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BT F. MAX MtLLlB, M.A., 








A FEW words seem required to explain the origin and 
history of this hook. About the end of last year, 
Captain Bogers, after having spent some years in Bur- 
mah, returned to England, and as he had paid par- 
ticular attention to the study of Burmese, he was 
anxious, while onjoyiug the leisure* of his furlough, to 
translate some Burmese work that might ho useful to 
Oriental students. Ho first translated ' The History 
of Prince Theemeewizaya,' bsing one of the former 
lives (^fttaka) of Buddha. Although this work con- 
tains many tilings that are of interest to the student 
of Buddhism, it was impossible to find a publisher 
for it. I then advised Captain Rogers to undertake a 
translation of tho parables which are contained in 
Buddhaghosha's c Commentary on the Dhammapada.' 
Many of these fables had been published in Pali by 
Dr. Fausboll, at the end of his edition of the ' Dham- 
mapada;' but as the MSS. used by him wore very 
defective, the PAH text of these parables had only 
excited, but had not satisfied tho curiosity of Oriental 
scholars,. It is well kno^n that the Burmese look upon 
Buddhaghoeha, not indeed as having introduced Bud- 


dhism into Bunnab., but as having brought the feost 
important works of Buddhist literature to the shelf es 
of the Gulf of Martaban, and I therefore hoped that 
the Burmese translation of Buddhaghosha's parables 
would be as trustworthy as the P&li original. In this 
expectation, however, I was disappointed. When I re- 
ceived the first instalment of the translation by Captain 
Eogers, I saw at once that it gave a small number 
only of the stories contained in Buddhaghosha's P&li 
original, and that the Burmese translation, though 
literal in some parts, was generally only a free render- 
ing of the Pali text. K"or does it soem as if the trans- 
lator had always understood the text of Buddhaghosha 
correctly. Thus in the very first story, we read in tho 
Pali text that, when the wifo of MahSsva^a had her 
first son, she called Mm Pala; but whon she had a 
second, she called the elder MaM-pala, *. 0. Groat Pala, 
and the second, JTulla-paia, i e. Little Pdla, In the 
translation all this is lost, and wo simply read : " After 
ton months a son was born, to whom ho gave the 
name of Mahapfila, because he had obtained him 
through bis prayers to the Nat. After this, another 
son was born, who received the name of JTullap&la/' 

Though, for a time, I thought that the Burmese 
version of thosu parables might be a shorter, and pos- 
sibly a more original collection, yet passages like the 
ono just quoted would hardly allow of such a view. 
On tho contrary, the more I saw of the translation of 
tho Burmese parables, tho more I felt convinced that 
the Burmese toxt was an abstract of Buddhaghosha's 
work, giving only a certain number of Buddhaghosha's 
stories, and most of thorn considerably abridged, and 
sometimes altered. As -Dr. Fausboll hus given of 


of these .stories the titles only, it was impos- 
sible in. every case to compare the Burmese version 
with the Pali original. But, on the whole, I do not 
expect that the opinion which I have formed of the 
Burmese translation will be materially modified, when 
we have the whole of the PSli text to compare with 
it ; and we must wait till we receive from Burmese 
scholars an explanation of the extraordinary changes 
which Buddhaghosha's original has undergone in the 
hands of the Burmese translator. My own opinion is, 
that there must be a more complete and more accurate 
Burmese translation of Buddhaghosha's work, and that 
what we have now before us is only the translation of 
a popular edition of the larger work. Towards tho 
end of tho Burmese translation there arc several addi- 
tions, evidently from a different source ; in one case, 
as stated (p. 174), from the < Kammapabhodadipa, 5 

By a strange coincidence, I received, at the very 
time when Captain Eogers had finished his trans- 
lation, another translation of the same work by Cap- 
tain Sheffield Grace. It was not intended for publica- 
tion, but sent to me for my private use. I obtained 
Captain Sheffield Grace's permission to send his manu- 
script to Captain Rogers, who, as will be seen from 
his preface, derived much advantage from it while re- 
vising his own MS. for the press. 

Although I felt disappointed at the character of the 
Burmese translation, yet I was most anxious that the 
labours of Captain Rogers and Captain Sheffield Graco 
should not have been in vain. Even such as they arc, 
thoso parables are full of interest, not only for a study 
of Buddhism, but likewise for the history of fables 
and apologuos in their migrations from East to West, 


or from West to East. This important chapter irPthe 
literary history of the ancient world, which since ttie 
days of Sylvestre do Sacy has attracted so much at- 
tention, and has of late been so ahly treated by Pro- 
fessor Benfey and others, cannot be considered as 
finally closed without a far more exhaustive study of 
those Buddhist fables, many of them identically the 
same as the fables of the Pafi^atantra, and as the 
fables of JEsop. Nay I thought that, if it were only 
to give to the world that one apologue of KMgotaml 
(p. 100), this small collection of Buddhist parables de- 
served to be published ; and I hoped, moreover, that 
by tho publication of this first instalment, an impulse 
would bo given that might lead to a complete transla- 
tion, cither from Pali or from Burmese, of all the fables 
contained in the c Commentary on tho Dhammapada. 7 
Ilowover, in spite of my pleading, no publisher, not 
even Mr. Triibnor, who certainly has shown no lack of 
faith in Oriental literature, would undertake the risk 
of publishing this collection of parables, except on 
condition that I should writo an introduction* Though 
my hands were full of work at the time, and my at- 
tention almost exclusively occupied with Vedic re- 
searches, yet I felt so reluctant to let this collection 
of Buddhistic fables remain unpublished, that I agreed 
to take my part in tho work as soon as the first 
volume of my translation of the ' Eig Veda ) should be 
carried through tho press. 

As the parables which Captain Eogors translated 
from Burmese, wore originally written in Pali, and 
formed part of Buddhaghosha's * Commentary on the 
Dhammapada,' *"* 'The Path of Virtue, 3 I thought 
that tho most usoful contribution that 1 could oftbr, 


by wfty of introduction, ^ould be a translation of the ori- 
giifel of tlic Dhammapada. The Dhammapada forms 
part of the Buddhistic canon, and consists of 423 verses, 1 
which are believed to contain the utterances of Buddha 
himself. It is in explaining these verses that Buddha- 
ghosha gives for each verse a parable, which is to illus- 
trate the moaning of the verse, and is believed to have 
beon uttered by Buddha, in his intercourse with his dis- 
ciples, or in preaching to the multitudes that came to 
hear him. In translating these verses, I have followed 
the edition of the Pali text, published in 1855 by Dr. 
Fausboll, and I have derived great advantage from his 
Latin translation, hiw notos, aud his copious extracts 
from Buddhaghoaha's commentary. I havo also con- 

1 That there should be some differences in the exact number of 
those g&th&g, or verses, is but natural. In a short index at the 
end of tho work, the number of chapters is given as twenty-aix. 
This agrees with our text. The sum total, too, of the verses as 
there given, viz. 428, agrees with the number of verses which 
Buddhaghosha had before him. when writing his commentary, at 
tho beginning of the fifth century of our era. It is only when the 
number of verses in each chapter is given that some slight differ- 
ences occur. Gap. v. is said to contain 17 instead of 16 verses ; 
cap. xii. 12 instead of 10; cap. xiv. 16 instead of 18; cap. xx. 
10 instead of 17 ; cap. xxiv. 22 instead of 26 ; cap. xxvi. 40 in- 
stead of 41, which would give altogether five verses less than we 
actually possess. The cause of this difference may be either in 
tho wording of the index itself (and we actually find in it a various 
reading, malavagge %a vlsati, instead of malavagg' ekaviaati, see 
Vaugbtill, p. 435) ; or in the occasional counting of two verses as 
one, or of one as two. Thus in cap. v. we got 16 instead of 17 
verses, if we take each verde to consist of two lines only, and not, 
aa in vv. 74 and 75, of three. Under all circumstances the differ- 
ence is trifling, and we may be satisfied that we possess in our 
MSS. tha flame text which Buddhaghosha knew in the fifth 
century" of our era* 


suited translations, either of the whole of the 
mapada, or of portions of it, by Weher, Oogerly, 1 "BTp- 
ham, Bumouf, and others. Though it will be seen 
that in many places my translation differs from those 
of my predecessors, I can only olaim for myself the 
name of a very humble gleaner in the field of Pali 
literature. The greatest credit is due to Dr. Fausboll, 
whose editio jprinceps of the Dhammapada will mark 
for ever an important epoch in the history of Pali 
scholarship ; and though later critics have bocn able to 
point out some mistakes, both in his text aad in his 
translation, the value of their labours is not to bo 
compared with that of the work accomplished singlo- 
Iianiled by that eminent Danish scholar. 



Tho ago of Buddhaghosha can bo fixed with greater 
accuracy than most dates in the literary history of 
India, for not only his name, but the circumstances 
of his life and his literary activity are described in the 
MaMvaffaa, the history of Ceylon, by what may be 
called almost a contemporary witness. The MaM- 
va;z*a, lit. the genealogy of the groat, 3 or tho great 
genealogy, is, up to tho roign of Dh&tusona, the work 
of MahtoSma. It was founded on the JDipavajwa, 
also called Mahava^m, a more ancient history of the 

i Several of the chapters have bean' translated by Mr. Gtogerly, 
and have appeared in ' The Friend/ vol. iv. 1840." (Spence 
Hardy, ' Eastern Monachism,' p. 169*) 

* See Hah&n&ma's own explanations given in the Tlkd ; ' M&* 
, 1 Introduction, p. xxxi. 


islanfl of Ceylon, which ended witli the reigu of Ma- 
hai&na, who died 302 A.D. MSS, of the Dipavaasa are 
said to exist, and there is a hope of its toeing published. 
MaMnama, who lived during the reign of King Dha- 
tusena, 459-477, wrote the whole history of the island 
over again, and carried it on to his own time. He 
also wrote a commentary on this work, but that com- 
mentary extends only as far as the forty-eighth verse 
of the thirty-seventh chapter, i. e. as far as the reign 
of Mah&sena, who died in 502 A.D. 1 As it breaks off 
exactly where the older history, the Dipava^a, i$ 
said to have ended, it seems most likely that Mab&- 
nama embodied in it tho results of his own researches, 
into the ancient 'history of Ceylon, while for his con- 
tinuation of the work, from the death of Mahasena to 
his own time, no such commentary was wanted. It is 
difficult to determine whether the thirty-eighth as well 
as the thirty-sovonth chapter came from the pen of 
Mahanama, for the Mahavarwa was afterwards con- 
tinued by different writers to the middle of the last 
century; but, taking into account all the circum- 
stances of the case, it is most probable that Mahanama 
carried on the history to his own time, to the death of 
Dhatusona or Dfison Kelllya, who died in 47 7. 2 This 
Dh&tusena was the nephew of tho historian Mahanama, 
and owed the throne to tho protection of his uncle. 
Dhatusona was in fact the restorer of a national dynasty, 
and after having defeated the foreign usurpers (the 

1 After Iho forty-eighth verse, the text, as published by Tumour, 
puts ' Mah&vnftBo ni/tfAito/ the Mah&van0a is finished ; and after 
a new invocation of Buddha, the history is continued with the 
forty-ninth verse. Tho title Mah4vaft*a, as here employed, seems 
to refer to the Dipavansa. 

* ' Mah&vatwa/ Introduction, p. xaxi. 


Damilo dynasty) " he restored tlio religion wliirfi luul 
been set aside by the foreigners." l Among his nrTmy 
pious acts, it is particularly mentioned that lie gave a 
thousand, and ordered the Dipavawa to bo promul- 
gated. 2 

As Mahanama was the undo of Dhfitiwnna, who 
reigned from 459-477, lie may bu considered a trust- 
worthy witness with regard to facts that owurrwl 
between 410 and 432. Now the literary activity of 
Buddlmghosha in ( -cylon fulls in that period, and tliiw 
is what Mahaiifmia vela-ten of him (' Malm va//*a,' p. 2">0) : 

" A Brftlnnau youth, born in tlio neighlmurhood uf 
the torraco of the groat Ho-troo (in WAgadha), niTotn- 
plifihod in the c vijja j (knowledge) mul *sij{Ki' (art), 
who had achieved tho knowledge of the tlirc 
and poflHOHHod groat aplitiu'h^ in attaining aequin 
indofatigablo aH a Hchiriinatiu dinputant, and hintsplf a 
wamloror ovor 6'ambudipa, esfuhliHhed liiin- 
in tlio dinraoter of u disputant, in u <Mrt;tin 
vihflra, and waw in tlus habit of rehearsing by uijjfht 
and by day with eluded ]umdH t a diHCiwm* whioh h<* 
liad learned, perfect iu all id* component puHn, ami 
sustainod throughout in tho wimo lofty Htniiu, A 
certain mahftthora, Itc^vata, boconiing acquainted with 
him thoro, and (suying to liiniHelf), "Thw individtiul 

s Maliftv. p. 257, "And that lie, might aho pramulgiito Uw con- 
tonla of tho * Dipiivanjrti,' diftitrihutliip; a thouimntl pirtftw, hi* ciiUM<*tl 
it to be r<ttd aloud thoroughly." Tho text linn, *<1UA 
dipetuw I)i[)avasawawiadii,' having feivou ti ihounund, lu* urd 
tho Dlpavan^ft to be rendorod itluHtrioua, or to b<* cf>pii*cl. 
*Woatt*rgaurd, ' TIebor don Mtowton SMtraum ftor indiwheu (e- 
flohiohto/ Breslttu, 1802, p. #3; and 'Mtthfcvrw* f ' Ititrciilueliou, 
p. xxxii, L 2.) 


iff a person of profound knowledge, it will bo woiMfur 
(of^mc) to convert him;" inquired, "Who is t!hV 
who is braying like an asH?" The Brfihnuui replied 
to him, "Thou canst define, then, the meaning eon- 
vcyed in tlio l>ray of UHSCH." On the Them rejoining, 
"I can define it;" lie (the Unlhimin) exhibited the* 
extent of the knowledge ho posseted. The 1 Them 
criticized each of his proposition**, and pointed out in 
what respect they wore fallacious. Ho who had been 
thus refuted, guid, "Well, then, dcsmid to thy own 
creed; 7 ' and he propounded to him passage from 
the ' Abhidhamrna ' (of tho Pitakuttuyu), lie (the 
Brfthxnuu) could not divine the sign ifimt ion of tlmt 
passage, and inquired, " Whose, nmutu is thin? 1 ' " It 
IH Huddha'fci mania." On lun ex(fliiiinin^ Cl fmpart it 
to me; 7> the Th<ra roplied, u Knti-r the sarmJotal 
order." lie who was desirous of ac<[uiriug the know- 
ledge of the ' Pitukuttuyu,' Hubm'quenfly coming to 
tliia conviction, "Thw in tho Hole road M (to nadvation), 
became a eorivort to that faith. AH ho WUH IIH pro- 
found in IUH elofiueneo (ghowa) an Buddha himnelf, 
they conferred on him tho appellation of Huddhu- 
ghosa (the voice of Buddha); and throughout fho 
world he beoamo an r(*nowm?d UH Jtuddhu* HuvitiK 
there (in (/ambudtpa) <umpoHed un original work 
called 'Nftnodaya 1 (Riwo of Knowhulge), Jie,, at the 
wametime, wrolo tho chapter eulfod "AtflittMfilini, on 
the DhammaHanganl '' (one of tho (JommontarioH on 
tlie ' Abhidhamma 1 }, 

"llovuta Tluru then-obnorving that he* WILH 
of undertaking tlto compilation of u goaoml 
tury on tho < Pitakattay^* UUIB tulclraiwocl him: "TIw* 
toatt tiJiono of the 4 Pitakuttaya ' lim lwu>a pr^nervod in 


this land, the c Atthakathft ' arc not oxtant here, nor 
i there any version to be found of the schisms (vajla) 
complete. Tho Singhalese ' Atthakathfi ' are genuine. 
They wore composed in tho Singhalese language by 
the inapirod and profoundly wise Mahinda, who had 
previously consulted tho discourses of Buddha, authen- 
ticated at the thera-convo cations, and the disserta- 
tions and arguments of Sariputta and others, and they 
art*, rxlmit amnng tho Singhalese. Preparing for this, 
and studying tho Kaino, translate them according to 
tho rulew of tho grammar of tho Mugadhas. It will 
l>o an uctt conducive to tho welfare of tho whole world." 
" Having been thus advised, this eminently wise 
personage rejoicing therein, departed from thoneo, and 
visited thin inland in tho reign of this monarch (*'. e. Ma- 
Imnamn), On reaching tho Mahavihara (at AnurMha- 
puni), ho entered the Mahapadhanu hall, tho moBt 
Kplondiil of tho apartments in tho vihora, and liatrmod 
to t)io Singlmlow^ Attluikutlifi, and th(i Thoruvfwlii, 
from the. beginning to tho oncl, propounded by tho 
thera HanKluipftlu ; uiid bocunio thoroughly convincod 
that lliey <jonv<^y(d tho tnio meaning of the doctrines 
of tlio Lord of I )hamma. Thereupon paying reverential 
to the pricnthood, ho thus petitioned: "I am 
of tmndating the < Attliokafbft;' give mo ao- 
ts(HK to all your bookw." The priunthood, for tho pur- 
poHo of loHliwg hiH qualification**, gave only two gtlth&s, 
Haying, "Ilenw^ pro vo thy qualification j liaving satisfied 
ourHol VVH mi tliw point, we will then let thoe have all our 
IwwiJw." Fn>m these (taking Hose giltliUfur his text), 
tmd cotiBulling tho < Pitakattaya,' together with the 
'Attlutkathu,' and enndeusiug tliom into an abridged 
form, ho composed tho work called c The 


magga.' Thereupon, having assembled the priesthood, 
who had acquired a thorough knowledge of the doc- 
trines of liuddhu, at the bo-tree, lie commenced, to 
read out the work he had composed. The devatfts, in 
order that they might make his (Itaddlmghofla'H) gifts 
of wisdom celebrated among men, rendered that book 
invisible, lie, however, for a mwflul and third time 
reoomposed it When ho was in the act of producing 
his book for tho third time, for tho purpim of pro- 
pounding it, tho dovutita rofttnrod the other two Copies 
also. The assembled priests then road out the throes 
books simultaneously. In thorn* three vorwoiiB, neither 
in a signification nor in a single* iniHplamneut by 
transposition, nay oven iu tho tlua'u-oontroversies, and 
in tho text (of tho Titakaltayu 7 ) WUH there, in tliu 
measure of a ver^o or in tho loiter of u word, tho 
slightoat variation. Tlioreupfjn, tho priuHthond TO- 
joicing, agtiiu and again forvontly nhout^d fortli. Hay- 
ing, "Most assuredly thw m Kottuyu (Ifuddhu) him- 
sdf," and made over to liiin tlio book* in which tho 
' Pitakattaya' wore recorded, togtrthtsr with tho ' Attba- 
kath&.' Taking up 1m rowdonoo in tho 
GantluUara vihura, ut AnurAdliupuro Y bo 
uccsording to the grammaHcial rnlcH of Hut 
which is the root of all luuguagw, tho wluilci of tlio 
Singhalese Atthakutlia (into Pali)- This proved an 
achievement of tho titmoHt connoque.nfjo to all lan- 
guages Hpoken by the human moo, 
f " All the theraa and ftchlriya hold thiw eonipilaiiori iu 
tlio same estimation as the text (of tho * Pitakuttaya ') 
iThoreafter, tho object* of bin iruHNion having bo<ju fttl* 
filled, ho returned to ^/anibticWpa, to worwhip at tho 
ho-tree (at tlruveiaya, or Uruvilv^ in 


Ilure \vo have a simple account of Buddhaghosha 1 and 
literary labours written hy a man, himself a jJnept, 
and who may well have known Buddhaghosha during 
hiH stay iu Ceylon. It is true that the statement of 
his writing the same book throe times over without a 
ningle various reading, partakes a little of the miracu- 
lous ; but we find similar legends mixed xip with ac- 
counts of traiiHlations of other sacred booka, and we 
cannot (Contend that writers who believed in such 
lugcndH aro therefore unworthy to be believed as his- 
torical WltUtiHHCti. 

Tlio next q motion which has to be answered is 
this, Did ISuddhaglumha'fci Parables, and the whole of 
the connrnmtury in whinh they are contained, form 
part of tho 'Arthakutha 7 which lie translated from 
into 1MH. Tho answer to thin quostion 
on whether the Dhanunupatla formed part of 
the * 1'itukuttuyii ' or not If the VOIBCH of the Dlmrn- 

1 The HurmoHG entertain tlic highest roHpoct for Buildhaghcwha. 
BiHltop Bi^aruk'ti, in hiu ' I/iie or Liigcnd oi'Gaudama 1 (Kaugoon, 
180(i), wriioH: " R in porhupH aw well to mention liore an opocli 
which hfl hetoi, nt all timoa, famous in the) hiwtory of Budhmm iu 
Hiirtna* I ullude to tht) voyage which a Keligioutj of Thuton, 
itatntul Ihnlhogoaa, inado to Ceylon, iti the yoar of religioa 
M&ss tOO A.O. The objdefc f thiw voyage was to procure a copy 
of thn Hcriptuim He aucccodcd in hiy undertaking Ita madct 
\mi of tho .HtmnuHc, or rather Taking cliarttttcrfl, in transcribing 
the rnnnuMcriptHi which were written with the character of Mai 
gulha, Tho iJuriuana lay much Btro$ upon that voyage, ami , 
jilwnyb carofully note down the your it took place* In fact, it iiL 
to BudhagoHA that tho peoplo living on the whoros of the Gulf oi 
Martnbau owe the poweeHttion of the Budhiut scripturos, Fron 
Thatoit, tho oolloetion made by Budhagosa was tranuforred 
Pagstn, nix hundred and fifty ycara after it had been importetn 
from 0<yli)n," 


rarcouncils, whether two or throe, wo ncod not horo 
inquire. 3 It ha<l rcocivutl its final form at (lie r-ouwtil 
hold under A*oka in tho year 24 C n,a AW arc ftir- 
thor told in tho ' Mahfivawsa' that Mahiiula, tho son of 
"Ajolca, who had become a priest, learnt tho wholu of 
tho Buddhist romon in thivo years (JK ;>7); and that 
at tho oiul of the third council ho was disjwtrjhod to 
.Coylon, in order to osUiblinh thons the, religion of 
Ihiddlui (p. 71). The king of CJ^ylon, J)(jvunitnipriya 
Tisliya, was convorted, and Jtnddhism oon bmuno 
tho dominant religion of the inland. Nftxt 1'oIIoWH a 
Hlatonuuit whidh will natnnilly s<ag{j;or thono who an* 
not a(uj[iiaint(l with tho powor of mimiory if und*r 
strict diHc^ipliiK*. for library purpoHrH, Init whic-h (*x* 
by no inoaiin th( limitn of wliut is jxmHihlc in 
whnn tho whole Microd litcrnturo of u j)toplp in 
1>r(wrvod and liven by oral tradidon only. Tlw l*iia 
kutruyu, as wt^ll aw th -ArthukathA, having IHMJH ({<>!- 
and ftotllwl ut tlu^ third couuoil in 24fi !>.<!,, wow 
t to fVylon hy Mahinda, wlio i>rc>Tnulgaf<d 

/milly;' 2 tho ^Titakalraya' in Pali, and tlio i ArtliukuthA* 
Jin 8inghaloi5*cv ; toge<h(r with additional Arihukatlm of 

1 The quowtion of thoBn councila aiul of iiicir iM^ring on 
hronology haw boon diBcuHHwl by mo in my * Hintory of Awicmt, 
^aunkrit Litoruturo/ |>, 202 wv/ ( , 2nd (nl* 
51 Of. Biffindofc, 1. o. p. UH7. 

3 Hin^halow), Icinff iho latiniiafp) of tho Inland, would rtatumlly 
? adopted by Mahinda and hiw iVll)w-tuiwiouttrioH fur oommuuU 
^tion with thu imiivoH* * If ho nlmtwined froju tntnMating tlia 
'ion aluo into Hin^lialuRis thin ttmy hnvo becm an Account of iu 
fro eacmd ehtiraclcr. At ft lnttr time;, howuvor, tho cftnoiK tou, 
10 transktod into Hinghalw, nml, AM Uto M tho lima of 
Jidtoa, who^iad 8 AJ>,, we wnd of A prfwts, proftnmdly v 
lio (bctrmcvv ho traiwlivtod tho H^trw, ono of tho throo 


mapwla wore contained in the canon, then they were 
also explained in the Singhalese 'Arthakatha, 3 and con- 
sequently translated from it into Pali by Buddhaghosha. 
Now it is true that the exact place of the Dhammapada 
in tho Buddhistic canon has not yet been poiiitod out ; 
but if wo refer to Appendix iii., printed in Tumour's 
edition of tho * Mahavaffsa, 3 we there find in tho third 
part of the canon, tho Sutra-pitaka, under No. 5 3 the, 
Kshudraka-nikayu, containing fifteen subdivisions, the 
second of which is the Dhammapadu. 

We should, therefore, be perfectly justified in treat- 
ing tho parables contained in BuddliaghoHha's Pfili 
truncation of tho < Arthakatha,' ** e - ^ lo coiumouttuy 
on tho Dhammapada, as part of a much more un- 
cient work,, via. the work of Mahinda, and it ia only 
in defercvnco to an over-cautious critioiflm that I have 
claimed no earlier ditto than that of Buddhaglioftliu fur 
tlicfio curious relics of the fablo-litcraturo of India. I 
have myself on a formor ocoasion 1 pointed* out all tho 
objoctionw that can be raised against tho authority of 
Buddliaghosha and Muhinda ; but I do not think that 
scholars calling these parables tho parables of Ha-.,, 
hinda, if not of Uuddha himself, and referring their; 
date to the third contxxry B.C., would expose thomaelvo 
at present to any formidable criticism. i 

If wo read the pages of tho 'MaMvafura' without 
prejudice, and make allowance for tho oxuggoratioiL 
and superstitious of Oriental writers, we soo clcorL 
that the literary work of BuddRaghosha prcsuppofljv 
tho existence, in some shape or other, not only of t. 
canonical books, but also of thoir Singhalese cammc^^ 
tary. Tho Buddhistic canon hud boon settled in BO\ 

1 * Chip*! from a florman "Workahop, 1 2nd e<L, vol. i, p. 107. 



posoa common source from which tlioy arc durivod, 
thus sharing together curtain terms in common, un<l 
following an independent coxirso in other respocts. 
This common source is a Pali verso whidi occurs in 
the Vattaka-^atoka, and is quoted by IJuddhughrwhu 
in his commentary on the Stitra-niiUa. 1 

SawmodamfLn& gaH'Aanti ^ftlam adilya pakkhino, 
Yadi te vivatlisHanti tad& ehinti mo vaauw. 

"Tho birdn fly away, taking tho not whilo they ro 
happy together ; wliou they shall quarrel, thru ih(*y 
will come into my power." 

If wo mark thoeo throe VCTHOH l>y tho '!*., II., 
and V., wo seo tltat P. taken from V. llic words '//alum 
ftdftya ga^/pAanti pakwhiwaA * and 4 vivadiliyuut( 1 / 
IL takes from V. the wordw ' vawnn ewliyaiiti m 
Tor the roSt, H. and P. follow caoh tlioir own way in 
transforming the Pfili verso, a Ixwt tlny <!un ? into 11 
Sanskrit verse, and 31. with more AIICGUM* tlnni P- Tho 
words c apy ami 7 in P.arn more expletive**, * pitiHhyanli 9 
is a poor rondorixig 7 and c na mm*tuyu/i* aguiu muddcil 
only in order to fill the vorwo- "Without milling II. 

v, 24*01, where a eimikr Htory IH laid of iwi birtlx boiu^ (*tmg1i* 
and oBcaping from Iho fowlor by ngrceing to fly up togutiior, 
Here wo road : 

P^am okam ubliAv ctam finhiiau liftrato IIUUHJI, 
Yatra vai vivadieliyeto tatra itto viwrnin cwliyiitaA. 
" These two united carry off HUB ono not of mint* j wlu k u they 
ehall quarrtl, then they will fall into my powr." 

1 This extract from the commentary wa* imblifthcnl by i>r, Fuim- 
boll in the ' Jnditicho Studicn/ v. p. 412, tuul itu> mrnilaHty wttn 
pointed out between the verso of BuddbagboMhti ntul fcho c^rn- 
Bponding rer0e in the ' ILitopftdawi ' And l PitftXratoulra*' Kurtlmt* 
comparisonB may bo wen in lkn% ' Pafi/tatantrV i, p. 300 ; II pp. 
040* Sea $100 < I^i AvadAna* twlait$ par HtwBlftt Julicn/ 


and P. together a faithful copy of V., I think 
stifoly say that it would bo impossible to explain both 
the points on which II. and P. differ and those 
on which they agree, without admitting that both 
had before them the Pali verso io the very wording 
in win oh we find it in Buddhaghosha's commentary, 
and which, according to Euddluighoslia, was taken 
frum one i)f the tf sitakas, a portion of the Buddhistic 
ftuiLon. And thin would prove, though ono could 
hardly havu thought that, after the labours of Burnouf 
and LttHWon and Julian, 1 such proof was still needed, 
that tlio Buddhist canon and its commentary existed 
in the very wording in which we now possess them, 
at lentil tu 500 after Cluist. 


If we may fioiwitlor tho dato of the Uhammapada 
ilrnily established, and trout its vcrsoa, if not afl tho 
uttoruncsoH of Jiuddhu, at least as what woro believed 
by tho memborw of tho T/ounoil under Aaoka, in 240 
B,O., to have boon tho utterances of tho foundor of 
thoir religion, ite importance for a critical study of 
tho hifltory of Buddhism must bo very consulorablo, 
for wo oaa hardly over expect to gotnoaror to Buddlui 
himself and to his personal toaoliing, I shall try to 
ilhwtruto this by OHO or two examples, 

I pointed out on a former occasion 3 that if wo de- 
rive our idoan of Nirvfina from the Abhidhanna, i e. 

i On Buddlmt books carried to China and translated there pre* 
vioutt to tho beginning of our DHL, BOO M, M.'a ' Ohipa tnm a 
Ourmnu Workshop, 1 2nd od.> vol. i. p. 258, w#. 

3 On tho moaning of Nirv&nn, iu ' Chips from a Gorman Work*. 
whop,' 2udud.,vol. i.p.280. 



the metaphysical portion of the Buddhistic canon, \ve 
cannot escape the conclusion that it mount perfect an- 
nihilation. Nothing has boon brought forward to in- 
validate Bumouf's statements on thin wubjVrt, much 
has since been added, particularly by M, Burthelemy 
St. Hilairtf, to strengthen and support thorn, and tho 
latest -writer on Budtlhinm, Binhop Bigawlet, th<* 
Vicar Apostolic of Ava and Pegu, in his c Life and 
Legend of Gaudatna, tho Buddha of the Burmese,' 
arrives at exactly the waine conclusion. No one could 
suspect tho bitfhop of any prejudice against Ituddhimn, 
for ho is most candid in hiw pruitfew of -whatever in 
praiseworthy in that ancient system of religion. Thus 
he says (p. 404), "Tho Christian system and the Bud- 
dhistic one, chough uiffuiiujj; from wuh other in their 
respoctivo objects and onda aw much tor {mUi Jrmu 
error, have, it must bo confoBsed, many striking fea- 
tures of an astonishing resemblance. There ure niaity 
moral precepts equally commanded tmd enforced in 
common by both creeds. It will not bo oonnidtwd 
rash to assert that most of tho moral truths prescribed 
by tho gospel are to be mot with in tho Dudclhwtio 
scriptures," And again (p, 4!)f)), Jn reading the* 
particulars of the life of tho luHt Itiulha (hmtuiim, it 
is itnpoBBibb not to fool reminded of many mrnnn- 
etanoes relating to our Saviour^ lifo, Huch OH it; IIIIH hwwi 
ekotohod by tho Evangoliate," Y^t in Kpito of al* 
thoso oxcelUmces, Bishop Bigmulr^ too, muni* up 
dead against Buddhinm, as a religion culminuting in 
athoidm and nihilism. " It may lw Buid in favour of 
," ho write* (p. via,), " that no 

roligioiae system ha0 over ttphold, t<> m equal dogmo, 
tho notions of a saviour and deliverer; atid tho 



sity of his mission for procuring tho salvation; in a 
Uuddhist sense, of man. JCho role of Buddha, from 
boginning to end, is that of a deliYcror, who preaches 
a law designed to procure to man tho deliverance from 
all tho miseries ho is labouring under. 33y an inex- 
plicable and deplorable eccentricity, the pretended sa- 
viour, after having taught man the way to deliver Irim- 
solf from the tyranny of his pa^ions, leads him, uftor 
nil, into the } ifcomloHH gulf of ' total uuniliilatioiu'^j 

\Thut Jiu( 7 n?iY WUH an nthoiNt, at leaat in onu 
the word, o /mot b<^ denied, but whether ho 
in a total miiliilation of tho soul an tho liiglumt goul 
of roligi i, is a different ({iioHtion. Tho godn whom 
ho found worshipped by the multitude; woro tlie godn 
ol 1 /"*" Vedtw and tho UriUnwi>ttiH, "* ILW ill(lm ' AKII|J 
in ttlo rtivinity of Muili aoitic, Huddhu 


SST^SlIJ 1 ^^ Sarpa*, Pwtos and 
.^te Jrita dwofa Tho belief in those being* *w 
flrmlv -^otwl in ti popular boliof and langusi^o tlia^ 
,-iu ftmmtor f u w>w wligitm ould not have, 

nvofl tllO lOUUCLtWt in *ww o iiii ituiAi 

dlml to reason thom away, and too was ^^JjJJjJ 

itod? to urtwtio roiirowsutation, whotltor i 
soulpturo, that 'nothing remained to Bui 


his <wni, It does not follow that ilaliiutlti knew tho 
wfrole of that enormous literature l>y lioiirt, for, us ho 
was supported by a number of priests, they may well 
have divided the different sections among thorn. The. 
same applies to their disciple*. Pmt (hut to the Hindu 
mind there was nothing exceptional or mrivdi!h in 
such a statement, we see clearly from \vliut is said by 
Mahanama at a later period of his history. When 1m 
comes to the reign of Ya/Aigfunani, 1 88-70 H.H., lio 
states: "The profoundly wise prints hud horetuforo 
orally perpetuated tlie PAH Pitakatrayu Mid its Artlm- 
katk& (commroittiri(iH). At this piiim^ 1 * !#<* priests, 
foreseeing tho perdition of the people*' vt,n\ flic per- 
verwionfl of tho Iruo doctrines) UHHIT **V ; intd in 
order that tho religion mi^lit onduru for iitfeh ivr-cmliil 
the same iu bookfi." a 

Later than this date, oven tlionci who dou (j/io 

BIOUB of the Pitukatruya, into tho Hihnla iangungi'. (Mitlm * -. 
2470 A note is added, stating that tjovural portion* of tli" i '* * 
two divisions alao of the Htakutraya liavo boon irunHlutcfl into 
the Singhalese) language?, and that thruo alone nrt* n>nHitltni by 
tho prioats who arti unacquainted with 1'dli. On tho other hnrxl, 
it id stated that the Singhalese text of tlio ArthakntliA oxmt no 
longer (see Hponco 1 Tardy, 'LognndM/ p, xxv. t ant! p. 0$?). llu 
statoti that the toxt and commimtury of tlic Itiuldlii^t cjtnon im* 
believed to contaiu 2y,.lU8 ; CK)0 lotteru* (/A/W. p. C.C..) 

1 800 Bigandot, 1. o, p. H8. 

* a See also Sponco Hardy, * Lrfptndii; p- 102, " Aftor tint Nir- 
v4a of Buddha, for tho Bpaoo of WO ytmrn, tho fcoxt und poramni* 
taries, and all tho work* of tho Tathftgatii, WITO prt'twvwl ami 
transmitted by wio priosta, orally, mukhtt-pft///ona. But Imving 
seen the evils attendant upon thin modo of tnuwnilvMiun, ilvct ttun* 
^red atid fifty arhal-s, of great authority, in tbo cftvo called Alold 
,AIti) in the province of Malaya, in fanttA, undw tho guardian- 
hfclp of thy ihief of that proving cauwwl tlm (wiertfd} lfooka to bo 
.Written . M (Extract from tho ' Uftr^kmngriitm. 1 ) 


powers of oral tradition have no right to placa the 
final constitution of thu Buddhistic canon and its com- 
niontiirins in Ceylon, nor is there any rcaaon to doubt 
that fluch aa these texts existed in Ceylon in the first 
century jj.c., they existed in the filth eentury after 
Christ, whnn the commentaries were translated into 
PAH by Ifacldhoghofllia, and that afterwards they 
rcinnimul imdumgcd in tho MSB. pi'oaorvod by tho 
loomed priests of that island. It is easy lo shrug 
ono\s shoulders, and shake one's head, and to disbo- 
liovo everything tluit can bo disbelieved. Of course 
wo cannot b* u # witmwoH btuik from tho #rave ? siill 
!< I SK from tl? ( ^irvUi, into \vhir*li, wo trust, many of 
1h*H unciotWrortliios liavcs outororl. Hut if wo am 
askod to bili*'V<* that all tin's was invontocl in ordor 
lo gl\v lo llitt Ifudilhifltic Cittiion a ii<ititious uir of 
anti^niiy, tho iuthi<wm(nt would, indeed, be. ono of 
eonsum unite- skill. "Wlieii A^-oku first mot Niffroillut, 
who WUH to (M)nv(H him tn tlio 7Hw faith, wo read 
(|K 25), that having refreshed tho saint with food 
and lnveru# whieh bud boe,n prepannl for limiHolf, ho 
iulemitfiif cil tin*, HTununmt oti tho doctrines propounded 
by Bud dim. It is then said tlmt tho mnmnoru ox- 
pi uiiuul to him tho Apramllda^vurgu.} Now this Apru- 
mnda-vurgii in tho tillo of tho wwmd chapter of thcs 
Dlwmmapndiu Itn tnention nwd not provo that 
tho Dbummapada oxinted prnvioiw to tho Council of 
Afloku, 24(5 w.a, but only tliat Muhdnftina lioliovcd that 
if; oxintod lutforo that timo. But if wo uro to nuppowo 
that all UiinwaH put iuou purpowo, would it not bo too 
doop-luid a ncliomo for tho compiler of tho Mahdvimm ? l 
And for whut objc^ot could all thi cunning huvo 
1 In the ncjcoutit givtm by Biahop BigandeL (p. 377} of tho firni; 


bcerf employed ? The Buddhists would have Leliovod 
7he most miraculous accounts that might lie given of 
the origin and perpetuation of their gurrcd writing** ; 
why then tell tho story so plainly, HO baldly, m ahnply 
as a matter of fact? I have tho greatest mspect fur 
really critical sceptic-ism, Imt a scepticism without any 
arguments to support it is too cheap a virtue to (Us 
serve much consideration. Till wo hear some ruwona 
to the contrary, I "believe wo may safuly Buy that wo 
possess Buddhaghosha'ti translation of tho ArtluikuthA, 
as it existed in tho fifth century of our cm ; that tho 
original was first reduced to writing in Coy Ion in tho 
first century before our era, having previously existed 
in tho language of Mugudlm; mid that our vnrriitt of 
tho Dhammapada avo Uio HUUM which worn tvfitod to 
A*oka, and embodied in the canon of the third wmnei], 
246 B.C. This is enough for our purpoKCH: tho rliro- 
nology previous to Asoka, or ut lount provioiw to hin 
grandfather, JTandrngupta, tho ally of S<J!OUCUH, bo- 
longs to a different class of roseurehofl, 

As, however, tho antiquity and auilioiiiioity of tlw 
Buddhist literature have of Into boon cullod in ques- 
tion in a most Humitmry tnnnucT, it may not tuwm 
superfluous to show, by one mnull fu<tt nt legist, thai. 
the fal>loB and parabhss of BuddlmglioHhu imiHf. lutvo 
existed in tfw very wording JM which iw poawM //KW, 
in the beginning at least of the wixth ewitury of our 
ora. It was at that time that Khororu Anuahirvftn 
(581-579) ordered a oallootion of fublo** 1 to tm tmiw* 
latod from Sanskrit into tho language of Pcrma, wltich 

interview between A*oka and Nigrodha, the lincv 
prfe* to tie king are Ukowise token from tho Apj*mWnv*rgeu 
^ See Benfey, ' Pnntftohataatra, 1 rot i. p- 6, 


translation Locarno in turn the source of tlie 
ami the otliiT numerous translations of that ancient 
collection of apologues. These Sanskrit fables, as col- 
lected in the PaiU-atantra, have been proved by Prof. 
Uonfey to have boon borrowed from Buddhistic) sources ; 
and 1 boliuvo wu may go even u step further and main- 
tain, that not only tho gonnrul outlines of theao fabler, 
lint in HOIJIO casos Iho very wordn, were taken over 
from Ptili into Saiiflkrit. 

\W mid in the Pau^atantra, ii. 10, the following 
vumi : 

Qf&lain fuiftya gK7<anti Bahama 1 pakahwo "py am!, 
a vivadifcihyanto patishyiinii 

" Kven th(^e birdw fly away q[uickly taking tho not ; 
and tvlion tlioy shall qxiurrol, tlioy will full, no doubt." 

Thw VOTOO v^wpitulat<B the ntory of UKJ birds which 
ar<i caught in a net, but uncapo tho fuwlc^r by agreeing 
tt> Hy up together at tho 0am is moment. The tuimo 
tory is told in tho Hitopiulo-va, i. 

tu litiranty oio nmma^Hliw vihamgauu\& l 
V r adu in nipatinhyanti va/raui OMhyanti mo tad/I. 

<( (iombiutul indeed do UICBO birds tuko away my 
net; but wlum they fUll down, thoy will then full into 
my power." 

Tho flrbt thing that should bo pointed out i, that 
of thcso two voniions of tho namo idea, neither is bor- 
rowed from the other, neither that of tho Ilitopactota 
from the Pufiftatnnlru, nor vm wml? Tliey prenup- 

1 If wi> road ' HU7^1mUlA* mtoud of c sahanA, 1 wo have to irans- 
r*, " Holding together ijvcn thoae birdn fly away, taking the 


2 A, Hard version in found in tho MahftbhArutu, Udyoga-pom,' 


but tt> fall back for their owix purposes ou the old 
fliythology, or at least on the popular Auporatitiott, this 
iairy and snake- tales of the people. 1 

The gods, in general, are frequently mentioned iu 
the Bhammapada : 

V. 177. The unequitable do not go to fho world 
of the godtf. 

V. 224. Speak the truth, do not yield to augur; 
give, if thou art asked, from the little thou hast ; by 
thoHo steps thou wilt go near the gotta. 

V. 417. lie who, after leaving all bondage, to mon, 
has rinon above all bondage to the godn, him I call 
indeed a Brfihinuftu. 

In vv* 44 und 4G throo worldn urn montiowid, fh<s 
earth, the world of Ytinw (tlu> lord of (hit drpurtwl), 
and the world of tho gorlw; and in v. 12(5 we tiiul 
hell (nirayu), earth, hcuvm (nvarga), und Nirvfum. 

In v, CO it is said that thu odour of 

1 This may be neon from the curious ornamontAtiottH of Hud-* 
templeH, sorno of which wore Intoly publiwhod by Mr, For* 
Thoao of the Sunchi iopo are takon from drawin^H OX<MMI* 
tod for the lato TiiHt-Iiulia C-ontpuny by LiuuUnftnt (now Lti/ut.- 
Colonel) Maie<7, and frotn plioto^mplm by rjitnitunani Water* 
houftoj tlirmo of tlio Amnivatt topi) uro [>h<itr>^rapliiul from t!io 
sculptured Hlabrt Hciit hanit) by Colonel Muokouxic, formerly exhi- 
bited inthoMuBoum of tho liwt- India i'ompmiy, and from mi-* 
other valuable collection utmt homo by Hir Walter Elliot Archi- 
totitural ovidenco iw suppOHed to fix tlto dato of tho Hrtnclu topon 
from about 250-100 n,c. ; that of th gaUiwayu in ihi) flmt century 
A*n< ; while tlie dato of the Aniravatt building* iu rdbrrod if> tlio 
fourth ccmtury A,D, No ono would vwtturu t<> doubt Mr, 
guftf<on*B authority within tho wplioro of urchiktituml 
but wo want something more than mere nffirttuitirm when 1m 
(P- $fy> "that the oAplictt of tho (t(uddhint) Moripturiw wo Imw 
wore not reduood to writing m thoir prondol form before the fifth 
century after 


people risos up to tlie gods ; in vv. 94 and 181, that 
the gods euvy him whoso souses have been subdued ; fli 
v. 306, that they praiso a Bhikshu who is contented, 
pure, and not slothful (cf. v. 230) ; in v, 224, that 
good people go near the gods ; in v. 230, that u man 
who is free from guilt will enter into the heavenly 
world of tho elect (the ariya) ; while in v- 187 we road 
of heavenly pleasures that fail to satisfy the disoiplos 
of Buddha. 

Individual deities, too, are mentioned, Of Indra, 
who is oallcul Maghavun, it is said in v. 30, that by 
persovoranco ho roflo to tho lordnhip of the godn. 1 lu 
vv. 107 and 392 tho worwhip of Agni, or fire, w flpokou 
of us ostubliHliad among this Brabmann, Yuma, as tho 
lord of tho departed, occurs in vv. -14, 237, and lio 
tinoHiH to b<5 tho Hiuno UH Mii^f'iiriiu, the king of doulh, 
inoiitinnod in. vv. 45, 170. Tho IIK^L or moHsongci-H of 
Yumu urn Kpokcsii of in v, 2^5; dcatli i(s*jlf is rcpre- 
H( k utod aa Antukii, vv. *1H, 288, or us Mu^/ii ; in v- 40 
the king of (loath (nut^urily/ii) in mcnticmod togothtT 
witliMilra; in v. '18 ho HCOIIIB to bo idoiitifiod with 
Mara, th(j tonipter (v, 48, uoto). 

TluM Milra, tho toinptor, tho groat aiitugotiist of 
Buddlui, as w<^ll *w of his followorn, i a vory impor- 
tant porsonttgcs in tho Buddhist woriptwm He in in 
many pliwoB Iho r(proHOiitutivo of csvil, tlio evil Hpirit, 
or, in Christian terminology, tho dovil, conquorod l>y 
Buddlia, but not dcwtroyod by him. In tho l)harnma- 
pada his charaotor i Urns mythological than in other 
.BuddliiHt writings. HiH r<stinuo iw, howovor, nicnticmod 
(v, 175), and hi flowor-pointod arrow (v. 40) ronuwlH 

1 There IB a curiouH utory of Buddha dividing hit* Iicmcjurw with 
Hukka (^akra) or Indra on p. 102 of tho Parablca, 


one of .the Hindu god of love. Wo read that Mara will 
overcome tlic carele&s, but not the, faithful (v v. 7, 8, 07) ; 
that^ncn try to eswipe from his dominion (v. JJ-f), and 
his snares (vv. 37, 270, 350); that ho whould IKS tit- 
tacked with the weapon of knowledge (v- 40) ; llmt 
tho wise, who have cunquorod him, are led out of this 
world (v* 175). In vv. 104 and l(W we find a curious 
climax, if it iB intended aw such, from a god to a (Juii- 
dharva, thence to Mfini, and finally to Bnilimun, all of 
whom are represented as powerless against u man 
who has conquered himself. In v. 2;JO, too, Brahman 
is mentioned, and, as it would sown, as a being su- 
perior to the gotta. 

But although these godn and clcmoiiH were 1 nuiop;- 
nized in the religion of Jiuddhu, and hud puIuwH, gar- 
dens, and courts uHHignod to thom, hardly inferior to 
those which they PQHHOHHOC! und<r th<^ old m//////*, ilioy 
were deprived of all thoir wmvcigii rightn* Although, 
according to tho Buddhists, tho worlds of 11 w gods 
last for millions of yoarfl, tlu^y must pc?rih at tlu*, twl 
^of every kalpa with tins gods and with tho pirits who, 
in tho circle of hirths, have rained tltnmHplvcw to tin* 
world of the gods. Iiid<u>d, tho rourganmttinn of 1h^ 
spirit-world in the hnndn of JJuddha go^ss Airth<r still. 
Already before Buddha, tho Bruhumtw had left tho 
low stand-point of mythological pnlyihmsm, and had 
risen to tho conception of tho Brahman, an tlui almo* 
lute divine, or supor-divino being. To this Uruiunun 
also, wha, in tho Dhutmntipada, alroocly appcarH a 
superior to tlio godn, a placo in awsignod in tho Bud* 
dMdt,domon01ogy. Over and ubovo tho wtdd of UK* 
goto yitfi ite iixpunuliwM, tho HixUwn Bmhmu*wt>rl*b 
OTO woctbd, world^ not to bo attainwl tlirotigh virtut>, 


and piety only, lout through, inner contemplation, 
through knowledge and enlightenment 

The dwellers in these Brahma-worlds are fliore 
than gods ; they are spiritual beings, without body, 
without weight, without desires. Nay, even this is 
not sufficient, and as the Brahmans had imagined a 
higher Brahman, without form and without Buffering 
(tato yad uttarataraw tad arupam anjlmayam, #vet. 
lip. 3, ] 0), tho Buddhists too, in tlioir icloui drounm, 
imaginod four other worlds towering high above the 
worlds of Itaihmun, which they (will Ariipa, the worlds 
of tlw Kormh'H*. All thoHo worlds tiro oprai to man, 
after he haw <livo8t<ul himnelf of all that in human, and 
numborlflfw buinga are constantly ascending and do- 
seoniling in tho circle of timo, according to tho works 
they havo porformod, and according to tho trutlm they 
have (liHUOYcrod. $nt in all thoso worldH tli law of 
chatigo provailH; in nemo is th(%rc oxomption frrnn 
birth, ag, und death. Tlio world of tin* #O<IH will 
perish like that of num ; tho world of Itruhinun will 
vaniHli lik<i that <rf tlio gods ; nay, ovon tho world of 
tho Fonnlow* will n<^t hint for over ; but the liuddhn, 
the cnlif;htoiu)(l and truly froo, stands higher, and will 
not bo aftbctod or disturbed by tho collapse* of tho imi- 
voi*8c, Sifraotw illabatur orMs, imyavidttmferitml ruin<S\ 

IIoto y huwov<T, wo moot with a vein j>f .irpiiy, whkli 
ono would hardly havo oxpootod in Buddha. Godn 
and devils ho 1ms located, to all mythological and 
philosophical acquiHitionB of tho paat ho hud done jus- 
tice UH fur tin poflBiblc. Evon fabulous boittgn, nuoh 
aw Nilgofl, Gandharvas, and Gumr/as, ha<l owMipcid tho 
procoBH of ditiHolution and yublimizatiun whu^h wan to 
reach thorn later at tho hands of comparative rnytho- 


legists. There is only one idea, the idea of a personal 
Creator, in regard to which Buddha seems merciless. 
It is not only denied, but even its origin, like that 
of an ancient myth, is carefully explained by him 
with tho minutest detail J The Kev. I). J* Gogcrly, 
in his numerous articles published in the local jour- 
nals of Ceylon, has collected and translated the most 
important passages from the Buddhist canon bearing 
on this subject. Tho Rev. Spence Hardy, 1 too 3 another 
distinguished missionary in Ceylon, has several times 
touched on this point a point, no doubt, of great 
practical impDrtanco to Christian missionaries. They 
dwoll on such passages an when Buddha fjaid to "JJptl- 
sulca, an ascetic, who inquired who was his teacher 
and whoso doctrine lie embraced, " I have no teacher ; 
tlicro is no one who ro.soinbics me, Tn the world of 
the gods I have no equal. I am tho most noble in' 
tho world, being tho irrefutable teacher, tho solo, all- 
porfect Buddha." In tho P&%ika section of tho 
Vinaya Pitaka, a conversation is recorded between 
Buddha and a Brahman, who accused him of not 
honouring agod Brahraans, of not rising in thoir pre- 
sonco, and of not inviting thorn to bo seated. Buddha 
replied, <c Brahman, I do not see any "one in tho 
heavenly worlds nor in that of M&ra, nor among the 
inhabitants of tho Brahma-worldw, nor among gods or 
mon, whom it would bo propor for mo to honour, or in 
who$o prcHtmco I ought to rise tip, or whom I ought 
to request to bo seated. Should tho TatMgata 
(Buddha) thus act towards any ono, that person's head 
would fall oft? 3 

Such <loctrint)fl, OB Gogcrly points out, aro irrectm- 
1 ' Logonda and Theories of tho Buddhists/ I860, p. 171- 


cilablo with, the doctrine of a universal Creator, 
inutft nocossarily be superior to all the beings formed 
and supported by him. But the most decisive paSsage 
on tho subject is one taken from the Brahma-^ala- 
sutrti, 1 the first in the Dlrgha nikaya, which is itself the 
fii'Ht work of tho Sfttra Pitaka. It was translated 'by 
Gogorly r win wo translatiDn I follow, as tho text has not 
yot boon ]aibliHh(*L In tho Brahma-^&la-sutra, Budilha 
(liHcourHOft roHpooting tho sixty-two different sects; 
among whom four hold the doctrine both of the pre- 
oxislouoo of tho soul, and of its eternal duration 
; through count loss transmigrations Others believed 
j that sumo nouk have always existed, whilst others 
have had a commencement of existence. Among these 
(mo fleet is dowribod as bolioving in tho existence of a 
Onuitor, and it is hero that Buddha brings together 
hit* argmcmtfl ugainat tho correctness of this opinion. 
" Thoru in a timo," ho says, " Bhikshus, when, after 
a vcwy long period, this world is destroyed. On tho 
demotion of tho world vory many beings obtained 
in tho Abhasvara 2 Brahmsdoka, which is 

S(M? J. D'Al ww'fl ' P&li Grammar/ p. 88, note ; Turnout, ( Ma- 

i/ Appcfridix ili, p. Ixxv. 
a The AbhAsvara gndw, d,bh&sttar& in P&K, are mentioned already 
in tho Dhammapnda, v, 200, but none of the minute details, de- 
neribing tlie six worlds of the gods, and the sixteen worlds of 
Brahman, and tho four of Arftpa, are to be found there* The uni- 
voro ia roprowontcd (v. 12l>) as conaiating of hell (niraya), earth, 
heaven (avarga), and Nirvftwa. In v, 44 we find the world of 
Yurna, tho oarth, and tho world of the gods ; in v. 104 we read of 
god*, Gautlharvas, MAra, and Brahman. The ordinary expression, 
too, which occurs in almost all languages, viz. in this world and 
in the next, in not avoided by the author of the Dhammapada. 
ThuH wo road in v, 108, 'amiw loko paratnhi fo/ in this world and 


the sixth in the 1 scrips, jnul in whirh tin* form of life 
HOVCT t'xcmls oitflif ksil]ifis. Tli^y unr fhciv spiritual 
beings (having purified hoiliYs, imwmiiunimitwl \vi1h 
evil puwsionw, or wifh any <?or]MuvnI defilement/; they 

in th< next (<('. vv, 2 12- J 10) we- finrl in v, 'JO iilliM va hurnw va, 1 
or thw; in v, IT> 1*^ \u (iu*l *illm ' ami k H'j(/ lirn* an<l 

cf. vv. 131, :*. \VV ilk) fimi *iilh\va; lirn\ v. ltf, nrul ' ii 
lokimiikin,' hon? i/i tho world (v. 2171, or hinijjly * lok< fc .' iti thin 
M,i; and 'purattlia'fnr ' jralra/ ioinli*r r <*r in 

A v<?ry charndt'ri^ir rxpn^^iun, ino f IA tlrnl tf v, 17fJ, 
UH ono oftlM k ^roat'Ht criuHM in nu'niiont;*l T t)u .si'afli 

!M n skrich ui' tin* niiivn and J 
to llw lulrr H%>t<*iiM of lh<* luddr*i>!^ 
linwrvrr, iti diJlVrmi fi'Iionlrf, 

1, Tlu< internal 

(1) Nyiiyn, hIK 

(2) Thu nl 

(;t) Tho alnitlo of 

(It) Tho ahodo of A tmntM, dciuorm. 

2. Thconrth: 

(I) Abud<* of mm, 

Jl, Tllit Worlds of Mil* goilri ; 

(I) AutuMiinharayji (duration. 1^>C)0 ( (XH> 

(:*) VAniii (iltirnlimi, 

(t) Tu^ittft (dilation, r>7(i,{HHt ( ()(j[l \i-;irM, 

(5) Niruia/m rut! (dtmtimn, I 

(0) Paraniriidfa-viuaviirt 
4, Thr w*r!<U nf itmltnmn : 

(a) Kirnt HhyAua , 

(1) Urahnm-imrijihattya Muraiiun, 

(2) Unihma-|nirohit?i (diirntiou, | knlprt), 
(Ji) Mahrthrrtlim.uu (dtimiiou, 

(A) Ht'cond DhvArm: 
(I) ParlUAbha (dumiiim, two 
(A) ApwnftwAbha (dnwttoit, four kjii{mx)< 


have intellectual pleasures, are self-resplendent, tra- 
verse the atmosphere withclut impediment, and remain 
for a long time established in happiness. After a'very 
long period this mundane system is reproduced, and 
the world named Brahina-vim&na (the third of the 
Urahmalokas) comes into existence, but uninhabited," 
"At that time a being, in conscquencB either of the 

period of residence in AbMsvara being expired, or in 
consequence of some deficiency of merit preventing 
him fr<im living thorc the full period, coasod to exist 
in Abhilsvimi, urn! was reproduced in tho uninhabited 

(0) Abhitsvara (duration, oight kalpaa). 

(/O Third Dhyilua : 

(7) I'arlltujmbhu (duration, sixteen kalpaa). 
(H) ApraiuiUa*ml)ha (duration, thirty-two kalpas). 

(0) Miblwhritsua (duration, sixty- four kalpas). 
(W) Jtourlh Dhyilna: 

(Anabhraku, of Nortlicrn Buddhism.) 
(L'unya-praBava, of Northern Buddhism.) 

(10) V/ilmt-phala (SOOkalpas). 

(11) AraugiHativaH or Asangiaattvas, of Nopal; Asauyasatya, 

of CVylou (GOO kalpaa). 
0) Fifth Dhyllua: 

(12) A vriha (1000 kalpas). 

(13) Atapa (2000 kalpaa). 
(1-1) Hudma (tOOO kalpaw). 
(15) Sudamna (8000 kalpaa), 

fSumukha, of Nopal.) 
(1G) Akanitfh^Aa (10,000 kulpaa), 
C, Tho world of Ar&pa: 

(1) AkiWlunutyiyatanam (20,000 kalpas). 

(2) VvfiAuAnantyAyatanarn (40,000 kalpaa). 

(3) AkiiSAanyftyatanam ((J0,000 kalpas). 

(4) KaivasQ^nanilya^nilyatanam (30,000 kalpas). 

Of, Burnouf, ' Introduction,' p. 509 wj* ; Lotus, p. 811 sfifr ; 
Hardy, i Manual,' p. 25 wg.g Bigaudot, p. 


Brahma-vimana, He was there a spiritual being ; his 
pleasures were intellectual; he was self-resplendent, 
traversed the atmosphere, and, for a long time, enjoyed 
uninterrupted felicity. After living there a very long 
period in solitude, a desire of having an associate is 
felt by him, and he says, ' Would that another being 
were dwelling in this place.' At that precise junc- 
ture another being ceasing to exist in Abh&svara, 
comes into existence in the Brahma-vimana, in the 
vicinity of the first one. They are both of them 
spiritual beings, have intellectual pleasures, are self- 
resplendent, traverse the atmosphere, and are, for a 
long time, in the enjoyment of happiness. Then tho 
following thoughts arose in him who was the first 
existent in that Brahma-loka : 'I am Brahma, tho 
Great Brahma, the Supreme, tho Invincible, tho Om- 
niscient, the Governor of all things, tho Lord of all. 
I am the Maker, the Creator of all things ; I am tho 
Chief, the disposer and controller of all, the Universal 
Father. This being was made by me. How does 
this appear? Formerly I thought, Would that an- 
other being were in this place, and up on my volition 
this being came here. Those beings also, who after- 
wards obtained an existence there, thought, this 
illustrious Brahma is the Groat Brahma, the Supremo, 
the Invincible, the Omniscient, the Ruler, the Lord, 
the Creator of all. Ho is the Chief, the Disposer of 
all things, the Controller of all, the Universal Father. 
"We were created by him, for we seo that he was first 
here, and that we have since then obtained existence, 
Furthermore, he who first obtained existence thero 
lives during a vary long period, exceeds in beauty, 
and is of immense power, but those who followed 



Iiim arc short-lived, of inforior beauty and of little 
power. 5 " 

" It then happens, that one of those brings ccdking 
to exist there , is born hi this world, mid afterwards 
retiron from society and becomes a recluse. Ho sub- 
jects his passions, is peraovoring in the practice of 
virtue*, and by profound meditation ho recollects his 
immediately previous statu of existence, but none 
prior to that; ho tlxirofuro says, that illustrious 
Brahma IPS tho (Ireat Brahma, tho Supreme, the In- 
Yiu(il)l( k , i\\i\ ()mnisri(ait, tho Knlor, the Lord, the 
MiiluT, tlui (!rc i ator of all. ,Uo is the Chief, the Dis- 
poser of all Ihings, llu l.'ontrollor nf all, flu* Universal 
Kutlicn That Hrahma b^ whom wo wore created is 
tiycr iMiduriiifj;, immutable, ( k t<*rnal, uncliangeablo, con- 
tinuing for ( k v< k r tho sumc.. Hut w< k , who have boon 
('.riMitccl by this UluHlrinuH^tailuiui, uro mutable, short- 
Hv< k d, and nioriul. 1 ' \<s 

Tboro is, it scorns to mo, mi unmistakable note of 
irony in tins arguimwtution against the belief in a 
personal (Voalor ; and tt> any oiw actiuaintod with the 
laiiguagt* oftlm Tlpanislutds, the pointtul allusionH to ex- 
pressions occurring in those pliiloHopliical andrnligicms 
truitiHoH of tlio JJralnmins ure not to bo mistaken. If 
then it in trim, us OJogcrly remarks, that many who 
(jail thomwolvos '.Buddhists acknowledge the existence 
of a Owtnr, Ihti (iiu^stiun naturally arises, whodior 
iho point-blank uthoism of the Bmlmuir.j7flla was tlxo 
(Irwtriuo of tho ftnindcr of iluddhimn or not f 

This in, in fiwt, but |/art of tlu> problem so often 
HtarteMi, whothor it is poHKiblct to distitiguinh between 
Buddhism atid tht^ personal teaching of Buddha, "Wo 
tlio Buddhist canon, and whatever ia found in 


that canon, we have a right to consider as the ortho- 
dox- Buddhist doctrine. But as there has been no 
lack of efforts in Christian theology to distinguish be- 
tween the doctrine of the founder of our religion and 
that of the writers of the Gospels, to go beyond the 
canon of the New Testament, and to make the \oyta 
of the Master the only solid rule of our faith, so the 
same want was felt at a very early period among tho 
followers of Buddha. King Asoku, tho Indian Con- 
stantino, had to remind the assembled priests at tho 
groat council which had to settle the Buddhwt canon, 
that c what had leen said by Buddha, thai alone was well 
said? 1 Works attributed to Buddha, but declared to 
be apocryphal, or even heterodox, existed already at 
that timo(24G B.C.). Thus wo aro by no meanw with- 
out authority for distinguishing between liuddhuuu 
and tho teaching of Buddha; tho only question i, 
whether in our time such a separation is still pructio* 

My boliof is that, in general, all honest inqtiirors 
must oppose a Wo to this question, and confess that 
it is useless to try to cast a glance beyond tho boun- 
daries of tho Buddhist canon. What wo find in tho 
canonical books in tho so-called 'lliroo BuakotN,' it* 
orthodox Buddhism and tho doctrine of Buddha, Hi'tni- 
larly as wo must accept in general whatever wo find 
in tho four gospels as orthodox CliriHtianity and tho 
doctrine of Christ. 

Still, with regard to certain doetrinoB and lUcte, tho 
question, I think, ought to bo asked again and again 
nrltethe* it may not be possible to advance u stop fur- 

r ML M/a ' Chips from A Semau Worktop,' 2nd ecL, vol. i< 


thor, even with the conviction thut wo cannot arrive 
at results of apodictic certainty ? If it happens ihat 
on certain points wo find in different parts of the 
canon, not only doctrines differing from each other, 
but plainly contradictory to each other, it follows, 
Hurcly, that one only of these can have belonged to 
Buddlia personally, In such a case, therefore, I bo- 
liuvo we have a right to choose, and I boliove wo shall 
bo justified in accepting that view as the original 
one., the one peculiar to Buddha himself, which liar- 
moiiizufc least with the later system of orthodox Bud- 

As regards the denial of a Creator, or atheism in 
the ordinary acceptation of the word, I do not think 
that any one passage from the books of tho canon 
known to us, can bo quoted which contravenes it, or 
which iii any way presupposes the belief in a personal 
God or Creator. All that might bo urged arc tho 
words said to have been spoken by Buddha at tho 
time when he became tho Enlightened, tho Buddha. 
Tlujy aro as follows : " "Without ceasing shall I run 
through a course of many births, looking for tho 
maker of this tabernacle, and painful is birth again 
mid again. But now, maker of tho tabonxacb, thou 
hast boon seen ; thou shalt not mako up this tabor* 
naclo again. All thy rafters aro broken, thy ridgo- 
polc is sundered ; tho mind, being sundered, has at- 
tained to tho extinction of all desires," 

Hero in tho maker of tho tabernacle, i.e. tho body, 
one might bo tempted to sco a creator* But ho who 
is acquainted with tho general run of thought in 
Buddhism, soon finds that this architect of tho house 
is only a poetical expression, and that whatever mean- 


ing may underlie it, it evidently signifies a force sub- 
ordipate to the Buddha, the ErdightDned. 

But whilst we havo no ground for exonerating the 
Buddha personally from the accusation of atheism, 
the matter stands very differently as regards the 
charge of nihilism. The Buddhist nihilism has 
always been much more incomprehensible than moro 
atheism. A kind of religion is still conceivable, 
when there is something firm somewhere, when a 
something, eternal and self-dependent, is recognized, 
if not without and afove man, at least within him. But 
if, as Buddhism teaches, the soul after having passed 
through all the phases of existence, all the worlds of 
tho gods and of the higher spirits, attains finally 
Nirvana as its highest aim and last reward, i.e. bo- 
comes utterly extinct, then religion is not any moro 
what it is meant to be abridge from tho finite to tho 
infinite, but a trap-bridge hurling man into tho abyss 
at the very moment when he thought he had arrived 
at the stronghold of the Eternal. According to tho 
metaphysical doctrine of Buddhism, the soul cannot 
dissolve itself in a higher being, or be absorbed in tho 
absolute substance, as was taught by the Brahmans, 
and other mystics of ancient and modern times ; for 
Buddhism knew not the Divine, tho Eternal, tho 
Absolute ; and the soul ev&u as tho I, or as the mere 
Self, the Atman, as called by tho Brahmans, was 
represented in tho orthodox metaphysics of Buddhism 
as transient, as futile, as a mere phantom. 

No person who roads with attention tho metaphy- 
sical speculations on the Nirv&ea contained in tho 
third part of the Buddhist canon, can arrive at any 
other conviction than that expressed by Bumouf, viz* 


that NirrfUa, the highest aim, the summim lonuui of 
Buddhism, is the absolute nothing. 

Burnouf adds, howcv&r, that this doctrine appears 
in its crude form in the third part only of the canon, 
the so-called Ahhidharma 3 but not in the first and 
Kocond parts, in the Sutras, the sermons, and the Vi- 
nayo, the ethics, which together bear the name of 
Dharma, or Law. Ho next points out that, according 
to some (Uitiioiit authorities, this entire part of the 
Ciiuou was designated as nut "pronounced by 
Buddha. m Thorn* arc, at onco, two important limita- 
tions- I add a third, and maintain tliut sayings of 
Buddha occur iu the Dhuimnapada, which are in open 
contradiction to this metaphysical nihilism. 

Now, first, aa regards the soul, or tho self, the oxuu 
tcnooof which, according to tho orthodox metaphysics, 
in puroly phononiQiml,* a acnitonuo iittrilmtod to tho 
JJnddlw (Dhamimipada, v, 100) ways, "Solf is the 
Lord of Self, who else could be tho Lord?" And 
again (v, 323), "A man who controls himself enters 
tho nutroddim land through his own self-controlled 
But this untrodden land is tho Nirv<Ua, 

coiiainly ineanw oxtinctirm, whatever ita 
later urbitewy iutorprotutious fj may have boon, and 

1 Max MUllor's * Ohips,' 2nd crl, vol. i. p. 285, uuto. 

* Seo ^"WaBsiljow, * Der Buddhiwrnus/ p. 200, (2C9) ; and Bigan- 
dot f a 'Life of Gkudama/ p. 479. "The things that I 066 ftfld 
know, are not myself, nor from myself, nor to myself, What seerae 
to be myself in in reality neither rayaolf nor bobnga to myeoUV 

9 yeo Ijastiau, 'Bio Volker des oetliehen Asion/ vol. iii, p. 
354. TUo learned abbot who explained tho moaning of Nirv&na 
to Dr. Bostian was well versed in tho old grammatical termino- 
logy, Ho diBtinguiuhott tho causal moaning, called hetumat, of 
ibo vorb v&/ to causo to blow out, from tho intranaitivo mcaniag, 


seems therefore to imply, even etymologically, a real 
blowing out or passing a^ray. But Nirv&ia occurs 
also in the Brahmanio -writings as synonymous with 
Moksha, 1 Nirvntti, 1 and other words, all designating 
the highest stage of spiritual liberty and bliss, but 
not annihilation. Nirvana may mean the extinction 
of many things of selfishness, desire, and sin, with- 
out going so far as the extinction of subjective con- 
sciousness. Further, if we consider that Buddha 
himself, after he had already seen Nirvbm, still remains 
on earth until his body falls a prey to death; that 
in the legends Buddha appears to his disciples even 
after his death, it seems to me that all these circum- 
stances are hardly reconcilable with the orthodox meta- 
physical doctrine of Nirv&*a. 

But I go even further and maintain that, if we look 
in the Dhammapada at every passage where NirvS^a 
is mentioned, there is not one which would require 
that its moaning should b& annihilation, while most, 
if not all, would become perfectly unintelligible if we 
assigned to the wofd Nirvdwa the meaning which it 
has in the Abhidharma or the metaphysical portions 
of tho canon. 

