Skip to main content

Full text of "The Buddhism of Tibet: Or Lamaism, with Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology, and in Its ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on librai^y shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as pait of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expii'ed. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of The files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you aie doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http: //books .google . com/ 


7 , 









L. AUSTINE WADf)K[.l., M,B.. 

K. r,.s. , F. p.o s. , 






[Alt riffhta r«wrr<d.l 

\a; /I (o 

UBffAffy OF THE 













BY The Author. 

No apology is needed for tlie production at tbe pre- 
sent time of a work on the Buddhism of Tibet, 
Oi- *' Lamaism '" as it has been called, after its priests. 
Isotwitbstanding the increased attention which in recent 
years has been directed to Buddhism by the speculations 
of Schopenhauer and Hartmaim, and the widely felt 
desire for fuller information as to the conditions and 
sources of Eastern religion, there exists no European 
book giving much insight into the jealously guarded 
rehgion of Tibet, where Buddhism wreathed in romance 

I has now its chief stronghold. 
The only treatise on the subject in English, is Emil 
Bchlagintwcit's Biuldkism in Tibet ' published over thirty 
years ago, and now out of print. A work which, however 
admirable with respect to the time of its appearance, was 
^-admittedly fragmentarj-, as its author had never been in 
^contact with Tibetans. And the only other European 
book on Lamaism, excepting Giorgi's curious compilation 
of last century, is Koppen's Die Lamaische Hierarcfm 

' liMpzig and London, 1863. That there is no lock of miwellaneoaa li'tera- 
Dra oo Til>et nnd LAmaism may be seen from the biblin^rapkical lUl iii tlie 
i)>]*t!n(lix ; bub it is all of a fragmentary and often contlielin;^ choracttif. 

viii PREFACE. 

und ^?rc^ * published thirty-five years ago, and also a com- 
pilation and out of print. Since the publication of these 
two works much new information has been gained, though 
scattered through more or less inaccessible Russian, 
German, French, and Asiatic journals. And this, com- 
bined with the existing opportunities for a closer study of 
Tibet and its customs, renders a fuller and more syste- 
matic work now possible. 

Some reference seems needed to my special facilities for 
undertaking this task. In addition to having personally 
studied '^southern Buddhism" in Burma and Ceylon ; and 
" northern Buddhism " in Sikhim, Bhotan and Japan ; 
and exploring Indian Buddhism in its remains in " the 
Buddhist Holy Land," and the ethnology of Tibet and its 
border tribes in Sikhim, Asam, and upper Burma ; and 
being one of the few Europeans who have entered the 
territory of the Grand Lama, I have spent several years in 
studying the actualities of Lamaism as explained by its 
priests, at points much nearer Lhasa than any utilized for 
such a purpose, and where I could feel the pulse of the 
sacred city itself beating in the large communities of its 
natives, many of whom had left Lhasa only ten or twelve 
days previously. 

On commencing my enquiry I found it necessary to 
learn the language, which is peculiarly difficult, and known 
to very few Europeans. And afterwards, realizing the 
rigid secrecy maintained by the Lamas in regard to their 
seemingly chaotic rites and symbolism, I felt compelled to 
purchase a Lamaist temple with its fittings ; and prevailed 
on the officiating priests to explain to me in full detail 
the symbolism and the rites as they proceeded. Perceiv- 
ing how much I was interested, the Lamas were so oblig- 

' Berlin, 1859. 




ng as to interpret in my favour a prophetic accouut 
Svhich exists in their scriptures regardiug a Buddhist iu- 
carnation in the West. They convinced t hemselves that_ 
w as a reflex of the' 'WcsttTu buddha^/Aitiitahhu. and 
XXms they overcame their conscientious scruples, and im- 
parted information freely. With the knowledge thus 
fjained, 1 visited other temples and monasteries critically, 
amplifying ray information, and engaj(ing a small staff of 
I Laraait in the work of copying manuscripts, and searching 
^Kfor texts bearing upon my researches. Enjoying in these 
^■ways special facilities for penetrating the reserve of 
■ Tibetan ritual, and obtaining direct from Lhasa and 
HSaahi-lhunpo most of the objects and explanatory 
^^material needed, I have elicited much information on 
lilmaist theory and practice which is altogether new. 

The present work, while embodying much original 

research, brings to a focus most of the information on 

■^^iimaism scattered through former publications. And 

^T:)earing in mind the increasing number of general readers 

interested in old world ethics, custom and myth, and in the 

ceaseless effort uf the human heart in its insatiable craving 

)r absolute truth ; as well as the more serious students of 

Amaism amongst orientalists, travellers, missionaries and 

others, I have endeavoured to give a clear insight into 

the structure, prominent features and cults of this system, 

and have relegated to smaller type and footnotes the more 

j^echnical details and references required by specialists. 

The special characteristics of the book are its detailed 
Iccounts of the external facts and curious symbolism of 
Buddhism, and its analyses of the internal movements 
jading to Lamaism and its sects and cults. It provides 
"material culled from hoary Tibetan tradition and explained 
to me by Lamas for elucidating many obscure points in 
primitive Indian Buddhism and its later svmbolism. Tku& 



a clue is supplied to several disputed doctrinal points of 
fundamental importance, as for example the fonnula of 
the Causal Nexus. And it interprets much of the inter- 
esting Mahayana and Tantrik developments ia the later 
Indian Buddhism of Magadha. 

It attempts to disentangle the early history of Lamaism 
from the chaotic growth of fable which has invested it 
With this view the nebulous Tibetan " history " so-called 
of the earlier periods has been somewhat critically 
examined in the light afforded by some scholarly Lamas 
and contemporary history ; and all fictitious chronicles, 
such as the Mani-kah-*bum, hitherto treated usually as 
historical, are rejected as authoritative for .events which 
happened a thousand years before they were written and 
for a time when writing was admittedly unknown in 
Tibet. If, after rejecting these manifestly fictitious 
"liistories" and whatever is supernatural, the residue 
cannot be accepted as altogether trustworthy history, it 
at least affords a fairly probable historical basis, which 
seems consistent and in harmony with known facts and 
unwritten tradition. 

It will be seen that I consider the founder of Lama- 
ism to be Padma-sambhava — a person to whom previous 
writers are wont to refer in too incidental a manner. 
Indeed, some careful writers ' omit all mention of hia 
name, although he is considered by the Lfimas of all sects 
to be the founder of their order, and by the majority of 
them to be greater and more desemng of worship than 
Buddha himself. 

Most of the chief internal movements of liimaism are 
now for the first time presented in an intelligible and 
systematic form. Thus, for example, my account of its 

' E.g, W. R. S. Ralston in his Tibetan Taie$. 


:ts may be c()m|iarcd with that given by Schlagintweit,* 
which iiothiug practically had been added,* 
As Lamaism lives mainly by the senses and spends its 
strength in sacerdotal functions, it is particularly rich in 
ritual. Special prominence, therefore, has been given to 
ts ceremonial, all the more so as ritual preserves many 
interesting vestiges of archaic times. My special facilities 
for acquiring such information has enabled me to supply 
details of the principal rites, mystic and other, most of 
vihich were previously undescribed. Many of these 
exhibit in combination ancient Indian and pre-Buddhist 
Tibetan cults. The higher ritual, as already known, 
invites comparison with much in the Roman Church ; 
and the fuller details now afforded facilitate this com- 
arison and contrast. 
But the bulk of the Lamaist cults comprise much 
deep-rooted devil-worship and sorcery, which I describe 
n^nth some fuhiess. For Lamaism is only thinly and im- 
perfectly varnished over with Buddhist symbolism, beneath 
which the sinister growth of poly-demonist superstition 
darkly appears. 

The religious plays and festivals are also described. 
And a chapter is added on popular and domestic Lama* 
sm to show the actual working of the religion in every- 
day life as a system of ethical belief and practice. 

The advantages of the very numerous illustrations — 
bout two hundred in number, mostly from originals 
ought from Lhasa, and from photographs by the author 
must be obvious." Mr. Rockhill and Mr. Knight have 
indly ]>ermitted the use of a few of their illustrations. 

^ op. eit.* 72. * But HM note on p. 69. 

• A few of the drnwinyrt nre by Mr, A. D. McComiick fri»ni plioinKraplu, or 
ibjerts ; and sume have )>eeii tAkcTi from Oiorgi, line. rfinder,fcndc 


A full index has been provided, also a chronological 
table and bibliography. 

I have to acknowledge the special aid afforded me by 
the learned Tibetan Lama, Padma Chho Ph^l ; by that 
venerable scholar the Mongolian Lama She-rab Gya-t8*6; 
by the Niii-ma Lama, Ur-gyiin Gya-t8*6, head of the 
Yang-gang monaster)' of Sikhim and a noted explorer of 
Tibet ; by Tun-yig AVang-dan and Mr. Dor-je Ts'e-ring ; 
by S'ad-sgra S'ab-pe, one of the Tibetan goT^mors of 
Lhasa, who supplied some useful information, and a few 
manuscripts; and by Mr. A.W. Paul, CLE., when pursuing 
my researches in Sikhim. 

And I am deeply indebted to the kind courtesy of 
Professor C. Bendall for much special assistance and 
advice ; and also generally to my friend Dr. Islay 

Of previous writers to whose books I am specially 
under obligation, foremost must be mentioned Csoma 
Korosi, the enthusiastic Hungarian scholar and pioneer 
of Tibetan studies, who first rendered the Lamaist stores 
of information accessible to Europeans.^ Though to 
Brian Houghton Hodgson, the father of modem critical 
study of Buddhist doctrine, belongs the credit of dis- 
covering'' the Indian nature of the bulk of the Lamaist 
literature and of procuring the material for the detailed 
analyses by Csoma and Burnouf. My indebtedness to 
Koppen and Schlagintweit has already been mentioned. 

1 Alexander Csoiiia of KMr<»H, in the Transylvaniau circle of Hungary, like 
moHtr of the subHequent writers on Lfiniaism, studied that system in Ladilk. 
After publishing his Dirti&nary^ fframmar^ and Analynis, he proceeded to 
Darjiling in the hope of ^penetrating thence to Til>et, but died at Darjiling on 
the llth April, 1842, a few days after arrival there, wliere his tomb now bean 
a suitable monnment, erected by the Covemnient of India. For details of his 
life and labours, see his biography by Dr. Daka. 

' Anatic Eetearehft, xvi., 1828. 

schke's great dictionary is a mine of information on 
tchnical and doctrinal definitions. The works of Giorgi, 
lasiliev, Schiefner, Foucaux, Rockhill, Eitel, and Pander, 
ive also proved most helpful. The Narrative of Travels 
Tibet by Babu Saratcandra Das, and his translations 
>ra the vernacular literature, have afforded some use- 
ful details. The Indian Survey reports and Markham's 
Tibet have been of service ; and the systematic treatises 
of Professors Rhys Davids, Oldenberg and Beal have 
supplied several useful indications. 

Tlie vastness of this many-sided subject, far beyond the 
scope of individual experience, the backward state of 
our knowledge on many points, the peculiar difficulties 
lat beset the research, and the conditions under which 
ie greater part of the book was wi*itteu — in the scant 
nsure of a busy official life — these considerations may, I 
list, excuse the frequent crudeness of treatment, as well 
any errors which may be present, for I cannot fail to 
ive missed the meaning occasionally, though sparing 
pains to ensure accuracy. But, if my book, not- 
withstanding its shortcomings, proves of real use to 
those seeking information on the Buddhism of Tibet, 
well as on the later Indian developments of Buddhism, 
id to future workers in these fields, I shall feel amply 
Bwarded for all mv labours. 



Xote on Pronunciation 

Us^ of Abbreviations ... 


II. Chanobh in Primitive Buddhisu lbadixo to 
LXhaism ... 

III. Ri8Ej Development, and Spread of Lxmaikm ... 

IV. The Sb€T8 of LiHAiSM 

V. Metaphysical Sources of the Doctrine 
VI. The Doctbinb and its Mobautv 
VII. Scriptures and Literatore 


VIII. Thr Order of LXvas p \ 

IX. Daily Life and Routine ... 



XI. Monasteries 









XII. Tbkpuu AiTD Cathbdsalh ... 

XIII. Shrikes and Bbuc8 (and Pilobimk) 


XIV. Pantheon and Ivaoeh 

XV. Sacked Symbols and Chabhs 


XVTII. SoECEET AND Necromancy... 







XIX. Festivals and Holidavh ... ... ... ... 601-514 

XX. Sacrbd Dramas, Mystic Plays and Masqubbadbs 515-565 

' XXI. Domestic and Popular LXmaism ... ... ... 566-57) 


I. Chronological Table 575-578 

II. Bibliography 678-68S 


.. 585-59ft 


The general reader should remember as a rough rule that in the 
oriental names the vowels ai*e pronounced as in German, and the con- 
sonants as in English, except c which is pronounced tis " ch," /(■ as " ng " 
and * as " ny." In particular, woids like Buddha are pronounced as if 
spelt in EnglLsh " Bood-dha," Sakya Mimi as " Sha-kya M66-nee," and 
Karma as '* Kur-ma." 

The spelling of Tibetan names ls peculiarly uncouth and startling to 
the English reader. Indeed, many of the names as transcribed from 
the vernacular seem unpronounceable, and the difficulty is not diminished 
by the spoken form often differing widely from the written, owing chiefly 
to consonants having changed their sound or dropped out of speech 
altogether, the so-called " silent consonants." ' Thus the Tibetan word 
for the border-countiy wliich we, following the Nepalese, call Sikhim i.s 
spelt 'hrcu-ljwU, and pronounced " Den-jong," and hkra-s^is is "Ta-shi."' 
When, however, I have found it necessiry to give the full form of these 
names, especially the more importtint words translated from the SanK- 
krit, in order to recover their original Indian form and meaning, I have 
referred them as far as possible to footnotes. 

The transcription of the Til>etan lettei-s follows the system adopted by 
Jaeschke in his Dictionary, with the exceptions noted below,^ and cor- 
responds closely with the analogous system for Sanskritic words given 
over the page. The Tibetan pronunciation is spelt phonetically in the 
dialect of 

1 Somewhat analogous to the French Us jHtrlait. 

» The exceptions mainly are those reqiiiriny very specialized diacritical 
marks, the letters which are there (JaeSCHKE's /?(c(., p. viii.), pronounced *?« 
as a prefix, cAw, nyu, the ha in several forms as the basis for vowels ; these J 
have rendered by g, ch\ n and ' respectively. In several cases I have spelt words 
according to Csoma's system, by uhicli the silent consonants are italicized. 


For the iise of i-eaders who nre oonversant with the Indian alphabets, 
ami the system popularly known in India as " the Hunterian," the 
following table, in the order in which the sounds are phyKiologically 
praduced — an order also followed by the Tibetans — will show the 
system of spelling Sanskj-itic words, which is here adopted, and which 
it will be observed, is idmost identical with tlmt of the widely used 
dictionaries of Monier- Williams and Childers. The different forms 
used in the Tibetan for aspimteis and palato-sibilants are placed within 
brackets : — 































{fia/ato-tibtl. ) 

















It. Ac. Ptsbg. = Bulletin de la Glasse Hist. Philol? de I'Academiti de St. Pcton- 

BOBN. J. = Biirnuurs I^trod. au B-'dd. iiuli'-n. 
Burn. II. = „ Lotus dr liunnt Loi. 
cf. = confer, compare. 
CsovA An. = Csoina Korosi Xiuti^nin iti Hm^iV /''<"urc/i««. Vol. xx. 

GsOMA Or. =: „ „ TibftttH GiV.inHMi: 

Davids = Rhys Davids" Bitddhifm, 

Dbso. = Deeg^odins' Le Tiftet, etc. 

EiTiL= KiUd'i HatidfjookofChiHise H-iddl.U,». 

JjjsacB. D. = Jaeschke'a Tibetan Dictioiuni/. 

J.A.S.B. = Jour, of tlie Asiatic Soc. of Bt-iigal. 

J.R.A.S. = Journal of Uie Ki>ynl Asiatic Soc., London. 

HODOS. = Hodgson'6 Sttays on /jxni/., Lit., etc. 

Hoc = Trartli in Tartar^, Tibet, etc., Hazlitt'a trans. 

KoFP N = Koppen's Lamaisch^. Hier. 

Mabkhau = Markhara's Tibet. 

Marco F. ^ Marco Polo, Yule's edition. 

O.M. = Original Mitt. Ethnolt^. Ktinigl. Musi-um fur Volki-rkunde Berlin. 

pAypSR = Pander's Dot Pantheon, etc. 

pr. = pronounced. 

Rock. L. = RockhiU's Land of the Lauau. 

Rock. B. = „ Z-i/V of the Buddha, vtc. 

Sabat = ^ftntcandra Das. 

S.B.E. = Sacred Bookt of the Ktud. 

Scocua. = E. Schlagintweit's Buddhigh, in Tlhi-i. 

Skt. = Sanskrit. 

&R. = Survey of India Report. 

T. ^ Hbetan. 

Tara. = Tdrandtha'i Qeachiehte, (tto., Scliiefner's trans. 

Vasil. = Vaeiliev'B or Wassiljew's Der Buddhitmti. 


Mcred Hty. Of tUo tjnivellers of Uter tiinp!< who hnve dAred toj 
enter this dark land, attcr Healing \{» frontiers aiiti |>ierdiif1 

/^ f0^ 


(rrom IVuK-bar Ia P«ii. 16,800 ft.). 

ttfi posses, and tUriutiug iheinselveti into it» snow-swept desert*, 
even the most intrepid have failed to penetrate farlLer than tbf 
outskirts of its central province.' And the infonnatiou, tliu^ 
j)erilou!ily gained, has, with the exception of Mr. Bockhill's, been 

» Tbu few Europeaufl wlio Unvo penetr»t«'d Ct-utral TilM-t have uiumtly b. 
musionaritw. TIh* &rgt Kuro]iean lo rearh Lhdiui st-Miin to Imvr l>i>i<n I'rfJir 
Furdciiiit'-, aliuut i;t30 xm. ni\ \\\* n-tun\ from OitliAy {C<fK Yi'iJi's CW^i'^ iLnd ikv ii.-^ 
TKUhtr, i., H9, ami C. Maukiiam's Tilrt, xlvi.). 'Flic cnjiitnl vhy of Til"-t retvm*i U' 
by him with ita "-I6«*n" or roiieisbiOievfU to have ln-cti LIiosa. Iu H61 Uip Jctuii* 
Albert DorviUt^ ami Johaiia (irulii-T visited LhiUit ou their WAy (roin ChioA in Imii* 
In 17'10 tlie Cttpuchini- fAtlicriJ jMBi-|ihi» di- AertUi and KrwniiM.-n M.iri«' dr T . \ 
trdt-Ml ttt Lb&MA froin liciifjal. I« 1/16 the Jreuit Hcfeid«Ti rci. In-d tt fn^in K.i 
Ladak. In 1741 i\ Capucbiiic mlbsion under llorocio de la Piiuia alt-* friKit-..,... .- 
getting there, and tlio lari:e aniotuit of lufonuulioa Mtllectetl by tlii-ai f«U)t)ilii>d fMhts 
A. Oiurui with the ninti-riul (<*r hie Alftiuibetutn Tibttanum, |mbli»lit>d at iliinu' in 17(0- 
Tlifl friiMidly rt^fiiliim nr^coniud tltirt luirty ur('at4'il h"|it'« tit IJiana l»eeoining a ct-tiln: 
for niistfiotiarlea : njid n Vinu- tif>ottoiicH» fur Lhasa is still ni.<iuiuntt.H) aihI 
ap|iei>r& in the " AiiuunriQ jwrt/i'iVi'o," t>i*ju(;h uf con re*.' he vaniiut rvciilv witJtiu Tib''* 
In loll Lhasa was reached by M^innini;!, d friend of Charl?« Laiiih,and tlie<:>nly Eitglieb- 
mau who eoems ever to have f;ot then; ; (or most authDritici< are n^n't-'cd thtit Mtx-r 
croft, despite thn story told to M. Hue, never renched it. Ihit Miinniug uxUortunat«-ly 
left only a whimsical diary, ueurcely fnen dosoriptive of hig fuiieiuatiut; adventtircK 
The Kubscqueiit, nnd the hiat, R\irD)K-auH to tcbcIi Lhiuta wtre tlio La/ariat missiuih 

■ arii>s, Hue and GalM-t, in lUlb. Hue's entertaining accouut of IiIb JMuniny ia well 

■ known. He was «oim ex|K-llrd, aitd nince then China lias aided Tibt-t in op)K>t^ 
fiiroign iugr«^«a by Btreii^llieuing its politiiMl and military barrierB, as reeeat ei- 
plorcrs: Prejivaliikj', KoetEhill, Honvalot, Bowi-r, Mibb Taylor, ete., have found to iJirir 
rjisi ; lhi»iij,'ii pOoji; are H.'in;nii»'' that the Sikhini Trade Conventi<in of tlii^ yt^artlSW*) 
ia probably ttie thin edge of the M-ody*' to open up the wunitry, and tlint at no diitant 
dale Tibi't wUl lie prevailed on if* relax it* jenlrus oxelUHiveiiegs, sn Uuit, 'vrv 1900^ 
cvun Cook's touriNt^ may visit the Laiiiaiftt Vatican. 


mysteries from European eyes, the subject may be viewed under 
the following sections: — 

> a. Historical. The changes in primitive Buddhism leading to 
LTimaism, and the origins of Lamaism and its sects. 

^ 6, Doctrinal. The metaphysical sources of the doctrine. The 
doctrine and its morality and literature. 

c. Monastic. The Lamaist order. Its curriculum, daily life, 
(livds, etc., discipline, hierarchy and incarnate-deities and re- 
embodied saints. 

il. HuiLinNGS. Monasteries, temples, monuments, and shrines. 

e. I'antiieon and Mythology, including saints, images, 
fetishes, and other sacred objects and symbols. 

/. Ritual and Sohcery, comprising sacerdotal s^vices for the 
laity, astrology, oracles and divination, charms and necromancy. 

(J. Festivals and Sacred Plays, with the mystic plays and 

> h. Popular and Domestic Lamaism in every-day life, customs, 
and folk-lore. 

Such an exposition will afford us a fairly full and complete 
survey of one of the most active, and least known, forms of exist- 
ing Buddhism ; and will present incidentally numerous other 
topics of wide and varied human interest. 

Vox Lamaism is, indeed, a microcosm of the growth of religion 
aid myth among primitive people; and in large degree an object- 
1 'sson of their advance from barbarism towards civilization. And 
it preserves for us much of the old-world lore and petrified beliefs 
of our Aryan ancestors. 




" Ah ! Constantino, nf how ninrh ill wjw cuiiiie. 
Not lliy cooxersiod, Ijut those rich iloiiininH 
That tliefirMt wealthy JNtpt- let-eiveil of bh«e.'*> 

10 iimleratand the origin of Laiuaisni and its place in the 
Biuldhist system, we must recall the leading featares 
of ]trimitive Buddhism, and 
glniice at its growth, to see 
the points at which the strange ereetls 
^and cults crept in, and the gradual 
erytitallJzation of these into a religion 
differing widely from the parent syatem, 
and optM>sed in so mauy ways to the 
teaching of Buddha. 

No one now doubts the historic 
iBharacter of SiddUiirta tiaiitama, or 
Ikya Muni, the founder of Buddhism ; 
though it is clear the canonical ac- 
(sounta regarding him are overlaid with 
legend, the fabulous addition of after 
lays.* Divested of its embellishment, 
'the simple narrative of the Buddha's 
life is strikingly noble aud human. 

Some time before the epoch of Alex- 
ander the Great, between the fourth and ^^^ ^^^ 
fifth centuries before Christ,^ Prince 

Siddharta appeared in India aa an original thinker and teacher, 
leeply oonscious of the degrading thraldom of caste and the 

I n*)lT% Pttrodifo, XX. (Milton's traiu.) 

> Sm Ch^>(cr V- for details of tho grmhial growtli ol Uie Ii^fuda. 

> Bott ChrowdopcAl Table, Ap[H<ndix i. 


priestly tyranny of (he BrilhmBns,' and profoundly impressed iritb 
the pnthoR and ntruggle of Life, and f^amesi in the search of 
[>me method of eaoaping from existence whiob wba olcaxly in- 
^volved with sorrow. 

His touching renundatiun of hie hi^b estate,' of bis belored 
wiftf, and child, and home, to beoome an aEtcetii-, in order to master 
tlie secrets of deliverance from sorrow; his uni*atisfving search for 
truth amongst tho teachers of his time ; liis sulwetjueut austerities 
and severe penance, a mnch-vaunted mean? of gaining spiritital in- 
sight; bi.^ retirement into solitude and self-cominnnion ; 1 1 is last 
struggle and final tritHnpli— latterly rcjiresented as a tcaI material 
comM, the so-calltMl **Tt'mplatiori of Buddha": — 












(rrom A ilxth oontury i&juitA fn>s(«. krtcr lUj. MItn). 

" Infernal j;Iit»-^i"< nnd hclli:*}! ftirio-s rnund 
Environ'd tliec ; some liowl'd, sonic yell'd, stomo sliriek'd, 
Sf>iiio Iient Rt tlu'e their fifiry (lart«, while tlum 
Hfit'Kt uniipitaird in calm nml i<inles!> peace " ; * 

* Tlw LrtuiUBfa on Vedic riluitl, railed th<' JtrJihtnaniiB, had f>xiift«d for about Unee 
ccniiirifB provions l« Bnddim's rpocli, acmnlhig to Max" Mailer's Chronology {ilithert 
L«<tur<s, WW, p. 68) — the initial dates there given nro Kid Vcdo, teiilh eentur>- ii.c,; 
Briihmnn.-i.4, cif^hth crntmy nc: Siitriv sixth, and IJuddhiKiu fifth century n.r. 

i The rescArclic? of Vajiilicv, etc., rciidir it pruhalJc that Siddhfirt^i'a father «» 
only a petty lord or chief (ct. also Oi.denurkd's Li/r^ ApiM-iidix), and that Sakyn'i 
poaaimiatlc view of i'tt*- may h*v(< been forced upon him by the losi of hu tcrrlt^nlM 
through conquest by a nptKhbourinf king. 

' Milton's /'arurfwe /f<yui»a(f, Book It 

bnrial of his relics, — nil these episodes in Baddba's life arc familial' 
to English readers in the pages of Sii- Edwin Arnold's Light of 
U«n, and other works. 

His system, which arose as a revolt against the one-sided 'l^ 
velopment of contemporary religion and ethics, the caste-debase- 
raent of man and the materializing of God, took the form, as 

e shall see, of an agnostic idealism, which threw away ritual 

nJ _gfu;erdotal i^m altogether. 

Its tolerant creed of universal benevolence, quickened by tbo 
bright example of a pure and nohle life, appealed to tbe feelings 

I mi 



of the people with irresistible force and directneEB, Btid soon 
gained for the new religion many converts in the Ganges Valley. 

And it gradually gathered a brotherhood of monks, which after 
Baddha']3 death became ftahjeot to a succession of " Patriarohs/* 
who, however, possessed little or no centralize<l hierarohal power, 
nor, liad at least the earlier of them, any fixed abode. 

Abjtit 250 R.c. it was vigorously propagated by the great 
Emperor Anoka, the Constantine of Burhlhism, who, adopting it 
kas his State-religion, zealously spread it throughout his own vast 
empire, and sent many missionaries into the adjoining lands to 
diffuse the faith. Thus wa9 it transported to Burniu,^ 8iara, 
Ceylon, and other iHlandu (in the south, to NejMd* and the countries 
to the north of India, Kasliinlr, Kaetria, AfghanisUin, etc. 

In 61 A.D, it spread to China/ and through ('hina, to 0>rea, and, 

1 Tho Grrofttost of all lliidfllu'fi ilisripleR, ^ariimink and MAiidfcolynyfitu, who fnm 
their pniinini'ncD iti Uir systrm seem to haro contnliut«il inatnriiilly to it* •iutcm. 
Iiaving^ di«l hefinv tlit-ir maator, the Ant of the patriarchs wim the senior aurviviiv 
disciplti, MahAki^yapa. As fteveral of thecr r.ilriiirchti are intimalt'ly nAattciaM 
with the LiLmiiist dvvelopDieiita, I snbjnm a lint «ir Uif>ir names, iakr*ii fr>:tin thr 
TitN*Um canon and TaranaUL^'H history, fliipplmir'ntj-d liy point' dntes from tuodtni 
a<:>iirc<»i. AfU-r Pfagarjuna, the tbirtoentlt {or according to roii)« tlie fuurti>eut]il 
iarcb, tlm auooesaioD ia uncertain. 

List of tbi Pitbiabcbs. 

L Mah&kAnyapa, Buddha's senior 

3. An.indo, Buddha's oooaln and 

frtv.'tirit* attendant. 

3. Sana vara. 

4. ITpojiupta, the spiritual adviser 

fif Affuka, 250 a.c. 

5. nhntakn. 

6. Mtcchaka or Bibhakata. 

7. Buddlinnanda. 

8. Rnddliamitra (= ? Vasmnitra, rp- 

Trrri^d to as president of Kan- 

ishka'fl Council). 
0. rar^vo, contemporary of Kanlishka, 

rinM 78 A. D. 
20. SuuaQata (?nr Punj-aya^as). 
11. Afvaghoalia, aim contemporfiry of 

Kanishka, circa 100 a.s. 

> By SoNA and Uttaso ( J/niUwNA}, p. 71) 

» BrCRAWAS-FlAUILTOK (Arri. of Iftpait p. 

probably this was its r^'-introdurtion. 
* Durinfc tho reign of tho Emperor Ming 

71 A,D. 

13. Manipala (Kapiniola). 
13, Na^'iirjiiria, nVnt 150 A.I>, 
1 i. !>•%■« or Kiitiadcra, 
\b. Htttiulata <?). 

16. SaiifthnnandL 

17. SauldiayaqeU (P) 
1&. Kuniarada. 
lf>. Jaynta. 

20. Vasubandhu. ei'rra 400 a.d. 

21. Manura. 
32. HakJonayafas. 

23. SiiihaU[)utr&. 

24. Va^axuta. 

25. Piinyamitrn, 
20. I'Tfijnatini. 
27. Bodliidhaniia, wlio visitc'd QiinP 

liy sea in 620 a.d. 

190) g;ire6 dat« of introduction ua.|] 

Ti. Bbai. (JSwlrf. in China, p. 68) jrfrsT 


the sixth century A.D.,fo .Tajmo, taking strong hoM on all of the 
people of these couutriea, though tliey were very dififerent from 
hose among whom it arose, and exerting on all the wilder tribes 
ong them a very sensible civilizing influence. It is beheved to 

,ve established itself at Alexandria,' And it penetrated to 

urojw, where the early Christians had to pay tribute to the 

artar Buddhiat Lords of the Golden Horde; and to the present 
'day it still Hurvive^^ in Rurof^eiin Kussia among the Kalmaks on 
ihe Volga, who are (irofesscd Budilliiisis uf the Lfnuaist ortler. 

Tibet, at the beginning of the neveuth century, though now 
nrrounde^l by Buddhist countries, knew nothing of that religion, 
and was still buried in Imrliaric darkness. Not until about the 
ear 640 a.d. «lid it first receive its Huddhism, and through it 

me beginnings of civilization among its people. 

But here it is necessary to refer to the changes in Form which 
Buddhism meanwhile had undergone in India. 

Baddha,asthe central figure of the system, soon became invested 
with 8ui>ernatm*al and legendary attributes. And as the religion 
extended its range and infiuence, and enjoyed princely )>atrunage 
and ease, it became more metaphysical and ritualistic, so that 
heresies and discords constantly cropped up, tending t^ schisms, 
for the suppression of which it was found iieceBs-ary to hold great 

Of these councils the one held at .lulandhar, iu Northern India, 
toward}^ the end of the first century A.n., un<ler the auspices of the 
Scythian King Kanishka, of Northern India, was ejKtch-making, 
for it established a permanent schism into what Kuroj>e«n writers 
ave termed the *' Northern" and "Southern" Si-hools : the 

uthern l>eing now represented by Ceylon, Burma, and Siam ; 
and the Northern by Tibet, Sikhim, Bhotan, Nepal, Laduk, 
China, Mongolia, Tartary, and Jajian. This division, however, 
it must be remembered, is unknown to the Butldhists them- 
selves, and is oidy useful Ix) denote in a rough sort, of way the 
relatively primitive as distingnished from the develo|M?d or mixed 
forms of the faith, with especial reference to their present-day 

> Tbe MakSmnaa (TourouR'a ed., p. 171) aotm that 30,000 Bhiknbus, or Buddhist 
onka, came frum ** AlosAdda," considered tn be AlcKinrlris, 


The iwint of divergence of these scMslled "Northern** and 
" Southern " Schools was the theistic Mahdydna doctrine, which 
substituted for the agnostic idealism and simple- morality of 
Buddha, a s(>eculative theistic system with a mysticism of sophis- 
tic nihilism in the background. Primitive Buddhism practically 
confined its salvation to a select few ; but the Mahayana extended 
salvation to the entire universe. Thus, from its large capacity as 
a " Vehicle " for easy, si>eedy, and certain attainment of the state 
of a Bodhisat or ^wtential Buddha, and conveyance across the sea 
of life {nttrnHdra) to Nirvana, the haven of the Buddhists, its 
adherents called it "The Great Vehicle" ox Mahdydna;^ while 
they contemptuously called the system of the others — the Primi- 
tive Buddhists, who did not join this innovation — " The Little, 
or Imijerfeet Vehicle," the Hhiaydnay' which could carry so 
few to Nirvana, and which they alleged was only fit for low 

This doctrinal division into the Mahilyana and Hinayana, how- 
ever, does not quite coincide with the distinction into the so-called 
Northern and Southern Schools ; for the Southern School shows 
a considerable leavening with Mahayana principles,* and Indian 
Buddhism during its most popular period was very largely of the 
Mahayana ty\)e. 

Who the real author of the Mahayana was is not yet known. 
The doctrine seems to have developed within the Maha-saftghika 
or " Great Congregation " — a heretical sect which arose among 
the monks of Vaisfili, one hundred years after Buddha*s death, 
and at the council named after that place.^ Asvaghosha, who 
appears to have lived about the latter end of the first centxuy A.D., 
is credited with the authorship of a work entitled On raisvng 
Faith in the MahdydnaJ* But its chief expounder and developer 
was Nfigarjuna, who was probably a pupil of Asvaghosha, as he 

1 The word }\h>a (Tib., Tfg-)>a dCeti-jio) or "Vehicle" is paralU-l to the Platonic 
6xf*r)a, as iiot^l by Be-vi, in (.'cttiin, p. 124. 

2 Tib., Teg-jMi (fwnn-ixi. 

a Cf. HiiTKx TsiANii's Si-yii-Ki (Rral's), ii., p. 133; Eitbl. p. 90 ; Dhabmapala id 
MnhnhofJhi Jour., 1892 ; Taw Soiri Ko, fnd. A/itiqum-f/, June, 1892. 
* Tlio ortbotlox mpmborfi of this council formed the soot callpcl Sthacmtt or "elders." 
s Ho also wrotii a biography of Buddha, entitled Jlnddlm-Carita Kat-f/a, translated 
by CowKLL, in S.B.E. It closely resembles the Lalita Vistara, and a similar epic 
was brought to China as early as 70 a.d. (Beal's C'Uiiiet^ Btiddhium, p. 90). He ijs also 
credited with the authorship of aclevcr confutation of BrHhinani.sni, which was latterly 
entitled Vajm Siici (cf. HoDas., lit., 127). 

r<r>llowed the succftssor of tlielfltt^jr in the patriarolinto. Tie eoM 
uot, however, have taken any active part in Kanisbka's Council, 
as the liimaH believe. Indeed, it is doubtful even wliether he bad 
then been born.* 

NagTirjuna claimed and secured orthodoxy for the MahuyJIna 
doctrine by producing an apocalyptic treatise which he attributed 
■"kyo Muni, entitled the 
'n-piirftmit/lf or "the 
tneaDft of arriving at the other 
' of wisdom,** a treatise 
ii he alleged the Butldlia 
Imd himself composed, and 
ha^ hid away in the custody 
of the Naga demigods nntil 
men were&ufbciently euliglit- 
ened to coinpreliend so ab- 
struse a aysli'm. And, aa his 
method claims to be a com- 
promise between the extreme 
views then held on the nature 
of Xir\-una, ii vmn named the 
M'Whyninikay or tlie system " of the Middle Path." * 

This AfahaySna doctrine was essentially a sophistic nihilism ; 
and under it the goal Nirviina, or rather Pari-Nirvana, while 
ceaaing to be extinction of Life, waft considered a mystical state 
which admitted of no defmition. By developing ihe supernatural 
side of BuddluBm and its objective symbolism, by rendering itB 

I Nicfftrjutift (T., kLii-grub. ) nppitara to bc<lon^ to the •coond century a.s. Ho wns ■ 
(if VidArtflia (Itcrar) and it x\\ou\t <\l NiiiuiJa, Uie heailiiiiRti>?rft o\ 8<?vrrn] of 
L i_ •< r pntri»rch<5. He ia credited by the LumM (J.A.S.B., IW>3, 115) with haying 
LTcctctl tito tftonc r&ilin^ round the great OaudlioU Temple of ^ itudti (iiya," thcugh 
thr tXyXe of the lithic inscriptinna on ihew rails would |>]iLce th<;ir date i-arllrr. 
F(ir a biographical note from the TiU'Uiii by H. Wksikl, erf /. Puli Text ^t>c.^ 
|ew\ p. 1, a\&f> by Sahat, J.A.S.B., ^\, pp. 1 and 115. Tlic Vfrnaculur liiAtory of 
»ltniTr (Rajatarant^inT) inak(>R him a rontiMniiot'Ary and cluVf monk of Kam^hka'a 
r<r. King Abliitnon^ni (cf. also Ritki^ p. 103; Schl., 21, aoi-3: Korp., ii., 1-1 ; 
L. 1U7, 2; CaonA, Or., xii., 182). 

Itsecuis to hare Ivcn n couiirion practice for sectaricft to call Uioir owrn Bvstem 

' UiU tiilc, irapl>iUK that it only waa the true or rfosonable bpUrf. fUkya Muni 

called liii^ Rystoin "the Middle Tntli " (Oavid?, p. 47). clniming in his defence of 

uth to avoid tlic two extremiw of HU|i«ntitioD ou tlio one E>idi', and worliUineee or 

dctity on Uie other. CVimp. thi- IV.i mnUa t»f thr Anglican OxfonJ niovcmont. 






salvation more nrcpssibtp niifl anivorwl, anrl hy s»iiT*tif ■ ' 
wordx for the good iUfd» of (he esarlier lUnlilliisU, (lit 
ft])|>eale<i more {lowerfully to the multitude and secure') 

Aljout the end of the first century of our era, then, Kanishla's 
Council ntfirmed the superiority of the Mfthnyuna system, nnd 
pulili8he4l in the Sanskrit language inflated versions of the Butl- 
dliist tVinon, from soiirceH for tlie most part indejiendent of the 
Piili versions of the southern Buddhists, though exhibiting a re- 
markable agreement with them.' 

And this new doctrine sup^torted by Kanishka, who almort 
rivalled Asoka in his Buddhist zeAl and munilicence, bet^ne 
a dondnant form of Buddhism throughout the greater part of 
India; and it was tlie form which fu-nl would !*em, 
to China and Nortliern Asia. 

Its idcjilization of Budilha and hia attributes led to the creation 
of metaphyfiicAl Huddhas and celestial Hoiihiwats, actively williag 
and able to save, and to the intnxluotion of iunumemble demou* 
and deities as objects of worship, with their attendant idolatry and 

sacerdotalism, both of 
which de]>artures Huddhs 
had expressly coudeiunt?*!. 
The gradual growth of 
myth and legend, and of 
the viuiuus theLstic de* 
ve]o[iments which now 
set in , are skctche*! in 
detail in another chapter. 
As early as about the 
first century A.D., Buddha 
is made to be existent 
from all eternity and 
without beginning 

And one of the earliest 
forma given to the great- 
est of these metaphysical 
Bnddhas — Amitabhaj the 
Buddbaof Boundless Light 


(Ute BndliiMt-Ood, holding Uio Honk of WItdom 

Mtd wielding th(> 8«w<l at KoawlMffe). 

*■ Sereral of the Chinese and Japanese Scriptures nrf> Iramslntpd from the Fall 
UBii.'s findtU in C-iina, p. £) and olflO a few Tftietan (of. C'hnp. rii.). 



iiily iucorpurateil a Sun-myth, a^ was indewl to I)e ex- 
where tbe chi*^f {latrons of this early MahJiyfrntt Huddhism, 
be Scythians and Indo-H^rsians, were a race of Sun-worshippers. 
The worship of liuddhas own imaj/« seems to dat^i from this 
Briod, the tirttt century of our era, and about four or five 
ceutun'ee afV«r Bmhlha's death ;^ and it was followed by a variety 
of polytheistic formd, the creation of which was proUibly facili- 
CAte 1 by the (Jreciau Art iuiluciiees then prevalent in Nort.hem 

ndim.' Oifierent fomiA 
' Huildha*8 image, ori|[;iii- 
aJly init^aded to represent 
ifferent r|M>chj: in hift life, 
afterwards idealt/eil 
nVo various Olesti;d Hud- 
from whom the ha- 
aan Buddlias were held 
be derived as material 



About oOO 

A.n.' arose 



tje next great develop- 

Bent iu Indian Buddhism tj^j 

rilh the im{>ortatiun into V ' 
of llie pantheist i4; cnlt VVi 

bf VogB, or the eestatit: 

Bfiicm of the individual 

rith the Universal Spirit, 

, cult which had been in- 
duced into Hinduism 

ty Palanjali ai>out 1511 H.C. 

Suddlia himself had attached much importance (o the practice of 

Ctlie WleUlar i>r tlie ThuriiliirhoU). 

» f^. »t«{tiH of Itutltlli.-! fnund at .Srjivasti, CusNniflHAy'jt ^npa. of BiirkHt, p. vii, {^o 

M» ill nineitmnil y Arrl«icnr«n Karrar, in his n'crnt It cturc en "llir iVvdoiimceit of 
Firurtiun Art,'' Atatcs Uiat for three cifiituries Uiere were no picliirtw o( <'hrlflt, Imt 
aly •yint>fiU, sudi m Uie flsh, tli*? Uinb, tli».' dove. The cjitacombs uf St. CulliHtun 
DnUiiH«l Th<' lir5l pirtiUT of Chrint, the iLite bi'ing 313. Not even n rnww exisUKi 
I the enriy crti^^omlis, and ^till \(^n a cnioilix. The eighth rrnlury »aw the first pictiin* 
ftlie df-inl t'hrifrt, KabiiLii) ia ^86 first depicivd the oruriftxion in a Syriac (toApc). 

'■ »»tTa'» 'fr^M-Rovuin it^,OH t'ivilizalwnttf Ancient ludia, J, A.>S^.,58 ft ieq..\98&, 
I (iarMirnici'A BtuMk. Kh^ii0. 

* Tl»> ilatr or tlir nurhiif of M\U innnvMtJon, Asaugi, the broOinr of Vasalmnilhu, 


cnAsam lbamsg to cAmaism. 




abstract meiJitalicm amongat his followers; and such jimcticrj 
uiidpr tlip niyNtitnl aiifl later tfieistu.* devolo|jmenl8 of his gybleiu, 
rendily led to the adoption of the Briihrnaaical cult of Vogs, 
wlik'Ii wap grafted »»n to tlie tlieistic Afaliayami hy Asaj^gu« a 
Buddliist muuk of UandUiira (Peshawar), iu Northern India, 
Those who um^tereil this syatem were called Yognalrya Bud- 

The Voguc-arya mysticism seems to have leavened the mass of 
the Mol)fiya»a followers, and even someaUo of the Hinayiina; for 

distinct traces of Voga are to be 
found iu modem Burmese aud 
Ceylonese Buddhism. Audlbttf 
Yoga i»ara8ite, containing within 
iUflf the germs of Tautrisui, 
seized strong hold of its host 

*^''v* 'iMi J?^lj^^^ ''■t^ I ^""^ ^'^^^ develo]>ed its monster 
y >| .>3 ^ ^^ILJSi i!^^. ^m I outgrowths, wbich crushed and 

cankeretl most of the little life 
of jiurely Buddhist stock yet 
left in the Mabayana. 

Atwut the end of the sixth 
century a.d., Tnnb-iam or Sivaic 
mysticiym, witli its wor&bip of 
female energies, sjMUses of the 
Hindi" giMl Siva, begun to tinge 
boili Budilhism and lliiuluism. 
J^f ;^* Ojnsorls were allotted to the 

^* J ^ ™ li 7 several I'elestial Bodliisatii and 

most of the other gods and de- 
mons, and most of (hem were 
given fonns wild and teiriWe, 
aud oftou monstrous, according 
to the supposwl moods of each 
divinity at difterent times. And 
as these goddest^en and fiendesses 




(a CelMtlal B^hliAtj. 

tlw- twimtieth patriarch. liaK not yet boon fixed witli any pircision. It seems U> be 
BonM-where br-twrs-ii *« *.d. nnd 5(K> A.v.—d. Vasii... fl, p. 78; Hchufnkbs Tdm,, 
\i. I2tl ; JtJl (KX'A HtJfoire tfe h vit de ffiufm T*kang, 83, 1)3, 91, 106. \U. 

,', and were especially tna- 

L" ai 


^^ fuUlH. 


'•tury A.D,, India contained 
. adhisats with tUeir female 
id demons, aa we know 
litliic reinaitiB in India;' 
.loriy had inveatetl the 
:b orgauined litanies and 

ere bestowers of supe 
lignant, they were espec 
By the raiddle of th 
any imager of Divine 
ergies and other B 
from Hiueii THiaug*s 
anil the growth o 
omiuaut form of I 
full ritual. 

•Such was the distorted form of Htiddhism introduced into Tibet 

bout 640 A.D. ; and during the three or four succeeding centuries 

Indian Buddhism became j^till more debased. ltd mysticism 

became a silly mummery of unmeaning jargon and ** magic 

circlea,** dignified by the title of Mnntraynna or " The Spell- 

Vehicle"'; and this (to>called 

esoteric," but projierly " exoteric," 

ult was given a respectable au- 

t iquity by alleging t hat its real 

fuunder waij Nfigarjuna, who had 

iceived it from the Celestial Burltlha 

ocana tlirough the divine Bod- 

Vajrasattva at '* the iron tower '' 

in Southern India, 

In the teuth century A.n.,* the 
'Taulrik phase developed iu Northern 
India^ Kai^hmlr, and Nepal, into the 
monstrous and polydemonist doc- 
trine, Ihe Krdacakra,-' with it* de- 
oniacal Buddhas, which incor- 
porati.^ tlie Mantriiyana practices, 
and called itself the V<(Jt'((-yilna, 
r "The Thunderbolt -Vehicle," inid 
a followerfi were named V'ajm- 
irt/ft, or " Followers of the Thunderbolt. 



I See mjr iirticle on Ureu, J,AJS.B., 1&91, aoA on Indiau Buddliisc Ciilt, etc., in 
fjJt.J-S., ISIH. p. 51 et H*j. 

« AU>ut tKt& A.D. (C«OHA. Gr^ p. 192). 

* TiU. ■/Jfr-K>r-'jryr-/o, or Cinlt t^ Ti»t, h«c CIiaji. v\. It \» mu-rilHsd ro ttip fiihu- 
out ctiuiitry *A SanibluiiA (T., Dt'-jun) tu ihv NurUi ot India, n niytliicul roiintrr jimt>< 
kltly (uiimlwl upon tim X()rliH>ni lAud of Bt, rudiDA-wvWjAtfm, to wit' Ufljjtntu 



In these declining A&j^ of Indian Ruddbism^ when its spiritnd 
and regenerating influences were almost dead, the Muliammadwi 
invasion fiwept over IikHii, in the latter end of the twelfth century 
A.D., and effectually stamjiwl Hnddliism out of the ctriunt ry, Thi 
fanatical idoUhating Afghan solilieiy * es|)ecially attacked th« 
Hu<ldhi^t monaflteries, with their teeming idols, and they ma^ 



MA no 
(ail litilUn BuiUliUl fiiJriilr^A Uonk u( llie KleviuitliCvutury ft.o.). 

Hacred the monks wholesale;' and as the Buddhist religion, on- 
like the more domewlio Brahmanism, i:* ilependeut on its priests 
and monks for its vitality, it soon disajnieared in the absence of 
these latter. It lingered only for a short time longer in the more 
remote jmrtt; of the peninsula, to which the fiercely fanatical 
Muhammndarjg could nol readily penetrate.^ 

But it has now been extinct in India for several centuries, 
leaving, however, all over that country, a legacy of gorgcoo? 
architeotunil remains and monuments of decorative art, and its 

* See arUAolty mo in J.A.S.B., Uvi., 1Si*2. p. 2U r/ «<'/., illustrnttng this fan*ticisai 
«nd nusancre ^^'ith rcrorrricr lo Mn^'Htltm nnd AHAm. 

* 2\ticiQi>J-i-4V»MVf, Ki.tiOT'4 tnms., ii., 8()6, i't4>. 

=t T&mn&thn nays it«till existed in Bcnifal till thrrnkkllrof tlit*fi)tpt>nthc*rnliiry*.n., 
iincir-r the " Cliagaln " Kaja, wlnwc kingdom (Extended to Ix-lhj and who was convt-rt*^ 
to Buddhifini tiy hiit wife. He died in 144SA.D., And Trot. Uendall ftndii (fat. Ji%nt,th Skt- 
I MS8, iittr. XI. iv) thiit Huddliist MSS. were copied in Benfinl up to th** middle of the 
ftfteeiiUi cetaur}', 1-Mi). Cf. alau bis mite iu./.tf..'l^'^ Now Ser.,2Lx,,6{i^Ba4 
minp ill J.A.H.B. (^tw.), Februarj-. lfiP3. 



iving effect upon its apparent offghoot Jainism, and upon Brah- 
tnaui&m, whicli it profoundly iudueucod for good. 

Although the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, and which 
been called after its priests " Lamaism," is mainly that of 
ie mystical type, the Vaji-a-yana, curiously incorporated with 
ibetan mythology and spirit-worship, atill it preserves there, 
as we shall see, much of the loftier philosophy and ethics of the 
system taught by Buddha himself. And the liimas have the keys 
unlock the meaning of much of Buddha's doctrine, which has 
een almost iuacetssible to EuropeauH. 





lltKT emerges from barbaric darkuens only with the 
liawn of iU liuddhiain, in the seventh century of our 
Tibetan hiatory, Buch as there is — and ther^ is 
none at all before its Buddhist era, nor little wortliy of the 
name till about the eleventh century A.D. — U fairly clear uu the 

FruDi IX (ilk»Uigr»|>li by Mr, Hoffimuiii. 

pnE~r.2^fATST rinET. 


that previous to King Sroh Tsan (iamjw's marriage in 
il A.n., Buddhijim was quite unknown in Til^t.' And it 
» alira fairiy clear on the point that Ulmaism did not arise till 
later than this epoch. 

the seventli fentury Tibet was inaccessible even \o the 
ChineM>. The Tibetami of this prehistoric period are seen, from 
tht? few gh'Lu[>i)e8 that we have of them in Chinese history about 
the euti of the jsixth century,^ to have been rapacious savages 
and reputed cannibals, without a written language,^ and followers 
of an animistic and deviplanoing or Shanianist religion, the ^on, 
te^embtiug in many ways the Ta^Msm of China. N 
Early in the seventh century, when Muhammad (** Mahomet") 

' ' irjjtns Brp^alled of Tibet wrote mofitly inflatpd Imnihast, almn^l vnlurlcM 
' |>iir|X)«*es. A<i tli»> eiirrL-nt aiTuiitiUt «f tliL> riau nf KudiihiHiii in Tit>et are 
ii>il with li-ff('n<i, iind ofu^n iiirnnsist«nt, 1 liave etiiJfavouretl U* sift otit the 
itivr data fr'>m tlt<> niaAfi of Xcha trustwnrtliy niatoriaU. I havo Kw>kod into 
:«d liist>riC'il jMilnU in tlie Tiljoti\n uriginals, and, Oftelsted by tlip 
nf till' Laiiirttf. and tiip tr»iutlati<iil8 ppjvided by Ruckliill and IEukIipU 
al4D tiy 8i'lilnt;iiitwt>il, Sanil, Hiid otlx-tv, I fcfl toVraUty ('•mfidi'nt tliat 
Uie i|tiiHtiiMife iir tilt' modi' and dalo nf the iatroductiou uf [tiiildliiMii inio 
Uh) f'mibliiig uF LutnaiHin, Uio opiiiionn now cxprcHMtl an* in Ute main 

- 'ints of tite Allrgi'tl Uuildhist t-vcnl-d in |trt<)iist'irir TihtTt g^ircn in tha 
w, 'Vw'-rt»/r«, jinil nlliiT Ifgf'ndnry l<ool(», ii rr rlcnrly rliiina^' fii^tlon*. 
^ ,._j ••xiUfifilf nf Itunnn mid otlitr Itnddtiiit nntione (rl. Mincn Touing, 
|l#n'n Inns, I., I7i> ; it,, I(»7. vie.) who tlaitn fortlioir King an anrMtrj- fmin tliu 
»tnrk. wv linrl tli<> l^niM rolittiuff ii|w>n \ho\t Kill;; a .Hiniilar dt-srcnt. A 
Ihtml «si)>^l prinrc, Miiiiitst ^^'nh-K'HJiTiirtn-jKt, alli'|fi-t) t» Ix* the fton nf Kinj; 
k-^.fih*. Iliifldhii'ii fintt r<»y:d |>atron. And n iii»>nilior of the LiccUavi hninch of 
>!»<>, Id miulo to fitter Tn>ct in iImi fifth rmtiiry b.c. ab l\w progenitor 
. i;>uit of Hron Tmih (JniniMVtf nnn^lMrri; and .tn absurd story is invented 
to aoTiiiint fur lh« otymnUijcy of Itis n.nnif, whidi nii-an^-i "Ihi- back rliair*; while 
iIm.' Ttbt'tiUi iH^opIf are given as pni^frnilon^ a nmnkey (" Ililuniandju." cvidi.*ntly in- 
t«ndi>)l for rinmnnanjt, thn Hindu monkey ^>m], cf. Kol-k., LL., SoA) sent by Avalo- 
lutf^>vara and a mi^tui (icml'ss. A)>ain, in tlieyenr 331 ad., there fell from heavt-n 
*«rvoraI «aiTfr| ul>j<<ct« (conf. Itoc'K., IS., p. 210), in^'ludjng tlip Om wdni formula, 
whicli in rcility was not inrent«d till many hundrod (prol>ably a thousand) yeara 
Later. Ami eiinilarty tho ffuhs<-i|ut<nt nppeariuio' of five foreifrnen« beforp a King, aaid 
lo haTo kM'on naiiiM T'o-t'nri Kyan-t$nn. in ordtT to di-clare ttie (Wicred nature of the 
alM>V4i symbots, mUhmtt. Vitorivr, rxfJainiriff thrm, fh) t)uit tlm [M'ople continued in 
if-nirrutci >>r thnir mfaninf;. And it only tt<n<li4 fttjil further to obstniru thr' points 
at iti«tir> to ini|N)rt into Uic •pu*8tion. aft LatuH'it Anva (tnd. Ait-, ii-, I«73), thn alleged 
crcitiou tm Mt Kaila«, in i;*7 Hc, of n ti-(tip.jrar>' Buddliist niona«*iery, (or imrh a 
• ry rmut tiavc belonged to Kashmir Buddhism, and could Iwvc nothing to do 
^ hi sHiir., fttf. (lit. p, 43S. 
Tlwy ua>iJ knotehcd wimhI and knott(*d cnnin (ItKMtisjiT'K JtrfurcAtt, p. SfM). 



^was fonnding his religion in Arabia, there arose in Tibet a warlike 
Iting, who c8tAhti.sbe<l his authority over the other wild c1ad» of 
centra! Tibet, and latterly hia son, Srofa Tsan Gampo,* harassed the 
western borders of China; so that the Ohinest* Emperor 'FaitfiuDi^, 
of the "Fang Dynasty, was glad to come to terms with this young 
prince, known to the Chinese as ChHtsung-Iuntsan, and gave him 
in C41 A.D.- the Princess ^ Wench'eng, of the imperial house, in 

Two years previously Srofi Tsan Gampo had married Bhrikn^i, 
a daughter of the Nepal King, Amsuvanuan ; '' and both o 
these wives being bigoted Buddhists, they speedily effected 
the conversion of their young husband, who was then, oocordinj 

> Calk'i] also, prior to hiti iicreKsion (snyd RfH'KtiiLi., Lift, p. ^11) Khri-ldan Bnih 
bt«nn (in (^inr>80, Ki*tAung Iiin-tAiin) H\a f.ithpr, ^'Num-ri Srou-twin, and hi* ai>> 

.ocstors had their lieaclquartt>rs at Var-lmi, or "thi* L'pprr Valley," below Uic Yw* 
llhasAfH-po, a tiinunt^itj on the tmuthoni ri>nftn<>s nf Tihr>t, nrAr tlic Uhotan Irnatief. 
Ttio Var-liin rivLT flows uurthwanlx into Uji' Tsan^po, t»ekiw Lhasa ami nesu SUtQV. 
ThJit Yar-luii is Ui U* (liHtiiit^ifilieil [rt'in that ot the same name in thp Kltam pro- 
viticr.', rut of flatliniif;. and a tributary of the Yaiigtac Kiang. Tlic i-Jirunoltigy hy 
llu-tnn (t'ain-c'ad K'an-po) in conKiilfnnI tho moat rvliiibjc, aud Sum-pa K'An-|«' 
*«i it in profcronc* t/> the Itaidyiir Knr-iw, C(iitiiH)ced by Lhi* Dalai t.ania's orden, 
by IV-Srid SAii-iirj'aa < ;y*-mt8*o, in 1886. Aceonling to Bu-tJin, thp date of Sn.n Tmb 
(tampo'a birth wa» 017 a.d. (which a^rec* with that ^ven by tht- Mongol hiftt«<run, 
SiUinaug SctM^n). and hi* built Uio pa)ac)> rho-daii-Marim on the Lhasa lull whru 
agi»d i)im>l.c><.>n, and the Lhasa Ttiiiipk' when ot^cd twenty-three. Uu niurried thi 
Chinnsi* prinr-csa whi'ti ho wns ajifd niiieter>n, und h(' died agm! (*ighty-1wo. Tlw 
ChirtPBO n-rords, Irnnsjlot*-!! by Bufihcll, make him dip parly. Cwinui'* date of 8SI 
i^Urahttttaft ]>. IH3} for his Inrth np|n»nrB to bo a rlprical omir for fil7. Hii flirt 
miseion to China was in (WJ (Itt'ttiiKM., J.ll..i.>i., New Per, xii., p. 440). 

> According t<i riiino^e nanul.i (Itu^iiBLi., 435). thr TibptJtn (lat4^ for the marrlafll 
639 (C. fJ., p. 183), thitt is, two yeare after his lunrriage with the Nopuhtie princMk 

' KoBg.jt. = " prinresa" in CliinfflC. 

< Ttio Tibotari tradition liaA it lliat then wcrfi three other suttora for this princMa'^ 
hand, namely, the three gTeati>iit kin|;a they knew of outmide Ctiuuk» the Kingn of Ma(- 
adha,of I'eraia {«r«^-ny).and of the Hor {Turti) trilnii. Seo also Hodgson's iE4». ami 
ltocitHiiJ.'s/i..213: Csoma's 'Jr., lOS; Bi>tiltim»r. 338. 

' Anifuvarman, or "(ilowuif; Armour/' is mentioned by Uiueti Tstang (Bral*9 Ri 
Si-t/n-k*, ii., p. 81) as rniKnitig abotit 637, and he appears aa a grantee in FlbstV fM^ 
Itntm. !rul. (iii., p. 190) in fipvcral inscriptions ran^nfi from 63& to fSTiO aJ}., Cdbi 
whii-li it appears that ho was of the Tliakurl dynasty and a foudaUiry of KitiH "t 
llar?hav.-irdhana uf Knnauj, anil on the death of the latter seems to have becotnt 
imletR-ndent The inscriptJons show that <Un waa a title of his roynl lailirit, ami Mi 
636 A.D. inscription recording; a gift to Ida aeiihow.afitiMifi (an officer), renders It prob* 
ftUo tbut he bad then an a<)ult. daughter. One of Ids iuseriptions relates to Sivaiil 
linffiUy but none are expresaedly BuiMhist, The hiBeription of C35 wao <U5eovi'r»>d \if 
C- IJkkiiai.i, rtndi>uMifilif_'d in Imi. Ant for 1885. imd in bii» Ji>\n-u'*t, pp. 13 and 73. ft 
hIso /«(/. Anl., Jx., 170, and his description of coins in Zrihh: flrr Ihv(§i:h. 



TibetaD Annals, only about sixteen years of age,^ and who, 
ider their advice, sent to India, Xepal, and China for Buddhist 
loks and teachers.^ 

It seems a perversion of the real order of events to state, as is 
ually done in European books, that Srofi Tsnn Gampo first adopted 
iddhism, and Ihen married two Buddhist wives. Even the 
imacular chronic'Ie,^ which presents the subject in its most 
ktteriug form, puts into the mouth of Srofi Tsan G^arapo, when 

CBS for the hand of his first wife, the Xejialese princess, the 
ring words : ** I, the King of barbarous* Tibet, do not practise 
le ten virtues, but should you be pleased to bestow on me your 
lughter, and wish me to have the Law,* I shall pmctise the ten 
rtues with a five-thousand-fold body . . , though I have 
>t the arts . . . if you so desire . . . I shall build 5,000 
mples.'* Again, the more reliable Cliinese history records that 
te princess said *'th(n'e is no religion in Tibet"; and the 
iinpse got of Sroft Tsan in Chinese history shows him actively 
Igaged throughout his life in the very un-Iiuddhist pursuit of 
(oody wars with neighbouring states. 

The messenger sent by this Tibetan king to India, at the 
stance of his wives, to bring Buddhist books was called Thon- 
i Sam-bhota," The exact date of his departure and return are an- 
trtain,^ and although his Indian visit seems to have been within 
le period covered by Hiuen Tsiang's account, this history makes 
> mention even of the country of Tibet. After a stay in India" 
' several years, during which Sam-bhota studied under the 

s Tho Ofol-ruit Set'uvi MeleA (ttat<>8 that S. was Agrd sixteen on hU Diarrioge 
ih th« NcifMlcAC princess, who wutt tiien agvA eighteen, and thr«e years lator he 
lilt hit Pho-dnn-Marito P.ilauo on tho KtHl UJll at Lliua. 

■ Tho monks who cami* to Tibet lUiriiig Sroh Tmiu CTauipo*» reign wrre Kusara 
Kum&r»^ and Sat'ikara Itrahmana, from India; Pila Maoju, fium N(>|hiI; llwa* 
ang Mahi-tR'e, from China, and (K.SfHiJiKT., tJiftif-ruhM. p. 49) Tabiita and Uanutn, 
om Kashmir. 

* Mirror of Koyal podigreo, Oifat-rahi Stf-wm M*toA. 

* mTah-'k'ob. 

■ Ifrinw. 

* Samhltota is the Ranslnrit title for " The good IlhotijA or Tibetan." His prot)er nanio 
Thon-mi, «i>ii of Anu. 

* 6S2 AJ>. Is sainetiniosBtAtodaadat« of d(.'parturo, and 660aatlierpt»m; but on thin 
Her date SroA Tsan Uampo died according to th<3Cliinf>8e accounts, nlthou^h he 
ould aurrire (or many (iS) years longer, according to the conflicting Tibetan reeorrltf, 

* -^HfAera India" {OodMmur, p. 827). 




BrUkman LinkaraorLipidatta' and the ]nndit Devnvid Sittha (at 
SiftUft Gbo3ha), he returned to Tibet, bringing several BuddhiS 
books and the sivoalled "Til)etan'*alj)habet, hy means i>f which h 
now reduced the Tibetan language to writing and composed foi 
this purpose a grammar.- 

This so-oalled *' Tibetan" character, however, waj* merely 
somewhat fantastic reproduction of the north Indian alphabet 
current in India at the time of Sam-bhotu's visit. It exaggerate! 
the Hourifhing curven of the '* A'n/vVif," which wa.*; then eiiming 
into vogue in India, and it very slightly mt^diiied a few letters to 
adapt them bo the peculiarities of Tibetan phonetics.* Thonmi 
translated into this new character several small Buddhist texis,' 
but he does not apjiear to have l>erf»nie a monk or to liave 
attempted any religious teaching. 

Sron Tsan Gampo, being one of the grmtest kings of Tilwt an( 
the fir-it |*atron of learning and civilization in that country, ant 
having with the aid of his wives first planted the germs of Buddh- 
ism in Tibetan soil, he is justly the most famous and poimlar 
king of the country, and latterly he was canonized as an incai'iiA- 
tion of the most popular of the celestial Bodhisats, Avalokita ; ani 
in keeping with this legend he is figured with his hair dress« 
ap into a high conical chignon af\er tlie fashion of the Indian 
images of this Budilhist god, "The Lookiug-down-Lord." 

His two wives were canonized as incarnations of Avalokita s 

^consort, Tfiru, " the Saviouress," or Goddess of Mercy ; and the 

fact that they bore him no children is pointed to as evidence of 

their divine nature/ The Chinese princess Wench'eng waa deified 

» Li-byiu ~ Li + " to give." 

« tfirdhi bs/a/t \tch'0M gum cAV-/jtt, 

s The cvrebrnU and oaiiirates not boiug needed for Tibetan aotiods were rejMtcd. 
And when nftorwurds the full oxpri^M^ion of .Sanskrit names In 'nb(?tiui dciiiHiiJr-d 
the&e Icttont, Ihv five wrL-hrHb witm fttrim-d hy re \'<' ruing tln^ deiitjiUatid thr iui)>iral«-« 
K'Obtained by RufSxing an A, wliih.> the |Kilnt(»-»iihilHiii($ ta, tnh, mid tit were rt.irtned hj 
[iof » sunnouTiting crest to the piilataU rh^ MA, ntid j. It is ciist'mMry to «ny tjiat 
''the cuniro style, tlm " headless " or V-nud (as itisiitiguishcd From Die fall form with 
the hoftd the V-iKen) WM adftpted fVoin tlio 0o-calle<l " Wartu " form cf Dcvanogri— 
HoDOSON, Ai. Re*., tM., 420 ; ScaiU]>T, Mm. tU VAc. d* Vtt., U <I i Csoka, (/r., SM ; 
SAUAT.y.^.Afl., 1888,42. 

4 The first book t raiwlat^^'d seoms to h«v(* been the KaranJa-vytilm ntfrtt, k farcmrH* 

In Nepal ; and a few other translations still extant in the Tiiu-gyur are aBcri1)ed ts 

hiin (Ciioiiu, A.^ and Rocs., li.^ S12. 

" His issue proceeded from two or four Tibetan wive*. 

was ftpotheosisod as (he 

green Bhri-kuti Tnra,' 

fts figured in the phnp- 

ter un the pantlbeon. 
But he was not the 

saintly i>erRon the grate- 
ifiil Lfimoa picture, for 
Ifte IB seen from re- 
Hfahle Chinese history 
^io liave been engaged 

all his life in bloody 

wars, and more at home 

in the battlefield thnn 

the temple. Andheoer- 
■tainly did little in the 
Hny of Buddhist propa- 
^P^da, beyond perhapp 

translating a few tracts 

into Tibetan, and build- 
ing a few temples to 
Bine the images re- 
ved by him in dower," 

and others which he constrncted. 

Taiia, thk Wbitb. 
Tbc ndlied Ohtnft«M> PriiineM WenAli>nK.4 

He bnilt no monasteries. 

KE. SclilA^ntwoft (p. 08) traniipriMS the fomiNof tlit« two princewej, and niost sob- 
lentwritrfTS rpi>wit hi^confusiun. 
Sfae 16 rrprcKeiiteil tn liavc Im'^d oF a flcry temper, and the caoae of tr^upnt 
v.»jrlB on a«.T<Hmt of ilic prw»>dnrii*c pveti to the Chjoose pHncf^s. 

* He recfivod a* ilnwiT with the NriHilcso priiicpss, arn^ixIiiiR to the Gt/at-tithft 
ima^rMi of Akshobhya Iluddha. Maitroyn atiil a naiidiU-wood image of r»rft : and 
CHiinote wife a flgure of ^Skjn Muni a» a young prinre. Tn shrine the 
I of Akabnbbyo and the ChinesK" i?&ky.T he built re«pp<:tivoly the temples (if 
!^« and Miother at Han.nowricctipiod byth»Jo*wnK'nhat Lli&RA(r{eeCI).-i[is.xJi. 
'an3 3611.1. The latU>r temple wnR called JtMa-yrtU$na*ffiift»uffl^a-K 'aA, and wut biiilt 
in hii twenty-third year, and four years after the arrival of tlw Cbinesr' prJnceM 
iB44 A.D.I nciiiHBi.0. The name of its sito. Ba-M, is said to liav« suj^^estiK) Uie 
■ hy whirh it latterly became more wi<lely known, namely, as Um*6J», or "find's 
re." The one hundred and eight templeg arcreditei! to him in the Mii»i'Knh-hvi» 
fof course l<^endary, and not even their sitea are known ti> the Lamas thamx-Ircn. 
After Pander. 



After SroA Tsan Gampo's death, about 650 a.d.,^ liii 
made little headway a^inst the prevailing ?bamaiii.«t super.-' 
and seems to have been resisted by the people until about i 
century later in the reign of his |)owerfnl descendant Thi-Smft 
Detsnn,' who extended his rule over the 
greater part of Yunnan and Si-Chuen, and 
even took Changan, the then capital of 

Thiit king waa the (ton of a Chine.>p 
prinfoss.' and inheritrtl through his mothw 
a strong prejudice in favonr of Buddlusni. 

He succeeded to the throne when only 
thirteen years old, and a few years Inter* hr- 
sent to India for n celebrated Biuldhist prit-M 
to establish an order in Tibet; and he waf 
ftdvised, it is said, by his family priest, the Indian monk i'^Sotfl. 
raksUita, to secure if jtossible the services of his brother-in- 
law,* Guru Padma-sambbava, a clever member of the then 
popular Tantrik YogTic'iryn school, nnd at that time, it is 8ai<l, 
a resident of the great college of NTilanda, the Oxford of BuiMliisi 

This Buddhist wiscard, Guru Padma-sambhaviv, promjitly rf^ 
gponded to the invitation of the Tibetan king, and accomjjanied 
the messengers back to Tibet in 747 A.D." 

As Guru Padraa-sambhava was the founder of iJlmaisin. and is 
now deified and a.s celebrated in I/imaism as Buddha himself, 
than whom, indeed, he receives among several sect^ more worship, 
he demands detailed notice. 

The founder of I^imaism, Saint Padma-sambhava or "the Lotnfi- 

Kino Tbi-SboA Drruv. 

> Ho waa auccecd«d In 650 by his errvidson Mang-Srofi*Manf-tun under ths 
rcgoQcj of Srtm Ttan's Buddhiit miDUter, Gar (Dofc'ar), kuown to the ChineM u 
Ghtbliih (UtrsHSLL, toe. nit., 446). 

a Pri'Smk Ideu-Umn. (Cf. IWpp., il., 67-72; Schlao., 67; J.A.S.B., 1881, p. 291) 
Rock., J5., qnotfti p. 221 cout^mponiry record InhiTaH-ffyv ^xciv., f-S87-391>,proTiii:^ 
that III TUi-Sron DetAan'K Mgn in Uie middlo of Uie eighth century, Tibet wi« tiudlj 
roc4)guisod aa a Buddhist country. 

* Ntmcd Chia cbeug (Tib., Kyim Shah), adopts daughter of the Emperor Tcfaanf 
tBottg ( KiiiiHKLi:, 456). 

* In 747 (CeoHA, Or., 183) : but the ChhioBO date would giv^ 7ri& (BrBRHi.i.). 

* TIm legendary life of tiir> Guru at*C«B that he marriod the FrinccM Mandirava, a 
dstor of 9ftata*ralnhita. 

* AootberaooountmakesthflCiuruarrivflinTibtftiiianticlpatioDof the king's wishei. 




born one,"^ is usually called by the Tibetans Gnru Rin-po-cJi'e, or 
"the precious (iuru"; or simply Lij-pi^n,^ the TibetAn equivalent 
of the Sanskrit *' Gum ** or ** teacher." He is also called " Ugyan'' 
or ** Urgyan," as he was a native of Udyuna or Urgyan, correspond- 
ing to the country about Ghazni' to the north-west of Kashmir. 

Udyilna, his native hind, wan famed for the proficiency of itc 
priestH in sorcpry, pxorciam, and magic. Hiuen Tsiang, writing a 
century previously, says regarding I'dyuna : "The people are im 
diBpositiou somewhat gly and crafty. They practise t he art of using 
charm?. The employment of magical sentences is with them an 
art and a study."* .\ud in regard to the adjoining country of Kas-h- 
mTralso intimately related to Lnmaism, Marco Polo a few centuries 
lat^r says : " Ke«himur is a ]>roviiice inhabited by people who are 

idolaters (t.f-., Buddhists). . . . 
They have an astonishing ac- 
quaintance with the devilries of 
enchantment, insomuch as they 
cjin make their idols speak. Tliey 
can also by their sorceries bring on 
changes of weather, and produce 
darkness, and do a number of 
things so extraordinary that no one 
without seeing them would believe 
them. Indeed, this country is the 
very original source from which 
idolatry has spread abroad."' 

The Tibetans, steeped in super- 
stition which beset them on every 
side by malignant devils, warmly 
welcomed the Guru as he brought 
them deliverance from their terrible tormentors. Arriving iu Tibet 





V^V "V 

A Bend (-prirti) flut>jrcted by Bt. Pftdma- 

1 For l<<gend of his birUi from u lotui sfii p. 360. ^ gl>jb*4lpi)ti. 

> Tlie TibeUnfl suto that it ia now ntiDiod Oluiziii, but Sir H. Viilr, tlu; grrat 
g^ogmplKT, writci (Maaoo P., i., lf>&) : *' Udydna lay t(i tho. nnrth of ri'sli&war. on tba 
Swat river, but fnjm tlie extent aasigncd Up it by Ilwin Tlisang, the name pnihobly 
coverpii a large part of tlio whole hill region south of the ilindu Kusli, from Chitral 
to thri liirlus, jm imieed it i« n'prcftent<Ml in the Map of Vivion dt* St. Miutin 
(PUerin9 Soudtlfititrt, Li.).*' It U ri^gardcd by FaHian ns tlie must nortliprty rro\-iDce 
of India, and to Ills time tlic food ajid clothing of tJie people were Bimilar to tho«c uf 
Gangptic ludio. 

* HsAt'a Si-rn-Ki. i., IM. s Maboo P.. i., 1.16. 




47 A.U-, he \'an(]ui.sliefl all the chief devils of the laud, 
ngmost of them on their consenting to become <lefender3 of 
eliji^ton, while he on his part guaranteetl that in return for ^itch 
OPH they would lie duly worshipped and fed. Thns^jui^t aw the 
Uiists in India, in ortler to secure the support of tho semi- 
giues of Bengal admitted into their system the bloody Durga 
other aboriginal demons, ho on extending their dootrineB 
ighout Asia the}' pandered to the jKipular taste by ailmitting 
in the pale of Buddhism the pantheon of those new naiionH 

LSOUght to 

Iprt. And 
flnrly in 

»n, where 
J,hiam was 

luced in 

icth cen- 

A.D., it 


^refsH till 

ninth cen- 



arated it 
^the local 
(oism, by 
ging that 
flbinto dei- 
prere om- 
rments of 
le fturu'f 
; powerful 
pons in 
'jg with 


be Vajro, 

an, d<y}''je)i flymbolic of the thunderbolt of Indra (Jupitor), 
ells extracted from the Maha3'i4na gospels, by which he 
his supernatural adversaries. 



Subjected by St. PaclmA. 



As the leading events of his march through Tibet and hi* 
subjugation of the local devils are of some interest, as indicAting 
the original habitats of several of the pre-Luniaist demons, 1 
have given a condt^nsed account of these in the chapter on the 
Xiantheou at |>age 382. 

Under the zealous patronage of King Thi-Srofi Detsan he buih 
ut Sam-yii« in 749 A.d. the first Tibelan monastery. The ortho- 
dox account of the miraculoua creation of that building is referred 
to in oru* description of that monastery. 

On the building of Silm-yiiH,' said to be modelled after the Indian 
Odantapura of Mftgndha, the Gum, assisted by the Indian monk 

Santa- rakshita, instituted 

there the order of the Lamas, 
Santa-rakKliita was made the 
Hrst abbot and laboured there 
for thirteen years. He nowis 
entitled Aciirya Bodhisat.' 

LS-ma' is a Tibetan word 
meaning the " Su|>erior One^ 
and corresjyjnd.s to the San- 
skrit Uttara. It was restricted 
to (he head of the monastery, 
and still is etriHly applicable 
only to abbots and the higbe«t 
monks; though out of courtesy 
the title is now given to 
almoHt all Li'imaisL monks and 
priests. The Lamiks have no 
special term for their form of 
Buddhism. They simply call it " The religion" or "Buddha's 
religion"; and its professors are "Insiders/' or " within tlie fold" 
{7iaii-}f<i), in contradistinction to the non-Buddhit^ts or *' Out- 


todtitQ Bu<ldlil9t Riunk ot ilie CIglilli 
('«itury A.o. 

I The title nf the t«mpln is Zan-yad Mi-gj-iir Lhun-g}-i dub-pahi Ifm^-Ilin-K^Jin, 
ortho '* Self-Bprung immovublo shrinr," and it is bclir-ved lo be base<I nn iniinn\-ablc 
foundatioDS uf adamnntino laid by tlin Gum. 

* And is said to hnvr b(>{>n of th^ Svatantrn sclinol, fu1lowiii|f ^iriptitm, AnamU, 
NiiKarjuna, Sublini'iknrA. Sn Ciipto, and Jn&na-^rbha (cf. Scax.^ 67; Kopp., li,, es; 
J.A.S.Ii., 1881, p. 236 : Takd., No. 26. 

> t>La-ma. Tlio Uigbtm (PHor) call their USmafl *Vuia " (YuLa*9, Cuiiay, p. Ml, 

(riders" (chv-pa or pyi-*lin\ the so-called " i^e-ling" or foreigners 
of Euglish writers. And tlie European terra " LrimaiHia " finds no 
couTiterjtart in Tibetan. 

The first Lama may be said to be Pal-baiis, who succeeded the 

ludian abbot Santa-raktiliita; though the first ordained member 

of this Tibetan order of monks was Hya-Khri-gzigH.* The most 

learned oflheBe young llamas was Vairocana, who tran8lat:ed many 

Sanskrit works into Tibetan, though his usefulness was interru|il£<l 

for a while by the Tibetan wife of Thi-Sroft Detsan ; w^ho in her 

bitter opjKisition to the King's reforms, and instigated by the Bon- 

|ia priests, secured the bauishtuent of Vairoctma to the eastern 

|»rovinee of Kham by a scberao similar to that practised by Poti- 

phar s wife. But, on her being forthwith afflicted with leprosy, she 

relented, and the young " Bairo-tsana" was recalled and effected 

,er cure. She is still, however, banded down to history as the " }^x^ 

ahulii she-devil,'"' while Vairocana is made an incarnation of 

Buddha's faithful attendnnt and cousin Anunda; and on account 

f his having translated many orthodox scriptures, he is credited 

ith the composition or translation and hiding away of many of 

le fictitious scriptures of the unreformed Lamas, which were. 

afterwards "discovered" as revelations. 

^_ It is not ejisy now to ascertain the exact details of the creed — 

^khe primitive hrimutsm — taught by the Guru, for uU the extant 

^Bvorks attributed to him were comiHisefl several centuries later 

Pfty followers of his twenty-five Tibetan disciples. But judging 

from the intimate association of his name with the essentials 

of I*amaii<t sorceries, and tfio sj)ecinl creeds of the old unrcfonnod 

^^eutiun of the Lamas — the Nin-ina-i*a — who profess and are ac- 

^Hcnowledged to be his immediate followers, and whose older serip- 

^Kores date back to within two centuries of the Guru's time, it is 

^Rvident that his teaching was of that extremely Tiintrik and 

magical tyi>e of Maliriyfina Buddhism which was then prevalent 

in his native country uf Udyan and Kashmir. And to this highly 

impure form of Buddhism, already covered by so many foreign | 

tions and mituratc<l with bo much demonolatry, was added a 


Tlie flnit ««?ven i»<»viciw {•'^itl'mi mi) vthn f'jnncd Uiii iiurk-ui! of tin: order wcro 

i/biA tl;Mi( iI/oiAh. rfMM^rvi'iiiIra an^ llmnka Mutik, 'iToti Xa^pudni, Sngor Vairo- 

114*. r.Vit .lrtrr_^( r<rt-fA'r/i mcA'ty. gLaii-Ka TanaiUk, of wliorn lite fl^^r throe vretv 


9 (rZn-nuir gyul. Tlic legend fe givea in Uio T(ui>f ik bcr-t'eA. 




portiou of tlie ritual and most of the demons of the indigenoof 
lion-pa religion, and each of ibe demons was asijigned its proper 
place in the I/uiiAiift [mntheon. 

Primitive Lamaism may therefow be ilefiued as a priestly mix- 
ture of i^ivaite mysticism, magic, and IndoTibetiin deraoimlatrv 
overlaid by a thin vamieh of Mahiiyana Buddhism. And to 
the present day hamaism still retains this character. 

In this form, as shaped by 
the Guru, Buddhism proved more 
attractive to the people, and soon 
became popular. Its doctriue 
of Kanmtt or ethical retributioQi 
api^ealed to the fatalism wliich 
the Tibetans share with most 
eastern rsce8. And the zealous 
King, Thi-Sro6 Detj^an, founded 
lather monasteries freely and 
iiiitiiited a [)eriod of great liter- 
ary activity by pmcuring many 
talented Indian and K]i.<huiTri 
Hrhulars for the work of trantilat- 
ing the Indian canonical works 
and L'OMinientarie« into Tiltetan.* 

A iinv-p 1 i'inK-.T» '^'i** "^*' religion was actively 

opjKwcd by the priests of the native religion, caMed liiin,' awti 
lhef^e were sup[»orted hy one of the most. pDwcrfid ministers.' 

' Tlie cliief tratislator* employtnl at thia timo were tlie Imlian monks, VimaU MHm^ 
Bnfldlta (JIuliy.T, Sdntiparblm, Visuddhi SiiiUa, the Taiiirlk ArIiArj-« I>l).-irTna-kirti (wlirt 
triiiwlated tlw VajnuUiiU'% Yv'jiiwoTki,). The Knslimiri mouks, Jtiia-Milrn, I>an%-^IUa 
and Artandn, n.s.sii>tcd hy the TiluiLLa iw)vtcf?«, cluef of whom Wiia \'air<>rrtnjt. No 
trtinslatiuiui or wurkn iu>rril><Hl tu I^adiim-uimbhnviL hi m self cx-iiir in tlio 'HlKtAO 
Tripitoku. t;-:iiit>ii. 

' After (liorgi. 

» The word ifi derived hy Gen. Cunningham (M,mkx> I*., t, 287) fnnn I'M/ii/<t. one «l 
11)0 nftmtjsaf the SniAtH-aHfOr Trorsliippi'r*Mf the niy»tic fly-f<tol cri«i»,calk»<I in Tibotu 
^yui'i driin, tliougli Prntifn is iiniply " a holy mail," and seems on^innl of thr? HurmnK 
title for monk, l*n^jyi. The Iton rcHifiou resenibh-a tlio Tnuittni of China (»«• YoU^ 
/«-. aV.; U(xK.. 5., p. a<>6 et s*^., and his L.L., p. 217 «-. and J.H. iim.j. <S*c, Mjy", 
IA*J4>. It is ejfpeciiilly lui^iocicitrd mtli thL' worship of dm^'on.s *>r n/7{F<f», nnd (ti 
ir|)utcil fouudor is gS'«it-ru^a jUt-£«. Aa now practised, it is deeply un)>regn/iit<(Ilrfr 
nuddliiHnl. For A Ititt of jomo tif its dtiitiirA UPe S&RAT, */9trr. Indian livtUtkitt JVI 
&.K., Vol. i. 

* Nitiiii'd \,iinM.i-Sh.ii)ri>in-pii-&kye«. The niinisti-iis wtio ,\!d(>d Ibe King wriv Ba 
^rr/i'Mi, and I/ti-ff^ib'tt'Hn. 

>me of tke so-called devils which are traditionally alleged to 
ive been overcome by the Guru were probably such human ad- 
versaries. It is also stated that the Bon-pa were now prohibited 
laking human and other bloody sacriHce as vrws their wont ; and 
lence is eaid to have arisen the practice of oflTering images of 
len and animals made of dough. 

Lamaism was also opi»osed by some Chinese lluddhists, one of 

rhom, entitled the Mahiiyfina Hwu-shang,' protested against the 

iod of Kuddhism which Saiita-rakshitu and Padnia-Hamhiiava 

rere teaching.^ Hut he is reported to have been defeated in argn- 

'ment and expelled from the country by the Indian monk Kanmla- 

siia,^' who, like Santa-rakrfhita, is alleged to be of the f>va-tantra 

Mndhyamilai school, and the author of many treatises still extant 

the gre;it commentjiry ('nin-gyur). The ex'.'ellent Sanskrit- 

Tibetan dictionaries (VyittjuiUl) date from this literary epc»ch. 

Padma-sambhava had twenty-five disciples, each of whom is 

edited with magical power, mostly of a grotesque character.* 

1 A ChhtpM; trrm far a BudilliIsC tnunk cnrmipnndiiig to Skt. VpddA^if/a or 
*nu«t»T." t^"*' Kmis's Hut. niul Ma\ku'h il(Hii\) 

> Two works by Jlwit-ihiuu/ :iii-mtj arc fi'Und in tlie Tdu-gyur (mDti, xxx., xaxiii. 
i;-wiLi.'s /J^|>. 22*0. 

' Kii,au.lj-fil.i WAS iiiithnr mJ an [ndia.ii work {Tnrbi) nxpjuudiiig tl«i various phUo- 
Dptiic itysUins uf India, (rmf. U. IliEiH-iEU, J. BwMkirt Ttxt .Sue. t/Indm, i., pt. ii., 

* 1. Nnni-k'a iiin-po inouuliHl tli<- HunhcaniH. 
H. ^^kfl-gy<>y«^•8u dr'j%-f iniu Ixiltit into rorks. 
;|. (tyiil-w<Kiro^->'nn ctinntjod his lii^ii'l into a liorapB,and avJglied tUrictf. 

4, K'ar-tfhVh CliVgyal rovivi'il the nUin. 
pjl-ki-ye-Ao overcanh- throt? fittidt-Haos. 
Pal-ki^i'i-g« cHBlavod dtaiiona, nyinpbs. and gi-mi, 

J. Vjurixrana ublainotl the hw h<'»VL-oly cycH of knowledge. 

5. NriJi-djig-fyalptj attained Somadlii. • 
9. Yu-dnih-Niri-po ncquin-d divine knowledge. • 

• 10. JnanA-kumiira worked miracks. • • 

' 11. D^rjc-D^m Jvin traveUwl inviaibly aa Uie wind. 

12. Y«-^'-Naii i-i8it«Kl Uie fairj* wurld. 

13. Sag-pu-Uia-pal (a Mongol KHsnaivii fttrocious boasts. 

14. N'a-nam-yc!]ie soared in the nky. 

25. I'aJ-ki-Wikii-p'ytu; killoil hin cnentiea by signs. 

!<}. IVn-nia-tse-Wan hiu) perfect mumory. 
, 17. Ka-Wa-|)aJ-Ueg pt-rceived tlie tb'iiijjhta of others. 
[ Vi. ShU'bn-pAl-9eh made water run upwanla. 
' If). Klie-hu-c'ug-Io caught dying birdx. 

1.20. liyal-Wtti-Uidoi raitK'd ghosbi mid convertvd the corpso into gold. 
[ SI. Ttni-iKii-nani-k'a IauvhI wihl yaks of tht- northern desert. 
'Otl»n-W.ih-p'yug dived into water like a llsh. 



And these disciples he instructed in the way of making magic 
circles for coercing the demons and for exorcism. 

The Guru's departure from Tibet was an miraculous iu char- 
acter as his life, and in keeping with the divine attributes with 
which he has beeu invested as ** Saviour of a suiTeriug world." * 

23. Ma-t'og rin-ch'cn cmsho^l adnmant to powder and ate it like lueai. 

li. Pal-k^i Dor-jc passed tlirough rocks and mountaJnK. 

25, Lau-dod KonK'li'oj^ wielded and rcpt^Uod thunderbolts. 
And a twf^nty-oixth it) luldM : (ryal-wai-Cli'ah c'ub sat crcMS-leggrd in the air. 

■ Afti^ n^hiiliiig in Til>i>t for alxHiC fifty ytiuu^ (s&y th« clirimicloe, tlKiugb it to 
pn^Mblu he only remaiiu'd a Tew yejirfi), and fonndiug Lainaism securely, ib*> Guru, 
in 80S A.D., mucii to the grief of th>^ Tibetans, announced his approaching departunt 
for fretih rehgiovw triuuiphs in oUier lands. Addressing the King, he said: "In 
Jaubudvip are five IliLksbu countries with 600 towns apiec«. The Central Raltsha 
country is namod San-do-piil-ri (zans-uidug'dpal-ri), the Idng of which is naniod 
Lungka of th? tcu nocks (? the tcn-beodcd Baron). To its east lies Lankapuh, to its 
south dGa-bu-c'an, or " Tkxe ba|}py " (Skt., SukliiratI or Nandavnti ), to its wc5t Ko-sha 
t'aiig-dmar-frling, to its north is Byau-Ug fort, to its souUi-east U Bani-ril-t'od-pB< 
ink'ar, bi its north-weal is Ma-la<go&m-lo]iags*rtse, to its uortli*esst is Nal-bjih 
c*>ineter}-, and in the si>uth-sast is the lake of Phiiri. These Rakaha eountrttft aro 
rntwded with men-eating de\'ilB, who if not cinquercd will depopulate the wbcdc 
world of Jambudi'ip, and except ine ooue other can subdue them. I Ihereffii* 
must go to the Btr:inghold of the Raksha at San-do-pol-ri in the country of r^a- 
ynb-glii'i or 'The Yak-toil continent.' which lies to ttie south-west of Tibet. Thitbof' 
must 1 now go." 

Then, accompanied by the King and nobles and bla two fairy wives <the Tibetan 
one of which, named Yfs'e-tu'o-gj-al was to be left behind), be went to the Uung^ 
thang \a in Mang-yul on the northern amfines of Til)et, and there, after giving 
^ fan-well advice t<i tlie king, priests, uiid the assembled multitude to keep tlie doctrinu 
he had taught them, and tlic reveUtions be had bidden in caves IhrougJiout tlu* land, 
Ite was enveloped in a glorious rainlH»w-Iuiln, within which appeared the four great 
heroes (dPa-bi) of the world, w l^i assistol him in moun ting the cdf'^tial liorse^^r 
(named "htththa" or Cliang-sal) in winch he n.ts i y"w_5r)riie away throu gh th f **^y t" 
A >wmth-westcrly din.clion, a ttend ed by tlic four iTeroes and aliMsr'('M 'Vi''ii'j*_a**'i'* 
hravenly mu.sic and showers of ffuwcral On liiii dciwrture the asscmMed multitude 
wi'-TO diistracted with grief and remained tninaAxed as If dead. ntimat4.*]y tlu- 
retinal IkOow the pass to Sraug-Adali-sIio-ytsjing-dur and tlie philn Tliang-«/i«al-mo- 
(/pal-thang, where they remaineil for twenty-five dajTi and nights, an d were able to 

_»cc the Oum'g celestial party, l ike a 8ho':)ting atar, sidli ng a^-ay through the sk y 
towftfdi the horiwn till itwit. to night . A^tcr much prayer and woreliip tJiey sadly 
deported on King Thi-^oh Dot«an telling thorn of the Iruru's safe arrival at San- 
do-pal-ri, vhict) oveot bo (the king) was able to sec through tlic magical insight 
lie had aoqulrod (Km the Ouru. It appeared that the Guru reached Hingala after 
about two days' journey, and penetmtiiig the iron palace, he entered the body of th«_ 
Raksha king named " Ho of the Skull rosary." and preached the doctrine to tii»' 
thnusand daujihttira of the Rjik.«ha and the folk of tliat country. A few days after* 
wards ho dt'parted for I»ja-yab-gliu, and reached the capital San-<!o-|)ftl-ri, when 
instantly abstracting the iife of the demon-king named Yaksba Me-wal, and ^nt^riog 
\m body, the Guru reignn there suprenv? over the Rakslias, even up till tJie pre^-nt 
itay, and iu perpetual yuuUi is prBdclung there the doctrine of Limaism iu a para* 
dise wliich rivals tliat of Amitabha's western heaven of Sttkfi4fati. 

id notwithstanding hia grotesfiue charlatanism and uncelibate 

fp, he is deified and worshipped as the ** second Buddha," and 

image mider ^''Tlie eight worshipful Forms" ^ is found in 

rery Til>etan temple of the old sect, as tigured at page 25. 

Tlius edtabliahe^l, and lavishly endowed, Lamaism made steady 
progress, and was actively patronized by Thi-Sroft Detsan'a succes- 
5rs for two generations."' 

The eras of Liimaism may be divided into (1) primitive or 
'Augustine" (from King Thi-Sroi\ Detsan's reign to the per- 
jeution), (2) mediaeval, including tbe reformation, (3) modem 

imaism, from the priest-kiugnUip of the Dalai Lama in the 
&venteenth century. 

An interesting gUmpse into the professed religion of the eailier 

riod 13 given in the bilingual edict pillars ^du-ring,** erected at 
jhilsa in 822 a.d.,^ in treaty with the Thinese. In the text of 
lese edicts, which has been translated by Dr. Bushell,^ occurs the 

lowing sentence: "They [? the Fan (Tibetan) and the Han 
inese)] have looked up to the three precious ones, to all the 

Ay saints, to the sun, moon, stars, and planetn, and l>egged them 

_be their witnesses." 

In the latter half of the ninth century^ under king KaliiacJian, 
le gi'ands<5n of Thi-Sroft DetJian, the work of the translation of 

riptures and the commentaries of Nagarjuna, Ai*yade\'a, Vasu- 

ftndhu, etc., was actively prosecuted. Among the Indian trans-. 

itoif employed by him were Jiua Mitra, Sileudmbodhi,'* iSuren- 

Irabodhi, Prajna-varraan, Drma-Bila, and Boflhimitm, assisted by 

"tlie Tibetans Pal-brtsegs, Ye-s"e-«de, CliW-kyi-Gyal-tsVi, and 

at least half of the two collections as we know them \» the work 

J Oum ts'in gye. For tlescripllnn n[ Uk*bo mv p. 37W. 

> Thj-Sroii I>c'tsan ili«! iii 78fi (Csoua, (/.-., lS3i, and was suw^cdpd hy Ms stiii. 

iu-tlu t«JWi-p<>. who, (HI bviiig iJoisuniHl by his ru'ftlw'r auou nfler hia acce«a)oiu was 

acc«eilo<l by hisbn>th*'r(8A(l-rm-l(>^) utuU-r tin- suiiic iiamf {RocvMiLi., L*/r, ^22), &n*i 

induced Kamaluriila ti» rt'tuni Ui TilH-t tiiid jM-rnianvntly reside in tlmt couutr)'. 

liia Uttor was succetHied by his sim Ral[ia.cli»n. 

3 These monoliths aroossi^'oed by Tilwt»n tradition (H6lr.inslat(Hl by SAiUT.,.fwl^/I.. 

Bl. i». 22S) tA Thi-Sron Dctsau's grandson, Ralpachnn. 

• Op. OV..5S1. 

« Ac<:ardinj; t< TibftAn chnuiology; but tlu> Chiiu-b- nuke lUlpacban's ncccwlon 
10 A.D. (,tlocitriiLi,'!t Ji., 2-i9\. 

* Tbeiw two w<*roi)upiU of Stliiramati (Vuttun', Tdtyxndlht. 3tf0> 




of their handt^.* Autl he endowed most of the monasteries with 
state-UiTuls and the right to collect tithes and taxes. He seem* 
to have been the tirst Tibetan sovereign who started a regular 
record of the annals of his country, for which purpose he adopted 
the Chinese system of elirouology. 

HJs devotion to Buddhism appears t^o have led to his murder 
about 899,' at the instigation of his younger brother Lafi Darma, 
— the sOH^lled Julian of Lfimaism — who then aaoeuded the throne, 
and at once commenced to persecute the I^lmas and did bis 
Utmost^ to uproot the religion. He desecrated the temples and 
several monasteries, burne<l many of their books, and treated 
the lilmas with the grossest indignity, forcing many to become 

But Laft Darma's persecution was very mild for a religions 
one, and very short-lived. He was assassinated in the third year 

of his reigu by a Lama of Lha- 
luft named Pal-dotje, who has 
since been canonized by his grate- 
ful church, and this murderous 
incident forms a [>art of the modem 
JJimaist masquerade.* This Lama, 
to effect his purpose, if&gumed the 
guise of a strolling blaok-hat devil- 
daucer, and hid in his ample sleeves 
a bow and arrow. His dancing 
below the king's |>alace, which 
stood near the north end of the 
present cathedral of Lhiisa,* at- 
tracted the attention of the king, 
who summoned the dancer to his 
presence, where the disguised 
Lama seized an opportunity while 

IfLA* Hir.\T I'KVIL-IlANCBH. . i . , , . 

near the king to shoot him with 

the arrow, which proved almost immediately fatal. In the re- 


> Bock., A, 225. 

« The date in variouBly given, rnnging from 838 (Bcshbu, 130 and 522J to 899 1J>. 
(Cboka, Or., 183) ; 902 (Sanako Sttsen, 49) ; KU (Korpiw, ii., 73). 
" At-tivrly aided by hie rainiater, »ISiti-»faif-&uas. 

* See Cliap. xx. 

* And not un thy Rt'd HlII lattorly nnraed •' l*vtaliu" 

BiiUin^ tumult the Lfimn Bped away on a black borse, which 
IS tethered near at hand, atid ridiug on, jiliuiged through the 
Kyi river on the outskirts of Lhasa, whence his horse emerged 
tin its natural white colour, as it had l>een merely blackened by 
at, and he himRelf turned outside the white lining of his ooat> 
I by this stratagem escaped his purguers.* The dying words 
!)f the king were : *' Oh, why was I not killed three years ago 
to save me committing so much sin, or three years hence, that I 
light have rooted Buddtiism out of the land ?" 
On the assassination of Lai'i Darma the Lamas were not long 
lin regaining their lost ground.' Their party assumed the regency 
luring the minority of Lafi Darma'a sons, and although Tibet 
Jnow became divide<I into petty principalities, the persecution 
ffieems to have imparted fresh vigour to the movement, for 
from this time forth the Lainaist church steadily grew iu size 
and influence until it reached its present vast dimensions, culminat- 
ing in the priest-kings at Lhasa. 

By the l)eginning of the eleventh century A.D., numerous Indian 

and Kashmiri monks were again frequenting Tibet.' And in 

1038 A.D. arrived Atisa, tlie great reformer of Lamaism,* whose 

kbiography U sketched in outline below, as he figures con- 

Icpicuously in Lamaism, and esijecially in its sects. 

) He hid in a cave ncnr lite niouastery of Brag'VaJ*pa, about one dAv'a jnuruey eoiit 
' Lhasn. 

3 Saaang Setscn sa5«(p. 51) that Lau Darma's son reignM wlthrmt the I^w. 

' Ajnoair'*4i'^<^ wtTL' Sinpti, who wrote n Tibetan vocabulary uatneil "Thi" \Vca])4>n 

Sppprh"; nharma|>3lii, who arrived in lOlS A.D., accompaiileJ by Hidilhnpala, 

3unBfNila,andPrajna-paln from Eastern India; and Subhutl $ri ::>anti, wlio translated 

>ine of tlio Pnijoa-|>aramJta. 

* Hi* Ii'genilary bioffrapliy, attributed to his pupil IJrotn-ton. but appart'Dtly <if 

' dat*' (and probably written by tlic Dalai in the sixtwntJi century, a» It credits 

nm-toTi with beinR Avalokitas incarnation), has boen translated by Sxuat in 

^onr. I»'f. liudd. Ttxl Si>^^ 1S9X f have also conaultt-d the uriginal (Cf. also Taba, 

2n.243. Koi'p.,ii.,78, 70.117,127, 295; Scm.., 6», 136; Pasd.No. 29.) Atl^a's pn>per 

Initiiui name Is Dipai'ikara Sri-juana, but he is usually cnllf^ by the Lamas Jo-x<^ 

ae'dfii-ht'iH AtiMi, nr "THl* lUustrioiu Noble Lord Ati»ha." And he \i held to U* 

incarnati'jn uf ManjuHCi* the Celestial Bodhisat of Wiiidoiii ; tlii>ugh thid seems 

ely a piouH way of stating that Ati^a was (K« MaiijuAn uf Tibet, r>r the most 

arned in aciiolostic nod astroto^ical lore of all the monks who had previously 

ait«d Itbet : as India, Nepal, and Cluna alraady poeacss^d their i^special apijtheofliz^ 

nae man a« a Manjuijp incaroation, He was born in 080 a.d. (according to hifl 

etan chronicles), of the royal family of Onur at Vikramanipur (?), in Beu^l. his 

bther iM-ing named Kalyana-Hri, and hia inoiher PrabhAvatl. and wad ordained at 




Alisa was nearly sixty years of age when he visited Tibet.^ 
He at once started a movement whiclj may l>e willed the Laiiiai»t 

Reformation, and he wrote many 



His chief disciple was pom- 
Ion, ^ the first hierarch of 
tlie new reformed sect^ the 
Kad;mi-pa, which, three-and-a- 
half centuries later, became the 
(h'-lug-pft, now the dominant 
sect of Tibet, and the estab- 
lished church of the country. 

Atisa'a reformation resulted 
not only in the new sect, 
Kadam-pa, with which he most 
intimately identified himself, 
but it also initiated, more or 
less directly, the semi-refonned 

sects of Kar-gjna-jia and Sakya-pa, as detailed in the chapter on 

The latter end of the eleventh century saw Lamaism firmly 

til'- OdantApurl VUiara. Ho uuderweut trfiining under btitli M&havanA U-Hrliere 
and till' Matin SiddhI (grub-ciren) or wir^nl-priRAte, hin nmst notable in&atfrs bein^ 
Cluiudnikirtt. tlie Abbot of ^^uvanmuvip, mi- Siidharmnnngar, tlif "Chrvtie" of the 
nnrifiita. tR>ar "TUatoa" m Pegu. Mativitant nf the MaliAbixllii VnuLru,audtlieM»(ltii- 
^iddlii Karo, who is esfjecially reUtt'd to the Kar-pj'u-pa £*<*ft. C'li slarliuj: Uu Tibet, 
he WHS a professor of the Vikriima«ila moniutter}' in Mngadha, and a cuuteiuponiry 
■if Nnyapala, min of Kiri); MalitpiUi. 

1 He vjsitttl TilMi by uav I'f Sari ITitr-stiiii in 1036 a.d. iu thp company of the L&niB 
Xag'tdlMJ, mill aftt'r startitiir wh;it tnny be called the R^-furnifd Lumaisnt, died in 
fchf ^^t''L'nii inniiastrry, m-ar Ijliua, in 10G2. It i» sljiti'd Otiit lie* came fruu 
ViIcraiTt.t.->iIu al th** iiivilaliim of thi> Tibet-in Kins, nanu'd Lha Lima Ye-shcs-*t>d, but 
hift rouitf rid Sari re iidfT* tJiU unlikely, and thi»* LIm Lanui J!ei.>in» l<> hare been a petty 
chirf of N.W. Tibet, who was rnptimMl alui'Ut that time by the Ncpalt-ae. 

' The fullowiiiji wiirki" h\ Ati^a iwrrurin nil>i».if bsTan ■g:>'ur; 1, Botlhii»aUm prmdip* : 
2, Cnr^'i Mngraha pradipa; 3, .Sntj-a di.iyav.it5ra,: 4, Madliyamojuidpsa ; 5, Sungralia 
gnrhha: 6. Hridnya niachita; 7, IVKlhisattva ina))ya%'all ; 8, lti»dhisativn karmadi- 
mafgAviiiura; 9, SamnapatJideHft : 10. Mahayana|»atlia siidhana vnrna i^angralu; 
II. Mahayunapatlm !»Adh.ina snri^raha; 12.StitrBrtha f*aimifhh.iyopiide8a; 13, Ilasakii- 
Rain kami'>pud*^'ii 14, Knnii.\ Vibhauga ; 15. i^aniadlii sanibhara (Kirivnrta; 16, LokiA- 
Ura>nptaka vidtii ; 17. Iriiru Kriyokraiua ; 18, Chittotpfidn sanivara vidhi krania ; 1?, 
S ikNha samiicchjiya abhi n.iiiiiiya. diUvcn-d by S rl rthariiiapoln. Kinp of rtuvamail- 
vi|va to nipaiikani nnd Kama la ; 20, Viniala mtiia I<-kl).imi. au epistle by I>i)iahkara 
to Naya PAla, King of Mii(ia*l!ia by Atisa on hi» departure fur Tiln-L 

3 ffiiUH-4tou. 


rooted, and its rival sects, favoured by their growing popularity and 
the isolation of Tibet, were beginning to form at Sakva and 
elsewhere strong hierarchies, which took much of the power out 
of the hands of the petty chiefs amongst whom Tibet was now 
parcelled out, and tended to atill further open the country to 
Chinese and Mongol invauion. 

There seems no evidence to support the assertion that this 
Lamaist revival was determined by any great influx of Indian 
monks fleeing from persecution in India, as there is no record of 
any such influx about the time of the .Mnlinmmadan invasion of 

In the second half of the thirteenth century, Lamaism received 
a mighty accession of strength at the hands of the great Chinese 
emjieror, Khubilai Khan. Tibet had been conquered by his 
ancestor, Jengliiz Khan,^ about 120C A.n., and Khubilai was thus 
brought into contact with Lamaisra. This emperor we know, 
from the accounts of Marco Polo and others, was a most en- 
lightened ruler; and in searching about for a religion to weld 
together the more uncivilized iK>rtions of his mighty empire he 
called to his court the most powerful of the I^amaist hiemrchs, 
namely, the Saskya Grand L:1ma, as well as representatives of the 
Christian and several other faitlis, and he ultimately tixed upon 
lAoaaism, as having more in common with the Shamanist faiths 
already prevalent in China and Mongolia than had Confucianism, 
Muhammadanism, or Christianity. 

His conversion to Buddhism is made miraculous. He is said to 
have demanded from the Christian missionaries, who had been 
Bent to him by the jiope, the performance of a miracle as a 
proof to him of the superiority of the Christian religion, while 
if they failed and the Lfimas succeeded iu showing hini a miracle, 
then he would adopt Buddhism. In the presence of the mis.sion- 
aries, who were unable to comply with KhubilaiV demands, the 
Lilmas caused the emperor's wine-cup to rise miraculously to his 
lips, whereat the emi>eror adopted Buddhism ; and the dis- 
com6ted missionaries declared that the cup had been lifted by 
the devil himself, into whose clutches the king now had fallen. 

Just as Charlemagne created the first Christiau poj>e, so the 

I Tie Tibetan accounts h? WAS bom In 11S2X.D., and wAsthi> sunof iht> 
MoDjrol God (? deified nncL-stor) "The Whit** <irtau%-(»." 



emj)eror Khiibilai recngnizeil ^ the Lama of Saskya, or tlie Sakva 
Pandita, as liead of the Lamai^t church, aud conferred upon him 
temitorary power as the tributai-y ruler of Tibet, in return for 
which fiivour he was reijuired to consecrate or crown the Chinese 
empE-rors. And the succession in this here<iitary primacy wai^ 
secured to the Pandit's nephew, Lodoi Gyal-t5*an (or Alati- 
dhvaja), a young and able iJlma, who was given the title of 
Highness or .Subliniify (pogft-p^i)' Khul)ilai actively promoted 
Lamaism and built many monatjteries in Mongolia, and a large 
one at Pekin. Chinese history- attributes to him the organisa- 
tion of civil aduiinitttration in Tibet, though it would api>e.&r 
that he exerted his authority only by diplomacy through these 
spiritual jfoteatates without any actual conquest by arms. 

The Sakya poijc, assisted by a stafl' of t^cholarg, achieved the 
great work of traaslatiug the bulky Lamaist c-anon (Kah-gynr) 
into Mongolian after its revision and collation with the Chinese 
texts. Indeed, the Laniaist accounts claim for the Sakya Pope 
the inveotion of the Mongolian character, though it is clearly 
modelled U|)ou the Syrian; and Syriac and nestorian missionaries 
are known to have worked in Mongolia long prior to this e|>och. 

Under the succeeding Mongol euiperors, the Sakya primacv 
seems to have maintained much of its i>olitical supremacy, and to 
have used its i>ower as a church-militant, to oppress its rival sects. 
Thus it burned the great Kar-gyu-pa monastery of Dlkung about 
1320 A.D. But on the accession of the Ming dynasty in 1368 A,n. 
the Chinese emperors deemed it politic, while conciliating the 
Lamas, as a body, by gifts and titles, to strike at the Sakya 
power by raising the heads of two other monasteries^ to equal 
rank with it, and encouraged strife amongst them. 

At the begiuning of the fifteenth century a Lama named 
Tsoii-K'a-pa re-organized Atisa's reformed sect, and altered Ita 
title to *' The virtuous order," or Oe-ltig-pa. Tliis sect soon 
eclipsed all the others; and in five generations it obtained the 
priest -kingship of Tibet, which it still retains to this Jay. Its 
first Grand Lama was Tso6-K'a-pa*s nephew, Geden-dub, with 
his Buccession based on the idea of re-incarnation, a theory 

t In 1270 A.D. 

a Mahco p.. ii., 38. 

> The Ka-^yupa, Dikung, and the Ka-dam-pa Ts'aL 


rhich was afterwards, apjiarenllv in the reigu of tbe fifth 
"Or^nd Lama, deveIoi>e(l into tUe fiction of re-inoarnated reflexes 
of the diWoe Bodhisat Avalokita, as detailed in tie chapter on the 

lu 1640, the Ge-Iug-pa leapt into temporal jrower under the 
fifth Grand Lama, the crafty Nag-waft L6-zang. At the request 
of this ambitious man, a Mon- 
gol prince, Guttri Khan, con- 
^quered Tibet, and made a pre- 
t of it to thia Grand Lama, 
who in 1650 was confirmed in 
hi? sovereignty by the Chinese 
•mperor, and given the Mon- 
;ol title of Dalai-, or "(vast 
) the Ocean." And on ac- 
count of this title he and his 
iaccessor« are called by some 
uropeans "the DiiUti (or 
Tale) Lama,*' though this 
title is almost unknown to 
Tibetans, who call tiiese«inuid 
" the great gem of 
ajesty " (Gyal-wa Kin-ptv 

This daring Dalai Liima, high-hauded and resourceful, lost no 
time in consoUdating his rule as priest-king and the extension of 
his sect by the forcible appropriation of many monagteries of the 
other sect^, and by inventing legends magnifying the [wwers of 
the Bodhisat Avalokita and posing himself as the incarnation of 
this divinity, the presiding Bodhisat of each world of re-birth, 
whom he also identified with the controller of metprnpsychosig, the 
dread Judge of the Dead before whose tribunal all mortals must 

Pofling in this way as God-incarnate, he built ^ himself the 
Uge palace-temple on the hill near Lhilsa, which he called 

otala, after the mythic Indian residence of his divine prototype 

iojij^c^ii ab^ ^' 

Tbk Viast Dalai Lama. 

t CI. OtKMU, Or^ 1&2 and 19« ; Kof p., U., IdS. 2S5 ; J.A.SM,, 1662. p. 27. 
■ After PaudtT. ^ In 1643, Choxa, (Jr., p. l^t) 

, •*1W Laid «te ImIs <l0«a fia «B k^fc,* vfac- 
bqli be aov iBrert«rI Inst^lf vrf h. H^ al» taapervd od - 


--- i 



TUB PJtLM-x or rvx lui^t Ukiu. 

oiuly with Tibetan Iristory in ordf^r to lend colonr to his dime 
pretoncioDfl, aad he succeeded perfectly. All the other &ecta of 
lilOQAA acknowledged him and his guccessors to be of divine 
dMcent, (be veritable Avalokita-in-tbe-flesh. And they also 
nfhrpttfd the plan of succession by re-incarnate Lamas and by 
divine refleifs. Am ior the credulous [jopulace, they recogniied 
the Dalai liinia to be the rightful ruler and the existing govern- 
ment an a theocracy, for it flattered their vanity to have a deity 
incarnate an their king. 

The declining years of this great Grand TJitnn, Xng-waA, were 
tro ibleil liy the careH and obligations of the teuiporal rule, and his 
anii'itiouH Hchcmes, and by the intrigues of the Mauchus, who 
son^ht tlte ternporut sovereignty. On account of these iwlitjcal 
troahlf'H hiH Heath was co!iceaIe<l for twelve y^ars by the minister 
l>t»-Si,' who is believed to have been bis natural son. And the 
Mueceeding Grand Lilma, the sixth, proving hopelessly dissolut«| 
he wao executed at the instigation of the Chinese government. 

' »l)fn-itl. Cm>ha*» Om»^ 191 ; Oionui's Alf>\. 



which then assumed the suzprninty, niirl wbkh haN since con- 

Ednaed to control in a general way the temporal affairs, esjtecially 
Is foreign policy,* and altio to regulate more or less the biemrehal 
(tuccession,* as will Ih? referred to prefently. 
But the Ge-lug-ija sect, or the established church, going on 
Be lines laid down for it by the fifth Grand l^ama, continued to 
prosper, and hU successors, despite the presence of a few (.'hinese 
oflicials, are now, each in turn, the fU facto ruler of Tibet, and 
recognized by the liSmas of all denominations as the sujjreine 
hecwl of the Lfiinaist churub. 

In its ppread beyond Til>et, iJimaisni almost everywhere exhibits 
the same tendency to dominate both kin^ and people and to repress 
the national life. It seems now to have ceased extending, but 
shows no sign of lotting bold upon its votaries in Tibet. 

The present day distribution of l^Smaism extends through states 

stretcliing more or less continuotisly from the European Cancasus 

to near Kamscbatka; and from Ihiriaf Siberia down to Sikbini 

and Van-nan.* But although the area of its prevalence is so vast, 

the population is extremely sj>arse, and so little is known of their 

numbers over the greater i>art of the area that no trustworthy figure* 

can be given in regard to the total number of professing Lamaiste. 

The population of Tibet itself is probably not more than 

4,000,0110,' but almost all of these may be classed as Uimaists, for 

Lough a considerable proportion of the people in eastern Tibet 

adlierents of the Bi>n, many of these are said to patronize the 

liimas a.« well, and the B<>n religion has become assimilated in 

great part to nn-rcformed I^maism.^ 

* TItua it im^mvU fnr Tibet sntiAfactiun frmii tin? (iorklms utidi-r Prilliivi'iiarsyan 
i*K tltcir inra«it<n erf Wcatern Tibet and wick i)f Taslii-lhuniio in 1765 (Kihu-atkiuk's 
Aeff. of .V/-/*!/, p. ;i68; Bu(.-HA>.u«-llA3iiLT0N,.Vrj«[/, p, i«), aod the prrsi^nt Hdusion 
uf Tibrt aj(«iniit Europcius i» moinly due to Chinev.' poliry. 

< Ad Uit<>rcstiiig glitnpnte into \\w ci>uiitry of Uml |><'ri<xl is got In tlio conti'tnporiiry 
rKord of the friar Hoiacv di'lla Peoua. crauAUtul Juto EnglUh by Markluin («/«. n't., 

* IbH tniLL, Ij.. p. 3M, ratimatfs it at 3,SO0,O00. 

* Ttmuxh it mmt bi* rHmrmberfd that >[r. Rr<ckhill fiiujid a largi* tract 'if N.E. Tibrt 
c»:''lu'»ivrly ■tfcupii'd by Bon-pa. In tlii? nortli-vastfni prtvincettf Uya-di-, witli aUmt 

p«'':'pl»% iK-twn-on tin- Ponij ItivtT and ninnnii, Mr KockJiill found Hiat Uw 

i-jw rt'li^ion ri-icns suprcm?, and in urdfr t" snvf thrsf peopli- from jK-rsfCutinn at 

I hamb *rf thf* Lomaist Oovemiiu*nt at LhA^n, ChioA itstlf swiwrviscs tlif adminif 

*wii of iliis province. And "all alung the t-aat*--™ b-irderland of Tibet frum the 



Tlie European outiKwt of tbe Lamaist Church, situated amid th 
Kaiiuuk 'iartars on the hnnks of the Volga, lias been described in 
BOine detail by Kiippen.^ 

After the flight of the Torgots, about 12,(X>0 cottages of the 
Krdmuk Tartars still i-einaiued in Russian terriiory, between the 
Don and the Yaik. Now they number at least ::O,O00, and con- 
tain more than 100,000 souls, of which by far the great majority 
retain the Lainaist faith. Of course, since the flight, all inter- 
course with the priest-god at Lhasa is strictly forbidden, nor 
are they allowed to accept from him any orders or jiatcnts, nor to 
send him any ambassadors or presents. Nevertheless, he gives 
them secret advioe by oracle and otherwise, and maintains their 
religious enthusiasm. Thus, even now, he exercises an imjmrtant 
jpfluence on his pious flock on the Volga, so that they can be 
considered of the Lamaist church, although the head Lama (for 
the Kalmuks still call their head priest **LuDia*') is sanctioned at 
present by the Kussian government, and no longer by the Dalai 

Altogether, evidently for a reason not far to seek, the number 
of priests has greatly increased since their connection with l^asa 
has been cut off. Formerly the Dalai Liima had also on the Volga 
a quite disproportionate number of bondsmen or Schabinaren, 
whose contributions (taxes) went to Lhasa ; but since the flight of 
the Torgots the money remains there, and the Schabiuiirs of the 
remaining L'lussc have bfeu diWded amongst the several Churolls. 
These clergy also would appear to have developed extraordinary 
zeal, for in the year 1803 it was re^wrted that the Kalmuk priests 
formed a tenth part of the whole population, that they perpetually 
enriched themselves at the expense of the people, that they 
meddled in everything, and received all the young men who were 
averse to labour at their proper calling, etc., etc. 

Since 1838 the Kussian government has succeeded, through 
the head Lama Jambo Namka, in preventing in some me^siu^ 
these abuses, and severer laws were is&ued, e5i>eciaUy against the 

Kokonor to Yun-nui, it (thp Ikln-pa religinn) floiirisliea ttide by sitle with the LimAist 
tuth .... ftnd in all the aouttiem purtiuiui uf TilH-t, nut uudi-r tim direct rule: 
of Ltiiu. itff Uamancrirs may be fovind. So it Beems tlut tiiis f«itli uhtairu iu uv«r 
Lwo-ttiln)» iifTlbi-t. Aitd that it Itt |M>[iular frith at l<Mst a flfttixf tlicTilictAu-spritkiug 

Iribe*," — (in»jniiifi>r(if Jiini\, Mov, ltM»4. 
' W/». or.,"-. Mfiff m/. 



riests interfering in civil affairs; also several hundred worthless 
tiests were eijielled. 

A more precise census of the Russian empire gives the number 
"&f Lamai-*«t |)eopIe at 82,000 Kirghis, and 119,1(12 Krduiuks; ; while 
Ibe Buriats in Siberia, near the Baikal lake, are estimated at 
about iyo,0<JO.> 

Pallas- calculated when lie visited the Kahnuk country last cen- 
tury that there was one iJimn to every one hundred and fifty or 
ro hundred tents. 

In China, eiwpt for a few monasteries at Tokin, etc., and these 
mostly of Mongol monks, the Lamaist section of Chinese Budd- 
histic seems confined to the extreme western frontier, especially 
the former Tibet-an province of Amdo. Probably the Lamaists 
in China number no more than about 1,000,000. 

Mongolia may be considere<l almost wholly Lamaist, and its popu- 
lion is about 2,000,000. II.^ Buddhism became extinct on theex- 
ilsion of the race from China in 1368; and its reconversion to 
I^maism did not occur till 1577, as detaile<1 in the Mongol history 
by Sanang Set2en,^ who was a great grandson of one of the chief 
Agents in this movement. .Some details of its history are cited in 
connection with the Taranntha Grand Lama in the chapter on 
hierarchy. The number of Lamas are estimated* at 10,000 in 
Urgya in north Mongolia, 2,000 in Tchaitschi in south Mongolia, 
^000 in Altan Ziima, and 2,000 in Kukukhotura. 

Manchuria is largely Lamaist, with a population of about 


I.Adak, to which Asoka missionaries are believed to have pene- 

Lt«4i, is now entirely iJimaist in its form of Buddhism, and this 

I the popxdar religion. Its history is given by Cunningham'^ and 

arx.'* The population was estimated by Cunningham ' at 158,000 

td the Lamas at 12,000, giving one Lalma to thirty laity. 

* KopiniM. AtUtiin BUt. Phil, d* CAtMd- de ^. PttcrOmry, ix., p. 335 ; Kitmi Jonx- 
stom's AtfuA, ^.M. SchU^otweit Mys, o/;.aV., p. IS. that MnoafT the Burials fiuddlusm 
U Aiitl t'Xtvading. 

' Ktutn, L. 567 (Fnndi ed.). 

I* KOPPK-S i , p. 381, cliiffly ba«ed on Hue's data. 
I* LML\k, \t. ZhT, rt. ttq. 

Op. c*U p. 287. 



