned the rudiments of 
the art from his father, an obscure painter. He 
worked chiefly in fresco in the churches and public 
buildings of Rome. He died at Rome, still young, 
in 1624. We have several etchings by Strada from 
his own compositions, which prove him to have 
been a man of considerable talent. He usually 
marked his plates with the initials V. S. F., or 
V. S. I. F., and sometimes VES. ST, I. FE. The 
following prints may be mentioned : 

Christ shown to the Jews (or little Ecce Homo). 
Christ crowned with Tlioms (or great Ecce Homo). 
The Holy Family, with St. John. 
The Virgin, supported by two Angels. 
The Marriage of St. Catherine. 
The Virgin and Infant Christ. 

STRADANUS, Johannes, or Giovanni della 
Strada. See Van der Straet. 

STRAELY, Eduard, was born at Diisseldorf in 
1720. He came to London while still J'oung, and 
adopted the English manner of miniature painting, 
and later visited Italy. At the time of the Em- 
peror Paul's coronation he went to Moscow, and 
remained for some years in Russia. On the acces- 
sion of Alexander he left SL Petersburg, and re- 
turned to London, settling finally in Vienna. His 
later works were chiefly portraits, but in Russia 
there are by him four scenes from the life of Peter 
the Great, painted on copper, and a ■ Hebe feeding 
the Eagle.' 

STRAMOT, Nicholas, a Flemish painter, practis- 
ing at Antwerp about 1693. In the church of St. 
Gertrude, at Louvain, there is a large picture by 


him containing numerous fi^ires, probably por- 
traits, and in the Antwerp Museum a portrait of 
Frans van Steerbeeck. 

STRANGE, Henry Le. See Le Strange, H. 

STRANGE, Sir Robert, engraver, born in 
Pomona. Orkney, in 1721, was descended from a 
cadet of tlie Strange family of Balcasky, Fife, 
who settled in Orkney at the time of the Reform- 
ation. He was originally intended for the law, but 
some of his drawings having been shown to one 
Cowper, a drawing-master at Edinburgh, were so 
highly approved by him, that the young man was 
placed under his tuition. He had made consider- 
able progress under Cowper's instruction, when 
ci\"il war broke out on the arrival of the young 
Chevalier. He joined the Jacobites, and was named 
engraver to the Prince, whose portrait, with those 
of many of his officers, he drew in pencil and en- 
graved. After Culloden, where he is said to have 
fought in the ranks, he escaped to France. As 
soon as peace was restored. Strange came to London, 
but soon afterwards revisited Paris. On his wav 
he made some stay at Rouen, where he frequented 
the Academy, and obtained a prize for design, 
though his competitors were numerous. On his 
arrival in Paris he became a pupil of Le Bas. 
In 1751 he returned to London, at a period when 
historical engraving had made little progress in 
England, and became the father of that arduous 
and difficult branch of the art in this country. In 
1761 Strange went to Italy, wliere he made draw- 
ings from many then celebrated pictures, some of 
which he engraved abroad, others after his return 
to England. In the course of his tour he was 
elected a member of the academies of Rome, 
Florence, Bologna, Parma, and Paris. In 1787 he 
received the honour of knighthood. He died in 
London in 1792. Sir Robert Strange engraved 
about eighty plates. His style shows a combina- 
tion of purity, breadth, and vigour wliich has 
scarcely been equalled. In colour, however, his 
prints are somewhat deficient. The following are 
among the best : 

Charles I. ; after Vandyck. 1770. 
Charles I. ; after the same. 17^2. 
Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I., with the Prince 

of Wales and Duke of York ; after the same. 17S4. 
The Children of Charles I. ; after the same. 175S. 
A Bust of Raphael ; after a picture by himself ; in- 
scribed Ille hie est Raphael, ifc. 1787. 
A Portrait-of himself ; from a dratcinq by J. B. Greuze. 
The Return from JIarket ; after Ph. Wouicermana. 

Engraved in Paris in 1750. 
St. Cecilia ; after Raphael. 
The Virgin and Infant Christ, with Mary Magdalene, 

St. Jerome, and two Angels ; after Corretjyio. 
Venus reclining; after Titian. 
Danae ; after the same. 1763. 
Venus and Adonis ; after the same. 1762. 
Mary Magdalene, penitent; after Guido. 1762. 
The Death of Cleopatra ; after the same. 1777. 
Fortune ; after the same. 1778. 

Venus attired by the Graces ; after the same. 1759. 
The Chastity of Joseph ; after hie same. 1769. 
The Virgin, with a choir of Angels; after C. Marattt. 

1760? -^ 

The Virgin, St. Catherine and Angels, with the Infant 

Jesus asleep ; after the same. 17611 / 
Christ appearing "to the Virgin after His Eesurxection ; 

after Guercino. 1773. 
• -Abraham sending away Hagar; after the same. 1763 

and 1767. 
Esther before Ahasuerus ; after the same. 1767. 
The Death of Dido ; after the same. 1776. 
Belisarius ; after Sal. Rosa. 1757. 
Eomulus and Remus ; after P. da Cortona. 1757. 

Caisar repudiating Pompeia ; after the same. 1757? 

.Sappho devoting her Lyre to Apollo ; afttr Dolci. 1737. 

The Martyrdom of St. Agnes ; after Domenichino. 1759. 

The Choice of Hercules ; aftrr X. Pons.iin. 1759. 

The Holy Virgin ; after O'nido. 1756? 

The Angel of the Annunciation ; after the same. 1755? 

The Annmiciation ; after the same. 1737 ? 

The Offspring of Love ; after the same. 1766 ? 

The Infant Jesus plaiting a Crown of Thorns ; after 
Murillo. 1787 ? 

The Infant Jesus asleep ; after Fandyck. 1737 ? 

St. Agnes ; after Domenichino. 1759? 

The Magdalene ; after Guido. 1753. 

The Magdalene ; after Correggio. 1780. 

Laomedon, King of Troy, detected by Neptune and 
Apollo; after Salvator Rosa. 1775. 

The finding of Romulus and Remus ; after P. da 
Cortona. 1757 ? 

The Death of Cleopatra ; after Guido. 1753. 

Apollo rewarding Merit ; after A. .Sacchi. 1755. 

Venus blinding Cupid ; after Titian. 1769. 

Cupid sleeping ; after Guido. 1766? 

Cupid ; after .Schidone. 1774. 

Cupid; after I'anloo. 1750. 

Lips, the south-west "Wind. 

Zephyr, the west Wind. 1760. Plates 17 and 13 in 
the first volume of ' The Antiquities of Athens.' by 

The Death of the Stag. 1749. A vignette to Beck- 
ford's 'Thoughts on Hunting.' 

Half-length of Charles 1. ; after Van Tiyck. This, and 
Nos. 52, 56, 57, and 5S, were engraved for the first 
edition of Smollett's ' History of England,' in quarto, 
published in 1757. 

The Apotheosis of Octavius and Alfred, Children of 
George III., who died in their infancy ; after Benja- 
min West. 

Prince Charles James Edward Stuart. 

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotl.-ind. 

The Mistress of Parmigiano ; after Parmigiann. 1774. 

James Graham, Marquis of Montrose ; afttr Van I>t/ck. 

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford ; after the same. 

Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex ; after Holbein. 

William Hamilton, of Bangor, a Poet. 1760. In his 
' Poems.' 

Robert Leighton, Archbishop of Glasgow. 1753. In a 
selection from his works. 

Archibald Pitcaim, Physician and Poet ; after Medina. 

Strange publi.shed ' A Descriptive Catalogue of a 
Collection of l-'ictures, and of thirty-twu Drawings, 
collected by him in Italy.' Also ' An Inquiry into 
tlie Rise and Establishment of the Royal Academy 
of Arts ; to which is prefixed a letter to the Earl of 
Bute.' The ' Memoirs of Sir Robert Strange and 
of Andrew Lumisden ' were published in 1855. 
Lumisden was the brother of Strange's wife, who 
came of an old .lacobite family. 

STRASSBERGER.Christoph Gotthelf, painter 
and engraver, was born at Frauenstein, in the 
mountains of Saxony, in 1770, and destined by liis 
parents for the Church. With this view he entered 
the University of Leipsic, but left it for the art 
school under Oeser. He painted portraits in 
crayons and on porcelain, and engraved a few 
plates. From 1815 onwards was chiefly engaged 
in teaching. He died in 1841. 