What does it mean, when Buddha, v. 21, calls re- 
flection the path to immortality, thoughtlessness the 
path of death? Buddhaghosha does not hesitate to 
explain iumortality by Nirv&wa, and that the same 

to go out. He also distinguishes between the verb as expressing 
the stats of vanishing, bha.vaa&dhana,' (cf. PAjz. ii. 3, 37 ; iii. 4, 
69), or the place of vanishing, ' adhikarawis&dhana ' (Pftn. i. 4, 45). 
How place and act become one in the conception of Buddhists, 
is better seen by the four dhyinas, originally meditations, than the 
places reached by these meditations. 
1 See Dhammapada, y. 92, 89. 


idea "was connected with it in the mind of Buddha is 
clearly proved by a passage immediately following, 
v. 23 : "The wise people, meditative, steady, always 
possessed of strong powers, attain to Nirv&na, tho 
highest happiness. " In the last verse, tuo, of tho 
same chapter wo read, " A Bhilcshu who delights in 
reflection, who looks with fear on though tlossnos, will 
not gD to destruction, he is near to Nirvana." If 
tho goal at which tho followers of Buddha have to 
aim had been in the mind of Buddha perfect annihi- 
lation, c amata,' i. c. immortality, would have bocn the 
very last word he could have choflon as its name. 

In sovoral passages of tho Dluimmapadu, Nirvfuw 
occurs in tho purely ethical Nonno of rent, ({uiotnoNS, 
absence of pasBion; 0.j., v. 134, "If, liko a trmnpot 
trampled underfoot, tlura uttor not, tliou thou hunt 
roadbed Nirvfwa; anger is not known in tlioo." In 
v. 184 long-suffering (titikslui) iw culled the highont 
NirviUa. Wlrilo in v. 202 wo road that there* is uo 
happinoss liko rost (s&iiii) or qniotiioHfl, wo read in 
the noxt verso that tho liighoat ImppinoHB IH NirvAmu 
In v. 285, too, ' ^ilnti ' sooma to bo wynonymouB with 
Nirviiwa, for tho way that loads to ' ^anti,' or poaco, loads 
also to Nirv&wa, as shown by Buddha, In v. 869 it 
is said, " Whon thou hast cut off paasion and hatred, 
thou wilt go to Nirvilwa;" and in v- 225 tho samo 
thought is oxprossod, only that inBtoad of Nirvdwa wo 
have tho Gxprcssion of unchangeaUo place: "Tho 
sagos who injure nolody, and who always control 
thoir hody, they will go to tho unchangeable plaoo, 
whore, if thoy havo gono, thoy will suffor no moro," 

In other passages Nirvika is described as tho ruault 
of right knowledge, Thus wo read, v. 203, " Hunger 


is the worst of diseases, the body the greatest of pains ; 
if one knows this truly, that is Nirvftna, the highest 

A similar thought seems contained in T. 374 : " As 
soon as a man has perceived the origin and destruction 
of the elements of the body (khaiidha), he finds happi- 
ness and joy, which belong to those who know tho 
immortal (Nirvtoa) ; or which is the immortality of 
those who know it, viz. the transitory character of the 
body." In v. 372 it is said that he who has know- 
lodge and meditation is near unto Nirvana. 

Nirv&wa is certainly more than heaven or heavenly 
joy, " Some people arc born again" (on earth), says 
Buddha, v. 126, " evildoers goto holl; rightoouH poo- 
pie go to heaven; those who arc frco from all worldly 
desires entor Nirvftwa." Tho idea that thorns who Lud 
reached tho havon of the gods wore still liable to 
birth and death, and that there is a higher state in 
which the power of birth and death is broken, existed 
clearly at the time when the versos of tho Dliamtna- 
pada ware composed. Thus wo read, v. 238, " When 
thy impurities arc blown away, and thou art froo from 
guilt, thou wilt not enter again into birth and decay." 
And in tho last vorso tho highest state that u Brith- 
mawa can roach is called "the oud of births," ^ati- 

Thero arc many passages in tho Dhammapada vhoro 

we expect Nirv&wo, but whoro, instead of it, other 

words aro used. IToro, no doubt, it might bo mid 

that something different from Nirv&wa is intended, and 

.that we have no right to uso such words as throwing 

, light pii the original mooning of Nirvflm But, on 

tho other hand, those words, and the passages 


they onc'iir, nmst mean something definite ; they cannot 
mean heaven or the world of the gods, for reasons 
stated altovo ; and if they do not moan Nirva/m, thoy 
wonld havo no inclining at all. Thero may Iro some 
(l(iul)t whether c pfira,' the shore, and particularly tho 
o tli or shore, stands always for Nirvu/ui, und whether 
ill OHO who arc Htiid to huve reached tht^ other shoiv, tire 
to l>o HiippoKod to havo <ntor(d Nirvfiwa. It may POH- 
wihly not havo that moaning in vc*rrt(H 3K-1 and 1*8")^ 
hut it oan hardly havo unotho.r in pluctw Hiich as 
vv. fi, R, ;M7, :il, 5ri, 4ll. Thiw is l^s donht, 
however, that otlicr words are nsed distinctly as sy- 
mrtiyiim of Nlrva/w. Kiuili weirds aro, ilio quiet plu<:o 
pudum, v. JHW, *J81); tho chan^tsU'SH place* 
Hthfttiam, v. 225, ooinpnrt'cl with v. 22!); 
Ilio immortal plae.o (amaluiti padum, v. I H) ; also 
Hitnply that whioli w immortal, v- IJ7-L Jn v. 41 1 tho 
expr<ssion oooura that th<, wises div(^ into tho im- 

Though, according in Buddha, everything that hun 
IMHII made, ovory thing tlmt ww put togeihor, rewolvoH 
itnelf again into its componont psu-tH and poHaeH away, 
(v. 277, HarvoaawHk&rd anityiU), hcs Hpcakw nbvorthc^loHH 
of tbit whioh iff not rnudo, fa* tho unoroatwd and 
otorual, and UHI^S it, as it would worn, synonymously 
with Nirvibia (v, !)7), Nay, ho uuyu (v. 5J8SJ), " When 
you havo nudoi-Htood tlu^ dt^trimtion of all that wan 
made, you will understand tlmt which WIIH not mado," 
Tliiw Hiirely nhown that ovou for Unddha a aomothing 
oxistod whioh IB not inado, and whiclt, therefore^ in 
imporiwhaWo and oU h nuth 

On considering wuoh sayingH, to which many more 
might he added, one rocognigoti in them a conception 


of Nirvika, altogether irreconcilable with the nihilism 
of the third part of the Buddhist canon. It is not a 
question of more or less, tut of aid aut. Nirvana can- 
not, in the mind of one and the same person, mean 
black and white, nothing and something. If these say- 
ings, as recorded in the Dhammapada, hare maintained 
themselves, in spite of their being in open contradiction 
to orthodox metaphysics, the only explanation, in my 
opinion is, that they were too firmly fixed in the tra- 
dition which wont back to Buddha and his disciples. 
What Bishop Bigandet and others represent as the 
popular view of Nirv&#a, in contradistinction to that 
of the Buddhist divines, was, in my opinion, the con- 
ception of Buddha and his disciples. It represented 
the entrance of the soul into rest, a subduing of all 
wishes and desires, indifference to joy and pain, to 
good and ovil, an absorption of the soul in itself, and 
a freedom from the circle of existences from birth to 
death, and from death to a new birth. This is still 
the meaning which educated people attach to it, whilst 
to the minds of the larger masses 1 Nirviba suggests 
rather tho idea of a Mohammedan paradise or of blissful 
Elysian fields. 

Only in the hands of the philosophers, to whom 
Buddhism owes its metaphysics, the Nirvsba, through 
constant negations carried to an indefinite degree, 
through tbe excluding and abstracting of all that is 

, not Nirvana, at, last became an empty Nothing, a phi- 
loisophical myth. There is no lack of such philosophical 
.myths either in tho cast or in the west. What has 

K ;be&a fabled by philosophers of a Nothing, and of tho 

. \ Bigandet, ' HID Life of Onudama/ p. 320, note ; Bastian, 'Die 
des oatlichon Aston,' vol. in. p. 353. 


terrors of a Nothing, is as nrnch a myth as the myth 
of Eos and Tithonus. Thero is no more a Nothing 
than there is an Eos or a Chaos. All these are sickly, 
dying, or (load words, which, like shadows and ghosts, 
continue to haunt language, and succeed in deceiving 
for a while even the healthiest intellect. 

Even modern philosophy is not afntid to say that 
there is a Nothing. We find puBAugoH in the German 
mystic*, wucJi as Eckhart and Tauler, where the abyss 
of the Nothing u Apukon of quite in a Huddhist style. 
If Buddha had yaid, like St. Paul, "that what no eye 
luith soon, nor oar heard, uoithor lias it entered into the 
heurt of mtui," waw prepared in Ihu Nirvana for those 
who had advanced to the highowt dugroo of Hpiritiiul 
perfection, Buch expresflioim would Iwvo been quite 
sufficient to serve as a proof to tho philoHOphurs by 
profusion that this Nirv&wa, which could not become 
an ohjoot of perception by tho SOIUIOB, nor of concep- 
tion by tho catcigories of the understanding, the 
anakkliata, the ineffable, as Buddha calls it (v. 218) 
could bo nothing more nor ICHB than the Nothing, 
Could wo dare with Ilogol to diHtinguinh between a 
Nothing (Nicltts) and a Not (Nicht), we might say that 
the Nirv&aa had,' through, a false dialectical proeowB, 
been driven from a relative Nothing to an absolute Not. 
This was the work of the theologians and of the ortho- 
dox philosophers. Hut a religion haa never been 
founded by such teaching, and a man like Buddha, 
who know mankind, must have known tluit he could 
not, with such weapons, overturn tho tyranny of the 
Brabmans, Either we must bring ourselves to believe 
that Buddha taught his disciples two diametrically 
opposed doctrines on Nirvl#a> suy an exoteric and 


esoteric one, or we must allow that view of 

to have been the original view of the founder of this 

marvellous religion, which we find recorded in the 

verses of the Dhammapada, and which corresponds 

best with the simple, clear, and practical character of 



I have still to say a few words on the title of tho 
Dhammapada. This title was first rendered by Q-ogerly, 
i The Footsteps of Eeligion ; ' by Spence Hardy, ' The 
Paths of Eeligion/ and this, I believe, is in tho main 
a correct rendering. 'Dharma,' or, inP&li, 'dhamma, 7 
has many meanings. Under one aspect, it means reli- 
gion, in so far, namely, as religion is tho law that is 
to be accepted and observed. Under another aapoct 
f dharma ' is virtue, in so far, namely, as virtue is tho 
realization of that law. Thus c dharma ' can be ren- 
dered by law, by religion, more particularly Buddha's 
religion, or by virtue. 

f Pada, 3 again, may be rendered by footsteps, but its 
more natural rendering is path. Thus we road in 
verse 21, 'appamddo amatapadam,' reflection is the 
path of immortality, i. <?. the path that leads to im- 
mortality. Again, ' pamado maK-uno pudam, 7 thought- 
less is the path of death, i.e. tho path that loads to doath- 
?/ The commentator explains c padam' horo by *ama* 
r-jjasya adhigamup&ya, J the means of obtaining immor- 
jtality, i, e. Nirv&wa, or simply by c upfiyo > atid < magga,' 
| the way, 1 In tho same manner ' dhammapadam * would 

1 If we compare verses 92 and 03, and Again 254 and 255, we 
see that 'padam' ia uaed (synonymously with 'gnti,* going. 


mean tho path of virtue,' L e. the path, that loads to 
virtue, a very appropriate title for a collection of 
moral precepts. In this SOUND c dluimmupadam ' is used 
in verses 44 and 45, as I huvo explained in my notes 
to tlmse versed. 

(logwly, though not to he truHtcd in all histranHla- 
tionn, may generally ho taken an a faithful representa- 
tives of tlio tradition of the Buddhists in (Vylon, and 
wu may therefore, take it for grunt oil that the priests 
of thai uduiul take* Dhunmmpuda to mean, aw dogojrly 
inu&Hlatc'H it, th< k vcsti^'K of religion, or, from a dif- 
fonnt point of viow, tho jiatli of* virtue 

It in wt^ll known, however, thud the U^irned editor 
of tho Dluimmapada, l)i\ Faimholl, proponed u diffentnt 
rondoring* On thu Htrc^ngth of v<m^ 44 und 102, ho 
dlmmniapadu ' hy C ool1(totion of VCWOH on 
Hut tliotigli ^pada 3 may mean a v< k rKi k ? T doxiht 
whether 'piulu' in tlui Hingular could ('Vd 1 tiuuin u oolloc- 
tion of vorHUH. Inverse 44 'padani^ oannot moan a col- 
Ittdiou of vonuw, for reamms I lmv cx])luiuod in my 
notion; und in voms 102 wo have, it mtomH to me, tho 
li<wt proof that, iti ItuddhiHt plmiHoology, * dhammapada^ 
in not to ho tukou in a collootivt^ Heimo, hut moann a 
luw-V(T8e, a wino HUW. For tliwc wo road, " Though 
u man reoito a hundred OA-lhtU imulo up of senHolesa 
wordB, ono * dhammapada,' /,<?. ruio winglo word or line 
of tho law, i hotter, which if a man hoam, 1m hocome 
qtiiot." If tho IJuddhiflt wiwh to Hpeak of many law- 
voraofy they uo tho plural, dliumuiapadiini. 1 Thus 
]tu(ldliughoHha nayBj 2 Vlic it known that the Ofltha 

1 ' Puck* by itMolf fornriM tho plural ' piulft,* iw iu v* 3*8, Auturo 
D'Alwii.TMi Ornmirmp; p, BL 


consists of the DhammapaiMni, Therag&tM, Theri- 
gatha, and those unmixed (detached) Gth not 
comprehended in any of the ahove-named Snt- 

Unless, therefore, it can be proved that in Pali, 

1 padam ' in the singular can be used in a collective 

sense, so as to mean a collection of words or sayings, 

and this has never been done, it seems to me that we 

must retain the translation of G-ogerly, f Footsteps of 

Religion/ though we may with advantage make it 

more intelligible in English by rendering it "The 

Path of Yirtue." The idea of representing Iife 3 and 

particularly the life of the faithful, as a path of duty 

or virtue leading to deliverance (in Sanskrit, dharma- 

patha) is very familiar to the Buddhists. The four 

great truths 1 of their religion consist in the recogni- 

,tion, 1, that there is suffering ; 2, that there is a 

; cause of that suffering ; 3, that such cause can be re- 

moved; 4, that there is a way of deliverance, viz. the 

*',' doctrine of Buddha. This way, this m&rga, is then 

fully described as consisting of eight stations,* and 

vi leading in the end to Nirviba. 3 The faithful advances 

l{on that road, c pad&t padam/ step by step, and it is 

i 1 ' jthejrefore called pafipadd, lit. the step by step. 4 

;; ; * Spence Hardy, ' Manual,' p. 496. Ibid. 

',;.'! * Burnouf, ' Lotus,' p. 520. " Ajoutona, pour tarminer ce gpie 
trouvoas I dire sur le mot magga, quelquecommentairequ'on 
donne d'ailleurs, que euivant une d^fiaitlon rapport&e pur 
our, le magga reuferme uue sous-division que Ton nomine 
en Sanscrit pratipad. maffy<* 9 dit Tumour, est la voie 
conduit? au Nibbdna, le paripadA, litt^ralement ( k marobe pas 
onleder6,' eat La vie de rectitude qu' on doit euivre, quand 
'' '-' ' ' ' 

4See 8pcnce HArdy; 'Manual,' p. 49&v ShouJi not 

' ' 1 "' 1 '' '''''"' :i ' i 


Tlio only -way in which Dhammapadam could possibly 
bo defended in the sense of * Collection of versos of tho 
Law/ would bo if wo took it for an aggregate com- 
pound. 33ut such aggregate compounds, in Sanskrit 
at least, are possibly only with numerals, as, for in- 
stance, Tri-bhuvauam, tho three worlds, Auturyugam, 
the four ages. 1 It might, therefore, be possible to 
form in Pftli also such compounds as dasapadam, a col- 
lection of ten padap, a work consisting of ten padas, a 
' docammino' ; but it would in no way follow that wo 
rsould attempt Hiieli a compound us Dlwimrwpadain, in 
Iho HOIIBO of collection of luv-vursefl. 

1 find that Dr. TCoppun has boon too cautious to adopt 
])r. FausbolVrt rendering, while Prnfwwor Webber, of 
Berlin, not ouly adopts that rendering without any 
mifcgivinga, but in his usual way blamoB mo for my 

In conclusion, I have to my a few wordn on tho 
spoiling of toehnwil tomis which occur in tho trans- 
latiim of tho Dliainmupacluand in my introduction. It 
IB very difficult to come to a decision on this subject; 
and I have to confess that I have not boon consistent 

dharmtupada,' mentioned on p. 497, bo translated by ' tho fourfold 
path of the Law' ? It can hardly bo the fourfold word of the 

i See M, M.'B < Buukrit Grammar,* 610, 

9 " Dies ist eben anch der Sinn, der dom Titt*l cmaerfti WerkeJ 
za geben ist (nicht, ' Footetepa of the Law/ wie ntiverding* noch 
M, Mullcr will, 9. deasen c Chipe from a German Work^hop/i, 200,} 
The fact is that on page 200 of my ' Chipa' there in BO mention of 
the JDhammapada at all, while on page 220 I had dimply quoted 
from SpencD Hardy, and given the tranriatJott of 
of the Law' batwfean inverted commas 


throughout in following the rule which, I think, ought 
to be followed. Most of the technical terms employed 
by Buddhist writers come from Sanskrit ; and in the 
eyes of the philologist the various forms which they 
^aye assumed in Pali, in Burmese, in Tibetan, in 
Chinese, in Mongolian, are only so many corruptions 
of the same original form. Everything, therefore, 
would seem to be in favour of retaining the Sanskrit 
forms throughout, and of writing, for instance, Nir- 
vsUa instead of the Pali Nibbdna, the Burmese Mban 
or Nepbh&n, the Siamese Niruphan, the Chinese 
Nipan. The only hope, in fact, that writers on Bud- 
dhism will ever arrive at a uniform and generally in- 
telligible phraseology seems to lie in their agreeing 
to use throughout the Sanskrit terms in their original 
form, instead of the various local disguises and dis- 
figurements which they present in Ceylon, Bunnah, 
Siam, Tibet, China, and Mongolia. But against this 
view another consideration is sure to b urged, viz. that 
many Buddhist words have assumed such a strongly 
marked local or national character' in the different 
countries and in the different languages in which the 
religion of Buddha has found a now home, that to 
translate them back into Sanskrit would seem as af- 
fected, nay prove in certain cases as misleading, as if, 
in speaking of priests and Awys, we were to speak of 
presbyters and vynings. Between the two alternatives 
h of using the original Sanskrit forms or adopting their 
various local varieties, it is sometimes difficult to choose, 
?iad the rule by which I have been mainly guided has 
been to use the Sanskrit forms as much, as possible, j 
^apt,, everywhere except where it seemed affected, to 
so. I haye therefore written BuddKagho&ha instead 
' "' ' 

*UIK TJUI. "1 'UII, 

of Hu- Pali BuiWhuKhos'u hminw Ihi- iiuim* of UK** 
famous thuiibiffiim, u tlm Vuiir "f Hnii'IlM," -im ill" 
low it* NipiifHMtwi' if fnrnnl iul" Hu'hlh.'itfh-'Mt. 
Hut I wn \v'l! uwurr whsit tim ! -ui'l "U thr Mlur 
wiV. Tln^nmiKMifUiHMIuiwlM^liii, 4l VMM-* ..nWnJh.V 

M'CIH glVi'll IlilM !lttr hi- l*l IMTU ruinrilnl lVMn 

IlnihttminViit In UiuMhiMiu ami il WM^ i*\\n\ to liim 
by IM-ojiIn Jo wliojii ih IVil 

luuut, I lwi\^ ri'luiiu 1 '! th* IVili 


lunik, it hu.s lii'i'iuni* w> familiar that t" s-j^^k i*! 1 it u-* 
Dliurmapmhi H^'iiM:l likt* Hprsikifi({ of Jihotb- r wnHv, 
WIHIIW iwinwtiininfl t> *;&, of ftm:umr* i3^ti%*) of 
*S'rama/?u, fir v^ii in tlw iluy*< of Al''*an>brV *-ot* 
quort, tlw KiitiHkrii word .Vmnm/wi li*l s^MHnnl tin- 
pnikritmtcl or vulgar ftmn whirl* Wi* liml in 1'ali, uitI 
which aldiut c-ouhi huvi' |K*I<U n*iMbnil by Ui^ Iwirr 
Ovtn*k writorw (fW by AIoxtuulfT rolybUl*r, W <#0 f 
jt-c.) by m/Miab*,* AMU Jtudilhwt. t*ra^ !hit Tiili form 
Hamana haw HO cutir4*ly mi|>ilimtt'fl (lint of A'romiMu tlwit, 
ovon in thr Dhatnniupttda (v- 388) w^ find ti irtynMilwjjsy 
of Bainana M tlvrivwl frtmi *mim/ tn In* iniM wi4 *1 
from ( smm^ to toil But Ihtm^h utu- might bruitf 
,ono(Milf to njHiuk of Biunantw, who wotilii likr to intr<* 
duoe BAbma^a inHtoad of BrAhm^aV And yH tbU 
word, too, luul BO tmtirdy Imtfii ittiiln^d by Wihi^w 
that in tho Dhammuimda, it U U^riviul fsrom a tmt 

1 Soe U^n, ' Jndiwcho AlUrthumnkimJ^/ tfi, ii, (i. 
Th*b Lawett in tight in tukmg Uie 3|^^8m r m^iitMn^l by 
Athene*, tor BrAhtDanir^mt for Biuldhint h^li<w, mighi W ^mM 
ftl& by tboJr drww, i)siw rwidi? of th tmrk fif tm^* iv 
BudAWitio, OA pftgft Utt 


1 vah, ? to remove, to wparate, to cleanse. 1 My own 
conviction is that it would bo host if writers on Bud- 
dhist literature aud religion were to adopt Sanskrit 
throughout us the lingua franca. For an acciirate un- 
derstanding of tho original meaning of most of the 
technical terms of Buddhism a knowledge of their 
Sanskrit form is indispensable; and nothing is lost, 
while much would bo gained, if, oven in the treating of 
Southern Buddlnnra, wo were to speak of the town of 
tfi&viwti instead of SFivatthi in Pdli, Scvet in Singha- 
lese; of Tripitaka, 'the three btiHkets,' infttoud of 
Pitukuttaya in IVUi, Tunpituka in Singhalese* ; of Ar- 
thakatlift, ' commentary,' instead of AtthakaM in 
P&H, Atuwilvu iu Singhalese ; arid therefore alwo of 
JOliarmapada, c the path of virtue, 7 iiiwloud of 'Dhamma- 


' DiiyTKRKntioos:, near KIKL, ia tho summer of 1800. 

1 Soo < Dhammapada/ y. 888; Baatian, VGlker de ostliohoa 
AH ion/ vol. iii. p. 4U: "Eiit buddhiatischer Kdnch erkUrte mir, 
(lima die Brahmaneii ihron Nmnen fUhrtcn, ala Lauto, iieihro Sun- 
dtin nbgohpiilt hiitten," Heo ftLso ' Lalita-viatara,' p. 551, line 1 ; 
p. 5511, Iiuc7 





All thai wo uro IB tho result cif \vhal \v<i havo 
thought: it iw founded on our thought**, It is mado 
up of our thoughts. If a man Hpuakri or acts with an 
evil thought, pain follow** him, aw tho wheel follows 
the foot of him who draws tho carriage. 

* (L) ' Dharroa,' though clear in its moaning, in difficult to trans- 
late. It hae different meaning in different ayatoms of philosophy, 
and itn poculiar application in tho phraseology of Buddhism IIHH 
boon fully elucidated by Burnouf^ ' Introduction & I'Hmtoire du 
BuddhiBine,* p. 41 neq, Ito writer: "Jo traduin ordmaircmont 
co tormo par condition, d'autrim fom par /o/, maia aucune do cos 
traductiouu n'owt parfaitomont complMv; il faut entendre par 
' dharma ' cc (jni fait qu'uno eHoflo Lnt co <|u'ullc CH!, GO ciui coiiHfcitno 
MI nature propro, commo Pa bion montnl Laatftcm* ii rouuiusioit do 
lu ot'flttbrtt fonnulti, ' Yo dlmrm/l hctuprtLblmvA./ Ktytuologically 
tlm Latin Jbr*ma exprouwa tho Hamo ^otierul idt^a which wns ex- 
pronwid by ' dhar-um/ BBO altto Hurnouf, ' LotuH do la buunn Loi,' 
p, 624, l^unbdll tranlfltoi u Nature n mouto princlptum due- 
* whteh rimw^ that ho understood ' dharraa ' in tho Buddhint 
Gogerly and IV AlwU ^ranftlato; Mind precede action, 
ifliot vrong:, * T3Taft*ev0ttti wrongly exprewd; 
Profestor Welw^a rendering, 'IHp Pflichton au dem 



All that we BTB is the result of what wo have 
thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made 
up of our thoughts, If a man speaks or acts with a 
pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow 
that never leaves him. 


"He abused me, he boat me, ho defeated mo, ho 
robbed mo," hatred in thoso who harbour suoh 
thoughts will never cease. 


"Ho abused me, he boat mo, he dofeatod mo, ho 
robbed mo," hatred in thoso who do not harbour 
thoughts will coaso, 


For hatred does not coaso by hatred at any timo.fc 
hatred coasob by lovo, this is an old rule. 


And some do not know that we must all oomo to 
an ond horo; but others know it, and honoo thoir 
quarrels cease. 

(3.) On 'ftkkott*!,' aeo Ka&Hyana, vi. 4, 17. D'Alwis, 'PAU 
Grammar,' p* 88, note. "When akko&fcAi means 'abused/ it w 
Derived from 'kunsa,' not from 'kudlia-'" 

(6.) It is necessary to render this verse freely, because literally 
translated it would bo unintelligible, ' Pare ' is explained by fools, 
but it has that moaning by implication only. There is an opposi- 
tion between 'pare Aa ' and 'ye^a,' which I have rendered by 'somo ' 
and ' others/ Yam&roase, a 1 pare. plar. imp. fttm., but really a 
Lo* in POli, (See Fau*bdl], Fire 0&taka0,' p. 38.) 



He who lives loDking for pleasures only, his senses 
uncontrolled, immoderate in his enjoyments, idle, and 
weak, Mara (the tempter) will certainly overcome 
him, as the wind throws down a weak tree. 

(7.) ' Mara ' must be taken in the Buddhist sense of tempter, or 
evil spirit. See Burnouf, 'Introduction,' p, 76 : "M&ra est le 
d6mon de 1' amour, du pecb6 et de la mort; c'est le tentateur et 
1'ennemi de Buddha." As to the definite meaning of 'virya/ see 
Burnouf, ' Lotus,' p. 548. 

' Kuaita,' idle, is evidently the Pali representative of the San- 
skrit *kus!da.' In Sanskrit 'kusida,' slothful, is supposed to be 
derived from ' sad/ to sit, and even in its other sense, viz. a loan, 
it may have been intended originally for a pawn, or something that 
lies inert. In the Buddhistical Sanskrit, kusida * is the exact 
counterpart of the P&li 'kuslta,-' see Burnouf, 'Lotus/ p. 548. 
But supposing 'kusida' to be derived from 'sad,' the d would ba 
organic, and its phonetic change to t in PaUi, against all rules. 
I do not know of any instance where an original Sanskrit J, between 
two vowels, is changed to t in Pali. The P&li ' dandharn ' (Dham- 
map, y. 116) has been identified with 'tandram,' lazy; but here 
the etymology is doubtful, and ' dandra' may really be a more cor- 
rect dialectic variety, i, e. an intensive form of a root ' dram ' (dm) 
or * dr&/ Anyhow the change here affects an initial, not a medial d, 
and it is supposed to be a change of Sanskrit t to Pali d, not vice 
versd, Professor "Weber supposed ' pithtyati ' in v. 173, to stand 
for Sk. 'pidhiyate, 9 which is impossible. (See Kaayana's ' Gram- 
mar/ iv, 21.) Dr, Pausboil had identified it rightly with Sk. 
' apistiryati.' Comparisons such as P&li 'alapu' (v. 149) with Sk. 
'al&bu,' and Pali 'pahbaya' (v. 345) with Sk. 'b&lba?a,' prove 
nothing whatever as to a possible change of Sk. d to P&li t, for 
they refer to words the organic form of which is doubtful, and to 
labials instead of dentals. 

A much better instance was pointed out to me by Mr. B. C. 
Guilders, viz. the Pali ' p&tu,' Sk. ' pr&dua, 1 (dearly, openly. Here, 
bowser, the qttesflop, arises, whether 'pftta* may n<rt 
dialectic 'nnHyi faft^ad of ,^honfic decaj, , ]ff '.Ma ' b 



. He who lives without looking for pleasures, his 
senses well controlled, in his enjoyments moderate, 
faithful and strong, Mfcra will certainly not overcome 

with 'pratar,' before, early, ' pradus * would be a peculiar Sanskrit 
corruption, due to a mistaken recollection of c due,' while tbe Pali 
' p&tu ' would Lave preserved the original t. 

-Anyhow, we require far stronger evidence before wo can admit 
a medial t in Fftli as a phonetic corruption of a medial d in 
Sanskrit. Wo might as well treat the 0. II, G-. t as a phonetic 
corruption of Gothic d. The only way to account for tho Pitli 
form 'kusita' instead of 'kusida,' is by admitting the influence of 
popular etymology. Pffli has in many cases lout its etymological 
consciousness. It derives 'aamawa' from a root *sam/ !jb(r)lihmaa' 
from 'bfrh j' see r. 388. Now as c slta f in PAH means cold, apathetic, 
but in a good sense, * kuaita ' may have been formed in Pali to ex- 
press apathetic in a bad pieiiso. 

Further, we must bear in mind that tho Sanskrit etymology of 
' kustda ' from ' sad,' though plausible, is by no means certain. If, 
on tho one hand, ' kualda ' might have been misinterpreted in P&li, 
and changed to ' kuHitfi,' it iu equally possible that * kuslta,' (sup- 
posing tliia to have been tho original form, was misinterpreted iut 
Sanskrit, and changed there to 'kuaida.' ' Sai' is mentioned as a 
8k. root in the senao of tabesoere; from it 'kusita 1 might possibly 
be derived in the sense of idle. ' Hlta * in, .Sanskrit, ip wfrat J flQ^n t , 
' the farrow; from it 'kuHita' might mean a bad labourer, 
are mwtJy*cbiijuctures, but it is certainly remarkable that 
there is an old Vedic proper name Kuahlta-ka, the founder of tho 
Kaushitakas, whoso Br&hmana, the Kaushitaki-brfthma^a, balonga 
to the Eig-Yeda. AD extract from it was translated in my c History 
of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 7 p, 407. 

Lastly, it should be mentioned, that while 'kustta* is the 
counterpart of 'kuslda,' the abstract name in Pftli is 
Sanskrit 'kausidya,' and not 'koea^ft/ aa it would hare been if 
derived from ' kuotta.' 


him, any more than the wind throws down a rocky 


He who wishes to put on the sacred orange-coloured 
dress without having cleansed himself from sin, who 
disregards also temperance and truth, is unworthy of 
the orange-coloured dress. 


But he who has cleansed himself from sin, is well 
grounded in all virtues, and regards also temperance 
and truth, is indeed worthy of the orange-coloured 

(9.) The saffron dress, of a reddish-yellow or orange colour, 
the Elsava or KAshftya^is the distinctive garment of the Buddhist 
priests. The play on the words ' anikkas&vo k&s&vara/ or in San* 
skrit, * anishkash&yaS k&sh&yam,' cannot he rendered in English. 
1 Kashftya' means, impurity, c nish-kaeh&ya,' free from impurity, * a- 
niah-kash&ya,' not free from impurity, while ' k&shftya * is the name 
of the orange-coloured or yellowish Buddhist garment, The pun 
is evidently a favourite one, for, as Fausboll shows, it occurs also 
iu the Mah&hh&rata, xii. 568 : 

" Aiiishkashaye k&sh&yam ih&rtham iti viddhi tarn, 
Dharmadhvnyanaw r&uad&n&m vritfcyartham iti me nnatiA." 
Know that this orange-coloured garment on a man who is not 
free from impurity, serves only for the purpose of cupidity j my 
opinion is, that it is meant to supply the means of living to those 
men with shaven heads, who carry their virtue like a flag. 

(I read c vrittyartham,' according to the Bombay edition, in- 
Btead of 'kritArtham/ the reading of the Calcutta edition.) 

With regard to ' silo/ virtue, see Buraouf, ' Lotus, 1 p, 547* 

On ihe exact colour of the dress, see Bishop Bigandefc, r 
Life to ^^g^fof (Skudama, the 
goou/1886? ^ 50*/ 



They who imagine truth, in untruth, and soo un- 
truth in truth, never arrive at truth, but follow vain 


They whD know truth in truth, and untruth in un- 
truth, arrive at truth, and follow true desires, 


As rain breaks through an ill-thatched house, pas- 
sion will break through an unreflecting miud. 


As rain doos not break through a well- thatched 
house, passion will not break through a Well-reflect- 
ing mind. 


The evil-door mourns in this world, and ho mourns 
In the next; he mourns in both. Ho mourns, ho 
suffers whon ho SUCH the evil of his own work. 

(11-12.) 'S&ra,' which I have translated by truth, has many mean- 
ings in Sanskrit. It moana the sap of a thing, then essence or rea- 
lity ; in a metaphysical wen&o, the liigluwt reality ; in a moral senna, 
truth. It is impossible in a translation to do more than indicate 
the meaning of such words, and in order to understand them fully, 
we must know not only their definition, bat their history* 

(15.) ' KilifMa ' 10 ' klishla,' a participle of ' kli*.' Ifc means lite- 
rally, what is spoilt. The abstract noun ' klwa,' evil or sin, is con- 
stantly employed in Buddhist works; see liurnouf, ' Lotus/ p, 
44$, Possibly the words were intended to be separated, ' kamma 
kiliWAam/ and not to be joined like ' kamma-vieuddbim f iu tlio next 




The virtuous man delights in this world, and he 
delights in the next ; he delights in both. He delights, 
he rejoices, when he sees the purity of his own work. 


The evildoer suffers in this world, and ho suffers in 
the next; he suffers in both. He suffers when ho 
thinks of the evil ho has done ; ho suffers more whon 
going on the evil path. 


The virtuous man is happy in this world, and ho is 
happy in the next ; he is happy in both. Ho is happy 
when he thinks of the good ho -has done; ho iw Htill 
more happy whon going on the good path. 

The thoughtless man, even if he can recite a largo 
portion (of the law), but is not a doer of it, has no 
share in the priesthood, but is like a cowherd count- 
ing the cows of others. 

(16.) Like 'klishte' in the preceding verso, ' vwuddhi ' in tho 
present has a technical meaning. One of Buddhaghoriia'a moHt 
famous works is called ' Visuddhi mngga/ (See Burnout! Lotus > 
p. 844.) 

(17-18.) ' The evil path and the good path f are technical expres- 
sions for the descending and ascending scale of world* through 
which all beings have to travel upward or downward, according to 
their deeds. (See Bigandet, 'Life of G-audama,' p. 5, note 4, tui 
p. 440 5 Biirnouf, Introduction, p. 598 ; ' Lotus; p. BOS, L 7 5 1 11) 

(19.) la taking 'sahitam' in the sense of <wwtutm * or ' 

I follotf % wmmeatator who says, Tepi/akws* Buddimv 

1 i ' ' .1, i ' i . ' .,'..' ' ' 



The follower of the law, even if he can recite only 
a small portion (of the law), but, having forsaken 
passion and hatred and foolishness, possesses true 
knowledge and serenity of mind, he, oaring for nothing 
in this world, or that to come, has indeed a share in 
the priesthood. 

eta*n nmaw," but I cannot find another passage where the Tri- 
piftika, or any portion of it, is called Sahita. 'Sawhita* in vv. 
100-102, has a different meaning. The fact that some followers 
of Buddha were allowed to learn short portions only of the sacred 
writings by heart, and to repeat them, while others had to learn a 
larger collection, is shown by the story of 'j&kkhupftla,' p. 3, of 
1 Mahakaia/ p. 26, etc. 

* Samara, 9 which I have rendered by 'priesthood,' expresses all 
that belongs to, or constitutes a real samana or munaaa, this being 
the Buddhist name corresponding to the brflhmowa, or priest, of 
the orthodox Hindus. Buddha himself is frequently called the 
Good Samawa. TausboII takes the abstract word 'eiiinanwtt' as 
corresponding to the Sanskrit * sftmftuya,' community, but Weber 
has well shown that it ought to be taken as representing * r&~ 
inanya.* He might have quoted the 'Shmtinno. phala sutfcu' of 
which liurnouf has given such interesting details in lug * Lotus,' 
p. 449 J*?. Fausboll also, in his notes on v, 332, rightly explains 
'B&mannat&' by ' jr&mawyatft.' 

' Anupftdiy&no/ which I have translated by ' caring for nothing/ 
has a technical meaning. It is the negative of the fourth Nid&ria, 
the so-called Upftdftna, which Koppen has well explained by 
' Anh&ngliohkeit,' taking to the world, loving the world. (Kdppen, 
< Die Eoligion des Buddha, 1 p. CIO*) 





REFLECTION is the path, of immortality, thoughtless- 
ness the path of death. Those who reflect do not die, 
those who are thoughtless are as if dead already. 

Having understood this clearly, those who are 

(21.) ' Apramada,' which Fauaboll translates by vfyilanfict, Go- 
gerly by religion, expresses literally the absence of that giddiness 
or thoughtlessness which characterizes the state of mind of worldly 
people. It is the first entering into oneself, aud honce all virtues 
are said to have their root in ' apramada.' [Ye ke/fci kual& dhaminft 
sabbe te'appam&damulaka.) I have translated it by 'reflection,' 
sometimes by 'earnestness.' Immortality, 'amrita,' is explained 
by Buddhagosha as Nirvana. ' Amrita' is used, no doubt, as a 
synonym of Nirvana, but this very faot shows how many concep- 
tions entered from the very first into the Nirvana of the Buddhists. 
If it is said that those who reflect do uot die, this may be under- 
stood of spiritual death. The commentator, however, takes it in 
a technical sense, that they are free from the two last stages of 
the so-called Nidanas, viz, the Q-aramarana (decay and death) 
and the &4ti (new birth), (See KSppen, 'Die Beligion dea 
Buddha; p, B09.) 


advanced in reflection, delight in reflection, and rejoice 
in the knowledge of the Ariyas (the Elect). 


These wise people, meditative, steady, always pos- 
sessed of strong powers, attain to Nirvana, the highest 


If a reflecting person has roused himself, if he is 
' not forgetful, if his deeds are pure, if he acts with 
consideration, if he restrains himself, and lives ac- 
cording to law, then his glory will increase, 


By rousing himself, by reflection, by restraint and 
control, the wise man may make for himself an island 
which no flood can overwhelm. 


Fools follow after vanity, men of evil wisdom, Tho 
wise man possesses reflection as his bust jowcl. 


Follow not aftor vanity, nor after the enjoyment of 
love and lust! Ho who reflects and meditates, ob- 
tains ample joy. 

When tho loomed man drives away vanity by re- 

(22). The Ariyas, the noble or elect, are those who hare entered 
on tho path that loads to Nirv&na. (See K5ppen, p. $98.) Their 
knowledge and general status is minutely described. (See K5p- 
pen, p. 480.) 


flection, he, the wise, having reached the repose of 
wisdom, looks down upon the fools, far from toil upon 
the toiling crowd, as a man who stands on a hill 
looks down on those who stand on the ground. 


Beflecting among the thoughtless, awake among 
the sleepers, the wise man advances like a racer 
leaving behind the hack. 


By earnestness did Maghavan (Indra) rise to the lord- 
ship of the gods. People praise earnestness ; thought- 
lessness is always blamed. 


A Bhikshu (mendicant) who delights in reflection, 
who looks with fear on thoughtlessness, moves about 
like fire, burning all his fetters, email or largo. 


A Bhikshu (mendicant) who delights in reflection, 
who looks with fear on thoughtlessness, will not go 
to destruction he is neax to Nirvana. 

(31.) Instead of c saha^,* which Dr. Fausboll translates by 
vincen*, Dr. Weber by ' conquering,' I think we ought to road 
' Jahan,' burning, wbich was evidently the reading adopted by 
Buddhaghosha, Mr. H. 0, Child era, whom I requested to seo 
whether the MS. at the India Office gives ' sahaw' or "rfahaw/ 
writes that the reading ' Jahawi' is aa clear as possible in that MS. 
The fetters are meant for the senses. (See Sfttra 870.) 




As a flotohcr makes straight his arrow, a wise man 
makes straight his trembling and unsteady thought, 
which is difficult to keep, difficult to turn. 


As a fish taken from IUH watery home and thrown 
on the dry ground, our thought tromklou all ovor in 
ordei' to escape the dominion of Miiru (the tempter). 


It is good to tame tho mind, which is difficult to 
hold in and flighty, rushing wherever it liatnth; a 
tamed mind "brings happiness. 


Lot tho wise man guard his thoughts, for they arc 
difficult to perceive, very artful, and they rush where- 
ever they list : thoughts well guarded bring happi- 

(34.) On Mlira, sc>o VOTHOH 7 and 8. 



Those who bridlo their mind which travels far, 
moves about alone, is without a body, and hides in 
the chamber (of the heart), will be free from the bonds 
of Maxa [the tempter). 


If a man's thoughts are unsteady, if he does not 
know the true law, if his peace of mind is troubled, 
his knowledge will never be perfect. 

If a man's thoughts are not dissipated, if his mind 

(39.) Fausboll traces 'anavasHuta, s diHsipatod,back to the Sanskrit 
root * *yai/ to become rigid; but the participle of that root would be 
' aita,' not * ayuta.' Professor Webor suggests that ' auavassuta ' 
stands for the Sanskrit ' anavasruta, 1 which he translates ' unbo- 
fleckt,' unspotted. If ' avasruta ' were the right word, it might bo 
taken in the sense of ' not fallen off, not fallen away,' but it could 
not mean 'unspotted;' cf. 'dhairyaOT no "ausruvat,' our firmness 
ran away. I have little doubt, however, that'avassuta 'represents 
the Sk. c avasruta,' and is derived from the root ( ru' here used in 
its technical sense, peculiar to the Buddhist literature, and so well 
explained by Burnouf iu his Appendix XIV. (' Lotus/ p. 820.) 
He shows that, according to Heinafamdra and the #ina alan- 
kara, teavakehaya, Pali fl-savasa^khaya, is counted as the sixth 
abhi^fift, wherever six of these intellectual powers aro mentioned, 
instead of five. The Chinese translate tho, term in their own 
Chinese fashion by siillationia finis, but Burnonf claims for it 
the definite sense of destruction of faults or vices. Tie quotes 
from the Lalita-vistara (Adhyaya xxii., od. Rdjendra Lai Mittra, 
p. 448) the words uttored by Buddha when ho arrived at his com- 
plete Buddha-hood : 

" auahka foravft na puna/* sravanti" 
The vices aro dried up, they will not flow again, 

and he shows that the Pali dictionary, the ' AbhidhAnnppacttpikV 

c 2 


is not perplexed, if he has ceased to think of good or 
evil, then there is no fear for him while he is watch- 

explains * A-savit' simply by ' k&ma/ love, pleasure of the senses. In 
the Mahaparinibbana sutta, three classes of aaava arc distin- 
guished, tho kamfisava, the bhav&sava, and the avi^asavH, Sco 
alwo Burnouf, ' Lotus,' p. 605. 

Tiurnouf tokoa ' ibrava ' at imce in a moral sense, but though it 
has that sense in the language of the Buddhists, it may have had 
a moro material sense in the beginning. That 'mi' means, to run, 
and is in fact a merely dialectic variety of e sru/ is admitted by Bur- 
nouf. The noun * dsravn,' therefore, would have meant originally, a 
running, and the quantum in, did it moan a running, i.e. a Iapms> or 
did it menu a running, i.G. an impetuous desire*, or, lastly did it 
aignify originally a bodily ailment, a running soro, and assume 
aflorvvurdH tho moaning of a moral ailment P The la&t view might 
ho HiippoHorl by tho fact that * ftsrftva' in tho flrnso of flux or soro 
occurwiu the Alharva-voda, i. 2,4, "tad ilardvaaya bhosha^aw* tadu 
rogam nntnawit," thin in tho medicine for tho sore, this dowtrnyod 
the illness. Hut if thin waa tho original meaning of tlu Buddhist 
1 A.Eiavu 7 ' it would be difficult to explain Huch a word nn 'an&aava,* 
faultloHfl, nor couhl tho participle 'avaauta' or'avansuta* have 
talct!ii tho Hpiwi! of wiiiful or faully, or, at all pveiitn, engaged in 
worldly thoughts, attached to iininclano into rests, lu order to get 
that moaning, wo nwntasHign 1o *&srava j tho original meaning of 
running townrdu or attonding to external ohjeuts (like snriga, Alaya,* 
etc.) while c avaarula' would moan, carried ofl' towards external ob- 
jects, deprived of inward rent. This conception of the original pur- 
port of 'ft-Mru* or *avn-*ru' iw confirmed by a statement of Cole- 
brootfl's,who, when treating of the Chinas, writes (Miscellanoous 
Eseayfl, i. 382) : " Aarava iy that which dirocta the cmbodiod spirit 
(A-sravayati puriwliam) towftrdn oxtcrnal objVctH. It is tho occupa- 
tion and employment (vritti or pravritti) of the Rouses or organs 
on wenHiblo objects. Through tho meant* of the sonwey it affocte the 
embodied spirit with the Hi-ntimeut of tat'tion, colour, smell, and 
tnwto, Or it IB the aaBueintiDn or connection of body with right and 
wrong deeds. It comprises all tho kartnne, for they (Awrnvftynnti) 
porvado, influenet*, and attend the door, following him or attaching 



Knowing that this body is (fragile) like a jar, and 
making this thought firm like a fortress, one should 
attack Mra [the tempter) with the weapon of know- 
ledge, one should watch him when conquered, and 
should never cease [from the fight). 


Before long, alas ! this body will lie on the 
earth, despised, without understanding, like a use- 
less log. 

Whatever a hater may do to a hater, or an enemy 

to him. It is a misdirection (mithyft-pravntti) of the organs, for 
it is vain, a cause of disappointment, rendering the organs of 
sense and sensible objects subservient to fruition.* Sawvara is 
that which stops (sawvnnoti) the course of the foregoing, or 
closes up the door or passage to it, and consists in self-command 
or restraint of organs internal and external, embracing all means of 
self-control and subjection of the senses, calming and subduing 

For a full account of the asravas, see also Lalita-vistara, ed. 
Dale. pp. 445 and 552, where Kshin&rava is given as a name of 

(40.) ( Anivesana ' has no doubt a technical meaning, and may 
signify, one who has left his house, his family and friends, to be- 
come a monk. A monk shall not return to his home, but travel 
about; he shall be anivesana, homeless, an&gara, houseless. But 
I doubt whether this can be the meaning of c anivesana' here, as the 
sentence, let him be an anchorite, would come in too abruptly. 
I translate it therefore in a more general sense, lot him not return 
or turn away from the battle, let him watch Mara, even after he 
is vanquished, let him keep up a constant fight against the ad- 


to an enemy, a wrongly-directed mind will do us 
greater mischief. 


Not a mother, not a father will do so much, nor any 
other relative ; a well-directed mind will do us greater 





Who shall overcome this oarth, and the world of 
Yama (the lord of the departed), and the world of the 
gods ? Who shall find out the plainly shown path of 
virtue, as a clever man finds out the (right) flower ? 


The disciple will overcome the earth, and the world 
of Yama, and the world of the gods. The disciple 
will find out the plainly shown path of virtue, as a 
clever man finds out the (right) flower. 

[44, 45 ) If I differ from the translation of Fausboll and "Weber, 
it IB because the commentary takes the two verbs, ' vi^ossuti ' and 
'paessati,' to mean in the end tb & same thing, i.e. 'tia&Mz'-kari&sati' 
he will perceive. I have not ventured to take * vyessate 1 for ' viyania- 
sati,* but it should be remembered that the overcoming of the earth 
and of the worlds below and above, as hero alluded to, ia meant 
to be achieved by means of knowledge. ' Pa&esanti/ he will gather 
(of. vi-i, 'Indiache Spriiche,' 45 GO), moans uluo, like to gather in 
English, he will perceive or understand, and the ' dhaunnapada,' or 
path of virtue, is distinctly explained by Buddhagosha as consisting 
of the thirty-seven states or stations which lead to Bodlii, (800 
Burnouf, 'Lotus/ p. 480; Hardy, Manual, p, 497.) 'Dhamma- 



He wlio knows that this body is like froth, and has 
loarnt that it is as unsubstantial as a mirage, will 
break the flower-pointed arrow of Mara, and never see 
the King of Death, 


Death carries off a man who is gathering flowers 
and whose mind is distracted, as a flood carries off a 
sleeping village. 

pada' might, no doubt, mean also ' a law-verse/ but ' sudesita ' can 
hardly mean e well delivered,* while, as applied to u path, it moans 
'well pointed out' (v. 285). Buddha himself is called 'M&rga- 
dawalca' and 'Mflbrga-derika' (cf, Lai. Vist. p, 551), Nor could one 
well eaj that a man collects one single law-verse. Honcc Fausboli 
naturally translates versus legits l#no enarrafos, and Weber gives 
' Lehrspriicho ' in the plural, but the original has ' dhatnmapadam/ 
in tho sing. (1-7-48), There is a curious similarity bctwoon thoao 
verses and verdos 6510-41, and 0030 of the Sftuti-parva 5 
"Pushp&fliva vi&invantnm anyatragntamanasau), 
AnavApteshu k&meahu mrityur abhycti mUnavauu" 
Death appToaeltes man like one who IB gathering flowora, and whoso 
mind is turned olacwhere, before his desires have been fulfilled. 
" Suptaw vy/lghrawi mahaugho v4 mrttyur ddAya gai^Aati, 

Saw^invfLnakam evainaw kftui&n&m avitriptikam." 
As a stream (carries off) a sleeping tiger, death carries off this mnn 
who is gathering flowers, and who is not satiated iu his pleasures. 

This last verse, partieularly, snoma to mo cloarly a translation 
from rftli, ami tho ( km' t)T 'Hiiw/'invftunkani' look ns if put in 
<mctri cattsd. 

(4Q.) The flower-arrows of M&ra, the tempter, are borrowed 
from K&ma, the Hindu god of love* For a similar expression 
seo Lalita-vistara, od. Oalc., p. 40, 1. 20, " mA-yftpiarlAisadrwA, 
vidyutpheuopam^U ^apalA/i." It is on account of this parallel 
passage that I prefer to translate * martM 1 by mirage, and not by 
sunbeam, as Fausboll, or by solar atom, as Webor proposes, 



Death subdues a man who is gathering flowers, and 
whose mind is distracted, before he is satiated in his 


As the bee collects nectar and departs without in- 
juring the flower, or its colour and scent, so let the 
sage dwell on earth. 


Not the failures of others, not their sins of com- 
mission or omission, but his own misdeeds and negli- 
gences should the sage take notice of. 


Like a beautiful flower, full of CDlour, but with- 
out scent, are the fine but fruitless words of him who 
does not act accordingly. 


But, like a beautiful flower, full of colour and fall 
of scent, are the fine and fimitful words of him who 

acts accordingly, 


As many kinds of wreaths can be made from a heap 
of flowers, so many good things may bo achieved by 
a mortal if once he is born. 

The scent of flowers does not travel against the 

(48.) ' Antaka, 7 death, is given as an explanation of 'M&ra' in 
the Amarakosha and Abhidb&uappadipika (of* FauabSU, p, 220), 


wind, nor (that of) sandal-wood, or of a bottle of Tagara 
oil,; but the odour of good people trayols oven against 
the wind; a good man pervades every place. 


Sandal-wood or Tagara, a lotus flower, or a Vas- 
siki, the scent of their excellence is peerless when 
their fragrance is out. 


But mean is the scent that comes from Tagara 
and sandal-wood ; the odour of excellent people rises 
up to the gods as the highest. 


Of the people who POSHOSS these excellencies, who 
live without thoughtlessness, and who are emanci- 
pated through true knowledge, M&ra, the tempter, 
never finds the way, 


As on a heap of rulririnli cast upon the highway 
the lily will grow full of swoot porfiime and de- 
lightful, thus the disoipb of the truly enlightened 
Buddha shines forth by his knowledge among those 
who are like rubbish, among the people that walk in 

(54.) * Tagara ' a plant from which a scented powder iw made. 
' Mallaka ' or ' mallik&,' according to. Benfoy, is an oil YOBBO!. 
Honce ' tngaramallikfl,' ig probably meant for a bottle holding 
aromatic powder, or oil made of the Tagara. 




LON& is the night to him who is awake ; long is a 
mile to him who is tired ; long is life to the foolish 
who do not know the true law. 


If a traveller does not meet with one who is his 
better, or his equal, let him firmly keep to his solitary 
journey ; there is no companionship with a fool. 


" These sons belong to me, and this wealth belongs 
to me," with such thoughts a fool is tormonted. He 
himself does not belong to himself; how much loss 
sons and wealth ? 


The fool who knows his foolishness, is wise at least 

(60.) Life, same&ra, is the constant revolution of birth and 
death which goes on for ever until the knowledge of the true law 
or the true doctrine of Buddha enables a man to free himself 
front sawstea, and to enter into Nirv&na. (See Parable six,, 
p. 184.) 


so far. But a fool who thinks himself wise, he is 
called a fool indeed. 


If a fool be associated with a wise man all his life, 
he will perceive the truth as little as a spoon perceives 
the taste of soup. 


If an intelligent man bo associated for one minute 
only with a wise man, ho will soon perceive the truth, 
as the tongue porcoives the taste of soup. 


Pools of little understanding have themselves for 
their greatest enemies, for they do evil deeds which 
muyt boar bitter fruits. 


That deed is not well douo of which a mau must 
repent, and tho roward of which ho receiver crying 
und with a tearful faco. 


No, that deed is well done of which a mau does 
not ropont, and tho reward of which ho receives 
gladly and cheerfully. 


As long as the evil deed done docs not boar fruit, 
the fool thinks it is like honoy ; but when it ripons, 
then tho fool suffers griof. 


Lot a fool month after month oat his food (Hko an 


ascetic) with the tip of a blade of Kusa grass, yet is he 
not worth the sixteenth particle of those who have 
well weighed the law. 


An evil deed does not turn suddenly , like milk; 
smouldering it follows the fool, like fire covered by 


And when the evil deed, after it has become known, 
brings sonuw to the fool, then it destroys his bright 
lot, nay it cleaves his head. 

Let the fool wish for a false reputation, for prece- 

(70.) The commentator clearly takes * sawkh&ta' in the sense of 
' sa0ikhy&ta,' not of ' sawskrita,' for he explains it by ' nd.tadhamm& 
tulitadhammfi. 1 The eating with the tip of Kiwa-grass has refer- 
ence to the fastings performed by the Brahmans, but disapproved 
of, except as a moderate discipline, by the followers of Buddha. 
This verse seems to interrupt the continuity of the other verses 
which treat of the reward of evil deeds, or of the slow but sure 
ripening of every sinful act. 

(71.) I am not at all, certain of the simile, unless ' muati,' as 
applied to milk, can be used in the sense of changing or turning 
sour. In Manu ir, 172, where a similar sentence occurs, the 
commentators are equally doubtful : N&dbarmaa aritoloke sadyaA- 
phalati gaur iva, for an evil act committed in the world does not 
Dear fruit at once, like a cow ; or like the earth (in due season), 

(72.) I take i fiattam ' for '^flnpitam,' the causative of ' 
for which in Sanskrit, too, we have the form without i, 
, This 'ynaptam,' made known, revealed, stands in opposition to the 
fcSanna,' covered, hid, of the preceding verse. * Sukkawisa,' which 
Faueboll explains by f *uklfi,nsa,' has probably a more technical and 
special meaning. 



dence among the Bhikshus, for lordship in the 
Tents, for worship among other people ! 


" May hoth the layman and he who has loft the world 
think that this is done "by me ; may they be subject 
to mo in everything which is' to be done or is not to 
be done," thus is the mind of the fool, and his de- 
sire and pride increase. 


" One ia tlxo road that leads to wealth, another the 
road that loads to NirvAi?aj" if tho iihikshu, the 
disciple of Uudclha, has loarnt this, ho will not yoam 
for honour, ho will strive after separation from tlie 

(75.) Vivela/ which in fSanukrit moans chiefly understanding, 
haw with tho JJutldhintR tho more technical moaning of separation, 
whether separation from tho world and retirement to the wolitudo 
of the forettt (kiiya vivi'ka), or tuoparation from idle thoughts 
(Aiita viveka) , or the highest bcparutioii and freedom (Ni 




If you see an intelligent man who tells you where 
true treasures are to be found, who shows what is to 
be avoided, and who administers reproofs, follow that 
wise man ; it will be better, not worse, for those who 
follow him. 


Let him admonish, let him command, let him hold 
back from what is improper ! he will be beloved 01 
the good, by the bad he will bs hated. 


Do not have evil-doers for friends, do not have low 
people: have virtuous people for friends, have for 
friends the best of men. 


He who drinks in the Law lives happily with a 

(78.) It is hardly possible to take ' mitte kalyawe ' in the techni- 
cal sense of ' kaly&na-mitra,' 'em geistlicher Bath,' a spiritual 
guide. Burnouf (Introd. p. 284) shows that in the technical sense 
* kaly&tta-mitra ' was widely spread in the Buddhist world. 

(79.) The commentator clearly derives 'piti' from 'pa,' to drink ; 


scr&ne mind: the sage rejoices always in the Law, as 
preached by the elect. 


Well-makers bad the water (whenever they like) ; 
flotcherw bend the arrow; carpenters bend a log of 
wood j wise people fashion themselves. 


As a solid rock is not shaken by the wind, wise 
people falter not amidst blamo and praise. 


"Wise people, after they havo listened to ilio laws, 
become serene, like a deep, smooth, mid wtill lake, 


Good people walk on whatever brfull, tlw good do 
not murmur, longing for pleasure ; wliotlior twichod by 
happiness or sorruw wise people novor appear olatod 
or depressed. 

if it wore derived from ' pit,' as Professor Weber scorns to suppose, 
wo should expect a double p. ' Ariya,' elect, venerable, in explained 
by the commentator as referring to Buddha and other teachers, 

(80.) Bee verse 33, and 145, the latter being a moro repetition 
of our verse. The 'nottikftn,' to judge from the commentary and 
from the general purport of tho verso, arc not wimply wator- 
carricra, but builders of canals and aqueducts, who force the 
water to go where it would not go by ituolf* 

(83.) The flrut line is very doubtful. I have adopted, in my 
translation, a (suggestion of Mr. Ohildorw, who writoa, " I think it 
will be necessary to take ' sabbattha ' in the BOGBO of * everywhere/ 
or f under every condition; 1 ' pafiAakhandAdibhodeau, sabba- 
dhammeHii/ nays Buddhoghonha. I do not think wo nood onwumo 



If, whether for his own sake, or for the sake of others, 
a man wishes neither for a son, nor for wealth, nor for 
lordship, and if ha does not wish for his own success 
by unfair means, then he is good, wise, and virtuous. 


Few are there among men who arrive at the other 
shore; the other people here run up and down the 


But those who, when the Law has been well preached 
to them, follow the Law, will pass across the domi- 
nion of death, however difficult to overcome. 

that B. means the word 'vipahaiiti' to be a synonym of e vacant!.' I 
would rather take the whole sentence together as a gloss upon the 
word ' vacant! ' : ' vayantifci 'arahattaii&nena apakadWAanU Man- 
dar&gam viyahanti ; ' ' vayanti ' means that, ridding themselves of 
lust by the wisdom which Arhat-ship confers, they cast it away." 
I am inclined to think the line means 'the righteous walk on (un- 
moved) in all the conditions of life.' ' 3STind4, pasawsa, sukhaatt, 
dukkhaw,' are four of the eight lokadhammas, or earthly con- 
ditions ; the remaining lokadhammas are ( l&bha, al&bha, yasa, 

In v. 245, 'passatV by a man who sees, means, by a man who 
sees clearly or truly, In the same manner ( vra^r ' anil ' pravra^ ' 
may mean, not simply to walk, but to walk properly. 

(86.) 'The other shore' is meant for Nirv&a, c this shore' fob 
common life. On reaching Nirv&na, the dominion of death IB 
overcome* The commentator supplies 'taritvA,' having crossed, 
in order to oxplain tho accusative ' mai&udheyyam.' Possibly 
'p&ram essanti' should here be taken as one word, in tho scuao of 


87, 88. 

A wise man should lea^e the dark state (of ordinary 
life), and follow the bright state (of the Bhikshu). After 
going from his home to a homeless state, he should 
in his retirement look for enjoyment where thero 
seemed to he no enjoyment. Leaving all pleasures 
behind, and calling nothing his own, the wise man 
should free himself from all the troubles of the mind. 


Tlmao whose mind is well grounded in tho elements 
of knnwlodgn, who have given up all attachments, and 

" (87, 8S.) Leaving one's homo is the sam3 as joining tho 
elorgy, or becoming a mendicant, without a home or family, an 
* nndgAra,* >r imchorito. A man in that state of* viveka,' or re- 
tireiUDiit (HCO v. 75, note), sees, that where before there scorned 
to bo no plofMuro thoro real pleasure is to bo found, or vice verad, 
A nimilar idna IH expressed in vorwo 00. $00 "Burnouf, 'Lotus, 3 
p. <t7-li, whiM'o he speaks of * Lo plaisir do la satisfaction, ntf do la 

Tiio fivo troubles or ovila of tho mind are paswion, angor, igno- 
ranei 1 , arrugiuico, pride. (Hoc 1*umouf, ' Lotus/ p, 300, and p. 443,) 
AM to * pnriyodupcyya,' BOO vorwo 183, and 'Lotus,' pp. 523, 528; 
as to ( aldw/kano/ BOO Mah&bh. xii, G5GB; 1240. 

8$). Tho elements of knowledge are tho seven Sambo Ihyaiigas,' 
on which see .Burnouf, 'Lotus,' p, 790. 'KhMsavV which I 
have translated by, thuy whose frailties have boon conquered, 
may alno bu taken in a more metaphysical setiao, as explained in 
tho note to v. &9, Tho name applies to tho other terms occurring 
In this verne, such as ' ftdilna, anup&d&ya,' etc, Dr. Pausboll seems 
inclined to take ' ftsava' in this passage, and in the other passages 
where it oocurfl, afl the P41i representative of ftaraya.' But 
,' iu BuddhiHt pliraseology, means rather the five organs of 
with 'mariaa,' tho soul, and those are kept diwtinct from 
' A.uavaH/ the inclinations, the frailties, paasionH, or vices. The 

CHAPTER vi. Ixxxiii 

rejoice without clinging to anything, those whose 
frailties hare been conquered, and who are full of 
light, are free (even) in this world. 

commentary on the Abhidharma, when speaking of the Yoga- 
ftras, says, "En re*unissant ensemble les receptacles (foraya), 
lea chosea revues (a^rita) et les supports (alambana), qui sont 
chacun composes de six termes, on a dix-huit termes qu'on appelle 
'Dhatus' ou con tenants. La collection des six receptacles, ce 
sont les organes de la vue, de Touie, de 1'odorat, du gout, du 
toucher, et le 'inanas' (ou 1'organe du cceur), q[ui est le dernier. 
La collection des six choses re9ues, c'est la connaissance produite 
par la vue eb par les autres sens jusqu'au 'manaa' inclusivement. 
La collection des six supports, ce sont la forme et lea autres attri- 
bute sensibles jusqu'au ' Dharma ' (la loi ou 1'Stre) inclusivement. 9 ' 
(See Burnouf, Introduction, p, 449.) 

' Parinibbuta ' is again a technical term, the Sanskrit * pari- 
nivrita' meaning, freed from al] worldly fetters, like 'vimukta.' 
(See Burnouf, Introduction, p. 590.) 




There ia no suffering for him who has finished his 
journey, and abandoned grief, who has freed himself on 
all sides, and thrown off all fetters. 


They depart with their thoughts woll-collectcd, they 
lire not happy in their abode ; like swans who have loft 
their lake, they leave their house and home. 


They who have no riches, who live on authorized 
food, who have perceived the Void, the Unconditioned, 

(01.) ' Satiinanto/ Sansk. * flnwitimantaA/ possessed of memory, 
but hero used in the technical sense of ' sail/ the first of the Bodhya- 
tigntt. (Bee Burnouf, Introduction, p. 707.) Glough translates 
it by inteuHu thought, and this is the original meaning of ' Bmar/ 
even in Sanskrit. (Seo ' Lectures on the Science of Language/ 
ii. p. 332.) 

Uyyu%anti which Buddhaghoeha explains by ' they exert them- 
selves,' seems to me to signify in this place ' they depart/ i. e. 
they leave their family, and embrace au ascetic life, (tico note 
to verse 285.) 

(02.) 'ijuftfiato' (or-tft), ' auitnitto/ and * vimokho 1 are throe dif~ 


the Absolute, their way is difficult to understand, 
like that of birds in the ether. 


He whose passions are stilled, who is not absorbed 
in enjoyment, who has perceive! the Yoid, the TTn- 
conditiwied, the Absolute, his path is difficult to un- 
derstand, like that of the birds in the ether. 


The gods even envy Trim whose senses have been 
subduedj like horses well broken in by the driver, who 
is free from pride, and free from frailty. 


Such a one who does his duty is tolerant like the 
earth, like Indra's bolt; he is like a lake without 
mud ; no new births are in store for him. 

ferent aspects of Nirv&na. (See Burnouf, Intro i. 442, 462, on 
rfLnya.) Nimifcta is cause in the most general sense, what causes 
existence to continue. The commentator explains it chiefly in a 
moral sense: " r&gidinimitt&bh&vena aninuttaara, tehi a vimutfcan 
ti animitto vimokho," i.e. 'owing to the absence of passion and other 
causes, without causation; because freed from these causes, there- 
fore it is called freedom without causation.' 

The simile is intended to compare the ways of those who have 
obtained spiritual freedom to the flight of birds, it being difficult 
to understand how the birds move on without putting their feet on 
anything. This, at least, is the explanation of the commentator* 
The same metaphor occurs Mah&bh. xii. 6763. ' Goara,' which has 
also the meaning of food, forms a good opposition to ' bho^ana.' 

(95.) Without the hints given by the commentator, we should 
probably take the three similes of this verse in their natural 
sense, as illustrating the imperturbable state of an Arabanta, or 
venerable person. The earth is always represented as an emblem 
of patience ; the bolt of Indra, if taken in its technical sense, as 



His thought is quiet, quiot are his word and deed, 
when he has obtained freedom by true knowledge, 
when he has thus become a quiet man. 


The man who is free from credulity, but knows 
the Uncreated, who has cut all ties, removed all 
temptations, renounced all desires, he is the greatest 
of mon. 


In a hamlot or in a forest, in the deep water or on 

tho bolt of a gate, might likewise suggest the idea of firmness ; 
while tho lake IH a constant representative of serenity and 
purity, Tho commentator, however, suggests that what is meant 
is, that tho earth, though flowers arc cast on it, does not feel 
ploatmro, nor the bolt of Jndra displeasure, although less sa- 
voury tilings arc thrown upon it, and that in liko manner a wise 
person is iudifforont to honour or dishonour, 

(9G.) That this very natural threefold divtHion, thought, word, 
and dood, thoUrividha dvarn' or tho throe doors of tho Buddhists 
(I Tardy, ' Manual/ p, 494), was not peculiar to the Buddhists or 
uuknown to the Brahman B, haw been proved against Dr. Weber by 
Professor Koppcn in hit* ' Eoligion des Buddha/ i. p. 445. He 
particularly called attention to Maim lii. -1-8; and ho might have 
added Hah&bh. xii. 4050, 6512, 0540, 055 A; xiii, 5677, etc. Dr. 
"Weber has himself afterwards brought forward a passagofrom the 
Atharva-veda, vi. 00, 3 (' ya ftakshuahU manaufi, ya/c & v&&i upi- 
rima')r which, howovor, has a different meaning. A bettor one was 
quoted by him from the Tuitt, Ar, x. 1, 12 (yan me manas&, v4H, 
karmaw^ vA dushkrita?^ kritam.) Similar oxproasious have beon 
shown to exist iu tho Zcndavo&ta, and among the Mauiehooaus 
(Laisen, 'Indiacho Alterthumekundo,' iii, p, 414; see also Booht- 
lingk's Dictionary, a. v. k&ya) . Thevo was no ground, therefore, for 
supposing that this formula had found its way into the Christian 
Liturgy from Perum, for, as Professor Cowell remarks, Grouk 

CHAPTER vii. Ixxxyii 

the dry land, wherever venerable persons (Arahanta) 
dwell, that place is delightful. 


Forests are delightful; where the world finds no 
delight, there the passionless will find delight, for 
they look not for pleasures. 

writers, such as Plato, employ very similar expressions, e.g. Protag. 
p. 348, 30, Trpos aTraLV Ipyov KOI \6yov KOL SKXV<%ML. In fact, the op- 
position between words and deeds occurs in almost every writer, 
from Homer downwards; and the further distinction between 
thoughts and words is clearly implied in such expressions as, ' they 
say in their heart.' That the idea of sin committed by thought 
was not a new idea, even to the Jews, may be seen from Prov. xxiv. 
9, ' the thought of foolishness is sin.' In the Apastamba-sutras, 
lately edited by Professor Biihler, we find the expression, e atho 
yatki#ia manaaa v&M, #akshusha v samkalpayan dhydyaty ababhi- 
vipajyati va tathaiva tad bhavatityupadwanti j* They say that what- 
ever a Brahman intending with his mind, voice, or eye, thinks, 
says, or looks, that will be. This is clearly a very different division, 
and it is the same which is intended in the passage from the 
Atharva-veda, quoted above. In the mischief done by the eye, 
we have the first indication of the evil eye. (Mah&bh. xii. 3417. 
Soe Dhammapada, v. 231-234.) 




Even though a speech bo a thousand (of words), but 
made up of senseless words, one word of sense is better, 
which if a man hoars, he becomes quiet. 


Even though a G&tha (poem) bo a thousand (of 
words), but made up of senseless words, one word of a 
GatM is better, which if a man hears, he becomes quiet. 


Though a man recite u hundred Gathfts made up of 
senseless words, ono word of the law in bottror, which 
if a man hoars, he ImcomcH quint. 


If ouo man conquer in battle a thousand times thou- 
sand men, and if another conquer himself, he is the 
greatest of conquerors. 

(100.) * Vya * is to bo takenas a worn. sing, fern., instead of tho 
8k. 'v4k. 


104, 105. 

One's own self conquered is better than all otter 
people ; not even a god, a G-andharva, not Mara with. 
Brahman could change into defeat the victory of a 
man who has vanquished himself, and always lives 
under restraint. 


If a man for a hundred years sacrifice month after 
month with a thousand, and if he but for one moment 
pay homage to a man whose soul is grounded (in true 
knowledge), better is that homage than a sacrifice for a 
hundred years. 

(104.) ' Gfttaw,' according to the commentator, stands for giio 
(lingavipallaso, i.e. viparyftsa) ; ' have ' is an interjection. 