Recent estimates place tUe population at about 178,000. Spi 
in 1845 had a papulatiou of 1,414, and the Lamas were ou 
hundred and ninety-three, or about one to seven.* 

The vernacular history of its introduction into eastern Tur 
kestan or Khoten (Til>., Li-tjui) has been translated by Rookhill. 

lu Xejjal, the number of Buddhi^its grows every year less und 
the active proselytizing Hindu influences of the Grhorka Govera 
ment, which places disabilities upou professiug Buddhists, li' 
the majority of the Nepalese Buddhists are now Lfimaist. 

Bhotan' is wholly Ltlmaist, both in its religion and t4^mpo; 
go\'emment. Its population has been given at about 40,(X)0 
50,000 families, or a total of 145,200/ But although it is believ 
to be almost as priest-ridden as Sikhim, the number of its priest 
is estimated* only at about 5,000, dintributed in the six district 
as follows : In Tassisudon 500, in Punakha also 500, in Paro 30< 
in Tongso also 300, in Tagna 250, and in Andipur (or Wundipiii 
250, in round sum 2,000. Then come 3,000 Lrimaii who do ni 
reside in cloisters, but are employed as officers, making a total < 
5,000, besides which tliere are a lot of hermits and nunSw 

In reganl to Sikhim, where Liimaism is the state religioSf 
have elicite:! from original documents and local TvSmas fall detail 
of the mo*le in which Lamaism was introducetl into that countij 
Some of these are worth recording as showing in a credible maniM 
the m<»de in which jjamaisni was ])ro]ia^ated there, and it 
probably introduced in a similar manner into several of the otb 
areas in which it is now prevalent. 

The I Jimas and laity of Sikhim" and Tibet implicitly believe thai 
St. Padiua-sambhava (Guru Kim-bo-ch'e), the founder of Lrfimaismj 
visited Sikhim during his journeyings in Tibet and its weaten 
borderlands ; and although he left no converts aud erected niJ 
buildings, he is said to have hid away in caves many holy books fof 
the use of posterity, and to have persoDally consecrated evei 
sacred spot in 8ikhim. 

I MajnrHi,y, J.^.S.A., xix., 437, 

* Zt/c, etc., p. 23"), rf. Btii. ixf also iJr. Ucth's Ueiman trnnslatioD of tbe B^ 

' The wiird is Sanalcritic and Its full form »"JMofiih'V or "the mid of HkHi 
Tihet" (cf. UoDas., X., L, p. 30). 

* Pembbhton';* MiimioH, \}. l&I. 

* KoppBV, ii., |i. 303. 

* T)u>»iitii-xi-<l tlhiHtrntinn is from a photc^rapli by Mr, Hoffmann. 

Tbe authorities) for t*ucli beliefs are, however, merely the nc- 

ti^mnts given in the works of ibo j>alroQ saiot of Sikhim, Lha-triiin 

Cb'em-bo, and the fictitious '* hidden revelations " of the TeTto}is, 

■li of which are uni"eliable. And Lha-tsiiu rather overdoes it by 

Bierting that the Gura visited >Sikhim a bundred times. 

Sikhim Reems to have been unknown to Tibetans previous to the 

I btter half of the sixteenth century A.i>., and Lha-tsiiiu Ch em-bo's 

''own account of bis attempts to enter SikUim testify to tbe pre- 

t-ailing ignorance in regard to it, owing to its almost imi^cnetrable 


A K«r-g>u LSmn 

A Karinn LAina. 

loantain and iey barriers. And the Tun-yik Ser-V en, yih'ich gives 
Ui^ fullest account of St. Padma's wanderings, and considered tbe 
reliable authority, seeni3 to make no memion of Sikhim. It 
^■xtreraely improhal>le that the tiuru ever entered Sikhim, 
eoially as, as we have seen, he certainly did not jjass through 
country either when s*^'^g ^^ or returning from Tibet. 
keeping, however, with the legendary accounts of \xn visit, it 
Jleged by Sikbimite Ijilmas that their Lord St. Padina entered 
I c^aut ry by the " Lordly |iass " Jo-la {A u^., Cho-la) and on the 




east side of the i>ass is jwhiterl out a rock on which he sat down, 
called Z'u-iu or throne,* and near the pa^s a spot named SinnuA 
ffyip't^it* where he surprised a party of female devils preparing U 
cook their food : here are pointed out two masseji of columnar rncfc 
alleged to be two of the stones of the tripod used to support thi 
cooking-pof of these demons. And he is said to have returned U 
Tibet by way of the Je~fep pass, renting «t route on the Ku-pkk 
and creating the Tuko La by " tearing *' up the rock to crush i 
obnoxiout; demon. 

The introduction of Lamaism into Sikhim certainly dates froi 
the time of Lha-tsiin*s arrival there about the middle of thi 
seventeenth century a.d« Hy thiH time L&maism bad become 
most powerful hierarchy in Tibet, and was actively extending it 
creed among the Himalayan and central Asian tribes. 

Three generations of Tibetan colonists from the adjoininj 
CUumbi valley had settled on the eastern border of Sikhim, neat 
tiang-tok. And it is highly probable that the&e Tibetan settle 
were privy to the entry of the I^mas; a** it is traditionally reiMftet 
that the ancestor of that Sikhimite-Tibetan, who was promptly 
elected king of Sikhim, by Lha-tsiin. was a protege and kinsman 
the Sakya Grand Liliua. And Lha-tsiin Ch'em-bo seems to havi 
approached Sikhim via 8akya, and his incarnations sabsequentl 
appeared lu the neighbourhood of Sakya, and even now his spirfl 
is believed to be incarnate in the bod}' of the present Sakya U^ma 

Lha-tsijn was a native of Kongbu, in the lower valley of the 
Tsang-po (Brahmaputra), which has a climate and physical appea^ 
ance very similar to Sikhim, and teems with traces of St. Padma- 
eanibhava, "discovered" by celebrated J^lmas, and it luul been 
happy hunting ground for the Tertcins, or discoverers of th« 
fictitious treatises called " hidden revelations." Arriving, then, 
in a country so like his own, and having the virgin soil of Sikhim 
to work upon, Lha-tsiin seems to have selected the most romantic 
spots and clothed them in auitable legendary dress in keeping 
with his ingenious discovery of St. Padma's previous visits. And 
to support his statements he also discovered that his own advent 
OA the apostle of Sikhim had been foretold in detail, nine hundred 
years before, by the Uuru himself, iu the revelation entitled 

1 bz'ogs kliri. 

' Srin*niobi rg>'ib gcsug. 

e prophetic mirror of Sikhim."* He seems to have been a 
of considerable geniuy, with a hvely Hense of the pictiuesque ; 
aod he certainly left hiit mark on his adopted country of Sikhim^ 
y|liere his name is now a household word. 

^BThe traditional account of his entry to Sikhim associates with 

^Bin two other Liiinaa, to wit, a Kar-tok-i>a and a Na-dak-pa; but 

^ney play an inconsjiicuous part, in tlie work of introducing 

Lamaisin, and it is extremely doubtful whether any representative 

of these ^ifi-ma sub-sects arrived in Sikhim at so early a 


As Lha-taiin is so intimately identified with Sikhim Lamaism, 
being its de facto founder, it is desirable here to give a summary 
of his life as estracted from the local histories. 



Lha-tfiln Ch*em-f>o* is a title raenniiig "The great Reverend God." 
His ordinary religious name is Kunzaii nani-^i/c,^ or " The entirely 
victorious &»ence of Goodness." lie is also kno^^n by tbe title of 
IJui-Uuih uam-lhii Jiy-mcdy^ or ** The Ileverend God who fears not the 
«ky," witli reference to his alleged power of flying. And he is some- 
times culled Kit9ho Daog-ch'en C/i'emf'O, or " The great Honourable 
Daog-c'en" — />«v;-rA'fn, literally " The Great End," being the techni- 
cal name for the system of mystical insight of the Nin-mapa, and 
Ctttho means " the honoui-able." 
He was boni in the tire-birtl year of the tenth of the siity-year cycles, 
ponding to ]i)05 a.d., in the district of Kongbti, in south- 
tern Tibet. Having spent many years in various mona8tene.s and 
travelling throughout Tibet nnd Sikhim, he ultimately, in the year 
1G48, arrived in Lhilsit, au<l obtained such great repute by his learning 
that he attracted the favourable notice of Kag-wnn, the gi'eatcst of the 
Grand Liinas, who sliortly aftei'wards became the firat Dalai Lama. 
Xmleed, it is allege<l that it was mainly through the special instruction 
given by Tjha-tsiin to the Grand Lama that the latter was so favourably 
trerited by the Chinese empei-or and confirmed in the temporal rule of 
, Tibet. 

^^The detiiileil nccnunt of the saint's meeting with the Grand Lama is 
^0Drth citing in illustration of the curious mixture of the crude and the 
' marvellous which make up the bulk of these indigenous narratives. In 


Sl'JifCAf) OF 

the VfiAr previous to ihtvt od which the tifth CJi-nnrl hiniu wi 
China, uliich (_Voiim give:!*' a.s 1041* a.u., tiiu Ciniiiil Ituuin. whiU" I 
his pnlnce nt Potaln told his iittoudauU, by ini^piiiitiou. thuE a mi| 
wuuUl that (lay vi.sit hiin^ and should be aduiittvd to his prtftenfil 
Lhti-tsiin, airiving at tlie site now named Pai^o-K'alih. imuiediate^ 
below Potala — the Lamaint Vatican — blew loudly a k'liliit, or tniui{}| 
of humuu thigh-bone ;" but the cattle guard, in ignorance of who lt| 

Mkkdicant Lama t(I*wI^^^ THi(iii-Hu>h- TnrHi'KT. 

man really was, seize*! him and tied him to tlie Di'.-nng monolit 
in the ncighbi^>uih<xjd, as a punishment for daring to tnimpet at 
clo*«e to the costle. Tlio suint, bound in this way, bhook the whole hil 
of Potala, :<ni] fo liis arrival was hmttght to the notice of the Gmnji 

» ff,:, p. IWI 

* I'lw ilhiMratinn itt frain a fiho'o hy Mr. HufFinitun. 

.mo, who ordered his instant release and admission. On coming into 
the presence of the Omnd Lama he walked boldly up and struck the 
.tt«r with his fist and then vomited before him, much to the Astonish- 
eiit of the courtier Lamas. The Saint then explained: ** You are 
lortly going to China ; on the way a great danger besets you, but my 
riking you hits rid you of that danger. In China you will tind your- 
If in great peril some day ; then consult this paper I now give you, 
nd you will be relieved. My vomiting in yom* prei^uce uieanu that 
'ou will ultimately be invested with great power and riches thi'ougU 
lae." The dilemma here prophtwied was a query by tlit* Chinc^w 
euipeiTor regarding the "essence of the niinlww c<jlour," ' which (juite 
confounded the Grand Lama, till he, rememberiug the episode witli the 
Saint, consulted the paper and found full information noted therein, 
and having completely satisfied the emperor, he received great honotu* 
and riohen. The Grand LSma, on htA retnm from China, in gratitude 
br services rendered, on*ered Lha-tsiln much treasure, which the 8ainL, 
however, refused. 

Previous to his visit to Lhasa, it i^ said that the Saint, accompanied 
by a few di-sciples, journeyed to the south-we^t of Tibet, jsayiug: '* Ac- 
corrling to the prophecy of Guru Rim-bo-ch'e, I must go and open the 
northern gate of the hidden countrj' of the rice-valleys — De-mo-jong," 
i.€., Sikhim, and I must develop that country religiously." He then 
proceeded by way of Ta-shi-lhunpo and Sakya to Zar, a short dintimce 
to the north of Tnshi iiibkha near the Nepal frontier, where he then, or 
Hfterwards, founded a monastery. 

He then attempted to enter Sikhim by way of Dsong-ri (Jongri), 
lut could lind no path, and remained many dayn in a cave named .Wun- 
tt'aly* " the very pleasant grove," near Knit-la nan-vm. There " the 
.*erln«ting summit of the five i*epositonei4 (of snow)," the mountain 
~, Kan-ch'end&a>na ^ transformed himself into a wild goose and cou- 
rsed with the sage; and here, "aocoitling to the pi-ophecy of Guru 
im-boch'e," he composed ' the book named *'the complete lir>uk of 
~orahip and offerings for Kaii ch'en dsii-ha." 

At this time anotlier Lama of the Kar-tok-pa sub-sect came by Kangla 
Xangma searching for a path into Sikhim, and also tried without 
success the sProu-gyab-tak (».<r., " Moukey-bnck rock," with j-efereuce 
to it6 semblance to a monkey sitting with hands behind iMick), and 
isong-ri, imd the western shoulder of sKam-pa Khab-rug — a ridge of 
* Knbru," which nms down to the Hatbong river. He then arrived at 
16 cave of .'* the very pleasant grove," and met the Saint, who toM liim 
,t as he was not destined to open the northern gate, he should go 
round and try the western. 

llien Lha-tsiin, traversing the Kangla Nangma and finding no road 
beyond the cave of Skam-pa Kha-bruk, fiew mimoulousl}' to the upper 

1 *l>«aA u'on t9ih p<>. 

put of ** Kabra " (34.000 feet), aod there blew his kang^mg, a&d 
after an abe«Doe of two weeks flew down to where his serrants 
oollectefl and goided tbem bv a road ri6 Deoogn to Norba-gang, ial 

Here woo after amred two other Kih-ma Limas. B7 '* the westeral 
gat« " of Single La came tlie Kar-tok-pa lAma above meutioned, 
named "The Great Soul,*'' and a Lama of the Ka-dak-pa 8ab-6<ect|J 
Dsmed The (Jreat Sage,' who bad opened ** the soothfon gate", by way] 
of Darjiling and Namrhi respectively. The place whesie tbeae 
lJm»« met was then called by the Lepchas Vok-MttHf which means **tht1 
three superior ones or noblemen/' a literal translation of '*tfae three] 

The three Limoa held here a conncil at which Lha-teian aud : *" Wa 
three Lfcnuu are in a new and irreligious country. We mnst have ■] 
• du>peni$er of gifts ' ' (Le., a king) to rule the country on our behalf." 
Tlieii the ]^a-dak-pa I.Amfl «aid : '^ I am descended from the celebratedl 
Tertuu 5ka-dak Nanrel, who woti a king; I should therefore be tliej 
Idng." While the Knrtok-|Mi Lama declore^l ; ''As I too am of royal] 
laDMffe I have the right to rule." Then Lha-t£iin said : ^ In tUa] 
prophecy of Guru Rim-bo-ch'e it is nTitteu that four noble broihc-. 
■haU meet in Sikhiui and arrange for its govemmeut. We are three ofl 
theee come from the north, west, and aouth. Towards the east, it 
written, there Is at iliib epoch a man named Piin-tct'ok, a descendant ' 
of brave Hucefttors of Kliam in Ea8t«ni Tiliet. According, therefore, taj 
thu prophecy of the Guru we should inxite him," Two messengers wei 
tlien dispatched to search for this P'un-t«'ok. Goinjj towards tbej 
extreme east near Gaogtok they met a man chuiTiiug milk and asked] 
him hi:» name. He, without replying, invited them to aii down, and 3 
f^ve them milk to drink. After they wei-e refreshed, he said hiii name j 
was P'unttt'ok. He wa» then conducted to the LSmas, who coronated] 
him by placing the holy water-Tosc on his head and anointed him with 1 
the water ; and exhorting him to rule the country religiously, they gave 
him Lha-tHiln's own siimome of Nam-gye*and the title of "religioiu 
king/' F'iin-tfc*ok Nam-g}*e was at tins time aged thirty-eight yesns ' 
ami he became a Lama in the same year, which is said to have been 

1641 A.D. 

Lba-tfiiin then .spent the greater purt of the rest of his life iu [ 
Kikbiu), f'Xploriug itti caves and mountain recesses, composing ita 
iJimaist legend.^;, aud fixing sites for temples and monastenes. He 
first of all built a hut at Dub-de, which afterwards became the 
monastery of that name. And he is believtKl to have built rude ' 
shrines at Tosliiding, Pemiongchi, aud Saug-ua-ch'o-Ung ; though 
othern assert that Tashiding was first occupied by the origiuol 
I>?&-dak-pa Lama. 

In ap[>e&rauce Lha teiin is usually represented as seated on a leo>| 

^ ifiy-WjiM ch'tn-fw. 

pArd-akm nuit with tho ri^ht leg hanging down antl hi.s bcHly nlmost 
bftFfr— one of his titles Is fftf-ruka-pa^ which means "unclad." His 
cumplexion is of a (hirk hluo hue. Uthenvise he is »oiuewhAt like 
his prototype Guru Rim-bo-chV. A chnplet of skulU encircles his 
brow. In his left band is a HkuU cup tilled with blood, and (v trident 
topped with human heitds rests in front of the left Hhoulder, The 
ri^bt hand ia in a teaching attitude. 

He ia believed to be the incarnation of the great Indinii teacher 
BhTma Mitra, And he himsfU is lield to have i>eeu j^ubst^ijiiently lu- 
ciroated twice as a Sikbim Lama, the last re-ini^-nntiou being </t^ 
mi Pa-wo, boro at Ok-ja-ting near Sakya, who built thu present moua»- 
U^yy of Pemiongchi. 

I cannot ascertain the place of his denth or what became of bib b(xly» 
b:it he is currently i-eported Co have dieti in Sikhiin of fever enntracted 
during a visit to India. The dark livid hue of his skin is wiid to refi-^r 
to hi;. ddAth from malignant fever. HLs chief object in visiting India 
Wi\&, oiicording to a popidar saving, tu obtain a rare variety of ruddy 
bopard-skin (the tola leopard) which is highly pmed by ascetics oa a 


All his clothing and personal eflects are carefully tj"easared lu 
)ikhiin and worshipped as most sacred reUes. They were all stored 
at Pemiongchi monastery ontil the Gurkhii invasion of last century, 
^hen, for greater safety, most of them were taken to the remote Tfi- 

ng monastery. At Pemiongchi are kept one set of his full dress 
obes after the style of Guru Kiui-bo-ch'e, including hat an<l boots, his 
band-<lrumr l>ell, and dorji% and a mii'aculous purbu. dagger for stub- 
bing the demons. These objects are only shown at Pemiongchi nu 
special occasions to wealthy worshippei"S, and they are highly celebmted 
as a certain cure for barratineas. Couples afHicted in this way, and who 
ean afford tho necessary expense, have a preliminiuy worship conducted 
in the Pemiongchi chapel, lasting one or two days. Then the box con- 
taining the holy relics is brought forth and ceremoniously opened, and 
each article is placed on the heads of the supjiUant pair, the ofliciating 
priest repeating meanwhile the charm of his own tutelary tleity. Of the 
marvellous etticacy of this procedure numerous stories are told. And 
should two sons result, one of them ia certainly dedicated to tlie 

Sabseque^ to Lha-tsiiu Ch'em-lK>'s death in the latter end of the 
wveuteenth century, Ijamaisra steadily progressed in Sikbim till 
latterly monks and monasteries filled the country. The lint and 
rletailed descripiton of these are given in the next chapter under 
the beading of Monasteries, ^"hat civilization and literature the 
.Sikliimitea now jwssess they owe to Liluiaism, and the Lepeha 
alphabet too was derived from the Tibetan. 

The religious tliaplaced by I^fttnaism were the Piin (Bon), whiA 
!B usually identified with Taouifim, and the earlier animistic and 
fairy worship of the I^pc-has, which can scarcely be called o re- 
ligion. Numerous traces of both of these primitive ^tbs are to 
be found incorporated ia Sikhim Jj^maietm, which owes any ei»ecial 
f?atures that it poaseeses to the preponderance of these two 

Only two sects of Lamas are established in Sikhim, namely, 

the i^ift-ma-pa and the Kor-gyu-pa as represented by the Kar- 

aa-pa. There are no Duk-i»a monasteries in Sikhim, nor does there 

F^seem ever to have been any. 

The Lfimas number nearly one thousand, and ore very numer- 
ous in proportion to the Buddhist population of the country. Ia 
1840' the Lepchas and Bhotiyas of Sikhim were estimated at 
3,000 and 2,000 respectively, but Mr. White, in his censu.s of 
Sikhim in March, 1891, gives the jiopulation roughly as: — 

Nepale>«e, etc. 




As the Nejialese, who are of very recent immigration, are ail 
professing Hindils, the I^mus are now dejKjndent on the Bhotiyas 
and LejMjhas for sujiport; and we thus get a proportion of oue 
Latnaiyt priest (o every ten or eleven of the indigenous populatiou. 
But this does not represent the full priest-force of those two races 
as it takes no count of the numerous devil-dancers and Lepcba 
priests j^atronized both by HhoHyas and f^epchas. 

In British Sikhim and the Kalim-i>ong section of British 
Khotan, the LamaistK numbered in the census of 1891 40,520, 
of which 3jG57 were resident in the town of Darjiling.' 

There 19 no sign of any decrease of Lamaism in Sikhim, 
although large numbers of Hinduized Nepalese huve lately been 
introduced into the country, and the government is no longer in 

I Dr. Campkzu. in TAc Ot-imuit, p^ 13. 
* "Ccosus r/f 1B01 Rtfpt.," p. 47. Tlie tout ItuiltlhiKtJt in Dctif^i. including a Iw* 
tbOQSaodi of Uurmese coiivictH in llt^ngal ;nilti, numbi-r<.sl lK».l:£i- 




|HE liirht shwl by the lamp of Lamaism, like that of 
most other religions, has been broken into variegated 
fragments by the prisms of later priests. 
No sects api)ear to have existed prior to Laft-Darraa'» 
persecution, nor till more than a century and a half later. The 
sectarial movement seems to date from the Eefonnation started 
bv the Indian Buddhist monk AtTsa, who, as we have seen, visited 
Tibet in 1038 a.d.» 

Atisa, while clinging to Yoga and Tantrism, at once began a 
reformation on the lines of the purer Mahayfina system, by en- 
forcing celibacy and high morality, and by deprecating the general 
practice of the diabolic arts. Perhaps the time was now ripe for 
the reform, as the Ijamas had become a large and influential body, 
and possessed a fairly full and scholarly translation of the bulky 
MuUriyana Canon and its Commentaries, which taught a doctrine 
very different from that then practised in Tibet. 

A glance at the annexed " Genealogical Tree of Umaist 
fleets '' will show that AtTsa was the only profound reformer of 

Tiie first of the reformed sects and the one with which AtTsa 
most intimately identified himself was called the Kah-dam-pa,* or 
" tiiose bound by the orders (commandments)"; and it ultimately, 
three and a half centuries later, in Tsoii K'apa's hands, became 
less ascetic and more highly ritualistic under the title of "The 
Virtuous Style," Ge-lng-jHty now the dominant sect in Tibet, and 
the Established Church of Lamaism. 

1 Part <'f this dinptcr aiipi'arcd in tho Juiatir iivurU t-l ;i htt January, IfltW. 
3 /»Kah-^dani<-i»a. 


AtTaa's cliief Tibetan disciple was I>om-ton,' or "Pom Bakshi.^* 

to whom he taught tlie mystic Mahayuua and Tilntrik doctriues 
which he himself had learned in India and Pegu. Two 
other noted pupils were K'xx and Nak; but Dora-ton wai* the 
recognized head of the Kah-dara-pa, and he built, in 1058, the 
Ra-Deng ^ monastery to the north-east of Lhasa, which was the 
first liimasery of the new sect, though the monastery of To-dift,' in 
Pu-rang, built in 1(125, is considered to have become a Kah-dam- 
pa institution by Atlsa's residence therein. Pom-ton's Bucceesor 
was Potova. 

The rise of the Kilh-dam-pa {Ge-lwj-pii) sect was soon followed 
by the semi-reformed movements of Kar-gyu-pn and Sakya-pft^ 
which were directly based in great measure on AtTsa's teaching. 
Tlie founders of those two sects had been his pupils, and their 
new sect^ may be regarded as semi-reformations adapted for those 
individuals who fount! his high stan*iard too irksome, and too free 
fix)m their familiar demonolatry. 

The residue who remained wholly unreformed and weakened by 
the loss of their best meml>ers, were now called the Niit-inn-ya 
or "the old ones," as they adhered to the old practices. And now, 
to legitimize many of thpir unorthoiiox practices which had crept 
into use, and to admit of further laxity, the Kiti-ma-pa resorted 
to the fiction of Tet'-vxa or hidden revelations. 

Just iLs the Indian monk Niigirjuna in order to secure an orthodox 
reception for his new creeii had alleged that the Mahayrma d(x;trine 
was entirely the comjioaition of Sakya Muni, who had written it 
during liis lifetime and entrusted the volumes to the Naga demi- 
gods for preservation until men were sufficiently enlightened to 
omprehend so abstruse a system, so in the saine way sevenl 
^>TiA-ma Lamas now began to discover new gospels, in caves audi 

1 *Hrom-*ton rtiyal-wahi 'Byun-^a#. 

'J Jiahki is a general taxm in Central Asia for t lioac tnonks CAilcd in Tlbctoo Z<ob-pSlJ 
orTeacher; and it is used by Marco VoXo^Ynlr^ i.,305). PalUflvaysit fsMoogoUaiiflNC 
sTon, wiiich meaiift "Guide," and Ib appliod only to tho oldest and mo«t Ifarned prirtC 
of a community, but the title kTod (-pa) is usually rcsen'ed for Buddha. YuIp attd 
othTft bc-licvc it to be probably a corruption ot " JSftilAthn" a Buddhist niendtcauC 
tnonJi, and VuUi hIidwa it to Im> uamI as an eouiTalont for Lima by Ra.sliiduddiD. and 
in tlif AiQ-i-AIchari. Piwaibly it is rUo relatcil to HWi " A!jftiwi " of Friar Odoric (Mask- 
■AH, p. xlri.). Couf. also KUppsk, ii., 105. 

4 mro-Wi'*. 

These " KevelatiuDB " treat mainly of ShamanUt K6n-i)ii and 
other demoniacal rites which are permissible in liimnirtt practice ; 
and they prescribed the forms for such worship. About thirty of 



these revelations have been discoveied; bat as the number has 
been oracularly fixed at one hundred and eight, future contin- 
gencies are well provided for. These " Revelations," relaxing still 
further the Lamaist obligations, were eagerly accepted by most 
Lamas, and they play an imi^ortant part in the schismB which 
subsequently occurred in both old and reformed sects. Indeed, 
many of the sub-sects differ from their parent sects merely in 
having adopted a different Ter-Ttui. work as an ordinary code of 
demoniacal worship. 

The sectarian distinctions are of a creeJal character, entaiUng 
different ritualistic and other practices, and expressed by a dif- 
ference in dress and symbols. The creedal differences may be 
categorically classed under the heads of — 

1 . The personality of the primordial deity or Adi-Buddha ; 

'2. SiiecLU soui-ce of divine inspiration ; 

3. The saintly ti-ansmitters of this iuspimtion ; 

4. ^leditative doctrine or system of mystical insight; ' 

5. Special Tantra-i'evelation. 

«. Pei-sonal Tutelary — a Tantrik demoniacal Buddha of Sivaist 

7. Keligious " Guanliun "-demon, usually of Tibetan typo. 

In considering the sects individually, let us look first at the 
sect forming the Established Church — the (je-lug-pa — as it repre- 
sents the oldest of the sects, the Kah-dam-pa, and is the pure^ 
and most powerful of all, having now the temporal government 
of Tibet in its hands. 

The Ge-lug-pa Sect, or Established Chukcb. 
The Ge-lug-pa arose at the beginning of the fifteenth century 
A.D. as a regeneration of the Kah-dam-i)a by Tsoft-K'a-pa or \Jh 
zaii-tak-pa^or Je-l{im-po-ch*e, though he is better known to Euro-* 
peans by his territorial title of Tsou-K'a-pa, that is, ** Native of 
the Onion Country," the district of his birth, in the province of 
Amdo, now within the border of China.^ 

1 n'a-wii. Skt, Dartatui. 

a b/^-birt« (at-z-t. (Cf. KopPKN, ii., 18). O.M.,n5; 7. J. .V. A., 1882, p. 63-57; Pakd., 
No. 41 ; HowoKTH, vjt. at. 
'■' He was boru in 1S55-57 at Kum-bum (sfv:- its photograph at page 280j. 


He was probablv, as Hue notes,' influenced by the Roman 
fttholic priest?, who seem to have been settled near the plat-e of 
birth. Hncs tradition runs that TsoA K'a-pa had inter- 
with a stranger from the West with a long nofie and 
viug eve«, who is 


believed to have 
been a Christian 
missionary. He 
gtodied at Zhar- 
<.'h*iift, in Amdo, nnd 
thereafter at Saskya, 
DiRnng, and Lhasa. 
He wrote many 
bookis'^ and motft of 
the extant sacerdotal 
manual!) of the Ge- 
lug-pa sect are al- 
tribated to him. He 
died (or, as is popu- 
larly believed, as- 
cended to Heaven 'J 
in 1417, and wan 
canonized as an in- 
ciimatiou of Mau- 
jusii (or, ae some 
say, AmitSbha, or V^ajrapani). 
fiidered superior 

K?gfal-U*at>-rjc (disci plr>. 
Viijn>bltftlntra \ tutelar;). 

mK'w-grub-rj« (dlMl(il«). 
A votary. 

\\\i\ by the G©-Iug-pa he ia con- 
even to 5t. I'adina and AtT?a, and is given 
the chief place in moat of their temples. His image U placed 
above, and usually between, those of the dual (jrand Uimua — the 
Dalai and Pan-ch'en — and, like these, he is given the title of 

^^iyal-u.iiy or The Jiiia or Victor. His image is also worn as 

^K chann in amulet boxee. 

^H Tfiou-K'a-iKi receiveii the tradition?; of the Kah-dam-pa sect 

^Brom the Luma Cb'os skyabs-tzafi-po, the seven ty-fighth abbot 

^Bb succession from Dom-tou. 

^^ Unlike Alli^, Tsoi\-K'a-pa was an ardent pro^elytizer, and 

1 TrtirwU XH Tartat'i/,(^tc., liAlurr"* tl^uis., Vt^ 48. 
t Qu«f uf Whidt WOK TAr firailual ff'ay (/ynu-rim}. 

y* Hi« tuBnttuiA is crlebi«t«^d -during ihf LiUnamt ffkilval of L^mpR. 

<.iK-LV<VPA Monk and ATTEND\yT. 

of KiTwtya-keeperii or " I)ul-tm Ldmas.'^ He also made them 
carry a l>egging-bowl, nnardlm-eiuma,^ prayei -carpet,* and wear 
pHlclied robes* of a yellow colour, after the fashion of the Indian 
meudicaut monks. And he attracted fnllowers by instituting a 

1 Including retirement dunnj; Leut for mciiitatiou, etc 

* Tlie sht-yam or cresccatic cope or cape. 

* y»ling-wa. 

* dnuHlrubx. Sve detailed dfgcri|>tioii at p. 'JOO. 

filly ritualistic semce, in |mrt apparently borrowed from the 
riittian missionaries, who undoubtedly were settled at tlmt time 
in Tsoft-K'a, the province of his early boyhood in Western China. 
He gave the hat named pdii-88a~siu-riu, or the "Pandit's long- 
bailed cap *' ; and as it was of a yellow colour like their 'dress, and 
mfbfi old Laimaist body adhered to their red hat, the new sect came 
^o be popularly called the S^n^Ber or " Yellow-cap," in contradis- 
tinction to the S'a-mnr or " Red-cap " and their more aboriginal 
B6n-pa co-religionists the H'a-^uik or " Block-caps/' ^ 

This seems to be the origin of the sect -titles depending on the 
colour of the cap. The Kah-dam-pa are said to have worn red 
capfi, and certainly the extant pictures of Atlsa and other Kah- 
dam-jja Lamas give them red caps. 

Tfioii-K'a-pa named his own monaBtery, which he built in 1409 
about thirty miles eiiat of Lhasa, Gah-<ian^ or Paradise, and it is 

Kid that his followers at first 
jnt by the name of Gah-\\i^- 
\A or " Followers of tbe Gah- 
dan fashion " ; but aa this name 
was ill-sounding it was changed 
to the more euphonic OV-!ug- 
pa or " Followers of the Virtu- 
ous order." 

The special sectarian dis- 
tinctions of the (ie-lug-pu, 
which represent the earlier 
Kah-dam-pa sect, are that this 
—sect has the mythical V'^ajra- 
^■bara as its Adi-Buddha ; and 
derives its divine inspiration 
om Maitreya — " the coming 
Suddha,^ through the Indian Saints ranging from AsaAga down 
AtTsa, and through the Tibetan .Saints from his disciple 
roni-ton to Tsofi-KVpa (Je-Kim-po-ch*e). The Ge-lug-pa mys- 
tical insight {Ta-vxi) is termed the Lrnn-rim or "the Graded 
kthf^and their Tantra is the "Vast Doer" (rgya-ch'en spyod). 



S See page IM for pictureti uf t\w oips. 
» Skt., "Tuahita " ur the Hftppy place. 



Its totelary demouiacal Huddha is Vajra-bhaira^'R (Doije-'jig-je), 
aupportKl by Samvara (Dem-cU'og) and Guhya-kalii (Siuifi^-dti). 
And iu Guardian demons are "The Six-armed Gon-po or liord" 






Tut Tl'TElJlRV TaM din's CuA-UU. 

and the Gt^at boree-necked Hayagriva (Tarn-din), or the Bed 

But, through AtTsa, the Ge-lug-jjasect, as is graphically shown 
iu the foregoing table, claims also to have received the essenc*? of 
Manjusr-rs doctrine, which in the leading light of the Sakya-p« 
sect. For Atisa is lield to be an incarnation of Maujusn, the 
Bodbisat of Wi.sdoni : which is merely a way of stating that 
he was the greatest eipbodiinent of Buddhist Wistlom that 
ever visited Tibet. Andin the person of AtTsii were also united 
the essentialfl of the Kar-gyu-jwi sect by hip pujiihtge to the Indlaa 
sage Nuro. 



Thas the Ge-lug-pa sett claims that tliroagh Atisa it has 
;eived the special inspiration of Maitreya, and in addition all 
U beat in the special systems professed by tbe other two re- 
led Mct$. 
The purer morality practised by the Ge-lug monks gained 
them general respect. So, despit-e their internecine feuds with 
the Sttkya-pa and other rival sects, ita Church grew in size and 
^^iduence, and became a (>owerful hierarchy with the succession 
^Hr its chief abbot based upon the theory of Ke-incamation» 
^Hftmely, that the spirit of tlie dend chief after his deatli is re-bom 
pd a child, who was forthwith found by oracular prciiage, and in- 
stalled in the vacant chair. 

Tsofi-K'a-pa's nephew, Ge-dun-dub, was installed in 1439 as 

the first Grand Lama of the Ge-Iug-jMi Church, and he built 

the monastery of Tashi-lhuupo, in 144a, while his fellow workers 

Je-vShe-rabSfi'i-age Gyal-Ts*ab-je and Khas-grub-je had built re- 

sfjectively De-p'ung (in 141-ij, and Se-ni (in 1417), the other 

great monasteries of this sect. 

^H Under the fourth of these Grand Lamari, the Ge-Iug-i)a Church 

^^^s vigorou-'ily struggling for supreme power and wa8 patrouized by 

r the Mongol minister of the Chinese Government named Cbong- 

Kar, who, coming to Lha^ as an ambassador, u^iurped most of the 

pi.iwer of the then king of Tibet, and forcetl several of the Kar-gyu 

and I?iA-ma monasteries to join the Ge-Lug-pa sect, and to wear 

the yellow caps. 

And, as we have seen in the previous chapter, the Go-lug-pa 
sect in 1640, under its fifth Grand Lama, leapt into temporal 
power as the dominant sect in Tibet, and has ever since remained 
the Established Church of the country. 

Since then, however, the Ge-lug-pa sect has gradually retro- 
' graded in its teneta and practice, till now, with the exception of 

itii distinctive dress and symbols, celibacy and greater abstinence, 

^^kiiil a slightly more restrictetl de\nl-wor?hip, it differs little from 
P^fae other Lamaist sects, which in the pride of political power it 
BO Openly despises. 

Tbe Kar-oyu-pa Sect. 
The Kar-gyu-f>a, the next great reformed sect after thn Ge-lug- 
'pa, was founded in the latter half of the eleventh century a.d. by 



liSma Marpa * of Lha-bra^, who had visited India and obtalDed 
S})e<.-ial instructions from the Icdiau Pandit Atisa and hit 
teacher Pam-thifi and Xaro, the janitor of Nalanda University, 
who never visited Til>et. But as Marpa and his successor Mila- 

ra-i>a, while nominally having 



a monastery at (rro-bu-luft and 
sGnib - p'ug - matoga, respect- 
ively, led bennit lives, th 
real organizer of this sect wai 
the Kah-dam-})a I>ama, Dvag- 
po Iha-rje, * who founded the 
monastery of Ta'ur-lha aboul 

The name Kar-gyu-pa 
means a "follower of the suc- 
cessive orders," expressive oi 
the fact that the sect believi 
that the rulings of it^ latei 
sages are inspired. Naro*) 
teacher, the monk Tilo or Tel( 
(about 950 a.d.) * is held to have bten directly inspired by th( 
metaphysical Buddha Vajra-dhara, 

Its distinctive features are its hermit practices, meditation in 
eaves and other retired places, and the following speciali- 
ties : — 

Its inspiration was attributed by their saint Tilo directly to 
the Adi-Buddha Vajra-dhara. Its mode of mystic insight (Ta-iva) 
is named Mtth/lfnudra '' or " the (Jreat Attitude," also called 
U-mahi Lam or " the Middle Path," and its Tantra is ** 8um- 

' MiupA« acc^^rdiog t« Hum-pa K'an-p<.Vij Cli*o!«-'byiiii, wan bom nt Gr*>-bu-liift 
pt» ^ar, aa the second son of dbAn-p'yug-'f»d, his mother Iieiiig sKoi-ldan tKyi 
yni». His »un whcQ riding to Talun^ monaat<;ry tu witnetis s Lanis's dance wu 
thrown doirii the cliff and fearfvUly mangled owin^ to his horse in ii rocky dAflto 
taking fright at tlio flight of noma rock pigeons. This scene is pictured oft«n la 
Kar-gj-u-pa templ<'a. (Cf. also Paxd., Xo. 83.) 

3 Also called rJt tGam-po-Va with title mnaM-mtd. He wns a natiroof E. libel 
beyond Kongbu; died 1IS2. ^Cf. Pakd., No. 33.) 

* hKaAA>rfft/ud-pa, 

* cr. TiKA.i 228, Paxd., Na 17. 

* P'y^B''^'**'^'''^" usually contracted to •' <? A'ay-fAVn." 


ir-/wuiU-flum,^ Its tutelary (lemon is Samvara. Its guardian 
pity *'The Lord of the Black Cloak.- Its bat ia "the ineflila- 
tion bat with the cro8s-knee,«," bearing on ilc front this emWem as 
a badge like a St. Andrew's cross (X)> and a conicnl centre-piece 
representing a cave elsewhere. And with these technicalities was 
aftjtocinted a stricter observance of the moniistic rules and discipline-. — -? 
The most jwiJiilar Kar-gyu-jwi saint, and one who, while found- '^ 
iug no monastery, did more even than Miu"|wi, to establish the sect^ i:^- 
,s Morpa's pupil, Mila-ni-pa.^ He never visited India, but led a 
andering ascetic life among the mountains of Tibet, and bis 
100,000 songs* containing much Tibetan colouring are {)opidar i*\ 
ongst all the sects of Lamas, and his name is now a household 
ord throughout Tibet. 

He is pictured, as seen in the annexed illustration, as a thinly- 
cla/] ascetic almost on the Indian model, enduring great hardships 
of climate aud expos^ure, and a great magician conquering many 
demons. His picture is surrounded by scenes illustrative of the 
,ding events of his life. 

His biography is sketclied here in a footnote,'^ as he is a person 
imijortance in Ijamidsm, It is contained in a bulky volume 


, KM 

M.irpa's grriplitro wita iKuod upon the " mnnm-Ien byin rlnb«," which lip dilut^^d an<l 

\xt*d with xn»rf mystic Tantraa ; Ii'-nrc his Tantra is c«Ilt_"(I " tlie mixrd " («uii-'jug)- 

*>c.illrtl p«<-jH'riris t)n?"mdohiS8-8t'mn-pn-nyiii." iin(11JK'<')*nt<'rio**gn/iy* iugfl We 

st<tn (lltyer iii»hJ. which .ire reforrcd to in th" chnptcr mi TKirlrino. Fi)r som*' tprhnical 

■tails rvgnrdini* spwral secLs, jn-e trnnol. hy Saiiat, J. A .S.Ii.t ]S83 : aUo K.uisav'.s />iVf . 

• nffon-jM) iMir-nag. 
« Mi-Li-ra«-pa or '•the Cotton-clad." (Cf. Cmma, Cr.,18l: TAba., 328; Paio)^ >'a 3] .) 

• jjlu-'hum. 

• Hr- vtnr, born at Ky&-t'ian-t«a in (he year 1^8 a.d., on thr 28th day of the noonth, 
iimlrr \hv pUnp-t phur-bii, and naiivd Tlioa-pn-dj^al. His father, Milii-slius-rab-t^'aU 
•its'an. waa a wfAlthy rai-n-haiit i(f the K"un-po clan of llni-chan-eh'ug, and his 

\vt wan Oyah-taa dkar-rKvan. Tlio fathi'jr dit*d when TIn>R-pa-dgaI (tbi* young 
) was only s<>v*'n yars nid, U'sving liin iirii]x.'rty in liis brothfr'a chargp till hij 
Sfin ri'oched hi« inaji>rily at riftiH'n. Thin unt'Ic, btiwfvi'r, niipropriatt-d i-vrrj-thiiig Xa 
hiinsidf, and left young Mila nnd his mother di-^slitiite, ami tvi-n prrRPcut^Hj tln;m. 
"toung Mila**! mnMier, tJiprefore, sont her son t'> iM'comt* a Lama in DTih-r to team the 
'*»-ort of destroying people by 9orc**ry. Hi In- Btart^'d off fnr I^htin-grub grong 
K'an in Gutt-t'wi-ntod, and there joincnj a pjirty of m^nks on their way from 
Upper Sari to V: ior Central Tibet). Passing Vag-sde, and crossing Mar-tsai'i. tie 
n-acht'd Tonduh-nuja in C, and found at Var-hin skyo-mo-Kruh a learned 
•'mt'u'' U-aeher named Yun sTon-p'ro-rgyal, who tauj-lit him Boreer)- for KevenU 
yean, until he ohtalnetl the power tu destroy liiit cruel nnclf'a houtK* and gear. After 
bring instruct*'*! in thf mode of oomiKdling haihttijrius, he went t«j MajjiJn (or gTsau- 
ron-gi-nar), and then to Ch'os-Ia sging, wh«'n; he became a pupil of Lama Marpa, who 
bod riaitMl India. Uen» he was set many tiresome latik.s by Monm, such aa building 



I hi ll 





ascribed to bis disciple Kiis-cb'un, and date/l from llje hermitage 
of the latter. ^ 



ft TlboUn uul ropil- of KAropk, 
b. mio. d. 


b. loss 

M«Miiu4 Ovi 

d. list 


' 1152. 

t!"o» or BVrU. 

Errr. to IliiH. 
il-KU.N(i I'A 

imu)H> fo4liuli»t 

..slWtflunK Uon. 




" KarmftBAkahl" 

Dorjo or Dtu^uM 

b.lli» t (1.1192 
K*R 4 A PA 

vKBflKib toonilBd 
Bahuv moiuwterf 

ppn- DtnC-PA 


Z'fttMHlmn Va^' 

d lwa>nui n • my «) . 

MMdlo and 





forts and pulling tltom tn piocofl again, and Qi« pictures oF these tasks arc ravourite 
subjects for freaoes in Kar-frpi-pa nionast«r{<». As the tasks sermfHl i-iidlcm and 
Harps still wiUilii'ld itwtruction. tiic youii^' MUa fltnl, lAkiiig with him the Indian 
sotut Naropa'a »ix-Nit«' onunu-nTd aud /wrfmH-m^^t-rosary, whicli \y.u\ Imvii in 
MorfKi's kci'piiiK »« rt'tlcs ; iiiid which yuuri;; Mtln ublaiiUHl iKMsrHsi'm of by the I'on- 
ntraJiM' "f Murp-i'iwife, I'Dajr-nHHl-uii. Tlicw ri'lics he offcn-d to Liiiiiji r.S'og-pa, wh« 
in rotum ifnvt? him instructiun uml the incditatidn of (!r(>h>lil.ii) p'u^-pii. Hi^n 
31arpa rocalli-d him ariJ initiut«!d him into the mytitHrii'H of tho in^igic ojrcl<ii. and 
^ve him thf (^sobTit: nniiiL' of dPal-«'M-fia and tlic comiiion name of Mila-nlo-rjf 
rgyal mts'aii. and wt him si-vcre asi-rLic cxiTcini's, >lennwhile Marpa went to India, 
and met the monk .Virftpo at tht- motiAstcry of Itiila-hari, and was taught 'pVwa- 
Jton-'jug. and relnniwl to Tibet by Ch'o^-Ia jjaii. Wht-n Mila returned home, hp 
found ids moUuT dead. «o he rlwi-lt In a c-ive near by named Kan-mdsod phug. 
Tlirn his undo and aunt a»«aulte<l )iim nti \\\» bL-},'^iii^ exeursions, but though itoesiMs- 
ing tilt- power uf deslroWng them, he prefern-d tu flir fmin Uiem lo Hra^ Kar-rta-sOi 
Doar Kyt-fDo, when* be mnaiUMl in medilalion far i*i|fhti.>ifti years, liWng solely on 



XAft-nl-^'t chief popOt were iVrag-po-Dia-ije,^ wbo contintiert 
MDonEaon of Ih^ ortbo(k>x KiU--gyu-(A diH-trinf, anil Ku- 
*oA Dor-je l^-p&.* vhodid not ioter^sf hiiuifelf in oi^rnnixntion. 
The hemut-fmtmv of Uu^ sect rendered it 90 nnattnurtiv^ 
serezal siib-flecU soon arose which dispeiuMd with the nri'^ft- 
Car bennilj^re. Tbas apjieared tbe :$ut>-6ecta Knr-ma-pft^ 
l-kvBg-fM, Ta-lang-pft, imd I)ak-|)a (the fonn dominAnt in Hbn- 
I, vhicb differ from earhoth^r merely in Iimving eiioh adopted a 
difiereait revelation from tbe Sifi-tna se^'t a? a code uf demoniacal 
wonbipi, azkd so reliaiog the parity of the former Kar-g;>-u-pa 
pract ice. 

The^e differences an- ;4bown iu tbe foregoing table. 
And the image of the [jortioular founder of the sub-sect jihans 
with that of their Adi-Buddtia, Vajrodbara, tbe chief j>Uoe in their 
temples. "" ^ 

The Kar^na^pa sub-sed was founded in the middle/>ft he t welft b 
itary by Kar-ma-pa lWi-cb*uA £)or-je, also named Dii-sum 
'yen-po,* a pupil of the aforesaid I)vag-|x>-Ilia-rje. Mis mouus- 
y of S'o-Ts'ur Lha-lui'i,* built in 1 154, ul Ts'ur-p'u, about 
oue day's journey to the north of Lhasa beyonri Sera, is tit ill tbe 
|uarter5 of this, the most (wwerful of all tbe Kar-^yu-pa sub- 
ta,^ This Kar-ma liima does not appear to be ideittical with 
the famous " Kar-ma-Uakghi,*"* wliose image is the central one in 
all Kar-ma-|ia temples, for his birth is placed by Csoma Inter,^ Tbf 
ninth bead Kur-ma-jwi Liima v>i\^ nametidifu-pu-bar Phyug Uor-je, 
and mm alive io 1725 a.D., when the then raja of Sikbim viHita.! 
him in Tibet and was prevailed on by him to establish 8onie 
Kar-ma-^M monasteries in Sikbim. 
The so-called monastery, though it is only a temple, in the 
Bhotiya-baati ** at Darjiling belongs to this sect. 

blc*. and perfonninB many miraclos. Ttieii bo went to Wg-rj pldin, whfir lii> 
; Pftri. Ititf tratisUtor, and his pupiU. ThtTcafUT ho went to 'Brin-yuE, ami arier- 
~wmnls to ft can> in lAb-^-du-gar (? Mount Everest), where he diocL His fATi>urit4< 
god wu Kuvera, tlie King of the Yak^ha genii. 

1 Also called rJe-Tflun fftiain-p*;. See Tandeiu No. 33. 
3 KiA-ch'uh rd(>-rje gra^^|ia, burn lOSS.^tounded ItOA-ch'uii p'ug innnasti'ry. 
if R-iri-liyiin-nlo-rJe diu-gsum-uikVuft'n>'>t l^ru 1109, ordaiDcd 1124, iIuhI 1102. 
' Td'u-niU'ur. 

It waA zealously patronized by Dvni Zati-|M>, a King nf Wt'^trm TilM't, with hi* 
pitiil it Shigatae. 
Cf. CMtMA, <!>, 1*1 ; J.,4.S.H^ 51. p. M ; Panu. Ni.. 3D. 
In Uram.t 185. Kar-uiu-Bjiluhi'it birtli bt givuu a^ 1177 A.D, 




It. diflferft from its parent sect iu having ^ptrog^td€^d towanlii li» 
NiA-ma-i>fi ]»raftk'ea by adopting llie Nift-ma revelation fonnd 
in Kong-lw and entitled L^T'-to Lift-]ia,' or •' the IcK'AlIy rev«vkd 
merit," and some also have Mah-ts'on-jia, Few of the Kar-ma 
[.arnas are celibate, and Marpa, the founder of the jinrent ml 
(Kar-gyn-pa), was married. 

TliH next great rtub-Kecl in the Uug-i>a,- which also arose with i 
pupil of Mila-ni-paV disciple, l)vag-j». Its fouiHier was Pag-Sam- 
Wang-i>>,' and it origiuntwl in th(» ^Nani province of Tibt-t aNmi 
the middle of the twelfth century, at the Halung monastery, n«ir 
tryan-tse, in Tod or Upper Tibet. To emphasize the ehang** the 
mona!*tery was called />H/7-Ralung, and a legend of the thunder- 
dragon or Dttg is related in conuection therewith, and gives tiir 
sectarian title. It adopted the same revelation as the Ui-kunp- 
pa, but there seems Bome other distinctive t«net which I have not 
yet elicited. 

Much confusion has been caused in European books by mif^ 
using the name Pug-pa, employing it as a synonym for the 
**re<i-hat " sect, which |)ro|>erly is the Kift-ma. 

The Middle Dug-pa and the Louder Dug-jwi arose soon after* 
wanis. The Middle Dug-fxt adopteii the revelation of Sfifi-gras- 
lin-iwi. This is the form of Kar-gyu-i>a which now prevails ia 
Hhotan under the name of Lho Dug~pa or " SoiUhem " Dug~yo, 
Its chief liiima in Z'ab-drui'i Nag-bai'i-nam-gyal/ a pupil of Padm* 
f/kar-i»o" or *'The omniscient white lotus,^ who leaving Houlhcm 
Tibet in the seventeenth century A-D.,** settled at "' ICbags-ri rt« 
mgo " in Hhotan, and soon displaced I he Karthok-pa nnd otlier 
forms of Nin-ma T/umaism then existing in that country, and 
which are reputed to have been foundwl tiiere directly by 8l- 
Padma himself, who entered Hhotan via gZ'a«-ma gart and left 
it by mDuft tsah, and at (i(ion-ts'al p'u are still shown hi;:; foot- 
prints on a rock, and at the »Pa-te tak-t8*aft or tiger's den." 

> lji»>*prod-Un-pa. 

' *bnis-pa. It is Samtkritint^d in tti*' Climliicle of 5rajf-wan Nnm-g'ya] lu i/f^ 
.Smm or '• Cloud-voto*'," tlnnulir N'iiifj ri'^nrdfct as tln^ dragim's roar. 

* HPa^-btwm (rtKii'i-p*), who sui'mB t« he idcutinjil with, nr jmtroniawl t>y, *0k»- 
mgttn rtj4aii-|>a /-fiyfil nu. "Thi^ Victory-clnd Tatmn of Aniniale " (? Iwrii IIW a.d.). 

< Uin title is bd\iii-"ynn-r\ioTie, or " tlie Vajm whicli Softtiied Uie Devils." 

» C«»MA, J.A,S.Ii^ 18Si. 126. 

" Arrordinit to tht' Tliaii-yig «!e-/na. iome liistoric nott^ nn the histor) of Laiminn 
ia Bliotaii are to \w found in tba Iwdk Lhu-Oi'oj 'byuii. 



In Bhotan the Daj^-pa sect posaesaes the tem}>oraI as well a^ the 
piritual power, and lias suppressed all other secU there. Some 
BtHils of its chief raonaateries and hierarchy are givea in the 

:;inl chapters on these two subject!^, 
'llie i)i-A:un<7-prt,' another large sub-sect, also originated with a 
pupil of Dvag-po. It take* its title from the Di-kung monastery 
foaoded by Rinch'en-p'un-ta^og and Je-spyan-sfta-wa, in 1177 a.d.* 
Its revelation U Nift-ma the Padma-lin-jta. 

The Ta-Zu H7-/»a^ issued from theDi-kiing-pa and takes its titJe 

from (he Ta-lung monastery founded by Nag-<:?t>aft-ch*o»-gyalpo 

1178. They differ from their parent Di-kung-i>a in admitting 

the revelation work adopted by the K;ir-ma-pa, namely, the 


The Sa-kya-pa Sect. 

The last great reformed sect id the Sa-skya-jMi * or Sakya, taking 
its name from the yellow colour of the scanty soil at the site of 
itis first monastery in western Tibet, founded in 1071 A.D. It 
grew into a most powerful hierarchy, and attained for a time the 
reoiporal sovereignty over the greater part of Tibet before it was 
eclip.^d by its (ie-Iug-i»a rival. 

lis* founder was K'on-dUon-iach'og rgyal-jw,* a pupil of K'ug- 
pA Iha-btsas, who claimed inspiration from the celestial Bodhisat 
of wisdom, ManjusrT, through the Indian sages ranging from 

INagarjuua* to Vasuputra," and he mixed together the "old*' and 
Lhe "new" Tantras, caJliug his doctrine the "new-old occult 
■ystery *' * of •* The deep sight.** ® Its mystic insight is called 
pTbe fruitful path."*** Its special gospels are Nfigarjnnas Ava- 
pisaka, Va-ubniidhu*s Paramartha. Its tutelary demon is Vajva 
|l *Ori-i;uii. 

* S»-4ky»-|iA, from {^-iky>i = "tawny earth." 

,* Uurn 1083. I>etaiU or tlu! a)-S.'t am rouml in tt^ rt.>cord8, 'V\vi S.vakya Vfy'tt'aA. 
i* These are giveu as Cujidra-Kirti, Rig-paliiK'u-p'yug, BuddliA "rfguiw "-palA. 

* Tab^ru. — V'iuujvutnL aecmfl a titU- of thr ^n^at liidina nimik VasulNuidtiu. tlic 
Xua of JuuLOgA^ and tlm ni»ccial tnuumitt^jr uS Nuffirjuna's purer SautrinLika 

iiic^ iiupinMl by ManjiiKp. 

* itMtr-i'dii. 
:rjih-mn-li)U— ff'dMMira darfaMi. 



phurpat for whose and other dpmonist vorehip it borrowed I he 
Nin-ma Nwks, D</rJ€ pknrjfachl ck'offa: and from the newer 
school were taken Dein-ch'ok, Doije-kando, Den-z'i, AL-ihii-raaha- 

ma-yab, Sartgya foj^a, and Dorje- 


Tim Loud (-PiiarD) Gua. 

dittsi. Its demoniacal Guardiam 
are " the Gaardian of the Tent,"' 

and » The Face-Lord." ^ Its Hit 
IK 8a-z'u. But now except in a 
few externals it is prartiealJj un- 
dintinguishahle from the ^ilk- 

The Sa-kvB-pa has two re- 
formed suh-ficcts, namely, the 
Nor-jMi and the JonaA-pft. 
These differ from one another 
only in founders. 

The J(>-nafi-po issued from the 
Sa-kya-|>a in the person of Jc- 
Kun-gfth-doI-ch'oK ' in the he- 
ginning of tlie fourteenth century. To thi« sect l>eIonged the 
illustrioua historiograph«?r, Lilinu-TriranStha. 

Taranrithii, sou of Nnm-gytd P'iiu-t.s'ogs, wats honi in Tsangon 
the 8th day of the jiig-inale-tree year, corresjwnciing to 1573 
A.D., and was exiled Kun-f/gah sKyift-po,* or ** The essence of 
haiiifincsR." He studied in ihe .T<Miang monastery, north of Sakra 
undtT the religions name of 'ITirHuatha, and in his forty-first year 
built himself a monastery in the ueighIx)urhood, which he named 
?'Tag-/wten, and filled it with many images, books, and caityas. 
He latterly iiroceeded lu Mungoliii at tlie iuvitatinu of the people 
of that comilry, and founded there several monasteries under the 
auspiceg of the Chinese Kmpcror- He die<l in Mongolia, and was 
canonized under the title of "The Reverend Holiness," /tf-feir?i datn- 
pCU^ And his "re-incarnatc" successors are now iuMalled with 
great magniBcence as Grand I^mas at l^rgya in the Kalkha 

' mUon-pogiur. 
- ' iniian-ztial. 

> \l1io »ii>ms also to he calk-d Ool-bu Hltcr-rgyufi. liorn 12W), and dii^d 1803. 
* sy., Anoiidti^iLrblia. Am^thor acoouut givos the iiaiut! u Sri-gcod rdoije. 



pi'oviiRt? of Mongolia, to the eiist of I*ob-Nor. .Sliortly afVer hia 
(leatb, both L'rgya aud his oKI mouastery — which was renamed — 




^^^^^^^m » 



r:-?=^:N .^T^Wl 



F^Y,v. -r'^S^^H 



^v :w^ / 









*' P'iiii-tK*u-liii,** were forcibly cotiveHe*! into (le-hig-pa inslitu- 
tioiiii, by the aggressive Dalai lijlma uii liis becoming priest-king. 
The iVor-/>a, founded by Kun-gali Zafi-po in 1427, issued from 
tlie Sa-kya-pa at the time of Twoi'i-KTi^wi. Its founder ditioarded 
the Nih-ma element in its Tiintrik system, retaining only the 
"new.** It haa many monasterieB in eastern Tibet. 



Tajc KiJ<-5u-rA Sects. 

The wholly unreformed section of the LSmas was, as we have 

seen, named NiA-ma-i»a, or **the old school. It is more freely 

than any other tinged with the native Hon or pr^-Buddhi*t 

practices ; and celibacy and abstinence are rarely practised. Thii 

Slk'MA. LaHA6. 

is the real " red-hat " »ect of Lamas, and not the Dn^-pa as is 
stated in Eiiro|)ea!i Iwoks. 

It rej^anls the rnetaplivMcal Buddha Samanta-bhadra as its 
primordial deity or Adi-Utid(lha> Il« mystic insight is Muhx- 
Utjianna (Dwp-ch'en) or "the ^rcat ultiinatp ]iprfection." It* 
tutelaries are ** The fearful Vajra" (V'ajra-"pburl>a") and Dub-pa- 
kah-gyeJ Its guardian demon is ** The Lord G-tir."^ It worHhijis 

■ ftOrub'pa /'k»li<brfyAd— Uie tutelAry of tltn Gum St. Padnia. 

' liur-tfuo, a two-luinil(Hl demon, the higlit>st of the Ave ** Pal-goii." 

T}fE K/N-MA. 


lie Guru Padma-sambhava, the founder of LTtmaism, in a variety 

forms, both divine and demoniacal, expressive of his different 

is at different times, and also his favourite Kashmiri teacher, 

Siiiba, and the Indian teacher of the latter, Gah-rab Dorje, 

5 derived his inspiration from the celestial Buddha, Vajra- 

Itwa, who in turn was inspired by the primordial deity, Saman- 

-bhadm Buddha. 

Its peculiar red cap is uamed after the Guru " Urgyeu-pau- 
and with these cbaracterietics it exhibits a greater laxity 
In living tlian any other sect of Liimas. 

But even the NiA-ma-pa, t^o, lias it« sub-sects, based on the 

wloption of different revelations. Its chief sub-sects are the 

Dorje-tak-[ja, Mindol-Ui'i, Kar-tok-pa, and Na-dak-pa, uamed after 

, their respective founders or |tarent monastery. But their ditVer- 

^bces are very trifliug. 

^^ The Dorje-tftk-pa ' is uamed after the greatest of the existent 
Nin-ma monasteries, to wit, Dorje-tak, near Sam-yiis. It follows 
t!»e revelation " found " by Krod-ldeui in Zafi-Zjii'i Lha brag, 
and its chief branches seem to be at Hug-pa-glifi, Tua-tigi Lha- 
ri zim-p'ug, and TVg-mc'og gliil, 
^L An offrihoot of it is the Nah-dag-pa,- taking itn name from its 
^wunder, Nah-dag, *'the owner of domininn," and of royal lineage, 
and represented in seveml Sikhim mona.steries. 

Scarcely inferior in extent and loputo to the Dorjc-tak-jva is 
the Miu-dol-lift-pa,* also named after its chief monastery, Min- 
dol-liA. Its revelation was found by bDag-liug-|Mi, and its chief 
brancheH are at sLe-luA, P'ui'i-po ri-wo-ch'e. And in Sikhim 
it is represented by the large Pemiougchi monastery, which until 
a few years ago waa in the habit of sending to Atin-dol-lih batdiea 
^f its young monks for instruction iu the higher discipline and 

The Kar-tok-|»a,' named after L^ma Kar-tok, " The nncler- 
stander of (he preceptu,'* ailnpt the revelation of kLoft-ch'en 
itab-A'byuii found in the lake of sGra-mdah. Its chief monas- 
teries are at Byan-ch^ub-glift and sDe-dge ("l)er-ge") in the 
extreme east of Tibet, and the e^eat of a large printing establish- 
ment and township famous for its inlaid metal work. 

Uio-hraj;-lha-luft-j«i follow the itrvelAtion of PadoOft-liA- 
thc l)I-kung-i«i sub-sect of the Kar-gyii-po. 

The Lhii-tsnn-])a, nainwl afier the founder of Sikliim LTu 
(witipt fhe revelfttion of 'Jab-ts'on-|>a, found in Kong-bo, 
the Lii-t*d-lid-pa. 

Thk Z'wEn-PA. 
The Z'iged-pA (** the mihl doer"), or passionless ^V."*cetif. i* i 
homeless ineudicaiit of the Voffi clnsi^, luul belonging to nrt 
in particulnr, though having most affinity with the Kar-£ 
They are now almost extinct, and all are regarded as saint^^vbofi 
their next birth must certainl)' attain NirvSiia. They carrv thij 
bone trumpets, skull-diuins, etc., and in the prejiaration of ti 
instruments from human bones, they are required to eat a ma 
of the bone or a shred of thecoqweV skin. The founder of the »nli 
was I*a-dam-pa iSai'is-rgyas ( P Juaiiaka- or Pitn-Buddba), borai 
Jara Siu(d)ha, in India, his father being named brTson-'gni?-g 
ch*a and his mother Rashn. He visited Tibet, in*? Kafr-hmiri 
Na-ri, about the lieginning of the twelfth century A.l>., his fiwl^ 
visit being in 1112 A.n. As this order is highly esteemed to 
Tibet, I subjoin some details of its chief saints.' 


U will thus be seen that Lamaist secta se^m to have arif**!) 
in Tibet, for the first time, in tlie lutter part of the eleventli 
century A.i>., in what may V>e called the Uimnisl Keformatioii, 
about three centuries after the foundation of Lfuuaism itself. 

They aiTtse in revolt against the depmved liimaism then pre- 
valentf which was little else than a priestly mixture of demonolatr; 

* 111 Tiljvt I''ii-iijiin-i»a tiuiglit liifi doctriiifs tflZ/<f|l^■;iIlM'•1;^'«-^''*«" ainl ^rt /w *'oi- 
tU'vH-'brui. Mi'iliiiK rMnn ijtn-Srrjw. i\l Ww-klfins, he acciiiniBinitil liitn to Tm'i$, 
where III' ytivr jniitructioii to l^ma jfi'>io-b*''i!'HUHt. who nuvvcvdts\ him. 

'die womtl Mircc«»>r wan th*- Iit-niiit rMa-Hguui, horn ut Yir-<rtoiI-8k)t»r*nar, tn 
1051 A.D., aiifl roriiiiite Hit' 'Ma nrili-r. Ui# pupil w.i.s 8>i-ch'un-pa, a dwnrf. 

'fill* Yo(^ni Ma-{;ri'g-l»b-»t^ron, Umi at thi> u>iithi>rn Fh'anlruk, in 1064 A.U.. was 
thi' ilrviilf'd pii))il of rSla. 

«AL'»n). niiotJif r gn'ot i*i-]ed-iM, was a pupil of dEP-s't^-ffri'-p-i. wid suff(>rin|r JnjniT 
Rrom a M«;don ileiiiuii. hi' liuriiL>«l its vfRgy. Tho <lcnii»ii afflirtiil liiin wiUi dr)it«T 
tmd leprosy ; but by hta r.lii-c]od rit*^:* he wcuvered. Ho Jii-d 1111* a.d. 

Z'nn-dgah-Muii, iUho h jiupil ut rM>i, whs burn nt Yar-}ittHl-(;tsan-z.'nl, in tht* thlM.* 
nf MTHhiiiiM uiii. HiK pitpiU wtM'i^ pl^al-Htnii-^lyah ch'uu-'Wir. ^Kyitg-tigoui bmun-tMi, 
K'ti*KgoiD jo-dgolt, rtiy«;Ktartseii, juul Ch'iu(*]Mi-<Uir bruuii. 



nd witchcraft. Abandoning the grusser charlatani.«ni, the new 
rtfi returned to celibacy auil many of the purer Mahuyana rules. 
In the four centuries suct-et'diiig the Reformation, variouB 
sub-sects foi*med, mostly as relapses towaixls the old familiar 


And since the fifteenth century A.D., the several sec^ts and sub- 
ctsi, while fiddly preserving their identity and exclusiveneps, 

ive drifted duwu towards a common level where the sectarian 
tftinc-tioos tend to become almost nominal. 

But neither in the esttentiaU of liruuiusni itself, nor in its si't- 
riou asjiects do the truly iJuddhiat doL'trines,as taught hy Sakyu 
Muni* play a leading jtnrt. 


worn by Uttiu in XctTumuicy. 
(AWMtrf I, CM at*o Ifyfr*. p. IS.) 




Is HiirliUiimn in a highly philosophical religion, and 
Latnaism, though deeply tinged with non-Buddhist 
beliefs, still retains much of the loftier philosophy 
and doctrines of Primitive Buddhism and it« earlier 
developments, we must, in considering tbe metaphysical basf^ nf 
(he Lamaitft doctrine, glance at the metaphysics of Buddha Uicn- 
self, as well as that of the Mahayana and the lat^r *' develop 
mentjj." And as Buddha's i)hiInj:ophy is hased upon his working 
theory of (he Universe, our subject will fall conveniently under 
the heads of (<t) Buddha's Theory of the Universe,* (b) bis Meta- 
physics, and (c) the Jletaphysies of the Lamas. 

However inconsistent materialism and theistic theories may 
appear, with a system avowedly idealistic and jjractittally atheistic, 
it certainly seems that Buddha, himself a Hindu and a teacher 
of Hindus, did adopt the Hindu mythology and cosmic notions 
current in his day, with sliglit moditications, which were directed 
merely iowarfls depriving the gmls of their creative functions 
and rendering (hem tiuile and subject to death aud the general 
law of metempsychosis,'' 

His 8i'itTas, or sermons, contain numerous references to thew 
ilivinitici^, aud the earliest of alt authentic Buddhist reoordj* 
extant, namely, the Asoka edict ]»illars of the third century H.C, 
show a model Buddhist delighting in calling himself " the beloved 
of the Gods"; and in the Harliut »Stupa of the second century BX. 

» Gt-ncml iiiytliolujiy forms a apt-da} cliapUT (xv.), but it ia necossary at tliis «Ufc 
to bkotcli thf mytbolijg)' whH:h bcirn *iirwUy u|Km the Uortriiial ilovi'lopracnis. 

3 K.vl-11 in HralLmniiic inytliold)^- t)ie lioata at the gi;ilH, iiirluiiing htdru, ittc ^.<at«r(i( 
gtKl ill Vinlic time*, an- tiuhjiTl to tin- iiniviTsal law of dissoluliim at tlit* <*»d uF 4 
KiUiHt, (ir vyclo (j( tiiiic, wUeu ttiv Triatt giMilicucl A.U.M. Iieanufs stiiijjlc' mhiI 

godi and genti are repretietiterl with functiims identiail with 
now allotted to them in the latler-dny HmJtJhism of both 
Burma and Tibet, where, an in the orthodox script iires of both 
ftchoobi, the gofls receive more or less worNhip on nccount of the 
grower whi<*h they are I>elipve<l to possess of bestowing (emjioml 
^■k:»8ing8. And the coming Buddha is believed by all Buddhittt^ 
^^p he even now resident in the Tut^hita lieaveiis of the guds. 
^V So intimately have these loytholnj^ical H^urps 1)epn woven into 
the texture of Huddism, and e.«i>ecially of Ulmnii^ni, which peoples 
the world with gorgons and hydras and other dire chimeras, that 
without having gained a geneml idea of their nature and ponition, 
It i« im]xwsible to understand the allusions to them which con- 
stantly crop out in Buddhist rites atid dogma. And, indeed, many 
of tbeee fantastic* behefs with their deified heroes and Nature- 
worship are in reality petrified survivals of (he archaic beliefs of 
our Indo-(iermanic ancestor*. 

BronniKf Thkokv ok thk Umvekse. 

In sketching the Buddhist world-system, with its " antres vast 

and deserts idle," existing mostly on the map of the imagination, 

is deemed advisable, in onler to avoid needless rei>etition, to give 

once the Lamaist version, even though this is slightly more 

'developed" tliau the cosmogony of Buddha's day; although it 

mnot be very different after all, for the Lilmaist lu'couuts of it 

are in close keeping with the Barhut lithic remains, and almost 

identtcral with the versions found among tike Ceylonese and other 

Buddhists of the south, and the<'hincse a nd .ln[Min ese Pm d dhists .* 

k Ins, our human, world is o n ly one of a senes (the others hein}> 

I fa bulous) whi ch togetrier for m a universe or chiliooosm^' of whi(^ 

h ere are nta ny. f^ «- 

Kach univer se, s et in nnfathomablp space, rests upon a warp and 

wooTof ** blu e air " or wind, like d crossed thun<ler boHs (lYi/i-rt), 

har<r an d im|>erishable as diamonds (iHtjrit)^ upon which is set 

* Mhe IkhJ v ol t tie waters," upon which is a foundation of gold , on 

which in set the earth, from the axis of which towers up the great 

Oljiiums— Ml.Meni' (Su-meni, Tib., Ri-rab) 84,000 miles* high, 
tfuruiounted by the heavens, and overlying (he hills. 

Ill (be ocean arouod thin central mountain, the axii^ of the oni- 
verae, nre set (see fibres) the four great (rontinenfnl worlds vitli 
their sateUile.s, nil with haseii of nolid gold in the fonu of a tortoiM 
— OS this is a familiar iuHtnnce to the Hindrimiud of asolid filiating 
on the waters. And the contineuts are sei>arated from Mt. M 
by seven concentric rings of golden mountains, the inmost beili| 
40,00(» miles high,* and named ** The Yoke " (A'ugandara),* altei 
tiating with seven ix-eanrf, of flagrant milk,* curds, huttfr, bloofli 
sugar-cane juice, i>oinon or wine, fresh wat^r and salt water, Thi 
oce«u» diminish in width and depth from within outwanis fron 
20,00(1 to C2.J miles, and in the outer ocean lie the so-called con 
tinental worlds. And the whole system is girdled externally In- 
double irou-wall (Cukiavilla) 312^ miles high and 3,6U2,G25 
milca iu circumference, — fur the oriental mythologist is nothing i 
not precise. This wall shuts out the light of the sun and moon, 
whose orbit is the summit of the inmost ring of mountains, along 
which the sun, comiK>se<l of "gliizini tire*' enshrine*! in a crystal 
{lalaee, is driven in a chariot with ten (seven; horses; and the mocoi 
of "glazed water," in a silver shrine dmwn by seven horses, and 
between these two fmng the jewelled umbri^lli of royalty and th«^ 
banner of victor^', as shown in the figure. And inhabiting theM'i 
on a level with these, are the eight angelic or fairy mothers. 
Outside the investing wall of the universe all is void and in i*r- 
petual darkness until another universe \s reached. 

' It« protitjTie, aa with tin- tirpck olj-mpus, is tiTTcstrial, nrnnely, Mt. Kilth^ 
22|U00(t.. directly north rvf Lake MitnasiiroTura in ttie Himalayas (c(. Makkham, x«ir.|.] 

2 Tlic 84,000 14 Ik ninthcniutiojL figiuv rx[in-itsing multituiJo. The TiK-tnn iik'Aiiik j 
is a " f/pa4;-t«hiid." wliidt, ficecirdiiig to Cwua (/>i'(Y.>,iHiuiiU 4,CK)(* fAth<>iii^, uiiil titt 
a gf>igrii|>liiL-aI niili-, Init it ia used as tlie ojutvalfiil uf thf Indian uiiit of 
which ia tmiiKlated in the Ccyluafsi! ecripturfs Jia » Yojuiiii, i.r., ;i unit of About j 
atwmt ftvi' or ftix g«*iigrajjliical miles. 

'■' ThrtM' inimiiUuns an* xevcrally iiamc<t tlii> Ox Yoku-holdcr, Tlough-tKildM', San 
hnldrr, Pli'aninf; Muuni, Huran-iur Hill, Dcmun or Asst'tnbly Mniint, and Cirdft i 

* The- iiiinictt of thr others aro Undara, Kararikn, Htidarsann. AAVitk&riiA, VinSj-a 
&ud >'cmindltura. 

* Tliis ocean *4 milk was churned by the Brolimanicai gods Tor the recovery of tlirir^ 
lOixir viUi' and the thirteen preeious objueta. And Uic LJiuruing produew! tl»e lienuli- 
fill i^iHidcjNi Laktthmi.— Compare with Aphrodite fruni tliu froth i>f tlte uceau, and ttw 
pruvprbial l)eauty of the Nu^ water iiymplia — tlie Hindu mennuiilK 

seau, and ttw J 

< if tlift four •* L'oulinrnt ji " all except ** JattibudvTpa " * vt 
fiibulotii". Tlipy ar^ jilaced exnoily one in each of the four 

direct ions, and ench hu ■ 
smaller nateUite on Pt<her *«lf. 
tliiis briti^ng the total up to 
twelve. And the 6ha]>e» givn 
to lhe.% L'oiitincnt*!, namrk. 
t're!iw»ntic, triangular, rounri, 
and M|uar(s &i^ evidently «yiii- 
IkiIic of the fimr elements. 

These continents, shown in 
the annexed figure, Are thii» 
ih'scrilied: — 

Uu tht> £tut is Vid^Aa/ or '• \iui 
body" (P). This ig shaped hke 
the ci'eacent moon, nnd ik whitf 
in colour. It it* t>,000 miltf iu 
diftmeter, and the inhabitAnu; are 
described an tranquil nnd mild, and of excidlent conduct, und with 
fiici^H of wimo shnpc a» this coutineiit, i.^., rretirentic like the inoou. 

On tlie South l-* JatmuivXp* (F), of our own world, nnd its centre is the 
Uodhi-tivt* at Budh Gaya, It is shaped likt* the 8houldei--hIade of n 
Bheep, tliiK idea beiug evidently suggested by the slmite of tlio IiidiiD 
peiiinKul.i wliiih was tlie jnototyjw of Jiiuihudvipa, a^ Mt. Knilis in 
the IJiiiialaviw and N.E. of India wiis that of Mt. Meni, It i« blu* 
in colour ; and it is tla- .smallest of all, ht'iiiff ouly 7,000 miles in 
fliHntet«r. Here abnund ricfies antl sin a-s well lus virtue. The in- 
haUitants liavu fuce^ of Bimilar shflj>e t^ that of their rontinent, ^c, 
t«oi]iewhAt triangular. 

On the Wat \» Goditanya^^ or " wealth of oxen " (I), which in f^hape is 
like the sun and red in colour. It U H,000 nnle« in diameter. It« 
inlmhitanls are extremely jiowei'fid, and (as the name literally mcfuitt, 
cote -k- o^v + (idiim) t\\e\' fi-VG Mieve<l to be specially addicted to aotiii; 
cattle, and thoir faces are round like the sun. 

On the North is (HUtra-Knni,^ or "northern A'wrfi "tribe (M), of 
wjuare shape and green in colour, and tlio largest v{ all the (v^ntinentfs 

i T., Jam^m-lin. 
> Ln»-'}Migs. 
» After runder. 

* H<tmf I^niift fltAt« ttut this nune in dprlved from the Jamtni trM iK<iiffMim 
JnmtM.Uttii)t wttile othors hftipve Mint tlip nnmo la finnnifttA[kK>ric for Uie sount) ' 
** Jikmlt," eniiMcil when Uie world wa& thrown liy Uio g<.Kb into l)i« outer ooeon. 

■ ba-glait i<|iyu(l. 

* •yra-Dii-snaii. 

10,000 uiilei=i ill tliametcr. lU iDlmbitanta are cxtremoJy fierce 

noisy. They have squnre fnoes Hke horses ; aud live on treef^ 

ch supply all their wants. They become troe-apirits on their death ; 

these trees afterwards emit " bad sounds" (thiB is evidently, like 

.ny of the other legends, duo to a puerile and fiiLse interpretation of 

etyniolofjy of the word). 

The satflllite continents rcivembic their parent one in ebapc, and each 

half its size. The left sutellite of Jambudvip, namely, '*The oi- 

-wliiiik cfintinont," is the fabulous eountiyof theKakshas, to which 

ma-sanibhnva is beliored to have gone and to be still reigning there, 

id earh of the latter presents towards Mount Meru one of the follow- 

%0 divine object* respectively,' viz., on the east (? south) the mountain 

jewels, named Amo-iikha, nhapod like an elephant's head,^ and on 

south, the wish-grnuting tree/ on the west tiie wish-granting 

/ and on the north the st'lf ."Sprung ca-ops.* 

! In the veiy centre of this cosmic system stands " Tlie king of 
"mountains" Mount Meru, towering erect " like the handle of a 
ill-stone," while half-way up its side is the great wishing tree," 
^e prototype of our " Christmas tree,** and the object of conten- 
[Wi between the go<ls and tlie Titans. Meru has square Hides of 
[>ld and jewels. ItH ejisstem fece is crystal (or silver), the south 
sapphire or Uipis laziUi (vaidurya) stone, the west is ruby 
fpadinnragn), and the north is gold, and it is clothed with 
fragrant flowers and shrubs. It has four lower compartments 
before the heavens are reached. The lowest of these is inhal^ited 
by the Yakslia genii — holding wooilen plates. Above this is "the 
region of the wreath-holders'* (Skt., Srag-dhard), which seems 
to he a litle of the hinl-like, or angelic winged (rannlas. Above 
this dwell the "eternally e.\alted ones,"' above whom are tlie 

TuF. Titans. 

[The TitAOS {A^ura^) or " ungodly spirits." 

ETbese are pictui*e<l in the " Whiiel of Life " (at jmgo 108), in the upper 
lion. Their leading trait is pnde, aud this is the world of re* 

I Tlir<fl>^ (MKOnling to other acwiunts, hfi' Ritiiiit4> on tho flanlca of Mfsni itsplf. 
L* The Yjiirift rooks nrp on thf fnnf li. » Tih., Ynnd'MiLs-sa*^)!. 

mn-smnis-pi lu-t'OK- 
I Till- Ri-wo na-s'in. 

) rioiR myiM. ht>re tlie ria tany rcpre»eut " Korsc" — tlte liarM--liouiJf>il inuiiiciAiis. 
I T.. Uui-ma-yiii. 



THE umrBnsK of the BrDnmsrs. 

birth fur tlioAo whu, during tlieir humun oare^T, have boii<ited uf being 
more pimis than their npighlxnii's. The Titans were originally god» 
but, through thoir jiriUc, lliey were^ like SatJin, oxpelled from heaven 
heneo their nanifs w}iic]i nu>nn:» " not n god." ' Ami their [lositinn 
tho hose of the Mount ^eru in iniermediiito between henveo stm 

The dnmtion nf th<*ir life ii* infinitely graatcr than the haman, And 
they hiivc great luxury and unjoyment ; but in pride they envy the 
gTc'atrT bliet8 of the godt», ami die proniaturt'ly. lighting Tainly against 
the gods for the fruit» of the heavenly tree nud the divine nectar. 

Their region is represent^^il in the picture, of an almost colourleiB 
atmonphere. They live in fortjfied houues. Tlie gi'onnd, both iu.<i(le 
and outride the fort, is carpfted with tlower^ of which the irtbabitjints 
male and female, make the wreaths imd gnrliiiidt* which they wear, 
They iire di-essed in f-ilk ; ami when the heroes are not engaged in 
fighting ths'V spend their time in all sorts of gaiety with their v\re&. 
In the right-hand corner is «hown their birth from a lotn5.-flower 
and their ohtaining a wi.'ili-gnuiting tree and cow. The re>t of the 
pictui*e is ilevc>te<l to ihfir niiiwry, which conKists m their hujieltts 
«trnggle and fatal contlictwith the god-*. The commander of the forcifl 
is seen in conclave with his lendern,' horses are being KathUed and tbe 
"hen>efl"are arming themselves with coat« of mail and weupoii». 
Another weno shows the battle raging along the border Rppanitiiig 
their country fi*om lieavtMi, find the genenil mount'eil with bi^ Ktalf us 
Bpectutoi-M in the Uii-kground. Thi^ warrioi-s of the lirst line are aB 
killed or horribly mangled by the thunderbolts and adamantine wea{)OU!t 
bnrled at tliem by tlie gods. One of the weapons possesseil alike hy 
go)l.s and Til.in8 is a 8pike<l iliw. 

The nltim»te fiite of every Titan is to die painfully warring agaiu^ 
the gods with whom they are in constant conflict, and they hu\'e no ac- 
cesa to the ainbro«ia with which a wounded goil obtuini< itistunt i-^-over)'. 
Anolher pcene^'wee picture on page I02)ilepict« the wtmienfolk gjitlieird 
ronml "The Reflecting Ljike i>f Perfect Clearness" after the <lo(mitnrt 
of their lords to tJie battle. In this lake are miri*ored forth all the 
doings and nitimate fate of their absent spou^«, and there in also shown 
the region of re-birth of themselves, which is nearly always hell, owing 
to the p4iRsinnate life which they lead in the Asura world. And whil(< 
their Iover.s die painful and passionate dejiths, tlie misery of tlin woman- 
folk of this world is to look into tliis fascinating lake and exf^terienee 
the horror of such hideous spectacle**. In the picture some women art 
shown peering into tlio lake, and others on the banks ai-e giving vent 
to their grief. 

1 Anali^nus lu lliitt is Uir> conniion colIo(|uial tonn ni-ma-ytH or "not a inoB*' 
applimi to thosi- who lend vicious and iligeoluto [ivp«. 
* Not*; tJiftt gn-ntni's* of nuik ii< shown in pictures hy onliirgci) t*odily dinH>iisi 



1. JfhrUartlsidra (Yn1-k*or-sruft '), the whito guanliAn of tli. 
east, and king of the GamlharvaK * (we figure over I>«cre). 

2. Virthi/uikii (I*ag-kyp-iM>'), the green* giianlian of the south. 
an<i king of the K'lunhhandas'' (see figure i>age 330). 

3. Vtrti]Mtk.shn (Jii-mi-wih*), llie n-d giianltuTi of tlio wrM nnii 
king of t lie NilgjU ' (w^e figure (Jage 2811). 

4. Viii^atHtitn (Niiin-t o-srii ")» the yellow guntdian «f the north 
and king of tlu* Yakslias.' He is an ea|)ecial favoorite, a^ he U n!-- 
in anotlier asjieL't, the gol of Kiehes (see figure on i>age 37* 
Indeed, it would seem that all of the gods, even Indra (JupiiHi 
himself, were originally considerwl to be Ynksha genii. 

The Bubjects of these kings are members of tbe eiglit grcnt 
classes of BUpematural beings.'" 

These great cele^itial kingR guard the heavens from the attiuk^ 
of the outer demons; and have to Ite distinguiMhfd from a tiiof 
extended category of gnardinTi gods, the ten Lokjttih wliu gaanl 
the world from its ten directions ; namely, Indra on the e«aHt, Afjni 
(the fire-god) on thertonth-east, Yiuna (the dt^ath-god) on thesouti^ 
Rakfihas (V Sura) on the south-west, Varuna (the wat^r-god) 
the west, Vayu (the wind-god) on the north-wefJt, Yakshai 
the north, Somn (the moon) on the north-east, Hrahma, al 
Bhupali, below. 

The liuddhistti divide every universe into three regions, in imita- 
tion, apparently, of the Brahmanic Jihavantdntya, substituting 
for thf^ phynicfd categories (Bht't eartlt, lihain heaven, and Svnr 
(i]jace) of the Bnihmans, the ethical categories of Desire {Kdvfux\ 
Form Rnpft and Formlessness (Arvptt)^ which collectively are 
kno^vn as "The Three Regions "(rmi/ojS*ya "), and mostly placed 
in heaven. They are : — 

I. The region of Desire, ifamarM«/u(Tib.,Dod-pahi Kanu), 
is the lowest of the three, and com])rises the bix i)etti- 
/oA'rt«(Tih., Llm-Yiil) or heavens of the gods, aa well m 
(he pnrth. 

soutf^ I 


1 yul-'k'or twniA. 

i Dri-u " Uw Small-wit«>rB," 

4 S<imet.iim-n Uu- roloura of the North nml 

8outii (.iuanlUtiH aru tranii| 
" (Inil-bum. 

* gpyiut mig-bxah. 

■ kU\. 

rnaint 'os arns. 

<• .vNod-<l)yiu or "tlio iiijun're.* 

'" See rhaptcr on Myttiulcjgj-. 

" "K'am* gauiti." 

n, Tbe region of Form, Rnpadhdixt (Tib., flr/,ug« kyi k'ani«) 
it) in the piirer heavens ct{ Errihina where form is free 
from i-ensuality. It comprises the sixteeu Brnhinalokas ; 
which are divided into four regions of contemplation 

»in. Tlie region of Formlessness, Ardpadhtilu (Tib., </Zug8 
I med-pahi k*am«) comprises tbe four higheflt of tlie 

I BraUmu heavens und near to Nirvana. 

The heavens are thus diagrammatically shown in the form of the 
tunereal monument or oaitya; tJiough in other pictures, as in 
the foregoing cliart of the universe, they form an inverted 
pyramid, increasing in si/e from below upwards. 

The celestial Biidilhas therein shown are, it is needless t^ say, 
itions of later davs.^ 



This lie:iv(i<n is the tvavja of Uribinanii>m, and iselwwn in the upper 
oom^>ai'(iiM_*iit uf the Wheol of Life. 

3. /uwirt, the HinilQ Pluto, the king ojhI judge of the dead. 

4. Tushitu. (Tib., (Kia\i /dun) or "Joyful place" — the punidute of tlie 
BodhiAiitn prior to their finiil descent to the humnu world as BuddW. 
Muitri'^Uf the comiug Buddha, dwells at proiiuut in this huaveo. 

6. yirtiianarati (Tib., *p'rul '^gah). 

0. I'ariiHinuiUf \'iu<fviirUn (Tib., r/z'an 'p'nil cflhih byed) — ibe 
bigbe^t of the huavcii» of the g(xh> and thv alxxle of Milru, 

The Brahmatoka worlds are subject to the God Urahma, and exist- 
ence ranges from intellectual tranquillity to untHinficionsneos. Tbew 
worlds of meditation {dhyafia) avG acoomitetl eighteen in nttmber, and 
urrangfd in fivegrou[>K (3, 3,3, 2, and 5) corresjMinding to the fivc-fold 
division of Iti^limn's world, iind are utiually nautctl from below upwanlx 
art follows: (1) Br&huia pai-sadyii, (2) Brahma purohita, (3) Mnhi 
Briihmann, (t) Paritiibhii, (5) Apmrntinn, (<>) Abha^vara, (7) Parita- 
suUia, (8) Aprumanasiibha, (*J) tSulrhakririhua, (10) Utpala, (H) Aa- 
muuitya, (12) Avrilm or VribatpaLa, (13) Ata|)a, (14) Sudani, (Id) 
Sudasi, (Itf) Puiiyapnisavft, (17) Anablmika, (18) Akanishtha (Tib-, 
Og-min) or " The lligbewt "—the abode of the Primordial Buddha-God, 
the AdiBuddha of the L&mas, vis., Hamantiihhadra (T., Kuntu-^anpo). 
Thift Ufit, together with the next subjacent Bnihmaloka, are according 
to the Ijamnifits eternal, and arc placed above the ArO[« BrahwalokAS. 

The Fo\tr Ariipa SraAmahkaa are 1. Akasanantayatana, 2. Vijnaiiio- 
tayatana, 3. AkiDcafia}'atana, 4. Naivasohjiiana Safijuayatcma. 

The tluratiou of existeuce in each of tliose states is for vastly 
increasing periods from below upwards, till beyond the sixteenth 
immortality itself is reacheci ; and acoording to some of the later 
Buddhists, pach Bodliisat must traveriie each of these stages (/fAum) 
before he attains HinMliahood. 

The typical heaven of tlie gods — Indra*« paradise — is pictured 
ill the Wheel of Life at l>agc 108. Its atmosphere is yellow, 
and in it are ]K)rtrayed the four states of godly birth, bliss, iios- 
sion and misery and death. 

Qodhf liirth. The god \» Iforn at once fully developed within a linJo 
of glory from a lotus-llower, — ^llie orieiiUi) syuihol of iiiinuLterinl birth 
ami is providetl with the s[»ecial uttiihutes of a god, — vix., (1) a lotua- 
f<M»tstiHil, (2j Hpleudid dress and ornamenta, (3) go(hU>sB-coinpti niona J 
(4) II wi(*h-graiiting tree, or fnyj-stnu-nhiH jSkt., Kulpiuitiru) ' which in- 
stantly yielrls any fruit or fwMl wislied for, and Ivnds to the liand of 
the gatherer, its leaves yielding luscious food, itst jiuce nectar, and its 

1 A|mni8, c»ilbtitial nymplw — tbc " hnuria " awank<d to heroics. 
3 Tilt' wiifti-^ranting tree of Indra's boaveu is dusvribed iu the 45th Sectiou uf the 
SiliKA S'attra. 



fuit jewek, (5) a wish-p-anting cow {Kdnia-dhenu or SHfithha ') wUich 

KeMs auy drink wislieJ for, (G) sulf-sprung crops (u8tially painUid as 

Kliun corn or mnixf), \') in u golden sUiU n jewylled liorse-of-fore- 

bnowIe<lge wlucli Pegiwns-likecAn-iet* hw riilwrwhereverwi-shetl, thnnigh- 

it the worliiM of tliw [ni»t, [irweent, urul future, (8) a lake i»f jrerfiimwl 

L'tor or ambi'usiu (Skt., Amrita) whicli is the rZ/Wr viUe ami the source 

the divine lustre,^ Shiuiiig is a peculiarly divine attribute, aiid the 







etyiuulogy of the word "(/I'tunity," is the root />»V, "toshine," the jwu'on 
of the Skt. Devit and Latin Jkns. 

Godhj BlUs. Tho bli^ of the gods is depicted fay au asHembly of be> 
jewL'Ued gofls and gotWesises basking in scrtsiiouH eujoymeut in sj>lendid 
palaces iu the luidst of a charming gai-den cnjiuiellcd with llowers, of 
which they make their wi'enthii. Way hiids warble in the foliage, and 
noble aniiualri peacefully roam together there. Aninngst the(piadrupeds 
ileer, lions, and elephanU with jewelled headrf. Amongst the bii-db 
■lie jwitoock, iMirrot, cuckoo, and the " Kala-pinka,'* whic-li repeat** tho 
tie * Om inani padine, llQm ! " for the language of the godd i« the 

1 [jnutci-fl >'f ttiPK*- nro r^)li) in tlu' Ituliun bazAara as toyii for chiUlri>n. Ct)in()arR ilii» 
U'tli '-tf tt"* wiBhiug-cow with tlir {uinilli^lB rctatt^ by Prof(-*a«(>r Wi'K'r in {iUauntjthe- 
khU tl*T Kitnig t'reusA., A'wf. :ti /IrrliK., wvW., 18WI. 

3 Tike aup-b«arcr is UliiuiwiLUt;Lri, ttuj Indian Gaayincde. 




Devn-na^ri or sacred liiuj^nuge of Indin, One of thebliaifu] condit»m» 
of godly life es£>ei'i:illy dwelt iijM^n, U thitt tbe moeil dainty morsels mtf 
bo eaten wtthuut seucte of repIetioD, the Ubt morsel Iwiiig as mocb 
relished bja ihe first. 

In the centre of this paratJise is the great city of Belle-\Tie 
(iSuilarsana), within which is the roleatinl palace of Vaijayiuita 
(Amaravati) the residence of Indra (Jupiter), the king of tlie 
gods. It is invested hy a wall and pierced by four gaten, which 
are guarded by the four divine kiugH of the quarters. It is ft 
three-storied building; Indm occupying the basement, Brahma 
the middle, and the indigenous Til)etan war-god — the dOra-lfin 
— nn a gross form of Mara, the ginl of Desire^ the n])irf'nnost 
story. This curious jK^rversion of the olcl Huddbi.'-t order of tbr 
heAveus is typical of the more eiordid devil-worship of the liiina^ 
who, as victory waa the chief object of the Tibetan-s "t^levated 
the war-god to the highest rank in their pantheon, as did the 
Vikings with Odin where Thor, the thunder-god, had reigned 
supreme. The [jaasionate war-god of the Til>etan8 is held to be 
sui>erior even to the divinely meditative »tate of the Urahina. 

Wtty wltft the Titans. The god.s wage war with the Titans, 
who, a« we have seen, are constantly trying to seize some of 
the precious fruit of the great Yoii-ilu ttu-lol (Skt,, I'drijiUa') 
tree, or "tree of I he concentrated essence of earth's products," 
whoKe branches are in heaven, but whose rootii are in their 
country. The climber which encirclcH this tree is called the 
Jftmbuli tree, and is the medium by which the quintessence 
of the most rare delicacies of JambudvTp are instilled into 
larger tree. And the war-god directs the divine army. 

To account for the high position thus given to the war-god, it is 
related that he owes it to the signal assistance rendeivd by 
to the gods in oj>|)osing the Asuras.- 

The vi'i^ery of the (fndM. The gnd enjoys bliss for almost ini 
culabletime; but when his merit is exbiusted then his lake of 

* Identiflod with Uie bcautiriil Iiidiiin CuroJ Tri'C (AVyrAn'nit Intiim). 

3 It la Matol tlutt ill fnnnLT tiini>6 tlio gucb were dt-featod tiy the AAunwhi flghtilig 
for tlic fruiU nf the prcat widliing-trfo of r,aradi»c: and the dt-fealed find* under 
Indrii tMttouKlit irSai'i-balii-Wag-iw for council. Thin divinity adnaod the gods Ut 
call U) thfir Rid llu- u-:ir-giid *U!nt'{ho, nnd alM) to nbtAiit from tho dcpClis of thfl 
central ocpan Ww invisible iiniioiir and the niin' Hi'If-t-n-ati-d weapons, via.: — (1) 
rJHog'hya Ih^vng-kfHff-i-ut, n liplini't of th«» skplft'>n IxtnoH (>r the Uuruda bird; (Sj 
KMn^Hi-fhai^tO'tytfub. Iho coat of mail sliiiiiuf; like tlio sun; (3) lla-UHht-rdcrft- 

ctar dries up; his wish -granting tree, cow and horee die; his 

[jlendid liress and oruameuts grow dim and dit^appear; his i>alace 

; dilapidated ; Uis flowers and garden fade; his body, no longer 

ithe<l by nectar, loae^ its lustre and sweats like mortals, so that 

person becomes loathsome to his goddesis-eompanioDS and the 

ler gods, who shun him, and so the poor god di^ii miserably.' If 

I has led a virtuous life during his existence as a gorj then he may 

I re-bom in heaven, otherwise he goes to a lower region and may 

ren be sent to hell. Buddha was born twenty times as the 

Sakra or Indra (Jupiter) and four times ait Brahma.' 

The BuDDHiEfT Hell. 

■The antithesis to heaven is hell, which with its awful lessons 
looms large on the horizon of the Buddhists. For according to 
their ethical doctrim- of rt*lribution, aud in thec«seof the more 
theistic developments, their conception of God as the supreme 
type of right-doing, they picture him like a hmuan judge trying 
and punishing the evil-doers;* although, with truly Buddhist 
idealisnj, these tortures are believe<l by the more philosophii.'al 
Lamas to be morbid creations of the individual's own ideas, a sort 
^^ hellish nightmare. The majority of the I^ma^, however, and 

9»-r'fi, necklr^t ; (4) iMt-koQ-tut' tOn-f^A-lam'toij a weapon reviBtinp and ri-turriiug 
gluvc; (5) i.ViM-j(rAr£>-Bui'/(iA-Mr/t}n-J-ujr thvb, a lirfAxt-pltiti' fntirel^ able tu willi* 
atand arrows and other wrA|x>nif: (B) P\lfkhtht-Mts'P*i'tktfiM»'<^efl, a luiii'-uip wliich 
dcfendit aguiiist dbatniL-tjiiii; yl) J'hubm-»lM'dttitu-glinff-<iifrj, .1 six-fuilxitjtt'd s)iii>lcl. 
Tlu) nine »ort» iif wi-himjiui hTv: — (Ij a 'K'orlv or Kpiked-disc wliii-li complotoly " 
rout^^s th« enemy, (2) 11 tUftit-ita nr lui axu wludi c1io]js tlu- enemy; (3j a tttl-^h 
or ftword which slioce thr iMu-my; (4) u yZhu ur buw whieli scaltfrs the braina of 
the eneniy: <6J a "im/AiA" or arrow that piiTccs thu vitals; (U) a Zkaj^sfm or 
DOOM which ousnarus the «>n»*iiiy: (7) » mlhmg or spear whirh pl^-rccs tlie heiirlji 
or Iho foe; (8) a Cr-nlo<, a whirring eling-stone thnt jinnluceH Uk' *'ur-r-r" 
Bound of a Uiunder<Uragi'U : and (U) a Iforjf or tliuiidfr-t>olt uhlcb d^-niolishpfi 
the cncuny. Thu titory 8i>i'tnB foiiiiili-d on tin- Hralmiattlcal li^iiud uf Indra 
(Jupiter) nbtaining from tho ttca U\v talisinuini: b;<[iu<:-r wliid] coniurrpd victory 

^Bfv hU ennmip^ ; rf. Ilrihat Sufihitn, irautjUtitl Uy l>r. Kkkn, JJt.A.S^ ri^ p. 4-1. 

^^^Tlu^ gods tvaring otitaiiiml tlieae weaiKinR ntid annittir, invited the war-god, who 
mmf i^nveiuiK'd in Uiuiider-clauds and nlt'>iided hy his nine »cin&, and n>cc-iviiij; 
wunship from Indra and Ulu other gods as the price uf his artaietancf. they aucaiiled 
routed the Tituns, 


' n*i(i>v. .1A^^ 143. 


VS. MAiKB'ii works on Karly Law. 



the laity, belipvc in the renl mnterial character of tlipRp helU nur! 
lUt»ir torture. 

The Hiuldhiiit hell [XartiJctt ' ) in a trae inferno shunted in Xht 
\>ovfch of the human wirth like Hiules, and pre^fidt^d over by the 
Indian Pluto, Yuma, the king aud judge of the de-ad, who 
however in himself finite? and i>eriodifBlly tortureil. Kvery lUv 
he ifi forced to hwuUow molten metal. tSo, an the Kttude of Achillea 
says, "it is belter lo live on earth as the iKjoreiit peasant titan (-< 
rule as a prince of the dead.*'- 

The (ireat Judgment is determined Holely by the person's own 
deeds, an<l it, it? concretely pictured by the imle^il of scnh^s, whexe 
the good deeds, as white pebbles, are vreigheti a^inst the siuFfiui 
black counters, in balanees, and the judge holds a mirror whieli 
reveals the soul in all its nakedness. " Not in the heavens, not in 
the midnt of the sea, not if thou hidest thyaelf in the clefts of the 
mountains wilt thou tind a place where thou canst escape the force 
retsulting frurn thy evil actions."*' " Through the six states of 
transmigration does the ijower of our actions lead us. A life in 
heaven awaits the goo(i. The warders of hell drag the wicked 
before the king of hell, Yama, who says to them :— 

** ' Did you not when on earth see the five divine messengers sent to 
wiirti you the child, the old man, the sick, the criininal eun'ering 
pmiislnnent, and the dead corpse?' And the >vicked man answers — 
' 1 did see them.' 

'• * And didst thon not think within thyself: " I also am subject U) 
birth, old age, and death. Let me be c.ti*eful to do j:*>od works"?' And 
the wifkt^l man answers : ' 1 did not, sire ; I neglectt^i in my folly to 
think of these things.' 

*' Then tJie king, Yuma, pronounces his doom : ' These thy evil deeds 
are not the work of thy mother, fatht'r, relatives, friends, adviser^. 
Thou alone hast done them all ; thuu niono must giitUor tlm fiiiit.' 
And the warden* of hell drug him tu thu place of torment, livet him t-o 
red-hot iron, plunge him in glowing seas of blood, toituro him on 
Uirning c(ju1k, and he dies not til! the last residue of Ins guilt has *Kreu 
c.\]>iated." ' 

Nor in hell a complete expiation of offences, for liuddha is 
credited with saying, " A harsh word uttered in i»ast times is 
not lost, but returns again," and the Jataba tales are full of 
incidents in illuntralion. 

> drayftl-k'iun*, or "the n^ou uf Lorawut.*' (Vnnpjire wiUi Oihuwo vcrainn in 
' fihttmtm-iMiht, 127 * Ihni-dCitUi-tiuftH, trutuil. |jy U. ULUKhHiutu. 



Hell IB divider! into numeroiu coroi)artmeT)Uy e«ch with % 
special sort of torture devised to suit tUe aius to be expiatod. 
Only eight helU are mentioned in the older Buddhist books, bat 
the LumaH and other " northern " Hu<ldhists describe and fignre 
eight hot and eight oold helU and also an outer hell (^Pmtyeka 
tutnika), through which all tbo»c escaping from hell most paw 
without a guide. The Briihmauical bella are multiples of seven 
iusteud of eight; some of them bear the same names as the 
Buddhists, but they are not systematically arranged, and as the 
extant lists dato no earlier than Maim, about 400 A.D., ihey 
are probably in great jsirt borrowed from the Huddhistj?.* 

The foregoing figure =* shows the 
Lumaist hells, but they are seen 
in greater detail in "The Wheel of 
I^iff," at page U)9- 

At the entrance to the great hell 
on the bank of the Hindu Styx — the 
Baitarani* or "three jiath** river — 
sit:?, according to one version, an old 
hag, a sort of i*roi-i^wrine, who strips 
oH' the clothes from the new arrivals, 
and hangs them on a tree behind 
her.* She is UiO feet in stature, with 
eyes like burning wheels, and she 
despatches the condemned souls along 
their respective roads in accordance 
with the judgment, but sometimes 
she delays them with endless tasks 
of heaping up stones on the banks of 
Styx, and ^o prolongs their agony. 
The hot hells stand in tiers, one upon another, beginning at n 
depth of n,!JOO miles below the surface of the earth, and reach 
to a depth of 4(),0(M) miles ; each hell has four gates, outsidR 
each of which ai'e four lutic-hells, thus making altogether I3(i hot 





1 Srw' an article by M. Loo« Koer, "L'Enfor intlien," In thy Journal Atiati^mt^ 
XX. (1892), and >. (\«iw S«rit^ 18£>3), for VitXi and dfscriptiou of tU) Brahmanist tieJIa. 

* I''i>r Ww tracing t'f which I i»ui iiidobt^ni to Mr. J. C. WhiU'. 

* ="'ni(.' sedeiit queen." 

' Bur picture* iv given frum thu Ja[iaucse. 

THE mr HELL8. 



Tht* atinosphpre of the hella is of the deei)e«t hlneJc: — 

" I^t^lit was absent all. Bellowing,' tltere ^'roatiM 
A noifte, Otf nr a. wa in t«ttii»eHl Uirti 
By warring wiiula, the Htormy bloMt of Ucll." 

Dante. Canto v., 2&. 

Itich hell is enveloiKvl by a wall of fire, bthI the horrible tor- ' 
mont? are fit to ilhistrate PanteV inferno. ludeeil, it has been 

suggested that Dante 
iiiUHt have i^eeo a 
Buddhist picture of 
these hells before 
writing his famous 
classic, so remark- 
ahl« Is the agree- 
ment between 
them. The liotors 
( s'ln-je) are aav- 
age flame-en- 
veloped monsters 
with heads of 
various animals, 
and all their jiin- 
eers, and other instruments of torture, are red-Iiot. 
The following are the eight great hot hells. 

Hut Hki.i >'o. K 

1, Sn^jlva ' = '* ftgaiH revived." Here the wretches ni-e cut and torn 
^ pieces and then re-united and reWved only lo siifler the ttume process 

%i^\ ud infinituin througliont the period spent in this \w\\. 

" BecftDse <hm- wounds heal ever muI amm 
£re we npjiear l»efore the fiend a^in." 

Dantk, Canto xxvUi., 36. 

ition of the Imdy, in order to subject it to fre^h torture, 
an essential part of tho proco^is in a\] the hells. Tlie l)ody when 

lorouglily raanylcd is restored aud tlie racking torture applied afresh, 
that the agony never ceases. Tliis is the special litdl for suicides, 

jtirderers, ignorant physicians who killcil their patients, fraudtUeut 

ruvtees, and tyrants. 

2. Ktlla*tltra ^ = " black lines." Hero the victims are nailed down and 
eight or sixteen black lines drawn by the lictoi-s along the body, which 

then eawn asunder along these line!) by u burning hot saw. Another 



punbthineni liere is the especial one of the «Un(lerer, or buNy boily, who 
tins litKnr her tontriie fitlarged and pvg^il outantl oonst&ntly harrowed 
Uy (tpikeK ploughing through it. To this hell nre osnigned those who 
dtirinj; life were disrespectful to their pai-ents, or to ButlilhR, or thf 

3. •Srtm^Ail/ff, ' = " concetitmted oppn*Rsion.'' Hprp the gniltj are 














: Hot Hku. No. 8. 


squpezpil and rruahed hetween aniraal-hcndod mountains, or monster 
iron lM>uk«. This luKt is an especial piiniflhineiit for monks, laymen and 
infidels who have disregarded or profaned the .'icriptures, and also for 
priests who have tjiken monoy for which they have not jwrformed. 
Others liore are pounded in iron mortars and boatcn on anvii.s. Here 
, are lorLtirud thieves, those who indulged in hatred, envy, passion, the 
(iiAent of liglit weights and inca-suros, and those who cast refuse or dead 
animals on the public ixMids. 

4. Jiftut'ava,^ — *' weeping and screaming." The torture hero is toKave 
mf'lten inm pmred down the throat. TIiok© who were prisonei-SjObstrm^teil 
waleivonrscs, or grumbled agniust the weather (K'lejirly the Knglish 
hell I ), or wanted food, are here tortured. 

' lMldu> 'JMIIW. 

* iui-"IxmI. 



5. jVflArtrtiuroiw/ = *' ffrenter weepiug ami acreniniiig." Here they are 
nkotl in soothing mnldrons of molten iron. Ttiis is the hetl for 

0. Ttlpann^^ ^*' lieat." The condomned U encln»ed in a red-hot fiery 
[chamlHJr. Tu this hell are piinUhcd those who ronste^l or baked nnimahi 
}tar their food. 

7. Piatnjmnn* = " highest heat." A three siiikoil buraing spear is 
[thrust into the \vi'etcli's bodVi which is then rolletl up within red-hot 
Firon plates. It va the special torture for npo.stitte^ itnil those who roject 
It he truth. 

S. Avldn^* = "endless tortiu*e." ThU is the most severe nnd longest of 
'all the iiifertml tomients. The guilty is perpetually kept in Hamcf*, 
though never consumed. Tliis is the hoH for those who Imvo renle*^ 
Buddha, and utlioi-H who have luirmcd or attempted to tiorm LEmaism 
or filial the blood of a Liinm or holy-man. 
^_ The Cold ilells. apjvirently an invention of the northern UuddliiAtfi^ 
^Kas ct>ld was an id»i rather fortiign to the Indian mind, are Rituated on 
^n^e etige of the universe below its encircling wall (C'ukravala). 
^KThey arc endrclcil by icy mountains (see plite, page 101)(, and have 
^^ftttendiinte of appalling aspect, ait in the hot hells. They are thus 

tieftcril>ed : — 
^H 1. .'l/*Ai(/irt/ — " biistered or chapped." The torture here is constant 
^piDiner^ion of the miked pertH>n in iue and glacier water, under which 
■ the Ixtdy iK'comes covered with chilblains (which toiiure may lie coni- 
I pared with the curse invented by a sonl>e in tlie reign of Athelstan ffti* 
^Hiuiyone w))0 should break the terms of his charters: " 31ay he be 
^Bfcoriured by the bitter bhu«ttf of ghu'ici*s and the Pennine iinny uf evil 
' spirit.*."") 
I 2. iVirarinida.^ The chilblains ore rudely scarified, producing raw 

3. Atattt," " Ach'u " or " A ta-Ut," an exclamation of anguish beyond 
ticulateexprei^ion — which resounds through this hell. 
•i. fhthtraJ' A worse degree of cold in whicli the tongue in paralyzed 
d the exclamation Ki/i-'u or Iln-ha alone p>ssible. 
0. Ahaha."' Here both jaws and teeth are spasmodically clenched 
through cold. 

(j. Ctyain." Livid sores which become evertetl like blue 

' * Kii-bud Ch't^-fKi. 

» Ts'a-ha. 

J Hab-tu t'sa-wa. 

• mnar-niMi. 

• Cli"u-b«r cli'yn. Ar*'>i Houn«is aus|iH'tniuly lik(* Mount Aim <IJ 
«• l4u..U-<l by Mr. D. W. Fn'«lifi.:Ul in J. tt. fit*^i. S., ISM. 

' Ch'u-bur-lirul-wii. 

• A-cli*u. 

• Kji-'ud. 

' Su-fatn-fKi 
I't-pnl-ltar ga.>>-tKt. 



7. Padma.^ Tho i-:iw«oi-e« become like red Lotus-flowfirfi. 

8. Pvmlarika,^ Khw Boree where the flesh falls away from the U-oe* 
like the petalft oF the great Lotus; and which nre continually ft^f^k-^t 
nud gnawed by btrdfi and ineectK with iron beaks. 

Tlift frontier or nnterior holls at the exit from the great hell are 
CftUed "The near (to re-birth) cycle," =* and are diviiled into four 
sections.* The first bordering hell conflicts of hot euffotating 
asheji with foul deaii Iwdies and all kinds of ofifal. Then is 
reachwi a vast (quagmire, I>eyond which is a forest of Rpear^ and 
spikes, which must betraversetl like the razor-bridge in Muhamma- 
danisra and in BunjTin'H Pilgrim's Profftr^a. Then 8uoceeds a 
great river of freezing water; on the farther 8hore of which the 
ground is thickly f^pt with short squat tree-tmnka, each »ar- 
uiountetl by three B|tiked leaves which impale the unwary grop- 
ing fugitives. Keference to these last two Iocalitie» occnnt in 
the onliimry litany for the dead, whieh says "may liis c%H--ico- 
rtth'iiifid ocean become a small rivulet, and the U\tl-7ivt~ri tree a 
divine wish-granting tree." 

In addition to the hot and cold hells are eighty-four thousand 
external hells (Ne-tsV-wa, Skt.? I^jkuntarika) situated mostly on 
the earth, in mountains, deserts, hut springs, and lakes. 

Another state of existence, little better than that of hell, is 
the Preta (Tib., Yi-dag) or Manefi, a sort of tantalized glunil or 
ghortt. Tliis world is i)laced aliove hell and lielow (he Situvftn 
forest, near Rajprilia, in the modern district of Patna in Bengal. 

Thetie wretched starvelings are in constant distress through the 
pangs of hunger and thirst/' This is pictured in the Wheel of 

* Ptdiiia-lUr-gaS'im. 

■ PrulniA rliVn-ixt-Uar-g-aa pa. 

* nn-'k'or (=? Ski., PntteHia nunthi) nuaiijiig near to re-hirlli. 

* Nftinrti Agiii'hfuuhi (nit'-ma-niur gyi "nlw) nr thi! fli-rj' pil, Kunajitithi (Ko-m^'jij;* 
Kyi 'dams) nr iiinigmin? cif r.irrnWM, KfninitiMtiriintHn (sim-gri gt.iiu« Is'ul) or funvl of 
spikes, aiul At'il^inttnnit (ral-pri lonin iin>'s-ts'ah nr fon.'st of swonl-lcavps. 

■ TTiirty-six spocifs nre di-'BcribiHl in five (rriHipD, namely : (1) p'tfii sffnlfjni ritan ra 
"the fon-igii or g^ntilp horrid iH-ings*" 1 2) -ViMjr-j*: tgriffjMi chtu nr tlic Biid<IJiiHt liorrld 
bpin^s, (3) Xas-tixm-gyi Mfrtb-pa rJitin or th*- fating and drinkinj: iKirrid hfiii^'S ^tliMC 
are thry who on eating and drinking havnth*? ingeBUKl inaU-rial cunverlfdint/i laecrat- 

ing w*_'apo»)>, (4) and (5) l/ut-thvi ur free Yi-dnga. Tlie latter are nut connmM 

in Ihe PMa-pnuon, tmt are free to mam .ihoiit in thn human world— in gravc^ardw 
etc.— und injure m:\n. These are (Kkai.'h C'u/rH.i, 67) l,KlAt't)odit>d:2.NL>i-dle-n>initli«d; 
3, VoDiit-caterg ; 4, Fillh-ctaters ; fl, Mint-citprs ; 0, Watir-fpi'dfra: 7. Scarcdy »een; 
S, SjutUe-foodorH : 9, Hair-caters: 10, HltKid-suckors ; 11, Nution-fvederK ; 12, Meah> 

Afcy also in the annexed figure. This in the special torment 
or tboae who, in their earthly career, were miserly, covetoun, 
uncharitable, or gluttonous. Jewels, food, and drink are found 
in plenty, but the Pretas have mouths no bigger than the eye 
of a needle, and gullets no thicker in diameter than a hair, 
through which they can never ingest a pat.isfying amount of 



for their huge bodies. And when any food is taken it 
>mes burning hot, and changes in the stomach into sharp 
lives, saws, and other weapons, which lacemte their way out 
from the bowels to the surface, making large painful wounds. 
They are constantly crj'ing "water, water, give waterl" And the 
thirst is expressed in the picture by a flame which is seen to inwue 
from their parched mouths, and whenever they attempt to touch 

•mts; 13, tncMUK-feiclBra; 14. Fevcr-tnakcrs : 15, Secret prj'crs ; 10, Earth lurbors; 
IT. Spirifc-mpperB: la, Klame-burncTii; lt>, Biiby-auatcliBra; m, Sea-tlwcllers; 21, . . . ,; 
.King Yama'R club-Jiolders : 23. StarvHitiga; 24, Baby-eaUirt ; 25, ViUI-enU>ra; 20, 
abw: 27t Sraoke-oatora ; 2ti. Mar8li-<]wflUTs , 2!), Wind-witcrs; 30, Asli-fvcdera; 
, Polsoa<«at«r8 : 32, Desert-Uvt-i-s; 33, Sparlt-reederi*; 34, TretjKi welters; 35, Koul- 
cUen: U> Body-kit U>ra. 


Wftter it chftnges to liqaid fire. Avalokita ia frequently fi 
in the act of giving water to these Preta;* to relieve their mi 
And a famous atory of Huddha credits the great MSudj 
yana, the right-hand disciple of "the Blesaed One/* with h 
descended into the Pir fa-world to relieve his mother. An 
story, the Avalambanft Sutra, dating to before the third centniy 
A.D., gives a very vivid picture of this tantalizing purgntoiy, ant 
al»:> illuirttrates the rites for extricating the star\'eltng ghofrts.* it 
ifi here appended. 


Thus have I heard. Buddha at one time was residing in the coantry 
of Sravosti, in the garden of Jet^, the friend of the orphims. At thu 
time Mugalou, having begun to acquire the six aupernatural power* 

iirrdhi), desiring above all things, from a motive of piety, to delivw 
lis father and mother, forthwith called into use his power of snper 
natural sight, and looking throughout the world he beheld his unhappy 
mother existing without food or drink in the world of Pr^tas (huDgrr 
l^ghoets), nothing but skin and bone. Mugalan, moved with filial pity, 
immediately presented to her his alma-bowl filled with rice. Htuniothc<r 
then taking the bowl in her Jeft hand, endeavotired with hor rijt;ht to 
oonvey the rice to her mouth, but before it came near to her lips, lo 
the rice waa converted into fiery n^hos, so that she could not cat thereof 
At the sight of this Mugulun tittered a piteous cry, and wept manv 
teal's as he bent his way to the pUce where ]3uddha was loi'ated 
An'ived there, he explained what hFid hnppened, and awaited Buddha's 
instruction. On this the Master opened his mouth, and said, "The son 
which bimls your mother to this unhappy fate is a very grie%'ous one 
from it yon nm never by your own strength rescue her, no 1 nor yet 
all the powers of earth or heaven, men or divine beings ; not all these 
are et^ual to the tiisk of deliverance. But by assembling the priests of 
the ten quarters, through their spiritual energy, deliverance may be 
had. I will now recount to you the method of rescue from this and 
all similar calamities." Then Buddha continued: " On the 15th Jay 
of the seventh month, the priests of the ten (juarters being gathered 
together ought to present an offering for the rescue of ancestoi's 
during seven generations past, as well as those of the present genera- 
tion, every kind of choice food and <lrink, as well ns sleeping materials 
and he<Is. These should he offered up by the assembled priesthood as 
though the ancestors theiuselvos were present, by whi<'h they shall 
obtain deliverance from the pains, aud be born at once in a condition 
of happiness in heaven." And, moreover, the World- honoured One 

' See my " Indian Cult of AvalolcrhV /. R. A. S., p. I. and plates ii. and Ki.. 1»94. 
* TmnoUtocl by S. Bkal in The OrfCHtat, Novt-mber Oth, 1P76. A dramatkt^d version 
ii commoa in China. — Cf. Lr* Fiit* qkn uttlrmaa €4Hbrtit A Kautin, J. .T. M. de (laoor. 

-lit hi.s foIlowerB certain words to be repeftie^l at the oflTering of € 
erificos, by which the virtue thereof would bo certainly secured. 
On this Mugiilan with joy accepted tlie instruction, and by means of 

institution i*escued his mother from her sufferings. 
JLnd Ko for all future time this means of deliverance shall be effectual 
the jHirpoae designed, as ycnr by yoar the ollVrings are presented 
jrding to the form delivered by Buddha. 

Having heard these words, Mugalan and the rest departed to their 
reral places, with jo)t)us hearts and glad thoughts. 

Related apparently to this story is the Liiraaist account of ** The 

hueen of the Pretaa with the fiery mouth," whom the iJimas 

ientify with the celebrated Yaktthini tiendess Hiiriti, for whom 

nd her five hundi*ed sons they daily reserve some of their food, 

plating in support, of this practice the following story, evidently' 

arrowed from the story of Hariti in the Rainakii^a StUni : — 


_ Hariti, quet^u of the hungry ghouU with the burning mouths, had 
. five htmdi-ed childivn, whom tvhe fed on living childrau. The great 
Huddhn. " Mohiigalapiitra," coming to her dwelling, liid away Pingala, 
the youngest and most beloved of her sons, in his begging-bowl, un- 
known to the gods or demons. The mother, on her return, was drowned 
ia Bon'ow at the loss of her favourite son, and in her distress appealed 
to the omniscient Mohugalaputni for aid to recover him. 'I*he IBuddha 
then Bhowe<i her Pingala within his bowl, yet all the eflbrta of Uariti 
^—AZiil her demons faile^l to release him. So she besought Buddha for aid. 
^brho replied, '* You, with five hundred children, mercilessly devour the 
^^liildren of men who have only two or three, yet you grieve at the loss 
of only one I" The /V*(a^pIeen declared that this one was the most 
precious of all, and Hhe vowed that were ho released she never again 
would devoui- hiitnan children. The Buddhn, consenting, restored her 
child, and gave her the three Kefuges and the 6ve Precepts, and (say 
the Lftmas) he promi^^ed that in future all Buddhist monks would give 
her a handful of their daily food.' 

This practice is probably derived from the Hindu cflfering of 
food and drink to the manes of departed relatives, the Sraddha 

Flying visits of mortale to Hades, having their parallels in 

> Thr Japnneso version of tlu» legend and its pictorial illtutnitioii an* puhUshed 
by Sir. A. W. Franks, KR-S., in Jovr. Soc. .-tiKi'/uai-i^, Vol liii., 18M. Buddba furthr-r 
Informed Ikt that "You wore tlio lUtitli dau^fliter <''f Kini? Chta-yf? at the time n1 
Buddlia Kd^yafio, and porfurmad nmuy great aud mcritorioua nctioDa. But because 
ymi did not keep the pn^ppta you received tbe fonn of a deiDoa." 