STRASSBERGER, Ebn'st Wilhelm, painter, the 
son of Christ. G. Strassberger, was born at Leip- 
sic in 1796. He studied first under his father, and 
at the Leipsic Academy under Berggold, Schnorr, 
and Siegel. He first exhibited in 1814, but 
in 1815 went to Dresden, where he studied for a 
time at the Academy, and in 1823 he was engaged 
at the Meissen china factory. In 1842 he returned 
to his native city, and employed himself chiefly in 
painting incidents in the battle of Leipsic, of which 
he had been an eye-witness. He also worked as 
a scene-painter, to which calling he brought up 



his son. He died at Leipsic, September 11th, 

STRASTEK, Feay Geronimo, a Franciscan, who 
resided at the convent of his order in Valladolid, in 
1613, where he engraved, with considerable ability, 
the plates to a work entitled ' Historia del Monte 
Celia de nuestra Senora de la Salceda,' written by 
D. Pr. Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, archbishop of 

STRATEN. See Van uer Stbaten. 

STRAUBE, A., painter, born about the middle 
of the 17th century in Hamburg, painted land- 
scapes with animals and figures in the style of 

STRAUCH, Geobq, painter, born at Nuremberg 
in 1613. In the Gallery at Vienna there is an ' Ira- 
maculate Conception ' by him, and in the Gallery 
of the Patriotic Union at Prague two portraits. He 
died in 1675. 

STRAUCH, LosENZ, born at Nuremberg in 1554, 
was a skilful portrait and architectural painter, and 
also painted on glass. Bartsch, P. G. torn, ix., de- 
scribes an etching by him, a ' View of the Market- 
place at Nuremberg,' with the date 1599, as the 
only one known to him. Nagler, however, gives 
a list of twenty-two, some of which are signed 
with his name in full, and dated as late as 1614 ; 

others with the monogram X. . Strauch died 

about 1630. 

STRAVIUS, a painter of Hamburg in the 17th 
century, who painted life-size animals and hunting 

STREATER, Robert, an English painter, born 
in London in 1624, was a scholar of Du Moulin. 
He painted history, portraits, landscape, architec- 
ture, and still-life. At the Restoration he was 
appointed serjeant-painter to Charles II. His 
pnncipal works were : the theatre ceiling at Oxford ; 
some ceilings at Whitehall, which have perished ; 
the ' Battle of the GiaJ>ts,' at Harden Park, Surrey ; 
and the pictures of Moses and Aaron, in the church 
of St. Michael, Cornhill. There is a landscape by 
him in the Cartwright Collection at Dulwich. He 
died in 1680. He left a few indifferent etchings. 

STREATFEILD, Thomas, a topographical 
artist, born in 1777 in London. He was a 
clerg3'man, and for a while chaplain to the Duke 
of Kent, but he is best known by reason of the 
elaborate collections he made in preparation for 
the History of Kent. He was through his wife a 
man of considerable means, and he devoted many 
years to collecting everything he could lay hands 
upon relating to the county in which he lived, tlie 
result filling over fifty volumes, now in the British 
Museum. He sketched many old buildings, copied 
coats-of-arms, tombs and carvings, and did every- 
thing in his power to preserve records of the 
beauties of the county, especially those of archseo- 
logical interest. He prepared a prospectus for his 
history, and he wrote two short essays in connec- 
tion with it, but he never produced the book, and 
died on May 17, 1848, at Westerham, in the house 
he had built from his own plans and designs. 

STRECKER, Wilhelm, painter, bom in 1795, 
painted history and scenes from poets. He was 
Inspector of the Gallery at Stuttgart, where he 
died in 1857. 

STREEK, Hendbik van, son of Jurriaan van 

Streek, born at Amsterdam in 1659, was a scholar 

of his father, Emanuel de Witte. His pictures 

generally represent the interior of churches and 


palaces, and are frequently embellished with figures 
by some other artist. The Hermitage at St. 
Petersburg has an ' Interior of a Church ' by him. 
He died in 1713. 

STREEK, Jurriaan van, born at Amsterdam in 
1632, occasionally painted portraits, but is better 
known as a painter of still life. A skull, a ball of 
soap, and a lamp are frequent objects in his com- 
positions. He signed his pictures with J V S in a 
monogram. He died in 1678. 

STRfiSOR, Anne Marie Ken^e, the daughter of 
Henri Stresor, was born in Paris in 1651. A 
miniature painter of some reputation, she was re- 
ceived by the Academy about 1676, but in 1687 
resolved to become a nun. The convent of the 
Visitation at Paris agreed to receive her without 
a dowry, on condition that she learnt to paint in 
oils, for the benefit of the sisterhood. This she 
did, and produced a great number of works after 
her admission. She died in 1713. 

STRESOR, Henri, a portrait painter of the 17th 
century, mentioned by Marolles. He was a Ger- 
man by birth, but settled in Paris and embraced 
the Roman Cathohc faith. He painted portraits of 
Louis XIV. and many persons of distinction. He 
died about 1672. 

STRETES, GuiLLiM, was painter to Edward VL 
in 1551. Strype records that the King paid 
'' fifty marks for recompense of three great tables 
made by the said Guillim, whereof two were the 
pictures of His Highness sent to Sir Thomas Hoby 
and Sir John Mason (ambassadors abroad) ; the 
third a picture of the late Earl of Surrey, attainted, 
and by the Council's commandant fetched from the 
said Guillim's house." The last-named picture was 
discovered by Horace Walpole to be identical with 
one in his father's collection, which Sir Robert 
bought at the sale of the Arundel collection at 
Stafford House, in 1720, and presented to the Duke 
of Norfolk. The picture, dated 1547, is now at 
Arundel Castle. A half-length at Knole is a copy 
from it. An excellent portrait of Edward VI., by 
Stretes, is in the National Portrait Gallery. He 
also painted some miniatures. 

STRIEBEL, Franz Xaver, painter, born at 
Mindelheim in 1822, studied at the Munich Aca- 
demy, and painted first history, and afterwards 
genre pictures of a humorous kind. He died at 
Munich in 1871. 

STRIGEL, Bernhard, belonged to a family of 
painters at Memmingen. Hans Strigel is traceable 
in 1433, and painted an altar-piece in 1442 ; his 
son Ivo was also a painter, and a large altar-piece 
which he furnished for the Church of S. Maria Val 
Calanca in 1512 at the age of 81, is now at Basle. 
Bernhard, the most distinguished member of the 
family, was probably a son of Ivo, and was bom 
in 1460 or 1461. Towards 1480 he went to Dim, 
where he was for some time in the workshop of 
Zeitblom, and was employed as his assistant. 
Later, when at Augsburg, he appears to have had 
some connection with Hans Burckraair, who was, 
however, his junior by thirteen years. He ia 
known to have been living at Memmingen in 1606, ! 
but probably had already settled there as early as 
1483. He was at Augsburg in 1517, and at 
Vienna between 1520 and 1525, and died at Mem- 
mingen in 1528. In all these places he executed 
numerous works, and was much employed by the > 
Emperor Maximilian, whom he several times por- I 
trayed, and by whom he was ennobled. He was 
formerly designated the "Master of the Hirscher 


Collection," from certain pictures formerly the 
property of Canon Hirscher at Freiburg, until his 
name was discovered, together with a long inscrip- 
tion referring to him, on the back of one of his 
pictures in the depot of the Gallery at Berlin 
which led to his identification and to the discoverj' 
of a great number of documentary notices relating 
to him in the archives of Memmingen. As a 
portrait painter he did some admirable work, and 
in some of his masterpieces at Munich, Donaue- 
schingen and elsewhere, the breadth and freedom 
of conception and execution seem to pre-suppose 
an acquaintance with the methods of Venetian 
portrait painters. His works were formerly at- 
tributed to Holbein (father and son), to Scliiilein, 
Schongauer, Amberger,and many others. Herr R. 
Visscher, who made many important discoveries 
about Strigel, considers that he was also a fresco 
painter, and ascribes to him five of the wall- 
paintings in the cloisters of the great Franciscan 
Church at Schwaz, near Innsbruck, dated 1521, 
and otlier works in that neighbourhood. Among 
the principal paintings unanimously attributed to 
Bernhard Strigel are the following : 

Berlin. Gallery. Four panels of Saints; wings 

of an altar-piece. Formerly 
ascribed to Holbein. 
„ „ St. Norbert with a Praemon- 

stratensian monk and St. 
Agnes. Formerly as Hol- 
,, „ The History of the Madonna ; 

wings of an altar-piece dated 
1515. All formerly in the 
Hirscher Collection. 
„ „ Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian 

and his Family. This work, I 
formerly in the Solly Col- 
lection, has on the back an 
inscription containing the 
name of the painter, the date 
1520, and much information j 
relating to him. I 

Donaueschingen. 1 Portrait of Count John II. von 

Furstenberg Coll. j Montfort zu Tettnang; dated 

1520. Formerly ascribed as 

" Closely related to Holbein." 