The Devas (gods), Gandharvas (fairies), and other fanciful 
beings of the Brahmanic religion, such as the N&gas, Sarpas, 
Garu^as, etc., were allowed to cDntinue in the traditional language 
of the people who had embraced Buddhism. See the pertinent re- 
marks of Burnouf, Introduction, p 134 seq., 184. On Mara, the 
tempter, see v. 7. Sdstram Aiyar, ' On the Gtoina Religion/ 
p. ix, says: "Moreover as it is declared in the Gfaina Vedas 
that all tha gods worshipped by the various Hindu sects, viz. 
/Siva, Brahma, Vishwu, G-awapati, Sabramaniyan, and others, 
were devoted adherents of the above-mentioned Tlrtbankaras, 
the Gfainas therefore do not consider them as unworthy of their 
worship ; but as they are servants of Arugan, they consider them 
to "ha deities of their system, and accordingly perform certain 
ptiyas iii honour of them, and worship them also." The case is 
more doubtful with orthodox Buddhists. " Orthodoi Buddhists," 
as Mr. D'Alwis writes (Attanagalu-vansa, p. 55) "do not 
consider the worship of the Devas as being sanctioned by him 
whD disclaimed for himself and all the devas any power over 
man's soul. Yet the Buddhists are everywhere idol- worshippers. 
Buddhism, however, acknowledges the existence of some of the 
Hindu deities, and from the various friendly offices which those 
Devas are said to have rendered to G-otama, Buddhists evince a 
respect for their idols." See also 'Parables,' p* 182. 



If a man for a hundred years worship Agni (fire) in 
the forest, and if he but for one moment pay homage to 
a man whose soul is grounded (in true knowledge), bet- 
ter is that homage than sacrifice for a hundred years. 


Whatever a man sacrifice in this world as an offer- 
ing or as an oblation for a whole year in order to gain 
merit, the whole of it is not worth a quarter; rever- 
ence shown to the righteous is bettor. 


Ho who always greets and constantly rovoros tho 
aged, four things will increase to him, viz. life, 
beauty, happiness, power. 


But ho who lives a hundred yours, vicioua and un- 
restrained, a life of ono day is bettor if a man is vir- 
tuous and reflecting. 

(100.) Dr. Fausboll, in a most important note, called attention 
to the fact that tho same verge, with slight variations, occurs in 
Mantu Wo there read, ii, 121 : 

" AbhividauaflilaHya nityaw vriddhopasevina/j, 
JTatv/lri aampravardhanto : &yur vidyfl, yo*o balam." 

Here the four things are, life, knowledge, glory, power- 
In the Apastamba-afttras, 1, 2, 5, 15, the reward promised for 
the same virtue is ' Bvargam ftyu* *a/ heaven and long life. It 
seems, therefore, as if the original idea of thia verso came from tho 
Brahmans, and was aftorwardw adopted by the Buddhiats, How 
largely it spread IB shown by Dr. Fauaboll from the ' Asiatic Ko- 
soarcheB,' xx. p. 250, where bho same veree of the Dhamma- 
pada ie mentioned OB being in UHG among the BuddhiBtw of Siam. 



And he who lives a hundred years, ignorant and 
unrestrained, a life of one day is better, if a man is 
wise and reflecting. 


And he who lives a hundred years, idle and weak, 
a life of one day is better, if a man has attained firm 


And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing be- 
ginning and end, a life of one day is better if a man 
sees beginning and end. 


And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing the 
immortal place, a life of one day is better if a man sees 
the immortal place. 


And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing the 
highest law, a life of one day is better, if a man sees 
the highest law. 

(112.) On 'kusifco' an I ' Mnaviriyo, 1 see note to v. 7. 




If a man would hasten towards tho good, he should 
keep his thought away from evil ; if a man docs what 
is good slothfully, his mind delights in evil 


If a man commits a sin, lot him not do it again ; 
lot him not dolight in sin: pain is tho outcome of 


If a man does what is good, lot him do it again ; 
lot him delight in it : happiness is tho outcome of 


Even an evildoer BOOS happiness as long as his evil 
doed has not ripened; lmt whon his ovil dood luiu 
ripened, then doos the evildoer see evil 

Even a good man sees ovil days, as long as Ids good 


deed has not ripened; but when his good deed has 
ripened, then does the good man see happy days. 


Let no man think lightly of evil, saying in his 
heart, It will not come near unto me. Even by the 
falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled; the fool 
becomes full of evil, even if he gathers it little by 


Let no man think lightly of good, saying in his 
heart, It will not benefit me. Even by the falling of 
water-drops a water-pot is filled; the wise mail bo- 
comes full of good, even if ho gather it little by little. 


Let a man avoid evil deeds, as a merchant if ho has 
few companions and carries much wealth avoids a 
dangerous road; as a man who loves life avoids poi- 


He who has no wound on his hand, may touch poi- 
son with his hand ; poison doos not affect one who hau 
no wound; nor is there evil for one who doos not 
commit evil. 

If a man offond a harmless, pure, and innocent per- 

(124.) This verse, taken in connection with what precodcw, can 
only mean that no one suffers evil but ho who Imu committed 
evil, or sin j an idea the very opposite of that pronounced in Luke 
xiii. 1-5. 


son, the evil falls back upon that fool, like light dust 
thrown up against the wind. 


Some people are born again ; evildoers go to hell ; 
righteous people go to heaven ; those who are free from 
all worldly desires enter Nirvana. 


Not in the sky, not in the midst of the sea, not if 
wo enter into the clefts of the mountains, is there 
known a spot in tho whole world whore a man might 
be freed from an evil doocL 


Not in the sky, not in tho midst of tho soa, not if 
wo ontor into tho clofts of tho mountains, is thoro 
known a spot in tho wholo world where death could 
not overcome (tho mortal). 

(1250 Cf. 'Iniliaclio Spriicho/ 1582; Kathfimrits&gara, 40, 

(12f;,) "For a description of hell and its long, jot not endless 
Buffering, sec c Pardbkw,' p. 132. Tho pleasures of heaven, too, 
arc frequently described in those Parables and elsewhere. Bud- 
dha, himself, enjoyed these pleasures of heaven, before he was 
born for the lattt time. Ft ia probably when good and evil deeds 
are equally balanced, that men are born again as human beings ; 
this, at least, in the opinion of tho (?ainas. (Of. Ohint&roani, ed. 
II. Bower, Introd. p. xv.) 





All men tremble at punishment, all men fear death ; 
remember that you are like unto them, and do not kill 
nor cause slaughter. 

(129.) One feels tempted, no doubt, to take 'upama' in the 
sense of the nearest (der Nachste), the neighbour, and to trans- 
late, having made oneself one's neighbour, i.e. 'loving one's 
neighbour as oneself.' But as 'upamihn/ with a short a, is the 
correct accusative of 'upama,' we must translate 'having made 
oneself the likeness, the image of others,' ' having placed oneself 
in the place of others.' This is an expression which occurs fre- 
quently in Sanskrit (cf. Hitopadesa, i. 11). 

" Prarci yathatmano B bhish& bhftt&nam api te tatha, 

Atmaupamyena bhftteshu day&& kurvanti s&dhavaA." 
' As life is dear to oneself, it is dear also to other living beings : 
by comparing oneself' with others, good people bestow pity on all 

See also Hit. i. 12 ; Ram. v. 23, 5, ' fttm&nam upamto- kritv& 
eveshu d&reshu ramyat&m,* 'Making oneself a likeness, i.e. 
putting oneself in the position of other people, it is right to love 
none but one's own wife.' Dr. Faust oil has called attention to 
similar passages in the Mah&bharata, xiii. 55C9 sey. 


All men tremble at punishmout, all men lovo life; 
remember that thou art liko unto them, mul do not 
kill, nor cause slaughter. 


He who for his own saku pumnhcH or kills brings 
longing for luippinofciH, will not find happinoHH uftcr 


1 i >*> 
i f>4-i 

Ilu who tor liis own siiko docs imf. punish or kill 
boinyu longing fur happiness, will tiud happiness aft* 1 !' 

Do not Hjiouk luirnhly to anyho<ly; thow wlio an* 
to will aiiHwor lli<^^ in tlu% HSIIIM' \vay. Angry 
is painful, blown for blows will tourli thi ( c- 

Tf, liko a trumpet <nini[>I*'il undrrfoi*!, <huu ullcr 

(Ittl.) Dr. Kuanboll pointn uui tho wirikin^ Hiutilarity 
thin vornt) nnd two VCPHOH occurring hi Mdtiu uml the 
bhilratn : 
Mmut, v. 45,' 
" Yo rt hiwKukj\ni bhutilni hiimnty MmaHukh<s(vMjiyA 

Sa (jrtvttf* ^a mrita* Xmtvii jut kvn^it mtkliutit 
Mali&Iih. xiii.fijscm: 
" AhifdHitkilui bhfttdiu da/^/onu vinilmnti yii//. 

XtitmnaA Hukham \kkh&\\ wa pruiyn tmiva Htiklil 
If it wore not for 'aliimmUni,' in wliicjh Mnnu and thu Mulm* 
blifiputa ngrocs I, tdumld my that ihu vonujH in both 
niodiftanliouM of the I'Ali originnl, Tin* vcmf in tho 
preemppuHON tluj vorno of thu l.)!mmma|>juhi, 
(18.) Hew * Mtthabhftratn/ x\L 

x. xevii 

not, then them hast reaehod Sirvfi/m; anger i not 
known in thoo. 

Asu wnvhord with his stuff #alher,s his emvn mf<* tlie 
stable, HO do Age and Death gather the lift' of 

A fool doeH not know when he mmmitH Inn 
deeds: hut tho wicked man btmi by hi.s own il 
us if burnt by flro. 


TIo who inflifttH pain on innocent and harmk's* 
j will woon cnrne to one oftheHi* ten states: 

Ifo will havn cruol suHeriTi^ IOHH^ injury *r th 
body, heavy affliction, or IOHH of miml, 


Or a mtofortuno of the kiii^f, or a fearful 
tion, or low of relutioim, r dc^truetion of fr 

(180.) Tim m<*ta|ilir of ' iMiruin^' fir ^utJVnnij;' i < 
mem in Bu<lilluitt litrmturo. Mvrr^Miin/: luirn^, 4,^ ' * 
Mifll'm/ WIIH oiiu c*r tlw (Imt <*x|ii*ri'iuvH ut Uudillni hiiii>4*ir, 
v. im 

(1,88.) MJrui*! ufll*ritiff m (*t|ilttiri^l by 'plMirv^n 
o, 'Ltrnw 1 i tnkw fur lew** of tnotMy, Ityury 
hold to IHJ the cuttiiiK "If of HIM nrm, mtft oth*-r liiob^, ' i li 
tticiionii 1 ' aro, M^' I vnrinun kiittlrt of ilU'ft^-M, 

(WO.) 4 MiNbrtutiii af thi* kfmg' itiny momi. a 
that hAppenm! to tbo kiu f <it'fi*t l^y *n <nu^y tul 
conquwit of tbtf Pi>uitry, * U^wirgft' manual wiri4, 
tune. Dr. FnunboU traiwiUti?* * r%mto va upw***^*m* by * 

' ' 



Or lightning-firo will burn his LOUBOS ; and when 
his body is destroyed, the fool will go to hull. 


Not imkcducHH, not jplattod Iiuir, not dirt, not fust- 
ing, or lying on tho, oartli, not rulrtmig with dust, not 
sitting motiuulcRH, am purity a mortal who has not 
overcome doaires. 

(lunaO doiWtionnn ;' Dr. Wi'bir. by ' i 
* ' AlibliakkhtiniLm,' Kniirik. * ahliyakhyaiuam' i a heavy n< 
nwatiim for high-trcaww, or nimilar ofltawttH. 

Tlu ' dcHtruutiuu uf ploanurokt or truaHurcm* is t-xpluinnt hy 
gold boiiiK clmtiROd to caaln ( ( Parnb'^H,' p. OH), pearl* to coi- 
tcm-Aocd, cont to potnlu^rdH, atul by man and cntllo IxMuxiiinti; 
blind, Itumi, tic. 

(LM.) I)i. KaiiHltiill han pointed out that tin* Ham r n vrry 
Mimilar vorwo otr^tirri in n legend tk**n from UM DivyAvnclflrm, 
and trannlatod by Muriinuf (Intnnliul ion, p. :n?> #/v/.i. KtintiMif 
iraiiHlntoH tho vow*: (1 (!o n'tjKfc ni lu itoulumi' <h iniirchir nu m 
I(H chcvnu natt(5, in TUHU^J d^arffiki, ni I<; choix Aw illwrwn 
c:H]in^K tralinioulH, ni Thubitiulo do cciurhrr xtir In turn* nne, ui la 
poiiHHi^s ni la nuklprupnrtf, ni rattiitiiiim A fair Tubrl 4*un ti>it ( 
cjui Hani capabl< l rt du (Mmiwr In trouble daun l^fjnt'l nmm jHtvnt 
IOB d&jirHnon-watmfaitH; main qu'un hommo* nmUro do w,^ !, 
cahtio, roftuoilli, chanto, ^vHuut tic fairedu nml A untune t'r*tttn f 
aoeompliwm la Loi, <st il KIVA, ({ui<itu> parti d'uriu*mfmK tin 
BrAhmatio, un (/minima, uu Itoligicux. 1 ' 

Walking naked, and fcho othwr thix mntinncd in our wrw 
aro outward niguu of a unintly life, mid thw Uuddha r^rin bi'- 
cauBo they do not ralin tho pwtmoiw. NrtktHlntwji ho ^mm u> 
have mjfttted on other uroundu toi>, if w may jtuljfci fmm th* 
4 8umftgadhft-avm1Ai)a ;' "A tmtubor of nnkml rriam wtwtt 
blod in the hem of tho daughter of AnAtlm-pim/ib. Hhe 
hc>r daught^in-law, Hun%adhil, And Hnul, (jn and 
highly wmpcctablo iJironH, f Humfigad!^ iviwotirig to 

l X. \<*i\ 


Ho who, though driwHrd in ihir njijuiri'l, <>x<<i'oi,sf s 
tranquillity, is quid, milxlui'd, rt'Htraimfd, flmstr, and 
has ceased to liud fault with nil olhrr hfhifis, hi- in- 
flow! is n Itrfilunu/tiiy ;ui atfcrtirf (A'nuiisi//ii), u Iriiir 


la there in this world any man so rcstnnwd by hu- 
mility tlmt ho flop* not mind rqrt'nnf 1 , HH ;i nvlM 
hurno the wln'p ? 

Like u Wdll-tntincd Jinrw* wlu'ti Ifiiiflir'd Ii 

of the flaiutfl, likc k /Sari|njir, Mfiuii^sjlj.'ivana, imil oIluT-, r*nj out 
full of joy. But wlum niio HU\\ thot* IViar^ \\ilh !.h*ip lour lik* 
pigoon wingH, covifrtMl by nothing lint ilirl, offrtiHin^ urn) l'**>kiu\' 
like domoiiH, H!)< bccnmo Hnrl, * Why fin* ymi HUjlr' nnitl lir 
mothor-inIaw. HumftgftdhA rt>pliHl f *O, mnlh^r, if ihi^r un* 
aintB, what mimt fliiuiBrft b<t likoP* " 

Burnouf (Inlrorl, p, IH2) nuppOMt^l Unit ilu^ ^ninnho/ily, nnrl *t*<l 
the BudilhintH, nllowud ntik<ultu*Hrt, But the <Vnitjn<*, tM>, tin nut 
allow it imive'rnally* Tlu^y art* divided itito f wo [mHii'H, tltf M'clnin 
bams and Digamlwrm The AV**irnJmraH, flat! iti whitiv nn 4 tbi 
followem of PAnrvnitfiihn, ntiii wr rlnthi^, Tho i>i^nfitlwr;iH ( i. ^, 
nkj-clad, diurobifd, aro followcrH of Muli^irn, nnd 
in Southern Jtidin. At prtwut they, tn<s wrur rlothn<;r, hut 
when oatitig. (H^S&Ntrttm Aiynr, p, \\j.) 

The 'ya/'V or the hair pluttfd am) ^itlirn^ up in it 
fiign of a &UYH aHct'tic, Tho nittin^ tuotinnU^ N r.tu^ of 
poiturt* aiMUinmi by iUKU)iu*H* Cluu^h fj.\iilaii 
the art of tutting on the lunik ; Wil*tou givi-w for 
'witt'mg on tim haiuw/ (^H FAunNi|| t ni't.o OH 

(142;) Afi to ' dftttfcniahiln*; mm Muhftbh. 

(148, 141,) I urn very doubtful m ^ th^ rrl m#ftititi# 
rorfti, I think thdr objmrt in to how how 



whip, be yo active and lively, and by faith, by 
virtue, by energy, by meditation, by discernment of 
the la\v you will overcome this grout pain, (of re- 
proof), porfoot in knowledge and in behaviour, and 
novur forgetful. 


Well-makers lead the watur (wherever they like), 
f lot uh ors bond the arrow; carpenters break a log of 
wood ; wifle people- fashion themselves. 

uhould bo Iwrm 1 - I 

of a well-broken or wdl-Lrainod, not in the KcutHi* of a 
spirited homo. ' II rt,* no rtuubt, numiw fprnornlly ' Hlinic%* but it 
alno mcwuH c humility/ or * mrxhwby.' Uwcv*?r, I 3;ivo >ny tmrm* 
latioti ua eonjcv.tural only, for thons aro uoviTal pnHrtn^'H in tho 
comiticntary which I do not umlurHlund. 
(M-5.) Tlie Hftimt uw VOTHO HO, 



How i thoro laughter, how in there joy, as 
world IH ulwuytt burning? Why A" y< 
light, yo who arc Hiaruunded hy 


Look at HUB drcHHed-np liunj*, covered with u 
joined together, feickly, hill of many thoughl^ w 
lioa no utrciiftth, no hold I 


Thin body in wanted, lull of HiirkiuwH, uiul frail ; 
iM Itoap of coiruption breaks (o pien-.s, (he lifn in it 


Those whiio liotioH, Hkii fpnirflN thrown uwuy itt tin* 
imtujun ; what ploanure in thero in looking nt them V 

Dr. VtmtibSll 

Dr. Wobcr, *da*g iluch bitttftncUg Kummcr git>t. f Tho 
tator oxplaint, ' a UiU ttbodo in ilwftyw lighted t*y pnwioo nt)4 
other flrc 



After a frame lias buuu nwrle of the bones, it in 
covered with flenli and blood, and Ihoro chvoll in it 
old ago uud death, pride ami domt. 


The brilliant cihiuiolK of kings nro destroyed, th 
body alrto upproucdH'H detraction, but tho virtue nf 
good pooplti HOVCT nppromili cloKfriintiun, ihus do th 
KCMK! nay t<j tlio 


A man who huB lournt littlo, grows old liko un ox ; 
bin flctHli grown, but bm knowl^dg(s doon not grow- 

Without running nliull I run Ihrough a ffourw ofmimy 
birtliw, looking for fho maker of HIIH fjilM'nim'hv-^itiifl 
jjuinful is birth again and ugain, i!uf now, mak^r of 
the talwriiuelu, llion liant. \wn\ sr^cn ; f lion nhult not make 
tip fhirt taborna<ilo again. All fhy ruftorrt un* Imtkoti, 
thy ridgo-polcj irt Hundorcd ; tho mind, boing nurHlc jivd 4 
lm>s attained to tho oxtinctittn of all 

(ICO.) The cxproHbion ' lunwHululiitwlrpanttin ' in crii>u,% liho 
tho oxpreafiion uod in M/mu, vi. 7H, 4 iiift^wiJTOwititlcj 
in several pOKHngc-H or the Mnh&bliArot, xii. I2UJ2, 
out by Dr. Fiuinb^II. 
164*) ThcHa two v(?m-H nro IHIUOUH ninim 
they aru tho wordn which tho fouiuW of Kudtihintn IK 
to havo uttorod at tho moment hv attained to liiithlhjthoufi, 
Sponce Uurdy, f MukiuV l>. 380.) According ttj tint 
ttiru, tho wordtf uttoml on that Kolumn occan 
quoted hi tho note to venjc 'iO, Though tliti purpori (!' loth 


Man who liuvo not </bservi?d proper discipline, ami 
havo not guinod wealth in their youth, ilioy perish 
like old herons in a lake. without fish, 

Men who havo not observed proper discipline, mid 
havo nut gained wealth in tlioir youlli; they lie liki* 
broktsn bown, nighiug after llio past. 

the mime, the tradition prwi*rvi*d by tliu SuuthtTn l/j;<Mla<iin 

greater vigour than that of tho North. 

Tho maker of Uu* inlxTniutln * in i'Xpluint'fi an u pm-tintl i tpri'i- 
for thu cniiHO of new hirtlut, at if-nHt at'ronlini; in tlir \jru-t ul' 
followcfM, whnt^vor Ills own \ iru s ma) havr hrt-n. liuil^ 


tho Hither of worldly iluMirr*^ JUul an t|^ir^ (t,Wu;j,j an\ IM iMt i ;in;* 
ol' 4 upAtlAntt * ami * bhavu,* Llm cauHr u|' '^;tti,' (*r birth, ii,r ,in h u<^ 
tiou of doBinm mid thu doleat of Miiruurr nuilly the >uuir 
though oxprt'BtKul diilorcutty in tho philtmophiral nn<l )i"^ 
language of the BuddliihtH, Tu/jhA, thirwt ur (t(*3tr-. it tMtMt 
n aerving in the army of ( 4 I^itu**/ ju HH.) Tht*rt' iri 
vuluublo romnrka of Mr. D'AIwi* on thcmi vrr^H iu tin 1 
nugaluvniiHa,' p. cxxviii. Thiw ItMiriutd H^holar pdititH <ui 
taiu Mtinilarity m iho niotaphurw uwnd Ity Hiuldhn, snal Hcinut 
in Manu v vi. 7(> 77* (S<m ulwu MaliAMi. xii. I'JK;') J,; M r 
B'Alwia* quotation, Imw^vor, front ' Pft^iui,' iii. 2, 1 !*. )Tro\*; in 
DO way that *miulhuviNsau,' or any oihor fuiunt run, if 
by itBttlf, bo utunl in n jmul MMI(, Fu/niu ^|n,'akh of 
atuulyatuiiu,' aind ho rcMtritsU thtt UMI nf the lutum in u 
eun^e to cnisttt M'hcro tho future foliim* v<?rbrf 
faction, etc. 

(155*) On V%Mlt,' jU 'kriiAjunti, 1 mii Dr, I 
remark^ * Xloibichrift dor Drutw*lM?n Mrr^nl ihwrlMmft/ xviii. 
mid BoviitiiriKk-itoth, ^ r, 

01 V 


If a man hold himiujlf dour, lot him waioli himnnlf 
carefully ; during ono ut hwrt out of tho threw wutohen 
a wiwo man should bo watchful. 


Lot ouch man first dironl liirnwlf to what in propor, 
th<m lot him tu#h (itliorn; tluis a vrm\ man will not 


Lot cuioh man nmko hmiMulf aw lit* 
to bo; lui who ifl well mihducfl may nubchuj (ofchcrw); 
OHO'B own nelf IB difficult t< 


Solf is the lord of Holf, who (Am <wmM Iw tho lord ? 
With self woll-Hubduod, a man fituln H lrd mich a* 
fow ran find, 

(157.) The throo vafcchoN of the night &ru nituut fur tho tluv 



The evil dime by onoself, self-begotten, sell-bred, 

tho wicked, a a diamond breaks a 

IIo whoso wickedness in very groat hrmp* himself 
down to that state whcro hm enemy wishes Itini to ho, 
as a creeper docs with tho tree which it mirroundk 


liad dt^eda, and dwdfl hurtful to ourselves, arc. unay 
to do; what in iMiiicfimal mid good, that in very <lifli- 
cult to do. 


Tlio wifik<?d man whr> scorn* 1hi rule nf Uic, vi'wr- 
ahlo (Arahut)^ of tho cl<ict (Ariyu), <f Ihr virlUMUs, 
and follows falno dootrtix^ h<^ hcaw fruit (o his o\vu 
destruction, lik(. tlu fruits of thu Ka////uka r<'i*d. 


Hy oncviolf tho (Jvil in dono, hy otuwlf mo HuffVrw; 
hy otioMolf ovil in left undone, hy ouowlf one in |iuri- 
tied. Purity and iirij>urity Ix'loti^ to oneself, nn 
purify another. 

(104.) Tiro rttml t k lthor Am ftfU-r it hrw bwrni* fruit, nr iw <rui 
down for tint wiko of itw fruit. 

'Di/Mi, 1 litorjilly vinw, in um'tl rv^n by ilwrH', like thr (Jrcck 
1 hatroum* in tho wtntmioflion^y (HIH* HunuMit', * ljoiu*,' p. II I). IM 
other ptacatu diuMtitttum iMmmt^ brtwm^n k nu/U/mtii/^i' (v. 1^7, 
31 B) and itanimAdt/Mi ' (v* KIO), If 'nmlmtn^ nrivnnn//v * nn> 
uod In their teolinicul wfitHS no Mboiiid tmiulaUt ' lb< n<von^Mt 
Arhat< ' Xrimt 1 boing the) highwt (Irgro** of tf^ four ttrtlcr* uf 
Ariyws, vi& Swto&jmuna, HuMdA^Hth^ AuAgAiuin, utid Arhat 
See note to v. 178, 



Let no one forgot his* own duty for the sake of 
another's, however great ; let a man, after he has dis- 
cerned his own duty, be always attentive to his duty. 

(1(50.) 'Attha, 1 lit, 'object,* iiust bo taken in a moral sense, as 
'duty* rather than as 'advantage. 1 TLo story which Buddha- 
ghowha tolls of the ' Thora Attadattha * gives a ulue to the origin 
of BOUIO of IUB parables, which soetu to have boen invented to suit 
the text of thii Dhainmapuiln rather than vice vend. A similar 
<aio ot'CiirH in the commentary to verso 227. 




Do not follow the evil law ! Do not live on in 
thoughtlessness ! Do not follow false doctrine ! Bo 
not a friend of the world. 


Bouse thyself! do not IDB idle ! Follow the law of 
virtue! The virtuous lives happily in this world 
and in the next. 


Follow the law of virtue; do not follow that of 
sin. The virtuous lives happily in this world and in 
the next, 


Look upon the world as a "bubble, look upon it as a 
mirage : the king of death does not see him who thus 
looks down upon the world. 


Come, loqk at this glittering world, like unto a 
royal chariot ; tl^e foolish are immersed in it, but the 
wise do not cling to it. 



He who formerly was reckless and afterwards be 
came sober, brightens up this world, like the moon 
when freed from clouds. 


lie whose evil deeds are covered by good deeds, 
brightens up this world, like the moon when freed 

from cluuds, 


This world is dark, few only can see hero ; a few 
only go to heaven, like birds escaped from the not, 


The BwaitH go on tin* path of the sun, they go 
through tliu other by incuiw of their miraculous power ; 
the wise aro led out of this world, when they have con- 
quered MAra, and bifi train. 


If a man IKW traiwgroHHcwl OHO law,, and speaks lies, 
ami wuJfife at another world, there IB no evil he will 

not do. 


Tho unoliuritttMu do not gololho world of the gods ; 
fools only do not pruiHo liberality ; a wiso man rejoices 
in liberality, and through it becomes blessed in the 
othor world. 

(175) ' llama' may bo meant for the bird, whether flamingo, 
or swan, or ibii (MO Hardy, - Manual/ p. 17), but it may al*o, I taken in the unto of aaint. As to 'iddhi/ magical 
po*er, U < riddhi," HOO Burnouf, ' Lot< p. 310 ; Bponca Hardy, 
< MftnvoV PP- W8 and 604 j Legends,' pp. 66, 177, Soo note to 




Better than sovereignty over the earth, better than 
going to heaven, better than lordship over all -worlds, 
is the reward of the first stop in holiness, 

(178.) ' Sotapatti,' the technical term for the first step in the 
path that leads to Nirvawa. There are four such steps, or stages, 
and on entering each, a man receives a now title : 

1. The ' flrota apanna, 1 lit, he who has got into the stream. 
A man may have seven more births before he reaches the other 
shore, i.e. ' Nirvawa.' 

2. ' Sakridagamin,' lit. he who comes back onco, BO called be- 
cause, after having entered this stage, a man is born only once 
more among men or gods. 

3. ' An&gamin,' lit. he who does not come back, so called be- 
cause, after this stage, a man cannot be born again in a lower 
world, but can only enter a Brahman world before he reaches 

4. 'Arhat/ the venerable, the perfect, who has reached the 
highest stage that can be reached, and from which Nirvana is per- 
ceived (sukkhavipassana, 'Lotus,' p. 849). See Hardy, 'Eastern 
Monachism,' p. 280, Burnouf, Introduction, p, 209; Koppen, 
p. 398 ; D'Alwis, Attanugaluvonsa, p. cxxiv. 




Ho whoso ctmquoHt in not conquered again, whose 
conquest no one in this world escapes, by what path 
can you load him, the Awakeuod, the Omniscient, into 

a wrong path ? 


lie whom no doairo with its snares and poisons can 
lead astray, l>y what path can you lead him, the Awa- 
kened, the Onmwoiont, into a wrong path ? 

(170-180,) Tboao two VCMIOB, though their general meaning 
eoonm ctaar, contain many difficultioH which I do not at all pretend 
to solve. < Buddha/ tho Awakened, ia to bo takon as an appella- 
tive rather than as tho proper name of tho ' Buddha/ It moans, 
anybody who has arrival at comploto knowledge. 'Ananta- 
gdburam ' 1 taku in the seno of, possessed of unlimited know- 
lodge. 'Apadasn,' which Dr. Fau&boll takes as an epithet of 
Buddha and translate* by non fawtigaiait, I take aa an acousa- 
iivo governed by * noHnatha, 1 and in tho sense of wrong place 
(uppatha, v. 80J), p. 800, 1. 2) or Bin, 

The second lino of vorflo 17fl is moat difficult. The commenta- 
tor *e*ma to take it in tho sense of " in whoso conquest nothing is 
wanting," " who has conquered all sina and all passions,' In that 
case wo should have to supply ' kileso ' (mase.) or ' rgo,' or take 
'koii 1 iu the sanao of any onemy, Of, r. 108. 



Even the gods envy those who are awakened and 
not forgetful, who are given to meditation, who arc 
wise, and who * delight in the repose of retirement 
(from the world). 


Hard is the conception of men, hard is the life of 
mortals, hari is the hearing of the True Law, hard is 
the birth of the Awakened (the attainment of Bud- 


Not to commit any sin, to do good, and to purify 
one's mind, that is the teaching of the Awakened. 

The Awakened call patience the "highest penance, 

(183.) This verse is again one of the most solemn verses among 
the Buddhists. According to Caoma de Koros, it ought to follow 
the famous. Arya stanza, 'Ye dhamma' (' Lotus/ p, 522), and serve 
as its complement. But though this may be the case in Tibet, it 
was not so originally* Burnouf has fully discussed the metre and 
meaning of our verse on pp, 527, 528 of his 'Lotus,' He prefers 
' sa&ittaparidamanam,' which Csoma translated by " the mind must 
be brought under entire subjection '* (svafattaparidamanam), and 
the late Dr. Mill by " proprii intellect as subjugatio," But his own 
MS. of the ' Mah&padh&na sutta ' gave likewise ' su&itlapariyodapn- 
nam, 1 and this is no doubt the correct reading. (800 D'Alwis, ' At- 
tanugaluvansa,' cxxix.) We found ' pariyodappeya ' in vorae 88, in 
the sense of freeing oneself from the troubles of thought. The only 
question is whether the root ' dft,* with the prepositions ' pan* an 4 
' aya,' should be taken in the sense of cleansing oneself from, or 
cufctitig oneself out from, I prefer the former corruption, tho 
swn which in Buddhist literature has given rise to the tt&ma Ava* 
diua, a legend, originally a pure and virtuous act, an opt'cr-reta, after- 
wards a sacred story, and possibly a story tho hearing of which 
purifies the mind. See Boditlingk-Rofch, s, v. ' 


long-suffering the highest Nirv#a; for ho is not an 
anchorite (Pravra^ita) who strikes others, he is not an 
- asootic ($ramawa) "who insults others. 


Not to blamo, not to strike, to live restrained under 
the law, to he moderate in eating, to sleep and eat 
alone, and to dwell on the highest thoughts, this is 
the teaching of the Awakened. 


There i no siitinfyiiig lusts, even by a whowor of 
gold pieces; he who knows that lusts have a short 
taste and cause pain, he u wise. 


Even in lioavoflly pleasures he finds no flatiwfaction, 
tho diyciplo who in fully awakened delights only in 
tho destruction of all desires. 

(1,85.) ' Pfttimokklie/ under tho law, *.<?. according to the Unit, tha 
law which toads to * Moktihu,' or frcmiom* ' PriUimokwha * in tho 
title of tho oldoHfc collodion of tho moral lawu of tho Buddhist* 
(Burnouf, Introduction, p. #00 ; Bigandet, 'The Life of Oaudanm/ 
p, 4*30), and an it WAB common both to the Southern ami tho 
Northern Burldhiut*, ' p&timokkho ' in our pawmgo ma/ potwibly 
bo meant, as ProftsHor Wobor HURRetB, M tho title of that vory 
<solleetion. The cnminentator explains it by 'yi'MAakflRiU* and 
' iidtiinokkhaiUa. 1 1 take 'tmyan&tiam' for tf ayanftanani;' sou 
Mahab, xii. 0(Wd. In xii. 0978, however, we find alao ' *nyyftimnu/ 

(1H7.) There iw a curious wmilarity botwcon this vortw and verao 
1i503 (0910) nf the Mntiparva ; 

* Ya k& kamanukhaw loka, ya/t k& divyam mahat sukham, 
IViflhrtakbhayaHiilchaeyaito nftrhata/i Awdwlm kal&m; 1 
And whatever dolight of love thero iff on earth, and whatever (A tho 
groat delight in heaven, they are not worth tho wixtotmth part of the 
pleasure which springs from the destruction of all domrea. 



Men, driven by fear, go to many a refuge, to moun- 
tains and forests, to groves and sacred trees, 


But that is not a safe refuge, that is not the best 
refuge ; a man is not delivered from all pains after 
having gone to that refuge. 


He who takes refuge with Buddha, the Law, and 
the Church ; he who. with clear understanding, sees 
the four holy truths : 


Viz. Pain, the origin of pain, the destruction of 
pain, and the eightfold holy way that loads to tho 
quieting of pain ; 


That is the safe refuge, that is the best rofugo; 
having gone to that refuge, a man is delivered from 
all pain. 

(188-192.) These verses occur in (Sanskrit in tho ' PrdtiMrya- 
stea,' translated by Buruouf, Introduction, pp. 102-180 ; see p. 
186. Burnouf translates ' rukkba&etyani ' by ' arbres consawtfs f 
properly, sacred shrines under or uoar a tree. 

(190.) Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha arc called the ' Trhanma ' 
(cf. Burnouf, Introd. p, 630). The four holy trullm are tho four 
statements that there is pain in thia world, tftat tho source of 
pain is desire, that desire can be annihilated, that thoro is a way 
(shown by Buddha) by which the annihilation of all duftirow can 
be achieved, and freedom be obtained. Thai; way consists of 
eight parts. (See Burnouf, Introduction, p. 080.) Tho eightfold 
way forms the subject of chapter xviii. (See also Chip* from a 
German Workshop,' Sad el tol L p. 251 **#,) 




A supernatural person is not easily found, ho is not 
born everywhere, "Wherever such a sage is born, 
that race prospers. 


Happy is the arising of the Awakened, happy is 
tho teaching of tho True Law, happy is peace in the 
church, happy is tho devotion of thoso who are at 

195, 196. 

Ho who pays homage to thoso who deserve homage, 
whether tho awakonod (J3uddha) or their disciples, those 
who have overcome tho host (of evils), and crossed the 
flood of sorrow, ho who pays homage to such as have 
found deliverance and 'know no four, Ids in Brit can 
never bo measured by anybody. 




Let us live happily then, not hating those who hate 
us I let us dwell free from hatred among men who 

hate ! 


Let us live happily then, free from ailments among 
the ailing I let us dwell free from ailments among men 

who are ailing ! 


Let us live happily then, free from greed among 
the greedy I let us dwell free from grocd among men 
who are greedy ! 


Let us live happily thon, though we Gall nothing 

1198.) The ailment here meant is moral rather than physical. 
Of. Mah&bh. xii. 9924, ' sawipradLnto nir&maya/*;' 9925, *jo sau- 
pr&nantiko rogas taw trishnam tyayataA- eukham.' 

(200.) The words placed in the mouth of the king of Yideha, 
while his residence MithilA was in flames, are curiously like our 
verse; cf. Mab&bh. sii. 0917, 

' S iisukhaw yata ^vtoi yasya me nasti kiwkana. , ' 
Mithilftyatn pradipt&y&w na me dlahyati ki^^ana;' , 

' , -,- '' ' , A 2 ' 


our own 1 We shall bo like the bright go is, feeding 
on happinDss ! 


Victory Imwils hatred, for tho conquered is unhappy. 
TIo \vli<> linn given up both victory and dufcut, he, 
tho contented, in happy. 


There is no firo liko passion ; there is no unlncky 
die liko liutrod ; Ihoro in no pain like this body ; there 
is no luippiuofls like rest. 


Hungur iw tho wornl of dwousM, tho body the 

T live happily, indued, for 1 have nothing; while Mithili is in 
flauiOH, nothing of mine ia burning. 

Tlio ' toliawwra/ i. & * ftbhtavaru/ the bright godn, arc frequently 
mentioned. (Of- Burnouf, Jntnxl. p. (SI I.) 

(202.) f lttk( * kali ' in tho HOIISO of an unlucky dio which makes 
a player low hm ^nino. A roal siinilo HGOIUH wanted here, aH in 
v. 25'J, whure, for tli(i KWIIIO roason, J tnuiBlnlo ' gratia' by 'shark,' 
not by ' eaptiviUH,' an Dr. Fuimboll projioHOH. Tho same scholar 
tnuwlutaH ' kali ' our vera by ' poccatum. 9 If there is any ob- 
jection to truiiHlathtg * kali ' in PAH by unlucky die, L ahould still 
prefer to tnko it in tho Henac of tho ago of depravity, or the demon 
of depravity. 

* liody * for ' khutidha ' in a free translation, but it is difficult 
to find any other rendering. According to the Buddhists each 
sentient being cotmiata of five ^khaiulha' (skandlm), or branches, 
tho organized body (rftpa khandh) with itB four internal capo- 
eitios df sensation (vedniift), porcopfcion (saw^uft), conception 
(sawskto), knowledge (vi^fiana)- the Buruouf, Introd. pp. 681>, 
63d; 'Lotus/ p.8Ji5. 

(203.) It is difficult to give an exact rendering of 'sa*ttsk&ra'' 
which 1 have translated pomotimcs by ' body * or ' created things/ 
sometimes by 'natural desires/ 'Bawakdra' is the fourth of 


greatest of pains ; if one knows this truly, that is 
the highest happiness. 


Health is the greatest of gifts, contentedness the 
best riches; trust is the best of relatives, Nirvana, 
the highest happiness. 


He who has tasted the sweetness of solitude and 
tranquillity, is free from fear and free from sin, while 
he tastes the sweetness of drinking in the Law. 

the five 'khandhaa,' but the commentator takes it here, as well 
as in v. 255, for the five ' khandhas ' together, in which case we 
can only translate it by body, or created things. There is, how- 
ever, another 'satfiskara,' that which follows immediately upon 
' avidy&,' ignorance, as the second of the c nid&nas,' or causes of 
existence, and this too might be called the greatest pain, consider- 
ing that it is the cause of birth, which is the cause of all pain. Bur- 
nouf, 'Lotus,' pp. 109, 827, says, "Phomme des Buddhistes qui, 
done* inte'risurement de l'ide*e de la forme, voit au dehors dcs 
formes, et, apres les avoir vaincues, se dit: je connais, je vois, 
ressemble singulierement au 'sujet victorious de chnque objec- 
tivite qui demeure le sujet triomphant de toutes choses.*" 

'Samsk&ra' seems sometimes to have a different and less 
technical meaning, and be used in the sense of conceptions, 
plans, desires, as, for instance, in v. 368, whore samkharAiia^ 
khayam ' is used much like ' tawhakhaya. 1 Desires, however, arc 
the result of ' saawkhlra/ and if tho samfcliuras aro destroyed, 
desires cease; see v. 154, ' visamkliflragata0a &ittaw* lazhanam 
khayam agpfagfl,' Again, in his comment on v. 75, Buddhnghosha 
says, 'upadhiviveko Ba0nkharasamgaflika0& vinodeti; 1 an*d again, 
' upadhiviveko k& nirupadhiuto puggalanaw viaawkharagat^Lnawi,' 

For a similar sentiment, see Stanislas Julian, 'Les Avadanas,' 
vol. i. p, 40, "Le corps est k plus grande source de eouffranoe,*' 
etc. I should say that 'khnndha* in v. 202, and ' sawkhari, ' jln 
v. 203, are nearly, if not ijuite, synonymous, 1 should prefer to 



The sight of tho elect (Arya) is good, to live with 
them is always happiness ; if a man does not see fools, 
he will 1)0 truly happy. 


Ho who walks in tho company of fools suffers a long 
way ; company with fools, us with an enemy, is always 
painful ; company with tho wise is pleasure, like meet- 
ing with kinsfolk. 


Therefore, one ought to follow tho wise, the intel- 
ligent, tho learned, the much enduring, the dutiful, 
the elect; one* ought to follow u good and wise man, 
as tho moon follows tho path of the stars. 

road 'yigaiMi-'paranifl, ' as a compound. ' C/igaiHV or as it is 
written, iu oiio M&, 'tligafc&M,' (8k. * ^ighalsft') means not only 
liuagor, but ujipctifcu, UGH ire. 
(208.) I bhould like to road ' aukho a dhirasa0wr4so.' 





He who gives himself to vanity, and does not give 
himself to meditation, forgetting the real aim [of life) 
and grasping at pleasure, mil in time envy him who 
has exerted himself in meditation. 


Let no man ever look for what is pleasant, or what 
is unpleasant. Not to see what is pleasant is pain, 
and it is pain to see what is unpleasant. 


Let, therefore, no man love anything ; loss of the 
beloved is evil. Those who love nothing, and hate 
nothing, have no fetters. 


From pleasure comes grief, from pleasure comes 
fear ; he who is free from pleasure knows neither grief 
nor fear. 

From affection comes grief, from affection comes 


fear; ha who is free from affoction knows neither 
grief nor fear. 


From lust comes grief, from lust comes fear; he 
who is free from lust knows neither grief nor fear. 


From love comes grief, from love comes foar; ho 
who is free from love knows neither grief nor fear. 

2 JO. 

From grnod ooinoB grief, from greed comes fear j he 
who in free from greed knows neither grief nor four, 


Ho who poBHOHWM virluo and intelligence^ who is 
just, Hpottkn tlw truth, and doon what is his own busi- 
ness, him tlio world will hold door. 


Ilo in whom a drouro for tho luoffublo (KTirv&wa) 
has sprung up, who is satisfied iu IUB mind, and 
whoso thoughts arc not buwildurod by lovo, ho is 
called UrdhvuMsrotas (oarriod upwards by tho stream)* 

(218.) * frrtllivnwHrolaH,* or ' uddlmwHdto,' is tlio ((Clinical namo 
for ouo who baa rtiachtul iho world of the ' Awihau* (Aviha), and 
is proceeding to that of tho * AkauhihAfu' (Akani^/m). Tins is 
Uielabt ytngo before h roadies the formloug world, the 'Arftpa* 
dhAtu. (Hoe Parables, p, 128 ; Buruouf> lutrod. fi09.) Originally 
* {irdhvawerotaa ' may have been used in a leas technical sense, 
meaning one who swims against tho stream, and is cot carried 
away by the vulgar passions of the world. 



Kinsfolk, Mends, and lovers salute a man who has 
been long away, and returns safe from afar. 


In like manner his good works receive him who 
has done good, and has gone from this world to the 
other ; as kinsmen receive a friend on his return. 





Lot a mail leave anger, let him formlco pride, lot 
him overcome all bondage ! No RuffcringA befall tho 
man who IH not attached to cither body or soul, and 
who cullw nothing hiw own, 


Ho who holda Imcik ritting angtsr like? a rolling 
(ihariot, him T call a real driver ; other people are but 
holding tho roinn. 


Let a man overcome angor by lovo, let liim over- 
come evil by good ; let him overcome the greedy by 
liberality, the liar by truth I 

Speak the truth, do not yield to angor; give, if 

c Hody and *oul' iu tho trmmlation of * n&uta-rftpa/ lit, 
* immoflTul form, 1 the ninth of tho Hudilhmt Nid&tian. (Of. Buniouf, 
Introdp p, 601 ; seo alao Gogorly, Lecture on Buddhism, and Bi- 
gandot ? *Tho Life of Gaudama/ p. 454.) 
(223.) Mahftblu iii. 3500, ' aa&dhufn 


thou art asked, from the little thou hast ; by those 
steps thou wilt go near the gods. 


The sages who injure nobody, and who always con- 
trol their body, they will go to the unchangeable place 
(Nirvawa), where if they have gone, they will suffer 
no more. 


Those who are always watchful, who study day and 
night, and who strive after Nirvana, their passions 
will coma to an end. 


This is an old saying, O Atula, this is not only of 
to-day : " They blame him who sits silent, thoy blame 
him who speaks much, they also blame him who 
says little; there is no one on earth who is not 

There never was, there novor will bo, nor is there 

(227.) It appears from the commentary that 'por&nam' and 
' a^atanam 1 are neuters, referring to what happened formerly and 
what happens to-day, and that they are not to be token as adjec- 
tives referring to '&sinam,' etc. The commentator must have 
read ' atula' instead of ' atulam,' and he explains it as the name of 
a pupil whom Gtoutama addressed by that name* This may be so 
(see note to verse 158) ; but * atula' may also ber taken in the sense 
of incomparable (MahAbh. xiii. 1937), and in that case we ought 
to supply, with Professor "Weber, some such word as 'saw' or 
' saying. 1 


now, a man who is always blamed, or a man who 
is always praised. 

229, 230. 

But ho whom thoso who discriminate praiso con- 
tinually day aftcar day, as without Llcmish, wise, rich in 
knowledge and virtue, who would ilavo to blame him, 
like a coin made of gold from the fiutnM river ? Even 
the goda praise him, ho in praised evon by Brahman. 


Ihwuro of bodily ungw, and control thy body! 
Luuvtt the whin of the Imdy, and with thy body prac- 
tise virtue* ! 


Beware of the anger of the tongue, and control thy 
toiiguo ! Louvo tho ttinrt of tho touguo, and practise 
virtue with thy tongue ! 


Bcwaro of tho ungor of tho mind, and control thy 
mind t Leave tho HIUB of tho mind, and practise virtue 
with thy mind ! 

Tho wiso who control thoir body, who control thoir 
tongue, tho wiwo who control tlioir mind, uro indeed 

(2JMX) The Dratmmn worlds aro higher than tho Deva worlds 
a tho Hruhmau m higher ttmu n Dm; (BOO Hardy, 'Manual/ 
p. 25} Burnouf, introduction, pp. 1B4, 184.) 





Thou art now like a scar leaf, the messengers of 
Death (Tama) have come near to thee ; thou standest 
at the door of thy departure, and thou hast no pro- 
yision for thy journey. 


Make thyself an island, work hard, be wise I When 
thy impurities are blown away, and thou art free from 
guilt, thou wilt enter into the heavenly world of the 
Elect (Ariya). 


Thy life has come to an end, thou art come near 
to Death (Tama), there is no resting-place for thee 

(235.) 'Uyyoga' seems to menu 'departure. 1 (See Buddha- 
ghosha's commentary on verse 152, p. 319, 1. 1; Fausboll, ' Five 
Gfctakas,' p. 35. 

(236.) An 'island, 7 for a drowning man to gave himself. (See 
verse 25.) 'Dipaankara' is the name of one" of the former Bud- 
dhas, and it IB also used as an appellative of the Buddha. 


on the road, and thou hast no provision for thy jour- 


Make thyself an island, work hard, bo wise ! When 
thy impurities are blown away, and thou art free from 
guilt, thou wilt not enter again into birth and decay. 


Let a wise man blow off the impurities of his soul, 
as a smith blows off the impurities of silver, one by 
one, little by little, and from time to time. 


Impurity ariscw from the iron, and, having ariuou 
from it, it destroys it ; thuw do a transgressor's own 
works load him to the evil path. 


Tho taint of pruyorw is non-ropotition ; the tuint of 
bouBCH, non-repair; the taint of tlu> body is sloth, the 
taint of a watchman thoughtlessness, 


Bad conduct is tho taint of woman, greediness tho 
taint of a benefactor; tainted arc till ovil wayn ? in 
this world aud in tho uoxt, 


But there is a taint worao than all tainta, ignorance* 
IB tho greatest tyini mendicant* ! tlirow off that 
taint, and become taintless I 

xvrn. cxxvn 


Life is easy to livo fur u man who is without shame, 
a crow luaro, a miHchiuf-maker, an insulting, hold, and 
wrutehod follow. 

2-1 fl. 

Itul lift* m hard to livo fur u mudust man, who 
ulwaya Ionics for what is pun 1 , who in disintoreated, 
tj npotluHHy and ii 

Ho who doKtroyn lift*, who npoakrt untruth, who 
takes in ihin world whtit IK not givou him, who tukow 
nnotlicr man's 

And the man who gmu hiinwtlf to drinking intoxi- 
cating liquorw, ho, ovon in tins world, digs up IUH own 


mail, know thin, thiit the unroHtraiuod arc in a 
bud Hluto; fuko cuw that ffm k diii()HB uiul vice do not 
bring thuo ti> griof for u Jonpf liino ! 

(2U.) 'Pwkktmmlin* ih idontiflrd liy Dr. Vnuntoll with 'pro- 
,' out* who juni|w forwnnl, iiiHulU, or, m BmidUaglioNlm 
ib, ouo who /nrddUm with otti(,;r ()eopto f H bttHiiu^H, nn hi- 
At all uvttnfcH, it in a t<rm i>r rcprtiach, ami, AM it would 
worn, of theological rqn'ourli. 

(24fl) On tlm flvo prim'ijml contttmndmouiH which Arc ro- 
cnpitulntod IB vornon 1240 and 247, <w IVirabbit, p. 109* 
(248.) Or* AftliAbhArntft, Kii, U)S6 I 'yimhta vHtti* in 
Boc al*o v, 307, 


Tlio world gives according to their faith or according 
to their pleasure: if a nmu frets about the fond and 
the drink given to others, lie will find no rest either l*y 
day or by night. 


Ho in whom that feeding i destroyed, and taken 
out with this very root, finds rest l>y day and by 


There IH no fire, like yswHion, there if* no rfinrk like 
hatred, there IH 710 wiuro like, folly, there is no torrent 
like greed. 


Thn fault of others in easily ju wived, ltit thut </' 
oneself iw difiloult to pereeive; the ftiullH nf other* 
ono luyrt open UH much as jMmsiMe, but ou* il s iwu 
futilt ono hid( i K 7 UH n e.Ui'iil liili'K llu 1 bad die from tint 

.) Thin verw Jms vi(it?nUy rt^gnnt to tint f^itlii)^ uf thi 
u* or itiotidiciiuU who n^ot-ivc t*it!u<r tnturlt ur liiiK nnd 
who nro cxborUid not to In* OUVIOUH if <tihM*>t rtHTivt* mow ilmn 
tluty UioutMclvftM. Hoveml of Llio I*ura1>l<*H ilhiHlniti? thi f^i'lin^. 

(SKI.) Dr. KauHbull iranMlaUin'Ralui* by 4 eHjitivitiiN/ lh% W^tu-r 
by ' fetter/ I tabu* it in iho Munm minHc UM * ^rtlhH* in MHIIM, u, 7n ; 
m\<l j}uddlmf{hotihu clout* the naiuo, tliou^h h*, 1 iu*igti*( Mi * ^rdha 1 A 
more gonwul tnciflting, viz. nuytlang that twi^tm, whHltrr art i>vil 
spirit (yakklm), a narpont (ayi^urn), or a enii'o 

(iraod or tltirnt in ropr<moni(ul AH n rivrr in 
od, Cnlc. p. 4HS, ' triHlu/A-imdl tiv^H pjii^wiiiift rut- 
emu, 1 the wild river of thifftt it* dried up by th nun uf my 

rnAm:r< xvni. oxxix 

If a man looks uftor tho faults of othorn, and in 
ahvuys inclined to detract, hiw own wiikncwctH will 
grow, and ho in fur from tin* 'Instruction of w 

Thorn is no path fhrmi*;!) llir air, a man is not a 
$ruimwu by nutwuril acis. Thn world rlcli^hts in va- 
nity, tho TuiliftgutiiM (1lu ItudiUuiM) r< five from vanity. 

(2M.) AH to 'ftsava,' 'wt'uknoH*/ HW: noti* lo v. ttlh 
(254.) I lurw tratiHlalcfi HUH vcroi* vorv fri'cl.v* an*l nol in 

with Btidtihn^tmhu'H rntunu;niaf^. Dr. F 
to tmiiKlniff : 'No 'tn<; \vlu> in outside Um Bii 
it i unity can walk Ihrou^h tin' nir, Imf. nnlv u Nr;utm^a; f and tht* 
WIIIH* viiw in tttkiMi hy I'mft'KHnr Wt'lMT, thuu^h U arrivpK ut it 
by a fliflVwnt conndruKion. Nu\s it in pcrf'n'tl^v trim tlutt thn 
iilm of nmtftral p<>\\^r (ritldlii) \\hifb 4Mtfillt t HiiutM to walk 
through thu air, tt(t,, orntirH in tin? Dliiuiunnjmdn, NU^ v* 175, 
iHtto. But thn l)hmtunapiulu mny nmtum i-Jirlirr rnul later vrm-r*, 
and in ilmt eiinn our v<*rw nii^ht In* nn early prokM. on tito part 
of Burl dim ftptinni tli^ bulicf in mwli niimculotM puiirrH, Wr know 
how Buddlia liiniwli' proti^ti'd n^iuHt hiH diwciplcH bchij^ (?ntliul 
upon to piM-ionu vulgar niinu'li^, " I ittiiitiriHiid tuy UimiipUM nut 
to work miruclt'H,* lut waid, ' but ti> lii*l^ tlu'ir #KM! finudw, and U> 
nhow Uuir HUIH," (Huniouf, lutnul, p. 170.) It would 1m in Iwr- 
mony with UUH nontiment if wt trwnHlatctl our vrrw? m I 
done. AN to Mmliiru,' 1 nhould Ukr it in the NMIHO (if 
a* oppoBt-d tt> 'udhyAtimktt/ or ' intiTtml ;' ami thu nii'iumtft 
b<>, A SVrumn/tu- in tint ft tfrawana by cMitwonl ntHrt, hut by htn 

/ which I Imvtt IHTO tmtmhit^cl by ' vanity,' Ncomn to 
ineludo tlut whuto hont of hutnttu wmkru'H^rt; rf, v. 100, whwj 
it (R frxplniiHnl by 'tRmhadi/^iiuilnuimpitfl^n; 1 iu our vwtw by 
nfi^u: (Of, UI, Vi.t, p. 0U4 V <m,Aiityaw tn*L 
it^Wum mmtriblmvam (dharmftMntm}.*} A** t<* 
,* u niuwd of Buddha, cf, FJumouf, Introd. p,7fl(, , 




There is no path through the air, a man is not a 
$ramawa by outward aots. No creatures are eternal ; 
but the awakened (Buddha) are never shaken. 

(259.) 'SunkhM 1 for 'samsktoa;' ef, note to v. 203. 




256, 257. 

A man is not a just judge if he carries a matter by 
violence; no, ho who distinguishes both right and 
wrong, who is learned and leads others, not by vio- 
lence, but by law and equity, he who is a guardian of 
the law and intelligent, he is called Just, 


A man is not loarnei because he talks much; he 
who is patient, free from hatred and fear, he is called 


A man is not a supporter of the law because he 
talks much ; even if a man has learnt little, but sees 
the law bodily, he is a supporter of the law, a man 
who never negioots the law. 

(259.) Buddhaghoaha here takes law (dhamma) in the sense of 
the four great truths, see note to v. 190. Could ( dhammaw 
Hyena passati ' mean, he observes the law in his acts P Hardly, 
if we compare expression* like * dhamtnaw vipassato,' r. SftL 

^ r f'2- 



A man is not an elder because bis head is grey ; 
bis age may be ripe, but be is called c Old-in-vain.' 


He in whom there is truth, virtue, love, restraint, 
moderation, he who is free from impurity and is wise, 
he is called an ' Elder.' 


An envious, greedy, dishonest man does not become 
respectable by means of much talking only, or by the 
beauty of his complexion. 


He in whom all this is destroyed, taken out with 
the very root, he, freed from hatred and wise, is called 
c Kespectable.' 


Not by tonsure does an undisciplined man who 
speaks falsehood, become a /Sramawaj can a man bo a 
/Sramawa who is still held captive by desire and 
greediness ? 


He who always quiets the evil, whether small or 
large, he is called a /Sramawa (a quiet man), because 
he has epiieted all evil. 

(265.) This is a curious etymology, because it shows that at 
the time when this versa was written, the original meaning of 
' warnana' had been forgotten. 'tframawa ' meant originally, iu 
the language of the Brahmans, a man who performed hard pen- 
ances, from < mm,' to work hard, etc. When it bocamo the name 

CHAPTER xix. cxxxiii 


A man is not a mendicant (Bhikshu), simply be- 
cause he asks others for alms ; he who adopta the 
whole law is a Bhikshu, not he who only begs. 


He who is above good and evil, who is chaste, who 
with knowledge passes through the world, he indeed 
is called a Bhikshu. 

268, 269. 

A man is not a Muni because he observes silence 
(mona, i.e. mauna), if he is foolish and ignorant j but 
the wise who, taking the balance, chooses the good 
and avoids evil, he is a c Muni/ and is a 'Muni' 
thereby; he who in this world weighs both sides is 
called a i Muni.' 


A man is not an Elect (Ariya) because he injures 
living creatures ; because he has pity on all living 
creatures, therefore is a man called ( Ariya.' 

of the Buddhist ascetics, the language had changed, and 
was pronounced ' samana.' Now there is another Sanskrit root, 
* sam/ to quiet, which in Pali becomes likewise e sam,' and from 
this root 'sam,' to quiet, and not from ' jram, 1 to tire, did the 
popular etymology of the day and the writer of our verse derive 
the title of the Buddhist priests. The original form C 5ramaaa* 
became known to the Greeks as Sap/Aayai, that of ' samana ' as 
SjttyMOTubt ; the former through Megasthenes, the latter through 
Bardesanes, 80-60 B.C. (See Lass en, 'Indische Alterthums- 
kunfle,' ii. 700.) The Chinese Stamen' and the Tungusian 
' Sham en ' come from the same source, though the latter is some- 
times doubted; 

(266-270.) The etymologies here given of the ordinary titles of 


271, 272. 

Not only by discipline and vows, not only by much, 
learning, not by entering into a trance, not by sleep- 
ing alone, do I earn the happiness of release which no 
worldling can know. A Bhikshu receives confidence 
when he has reached the complete destruction of all 
desires ! 

the followers of Buddha are entirely fanciful, and are curious only 
as showing how the people who spoke Pali had lost the etymological 
consciousness of their language. A f Bhikshu ' is a beggar, i.e. a 
Buddhist friar who has left his family and lives entirely on alms. 
* Muni 1 is a sage, hence ' Sakya-inuni/ the name of Gautama. 
'Muni' comes from 'man,' to think, and from 'muni 3 comes 
'manna,' silence: 'Ariya/ again, is the general name of those 
who embrace a religious life. It meant originally 'respectable, 
noble.' In Y. 270 it seems as if the writer wished to guard 
against deriving ' aiiya ' from ' ari,' enemy. See note to v. 22. 

(272.) The last line is obscure, because the commentary is im- 





The best of ways is the Eightfold; the best of 
truths the Four Words; the best of virtues passion- 
lessness ; the best of men he who has eyes to see. 


This is the way, there is no other that leads to the 
purifying of intelligence. Go ye on this way ! Every- 
thing else is the deceit of M&ra (the tempter). 

If you go on this way, you will make an end of pain ! 

(278.) The eight-fold or eigbt-membered way is the technical 
term for the way by which Nirvana is attained, (See Burnouf, 
* Lotus,' 519.) This very way constitutes the fourth of the Eour 
Truths, or the four words of truth, viz. DuAkha, pain; Samu- 
daya, origin; Nirodha, destruction; M&rga, real ('Lotus/ 
p. 517.) See note to v. 178. For another explanation of the 
Marga, or way, see Hardy, 'Eastern Monachism/ p. 280, 

(275.) The 'aalyas,' arrows or thorns, are the 'okadya,' the 
arrows of grief, Buddha himself is called ' mahfcalyaJiortft,' the 
great remover of thorns. [Lalita-yistara, p. 550; Mah&bh. rii. 


The way was preached hy me, when I had understood 
the removal of the thorns (in the flesh). 


You yourself must make an effort. The Tath&gatas 
(Buddhas) are only preachers. The thoughtful who 
enter the way are freed from the bondage of M&ra. 


'All created things perish,' he who knows and 
sees this becomes passive in pain ; this is the way to 


1 All creatures are grief and pain,' he who knows 
and sees this becomes passive in pain ; this is tho way 
to purity. 


i AH forms are unreal, 5 he who knows and sees this 
becomes passive in pain ; this is the way to purity. 


He who does not rise when it is time to rise, who, 
though young and strong, is full of sloth, whoso will 
and thought are weak, that lazy and idle man will 
never find the way to knowledge. 

Watching his speech, well restrained in mind, lot 

(2770 See y. 255. 
(278.) See v. 203. 

(279.) 'Dhamma' is here explained, like 'sawkhftra,' as the fivo 
1 khandba,' i. &. as what constitutes a living body, 


a man never commit any wrong with, his hody ! Let. 
a man but keep these three roads of action clear, ani 
ho will achieve the way which is taught by the wise. 


Through zeal knowledge is gotten, through lack of 
zeal knowledge is lost; let a man who knows this 
double path of gain and loss thus place himself that 
knowledge may grow. 


Cut down the whole forest of lust, not the tree ! 
From lust springs fear. When you have cut down 
every tree and every shrub, then, Bhikshus, you will 
be free ! 


So long as the love of man towards women, even the 
smallest, is not destroy ei, so long is his mind in bond- 
ago, as the calf that drinks milk is to its mother., 


Gut out the love of self, like an autumn lotus, with 
thy hand! Cherish the road of peace. Nirvsba 
has been shown by Sugata (Buddha). 

Hero I shall dwell in the rain, here in winter and 

(282.) 'Bhftri* was rightly translated ' intelligoutia ' by Dr. 
PauBb&lL Dr. Wober renders it by c 9-edeihen,' but the com- 
mentator distinctly explains it as ' vast knowledge,' and iu the 
technical senno the word occur* after * vidyfl,' and before * midhfc,' 
in the ' Lalita Viatara,' p. 5il. 

(2880 A pun, ' viwaa' moauing both 'lust' and 'forest,' 
(286.) 'Autar&ya,' according to the commentator, '^ivit&nta- 


summer/ thus meditates the fool, and does not think 
of his death. 


Death comes and carries off that man, surrounded 
by children and flocks, his mind distracted, as a flood 
carries off a sleeping village. 


Sons are no help, nor a father, nor relations ; there 
is no help from kinsfolk for one whom Death has 


A wise and good man who knows tho moaning of 
this, should quickly clear tho way that loads to Nir- 

raya,' i.e. intoritus, death. In Sanskrit, 'antarita* ia uuod in 
the sense of 'vanished ' or ' perished.' 
(287.) See notes to v, 47, and cf. MaMbh. xii, 90.14, 6540, 





If by leaving a small pleasure one sees a great 
pleasure, lot a wise man leave the small pleasure, and 
look to the great. 


lie who, by causing pain to others, wishes to ob- 
tain pleasure himself, he, entangled in the bonds of 
hatred, will never bo free from hatred. 


"What ought to bo done is neglected, what ought 
not to bo done is done ; the sins of unruly, thought- 
loss people are always increasing. 


But they whoso wholo watchfulness is always di- 
rected to thoir body, who do not follow what ought 
not to bo done, and who steadfastly do what ought 
to be dono, the sins of such watchful and wise people 
will como to an end- 



A true Brahma^a, though he has killed father and 
mother, and two valiant kings, though ho has de- 
stroyed a kingdom with all its subjects, is free from 


A true Brahma^a, though he has killed father and 
mother, and two holy kings, and even a fifth man, 
is free from guilt, 


The disciples of Q-otama [Buddha) are always well 
awake, and their thoughts day and night are always 
set on Buddha. 


The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and 
their thoughts day and night axe always sot on the 


The disciples of Q-otama are always well awake, and 
their thoughts day and night are always set on the 


The disoiples of Q-otama are always well awako, and 
their thoughts day and night are always sot on their 

(294, 295.) These two verses are either meant to show that a 
truly holy man who by accident commits all these crimes IB guilt- 
less, or they refor to some particular event in Buddha'* hiutory. 
The commentator is so startled that he explains thorn allogori- 
cally. The meaning of 'veyyaggha 1 I do not understand. 


, 300. 

The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and 
their mind day and night always delights in compas- 


Tho disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and 
their mind day and night always delights in medita- 


Tho hard parting, the hard living alone, the unin- 
habitable houses are painful ; painful is the company 
with mon who arc not our equals ; subject to pain are 
tho travelling friars ; therefore lot no man be a travel- 
ling friar, and he will not bo subject to pain, 

(302.) Unless this verse formed part of a miscellaneous chapter, 
I should hardly have ventured to translate it as I have. If the 
verse means anything, it means that parting with one's friends, 
living in the wilderness, or in wretched hovela, or travelling about 
from place to place, homeless and dependent on casual charity, is 
nothing hut pain and grief, and, we should say, according to the 
author's opinion, useless. In other verses, on the contrary, this 
vory life, this parting with all one holds dear, living in solitude, 
and depending on alms, is represented as thB only course that 
can lead a man to wisdom, peace, and Nirv&na. Such contradic- 
tions, strange as they sound, are not uncommon in the literature 
of the Brahmans. Here, too, works are frequently represented as 
indispensable to salvation, and yet, in other places, and from a 
higher point of view, these very works are condemned as useless, 
nay, even as a hindrance in a man's progress to real perfection. 
It is possible that the same view found advocates even in the 
early days of Buddhism, and that, though performing the ordinary 
duties, and enjoying the ordinary pleasures of life, a man might 
consider that he was a truer disciple of Buddha than the dreamy 
inhabitant of a Vih&ro, or the mendicant friar who every morning 


303. ^ 

Whatever place a faithful, virtuous, celebrated, and 
wealthy man chooses, there he is respected. 


Good people shine from afar, lite the snowy moun- 
tain; bad people are not seen, like arrows shot by 


He who, without ceasing, practises the duty of oat- 
ing alone and sleeping alone, he, subduing himself, 
alone will rejoice in the destruction of all desires, as 
if living in a forest, 

called for alms at the layman's door (cf. v. 141-142). The next 
verse confirms the view which I have taken. 

Should it not he * asam&nasamv&so,' i. e. living with people who 
are not one's equals, which was the case in the Buddhist communi- 
ties, and must have he en much against the grain of the Hindus, ac- 
customed, as they were, to live always among themselves, among 
their own relations, their own profession, their own caste P Living 
with his superiors is equally disagreeable to a Hindu as living 
with his inferiors. 'Asamdma,' unequal, might easily bo mis- 
taken for ' aamana,' proud. 

(305.) I have translated this verse so as to bring it into some* 
thing like harmony with the preceding versos. ' Vanante,' accord- 
ing to a pun pointed out before (v. 283), means both c iu the end 
of a forest,' and 'in the end of desires, 1 





He who says what is not, goes to hell; he also 
who, having done a thing, says I have not done it. 
After death hoth are equal, they are men with evil 
deeds in the next world, 


Many men whose shoulders are covered with the 
orange gown are ill-conditioned and unrestrained; 
such evil-doers by their evil deeds go to hell. 

Better it would be to swallow a heated iron ball, 

(306.) I translate ' niraya* the exit, the downward course, the 
aril path, by 'hell/ because the meaning assigned to that ancient 
mythological name by Christian writers comes so near to the 
Buddhist idea of ' niraya/ that it is difficult not to believe in some 
actual contact between these two streams of thought. (See also 
Mah&bh, iii. 7175.) ' Abhfttavfcdin' is mentioned as a name of 
Buddhft, 'flarvasawekaraprati^uddhatv^t' (Lai, Viat. p, 555;) 


like flaring fire, than that a bad unrestrained follow 
should live on the charity of the land. 


Four things does a reckless man gain who envoi 
his neighbour's wife, a bad reputation, an uncomfort- 
able bed, thirdly, punishment, and lastly, lioll. 


There is bad reputation, and the evil way (to hull) 
there is the short pleasure of the frightened in tlio 
arms of the frightened, and the king iinpotfcK heavy 
punishment ; therefore let no man think of liw nc.igli- 
hour's wife. 


As a grass-blade, if badly grasped, <wf H the ami, 
badly-practised asceticism leads to hell. 

312.' * 

An act carelessly performed, a broken vow, and 
hesitating obedience to discipline, all this bringn no 
great reward, 

(308.) The charity of the land, *.., the alms givon, from n minim 
of religious duty, to every mendicant that ankw for it, 

[309-10.) The four things mentioned in vorae 300 ioem to bo 
repeated in verse 310. Therefore, ' apii&BAlAbha,' boil flitrio, in 
the same in both : gatl ptpikA' must be ( iriraya;' *<larfa* imiht 
be 'nindV and 'ratl tliokiU' explains the 'AnikAnmm'jrjrjim.' 
Baddhagosha takes the same view of the mcAiiing of * tmikAnm- 
Beyya/ i.e. 'yathA \KKhM evm soyyam alnbhitvft, toMMUm 
parittakam eva kfllaw seyynw laWiati,' not obtaining t!# rent AH 
he wishes it, he obtains it, as he does not wiah it, a. for ft ultcirt 
time only. 



If anything is to be done, lot a man do it, let him 
attack it vigorously ! A careless pilgrim only scat- 
ters tho dust of his passions more widely. 


An evil deed, is bettor loft undone, for a man re- 
pents of it afterwards ; a good deed is better done, 
for having done it, one does not repent. 


Like a wcll-guardoi frontier fort, with defences 
within mid without, so let a man guard himself. Not 
a moment should escape, for they who allow thu right 
luomoiit to pass, suffer pain when they are hi hell. 


They who arc ashamed of what they ought not to 
bo ashamed of, "and arc not ashamed of what they 
ought to bo ashamed of, such mon, embracing false 
d<KttrmoH, ontor tha evil path. 


They who four when they ought not to fear, and 
fiiar not when they ought to fwur, such men, embracing 
falfio doctrines cntor $M ev ^ P at ^ 


They who forbid when there is nothing to bo for- 
bidden, and forbid not whou thoro is flomethmg to be 

(18.) A to * wtfft' moaning ' duat* and 'pajwiou,' *ee ' Patt- 
,'pp. Wottd B6, 


forbidden, such men, embracing false doctrines, enter 
the evil path. 