H 2 

0(lys9eu*9 and Dant«% visits to purgatory, are found in IjamaiHm, 
wliere they are kno^^Ti asi De-l^k, or "the ghostly retuniiiig," 
and &re used for stirring the people to good behaviour. 

Buddhist Mm-APHYSics. 
Buddha, being a Hindu, accepted the Hindu theory of the 

universe and its fantastic world-system, with the modifications 
above indicated, and he started also with the current notions of 
metempsychosiH and Kamui as ]>art of hifl mental furniture, 

AccoixJing to the theory of uietempsychoBis, or more properly 
palingenesis, which was not unknown to the ancient Hellenic 
and even Jewish Hterature»and western fairy-tales, 

" Tlie Honl that rixra with un^ niir HfR'ft fttar 
Haili tiad elsewhere ite setting." — Wordsworth. 

Death merely altera the form, but does not break the continuity of 
the life, which i^roceeds from death to re-birth, and fre«h deaths 
to fresh re-births in constant succegaion of changing stales, dis- 
solving and evolving until the breaking up of the universe after 
. a kalpa, or almost an eternity of ages. How Buddha modified 
this doctrine will be referred to presently. 

Karma,^ or the ethical doctrine of retribution, is accepted a^ 
regards its general principle, even by such modem men of science 
as Huxley.^ It explains all the acts and events of one's Life as 

^ TibcUn« lait and p'rin-Ia«. 

■ Professor Huxify in liiit lecture on Evoiutim and Etkici says :— 

" Everydii.v cxi>cncnce familiArJKOs ua witli the f.icU wtdcli arc grouped under tbc 
nuuc i)t heredity. Kvory one of us bears upon liim ubvir>ua nmrlis of his parentage, 
pvrliapti I'lf remuUT relationuhips. Mure [miticularly Uie buiu of tendenciM to act in a 
curtaiu wiiy, wtiich W6 call ' cliar&ctfr ' is often to be traced through a long series of 
progctiitora aud coUatcnU. So wi> may juittly say Dial this ' cbaractcr,* this moraJ 
H,iid intAillectual eeseuce of a man dcx^n veritably pass over frum one flt'jtliy tabemade 
^> another and dooa really trausinigrati* from (ft'nt* nition to gfut- ration. In the new- 
lM>rn infant t-bv character of the Ht«ck lien latvnt, and the Ego is little mori; lliau » 
bundle of poteatriaUtiuSt but, very early. thi?6r hcrAHn^- iurtualitifs : from cltildbood to 
ikge tliey manifest tbtfmaelvtts in dulnuits or brightness, weaknctm or tttn'itgtli, vicioiia- 
nt^ss Mf uprigbtneas: and with i^ach frature modified by condurncti will) aoutlitv 
aharacter. if by uotliiri^ else, the chsractrr paases on to tt-s incjirnation iu nt'W 

"Tbe Indian pbiloaopliera caUf^i chamcter, as tJiiis defined, 'Karma.' It u this 
Kamia wbicli paftaed from life to life and linked tbem in the chain of transmigrations; 
nnd thoy held tlial it ia modifled in each life, not murely by confluence of paruntage 
but by ita own acta * • • « • v 

** In tbe theory of erolutlau, the tendency of a gerrn to develop according to a 


iHe resulls of dewls done in previous existences, and it creates a 

system of rewards and punishments, sinking the wicked through 

the lower stages of human and animal existence, and even to hell, 

id lifting the good to tlie level of mighty kings, and even to the 


In this way Buddha explained all the acts and events of his life, hie 
joys and sorrows, hia success and failures, his ^'irtue8 and weak- 
nesses, ay results of things done by him in previous states of life, 
rhich he recalled to mind as occasion arose for teaching purposes. 
^nd thuri those anecdotes of the antecedent lives of the Buddha, 
-the so-called " Jdtaku tales" — with the moral lessons rlerived 
from them, came to be among the most cherished items of 
Buddhist l>elief.' 

The various regions of re-birth or "ways" of life, the so-called 
Qail^ are pictorially represented in the accomjmnying drawing 
called '* Tlie Wheel of Life." They are given as six (or 6ve, as with 
the primitive Buddhists when the Titmia were not separately 
represented), and are thus enumerated in the order of their sn- 

Iperiority : — 
. Ist The Gods {Sura or Deva, Tibetan, Lha). 
2nd. Titans (Aeurat T., Lha-ma-yin), 
3rd. Man (AVm, T., Mi). 
4th. Beasts (Tiryak, T., Du-d6»). 
5th. Tantalized Ghosts (Pret(L, T., Yi-dvag). 
6tb. Hell (Xaraka, T., Nal-k*am). 

Boumouf * writing from Chinese aud Ceylonese sources, classes 
aan above the Titans, but the order now given is that adopted by 

I specific type, ^y., of tlie Icidney-N^an seed to grow into & pUnt hnvjn^ all the 
I of Pha»eotua tviiforit, Is it« 'Komm.' It is the 'last iahcrltor and tbe lajt 
flult of All ttie conditioiu tliat Ubvo effected a line of aoeestry wUch gom baok for 
oany millionfi of ymrs to tiie time when life first appeared oa earth.* As Professor 
' Rhy* DaTJd-S aptly mvb. the Rnowdrop ' ia n snowdrop and not sji oak, and Just that 
kind of .1 snowdrop, because It is the mitoomo of the Karma of an imdlcss series of 
[Niat f'-xiatfiices.'" 

I Budiih»*ii births are usually numbered at 550, of which the latter and more hn- 
nl are called "thf Great Birllia." Fnrlist of different forms of existence oscrlbpd 
Buddha in \m prcrinus hirtlis see Rnrs DAvins* JUtata TaU*. CF. also Cowbll's 
dition of the Jitakas t^an8lat4^d from the Pali, and Ralston's Tales from thp 

» "Skt., (Jatij Tib., gro-bahi riga." * Literally " tlie bent goers." 

* lAftiu (U ia boinK Lot, p. 877. 



the Lamas.' Existence in the first three worlds is considered 
iiui)erior or good, and in the last three inferior or bad. And these 

arc ^^rfTlfTnl' ms •!• tftt t»r' . 

Kmr TO Wheel of Lifb. 
(See p. 109.) 

worlds are shown in this relation in the picture, the highest being 
heaven, and the lowest hell. 

The six regions of re-birth are shown in the middle whorl. 

^ Conf., Uaudt's J/an. of Buddhim, p. S7. The Lamaist account is contained in the 
*' miion-pa-i mdsod," traiutated by ZiOtsawa Bandc-t^pal rtsegs from the worli of the 
Indian Pandit Vaaubandhu, etc. 

fhey are demarcated from each other by rainbow-coloured cordons 
epresenting the atmospheric zone^ that separate the different 

rids. No place is allotted to the other phases of existence be^ 
ieved in by the Lamas, namely, the everlasting existence in the 
weyteru panidiae of SuUuivuti and of the celestial Buddhas and 
loaiacal protecU>r8 of Lumaism, and the expressed absence of 
ich expressions of the current modem beliefn favours the claim of 
lis picture to considerable antiquity. 
Of thene six states all have ah-eody been described except the 
lird and fourth, namely, the .state of being a man or a beast, a 
eference to the Buddhist conception of which is necessary to 
aderstand the picture of The Wheel of Life. 
The most pessimiatio view is of course taken of human life. 
It is made to be almost imalloyed misery, iU striving, it perenni- 
fcUy unsatished desire, its sensations of heat and cold, thirst and 
lunger, depression even by surfeiting with food, anxiety of the 
ar for their daily bread, of the farmer for his crops and cattle, 
anfuliilled desires, separation from relatives, subjection to temporal 
laws, intirmities of old age and disease, and accidents are amongst 
the chief miseries referred to. The miseries of human existence 

tare classed into eight sections, viz.: The miseries of (1) birth; 
(2) old age; (3) sickness; (4) death; (5) ungraiified wishes and 
struggle for existence ; (6) misfortunes and punishments for law- 
breiiking; (7) syjjaratiou from relativesand cherished objects; (8) 
^^ffensive objects and sensat ions. 

^k In the picture the following phases of life are depicted amongst 
^bthers : — 

^ Ist. Birth in a cottage. 
2nd. Children at play. 
3rd. Manhood, ^-illage scenes, people drinking wine under shade 

of a tree, a man placing a flute, women spinning and 

weaving, a borrower, two traders, a drunken man. 
4th» labour by sweat of brow, men tilling a field, gathering fuel 

in a forest, carrying a heavy load. 
5tb. Accident, a man and horse falling into a river. 
6th. Crime, two men fighting, one under trial before the judge, 

and one undergoing corporal punishment. 
7th. Temporal government : the king and his ministers. 

8th. OM age — decrepit old people. 
0th. Disease, a jibysician feeling the pulse of a patient. 
10th. Death, a coq»se with a Lama feeling whether breath be 
extinct, ami a Laina at the head doing wonship, and a 
woman and other relatives weeping. 
11th. Funeral ceremonies. A corpse being carried off to the 
funeral pyre on the top of a hill, preceded by a Ijamn 
blowing a thigh-bone trumpet and rattling a hand 
drum : he also has hold of the end of a white w-arf which 
is affixed to the corpse. The object of this st-arf is to 
guide the bouI by the white path to the pyre so that it 
may be disiwsed of in the orthodox manner, and hav* 
the best chance of a good re-birth, and may not stray 
and get caught by out^side demons. Behind the coqee- 
bearer is a porter with food and drink offerings, and last 
of all a mourning relative. 
I2th. Religion is represented by a temple placed above all other 
habitations with a Lilma and monk performing worship; 
und a hennil in his cell with I>ell, w/m-sceptre, and 
thigh-bone trumpet; and a stujja or autya (cJCorien) 
circumambulated by a devotee. 
The state of the beasts is one of greater misery even than the 
huitiau. In the picture are shown laud and aquatic animals of 
various kinds devouring one another, the larger preying on the 
small ; and also small ones combining to catch and kill the larger 
ones. Human hunters also are setting nets for, and others are 
shooting game. Domestic animals are shown luden with burdens, 
or ploughing and being goaded ; some are being milked and shorn 
of their wool, others are being brande<l or castrated or having their 
nostrils bored, others killed for their flesh or skin, etc. All are 
suffering great misery through the anxiety and pains of preying 
or being preyed upon. In the water is shown a Ndgti or merman's 
house, with its inmates in grief at being preyed upon by the 
Garuda, a monster bird, like the fabled rar, which by the rush of 
air from its wings cleaves the sea to its depths in its search for 

We are now in a position to consider Buddha's conception of 
Human Life — 

BuDDUA*s Conception of the Cacse of 


Apart from iU imiwrtanco as an illustration of the earlier intel- 
leotual life of humanity, the Buddhist ontology, the most won- 
derful, [t^rhaps, the world hae seen^jx^ssei^es a paramount interest 
for all who would arrive at a riglit understandiug of the religion 
and ethics with which it is associated. 

Buddha formulated his view of life into a twelve-linked closed 
chain called "the Wheel of Life or of 'Becoming'" (^Bliavncaicnt), 
orthet'ausal ^ex\is (PiutHjfa Smnutpdda) ; which he is repre- 
sented, in the Vinaya scripture itself, to have thouglit oat under 
the Tree of Wisdom.^ The way in which the narrative is couched, 
leads, indeed, to the impreasiuu that it was precisely the insight 
into this " Wheel of Life '* which constituted his Buddhahood, and 
diistinguished him from the other Arhats. However thia may 
be, he gave it a very leading place in \m philosophy, so timt the 
stanza recounting its utterance, Ye tlkarmd /letu.,^ etc., termed 
by Englisli writers" The Buddhist Creed," is the most frequent of 
all Buddhist inscriptions, and was certainly in olden (biys familiar 
to every lay Buddhist ; and it is practically identical with "The 
four noble Truths,** omitting only the initial expreHsion of 
" suffering." * 

I Thx bulk of thU article ftppn&red In the J,R.A.S. (1894). pp. 867, etc. 
a rVnuyii T^jrld, VoL I, pp. 74-S4, 

■ " Of all object* which proceed from a Cauae 
The TklbagattiA lias explained tbe cause, 
And he luu explAioetl their cesBatiott also ; 
TliiR bt tlie doctrine of the groat 8Mna«a." 

Vimiifa Texii, l, 146. 
4 Thia f&moua stanza, says Profeaaor Rmra Davida ( Vinatftt Ttxu, i^ 146), doubtleu 
alludt-'ft ti> t h>- fonnula of the twelve Xiddnas. " The Chain of Causation, or the doc- 
trine of tlie twelve Xidnnae (rause-'t of existence) contains, an has often been observed 
En a more developed form, an answer to the same problem to which the fipcond and 
third of the four Noble TruUu (Ariya Sacea) alao try to gire a aclution, \\t., the prob- 
Irm of the origin and destructioD of suffering'. The Noble Truths simply reduce the 
origin of suffering to thirst or desire (Tanha ) in ita threefold form, thirst for pleaatu'e, 
tliirst for existence, thirrt for prosperity (see i., 6, 20). In the syst^-ni of Uie twelve 
nidanas Hiirat also has found its place among the causes of suffering, but it is not 
considered as the iinmerliste causr. A concatenation of other categories is inserted 
btftwaen taahi audita ultimAteeffn't : and,ontheotherhand,the investigation of causf^ 
is carried on furtlter beyond taahA. The question is here asked, what does taahi oome 
from ? and thus the series of causea and effects ts led Kick to .tW>/,7'i (Ignorance) u 
its deepest nwt. We may add that the redactors of tbe Pitakaa who. of course, could 
noc but observe this parolleltty between the second and third Ariya Soccaa and the 



Yet though this chain forms the chief corner-etone of Buil* 
dhUm» it is remarkable that scarc^ily any two European schoUn 
are agreed ujioii the exact nature ami t^igiiiBcation of some of tti 
chief liuk^, while the isequenoe of s^everal links is deemed eelf- 
oontradictory and impossible ; and even the alleged oontinuitj d 
the whole is doubt-ed. The best westeru authorities who have 
attempted its interpretation, Childers^ and Pi-of. IrL OldenbCTg, 
have practically given up the problem in despair ; the latter «- 
cUiiming, ** it is utterly impossible for anyone who seeks to fiud 
out its meaning, to trace from begiuuiug to end a connpctcd 
meauing in this formula." ^ 

Such condict of opinion in regard to this ** chain" is- mainly 
due to the circumstance that no commentary on its subtle funnuls 
has ever been published ; and that the only means hitherto avail- 
able for its interpretation have been the ambiguous PSli and ISan- 
skrit terminology for the links themselves. Thus, for one only 
of thetie liuks> namely, Saiiakdra, the following are some of the 
many renderings which have been attempted : — 

** Constructing, preparing, perfecting, emliellishing, aggregatkia; 
matter ; Kanna, the *S'i*(tf*(Wrttf.— ['As a technical term, Sankihro hM 
several decided shfulcs uf meuuiug ... in fact, SAokharo include* 
everytliing of which iui permanence may be predicated, or, wbac is 
the same thing, everything which springs from a cause ' — Childers.) * 
Lea Concepts. — (Burnouf) '; Composition notion (Caoma) ; Willeo 
(Schmidt) ; DLscriiuiuution (Hardy) ; Les idees (Foucaux) *; Ten- 
dencies, potentialities, coofcetiouti (Uhys Davids) ; * Qe&ttUtungea : 
shaiies and forms (II. Oldenberg); Conformations (W. Hoey). 

This bewildering obscurity of its terminology has somewfaAt 

■yatem of tlie twelve Nid&ou go so far iti noe inaUnce (Anguttaja Xikaya, Tikft 
NlpSta, fol, ie of the Pliayrc MS.) as to directly replace in giving U»' text of the (tour 
Ari}ra Saccaa the second and third of tlieac by Uie Iwc-lre Ni<lanaa in direct and nrv&m 
order reapecUvely."— ri«/i w Ttxie, i.,75. 

I CouoiaooKS'H Mia. ifjMrtyt Slid ed., ii., 453 a':^. 

> BitiUi/ui, I'U., Eug. trana. by Dr. W. Hf>i-y, p. 220. ftt-cvntly Mr. U. C, Warren, of 
CainlrndgCi MaB«. (/'roc. ^mennin Oriental iSocUtg, Ap. 6-8, 18&S, p. xXA-ii), ba* ad- 
vucAtvd A lorisor inoaiiEng for tliu word fntcat/Ht ufiuaJly tranttlat^'d " cauK*,'' witltout, 
liowovvr, getting rid of tlio more «erioud dlffliiultivs which beset tbu intcrpretaliua o{ 
tlie chain. 

» PtUi IMd^ p. 453. 

* P. 503. 

> 'riicfte la&t four authora are quoted through Kuppkn, )., 604. 

• ^mUAum. p. 91, where the flfty-two divi»ionB are enumerated. 



itaoed the chain &om itR due promiuence in the Kuropean 
3ks on the system, notwitUstainling the importance claimed for 
fby Buddhists, 

[>"ow 1 have lately discovered among the frescoes of the ancient 
addhiBt caves of Ajauta, iu central India, a picture^ over thirteen 
ituries old, which supplies a valuable commentary on this sub- 
Dt, It portrays in concrete form those metaphysical conceptions 
the so-called Niddna — ^which, in their Piili and Sanskrit termi- 
logy, have proved so puzzling to European scholars. And, as 
\i» picture, supplemented by its Tibetan versions and its detailed 
])Ianatiou ^ given me by learned Luraas, who are thoroughly 
liliar with it, and possess its traditional interpretation,' alfords 
lue to much that is imperfectly understood, and helps to settle 
nited points of fundamental importance, these advantages seem 
I justify my bringing it to notice, and may also, I hope, justify 
by attempt, however crude, at exhibiting its continuity as a oom- 
ste authentic account of human life from the absolute stand- 
point of the earliest Buddhist pliilosophy. 
^_ One important result of this new interpretation of the ancient 
^■bmula will be to show that it seems to possess more in common 
^rith moderri philosophic methods and speculations than is usually 
inspected. Indeed, it would scarcely be going too far to say that 
^K a period before the epoch of Alexander the Great, in the valley 
^OTthe Ganges, and at a time when writing was still unknown in 
India, an Indian auchorite evolved in the main by private »itudy 
and meditation an ontological system which, while having much in 
common with the philosophy of Plato and of Kant,* and tbo most 
profound and celebrated speculations of modem times (such as 
those of Bishop Berkeley, and Schopenhauer, and Hartmai)n),yet 
far surjiassed these in elaborateness. And as this bold system 
formed the basis of Buddhist ethics, its formulas came to be re- 
presented for teaching purposes in concrete pictorial form in the 
^^^ibules of the Indian monasteries and temples, as they still are 
Tibet and China ; and although the impermanence of the 


t A« current in mcdbeval Indian Hiidiiliieiii. 
^> Buddhn stt-ms to liave prop[>undi.>d Uic name truth wbicli Plato and latterly Kant 
' npver tired of repeating, tliat " this world which appivrB to the wiis*^ tuu no 
I Iteing, but only ceaBOlew Itticoming ; it ib and it is not, and it« cotnprehimaton i« 
DOl 8) much lEuovrle(l{fe aa Illusion." 

materials of the painter's art has unfortunately deprived u^^ of 
raost of its traces in India, where Buddhism has been extinc* for 
centuriea, yet I have found it as a relic in the deserted cato- 
temples of Ajanta.* 

Buddha himself may, as the Lamas relate, have originated tht 
picture of " The Wheel of Life," hy drawing it in diagrammatif 
fashion with graiuti of rice, from a stalk which he had plucked 
while teaching his disciples in a rice-tield. The introduction of 
the pictorial details is ascribed to the great Indian monk Xagiir- 
juna, who lived in the second centnry A.D.,uniler the patronage of 
the successors of the Scythian king Kanishka, who we know from 
Hiuen Tniang employed artists in great numbers in the decoration 
of Buddhist buildings. These pictorial details, however, are allegfd 
to be objective representatious of the self-same similes used bv 
Buddha himself, who, as is clear from bis SiUrua or sermons, con- 
stantly used homely similes and allegories to illustrate his 
doctrines. And a general account of the construction of the 
picture occurs in the Divydvtuldna.^ 

The particular Indian painting from Ajanta on which the pre- 
sent article is based, is attributed to the sixth century of our era,' 
while the Tibetan picture which supplements it, is alleged, and 
with reason, to be a copy of one brought to Tibet by the Indian 
monk "Bande Yeshe," in the eighth century a.d,* 

^ See it« photogra|ih accumpanyiuK my article in J.ILA.S.^ 1894. p. 370. 

» As noted by I'mf. Cowell (Maisk's TtinniatioTa on Earlt/ Law and Cmfom, p.60),fttf 
which rpf iTf ncp I am indebtet) to MnL Rhyn Davids. In thv IKryiiradiDa, pp. 29t^400t 
H ifl related how BuddhA, n'hile at thn .Squirrfl's Fctnling-g round (Kolandala) 10 Um 
VeouTaxia forest u(>ar Kaja^ha, instructed Aruuida to make a wheel (cakrEin kartyi' 
tavyiun) for the iJurpoHe of iltustntting whnt another disciple, Maudj^ly&y&nA, 8tw 
whun hp visitfNJ ntlicr Etiilicrfx, wtiich it seems he wag in the habit of doing. The 
wheel WJiB to have fivp 5p(?Ve.H (^lancagandakam), between whidi were to be depiuUd 
the hells. animaJa, pret-as, g«de. aiul m^ii. In tlitf middle a dove (p&rivata), a ser* 
pent, and a hoc y>'*>rv to ByTnb'>hzehist, hatrfd, and ignonince. All round the tire wm 
to go tlie twelve-fold circle of causation in tlie re^Iar and inverse order. Jlnnp 
were to be represented ** as being bom in a 3uprma.tural way (anpapidukali) as by the 
machinery of a water-wheel falling from one state and being produced in another." 
Buddlia himself ia to be outside Die wh«d. The wh(>el was m»de and placed in the 
"Grand entrance gateway " (dvarak{>shthak6), and a bhikahu Appointed to interpret it. 

■ Bl-ROIHS in Rock Ttmpltt, SOD. 

* And r!ow at Sam-yba monaatery. For a technical df?8crii)tion of it by me aee 
J.A.S.B., Ixi., p. 133 j*^. A confuai'd cupy of the picttin* was figured by (JioMI 
{Alphali. Tibet), and partly reproduced by Foucacx, Anitolrj dn Uviit Ouintt, Tome 
Bixiemc, 13S4, p. 2IK),but in neither case Mrith any explanatory description of itadetaiia. 


The Tibeian form of the picture * here given should be studied 
with iU Key (p. 1U2). It \s a disc or wheel, Bymlx>Uziiig the end- 
less cycle of Life {samsdra), of which each re-birth is a revolution. 
The wheel is held in the cUitohes of a mon.oter, who represents the 
bideoiunesB of the Ringing to Life. The brood tire is occupied 
by the Caue&l Nexus, and the nave by the three vices or delu- 
sions, " The Daughters of Desire," the three vices — Rnga, Dveaa, 
AfoAa. Lust, ill-will, stupidity, which lie at the core of re-birth, 
and are Sgured here, as in the other Indian picture on page 6, as 
a dove, serpent, and pig, appropriately coloured red, green, and 
black ; while the body of the wheel, which is considered to l>e in 
continuous revolution, is filled with pictorial details of Life in its 
several forms, or "The Whirling on the Wheel** of Life. And 
outride the wheel is a figure of Buddha, showing that he ha» es- 
caped from the cycle, to which he is represented as pointing the 
way of escape. 

The ancient conception of Life under the figure of a wheel of 
which each re-birth is a revolution is not confined to Buddhism 
and BrShmanism. This fancy finds an echo more than once in 
Hellenic literature.^ 

1 SkU, Bhavacakramudra : T., Srid-pahi 'K*or-lohI p'ysg-rgya, or slwrtly " Si-pa X*ot- 
16." The Tit>etaii form of tlie ptcturu i» of two styles, the "old " and " oew." Th* 
Utter is given in tlio attached platv. and it dLffem from Uie "old" only io Uie intra- 
ductioa of a figure of Avalokita or the Uod of Mercy, in the fonti of a Su/ft or Mnait 
into each of the aLx worlds of n>-birth, and In one or two different pic-lorial dj-mbols 
far the causes of re>birtli. 

* Cf. nou? by Prof. C. fiendall on " PJatonio Teaolilng in Ancient India."^^ fAmoHM, 
loth January. 1891. Mrs. lOiys Davidfl, oommenUzkg on my articli! {J li.A.S., )S94. 
p. ft38), writ^«: "In tht> Or|ihic tbM>gony we come acrosa Uie notion of n^birDi rnnsidered 
aa a wiairy unending cycle of fate or nooeaaity — x^Xor riis yty4irt«n, 6 r>)i ftolpat 
rf»x^* etc. — from which the soul long* to escape, and entreAt^ the guds, f^tpeciatly 
Diuioysos (AuJrMrtf Xvv'toi 0«S1 Aufftov), for releasei — kvkXov rt \v^eu koI iwrnnfikrad 
am^ngrof. In the rt^rscs in^cribt-d on one of three golden funereal tablets dug up near 
tbe sSto of Sybaria the line occiu^ : ' And thus I escaped from the cycle, tlie painful. 
lUMsry-laden * (/n*cr. ^r. SiriL et Jial. (>41). Those oJlusiooa may be referred to at 
icopj hiiiil iit Hcrr Krwin Robde's study of Hellenic idcaa respecting tlie tioul and 
inuDortality, entitled Paycke (4tu. Uttlite, pp. 4It) tt rr^.; 509), reiTeutly amiplcted. 
FtadaTi Empedoclea, and PUtOiasia well kuown. all entertained the notion of repeated 
r»-trirth in this world at iutervab ranging from nine to one tlwuaaud years, repeated 
twtiit;. thrice, or an indufinite number of times, and, according to ttie two latter writcra, 
iifu-xi mcluding in ita phases incarnation as an animal, or even as a vegetable. And 
Uiruughout there runs tbe Orphic ideas of each re-birth being a stage in a courso of 
ioor»l (^volution and effort after iiuriflcation. itut I do not know whether the actual 
unaffeoCthawfaMl occurs in other Insttooes besides tJiose I bav« quoted. £mpfldocl«s. 

In the pictorial diagram of human life, as conceived by 
Baddhist philosophy, the causal nexus Iwgins at the lefi-hand 
side of the top partition. The twelve links round the rim foUow 
in the U9ual order and in evolutionary fashion as follows : — 

EruLiniosAST Br*i?K. 

III. C<inHci<tUBneaB V^fMna 

IV. 8eU-ci)n(icioii9iieM Natna-ntpn 

V. Boom - surf aces and 

irii(ii*ntUnding ChadHjfatana 

VII. FeelioK 
Vni. I>c8ire 

IX. Indulgence 

X FaUerLife 

XI. Birth (of heir) 

XII. Decay and Death. 
I, Unconscion* Will. 





Stojse nt nuwins from Dntfa to 

Rluipint; of fortiilese physKftl 

uid mental materUls (m tbt 

Rise of Conwinnj* Kxperienc*. 
Kiso uf Indivulitnlity — itirtiiw- 

tiun between self Kod iti4-Mll, 

Realizes {Ki«MeftKiim of Sens** 

Hurfacen and l^nder«t«ndiiij[ 

with refprencp to outoide 

Exercise of Sen»e - or^aaB on 

oater wurld. 
Menial and physieaJ Henaatioits. 
Desire, as exi»erience of paia or 

dclapive pleasure. 
Grasping greed, as Botisfying 

Deiiire, inducing olingtnK to 

Worldly Wealth and desire nf 

heir Ut it. 
Ijfe in fuller fiirm, as cnrirlvcd 

by fiatisf ying desirt* of married 

life and as means of obtatnin^ 

Maturity by birth of heir (which 

affords re-birth to auotliei 

Maturity leadx (o Decay and tn 

Parsing from Death toRebtrth. 

The key-note to Buddha's system is that Life in any form must 
necessarily, and not merely accidentally, be accompanied by suffer- 

For instance, teea rsther a toilsome ntad or roads of life — VvaX^ot fftirvt* K«Ar6fovt. 
With Plmo, again, we more rL>adily associate his simile of a rc-birtlt as a fall of the 
eoul from heavrn to earth, as it drives Us chariot aft<-r tlin procession ot the godc. 
through the steed of Kpithumia bt^ing draKged down by iw craving for carnal tUa|;t 
^r, as! Buddliist might say, tlie sliced of Cliandarsgo orercorae by Opid&na for 
the skandhas. 

"The qucalion of a genetic conunrtion twtween ori^^ntal and Hellenic notions as t« 
rv-birth is (»f t.h? grfateJit int**re«t. Prof. Leopold vnti Schrceder's opinion Uuit such « 
connection pxi»t« (P^tfutgonu loirf dit Ii*dfr, especially p|). 23-31) seems on tlip whole 
to bo well founded." 



as others had tauf^ht. Anityam DuJf.kKam Andt7nakai}if^ All 
is H-ansitory, painful, and unreal! 

rJuddlia, therefore, set himself the taak of solving the mystery 
Life in order to find the way of escape from coutinual Be- 
comings, which was clearly involved in misery. Being a Hindij, 
he adopted the then, as now, current Hindu notion of metem- 
psychosis or palincjenesis, the doctrine, namely> that death merely 
alters the form, but does not break the continuity of life ^ which 
proceeds from Death to Re-birth, and fresh Deaths to fresh Re- 
births in constaut succession of clianging states disBolviog and 
evolving until the breaking up of the universe after a Kalpa, 
or almost an eternity of countless a^es; though it would api>eiir 
probable that Buddha and the primitive Buddhists denied the 
real existence of the material and physical world as well as the 

In kis ontotogical scheme, while adopting an agnostic attitude 
towards the Hindu gods and their creative functions, Buddha does 
not begin by attempting to account for the first life. He accepts 
the world as a working system on met em psychological lines, and he 
t^vades the necessity for a supernatural creator by interpreting the 
Universe, as Will and Idea, and by placing the Karma or ethical 
doctrine of retribution in the position of the Supernatural ('on- 
trolling Intelligence or Creator. Perceiving the relativity of 
knowledge and that nature furnishes presumptive evidence that 
some evolution has taken place in her methods, he throws his 
theory of the vital process into a synthetical or developmental 
form, showing a gradual transition^ fi*om the simple to the com- 
plex, and proceeding from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous 
by an ever-changing cosmic order in which everjrthing is dominated 
by causality. 

The starting point in Buddlia'a theory of Life is the connecting 
link between the old life and' the new. Unfortunately, however, 
even on so elementary ajioint as this, there exists no consensus of 
opinion as to what Buddha's view of this link precisely was, for 
he concerned himself less with the metaphysical aspects of his 
philosophy than with the practical alleviation and removal of 

■ Pilt, Animin DMkkam A H/ittam ; in Tibeton, Ml-rtag-pa sdiig-bsnal-btt, bdi^. 
J But see hereatttr. 


sorrow. He expressly &void«d tbe ase of the term "Soul" 
(Atvian)y as this word was already in use in Brahmanism with the 
impHc'ition of supernatural and theistir creation. Some stay tUat 
he taught there is no continuity between the old life and the new, 
that the Karoui attaches itself to any spirit which may chance to 
be re-bom at the time of the person*8 d(?ath. But if this lie so, 
where is the justice of the Karnui doctrine? It is said by some 
that the sole-surviving thing is Karma^ yet this t«rm is used so 
elastically as to include products which belong ratlier to the 
category of the Will-to-live. Others say that Vijiidna^ or con- 
I ftciousness alone, survives ; and so on.^ 

The view adopted in this i>aper is based upon that held by one 
of the Liimas who explained to me the pictorial Niddtuts; and it 
has the advantages of being not only intelligible, but consistent, 
and seems as reasonable as any ontologieal theory well can be 
which postulates a metaphysical absolute. 

Our view holds that there is actual continuity of the Individual 
life (or Sattva) between death and re-birth. And this identity of 
being is supported by the doctrine of EkoUbhdvity which word, 
according to its Tibetan etymology, means ^to become one un- 

The Surviving Thing, which is carried on into the new career of 
the individual, would indeed seem to be identical with what is now 
generally known to occidentals as Hartmann's absolute, *' the 

■ See J.n.A.S., 1892. p. 1 «;., for n ubular abstract by Prof. Bhjre Davids on Uk 
autlK>riCieii for such conflicting views. 

'* EkoTibhdv.i is another cnix of tluddhism. Clulders, In quoting Thero Subhuti's 
etymology fr>:>in tto wUti, writos : ** Eko^iblifiro, the second Jhan&, Is said ta be ettatt 
ttodibAavo, wliich Burnoiif renders * Cnity of l\w mind * ; but that this is its troe 
meAnin; is very doubtful, as will bo seen from the Full extract seat me. ... In 
accordance with this gloss I would be inclined to rendor ekodibharo by * prfdomU' 
uHce.' rathrr than by unity, but I do not feel comipE-teiit to giro a deddod npinlou ss 
to itH meaning."— />i'rf., p. 134. Dr. Morris (in the .-lciu/<!jn,«, 27thHarcli, 18^, p. 122) 
lias d notf* un the suhject. fallowed by Prof. Max Mailer {Acadtnyt 3rd April, 1880, p. 
211), whn would di'rivit it fn>tn eka-f-kodi; nnd Pmfpssor Kggellnif has a 5uppli^> 
mentary note in thp /*«/*' TcJti -Stw. Joar. (p. ;VJ, 1885), in wliich it is considriwi a 
inentaL state, and rendered by Prof. Rhys Davids as "exaltation." Trof- Kern 
{iHti'od. to his trouslatioii of the SaddAarma P»iuiariha, xvW.) in noting the occurrence 
of the word ekotihhdva in the LaJiia Vit/ara (p. 147, 8. and 439, 6\. rojocts Hul^uli's 
etymology uf tho wjrd, without assigning any Feasons. The Tihi-tun er.ymnlogy, how- 
«ver, entirely eupporta Subhuti. It is translated rOyud-gch'i^-tu-gyiir-pa, which 
means "to become or to be trausfonned+cme+a thrpad continuous, uninterrupted": 
and my Manuscript Tibeto-Saiukrit Dictionary restores the word to Eka+urtfa]uiaA+ 


KCONSCiocs Will"; and to this is attached the Karma or retribu- 

of deeds done in former live?. 

This, the first link of the Ontological Chain , begins at the instant 

hen the mortal envelojie is thrown off or changed, that is at 

death,'* and was termed by Buddha the stage of Avidyd, which 

literally means "HVi/ii of Knoitieihje^ and usually rendered into 

English as "Ignorance" or " Nescience," But the word Avidya is 

used in different senses. Its ordinary sense is thus defined in the 

Vinaya TtxtSf i., 76 : " Not to know Sufifering, not to know the 

.use of suffering, not to know the Cessation of suffering, not to 

,ow the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering, this is 

called Ignorance." But Ai^idyd, as the initial link of the Causal 

IexuB, is, according to our information, what may he termed the 
^gnontnl Unconscious-Will-to-Live. 

The pictorial representation of this link is a blind she-camel 
(** Ignorant " Productive Unconscious Will) led by a driver (the 

The camel vividly suggests the long nnd trying journey of the 
Unconscious Will across the desert valley of the shadow of death, 
st death itself to the dawn of the new life beyond. The sex of 
the camel seems to indinate the potential productiveness of the 
Unconscious Will, The blindness of the beast represents the dark- 
ness of the passage and the blind ignorance of the Unconscious 
Will, which through spiritual ignorance or stupidity (Moha) be- 
lieves in the reality of external objects. And the ignorant animal 
is led blindly onwards by its Karma. 

In the body of the picture are given the details of the progress 

across this initial stage to the next link in the chain of casuality. 

e manner in which the Karma determines the kind of new life 

concretely represented as a "judgment scene." Here the sins 

figure<i as black pebbles, and the good deeds as white, which 

tre weighed against each other in scales. And according to which- 

ver preponderates so is the place of re-birtb in one or other of the 

state*. Thus the kind of new life is entirely determined by 

the individual's own deeds or Karma, which creates a system of 

* Th»? Tiljt'tan pictiirt uBually depicts '*» blind old woman " Ivd \>y a man. This per- 

vereioii of iho Indian piotun" ftwma to me to be duo to a niistTanglntinn on the pftrt of 

h*" LAmas, who appMr to liave conutnicted their pirture fmin a written description 

I wKich the Utt1« known word uga-mn, a Bbe-camel, Is iuterpret«d as ffa-mot ma old 

rewards and punishments, sinking the wicked through the lower 
stages of haroan and animal existence and eren to hell ; and lifttoj; 
the good to the level of mighty kings and sages, and even \jo the 
gods. Here it may he noted that hell is an idealistic state, a sMt 
of hellish nightmare, the prodact of the morbid sinful imagina- 

The ignorant Unconscious Will, as a homogeneous aggregate 
ouder the influence of the three Qres of illusion [THvidogiiiy lost, 
ill-will, and stupidity), is thus led by its Karma to one or other 
of the six gati or forma of existence with which begins link num- 
ber n., namely, Conformations {Saufthdra), 

Here our picture and its Lamaist tradition have oome to our 
aid, and rendered it certain that out of the manifohl renderings of 
Saiiskarn attempted b\' Kuropean scholars, as detailed on a pre- 
vious page, ^'■Cwi/oi'matiwis " was Uie one intended by tlie primitive 
Buddhi^^ts; and the Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit word giveji 
" iraprepsion " or " formation " + " action." The picture is a potter 
modelling clay on his wheel, and is identical with the Egyptian 
image of the creator. It represents the shaping of the crude and 
formless physical and mental aggregates of the Unconscious Will 
by the Karma, in accordance with " The Judgment." 

** Our mind is but a lamp fif clay, 
Which Fftte, grim Potter, holds 
On Fornrw's wheel that tdIIh alway 
And, att he pleoseti, laoulds." 

C. U. Tawkzt'b tniu. Vairiffjfa jbfaAoM. 

These so-called aggregates or Skandfia (Pali, Khandha) require 
some notice. The Buddhists, in their theory of the nature of 
sentient beings, pre-supjwse the existence of ideal atoms, external 
and internal, which, by aggregation, constitute man and the rest- 
of the universe. These aggregates or Skandba are grouj>ed into 
five classes, which are rendere<l by Professor Rhys Davids as (1) 
the Material Proi>ertie8 and Attributes (Riipa) ; (2) the Sensations 
{Ve*Uind) ; (3) Abstract Ideas {Sanna); (4) Tendencies or Potenti- 
alities (Sankkdra) ; and (5) Keason (Vihndna).^ Duly the first 
of these sets, or the Rupa Skandhay appear to be operated on in 
link niunber II. or Conformations. 

Now the Unconscious Will, no longer amorphous, reaches its 

next sta^e of devplopmenfc with the rise of Consciodsness, or Con- 
cious Kxperience {Vijndna),&3 the third link in the evolutionary 
88. This is figured by a monkey, which some learned Lamait 
jiained to me as showing that the rudimentary man ishecoming 
ithropoid, but still is an unreasoning automaton. From this it 
will be seen that however abstract its ba^is of metaphysical con- 
ceptions, or transcendental tlie caudal machinery by which it is 
set in motion, BuddhaV evolutionary scheme, in its practical 
aspects, must necessarily depend on a tolerably comprehensive and 

tibtle inteqjretation of human nature. 
The rise of Self-Consciousness (iWmo-rupa, literally " Name ** 
- " Form "), as a result of conscious experience, forms the fourth 
nk or stage, and is represented by a physician feeling the pulse 
of a sick man. Here the pulse denotes the individuality or dis- 
tinction between " Self " and " Not Self." And its Sanskrit title of 
"' Name and Form " expresses-the commonest features of Individu- 
ality, "comes ydytuir upi.i, local form, and name and bodiment, 
^fcringing the man with senses naked to the sensible, a helpless 
^Tdirror of all shows which pass across his heart."' ' A variant of 
this picture in some Lamaist temples is a man in the act of being 
ferried across an ocean. It is the Individual crossing the Ocean 
iof Life. 

As a result of Self-Consciousness, the individual now realises his 

of The Sense-Surface and Understanding {Oiaddyor 

And here again the relatively low place given to the 

iderstanding is quite in keeping with modem philosophy. The 

licture represents this link by a mask of a human face, " The 

empty house of the Senses";- and the understanding is mdicated 

by a pair of extra eyes gleaming through the brow of the mask. 

At this stage seems to be effected the full union of the hitherto 

passive will with the active co-efEcients of a human nature as 

expressed by " The Three Fires, the Buddhist variant of our Devil, 

tlie World and the Flesh" (/?'«(;a,Dwea, if oAa), though these have 

en present concurrently from the initial stage of *' Ignorance." " 

1 1 AnxoLD's Lliiki of Atia. 

' TliM TibwtAii picture repreaenta this literally an **iui finpty hrmse.'' 

* Theso Tlir*?e Firus (Ski, Triridka/Ht'i aetna lo have been substituted by Butldha 

"T the Brshmanical "Three Wkhui," or moral qualitioa of animated beings — the •*binfi- 

^^g i]ualities of mutter " (Mon. Willuiu's Hind., p. t^)— namely, mittm (< roodneu or 

Tirtue)» rt^ffu (Activity;, nnd umat (Darluu>«s or Stupidity), which in a mystical sense 

The exeTcise of the sense organs and the imderstanding is Coif- 
TACT (Sparaa) forming the sixth link or stage, bringing the indi- 
vidual into relation with the outside world. It is pictured bj 
kisHing^and in 8ome Tibetan frescoes by a man grasping a ploagh. 
It illustrates the exercise of one of the senses. 

From Ointact cornea FKELnfO {Vtdctn(T),ho\.h physical and men- 
tal, including delusive pleasure, |>ain, and inditlerence. It U 
pictured by an arrow entering a man's eye,* evidently a symbolic 
of " Perception," but ex]>Iaine<i by the Lamas in such a way ae to 
render it translatable by ** Feeling." 

F'rom the operation of Feeling comes Pesire or thirst (7rtsAfil). 
This stage, dealing witli the origin of Desire, perhaps the most 
psychologically interesting in Uuddhism, is pictured by a man 
drinking wine, and the same metaphor, namely, thirst, which is 
ihe literal mexning of the word for thi; link, and is adopted by Sir 
Edwin Arnold in his graceful lines — 

" TrishnS, that thirst vrUich ni&kes the Hvinf; drink 
I)ee|>ev and tieeoor of IIk- falno hhK wiives 
Whereon they float, ploaanres, ambttionB, wealth, 
Prai&e. fame, or doiumaliuu Con4uest, Kivc, 
Rich iiieatK and rohcs and fair atxHle-^ and prid« 
Of ancient HncA, and hiftt of days, and Htnfe 
To live, and sins tli.-it t1<»w fi mu strife, »irue awoet, 
Hnmc hitter. Thui^ Life's thirst ({nenches itself 
With dranghtR which double thirst. "> 

Thus the conqaest of Desire ia the greatest step towards Budd- 
hist salvation. 

The Satisfying of Greed, or Indulgence of Desire [Updd4l7Ui) 
forms the next stage. It is pictured by a man grasping fruit and 
storing it up in big baskets. It appears to be, and is so explained 
by the iJimos, as a clinging or attachment to worldly objects^ 
rather than to worldly ** existence " as Oldenberg has interpreted 

With the next stage — the tenth link — namely, Becoming 

are Interpreted as A, I', M (or OM), the Creator, Preserver, and Oefltroyt^^r. Theae Uirw 
ftrea which, arc^nling to the Itaddhist^, lie at the core of re-hirth, are Lust (T^ 'dod* 
cng6, ct. Jakk-h., p. 281), Anj(cr or lU-will ff., z'o-gdAii), and i^pidlty (T., gti-mug or 
p'ni^adog, cf. Jassch., 21)7 ; Kopp., i., S3). 

1 In tlu£ i>arUcular TibetHu picturo tlie sixth and aeveutli UukB have l>e6n imw 

* Th Liffht qf Atw^ p. 165. 

{BKava), we reach oue of the alleged ubstacleti iu the chain, I 
an irreconcilable link which puzzles Oldenberg, and which, to- ' 
gether with the next link, is deemed inexplicable and altogether 
out of place. Cp to the preceding link, the ninth, the evolution 
has clearly been that of the life history of a man. The tenth 
link is rendered by Oldenberg thus; "From * Clinging to El- 
tence ' comes Re-birth and the Continuance of Being for yet 
another existence.^ V^ery naturally he goes on to say that it is 
strange to 6nd a man who has long ago '* entered on real life " 
suddenly becoming a child again. And add^» *' How can a man 
be bom again when he ia old/' and before he dies ? for death only 
happens in the twelfth stage. 

But here it would seem as if (>tden1>erg ban misled himself 
by introflucing the term " Existence" into tlie previous link and 
by intfrj)reting Bkavtc as *• Re-birth." 

For we find that Bkava is pictured by a married woman ; and 
the Lfimas explain the picture by saying that she is the wife of 
e individual whose life-history is being traced. The word is 
thus given somewhat the sense of Bhavanaft (Childers' Diet, : 
"a house-dwelling''); or, as it might be rendered, "husband- 
■hip " ; it is the result of the previous link, namely, Greed or 
Indulgence in Worldliness. It is literally fuller "Becoming" 
[Bluiva) — Life as enriched by satisfying the worldly desire of 
home, and as a means of obtaining ai) heir to the wealth amassed 
by Greed, 

The eleventh stage or link is another of the alleged stumbling- 

ilocks, which, however, ceased to present any difficulty in the 

ght of the picture and the Lamas' explanation of it. The picture 

shows a jiareat and child. It is the Maturing of the man's life 

the BiitTH (Jdti) of an heir, and as a result of the married 

►nee of the tenth stage. It m ust be remembered that 

ing to Buddhist belief there is no propagation of species*. 

ife is held to be indivisible ; hence the child is no relation to his 

parents, as the wandering individual finds its family through its 

own inherent ICarnui, This dogma so op{>oscd to experience and 

ience carried with it its own refutation ; but it forms no 

ential part of the evolutionary chain. 

Maturity of Life then leads to Decay a>'0 Death (.Artmm<M^M»), 
e twelfth and final stage, which in turn leads on to link No, 1 — 

Re-birth — and so on aa before. This singe i» pictured as a corpse 
being carried off to cremation or burial. 

Let us now look at the Chain as a whole. Here we are met by 
the difficulty of findiu)^ a suitable expreiision for the word which 
connects the several Links, the IMli pticcaya, usually trani>lated 
" causti ^ or " concurrent occasion." Prof. Rhys Davids writea 
[Vinaya Texts, i., 146): " Hotu and paceaya (the word ao 
frequently used in the formula of the NidfiDasJ are nearly 
synonymous. Colebrooke [Life and Eaaaya, Vol. ii., p. 419) «y8 
thut the Hauddhas distinguish between hetu * proximate cause/ 
and paceaya (pratyaya) 'concurrent occasion'; but in practical 
use thiti slight difference of meaning, if it really existed, has but 
little weight attached to it."' Mr. Warren believes* that the 
term " cauae " should be used in a very loose and flexible >ray, and 
in different seuseu, in discussing different membera of the series of 

links. But as Prof. Oldenberg's rendering — " From 

oomes " — seems sufiBeient for our jiurpose, while it 

preserves uniformity and continuity, it is here adopted^ Tlie 
Chain then runs as follows : 

' Thif* snme differcnct* U observed by Tibt'tau writers. l*nitityii is rendtired liy 
rkj-on, dufincd by jAKifciiKii (/.tW., p. 17) as "a co-op« -rating cnuBe" of au event 
as distinguished from its proximate (or, ratlicr. ptimary originalj muae i:gyu 
(Jikt^ Sttu). 

* Loe, cit. He writes: "Mow a ^reat deal ut the difficulty experipnced by 
scholars on this subject apiicare to me to arise fram tlip loo strict way Jn which 
UiBy use the word 'cause,' aiid frum ttm idea which they labour under that 
Titnii plays an inip<irtaot part here, awhereas it vonld appear to bave bat ft 
secondary' r61e. 

** The term *cau8c ' should be used in a Tory loose and flexible way, and in different 
Mnaes, in discuaaing different members of this scries. The native phrase, of which 
CTIiaiQ of Causation Is supposed to be a translation, ia paiicea-tamvypdda. Paticca is a 
genmd, wiuivaletit to the Sanskrit pratUtfo, from tlie verbal root i ' go," with the i>re- 
Rxprai}\ 'bach'; &a6 miHitppdda stands for the Sanskrit «amitrp<ii2a, meaning a'spring- 
ing up.' Therefore Uie whole pluTLse ro^^ns a 'apringlag up* [into exJatencej -H-ith 
reference to someiliing else, or, as I would render it, 'origiuatioa by dependence.' 
The word 'chain' is a grBtuitr>us addition, the Buddhist calling it a wheel, and 
inakiog Ignorance depend on Old Age, etc. Now it is to be noted that if a thing 
springs up — tliat is to say, comes inbn being — with reference to something ehtn, or in 
di>i)endeufe on something else, tliat dependence by no mt^ans needs to be a caua&I one. 
In tlic Pali, each of these members of the so-called Chain of Causation is aaid to be 
the /Mccaya of the one next following, and paaai/a is rendered 'cause.' But Buddha- 
ghoso, in tlie Visuddhi-Magfpi, enumerates tw<:nty*four different kinds of paceaya, and 
in discussing each member of the jiaii<xa-9amuy^da, states in which of these senses it 
is a /mccti^u of the succeeding one. 

•^ Tliu Pili texts very well express the general relation meant to bo conrcyed by the 
wurJ parrat/a H'heu they say ' If this one [member of the series] is not, tlien this 
[next fpllowing] one is not,' " 

From the Igaorance (of the Unconscious Will) come Con- 
innations. From ConforiuaUons coizie» Consciousness. From 
Consciousness comes Self-Consciousness. From Self-Consciousness 
come The Senses and Understanding. From the Senaea and 
Understanding comes Cont^ict. P>om Contact come Feeling, 
im Feeling comes Desire. From Desire come Indulgence, 
reed, or Clinging (to Worldly Objects). From Clinging (to 
Worldly Objects) comes (Married or Domeptic) Life. From 
(married) Life comes Birth (of an heir and Maturity of Life). 
From Birth ('of an heir and Maturity of Life) come Decay and 
Death. From Decay and Death comes Re-birth with its altend- 
t Sufiferings. Thus all existence and suffering spring from the 
ignorance (of the Unconscious Will).'* 

The varying nature and relationship of these formulro is note- 
worthy, some are resultants and some merely sequences; char- 
acteristic of Kastern thought, its mingling of science and poetry; 
its predominance of imagination and feeling over intellect ; its 
curiously easy and naive transition from Infinite to Finite, from 
absolute to relative ^xiint of view. 

But it would almost seem as if Buddha personally observed 
much of the order of this chain in his ethical habit of cutting the 
links which bound him to existence. Thus, starting from the 
link short of Decay and Death, he cut off his son (link 11), he cut 
off his wife (link 10), he cut off his worldly wealth and kingdom 
link 9], then he cut off all Desire (link 8), with its "three tires." 
this he attained Buddhahood, the Bodki or "Perfect Know- 
ledge " dispelling the Ignorance (Avidya), which lay at the root 
of Desire and its Existence. Nirmna, or ** going out," ^ thus seems 
to be the *' going out " of the three Fires of Desire, which are still 
igured above him even at so late a stage as his " great tempta- 
ion";- and this sinless calm, as beUeved by Professor Bhys 
Davids,' is reachable in this life. On the extinction of these 
three fires there result the sinless perfect peace of Purity, Good- 
will, and Wisdom, as the antitypes to the Three Fires, Lust, Ill- 
will, and Stupidity ; while Parinirvdna or Extinction of Life 

> In Tibetau it is translate*! "The .Sorrowlesa State" (mya-naii-meO). Cf. alao 
BcftNovr. L. 19; Ukal'a autho, 174, 183* etc. 

■ 8m Aj«nfa [)irturt', p. 6- 

* BuddAitrnt p. 14 : mlm O. KrakkfOktku, Pti.D. (in J.R.A .&« t88(>. p. 549), whoslunn 
thAt the Uirva " fires " are aJ»o called the three *' obslacl^v " {KtSlMiut ). 



(or Becouiiug) wan renched only with the severing of the last 
fetter or physical ** Death," and is the "going out" of ev«ry 
particle of the elements of " beooming." ' 

Amongst the umny ourious perveniiioiiA of the latter Buddhism 
of India was the belief that by mviitical means, the SaUva or 
personal entity may, short of death, and whilst yet retaining a 
body, be Uberat-ed from the influence of Ai'^idyd, and tlius form 
the operation of the cansal nexu>i, and so secure immortality. 
ITpagupta and many other noted Buddhist sages are believed to 
be yet living through this happy exemption.'' 

Buddha's metaphysics appears in the light afforded by the chain, 
to borrow — like so many other world principles professing to -folve 
the problem of existence — from the distinctiont; of psyehologv, 
and to be based on Will. »Schopenhauer indeed admits the affinity 
of his theory with Buddhism. He writes: " If I were to take the 
results of my philosophy as the standard of truth I would he 
obligeti to concede to Buddhism the pre-eminence over the rest. 
In any ca»e it must be a satisfaction to me to see my teaching in 
such cloae agreement with a religion which the majority of men 
upon the earth hold as their own,"' Hartmaan's absolute or his 

' lliBSe are tbf so-calkO Skandluis. 

* Altbou^ it ifi a cuiiiinuu t>olier titnougat the Uurmest' tiiat Tpn^upta still 
Bunrives in this way, and, in conneqHence, is an object with them aliuo»t ot 
vrorahip. tiiu monks CAonut point to tny ancient scripture in support of this 
popular belief. 

> Tlte World (u Will and Id^a^ by A. Schophniuvsb, Enj;. trftni. by Haldaae atid 
Kfftzip, 1833, iL, p. 371- Scbopenbaticr indeed claims to have arrived at Kuch agnw- 
mont indopcndcntlr of Buddlia's teaching. He writ^'B : *' Tlila agreeineut, however, 
must be the more Ratisfactory to me becai^se, in ray pliilaaopliitsiug, 1 have certainly 
not been under its influence; for up till 1818, wltoti my work appeared, there wvre 
vtoy tew f*xceediii^ly IncompleUi and ocaiity accounts of Iluddliiiim to be found in 
Gorope, which were alm™t entirely llmiti-d t^i a few casays in the earlier vnlumee Of 
* Asiatic Kescojrches,' and were principally concerned with the Buddhism of Uiu 
Burmeic" {loe. ci't., 371). It iit, however, probable that Sohopeahauor, such an ornni- 
ronms reader, and withal so egotistic, mimmizcs his iudcbtcdness Ui Buddha. For 
tbe Vedanta philosophy, to which Schopenhauer admits his indebtedness, is vi»r)- 
deeply tinged by Buddhist bt^Hcfs, and Scliopenhauer in liis Hvsteni generally 
follows the ttne4 of nuddlusm; and in his Uter KTitings be frequently usea Buddlitst 
works to tUustratc his speculations. Tlius: *'We And the doctrine of mHempsy- 
clioela .... in its most subtle form, h^jwever, and coniiiqj nrarfst to the tratk 
.... in Uuddliism" (loc.cit., iii., 802). And illustrating bio tfieme "vt Denial 
of the Will t<^ Live," he reft^rs (loc. nt, hi., <45.) to FAUsuoLt'fl DfutMi/uipadaut and 
BoBHODP's InJrorltiCtion; and (p. 303) SpKWCM HAJior's ilanval, OuBv's Du Simana 
inditH (p. 30t?) ; Coh-brooke, Sangermano, Transactions St. Petersburg Academy of 
Science ; and frequeutlj to tlie Asiatic Besearchcs. 




Tnconscioas inclufles UneoneciouH intelligence as well as Uncon- 
ious Will. In Huddhism intelligence is not denied to Will and 
:}rded a secoadarj' and derivate place as in Gennan pessimism, 
ftnd we raay even infer, from what is set forth a« to the directing 
function of the Karma, as well as from its pictorial representation, 
that Buddhism in Home sense felt the necessity of attributing an 
intelligent quality to the unconscious principle in order that it 
might paes from the state of migratory abstractiveness to that of 
det-erminate being. But, on the other hand, there is not here as 
an essential feature of the system a deliberate ascription of intelU- 
geuce to the unconscious as with Hartmann. The Unconscious 
Will-tt>-live maintains the changes of phenomena. " The world is 
the World's process." All " is becoming," nothing " ifi." It is 
indeed, as has beeu suggested to me, the Flux of Heraclitus, who 
also used the same simile of Fire and Burning. " The constant 
new-births (palingenesis) constitute," as Scbopenlmucr, a Neo- 
Baddhist says, " the succession of the life-<lreams of a will, which 
itself is indestructible until instrueteil and improved, by so 
'"much and such various successive knowledge in a constantly new 
form, it aliolishes or abrogates itself." * 

As a philosophy, Buddliism thus seems to be an Idealistic 

Nihilism ; an Idealism which, like that of Berkeley, holds that 

" the fruitful source of all error was the unfounded belief in the 

reality and existence of the external world " ; and that man can 

^.perceive nothing hut his feelings, and is the cause to himself 

^Kf these- That all known or knowable objects are relative to a 

^■ionscious subject, and merely a product of the ego, existing 

"through the e^o, for the ego, and in the cyo,^though it must be 

remembered that Buddha, by a Kwinging kind of positive and 

negative mysticism, at times denies a place to the ejo altogether. 

But, unlike Berkeley's Idealism, this recognition of the relativity 

and limitations of knowledge, and the consequent disappearance 

of the world as a reality, led directly to Nihilism, by seeming to 

exclude the knowledge, and by implication the existence, not only 

of a Creator, but of an absolute being. 

As a Religion, Buddhism is often alleged to be theistic. But 
although Buddha gives no place to a First Cause in his system, 

* ^SOPBNBAVBit'8 WiU and IdfA, En{[. ttuu^ iu.» 300. 

fet, as is well known, he nowhere expressly denies an infinite 
first cause or an unconditioned Being beyond the finite; and lie 
is even represented as refusing to answer such questions on the 
ground that their discussion was unprofitable. In view of thi? 
apparent hesitancy and indecision he may be called an agnostic. 

In the later developments, the agnostic idealism of j>rimitive 
Buddhism swung round into a materialistic theism which verges 
on pantheism, and where the second link of the Causal Chain, 
namely, Snnsknra, comes closely to resemble the 7)iodi of 
Spinoza;* and NirvSna, or rather Pan-Nirvana, is not different 
practically from the VedSntic goal : assimilation with the great 
universal soul : 

'* The dew-drop slips Into the shining aeft." 

And the latter developments generally have been directed 
towards minimizing the inveterate pessimism of Buddha's ethics 
which tends to bring the world to a standstill, by disparaging that 
optimistic bias which is commonly supposed to be an essential 
element in the due direction of all life-processes. 

Lamaist Metaphtstcs. 

After Buddha's death his personality soon became invested with 
BUpemiit ural attributes ; and as bis church grew in power and wealth 
his simple system underwent academic development, at the bauds 
of votaries now enjoying luxurious leisure, and who thickly over^ 
laid it with rules and subtle metaphysical refinements and specu- 

Buddha ceases even to be the founder of liuddhism, and is 
made to appear as only one of a series of (four or seven) equally 
perfect Buddhas who had " similarly gone " before, and hence 
called Tdihagaia^ and implying the necessity for another " com- 
ing Buddha," who was called Maitreya^ or " The I^oving One.** 

I ** All Sentient hcings Qxiat m tlip eiisoncc (jforb^a) of tho Tathigata." — AiiffKtinuUijftt 

Sutra (Kah-gyur; 1)6, xvi. f. 2(>8, trana!. by Rock., B., p. 196). 

> This Uu^>ry of multiple Huddhns nnd tlin intnxiuclUin of the name Ta/A^^aCii 

to )iav[> IxM-n introduced by tlip Saulrdtitika Scbool (Wa.s«., A, SU). Thii 

fine ia held by the southern Buddhists. Khts DAm» (if., p. 179) writw: "It i» 

ot BO ntiCASJMiily implied in or oloBely connoct^^d with the most tmportant parts of 

P'liis schentf oa to exclude the poflstbility of Its having arisen after his de.ith" (ef. 

aloo Davids, p. 13, Btuldkht Birth St&ritM ; Sknakt's Im Liyeude du Buddha). 



Then these (foar or seven) Buddhas or TathSgatas are extended 
to series of 24, 35 and 1 ,000 ; in addition to which there are also 
Pratyeka or solitarv non-teaching Buddhaa. 

In the ssecond century after the NirvSna* arose the MahaflaAghika 
t (latterly grouped under VaibhuKhika) which asserted that the 
Buddhas are illusory and metaphysical ; that the traditions re- 
specting the Buddha having been born into the world as men 
are incorrect, that the law is TathSgata,* that the " Buddhas 
have passed beyond all worlds { = LokoUaravadinaYy ' that "Tatha- 

^1^ is infinitely extended immeasurably glorious, eternal in 
ration, that to his power of recollection (ni-snxriii), his 
power of faith (sriidhabala), Lis exi)erience of joy, and his life 
there is no end; he sleeps not, he speaks, asks, reflects not, they 
say that his existence is ever one, and uniform (one heart), that 
all things bom may obtain deliverance by having his instruction."* 
This theistic phase of Buddliism seems foreshadowed even in 
irlhodux Hinayiina scriptures. Thus in the Mahavagga (i., 6, 8) 
kya Muni is made to say of himself, "I am the all-subduer; 
all-wise; I have no stains, through myself I iwssess know- 
:e; 1 have no rival; I am the Chief Arhat— the highest 
teacher, I alone am the absolutely wise, I am the Conqueror 
(Jina). '* And the MaUuijafighika sect of the Hinayfrna discussed 
the eternity and omnipotence of the Buddha. \N'hile the Sau- 
trantika section asserted the plurality of the Buddhas. 

Indeed, even in southern Buddhism, the expressed deification of 
Buddha can scarcely be said'to be altogether alwent. Kor Ceylon 
monks, following an ancient ritual, chant : — 

*' I wurship coutinujiUy 
The Buitillia'* <*f the aj;e« that arc pftet, 
I worship the BiiilJIias, the all-pititnl, 
I VkTontliip with iHiwed henil. 

*' I bow my head to the gniuiuL nnd worship 

I JirajUHY})«j»,aO-SI. 116ycaniArrNirT&nn,RuLin/RW..4i«ri'9., 11.801. ThuTibeCan 
gtTM the dnle llOyean and aIm (TIocroiMo fi.. p- 183) 190^ whidi ia probablyft mil- 
take for th(^ no of tbd Chinese. 

' BbaI.. fne. cit. 

* Hix-Auii-L, B., 183, wher(> is ffiven a detoil&d tranalatJOD of the features U the 
Btghtrim HiiwyRiia wcta. 
' Biui., lot. cit. 



Tlie sacred diut of hui holy feet. * 

U in iiu^lit ! Iiave tinned Against BuilJIia, 
May Buddlia forgive me my sin." ' 

Here Buddha seems prayed to as aa existing and active divinity." 

About four centuries after Buddha's death the Mahiiyana doc- 
trine hatl evolved specialized celestial Buddhas and Bcxlhisatvafi 
re.eiding in worlds as fabulous as themselves; and the human 
Buddbas are made mere manifestations, and reflexes from celestial 

The Mahilyana development seems an offshoot of the Maha- 
sanghika sect of primitive Buddhism. It assumed a concrete form 
about the end of the first century a.d, under Asvaghosha, who 
wrote the Atafuiydiia Sraddltoiunda Saatra; but its chief ex- 
pounder was, as we have already seen, NSgSrjuna. 

Buddha, it will be remembered, appears to have denied existence 
altogether. In the metaphysical developments after his death, 
however, schools soon arose asserting that everything exists (Sar^ 
vastivada % that nothing exists, or that nothing exists excejA the 
One great reality, a universaliy diffused essence of a pantheistic 
natm*e. The denial of the existence of the " Ego " thus forced the 
confession of the necessary existence of the Noii-ego. And the 
author of the southern Pali text, the Milinda I'nfiha, writing about 
150 A,D., puts into the mouth of the sage Nagasena the following 
^words in reply to the King of Sagala's query, " Does the all-wise 
(Buddha) exUl ? "* " He who is the most meritorious does exist,'* 
and again "Great King! Nirwana is.*" 

Thus, previous to Xiigarjuna's school, Buddhist doctors were 
divided into two extremes : into a belief in a real existence and 
in au illusory existence; a perpetual duration of the Sattva and 
total annihilation. Nagfirjuna chose a "middle way"' {Md- 
dhydmika). He denied the possibility of our knowing that 

1 PiUtHHiJatlui, I>ICIUOH, p. fi. 

> Tbough some hold tiUs to t>c merely a chant for luck aiu] not real pxayer. 

9 In the middle of the third ccntiirj- after tlie NirvMia (Rica.i^ loc. nt.) arose the 
realistic Sar\-a8tiTada as a branch of tlio Stha\-iraa, "thnse who say all exist*, Uu 
pai^t, fuLuri* and Uu' priMciit," and are call^ed in coiujeijui-ucf "thfy who aaythat 
alt exieta," or Sarwi^irtidina {^MCttuii-L, B,,\M). 

* EaMrfn Uoii.j p. 3U0. ami KJirii Davids' Qu(M!oh» a/MUinda. 

'^ £(ut. MoH^ p. D95. 


anj-thing either exists or ditl not exist. By a sophistic nihilism 
he "dissolved every problem into thesis and antithesis and 
denied both." There is nothing either existent or non-existent, 
and the state of Being admits of no definition or formala. 

The Prajnd pilrainUd^ on which Nagarjuua based his teaching 
consist of mythical diacotirses attributed to Buddha and addressed] 
mostly to supernatural hearers on the Vulture Peak, etc. 
recognizes several grades of metaphysical Buddhas and numeroo 
divine Bodhisats, who must be worshipped and to whom prayer 
should be addressed. And it consists of extravagant speculations 
and metaphysical subtleties, with a profusion of abstract termin-. 
ology. \ 

His chief apocalyjrt ic treatises - are the Buddhavatanaaka, 
Samadhiraja and Ratnakuta Sntnis. The gist of the AvataA- 
saka Sutra may be summarizefP as "The one true essence 
U like a bright mirror, which is the basis of all phenomena, tfae 
basis itself is permanent and true, the phenomena are evanescent 
and tmreal; as the mirror, however, is cajwible of reflecting images, 
eo the true essence embraces all phenomena and all things exist 
in and by it." 

An essential theory of the Mahilyana ie the Voidness or Nothing- 
ness of things, Simyat/l,* evidently an enlargemeut of the last 
term of the Trividyd formula, Aiidtnui. Sakya ^luni is said to 
have declared that "no existing object has a nature,* whence it 
follows that there is neither beginning nor end — that from time 
immemorial all has been perfect quietude* and is entirely im- 
mersed in Nirvana." But Sunyata, or, as it is usually translated, 
"nothingness" cannot be absolute nihilism for there are, ae 
Mr. Hodgson tells us, "a Sunyata and a Maha-Siinyuta. We are 
dead. You are a httle Nothing; but I am a big Nothing. 
there are eighteen degrees of JSiinyata.' You are annihilate<j 

1 Pn^flU hegin* vith chans. Slie produced aU Uie Tatliigatas, and is the mot 
, «U JtMhlMttvM Prat}-uka-Ruddhas and DtsdpleB <Coiif. Cowux and EofiKLtvalj 

J, Skt. MS., J.R.A.S^ N.S. viii^ 3)- 
I F4ir snine details of these see Csoua's An., p. 400. 
» Bkal's C'aifnn. 125. 

* Tib^Tmg-pafiid. 
' StvTO-Eid. 

• /od-muiias Zi-ba— •• nothing has manifestMl itself in any form " (ScaL., .'MS). 

'' HoUOWlN'ft Ktmtyg, etc., W. 



but I am eighteen times as mach annihilated a« yon." * And the ] 
Lamas extended the degrees of " Notbin^ees " to seventy. 

This nihiUfrtic doctrine \s deiuoustrated by The Three Marka 
the Two Truths and has been sunuiuuizod by ^chlagintweit. 
Tbreo fiiarka are : 

1. Pnrikalpita i^V^,t Kun-tag) the fiupposition or error; anfotmded 
belief in tht> reality of existence ; two-futd error in belie\ing a thing 
to exist which does not exist, and asserting real existence when it is 
only ideal. 

2. Paratantra (T., Z'an-van) or whatever exists by a dtjtendtnt or 
oausal connexion, viz., the soul, sense, comprehLUsion, and imperfect 
philosoplacul meditation. 

3. Parinuhpanna (T., Yoii-gnib) "completely perfect" is the un- 
changeable and unaeaiguable true existence which ia also the scope t/t 
the path, the summum iKmum, the absolute. 

The two Truths are SannritUatt/a (T., Kun-daarbch'i-den-pa) The 
relative timth ; the efficiency of a name or characteristic sign. And 
Fanunai-thiifiat}'a (Don-dam-pohi den-pa) the absolute truth obtained by 
the self-consciousuess of the saint in self-meditations. 

The world (or Samsara), therefore, b to be renounced not for its 
sorrow and pain as the Hinayana say, but on account of its on- 
aatisfying unreality. 

The idealization of Buddha's personality led, as we have just 
seen, to bis deification as an omniscient and everlasting god ; and 
traces of this development are to be found even in Boutbern 
Buddhism. And he soon came to be regarded as the omni[)oteut 
primordial god, and Universal Essence of n pantheistic nature. 

About the first century a.d. Buddha is made to be existent from 
all eternity (Ajiada). Professor Kcm, in his translation of Tke 
Lotus of the True Law, which dates from this time,'^ jwints out 
that although the thcistic term Adi-Buddha or Primordial Buddha 
doea nut occur in that work, Sfikyn Muni is identified with Adi- 
Buddhn in the words, " From the very beginning (ddUa eva) 
have I roused, brought to maturity, fully developed them (the 
innumerable Bodbisats) to be fit for their Bodhisattva jMsition."* 

And with respect to the modes of manifestations of the universal 
essence, " As there is no to the immensity of reason and 
measurement to the universe, so all the Buddhas are possessed of 

i A. LiLUK, JJi.A.S^ xiv , 9. 
SuddAartna Pujgt^arika, xxU. 

* toe, eit.t XXV. 


infinite wisdom and infinite mercy. There is no place throughout 
^the universe where the eHsential body of Vairocaua(or other supreme 
^Buddha, varying with different sects) is not present. Far and wide 
^brough the tields of space he is present, and perpetually mani- 

The motles in which thit; universal essence manifeints itself are the 

■^^ree bodies (Tri-kaya), namely — (1) Dhamuirkdyti^ or lAW-body, 

^Kssential Bodhi,^ formle^ss and self-existeut, the Dhyani Buddha, 

^BEoally named Vairocana Buddha or the " Perfect JustiBcatiou," 

or Adi-Buddha. (2) Sambho^/a-kdya * or Compensation-body, 

Reflected Bodhi, the Dhyiini Bodhisats, usually named Lochana or 

"glorious'*'*; and (3) Nirmdija-Kylyo,^ or Transform ed-body, 

Practical Bodhi, the human Buddhas, as SakyaMuniJ 

i Now these three bodies of the Buddhas, human and super- 

^hiumau, are all included in one substantial essence. The three 

^Bre the same as one — not one, yet not different. When regarded 

^Bfi one the three persons are spoken of as Tathiigata. But there 

^■b do real difference, these manifestations are only different 

^"riews of the same unchanging substance.* 

One of the earliest of these celestial Buddhas was given the 
title of "The Infinite Light" (A mitdbka)^ and his personality 
soon crystallized into a concrete theistic Buddha of that name, 
residing in a glorious paradise (5ukhavati) in the West, where 

Re daily suds hasten and disappear in all their glory, and hence 
pposed by some to include a sun myth, or to be related to sun- 
wdrship, probably due to Persian influence; for the chief patrons 
of the early Mahayana, about the time of the inveution of this 

■myth, were ludo-Scyths, a race of sun-worshippers. 
i After N.'igarjunajthe chief expounderof the Mahayana philosophy 

1 Bmu.'s Cb/rM, 133. 
' T^ cb'08>«kt]. 
» Err., p. 180. 
■ * Icmg-tku. 

f 1 It U Bingolar to And those KuddhUt speculatiou bearing so close a resemblance 

to the Utex Greek theories on Uie eaiup subjoct. cBpccintly in tbo plain resfmblancw of 

the iritiu utryoaiSis or tucjfonn body, to tho Locbana {Rajana) or " Glarii>us Uody " of 

Lfclift Buddhists. I'idr tho who)'' aiihj)*ct of these " bodies" treated by Cuowortb, 

f/ntfUtc. 8!,rim^ it, 768 ; Bul'b Cat., 123. 


' On these bodies see also Vasilibv, S. (French ed.), p. 1A7. and Eithl, 178 mq. 
• Bul's CofaM, 123. 

was Vasubandhu, who was less wUdly specniative than manrofbu 
predecessors and composed many commontariea.' Previous to fats 
day, the nihilism of the MahaySna had become almost mystic in 
its sophistry. 

This intense mysticism of the MahaySna led abont the fifth 
century to the importation into Buddhism of the jxintheistic idea 
of the soul (atman) and Voga^ or the ecstatic union of the in- 
dividual with the Universal Spirit» a doctrine which had been 
introduced into Hinduism about 150 B.C. by Patanjali. This inno- 
vation originated with Asafiga,- a monk of Gandhiira (Peshawar), 
whose system is known as the YogacSrya, or "contemplative" 
MahSyana. Asaiiga is credited with having been inspireti directly 
by the celestial Bodhisat Maitreya, the coming Buddha, and if 
is believed that he was miraculously transferred to the Tushita 
heavens and there received from Maitreya's hands the gospel? 
called "The Five Books of Maitreya," the leading scriptar« of 
this party. 

Hip school, the Yogacarya, and especially its later develop- 
ment (into which magic circles with Vinntras or spells were in- 
troduced about 700 A.D.)» was entitled ^^ Mantraydna^ or "the 
wwin/?'T-vehicle." And Yoga seemB indeed to have influenced also 
the Ceylonese and other forms of southern Buddhism, among 
whom flying through the air and other supernatural powers (/rrfW) 
are obtainable by ecstatic meditation (though not expressedly 
pantheistic), and the recitation of dkdrajii 6": and the ten" iddhii'' 
or miracnloua supernatural powers, are indeed regarded as tbe 
attribute of every perfected saint or Arhat/ " Rahats (Arhats) 
flying " is a frequent expression in the southern scriptures, and is 
illustrated by numerous fjaintings in the early caves of Ajanla, in 
central India. 

It is vrith this essentially un-Buddhistic school of pintheietic 
mysticism — which, with its charlatanism, contributed to the decline 
of Buddhism in India — that the Theosophists claim kinship. Its 

I AmitAyua Butropedcsa, fiuddhagotra S&ntra, on tlie S»a.ddliarma PuDf^arlka, Vajra 
Cli'edlik&, DasabhvimikA, etc. : and also ** the Treasurj- nf MuUiihysica " (AbidhannR 
Ko^^a H&stra), oonUIiiing many Saiitrantika jiriucit>lt<A. 

s For hie datt; corif. Vasil., 225. 230 aoil previous iuttr>. The works ol his younger 
brjtlter Vft«ubandhu, wfirf! tnit«lat«--<l into Cliiuew 6.17 a.d. 

' Conf, Hauhy's F..M., p., 252, and Gkimblot, Sept. Siii/ttu pali, p. 32$. 

' CuiLXrBRs' FtUi met. 

lied " esoteric Buddhism " would better be termed 'exoteric. 
At) Professor C. Beu<lall has suggested to me, for it is foreign 
to the principle* of Buddha. Nor do the Laraas know nn\ihing 
about those spiritual mediums — the AlahStmas (" Koot Ho(rmi'^) 
— which the Tbeosophista place in Tibet, and give an importAnt 
place in T.Aniaist mysticism. Ah we sliall prerJenHy see, the rnyrti- 
cism of the Lamas u* a charlatanism of a mean necromantic order, 
and does not even comprise dever jugglery or such an interesting 
iy*ychic phenomenon as mesmerism, and certainly nothing worthy 
of being dignified by the name of ** natural secreis* and foroee,** 
But with its adoption of Tantrisra,* so-called, Buddhisim entered 
its mo?t degenemte phase. Here the idolatrous cult of female 
lergie:} was grafted upon the theistic Muhayana aud the pan- 
ic m}*aticij!m of Yoga. And this parasite seized strong hold 
its host and soon developed its monstrous growths, which 
isheil and strangled most of the little life yet remaining of 
purely Buddhist stock. 

Tantrism, which began about the seventh century A.D. to 
tinge Buddhism, is hx-^ed on the worship of the Active Pro- 
ducing Principle (Frahriti) as rannifested in the goddess Kiili 
or Uurga, the female energy {^akii) of the primordial male 
(PurU'«ha or Jfiva), who is a gross presentation of The Supreme 
Soul of the universe. In this cult the various forces of nature 
— physical, physiological, moral aud intejiectual — were deified 
der separate personalities, and these presiding deities were 
uped iuto MiUri (divine mothers), Dflkkml and Yogini 
oddesse^ with magical powers), etc. And all were made to 
merely different manifestations of the one great central god- 
Kali, ^iva's s|K>UHe. Wives were thus allotted to the 
celestial Bodhisats, as well as to most of the other 
gods and demons; and most of them were given a variety of 
rras, mild and temhie, according to tlie Hupposed moods of 
h divinity at different time^. And as goddesses and 

1 Vaiitlii>v dpsignatt's tJiic stage aa ** Mvttiein* " ; but lurt'ly the dcvfloped 
HjiliilyAttA Mxd V<»(^io4rya doctrines werr Already iiiyslic in u high de«rw ; 
irhile tlip iiami' Tiitttrit PAprrsiM-s tli«* kind of mysticiBio and also i^onvrys « wnsc 
T .Su'aist idiilalTj-, allhnugh tin- word " Ttinfnu" acc^mViix^ U> itn TilH-lnu i-fyTunln^ 

Vyud). tittTtlly tni-ans "a tnutiite," it i« rnittricLed buUt iji riuddliism nud HindQirtin 

> Uw oecTonuntic books nn ^kta myHtidBm. 

ithe-(levil8 were the bestoweni of natural and sapematonl 
powers and were especially mnlignant, they were espeoiallj 

About this time the theory of Adi-Baddha,* whicli, it has 
been seen, existed aboat the first oentury a.D., underwent more 
concrete theistic development. He becomes the primordial god 
and creator, and evolvefi, by meditation, five celestial Jinaa or 
Huddhas of Meditation {Dhydni Buddhas), almost impassive, 
each of whom, through meditation, evolves an active celestial 
BodkisaUaony who possesses creative functions,- and each human 
Buddha, though especially related to a (larticular one of the five 
celestial Buddhas of Meditation, is produced by a union of re- 
flexes from each uf theue latter. For pictures of these deities, see 
the chapter on the jjautheon, where also I give a table present- 
ing the inter-relations of these various celestial Buddhas, Bodbi* 
sats, and human Buddha.s, and also incorporate their mystic 
symbolism, although this was probably added in the later Muutni- 
yiina stage. 

It will be seen that the five celestial Jinas are so distributed 
as to allot one U\ each of the four directions,' and the fifth is 
placed in the centre. And the central ^wsition thus given him, 
namely, Vuirocaua, is doubtless associated with his promotion to 
the Adi-Buddhaship amongst certain northern Buddhists; though 
the reformrd and unreformed sects of Lamas, differ as regards 
the specific name which they give the Adi-Buddha, the former 
calling him Vajmdhara, doubtless selected as bearing the title 

1 Tib., mCIi'ojj-lii ilan-polii Saiis-rg>'aa. 

^ "AoC">r<liii(j \*-> tliis system," nays Mr Hodgson, J.A.S.B., xU, 44)0, -from an 
«temikl* infinite nnj Adi-IIuiimia {iroceedtHl divinely, and nut genera- 
tiwly, five 1<.'ss>t Huddhas, wim »ro considered tlie immodi«to sources (Adl-Buddha 
boing the ultiiuutc sfiuro') of thi- Ave plemi'ntfl <\i matter, and of the five organs 
and ftTe facultit's ff eonsBtion. The utouldiiig of these mntfrittla into tiie ^hnpf 
of an actual world lu not, however, tlio business of Uie five RuddhJM. but it is de- 
YolvL'd by them upon lesser omanalion* from thcniselvee denominat^'d Hodhi»ittra5, 
who i\Tv thus the tertiary and active agontA of the creation and govemmeDt of 
the world, by virtue of powers dt^rived immediately from the ftve fiuddhaa, 
uJtiuiati'Iy from the one supremo Buddhu. This sj'sten] of Ave BuddK-is [irovides 
for the oritfin of the mat<!rial world .md for tliat of immaterial existences. A 
nixtli U'lddtut is (Ieclare<l to hare etnnnnted divinely from Adi-Buddha, and thia 
iiixlh Uiiddlia, Vajraiiattva l>y namn, irt osaigned tho immediate organiwilum of 
mind and its powers of tliouRlit and feeling," 

> 'rtie five 'MrinlomK" which (he hiiinnn Ihiddlia erabodien are: Ch*o-ki byin kf 
ye-s'vs, Melon ta-bahi, Namhar<ned>ki, Sosor tog-pahi, U}-a<wa du-pahi ye-a'ea. 


jf <* Vajra* so dear to TSntrik Buddhists, while the uareformed 

^ Bect4) consider him to be Samantabhadra, that is, the celestial son of 

Vairocana. And the Adi-Buddha is not considered wholly inactive 

or imixkssire, for he is frequently addressed in prayers and hymns. 

^H Sakya Muni is the fourth of the Muuushi or human Buddhas of 

^Pthi:i age, and his Dhyani Buddha is Amitabha, and his corres- 

jKJudiug celestial Bodhisat is Avalokilesvara, the patron-god of 

^« Lamaism, who is held to be incarnate in the Grand Lama. 

^P The extreme development of the Tantrik wa.s reached with 

the Kala-cakra, which, although uiiwortliy of being considered 

a philosophy, must be referred to here as a doctrinal basis. 

It is merely a coarse Tantrik development of the Adi-Buddha 

^■theory combined with the puerile myHticisms of the Mantra- 

^'yana, and it attempts to explain creation and the secret powers of 

nature, by the union of the terrible Kali, not only with the 

Dhyani Buddha^, but even with Adi-Buddha himself. In this way 

Adi*Buddha, by meditation, evolves a procreative energy by which 

the awful Samvhara and other dreadful Dukkini-fiendefises, all 

■of the Kali-type, obtain spouses as fearful as themselves, yet 
Bpouj*es who are regarded as reilexet* of Adi-Buddha and the 
DhySni Budiihaa, And these demoniacal "Buddhas," under the * 
^■pames of Kala-cakra, Henika, Achala, Vajra-vairabha,^ etc., are 
^Peredit-ed with powers not inferior to those of the celestial Buddhas 
theiuselves, and withal, ferocious and bloodthirsty; and only to 

■be conciliate by constant worship of themselves and their female 
buergies, with offerings and sacrifices, magic-circles, special 
wtOTifrrrt-charms, etc. 

These hideous creations of Tiintrism were eagerly accepted by 

the Lamas in the tenth century, and since then have formed a 

HpLost essential part of Lamaism; and their terrible images fill 

^"the country and figure prominently in the seotArian divisions. 

Afterwards was added the fiction of re-incoruate Lamas to 

ensure the poHtical stability of the hierarchy. 

Yet, while such silly and debased beliefs, common to the l^mas 
of all sectii, determine tlie character of the Tibetan form of the 
doctrine, the superior Lfima?, on the other hand, retain much of 
the higher philosophy of the purer Buddhism. 

Compare with the Paneha HakdUiy and see chapter on pantheon, p]). S&3 and I 

lUE simple creed an<I rule of conduct which won its 
wav over myriads of Kuddba's hearerp is still to be 
found in Luinai»m, though often obscured by the 
mystic and polydemouist accretions of later days. All 
the Lamas and most of the laity are familiar witli the doctrinal 
elements taught by Sakya Muni and give them a high place in 
tbeir relij^ious and ethical code. 

A ket'ii aeuse of human misery forms the starting-point of 
Buddha's Law or Dharma^^ the leading dogma of which is pro- 
pounded in " The Four noble Truths,"* which may be thus Eum- 
inarized : — 

1. Existence iu any form involves Stifiei'ing o»' Sorrow.* 

1 After Hue. 

1 liharma \* \yen\. rpmler^ say-* HifYS Datids (U»rt<tft.t p. ib), by "truth" 'f 
righti*o«i»ne«8, and no: by "I>aw," wUk-h suggosta ctrt-nKmia) observanp€» and out- 
wiinl rulw, whirh it was proci."t^ly tlie objitt of Uuddlm's ttachiot; to do aw»y with. 

' Aiyt' Sa/.vfl"'. 'I"-. '|)'ag'-pA Mfii-pa fri'L 

* The wonl fiH" MisKRi (Skt^ Hfrnm; T. 'iflg-pa) mean* "droji^/'M-rallrdbecaureit 
u» or droiwi {txi^) from out the different regiuim of tlu- nix dyatmmft (nr «cn»r-«ir- 

2. Tkf VatLHe uf Sujferuig is Desire and Lusl of Life. 

3. TJif Ccaaation of Snfferui(j is eflrect<*d by the complete con- 
quest over and destruction of Desire and Lust of Life. 

4. The Path Ifadlivf to iht CesstUMu of Suffering is "The' 
Boble Eight-fold Path," the pnrtfi^ of which are: — 

L Kigbt Belief 
3* J, Aims 

3. „ Si)eech 

4. ,, Actions 

5. Right Means of Livelihood 

6. „ Endeavour 

7. „ Mindfulness 

8. ,, Meditation. 

Thus Ignorance (of the illusive idealism of Life) is made the 

:>urce of all misery, and the right Knowledge of the natiu'e of 

-life is the only true jjath to emancipation from re-birth or Arhat- 

Bhip; uud practically the same dogma is formulated iu the well- 

lowTi stanza called by Europeans "the Buddhist Creed."* And 

Itfoen) a« drops water dxTDo^ bole* (Rocesill's Vd^namrya, 10). It Mcnm to codt^ 
Ue idcA of Uan u cxpressivt; of misery. 
* Anfftt. 

> "The Buddhiit Creedt'* found so frequently on TOtive imai;cs, ii:~ 
Yfflharnui hftHprnhinrd 
f If tun Ujluin Intkti^tii 
Hfiiiatiiitn ttj/uiH ca yo nin/dha 
KraiMvddi maMiramanoA. 
It tiu b«<!U traiuiitrd by Rhy» DiLvids ( fin. Text:, t., p. 146) u followi : — 
or all abjecis wlucb |jroceed fmu a Cnuac 
Tbe Tatha^at.i liaa fxplainoil ttic cause. 
And be luu cx.|ilaiuL*d their Ccssatinn also ; 
Tlus is the iliK-trinc ot the f^rat Samana. 

The Second Stanxa, also found frequently on Huddliist votive images in India (seo 
iBcmotVs Lntut, p. 623, and Con .ving tun's Arck. Htct-v. Rep. JhU., i., pi. xxxiv., Ag. 
|1, Pint SUnxa), it according to iU Tibetun fonu :— 

SarmjjdjKitifd taraijuitit 

KufaUmyojiatnpfnda m 

Seaaitain pantlaotUHK 

Etatl JiHddkamnftiMiiaM. 

^Vnach luu been translated by Cwmn f bus :— 

*• Xo vice is to be cominittcd ; 
Every virtue muist be p«yr(CtIy practised ; 
The tuiiid must tx- broii^ght under t-ntire subjection. 
TliLB is the cominnndiiienc uf Uuddlia." 
tit Tibetan the first stanza uf ** the Cit'ed " is widely knnwn* and i» = — 
Cb'us-naiu t'aiu-e'nd rgyu-las byuxi 
Dt?*rgyu de-z'iu-fjiiVgH-pas gtiuiis 
rGyu-la 'gog-pn gan-yin-pa 
'Oi-sluul gBuh-l>a (lge-»py(m*cli*i. 



the bulk of the BuddhiFt scnptures is devoted to the proofe and 
illugtrations of the above dogma. 

The Moral Code, as expressed in its most elementary form of 
rules for the external conduct, forms the well-known decalogue 
{daaasiia) which enunciates its precepts in a negative and pro- 
hibitive form, namely : — 

1. Kill not. 

2. Steal not- 

3. Commit not Adult«iy. 

4. Lie not. 

5. Drink not Strong Drink. 

6. Kat no Food except at the 

stated times. 

7. Use no Wreaths, Ornaments 

or Perfumes. 

8. Useno High Mats orThrones, 

9. Abstain from Dancing, Sing- 

ing, Music, and Worldly 
10. Own no Gold or Silver and 
accept none. 



(la tlie Oeenpuk [Mrlga-dawaJ at U«iiRr«tj. 

The first five (the pancasila) are binding upon the laity ; the 
whole ten are binding only on the monks; but the layman on cer- 
tain fast-days, in accordance with a pious vow, observes also one or 
more of the next four (Nos. 6 to 9). The more austere rules for 
monastic discipline are indicated in the chapter on the monkhood. 


Sftlcya Muni^s sermons, as presented in the earlier and more 
aathentic scriptures, have all the Himple directness and force 
which belong to sayings of "the inspired," An an illustration of 
his moral teaching, his popular sennon on " N\1iat U the Greatest 
Blessing? " (the Mafigala Sutra)' i« here appended : — 

Bdddka's Sebhon oh What is thh GaBATsar Buuisiko } 




Praise be to the Blessed One, the Holy One, the Author of 

1. Thus I have heard. On a certiiin diiy dwelt the Blessed One 
Srtvacto, at the Jetavana monastery, in thr^ Garden of AiiAtlmpindftkii. 
And when the night was ftir advanced^ n certain r/idiiint relestini 
being, ilhiminntiog the whole of Jetavnnn, approocbed the Ulessed One 
and tsaloted him, and stood a»de, and standing aside addreiwed him 
with this verse: — 

Many gods and men yearning after good have held divers things to 
be blessiugs ; say thou what is the greatest btesfling ? 

1 . To serve wise men and not serve fools, to give honour to whom 
honour Is due, this im the greatest blessing. 

2. To dwell in a pleasant land, to have done good deeds in u former 
existence, to have a soul filled with right desires, this is the greatest 

3. Mnch knowledge and much science, the discipline of a well* 
trained mind, and a word well spoken, this is the greatest blessing. 

4. To succour father and mother, to cherish wife and child, to follow 
a peaceful calling, this is the greatest bU-ssing. 

5. To give alms, to live reUgiou.s]y, to give help to relatives, to do 
blameless deeds, this ia the greatest blessing. 

6. To c?ea5e and abstain from sin, to eschew strong drink, to be 
diligent in good deeds, this is the greatest blessing. 

7. Reverence and lowliness and conteuLineut and gratitude, to receive 
religious teaching at due seasons, thif^ i.t the greatest blessing. 

&. To Im* loug-suU'ering and meek, to associate with the priests of 
Buddha, to hold religious discourse at due seasons, this is the greatest 

9. Temperance and chastity, discernment of the four great truths, 
the prospect of Nirv&ua, thiy is the greatest blessing. 

10. The soul of one unshaken by the clianges of this life, a soul 
Inaccessible to »nrrow, passionless, .secure, this is the greatest blessing. 

11. Tliey that do these things are invincible on every side, on every 
6ide they walk iu safety, yea, theirs is the greaieat blesslug. 

Indeed, Haddha^s teaching is not nearly so pessimistic as it is 

usually nmiie to appear by its hostile critics. His sermon on 
Love (Mitra Sutra) shows that Baddhism has its glad tiding* of 
great joy, and had it been wholly devoid of these, it oould nevpr 
have become popular amongst bright, joyous people like the Bur- 
ineae and Japanese. 

The stageii towards Arhatship ^ or emancipation from rebirth 
are ginduated into a consecutive serieti of four {eattni'o-mjtn^) 
pathf, a fourfold arrangement of ** the eightfold paths'* above men- 
tioned ; and these depend upon the doctrinal comprehension of the 
dfvotee, and his renunciation or not of the world, for tlie liigher 
Btage6 were only reachable by celilwite monks (ftrnmann) or nunt? 
{8ramai^ii)f and not by the ordinary Imty or hearera {sravakay 
Those who have not yet entered any of these stages or paths are 
"the ignorant and unwise ones." And Meditation [dhydna) is the 
chief means of entry. The first and lowest stage or step towards 
Arhatship is the SroWtpattiy or the entering the stream — the 
stale of the new convert to Buddhism, He is called Sotiiijanno, 
" One who lias entered the stream," inei^itably carrying him on- 
ward — though not necessarily in the same body — to the calm ocean 
of Nirviiim.- He, now, can only be re-bom * as a god or man, and 
not in any lower births, though his metempsychoses may yet last 
countless ages.* 

In the second stage the gniduate is called Sakrid-agflmin, or 
** he who receives birth once more " on earth. He has freed him- 
self from the first five fetters. 

In the third stage he is called An-agami, or " one who will not 
come back " to earth. Such a person can only be re-bom in a 
Brahma heaven, whence he reaches Ninaiia. 

The fourth and highest stage is the attainment of Arhat^hJp 
in this life. Such a graduate will at death experience no re- 

After Buddha's death seems to have arisen the division of 

lArhant (/'i}/i.Arati&,Ka]iaii, its Tltii.'tAnequIvali>nt,<lgrn-b(iom-|>a,sbowB, 
is derived from Afi, an CDtituy, and /lant to extirpate, i.e., " he. who has extirpated hii 
poMloiu.'' It seems to have beeti applii-d iii jirinutive UuilitliiBin Co those who oom- 
prebcudHl the four Truths, nud including BudiUia himself, but ]iit«ly H was reslrJcted 
to tlic i«rfecU'd Buddhist saiut (Lxidlav's FoBuih Ki, 94; Buns., i., 295; ii., 297; 
K<ipp., i.. -MK); Jakscu., 88J. 

* HAifDv's Jiajtn, .l/o«-, Chap. xxii. 

* Oiily seven more InrUw >'i*t rt-main for him. 

* According tti norUif^ni Buildliiam for 80/)00 kalpas, or cycles of time. 


Arbatti into the three grades of Simple Arhat, Pratyeka-Buddha, 
and Supreme Buddha, which is now part of the creed of the 
southern school. 

Firstly, " the Simple Arhat who has attained perfection 
through his own efFortrfand the doctrine and example of a iSupreme 
Buddha, but is not himself such a Buddha and cannot teach othera 
how to attftin Arhalship. 

" Secondly, and second in rank, but far above the Simple 
Arhat, the Pratyeka-Buddha or Solitary Saint, who hat* attained 
j>erfection himself and by himself alone and not . . . through 
the teaching of any Supreme Buddha. 

"Thirdly, the^Supreme Buddha, or Buddha ^r excellence (once 
a Bodhisattva), who, having by his own Relf-enlightening insight 
attained i>erfeet knowledge (sambodhi) . . . has yet delayed 
this consummation (parinirvfina) that he may become the saviour 
of a stiSering world ... by teaching men how to save 

The leading religious feature of the Mahaynna doctrine was it« 

ore universal spirit. Its ideal was less monastic than the 
Hiuayana, which confined its advantages practically to its 
coeobitical monks. The Mahayana endeavoured to save all beings 
by rendering Bodhieatehip accessible to all, and thus saving all 
beings in the ages to come. It also called itself the ** Vehicle of 
BodisatV' tlius constituting three vehicles (Triyana) which it 
described a&— (1) Of the hearers or disciples (Sr^vaka), whose 

hide was likened to a sheep crossing the surface of a river; {"2) 
of the Pratyeka-Buddhas, or solitary non-teaching Buddhas, whoi>e 
vehicle was likened to a deer crossing a river; and (3) of the 
BodhisaU, whose vehicle is likened to a mighty elephant which 
in crossing a river grandly fathoms it to the bottom. Theao 
vehicles " are, in plnin language, piety, philosophy, or rather 
Yogism, and striving for the enlightenment and weal of our fellow- 
creatures. , . . Higher than piety id true and self-acquired 
knowledge of eternal laws ; higher than knowletlge is devoting 
oneself to the spiritual weal of others,"* It thus gave itself the 
highest place. 

Its theory of Bodhisatship is, to use the words of Professor 



Rhyi Davids, ■* the kepiote of the hter lebool just as ArhaUhip 
U the keynote of early BoddhUro.^ The ArbaU being d«f&d csanot 
be active, the Bodliuattvas jls Wsin^ beings can : *' tbe Bodbi- 
nUvas represent the ideal of t^piritaal activitj; the Arbate of. 

But, as Profeaaor Kern shows, one of the earliest of tbe B 
scriptaraa, tbe Saddkarma. pwn4Air'tka, dating at lea&t al 
aeoottd centmy A.D.,goes further than this. It teaches that every- 
one flboold trj to become a Buddha. "It admitt< that from a prac- 
tical point of viev one may distinguish three means, so-callef^i 
Vehicles (ydnat), to attjun «unkmum honwm, Nirvana, althoogl^P 
in a higher ^ense there is only one ^>hicle — tbe Baddba Vehicle."*^ 

To obtain the intelligence (Bodhi) of a Buddha, and as a Bodbi- 
■at to assist in the salvation of all living beings, tbe six Pd 
tniiA or transcendental Wrtues most be assiduously practii 
The^e cardinal virtaes are : — 

1. Chanty (Skt., daTia') 4. Industry (t^irya*) 

2. Morality («i/a*) 5. Meditation (rf A yrtTWt^ 

3. Patience (JtsA^t 71^^ 6. Wisdom {pntjnd^) 
To which four others sometimes are added, to wit : — 

7. Method {upaya^) 9. Fortitude (bala ") 

8. Prayer (prauw£A/ina ") 10. Foreknowledge (? rfAyana**) 

3&kya Muni, in his last earthly life but one, is held to have satis- 
fied the Pdraviitd of Giving (No. 1 of the Ii£t)&s prince Visvantara 
(" Vessautara '*) an detailed in the Jataka of the same nami 
Asoka, in his gift of JambudvTpa; and STladitya, in his gii^s 
Prayag (Allahabad), as described by Hiuen Taiang, are cited 
illustrations of this Pdraviitd, 

Meditation, tbe fifth Paramitii, waa early given an important 
place in the doctrine, and it is insisted ujwn in the V'inaya." 
Through it one arrives at perfect tranquillity (samddhi), which is 
believed to be tbe highest condition of mind. And in tbe later 


1 Oriffin, p 254. * iSicr. Bts. Etutt xxL, p. zxxiv. 

* sbyin-tiA, Csoiu, Analjf., 390 ; Bvnsotrr^ Letns, p. 644. 

• ts'ul-k'rims. • beod>pa. « bot»on<'gnu. 
t iMaiD-gtau. * B'ea-rmb. * fabs. 

*• BTiKiii-Um. J' sttrbs. u ye-«'M. 

" For itigcH of meditation see BinANDrr'tt L*gend», etc., 446. Iloilhidhuina in tlie flftb 
century a.d. csultud meditation as thn means of aelf -reformation. 

days of mysticiBm this led to the ecstatic meditAtion of Yoga, 
hy which the individual l}ccoines umted with and rapt in the 

The ten Ptages through which a Bodhtsat muBt pass in order 
to attain perfection. The.'ie stages arc called ** The Ten* Heavens " 
[da»a bkumi^fvarct '), and are objectively represented by the 
ten "umbrellas" surmounting fhe spire of a caityn, and one 
of the treatises of the "nine canons" is devoted to their de- 

In the natural craving after something real and iwsitive, " When 
the theory of a universal void became the leading feature of the 
Buddhist scholastic development, the question pressed upon tlie 
und was this : If all tbiugn around us are unreal and unsub- 
Autial, is there auvtbing in the universe real or any true ei- 
? The answer to this question was that " on the other 
that is, in that condition which admits of no birth or 
&th, no change or suffering, there is absolute and imperish- 
able existence." * 

The chief of these regions is the western paradise of Amitabha, 
named Sukhavatt, or " the Happy Land,*" a figure of which is here 
given, as it is the goal sought by the great body of the Buddhit-ts 
jf Tibet, as well as those of China and Japan. Its invention dates 
ft least to 100 A.D.," and an entry to it is gaiued by worshipping 
^mitabha's son, Avalokita, which is a chief reason for the spell 
?f the latter, the O^n ruaiii padiM HuTTiy being so popular. 

In the seventh century a.d., under Buddha-paUta, and in the 
ighth or ninth, under Candrakirti, a popular <leveIopment arose 
led the PrasangaMadhyamika (Tib., T'al gyur-va"), which by a 
hair-spUttlng specolatiou deduces the absurdity and erroneousness 
of every eiwteric opinion, and maintained that Buddha's doctrines 
establish two paths, one leading to the highest heaven of the 
universe, SuJcftdvatlf where man enjoys perfect happiness, but con- 

1 Tlicy srr «'>ini.'Uiiies aocminted Uurt«.<«n tii Ni->|uiJ (Hodqsok, lang.^ 16) and &Iso by 
the 5it>-ma LimaA. 

* Sec alto Lai plat's /ViifN>M*p. 93; /..Rwl.^.,xt., 1,31. Somelirnvs they are exteaded 
to thirteen. 

HoiKa., ivyra eit. * Bkal's Osivna^ 279. 

Bs Fur iu dTAcriptioa sw Bbal's Cb/#n4i,p. 117 m^.; Max M&uan'a fruM. ^ AdA^huJi* 
kAo, fi.D.£^ xlix. : and Sa&at.^ 1891. 
■ HUx MPuAR, oy. cii., ivpni u., xxUi. Ar&loldU's nune &Uo ocmn here. 
r Vtftusv. fi, 827, S57 : CaoUA, J.A.S.B^ vii., 144. 


Hected with perstoual oxistcnce, the other conducting to entire 
ftncipation from the world, namely, Ninuiia.' 
The Toga doctrine of ecstatic union of the individual with the 
"niver!»al Spirit had been introduced into Hinduism about 150 
B.C- by Piitanjali, and is not. unknown to western systems.- It 
tangbt spiritual advancement by means of a self-hypnotizing 
to be learned by rules. By moral consecration of the individual 
to Is vara or the Supreme Soul, and mental concentration 
upon one point with a view to annihilate thought, there resulted 
the eight j^at Siddhi or m:igi<!;il jKiwers, namely fl) "the 
ability to make one's body ligliter, or (2) iieavier, or (3) smaller, 
(4) or larger than anything in the world, and (5) to reach 
any place, or (6) to assume any shape, and ( 7) control all natural 
Iawb, to 

* Han^ like Malmniet in the nir. 
Or yt. l^rnatiuA at his prayer.'' 

and (8) to make everything dopeiul ujjon oneself, all at jileasure 

will — Iddhi or Ruldi,'* On this basis Asahga, importing 

UinjaliV doctrine into Buddhism and abusing it, taught* that 

means of mystic 

>rinula8 — dhdrante 

Ktracts from Mahii- 

Kna mitras and other 

riptures) and maniva 

ihort prayers to 

leitie?) — as spells, 

•the reciting of which 

should be accompiuiied 

by mnsic and certain 

^utortion of the fingers 

%utira), a state of 

lental fixily {eamadhi] 

light be reached cliar- 

|cterized by neither 

tiongbt nor annihilation of thoughts, and consisting of sixfold 

\t Comimre ttiiTomarkof B«ai."tho pndlowliieli Plotinus dirwtwl hi* thoughu wa» 
> unit*' liimscir to tile U^^^at God : Ite JitUinpi! it by the «.i t>i ** nutiiod nf thr Quirt l«l8." 
rC'-''"<w/ />*rf-. art. Pl'>titiiu, quoted throtigli Bkal's CnUna, liO. 

I > HCDIUKXK, f/rita Jtouulii, ifJiO. 

\* Bis doctrin.' is contained in the trt?atlao pntitlcd ToffiairifaMiimi SaMm. 

MvsTic Attitudis ok Finuxhs. 



bodily and mental happiness {Yot^i), vhetic^ would result endov- 
' ment. with supormitural minuile-warking power." These niinica- 
lous powers were alleged to be far more efficacious than mere moral 
virtue, and may be used for exorcism and sorcery, and for pm^ely 
secular and seltish object*. Those who mastered these pmctices 
were called Yogficarya. 

But even in early Htiddhi»m mantrtttt seem to have been osodl 
fts charms,^ and southern Huddhism still so uses thejn in PariUa 
service for the sick,' and also resorts to mechanical contrivances for 
attaining SarnaiUdy somewliat similar to those of the Yogacarya.' 
And many mystic spells for the 8nj)ematural power of exorcism 
Fare given in that first or second century A.D. work, Sculdfiamui 

In the mystic uihilist sense, as the name of a tLing was as 
real as the thing itself, the tt/riUen ppell was equally potent with 
the spokeUf and for sacerdotal purposes even more so on account of 
the sacred chaniclerof letters, as expressing speech and so exciting 
the intense veneration of barbarians. No Tibetan will wantonly 
destroy any pai)er or other object bearing written characters. 

The general use of the mystic OM, symbolic of the Hindu 
Triad Al'M, The Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, prohnhly dates 
from this era; though in the Amaravati tope is figured a pillar of 
glory surmounted by OM proceeding from the throne supposed to 
be occupie<l by Buddha.^ It is douhlful whether its occurrence in 
some copies of the Lttlita Vistitra and ot her early Mah5yuna works, 
as the first syllable of the Opening Salutation, may not liave been 
an after addition of later scribes. The monogram figured on 
page 386 is entitled "The AU-powerful ten,"* and is in a form 
of the Indian character called Bavjo or "Lantsa."' 

The Tuntrik cults" brought with them organised worship, 
litanies, and pompous ritual, oflerings and sacrifice to the bizarre 

• Ktttarayi/a, v„ 8. ■ Sasf. Muu. Rms lUvtns' Milinda. 218. 

• Habsy's A'.itf^ ciiap. "Ascetic Rites." See also tlie tmtntlfUa diagrams, p. 252 ; and 
" The Cou(cniplAtinn Mtonc," JJt. A.S„ 1894, p. 664. 

• See also Ubal's Cuirmt, p. 2S4, etc. 

• FKI(tiUSSON*3 Trrr ami Hrrp. M'ortJtip, pi. \xx\., fig3. 1 and 2. 

' Nain-bc'u-dVMin-Idnn ; cf. iilso Cliincac name fr-r tin- s.rtMita. Tlw k'tters am O. 
U. H, K, S, M. L, V, II, Y. 

t Cf. my Jiuliun-BifdMi^t ViH i/ Amfoki(«, etc.,,S., 1804 ; Bviomur*a Intn^ 


demand propitiation by frequent worship and sacrificial offerings. 
ThiH Tautrik ritual ia illustrated in the chai)terB ou worship. 

The excessive use of these mystic Mautras, consisting mostly of 
nnineaning gibberish, resulted in a new vehicle named the 
Manira-ya/na^ which is a Tantrik development of the Yoga phase 



of Buddhism. Charmed sentences fjihlmni) supposed to h»vp 

been composed by t he» 
sevpral divinitieslhem- 
Bf»lves, are nsed u 
incantaLioiis for prcK 
curing their assistance 
in peril as well a» in 
ordinary temporal 
affairs. And by mean* 
of these s])elU nnd 
mummery the 9o-called 
" magic circles ** axe 
formed by which tie 
dinnities are coerced 
into assisting the vot- 
ary to reach "the other 
shore." And the 
authors of this to- 
called "esoteric" 
system gave it a re- 
gpectAhle antiquity by 
alleging that its 
founder was really 
Najrarjuna, who had 
received it in two 
sections of vaJT<.i and 
ffnrbha-dhatu from 
the celestial Buddha 
Vajra-fiattva, within 
**the iron tower" in 
southern India. lia- 
authorship is, as even 
Taranatha himself ad- 
mits, most objicure.* 

The Mantra-2fdna, 
asserts that the state 
of the " Great en- 


YaRtua o» MA^JiTfipi. 
(.Vnm JufntwwO 

I TAkak., 118. 

•' '••.r;/:.W*^»y^:-^V.'^-^ 

Ughte*! or perfected *** that is, Buddhaship, may be attained in 
the present body (composed of the six elementR) by following the 
three great secret laws regarding the body, speech, and thought,* 

» revealed by the fictitious Buddha, Vajrasattva. 
Its silly secrets so-called comprise the spells of the several 
divinities, and the mode of making the magic-circles {7)iay4dfi) 
of the two sorts— the outer and inner {vajradkdtu and garbha- 
dhdtii) ; though something very like,oraualogou8 to, magic-circlea 
are also used in southern Buddhism.' 

Some idea of its contemptible mummery and posturing and 
other physical means for spiritual advancement is to be gained 
from the following three exercises which every LUmn should daily 
perform : — 

The" meditative posture of the seven attituiled" is daily assumed by 
the Lama with his associates, in order to ^i1lbjugnle the five senses. 
Theoe attitudes aro — (1) sitting with legs Hexeil in the well-known 
attitude of Buddha; (2) the hands resting' onu above the other in the 
lap; (3) head slightly bent forward; (4) eyes fixed on tlie tip of the 
nose ; (5) ahouMera " expanded like the wings of a vulture ; " (6) spine 
erect and "straight like an arrow"; (7) tongue arching up to the 
palate like the curving petals of the eight-leav€^ lotus. While in this 
pasture he must think that he is alone in n wilderness. And ho now, 
by phyacftl means, gets rid of R&ga, Moha, Dvesa — the three " original 
sins'* of the body — and these ore got rid of according to the humoral 
physiology of the ancients in the three sencs of cf/ninia, roma, and 
rkyah-ma. After taking a deep inspiration, the au* of the Tonia veins 
is expelled three times, and thus "the white wind " is let out from the 
right nostril three limes in short and forcible expiratory gtwts. This 
expels all anger. Then from the left nostril is thrice expelled in a 
similar way "the red air" which ritls from lust. The colourless 
central air is thrice expelled, which frees from ignorance. On con- 
chilling these processes, the monk must mentally conceive that all 

p Mahi-iitpanna or ''Atiyoga, Tib., tAmy-cAVn. 

I a sKii, Mud, T'ug. This dcictnne flivitut &ImnMt idi-ntinal nith that uf the Shin- 
Q*fllm stTt of Japan dniwTihiHl by R. Nakjio in his Jttp. BniLlh. SeeU^ p. 78, 
anatiin also tncnti<tns Nagnrjuna'x nAint^ in connrrtinn with itit origfin, which lie 
oita is most obscure. It prt^bably arose at the enrl nf the seTcnth ccotuiy aj>., oa 
D. Vajrabodlu brought it with its raagic-c'ircles to China. 
• c]aborAt« circifs of coloured clay, ftc., an> dt'scrihed in dpt«il by Hardt, B. 
M^ SS2, etc., and I have seen diof^ms of an apparently fiimilar character in DurniMe 
Buddhism. Com|)Are nlso wttlt the mechanical coutrivauc*? "the Octaffon" (Tilx., 
r^ait) used in thi« rite* tGrub-iitfHl, to conoentratt^ the thougtitn and coerce thushe- 
n\i {lJiikki%i\ who confer miraculous powora dcacrilied. Schlah., p. 247. Cf. alao 
i!odilt»tion -stone,'* 


ifiuoinuce^ lu^t aud anger — the three oiigioal sins — biive **diiaipp«u«d 
like froet befoi« n scorchiDg sun." 

Ue then says the " H-liu-ki,'* keeping liift tongue curved like n lolutt 
' petal. This is followed by tiifi chanting " the Yoga of the Lima," 
during which he must uientaily couceive bis L4ma-guide as sitting over- 
bead upon a lotus- flower. 

The mere recital of mystic words and sentences {-mantra or 

dkdntiyi [T., //uft])> and their easential syllable (the germs or 
seed, fM>-ca!Ied vtja) is held to be equivalent to the practice of the 
Parainitiis, and subdues rind coerces the gods and genii, and pro- 
cures long life and other temporal blessings, and obtains the 
assistance of the Buddhas and Bodhisats. Although thet^e^ were Ukely iutroduced to supply the need for incanta- 

their nae is alleged to be based ui»u the doctrine of un- 

lity of things. As existence is ideal, tbe name of a thingTs" 

et^uivolent to the thing itself, and of a like efficacy arw the 

I altitudes (mudrn) of the fingers, symbolic of the attributefi of 

|the gods. Thu9 Om is an acceptable offering to the Bnddbas, 

Hri dispels sorrow, and by uttering Ho, snmtldki is entered. Of 

I such an idwil nature also were 
the papei- horses of Hue's 
amusing story, which the 
Ljimas with easy charity be- 
fitonred on belated and helpless 
traveJler8,as figured at the lop 
, of this chapter. 

These postures and parroL- 
flike exercisea, as practised by 
[the unreformed and Kemi-re- 
jfurmed sects, according to 
[the book entitled l%e com- 
\pUU eseterw IMntra^ and the 
jreputed work of Padma-sam- 
I tihava, are as follows. The cor- 
I responding Ge-lug-jja rites are 
Inot veiy much different : — 

1**.— The mode of placing the three mystic words, body, speesh 
laud thought {IcUj aun autl t'uk). 

2m/, — 'I*he nectar-<«mmauding rosary. 

SrU. — Thtj jewellwl roflary-guide for ascending, 

4(/i.^^ecret counsels of the four Yogas. 

6t/j.— The great root of tho he.irt. 

C^A. — The lamp of the three dwellings. 

7<A.— The bright loosener of the illusion. 

8/A, — Tlje water-drawing " dorje." 

9(A, — The secret guide to the fierce DakkinI, 
10(/i. — The drawing of tho essence of the stony nectar. . 
l\th. — Counsel on the pakkiui's habit«. 
12fA. — Fathoming tho mystery of the Dakkinls 
13M. — Counsel for the I)akkini's hoart^root. 
Ur/*.— The four words for the path of Pardo (limbo). 
16(A. — Tho Pardo of the angry demons. 


Ob medluttDR upon Caltttlo) Baddhu. 
(A St«ec Id th« UaclO<Xrclt.~After y&n{lo.) 

» Conf. BOHKOCF, i., 622-74 j Vasilibv, 153, 198. 

L 2 



1 6rA. — ^To recc^ize the Gyalwa Rig-na or the five celestial Baddbjw. 
Then **Hap{iiui*8s" ic rea<?lie<1 — this goal is the wnfuoo* 
liappineKs of tlii^ Jitia's Pamili^o or of Sukh&vati, timt of 
AmitJibha, the Buddha of Infinite Light. 

The transcendental efiicacy attribute to these spells fully ac- 
counts for their frerjuent repetition on rosaries and by mechaiiic&t 
means in the "prayer-wheel," flags, etc. 

Thus, the commonest myptic formula in Lamaism, the "Om- 
ma-tii pad-me Hum," — ^which literally means " (hn! The Jewel in 
the Lotus! Ham!"- — ^is addressed to the Bg rfbTO f^ PvifBftp^'?' 



The Pr.\vku-AVuekl Fuiuiula. 

who is represented like Buddha a£ seated or standing within s 
lotus-Hower. He is the patron-god of Tibet and the controller of 
metempsychosis. And no wonder this formula is so popular and 
constantly repeated by both Lamas and laity, for its mere nti«f 
ance is believed to stop the cycle of re-births and to convey the 
reciter directly to jwiradise. Ttius it is stated in the Muni-kah- 
bum with extravagant rhapsody that this formula "is tlie essence 
of all happiness, prosperity, and knowledge, and the great means 
of deliverance"; for the Oni closes re-birth amongst the gods^ 
Tna, among the Titans 7ii, as a man, pad as a beast, ttie as a 
Tantalus, and Hum as an inhabitant of hell. And in keeping with 
this view eacl^of these six syllables is given the distinctive colour 
of these six states of rebirth, namely Om,y the godly white; mOt 







Tub OM MA^^l Foiuiin^ 
< iu IndUi) '* liiinfa " cli&ncten of about the 
■evootli oulory). 

le TitAnic Hue: ni, the human ydlow; pa<2, the animal gre^n ; 
^€, the "Tantalic" r«/ ; and 
//uT^i, the hellish Hark. 

But the actual articulatiou 
is not even needed. The mere 
spection of this formula ia 
qunlly effective, and so also is 
the jiossing of this inscri]>tion 
fore the individual. And to 

le effective it does not require to be actually visible, it is therefore 
printed thousands and millions' of times on long ribbons and 
iled into cylinders and inserted into the "prayer-wheels" so- 
iled, which are revolved everywhere in Tibet, in the hand (see 
ges 45, 218, etc.), and as great barrels turned by hand or water 
or wind,* and also printed on stones and on cloth-flags which flutter 
m every house, so as to ensure the cessation of metempsychosis 
re-birth in the western paradise. 

The origin of this formula is obscure. The earliest date for it 

et found is the thirteenth century a.d.^ 

What seems to be a more expanded version of this spell is 

known to a few Liimas and is met with in Japanese Buddhism^ 

amely, " OM ! Amoyha Vnirocana Mahdmudra MASI PADMA 

'iHtla^pravarthtnya HUM!" But this is addressed to the first 

of the Dhyani* Buddhas, namely, Vnirocana, to whom also the 

Japanese Mantrayana sect ascribe their esoteric doctrine, but the 

rdinary lilmaist formula is unknown in Japan, where its place 

is. taken by ^^ Ndmo 0-mi-to Fo" or ** Kiiil to Amitabha, the 

uddha of Boundless Light." 

> In some of the larger prayer-wttecls it ia piintcd 100,000>XIO times (Baron Schillinf^, 

5 Fnr winil-prayer \-anpfl, rf. RocKt /-., p. 147 cf. ; nlso GioRUi, 608. 

* tUxKHii-r., in TjU Lmut qfi/w. Ltimaj^ Iximlon, 1801, page 32(1, not<>« tiutt WUhelm de 
ilnbruk, wrilintr in the worinH half nf the tliirt^^fnth cfiitury a.d. (.S>-. de OtO'j.dt 
p/irt#, Iv.. pagi' 28^1 9ljit<c'8 regarding tlie Buddhist monks of Karakonim : "Habcqt 
tiAiit fjHOc'Uinqiit.' viuiunt strnptr in nmuibus qii.-indi\m testom cetitiuu vel duc(:^nt- 

ani Dudfurutn aieut nos portamuR pnti'muAtiT i>t dicunt i44>mpcr Hik: vrrbu an ,j*an 
nrenpu boo o&t hrMt, tn uoitt, si>cundum (]uod qiiidam corum int4;rprc-t.ttua t^at iiiiclii, 

Vtlit^ua exapocUiU rfiuunoriitioiif ni n I>co qiiotii-iiN hoc. dJcendo meiimmtur.'' Mr. 
hill alfhi, I find, iudopt>!iu]t'nLly arnvc^at a similiLrcfmc.hifiion to myself aa regtxd* 
bti relativulv inudcm i;i>m[Ki«it)on uf Uiu Mani-ikfth-Bbum. Cf. also Hcc, ii. ; K6pp., ii., 


. Jap. 




FVom its mystic nature the Om Mani formula is ini«rpret«l 
in a great variety of ways, including amongst others Oie 
phallic,^ though this Iatt«r senne is seldom accorded it. Tlie 
heterodox Bon-pa followers repeat it in reverse fashion, thus 
making it mere gibberish.* 


The repetition of the mystic formulas for the l>ead(i follows the 
prayer, pro|)erIy ao-called, and is beUeved to contain the essence 
of a formal prayer, as well as to act as a powerful spell. The 
formulas are of a Sanskritic natm-e, usually containing the name 
of the deity addressed, but are more or less wholly uuintelligihlp 
to the worshipper. 

Different mantras are needed for different deittee; but the one 
most frequently used by the individual Lama is that of bis own 
tutelary deity, which varies according to the sect to which the 
Lama belongs. 

The formulas most fretjuently used are shown in the following 
table :— 

Kamx Qg Dnrr. 

Tm Spsij.. 


1. Dor je jik-jc.' 

Hkl., Vajra- 

2. CliA.-na dorje.* 

Skt., Vajrap6\ii. 

. Taiiidin.* 

akt., Uayatfriva. 
A. Cliii-rfi-fli or T'lig-je- 


Skt., Aealokiia. 
fi. D«I-ina jank'u.^ 

Skt... Tard, 

6. Do-kar." 


7. Dor-jo |i'n.g-mi)." 

Skt., Vajra- 

8. *0-JMrp|iri Ilia." 

Skt., .VnHc?. 

l»in ! YA-mAn-la-taka hfl^i 

Otii I Vajraimni lifiTp jihiit ! 
Orii I VaJTR (I«an-da niahS 

rn-khana lulni t 
Om ! p^d-inn ta kritl hQni 

Iihat ! 
Om ! uiani |Kid-liie liQii) ! 

(►ni ! Ta-ve tul-lA-ro tare 

ava-lift ! 
Om ! Tfl-re tut-ta-re mania 

)i ■ yiir piiiiyeiiHanyana 

pueph-pi-t-a ku-rn svn-hft I 
Um ! Nir-t>a Tiud-dha dakkin- 

nt liflm phut ! 

Om ! Ma-rl-cye mam »va- 

Human skull or 
" stomncJi-Ht<iae.* 


Red aandal or ooraL 
Conch-flbeU or crystal. 

Bodlii-lse or tnr- 




1 M noted liy Hodgson. 

» TIh' chartctertatic BSn-pa mantra is Iiowever: ** Ala-tri-mu-trl sa-la d«i." €f. 
Jajiscu., />., 4*>8; DBaooDiNBt UZ 

• rUo-rje-*iigB-by*d, • p'yay-mi rd»)-rj>. ' rta-niKrin. 

• TugB-r^^VO-po, * agrtil-mii jiin-k'u. ■ igralHlkur. 

• do-rje p'og-mo. »<• 'od»iOT^c'an-ma. 



StMM Of JfMon, 

9. GJ:in-poi)4g-po.* 
Skt.. KatanStha. 

Skt.. Kucrra. 
I 11. I>sftni-l>'a-l)t." 

Skt-. JumhJutio. 
fl2. Sen-se-<ift.' 