Memmingen. Gallery. Large altar-piece; early. Much 
damaged in parts. 

Munich. Gallery. Five panels of an altar-piece 

with St. Servatius aud the 
Kindred of Our Lady. The 
remaining panels are at 
„ „ Portraits of Konrad Kelinger 

and his eight children ; dated 
1517. One of his best 
„ „ Portrait of Herr Haller. For- 

merly ascribed to Barbarj 
and Hans Asper. 
„ yat. Museum. Baptism of Christ and St. 

John the Evangelist ; wings 
of an altar-piece. 

Niiremberg. German- ) Six panels of an altar-piece ; 
isches Museum, j the remainder at Munich ; 
the Madonna here is one of 
bis best works. 

Vienna. Gallery. The Emperor Maximilian and 

his family ; on the reverse 
the Kindred of Our Lady 
Formerly ascribed to Grune- 
„ Liechtenstein Gall. Portraits of a Man and "Woman. 

Other works at Cassel, Innsbruck, Karlsruhe, 
Nuremberg, Schwerin, Sigmaringen, Stuttgart, 
Vienna (private collections), and elsewhere. 

C. J. H. 

STRIJ, Abraham van, a painter of portraits, land- 
scapes and cattle, and familiar subjects, was born 
at Dordrecht the 31st of December, 1753. He 
studied under his father, a decorator, and at first 
painted fruit and flowers, but was obliged to assist 
liis father in historical subjects, landscapes, and 
feigned bas-reliefs. He afterwards turned to the 
painting of portraits, landscapes, and cattle, in the 
manner of Cuyi>, and the interiors of shops and 
kitchens. In such subjects he arrived at much 
excellence, especially in chiaroscuro. In 177-i he 
founded the ' Pictura ' Society of Dordrecht, and 
was its first president. He died at Dordrecht the 
7th of March, 1826. Works : 

Amsterdam. R. Museum. 



The Drawing Lesson. 
The Housekeeper. 
The Scullery-maid. 
Two pictures. 

STRIJ, Jakob van, landscape and cattle painter 
and brother of Abraham van Strij, was born at 
Dordrecht the 2nd of October, 1756. He studied 
at home, under his father, and at Antwerp, under 
Andrew Lens, and also at the Antwerp Academy. 
Though a sincere student of nature, he had a great 
liredilection for copying and imitating the works 
of other masters. Cuyp, Hobbema, and Paul 
Potter were the models he most affected, particu- 
larly Cuyp, and many of his imitations of that 
master have passed as originals. Some of liis 
'Hobbemas' are also masterly; but the}' are not 
so common as his ' Cuyps.' He was a corre- 
sponding member of the Royal Institute of the 
Netherlands, and is eulogized by contemporary 
writers for his general knowledge. He died at 
Dordrecht, February 4th, 1815. Works: 

Amsterdam. B. Museum. Four landscapes. 

STRINGA, Ferdinando, engraved some of the 
plates for the ' Antiquities of Herculaneum,' pub- 
lished at Naples in 1750. 

SlTilNGA, Francesco, painter, born at Modena 
in 1635 (?), was a follower of Lodovico Lana. 
He also studied Guercino, and the best pictures in 
the celebrated Galleria Estense, of which he was 
director. He painted several historical subjects 
for the churches and the ducal palace at Modena, 
and some of his works are to be found in Venice. 
He died at Modena in 1709. He left some etch- 
ings ; among them : 

The Disciples placing Christ in the Sepulchre. 
Portrait of Francesco II., Duke of Modena. 
St. John with the Cross. 

STRINGER, Daniel, portrait painter, was a 
student of the Royal Academy about 1770 ; his 
portrait heads and comic sketches were good, but 
he lacked application, and seems gradually to have 
abandoned art. 

STRINGER, E., topographical draughtsman, 
practised towards the end of the 18th century. 
He was a member of the Liverpool Academy, 
where many of his works were exhibited. Some 
are engraved in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' of 

STRIXNER, JoHANN Nepomuk, draughtsman 
and lithographer, born at Alten-Oetting in 1782. 
He studied drawing at Wasserburg under the 
sculptor Eichhom, and in 1797 went to Munich, 
where he worked under Professor Mitterer, and also 
learnt engraving. In 1809 he made his first essay 
in lithography. His best works of that class are : 



a series of lithographs after Diirer's designs for 
'The Prayer-Book of Kaiser Mas'; some litho- 
graphs for the collections of the Boisserees, 
and for works published by the Munich Gallery 

STROBERLE, Joao Glamma, painter, born at 
Lisbon in 1708, went as a court pensioner to Rome, 
where he studied in the Academy of St. Luke, 
under Marco Benetial, and was principally employed 
in copying Raphael. After spending two years in 
Rome he returned to Lisbon, where he was engaged 
at the theatre, and worked for Bishop J. Maria 
da Fonseca e Evora. In 1751, on the death of his 
patron, he went' to London, but in 1755 returned 
to Lisbon, whence after the earthquake he migrated 
to Oporto, where he died in 1792. His chief works 
are : ' The Last Supper ' in S. Nicolao ; altar-pieces 
in S. Joao-Novo and Senhora da Victoria, Lisbon, 
and in the cathedral of Braga. 

STROEHLING, P. E., a Russian painter, who 
was educated at the expense of tlie Czar, and 
finished his studies in Italy. He came to England 
about 180-t, and practised with some success as a 
portrait painter in oils and in miniature. He ex- 
hibited occasional works at the Academy from 
1803 to 1826. A portrait of the Duchess of York 
by him is at Buckingham Palace. 

STROHMAYER, Hans, a native of Prague, who 
flourished in the 16th century, was first in the 
service of the Arch-Duke Ernst of Austria, nnd 
became in 1583 court painter to the Emperor 
Rudolph II He etched many plates, among them 
a ' Venus and Cupid,' dated 1593. 

STROZZI, Bernardo, called II Cappuccino 
Genovese, and sometimes II Prete Genovese, was 
born at Genoa in 1581, and was a pupil of Pietro 
Sorri. At an early peiiod of his life he became a 
monk of the order of St. Francis. This retirement 
did not, however, lead him to abandon his pur- 
suits as an artist, and he distinguished himself as a 
reputable painter of history. Strozzi left the cloister, 
when a priest, to contribute to the support of an 
aged mother and a sister; but the one dying and 
the other marrying, he refused to return to his 
order ; and being forcibly recalled and sentenced 
to three years' imprisonment, he contrived to make 
his escape to Venice, where he passed the re- 
mainder of his days as a secular priest. He there 
painted portraits, in which walk of art he was 
superior to his contemporaries, and in all his larger 
compositions he painted the figures from life. Of 
his frescoes at Genoa, the most important is a 
Paradise, in the church of S. Domenioo, a copious 
composition, with a force approaching that of oil. 
At Novi and Voltri are several altar-pieces by him, 
and in the Palazzo Brignole is an ' Incredulity of 
St. Thomas.' He was more occupied for private 
collections and galleries than for the churches. 
Strozzi died at Venice in 16-41. Among his works 
we may also name : 

Portrait of a Bishop. 

Joseph ill Prisoa. 

St. Johu the F.aptist. 

Virgin aud Child. 

St. Anthony of Padua with the 
Child Jesus. 

St. Sebastian. 

St. Jerome. 

STROZZI, Zanobi di Benedetto, painter, born 
at Florence about 1412, was a pupil of Fra Angelioo. 
He was of noble birth, and painted as an amateur. 
He died December 6, 1468. There is a ' St. Law- 
rence ' by him in the Uffizi. 




Pal. Durazzo. 
Fal. Balbi. 


S. Benedetto. 

Baron, was bom at Cles, in the Tyrol, in 1648, and 
studied at Venice under Carlo Lotti, under whose 
direction he became a reputable painter of history. 
On leaving that master, his talents recommended 
him to the Emperor Leopold, who invited him to 
his court, appointed him one of his painters, and 
conferred on him the dignity of a baron. He was 
the first Director of the Academy at Vienna. He 
died at Vienna in 1717. Pictures by him are to 
he found at Vienna, at Cassel, and at Diisseldorf. 
Strudel was also a sculptor. 

STRUETT, JouANN Jakob, painter and etcher, 
was born at Weisenthal, near Basle, in 1773. He 
has left some views near Salzburg, and some good 
aquatints. He died in 1820. 