They who know what is forbidden as forbidden, 
and what is not forbidden as not forbidden, such men, 
embracing the true doctrine, enter the good path. 




Silently shall I eiiduro abuao as the elephant in 
battle endures the arrow sent from the bow: for 
the world is ill-natured, m 


A tamed elephant they lead to battle, the king 
mounts a tamed elephant ; the tamed is the best among 
men, he who silently endures abuse. 


Mules are good, if tamod, and noble Sindhu horses, 
and elephants with largo tuflks; but he who tames 
himself is better still 

(820.) The elephant IB with tho Buddhists tho emblem of an- 
duranco and adf-roBtraint. Thus Buddha himself is called * Ndga/ 
the Elephant (Lai Vist. p. 553), or 'Mah&n&ga/ tho great 
Elephant (Lai. Viat, p. 553), and in one passage (Lai. Viat. p. 
564) tho reason of this name is given, by stating that Buddha was 
,' wt>lUttmed ? Ilka au elephant. 



For with these animals does no man roacJi tlio un- 
trodden country [Nirvana), where a tamed man 
on a tamed animal, viz. on his own well-tamed self. 

The elephant called Dhamapdlaka, his templet* run- 
ning with sap, and difficult to hold, does not eat u 
morsel when bound ; the elephant longs for tho clo- 
phant grove. 


If a man becomes fat and a great oator, if he in 
sleepy and rolls himself about, that fool, like a hog 
fed on wash, is born again and again, 

This mind of mine went formerly wmiduring about 

(323.) I read, as suggested by Dr. Fausboll, 'ynth* attauil au- 
dantena danto duntena ga&Mati.' (Of. v. 160.) The India Oflii-o 
MS. reads e rta hi etehi l//&nehi ga&Heya agatam diutun, yath* at- 
t&ua.m sudantona danto dnnteria ga^Anti.' As to'lMnohi* in- 
stead of ^ytnebi,' see v. 224* 

(326.) 'Yoniso,' i.e. e yoni*aA,' is rendered by Dr. FauHboll 
'sapienii^,' bat the reference wliioh he gives to Homafaudra 
(ed, Boehtlingk aud Eieu, p. 281) shows cbarly that it momib 
* origin,' or * cause,' * Yoniso ' occurs frequently as a moro adrafy 
meaning thoroughly, radically (Dhammap. p, 859), and fyoutHo 
inanasikdra* (Dhammap, p. 110) means f taking to heart f or ' mind- 
ing thorouglly.' In the Lai. Vist, p. 41, the commentator Ima 
clearly mietaten 'yonwaA' changing it to ^y^nwo,' and explain- 
ing it by 'yamaniwim; whereas M. 1'oucauac has rightly tnuiwluU'd 
it by depuis Torigine.' Professor Weber inrngincn ho IUM (iiw. 
covered in ^yonijaA' a doubh-entenfoe, but ovon grammar would 
show that our author is innocent of it. 


as it likod, as it listed, as it pleased ; but I shall now 
hold it in thoroughly, as the rider who holds the hook 
holds in the furiDua elephant. 


Be not thoughtless, watch your thoughts! Draw 
yourself out of the evil way, like an elephant sunk in 


If a man find a prudent companion who walks 
with him, is wise, and lives soberly, he may walk with 
him, overcoming all dangers, happy, but considerate. 


If a man find no prudont companion whD walks 
with him, is wise, and lives soberly, let him walk 
alone, like a king who has loft his conquered coun- 
try behind, liko a lonely elephant. 


It iti better to live abno, there is no companionship 
with a fool ; let a man walk alone, let him commit po 
win, with few wishes, liko the lonely elephant 


IF an oacoHioii arisen, 1'rieudn are pleasant; enjoy- 
ment IB plouHaiit if it in mutual ; a good work is pica- 
Hunt in the hour of death ; the giving up of all grief is 



Pleasant ie tho state of a mother, pleasant the state 
(882,) Th* , ftommentetor throughout takes these 


of a fatter, pleasant the state of a tframawa, pleasant 
the state of a Brahma^a. 


Pleasant is virtue lasting to old age, pleasant is a 
faith firmly rooted; pleasant is attainment of intelli- 
gence, pleasant is avoiding of sins. 

'matteyyatft,' etc., to signify, not the status of a mother, or ma- 
ternity, but reverence shown to a mother, 





The thirst of a thoughtless man grows like a creeper ; 
ho aims hither and thither, liko a monkey seeking fruit 
in tho forest. 


Whom this fierce thirst overcomes, full of poison, in 
thin world, Ixis sufferings increase like tho abounding 
])ira?m grass. 


Ho who overcomes this fierce thirst, difficult to he 
conquered in this world, sufferings fall off from him, 
liko water-drops from a lotus leaf* 


Thifl salutary word I tell you, as many as are here 
como together: 'J)ig up the root of thirst, as ho 
who wants tho awoot-Bcentod ITsira root must dig up 
tho lilrawa grass, that Mftra (the tempter) may not 

(886.) Vlrana grass IH the An&ropogon wwriwlim* and tho 
ontod root of it is culled * urfrft* (cf. v. 837). 


crush, you again and again, as the stream crushes the 



As a tree is firm as long as its root is safe, and 
grows again even though it has been cut down, thus, 
unless the yearnings of thirst are destroyed, this pain 
(of life) will return again and again. 


He whose desire for pleasure runs strong in tho 
thirty-six channels, the wares will carry away that mis- 
guided man, yiz. his desires which are sot on passion. 

340. ' 

The channels run everywhere, tho croopor (of pas- 
sion) stands sprouting ; if you see tho creeper spring- 
ing up, cut its root by means of knowledge, 


A creature's pleasures are extravagant and luxuri- 
ous ; sunk in lust and looking for pleasure, mon un- 
dergo [again and again) birth and decay, 

Men 3 driven on by thirst, run about like a snared 

(338.) On Anusaya,' i.e. 'amwaya,' see Wassiljow, < Dor Bud- 
dhismus,' p. 240, seg. 

(339.) The thirty-six channels, or passions, which arc divided by 
the commentator into eighteen external and eighteen internal, are 
explained by Burnouf ('Lotus/ p. 649), from a gloss of the ' <?ina- 
alantk&ra:' " Vindication precise des affections dont tin Buddha acbo 
indpendant, affections qui sont au nombro do dix-huit, nous ost 
fourni par la glose d'un livre appartenant an* Buddhistes do Cey- 
lan," etc. 

' Y&hd/ which Dr. Fausboll translates by l oqui/ may bo ' 

CHAPTER xxiv. oliii 

hare; held in fetters and bonds, they undergo pain 
for a long time, again and again, 


Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a snared 
hare ; let therefore the mendicant who desires passion- 
lessness for himself, drive out thirst ! 

344. ' 

He who in a country without forests (%. e. after hav- 

ing reached Nirvana) gives himself over to forest-life 

(i.e. to lust), and who, when removed from the forest 

, (i.e. from lust), runs to the forest (i.e. to lust), look 

at that man ! though free, he runs into bondage. 


Wise people do not call that a strong fetter which 
is made of iron, wood, or hemp ; far stronger is the 
care for precious stones and rings, for sons and a 


That fetter do wise people call strong which drags 
down, yields, but is difficult to undo ; after having cut 
this at last, people enter upon their pilgrimage, free 
from cares, and leaving desires and pleasures behind. 

This verso seems again full of puns, all connected with 
the twofold moaning of ' vana,' forest and lust. By replacing 
'forest' by *lusV we may translate: "He who, when free from 
lust, gives himaelf up to lust, who, when removed from lust runs 
into lust, look at that man," etc. ' Nibbana/ though with a short 
a, may bo intended to remind the hearer of Nibhaiia, 

(34>S.) ' ApeUha, apetsha,' care j see Manu, vi, 41, 49. 

(346.) * Paribbay,' t.<*. ' parivra-jr; 1 see Manu, vi. 41. 



Those who are slaves to passions, run up and down 
the stream (of desires) as a spider runs up and down 
the web which he has made himself; when they haves 
cut tEis, people enter upon their pilgrimage, free from 
cares, leaving desires and pleasures behind. 


Give up what is before, give up what is behind, 
give up what is in the middle, when thou goest to tho 
other shore of existence ; if thy mind is altogether froo, 
thou wilt not again enter into birth and decay. 


If a man is tossed about by doubts, full of Btrorig 
passions 3 and yearning only for what is delightful, 
his thirst will grow more and more, imd ho will iit- 
deed make his fetters strong, 


If a man delights in quieting doubts, and, always 
reflecting, dwells on what is not delightful, ho cer- 
tainly will remove, nay, he will cut the fetter of 

He who has obtained rest, who does not trembly 

(347.) The commentator explains tho simile (if tho Hpidor ft* 
follows: "As a spider, after having made ita thread-wb, *ita in 
the middle or the centre, and after hilling with a violent runh H 
butterfly or a fly which haB fallen in its circle, drink* it* juicw, 
returns, and sits again in the game place, in tho tmmc mummr 
creatures who are given to passions, depraved by hatred, and 
maddened by wrath, run along the stream of thirst which tltoy 
have made themselves, and cannot cross it," etc. 


who is without thirst and without blemish, he has 
broken all the thorns of life : this will be his last body. 


Ho who is without thirst and without affection, who 
understands tho words and their interpretation, who 
knows tho order of letters (those which are before and 
which are after), ho has received his last body, he is 
called tho great sage, the great man. 


* I have conquered all, I know all, in all conditions 
of life I am free from taint; I have left all, and 
through the destruction of thirst I am free ; having 
loornt myself, whi)m shall I teach ?' 


The gift of tho law exceeds all gifts ; the sweetness 
of tho law exceeds all sweetness ; tho delight in the 
law exceeds all delights ; the extinction of thirst over- 
comes all pain. 


Pleasures destroy tho foolish, if they look not for 
the other shore ; tho foolish by his thirst for pleasures 
destroys himself, as if ho were his own enemy. 

(352.) Aa to * Nirutti,' and its technical meaning among tho 
Buddhists, BOO Burnouf, 'Lotus,' p. 841. Fausboll translates 
'niruttiB voeatmlorum peritua/ which may bo right. Could not 
'sannipftta' mean 'ttawhita* or 'Hannikarsha*? 'Sannip&ta' oc- 
curs in the /S&kala-prati^khya, but with a different meaning. 

(RS4.) The ' dhamtnad&na,* or gift of tho law, is tho technical 
term for instruction in tho Buddhint religion. (Hoe ' Parables/ 
p. 100, whore the etory of the ' SakkadevarAya* is told, and where 
a free rendering of our verso is given*) 


The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind is da- 
maged by passion : therefore a gift bestowed on tho 
passionless brings great reward. 


The fields are damaged by woods ; mankind is da- 
maged by hatred : therefore a gift bestowed on those 
who do not hate brings great reward, 


The fields arc damaged by woods, mankind IN da- 
maged by vanity : therefore a gift bostowod on thoso 
who arc free from vanity brings great ruward. 


The fields are damaged by woods, iimiikiml in da- 
maged by wishing : therefore a gift bewtc wod cm thowo 
who aro free from wishes brings groat rowuvd. 





Restraint in the eye is good, good is restraint in the 
ear, in the nose restraint is good, good is restraint in 
the tongue. 


In the body restraint is good, good is restraint in 
speech, in thought restraint is good, good is restraint 
in all things, A Bhikshu, restrained in all things, is 
freed from ail pain, 

IIo who controls his hand, he who controls his feet, 

(362,) ' Ayyfcattarata/ i.e. ' adhy&tmarata,' is an expression 
which we may take in its natural sense, in which case it would 
simply mean, delighting inwardly. But ' adhydtmarata ' has a 
technical aonso in Sanskrit and with the Brahmane. They use it in 
tho sense of delighting in the Adhy&tman, i, e, the Supreme 
Self, or Brahman* (Soo 'Manu,' vi, 49, and Kullftka's com- 
mentary. As tho Buddhists do not recognize a Supreme Self or 
Brahman,, they cannot use the word in its Brahmanical sense, and 
thus we ftud that Buddhaghosha explains it as "delighting in 
meditation on th& JEfommuuthftna, & Buddhist formulary, whether 
externally or internally," * 1 am uot certain of the exact meau- 


he who controls his speech, he who is well controlled, 
he who delights inwardly, who is collected, who is 
solitary and content, him they call Bhikshu. 


The Bhikshu who controls his mouth, who speftks 
wisely and calmly, who teaches the meaning and tho 
Law, his word is sweet. 


He who dwells in the Law, delights in tho Law, 
meditates on the Law, follows the Law, that Bliikwhu 
will never fall away from the true Law. 


Let him not despise what ho has received, nor oyor 
enyy others : a mendicant who envies others docs not 
obtain peace of mind. 

A Bhikshu who, though hg receives little, docfl not 

ing of Buddhaghosha's words, but whatever they moan, it is quito 
clear that he does not take 'adhytonarata' in the Brahraanieal 
sense, The question then arises who used the term first, and who 
borrowed it, and here it would se3m, considering tho intelligible 
growth of the word in the philosophical systems of the Brahman*, 
that the priority b&longs for onoe to the Brahraans, 

(368.) On artha' and ' dharma/ see Stanislas Julien, ' Lvs Ava- 
dftnas,' i alfr, note: "Les quatre connaissancos soutj 1* la <xm- 
naissance dusena (artha) ; 2 la connaissanco dela Loi (dharmn) ; 
3 laoonnaissauce des explications (niroukti); 4 h conriaisHttnce 
de Intelligence (prAtibhana)." 

(354.) The expression 'dhammfetmo, 1 having- fata garden or 
delight (Lustgarten) in the Law, is well matched by tho Brahntanio 
expression 'ekdrtoa,' i, e. 'nirdvandva/ (Mahflbh, xiii, 1080) 


dospiao what ho 1ms received, even tho gods will 
prawn him, if his life is pure, and if ho is not slothful. 


H who never identifier himself with his body and 
wml, and dm* not griovu over what is no more, he in- 
deed is rolled u Dhikrihu. 

The Bhikwhu who tints with kiiulnusB, who is calm 
in the dootrino of liuddha, will reach the quiet 
I>liio (NirvfiMi), conation of natural dosires, and hup- 

f) HhiltHliu, e,t]ly (his bout! if emptied, it will 
go ciuiukly; having mi off IIOHHIOU and hatred, thou 
wilt go to Nirvftwi. 


flat off the 1 flve (wnitum), leave the five, rise above 
the five? A Hhiknhu, who has escaped from tho five 
fetter*, h<^ in cmlhid Oghati^/ea, " Saved from tho flood." 

<) Itliikshu, and Ixt not hoodlog&l Do 
not dirtwt thy thought to what givc ploasuro ! that 

(U07) 4 Nftuiurftpa' i horo um^l apuiu in itn teclniical HCUSO of 
Imdy rim! soul, u^iiiior of wliick in ' &tman/ or wolf. 'Anal/ what 
it* not, may thorofon? menu thu uamo an * nflmardpa,' or wo may 
take it to tho imruko of what U nn innrc, <ut, for iimtanco, tho beauty 
or youth of tho body, thu vigour of tho mind, oio, 

(371,) Th<> Kwallumog of hut iron ball* IB considered * a 
punihiwit in boil $ <^ v. UtW* Profuwor Weber ha perceived 


thou maycst not for thy hoedlessness have to, swallow 
the iron ball (in hell), and that thou mayest not cry 
out when hunting, " This is pain." 


Without "knowledge there is no meditation, without 
muditutioii tlicro is no knowledge : ho who has know- 
ledge and meditation is near unto Nirvana. 


A llhikflhu who has entered his empty house, and 
wlinwo mind I'H tranquil, feels a more than human 
delight wlion he MOOS the law clearly. 


As woon tin he has considered the origin and destruc- 
tion of thn olomonte (kluuuUm) of the body, he finds 
huppinoRfl and joy which belong to those who know 
the immortal (Nirvfi//.a), 


And tliiw is the beginning here for a wise Bhikshu : 
watehfulnoBH over the BCVIBDA, contcntednoss a restraint 
under the Law ; keep noble friends whoso life is purc 7 
and who uro not slothful, 


Let him live in charity, lot him be perfect in his 
duties ; then in tho fulness of delight he will make 
an ond of mifhxring. 

tlio right moaning of * bhavaasu,' which cnn only be * bhftvayaeva,' 
but I flcmbt \vhethor tho rest of his rendering is right, ' Do not 
by accident an iron ball* 



As the Vassika-plant sheds its withered flowers, 
men should shed passion and hatred, O yo "Hhikfllms 1 


Tho Bhikshu whose body and tongue and mind 
are quieted, who is collected, and lm rojnctod the 
baits of the world, he is called Quiet. 


Rouse thyself by thyself, examine thynelf by thy- 
self, thus self-protected and attentive wilt tliou livo 
happily, Bhiknhu ! 


For self is the lord of wdf, solf IB this ruf ago of nelf ; 
therefore curb thyself atf the merchant curbs u good 


Thd Bhikshu, full of delight, who is calm in tho 
doctrine of Buddha will roach the quiot place (Nir- 
viUa), cessiition of natural doairew, and happiness. 


He who, ovon us a young Bhikttlm, DpplioH lihiiHolf 
to tho doctrine of liuddlia, brightciiiH up tliiu world, 
like the moon when froo from cluurla 

(38L) Boo vorue SUB, 





Stop the stream valiantly, drivo away tho 
Brftlnnaftu! When you havo understood tho do~ 
Btruction of all that was mado, you will 
that which wan not nmdo. 

If tho Bruhmana haw mwliod 1h<i other 
in hoth lawn (in restraint and oontomplatuin), all 
bondn vanish from him who haa obtained know- 


He for whom thoro i noither thia nor that Hhon^ 
Bor hotli, him, tho fctwrless and tuifihacklod, I null in- 
dcod a Br&hmami* 

lie who ia thoughtful, UamoIoHs, mttlt^ dutiful, 

(385.) Tho exact moaning of tho two ethoroH if* not qtiiio clanr, 
and tho comnmntator who ttikow thorn In tho wmwc of intt'rual auct 
external organs of aonee, can hardly bo right* &<o v, 80, 


without passions, and who Lau attained the 
end, him I call indeed a Br&huianu. 


The sun is bright by day, tho moon shinos by ni^hf y 
the warrior is bright in his armour, tin* liruhnmuii in 
bright in Iris meditation ; but Buddhu, the Awukcmul, 
is bright with splendour day and night, 


Because a man ia rid of evil, thcrcvforo lu* is callwl 
Urahmawa; bocauao ho walks quiotly, therefore 1m is 
ooHod iVramunu ; iKwiuHoluOiuHKi'tituwuy his own im* 
purities, therefore Iio is culled I'ruvru//iiu {u pilgrim). 

No one should attack Bruhmu/jsi, but no "Hnllnna//a 
(if attacked) nliould lot hiins*'!/ 1 ily at IIIM u^n'HKur! 
Woo to him who Htrikcn a JJrahtnuwji, inuw WM t" 
him who flies at hin 

It advantaguH a Brfllmm;m not a little if htt hoMn 
hin mind back from the* jiIpuwircH <^f lifo; wh*n all 
wish to injuro luw vauiHhcMl, puin will <;nuH( k . 

(3B8.) ThoHo \\ouhl-lKi 

sliowitig tho decline of tlio utymolo^t^tl lift! <U' tlio npok^n 
of India at tho timo when tutd) dyinuli>gu^ IHHIUUJU 
ordur to derive * lirdhnuutji' from ' v&h,' it iiitmt tuwit 
nounosd 4 Mlmmwo; 'v4V to rouiovi*, <n*<mrH fn-qtii'iitly hi tlw? 
Buddhutioal aaiukrit, (Of. I,ttl. Vint, p. 551, I. 1; r>5#, I. 7, 
Woe note to vorao 200.) 

(300.) 1 am ftfraid I have takou tm> intufh liberty with tbi 
vorso. Dr, 'fuiubftll imnfclafcfrtf ; * Nott BtibniAMie hot- 


Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who does not offend 
by body, word, or thought, and is controlled on those 
three points. 


After a man has once understood the Law as taught 
by the Well-awakened (Buddha), lot him worship it 
carefully, as the Brohmana worships the sacrificial fire. 


A man does not become a Briiluiuwa by hitf platted 
hair, by his family, or by both; in whom there is 
truth and righteousness, ho is blessed, ho is a Br&h- 


What is the use of platttfd hair, fool ! what of 
tho raiment of goatskins ? Within Iheo there IB raven- 
ing, but the outside thou mukctft clean, 


Tho man wlio wciurs dirty raiments, who is emacia- 
ted and covered with veins, who lives alono in tho 
foroftt, and meditatofl, him T call indued u 

UUB, quando roLcmtio (It montta n jucuuditf.' In tbo uocotul vorac 
ho tranalatca ' hi?/zsamao,' or ' hi?/^ainano/ by ( violcnta mrnaf 
Dr. Weber by * der Goisfc dor Sclmdsucht/ Might it bo * htow- 
yara&naV injured, and ' nivattati/ lie is quiet, patient P AWmsA- 
tnanak' would bo, with tho IJuddhiHts, tho spirit of lovo. (Luko 
xi. 30.) 

(%Mf.) I haro not copioi the language of tho Bible more than 
T wan justified in, Tho words arc ' ubbhantarau to giihanam, b4 
liirnw parinanyyasi/ interna oet abysaufl, cxtornum inundap. 
orprewaion ( Kieau tllmmuiiiaantlmtum/ is tho 


I do not call a man a Briilnna/iu Iwaugo of his ori- 
gin or of his mother. Ho may l>e called " Sir," and 
may bo wealthy: but tho poor, wko is fwr from all 
attachment**, him I call indeed a IJrahnwMu 


Ho who has cut all letters, and who iuvnr tivmldtM, 
ho who is independent and uiiHliaoklud, him I cull 
indeed a Brahmawa. 


TTo wlm IIUM out the girdle and the, tin* r*jm 
with all that pertain* to it, \\v wlio has hurst Hut bar, 
and i iiwakeuedj him 1 <?ull indml a lin\lnnumi. 

IIo who, though he haw committed no offrwr, 
ondurefi roproacsh, bowta, atid Mtript^ him, Htrou^ in 
endurance and powerful, I cull indeed a BnUiumwu. 


lie who fa froe from anf?er 7 dutiful, virtuous, with* 
out w<^akn(?HH, and Hub<huul, wlicj IUIM ntrtuvcd his 
body, him I mil indeed a HHUmuuua. 

nkrit 'krnnwdhnmHtuHnntatam," the frt'qtmut occurrN'itc^ of 

in tho Muhftbhftrntn hnn boon pointful out by HncMliiu'k, , v, 

(ItianmttL It lookH more like a BrAhimuiic than like n 

Tim exact; mouning of *bitll\tiikn' i* diinoult to fiurl. 
it mean, poawwiwd of a utrwtfr wi'^wyt w ftioiK it forc^ 4r 
a force ? Tho wmmontary nlunu cuuld help tu to 


He who docs not cling to pleasures, like water on a 
lotus leaf, like a mustard seed on the point of an awl, 
him I call indeed Brahmawa. 


lie who, oven here, knows tho end of liis suffor- 
ijjg, lias put down his burden, and is unshackled, him 
I call indued a Brfihmawa. 


lie whnrio knowledge IH deep, who powaossoa wiudom, 
who known tho right way and tho wrung, who hut* 
attained tho highest oiid, him I cull indeed a Brah- 


JIo who konpH aloof hoth from hiymon and from 
mcnAicsuiitHy goc-H to un IIOUHO to lu'g, and whoHO de- 
sires uro Hmall, him I call indued a lirAhmonn. 

Ho who fliuh ut> fault with oflusr boingB, whether 

(liOd.) 'Anokanflri' in inuiMktiul by l)r Kauwlnill *Hinodomicilio 
grawantom;' by Dr. W"(ibor, *ohiei Hoim wandoli;. 1 Tho commen- 
tator Boorna to Hupport my tratiKlution, Ho stays that a man who 
baa no intorcourno either with lioiwriioldorH or with thorns \vlto* 
liavo left thoir IIOUHCS, but may ntill dwell togoibur in rotirrmicul; 
from the world, ia f aftlaytt&arji,' i. e. t\ man who goo to nobody's 
abode, in order to HOG, to bear, to talk, or to oat. I To then ex- 
pluhiB 'finokuydnV by tho nnmo word, ' an^LlnyuHrin/ i,c. a man 
who goes to nobody's residence for any purposo, and in our 
caao, I Huppoao, principally not for tho purpowo of bogging. 

xxvi. clxvii 

weak or strong, who docs nut kill nor cause slaughter, 
him I call indeed a Brahmafza. 



He who is tolerant witL the intolerant, mild with 
fault-finders, free from pahwion among tho patfsionuto, 
him I call indeed a iBriihmawa. 


He from whom angor and hatred, pride and envy 
have dropt like a muntard HOW! from tlw point of an 
awl, him I call indeed a JJruhmuwu. 


Ho who ulttTH trno NjU'cuh, intf ru< ( .iivc and fiw from 
harshncMs, HO tliul ho oiloml iu OIH*, him I rtill indiM'.d 
a Ih'ahma/^i. 


Ho who taken nothing in the world (hat in not ftivm 
him, be it long or flhorl, mm ill or largo, good or bud, 
him I call iiulml a Itrfthiuumu 


He who foNtoro no dowron lor fhiH world or for tlw 
next, IIUB no inc-linutioim, and IH unnharklcd, him I 
cull indeed a Bnlhmami. 

Ho who has no intoraitrt, and whon ho IUIH under* 

(4110 'Afcattamktthi' h ox]>lalned by BuddhaglioKl.a w 
ing, free from doubt or hctitation. Ho alao aitei 


stood [the truth), docs not say How, how? he who 
can dive into the Immortal, him I call indeed a Brah- 


He who is above good and evil, above the bondage 
of both, free from grief, from sin, from impurity, him 
I cull indeed a Brahmawa, 


]Fo who is bright like Iho moon, puru, sorono, untl 
undiKturhwl, in whom all gaiety is extinct, him I call 
indeed a Brfilnnawa. 


lie who has traversed this ma0y ? impervious world 
and itH vanity, who in through, and hus reached the 
other Hhoru, i,s thoughtful, guiloIoKH, fwo from doubts, 
i'veo from attachment, and content, him I call indeed a 

IIo who, leaving all dcsirea, travelw about without a 

in iho H(i)Wi of dnuhi (vorno 414). In tlio Kftvyftdawa, iii. 17, 
tho commentator oxplaint) 'akailmm' by ' kath&rahitam, nirvivfi- 
dam,' which would moan, without a 'katht/ a speech, a story 
without contradiction, unconditionally* Prom our paaaage, how- 
over, it Hoenis an if ' kathawkath^' was a noun derived from 
* kathawkatlmyati,' to Bay How, how? BO that neither the first 
nor tho second dement had anything to do with ( tenth,' to re* 
late; and in that cnao 'akathara,' too, ought to bo taken in the 
BoiiHO of ' without a Why," 

(412.) Sao vonto 80* Tho distinction between good and evil 
vanities when a man has retired from tho world, and ha coactod 
to act, longing only for deliverance. 


home, in whom all concupiscence is extinct, him I cull 
indeed a Brfthmana. 


Ho who, leaving all longings, travels about without u 
home, in whom all covotousuess is oxlinet, him I uill 
indeed a Brfihmawa. 


lie who, after leaving all bondage to mm, has risen 
above all bondage to the godfy who in frco from <vory 
bondage, him I call indeed a 

Ho win* 1ms loft what givos jihtusurt; and \vlisit 
given pain, is Gold, and iiw Irnui all ^vrws (of m 
nowud iiio)j th<^ horo who bus KoiHjwrHl all ilu- 
worldrt, him I call iudct^rl a Jiruiiinji//a, 


Ho who knows the destruction and 1h<> return t/f 
urouturoH ovorywhoro, who is frro from butnln^ \rol- 
faring (Sugata), and uwakimod (Ituddbu), him I 
a Uruhmarm. 


(i whoHO way th<% gotla do not know, nor spiri 

), nor moil, and whoo IIUHHIOHM uro 
him, th(j venerable), 1 cull indeed a 

Ho who calls notMng \m own, wh^tlu'r it 
Iwhind, or botvrotfm, who to irnra*, uud fnuj from tfw 
love of the world, him I call indeed u 


The manly, the noble, the hero, the great sago, tho 
oouqunror, the guileless, tho master, tha awakened, 
Mm T nail indoed a Brahmawa. 

lie \vliu knows his former abodes, who stxsn 

anil hell, ha>s ri^ichod the end of births, is perfect in 
ud u flugo, ho whost^ ptirfoctiows ar<^ all 
him I call indeed a 






TIIK following tranfllutimi of tine. Ihirimtw version ul 1 
tho Parables of Buddhaghonha haa bwn mado from a 
work cmtitlod, tho fthaimna-Fadu-Vaiflm, or * Stories 
about tho Dhainma Fada.' In tho tmnHlatioti I have* 
followed the printcsd t<^xt of Lattor's ' Sokwiumn from 
tho Vomucular Boodliint Litoralum of Iturnuih,' pollut- 
ing it with a palm-loaf imituiHuript of tlm HIITIM^ work 
in the EaKt*Tu<lia Offloo library. Tho (foliating how* 
evor, haft boon of hut littlo uw, for though Ihn tw 
fjopi^H aw in most purtn idcmtioal or nmrly wo, yot in 
tho ohaouve juwHagoH ihciy almcml invariulily tliffi'r oit- 
Hidcrably^ and ono m raroly mow mtoHigihlo thiin th< 
other* Any Honniblo vuriatiou hoi.woon tlir HianuHoript 
and tlu! printed text will bo found in tho fontnot<tH. 
I have atoo marked thono few paNBagon which thoir 
iinpcnotrablo obaourity hua compollcti wu tx) otnit. 


The difficulties under which a translator labours, owing 
to the careless transcribing of the native copyists, is 
well exemplified in the English translation of c The 
Decisions of Princess T/mdamasari,' by the late Col. 
Sparks ; another portion of Latter's c Selections/ and 
a very amusing collection of stories, where the nume- 
rous emendations of the text, which the translator was 
compollod to make, are marked in the notes. 

Although I have puraplirused as decently as possible 
many (if the expressions employed in the original, yot 
the Oriental ideas of propriety are so different from 
tliotto of Western nations that I found mysolf alto- 
gether unable, without completely sacrificing tho 
uonso, to do more than slightly tone down some of the 

I have to acknowledge the great advantage I have 
derived from collating my own translation with a 
t'Uwo and vury uocurutu translation of the rouno work 
by Cnptuin Slicttinld flnitto, of U.M. G8tU Itogimoiit, 
which FrofoHHor Max Miillor forwurdt'd to mo whilo 
1 WOB rcviwing wy manuscript for the press, 

IL T, R. 


I worship tho Adorahlowhn in worthy of nil homage, 
who IH radiant with tlio six glories, and Ihn 
of all 



THK inoHt nxrollint Purii, 1 l>rillinnt in hit* 
from all ipfnoraiut( k , holioMing Niblm-nu, 5 Ui oinl of tlio 
migration of Lho noul, lighted Ihcs lump of tho law of 
the good. 

Thin law ho proachod during hi residwHw ut th 
r7(^uviuui tni>iuiflt<ny in tlio Suvatthi country, illiw* 
touting it hy ana<50ount of tho Mahatlun*u jt AukkluipahL 

At a fonncv timo lhc k i^livo.d in the Buvatthi country 
u T/mgyud b laimod MaluVflvawwu. This* T/mgyuo wtmt 
out ono day to butlui ; on the rnad ho HW a luiiiyun- 

1 " Tho Lord/' or " Mnhter,*' U Hrlatna v the founder of lh 
Buddhmt ruligton. 

* Nibbftna is tho liwt arid uncrimiignibh* Kbnt of ilm mini, in which 
it i nevc*r more subject to tranHini^rnlium,*^ tlm honvcw of tlto 

3 Mfth&th6J ntoftUH among tin* Dnmu^o a Bmldhfot 
tony earn' Mtnuding or nwru* but IUTH it mgrufl<<H a ditingih*Kl 

The wcftltby claw, 

2 liUDDHAairosnA's PABABLES. 

tree; thinking that there must dwell thcro a 
oJh groat pc wor, ho cleared the space at the foot of the 
tree, made an offering of a flag, 2 a lighted lamp, 
flowers and perfumes, and prayed: "My lord Nat, 
if you will give mo a son or a daughter, I will make 
you large offuringHj" then ho returned homo. 

At that very time the TAugyu&'s wife became 
pregnant, and the T/mgyue was delighted. After ten 
months, 3 a you was horn, to whom ho gave tlio name 
of Miihripiilu, bccauHO ho had obtained him through his 
prayers to the Nat. After thus another son was born, 
who received the, auinio of ./uiHa-pala, These two SOIIH, 
when tiny reached years of inuturity, both married. 

At HUH timo PtuTi Taken' 1 ' WUH pvounlring the law 
to the assembly in iho <7ctttvana monastery, and 
Mahupalu, allur Itatoning to his diHc.inirHO, Imouino 
fearful about bin future stute, and aftond Vtira Talcen 
for pormiHHioii to bcoouu* a Kulwn. 5 Purii Tiikcu said, 
"If there is any one whose leavo you should imlc, #o 
first and do HO." Maliapala tutcnvclingly nought tlio 
]<-av( | i of IUH youu^'i 1 brother, /Cullu-prdu ; but ./fulla- 
jalu objected, Buying, " Our parontu arc both dead, 
and I now look on you an my father and mother ; do 
not bneoino a Kuban, but ntay at homo and make 
offitt'higH. Mubapalu, however, would not listen to 
IIIB brother'^ objccstions, but delivered over to him a 
lurgo amount of property, and then leaving him, wont 
to Para Taken and bocjamo a Italian, 

1 A boin# of an ordur Buperior to man. 

B A Htnmmcr of cloth, ofton ftiHtenod to a tree as an offering 
to the Nat tmppcwod to rcwitlo thorn. 

rt Lunar tnonliliv alone arc etnployoil by tho Burincso in calou- 
Intionn of time. 

(1 The Lord and Mflfltcr, i.e. OoUmm. c A Buddhist pricet, 


After ho had bcoinne u Pan/fmga/ and had passed 
five lcnts a with tho tcacluT Uptt^/wya, ho suicl to PuiSi 
Taken, "jtfy lord and muster, what arc the duticn of 
a priest, according to tlui divine systom?" Purii 
Taken suid, "Mahapalu, my diviiie HyHtom eousislH 
of Giiudhii-dhura mid Vipissuna-dluira,, tliwo two." 
Mahapalti said, "Lord and muster, what i Gaiul- 
ha-dhrira ? and what is VipasHana-dliura ?" PurJi Takon 
ropliod, ^Gaiidha-dhura nu'uim knowing l>y lioarl 
ihe three booku of the Pi/aka a in tho Pali lunguagt* ; 

1 A prii'Ht who is proficient in thca (ivc t 

* Tho prientH in Burnmh take rank necoriling in the number of 
LoiitH or animal ilwtn r>f HUTU munllm whieh 1 hey have upe.ut in 
thoir inoiiaHtorieH; net-fUMlingly, a prieht of five LeuU nieann n 
prieHt of iivo yearw' Htaniluig nr IhereahimU, The liunnese, [irieKiH, 
if they (inrl tin* nmnaHtiu aiiriteritieH inn |M V :IVV a htirden, niv at 
liberty to Imctonio layu>n at uny time, hut if they \\iwh 1t re- 
ontor tho priiwthood, thoy forfoit all a<)vautiL#e of seniority, ancl 
nniHt comnumco afronh in tho lo\v(!Ht rank, 

31 Tho Buddhint MuripturoH eompriuis according to nurnu'wo 
fiuthoritien, throo great bookK, wliich aro again mibtlivided into 
i parts, thua: 

f Sutta-eTlakkha (?) 
I, Hulta Hutta-innhuva (?) 
I iMuttn-pridoyftvrL ( g r) 
* Parar/ika 
ii. Viuaya 

ft. Abhidh&tnma 








1* 2 


means, i-opcating the 
aiul llu k IHiFwuuL" 3 Malupala said, " Lord and master, 
I liavo oiit(Tt k d the priesthood at too advanced an age to 
acquire the Gandha-dhura, give me tlio Vipassaua- 
dlifinu" Purii Taken gave him the Ivamma////ana, which 
has the powor of making a man a Buhanda. 3 Maliii- 
I>filu 3 after porforining the FavaroHa,* made his 
obuiKimcc to Para Taken, uud went away with sixty 
liuluiuH to a plueo distant 121) yciyunaw 5 from the 
Savutthi country. J Heading for Hubsititouco on a 
ouring village, ho took up hia rewidenco in a 
whom h(*. o(j<tupi(^d liuuHoli 1 in re])(jating the 
Tlu people of the village foil kindly 
Iht'in, and offerer! thorn boiled rirw, n and 
Aluhupahi and th nixty Hahann rocjeived daily alnm of 
food in tho villugc^. 7 

Out 1 * day, a doctor in the village iiuwli 1 . a rcsp(^iful 
io thoin, that if ovor they had need of iu<Mli- 

t. HontwiiutH for n i p<iitiru. 

- Th( k HIUIIO, but nliorlen 

:l An Ariyu of Ilio holiest nrcli-r. An Ariya IB one who will 
nituin Nihlmna at tin? clu,s<; of IIIH present life. 

1 ( ( \)nri'Hinu inttilo l>y DUO prii'Ht io nuoihor, 

! > A yo//ana in thirtiM-n nail a half Rngliflh niilca. 

<s ItudciliiHt pri(fltH rnt^ivfi all bheir food ccmkod from tho pious 
laity, UN whom thny uro entirely (IcpcMidoufc far their 
Nothing IH cooked in tho mouMturicg. 

' It IH tho oufltniu of tho Bunnuso jiriemtH to go out 
nuirniiiR ahout eiffht o'clock ti) collecit food for tho day. At thin 
hour, in rvory town or village whoro thoro in a monawtory, may 
bo WMI a long Rl of prictB with thoir bright yellow clothoM and 
uhnvcti and uriorivon*d hoocli walking wlowly und Huloinuly along, 
\vith thoip oycH lixoil upon thn ground, looking noitluT to right nor 
l(,*n, mid luupin rigid nilt'iiec*; oncth man currying hi t/mbot into 
whic-h tlut pooplo from their houses as tho procoBttioa pawttCB eomo 
nnd pour fcicjil, principally boilod rico. 


ciixo of tiny kind they should command him. Some 
time after this tho Muhathoru Mahapala suffered from 
a continual effusion from tho eyes, just like water 
running from a leaky water-pot, and tho Italians 
accordingly went to tho doctor, and hefted of him to 
make an offering 1 of sonic modictmo. The doctor gavo 
them some refined oil. Maliapala, liorauisc* lie would 
not denial from repeating tho Kummatt/anu, applied tho 
modicino to his eyes without moving from hit* Hitting 
posture, and then went into the village to collect his rico. 
The doctor, as ROOII us ho Huwhim, aHkodhbn if IKJ had 
used tho mcdiciiio, and lio aid lio had. TVn ho asked 
him Imw hiw eyen -vvoro, and roooivod tho roply that 
tliny woro as had as Iwfbro. " How is this?" said tho 
doctor; "one api'licutirm always nonovos tho diwuw. 
Did you apply tho mcdirhus silling or lying downy" 
Muhapala koptftilonco, Thc% doctor contiiiuod, " Lord 
and maflter, if you only li<^ down an<l apply fho inodi- 
csino, you will Iw cunul" MuhrqKila said, "Loavo 
mo, Daraku ;"* and tho doctor macl hi oboiwmco and 
went away, Mahupala thtai (jonimuiKul with liirnrtolf 
tluift : " MahapSla, you cannot count tho numlwr of 
timim you liavo IKOU Wind in tho diffwmt wlat<H of 
oxintcmco, of which no mnmonwnu'nt fan ho found ; 
fix your mind on tho religions nystotn of Paiii Tak<u 
ino(HsuTitly, and take no sloop during this Lent for '1 1m 
whole of tho thrtjo months ; thon if hlmdmw onu, lot 
it oomo. w Saying UIOHO words, lu guv(H himKc, fc If up 
entirely to tho repetition of tho Itaimua/Mfma, atnl ou 

made by iho luity to a priiwt i n(ftrdo(l iw a 
ligioiui offering ta be iwatdod in uctwoding Rttit 

9 The tlfclo glvott by priosta to thoau of tho huty who 


that very clay, exactly at midnight, ho bccamo a 
llahanda, but lie lost the sight of both eyes. 

From this tinio Mahapala confined himself to tho 
precincts of the monastery. When the Italians next 
morning told him that it was time to go and collect 
the food; ho said tu thorn, "My sight is guno; go 
by yourselves tind collect it." Whou the llahans 
saw his blinilnosH they wept bittovly, and said to him, 
" My Lord, haves no anxiety, we- will food and tend 
you;' 1 then they went into Iho village, to culhuil food. 
When Iho villagers saw lliat Mahapula was not with 
them, and on inquiry IcanuMl that Iit^ was blind, they 
givnfly [i(i( k il him and wont him many dainties. 

Aukkluipulu 1 couliinu^flto instruct the sixty lliiliauH, 
andlhoH(^ giving tluiir wlmln hearts to his teaching, 
arrived at the- stage, <*l* a Jtaluuirla. Whi^u Lcsnt was 
ov(*r <h(^ Uahans expressed a wish to go ami coutnii- 
platn Purn Tak< 4 n ; AlikKIiupula said to tliem, u (lo, 
but I am iiiiii'in and Mind, and must rentain behind* 
When you arrivo (hero tt k ll my yotingt^r brother jtfullu- 
|i!la of my condition. 11' he will rjouduct mo I uhull 
bo ablo to go." 

When Iho KuluuiH arrived they contemplated Para 
Takc'ii and the two chief disciples^ On the following 
day early in tht^ morning tliw Italians wont to collect 
food at the houe of /uilla-pula; wluux ho aw thorn and 
found his brother was not with thorn, ho iwkoil after 
Ititn. Tho lUibuns told him how ho wan blind of both 
oo und how ho liad said tlittt ho could not couio 

* mime is hore eliaugod to yuikkhupula in roferouco 
to hi.H bliiulm^H, tokkliu ttiouning oyo. 

2 fciunpuLU the right-luuul (tUci[>lo a uiul Mt^jtllaiin tho loft- 


unless lus brother would conduct him. When JEulla- 
pala hoard this, ho wept aloud, and making his nephew 
Palita cuter the priesthood, lie sent him back with tho 
Italians. The novice as soon as he reached tho msi- 
doncu of /uikkhupiila, presented some food to him, 
saying, "I have brought this from your younger 
brother JTullo-pala." ATulcklmpalu asked him who hu 
wus, and hearing ho was his nophcw, said " Very 
good," and giving him tho und of his staff to guide 
him, set out on his journey. 

As they wore travelling in a thick foreHt, tho novice* 
Piilita, Louring tho voices of a woman who wan ongugtwl 
in collecting fuel, and was singing very prettily over 
her task, said to Aukkhupalu, " My Lord, wait hunt for 
one. moment, I will be bue.k with you dirodly." Tins 
uovufo thon wont away, and introducing himself to 
tho young womim, spout a flonsidemble, timo in her m>- 
<iioty. Aakkhupala finding the, novicuj did not return, 
and suddenly recollecting that ho hud heard a woman 
singing, canto to tho conoluBiou that tho novice hud 
laibd in IUM duty. 1 

WhoTi tlio novice rotuniod aftiT his iutorvioiv with 
tho daimujl, he* nuid, "My Lord, lei UH 
und offered to tako thowwlof tho niuff; but Iho 
naid, u Ono who huH boi giiilty of a vilo action iau,st 
not touch tho owl i>f my Btuff.'* The novice trembled 
and wuttfetilout: then uwHinuing the ^irmcnit of a layman, 
ho a#aiu upprouchtid him and Maid, " I }iuv(% booonto a 
layman; it WUB from 310 mclinutiou for its duticw tliat 
1 ontorod tho i)ri,(Hth()od, Imt only ftxnu fear of tho 
danger** of tho journt^y; now lot UK proceed, But 
Aukkhupak nuid ? ^TliougU you lutvo gone back to 
1 The Buddhitffc prioathood arc dovoLcd to 


tlio laity, you uro not fit to "bo my companion ; I will 
nut go with you." Then Palita urged, "Do not 
remain hero, my Lord ! for thcro are ]3iluw l and all 
Hints of dangers," The Ealuinda replied, "I caro 
not for these dungorn, if I must tlio, I must dio; but 
I will nut bo conducted by you." When Palitu he-urd 
this, ho was utterly dismayed, and weeping bitterly 
Hen uwuy. 

]{y tho powor of Aakklnipalu'ti devotion, the throne 
of the fciakka King 2 became vigid, n and its owupunt 
looking forth observed the lltilianda in bin difficulty, 
and leaving tins Nut country defended to earth; then 
taking raw that his footfall nhoulrl bo heard by 
Aakkhuprila ho wont ulong iu front of him. Aakkhu- 
palu usk<Ml whose footwtx^p it \VUH, and llto Nat-King 
atiHwi'Tcnl that h<? WUK a wayfarer, and uwkod tlus 
Rahunda \\ f hitlie.r hi* wart going; on n'mving thn 
reply that lio wtw bound for tln^ Hrivatlhi country, 
Iu k snggesleil that tbi k y should 1 ravel together; but 
the Mahatliera said, "Daniku, 1 am vcM-y inlinu 
and shall delay ytm on your journey.' 7 The Htikka 
King rejnint'iK " Not KO, my Lord, I have no need of 
haste, uud by weoiujumying you I nlmll obtain ono of 
the ton romiltH of good actions." Th< llaliniidu weing 
that this was u pious person, gave, him (ho end of bin 
Htiiff, uud they "went on together, uini in (tmiHwiuamso 

i A kind of (lluml, 

a Tim King of thn Nat*. 

JJ Tim Tkniun <f the Miikkn Kin^ in of Htoius which IH HO Hoft 
tlittt \vhcn ho IH Hcuttul on It iu hix umial cwmit-k'jwd {nmition, ho 
HinKrt int( it up to bin knooK UH if it wero it ruHhion; hut if any 
mortal nujuiroK hi anmhtunn* mtil IJHH HiiHiit'iit power to 
hm alii, tlu< HLiJfitj luy.otUi'H t*i^;iii, nml 
tip, and luuking about- liai wub who rujiiiroH liin 


of tlio Nat having made a short and easy road, they 
arrived at the 6'ctavana monastery the waino evening ; 
JTukklnLpalu, hearing wjuurls of Dralnniiilcal 
and elephant^ asked what it was, when he was 
astonished to hoar tliat ho was in tlio Sfivatthi country. 
" Why," mud ho 7 "when I came hero fonnorly 1 wan 
a very long time on the journey." "Yes," replied 
the Nat, "but you see I knew a whort cut." Thru 
the Itahanda know that this must ho tlio Nut- King* 

The Sakku Kut-Jving having conducted Ankkliu- 
paltt to the inoiuiHti'ry whoro lui formerly n^siilefl, 
<uv;itod for liim a numirt'cuiH ttoiit]iiniy of Huhans to h(, 
his uHHociutnw, and then wont to A'ulki-iiulu to uccjuuint 
lihn with hi,s l>rolh< i r ? s arrivnl. yv r ull!t-]rilji \\vnt al; 
onco to llm uionaHtery, itnd wlion he saw his brother, 
1m fell down, ami oinlmifKl his fert and wt*j)t, saying 
ci ()h, iny Lord, althou^li I <'rMil<l not iorest<* tins mis- 
fortune, did I not try to prevent ymi from IK 
a Italian " tluii ho inudo tw of Jiirt nlavoH 
tioncm for tlw) priesthood, and onlc'tecl thorn to attend 
upon hint* 

Homo, timo uftor this HOMIO village ]lahun,s ? who woro 
pjcring to cunlcmplato Purii Taken, and wore, pasnin# from 
monastery to monuwttny, urrivod iwar Aukkhupfilu'H 
rosid(jncf,, and wows going to o.ontotnpIiLto, the Jluhunda 
wlicn vory lutuvy ruin <',amo. on, which onmpollod thom 
to dc^fbr thoir viwil till tlio morrow* Tho ruiu <litl not 
(uttiHe till midnight, and in the curly morning, an 
./fukkhupala WUH walking up and down hin voraiuluh, 
(uinit'Btly ongtigmi in bin dution, th<^ inscu'ln which hud 
cottm out of tiio gnmndj owing to itn boiug dump 
fVcim tho pruviouM ruin, woj'<^ coiiMttuitly being crunhod 
1 A mitt of trumpet. 


by his footsteps. When the Eahans arrived, and saw 
in the verandah all the dead insects, they asked who 
had boon walking thorn, and on hearing that it was 
/uiklvhupala, thoy reviled him, saying, "When ho 
had his sight he would never walk up and down his 
vi k -randah, Init was always lying clown ; but now tluit 
ho is blind lie has taken to walking there, and destroys 
numbers of lives." Not satisfied with abusing him, 
they went to Purii Taken, and told him how A"ak- 
klmpFilu destroyed insects by walking inhis verundah. 
J'ura Taken asked thorn if thoy had soon him killing 
them, and thoy said thoy hud not "Well," Biiid 
Para Taken, " you did not soo him kill tho insects, 
neither did ho sec thu insects ; u Ituhandu's hourt can 
never wish for the destnictum of life." Then tho 
Italians naid, "Lord iiud (lod, how ootneH it that 
altliougli he in a Kuliundu, he is blind V" Turfi Taken, 
nij/Iied, "Itsihaiw! Aiikkhupalu^ bliudmss in 1Iu (ni- 
Kt^iiU'iiee of sinH doniniilliMl in u jirevieiiM (^xisttMuu 1 /* 
The Uulwiw jmkcl what lluw siiiH luul b(eu, and Funi 
Taken continued, " HaluiiiH ! thin Aukkhupalti u long 
tim<i ago wsw u <lo(?tor in JtittiureH, itiul WUH in tluj 
habit, of wandering through the Uifterent towns and 
villages pnwitwing mcdiciine. Hciiing one day a woman 
nnlfering from blindncsn, lie wml to her, 4 If I euro 
your eyes, what will you give to mo?' Him replied, 
c If you really give rue back my wight, my BOIIH, my 
daughters, and myself shall till bo your Hluvon.* Tho 
doctor iigrinul to tbis, and with otns application of lus 
miMlinino rt^tonxl her sight. The woman, howowr, 
being afraid of boing (tiiHluvcd with her whole family, 
preU'iulod to bh still blind; and whon tho doctor ctuno 
and asked her if sbe was wired, she nulled that nlio 


could not yet sec, and that her eyes wore more painftil;" 
even than boforo. The doctor, enraged ut her deceit, 
went home to procure some medicine which should 
make her blind again, and told hiw wife uLout it ; his 
wile said nothing, and the dodor applied the medicine 
and rendered the woman again totally Mind, Auk- 
khupalu MaliiitluTU was that doctor ; liiw wu tulld\v< k d 
steadily behind him, just as the cart-wheel follows tin* 
draught bullock." 





TAKIW, whilo ho WUH in tho Savatthi nrmntry, 
preached tho law iiw follow, Riving an an illnwtration 
of it an uwount of tho T/mftloW son, Maddlmkuw/ali. 

In tho Bsivatthi country Hvocl a T/*u//to 
Adinniipnbbaku; h<\ waw called hy Ihis mimo 
ho would m'.vor givo away anything to anyone*. This 
T//uU(^ hail an only won, whom he. lovtwl vty dearly, 
hut 1i<^ was so niggardly that, rather than pay a guld- 
Hinitli lor IU'H work, ho made him a pair of oarrhigB 9 
wiih liis OWTI Imndri, iiiwl on that account his won 
rocmivod flu* naniu of Muddhukimifiili. 

()n( day Maddliakiwrfiili booaino vory Horion1y ill, 
whon his f'ulhor, foaring tlu ex]ic'riiHo of mmliciiio and 
uttcuuluncc, nhut tho boy up in the hoium, in ordor 
that no one Hhonld know anything about itj tiro 

1 The tmitui an T/*uj?yiu\ one of* the wealthy 

y TIio <!iiiTiii^H worn by the BunnoHC aro holbw cylindors of 
gold, ahrHit <m< k und a luitHjuilion lon^ and three-quarters of nu 
iueh in diameter, thritHt int<i tho luho of tho r^r ; for tliiw pur- 
poHtt iho lobo of tho our in plowed in tin* ordinary mnnner, and tho 
n[M'rturo gmdutilly oularp;ud by introducing Hubatuuces amtitautly 
but by vory H!<JW ilegrcow iiKTinmiug 111 wixe, Theuo eurriitge aro 
worn by butb mcu and 


mother, seeing the child so ill, bogged him to wend 
fur a doctor, but the T/m//c criod out, " "Woman ! 
would you squander till my wuultli ?" Then TIG wont 
himself to a doctor, und, explaining the symptoms of 
the diweaso, ogkcd him what remedy should ho em- 
ployed: tho doctor, seeing what a hard man ho was, 
told him that tho root and hark of tho IIu-jru-Mya- 
Nyfi tree would bo beneficial. Tho T/m/Ac wont homo 
and trnutod tho invalid UN ho had boon directed, but 
tho dinoasc inoroiiHcd in severity, and became, beyond 
all remedy; then, when it was too lute, ho sent for 
tho doctor. Tho doctor, the moiuont In* saw the lurl, 
know at oncio ihat tliovo WOH no hopo, KO ho, wild, " I 
am vory busy juwt now, mid huvniin liiuo t<i attend to 
this <tuH(* ; you had botfor wild for wmio onu olo." 
The T/W///O Ihon, fctirinf? that all his ivI;iUvon and 
friondH might got a ni^ht of hin wealth, hud tho boy 
carried into ono of tho outer ronniH of tho 

1 Thin means that iho minor wn nfraid thut if the hoy died, 
it 10 poo pip, who would bo Hiiro to ecwio and HI*O tlm corpnt? i.he 
tnument thoy henrcl of tho death, would, if it WITH laid ou| in any 
of tho principal mown, ohHorvu hiw plato, j(widH, et<, T|M*MO 
(done couHtilulc tho wealth nf tho JJurniUHc, who rarely, if over, 
hourd atitual nunut}, but koop ull their property ia tho morn 
portable form of tfold and jovrolB. 

Hifl cxpoctntiou of being inundutnd with vihititrn allufUw to Ilio 
way of conducing tho fuiutml ucTomonioH in JJunuah, which bear 
n vrtry strong reKnmblumw tt> an IrtHh wako. Thu nionieat that 
tho breath hug loft the body all the proplo in tlui IKHIMI* (but morn 
ortpocinlly thti womou) rniHu tho niont foarful kthriirku; nw Hoon AM 
the flwt paroxym of gri<?f havo pjwwid away, they wml it* vita- 
tioaa to nit thoir frit'-nrlH and noi^hbnarH to attend tho cronMnoriuw. 
Those come t oncfl in grc>at numbers, with A band of muaiu und 
A party of profa^ional mournorw hired for tlio occaaion. Tho 
relative ftitu at the head of tho cjoijmtt* imltjgion of tho 


At duyhreak on the following morning wlion Para 
Tulcon arose with the perfected spirit of charity and 
love, his first thought was as to whom lie should 
deliver from a state of punishment; on looking arotmd 
him ho beheld tho TtoilhtfB son MaddhakiwMi, who he 
at onoo know was about to become a-Sutapan 1 ; then 
ho considered, " lias this dear lad perfect faith and 
love in me?" and finding that ho had, and Booing that he 
wart about to enjoy the happiness of the Nats in Ihe 
Tiivutinsa region, lie took with him tho whole of 
JIIH atfomlaiil priesthood and went into the Sfivutthi 
country. AH soon as lies miohod the door of tho house 
ol* thoT/mMo Adiuuapubbului, ho (IcHjmtttliorl MH Hucrod, 
tippoiininrto to tho T/m//io*H Hem, 9 who diroutly lie saw 
him, with his heart full of faith and love, raisod his 
huiuU and paid him linnmgc. ParSi Talcon II ion loft, 
uud tho boy dying with bin lioart full of faith and 
low passod as it wore from slipping to waking, and 
found IthiiHiilf in a paltiao tliirfy yo^aiuiH in oxtoiit in 
1ho midst of tho, TuvatiiiHU Ts r ai; country. 

A IH or burning tho body of hi HDII, Adinnapubbuka 
UKIM! td go <n r ory day to Urn tomb W(*oping bittorly for 
bin IOHH. Wh< k uM,addbalaiwr7ali from bin puluoo in the 
Nat country mw bin Ikthor weeping ovor hi tomb, ho 

and lutiuMiintionH ovnr liin d^pariuro nro uticrcKl in turn 
liy thn difloroni rolutivt'H, rcfrcHhiuonLri are handed rrniud atnang 
ilio ^utwtrtt utul witliin twenty-four bourn of ilio death tlm pro- 
(*nHwitui id formed, and the body taken to bo oitbor burii'd or 

1 Tho firnt ntato of nn Ariya or ono who will attain Nibbfum at 
tho clofio of bin proHorit life. 

8 Para Tiiktsn Iioro mid In another of tlurcu wtorio is rn|m k Hontod 
na having the power of fiRiiJing out nno or moro appoivrauccM of 


former! the msnhition of going to him, to reason with 
him, and bringing him to a bottor frame of mind msouo 
him from his errom Accordingly, assuming the appeur- 
ancc he had bomo among men ho doHiicndwl to curth, 
and throwing himself down near tlio tomb win ire his 
father was, bc^gan to weup with violonoo; on this, the, 
T7ral//o waid, "Young man, why are you weeping?" 
"I am weeping," ho replied, "heeuuse. 1 want UK* sun 
and the moon to make, a pair of wheel** for my curl." 
"Young man/ 7 said tho T/wMi 4 , "yim must IK- mad : 
who can make cart-wheels out of the sun and moon!' 7 
Tho son of tho Nat rojoiwd, " You are weeping for 
a mortal whom* transient lifts h.'is passM away, but I 
woop fin* tho Htm and muon win eh I nmtimuilly Jiuvc 
boforo mo." Tho T/ni///o on hearing this Iwgan io 
recall to hirt mind tho law of tho righteous, ami tonic 
comfort; then ho naid, "Arc you u Autu Mnhura//a 
Nut, 1 or arc you tho Sakka King?" The Rut'H HIII 
replied, "I was Maddhaku/^r/ali, tli<^ r IV/u///*^ MOIU 
Boeauflo at tho point of (hiath my heart was filled 
with faith and lovo towards J^uru Taken, I luivo be- 
come a Nat's &un and live, in tho Tavutiiwi country 
in a pulaco tliirty yo^unuH in cixtc^tit/ 9 When tlm 
T/m#//o hoard thin, Inn lioart wan illhd with joy, and 
ho determined to go that very day and (jontuwpluto 
Para Taken, Tho Nal'n mm after bitUling tho T fait fa 
go and mako an oilcri)i^ iu tokou of hotnago to 1'aHl 
Takon and koop steadily tho five conmwtulmentK,* iu- 
turuod to tho Nat country. 

1 A Nat of tho flrut dingo of the world of NuU, of which Uicro 
&ro ftii singes, 

2 1. Kill not* 2* Steal uoi 8, Commit not tululUtry, 4* Lio 
not. 6. Tako nothing thitt 



The T/m///c after contemplating with rovoronco Para 
Tulccn asked him this question, " Cnn a man without 
performing- any good works at all, by a puro and 
loving hoart alono, obtain tlio happiness of the Nats?" 
Para Taken ropliod, t Why do you ask mo thin? 
Your son Maddhaku^r/ali told yini that IwtiaiiBO ho died 
with Iris lioart full of love imrl fiiith towardn me, 
lu 1 . was now enjoying the happiness of the Nats." 
"Whon wan it," said tho T/m/7w, "that lie told mo 
this?" "This wry diiy at the toTiih," ropliod Parii 

Oiwe, again I'umTakou related the story of Maddha- 
Icu/^/uli, and H<!C k iug Wiat tho miud of tho T/SuMo 
Adinnapnhbaka (tho hoy'n father) was Htill full of error, 
ho rionniiundcid that Muddhuku////a1i with his palann 
should doHocnd to cuirth. Muddhakuw^/uli u.p]K*art i d in 
his palac.0, and dimcthding froin it inad( hi olx'-istuioo to 
Parii Taktui. Paim Takun said tr* him, "Young Nat, 
by inouiiH <> what off(,rhigH and ollirr good works did 
you obtain tho happiness of fho Nats?" Tho Nut's 
sou ropHed, " Without pCM^onning ono good work, 
lut from dying in faith and lovo to my Lord and 
Tiuist(!r I oltain<d tho happincwi of tho Nuttn," Thou 
l^arii, Takou said, cf It is tho hoart of lovo mid faith 
accompanying good actions which spreads as it wwo 
a Iwnoftoont Hluido from tho world of men to tho world 
of Nuts*" Thin divine uttoranoo was like tho stamp 
of n king's soul upon a royal edict 

When IVirii Taken had linishod hi disocnir&e, 84,000 
of tho eongi'egation woro cumvcxtcuK Muddhukuwr/ali 
oMainodtho reward duo to Sotapatti, 1 and Adinnapnb* 

1 One ntiito <p cotulition of an Ariyn, of which thorts arc 



baka hoc Dining a Sotapan, 1 and scilulous in the per- 
formance Df his duties us such, spout large RUIIIH of 
monoy in the performance of good worka. 


1 One who has obtained the state of Soiapatti, 




PAUA TAKEN pmiduvl tho Law IIH follow*, in tho 
Himitlhi country, rnmliug UH an ilhiHtmtion of if, 
tho ntory of Tisya-thera : 
Tissa4hora w*w the non of tho younger flintor of 
Suddhodaiia, tho father of Puril Taken. At an 
agtj ho Ijorauno a Ittihan, and in oonMupionoK 
of living outirolytipon tlu v profliMifH whinh ram Takon 
scntliini, ho hcouinn vory Ktont. Ho imccl to live in 
n Xuyat 1 in tho niicldlo of a inotuinlory, and worn a 
2 of many folds. One day HOIIIO pilgrim 
jurivc'd at tln^ Zayat on thoir road to oon- 
to Taral Tukon ; Hcxmi^ TiHa-tlu>ra thoy thought 
ho must bo a priont of high rank, and coming hoforo 
him prepared to offbr -him tho roHj)Ootful nalutiitioim 
duo tx> hiw Biiporior clogroo, but tho Italian took no 
notice of them. Tho young prumtn tluiii said to him, 
"Lord and nuuitor, how many Lents havo you pasHwl ?" 
TiMHa-thara roplicul, "I was old when I centered the 

1 A building ojicu on all flidcw or nearly so, employed for Urn 
nctionmuKlatioH of iravollorH, or for tho laity to nssomblfl to h<*ur 
tho ])ritJwU prunnh* 

* A priimt'H ^nrmout, cona luting or diilomil foldn of oluth of 
a bright }dU>w colour in limn* ytparato pio 


priesthood, I do not know Low many Lents I have 
passed;" then the young priests said, "You obstinate 
old man; at your age not to know how many Lents you 
have passed, and to be in doubt whether or not the 
Eahans who visit you are of higher rank and entitled 
to receive from you the different marks of respect, 
such as descending to receive them and such like 
observances ! " Saying this they clapped thoir lianda 
at him and abused him. The passiun of Tissa was 
like that of an enraged king. "Whom," said he, 
"did you come here to visit? 33 - "Wo have como," 
they replied, "to see Para Taken." Cc Du you know," 
he said, "what relation I am to Para Takon ; arc you 
desirous of destroying yourselves, and extirpating your 
whole race ? " Thou with tears of rage and vextitiou 
he rushed into the presence of Para Taken. The 
Eahans fearing that he might raiflo the anger of Puro 
Taken against them, followed him. Para, Taken, whim 
he saw him, said, "What is it that makes your fuco 
so clouded?" "My Lord and master," said TIBHU, 
these Eahans have abused mo," Para Takon asked 
him where ho was when they abused him, and ho 
replied that he was in the Zayat in the centre of the 
monastery. " Did you," said Para Taken, " on tlio 
arrival of the Eahans perform the duty of descending 
to receive them?" "I did not," ho replied. Para 
Takon said, "A Eahan pf only a few Lonts, who duoH 
not perform his duty of receiving with tho proper 
respect tho Eahans of a higher number of Xonto, lius 
no right to be in tho centre of a monastery. Tisa, 
you are in fAjilt; pay homage to those Eahans." 
Tissa replied, "I will ,pay no homage." Throa 
times did Para Taken aak; him to pay homage, and 


three times received the same reply. Then the 
Rahans said to Para Taken, "This llahan Tissa is 
excessively obstinate." Parti Taken replied, "Be- 
loved Eahans, this is by no means the first occasion of 
his obstinacy ; in times gone by ho was equally deaf 
to all admonition." The Eahans said, " Lord and 
master, his present obstinacy we see, but of his 
contumacy hi former times we know nothing; will 
you favour us by relating the account of it." Para 
Taken related the story as follows : 

RuhauR ! This Tissa, in times long gone by, was 
the llishi 1 Dcvala, who usod to reside in the Ilima- 
vuTita ITonjst. On one occasion, wishing to procure 
some wavoury food, he came to the country of Uonares, 
and took up his residence in tho Oden Zayat. 2 At this 
timo tho Itiahi Nslradu, who had oomo to ttonuvos from 
tho llimavuuta Forest for a similar purpose, arrived 
at tho same Zayut ; aftor asking pormiswion of Tissa, 
who wan already settled in tho Zayat, lie too made it 
his rosi donee, and tho two HiHhiw pussocl tho day in 
GouvcrHution, When night camo ? and it was timo to 
l(iop, tho llinhi Nfirada, ufbsr cart^'ully noting whoro 
tho Itiahi Dovala wan going to Hlocp, tho position of the 
door and HO forth, lay down. Dovalu, wishing to annoy 
tho other liishi, movod away from his proper sleeping 
pluco and lay down acroyw the doorway. Naruda going 
out through tho door, trod on IUH pigtail; 3 Dovula, start- 
ing up criod out, 'Who trod on my pigtail?' Narada 

1 A devotee, ascotic, 

9 The potter's Ktiyat, so called probably in consequence of 
Laving been erected by eome potter au a piouw oifering. 

3 Tho BurmtiHO prieatn shave the head and face entirely ; the 
fitory rmiat allude to a Hindu prloat, seme of whom wear a very 


replied, 'Master, it was I, Narada the Eishi, who 
accidentally trod on it, bear with me, I do you hom- 
age; n saying this he wont outside and presently came 
back, Now, Devala, knowing that the Eishi on his 
return would pass carefully round by his feot, changed 
his position, and placed his head where his foot had 
previously been, so that when Narada came in tjnd 
passed as he thought by his feet, ho trod right on the 
other Eishi's neck; whereupon Devala starting up 
again cried out, c Who trod on my nock ? ? to which 
Narada replied, c It was I, Narada the Eishi, I acci- 
dentally trod on your neck ; I do you homage.' But 
Devala cursed him, saying, 'you bad Eishi Naradu, 
you have trodden on my pigtail, you have trotldon 
on my neck; at sunrise may the head of the Eishi 
Narada split into seven pieces V Niirada replied to 
this, My fdond, I am in no way to blamo, your 
curso will not fall on me but on him who is the guilty 
one; and it is his head which will split into soven 
pieces.' Now, Narada was a Eishi of groat power 
and glory, his wisdom could contemplate forty past 
and forty future grand cycles of time. "Whtozi by 
means of this groat wisdom ho began to consider 
whose head would split into sovou piocos at sun- 
rise, and saw that it would bo that of tho Eiahi 
Devala, ho had compassion upon him, and by moann 

small tuft of hair at the back of the head, plaitud into a pigtail 
a few inches long. The laity in Burmah both man and women 
wear their hair as long as it will grow. 

1 This doing of homage ia tho way in which the Burmese auk 
pardon of each other, The, words, " 1 do you homago," accom- 
panied by a reverential movement with tha hands are equivalent 
to the English " I beg your pardon/' 


of his groat power and glory prevented the sun from 
rising on the following day. 

When the people of the country found that the 
sim did not rise, and that there was total darkness, 
they went to the gate of the king's palace, and criod 
out, " Grout King, you who rule over thig country, do 
you not alwayn act in (uniformity witli the ten laws? 
Maku therefore tho Him to rise, for thin darkness will 
1)0 the destruction if all your wubjects," 

Tho kiiitf meditated upon hiw own Htato, and, finding 
Unit lit 1 wan (roe from all guilt, camo to the conclusion 
that the, phenomenon, must liavo been cauaod by some 
lliwhi or liahau of #reut power having quarrelled and 
uttered un invocation; he accordingly iwjuired of the 
people of the country, who lolrl him that in the Oden 
Xuyut there wevo two IJlsluH whom tlioy had heard 
(jiuLiTellinguml cursing The* king immediately had 
torclios lighted, and went off to the Zayat; tiiere, 
se-eing tlio Itislii Nfi.nula, he respectfully saluted him, 
and wtul, "My lord liishi Nrinulu, tlic people of 
6'amlmdvlpa 1 huv(> nev(ir before known suoh darknc^y 
UH now cnpoinpaHHCH them ; whtiiice does it arise r" 3 
Narutlu related to tho king tlio whole circumstuncos 
of the ourso of tho Kinhi Devala, and when tho king 
awkod th<^ nutimi of tho eimw, he waid, ^Although 
no fault whatever could ho imputed to mo, Bovala 
cursed mo, wiying, 'when tho HUiiriww, may yourhoad 
Hplit into MVMI pieces 1* hut ,1 told him that, as I was 
innocent, tho OUIHO would fall not on mo, but on who- 
flouvor \vu in fault. Then foregoing hy tho power 
which I luivo, tluit at auuriHo Dovultt's head would 

1 One (f the four great inland* Burrotutdiii|f Mount Meru ? 
\\liir,! i in LUii[H)i;t'd to bo iliu centre of the uuivoim 


split into seven pieces, I felt pity for him, and pre- 
vented the sun from rising." The king said to him, 
cc Is there tiny way by which Devala may escape this 
calamity?" Narada replied, "He can escape it by 
doing homage to me." Then the king approached 
Devala, and said to him, " My lord Eishi Devala, do 
homago to the Bishi Narada;" but Devala answered, 
" Great King, this deceitful Eishi Narada troi on my 
pigtail and on my neck. I will not do homago to 
him." The king, muoh concerned about the calamity 
impending over him, repeated several times his re- 
quest with great earnestness, but he could get no 
other reply from Devala than " I will do no homago 
to him." At last the king, through his pity for tho 
Eishi, took hold of him, and forced his head down to 
the feet of Narada. Narada said, "Else, Eidhi 
Devala; I forgive you." Then he told tho king that 
as Devala had not paid him homago of his owu free 
will, in order to save him from his torriblo fate, ho 
must take him to a tank, .make him go into' the water 
up to his neck, and then, affcor placing a clod of earth 
on his head, make him do homage, The king, in ac- 
cordance with these instructions, took Dovala to a 
tank, whither Narada followed thorn. When tho king 
had placed Devala up to his neck in water, aud fixed 
the clod of earth on his head, Narada said, " Eishi 
Devala, I am now, by the power which is in mo, about 
to make the sun rise ; the moment it rises, duck under 
water, 1 after whieh cross to tho other side of tho tank, 
and take your own way." Whon ho had said this, 
the sun immediately rose, Dovala ducked down his 

1 The ducking the head under water is supposed to anawer for 
bowing the head down ia homage. * ,, 


toad, and the clod of earth that was upon it split into 
seven fragments ; and tlio Eishi, thus escaping his 
droadfid doom, crossed, as he had boon told, to the 
opposite side of the tank, and fled away. 1 

When the sun rose, and the light again appeared, 
all the people of the country were greatly rejoiced. 