Skt., SinJiftHiitfn. 
' 13. Jftm>yan^.* 

Sk I*. . Mu njuffhotha . 
1 14, T>em-ch'ok.* 

Skt., Unmivrrtt. 
^'15. Piid-ina juu-nJi.^ 

SkL. , Fndmn-aam- 

Tvi BrcLL. 

Om ! Sri Ma-!iA-k&-la batp 

phiit Hv&-ha ! 
Oiii I Vat'Sra-\'a-iia yesvfi- 

hii 7 
Om ! Jaiu-blia-Ia dflalen- 

lira ye xvii-ha ! 
Om ! A-Iinh SiA-Iu-nA(Ia 

hflm piiUt ! 
Oin ! a-ra-pa-ca-na tllii : 

Om ! Iirih ha-ha Iiftni hafji 

phiit ! 
Om ! Vajra Uum I'ttilma 

Bid-dhi haip ! 

Sracub njrm or 
Eorabt OitD. 


Concbi»holl or crystol. 
Yellow rosary. 
Coral or bwlhitsc. 

The concluding word jihiit wliich follows the myotic hitm in 
'many of these spells is cognate witli (he current Hindustani word 
phttt, and means " may the enemy be d^trwjed utterly ! " 

The laity tlirough want of knowledge seldom use with their 
rosaries any other than the well-known " Jewel-Lotaa *' formula 
^H Such mecbunicul means of spiritual advancement by promising 
^^mraediate temporal benefits, have secured universal popularity j 
and possess stronger attractions for gross and ignorant inlcUecta 
^^ver the moral methods of early Kuddhism, The Chinese 
^Kiierati ridicule the repetition of these inxantrns by sayiug,^ 
^P*Sup{X)se that you had committed some violation of the law, and 
that you were being led into the judgment-hall to receive sen- 
tience; if you were to take to crying out with all your might 
^P Yuur Worship ' some thousands of times, do you imagine that 
the magistrate would let you off for that ? " 

On the evolution, in the tenth century, of the demoniacal Bud- 
dhas of the Kalacakra, the " Mantrii, "-vehicle was developed into 
" The Thunderbolt-vehicle " or Vajraydna^ the proficient in 
which is called Vajrdcdrya. According to this, the most depraved 
form of Ruddhist doctrine, the devotee endeavomrs with the aid of 
le demoniacal Buddhas and of fiendesses {I}dkkim.i^ and their 

1 m{|on-pri iiAf{-po. V mam-Brns. > daAui b'a-la. 

' • sen-gc-igni. ► 'jam-dbyatigB. a bde-mch'og. 

^ pAd*mii byiui'gnafl. 
* Kkmi'ut. .1*. .V*A-. Mi^t conapicuous amongst Un' authors of dlatrilK's agaiiut 
Ihwt worahip wa« Ilan V5 in the eighth or ninth centime* kj*. Cf. Maysbs. 



majjio-circles to obtain the spirit ual [wwere of SiddfU ^ or ** The 
rtcrtxnpliBbment of i>crfe(:tion or of one's wishes/* Altliough the 
attuiument of Siddhi t»; below the stage of Arhatfchip, the Lfiinas 
Vftliie it more highly than the latter on account of its power of 
witchcraft. Its mystic insight is classed as the extemiil (CA'ir- 
rfwfi), internal {NaH-dub)^ and esoteric or hidden {Sa ii-duit)^ 
and correspond to the body, speech, and thought. Its foliowers 
art^ called VajrucTirya and its rules are detailed by Tsori K'hapa, 
Its recognized divisions' are: — 


Lnttcr Tatitrn 

Cpper Tanlm 


Kriyn T&ntra 

Cfirya Tautra 


Anutuni Tanirft 
blii-Ha metijMihi-gjfltd 

In only the last, or Anuttara Tantra, have the tutelary demons 

The rampant demonolatry of the Tibetans seems to have 
developed the doctrine of tutelary deities far beyond what is 
found even in the latest phase of Indian Buddhism, although 
I find at many of the inediaaval Huddhit^t sites in Magadha, 
images of several of the devils which are so well-known in Tibet 
an tutelarie^. 

Kach Lamaist sect has its own special tutelary fiend, which may 
or may not be the personal tutelary of all the individual Lamas of 
that particular sect; for each Luma hns a tutt^lary of his own 
selection, somewhat, after the manner of the isht/i tfevttd of the 
Hindus, who accompanies him wherever he goes and guards his 
fo<^>t^tep8 from the minor fiends. Even the purest of all the 
Lamaist sects — the Ge-lug-]>a — are thorough-paced devil-wor- 
shippers, and value Buddhism chiefly because it gives them the 
whi[>-hand over the devils which everywhere vex humanity with 
disease and disaster, and whose ferocity weighs heavily upon 
all. The purest G^-lug-pa Lama on awaking every morning, 

1 SiddUi, which swidb (nccordin» to Sir MoK. Wimjams, Iiu»M,, 596), to corrpspond cq 
the !(tjigr> helow Arhatftliip, Riehty Hiddhas (iwintiij are Homctimes mentionmi And 
atintnest thoir uup^'niatiiral Inllii powers tbcy obtain "the Rainbow Itody ** CjaJi- 
lu8), which vaniahoa like thit rainbow, leaving no trace behind. 

»cr, JABscn., /A, 112. 

s Tl»e directions for these culu are found chiefly in the 5iii-ma "revelations" or 
ttrma booki. 

I l i 


I hit 



id before venturing outside his room, fortifies himself against 
ult by the deioous by first of all assuming the spiritual guise 
of his fearful tutelary, the king of the demons, named Vajrabhairava 
or iSauivara, as figured iu the chapter on the pantheon. The 
l^ma, by uttering certain fHunims culled from the legendary 

lyings of Buddha in the Maliayiina Tantrajt, coerces this demon- 

ing into investing the TJimaV jjerson with his own awful aspect.^ 
Thus when the Ijiima emerge?* from his room in the moniing, and 
wherever he travels during the day, he presents spiritualty the ap- 
pearance of the demon-king, and the smaller malignant demons, 
his would-be assailants, ever on the outlook to harm humanity, 
dug deluded into the belief that the I^ma is indeed their own 
Vindictive king, they 6ee from his presence, leaving the Lama 

A notable feature of Liimaism throughout all its sects, and 

lecidedly un-Buddhistic, is that the Lama ie a priest rather than a 
monk. He assigns himself an indispensable place in the religion 
and has coined the current saying '* Without a LiLmaiu front there 
is no (approach to) God." He performs sacerdotal functions on 
every possible occasion ; and a large proportion of the order is 
almost entirely engaged in this work. And such services are in 
much demand ; for the people are in hoiwlesa bondage to the 

lemons, and not altogether uuwilUng slaves to their exacting 


The Chinese contempt for such rites is thus expressed iu a 
inacred edict of the emperor Yung-Ching.* " If yon neglect to 
burn paj>er in honour of Buddha, or to lay offerings on his altars, 
tie will be displeased with you, and will let his judgments fall upon 

our heads. Your god Buddha, then, is a mean fellow. Take for 
a imttern the magistrate of your district. Even if you never go 
near him to compliment him or pay court to him, so long as you 


1 This process, cmDmI Iha-sgrub.pii, implies (ss}-s Jab»cbrk, Ij^ £2) not id much the 
nking a deity propitit ious to man (Csuiia.'» definition in his JXct.) ai rendering a god 
ahject to homao p(iir«r, forcing him tn perform the will of man. This coercton of 
be giHl )i affected by saints conttnuincthpir profnunil mf>dJtntion (sgom-pa) for monlhs 
Old years until the deity, Anally, nrcrc^mc, stancU tM>fore thrm visible uihI taogibte; 
py, until Uify bAve t>een ])^rsriDal1y united with aad, ns it were. lncor]>orat«d into 
be invuked and Bubjectcd ^od. Tho metlitxl uf e(Tc<:tiiig tliia coercion, of obliging 
, |(od to make hi» appearance, i& also called agrub-taba. 
s KliuiMT, At. MitctU. 





are honest folk and attentive to your duty, he will be Done the le» 
rt'iidy to attend to you ; but if you transgrew the law, if }( n 
commit violence, or trespass on the rights of other?, it wonW I* 
useless for you to try a thouraod ways of fl&ttering him ; you will 
always be subject to his diapleasure," 

Thus had these various inHuencee warjsetl the Buddhitit doctrio* 
in India, ere it reached Tibet, and there the deep-rooted demon- 
worship made Lnmaism what it is: a priestly mixture of Sb&mamit 
cultf! and jioly-deinoniftt superstitions, overlaid by (piasi-Bndflhist 
aymbtilism, relieved by universal charity and other tnily Buddhist 
principles, and touched here and there by the brighter lights of 
the teai^hing of Huddha. 

But notwithstanding its glaring defects, Lumoism has exerted a 
considerable civilizing influence over the Tibetans. The people 
are profoundly affected by its benigtt ethics, and its maxim, '^as a 
man sows he shall reap," has undoubtedly enforced the j.>ersonal 
duty of mastery over self in spite of the easier phyiiioial aids to 
piety which are prevalent. 

Anil it is somewhat satisfactory to find that many of the 
superior Lamaa breathe much of the spirit of the original 
system. They mhnit the essentially un-Buddhist nature of 
much of the prevalent demonolatry, and the impropriety of its 
being fostered by the church. Tliey regard this unholy alliance 
with the deWls as a pandering to popular prejudice. Indeed, 
there are many I,4raa8 who, following the teaching of the 
earlier Buddhism, are inclined tx) contemn sacerdotalism al- 
t-ogether, although forced by custom to take part in it. 


HK sacred books emboUying the "Word" of Buddha 
are regarded by the LSma«, in common with all other 
Baddhists, as fonning the second member of the 
Trinity — "The Three precious Onea" — in whom the 
jioug Buddhist daily takes his ** refuge.*' 
The booka theraaelveB receive dtWne honours. They are held '^ 


Dmtertally sacred, placed in high places, and worshipped wit!i 
inceu>e, lamps, etc. ;^ uud eveu Ira^mentH of books or mum- 
scripts bearing holy words are treasared with the utmost rever- 
loe. It is deemwl the grossrst profanity for anyone to throw 

F^even a fragment of holy writ upon the ground or to txeiad 
upon it, and in this way the Tibetans, Uke the Chinese, not in- 

^frequently express their contempt for Chri»tianity by utilizing. 

'as soles for their shoes, the bundles of tracts which our mission- 
aries supply to them. 

But Buddha, Like "the Light of the World," and unlike 
Moses and Muhammad, wrote nothiug himself; nor does it 
appear tlmt his words were even reduced to writing unti 
about 400 years or more after his death,^ so it is unlikely 
that most of his sayings have preserved their original form, 
wholly unaltered, in the process of handing them dovrn orally 
during several centuries. 

The LTiinaist scriptures are &tthful translations'* from the 
Sanskrit texts,* and a few also from the Chinese, made mostly in 
the eighth and ninth, and the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries 

1 Tbc tfcriptur«a arc actively worshipped even by southern Buddhists. " The boolc* 
am uRoally wrapptnl in cloUi, aud when their name* arc mentiuutnl an honoriflc is 
addi'd P4]uiv]ileiit tu revvreiid or illu»trjriua. l'|ion some occoaiuns they ore placvd 
upf^n a kind of rude altar ufar thu pja^UId^, as 1 liav(> m>eti Un' ima^ps of saJnla in 
Roman (.'atliolic countriea, tliat thoete wlui ]>aKs by may (lut munt>y upon it iu order to 
Dbtaiii merit " (Uauoy's Ha*i Mon., 192). Cum|Hin* altu) witli Elindua puling rvspect lo 
their ^.itrm witli garlands and perfumer and }fniin»uf rire.and t hi' Sikhs u> UwirGrt%ti. 

a Thr words were at rtntt traiuimittfd tiitvrn nrally : their n-cital (bhana = to apeak) 
^I« one of the duties of a monk even now. The southern (^Palij scriptureft are ktalad 
to Iiave been tint reduced to wTiting in Ceylon in 88-76 nc, in the rr-ign of Kiaf 
Vartagauiani (Tdrnoob, .VahitMnM, WT), and tlie norttieni by king Kaai&bka in 
the second Italf of t[tu first oentun,- a.d. Itut oa writing wa^i certainly in ut>eiu Awka's 
d;ty— 2W u.c.— it is probable that some scriptures were committed lo writing at as 
earlier period than here assigned to the complete coUcct. Cf . Oldbnubro, IVjwtjw Tri/i, 

^ The verbal acoiracy of these translations has been testified by Max Miiller. lUiyt' 
Davids, t'owrll, Foncaux, Feer, Vasiliev, Rockliill, etc. 

4 Uidian, Kashmiri aud Nejialeae serlptui-es. A few <if the Tibetan translations wiO* 
made from ihi* Pali, f.y., vol. 30 of Sutras (KocBiiiix's CdnitMrarga, x). Some very tHA 
Indian M-SS. still exint in Tibet. His Excellency Shi»d-*gra 3Jwb-pe, one of the Tibetan 
goveniors (bKaii-bhm) oi Lhasa, while at Darjiling about a year iigu, un political 
bii»iues8, infornu'^t mt> ttiat many ancient Buddliist niauuiKrripta, wliich hiul been 
brouglit fmni India by mr'dtiBval Indian and Tibetan luonka, are etill pre«erved in 
TitHJt, eapecially at the old monaateriee of Sam-yas, Sakya, Nar-tliang and rhun-t^> 
[inc. These manuscripts, howcv(;r, being worshipped as prcci'jus relics and written 
lo a diaracter more or leiui unknown to tbc Liimaa, are kept Kcaled up and rarely 
seen by the Lamas themselves. 


A.D. ; and a very few small volumes, those first translated into 
'ibetan, date to the epoch of Thon-mi Sambhota, about 645 A.D. 

None of these Tibetan tniQBlations, however, seem to have been 
printed until comi)aratively recent times, though the exact date 
of the iutroduction of printing into Tibet is as yet unknown. 

The Tibetan so-called ''books" are, strictly speaking, only xylo- 
Ifrnphs, lieing printed from rudely carved wooden hlockH. Mov- 
able type is unknown, and a large pro|>ortiou of the bxiks are still 
written in manuscript. The great canon, the Kah-gyur, waa, it 
seems, only printed for the tirst time, at least in it« collected 
form, about two hundreil years ago. 

The paper, which is remarkably tough, is made from the inner 
bark of a shrub,^ and comes mostly from Xei>al and other parts of 
the Hub -Himalayas, and the Chinese border-lands. The smaller 
tracts from the scriptures, used by the more wealthy devotees, 
sometimes written on ornate cardboard, consisting of several 
sheets of paper pasted together, and varnished over with a black 
pigment, u|»n which the letters are written in silver or gold; 

id occasionally they are illuminated like missats. 

Books now abound in Tibet, and nearly all are religious. The 
literature, however, is for the most i>art a dreary wilderness of 
words and antiqtmted rubbish, but the Lamas conceitedly be- 
lieve that all knowledge is locked up in their musty classics, out- 
aide which nothing is worthy of serious notice. 

The Lflmaist scriptures consist of two great collections, the 
canon and the commentaries, commonly called the ** Kiing-gyur, 
or properly the Kah-gyur,- and Tiiu-gyur."'* 

The great code, the Kah-gyur, or "The Translated Command- 

ent," is 80 called on account of \t» text having been translated 
from the ancient Indian language,* and in a few cases from the 
Chinese. The translalors were learned Indian and Kashimri Pan- 
its and a few Chine-se monks, assisted by Tibetan scholars.' 

The code extends to one hundred or one hundred and eight 
volumes of about one thousand [»ages each, comprising one thou- 

1 The At/iAM (^dmo^i'm. Se«* Hodoson in J.A.S.It., 1632, i^ p. S, for an account of 
Itft maoufArtim*. 
» bkab-gyur. 
> bstah-'gyiir. 

• T^n-gnr-«kad, or " Indian longruagc," and usually employed u Rynimyrooufl w-irli 
•• Sanskrit." 

• L6-tdft-wii. 


sand and eighty -three distinct works. The hulk of this colosnl 
bible may be imagined from the feet that each of it^ hundred or 
more voliunes weighs about ten pounds, and forms a [jackage 
LmesHuriiig alwut twenty-six inches long by eight inches bruod 
'about eight inches deep. Thus the code requires about a di 
yaks for itti transport ; and the carved wooden block:* from which 
this bible iB printed re-quire^ for their storage, rowH of houses like 
a good-sized village. 

The Kilh-gyiir is printed, I am informed, only at two places in 
Tii>et : the older edition at Xarthang,' alwut six mile;* from 
Tashi-lhunpo, the caj>italof western Tibet and headquarters of the 
Grand Ponchen-Luma. It tills one hundred volumes of about one 
thousand ])age:j each. The later edition is printed at Der-ge* in 
eastern Tiliet (KhamJ and cimtainf the same matter distributed in 
volumes to reach the mystic number of one hundred and eight. 
In Bhotau an edition is printed at Punakha ; ' and I have heard 
of a Kumbum (Mongolian) edition, and of one printed at Pekio. 
The ordinary price at Mart hang is about eight rupees per volume 
without the wooden boards. Most of the large monasteries even 
in .Sikhim possess a full set of this code. The Pekin edition pub- 
lished by command of the emjieror Khian-Lung, says Koppen, st)ld 
for £600 ; and a copy was bartered for 7,000 oien by the Buriats, 
and the same tribe jjaid 1,200 silver roubles for a complete 
copy of this bible and its commentaries.* The Kah-gyur was 
translated into Mongolian about 1310 A.D. by Saskya Lama 
Ch'os-Kyi 'Ud-zer under the Saskya Pandita, who, assisted by a 
staflf of twenty-nine learned Tibetan, Ugrian, Chinese and Sans- 
krit scholars, had previously revised the Tibetan canon by col- 
lating it with Chiuene and Sauskrit texts, under the jjatronage of 
the emperor Kuhlai Khan. 

The contents of the Kah-gyur and Tafi-gyur were briefly 
analyzed by Csoma,'' whose valuable summary, translated and 

> BN'&r-tan. ' sDe-rlge. 

* So I Uhve bcf-n told. 

* And a uoi>}' aIso of tliia edition secerns to t)v in tlio St. Petersburg Acadfiny of 
iicleiices, obtained about 1830 by liomn Schilling du CansUtdt, togptJuT witli about 
•i,(MJO Mongolian and TibttAn iTv&imiS.—ButlOin JJi$ione4yphiloloffigve dfl 'Acaiittuif rf/ 
ttr. }'iierti>u,-ff, torn. iv.. 1849. pp. 321-32&. 

' Vol. XX,, At. HeseaMts, 


idexed by Feer,' and sui>plemented in jmrt by Sohiefner Rnd 
khiU, forms the basis of the following sketch. Hodgsou'fi copy 
the Kah-gyur, on which Csoma worked at Calcutta, contained 
e hundred volumes, and appears to have been printed from the 
en types pre[»ared in 1731, and which seem to be still in 
n»e at Xarthang. 

The Kah-gyur 18 divisible into three' great sections, the THpi^ 
ItfJca,^ or three vessels or repositories, corresponding generally to 
the less inflated Pah version of the Tripitaka of the southern 
Buddhists, which has, however, no counterpart of the mystical 
Sivaist treatises, the Tantras. The three sections are : — 

I- The DtU-wt {Hkt,, Vinaya), or Discipline^ the compilation of 
'bich is attributed to Ur>ali,* in thirteen volumes. 

II. The Dd (Skt., SuWn), or Sermons (of the tiuddhas), compiled 
by Ananda* in sixty-six volumes inclusive of Tantras. As these dis- 
courses profess to be the narrative of the disciple Anamin,^ who is 
believed to have been present at the originals as uttered by Bud- 
dha, most of these Sutras commence with the formula: EvaTn 
fiuiyd sriUani, " Thus was it heard by me ; " but this formula now 
is almost regarded by many European scholars as indicating a 
tictitioua sittra, so frequently is it prefixed to spurious sutnis, e.g., 
the AmitiibLa, which could not have been spoken by Htiddha or 
recited by Anauda. The Lamas, like the southern Buddhists, 
naively believe that when Buddha sp*>ke, each individual of the 

semhled hosts of gods, demons, and men, as well as the various 
inds of lower animals,^ heard himself addressed in his own 

III. The Ch^oB-non-pa (Skt. Abidharma), or Metaphysics, 

'^ M. Leon Feer published ip 18S1 a trnnalattaa of CBoma's Anti/i(in4 under the 
^Hafy*f du- Kniu^otir <t Jh Tithtfjour in Uie second volumi' of the "Antialt^a du 
Ouimetf" and appended a vocabulary giviu{{ all tliu naniiiH wliicti occur in 
inn's Aftihtii.vriih iin Index and Tttlfe AlfffuiMtiiiue dt Oitww/u dtu Kundjour. 
And he grave further L'strncta la Vol. v. of the same serial. 
> Another L-loasiflcaUon of the canonical scriptures, cBi>ccially amongst the Nepalese, 
given by Hodoson (Z^uiy. 13, 49) as "The nine scriptiuvs (Dhamms),' nauialy : 
rnijua ijarAiiiita. 2. Oandiia-vyulia. 3. DH^a-bUumTi^vara. 4. Suuadlii-raja. &. 
itkiivst-am. >J SiuldhariiiA PuniUrTkii. /. Tatliaj^alJia guhyaka (containing the 
:ret Tautrik d<x;trine«). 8. Lalita Vistara. 9. Suvama-prabhaaa. 
^ »dt*-Biif->d yisum. * Nye-var-'K'or. * 'Kun-dgab-wo, 

" At the flrst great council irUcn Huddha'e word was coUatad 
'' a. alao Bkal's Jtomantic LtifeHd, 2ii-U$4, (/ya Ttchtr Jioi^pa, cb. 98. 


includiag Transcendental Wisdom (S^er^'yin, Skt., Prajnd Pd- 
ramitd), attributed to Mahu Kiisyapw, i» twenty-one volumes, 

These three uections are myHticaUy considered to be the anti- 
dotes for the three original 8ins ; thns the discipline clefuifies 
from last (Rttga), the werraons from ill-will {Lhesa}, and the 
wisdom from stupidity (Moha). 

By subdiWding the Do or Stitra section into five portions^ the 
following sevenfold division of the canon results : — 

" I. Discipline or IhU-va (8kt., Vxnaya), in thirteen volumes, deals 
with the religious discipline and education of thoae adopting the 
religious life, and also contains Jiktaica9y avadanas, vyakarauas, sutras, 
and ridSnas." (It is the Vinaifa of the Sarrastiv&daius, and its greater 
porciou lu.s been abstracted by Bockhill.^) It is sub-divided into sevca 

1. *'The Basis of Dii^cipline or Kducation (dnl-va-gzH, Skt., Vinaya 
Vastw), in four volumes (K, K*, G, and 2*f), tran.slated from the Sanskrit 
in the ninth century by the Panilits Sarvaiiiytldeva and Dharmak^n 
of KnAhmir nnrl Vidyakara-jjrabha of India, assisted by the 'Hhi^^l 
Bknde«i dPal-gyi Ihunpo and dPal-brtscgK. (The chief Jatakn. and otflV 
tales intei-sperscd through these volumes form tlie bulk of Schiefnet's 
cuUoctioQ of Tibetan tales, translated into English by Ralston.) 

2. " SQtra on Kmancipntion (So-vor-t'ar-pal-mdo, Skt., Pratinwlsha 
SiUra)^^ in 30 leaves. 

8. " Explanation of Education (Dul-va nam-par-'byed-pn, Skt., 
ViTvaya inhhdga) in four volumes. Enumerates the several nde* 
(K'rim^) of conduct, 253 in number, with examples of the particular 
transgression which led to the formation of these lavs. Directions 
for dress and etiquette. 

4. '* Emancipation for Nuns {dGe-shn mahi aotor fJiar pai mod, Skt,, 
B/ttk$/iuni pratimoktha /S'u4ra)^ 36 leaves in the ninth volume (T). 

5. " Explanation of tho Discipline of the Nuns (Skt., BhiJc, Vinojfa 
vtbh&ga) in preceding volume (T). 

6. " Mi^clianeous Minutioe concerning Religious Discipline (Dul-va 
p'ran-t«'eg8-kyi gz'i, Skt., Vinaya K«hudraJca rofiu), in two vol 

7. *'The highest text book on Education" (Dul-x'a gzuii bl 
Vinaya Uttara (JhaniJta), in two volumes (N and P), and when 8;_ 
of as "the four classes of precepts" (liii-de-zhi) the division oompnses 
1, 2 and 3, 6 and 7. 

II. Transcendental Wisdom ("-Sffl«-ra& kyi p'a-rol4u p'yin-pa" or 
curtly, ^* Ser-ch'in" (Skt., Praj-Ad-pdramitd), in twenty-one volumes. 

1 TV Life of the Bnddka^ etc. AIho In part, but not directly for the DtUva, bj 
Schicfnor in liis TiUtiiche LiebnUtcrieivmif Sakrmt impl., St. IVtrrthnrp, 1S49. 
1 Cf. translation from tho Tttwtao by BocKmLL, and from tho r&li by Rbtb Davisa 
L And OLDKXBnui, Ptnaya TtxU. 



eontamt In aildition to the inetAphysica] tenuiuology, those 

tly sj>eculfttive doctrines entitleii !*raj iia-jiarii iititft, wliich 

Maliikyana school attributes to Itttdilha's Utest rovelntioiis in his 

ythical diAoourseA mostly to supeniatuml heai-ei's at the Vultiii'ea' 

Peak at Rijgriha.' Tliere is no historical matter, all is Apeculaiiou, 

and a pi'ofusion of abiiti-ftutioii. 

The first twelve volumes, called 'Bum (Skt,, Sata SaJtatrii:a) or 
'■the IW.OOO {filokaa of Transcendental Wiadom")." treat fully of 
the Prajna-paratnita at large, and the reninining volumes ore merely 
vanoiiH ftbiidgiuenl*! of these twelve. Thus the three volumes called 
S'i-ir'ri (pron. Xt/i-lAi) or "the 20,000 (slokas)" is intended for those 
monasteries or individuals who cannot purchase or peruse the full text ; 
while the single volume, entitled the brgyud-stoh-pon (ashta aahasriku) 
or 8,000 (slokas), contains in one volume the gist of the Pmjnupiira- 
itA, and is intended for the average and junior monks. This is the 
Volume which is figured on the lotus which Mai^jusn, the Bodhisut 
of wisdom, holds in hi^ left baud. And for the use of the schoolboys 
,»nd the laity there is a recension of three or four leaves, entitled 
Transcendental Wisdom in a few letters" or Vige-iiuh-du (Skt., 
Alpa aJcahara}/ And mystically the whole is further condensed into 
•* the letttJi" A, which is €H>nsidered •' the mother of all wisdom," and 
therefore of all men of geniu.^; all Boilhiiiutvus aud Buddbas are said 
to have been produced by "A" since this is the first element for 
forming syllables, words, Hentencee, and a whole discourse. 

One of the most favourite Satras and a common booklet in the 

hands of the laity, is "the Diamond-cutter" (rDo-rje gc'od-pa, Skt., 

Vajrnch'edil'A) In tb Bbagavati (Hakya) instructs Subhfiti, one of biH 

disciples, in the true meaning of the Prajua-paraiiiita.^ 

^_ The full text ('Bum) was translated from the Sanskrit in the ninth 

^Hopntury by the Indian p&ndits Jina Mitra and Surendra Bodhi, and 

^■tbe Tibetftn interpreter Ye-s'es-Bde. 

H III. "A«wciation of Buddhas" {Vul-c'tir, HVi., Jiutlthtivatatitaka), 
^^in six volumes. Description of several Tathugatus or Buddhas, their 
provinces, etc. Enumeration of several Boilhisuts, the sevei'ul degrees 
^^of tlieir pei*fectious, etc. 

^H This great Vnipulya (or developed SQtra) is alleged to have been 
^■preached by Buddha iu the second week of his Buddhahood and before 
^■be Uirneil the " Wheel of the Law " at Benares. And it is nseerted to 
^■bavo been delivered in nine as.scmblie.s at seven diOerent plnceji, and is 
^P thus given pre-eminence over the first historic discourse at Sarnath. 
' IV\ "The Jewel-peak" (dkon-brtseg«, Skt., Italnn-kuta). Enu- 

( Thoy are alleged to have been delivcxod in sixteen assemblies at the following 
6ti'* : (rridhrftlcflta, ^vaftt, Veimvana, and tlie abode of the Faranirmita-Tasa- 
iirtins. cf. Kcn. Nanvio's Jiip. Bwid. Stetji, p. xvii. 

3 This probably oorresponds to the MabAprajna piiramita liridaya Sutm, irauKlated 
by HkaI' (OstaM, 39S), and perhniM the oripn»l of the mon' i-xpnnilr>d tn-atiitf-ii. 
' U has lieen translated from tbc Sanskrit by Cowstx, MnJufjffina T^xts, ii.. xit 



merntion of several qualities And perfections of Buddha nnd bii 


V. The AphorismR (Tib., aiDo oi* niDo-#de Sutnt or SutrihiUi). 
Ibe ampU6cd or iloveloi>ed 'Si?fra« are callfHl Vaijiufya. In h gebenil 
fienM>, wnen tlie whole Khi-gvur is divided into two piirt«, mDo and 
rCiyud^ »ll tlie other divUious eicept the rOyud are comprehended in 
tlie uiDo cUiss. But in a juirticular sense there (u% some treatisefi 
which have been nrrungfd under this title. They amount to about 
270, and are contained in thii-ty voIumcK The subject of the works 
\» rariouii. The gi'eatest port of them consist of wonil und meta- 
physical doctriue of the Buddhistic Bystem, the lejfendary* accouutA of 
seveml individuals, with alhisions to the sixty or sixty-four arte, to 
medicine, a-Ntronomy, and Astrology. There ore many stories to ex- 
emplify' the eoD8e<juences of actiunt^ in former transmigrations, def>erip- 
tiotis of orthodox and lietcrodox theories, mural and civil laws, the sit 
kinds of animal bein^, the places of their habitations, and the causes 
of their being Ixjrn there, cosmogony and cosmography accx)rding to 
Buddiii.stie notions, the pi-ovinces of several Buddhus, exemplary 
conduct of life nf iiny Ihdhisat or Haint, and in general all the twelve 
kinds of UuddhLstic Scriptiires ' are to be found here. 

The second volume (K') contains the romantic biography of 
Buddha— the Laltta Vistara, tnmslated by M. Foucaux.' The seventh 
volume (J) contains the •^mUUiavma Ptin/Jan/ca^* or IT/nV/ Lottu of tJu 
iifJij Lfuv, translated from the Sanskrit into French by Bumouf, and 
into English by Prof. H. Korn/ and the most populai- treatise with 
Japanese Buddhi-sts. The eighth volume (N) contains "the Gieal 
Doceaf^e" {Mahapariniyvdna). The ninth volume has, amongst others, 
the Surangnnia J^am^d/ti Siitra referred to by FaHian. The twenty- 
sixth volume (L), folios 32D-400, or chapters of "joyous utterance" 
(Udftnas), contains the UdfXtutvarga* which Schiefner showed to be the 
Tibetan version of tlie VhammajHiUa ; and which has been trantUated into 

I Tliia twelve-fold dinsion (^uri rab yao-lay bc'u-pfii») I here extract from tbc 
Vyulpattt in Ui« Tiiii-gyiir : ]. •S^ffmn <iNdo-Mli'hi-jfftt!) diaooursea. 3. iff yam (t/bythi 
kj'u A^nad), mbced pnwf »iul veni*-. 3. VyaiaraAaA (luu du-istaa)* cixpoeitiiiu. 4. 
ddtitl {Tshigj-su-lw'adJ. verse. 5. UHiintin (Ced-du-fTJ*»i). 6. SuldnaA (glih-pdu). 
7. AtvuidMan (rt^^gs-pn-brjcKl). 8. ItitrUtaAan (de-Its bw byuii). 9. Jafaka, («kyp9-p»- 
rabfr). 10. Vtiiimi;t<ut (sliin-tu-rju'W^, very expanded. 11. Athhi'tdhnrmnuih (rmid- 
du byuii), mysteried. 12. Cfxnirtn/t (gtun-Ia-dbab). This dirisioii, imyn Broxo^r 
(Intiyxl., p. 45-60), HTitii4( of Nepalese Buddhl»ni, in umdo up of the oldtT nine »ti«i;iu 
muntioiied by Buddliagnbha, a.v. iBO, to wliicli werv added nt a Inter period Nidsas, 
Avadiina. and rpadeui. Cunf. alfri CaiLbEtts* />iV., ItuitNOcr's LUfu, 355, SS9; 
K\uu\'s Jitni.; HnDnhuN's A'w., 15 ; Rhts Daviiw' BmW,, 214. 

- Also aunimarisiKl by CwmA (.1 ,.*i/., 413) nnd Vasil., B., 3, 4, 176 ; Faxu's Intro., p. 78. 
Also aliBtrartiil Ity RrHKUii-i., It., it. ; and in pari from tlie SiinskrJt by Baj. Mitra. 

* I>am-pahi ch'os padma dknr-ptv 

* Viil. XXi-, .SriO-nY B(irtl-it u/ t/ie Hntt. 

^ <;ii'ed-du brjod pai tti'oini ; see also CsoMA'jf Au., p. 477. Itn cooimvnliiry lij- Pnij- 
niiranuaD (n nntivr of Bengal who lived in Kashmir in the ninth century— T'tfrawoiAc, 
p. 301. RocEHiLi., ail.) is in Vol. )xx]. of Tttv^jym: 

inglush with copious notes by Mr. Uockhil]. It contains thref:^ hundred 

Tscs, which ** arc nearly ideutical with verses of the Ohamvtapaila . 

hundred and lifty more resemble verse* of that work." The varia- 

ions show that ihe nortJiern tninsUilion wa." tnnde f]i>ni a diiferent 

Vfrsiou thun the Pali,' and from, as Mr. Roekhlll beliei'es,' a " Sauakrit 

%*er8iou lo the dialect prevalent in Ka.shmir in the firat century b.p., nt 

hich i>eriod and in which place the ooiDpiler, Dhannatrata,' prob- 

ly lived." 

From this (Do) division of the Kah-gyur are culled out the Tudiau 
iiystic forrnulBs, mostly iu uuiutelligible gibberish, which are 
ieeined most j>otent as charms, and these form the voluiiie nnnipd 
Do-maft gzaii * 6sdu«, or curtly, Dd-vian or '* assorted liphor- 
i5m.«" — literally " many Siitrits.^* These formulas are not used in 
the worship of the Buddhas and superior gods, but only as priestly 
cantations in the treatment of dirteawe and ill-fortime. And as 
these 8i»ells enter into the worship of which the laity have most 
experience, small pocket editions of one or other of these mystic 
Siitrfts are to be found in the possession of all literate laymen, aa 
the mere act of reading these charms suffices to ward o6f the demon- 
red disease and misfortune. 
Tlie remainiog divisions of the canons are : — 

VI. Nirpdnn (Mya-naii-las-'das-prt), in two vohimes. An extended 
'ifdon, part of the eighth volume of th* niDo on **The Great Decease, 

Entire deliverance from Pain." " Great lamentation of all sciitB of 
imal Iteiu^K on the apprwiching death oi' Hhakya ; tlieir ofierings or 
ifices pre.'tcnted to him ; his lessons, especially with regard to tite 
J. His last moments; his funeinil ; how liis i-elics were divided and 
where deposited." " 

VII. Tantin (i-gj-ud), in twenty-two volnmes. "These volumes in 
general conl-aiu mysticiLl theology. Tliere are descriptions of several 
godj; and goddeAses, Instruction for preparing numdalas or circles 
for the reception of those divinities. Offerings or s«crifiaen presented 
to them for obtaining their favour. Pmyers, hymns, charmH, etc, 
addressed to them. There are also some works on aRtronomy, as- 
logy, chronology, medicine, and natural philosophy."* 

In the first rolume (K) are foimd the Kulooiikra doctrine' and 
Sambara. In the third ibe lustory of the divine mothers Vdrahi, etc. 

, ad.i 

In the devent«entli %'olume (H) the expelling of devils and Nl^- 
wui-Hhip. The Titthniiaia-ijuhijaha coutaiiu a nummary of Uie Sivaid 
i.eeoteric docti-iue. 

The word *' Tantra*' according to its Tibetan etymology, lit«<rally 
[18 ' " treatise or diMsertAtion/' but iu HinMhijiin its in lliuduism, it 
rob-tricted to the necromantic books of the later Siviiic or Sikti 

The Tuntras are arranged into *' The four classes '* (gyud sde bahi) : 
1. Kritjd T(intra(hya-bai-rgyud). 
a. Cnryti T. (npyod-pai rgyud). 
8. Voijn T. (rual-'byoi- rgyiul). 

4. Anutttira Tu«ni T. (ruiil-'byor bla-na tned-pai rgyiiUj or "The 

peei le&t Yoga." 

The firiit two form together the lower division ('c^-ma), and the 

latter two the higher division (gon-mit). lb is only in the Anuttam 

Yc^tantra**, including the Atiyoga (Ds og-ch'en), that the tutelary 

Bends and their Jinas have female energies or Matris. 

Those ti-anslatcd from the eighth to the eleventh centuries a.d. are 
calle*i "the Old," while the latter are "the New.*' Amongst than 
efjm/iOtfii in Tibtt are the Uayagriva, Yajraphurlm and sKii-gsuh-t'iigs 
yon-tan 'p'rin las. 


The Buddhist cotninentators, like those of the Talmud, tiverUy 
a line or two with an enormous excrescence of exegesis. 

The Tibetan commentary or Tdk-gyur is a great cyclojjcdie 
cfjmpilation of all sorts of literary works, writt^»n mostly by 
ancient Indian scholars and some learned TibeUns in the fiwt 
few centuries after the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet^ 
commencing with the seventh century of our era. The whole 
makes two hundrwl and twenty-five volumes. It is divided into 
the classes — tlie xGtfud an<i xaDo {TarUni and BiUm classes in 
■Sanskrit). The rfrytK/, mostly on ianirihi rituals and ceremonies, 
Iznake eighty-seven volumes. The \i\Do on science and literature 
lone hundred and thirty-six volumes. One se^mrate volume con- 
tains hymns or praises on several deities and saints. And one 
volume is the index for the whole.'' The first t-ixteen volumes 
of the ml>o class are all commentaries on the Prajnd'pdrarmiat 
Afterwards follow several volume*) explanatory of the MadhjramikS 
philosophy (^ofNiigfujuna) which is founded on the Prajml-parBmiUL* 

> Jak«chke, p. 112. 9 Csoiu, .1*^ 558. 

>A ff^-wiif thtimiividiialtrpatwt'n liavr heen transltitwd, eiUicr tn full or t^kttmAt 
by Scbii-fncr, Rwkhill, i-tc. Nigirjuna's friendly EpiKtle (lK*hp«^aht p'rin yig), by 
WsNiBL in /, Pilli Ttxt Sw,. 1886 



One volume contaios the Tibeto-Sanskrit dictionary of Buddhiat 
termiuology, the *'bje-brag-tn rtogs byad {yrfMx. j^Uik'lu toj-jtt) 

the Mahavyutpati.* Under this heading would also come the 
ter coinmentttries, such as tlie Bo<lhi-iMithft(in Mongolian — Hodlii 
Mur). Its cont<*nts include rhetoric, grammar, prosody, meniiwval 
mechaniw, and alchemy. But its content* have not yet been 

llv examinetl.- 


The indigenous works composed in Tibet are for the most part 
devoted to i^acred subjects. The secular l>ook!i exist, as a rule, 
^in manuscript, as the printing ifj in the hands of the monks.* 
^K The sacred books may be divided into (a) apocryphal and > 
^n[^) authentic or quasi-authentic. 

The apociyjihal worlcH are the most numerous and most{}Opular. 
Chief amongst these are the fictitious "revelations" or Term/a 
books, already referred to in describing the jwrt which they played 
in the origin of the sects of I>unmisrn, These Terum Iwoks may 
Hjbe recognized by their style of caligrapby. For instead of the 
opening sentences and chapters commencing with the hook-like 
symbol for Ov«, duplicated or triplicate^l, as on the cover of this* 
^■book, and the punctuation ]»eriods being vertical lines, as in 
^^ordinary orthodox booket, the Tentm books commence with the 
ordinary ttnugi^tliti (am), or a vertical stroke enshrined in a 
trefoil-like curve, and their j>eriods are marked by two small 
circles one os'er the other, like the Devanagari rf!*rt)'^M, but with 
a cur\-ed line with it^ concavity upwards, intervening. These 
" revelations," it will be remembered, pretend to be the composi- 
tioD of St. l^adma, the founder of L^maism,' 

' TheSaaakrit text of whicb lias been published by Maij^tioff ; and much of it is 
ftlMtract«d in the B*dd\i»(it(Ue TriflotUt priatvd 1^ Schiefner, St. Pctvrflburg, 1359. 

' The 2Dd rol. nf tlie A n n4i/<-# Hk Mvtit Ouimei OQuUiins lomo additional notes on 
tbi' Tnn-gTur by M. Won I'wr. 

> Mot»t of the printing-monastic c8t«bliahment« issue lists of the bookB which they 

* Amongst tlie b^tt<?r known arp : Thedoldt'n Koe»ry of Displayed Letters (Tug- 
yii: gser>'p'ren }, found by 8anf;-Kya« ^ling-pa. ; Ttie [>iBpUy(Hl Lotus Orders fPadma 
hkah-t'ani, found by O'tgyan g)iiig-pa ; Ka-t'img Zang-gling ma; The Lamp En* 
lighti-ner of Propht'cj- (Luiig-brtiui gsal-baj Kgron-nie). Al«» of this nature are : 
Tlii^ Dinctions for tlie Dc|MUled Soul to find tta way to bliu (Pa-^hA-to's-sgnil). 



To this revelation cla^s belong nlw the fictitious works atlri- 
buted to King Sroii Tsmid Ganipo.* 

Of the other most common uiwcryphal works found in Sikhim 
are the iVVi-y?X-, or " Story of the Snored Sites of Sikhim,** and IJia- 
tsnn's insjiired manual of worship for the great monntain god 
Katich'en-dHo-ha (English, Kiiichmjunga). Each monastery pos- 
sesses in manuscript a more or less legendary account of its own 
history {(leb-Ver), although this is kept out of sight. In the 
Lepcha monasteries and in the posse-ssion of a few Lepcha laymen 
are found the following^ mostly translations from the Tibetan: 
(1) 7'ashi Suhyti fabulous history ofSt. Padma-sambhava; (2) Gti-m 
Ch'o Wai\ : (3) Sfihtn fle-lok^ the narrative of a visit to Hades by 
a resuscitated man named .Sfikun;* {i) Ek-doski rtuiji-lorn — forms 
of worship. 

The large work on the Naga demigods — the Lii-*bum dkar-po— 
is regarded as a heterodox Biin-po book.' 

As authentic works may he instanced, the religious chronologies 
(Ch'os-*byuii) and records (Deb-t*er) by Ku-ton, and Piidtna-kar- 
po; the histories (Sun-'bum) of Zhvu-lu Lo-tsa, and Tfiranatha's 
well-known history of Buddhism in India, and a useful cyclo- 
pedia by an Am dn Liuna entitled T*ub-dhaft bstan-plhi ^ima; 
and as quasi-authentic the fifth Grand Lama*s ** royal pedigree.*** 
Ail begin with pious dedicatory sentences and usually end with 
tbe Buddhist wish that the writer may acquire merit through 
hif literary work. 

But most of the autobiographies so-called (rNam-t'ar) and re- 
cord;* (Yig-tsan or deb-t*er) are legendary, especially of the earlier 
iJtmas and Indian monks are transparently fictitious, not ouly oti 
account of their prophetic tone, though always "discovered" after 
the occurrence of the events prophesied, but their almost total 
absence of any personal or historic details. Some of the later ones 

> (1) Man! bKah-bnm (already rr-ferrcd to), the legendary ltiftoT3' of ATalokita. and 
a maxe ol silly fablea. (2) S'alch'em or Sron Twvn Uampo's JIoMOumblr tt'tli or 
Tvslamcnt, And (3^ an exoteric volume (.-ntit led " The Scaled Commanda,'^ bka-rgga- 
nia, which in kept carefully secirted in some of tlie larger m'maaU^rtes. It belDn^ to 
the aiily ettoteric class of iKHjka called .SaA-A/ti. 

* Cr. also the play of NaiiHa, The Brilliant Light. Chap. xx. 

■ A German translation by Schi(.-fnor of the smaller Tcrsion has bc^Fn publi^cd by 
the St. Feterftburg Acad. {Dai Wtism XAga Hnndrrk tauMmd.) Cf. alw KoCKBlLL, L., 
p. ai7, a. 

* gyal-raba [8kC., RajvanHa]. 


dealing with modern personages are of a somewhat more historical 
character, but are so overloaded by legends as to repel even en- 
thusiastic enquirers. 

The lending ritualistic manuals of the various Beets are of a 

more or less authentic character, and small pocket editions of these 

.yer books (smon-lam) and hymns (bstod-tsogs) are very 

umerous.* Individual Lfimas possess special books according to 

their private means and inclinittionsi, such as the 100,000 songs' of 

le famous mendicant sage Mila-rii-pi on the worship of TSril 

ad other favourite or tutelary deities, and the mode of making 

their magic-circles. Mongol Lamas have the Dsang-Iun. The 

specialist in medicine has one or more fantastic medical works, 

^— sui'h as .Manftag-rg3'ud, S'lid-gyud; and the Tui-pa or astrologer 

^Bias the Baiilt/ur hirpo and other books on astrological calculations 

^■^d sorcery, many of whicii are translated from the Chinese. 

^^ Some further details of ritualistic books are found in the 

chapters on the monkhood and on ritual, where several abstracts 

are given. 

I The secular works, through most of which runs a more or less 
IBuddhistic current, are mainly amials or chronicles (1^-rgynj. 
Uood and clever sHyings and reflections (rtoga-brjod), as " The 
precious rosary " (rin-ch'eu-p'reh-wa), a collection of proverbs, and 
drinking songs. 

Tales more or lees fabtilous (sgruns). The best known of these is 
that of Ge-sar (— ? C'lsar or Cesar), who is dewrilffiil as a mighty war-like 
king of northern Aaa, and wbu is made to ligtu-e as a suitor for the 
hand of the Chinese princetis before her murriHge with Sroh Tsiin Gain- 
po, although it is evident the legendary accounts of him mubt be more 
ancient. Baber* refers to the story-book iiained Djriung-yi ' songs.' 

i » Tlie Oe-lug-pa monk's manual is "The Hhikslm's Timely Memoranda fdU^^slnA- 
^-du-<lran), *nd Uia otht^* special books aro the two rolumos hyTson K'apa ontittod : 
T/if f/raiif»tl PaiA 'Mil* rim t*nv-f«)f a doctriual commrntAry beud on Atlfa's rcrsion 
(>f the Bodi Polka Pradip, aoil T/if Ghtidual PaiK oj Vnjitvihnnx )>Dor-c'ah Lam- 
hm;, a highly T&nlrik book. <Cf. Cskua, ^V., 197.) For Bodhi-Mttr (B^'dhi-patha), 8^^e 
IDT*!* Staiuxny Stetitn. 


3 (>//.«(., p. 88. 

• ItoL'K., B., p. 2S8, eitgg<-sts this may be rtfjiiiB-yi-dpc. 

•• Amuugst iadigtinous geugrspbical works is " A Ueii^rruptiy nE the World " (Dmttt'fiA 
g^ctkt). Tlif reft*rences to coutilrie* cmlgide Tibet ar« mainly cooAhmI to India, and are 
ercn then very inexact. lU tmist useful section is that deiscriptire of Tibet, translated 
by Sakat, J.A.S.B., 1887. pp. 1 rt tftj. Sec nlso HVi'-taJlfliny (An #Ai, abstracted by 
Klaproth frum the Chmese. Cf. al»» C-wjma's fnumeration of Tihptnn works, -/, 

il,U7; ix.,905. 





The Lamaist library is usually situated within the temple. 
The large books are deponitttd in an o\\en pigeon-holed rackvrork. 
The sheets forming the volume are wrapped in a napkin ; and 
the bundle is then placed between two heavy wooden blocks-, as 
covers, which bear on their front end the name of the book in 
letl<»rrf graved in relief and gilt. The whole [larcel is firmly Iwund 
by a broad tapeand buckle tied across its middle. These ponderoos 
tomes are most unwieldy and not ea^y of reference. When the 
book is read away from tables as is usually the case, it is held 
across the knoea, and the upper board and the leaves as they are 
nwl are lifted towards the reader and replied in order in bis lap, 
Ik'fore opening its fastenings, and also on retying the parcel, the 
monk places the book reverently on his bead, saying, "May I 
obtain the blessing of thy holy word.'* 

Copyists of manuscript, as well as composers and translators, 
usually conclude their work with a short t^tanza expressing their 
pious hope that " this work here finished may benefit the (unsaved) 

An enormous mass of Lamaist literature is now available in 
Kurope in the collections at St. Petersburg, mainly obtained from 
Pekin, Siberia, and Mongolia; at Paris,and at the India Office, and 
Koyul Asiatic Society* in London, and at Oxford, mostly gifted by 
Mr, Hodgson.- 

The St. Petersburg collection is the largest, and extends to 
over 2,000 volumes." 

1 Catalogae of theMS by Dr. H. Wb^ibl, in J.R.AJS.. 1891. ■ 

' Thfl tndin Office copy of the CAnon was prcscntod to Mr. BodgMui by <)« Ddki 

Ncrticea r>f UiMC occnr jn vnrious volumes of the iltloMg. Ariat. rf« Si. PrUr^, 


*' Withont the Lftma in front, 
Gotl is not (approachable). "—7JiArfrt» Prortrh. 

S in primitive Buddhism, the moiia!>tic' order or con- 
gregation of the Virtuous Ones - forms the third 
member of the Trinity, "The Three ihost Precious 
Ones" of Lamaism. Bat owing to the rampant 
saberdotalism of Tibet, the order is in a much higher ijosition 
there than it ever attained in Indian Mahaviinft Budtihism, accord- 
ing to the current Tibetan saying above cited. 

The order i^ composed of Bodhisat^ both human and celestial. 
The latter occupy, of course, the highest rank, while the so-called 
icarnate Lamas,' who are believed to be incaniated reflexes from 



a superhuman Buddha or Bodhi«at or a reborn aohit, are givpo an 
intermediate |x)siticm, as in detailed in the chapter on the hier- 

The Lilraas are ^ the Bodhisatfi who have renounced the worlds*** 
and thus are held to correspond to the Sahgha of primitive 
Buddhism consisting of the Bhikskus (mendicantii), .^'mm/rjiwtt^ 
(ascetic) and Arhais, The nun?, excepting the so-called incar- 
nations of celestial Bodhieats (0.^., Dorje-p'agmo), are given an in- 
ferior position scarcely higher than lay devotees. 

While the laity, correjtiMJuiling to " the piou8 householders and 
hearers**' of the primitive Buddhists, who under the Mahavana 
system should be " the Botlhisats who reside in their houses,*" are 
praetically excluded from the title to Bodhisatship or early Buddha- 
hood like the Liimas, and are contemptuously called the " Owners of 
Alms," ' those ** bound by fear," * and the ** benighted people ; " * 
although the lay devotees are allowed the title of Vpasahi and 
Updaihd * if keeping the five precepts, and those who are uucelibat« 
are called "the pure doer**;' while the ^en-t'v or S&ti-na^ 
keep four of the precepts. 

The supreme position which t ho Liimas occupy in Tibetan society, 
both as temjioral and si>iritunl rulerri,and the privileges which they 
enjoy, as well as the deep religious hul>it of the people, all combine 
to attract to the prieiitly ranks enormous numlxsrs of recruits. At 
the same time it would appear that compulsion is also exercised 
by tlie despotic priestly government in the shape of a recognized 
tax of children to be made L'lmas, named bTsitn^ntl Kvery 
family thus affords at least one of its sons to the church. The 
first-bom or fiivourite son is usually so dedicated in Tibet,' *J'he 
other son marries in order to continue the family name and in- 
heritance and^ to be the bread-winner ; and many families contribute 
more than one, as the youths are eager to join it. 

' U0DO8., Iff tit., p. 98 : Habdy, £. .»/., p. 12. 

> mi-HOff-pa. 

*dih'btKeH. ThU title i» also applied to a novice, (irobatioDer. or candidnte. Cf 
Kopp.. ii.. 2&2 : ScBuo., 162 ; jAEscaa.. />.. 85. 

■ g8«W..g«ttl*. 

» Conf. Bbo Pandit^ A. K. In Sikhim it is the aecond con ; and also in Lad&k (Marx, 
lee. cit.). 


ThuH iu Tibet, where children lire relatively lew, it Ia believed 
that one out of every six or eight of the i>opulation isapriest. In 
Silthim the proportion is one to t«n.' In Ladilk one-sixth.' In 
ihot^ one to about ten. 



Ill every monacbism there are naturally three hierarchical 
-piiiorities or ranks, namely : the scholars or novices, the ordained, ^ 
and the reverend fathers or the priestij, just as in the common 
guilds or arts are the grade.s of the apprentice, the jounieynian, 
and the master. Indian Buddhism had it^; ^^des of the 8rama- 
nera (or the novice), of (he expert .Sramana or Bhikshu (the mode- 
rate one or beggar), and of the Sthavira or Uplydhya (master or 

Lamaiam has naturally these necessary degrees of cleric-al 
maturity and subordination, and by dividing the noviciate into 
two sections it counts four, thus : — 

1. The clerical apprentice or scholar. The customary title of 
first beginner in holy orders is Ge~nen, which means " to 

live ujH^n virtue," and is a translation of the Sanskrit word 
C^dauka or lay-brother. This word has a double meaning; it 

ihows firstly the simple lay believer, who has promised to avoid the 
five great sins ; and secondly the monastic devotee or scholar, who 
keeps the ten precepts and is preparing for the holy orders to 
which he partly belongs through the clothes he wears and the official 
acknowledgment which he has received. He is also ealle<l Kab- 
byuA or ** excellent bom." The Mongols call these ** iScfiabi" 

jid BaiuU, Banda, or " Baitte^* ' which latter word seems to be 
of Indian origin. The Kalmaks call them Manji.* 

2. The Ge-Uul, the commencing, but not quite fully ordained 
.onk, an under priest, or deacon, who keeps the thirty-six 


3. Oe4iy>u/ or *' virtuous or clerical .beggar," the real monk, the 
riest, over twenty-five years of age, and who has been fully 

ordained, and keeps the two hundred and fifty-three rules. 

^ See mjr lAmaiam tM Stkhim. 

k3 KWIOHT. Op. cit, p. 180. 
> Cf. jAMCHUt, i>., 3tH. 
• Thti SanUl5 ot Bimgul, who uc bdicvod to b« of the Kxailed Tunniftn dcKent, 
II thnr ehiefft Mnu^i, 

ated monks, the Chutuktm*, and sovereign priest-gods are above 
im,' their originals were essentially nothing else than abbots- 
He it is, who in the early time was probably the only one to be 
honoured by the title iJima (Guru or master), and to whom is 
given this title even to the present time; although he may be 
called a Grand Liima to distinguish bim from the other cloister 
inhabitants. Only the larger cloisters have a K'an-po, who has 
the right to supervise several smaller Lamaseries and temples, 

rd whose position seems to be such that he is compared as a rule 
th the catholic bishop.* 
In i*ketching the details of the curriculum of the I/ima, I give 
the outUnes of the course followed in the greatest of the monastic 
colleges of the establislicd chxu"t'h of Tibet — the Ge-lug-pa — as 
related to me by Lfi ma- graduates of these institutions, namely, 
of De-pnng, Sera, Gflh-ldnn, and Tashi-lhunpo, as these set the 
liigh standard which other monasteries of all sects try to follow, 
und marked departures from this standard are indicated in a 
ubsequent note. 
The child who is the Lama-elect (htsan-ch*uft) stays at home 
till about his eighth year (from six to twelve), wearing the red or 
ellow cap when he is sent to a monastery, and educated as iu a 
sort of boarding-school or resident college, i>a8sing through the 
stages of pupil- probationer (da-pa), novice (ge-ts'ul), to fiiUy- 
ordained monk (ge-loij), and, it may be, taking one or other of 
the degrees iu divinity, or a special qualification in some j»art2cular 
academic department. 

As, however, the applicants for admission into these monastic 
colleges have usually jmssed the elementary stage and have already 
reached, or nearly reached, the stage of noviciate at some smaller 
'monastery, I preface the account of the course in great mon- 
astie colleges by the preliminary stage as seen at the lending 
monastery in 8ikhim, the Peiiiiongchi, which is modelled un that 
of the great Nifi-ma monastery of Mindolling. 

PrdiiMnary ExKim.inatwn — PhyeicaL—V^h&i the boy-candi- 




' Tboee K'aD-pos wbo have gone liirough Uie Tantia or rgyud-pa oourae have a 
ber repute thaa the others. 
> KSppbn, U., 2M. 



date for admission is brought to the monastery his parentage ii 
euquired into, &« many monasteries admit only the more t^^ 
able and wealthier elass.^ The boy is then physically examined 
to asfcertaiu that he i« free from deformity or defect in his Uml 
and faculties. If he stammers, or is a cripple in any way, or bee 
in body, he is rejected. When he has pasi^ed this physical exam- 
ination he is made over by hit* father or guardian to any senio 
relative he may have amongst the monks. Should he have 
relative in tlje monastery, then, by consulting his horoscoi»e, on 
of the elder monks is fixed upon as a tutor, who receives from \X 
Ud's father a present of money,- tea, eatables, and beer.* 
tutor or elder (Ger-giin)* then takes the boy inside the great ba 
where the monks are assembled, and publicly stating the i>arentag 
of the boy and the other details, and offering presents of beer, 
ariks the jjermission of the elder monks (c/MJ-oh'oe) to take the" 
boy as a pupil. On thi« l>eiag accorded tbe boy becomes a pro^ 
bat ion er. 

As a probationer he is little more than a private schoolboy undfl 
the care of his tutor, and doing \arioas menial services. His 
is cropped without any ceremony, and he may even wear 
ordinary lay dress. He is taught by his tutor the nlphal>et (tt 
" Ka, K'a, Lra," as it is called),* andjafterwards to read and recit 
by heart the smaller of the sacred books," such as : — 

Leu hdun mo, or "The Seven Cliapters" — A prayer-hook of 

Baf-c'ad lam gsel or "Charms to clear the way from Danger and 
Injury " — A prayer to St. PaUma in twelve stanzas. 

Slier-phyin— =An abstract of transcendental wisdom in six laaveB. 

sKu-rim — A sacrificial service for avei-ting a calamity. 

Mou-lara — Prrtycrs for general welfare. 

sDig sags, or " The Confession of Sins." ' The mere act of readl 



1 At Fcmfongchi only Cliose candidatea whu axe of relatively pure Tibetan danci 
by thi- fatlier'K niJr an* nrtliimrily tttlinittwl. 

* In .Sikhim iii*finiti* ftf a an- pay.aMf at tlio different rra-omrmioa for adiniasiirn 
the order, ax detailcil in my Li'tmaitm in *SiHi'mi, atnuiinting to abimt l.'iO IL^.. in the 
cose of tlir* lii^'licfit tnntiahtrr}'— remiongdii. In KItntnn it in flAtiii (rKHBERTOJ'a 
Rfport, p. 118; TfHMKU'M A'niftowy, 1/0) that the fee in lixi HhoUnt-se rupee*. 

* This, ofcours*', woulil not be i>ffLTL'd in aUe-Iux-pa iiioiia^tery. 

* dge-rgaot or *' the Virti.u»u(i EUlt." " See p. x\'iii 

* f^di smmll miLuunU are nlxjut eight or ton iochcs Umg by two to three 
bmMd, and luuolty havu tbe leaves stitched togetlier. 




this holy booklet oven as n school exercise cleAnues from sin. Most of 
the DionoAterieti possess their ovai blocks for printing tliis pamphlet. 
Both the t«xt nnd its translation ai'e given by Sehlagintweit/ 
r/>or gt'ho*! — A Sutra from the book of transcendental wisdom. 

Kyoga-be'ui p'yogs-dral, or doscription of the ten direc- 

tionR ... ... ... .-. ... .. ■-■ 6 p&gea. 

Nanio Guru — " Salatution to the Guru*' 5 „ 

mC*o</-'buI — To gi\'e offerings ... C „ 

gTormft — Sacred cake ... ... ... .. ... t*- „. 

l>Saii}i bsur — Inoen.'^e aiic! buttor-incense ... .... ... 8 „ 

ITo-mc'od — Kice ofteriiig .. ... ... 4 „ 

HiK-'dsin pnon-'gro — The tir«t essay of the suge ... ... 4 ,, 

l>rag-»lmai' snon-'gro — The primer of red fierce deity ... 4 „ 

hK& brgyed — "The eight comiuands" or precepts ... 4 ,, 

kbDe gti'ogn kun 'du3— The collection of the TathitgatRS ... 4 „ 

Yes'ss #ku mc'og — ^The best foreknowledge ... ... 5 „ 
i^Cu-gdub bs'ug-gs&l — The root-pillar of cleftr confes- 

sioo •* 7f 

The young probationer ie aUo in>tructed ia certain golden 
inaxims of a moral kind, of which the following are examples: — 

fUuldhiH Pfwerbf: — 

Whutever \& unpleaeing to youi-self do not to another. 
Whatever happiness is in the world lias all arisen from a wish for 
tie welfare of others. Whatever misery there is hiLs ari-nen from 
adulging seltifthness. 

There is no eye like the undei-standing, no bliudiiesii like ignorance, 
10 enemy like sickne»%a, nothing so di^eaded as dejitli. 

A king ifi honoured in liis own dominions, but a tiilented man every- 

'jT/** four Ptecipiees in Sfmee/t. — If speech be too long, it is te- 
aous ; if too short, it« meaning is not appi-eciatei! ; if rough, it ruflles 
be temper of the hearers ; if soft, it is un><ati»fying. 

*• TVir fietiuireineiifs of »S)w*cA.— Speech bliuuld lie vigorous or it will 

jot interest j it be bright or it will not enlighten ; it must bo 

[litably en<le.l, otherwise its effect i.s last. 

*' Tht QualUUa of Spctdi, — Speech must be bold as a lion, gentle and 

soft a-s a liore, impressive as a serpent, pointed as an ari*ow, and evenly 

-btilanced as a dorjn held by its middle (literally *' i/viw/ "). 

The Four Relitfionn of Sp^.ech. — The question should fii^t bo stated. 
The argumentti tfihould bo duty counected, the later with the earlier. 
Ev^ctuinl points should be repented. The meanings should be illu». 
tmte^l by examples. 

1 Tltt< wiird for MA is "scorpion," thus conveying Uie idea of a tUC) venoinoua, cl»w- 
- - -criU Uur>^. 

p« ril., pftgMt 122 to 1 42. 



" The religioiiH king Broft-Tsan Uompo haft eaid (in the Mat^-kah- 

'bum) ; '* Speech should float freely forth like a bird into Uie ckv, nnd 
be clothed in charming dress like a goddess. At the oiit«et the object 
of the speech should be made clear like an unclouded sky. Tlie speech 
sliould proceed like the excavation of treiuure. The Arguments •should 
ahoot forth nimbly like a deer chased by fresh hounds, idthout Ite^u- 
tion or {Hiuse." 

'* AaHf.mblieM.^Veo^ie assemble for three porpofies, namely, for, («) 
|hap|>inoss, (hf soitow, and (c.i worMly gossip. The assemblies for happi- 
^netM are thrce.unmcly,(l) for virtuous licUt, (2) for worship in the temples, 
and (3) for erecting houws and for feast«. The assemblies for rirtuous 
act« are four, viz., the gathering of the monktt, the gathering of thv laity 
for worship, writing and copying holy bookn, and ginng away wealth 
in charity. There are six kinds of assembliefl for worship, namely,, the 
gathering of the rich, the gathering in a separate place of tlie conimuo 
men, the gatheritig for thanksgiving of thoue who have eficaped from 
their enemy's grasp, traders retume<l safely and sucCdfisfuUy, sick men 
who have escaped from the devouring jaws of death, and youths on 
gaining a victory. 

" Tht ci^hl act4 of Cov-bom jxrrwm*. — Using coarse language, ian- 
politenosi^, talking with pride, want of foresight, harsh mannerti, star- 
ing, immond conduct, and stealing. 

The ten FaiUU. — Unbelief in books, disrespect for teachei*s, i^nder- 
Lug one's self unpleasant, covetouaness, speaking too much. lidicul- 
ing another's misfortune, using abusive language, being ncgry with 
old men ur with women, borrowing what cannot l>e repaid, and 

Invoking " The Rhusinff of Kloqwnc«'' (hag-byin-rlabs). This is a 
Mantray&na rite instituted by the "great saint" K'yun-po (Skt, 
Oani«la or Puna, or IJrika.)' 

" I go for refuge to the Three Holy Ones ! May I attain perfection 
niid benelit the animal beings. The one who bi-ought me to the light 
is At the tip of my tong\ie iiud the white Om niaile up of the woi-ds is 
above the muon : the white AU (vowels) go by the right circle, the red 
A'tt-/e (consonants) go by the left and the blue A'tan-tf Am by the right." 
I repeat them secretly after deep contemplation : 

" Om ! a, a, i, i, u, u, ri, ri, li, li, e, iii, o, on, angah ! swaha! (This 
is to be repeated thrice.) Om ! Kn, Khn, On, Uha, ^Ta (and here follow 
all the Setters of the alphiil>et). (Three times). Om ! ye dhrtnna 
(here follows 'The Buddhist Creed' thiice.) Through the rays of the 
need of tlie mfintra-roMiry and the power of the blessings of speech, I 
summon the aciumplishments of the seven precious rgt/aftrid and 
'The eight glorious signs.'" By repeating the above one attains acoom- 
plishuient in speech. 

During this training the boy's relatives call about once a month 


uire after his progress and health, nod to pay the tutor his 

for the lad's Ixjard and education. 
After two or three years of such rudimentary teaching, when 
e boy has committ-ed to memory the necessary texts (amounting 

to about one hundred and twenty-five leaves), hiti tutor sends in 

an application for his admission as a novice. 

The mode of admission to the noviciateahip in the great De- 

pung monastery is as follows: — 



The tiitor-I^ama of the applicant for the noviciateship addresses 
the head monk (^pyi-rgon) of his section for permiasion to admit 
the applicant, and at the same time offers a ceremonial scarf and 
the fee of ten rupees. Then, if the applicant he found free from 
bodily defects and otherwise eligible, a written agreement is 
made out in the presence of the head monk and sealetl by the 

To get his name registered in the books of that jjarticular school 

f the monastery to which he is to be attached, the pupil and his 

tutor go to the abbot ^ or princi|jal of that school and proffer their 

request through the butler or cui>-bearer,^ who conducts them to 

e abbot, before whom they offi^r a scarf and a silver coin (preferably 
an Indian rupee), and bowing thrice before him, pray for admia- 

I Amongst the questiouH now put are: Does this boy come of 
liis free will ? Is he a slave, debtor, or soldier ? Does anyone 
opjxjse bis entry ? Is he free from deformity, contagious disease, 
or fits ? Has he neglected the first three commandments ? Has 
he euramitted theft, or thrown {wiaon into water, or stones from a 
hillside fio an to destroy animal life, etc.? What is his family? 
and what their occuj^tiou? and where their residence ? On giving 
satisfactory replies, he is then required to recite by heart the texts 
he has learned ; ami if approved, then the names of the pupil and 
his tutor are written down and duly sealed by the thumbs, and a 
scarf is thrown around their necks, and the boy, who has been 
dressed in princely finery, has his dress exchangecl for the yellow 
or retl robe in imitation of Sakya Muni's renunciation of the 
world; while, if he is rejected, he is ejected from the monastery, 




his tutor recei^'es a few strokos from n cane, and is fined 
»everal iMJundf* of butter for the temple lamps. 

The approved pupil and hi» tutor theu proceed to the heaul 
I.3ma (z'aUfto) of the great cathedral (couiiuou to the colleges of 
the university), and, oflFering a scarf and a rui)ee, repeat their 
re<juests to him, and the nameet of the pupil and tutor and his 
tieetional college or residentiary club are registered, so that should 
the pupil misconduct himself in the cathedral, his teachers, as irell 
BP hlmflelf, shall be 6ned. 

The neophyte is now a registered student (iUi-'pn),^ and on 
returning to hi^ club, he is, if rich, expected to entertain all the 
residents of the club to three cujis of tea. If he has no relatives 
to cook for him, he is supplied from the club stores; and any 
allowance' he gets from his |>eople \» divided into three part«i 
one-third being a])proi>riated by bin club for messing exjjenses. 
Theu he gett^ the following monkish robes and vitensils, \iz., a 
sTod-'gag, hs'ftm-t'abs, gzan, zla-gam, zVa-ser, sgro-Iugs, a cup, & 
bag for wheaten flour, and a rosary. 

Until his formal initiation as an ascetic, "the going forth from 
home" (prawajyd-vraia)j by which he becomes a novice (Ge-ts*ul, 
Skt., Sramana), the candidate is not allowed to join in the religious 
8er\'ices in the monastery. So he now addresses a request to the 
presiding Grand Lama^ to become a novice, accom|uinying hif 
request with a scarf and as much money as he can ofler. 

The ceremony of initiation is generally riimilar to that of the 
southern Buddhists.' 

On the appointed day — usually on one of the fast days (Upo 
satha), the canditlatc has his head shaven all but a small tuf^ on 
the crown ^; and he is conducted by his spiritual tutor (u]>adhyaya) 
before a chapter in the assembly hall, clad in the mendicant^s 
roljes, on putting on which he has muttered a formula to the 
effect that he wears them only for modesty and as a iut)tection 

' d»»B-W4'n-K'ri-rin-ix>^*Iw», or B'Kynhs-tngnn-rtii-poclre. 

« Cf. MalmvaiiHo, i., 12. CpaSampmU-Kammardia, translated by F. Spiegel, op. «t 
Rbvs Omidh. B., p. 159. 

* My fripnd, Mr. A. von Roitthnrn. infnniiR tnr tliai tlii' Lamait of t'lwtem Tit«t 
uftiialty ]>as* thToiigh an urrlpnl of initiatiott In whiclj aix marks an- seared in tht-ir 
cnwn with au iron lamp, and called Difjaiftara, or "the burning lamp." 



against heat, cold, et<?. The officiating head LTinia, sometimefl 
the Grand Jiima, addressing the student by his secular name, 
asks, "Do you eubject yourself to the tonsure cheerfully?" On 
receiving a reply in the affirmntive, the presiding Tiirna cutp off 
the reLuainiug top tuft of hair from the head of the novice, who 
jy like Chaucer's monk, 

^K " UiB hed vrtin 1>aIliKl. htkI Mlmne like any trioK." 

^■The Lama also gives the kneeling novice a reUgious name, by 
which he is henceforth known/ and exhorting him to keep the 
thirty-six precepts and tlie thirty-sis rnlen, and to look ujwn the 
Grand Lfima as a living Buddha, he administers the vows to the 
novice, who repent-s clearly three times the formula, "I take refuge 
in Buddha, in the I^aw, and in the Assembly." 

The ceremony concliidea with the presentation of a Siiarf and 
ten silver coins." 

At the next mass, the boy is brought into the great assembly 
hall, carrying a bundle of incense stick^j; and is cha|jeroned by a 
monk named the " bride-comimnion '* (ba-grags), as this ceremony 
is regarded as a marriage with the church. He sits down on 
an ap]>ointed seat by the side of the " bride-comjmnion," who 
instructs him in the rules and etiquette (sGris) of the monkish 
manner of sitting, walking, etc. 

The initial ion into the TSntrik Buddhist priesthood of the 
VajracJiryas is detailed below in a foot-note.* 

I Extra liUt« are *l8'> ixwtowwl. eays Sarat, on tlie descendants of the old 
nobility. Thud, Nag-tAliaiig fainilifs are given tit!*' of yiiab-dutiif ; the aoiut (»f high 
oAciaU anil laDd<'M*uers Jt-dun ; and th*? gentr>'»iid Sln*-ugi> family Chi>i-jt>. 

I Tt'hhtM. 

> The foUmring account of the initiation of the Vajraciiya priesta, lu given \iy 
Mr. Hodgson for Nepal (/"-. P- 139).— 

" Early hi the morning the following things, viz., tlie image of a Cliaitra. thow of 
ihr Tri Ratna ^^r Triad, the I'rajnii IMrsmit^ scripture, and other ncred scripturp», a 
tatnt, at watcr-pot, ftlled with a few sarrrd article*, a platter of curdd, four other 
wat^r-potB ftll<^ with water only, a cAnwrxt, mendicants' upper and lower garmenta, a 
PiMiia fnUra (abns'bowl) and a religious staff, a )Miir of wooden sandals, a small mixed 
mt'tui plat*^ spread over with ixmndM aandal-wiXKi, in which the imago ">f the m(»n is 
Uwcribed, a golden nucor and a silvir one, and lastly, a plate of drcsaod rice, are col- 
\fH:U^d, and the aspirant h seated in the frastihliana and mode to perform wurship to 
tht; tinrw Mandala, and tho Cliaitya, and the Tri Ratna and th<> Pm)ri/i Pi^raniitA 
Sii«tra. Tlien the anpirant, kneeliii" witli ont^ kni>(> on the ground with jninerl hiinds, 
entieftta the Guru to make htm h Kiindya, and trt teach liini whatdtx'v-ej- it 18 needful 
'tor him tn know. T)ie Oitru answers, O t disciple, if you denire to jierfiirm the Pmv- 
rajjw VraUL, Atitt of alt devote yourwif to the wortliip of tlie Chaitya and of tlie Tri 




The novicp is now admitted to most of the privileges of a monk, 
ftnd after a period of three yearH he |m8se« out of the preliminm 
litage (rig-ch'ufi), and 13 then entitled to have a small chamber or 
cell to himself, thoagh he is stiU called a student (<jl&-pa), and, in- 

Hfttna; you must olwcrve the Ave i>n>a'i>t» or Puirha Hilnha, Uie iaatings ami Uv 
vows prescribed; nnr siir-ak nr tliinlc rvitly; nor touch JUiy iaUixir&titif luiuors nr 
druf^ ; nor be proud of In-art in conswiuencc of y r»ur iibfw'rvn nw uf yi mr nrJigioiis uu\ 
moral duties." 

*' Then the aspirant pledges himteU thrice to observe llic whole of th« above pn** 
cept«: upon which the Guru tells him, 'If whiji- you live you will keep the above 
rules, tht'u will I inHlic you a RandyA.' He R»seuts, when the Ouru, having aipun 
given the three AaJtiKAa iilxtve-nicntioned to the Cfttln, delivers a cloth for the loina to 
Jtim tn put on. Then the tiuru briugu the ospinut 'mi into the court-yard, lud having; 
sentfd him, touches hift Imir with rice and oil, ami givuB llfise iirtictea to a t>vbef . 
Ilie liuru next puta on the ground a Utile puleo and deairea a C'Aria to apply it to tu» 
<iwn feet. Then the tiuru gives the L'fu/a & doth of (our 6nf;ers' brendth aud ooe 
cubit in tengtli, wmvu with threads (if 6vc' colours, and wltich is etspecially tnanufnc- 
tured for this purp(>s(>, to hind round hi« Umui. Tlieti he causes the ius]>irant to per- 
form liie ahlutiona, after which he makes jiAjd to tlie hands o( the barlier in tlie name 
r>f Vlsvakarma, and then causes tlie barber t'> shave all the hair, save the forelock, uS 
thi> aspirant's head. Tb«n the paternal or maternal aunt of the aspirant takes the 
vest><>l of mixed metal abcnre not«d and collects the hair int^> it. The aspirant is wtw 
hathod ivgain and his nails pared, when the above party puts the paring into die p>X. 
witli the hair. Another nblutioQ of the aspirant follows, after which tlie aspirmnt is 
taken ugAux within, and seated. Then the Uuru causes hiro to eat^ and ali^i sphttkles 
upon him the Pancha Oarbho, and suyH lo liim. ' Heretofore you liave lived a Iioum- 
holder, have you s real deure to nbaiidun that state and asaum? the state of a monk ? * 
Tlie a.spirant answers in the affirmative-, when tlie Ouru, or maternal imcle. cuta i»ff 
with hii> own hand tlio aspirant's forelock. Then tlic Guru put<« n tinra Hdiirni-<1 with 
the images of the live Budouas un his own he4»d, and taking the ivAu or water- 
pot, sprinkles tlie aspirant witli holy water, repeating jirayers at the same time over 

"The neophyte is then again brought below, when foiir X&yakas nr superiors of 
proximate ViliArns and tlie aspirant's Guru purfonn the Pancha Abhisheka, t.^.^ the 
Guru takes water from thr kolm and pours it ititit a cnnch ; and then ringing a beU 
and r''|ieating prayers, sprinkles tlw water from the conch on the aspirant's bead ; 
whiltit the four Xdyakns taking water from the other four watcr-pot^s named above* 
severally baptiiu> the aspirant. Tlie musicians present then strike up, when the 
NAyakits atid f*uru invoke the following bh-saing on the iieofihyte : ' May vou bo 
happy as he who dwrlls in the hearts of all, who is the universal Atmrtn, the lord of 
all. the Buddha called Katnasambhavn.' The aspirant is next le<l by th<> N'd\-aka« aud 
<?uru above stairs, and seated as before. He is then made to perform jtmJA tn the 
tfuru Mandnl and to sprinkle rice on the imag«^s of the deities. The Ouru next gives 
him the Oliivara and NivaKa and golden earrings, wh^m the aspirant Ibrice saye to 
the tiurUf 'O 4iiiru, t, who am such an one, have abandoned the state of a housdiolder 
for this whole birth, and have become a monk.* Upon which the nfipirsint's former 
name is rehnquished and a new one given him, such as Ananda,8hun, Piitra, Kasyapa, 
Zkh&nna, Sri Mitra, Paramita Siagar. Tlien the Guru causes him t.> perform puJA to the 
Trl Ratna. aft^r having given him a golden tiara, ami repeated s>'jme prayers over 
him. The Guru then r>-]>eat« the following praises of the Tri Katna: 'I salute that 

eed, all the monks, from the novice to the more senior (par-pa). 
And even the full monk (ge-loii) retain the same title in the 
chief monaHteries of Tibet — the term "LSma" being reserved to 
the heads of the monastery. 

I The novice now undergoes a severe course of instruction, during 
which corjwral punishment is still, ais heretofore, freely iutticted. 
The inBtruction is mainly in ritual and dogma, but crafts and 
some arts, such as painting, are also taught to those showing 
special aptitude. The spiritual adviser of the young monk is 
called ** the radical Lama," ^ and as he initiates the novice into the 

''^ddhi who Is the lord of the tlireo worlds, whom gods and men alike wonUp, wba 
is apart (rom the world, lon^-aufrcring, profound as the ocean, tho quJnteiuiioe of all 
good, the Uharma Raja and Munlndro, the destro^eir of desire and affection, and rioe 
and darkntr^a ; who U void of avaiire and lust, who is the icon of wisdom. I nver in- 

troke him, placing my head on his fc^-t. 
** ' I julutf that Dharma, whois the Prajn& I'dramitA, pointing out the wa^r of perfect 
tranquillity to mortals, leading tbtm inti Uic paths of perfect wisdom ; who, by tlia 
tectizQOQf of all the aagM, produced or t:n>at«d all things ; who is Uie mother of all 

•Bodhisatwas and araTaloa. I salute that Sanglia, who Is Avaliikitesvam and Mai- 
Ireya, and Oagan Hanja, and Sojnanta Bliadra, and Vajra P.iui, and Manju Ohoftha, 
and Sarrauivarana Vinhkambhiu, and KHhiti irarbha and Klia (iarbha.' Tlic aspirant 
then saj-fi to tlie (Vtiru, ' I will devote mj- whi)lf' life to thu Tri Batna, nor ever dcjsert 
thMn.' Thpn the liuru glvefi him the I)aaa S^ikshA ur t<'n preciipts obserrod by ull the 
Bttddhas and RhikRhuka-s and commands Iiih i>bfiervanee of tlii-m. They are: 1. Thou 
shalt not destroy lifr. 2. Tliou shall nut fiteal. 3. Tlvuu slialt not fulhiw ntrange 
faiUts. 4. Thou slialt not lie. 5. Thou »ha\t not touch intoxicating liquors or druge. 
6. Thou sJialt not be proud of heart. 7- TIi'iu shalt avoid niufiic.dancing.nndall sucll 
ifUe toys. 6. Thou shalt not dress in fine rlothes nor iine perfumes or ornaments. 9. 
Thou shalt sit and sleep in lowly places, 10. Thou shalt not eat out of the prescribed 
**The Guru tiieu says, 'All these things the IIciddhas avoided. Youare now becotne 
^■.a Bhiksliu and you must avoid them too; ' which said, the Guru obliterates the Tri 
^Hllatna*Mandala. Next, ihe ajipiraut asks from the Guru the Chivara and Nivasa, tlie 
^^Tinda P4tra and Khikshari and Gandiiar, equipments of a Buddh,i, -a short staff sur- 
nounted hy a Thaitya and a wat^r-|>at. Add thereto au wnhrella and sandals to com* 

Pplete it The Aspirant procec^ls to make a Maridnl, and places in it five flowers and 
five r>nihakuml, and Himif Kbil, ami soiiif rice: and assuming the Utkutak Aftau, and 
Joining hix hands, he repeats tin- praises of tlie Tri Rntnii aliuvi- cit^-d. and Chen again 
requests his Guru to give him suits of thf Chivara and thr like numtter of the .Vivawi, 
one for uccasiims of cpremony as attending tin* palat^e. atmtJier for wearing at 
mesis, and ttie third for iirdinarj- wear. He also requests from his Ouru the like 
nunit>er of Oandhir or drinking cups of Pinda Pdtra. and of Khikshnri. t>ne entire 
■uH of tJiese the aspirant then assumes, receiving them from the hands of the Guru, 
wbo. previously to giving them, consMrates them by prayers. The aspirant then 
mys, ' Now 1 have received the Pravrajya Vnita, I will religiously observe the 
Bicla-Skandtia and SainAdhl-Skandlia, thr Prajna-Skandha and thu Vimuktl-^^and- 


* rTsa mU blanta. This Is not* as SchlaginCwett states (up, dt, 1S9), in any way 
rettiioted to particular " priests wlio origiuated a specific sj-vtem of Buddhism." 


mysterions rites he is held by the hitter in especial rererence nU 

through life. 

Frequent examinationB are tieUl and aLto wrangling or public 

[n every cloiiiter is a teacher of the law, who, as a rule, takes 
thf liigbest rank after the chief. But in the larger ones are 
regular st-liools or universities, in which the holy book? are syste- 
matically explained, and theology', etc., is tangbt* The mo!>t 
celel>ratefl ones of these are of course those near Lhiisa and 
Taahi-lbunpo, which are visited by students from all i)roviucef> of 
the T/imaist clmrch. In the countries of southern Huddhirfin the 
cloister schools are divided after the three branches of the codes, 
into three sections, the Sutras, \*inayas and .\bhidharmas. In 
Tibet the dinsion practically is the same, though sometimes is 
added a medical one, and also a mystic faculty for magic and con- 
jumtion, which, however, seems to be united as a rule with the 
section for philosophy and metaphysics (Abhidbarma), for which 
in some Laniasfries special schools are established. 

Every liinui belongs to one or other of these faculties, and the 
position which he occupies inside the brotherhood depends on the 
number and class of lioly books which he ha» gone through nnd 
understands thoroughly. 

As soon as the bell sounds he has to go to bis respective room or 
class, to start with bis lection, to receive new ones, to listen to the 
explanations of the professor, etc., etc., and to prejjare for examina- 
tions and disputations. 

Exarnhmtions. — Within a year after liis admission to the order 
he must attempt to jwiss the first professional examination, aud in 
the following year or two the second examination for promotioD. 
And until he passes these examinations he must perform for the 
first three yeiim the nieuial offices of serving out tea, ete., to the 
elder monks in the assembly hall. 

The examinations are conducteil in the presence of the heads of 

the monastery and the assembled mnnks, who observe a solemn 

k^lence, and the test is for the candidate to i^t-and up in the assem- 

Ijly and recite by heart all the prescribed l>ooks,^ The ordeal is a 

» An idt-a of Dif nature of thi» i« got from the ffiUowing Iwt of tPxt Imoks for th" 
flrat examination at Pt-miongchi, wliicli o<>mpri»f Uw wor»)ii)i nocessaiy for tbnt 
"mn^c-circlfn/'Tix. : Ttu.\firt( is the ma^tc-circlff tif dKun^c'i^ «pyi 'dns Rig^'dsin 


verv trying one, so that the candidate is giv**n a ooni|ianion 
prompt and encoara|Te him. The rtrrtt examination lai*ts for Ihre 
days; and nine intervals are allowed daily during the exanunatioc 

'daali tns'an niiig-pni c'oe 'k'or (or " Runqui't to tlip whn|p asHpnibty of tlic Oudft an 
DcnotiH"). Thia bwik contains about *iixtj i>ag<*ft, Ami iis recitation tak«« Di-arly on 
whole day. It comprises tUt- oUaptcrrt : — 

(1 > Tu'e-sprab or The obtjiining 'if long lift*. 

(2) Z"i-k'rQ— The mild ami aiigry (leiti<'«. 

»3) tjuru-iira# — Tli^ fterre fi.rni of rA(tina-gAinKliiiva. 

(4) Si'D-giionmu^Thi- lioii-foci_'J JfinuneiM. 

(6) Oi'tHskyon Mahalt&ln YtisV-* tnffinipo. 
(8) Tun-lfift (Mt, Thanj^-lha with its cpirlt " Kitiriff " is a Dorthtm funnUan itf 1 

Stkliiiii). mDsotl-lria, Lha-cli'en and eMAn-bvton — Locnl and mounUic deities. 

(7) b«tKan bft'a^-i. t^'ogs and TnH'i-Hinon-lnm. 

Thti Maijwi comprises thtf magiC'Circlft nf the coUnttion of thi* Tatha^aUi.'Ls and " thtf 
poworful great pitying on« " (Av»lokit») — b[>(»-g8'cg*-ktin 'diis-gar-dbaii, Tugs-rje 
ehftn-pu, <if about W pages. 

Tht'n follow the magic cfrclw of the fierce and demoniacal deities (iura-drag>droar, 
K>t>wo-rol wal gtor-/iog and Drag poi U0Uurui-gBol-'dfb«lon-bdun>ina,K'K 'don ctt'iM 

Tlic bowks for the s(>cand cxaininatJon, rtNiulring to bc.rocitcd by Iteart, arc the 
following .— 

(1) The womhrp of " Th<^ lake-bom Vajm" (mTs'ojikyt'j'-rdorje) — i".*., St. Pndum- 
MinbhAva — and "the gage Uiuru who has obtninHl iindrriitaiiiUng " (Rig 
'dsin rtog sgrub-giiru ). 

(2) 'Dw three mota of (lagMnm (Rig Main rtaa-gsum)— 
<a) Rig 'dain lluimai-las. , 
(A) Ts'e-agrub k'og dbiigt. 
(e) gSaog sgrub doiiyi sfilfi-po. 

<3> The deeds of Dorje P*agiDo frDorje p'Rg-mol-Ias), the great happineas of zag- 
med (zag-med tde-ch vd). aod ilit- four claftses of the fierce guardlane— r'oa 
aruii drag*po sde trJii. The oiuiirs of the)4c di-mons are — on tht* east. kLu> 
txlud Mtinpa uagpo ; uu thi' south. Srinpo Lankn-ingrim-lx'hu : on tlie west, 
Mamo B'a-xa p'ra-gral i<ag-|>u ; on tl>e n<irtli, gM'enpa sPu-gri-iluiariKi. 

(4) Tlie dubjiigatiim of tlu* hoa <tf demons— The offering to the Dliy&nl Buddhaa 
bclud dputi lW nou, Kun-t«zait, uic'od-sprin. 

(6) The sacTtfliruil ct-nttnony btsknng bahags, viz^ Rig 'dsin b«bang*bahBg&, PhaginnI j 
b«kang bshagx. 

(6) The prayer of t)u' glorioibi " Tufltn " — the Lepcha name for pAdma-satubliava j 
— Tishi *mon-!ftm. 

The above bonlu reacli to about flfly-flvr pnffs. 

(7) The circle of the eight commanderfi of the collectrd Ituddhaa. bKah-b^-nd 
Me gaegs 'diupai dk\il-'khnr kyi las and Khriwn-rnl wai gtor-tlog gyi 
akuTi bkah brgjad. This has about forty pAge^. [Tho naui^s uf tin* eiglit 
connnondew. bKah-bKJ"i'il*> "^-"(1' Cc-nictrng, \-l} Yan-dag, fS) gS'Jii-rje, 
(4) iTa-mgrin, (S) Phurpa, (6) >[a]iio, (7> *Uftd /ton, (8) HJg-'dain.] 

~When the young monk recitt'e by heart all these books HAtittfacturily, and t^t poiutes 

this •.-x.imltiation, hu is not subject to any furtlier ordeal of examination -. thin being 

; the fltuU one. 



and these intenuls are utilized by tbe candidates in revistiig tb« 
next exercise, in coinjiany with their teacher. 

Those who disgracefully fail to pass this examination are t&kea 
outeide and chastized by the provost.* And repeated failure up loa 
limit of three years neceseitates the rejection of tbe candidate £rom 
the order. .S hould, however, the boy be rich and wish re-entry, 
he may be re-fuimitted on paying presents and money on a higher 
scale thau formerly, without which no re-admission is possible. U 
the rejected candidate be ^wor and he wishes to continue a religions 
life, he can only do so as a lay-devotee, doing drudgery about th^ 
monastery buildings. Or he may set up in some village as an un- 
orthodox Luma-priest. 

The majority fail to pass at the first attempt. And failure on 
the part of the candidate attaches a stigma to his teacher, while 
in the event of the boy chanting the exercises correctly and with 
pleading voice in the orthodox oratorical manner, his teacher is 
highly complimented, 


The ]>uhlic diajmtationn are much more attractive and favourite 
exercises for the students than the eiiiminations. Indeed, the 
acatiemic feat are of the monastic universities of Tibet is perhaps 
seen nt its best in the prominence given to dialectics and dispu- 
tations, thus following the speculative traditions of the earlier 
Indian Buddhists. In the great monastic universities of Do-pung* 
Tushi-lhunpo, Serra and Gith-ldan, each with a teeming jK>|tulatioD 
of monks, ranging from about 4,000 to 8,000, public disptitations 
are regularly held, and form a recognized institution, in which 
every divinity student or embryo Lama must take part. This 
exercise is called expressing '* the true and innermost essence (of 
the doctrine)" {niTsan-iiid), in which an endeavour is made to 
ascertain both the literal sense and the^ spirit of the doctrine,' 
and it is held within a barred court. Some details of the 
manner in which these disputations are held are given below.' 

* Cli'i>B"k'rini#-pfl. 

s Conf. slfto Jabkrkk, /^iVf., p. 4&1, who is indiiied to Mfutify this " school " with 
the Vaifeshlua (or AtmiiiBto) Kiipp, i., G91. 

• Within LitA court-cli'oH-ra where tli« dispulatiuus ate held are sevm gradn 
(•rf«n-rrt), nanifly: {\\ Kha-Hog-iikar^B*ar ; (2i. SToWma; [i), P'ar-ji'yin ; {i\mlitildt 
(b),Ih(Jwrt; (fi),rfArj«tt,- (7), btLn^ltuh. 

At th«ae disputations tb«re are tree-trunks^ called the Sal-trcc tnmk (8hugs-w3o6), 




Aft«r a course of such training for twelve years, each student is 

ligible for full ordination, the minimum age for which is twenty, 

the ceremony is generally similar to that of the initiation. 

lose who prove their high capabilities by passing with excei>- 

>nal distinction through the disputations and examinations 

>nducted by the assembled LaniaiBt literati and the beafls of 

or more cloisters, receive academic and theological degrees 

hkn-mo-MUinpn, and yubu ; and bounded by a wall, and inside Uie court is cuvered 

pKbbles (rdehu). In th<' middle tliere ijl a great lugh atone stat for the lotd 

ctor fsKyabtt-ingon), nnt) ii Htnaller Heat for the abbot (mk'anpo) of ttiv school, 

I one fttill sm.'dler fur the chief celebrant. 

On reaching the enckosurc, the auditjn take their nMpectiTu 6eat« in the seven 

gradt-'d, in each uf whidt diiicu actions arc held. One of the most learned candidates 

rolunti'en for examination, or as it is caUed^ tu be vr»w>keeper (Aiifi-ftdUiA). He 

HpAfc^'s his fl^at in tlie middle-, and the others sit round him. Tlicn the students Htand 

^^pp <ine by on*;, and dispute vritli lum. 

^H The scliolar who stands up weara tlic yellow hat, and, clapping his liands togi>ther 
^Hftys, A'ti-.v .' and thrn puts his questions to the vow-keeper, wbrt is ituestioned by 
^Brery student who so desires ; and if he succeeds in answontig all without exccp- 
^Hon, then he is pronii»ted tn a higher gradr. In any case, one is transferred to 
juintber grade after evfry three yean. 

AfttT twenty-one year» of age the rank of dOt-*teji ia obtainedt tlioug^i some clerer 

stwlenta may get it even at eleven. The abbot of the college cornea into the dn- 

rliRiure seven days ever^* month, and supervis<;a the disputations tA the seven grades. 

HWhen a cwididaCfl has reached the bslab-btub grade, he is certain eoan to bcoomo 


^" The great disputation, however, is held four times a year, in spring, in summer, in 
autumn, and in winter, in a great paved courtyard, and lasts Ave or soven days. On 
llM^e occasions, all the scholars and abbots of the four schools of the colleges of 
I>e-|iung congn^t<^ then*. And aU tho teami-d stucli-nls nf the four schools who 
tielnng to the gradi' uf bnlab-btub vnlutit^'er fur t>xaniination, and each iff questioned 
b}' tlie »tudeut!j w]io ply ilti-ir questions, Aayn my l.^nia, " JuHt like flies on meat." 
When the voluntarj- examinee ha.H Buecessfully replied to all the queetioas he goe« to 
U»' abltot of his own school, and, presenting a silver coin and a scarf, he requests 
permiftsiun to be examined on the Lhasa mass-day. If the abbot receives thf coin 
and scarf, tlien the application is approved, and if not, the student is referred to 
his studies. In the great Lhasa mass all tiie monks of Scrra, De-pung, and (lah-ldan 
congregnte, and examinations are held every seventh day, and the dlJe-s'es of the 
three mnnasteries of Serra, De-pung, and Gah-ldan act as fjcaminers. If the volun- 
teer eaa answer Uiem alt, then Uie Lord Prot.ector throws a scarf round his nock, 
and ho thus receives the title of dOfiet — somewlint equivalent to our Bachelor of 

The newly-flfdged dGe-s'es is now known as a $K^-mr-m<d-}ta-dOt-hdt* or "The 
yellowless-pale Oe-s'e" (pale -♦- yellow = " laj-men and prieets," says Jawckki, Z)., 
p. 2r>). Then be must give soup [called dUe-bs'ca Tugpa) to all the students of 
his »clvool and club, each student getting a cupful. The soup is made of rice, mixed 
with meat and buttpr, and difftrent kinds of fruits. Then the abbi>t of the school 
and the Spyi-so of his club, and all his friends and relatives, each gives him a Klia- 
djig scarf and a money present. 



iiDd honours, by which they become eligible for the highest sod 
moHt privileged appointments. 

The chiff ili^greei? are Oe-a'ty corresponding to our Kachelor of 
Divinity; and Hab-jftvi-pa^ or Dot'tor of Divinity. 

The degree of <?«-«'*,* or " the learned virtuosi,*' may be 
called H.O. It h obtaine*!^ in the manner above detailed, by 
giving pn»of iu open meeting of the lifunafi * of his ability to tran*- 
tate and interpret (lerfectly at leant ten of the chief books of hii 
religion. The Ge-fi'e is eligible to go in for the higher ?pec«d 
dejKirtment**, to which a non-graduate, even though he may be 
H ge-loiig, and as such senior to the young Ge-s'e, is not 
ftdmiite<l.^ Many of them become the head Lamas or loH 
proteclorH (skyabs-mgon) of the government monasteries of the 
establitihed church, not only iu Tibet, bat in ^[ongolia, Amdo, 
and Chiua. Others return to their own fatherland, while some 
pursue their studies in the higher Tantras, to qualify for the 
much coveted post of the Khri-iJa of Gah-ldan. 

The degree of R(i6-/i7H-^(,* "verbally overflowing, endlessly," 
a iloctor ttnlversidie, corresponds with our Doctor of Theology, or 
D.D., ami is, it seems, the highest academical title of honour 
whi^'h can be earned in the Lfiraaist universities, and after a 
disputation over the whole doctrine of the church and faith. The 
diploma which he receive;* entitles him to teach the law publicly, 
and authorizes him to the highest churcli offices not specially 
reserved for the incarnate Liimas. And he is given a distinctive 
hat, as seen in the foregoing figure, at the head of this chapter. 
It is said that in Tibet there are only twelve cloisters who have 
the right to bestow this degree, and it is e\'en more hoaoumhle 
than the titles bestowed by the Dalai Liima himself. But thi« 

I is, as a matter of course, a very expensive affair. 
The titles of Oh'o-je * or " noble of the law,** and Pantjitti or 
t dOe-s'cK. It uamiA to ho thf same ns the Tuti^-ra»i*|M of Tnslu'lhunpu and th^ 
Kahg'hc-hu, KoPTKN, ii. ; it aljto 8«H>niH to bp " |ral-cli'en-piu" 
1 Aiiporcntly a joint board of rt>pri>8cntativcs of the three grent monasleric* »fare< 
^d, I>P-pimg, <"tc. Cnnf. nlso PAKDtr A. K. «» " Oiti." 
* The Oe-s'e of the thrrc fjrcat (f<--lug-pfi inonoAt^ries may be «duiitti<d to one or 
nthT of th« four Lingo <ir mviil monasteries: Tse-iiatn-gyn), sTan-gyaJ-ting, Kun-dv- 
Hng, and (iyud-eTod-Bmad. anil he may become a rTae-druDg of th<^ Grand l>alai 
f^ftmii's royal monasU'ry lit P<itiila. 
* RAb8-'byani8-pa,and seemn tohe thr same as the £aJk-i^an of Tashl-ltiunpo. 
* tli'o^-rje. 





[learned," are bestowed by the sovereign Grand Tj5mas on those 
Dts who have distinguished themselves through blaraeless 
holiness and excellent wisdom. And between these two .^eems 
lie the title of Lih-isa-ufi or " tranrilator." The relative ranks 
Rah-jarn-pa and Ch'o-je may be seen from the fact, that after 
ke. second inetallation of Buddhism in Mongolia, the former were 
It by law on the same fooling as the Tai-jis or baroutj or 
9unt«; and the latter asi Chungtaijis or marquesses or dukes. 
Sd the dignity of the Pandita allow a more exalted rank, the 
Onse<]uence would be that only the holy prinres from K*an-|>o 
pwards, that is to say, the K'an-jx>, the Chuhilghan, and the 
Chutukten, only could have it; but of this nothing certain ifi 

Thus the K*an-po, the Ch'o-je, and the Rab-jara-pa form the 
three principal classes of the higher non-incarnate clergy, and 
they follow each other in the order dpBorihe<l. The K'an-pos take 
Amongst them the first place, and are, a? a rule, elected out of the 
^■iro other classes*. As the K'an-]x> has been compared with a 
^Tiishop, so could the C*ho-je perhaps be called " vicar-general " 
or "coadjutor." And often in the same cloister by the side of, or 
rather under, the K*an-po, are found a Ch'o-je as vice-ahl>ot (a 
mitred abbot). In the smaller cloisters the chief Lnnia as a 
rule has only the grade of Ch'o-je or Rab-jam-pa. 

Special ttchools, expressly for the study of magic, are erected in 
I he cloisters of Kamo-ch'e and Mo-ru. Those who receive here 
the doctor's diploma, and thereby acquire the right to carry on 
the mystery of science practically, especially conjuring, weather 
prophecy, sympathetica! pharmacy, etc., etc., are called S'^ag- 
ram-pii, which means "master of conjiuBtion." Their uniform is 
8ivaite, and they probably spring from the red religion, but their 
Mciejice follows strictly the prescribed formulas in the Kah-gyur, 
and is therefore quite orthodox.^ Their practices as augurs are 
detailed under the head of sorcery, along with those of the 
(jrdinary illiterate Nag-pa fohune-teller. 


The huge cloisters, with several hundreds and occasionally 
several thotuands of monks, necessarily possess an organized body 



of oflSciata for the admiaistration of afEkirs dericftl and tempotil, 
aud for the enforcement of discipline. 

At the head of a monastery stands either a re-generat«d or re* 
incarnate Lama (Kti^'OyTul-ku, or in Mongolian " KliuMli^hnn*^ 
or an installed abbot {fCan-'pOf Skt., Upti^hdhaj/a), the latter 
being as a rule elected from the capital, and sanctioned by tha 
Dalai L^ma or the provincial bead of the re-incarnate iJlmas ; and 
he holds office only for seven years. 

He has under him the following administrative and executive 
officers, all of whom except the first are nsnalty not ordained, and 
they are elected by and from among the brotherhood for a longer 
or shorter term of office : — 

1. The professor or master (Lob-pou*), who proclaims the Uw 
and conducts the lessons of the brethren. 

2. The treasurer aud cashier (C'ag-dso*). 

3. The steward (^er-pa ^ or 8pyi-ner). 

4. Provost marshal ((.ie-Ko *), usually two who maintain ordef 
like police, hence also calletl vergers or censors, and they are 
assisted by two orderlies ( hag-fier), 

5. The chief celebrant or leader of the choir or precentor 

6. Sacristan (Ku-fier). 

7. Water-giver (Cb'ab-dren), 

8. Tea waiters (Ja-ma). 

To these are to be added the secretaries,^ cooks,* chamber- 
lain,'' warden or entertainer of guests,* accountant,* bearer of 
benedictory emblem," tax-collectors, medical monks, painters, 
merchant monks, exorcist, etc. 

The general rules of conduct and discipline are best illustratMl 
at the great monastic universities. 

The De-pun(^' mon.istery, with ita 7,700 monks, Ls divided into four 
great colleges (grwa-ts'an), imuiely ; {!) bIjo-gsjd-gUn ; (2) bGo-man; 
(3) bDe-yariB ; and (4) Si^ogs-pa, and each of these schools of tht 

I «Lob<dpon. 3 p'y"(f iiidsodj. i gnr>r-pa. 

* dge-bokcM, also called Ch'o-k'rims-p* or " religious judge," and the provtMt of t^ 

c&Uiedral Beema to be called Zhal-ho. 
' Bpyi-k'yab. " gsoNdpon, 

' mgron-gfior ch'en, " Tsi-dpon. 

^ giim-dpon, 
p'yag-ts'ang or sku-b'c'ar-mkhaii-[n 



hfis ltd own abbot. The monks are accommodated acoord- 
_ heir different Dationaliti^s ojid provinces, each baving separate 
'rejddent and messing aections, na<ne<l K'luiici t.'^an or provincial messinx 
clubs. The cathedral or gr«at ball of tbe congregation, named Taogs- 
ch'ea Iha-k'ah, is common to tbe whole monastery*. 

Sera monast«ryf with its 5,50<) mcrtiks, divided into three ooUegiate 
achooU named : (1) Bye-wa, (2) aKags-pa, and (3) slklad-pa, and each 
^^iias its Hectional club. 

^V Gah-Idaii with its 3,300 monks is divided into two schools, namely, 
^H(I) Byah-rtse, and (2) S'ar-tse, each with it8 club. 
^H Tabhi-lhiinpo baa three collegiate i^hools.' 

^H Each club baa at least two L&ma-otHcers, the elder of whom takes 
^Hdiarge of the temple attached to the club, and teaches his pupils th« 
^■mode of making offerings in the temple.^ The younger olHcer is a 
steward in cha^e of the storohoiiae (gNer-tj?'ang), and the tea pre- 
sented by the public (Mau*ja), or "tea-general," and the kitchen (Kuh- 
k'aii). ThesMJ two lAmas are responsible for the conduct of the 
monkf; of their section, and in case their pupils do wrong, they — 
the masters — are fined. TliOAC two officers are changed every year. 

Entry of FuinL — The applicant for a^lmission goes to the gi'eat 
paved court (the rdo-chal) of the monastic club, the masters are oilled 
and ask him whence he has come, and whether he has any relatives or 

P > Tbe grand monastoiy of Tuhi-Ihunpo ii divided, says Saiut {Jour. Bud. Te^ 
Scx^jf. Itid^ iv^ 189^ p. H). i»lo forty Kkam-ttkan or wards, which arc phicM ucdvr 
tht- jurisdiction vt the thrc*' grvut Ta-tJuiKfj or thtoIt^icAl colleger, vi/~ : — (a) Tboi* 
■amling eQlleg«t exercises control over tli^ following KAnm-tglutn : — 

1. iiy% inam-UKtiit, 


Ser<ting Kkam-tAtm. 

2. Tiso „ », 


J<'-pa, iUiio callpd jBtu-jna TfX'tkang. 

3. Ilarodong Sham'Is^iH. 


Cliang-jia Kknm'tAnn. 

4> (ThawA „ „ 


Ug-thiig „ „ 

5. Tanag „ „ 


Ntirpugandan, tlie ftrst house built 

0. Tauf^-inoc'he MAam-iAan. 

wh(;n the monajstery was establlalied. 

7. Tiiiki! „ „ 


Aepti (Hrepa) Khitm-tthan. 

6. UiiUiee 


Pa-so Kham-Ui>aH. 

9. Lhum-bu-tac „ „ 


Doiig-t8i-> KkuHi'ttkain 

\f Tlie followintr belong toShar*tae 7((- 



1. Thfin-pa Khaii^4Mittui. 


rotiig'pa Khatu'ttkan. 

2. Gyal-tse-Ue Kham-fgkaii 


NtnJii „ „ 

a Shinit „ 



4. Lbopa „ „ 


Deyong-pa. • 

5. Latoi (Udak) h m 


Samlo Kham-uhau. 

6. C^aiig-pa ,. „ 


N6mniiBg-po Shara. 

r) Tbi> faUonving arc under Kyi/khaufi 


1. Kliugye Kktim-tikan. 


Piling; KAttm-tjKatK 

t. Tkngmo „ „ 


Klia/ka H M 

a Rnf-t«ho „ „ 


Durpa t, M 

4. IaUia „ „ 


Lhuiidub-tfi<! Kham-ithaiu 

5. Dodan „ „ 


Tm-o() KhiUH-ttiant also called Tlia-no 

191 J 


aoqoAinUnces in the monastenr. If any aocb there be*h« is called, ud 
tekeA the apjiUcont to his own private chamber. But if the appUcut 
ha<i no friend or relative there, tea and wheateu fiour are girea to him, 
and lie in kept in the Ruit-khaA for three da^&. Afu>r which period, 
should DO ouo liare come to claim him or seaivh for Kim, one or othsr 
of the two masters of the section take him under their charge, th<> 
head mu-ster huviofc the preference, and the proper appUcatiou for 
hL4 udniissiou is then dtily made. 

F(>r the fi:enm*al aiaembly hall or cathedral there 'm a special staff of 
officials 'Fhe gnai celebnuit [TKOtju-cKen lihunultad) who leads the 
chant ; the two Z'al-ho are the provo.'<t« : the two Nah-ma are 
!<ul>urdin»tv orderlies who look itfter the conduct of the students; the 
two th'aft-riU gu round the benches giving water to tbo moub; tn 
rinne out their mouths after reciting the mantras (as in Hinda ritw of 
cei-emouial piirityj, and at other times they help the orderlies to look 
after the pupjlo. The Lama dM.ig•rt^e-ma * fixefi the time for cod- 
gregation and the " tea-general " of the same. The two orderlioi 
miuit watch whether the pupils throw away tea or flour, and tht^r 
niso take general care of the temples. 

Early in the morning, about fom* o'clock, a junior pupil chaaU 
chhiifl-fhatl from the top of the temple of tlie cathedral Then each of 
the flubs beat their stone liells (nlo-rtiug) to awake the occupants, who 
arise and wash and dress. Tliey put on the cope (zla-gam), and carrr 
the yellow hat over their shoulders, and take a cup and a bag ht 
wheateit flour. Some bow down in the court, othei-s circumambulate 
the tem[>Ie, and others the temple of MaiijuarT, wliich is behind the 
cjithedi-al, repeating his manlm {Oinah-ra-pa-tea-fia-flhi), 

About one o'clock the Miif-rtw-ma Lama chant« the " dmig-rtae-ma " in 
a loud voice, and at once the pupils assemble near the two doors, aod 
having put on their yellow hrttvs, join in the chant. Then after an 
interval the ch'abril opens tlie door, and all enter in proper order 
and take their seats according to theii* rank in their club.' The yellow 


In conimi 'U to all 


1 Or " Tl«' )ughe«t idea or hnagitiing *' (SkL, Andambam i. 

» At Ta-shi-llmnpo, uaysi Sabat {Jour. Budd. Ttxt Soejf. Imt., iv.}, tht^ munks »it id 
nine r>w8 one fnciiig nnutht'r. 

Iftt mw iii rallpfl hnhtu or Lnb-znng bug tat. 
2nd C'ltainpa Uif (Uio row opposltv tbo gigantic imago vi 


3. lioikil tal (l}ip rnw opiKwitc the satin tapntry). 

4. Shilrhital (tlM- row nppftsit*' the huge lamp of the 

J 6. Itong tiif {t]vi front row opposite tlie Mkocrdoul 

t thronft of the cfrand Lama). 

0. Xo-c)n) UU (the row npp..>»ite tlio paintod iniim<?sof tlu 

rixUtii SthAviriiM {aagnt} on tJir wall). 
7. NVEing inf (tbe ruw upjHittitt' tim old imagw of t^f 

sixtefu Slluiviras). 
Do^ma fat (the row oppnuih' tlin image of the god- 

dess Do/ina, Ttira). 
(the row opposit*' th*.- door of the halli. 

D/SC/PUSE. 191 

hftt is tbrowD over the left shoulder, and the cup nnd the faftg ore 
plnoeJ under the knees, and ail Mt facing to th(*ir front. 

After the repetition of the refuge formula, headed br the chief 
oelebnuit. ihe younger provost arises and dons his yellow hat, " t(Jm- 
rUrm-nm,'^ and nitli an iroit rod ritrikea a pillar with it once, on which 
all the students will go into thu refectory, where tea is dihtrtbutetl to 
each in series, each getting three cupfuU. On drinking it they return 
and refiume their respective 6eat<^, and continue the celebration. 

When drinking the tea presented by the populace {maivf-ja) all the 
pupils sit silent, and the two c'ab-riU spread a carpet and make a seat in 
the middle for the elder provost, who then tsteps fur^vord and sits 
down, and, after having thrice bowed down, then he repeats the 
thf«l>t-'Jto/, in which the name of the Diti*et*«er of thi ijiftt, who has 
udered the tea, is called out, and blessings prayer! for to extend the 
doctrioee of Buddha, to secure long life to the two Grand Lamas, and 
abitenee of strife amongst the members of the monkhood, and that the 
niins may descend in due season, and the crops and cattle prosper, and, human and of animals, decrease, and that life be long with 
^ootl luck. 

After tltir^ Hei'viee in the cathedral, a lecture is given called Ts'ogs- 
gttuu, in which the loiles of eli<|uette for pupils art* lutil down, and the 
manner of walking and conduct at meetings explained, after which 
i-liould there be any pupil who ha^ infringed the rules of discipline, he 
is dealt with in an exemplary way, as will be described presently. 

Tht lUfrctot'fjyQv rather tea-kitchen, at taclied to the cathedrals and 
temple.^, has tive regular otlicials: Two tea-masters (Jadpon), who look 
after the dj.stribution of the government tea, and the other after the 
tesi ordered by the provost of the cathedral ; uUo two menial Ja-mn, 
ajid the aupcrintondont Tab-gyog-gi dpoD'po, who has twenty-five 
stibordinates on fatigue duty. 

The tiervice of general- tea (Mau-ja) is given three times daily from 
the stock supplied by the Chinese em{>eror as a Mibsidy amounting to 
nlxjut half-a-million brickfl. On the 15th, 25th, and the last day uf the 
month, general-tea is given three times and soup once by the governor 
of Gah-idan palace. Tliere are many dispensers of gifts who ofler tea 
and a donation ('g>'ed) amounting to thi-ee, fifteen, seventeen silver 
sruiga pieces ; and it Is the custom that if one Tuvt-'ja (about ^^ of a 
rupee) be oiS^red to the cathedral, then two Tam-gH« must l>e otrei*ed 
to the coU^e-scbool, and four to the club. Olferings may be made 

whidi has accominwUtirm for eigMr monks. It to In chargt^ of the KyiZ-khang 


Thr riupcl of Maitreya (Cliamklka'^ which is three 9Xatcy% high, and it Apaciou* 
mouieli til cuutain eiglity muiik«. It i^ unJcr the e)uir};i- of Tlioiaunhng Colltfte. 

Opt""*''^ ^ Do/ma lal lf> Do/ma Lhaktuiiig (the L-tLa|M-l uf Ih^* gfiddett Tora). Il 
CAM hold forty tnnnk«, and ts in thi' chai^o of S]iar-tjt<> Tn-iiAitu<j. 

6\X^ Lobilt; is the chapel of Psldan Ummo. It iit imid tlmt th<> iniaiff of 
I Uuuno oontained in it «tauds In space*, 1 1*., witlMiut any luiiport un any xide. 



solely to the school without the cathedral, and may be mad« to th» 
club independently of either. In no y cose, when offerings an nuidt 
to the cathedral, then something must be otfered both to the ttchodl 
and to the club. This custom bos existed at De-pong at Itiast from lit)* 
time of the great Dalai L&ina ^Cagwun. 

The size of the ten-boilen^ of Che larger monastery and at the LhiM 
temple \a snid to be enormount, as can be well imagined whe^i it is 
remembered that several thotitvAnds have to be catered for. Thf 
cauldron at the great Lhi&a cathedral \a said to bold about 1,S00 
gal leas. 

A very vigorous discipline is enforced. It is incumbent on 
every member of the monastery to report misdemeanour)-! whidi 
come under hirf notice, and these are jmnished according to tit 
Pmtimoksha rules. Minor offences are met at first by simple 
rt^monatmnce, but if persisted in are severely punished with 
senti*nces up to actual banisliment. 

If anyone infringes the rules of discipline bhort of murder, or oath, 
or wine -drinking, or theft, within the club, the two clu[>-miLsters 
punish him; but if within the college or deba ting-hall, then he i> 
amenable to the provost of the college. 

A member of De-pung who commits any of the ten kinds of " iodot' 
gence " caunot be tried except in the cathedral. Tlie elder provost calk 
on the breaker of the rules to stand up in the presence of the iv«(n«inbt(d 
({tudent«, and the tran^reaeor riees with bent head and is cenmred ^ 
the younger pitivost and sentencetl to u particular number of stroke^. 
Then the two water-men bring in the dOe-rganof the club and the tutor 
of the olU^nding student. The dGe-rgan riuetj up to receive his censure, 
and so also the tutoi-s. Then the oHending pupil is seized by ibe beaJ 
and feet, anil .^iotrndly beaten by the ltctoi*s (Tab-gyog). 

The puniKhuieut by cane or rod Ih tifty tttrokee for a small oHeMe, 
one huntlrt'd for a middling, and one liundred and fif ty for a gi»T« 
oflence. In the oathodi-jil no more than one hundi-ed and tifty htrxAes 
can be given, and no further punishment follows. 

For breach of etiquette in sitting, walking, eating, or drinking, the 
penally is to biiw down iviid apologize, or suffer ten strokes. 

The most severe punishment, called "Good or Bad Luck" (sKyid- 
sdug), 8o called it is said from it« chance of proving fatal aocoixling to 
the luck of the sudercr, is inflicted in coses of murder and ui expulsiou 
from the order for pei-sist^nt intemperance, or theft. After ihe con- 
gregation is over the teacher and cUib-master of the accused ai-e i.-alled bo 
the court, and the provost of the cathedral censui'cs them. Then the 
accused is taken outside the temple and his feet are fastened by n>pt«, 
and two men, standing un his nght and left, beat him to the nuniher 
of about a thousand times, after which he is drawn, by a ix>pe, ont^idft 
the boundarj* wall (/chags-ri) and thei-e abandoned ; while his tcAf htr 
and club-master are each fined one scarf and three silver Sranys. 



The rule which is most broken is celibacy. Tlie eslablished 
church alone adheres strictl}' to thia rule ; so that, on this aocount, 
many of its monks leave the order, as they ai^e always free to do, 
though suffering social disgmce, as they are called hnu-lok^ or 
''turncoats." In the other sects many celibate monks are also 
found, especially in the larger monasteries of Tibet ; but the great 
majority of the members of the unreformed sects, for instance, 
the Nin-ma-pa, also the Sa-kya-pa, Duk-i>a, etc., are miurieil 
openly or clandestinely. 

The fjiimaji also extend their exercise of diBci])HDe outsidp 
the walls of the monastery. Mr. KockhiU witncsse*! at Kumbum 
the fuUowing fracatt: ''Suddenly the crowd scattered \jo right and 
left, the I-amas running for places of hiding, with cries of Gikor 
Lanuif O^lcor Lama I and we saw, striding towards us, six or eight 
Tilmas, with a black stripe painted across tlieir foreheads, aiid 
another around their right arms — black I^imas (bei-ho-sang) the 
people call them — armed with heavy whips, with which they 
lielaboured anyone who came within their reacli. Beliind them 
walked a stately Lama in rol^es of finest cloth, with heafl dean- 
shaved. He was a Gekor, a Lama-censor, or provost, whose duty 
it IK to see that the rules of tlie Llmasery are i*trictly ol)eyed, and 
who, in conjunction with two colleagues, appointed like him by 
the abbot for a tenu of three years, tries all Lfimas for whatever 
breach of the nilcj* or crime they may have committed. This 
one had heard of the peep-shows, Punch and Judy shows, gambling 
tables, and other prohibited amusements on the fair-grounds, and 
was on his way with his lictors to put an end to Ihu scandal. I 
followed in his wake, and saw the peep-show knocked down, Punch 
and Judy laid mangled beside it, the owners whipped and put ro 
flight, and the majesty of ecclesiastical law and momlily duly 
^indicated." * 
As the Lama is comfortably clothed and housed, and fed on the 
st of food, he cannot be called a mendicant monk like the Hudd- 
st monks of old, nor is the vow of poverty f^trictly interpret**d ; 
this character is not quite absent. For the order, as a body, 
entirely deijeudent on (he lay jwpulation for its f^upport; and 
le enormous proiwrtion whioh the Lumas bear to the laity reu- 

> ROCEIULU /... 65. 



ders the tex for the supiwrt of the clergy a heavy burden on tbe] 

Most of the monaHteriefl, even those of the sects other than tbej 
dominant Ge-lug-pa, are riclily endowed with landed proj^ert y and] 
villages, from which they derive much revenue. All, however,! 
rely mainly on the voluntary contributions of tbe worshippenl 
amongst villagers and pilgrims. And to secure ample aid, largel 
numbers of Lamas are deputed at the harvest-time to beg and] 
collect grain and other donations for their monasteries. Moeti 
the contributions, even for sacerdotal services, are in land, — gnun,| 
bricks of tea, butter, salt, meat, and hve stock, — for money is not 
much used in Tibet, Other sources of revenue are the cliarmsj 
pictures, iinage!«, which the Lilmas manufacture, and which art* in 
great demand; as well as the numerous horosco|)es, supplied by the] 
TJlmas for births, marriages, sickness, death, accident, etc, and in] 
which most extensive devil-worship is prescril^ed, entailing the] 
employment of many Lamas. Of the less intellectually giflHli 
l^mas, some are employed in menial duties, and others are en-) 
gaged in mercantile traffic for the general benefit of their mother] 
monastery. Most of the monasteries of the established churehj 
grow rich by trading and usury. Indeetl, Lfimas are the chie 
traders and capitalists of the country. 


The original dress of Buddha's order was adapted for the 
Indian climate. Later, when his religion extended to coli 
climes, he himself is said to have permitted warmer olothingl 
stockings, shoes, etc. The avowed object of the monk's dretfl 
was to cover the body decently and protect from cold, niosqui-j 
toes,* and other sources of mental disturbance. 

The dress of a Tibetan monk- consists of a hat covering bisl 
closely-shaven crown, a gown and girdle, inner vest, cloak, plaid,] 
trousers, and boots, rosary, and other minor equipments. 


No hat is mentioned in the Buddhist scriptures as part of tliel 

outtit of a monk, nor does it seem to have been introduced intfli 

1 BXUDV, Efut. Mw^ 122. 

' ?ee figures od pagoi 46, 00, 172, etc. 



idiftn Buddhism even in the later period, judging from its ap- 
f».rent absence in the Ajaiua cave ijaintings. It is, however, a 
iecessity for tonsured beads in a cold climate,' and it is uHunlly 
pode in Tibet of thick felt, flannel, or blanket. 
, The couspicuousness of the cap lent itself readily to its hat 
poing converted into a sectariat badge. We have seen how the 
^olour of the cap afforded a rough distinction into yellow, red, 

id black hats. But the shape in also an important element 
differentiating bats, both for sectarian and ceremonial pur- 

,e majority of the hats are of an Indian type, a few only 
g Chinene or Mongolian. 

e two most typical hats are believed by the U'tnintj to have 
brought from India by St. Padma-Bamhhava, the founder of 

maism, and his coadjutor, Santa-rakshita, in the eighth cen- 

y. And both of the,«e hats are essentially Indian in patteni. 