STRUTT, Arthur John, son of Jacob George 
Strutt, was bom at Chelmsford, Essex, in 1819. 
He studied art, and more especially landscape 
painting, under his father, with whom he visited 
France and Switzerland (1835-1837), and after- 
wiirds Italy, ultimately settling down at Rome. 
From the latter city lie undertook in 1838 a 
pedestrian tour through Calabria and Sicily, and 
narrowly escaped being murdered by Calabrian 
brigands. He related his experiences in a book 
(' A Pedestrian Tour through Calabria and Sicily,' 
London, 1844 ; Newby), which he illustrated with 
a series of highly-finished etchings. He excelled 
in the painting of animals and trees, and among 
his most successful works is a large picture repre- 
senting a meet of the Roman Fox-hounds, with 
a portrait of the late King Humbert. The Roman 
Campagna was a subject which he was never 
tired of interpreting in all its various aspects and 
phases. After an active and honoured career, 
devoted to art, literature and archfBology, Arthur 
John Stmtt died at Rome in June 1888. E. C. S. 

STRUTT, Jacob George, an English landscape 
jiainter, born in 1790. He successfully followed 
Constable's manner. His works appeared at the 
Royal Academy from 1822 to 1852. Soon after 
1830 he settled at Lausanne, and thence migrated 
to Rome, not returning to England till 1851. 
There is a landscape by him at Woburn Abbey. 
He used the etching-needle, and published in 
1821, 'Bury St. Edmunds. Illustrated in Twelve 
Etchings ' ; and later, two other volumes of 
etched plates, ' Sylva Britannica' (1825), and 
■ Delici» Sylvarum ' (1828) He died at Rome in 

STRUTT, Joseph, an English engraver, and 
writer on art, born about the year 1749, was 
the son of an Essex gentleman farmer, Thomas 
Strutt. He engraved a variety of plates in the 
crayon and dotted manner, which are executed 
with great neatness and delicacy. We are chiefly 
indebted to him, however, for his ' Biographical 
Dictionary of Engravers,' with plates engraved by 
himself. He also published the ' Antiquities of 
England,' also with his own plates ; and ' Horda 
AngL'l-cynnan, or the Manners and Customs of Eng- 
land from the time of the Saxons' ; ' Chronicles of 
England'; 'Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of 
England'; 'Dresses and Habits of the People of 
England' ; ' Sports and Pastimes.' He also left an 
unfinished romance in manuscript, entitled ' Queen- 
Hoo-Hall,' which Sir Walter Scott, in 1808, en- 
deavoured to complete. Strutt exhibited at the 
Royal Academy from 1779 to 1784. He died in 
London in 1802. 


PAINTERS InD engravers. 

STRUTT, William Thomas, the son of the 
celebrated antiquary, Joseph Strutt, born in 1777. 
He occupied a hish position in the Bank of England. 
but in his leisure time painted miniatures. They 
are marked by most exiuisite detail and a charm- 
ing scheme of colour. He died in 1850, in his 
seventy-third year. 

STUART, GiLDKRT, an Anglo-.\merican painter 
of great talent, was born in the State of Rhode 
Island in ti:e year 1754. Soon after reaching man- 
hood he came to England, and \s-as introduced to 
Benjamin West, with whom he worked for some 
time. He showed great ability, and some portraits 
that he exhibited brought him into public notice. 
He rose into eminence, and his claims were acknow- 
ledged even during the life of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
His reputation as a portrait painter introduced him 
to a wide acquaintance among the higher classi-s 
of society, and he was on the road to fame when 
he left England. He returned to America in 1T-S6. 
and resided chiefly in Philadelphia and Washing- 
ton, in the practice of his profession, tlD about the 
year 1805, when he removed to Boston, where he 
remained to the time of his death. During the 
last ten years of his life he had to struggle with 
many infirmities ; yet such was the vigour of his 
mind, that it seemed to triumph over the decays 
of nature, and to give to some of hie last produc- 
tions all the truth and splendour of his prime. 
While in England he painted the portraits of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, Benjamin West, W. Woollett. 
Alderman Boydell, John Kemble. Dr. Fothergill, 
and many persons of less note. But his best work 
in this country is a full-length of a Mr. Grant, 
skating in St. James's Park. It is in the collection 
of Lord Charles Pelham Clinton. Of his American 
portraits, that of Washington is the chef d ceuvrt. 
He painted the President several times ; once for 
the late Marquis of Lansdowne ; this was engraved 
by James Heath. Stuart died at Boston in 1828. 
Several of the portraits mentioned above are in the 
National Portrait Gallery. 

Much new information respecting this artist has 
recently come to light, and many lost pictures 
have been found. A memoir by C. H. Hart of 
New York is in preparation (1915). 

STUART, James. This man is generally known 
as Athenian Stuart, on account of the exquisite 
drawings that he made in Athens, many of which 
were issued by the Society of Dilettanti in 176"2. 
It has been said that Stuart's work in this way 
was "the commencement of the serious study of 
the classical art and antiquities of Europe." Stuart born at Ludgate HiU, 171.3. He commenced 
employment as a fan-painter, and then took to the 
study of architecture. He went to Rome on foot, 
earning money for liis sustenance on the 'vay by 
paintin:,' the portraits of the people whom he met. 
The expenses of his work at Athens were paid by 
the Dilettanti Society, and the work was carried 
on under very great difficulty. The issue of the 
book of drawings made him famous, and he prac- 
tised as an architect \vith success, exhibiting also 
from time to time the drawings he had made in 
Italy and Greece. He died while at his easel in 
hig house in Leicester Square in 1788, and after 
his death other volumes of Ids works were issued, 
and many editions of them. 

STUART, W. E. D., English painter of Fruft 
and Game, who resided most of his life in Stepney. 
He exlnbited at the Royal Academy from 1846 to 
1858 and died in the last-named year. 

STUB. See Kuatzexsteis-Stctb. 

STUBBS, Ge 'RGE, an eminent animal painter, 
engraver, and painter in enamel, was born at Liver- 
pool on August 24, 1724. His father, a consider- 
able currier and leather-dresser, encouraged his 
son's studies in drawing and anatomy. He died 
when Stubbs was fifteen years of age, leaving his 
widow and son in comfortable circumstances. The 
latter, having been advised by his father to seek 
out the best master available, engaged himself to 
Hamlet Winstanley, a Warrington artist, twenty- 
four years his senior, who was employed at Knows- 
ley Hall, near Liverpool, in copying and engraving 
plates from the masterpieces in the Earl of Derby's 
gallery. Stubbs was to assist in making copies, 
and to receive in exchange instruction and a 
shilling a day for pocket-money. Winstanley pro- 
mised that he should copy such pictures as he 
chose. Unfortunately, the lad selected several 
which his master insisted on reserving for himself, 
and the irascible youth refused to have anj'thing 
more to do with him. Stubbs left it on record 
that he thereupon resolved (somewhat incon- 
sequently) never more to copy any picture, but to 
" look into Nature for himself, and consult and 
study her only." After remaining at home until 
nearly twenty years of age, Stubbs removed tc 
Wigan, and thence to Leeds, where he set up as a 
portrait painter. A lucky commission took him 
thence to York, where he found means to pursue his 
anatomical studies under a local surgeon. He made 
such rapid progress that he was soon employed 
in giving private lectures on the subject to the 
hospital students. The drawings made by Stubbs 
of the results of his dissection of an interesting 
obstetrical case were so much esteemed, that a Dr. 
Burton asked him to engrave them for a projected 
work on the subject. Stubbs linew nothing of the 
technical processes of engraving, so he resorted to 
a house-painter at Leeds, reported to be an expert, 
under whose g^iidance he covered a worn half- 
penny with etching varnish, and after smoking it, 
made his first essay with a sewing-needle stuck in 
a skewer. The commission was executed to Dr. 
Burton's satisfaction. Stubbs remained in York- 
shire until 1754, the latter part of the time being 
spent at Hull. In that year, after a short visit to 
Liverpool, he set out for Italy, his purpose being to 
subject to the severest possible test, his opinion that 
Nature is superior to all Art. Having satisfied him- 
self on the subject with characteristic promptitude, 
he did not remain long enough at Rome to incur the 
risk of changing hig mind, but returned to England ; 
and he remained at Liverpool until his mother's 
death eighteenmonthsl&ter. After settling her affairs 
Stubbs left his native city, never to return. The fact 
that his illegitimate son, George Townley Stubbs, 
was born in 1756, suggests a possible connection 
between the two events. During the four years that 
intervened between Stubbs' departure from Liver- 
pool and arrival in London, he was engaged on pre- 
parations for his monumental work on the 'Anatomy 
of the Horse.' Most of the dissections and draw- 
ings were made at a lonely farmhouse in Lincoln- 
shire, where he was able to pursue his unsavour},- 
studies without offence to the noses of sensitive 
neighbours. His sole companion was a Miss Mary 
Spencer, variously described as his aimt and his 
niece (possibly she was neither), who remained 
closely attached to him throughout his life. No 
ordinary enthusiasm or affection must have been 
required to ena! le her to endure the effects of a 