Parii Takon, at the close of the story, said, " Bo- 
loved Kalians, the people whom I have mentioned in 
my story, and who lived long ago, are this day among 
us, The King is now Amuuk, tlm liishi Devala is 
this Italian Tissa, llio Itinhi Nfinula is myself the 
ParJi; you eo, then, that this is not tlio first time that 
Ihin TIHHU IIUH been obstinate awl deaf to admonition; 
hit* olmthuwy WUH (j[uite as grout in times that have 
long gouo by." Tliwi h<i called Tiswa to him, and 
Huid, "ItaluuiH should iujv<*r bear a grudge against 
any man, Haying ' this mail wa angry with mo, this 
one oppmsHod mo, en 1 thin ono took away my propeiiy,' 
fur iu thus way hatred is fofttured; but tluy should 
b<'ur no gruclgo, and should say ' lot him do this to 
Tiio' or ' lot him say that to mo,' for in this manner all 
uugry locvlhigrt (lit 1 ) awtiy." 

Wlitju l y ura Talc on hud finished thin diHcourso, a 
hundred tliouMtuid llahaiiu obtaiiuul tlio reward of 
Hr>tapatti, uud Titian, so obHtiuute before, became 
docilo and gontlo. 


1 This ntory bcarH a curious resemblance to Iho " Looch of 
FolkoHtono" in the Mngoldnby LegonrlH,' whoro exactly the 
atno expedient it) adopted to cvado the eflecta of witcLcraft, 




AT another time, while Para Taken was Irving in the 
ebony forest near the city of Setavya, he preached a 
discourse about JSTullakala and Mahakala. These, JKiil- 
lafcala and Mahakala, used to travel about with carts 
laden with merchandise, and trade in the different 
places they came to. On one occasion they reached 
the Savatthi country with 500 carts full of goods, 
aud rested midway between the eity of Savatthi and 
the ffetavana monastery. Mahakala, seeing the people 
of the country carrying sweet-scented flowers to the 
monastery, asked them whither they were going; and on 
being told that they were on their road to the monas- 
tery to hear tho law preached, he resolved to accom- 
pany them; and, giving over all the property to the 
care of his younger brother jBCullakala, ho provided him- 
self with sweet-scented flowers, and, following tho 
crowd, came into the presence of Para Taken, and 
heard his exposition of the law, regarding tho viloness 
of lust ani the rewards to be obtained hereafter by 
Rahans. At the conclusion of the discourse, Maha- 
kala begged Para Taken to make him a Rahaa. Paxa 
Taken told him that if there was any one whose have 


he ought first to ask, he should go and obtain his per- 
mission. Accordingly Mahakala went to his younger 
brother, and told him that ho was about to become a 
Bahan, and that ho gave up to him the whole of their 
joint property. His brother endeavoured earnestly to 
dissuade him from his project, but seeing that he 
was not to bo deterred, he at last gave way, and ac- 
corded his permission. Mahakala thon returned to 
Para Taken, and became a Buhan. Some time after- 
wards /Cullukalu also, in company with his elder brother, 
practised the duties of a Eahan. 

Mahakala, when he had reached the stage of a 
FaiU-anga, addressed Para Taken thus : " Lord and 
master, in your church how many religious duties are 
there?" Para Taken replied, " There are two : viz., 
Gumlhudhiira and Vipassanadhui'a." Mahakala said, 
" Lord and master, I entered the priesthood at too 
advanced an age to acquire the Qandhadhura; give 
mo the Vipasflanadhuru." 1'ara Taken, seeing that 
Mahakala would become a Bahanda, gave him the 
duty of Busaau, 1 which has the power of conducting 
to tho state of a Bahanda. 

Muhakala having thoroughly acquired the Susana 
duty, when the evening watch was passed, and every 
OILO was asloop, wont to the burial-place, and remained 
there engaged in this observance ; at daybreak, before 
any one was stirring, he returned to tho monastery. 
This practice he continued every day. 

One day, tho woman who watched tho comotory and 
burned tho bodies, seeing the Bohan, Mahakala walk- 

1 SufcJtiua means a cemetery, where bodies are either buried 
or burnt, 


ing to and fro repeating the Kammatf/aana, 1 began to 
consider who it could be who came to her place, and 
accordingly meeting him at the midnight watch, she 
addressed him thus : " Lord and master, the Bahans 
who perform Susana have a preparatory duty to 
execute." Mahakala said, "Darakama, 3 what duty 
is this P" " Lord and master," replied tho woman, 
"they should ask tho permission of the keeper of the 
burial ground and the owner of tho village." " Why 
so ?" said Mahakala. " Because thieves, when they 
have committed a robbery, often flee for rofugo to a 
burial-ground ; and the owners of the property pur- 
suing them thither, finding the property sometimes 
abandoned in tho graveyard, if they saw Ealuins there, 
would ill-troat them seriously ; but if tho burial-ground 
keepers and the owners of villages were to say that 
such a Eahan had asked permission of thorn, ho would 
be known to be guiltless," Tho Rahan MahFikalu 
then said to her, "Besides what you have already 
said, have you anything else to toll me?"* She re- 
plied, "Lord and master, -the Kahans who remain in 
burial-grounds must abstain from fish, curry stuff, 
bread, oil, and treacle, and they must never sleep in 
tho daytime. They must employ themselves energeti- 
cally, and by moans of these energetic efforts in tho 
repetition of tho Vipassana, they secure tho comple- 
tion, of a Eahan's duties." Mahakala baid to her, 
" How are tho funeral rites performed to tho corpus 
which are brought here?" Sho ropliod, " My lord 

1 ]?orty short sentences, 

2 Daraka (maso.) and Darakarna (fern,) are titles used by tho 
priests when addressing the laity ; tho meaning fc, supporter of 
the priesthood. 


and master, rich, peoplo aro placed in a coffin, adorned 
with a rod woollen cloth, and thon burnt ; with regard 
to poor people, a heap of wood is piled up and set on 
fire, then they are cut in pieces with the edge of a spade, 
so as to burn easily, and are so consumed." When 
Mahakiila heard this, ho said to the burial-ground 
keeper, "TagJima, 1 let mo know when the changing of 
the form of a human body shall take place, that I may 
recite a Kamma/YAana over it." The woman agreed to 
do so, and Mahakala remained engaged in the Eahan's 
duty of Susilna. 

About this time, Mahakala, the Eahan, having 
worldly thoughts, began to regret liis family, his wife 
and children. Olio day, while ho was performing his 
duties in tho burial-ground, tho parents of a very 
boautiful girl who had died suddenly brought the 
body, together with tho nocossary flrowood, to tho 
cronotmy, aud, delivering it to tho burial-ground 
kuopcr, gitvo instructions for her to bum it; then, 
after giving her tho customary foe, they wont away. 
Tlio body-burner, on removing the numerous garments 
which covered tho body, sooing how vory beautiful 
who AVUH, thought that she was worthy of having a 
KiimiiLuWAaua aaid over her, and accordingly wont and 
told Mahakala. Mahakala looked * at tho corpse on 
tho pyro, and examined it from tho solos of tho foct 
to tho cuds of tho hair ; then ho said a Kamma^ana 
over tho body, which had tho beautiful colour of gold, 
and withdrew, saying to tho body-burner, " Let me 
know when tho features ore becoming destroyed." 
The body-burner, as soon as tho features woro chaiag- 

1 Toga (masc.) and Tagmnu (fern.) are used in the same 
as UarakS, and mean a man or woman of tho laity. 


ing, went and told him, and he returned and said 
another Kamma^Aana over the body. The body, now 
losing its appearance, looked like a speckled cow, the 
feet fell down, the hands, bent and warped, were 
raised up, from the forehead downwards the body 
was divested of its skin and flesh. Mahakala-thera, 
seeing this, said, " This young girl only just now had 
the appearance of gold, but now she has come to utter 
destruction." Then, after again repeating the Kam- 
ma^Aana, he exclaimed, " This is the law of muta- 
bility ! there is nothing permanent !" On this, ho 
redoubled his exertions in repeating tho Vipassana 
law, aad reached the state of a Eahania. 

At that time. Para Taken, surrounded by his Eahans, 
and accompanied by Mahakala-thera, arriving in tho 
Setavya country, entered tho ebony forest. Tho wivoa 
of JTullakala, on tho arrival of Para Taken, plotting 
to get back their husband, invited Para Taken to take 
rice, Paxa Taken accordingly went to tho houso of 
JTullakala's wives, accompanied by all his Eahans, and 
ordered Mahakaia-thera to have a place prepared for 
him before he arrived. Mahakala-thora directed his 
younger brother, tho Eahan JTullakala, to go before, 
and have a place prepared; and JSTullakala, going 
quickly to the house of his wives, began to proparo 
for the reception of Para Taken. His wives there- 
upon said to him, "Who appointed you a proparer of 
places of reception ? Who gave you leave to bacomo 
a Eahan ? Why did you become a Eaton ?" Then 
they stripped off his priest's garments, fastened a lay- 
man's waistcloth round him, bound a turban on hie 
head, adorned 'him with, flowers, and saying to him, 
" Now go, and meet Para Taken on the road, aad poa- 

30 imnDHAGiiosirA's PARABLES. 

duet him hero," they sent him off with some slaves to 
receive Para Taken. Aullaktilu, not at oil ashamed 
of having re-entered the laity bcforo kcoping his first 
Lout, went as a layman to receive Para Taken. Para 
Taken, aftcar eating his rice, preached tho law, and 
then took his departure. Tfrillakala's wives took their 
husband, now a layman, home with them. 

Malmkalu's wives hearing of this, said to them- 
selves, " Aullakala'tf wives have gat their husband 
back ; we will recover om\s in tho same way," Ac- 
cordingly, they invited Para Tukon to come and take 
rice, thinking that tlioir husband Muhakala would 
ooino lo prepare fur his reception; hut Para Taken 
went another Jlahan for thin purpo>so, The wives being 
HO fur foiled in their plot, after (entertaining Para 
Taken with rice, addressed him thus : " Lord and 
, wliou yoti tuko your <l(*purturo, li^ave Mahil- 
htTa with IIH, to prc-uoh to IIH tho benefits rc- 
from oifVrings of ric<." Tarsi, Taken then 
turned to louvo, but. when ho reached tho door, tho 
wu<l to him, " Para Takim, if you leave Muha- 
behind, liis wives will drag him off; only 
recently .AulhikSilu, in ($oiiHoq[uoiL<to of being sent to 
prepare for your reception, was pulled away by his 
wivoH, and ban bc^como a layman ; henco it IB really 
ntit fitting that Mabakala-theru should bo left buhiud 
by hiniri(Jf. Ptira Taken replied, " Italians, my doar 
wnw, do you think that Mahakalu resembles Aulla- 
kala ? JfcillukRltt iw like a [drift] ti^oo tliat ha rofwhed 
tlio Hhore, but Mahakala-thora is like a mountain of 
solid rook, which nothing omi shake/' 

Malmkaln-thom** WIVOK, surrounding him, said, 
u Whose ponniwBion tlid you ask, wlu^n you hicoma a 

STORY OE JTULLAKALA AOT MAHAKALA. 31 Who told you to "become a Eahan? Now 
become a layman again." Saying this, they dragged 
him along, and tried to strip off his priest's clothes, 
but Mahakala-thera, knowing what his wives were 
about, by means of his miraculous power, rose from 
the ground, and, flying away over the roofs of the 
houses through the steeples and spires to the place 
where Para Taken was, descended to the ground, 
made his obeisance to him, and remained in his com- 

At the conclusion of this discourse, the Eahans ob- 
tained the reward of SotapattL 




ON another occasion, Farli Taken, when ho was in 
the Kosambl country, and residing in the flhofii- 
tarama monastery, preached a dfcoourBo upon the 
subject of Queen Samaviili and QTICOII Magundiyai. 

A long time ago, two kingn, King Allukappa and 
King VoAfadlpaka, between whom there had existed a 
friendship of long standing, dating from their earliest 
childhood, wore learning together the different sciences. 
On the death of their parents, they both entered on 
their governments, After performing the functions 
of kings for a very long time, tired of tho world 
and impressed with tho law of fear, they both aban- 
doned their countries, and, becoming IIormit-Bahans, 
took up their residence in tho Ilimavanta forest. 

Those two hermits having built a monastery each, 
on a separate hill, resided in it, and at every quarter 
of tho moon they used to observe the day (as a sab- 
bath), aud lighting a lamp as a signal, thus communi- 
cated to each other intelligence of their existence. 
One day, the Rishi "WAadlpaka died, and became a Nat 
of groat glory. When the day of tho quartet of .tho 


moon came round, Allakappa, seeing no light in his 
friend's monastery, knew that he was dead. 

Now the Nat's son, YetfAadlpaka, the moment that he 
became a Nat, entering upon all the enjoyments of that 
condition, began to consider by what good deed he had 
obtained this happiness, and saw that he owed it to 
haying abandoned his country and lived as a hermit 
in the forest. Assuming the guise of a traveller, he 
went to his old friend Allakappa, and after making 
obeisance to him, stood before him. Allakappa, tho 
Rishi, said to him, "Daraka, whence come you? 71 
"Lord and master," he replied, <C I am Ye^adlpaka j 
on my doath, I became a Nat of great glory ; I havo 
como to contemplate my lord and master," After this 
ho resumed, " Lord and master, have you any diffi- 
culties or troubles here ?" Allakappa replied, " In 
this place tho elephants with their footsteps make 
groat holes in the ground and dirty the precincts of 
the monastery, and I have great trouble in keeping 
the place clean and filling up again the holes with 
earth." The Nat's son said, " Do you wish to keep 
, the elephants away?" He replied, "Yes; all I want 
is to prevent them coming here." " Ycry good, then," 
he said, and he gave him the charm called " Hatthi- 
kanta," which has the power of driving away or 
bringing elephants, and shewing him a three-stringed 
lute, he taught him tho threefold spell, saying, " If 
you strike this string and repeat this charm, the ele- 
phants will run away ; strike this one and repeat this 
chaim, and they will come to you, and, bonding down, 
will carry you;" After giving those instructions, he 

1 This is the ordinary salutation of tho Burmese, answering to 
the " How do you do P" of Europeans. 


4 BTfDDnAajrosirA's TARAJJLES. 

wont a"\roy. Allakappu, Rounding tho noto whioh 
would drivo away olopliantn, kept them away from his 

At tin's time, in tho ICosaiubi country, King 
Parantapa ono day was with hi quean outside a 
Pyat/mt; 1 the quo cm was in tho family way, and the 
king Lad made hor put on a largo cai*let cloak, and 
had placed on her fingor a ring of tho valuo of a hun- 
drod thousand (#ha;/ikuH) ; jut thon a Hatthilinga, a 
moustor bird, fliw down from tho nicy and taking 
the quoou for a piouo of iicsh, fluttered hia winga 
with a tnmicudous UOIKO; tho king hearing tho sound 
wc'iit inHidci th<^ PyuMut; 1 l)tit tho quoon, owing to 
her condition, being nnablo to cwttipo was awcspt off 
ly tho Inrd, for tho Jlatthilinga hus tho Htrongth of 
iivo (ilophauts* Tho queen foariiiff for her lifo kept 
l>orft i otly quii^ thinking that if who made any iwiso 
the hird would let her fall. Tho IlaUhilmga, arriving 
ut tho Iliniavanla Voix^t, droppod JUT in thc fork of a 
liunyuu-troo in ord<r to (Uwnir hoi'p Wlion ho bogan 
to fly around tho plauo where ho intended to perch, 
to examine all around tho vicinity aw it is tho nature 
of birds to do, tho queon Hofcod tho opportunity, and 
clapping her handn, whoutod luntily, and tho bird 
atartlod at tho nnoxpcotcd noim^ flew away, 

At thin time the* sun wont down, and from tho 
effect of pant Sinn oommittod by the quoon, tho wind 
bogan to blow and violent rain camo on, and aho 
piiBHed a BloepU^HB and tniBerablo night At dawn 7 
tho rain coaled, and when tho mn rose tho quoon 

1 A ryal//at is a building ornart)oiitcd with a nurabar of roofs 
ritting ono nlovo tho i>ilior; tho ward it) a cumiijtioa of tlio 
Hnnskrit rriMda " a palm/ 9 


gave birth to a son. To this son she gave tho namo 
of TTdena, because at his birth he had experienced 
the three seasons, the cold season, the hot season, and 
the rainy season. Now, the banyan-tree was at no 
great distance from the residence of tho Eishi Alla- 
kappa. It was the Eishi's habit to collect and cat tho 
bones of the fish and meat which tho birds dropped 
from this tree; accordingly, going as usual to tho 
banyan-tree he was surprised to hoar tho crying of 
a child among tho branches, and looking up ho saw 
the queen. "Who arc you?" he cried* Tho queen 
replied, " A woman." " How did you get into tho 
banyan-tree?" said he, "The monster bird," sho 
replied, "brought me and left mo here." "Thou 
como down," he said ; but the queen answered, " I 
am afraid of losing my caste." " Of what race arc 
you?" ho asked. "A king's wifo," she replied. 
The Eishi rejoined, "I also am a king," "If BO," 
said the queen, "repeat tho mystic formula of kingfl." 
The Eishi, who had abandoned a great kingdom to 
become a hermit, repeated tho formula. "Now," said 
the queen, " come up hero and take down my son-" 
The Eishi then placing a ladder against tho tree, took 
the child from tho queen, without touching her, and 
brought it down, Tho quoon also descended, and tho 
Eishi conducted her to his monastery, whore ho lived 
with her without failing in his duty of chastity. Ho 
supplied her, for hor food, with honoy and rico. After 
same .time the queen began to reflect thus : "I do not 
kno^r the road by which I oamo ; I do not know what 
road I should have to take ; if this Riahi should leave 
mo here, my son aacl I would perish in the forest ;" 
so she formed the design of making the Biahi break 

B 2 


his vows. Keeping constantly as near him as possible, 
she endeavoured by wearing her garments indccoronsly 
and by various other feminine wiles, to overcome his 
chastity. At length she succeeded, and they bogan 
to live together as man and wile. One day Allakappa 
when he was lo nldng at the stars observed that the 
star of Parantapa had faded; ho immediately went 
to the queen and said, " Qnccn, King Parantapa in 
the country of Kosumbl is dead." "How does my 
Lord the Itishi know this?" she asked. "I know 
it," ho replied, "bccaiwo I saw Ids star hart faded." 
Tli ou thu queen began to wwp. The Jlislri said, 
" Uuoon, why do you wei>p ?' J " That King Paran- 
tapa is my husband," rfic replied. " (iuuen, woop 
not," said the Rishi, "umimg mnn there in not one 
who hus not to die, all is mutability." The quern 
said, " I know the law of mutability, but I weep for 
the misfortunes of my sou who, were be in the KDS- 
amhi country would now l>n Icing over his father's 
dominions," The*. Kislii replied, "Have no fear for 
him ; I will render your won muih ugsistanoe as will 
sooimj his being uuulo Iho king;" wiying this, ho gave 
to tho young loy Uclcnu llus lutc^ which th(j elephants 
lf)V(ul, and taught liim the spoil to attract them- 

Priiujo UcUma Bmnidorl the luto, and immodiatoly 
moro than a thouHund olopluiiitH cuino to tho foot of the 
Iranyan-troo. Tho lliwhi guvt^ him minute instructions 
as to tho different duties and observances of kings, and 
whttti ho had completed them, lio made tho prince one 
day climl) into the fork of the banyan-tree and sound 
tho luto. No sooner was the Bound of tho magic 
irutthikautu luto hoard thun a huge olophant bring- 
ing with him more than a thousand other elephants 


came close up to where the prince was', as much, as to 
say, " Mount on my tack." Then the Bishi made 
him mount the elephant, and calling to the quoen, 
said to her, " Acquaint the prince with all his circum- 
stances, and he will not fail to be king." The queen 
accordingly told him : " My dear child, you arc the 
son of King Parantapa, in the KosambI country ; a 
monster bird carried me off in this scarlet cloak, and 
dropped me in this banyan-tree where I gave birth to 
you. When you arrive in that country if tho nobles 
and ministers do not believe your story, show thom 
this ruby ring and the scarlet cloak with which your 
father covered mo ; " so saying, sho gave him tho ring 
and the cloak. Tho prince then made his obeisance 
to his mother and the Rishi, mounted tho huge ele- 
phant, and surrounded by over a thousand more of these 
animals started on his journey, carrying in his bosom 
the Hatthikanta lute. When ho oanxo to tho villages 
on the outskirts of the country, he called out, " Those 
who wish to receive my favour, lot them follow mo ; ?1 
and he took great numbers with him. 

As soon as he reached tho KosambI country ho 
erected a stockade with the branches of trees ; then ho 
sent to tho inhabitants, saying, "Will you fight, or 
will you give mo up tho country P " They returned 
for answer, " We will neither fight nor givo up tho 
coirntry; we know nothing about this story of our 
monarch's quoon having boon carried away with an 
unborn child by a monster bird; wo do not know 
whether there is a queen or not." Then ho wont to 
the ministers and nobles and said to thom, " I am the 
son of the quoen," ani told thom his name ; but no 
one would believe his story. At last ho showed thtim 


the cloak and the ring which had belonged to his 
father; then tho ministers and all the inhabitants said, 
"This is really tho son of our king," and they made 
him monarch over their country, 

One day King TIclona opening tho door of his 
summer palace, and looking out, saw the young girl 
Sainavati, and asked whose daughter who was* Now, 
this Smnavatl was the daughter of the T/u/^o Bhudda- 
vatl ? of tho lihaddavatl country ; at a time when that 
country was ravaged by famine and pwtilonco she 
came tu tho Kasambl country of wlii<;h Udena was 
king, and had boon adopted by tho, T//U///O Ghtwita 1 us 
hin daughter. Shortly after thin, Siinmvuti, after being 
very handsomely drowsed, was conducted to tho king, 
who, tho moment lie saw hoi- loll violently in lovo 
with her, und immediately hud tlio inaugural (Kiro- 
mony of pouring wator pca'lbrnu'.d, and wisod her to 
tho luuk of his cj[uo(ui ; and Siimuvuli Ixtcaino a groat 
quacm, Hiirroundod by fiOO fontulo aitf (auLiutri. 

In unotlior country called Vffffcnil tltore reignod a 
king iiaiiK^d Alwr/apuy//(jtii ; h(^ hud a daughter called 
VttBuliidiittS. Thiw king, one day wliilo lno was walk- 
ing about hit* garden, obHorviug tho muguificonoe of 
his anuy, unkod his uoblos, " h tboro auy otlicr king 
who possesses an arnny like mine or Buck oloi)haats 
und horses?" The uoblos replied^ " Your Majesty, 
tlio axmy and olop1iaut0 and horses of Kiaig Udona 
in the KoBumbl country ore exceedingly numerous," 
King ISTanriipay^ota said, " If thia bc so, I will take 
prisoner King TJdona.' 7 Tho nobles fluid, "Totir 
Majesty will nut bo able to toko King Udona." 
"IIuw so?" ho askod. They replied, u Booauao.lio 
possesses tlio Ilutthikautu eliunn ; by repeating this 
1 Text has Ghouaka, arid manuscript Cfbocia* 


spell he can make elephants and horses take to flight ; 
he has also a charm to make them come to him." 
When King j^aracfopa^crta heard what the nobles 
said, he said, "I will contrive to take him, and 
gain possession of his charm." 

He had an elephant very well made of wood and 
carefully painted ; then he had machinery fixed inside 
to be worked with ropes, and enclosing sixty men to 
pull the ropes started it off across the boundary of 
King Udena's territory, and made it walk up and 
down near a tank, and moreover, had a quantity of 
elephants 5 dung scattered all round the cdgo of the 
tank. A hunter happening to sec it wont and told 
King TTdona, who immediately started off with all 
his forces. TCing Ifontfiipa^ota as BOOH as he hourd 
that King ITdena had sot off, brought out u lurgo 
army and posted them in ambusoudo on cither wide 
of the road which King Udena would tako; the latter 
not knowing that the other king was coining, not off 
in pursuit of the elephant; the men insido pulling 
hard at the ropes sent it off at great speed. King 
TJdena struck the Into and uttered the spoil, but tho 
elephant being a wooden one paid no attention to it, 
and made off faster than over, with King TJdena in 
pursuit. The king seeing that ho could not gain tin 
it, descended from his elephant and mounted his horse; 
his army unable to keep up with him were soon loft 
behind. After ho had gone somo connidorablo dis- 
tance IIB come on tho army of King Jfaw^ipa^ota, 
who seized him and carried him off to thoir king. 

"Wlien the axmy of King TJdona know that ho was 
captured, they halted, and built a fortification witli 
bronchos of toooeu Kiag ATaw/apa^uta plaeod King 


TIclona in prison, and set a guard over him ; then lio 

gave a groat feast to his army which lasted for three 
days. On the third day King TJclona said to those 

who were guarding him, " What is yo\ir king doing 
with his army that they make so much noise?" 
Thuy replied, "He is giving a great feast to his 
anny bor.auso ho has coiujuered hi enemy." " Your 
king," said Udniia, "is acting like a woman; after 
conquering & Inutile king he should either kill him or 
lotliimgo; why (loess ho inflict all this misery upon 
mo?" WIiou the guards told King A"uw/upu^ota 
whui tldnia had wuM, ho came to the prison find 
asked him if lu> had milly wiid so. King Udena at 
OIKJO acknowledged that ho had said NO. "Very 

' well, 71 said tho other khitf, " if you wish to he 
iX'h^iiHCHl, give mo the charm that you know, and I will 
givo you your lilwrty." King IWcuui replied, "If 
you will pay homage to mo I will give it to you. 7 ' 
The olhov king suid, "I will pay no homage to you." 
Uduiiii perrtisltMl, "If you will not pay homage to mo 
you Kliull not have it," King AaWapayyota said, 
"'If you do not #iw it mo I will have you executed." 
llilonu njoinod, ** Do what you liko with mo; you 
have powor ovw my body, but uono over my mind*" 

Tho king <ni lu^inug the bold wordu of Udona began 
to thiuk that only by rmift ho could succeed in obtain- 
ing the charm from him, and cumo to the conclusion 
that the duly plan would bo tt> nwko his daughter 
procure tho charm from Inm, and ihon loom it from 
her, OH it would not do for others to have tho know- 
lotlgo of it. Accordingly ho went to XJdona aad said 
to him, " Would you givo up tho ohwrm to any one 
olso who would pay homage to yuu ? " IIo repliodj 


" I will give it to tha person who pays homage to 
me ." "If that "be so," said the other, " there is in my 
house a hunchback ; I will put her inside a curtain, 
and you remaining outside of it, repeat the charm to 
her." After firmly impressing upon him that his 
daughter was a hunchback, ho wont to his daughter 
and said to her, " There is a leper horc who will 
teach you a charm that is worth a hundred "thousand 
golden pieces, but you must do obeisance to him from 
tiie inside of a curtain, the leper remaining outHido 
will repeat to you the charm, and you must leuvn it 
very carefully." Now, the reason of tho king making 
TJdona think his daughter was a hunchback, and Lin 
daughter think that TJdona was a lopor wtiw, that lie 
thought that otherwise they might contract an im- 
proper intimacy with each other. 

When all the arrangements wore mudo, tho Prin- 
cess Yasuladatta, from tho inside of tho curtain, Lowed 
down in homage, and King TJdona, on tho outside, 
recited the charm to her. After repeating tho oliurm 
several times, when tho princess had not Buoooodocl in 
learning it, Udena became very angry, and cried out 
to tho princess, " Oh, you . hunchback ! you havo got 
very thick lips, rub them with a potsherd." Tho 
prinooss, very indignant, retorted, "You lopor! do 
you daro call a princess like mo a Imudibaok ?" On 
this, Udena opened the curtains, and, looking hi, navv 
the princess: "Why, I thought you wore a Inincsli- 
backj your father told mo so, and ho has told you I 
was a leper. I am King TJdona." " If thta bo MO," 
said tho princess, " come under tho curtain." Udima 
then went inside tho curtain, and tho result tho king 
had feared took place, After soino timo, King Km- 


cried out, " Ilavo you learned it?" and the 
princess replied, "I do not know it yet; lam still 
burning it." 

One day. King Udona said to Ihe princess, "If 
ever a woman follows the wishes of a husband, neither 
brothers nor sisters have wny power to oppose her ; if 
you wish me to save my liib, follow implicitly my 
wishes: 7 will then raise you to the rank of my 
queen, and give you a retinue of 500 female attend- 
ants" The primirflfl, after making him ougugo Lya 
8i lomn promise to koep his word, went to hor father, uml, 
wilh a WOIIUUL'H diwoit, said to him, "My father, your 
Mwjcsty, in onlnr that I may Kucccotl in learning the 
('.harm, it will "bo tiMowsury for inn to ropeut llu> spell 
liy nitfht, uftur noting a curtain (umiiiiiu of the stars, 
and tlion prormrc a oortuiu inudiuhml root J thoroforo 
pltuns tin olo]iluuit at my disposal, and have one of the 
doors loft open," Tho king said, " Daughter, t*iko any 
duphuut you likis, UTiilluLvit ouoof tho doors loft opou." 

Now, King 7im/r/apji^<jtu was [HIHHOHBCUI of th(^ five 
swift (niv( i yuiut(!H: th<^ fititudo oloplmnt wllod Ulmd- 
diivuti, which would tnivol iifly yoytaum 1 in ono day; 
a wluvd nunuMl Kaku, a who ould travel sixty yoyuiuis 
iit, i day ; u IIOI-HCS culhnl /v(^hikiw?Mi, who could truvol 
t,\V(?uty yoyuiuiH in u d;iy ; a horso cullod tho Mufiya- 
kosi; UTI (jlophutit oiillwl Nulfigiri, who could travol 
ono hundred yo^unas in a day. Tho circuntHtnnceg 
under which ho bowuno the owner of those flvo kmd6 
of swift conveyance wore UK follows: 

1 Tho fturmnuoyuzanil is Ittj Englmlt uiilcw nccordiug to Judaou, 
but thu Hannkrit y tVjfutui in stated by VVilwou to bo m U&JN, or ucourd- 
in^ to flouio comimtatiouH only 4] iniloa* 

tt Text und umnuacript havo Kuhi. 


JTawdapa^ota, in a former state of existence, 
Was a slay 3. One day, while accompanying his mas- 
ter on a journey, they fell in with a Pa^okabudilha. 1 
His master said, "Lord and master, have you had 
rice?" "Taga," he replied, "I have not yot hud 
any. " Then the master of the slave, who was the 
embryo King ^awrfapa^ota, sent Mm back homo to 
procure some rice. The slave quickly returned with 
the rice, and presented it to the Pa/d-ekabuddha, and 
his master said to him, " Because you have used such 
diligence in bringing the rice, I make ovor to you 
half of the future rewards to bo acquired by the 
offering." Then the slave inude this invocation : " Afl 
the reward of my having so quickly prornmul and 
presented this offering of rice, may I hereafter bo tho 
possessor of tho five swift conveyance^.'' In COIIKO- 
qucsnoe of this invocation, tho slavo afterwards bocwuu 
King JTawrfapa^ota. 

One day. King jSTomfopq^ota wont out to amiiM 
himself in the garden. King Uiena, thinking thin 
a good opportunity to escape, filled a leather bag with 
a large quantity of gold and silver, and placing tho 
Princess Vasuladatta on a swift female elephant, fhd 
away. When the palace guards acquainted tho kin# 
with the flight of ITdena anil tho princosw, ho flcnt off 
his people at once in pursuit. Udona, scoing that ho 
was pursued, immediately began to scatter tho gold 
and silver along tho road and into ovory bush ho 
passed. His pursuers, delaying to pick up tho trea- 
sure, dropped behind, and Udona reached in safety 
the fortification which his army had built of branches 

1 A semi-Buddha, who occasionally appears in tha iutorvala be- 
tween real Buddhas, , 


of trees, while the hostile party, giving up tho pur- 
suit, returned home. Helena, after returning with 
Iiis army to his own country, raised the Princess Yasu- 
ladatta to the rank of his queen, and gave her 500 
female attendants. 

This is tho account of how King Udona obtained 
possession of tho Princess Yasuladatta. 

In the KururaWAa country there lived a Brahmin 
named Magandiya. Ho had a daughter whom ho had 
named Magandiya, and his wife's name, moreover, 
was Magandiya, and he had an uncle whoso name was 
jETullamiigiuuliya. Thiw Brahmin's daughter Miigan- 
diyii was very lovely ; whe was as beautiful as a Nat's 
daughter. Prinoas mid NOUS of T/m^os sent to demand 
her hand, but hor father the Lrahmin daunted them 
all with the roply that they wore not worthy of her. 
At thin time Pura Takcm, ono morning at daybreak look- 
ing about to BON who di'sorvod tu be reloased, 1 saw that 
tho Dralimin Magandiya and his wife would attain to 
Anagami; 2 tlicu ho went into tho vicinity of their village. 
Miipumliyu tlu^ liruhmin, who at this time was going 
about in Htiirch of u huwbimd suitable fur his daughter, 
mot Para Taktsu on tho road. At once, from his ap- 
peamnco, lio aw that ho was a fit husband for his 
daughter, arid approaching him, said, "My lord 
Italian, my daughter is worthy of you, she is as 
lovely as a Nat's daughter, She will tend upon my 
lord Eahnn ; my lord lluhan, look upon my daughter 
as your wife. I will send for her. Eemain hero." 
Then ho made hasto back to his house, and said to his 
wife, "Urahmml, I have found a husband suitable 

1 From win and its punishment. 
9 Tho third uluto of an Ariva. 


to our daughter. Adorn her quickly." "When his 
wife had completed the adornment of her daughter 
as quickly as possible, they all three started off to 
Para Taken, and the people followed them, shouting 
noisily as they went along, "Look here, the Brah- 
min and his wife are going to give their daughter a 
husband." At this moment Para Taken, marking 
with his sacred footstep the site of a jSTetiya 1 on the 
spot where the Brahmin had told him to remain, wont 
and stood at another place close by. The sacred foot- 
steps of Para Takens are only apparent iipoii the spots 
which they command to be hereafter relics. When 
they do not so command, their footsteps arc always 
invisible. Moreover, only those people for whom they 
have earnestly prayed can see those footsteps. Such 
appointed footstep no elephant or any animal that 
exists, not the heaviest rain, not tho most violent 
wind, can obliterate. At this time, tho Brahmin's 
wife said to him, "Where is this young man?" and 
he replied, "I told him to be in this place.' 3 Then 
looking about, ho saw tho jfotiya footstep, and said, 
< c This'must be his footstep." Tho Brahmin's wife, who 
was thoroughly versed in the book of outward signs 
and in the three Vedas, on examining tho different 
signs of the footstep, oxolaimod, "0 Brahmin, this 
footstep doos not belong to any one who is subject to 
the fivo passions. 3 This footstep is that of a Para 
Taken, free from every ovil disposition." 

1 A pagoda, enshrining the relio of a Buddha. 

9 The Brahmin! here recites in poetry tho signs of the foot- 
mark of the lustful, the angry, and the ignorant man. Tho printed 
text and the manuscript differ greatly hisre, and neither are in- 


The Brahmin said to his wife, "You see signs, like 
seeing an alligator in a cup of water, or thieves in the 
midst of a houso. Hold your tungue and say nothing, 
or people will hear you ;" then, after looking about, 
ho descried Para Taken. " Here is the young man," 
said he, showing him to hia wife, and ho went up to 
ParJi Taken, and presenting his daughter Magandiya, 
said, "My lord Kalian, I give you my daughter. 5 ' 
Para Taken said, "I will tell you something; listen 
to mo. Prom the sacred forest to the foot of the A^a- 
]>alii banyan -tree the Mfm-nat King fought with mo, 
1)ut unublo to overcome mo, took to flight ; that Icing's 
daughter, with amorous wiles, and all the beauty 
and witchery of tlm Nats, sought to beguile me, but 
who failed to ruiao any fooling of passion. How should 
I dtmiro your daughter, who is subject to the vilest 
necessities of humanity ? I would not have her touch 
oven the solo of my foot." Then ho recited some versos, 
at the conclusion of which tho Bmhmin and his wife 
rocnnvod tho ruwurd of the state of Anagami. Tho 
Uruhmiu's daughter Magandiya was greatly incensed 
against Paril Tukciu She said, "This Kahau not 
otJy siiys that ho docs not want mo, but that, sub- 
ject as I am to tho vilcmt necessities of humanity, he 
would not have mo touch tho solo of his foot. Whoa 
I have married a huHbuud of family, wealth, and in- 
fluunGG, I will do what ought to bo done to tho 
lluhan Gotaina." And she boro a grudge against 
him, The question will arise, " Was Para Taken aware 
of Magandiya's anger?." IIo was not ignorant of 
it ; ho know it. Again, " If ho know it, why did ho 
recito tho vorsos ?" Because, although the daughter 
hud resentful feelings, ho wished to profit the other 


two Brahmins, her parents. Paras take no account 
of. anger, but preach the law to those who are deserv- 
ing of the reward of the right way. The Brah- 
min and his wife, after receiving the reward of ' 
Anagami, gave their daughter into the charge of her 
uncle, and be Doming Bahans, reached the state of 

The uncle, determined to give his nieoe to nono but 
a king of high family, took her away with him, and 
presented her to King Udena. The king, falling 
violently in love with her the moment that ho saw 
her, had the ceremony of pouring water performed, 
gave her a retinue of 500 female attendants, and 
raised her to the rank of his queen, Thus, King 
Udena had threo queens, residing in thrco palaces, 
with 1500 female attendants, or 500 for each quoon. 
The king used to give to Quoon Samavatl ovory 
day eight kahapawas to buy flowers to adorn her- 
self with. A female slave of Queen Samavatl, 
named Khu^grattara, used to go every day, and buy 
the flowers from the flower-woman, Sumana, but 
she never bought more than, four kahapawas 5 worth, 
keeping the other four for herself, One day, 
this Sumana, the flower-woman, resolved to go and 
make an offering of rice to Para Taken, and when 
Khu^ruttara came as usual to her to buy flowers, sho 
said to her, "Wait a little, Khu^^ttara, I have no 
time now, for I am just going to offer some rice to 
Para Taken." " If that be so," said Khu^uttara, 
"let us go together and hoar the law." The flower- 
womaa agreeing to this, they wont together, Sumana 
made an offering of rioo to Para Taken and his atten- 
dant Bahans. When Para Taken had oaten the rice, 


lie preached the law, and Khu^yuttara after hearing 
it, received tho reward of Sotapatti. 1 On this occa- 
sion, Ehuj^uttarJi, "who had been 1 in the habit of 
keeping four kahapa^as every day for herself, ex- 
pended the whole of the eight kahilpawas in flowers, 
owing to hor having become a Sotapan in consequence 
of listening to tho law of Para Taken. 

Tho queen, when she saw so many more flowers 
thau usual, exclaimed, " IQiu^uttarii, what a number 
of flowers thore arc! lias the king given to-day 
inoro than the ordinary flower-money ?" Khu^uttara 
replied, "Lady, every day I have been in the habit of 
upending four biliiipunoB on tho flowers, keeping the 
other four for myBulf, but t D-day I went with Sumana 
who was making an offering of rice to Para Taken, 
uncl after listening to IIIH preaching of tho law have 
obtained tho reward of SutSipatti, and therefore I do 
not Htcal." Tho queen, instead of being angry with 
her, merely said, " Was it right for you to take my 
property in this way every day ?" and told her to 
proueh to her tho law sho had just hoard. Khu/^ut- 
tarii said, " Very good, I will preach tho law to you, 
but you must batlio me." Tho queen accordingly had 
hor bathed with sixtoon pots of perfumed water, and 
prosontod hor with two cloths, One of these cloths 
Khu^uttara put on, and one sho threw over hor ; then, 
taking up hor position in a place of honour, sho preached 
tho sacrod law precisely as Para, Taken had preached 
it Queen Sfimavati and her 500 fomalc attendants, 
joining tlioir hands in an attitude of devotion, listened 
to tho law, and when it was finished, tho whole of 
thorn became Sotiipans ; and tho quoen, paying horn- 
1 Tho first stato of an Ariya, 


age to Eiuj/yuttara, said, " Ehu^yiittara, from this 
day I shall never call you a slave, henceforth you 
must do no work ; from this time I regard you as my 
mother and my teacher, and you must go and hear Para 
Taken preach the law, and come and repeat it to me." 

In obedience to the queen's commands, Khti^ait- 
tara went regularly to hear Para Taken preach the 
law, and repeated it to the queen and her 500 attend- 
ants. In consequence of Khiij^ttara knowing the 
three books of the Pi&ka, 1 Para Taken said to the 
Eahans, "Beloved Kahans, Khu^yuttai^Jl is most ex- 
cellent in the preaching of the law ;" and he placed her 
in a position of superiority. 

One day. Queen Samavatl said, " IQmyyuttara, I 
wish to contemplate Para Taken. Invito him to come 
here." Khu^uttara replied, "Lady, kings' houses 
are very difficult of access, and your Majesty would 
not dare to go outside." " Very well, then," said the 
queen, "when Para Taken comes to"" receive rice, you 
must point out to me which is Para Taken, and which 
is Sariputta and Moggalana." "Very good," said 
Khu^oittara ; " my lady must make holes through the 
walls of her apartment, and then, looking through 
them, do homage." Queen Siimavati accordingly, 
with her 500 female attendants, made holes in the 
walls of their apartment, and when Para Taken came to 
receive rice, they made obeisance and worshipped him. 

One day Queea Magandiya going to the PyaUat, 
and seeing the holes in the wall, askod what they wcro 
made for; Quoen Samavali not knowing that Magan- 
diya had a grudge against Para Taken, replied that they 
were made for the purpose of worshipping Gotama 
1 Tho Buddhiat scriptures. 


Para Taken. Queen Magandiya then thought to her- 
self , U I will do wliat I ought to do to the Rahan 
Grotamn, and I will destroy Queen Samavati. " With 
this design she went to King TIdcna and said to him, 
" The inclination of Samavati is not towards you, but 
towards another ; in a day or two she will kill you." 
King Udcna, cunvinccd that Samavati could not do 
siioli a thing, would not believe her. Magandiya said, 
"If your Majesty does not believe me go and examine 
Lor apartment." The king went to Samavatl's apart- 
ment, mid on inquiring why holes had been made in 
the wull, was told by Samavati that when Para Taken 
(mum to receive rioo, she had worshipped him. When 
the king hoard this, ho was not at all angry, but he 
had the holes filled up anfl windows made in their 
place ; and it was in King TJdcua'fl roign that for the 
first time windows were made in the upper apartment 
of a palace. 

Mriffundiyn, unable to do anything against Samavati, 
formed the cloHiRii of compelling tho Eahan (Mama, 
who had BO shamed hot, to leave the neighbourhood; 
to curry it out, who fiim* u largo quantity of gold and 
Nilvt* to tho people of the country, and told them 
when Para Taken cawo'to receive rice, to hoot him 
and insult him, HO as to make him go to some other 
place. Accordingly, thofio who wero heretics and who 
did not respect tho three jowolfl, 1 when they saw Para 
Takou approaching to receive rice, shouted at him, 
"0 you bad priest, arc you not a rascally thief? 
You slupid priest, you arc like a bullock, like tiio brute 
btmsta suffering for former sins," When tho people 
thus insulted him my lord Ananda s said, " Lord and 

1 Ootama, tho law, and tho priesthood* 
3 Younger brother of Gotanm. 


master, these people have insulted us, it is better that 
we should go elsewhere to collect rice." Para Taken 
replied, "Ananda, if there also you should meet 
with insult where would you go ? Who has insulted 
you?" Ananda said, "Lord and master, people en- 
gaged in labour as slaves have insulted us." Then 
Para Taken said, "I am like an elephant who has just 
reached the battle-field, whose duty it is to sustain the 
flights of arrows which attack him from every side. 
My duty is to bear all the insults which the heretics 
launch against me. Ananda, be undor no anxiety; 
these people will have finished insulting us after soven 
days ; on the seventh day they will Lo silent. Tho 
distress of Para Taken cannot last for more than seven 

Magandiya, failing in her attempt to make Para 
Taken leave the neighbourhood by having him insulted, 
began to consider, "This Samavuti with her f>0() 
attendants supports this Eahaa Q-otama, so I will 
contrive to ruin her." Accordingly, sho told hetf 
uncle the Brahmin to procure eight livo fowls and 
eight dead ones, and that she would wait on the stops 
of the palace till he came and told her they had boon 
obtained. As soon as they were procured, the Brahmin 
came ani told Magandiya. Magandiya directed, the 
slaves who brought the fowls to put down tho (right 
dead fowls, and to folbw hor with the eight livo fowlw ; 
these she took to King TTdena in tho place whcro Lo 
drank spirits, and presented them to him. When tho 
king saw the live fowls thus presented to Hoi, ho 
asked who understood how to cook thorn well, 
Magandiya said, "Your Majesty, SamavatI loiowfl how 
to cook them very nicely." Udona eaid> "Very 



good, then let her cook them/ 5 and he told the 
slaves to take them to Samavati, ani to tell hor to cook 
them herself, without lotting any one else touch them. 
These directions the slaves gave to Samavati. Sama- 
vati and her 500 atteniants said, " We do not take 
life," This the slaves reported to the king. WhenMa- 
gandiyri heard it, who criod, "Do you hear that, your 
Majesty ? This Samavati will not as much as prepare 
your Majesty's food, and uses rebellious words. You 
citn soon know whether sho will take lifo or not. Let 
her have tkom to cook ibr the Eahan Gotama." The 
king, according to Magandiya's suggestion, sent a mes- 
sage to fifunavali to cook the fowls and send them to 
Gotama. Thou Magandiya bribed the king's messen- 
gers with gold and yilvor, and made thorn put down 
Iho livo fowls tuul take the dead ones to Samavati, 
with the Kind's rcqucHt that sho should cook them 
and send them to Gotimia. Whun Samavati saw the 
dead fowls H!IO wiiil, "Very good," and took them. 
Tlio pooplo who luul tukon the fowls, on boing asked 
by the king what Samavati had said, told him that as 
noun us nho hoard that the fowls wore for the Eahan Go- 
taina, she was greatly delighted, and taking them, said 
aha would cook thorn. Thou Magandiya exclaimed: 
"There, your Mujonty, do you soo this? This Sama- 
vutl when who waw told that it was for your Majesty, 
said, ' "Wo do not take lifo ; J -but when she was told to 
cook thorn, and present them to the Eahan Gotama, 
mark this, your MajoHty, sho cooks thorn with the 
greatest delight." , Though King Udena hoard all 
this, ho would not boliovo it, but bearing it patiently, 
kept Bilenco, 
When Magandiya fouud that the king would not 


believe her, she began to consider what other plan 
she should have recourse to. It was the custom of tho 
king to spend seven days at a time in each of the three 
queens' PyatAats. Maganiiya, knowing that on the 
following day the king would goto Samavatl's PyatAat, 
sent word to her uncle the Brahmin to procure a cobra, 
and after breaking its fangs, to bring it to her. The 
Brahmin, according to her directions, brought her the 
cobra with its teeth broksn, Now, it was the habit of 
King Udena to take a lute with him to whichever 
PyatAat he went, so Magandiya put the cobra into the 
cavity of the lute, and fastened it up with a bunch of 
flowers ; and the cobra remained inside the lute for 
two or three whole days. Then Magandiya said to the 
king, "Wliich PyaUat does your Majesty go to to- 
day?" The king replied, "I aip. going to Samavatf s 
Pyattat" Magandiya said, " Tour Majesty, I had a 
dream last night which has much disturbed mo, it is 
not right that you should go to Samavatl's PyatAat;" 
but the king would not listen to her, and wont off to 
the PyaUat. Magandiya, unable to prevent him from 
going, fDllowod him. The king on arriving at tho 
PyatAat kid his lute on the bed, and said to Ma- 
gandiya, "You may retire;" but Maganiiya would 
not go away, and commenced walking up and down 
by the side of the bed. Tho king, after adorning 
himself with the different garments, flowers, and per- 
fumes presented to him by SamavatI and her 500 
attendants, put his lute at tho head of the bed, and 
lay down. Magandiya pretending to be only walking 
about close to the bed, took the bunch of flowers out 
of the hollow of the lute, and throw it away. $he 
cobra coming out expanded its hood, aad Magandiya 1 as 


soon as she saw it cried out, " your Majesty ! how 
foolish you are. Here is my dream fulfilled ; look at 
the snake." Then she began to scream out abuse at 
"both the king and Samavati, and reviled the latter, 
saying, "You put the snake in ths lute to kill the 
king; do you think that if the king died you would 
live?" When tho king saw the snake, he started 
and exclaim od, "Infamous as Samavati is, I gave no 
credence to Magandiy Fi when she accused her. Before 
tAis, she made holes in the wall of her palace ; again, 
she would not dross tho fowls for me, and now sho 
lets IOOHO a snake in my bod," Saying these words 
ho became furiously enraged. Samavati seeing the 
king's angor cxhortod her 500 attendants not to give 
way to anger against cither tlio king or MSgandiya, 
but to meditate only on tho Saranagamana, 1 which has 
tho power of preventing all evil emotions. 

Tho king, exasperated with Samavati, took a bow 
mado of goats' horns,* which required a thousand 
soldiers to string, and fixing a poisoned arrow, he had 
Samavati placed in front with her 500 attendants in a 
row behind her ; then ho lot fly tho arrow at the centre 
of hor bosom ; but owing to her loving disposition the 
arrow returned, and mado as if it would enter the 
king's breast. Tho king reflecting, " The arrow that 
I shut would have gono through a stouo slab ; yet it 
came back and made as if it would pierce my breast," 
trembled and said, " Even this lifeless arrow recog- 
nised tho morit of Samavati, while I, a man, could 
not eoo it" Then ho threw away the arrow, and fall- 
ing at her foot raised his hands in adoration, and ad- 

* A formula of worship, viz. I worship Para, I worship the 
Law, L worship the priesthood. 


dressed her as follows, in poetry : " Samavati, I am 
utterly lost, everything is confusion ; save me and bo 
to me an object of worship." Saying this ho made 
the humble gesture of apology. Queen Samavati, the 
disciple of Para Taken, far from allowing the king to 
worship her/ replied, "Do not worship me; I worship 
Para Taken; do you also worship him. It is you, 
great king, who should rather be an object of worship 
to me.' 3 The king said, " Let him then be my object 
of worship," and listening to the advice of Samavati, 
he went for seven days in succession to Para Taken, 
made offerings of rice to him, and heard the law. Ho 
also offered to Queen Samavati a magnificent present, 
but she said to him, " Tour Majesty, I have no wish fur 
gold or silver, give permission that Para Taken and 
his Eahans may visit continually my PyatAat," Tho 
king accordingly invited Para Taken to visit con- 
tinually the queen's Pyattat, but Para Taken replied, 
" It is not fitting that a Para Taken should go con- 
tinually to one palace only, for many people long to 
contemplate him." " If this be* so," said tho king, 
"Lord and master, depute &ne of your disciples," and 
Para Taken replied, " I depute my lord Ananda." 
The lord Ananda accompanied by 5 DO Hahans then 
visited Samavatl's PyatAat, and ate their rice there ; 
arid the queen with her 5 DO fomale attendants, after 
listening to the law, presented to Ananda 500 gar- 
ments, and each priest's garment was worth 500 (pieces 
of gold), 

Magandiya, foiled in her designs, planned another 
stratagem. One day King Fdena was amusing him- 
self in the garden, and Magandiya, Wiacl to tho state 
(of soul) in which die was, thought that this was a .good 

56 BTJDOiLianosiu'y PARABLES. 

opportunity to complete her oyil designs. Sho sont 
for her undo the Brahmin, and told him to get a 
quantity of cloths, saturate them with oil, wrap them 
round Samavatl's Fyat.feat, and then set fire to them. 
The lirahinin accordingly procured a number of 
coarse cloths, washed thorn, and saturated them with 
oil; then he took thorn to Samavatl'a PyatAat, and 
after wrapping them round all the door-posts and the 
loaves of the doors, lie closed all the entrances. 
Sftmavall said tu him, "Brnthor -Brahmin, why are 
you wrapping thoflo cloths round tho doors ? " and ho 
replied, "The king luiH givon me strict orders to do 
so, Imt why 1 do not know*" Then he set fire to 
them mnl wont away. 

Piimavatl oxhortod all lira 1 attendants, saying, "In 
11 to couutloHH (uriHtciwcH lluit have bad no beginning, 
it would lio impoMsiLlo to rookim tho number of times 
lhat wo luivo jim'Hhod by iiro; lot us keep this in 
niinrl." When tlio wtlln if tho palaco were wrapped 
in llanufl and Ihoy began to flutter acutely, she re- 
p< i at(ul thn Kainnui^na, 1 and sov(^ral of her attendants 
obtained tlto njward of Aimgami. 8 Tho assembly of 
Kabunw mil to Varil Taken, u Lord and master, while 
King TJdraa in cngagod in his garden, Sfimavatl's 
puluoci ia in flamcw, and tbo queen with her 500 
attendants is boing Imimul to death ; what will bo tho 
futnro statn of tlutHt^ handmuidons?^ Para Taken re- 
plied, " Some ai*o sottleri in tho reward of Sotapatti, 3 
some in that of Salcadagami,* and others in that of 

1 Forty eontoncee far repetition. 
8 Tho third atate of an Ariya. 
8 The flrat atate of an Ariya, 
4 Tho second stata of an Ariya. 


Anagami. 1 These attendants do not die without 
future reward, the whole of them have received the 
right course. All people who are subject to the in- 
fluence of their former deeds are constantly experi- 
encing both happiness and misery. 53 

The intelligence of Samavati's Pyat/aat being on 
fire was quickly carried to the king. Unable to roach 
it before it was burnt down, he remained surrounded 
by his nobles overwhelmed with grief. He thought 
of all the good qualities of Samavatl, and came to 
the conclusion that it was the work of Magandiya. 
Knowing that he could not extort a confession from 
her by threats, he had recourse to artifice, and said to 
his nobles, "From this day forth I shall be in comfort; 
many a time did SamavatI plot my destruction ; un- 
successful in her attempts she has now met her death; 
from this day forth my mind will bo at rest, and I 
shall bo able to sleep in peace. Whoever compassed 
the death of SamavatI I call my Mend." Magandiyii, 
who was near the king when he said this, directly she 
heard it, exclaimed, "Your Majesty, could any one 
else have contrived this ? It was I who managed the 
plot, and my uncle the Brahmin carried it into effect" 
When the king heard this ho protended to bo groatly 
delighted, and said to her, "You ore indood a friend 
to me ; I will reward you for this ; eond for the whole 
of your relations ; " saying this ho dismissed her. 

When Magandiya had brought all her relations, the 
king, in order that none of thorn might be forgotten, 
made them all very handsome presents. Boeing this, 
those who were only most distantly Donnootod with Ma- 
gandiya came forward and claimed relationship. 
1 The third state of an Ariva. 


king, having thus caught all Magondiya's relations, had 
a hole dug in front of him as deep as a man's waist ; 
ho then had all of them placed in it, and the hole 
filled up with fine earth. Above the hole he then had 
scattered a quantity of straw and rubbish which he 
caused to be sot on fire. After all their hair and skin 
was burnt off, he had their bodies cut into pieces by 
passing iron harrows over them, "With regard to 
Magandiya lu i rsolf, wtrips of floshwcro cut off with an 
excessively sharp knife from every part of her body, 
which, uftoi 1 boing fried in oil, slic was compelled to 
eat, and thus underwent the mont horrible torture. 
Sucih it* tlio history of Magandiya. 
One day the assembly of Kalians said to Para 
Takon, "Lord and master, the death of Samavati 
and her 501) attendant** who wore all full of faith and 
love wua by no meanft right. 57 "Bolovod Italians," 
ropliod Taril Takon, "thia Samavati and her 500 
attendant*, a long timo ago, when Brahmadatta 
was king of the Bonaros country, wore the concu- 
bines of that king. Out) day when the king was 
playing in the rivor with his concubines, these 
finding thomsolvos very cold, and wishing to warm 
themselves at a fire, began to search, here and there 
for futil or rubbiwli to make a firo with. Finding on 
tho bank of the river a bush of dry roods, and think- 
ing it was only rubbish, they sot firo to it and warmed 
themselves at it. Now, in this bush was a Pa&fceka- 
buddha practising tho Nirodhasamapatti. 1 When 
the cunoubinos saw tho Ta/fAckabuddha in the flames, 
they cried out, " Wo have burnod tho Ta^okabuddha, 
tho king's teacher ; if this como to tho king's ears w& 
1 Some supernatural attainment} a kind of ecstasy or trance. 


shall all be executed; let us go and get some fire- 
wood and burn him up altogether." So saying they 
brought a log each, and making a large heap, set fire 
to it ; then thinking that the body would be entirely 
consumed and leave no trace, they went away. Al- 
though these concubines had no intention to take life, 
still their sin followed them in due course; for a 
thousand years they suffered in hell, and now at last 
their house has been set on fire, and they themselves 
have been burnt to death, Such is the account of the 
former sin of Samavatl. As to the Pa/fefcekabuddha, 
if a thousand cart-loads of fuel had been burnt around 
him while he was in the state of Sammapata, they 
would not have made him feel hot ; on the seventh 
day he arose from the state of Nirodhasamapatti, 
and went his way in comfort." 

Again the Eahans said to Para Taken, " On account 
of what evil deeds was Khuj^uttara a slave? And 
owing to what good deeds did she become so learned 
and acquire the three books of the Pifoka ; from what 
good deeds is it that she is now settled in the reward 
of Sotapatti?" Para Takenreplied, "Beloved Kalians, 
in a former existence of Khu^uttara there was a 
Pa&fcekabuddha in the country of Benares, who was 
rather hump-backed. Khugjnttara when she saw 
him, laughed at his deformity ; and for this sin she 
became hump-backed herself. But when this same 
Pa/fcfcekabuddha came to the king's palace to receive 
alms of food, and the king poured an offering of cow's 
milk into his Uabet, which completely filled it, 
Khu^uttara, seeing the Pa/fc/fcekabuddha shifting the 
tAabet from hand to hand on account of the great heat 
of the milk, immediately took off her arm eight ivory 


bracelets which she was -wearing, and making a stand 
for the pot -with thorn, presented them as an offering. 
It was for this gDod deed that she has acquired such 
groat wisdom, and is conversant with all the three 
Looks of the Pitfaka. Those ivory bracelets are extant 
to this day in the Nandamula mountain cave. It was 
in consequence of her having formerly made offerings 
of rice to that PaH-okabuddha that she is established 
in the reward of Sotapatti. Such is the account of 
the results of the good and bad actions performed by 
Khug^itturii before I became a Para. 

" Jn the timo of the Para Kassapa this Zhuy^uttara 
waw tho (laughter of u T/ju/Ao at Benares. One day 
wlion wlm Wiia very lumcbwmoly attired, a Eahan who 
waB on hiH way to contemplate the Para, came to her 
hunHO, and flho miid to him, Just roach mo that. little 
luuikitt which is tlicro.* For this she became a slave." 





THE most excellent Para, when he was residing in the 
Yeluvana monastery, preached the following discourse 
on the subject of JTulla-Panthaka. 

Formerly there lived in the Eai/agaha country the 
daughter of a T/m^Ae namBd Dhanasctf/a. "When she 
reached the age of maturity, her parents placed hor 
in a PyaUat with seven stages of roofs, and there, 
being a girl of strong passions, sho committed herself 
with one of the slaves ; then fearing that any one should 
know of it, they ran away to another village, and 
lived there together. Sh.3 soon became in tho family- 
way, and when her time was nearly come, sho said to 
the young man, " My time is voiynoar; I shall go 
to my parents' village to bo confined." The young 
man, afraid that if ho wont there they would kill 
him, would not accompany hor, so tho T/m/Ao's daugh- 
ter, thinjfing what unalloyed affection parents have 
for their children, sot out without hor husband j but 
he, as soon as he found that she had gone, followed 

On the road tho TAufAe'e daughter gave birth to a 
son, whereupon she returned homo without visiting 


her parents' village. In consequence of the boy 
Laving been "bom on the road, tlioy gave him the 
name of Panthaka, 

Shortly afterwards, the T/mtte's daughter became 
again pregnant ; and when her time was approaching, 
in tho same way as before she started for her parents' 
village, and was a second time confined on the road. 
On this occasion also she gave birth to a son, whom 
Him called AulLi-Punthako, distinguishing her first- 
born by HID name of Maha-Punthaka. 

"When Muha-Pauthoka grow up, ho said one day to 
liis mother, " I hoar others calling people their grand- 
father, or graudm other, or uncle; but we have no 
grandfather or grandmother, or any relations at all." 
UiH mother voplicd, "My dear son, your grandfather 
and gnuidmuthor, and all your relations live in the> 
Kn//agulm country ; your grandfather is the T/mtte 
UhanawCMi. In that lliu/agaha country my relations 
arc very immonnitf." " Then why, mother," said hs, 
do yon not go to tlio ]%agaha country?" Tho 
T/mMo'n ilmiflhtcsr remained silent; at last, when he 
pomntod in asking Iho quoBtion, she replied, "My 
son, your father wan a nlavo in your grandfather's 
house, HO I run away from homo and came to live 
licau" "If tliut bo o," said tho lad, "take my 
younger brother and mo to tho place where our grand- 
father and grandmother live," 

Tho T/ml/tt'0 daughter took her two soj^ to the 
Kayagaha country, and when she reached the city, she 
went 'with them into tho Zayat 1 at tho gate and 
Btoppod thoro. When tho T/ratto's neighbours saw 
her, they wont to Mm and said, "My lord 

1 A building for the accommodation of travellers- 


daughter with, her two sons is staying in the Zayat." 
The' T/iutte, thinking that if they were to remain in 
the Zayatj people would speak ill of him, took away 
his two grandchildren, and gave them gold and silver, 
food and clothes ; but having no affection for his daugh- 
ter, he sent her away, telling her to go and live where 
shB had been always living : so she went away and 
lived with her slave-husband in the same place as 

When the two lads had grown up under their grand- 
father's care, Maha-Panthaka went with his grand- 
father to hear Para Taken preach the law. The dis- 
course was upon the future reward of the life of a 
Kahan, and Maha-Panthaka, after listening to it, be- 
came desirous of entering the priesthood. He accord- 
ingly obtained his grandfather's permission, and be- 
came one of the Eahans of Para Taken. 

Performing the duties of a Eahan, Maha-Panthaka 
acquired the sacred Pali 1 of Para Taken, and becom- 
ing a PafiHnga a at tho age of twenty, aftor employ- 
ing himself in the repetition of th Kamma^Aana 3 , 
he reached the state of a Kahanda. 4 

When Maha-Ponthaka had become a Eahanda, he 
made his brother JSTulla-Panthaka a Eahan, and kept 
him steadily employed in the religious duties enjoined 
by Para Taken. 

Now JSTulla-Panthaka, being wanting in ability 

1 The sacred language of the Burmese, a modification of San- 

2 A priest who is a proficient in the five duties, i, e. an ordained 

3 Forty sentences for repetition. 

4 An Ariya of the highest order. 


could not learn a verse although ho 'studied it for the 
whole four months of the rainy season. TliB reason 
of this "Wiis that in the time of the Para Kassapa, JTulla- 
Panthaka, who was then a Rattan, derided another 
Kahan for his want of ability in reciting Pali ; in con- 
setiuenco of which, the Bahan was so ashamed that 
lie altogether gave up the study of the sacred lan- 
guage. On account of this evil deed, Aulla-Panthaka 
when ho HubHoquently boctune a Italian in the time 
oi* the present Purii was so stupid that he forgot 
eviTylhinjj; ho Icumod. 

At lust Muhfi-runtluika said to Aulla-Panthaka, 
" Oh, 7v r ulla-Puiithaka, yuu tire n boing who is un- 
worthy to obtain hitf deliverance 1 in UUH ohnrch. You 
cannot lourn u single VOTHO in lour months, therefore 
you ttnj unfit for tho duties of a lluhan ;" so saying ? 
li(i turned him out of tho monastery. 

At this timo Maha-Vuntliuka performed tlio duty of 
distributing tho rici % . Ono day tho physician 61vaka 
fitiTiu* to him and Buid, " My lonl Maha-Panthaka, I 
winli to [ir(\S(^nt ilcu to-morrow to Paru Taken : how 
muuy ])rioMtB uro thciro?" Muha-Vunthoka replied, 
" A'ullu-Panthaku in Htupid and unworthy of deliver- 
unco; boftidert him, tlu^ru arc 500 Italians" Tho phy- 
HU'.mn tlusn said, c< Invito and bring with you to-mor- 
row Pars! Tukon and the 50 1 J of hi aasombly," TTulla- 
Panthaka thought within himself, "My oldor brother, 
Maha-Puntlwkiij IMH acfioptod tho invitation for all the 
lltJiaus, but lias excluded mo. My brother's love for 
mo ifl lost I will no longer bo u "Rahan, but will ro- 
enter ttio laity ; >? and he determined to quit tho mon- 
astery tho next morning. 

1 /. e. Salvation, proximate or ultimate. 


At daybreak on the following day, as Para Taken 
was looking to see who was worthy of deliverance, lie 
perceived JTulla-Panthaka. Then going to the arched 
entrance through which he would pass, he began to 
walk up and down. On his arrival, Para Taken stood 
still : JTulla-Panthaka made obeisance to him. Para 
Taken said to him, " JSTulla-Panthaka, where are you 
going at this early hour of the morning ?" He replied, 
"Lord and master, my brother has expelled me from 
the monastery ; I am now going away to re-enter the 
laity."" .STulla-Panthaka," said Para Taken, " whsn 
your brother expelled you, why did you not come to me? 
When you become a layman again, what will you do ? 
Eemain with me." So saying, he stroked his head, 
and made him come with him to the monastery. When 
they arrived there, he placed him at the gate of the 
Gandhakutfl 1 building, with his fape to the east, and 
said to Trim, " Take this coarse cloth, and, rubbing it, 
repeat the words, Eayoharaaam Ea^oharawam, 2 and do 
not move frpm here." Para Taken, after thus issuing 
his authoritative commands, gave him a coarse cloth 
of spotless white, and then went to the house of the 
physician ivaka to receive the alms of rice, accom- 
panied by all his assembly. 

JPulla-Panthaka, looking at the rising sun and rub- 
bing the coarse cloth, continued to repeat "Ea^ohara- 
0am, Ea^oharawam." While repeating these words, 
the clotl^as he was rubbing it lost its spotless white 
colour, and became soiled and dirty. Seeing this, he 
became impressed with the law of Samvega, 3 and ex- 
claimed, "This cloth only now so pure and white is 

1 The abode of fragrance. 3 B&naoval of dirt. 

9 Pear of the future consequences of Bin. . 



soiled and dirty. This is ray own state, soiled (by sin). 
Again, this is tho law of mutability ; nothing is per- 
manent," Saying this ho devoted himself earnestly 
to tho repetition of tho Vipassana, and succeeded in 
acquiring it. 

Para Taken uvoii while he was at the house of the 
physician Glvtika, knowing that Kulla-Panthaka had 
acquired the Vipansuiia, dispatched an appearance 1 of 
to him, and preached to him the vorses of the 
a /vullu-Panthaka I Tour body is full 
of minute atoms of dust which uro lust, and the other 
evil ptiHtiioiiB. Those, minute atoms of duat you must 
got rid of." In tliis way lie preached to him the law 
juwt as if he hud actually beon present ; and he con- 
tinued, "M'y dear yon, .BTulla-Panthaka, lust you must 
call l%u,* atoms of dust you must not call Ea^a., 
Itiu/a moaiiH lust. Whroi you have got rid of the 
atoinN of (hint wliir-h arc lust, you are fit to be a mem- 
ber of tlio Church of Para Taken. Tho same is to be 
wuid regarding ungw and ignorance." At the close of 
thu diBoourBo upon thene verBOS Kulla-Panthaka arrived 
at tho titato of a Iluhauda possesHod of intuitive know- 
lodgo, and Para. Taken know that ho had become a 

At this time the physician dvaka, before presenting 
rico to Para Taken, wius offering him water to wash 
his hands. Para. Taken said,' " Daraka, there is still 
in tho monastery a Ilahanda," and he remained with 

1 Qotama is said to have had tho power of appearing in more 
than one place at onuo. Tho expression always used is that found 
in tho text hero, vix, " To Bond off his appearance." 

tf This word is l j ali, of which Para Taken is teaching the mean- 
ing, " RayaB" in Sanskrit moans both " dust 1 ' and "passion," 


his TAabet 1 closed. On this Maha-Panthaka said that 
there were no Kahuna left in the monastery; but 
fflvaka sent a slave to see whether any Kahans had 
been Isft there or not. At this moment .ZTiiUa- 
Panthaka saying to himself, "My brother says there 
are no Bahans in the monastery," created a thousand 
JElahans and filled with them the whole of the buildings, 
and the mango garden, some putting on their garments, 
others engaged in repeating the scriptures, and all 
exactly like himself. 

When the messengers arrived at the monastery they 
found all the buildings and the mango garden com- 
pletely filled with Eahans. As soon as the messengers 
had returned with this intelligence to Para Taken, he 
said to them, " Q-o and invite the Eahan -Siilla- 
Panthaka to come here." They went back and called 
out, "My Lord JTulla-Panthafca, Para Taken has sent 
for you." The whole of the thousand Eahans replied, 
" I am Zulla-Panthaka." The messengers returned to 
Para Taken and said, "Lord and master, the whol^ 
thousand Eahans say that they are ulla-Panthaka, so 
we cannot find him out." Para Taken said, " Go and 
call him again, and seize the hand of the Eahan who 
first answers, then all the rest will disappear." The 
messengers accordingly went again to invite jBTulla- 
Panthaka, and laid hold of the hand of the Eahan who 
first of the whole thousand answered the summons ; 
immediately all the other Eahanjg vanished, jffulla- 
Panthaka aooprnpanied the messengers to the house of 
the physician Grivaka, and received his portion of rioe 
in presence of Para Taken. 

1 The vessel which the priests carry suspended round their 
necks, and held under the left arm, to receive the alms of food: 


When the repast was finished Para Taken said to 
(Tivaka, " Take off ITulla-Panthaka's TAabet, for he is 
going to preach the law." Glvaka took off the TAabet, 
and Kulla-Panthaka, seeing that such was Para Taken's 
wish, began in a voice like that of the Lion-Bong to 
preach the law of Anumodana, 1 reciting it from ths 
three books of the Pifaka. 