To begin with, the hat, numbered j in the figure, named 
"The red hat, of the great Pandits" (pan-ch'en-zVa-dmar^. 
It is alleged to have been brought from India on the foundation of 
Iilmai»m by the abbot Santa -rakshita, and it is common to all 
sects in Tibet except the ( Je-Iug-pa. lt,s shape is essentially that 
of the ordinary cap used in the colder parts of India during the 
winter (see fig. n), with lappets coming over the ears and the 
nape of the neck, which lappets are folded up as an outer brim 
to the cap in the hotter [jart of the day. Such a cap is often 
worn by Indian ascetics when travelling in India in the winter 
time ; and it is quite probable that AtTsa, as the Lumas 
allege, did arrive in Tibet in such a hat, and possibly of a red 
colour. The chief •difference in the Lamaist form is that the 
crown has been raised into a |jeak, which gives it a more dis- 
tinguished look, and the lappets have been lengthened. 

THofi-K*apa altered the colour of this hat from red to yellow, 

and hence arose the title of " Yellow-hat " (S'a-ser), a synonym 

fur his new t^ect, "the (xe-lug-ija," in contradistinction to the 

** Red-hat " (S'a-mar) of the Unreformed lAmas, He raised its 

^aygitill higher (see figures b and c in annexed illustration), 

' In India tlw only utxd bead-covering is as an *»cca8ioiiaI prtrti'ction agaiimc 
tilt? suDf but th(^ Indian ninnk dt^fcndB his sbsven cmwu from tbe scorcliiug suu by 
lito paljii-le«f fail. 

to the waist. The nbbots were given shorter tailit^ and the 
Jinary monk ahorter still, while the novices were dejjrivtd 
>gether of the tails. It can be used when walking and riding. 
?adma-saaibhava's initits-like hat is the ** U-gyan-Pandit," the 
jical hat of the unreformed Niii-ma sect. It is on the 
same Indian model, with the lappets turned up, and divided w> 
as to sugge&t the idea of a red lotus, with reference to the ety- 
mology of 8t. Padma-sarabhava*H name, to wit, " The Lotus- 
bora," and his h'gendary birth from a red lotus-flower. Hig native 
' ountry wa:* Udyaua, between Afghanistan and Kashmir ; and the 
tall conical crown i« still a feature of the caps of those regions. 
It is also called the Sahor (F^ahore?) Pandit's cap. It is worn by 
the Nifi-raa sect in emiwwering (abisheka), and in ofiering 
oblations, and in sacred dances. The largest form of this bat, 
tjiirmounted by a golden m/Vrt, is called the **DeWl subduer " 
(dreg-im zil-non gyi cha tugs), and is figured in the foregoing 
picture of St. Padma. It is only worn by the head hamas when 
giving the king holy water, and at the highest festivals. 

Many of the hat^ are full of symbolism, as, for example. Figs, a 
and rf, a» described in the footnote,' 

^ : 

Hf ' iTse-iwa s£:ro-lug« (Fig. a). Tills helniet-like hat is common to all 
' Ge-lug-pa Lamas. It was inveutod by j/Z'i-bdag ue-ser, and adopted by 
the firt^t Grand Lama GedeuDub. It is used along with the cope (zla- 
gam) when going to maas, and is taken off on euteriug the ttmiple oiid 
thrown over the left shoulder, with the tails hanging duwn in front ; 
on emerging from the temple it is worn or not lutmixling to the monk's 
oMm wiiilies. Its long tuils arc stitehed to iuiitate the beaded covent 
of a book, 60 that when tho monk groxps the tails, he is to conceive 
that be ht^ a grasp of the scriptures; and again that he is draw- 
iiig to salvation thousands of animals represented by the jtile on 
the cap. The three lateral stitches in the tails typify the' three 
chuses of ftcripttUY^ — the Tripitafca, as well as the three original sina 
or ** fires'' and the sin of body, speech and mind, for which the 
Tripitoka are tho tintidotcs. The long tails also have to suggest to 
him that the doctrines may be extended and long remain. T}te 
marginal stitches represent" the twelve best commands." The inside is 
often white to suggest that the monk should keep his henrt clean and 
pure. The crest represents the doctrinal insight (/tu-wu, Skt.,(/ur«a»«)nf 
the wearer. As ho rises by taking a degree in divinity bis creet is 
_elevated by an extra stitch. 

rTse-iwa sked-hts'em ditfers from tho foregoing in having iin 
tra 8titch in its crest (see p. 172). It is confined to tho re-embodieil 
s'an-fiid L&tnas and those who have taken the degree of dr/e-s'e, or B,I>, 



Nans wear a ekall-cap of woollen cloth or fur» coloured yellow <ir 
red, according to tlieir t^ect. 

rTs«-4wft sgiY) rto'e has the highest creet. U in ojnfincd to the dG«- 
/^ffkul oF De-puug monastic university und the d«gree of JJ.D. 

rTse-ivra sgm-rUe-ma (Fig. d) iscoiifiued to the DaJai L.ama'- 
royal of rTae rNnm-gyoJ, uud to tlie four Lings. It is wt»ri. 
the ^tor-rgyab sacritice« and dances at these temples only. 

dOongs 'diM zwa zur-ztir ( Figa. r and /). Designed by Pan-ch'en hlj> 
A>3uin cli'od-kyi rgjul wts'an after the ehape of f/Ben-rfgon hill. It o 
worn by the Grand Pan-ch'en LAma and the four abbots of Tnshi-lhunpo 
on goiu^' to preside at the wrangling diiiputntionfi. 

Piin-iwa snc rid' ser-po (Figs. 6 and r). 'i'lu? is a yellow variety of the 
red one of tlie siuue name, with the tails inndi lengtliened by Tson K'apa. 
It in only worn with these long tails by the DiilAi iJUna, the Pan-ch'eD 
(Tashi) Lama, the Oah-ldau Khi'i-rinpo-ch'e, and the Tibetan Lama- 
king or ivgent, during the assembly (nal-k'u) mass and empowering. 
It is worn with the gos-ber robes. 

aNe>rin zur zwn is worn by the abbots of the colleges and the bnd 
Uunas of smaller luoiiusteries. 

Tah-iwn dftyar-Y.wa (Fig. y) is the summer hat when riding on horw- 
back, and is contiued to the X)alni and Panch'en Grand Lamas, the 
regent, or king, and the re-embodied Lamas, and those abbots who, 
liaving obtaiocd highest hoiiour» in diTinity, have received from the 
Grand Lama the diploma of b<lag-rkyen. 

rTa/wa zur Itns dgim-zwa. This is the winter riding bat, and is 
conlintrd to the above pn%*ileged persons. 

Se-teb-rgyua zwa (Fig. o). The summer riding hat for the TWdruog 
grade of LumaH, who are selected on aeconnt of their learning and good 
looks as personal attendxuits of the Grand Lama (sKyabtf-mgon ch'ex)}. 

rXa zwa rgyun-fwa (Fig. i). The winter riding hat of the Tse-dnmg. 

rTgo-drung sga-p'ug is used only by the skyabs-myou ch'en<mo in 
ascending and descending (f Fotala hill). 

Zwa-dkar skyid-ka (Fig. «t). Worn by the Tse-drung att.eudant4 in 
summer when accomijanyiug the Gniud Lama wearii% preceding hat. 

Jo-zwH-gliii-gsum (Fig. 7i), "the lord's hat of the thi-ec continents." 
It is formetl after the fushion of the Asni-a cave, and was worn by the 
Indian ./o-«'o(Atiwi), thereformerof Lamaitim, while on his way to Tibeti 
at the Nepslese slu'ine Svayambhuniith (T., Rang-'byun) Chaitra: 
afterwards it was the hat of his sect, the Kah-dam-pa. In hot weather 
its flaps ore folded up, and in the cold let down. It was originally led, 
hut changed to yellow by the Ge-lug-pa. Now it is worn only by the 
boruiits (ri-k'rod-pa) of the Go-lug-pa or established churchj and i» 
never worn within the monastery or in quarters. 

Sn. skyfi K'ri-iwa (Fig. r). Tliis hat of the Sa-kya sect is of later intro- 
duction. Originally all the Su-kya Lamas wore the tJrgj'en-|ien-iwftof 
the unreformcd |i«rty. When they attained the temporal lordship over 

the outer rainy dklricts of the Himalayas, in BhotUn and 
Sikhim, many Lumas wear straw bats during the summer, or 
go bare-headed. 

the thirteen provinces of Tibet, the Chinese king " Se^ch'en" presented 
this hat to the chief of the sect, hi?^ highnesH 'Phag-ni Kin-po-ch'e, 
and its central vajra upon the "unchangtyvble '' crown Ls after the Chinebe 
style. It is restricted to those of noble descent (»/dung-pa), and is only 
worn when the tjdmi-brgyud Laum ascends the throne, or in empower- 
ing devotees, or in the yTor rgyab saciiticial ottering. Of. aUo p. 57. 

Sa-Eumt'oh gro!(Fig.^>). Thisisaliatof theSa-k^'a-pa. Iti^believed 
to confer .spiritual insight, and to have been invented by the God of 
Wisdom (Alaujufli'i). It is used when empowering the Khri-pa, and for 

Sa-skya grwa-£wa (Fig. q.) This is the hat of .the Jona£i>pa sub-sect, to 
which Taranatfaa belonged. It is worn by the junior Sa-k^'a monks 
during certain musses, at the beginning and the end, aUo in reUgious 
dances and in the Tor-gya sjicrifiee. 

Knrma-pai zwanag(Fig. /). " The black (fairy) hat of the Kar'iuarpa.*" 
This hat was conferred upon the reverend Rang-'byuh rDorje (Vajra 
Svayambhu) by the live clasps of witches (I)&kkinT) when he coerced 
them into giuuttug Iiim the '^iddfii — power of flying in the air. Each 
of the Dakkini.s contriliuted a hair from their tresses, and plaited these 
to fonn this hat. Whoever weai-s it can \\y through the air. It is 
kept as a relic at Sa-kya monastery, and only worn in state, or when a 
wealthy votary comes to the shrine. On such occasions a monk or. 
either side holds the hat to prevent it from carrying off the wearer. 

Karma snags-iwa (Fig. «). "The enchanter's hat" of the K-arraa- 
pa sect. It is shajjed after the cake-uftWiing for tlie angry demons, and 
IS worn during the dances and the ytor-rgyab sacrifice. 

Dwag-zwtt ri-'grn (Fig. h), A hat of the Kar-gyu-pa sect, worn when 
empowering or preaching. It is shaped after the hill of Uwag-IIia 
Hgaxn-pa, and wius invented by mNam-med-diwag-po Iha rjes-ts'erin-ma. 

sl^ag« pai iwa nag (Fig. A). The black necromancer's hat. Worn by 
the sLoV»-t/iMin Lama of the unreformed sect In their yTor-rgyab sacri- 
fice, and in the mystic play in all Che sects. 

gZah-iwa (Fig. r). " Tlie planet hat." Tliis raven^crowned hat wafi 
designed by Lama Gyun-ston-k'ro-rgyal on seeing the planet Mercury. 
It is worn by the Di-k\ing-pa, Kar-ma-pa, and Nih-ma-pa sects during 
the ceremony of "circling the planetH " (gz/ii-ha!»)r) and the striking 
and injuring one's enemy (ui^'k). 

The liat of thu Grand Ldmu of Bliutan (head of the southern Dug-pa 
church), and figured at pugc 226, is called pftil-ma-xxit'ong or *' the 
lotus- vision." It haa a ya/ra-spikelet which cannot be woi-n by any 
but the supreme Lilma. And the hat is finely embroidered with the 
cross-thunderbolts, lotus-Sower, and thunder dragons {0\uj). 



The Tibetans follow the tTliinese in the practice of £»]titing1]^ 
Inking off tlicir hat, m in thfir teinjiles no hats are worn except 
daring certain ceremonies, and then only a special kind. 


The robes, which the monks of the established church and the 
more celibate monkfi of the other ttect^ wear during certain 
celebrationis, are the three vestment* of the shape prescribed in 
the primitive code of ritual, the Vituiya^ with the addition of • 
bnnwled collared under-vest' and trousers, as seen in the figurtt. 
The material of thetfe robes is usually woollen cloth ; but iilk, 
though against the precept^,' is aometimes worn by those wh» 
can afiford the exj^nse. 

Tbe colour of these robes is yellow or red, acconiing to the sect. 
Yellow or saffron * colour in Til^et is sacred to the clergy of iW 
established church, the Ge-lug-pa; and its use by other* is penal. 
The only instance in which it is permitted is when a layman i* 
bringing a present to the Ge-lug-jw priests. He then is i>ermitl#*l 
to wear during his visit a flat yellow hat like a Tam-o'-Sliaiiter 

These three orthodox Huddhist raiments are: — 

1, The Lower [Mitched robe, named "!'c*a?("*( = /Srt»i^A/ihj. Tbf 
cloth is in several largish patches (about twenty-three) and sewn 
into seven divisions, and fastened by a girdle at the waist,* 

' atod 'ja([. 

' III common with mngt ac«i^ieB, Buddha decrcMl the monftAtic clresa of his «rdfr 
t«> \n- of as inPAn n material and Mftt as pouibto, and tho colmir «elocted w sxl 
HAffriin, vhidi, whilp nflnrding a uaeful wearabU' ctilrmr not reiulilv nciletl, pre 
uniformity t« tin* w*>arp-r and affnrdrd no scope for worldly vanity m fini- dr««a. Y<t 
iKithiiig can bo mnn' di^jiilii-d nnd Itorotninfc than tlio thin lonAr; rf)bf> of the Buddhist 
imink, r^ilUnji in praivful drapery, ondli-ssly alti'ring it« clpgant folds with rPiir 
mnvi-mrnt of Xho flgtire. And the ('asi" with wliicli i1 li-ndx ilBclf Xr, artistic amaf«- 
mvn\ iH st-fn not only in tho Grecian and Indian m-ulpinrrfi of Kuddlia in a »>t«udilij 
p<«tnr*, hnt in evon retained somewhat in the thiclcpr and relatively uueli-gant i^ian 
of the L&maint monk, seen in the several ftg;\ire«. 

■ Literally niir-Bmriy or " Brahmani goose " (coloured). This B*d-Ci^Io\u-ed tnixl, U* 
rudily shell-driiite. haa from it* solitary bahita and conjnf*al fidelity been long ia 
India synilKdir <if rechtseship and devotion, and figures in such ca-paci^ on the cmpttik 
of the Autka pillars. 

• gx'an or ? dras-drube. 

1 'Hm' pat<hi-d rnhe, which gives the idea of the tAttered garments of jxwprty, it 
stated to have oriffi'iat^d with Annnda dividing iiitn thirty pt«)ces the rich rulK* gin* 
Ui Itiiddha liy the wealthy jihysiciau JIvakit, and tiiat robe was sewn by vViuutdk 
into l\ve divisions likn this one. 

2. The Outer patched robe, named Xftni-jar {/*., ? Antarvd- 
»reJt«), The cloth is cut into very numerous pieces, about one 
hundred and twenty-five, which are sewn together in twenty-five 

3. The Upi:>er shawl, named bhd-goe (V'tifinidangh4iti), Long 
and narrow, ten to twenty feet long and two to three feet broad. 
It IS thrown over the left shoulder and passed uuder right arm, 
leaving the right Hhoulder bare, as iu the Indian style, itut the 
shoulders aud chest are covered by an inner vest. It is adjusted 
nil round the body, covering both shoulders, on entering the housej) 
of laymen. Aud over all is thrown a plaited cloak or cope, cres- 
cent ic in shape.' 

But the ordinary lower robe of Lamas of all sects is an ample 
plaited petticoat, named " S'ara t'ab**,*'- of a deep garnet-red colour, 
which encircles the figure from the waist to the ankles, and is 
fastened at the waist by ft girdle, and with this is worn an nn- 
Bleeved vest, open in front like a deacon's dalmatin. On less 
oeremonial occasions a sleeved waistcoat is used ; and when travel- 
ling or visiting, is worn the ordinary Tibetan 
wide-sleevetl red gown, gatlicred at the waist 
by a girdle ; and always trousers. The 
sleeves of this mantle are broad and long, 
and in hot weather^ or on other occasions 
where greater freedom is wanted or the priest 
has to admiuister with bare arms, the arms 
are withdrawn from the sleeve*, which latter 
then hang loose. 

A sash is also usually worn, several yards 
loDj( and about three inches broad, thrown 
over the left shoulder, across breast, and tied 
in a bow over the right hip, and the re- 
mainder swung round the body.* 
ML Thus it will be seen that Lfimas of every 
Bet, the established church included, ordi- 
narily wear red robes, and it is the colour of 
the girdles (sKe-rag) and the shape and 
colour of the bat« which are the chief distinctive badges of the 


* sls-^ai. 

* (>r mt'an*gof. 

9 KoppiiK, ii., a68. 



sect. The holj-water bottle (Ch*ab-ltig), tigared on page 301, 
which haugs from the left side of the girdle, is also fringed \x^ ^ 
flap of cloth coloured red or yeHow according to the sect. 

The boots nre of stiff red and particoloured felt, with sole* of 

hide or Yak-hair, 

From the girdle hangst, in addition 
to the holy-wat^r bottle, a pen-case, 
jturse, with condiments, dice, etc^ 
sometimes the rosarv, when it is 
not in use or worn on the neck of 
wrist, and the amulet box. And in 
the upi^r flap of the coat, forming a 
breast jjocket, are thrust his prayer* 
wheel, drinkiag-cup, booklet?, 
charms, etc. 

The dre&s of the nuns geneialljp 
repembles that of the monks. The 
head is shaved, and uo ornaments 
^^ are worn.^ 

^ ^^^^ THE R08AKIES. 

The rosary is an essential part of 
a Lrima'.s dress ; and taking, as it 
does, such a jirominent jHu-t in the 
Lamoist ritual, it is remarkable tilt 
the Tibetan rosary does not appear 
to have attracted particular notice. 

As a Buddhist article the rosary 
apjjears only iu the latest ritualistic 
»tage when a belief had arisen in the 
potency of muttering mystic spelU 
ftiid other strange formulas. In 
the very complicated rosaries of 
Japan - it lias attained its highest 
Amongst southern Buddhistji * the rosary is not very cons{ucu- 


PKM*CAflK, Ikk-HUTTLE AMI Sk.\1 . 

<1hepra-CBie la cUrrr-lalAia Imn tnim 


I Cf. BoxxE, Marl^ p. 109. 

* *'Xote DO Buddhist Rottarms in jApnn." Bv J. M. Jjuiks frahs. Jap. A$. Sk,%^ 
173, 1881. 

■ ] have ilfftcribud Burtm»c Buddhist rosaricSt ns welt ng some of the L&inatct, li 
/.A.S.B.. iSKl. 



oiw, but amongst Tibetans it is everywhere visible. It i^ atso 

held in the hand of the image of the patron god of Tibet — Cha* 

tH-si ($kt., AvoickUewara). And ita use is not confined to the 

Lamas. Nearly every lay man and woman is possessed of a rosary, 

on which at every opportunity they zealously sitore up merit; and 

they also use it for secular purjmses,^ like the sliding balls of the 

Chinese to assist in ordinary calculations : the beads to the right 

of the centre-bead being . 

called ta-than and regis- -S^i**;lAi( jl^-^^- 

tering unit*, while those 

to the left are called c*u- 

d6 and record tens, which 

numbers suffice for their 

ordinary wants. 

The Tibetan name for 

the rosary is " ^pre^i-hft" 

pronounced Veh-ivd, or 

vulgarly Veii-nay and 

literally means " a string 

of beada/' 

The rosary contains 

108 beads of uniform 

size. The reason for this 

ftpecial numl>er h alleged 
yfco be merely a provision 
^b ensure the repetition 

of the sacred spell a full 

hundred times, and the 

esrtra beads are added 

to make up for any 

omission of beads 

through absent -mi adedn CSS during the telling process or for actual 

loM of beads by breakage. Cht^-re-si and Do-ma have each 108 


* Tho rosary lioti ^iruved a useful iiwlniment in tin' hands of our Lonia surveying 
■I^eg. Thui Wf find it reported w-ith reference to Gyantjc town, that a »ton« wall 
nearly twro-uid-a-lialf miles £oet round the town, and tlw* Lama estimatt-d ittt U>ugtli 
by Runmi of hi« nMarr at 4,S00 paces. At each \mcv lie dmppotl a b<>iu] and utt«n.*d 
the mystic **Oin mani padni Iim," while the good (w»jpln wlmarcnnipanicd him in hlg 

r' '-* tor or religious peraubulations little siupecti'd Uie nature of the wnrit he waa 
y dniTif. 

name^, but it is n(»t usual to fell these on the roearj'. And in 
the later Kham editions of the Luraaic siriptures — the ** bki- 
*gyur," — the volumes have been extended from ItK) to 108. And 
(he Burmejie foot-printsj of Buddha Hometimet^ contain 108 sulw 
divittionx. This number 'n^. |>erbapii borrowed, like so tuan^* other 
Lilinaist fashions, from the Hindus, of whom tbe Vaishnahs powww 
a rosarv with 108 beads. 

The two ends of the string of beads, before being knotted, ara 
passed through three extra beads, the centre one of which U tba 
largest. These are collectively called " retaining or seizing beads,* 
rdog-'dsin. The word is sometimes sj»elt y/ido-Vlsin, which mean* 
'*the union holder.** In either ca»e the meaning is much the 
aame. These beads keep the projier rosary beads iu position and 
indicate to the teller the completion of a cycle of tiead^. 

This triad of beads symlwlizei* "the Three Holy Ones "of tha 
Buddhist trinity, viz., Burldhn, Dharma (the Word), and Sangha 
(the church, excluding the laity). Tlic large central bead repre- 
sents Buddha, while the smaller one intervening between it ani) 
the rosary beaHs proper represents the church and is called *M)ar 
ratlical Lama" (or s]>iritual adviser),* the personal I^"imar-guide and 
confessor of the Til>etan Buddhist; and his symfctolic preBeuceoD 
the rosary imme<iiately at the end of the bead-cycle is to ensort 
becoming gravity and care in the act of telling the beads, as if he 
were actually present, 

The Gelug-pa, or established church, usually has only two 
beads as dok-dsin^ iu which case the terminal one is of much 
smaller size, and the [lair are considered emblematic of a vase from 
which the beads ypring. Tn such cases the extra bead is sometime* 
strung with the other beads of the rosarvt which latter then coft- 
tains 109 beads; thus showing that the heads really nnmber 111. 


Attached to the rosary is a \mx of strings of ten small jjendant 
metallic rings as counters. One of these strings is terminated br 
a miniature cfo'r;>(the thunderbolt of Indrn) and the other by* 
small bell — in TautriL* figures the dwje is uhusHv asso- 
ciated with a l>el)- The euuuters on the t/or/e-striug register uml^ 

* CM-wal bUt-tna. 



l-c^'clft*, while those on the bell-string mark tens of cycle.*. 

counters and tlie ornaineiits of the strings are usually of silver, 

inlaid with turquotite. These two strings of counters, called 

int-keepera,*' ' may be attached at any j»art of the rosary 

5g, but are usually attached at the eighth and twenty-first 

on either side of the central bead. 

They are URe<l in tiie following manner : When about to tell 

beads, the counters on each string are slid up the string. On 

ipleting a circle of the beads, the lowest counter on the dorje- 

Iring is slid down into contact with the dofje. And on each fiir- 

tber cycle of beads being told, a further counter is slid down. 

j When the ten have been exhausted, they are then slid up again, 

I and one counter is slipped down from the bell-string. The 

counters thus serve to register the utterance of 108 x 10 x 10=^ 

10,8()0 prayers or mystic formulas. The number of these formulas 

daily repeated in this way is enormous. The average daily number 

,of repetitions may, in the earlier .^tJiges of a haina's career, amount 

tS 5,000, but it depends somewhat on the zeal and leisure of the 
dividoal. A layman may repeat daily about five to twenty 
bead-cycles, but usually less. Old women are especially pious in 
this way, many telling over twenty bead-cycles daily, A middle- 
aged Liima friend of mine has repeated the spell of his tutelary 
deity alone over 2,0(>0,(KK) times. It is not uncommon to find 
rosaries so worn away by the friction of so much handling that 
CMu^nally globular beads have become cylindrical. 
^pAffiied to the rosary are small odds and ends, such as a metal 
to<itbpick, tweezer, small keys, etc. 

y t. 

Atat»ri^d of Ote Beadfi. 

ae materials of which the LTunaist rosaries are composed 

fky to a certain extent vary in costliness according to the wealtli 

of the wearer. The abbot of a large and wealthy monastery may 

have rosaries of pearl and other precious stones, and even of gold. 

I^umer relates* that the Grand Tashi I^uma jMssessed rosaries of 

H^rls, emeralds, rubies, sapphires, coral, aml>er, crystal and lapis- 





Kinds of RosarUs, 
The yellow rosary or Ser-Veh^ Fig, I, is the special rosary of the 
Ge-lng-i» or ** reformed acUoo!," also called ** the yellow hat Hect " 
(S'<i-«CT'). The beadi* are formed from the ochrey yellow wood 
of the C'aifCh\th tree, literally "the Bodhi tree" or tree of 
aapreme wisdom, which is said to grow in central China. The 
wood U 80 deeply yellow that it is doubtful whether it be really 
that of the Pipal (FicaH reli^/iofin), of which was the Hodhi tree 
under which Gautama attained his Buddhabood. These beads 
are manufactured wholesale by machinery at the temple called by 
Tibetans RUxvo tse-hu and by the Chinese V-tha Skan^ or "The 
Five Peaks," about 200 miles south-west of Pekin, Hue gives a 
sketch ^ of this romantic place, but makes no mention of iXa 
rosaries. This rosary is of two kinds, viz., the usual form of 
spherical beads about the size of a pea, and a less common form 
of lozeni^e-slmped perforate<l discs about the size of a sixpence. 
This rosary may be used for all kinds of worship, including that of 
the furies. 

The liO'dki-iee rosary is the one chiefly in use among the 
^5ifi-ma-i», or ** old (i,e., unreformed) school " of I^mas, also 
^Hled the S3'a-7nnr or " red-hat sect." It is remarkable that its 
name also seeks to associate it with the Bodhi tree, but its beads 
are certainly not derived from the Ficua family. Its beads are 
the rough brown seeds of a tree which grows in the outer Hima- 
layas. This rosary can be med for all kinds of worship, and 
may also be used by the Ge-Iuk-pa in the worship of the fiercer 

The white conch-shell rosary Tuk-Cen^'' Fig. 3, consists of 
eylindrical j)erforated discs of the conch shell, and is specially used 
in the worship of Avalokita — the usual form of whose image holds 
a white rosary in the upper right hand. This is the 6i>ecial rosary 

The rosary of plain crystal or uncoloured glass beads is also 
peculiar to Avalokita. 

The red sandal-wood rosary TBan-dfin-rnnrf Fig. 2, consists of 
perfoiat«d discs of red sandal-wood {Adenanihera pavoniiui) or 

t TmvtU in Tartarp, TUrttt and Ciiinn. tty M. Hcc (BaKlitt's tniu.)i U P- 79, and 



otbtT wowl of a siinnar ai>|tearance. It is use<l only in tin? wo^^hi|l 
of the fierce deity Taiii-diii {Skt., //(lyajrfJivi), a Bi)eoial prot 
of LamaisiQ. 

The coral rosary — dii-ru-Veh — i'b also used for the tutf^l 

fiend, Tam-din, and by the unreformed sects for their wizard-saint 

Padma-snmhhava. Coral being so expensive, red beads of gUi« 

or composition are in general use instead. With this rosary it \i 

' usual to have the counters of timiuoise or blue beads. 

The rosary formed of discs of the human skull — the fod-i'efi, 
tig. 6 — is especiidly used for the worship of the fearfiil tutelary 
fiend Vnjrar-bkairnva as the sUver of the king of the Dead. It is 
usually inserted within the Ho-ilhi-t»e or other ordinary rosary; 
and it fret|uently has its dist^s syinmetrieally divided by four large 
Jitiktiha beads into four series, one of these beads forming the 
central bead. There is no rosary formed of finger-bones, as has 
been sometimes stated. 

The "elei»hant-8toue" rosary — Lak-dCe^i-grod-jia — is prepared 
\ixom a ]M>rous bony-like concretion, which is sometimes found iu 
the stomacli (or brain) of the elephant. As it is suggestive of 
bone, it is used in worship of Yama« The real material being ex- 
tremely scarce and esj>eiisive, a gubstitute is usually found in 
beads made from the fibrous root of the bow-bambu (^*u^Ai?i)^ 
which shows on section a structure very like the stomach-stone, 
and it* name also means *' stomach or digestion " as well a.^ 
" bow." 

The Rahfhn rosary. Fig. 4, formed of the large brown warty seeds 
of the Elaocarpufs Jonih'USy is sf>ecially used by the Sift-nia 
Lumasiu the woi-ship of the fierce deities and demons. The seeds of 
this tree are normally five-lobed and ridged, and it is interesting 
from a botanical point of view to find how relatively fre<juent is the 
occurrence of six lobes. Such abnormal seed:^ are highly prizeil by 
the Tibetans, who believe ihera to be the offspring of some seeds 
of Padma-sambhavaV rosary, which, the legend states, broke 
at his Halashi hermitage in Nepal, and sevemi of the detached 
beads remaining unpicked up, these were the {virents of the 
six-lobed seeds. The demand for such uncommon seeds being 
great, it is astonishing how many of them are forthcoming 
to diligent search. This rosary is also commonly used by the 
indigenous B6n-po priests, and it is identical with the rosur}' 




the Hindus — the 'imdnlkshn (Rudra's or the fierce god t^iva's 
^eri, with refLTCuce to their re<i colour), from which the Tihebin 
ime of Rakshn is apparently derived. 

The Xau-ga pd-ni rosary is used ou\y for the worship of 

^ainsra, or Vaisravana, the god of wea!t!» ; and hy the wizards in 

their mystical incantationn. It consista of glossy jet-black nuts 

3Qt the size of a hazel, but of the shape of small horse chest- 

These are the seeds of the Lwk-fak tree which grows in 

16 sub-tropical forests of the S.E. Himalayas. They ai*e emble- 

oatic of the eyes of the Garuda bird, a henchman of Vajra-pHni (a 

brm of Jupiter) and the great enemy of snakes, and hence is 

ipposed to be derived tlie Sanskritic name of the beads, fro!n 

/«, a serpent. iU u?e in the worship of the god of wealth is 

iteresting in associating snakes, as the mythological guardians 

treasure, with the idea of wealth.' 

The rosary of 8>i/(i«-»j>ii'(:t!« (vertebrae), Fig. 7, is only used by 
le sorcerers in necromancy and divination. The string contains 
'about fifty vertebne. 

The complexion of the god or goddess to be worshipped also de- 
lines sometimes the colour of the rosary-beads. Thus a tur- 
|aoise rosary is occasionally used in the worship of the popular 
JFoddess Tfvra, who is of a bluisb-green complexion. A red rosary 
fith red Tam-diu, a yellow with yellow Maujusii ; and Vaisravan, 
fho is of a golilen-yellow colour, \^ worshipped with an amber- 

The rosaries of the laity are composed of any sort of bead accord- 
ing to the taste and we^dth of the owner. They are mostly 
fglass beads of variouj* colours, and the same rosary contains beads 
of a variety of sizes and colours interspersed with coral, amber, 
L tunjuoise, etc. The number of beads is the same as with the 
L JUlmas, but each of the counter-strings is usually termiuated by 
^b vajra : both strings record only units of cycles, which suffice 
^Bbr the smaller amount of bead-telling done by the laity. 

^P Moile of teilijtff the Beads. 

H When not in use the rosary is wound round the right wrist like 
a bracelet, a.s in figure on page 172, or worn around the neck with 
-the knotted end uppermost. 

1 Seep. 3ti& 



The act of telling tho beads is callecl tt(n~c\ which literally 
means "to purr" like a cat, aud the rauUeriug of the prayew 14 
rather (iuggestive of thin sound. 

In telling the bends the right hand is {»!is«l through the 
rosary, which is allowed to hang freely down with the knotted 
end upwards. The hand, with the tbumb upwards, is thea 
usually rairied to the breast and held there stationary during 
the recital. On prououooiug the initial word "0»i" the finst 
bead resting on the knuckle is grasped by raising the thumb 
and quickly depressing its Up to seize the bead againfit the 
outer jwirt of the second joint of the index finger. During 
the rest of the sentence the bead, still grasped between the 
thumb and index finger, i» gently revolved to the rigbt, 
and on conclusion of the sentence is dropped down the palm- 
side of the string. Then with another "Om" the next bead 
is seized and treated in like manner, and so on throughout the 

On concluding each cycle of the beads, it is usual to finger each 
of the three "keeper-beadn," saying respectively, "Ona !** "Ah!" 

The mystic formulas for the beads have already been illnstrated. 
They follow the prayer, properly so-ualled, and are believed to con- 
tain the essence of the formal pmyer, aud to act as jwwerful 
spells. They are of a Sanskritic nature, usually containing the 
name of the deity adtiressed, and even when not gibberish, as 
they generally are, thej* arc more or lc?!s unintelligible to the 

The formula used at any particular time varies according to the 
particular deity being worshipped. But the one most frequently 
used by the individual Lama is that of liis own tutelarj* deity, 
which varies according to the sect to which the Lilma be- 

The other articles of equipment comprise, amongst other 
things, a prayer-wlieel, tvyrff-sceptre and bell, skuU-dnun and 
smaller tamlxiur, amulet, booklets. Some even of the higher 
Lamas wear ornaments and jewellery.^ 

^ The Grand Lama of Tashi-lhunpo wore a jewelU-d necklace, which he presented to 
Mr. Bogle {Majuui., cxi.) 



A few possess a begging-bowl and the mendicant's staff/ but 
these are mostly for ritualistic displays, as the Lama is no longer 
a mendicant monk living on alms like the Indian Bhikshu of 

s Khar-til; Skt^ the onomatopoetic kiMUe or Hutrkko'rtaH, the alarm-staff Tvitli 
jingling rings carried by the mendicant monk to drown out by its jingling worldly 
sounds from the ears of the monk and to warn off small animals lest they be trod 
upon and killed. Its use is explained in Eoh-gyur D6, Vol. xxvi., Csoha, ^a., p. 479. 
Tbe Tibetan form is usually tipped by a trident in place of the leaf-like loop. 

uf a mendicant mook. 

F 2 


" He who esUt LAmod' fcKid 
Wants iron }mytn."—Tibff*n Pwnvr&.» 

[l/rHOUGH the Liimns are enslaved in the bonds of ritual 
tliey are not all gloomy ascetics, wrapped up in cou- 
templation, but most can be as blithe as their lay 
brothers. Their heavy round of ohser\'ance8, hovev»r, 
often lies wearily mxiu them, as may be seen from the freqapnl 
interruption.-* in the ordinary Lama's saintly flow of rhetoric to 
yawn^ or take part in aotne |>a8:<ing conversation on mundane 

The daily routine of a Lama differs somewhat according to 
whether he is living in a monastery, or 
aH a village priest apart from his clois- 
ter, or as a hermit. As with occideDtAl 
friars, a considerable proportion of liiniu.* 
have trades and handicrafts, labouring 
diligently in the tield, farm, and in the 
lower valleys in the forest. But scarcely 
ever is he a mendicant monk, like his 
prototype the Indian Bhikshu of old. 

The routine in the convents of the 
estabUshed church is seen at its be^ 
in the Grand Lama's private monasterr 
or chapel-royal ot ^am-gyal, on mount 
Potala, near Lhasa, and I am indebted to one of the monk» 

dtor «i6 Mt-la \rfiatf-tfi gravt-pa dyos. 

> Aft*T GitfTgi. 



that monastery for the following detailed account of the prac- 
ice followed there. 

RotrrmE ln a Monastery op the Established Church. 

Immediately on waking, the monk ^ must rise from his coach, 

en though it be midnight, and bow thrice before the altar in 

is cell, saying, with full and distinct enunciation: "O Guide 

great pity! hear rae! O merciful Guide! Enable me to keep 

the two hundred and fifty-three rules, including abstinence from 

singing, dancing, and music, and thoughts of worldly wealth, 

tiDg luxuriously, or taking that which has not been given," 

c, etc. 

Then follows this prayer - : " O Buddhas and Bodhisatt; of 
:e ten directions, hear my bumble prayer. I am a pure- 
miuded monk, and ray e^nrnest desire is to devote myself towards 
benefiting the animals] and having conseorateil my body and 
wealth to rirtue, I vow that my chief aim will be to benefit all 
living things." 

Theu is repeated seven times the following mantrn from the Sutra on 
"the wheel-blsRsing for the ftniinal universe"*: '*0m/ Sanibhara, Sam- 
mnhd jaha hiltn. I " Followed also seven times by this extract from 
t/hnrabi maitoilcar mtthd Jabn hilm / Om ! Smara xSmarabi matutsJcara 
Xorbu-rgyftfi-pahi-/^zbfll-med-k'ah : "On*! rud rrtmini pravartt/a fnim/"' 

This is followed by ** Chn ! Khrecara gaiiaya hri hri svaha ! " 
spell which if the monk thrice repeats and spits on the 
sole of his foot, all the animals which die under his feet during 
that day will be bom as gods in the paradise of ludra (Jupiter). 
\ Having done this worship, the monk may retire again to sleep 
if the night is not far advanced. If, however, the dawn is near 
he must not sleep but employ the interval in repeating several 
■wwiTi/nw or form?; of prayer (»mon-lam) until the bell rings for 
the first assembly. 

The first assembly, or matin, called " the early gathering " (flna- 

ttf0g9), is held before sunrise. The great bell goes and awakens 

;veryone hitherto slumbering, and it is soon followed by the gi*ent 

nch-sheli trumpet-call, on which signal the monks adjust their 


^ 1 hare traniiL-itrd by "monfc"' the word rfff<*-*Iofi, which U literally "the virtimns 
M>t;gHr," cirr»>f(p»mlinj; tn th(> Imtbii Kuddliltr wunl ithtkshu* or mendicaut. 
- CV'mpfiKftd hy wi'as-jfrn^nifi-'^ni'-rHiocjp. 
' 'gTf>wa'yoijg(<-su.bsngo-wai-'khr>r-lni.*tda 



dre»)t and gn outride th^ir cell or dormitory to the lavatory istoiip- 
flag or {jav^nu'iit (;*do-/>chal) for abluiion. 

^taudiiig ou thetie tftouef^yUiid before wiisUing, t»ch mouk chwU 
the following mantiti, and mentally conceives that all hi« isin^^u 
well as the impurities of his l)ody, nre l>eing washed away : "Ow.' 
nrghtim i«ttrf/hnrfi bimaiittse! lUsusnw maht} krodk kHTniphair 

Then with water brought in copper vesseU, and with a funchof 
jialine eflrth a? soaji,' they perform ablutions umally of a vm 
partial kind. 

After ablution each monk repeats, ro&ary in handi the miiiMi 
of his favourite deity (usually Manjusn or Tata), or his tutelar? 
tiend, a*' many time:} a» post^ible. 

On the second bUst of the conch-shell, about fifteen miDuiH 
after the first, all the fully-ordained monks bow down before the 
door of the temple, while the noWces bow upon tlie outer |«ved 
court. All then enter the temple and take their places accordiog 
to their grade, the most junior being nearest the door; and daring 
the ingress the provost -mart<hal stands rod in hand be«ide the 

The monks seat themselves in rows, each on his own mat, cvysh 
legged in HuddbH-fn.tliii>ii, and taking care not to allow his feet to 
project, or his upper vestmeuts to touch the mat. They pit in 
solemn silence, facing straight to the front. The slightest bre«ch 
of these rules is promptly punished by the rotl of the provost- 
marshal, or in the case of the novices by the clerical sacristan. 

At the thiixi blast of the conch-trumpet the following services 
are ^rhanted : — 

Invoking the blessing of eloquence; the refuge-formula; Tsioti 
K'aim's ritual of Um-brgya-mn. 

After which tea u served, but before it is drunk the presiding 
Luma snys a grace in which all join. 


The Laimts always Sfvy gi-aoe before food or drink. Most of tbc*? 
giTUM'H uif curiously blended with denionoUilry, though ihey ftlway** tar 
pervaded by universsul charity and other truly Buddhist prinoi|^es. 

' Tfiiii «artli li cjilliil Jtiry-^OT, but tlio hiKlt<'r LaiiiM UGc&ojip: "The Liiina auniiUr 
of tltu (iriuiil I.Jinia,"«i}-MSnrat'fiiLarrativ(>. " fcimuTly useO tn wa»lt liia tiuliui^fts'flMad 
with water niid »uy-^i powder, but now he uses a cahi; of P '* tnuisporeut Mmp." 

^ce btffoi^ drinking ton (whieli is Kerv«d out eight or ten timeB daily 
\i the tcinple:} nnd onthedi-aU — the service being interrupted for th^ 
teiuitoi-al refreshment) is : — 
" \W hniiilily heseecli tliee I we ftttd our relatives throu>fhont all 

onr life-uyirles, may never l>e separated from the three holy ones ! 

May the blessing of the- trinity enter into this drink I " [Then, 




her« Bprinkling n few dropB ou the ground with the tips of Vu 

for« aoii iniiMIc Bcigere, the grace is continued : — ] 
**To kII the dreiid locality, demons of tliU country, we oflTer thb good 

ChiQ«die tea 1 Let un obtain our wL(ibe.t ! And miiy the doctritits d 

Buddh* \tv exteuded 1 " 
The grace liefurti food of the establUhed church, the purest ol ftU 
the L&uiniist sects, U «fi follows: — 

•'Ttiw luw-ioitH food * of ahnndrrtl t«?mptinf;tAMee, is here reverentjy nffertJ, W 
ua—tht: animal t>einffii-t*> the Jiqaa (tlie DliyAni Itud4Uia«r *i>cl llti'^ 

ririnct'ly M«in>^ (cfrlestiid ItiHlhtMiUvM). May rich Mewings ovenprauithtt 
ikmI ! Ojn-Ah Hiifft! 
'* It iH MlTiMtvl Ui iho LAtiiA- Om OurN Pfi/m na»rid*tanh Hum ! 
" It is ttflV'nnl U> nil tlio Uuddliiwi itnU ftudhisattvim— ^>»i narcn BtuUlkct Bat- 

himtttru itij'ni tuiu'itiya-ah iltim/ 
•* It 18 nffered to iKe tMl^'UritH. wiu^heM, and dt/rttnorrji fidri^—Om Dmt 

Dt'kini Sri litmnmntnUt iHfitnrinh'a vty'ra nnivittufi-ah Uiim .' 
•'One pi«*pe (ik nfloruti) t<i the pjiw^irdil iI^iiHin-[nrd (<f1iAu-1»a}ii-1iyunp) ; 

Skt., ft/ititr*rarn]~Oot-Aprfi PintinaAfii hfiya #raA^ .' 
'* One piece t" Aprog-uia— OM-//(iriV(' *-t»yiha .' 
•'Onu jiiofe t" ' tin- liv*- tmmlred Iirdtliynt tir «ist*rft'* — OiH ffariie moAa-rn^- 

t/aljtAiiii harn-hnra snmt fapimokshi nvuhti ,' 
"TluK frHul, of little virtue, }h itlfered eouipaH!tionateiy ami without angfr «r 

prido. or a^ a return for pfuit favours : bui solely iu (.he liopi.' that we—al) 

t)ie nniiiinl )H^iii>;T(— may becunie holy and attain th« rank of the uwi 

perfect BiiddlmhtMkd." 

When any Besh-meat is in the diet, then the following gnce i» 
reI>eatt^d seven tiiuee in order to cleanae from the sin of Blnti^hter and 
ol euting flesh : " Om nhira kfte-m-ra UHrjif" And by the efficar}- of 
this spell. th(* aniriial, whose flesh is eaten, will be reborn iu heaven. 

The following grace is for the special benefit of the donors of pro- 
viBions, ton, etc., to the monastery, and it is repeated before the monks 
parUkko of food so gifted : — 

*'Salntati(iD to the all-victorinns Tnthagata Arhat. The most perfect Buddha. 
The fiery and most illuniinnting kin^of prccioiiK lijjht ! Matno ! Samanta- 
prabhti-rnff/ii/ii Titthujntrnjn Arltnte. unmaifak-Htidmioyn S'nnu/ 3faAJvtn- 
ye. Kumfirtt-BhtiMyn Botffti^oftivit/a woka-snttonyn ; T»<iyttthn ! Om 


1 Z'dl-aaa, 

* Yidnm mK'nh-gro ch'M-«kj-oA. 
" Tliis 19 the pelehrati-d man-oating Valthini ftendeM. with the 600 children, wlu«e 

youngest and most Iwlovod son, rinjtala, was hid away by Buddha (or, as eomo I^mas 
•*y» by his chief disciple, MAudgalyarnna) in hin beffpng-bowl until nhr. proinicH'd to 
i^ease cannibatium, and nccnpt tho ihiddhi^it dwtrine as detailed in the Jttfitohira 
S&tra. Sec also the Japftnose version nf lliis legt^nd, foolnote p. 99- Tlie Lainaa auert 
that SuddhA also promidod Rariti that thn moiAti of hi» order would liereaftcr f.^ 
both herself and her Bons : heii«^ their iritrfMJurtiim into thin grace ; and each L&ma 
daily leaves on his plnw a Imndfiil i-f his food expressly for these demons, and thrt« 
]eiLvlng)4 an* rerenionitjusly gnthonni and thrown down outaide the tnonastery gat« to 
these /,r*taM and other stiin'eling demons, 

* Tlie children of tlie above Hariti. 

TtthtmhSf-nira-hhnn^jayr-jaydnhtihr. mahA-tuntn'afmhinttmtnf /tfirutodhdud 
«wj!t'i. (The efticacy of rt^citiKg tliis vmnfra in thni* tlewnhptl, tula's 
the (ie-lug-pa iiianaal it! tliul^ wnrittiip, in t\m I'inntjn-Sillrn : " Wlien 
this 18 repe&teil once all «iiiH will Iw rlpan^wl, nrni llie dispensers of the 
gifbi will nave their desires fulfilled." Then here follow wilh :— ) 
> May 1 ncMiin bliss by virtue of this ^if C 1 
*Mbv I attain hiisa by deep meditatton, Ihe eeremonial rit««, reverence and 

trift offerings ! 
" May I attain perfect bliss and the supreme perfection of the rnal end 

{A'irvtinn] ! 
" May I obuiin thf> fo«Hl of lueilitation of the Iniitilredtafltes. power, and bright- 

ncsM of cduntenance by virtue of thia ftKHl -offering I 
FHay I obtain rebirths of wiwiuin, void of thirst, nanger, and dUeAse. by 
_ virtue of this repentance-dffering ! 
" May 1 otitAin unallnyeil happinetts, free tnnii worldly birth) old age, diM!>v*e. 

and death ! 
'■ >Iay the dinpenscr nf these gifts attain jwrfeoiion by virtue of thenc, hit* 

liberal ;;ifu I 
'■?blay ibe hiitimn Iteings and all tlie other antnialfi, obtain deliverance by 

virtue (»f tilts vast offering t 
_'' May all the Buddhists. Nanda, I'lvananda. etc.. the go«l« of the natural dwell- 
inji. the kiui;, ihiM difipetiMer of gIftB, and the populace generally, obtain 
evcrla«tinj» liappinejw, long life, and freedom fn^ni di^ienw. 
*?klfty all the hnnian beings, bj- *"irtue of this (gift), obtain luck in liotly and 
i fore knowledge. 

^^* May the hom>jt of aniiualM be realized as by the wifth -granting gem {('intn- 
^^b mani) anil the wisb-grantlng tree {Kn/patarn), and may glory come on all I 

After the tea-refreshment^ the following services are jierformed : 
The Great Compftssionators liturgy, the praise of the disciples or 
Stkninras, the offering of the magic-cirolc or 'ouiitffala, though 
the great circle is not offered every day, Ydii-ten-zhi-gt/urnutf 
and the worship of the awful Bhairava, or other tutelary, such 
as Sai'idus, Dem-ch'og, or Tara. But a« these latter liturgies are 
very long, they are interrupted for further tea-re fresh me nt. And 
at this stage, that is, in the interval hetween the 6rst and second 
portions of the tutelary's worship, is done auy sacerdotal service 
needed on account of the Uity, such as masi<es for the sick, 
or for the soul of a deceased {>erson. In the latter case it is 
publicly announced that a person, named so-and-ao, died on such 
a date, and his relatives have given tea and such-and-such present, 
in kind or money, to the Lamas for masses. Then the hfimas do 
the service for sending the soul to the western paradise.^ Or, if 
the service is for a sick person, they will do the Ku-rim^ ceremony. 

The tutelary's aer\'ice is then resumed, and on its conclusion 
ta and soup are served. Then is chanted the S'es-rab shit- 

1 See chapter on worship. 

* Not phooetic for " cure him." 



po, ader wbioli the assembly clofies, and the mnnks Hie out aioglT; 
first from the extreme rigl»t bench, then from the extreme left, 
the youngest going first, and the most senior of the re-iucarnated 
iiaintly I^mas last of all. 

Tlje monks now retire to their cells, where they do their 
]irivate- devotions, and ufier food to their tutelary deitie<; 

often marking the time to he oc. 
cupied !>y pftrticular devotional ex<»r- 
cises by twirling with the finger aod 
thumb their table-prayer-wheel, aod 
while it spin:?, the exercise last*. 

The orisouii are chanted to the 
clamour of noisy instruments when- 
ever the bunV disc is first seen in 
t he morning. Th en the hat is 
doffed, and the monk, facing the 
sun, and uplifting bis right band to 
fi t^nluting ]>osture, chants ** It has 
nrii-en ! It has arisen ! The glorious 
one has arisen ! The suik of happi- 
ness bas arisen ! The goddess MazicI 
has arisen ! Om-Mariclnam svS- 
hu ! " On repeating this mantra of 
MaricT seven times, he continues 
with: " Whenever I recall your name 
I am protected from all fear. I pray 
for the attainment of the great stainless bliss. I salute you, 
goddess MaricT! Bless me, and fulfil my desires. Protect 
me, O Goddess, from all the eight fears of foes, robbers, wild 
Iveasts, snakes, and" poisons, weapons, firewater, and high preci- 

The second assembly, called "the After-heat" (t'sa-jjtifi) is 
held about' 9 a.m., when the sun's beat is felt. On the first blast 
of the conch all retire to the latrine. At the second blast all 
gather on the pavement, or, if raining, retire to a covered court 
to read, etc. At the third blast — about fifteen minute-s after the 

pBWKK-f'VI.IM-m lull TaMI.K. 

• Time is only known appnixiinnU'lj-.',-u» it is u«u.-illy, a* tlic iininc for hour (cli'il* 
ImpUea, kept by itf^ater-clock*. (Kee '*C*ii-ts'ttl."IUM.*Av's />.Vf.,p. <J8),and also by 
I Immln^ uf tApers, 





lond — all re-assemble in the temple aud perform tlie service of 
Inviting the religiouit giuirdian (*tieud^." During tbi^ worship 
is thrice served, and on its conclusion the monks all leave the 
imple. The younger monks now jxire over their lessons, and 
weive instructions from their teachers. 

The third assembly, called " Xoon-tide," is held at noon. On 
e first blast of the conch all prejmre for the sitting. At the 
lond they aaaemlileou thei>avemeut,and at the third they enter 
e temple and perform the worship of " bS'ags-jwi " and " hSkafk- 
," during which tea is served thrice, aud the meeting dis- 

Each monk now retires to his cell or room, and discarding his 

offers sacrific** to his favourite dpities, arranging the fii-st 

of the rice-offt^ring with scnipuloas cleanliness, imprebsing it 

ith the four marks, and surrounding it with four pieces bearing 

e impress of the four fingers. After this he recites the " Praise 

the three holy ones." * 

Then lay servants bring to the cells a meal consisting of tea, 

and pdk (a cake of wheat or tsam-|ta*l. Of this food, some 

be left a? a gift to the hungry iiuutesy Hariti and her 

ins. The fragments for this purpose are carefully collected by 

he servants and thrown outside (he temple buildings, where they 

are consumed by dogs and birds. The monks are now free to 

perform any jxTsomil busiuet^s which they have to do. 

The fourth asseiiibly, calletl "First (after-) noon tea** (dguft- 
,-dan-po) is held about 3 p.m. The monks, summoned by 
three blasts of the conch as before, perform a service somewhat 
similar to that at the third assembly, and offer cakes and pmise 
to the gods and divinedefenders, during which tea is ibriceserveti, 
and the assembly dissolves. 

Then the junior monks reWse their lessons, and the pttvpa or 

middle-grade monks are instructed in rhetoric ami in sounding 

hf cymbals and horns. And occasionally public wrauglings «g 

'rea4ly described are held on set themes to stimulate theological 


Tiie fifth asi*embly or vesjx^r, called ** The Second (after-) noon 

"is held about 7 p.m. The conch, as formerly, calht thrice to 

^ See chapter oa woniUJii. 

the temple, where is chanted the worahip of Taft-rak ami tbf 
prayers of glory (6kra-shi«), during which tea is g^iven thrir**, 
and the assembly dioaolves. After this the monks return to their 
roouia till the second night bell rounds, when the junior monlc? 
rej)eat from memory before their te-aeherii certain scriptures aiui 
other tnxts; and at the third bell all retire to their cellf to 


The routine in the monasteries of the unreformed or ^in- 
ma sects dejMirts considerably from the high standard alwve 
described, and introduces more demonolatry and the worahip i*f 
the deiHed wizard <iuru Padma-sambhava. 

The practice followed at Pemiongchi mona^try ie here 
described ; — 

In the morning, after offering the sacred food, incense, and 
butter-incense, a conch-sbell is blown, on which all the monb 
must come out of their chambers. On the second blast all collect 
in the great assembly ball, and during this entry into the hall 
the provoBt-marshal stands beside the doo; with his rod in hand. 
All the monks seat themselves in Buddha-fashion, as before 

The slightest breach of the rules of etiquette and discipline is 
promptly inintslieil by the rod of the provost-marshal, or, in the 
case of the younger novices, by the sacristan. 

\\Tien all have been properly seated, then two or three of the 
most inferior novices who have not passed their examination, aud 
who occupy back seats, rise up and serve out tea to the aasembW. 
as already described, each monk producing from his breast pocket 
his own cup, and having it filled up by these novices. 

The service of tea iH succeeded by soup, named gSol-jam t*ugpa, 
and served by a new set of the novice underlings. When the cups 
are filled, the precentor, joined by all the monks, chants "the 
Sacrificial OflFering of the Soup." Three or four cups of soup are 
supplied to each monk. The hall is then swept by junior monks. 

The precentor then inspects the magic circle* to see that it U 
correct, and, this ascertained, he commences the celebration, con- 

1 No Uymui is allowed to serve aut th^ monks' food In the tpinplc. The l\y tier- 
viintA bring it to tli<> out«lde door of the building, and there deiHwit It. 




g uf the itNihi/-*gro aud the refiige-formulH, and Las-ehyan^ 
ou the conclusion of which the assembly ditipenjeit. 

About 8 A.M. the conch-shell blast again summons the monies to 
:he assembly liall, where, after partaking of refreshments of tea 
aud parched grain in the manner already described, a full celebra- 
tion is done. And on its conclusion the monks disperse. 

About 10 A.M. a Chinese drum is beaten to muster the monks 
ill the assembly ball. At thit* meeting rice and meat and vege- 
tables are served out as before, aud with this is also sen-ed beer 
called gSos-rgyubf the " food-sacrifice '" (ITo-mch'od) l:)eiug done as 
formerly. A full celebration is then x^erformed, and the meeting 

In the afternoon a conch-shell is blown for tea, and a Chinese 
gong calls for beer, the monks assembling as before, and doing 
a full celebration of the worship of the lord (demon) MahSkalS and 
the guardians of religion respectively. 

When sacerdotal celebrations on behalf of laymen have to be 
done, such are introduced within the latter celebration, which is 
interrupted for this purjMjse. And after each of these extra cele- 
brations the monks remain outsider the assembly hall for a very 
short time and then re-assemble. On finishing the extra services, 
the worship of the religious guardians is theu resumed and con- 

In the evening another assembly, preceded by tea us refresh- 
ment, conducts the celebration of sKuii-shage with one hundred 
and eight lamps. 

.\nother and final assembly for the day is made by beat of drum, 
and rice and flesh-meat is served out. 

The refreshments and meals usually number nine daily. 


^y The monk, immediately on waking, must rise from bis couch, 
^ even though it be midnight, and commence to chant the Mi-rtak- 

rgyiid-bekiU, taking care to pronounce all the words fully and dis- 
I tinetly. This contains the instructions of his special Liimu-pre- 
^■pptor, and in its recital the monk must recall vividly to mind his 
P^>iritual guide. This is followed by a prayer consisting of 

numerous requests for benefits of a temporal nature desired by 
le petitioner. 




Then lie assumeu the meditative posture of the seven attittide 
and gets rid by phveical means of the "three original sint*.'" 

Then, coercing liis tutelary demon into t."onferring on him 
fiendii^h guise, he chants *^ the four preliminary Kervice« "^ : — 

The aJ'tfrt-yro bii-'Ayor. These are the refuge formula, which de 
the darkneM of the body ; the hundred letters, which cleftinse hII 
Bcurity in speech, and the magic-circle of rice, the MattdaUi^ wli 
cleauseH the mind ; und the prayer enumeruting the LilmiiH up to 
most perfect one, which confers perfE<'tion on the monk hiiuHelf. 

This is followed by the cltantiug of hLa-yruh, "the obtaiuiug of 
Ij&mA," and " the obtaining of the ornanieuts, &Seii'grub'' 

The mild deity in this worship is called "The Placid One,' 
and the demon "The Kepulsive."-' The demoniacal form m 
be recited the full number of times which the Lama bound him 
nlf to tlo by vow before his spiritual tutor, namely, one himdred, 
one thousand, or ten thou^nd times daily. Those not botmd in 
this way by vows repeat the charm as many times as they con- 
veniently can. 

Having done this, he may retire again to sleep, if the night be_ 
not very far advanced. Kut if the dawB is near, he must m 
go to sleep, but should employ the interval in gevernl sorts 

As soon as day dawns, he must wash his face and rinse hi 
mouth and do the worship above noted, should he not ha 
alrea<ly done so ; also the following rites: — 

1st. Pi-epare sacred food for the six sorts of beings {Ri*jt~sArv*j 
gtorma) and send it to tantalized ghosts. 

2ud. Offer incense, butter-incense, and winen^blation (gSer^sKymi^ 
The incense is oHered to the good spirits— firstly, to the chief god and 
the L&mn; secondly, to the class of '* king " goils ; and thirdly to the 
mountain god ** Kanchinjinga." Then offerings are made to the spirit* 
of cavoii (who guarded and still guiu-d the hidden revelations therein 
deposited), the " enemy-god of battle," the country gods, the local 
demigods, and " the eight classes of deities." The butter- inoense 
only given to the most malignant class of the demons and evil spiri 

Some breakfast is now taken, consisting of weak soup, follow* 
by tea with parched grain. Any especial work which has to 
doue will now be attended to, failing which some tautrik or other 




ice Till be chtinted. And if any temple or Cnitya be at hand, 
se will be circumambulated with " prayer-wheel " revolving in 
id, and chanting nxantras. Then is done any prieatly service 
|uired by the villagers. 

Ibout two o'clock in the afternoon a meal of rice is taken 
lowed by beer by those who like it, or by tea for non-beer 

Ibont six o'clock p.m. is done the gtor-bsAos ser^'ice, in which, 
■r assuming his tutelai-y dignity, he chants the srton-gro and 
ige formula. Then is done a sacrificial worship * with l)eU 
id small drum, followed by an invocation to the hoata of Lamas, 
?larieB, and the supernatural def^Morea fidei. 
Ibout 9 or 10 P.M. he retires to eleep. 


}addbit;m in common with most religions had its hermits 
retired like John the Baptist into the wilderness. And such 




riodical retirement for a time, corresponding to the Buddhist 
Lent (the rainy season of India, or VarflArt, colloq, ** l)arsat "), when 
travelling was difficult and unhealthy, was an essential i«irt uf tlie 
routine of the Indian Buddhist. Tsoi'i K*apB enforced the obser- 

' inni*'<{ja. 

' AftiT Hue. 



vance of this practice, but it has now fallen mucli into abeyance. 
Probably the booths which are erected for the head Lama» in 
Sikhim during their viaits to villages iu the autumn^ Are vesiigw 
of this aucieut practice of retirement to the forest. 

Theoretically it is jiart of the training of every young Laznato 
spend in herinitAge a i>eriod of three years, three moDths^aoil 
three days, in order to accustom himself to ascetic rites. But tiui 
practice is very rarely observed for any period, and when it U I 
oliserved, a period of three mouths mid three days is considered 
sufficient. During this geolusiou he re|jents the speil of his tutelary 
deity an incredible number of times. The Muln-^offa 9rigon-grOy 
c-omplete in all its four sections, must be repeated 100,0(M> 
times. In chanting the refuge-formula portion, he must prostrate 
himself to the ground 100,000 times. The repetition of the Yigt- , 
brt/ifa-pa it^eU takes about two months ; and in addition must 
be chanted the following voluminoas services : P yi-'grub, naii- 
'grub, g8a]\-'grub, bla-'grub, siien-grub, 'prin-Ias, and bzi-'grub. 

Those who permanently adopt the hermit life are called **Llie 
packed-up ones"' and those of the highest rank are "the great 
recluses."^ They are engaged in ascetic exercises and are uso&llj 
followers of the Vajrayiina system, seeking Sidffhi and its wiuid 
powers by the aid of the pukkini she-devila and the king-deviU 
who are their tutelaries. 


Like western friars, the Lamas have a considerable proportitm 
of their numbt^r engaged iu trades and ha u die rafts. The monki' 
ll/ *^ praotically divided into what may be culled the spiritual and 
the tempoml. The more intelligent are relieved of the drudgery 
of worldly work and devote themselves to ritual and meditattoo. 
The lei^s intellectual labour diligently in field or farm and in 
trading for the benefit of their monastery ; or they collect the rents 
and travel from village to village begging for their |Mireut monas- 
tery, or as tailors, cobblers, printers, etc. Others again of the 
more intellectual members are engaged as astrologers in casting 
boroscojws, as jminters or in image-making, and in other pursuits 
contributing to the general funds and comfort of the monastery. 

' mWiim-*-ftff, 

' BjfOm-ch'tlt. 




The diet of the Lamas is the ordinary rather !$partan fare of 
le country ' consUting mainly of wheat, barley^ or buck-wheat 
ad ot'casionaUy rice, milk and butter, eoup, tea and meal. The 
ily flesh-meat allowed is itheep, goat, and yak ; fish and fowl are 
rohihited. The fully-ordained monk:?, tlie Ge-Iongs, are BUpposed 

eat abstemiously and abstain totally from meat ; though even 
le Grand Luma of Tashi-lhnn{)o appears to eat flesh-food.* 

Neither the monks of the established church nor the holier 
JAmaB of the other sects may drink any spirituous liquor. Vet 
aey offer it as libations to the deviU. 

For f'lod of Hbetaiu, sk TuwntR's £mhti$ty, S4-M, etc. ; PxKBmTOH, 150 : Moob- 
,Ul8a.etc.; Hrc.H.,S58: CxnmivoiUM'a Lmtlak,905: Bocx^ L^ pamm. 
;U* In Mauiiuji, p. 200. 

(of diTfr). 


^ntralized goveniment. The so-called patriarchs bad only veiy 
>iuiual jKjwer and no geueitiUy recognized position or functions. 

id even the later Imliaa monasteries ha<l each its own sejtarate 
Imiiiiiftration, and its ovni chief, inde}>endent of the others; a 
Similar state of afiair:< seems to have prevailed in Tibet until the 
thirteenth century. 

The hierarchical system of Tibet seema to date from the thir- J>" 
enth L'ennrry a. D., when the Lama of the i^as-kya monastery was 
ited a jwpe by the Great Mongol emperor of Ohina^ Kubilai 

lan. This Sas-kya Uima, receinngalsoa certain amount of tern- 

>ral p:>wer, soon formed a hierarchy, and some generations later 

titid the other sects forming rival hierarchies, which tended to 

ike the power out of the hands of the petty chiefs who now 

rc-elled out Tibet. In 1417, doctor Tsoii Kajta founded the 

j-lug-pa sect, which under his powerful urgani/atiou soon de- 
eloped into the strongest of all the hierarchies, and five genera- 
ions later it leapt into the temporal government of Tibet, which 

still retains, so that now its church is the established one of the 

Priest-kingship, a recognized stage in the earlier life of social 
istitutions, still extends into later civilization, as in the case of 
ho emperors of China and Jajwin, who fill the \mst of high-priest. 
tt was the same in Burma, and many eastern princes who no 
Dnger enjoy " the divine right of kings," still l>ear the title of 
' god/' and their wives of ** goddess." 

The Grand Lama who thus became the priest-king of Tibet 
a most ambitious and crafty prelate. He wa^ named 
Cag-wah Lo-zail, and was head of the De-pung monastery. At 
is iustigatiou a Mongol prince from Koko Nor, named Guari 
[han, conquered Tibet in 1640, and then made a present of it to 
lis Grand Latna, together with the title of Dalai ur " the vast" 

terally "ocean") Lama,' and he was confirmed in tfiis title 
ad kingly possession in 1650 by the Chinese emperor. On 
ccount of this Mongol title, and these priest-kings being first 
Bade familiar tu Europeans thnnigh the Mongols,- he and bis 

< The Tit)etaji for tliis Mungol wortj is xifya-mWo, iirnl in Uie Uttt of Grnntl Laoiu 
wiw o( his prpdwt'wore and Burcessom twar tliis titl*: aa part of tlicir pcrtonal 
iinr. And the Mongolian for rin-po-ch'(> is ** ErtenMt." 

3 Through the wurkti of Oiot|[i, rallais and KJa|'n>Ui. 

Q 2 



BUccesRors nre called by some Enropeans ** D(d<ii (or Tale) Ijfinm,* 
though the first Dalai Litma was really the fifth Grand Laiua af 
the estabhshcd ^-hurch ; but this title i^ practically unknown to 
Tibetans, who cal! the LhSsa Grand Lamas, Gyal-wa Rin-po-ch'e, 
or "The gem of majesty or victory," 

In order to consolidat*! his new-found rule, and that of his 
church in the priest-kingship, this prelate, as we have seen, posed 
as the deity Avalokila-in-t he-flesh, and he invented legends 
magnifying the powers and attributes of that deity, and trans- 

(IauuiiRt« !ti the Didftl LAma.) 

ferred his own residence from De-pung monastery to a palace 
which he built for himself on "the red hill "near hbusa, the name 
of which hill he now altered to Mount Potala, after the mythio 
Indian residence of his divine prototype. He further forcibly 
seized many of the monasteries of the other sects and converted 
them into his own Ge-lug-pa institutions^ ; and ho developed the 

1 Amongflt otlkprn hp aeiutd t-he mnniiBten- r>f thr grtmi Tarutintha, &nd demoliKhcd^ 
many uf tluit llama's IniililitigB and books, for micli un honest historian was ooi at all 
to lus taste. 



fiction of succession by re-incamate Lflmas, Rnd by divine re- 


The other aect« accepted the situation, as they were indeed 
forced to do ; and all now, while stiU retaining each its own separate 
hierarchical system, acknowledge the (Jraud I/ima of Lhasa to be 




(Froni KUxber't China lUiutrata.) 

the head of the l^maist chiirch, in that he is the incarnation of 
the powerful Buddhist deity Avalokita, And they too adopted 
the attractive theory of the re-incarnate succession and di\iue 
refleies. - , 

It is not easy to get at the real facts regarding the origin and \f 
development of the theory of re-incarnate Lamas, va the whole 
question has been purposely obscured, so as to give it the api>ear- 
ance of antiquity. 

It seems to me that it arose no earlier than the fifteenth century, 
and that at first it was simi>ly a scheme to secure stability for the suc- 
cession to the headship of the sect against electioneering intrigues 
of crafty Liimas, and was, at first, a simple re-incarnation theory ; 
which, however, must not be confused with the orthodox Buddhist 
theory of re-hirth as a result of Karma, for the latter is never con- 
fined in one channel. On the contrary, it holds that the spirit of the 
deceased head I^ma is always reborn in a child, who has to be 
found by oracular signs, and duly installed in the vacant chair; and 
OQ bis death is similarly reborn^ and ao on ad uf^ni^um. 

230 Tllf-: inEHAUCUr ASti tiK-iyCAUNATE LAMAS 

^ tl 




thus Becuringf on qaasi-Baddhlstie prinoipleft, continuous sac- 
cession by the same individual through successive re-emlwiliments. 

The first autheutic in!*tauce of re-iucarnatf Lumas -whicli I can 
find 18 the first of the Gmnd I«lniafl of the Cre-huj-pa, namely, Oe- 
den-ilub. Had this theory been invented prior to I'soii Iv'ajiaV doatli 
in 1417 A.I>., it is practically certain that the succession to T*oti 
K'ajMi would have begun with an infant re-incamation. But wp 
find the infant re-incarnationship only be^rinninft with the death of 
Tsofi K'apa's successor, namely, his nephew and pupil, Ge-den-iiub 
af()rosai<] ;and from this epoch the Buccession to the Ge-lug-pa GrainJ 
Lama^hip has gone on according to thiB theory. As the practice 
worked well, it was rtoou adopted by the Latnas of other sects, and 
it has BO extended that now nearly every great monastery has its 
own reincarnate Lama as its chief, and some have sevemi of these 
amongi^t their higher officiaU. 

The more developed or expanded theory, however, of celestial 
LiSma-reflexes, which ascribes the spirit of the original Lama to ao 
emanation {Xirmnna k'tyn^ or, changeable IkkIv) ' from a jar- 
ticular celestial Buddha or divine Bodhisat, who thus becttme 
incarnate in the church, seems to me to have been of much later 
origin, and most probably the invention of the crafty I>alai Lima 
Kftg-waft, or (iyal-wa Na-pa,* about 150 years later. For, previou? 
to the time when this latter Orand Lima began to consolidate 
his newly-acquired temporal rule over Tibet, no authentic records 
Beem to exist of any such celestial origin of any Lamas, and (he 
theory seems unknown to Indian Buddhism.* And this I>«lai 
Lama is known to have taken the greatest lil>erties with the tra- 
ditions and legends of Tibet, twisting them to fit in with his disin^ 
pretensions, and to have shaped the Lamaist hierarchy on the lines 
on which it now exists. 

This Dalai Lama, Gyal-wa Na-jm, is tlie first of these celestial 
incarnate L"imas which I can find. He was made, or, as I conjiider, 
made himself, to l>e the incarnation of the most popular Bud- 
dhist divinity iwsaible, namely, Avalokita, and to the same rank 
were promot-ed the four Grand Lflmas who preceded him, and who, 

1 Cf. anU. 

» LiUrnlIy **Tbe fifUi Jinn." Cf. also PiXD^ //.. No. M. 

» None of tlip Mvcalk'd biogTii|iliiP8 of Atf^ and t^rlier Indian mntilu rantaiD- 
iag any such ri-fprt-nci-ii can rcrtainly Ik* placed earlier llian this period. 



vetber with htmself, were identifitHl with the mo^t famoue king 

Tibet, to wit, Srort Tsan Gampo, thus seouring the loyalty of 

^e people to hia rule, and justifying his exercise of the divine 

jht of kingH ; and to ensure prophetic sanction for this scheme 

wrote, or caused to be written, the mythical so-called history, 

ini kah-'bum. It wus then an easy task to adjust to this theory, 

th retrospective effect, the bygone and present saints who were 

>vr aflftliated to one or other of the celetitiaL Buddhas or Bodhisats, 

best suited their position and the church. Thus, Tsoft K'apa, 

tving been a contemporary of the first (iraud Lama, could not 

Avaloicitesvara, so he was made to be an incarnation of Maa- 

Bri, or " the god of wisdom," on whom, also, Atlsa was 

iliated as the wisest and most learned of the Indian monks who 

visited Tibet; and so also King Thi Sroft Detsan, for his aid 

1 founding the order of the Lamas. 

It also seems to me that Na-pa was the author of the re-in- 

ite Lama theory as regards Tashi-lhuniio monastery and the 

tilled double-hieraichy ; for an eiamiuatiou of the positive 

ta on this subject shows that Uie first re-incamate Lama of 

ishi-lbuui>o dates only from the reign of this Na-}>a, and seven 

years after his accession to the kingship of Tibet. 

j^H Tashi-lhunpo monastery was founded in 1445 by Geden-dub, 

^pe first Grand Ge-Iug-pa Lama, wlio seems, however, to have 

mostly lived and to have died at Dc-pung. 

It will be noticed from the Hst of Tiishi Grand Lamas ^ that 
(reden-dub, the founder of Tashi-lhunpo, contrary to the ciurent 
opinion of European writers, does not appear as a Tashi I^ama at 
all. This official list of Tashi-lhunpo, read in the light of the 
biographies of these Lamas,- clearly shows that previous to the 
Lfima who is number two of the list, and who was born during 
the latter end of Dalai Liima Na-jja^s reign as aforesaid, none 
of the Tashi-lhunpo Lamas were regarded as re-incarnations at 
all. The first on this list, namely, Lo-zafi Ch*o-kyi Gyal-ts'an, 
began as a private monk, and travelled about seeking instruction 
in the ordinary way, and not until his thirty-first year waa he 
promoted to the abbotshfp, and then only by election and on 

I pPMcntly tn he ^vcn. 

s Some of which liavi' bot^n tran»lati>d by»ABAT (J.^^jfr., 18S3. 26 ie^.). 


account of diMingaished ability. It is aIm interMting to oote 
thftt on the dentil, in 1614, of the fourth Grand I^ania of lh« 
Ge-lug-}>a (named Yon-tan), whom he had ordained, he w 
instnlled in the abbotship at Gfih-ldan Tnonastery, and in 1622, at 
the age of o3, he initiated, as fifth Grand Lama« the in£ant Nv 
{Hi, who villi then seven years old, and who afterwards beoainf 
Ihe great Dalai iJiraa. 

And he continued to be the spiritual father and close friend and 
adviser of Na-i»a, and seems to have begun those jKiHlical 
negotiations vrliich culminated in (he cession of Tibet to \m 
proUge. When he died, in 1662, his si)iritual son Na-pa, wbo 
was 47 yeat^ old, and had been 22 years in the kingship, promptly 
re-incarnated him, and also made him out to be his own spiritoal 
father, even a^ regards the divine emanation theory. Thus the 
new-born babe was alleged to be an incarnation of Avalokita's 
spiritual father, Amitabha, the Buddha of Boundless Light ; and 
he was given a considerable share in the management of the 
eftabltphed churcli. This, however, merely perpetuated the rela- 
tions which had actually existed between these two Grand IAvsom 
as father and son, and which had worked so well, and had suvh 
obvious political advantages in providing against interrepnums. 

In the bierarchic-al scheme of succession by re-incAmate Lamms 
the Lhasa Grand LSma, who wields the sovereign ])ower, thus gave 
himself the highest place, but allotte<l tlie Tashi-lhnnpo Grand 
Lama u, position second only to his own. Below these come the 
other re-incarnate Lamas, ranking according to whether they are 
reganled to be re-embodiments of Indian or of Tibetan saints. Tlie 
former class are called " the higher incarnations " or Tul-Ku,' and 
by the Mongols KkiUaktn* They occupy the position of cardinals 
and archbishops. The lowest re-inc4imate Lamas are regarded 
As re-embodiments of Tibetan saints, and are named ordinarv 
TtU-^cu or " /^it-8*o,"^ or by the Mongols Klmblighan or Hobli- 
ghan ; these mostly fill the post of abbots, and rank one degree 
higher than an ordinary non-re-incamate abbot, or JCan-po, 
who has been selected on account of his proved abilitie-s. Most of 

1 t>?rut'^u. 

" sA'u'^'otfS. T}ip u«e of Hie ti>nn for a rt'-incarnat* Lima ••eeins rostricled to 
LaiUk. In TMwt proper tliis til It- In nppliMl to any Buperior Lamfl, and is evoo 
used in polite society to lajnnen of poeition. 



so-called re-incarnate T/lfna*! are by a polite fiction credited 
I knowing all the past life and deeds of individuals, not only in 
present life, but also in former births. 
[In the unreformed sects, where the priests are not celibate, the 
lildren succeed to the headsliip. The ordinary hierarchical dis- 
sotionsof grades and ranks have already been noted in describing 
\e organization of the onler. 

The greatest of the Lama hierarchs, after the Grrand Lamas of 

lasa and Tashi-lhunpo^ are the great Mongolian Lunia atUrgya, 

le Sas-kya Lama, and the Dhftrma Raja of Bhotan, this last 

being practically independent of Lhasa, and the temporal ruler of 

Here also may be mentioned the female incarnate 

Idess, "The diamond sow '* of Yain-dok Lake monastery. 

The following list of Tibetan j>o])es, the Grand Lfimas of Lhasa, 

is taken from the printed list.* The birth-dates are given upon 

the authority of a reliable, trustworthy Lamaiflt calculator,' 

LwT OP Grand (Dalai) Lama.s or I'ih-es. 


31 MM. 






■ l 

dfie-Mun jfrulj'pa 


147 '» 




Yim-t&n ,, 

!4a};-t1l>an bln-hiiaA rGva- 




Kirat " Dalai." 


Ts'ftns-dbj'ans rGya-mU'o 



Do]ioRe<l & iiim-(lere«l. 


^Kfil'hzan ,, 



^ 8 

MRiii'djial ,, 




Lui'i-rtogs ,, 



Seen by Manning. 


Tft'ul-K rima ,, 

181 P^ 



inK'as-(rrul» ,, 




T'rin-laH ,, 




X'ub-UtaiL „ 


Tretient pope. 


pThe first Grand I*.1ma, G-e-'dun-dub, was born near Sas-kya, and 

^ The modrau Hit pTec«de8 the liiatorical nanica by a soiiu of fifty more or lew 
mythic personages, beaded by Avalokiu himtit;lf. 

" Lama 8'e-rab Oya-t*'o, of tbe G(-lug-|xi nionaatrry, Darjiltng. 
» Dbaoodins f.La Ui4»., etc., p. 218) givt-« 158S. 

• Dbhq. give* 1682. 

• Other accouuts give 1*98. 18*13, 18()8 ; cf. aIaq Koitbns Litt, i^ 185. 
^ Dsw^ and this wrreepondd with Manning's account (MAJUiH.,8e6). 

Dkw. givee 1615. 


not far from tlie site whereon he afterwards founded Tashi-lhunpo. 
His ftucvesiiortf, up to ami inclusive of the fifth, have already beeu 
referred to iu tjome detail. 

Oil the dejiosiUon and death of the sixth Grand Tiima for licen- 
tious living, the Tartar kiuy, Gingkir Klian, api>oinled (« Potala 
the Uima of C*ag-poh-ri, named Nagwaii Veshe Gya-mts'o, into 
whom the sorcererK allegeil that, not the t-oal hut the breath of 
the former Grand I>ama had passed. It was soon announced, 
however, that the sixth Grand Lama was re-bom in the town of 
Lithang as Kal-zaA, the son of a quondam monk of De-pung 
monasterv. This child was imprisoned by the Chinese emperor, 
who had confirmed the nominee of the Tartar king, until the war 
of 1720, when he iavested him with spiritual rule at Lhasa ; but 
again, iu 1728, deposed him, h& he was privy to the murder of the 
king of Tibet, So he set in his place the Lama " Kiesri*' Rim- 
poch'e, of the Chotin monastery, four days* journey from Lhusa.^ 
He seems latterly to have returned to |xjwer, and during hia reign 
in 1749, the Chinese jmt his teraiwral vice-regeut to death, when 
the i>eopIe Hew to arms and massacred the Chinese.* 

The ninth is the only Gnmd Lama of Lhasa ever seen by an 
Englishman. He was seen by Manning in 1811, while still 
a child of sLx years old. Manning relates that : " The Lama's 
beautiful and interestiog face and manner engrosi*ed almost all my 
attention. He was at that time about seven years old ; had the 
simple and unaffected manners of a well-educated princely child. 
His &ce was, I thought, |K>pticaIly and affectingly beautiful. Ho 
was of a gay and cheerful di.siK)sit ion, his beautiful mouth perpetu- 
ally unbending into a graceful smile, which illuminated his whole 
countenance. Sometimes, particularly when he looked at me, his 
smile almost approached to a gentle laugh. Xo doubt my grim 
beard and spectacles somewhat excited his risibility. . . . He 
enquired whether I had not met with molestations and difficulties 
on the road,"etc.^ This child died a few years afterwards, assassi- 
nated, it is believed, by the regent, named 8i-Kan. 

The tenth Grand Lama also dying during his minority, and 

« Thte latt«r UUna was In puwer at FotAla In 1780 on thp arri-nil of Horace Df1l»i 

ppnna, fnmi whiisi'ucC(>unCiMARKH., p. 321) most of the latter clctnil« hare bpon Uk<-n. 

» //..rf., Ixv. 

a /A."-/., p. 260. 

Btispicious being aroused of foul j)lay on the part of the regent, 
the latter ^ss dejwsed and banished by the Chinese in 1844, at 
the ingtAUce of the Grand LAma of Tashi-lhunix>, and a risiug of 
his confederates of the Sera monastery was suppressed. '^ 

The eleventh aUodietl prematurely before attaining his majority, 
and 18 believed to have been poisoned by the regent, the Lama of 
Ten-gye-Ung. A young Luma of De-pung, named Ra-deng,* was 
Bpjx)inte<l regent, and he banished iiis pre<leeessor " Pe-chi," who 
had befriended Hue ; but proWng uujwpular, he had eventually to 
retire to Pekin, where he died.'"* Pe-cUi died about 1869, aud was 
succeeded by the abbot of Gah-ldau. 

The twelfth Grand Lama was seen in 1866 by one of our 
Indian secret surveyors, who styles him a child of about thlHeeii, 
and describes hiin jw a fair and handsome boy, who, at the 
reception, was seated on a throne six feet high» attended on either 
side by two high rank oflficials, each swaying over the child's 
bundles of peacock feathers. The Grand Lama himself put three 
questions to the spy and to each of the other devotees, namely : 
'* Is your king well?" " Does your country prosper?" "Are 
you yourself in good health ?" He died in 1874, and his death is 
ascribe*! to poison administered by the regent, the Tengye-Hng 
head Ulma. 

The thirteenth is still (1894) alive. He was seen in 1882 by 
iSarat Caudra Diis, whose account of him is given elsewhere. 

The Tashi-lhunpo Urand Lamas are considered to be, if possible, 
holier eveu than those of Lhasa, as they are less contaminated 
with temjioral government and worldly iJoHtics, and more famous 
for their learning, hence they are entitled '* The precious great 
doctor, or Great gem of leaniing" {Pan-cfi'en Riii-po-ch'e),* or 
(ryal-gon^ Rln-po-cJie^ or "The precious lordly victor." The 
^kya Grand Liimas had been called " Pau-c-h'en," or the " Great 
tor " from the twelfth century, but have ceased to hold the 

Hue, ii., p. 166. ThU account is disbelieved by Mr. Maykus. JJt.AS.^ W., W6. 

* rra-^rm. the " gyai-po llUing " of the ]*aD(iil, p. jcxlv. 
Makkh., xcrii. 

* Pan n a coiitnieUon for the IiHlian '* Pa^ii" or learned scholar, and rin-|>o-olV = 
ratHtt or g«ni, or precious, or lu Mougoliau Itiini or Ei-deni, hence he Is onlled by 
liongoluinft " Pau-i'h'en Irtiui." 


tit If »mve the era of ttie Dalai lilmas, when the estabUfbed 
church ftppropriAted it to itself. 

Tlie following list of" Ta»lu" iJtinfu is taken from that printed 
at the monastery iUelf.* 

LdST OF *'Tashi** Grasd Imua, 


I Bfrtfc. 



bLu-bxan eh'iw-ky) rgval-ittU^na 

blxi-Uzaii ye-xlw (l{»)fcn>xaA-p» 
bLt>bz&ii iliKil-Miui y«-ft'e(i 

rJe-bitcan palii nima 

rJe-dpftl-UUn cli'os-kyi graga-pa ( igu 

iNtan-Mlii dtiAA p'yuK | , 
■ 1883 







Buglf 'nfrienil. JnAtaUat 

Seen by Tamer. 

Dieil in August. 

InxtaUe^ last week rf 
February. 1888. 

The third Tashi Liiina wa» the frieud of Mr. Bogle, who seemi 
to he the only European who had the advantage of olo-w* and 
friendly intercourse with one of the Grand Lamas. .Mr. Bogle 
gives us a delightful glimpse into the amiable character of thti 
holy man.' 

" The JJima was uj)on his throne, formed of wood can-ed and gilt, 
with some cushions about it, upon wliich he sat cross-legged. H« 
was drepfied in a mitre-shaped cap of yellow broad-cloth with lon|t 
bars lined with red satiu; a yellow cloth jacket, without sleeves; 
and a satin mantle of the same colour thrown over his shoulderf. 

> The official list ii entitled pan-«tir-;)Vm rim-jM l/oi- lifowfta-M, and girvs no 
It (•riild with N'o. 3 of my list aa abovn, and pxti'nds tlie list backwards 
ruliliiiorial names, begiiitiin|> with theanmowhat mytJiicml diw-iple of Buddha, Si 
atul iiK ludiiig Ipgendarj* Indian personages aa rp-incnniuiidiM, aa well aa tiie follo< 

Tib<-iaji!>. the fourth of which is lunally hfkl to hv the first of tlie Taahi-lbunpo 

Liima5. Aa, howpviT, T;iBhi-lhun|>o wos only built in 1445, only the latter two of thuB' 
could be contomix)rar>' with It, ami aa Is noted in the text, their hiograpbifa ahowthtt 
they ware ordinary monk; wli>^ he\i\ no high post, if any at all, at Tfiahilhunpo. 

.ScmjnD(TAR\ List oy So-caluu> Pas-c-h'es <»kAXD Lamas. 
i. fCny-pa fkti»~\}tAiJi, of rTa-nag mouaatory. 
•i 9a-»tsa Piihd,la (lliRM262). t 

3. gYuH-Kttm Tdo-rjt tliMtt (l'i&4.1376). 

4. inK'M-agnib ilUftofwApnt xanK-pi> (1385-14'KI). 
fi. jian-cb'en-h.'ir(f/.i(«**ji//'yrK?j Jtv»-//''«'5-p> (1*39-15051 
6. dl>cu-sa'pa blo-bzaii Dfm-f/r»l> il!i(~i£i-1570). 

> Al"Taahi*tKiy,"N.E. nf T<iKiii-IhiinixMM., p. 92i. 
■ /er. n>., p. 88. 



one side of him stood his physician with a bundle of perfumed 
jtndal-wood rods burning in hi:^ hand ; on the other stood his 
^pon Chivmho^ or cup-bearor. I laid the governor's presents 
efore him, delivering the letter and pearl necklace into his own 
jnds, together with a white Pelong handkerchief on my own part, 
jrding to the custom of the country. Ke received nie in the 
[io8t engaging manner. I wasBcated on a high stool covered with 
, carpet. Plates of boiled mutton, boiled rice, dried fruits, sweel- 
leats, sugar, bundles of tea, sheeps* carcasses dried, etc., were set 
efore me and my comiHtuiou, Mr. Hamilton. The Lama drank 
ro or three dishes of tea along with uh, asked us once or twice 
ea(. and threw white Pelong handkerchiefs on our necks at 
" After two or three visits, the T^ama used (except on holidays) 
receive me without any ceremony, his hea<l uncovered, dressed 
lly in the large red petticoat which is worn by all the gj'longs, 
Bulgar hide boots, a yellow cloth vest with his arms bare, and 
; piece of yellow cloth thrown aroiuid his shoulder. He sat some- 
les in a chair, sometimes on a bench covered with tiger skins, 
id nobody but So-p&n Chumbo present. Sometimes he would 
ilk with me ahout the room, explain to me the pictures, make 
gmarks on the colour of my eyes, etc. For, although venerated 
God's vicegerent through all the eastern countries of Asia, 
adowed with a portion of omniscience, and with many other 
livice attributes, he throws aside in conversation all the awful 
of his character, aceommodat-es himself to the weakness of 
lortals, endeavours to make himself loved rather than feared, and 
chaves with the greatest affability to everybody, especially to 

** Teshu Lama is about forty years of age, of low stature, and 

lOUgh not corpulent, rather iuclining 1o lie fat- His complexion 

fairer than that of moat of the Tibetans, and his arms are as 

rbite as those of a European ; his hair, which is jel black, is cut 

erv short ; his beard and whiskers never above a month long ; 

lis eyes are small and hhick. The expression of his countenance 

smihog and good-humoured. His father was a Tibetan, his 

1 1 He heldt nccording to T»irniT ((►. 24fli, tlie »coond ronk in ihf cmrt of th<? Tiwlii 
•od was by birth a MahcIiu Tartar. Hi' was then only about twenty-twit 
of age. 

mother n near relation of the Rajas of Ladak. From bA* he 
leanief] the Hindu&tAiii language, of which he bafi a moderate 
knowledge, and is fond of 8|H?aking it. His dic:i>o^iticiii is opeo, 
candid, and generous. He is eitremely merry and i*ntertaining 
in converiiatiou, and tells a i>lwisant story witti a great lital of 
humour and action. I endeavoured to tind out in his charader 
those defects which are inseparable from humanity, but he i$ $a 
onix'ersally beloved that I had no success, and not a man coold 
find in his heart to 9]>eak ill of him 

" Among the other good qualities which Teshu Lfima postiM»M 
18 that of charity, and he has plenty of opportunities of ejcercifiing 
it. The country RwarniH with beggnns, and the iJima eniertaiai 
besides a number of fakirs (religious mendicants), who resort 
hither from India. As he sf^waks their lauguage tolerably well 
he every day converses with them from hii* windows, and picks up 
by this ineaua a knowledge of the (hfferent countries and goveni- 
menta of Hindustan. ... He gives them a monthly altowanop 
of tea, butter, and flour, besides money, and often bestows t-omf- 
thing considerable uj>on them at their departure. The (io!$»ifi? 
who are thns suppoi'Ted at the Lama^s expeoBe may be in number 
about one hundred and hfly, besides a))out thirty Musulman fakin. 
For althougli the genius of the religion of Muhamad is htjstile to 
that of the Lilma, yet he is possessed of much Christian charity, 
and is free fri:>m those narrow prejudices which, next to ambition 
and avarice, have opened the most copious source of buu»D 
misery." And observing the universal esteem in which iht 
Grand Lama is held by the monks and people, the looks of 
veneration mixed with joy with which he is always regardecL 
Mr. Bogle adds " oae catches affection by sympathy, and I 
could not help, in some measure, feeling the same emotioW 
with the Lama's votaries,' and I will confess I never knew i 
man whose manners pleased me so much, or for whom, upoB 
BO short an acquaintance, I had half the heartVs liking."* 

This Grand Lfmia, soon after Bogle's de|>arture, died of small' 
pox. He had, in resjionse to the invitation of the Chinese em|>eror, 
set out for Pekin, attended hy l.oOO troojts and followers, 
sumptuous pnjvision was made for his comfort during the wl 

' Op. fit., p. W. 

•p. 138. 



'*r the long journey in Chinese territory. The emj^eror met him 
at 8ining) several weeks' march from Pekin, and atlvanced about 
forty paces from his throne to receive him, and seated him on the 
LAapmost cushion with himself and at his right hand. To the great 
jj^rief of the empress aud the Chinese the Lama was seized with 
«mall-pox, and died on November 12th, 1780. His body, placed in 
a golden cuffin, was conveyed to the mausoleum at Tashi-lhunpo.* 
His successor, while still an infant of about eighteen months, 
was seen by Captain Turner as the envoy of the British govern- 
ment. This remarkable interview took place at the monas- 
tery of Ter[>a-ling.' He found the princely child, then aged 
eighteen months, seateil on a throne of silk cushions and hangings 
about four feet high, with his father and mother standing on the 
left hand. Having been iuforme<l that although unable to speak 
he eoiild understand, Captain Turner said " that the governor- 
leneral on receiving the news of his decease in China, was 
©rwhelmed with grief and sorrow, and continued to lament hi» 
enee from the world until Die cloud that had overcast the 
.ppinessof this nation was dispelled by his re-appearance. . . . 
,e governor aniioiisly wished that he might long continue to 
aine the worhl by his presence, and was hopeful that the 
iendship which had fonnerly subsisted between them would 

i be diminished " The infant looked steadfastly 

the British envoy, with the appearance of much attention, 

id nodded with repeated but slow motions of the head, as 

lOugh he understood every word. He was silent and sedate, 

8 whole attention was directed to the envoy, and he conducted 

jpimself with astonishing diguity and decorum. He was one of 

;e handsomest children Captain Turner bad ever seen, and he 

ew up to be an able and devout ruler, delighting the Tibetans 

ith his i)resence for many years, and dying nt a good old age' 

e is described by Hue * as of fine majestic frame, aud a.'ttonishing 

[gour for bis advanced age, which was then about sixty. 

V* Orientai Htptrtnry, li., p. 146 ; luul Maukbajc, p. 208. 

I ■ On tho <th I>ecember, 1788. 

[ » Tvamut's KmbuMy, etc. Tlu- new TashiLuuia wiu instaJiiH) in October, 17S4, in the 
KsencB of Uie r>.\lai L&ma. the Ctiinese MlnUt«r or Amlum, the GcHub Himhoc'Pf and 
t heads of alt the moiiastf rj" in Tibot, a« de&crihed by Piirangtr Uoaain, tho native 
rnt of tlu Warrca Ha^tii^g?, M., Lucv. 
r* ii^ 167. 


The Mongolian bierarcb at Urgya-Kuren, in tlie Kballui countit, 
18 called ** His holy reverence," or Je^tmin Dan\-pa^^ * atid it ». 

gaitled a.'f »n incarnation of the celebrated hieitorian Lama.Tiiv 
natha, who, it will be reuieuibered, was of the Sa-kj-a s<«t, whidi 
bnci i(lentifit*d itself with Mongolian Lamaism, having introdacfd 
the religion there and given the translations of the gosjiek, 
L'rgya monastery was doubtless founded by theSa-kyn-pa. Howerer 
this may be, on the development of the reincamat« Lawa theocT, 
the Khalka^ Mongols fixed upon Turanatha as the source of the 
re-incarnations for their chief luerarch. And the Dalai Lomi, 
Nag-pa, who had olimbed into power on the shoulders of the 
Mongols hiuJ to accept the high position thus accorded to Tan- 
nut ha, whom he detested, but he, or one of his early successor, 
con%'ert^i tlie monastery into a Oe-lug-pa institution. 

The hiemrch, Jc-tsun Dam-pa, was the mo^tt powerful j>erson in 
the whole of Mongolia^ during the reign of the emperor Kang-hi 
(I0(j2-17;i3), and had hia headquarters at Koukou-Khoton, or 
** Blue town," beyond the bend of the Yellow river, "when liic 
Kluilkas ipiarrelled with the Kalmuks or tSleutUs and esoai>edinto 
territory uuder Chinese protection. The Kalmuks demanded tbe 
delivery of Je-tsun Dam-i>a and hia brother, the prince Tuschelo- 
Khan, which of course the emjieror refused, and thought tbe 
itierltatioii of the Dalai Lfima. But the latter, or, rather, his regent 
(Tis-ri), for lie liad been defunct for seven years, to the emperor'i 
surprise, advised the delivering up of these two princes, and such 
a decision was, perhaps, the first sign to him of tbe gi-eat fraud 
which was being enacted as Lhasa. To make matters worse, wheo 
the emperor was warring with the Kalmuks " he paid a visit to 
Je-tsun Dam-pa, and owing to some fancieil want of respect on the 
l>arl of the holy man, one of the emperor's officers drew his sword 
and kilted him. This violence caused a tumult, and soon after- 
wiirds it was announced that Je-tsun Dam-pa had reappeared 
among the Khalkas, who threatened to avenge his former ileath. 
The emperor engaged the diplomatic interposition of the Dalai 

* rJe-btsuu-gdnm-in. 

^ 'Fhu Khalkas, so called ftfter tlie Kluilku river, are tbt^ re{)rc«ent«UTes of t)i« 
Mongol or Yuen d3Tiafity of Cbiria, fnmided by Jingis and Rubilni Klian, and driren 
from tbe tJinmc in ISfiS.— Makkh., p. xHx. 

» KoFPEN. ii., ira. 

Ima, who succeeded id pacifying the KbaUcas. But it was 

Migt^l lliat the future births of the Je-tsun Dain-pa should be 

id iu Tibet, »o that the Khalkas might not agaiu have a tym- 

thizing fellow-countrvraan as their high-priest."* 

His *' re-incarnation " is now always found in central or western 

Ibet. The present one is said to have been born in the bazaar 

(*ol) of l^hasa city, and to be the eighth of the series. He is 

lucatftd at the De-pung monastery as a (.re-lug-pa Lama; but the 

sent one wati carrier! off, when four or five years of age, to 

rga, accompanied by a Luma of De-puiig as tutor. A complete 

of these hierarchs and fuller historical information in regard to 

lem is much needed.^ 

The Sa-kya hierarcba, as we have seen, were once extremely 

>Mrerful and almostt (h f'lcto kings of Tibet, Although the 

i-kya hierarch is now eclipsed by the established church, he still 

>tains the symj>alhy of the uumerous adherents of the unre- 

rtned setits, and is now regarded by the Nift-ma-pa as their 

ad and fui incarnation of the Guru himself, and as such scarcely 

iferior to the tFran4l Lfiraa of Lhasa. Sa-kya was founded, as we 

|w, by Kungah Kirt-po, bom in 1090 a.d., and became famous 

ider 8n-kya I'andita, Iwm 11 SO, and his nephew was the first of 

le great hierarchj*. 

The list of the earlier Sa-kya hierarchs, whose most prosperous 
was from 1270 to 1340, is as follows ' : — 


12. 'Od-KiT-spjfi-ge. 

13. Kun<rin. 

14. r>«iii-y«(l (Ipal. 
Ifi. Ynfi-bbmn. 

16. '0(l-BtT St'll-gti 11. 
IT. rtiynl-va San-ix>. 

18. nhafi-p'yng-dpal. 

19. bSod-Nam-dp«]. 

20. n'riih-va*T»an-po II. 

21. dBan-btsun. 

1. Sn.^l(yH l>ftari-{)«j. 

2. s'an-bt^Mii. 

3. Itati-dKHr-|yi, 

4. Chynh-rin b^KjiH-ps. 

5. Kun-gti'an. 

6. gSfMi-dbftn. 

7. CJtAi'i-rdor. 

8. Aii-lcii. 

9. tjegs~im-<l|i.-tl. 

10. Scn-^-dpnI. 

11. 'Oll-/.C|--lIH!lI 

Its head l^Tima is tttill called by the unreformed Lamas "Sa-kya 

' VWtta ftrcount nf Ui(^ jdum^y of t1i<« pn^scnt hiprarch from LhiM to Uvg^ wa 
fOamttt for 1874, pp. 68. 74 and 124 (^han^hat abntrnct 1875). The novtocuna- 
"iion met by the AbW Hue in 1844, joameyiiig from Urga *» Uiasa appsars tn have 
bct^n the spventh. 

» C(. »l»f' liHt by Savaho Sktskx, p- 121 ; Tsoma. (7r^ 18fl; Koppkn. ii,. lOfi; Sauat, 



ftn-chVn."' The succession is hereditary; but between fiitberiad 
sou intervenes the brother of the reigning i*uma and uncle of the 
tiaccessor, so as to secure an adult as holder of the headship. 

The Bhotdn hierarchy is Htsill a stTong one and combiues tbe 
tem[>oral rule of the country. It ousted all rival sects from the 
Iniid, tto that now it has its own sect, namely, the t^outhem Dnk-ps 
form of the Kar-gyu-pa. According to Mr. (Sir Ashley) Edeii,tiif 
iBhotfiuese only overran the country about three centuries sgtt, 
di:<placing the then natives, who are said to have corne ohgioallv 
fnim Koch Bihar. The invaders were Tibetan soldiers, over whom 
a Latna named ^'Dupgaui Sheptun** acquired paramount inflaeooe 
as Dharma Hiija. On his death the spirit of the Shejitun becante 
incarnate in a child at Lhasa, who was conveyed to Hhotan. ^Mien 
this child grew up he appointed a regent for temporal eonoenu. 
called Deb Kilja,* but this latter office seems to have lapsed lonn 
ago, and the temporal power is in the Imnds of the lay governors 
(Pen-lo) of the country. 

The head Lama is held to be re-incarnate, and is named Laou 
Kin-ix>-ch'e, also **The religious king" or Dharma Rilja. His 
hat, as seen in the illustration at the head of this chapter,' bean 
the badge of cross thunderbolts, and is surmounted by a spiked 
thunderljolt, typical not only of his mystical creed, but also of thf 
thunder dragon (Dug), which gives its name to his sect — the 
Dug-pa. His title, as engraved on his seal figured hy Hooker,' 
describes him as "Chief of the Realm, Defender of the Faith, 
Kqual to Saras vat i in learning. Chief of all the Buddhas, Head 
Expounder of the Sastras, Caster out of Devils, Most Learned 
in the Holy Laws, An Avatar of God, Absolver of Sins, and 
Head of the Best of all Religions." 


1. >Iag-<!bnD 

mam rgyal bduti 'ynn- 


Nag>dbAii cii'oB kyi dbah p'ug. 



ft tt 'jig-med rtags-pa (wcood 


*iig-med rUm^it-pn. 


3. „ 

ch'os-kyi rf^'nl mtehan. 


„ 'jig-med rtags oorbu. 

•■ *l H 

'jig nie<l dbAft p(>. 


t* H tt « cfi'os-rgval— 

5' M tt 

Shakya sen gv. 

the pre»Dt Uruit Bho- 

& M •* 

'Jam (Ibyam rgynl mU'an. 

Un Lamft in Id&i. 

1 FIc is cntitlpd hy Turner (op. eit., p. SllS) ** GongoBo Rimbodthe." 

3 [{('pt. Cf.MAMH.,p. ]r. 

» Thfl figure is from a photo of a Bhotin Lima, and thp hftt is that of the pmeot 
<18ti3) Oraod Lama of Bhol&a 
* /fiwuil. JottrB, i. 



ch of these Grand iJiraas has a sepamle biography (or )m«i- 
r). The first, who wa* a contemporary of the Grand I>ama 
lam Gya-tsho, seems to have been married ; the rest are celi- 
A celebrated I^^ina of this Dug>pa sect was named Mi- 
ch*os-Kyi gyal-po. 
The Dhnrma Knja resides, at least in summer, at the fort of Ta- 
i-ch'o. The paUce is a large stone building, with the chief 
Be seven storeys high, described and figured by Turaer and 
lers. Here live over five hundred monks. 
! Bogle describes the Liima of his day as " a Ihiu, sickly -looking 
\xi of about thirty-five years of age." * 

I He exercises, I am informed, some jurisdiction over Lamas Id 
il, where his authority is officially recognized by the Gorkha 

The number of the lesser spiritual chiefs held to be re-embodied 
Sma saints is stated^ to be one hundred and sixty, of which 
lirty are iu Tibet (twelve being "Shaburuft"), nineteen in north 
MoQgolia, fifty-seven in south Mongolia, thirty-five in Kokonor, 
ive in Chiamdo and the Tibetan portion of Sze-ch'waii, and foar- 
cn at Hekin. But this much under-estimates the number in 

Amongst the re-embodied Lamas in western Tibet or Tsang 
Seft-c'en-Kin-po-ch'e," Yaftzin Lho-pa, BilluA, L6-ch*en, Kyi- 
"iaiT, Tirtki, De-ch'nn Alig, Kafila, Koil (at Phagri). In Kbam, Tu, 
Ch'amdo, Derge, etc. 

The LSmaist metropolitan at Pekin is called by the Tibetans 
" IC'aft-skya," and is considered an incarnation of Rol-pahi Dorje. 
His portrait is given in the annexed figure. He dates his spiritual 
descent from a dignitary who was called to Pekin during the reign 

1 MakcKhP.ST. 

* In the Shcng Wu Kl, uid registered by the Colotuat Board at Pekin. (Mavkk) 
y./(„4.a,ri., p. 307. 

> The lut re-iDoam&te Lama bearinj; this title, anc) tho tutor of Uio Tashl (trand 
Lama, was belicadod about 1886 ftir liarbouring BurrcjAitiouiily Sarat C. Daa, who is 
regarded a« an English npy ; ami although the ht^idies of his predecensorB wi're con- 
sidered divinu and aro preeervtHl in giihlen dumen at Tashi-Uiunpo, hin headless trunk 
wsa thrown ignoininiously inUj a river to the S.W. of Lhasa, near the fort when 
be had been impriaoDcd. On nccouot of his violent death, and under audi 
circomBtiLDceB, Uiis rc*incarnation is snid to have ceased. Prom the glimpae got of 
him in Sarat'a narrative and in his great popularity, 1m seems to have been a most 
wniable man. 


of K*aT»g Hi, probably about 1690-1700 A.n., and entrusted wii 
the emperorV confidence as his religious noegerent for iiuwr 

In Ladiik only four inonaitteries liave resident re-incamnte 
Ijauins or Ku-a*o, Although they are of the red sect, these bead 

i<amas.are said to be 
educated at LbaM. 
The'present (1893) re- 
incarnate Lama of 
!?pitak. the tteventwntij 
of the series, is thus de- 
scribed by Captftin 
liauisay.* "A vouth, 
26 years of age, who 
lately returned from 
LhSiia, where he bad 
been for 14 years. He 
washandsomely dre&setl 
in a robe made of a 
{uirticular kind of daric 
f^oldon - coloured and 
yellow embroidered 
China silk, which non^ 
hut great personages 
are allowed to wear, 
and he had on Chineoe 
long boots, which he 
did not remove when he entered the house. His head and face 
were closely shaved, and one arm was bare. On entering 
the room he bowed, and then i)refiented the customary * scarf of 
Fflalutation,' which I accepted. He impressed me very favourably; 
his manner and general appearance way sujierior to anything I had 
seen ftmong other I/iinas or people of Laduk.** 

In Sikhim, wliere few Lamaa are celibfite and where the La- 
brang Lama is the nominal head of the fraternity with the title 
of ** Ijord protector" (»Kyab /jtdon), the fiction of re-incarnation 
WHS only practised in regard to the Perniongchi and La-bmng 

Head Lajia op Pkxix. a 

i^.A.2l, PANa.Ifo. 68. 

» Oft. eif., p. W. 

• After Grimwedel. 

Dnaetenefl, hut lias ceaaed for several generations. In Sikhim, 

», the aame tendency to priest-kiugsbip croi)ped out, Several 

the Sikhim kin^^s were also Laoiaii ; and when the Icing was 

a monk, the Lumas retained most of the temporal j>ower 

their hands; and the first king of Sikhim was nominated by 

be pioneer IvTimaa ; and the ancestor of the present dynasty, a 

cendant of the religious king, Thi-Srort Detsan, one of the 

iders of Lriiimi!<im, was canonized as an incarnation of the 

jiddhiftt god, ^lanjusrl. 

[The female re-iuoamation, the abbess of the monastery of the 
idok lake, who is considered an embodiment uf the goddess 
vartJhl, or " The diamond sow," is thus described by Mr, 
Bgle ^ : " The mother went with rae into the apartment of Durjay 
ao, who was attired in a gylong's dress, her arms hare from the 
lioulders, and sitting cross-legged u^tou a low cushion. She is also 
^e daughter of the Liima'a (Tashi) brother, but by a different' 
ife. She is about seven and twenty, with smalt Chinese featuree, 
delicate, though not regular fine eyes and teeth; her complexion 
ir, but wan and sickly ; and an expression of Innguor and melan- 
loly in her countenance, which 1 believe is occasioned by tlie 
byless life that she leads. She wears her liair,a privilege granted 
no other vestal 1 have seen ; it is combed back without any 
[lament, and falls in tresses upon her shoulders. Her Ghtt-^oa 
)uchj,Iike the Lamas', is supposed to convey a blessing, and I did 
E>t fail to receive it. Durjay Paumo sjwke little. Dr. Hamilton, 
lo cured her of a complaint she had long been siubjecL to, used to 
le there almost every day." 

Let us now look at the manner in which the new re-embodi- 
menttt or re-births of the hierarchs are disi'overed. On the death 
of H re-incarnate Lama his spirit is believed to flit into thp soul of 
some mikuown infant who is bom a few days after the death of the 
Luma. The mode of determining the child who has been so 
favoured is based upon the practice followed in regard to the Crrand 
Lama of Lhasa, which we will now describe. 

Sometimes the pontiff, before he dies, indicates the particular 
place and even the family in which he will be re-horn, but the 
isua] practice is lo ascertain the names of all the likely male 


i who have been bora vader nriffinalww portento jart afttr Um 
'dwtfa of thedeecMtd IJfaBa,sMi vHh pn^vr «od worship to tnlkc 

■elected Hit of ounce, nhieh ere written br a oommittee 

1 Timnt OD ilipe of paper aad pat into e golden jag, and then amil 

caulaBl prerer, onaUr by 117 nlected pore Limas to dntw bf 

lot in relajB, and extendteg over 31 to 71 daY's^ooeof the«e, w\a<h 

u the name of the nev ineamatioQ. A», howvrer, the PVtkn 

court U believed to influence the selection under such circom- 
stances, the atate oracle of Na-ch'utl has latterly superseded tbe 
old practice, and the present Grand iJSraa waH selected by thi 
oracle. Lama L'gyen Gya-taho relates- that the present Nii-ch*u4 
oracle prophesied disaBter in the shape of a monster appearing tt 
the T>alai liima, if the old practice were continued. On theothef 
hand he foretold that the present Dalai would be found by a picna 
monk in person, and that his discovery would be accompanied witi 
"horse neighingB.*' Tbe "pious monk" proved to be the he* 
Jjama of G&h-ldan monastery, who was seat by the oracle to Chukop 

a Loe. fit^ para. &9 : cf. ftlno Hue, iU 197. 

fe, where he dreamed that he was to loolv in the lake called Llia- 

^oi-lamtsho for the future Dalai. He looked, and it is said that, 

Btared in the bosom of the lake, he saw tlte infant Dalai Lama 

lid his parents, with the bouse where he wan horn, and that at 

it instant his horse neighed. Then the monk went in search 

the real child, and found him in Kongtoi, in the house of poor 

It respectable people, and recognized him as the child seen in 

^e lake. After the lx»y (then a year old) liad passed the usual 

ieal required of infants to test their power to recognize the 

>]jerty of the previous Dalai Lama, he was elected a» spiritual 

of Tibet. 
I These infant candidates, who, on account of their remarkable 
Itelligence, or certain miraculous signs,' have been selected 
3m among the many appUcauts put forward by pJireuta for 
is, the highest position in the land, may be bom anywhere 
Tibet.* They are subjected to a solemn test by a court com- 
of the chief Tibetan re-incaruate Lumas, tlie great lay 
Seers of state, and the Chinese miuitster or Amlan. The in- 
gots are confronted with a duplicate collection of rosaries, dorjes, 
c, and that one jHirticular child who recognizes the properties 
of the decease*l Lama is believed to be the real re-embodinient. 
To ensure accuracy the names are written as aforesaid, and e-ach 
slip encaseii in a roll of ]>aHte and put in a vase, and, after prayer, 
they are formally drawn by lot in front of the image of the 
emperor of China,* and the Chinese minister, the Amhan, unrolls 
the pa!*te and reads out the name of the elect, who is then hailed, 
Bs the great Orod Avalokita incarnate, hence to rule over Tibet, 
An intimation of the event is sent to the emperor, and it is duly 
acknowledged by him with much formality, atid the enthrone- 
ment and ordination are all duly recorded in like manner. 

Interesting details of the ceremonies as well as of the prominent 
part played by China in regulating the pontilical succession, have 

k CircuiDBtAntlat stories are told of Bucli applicants to the effect, that when only a 
' montJis old tlie infaots have obtained the powor of speech for a few monifiitfi and 
Dnned their pan^nts that Uie L&mas have left Totala to come and cUira them. 

|*Tlic diatujit riJLagtis of Uada, south-west of Oarchliendo (Ta-chhien Lu) and 
iiBug, liiive each produced a Dalai Lanm. 
* The emperor Pun* Kieu Lung, who iliwl 1706, since his final subjujfation of Tibet, 
has continued to receive homage even jKislhximauitly aa sovereign of the country. 

(lianoo P., he. eit, L„ p. 290.) 


, been supplied by Mr. Mayera' from tlie original Cbinese iIocq- 
xnent of Sfeng Pao, the senior Aiubau at Lbib^ and fruin which 
the following historic extract is made by way of iUustrutioti : — 

I. Memorial drawn up on the dth day of the 1 2th month of the '20d 
yearof Tao Rwang (January 30tb, 1841), reporting that, ouin:4tttutiii| 

[an investigation among younj^ children for the embodiment of Dalu 
L&ma, mitiLCulous »i^is, of undoubted authenticity, have be<«u veri^ej, 
wliich is luiJ in u respectful memorial before the Sacreil Glance. 
In the matter of the appearance of the embodiment of tht* Dnhi 

I I^ima, it has already boon reported to your majesty that a vommum- 
cation had been received from K^-Ie-taU'si-leu-t'u-sa-ma-ti Bakimhi re- 
porting the diripatcb of natives in positions of dignity to inquirv iuto 
the ciivumistauceti with reference to four young children bom i^ 
Tibetan parents, respectively at Sang-aog-k'iuh-tsung in Tibet, tk 
tribalty of K'ung sa within the jurisdiction of Ta-teien-lu in Sse-chVaa, 
and [two] other plnces. The chnncclior has now made a further re- 
port, stating that iu the case of each of the four children minu'uloiu 
signs have been shown, and that bonds of attestation have been dnvm 
up in due form ou the part of members of both the priesthood and lai^ 
of the Tibetans. He annexes a detailed statement in relation to tUs 
matter; and on receipt of this coiniuuuication your Majesty's semmU 
have to observe that on the previous oceasion, when the embodiment of 
the tenth Dalai Lama entereil tlie world, three children were dit>ciiT«r«4 
[whose names] wore placed in the urn for decision by lot. A* U» 
caiincellor now writes that each of the four children di^wverod by tbr 
Khan-pu on thid occasion has been attended by auspicioas and eo- 
coui-aging omens, we do not presume to arro^te to ourselves the nbok* 
of any one of their number, but, as regards the whole four, have on tl» 
one hand communicated in a Tibetan dispatoh with the chancellor n- 
apeoting the two cliildren horn within the territory of Tibet, and ad re- 
gardtt the two chil(lix*n born within the jurisdiction of the proWnce d 
SzB-cb\vuu, hjive a<ldresj>ed a communication to the viceroy of that pn> 
vince calling uiwn them re^-peotively to rerjuire the parent« and tutott 
of the childi-en in question to bring the latter to Anterior Tibet. Ol 
this being done, your miijesty't* servants*, in liceorduuce with the exist- 
ing rules, will institute a careful examination in pertion, conjointly with 
the Pansheu Enleni and the chancellor, and will call upon the children tu 
recognize articlHs heretofore in use by the Dalai Lamn ; after which voiUT 
servants will proceed with scrupulous care to take measui-ori for in- 
scribing their names on slips to 1m> placed in the urn, und for the oeU* 
bration of lujiss and drawing the lots in public. So soon as the in<!i- 
vidual kIiuH have been a.t»u'taiuod by lot, your (Servants will forwaid * 
further report for your majesty's information and fommundK. Thej 
now prenetit for imporiid peruaiil a trauslatiou of the detniled sMe- 

> W. F. Matieh, IllmdraUoM qf tk* lAmmitt .^^ttetm iu Tt'Ut, drawn Crwn Clriitf 
""—— ,/./(.J.A,vi.(1872),p.aM «3. 

ient of the miraculous t^igns attending the cluldren that were db- 
Dvered oq inquiry. 


Detailed statement of the miiuculous signd nttendiug upon four 
children, drawn up for his maje-sly's perusal from the despiitcb uf the 
chancellor reporting the same : — 

I. A-chii-oho-ma, the wife of the Tibetan named Eung-pu-taii-tseug, 
li^nng at the Pan-j&-clmng post-station in Sang-ang-k'iuh-tsung. giive 
birth to a mn on the 13th day of the IJth month of the year Ki-hai 
fl9th December, 1830), upon a report concerning which having been re- 
ceived from the local headmen, the chancellor de^-patched Tsze-f^iig-cbo- 
m-'rh and others to make inquiry. It was thereupon ascei-tuined that 
on the night before the fiaid female gave birth to her child, a brilliiint 
radiance of many colours wuk manife.sted in the air^sulMiequeutly to which 
the spring-water in the well of the temple court-yard changed to a milk- 
white colour. 8even days uftci-wards. there suddenly appeared upon 
the rock, behind the post-f«tatian, the light of a flame, which shone for 
& length of time. Crowd;] of people baHtened to witness it, when, how- 
ever, no tdiigle trace of tii'e remiiined, but upon the ixxk there was 
manifested an image of Kwau Viu (AvalokiUi) iind the characters of 
Na-mo O-iiii'to-Fo (AniiUibha), together wiih the imprint of footsteps. 
On the night when the child whh born, the 80und of mui^ic was heard, 
and milk dropped upon the pillars of the house. W'lien the commis- 
cionem instituted their inquiry, they found the child .sitting croe«- 
legged in a dignified attitude, i^eminj;; able to recognize them, and 
abowing not the i^lightest timidity. They placed a i-osary in the child's 
bands, whereupon he appeared as though reciting sentences fruni the 
Sutra of Amita Buddha, in addressing his mother he pronounced the 
word A-md with peifect distinctni^'i. II in features were comely and well- 
armed, and his expression bright and iutellectual, in a degree superior 

that of onlinary children. 

In addition to the foregoing report, certi^cates by the local headmen 
ad members of the priesthood and laity, solemnly attesting fiersonal 
Qowledge of the facts therein set forth, were appended, and were 
tranitmilted after authentication by the chancellor to ourselves, etc., etc. 

II. Memorial drawn up on the Sth day of the 6th month of the 21st 
tir of Tao Kwang (20th July, 1841), reporting the verification of the 

bhild in whom there-embodiment of the Dalai L&ma has appearetl, the 
drawing of lots in acconiance with the existing rule, and the fact that 
the entire population of Tibet, both clergy and laity, are penetrated 
with ft*elingK of gratitude and satisfaction ; ujion the memorial bring- 
ing which to the imperial knowledge the Soared Olaiice ia reverently 

Yoiir servants luive already memorialized refTOrting that the em- 
Imdiment of the Dalai Lama having made its appearance, a day hud 
been fixed for the drawing of lots ; and they have now to state that 


tliey subBPquently received a letter from the chAiicellor to the efiwt \hA 
the rluldren bad HUCOBSsively arriveii and liail all been lodged m t^ 
8aiiglm iiKiiiajntery at T£ K'iiig, to tlie eastward of f^nfm ^ wbereupiiD lis 
luul up|X)intt'd till* 2l!4t diiy of the 5th luouth for prooeediog to put 
them to thti proof. On tlmt day, accordingly, your aet-n&ate |jmai w fa l 
to the Sangha monastery in company with the Pao^eD Erdeni, ^ 
cliancellor, and all the hut'ukhCn, kJtan-pu, ko-pu-lvn, etc., when it i 
aticortaincd by a carefnl inquiry into each individual case that th** tws 
children bom respectively at SaDg-ang-k'iUh-toungaDd at La-kia jih-vi 
in Tibet are both aged throe years, and the two children born rt- 
flpectivoly iu the tribolty of K'ttng-fla in the district of Ta-taien-la ud 
At the Tai Ntng monastery are both aged four years — that their per- 
sonal appearance is uniformly symmetrical and proper, and tliatall altka 
display an elevated demeanour. Herenpon the Panshen £rdeni aM 
his aAsociiites laid before them for recognition the image of Hudi&t 
worshipped by the late Dalai Lama, together with the bell-cUppO', 
swinging drum, and other like articles used by him, all in duplicate^ tb* 
genuine objects being accompanied by imitations. Tlio children tihovcd 
themselves capable of recognizing each iudividuat article, without faea- 
tation, iu pi-e^euce of the assembled clergy and people, who, an tliejr 
crowded arnund to behold the sight, gave vent aloud to their admiraticui 
of tlie prodijiy. 