succession of dead horses, each kept in the house for 
six or seven weeks, until, in fact, it became unen- 
durable. Stubbs himself seems to have been wholly 
indifferent to the odour of putrid flesh. When 
Stubbs arrived in London in 1760, he was unable 
to persuade any engraver to undertake the repro- 
duction of his drawings, so he indomitably set to 
work on them himself. As his days were given up 
to the painting of commissioned works, he had to 
labour on the plates at night and in early morning 
hours. By 17G6 the task was completed, and the 
work on its publication gave him a European 
reputation, both in science and art. As the 
Reynolds of the horse, Stubbs painted the most 
notable racers of his day — usually hard, exact, 
splendidly modelled, and to the modern eye rather 
uninteresting. ■ Rej-nolds was among the early 
London patrons of Stubbs, and seems to have 
esteemed him greatly ; yet he was not included 
in the membership of the Royal Academy on its 
formation in 1768, or for long after. This may 
have been due to his connection, eventually as 
President (1773), with the Society of Artists. In 
1782 Stubbs was at last styled " R.A. elect » in 
the R.A. catalogue. He is said to have been 
elected an Associate on November 6, 1780, and 
R.A. on February l.S, 1781, but no evidence of this 
is to be found in the catalogues. Unfortunately, 
all the artist's seven contributious in 1782 were 
ill-hung ; Stubbs was enraged, and refused to 
comply with the requisite formalities. The Royal 
Academy thereupon rescinded his election on 
February 11, 1783, and when he next exhibited 
(in 1786), it was as "Associate," and so he con- 
tinued uutil his death, although, by an odd acci- 
dent, he was once described R.A. in the 1803 cata- 
logue. He, however, always styled himself an 
Academician. The causes of this quarrel are 
obscure. There evidently was a party inimical 
to Stubbs, for a new and severer law in regard to 
diploma pictures seems to have been expressly 
framed to meet his case. He was a hot-tempered, 
stubborn man, and his anger had been provoked 
by the treatment of his pictures in 1782, perhaps 
unjustly, for some of them were painted in enamel 
colours on thin earthenware panels, the result of 
elaborate experiments at the instigation of Cosway. 
It is -probable that the colours were so bright and 
harsh that it was very difficult to hang them with 
oils. Stubbs executed a good many pictures in 
this style, but eventually returned to canvas, on 
which more perishable support he commenced in 
1790 a series of portraits of celebrated racers, from 
the Godolphin Arabian to the equine aristocracy 
of his own day. There was to be an exhibition 
after which the pictures were to be engraved, and 
then published, with descriptive letterpress in a 
monumental volume. Tlie national war troubles 
prevented the full realization of the scheme, 
but Stubbs executed sixteen of the pictures, 
which were exhibited and engraved, mostly in 
duplicate. When over seventy years of age 
Stubbs projected another great anatomical work : 
' A Comparative Anatomical Exposition of the 
Structure of the Human Body with that of a 
Tiger and a Common Fowl,' in thirty tables. 
The veteran completed his work, but died when 
only half of it had been published. On the morn- 
ing of July 10, 1806, he suddenly expired, sitting 
alone in his arm-chair, with no more premonition 
than a transient dreadful pain on rising from bed. 
The day prior to his death he had walked eight or 

nine miles without fatigue j and, shortly before, a 
walk of sixteen miles, with the burden of a small 
portmanteau, was no unusual performance. This, 
however, would seem a trifle to a man who is 
said in his prime to have more than once carried a 
dead horse up two or three flights of a narrow 
staircase to his dissecting-room. He was a frugal 
eater, drank only water during the latter half of 
his life, and indulged sparingly in sleep. Stubbs 
was buried in Marylebone Church. He left all his 
property to Miss Spencer. His remaining works 
(98 lots) were sold by Peter Coxe on May 26, 1807. 
Stubbs had little imagination, but his knowledge 
of animals was very great, and he represented 
them as he saw them with unflinching veracity. 
When he saw a dramatic incident he could repre- 
sent it with much force, as in the picture of 
' Horses Fighting ' or his ' Horse frightened by 
a Lion.' Tigers he understood [larticularly well — 
as, for example, the admirable 'Tigress' mezzo- 
tinted by John Murphy. The public gallery of his 
native city possesses two paintings by Stubbs, 
' The Racehorses of George III,' and a ' Horse and 
Lioness ' ; also an exceUent portrait in pastel by 
Ozias Humphreys, R.A., and another by Richard 
Caddick. There are several other portraits, which 
are detailed in an appendix to Sir Walter 
Gilbey's ' Life of Stubbs ' (4to, 1898), a pains- 
taking work, which, as regards the biography, 
is chiefly based on the excellent Memoir (8vo, 
1876) by Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. A list of Stubbs' 
known works is given in another appendix, and a 
number of them are illustrated. According to 
Graves, Stubbs, between 1761 and 1806, exhibited 
liO pictures at the Society of Artists, 53 at the 
Royal Academy, and 8 at the British Institution. 
There was a Loan Exhibition of his works at J. and 
\V. Vokins' Gallery, Great Portland Street, W., in 
1885. It consisted of 45 pictures and 69 engrav- 
ings. His landscape, 'Gentleman holding a 
Horse,' is in the National Gallery. His ' Lion and 
Lioness,' with rocky background, and ' Goose with 
outstretched Wings,' are at South Kensington. 
Many of his works were engraved by Woollett, 
Earlom, Val Green, Hodges, Murphy, Townley 
Stubbs, &c. E. R. D. 

STUBBS, George Townley, son of George 
Stubbs, born in 1756, died in 1815, engraved 
several of his father's pictures of animals, and a 
few plates after others. 

STUBBS, James Henry Phillipson, (1810-1864,) 
engraver, the fourth son of William Trowbridge 
Stubbs, a gentleman of some private means, was 
born in Marylebone on May 9, 1810. At an early 
af;e he became the pupil of the Findens, and with 
tbeni learned his profession. He afterwards con- 
tinued to do work for thfin, and others, in book 
illustrations and other engravings. In 1835 lie 
published a large engraving, from a painting by 
R. W. Buss, entitled ' The First of September,' the 
subject being a gouty old gentleman in a bath- 
chair shooting partridge. In 1840 he published 
another large steel-engraving, with mezzotint 
ground, from a sketch by Spalding, ' Bill and 
Harry, a favourite Pointer and Setter,' considered 
a good specimen of combination of the two styles. 
When steel-enuraving was supplanted by photo- 
graphy and other processes, he resolved to try 
oil-painting, but did not survive long to carry out 
his intention, his death occurring on August 23, 
1864. He had married in 1839 Ann Verrity, by 
whom he left issue, H. S. 




STUBLEY, P., portrait painter, practised in 
London in the first part of the 18th century. 
There is a plate after his portrait of Peter Monamy, 
the marine painter, and several other of his portraits 
were enslaved bv J. Faber. 

STUCKELBERG, Johann Melchior Ernst. 
Swiss painter, was born at Basle in 1831. His first 
teacher was the portrait painter Dietler, in Berne, 
then in 1850 he went to Antwerp and studied 
under Wappers and Dyckmans. He then travelled 
in Italy, Spain, and Holland. Afterwards he went 
to Paris ; and then in Munich he worked with 
Moritz von Schwind. He also travelled mucli. 
Success came to him early in his career. In the 
Basle Museum are three of his best early pictures, 
'Marientag ira Sabinergebirge ' (1860), 'Marion- 
etten,' and ' Kinder des Ktinstlers ' (1871). But the 
chief work of his life was the series of frescoes in 
the William Tell Cliapel (1878-1882). They are 
four in number, ' Der Rtitlischwur,' ' Der Apfel- 
schuss,' ' Der Sprung aus dera SchifE,' and ' Gesslers 
Tod.' In colour, sentiment, and grouping, they 
are very successful. Among' his other works may 
be named : ' Der biissende Parricida' (1889), 'Der 
Verlorene Sohn,' 'Der Geiger von Anticoli,' 'Tod 
tmd Leben,' ' Das Grab,' and ' Die drei Menschen- 
alter.' He obtained the Munich gold medal in 
1869, and the Vienna gold medal in 1873, also the 
Franz Joseph Order. He died at Basle in 1903. 

J. H. W. L. 

STUDIO. See Lint, He.vdbik van. 

STUERBODDT. See Bouts, Dierick. 

STDERBUDT. See BoDTS, Hubert. 

STDHR, JoHANN Georq, painter, was born at 
Hamburg about 16-tO. He painted landscapes, sea 
pieces, and harbour vitfws in the style of Storck and 
Lingelbach, poultry in the style of Hondekoeter, 
and a few historical subjects. In the Schloss at 
Berlin there is a ' Sacrifice of Iphigenia ' by this 
artist, and in the Cassel Gallery a ' Harbour Scene.' 