After Para Taken had returned to the monastery in 
'the cool of the evening, the Kalians of the assembly 
wcro saying to each other, " Masters! Maha-Panthaka, 
not conversant with the mind of JTulla-Panthaka, and 
unable in fuur months to teaeh him a single verse, 
drove him from the monastery. A Parfi Taken being 
an unrivalled master of the law, has the power of con- 
ducting a man in a single morning to the state of 
a Euhanda possessed of intuitive knowledge, and of 
rendering him acquainted with the three books of the 
Pi/aka. " Wonderful indeed arc the Paras ! " 

Para Taken said to them, "Thin is not the first time 
that I have afforded assiHtanoo to .Kulla-Panthaka," and 
he proceeded to relate as follows the events of times 
long gone by : " This JTulla-Panthaka a long time 
ago wua a young man of Bonaros : while engaged in 
the acquisition of learning and science in the Takka- 
sila country, ho attended on and supplied food to the 
teacher l)foapamokkha, and received instruction from 
him for throo months. Through his excessive stupi- 
dity, howovor, ho failed to learn anything at all. His 
master, grateful for the care and attention which his 
jjupil bestowed on him in serving him and supplying 
all hk wunte, redoubled his efforts, but all to no effect. 
At layt, tho youth, secsing that he could learn nothing, 


asked his teacher's permission to leave. The master 
thinking himself much indebted to his pupil for his 
kindness to him, took him away into a forest to pre- 
sent him with a charm, and instructed him as follows : 
" Ghafesi Ghafesi kim kara^a ? tava karmam aham 
^anami. 1 Eepeat this charm constantly so as never to 
forget it. It will always provide you with a living. 
"Wherever you may happen to be, you have only to 
utter the charm." 

On the young man's return to Benares, he went to 
live with his parents. 

About this time the king of Benares, disguising 
himself, went out one night to discover whether the 
actions of his subjects were good or evil. Coming to 
the house of .the young man who had learned the 
charm, he placed himself close up against the wall 
and began to listen. It happened that some thieves 
having dug a mine in the space between this house 
and the next, were just about to rob the house. At 
this moment the young man who had returned from 
the Takkasila country awoke and began to recite the 
charm, "Ghafesi Ghafesi kim kara^a? tava karmam 
aham yanami." The thieves as soon as they heard the 
charm, said, "This young man has found us out," and 
ran away. The king seeing the thieves running away, 
and knowing that this was in consequence of their 
hearing the charm, carefully noted the position of the 
yoxmg man's house, and returned home. 

When daylight camq, the king called some of his 
people, and told them to go to such a place and find 
out the young man who had returned from the Takka- 
sila country, and bring him to him. When they had 
are you busy ? "Why are yon busy P I know your design. 


brought the young man before him, he said, fi Young 
man, give mo the charm you were repeating last 
night." "Take it, your Majesty," he replied, and he 
recited it to the king, who repeated it till he knew it. 
After learning it the king gave him a present worth a 
thousand (pieces of gold), as a teacher's fee. 

At this time the prime minister, having formed the 
design of taking the king's life, went to his Majesty's 
barber and said to him, " When you shave the king's 
beard, take a very sharp razor and cut his throat. 
When I am king I will give you the post of prime 
miniHter." Ho moclo the barber a present worth a 
thousand [pieces of gold], and the man agreed to do it. 
Accordingly, after ho had soaked the king's beard with 
perfumed water before shaving it, ho took the razor 
and was jiwt going to cut his throat whon at that 
moment, Iho king thinking of the charm, began to 
ronitc, " Ghafosi, Gha/osi kirn knrajia? tava karmam 
aham (/iinJimi." Tho barber no sootier heard this 
than he said, "The king has discovered my inten- 
tion ;" then ho dropped the razor and fell trembling 
at tlio king's foot. The king exclaimed, " Oh, you 
barber ! do you not know I am the king ?" "Tour 
Majesty," said tho barber, "it was no plot of mine; 
the prime minister gavo mo a present worth a thou- 
sand [pieces of gnld] to cut your Majesty's throat while 
I was shaving you ; it was ho who induced me to at- 
tempt it." The king said to himself, " It is owing to 
this young man who taught mo tho charm, that my 
life has boon saved." Then ho eont for tho prime min- 
iHtor and banished him from tho country, saying, 
" Sinco you have plotted against my life, you can no 
longer live withiu my territory." After this, he called 


the young man who had given him the charm, and 
making him a very handsome present as an acknow- 
ledgment of his services, conferred on him the post of 
prime minister. 

That young man is now Jfulla-Panthaka, and the 
teacher Disapamokkha is now I the Para. 

When he had finished preaching the law, the whole 
of the assemhly who listened to it were settled in the 
reward of Sotapatti. 





ON another occasion Para, Taken, while residing in the 
<7otavann monastery, prnaohod a discourse with refer- 
ence to the* probaliimor Tisaa, 

In tlw country of JRfijpaguha thirro lived a Brahmin 
named Mahaffona, who was a friend of the Brahmin 
Yanga, tho father of Sariputta. 

Siiriputtu, taking pity on the Brahmin Mahasena, 
oamn and stood at tho door of hw house with the in- 
tention of uptKiKting him. Hahilsona said to himself, 
"Hn'o i Sariputta, tho son of iny friend Vanga, who 
is evid( k ntly waiting to recoiyo rice/ and I have 
nothing of which I can make him an offering." And 
ho wont and hid himnolf. 

One day, Mahasona went to a T/mtfAo's house 
and received a cloth and a cup of cow's milk. s Then 
ho thought ho would, make an offering to Sariputta. 

1 Tho word rico unod in tho text here and elsewhere means 
any kind of food offered to a prieut, though its literal meaning is 
cookod rico. 

9 Tho printed text and manuscript vary greatly here : the for- 
mer nays, " after presenting grarm ho received a cloth/ 9 etc.; the 
latter gaye, " Qoin^ to a TAulfo'g house to obtain alms of food for 
the day, ho received," etc. 


Sariputta at that very moment, rising from the perfor- 
mance of Samapatti, was boking to see whom he 
should deliver, and knowing that Mahasena, having 
an offering to make, wished to come to him, he went 
to the Brahmin's houss and stood at the door. As 
soon as the Brahmin saw him, he invited him to 
come up into his house and poured into his Uabet 
some rico cooked in mi'llr. Sariputta, after taking 
half of the rice, closed his tAabet. The Brahmin 
said, " Lord and master, save me in my life to come; 
give me no help in this life;" saying this, he poured 
the rest of the rice into the tAabet. Sariputta then 
ate the rice ; when he had finished, Mahasena made 
him an offering of a coarse cloth with this invocation, 
" Lord and master, the law which you know may I 
also know." Sariputta, after having preached the 
law, took his departure. 

The Brahmin Mahasena dying in natural course, 
became an embryo in the womb of one of the congre- 
gation of Sariputta in the Savatthi country. The 
young girl, from the day that she became pregnant, 
was very desirous to supply food to Sariputta and all 
his priests, and to wear herself the tAingan, 1 and to 
drink milk prepared as for priests, out of a golden cup. 
Now the girl wishing to wear the tAingan from the 
time that she was in the family-way, was the sign 
that the child in her womb would become a Eahan 
in the church. The girl's parents, thinking that if 
their daughter wished to be a Rahan, it was in accord- 
ance with the sasred law, supplied Sariputta and his 
priests with cow's milk, and dressing the girl in a 
tAingan, placed her after all the priests, and gave 
1 Priest's garment* 


her her share of the offering of milk in a golden 

At the end of ten months she gave hirth to a son. 
After the boy was washed, ho was laid upon a oover- 
lot worth a hundred thousand (gold pieces). Sariputta 
was also invited, aud had food presented to him. The 
child, lying on tho coverlet and contemplating Sari- 
putta, thought to himself, " This priest is my old 
toaclicr ; it ia to him that I owe all this luxury, I 
must innlco him tin offering." 

At thin moment the parents, wishing to name the 
cshild, took him up from tho coverlet; but the child, 
wrapping his little finger in it, lifted it up with him. 
Tho parents tried to diwngago his finger, but the 
child, retaining his hold of it, begun to cry ; so they 
took him iip, coverlet and all, and laid 1dm at the feet 
of my lord Bariputta; tlio diild, dragging the coverlet 
with liw finger, pluuod it at Bariputta's foot. Whon 
tho ehild'K piurcmte Haw this, thoy said to Sariputta, 
" Lord and muwtor, deign to accept tho coverlet which 
the child offers you." Ho acxjoptod it. Then the 
parenta Haid, " Give a namo to your disoiplo;" and he 
called tho child c Tissa.' 

On <^vory oociOBinn of thoir porforming ceremonies 
for tlio child, the parents regularly invited Sariputta, 
and supplied him with food, When tho child was 
woven yours old, law puvonts delivered him to Sari- 
patta, to bo maclo a TJulwrn. Sariputta, aftor teaching 
the little boy to repeat the KammaW/mna, made him a 
Euhan. For seven days the child's parents made 
offering* of food to Sariputta, and tho wholo of his 
priests; uftor which they retired to their homo* 

On the seventh day, tho probationer Tissa accom- 


panied the Bahans to the Savatthi country, to collect 
alms. As soon as they arrived there, the inhabitants 
came out to meet the young probationer, and made 
him an offering of five hundred Putzos 1 and five hun- 
dred rice-bowls. 

One day, going to the monastery where the proba- 
tioner resided, they made an offering of five hundred 
more putzos and five hundred more rice-bowls, so that 
when he was only seven years old he had a thousand 
putzos and a thousand rice-bowls ; these he presented 
to the Eahans of the assembly. His acquiring all 
these things was the result of his having given a single 
coarse cloth and a cup of milk to Sariputta at the time 
that he was the Brahmin Mahasena. From that day 
the probationer was always called Piwc?apatika a Tissa. 

One night, when it was very cold, the probationer, 
going to the monastery to perform his duties, saw the 
Eahans warming themselves at a fire. " My masters," 
said he, " why do you warm yourselves at a fire ?" 
" Probationer," they replied, " we are warming our- 
selves because it is so cold." 3 " If you are cold," said 
he, "wrap yourselves in coverlets." The Eahans re- 
joined, "Probationer, you alone have power and can 
procure these things. "Where can we get coverlets 
from?" "If this be so," replied the probationer, 
"those of my masters 'who wish for coverlets, follow 
me." Hearing this, because they wanted to wrap them- 
selves in coverlets, a thousand Eahans followed behind 
a probationer who was only seven years old. 

1 A waist-cloth of about 4 yards long and 1-J wide, of silk nr 
cotton. The national dress of the Burmese. 
3 He who lives on alms. , See Eurnouf, Introduction, p. 800. 
3 Fires ftre not properly allowed within monasteries in Bunnah. 


Tlie probationer, taking with him the thousand 
Bahans, went outside of the city, and as he visited 
house after house, the inhabitants as soon as they saw 
him, fooling the strongest affection for him, presented 
him with 500 coverlets. When he returned within 
the city, a wealthy T/mfte was selling coverlets in the 
bazaar. The slave who watched the shop went to his 
master and said, " Here is a probationer coming with 
50(1 covcrlotn ; hide yours, ' master." The TAutte 
said, "Docs tho probationor take thorn when they are 
given to him, or docs ho take them without their being 
givon to him?" "ITo takes them when they are 
givon," ropliocl tlin slaw. "Vary good, then," said 
tho TAuif&o, "if BO, do not hide them; let them be." 
Tho novice, with tho thousand Kalians, arrived at the 
place whoro tho uovcrlotH wore spread out. The 
T/mrfAo who owned thorn no sooner saw the novice 
than ho loved him as his own son, and made him an 
offering of BOO of tho coverlets, making this invoca- 
tion, " Lord and mantor, tho law which you know may 
I U!HO know I" The novice preached to him the law 
of Anuinodana. 1 

Thiitf, tliifl young probationer, obtaining in a single 
day a thousand coverlets, presented them to the thou- 
sand Italians From this time, they gave the novice 
tho name of Kambalara Tissa." It was in consequence 
of his having made an offnring of a coverlet to my 
lord Sariputta on tlm occasion of his giving him the 
name of TiflM, ou the eovcnth day after his birth, that 
when ho was sovon yours old he received a thousand 

Therefore Parii Taken preached, "Beloved Bahans, 
1 Joy. * Who procure* eorerlrts. 


offerings made to the priesthood, though they be but 
small, are rewarded as if they were large. Large 
offerings receive still more exc silent rewards." 

The probationer, after learning the KammaWAana 
from Paxa Taken, went away and resided in a tem- 
porary monastery at a distance of 120 yo^anas. 
There, during the whole three months of the Lent, 
he practised the repetition of the Kamma#Aana, and 
reached the stage of a Bahanda. 





ON anotlior occasion. Para Taken, residing in the 
f/ctavuna moiiOHtury, prtiachod the Mlowing discourse 
on the Hubjwt of the priont Muhakuppina : 

At a place not fiur from Benares there lived a thou- 
sand weavers. At that time a thousand PaAAeka- 
BuddhuH, 1 who had boon residing for eight months 
at Hinmvaiittt, CSUTUCJ to the woavcra' village, When 
the head man of the woavorH* village saw thePafcfceka- 
'IJudilhaH, lu invitcsd tliein to como on the following 
day to r< k (j(ivo offorings of rico. The PaAAeka-Buddhas 
(usoopled tlw invitution. The hoacl-weaver then went 
round the villain Haying that ho had invited the Paft- 
Jhskfl-liuddhttH, and that every house was to entertain 
one priiwt each. Tho villagers did as they had been 
directed, and the Pafc&ckaJJuddhas, after receiving 
thoir ric<^ prwohod the law to thorn. The weavers 
them iuvitod thoin to reside with thorn during the 
wholo of the throe months' Lout, and, the invitation 
boing aeooptod, overy woavor huilt one monastery 
optaeo for tho wholo thousaad, and each supplied one 
of them with food and all ho required. 
? JL semi-Buddha. 


When Lent was over, the weavers mads an offering 
to them of a thousand pntzos 1 for tAingans. 2 After 
making this pious offering, when they died, they be- 
came inhabitants of the Tavatinsa Nat-country; having 
enjoyed all the luxury of the Nats, they appeared 
in the time of the Para Taken Kassapa among the 
TAugynes 3 of Benares. The head-weaver was the son 
of the head TAugyue ; the other weavers ware all sons 
of TAugyues, and their wives daughters of TAugyues, 
and they were all married to one another. 

One day, when Para Taken Kassapa was preaching 
the law, the TAugyues went into the enclosure of the 
monastery to hear him. While they were there, it 
began to rain heavily. Many people who were rela- 
tions of the teacher were inside the building, but the 
TAuygues, not being his relations, got wet through. 
They were very much ashamed, and deliberating 
among themselves, resolved to erect an extensive 
monastery. The head-weaver put down a thousand 
(piecBS of gold), and the others five hundred each. 
Then they erected a large and splendid monastery with 
a thousand spires. This they presented as a grand 
offering to Eassapa Para Taken and all his Bahans. 
At the same time the wife of the head-weaver pre- 
sented as an offering to the Para Taken a putzo 
worth a hundred thousand (pieces of gold), which she 
had placed on a .bouquet of LStsarue-blossoms making 
this invocation: "Lord and master, in my future 
states of existence, may I resemble the blossom of 

1 "Waist-doth of the laity. 

3 Priests' garments. 

8 Same as TAutf&e, the wealthy class. 


the L^tsaxue ! l and may I bo called Ano^a I " Kas- 
sapa Para Taken said, "Darakama, it shall be ful- 
filled according to your prayer." 

When the TAugyufcs, leaving that state of existence, 
died, they appeared in the Wat country, In the time 
of the Para Taken Grotama, after dying and leaving 
the Nat country, they appeared in the country of 
Kukkuvatl. The head-weaver became King Maha- 
kappiwa, his wife was the daughter of the great king 
of the Sakota 9 country ; owing to her resemblance to 
the "blossom of Lotsoruo, who was called the Princess 
Anoya, When sho grew up she became the wife of 
King Mahakapphuu The other weavers were all 
eons and daughters of groat nobles ; and when they 
wore old enough, they became the husbands and wives 
of each other* 

King Muhiikappiua, enjoying all the luxury of 
royalty, began to Hay to himself 1 , "I am a king, but 
I can neither son nor hoar of the thrco jewels* 7 '* Hav- 
ing u groat luugiug for thorn, he sent off one day four 
of his nobloH on horseback from the four sides of his 
city, tolling them to go two or throe yo^anas and 
see if thay could gather any tidings of Para, the law, 
and the priesthood. The nobles, however, came back 
without having procured any intelligence. 

One day, while the king, mounted on horseback, was 
amusing himself in tho garden attended by a thousand 
nobles, there caino by five hundred merchants from 
the country of Savattbi, Tho king ask;ed whence they 
came, and when ho was told tlvjy came from Savatthi, 

1 A species of nettle, 

3 The city of Ayodtya, or ancient Oude. 

* Buddha, the law, and the priests. 


he inquire! if there was any news in their country. 
The merchants replisd, "Your Majesty, the jewel is 
there, the Para, The king, whose heart on hearing 
this was filled with faith and love, said to them, " I 
will present yon with a hundred thousand (gold 
pieces). Is there any further news?" "The jewel, 
the law, is there," they replied, The king, moved 
with love and joy at this intelligence, added a present 
of another hundred thousand, and asked them if they 
had any more intelligence. They said, "There is 
the jewel, the priesthood," The king; on hearing 
this, again increased his present by a hundred thou- 
sand more. Then he said to his nobles, "I will go 
to the place where are to be found the jewel, the Para ; 
the jewel, the law; and the jewel, the priesthood. I 
shall not return to my city, but shall go and become a 
Bahan in the society of Para Taken." The nobles 
said, "Tour Majesty, we will all go with you and 
become Bahans." Then the king wrote on a loaf of 
gold and gave it to the merchants ; the writing was 
this: "To the queen, from King Mahakappina. I 
am going to become a Bahan with Para Taken in the 
Savatthi country. My queen, remain hero and enjoy 
all the happiness and luxury of the royal power." He 
also sent this message to her: "I have offered as an 
acknowledgment to these merchants three hundred 
thousand (pieces of gold) ; give- it to them." The 
king, with his thousand nobles, then set off on their 

Para Taken, on that*day at daybreak, was looking 
out to see who was worthy of deliverance. Seeing 
that King Mahakappina and his thousand nobles would 
become Bahandas, he we&t out, to meet him lite the 


JTnkravarti king going to meet the kings owning the 
subordinate villager. After travelling twenty yopnas, 
ho stopped at the foot of a banyan-tree on the bank of 
the ATmdapa river, omitting from his person six daz- 
zling rays of glory. 

King Maliiikappina, continuing his journey, came 
to a river. " What river is this ? " ho asked. " Tour 
Majesty, this is the Avaraffia river," they replied. 
"What is the depth and width of it?" he asked. 
They told him: "One gavyiiti 1 deep, and two gavyutis 
wido," "Arc thoro any bunts on this river?" ho 
iwkud. They Haid, " There arc none." Then the king 
said, "Noblotf! our existence i but birth, old age, 
and death": wo have coino on uecount of Para Taken, 
lot the water boar us firmly." Then, fixing their 
inindH fltoudily on tho virtues of Parii Taken, they 
went ou io the water on tlioir horses und began to 
CITWH. Tho Kurfiwo of Iho water became like a stone 
Hlab, not won ilio hoofs of their IIOTHOB were wetted. 

Aftc^r ICing M^iliiikappinu with his thousand nobles 
had readied tho opposite shore*, they camo to another 
river. " "What river in this ? " asked the king. The 
nobles auHworod, "Thia is the Nliavaha river." 
" Wliat IH tho widtli and depth of this river ? " he asked. 
"Half a yo^ma wide, aud as much doop," they rc- 
pliod. " Are there any boate on this river ? " ho asked. 
They replied, "There arc none." Tho king said, "If 
that bo BO, our existence is but birtEJ old ago, and death; 
reflecting on tho virtues of iho Law, lot the water bear 
UN firmly." Thou fixing thoif minds steadily on tho 
virtues of tho Law, tho king and liie thousand nobles 
on to tho water on thoir horses. Tho surface 
1 A little more than three miles. 


of the water became like a stone slab, and not even the 
hoofs of their horses were wetted. 

After reaching the opposite shore they proceeded. 
onwards and came to another river. " "What river is 
this ? " asked the king. The nobles replied, " This is 
the Xandapa river." " What is the width and depth 
of it?" he asked. The nobles answered, "Ayoyana 
both in width and depth." "Are there any boats 
on this river," he asked. They replied, " There are 
none." The king said, "If this be so, nobles, our 
existence is but birth, old age, and death ; reflecting 
on the virtues of the priesthood, let the water bear us 
firmly." rising their minds steadily on the virtues 
of the priesthood, they stepped on to the water on their 
horses. The surface of the water became like a stone 
slab; not even the hoofs of their horses were wetted. 1 

The king after crossing the JKandapa river pro- 
ceeded on his journey, and came near a banyan-tree. 
Seeing that the branches and leaves were shining like 
gold, the king said to himself, " This brilliancy is not 
that of the sun or moon ; it must be the glory of 
Para Taken." So saying he got off his horse ; and 
advancing with his eyes fixed on the sacred rays, he 
beheld Para Taken" at the foot of the banyan-tree; 
when ho saw him, he did homage to him and remained 
at a respectful distance. Para Taken preached the 
law to King Mahakappina, and established him in 
the reward of SotapattL 

The king and his thousand nobles having become 
Sotapans asked permission to enter the priesthood. 

1 The above is a goad specimen of the tedious reiteration often 
found in works of this kind. 


Para Taken began to look, saying to himself, " These 1 
peopb arc possessed of great power and glory, will 
they become wearers of tlie T/abet and TAingan?" 
Then he saw that King Mahakappina had formerly, 
when ho was a weaver, made an offering of a T/an- 
gan to a thousand Pafc/cekabuddhas, and that in the 
time of the Para Kassapa ho had made an offering of 
twenty thousand T/angans to twonty thousand Eahans. 
Extending both his saerod hands, ho called to them, 
" Come, Italians ! in ordor to terminate all suffering, 
bo earnest in pnrfurmmg good deeds." becoming 
TiuhuncbiK with the eight priewtly utinitfils, they flew 
up into tho wky, und alighting at the sacred foot of 
Para Taken, reinnmud in adoration. 

The inorolmnt,s entering tho city of Jvukkxivati pro- 
rented, thomwlvoN "before Quoou Ano^a, and said to 
her, cc King Mabakappina and his thousand nobles 
havo gono. away to Itocomo Ilaluum with Para Taken; 
ho tliruutH your Majesty to remain in the enjoyment of 
royal power, an<lhuHiiiHtructoduBto ak from your 
esty a pr(^<^nl; of tliroo huudrod tli(mMiind, J? Queen 
a said, " JJrothm, wby did King Mahakappina 
give my brothorw throo hundred thousand?" The 
inorchuntH replied, " IEp4ifing that l+iero was the jewel, 
the Para, ho giiyc UH a lumdrod thousand ; hearing that 
thoro WUB tho jewel, the law, ho gave us a hundred 
thousand ; and hearing that tiioro was the jewel, the 
priesthood, ho gavo us a hundred thousand," The 
queen, saying, "Tho Para, tho law, and the priest- 
hood arc indeed the throo jewels," mado tho merchants 
a proHent of nine Iftmdrcd thousand (pieces of gold). 

1 Tho manuscript Ima " will tlicso people become -wearers of 
tho powerful and glorious TOabet and Tftingan P" 


The queen said to the wires of the thousand nobles, 
"King Mahakappina has gone away to become a 
Eahan with Para Taken, I shall therefore likewise go 
and become a Eahan with Para Taken." The wives of 
the nobles said, " We also will go with you and bo- 
come Rahans with Para Taken." 

Queen Anojm, with the thousand wives of the 
nobles riding in carriages, started off on their journey. 
When they came to tKe throe rivers, thinking steadily 
upon, and fixing thoir faith in the virtues of the Para, 
the law, and the priesthood successively, they went on 
to the water in their carriages ; the surface of the 
water became like a stone slab, and not even the edges 
of the wheels wore wetted. Alter crossing the throe 
rivers they came to the banyan-tree ; when they saw 
Para Taken they did homage to him, and remaining 
at a respectful distance, said to him, "Lord and 
mastor, the great King Mahakappina ani his thou- 
sand nobles have gone away to become Kalians with 
my lord the Para, where arc thoy now ? " Para 
Taken replied, "You will see them directly^ stay hero 
one moment." Then he preached the law to Quoon 
Anoya and her companions. The queen and tho 
nobles 7 wives "all became Sotapans. The quoon asked* 
permission to become a Eahan. Para Taken proachod 
the law which extends (the truth). The quo on and 
the thousand nobles' wives became Eahans. Thou 
Para Taken showed them the priest Mahakappina 
and his companions ; and the queen and her attend- 
ants when they saw them, did homage to them, saying, 
"My lords, you have reached the state of Rahandas, 
lot us also become Eahandanias." 1 Paying htonago 
1 Female Bahauda. , 


to Pam Taken thoy Logged him to' confer on them the 
condition of Rahandafl, Tara Taken gave them into 
the charge of the Tlahandama Uppalavaraa, who em- 
ployed them in tluir duties as Iiahans 3 and they all 
Locarno llahtmdanias. 





ON one occasion Para Taken while residing in the 
Gtetavana monastery preached the following discourse 
on the subject of tho novice Pafl^ita : 

In former times, when the Para Taken Kassapa 
attended by twenty thousand Eahans camo to Benares, 
the people of the country entertained them hospitably 
and provided for their wants. The Para Taken 
preached as follows: "In this country some people 
make offerings of their own goods, but they do not* 
incite others to do SD; these, in whatever state they 
may hereafter be, have abundance of wealth, but they 
lack relations and attendants, Some people incite 
others, but make no offerings themselves ; these, in 
whatever state they may hereafter be, have numerous 
relations and attendants, but they lack wealth. Some 
people make offerings of their own goods and also 
incite others ; these, in whatever state they may here- 
after be, have abundance of wealth and numerous 
relations and slaves." 

A Daraka, 1 after listening to this discourse invited 
Para Taken to receive an offering of a repast on the 

1 Supporter of the priesthood. 


following day. ITaving first kid down his own money 
lie iudtcd the others, saying, " O townsmen, to-morrow 
I am going to provide Tara Taken with food. Lot each of 
you sulmiit a written statement mentioning how many 
of tho Jlalmn.s of Para Takon yon can supply with 
food." Accordingly, tlio inhabitants submitted written 
statements separately, ono engaging to supply with 
food a hundred, another fifty, another ten, another 
fi vo. Ann nig thorn was a very poor day-labourer named 
JVlulimliita, who, wliouhe was urged to contribute, sub- 
mitted law written engagement to supply ono priest. 
On liiw return homo ho said to his wife, "Mother I 1 tho 
iiihtihitmiiri of tho < 4 ity aro griing to make offerings of 
fiiod 1o*morrow to the Parii Taken Kassapa and tho 
twenty IhouNaud priosts, and huvu aunt in lists to the 
Huhunti." II w wifo Hiiiil, "Very good, it is because 
\Vi\ have, never niiide, luiy olfermgH that we are so 

Tho husband nnd wifo then wont out to work for 
11 hire. Tho man went to ti T/mf/ju'H house and split 
firewon<l, singing very pleasantly all the time ho was 
tit work. Tho T/m//o, pleased at tho quantity of fire- 
wood ho had split, wid to him, "31o ! you Mahaduta, 
you luive- flplit a ^niat d( % al of firewood; what makes 
you fling HO happily over your work?" Ho replied, 
" My lord T/m/Ao, I tun happy bociauHO I have sent in 
u writtctti ongtigoinont tr> supply food to ono Italian 
to-morrow from my day's wagoB." The TAu^Ae, pleased 
with him, guvo him eight KiuwFia 3 of NamatAalo 3 rioo, 
minttt'H wiib U!HO wont to a T/m//*o'fl wifo to work 

An iiitftrjvtfilioii f nBtoniHhtnoiit or distreaa. 
8 A Kitmll iiitMiauro, nbout unough fur one meal. 
11 t)ut> kind of rico. 


for hire, and when the lady gave her rice to pound, 
she exerted herself diligently, singing all the while 
over her task. The T/nirfAe's wife said to her, cc Why 
do you sing so pleasantly while you pound the rice ? " 
She replied, "My lady TAirfAsma, I am rejoicing be- 
cause to-morrow I am going to provide food for a holy 
Kahan." The T^u^ema, pleased with her, gave her a 
Kunsa of NamaUale rice, a ladle-full of butter, a cup 
of curdled mill?, and a suitable quantity of chilis and 
onions. The husband and wife arose early on the 
following morning, and Mahaduta went to collect 
herbs. A fisherman, hearing him singing pleasantly 
as he was gathering the herbs, said to him, "What 
makes you sing so pleasantly as you gather the 
herbs?" He replied, "I sing while I gather them, 
because my heart is so full of love since I am going 
to present food to a Rahan." The fisherman was so 
pleased with him that he brought out four Ngagyings 1 
which he had buried in the sand, and gave them to 

In the morning, at daybreak. Para Taken, looking 
to see who was worthy of deliverance, observed 
Mahaduta. Then he went into the Gandhakufl buili- 

Mahaduta took the fish home and cooked them very 

The Sakka king, inspired by affection for Mahaduta, 
and knowing that Para Taken was going to Mahaduta 3 s 
house to receive an offering of food from .him, dis- 
guised himself as a traveller, and, going to hisjiouse, 
said to him, " Mahaduta ! let me join with you in 

1 Name of a fish a species of carp. 

9 The king of the Nata. ' , 


tlio offering, and share its reward." Mahaduta agreed 
to share it, saying, "Join with, me." Then the 
Sukka king laid out the rioo and all the other pro- 
visions, and imparted to them the exquisite flavour -of 
the Nuts; after this, he said, "Mahaduta, go and 
invite the Eahan who has hccn appointed to you 
according to your written agreement." Mahaduta 
wont and said to the registrar, " Giro mo the 
Italian appointed to mo according to my written agree- 
ment." Tlio registrar said, "I forgot to put you 
in tho list, and nil tlio Ilnluma arc now provided fyr." 
MuUadiiia, in great distress, Inirflt into tears. Then the 
regisiwr said to him, "Para Taken haw just gone in 
ut the door of tho Gandhukufi building, follow him, 
und give him tin invitation." Tho king, tho ministers, 
chiefs, T/mMoH, and otlwm, tliinkingMaluiduta a beggar, 
Haiti to him, " Oil, youMiiliartula, ho ha not yet taken 
his ir]ast, how (sun any offering of alms ho made to 
you now? fJo away." Mahaduta said, "I am going in 
lo do homage to Tarsi Taken;" then laying his head 
cm tlio sill of Urn door of tho GaiuUmkuA "building, and 
doing homage to Para, Taken, ho wild, " Lord and 
inuHtcr, in this eounti'y there is ho ono so miserable as 
I; have piiy on mo and help m<s" Para, Taken, 
opftniii^ the doer ef tlm (JaiidJiukufl Imilding, gavo 
his sacred t/ml>ot to Mahaduta, who, carrying it on his 
Khonlder, wotit out just UB if he had obtained all tho 
wealth and power of tho TiTakravarti king. Tho king, 
tlio hoir-apparent, tho nuniHtora, and all the others, said 
to Muluiduto, " Mahadutu, take a thousand (piocos of 
gold), and. give mo tho tMwt; you are a poor man, 
take tlio money/ Bo saying, thtjy all earnestly on- 
t routed him, ottering him five hundred each, and a 


thousand each. But Mahaduta, saying, " What shall I 
do with money?" would not give up the tAabet, and 
took it away with him. Though the king himself en- 
deavoured to persuade him, he would not give up the 
t/aabet, but carried it off. Neither the king nor any 
one else dared to take by force the sacred tAabet which 
Para Taken had given with his own sacred hand. 
The king, saying to himself, " Mahaduta is a poor man, 
where can he get proper rice or provisions for an offer- 
ing; so, when he has nothing to offer, I will take 
the t/aabet and give Para Taken an invitation. 3 ' With 
this design he followed Para Taken to Mahaduta's 
house, where the Sakka king, after arranging tho rico 
and the other provisions, had prepared a place for the 
Para Taken. 

Mahaduta, when Para Taken, accepting his invita- 
tion, arrived at his house, told him to enter. Mahaduta 5 s 
house was so low that no one could go into it without 
stooping. Now "Para Takens never bow their heads 
to enter a house. Accordingly, as Para Taken entered 
the house, the earth sank down and he went in. The 
roof of the house also roso up. Such is the power 
of Paras. On taking their departure, the grouoid and 
the house become as before. Para Taken, therefore, 
entering Mahaluta's house erect, went to the places 
prepared for him. The king also entered the house, 
and, occupying a suitable plaqe, said to Mahaduta, 
"MahSduta, when I asked you for the sacred t/aabet 
you would not give it to me. Now, where are the riee 
and other provisions to offer to Para Taken ? Show 
them to me." Tho Sakka king uneoverod the vessels 
containing the rice, cow's milk, and other provisions ; 
and the fragrance they exhaled was so intense that it 


perfumed tho whole country. The king, soeing the 
rico, milk, butter, and other provisions, exclaimed, 
" Kovor boforo have I scon food so full of fragrance ! " 
Thou, thinking that his presence would displease Ma- 
liJuluttt, and be a constraint upon him, he made obeis- 
ance to Tura Taken, and took his departure. 

Tho Sakku king presented tho provisions to Para 
Taken. Purii Taken, when ho had finished Ms repast, 
proauhnd tho Anumodaua law and wont away; and 
Mjiliiiilfita accompanied him with tho sacred tAabet on 
bin shoulder. The Sukku king, aftor going part of 
tlio wuy with thorn, returned to Mahfidfita's house, and 
us ho stood outside nt tho door and looked up to the 
sky, thoro fell a ruin of the sovon jewels; Mahuduta's 
liotwe, WIH Hoflll wl with gold and Hilvur that there was not 
won room for anyone tn #t) into it; till the water-pots, 
IwwkotH, and utensils of e.viTy desiiription wore filled 
with it, HuhruLiitH'H Avile, unable to get into the house 
for the gold luul rtilv(^ had to romuin outside with her 
little boy, 

Maluuhlttt, uftev taking back tho Bacrwd t/mbet re- 
turned home. On hw arrival, setung hin wifo and 
little boy on tho outer platform l of the houno, said, 
" Mother, why do you Htuy on the outer platform ; 
tho HUH iw very hot." life wife replied, "Mahaduta, 
tho wbolo hotiHo is HO filled with gold and silver 
and jowolw Uuit we cannot stop tlu^ro witii uny comfort, 
80 wo uvo nbtying outride." Malmdiita, sooing that this 
WUB tho rtiHult of tho offering ho had made that day, 
wont to tho king and waitl to him, " Your Majesty, 
iny houHO in fill<^d with gold and silver and jewels ; 
Tliia IB auuucuvoroJ platform, farming tlio oatrancetaaBur- 


deign to accept them." The king thought to himself, 
" The offering made only to day to Para Taken has 
already terminated in its result, I must see this gold 
and silver and jewels." Then he despatched a thousand 
carts for the treasure ; and had it all piled up before 
him ; the heap was as high as the top of a palmyra- 
tree. The king said to the inhabitants, "Is there 
such a treasure as this in the country ? " and they re- 
plied, "There is not." Then the king gave Mahaduta 
all the treasure, together with the insignia of a 

Mahaduta, after attaining the rank of a TAuifAe, asked 
the king to give him some land to build a house on, 
and the king made over to him the site of the house of 
a former T7m#Ae. Mahaduta, after having a quantity 
of wood and bamboos cut and stored ready for build- 
ing his house, had the site cleared, digging up all the 
bushes and levelling the inequalities. In the course 
of this work they came upon a large number of pots 
of gold, all with their brims touching each other, so 
numerous that the whole of his land was full of them. 
The king, when he heard of this, said to him, " Maha- 
duta, this is owing to your great glory ; you alone take 
them." Mahaduta, when he had finished building his 
house, during seven whole days supplied Para Taken 
and all his Eahans with provisions, and made them 
magnificent offerings. After performing numerous 
good works he died, and his next existence was in the 
country of the Nats. 

During the whole interval between two Paras, 
Mahaduta lived in the enjoyment of all the luxuries 
3f the Nats. Leaving the Nat country on his death, 
in the time of this most excellent Para Gotama, he 


Lcoomo an embryo of the family of Sariputta in the 
Savatthi country. 

The T/ui/Ao'g daughter, from the day that she became 
prcignaiit/hud a great longing to cat Ngagying fish 
and rico. The reason of her having this longing was 
that who was desirous of making an offering of some 
Njjjiisyiiitf fish and rice to BSriputta and the Italians. 
Nho also wishrd to wour u puteo dyed in phanyl, 2 and, 
ivimiiuhig in tlir In wont position among all the Eahans, 
Id cut of tlio Ngiiyyintf fiwh and rice. Her parents 
aw'nrdintfly inudc* an offering of Ngagying fish to 
ftariputta; and, drmsiiitf her in a putzo dyed with 
phatiyi supplied lu\r with a ])ovtiun of the priests' rieo 
mid Ngu^ying fish in a goldon cup. After having 
catou in this way, slio tblt contiMilxstL The reason of 
hot* thus desiring to wear tho 1/angaii and partake of 
Iho priests' food was Hint her unborn child was des- 
tined to become a Ituhuu of tho holy church. 

After the lapse of ten months tho young girl gave 
birth to a boy* Bho invited Sariputta to come and 
immo the child; and, after regaling him with rice, she 
Hiiid to him, " My lord finriputtaj deign to bestow a 
name on your diwriplc." My lord Sariputta named 
tho child Puwfita. When tho child Puwrfita was seven 
years old, he became a Italian with Sariputta ; and his 
ptmmtri, on tbc^ o(jcawi(ai of his entering on his proba- 
tion, made offeriii#N of rico for seven whole days. On 
the eighth day, when my lord Sariputta took the pro- 
bationer Pwrfitu into the village with him, tho boy, 
on tho road (seeing) a labourer digging a ditch, an 
lurow-makor straightening his arrows ovor a flro, a car- 

1 With the former Maliuduta. 

1 Soruo kind of dye, probably of a yollow colour. 


penter cutting wood with, an adze, acquired the Kamma- 
tfttana. 1 Then he asked Sariputta to let him go back 
to the monastery ; when Sariputta told him he might 
go back if he wished, he said, "Lord and master, if 
you bring me any offerings of food bring me some 
Ngagying fish." My lord Sariputta said, "Proba- 
tioner, where is any Ngagying fish to be procured ?" 
The probationer replied, "Though it cannot be pro- 
cured through th& glory of my lord and master, it can 
be obtained through my glory." The probationer 
then went to my lord Sariputta's monastery, and con- 
centrating the wisdom that was in him, and medita- 
ting on his own pondition, employed himself in repeat- 
ing the law of the Rahans. 9 The Sakka king made 
the Jfatulokapala Nats keep watch. They kept at a 
distance all the discordant sounds of birds and beasts. 
The Nat of the moon and the Nat of the sun kept 
the sun and moon waiting ; the Sakka king himsolf 
kept guard at the door of the building. The proba- 
tioner Paflrfita, in the morning, before he had taken 
food, meditating on, his state, obtained the reward of 
Anagami. "When Sariputta came to the house of his 
relations, they made him stay inside the house, and 
gave him Ngagying fish to eat ; and after washing 
the tAabet, fillei it again with similar provisions. 
Sariputta, thinking the probationer must be hungry, 
made haste to go to him. 

At this time Para Taken, after finishing his morn- 
ing repast, looking to soe whether the probationer 

1 This passage is obscure, both in the printed text and manu- 
script, which differ from each other here. 

8 This passage is also ob&Dure, text and manuscript differing 

90 iruDDiLvanosiiA's PARABLES. 

I'M Jita would become a Rahanda before taking food, 
and seeing that ho would, conceived this projoct: 
" Sariputta is hastening with food to tho probationer ; 
before ho surives I will go and post myself at the 
door, and will ask Siiriputta the questions ; the proba- 
tioner Pa;/c/ita, hearing thorn from within, will become 
a llahiiudu," Para Taken accordingly was stand- 
ing at the door of the building when Siiriputta arrived. 
He asked him, "What liuvo you brought?" "Lord 
and master," replied Snriputta, " I have brought 
fluid."* -" Tri what does food conduct?" he continued. 
"To tho Heiisution of ImppiiiPKB," ho replied, "To 
what, (I'M'stho Hoiisution of happiness ctmdxiot ?" "An 
object. of souse," ho uiiHWorocL " To what docs the 
object of Henso nonduct?" ho asked, "Tho act of 
feeling" ho replied, 1 

Tho moaning of these questions is this : when a 
hungry man eutH 3 UH noon an ho is full, a feeling of 
hajipmeHH is produced, and IIIH perscm is beautified- - 

When ParFi. Tukeu liad linkcvl th(^se four questions, 
and tho probationer frmn within tho building had 
heurd llio law UH rtsvoalcd in tho replies given to them 
by Bfiriputta, lie reached tho aluge of a Eahanfla pos- 
H(wmid of intuit ivo knowledge. Then Para Taken 
Huid, " Bariputttt, l(t tlio probationer cat," Sariputta 
went xip to tho door <jf tho building and made a noise. 
Tho probationer count to tlio door, and taking the 
t/mbot, put it down, and began to fan Sariputta. Sari- 
putta fluid, " Probationer, wit your rice ;" then he ate 
tho rico and Ngagying fish. 

In thiw way a probationer for tho priesthood, only 
wvuzi yourft of ago, became a Ilahanda, 

all this is omitted in the manuscript 


The Sakka King dismissed again on their course the 
Nat of the sun and the Nat of the moon, and relieved 
from their wateh the four JTatulokapala Nats. 

On the completion of this discourse the whole as- 
sembly was established in the reward of Sotapatti. 






PARA, TAKKN*, whilo hn ww staying in tlw Otuvanu 
numofttory in the Suvullhi country, pmwrhod tho 
following diMourwo on tho Kubjcrtt of KiHflgotumi : *- 

In tho Havallhi country HMTO wan a T//U///O wlu* 
\VUH worth four hundred luillioim. OIM* <ly all tho 
in lim lioush tnni( k d into f k har<*oul. Tin* TAu///t, 

tlllH, WUH HO ^H'ichiMl Uliit hi* rt'lUMMl fuO<l fUlfl 

took to lim lioiL A friend of IIIH, ]>aying liim u vinit, 
fKutia^ th uiisoniblo ixpr( k HHicni of hiH fuw, ankiul littn 
why Jin waw HO wrotclunl, nial ho told him thui ho w*w 
niiRi'rublo Ixu'uuHo all Jiin w*^!!}! hud hwn cihungi4 into 
olmmial. HIH friend, who WUH alwo a TAuMo, ft<Mnnj; 
that thin had happened to him hwuuHtt Ito WHH not 
wortliy of hitt woalth, wiid to him, <c >ly friiwl 
T/m/Ao, Imvouo tmxioty about tlii; 1 know a plan; 
will you do oa I direct?" Tim TAuMo waid, "I 
'will" "Thau," miri hin friond, "Hpul woruo tnatN 
in the l)!^!^ find pile up upon thorn all your wwlth 
that hu lurnod into charcioul, und protend to 1m 
trafficking in it. Pooplo mifniiff tlio houp will ay to 
you, ( you T/mMo, ovory ono <dnc* Hoil dofchon, 


tobacco, 1 oil, honey, and treacle; why do you soil 
charcoal?'' Thou you reply to thorn, C I am selling 
my goods.' If any ono nay to you, c Why do you 
soil BO much gold and Hilvor?' say to thorn, * Bring 
it to me ; ' thun take what they bring in their hand, 
and in your hand it will Locarno gold and silver. If 
the porHou bo a woman, marry her to your son ; and 
making over to lior the four hundred millions of yoxir 
property make use of whatever who ahull givo you. 
If it bo a man, marry yuur daughter to him, and 
making ovor tho property to him, make use of what 
ho Hhull give you." 

ThoT/mMo, following hifi friend's iuHtrudions, spread 
Boino mate in tin* bazaar, uud piling upon them a largo 
houp 4 if his property whih was lurnud into r?liarr!nal, 
protoiidod to l>o wiling it. Bonn* people, seeing it, 
said, "Why does ho sell rfwnwal V " Just at thin 
time u young girl named Kwagotuml, who was worthy 
to bo the owner of tho property, and who having 
lost both her parents wa in a wrutchod condition, 
happened to coino to tho boxcar on acme buttinoBH, 
Wh<iu who saw tho heap, ho said, " My lord TAu/Ao, 
all tho pcoplo noil <sIothcH, tf>baoco, oil, honey, and 
tnw4o ; how is it that, you pile* up ld and silver for 
nato ? M The T/m/Ao ftaid, "Mudiun, giv<^ m<^ tlmt gold 
and wilvc^r." KiHagolwm, tsikinjjf up u handful of it, 
brought it to lam ; what tho young girl had in her 
hand uo HOOUW touohwi tho T/m//M'H hand than it 
btwamo gr>ld and Hilvor. Tlu T/m/A nuuriod tho girl 
to hi on, and having dullvowl over to hur tho wholo 

Tbo Bnrm<we wwl wvndowd hoto "tobwico" moans bo 
14 drugs >f or " pigment** M of any fcfad* 



of the four hundred millions of his property, made use 
daily of the gold and silver which sho gave him. 

Some time after this, Kifiagotaim became in the 
family way, and whon the ten month** wore com- 
pleted, gave birth to a son. When tho boy was oblo 
to walk by hinusolf, he diod. The young girl, in her 
love for it, curried the dead child clasped toherboworn, 
and wont about from house to house asking if any ono 
would give, her some medicine for it, When the neigh- 
bour* saw this, they said, "In the young girl mart that 
nho oarrioH about on hor breast the dead body of her 
Hon ! " 'Hut a wiwe man thinking to himself, u Alan ! 
thin Kisiigotaml doow not undcwtund the law of death, 
I munt comfort her," wtirt to her, " My good girl, I 
cannot rnyaelf giv(^ mortir.ino. for it, but 'I know of a 
doctor who, (SID attend to it." The young girl Haiti, 
" If HO, tell me who it iw." The wise man continued, 
" Parit Tak(*n run give? medicine, y<t uniHt go to 

Kiflilgotami went to Varii, Taken, and d(iiig Ijonmgo 
to liitit, Haid, u Lord and mauler, do you know any 
inedicino that will bo good For tny boy? 1 * Vnrit 
r l\ikon npli<l, " T know of nomc**" She unkorl, 
" What mculiciuo do yon rnquiro?" Hu ai<l t *' I 
want a handful of muHturcl nwd*" Thw girl i>ro- 
miHod to procure it for him, but Para Taken eon- 
tinned, "I roquirti Hf>mc> mustard Rood tiiktsn front a 
house whoro no non, huwband, part i nt, or 8luv<i han 
died*" Tho girl wild, " Very good," and went to awk 
for flomo at tho differcnt JumseH, (jairying th<^ dwul 
Iwxly of hor son untrido on h< k r liip, 1 The peopln 

1 Tho ordinary way of carrying chililrtu in Hurnmh wtd 


"Here is some muwtard seed, take it." Then sho 
auked, " In my friend's house has thcro died a son, a 
hubund, a parent, or a slave? " They replied, "Lady, 
what is this that you say ! The living are few, hut the 
dead arc many." Thou sho wont to other houses, but one 
said, " I have lost a Hon ; " another, " I have lost my 
parent* ; " another, " T havo lost my slave," At last, 
not being able* to find a single house whoro no one had 
died, from which to procure the mustard seed, sho bogan 
to think, "This IK a heavy task that I am engaged in. I 
am not tho only one whoso son is dead. In the whole of 
thoHiiratthi country, overy whero dhildren arc dying, 
parent** uro dying. 1 ' Thinking lluw, nho acquired the 
Jaw of four, and putting uway her ufteofion for her 
ehil(l ? wlie ftuminoiu k d tip resolution, and l<ft Ihn dead 
ho<ly in a foresf ; then she went to Pura Taken and 
paid him homage. 2Io mid to her, " Have you pro- 
(Aircd the handful of mustard wood?" " 1 have not," 
nhe ropliml ; '* th(i people of the village) told me, ( the 
living nre few, but the doatl aro many.' " Para Taken 
wtid tr> her, " You thought that you iilono luid lost a 
son ; tlie law of death IK that among all living 
wutures there is no penmmenoo." When PurR 
Tak<n had finished preaehing the law, Kinagotunii 
wa eHtrtblinhed in tlus re.ward of Sotiipatti; and all 
the UHweiubly who heard tho law were nlwi imtuUinhed 
in the reward of Sotnpatti, 

Home time afterward**, when ICiHugotaini WUH out.' 
day ongngod in tho porfonnan^t^ of her religious 
dnti% Bho ohHorvod tiu lightn (in the houuefl) now 
flhining, now oxtinguirthHl, and bogun to rofloct, 
^My state is liko these lamp*/ 1 Para Tukor^ 
was then in the* Oamlhaku/1 building, Mmt hi 


appearance lo her, which said to her, just aa if ho himaelf 
wore preaching, "All living beings resemble the flame 
of those lamps, one moment 1 lighted, th next ex- 
tinguished ; those only who have arrived at Nibbana 
axe at roflt." Kisa,gotainl, on hearing ihis, readied 
the stage of a Ituhuudu poKHOHH^d of intuitive know- 





A, HHHKHMAN, an inhabitant of tho village of Paw- 
r/ujmniy donn to the o,ity of SHvaithi, who watf gring 
to the city, found on UIM road, on the bunk of tlio 
Aiiravatl river, Homo turtle**' eggw. JIo took tlu-Ho 
to the houueof u friend in ilu*. city of Savutfhi,cook(U 
thoui and uto thorn all l>ut on<^ whioh ho gavo to hit; 
ftiiittd'H daughter to cat, From that time* thc girl 
would not oat any other kind of food, but Hvod on 
lioiw 1 o.ggn which lutr mother uwd to cook for hor. 
AflcrwardH, antuutcul by her gr(odinoBH, th(^ girl took 
to itooking thorn with her own handn mid eating them 
every day. 

The lien, Hooing tho girl eating tho <?gg whidi H!HJ 
laid daily, Iwrn a grudg<* ugairmt her, and jrayod that 
in her oxiHtmuw hercuiflw, who might Ixwmuj a ghonl 
arid eat up ttio gtrPn ofRspring. 

Wlum tho hen died Hh(*- became a cat in the name 
liouMOy and tlu^ girl on lu*r death bt^arnn a lira in her 
motluttfc houHe* Wlumovcfr thu hc^n laid oggw, tho 
cut, who boro a grudgo againnt her and waH hor wiomy, 
ato thorn tip, After thin had happened fKtvoral timo^ 
tho hen prayed that in hor futnro oxintcmw ho might 


Lcvour the cat and all her progeny. The girl dying, 
md leaving hor condition of a ton, became a leopard, 
md the cat, when she died, became a deer. The 
leer gave birth to a fawn, and the leopard, who 
oore her a grudge, ate them both up. In this way, 
luring the whole course of fivo hundred existence, 
each of them devoured the other in turn. 

In they lunt oxistonco of till, 0110 became aBiliima ; l 
and thu other, a young girl in the Savatthi country. 
Parfi Taluii, who waa raiding in that country in the 
tfetuvanu moimHtcry, preached to them : u No oiw must 
boar u grudge against another, Baying, ho han injured 
m( fc , ho IIUH boatc^n mo, ho haw robbod mo, h(* has con* 
qucrcsd mo ^for if ho dow thw, hatrod will b<* repmtcd 
eu(jce$Hiv(^y in futuro exigences; but if no gruclgo bo 
borno, enmity AubHidiw." At tho ond of tho rUHoouim, 
tho JMluma, rop^ating tho Bara^/agumauu, fl and observ- 
ing th<^ iivo 3 ormiinutHlmi'ntfl, was n'lrnfwtil trmn hor 
Imtrwl, and tho girl WUH oHtttblinhcul in tho toward of 


1 A fenwta Hilu, a Aort of ghouL 

9 The fDrmulu, " 1 worwhip Para, the law, and the 

41 Againftt murder, theft, adultery, falsehood^ intoxication 




AT another time*, Para Tukon, when he was in tho tfota- 
vana monuHtury, pruaehed a discourse* about a little BOW. 

Para Takcm, ono day, an ho wa entering tho Bajra- 
galut <*ity to cmllwt food, muting a littlo HOW ut tho 
gate of tho city, Hinilod. My lord Ananda a&kcd 
him why ho Htitiirtd, " Aimndu," Ito. n^pliod, " I am 
mulling at thin little HOW." Ananda atriuMl him what 
there wan about tho HOW to make him wnilo, and he* wild: 

" Atiandu, thin littlo BOW, in tho time of tho Tara 
Kakumindlia was a hen ; hearing a Ikhun in a forest- 
inonuHtory rquniting tho VipasNann Kutnma/Maim, and 
knowhij? that it wa tho Law, flho liHtenod to it; from 
tho hdluMiuf of thiH f^ood dtusd, when sho <liod, slio 
bmniw tlio prinrstm Upari. Tho prinoowH, going ono 
day to a oortain plaoo, Haw thoro a heap of muggotH ; 
rqKfating the ruluvakawifiu, rfio ohtnimMl the first 
Htutu of Dhyana. After her death ftlui wan bom again 
in th<i limhuui 1 country, Wow thiw priuecHH^ from au 
inhalntttiit nf t-ho Hmhrna country, him, by t munition to 
another exmtomw, been "hanged into u little HOW ; it 
Wita fchiH that mado mo smile. Whon, upon her doath, 
H!IC UtavtiN tho wmdition of a HOW, nhe will bocomo tho 
wife of tho primn minutor/ Y 

1 The highest order of bttlag*, tupcrior to 


When tho Kahans hoard Para Tukon say this, they 
acquired tho law af Samyoga. 1 

After tho little BOW died, and had heroine tho \vifo 
of tho prime minister residing in tho village of Maha- 
punwa, llio Kiilwnflj cm their way to collect food, HPO- 
ing her standing at the door of hor liotiso, naid, " My 
muHtorfty the litllo HOW Imfl become tho prime ininiHtcr'H 
wifo." Tho prime minislcjr'H wifti no HOOIHT hoard thin 
than he tromlricd, and hi'c-oining impn'swul with tho 
law of Smnvoga, and acquiring tho flntisfmi know- 
lodgo, whii'hoiiubh'H (lu'.pctHHi'Hsor fo <Mihm 

,stw ihat in tho t,\\w 

WUH a !M*II ; dying from tho condition of a Inn, 
in, the time of tho 'Para (loiuina llu* prinww 
dying from the eomlitifm of the primfcw 
Upari, wlu^ i'xiwl<Hl tigain in tho Hrulitim country ; tlying 
out of the Jtrahma oounf ry, sh<. l>iM*.aim k a liitlis HOW ; 
dying out of the nwnlition of tlw little HOW, B!U* Iw- 
came tlu^ M'ifii cif the j>rinu minister, 
Tlio momc-nl that nlio HJUV all tliiw, slm asked her 
]KnniKi(tt, and becaitu 1 . a Jtuhuti uwdor the 
Pan^uputhuka, amil directly Jift(T Iwiening t4i 
the Batipu///mna law in the TitiHuttmhavihiim numaH- 
tc^ry, H!U, WUH (sHtaMifthcul in tlu* rewitrd of Kotajttitti. 
After hocomiug u BotHpan, and while Hho waa living 
in tho village of Oandha, to vhinli H!U^ Imil gone un<i 
where her roktivt^ reHiclecl, nho liHtimtid ti> th<^ law 
of AniviHut in the ICainlakuinahuvihnra 
and iniinodiately uftorwurdw beeamti u 





PAKA TAKKX, wliilo lie was rwicling in the Puldtilrama 
nioimtttcry, preached u diHcuurtfc cm tho miltjoct of 
Anuvuddlm-thom, 1 * 

Anuru<l<lhu-Ilu*ru, ut tlio limn a country lad, having 
heard that tho 1'urii Takou Pacluimitturuluulaclvumsod 
ono of tho laity to the condition of JDovo&ikkhu, made 
offering!) of rioo for sovcn day to Parii Tak<m, and 
them xnado tliiw iray<sr : " Lord and master, may I alo 
in tho timo of tho futuro Lord IIHVO tho flujxjrior con- 
dition of Dovaftakkhu I" Tho Para Token Padumul- 
luni, looking ill rough a hundred thousand future 
Haw that hiw prayor would ho fulflllod, and 
, "From tho present oyolo a lnmdn i d thou- 
cjyclcB hctnno, in tho ttrrio of tlio Para Taken 
Gotama, yon will l>o AnumdJia-thera, having thw 
faculty of Deva&tkklm. llio lad, on luiaring tho 
prophecy, hold it in his mind jiurt an if itn fulfilment 
woro to take plaoo tlio v<?ry tioxt day. 

Tho Parft Takon Padumuttara having obtained 

1 Tint affix ' them ' to a name fiigmfian priest or Kalian among tho 
Bumiwe, but hero mcann OTIC of tho dteciplca of Ootaraa, 

11)8 nui>i>HA<mcKSiu'K PAUANUIS. 

Turanibbana, 1 tho Italian* to whom ho hud given the 
Kaflina,* by which in acquired the, Dovuftukkhu win- 
donij remained engaged in the practice of it ; tliti 
laity having made, an offering of a golden pagoda nev<u 
yo//anas in extant, provided with u thmiHund lamp- 
pillars, prayed for tho reward** of their good workn. 

When tho lad diwl, ho hod bin noxt exist <u-o in tho 
country of tho Nats. Aft IT experiencing the vidHHi- 
tudi'H of a humlnul thousand cyfleH in the land of 
mew, and in the land of the Nats, he was born among 
the. poor at Benares in tho present eyel, H<* bertaine 
the nhvi 1 of the 1 TAn///o Humana, arid uned to have t< 
cut gra^H evory day; ho wan named Annabhiirn. 

(hi otto oectmion as tho PaMokabnddhu 
aroso from tbc praetuic of tho Ninnlha-Hannlpatti/ 
and wan looking to nee whom lie shcnild deliver, this 
Annabbfim witn e,ominK from the forest after cutting 
gniHH there. Tho Pu/7rokaliutMhn, by rnoanw of IIIH 
glory, tl< k -w through the wky and ulightod bcwido him. 
'Wlien Annubliilm wiw the IWr/Svkalmddha, be wtul to 
him, u Ijord and master, have you obtained uuy ricu?'* 
"Hoi yet, 11 he ropluul "Wait here, ttinl and 
uwtor/* Huid tho boy; and throwing down bin bundlo 
of grtiflHj ho run bonw and n^nnuxl OH fiwt an iKmibbi 
with tho ruto which b(* had provided for hw own fooil 
Putting tUb into tholWX'ekubnddha'H t/mlwst, 1 
" May I nover again exptri<nco nuoh poverty ; 
ugjtin hear the wordw *thero IH none!' 1 ' The* 
buddhu Httid, u It nhull bo fulflllt^l aiMwding tu yr 
wiwh," and aftw pnmchmg tlut lu\v, wunt uwy- 

1 Muma an Nibbann ; htoraily, tho I 

s Ono kind of KammalMftna, in Sankrtt 1 

91 A kind of lrnn<u or i 


Just at tliis time the Nat's daughter, wlio was 
guardian of tlio umbrella 1 of the TAu//.o Sumana, 
called out throe times, "Siidliu. 9 " The T/m///o said, 
u Daughter of the Nats, why do you cry ' Sadhu' ? " 
She replied, "Aunabham, full of love for the PaMcka- 
Imddhu, it* making an offering of rico to him ; that is 
why I cry c Siidhu.' " The TAuMe awked Amiahhura 
whether he had inado any offering tliat day, and he 
told him that he had offered his allowance of rice to 
the FiubEoktilnuldliu Upadirta. Then the TAutf u waid 
to him, "Tukt* <hi*Hn tliouHaud (pieces of gold), and 
divide with inn the valuo of your olfitring." Anna- 
bhara mplidl, u My l<nl, hitmo first ask the Pu^eka- 
iMuldtm." Appruaftlung tin* Pa/r/aikubuddhu, he aid 
in liim, "ThnT//u//l Binnanu ha awkwl m<. to Hharo 
witli him tlm oirnriu^ I madu to you of my allowance 
of rico; in it ri^ht that I nhould divide* it with him?" 
My lord tho PtU'/"(kttl>uddha answorod AnnahhSra with 
thin parable; "Darukfi, in a village of a hundred 
hrniKos a ninglo lamp IB light( k d; one corner from 
another Jumna and lights hin wick from it 7 and so 
front IIOUHO to IIOUMO tho light is communicated, till 
it Hpnwin through tho villago, and tho l)rightnoe^ in-* 
cr<^ining illuminutoK it ulL Daruka, BO also may this 
offering 1m dilfuNod; divido it" 

AtmaWiHra rutuniod to tho T/AJJ/JO'H IHIIIHO and said 
to him, "My lord T/Su/Ao, I present yon with a cdutro 
of ray oftoring ; deign to aw!(*i>t it" Thn T/mMe ac- 
wj>tod it Aud ofRirad liim a thouwand (jnooeH of gold), 
Imt Annalharu Raid, u If I rooeivo monoy it will wwm 

1 Tlie umbrella in otio of tho ohicf inMigtiia of rank among the 

A n Mpnwiiton answering to otl ! " M brav< I 


as if I sold the offering; I cannot tuko it, rtwive 
feimply your sharo of tho offering." Then tho T/mf/w 
said, " Brother Annabhilra, from thin day forth, do no 
more work, l>nt livo in comfort and rooeivo thin present 
as a token of my respect." So Haying, ho presented 
him with a grout numlwr of urtiwIcH of comfort and 
luxury, dothing arid food. AniwWiSirii knew that 
thin wiw the, result of tho offering hn hud made, that 
wry day in the PaMekulnuldhu as ho amso from tho 
Kin )dliu-sania])ai ti. 

Tlui king, Homiing for AnnaWiSrn, ju'ocunid front 
him a wharo of his offering, mid <ionf<OTing ti|m 
liim iiim&onHo wealth, rainoil liiiu to llio runk of a 

Tlio T/Mi/A(t Annuhhani liv<*d for tho rent of !U'H lifo 
in gwit frit^ndrtliip with the T//u/Ai* Huniutta, and fn 

hin doath ajpcan?d in tlu^ cwunlry nf 

Aff( k r puHning many exiHlontN^H in (his way, unmr in 
tho land of nic'H, and Homo iti flu* I;unl <>f tho iVuls; in 
UiHiwoof tho Pura Taken Hoiaitm ho Inhume tli^non of 
th(* Sfikiyu Ivinft in th Kupihivutthu country, younger 
hrolhcT of ilu^ fid her of i'urii Ttikitn^lio WUH nailed 
i'rirnm Anuniddlm, and wan p<mKeMWMl of grc^tt power 
ami glory, 

One day thin Prince Anuruddlm WHH gumhling with 
HOUIC tihihlron for (juko; having IOM!, ho sent rtuinn 
H!UYC& to hin mother to procure Homo, and hin uttlu k r 
Bout him a goldnu hankot full of it. Coatiumng to 
l<jwc ? ho went wventi times again to hin molhor for 
more cake. At hwt hiti tuotlier srni word Ihuf 
WUB no :uont. The sluvi^ told ium thut thero 
no nurt'o, hut tho priitco not compn^hending tluX 
tho H]UVCH hack to got HOIUK. Ilin :no(hor ? thinking thut 


hor son did not understand that tlxoro was no more, 
in order to make him aware of it, washed the golden 
basket qnito clean, put the cover on, and Hcut it back 
to him empty. In consequence of the groat glory of 
Prince Aimruddha, the Huts filled the, golden. buHkot 
with cake impregnated with the delicious flavour of 
the Nutrt. When tho slaves brought the basket to the 
priiico, it wan no sooner opened tlwn the whole country 
was porfurned with the Nuts' cake. The Nats, know- 
ing tliat PriiUT Anuruddha, when lie wa the slave 
Armablmm, hud made an offering of ricio to the 
IWvf'ekahnddhu Upu<li//m, and had at tho timo prayed 
that ho might licit hear the words, " ftivw is nemo," 
hud not tho power to remain i<l!i b ,l>ut iill^'tl tliogoldon 
iHiHkei for him with wkr. Tim dclittiouw flavour of 
tlm (Mik<^ WUH such ilmt if tin* tip of tlu> tongun only 
touched it, a thousand norvos tingled with tlclightful 
(nwitiotiM. Priucui Ammtddlm nald t^> hiinw^If, *' My 
mother, <Uirly UH B!U> IOVM me, <lid not ^ivo mo every 
duy ilu> * thore-iH-norio ? ciiko ; it in is only to-day tluit 
I huvo hud tho c tliiTO-tH-nuun ? Ciiko to eat" 

Tlw^ ])rincuVH mothor fluid to tho Hlavon who took tlu^ 
golden hunket, u Did you find any cuko in tho golden 
buwket iifiw yon had convoyed it V" They replied, 
" Lady, tho buHkcst wjtfl quite full ; wo nover boforo 
HJIW tin ompty iMiHkot bwume full of (iuk(^' 5 Wli<*u 
nho hixml this, aho thotighi, " Owing to HUHIO former 
giHKl iUvd and pniyor of my son, tlw KutM muHt huvo 
put the cuke itx the buMkot." 

Prititto Aauruddha waid to hin mother, u My hon- 
oured mothor, you ncivor before^ KIIVO me any cako liko 
tbU; henceforth only givo mo thu M^orcnVmrno* 
ILSn motiior acoordiugly from that day, when- 


over hft asked for cake, used to cover up tho empty 
basket and givo it him ; and tho guardian-Is ats of this 
kingdom never failed to fill it with cakn. In HUH way 
Prince Annrucldha, living at home and nevor under- 
standing the words "thero is none,," used to cut 
nothing hut Nut's <;ako. 

Soon aftnr thin, Prince Anuruddhu, Prince !BIuid 
diya, and Prince Kimhila ware talking together about 
the place whore rice waa produced. Prince A,nu- 
ruddhu, who hud never WMII the cultivation in the 
fiil<lH, or the pounding of the* grain in ih<* mortar, wild 
tlujt the ri(*e, was produced inthc* [H>t. Pritiro Kiinhilu, 
who had wen the grain put into the #mnury, naid it 
wan produced in tho granary, Prince Dliaflciiyu, who 
hud noticed tluit th< ( . rir-jKrfH wer<* put on the fir^ 
placo, Hitid tliut it was produced in the firjiluw. 

lVnuu Anuruddha'w cldcr hmtluw lnstni(;t<*<l hint 
upon the duty of marring, hut the print 1 * 1 nanl, *'l 
hav< J . no desire to nuirry j" and hi^ went to hi* mother 
and, having unked he-r permission, iHrcmnu 1 a Ilalmu 
under Para Tukon, lln WUH culled Anuruddlui-them, 
and having minimi tho Dcjva/mkkhu wiwlt^m, ho 
could H<^O and comprehend n thouRunil worlrln jut UH 
tluatgh ho wont looking at u KluHliTi ihiit in hin liund. 
Ho iwgun to <toiwi(Ufr what good work it cwmUl he* 
through which ho hud acquired the Dovit&ikkhu win* 
dom ; then, looking with tho eyon of a Nut, hn naw 
Kin prayer to th Para Taken Pttdutnuttuni ; kMiking 
again at his diff(tront oxintenceH, ho HUW hin fortru*r 
offering to the IV^okulmtMha U]>adi//m at the tiiuo 
when he WHB tho nlave called Arinubhfiru of the f !Vm///o 
Suimuui, in tho Boimr< 4 country, and twod to mitgntfti, 
to think, "When* in now iy 


friend, the TAutf/e Sumana, with whom I shared the 
offering I made to the PaMekabuddha ITpadiA?a when 
I was Annabhara, and who made me such a handsome 
acknowledgment ?" Taking a survey by means of 
MH T)eva#ukkhu power, he saw that he was now JKxSlvr 
Sumouu, tho son of Mahamunda, in tho tillage of 
Munda; then looking to HOC whether his friend would 
derive any advantage from his going to see him, and 
finding that ho would become a Kalmuck, he flew tip 
into tho sky, and alighted at Muhaimmda's door. 

Malulmunda, us Hoon at* ho saw Anunuldha, in eon- 
HocilicnftQ of having boon hi friend in a former exist- 
oiico, ankwl him to oomo into hi* UOIIHO, and, after 
wetting rieo Intforo him, mid, " Lord and martcr, nv 
nmin hiro during tlu^ thrro months of Lont.'* Ami- 
ruddhu ugrru^l to do so, Muhntmnidu inado ofToringw 
to him during tho wbolo of Ltmt, of Imttor, tnuiclo, and 
other food of ploiwant flavour. Anuruddha Ktiid tti 
him, "DaTuka, I have no young diacjiplo to attend 
upon mo." " Lord and mator," replied Mulinmtmda, 
" make my HOU JTulla^umana a lliilian., and let him 
attend ujwrn you," My lord Anuruddha nuid, " Very 
good, IKtaikti. ;" and tho vory moment ho laid tho raxor 
on A'ulla-Buinana'H head to imiko him a Ilahau, 1 the 
boy twcanm a liahanda. 