A despatch was subsequently received from the chancellor to tbs 
effect that the supernatural intelligence of the four children bavio; 
been tested by joint inveAtigation, and having been authenticated io 
the bearing and l>efore the ey&sof all, he would re(]uest that the names be 
placed in the urn and ttie let \y& drawn on the 25th day of the 5ih 
month ; in addition to which, he forwarded alistof the names bestowed 
in infancy on the foiu* cliildren and of the names of their fathers. 
Your servants having in reply assented to the proponed an'angement, 
masses were jierformwl during seven days preceiling the date in ques- 
tion by the hiU'ukht'n nntl Lania^, of iiiotiut Pot^ia and the variom 
mona-steries ; anil, on the appointed day, the Panshen £rdeni, tli« 
chancf^llor, and their associates, followed by the entire body of L&mas, 
chanted a roa.^ before the sacred effigy of your majesty's exalted 
ancestor, the emperor Pure, offering up prayoi*s subsequently in devoat 
Kileace. On the 25th day of the 5tb mouth your servants reverently 
proceeded to mount Potala, and placed the golden vase with due devo- 
tion upon a yellow altar before the sacred elfigy. After offering in- 
cense and i»erforiuing homage with nine pi-ostrations, they inscribed 
upon the slips, in Chinese and Tibetan characters, the infant-names of 
the children and the nam&H of their fathers, which they exhibited for 
the ini«peetion of the roHpective rolatives and tutors, and of the 
assembled Lamas. This having been done, your servant, ITaip'u, recited 
B chapter from the scriptures in unison u-ith the Pnnshen Krdeni and 
the other [ecclesiastjca], in presence of the multitude, and, i-everently 
seating up the inscribed slips, deposited thenv within the vase. The 
slips being small and the uru deep, uotliing was wanting to secure per- 



in^-ici!ftbility. After the further recital of a chapter by the Pan- 
en Erdeni iind his associates, your servant, Meng Pao, inaertiug 
I hand within the urn upon the altar, turned the slijw over and ovqy, 
\\ tiine-^, and reverently proceeded to draw forth one of their 
iber, wiiich he inspected iu concert with the cliildrcu's relatives and 
htort* and the a.s8euibled Lamas. The inscription upon the slip was as 
'Iowa: *'Tbe son of Ts&-wang-t5ng-chu, Tibetan, from the Tai Ning 
lotftery. Infant-name, Na-mukio-mu-to-urh-tsi Present age, four 
The remaining slips having been drawn out nnd inspected 
ily, the Penshen Erdeni, the chancellor, with the greater and 
■ hut'ukht'u and all the attendant Lamoti, exclaimed unanimously 
Kh unfeigned delight ami gladsomenesa that " by the favour of his 
bperiul majesty, who has given advanoement to the cause of the 
Fellow Church, the establii<hetl rule has now been complied with forasoer- 
kiiiiiig by lot the embodimeut of the Dalai Laiua, and the lot having 
Bw fallen upon this child — who, the son of a poor Tibetan fuel-seller, 
manifested prodigies of intelligence, abundantly satisfying the 
Dirations of the multitude — it is place<l beyond a doubt that the 
Cual and genuine re-embodimout uf thu Y)aXvL\ Lilma lias appeareil in 
je world, and the Yellow Church has- u ruler for its governance. The 
linds of the people are gladilened and at rest, and the reverential 
%titude that inspires^ us humble priests is inexhaustible." After this 
!ley performed with the utmost devotion the liomuge of nine prostra- 
[»ns in the direction of your majesty's abode, expressing their reve- 
cttial ucknowle«lgment8 of the celestial favour. Your servants ob- 
ved with C4ireful attention that the gratitude not alone of the Pan- 
eo Erdeni and his attendant ecclesiajttics pi*oceeded from the most 
[icere feelings, but also that the entire population of Leasa, l»lh clergy 
ad laity, united in the demonstration by raising their Imnds to their 
lieatU in a universal feeling of profound satisfaction. 

The in&nt is taken to Lhasa at such an early age that his 

iQOther, wlio may belong to the poorest peasant class/ necessarily 

a ccompanies him in order to suckle him, hut being debarred from 

Hpe sacred precincts of Potala on account of her sex, she is lodged in 

^The lay town in the vicinity, and her son temporarily at the 

monastic j^ialace of Ki-gynl Phodan,- where she is permitted to 

brisit her son only between the hours of \) a.m. and 4 p.m. She, 

"together with her husband, is given an official residence for life in 

a palace about a mile to the west of Potala and on the way to I)e- 

puug, aud the father usually receives the rauk of Kunfft said to be 

le highest of the five ranks of Chinese nobility, 

> Aa, for example. In the case of the eleventh Grand Lima, whose father waa a 
poor fiwl-seller, 
* A neither accouDt r^lATER, /or. rir., p. 29S) fttat^a that be is kept at the "Jih^kia" 
oiui^bery to the east of Lhasa, or "Chih-ta-waug-pu." 

At the age of four the child a^suuie^ the monkish garb and ton- 
sare, and receives a reIigiou.«« name, and ig duly enthroned tt 
Potala in ^eat state and under Chinese aospioee, as shown from 
the annexed state paj>or: — 

" MemoriHi dated tbe 18tb day of the 4fch month of the 32nd rear d 
Tbo KwADg (2Tth May, 1H42), reporting the conclusion of the ceremoDf 
of enthronement of the embodiment of the DaUu L&ma. ... 

** In obedience to these commands, Your 8errant« proceeded on iht 
13th day of the 4th month in company with the CJtatuj-Chia Jfutulkf* 
(the Pekin metropolitan) and the chnncellor, followetl by their subor* 
dinate fuuctiunaries, the hut'ttkht^u, Ldnuu, and Tibetan officials, to tbe 
mouuBtery on mount Jih-kia, for the purpose of escorting the DiiUi 
L&uul'b embodiment down the mouotjun to the towii of Chih-ta-hwruig- 
pu, on the eiiHt of Lnst«a, whore his abode wa« teni|K>rarily estiiblifbed. 
Yoar servant**, in respectful conformity with the rules for attendnnce 
upon tbe Dalai Lama, appointed detachments of the Chinese gurrisoo 
troope to form an eucampmeut, and to discharge the duty of body- 
guards during the two dnyti he remained there. On tbe 15tb, y«iur 
servants escorted the embodiment to the monastery at mount PoIaU, 
where reverent prostrations were performed, and the ceremonial ol>ser- 
vances were fultilleti befoi-e the liacred eftigy of your majesty's elfr 
vated ancestor, the emperor Pui-e. Ou the 16th, your servank 
reverently took the golden scroll containing the mandate bestowed bj 
your tnnjeHty upon tlie Dalai Lama's embodiment, together with Ihf 
sable cape, the coral court rosary, etc., and the Kum of ten thotisand 
toela in silver, being your majesty's donations, which they caused to be 
wmveyed upon yellow platforms to the monastei-y Ht mount Potala, anJ 
deposited with devout care in ilue order in the hall called Ta Tii K&iig. 
The conch and piiIow» were then arranged upon the divan ; and nn 
the arrival of the Dalai Lama's embodiment in tlie liall, your !a«r\-ant» 
and the secretary of the Cf'ttny-chut JJut'vlfit'uy reverently read out xh« 
golden scroll, embodying your majesty's mandate, to the peru&al of 
which the emhudlment listened in a kneeling posture, facing toward 
the east. Aft«r the reading was concluded, he received with venera- 
tion the imperial gifts, and performed the ceremonial of three gonnflwv 
tions and nine prostrations in the direction of the imperial aliode, th«8 
testifying his rei^pectful gratitude for the celestial favours. Having 
been invested with the ganneutt* confen-ed by your majesty, the em- 
bodiment was sup{X)rted to hii^ seat upon the throne ; whereu[>on tlie 
chancellor, nt the head of the Tibetan priesthood, intoned a cliant of 
Dharani formulas, invoking auspicious fortune. All tbe hutUikfttu and 
Lamas having performed obeisances, a great banquet wjis opened, and 
^the ceremonial of enthronement was thus brought to n close. The <iay 
attended by the utmost fine weatliei-, and eveiything parsed off 
auspiciously and well, to the univoi-sal delight of the entire body of 
clergy ond laity of Lawsa. Thi^ wu accordingly bring to your majesty's 
knowledge ; and in addition we have to state, that as the embodiment 



! the Dalfti LSma has now been enthroned , it ift proper, in confonnity 
jlth the existing rules, to cease henceforth from Ufiinjr the word ' em- 

iLment.* Thiit we accordingiy append, and re8|>ectfuliy bring before 

ir mnjesty'a notice." ' 

He is now adraittecl a« a novice to the Nam-gyal monastery of 
Dtala, and his education is entnist-^d to a special precejttor and 
pistants learned in the scriptures and of unblemished character.* 
At the age of eight he is ordained a full monk and abbot of 

le Nam-gyal convent and head of the Lamaist church. 
The Dalai Lama is, as regards temporal rule, a minor till be 
iche» the age of eighteen, and during his minority a regent 
rries on the duties of temi>oral government. And the frequency 
th which the Dalai Lama has died before attaining his majority 

ives Home support to the belief that the regents are privy to his 
»mature death ; and the Chinese government are usually credited 

sup]x:>rtiDg such proceedings for political purposes. 
On the death of a re-incarnate Lfima, his body is preserved. The 
mba of the Dalai, and Pan-cli*en I^nmas form conspicuous gilt 

nonuinents, sometimes as many as seven storeys high, named 

tu-tuA,^at PotalaandTashi-lhuni>o. The holiness of such a Lama 
estimated in proportion to the shrinkage of his body after death. 
The temporal rule of Tibet is vested in a Lama who has the 
title of " kiug." For when I^ag-waft acquired the temporal 
power he retained this title for one of his agents, also called "The 
regent,"* and "Protector of the earth,"* and "Governor,**' and 

(jy the Mongols Noitxen-Khan. 
\ A regent is necessary to conduct the temporal government, 
specially under the system of papal succession by re-births, where 
he new Dalai r>ama does not reach his majority and nominal 
succession to temporal rule till his eighteenth year. In order to 
^kvoid plotting against the hierarchs, Nag-wan ruled that the regent 
^TOUst be a Lama, and he restricted this office to the head Lfimas of 
the monastic palaces or Ling of Lhasa, named Tan-gye-Hng,' Kun- 
de-liug,* Ts'e-chog-ling,^and Ts'amo-ling,^*^ whom, he alleged, by a 

*i Mavbr. lot. eit., p. 286. 
« Ttu' prcM^cptor o( the tenth and olevonth Grand Loinas was " Kia-Diu>pa-l«-i-lu-tan- 

prr-gyain-lao." Maysu. It^ eit. 
> sku ndun. * tiyal-taliab. ' Sa-Kyon. » de-«id. 

' b8Tan-rgjiui-gIin. ' Kiin-'(tu.i gliii * TAi'-nicIi*op glift. 

^ Ts'a<m<>-Klii'^ A Lima of thiK tnon.-u;t)c pftlarc and a mt^mber of Sera, became 
the celebrated regent Tsha-tur numa<lianp ( ? " Xomf n Khan "). 


polite fiction, to be re-embodiraentfi of tbr spirits of the four mort 
celebrated ministers of the monarfhicnl period. Thus the spirit of 
king Srofi Tsan Gampo*8 miuister Lon-po Gar is believed to t* 
iJnoarnate iu the Laina of Tan-gye-liog. The o6Sce when falling 
leant through death (or deposition) passes cccterla pai'ihtts tuthe 
surviviug senior of ihoae Lings. The present regent (1893) i» 
the Kun*de-ling Liima. The regent is assisted in the government ' 
by four ministers called Kd-lmi,* who were formerly all laymen, bat 
now some of them are being replac^ed by Lamas; also secretaries 
(A'a-tiu/i) and district magietratos (Jofi-pon). And the two 
Chinese political resident's, or Am bans,' have administrative as well 
i consulting functions. 

With such large bodies of monks comprising so many fanatical 
elements, and not at all subject to the civil authorities, wbo, in- 
deed, jwssess almost no police, it is not suqtrising that /nu'rt* are 
frequent, and bloody feuds between rival monasteries occasional^ 
happen. Every monastery has an armoury, and in the mijaor 
quarrels the lusty young monks wield their heavy iron pencases 
with serious and even fatal effect. 

Since the temporal power {)assed into the hands of the Lamas, 
the Tibetans who, in Srofi Tsan Gamiw's day, were a vigorous 
and aggressive nation, bave steadily lost ground, and have been 
ousted from Yunnan and their vast possessions in eastern Tibet, 
Amdo, etc., and are now hemmed in by the Chinese into the more 
inhospitable tracts. 

» " Ve-ba shun." 

3 bKah-blou. 

' " Amban '' Is not Chineflf. It i» jirobably Manchu or Mongolian, cf. Koce^ L„ 51. 
Tlie resident imperial minister of Ti^K't is colloquiAlly called Chu'tsaA ^ukJidii. tiul 
he is always a Manchu, that is, of the ruling race. 

ISOLATION from the world has always btsen a desidera- 
tum of Huddhist monks j not as penauee, but merely 
to escape temptations, and favour meditation. The 
^K. monastery is named in Tibetan Goii-pa^ \TiIgarly 

^^bo7i\rp(if or ** a solitary place " or hermitage ; and most monas- 
^neries are situated, if not actually in solitary places, at least some 
distance ofl' from vilhiges, while around others which were origi- 
nally hermitages villages have grown up later. 
^h The extreme i^jolation of some of the Tibetan cloisters hae its 

1 After Hue. 

3dgrin-|Ni. The title C'og-fldf, or CKoi-d*^ ». ** reltgions place," ia cspM»&lly applied 
to temple-monasteries within a village or town. " Lin,'' or "continent," is appUetl to 
tlie fonr greatest monasteries of the established church especially aiiKocULed with the 
poral Kovertimont, and is evidently suggested by tlie Tour ^rt-at fabuloiu cunti- 

nts of tlie world. gT^sug-Iag-k'an' U an academy, though it is us<-d for temples 





coanterpart in Karope in the alpine monasteries amid the erertast- 
ing snows. Some of them are for the greater part of the vear 
quite tMit off from the outer world, and at favourable times only 
reaebuble by dangerous ]>aths, so that their solitude is seldom 
broken by visitors. The monastery of Kye-lang in Little Tibet 
standi on an isolated spur about l:i,0()0 feet alwve the sea, and i^ 
apijroached over glaciers, so that sometimes its votaries are buried 
under av'alanches. And the site is usually commanding and pic- 
turestjue, Shergol in Lacliik, like so many mona»t«rie8 in cen- 
tnd Tibet, is set on the face of a cHif. It is "carved oat of a 
honeycombed cliff, forming, with some other cliffs of the same 
description, a giant flight of stairs on the sloj* of a bleak moun- 
tain of loose stones. Tlie Gompt itself is painted white, with 
bands of bright colour on the projecting wooden gallery, so that it 
stands out distinctly against the darker rocks. There is not s 
sign of vegetation near— all round h a dreary waste of stone.' 

Such remote and almost inaccessible sites for many of thfr 
convents renders mendicancy impossible; but begging-wit h-the- 
bowl never seems to have been a feature of Lamaism, even when 
the monastery adjoined a town or village. 

Kevenil monasteries, especially of the Kar-gyu sect, are called 
"caves" (hei-mitages) (or iak-p'n)^ although any oaves which 
may exist accommodate only a very small pro[>ortion of the residents 
of the cloister so named. Yet many gomjias, it is reported, paased 
through the stale of c*ve-resideuce as a stage in their career* 
Firstly a solitary site with cave:* was selected, and when the monks 
by extra zeal and piety had acquired sufficient funds and influence, 
then they built a monastery in the neigh Iwurhood. While, if th© 
venture were not financinlly successful, the hermitage remained in 
the cave. One of these struggling cave-hermitages exists at Ri- 
kyi-sum near Pedong, in British Bhotan. Such caves, as a rale, 
are natural caverns, wholly unadorned by art, and are si^ecially 
tenanted by the wandering ascetics named Vogaciirya and Zi- 

> Mr. KNtoKT, lae, eii., p. \Xl, wlter? a picture of tlie inonutory ■Uo is giren. 

■ Undftr thia heading come tlie four great oavei of Sikhim Imllnwetd as tltf traditiiiuil 
abodM of St. Padina and LbaUiin Ch'embo, and now thf ohjecte of {litgriniagp tnrpii to 
Limajt from Tibet. T1ie«e four caves ore distinguiihed at.'Ciurding to tfae four cardinal 
poinU, vijt. : — 

Tin- NouTH /.fci-n Jli'Ap'M, or "the old cave of Ood'* liUI." It \a aittiated abocift 



The site occupied by the raonaatery is osnally commanding and 
f>ft«n picturewiue. It should have a free outlook to the east to 
catch the first rays of the rit^ing sun ; aud it should he built in 
the long axis of the hill ; and it 18 desirable to have a lake in 
front, even though it be several miles di«itant. These latter two 
pondiiions are expressed in the couplet : — 


And tnint to the tarn."' 

le door of the assembly room aud temple is caterie jHiribua 
built to face eastwards. The next best direction is south-east, 
and then south. If a stream directly drains the site or is visible a 
short way below, then the site is considered bad, as the virtue of 
the place escapes by the stream. In such a case the chief entrance 
ifi made in another direction. A waterfall, however, is of very 
good omen, aud if one iH visible in the neighbourhoood, the en- 
trance is made in that direction, should it not be too far removed 
from tlie east. 

The name of the monastery is usually of a religious nature, 
ideal or mystic, or, like De-pung, borrowed from the name of a 
celebrated Indian monastery ; but others are merely place-names 
which are often descriptive of the site,' thus : — 

^P TASHi-LHtrN'po. " Tho mass of glorj','' 
Sa-6KTa, the tawny soil. 

MiK-r>oi^uS', " The place of perfect emancipation." 
The "HiMis," monastery in Lndak is called "The aupport of the 
meaning of Buddha's precepts/* 

Utive davH' jounif^jr to the north oT Tuhiding, along a inoui difficult path. 
Tliin i« thr inrMt lioly of ttii> series. 
|TI»e South Kuh-^it> mA p'w, nr *'c^vi} of tlip <HxmIt fairioB.'' Here it U Bald ie a 

liot spring, and in\ llie rock arc mariy f<.Hiti»rint» nHcribed to tht? faJrica. 
' The East hKw^/u, or "secret cavt'."' It li(.'» bt'tweMn t)ie Tondon^f and Maiiiom 
mounlainsi, flb<mt five iniU'B from Yangiing. It is n vast cavern roputnl to 
extend by a bifurcation to both Tcndang and Mainom. Pcoplf go in \»-itIi 
torchep about a quatcr of a mile. Its h'L'Ight varies from flvf feet to onr 
hundred or two hundred fopt. 
I The W«»r hDt^'eti j/u, or '*eavL' of (irent HappinoHA." It i^ in the (mow near 

Jongri, and only roacliatile in thi^ autumn. 
> rgyab ri t>nig dai'i nultin ri tnro'o. 
^ See my " Place, Ki^tr an<l Mountain Names of Sfildiim," «(«-., y.J..v.B.. igfll. 
»., 179. 



aA-Aa-chS-uJI (Aikg.y SaiigacJnImg) gsan, Ai>ci«t or occult, 4~ 
spell or magic + c'cw religion + glin, a place. **Tbe place oEj 
occult mystic religiou.'' A catholic Buddhist muDAfitc-r}' oprai to! 
<Ja8B«e, including deformed persons, nun^, Lcpcbas and I^mboK- 

pAj>iu-TAS'-THa(.4n^.,Pemiougclii) ~ p(xdma{}»r. '*paina")a]otaB + ya», 
perfect or pure + rUe^ the highest " the monastery of the 6uhlia>e 
perfect lotus (-born one, i.e., Padmn-tarnhhava) .'* A mooastei; 
profesiaiig, we believe, only well-born, celibote, and undefarnicd 
mouki;^ and Ohpcciidly aAsociated with St. Padma, who i& worshi{i|ied 

Ta-ka TAjiui-ui-S; (.4»^.,Tashiding) = brag (= tag,) a rock + dZar, whiU 
+ bkru-sui [pr. tashi) glory + Xdvng^ a soaring up or elevatiuo. 
The oriKiual name is likely to have been 'bring, pronounced " ding," 
and meaning the middle, with reference to its romaiiticnHj 
elevated site between two grent livers at their jtinction. " Tl» 
gdmpa of the elcvutcd glorious white rock." The bite, a bold bi^li 
promontory at the junction of and between the Great BangU and 
Katong rivers, is believed to have been miraculously raised up bjr 
8t. Padma, and amongst other traces a broad longitudinal while 
atreak in the rock is pointed out as being the shadow of that 

Phodaji (Aiuj.y Fodung) = p'o-ldati^ a sloping ridge ; such is the aite 
of this gtimpa and the usual spelling of the name. As however, 
this i^ the " chapel royal " of the rija, it fleems posaible that the 
name may be ito-bvan {pr. p'o-dan) = palace» " the gumpo of tbf 

I^-BuAN — bla, a contraction of Lima or high-priest + 6i-a», a dwelling. 
Here resides the hierarch or chief Lama. 

[iV'.ii.^This is one of the very few words in which br is lit«rall; 
pronounced as spelt.] 

DoBJK-LiSf (yJH//., Darjeeling) = rrf^r^V "the precious stone " or eccles- 
iastieal sceptre, emblematic of the thunder-bolt of Sakra (Tndrftcr 
Jupiter) -I- giiiiy a place. The monastery from which DarjTliag 
takes its name, and tbe ruin^ of which are still visible on observn- 
toT^'-hill, was a branch of the Dorjcling, ustmlly curtailed into 
Dtwling {Atu/.j Dalling) monastery in native Sikhim ; and to dis- 
tinguish it from it« parent monastery, it was termeil Ank-dit 
Dorje-ling (dbnjiy, power + brfus, accumulated or concenirated) on 
account uf its excellent situation, uud powerful poMbilitie«. 

Db-t'aS = /><!, a kind of tree {Daphne />CT/>vrc/<rflr, Wail.), from the hark 
of which ixipes and paper are maile + ('«'"'i * meadow = "the 
giimpa of the l>e meadow." Here these trees arc abundant 

Ri-obN (Anf/., Ringim = (ri + dyt^ti, a hermitage = "the hermitage 
hill." It ifl situated near the top of the hill. 

T6-J.u>- = n^o, astone 4- ?mh, a valley. Tliis valley is remarkably rocky, 
and avalanches of stones are frequent. 

Ex-OB = dben (jjr. en), a solitary place + Ic'e, a tongue. A monasteiy 
on a tongue-shaped •ipur. 

Dc7D-Da = agruh ipr. "dub"), a hermit's cell + B<2tf, aplace. "Tho place 
of the hermit's cell " — the oldest monastery in Slkhim, foumled by 
the pioneer missionary Lha-tsun Cli en-bo. 

P'KT-ziS =• p'an blias or profit + h:ait, excellent. The monastery of 
*■*■ excellent blias.'' 

Kahm-pal-u (Awj, Ket!iu|>eri) = lalc'&j heaven + Bpy<A (pr, oho) to 
aocotQ[ilL^h or roach -f- il^/u?, noble 4- ri = the mona tery of *'the 
noble mountain of the Ganida (a messenger of the gods) " or " of 
reaching heaven." 

Ma-ni = ma-Dif a tablet inscribed with "Om m&ni, etc.," a Mendob. 
" The ^ompa of the Mondoii "; here the gSmpa was erected near 
an old mendoDg. 

Sb VON '^ Sif &. sloping ridge -f »ium, depressed. It is Mtuate<l on n 
depressed sloping ridge , and h also spelt grigs {pr. zi), a ftee-er or 
beholder, + xaiton, to suppress ; and in this regard it is alleged that 
here 8t. Padma sambhava beheld the local demons underneath and 
kept them under. 

YAit-CAjif = ya«, [Mjrfect, also lucky + Hffan, a ndge. " The monastery 
of the Uicky ridge." 

IjHvs-tsk =■ lAun, lo^ty + rt««, summit. "The monastery of the loft^ 

Sam-tsb = m/inij a division or district + r/«. "Lofty division" one 
of the subdivisions of native Sikhim, on the ilaiik of Tendong. It 
is proboble that this isa Lepoha uumo from /«> = *' Seat of govern- 
meut/' 114 the hite is a very old Lepcba one. 

Tsus-t'aS iAtuf.f Cheungtham)= hUtm^ & queen; also " i-eapccted one," 
».?,, a liuna or monk ; altto marriage + /A<r«, a meadow. This 
gompa is situated overlooking a meadow at the junction nf the 
Lacbhen and I.Achhung rivers. It may mean "the meadow of 
marriage (of the two rivers)/' or " the meadow of the Lamas," or 
*' the meadow of Our Lady " — its full name as found in manuscript 
being "b/«in-HM) rin-chen t'an" implies that the Uimas derive its 
name from "the precious Lady (I)urje-p'ag-mo) " whose image ia 
prominently displayed within the giimpa. 

Kak-leS' {Antj.j Rawling) = ro/^, excellent or high -(- g?m, aplace. This 
monufitory is situated on a high cliffy ridge. 

KtTB-uir (jIwjt., Nobling) = nuh, the west + glin = "The gompa of the 
weatem place or country." It lies on the western border of Sikhim, 

DB-Kn-u5f Cvl/tj^ , Dikiling) = b<i«-sAryid, happiness + gliit = "The place - 
of Happiness." It is a rich arable tdto with the beer-millet (nrui^ca) 

The sit<* chosen for a monastery must be consecrated before any 
building is begun. A chapter of Lamas is held, and the tut«?lary 
deity is invoked to protect the proposed building against all injury 
of men and demons. At the ceremony of laying the first stone 
prayers are recited, and eharras, together with certain forms of 

S 2 



benediction (Tashi-tsig jod), together with relics, are deposited in 
a bollow etoue.' And other rites are done. And in repairing & 
sacred building somewhat sirniUr services are performed. 

The size of the Tibetan nionasteriet* is sometimes immeDM^ 
several containing from 3,(KW) to 10,000 monks, in this the nn 
priest-ridden country in the world. The larger monasteries 
hke small towus, as seen in the original drawing of Ta«hi-lh 
here given, with long streets of cells, two or three storeys hij 
and usually surrounding small courtyards which generally con- 
tain a shrine in the centre. The chief building is "The assembly 
hall," which, however, is practically a temple, and is considered 
under that head. 

There are always small balls for teaching purposes, as the 
monasteries serve also as colleges. But these colleges are for the 
cK^rgy alone, a.< Liimas, unlike Burmese monks, are not the 
schoolmasters of the people. They teach only those who enter 
the order. And the lay populace have to be content with the 
poor tuition obtainable in a few schools (Lob-ta) conducted hj, 

The architecture seems to have preserved much of the mediffi 
Indian style. Mr. Fergusson shows - that Xe|>al, in its architeci 
as well as ethnologically, presents us with a microcosm of I 
as it was in the seventh century, when Hiuen Tsiang viai 
it ; and that the .Sikhim monasteries show a jjerseverance in 
employment of sloping jambs (as in the Tashiding doorwa; 
as used two thousand years ago in the Hehar and early weHtem 
caves; and the porch of the temple at Pemiongchi shows the form 
of roof which we are familiar with iu the rock examples of India. 

The architecture of the monastery resembles that of the houaee 
of the wealthy Tibetans, and is often ostentatious. It has been 
descrihed in some detail by Schlagintweit, Hue, Rockhill,' etc, 
as regards Tibet, and by General Cunningham and Mi'. Conway as 
regards the large monasteries of Ladak. The monasteries in 
Sikhim are mean and almost devoid of any artistic interest. 

) ScuLAU., 178. who Uiort- trAtiHlaU-s thr hintonc^l docuiiifut on the founding of 

■i Hia. Ind. and EaU,,. .l/rA., p. 299, rt teq. 
3 FiglirWl by HoOKKU, ifim. Jnnr. 

* .Sif Also ilc-tnilitl (Wcriptioii n[ tlitt houwii of tlie Laiiia« nf Kunibum in Land ^ 
tht LAmtUt p. 65. 



As wood is scarce in Tibet most of the raoiiaateriea are built of 
>ne or suu-dried bricks. Most have flat roofs, some are in the 
lineee style, and -most are surmounted by the cylinders of yak- 
iir cloth crossed by a few white ribbons at right angle:^ to each 
tber, and topped by a crescent and spear, as in figures, and a 
of yak-hair cloth bearing similar stripes in the form of a 
Jitin cross closes the windows. In the outer Himalayas the cells 
ad dormitories and other buildings cluster round the temple. 
id in the temple-monasteries, the ground floor is without win- 
lows and is generally used as a storehouse, and the upper storeys 
reached by a staircase or an inclined beam on which uoiehes 
re cut for steps ; and the scanty furniture is of the plainest. 
The well-known Indian name of a Buddhist monastery, namely, 
!i, or Saiigharfima ('*tho resting-place of the clergy*'), more 
trictly applied to the grove in which the monastery was situated, 
applied in Tibet, which ia almost destitute of groves, to the 
luditorif or library of the monastery.^ 


v--«* ^y 

Cu'Ofil'BX ASO aU>>I>0»r IN LADiJU* 

Lining the approaches to the monastery are rows of tall 

I Cf., Jaesch- i>., 4. 

* After Mr. Knigfat 



** prayer "-flags, and several large fuuereal monuments — Ch*orieR 
and long wall-like M&tuloii monuments. 

The Ck'or- 
tena,^ literallj 
"receptacle for 
ofiferinjfs,*** are 
usually solid 
conical masonry 
Btructures, cor- 
responding to 
the Caityafl and 
of Indian Budd- 
hietm, and origi- 
nally intended 
as relic-holders; 
they are now, 
mostly erected 
as cenotaphs in ^ 

Buddha or of (± Ob'ort»n .Srtf»i or " INitw "). 

canonized saints; and they present a suggRstively fanereal appear 
ance. S.ime commemorate the visits of Lumaist saints ; and 
miniature ones of metal, wood, or clay often adorn 
tlie altar, and sometimes contain relics. 

The original form of the Caitya, or Stuiw*,* wb* 
a simple and massive hemisphere or solid dome 
(garftfu(, literally *' womb " enclosing the relic) of 
masonry, with its convexity upwards and crowned 
by a square capital (ioran) surmounted by one or 
more umbrellas, symbols of royalty. Latterly they 
became more complex in form, with numerous 
plinths, and much elongated, especially in regard 
to their capitals, as seen in the small photograph 
here given.* 

(from TIbatO 

1 mCh*od.r-t«n. » Skt^ iMi-ffarhha. 

3 Of. nuDO»., Jl^ ^, r fq-t for drvcnptlons ; also liia riows about the rMtiectiT* 
ineaoinitB of •' Cait>'n " » *3 " ytiipn." 

• In Mr. H<«l(r»"»n'h collection aro nwirly one hundred drawtnirs of Caityas in Nefikl ^. 
FKH«rs50N's fl'*t Ind. iiHff Rut. .4rM.,303; Fkbo. and ilt'iuiua' C'lwrfm/rfrj ,- ala$ 
CvNsnto ham's Ithilta Topis, p. 12. 

The Lnmaist Oaityas, or Cb'ortenr^, are maiuly of the two forms 

are shown. TLey generally adhere to the Indian type; but differ 
conspicuously in that the dome in the commonest form 
IK inverted. Both have more or less elaborate plinthfi, and on the 
sides of the capital are often 
figured a pair of eyes, like the 
sacred eyes met with in ancient 
Egyptian, Greek, and Roman 
vases, etc., and believed to be 
connected with sun-worship. 
Above the twnn ia a bluntly 

>nical or pyramidal spire, 
imani, of thirteen steij- 
like segments, typical of the 
thirteen Budhisat heavens of 
the Buddhists. This is sur- 
mounted hy a bell-shaped sym- 
bol (usually copi>er-gilt) called 
the hdsit, the handle of which 
forms a taj»ering pinnacle 
sometimes modelled after a 
small Caitya, but often 
moulded iu the form of one or 
two or all of the following- 
objects : a lotuK - flower, a 
crescent moon, n globular sun, 
a triple canopy, which are 
finally surmounted by a 
tongue-shaped spike, repre- [^ 
senting the jyoti or sacred light 
of Buddha. And sometimes 
round the base of the kaJ.»i is a gilt canopy or umbrella {calTa),^ 

Many of the Lfuniist Cait^^as are, like those of the Japanese, 
symbolic of the tive elements into which a body is resolved upon 
death ; thus, as in the annexed figure, the lowest section, a solid 
recUngular block, typifies the solidity of the earOi ; above it water 
represented by a globe ; fire by a triangular tongue ; air by a 


TiuBTAN Co'dbtbh, OOSUCOR TOaM. 

■ CuvKmanAif's BAilta T<^tn, 12. 



crescent — the inverted vault of theflky,Aiide<A«>*byftn acnmimtad 
oircle, the tApering into sijace. 

A mixuatur« CiCoHcix^ containing an enormous namber of fiuull 
images of Liimaist deities, in niches nnd in several 
inner comjartuients within folding doors, is called 
*'tlie glorious (C/tWten) of many doors."* It is 
carried about from vilUge to village by itincfant 
Lfimos for exhihition to the laity. 

In the wealthier monasteries the Cb'ortens are 
regularl^v white-washed. 

The Meiidoii8, as figured on page 261, are long 
wall-like erections sometiraes over a mde in length, 
wliich divide the road into two lateral halves to 
allow of the respectful mode of passing it, namely, 
with the right hand to tbe wall. They are faced 
with blocks bearing in rudely cut characters the six- 
syllabled mystic sentence ** Oj^i wa^t* piidme hu'^" 
— the same which is revolved in the " prayer- 
wheels,*' and usually called Matyi ; and its name is said to be 
derived from these, namely, M(tr^l-(Uyi\ or "The J/fUi*- faced." It 
usually has a cftortoi terminating it at either end ; and occa- 
sionally it contains niches to burn incense or to deiwsit the smali 
clay funereal Caityas,' and also bears coarsely outlined figures of 
the three especial protecting divinities of Lfimaism.* As it is 
a pious act to add to these " Mani " slabs, a mason is kept at the 
larger temples and places of special pilgrimage, who carves the 
necessary number of stones according to the order and at the 
expense of the donating pilgrim. 

The small cairns, surmounted by a few sticks, to which rags 
are attached by i>assers by as offerings to the genivs loci, like 
the "rag-bushes" of India, are called Lab-ch'a, and figured at page 


As with all sacred objects, these monuments must always be 
Bed on the right hand,* according to the ancient custom of 

showing respect. And thus, too, it is that the prayeiw?yl!nder8 

must always be turned in this direction. 

In addition io the foregoing objects, there is frequently found ia 

1 Ta-thi-ff^MiiaJk. ' d^arma-faiim. ' The Rig^nM gott-po. * faiutntsltitut. 


Ibe viciHity of the monastery a stone peat called a " throne " for 

18 head Lfima, when he gives al-freaco inHtruction to his pupils. 

le of the reputed thrones of the founder of Sikhim Liiiuaism 

lists at the Pemiongchi Ch'orten, where the camp of viaitore is 

asually pitched. 

There is no regular asylum for animals rescued from the 

atchers, to save some person from pending death; but occasion- 

lly such ransomed cattle are to be found in the neighbourhood 

of monasteries where their pension-expenses have been covered by 

donation from the party cured. The animals have their ears 

ared for a tuft of coloured rags as a distinctive and saving mark. 

In Sikhim not far from most monasteries are fertile fields of 

xwnva {Eletiaiiie corocana), from which is made the country beer, 

beverage which the Sikhim and Bhotanese monks do not deny 

Tthem selves. 

Over 3,000 monasteries are said to be in Tibet, But be- 
are giving a short descriptive list of some of the chief monas- 
*ries of Lumadom it seems desirable to indicate the chief pro- 
rinces into which Tibet is divided.^ 
Tibet is divided into three sections, namely : — 

1. Piid or "Tibet" proper, or the provinces of U and Tsang, 
tience the name " Weitsang" applied to Tibet by the ('hinese. 

2. High (or Little) Tibet, or the northern provinces of Tod, 
rfari, and Khor-sum. 

3. Eastern Tibet, or the provinces of Kham, Do, and Gang. 
In Tibet proper the central province of U and the western one of 

'Tsang have their capitals at Lhiisa and Tashil-huupo respectively. U 
contains the districts of Gyama (and Konghu. including Pema- 
Koi), Di-gung, Tsal-pa, Tsaug-jxj, Che'-va, Phag-du, Yah-sang,and 
Yaru-dag, including the great Yamdok lake. Tsang comprises 
the districts of north and south Lo-stod, (jurmo, Oh'nmig, Sang, 

Jknd S'alu. 
Little Tibet is divided into the three circles of sTag-mo Ladvags 
" Ladak "), Mang-yul S*ang Shuih, Guge Bnrang ("Purang"), 
' The b«6t Temicular account of thp gtm^aphy of Tibet ]■ contained in the 
Dttam-ling Uye-Blic of Lama, Tean-po N'otnnn Klian of Amdo, and truulatod by 
Haut, J.A.S.B., 1887, p. 1, teq, ; Csoma. J.A.SJl, 1832, p. 123. For sctnitific 
gf4>graphy, s«« MAitKiUMS Tibtt, Indian Survey Reports, Pn-jvaUky, KockhilU otc. 
^ D'Akvu.i^'a lunp of 1793, compiled ou d.ata supplied by Limafl, \6 utilt iiur chief 
ittftarity for a large portion of Tibet. 



tg the districtB of Punuig, Bfaag-jal Sangs-dKar. bCbV 
tXas'a, sBal-te, Shang-shung, upper and lower Kbrig-!»e» 
East Nan includes I>ok-t*al and lake Manasarov'ar. The Uutik 
and Balti districts of west Nari were conqaered by Kashmir in 
1840 and are now Britieh dependencies. Ka-cUe, K>inetime£ used 
synonyuiously with Kashmir, includes the lofty northern steppes 
and the gold fields of Thog-Jalung. 

Kaatem Tibet is the most iio[)ulou^ section of the country. Tbe 
greater part of the low-lying Do province (Amdo) seems to have 
been detached from Tibet by the Chinej*e about 1720. The south- 
eastern province of Kham borders on Assam and upper Burma, 
ittad includes the districts of Po, Lhari-go. The Gang province 
oonsista mostly of high bleak ridges, Pombor, Tsawa, and Tsa- 
Ch*u. The northern Tsai-dam, comprising many marshes between 
Nan-shnn and Altentagh mountains, is peopled by Tanguts and 

The chief monasteries of central Tibet are t — 

Sam-yas, which as the first monastery founded in Tibet, do a oi ? «e fiakf 

Its full title is " bSam-yas Mi-'gyur Lhuu-gyis grub-paT Tsug-lug- 
K'an " or '* The academy for obtaining the heap of unchanging 

The explorer Nain Singh resided in this monastery in 1874 and bss 
given ft good account of it. It is situated (N. lat. 29" 20\ E. long. 
91* 26, altitude about 11,430ft.) about thirty miles to the S.E. of 
Lhasa, near the north bank of the Tsang-po river amidst hillodcs of 
deep sand, clothed with scanty herl)age. It was built about 74 by 
Thi-8ron Dotsan with the aid of the Indian monks, Padma-sajnbhATa 
and ^Dta-rakshita, after the model of the Udandapur,' temple- 
monastery of Bihar. But the building is believed to have been alto- 
gether mii'jiculous, and an abstract uf the legend is given undemeatli.' 

I For sonie details eec ^kat, In /. Jinrld. Text*. Ind., i., p. 4, ttq. 

To consecrate the ground and iirociirf .«upemAturaI workers St. rndma otadtf Ibe 
^magic-cfrclf of rDo-r je-r*ur-pa witli coIour«I stonc-duBt, and hoving the K'ro-wo oT 

I flre kindfl, and all the necessAf}' nfftrings arranged in his presence, h« wunhippcd 
for seven days. Then Uie five Jiiuu (Dliynni Huddtiiut, (jyal-wa-rigi-lna) appcjurd 
to him, and the king, being eiiip<iwi<rt'(i, uImj tiaw iJie fnct's of these lire. Then the 
Guru created scvemi tncaniationx at \uiav.Al, iroinF* of wliom eut«red tbe Ma^^ala* 
while H»nic fli-w up iuUi l\w eiky. Ttifne inranintions causud the Tlbetu de^ilf tO 
bring ntom's aud wikhI fr»in the lulls and rivers. ,in>.l thus the foundation of 
academy wa« bt^guti. Human b^ing.i built it liy day, while the devils worked at 
DJght, and bi> Ihc jfrt-at wnrk rapidly pr«>gro«sp<l. 

When tbe king saw tlte great pUcft of gatliercd wood lie was surprised and was 



[Part of the original building yot remains. The monastery, which 
3tatDS a large temploj four krge colleges, and several other buildings, 
f enclosed by a lofty circular wall about a mite and a half in circnm- 
ence, vrilh gates facing the cardinal points, and along the top of the 
1 are many votivo bride chaityaa, of which the explorer, Nain Singh, 
anted 1,030, and they seemed to be covered with inscriptions in 
oient Indian characters. In the centre of the enclosure stands the 
Bmbly hall, with radiating cloisters leading to four chapels, facing 
< equal ili-stanoes the four sides of the larger temple. Thift explorer 
^otes that " the idols and images contained in these temples are of pui>e 
gold, richly ornamented with valujible cloths and jeweltt. The candle- 
sticks and vessels are nearly all made of gold and silver." And on 
the temple walls are many large inscriptions in Chinese and ancient 
Indian characters. In the vt?stibule uf the chief temple, to the left of 
^tibe door, is a colojwal copy of the pictoiial Wheel of IJ'fe. 
^H The lai-ge image of "Buddha," over ten feet high, seems to be called 
^Ptbe Sam-ya-i Jing" (Samyas Gyal-po). 

The library contains many Indian manuscripts, but a great number 
of these were destroyed at the great tire about 1810 a.d. 

In ft temple close by among the sand is a celebrated chamber of 
horrors, built of largo boulders, and cuntatning gigantic figures uf the 
twenty-five Oon-po demon.s. The images are made of incense, and are 
about twenty feet high, of the fiercest expression, and represented 
as dancing upon mangled human corpses, which they are also devour- 
ing. And great stains of blood are pointed out by the attendants as 

aweatnick, and asked the Gum bo p:KplAiri. Tlif Ouru thereon made the MaifAthx of 
the " Fire," and worshippiog fur sevt^n days, the Fivo transfarmed UwnwelTeB 
into five kinda of Oaruda birdii, which were visihlt* to the kinp. And at that verj- lime 
thAGuru liimMlf beaimc inviitible, amt tlie king saw in bis st^^ad a givat Knrutin bold* 
in^ a Bnoke in his (Jutchee and \k'a\ ; but not ftt'cing tlif Guru, the kioi; cried out in 
fi»ar. *nM'n the garuda v-anished and tbc- Ouru rfappenrei] beside him. The country 
to Uie »)Uth of Samye was tlien, it is said, inliabitud by the savaj[i> ■' kLi-klo " tnhcB, 
which the Tibetans, tlirougli their Indian pandits, termetl Nufjis fwjrnatf with those 
oF the Rrahmnputra valley). The next day, a Nofia, havinj; transForined liiiuself into 
a white man un a white horse, came Into the pr(>flrnci? of t]i<< klntr and tuud, " O kinfif ! 
Ho^r niueb wood do you need for building Sain-yas ? as I will supply yr>u with all you 
want," On being informed of the requirements, the Niiya collected wood to an 
enormous extent. 

The building of the Sam-ye acndrniy (gtaug-lag-k'an) swallowed up the weftlth 
of the king. So the (riini, accompanied by Lb<> king and his ministers, went to the 
bank of Mnl-gro lake, and keeping tlie miniot^rs concealed in a small ^*al]oy, tlie 
Ginru U'Rnn to make a Ma%4aht of the "Fire " and worshipped for seven days, after 
whicl) Aralokita sinhada, with Amttabhn im his head, stood at each of the four dlrec- 
rhere fJwrll the four gods of the Five. On this the Niigaa of the deptlia 
powerless, and the Cfuni, addreasing thorn, said, " Tlie wealth of my king 
f exhausted, I have come to ask weaUh." Next day the banks were found linwl 
with glittering gold, which the Guru caused the minLiteri) to carry off to the palace. 
On thia account all the images of gods at Sam-yae are made I'f flolid gold, and of a 
quality unc^juaUed in any part of our world of Jamhudvip, 



the fresh staiiu of bodies which the demons have dragged to the place 

iluriug the preWoua night. 

We httve already referrefl to (he miraculous acooimt of the baOdicj 
uf tbid mooastery, which is sidd to rest upou Bakfilm lieDd:». On 
iiccount of the pecaliar safety iiu|u).rted to the locality by the frpelk <i( 
the wijiuu'd pritftit, Padmit-suiubliHva, the Tibetan government iiae the 
place as a bank foe tbeii' regened bullion and treasure, of which faba- 
louB stims are said to be stored there. 

Although it is now presided over by a Sarkya L£ma, the mojoril^ of 
ita members are Nih-ma. 

GiH-LDAX, the monastery founded by Tson-K'a-pa, is one of the four 
great Q^lug-pa or eatabUshcd church monasteries, the others being 
I^pungt ^ra and Tashi-lJiunpo. 

It« full name is dGah-ldau rNam-par Gyal-wahi glin, or the Continent 
of completely victorious happiness. 

Thib monastery stands eutlu-oued on the ^hAn-K*i>r hill, aboai 
twenty-live miles E. N.E. of Lhasii. Its founder, Twrn-K'tt-pa, luised it 
to a high pitch of fiuue and filled it with costly images. The chief 
object of veneration is the grand tomb of Tson-K'a-pa, which \s pLiced in 
the Tiiug-la-k'nu. It is a lofty mausoleum-like structure of marbla 
aud malachite, with u gilded roof. Inside this outer shell is to be wen 
a beautiful (Jh'orten, consisting of cube pyramid and surmouuLing cone, 
all said to bo of solid goM. Within this golden casket, wrapped in fine 
cloths, iiif^cribed with sacred Dharani syllables, are the embalmed 
remains of the great reformer, disposed in sitting attitude. Other 
notable objects here are a magniticent representation of Chum-pa, the 
Buddha to come, seated, £uro[>e:in fashion, on a throne, liet^ide him 
stands a life-sized image of Tson-K'a-pa, in his cliaract^r of Jam-]«1 
Kin-po, which is supposed to be his name in the Qnldan heavens. A 
rock-hewu cell, with impi'eesious of hands and feet, is also abown ta 
T«on-K'a-pa'fi. A very old statue of 8'inje, the lord of Death, is much 
reverenced here ; every visitor pre&entiug gifts and doing it infinite 
obeisance. The floor of the htrge central chamber appears to be 
covered with brilliant enamelled tiles, whilst another shrinti holds an 
effigy of Tson-K'a-pa, with images of his five disciples (Shes-rah Hen-ge, 
K'a-grub Ch'o»-rje, et<;.) staiuliug nmnd him. The librai-y contains 
manuscript copies of the saiut's works in his own handwi'iting.' 

Unlike the other large Ge-lug-pn monasteries, the headship of Gih- 
Idau is not bused on hereditary incarnation, and is not, therefore, a 
child when appointed. He is chosen by a conclave from among the 
mo!»t scholarly of the monk.sof Sei-a, De-piing, and this monastery. The 
late abbot became ultimately recent of all Tibet. The number of in* 
mates here is reckoned at about 3,300. 

D»-puNo ('bi-asi-spufis), the most powerful and populous of all the 
monasteries in Tibet, founded in and named after the great Indiiui- 
Tantrik monastery of "The rioe-heap" (Sri-Dhanya Kataka) in 

1 Abrtract from 5urivy Re^torUt etc., by Rev. O. Sandbcrg. 

iikffL and identified with the KalKcSki-a doctrine. It is sittiatod 
about thtve mllea west of LhilsJi, hu<1 it contains nominally 7,000' 
monks. It is divided into four sectiona clustcnng round the gi-eat 
cuthcdral, the resplendent golden roof of which is seen from afiir. It 
oantaina a .small palace for the Dalai Lilma at his annual visit. Many 
Mongolians study hei-e. In front stands a stflpa, Kaid to contain the body 
of the fourth Gnind Lama, Yun-tenn, who was of Moagolian nationality. 
Its local genii are the Five nymphs of long lAta (l^Win-ina), whose 
iiaagea, accompanied by tliut uf Hayagri\'a, guard the entrance. And 
etfigies of the sixteen Sthavira at*e placed outside the temple door. In 
ita neighbourhood is the monastery of Jfa-Oh'un, the residence of the 
tftate eoix-erer, with a conspicuoui^ gilt dome. 

Sbb-ba, or "The Merciful Hail."" It is said to have been so named 
»at of rivalry to its neighbour, " The rice-heap " (Be-pung), as hail is 
extractive of rice, and the two monasteries have frequent feuils. In 
i>nnection with this legend there is also exhibited here a miraculous 
Phurbu," or thunderbolt sceptre of Jupiter Pluviu.s. 
It is romantically situated about a mile and a half to the north of 
[ihSBa, on the lower slopes of a I'ange of barren hills named TiL-ti-pU| 
jfauious for silver ore, and which 6urround the monastery like an 

Its monks number nominally 5.500, and have frequently engaged in 
bloody feuds ag-iinat their more powerful rivals of De-pimg, The Indian 
jrveyor reported only on the idols of the temple. He says : "They 
liffer in sixe and hideousness, .some having horns, but the lower porta 
»f the figures are generally those of men." Hue gives a fuller descrip* 
aon : " The temples and houses of Sem stand on a slope of the moun- 
iin-spur, planted with hollies and cypresses. At a distance these 
t)uildings, ranged in the form of an amphitheatre, one above the other, 
knd standing out upon the green baso of the hill, present an attractive 
'^and picturesque sight. Here and there, in the breaks of the mountain 
above this religious city, you see a great number of cells inhabited by 
contemplative Lilmas, which you can reach only with ditficulty. Tlie 
monastery of Sera is remarkable for three large temples of several 
■toreys in height, all the rooms of which are gilded throughout. 
Thence the name from ser, the 'l^betan for 'gold.' In the chief of 
these three temples is pre8erve<I the famous tortche, which, having 
flown through the air from India, is the model from which all others, 
large and portable, are copied. Tlie tortche of Sera is the object of great 
veneration, and is sometimes named in procession to to receive 
the adoration of the people." This " doijt^," or rather "phurbu," is 
what is called a Tavt-din-p/iurlm, and is sjiid to have originally be- 
longed to an Inilian sage naniod Grulvthob »»dah-'pliyar. It was 
found on the hill in the neighbourhood named P'urba-Ch'og, having 
flown from India. In the 1 2th month of every year (about the 27th 



d*y) it it Uken out of ito easkot &nd euTifld in st«t« to Potala, «h«c» 
the iMlai Utma put« it to hut head. It is tliereaft«<r carrit^t by k liifb 
official of 8eru monastery to the Ckine»e Ambon, the governors (S!>Uiip»i 
and tbe regent, all of whom touch their heads with It. Aft«nnLrd« 
thousands Uhroug to Sera to receive its holy totich ou their beadd m 
dofeniv agaiufit all evil and apellt>. 

In the great asfiombly hall i» a huge imago of Avaloldta with fJefen 
' heads. 

Tahiii-uicnpo (bkra-8*itf Lliuu-po)» or the "Heap of Glorj'/' the 
head(|uurtci-s of the Pan-rh'en Graud L&ma, who to some extont sbarefe 
with the Lhwa Grand Lfcuia the hendship uf the church. It^ geiuril 
' Appearance will he Keen from the fureguiug plate on po^e 260, front a 
native drawing. The monat?tery foiuis quite a «mall towni, and not 
even Lftmn^ other thuu eetablislmd church con stay there over-ui^ht. 
It ifi well known through the descriptions of Bogle, Tumor, etf. It ia 
situated near the Kouth bank of the TWig-po, at the junction of the 
Nying river, in 89** 7' E. long., 29' 4' 20* N. hit., and altitude, 11,8(10 
feet ^Makkh., xxvii.). Tliis celebrated cfitabli&hment haa been joug 
known to Kuropean geographers tm *' Tee^hoo Loombo.*^ 

Hr. Bc^le deecrlbeB it ' as being built on the lower alope of a st<vp 
hill (Dolmai Rl, or hill of the goddess Tara). The faoudee rise one ovor 
another; four churches with gilt ornnmenta are mixed iR-ith them, and 
altogether it preaenta a princely appeai-«nce. Many of the courts iire 
flagged with stone, and with galleries running round them. ITie allfrs, 
which are likewise paved, are narrow. The pnlru^e is hirge, built of 
dark-coloured bricks, with a copper-gilt i-oof. It is appropriat<'d to the 
Lima and his officers, to temples, granaries, warehouaes, etc. The rest 
of the town is entii-ely inhabited by priests, who oi-e in number aboat 
four thousand, Mr. Bogle also debcriboii the interior of several of the 
state rooms nnd temples. On the top of mount Dolmai Ri is a stone 
caini, where bunuers are always duttering, aud where, on high fesUrab, 
huge bonfires are set ablaze. The lay capitjil of the province, Shigatae, 
lies on the upper ridges to the N.E. of this hiU, hardly a mile from 
thi>^, the ecclesiastical capital. 

Tho lofty walla encloeiug the monastic town are pierced by five gate- 
ways. Over tho euateru gate ha^ been placed, in large carved letters, 
a prohibition against smoking within the mouaMio precincts. The 
western gateway seems to Ije regai'de<i as tho main entrance. So, enters 
ing the monaKtic premises there, you find yourself in a sort of town, 
with lanes lined by lofty housee, open squares, and temples. 

lu the centre of the place is the gi-ond catltetlml or assembly hall. 
Its entrance faces the east. Its roof is suppuHed by one hundred 
pillars, and the building accommodates two to three thousand monks 
seated in nine rows on rugs placed side by side ou the floor. The four 

otral pillars, called the Ka-i-tng, are higher than the rest, and support 
. detached roof to form tho side skylights through which those seated 
in the upper gallery can witness the service. The rows of seats arranged 





.» -"^ ■i-^'* 

right side of the entrance are occupied by the senior monks, such 
long to the order of Kigch'en, Phiircl»'cnphft, Torarajwi, Kah-c'an, 
iTfae seats to the leFt side are taken up by the junior monks, such 
U\d nnd apprentice monks, etc., of the classes called Dfira and 

I court around it is used by the monkt; for religious dances and 

outdoor ceremonies. Round the space are reared the halls of the 

Ed, four storeys in 

b) provided with 

r-(loor balconies. 

1 of these buildings 

t up in a line the 

ombs of deceased 

k'en Lamas. Tiie 

of each is em- 

and placed witli- 

.d-pl&ted pyramid 

on a tall marble 

land this structure 

within a stone 

leum, high and 

'ated with gilt 

fra and smaU 

ider*»haped finiuls 

lOf bkck felt, Oni? 

tombs is mucli 

than the rest. It 

of Pan-ch'on Er- 

hodied in 1779. 

ere are fotxr con- 

ual colleges at- 

to Tashi-Ihun- 

of which receive 

ts from every part 

it, who are in- 

id in Tantiik rit- 

nd learn large 

of that divi- 

tlie scriptures. 

names of these 

are Shar-tse 

, Nftg-pft Ta- 

Toi-«am Lin, and 

^ftfi Ta-ts'an. Each of these institutions has an abbot, who is the 
or avatir of some bygone saint ; and the four abbots hare 
\ to do with the discovery of the infant successor to a deceased 
Ven, or head of the monastery. From these abbots, alf^Oj one 

\* ' 

iT T' 

-3 ,;• 

ToHB OP Tasbi LAma.1 

1 After Tumfir. 



MJeetad to net as the prime minister, or chief eaclesuutical advwr 
the goverammt of Twing. The most imposing building of the 
^BoaMtery is the tcmplo and hal] of tho f^ag-pa ^-te^Aii, lotovn ^ 
the "STagk'nu," which is the chief college for mystic ritual in TibH. 
Another college, the Toi-san-liu, standa at the extreme northern apex 
of tho wnlls. Bomo way up the slope of the Dolmiii-Ki hill. 

Flard by the la^tt-named premi^u, is to be oUwrvod a lofty boildiii;; 
of rubble stone, reare*! to the ainuKing height of nine storeys. Thf* 
[edifice, which forms il very remarlcnhle object on tho hiU-stde, «v 
sketched by Turner, who vieited Tni»hi-)hunpo one hundred years *fo, 
and his drawing of it ia here annexed on opposite page. It is ealKsj 
Go-Ku-fwu, or "The Stored Silken Pictures," as it is need to extuliit 
at certain festivals the gigantic pictin-e$ of Maitreya and other Buddhist 
deities, which are brought otit and hung high up as great sheets ooi 
aide the waII« of the tflJI buUding. By the vulgar it is styled Kika 
Tamsa. It is used as a etorehouae for the dried carcaees of sheep, 
gOHtA, and yak, which are kept in stock for feeding the inmatetf of the 
moniLHtfry. A wide-walle*l yard fronts the Kiku Tamaa, and this 
is thronged by u motley crowd when (as is tho custom in June 
November) the pictures aro exhibited. 

The number of monks generally in residence at Tashi-lhnnpo is soM 
to be 3,K0(). The division into wards and clube has already been r^ 
fen-ed t*). 

The head of the whole monastic estabiislmient resides in the bttilding 
called ALa-l»rong, or "The Ij&mn's palace." 

Nah-gyal Ou'oi-db is the monnstcr^'-ixjyal of tho G^rand Ijama on the 
red hill of Potala, where the Dalai Lama holds his court and takes part 
in the service as a Hhikahu, or common monk. 

KftMo-cn'p. and Kakmikva monasteries, within LhSsa, are, as alroadr 
noted, schools of Horcery, and the latter has a printing house. 

"Dksuzbip-oay " (elevation 12,220 feet), a monastery two tmlm from 
tho fort of Cliamnam-ring in northern Tsang, is subordinate to Tashi- 
Ihunpo. where the Grand Tasbi Lama was resident at Bogle's vjtdt on 
auount of the smallpox plague at his headfjuart^rs. Bogle describe 
it^B "situated in a narrow valley, and at the foot of an ahnipt and 
rodcW hill . . . two storeys high, and is* surrounded on three 
sidea^t rows of small apartmenta with a wooden gallery running round 
tiiem, ^ich altogether form a small court flagged with stone. All the 
stairs are broad ladders. The roofs are adorned with uopper-gUt orna- 
ments, and on the front of the house are three round brass plates', 
emblems of Ouiy I/an (? Ah), //mmif. The Iwinia's apai-tment is at Ihs 
top. It is small, and liung i-ound with different coloured silks, views 
of Potala, Tesliu Lumbo, etc." ' 

Jan-lacmr, a large monostety on the upp^c^sang-po, in long. 87^ 

It ia eighty-fiTe 

38' E. ; elevation 13,380 feet. 

miles above Tasbi- 

1 Mabkkam, op. fit., p. 82. 

' Markiuh's Tib., p. xxvil. 

Tkk '• 0.>-Kr-p«* "* OR "Kikc-Tamsa" Towkr at TAsni-LUCNPO,' 
* A{t*r Turner. 




Ohamkamun (Nam-lin), in tho valley of the Shing river, m 
northern affluent of the Tsung-po, 12,220 feet, seen and viait^J by Mr. 

BoKEYA LCQU-ooiif on the bank of the great Tengri-nor lake. 

Ra-dk5g (Ka&greii), north-east of Lhasa, a Ka-dam-pa moiutsteiy* 
founded in 1055 by Itromton, AtIsa*B pupil. 

Sa-kya (Stt-skya) " Tawny-soil/' is alwut 50 miles north of Mount 
Everest, 48 miles etu«t from Shigatse, and 30 miles from Jang-lache ; E. long. 
87° &4', lat. 28' 53'. This monastery gives its name to the Sakva sect, 
which has played an important part in the history of Tibet. A oonaider- 
able town nestles at the foot of the monastery. The foundation of the 
monastery and its futui'e fame are related to haA^e been foretold by the 
Indian sage, Allaa, when ou hiH way to central Tibet, he pa-ssed a rock, 
on the present site of the monastery, on which he saw the mystic Om 
Uiscribed in ** self-sprung," characters. Afterwards this establishment 
became famous as a seat of learning and for a time of the prie»t-king- 

It is said to contain the I]irge»t single building in Tibet, — though the 
cathedral at Lhasa is said to be tai-ger. It ia seven ' storev^ in height, and 
bus a S{>Hcious assembly hidl known as *' the White Hall of Worship." 
It is still famous for its magnifit^nt library, containing numemut- unicjue 
treasures of Sanskrit and Tihctan literature, unobtainable elsewhere. 
Some of these have enormous pages embossed throughout in letters of 
gold and silver. The monastery, though visited in 1872 by our ex- 
ploring Pandit No. 9, and in 1882 by Babu Sarat C&ndra Das, remains 
undescribed at present. The Sakj'a Lama is held to be nn incarna- 
tion of the Hodhisat Manjusrl, liud itlso to carry Karma, derivable 
from Sakya Pandita and St. Faduia. 

The hall of the great temple, called 'P'rul-puhi Lha-k'au, has four 
enormous wooden pilbirs, Ka-ioa-min chea zhi^ of which the first pillar 
flB %ohiU^ and called Kar-|>o~zum-lags, and is alleged to have cotno frotn 
Kongbu; the second yellow^ Ser-po zum-lags, from Mochu valley; the 
third red^ Marpo Tag dzag, from Nanam on Nepal frontier; and tlie 
fourth pillar blAick, Nak-po K*un-she<, from Ladak. These pillars 
are said to have been erected by K'yeff-'bum beags, the ancestor of tha 
Sikhim king. 

TiNCr-GK is a very large Ge-lug-pa monastery to the north of Sakya and 
west of Tashi-lbunpo. 

PHr?iT8HoLisa (p'un-ts'ogs-gliii) monastery, formerly named rTag- 
Arten by Tarnnatha, who built it in his forty-fii-st year, was forcibly 
made a Ge-Iug-pa iustitutiun by the fifth grand Lama, N«g-wan. 

It is situated on the Tsangpo, about a day's journey west of Tasfai- 
Ihunpo, and one mile to the.^outh-west of it is Jonang, which has a very 
large temple said to be like BiidhGaya, and, like it, of several'atoreys 
and covered by images ; but both it and Phuntsholing are said to have 
been deserted by oionkB and now are occupied by nuns. 

S^u-DiKG {bsam-ldiii ch'oinde). Jt lies in N. lat 28' 57' 16", and E. 

I De-pung and the larger monasteries in l^b^t liave flt^Terol murh smalliyr buildings 
distributed so OS to fonn a tniK*n. 


ag.f 90° 28'. Altitude, 14,512 feot. An important estahlLshment, note- 

rthy a8 a monastery of monks as well as nuns, presided over by a 

male abbot — the uu-called re-iucaLruate goddess already referred to.' 

'hia august womiin is kuown throughout Tibet as Dorje-P'tuj-mo^ or 

the diumuQd sow"; the abbesses of Samding bp^iug held t-o be 

ocessivc appearances in mortal form of the Indian goddess, Vaji-a- 

rahl. The present incarnabiou of this goddess is thii'ty-three years 

t>ld (in 1880); aud is dei^cribed as being a clever and capable woman, 

itb some claim to good looks, aad of noble birth. She bear.-) the name 

r Nag-.7b;iii Rin-ch'eii Kuu-Azaii-ino (^bAri-mo, signifyiug " The most 

ireciuu8 {wwer of speech, the female energy of all good"). Under thb: 

Ay the reputation which Samdtng has long enjoyed for the good morals 

both monks and nuns has been well maintained. Among other rules, 

« inmates are forbidden to lend out money or other raluablea on interest 

the rural folk, usurious dealings being commonly resoi-ted to by the 

omistic orders. It is said to be of the Niii-ma sect. The monastery 

was founded by one Je-tsun T'inlo T.-i'oma, a flower of the phiioiiopliy 

of Po-don F'yog Legs Nam-gyal, wlioise writings, to the amazing extent 

of one hundred and eighteen volumes, are treasured up in the monastic 


Yamdok lake is remarkable for its scorpionoid shape, the grotesque 
shaped t<emi'L8laud anchored to the muin shore by two necks of land. 
Saxnding is itself placed on the main shore at the juncture of the 
northern neck. Being built on a conical hill, it ap^tears to be guarding 
le sacred island from intrui^ion. The monastery stands like a fortress 
m the Kummit of the bari-en bill some 300 feet above the level of the 
rrouuding country. Huge flags of stone are piled lu ascending steps 
p this hill, and a long low wall mounts beaide them like a balustrade. 
t the top of the steps, a narrow pathway conducts to the foot of the 
onastery, which is circled by ,a high wall. Samding is finely 
ilaced. To the N.E. it fronts the dark and precipitous mountain 
spurs which nwliate from the lofty central peak of the islands. To the 
B.E. it looks over the land towanls the illimitable waters of the weird 
and mighty Yamdok herself. To the S. it fi'owns down on the Dumo 
Ts'o, the inner lake l>etwixt the connecting necks of laud above- 
mentioned, into which arc cast the bodies of the defunct nuns and 
monks, as food for tishes. 

On entering the gates of the monastery, you 6nd yourself in an 
extensive courtyard, flanked on three sides by the conventual buildings. 
Part of the fourth aide of the parnllelogram is occupied by a kind of 
grand-stand supported on pilasters of wood. Ladders with hi'oiid nte^js, 
cased in brass, give admission to the first floor of the main building. 
Here, in a long room, are ranged the tombs of celebrities connected in 
past times with Samding, including that of the founder, T'lnle Ts'omo. 
The latter tomb is a richly ornamented piece of workmanship, plated 
with gold and studded with jewels. At the base, on a stone slab is 
Snarked the reputed footprint of the saint. In a private, strongly- 

> Se<> page 246. 

T 2 



biirred cbAmbi-r, hnrfl hy to whie!i no one maj be Bdmittedr are laid the 
dricHl morUi) remains of all the former inoamatioite of Dorje P'og-mu. 
Here, in this melojicholy n]>artment» will be one Hny placed the IicxIt of 
the pnwnt \tuiy abbeea, after undergoing some emt>almiug process. To 
ibe grim charnel-hotuse, it ia considei-ed the imperative duty of eacli 
ineamate abbess to re[iair onre, %7li)le livings to gaze her Ell on hef 
prwlet^essors, and to make fomml olieisance to their mouldering farVA 
She mHMt enter ouee, but only once, during her lifetime. 

Another btUl in thin monastery is the (iwl-'an, the walls of which 
are frtwooes ilUwtnitive of the career of the original Dorje Pag-ma 
There, aim, have been put up inHcription» recording how the goddea 
minuiulousiy defeudetl Samding, when, in the year 1716, it was beset 
by a Mongol WHrrior, one Yuiig fJor. When the Mongol arrived in 
the vicinity of Yamdok, hearing that the lady abbess had a pig's ^^^ 
as ail excreAoence behind her ear, he mocked at her in public, seiralH 
word to her to come tn him, that he might see the pig's bend few him- 
self. Dorje Pag-mo returned no angry reply, only beseeching him 
to abandon his designs on the naonoAtciy. Burning with wrath, the 
warrior invaded the place and destroyed the walls; but, entering, he 
found the interior utterly deserted, He only observed eighty pigs and 
flighty HOWS gi-unting in the du-khang under the lead of a bigger gov. 
He WHS startle<l by this singidor frustration of his project ; for be could 
hardly plunder a place guarded only by hogs. When it was erident 
thai the Mongol was bent no longer on mpine, the pigs and sows were 
suddenly transformed into venerable-looking monks and nnns, headed 
by the most reverend Dorje P'ag-mo ; as a consequenee, Ynug Gar, 
instead of plundering, enriched the place with costly present*. 

A certain amount of association is permitted between the mide and 
fexnnle inmates of this convent, who together number less than 300. 
Dorje P'ag-mo retains one side of the monastic premises as her private 
residence. It is nssert^nl by the inmates that the good woman never 
suffers herself to sleep in a i-eclining attitude. During the day she may 
dote in a chair, during the night she must sit, hour after hour, wrapt 
in profound meditation. Occasionally this lady makes a royal progrea 
to LhftRi, where she is receive<l with the deepest veneration. Up in 
northern Tibet is anotlier ssnctuary dedicated to Dorje P*ag-mo. Thi* 
convent also stands on an islet situated off the we«t snore of the gr«at 
lake, 70 miles N.W. of Lliasa, the Nam Ts'o Ch'yidmo, and is much 
akin to Samding, comprising a few monks and nuns under an abbCM 
At Markula, in Ijahul, is a third shrine of the goddeas.* 

Di-KrNo ('bri-gufO about one hundred miles N.E. of Lhfiea, is one 
of the largest Kar-gyu-pa monasteries. It is said to i*eceive its name, 
the "she- Yak," from the ridge on which it is situated, which is shaped 
like Iho back of a yak. It was founded in UCC, by the son of the 
Sukya Lama, Koneho Yal-po. 

1 Abstract of Sahat's Rrport^ by Rev. G. SAKpaxao. 



MiKDOLUKo (Btniu gpol-glm\ close to Iho S. of Samye, a f^reat Nin-nut 
aastery, Bhiinug with Dorje Dng, uot far off, the honour of being 
[ke Biipreine uonaHterj' of tbut sect. It lie» acrosB the Tsangj^) from 
iin-yiis in the valley of the MindoUing river, the water of which turns 
Uituerous large prayer-whtiels. Its chief temple is nine wtoreys hi^h, 
rith twenty minor temples with many " beautiful images " and books. 
^ A massive stone stairway forma the approach to the monastery. 

Its chief Lama i.s a direct descendant of the reveIation-6nder 

j-lih. The succession is by descent ami not by re-incarnation. 

ae of his sons x& mode a L^ma and vowed to celibacy, another 

on marriefl and continues the descent, and in like manner the .suc> 

ssion pixxjeeds, and has not yet been interrupted since its tnstitu- 

on seventeen generations ago ; but should the lay-brother die without 

sue the Lama is expected to mjirry the widow. The married one is 

led «/Dun-pa or "the lineage." The body of the deceased Lilma is 

kited and preserved. The discipline of this monastery is said to be 

trict, and its monks ore celibate. A large branch of this moiiistery 

Na-s'it' not far distant from its parent. 

DoBJK-DAO, between Sam-yas and Lhasa, is a headquarters of the 

Jnrefonned Lamas. It has hod a chetjuered history, having been de- 

oyed several times by the Mongols, etc., and periodically restored. 

Pal-ei (dpal-ri), a Nin-ma monastery between Sbigatse and Gyangtae, 

vhere lives the pretended incarnation of the Indian wizard, Lii-pon 

H unk&ra. 

SuALu monastery, a few miles E. of Tashi-lhunpo. Here instruction 

. given in magical incantations, and devotees are immure<l for yetirs in 

cave- hermitages. Amongst the supernatural powers believed to be 

acquired is the alleged ability to sit on a heap of barley without dia- 

placing a grain ; but no credible evidence is ejctout of anyoue display- 

iDg auch feats. 

GuBiT chVwaS', in Lhobrak, or southern Tibet, bordering on 
Bhotau. This monastery is said by Lama U. G.' to have been built 
^bkfter the model of the famous monastery of Nalanda in Mogadha. 
^prhe flhiine is aurroundeil by gi-oven of (Kiplarw, and contains .some im- 
' poHant relii-8, amongst others a stufted liorse of great sanctity (belong- 
ing to the great Guru) which is called Jumliii-niu-k'or, or *' the horse 
itliat can go round tlie world in one day."' Obserxnng that the horse 
was bereft of his " left leg," U. O. enquired the cause, and was told 
Jiow the leg had been stolen by a Khamba pilgrim with a view of 
"enchanting" the ponies of Kham. The thief became iii«ine, and Ms 
fi'iends took him to the high priest of the sanctuai-y for advice, who 
Instantly divined that he lind stolen some sacred thing. This so 
frightened the thief that the leg was secretly restored, and the thief 
i-«Lnd his friends vanished from the place and never were seen again. 


1 0. G.. loc eit., p. 26. 

a Loc. cit., p. 23. 

* Compare with tbe sacred h^rsp of Slilntdun, etc. 

The tipper Lfaofarftk w well caltivAted ; barlej, pen, mnstardf wbaL 

iiiitl croi^of rnpo were ooticed by U. G., surrounding the monastery at 

_lAuk Lung. With some ditljcutt}' he obtained permission to see tbe 

objects of the monastery, whose saintly founder, LbA Lun^, \m 

incamntionfi in "Hbet. One of them 15 the present abbot oi tbe 

aooMtiy, who was boru in Bhotan, nnd Is a nephew of the Put 

?en1o. The monaatory is well endowed by tlie Tibetan EOTirnmenL 

nd rituaU ure encouraged in it fcH- the suppression of ertl spirits; mi 

Sa!«o-kar Gu-t'ok, also in the Lhobrak valley, has one bundnd 
monk:«, and iti a Bmall printing establishment.* 

Kak-4'h*(j, alBO in the Lhobrak valley, said' to be one of the rirhed 
Donasteriee in Tibet, and to contain many bronzes brought fnnii 
lagikdha in the Middle Agee. Pilgrimt; carry off from here the holv 
water which percolaten into a sacred cave. 

Gyan-T8k, on the Painom river, east of Tashi-llinnpo. Its monastccy 
i& nameil Palk'or Ch'oide. ItA hall is reported by f Jima Ugy&n Gyxis'o 
to be lit by 1,000 lampg. In lofty niches on the three sides, X.. 
E., and W. (implying evidently that the entrance is on the S.K an" 
placed '' three huge images of Buddha — Jam-yang, Chanraasigt snd 
Maicreya," copper-gilt. Here also he notes " stone imagies lilce those 
at Buddhii Guya. In the lobby is a ooUeetion of stoflM aninulsr' 
including tigers." 

The foregoing ore all in the tj and Tsang provinces. In Kham, io 
ea^stem Tibet, ore many large monasteries, the largest of which sre 
perluips Derge and Ch'ab-mdo (Chiam6), with about 3,000 monks wM 
large* printing press. 

Dkkuk (sDe-Hge), at the town of that name, and capital of one of tLe 
richest and mut»t populous uf Tibetan provinces, containing ** many LaraH- 
serais of 200 or 300 monks, some indeed of 2,000 or 3,000. Each fiunily 
devotes a 8on to the priesthood. The king resides in a Lanuuerai df 
300 monks.'" 

Other large monasteries of eastern Tibet are Karthok and (T) Ri- 
wocbce on the Kul river, under the joint government of two incsr- 
n&te abbots. 

In southern Tibet in the district of Pema Kod (map-name Pent- 
koi) are the monastei'ies of Dorje-yu (founded by Terton Dorje-thokmi). 
Mar-pun Lek>pun (built by Ugyen Dich'eu-lin-|«i), Mendeldem, 
Pliii-pn^ron, Kon-dem, Bbo-lun, C'sm-nak, Kyon-sa, Narton. Kinc'h' 
ensun (built by Ugyen DoduUn-pa, the father of Dich'en-lih-jia), Tsen- 
c'uk, Gya-pun, Giliii, and Derau, wliith are all 5fin-ma, except Chamnnk 
and Demu, which arc Ge-lug-pa, and all except the last are on the 
west or right bank of the Tsangpo river, and the number of monks in 
each is from ten to thii-ty. Amongst the chief shrines are Honuharki 
Oh*orten, Mendcldem's shrine, and " Buddu T.'sip'ak." 

1 Explorer KN.'b account (.SJJ., 18(», p. 60). * Lama tigyun*n, tec. eiL, SS. 
* BASBn, Stippt, Paptn, A. Otvg, .Sbry. ; 8«c aliia Rockhiix, £.', 184, etc, 90. 

ly CHINA, 


rw CHtVA. 

In China proper there seem to b& no truly LamaiBt monaateriee of 
ly size except at Pekin and near tbt* western frontier. The Pekin 
astery is called *' everlasting peace" (Yun-ho Kimg), and is iiiain- 
,ed at the iin]j«rial expense.' Its monks, over !,000 in number, are 
wt euLirely M'}ngolian, but the head Litiua, a re-incarnate abbot, 
his two chief atssistant^, are usually Tibeta.D8 of the De-piing, Sera, 
id Gali-Idan monasteries, and appointed from Lhasa. Tlie abbot, 
ho is considered an incaroatioa of Rol-pa-dorje, already figured, 
within the yellow wait of Uie city, and near by is the groat 
inting-houae, called "Sum-ju Si," where Limairtt books are prmted 
Ti\ietan» Chinese, and Mongolian. In the chief temple "the 






MOVASTEltV Ok l-TAI-SltA-S.-' 

' axid clothed, holding an enormous lotuw tn each hand, and with 
the tratlitional jewel on his breiist. In each section of hie huge gold 
crown sat a small Buddha, as perfect and as much oruamented as the 
great one. Ui^ toe measured twenty-one inches. On each side of him 
bung a huge scroll seventy-tive feet long, bearing Chinese characters 
and a series of galleries, reached by seveml flights of staire, surrounded 
him. The expression of his great bronze face was singularly lofty. 
Near by were two magnificent bronze lions and a wonderful bixjnze ura ; 
many temples filled with strange idols hung with thousands of silV 
hangings, and laid with Tiltetan carpets; all sorbs of bronze and 



enamel oJtar ntcnmls, presented by different emperors, among them 
two elephants in cloUonyie ware, said to be the best specimens of snch 
work in China, and the great hall, with its prayer-b^cbeii for all the 
roonkR, where they worship every afternoon at five." 

Ajiother colebi*nted monastery is the Wutai or Utai-shan, **ThA 
five towers" in the north Chinese province of Shan-si, and a cele- 
brated shrine. 

The great monastery of KracM (Kambum), in Sifaa, lies near the 
western frontiers of China. It is the birth-pUice of St. Taoh-K'a-pa, 
and has been visited and described by Hue, Kockhill, etc. It« photo- 

K[7JuitrM (TA-Sttu-ssr).* 

graph by Mr. Eockhill is here by his kind permission given. It* 
Mongolian name is Ta-^:rh-nsu.^ 

Heit) is the celebrated tree, the so-called " white sandal " (Syrittga 
VUlosa, Vahl), wliich the legend alleges to have sprung up mii-acu- 
lously from the placental blood shed at Tsoii-K'a-pa's birth. Its leavw 
ore said to bear 100,000 iuiagea, hence the etymology of the name of 
the place (.sAV*6«m). TIio ima^o markings on the leaves are said to 
repreeont ** the Tathagata of the Lion's Voice " (Sen-go Nn-ro), but Hue 
descnbes the ma^kinl!^f uk sacred iHterfl.* 

fT' X'-WBpttporAcct, 181*0. 
' After BncHiill. 

» RocinnLL, / , 57 said to mean •' tbc Great Tent (Tabernacle) " 
* Cr. also ibid^ «8, etc. 



\ fiuc'i 


c'« account of it is as follows : " At the foot of the mountain on 
ch the Lumnsei-ai stands, and not fnr from the priiicipnl Buddhi&t 

Qple, 18 A great square enoloaure, formed by brick walls. Upon 
thin we were able to examine at leisure the marvelIou8 tree, 

ae of the branches of which had already manifested themiwlves above 
wall. Our eyoa were first dii-ected with earnest curiosity to the 

res, and we were filled with aKsoiute confrtemation of iistonishmont 
at tinding that, in point of fact, there were upon each of the IcaveH 
well-formed Tibetan characters, al! of a green colour, some darker, 
ftome lighter, than the leaf itself. Our first impreaaion was suspicion 
of fraud on the part of the Lamas ; but, after a minute examination of 
evorj' detail, we could not discover the least deception, the characters 
all appeared to us portions of the leaf it^wlf, equaJty with it^ veins and 
nerves, the position was not the same in all ; in one leaf they would be 
at the top of the leaf ; in another, in the middle ; in a third, at the 
hoBe, or at the side ; the younger leaves represented the characters 
only in a partial state of formation. The Wk of the ti^e and it« 
brajiches, which i^eftemble those of the plane-tree, are alwo covertd with 
these characters. When you remove a piece of old bark, the young 
bark under it exhibits the indistinct outlines of characters in a 
germinating state, and, what is very singular, those new characters are 
lot unfrequently different from those which they replace. We 
samined everything with the closest attention, in order to detccrt Eome 
trace of trickery, but we could dipcem nothing of the sort, and the 
per^ipirabion abeolutely trickled down our faces under the influence of 
the sensations which this most amazing spectacle created. 

** More profound intellects tlian ours may, perhaps, be able to supply 
a satisfactory explanation of the myi^tcries of this singular tree ; hut, 
as to OB, we altogether give it up. Our readers possibly may smile at 
our ignorance ; but we care not so that the sincerity and truth of our 

fitement be not suspected."' 
The large temple (Jo-wo-k'au) is described by BockhiU.' 



In Mongolia the chief monastery is at XlBnTA-KuEEN, on the Tula 
river in the country of the Khalka?, about forty days' journey west of 
Pekin, and the seat of a Russian consul and two Cbiiiese ambassadors. 
It is the seat of the Grand Lama, who is believed to be the incarnate 
historian, Lama Tarojiatha, and lie ia willed .le-lsunTnnilm, as detailed in 
the chapter on the liierarchy, and its monks are wiid to number over 

» 14,000, and during the gi'eat new year festival over 20,000 are present. 
[t contains twenty-eight colleges (sGgi-a-ts'an). 
The monastery is named Kumn or Kuren, and ia describe<l by Hue. 
The plain at the foot of the mountain is covered with tents for the use 
■ (rf the pilgrims. Viewed from a distance, the white cells of the Lamas, 

> Hoc. IL, p. 03. 

a KocKBiLt, L,^ 66. 

bniH on the declivity in horisontAl lines one above the other, rMenUt 
the steps of an enormous fUtar, of which the temple of i^miaibt 
lAmtL. iip]>e&Ts to constitute " the tAbcrmicle." Hue says it conniitt | 
30,000 monks 1 

Kuku Khotun, or " hlue city," near the northern bend of the YeHo* ' 
river, is snid by Hue to liave formerly bpon tlie sieat of Jetsun-Dam-p4. J 
It ooutflins &ve monasteries with about 20,000 L&mas. 

nr gmsuA. 

In' south Siberia, amongst the Buriats, near the Baikal lake^ a 
monastery is on a lake thirty versts to the north-west of Sell 
and the previiding monk is called the R'an-po Pan^ita, and claims to be 
a ro-iucaniate Lama.' 


The Kalmak Tartars on the Volga have only tcmponuy, noniodie 
cloisters and temples, that is to say tents, in which they put up their 
holy pictures and Lmages, and celebrate divine service. Such temponr^ 
cloisters are called " ChuruU," and consist of two difl'erent sorte of tenti 
or JurUn (Oergo), the assembly hall of the clergy (Churulliin-Oergv) 
and of the ^od» and image hall (Schitani or Btinhunurv-Oergo). Scnw 
of these ChuruiU contain a himdrcd priests. 


He-mi (or ** Himis " of survey map). This fine old monastery is 
situated about 1 1,000 feet above the sea-level, in a lateral ravine that 
joins the Indus, a day's journey (eighteen milee SS£.) above Leh, oa 
the left bank of that river. From its secluded position this was one oC 
the few moniisteriee which escaped destruction on the invasion of thi 
country by the Dogras under Wazir Gerawar, who ruthlessly destroyed 
much I^ pi-operty, so that more int^-resting and curious objects, 
books, dresses, masks, etc., are fouod at Himis than in any other 
monastery in l^dak. It was built by sTag-stan-ras-oh'en, and ita 
proper title is Ch'aii^i'ttb sam-Hti. 

The ** Ilimifi-fair," with its mask plays, as held on St. Padma-anm- 
bhava's d:iy iu summer, i.^; the chief attraction to sight-eeers in lAdak. 
This Ijimtisory is at pi^sent still the groatesb landowner in Ladak, and 
its steward one of the most influential persons in the country. The 
LamjLs seem to be of the Kiii-nia sect (according to Marx* they art 
Dug pa, but he appears to use Dug-pa as synonymous with Hed cap. 
sect). To the same sect also belongs Ts'en-re and sTagua. A fin4 
photograph of this monastery is given by Mr. Knight,* and one of its 
courts is shown in his illustration of the mystic play reproduced at p. 539 

" The principal entrance to the monastery is tlux>«gh a massive doocf 
from which runs a gently sloping and paved covered way leading into fl 

1 KoppXM, oy, cit. 

« Loc. cit., 188. 

» Wktrt 3%rte Empirr^ Me«i, 



lurtyard about SO x 40 yards square, having on the loft hand a narrow 

nLDilah, ill tho centre of which standH the large prayer-cylinder 

TO mentioDed. Tho larger picturesque doorway, the entrance of one 

the principal idol i-ooms, is in tho extreme right hand corner, maiisive 

rings afExed to large hostt* of brass are attixed on either door, the 

its of wliich are of carved and coloured woodwork. Tlie walla of the 

ain building, with ita bay windows of lattice work, encloHe the court- 

i along the rlgbt hand side, tho roof is adorned with curious cylin- 

ical [leudant devices made of cloth called " Thook" ; each (surmounted 

th tho Trisool or trident, painted black and red. On the side facing 

e main entrance the courtyiird is open, leading away to the doorwa3r8 

other idol rooms. In the centre space staml two high poles " Tur- 

ihe," from which bang yaks' tailn and white cotton streamers printed 

the Tibetan character. Innumerable small prayer-wheels ai-e fitted 

to a hitch that runs round the sides of the court^rd. A few large 

iwa throw their shiule on the building, and above them tower the 

[gged cUSs of the little valley, topped here and there by Lhatos^ Hmall 

uare-built altars, surmounted by bundles of brushwood and wild sheep 

Tns, the thin sticks of the brushwood being covered with oflferings of 

coloured Bags printed with some vinntra or other.' 

LAMji-YtTB-Hr, elevation about 11,000 feet.' Sftid to be of tho Di- 
ng sect, as also tho monasteries of aGaii-non and Shaii. 
The name Yur-ru is said to be a corruption of Yuh-dnin — the 
Svastika or mystic fly-foot cross. 

Tbo-lino or Tho'lding (mt*o-glin), on the upper Sutlej (in map of 
Turkitftau it is Totliugmat, " miit" = " the lower," t.c. lower part of the 
city). It has a celebi*ated temple in three storeys, said by some to be 
modelled after that of Budha Oaya, and tho Sham-bhaAa Lam-t/i<j con- 
tains a reference to thiu temple : *' It ha^l been built (a.d. 954, Schl.) by 
the Lo-tsa-wa Bin-zah-po. The Hor (Turks?) burnt it down, but at 
some later date it was rebuilt, and now, in its lowest oompartmout, it 
contains the ' cycle nf the collection of secrete.' " Adolph von 
Bchlagintweit visited it.'' 

Thbq-Oh'og is a sister-Lamasery to He-mi, north of the Indua, in a 
valley which opens out opposite He-mi. Ohe-de, vulg. Chem-re (survey 
map : Chim-ray) is the name of the village to which the L&masery 

KoK-DKOoA in Ladak, 16,000 feet above the sea (J.D.j 11). Tik-za 

(Thik-se) is said (Marx) to be a Oe-W-m (?Ge-lug-pa) monaster^', as also 

those of 8an-kar fa suburb of I^eh), Likii- and Ki-dzoh. It is pictured 

ly Mr. Knight.' 

Wam-le (or "Han-le") in Rukshu, a fine Lamasery figured by 

Cunningham. It is about 14,000 foot above sea level. Its proper 

name is De-ch'en, and it was built by the founder of the one at Hemi. 

M.ASEO is affiliated to Ba-^kya. 

1 GovwiN-AcsimK, loe. rii^ p. 72. - Makx, Itte. cit. ; CtjNNiNaaAJc, tt. ai, 

* See Uesults of Scientiftc Mission. 


Spi-T'ro, Pi-Ttr», or " Pittuk " ^i*Pe-t'ub), a lAmasery and village oa 
the river ladus, five miles south-west of Leh. The L&mas belong to 
tliti " Ge-ldan-pa " order of Lanuw. The Lainasecy has an tiicamat«d 

Bhsk-uai., figured by Knight, loe, eit,, p. 137. 

Kuaxu (Kye-lah) in Britifth LahOl, romaDtically situated ntm 
glaciers, at an clevatioD of about 12,000 feet. 

OlMiB, where several ti-anfilatiuns were made over 800 yean ago,atid 
bUU of repute for printiiig and for its elegant mauoacripte. 

Kakitx, in Kuuaor or Kacawar, where Csoma studied. AUo Dub-Uiit 
Poyi, aiid Paiigi. 

X3r vsrJLL. 

In Nepal there appear to be no Lamoist monasteries of any axe, 
at \eabt In th<? lower ralloyB. At the principal Buddhist shriues in 
that country a few resident L&nias are to bo found. 

IN nnoTAir 

In Bhotan the largoiit monasteries ai-o Tashi-ch'o-dsong and Pun-t^alt 
or ? " Punakha " (spun-t'oh bde-ch'en), each, it is usually said, with ovtc 
1,000 monkii, though according to other accounts, under 500. 

Taj8hi-oh'o-i»son (bKra-shis ch'os rdsou), or ''The fortress of ilw 
gloriouH religion,** forms the capital of Bhotan and the residence, 
least in sumuier, of the Grand lilma of Bhotau — the Dharma Rija ami 
Deb lUjn. It hoe been vi^dted and described by Manning, Bo^ 
Turner,' Femberton,' etc. 

The other chief monasteries in Bhotau, all of the Duk-pa sect, thi 
established church of the country, are : dbU-rfr)*an rts^. Ba-k: 
(Pito or Paro) *Bah, rTa-mch'og rgan, Kra-hn-li, Sam-'jin, K'a ChVg» 
rgan-K'a, Oh'al-p'ug. Of these the lirst three were formerly Kart'ogin. 
In British Bhotau there ara a few small monasteries, at Kahoipon|^ 
Fedong, etc 


In regard to Sikhim, as my information is complete, I give it ia 
detail in tJibular foi-m on opposite page. 

In addition to the nionnj^teries in this list are several religious build- 
iii^s called by the people t/ompax, but by the Lamas only '* temples 
(Lft-a-k'an), aui-h as D6-than, Ke-dum, etc. 

The oldest monastery in Kikhim ia Dub-de, founded by the pionea 
Lama, Lhnt^un Uh'embo. Soon afterwards shrines seem to have beeQ 
erected atTashiding, Pemiongchi, and Sang-na-ch'o-ling over spots cons 
crated to the Guru, and these ultimately became the nuclei of mon 

> B^jglo and Turner in 1774 and 17S3. Mabkham, vfi. tit. 
« In IS37-38. O/i. cil. 

^^^^^^^^v 1 

L As tho last-named oua is 

open to members of all classes of 1 

^HBfinit««* Bbobiy 

IS, Lepchof), T^imbus, and also females and oven 1 
t is said that the moDaAterr of Pemiongchi wafi 1 

^^Krmed persons, i 

[jIST OF MoNAtrrSBIBS IN SlKlUU. ^^fl 

Mkp N*me. 

Vrrnacniiir N«mo, 

Ufiaulaff of the >'ainC. 



S«nga Chelling 

gs*aii na;js ph*<)s 

Tho pla«e of secret spells .. . 






Tilt? liermitH cell 



Pcriiiimgchi ... 

jiail-iiia vafiti»e 
ut^tan-tiiK'ai' ... 

The siiljliiiie perfect lotos... 




The Tson's buuAe 





bkra-s'i^-ld u 

Tbe elevatetl cetitra.1 glory \ J7I6 




gzil -frill in 

The «iippre-<-*<ir nf intense 





KiurhiiiponK ... 

rin-fU'cn spuis 

The precious knoU 







^^^BH' ' 





Ram titek 


A Lepcha rillage name ... 






The cliapel royal 




ClteuBgtong .,. 

The meadnw «( marriage 


(nf the two rivers} 





mk'a gpyiid 

Tli)3 nuble hcaven-rench- 


il])al n 

ing tijomitain 




t'an-imVch'en .. 

Tlio large plain ... 1788 





The stouy valley 






The high i^troti^ place 


15 1 




The excelleut banner, or 



good bllHS 


100 1 




The Kartok (founder of a 





20 1 




" The stony aito," or the 
place of the '* tKirjel- 


ing " revelation-finder ... 





gyajiflgau ... 

" Thec!iffyrldKe,'"or "the 
lucky ridge 






Tbe IjKiiia'fi dwelling 





pon-posgaA ... 


The loin's ridge 
The lofty sutiunit 












U(;rtiittage hill 





A Lepcha village name ... 1836 





■ •• 




The big pass 










The uplifted limb 




'p'ftgsrgyal ... 

The wultlinie victor 





null glin 

The western place ...i 1875 




Tho sky-top 










A Lepcha village name . . . 



^^^^ ^^j 


dirig&ed, if not actually buUt, by Lba-Uun iia u high-cl&Hs inonuUi; 
ferortbodox celibate moulu of relatively pure Tibetan race. P'-riirrf 
chl fitill retains iIua reputation for tbu prof assedly celibate <: 
and good family of it« uionk^; and iIa nionk^ alone in Sikhn: 
the title of ta-tan or " pure monk," and to its L&ma is reserred u» 
honour of anointing with boly «-ater the reigning sovereign. 

The great majority of the monasteries in Sikblm belong lo Ibe U» 
tniin-pa snb-eert of the Kin-ma, only Xamchi, Tasbiding, Sinon. ud 
T'&h-mocL'e belong to the Sa-dak-pa sub-sect» and Kar-tok and DuliAj 
to tbe Kar-tok -pa Rub-aect of tbe same. All tbe Nih-ma monasteries an 
practically Hubordinato to that of Pemiongchi, which also exerciM 
supermion over the Lepcba convents of IJng-t'am, Zimik, and P«g- 
gye. Lepchas are admissible tu Rigon as well as 8aug-iui-cb'uliug. 

Nuns are admitted to a few monasteries in Sikhim, bnt their 
number in e^ctremely small, aud individually tUey are illitefate. 

The nameB of tbe monasteries, as will be seen from tbe transla- 
tions given in the second column of the table, are mostly Tibettn* 
aud of an ideal or mystic nature ; but some are pbysically de- 
scriptive of tbe site, and a few are Lepcba place-names, which we 
also of a descriptive character. 

' primitive Buddhism the temple had, of course, no place. 

It is the outcome of the theistic development with ita 

relic-worship and idolati}', and dates from the later 

and impurer stage of Buddhism. The Lamaist temple 

called " God's house" {LKa-k-'aii). 

It is usually the oentml and most conspicuous buildiug in the 

monastery, and isolated from the other buildings, as seen in the 

foregoing illustrations. The roof is surmounted by one or two 

small bell-shaped domes of gilt copper ' ; if a pair, they are 

placed one on either end of the ridge, and called ^ira ' ; if a solitary 

mfm p in the middle of the ridge, it is called ** the banner.''* They 

Wbe emblematic of the royal umbrella and banner of victory. At 

the corners uf the roof are erected cloth cyliuders calle<l ;/ei)i.* ITie 

building is often two storeys in height, with an outside stair on 

one flank, generally the right, leading to the upper flat. In front is 

an upper wooden balcony, the beams uf which are rudely carved, also 

the doors. The orientation of the door has already been noted. 

In approaching the temple-door the visitor must proceed with 
his right hand fo the wall, in conformity with the respectful 
custom of prcuJakskiiyt widely fuund amongflt primitive people.* 
In niches along the base of the building, about three feet above 
level of the path, are sometimes inserted rows of prayer-barrels 

I See pp. m wd 273. 

I Speit " knjira," (?) trvm the Sku, itanoi, golden, 

. 6'*6i— cylindrical erectioni from tlin«e feet liigh and about a foot wide to a grentor 

fSKf, covwed hy coiltni mpeti c>f blnck yak-hair and bearing a few whitt- bands trana- 
TBIM utd varticalf and when Hunnoiiiit4>d by » trident are called C'tb-ditr. 

' The RonuioB in circumambuUiiiig t^'mples kept them to their right. The Druids 
observed the ooutrary. To walk luound in the lueky way was called Deanit by the 
Ga^l»t ».nd the contrary or unlucky way tcithtrthin* oi* i^iddntinni» by the lowland 
Scvtch. i^v>iMM\iaas^i 3cott%^t>ici. ; R. A. AlUl!)TRO>i»'S(yury*V/Ji'i:f.,p. 181 ; Caookr's 
fntrod. ; Kocksill. L., p. 67. 



^ A r 


which are turned by the visitor eweepiog his hand over them ir 

he proc**eds. 

The main door is approached by a short flight of Btepi ; oa u- 

oending which, the entrance i^ found at times screened bv a larp 

curtain of vak-haii he 
from the upper bale 
and which serves to 
out rain and snow from the 
frescoes iu the vestibule. 
Entering the vestibule, 
we tind it8 gateway 
guarded by eeveial few- 
ful figures.* These ujiUJilly 
ore — 

1. The tutelary demon 
of the ground, u^-uaUy a 
red devil {Tsan) a brairDT- 

Jy limbed crenturo of elabor- 
ate ugliness, clad in fikins, 
and armed with vorioiu 
weai>onf», and differing in 
narap according to ttrf^ 

2. Especially viciou? de- 
mons or dii minorts of a , 
more or less local cbar- ' 
acter. Thus, at Pfmi- 1 
ongchi 18 the Gyai-pa 
S'uk-d^ with a brown j 
fece and seated on a whi'f 
elephant . He was fonn- 

erly the learned Lama Sod-nams Grags-pa, who being falsely I 
charged witli licentious living and deposed, his ppirit ou his death 
took this actively malignant form nnti wreaks his wrath on all who , 
do not worahip him — inflicting disease and accident,' 

' Campaiv with dcscriptjoii i»f Chineao Kudd, t»»mpI<^s by Eitel, Z<ctt, on SwUJum. 

» Thus thi- l'>cal devil of Oing teinplti jipiir Darjiling is calli'd " Tlio E:ntirel7 Victora* J 
Souring H«'Iigii»ii'' [CJi'oB-lilifi rnai»-rgj*al,i, 1 

=* Compiire with Ihr maUfpiant gluute uf Braluuans in India. Ct.TxYftimr'sKat^i 
^rit Si}ffiira^ ii., 338, 611 


Tbhfui-dcwb Dbwin. 

OtAlOiiAA K.1M; ' I. 

( VtrBpnt, 

L Here also are sometimes port ruycil Hit: tweh'p Tawitift — the 
irial tiendesses of Tibet, already figured, who sow disease and who 
Bre subjugated by St. Padmn. 

Confronting the visitor in the vestibule are the four colossal | 


images (or frescoes) of the celestial kings of the Quarters wb 
goarci the univeise and the hpavpnei the attacks of ibe 
Titans and the outer deinouH, as desorihed at page 84. Tbej Kt 
clad in full anuour and are mostly of defiant mieu, as seen iu thai 
tigureii over the l>age and at pages 83 and 330, Two are pUcw 
on each side of the doorway. 

Sometiuies the guardian of the north is given a yellow, and iU 
guardian of the south a green, complexion, thus suiting the cun- 
plexion of the guardians to the mythic colours of the eaniimi 
points. They are worshipped by the populace, who credit thea 
with the jiower of couferring good luck and averting theoalamitiei 
due to evil spirits. And iu the vestibule or verandah are tho 
sometimes displayed as frescoes the Wheel of Life and soenei 
from tlie Jiitakas or former births of Buddha; and here aln 
may be hgured the sixteen great saints or Sthavira (Arka)\« oi 

In the smaller temples which possess no detached chapels for 
larger p my er- barrels, one or more huge prayer-barrek are set s( 
either end of the vestibule, and meclianically revolved by lay- 
devotees, each revolution being announced by a lever striking 
bell. As the bells are of different tones and are struck alternatelrt 
they form at times a not unplcasaul chime. 

The door is of massive proportions, sometimes mdely earvB 
and ornamented with bnizen bosses. It opens in halves, giving 
entry directly to the temple. 

•Such grand cathedrals as those of Lhasa will be described 
presently. Meanwhile let us look at a typical temple of onlliuiry 
size. The temple interior is divided by colonnades into a nave and 
aisles, and the nave is terminated by the altar — generally as in the 
diagram-plan here annexed. The whole of the interior, in which- 
ever directioQ the eye turns, is a mass of rich colour, the walls to 
right and left being decorated by frescoes of deities, saints, an( 
demons, mostly of life-size, but in no regular order ; and thfl 
■teams are mostly [tainted red, pickeil out with lotus rusettes &d<I 

1 For ttieir dFJcriptionf) nnd titles boc p. 378. Amon^t ttir common st><ne* iklfio t* 
preaonted here are ** TIip llirmouioud Fuur" fint*uu-)ia niam hiii, a, bnpf^ tuaUfi 
ccinHiating of an «]eplinnt, niotiki-y, raliliit., nnd |mrri>t ; nnd tbe lung-UvMl sftge (nd 
tK'c-rtii) willi Iiu> deer, Cijiiipanilplf^ tri thr Jii[i:tneKe [?)Ju-r*i, one of thu seven gcnSfl 
(r<K«l Lurk, niid thi; Inng-Hvcd hunnit, .^--jimi. 

>of local demoa. 
FrofOo of Ki^iong .Uar-futlc d«v)li. 
, Vnaee at icuftrdUn klngi of t)U)utcra. 
. Prm;«r4iarmli, 
. Stallon of ordartlM. 
, T*til« for t«a «nil voup. 
, Beat of Uu pravoit. 
, 8aU of the w«ter-)C^rer. 

he two other raemhera of the TH-'vaiwx or "Three Gems,*' 
lamely Dkarma or Sangha, The |jarticulftr images of this triad 

u 2 



dr|H'nd on the smt tn which the temple belongn ; $dk^ Jfi 

ofltru gi^eu the ceutriil ponitioa and u KHiiit (Ti^oA K*a-|iftOr] 

mmbham) to the left of the spectator and Avaloicila to the n^ 

Particulars oinl Hgurea of the principal of these idob are P^i 

in I he chapter on linages. 

Sakva Muni is figurrd of a yellow colour with carlv bloc luB,j 

mid often att<?nded by standing fii^ures of hii* two chief discijH 1 

Atnugdaliivtlua on hit« left and Sariputra on hi« right, each wtthM ' 

alarm-staff and lH'gj;ing-br)wl in hand. In the temples of tte , 

unreformed ftects, St. I'adina-sambhava and his two wiv ■'* 

given special prominence, and many of these images are r- . 

as "9elf-*prung:'* 

" Sn tiftinaien fell, no pornleroos axea rang : 
Like w»me tall (talm tue inyBlie fabric «prnng."' 

But even thii* onler of the imager is seldom observed. M** 
fretjueutly in the Ge-lug-pu temples Tsoft K'a-jia is given iht 
chief pliice, while in Niti-ma it is given to the Gufw, and thi* v 
juiititied by the statement put into his mouth that he was a Mconi 
Buddha sent by Sakya Muni specially to Tibet and Sikl" ■■^' 
Buddha himself had no leisure to go there. Sometime? ~ 
image is absent, in which case the third image is usuali^v '*i>i 
fanciful Buddha of Infinite Light, Amitdhha^ or AmMtftUf 
Infinite Life. In many sectarian temples the chief 
given to the founder of the particular sect or sub-sexrt. 

Hanged on either side of this triad are the other large i 
of the temple. Though in the larger fanes the more demoni 
images, e:*|)ecially the fiendish *' lords " and protectors of Lam: 
are relegated to a seiMirate building, where they are worshi 
with bloody sacrifices and oblations of wine and other demoi 
rites inadmissible in the more orthodox Buddhist building, 
of such idol-rooms are chaml>ers of horfors, and represent eom 
the tortures supposed to be employed in hell. 

The alleged esistence of images of Gonikhuath in Tashiih' 
Tumlong, and other Sikhim temples* is quite a mistake. No si 
image is known. The name evidently intended was ** G 

• tlEUKU'** J'airjii'm, 

Jottv., p. 312; Sir M, WlLLlAM^ Buddkism, p. 490. 

The large images are generally of gilded clav, and in Sikbim the 
most artigtic of these come from P6-to or " Paro" in Bhotan. A 
few are of gilded copi>er and mostly made by Xewaris in Ne|m]. 
All are consecmted by the introduction of i^lletsofpajwr iniscribed 
with 8acred texts &s detailed in the chapter on the pantheon. 

Amongst the frescoes on the walls are dii^played numerous 
Lamai^t saints and the pictorial Wheel of Life, though this last is 
often in the vestibule. 

There are also a few oil-paintings of divinities framed, like 
Jajwinese Kak^nu/no8, in silk of grotesque dragon-pattenis with a 
border, ananged from within outwards, in " the primary " colours 
in their prismatic order of red, yellow, and blue. Some of these 
pictures are oi*ea}tionally creditable sj>ecimeus of art. 

The seats for the several grades of officials and the Liimaist 
congregation are arranged in definite order. The general plan of 
^B small temple interior is shown in the foregoing diagram. Along 
Hich side of the nave is a long low cushion about three inches bigh, 
the seat for the monks and novices. At the further end of the 
nght-hand cushion on a throne about 2A feet high sits the abbot 
or professor (Dorje Lo-pihi),^ the spiritual head of the monastery. 
Immediately below him, on a cushion about one foot high, is his 
assistant, who plays the »i-iif/icyml»al3. Facing the professor, and 
seated on a similar throne at the further end of the left-hand 
cushion, is the Um-ds^^ or chief chorister or celebrai^t, the 
temporal head of the monastery; and below him, on a cushion 
about one foot liigh, is the deputy chorister, who plays the large 
i^figs-rol or assembly-cymbals at the command of the Ufii~iUs^, 
and officiates in the absence of the latter. At the door-end of the 
cushion on the right'*hand side is a seat al)OUt one foot high for the 
provost-marshal, who enforces discipline, and on the pillar behind 
his seat hangs his bamboo rod for corporal chastisement. During 
the entry and exit of the congregation he stands by the right side 
of the door. Facing him at the end of the left-hand cushion, but 
merely seated on a mat, is the water-man. 

To the left of the door is a table, ou which is set the tea and 
soup which is to be served out, by the unpassed boy-candidate-*, 
daring the intervals of worship. 




To the right front of the altar stands the chief Lama's tablr-,' 
ahout two-and-a-half feet in length, and one foot in height, atid 
often elaborately carved and painted with lotuses and other mtatA 
syiTibols, as Kgure<l at page 2lo. Behind it a cushion is phictHl, 
upon which is spread a yellow or blue woollen rug, or a piece of a 
tiger or leopard skin rug, as a seat. The table of the abbot or 
professor contains the following articles in the order ai»d jxisition 
shown in thin diagram : — 

The other two monks who a» 
allowed tables in the temple are 
the chief chorister or celebruit 
and the provost-marshal. The 
chief (.■horiater's table faces th/it 
of tlie ablwt, and contains only a 
holy water vase, bell, dorje and 
the large cymbals. The table of 
the provost stands in front of 
the seat of that officer, near the 
door, and contains an incenw- 
goblet {sang-intr)^ a bell andWar/V. 
At the spot marked "13" on the plan is pWed the lay-figure 
of the corpse whose spirit is to be withdrawn by the ablx>t. At 
the]ioint marked "1^ is set, in alt the larger temples in Sikhim, 
the thnme of the king, or of the re-incarnated Lama — the "pro- 
tecting lord'*-— when either of them visits the temple. 

On each pillar of the colonnade is hung a small silk banner with 
6ve flaps,^ and others of the same shajM*, but differently named,' 
are hung from the roof, and on each side of the altar is a large 
one of circular fonn.^ 


The altar^ occupies the upper end of the nave of the t-empte; 
and on its centre is placed, as already mentioned, the chief image. 

1. Mftffic rice-rtffering of nniver^e. 

2. Saucer witli lixwic rice [Vh'tii-d-u 
or iif'sd) for tlirowinjfj in sacrifice. 

3. Siiuill Imii(l*<[rinii. 

4. Bell. 

5. />o*7V-soe|»tre. 

6. Va»e fi>v lioly-water. 

* mdum-lc'og. 
4 Bi-dan. 

■ Kynb-mgon. 
* p'jtJ-p'ur. 

• Ka-*p'an. 

' tDch'od B'Ain 



tho lamps. Aiid over all is stretched a canopy, called the 
** sky " * on which are depicted the thunder dragons of the ?k7. 
The altar ehould have at least two tiers. On the lower aiu 
narrow outer le<lge are place<l the offerings of water, rice, cakes^ 
flowers and lain])s. On the higher platform extending up to the 

images are placed the 
m usical instrumenti«an< 
i-ertain other uteui^il* 
for worship, which will 
be enumerate pre- 

In front of the altar, 
or sometimes upon the 
altar itself, stands the 
temple-lamp,* a short 
pedestalled bowl, into 
a socket in the centre 
of which is thrust % 
cotton wick, and it ii 
fed by melted butter. 
As the great mass d 
butter solidifies and re- 
mains mostly in this 
state, the lamp is prac- 
tically a candle. The 
size varies according to 
the means and the 
iiumber of the temple 
votaries, as it i» an net 
<if piety to add butter 
to this lamp. One is 
necessary, but two or 
more are desirable, an 
on si)ecial occasions 108 or 1,000 small lamps are offered upon 
the altar. Sometimes a cluster of several lamps form a smal 
candelabrum of the branching lotus-Hower j«ttem. 


1 ouM-ywf / but it« inorc honorific title is h/a-ht-as, 
" nich'i'id-akoii. 



Betow the altar stand the Pi>oHte<l wnter-jag ' for Biting the 
aller water-veseels, adish to hold grain for oflferingH,^ an inceuse- 
ilder, and a pair of flower-vases. And on the right (of the 
tafor) on a small stool or table is the magic rice-offering, 
ith it$ three tiers, daily made uj* by the temple attendant, and 


«•• N <« 

Trr Five SENSvof a OmHimts. 

ibolic of an offering of all the continents and associated islandit 
the world. 

The ordinary water and rice-offerings are set in shallow brazen 
[>wlfl,' comjKJsed of a brittle alloy of brass, silver, gold and 
suuded precious stones. Their number is five or seven, usually 
e former. Two out of the five or seveu IxjwIs should be filled with 
re heaped up into a small cone; but at* this must be daily re- 
ftwed by fresh rice, which in Tibet is 
smewhat expensive, fresh water is 
Bually employed instead. 
Another food -offering is a high, 
jnical cake of dough, butter and 
sugar, variously coloured, named tormd 
or z'al-zS, that i&, "holy food." It 
is placed on a metal tray supported by 
a tripod. To save ex|)ense a painted 
dummy cake is often substituted. 

Upon the top of the nitnr aio also Sachkd Caku 

UAually placed the following object*, 
though gevei-al of them are special to the moi-e demoniacal worship : — 

1. A miniature funereal monument.* 

> ch'ftb-bmn. « niu bxnj. ■ mch'od tio. 

> (k'orttH. In the room in which worship U dooc there muat be pri«<?nt thme thr«e 
essential objects: Au-yRum iSkt., Triiilt/A) ia) an iuiagf, (h) a di'orten, and (Da, 
boly book, wiiich art- symbolic of "the Three Holy Onee." In thr furly Indian cavt-w 
thift triad tM*ma to have been r^re«e»te(l by (f) « Caitna for Itwidlia, and a Wktii fur 



2. One or more eaered boo]a on each side of the altar. 

3. The LimaiKt aoefrtVA or 2}urj<^ typical of the thunderbolt of Indn 
(Jupiter), arni a bell. The ti^rjt is the counterpart of the bell, *nd 
wbeu nppUed to the shoulder of the latter should be of exactly tb« 
same length as the bell-handle. 

4. The hiily-wntor vi\so ' and a ipetal mirror hanging from it« 
spuut. The ho|y-wat«r of the vase is tinged with ^affi^m, ami is 


Lamp (liiv«rt«J), nlt/ii. Iioly-nter Jug. 

sprinkled by inomiB of a long stopper rod, which is surmounted 
fail of ppiicock'a feuthers and the holy k*t*a grass. Another ti 
fnuruiounbed by a chnplet, et-c., as its frontiiipieco. 

0. The diviuing-ari*ow bouud with live coloured Etlk»i callod dmfar * 
for demonincnl woi-ship. 

(i. A large tneUd mirror" to reflect the image of the spirits. 

7. Two pairs of fyiiil)ttl». Tlu? (wir used iu the worship of Baddba 
and the liigher divinities aire called W-h^h/ and are of about twelve or 
more inches in diameter, with very small central bosses. They are held 
vertically when iu use, one above the other, and are manipulated gently. 
The pair of cymbals used in the worship of the inferior deities aud 
demons are called rol-mOf aud are of shorter diameter with very much 
broader bosses. They are held honzontftUy in the liundty and forcilly 
clanged with great clamour. Chinese gong8 alsti are used. 

8. Comjh-shell trumpet (/Hn*), often mountinl with bronze or (divert 
80 as to prolong the valves of the shell and deepen its note — used with 
the n-fien cymbrtLs. 

1 k'nu-bum. &<>e Afi. Koci., /.., lOtf. ■ Mdali-d*r. ' me-long. 

^ ftjl-fmyan. > dun. 



9. Pair of «>j>per fliigfM>loU.' 

10. Fair of loug teleK»pic copjier horns m three piec«&,' and often 
six feet long (see illustration on page 17). 

11. Pair of human thigh-bone trumpet^.* These are sometimes 
encnmyl in broAs with a wide copper flanged extremity, on which an 
figni-ed the three eyes and nose of a demon, the oval open extremit; 
being Iho demon's month. In the propiu^tion of iheee thigh-bone trum- 
pets the bones of criminals ur thojie who have die*! by v-iolence are pre- 
ferred, and au elaborate incaotHtion is done, part of whieli mnsisto 
in the L&ma eating a portion of the ftkin of the bone, othi^rwise its blast 
would not Iw sufficiently powerful to summon the demuna, 

12. Pair of tiger thigh-bone trumpetw.* Theiie are not aluraj^s 
present, and the three instramente are only for the worship nf 
the inferior gucU and demons. 

13. Drums (ch'os riiu) ; — 
(ci) A Kuiall rattle baud-drum or /W-cA'im ' or <2aiHdru, like a Urgv 

doiibli.' egg-<.tup. Between its two faces ore attached a pair 
of pendant leather knubti and a long-beaded 3ap as a handle- 
When the drum in held by the upper part of the cloth handle 
and jerked alternately to right and left the Icnob» strike the 
faces of the drum. It is ubed daily to mark the pauses be- 
tween different forms of woi'ship. 

(A) The big druuk.called cfi'o-tm" or religious drum, These aieof 
two kiudK, one of which tin i^uspended in a frame and heat only 
occaaioniilly ftud in BuddhaV worship. The other is cam>d 
in the hand by means of u stem thi-ough it>s curved 
l>order. Tlietse ni-e Vteaten by drum-sticks with straight or 
curved Imudlee. 

(e) The human skull-drum made of skuU-capa, and of the 
style as the smaller drum (a) above described. 

14. Libatinn jugs, figured on page 225. 


The greate«( of alt the teuijjles of Laiuadoin is the great cathe- 
dra] of LhSsa, the St. Peter's of I/iniaism, the sketch of which, 
here ^iven, was drnwu for me by fi Lamn artist, who visited Lhiisa 
with thirt object, and who delibemtely .sketched the sacred city and 
its great temple from the hillock about half a mile to the south 
of the city. And with the description of it' we will close our 
account of temples. 

ThiB colossal temple, called "The Lord's House* (Jo-^vo JCniij, 

t rgyt^Mti. * rny-ilun, > rka£iH/tift. 

• Ktiig ilun. ' liia-tiruti. « ch*08-)ti.i. 

' .Siimmnnzf'il frniii th*- acouiitK •>! Hfc, etc.. and fnun KJlpPEN, ii., SS4. 

koH '■ 

-nds in the centre of the city of Lha^a, to which it ^ves it« 
,me, ** (imi'K place ; ^ and it is aUo considered the centre of the 
ole land. All the main roads, vrhich cut through Tibet, run out 
it and meet again in it. But it is* also the centre of the united 
maist church, as it is the first and oldest Buddhitst temple of 
bet, the tjrue metropolitan cathedral of LSmaism. Founded iu 
e seventh century, on commencing the convermon of the gktomy 
owland, liy king Srofi T«in Gampo, for the preservation of 
ose wondroua imagey brought to him by his two wives, as before 
entioned, it has, no doubt, iu the course of a millennium, received 
lauy additions and enlargements, and in the seventeenth century 
was restored and rebuilt. 

lt-» entrance faces the east, and before it, in a square, stands a 

,gstnff, aljout forty feei high with yak's hair, and horns of yak 

sheep, tied to its base. The main building is three storeys high, 

►nd roofed by golden plates.- The entrance is iu the shape of 

hall, which rest« on six woi^den pillars, very handsomely deeo- 

ted with engraWngs, jwintings, and gilding. The walls are 

vered with rough pictures out of the hiograjihy of the founder 

the religion. In the centre of the hall is a swing door, which 

decorated on the outside with bron;£e, and ou the inside with 

iron reliefs. 

Through this you pass into the ante-court, which is covered by 
he first storey. In the wall, opposite the entrance, is a second 
•, which brings you inside, ou both sides of which stands the 
1 statues of the four great guardian kings; two on the 
right an<l two on the left side. This brings us into a large jjillared 
hall, which has the form of the basilica, and is divided by colon- 
nades into three long and two cross-aisles. The light conies from 
above in the middle or broadest ait-le, where a transjiarenl oilcloth 
lerves instead of glass. Through this the whole tempie is lighted, 
use there ar^* no side windows. On the outside of the two 

1 The nftiut' Lh2sa is pr<^M>rIy retitrtctrtl t/i tlie gn-at t^xnplr. Hron Twin flampn 
(HjjM'ars lo Iwve bccu the (oun<l»T of Ihf city now ycmTilly ktii>wn to EtimpfjinB B8 
IJwtta. It is recorded that he e?tchange<l tlie wild Varlimfj rftll<y. wtiirli had ticen 
the horn** of liid ancostni^, for the more central pufiition tn th*' tmrth (if tht? T»anR|Mi, 
a villogo named Rasa, wliich, on account nf the temple hp enacted. \v;tB altered to 
Lliu-tta, or " tlod'n plact-." An old fonn o( tlie name is said to b*> /nKa-Man. 

' ThMc plat<^3 are aald to hi- of solid f^ild, iiiul giftfd by tho ttuii of tin; priucoUng 
Aaanmal, about the e?»d of tlw twelfth cnntur)' a.d. 



side aiitlea, i'.c., oa the uortb and fiouth side, as the ^ 
towardit the east, is a row of small cells or chapels, fouileen tot 
right and just as many to the lefi. The two cross-aisles fonn^ 
hackground, and are sejiarated from the long aisle by silver lattit 
work. Here are tiie .-(eaU of the lower priests f(»r common 

^^ N r> N ^^ 


OnotrND-FiJiN OF LrAba Cmsbdrai.^ 

meetings. From the weot cross-aiBle a RtaLrease leads into 
holy of holies. On the left of this we see, by ascending behii 
silver rods, fifteen plates of massive silver, which are covered w| 
imuimerahle precious stoDe*, and contain representations of ij 
BuddhJKi dogmatics and myptioinm. We see there, for instani 
the Biiddhii^t system of the world, the «rcleof the metemjisyc 

' AtUer UJorgi. I have not reproducfd tlit- rrforences M thoy art' not 8u 



Ith its diffei'pnt states. From the stairs above we come into a 
>6s-aisle, which has just as many i>illars as the two lower ones, 
ifi ftlfio the inner front ball of Ibe sanctuary. The latter ban 
form of a srjuare, in which are six chapels, three on each of 
north and south flanks. In the middle i-i the place for the 
offering altar, which, however, is only erected on certain occasions. 
On the other wide of the altar, on the west side of the holy of 
holies, also in the lowest depth of the whole editice, is the quad- 
rangular niche, with the image of Sakya .Muni. Before the entrance 
in this, to the left, is raised the throne of Dalai T^'ima, very high» 
richly decorated, and covered with the customary five pillows of 
the Grand Lumas. Beside this stands the ahuoBt similar one of 
the Tashi Gi-and Lama; then follow those in rotation of the 
regenerated Lamas The abbots, and the whole non-incarnate 
higher priesthood have their seats in the cross-aisle of the sanc- 
tuary. Opposite the throne of Dalai Lama, on the right from 
the entrance of the niche, is the chair of the king of the Ijbw, 
not quite so high as those of the regenerate Grand Lamas, hut 
higher than those of the others. Behind him are the seats of the 
four ministers, which are not so high as those of the common 

^K On the west side of the niche stands the high altar, which is 
^BVeral steps high. Upon the top of the higher ones we see small 
i^KJitues of gods and saints made of massive gold and silver; upon 
the lower ones, as usual on Buddhist altars, Uinips, incensories, 
sacrifices, and so on ; upon the highest, behind a silver gilt screen, 
the gigantic richly-gilded image of Buddha Sakya Muni, wreathed 
with jewelled uecklaces as native offerings. This image is named 
" The gem of majesty ** ( Jo-vo Rin-po-ch'e), and represents Buddha 
as a young prince in the sixteenth year of his age. It, according 
to the opinion of the believers, was made in Magadha during 
Buddha's lifetime, and afterwards gifted by the Magadha king to 
the Chinese emperor in return for assistance rendered against 
the Yavan invatiers ; and given by the Chinese emperor to his 
daughter on her marriage with the king of Tibet, in the seventh 
century a.d. Flowers are daily showered ujxm it. Beside this 
one — the highest object of reverence — the temple has also in- 
numerable other idols; for instance, in a special room, the 
images of the goddess 8ri Devi (Pal-ldan Lha-mo). There is 



also a celebrated image of the (ireat Pitying T^rd — Avalokita — 
named " the self-created pentad." ^ Also images of historical ]}ereoo9 
who have ina<]e themHelves worthy of the church ; amongst whom 
one sees there tlie aforeKHid piouii king and his two wives, all three 
of whom are canouized ; also his auiba>isador, who wa::! sent by him 
to India to fetch from there the holy books and pictures.* 

In this large and oldest temple are lodged great numbers of 
other precious things and lioly relics, consecrated presents, gold 
and silver vessels, which are openly exhibited at the beginning of 
the third Chinese month. 

liound about tiiese stand many wooden or copper prater- 
machines. The surrounding wings of the building contain the 
, gtate-treasures, the magazines, in which are stored everything 
necessary for divine service, the monks* cells, the lecture-rooms; 
in the higher storeys also the residences of the highest stat€ officers, 
and special rooms for the Dalai Lama. The whole is surrounded 
with a wallj at which are several Buddhist towers, which, as in 
the case of the large t«mple, are covered with gilded plates. No 
women are allowed to remain within the walls during the night, 
a prohibition which extends to mauy I^maist cloisters, 

1 nin byun /na-/fUa. So called becAUS^ it is reputed to have farmed itself bye 
tionsfroni: Tliug-je cli'enixi f Avalokita), Tul-ku-gey Ion— the artint^Srun TaanI 
his Chiuoso wife, and hia Ncwari wife. And the locatioD of «*ach of thcw 
htuige is pointed out. ^ Ki>ppKN- says an Inui^ of Hiucn TsUng u altHi thrrr>. 