STUMP, John S., miniature painter, was a 
student of the Academy, and was a constant con- 
tributor to the London exhibitions from about 
1802 to 18i9. His miniatures were highly esteemed 
for their breadth of treatment and fine tone. He 
painted also a few portraits in oil, and some Swiss 
landscapes, and was a member of the Sketching 
Societv. He died in 1863. 

STUNTZ, See Freyberq, Elektbine. 

STUNTZ, JoHANN Baptist, lithographer and 
draughtsman, was born at Arlesheim, near Basle, 
in 1753. He painted landscapes in water-colour, 
and published, jointly with J. Hartmnnn, a series 
of Swiss views. In 1802 he settled at Strasburg, 
where he carried on business as an art dealer, and 
finally removed to Munich, where he devoted 
himself to lithography, and was associated with 
others in the issue of reproductions from DUrer. 
He died in 1836. 

STUREL, Marie Octavie, {nee PAiGNfeE,) painter, 
was bom at Metz in 1819. She painted flowers 
and fruit, chiefly in pastel. She died at Metz in 

STURM, Ferdinand. See Sturmio, Hernaxdo. 

STURM, Jacques, painter, was born at Luxem- 
burg in 1808. He was a pupil of J. B. Fresez, and 
worked for some time at a lithographic establish- 
ment at Brussels. In 1841 he went to Paris, and 
aftenvards visited Italy, where he died in 1844. 

STURMER, Johann Hei.vrich, painter, born at 
Kirchberg, in Hohenlohe. in 1774, studied at Oeh- 
ringen, at Augsburg, and at Gottingen, and settled 

eventually at Berlin, where he became a member 
of the Academy. He painted landscapes, historical 
pictures, and military scenes. He died at Berlin in 

STURMER, Karl, painter, born at Berlin in 
1803, was the son and pupil of Johann Heinrich 
Stiirmer. He studied at Dusseldorf under Corne- 
lius, and devoted himself chiefly to fresco painting. 
His first work of importance was a fresco in the 
Schloss, Helltorf, near Diisseldorf, ' The Recon- 
ciliation between Barbarossa and Pope Alexander.' 
I He accompanied Cornelius to Munich, and was 
I employed upon the frescoes in the arcades of the 
■ Hofgarten,' and again, in 1842, went with the 
master to Berlin, and painted several frescoes from 
Schinkel's designs in the portico of the Berlin 
Museum. He further painted two figures of pro- 
phets for the Schloss Chapel, and numerous easel 
pictures, battle-pieces, landscapes, and genre 
pictures. He died in March, 1881. 

STURMIO, Hernando, a Dutchman, bom at 
Ziricksee, resided at Seville about the middle cf the 
j 16th century, and painted the altar of the chapel of 
fhe Evangelists in the cathedral there, in several 
compartments. One of these compartments is in- 
scribed, Herrumdus Sturtnius Ziriczcenm faciebat, 

STDRRINI, Marco, an Italian painter, who is 
known only by the existence, in the Uffizi at 
Florence, of a ' Penitent Magdalene ' with this 
inscription : Opus Ma7-ci Sturrini, 1654. 

STURT, John', born in London the 6th of April, 
1658, and a pupil of Robert White, was an excellent 
engraver of letters. His principal work is his 
Book of Common Prayer, published in 1717, which 
was engraved on silver plates. At the top of every 
page there is a small historical vignette. He died 
in 1730. 

STURTZ, LuDwiG, genre painter, whose death 
in 1904 took place in his sixtieth year, was 
a pupil of Lindenschmit, to whose tnethods he 
remained faithful, though each of his works shows 
his own idealizing style. He never painted for 
mere efltect, and was a somewhat slow worker. 
Among his best things are, ' The Wandering 
Musician,' ' The Poacher's Farewell,' and ' Ahasu- 
erus,' which created a sensation at the Munich 
Exhibition of 1900. 

STUYEN, Ernst van, born at Hamburg in 1657, 
was the pupil of an obscure painter, named Hins. 
In 1675 he went to Amsterdam, where he studied 
under Jan Voorhout, a reputable painter of history 
and portraits. Finding that the pictures of flowers 
and fruit by Abraham Mignon were at that time in 
great favour, and having himself an inclination for 
that branch of the art, he became his disciple, and 
won a respectable place in the same genre. He 
was a man of violent character, and was more 
than once in prison. He died in 1712. 

SUARDI, Bartolommeo, called II Bramantino, 
was born about 1450. Commencing in the tradition 
and methods of the Brescian, Yincenzo Foppa, he 
came to study later under the great architect and 
painter Bramante, and hence acquired his nick- 
name of Bramantino (the little Bramante). 

Bramante's work in painting is difficult to 
analyze ; and he seems to have left Milan in 
1499, upon the overthrow of Duke Lodovico. As 
Leonardo left the city at the same time, Braman- 
tino remained there in some prominence, and 
exercised great influence over the younger artists, 
such as Gaudenzio Ferrari and Bernardino Luini. 



We trace this in the frescoes of the Brera Gallery, 
where, if the 'St. Martin and the Beggar' shows 
Foppa's influence, the ' Child among Vine-leaves ' 
comes so close to Luini that it might well be his 
own. Among the most interesting of Braraantino's 
surviving works are a series of heads from the 
Castle of San JIartino, between Brescia and Mantua, 
which are in the possession of Jlr. Willett, of 
Arnold House, Montpelier Road, Brighton. Six of 
tliese panels have been exhibited by him in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. These heads are of 
men, and each is seen against an arch, hung with 
festooned leaves ; fine in drawing and full of 
character, they are not necessarily portraits, but 
fancifcd heads, the human form being used for 
decorative purposes. In Foppa's manner is the 
steep perspective of the separate arches, while 
the festoons of leaves are characteristic of the 
Squarcionesques. Mr. Willett sold to the Museum 
those exhibited at one time there ; another of these 
panels is in the possession of Sir Martin Conway, 
and twenty-seven now remain in Mr. Willett's 
hands. These panels, like those of the Victoria 
and Albert Collection, are nearly all (not all, how- 
ever) profile studies, and nearly all of men. The 
fantastic headgear, in which a turban frequently 
appears, is very characteristic of Bramantino ; the 
purity of profile, defined always against an arch, 
is to be noticed — a point, this, which appealed 
strongly to the late Lord Leighton, whose more 
particular admiration was reserved for the fine 
central male figure with short close-trimmed 

In the Brera Gallery at Milan will he found 
in the passage among the affreschi di Scuola 
Lombarda a very noble ' Virgin and Child ' by 
Suardi. This came to the Gallery from the old 
Palazzo del Broletto, now the Archivio Notarile 
in the Piazza del Mercante near the Duomo. The 
Virgin here extends the arms of the Child Jesus 
into the form of the Cross. Behind appear two 
angels — that one on the left in the shadow with 
folded arras being of very singular beauty. The 
Virgin holds on her right a tablet with the words — 
Soli Deo. The whole is a lovely creation of 
Lombard work, and is, of course, in fresco, as is 
the putto, or baby child, near it, clad only in a 
looped-up vest of heliotrope colour, and holding 
grapes in his hand, while the great vine-leaves 
shadow him. This came from La Pelucca near 
Monza ; and here our artist may have given 
an impulse to Luini, whose frescoes from the 
same provenance are justly famous. A yet more 
important fresco in the Brera Collection is the 
' St. Martin dividing his Mantle,' which he is in 
the act of cutting with his drawn sword to give to 
a poor beggar. Tlie saint of brotherly charity is 
seen here as a half-figure, standing before a dark 
doorway ; he wears armour, and a crimson mantle 
covers his head. This fine fresco, which is almost 
(but not quite) equal to the 'Virgin and Child' 
just mentioned, came from the Monastero delle 
Vetere at 31;lan. 

To turn now to Bramantino's oil paintings. 
In the grand ' Holy Family ' of the Brera Col- 
lection, as in the noble fresco just alluded to, the 
Child Jesus extends His arms, standing upright. 
The Virgin here wears a blue robe and pink 
turban ; behind her is St. Joseph, and a building 
appears in the background. 'This most interest- 
ing painting was presented to the Gallery by His 
Eminence Cardinal Monti, Archbishop of Milan. 