Whoa Lont waH ovor, AmmuldJia, willing to oon- 
tt*mplat<i Tara Takou, took ATulla-Sumana with him 
and fUw JWTOHH tho nky* Alighting at tho Kurt mon- 
ftwtery in tho Ilimavanta forowt, ho wnlkinl up and 
down during tho warning and midnight watohcH, wlum 
ha wa Buddimly scistod with oolia Tho probati<mor, 
Hewing from hiH faco that ho wan flufR^ring, ttuid to 

1 All prioHttf in Burmah nhavo tho head aud fiwo completely, 


114 BUBBirAOnOflllA'ft FAIUBLKS. 

h|m, " Lord and master, you look ill. What aito 
you?" "Probationer," replied my lord Auunuldlm, 
"I am suffering from colic." "What medicine," 
asked the hoy, "will wiro it? M "Pwlmtiouor," ho 
replied, "if I wm drink HOIIHS water from tho Ana- 
vatuttalako, I shall bo euivd." "If tliut be HO," ho 
Raid, " I will go and procure Howe fnr you." Then 
Aiiuruddliu told him, u If you draw witter from thn 
Aiiuvutattii lake, the. dnigon Pamwga their in very 
haughty; tell him you emne from me. M The young 
probationer, ufliT innkinj; ohcinancc to Anitruddha, 
iltw uway inl< Iho sky, <md urriv(il a( (!<. Anuvulaita 
luko, wliioli wttH iiv luindr^tl yopaiius UiHdnit, Th^ 
dnrgon Paniuiga was sport ing witli Uu* sh(*-dragous in 
thttwutur; whoa thn rlruyun wnv UM* yniinx proli- 
tumor, ho cxdunmtd, "Thin Ht^i of Muudu Jmn lift iall 
on my head tho dirt fmm liin fw\ ;" thru in a ra#* hi* 
HpiN k ud out IUH hood, junl crrv<*r'4l with i< III** whnlo 
Aniivatutla Iitkr, whiflh W"U4 lifty yi^uitan in <*xttni in 
onlor that lio nhwild not draw any wati^t from it. Tli* 
prohationi^r naid to him, <c ()kin^ur thi 1 drngim**, my 
toudwr Auuriidilhu in ill with colin, I wMi to *in:iw a 
pot of water for m<*diuiti." Tlic*ii \w coiiltituiHl in 
prxrtry, " My lonl dragon, POWMHUHH! of grnut fflory, 
endowed witlt grout power, lint n to my words and 
giv mo tnui pot of wut<ir; 1 eonw ft>r nwvlH'in**. 1 ' 
Tho dru#on*ku% whitn he hoard thin, replied in 
pootry, " Prolmtioner, in the wiNttwi qimriitr tltere in a 
river called tho Oarigoft, which flown into the **n; 
toko Home of i)ut wutiT of that river/' On Hun, Itwi 
probationer bogsm to roflent, "Thin drawn, ofhw own 
will, will not givo mo uuy ;** then, thinking ho wouht 
nay Hoiuotliing to overcome the (hugon, and Uiut hn 


could then draw tho water, ho said, " My lord dragon, 
my master Aimmddha sent mo to draw some of tho 
Anavatatta water and no other, therefore*, I am hero 
to draw it." Tho dragon-king ropliod, " Probationer, 
you arc, more fiupahlo than othor young men; I like 
your Hpooch. As for mo, I will not give you any ; if 
you can draw it, do so." Tlio probationer said to him- 
soil', " I will display the power of the church of Para 
Tukon and draw tho wutor, and moreover, will 
make the. Nuts mid Hrohmnti sou how a combat i 
currioci on with mo." With this thought he ascended 
to tho nix wtagoH of fhu Nut (Country, and tho sixteen 

K of tho liruhmu country. The* Natn and Brah- 
when they wiw tho young probationer, paid 
to him, and nuid, <c "JIy lord jprnliutioncr, what 
bringn you IICT** ? M -Hi* said tn tlx'iu, (< (V^nio 
und H<HI my eonibat with tin* dragon Piuinuga in tho 
Anavututta lako." So flaying, he doHOt*ndod with all 
1hi> Natn and Bnihinan, and fluttering in the nky over 
the Anuvututta lako, ho aaid throe tinum to tho dragon, 
" My lord dragon, I am going to draw Homo water for 
mc(iifino. w Tlicj dmgon rcpluul, " For my part, I will 
not givu you uny ; if you can draw it, do HO," Say- 
ing th<w% wordn, ho rcniulmul with liis liood expanded, 
up tin* Anavatutta lake- Tho Nutw and Brah- 

from UK* nix wtuge of tho Nut wmntry anci llio 
Htagiw if thw Hrnhma country y completely oft- 
tho whulo of the wlcy, were looking on* A 
<ompari8on in thin : thoy wore like tuutttard HWC! in u 
mortar, Tlioy oxtaiidwl ovw all the Anavatuttu 
ami tho nky WUH entirely <lU(il up with thorn; thw 
no Hjnjdft loft At tliin nioin^nt tho probationor, mumming 
tho upponruitco of tho diiuf BnJunu, doscondod from 


a height of twelve yo^msis in the wky, and tmd right 
upon tho head of the dragon; a column of water a* 
thick as a Palmyra trco rowo up ; the probationer, re- 
maining up in tho sky, tilled a water-pot from it, and 
carried it away. 

Tho Natn and Uruhiuas extolled thin exceedingly, 
crying out "Kadhu!" and the dragon-king Pannaga, 
thus put to shame IK*. fore all the Nuts and Bruhnms, 
waa violently enraged and 8<rt off in pursuit of tho 
probationer, crying out that h would tour opi*u hiK 
brcuw(, and taking him ly Ilie legH, throw him to the 
other fcido of the OuiigcH. 

The proliatiotutr pn'fltnitt'd the Aimvututia witter to 
my lord Auuruddhu. Tlie dnigon wiino, itud mud, 
'* Lord and miwter, tho prohutieuer han tsik< water 
whidi I never gave him ; <Io not use it. 11 Tin- pniha- 
tioncsr said, " Lord and mutticr, I fli<l what svjw in my 
power to takn it, iMieausif tin* dnignu-kiiig fold m<? to 
take it if I eould; flirrdun* make uw of it/' My 
lord Anurud(lhu T ivfh^ctin^ that Ihn |trnhation<'r, who 
WUH a Uahunduy cmitd not frll a OtlM<*h(^ul, drunk tho 
Aimvuttittu wutc k r ? and was iuumHlmtc'Iy cumd of hiH 
wmplidul. Then the dragon Puitnaga wu'd to him, 
u Lord and muntor, tint prolitioner Juis put MM to 
rfmrne before all tho NatHund Jlruhmun; I Khali there- 
fore tour open hm bnunf, and drugging him ly th<i 
logH 7 hurl him to the other nido of the QungcH/' My 
lord Anumddlm replied, " Drugon-king, tlte proha^ 
titmor in poHacwsetl of grcnit glory ; if ho fight with 
you, yiJU, a dragon, can do nothing. Make uu apology 
to him/' The dragon-king, Kocing 1he { W >wcr aud 
glory uf Hie prolmtionnr, and having only Hpoken thm) 
worcb frottn a fcoue of sliunjc, did an Atiuruddhu told 


him; making the obeisance of apology, lie said, "My 
lord probationer, henceforth, whenever you want any 
Anavatatta water, deign to say, c there is my disciple, 
the dragon Patnmga.' I will convey the water to 
yon." Wo saying, he paid homage and loft. 

Annruddha and tho prohationor went together to 
Para, Taken, Para Taken, scoing Aimruddha craning, 
sent some Italians to relievo him of his t//ubot and other 

When the probationer reached the Gfctavana monas- 
tery , the J'afi^imguH 1 and tho, probationers who were 
Pufhu/^inas 11 begun to stroke hit* head, e,a,rfl, none, and 
HO forth, tmd pulling him about by tho anna, asked 
him if IIP did not long for hi father and mother. 
I'ara Taken eeiittf them behaving in thi way, in order 
to let them know the* glory of A'ulla-Sumuna, (tailed to 
Ammdfy and nuidto hinij a Ananda, 1 wish to wash my 
feet with onto Anavatnttu water ; nend for all tho Pafi- 
ArnTigfux and prohationc^rw, ami U*t nny one of thorn who i 
ahl<i to drawtlut waUT go and procure Home." Anandtt 
went for tho five hundred Puthu^ana-prohutionerH, and 
telling them that Puril Taken wifthod to wash hit* fwt 
with Auuvatatla water, ordered them to go and pro- 
euro it. Out of tho whole five hundred 
h<* could not indmj a ninglo on<^ to go. Some, 
* c Wo cannot do it;" olherw Huid, ** Thin IH not our duty ;" 
even tho prohationorw who w(iro KiihunduB mid, " W<s 
do not know how to draw it ;" thn Puthn^na-Jlahanw 
alo dwlarcul their inability f<r the tuHk, Thou my 
lord Xnan<Ui tmid to ATullu-Huinana, c * Trobationor, 
Para Tak<*n wihcw for omo Anavnbitta water 

I Prtificic*nt in tho ilvo qualification*, 

II Ont* who ImM not atUinftd the fttotu of n 


IUB foel ; go and draw Amuc," The, probationer, making 
obeteawio to rarii Taken, Bat id, "I>o you require 
me to draw ttomo Anavatatta \vater fnr you ?"<> Pro- 
bationer, dniw wo some/' replied Para Taken, My 
lord Ananda tfuvo the prnbationer the golden ve*wl 
which was the offering of Visilkha, und whirli held 
sixty inoaHiuvH. 1 The pmluiiioiMT look it in IUK hand 
and flow straight through tho ky to Hiimtvanfa. On 
his rcacihin^ fho Anavahilla laki^ flu? dragon J*atma#u 
cliroctly ho saw him, cam( forward lo nul him. u My 
Irwl proliatioiM'i 1 , 1 ' wiid lu, "when you hv Hi?h a 
diwfipIiMiH I am, why wliould you 'oiw IHTO yimwwirV" 1 
With thfw wordHlu^ took tlu?pldc' vi'NM^from hint, 
und af'tor filling it with Ansivatattu wa1i*r, he put it on 
hi own rfumldcT, aud Haying "Promni, my lord ]n>- 
hitioxuT," iollowtul him aw lu's attendant. A (Wallow- 
ing Iwrwel ft o ln\ followtul thus fora Hlmrt time, tite 
prohaliimer naid, u Dragon-king, remain hehind ;" 
undiaking fro'm him the golden vessel, and carrying 
it by the ornamental rim, he, flew through tho nky l<* 
IUH do^tinatitm* 

Parii Taki'n, whim ho aw the young i*rolwJtioner 
approaching, naid to UMJ HHwrahly of Italian^ ' I'xK^k 
at the beautiful uppeunuifln of tin, 1 youthful novirv." 
A'lilla-Sumuna, putting down the goldon viwul in front 
of Tara Taken, made <ibeiHanno to him* ParJi Taken 
said to him, " Prolmtiont jr, what ago are you?" 
" Lord and master," Iio replied, " I am mtveu yearn 
old." Puril Taken miid, "Probationer, from thin day 
forth ho a PufUftugo," and lie conferred upon him flu* 
dogm* of a TafiArmga by inhwifttiwo. The 

1 ( >no uf tht^c mraHun>8 of water would k< *{uito AH mn*?Ii 
ortlinurv nmtt inntld lift. 


PanMnga by inheritance is this : when Para Taken 
says with his own month "Receive this inheritance 
from mo," the stato of a Panfcilnga is obtained without 
repeating the Kammavnkya. 1 In Parti Taken 5 H church, 
the probationers JTulIa-Sumana and Subhuga, these 
two, obtained the dogreo of a PafiAanga when they 
wore only woven years of age. 

Tho Italians in the assembly began to talk about the 
young probationer Sumana becoming a PafiMnga at 
the ago of only sewn years. Parii Taken, overhear- 
ing llunn, fluid, " Bahanfl, my dear sons, whoever in 
my church, young though lie bo, may havo performed 
good works, shall boeomo colc k lmitcd." Tho.n ho con- 
tituiod in poetry, u I^thtms, whatov<T young Itahan 
rfuill ixsally and truly exert himself in my (thurcli, f ho 
rhimsh of tlio Piorii, this Kuban, Hko ih( nuwi <miorg* 
ing through a gap in the thick clouds, shall illumine 
this world with his splendour." 

At the- conclusion of thin discourse all the, assembly 
who listened to it wore cstublitthod in tlui reward of 

1 Ordination acrvict). 




AT the time when Pra Taken wan ulaying nt Hue 
/rVtnvuiui monuHtery, my lonl Sivuli, with five hun- 
dred HuhunH, went on u journey to Himavanlu, 
"When they arrival at thn (iuudhuiufMbnui tnouutuin, 
Nut-King Xa^uluttu, w*-in^ my Ion! Sivali up* 
was ^mtfly (ioiiKhti^l, kimwirtg that hin 
jlil !> ftr JHH p>od iM'n'afii'r. Kr*in the 
day of his arrival up to fh<* seventh day hi* supplied 
them with ionU; on tint Hot <lay, net* ruok<u{ in milk; 
on file neenixl day, nmlled milk; on tiin third day, 
roots; on the foiirtlj d;iy, the Kye prepnrutionH ut* 
milk; im tlie fifth duy^ A'attmmdhu ;' on the wixth riuy, 
a variety of ciiif^nfiit kind* of ftin<l ; on the sitventh 
duy he mippHed food to which hud tteen imparted the 
diiliciouH ttuvour of Uui Nats* Thf* Itnhfins, o 
the mdlejw amount of food offered hy th( 
Midi " We #w\ no miWi eown heilonj<ing to tlic Nul- 
King; wo ww no ntore of milk or curds, no rien 
ing on thtt liro ; how in it that mu*h 
of all kind** of pn^pnraticmH of milk are nmtta?" 

1 Thin ward KICUDH tlu* foati uhich A prirxt umy rnt ufl^r 
whiih (miiiprfaHMi oil, honoy^ trouble, mul 


Then thoy asked this question, in poetry, saying, 
" King of the Nats, all kinds of milk-food are h&re in 
abundance* ; how arc all those kinds of milk-food ob- 
tained ? What kind of good work did the Nat-King 
perform in a previous state of oxitonco? Tull us, 
King of tho Nutfl ; we will listen," In reply to the 
question thus put to him by the Kalians, the Nat-King 
answered in poetry, " My lords, in the time of the 
Parii KitHKupu I madn offerings of milk to the assem- 
bly of liuhiuifl. The roward of the offerings I made in 
thorn* days is now Imhig fulfilled-" Then the Nat- 
King Nfi#adiilta proceeded to relate to the Italians his 
offering in a former atuto of existence : " In the time 
of tho Purii Ktuwopa I wn a fellow-man. When I 
had miriit'd tho wpan of that exiHtenoe, I died, and 
heeume Nitgutlattu, living cm tho Oundhamtidanu 
mountain, in a golden puluco with u thousand 
iluughicrn of the, Nate Hurrounding mo t and pofl- 
HOfwed of great pr>wcr and glory. On account of 
the otFerinftH of milk which I mode to tho adorably 
of lUlwns, I huvo Ix^en in jMmHCBBion of endless wealth 
and luxury from flu* time of tho Para Taken Kasapa 
to the time of the PurJi Token Gtobiina." Tlien hn 
eontiutied in poetry, " Tho wholo Murfurso of tins earth, 
with its iinauituiiiH uud itri H<as, I can make overfluw 
with milk. Whatever kind and whatever <iuantity 
of milk-food I winh, I find to my hand. What- 
wr I nuiy wish to give away, nnd in whatever 
tiuitnttt.y, I am ITI tho wimo way atmncbintly Miippli<xi 

My lord Hlvuli t after oaunmg tho Nat-King Niigu- 
ilutto to j^rft^mi gofl work for tho whole of HOVOU 
<luyn ? loft tho OaiKlliamudaim mcmutuiu and rctununl 


to tho Crotavana monastery, After making oheisawre 
to Parti Taken, ho gave Ixim an account of King Jsfippt- 
datta. Parti Taken preached to tho aHOTtibly who 
wore listening to tho Law tho Xfigaduttu-vtitthu, 1 an 
foil own : 

" At the, timo when tho Para Ku^a^a appeared in 
tho cycle when men'H liven reaohod tho Hjian <*f twenty 
thousand yours, and was pmwhing tho Law, King 
Nagwluttu, Untuning to f ho Law, Hiimlo offering for the 
whole of twenty tlioiuunid yours io tho assetnhly of 
tho KuhsuiK, of milk, Imtter, unti HO fiirtlu On hi,s 
he became tho Kitt-King of tfivul IUWIM: un<l 
, living in a golden palaroon tho Uaudlmmndmia 
iu llhnavantu, and Hurrmmded by a lluHi- 
wuid dwitfhti'rH of tin*. XatH. King JNTtgudattn, wlnn 
ho lutHOom<, k to tho end of hiHHjiuti of lifoon theOandha- 
luaxliina rnotintaiu, will exH again in all fh<* stagen of 
the 3N r at country from AaianiuhJirfiy f( rurunittniutn- 
vaHavuti. ft In that Pawn Iiniiuiuvasa vat i he will de* 
wlopothciirnf Htaftt of Dhynna/^and on hi death will 
rcucli tho MtLha-Jh'aliiiiu abode, and have the hrillwwy 
of glitt(TiiiK g<>l<i or tho ruby. After wimptating them 
f.yd^, and d<velinng the Hi^oiui flttito of 
ho will roue.h ULO Abhassjira abmU k . ( f <ni- 
ploting thero night c^ycslos, and developing tho thini 
ttluto of Dhyiina, ho will reucli the Huhhnkritifim utxxK 

1 llach of ibetsc AtoHoM i called in Pnli A Vntthu, or in 
Wutthu> Buppotttd to be tlm Ban*krit vrittn, u an t-vont 
<f & story/' The 3ankrife vttxtu, tho uubji'ct uf n 
however, in tlm only word that could iu i'ali jmttunut tint form 
vatthu or va/Mu. 

a Tlic-ro are ftlUTgnthiar nix wtti^H of ihu Nut 
ttmntiantMl nbovti* 

A A corUiu attainment or ttUtu of ntiud of wti Mi 


Completing there sixty-four cycles, and developing the 
ftmrth state of Dhyana, ho will exist again in Brihat- 
plmlu, and the other abodes of the fourth state of 
Dhyana. Developing there Yipapsonii, 1 lie will attain 
to tho reward of Ann garni, and will exist again in 
the Avriha abode. Completing his span of life in the 
Avriha abode, he will reach in succession, by meant* of 
the state of Uddhamsotii, the five Sudasauna abodes. 
After this, ho will bo established in the Akani/'Au abode. 
When his life there is ended, he will become u Rahanda, 
and roach ParnmlMiuu There will be six other per- 
sons who will exist in the same way us tho Nat-King 
Niigndatltt, vis*. : Muhara/Aa, A'ullara^Aa, Anogavzuiflu, 
SakkUjViHaklw, undSudatta; thcno, with tho Nat-King 
Nitgurlutia, imiko in, all wevmi IMWOIW. Those seven 
pom>ns till lake delight in good works- They taku 
delight in them in all states of pxiKtunou. ('om- 
mmusing from thtur pr( ( ^scnt oxiHtenee, in tho order 
of tli4ir future extafcrnftufl, reaching in HueoeBHion 
tho couiifricH of tlu v Nut and tho Brahma^ they 
will tinnily ttttuiti Purunibbana in tho Akaui/Aa 

iT hull do nothing but good workw will 
ti<thing but <^x<u*.llent ftittirts rewurdH.'* 
m Taktn ] f (iuihed UH follow^ in poetry, to 
thorn* iMTKonrt who, liko the Nat-King Naga<latta, hud 
in foririor cxintcnrcH inudo cxcclhmt offcringn to tin 1 - 
Itiihaim: - 

u Wl*fttivt*r layman nhull rmlly and truly repoatxsdly 

jwrform nturiy good workn, tho niont (txeellout happi- 

nos nhall bo hin ; you shotild therefore umko offeringK 

1 A kind of *mttom, ennbliug thu pOHawianr to mako (*xtm- 


because it IB moRt excellent. Thowo who muko offer- 
ings with gentle hearts to the priefltw, who nro tl flfld 
where are to ho sown the floedH of good workw full of 
long Buffering, shall have all thoir dwrcH ftilfilkuh 
Even like Iho Nat-King NSgaclatta thoir donirtw 
bo ftilfillod." 





IT waft wild tliat the Nat-King Niigadatta, after per- 
forming many good works, enjoyed a lift) which ox- 
tended from the timn of Kaswipa Para to the time of 
(Jotanrn Para; thoy who did evil ducdf), when they 
fmffcrcd for thorn, did their livcw aim extend from the 
limw of the mont excellent Para Kawapa to that of tho 
moHt oxwlh'tit 1'ara Ootuma? Tt WUH in rcfoTOnce 
to this that Para Tukon, wJiou he was in the (/etuvana 
inoiuiHtary, rulatod tho ntory of King Pusonodlkoflttla 
UH follown: 

" King Pttncimdikoflala one day, superbly adorned 
and mounted on hin elephant Purika, attended hy 
hm rtitiniu 1 , nmdo a tour round his city, keeping it 
on hiM right hand- Whilo he was making his circuit, 
a mau*H wifi 1 , who WUH in a PyatAat with Hovon roofs, 
a window and looked out Whon the king 
hu wwm<^l like tho moon cnt(?ring an opening 
iu at thu'k bunk of clouds, and he wan HO inflamed with 
<kwiw that ho V(*ry ntirly fell off the hack* of bin ele- 

" Ou returning to hiw palace, aftc^r computing the 
circuit of liia <rity, the king tusked one of the nobles, 
who WUH hU iutimat<* Mend, whothor in Huoh-and-suoh 


a pltM'o ho had soon a Pyat/tat, and ho rophVd that lie 
bad won it. * Whom did you HOC there ? ' flu* king 
tiHlcnd. C I HIIW a woman in the* PyafAut,' lit 1 ri*pli<ul. 
Thou the king wont him In in<{uin whether the woman 
hud a husband or not. Tin* imhlemun went and made* 
inquiriert, and returning told the king {bat there was 
n husband. Hearing thin the king fold him to go and 
bring the, husband. Tho nobleimm accordingly went 
to th(t man and Kind, *Thn king has wnt for yon/ 
Tho young man 1 hough i if* hiinsc*lf v ' I shall br ih. 
stroywl (jn a(^:otinl of my wife ; * but not during in 
oppoM tho king's conntiands, he went to tho pahur, 
Whuii thi> king wiw him, h<? aid, 4 Ucniain ulwyw in 
clowo atl4ndnnc,o upon me*,' The man suid, 'IH mo 
mako an olloring of tribute only. 7 Tin* king mid, 
M do not want your tribute; from thin duy ibrfli 
remain constantly in olosc atlcndanc** UJM*H tm\' Ho 
Haying lu^ gavo him a da 1 for a woajHtn. Tho king'n 
dcHign wart to kill flu* young wan as won as lit* should 
ho guilty of any oflVnoc, ami fhon take bin wifnj but 
Ibo youtig man, in fuar for bin lifi f WUH luiutt uianmiit* 
ting in Iimattondunni. 
* v Whoa thin king found that tlw young timn wan 

from nil fuult T ho nailed him und KUU!, ; 
youtig man ! at u dintuuc^ of u yc^ttnu from tiw? 
inarivor; prvxniru from lhnn< a Kamuttam 
lily and Homo AruwivutI tsarth, unit bring tboin 
in tlu> cool of tho ovoning ; if you fail to do HO, T 
hall puninh you." Tho young man >H>ing u 
among many, and thi$rirfi>n) unaUo to nf 

1 Tim national and eimmcteriHtic 
* ktiife varying in ttiso aud weight aocH^rdiiiK tu thw |>urp<*i for 

which it 

STOttY OF THE FOrii T//TT//E*S &OXH. 127 

to do it. Tho Kujunftarii wafer-lily and the Aru/m- 
vati earth wore only to be obtained in th< riouiitry of 
tho dragons. Tho youiiff man thought, * What shall 
I do to procure tho lily and the earth*" Fn [our of 
his lifo ho, run homo as fust as ho euuld, and asked hw 
wifo if tin* 1 rioo wore cooked; II!H wifi said that it waw 
ihon l(ing luiilud; not able* to wait till it w rrady t 
he t(nfk {ho ilrippiitf; rice out vifli a ladle and put it 
into u cup together with Hoinemeat ; then he started off 
in all hasto on his journey of u yi jgfunii. As he flow 
along, the riee wan steamed, 

"When the young man arrived uf the hunk of tint 
rivor, ho first laid aside the top part of the riee and 
thttn began eating* Just at this time he saw a IUMU 
who wanted somofh ing t<> eat, and he gave him the 
top part of the riee whirh he had laid awile, and timde 
him oat it The young man, utter iiuixtiing \\\* repast, 
threw thct remaitiw of thi rlw into the river tu fred 
the fiwlt, au<t then cried out with u load voice, * May 
the* Niigu-Gulou 1 !Nut-Kmg, who wutohes thin river, 
help mo ; the king wanting tu iix u fault npmt me 
Ht i nt inn to pr(K i uri; a Kaniuttanl wider- lily and 
Anuruvuti earth. 1 have made an offering of riiiM to 
him who wauled if ; thi thounand rewards of this 
oififring, aw well an (ho hundred Huooi'HJHtvn reward* nf 
tho oifering 1 made to tho flHli and all I he other ei'ini- 
tuw hi tho river, I divido with tho Nat- King. !Pr- 
curo for me u Ivamutiara lily and Hume Aritmivatii 
eurtU,* Tho dmgon who guttrd<rd tho rivnr Inuring 
thiM, aw4umcul tho guiHO of iut old mnn, and 
ing tbo young man, iH^ginl n nhuro of Ilio 
fn>m hint ; tho young man naid, ( ] *ilmn% it with you. 1 
1 A tying Jragou, 


Then he gave him one of the Kamuttara water-lilies, 
and some of the Aiuwavati earth, which were in the 
dragons' country. 

"At this time the king was thinking to himself, 
6 Some people possess a charm ; they have some kind 
of wisdom and ability so that I cannot fix a fault 
upon them. 3 Reflecting thus, he closed the door, 
although it was only morning. The young man 
arrived at the king's Lathing-time ; * Opon. tho door,' 
ho cried, c I come by tho king's order.' But the door, 
by the king's command, remained closed- The young 
man finding they wotild not open the door, thought to 
himself, c It is a difficult thing for mo to save my life, 7 
Then he placod tho Aruwavati earth upon tho door- 
post, and hung tho Kamuttara lily upon it, and shouted 
with a loud voice, ' Take notice all, that I have re- 
turned Jfrom executing tho king's commission. Tho 
king wanting to kill mo, though guilty of no fault, 
sent mo on this errand.' After this, ho thought, 
Where ahull I go now ? The Kahuna have gottflo 
hearts ; I will go and sloop in the monastery. People 
whon they arc happy feel no lore for tho Kalians; but 
when their hearts ore heavy, they like to take rofugo 
in a monastery; I too can find no other aaylum.' 
With those reflections he went to tho monastery and 
flkpt there. 

i{ King Pasonadikosala could not sleep; tho whole 
night he was thinking of tho woman, and devising 
how ho could kill the young man and get possession of 

"The people in holl who have boon immersed in the 
copper pot of sixty yoyanaa in extent, boiling and bub- 
bling like- tho rice grains la a cooking-pot, after thirty 


thousand years reach the hotfom of the pot; and, un- 
cording to what one of the smi>tureH Kys, after an- 
other thirty thousand years they rise n^'iin to the 
edge; these people in hell then jmt up their heads 
and cndcavnur to rcj^eat S<HIIM wwri-il \*Th< i s; luit llh'y 
artMmly ulrft 1 fo utlc*r a wyllahlo at u tiiiu 1 , and sink 
down u^aitx into tho Iwll-put. 

At thin limo the kift uimlilc to Hhtcj), ov(*rhi i rd 
during ilw daybreak wiloh tln sounds of fhi* In-ll* 
jmoplo; lt< trcinliled and Hturtnl uj*. 'Is ray lifi* in 
danger, or tny ({utwnV, or dors MoTiH*f'ditiui(.y thn*ul<*it 
myoutryl" Thus oxirluiiuik% hit j^ol up at HIIII- 
riw*, aftor a shu^h'HH nighl, and n<iulins for Uii 1 rhirf 
pri(^{, hit stmi to him, f Hrahtnin, my fciH'lirr, in tin* 
day hn nik walcli I hcunl a {fh'jit noLxt* lik** that of si 
huge drum ; in it my country, my ijuirn, or iiiy 
m in dungiT of Hom< (Calamity V 1 Tin* Ilruhmiu 
* My lord, your Mnjuftly, what Hounds wt*r<* tlwy that 
you hoard * ( Tiwshor Itruhtnin/ n^pli^d tlw* ku% * I 
licurd tho word u du t " tho word "iw*, 1 ' tin* word u iia/" 
and thn wwd "HO;" thiwt four wonln I heard. 1 Tho 
Brahmin, like a man going into the durk t wcing nothing 
ut all t wild, ' I (nmnot tell what it TUMIUH;' (hen r< ( - 
iloi-ting that he* would go \vithout any j>rrHcnlM und 

ho Maid, * Your MajnHf y, I will I re- 
e; have no nnxiely ; I know tlui three V 
Tho king wid, <W!mt ougltt to he done?' Tin* 
mfn rnplitHl, l It will In? well if you make u Ha 
of every kind of living creiit arts' -M low Hlmll this lu b 
aHked the king, lie nuid 1 ( IVoiture u hundred 

u hundred homH 5 n tiuudred hulls, n hun- 
dred goat*, a hundred <mmc*l^ u hundml fowl, n 
hundred pig*, & hundrtwl lxy^ u Uumimt gM^ n 



hundred of every living creature.' In order that it 
shauld not bo found out that ho said this merely in 
order to obtain different kinds of meat to eat, he 
inserted among the number, elephants, horses, and 
human beings. 

The king, imagining that he was saving his life, 
ordered every kind of living animal to bo procured. 
The royal slaves, saying, ' The king is going to sacri- 
fice,' took GOO bulls, and as many of every other living 
creature. The inhabitants, with sorrowfiil counte- 
nances, weeping for their children and grandchildren, 
raised loud cries of lamentation. Quoou Mallikii, 
hearing the noise of their weeping, wont to the king 
and waid to him, c Why have you taken thorn ? ' Ho ( 
ropliod, (iuoon, do you not know that a pntaououB 
cobra IIUB gono iutu my oar? ? The quren said, < What 
cobra?' The king replied, c Whon I heard thin noin 
in the night, I aakod the Brahmin about it; ho told 
mo that a calamity wan impending over mo, and that 
iu order to avert it I must Hacriiico a hundred of ovury 
living crouturo. It is because tliiw fluerifioo will avert 
the calamity, that I huvu iakon thorn, 3 TIw qttoon wud 
to him, * TIow stupid you arc ! Did your Majonty over 
know of n man being killed, and then by mean of IUH 
death another man's lifo being saved ? You are nuik- 
ing numbers of pot)ple minorablo all through liwtenmpf 
to Btupid Brahmin- Thoro is Para Taken, who I'M 
Bupftrior to the three orders of beings, 1 and can sots 
through tho past and the future. Go and inquire of 
this Para Taken, and take his aclvioo," 

The king, riding in his carriage and accompanied 
by Uueen Mallika, wont to Para Taken, Overcome 
1 Men, Nata, BralmiaH. 


with terror tor his lift*, the kin^ p was unable to speak a 
word) but nmuned motionless before Pitrfi Taken in an 
attitude' of adoration, Purli Taken sad, "< treat kiiij, 
\vlmt brings you law? 1 ' Thi kin^ kept, Hili-aee, 
Then (lueen !Msdlikii addressed Parfi Taken. ^ Lord 
and nuiHler, the kintf, during tin- flaybn*uk wafelu 
heard the, words * du,\* sa, 1 *im," HIM! fc so," repeated. 
Iloarinft tlntwo words lie was miulile to sl*ij>, and 
went and asked the liralnnin. The Itrahmiu tohi 
him that a oahtmity wan iinj^endip^ and that in order 
to avert it, he must Hiicrifiw? i hundred ul' every living 
crentun^; that their life-blood \votihl free him frini 
(he, threatened danger. In eonsei|Uni!i* *t' Jiis haviny; 
a Iars<* nuiuher of ere.afures taken lor the ^*crilift*, I 
have brought him into jour i-aerrd |n,M'U'r'." I*;u f ;i 
Tukon Haiti, il (Jrent kinx i* ^ ] J it 'hi* iju'i i n ^iv 1 
true?' 1 " It in true*, my lord," r^pli^d the kinji* 
<* What HftundH did you )tear' /? linked I/urii Taki-iu 
Tlui king wild, u I Imard the word l du. M ' Din-r-tly 
ho said this, Para Taken understood it, and inKlrwIni 
Ikim an follows: "Have no anxiety; uo eahnuily 
awaitw your Majesty. The hell-people,, tumble lobetir 
their Bufferings, madi* this souiul/ 7 TJi 4 kin# said io 
rurii Taken, " What did tin* hell-people do r Then 
Tara Taken related the evil deeds of (how people :M 

a Great kin^, ulon^tim k a^o, at a limit when peoph* 
UHc-d to live tor twenty thousand years, the Pard 
Takt^n KasMiipu appeared. On the i*(?rasiou of I'uru 
Tak<m KaHHixt journeying ti> UcMiares, wurrotmittM] by 
twenty IhoUHjiud ItuharulnH, the people of the eify pr<- 
e oftm-ing* of huspitnlity. At thin time tlieru 
in the city of Betww* four 


four hundred millions of property, who were great 
friends with each other. They debated among them- 
selves as to what they should do with the property in 
their houses. One of the four proposed that they 
should make offerings to the ParS! Taken who had 
journeyed thither, and attend to their religious duties ; 
this proposition met with no fovour from the others. 
Another suggested that they should procure the very 
host kinds of meat and intoxicating liquors, and enjoy 
themselves in eating and drinking, A third said, 
" Wo will eat tho most delicate and delicious dainties." 
The last of the TAu/Ao's SOILS proposed that they should 
spend thoir money in procuring other people's wives, 
ThiH proposal met the unanimous 'approval of all the 
T/mMo'sBonB, and they ppont thoir money in procuring 
handsome women. In this way for twenty thousand 
years the four TAuMu'B sons used to commit adultery 
with other men's wives. When they died they found 
thomselvcH in tho lowest hell, where they wore boiled 
during tho vrhnlo interval botwoon the appearing of 
two consecutive Parus. On leaving the lowest hell 
they appoiirtid nguin in tho Lohakumbha hell-pot 
sixty yoyanas in extent ; they reached the bottom of 
this in thirty tliotiwind years. In another thirty thou- 
sand years they came up to tho brim again ; then these 
four holl-peoplo endeavoured to repeat one or other of 
tho sacred verses, but they could not say one whole 
vorso ; all they could do was to utter one syllable or 
another at intervals ; thon they 'sank down again into 
tho holl-pot." 

Para Taken recited as follows in full tho vorso which 
those holl-pooplo wore endeavouring to say, < Fellow- 
men, wo have led a bad life ; conspicuous in wealth 


and power, yet we made no offerings. Tho good works 
that would have tended to our own profit, that would 
have taken us to the land of tho Nats, wo neglected 
to perform." 

Para Taken, having thus explained the first, and 
desiring to show the meaning of the second VUTHP, naked 
the king what next he heard. The king replied, " I 
heard the word 'sa.' " Then Para Tukon rtoiled tho 
complete verse as follows : 

" All of us boiling in tho hell-pot, have completed 
sixty thousand years, When will thoro bo un end to 
this heU ? 

Having thus explained tho moaning of the nocoud 
verse in full, and desirous of conveying tho cxjriuim- 
tion of the third verso, Para Taken fluid to tin- kin#, 
" What next did you hour ?" " Tho word ' iw/ " re- 
plied the king. Then tho mont excellent 1'urii thus 
recited the third verso "na." 

"Fellow-men, hell has no ond. When will bo tho 
end of hell ? In the same way, in tho country of men 
we, and you also, performed evil dooda; wo did not wee 
the end of evil.deods." 

Para Taken, having thus explained tho imwuiing of 
the third verse, and wishing to explain tho fourth, 
said to the king, "What next did you hear ?" The 
king replied so.' ' Tho most uxodlout Para t&on wv 
cited the fourth vorso as follows : 

"If we ever return from this hell-rjouiitiy to tho 
coiuitry of men, wo will perform iiunioruun good 
works and reverence tho throo jewels." 

Paxa Taken thus explained in succession the moan* 
ing of the four verses to King Posonadlkosala, Ho 
then continued, Tho four TAu^o'a saaa in holl m~ 


abb to recite the whole of the four verses, but uttering 
only one syllable of each, sank down again into the 
Lohakumbha copper-pot," Thus Para Taken com- 
pleted his narration. 

The king, on hearing the words of Para Taken, 
trembled, and impressed with the law of fear, he ex- 
claimed, "To transgress against the wives of others 
and commit adultery is a grievous thing. To boil in 
the lowest hell during the whole interval between one 
ParS and another, then leaving that holl to be boiled 
again for the whob of sixty thousand years in the 
Lohakumbha hell-pot of sixty yo^anas, with no time of 
deliverance appearing ! Tot I havo passed a sleepless 
night in planning adultery. From this day forth, never 
will I transgress regarding the wife of another." Then 
ho said to Para Taken, " This day I know how long a 
night is." The woman's husband also said, " 1 too 
know tliis day how long a yo^ana is." Para Taken, 
iu reference to the words of both, recitud this poetry, 
" Groat king, to him who cannot sleep, the night is 
long ; to him who is woary, a yo^ana's journey is long ; 
to the foolish who know not tho law of the righteous, 
tho life to coiuo is long." 1 

After Para Taken had proachod as related, tho 
young man was established in tho reward of Sotapatti, 
and the assembly who had heard the law wore also 
established in tho reword of Sotapatti. King Pasona- 
dlkoaala paid homage to Para Taken and wont away. 
All tho creatures who woro about to dio wore robasod 
front their bonds. Tho husband and wife, knowing 
that thoy owed thoir lives to Queon Mallika, expressed 
tho gratitude thoy owed hor. 

1 Soe * Dharamapada,* verse 60* 


The four TAu^e's sons who have suffered in hell 
ever since they lived for twenty thousand years in the 
time of the Para Kassapa, these hell-creatures when they 
repeated the four syllables "du," "sa," "na," "so," 
were up on the surface ; sincB it takes thirty thousand 
years to go from top to bottom, they have not yet 
reached the bottom, but are now only in the middle. 
Such is the story of the four T/mAe ? s sons, who, after 
committing adultery with the wives of others, had to 
suffer in hell. 





Para Taken was in the Yosall country, among 
the Devadhanuna versos 1 he recited the Ifiri law, 2 
illustrating it by an account of a young village- 
girl, who by possessing the virtue of modesty, had 
reached the rank of a queen ; and ho also related how 
in a former time she had given birth to a jewel-son, 
the embryo jfokravorti king. 

At one time in the Yosall country, whon Para 
Taken was residing there, there was a king named 
Li##/mvi> who was excessively handsome. One day 
ho made offerings of food to Para. Taken and his 
assembly of Italians, and, in company with his queen, 
listened to the law. "When Para Taken had finished 
his exposition, he went away. The Bahans observed 
to each other that King LiAHavi's queen was by no 
means handsome, that she was very large and had big 
hands, but that she was certainly possessed of modesty. 
Para Taken, overhearing their conversation, said : 

" Rahans, my belovod sons, this is not so only now, 
but it was just the same in former times, when King 
LiMftavi was King Brahmadatta, ruling over the 

1 Divine law, * Modesty. 


Benares country; at that time I was the king's 
minister. There was then residing in a village a 
young girl of an appearance not at all handsome, 
with a large "body and big hands. This girl came on 
one occasion to Benares to see her relations. The 
king, happening to be looking out of his palace 
window as the girl passed by, saw her; and remarked 
that out of modesty, she was careful that her clothes 
should not fly open as she walked along, 1 Thinking 
that if he made so modest a woman his cjueen, she 
would not fail to present him with a son of great 
glory, he called to a nobleman who was near him, 
and told him to go and inquire whether she had a 
husband or not. The king, hearing that she was un- 
married, took her and raised her to the rank of his 
queen, and always held her in the highest respect. 

" The queen, before very long, fulfilled the king's 
expectations by giving birth to a son who had every 
sign of wisdom and glory. This son attained the 
rank of a .Kakravarti king. 

"This virtue of modesty is very rarely found. It 
has nothing to do with beauty or ugliness ; let a per- 
son be as beautiful as you will, it is not worth talking 
about (in comparison). 

" EahanSj my dear children, they who at that time 
were the king and queen of Benares are now King 
LiMAavi and his queen; and the. nobleman is now I, 
the Para." , r 


1 The dress of the Burmese women is simply a square cloth, 
worn round the body, and tucked in at the waist and above lite 
breast ; in walking, if not cartful, the women expose the leg. 




IN the Dovadhainma verses, tho person who was called 
Sabburisa was Katrinukatavedi. Para Taken, while 
lit) was in the Cotavana monastery 3 related the circum- 
stances connected with his receiving the -name of 

In former times, I 3 then tho Paralaui, 1 was the guar- 
dian Nat of a cantor-oil* treo in the country of Benares. 
The people of the country used to make offerings to 
mo of ddicatoly flavoured dainties and flowers. At 
this time a poor man came and made an offering of a 
piece of broad and a cup of water. Tho Paralami, 
tho Nat of thi> castor-oil treo, appeared to him and 
Raid, "Ho! you poor man. Why do you make an 
offering to mo ? " Ho replied, " My lord Nat-King, 
I make an offering to you because I wish to be de- 
livorod from poverty." Tho Paralaun reflecting, " It 
is right that I should pay him tho debt of gratitude I 

1 One who is to become a Paru, 

9 The caator-oil is only a plant; acme other tree is probably 
meant, as Nats are always described as residing in large trees, not 
yhruba and plants. The Burmese text and manuscript, however, 
both distinctly say " castor-oil." 


owe for his offering/ 3 said to him, "You poor man, at 
the foot of the castor-oil tree where I live, there is a 
number of pots of gold all close together ; after having 
addressed the King of Benares about it, take them." 
With these words the Nat vanished. 

The poor man, according to the Paralaun-Nat's 
instruction, addressed the king, and took the pots of 
gold. The king, moreover, on that very day made 
him a TAutfte, and presented him with all the appen- 
dages of that rank. 

Hence, all whD make offerings to the guardian- Nats 
of trees will be rewarded. 






PARA TAKEN preached a discourse regarding those W!ID 
from thoir covotousnoss became animals upon the spot 
whore thuy had stored thoir treasures ; and regarding 
death occasioned by not repressing anger under the 
influence of greediness. 

At one time there lived a TAutfAo in the country of 
Kasikat%, who was excessively covetous. "When he 
died he became a rat in tho place where ho had buried 
his treasures. At this time tho Paralaun was en- 
gaged in excavating a stono tomplo. "When the rat 
saw the ParJilauii, he brought him two kahapawas' 
worth of his treasure in a bundle, and said to him, 
"Young man, take one kahapawa's worth, and buy 
mo moat and curry-stuff, and keep the other your- 
self." Tho ParSlaun iu this way used every day to 
buy one kahapawa's worth of meat and curry-stuff for 
the rat, and keop one kahapana for himself. 

One day a cat caught tho rat. The rat said to her, 
"Friend cat, I will give you moat and curry-stuff 
every day ; do not kill mo." The oat exacted from 
him a solemn promise to this effect, and let him , go. 
From that day the rat divided his food into two parts, 


and gave one to the cat. Three otter eats afterwards 
caught the rat, and he made them all the same promise 
as he had made to the first cat, so now he had to 
divide his food into five parts ; and give four' to the 
cats who, he was afraid, would take his life. 

The Paralaun, who knaw all this, when he had 
finished the rock temple, left a small hole in it only 
just large enough to admit the rat. " Friend rat," 
said he, " live inside the hollow of the rock, and do 
not give any food to iihe four cats ; when they come, 
speak roughly to them." After a little while ons of 
the cats came and said, "I am very hungry, give 
me some food." "0 you cat," said the rat, "why 
do you come and ask me for food?" The cat, 
being very greedy, flew into a violent passion, and 
made a spring at him with her outstretched claws; 
striking her chest against the stone cave, she was 
killed. In the same way the three other cats also mot 
their death. 

Wise men should reflect upon a man ; through his 
covetousness, thus becoming an animal watching over 
his former wealth j upon excessive greediness, and 
upon death resulting from anger. 






PARA TAKEN, when ho was in tho <?otavana monas- 
tery, related a story regarding the sense of touch, 
ono of tho five senses : 

Whoever is possessed of an attribute of excellence, 
although ho may he in poverty, will attain a lofty 
position. Hero is a comparison : ho is like a common 
piece of split bamboo, which, when wreathed with 
flowers, is set upon SOTPO noble head. 

Kalians, my belovoa lildren, in former times there 
lived in tho city of Benares a very poor girl named 
Paft7wp5pl. She was possessed of no beauty, but she 
was marvellously soft and delicate to the touch. In 
conflotiucuco of tho extreme poverty of her parents 
no ono over noticed tho girl. 

About this time there was a groat festival at 
Benares, which was kept up all through the night. 
The Paralaun, tho King of Benares, who, in con- 
sequence of being versed in tho eighteen sciences, 
trusted to himself, wandered out alone to look at 
tho festival Tho young girl PafiAapapl also hap- 
pened to bo amusing herself there, and tho king 
accidentally touched her with his hand. She felt as 


delicate as a piece of cotton wool which had been 
picked a hundred times, and then dropped in an oil- 
pot. The king was unable to contain himself, and 
said to her, " Lady, have you a Husband ? " "I haye 
not one yet, my lord," she replied. " If that be so, 3 ' 
said the king, " come to your parents 3 house." They 
went there together, and he said to PafiAapapi's parents, 
"I want to marry her." The girPs parents, who 
looked on her as a piece of unsaleable goods, were 
highly delighted, and gave her in marriage to the 

The Paralaun, after consummating his marriage, 
reflected, *" People who do not know the young girPs 
quality of excessive purity and delicacy will revile 
me." With these thoughts he began to feel a sense 
of shame. Then he went off to his palace, and bringing 
thence a golden basket, which he Lad filled with dif- 
ferent kinds of dainties, prasented it to the girl ; after 
which he returned to his palaeo. 

When it was daybreak, i'-Jfch wa^ made for the 
missing golden basket. The king ordered his servants 
to go to such a place and such a house, and if they 
found it there, to bring it back with them together with 
the owner of the house. The king's messengers, 
searching as directed, found it, and brought the young 
girl, with the golden basket, before the king. The 
king, in the presence of all his nobles, said to her, 
"0 you woman, why did you steal my golden 
basket ?" The girl replied, " A young man brought 
it full of dainties to my house and gave it mo, and 
then went away." The king, wishing to display to 
his nobles her qtiality of excessive delicacy, emplby- 
ing a king's stratagem, said to the girl, "0 yottug 


girl, if you were to see this young man, would you 
know him?" The girl replied, "The young man 
brought it in the night, so I should not know him," 

Now tho king, when ho was sleeping with the young 
girl, had purposely called her attention to a scar upon 
his hand, so now he said to her, "0 girl, if you 
were to feel the hand of tho young man who brought 
you the golden basket, would you know him ?" She 
replied, "The young man when he came to my house 
made mo notice a scai* on his hand ; therefore, if I felt 
his hand I should know him," 

When thfc girl said this, tho king, making use of a 
king's artifice, had her placed inside of a large coverlet, 
which was folded many times round her in such a 
way as to loavo open only one small aperture. Then she 
was made to feel tho hancln of all the nobles as they 
came up to hor one after tho other, und inserted their 
arms in tho aperture; but tho girl said, "None of 
these ,is my husband's hand," 

All the noblemen who had felt the touch of the girl's 
hand, seeing how fine and delicate she was, could not 
contain themselves, but were all like madmen. " My 
lord, your Majesty," they cried, " give me the young 
girl ; lot mo pay tho fine for tho theft of tho golden 
basket." Tho king would not agree to this, but went 
up to tho girl in tho coverlet and put his hand through 
tho aperture that she might fool it, and so recognize 
him. Pafi/fcapapi, directly sho folttho scar, said, "This 
is my husband's hand ; it was ho who brought me the 
gold basket full of dainties." Those words of tho girl 
enlightened tho noblemen on tho state of aSkirs. 

Then the king said to his nobles, " Fearing, lest not 
knowing tho high quality of excessive purity and deli- 


cacy which this young girl possesses, you would im- 
- pute "blame to me, I have tested thus your sentiments. 
This ypung girl is already my wife." 

On that very day the king had the ceremony of 
pouring water performed, and installed her in the posi- 
tion of head queen. 

Hence those who, although they may have no 
beauty, are possessed of the attribute of extreme 
purity and delicacy will attain a lofty position. 





ON one occasion Para Taken, while residing in the 
(7etavana monastery, preached a discourse regarding 
the Hcnso of hearing, one of the five senses : 

Kalians, my beloved sons, when tho King of Benares 
was enjoying himself one day in his garden, he heard 
tho voice of a woman who was singing very sweetly 
while die was engaged in collecting fuel ; on hearing 
tho voico, desire for tho woman seized the king, 
and he immediately gratified it, and tho Paralaun 
ho came an embryo in the woman. On account of the 
groat glory of tho child that was to be bom of her, 
tho woman was immediately aware of it, and said 
to tho king, "Tour Majesty, I have conceived." The 
king took from Ids finger a ring worth a hundred 
thousand, and presented it to hor, saying, "If your 
child prove a girl, sell this ring, and live both of you 
on its proceeds; if it be a boy, bring him to me." 
After eaying this, he returned to his palace, surrounded 
by all his nobles. 

Tho woman, who gained hor living by collecting 
fuel, whon ten months had passed, gave birth to the 
Paralaun. When the child was somewhat grown, he 


asked his mother who his father was. She replied, 
" The great King of Benares." On hearing this, the 
Paralaun said, "If this be so, take me to my father." 
His mother accordingly took him, and presenting Para- 
laun, together with the ruby ring, to the king, she 
said, "My lord, your Majesty, this child is my lord 
your Majesty's honoured son." The king, although 
he knew it was so, felt ashamed in the midst of the 
-assembly, and said, "It is not my son." Then the 
Paralaun' a mother made this invocation in support 
of the truth of her assertion, " If this be not in truth 
your Majesty's son, may it fall to the ground and be 
killed ! If it be your son, may it remain stationary in 
the air!" Saying these words she threw the child up 
in the air. The Paralaun, from his great glory, re- 
mained according to the invocation stationary in the 
air, seated in a cross-legged posture; in this position 
he remained while he expounded the law to his royal 
father, and explained to him the ten duties of kings, 
viz. : The making of offerings ; the observance of the 
commandments ; the giving of alms ; upright conduct ; 
meekness and gentleness ; not to cause sorrow to his 
subjects ; not to be angry with others ; not to oppress 
others ; forbearance ; not to oppose the wishes of his 

The King of Benares, when he saw this maxvel, ex- 
claimed, " This is truly my son ! beloved son, deign to 
descend." The Paralaun descended on to his father's 
breast and remained there. 

The king conferred upon the Paralaun the rank of 
heir-apparent, and gave his mother the position of 

He who was at that time the King of Benaies is 

it 2 


now my father King Suddhodana, and the queen is 

my mother Queen Maya. The little prince is I the 


In this way Para Taken related this Grat. 1 

Hence the possession of a pleasing voice conducts to 

a lofty position. 



( An account of B&ine one or other of ths different existences 
of Ootamu ; there aro supposed to bo 550 of thorn written. 




PABA TAKEN preached a discourse about the evil con- 
sequences of taking bribes from a spirit of covetous- 

At one time there lived in the Savatthi country 
a Brahmin who addressed himself to King Kosala, 
stating that he was versed in the characteristic signs 
of daggers. The king made the smiths show all the 
daggers they offered him to the Brahmin, and if ho 
approved of them, they were placed in the king's 
armoury. Erom that day the smiths used to bring 
bribes whenever 'they showed him the daggers. Of 
every dagger that the smiths who bribed him displayed, 
the Brahmin smelt the edge and said, " It is a good 
one ;" then it was placed in the king's araioury, but 
all thosp which the smiths who did not bribe him 
brought, he would say were bad ones, although they 
were good. 

One day a smith said to himself, " This Brahmin 
says that all our daggers are bad, and that all the 
daggers of those who bribe him .are good; I will 
so contrive that he will not dare to 'say so in 
future." Accordingly he filled the scabbard of a dag- 


gcr with very fine red pepper, and smeared the blade 
over with the samB substance. He put the dagger in 
the sheath and presented it to the king. The king 
made him show it to the Brahmin. The Brahmin 
smelt the edge of the dagger as usual, the pepper got 
into the Brahmin's nose ; unable to restrain himself, 
ho sneezed violently and slit his nose completely against 
the cdgo of the dagger. The king and all his court, 
when they saw this, could not contain themselves, but 
roared with laughtor. 

Thus wo see the evil consequences of an inclination 
to take briboB, without having any regard to goo 4 





ON one occasioiij Para Taken, when he was in the 
6retavana monastery, preached a discourse upon the 
greatness of the reward of Sarawagamana. 

One day the Brahmin Velama completely filled with 
gold and silver' a compartment of a rice-field, suffi- 
cient to sow ten baskets of seed-grain ; and for the 
whole of seven years and seven months made offerings 
of eighty-four thousand golden cups, eighty-four thou- 
sand silver cups, eighty-four thousand copper oups ; 
elephants, horses and carriages with ornamental trap- 
pings, milch cows, virgins, jewels, eighty-four thou- 
sand of each ; besides these ; food and sherbets of every 

Greater than the reward of such an offering as this 
is the reward of an offering made to a Sotapan; a 
greater still to a Sakadagami, 8 greater still to an 
Anagami,* greater still to a Eahanda, greater still to a 

1 The formula, " I worship Buddha, the law, and the priest* 

9 First state of an Ariya. 
8 Second state of an Ariya. 
4 Third state of an Ariya, 


PaMeka-buddha, greater still to a Para Taken with 
his sacred assembly of Kahaas, but greater than all 
these is the reward of a steadfast observance of the 





HE preached as follows the consequences entailed 
by the five commandments : 

If a man have no teachers or priests, he should be 
constant in the practice of repeating each of the five 
commandments, beginning with Pawatipata, with his 
hands raised in attitude of adoration in front of a 
sacred image of Para Taken on a sacred pagoda. 

1. Pawatipata. This law is broken by the killing 
of as much as a louse, a bug, or a tick. 

2. Arih'nnadana. This law is broken by taking as 
much as a single thread of cotton which has not been 
given by another. 

3. KamesumiMAa/fcara. This law is broken by even 
looking at the wife of another with a lustful mind. 

4. Musavada. This law is broken by even jestingly 
uttering a falsehood which will affect the advantage 
and prosperity of another. 

5. Surameraya. This law is broken by even letting 
fall upon the tongue only such a drop of intoxicating 
liquor as would hang at the end of a blade of Teaman 
grass, if it is known to be intoxicating liquor. 


He preached as follows regarding the great crime of 
Pawatipata : 

Zing Kosala's wife, Queen Mallika, while she was ex- 
periencing the three abodes, 1 having become a young 
girl, went into the bazaar to purchase some meat for 
a guest whom she had received at her ILDUSB. Failing 
to procure any, she killed a goat to supply her guest 
with meat, For this evil deed, after completing her 
sufferings in the lowest hell, hor neck was trodden on, 
and she was killed in her turn. 

Again, Putigatta-Mahathora, one of Para Taken's 
holy disciples, suffered in hell for having been in one 
state of existence a fowlor, and, until the time of his 
becoming a Rahanda, suffered the torture of having 
his bones broken into little pieces, after which he ac- 
quired Poranibbiina. 

Again, the BisM Pawcftikabra, as a consequence of 
the siu of his having at tho timo when ho was a car- 
pontor pierood a fly with a splinter of wood, had, while 
ongagod as a Eishi in tho performance of good works, 
to suffer the torture of being impaled. 

Again, in tho time of Para Taken, Ms sacred dis- 
ciples, on account of having formerly beon huntsmen, 
notwithstanding they had reached tho state of holy 
disciples, fought among themselves, and all killed each 
other ; and Para Taken, who had no power to prevent 
them, was reduced to one solitary attendant. 

Again, all the Sakiya kings, for having in a former 
existence caught fish in tho Sansaraga tank by poison- 
ing thorn, wore ovory one killed by tho Yidadupa war- 
riors, without Para Taken having any power to pre- 
vent it. 

1 The abodes of Men, Nate, aud Brahmas. 


Para Taken continued, "Bahans, my dear sons, 
whoever takes life, when he dies out of his present ex- 
istence will appear again in hell, and afterwards in the 
state of an animal. After being freed from hell and 
the condition of an animal, even when he reaches the 
state of a man, he will have but a short life." 

Such were the words of Para Taken upon the sub- 
ject of Pawatipata. 

Adinnadana, or the taking of what has not been 
given by another. 

A girl of the country of Benares suffered in hell 
for having stolen a putzo. 1 After she had left hell and 
had become a human being, she was excessively lovely 
and of an extremely delicate kind of beauty; her 
hair was (black and shining) like a humble-bee. All 
who saw her fell in love with her. Some women, 
however, who were envious of her, mixed some deca- 
pillatory drug in her hair- wash, and in consequence, 
all her hair came off just as if it had been pulled out 
by the roots ; in fact, she looked like a plucked crow. 
Greatly ashamed at losing her hair, she went away to 
another place, where she employed herself in selling 
oil. While thus engaged, she made an offering to a 
Bahan of some food fried in oil, and prayed that, as a 
reward of the offering, in her future life she might have 
good hair. When she died out of that existence, as the 
reward of her offering, she became a Nat's daughter in 
a golden palace, which rose up from the midst of the 
sea; her hair was of immense length and beautifully fine, 
but as a punishment for her having in a former exist- 
ence stolen a puteo, she had no clothes whatever, and 
was always quite naked. After she had been in this con- 
t 1 Waist-cloth of a man. 


dition for a very long time, in tho time of the most 
excellent Para Gotama, there arrived at tho island 
some sailor merchants, who, seeing her quite naked 
inside her palace, presented her with some clothes, but 
she could not put them on. The Nat's daughter said 
to them, "Brothers, if you wish to clothe mo, make 
an offering to some one, and sharo the reward with 
mo, saying, ' May tho Nat's daughter obtain clothes !' " 
The sailors accordingly made an offering of a putzo to 
one of their companions who steadfastly observed tho 
Sarawagamana, and at tho same time prayed, " May the 
Nat'n daughter obtain clothes!" Oil tho very day 
that the offering was made, the Nat's daughter, who 
had had to livo naked in her paluce, roceivod for her ap- 
parol the garments of the Nats. Thon the sailors said 
to tho Nat's daughter, " Tn consequence of our having 
made an offering on your behalf, you are abundantly 
provided with olothow ; make now an offering among 
us of ulothfts for an offering to Para Taken ; then, if 
you constantly reflect upon tho virtues of Paia Taken, 
you will again become a Nat's daughter." Tho Nat's 
daughter did as tho Builow directed, and made on offer- 
ing of two puteoH of tho Nats. Whan Para Taken 
received thoputzoti, ho preached the Law, illustrating 
it by an account of tho Nat's daughter ; and she, whon 
sho died, became a -Nat's daughter in tho Tavatinsa 
Nat-country, living in a golden palace, and surrounded 
by a thousand attendants 

Fixing your attention upon this sacrod exposition 
of tho Law, you must always shun tho property which 
has not boon given you by another* 

Again Para Token preached, " Rahans, my beloved 
sons, whoever shall take what has not been given to^ 


him shall suffer the condition of a Hell-Preta, and 
even when delivered from this state of suffering he 
shall obtain again the condition of man, nothing that 
he possesses shall he permanent ; it shall all be de- 

Such were the words of Para Taken on the subject 
of theft. 

Kamesumi^aHra ; transgression against a woman 
whom another possesses. Those who commit this 
crime will suffer in hell after they die. After com- 
pleting their time in hell, even when they become 
human beings, they are the female servants of others. 
My lord Ananda, Para Taken's younger brother, after 
he had been completing the virtues during the whole 
of four Asankhyas 1 and a hundred thousand cycles, 
when he had an existence among the race of black- 
smiths, once committed adultery with the wife of 
another ; for this he had to suffer hell, and after com- 
pleting his time there, became a woman during four- 
teen existences. When he died out of the condition 
of a woman and became a man, he suffered mutilation 
during seven existences. 

Again, the four TAu^e's sons in the Benares coun- 
try, for committing adultery with the wives of others, 
had to suffer in the hell-pot j once every sixty thou- 
sand years they came to the surface, and, enduring 
dreadftd torture, uttered the syllables, " du," "sa," 
" na," " so," after which they went back into the hell- 
pot. Besides this, every one who commits adultery 
with another man's wife, after death becomes a 

1 According to Judaon, a number expressed by a anil/, followed 
by 140 cyphers, 


Such were the words of Para Taken on the subject 
of KamesumiMAaHra. 

. In consequence of King JTetlya telling 
a falsehood, the carriage drawn by winged horses and 
the four Nat's sons guarding it with their daggers, all 
disappeared; the smell of his body, which was like that 
of sandal-wood, and the smell of Ms mouth, which was 
like that of a water-lily bud, became fetid, and the 
earth swallowed him up. 

JilfU'amawa also was swallowed up by the earth for 
tolling a falsehood* 

The huntsman who told a lie when he was under 
examination by tho monkey-king, was swallowed up 
by the earth* They all had to suffer in the lowest 

Therefore, of all sins against the five command- 
ments, tho uttering of a falsehood is tho greatest, 

Paril Taken also said, "My beloved sons, whoever 
tells a falsehood, will after death suffer the condition 
of a Holl-Prota; when they are released from those 
states of suffering, and have become men, they will 
have to hoar false accusations." 

Such wore tho words of Para Taken on tho subject 
of MusJivada. 

Surfimoraya. Whoever shall drink intoxicating 
liquor, whon he dies out of his present existence, 
will suffer tho condition of a Eell-Preta. Even 
whoa on release from that state of suffering he be- 
comes a man, he will bo insane. 

Such wore tho words of Para Takon on the subject 
of Surameraya. 

The great rewards that thoso receive who shun 
those five actions ore, an excellent condition of ex- 


istence, a longer life than others, greater wealth and 
power than others, greater fame than others, existence 
in the country of the Nats more than others; these axe 
the five great rewards which those will obtain who 
observe the five commandments. All those who keep 
the five commandments will reap much profit, and 
when they die will have an existence in the country 
of the Nats, and in the TJttarakuru Island. Every 
happiness which is to be attained in future existences 
is the result of observing the commandments. 

I have concisely completed the subject of the five 
commandments, which have really and truly the 
power of procuring happiness, profit, and excellent 
virtues, for the use of my fellow-men who long for 
the results and advantages of those commandments, 
which the most excellent Para, full of patience, has 
preached in a variety of different ways. If all my 
fellow-men who reverencing the Para, the law, and 
the priesthood, desire the advantages which the com- 
mandments bring, shall at all times steadfastly observe 
them, they will conduct theih to the fulfilment of 
all their wishes, and give them peace and happiness 
in the church of Para Taken. 





PABA TAKEN, moreover, preached as follows, upon 
the measureless results and advantages derived from 
listening to the Law : 

u There were four questions which all the Nats in 
the Tavatinsa Nat country had been considering for 
twelve years, and yet could not solve. At last they 
asked the four jfifatulokapala Nat-Kings. These also 
Baid, ' We cannot solve them; our master, the Sakka- 
King, can answer at once the questions of a thousand 
people. Lot UB ask ttfo Sakka-King.' So saying the 
four JSitulokapala Nut-Kings went with all the Nats 
to the Sakka-King, and asked him the questions. 
The Sakka-King in like manner aaid, ' I cannot solve 
them ; it is only the omniscient Para who is -an Agga- 
puggalam who can solve them. 3 Accordingly, the 
Sakka-King and the four JSTatulokapala Nat-Kings 
with all the Natw from the six stages of the Nat 
country wont to Para Taken and said to him, c Para, 
omniscient lord of the law, among offerings, which is 
tho most excellent offering? Among the different 
kinds of food, which is the most excellent food? 
Among enjoyments, which is the most excellent 


enjoyment? Among all rests from the punishment 
of misery, which is the most excellent ? * Para 
Taken, in reply, preached as follows : " Sakka-Zing, 
he who makes an offering of the Law makes an offer- 
ing superior to all others. Of all foods, the food of 
the Law is the "best. Of all enjoyments, the enjoy- 
ment of the Law is the highest. Nibbana, which is the 
rest from the misery of lust and passion, is the head of 
all. The reason why Dhamma-dana 1 is so excellent is 
this : Sakka-King 1 if any one should completely fill the 
whole of the ITakravala kingdom, which is one million 
two hundred and three thousand four hundred and 
fifty yo^anas in extent, with Paras, PaA^ekabuddhas, 
Kahandas, and disciples, and should make offerings to 
them of tAingans, 2 rice, milk, butter, and so forth; 
and if any one should repeat or listen to four feet of a 
sacred verse, and the four feet thus repeated or 
listaned to, were divided into sixteen parts; the 
offerings I have mentioned would not be equal to one 
of these parts. It is on this account that the Dhamma- 
dana is so excellent. Again, if any one does not listen 
to the Law, he must not make an offering of as'much as 
a ladleful of milk-rice, or a single meal of plain rice. 
Thus it is that the offering of the Law and the hear- 
ing of the Law are so excellent. Putting aside Paras 
and Pa^^ekabuddhas, my lord Sariputta, who could 
count the rain-drops that fall in the whole of the 
JSTakravala kingdom,- could not of himself obtain the 
way of Sotapatti, or any other ; but when he heard 
four feet of the verses of the sacred Law recited by 
my lord Assa^i, he was able to obtain the way of 
Sotapatti. Therefore, excellent is Dhamma-dana. 

offering of the Law, 3 Priests 1 garments. 


"Although you eat the ambrosia of the Nats, which 
produces twelve effects, yet you have repeatedly to 
experience the three abodes; 1 but the food of the Law, 
if you listen to it but for a moment, can free you from 
the three abodes, and conduct you to Mbbana. There- 
fore, excellent is the food of the Law. 

" The enjoyment of the Nats lasts longer than that of 
men, but still only in the three abodes ; while the ex- 
cellent enjoyment of preaching and listening to the 
Law liberates from the throe abodes, and conducts to 
Nibbancu Therefore, excellent is the enjoyment of 
the Law*" 

"When Para Taken had thus solved the four questions 
which the Sakka-King had asked, and terminated his 
discourse upon the Law, eighty-four thousand Nats 
acquired the law of liberation. 2 

The Sakka-King said to Para Taken, "If this be so, 
why do you not aharo with me tho offering of the Law 
which is most excellent among offerings? " Thus he 
addressed tho sacred ear. Para Taken said, "Kahans, 
my dear sons, from tliia day forth do not say that the 
sacred Law which I preach, I preach only for the as- 
sembly of Rahaim; but whenever I preach and dis- 
oourao upon tho Law in tho assembly, say, 'May 
tlio Sakka-King roccivo a share V and divide it with 

Thus, because it can givo rewards and advantages 
inestimable, thoso who recite or listen to tho Law re- 
ceive exceedingly groat and most excellent rewards. 

When Para Taken thus, as it wore, distributing the 
food of the sacred Law, preached the sacred Dhamma- 

1 1. a, of nion, Nats, and Brahmas. 
* /.*, bad their salvation secured, 


fcakra Law in the Isipatana forest ; Anyakowrfafiua and 
eighty millions of Brahmas obtained the law of libera- 
nion. When he preached to the thirty Bhaddavaggis, 
the thousand Rishis, the hundred and ten thousand 
nobles of King Bimbisara in the LaAfti garden, and 
ten thousand congregations were liberated, and ten 
thousand congregations were firmly established in the 
observance of Sarawagamana. 1 


1 In this last paragraph, the MS. differs considerably from the 
printed text ; the latter haa been followed. 




PARA TAKEN, whilo ho resided in tlio <?ctavana monas- 
tery, preached as follows tlio Yatthu 1 of Akusala* 

Lokatissa-Mahathora, on account of an evil deei 
which ho had committed in a previous state of ex- 
istence, "became an ombryo in a village of a thousand 
fishermen, in tlio country of King Kosala. From the 
very day on which he was conceived, the thousand 
fishermen, who wore finking with traps and nets, could 
not catch a single fish, and they consequently suffered 
from hunger. Moreover, from the day the child was 
conceived, their village was seven times burned down, 
and seven timow had a fine imposed upon it by the 
lung. Tlio firthormen, who had boon in misery ever 
since the child was conceived, began to reflect, "It 
was never like this with us before; it is only now 
that wo have become poor and miserable, therefore, 
this state of thingn must have arisen from there being 
among us some degenerate being whose former deeds 
wore bad,' 1 Accordingly, the thousand fishermen di- 
vided themHolvos into two parties of five hundred 
1 Sacred etory, * Guilt, evil deeds. 


each, which went out fishing separately. The fisher- 
men who came from the quarter where the parents of 
the embryo Lokatissa resided, obtained nothing ; but 
the other party of five hundred obtained abundance. 
The unsuccessful party of fishermen again divided 
themselves into two parties of two hundred and fifty 
each, and again the party to which the embryo child 
belonged obtained nothing. In this way they con- 
tinued to subdivide, till" at last the house of the 
parents of the embryo Lokatissa was alone in its 
misfortune; then the thousand fishermen, perceiving 
that the degenerate being must belong to that man's 
house, expelled the family from the village. 

The parents of the child, who were in abject 
poverty at the time of its birth, hai no love for it, 
for they said to themselves, " From the very day that 
the child was conceived, misfortunes befell the thou- 
sand fishermen, and we ourselves have been reduced 
to misery." Now, because the child was destined to 
become a Eahanda, they had no power to destroy it ; 
the light of the reward of Arahatta was to shine in that 
child's heart like a lamp burning inside an earthen 
pot. When the child was big enough to walk alone, 
his parents gave him a piece of broken pot to serve as 
a cup ; then inveigling him inside a house, they Uft 
him there and ran away to another place. 

The child, thus left alone in the world, used to live 
by going about with his piece of broken pot in his 
hand, begging victuals from house to house ; and this 
he continued to do till he was seven years of aga. 
About this time, my lord Sariputta came to receive 
alms in the Savattbi ootmtry. When he saw the 
child-beggar, he took compassion upon him, and 


calling him to him, said, "Who are your parents?" 
The child replied, "Lord and master, I have no one 
on whom to depend; my parents, in consequence of 
being in the greatest poverty ever since my birth, 
have deserted me." My lord Sariputta took the child 
with him to the monastery, and made In' a pro- 
bationer for the priesthood. After some time had 
passed, and he was twenty years of age, he made him 
a Fafi/KInga. When he was advanced in years he be- 
came celebrated as Lokatissa. This Lokatissa had 
not the attribute of attracting offerings. At a time 
when unparalleled offerings were made, he could not 
obtain enough to fill his belly with ; ho procured just 
sufficient to sustain life. WTion any one put a single 
ludloful of yfigu 1 or rice into his Uabot and was 
about to put more, the Uabct always appeared to be 
full, so they poured it into the other Wabcts, and put 
no moro in his, When the people, making offerings to 
all the priosts in succession, came to this Lokatissa' a 
tAabnt, all the food which they had in the yagu-cup 
ready to offer to him, would disappear, 

Ono day, Lokatiflsa having developed Vipassana, 3 
bocarrus a Italuinda. Notwithstanding that he had 
thus become a lluhanda, ho could never obtain offer- 
ings, On the day when ho was going to obtaia Para- 
nibbn-na 3 my lord Sariputta, who was awaxo of it, said 
to himself, "This Lokatissa-thora will obtain Para- 
nibbana to-day, therefore, I will give him as much 
food as will satisfy him." With this thought, ho sent 
for Lokatissa-thera, and invited him to come and 

1 A particular propaiation of rico made with a variety of 
* A kind of miraculous knowledge, 


receive rice with him ; hut my lord Sariputta, because 
Lokatissa was with him when he went to collect rice, 
did not obtain a single ladleful; the people did not 
eyen give him the usual respectful salutations. My 
lord Sariputta, knowing that Lokatissa-thera had not 
the attribute of attracting offerings, then sent him 
away, saying, u Go and stay in my monastery." As 
soon as he had gone away, all the people cried, "Here 
comes my lard Sariputta/ 3 and hastened to make him 
offerings of food. My lord Sariputta sent a tjuantity 
of this food to Lokatissa-thera ; but on the road to 
the monastery, the people who were taking it forgot 
all about Lokatissa, and ate it up themselves. "WTien 
my lord Sariputta returned to the monastery, Lokatissa 
made obeisance to him. Sariputta said, " Lokatissa, 
have you eaten the food I sent you ? JS He replied, 
"I have had none to eat" Sariputta, on hearing 
this, was startled ; then looking at the sun and find- 
ing that it was not too late, he said to him, " Kemain 
here," and having given him a place to stop in, he 
went off to the palace of King Kosala, and stood there 
ready to receive alms. King Kosala, directly he saw 
my lord Sariputta, filled his t^abet with rice and 
JTatumadhu. 1 When Sariputta arrived with the food 
at the monastery^ he did not give him the t/fcabet, but 
holding it against his breast said to him, "My lord 
LokatiBSa, take the food out of the t/mbet which I am 
holding, and eat it; " but Lokatiasa, out of respect to 
my lord Sariputta, would not presume to eat it. 
Then my lord Sariputta said, "I will stand upland 
hold the tAabet, you also stand up and eat from it; if 
I let go the ttabet, all the food will disappear, and you 
1 Food which a priest may eat after 12 o'clock; flee page 120. 


will havo nothing to eat." Accordingly, Lokatiesa 
stood up and ato the food out of the t^abet, while my 
lord Sariputta stood up and held it with both hands, 
Lokatissa ate enough to fill his belly, and on that very 
day obtained Paranibbana. Para Taken performed 
Lokatissa's sepulture, and erected a Pagoda over his 
bonos and other relics. 