<FaU liM.) 

lILGRIMAGESare most jjoi>ular in Tibel. ThecouTitry 
contains nn infinite nmuber of sat-red sites, reputed 

re-incarnated or supernatural I^nmas, self-ereated 

^H images, relics of the Hurldhas, holy footprints, saucti- 

^Kfied trees, etc., to which the pious throng with gifts of gold and 

^Ktber precious offerings ; while many extend their pilgrimages to 

places outside Tibet, to China, Bhotan, Sikhini, Nepal, Kashmir, 

Turkestan, and India, to jilace-i hallowed by Si. Padma-gam- 

bhava, or by Buddha himself. 

The most holy of all sites, according to the Lamas, in common 

with all Buddhists — like Mecca to the Muhammadans^ — is the 

KTree of Wisdom at Buddh-fiaya, in India, with its teini>le known to 

^Tibetans as tiandhola,' where Sakya Muni attained his Buddha- 

I < After fjiorp. 

I ' dri-jrtsah-k'aht or "The Unt«iiited (purv) Hauftf." It w»a built in seTen days by 

MAe Ingh-prient '* Virtue " (rfge-ba). Set? aUtt Takanatha, lt>, 4^ etc. At thf llodhl* 

maiv^ft (bynh-ch'ub-»nin-pci) is the diamnnd-tJmmc (vajriiAttna, Tib.. I>orjt-dttn). 

ao called on account of its HtabilityT indc'strurtibiUty, and ca|>actty of n^isttn? jiII 

worldly shocha. 




hood, and which is bclievwl to be the hnb of the world. Afla 
this come the site of HuddhaV death, KiLsinngBra ; and tlie elgfal 
great Caityas which enshrined hifi bodily relics ; the mythica 
mount Potala^ in the south; the mythical Shambhala id the 
north; the tioru'ii Fairy-land* in Udyana in the west; aoi 
"The three hills^*" or V-tai Shan, in northern China, the original 
seat of the God of Wisdom, Maiijusnj and Tihfisa, the St. Petert 
of the Laimas, and the seat of Buddha's vice-regent upon earth. 

The Indian tthrines are seldom viBited by Lamas atul Tibetani 
on account of the great tlistance and expense. 1 have listened 
several times to the prayers of Ljiawia and Tibetan laity at lb 
great Buddh-GayS temple, which, strange to gay, is still held by on 
sympatht^tic Hiiiilfi priests \vli«i ytrey upon the Huddhist pilgrims. 

Thetfe prayers were divided 
l>etween petitions for temponl 
prosperity and for '*the great 
ultimate perfection,*' or Nir- 
vana. They make offerings \A 
the Tree of Wisdom, but theii 
oblations do not take the fotn 
of watering it with can ik 
Cologne and gilding it, as dl 
some of the Burmese. 

At the shrineH under Bud 
dhist management, the. pil- 
grims carry oft", as relics'! 
printed charms and fragmeati 
of the robes of re-incamafa 
Lfimaa and other holy men, 
leaves of sacred treeis, etai 
which are carefully treasonj 
js amulets and fetishes. ioA 
these objects and holy wtt« 
work most miraculous cure* in 
a manner which {a not 

I'll i.kIM L^t.MA?i, 

known even in Christian Europe.' 


I ri-bo 7ru-*dBiiL ' mk's-'gro glin. 

* ThoH EuropcAiu who sne«r «t the " pagau " Bupfntitiotiii of the Eutt nuiy fd 



The fullest Tibetan Hccount of Indian shrines is found in the 

ok named Jambii-glin apyi hs'ad, a compilation coutainiug a 
confused abstract of Hiuen Tsiang'a celebrate treatise.' 

In regard to the site of Bud<lha'g death, the Lainas have placed 
it in Asam. 

In conversation? some yearg ago with Lumas and lay Buddhi^ta 

at Darjiling, I was* suq>rised to hear that Asam contained a most 

holy plat-e of liuddhist pilgrimage called '* T8anfc}C6-(lxtU^^ which, 

it was allege<l, next to the great temple at Buddh-tiayfi, was the 

lOBt holy 8{>ot a Buddhist could visit. Asaiu is usually regardetl 

l>eing far beyoud the limits of the Buddhist Holy Laud, and 
,he Chinese pilgrims, KaHian and Hiuen Tsiang iu the fifth and 

vpnth centuries of our era, to whom we are mainly indebted for 
ur knowledge of ancient Buddhist geography, not only do not 

ention any holy site in Asain, Iiut Hiuen Tsiang, who visited 
(iauhati at the invitation of the king of Kamrfip, positively notes 
the absence of Buddhist buildings in Asam.^ 

I therefore felt curious to learn further particuhirs of this 
important site in Asam, which had apparently been overlooked 

»by geographers, 
femunj^t themselves equally grotewiue brliiifs. For example, the Holy Cont ^ ff^m. 
lUitl ont- (if Uie most n-wnt iniracle-», \\w. huty of Tj>vnU». IjEiiirdes, as .i iiiiraclf; place, 
dates fr*>in 18^ wk«-n ;i little ^\t\ luid a vision of "a beautiful aitil railiHiit Udy," 
EigliU'cn times the gl'^rious apparitioH was Mien by Uie Rir' ; theii it wa» 6t*eD no more. 
Twrnty thousand persona by tliat timi.' ha«l gatliered to the rtndfrr'Mti. Oa uue of the 
last iKcasioiu UiL' girl, as if ob^-ying a sign from her vi&iuntf wt^nt to a corner of tlic 
gruiu) where tJw Bii{)caraiii'e:t occurred, »i>d scratclicd iu tla- dry earth. The gaping 
I crowd saw water riot: and tli4> girl driuh. Tlieu a little btrt^umlct niadi' ittt way to the 
liver. In a rfwirt tim<* Hw Mpring gave 120, iHW litres a day. And tin- wonders of 
Eiiraculous heating cfftetvd by tliis water are the tlieiuc* of the learned and tlie 
jrtorant alike. In 1872 the nuinbiT of pilgrims amounted to liO,(X)0, and this 
the same number appeared nt tht- health-giving spring. Over 12,000 brouglit 
1,100 sick, 'fliey had come fntm Paris and tX\e north in seventeen pilgnmago 
sins, and this year (lBtl>-l), acconling Ut the ne^s|>apers, two train-loads dteaimxl 
Lit of London for the same convent. There is a bund of trainM attendants, who 
gCK] service, and Uie sick are dipped by e.\pertji and cared for. As the patient 
immersed, some of the assistanta, with arms uplifted, pray with him. .SoniQ 
Df the sick quietly undergo the dip, as if resigned to whatever may befall (.tiein. 
Potliers beat the water in agony, and clutch at hands near, but all prny — these last 
l-vith loud cries of despair to heaven: "Cure us, Holy Virgin, liuly Vii^n, you 
VFuf cure us." There is great coclesiastical ceremonial, elevation of tlie host, priests 
rith hglited ta|>er8, and high dignitaries be-robed and be-mltred. " The cures " Are 
l^uly curti&cd — they are as marvellous as any by a well-adverti>s*'d specific. 
I For a transUtinn of a smaller one sec my article in /'/w. A.S.Jt.f Feb., 1S09. 

• rTsa-Nich'ng-groii. Sec /„^.^'-B., Ixi., pp.33 tf^. 

* 3i'if»-ki, trans, by Bba.l, ii., p. 196. 



In Jfischke's Tibetan dictionary ' I found the iifuiie " rT'*- 

mch'og-groii ** defined a.s a ^Mown in At?ain where JJuddha 
died," and this statement, it is noted, is given on the authoritjoC 
the "Gyalrabs/'a vernacular history of Tibet, Csonia de KiVT* 
eIbo notes ' that "the death of SImkya, as generally stated in the 
Tibetan books, happened in Asam near the city of Kusa or Gama^ 
rupa (Kamrfip).*' 

Here, then, was a clue to the rayslery. Kuddha's death, it is 
well known, occurred between two sal tree* near Kumiuxgarti or 
Ktistiuagattty in the north-west provinces of India, thirty-fii'B 
miles east of Gorakhpur, and about one hundred and twenty mjlrt 
N.N.E, of Benares; and the site has been fully idejitifie<l by Sir 
A- Cunnin^;ham ^ and other« from the very full descriptions giren 
by ICiuen Tsiang and FaHian. The name Knsaua^at'a means 
"the town of Kusu grass**;* and as the early Latiia missionaries 
in their translation of tlie Buddhist scriptures habitually trans- 
lated all the Sanskrit and PfiH names literally into Tibetan, Ku- 
w(H<(^«rttwasrendere<l in the "Knh-'gyur" canon as '*rTsa-mch'og- 
groi*!,*' from ** t tsa-mch'og," kusa grass, ** grong," a town ( = Sskt^ 

Now, near the north bank of the Brahmaputra, almost opjwMite 
Gauhati, the ancient capital of Kiimrup, is, I tind, an old village 
named Sdl-Kustty and it lies on the road between Gauhati and 
Dewangiri, one of the most frequented passes into Bhotan and 
Til>et. With their extremely scanty knowledge of Indian geo- 
graphy, the Lamas evidently concluded that this "town of Sftl- 
A'lWrt" was the "town of Kusa," where Buddha entered into 
Nirvdfui between the two 8(11 trees — seeing that the word s/U was 
also incorporated with the equivalent of" Tsam-ch*6-<Jun," and that 
in the neighbourhood wtvs the holy hill of Hfijo, where, as will be 
seen hereafter, there probably existed at that time some Buddhi!*t 

t P.«7. 

* Atuttic RarurrArx, XX., p. 292. 

» ArrK. Surr. ImHui Jirpti., i., 76; xvli., 55, et*:. 

« KU9A iftass iPiMt rt/iio»urvidt4), Uie »acrifici»l grasfl of the- Hindus, ia alio priied by 
Vlif Uutldtiisttt (ju account of its having formed Uie cushion on whirh the Boddbinttn 
■kI utidor tXw Bodhi tree. It is aUo UHe<t as a b^>OIll in Lninftu: toraptes aad ai 
ED nltiu- decoration aaaocUted with jicicock's ftaUier5 in the /»'m/ui or hojljr viUr, 

No description of tliifi Buddhist site seeniH to be oft record, 

cept a very brief note by Col. Dailun * on the modern Hindu 

mpte of Hajo, which shrines a Buddhist image. So as I have had 

oi>portunity of visiting the sit*, and enjoyed the rare advantage 

bein^ conducted over it by a Lania of eastern Tibet who chanced 

be on the spot, and who had previously visited the site several 

mes, and possessed the traditional stories regarding it, I give 

e following brief description of it in illuatnition of how the 

inas, originally misled by an identity of name, have subse- 

uently clothed the neighbourhood with a legentlary dress in 

;eeping with the story of BuddhaV death, atid how this place, 

th its various associated holy spots, is now implicitly believed 

the pilgrims to be the real site of Huddha's pari-nirwhiti, 

nd in this belief, undeterred by the intemperate heat of the 

ilains, Buddhist pilgrims from all i>art.s of Bhotfm, TilK't, nnd 

even from Ladak and south-western China visit these spots and 

carry off scrapings of the rocks and the soil in the neighbourhood, 

treasuring up this precious dust in amulets, and for placing beside 

their dead body, as saving from dire calamities during life, and 

m transmigration into lower animals hereafter. Authentic 

specimens of this dust, I was informed, commanded in Tibet 

high prices from the more wealthy residents, who had personally 

been unable to undertake the pilgi-image. 

The Hajo hill, or leather group of hills, where is situated, aocording 
to tho current tradition of the IJimas, the i^pot whei*e BudHhu " wmsde- 
livered from pain/' lies to the north (right) bank of the Brahmaputra 
Hbout nine miles north-west from (Tauhnti (KainrOp), north httitude 26" 
11' 18" and east long. 91' 47' '2G", and four or (ivo inilos north of S&l- 
Ktt^ The hill v'leeA directly from the plain, forming a strikingly hold 
and picturesque mass ; and it is a testimony to its uatunil beauty to 
6nd that the hill has attracted tlie veneration of people of all reiijc^iuus 
denominations. Tho Henit-uboriginal Mech and Koch worship it as a 
deity under the name of Hajo, which means in their veraacolar " the 
hill." The Buddhists formerly occupied one of tho hillocks, but are 
DOW displaced by the Brahmans, who restored the temple, which is now 
one of the most frequented HindQ teuiplos tu A^am. The Muhom- 
biodans also have cron*ned the summit of the highest peak with a 

The clw^ter of hills presents a very ^mmotrical appearance qs seen 
from a distance, forming a bold swelling mass culminating in three 



Siiiay£:s, helws, and filorims. 

trident-like peaks, the central one of which is pre-cuninent, and is re- 
gftrdod hy the Buddhists oa emblematic nf Buddha. The high peaks 
on either side of this are identified with Buddha's two chief disciples, 
Sariputra and Maudgalyayana. This triad of poaks in seen from a 
great distance, and it is only on near approach that the smaller hillocka 
are observed. I'hese latter number about sixteen, and are called Xc- 
ten e'u-fiu, or '* the sixteen dt'wiples " of Buddha. 

The most holy bite, according to the Buddhists^ is a bare flattish 
I shoulder of rock, about eight yards iu diameter, situated at the north- 
-west ba«e of the bill. This is stated to be the SU-ina tsnl^ji tvr-dii, or 
'* the pyre of the cool grove," where Buddliu died, and where his l>ody 
was cremated. The rook here bears sevenil roughly-cut intfcriptions in 
Tibetan characters of the mydtic sentences, " Om tnaiti iKtdme hiiin," 
" Om ah hiim*^ " Om," etc., and coloured rags toni from the vestnienti^ 
of the pilgrims are tied to the bushes in the neighbourhood. The 
HindQs have curve*! here on the rockafigureof thefour-armed Vishnu, 
which the Brahman priests caU DhUhl^ or " the washerwoman of the 
gods," and the rock they call ^'Lrtai rUmpinir jt^tJ'* 

It is worthy of note that the Lamas, for the benefit of the resident 
population of Tibet, have made copies of this spot in at least four places 
iu Tibet, vi^., at : — 

1. lia-rgjiah, in the south-ea-st outskirts of Lhasa city. 

2. P'a-jton Var^ in the north subiu'bs of Lhasa. 

3. Pur-mo c'Ac, about twelve miles to the north-east of Tashi-lhtm- 

4. Sd-hrag. 

The'^ sites were consecrated by placing on them a piece of mck 
brought from this Asam site, now under i-eport; but the latter spot 
bears the distinctive prefix of Gyd-gar, or Indian, implying that it is 
the original and genuine site. 

A high cliff, close to the west of this spot, is called '* the vulture's 
mound hill," as in Tibet vultures usually frequent the neighbourhood 
of the tur^ cemeteries, and in belief that it is the Gridha Kuta Giri 
hermitage of Buddha.' 

A short di.^tftiice lieyond this spot, in the jungle, is a roughly-hewn 
stone basin, about six feet in diameter, called by the lAm&s Sani-ififdmd 
ko-k'Oy or the pot in which the S 'ii\-jt—t\iid death-demons — boil the heads 
of the damned. The Bralniians, on the other hand, assert that it is the 
bowl in which Siva or Aiii-purutha brewed his |X)tion of lust-exciting 
Indian hemp, and they point to its green (confervoid) watery oon- 
tent.s in proof of tins. They also stato that a snake inhabits the 
depths of the bowl ; but it was certainly aljfient at the time of my 

Advancing along the pathway, leading up-hill, we pass a few oolum- 
nar massej* of rock lying near the path, which «re pointed to as frag- 
ments of Buddlm's staff with which he unearthed this monster bowl. 

■ byt-Jigyod p'un ptu ri. 

Climbing np the hill we reach the temple of Kedaranath, wliieb is 
approache<i by a very steep roughly-paved cjinseway. At the entnuicd 
is a long in&ci-iptiou in granite in old Bengali characteiv, tha^e being 
the charactent adopted by the Asaineete. Adjoining thi.s temple in the 
fthrina of Kamale^vur or *' the lord nf the I^Uus." Here itt a lank 
called by the tAmss '' Tg6 vumi hhadm" or *' the lake of the notable 
gem"; and they state that many water-sprites (Sn'ja, serpents or 
dragons) came out of this pond on the approach of Buddha and pr^ 
sented him with jewels. A small cell by the side of this pond is said 
to be the pla^-c where Buddha ii;et down a mass of butter whiob had 
been brought to him a.s a gift, and the atone UHi)a and \foni (phallus 
and its counterpart), now shrined here by the HindQs^are pointed to aa 
being tliis petriBcil butter. 

Crowning the Kuiumit of the bill is a large ma^tjid built by Lutfullab, 
a native of Shiraz, in the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan, in 1656 
A.D., with a Persian inseripttoa.' 

A detached conical hillock, about 300 feet above the plain, lying 
about half-a-inile to the north-eiist of the hill, and now crowned by the 
HiudQ temple tif Mudh-ivii^ is identilied with ** the great eaitya *' 
wliieli was erecte<I over the cremated relics of the Tathagatha's botly. 

The pivsent shrine of the temple seems to be the original sbrine of 
an older Buddhist temple, which, according to both Buddhist and 
Asamese tradition, formerly existed here — the upper portion only ii 
modem. Col. Dultou has deHcribeti the general details of thi^ building, 
and he states: "The Bruhmans call the object of worship Madhab, the 
Buddhi.<tb call it Mahamuni, the greut sjige. It \» in fact tiimply a 
colossal image of Buddha in stone. 1 1 s modern >'otaries have, to con- 
ceal mutilation, given it a pair of silver goggle-eyce and a hooked gilt 
silvered noiM* and the form is eonceale<l from view by cloths and chap- 
lets of dowers ; but remove these and thera is no doubt of the image 
having been intended for the * ruler of all, the propitious, the asylum 
of clemenry, the nil-wise, the lotu.s-eyed comprehensive Buddha.'" 

This Inrge image of Buddha is cnlled by the moi-e learned Lamn-visi. 
tors Mnnir Aftini Ma/tdmwti, i.e., "The Sage of Siiges, The Great Sage." 
It is the original image of the shrine, and is stated by the Brahmanic 
prteets, who wdl it MCidhab, to be of divine origin and an actual embodi- 
oienL or nntUir of the god, in contradistinction to the other images 
which ai-e calleil mere " miirtW' or li and- fashioned copies of typical 
forms of the res).Hfctive gods i-epreAented. This may mei'ely mean chat 
the Brahmans fouml this image here, while the others wore brought 
from tiie neighbourhood or tdsowhcrc. What seems to be the history 
of the mutilation nf this image i< found in tfte account of the invasion 
of the Koch kingdom of lower Asam by the MutnlmaiiB under Mir 
Jumlah in 1661 A.n. This chief issued " directions to destroy all t!»© 

idolatrous templfs and to ere<rt mostjues in their stead To 

rinoe his zeal for religion, the general himself, with a battle-a:(e, broke 
lie celebrate<l image of Naniin. the principal object of woi-ship of the 

I aec/.J.Afl., Ia1..p.37. 


ii'HJify£.% KEL/CS, JSD PfLQHTMS. 


Itindfis of that province." ^ K&i Ayana \» one of the namee of Madhab 
and a pfttrouynuc of the Koch raja's ; and Hajo wns n seat of the Koch 
rajofi. And it was at Hajo that Hir JuinlaU took the Koch king 

The othw imager, not mentioned by Dalton. but which must ha\'e 
existed at the time of his visit, are aLso of stone and ure placed on 
[either side of the lai^ image. They are four in number and are of 
c-onsidcrable gize. According to the I^ama-pilgidms they nre al) Baddlii^l 
images ; but the crypt wjis &o dimly lit, and the iiiinges so enveloped in 
clotbefland wreatbsof flowers that I could nut iti>tiiigiiiHh their specific 
characters, with the exception of the head and peculiar triilent of the 
tin;t, and the head of the f^cond, which were character iKtic and ju$ti£ed 
thoir recf^nized names, vii. : — 

No. 1. — Utjyan Guru to the left of Mabamuni. 
No. 2. — Dorjt Dolii to the right of Maliamuni. 
No. 3. — Sakj/n Thufxt to the right of No. '2. 
No. i.~''S€»cha" Muni to the right of No. 3. 

Althou<:h HindA priests, as a rule, are not very methodical in tli«r 

bestowal of names upon the imaf^e^ which they have appropriated fi-om 

Buddhiat ruins, i^till I here give the Bralimiiriicnl names aa reported by 

the attendant priests, as, this being a wealthy temple, the priests were 

more learned than usual, and the names should give some idea of the 

nature of the images. After stating that the Buddhist pilgrims gave 

the above noted names to the images, these pripsts said that the Brih- 

manioal name::) were as fulluw^, wliich, it will bo noticed, are BeogaJi. 

I give them in the oi-der of the previous list : — 

No. 1. Dwitlya M&dhaver mQrti. 

No. 2, TaI Kanaiy& Bankat Viharer mfirti. 

No. 3. Basu Dever m&rti. 

No. 4. Hayagriver murti. 

In the vestibule are lotus ornamentations and several articles of the 

usual p;iraphernalia of a Buddhist temple, including the following; 

A pyramidal framework or wheeless car like the Tibetan CfCait~ija 

ehutvkt with lion tigui*e8 at the corners of each tier, such as i^ lined to 

seat the image of a demon which is to be carried heyond the precincts 

of the temple and there thrown awuy. The present frame ia used by 

the priests of this temple to parade in the open ail* one of the smaller 

images of Che shrine (f Hayagrtver), but the image is again returned to 

the shrine. Above this throne is stretched a canopy containing the 

figure of an eight-petal led lotus Sower, and has, as is customary, a 

dependant red fringe. On either side is hung a huge closeit umbrella. 

These articles have been in the temple from time immemorial. 

t)f the external decoration of the t«iinple, the row of sculptured 
elephants along the basement, evidently a portion of the old Buddhist 
temple, has been figure<l by Col. Dalton in the pjiper above referred to ; 

1 RK\-eHiixiK, Cal.ktritw^ July, 18!KI, p. 12. 

ad Is identical with the decorative style of the Kailos cave temple of 
Cllora ti^i'ed by Kergut>»on in Flat« xv. of hi» Cave TtmpltM. The 
Ipper walk are covered with sculptured tigui^es nearly life-size. The 
sn avaidras of Vishnu are repi-e8eute<l with Buddha a^ the ninth. 
Phe remaining tigures are of a rather nondescript character, but they 
re mostly male, and neaiiy every tiguie carries a tndetit {triavln) — th« 
%m of the BuddhiBtfl. The I^nias state that these 6gureH were for- 
lerly inside the teQi])le, but that Buddha ejected them. And it \» 
«ted that the temple wa-"^ built iu one night by Viavakarauiy the 
'^iilcau of the HinduB and Bmtdhist^. 

Attached to the temjile is a «)lony of Satl, or dancing gii-hs,' who 
re ii*up(K)rted out of the funds of the temple, and wlio on the numerous 
ast days dance naked in a room adjoining the shrine. These orgies 
ire part of the Sakti woi-ship so pijculiar to Katnrup, but nowhere 
it Ko grossly conducted as at this temple.' The Nati and the idol-cnr 
also conj^picnouA at the degenerate Buddhist temple of Jaganuath 
U Puri. 

At the eaj>tern Irnse of the hillock, on which this temple standu, is a 
ae l&rge tank, CAlled by the Lamas " tlie lake of excellent water." ^ 
bis pond, it is said, was made by Buddha with one prod of his RtaH', 
rhen searching for the huge bowl already dencribed which he uneai-the<l 
jiei-e. This p<"md is also said to be tenanted by fearful nionstei-s. 

I havo been unable to ascertain positively whether any Buddhist 
cmilding existed here previous to tlie Laniait fixing on the site as the 
[K-uaanagara of Buddha's death. Certainly no monastery existed here at 
I time of Hiuen Tsiang's visit to the Kamrup ((rauhatT) court in the 
nth contui-y a.d., for he says of this country that " the people fiave 
ao faith in Buthlha, hence from the time when Buddha appeared in the 
rorld even down to the prusent tiuie tbtre never as yet hag been buik 
[one Sanghdrama :us a place for the priests to lu^semble," The refer- 
I wltich Taran&th* makes to the gi-eat stfipa of Kusanagara as being 
iited here, in KamrQp, was taken from report, and thus would 
elyshow that the present Lama-traditiou was current during his 
time. Any chaitya or other Buddhist buildiDg would beem to have 
^"beeu subsequent to the seventh century : and m all ptoUibility moi-ked 
ft site visited by the great founder of Lamaigm, 8t. Padma-sambhava, 
or one of his disciples. The diflerent accounts of this saint's wander- 
ings vary cousidei-ably, but he is generally credited witli having 
traversed most of the country between lower Asam and Til>et. And 
in this view it is to l>e noted that the Bhotan Lamas call the chief 

Asam. or »t Icjwl Ibenorth-tast of Bengal (i*,^, Klmrttp), MCins lo liave been in 
grrat rffgrec the wnirr<* from which the Tnntrica dud Sakta corruiitiuns of the 
iou of the Vedas nnd Puranas proceeded" <H. H. Wilson. Preface to FmAum 

> They have their counterpart iu the UfHfSouAot uf the Greek Sthabd : riii^ 6, p. 20. 
' Voii-<Ji*al>-tnta'o. 
* VAseiUKv's /rf Bofnidltmt, trad, du Kusse par M. Ct. A. Coirnne, p. 44. 

■ reUgi 


RAgo of this shrixte ^amo Ovrit or " the tearber^** one of the ejiAttt 
St. Padma-6ambbn\'n. And tht' images on eith£>r side of it anil* 
'forms of thnt saint. 

The forin of Burldlitsm htere repre^nted it* of the highlj Taatzik oA 
deiuoniaciil kind, {»n>iMi)fiLt«d by Pudiiut^Haiuhliavn and nov ezisttB| 
in tliti> KdjointDg country of Ithotin. Bvem tbi.n uiihl form of the imp 
of Oififttn (htm has dHt^Hpitati^l tininun lioadj^ strung un to his fcril 
The second imagt> is of a more dfinoninral kind. The tliird image il 
course, Sakya Muni. The fourth iumgp, fiv)iu it8 Brnliraanicd al 
i« 7\un-iltn (Skt., //rt//(iyr(r«), one of the 6ercest form* of demons 
an ert{:>eci&l protector of Ijaumism. The trident i» everywhere o» 
spionoiiB in the hands of the sculptureil tigures on the walU, and Sh&kU 
rites Are more pronounced hero than in any other place in DoHken 

It in alrio remarkable to fiad thnt the hi^b-priesr of the Hij* 
tt«mple, in common with the other high-priests in Kiimt^p, is called 
Ai/ai,— ft title which is u.suatly stated to have been Oi-mferred <« tii 
lifth Urand Lama of Lba^a by a Mongolian emperor in the »evenleentli 
renturyA.D.; though theTilwtnn eipiivalent of this title, vix., (rV(i«(-«'4. 
or '* ocean," is known to have been used hy Grand I^mas preWousIy. .U 
however, the word is Mongolian, it in curious to find it iiaturaliECtl ben 
and spontaneously used by BrahmanB. It seems also to be the Utkof 
village-headuiau in the adjoining Garo hills. The (iri/uf of thia tempk 
i.s u married ru-in, but the olfioe ift not hereditary. He is elected by tV 
hx'al priesU from amongst their number, and holds olfico till death- 
He resides at the foot of the hill, below the temple, in a Ijirge hourf. 
the exterior of which is pi-ofutaely decorated with the ttkulU of wiU 
buHalo, wild pig, deer, and other big game, etc., like the house of u 
Indo-Chinase chieftain. 

" There does not Bcem to be in Tibet," says Mr. Fergusson,' "» 
single relic-shrine remarkable either for sanctity or i*i»e, nor do« 
relic-woriihip seem to be expre-'^Red either in their arcbif<«('tnre or 
their it^ligious forms," and he supports this by saying that as their 
deity is considered to be still living, no relics are needed to recall 
bis presence. 

C'ertainly no immense mounds of the colossal proixjrtions com- 
mon in Indiiiu Buddhism^ and in Burma and Ceylon, appear lo 
exist in Tibet, bat smaller fttfijias are of very common occurrence; 
and the tombs of the dejMirted Urand Lamas ul Tasbi-lLun]>o, etc^ 
are special objects of worship. 

it is said that Tibet possesses several large stupas as large m 

' DancinK k'^tU appt^ar to fl^iir*' to fioine extent in certain LfiimUst cnremouie* n 
IDiotan, I'idi' Tintsxtt's Kwhauy ^> Tifi^f, p. 3.?. 
' Hia. 9/ ImL and Eattern Arvhitectnrf^ p, 811. 



Maguta &trii«i of Nepal, This latter is one of the celebrated 
ues of Lamaist pilgrimage outside Tibet. It is called the 
|*-ru>V k\t-^r ck*f)-rte''n, and licp about two miles to the nortb- 
of Khattnnndu, and it is Hfj[ured at page2B2. Itnmense 
ibers of Tibetans, both Lamas and laity, viwit the place every 
winter, and encamp in the surrouuding field for making their 
||ij|arBbi]> and offerings, and circumambulating the «icred sjiot. It 
j^Bthe chief place of Lamaist pilgrimage in Nejial, attracting far 
.^ore votaries than the Svayarnhhrinath stupa," which is not far 
^Ustant. Iti^ 8|)ecial virtue is reputed to be its power of granting 
^H prayers for worldly wealth, children, and everything else asked 
^TOT. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton, in his account of Nepal, written 
out the beginning of the present century, gives a (Irawing of 
monument, which is of an almost simple hemisi)herical form, 
'the type of the earliest stuiwis ; and Wright,* umlcr the title of 
[temple of l?(xlhnnth," gives a rough chromo-Iithogmph of its 
we modem appearance, with its additional buildings and invest- 
igwall. But no description or account of the monument seems 
be on record. 

As I have obtained a copy of the printed booklet which is sold 

the stufia to the pilgrims, I here give a short abstract of its 

atents, which are interesting as showing how the stupa is 

?ugbt into intimate relation with the chief legendary and 

istoric ]>ersons of earl}' Lamaism. The print is a new revision by 

luya-vujra and another disciple of " the great Lama Zab-tikar." 

lis latter Lama, I am informed, lived about thirty years ago, 

Ttnd gilded the short npire of the stupa and built the present 

jn vesting wall. 

^p The book states as follows : — 

"This stupA enshrines the Hfviril of the Buddhas of the ten 
directiong. and of the Buddbat> of the three times (i.e., the present, 
past and future), and of all the Bodhisats, and it holds the Bharma- 

1 Spelt /yfl, 

> Callft] by Ihr Litmaft T'ogs-iMi Si- Kua (or ?Zan-likod); ef. bX^h Suttfamhhii fmrana, 
traiiAlil, J.R.A.S , 1804, 297. Aiiotlmr stupa not far <iff, naraoly. about Icn niileB S.E. 
of Btmtgaon.anii rw?lvp fmrn Klmt-mnndti, i« called BTttg*-mo-hw-it)iyin,and Meniifted 
jw* tlif siut whcri^ Huiidh.i in a fcirrnvr hirtli ^rp his Uxiy t*> n starving tigiT, tJimijrli 
tho <»rtlv»dox sitf r-tr tliia ntorj- wiis rcnlly uortlicrn India, rf. KaFIian, c. xi. 

» iV(yw/,pp.a2, 100. 



"When kini; Thi-Srofi Detsan* asked the Gura,' at SanirM,' to 
tell him the history of the Ma-<jH'ta stQpa in Nepal, made by the four 
»oii« of ' the bestower of gifts,' named * the poor mother Fy&-rdai-nu 
(fowl-kf?opt'r)/ then iho Guru thiiK related (the story): — 

" ' In a former Kaljta — time beyond conception — the Boilhisattv* 
MablLsattva ATalokit«srara, approached the Tathagatha ^Vmitabha and 
prayed "for the uniniats immersed in the miry slough, and after saving 
these he went to mount Potala. There be saw hostci of unsaved animak, 
itinumorable like unto mouudi; of tiiHn^a ' lees, and .(seeing this be) 
wept. Two of his pitying tear» were bom into Indra's heaven a» god's 
daughters, named respectively Kan-ma and the little Kau-ma or 
Kaii-ch'uh-m». Thiu latter having stolen lu heaven some flowen, 
was nm a puiii^ihment reborn in earth, in a low pigberd's family in 
Magnta in Xepal, under the name of Samvara or *' the Chief Happi 
neea," her motlier's name being Puma. On mai-riage ahe had four 
sona, and her husband's early death left her with the sole care of the 
family. She with her family undertook the herding and rearing of 
geeae for the wealthy, and having in ihiu pursuit amazed much wealth« 
she — Ma-pya-rdsi-ma (or mother fowl>keeper)— decided to build a luge 
sta{>a in honour of the Tathagatha. She, thereon, went to the king 
and begged for a site, saying she wanted only 80 much ground a« one 
Jiide could cover. The king assented, saying '*Ju-mri" which Uterally 
means " do " + '* can," i.K.j " you can do (so)." * Tlien she cutting a hide 
into tliin thongs (forming a long rope), enclosed that very large spocQ 
which now is occupied by this chaitya. And she, with her four sons, 
and a .servant, and an elephant and an ass, as beasts of burden, brought 
earth and stones, and commenced to build this chaitya by their owa 
personal labour. 

*' 'Then the king's ministers appealed to the king to stop such an 
ambitious budding, as they a-sc-erted its magnificence put to shaine the 
religious buildings of the king and the nobles. But the king answered 
*' A'*«-*Sor *' — which literally means "mouth + (has) spoken" — and so 
refused to interfere. (Thu.i is the name of the stfipa — • Ja-ruji JCa-tor* 
— accounted for.) 

" ' After four years, when only the base had been laid, the mother 
died, but her sous continued the building till its completion. And in 
the receptacle was pla'jed one Magadha measure {drona) of the relics of 
the Tath&gatha KiUyapa. This event was celebrated by the manifesta- 
tion in the sky, above the stupa, uf Kasyapa him&elf, and the circles of 
celestial Buddhatit ami Boilhisats, and their hosts of retinue, and 

' The king of Tibvt wlio inlrmlticcd LaniAistn. 

a I.e., Piidiua-sambhava, or I'^yan, tbe roulld(^r of L&maifm. 

• The first [,amaii*t innna«t<;ry in Tibet. 

« Th« millet seed (elusitc croctptunt), about the sise of mustArd sned, from vfaidi it 
nudu th<^ Uiumlayiin be^r. 

* TlitH Ktnry, Kud, indeed, tlie gn^tcr port of the legend, seems to have its orijgin in. 
a 'aim etjrmolni^y of thf proper namM. 



showers of flowens the gods contributed divine music and 
perfume. EarthquakeB thi*ice occnn-ecl, and through the glory 
; tbe asuembled divinities there waj< no darkness for five nights. 
' " * On© of the sons then pi-ayed, " May I in my next re-birth be iHjrn as 
'gr<yit siholrir (to benefit mankind)" — and he whs Ijorn aj* Thunnii 
AmbhutJi' (the introducer of the 8o-«Ulod '* Tilwtan " chawieter, and 
^e first translator of Indian Buddhij't texts into Tibetan), eir^ 
iO A-n. 

i'Tlie sec-ond sou pntyed in a similnr manner, and was re-boru as '*The 

ftttva" ^ (the abUit of the first momuitei'y of Tibet). 
"Then the elephiint or hut-/m (hearing these prayers) siiid, "These 
D, neglecting me who contributed so uiuch assistance, are asking all 
be good things for themselves, therefore let me be re-l>orn in a form to 
lefitroy them or their work." And he was afterwai'd^i re-bom as LaA- 
dai'tita (the pei'secntor of Lamaism). 

'* * The third son, heajHng the olephant'.s reqnost, prayed tliat he 
light be re-born in a form to neutralize the evil of the elephants incar- 
fttion; and he was born ns Lbo-luii phcl kyi rtiorje (the LTmui who 
inrdered Lnh-dtirmii, the Julian of Lamaisra).' 

*' This stDjia Is also worshipped by the Nepalese Buddhists, viz., the 

P'ewars — the semi-aborigines of the Nepal valley, and the Murmi, a 

(-Himalayan branch of Tibetan stwk. The name * Muguta ' — pro- 

'Makuta'~is doubtless u contruetiou for Malvla bantUiana, 

le pre-Uuddhist ' crested ehaitya/ such us existed at Buddha's death 

Rusinagara, in the country of the Mallas." 

The Gyan-tse Oaitya-t^mple is thus described ' : — 

It is nine storeys high, and is about 100 to 120 feet high and capped 

a gilt dome. A magnificent view of Gyant.*«) town and monasteries 

Dm top storey. Numberless niches iillt'd with images of Buddha an<! 

aisatwas. In the first Hoor is an image of the religious king 

abtan. The fttnte is fifty paces aquare. It is only open to public at 

He full and new moon. 

At those shrines holding or profe.'*sing to hold relics the fiction 
of miraculous increase of the relics is frequently enacted. Thus 
it the Alaguta stupa and Tashiding C'h'orten are soUl small 

luules,* alleged to be obtained by miraculous efflorescence on 


» Wk) introduced a written character to Tibet. 

- T1i»- Tadian monk ^^anta-rakfihita, abbot of the first monaaterj' of Tibet (Samya«). 

- Sauat'm Narrative. 

* Ot) thi' crematkin of tlie body of a Buddha it is bc-lieTed Utat ivo iiior*' ash rr«ult&, 

'-Init.on tilt* fontrarj*, Uif body awflla up aud reaolveB into a mass nf migolikp grantilea 

uf two kind*, (a) Pht-dtiii, from thi- flt'«J) as smaU while granult's, and {b) nng-irtl, 

yellowiiih larger nodules from thi' bonce. It i« thf fonui-r myrt which are boli^Ted to 

be prcflerved at the holicirt Caitya of Sikhim, namely, ToA-ttu raA^ro/, or "Saviour 

,-by iu(*ro sight.'" It owes its special sanctity to itn reputedly containinf; some of tlie 

Biierral granules of the mythical Ituddha antecedent to ^akya Muni, namely 



the sarfiioe of the building from the legendary relics of the 
tiouH Kuddhn, Kartya|)ii, alleged to be enshrined therein, 
this practice is coiutnun nlso to southern Buddliisni. \n ibc 
mesechronicle.<^ itis t^tuted tliat the tooth of Buddha, eti^hriaM 
Cejlon, yielded in the eleventh centnry A.D.,to the Barmen 
"a miraculous im-Ariiation or myjU^rious growth of hi>" 
substanceH frora the holy tooth," and Col. PhnyTe ad i 
somewhat similar mifision with alike result occurred ahoiit t 
yean* ago (about I860 A.r>.). 

And in 1892 similar relic-s were sent from Ceylon to theTlbttB 
commisKioner at Darjiliug. But^ after all, such relics are no moM 
spurious than the iunumerable *' hits of the true cro^," \n^ 
eoat«, and keys of St. Peter, of Christendom ; nor is their worriii| 
more remarkable than the vestiges of relic-worship which stJ 
survive in the structural features of our ehanceU, and the btcit 
letter day of the Holy Cross in the calendar. 

The temple of Buddha's tooth at Fu-chau in China is alw 
known place of Unmaist pilgrimage. The tooth is evidently i 
elephant's niolur.- That one also at the " I'lear water P'u-b^ei 
monastery ** in western Ssa-ch'au seems to l»e somewhat simili) 
It is described by Mr. Bnber as " dense fossil ivory," ** abt^at 
foot long, and of a rudely triangular outUne." 

The sacred mountain of Wu-t'oi or U-tai in northern t'bim 
and the alleged birth-place of Manjusri, now ideutifie<l wit 
the metaphysical Bodbisat of Wisdom, is a favourite place of pi 
grimage. It has l>een visited and figured by Hue and othert 

On mount K) in western iSsu-cirau, at an elevation of abol 
11,00U feet, is to be seen *'The glory of Buddha''* — a myetehot 
api»arilion like the giant of the Brocken," which is seen wcasiol 
ally by looking over the top of a clifi" alwut 2,0()0 feet high in< 
the terrible abyss below. It is a radiant halo of rainbow lint* an 
it is deemed an emanation irom the aureole of Buddhn. Th 
Tibetans visit the place. 

od-sTttit, i>rKa»yaiia, the ri>lica having hwn deposited thrrr by Jik-mi ISw«. ij 
inoarnatioii And »ucc(WMir uf St. Llu-Ufln. 

' Piiayrb'i< Histurti ^ Brit. JJitmui. " 

< Sir HsKitv YiiB's Mn/vuJ'uli', Ui.. cli. sv..wIiiTr St iH fifiurt-J aH»-r Mr Ftwiqtw*. 

• ViiiiUHi and doflcrUn-d algn by "Rev. J. Kdkirm {fir/ii/ivn »m t'ft,iui\ littiiind 
Reidltlioroii. Rot:Uiill, aiid iiiort! fully dcflcrihtsl by IK PnkotilofT, St. Pfl4T»ilnirjt, i9$ 

* It) ChilU-Bi- /V*-Jf NKu;/. Cf. BaHKR';* ;S«/*/f/. I'aftrr* *in^/. A»r.,p. 4lL 
^ Hukwmtkh'h Xaittrtil Jioffic, ISSS, |>. 180. 


The sacred sites of Tibet arc cited in considerable detail in the 
icular geograx'hy already mentioned. And stories abound 
tbe miraculaus efficacy of sueU pilgrimages, and even of the 
Knifestations of tbe divine spirit to worthy worship|>er8. 
JThus a story is related regarding the great image of " the 
_Lord"at Lhasa, which is a parallel to that of the widow*^ mite: 
jx>or old widow, destitute of friends and of means, made a long 
ilgrimage to Lhilsu, hut had nothing left as au oflering. By 
jing she ultimately obtained a morsel of butter, which she 
fered in a tiny lamp to tlip great idol. The god there- 
on reveAled himself through the idul, which thanked her for her 
b, and spoke to her a few words of comfort. On this miracle 
Hting noised abroad, a rich merchant set out for Lhasa, arguing 
lat if the Ix)rd appeared to a poor woman who presented only 
le tiny lam]>, he wuuld certainly appear to the donor of a host, 
he offered many thousands of lamps with tons of butter, but 
le idol remained impassive and irresjjonsive. 
The circling of the great temple by prostrations on the ground is 
essential part, of the devotions, not only of the pilgrims but of 
ae residents. The day's devotions begin at Lhasa with the gun- 
re about 4 a.m. from the I'hinese minister's house, and they close 
riib. another gun at 9 or 10 |i.m. 
After the moniiug report the people are tx> be seen in dense 
Diwds on the circular road, all moving in one and the same direc- 
ion, as with the hands of a watch. A similar circuit is made by 
the devout in the evening, to say nothing of smaller circuits aroimd 
individual shrines : at least this is imperative on common fitlk ; as 
to the great and wealthy,' they urge tliat their presence would only 
interfere with the piety of the people, so they engage substitutes, 
who, however, are rigorously retjuired to circumambulate for their 
niasters. But whether done in person or by proxy, a careful 
reckoning is kept of the number of circuits performed, and these, 
in occasional cases of excessive devotion, are even executed by the 
method of successive prostrations full length on the road, each 
prostration beginning where the preceding odc ended, called 

Of the places sacred to the Guru, the most celebrated is the 

' Saj'8 A. K. (Hesbssy's Alatiiirt, p. 293). 

^ Lotut^ l&ke " (Tb'o Padmo-o'aD), od which he is beUevcd 
liave been Iwrn. It is usually stated to be io Udyfina, but 
accountti place it near liaridvar.' In Nepal nt Hal&si 
bank of the I>udb-Kufli is the famous hermitage of the ' 
a hiU with many fossil remains, which from their d<- 
suggest the outlying Siwaliks range 

In the tnouiitain8, two day^' journey south of Cryang-t^e, oearthtl 
unrefonned monastery of S&-kar, ia a celebratwl rock-<?ul cave« 
St. Padma, called Kyil-k'or ta-dub. It is thus described* :— 

" We took lighted lamps, and aft*»r going 120 pa4>e8 inside the camt 
we i-eachwl an open flat space about twenty feet s<jurtn.'. from whirtii 
rock-cut ladder led us up to another open space about ten feec >¥iiigi«: 
thii-ty piice» further brouglit us to n stone seat, said to be the seat of Gun 
Pathua-fiumhhava. Behind the mat was a bniall hole drilled thm^ 
thf i-04'k: tlirough thiti hole a wooden spoon alx>ut two feet ]oagv» 
passed by the sister of the Liuin who accompanied u.«, and a onill 
amount of reddish duHt was extrm'ted whidt is said to l^e the refas» d 
the Guru's food. Tltis we ate and found very sweet to the t«ste. Tli« 
aftt'r lighting some sacred lamps and asking a blessing, we descended^ 
another flight of steps to a place where a stream issues fi'om the face 4* 
the iKKk. The total length of the care from the entrance of the gtrmt^ 
is about a rpiarter of a mile. There are ascents and deseonU, and maof 
turns and twists through narrow poasagee where only one nmn can p 
at a time, and many people are afraid to risk exploi-ing the place, u 
the Uimp were to go out there would be no tiuding the way back sgtDR.' 

Colossal images of Jam-|»a or " The Tx)ving (hie " (the Kuddiu 
to come), and sometimes of Avalokita are occasionallv carved oa 
cliffs. A monster image of the god Maitreya (Jain-pa), three 
Btoreys in height, is mentioned by explorer A. K, ;• the figure 
is internally of clay, and is well gilded externally ; it is seated 
on a platform on tbe ground floor, and its body, passing sucoes- 

* One Account given me »iiyB that three dnys from tbe town in noiitirru lodta 
Dftmcd l*finluu {? Dohra Dun) lies Ramna^nr, ttiena' four ()n>'s Hnradunr, vrUitn them 
tfl A railway Ktatlon, thence on f"ot two days to (turuduar, wIu'Dl-c T» u PiuIum i» 
clglit days distant .imcinfst sercn liills, like Mt. Mcni. In regard to it, tlip Skam-Ut- 
fn tnm-yiff cuutaiuH llie foiti'wing paaaag*!: ** At tlir city of the king Da*\-n-tM cif 
Pu-rang, in consequence of wat«r striking: against coiU, at lu'glit the ooal is «tn 
burning. U is raid uf ttiis i'<uil and wali*r, Uuit tliey have Uie peculiarity that 
water, if intnKltia*d into tin* ittoniach af man or beast, turns into atone." 

» Lava t'. ti. SJi, for. cit., p. 20. 

» llKNKssy, S.Ji„ Inr. rii., iwra 19. An intafo? similar to Uiis, thirty fivt. Iii^jh, 
pit collier. 1« n«>t(*d by tlic Lauin t. (r^ (wr. nV^ p. 22. L-Jte at Ruhch'om QiVa, 
the croosinji uf the Tan^pd, ni-nr Yam-di>k. 


Bively through the second and third floors, terminates in a jewelled 
and capped colossal head above the latter floor ; in all, the figure 
and platform are said to be seventy or eighty feet high. Nov, ^ *n 
essential feature in Tibetan worship is the performance of tircuita 
around an image, it will be seen that the pilgrim in circling 
this image of Jam-pa ia compelled by circumstancea to perform 
three different series of circumambulations on as many floors ; 
at first around the god's legs, next around his chest, and lastly 
around his head. 

But,afterall, the greatest pilgrimage to which a Lamaist devotee 
IooUb is to the Buddhist-god incarnate at, the Grand Dalai 

Aocounts of the uulminalion of such a pilgrimage have been 
recorded by Manning and others. The infant Grand Lfima, who 
received Manning, was altogether a prodigy. A reception by the 
Grand Tashi Lama, one of the many witnessed by Mr. Bogle, is 
thus described by that gentleman ' (see figure, page 305) ; — 

"On the 12th November, a vast crowd of people came to pay 
their respects, and to be blessed by the Liima. He was seated 
under a canopy in the court of the palace. They were all ranged 
in a circle. First came the lay folk*!. Everyone according to 
his circumstances brought some offering. One gave a horse^ 
another a cow ; some gave dried sheep's carcasses, sacks of flour, 
pieces of cloth, etc, ; and those who had nothing elsie presented 
a white Pelong handkerchief. AU these offerings were received 
by the Lama's servants, who jmt a bit of silk with a knot ujjon it 
tied, or supposed fo be tied, with the Lama's own hands, atx>ut the 
necks of the votaries. After this they advanced up to the Lama, 
who sat cross-legged upon a throne formed with seven cushions, 
and he touched their head with his hands, or with a tassel hung 
£rom a stick, according to their rank and character. The cere- 
monial is this : upon the gylongs or laymen of very high rank he 
lays his palm, the nuns and inferior laymen have a cloth interposed 
between his hand and their heads ; and the lower class of people 
are touched as they pass by with the tassel which he holds in his 
hand There might be about three thousand people 

1 Op, cit.t p. 85. A grander reception is described by him «t p. 86. 




— men, women, and children — at this ceremony. Such a* brll 
children on their backa were particularly soUeitoa^ that thechilfti 
head :iUould aldo be touched with the tassel. There were & pA\ 
'' many boyit and Kome girls devoted to the monastic* order by bani^| 
a lock of hair on the crown of the head cropped by the Limn rici { 
a knife. This knife came down from heaven in a flash of Ugbtiia^J 
.... After the Lama retired, many people stayed behiBi] 
that they might ki»d the cu»-hion& upon which he had sat." 

The ordinary receptions by bis boline«s have been described btj 
the sur\'ey spy A. K,* Since his worshippers are in thousands ifii] 
it is only to those who are wealthy or of high degree that be ai i 
afford to address even a brief sentence or two, this \9> always Aa»| 
in a deep hoarse voice, actjuired by training in order to ctmvejtkl 
idea that it emanates from maturity aud wisdom. Seated cn»»-| 
legged on a platform some six feet high, he is dr«tised to he] 
womhipiJed in the usual colours of priesthood, t.ff,, red and vella*.] 
aud with i)are arms, as required of all Buddhist priests, and boi 
a rod from the end of which hangs a tassal of silk, white, red,Tell< 
grpen, and blue. The pilgrim, coming in at the entrance iJo«J 
advances with folded hands as if in prayer, and resting \m bail 
against the edge of the platform above him, mentally and bust 
repeats the petitions he would have granted. These unutte: 
prayers the Dalai Lama is uudersioo<l to comprehend intuitivelt 
he touches the pilgrim's head with the bunch of silk in tob 
of his blessing, and the worshipper is hurried oat at the east d 
by attendants, only too happy if he has passed .say half a mioid 
in the vicinity of the great priest. This is the common procedai 
Persons of rank or substance are permitted to mount the platfor 
anil to perform obeisance there, receiving the required hlessii 
by actual touch of the Dalai Lama's hand; subsequently nu 
worshipper may be allowed a seat below the platform where a fe" 
hoarse utteniuces of enquiry may be addressed to him by tb 
Dalai LfLimi, and he may ulso be given some food. 

The account of one of these more select receptions, to whii 
Haber Sarat gained adm-ission in disguise, is here abridged frcri 
his narrative, 

'* We are seated on rugs spread in about eight i«w8, my t«nt beiap i 

1 Im, eiU cdit«d by Hkkbuv, para. 20. 

> thittl row, ui a dLstimce of about beu feet from tho Grand lilnia's 
throne, and a little to his left. Tiicro was perfect silence in the graud 
ludl. The stftte officials walked fmin left to right with sei-ene gravity, 
as becoming their exalted rank in the presence of the supreme vice- 
regent of Biuhlha on earth. The carrier of the incenao-bowl (suspended 
by thi-ee gohkn chains), the head steward, who carried the roynl 
^Iden teapot, and other iloinystii; ullicijils tlieu came into Iiis hoHue^'s 
preeenee. standing there motionless as pictures, fixing their eyes, as it 
were, on the tips uf their respective no^es. 

" The great altar, resembling an oriental throne, pillared on lions of 
carved wood, was covered with costly silk scarves ; and on this his 
faotiness. n child of eight, was seate*!. A yellow mitre covered the 
(*hild's head, his person whs robed in a yellow niiintla, and he sat croes- 
legged, with the pilnis of his hands joined together to bless us. In 
mv turn I received his holiness's benediction and surveyed his divine 
iaioe. I wanted to linger a few seconds in the sacred presence, but was 
not allowed tii do so, othere displacing me by pushing me gently. The 
princely child possesse<l a really bright and fair complexion with rosy 
cheeks. His oyos were largo and penetrating. . . . Tho thinness of 
his person was probably owing to the fatigues of the ceremonies of the 
court, of his religious duties, and of ascetic observances to which he 
had been subjected since taking the vows of monkhood, . . . When 
ftll woifj seated after receiving benediction, the head steward poured 
tea into his holiness's goldon cup from the golden teapot. Four assis- 
tant servers poured tea into the cups of the audience. Before tho 
Grand Lama lifted his cup to his lips u grace was solemnly chanted. 
"Without even stindng the air by the movements of our limbs or oui- 
clothes, we slowly lifted our cups to our lips and drank the tea, which 
wa.s of delicious flavour. Thereafter the head butler placed a golden 
Hish full of nee in front of hta holinetus, which he only touched ; and 
its contents were then distribnt-ed. I obtained a handful of this con- 
secrated rice, which I carefully tied in one corner of my handkerchief. 
After gi'aco had been said, the holy child, in a low indistinct voice, 
chanted a hymn. Then a veueiiible gentleman rose from the middle 
of the first row of seats, and, addressing the Grand L^ma as the Lord 
Avalokita Incarnate, recited the many deeds of mercy which that 
|>atrou saint of Tibet liad vouchsafed towards its benighted j^ople. 
At tho conclu>ion ho thrice prostrated himself i>cforu his holiness, wlien 
a solemn pause followed; after which the autlicnce rose, and the Grand 
Ijama retired. 

"One of the butler*s assistants gave me two packets of pills, and the 
other tied a scrap of red silk round my neck. The pills, I was told, 
were Chinlab (blessings consecrated by Huddha-Kashyapa and other 
saints), and the silk i^i-ap, called suugdu (knot of blessing), was the 
Grand Lama's usual consccrateil return for prusentf, made by pilgrims 
and devotees." 




" Sinre wt* left off to burn incense to the Queen of Heaven and to poor oat 
drink. ofleiiiiK* t<> lier, we Imve ^Naiit**!) all limits iUid have \iecn Cftosunwd by 
the sword Aud famine." — Jeremiah xliv., IS.* 


IaMAIST mythology is a fascinating field for explor- 
ing the primitive conceptions of life, and the way in 
which the great force* of nature become deiBed. It 
also shows the gradual growth of legend and idolatry, 
with it:i diagramn of the unkuottn and fetishes; and how Buddhism 
with its creative touch bodied forth in concrete shape the abstnct i 
conceptions of the learned, and, while incorporating into its pan- 
theon the local gods of the country, it gave milder meanings to j 
the popular myths and legends. 

The pantheon is perhaps the largest in the world. It is peoplfd I 
by a bizarre crowd of aboriginal gods and hydra-headed deinons,! 
who are almost jostled oflf the stage by their still more numerous] 
Buddhist rivals and counterfeits. The mythology, being largely of I 
Bud(lhi»t aulhorfihip, is full of the awkward forms of Hindu fancy/ 
and lacks much of the point, force, and picturesquenees of th€ 
myths of Eurojie. Yet it still contains cruder forms of many ot 
these western myths,* and a wealth of imagery. 

Primitive Buddhism, as we have seen, knows no god in tl 
eense of a Creator or Absolute Being ; though Buddha hie 

» Compare with Uit analogous Buddhist " Uueen of Bearcn," Tiri or Kwibi-vin, | 
485, etc. 

* Ct. V, A, Smith " On the (itiecoRomAn iiiffuenc*^ on the CivilizAtion of An 
India," ./..». S.;j,, 1891-92, |». 50, etc. Also Prof. OhOswkdkl, /«. at. 

ms to have been in (his respect an agnostic rather than an 

But, however, this may be, the earliest Buddhist mythology ■ 
own to us gives the gods of the Hindus a very prominent place 
in the system. And while rendering them finite and subject to the 
general law of metempsychosis, yet so far accept* or tolerates the 
current beliefs in regard to their influence over human aflfairsasto 
render these gods objects of fear and respect, if not of actual 
>ration by the primitive Buddhists. 

The eartiegt bookn pur{x>rting to reproduce the actual words 
'ken by the Buddha make frequent references to the gods and 
ona. And in the earliest of all authentic Indian records, the 
ict-pillars of Asoka, we 6nd that model Buddhist delighting to 
1 himself " the beloved of the gods.** The earlier Buddhist 
inumente at Barhut, etc., also, are crowded with images of gods, 
akshaa and other superuatural beings, who are there given attri- 
ites almost identical with those still accorded them by present- 
ly Buddhists. Every Buddhist believes that the coming Buddha 
at present in the Tushita heaven of the gods. And the 
lylonese Buddhists, who represent the purer form of the faith, 
ill worship the chief Indian gods and are addicted to deviU 
irship and astrology.* 

But the theistic phase of Buddhism carried objective worship 
uch further than this. For as Buddha himself occupied in 
primitive Buddhism the highest central point which in other 
faiths is occupied by a deity, his popular deification was only 

In addition to the worship of Buddha, in a variety of forms, the 
Mahayana school created innumerable metnphyBical Buddhas and 
BodhisatH whom it soon reduced from ideal abstractness to 
idolatrous form. And it promoted to ioiraortal rank many of the 
demons of the Sivaist pantheon ; and others specially invented by 

' Rhyb Davius, B., p. 7. ** In the oourtyard of nenrly all the wihoras (mon««t«rie») tn 
Ceylon tliew is a HDidtl dewila (or god-t4Mnple> in which tho Bralinuinical deities m 
worahitiptx). The peraooA who officiate in them arc catl<Hl Knpanu. They many. 
The incAntntiouft tht-y OBO aro in Sanakrit {East. Mon., p. 201). The chief pods 
woTBhippcd are Vishnu, KaUragama, X4ta who in thi- aesx Kalpa is U> beoonw 
Maitrpvi* BuddJiA, and Piittiiii Dova. Other teroploB boloi^f to tut^-laries, ry., Saman 
Deva, tlic tuUiarj- of BiuKUui'h foot-print, SrTpade (lUpt, Sirnee Teavrrt C'owMunow, 
Ceyloa, 1872, p. 62). It i« probable that UiiB Pattini is the tutelary i;odde«s of 
Aooka's capital, Patna. Cf. my I>i#«iiwy of cmet tUe of PAtaHpvhxt, etc,, 1893." 



itself as defetisores fidei ; and to all of theae it gave charaeterigtie 
forms. It also incorporated most of tbe local deities aud demo&s 
of those new nations it nought to convert. There U, however, a* 
already noted, rfaaou for believing that many of the current 
forms of Brahmanical godit were suggested to the Brabmans hj 
antecedent Buddhist fonn<i. And tbe images have come to be of 
the moHt idolatrous kind, for the majority of the T^mas and' 
almost all the laity worship the image as a sort of fetich, holy in 
itself and not merely as a diagram or symbol of the infinite or 

Tbe Lumaist pantheon, thus derived from eo many different 
soarces, is, as may be expected, extremely large and complex. 
Indeed, so chaotic is its crowd that even the Lamas themselves do 
not appear to have reduced its members to any generally ret:ogni£ed 
order, nor even to have attempted complete lists of their motley 
deities. Though this is probably in part owing to many gods 
being tacitly tolerated without being specially recoguixed by the 
more orthodox Lamas. 

The nearest approach to a systematic list which I have seen, is 
the Pekin Laina's list so adruirahly translated by the late Mr. 
Pander,'^ but this, as well &s all the other extant lists, is 
defective iu many ways and only fragmentary. 

The chief Tibetan treatises on the Lamaist pcmtheon according 
to my Lilraa informants, are : — 

(a) Z'a-lu Lo-tsa-wa's, " Tbe means of obtaining The Hundred (gods).* 
This is said to be the oldest of the extant system iitic works on lAmiii'tf 
deities and seems to date from about 143C a.d., when Z'Slu Kucceeded 
to the great Pandit Atisa's chair at CSh-Klan monastery. Zhii-lu Lo- 
ch'eu, "the great translator/' states that lie translated hit* description 
from one of the three great Indian works by Pandit Bbavaskanda 
entitled *' Slokas on the means of obtaining (^tutelary and other 
deities)." ' The tenn ** the hundred " whieh occurs in the title of this 
and tlie following treatises refers only to the chief divinities ; for the 
total number described is much greater. 

(b) P&ri Lo-tsa-was "The Hundred precious Manifestations of Nar- 
thang." ' This work issuing from the great press at Narthang near 
Tashl-lhunpo Ls said to deal mainly, if nut solely, with those omitted by 
Z'alu, and is placed about the sixteenth centur)' a.d. 

1 J>u PaiUAeon dtt TtcLiMA/OdUi Hutitttn, etc. 

* tGnibs-t'ub brgya-rtita. 

a S^ib-tub U'ig bc'&d, Skt. f SaAtnaH tloia. 

* rin-'liyuii fXar-t'ah bfigyB-rtaa. 



(o)Tiran&thn*fl "The Hundred precious AppearEnces." ^ Tliis work by 

i great historiographor Lama Tiiranfitha eontAins mainly residual df iiie^^ 
nitied by the two previous writers ; but it is chiefly devoted to the 
Boro demouincnl forms/ This work dates From about 1600 a.o. and 
1 thitik, printed ut Phuu-ts'u-Uug near Nai-thang ; but I omitted 
to note ihiiii poiot specially while cousulting the book at DarjiUng.'' 

(d) TheDoiiU Lama i^ag- wan L^VzaiiGya-tfi'o's "autobiogi-npiiy,'' written 
tn the latter half of the aeveuteeuth century a.d. In its mythological 
portion it descnbes chiefly those aboriginal Tib4»tAD deities which had 
become grafted upon orthodox LiuiiaiMiii. 

All the foregoing works have been consulted by me except the second 
or Narthaiig text, which seems to be the name Iwok referri-d to by 
Pander.' The Pekin work translated by Pander and dating from 1800 
A^D., seeme to bare been a compilation from the al>ove tiouroes in regard 
to thoiie pai-iieular deities most favoured by the Chinet«e and Mnngolian 
Lamas, though the de^^cnptiong with the Pekin list are often meagre and 
frequently diflureut in many details compar(*d with the earlier work of 
Z'a-lu.' Another book, also^ it would seem, printed in China, wu8 ob- 
tained by Mr. Kockhill.' 


I cannot attempt, at least at present, to give any satisfactory 
classification of such a disorderly mob, but I have compiled from 
the foregoing sources a rough general descriptive list, so as to give 
a somewhat orderly glimpse into this chaotic crowd of gods, 
demons, and deified saints. 

Arranged in what appears to be the order of their rank, from 
>bove duwuwardis, the divinities seem to fall tinder the folLowiug 

ven classes : — 

1. Buddiuw, — Celestial and human. 

2. Bodhi8(Us.—Qe\e^i\i\X and human, including Indian saints 
and ai)Otheosized Lumas. 

3. Tiitelaries. — Moutly demoniacal. 

4. Deftjulera of the F'aith, and Witckes (Diikkinl). 
d. Indian Brdhmanical godsy godlings, and genii. 

1 IliD*'b%'uh-brgTa rtsa. 

> Ouii-p<i, Skt.. iNatla ; ftod Lba-tno, Skt.. Kali. 

» It inny pnilably be a version uf Ihifi work which Pander {Zeiftckfift f^r Ethnolcjie, 
. M, Bi-rlin, 1889) ivfen tn as publisliL'd at L'r^'.i by a successor of Tarauatlia rJt^Uun 

*i^. «/., p. 63. 

• With thsM lUts may also bo compared ibe illtutralcil BtiddhUt pautht-^n of tlw 
jApanese, JUutMH dao-dsai, reproduced in itarta in Prof. J. flfiffman at Lcrden in 
6iBfiou>'s JS'ipfjon Arfliie »«r lUichrtihiiiiij ran Japan, Vol. v., and by Dr. W, AKPKitsotf 
iu hii admtralilr Otta/oi/ue ofJnp. Painlini/t i» Bntink Afmevm. 

* It gives picturea of tlie gods and sainta wiUi their itpt^cial mantras. 


6. Cowniry gods (yol-lha) and guardians (sraA-ina)^ and 

7. p€T9onal godsy or familiars. 
The tutelaries, however, overlap the classes above them a$ wrll* 
the next one below, and some of the " guardians ^ are enpenor to 
the Indian gods. The firat four classe.t, excepting their h' 
memhers, are mostly immortal,^ while the remainder are witl 
the cycle of re-births. 

Before giving the list of the^e \*arious divinities, and d*- 
details of the images of the more important ones, let a- 
tbe typical forms and attitudes, the material, and methods of 
cution of images in general. 

The immense numbers of images abounding in Tibet are 
confined to the temples, but are common in the bouses of 
laity, in the open air, as talismans in amulet-boxes, and painl*^^ 
printed as screens, and on the title-pages of books, and as charm*, 

The artists are almost exclusively Lamas, though a few of tbe 
best idols in LhSaa are made by Newari artisans from Nepal, »ho 
are clever workers in metal and wood. Some also are jwiinted by 
lay-artists, but such images must be consecrated by Lama* la 
order to be duly efiBcacious as objects of worship, for most of the 
images are credited with l>eing materially holy, like ft»ti.shes, and 
ca^mble of hearing and uusweriug prayers. The mode of executing 
the images, as regards the materiab, the auspicious times to coto- 
mence the image, and to form the most essential parts, such u 
the eyes, are all duly defined in the scriptures, whose details »r« 
more or less strictly observed. Mnny of the more celebrated idoh 
are believed by the people and the more credulous Lamas to Iw 
altogether miraculous in origin — *' self-formed," or fallen &x»m 
heaven ready fashioned.* 

The images are executed in various ways: a» statues or fca#- 
reliefs (Bku)and medallions, and as pictures (aku-t'afi or z'al-t'aA).* 
The statues are sometimes of colossal size,* especially those of 

< The LimM do not renorally, as do Ui« XepiU««e Buddhtstn, re8M<;t unmortalt^ Ifi 

> Thu lliiidufl <'nt<'rtAin the siune belief M regmls their dp-ntpi idnis, wbicbiM 
mtJKtty Anrient lliiddhii^t OOCft. 

* Lit. =ll»t + imagi*. 

* tVlilAgintwcit di-acribet (Bwt* |K 220) one of these coIobuI iiiugH at Ixih u *'iht 
Huddha in MeditMion," and a« higher tlwn tltc tomp]« it«elf, tlis head going Cbmi^b 



ya, or " The coming Buddha," which are occasionally rock- 
; but most are less than life-size. 

statues the most common form is the plastic,' all of which 

gilt or coloured. They are often cast, as bas-reliefs^ in 

Ids, and are formed of coarse papUr-machl^ or cUy, bread- 

;h, compressed incense, or variously-tinted butter,' and the 

r ones have a central framework of wood. The plastic image 

Moulded positive is then dried in the sun — excepting, of course, 

le made of butter, — and it is afterwards painted or gilt. 

'he gilt-copi>er images ^ are more prized. The costly ones are 

id with mbies, turquoises, and other 

ious stones. I^ess common are those 

lU-metal,* while the poorer people arc 

.tent with images of brass or f*imple 

er. Wooden images* are not coni- 

tn, and stone images'* are leAst frequent 

all, and are mostly confined to the 

tllow bas-reliefs on slahf;, or rock-cnt 

cliflFs. Internal organs of dough or 

i.y are sometimes inserted into the bodies 

the larger images, but the head is 

[y left empty ; and into the more 

ed ones are put precious stones and 

iUngs of the noble metals, and a few grains 

of consecrated rice, a scroll l)earing "the 

Buddhist creed," and occasionally other 

texts, booklets, and relics. These objects are sometimes mixed with 
the plastic material, but usually are placed in the central cavity, the 
CFotrance to which, called " the charm-place,"' is sealed up by the 
consecrating Lama.^ And the image is usually veiled by a silken 
Here also may be mentioned the miniature funereal images or 

(Oilt-coppcr from LIilM.I 


the roof- " Thu body ik a frame of wood, dressed with dnpcries uF cloth and [wpcr. 
^w lH>ad, tlic armB, and the fuot are the only parts of tliu body muuldcd of clay. " 
Hi ■jiro-ffzugs. 
^^9 Hue's 8ovt., W,, p. flfi ; IUK-LHII.L, Lttml, i., p, 69. In Ccybn tcmporuy images art 

said to b« in«<l*» of rice.— Hardy's EaM. Man., 202. 

• i^r'ZooA'dku. • li-ma. > S'ln-sku. • rd<>«ku. ' zun-£hu^. 

• Tbia ceremony is called •* rabs-ffnaa ihug-)M." Cf. Csoma, .1.. p. 403. 

• Tbfi linages of the fierce gods and geddeswM ospecially are veiled. The veil cover- 
ing the face of Devi is called " Uia-moi xhab'k'cbe. It is a -white silken acarf, al>out 



M> nffAOgS. 

caityati, moulded of clay or dough, with or without the addition^cl 
relics,^ and corres|)onding to the dharnuir^trira of the lodki 
fttujxiSj i\T\(\ mentioned by Hiuen Tsiaug id the seventh ■ 

A.D. Small coh- 
inedallions of clay tiY 
also given bytheDalu 
and Tiishi Gmnd Loidu 
to donors of largess B 
return for their giftit 
one of which is figured 
as a tail-piece un [Age 

The pictures aw 
mostly paiutiuggj&elduo 
uncoloured drawings, 
and many of tliejn are 
of considerable art.irtJe 
merit. The style and 
teehnique are, in the 
main, clearly of Chinese 
origin. This ii 
especially seen in the 
conventional form of 
clouds, water, etc., 
though the costume* 
are usually Tibetan, 
when not Indian. The 
eye of the Buddhas and 
the more benign Bod- 
biiints is given a dreamy 
look by representing the 
upper eyelid as dented 
at its centre like a 
cu])id's bow, but I have 
noticed this same pecu- 
liarity in medicevul Indian Buddhist sculptares. 

vigt)t«<m inclieH broju), with rod bordera About a f"Ot Midr. And cm it are dr mi In 
ookmra H)V(>ral of tlu* auapkioUK ifiyrDtNilft. tJic swastika, 4-l«phiuitA' ttuka, eoucli, j«irrK 
Jktoo the ffoad. cto., and the myitic spell 8h^-u 
■ Calird UfUek'a. 


le paintings are usually doae ou cloth, frescoes^ being mostly 

inecl to the mural decoration of temples. The colours are very 

>rilliant and violently contrasted, owing to the free use of crude 

garish piguienti*, but the general colour eflfeet iu the deep gloom 

of the temple, or when the painting is toned down by age, is often 

P*he cloth used la canvas or cotton — seldom silk. It is prepared 
••tretching it while damp over a wooden frame, to which the 
argin of thp cloth is stitched ; and its surface is then smeared 
over with a paste of lime and flour, to which a little glue is some- 
times added. On drying, its surface is rubbed smooth and slightly 
polished by a stone, and the drawing is then outlined either by 
hand with a charcoal crayon, or, in the more technical subjects, by 
a stencil-plate consisting of a sheet of paper in which the pattern 
is perforated by pin-hole;*, through which charcoal dust is sifted. 

The lines are then painted in with Chinese ink, and the other 
eoIouTB, which are usually crude pigments imported from China or 
India. The colours are simply mixed with hot thin glue, and as 
the picture is unvarnished, Lamaist paintings are esi>ecially 
subject to injury by damp. 

On completion, the artist puts a miniature figure of himself in a 
oomer at the bottom iu an adoring attitude. The ]xiintiug is then 
cut out of its rough easel-frame, and it has borders sewn on to 
it, consisting of strips of coloured silk or brocade, and it is uiounted 
on rollers with brazen ends, somewhat after the manner of a map 
or a JajKinese Kfd'em</no,' But it is not so elongated as the latter, 
^or is it so artistically mounted or finii^hed. 

BpThe mounted Tibetan painting has a tricoloured cloth border of 
red, yellow, and blue from within outwards, which is alleged to 
represent the spectrum colours of the rainbow, which sei>arate8 
sacred objects from the material world. The outer border of blue 
IB broader than the others, and broadest at its lowest 4]ordor, where 
it is usually divided by a vertical patch of brocade embroidered 
with the dragons of the sky. 

A veil is usually added as a protection against the grimy smoke 
of incense, lamps and dust. The veil is of flimsy silk, often 


* Cf. W. A.VD»KSfiN's Catalofpit Japaneu JHetura ; Nott and Ouodon, /nrfij?. Rac«*y 

adorned with sacred symbols, and it is hooked up when Xht 
picttire is exhibited. 

Now we are in a position to consider the detailed description of 
the imageH. The various forms of images fall into characteristic 
types, which, while mainly anthropomorphic, differ in many wiv? 
as regards their general form, attitude, features, dress, emblems. 
etc., yet all are constructed, according to a 5j>ecial canon, so thil 
there is no diflScnlty in distinguishing a Buddhist image from » 
Brahmonicul or a Jain. 

The forms of images differ broadly, as regards the genexal tjpf 
or mode of the image, the posture of the body (cedent or other- 
wise), and the attitude in which the hands are held, the number 
of arms, which are emblematic of power, and the symbols or in- 
signia which they bear, as signifying their functions. 

The geueral type of Buddha's image is well-known. It is thai 
of a mendicant monk, without any ornaments and with tonsored 
hair, and it is also extended to most of the mythical Buddhas. U 
is called the Muni or saint-tyj>p,^ and it is usually represented 
upon a lotus-flower, the symbol of divine birth- 
Extra to this type, the three others most common are : — 
Ist. " The Mild " calm form {Z'i-wa^) or Bodhisat type, 

"The Angry" tyi>c {To-wo'), of the " Howler" {Rudra 

and MaTut)i or Storm-deity of Vedio times. 
"The Fiercest" fiend type (Drag^po or Dra^V); 
a fiercer form of No. 2, and including the "lord*- 

These latter two types are confined mainly to Tantrik Buddhinn, 
which, as with Tantrik Hinduism, gives each divinity a double or 
treble nature with corresponding aspects. In the quiescent state 
the deity is of the mild Bodhisat type ; in the active he is of the 
Angry or Fiercest-fiend type. Thus the Bodliisat Mjinjusn, the 
God of M'isdom, in bis ordinary aspect is a " Mild " deity (Z'i~uia); 
as "The Fearful Thunderbolt" (5Aarrawa.-va/ra), he is an "Angry" 



* I'ub-bjsugB. 

> Tlboto-Hmukrit dJctiunarica (five '*?iva" M well M "Sauli" M tlie 8ambit 
qulvKlciit of tliifl word, so it tiuiy litenUly mwii a rnUd fonu of Uie ^rsiat gods. 

* JCro-fta from Uie Skt, AYtx/Zw, aiigvr. 

* Dru^n-po or Dra^$-yitrd. 
a inGon-p<»— SkU Mtka. 


leity {To-too) ; and as **The six-faced dreadful King-demon,"* he 
ia of " The Fiercest Fiend "" type (Drag-po)J' 

To avoid unnecessarv repetition in the detailed descriptions, it 
ieems desirable to give here a general note on these typical mild 
ind demoniacal aspects, and also on the attitudes of the hody and 
>f the fingers. 

The "Mild" (Z'i-wa) deities are of what has been called by some Euro- 
pean vrritera " tbe B<m1- 
histtt type." Tliey nre 
figured a» young lututl- 
4ome Indifui princes and 
prince&ses, seated 
usually on lotus thiones, 
and are thns deRcribed 
by Z'a-lu : The figure 
look:» proud, 3'uuthful, 
beautiful/ and refined. 
The body emits a balo 
of innumerable rays of 
light, figured as radiat- 
ing wavy lines, with 
tremulous linos alter- 
nating. The dre»« is 
of tbe Indian style, 
with one silk shawl for 
the lower limbs, and 
one for the upper, a 
head ornament {or 
crown) of precious 
things, an ear-ring, a 
cloee - fitting necklace, 
and a dothal or ^^laud 
reaching down to the 
thigh, and a Semondo 
or shorter garland reach- 
ing to the navel, an 
armlet, wristlet, brace- 
let, anklet, girdle ('oi- 
pctga), and a sash {dar- 
'p'yan) with fringes. The above omnments are 

The Biiddh* of Boundle 

I Life. 

uocounted thirteen. 

' gtilon-dnig'Ch'iin '}if[-b}^d bdiHl-lav mam rgyal. 

I* According to the rhyme : 
[ rjir-btaun 'jam dbyahs k'nw-pB-ni 

I rdo-rjc 'jigB byed 'jigs par byed, 

[ k'n>-bor rgyal'po gdon drug c'aii. 

I For tho (30 or 84) wcundar}' b^uitiea, ct BtrftNOcr'a /<rfw. App., viii., Habdy^s Jtftm., 
367, Raj. L. MirnA'it LaliUi I'w*. For dsHcriplion of Hindu IdolB, see Mritutt Saqihita, 
tmujlnt«d by l)T. Knv, y.A.^.X,ri., 322. 


ae tinir of the gods ta droastMl ap into a high cone named ra 
tshugs, luid tlie forehead usuaUy bears the tilaJc or auspicioi. 
The goddesses iire given a graceful form with slomlor waist and amllitf 
hroasU, ntid their hair i^ dreeaed into plaits which lie on the hf 
{Mirt of the nock) and they beam with snuliw. 

The *' Angry" type [Tu-vo) is terrible in its elaborate ugU 

with diftproportioo- 
^^ ately large h«dj 
scowling brows, and 
rruel, calloud ejn 
and usually iritb ft 
third eye in Utf 
centre of the foi»* 
head. * Z'a-lu df- 
scrihes them as fiit, 
brawny-limbed, and 
menacing in alti- 
tude, standing nr 
half-seated upcmeomf 
animal, their lips a- 
gape, showing their 
great canine faugt^ 
and rolling tougne; 
their wol fiah ey« 
are glaring, thn 
beards, eyebrows, aiid 
hair are either 
yellow, red, reddisli- 
yellow, or greyisli- 
yellow, and the hair 
is erect, with occa- 
sioually a fringe of 
curls on th»» fort- 
head, believed by some to represent coiled enakes. The female^ 
as in the annexed figure," except for their full breasts and the 
absence of beajrds, do not differ ia appearance from the male*. 

< rf. ScHLAu.. B. , |>. 222, for meiinurcrni'ntjs of i)n>|)Ortion8 of BCTPral of these innfM. 
s Trilftcnnii, a charartcr also of thr Hinrtu BliairavJi and Kali and their dumon tH"f 
of fotlownrB, tho 'jiXHu. 
» After I'andcT. 

T., Lhn-mo. 



All these fiends have six ornmnenU of huiuuu boues, namely; (1) 

oruninfnt, (2) necklet, (3) aririlet, {\) bracelet, (5) anklet (but some 

iVe sni ike -bracelets uml anklets), und (6) a garland of circular bodies, 

to bi>ne-head8 {aeralkfyt), and corresponding to the aemodo of the 

wa, and ocdtBionally they have a doahal garland. The foregoing 

according to the Indian canon, but the Tibetan style enumerateti for 

lem thirteen ornaments, namely ; (I ) the raw hide of an elephant, as 

upper covering, (2) skins of hiiinHn corpses as a lower garment, (3) 

fctigerskin insi<le tlie Intttir, (4) Rraluna's thread (ts'an-sknd), (5 to 10) 

six bone ornaments above noted, (11) Tihtk mark on forehead, of 

, (12) Grease (2'ag) on either aide of mouth, and (13) ashes 

eared over body. 

The "Fiercest" Fiends — (Drng-po and Gon-po) closely re- 
mble the above " Angry Deilie^i." Thpy have usually chaplets 

skulls encircled by 
iTigiies of flames ; and they 
rea<i upon writhing victims 
d prostrate bodies. 
As regards the Postures of 
e images, the chief fietleni 
tures, and ei*j>ecinlly char- 
teristicofthe several forms 
Uuddha himself, and 
udarily of the celestial 
uddha-* and Bodhisats are 
follows : — 

(1) "The adamantine, un- 
.augeubte, or tixed pose " 
■d.j Vtijra (?) Fahiha^) sedent 
the well-known eroxs-legged 
Suddha [wsture. The legs are 
id firmly and the soles 
ited fully upwards. This 


in tlie |)Ofie of deepest moditnti^'n, hence it is niso called, when the 

hands lie loosely in the lap, the '* Dhijdiui or meditative mudra" 
■ (2) "ThoBodhisat-pose"(Skt.,''^rt'w(0;j"/rt/m^) diilersfrom No. ] in 
' bitving the legs looser and unlocked. Tlie soles are scarcely seen. This 

IM the poso of first emergence from meditation. 

(3) " The sub-active pose " (8kt. (?) XiifampalaAa) 'isemei^ed farther 

from meditation. It has the legs unlocked, the left being quite under 

the right, and the soles invisible. 


.*einn-d(Mi skyil druh. ' Skyii dkruh chuii wkI. 


Batn*-«Mntiti«v lu 


1, *' Karth-touching," or the Bo-called "Witneaft" altitude (Skt., 
lihufpaf^u* ), with reference to the epiRode under the Tree of Wa- 

bjraras Inu^R. 


* Aa-gnon. 

, wlien Sakya Muni tallied the Eurtli as Iii« witnw*«, in his tempta- 
m by M&ra. It uttects only tlie right liaud, which is pendant with 

knuckles t-o the front. It it< the cummouest of all tlie formd of the 
,ent Buddha, and almost the uuly form futmd iu Burma and Ceylon. 
\» alt)«j given lo the celestial Buddha Akshobhya, as seen iu the 
:ure on the preceding page. 

2. "The Impiii'tiHl" {Skt., SamdhiUm^)^ or so-calltHl "meditative 
ture " (8kt., Samadhi^). Resting one Imnd over the other in the 

in the middle line of the body, with the palms upwards, a& in 
niitabha Buddlia (see the aitactied tigure). 

3. "The best Perfection*' (Skt., UtUira-}nKlhi^). Index-finger and 
umh of each hand me joined and held almost in contact with the 

it at the level of the hetirl, as in thu cele-stinl Buddha Vaii'ocaua 
the figure on the opposite page. 

4. "Turning the Wheel of the Law" (Skt., Dhartna-ixdcra % 
igtiiatic attitude with right index-tinger burning down fingers of 

eft hand, ligured nt jiage 134. 
D. " The best Bestowing '* (Skt., Varada ^). It signifies charity. The 
m \& fully extended, and the hand is directed downwards with the 
tfitretched palm to the front, as in " the Jen el-bom " Buddha Katna- 
mbhava, who is figured on the opposite page. 

G. "The Protecting," or " lief ugtf giving" (Skt., Swrort*). With ai-m 
tit and pahu to front, and pendant with tingei's du*ected ilowmvanU^ 
in No. 5. 

T. "The Blessing of FeaideMness " (Skt. ? Abhtit/a). The arm is 

ilevated and slightly bent. Tlie hand elevated with the pjilm to the 

snt, and the fingers directed upwards, as in Amogha-siddha Buddha, 

ired over page. It 16 also the pose in the episode of the mad elephant. 

8. "The Preiiching"' dilTerK from No. 7 in having the thumb bent, 

id when the thumb Uuiches the ring-linger it is called "The 

triungulHr ' (pose), see figure on page 5. 

y. '' The Pointing Finger." " A necromantic gesture in bewitching, 
fuUar to later Tantrifm. 

The halo, or nimbus, around the head is subelliptical, and never 
acuminate like the leaf of the pipal or Hodhi tree (Ficus 
religiosa). The fierce deities have tbcir halo bordered by Hames (see 
figure page 330). An additional halo in often represented as sur- 
rounding the whole body, as figured at jjages 333 ami 335. This con- 
Bistsof the six coloured rays of light, and it is conventionally repre- 
sented by wavy gilt lines with small tremulous lines alternating. 

CWoitr, too, is frequently au index to the mood. Thus, whit© 

> mnam-bz'at;. 

> cli'oB 'kVir-bskor. 
* cb'ub 'c'aJ. 

' till-no 'UsiiL. 
' luch'og-sbyiii. 
* (n-dau rtse ^8Uni. 

• byanM'butjMncli'o^ 
" skyab-sbjin. 

* sdii{s-dEub. 




and yellow complexions usually typify mild moodn, while the rrf, 
blue and black belong to tierce forms, though sometimes Uglil 
blue, as indicating the sky, means merely celestial. Generally the 
gods are pi<*tare<l white, goblins red, and the devils black, like their 
Kuropeau relative. 

The Buddhas and other divinities, as well a£ the superior | 
devils, are figureil u|)on a lotus-flower, a symbol of divinity. 
The lotus-flower, on whic)i the Buddhas and mild divinities arr 
figured, is the red Xoixi^ {Ndunxhiutn specumum); while the fiercer 
divinities, including frequently Avalokita, and all those demons 
who are entitled to lotuH-cushions, should have a piuki&b variety 
of the white lotus {Ai/iiLpkaa e«eu/#Hfa), the petals of which are 
much notched or divitled, so as to resemble somewhat the 
Acanthvs in Corintbian capitals. The blue lotus is the >|iecial 
flower of Tara, but it is conventionally represented by the Lama^^ 
as diflerent from the Utpal {Xyvipha'a sp,)y as figured on the opjio- 
site jmge. 

A remarkable feature of most Tantrik Buddhist images is (he 
frequent presence of a Kudtlha seated on the head of the image 


The SuRMoiiNTiNo JTjVAS in Buddhist Images. 







MbitrvTm ,. Ua&i-nLJrftMii 





FStmuta* Tkjn.pt9i 

PrajaH>Sn- (adUoAkn) 
mita JftanaMLttrm 
(pita) Mkiijufrl 

Vatodn^lMwi Site 

MKhaiAtturmn Prftjfift-pAmtnlU 


Pita Vikiiim- 












'* Hbo ndnd ** 
KlirwU tmjft 

'dain-tiM ** 



Krodb* Afmlo* 
kite Pita 
p. . .Kml- 


cbVu-mo " 



or amidst the hair. The existence of such sunnounting linages 
in the Tantrik Buddhist sculptures of India was noted by Dr. his survey of Bihar^ nt the beginning of 
this century, but since his time the subject has attraoted only 



BliM Lotus. 


Wblt« Lntoi. 


tX)TL'9ES and ivtliiT flovri-nt uf ounreotioDal form. 

le merest incidental notice of writers on Indian Buddhist an. 
tiquities,* who seem to have considered all such images to be 
figures only of Avalokita, because Hiuen Tsiang mentioned that o 
certain image of Avalokita had Amitabha seated in his hair. 

As the subject is interesting, and of some importance, I give 
in the table the results of my study of a large series of Lnmaist 
pictures containing such figures, and descriptions of others ex- 
tracted from the works of Pandits "gZ'onnu" Gupta, 8rTtiiri, 

--Kalamtarn, Lliau-skyes rolwa-kun-rigs, and Bhavaskandba. 

H The surmounting image represents the spiritual father of the 
particular Bodhisat or deity ; and he nearly always is one or other 
of the five Jinns^ as the Tilwtans term them,' or the Buddhas 
of Meditation {DKydni-Buddka), as they are called by the 

• Nepaleae Buddhists. In a few cases the coming-Buddha Maitreya 
is figured with Sukya Muni on his head, as indicating spiritual 
succession rather than parental relationship, but it is the latter 
which is the rule. 

■ Ktntrm India, i. 

* JnHia Arfk^ogitml Survty Reylit^ by Sir A. CrxviNOUAM ; Wcat IitdU Jreh. S. 
Bipt»^ by J. Duuubm: Cnlaloffw of Artktntog. CoUtetion in Indian ^fuswumj by J. 

* rgy*^^ rigB-IAft — or "Tlip Ppiilad Virtora." No one MTmit t^ hiive noticed this 
i-<HUtant UM by the L&ro^u nf tho wt>nl Jina for Uic ci>le«t.ial Hiiddhiis, whom Uie 
NepAlCM term t»iyaii)-Hu<tdha, though it ih Intotfuting \n rrgard Ui Jainism in its 
Ttiatkm* to BuddJiism. 



Ooca^ioDally the surmouoting Jin&s are rejiresented by tiwir 
mystic emblems of a wheel, vajra^ jewel, lotus, or vi^va^-vajroi^u 
will be described presently. Thus Katoasambhava iy usoidh 
repie&eoted by a jewel on the head of bis spirit ual reflex JambhAU, 
the god of wealth. And it is to be noted that when, aB oft«a 
liai'l»eu8, the ima^e iy durroUDded by tigures of the five Jiua^^ jo 
nn arc- outside the halo, then its own special siirmouutiDg pateni 
ocvupieB the central position in that arc, wh'ih^t the others an 
placed two on each side at a lower leveL 

Eaglltli Nftnir. 



. 1. n pike 



ti trill Hill 

K 'a-'tvaA- rttw-gsuiii 


2. Iiaiid <iniiH 



a. rliL-e] kiiife 



4. tliuiidorlMiU 



r>. frne>KtiiiiiiiIerbnlt 

BNat«'ngi» ntO'TJe 


' 6. rt>9iir>' 



'7. L«tu)»tlower (white or 




Uhie ltitai< * 



Asnkatlower ' 

' ' Nftga's tree " (cwstiu 

Mya-nan-med jhUiL-bIuA 



or coral)' 


8. nlnriii-MtafT 


Ailiir. or IhaA-^nm 

0. wish -granting gem 



(YiJ bz'iii) Norlm 

(rui/(t-) tftnui 

10. HiiineH 


11. t*iiHre^ 



12. bell 



13. wlieel 


en Am 

14. Hkull-i'iin 

ITi, tlnuidiTiiolt -dagger 





16. (tiioar 

17. plnh 




18. dirk or daggei* 


19. Hword 



SO. axe 


JMtrUKU \t\ 

SI. Imnmier 

TViha info-IjA 


SS. iron -goad 


23. iiiBcu 


24. tliigh-lioue triitii[)vl: 


SS. riiiinli-Hlu'll triiin|tet 



2tt. ir*>n-clinin 


27. .MkcloUmBUtr 


28. Sou No. I [a] 

2P. W)itt;r-i>c)t 



nniiititinK v»^ 







dh t^jti 

1 See figures on prerkHia page. 
^ To reM\ie the iMt or to bind tlie opfioueoU. 

Insihma avd Weapons ok xuJt (rODs, fin-. 

upon a Lotus-flower, thus symbolizing its supemaUiral origin ; and 
he rides upon a roaring lion to typify the jxiwerfully penermting 
sice of the Law. 


The chief of these inftigDia and other objects held in the 
of the iniagei* are shown in the foregoing illustnitiou^ and M 
n» follow)) ; the numbers iu this list correspond to those in 1^ 


We now can look into the det&iU of the principal members ttf 
the i»anlheoii. 

The va.<t multitude of deities fonniug the pantheon B) 
ns ftlready mentioned, largely createtl by emlxkdyiug under difli^ 
ent names tho different asjiet^ts iif a relatively small ni 
divinities with ohniiging moods. Such expressed relau _ . 
however, seemB occasionally a gratuitouit device of the Lama^ ifl 
ordoi" to bring yome of their indigenous Tibetan deities into re!** 
. lionship with the earlier and luoro orthodox celestial Bodhisatsflf 
Indian Buddhism. But the various formtt have now all becoae 
stereotyped, and even a trivial diflFerenco in title yields a -H ■' 
forui of image. Thus the images of *' .Maitreya " and *' Bii: 
difl'er much from those of " BUadraka Maitreya" and "Arya Khri- 
kuti." And different writers differ in some of the minor detJiiU 
iu their description of some of these stereotyi»etl forms. Thus ite 
have images described as " in the fashion of Niignrjuna," or of sonve 
one or other celebrated Indian monk or iJima. 

First iu our classitication come the Buddhas, homan and celes- 

I. The Bi;ddhas. 

The innumerable forms of the Buddhas, the fabulous -t^rreatriBl, 
the celestial and metaphysical, are all, with a few exceptions, ha$«d 
ujKJU the five conventional attitudes ascribed to the hist-orical 
Buddha, as marking the chief episodes of his Buddhabood. And 
of these **the Witness attitude " is in Tibet, as in Indian ami 
southern Biiddliisui, the most common. Additional varietiea are 
obtained by giving to these images different colours, omamenl^, 
nnd symbols. Almost all are 8e<^lent in the well-known cross-lpgged 
attitude of Buddha's image; few are standing, and the recuinbeni 
or dying posture is very rarely seen in Tibet. 

The typical Buddha is conventionally represented as u man of 

■ After PANnRBt ^Pn., p. 1C8. 

f ino?t, perfect form and beauty.* The face, usually of Aryan type 
ilMrarded, wear? a placid and benign expre^fsion. The bead 
bare, and the hair roughly tonsured and curly/ with a protu- 
erance ' on the crown or vertex upon which h sometimes repre- 
ated a diodein/ He is clad in mendicant *s u^urh, without any 
bwellery. The shawl ^' usually leaves the right shoulder bare, ex- 
ept when representing him preaching or walking abroad in public. 
Bit* under the pipal'lTeej the " Tree of Wisdom," upon a 
shion of lotiis-Qowers set upon a throne covered by a mat,* 8Up- 
srted by Worn or other auiinaU, as a sort of heraldic shield. And 
le throne is sometimey surmounted by a framework bearing at 
sides the figures of a ramjwut lion tramplin^r u|>(>n an elephant, 
ad sunnountcd by a " water-lion," ■ topped by a garwja- bird as 
je centre-piece or keystone of the arch. 
1. ^*th/a iWuni Bhagavnn. 

T.| S'akya-t'ub-pa bc'oni-ldan 'dw. 

This typical form of the Buddha is figured as at l»age fi, bat 
'the. right hand should be in the jwse of Akshobbyaat jMige 336. It 
represents J^^kya Muni at the greatest epoch of hia life, namely, 
under the " Tree of Wiwiom," at the inatnnt of his attaining his 
Buddhahood. He has the general characters of a Buddha as 
already described. He has a golden complexion, with tonsured 
indigo-colonred hair, and wears the three robes of a religious 
mendicant, without any ornaments. He sits in "the indestructible" 

■se, with right hand in " witness attitude," and sometimes a 
begging-bowl reats on his lap. He is seated upon a cushion of 




i PMAtAdini; " Uk- tUirty beauties" and " tllfl eighty teeond^rif beauties." Xhv»c 
incliid'' n Intua mark on eacli palm and sole. 

3 The raggi-ct onntnur of ^fikya'n crci|r[»ed liutr in liis imiigtis is aarribt-d tit his lukving 
on his great reniiiiciatiim cut off hiK truiH'A with his swnrd. Tho cut InrkH of hair 
were carriwl to hc«vpn, where iUp gods i^nsliriijr'd them in " the tomb ot lUe Jfw«lh*d 
Trtftscs" (CwAtMKtnV Cait%fa), whirli is irtill a regular object oF wnrshijj with Hnrmem.- 

» Skt.. UikHhha ; Tib., Tjiuv-fc--. 

* Skt., Cu^a. Th** peculinr flame-like prncc?8s intended to repreJfnt a hulo of 
rays o( light iMuing from the crown, wt citminuti in Ceylon images, is nut distinctly 
represeiittKi by the ribetAns, and at tnont by a jewel. 

> Tib., Lajfoi. * Tib., Ten-tab 

T Described by UiUBNTsuNn, HHA^^ramilAtionof <Si'-Kii-A'i, ii., p. 122. 



Barrificial grastt/ net npon b Uon-snpported lotas-tfarone at tlu 
BjKJt at Huddh-Gaya, in Gangelic India, afterwards called '*tb< 
adamantine throne."^ In this, his final struggle for the TnrJi, 
the jiowers of darkness which assailed him are concretely re|ir»- 
sente<i as Mura, the demon of Desire, and his tninion>s and tbr 
**three fires** of desire are still pictured as being Bb<>ve him. 

Mara denies the good deeds in this and former lives, whicb 
qualified i>:lkya Muni fur the Buddhabood, and calls uj>on him t« 
prtnluce his witness. Whereujjon the etubryo Buddha toucbf* 
the ground and instantly the old mother Earth, Dharitri or DbArti 
Mattt,^ appears riding uiwn a tortoise (symbolic of the earthy 
bearing in her hand a **y>aT?/«a" garland, and sheaddresse-s the saint, 
saying, "I am your Witnesa,^ — hence the name of this attitude "f 
Buddha, the "Earth-touching "or " Witneas." The legend goe* on 
to relate that the earth-spirit, wringing her hair, caused a hu^ 
river to issue therefrom, which swept away Mara and his hordf*. 
This episode of wringing the hair and the destruction of Man sod 
his minions is frequently depicted in Burmese temples; and the 
custom amongst the Burmese of pouring water on the ground bX 
the conclusion of a religious service is, I am informed by » 
Burmese monk, an api>eal to the earth-spirit to reuiemlier and 
bear witness to the particular good deed when men have forgotten 

In the larger images of this form of Buddha he is frequently 
figured with his two favourite disciples standing by his side, Siri- 
putra on his right, and Maudgalyayana on his left. 

This title of hhatjnvmi, or "The Victorious,"* is in Tibet the 
most frequently used of all Huddha*s titles, after Sukya Muni and 

Other recognized forms of Sakya's image are ; — 

(a) S&kya in the four other sedent attitudect, and the standing nod 
dying, or the socalled " lion "-postures. 

(6) Jo-wo Riii-po-che, "The Precious Lord," as a yoxmg Indiui 
princ« of sixteen. 

(c) VajriBan Muni (T'ub-pa rdo-rje gdan tso-'k'or-gfram). 

I Kuf> (p<M ryiuutiroidfj). 

> Va^jrAjtana (T., rdo-tje-gdan, pron. Doije-dte). 

' CI, TavI^or's Primitire CnUnrr^ t. , 880 ; it, 270. 

* Ln bivn-heureux (Burn^ i., 71 ; and Jakkii,, D., 147). 

(d) T«b-pa ilHmtfl'ig gsum-bkod (Pand,, No. 86). 
i^e) Rhnfrjivan ekajata (Choxa'h An.y p. &91). 
{/) Buihilia-kapHla (Sans-rgyas t'ocl-|>a ; Pajju., No. 61))- 
tDoniacal form. 

very de- 

Aud here al."^o seeui to come the mythological series of "The 
Six Muui/' the presidents of the six worlds of re-birth — see "Wlieel 
of Life." These appear to be identical with "The Sii Jizd** of 
tbe Japanese, though the "Jf'so " are usually alleged to be forms 
of KshUi-gitrftfm. Here also should probably come " The King 
of the powerful Nugas " ' which seems to represent Ruddha 
defended by the Ndfjd Muchilinda, who i^eems to be a Iiintoric 
person, a helot (that is Naga) villager of Muchilinda, a hamlet 
which adjoins Buddh-Gayu. 

2. 7%*! Heven Heroic BuddhiH {of the Pasty or TuOahjatas.^ 
This is a fabulous arrangement of human Buddha-s for none 
of them are hiatorical except the last, to wit, iSakya Muni. Yet 
■^t was of early origin, as this series of images, and each of the 
^number with his special tree of wisdom, is found in the Stu{»a 
^H>f Barhut, which in assigned to about 150 B.C., and they are also 
^■enumerated in the southern scripture, the jyUjha-nikfhjfi. 
^F In keeping with their imaginary character, all are given the most 

extravagant size and duration of earthly life.^ 
^B Their number is sometimes extended to nine. The most cele- 
^K)rated of the ant;ecedent Buddhas is DifHunkHra (Tib., Mar-me- 
^BpidHad), **The Luminous." This imaginary Buddha is considered 
^^by some of the Lamas to be the tirst of the ceries of the seven 
1^ earthly Buddhas preceding Sakya Muni, but by the Ceylonese he 
^ke placed as the twenty-fourth predecessor.'* He is represented an 
^"the first teacher of Hakya in one of the former births of the latter, 
and a favourite Jataka-tale frequent in the (landhrtra sculpture* in 
he British Museum, and as a current picture in Burmah shows 

kLu-dban-gi-rgy&I'po ; Skt., Nafre^vara raja.— UIb /a« U white and lui body Hue ; 

|(ftiaitting in nJo-rjp skj'il-knin. Symb.— His twobaods are in the mudra of iwn- 

' ylM-'don-par-mdead-pa (tir causing tbe aaiznal b«ings Co be delivtrcii from misery*) 

are held over (be heart, lie bas no oniainenU. Behind him is a screen and 

flower and a seven -houded snnke canopy. Cf. Faxdku. i*. 71. 

3 Saus-rgyas dpab-buhiduns. ^ De-l//jn gflV^s-pA. 

* Cf. Ci., Ah. ,Tuax«H,^ym., 789; Hakdy's Man., 94. 
I ^ TtaeNepaleiie place him Ab the ninth preileceimor of tJie historical Buddha iBoiXitt., 
■/., p. 18fi). Cf. HormANS in Sieb<^ild"s Xippon Pantheon, v., 77. "Thk Twbstt.focr 
BrmDHAs" are Dtpsuhkara^ Katmdinya, MangalR, Sumanafl. Koivata, ^obUita, (?) Ana- 



the self-8acrifice of the embryo Siikyn Muni in throwing bimpetf 
over a puddle to form a Htepping-slone for the Buddhn Dlpiuhkai* 
(SiiniedhVj — suggestive of Sir W. Kaleigh's gallantry to Queen 
Elizabeth under somewhat similar circumstances. 

lUparhkara's image, which is figured in the Vajrncedika^ is 
frequently perforated by innumerable Rockets* into which small 
lauijifi are set. This practi(^e is evidently suggested by ihc 
concrete rendering of his name as " the baming lamp.'* 

The Seven Buddhas are usually enumerated as: — 

1. Vipftsyiii(T., rNam-gzigs); band8"eartii-toucliing"iind**imp«rtbil." 
3. ^ikhiu (T., gTsug-gtor-c'an} ; hands " beet-be^^towing " and <* in- 

3. ViBvabhu (T., Tam-fh'iid-skyob) ; haiid^ " meditative.*' 

4. Kndtucandra (T., K'hor-wa hjigs) j bands '^ proteL*ting" and " im- 
part iul." 

5. ICanaka-muni (T., gSer-t'ub) ; hands "preaching" and "im- 

6. K&syapa (T., 'Od-sruiis) has his right hand in ** best bestowing " ; 
and the loft holds a piece of hLs robe resembling an animal's ear (see 
figuro on page 5). Each is dressed in tho three religious garments, and 
sita in tho '* unchangeable or adamantine " pose, or stands. 

7. Siikya Muni (T., S'akya t*ub-pu) in " the preaching attitnile." 

" The Tkree Holy Oves " are seldom, if ever, concretely represented 
in Tibet by Buddha, Dhamia, and Satigha ; nor have I found such 
a triad figured in Indian Buddhism, though many writers have 
allegpd the existene* of them, without, however, bringing forward 
any proofs. A triad of large images often occupies the centre of 
the JJlmaist altar, the central one being usually the founder of the 
particular sect to which the temple belongs, and the other two 
varying with the whim of the local Lama. 


The ideal origin of the celestial Buddhas has already beSP 
referred to in the chapter on doctrine. The five celestial Bud- 
dhas wei*e invented in the earlier theistic stage of Buddhism. 

The first of the aeries seems to have been Amitribha, or **lhe 
Boundless Light," a title somewhat analogous to the name of the 
oldest of the mythical human Buddhas, "the Luminous" (DTpaih- 
kara). This metaphysical creation first appears in works about the 

rama-tlnr^in, Padma, NarsUa, Pndmottara, 8unic(UiAi^, tiujitu. l'riy«-diirpiat Artha- 
dAriin, DlL^rmn-darsin, SiddhnrtA, Tinhyn. Piishya. Vi|HMyin, ^Ikhin, VUvalihti. 
KrakiicaiDdru, KanAkn-rouiii ^or Kofia^aniana^, and Ka^yBpiu 



jinning of our era, and seems to embody a sun-myth and t« 
lliow Pprsifin influence. For he was given a pArndise in the west, 
I which all the Huus ha^itetK niul his myth seems to have arisen 
aong the northern Buddhists when under the [latrouage of 
ado-Scythian converts belonging to a race of sun-worsliippers. 
sdeed, he is believed by Eitel and others to be a form of the 
feraian snn-gofl ; and he wii< made the spiritual father of the 
historical Buddha. 

Afterwards he was tiuiTitiijJed, apparently to adapt him to the 
leory of the five earlhly liiiddhas, the coming one and the four 
' the past, as well as to the other mystical groups of five — the five 
enxes, the five fik'Hndhnjt^ the five virtues, five cardinal points 
rhere the centre makes tht* fifth. And each one of these five 
elestial Buddhas was made to preside over a particular direction, as 
Uready detailed. Images of this series of Buddhas are found 
longst the lithic remains; of India about the seventh century 
.D., if not earlier. 

In the more developed theory, tending towards monotheism, a 
Tirst Oreat Cause, under the title of the primordial or Adi-Buddha, 
placed above these five celestial Buddhas as their spiritual 
ither and creator. And to this nink was promoted the first and 
antral oue of the metaphysical Budilhas, namely, Vairocana, ** The 
)mni-pre?ent " or his refle.K Samantabhadra, "The All (loo<l," 

These three series of Buddhas are arranged according to the 

aystical theory of the three bodies of Budrlha (Tri kdya);^ 

lely, (fr) the J^hftrina-hiyay or law-body, which has been 

armed "e«»(?H/wf/ wisdom (Botlhi) " and is Relf-exii^tent and ever- 

sting, and represented by Adi-Buddha, (fr) Sa7)ibhoffa-hiya or 

Jomed body, or ■rejt^ct&l wisdom, represented by tlie celestial 

linas, and (c) Nh'mnltj.a-kdyay or changeable body, or prnctical 

risdom represented by Siikya Muni and the other human 

{uddhas. Though in a more mystic sense JSakya Muni is con- 

idered to be an incarnate aggregate of the reflected wisdom of 

the five celestial Jinas. 

But these fivecelestialJinaswere latterly held to unite also within 

themselves both the forms of metaphysicid bodies, both the Dharma- 

S.ya and the Sambhoga-kuya. Hence arose two series of their 


> Cf. lIoi>a8.,iiui.,27,58,M; Kopeks, ii .25; Schlao.*5J,210: Kitbu //fliK(*.»yu#»iir. 






The original jwries of the$i« images of the strictly a«*tie 
Buddha-type wa* by a materializing of the word called the religicras 
(oKcetic) or Dkarnm type — and such images may or may oot 
hold begging-bowU ; while the other is literally represented «* 
"adorned bodies'* (Sambhoga-kSya) in the wune postures as the 
foregoing, hut aflomefl with filks and jeweU, and wearing crowns 
like kingly Bodhisatg. In this latter series, " the five Jinas ^\»9t 
individually the same names as their prototypes, except tbe 
second and fourth, who are named respectively VaJreisaUva (or 
"the indestructible or adamant ine-aouled") and A-niitayvtf w 
"the boundless life," instead of AkJthobkya^ "tbe immovable," 
and ■47;ti7'fWi(i, " the boundless light.** These alternative namM, 
however, it will be seen, empress very similar and almost synonT- 
mous ideas. 

Side by side with these developments arose the theory of celestial 
Budhiiiat Honn. The celestial Jina^i absorbed iu meditAtion in 
heaven could hold noooutact with the sordid earth, bo as agentsfar 
the salvation and protection of mortal men and animals they evolved 
sons, who, though celestial, were given active functions on the earth. 

As in the other developments, this new theory first and most 
firmly attached to those creations most intimately associated with 
the historical Buddha. His celestial father, Amitabba, evolved the 
celestial Bodhisat Avalokita or Fa<lma-iKini, who still remains the 
most popular of all the celestial Bodhisnts. 

But the popular craving for creative functions in their god.-^ led, 
in the Tantrik stage, to the allotment of female energies to these 
celestial Bodhisnts. Thus T;lra, the goddess of iMercy, was given to 
Avalokita. And the extreme Tantrik development underthe Kala- 
cakra system * awarded female energiesalso to each of the celestial 
Buddhus, and even to the primordial Adi-Buddha himself, 

Thus we have celestial Buddhas and Bodhisats and their female 
energies. Of the celestia] Buddhas there are the following aeries: 
— (1) The primordial Buddha-god, or 2di-BvMka. (2) The 
five celestial Victors (Jina), (3) The adorned forms of these 
latter, like kingly BoflhisatK. (4) The Tautrik forma with ener- 
gies, mofltly demoniacal Buddhas. And from several of these were 
latterly evolved other forms with special attributes; also metlical 
and other Buddhas. 


The Prirrun\liat Buddha-GotL ^ 
A» foand in Lumait»m, he is most actively worshipped by the old 
or unreformert school, under the title of "The all-good reiigiouR 

Skt., Dharma-kdya Sauutntabhadni ; Tib., Kun-tu bzan-po. 
He in figured of a blue colour, auii ofteu naked, sitting iu 
uddha fashion, with liis hands in the meditative pose. 
The established Lumaist church gives somewhat similar func 
tions U) Vajradhara, whom, however, they regard as a Hort of celes- 
I offnhoot of Sakya Muni; wliile others of the semi-reformed 
is seem, like the Nepalese, to credit Vajrasattva with supreme 
power as the primoRlial Bmldha-go<l. 

The. Five Cdeeiird VicUrrs <w Jina. 
Skt., PaHcajdii Jina : T., rgyal-bn rigt-hiu. 
^K The^e are figured on j>age 336 ' ; and for the sake of clearness 
^■Kid convenience of reference, I have tabulates] (^ee following 
^nage) the objective characters and relationships of these divinities. 
^All the forms sit in the same Biiddha-Iike attitude,^ but the pose 

I of the hands is characteristic. 
[ The technical description of their attitudes and colour ia as 
follows : — 

Abihobhyn (T., Mi-«kyod-pa>, blue in colour, has his right hand in 
V* witness " attitude and loft in " jmportifll." 

Vairocfina (T., rNam-«uan), white with hands in " best perfection " 

Katiiu^iiibhava (T., Rin-'byuii), yellow, has his right hand in 
* ** bestoiving " attitude, unrt left in " impartial." 

Amit&bba (T., 'CKl-pag-med), red, in " meditative " (Tii'i-fte-'dsin) atti- 

Amogha-dddhi (T., Don-yod-/^ub-pH), gi-eeu, has his right hand in 
I** protecUDg " (skyabs-sbyin) attitude, and left in " impartial." 

■ Each sits in the indestructible or "adamantine" pose, and difterB 
only from the images of the huuian Huddim in having no begging-bowl 
in the lap. 

In another and more common series, each is adorned with silkf; and 
jewels like a kingly Bodhisat, see page 333. 

IOUver Celestial Tantrik Jinas. 
Another series of celestial Buddhas was formed by adorning the 
five Jinas with a crown, silks, and jewels, like a kingly Bodhisat, 

1 tVi^'inahi .Satm-rgyiu. 
\ JCewireAct, rti. 

> Couf. also BoDosuv's figures frofri Nepal in Atiatie 
> i.r., Vajni'palauga. 8eo p. 385. 

The Five CEl 

t'KNTBAL. Vairocana •* Teaching," or, | Lion. White 

' (rN»m-par *naii- \ "Turning the ■ ■ =sp»«. 

I mdsad ). Wheel of the Law. "j 

DAarma-cakra.^ I , 

Kast. [ Akshobkya 

I (Mi-6*ky(«-pa). 

SttUTH. Rainam.mbhnva 
(Rin-ch'en' Iiyuii- 

West. Amitahha \ 

(*Nan-l>a wthaA- 
yas, or, '0</(/pag- I 
ined). I 

North. A am>tfhfi'Sid*ihi 

" WitnesK," — 

"touching the 

ground. " 


' Meditative. ' 

** Bleii*in^' of F«ir- 

Elephant* Bine 

= air. 

Horse. Golden- 

. yellow 

= eartli. 


" Shaac- 
aliang. ' 

a winged 



= light. 


N.B. — The Sianflkril names are in italics and the Tibetan equivalents 
1 In iDftgic-cirdeBjmwevfr, the special form of the celestial Buddha 

* This sitiibiil is ri'pri-H'if'ntt'd on the -siifLiii Toiiirik tiyrOiand bell of i 
' This refers to the witness episode -'f Maru'si tcmptfltion, see iwige 344. 

* Being in the teaching attitude, VwirwMHH BiiddliA isbvlJ to be the 
^ Kg is usually made an emanation from all of the celestial Jinas. 

J IN A 8. 

.domed" Female Refiex (P 

Te Beflez. SanghA-prftjUam 

bhogakayd.) ; nayd) or Bnerg;. 

Bodhitat, Beflez, or 

SiKritDal Bom. 


oeana "Ind. ^ Vajradhdtisvari 
1 (i6yid*-p'ug-me). 

ra-sattva Locana. 


.asainbhava '. Mamaki. 

mitayus ,! Pandara or Sita 
rfpag-nied). (gos-dKar-mo). 

tgka-siddhi ... Tdrd 
2nd. (dani-ta'ig-5gro/- 


Sa niantabhadra 



Avalokita — the 

common title of 


(sbyan ra.f-zig5). 


(p'ag na-ts'og). 

E»thl7 B«flez, u 

(Maniaki Buddha.) 


Kanaka Muni 



^akya Muni 


ed occupies the centre. 

jr of the vajra and bell are the same as that of the Jina they symboUxe. 

es Wisdom. 



of " the mild deity ** tyi>e. Of these the best knovd are Amit^yue, 
Vajnitihara, and Vnjrasiittva. 

'* The Huddha of Infinite or Eternal Life/ Skt,, ^mi^yu 
or Ajtanmitdyxm ; Tib., T(f'e-t/i)ag-med. He i**, as figured at 
jiages 329 and 333, of the same form dkA bis prototype Amit-abU 
Buddha, but he is adorned with the thirteen ornaments, and be 
holds ou bis lap the vase of life-giving umbrottia. 

Other forms of Audtiiyus are tlie four-haudnl white A*, the red 
A., tlie King A., Tantracarya A., and RHS-eh'uri's A. 

The following two divinities, esoteric so-called, are accorded by 
the Luinas the position of Buddha«, though they are Bo<lbunl- 
reflexe^ from or metamorphoses of Aksbobhya, and they lioth 
resemble in luauy ways their relative and probable prototype 
Vajrapani -.— 

'* The Adamantine or lndestructible-«ouled." (Skt.^ VtyraaaUtva ; 
T., rDor-jo <lSems-pa), The JSverlastmg. 

*' The Indestructibie or fi-Headfast holder." Skt., Vajradfiara : 
T., rDorje 'Ch'rtii). 

He is Ugtifed at pnge 61, und holilB n vajm and a bell. In the 
exoteric cultfi he is cidled " the concealed lord " (Ou^fta-pati, T., S«h- 
hahi*dag-po). lie iga metamorphofiifi of Indra, and, like him, preeiiles 
over the eiwtem fjuarter, and he .seems the prototyjie of most of those 
creatures whteti may be calle<l deinon-Buddha^i. And though, hs 
above noted, the established church regards ibis Biiddhfl as a retlex 
from Sak^'u Muni lumself, it al»<> riews hiui as the pi-esiding celeettal 
Buddha, analogous to the Adi-Buddha of the old school.' 

.Some Tautrik forms of Amogha-siddha, etc., are : — 
Don-yod z'agw-pa (Pa., 96). 

„ K'iigs-|)a 0ua-ts'ogs Hiimi-po. 

„ lc*ag*-kyu. 

„ mch'od-pa'i iior-bu. 

Other forms of celestial Buddhas and Bodhisats are: — 
rDo-rjemi-k "rugs-pi (Pa., No. 87). 
Vuji-aiihatu : nlor-rfbyins (Pa., No. 77). 
rNani-.*iiiaii jnnon-bj-aii (Pa., No. 83). 
Vajnigarbha Jina : rOyaUba rDo-rje suih-po. 

,, rin-c'hen-'(xl-'p'i*o. 
Sura.sena Jina : i<tyal-ba f/pa'ho'i-«de, etc., etc. 
(See Vs., p. 71 foi- al)out thirty moi-e;. and cf. fiuttti dzihiUni, p. 62, for 
*' the Secret Buddbas of the 30 days." 

>Cf.ScKr..,80;K6pra!f,U..28,3er:Booos.,27.40,77.83;aHi«t'.,7Vf.w,,800; Pako. 
No. M. 

Demonifical Buiidhna, 

The later Tilntrik forms include many deinoiiiacal Buddhas : — 

Guht/<t-Ka/n (T., gSau-'iliis). 

Buddit^t Kfijht/ii, Siiuj*- rgx-a* t'od-pa (Pai»d., No. 6fl). 

Vajrasanii'iuulii, rDo-rje ;/(laii-ftzlii '.Panh., No. 70), etc. 

The special relationships of the Buddhas to certain fiends is seen 
the foregoing table of surmounting Jinas. 

The Thirty-five Buddhae of Confesmon. 
These imaginary Hiiddlias or Tatliiigatas are invoked in the so- 
lUed Confeftsion of Sins.^ Their images are evolved by giving 
diSerent colours to the Buddhas in the five elementary sedent 
altitudes. And they, together with "the thousand Buddhas,*** 
may be considered as concrete representations of the titles of the 
historical human Buddha. 

^1 The Highest Headers and Medical TaikdgaUvs, 

^^H X., «Miui-b1a-hde-gft'eg8 ht-gyad. 

^^^Hklis is a ver}' prtpalar form of Huddha as "The supreme 
^^^^Scian," or Buddhist ^sculapins, and is jjrobably founded upon 
the legend of the metaphysical Hodhi^^at, "The mediciue-king '* 
(Hhaisajyaraja), who figures promint'ntly in several of the 
northern sorijrtures as the dispenser of spiritual medicine. The 
images are worshipped almost as fetishes, and cure by sympathetic 
magic. The finit of the series, namely, the beryl, or Beduriya 
Buddha, is also extremely popular in Japan under the title of 
** The lord Binzuru" (Binzura Sauia), a corruption evidently, it 
seems to me, of the Indian word " Beduriya," although the Japan- 
ese themselves' believe it to be derived from Bharadhviija, one of 
the sixteen Arhats. 

These jEsculapic Buddhas are much worshipped in Tibet, in 
ritual by pictures, seldom by images as in Japau, where, as the 
latter are so much consulted by the people, and also doubtless 
owing to their essentially un-Buddhisl character, they are usually 

1 Dig'Pft t'uin-c'ad s*ag'p» ter-choi, detaili in Scaiao., p. 123 »rg. It Is not to 
hv OonfusoJwitli tho ^ectiuii of the* PmtiiiiokHha, prf>|KTly so uallctl. 
■ See list u( Hudtllm's thousand tiamvs hy Trof. Schvtdt, B. Ac. tit. Petenbg. 
» Bfcoyio yanjm. Cbambkulaix's Handbook to Japan. 



placed outside the ceutnil shrine. The supplicant, after bowing 
aud praying, rubs bis fingerover the eye, far, knee, orlhe jianica- 
lar pan of the image corrcs^H>nding to the putieutV own n&etitA 
Bp^»t, and then applies the tinger carrying thi« hallowed touth to 
tiie alUioled spot. The t'onstant friction and rubbing of this nide 
worship 16 rather detrimental to the features of the god. 

This group of ni4^ioat Uuddhas is figured in Schlagintweit's 
alUa, but erroneously under the title of '* Maitreyn." They are : — 

1. Saiurgyuf BUian-gyi 6U BedQrya'i 'Od-Kyi rgynlpo, or, *' King of 
beryl-light, tho suprcDie physician Buddha." Like all of the serieK, he 
16 of Buddha-like fuiiu, gttrb, uud gedeut altitude. Ho ia btdtjco- 
coloured ; hia right lumd ia in mch't^-shyin pose, aud in bi» |iu1in he 
holdt) the golden Arum fruit (uiyi'obidaus). Uis left hand is in uinaiD- 
6x'sg post', ami holds ii liegging-bowl of Bai-dur-ua fbend-stoiio). Cf. 
Bntfiu Yakushi in Iiutjin-tU>''*-itfiti, p. 2C ; Srnr., Lthcn^ 84 ; Vaxd., No. 142. 

2. niNon-mk'y^u-rgyiil-]H> is red in colour, with hand-s iik *i»eh'ag- 
«byin and f/inam-bt'ug jxise. Cf. Pa!vi>., No. 141. 

3. Ch'o.'v-flgraj;*-rgira-mts'o'i-rfbyan* is retl in colour, with hands in 
i/ich'og-«byin nud m\\t\\n-hr.'n^ pose. Cf. Pand., No, 140. 

4. Mya-iiari-med-mch'og-(/jial is light red in colour, with both handft 
in maam-^z'ag po«e. Cf. P.iSD.,No. 139. 

5. TSer-Azan-dri-Died is yellowish -white in colour, with right liand in 
oh'off-'ch'od niudRi,and his left in mrituu-/>&'ng pose. Cf. Paxu., No. 138. 

6. Rin-ch'on-zla-wa (or #gra-ffl)yan«) ia yellow-red in colour; hi* 
right hand is in chWcfa'ad, uud his left in mruim-Az'ag pose. Cf. P&siA^ i 
No. 137. 

7. ratshW-legf yoru-grag< (/pal is yellow in colour. Uis right IumI ' 
is in ch'fw-'ch'iirl, and his left in mnaiii-/'£'ug pose. Cf. Pani>., No. 138. 

And in the centre of the group Im placed, aa the eighth, the iniagv 

Qakya Muni. 

In this relation it is rather curious to note that some cele- 
brated Euro^>eans have come to be regarded a« Buddhas. "The 
common dinner-plates of the Tibetans, when they use any, are of 
tin, stamped in the centre with an ^?^gy of some Enropcan ce- 
lebrity. In those which I examined 1 recognized the third Napo- 
leon, the Prince and Princess of Wales, and Mr. Gladstone, all 
supposed by the natives to represent Buddhas of more or lesf 
sanctity." * 

H. BonniSATS (Celestial), 

These are the sui»ernatural Kodhisnts, the active refleie* from 
the relatively impassive celestial Buddhas. The human Bodhi- 

1 Bassb, Snpp. Paper*, R«yil Geog. Poc.. p. SOD. 

, or th6 flaints, are referred hy rae to tde end of the j>autUcon, 
aJlio ugh the liRmaB usually place them alx)ve the dii miitores, and 
ay of them next to the celestial Bodhisats themselves, 
tie Latnas head the lUt with the metaphysical Bodhisnt of 
iom, MaujiLsiTj but following what appears to be the order of 
levelopment of these divinities, I commence with Maitreya, the 
coming Baddha, who, indeed, is the only Bodhisat known to 
primitive Buddhism and to the so-called " southern " Buddhists 
of the present day, the Burmese, Ceylonese, and SiameRe; though 
tlie Liimas place him fourth or later in their listu, giving priority 
to the especially active Bodhisats which the Mahayana create*!, the 
mythical Miinjusn, Vajraplini, and Avalokita, whom tliey have 
made their de/enaoreH jidtil of Lamaisra, with the title of "The 
three lords " ' and given functions somewhat like the analogous 
triad of Brfihrnnuism, Brahma, Siva and V^i^hiiu. 