A work even finer still is Suardi's great ' Cruci- 
fision ' in the same Gallery ; it is the great scene, 
surely, which in his thought was prefigured 
already when Mary held the Child against her 
bosom. And thus the whole rendering becomes in 
our artist's hands intensely dramatic. Even the 
two thieves, hanging upon their crosses, turn, as 
if drawn by magnetism, towards their suffering 
Siviour, and in the clouds the Angels of Good ami 
Evil appear in spiritual conflict ; beneath, the 
swaying crowd of mourners and Jews is marvellous 
in grouping and passionate movement. To be 
noted especially is that lovely group of the Vir:,'in, 
St. John, and the Magdalen ; and yet again that 
Jew, in saffron-yellow robe, who balances this 
group upon the other side. In the heaven above 
both sun and moon are seen veiled in clouds, and 
Jerusalem appears behind, in the roofs and towers 
of some medieval Italian city. Yet again in 
Milan, Bramantino touches the last scene in the 
story of Christ's 8ufi"ering for man. In the little 
church of S. Sepolcro, over the door leading to 
the Campanile upon the left on entering we may 
find a 'Dead Christ' lying back supported by the 
Virgin, with the two Maries at either side. It 
is not easy to study this work in detail, as the 
church is dark and small ; but it can be seen 
to be a very noble treatment of the subject, full of 
beauty and devotional feeling. The figures are 
all half-length. Bramantino is represented in the 
Mus^e du Louvre by a fine ' Circumcision,' dated 
1-191. The Virgin and Child, with six figures of 
saints and bishops, are seen here against the sky 
beneath a most beautiful Renaissance canopy 
carved in intarsia work. It is to be noted that 
the Child here is already very Leonardesque in 
type, while the kneeling figures are strongly 
drawn. It is to be regretted that the National 
Gallery of London has no example of this 
interesting Lombard ; but he is in no sense 
a prolific Italian artist, and many Galleries, 
such as the Prado and the Dresden collections, 
rich in Italian pictures, are equally without his 

To his works in Italy, already detailed, must 
be added his altar-piece in the Ambrosiana at 
Milan, and his frescoes in chiaroscuro in the cloisters 
of S. Maria delle Grazie of that city ; while a 
signed work at Locarno — a ' Flight to Egypt ' in 
the Madonna del Sasso — is important and tj'pieal. 
His dates even are uncertain. We shall not be 
far wrong, I think, if we take him to be bom 
about 1450-55, and he was in the service of 
the State as chief engineer at Milan as late as 
1526, and cannot have hved far beyond this — 
though the present catalogue of the Brera Gallery 
places him as "born and died in Milan? 1455- 
1536?" He visited Rome in the early part of 
his life, and in 1508 executed a series of frescoes 
in the Stanze by order of Julius II., all of which I 
were afterwards destroyed to make way for the j 
work of Raphael. His sketch-book is still pre- ' 
served in the Ambrosiana Library, Milan, and 
contains numerous architectural drawings made in 
Rome and Florence. In 1513 he is known to have 
painted for the Cistercians at Rome a ' PietJl,' 
which had been contracted for by the brethren 
of the monastery of Chiaravalle, near Milan ; it 
is now lost. A great Italian master, he passes 
far bej'ond the earlier initiative of Foppa, though 
retaining much of his severity and accuracy of 
technique j he rivals the great Leonardo himself 


in the beauty of his Virgins of the Brera, in the 
dramatic haaiiling of his great 'Crucifixion' ; and 
in the thirtj'-four panels which are preserved at 
London and Brighton he comes very close to that 
grand series of heads and full figures by liis 
teacher Braraante of Urbino, now added to the 
Brera Collection, where we may compare the 
muster with the pupil, and find it a hard task to 
which to award the palm. g jj 

SUAU, Jean, painter, born at Toulouse in 1758, 
was a pupil of Rivalz, and gained the first prize for 
painting at the Toulouse Academy. He afterwards 
became Professor, Fellow of the Academy, and 
Director of the Museum. He died at Toulouse iu 

SUAU, Pierre Thi^odore, painter, the son of 
Jean Suau, was born at Toulouse. He studied 
with his father and with David, and entered the 
£cole des Beaux Arts in 1811. He painted chiefly 
religious subjects, and many of his works are 
to be found in the churches of Toulouse and 
other towns in the south of France. He died in 
SUAVIUS. See Zutmann. 
SDBLEYRAS, Pierre, (Hubert,) a French 
painter, bom at Usez, in Languedoc, in 1699, was 
the sou and pupil of Mathieu Subleyras, an artist 
of little celebrity. When he was fifteen years of 
age he was placed under Antoine Rivalz, of Toulouse. 
On leaving that master in 1724, lie went to Paris, 
and obtained the first prize at the Academy, for 
a 'Raising the Brazen Serpent.' He finished his 
studies in Rome, and established himself there for 
the remainder of his life. His altar-piece for St. 
Peter's, which he lived to see executed in mosaic, 
represents St. Basil celebrating Mass before the 
Emperor Valens. It has been engraved by Do- 
inenico Cunego. He also painted portraits. He 
married Maria Tibaldi, the miniature jiainter, in 
1739. He died at Rome in 1749. Two of his 
pictures, one of them a' Magdalen washing Christ's 
feet,' painted for the canons of St. John Lateran, 
are in the Louvre ; two in the Brera at Milan ; and 
at Alton Towers, the seat of the Earl of Shrewsbury, 
there is a ' Fall of Simon Magus.' Many others 
are in the French provincial museuuis. He lias 
left a few etchings from his ovm designs ; among 
them the following : 

The Brazen Serpent. 

The Martyrdom of St. Peter. 

Mary Magdalene washing the Feet of Christ. 

The Holy Family ; in an oval. 

St. Bruno restoring a Child to life. 

Martyrdom of St. Peter. 

A set of four Plates from Fontaine's Fables. 

SUDRE, Jean Pierre, painter and lithographer, 
was born at Alby, September 19, 1783. He studied 
first under Suau at the Toulouse Academy, and in 
1802 came to Paris, and was for a time in David'.s 
atelier. In 1818 he took to lithography, and from that 
time to the year of his death was a busy and pro- 
lific worker in this branch of art. He exhibited 
\vith success at the Salon from 1824 onwards. He 
died in Paris in July, 1866. 

SUESS, Hans, (or Hans von Culmbach,) painter 
and engraver upon wood, was born at Culmbacl. in 
Franconia. and flourished at Nuremberg in the early 
years of the 16th century. Sandrart and Lochner 
are responsible for the error by which his name has 
oeen given as Fuss or Fuess. He signs his name 
Johannes Svbs on a series of scenes'frora the life 
of St. Catharine, in the church of the Virgin at 

Cracow. He was a scholar of Jacopo de" Barbari, 
and apparently lived in close connection with 
Diirer, and probably worked in his studio. Sketches 
by Diirer are in existence from which Suess painted. 
A notable instance is the ' Christ trending the Wine- 
press,' in the chapel of St. George at Anspach, 
Uurer's sketch for which is in the print-room at 
Berlin. It has also been surmised that Diirer pro- 
vided the sketch for Culrabach's masterpiece, the 
fine triptych in St. Sebald's Church at Nurember;;. 
Another important work is the 'Adoration of tlie 
Kings,' in the Berlin Museum, which shows the 
influence of De' Barbari. The series of eight 
scenes from the history of SS. Peter and Paul, in 
the Uffizi, there attributeii to Scliaufeliu, sliould 
must probably be ascribed lo this master, and 
other examples are to be found at Schleissheim 
and Leipzig. Recent researches show him to have 
'iied before Diirer, at latest in 1522. 

SUEUR. See Le Sueur. 

SUHR, Christoph, painter, born at Hamburg in 
1771, studied in Salzdahlum, and for three years 
in Italy. Thence he sent his ' Judgment of Midas ' 
to Berlin. In 1798 he returned to Hamburg, where 
he acquired a reputation as a portrait painter. He 
also painted humorous subjects, which were en- 
graved by his brother Cornelius, with whom he 
painted the scenes for an ' optical cosmorama,' 
exhibited by Cornelius in most of the countries of 
Europe. He died at Hamburg in 1842. 

SUHRLANDT, Jouann Heinkich, painter, bom 
at Schwerin in 1742. He painted portraits and 
historical pictures, and died in 1827. 

SUHRLANDT, Rudolph Friedrich Karl, 
painter, born at Ludwigslust in 1781, son and pupil 
of Johann Heinrich Sulirlandt. He studied in 
Dresden and Vienna, and in 1808 went to Rome, 
where he painted a 'Theseus and Ariadne.' From 
1812-15 he was iu Naples, painting portraits. On 
his return to Germany he was appointed painter 
to the court of Mecklenburg. Several altar-pieces 
by him are in the churches of Ludwigslust and the 
neighbourhood. He died at Schwerin in 1862. 
His son, Karl, is an animal painter. 