At this time the Eahans in the assembly of the law 
were saying to each other, "How was it that this 
Lolaitissa-tlienij who was so wanting in the attribute 
of attracting offerings, obtained tho way, the reward, 
and Nibbana ? " Para Taken, wishing to discourse 
upon tlio events of tho past, prcachod as follows : 

" RnhaiiH, my dear son*, it was because in a former 
state of existence this Lokatiswa-thera destroyed the 
offerings of a Kalmuck, that ho himself received none. 
It is beouuKo ho had fonnorly steadily practised the 
VipaHSJina, ' instability, misory, unfiubstontiality, 3 that 
ho acquired tho law of the way and tho reward." 

Then ho proooedcd to rolalo tho events of times long 
past, tin follower 

" This LokatiwHa-thora, in tho time of the Para Takon 
JftiANipu, was a- Italian. A T/mgyuii built a monastery 
for him, and Ruppliod all hifl wants. In this monastery 
of tho T/mgyuc lus stronouRly oxortod himself to acquire 
tho VipnsBanSi, Ono day a Kahanda who had come from 
tho Himavanla forest, arrived at this T^ugyue's village, 
Tho T/mgyu<\ inspired with affootion for him as soon 
as he saw him, invitod him into his house and set food 
boforo him, c Deign to rowido,' said ho ' in my toacher'? 
monastery, do not go anywhere elso ; as long as you 
remain horo I will supply you with food.' So saying^ 
ho had him conducted to his teacher's monastery. The 


Eahan who resided in the monastery entered into con- 
versation with his guest the Eahanda, < My lord,' said 
he, 'Have you eaten food? 3 The guest, the Rahanda, 
replied, 'I have eaten. 3 'Where did you eat/ tho 
Eahan asked. c In the T/mgyue's house, 3 he replied. 
The Rahan who lived in the monastery was jealous at 
hearing that the Rahanda had he en eating in the 
T/mgyue's house, and maintained silence. 

" In the cool of the evening the T/4ugyue went to 
the monastery, and invited his teacher and the Rahanda 
guest to come and receive rice. After reminding his 
teacher to bring his Rahanda guest with him [to his 
house to receive alms], the TAugyue went away. 

"The occupier of the monastery, vexed with his 
Rahan guest, would not say a single word to him, but 
maintained complete silence, thinking that by doing 
so, the guest would not presume to remain in the 
monastery. The Rahanda guest, knowing the bad 
feeling of the Rahan who occupied the monastery, 
resolved to go elsewhere. Next morning the Rahan, 
who occupied the monastery, arose very early aui put 
on his tAingan ; then, fearful of waking the Rahanda 
guest, in order to fulfil bis duty he scratched with his 
finger-nail on the stone drum, and after rapping on the 
door with his nail, went out. When the TAugyue 
saw that the Rahanda guest had not* accompanied him, 
he said, c Lord and master, did you not invite your 
Eahan guest to come? 3 The Eahan replied, 'Taga, 
in order to arouse the Eahan guest, I beat tho stone 
drum at the entrance of the monastery, and, moreover, 
rapped at the door, but I could not wake him; it must 
be the food which the Taga made an offering of to 
him yesterday, and of whioh he ate tp safety, that 


not being yet digested, mates him sleep so. Has the 
Tagfi great affection for such, a Eahan ? 5 

"Tho Eahanda guest, when the time for collecting 
rice had arrived, put on his t/ringan, and carrying his 
tAabot at his breast, flow up into the sky and went 
away to another place to receive offerings. 

( < The T/mgyuo, after supplying his teacher with food, 
put a quantity into his t/mbet, telling him to offer it to 
the Eahan guest. The Eahan, who was the occupier 
of the monastery, said to himself, c lf this Eahan 
giiost wore to uat this nice food, lib would not go 
away even if I dragged him out ; ' and in his vexation 
he poured out all the rice, butter, and the rest of the 
food, in a place where the jungle was burning. On 
reaching the monastery ho suid, ' The Eahan guest 
must have boon a Eohanda, who knowing my feelings 
to him, has gone elsewhere; and I in my jealousy have 
destroyed his offerings.' With those words he died of 
hin own accord. Ho then wont into hell, whoro he 
Buffered for an immense length of time. When TB- 
loawod from hell ho was a Biiii 1 during the whole of five 
hundrml existence, and never for a single day pro- 
cured flufflciont food to satisfy him. Aftor completing 
ftvo hundred oxistonoos as a Bilu, ho was five hundred 
times a dog, Wlion ho died, after completing his five 
hundred existences as a dog, ho became aa embryo in 
the womb of a pctor woman in a village of the Kasikara^ 
country. From the very day of his conception, his 
parents became miserably poor. When he was born 
on the expiration of tho ton months, they called the 
child Mittapindaka.* As soon as this Mittapindaka 
could walk aiono, his parents, unable to bear hiwger 

l A BpocieB of Ghoul. * The MS, ho* JTumittapindaka. 


any longer, drove him away. The child, with no one 
to depend upon, went and found his way to Benares. 
At this time the Paralaun was the teacher Dlsapa- 
mokkha at Benares, where he was giving instruction 
to five hundred young men who were his pupils. 
Mittapindaka also went and resided with the Para- 
laun, and was instructed in science and learning. 
From the very day that Mittapindaka came to receive 
instruction, the teacher Disapamokkha was much con- 
cerned to find that no offerings were made to him. 
Mittapindaka, moreover, began to quarrel with the 
other pupils; at last, not heeding the admonitions of 
his teacher, and being always at variance with them, 
he ran away. Arriving at a village, he made his 
living there by labouring for hire. When he was 
grown up, he married a poor woman in that village, by 
whom he had two sons. On account of this Mitta- 
pindaka, the houses of the villagers were seven times 
burned down ; and seven times a fine was imposed on 
them by the king ; when they raised a dam for rico 
cultivation, it burst seven times. At last the villagers, 
seeing that all these misfortunes dated from the day 
when Mittapindaka came among them, drove him out 
of the village. As he was journeying to another 
place with his wife and children, he lost his way, and 
came into a forest where a Bilu lived, The Bilu 
devoured his wife and children. Mittapindaka, escap- 
ing, travelled to a great distance, and reached the 
harbour of Gambhira; there he addressed himself to 
the captain of a ship, and asked to be allowed to work 
under him for hire ; *the sailors gave TIJIP employment 
and agreed to pay Mm wages. 

"On the seventh day after setting .sai'l, tho vessel 


remained stationary in the midst of the sea, just as if 
it were a fixture there. Tho sailors said, f There must 
bo some one on board our ship who ought not to be 
there,' So saying they cast lots, and Mittapindaka 
drew the lot seven times; they therefore gave him a 
bundle of bamboos which they made him take hold of 
with his hands, and throwing him overboard, sent him 
floating away in the midst of tho sea. No sooner was 
he thrown overboard than the vessel started off like a 
flying horse, 

"lYom tho cffoct of his having in a previous state 
of existence, in tho time of the Purii Taken Kassapa, 
practised the YipasKana, ' instability, misery, unsub- 
stantiiility,' Mittapindaka, after floating about tho sea 
cm tho bundle of bamboos, arrived at an island where 
tli ore waft a pulaco in which lived four Nats' daughters 
with whom ho enjoyed himself lor seven days. These, 
in consequence of thiur being the daughters of the 
Nut Vimanopeta, after enjoying seven days' happiness 
had to undergo sovott days of misery. These 'Nats' 
daughters accordingly, after tolling Mittapindafca to 
atuy in tho palace till they came back, wont away to 
undergo their sufferings Mittapindaka, as soon as 
tho Nat's daughters wero gone, mounted his bundle of 
bamboos, and flouting away on the sea, arrived at an 
inland where thore was a silver palaco in which wore 
eight Nate' daughters with whom he enjoyed himself, 
floating off again from the silver palaco, he reached 
an island whoro there was a ruby palace in which were 
sixteen. Nats' daughters with whom ho enjoyed him- 
solf. Leaving this again, ho arrived at a go] don palace 
whore there wore thirty-two Nats' daughters with 
whom ho onjoyod.himsol All those Nats' daughters, 


being the daughters of the Nat Vimanopeta 3 after en- 
joying seven days' happiness had to suffer seven days' 
misery. Although all the Nats' daughters asked him 
to stay in their palace, he would not remain, but seating 
himself on the bundle of bamboos, floated off again. 
At last he arrived at an island in the midst of the sea 
where Bilumas 1 lived. 

"At this time one of the Bilumas had assumed the 
appearance of a goat. Mittapindaka not knowing that 
it was a Biluma, and thinking he would like to eat 
some goat's flesh, laid hold of it by the leg to kill it. 
The nature of the Biluma being that of the Nat race, 
by means of her power and glory she seized Mittapin- 
daka by the leg and hurled him away ; and he fell 
down at the gate of the city of Benaxes. At the gate 
where he fell were some of the king's shepherds, who 
were in pursuit of some thieves who had stolen the 
king's goat. At this very moment Mittapindaka was 
pulling the leg of a goat, and the goat was making a 
great outcry. The shepherds, thinking that Mittapin- 
daka was the thief, laid hold of In'm and gave TnVi a 
beating, and then bound him and carried him off to 
take him before the king. At this juncture the Para- 
laun, the teacher Dlsapamokkha, was coming out of 
the city with his five hundred pupils to bathe. When 
he saw Mittapindaka, he said, " This is my disciple; 
release him." The shepherds set him free and went 
away, and Mittapindaka remained with the Paralaun. 
The Paralaun asked him where he had been all this 
time, and he related all his adventures. The Para- 
laun recited this poetry : ' He who will not listen ,to 
the words of his welt-wisher will come to 
1 A female Bilu. 


" He who was then Mittapindaka is now the 
Bahanda Lokatissa. The teacher Dlsapamokkha is 
now I, the Para. Thus the Eahanda Lokatissa, be- 
cause in a former state of existence he was jealous of 
tho offerings and prosperity of another, had to suffer 
in hell; after this, even when ho became a man, he 
could never obtain sufficient food for a full meal. Up 
to the very time when ho became a Kahanda, owing to 
the effects of his evil deeds in a former existence, he 
novor for ono single day had sufficient food to satisfy 
him. It was only on the day of his obtaining Nibbana 
tliut, through tho power of my lord Sariputta, he en- 
joyed a full meal just before entering Nibbana. 

" Therefore, neither men nor Rohans should ever be 
voxod with, or cnviuua of, tho offerings and prosperity 
of others." 





THE Sakiya 1 kings of the family of Para Taken were 
these : in the Kapilavatthu country there were eighty 
thousand, all of the royal race ; those of the race of 
Kosala 2 and those of the race of Devadaha were all of 
the royal race of Sakiya. The way of it was this : 
The king who in due course reigned oyer the Kapi- 
lavatthu country was King "Okkakaraya. 3 This King 
Ukkakara^a had five daughters and four sons; the 
eldest son was King TJkkamukklia. 4 ' When his queen 
died, he raised a princess to the rank of Ms queen. 
This queen gave birth to a prince named ffaiitu. 
When the queen gave birth to Prince <?antu, King 
Utkakaraya made her vary handsome presents. As 
soon as Prince <?antu came of age, the queen asked 
the king to make him king. TJkkakara^a said to her, 
V While there are my four elder sons, I cannot make 
him king." However, as the queen constantly repeated 
her request, King TJkkabara$ra at last called his four 

1 The royal race from which Gotama descended. 

3 Manuscript hag Kosiya. 3 Okkaka, in the Suttanipata. 

4 His five wives were called Hsttha, Zitta, ffantu, <?aliu), ViUa- 
kha ; his four eons, Okkamukha, Kavaka^u, Hatthiniko, Hipuro ; 
his four daughters, Pija, Suppiya, Ananda, Viyita, Viyitasena. 


eons, and said to them, " From the time the queen 
gave "birth to my son ffantu, I have conferred con- 
tinual benefits upon her ; now she has asked me to 
givo the royal place to antu. Since I cannot tell 
whether the queen has good or evil intentions towards 
my sons, take elephants, horses, and soldiers, as many 
an you wish, and settling in some suitable place, take 
up your residence there. "When I am dead, assume 
tho royal power by turns." l 

Tho four princes made obeisance* to their royal 
father, anil not out on their journey; tho five prin- 
OOHHOS ulao accompanied their brothers. Tho cavalcade 
of country people, elephants, horses, and soldiers that 
attended thorn, extended to the length of four yo^anas. 
Tho oldest on of King Ukkakariiya, with his younger 
brothers, made search for a proper site for a city. At 
this tinio, my lord tho Itiwhi Kapila, who was skilled in 
tlio characteristic Bigus of ground, in searching far a 
si to for a monuwtoiy, had observed on a particular 
upot a door pursuing a tigor. "This," said he, 
" in an auspicious spot," and he built a monastery 
fhoro aucl took up Uifc* residence in it, Tho princes, 
wlrilo looking for a site for their city, fell in with the 
RishL My lord tlio Kishi asked tho princes what 
II wy were doing, and they told him they were in 
Boarch of a Bites for a city. " If this bo so," said my 
lord tho llirthi, " build a palace in tlio neighbourhood 
of my mouuHtoxy, and oroct your city in the vicinity ; 
you have my permission." Tho princes, having re- 
ceived tho permission of my lord the Kiehi, erected a 
city and resided there. In consequence of the city 
having boon built near the monastery of tho Bishi 
Kajnla, it was called the city of Kapilavafrthu* 
1 Manuscript omits "by turns," 


One day, some time after this, the four princes, 
placing their eldest sister in the position of mother, 
married each one, one of their younger sisters. When 
their royal father, King "CTkkakara^a, heard of this, he 
said, " Most excellent are my sons and daughters," 
and highly applauded them, 

In consequence of Prince TJkkamukkha's eldest 
sister being afflicted with leprosy throughout all her 
hody, her brothers one day dug a cave, and after 
stocking it with abundance of grain and other provi- 
sions of all kinds, shut her up in it, and closed the en- 

At this time the great King Eama, who ruled over 
the Benares country, being covered all over with 
leprosy, gave over charge of his dominions to his son, 
and went away to live in the forest. After eating the 
medicines and roots of the forest, he was cured of the 
leprosy, and his appearance became like gold. Freed 
from his disease, he travelled along, oating wild fruits 
and loots as he went, and arrived at the place where 
Prince TIkkamukkha's sister had been shut up in the 
cave. Climbing into a tree, he went to sloop. A 
tiger, scratching at the cavo with his claws, frightened 
the princess, and she began to scream, and the tiger 
ran away. King Eama, hearing her crios, came down 
and dug open the cave ; finding there was a human 
being there, he said, " Come out." The princess re- 
plied, " I am a king's daughter ; I will not come out."' 
. King Eama said, "I also am a king," " If so," said 
the princess, " repeat the king's spell." l * King Eama 
recited the king's spell ; when he had done so, the 

1 The word both in the text and manuscript is " 
artifice," but the correct wwt is pipobably "mantra," a "chatm" 
or -spell." II \ , 


princess said, "I am afflicted with leprosy." "Do 
not bo concerned about that," said the king, " for I 
also had leprosy, but by taking certain medicines, 
have completely cured myself," Hearing this, the 
princess came out, and after the king had given her 
the same modieinos as he had himself used, she quite 
recovered frrnn the lepnmy, and her appearance became 
like gold. Komainiug in that place, they married one 
another, and the princess gavo birth to twin sons six- 
teen timuH, nml all the thirty-two sous were like 
blocks of solid gold. These thirty-two royal sons 
married the daughters of their maternal uncles, in the 
ouuntry of Kupilavutthu. King llama, continuing to 
rtifiido in the name place, erected a city there, which, 
iu (iousuquenoo of hiw having cleaved away a Kali 1 
troe, ho callocl the city of Koliya. 

The two cities of Kapiluvatthu and Koliya having 
so much inorotiHud by constant intermarriage among 
tho inhabitants of, the name [of the latter] was 
changed to Dovaduha. 

Over this Dtwadaha country Prince Afi^ana was 
king. TlniH, after there had boon u succession of more 
than eighty-two thousand kinga in tho Kapilavatthu 
country, beginning from King TJkkiunukkha, King 
tfayawma, tho tfmit-gvandfuthor of Para Taken, reigned 
over thn Kabila vittthu cotmtry in an unbroken line of 
BucciOMion, Thin King (7ayasena had a son Sihanu, 2 
and a daughter YuHodhara. Tho quoon of this King 
Slhanu waw Qucon KufUanH, tho sister of King AfMana, 
who reigned over tho Doviulalm country. This King 
Slhutm'iH HiHita* YaBodharfi, innrruMl King Afi^aua, aad 

1 The jujubo-trco. 

ft In Pali Sihahatm, iu Satiekrit Siwlmhanu, BO called bocauso 
IUH choek-bonos woro liko tht)SP of a lion. 


became queen; each, married the other's sister, and 
both the princesses became queens. KaiiAana, the 
queen of KingSihanu, gave birth to King Sudihodana 
the royal father of Para Taken, King Dhotodana, King 
Sukkodana, King Amitodana, and King TTkyodana, 1 
these five sons. 3 She had also two daughters. Princess 
Amita and Princess Palita. King Afi^ana's wife, 
Queen Tasodhara, gave birth to two sons. Prince 
Suppabuddha and Prince Dawdapani ; and two daugh- 
ters, Sirimahamaya and Pa^apatigotami. "When the 
Brahmins interpreted the characteristics of these two 
princesses, Sirimahamaya and Pa^apatigotami, thoy 
declared that they would give birth to a jEakravairti 
king. Accordingly the two sisters Siritnahamaya, and 
Pa^apatigotami were raised to the rank of queens of 
King Suddhodana. Sirimahamaya gave birth to Para 
Taken, 3 and Pa^apatigotami gave birth to Prince 
Nanda and Cranapadakalyam. The Princess Amita, the 
sister of King Suddhodana, married Prince Suppa- 
buddha, and gave birth to Devadatta and Princess 
Bimba; the Princess Bimba's name was changed 
afterwards to Tasodhara, the name of the grandmother 
of Para Taken ; marrying the Paralaun my lord Sid- 
dhattha, she gave birth to Eahula, and received the 
name of "the sacred mother of Eahula.' 3 

At that time there were in the Kapilavatthu coun- 
try eighty thousand, all of the saered family of Para 
Taken, and eighty thousand also in the country of 


1 Sukkhodana, in the com. to the Suttauipata. 

2 Manuscript says "four sons," and omits Ukyodana, 
8 Manuscript has the " Paralaun Taken." 





No one nniHt oat the food which, belongs to Para, the 
law, and the priests. Whoever cats of it shall suffer 
heavy pmuHhiuont hereafter. In the time of the Para 
KiiHHiipu, a crow, because ho had eaten some rice from 
a Uuhan'H t/tubot, bccurao a Prota-crow 1 on the Ki/cAa- 
kut mountain. Whatever has been set aside for Para, 
tho law, and tho priests, such as monasteries, fields, 
corn, wutor for cultivation, etc., no one from a king 
downwards muBt take ; whoever takes or uses such, 
dial I hoiwflor buffer for a long period in the lowest 
lioll. Whatever has been offered and sot aside as 
oonw(ffutcd property for Para, the law, and the priests, 
us horses, gardens, fields, gold, silver, copper, 
otc -j whoever whall take for his use shall be- 
come a Prcta, and bear sufferings in hunger and thirst. 
The reward* of offering and setting aside property as 
consecrated, are grout power and authority ; but kings 
who make use of consecrated property shall be bereft 
of all power and authority, and shall become Pretas. 

1 A "boiug in a state of punishraBnt 5 of a lower kinA than aa 



Any Rahan who knows that property is consecrated, 
and shall not say so, shall suffer the punishment of 
the four hells ; if he say so, he shall escape hell. Al- 
though any one shall give a substitute for a Pagoda- 
slave, he cannot liberate him; for the slaves set aside by 
kings as consecrated property for the five thousand 
years of the church, are fixed and settled for the five 
thousand years of the church. 1 "Whoever from kings 
downwards shall break the continuity of the conse- 
cration for the five thousand years of the church, and 
resume the property, will pass into the lowest hell. 
If a king who has obtained the .STakra 3 shall destroy 
any of the consecrated property belonging to the three 
jewels, his JTakra-jewel shall disappear. Kings 
who repeatedly destroy consecrated property, shall 
not die in their own country, but in somo other 

I will give an instance. King Pasenadlkosala, taking 
bribes from heretics, settled upon them a plot of con- 
secrated ground to the west of the (retavana monastery 
of Para Taken, as a site for a monastery; on ac- 
count of this he was not able to stay in his own coun- 
try, but died in a Zayat in a strange land. King 
Pasenadlkosala, one of Para Taken's Darakas, who 
had made incomparable offerings, even he, for the sake 
of a bribe, settled upon others consecrated land ; ac- 
cordingly he did not die in his own country, but he had 
to wander in other lands, and ultimately perished in a 
ruined Zayat. The book Sutta says, "Kings who 

1 The dispensation of Gotama is supposed to last for five thou- 
sand years, when another Para will appear. About one-half of 
this period has now elapsed. 

3 A fabulous weapon. 


repeatedly destroy (the title of) consecrated land shall 
lose all their authority." 

Slaves who have boon offered to pagodas, can only 
bo, employed in cleaning pagodas. They must not 
wait upon kings or any one else. If those who have 
groat power and authority employ pagoda-slaves, they 
will lose their power and die a frightful death ; they 
will (umio to misery and destruction : so it is written 
hi the book Sutta, No one in nut take as a bribe 
pro[inrty \v1iir*,h lias been ofthred for the UNO of the 
priesthood; if they commit this offouco, they will come 
to nihu Slavic in tho employ of Kalians, on the 
death of those Italians become consecrated property. 
Those who offend by employing tho slaves which bo- 
long to RaluuiH shall lose all they possess: so it ie 
written in tho book Bntta. Whoever shall take for 
himself or for another, any consecrated land, shall bo- 
cunno a mite f)r u white ant upon that consecrated land 
for tho whole, of a hundred thousand cycles. 

Tho suorod law, thus preached (by Para Taken), is 
written in the book Ayn of the holy uliurdh. 

After parsing' through tho eight stages of tho great 
hells, they sluill liav^ Iho condition of ProtaR, from 
wlndi twoniy rnriiH cannot few them ; after which 
tlwy shall become insuota and white ants in tho conso- 
(jrtitod monasteries and lands, Therefore kings, nobles, 
officers, poor people, ovory one, must take caro not to 
tako or injuro laiuln for wot or dry cultivation, elo- 
pliantH, Iieiww, Hlav<w, btdlockw, goM, silver, paddy, 
rico, olotlios, utensils, or any description whatever of 
consecrated propoity- Those who take, or those who 
injure Bucli property will have to suffer, as already 
stated, in holl and as 


Any one who kills a man. 1 

Any one who destroys citioa and villages. 

Any one who, possessed by a Nat, 3 steals the pro- 
perty of another. 

Any one who works as a blacksmith. 3 

Any one who drinks 4 intoxicating ^liquors. 

Any one who sells poison. 

Any one who has a grant of the tolls at the barriers, 

Any one employed as a general. 

Any one who collects taxes, 6 

A hunter. 

A fisherman. 

A judge who takes bribes. 

A Eahan who has committed an unpardonable sin. 

A man who steals another's wife. 

A woman who commits adultery. 

Any one who gathers honey. 

Any one who poisDns or drugs fish. 

Any one who offends against his parents. 

Any one who nuns a female Eahan. 

Any one who performs the process of castration. 

Any one who injures the church of the Paxa 

These twenty-one kinds of people, on account of 
their evil deeds, will fall into the lowest holl. In 
this way, Pa*a Taken preached the law, knowing all 
the people without exception who would fall into hull. 
Among the people who commit thoso twenty-one kinds 
of evil actions, there areninoteon who, if they see their 

1 Printed text says " a Bahan or a man." 

3 Thus in both text and manuscript. 
8 La. who mokes weapons. 

4 Text says, " who sells intoxicating liquors." 

5 The toxt and manuscript differ here, the former says " a 


evil ways, perform good works, listen to the Law, stead- 
fastly observe Sarawagamana and the five command- 
ments, and keep good watoh over their bodies, shall he 
released from their sins; but the hunter and the fisher- 
man, let them attend pagodas, listen to the Law, and 
kcop tho five commandments to the end of their lives, 
still they cannot be released from their sins. So it is 
laid down in the book Sutta. 




A EAHANBA once preached the Law to King Kakavarma, 
his queen, and concubines, in the island of Ceylon. 
King Kakavanwa, filled with love for the Law, resolved 
to make an offering of the putzo which he was wearing. 
In a spirit of niggardliness , however, he thought he 
would defer the offering till the next day. Two 
crows, a husband and wife, who were perched upon 
the tree, at the foot of which tho Law had boon 
preached, knowing what was passing in tho king's 
mind, said to each other, " The king, from his nig- 
gardly spirit, excellent as the Law is, cannot make up 
his mind to make an offering of the putzo." Neither 
the ijueen, nor the concubines, nor the noblos, under- 
stood what the two crows were flaying to each other ; 
but the king, directly he hoard the sound of the crows, 
knew what they said, " you pair of crows," ho 
exclaimed, "how dare you speak so of a king like 
me?" The crows replied, "Your Majesty, do not 
take the putzo you have at home, tut make an offering 
of the one you are wearing, worth a hundred thousand 
(pieces of gold). In seven days honoe, you will receive 
the five rewards." The king smiled at the crows' 


speech. My lord the Bahanda, who had been preaching 
the Law, said to the king, "Why does your Majesty 
smile at me ?" " I was not smiling at my lord Ka- 
handa," replied the king, " I was smiling at what the 
two crows said." The Rahanda, who possossed the 
Nat's eye, which could "behold eight past and eight 
future existences, and who saw the previous life of the 
king, said to him, " Great king, I will toll you some- 
tiling; will you bo angry with mo?" " My lord," 
ropliod tho king, "I shall not be angry with you; 
tloign to tell it to mo." My lord the Rahanda pro- 
ceeded, "When your Majesty was a poor man in the 
Amufidhti country, you used to collect firewood, and 
live by tho sale of it. One day, when you wont out 
to your work, you took with you a small cupful of 
boiled rice. Coming aoroas a heap of whito sand 
which looked like flhoot Hilvor, you reflected that your 
poverty imiHtliavo boon occasioned by your not possess- 
ing tlie merit of having made offormgfl 3 and accord- 
ingly you ruwuil a pagoda of the white sand, placed in 
front of it, IIH uu offering, 0110 half of tho rice you had you, and gave the remaining half to tho crows to 
nut, UK mi offoring to tho Italiam Those two crows, 
hunbund und wifo, arc tho very sarno two crows who 
ate tho riw of which you made the^ offering when a 
, you wuro a poor man." When the king heard this, 
ho exclaimed, " Oh, how unstable is prosperity ! I 
liavo obtaiiujcfr tho position of a king only from making 
offerings tit a sand pagoda ! " KO saying, ho made an offer- 
ing to tho Luw of llfo pnteo ho wa wearing, and which 
was worth a hundred thousand (pieces of gold).- Seven 
duyn afterwards tho five rewards came to tho king. 
Tlxo iivo rowurdw wore thoiao : 


The Nats, .wrapping up in a t/angan the relics of an 
excellent Eahancla who had obtained Paranibbana, 
while he was up in the sky, and which were like a 
jasmine-bud, came and laid them down before the king. 
In front of his palace a mountain of gold arose. The 
Nats brought a virgin from the island of Uttara- 
kuru. This woman was ten cubits in stature ; she 
brought with her a kunsa 1 of rice, which, though one 
were to cook it and eat it during a whole lifetime, 
would never be exhausted. An elephant of priceless 
value, which could travel a hundred ycyanas even be- 
fore breakfast. Seven vessels arrived at the port com- 
pletely filled with valuable putzos. In return for the 
offering tha king had made to the law, these five re- 
wards came to him. 


1 Name of a measure. 




I WILL now give an account of tho reward of the 
offering of tho crimson elotli : 

There lived in the city of Bonaros a poor man's 
daughter, who, being very duHiroiift of liaving a crim- 
son cloth to wear, in order to obtain one, wont and 
remained in service with a T/ragyuo for throe years. 
As soon as flho had procured one, who went down to the 
river to butho, and leaving the garment on tho bank, 
went into the water. At this moment, one of Para 
Tuktsn'H diticiplos, whose T/,ingan and T/rinbaing 1 had 
boon stolon by ihiovoR, mudo his appearance dressed in 
leaves. The young girl, when she saw him, said to 
herself, "Some thieves must have stolen this TakonV 
TAmguu and TAinbaing ; I too, from not having before 
mado any offerings, have found it hard to procure any 
clothes." Bo saying, she cut off half of her crimson 
garment; and made an offering of it to 'him. The 
Taken, aftor going into a secluded place and putting 
on tho half of iho crimson cloth, camo back to the 
Tagfima, "When tho poor Tagama saw tho handsome 

1 .Articles of a priest's clothiug. 

9 A title answering to "master," "lord," 


appearance the Taken presented in the crimson gar- 
ment, she said, "Just as Taken is handsome, may I also 
in all my future existences be possessed of beauty ! " 
Then she continued in poetry, "Lord and master, even 
as my lord and master is beautiful in this garment, so 
also may I become an object of admiration, and be a 
gainer of hearts ! " Such was her prayer. Then Taken 
preached to the poor woman the advantages to be de- 
rived from making offerings of clothing, as follows : 

" Sister, if any one be endowed with all the beauty 
of the Nats, and be decorated with gold and silver 
and all kinds of ornaments, yet if he be without a 
putzo, he would not present a comely appearance j 
therefore, excellent is the offering of garments. Who- 
ever is always neat and seemly in his apparel meets 
with respect, and, with a soft and delicate complexion 
and handsome appearance, gains all hearts, and is be- 
loved by all." The Taken, after thus preaching the 
Law, took his departure. 

The poor woman who had made the offering of the 
crimson cloth, when she died out of the land of men, 
appeared in the Nat country, where she enjoyed all the 
luxury and splendour of the Nats. After completing 
her existence in the Nat country, she became the 
daughter of the Thntfie Sirivatfcftara, in the ArirfAapura 
country. The young girl, who was so beautiful that 
people went mad when they saw her, was called 
"OnmadantL WTien his daughter was sixteen years 
of age, the TAuMe SirivacfttfAawa went to the king of 
AriMapura and said, "In my house I have a jewel- 
daughter," The king ordered the Brahmins to go and 
interpret her characteristics. When the BraJxmios 
went to the TAutfAe's house for this puxpo&e, Sirivarf- 


dham sot rice and dainty food before them ; just then, 
Unmadanti appeared, dressed magnificently. The 
Brahmins, as soon as they saw her, went mad; onepnt 
a handful of rice on the top of his head, another made 
a mistake and put it into a hole in the floor, another 
put it inside his ear, another under his armpit. When 
Unmadanti saw the Brahmins behaving in this way, 
she ordered her slaves to turn them put of the house. 
The Brahmins, enraged at this, went and reported to 
the king that sho was a very low kind of woman; and 
the king accordingly would not take her. The TAu^e 
Siriva^/mwa thnu gave his daughter "Unmadanti in 
mtu'riugu to the prime minister. 

Unxnadanti, dying out of that state of existence, 
appeared again iu the Nat country ; dying out of the 
Nat country, slw became in the timo of the Para 
Gotamn, a T/mMo's daughter in the Savatthi country, 
uu fair OB a wator-Uly. She was called TTppalavawza. 
The boauly of thci TAuMo'B daughter TJppalavawwa 
was (wlobrafcfl throughout the whole of the Island of 
flambudvlpa, Every one of tho kings of the island 
tnunc* with magnificmt presents to induce the TAufAe 
to give him his lovely daughter, but Sirivw?c?>Jawa, 
thinking that if ho gave her to one, all the others 
would bo angry, made her a Eahan. Reaching the 
atugo of a Bahtuula, H!IO received the name of Tlppala- 





As a doposit of mud which is produced from water, 
may by water be washed away again ; so sins which 
are produced by the mind, by the mind can be cleansed 




Gutturals ... 



k kh g gh n 

k kh g gh n 



k kh g ffh fi 

t tJi d dJi n 
t th d dh n 

a hs z hz n 

t tJi d dJi n 
t th d dh ix 

The first four letters pro- 
nounced by the Bur- 
mese as dental sibilants. 

Pronounced by the Bur- 
f rneBB as dentals, 


p pb b bh m 

p ph b bh m 


y r 1 v 

y r 1 w 

p pronounced indifferently 
by the Burmese as y. 
pronounced by Burmese 
as th in Eng. "theatre." 




pronounced by Burmese 
as ordinary 1. 







as a* in "America." 


as "a" in French "patte." 


as a' in "bar." 


as "a" in "bar." 


as i' in "pin.' 1 


aa "i" in "pin." 


as ee' in "feet." 


as "ee"in "feet." 


as u 1 in "put." 


as "u" in "put." 


as oo in "boot. 11 


aa "oo"in "boot." 


as 'a' in "pay." 
as o' in "hope." 


as "a "in "pay," 
as "o" in "tops," 


as "i" in "light." 


as "o" in "how." 


as "e" in "let," 


as "6" in French "the"." 


as "ai" in "fairy." 


as "o" in "nor." 

N.B. The anusyara in the Pali forms is represented by the letter 
0z. In Burmese it is impossible to distinguish it by any character as it 
takes the place of an "m" or "n;" all three characters being in a 
great measure used indifferently, without any fixed rule, 




a a 

Akusala 164. 

Aggapuggalam . . . eggapoggalam, 160. 

agrapala idjzapfla,46. 

adinnadana . . . , adiiiiiadaiia, 153, 155. 

anagami anagami, 44, 46, 47, 56, 57, 95, 123, 

anumodana .... anumbdana, 68, 76, 92. 

arahatta aTahatta, 165. 

ariya ariya, 4, 56. 

arunavati , . . . 126, 
asankhya atAinkhye, 157. 

a a 

Syu ayu, 182, 

asivisut , . . . . atMwitfeot, 106. 

u u 

uddhamaota .... oddhantAota., 123, 
upapi&takam , , , . upapifitakam, 164. 

k k 

kamuttara . . * . 126. 
kamma^7aa . . . kammatftaxi, 4, 5, 27, 98, 29, 56, 63, 

66, 74, 77, 94, 105, 174. 

kammapabtedadipa . kommapabliedadipa,, 174. 
kammavakya , , , kammava, 119. 

kasina kat^on, 108. 

kaliapam .... atAabya, 47, 48, 140. 
kamesiuni7cfc?ia/rara . kamet^umethsaaara;, 153, 157, 158. 




g g 

gaudlia-dhura, . . . gandlia-dliura, 3, 4, 26, 
gavyuti giwot, 82. 

k s 

fcakra sekya, 181. 

ftakravarti . . . . 82,136. 

ftatumadlui .... sadumadlra, 120, 167. 

Aetiya sedi, 45. 

P z 

g 148. 

gratisara zatitfcara, 106. 

t t 

taga, 28,43,169,170,189. 
d d 

d^yaka (?)..,. dSraka, 5, 8, 27, 33, 66, 80, 87, 107, 

109, 113, 181. 

devafcaWdm, , , . dSppas&kktoz, 107, 108, 112, 113. 
devadlianima . . , dewadhamma, 136, 138, 

dh dli 

dlLammaftakra . , . dhammasekyS, 162. 
dhammadana . . . dhammadana, 160, 161. 
dhyana hzan, 105, 122, 123, 

n n 

nat 2, 8, 14, 15, 32, 44, 46, 79, 93, 95, 

naga naga, 127. 

niWbana nepbhan, 1, 102, 161, 162, 168, 174. 

nirodhasamapatti . . nirbdliatAainmabat, 58, 59, 108, 110. 

P ' P 

paAAekabuddha, . . pyitsekaboddha, 43, 58, 59, 60, 78, 

84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 



panfcanga pyinsin, 3, 25, 63, 117, 118, 119, 156. 

paranibbana .... parinSpblian, 1 08, 12S, 154, 1 66, 1 68, 


pavarana pa-waraiia, 4. 

panatipata . . . , pa?iatipata, 158, 154, 155. 

para para, 1, 14, 38. 

pali pall, 3, 63. 

pitfaka ptfakat, 3, 49, 59, 60, 68. 

puthu^ana .... pudhuzin, 117. 
puluvakaeana . , . puluwakatAifiS, 105. 

prasada pyattat, 34, 49, 53, 56, 57, 61, 

preta pyftta, 157, 158, 180, 182. 

b b 

brahmin! .... 44. 

bh bh 

bhavana ...... bhawana, 4* 

m ni 

mantra 177. 

mahathera . . . mathi, 1, 5, 8, 11, 154, 164* 
musavafla .... mutAawadS, 153, 158. 

y y 

yoyana yuzana, 4^ 42, 127, etc. 

r r ory 

rajoharanam. . . . razbharawam, 65. 

rahanda rahanda, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 26, 29, 47, 63, 

66, 68, 77, 81, 84, 85, 86, 95, 96, 
102, 106, 113, 116, 117, 12S, 181, 
151, 154, 161, 165, 166, 168, 169, 

ristu tithes 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 32, 33, 35, 

36,37,154,163,176. , , 

1 1 

lohatumbhi .... IbhakombK, 132, 184. ' 



v v 

vatth.ii wuttlm, 122, 164. 

vipassana .... wipattAana, 27, 29, 66, 105, 123, 1 66, 

168, 172. 

vipassana-dhura . . wipattAana-dhura, 3, 4, 26. 
yeda 45, 129. 

s Hi 

sakadagami .... tfeakadagami, 56, 151. 
satipa^ana .... t/iatipatftan, 106. 

tJiBbfa, 59. 

samapatti .... t7iammabat, 59, 73. 
samvega .... . t/ianwega, 65, 106. 
saranagamana . . . tftaranag<m, 54, 104, 151, 152, 156, 

163, 184. 
tTiingan, 73, 79. 
thugye, 1, 79. 
tJva&e, 12. 

sutta tlottan, 181, 182, 184. 

suBlua thottAan, 26, 27, 2fi. 

BuramBraya .... thurameriya, 153, 158. 

eotapatti tAbtapatti, 15, 24, 31, 48, 56, 59, 60, 

71, 83, 97, 101, 104, 106, 119, 134, 
Botapan tAbtapan, 14, 17, 48,83, 85, 103, 151. 

h li 

hatthikanta .... hattikandlia, 33, 36, 37, 38. 
hatthilinga .... tHhlainga, 34. 
hiri kiri, 135. 

z z 

zayat, 18, 62, 




A A 

Akanitfta Ekkan^Aa, 123. 

A/nravati .... Aslrawadij 103. 

A//apala Idzapaktj 46. 

Afi7cana Ifisana, 178, 179, 

Adinnapubbaka . . Adennapoppaka, 12, 14, 16, 17. 
Anavatatta . , . . Anawadat, 114, H5, 116, 117, 118. 
Anuradha * ... Auuradhaj 186. 
Amiruddha . . . - Ajauroddha, 1D7, 110, 111, 112, 113, 

114, 115, 116, 117. 
Anegavanna , . . Anegawrwwa, ]23. 

Ano^5 Aubza, 80, 84, 85. 

Annabhara .... Annabhlra, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 


Atnita Amfittfi, 179. 

Atmtodana .... AmSttbdana, 179. 

Avriha Awiha, 123. 

AnyakonrZafina . . . AnyakuncZina, 163, 
Allakappa .... Alakappa, 32, 33, 34, 35, 35. 

Assail AtASzi, 16L 

Arara/cfc/ia .... Awaritlisa, 82. 
Ariifapura . . , . Arittapura, 189. 

A A 

Ananda Ananda, 24, 50, 51, 55, 105, 117, 118, 

Abhassara * ... AbliattTiara, 122. 


I I 

laipatana ItAipadana, 183. 

U U 

Ukkakajaya .... Okkakarit, 175, 176, 177. 
Ukkamukkha . . , Okkamokkha, 175, 177, 178. 
Ukyodana , . . . Ukybdana, 179. 

~Ugfj&iu. Otseni, 38. 

TJtfcarakuru .... Ottarakuru, 159, 187. 

TJdena Udewwi, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 

43, 44, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56. 
TTpag^aya .... UpidlizS, 3, 

Upaditfia UpadWAa, 108, 1D9, 111, 112, 113. 

Upari Upari/105, 106. 

1Tppalara?i%a . . , Oppalamm, 86, 188, 190, 
Unmadaati .... Ommadandl, 189, 190. 

K K 

Zakusandha . . . . Kaukkat^an, ]05, 106. 

Eaniana Kinsana, 178, 179. 

Katannkatavedi . , Katinukataweiti, 138. 

Kapila Kappila, 176. 

Kapilavatthu . . . Kappilawut, 110, 175, 176, 178, 179. 
Kombalara-Tiasa . . Kambalaya-TfttTia, 76, 
TTn.Tn 1 1 q.lrflfTn fl.Ti ayilt arg. . KanJlakamahawiliara 106. 

Kassapa KattAapa, 60,64,79,80,84,87,88,121, 

122, 125, 131, 185, 168, 172, 180. 

Kaka Kala, 42. 

ESkayarwa .... Kakawurma, 185. 
Kaaikaraj .... EStMkarit, 140, 170. 

KiJfc/^kat K&sagot, 18). 

Kunbila Kimila, 112. 

Kisagotami .... KettAagbtami, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102. 
Kukkuvati .... Kokkuwadl, 80, 84. 
Kufi Kuft, 113. 



Kuriira#/fca .... Gururit, 44. 
Koliya ..... Kbliya, 178. 
Kofcjambi ..... Kbt/zamUbl, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38. 
Kosala ..... KbUala, 149, 154, 154, 167, 175. 


Kh.ii//0Tattari . . 

. Khodzottara, 32, 47, 48, 49, 59, 60. 

G G 

Gandhokufl . , . . GandLakufi, 65, 89, 90, 101. 
Gaixdhamadana . . . Gandamadana, 120, 121, 122. 

Gaudha Gandha, 106. 

Churubliim .... Gambhira, 171. 

Gotauoa Gbthama, 40, 49, 50, 51, 52, 80, 93, 

100, 107, 110, 121, 125, 156, 175, 



Ghosita .. 
Ghositarama . 


JSTakravurtti . 
JCakrav&la . 
Kakktoipala . 

ifaudapa . . 


, Kulla^raa . - 


a, 38. 
Ghbt/adarom, 32. 


S6kyawade, 82, 90, 136, 137, 179, 

SSkyawaZa, 18L 

Sekkhupala, 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Sandapitsbta, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43. 

SadumatSrit, 15, 122, 

SadtilbkapSla, 95, 97, 160. 

Sandapa, 82, 83. 

SgnsaTnana, 158. 

SiiZakala, 25, 26, 29, 30. 

SuZa-Bandliaka, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 

66,67, 68,71, 
. SuZa^Pala, 2, 6, 7, 9. 
. SuZa-Magantfi, 44. 



Zullaratfta .... SuZarataa, 123. 
Zulla-Sumana . . . SuZa-TAumam, 107, 113, 117, 118, 


Zetiya ..... Setiya, 158. 
Zblakawtti .... Ze^aku^i, 42. 

ff Z 

Ganapadakalyara . . Zanapadakalyam, 179. 

ffantu ...... Sanda, 175, 176. 

(rambudvipa . . . Zamtudipa, 22, 190. 

ffivaka ..... Zlwaka, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68. 

<?etavana ..... Zedawun, 1, 2, 9, 25, 72, 78, 87, 98, 

104, 105, 117, 120, 122, 125, 138, 
142, 146, 151, 164, 181. 

Gayasena .... ZeyatAena, 178. 

T T 

Takkasila ..... TSkkat/io, 68, 69. 

Tavatiusa .... Tawatent/ta, 14, 15, 79, 150, 160. 

Tissa ...... TSttAa, 18, 19, 20, 24, 72, 74, 70. 

TissamahaviMra . , Tett/tamahawiharai, 106. 

D _ D 

Da?wiapani .... Dantapani, 179. 

Dlsapamokkhfl . . , Dlt/tapsuiiaiLkklLa, 68, 71, 171, 173, 


DeTadatta .... Dewadat, 179. 
DevacUJoa .... Dawadalia, 175, 178, 179. 
Devala ..... Dewlla, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. 

Dh Dh 

Dhanase^Ai .... Dhmathethi, 61, 62. 
Dhotodana . , . , Dbdbdana, 179- 



N N 

Nanda Nanda, 179. 

Nandamula .... Nandamula, 60. 
Nagadatta . . . . Nagadatta, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 


Narada Nirada, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. 

Nalagiri Nalagiri, 42. 

Nilavaha Nilawaha, 82. 

P P 

Paf/apatigotarai , . PaKapatig()tnmi, 179. 
Pan/rapathaka . . , PyinBapathaka, 106. 

, PyinwapSpi, 142, 143, 144. 

. PaurZupura, 103. 

Patufita Pttwr7ita, 87, 94, 95, 96. 

Padnmutfcan* . . . Padommottora, 107, 112. 

Pannaga Pananda, 114, 115, 116, 117, ]18. 

Panthaka .... Bandhaka, 62. 
Ptwdfakabra. . . , PatifZukabra, 154. 
PamninimitaVasavartti Paran6mmitawattAawadi, 122. 
I^arantapa .... POraudappa, 34, 35, 37. 
PusonadlkoHala . . . Pafctftonadikbt/wila, 125, 128, 133, 134, 

HLita PaUta, 7, 8. ' 

Palita Psiita, 179, 

PimZapat/ika-Tisfia . . P<forZapStika-Tett7<,a, 75. 
Putigatta .... Putigatta, 154* 
Pubb&Sma . , , . PoppSrom, 107. 
Purika Purika, 125. 

B B 

, 10, 58, 69, 78, 87, 108, 135, 





Brahma Brahma, 105, 106, 115, 116, 123, 163. 

Brahmadatta . . . Brahmadat, 58, 136. 
Brihatphala .... Wehapplio, 123* 

Bh Bli 

Bhaddavaggi . . . Bhadaweggi, 163, 
Bhaddavati ... Bhattawadi, 38, 42. 

Bhaddi Bhaddiya, 112. 

Bhura TAakin, 1 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 

14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 20, 

29, 30, etc. 

M M 

MadaiiakuncZali . , . MaMakontfoli, 12, 14, 15, 16. 

Mallika Mallika, 130, 131, 134, 154. 

Mahakappina , * , MahakapeM,a,78,80,81 J 82,83,8't,85. 

Mahakala Mahakala, 25, 23, 27, 28, 29, 3D, 31 . 

MahSduta .... Mahadot, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93. 

Maha-Paiitliaka . . Maha-Bandliaka, B2, 63, 64, 07, 08. 

Maha-Pala .... Maha-Pala, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Mahapiwma .... Mahapowna, 106. 

Mahamunda . . . . Mahamonta, 113. 

Maharatta .... Maharaja, 123. 

Mahasena .... Mfltat/i-ena, 72, 73, 75. 

Mahasvawna . . , . Mahat^umaBa, 1. 

Maganiiya .... Magandi, 44. 

Magandiya .... MagarwS, 32, 44, 46^ 49, 50, 51, 52, 

53, 54, 55, 57, 58. 
Man-Nat, 46. 

Maya Maya, 148. 

Mitfcapiadaka . . . M&tapendaka, 171, 172, 173, 174. 
Mungrakesi .... Monaaketfci, 42. 

Munda Monta, 113, 114. 

Mem Myinmo, 22, 

Moggalana .... Maukkalan, 6, 49. 

Always pronounced ParS Tak6i. 



Y Y 

iara .... Yat/tudhaia, 178, 179. 

It R or Y 

JR&yngahn .... Kmsagyo, 61, 02, 72, 105. 

Kama ...... Kama, 177, 178. 

JtShulii ..... llfilmla, 170. 

LatfM ....... hulOlu, KJ3. 

LiA^uvi ..... I^thfBiwi, 130, 187. 

.... Lwkatott/io, 104, 165, 1(50, 157, 138, 



Winga, 72. 

.... Wfcttnlftdatta, 38, 41, 43, 44. 
.... Widodupa, 1S4. 
Vimauopota .... WimSnapote, 172, 173. 
Viakha ..... Wit/tfikha, 1,18, 123. 
V(</itwl!paka . . . "We*/tadi>, 32, 88. 
Volatna ..... Wollma, 151. 
Vcluwna ..... Wolawun, 01. 

li, 130. 

S 1h 

BamsarSku .... TAantAaraka, 154. 

flakka ...... T7iigyl, 8, 9, 15, 89, 90, 91, 92, 95, 

97, 128, 100, 161, 162. 
fiakkodaim .... Tfe&kbdana, 179. 

Sabturifld .... T/wibbaritAa, 138. 

Sikiyft ..... T/*agiwiA, 110, 154, 175. 

, SlkeU ..... T^akota, 80. 

' TASmlwarll, 32, 38, 47, 48, 49, 60, 




Sariputta TAaripottara, 49, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 

SavattH T/iawatthi, 1, 4, 8, 9, 12, 14, 18, 25, 

73, 75, 80, 81, 94, 98,101,103, 
. 104,149,165,174,190, 
Siddliattlia .... TMddfaat, 179. 
SirimaJiamaya . , . Tfelrimahamaya, 179. 
Sirivarfdfeawa . . . T/uriwacHwwa, 189, 190, 

Sivali Tfawali, 120, 121. 

Sihanu T/Hhanu, 178, 179, 

Sudafcta T/tndatta, 123. > 

Sudassana .... T7ioddliawat/ta ; 123. 
SuddlLodana P . . . T^udcLbbdana, 18, 147, 179. 
Buppatuddha . . . TAoppatoddha, 179. 
Subhakritsna . . . TAubhaken, 122 

Sublaga TAbbliaga, 119. 

Sttmona TAtimam, 108, 11)9, 110, 112, 11, 


Sumana TAumana, 47, 48, 

Setavya TAotappa, 25, 

H H 

Hunavanla .... Hgmmawmxta, 20, 32, 34, 78, 113, 

118, 120, 122, 168. 


tiw,}>p. clii. and 204, clM. 12,?. 6cZ., 




Translated and Explained by F. MAX MULLEB, M.A., LL.D., Follow of All 
Soula* Collogh, Profunsor of Comparative Philology at Oxford, Foreign Momber 
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TALES. Part I. 


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Review of Sandra's E'todesur Vkauttr, eonridfrBcommt Imit&tow det Frottvires, 
translated by J* W, Van Rees Hoets, M.A,, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and revised 
by the Author. IL A Thirteenth Century Latin Treatise on the 0/ulmdrt: "For 
by my chilwdre it is prime of day " (ghtymttntm Tale}. Edited, with a Trans- 
lation, by Mr. EDMUND BROOK, and illustrated by a Woodcnt of the Instrument 
from the Ashmole MS. 1522, 

3. A TBMPOEA.BT PEEFAOB to the Six-Text Edition of Chaucer'a 

Canterbury Tales. Fart I, Attempting to show the true order of the Tales, and 
the Days auod Stages of the Pilgrimage, etc., etc. By F. J. FtrnNiVALL, ESQ.. 
MX, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 

1869. First Series. 

VIII, The Miller's, Reove'e, Cook's, and Gamclyn's Talea EUesmsre MS. 

IX. lf Hong 


..S' ' > w " 
xm' " " Jfc w 

Those ore separate issads df the (f-Text CfHftttcer's OantetbuTjr Talss, Pait'lL 


4. EjrausH: PEONUNOUTION, with eepeowl reference to fllakspera 
J.Ei^is^f'.R.S, Parill. 

1870. Mnt fyrits. 

OiNtHKBiraT T-*xma, t Part If, The MHler\ Reere's, mi Cook's 
Talea, with an Appendk of the Spurious Tale of Gamelyn, in Six 
el Texta. , 

5. EAKLT EirGHisHPTaoinnrcuiio^ with especid reference to Bliak- 
Bpere tod CHander, By A. J. %,tifi, B^R-S,, *.S,A. Part 111, tflttrtratiow 
nTiiiditionofrlvth'^r^ACeutaLrifts. 'dhaiicer/Ciower, Wypliffe, 
Shakflflpers, SslRabttrr, fidnjiey, Hart, Btdtotar, Gill Pronouncing 

' ' ' " ' 


XV: The Jfx ttf I** 1 4; ft&HhanX ,Mid iSrwreea' a Tales, with Chaucer's OWA ; 
6 Mfrilel Tata from t*e MSB. abor ft nMd, 

' ; 'V':.^ '' , 


SIX. liaShipma'^f, Prioress 1 a, and Man of 1^ 

12 Linguistic Publications of Trubner f Co., 

Chaucer Society's Publications continued. 

XX. The Man of Law's Tales, from the Lansdowne MS, (each with woodcuts 

of fourteen drawings of Tellers of Tales in the Ellesmere MS.) 
XXI. A Patallel-Text edition of Chaucer's Minor Poems, Part I.: 'The 
Dethe of Blaunche the Duchesss,' from Thynne's ed. of 1582, the 
Fairfax MS. 16, tod Tanner MS. 846; 'the compieynt to Pits,' ' 'the 
Parlament of Foules, 1 and 'the Oompleynt of Mars/ each from sue MSS. 
XXII. Supplementary Parallel-Texts of Chaucer's Minor PoemB, Part I., con- 
taining ' The Parlament of Foules,' from three MSS. 

XXIII. Odd Testa of Chaucer's Minor Poems, Part L, containing 1. two MS. 

fragments of 'The Parlament of Foules ;' 2. the two differing versions 
of 'The Prologue to the Legende of Good Women,' arranged so as to 
show their differences ; 3, an Appendix of Poems attributed to Chaucer, 
I. 'The Balade of Pitee by Chauciers;' H. l The Cronycle made by 
Chaucer/ both from MSS. written by Shirley, Chaucer's contemporary. 

XXIV. A One-Text Print of Chaucer's Minor Poems, being the beat Text from 

the Parallel-Text Edition, Fart I., containing: 1. The Dethe of 
Blaunche the Duchess a ; 2. The Oompleynt to Pits ; 3. The Parlament 
of Foules ; 4. The Oompleynt of Mars ; 5. The ABO, with its 
original from De Guile ville's ftbrimgB de la Vie hwnrint (edited 
'from the best Paris MSS, by'M, Paul Meyer). 

1871. Second Series, 

6, TRTAT. FoBE-vosDs to my Parallel-Text editioE of Chaucer's Minor 

Poems for the Chaucer Society (with a try to set Chaucer's Works in their right 
order of Time). By FBHDK. J. FURNIVAIL. Part I. (This Part brings out, 
for the first time, Chaucer's long early but hopeless love ) 

1872. Pint Serm. 

XXY, Chaucer's Tale of Melibe, the Monk's, Nun's Priest's, Doctor's, Par- 

doner's, Wife of Bath's, Friar's, and Summoner's Talus, in G parallel 

Texts from the MSS. above named, and with the remaining 1 3 coloured 

drawings of Tellers of Tales, after the originals in the Ellesmere MS* 

XXVI. The Wife's, Friar' B, and Summoner's Tales, from the Ellesmere MS., with 

9 woodcuts of Tale-Tellers. (Part IT,) 

XXVII. The Wife's, Friar's, Summoner's, Monk's, aud Nun's Print's Tales* 
from the Uengwrt MS , with 23 woodcuts of the Tellers of the Tales. 
[Parb III.) 
XXVIII. The Wife's, Friar's, and Summoner's Tales, from the Cambridge MS., 

, with 9 woodcuts of Tale-Tellers. (Part IV.) 

XXIX. A Treatise on the Aitrolabe; otherwise colled Bred and Mylfc for 
Children, addressed to his Son Lowys by Geoffrey Chaucer, Edited 
by the Key. WALTER W. 8 EH AT, M.A. 

1872. Second S&rits. 

7. OjUGHffAis AWD AKAIOGXTEB of some of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, 

Part 4. 1. The original of the Man of Law's Tale of Constance, from ft 
French Chronicle of Nicholas Trivet, Arundel MS. 0$, ab. 1840 jutt>, collated 
with the later oopy, ab. 1400, in the National Library at Stockholm ; copied and 
edited, with a trnslatum, by Mr. EDMUND BROCK, 2. Th4 Tate of " Merelaui 
the Emperor," from the Earlv-Englialxverflon of the Gfat4$ovwtorw in EltrL 
, JUS. 7338 ; tad 3, Part of Matfhftw P aria's Yita Off* Primi, both sterlet, 
illMtrating IpeidentB in the Mail of LaVe Tale. 4. Two French Fablloat like 
tine UflewTs ,TaIe. fl. Two Latpi Storiw like th Friar's Tale, 

XXX. Tie Sti-Teit Ceffiterfmry Tales, PtrtV., containing the Clerk's and 
Merchant 1 a Ttfes. 

'1873. Sewv$Swm, 

8. Albertano of Bresoii's Ztf * Oontitii ri Coriiohtionh, A,a>. 1246 
(tiio Latin source of the French original of Chaucer's JfW#), edited frttn the 
,, M8S. by Dr. THOR SUNDBT, : 

57 and 59, Ludgate BUI, London, K C. 13 

Chaucer Society's Publications eontinwd. 
1874. First Serm. 

XXXI. The Six-Text, Part VL, containing the Squire's and Franklin's Tales. 

XXXII, to XXXVL Large Parts of the separate issues of the Six MSS. 

1874. Second Series. 

9. Essays on Chaucer, his Words and Works, Part II. : 3. John of 

Hoveden's fratfiw OMlfadri, edited ft-Dm the MS. with a translation, by Mr. 
E, BROCK. 4. Chaucer's use of the final -e, hy JOSEPH PAYNE, Esq. 5. Mrs. 
E. Barrett-Browning on Chaucer : being those parts of her review of the Book 
of the Poet*, 1842, which relate to him ; here reprinted by leave of Mr. Robert 
Browning. 6, Prgfessor Bernhard Ten-Brink's critical edition of Chaucer's 
CompleynU to Pit*. 

1875. First Series. 

XXXVU. The Six-Text, Part VII,, the Second Nun's, Canon's- Yeoman's, and 

Manciple's Tales, with the Blank-Parson Link. 
XXXVIII, to XLHI. Urge Parts of the separate issues of the Six MSS. bringing 

all up to the Parson's Tale. 

XLIV. A detailed Comparison of the Troylw and Oryseyde with Boccaccio's 

Fihstrato, with a Translation of all Passages used by Chaucer, and 

an Abstract of the Parts not used, by W. MICHAEL HOSSBTCI, Esq., 

and with a print of the Troylus from the Harleian MS. 3943. Part I. 

XLV. An alphabetical list of Chaucer's ryrues in the Canterbury Tales, aa 

shown by the Ellesmere MS. [Ready m 1874. 

1875. Second Series. 

10, Originals and Analogues of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, Part II. 
9. Alphonsus of Lincoln, a Story like the Prioress's Tale. 7. How Reynard 
caught Chanticleer, the source of the JOWt-Pristfa Tali. ft. Two Italian 
Stories, and a Latin one, like the Pwdontr'* Tub. 9. The Tale of the Priesf 
Bladder, a story like the Summoned a TaU } being ' Li djs de le Veaote a Preatre, 1 
par Jakes de Basiw. 10. Petrarch's Latin Tale of Griseldifl [with Ttaccaccio's 
Story from which it was re-told), the original of the QltrVs Tab. \ 1. Five 
Versions of a Pear-tree Story lika that in the Merchant's 3**fa 12. Four 
Versions of The Life of Saint Cecilia, the original of the Stand Nun's Tab, 

Childers. KHTODAKA, Piim. A Pili Text, with a Translation and 
Notes. By R C. QHILDBRS, late of the Ceylon Civil Service. Bvo, pp. 32, 
stitched. If. fc*. 

Childers, *A, BIXT-EN&XISD: DIOXIONABT, with Sanskrit Equivalents, 
and with numerous Quotation*, Eitracts, and References. Compiled by ROBERT 
CflftAtt CEIW>HBS F late of the Ceylon Oivil Service. First Part, pp. 1-276. 
Imperial 8vo. Double Columns. 

In 1 TO!* Sro. oloth. , * [In preparation. 

ON DHAMMAJ?AJDA, with special referenca to tha 
of Nirvana* By E. C. OHILDBBS, late of the Ceylon Civil Service. 
I2j fttwtd. Price is. 

the Jitudttav , ti. OoKftJ^M., VwiaiNKA, Government Interpreter to <&B 
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tta Oeyloa Civil Swvloe. Svc.Mwcd. 1B71, U ,,;',, 

off IHB SnraAosB LANGUA.SB. No* 1. Ok/.fhe 
ttwW x^Nftttter Noiitui, By E, 0, <Jw<*JWte#, 

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ChristallBT. A DIOTIDH-AJBT, ENGLISH, Tarn, (AsAircn), AKRA. ; Tshi 
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F^ntS ; Akra ( Accra J, connected with Adangme ; Gold Coast, West Afnca. 
Ettyiresi, Twi jitf tfkran | EnliSi, Otiltti ke. Ga 
nsarn - asekyBiB - nhoma. ( mamai - aSiSitaomu- wolo. 

Clarke. TEN GRBAX BxLiaioxra : an Essay in Comparative Theology. 

By JA.KHB FBUBMAN CLARKE. 8vo. cloth, pp. x. and 528. 1871. 14*. 

ANuUDB. By HTDB CLAJIKH, Gor. Member American Oriental Society ; Mem. 

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COLBBHOOKE. The Biography by his Son, Sir T. E. COLBBROOKB, Bart,, M.P., 

The Essays edited by Professor Oowell. In 3 void. 
Vol. I. The Life, with Portrait and Map. Demy 8vo. cloth, pp. xii. and 492. 

Vola. II. and III. The Essnya. A New Edition, with Notes hy B. B. OOWBLI, 

Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Cambridge. Demy Svo, cloth, pp. 

xvi.-534, ani S.-520. 1873. 28a, 
Colsnso, FIRST STEPS is ZULTJ-AFIR : An Abridgement of the Ele- 

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CGLBNSO, Bishop of Natal. 8vo, pp. 66, cloth. Eknkaayeni, 1859. 4*. Qd. 
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LBKBO, Bishop of Natal. 8vo. pp, viii. and 552* sewed. PietermariUburg, 1861. 

, two parts in one. By the 
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ColeEflo.-^-FoTTBiH 2uLTr-5apiK BjnAntEf^ BOOK. By the same. 870. 
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<Jolenso. Three Native Accounts of the Visits of the Bishop of Natal 
in September and October, 1&59, to Upmande, King of the Zulus ; with Expla- 
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By the Right Rev. JOHN w. CQLENSO, Bishop of Natal. 10mo. pp. 160. stiff 
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Coleriflge, A GLossiBiii IBTDBX to the Printed English Literature of 
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Modprn Gkeek-Engliah, $vo. obth r pp. 480. IJt. 

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, Mjor-General 3 Eoyal Enmeers f Bwural Eel 
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/ (huuwgrham,--Air; Jl^y ojsr THE Am* OEBBE p* AmoHiWRcroaJB, aa 
' in tin Templte of Ktthmeft. By Paptfn (upir 


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Cunningham. THE Bmj3A TOPES ; or, Buddhist Monuments of Central 
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Groups of Topes around Bhilsa. By Brev.-Major Alexander Cunningham, 
Bengal Engineers. Illustrated with thirty-three Plates. 8vo. pp. xxxvi, 370, 
cloth. 1854. 2Ia. 

made during- the years l8G2-53~64-fi5. By ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM, C.3.I., 
Major-General, etc. With Maps and Plates. Two Vols. Bvo, cloth, pp. xliii,, 
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DALTON, C.S.I., Colonel, Bengal Staff Dorps, etc. Illustrated by Lithograph 
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D 1 Alwis. BTIDDHIST NIBV!NA ; a Beview of Max Miiller's Dhamms- 
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D'Alwifl. PAH TEANSIATIONS. Part First. By JAMBS D'Awis, 
Member pf the Boyal Asiatic Society. 8vo. sewed, pp. 24. lj. 

the Supreme Court, &c,, &c. In Three Yolnmes. Vol. I,, pp. xxxii. and 244, 
sewed. 1870. 8*. 8& [Foir. IT. and III. \n prepawtton. 



Fcap. 4to. paper cover, pp, 328. 14*. 

depuis lea Temps Anciena, Juaqta'au xixi^e $&<&. p ar nn Bibliophile Beige. 
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Delepierre. ESSAI HiSTOBrftUB BT BiBLio&EApHiGttnB SUB LBS Efvr/s. 
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Dennys. CHINA AND JAEAW- A complete Guide to the Open Ports of 
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a Guide Book and Vde Maouto for Trav&Uera, Merchants, and Residents in 
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II.M.'a ConwlatServica; N. B, 0HKTa, lale H.M.'e Cowwlar Service; and 
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Kafir Laagfu^. By the Bv. J. L. DOHNE. Royal flvo. pp. ilii, ami 418, 
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htte. THB POTO Goafrtoie m Zmu< By fte Br. J. L. DCHOT^ 

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Maidorb Dialect. In Two yolmnea Qompriaei in Three 
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' ' 

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Dowson. A HINDUSTANI EXDBOISE BOOK. Containing a Series of 
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Dialect of the Fourteenth Century, Edited by R. MOEKIS, Esq., from an 
unique Cottonian MS. 1 6*. 

2. AfcTinrB (about 1440 A.D.). Edited by F. J. Puwrmu, Esq., 

from the Marquis of Bath's unique MS. 40. 


by F. HALL, Esq., D.C.L. 4*. 

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Edited by R. MORBIS, Esq , from an unique Cottonian MS. 10s, 


a treatea, noe shorter than necessarie, for the Schooles, be ALEXANDER HUMB, 
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6. LANDEIOI OP THE LAIK. Edited from, the unique MS. in tho Cam- 

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7. TBCB STOEY OP GENETS AND ESODTTB, an Early English Song, of 

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in 1598; by FRANCIS THINKS. Edited from the unique MS. in the 
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1 0. MEEIDT, OE THE EAKLY BJSTOBY op Knsra AETETOE. Edited for the 

first time from the unique MS, in the Cambridge University Library [about 
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11. THE MOJUBOHE, and other Poems of Sir David Lyndesay. Edited 

from the first edition by Jomro SKOTT, in 1552, by FITZBBWABB HAIL, 
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(about 1462 A>D.), from the unique Lambeth MB, 306. Edited for the firit 
timebyP.J.FuBNrvjLiL^Eflq., M,A. Is. 

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M-A^andnowre-iflsued. 2. ^ 

14. Rrara Hdair, with fragments of Hoiia and Blannoheflur. and the 

AsBumption of the BleaBed Virgin. Edited from tho MS8. in the Library of 
^U^erwtyofCambridge and the Britwh Museum, bythe Rer. J, EAWiOW 
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i i N AL 306> *^ *$$ soaree ? ( Edited b y F - J - ftmxi* *q^ ai-A. ii. el 

16. A Ttanna ar. Eir&rtsH Ireuely drawe out of > book of (Ubrtb 

essencys i in Latru; J Hermya > prophete and Hag pf B^ipt after b flood 
, , ofNoB^faderofaaoMphrH.n^o^bywuelaowworV^S 
eute. WMfl^ttaBlOMaMg.^!*!,*^ 

57 and 59, Ludyate Bill, London, &C. 17 

Early English English Text Society's Publication* contwtttd. 

17. PABALEEL EXTEAOTS from 29 Manuscripts of Poms PLOVMAJT, with 

Comments, and a Proposal for the Society's Three-text editidn of this Poem. 
By the Rev. W. SKEAT, H. A. If. 

18. HALT MEIDENHEAI), about 1200 A.D. Edited f or the first time from 

the MS. (with a translation) by the Her. OSWALD COOXAYNB, M.A. Is. 

19. THE MOSTABOHE, and other Poems of Sir David Lyndeaay. Part II., 

the Complaynt of the King's Fapingo, and other minor Poems, Edited from 
the First Edition by F. HALL, Es^., D.O.L. 3a, 6d. 


Robert of Thornton's MS. (ab. 1440 A.D.),byRwr. GEORGE 0. PERRY, M. A. I* 


by HHNET B. WHBATLBY, Esq. 4*. 

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from the unique MS, in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, by the 
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the Kentish dialect, 1340 A.D. Edited from the unique MS, in the British 
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and Other Religious Poems. Edited from the Lambeth MS. 853, by F. J. 

25. THE STACHWS o Eaaos, and the Pilgrim'8 -Sea-Voyage and Sea- 

Sickness, with Clene Maydenhod. Edited from the Teraon and Porkington 
MSS., etc,, by P. J. FUBNIVAM, Esq., M,A. Is. _ 

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in tie Northern. Dialect. Edited from Robert of Thorntone's MB. (ab. 1460 
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27. MAmrLT3B TOOABTOOEUM : a .Ehyming Diotion$iT of tha 

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28. THB Vifiioisr OP WknoAji oowoBEKBrora PEEES Pixrra 

Tita, de Dowel, Dobet et Dobest. 1362 A.D., by WILLIAK 
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ft o TTte Ltfterd ; TTreismis of Tire 

^d t Thirfeenth OBntmies, Edited from MSfi. in te BKt- 
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P*rt-t -7* 

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<3bttpnM$, OUudinsA.II, f byEbwAD]PiAcocK,Esq^F.S.A.,etiS. r eto. 4r. 
32 Tirf BABBSS BOOK, Aristotle's A B 0, ITrbaiitalis, Stana Ptier ad 

*' ^w -VcMUrenes LytilBofce. TBB BOKBB OF NirBTu*Bd 

umiarene^ yo* ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ KerTyngC| ^^ 

, y& SBffWs Sehoole of Vertae, eto,, 

and Latin Poems on like subjects, and some ,1 

rlr E B Sfe nd < Edited, by F. J. " * 


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39. THE "Gam HTSTOHTALE " OP TUB DnHTRTrcrroN op Tuor, An 

Alliterative Romance, translated from Guido De Oolonna'i "Hyatoria 
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40. INGUSH GILDS. Tho Original Ordinancofl of more than Ono 

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TTtriusque et Philosopbiaa, 2U, 

41, to Uvon POBKS o "Wnuwc LAXTDKH, PUyOTfeH J?o*k, and 
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that year of Famine and PUrte). Edited 

, with eo?tte Barlr Booteli 
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47, Snt DAVID LTNDIWAV'S "WORKS. PART V. The Minor Poems ot 

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. , 

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