SUIJDERHOEF, Jonas, engraver, was born at 
I.eyden in 1613 (1600), and studied under Cornelius 
Visscher and Soutmau. He died in 1669. His 
plates are numerous and excellent ; the following 
are amoi.g the best : 

The Emperor Maximilian ; after Lucas van Ltydtii. 

The Empress Maria, his consort ; ofter the same. 

]Ma.\imilian, Archduke of Austria ; after Rubens. 

PliiUp III., King of Spain ; after the same. 

-Vlbert, Archduke of Austria, Governor of the Nether- 
lands ; after the same. 

Isabella Clara Eugenia, lufanta of Spain, his consort , 
afttr the same. 

Charles I., King of England ; after Vaiidyck. 

Henrietta Maria, his t^ueen ; after the same. 

Fran{;ois de Mon(;ade, Comte d Ossonne ; after the same. 

John, Duke of Burgundy ; after P. Soutman. 

Charles, Duke of Burgundy ; after the same. 

Aldus Swalmius (The old Man with the Beard) ; after 

Kene Descartes ; after F. Hals. 

Anna Maria Schurmanu ; after J. Lievens. 

The Fall of the Rebel .\ngels ; after Rubens. 

The Virgin embracing the infant Jesus ; after the same. 

A Bacchanalian subject ; after th: same. 

A Drunken Bacchus, supported by a Satyr and a Moor ; 
after the same. 

The Peace of Munster ; after Terburg's picture in the 
Xaiional Gallery ; one of his finest plates. 

The Burgomaster of Amsterdam in Council ; aftfr 
Thomas de Keyser. 



Three old TTomen at table ; after Oslade. 

Three Boors, one playing on the Violin ; after the name. 

The Tric-trac players ; after th^' same. 

Dutch Boors fighting with Knives ; after the same. 

Dutch Boors dancing, called the Ball ; after the samt. 

SUISSE, Le. See Le Suisse. 

SULLIVAN, Luke, a native of Ireland, came 
to London when young and studied under Thomas 
Major. He practised miniature painting as well 
as engraving, and was well employed. As an 
engraver, he was chiefly engaged on plates after 
Hogarth, and sometimes worked conjointly with 
that artist. The following prints by him may he 
named : 

The infant Moses presented by his Mother to the 
Daughter of Pharaoh; after Hogarth; W. Hogarth, 
et L. 'Sitlivan, sc. 1752. 

Paul before Felix ; after the same ; L. Sulivav, sc. 175-. 

The March to Finchley ; after the same. 1761. 

The Temptation of St. Antliony ; after Teniers. 

A set of six Views of Country-seats. 

SULLY, Thomas, painter, was born at Horncastle, 
in Lincolnshire, in 1783. At nine years old he went 
with his parents, who were actors, to America, 
Btndied in Charlestown, and in 1813 set up as a 
portrait painter in Richmond. He afterwards 
returned to Europe, studied under West and 
Lawrence, and painted a portrait of Queen Victoria, 
which now belongs to the St. George's Society of 
Philadelphia. In 1838 he settled in Philadelphia, 
where he painted portraits of Lafayette, Jefiferson, 
and Washington, and of famous actors ; among 
them T. P. Cooke and Fanny Kemble. He also 
designed some illustrations to Shakespeare, and 
his ' Washington Crossing the Delaware ' is in the 
Boston Museum. He died in Philadelphia in 

SUMMERFIELD, John, engraver, was one of 
Bartolozzi's best pupils. His finest work was an 
excellent plate of ' Rubens and his Wife,' after 
the Flemish master, engraved in 1800, for which 
he received the gold medal of the Society of Arts. 
Another good plate was 'The Sleeping Boy,' after 
Reynolds. In spite of the high quality of his work, 
he found it impossible to make a living, and is said 
to have been reduced to great poverty. Redgrave 
gives the date of his death as 1817, but he is 
believed to have lived much longer. 

SDMPTER, H , an English painter of still- 
life, who exhibited regularly at the Academy, the 
British Institution, and the gallery of the Society 
of British Artists, between 1816 and 1847. 

SUNDBERG, Christine, Swedish portrait and 
genre painter ; exhibited mostly at the Salon. She 
died young in 1892. 

SUNDER, LncAS. See Cranach. 

SUNMAN, WiLLEM, (or SONMANS,) a Dutch 
portrait painter, who came to England in the 
reign of Charles II., and was much employed 
after the death of Sir Peter Lely. Walpole says 
that, being less successful than Hiley in a portrait 
of the Kmg, he retired to Oxford, and was there 
employed to paint portraits of founders. He died 
in London about the year 1707. In Wadhani 
College there is an excellent portrait inscribed : 
Mary George, ^tatis 120, Chd. Sonmans, pinxit 
et dedit. 

SONMANS, William, perhaps a son of the last 
named, wiis employed in London as a draughtsman 
early in the 18tli century. The drawings for 
Morrison's 'Historia Plantarum,' 1715, are by him. 

SUPPA, Andrea, painter, bom at Messina in 


1628, studied under B. Tricorai and Casembrot. He 
painted very minutely-finished works in oil, and 
frescoes for the churches and convents of liis 
native city, among them a 'Trinity' in the cha])el 
of St. Gregory, ' The Acts of St. Paul ' in San 
Paolo delle Monache, and 'The Assumption' at 
the Nunziata de' Teatini. He died in 1671. 

SURAT, Abel, French etcher, is known by his 
plates after portraits and genre pictures. He died 
in 1890, at the age of sixty-one. 

SUROHI, Giovanni Francesco, called Dielai, 
a nntive of Ferrara, who flourished about the year 
1543. He was a disciple of the Dossi, whom he 
assisted in several of their principal works in the 
palaces of Belriguardo, Giovecca, and Cepario, at 
Ferrara. He painted history, and distinguished 
himself also as a painter of grotteschi and land- 
scapes. He died in 1590. The Costabih Gallery 
has an 'Adoration of the Shepherds' by him. 

SURUGUE, Louis, a French engraver, born in 
Paris ill 1695, was instructed in design and en- 
graving by Bernard Picart, whose style he adopted 
with success, and, like his instructor, united the 
point with the graver in a very agreeable manner. 
The effect of his prints is pleasing, and he would 
have reached an eminent rank among the engravers 
of his country if his drawing had been more cor- 
rect. He was a member of the Academy of Paris, 
where he died in 1769. We have, among others, 
the following prints bj' him : 

Portrait of Louis de Boullongue, painter to the King; 

after Mathieu. 
St. Margaret ; after Raphael ; for the Crozat collection. 
St. Jerome in the Desert ; after Bal. de Sieria ; engraved 

by N. Chasleau^ and finished by L. Suruyue ; same 

Christ curing the Lepers ; after Girol. Genga ; for the 

same collection. 
The Sacrifice of Isaac ; after A. del Sarto. 
The Birth of the Virgin ; after P. da Cartona. 
Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Le &ueur. 
Venus nursing Love ; after Rube/ts. 
A Flemish Merry-making ; after Teniers. 
The Fortune-teller ; after the same. 
Clytia ; after Coypel. 
Last Supper ; after Rubens. 
Susanna ; after Verholje. 

SURUGUE, Pierre Louis, the son of Louis 
Surugue, born in Paris in 1716, was taught the 
art of engraving by his father. His style, though 
inferior, resembles that of his father. He became 
a member of the Academy in 1747. Among his 
plates we may name the following : 

Ken6 Fremin, Director of the Academy ; after Latour, 
Simon Guillain, Sculptor to the King ; after JV. Coypel. 
The Nativity; after Corregyio (' La Nottt^). 
The Virgin and Child, accompanied by St. Jerome and 

two other saints ; after Guido. 
The Judgment of Paris ; after Heiidrik Goltzius. 

He also engraved after Charles Coypel, Pater, 
Chardin, Teniers, and other masters. He died in 

SUSEMIHL, JoHANN Konrad, draughtsman and 
engraver, was born at Rainrod in Hesse in 1767. 
After studying for a time at the Diisseldsrf 
Academy, he went to Darmstadt, where he made a 
reputation by his plates of birds, and, in 1800, was 
appointed engraver to the court. He engraved the 
plates for Drumpelmann and Friebe's work on the 
' Zoology of the Baltic Provinces,' and jointly \vith 
his son and daughter, those for Moller's ' Monu- 
ments of German Architecture.' In 1839 he pub- 
lished an illustrated work on the ' Birds of Europe.' 


His brofhcr JoHANN Theodor, bom 1773, was a 
pupil of I'forr, and engraved zoological and or- 
nitliological [ilates. lie practised ior many years 
in Paris. 

SUSENIER, Abraham, born at Leiden, c. 1620 ; 
married at Dordrecht, January 28, 164(3, and was 
admitted into tlie Guild of