The female Budhisats, Tiira, etc., are given tnwards the end of the 
list, though they might more naturally have been place<i lieside 
their consorts. 

Maitkeya, " The loving one," the coming Buddha or Buddh- 
ist Messiah. T., fl^rtww-pa (pr, "Jam-pa "^ or "Cham-pa.") 

He is usually represented adonied like a prince,"- and sitting on 
a chair in European fashion witii li»gs down, teaching the law.^ He 
is ab present believed to be in the Toshita heaven. His image is 
frequently rock-carved or built in colossal form several storeys 
high in Tibet, ae he is credited with gigantic Tsize. 

Maj^jd^IiT or MaTijaghoshay " The sweet- voiced," the god of 
wisdom or Buddhist Apollo, and figured at page 12. T., *Jatn.- 
pahi dhyaits (pr. Jatu-yang), 

He is Wisdom deified, and seems a purely metaphysical creation 
unconnected with any of his later namesakes amongst the 
Buddhist monks in the fourth or fifth centuries of our era, or 
later. His chief function is the dispelling of ignorance. He 
presides over the law, and with his bright sword of divine know- 
ledge* cuts all knotty points, and carries in his left the bible of 
transcendental Wisdom, the Prajfiri-pTiramita, placed upon a lotus- 
flower.^ He is the especial patron of astrology. In keeping with 
his pure character he is ^^trictly celibate, one of the few of the 

' Rig-sum mgon-po, tliL' Lainai^'t 7''i-'m*trti. 
* a. FiKix, No. 151. * S^-mtraJ-jri 

' Of the mild, x'i-wa type. 
* Of. Koi'J'KH. U.,8]. 



MhliflyriDa deities who is allotted no female energy.' He usuallv 
sil«, ati in the tigiire, in the Kuddhn attitude. He is given several 
other modes. 

Most of the countries where northern Buddhism prevails Lave 
their own s|>ecial Maujusn, Thus China has a quasi-historical 
Manjusii of about the tiftb century a.d., located near the U-tai 
Shan shrine ; and Xepalese Buddhism has another of the Bame 
name as its tutelary saint.' 

VajkapXxi, **The wielder of the thunderbolt," a metamor- 
phosis of Jupiter (Indra)* as the spiritual son of the second celestial 
Buddha, Akshobhya. T., ^V^'ag -na-rdo-rje (pnmouced chana-doije 
or chak-dor.) 

He is figured at i>age 13, and of the fierce fiend type, black or 

dark blue in colour, an«l wields a Vajra (rdo^e) in his nplifted right 

kliand, while in his left he holds a bell or jmare or other implemenr 

according to his varying titles, of which there are fifteen or more,* 

Hinen Tsiang mentions his worship in India in the seventh 
century A.D.'' 

AvALOKiTA (or Aviflokitesvara or Mtthlknntim), **The keen 
seeing lord, the great pitiernnd lord of mercy." T., spyEua-ra*- 
gzigii (pr. Chfi-ro'ti), T'ugs-ije-ch'eu-j)0. 

His origin and N'arious fonns I have descrilied in some detail 
elsewhere." The spiritual son of the celestial Buddha Amitabha. 
he is the most jxiwerful and popular of all the Bodhisats^ and the 
one which the Dalai Lamas preteud to be the incarnation of. 
Other forms of this deity are Padvia''p(h}it the Tjotu»-handed 
Khasarpdnii Siiih/rnadd (T., seii-ge-sgra), the Roaring Lion, 
Hala-hala, Arya-pi^la (" Aryabolo "), etc. 

Avalokita, being a purely mythological creation, is seldom like 
Buddha represented as n mere man, but is invested usually with 
monstrous and supernatural forms and attributes. The earhest 
Indian images of Avalokita yet found by me, dating to about the 

1 lltuugfa the Pnijni must be .MmewhAt of this chanct^'. 
» Cf. AivMaol. M'./iKi., 9, xxvi., IS. Pa., \o. 145. 

• Djtatih-yitar, or heavenly fnthfrof the Hindus, beotnii^s "Jupiter" or Tit*- 
pIter " of the Humaa*, aud " Xotu " of th» Greeks. 

• Cf. for roi>re common form, Aifh, ir,/«rf., 9, xxrii., 23, nnd Pa., St, 116, W, 
170, 171. 

3 BsAL's tr&ns., il. 

• J.R.A.S., 1894, p. 51, ft jv^., when twenty-two forau arc deocribed. 

ixth ceatury a.d., clearly show that Avalokita'a ima^ was 
modellerl after that of the Hindu Creator Prajiipati or Bruhma ; 
artd the same ty]>e may 1^ truc<^d eveu in hb) monAtrouri images 
of the later Tautrik period, and hit; images iuaUhUv bear BrahmaH 

I insignia, the lotus and rosary, and often the vase and book. His 
commonest forms found in Tibet are: 
The Four-handed form, see figure on |>agB 228. This repre- 
sents him as a prince, with the thirteen ornanients, of white com- 
plexion, and sitting in the Huddha posture with the front \tiiir of 
hands joined in devotional attitude (and often as clasping a jewel^j 
wliile the upper hand holds a crystal rosary, and the left a long- 
^Lstemmeil lotus-flower, which opens on the level of his ear.' 
^P His monstrous eleven-headed form is tigured at page 15. It is 
usually standing. In addition to the double pair of hands, it has 
others carrying weapons to defend its votaries. It represents the 
wretched condition of Avalokita when bin head split into jjieces 
with grief at seeing the deplorable state of sunken humanity. 
But this form, too, seems based on the polycpphalic Brahma." 

The eleven heads are usually arranged, as in the figure, in the 
form of a cone, in five series from below upwards, of 3, 3, 3, 1 and 
1, and the topmost head is that of Amitabha, the spiritual father 
of Avalokita. Those looking forward wear an aspect of benevo- 
lence ; the left ones express anger at the faults of men; while the 
right faces smile graciously at the good deeds or in scorn at e\*il- 
^^ This form is frequently given a thousand eyes, a concrete 
^'liiaterialistic expres-sion of the name AvaXokita^ "He who looks 
down " or /Ainmn(<t-7ftMjt/ia, " He whose face looks every way."^' The 
fixing of the number of eyes at one thousand is merely expressive 
of multitude, and has no precise numerical significance. And un- 
like the thousand-eyed god of Brahmanic mythology — Indra — 
Avalokita's extra eyes are on his extra hand;*, which are symbolic 
of power, and most of their hands are stretched forth to save the 
wretched and the lost. The eye, which is ever on the look-out to 

J Qi.A.WJ^xxvi.,p. 17; Pa.. No. 147 niid my Art. y.«.H.A, /oc. n'r. 

. my art. ulxjre clt«1. Tlie h«ad-splittiii(f U as»ociat«il witii the prp«enop uf an 

te, ill early Btuldhi«i w(#rk«. "niua in the Dialogue* of Menanclcr {MiHnda^ 

Bbts Davids' traun.. p. 222). in rf.gard to tlie raider of an nlislacle it U iaid, " tl»en 
would Um liead split into a hundrml or into a thousand piucea." 
' Cf. BuBNUvr's Zoftti, p. -426 ; Uul'b Cbfejut, 384. 

jtfrceive distrefw, carries with it a helping band — altogether a mart 
poetic symbolism. Of this type there are many modes, rJiffering 
mainly in colour and degrees of fierceness. 

The other Rupematural male Bodhisals* are not so coromonW 
met with. The chief are : 

Samantahhadra, *'The all good." T., Kuntn-hzaft-jx). 

He is figure*! at page 14,^ and is the boh of the celestial Knddhu 
Vairocana, and is to he distinguished from the Adi-Buddha of the 
same name. He is of the " mild" type, and usually mounted on 
an elephant, and he is frequently aaaociated with Mafijum' as 
attendant on Buddha. 

KsfimCfARBHA, "The matrix of the earth/'* 
T , Sa-yi sfiin-po. 

AhUagarbha^^ The matrix of the sky." 
T., Nam-k'ahi-ftift.po.' 

Sarva 7iivarowi vi8fikambhi7a. 

T., sffUih-pft mam mK* 

{? Jhannguru), Master of dinne foreknowledge.' 

T., ye-B*es bla -ma. 
(? Puihhlkeixi.), The crown of light.^ 

T., Otl-kyi-tog. 

T., sMon-lam hlo-gi-ofs." 
S'lniend/ra, ITie foundation of power.'* 
T„ dbAii-po z'i. 


The chief and most active of the supernatural female Bodhisatf 

or "energies" are Tara and MaricT. 

Tara, Tlie fiaviour, or deliverer. T., sgRol-ma (pr, Do-tna), 
She ia the consort of Avalokita, who is now held to be incarnate 

in the Dalai Liimas, and she is the most popular deity in Tibet, 

> For (l««criptiiui of somo of tho«e in the AjoiitA eawa, Kf art. by me in ImL 

Alttiq^'itry, 1893. 

a Fn-m tlie JapAnese £•(<<« Dt/Mjm, p. 137. The form figured, which is gnti-raUj 
like thai in Laniaisni, ig t^ntiUed Saiiiutitablmdnt-Yauia. Cf- alito W. Akpkrvon's Cat., 
p. 81, No. 67. 

' Cf. Pand,, No. 152, and No. 55. The Japaiieije rail him Fuyen. 

• Fig. Pand.. No. 148. > Ki^'. Pavp.. No. I5«. 

• Fig. Pand.. No. 149. t Kg. Pijjp., Ko. 158. 
« Fig. pJufD.. No. I.M. " Fig. Paxd., No. 155. 

w Pig. Paxd., No. IW. 

with TjSmas and laity. She corresponds to the goddess 
mercy and queeu of heaven (Kwan-t/in)^ of the Chinese, and 
her literal analogy in biblical mythology (see the heading 
>.thi8 chapter), and she has several analogies with "the Virgin ; "* 
It Bhe is essentially Indian in origin and fonn. 
Her most common form is " the green Tara," and much less 
ttmmon is "the white Tanl," whose worship is almost confined to 
ie Mongols. Her other numerous forms, of which the names of 
_^*the twentyHme" are daily on the lips of the [ieopic, are seldom 
lictured, except the fiendish form Bhriku^i.^ 

The rfr^eii Tarn. T., 8gRol-ma Ijaft-k'u — pronounced Dol-janff, 
Sh« is represented (nee the figure) as a comely and bejewelled 
ndian lady with uncovereil head^ and of a green complexion, 
ited on a lotu^, with her 
aft leg pendant, and hold- 
ig in her left Laud a loug- 
temmed lotuH-flower. 

The whits Tanh T., 

sgRoI-ma dkar-po — or 

BgRol-dkar (pr. Dci-kar). 

She is figured (tiee p. 23) 

an adorned Indian lady 

rith a white complexion, 

ited Buddha-like, and 

the left hand holding a 


baa seven eyes, the 

bye of foreknowledge in 

le forehead, in addition 

the ordinary facial jmir, 

ad also one in each 

Ira and on each sole. 

lence she is called " The 

Bven-eyed white Tara." 

She is beUeve<l by the Mongols to be iucaruate in the Whit-e Czar. 

Tdrd with the frowning /^roif«— Bhrikuti Tilra. T,, kKo-giier- 

^yo-ba-hi BgRoUma (pronounced T*o-nyer-chan). 

> Or in Japnni?;'e Ahv/h-whh, » i nmslaiion of " Araltikita.'' 

» For noU- on Tfiri's origin, ae*- my article in J.Ji.A.H.^ 188i, pp. 63,etr. 

^ Kor detaliod dfscriplion nf iwi^iity-sevon iDrms, see ilmf. 

Tama, titb (iREBX. 


This T$iii IB dark indij^o-ooloured* and usuall jr wttli thne 

all frowning. 

Tim TwKMT-oSK Tauas. 

The list of tlie names of " the twenty-one TariU" given belo 
and known to almoRt all lay Tibetans, indicates many of 1 

^ TitiM of *• Thp 
1. Tfiri, tlip Bupivmely imliant (/Va- 

S. „ of whtt«-nu>on br)ghtnr«i 
(Candrofattt Sita TOrti). 
the giAden oolouretl (Gami 
Oil' VTctorio(n« hnir-crovned 


(VaAnitAoAiata T.). 

the *'HuA^'-8hout«r iJlUmdd 
0. „ tJicthrp<vworl(nM»st workor. 

7. „ suppivMor of irtriff- 

8. „ thfi liealowfT nf suprenip 

8. „ the bt'Et provklenoo. 

Twpiity-onp TAri*." 

10. T&rft. the di^idlm- of ^«f. 
U. » the duoiiher lif the pcKW, 
V2. H th(? brightly ffloricmfl. 

13. „ the uDiTrrMfmature «rarl 

14. ., with the frowning tal 

15. .. the (fivpr of prospenfy. 

16. .. Ui<> ffubduer uf pa«iion. 
!?■ .. the fiupplior of hjunii 

(SarpeUiAi T.). ^ 

IS. „ the exc**R*ivel%- vast. 

19. ., the rlii>[M-lh'r of distKaa. 

20. „ thi> n^vrnt or renliiatlor 
ttpiritiiai powtT ( SUtdMria jii 

21. „ tiM' rompletoly parfect 

MarTcT, The resplendent. T., 'Od-zer Van-ma, 
She was originally the queen of lieaven, a Buddhist TTshas, or 

goddess of the dawn, a metamoriihosii* of the sun n« the centre 

of enerj^y* curiously coupled with the oriental myth of the primaeval 

productive pig. In another aspect she is a sort of Prosperine^ the 

spouse of Yama, the Hindu Phito. 

A^Tiile in her fiercest mood she is 

the consort of the demon-general, 

•' Tlie horse-necked Tamdin^^ a 

sort of demoniacal centaur. In 

another mode she is " The adam- 
^antine sow" (SkUyVajra-vdrdhi : 
^fc*., rDo-rje P*ag-moX who in 
^R>elieved to be incarnate in the 
^Kabbess of the convent ou the 

great Palti lake,* as already de- 

In her ordinary form she has 

three faces and eight hands, of 

\*'hich the left face is that of a 

t^jw. The hands hold various 

MAitifT. oil VAnAni. 
(or " Tbe DUoionil Bnw.**) 


weapons, inclnding an a>*a/i4, axe, and snare. She sits in *' the en- 
ohanting pose " upon a lotus-throne drawn by seven swine,' as in 
the tigure. 


Although the tatelaries (T., Yi-da^l^) belong to diflTerent classes 
of divinities, it is convenient to consider them together under one 

The important part played by tutelaries in every-day life-, their 
worship, and the mode of coercing them, have already been 

I The qualifications demanded in a^ tutelary are activity com- 
bined with power over the minor malignant devils. Thus most of 
tbp 8U[>erior celestial Buddbas and Bodhisats may be, and are, 
>utelaries. But the favourite ones are the great demon^kings, 

* Cf. (Siaptens X. and xi., and also Uiorp. 

* Cf. rAND., No. 168, wboeu Rguie is rupruduccd aborv. 





and also some of the inferior Beuds who hdve been promoted id 
diabolic rank for their adherence to the cause of Buddhism. 

All the five oelerttial .Tinas are tutelaries, but it is their T5b- 
trik forms, such as* Vajrasattva and V'ajradhura, and Amitavui, 
which are especially utilized in this way ; and most common of nil 
are those who have consorts {8(tkti\ as these are considered to b» 
most energetic. 

Of the BorlliisatSf thoae most common as tuteWries are Ar&- 
lokita and Manju^rT, the demon Vajrapani, TTira, and MarTcT. 

The (lemon-kinga, however, are the favourite ones. Tlieyan* 
repulsive monsters of the type of the Hindu devil 8iv».' These 
morbid creations of the Inter Tantrism may be considered a iwirt of 
fiendish metamorphose.s of the supernatural Budilha**. Eai'h of 
those demon-kings, who belong to the most popular Aectioo of 
LSmaist Tantrism — ^the AnuiUxra yoga — has a consort/ who if 
even more malignant than her sjwuse. 

There are several of these ferocious many-armed moneterij, all 
of the fiercest fiend tyj)e alrenfly described, and all much alike iu 
general appearance. But each sect has got its own i»articular 
tutelary-ileraon, whom it believes to be pre-eminently powcrftih 

Thus the established church, the Ge-Iug-pa, has as it* tutelan' 
Vajra-bhairava, though several of the individual monks have Sarn- 
bhnra and (iuhyakala as their personal tutelaries. 

Vajka-uuairaVa, or "The Fearful Ihuuderlwlt." (T,, rDo-ij^H 
'jigs-byed). See figure on opposite i>age. ^H 

This is a form of Siva as the destroyer of the king of the deail^ 
namely, as YamflnUika. Yet with truly l-^maist ingenuouitness this 
hideous creature is believed to be a metamoq>hosi8 of the mild and 
merciful Avalokita. His api>earunce will best be understood from 
his picture here attached/ He has several heads, of which tb^J 
lowest central one is that of a bull. His arms and legs are iid^| 
numerable, the former carrying weapons, and the latter trample" 
upon the enemies of the estiihlished church. 

It will be noticed that these writhing victims are represented 

1 Aft in Uie type aluo of tho ' 
■ Skt.« Matritd, or inot]i«r : T. 

' After PiKDRtt, No. 61. wlildi »oo for torn*- drtaila. 

P.-tnrlia Ralulia." 

r"B»,and tlip pair are called "tltr fulhcr-inoihtr.*" ' 



of the four ancient classes of beings, uamely, godft, men, qoadni- 
pedfl, and birds. 

Others of these tutelary de\ils are : — 

Samvnra (T., bDe-mch*og ' ), the chief of happinecw, also called dpal- 
'k'or-lo sdom-pa 

OiJiffukala (T., gHan-'dus"),"tho Becret time." 

Vajra-p/turftn^ the ^>Ai(r/>rt-tImndcrbolt. 

Did>-]i{t'kah-gift {ov ? dUyes-pa-dorje). 

These lire the tutelar}' Hends of the Kar-gyu, Sa-kya« and the 
iinreformrKl 5iin-ma s«ct£ respectively. Otfiers are H6-vajra (Kye- 

(TatsUrj flvnd of ralRblUlinl ctiui«h.> 

rdorje), BiKldhnkapalit (Siin-i-gyaif-t'od-pa), Yama (gsin-rje), but they 
y do uot her© reN^iiin* (ipeoijil desoription. 


^B Hkt., Dharmafyita ; T., Oh'os^kycfi. 

^1 These are the demon-generals or commanders-in-chief who 

^■execute the will of the tutelaries — ^the demon-kings. In ap])ear- 


• Pano.. No, 63, aiuI Cauxa. A»., [>. i^^ 

■ PASn., Nofl. 02 and 68. 



ance they are almost as hideous and fierce as their fiesduiii 
masters, and each commands a horde of demons. 

They are of the tiereest fiend type (the Lhrag-)Kf and rtMro) 
already *lescribed. The females are metamoiphos^s of the Hindu 
fiendess, ifff/i DeytL A few local country gods have also heeu pro- 
moted to the iK)sitiou of defenders of the faith. 

Of those of the Dr<ig'po or To-iw type, the chief are : — 
"The horse-nftcked (fiend),** Skt., Hayagrlva ; T., rTa-mgrin, 
pron. Tftni-din, 

He is figured as shown here,' 
with a horse's head and neck 
surmounting his other headf^. 
Tliere are many varielie*} of him'i 
see also his figure at p. 62. 

" The immoveahtp," Skt,, 
AcaJa; T., Mi-gyo-ba. 

Heitfalso found in the Japanese 
Buddhist pantheon as ^^Fu-do,*'' 
*' The slayer of the death* 
king," Skt., Yavuividri* T., 
yS'in-rjegs'ed,a formof Khairara, 
and held to be incarnate in the 
Dalai Lama as the controller of 
queen of the warring weapons." 


t <Q«n«nl tuUUry of MUlilUUed church.) 

" The CJODDESS or The 
Lha-mo (or [jal-ldan-Lha-mo) ; Skt., Devi (or 8ri-£km), 
also, in Tibetan, dMag/.or rgyal-mo. 

This great she-devil, like her prototype the godde^ Durga of 
Brahmanism, ia, perhaps, the most malignant and powerful of all 
the demons, anil the most dreaded. She is credited with letting 
loose the demons of disease, and her name is scarcely ever men- 
tioned, and only then with bated breath, and under the titJe of 
" The great queen " — Maha-rani. 

She IK figured, as at page 334,^ surrounded by fiamea,and riding 

> AfUr Pander. 

» Cf. Pa.. No. 106, 167. 168, 213. 

> Cf. Chahbsrlain'k Handbooi to JapuM, Panp., Xo. 174. 
• Cf. Pa»idkk,No. 212. 

> After Pakiikji, No. 148. Cf. Scrlao., UX 



a white-fnced mule, upon a saddle of her own son's skin flayed 

Dy herself. iShe is clad in human skins and is eating human 

rainn and blood from a skull ; and she wields in her right hand a 

rident-rod. She has several attendant " queens " riding upon 

iifierent animals. 

She is publicly worshipped for seven days by tiie Lamas of all 

ts, especially at the end of the twelfth month, in connection with 

ae prevention of disease for the incoming year. And in the cake 

jffered to her are added amongst other ingredients the fat of a 

black goat, blood, wine, dough and butt-er, and these are placed in 

bowl made from a human skuU. 

T., mG6n-po; Skt., Notha} 
These form a class of demon -generals, of the fiercest Drag-po 
type. Each Liimaist sect has cl^osen one as its defender, whom it 
elaims to be pre-eminently powerful, thus : — 

"The sii-armed lord,"* T., mGon-po p'yag-drug, is the chief 
linister of the tutelary fiend of the established church. 

"The lord of the black cloak," or "The four-armed lord," 
r., mGon-jH) Gut, is the general of the tutelary Sanivara of the 
Car-gyu-pa sect. And he is the fiend-general nf the old unre- 
fonned sect — the Nift-uia-jm. He is figured at jiage 70, 

These " loi*d8 " are said to number seventy-five. Several of them 
referred to in regard to their masks in the chapter on the 
aystic play. The highest is the bird-faced Garu^. Other 
iportaut ones are : — 

"The lord of foreknowledge," T., ye-ses mG-on-po; Skt., 
Tiiananrttha; and foriAerly called "The devil Mata-t'uta" 

"The blftfk lord." T,, mGon-po Nag-po ; Skt., k'llldnMhn. 

"The great |»otent sage.** T., bJjO-c'an dban-p'ug-ch'en-po. 
oth of these latter bear titles of the Hindu ^iv^j MahilkSla. 

' Tliis namr suggeitts relotionithip with the •* yrf/ji " of tli« B»innc«p Buddists. though 
most o( tiiose iViits are clearly Hindu Vodic dcitk-s, and iw their numh*T is said to bt- 
37, pn>bAbly tlu>y ar<^ the 83 Vedic ^ods of Indra'a heaven /j/uj tlic Tour-fold Brahma 
t»r till" four guardians of the quarter. For list of the jVrf/* cf. App. by Col. Slad«ii in 
, JiKDBiUtOM's Matuialay to Mameiii, p. 457. 

« Pand^ No. 280. 


PakkinTs, or Furies. 
T., mkah-'gro-ina, or *' Sky-gncir " ; SkL, Klucnra. 

These Dakkinls are uhiefiy coasorte of the deuioniacal tutelon' 
aud the geiienils of the latter. Many of them seem to be of la 
indigenous nature like the B6n-[)a deities. One of the moA 
eomuion ia " The lion-faced ''(Sch-gi?hi-^duA-c*an). Several otheit 
are described and figured hy Pander.' 

Here also may be placed tbe eight goddesses, who are probtbl, 
nietainorphosea of " the eight mothers." They encircle thi 
heaveus and are figured in nxany of the magie-circles, usually 
beautiful aspect aud with the following characters : — 

1. Ldfij^ (T.f fOeg-mo-ma), of white complexion, holding a ouml 
and iu a coquettish attitude. 

2. Mala (T., Preu-ba-uia), of yellow colour, holding a roaary. 

3. G\td (T., yLu-ioa), of red colour, holding a lyre ftymboUunc 

4. T., Gar-nuit of green colour, in a dancing attitude. 
6. Pusiipa (T., Me-tog-ma), of while colour, holding a llower. 

6. Dhupd (T., ftDug-^jpiw ma), of yellow colour, holding an im 

7. Dii>a (T., fKan-^rsal-ma), of red colonr, holding a lamp. 

8. Oaiui/ia (T., Dri-ch'u-ma), of green colour, holding n sbell-vase 


These J}ii minores are the gods and lesser divinities of Aiyiiu 
and Iliiidu mythology, degraded to thia low rank ou account of 
their iuulutiion within the wheel of metempsychosis, and from their 
leiiding lives only partially devoted to Buddhist duties. The 
morality of these gods is, generally, of a higher order than tlieir 
counteqiarti^ in the Greek or Koman mytliology. 

CoUeoiively they are called '* Tbe eight classes," and are made 
Bubordinate to tbe tutelary-liends aud their generals; nnd in the 
order of their rank, are thus enumerated ^^t — 


3. Geaii — Yakfka; gN8d-9bjin. 

4. Angels — GomdJuMva; Dri-za. 

5. Titana — Atwra ; IJiarmap-yin. 

6. Pboanix — Gitnula.; Xauik'ah-Mift. 

7. Celestial tna^ioiftns — -Kiaiiay^t : Mi-'am-c'i. 

8. TheGreatKeptiles(creepers),*tf<(/tonT^«; ITo-'bye-ch'en-po. 
The Gods are the thirty-three Vedic gwis, wlxich have already 

n deacribed as regards their general characters.' They are 
usually figured, like earthly kings of the " mild deity " tyjie, on 
lotus-thrones. The chief gods are made regents or protectors of 
the (juartersj though in the later legends they have delegated 
these duties to subordinates, the "kings of the quarters"; see 
page 84. 
^ The great Indra (Jupiter, T., brGya-hyin), on the east. 

^^ Vama (Pluto, T., gSin-rje), ou the south* 
^m Varuna ^^Cranus, T., Ch*Q-Mhtt-), on the west. 
^H Kuvera (Vulcan', T., gNod-sbyin), on the north. 
^H The remainder of the ten directions are thus apjwrtioned i- — 
^r S.E. to Agul (Ignis, the fire-god ; T., Me-lha^, or Soma the 
in'>ou or Bacchus. 

IS.W. to Nririti (the goblin ; T-, i?riTi-j>o). 
X.W. to Manit (the storm-god; T., rLuft-lha). 
N.K. to Isa (T., dbAng-ldan). 
Nadir to Aiiant^ (or " mother-earth"; T., 'Og-gis-bdag). 
Zenith to Brahma (Ts'ans-i»*)i 
The first and the last of the above, namely, Indra and BrShma, 
are represented as attendant on Buddha at al! critical ]>eriods of 
his earthly life — the former with a third and horizontal eyi:- in the 
forehead, acting as his umbrella-carrier, and the latter usually four- 
handed and headed, carrying the vase of life-giving ambrosia. The 
iiruhmanical gotl Vishi'iu is called K'yab-jug. 

tYama (T., S'iu-rje), the Hindu Tluto, the judge of the dead 
d controller of metempsychosis, is the most dreaded of these 

> they ootnpriM ele%-cti Rudrav, t-igtii Vosus, and tirelre Jldityas. 
« Tlie god of the Waters, formerly tJie god of the Sky. 

' Kuvcra ur Vainrnvana "the renowned" is identified by Genl. CunQtngbain witli 
be l>n.f;k UcphacstuA, and the ilomenc epithet reriVJuto« oiwayB ilppli<^d tu Vulc«n. 
* Abo Mc-mJAd kyi bdag-po, or MMter of the Univene. 


divinities. He is represented in the«\Vheel of Life a^* the oenm'; 
figure in hell; but he too has to Buffer torment in hisjovli 
rpalin. His special emblem is a bull; thns the great tutelar? 
deinou Vajra-bhairava, by having vanquished the dread Yama. » 
represented with the head of a hull under the title of Vaniantika 
or ** the conqueror of Varna." 

The most favourite of the godlings is the god of veAltn, 
Jrtitihhalaj a form of Kuvem or Vaisravana. He is of portly fonn 
Mki- hfs relative or prototype, the Hindu Ganesa. In his right 
baud he holds a bag of jewels, or money, or grain, symlxtlic of 
riches, and in his left an ichneumon or " mongoose,*'* which is tbe 
conqueror nf snnkcs — the mythical guardians of treasure. 

The NluA or Dragon-demigods are the mermen and mermai(i$ 
of the Hindu myth and the demons of drought. They arc of four 
kinds: (1) cfUstMl, guarding the mansions of the gods; (2) 
tf/TiW, causing winds to blow and rain to fall for human benefit ; (3) 
tarthly^ marking out the courses of the rivers and streams; (4) 
ffufirtlia})8 of hidden trm«tire8t watching the wealth oonc€«]«d 
from mortals. 

The Nagas are usually given the form of snakes, as these inbsbil 
the bowels of the earth, the matrix of precious stones and metaU; 
while in their character of rain-produeers they are 6gured as 
dragons. From their fancied association with treasure they are 
often associated v^ith the god of wealth, Vaisravana and bi* 
mode Jambhala. Indeed, the great Naga king Mahakiila, tbe 
** Pai Koko" of the Jajjanese, seated on bis rice-bales, like our 
chancellor of the exchequer on his wool-sack, and his at-tendanl 
ratH as symbols of prosperity, form almost a facsimile of the 
Buddhist god Jambhala, who, like his prototype Gane&fi, seems 
of Niiga origin. Indeed, one of his titles is "lord of the water" 
{JcU&ndra)* The Naga community, like the human, is divided 
into kings, nobles, and commoners, Buddhists and non-Buddhista.* 

■ Ski.,yakula;T.,^K'\i\v.tifrpf!Mea*p.{?plimT»xmis}. It is flgurcd Tomitiug jewels. 

' Cf. ulta Bkal's rjutriM, 417. 

■■ Ttu^ :iiga. kiDifft Nanda. I'paaanda, Sagan. Dritansa, and Auavauplu mn 
HuUJtaatd .-uid therrfort' cxfmpt (roni attack by Uaru^maw For many pAiticuliin 
regarding Nigu, cf. Mty^i-Svuv, tnnal. by Pruf. C. Bbudall. J.R.A.S^ 1880, pp. 1 
»t^.; Hbal'b <:^uen«,60, etc. ; i>LBiHf-VBB's iraiu. oftbukLu-'buiutlKar-pu; slBomylist 
ol Nig& Un^ and commoncn, JJi.A.S^ ISM. 


Of the remaining classes, the Yakaha and Asura have already 
been descrilietl. The female Yuksha — the Yukshini — are tht^ 
♦* witc'h-wotnen," the stealer of children of general invths. In 
addition there are also the malignant spirits and demons,' of 
whom among the Rakshas, the already mentioned Khe-devil Hiiriti, 
••the mother of the i?ai<ya-demona,** is the chief." 

VI. Thb Country-Gods. 

The country-gods (Ynl-lha), and the country-guardians (Sruft- 
ina) are of coui'-ie all indtgeuous, though some of them have been 
given ( characters. Ruling over a wider sphere, they 
occupy a higher rank than the more truly local genii, the locality- 
or foundation-owners — the Z'i-bdag of the Tibetans. 

The^ie indigenous gods, godlings, uud demons are divided after 
the Indian fashion, roughly into eight classes, namely : — 

1. Gods (Lha), all male, white in colour, and generally genial. 

2, Goblins or Ghosts (Taan), all male, red in colour. These are 
sually the vindictive ghosts of Liimas, discontented priestB; and 
ley are vindictive. They especially haunt temples," 

5. Devils (bDiid),all male, black in colour, and most malignant.* 
se are the ghosts of the persecutors of Lamaism, and cannot be 
eased without the nacrifice of a pig."^ 

4. Planets (gZah), piebald in colour (Kra-bo). 

5. Kloateil fiends (dMu), dark-purple colour (smug-po}." 

6. Cannibal fiends (Srin-po), raw flesh-coloured (sa-za), and blood- 

7. King-fiends (rGyal-po), the wealth-masters (dkor-bdag), 
rbite (? always) in colour, the spirits of apotheosized heroes. 

' Thy maliynjint siiiriU are also dirldrd into: 

Prettt (T., Yi-dvng). 
JiumUtanH't (t>rul-bumj. 

PiMfha (fU-M»). 
Jlhiha ('B\^lIl-po). 

Kit/i\pHiA*a ( Ltu «niI-po), 

Vninadn (fiMyo ?'yi'<l). 
» Oh Uariti, cf. p. 99, iind Emn^ ffdnrfA*^ p 
> Cr. JjUHcau, p. 428. 

* The 'Dre ftri- fspi-ciaJIy Wrulent. Cf. Jakkhxx, p. 259 and 43i. 

* Cf. alflo JjiatcuKE, t>. 423. 

* Cf. olflo Jaxsl-uu. p. 284. 

SiauJa (T., aKypm lye^. 
Aff*mara (Brjed-Lyat). 
(Vh^yti'f (Gribynon). 
Hiittht (Srin-p<t>. 
Rrtnti ijruhi'i (N'aiii gru biifdoo). 
StkuHi 'jraiii] (llya tii ydiin). 




8» Mother-«he-<IeviU (Ma-mo), blnck coloureti, the^dimw 
ttfosdea" (niid-bdftg). They nre Hometimes the spouses of til 
foregoing innKgnftut demons, and cannot be very sharplj *le 
tnarcalud from the other she-devils. 

The greatest of the country-gods and guardians have beenmiiii 
defenders of Lamnifim. They are chiefly the spirits of the Urert 
luouutaiua, and deitiwl ghosts of heroes and ancestors. 

The former are figured either as fierce forms of Vai8rS>-aii8, lii 
god of wealth, but clad in Tibetan cost ume,nnd riding on lioDft,*tf. 

and carrying banners of virtor^ 
such, for example, as mount Kia 
chinjunga, mount r^Dgch'enAx 
of weatern Tsang, etc.» a* iu »ii- 
nexed figare; or they are figurtd 
as fiendesses, as for example, tb« 
Tnn^nui,, or as mild nymphs, i» 
the five sisters of mount Eve««t> 
The mountain Kanchinjunga, 
on the western border of TibeU 
is known to most visitors to Xht^ 
jiliug and northern Bengal. Thii 
graceful mountain, second la 
height only to Everest, was for- 
merly in iUelf an object of wor- 
ship^ as it towers high above every 
other object in the country, and is the fii"st to receive the rart 
of the rising sun and the ln*it to part with the sun^set. Abu- 
chinjuiiga^ literally means " the live reiwsitories or ledges of the 

great snows," and is physically descriptive of ita five peaks tb« 

name having been giving by the adjoining Tibetans of Tsang, who 
also worshipped the mountain. But the Sikhira saint, Lha-tsiin 
Ch'enbo, gave the name a mytliologicjil meaning, and the mountain 
was made to become merely the habitation of the god of that 
name, and the five " repositories" became real store-houses of the 
god's treasure. The peak which is most conspicuously gilded by 
the rising sun is tlie treasury of gold; the |)eak which remains in 
cold grey shade is the silver treasury, and the other peaks are tbtf 



i? <^^ 


Tttb Ksd lioo or Wkai-tii. 

> Tw-riii mc'cd-Irui, Thpy ar« higher in rank Uiaii the Tan-uu. 
* Pri)|)eriy Kon-ch'eii-mdsod*IAa. 



sres of gems and grain and holy books. This idea of treasure 

Bitnrally led to the goj being physically represented soiiiewhat 

er the style of" the god of wealth," as figured on the opposite 

je. He is of a red colour, clad in armour, and carries a banner 

victory, and is mounted on a white lion. He is on the whole 

good-natured god, but rather impassive, and is therefore less 

rorshipped than the more actively malignant deities. 

The four greatest deified mountains of Tibet are alleged to be 

"a£i-lha on the north, Ha-bo-gafis-bzafi or gNod-abyin-gali-bza on 

west, Yar-lha zafi-po on the east, and sKu-la k'a-ri on the 

3Uth J bat mouut Everest, called by the Tibetans Lap-c'i-giifi, 

not included here. 

The twelve furies called Tan-nut have already been referred 
and figured in connection with St. Padma-sambhava's visit, 
["hey are divided into the three groups of the four great she- 
leviU, the four great injurers, and the four great mediciue- 
emales,' of which the last are relatively mild, tliough all are 
placed under the control of Ekajati, a tiendess of the Indian Kali 
type, who rided on the thunder-clouds. 

The deified ghosts of heroes and defeated rivals are pictured 
usually of anthropomorphic form, and clad in Tibetan style, as for 
example, " The holy rDorje Legs-pa," figured at page 26, and 
others at jjage 385, Though some are pictmed of monstrous 
asj>ect, and of the tiercest-fieud type already described, as for 
instance, Pe-har," the especial patron of the sorcerers of the 
established church. 

Pe-har is a fiend of the "king" class, and seems to l>e an 
indigenous deified-hero, thou^li European writers identify him with 
the somewhat similarly named Indian god, Veda (Chinese wei-to), 
who is regularly invoked by the Chinese Buddhists ' for monastic 
supplies and as pivjtector of monasteries ( — Vihar; hence, it is 
H^elieved, corrupted into Pe-har), and chief of the army of the four 
HIguardian kings of the quarters. 

H VII. Local Gods and Genii. 

H The truly "local gods" or (?e?iu loci, the '* foundation owners"* 

^H * bdud-mo ch'cn-iDO bzhi. (^uirU-sbyiu cli'en, etc.; atnui-mo cb'eo, etc. 
^" " Srehls figure in Hciilauist« bit's Atfas. 

* lUanrsAT's iVorw in J-M-Kour-Ai; Edkin, Chin. BuddA., &utAT., J.AjS.B.. I882» 

* <gZl'lHlag>. 




of the llbetans, are located to n particular fixed place, and 9tAdm 
coDceived of as separate from their places. 

Id appearance tbej are mostly Cntiban-Iike aprttee, ilMcco- 
pered and spiteful, or demoniacal, like the t«mple-door fiaaJ 
tigured at page 288; and, unlike the higher spirita, ther Ian 
DO third or ** heavenly eye of second sight or omniscieace.*' 

The majority are of the " earth owner " class (sa-Waei. 
ovcupying tbe soil and lakeu like plelwian Na^as of the HinUit^ 
Others more mnlignaut, called " g^aa,** infest certAin trees, rod*, 
and springs, which reputed hAUDt:^ are avoided as far as pof^lil«, 
though they are sometimeB daubed with red paint or other offw- 
iug to propitiate the s])irit. 

In every monastery and temple the image of the ffenius fod^a 
an idol or fresco, is placed within the outer gateway, usuaUr tr 
the right of the door, and worshipped with wine, aud occasiooaliT 
with bloody sacrifice, and it is given a more or less honorific name. 
The local demon of the red hill near Lhasa, suruamed Potala. 
and the residence of the Grand Lama, is called g^Tan-ch'en Tiii- 
The one at Darjiling is already referred to at page 288. 


The House-god of the Tibetans seems to be the stame a« iLc 
"Kitchen-god" (Tsau-kiiin) of the Chinese, who is believeil to 
be of Taoist origin, but adopted into the Chinese Buddhist pan- 
theon' as a presiding divinity of the monastic diet. He aUi 
has much in common with the Door-god of the Mongols,* 

The Tibetan Houge-god, as shown in his figure at page 573. 

> KuKiKs Vtii.i. Bhddh., 2U7. HU official birthday U the twenty>fourth daf of tht> 
sixtli moDtli. 

) TiiL> Mongul [><x)r-g(xlg ore thus descnbc<l b}- GaJsan^ Cxomboyef, a ivccot Rnnr 
Mongol wi-it*r.quQtvd by Yule (J/ajvo/'o/w,!., 250): "Among the Bur>-nt& (wlmivUtii 
to gr<-*ateat extc'nt thf uhl cuHtoms of ttiu Montis), in tho middle of the hut, uxi 
pLico of honi'ur is thi> Dmtia'jft^hi, or ' Chif f Crcatfjr of Fortuoc' At the door is thf 
Kmtl'jtlji, Ui4-' tutclarj- of tho hfrds and young ciittlc, niudL' of ithi<4>p-skina Outsid)' dw 
hut U the Vfian4u//ha II, a name implying tlukt the idol wa» formed of n white luuT-^klOi 
the tutc-Ury of tho chase and perluips of war. All these have bo«^n eJcpfUi^d t? 
Buildhism except pKiiro^chi, who in called Tt»*rri (= Ifoavpn). and intrtKhiml 
lunong Uie lliuldiuat div-initii's " ha n kliui of Indni. Thiiiie p1nc<>d at Aide of door aJ« 
ii'it prayi'd to. liiit arc offered a portinn of the food oi- drink nt meal time« hy gn**- 
iiig the months of the fetiflbes, and sprinkling anme of the broih by them. 

anthropomorphic, with a piggish head, and flowing robes. He 
called *' the inside god,"* and is & genius loci of the class called 
the Tibetans " earth-mastere " (Sab-dag). 

Aa he i» of a roving diepositiotk, occupying dififereut partfi of 

ae house at different seasonn, his presence is a oonstaiit source of 

ixiety to the householders ; for no objects may invade or occupy 

fche place where lie has taken up his position, nor may it be swept 

in any way disturbed without incurring his deadly wrath. 

las it happens that an unsophisticated visitor, on entering a 

^betan house and seeing a vacant place near at hand, sets there 

lis bat, only, however, to have it instantly snatched np by his 

st in holy horror, with the liurried explanation that the god is 

%t present occupying that sjwt. 

It is some satisfaction, however, to find that all the house-gods 
>f the land regulate their movements in the same definite and 
50wn order. Thus in the first and second monllis he occupies 
le centre of the housej and is then called " The Gel'lhuk houae- 

In the third and fourth months the god stands in the doorway 
ind is called " the door-god of the horse and yak,*^ 

In the fifth month he stands under the eaves, and is called 
' ya-nga»-pa-" 

In the sixth month he stands at the south-west comer of the 

In the seventh and eighth months he stands under the eaves. 

In the ninth and tenth months he stands in the fire-tripod or 

In the eleventh and twelfth months he stands at the kitchen 
leArth, where a place is reserved for him. He is then called 
' the kitchen-god." 

His movements thus bear a certain relation to the season, as he 

outside in the hottest weather, and at the fire in the coldest. 

Formerly his movements were somewhat different \ and accord- 
to the ancient style lie used to circulate much more exteu- 
ively and frequently.* 

'■ As detailed in my ftrtiolc on the Bubject inyo»'r«,.i«Mn»/w/oymt^/Mrf('/«(<-,Lomltin, 




The other preoaatioDS ent&iled by his presence, and the peiul- 
ties for dUturbing him, are these : — 

Id the first and second months, when the god U in the middle o( 
the hou:4e, tlie tire-grate munt not be placed there, bnt reraoved to 
a comer of the room, and no deaft body must be deposited there- 
While he 18 at the d<»r, no bride or bridegroom may come or gOi, 
nur any corpfie. Should, however, there be no other way of in- 
gress or egress, such as by a window or otherwise, and tUere be 
urgent necessit}' for the passage of a hri<le, bridegroom, or corpse, 
then the images of a horse and a yak must be made with wheaten 
flour, and ou e-ach of them is placed some skin and hair of each of 
the animals represented. Tea and beer are then offered to the 
god, who is invited to sit on the images thus provided for 
him. The door is then unhinged and carried outside, and the 
bride, bridegroom, or corpse jMsses, and the door is restored to ite 

When he is at the kitchen fire, no part of the hearth can be re- 
moved or mended, and no corpse may be placed there, nor must 
any marriage then take place. And should any visitor arrive, he 
must be screened off from the fireplace by a blanket, and a scrip- 
ture (the " ch*68-mge-khri") read to avert his wrath. 

When he is in the verandah he gives very little trouble. Only 
at that time no one may whitewash or repair the outside of the 

And as a general precautionary measure once every year, and 
at extra times, whenever any suspicion arises that the god may 
have been slighted or is offended, it is necessary to get the Lamaf> 
to jiropitiate him by doing "The water sacrifice for the eight 


VIII. Personal Gods or " Familiars." 

Tliese are comi^rable t-o the daiTnoii or familiar-^spirit* of the 
<ire*;ks. Hut in Tibet the body of each individual is beset by a 
number of personal sprites.' 

f^icb Tibetan carries the following familiar spirits extra to the two 
Buddhist nngel>, good and l)ad, which sit upon the right and left 
shoulder respectively and promj)! to good deeds or to sins, namely, 



ie jy'o, ma, z'ail, f/a, or enemy (-defeating) god, vulgarly called 
•Ihfi. This eneiny-go(l sits on the right shouMer of every 
Worship of the p%-lhi secures long life and defence agaiubt 
sident ; by worshipping t he tUi-lha enemies* are overcome, 
rorsUip of the wwt-Wwi and z\ih-lha procures physical strength ; 
rorship of the yulrlha glory and domiuiou, and of the nor-lhtt 
The greatest of these gods is the Enemy (-defeating) god, a sort 
Hercules, who resembles in luauy ways the war-god of the 
Dhinese — Kwau-te, au aiJotUeosized hero — though the Lumas 
ideavour to identify him with the Buddhist Milra, the god of 
ssion. As seen from his Hgure, in the upper compartment of 
jthe Wheel of Life at l»age 102, he is of un-Indian aspect : — 

lie is of a white colour clad io goMcD mail and flying ou a white 

tiorse through the clouds. In hi.s uplifted right hand he holds a whip 

rlih threi^ knots and iu his left hand a spear with a Rtream of the 

Sve-colouro'l silks. The blade of the epear is blue, bordered by Hames, 

id at its base the two divine eyes, n-od below the blade is a ring of yak- 

r-bristle. His bow-shetith is of a leopard hide and his quiver o^ 

tiger skin. A sword is thrust into his wiiist-belt, and from each 

Ifihoulder springs a lion and a tiger. The mirror of fore-kuowledge is 

^suspended from his neck. He is accompanied by a black dog, a black 

[bear, and a mou-monkey; and birds cii-cle around his heatl. 

Each class of these local and personal gods has its partieolar 
JBeason for popular worship, thus: — 

The Earth-gacta [6a.-ijz'i mi-rig-gi Iha) ai'B worshipped especially in the 

IVte Ancettral godt {smva. z'au cb'un-gi Iha) are worshipped in the 
^_ Hiimmer season. 

^P T/tt three Upper yodt («tod-sum pahi Ihat in the autumn ; and 
^^ Tlie royal Ancestor of the Tibetan or Silrhim king (*ton mi-nag-gi Iha) 
iu the winter. The fii-st king of Mi-uag iu eastern Tibet was a son of 
^K Xbi-$ron Detsan, and the Sikhim king is alleged to be of the same 

^P It is beyond the scope of our present subject to refer to the 

" heterodox duties of the aboriginal or Biin-pa order. But it maybe 

state<l that this latter religion having existed for centuries side by 

^Keide with the more favoured Liimaism, it has now come to model 

its deities generally on the Buddhist pattern. A reference to one 

of the Boa gods, namely, the Ked-Tiger devil, will be found in 

[the chapter on the mystic play. 



The Cjai.nts. 

Tbe saints of LTimaisin may be divided into the Indian and tlie 
Tibetan, iucluHive of a few Chinese and Mongolian. Tber wt 
uttually figured with a halo around their heads, and when atteodnl 
by diftoiplea they are always represented much larger iu sise tiiic 
the latter ; and, in keeping with the later fiction of re-inoanjatf 
Lnmas, they are usually surrounded by a few eoene-s of iheii h)- 
called former births. 

Of the Indian saints the chief are; — 

I. The Ten Chief Disciples ok Buddha. 
The higbebt of these is *' the model pair," Sariputra and MabS- 
.Maugdalayuna, the rights and left-baud disciples of Buddha, and 
generully represented in a standing posture, carrying a hi 
bowl and alarm-statf, or with the hands joined iii adorn' 
Sakya Muni.' After these the best known are Maha-kasyapa, the 
president of the first council and the first *' imtriareb," Vpili, 
Hubhuti, and Buddha's cousin and favourite atten<lant, Auando. 

, II. The Sixteen stuaviha, or Chief Apostles or Miasionahe». 

T., gNas-brtJin = "The Steadfast Holders (of the DcxArine)." 

These are called by the Chinese and Japanese •*the riiteen 
l{ahan " (- Skt., Arhat), or " Lohan." 

Several of them lived after Buddha's day; and latterly two other 
saints were added to the list, namely, Dharmatrata and Hvashang, 
bringing the number up to eighteen. Other conventional groapi 
of Arhats are the 108, 500, 1,000, etc- 

Each of these Sthavii'a or ArJuiia is figured in a fixed attitude^ 
and each had biin distinctive symbol or badge, like our apostles, m 
Mark with a lion, Luke with a book, etc. 

The descriptive list of these sixteen Sttiavira is briefly': — 

1. AjtJfira-Ja (T., Yau-lii^ 'bynn), "the limb-born." Holds incfoun 
cen&er and cow IalI fly-wbisit fim. Ho went as niissionary to the Te^ 
mountains around ManAsrovorn hike (Jaeacu., />., 203), or to mount 
KniUs (ScHTEF., Ltftensh.). 

3. Ajita {T., Ma-p*am-pa), "the unconquered." Hands in Hm 

1 Cf. CauNA'A A».,A&: lUj. 1^1 MiTiu's trau«. Lalita Vitt^ 10. 

* Fur (J4'«cripl ions of nrnny of tlicBo see Taranatiia's w /)>rt»^Aryy«, and his ffiif, nj 
Ind. Jiutiff.f (ranit. hy Scliipfner ; aUo Eitkl'si UantVtk., nntt Pandku's Vantk- 
> For their flKun-s and soroo deUUs cf. Panumb's Pantk. \itke. n'f)* PP- ^ ** ^rf . 



impartiftl " attitude. A rieJti, or sn^e, of mount Usu-a (Nofrse-la).' 
lis htatue is one of the few which is prepared singly. 

3. Va>iu-r<Ua (T., Nags-na-gnoH)} •' forest-tlwelU'r." Right hand in 
Me rlsiih attitude ; left holds a cow-t^l 6y-whisk. He went to 

The seveD-leares mountain" (Loma-bdiiu). According to Schief., he 
iftined at Sr£viMti. 

4. fCflU/cjt (T., Du3-Man rdorje), '* timely." Wears a golden earring 
a badge. lie went to Tararadripa (= ? Tamluk in S.W. Bengal). 

5. Vajraputra (T., rDo-rjo-mo'-bu) ** son of the thunderbolt." Kight 
and in sliigs-mdijub attitude, and left carries fly-whifik. He went to 

6. Bhadva (T., bZaiVjK)) "the noble.** Right hand in preaching, 
d left in meditative attitude — the latter hiind nsiially bearing a 
ok. He went to Vomunadvlpa. 

7. Kanaka-vittsa (T., gSer-be'u), "golden calf." Carries a jewelled 
mare. He went to the Saffron-peak in Kashmir. 

a. Kimaka-i>hani-d>Hijii. Hands in " impartial " attitude. He went 
Apara-Godhanya (Nub-kyi-ba glaii spyod-glin). 

9. Vtikul4i, caiTiKR an ichneumon (Nnkulsi) like the god of richer. 
In thia account. Pander notes (p. 86) that the Tibetans probably knew 

lis saint as " Nakula," He went to Uttarakuru (byuii-gi-sgra-mi- 

10. Hdhnla (T., sGra-c'an-zin [1 *dsin]>. Holds a jewelled crown, 
'ander believer that thi.s simile is probably BuggeHted by interpreting 

the name as "sgrrt-rgyim Msin," or "holding a crown." He went to 
"•H-yan-gu-dvIpa (^ t Pruyag, or Allahabad). 

11. CiMla-panthaka (T., Lam-p'ran-bstan). Hands in "impartial" 
«»e. He went to Oridrakuta hill in Magadha.* 

12. Iiharadi*aja (T., Bha-ra-<lva-dsa-bsod-.snoms-len). Holds book and 
'ig-bowl. Went to the eastern Videka. He is usually identified 

iwith the " Binzuru " nf the Japaneso, 

13. PmithaJcH (T., Lambtftan). Hands in preaching attitude with 
a book. 

14. Xagtuma (T,, kliu'i-sde). Holds a vase, and an alarm-staff. He 
went to "the king of mountains," Urumuuda (Nos-yahs). Thi« seems 
to be the Arhat who is known to soiithir'rn Buddhists as the author of 
the celebrated dialogues with Menandcr (Milinda). 

15. Gdpaka (T., shed-byed), holds a book. Went to Mt. Bi-hu. 
16 (T., Mi-p'yed) Holds " the caiti/a of perfection." He 

"Went to the Himalayas. 

The additional pair of saints who are usually associat-ed with the 
above lire : — 

Dharmatrdta or Dharmatala (T., dGe-bsiien dharma). Holds a vaso 
and fly-whisk and carries on his back a bundle of books, and he gnses at a 
sroall image of Buddha Amitibha. As ho is only a lay-devotee he h«s 
long hair. He was bom in Gandhara and &eems to be the uncle of 


■ Scmsr., MiCHiXi.^it. 


' Cf. Jasscb., /)., »73. 



Votfomiuv. Of bis eerezi works the chief are the L^danarar^ (tmu- 
Uted br Rockhill), aod the Sunyukubhidharma Safitra. 

//nuAaw; correeponds totheChmew "Huo-sbang" or priest with tfa* 
sack.' He is a sort of Uy-patron or ** diffpf»nser of alms" to lb« 
diadples ; und \s represeot^ as a good-natured person of partly 
dunensJODSf in a fiitting poeilion. His attribates aro a sack, a roair) 
in his right hand and a peacfa in lus left, while little urchins or gotdiu 
play around him. The name in Chinese ia said by Pander to be also 
rendered "the dense-emoke Haitreya Baddha," and he isexpluined astW 
last incarnation of Maitreya vho is at present enthrouetl in the Tosliiu 
beave&a. lu the entnnce hall of all the larger temples in China we fin'J 
the ooloBsal statue of this big-bellied, laughing Maitreya sorronnded b; 
the foar kings of the universe. 

IlL Other MahxyXna Saixts. 
The other Indian saints of the Mahayana school who are mort 
worshipped by the LiUuas are : Asvaghosha, Nagurjuna (kLu-grebi, 
Arya-deva (P'aga-pa-lha), Kumarala, Asaftga (T'ogs-med), Vbhu- 
bandhu (tlByig-gnan), Dliarma-klrti (Ch'oe-grags), Candra-tirii 
(zla-wa-gragt*J ; and the more modem Siinta-rakshita and Atisa- 
Dipamkom. Figures of most of these have already been given,* 

IV. TJlNTBiK Wizabd-Pbiests. 

T.'Grub-t'ob ch'en or *' grub-c'hen {Skt., Stddha or MahiUiddha). 

This degraded class of Indian Buddhist priest (see figure on 
l)age 16) is most popular with the l-*amas. They are credited witJi 
8m>ematural powers, by lieing in league with the demons. Thej 
are usually figured with long untonsured locks, and almost nak«i. 

The chief of these Indian priests is St. Pft(Jma-?ambhava, thf 
founder of Lamaism. Others are 

S&vari (Sa-pa-ri-pa), Hahiihibhadra or Saiiiha (Sa-ra-ha-pa), 
dnru (Lu-i-pa), Lalita-vajra, Ki-ish^corin or Kalacarita, (Nag-po-s 
pa) J and moro modern Telopa or Tila and Niiro.' These latter two i 
upporeutly named after the Indian monasteries of Tilada and NaUmda 

St, Padma sambhava receives more active worship than any af 
tlieotherH. Indee<l, he is deified. He is most commonly worsbipi>et1 
in the form shown in the centre of the plate on ]»ge 24. Ke siL- 
dressed as a native of Udyana, holding a thunderbolt in his right 

1 CY. Pamdkb, Pitnth., p.B9. 

" I'or nddHionjU drtailR nee Taiianatjia's Uittoiy (Schipfrrr's tTan«).), niul pA<mN> 
i*anth.t pfi. 47. ftc. Th**w first fcmr, cf. Jrnia's llivrn T»iim>j, li.,214. 
' For loine dutailit and figurra mv Pakokr, Panih.^ pp. SO, etc. 



id and a skull of blood in his left, and currying in his left, ann- 
tbe trident of the king of death. The top of this trident 

insfixes a freshly decapitated human head^ a wizened head, 
id a skull. And the saint is attended by his two wives, 
Fering him libations of blood and wine in skull-bowls, while 
efore him are set o6feriiig& of portions of human corpses. 

He is given weven otlier forms, wild or demoniacal, which are 
[lown Burrouudiug him in that picture. 

Those, his eight forms, together with their usual paraphrase, 
here numerated: — 

I. — Guru Piidrtia Jvnynii,^ " Boru of a lotus " for the happiness of 
the three worlds, the central tigure in the plate. 
II. — Guru Piidma-iiambfuiva, " Savioui' by the religious doctrine." 
in. — Gttru P/iduui OijelpOj **The king of the three collections of 

Rcripburea" {Skt., " Tripitaka **). 
IV. — Guru JJOrje D6-ioj* ** ITie Tjoije or diamond comforter of all." 

V. — Guru I^iitta Od-ztr^^ '* The enlighteiiiug sun of darkness." 
VI. — Gxtru S'al-ya Setlgfy '* The second 8akya — the liou," who does 
the work of eight sage». 
[VII. — Guru Rtiujgp. da dok^^ The propagator of religion in the six 

worlds — with "the roaring liou's voice." 
rill. — Guru M'tcn Ch'ogSe^^ "The conveyer of knowledge to nil 

Th&*e paraphrases it will be noted are mostly fanciful, and not justi- 
ed by the title itself. 

As he is the founder of Lftmaism, and of such prominence in the 
fcystem, 1 give here a sketch of his legendary history ; — 

The Guru's so-called history, though largely interwoven with 
ipematural fantasies is worth abstracting," not only for the 

I gvrv ^-taa 'ty«6 piwi. Cf. Uioftuit p. 342, axid ft^urc p. 662. 

* vdo-Tje gro-lod. 

* ntfi'tna 'od z*r. 

" ht^fldan mcU'gSrui ( or ? Srid). 

* The account here given is fttHtracted frum the fullowiuff Tibt-tan works, aU ot 
"■which arc of the fictltloua " revelation " order, and «>ften roiiflictiiig, but dating, jtroh- 

ably, to about six or stven Imiidred yenn ago, namely: /'iiitiiut-bknh't'an {ov "'l'\u- 
dibplayed Commuiids of tin: LotUB-one"); Than-yiij s*tT-'prtn («ir "Thr Gulden 
R<..sjtry nf DispIayed-IetU're".) ; TAiin'-'/iff-ad<-\a(or "The i^ive Closse3 of Displayed- 
lettcrs"), and a Lepcha rersioii, entitled Taihi Sun, or " Hiatory cf tlic iiloriouH 
One," written by tho Silcbim king l?Gyur-mei Nanji-tryal), who, abuul two (ynturieB 
a^o, iurcnt4;d tlic so-cailed Lepcha characters hy uiudifying the Tibetan uiid Bengali 

hiHtorical tDxture tbat uuderliea the alleg^orical figures, but b1» 
for the insight it gives into the genesisand locatiun of man j of tite 
demous of the Lrimai»t )>iintheon and tlie (jre- Lilmaiflt religian of 
Tibet. The story itself i« somewhat romantic and has the widert 
currency in Tibet, where all its sites are now popular places of pil- 
grimage, sacred to this deified wizard-priest : — 


Once upon a time, in the great city of Jutumati ' iu the tnditit 
rontinent, there dwelt a blind Idng nnmed Indrabotihi,' wlio nikd 
over the oountpy of Udyana or Urgynn. The death of his aaiy eon 
plunges the palace in deepest sorrow, and this cAlarnity is followed hj 
famine and an exhausted treasury. In thoir dL^treas the lung nai 
jieople cry unto the Butldhas with many offerings, and their appetl 
reaching unto the paradise of the great Buddha of Boiiudlees Light 
— AinitrLbha — thi^ divinity sends, instantly, like n lightuiug tUsli, a 
miraculous incarnation of hiniBelf in the form of a red ray of light to 
the sncred lake of that country. 

That sauje night the king dreamt n dream of good omen. H* 
iLrenmt that a golden thunderbolt had come into liiK hand, and hif' 
body .shone like the sun. In the morning the royal priest Trigimtllmra' 
i-ejiurt-s that a glorioa*^ light of the five rainbow-tints has stttlcd iu the 
lutiif^Iake uf Dhanakosl:ia., and is so dazzling as to illaininat« the ibrae 
" unreal" worlds. 

Then the king, whose sight hn.s been miraculously restored,, viidts tht 
lake, and, embarking in a boat, proceeds to spc the shining wonder.anil 
liiidy on tho pure bosom of the lake a lotus-flower of matohle8£> beauty, 
(HI whoso petals sits a lovely boy of eight years old, sceptred imd 
sliining like a god. The king, falling on his knees, worships the 
infant prodigy, exclaiming : '* Incomparable boy I who art thouf Who 
its thy father and what thy country?" To which the child Tat4« 
answer ; " My Father / know ! I <!ome in accordance with the prophecy 
of the great Sfikya Muni, who said : ' Twelve hundred years after me, 
in the north-east of tho Urgyau country, in the pure lake of Kasha, b 
person more famed than myself will I>c bom from a lotus, and be known 
OH l*adma-sambhava, or " the Lotas-born," * and he shall be the teocher 
of my esoteric .Uan^rrt-doctrine, and shall deliver all beings from 

Oil this the king and his subjects acknowledge the supematunl 

3 This Ib the form fnund in tlifi t<>xt, while anrttluT MS, [-ives Indnbhuti: but tts 
Tih*'Uii trantilatiitn a1sogivpni8S/>,y^)i-vt'y/-'(y'>;-)rft(ii, or "The Eyeleae WoaJiliy One," 
wliidi could givr an Indian form of Andham-baHUti. 

• A]** an epithet of Itrfihnia. 



nature of the Lotuti'bom boy, and niuning him " The Lake-bom Vajra"^ 
eouduct him to the piUnce with roynl hunours. And fram thenceforth 
the country proHporwi, and the hdly religion bocamo vastly extended. 
This event happened on the tenth day of the soventh Tibetan month. 

In the palace the wondrous boy took no pleasure in ordinary pur- 
snito, but aat in Buddha foHhion inuMDg under the shade of a tree in 
tbe grove. To divert him from 
these habit8 they find for him 
a bride in p'Od-'c'ah-nia,' the 
daughter * of king C'andi-u Gomu- 
shi, of Kingala.' And thus is he 
kept in the palace for five years 
longer, till a host of gods appear 
and declare him divine, and com- 
missioned as the Saviour of the 
world. But Ktill the king does 
not permit him to renounce hia 
princely life and become, as he 
desired, an ascetic. The youtliful 
Padma-sambhava now killis several 
of the subjects, who, in their pre- 
sent or former Uvea, had injured 
Buddhism ; and on this the people 
complain of his misdee<l8 U) the 
king, demanding his banishment, 
which sentpnce is duly carried out, 
to the great grief of the king and 
the royal family. 

The princely pilgrim tmvcls to the Bhitani cemeterj* of the cool 
grove/ where, dwelling in the presence of the dead as a Soaiiniko* he 
seeks conuauuion with the gods and demons, of whom he subjugates 
many. Thence he was conducted by the pftkkinls or witches of the 
four cl«tw«s to the cave of AjiiaptUat^ where he received instruction 

» tnTt'o-Hk^'tTtlo-Xtt : Skt., !^rwitha-wjra. 
■ Skt., lUittMdhant or " Tlie Liglit-hulder." 

* TbPt«xt Kivcs *' wife.'* 

* ThJB is probably thv Sinhnpum of Hiuvu Tsiang, which adjoined Udayina or 
Udynnn ; or it may br Sagila. 

« bSU-bk ta'al. Thin is »aid to lie to the east of India &nd to be tJie abode of Hung- 
kani, itu! greatfist of thp eight great sagfis or ri;*duii. For a Mahayftoa Siiini 
delivered here by Huddha, eee Csoha. -1i»., p. 617. 

* Sutiaiiu It one of tlie twelve obscrvauces of a Utilkshu. and conveys just idtas 
of thi- tlirco ^rat plifnouiena, tiniierinanuuce, pain, and vacuity, by Meeing tlu- 
f iiiiHrala, tlw (^«vii]f; relativeti, the itcm-li of corrui>tion. and \hf. fighting of beaata of 
prey for thr rt'tuaitu. Buddtui. in the- RtUva (^Kctca.. B., p. 29) H alMo ntAted to have 
foUuwed tlie uicetic practice nf a ."fowjatio, or frequfiiti^r of r^incti-rii^. 

' biLaii-skyon, or command -f protector ; it may alao be Saaakritiied as fivdarta>*4' 

Thb Lotts-boks Haml. 




in the Ajtvaratna ahaHtUrn, after which he proceeded to tbe counlnei 
of pHfichi, etc., where he received iDstruction in the art« axtd sciesmt 
direct from old world sages, who miraculously appciu*ed to hixD for Um 

Other places x'tstted by him were the cemeteries of the Biddh* 
(? Videha) country, where he wascjiUed "the eun'e rays/' the cemeterr 
of hVc-t'h'en hrdal in Kashmir, where he was called ** the chief desin 
sago" (b/o-Wan mch'og-strd)^ the cemetery of Lhun-ffrui^-hrtMe^pa ia 
Nepal, suhju^tiug the eight cloaks of DAm-Rri at Yaksha fort, wh«iv^iie 
vraa minied " the roaring voteed lion," and to the cemet«rv of Lanka 
hrtMfffs^jHi in tho country of Ztihor, where he was named Padma-sambiiA. 

At Zahor {? Lahore), the king's daughter, a peerle&s princes* who 
conld find no partiifir worthy of her beauty and intellect, completdj 
surrendered to the Guru — and this seems to be the *' Indian " priace»- 
I wife named Mandarawa Kumurl I>tfvi, who was hie constant oompaiiioa 
"throughout his Tibetan travels. At Zahor the rival suitors seixe hia 
and bind him to a pyre, but the tiames play harmlessly round him. tod 
hu is seen within seated serenely on a lotua-flower. Another mimd^ 
attributed to him is thus related : Athiist one day he seeks a wint- 
shop, and, with companions, drinks deeply, till, recollecliiig that 
he baa no money wherewith to pay his bill, he asks the meirohitnt to 
delay settlement till sunset, to which the merchant agrees, and ststn 
that be and his comrades meanwhile may drink their fill. But the 
Guru tiiTcstjf the sun's career, and plagues the country with full daY- 
light for seven days. The wine-seller, now in despair, wipes off their 
debt, when weh»me night revisits the wleepy world. 

The lea^ling details of his defe-at of the local devils of Tibet are 
given in the footnote.* 

1 When the Guru, after poulng thmu^ Nepal, reached JfM-yxf, the ea^my-fai 
(dj^ra-IAtt) of Z'an-M'utt., iiatned Dm-hnm, tried to destroy him by squeesin; hia 
between two mountauis, but he oTercAinc htsr by liia iWAt-power of tfouring la tt> 
sky. He then received her submifl5ion and her promijsc to become a guardian of 
L&mAism under the reli^pouii name of rDo-ijr tryu-buK-mia. 

S-bi-du-ti. — When the (iuru reached gAui»i-f'nN-Dik'fTt--«<ifr, the white flendeas of ehil 
place abawered thuuderbolts upon hiru, without, however, harcnirig him. Tlw Guni 
retaliated by melting her snow-dwi-Uiii^' into a lake ; aud the disootofited fury flrd 
Into th«' laki- TctH-iipiil-Hto-iifKif, whiili the Uuru then caused to boil. Hut thoti^b 
her flesh Uiited riff hor bifties, KtiU she did not emerge : *> the (iuru Uirew iu hi» 
thundfrhoU, pirrring her ri|{ht eye. TlK-n come she forth and oflired up to bhu het 
life-*■Jwp^^<^ and wa* thoreiin named fJnnS'<iiar-iia-wutl'rikftfe^V^n.'ifriff-atti,ar "'Ibc 
Stiow-whito, Kleshlpss, One-eyed Ogress of the Vajni." 

The twr/if TiJn-na FttrCrt. — Tlien the Uuru marched onward, and roodied U-wnff^t- 
tuo-SMr, where the twelve hi/an-ma {tme figure, page 27) furies hurled t)i)uid«rlx>ltjt «l 
him, and tried to crush him between mountains; but the Ouni evaded them tiy 
flying hito the nky.and with his "pointing-finger" charmed tlieir Ihunderbolu intfl 
cinders. And by hU (Mtnting-fitiger he caat the hillituud mountains up>>u thi'irsniniT 
dwelling*. Thereuimn Uu> twelve. iM/rtn-Mfi, with all their retinue thwartedaud «uV 
dutnl, offered him thoir life-eftsence, .inr] s" wen* brought under his control. 

Atw-(:'a«-ri>o/^/^<.— Tlien tho Utmi^ pushing onward, reached Uie fort of C-ywy-flyr- 

[ TheTHjetAn and other non-Indian canonized saint s may generally 
recognized by their un-Indian style of dress, and even when 
iey are bare-headed and clad in the orthodox Huddliist robei* 
they always wear an inner garment extra to the Indian fashion. 

The various Tibetan saints, excluding the apotheosized heroes 
alrea<ly referred to, are held in diflferent estimation by the 
different sects, each of whom holds its own particular sectarian 

m'-tdiOH, where he wae opp'wwJ by dli»"-tw5«« rDif-rj'-UpH'fxi (aee Q^fure, p. 36) 
with his throe hundred and sixty followers, who all wi-n* iuhjcctied aud Ut* iMhder 
ftppotntud > guardian {btrm^-iMj) of the Lamalst doctrine. 

i'ar-lAti-^Mtm-po. — Thm the (juni, ^olng fMrwurrl, reached JS&dM-p»-/«a. wlieni tht 
detmm yar-tXa-tluim-fXi tr>LtiaformMt liimBelf into a buge nMMmtaln-lUte white y&k. 
whuse hr>*ath fai^khcd forth like greAt clouds, and wboce gninUng soutidf^ II ke thun<ter. 
Bu-yu}; l^dUifr[>d At his m>att, and be rained thunderbolt* and liaiL Tlx'u the Guru 
caught the dctnon's nose by " the iron-h«»ok gesture," boutid Uii nrck by '* tl»e rup»« 
gesture," bound his feci by "the fetter-gesture"; and the yak, maddened by Ibv 
super-added " bcll-geiture," transformed himself into a j-oung boy dressed in white 
«Uk, wbn offered up to the liuru bis Ufe-esseace; and so this adversary was sub' 

fiiV'/Jbi thf jfTKoi g.fifn. — ^Tlien th» Gum proceeded to Pkya'Outn-la paiii, wberft 
tbe demim ^SmK-ck'fU't'nn.-Uta transformed himself into a groat white Mtake, with liis 
head iu the country of '^rrcy", and his tail in grrr-no-fAa« country, dralnml I)}' tlie 
MongtAian rirer Sok-C'h'ii, and thus seeming like a chain of mountains he tried to bar 
(he Guru's progress, hut the Ouru threw the tin-ggi over the snake. Then the 
Tan*-lha, in fury, rained tiiundert}olt«. which tbe Uunj turned to flshes, frogs, and 
makca, which fled to a neighl>ouring lake. Then the Guru melted bli anowy 
dwelling, and the god, transformJiig himself Into a young boy drRAsed in whit« fiilk, 
with a turrjaoise diadem, offered up bis Ufe-«saciice, together vritii that of all his 
retinue, and so he was subjected. 

TA* lHpir*^n, — 'riien the Guru, proceeding onwards, airivcd at the northern Phan* 
yiil-thang, when* the tJir*^ lujuren* — ^Tiikij-la^wtan of the north, b r<»i//-Bw« a-*Pf 
g^»-*Mi, and itTin^tinut»-Uon — geni hurricanes to barth** Ouni'd jirogrL-a«. On which 
the Guru circled " tite wheel of fere " with his pointing-ftnger, and thus arrcftt^rd the wind, 
and melted Ihc snowy mountains like butter beforr a n-d W'i irm. Tlien Ux- Uiren 
g.Vo[/-sAy,'«, being discomfttcd, offered up their life-essence ind n<j were subjected. 

3%* TWiirt £i<rt7#, — Then the (Juru, going onward, rt-ac\m\ )iSnm-^yi-tkmtf-9tthonr 
g/<ij[<;-s^um. where ho openi:»d the magic circle or MaifiUda of Gi*? Kiv.> FajniHru (»if the 
Buddttas) for seven days, aft^ which all Gie commanders of Uir Iwwt nf hfttiH-P^rU 
offered their life-essence and w> were subjected. 

Tht'i-nnH. — Tb^n the (Juru went Ut th*- country of gAa-wa-rAiM-r'^ina, where h« 
brought all the TJU-o-rait demtmn under subjecG<ni. 

IV Jft-KwyiM DeriU. — When the f»uru was sitting in the cave of Settift-hv^'jjKigt 
Ihe demon .Va-irtna g ya* BpaajMt*yes-sfc»y. desiring to destroy him. oame into hif 
presem-e in the form of an old woman with a ttir«iuoLse cap, ud T«t»d her bead on 
the Guru's lap and extuodcd her feci towards f7yt-iiK»-Man and her liands towkrda 
the white soowy mountain 7*t-M. Tlien many Gtousands of Mi-ma-yin Murr>Hiiul«d 
the Gora menacingly ; but he caused tlie Five Pierce Demons \a ap|>ear. and ho he 

Mlbjected ttie Jfi-ma-yt\. 

Mm-Wftt, Hr. — Then bi> Bubject«d all the Jfm-mc and b'SeMo of Ci'w-h^-ri and XAa-rui; 
and going tu /iil-mfL, in the province of Ttamg, be subjected all tbe %Mam^mo. And going 



fonnder to be pre-eminent, Tbiiii the established chiuch gi 
the chief place to Tson-K'a-pa and the chief pupils of Atlsa; th 
Kar-gyu sect to Mila-ras-pa, theSa-kya-patoSa-kya l*an4ita,aa 
«o on. And each sub-sect has canonized iife own particular riuH 
The innumerable T^mas who now pose as re-incamatioiis 
deceased Lamas, al^o receive homage as saiuts, aud ou their dec« 
have their images duly inslalled and worshipped. 8oine saints 

to the country of Bttri lie sul>jc<ct^ aU the iMm-tri. And going to Aomg^- 
he subjectM) all thf SrU-ptt. And R-'ing to central TiU'i fdhtTa) towards the WudU] 
ft ttii^ lake .ViiniiAiiiMM (NMiZ-^io), Itc subjected all tlM.> .Vuydtf uf the m»tl-^tv Ul« 
who ulfenyl him iaven tltrnxmuid guklen coitu. And ^iing t-o f^yn-V-fW-^iyw*. h* 
subj>>ct4.*d all Uitf /'Aw-ryyiriV. And giting ti> Di'mrj-uuioff-bnuj^mttur, he subjected 
tl>e SnK'll eating Iht'^t (i* fiamt/tai-cu). And guiug lo ^'tta-/M'i-A'>'>N»4'y, he liubj< 
all the dO'c-siV'i. And gutiig to J}y<'ti<a-rii^iAcu-, he aubjected all the eight cl 
of lAtt'trin. And going to tlio ftnowy ronuntain Ti-*i,Ut' 6ubjvctt.<d nil tlie twotj' 
ei|:ht XitiA'tfu- And going to />An-iy0dwrtiH«, he subjected the eight plonetd. And 
going to Bu-Vf-^iiw, \v subjectL-d all tlie W*^ of tJii' peaks, tJie coiuitnr. Atid tte 
dwrllitig*«ite8, all of wlmm itffiTci) htm L>very sort of worldry wfalth. And ^inas ^ 
gLo-iWt ho Mibjected aU the nine lD>in-iiMi-f;^Hii. Tlitrtt he Mraa met by f/nM'*^)*'** 
At Mo-wM-j^cws, where he bmu^ht him under «ubjrctton. Th^ii haring gociF ta 
r7V-/Aa-yaAH, ho subjiH'tt^'d the r7'«*-5ni>in. And going t^i iTod-tMntf,Ue sabjrcted ^ 
the bTtau. Then liaving gi.tne to Zul-ffvl-rktfnli'i/ntufhv-I'mif, he rcinainr-U for ooc 
month, during which ho subjugated gsoA-bo/urf mid threo iXiM-irt. 

Ami linvini;,' roncoalnl many scripturea %a ri'Velatiims, \\f. caused etch oF time 
flends to guard one apiece. Witli thio he completed the suhiectJOQ 0/ the kwiEt of 
maligniuit devils of TilM-t. 

Then the tJuru procreded to Lha«a, where he rested nwhik*. and tlion wot 
towardfl »Tod-lvH. At that time mMXA^a^-ryyai-po lent his minister, /Jln-bMi- 
k/ifd/jnf. with a Intter and three golden Patn, silken clothes, hoKM. and divers good 
pri:80nt«, accompanied by fire hundred CAvnlr}-. Tbeeo met him at iTod-l nA-^^oA-fm, 
where tlie minister offered the presents to the Guru. At that time oil were- atliirst, but 
no vitiU-r or tea was at hand, &o the Uuni toucbtsl the rork of f-Taii-fHA^s^»~fa^ 
whence watcrr sprung welling out: which he told tht* minister to draw in x Teoad. 
H«nc4t tJutt place ia called to tbu day gf*ON-/u('-/Ati-«A'u or ** Thu wat«r of tho Clod's 

Fn»m J/tio-fMi-n the IJuni wt*nt to 2uAA-'t»i; where tie met King m^ali-Ada$- 
rg^*al-p(i. who received hiin with honour and welcome. Now tlie (iuru. remeuibcrijig 
his oM-n stipamatural origin and the king's cam<il btrtli, expect^ Che king to «alut4< 
him, so Tomainod standing. But the king thouglit. " I am the king of thf^ I*Iacfc- 
headed men of Tibet, 80 tlie tiuni must first salute me," While the two werr 
possessed by these thoughtj. the Guru related how tlu'ough the force of pnyers don* 
at Bftn-r II it- ICa-fhn- stupa in Nepal (sec p. 315> in forrat-r birtlis, they two h»»e 
ootne liere together. The Guru then extended his right liand to italute the king, hot 
lire darted forth frtim hi« finger-tips, and catching the dn-ss of the king, »ft it on Sre. 
Andat the same time agrnat thunder was hoard in the sky, followed by an eorthquakr-. 
Then the king and all his miniBters in terror prostrated themselves at tlie feet t^ tbt* 

Tlwn the Guru spoke, aaying, " As A penanoe for not having promptly SAluttf^l me, 
erect Ar<? stone .4tri[ias." These the king iiumediately erected, and they were named 
c*Hii-m'Arti--m(!AW-rfeN, aod exist up till the present day. 

itirely of local repute, and the ghosts of many deceased LSmas 
worshipped in the belief that they have become malignant 
?piriti3 who wreak their wrath on their former associates and 

^H Amongst the earlier Tibetans who are generally accorded the 
^^bositiou of saints are king Srou Tsau Oampo, his two wives 
^^Knd minister Ton-mi, who were associated with the introduction 
^H>f Buddhism to Tibet, king Thi-8rofi Detsan, who jiatronized 

*^3^ ^1^ ^^^'^ 



the founding of Liimaism, the earlier translators of the scriptures, 
and especially those associated with St. AtTsa. 

One of the popular saints is the fifimous engineer, T'aii-toA 
jyal-po, whose image or picture is often found in Lamaist 
temples. He lived in the fir^t half of the hfteenth century a.d,, 
and is celebrated for having built eight iron-chain susiwnsion- 
bridges over the great river of central Tibet, the Yaru Tsaii-po; 
and several of these bridges still survive.* 


1 After Pander. 

' Beg*rdiD£ hU image Id the catlicdral of Lliiuta, the micrioinii reUu^l tlio rullowiiig 
legend U> Sorat: Tafi-toii ft-art'd Uil> iiiiserifa of thi» world Ten* much, Imviiig 
iiihabttc<l it in funner existences. Accordingly hv contrived to remain sixty years in 
hin mother'* womb. Tlif rt^ )tt> sat in pn^fuuud meditation, c»tic4-nlmting hia mind 
moBt earnestly on the wi^ll-betng of all living crt* aturea. At tlie end of aixty yifUB 
he begnn to realiiu? that, whilo meditating fnr the goml nf othcrh, ho vjia iieglectinf 
th>* rather prolongo«l stifTcriii^ of his mother. So he forthwith quitted the vntmb, 
and came into thf world nlp.'ady pr^'vitled with ffrcy hair, and stmightway com* 
mrnc«^ preacliint;. 


Certain title* hare oome to be restrkted to panicalar ai 

tin ^ (WiM) Preciottt Rerexenee * (Je-rin-iJO-cV) is St. TmA K* 

.«*fHit) BfTrmnfft^'f jMimnJ §■ ^ Mih rwif, •^fHit) HolvBe 

wntx ** (Je4«aB duo-pa) i» TbaoSthat^'The Teaidier ** (»LotMiti 

is St. Padma-Mnbhava, and the Sukym. I^ma u *'(Hm) Hi 



<*AFtu{tA T.i.vTHJt Cbauh. 



XOST religions of tbe present day teem with symbolism, 
which is woven so closely into the texture of the 
creeds that it is customary to excuse it« presence by 
alleging that it in impoHsible to convey to the people 
piritnal truths except in material forms. Yet we have only to 
3ok at Muhammadauiam, one of the great religions of the world, 
'and still actively advancing, to see that it appeals successfully to 
the most uneducated and fanatical peoi)Ie, although it is prac- 
tically devoid of symbolism, and its sanctuary is a severely empty 
building, wholly unadorned with images or pictui'es. People, 
however, who are endowed with artistic sense, tend to clothe their 
religion with symbolism. 




Tlie symbols projwr, extra lo the i^ymbolic repregeutatioiu of 
the deities di-alt with in the preceding chapter, are coDveutioul 
•il^ns or diagrains, or pictures of auimals, mythological or other- 
wise, or of plants and inanimate objects; and in Tibet thev are 
very widely met witli. Tliey are painted or carved on honf^es and 
furniture, and emblazoned on boxes and embroidery, and on 
personal ornaments, trinket*, charms, etc. 

The extremely rich symbolism found in Lamaism ifl largely of 
Indian and Chinese origin. Its emblems are mainly of a conven- 
tional Mindil kind, more or less modified to adapt them to their 
Buddhist setting. Others are derived from the Chinese, andafev 
only are of Tibetan origin. These latter are mostly of a very 
crude kind, like the reffuses common in mexlijeval England for the 
U8e of the illiterate. 

In this place, also, we can most conveniently glance at tht 
mystic value of numbers ; the " magic-circle " offering in effigj- 
of the universe, etc., which enters into the daily worship of eveiy 
I.iima ; and the charms against sickness and accidents, ill-luck, 
etc., and the i)rinted charms for luck which form the "prayer- 
flags,'' and the tufts of rags affixed to trees, bridges, etc, 

Thk LoTtTS. — Most of the sacred emblems, as well as the imager 
of divinities, it will be noticed, are figured upon a lotus-flower. 
This expresses the Hindu idea of super-human origin. The lotus 
xijton the lake seems to spring from the body of the waters without 
contact with the sordid earth, and, no matter how muddy the 
water may be, the lotus preserves its own purity. undefiled. 

The various kinds of lotuses figured at page 339 are given 
special uses. The red lotus is common to most deities and divine 
symbols ; the white lotus is special to Avalokita; the blue one to 
Tilra ; and when a demon is figured upon a lotus the latter is a 
pinkish variety of the white form, with the [letals much notched 
or divided. 

The Three Gems (Tri-^mtna^), symbolic of t he Trin ity : 
Buddhaj^ his^ord, apd the Church. These are usually figured 
(as in No. 2 on next page) as three large egg-shape<I gems, with 
the narrow ends directed downwards, and the ceulml member is 
placed slightly above the other two, so as to give symmetry to the 
group, which is usually surroimded by flames. 




b. Unartbodox torm. 

The SvASTiKA,' or ** fly-foot ctos-*," is a crosn witb the free end 
each arm bent at right angles to (he limby. It is one of the 
lost widely diffused of archaic symbols, having been found at 
uy by S c h 1 1 e in a n n , and anion g 
icient Teutonic nationtt aa the emblem 
»f Thor. In Buddhism, the ends of 
le arms are always bent in the re- 
Qtful attitude, that is, towards the 
eft; for the Lamas, while regarding 
He gymbol as one of good augury, 
consider it to typify the cx>n» 
iDUous moving, or " the ceaseless 
!Coming," which is commonly called Life. Sir A. Cunningham 
plieved it to be a monogram formed from the Asoka characters 
jtor the auspicious words Su + Asti, or ** that which is good."^ 
[t waa especially associated with the divinity of Fire, as represent- 
ing the two cross pieces of wood' which by frictifin produce fire. 
The Jain;*, who teem to be an Indian offshoot of Huddliism,* 
ippropriate it for the seventh of their mythical saints.* The 
iet«rudox Tibetans, the Bon, in adopting it have turned the 
?uds in the reverse direction. 

The Seven Gems.'* These are the attributes of the universal 
lonarch,^ such as prince Siddharta was to have been had he not 
ome a Buddha. They are very frequently figured on the base 
^his throne, and are : — 

1. The Wheel.* The victorious wheel of a thouKand spokes. It 
Iso represents the symmetry and completeness of the I^w. It is 
igured in the early »?anchi Tupe.^ 

2, The Jewel. "^ The mother of all gems, a wish-procuring gem 

' Yiin-<lrun. Chinese, CAd'-J-rtWi/, or "Tlit- UmMimiaand character**; rf. iilsn Indiait 
Antiquary, ix., 65, etc., 135, etc., and numerous refcrriicMS in DcuotrTiKH, op. rit^ 22-23. 

3 Su, meaning " good " or "excellent" (in Ori'rk, <■«), iind .-tsti is tlic third person 
singular present iniUcattTe af the verb As, " to t>e," and A'u is'au abstract suflix. 

s Skt., A ra»i. * But see Jacobi's wurks. 

> Namely, the Jina S»-partm. 

• Oct., Seftta-mtna. T^ Rin^hVn nnn-lvlun; vS. Hahoy's .V.i.^ p. 13ri, and At.A- 
,'s WA«eliifl/u L<iv, p. 61. 

1 Oakra-rartin. Rajo, 

» Skt, Caknt; T.. 'K'vr-lu. 

" FsnoDiMON, Ttn and Step, llVrf.f pi. x.'iix., Hg. 9, 

i« Skt., /lo/Mtt ; T^ yvrhu. 

w s Skt 
■ > Nai 

^r 1 ftni 


3. The jewel of a Wife,* "The Jasper-girl" who lans herlorf 
to flleep, and attends him with the constaDoy of a slave. 

4. The gem of a Minister,* who regalatea the business of the 

5. The (white) Elephant.' The earth'SliakiDg bea^t^ who as » 

vK^^ •/•K?i- tf^i^rer** "^ l^^^K^ ^***ir^ 




• • /0l^t. 


symbol of universal sovereignty the Buddhist kings of Burma and 
Siam borrowed from Indian Buddhism. It seems to be Indians 
elephant Airavata.* 

6. The Horse.^ It seemg to symbolize the horae-ch&riot of the 
sun, implying a realm over which the sun never sets, as well as 
the celestial /^cgr^aite-steed," which carries its rider wherever the 
latter wishes.' 

7. The gem of a (leneral,^ who conquers all enemies. 

1 8kt., Slri^- T., TsuA-nio. 

i Skt, (?) (iirti or M{%kojai,n: T., Ai«N-/w. 

J Skt^ Uasti : T.. <jiaA-f)u. 

< Tliis elephant is toxjut-ntly roprfs^nti^d a« a miniature bninw* onumnit w flcnrer- 

i«taud on the Lamaist altar. Mr. BalxT rt^ranls {R. O. Sue SnfjJ., (wiht, p. 88) ■ 

oloesal olephADt with six txiAks, caMt in silv^r^r-bronzr, in western S8U-4<)i'u«ui. It i» 

^«f artUtic merit, nnd carries on itj* back, in place of a howdiUi, a lotua-llc/wrr, in 

which Is enthroned an admirable iniagv ot Huddlia. 

* Skt.« Afnt i T., . Trt-rttdi'fty. 

* Afwin or Uchchaihsravas, 

1 ODinpArc n-ith tlic divine horse named ** Might of a Clutid.*^ from the thirty-tJiree 
Avens. which drlivsrod the mcrchanU From the tslaod of RalcAhuis.— «e« Hnr>i« 

* 8kt^ ffaUM" or St»a.paii; T., d Jf<v-<i/<'«. 



And to these Ihe Ltitnas add an eighth, namely, the V'^a&e,' for 
storing all the hidden riches of the three regions of life. 

The Seven (Royal) Badges.* 

1. The precious HouRe (pnlat-e). (Kai'i-Ran Rinpoch'e) 

royal Eohes 
Boots (einhi-oitiered). 
Elephant's tti&k. 
Queen's eaiTiiig. 
Ring's ean'ing. 




( I An-ch*en ch'em 

(Tsumno na-ja 

(Gyal|K> im-ja 


The above list seems Bomewhat confused with " The seven world- 



ivishiug Gems" here figured.* 

The SevkiN Personal Gems.* 

1. The Sword-jewel— conf era invincibility. 

3. The Snake (AV}^a)-skin jewel. It ik ten miles long by five broad; 
water cannot wet it, nor the wind shiiko it; it wnrtns in the cold 

I weather and cook in the hot ; and shiaett brighter than the moon, 
3. The Palacc-jewcl. 
4, The Ganlen-jewel. 
5. The Robes. 
6. The Bed-jewel. 
7- The Shoe-jewel. Conveys tho wearer one hundred miles without 
fatigue and aeross water without wetting the feet. 

> Bttn-jM-ter; Skt., Kttltifa, 
- Oyal-ts'ui snA bdun. 

* ".ligH-yoiia-Kyi rin-iM-cU'e, namely, ft&m, amcU-iheW curJ, king's earring) quewn'H 
lAiUTing, jewelknl tiara, tlirtrt-tiyed gem, auiJ th>' i-iglit-limWd coral. Ani>tlier enuinvr- 

pktinii gives PuilniaragH, iiKlnimla, baiduryn, nmrga'], vajra, jiearl, ani ^vtral, 

* .N'rywai riu*pucb'e siia bdun. 

TitB Ekiht Ulobiocs Offuinos. 

(ComiMii-e with the minor in 

and be hlesseii it and rendei-ed it holy. 
the Shinto religion of Japan.) 

2. The intestinal concretion {gi-ham or tfi^'i'an found in the eutraila 


^Fcaptiu-ed the guldt'n full in tliu Tosti lake. *'WLen I rum*' Imck fnnn Ttwu-nor 

to Shang, thp Klianpi ("abbot), a Tibetan, askcH me when* I prDpoatril going; 'To 

Ltib-ncr,' [ replied, not wishing to di^ciiits my plans. *I KUppoiwd that was ytmr 

^k intention,' he rejoined; *y<~'U have caught uur hurst- iind Hr^h cif gold in th^ TiMiu-n«ir, 

^Lftnd now you wuit to got tlu; fnig uf gold uf tlic LdulHUur. But it will Iw iukU>8» 

^■(o try ; thrre is in the whoU' world hut tlie Panchen ltinpi>che,uf Ta«hi-lhuDiK), who is 

^P»ble tu catrh it" ("A Juurni'v in Mongolia andTibet," TAe Ow;. Jvurt*., May, 18M, 

p. S7d). Tht> Jspniiet^c UHt^ a wijudcn flsh 09 a gong. 

^ In banchi Tope. »jioU9., Trte and Strp, H'oTfhip, pi. xxxT., Fig. S. 

* Alw) the symbol of the tenth Jiua [Sifafu) ol tlio Jfiins. Cotuparc with 
*■ BuddliaV entrails," sec number '2 of next UhL, uUo on tliis page. 

* bkran'fl-rdiiaa brgyad. Tliese, together witli the forvgoing, nrny U> <:-fini|tAnHl 
witli the A'atahmt *iT Xarahitl/ti, or nine treiisiires cf Kuvcrn. thH grni nl richfg, 
namely, Pudma, Mnha^iadma, Mnltam, Kacchapa. Muhumhi, .Niuula, .Nihi. Khan«*a. 
And the«e art related ty the bu-called Naga kings, ** the nine Nandas " uf .Mngadhn. 


vi cei'taii) aniuiaU Hud ou tk« neck of an elephant. The land-juui 
iiig elephant uBeifd tbiB to Bnddlia, nud he bleeped it. 

3. CurdH (iu). — The fanner's daughter Cleg&«kye«-n>a) oAered BotUbt 
ctirdled milk, und lie blett^etl it 

4. fJaritfi gmu. — Muiigttlttiu, the graes-Keller, offered Buddha 4arm 
, which he blessed. 

5. Tlie Bihca fruit (i£g1e luai-melos). — Bi-ahuia ofiered him Mm, 
which he blessed us the best of finiiti^. 

C. Coneh-shell.— ludra offered hiin a white conch-shell, sxmI be 
blessed it. 

7. Li-kkri. — ^The Rrnhmnn " King-Ktw," offered him Xii-khii, uid hi 
blessed itajs the oTei-pciwering knowledge. 

8. Tlie white turnip. — VojrapAm, ** the Secret Lord," offered hiioi 
white tmniip (yaii-dknr), which he blessed as the demon-defeatuf I 

Tei FivB Sensdous Qdalitibs.' 

These arc fignied at i>age 297. The^ seem to be a Bui 
adBptation of the Uinilu "eight enjoyments" {Ai/JtUtIt 
namely, a grand house, a bed, fine clothes, jewels, wive«, flowee, 
perfumes, areca-nut and betel. They are offered on the aitare aiid 
are: — 

1 . Plefwing form (A*w/>u). 

2. Sound [^apta), 

3. Perfumes {C'tmdhe). 

4. LuHcious eatubles (^niteete). 

5. Pleasing-touch and feelings (5par*i). 

Distinctly Chinese in origin are the Trigrams and the foUoving 
symbolic animate. 

Tlie Trigrams are especially used in astrology, and ar? d^ 

Bcril)ed in the chapter on 
that subject. They un 
based upon the verv 
ancient Chinese theory of 
the Yin-yang or **tbe 
great extreme ** (** Tii- 
Ky"^), where two parallel 
lines, in a circle divided 
spirally into two eqoal 
tadpole-like segmeot^, 
represent, as in the doutrine of the Magi, the two First Causes and 
great principles, or contrary iiiHuences (Vin'^Yaiig); such m 

Ut hCtoii- nVu 



' Bkt^ KAvtoffWut, T., 'dniJ-yoAn. 

> DuMOtMlK, LtM SifMMt*, Wc, AHiuimitft, 





ight and darkaess, good nnd evil, male and female, heat and 
aid, movement and repose, and so on. 

The circular diagram ' is divided by the Lamas, like the 
Ifftpanese, into three segments (as in the 
inexed figure a); and it will be noticed 
lat the tails are given the direction of 
le orthodox fly-foot cross, for it too, 
ccording to the Luman, signifies ceaseless 
change or " becoming." 

The IxJNQEViTY-trigram or hexagram, 

both its oblong and circular forms 

i(lig. b and c), i« a modification of the 

Chinese symbol for longevity calleil ThoJ^ 

The I>5ma8 have also incorporated the 

four greatest amongst the Chinese sym- 

olic animals, to wit, the Tortoise, the 

*hoenix, Dragon, and Hoise-tlragon, as 

Fell as the Chinese Tiger, and the Bats. 

The Tohtoise symbolizes the universe 
to the Chinese as well as the HindfiB. Its 
dome-shaped back represents the vault 

II of the sky, its belly the earth, which 
moves upon the waters; and its fal)ulous 
longevity leads to iU being considered 
The Dragon ' seems to [wrpetuate the 
tradition of primaeval flying snurians of 
geologic time-s, now knowii only through 
their fossilized remains. The I^lmos and 
Chinese Buddhists have assimilated them 
^|With the mythical serpents (Naga) of Indian myth. 
^f The Horse-dragon figures, as it seems to me, very promi- 
nently in the prayer-flags of Tibet, as we shall presently see. 

The PHffiNix (or ** Oariulic'*). This mythical " sky-soarer " * 
is the great enemy of the dragons, and has been assimilated to 



Tbjodahs as Chakiis. 

> CallMl rUyan-'k'j-il, pr'jbably a corruptioti of the Cliinese name. 

2 Cf. DCMOUriHK, ufK cit,f p. 21, • 

» Tib., 'drujj ; Chinese Xo«y. 

• Tib., niiin-K'ah-Idiii. The Chtneic call it Con-phu'oag (DtmocTUit, p. 48). 

^the Indian Oaru4o, the arch-enemy of the Niigas, And aayo» 
rho has, like myself, »e^a the bird popularly called 0^/r*4i 
(namely the Adjutant or Stork) devouring snakes, must 
why the Indians fixed upon ttucli a homely simile to repi 
their myth. It seems to be analogouis to the Thundi 
of the North American Indians. In a more Uiysiic sen^ th« 
iJiuias, like the Chinese, believe it to i>ymboUze the entire world; 
itH head is the heaven, its eyes the sun, itt$ back the creficenl 
moon, itu winga the wind, its feet the earth, its tail the trees «im1 

The Tiger is a deity of the pre-Lamaist religion of Tibet; 
and the ** Red-Tiger," as already noted, appears to uie to be ihf 
prototype of the favourite Lamaiat demon (Tam-<iin). The tiger ii 
diBplaycd on all the Tibetan prayer-flags in contest with On 
dragon,^ and the live tigers {aee tigure, page 519) are eonspicaots 
in the Chinese symbolism prevalent in Annam.' 

The group is mystic»Uy reputed to symbolise the five elements : the 
centiul yellow tiger is the earth, the upper right blue one is trood. 
the lower right red one is fire (also the south), the upper left Wack 
one is water (also the oortb), and the lower left is luetal (olao tltt 


The Bats, five in number, have come by a confusion of homo- 
nyms to symboliice the five good Fortune*,' 
namely, Luck, WeAlth, Long life. Health, 
and Pe«ce. They are embroidered on 
dresses of high Lamas, sorcerers, masker^ 

Astrology also usee many other symbols, 
ait will be seen hereafter. 

The symbolism of colours is referred to in the chapter oo 
images and incidentally elsewhere. 

I FivK Bats of FoitmfB. 

Symbolic Words used as Ndkg&als in Cbbonoorams. 
In chronograms and astronomical and other works, symbolic 
names are often used instead of numerals. The ratiouale of the 



of rtuch names is generally obvious; thus the individuarfi bcxly, 

moon, the (one-hornerl) rhinoceros, express unity from their 

ngleness. The hand, the eye, wings, twins, denote a pair. And 

ay of the others are derived from the nij^hology of the Hindus. 

38 following are some additional illustrations* : — 

3 = the world — i,«., the three Buddhist worlds of Rama RQpa, 

= quality — i.e.j the three Ouna, 
= tire — eWdently from its triangular tongue. 
= top^probably from the Chinese ideograph of a hill. 
•4 = a lake or sea — i.e.^ the idea of fluid re<]ULring to be hemmed in on 
all four aide«. 
= the senses — the 6ve senses. 
= an element — ^the Bve elements, 
san aggregate — the dve Skandha, 
7 = a sage — the seven Sishu 
8=a snake — the eight great N&ga.s. 

9 = a treasure— the nine treasures of Kuvera and the Nandas. 
I O = [)oints — the ten points or directions. 
1 2 = the Sim — with its twelve signs of the Zodiac. 
t-t = Jina or victor — the twenty-four Jina and TirUiaukara. 
S2 = tooth — the human set of thirty -two teetli. 
Oi^sky — the " empty " space. 

Thb " MAwnALA " OR .Magic (ImcLE-oFFERrao op the Universe. 

It is almost a matter of history how the great emperor of Asoka 
irice presented India to the Buddhist church, and thrice redfiemed 
it with his treasure. But it seems to be little, ifat all, known that 
the Liiraas systematically ai>e Asoka in this particular gift; and 
they are much more magnificently generous than he. For every 
day, in every temple in Ivumadom, the Lamas offer to the Buddhas 
(afi well as to the saints and demons) not only the whole of India, 
bnt the whole universe of JamhudvTp and the three other fabulous 
continents of Hindu cosmogony, together with all the heavens and 
their inhabitants and treasures. And although this offering is 
made in eflfigy, it is, according to the spirit of Lamaism, no leBs 
effective than Asoka's real gifts, upon which it seems to be based. 
The mode of making this microcosmic offering of the universe 
in effigy is as follows j but to fully understand the rite, reference 

1 Taken in<>Ktly fnnn Csoha's Qramwrnr^ pp. IflO* et «rq. 



.-should be made to the illustrated description of the Buddlitfi 
uuiverse, already given at page 79. 


Having wij)ed the tray with the right arm or sleeve, the l^mt 
takes a handful of rice in either hand, and sprinkles some on {he 
fray to lay the golden foundation of the univerge. Then he sei? 
down the large ring (see figure, p. 296), which is the iron girdle of 
the universe. Then in the middle is set down a dole of rice » 
mount Meru (Olympus), the axis of the system of worlds. Then 
in the order given in the attached diagram are set down a frf 
grains of rice representing each of the thirty-eight, component 
portions of the universe, each of which is named at the time of 
depositing its representative rice. The ritual for all sects of Lamu 
during this ceremony is practically the same. I here append the 
text ns used by the Kar-gyu sect. 

During this ceremony it is specially insisted on that the per- 
former must mentally conceive that he is actually bestowing all 
this wealth of continents, gods, etc., etc., upon his l^lmaist deities, 
who themselves are quite outside the system of the universe*. 

The words employed during the offering of the Manclala are the 
following, and it should be noted that the figures in brackets 
corresjxind to thwie in the diagram and indicate the several 
points in the magic circle where the doles of rice are deposited 
during this celebration or service. 

" Om / Vajra bhwnmi ak Hiim .' " 

*' On the entirely clear foimdation of solid gold is Om ! bajra-rMt- 
ah //Qm. 

'* In the centre of the iron wall is /fum and Ri-rab(Meni), the kins 
of MountAins (1). 

" On the e:>st is Lus-'p'ags-po (2), 

'* On the south 'Jam-hu-glifi (3), 

" On the west Ba-IaA-tpyoil (1), and 

" On the north Gra-nii^fian (5), 

" On either side of the eastern continent are Liis (6) and 

*' On either side of the Aouthern continent hii* rNa-yab (8) and 
rNa-yab-gx'nn (9). 

•* On either side of tlio western continent are Youten (10) and 
Laio-mch'og-'gra (II). 

should be innde to the illosti^ted description of the Badfitt 
universe, already given at page 79. 


Hjiving wi[)ed the tray with the right arm or 8lee%'e, the L*** 
tak«» a boudful of rice in either haud, and sprinkler aome m \k ' 
tray to lay the golden foundation of the imiver&e. Then he hO 
down the large ring (aee figure, p. 296), which is the iron ginfleflf 
the universe. Then in the middle is set down a dole of rire » 
mount Meru (Olympus), the axis of the syst:em of worlds. Tim 
in the order given in the attached diagram are set down a (n 
grains of rice representing each of the thirtv-eight oomponmJ 
portions of the universe, each of which is named at the time if 
depositing its representative rice. The ritual for all sects of T-5m«* 
diuing this ceremony is practically the same. I here append ti« 
text as used by the Kar-gyu sect. 

During this ceremony it is specially insisted on that the p«- 
former must mentally conceive that he is actually bestowing ill 
this wealth of continents, gods, etc., etc., upon his Laiuaist Jeitif.v 
who themselves are quite outside the Hystem of the universe. 

The words employed during the offering of the Mandala are th* 
following, and it should tie noted that the figures in braokei* 
correspond to those in the diagram and indic&te the sev^nl 
point* in the magic circle where the doles of rice are depoe^t^i) 
during this celebration or service. 

" Omf Vajra bhutttmi ah Hum /" 

" On the entirely clear foundatioD of solid gold is Om / hajrcr^kt 
»/i Hum. 

" In the oentre of the iron wall is Hum and Ki-rab (Meru), the king 
of MouutainH (1). 

" On the east is Liis-'p'ag^-po (2), 

" On the south *Jam-bu-glin (3), 

*' On the west Ba-lah-»pytid (4), and 

" On the north Om-uii-ffiian (5). 

** On either side of the eastern continent are hus (6) and Lw- 

" On either side of the southern continent are rKii-yHb (8) and 
rNa-yab-gz'an (9). 

" On eith*^r side of the wcwtem continent are Yonten {10) anil 
Lnin-iu<di*og''gra {M)* 


** And on either dde of the northern contineot are sGrarii 
(12) Hnd .sGra-mi-e&an-gyi-mda (13). 

•' There are mountains of jcwela (14), wi&h-granting trees {15|. ' 
granting cows (16), anplotixhod crops (17), the precious wheel [18^.< 
precious N'nrbu jewel (19), the precious queen (20), the precioufi i 
(31), the precious elephant (22), the precious horse (33), the 
bittlo-chief (24), the vase of the great treasure <25\ the 
Mf^HpOrma. (26), 'P'ren-wii-ina (27), gLu-ma(28). Oar-ma (20), Hi; 
(30), bDug-spoe-ma (3 1 ), sNan-gsal-ma i;32),J>ri-ch'aI-ma (33), the i 
moon (35), jewellwl umbrella (36), the ensign of victory (37), wfc 
entirely victorious from all dii-ections, and in the middle are the j 
(38), the most accomplished and wealthy of the beings ! 

*' 1 offer you all these constituent parta of the universe in their^ 
iirety, ! noble, kind, and holy Lama ! (> ! tutelary gods of tlie i 
circle, and all the hoRts of Buddbas nml Bodhisatii ! 

" 1 heg you all to receive these offerings for the benefit of thesr 
beings ! 

" t offer you O ! Bud^as ! the four continentfl and mount 
adorned with the sun and moon on a foundation of incense and flo 
Let all the animal beings enjoy liappiness ! 

" I offer you ! aissembly of all the nccomplished supreme bein 
the outside, inside, and hidden regions, the entire wealth and bodyl 
all these ideal regions. I beg you all to give ua the beet of all 
gift»T and also ^he real gift of rDsogS'pa'ch'ea-po (tlie mystic tno^xl 
sought by the Nin-ma) ! 

*' T offer up this fresh magic-cirole, through the virtue of which fel 
no injury besot the path of purity, but let us have the grace of tbf 
Jinns of the three times, and let us, the innumerable animal beingt, bi 
delivei*ed from this illutnve world ! 

*' I offer up salutations, offerings, confessions of sinK, and i 
ance. What virtue has been accumulated by myself and othcr>. 
go to the attainment of our great end. Idam-raina inan4^ia kt 
ifttiU;/dmi f 

" I humbly pi-ostrate myself three times to all who are wortlrjj 
worship, with my whole heart and iKwIy." Let glory com© ! * 

But the commonest use of sacred symbols is as talismans to wwd 
off the evils of those malignant planets and demons who cansp 
dtseai^e and disaster, as well as for inflicting harm on one's eneniv. 
The nymbols here are used in a mystical and magic sense a* speiU 
anil as fetishes, and usually consist of formulas in corrupt ~ 
often unintelligible Sanslirit, extracted from the Mahayaua 
Tantrik ecrii)tures, and called cUinnfiii* as they arp believed 
"hold" divine powers, and are also used as incantations. Shor 



Fur ^rtsiU nf tb(< re-st of Uili spnrirr. mh* my Idmaum in Sikkim, p. 106. 



18 of these, consisting often of a single letter, are also 

as representing the essence or "germ" of these spells or 

tmSi uufl hence named vijit. And the mystic dingrara in 

ich they are often arranged is named Yantray as in Hindu 


le forms of these talismans and amulets are innumerable. 

majority are luck-compelling, hut different diseases, accidents 

misfortune have each their special kinds. 

7he ealing of the jmper on which a charm has been wi'itten is 

; ordinary way of curiug disesise, as indeed it had been in EmTj^w 

not 80 many centuries ago, for the mystic ^ heading our 

criptions is generally admitted to have had its origin in the 

ibol of Saturn, whom it invoked, and the paper on which the 

ibol and several other mystic signs were inscribed constituted 

medicine, and was itself actually eaten by the patient. The 

rils which the Lilmas use in this way as medicine are shown in 

annexed print, and are called *' the edible letters '* (za-y/^). 
[A still more mystical way of applying these remedies is by the 

washings of the reflection of the 
writing in a mirror, a practice 
not without its parallels in otlier 
quarters of the globe.^ Thus to 
cure the evil eye as shown by 
symptoms of mind-wandering and 
dementia condition — called 
"byad-'grol" — it is ordered as 
follows: Write with Chinese ink 
on a piece of woo<i the pfirticular 
letters and smear the writing over 
with myrobalams and saffron as 
varnish, and every twenty-nine 
days reflect this inscribed wood in a mirror, and during reflection 
wash the face of the mirror with beer, and collect a cupful of 
such beer and drink it in nine aips. 

» MoxiRtt Williams's !Iind»i»n,V21. 

* "In Gambia,^ wrtteH thu oilonial snrgeon iu Ilia report for 1890 (quoted in XatHtt] 
"the trMtiuf-nt rcVunl uptm for euro, and much practined in tho counfry, in to ciill 
In a man who itt suppoftvd to bo a ' ilottor,' who, aflor l<wking at rlip patient. bU.i 
down at hia bedside and writ*;* la Arabic churactent on a wooden slato a lung rig' 
mari'le, gent'-rally consistiug of f>xtractti from the Koran. The alntc is llien washed, 
and the dirty inftuion is dnuik by (he patient." 







Bat most of the chnrmff are worn on the person hs amaku ' 
Every indiWdua! always wears around the neck one or more 4E 
these amulets, which are folded uj) iuto little cloth-covered packtu,' 
bound with coloured threads in a geometrical pattern. Otiwts 
are kept in small metallic cases of bmss, silver, or gold, set 
turquoise stones as amulets, and called " (?(t-u.** These amc 
are fastened to the girdle or sash, and the smaller ones are wars 
as lockets,' and with each are put relics of holy men — a fe« 
threads or fragments of cast-off robes of saints or idols, peacock 
feathers, sacred Kusa grass, and occasionally images and holy pilk 
Other large charms are affixed overhead in the house or tent to 
ward off hghtning^ hail, etc., and for cattle sjiecial charms an 
chanted, or sometimes pasted on the walls of the stalls, etc' 

Most of these charms against accident, disease, and iU-fbrtuce 
are in the form figured on the opposite page, which is called 
"The Assembly of all the I^lmas* Hearts," as it is believed to 
contain the essence of all that is most powerful in the Lanui^t 

It consists of a series of concentric circles of spells surroundwi 
by flames, amid which in the four comers are the symbols of thf 
Buddhist trinity symbolized as three gems, a lotus-flower, a than- 
der-bolt sceptre, and a Bamiug dagger with a vajraAxiXx. In th* 
interior is an eight-petalled lotus-flower, each petal of which bear» 
mystic syllables, and in the centre of the flower is a circular spacr 
of about an inch in diameter, in which is placed the especial m^'stic 
charm, prepared as presently descrilied, and varying according t* 
the purpose for which the charm is wanted. The outer spells are: — 

In the OuUnoat Cxrde. — Guard the Body, Mind, and Speech of thi» 

charm-holder I liakhya ral'hi/a htruye gvdkd I Angiadjfatha ! Om 
mum mtmi utahamxkmifr tvtlhd. (Here follows "The Buddbiat creed " 
alrendy given ; followed by the Dhyani Buddbas :— ) Vairo^ima Ow 
vajra yilshotihi/a f/iim, Hatna-gamhhava Uri, /ianjudhara Hri^ Awwjo- 
K nddha Ah ! ' ' 

H Jn Second Circle. — Ora ! Nama Bnntanta Buddhonani, Nums 

H SaraaDtu Dharmututm, nniiia Sainnnt > Samghannm. Om Sititaliairai. 
H Om Vimala, Ota t^hadkurn, Om Bt-abyiirigar Vajra ustoikbAtaa 
^B krawarti sarvayana manta mQla v&rma bana dhanamb&. Namkil- 


1 Figured <jn pagt* The kiditcy-ihiipod ones arc uUcd Ga-M kt-ri-ma, 

1 Cf. also CaoMA nnil W. K. Cautk, J.A.S.B., ix.. fK)4. S«« fiffuna of floac of tlulr 
cliumB at pages 608, &71, and 672. 



akriayena keni chatkramtamtnta sarbun r&t.sin r&tsi'n dakhindii 
tsiri tsiri giri gt ri tnadn mmia lium hUtn pimt phat. 
Mni Circle. — Guard the Body, Mind, and Speocb of tbU charm- 
Mama rakya rakhya hiruyt sivdJtd. (Here follows the letters of 
babet : — ) Aug, a, a, i, i, u, a, rl, ri, li, li, e, ai, o. au, ang. a, k, 
gb, h, t8, t«b, ds, difa, B, ta, tb, d, db, d, p, ph, b, bh, m, y, r, 1, 
, », h, am ! 

turtfi Circis. — //?Im, ffum, etc. 
Ifth Circle.— Hri, /fri, etc. 


Tut tfKNKBAI. t'uARM FhIST. 

EdUUM •• The ApwrnWy <>* LSttiM" HearU."* 

(Roducod t-l 

Sixth CircU.— (hi/ A! HUm! Hri! Guru! Deva ! Pokkinir 
tiddhijtala Hum /A! 

e special charm, which occupies the centre of the diagram, 
1 accoiding to the object for which the charm is required. It 

D D 2 



ctmsists of a monogram or m3'8tic letter (Sauskrit, vljn^ or setdJ 
which represents the germ of a sjiell or 7?*/i7*im. Thifl letter uj 
often in the old Indian character of about the fourth or fifth] 
century A.D., and is iuscribed in cabalistic fashion with Kpeeiil| 
materials as prescribed in the manual on the subject. 

As most of these t^peciHc charms are of the nature of sytQ^-l 
thetic magic, and evidently derived from very ancient Indian 
sources, probably dating back to Vcdie times when the ritoiij 
consisted largely of sympathetic magic,^ I give here a few ex-j 
amples : ^ — 

Thus to make the 

Charm agahint BidUU and Wettpoiis. — The directions are t 
these: With the blood of a wounded man draw the annexni 
monogram (Do) ^^^^ insert in the vacant space iu the ceutrti 
of the aforesaid print of "The Assembly of the Hearts of Ott\ 
Liima?." The sheet should then be folded and AiTap)>e(l in a piec*! 
of red silk, and tie up with a piece of string and wt-ar around lb« 
neck or an unexposed part of your breast immediately next the skin, 
and never remove it. 

Chiirm for Ctnunng A^iimalB («.«., tigers, cats, bears, etc)-- 
thi a miniature knife write with a mixture of myrolmlans and ! 
musk-water the monogram (? ZAH) and tie up, etc. (I{ere the { 
knife seems to represent the animars claw.) 

For Domestic HroiU. — Write the monogram (? KE) and insert 
in print and fold np and bind with a thread made of the mix«i 
hairs of a dog, goat, sheep, and enclose in a mouse-skin, and lie, 
etc. (This seems to represent union of domestic elements.) 

For Kitchen Cooking Smelh ofensive to tfie Uoitse-Gotl^^— 
With the blood of a hybrid bull-calf write the monogram GAl* 
(*-eow), and insert it in the print, and fold up in a piece of hedge- 
hog-skin. (Compare with the western Aryan myth of the QnA 
hearth-god Vulcan, whose mother Hera as lo is represented ass 

For Oholeiyt (or "the vomiting, purging, and cramps'* ),- With 

I C(. Bbboaiqns*! L4i nliifion ridtque ; nlso Vumku. 

* Por n fuller account, wirh illiuitratiotui, see my article- in Jotn; AmtArmt Inthlak, 

ie dung of a black horse and black sulphur and musk-wat«r write 

monogram (? ZA}, and insert in the print, and fold up in a piece 

of snake-skin, and wear, etc, (Here the dung seems to repi-esent 

the purging, the horse the galloping course, the blaek colour the 

deadly character, and the snake the virulence of the disease.) 

Charm against Plagues. 

This charm, figured at the head of this chapter, consists of a 

loneter tigure of the Garuda, the king of birds, with a snake in 

month, and each of its outstretched plumes bears a text, and 

It also contains the "Buddhist creed." The inscription runs: — 

Om / Bht'um mtrirhad namkhfimjamram. 
Om / hUakhrilimili hahx sxdha ! 
Om f higalhrilimili/taiai/a tkachv/ ! 

Guni*d the iiolder (*.«., the wearer) of this from all the host of diseases, 
l>f evil spirita and injuries, including contagious diseases, sore-throat, 
Miijli, rheumatism, the black " rgyu-ghgyel," brum-bu, and all kind^ 
sf plague of tho body, spcoch^ and mind 1 [Hero followH tlie Buddhist 
reed.] ffahaUf hahatne htlvi tod. *Suru guru hum sod, ^ularjuka 
\hum »od. Sati karnr hilm »od. Kidarakhtji hum aod, Meruiiit/iHntgf 
wh^tn tod. MaJutkuru^a ffunt tri/ja <fi<runani natjathara ramram duldut 
inotiattita pho naf/a cftutu/ViTtga shwj thumamnt/w/t sot. 
Guaj-d the holder. 
Om ! thamitkaraii tadunte dvearamghayt tvaha / 

Another charm for disease is given at page 62, where the 

) tierce demon Tam-din, clad in human and auimal skiuH, beiira on 
liis front a disc with concentric circles of stjells. 
f Scorpion-Charm against Injury by Demons. 

\ This charm, figured at page 474, is in the form of a scorpion, 
whose mouth, tipped by flames, forms the apex of the picture, 
i >n its shoulder are seated the especial demons to be protected 

rftinst. The inscription runs:— 
Aijama durur cashana zluimaya. 
H&m ! Orn / A ! Nntp ! Ai-ttu/nirUiff / 
Xamo Bha<javutl Ifiim f IlUmJ Jlitrl / 

A guard against nil the injuries of *' rgyalpo," " drimo " (a malignant 
demon spcciftlly injuring women), " ttian " (or n-d demons), " sn-dag " 
(or eurth-ilemons), ;tlu {or iwiya), including "'/nan" (a plague-causing 
Bubordirmte of the nwja). 


AgaiDHt injury by these preeerve ! 

And the Bgures are hemmed in by the lu^'stic syllables: /«' 
Hum f Hum ! liavi / m ! 

The huge Tibetan mastiffs are let loose at night as vatch-dog», 
aud roaming about in a ferocious state are a constaot isouroeui 
alarm to truvellers, moat of whom therefore carry the following 
clmnu agiiinst dog-bite. It ooofiists of a picture of a dog fettered 
and muzzled by a chain, terminated by the mystic and all-{>owpr- 
ful thuuderbolt-sceptre ; aud it coutaina the following ini;cribed 
Sanskrit wAiniraB and Btatements: "The mouth of the blue 
dog is bound beforehand! QnwiU-wiA.i vwahd I Khr^rUi-eri-^t 






gtifdhd ! " And this is repeated along the body of the dog, 
oUowed by : — 

Om Vajra tfhana Jrara htl-urataa sal »al nau uiart/a sinut/9 mmrjt 
kufcuralna IrhathmnUa te tta h tnun mun «nr snr y;/}fu'j kha tha ma chit* 
ehhiivjhdihany maratja rakkhi/a rnkkhya / (It i«) fixed I lixed i 

Charm against Eagles and Birds of Prey. 
Eagles play havoc with the yomig herds of the (uistoral Bhotiyo^ 
of the Sikhim uplands and Tibet. For this the people use the 
annexed charm, which they tie up near their huts. The central 
figure is a manacled bird, representing the offending eagle or 
other bird of prey; and around it is the following text: — 

" A guard against all injuries of the covetous, aky-sooring monarch 
bird. (It is) fixed 1 fixed t Om smaje ametje Ihnm fihummul'* 

Charm for Killing One's Enkmy. 
The necromantic charms for killing oneV enemy are resorted to i 



;iofitly in int«r-tribn.l feuds and warring with foreigners. I have 
^ven details of these rites elsewhere.* They require the following 
jects: — 





1. An axe with three head», the right of which is bull-headed, the 
ft saake-hended, uud the middlH odo pig-headed. 

2. On the middle head a lamp it> to be kept. 

3. In the pig's mouth au image of a human being made of wheaten 
pour (a linffd). The upper part of the body is black and tho lower part 

On tho side of the upper 
of the botly di-aw the 
Sgure of tho eight ^wit l* \^^\m 
plonetB, and on the lower part " ""^ 

jf the body the twenty-ei^'ht 
onstellatious of stars. Write 
ftlso the eight i>arkha (Lri- 
rums), the nijie meim, the 
elawH of the Garmlii in thu 
^nda, the wing of the eaglfcin 
ftud the snake tail. 

4. Hang a bow and an 
farrow on the left and loail Kw.iK-t i^\u^L 

him with provisions on the 

b)u:k. Hang an owl's feather on the right and a rook's on the left; 

plant a piece of the poison-tree on tho upper part of the body, and 

I surround him with red swords on all sides. Then n red Rgyanglni 
fwood on the right, a yellow one on the left, a black one in the middle, 
land many blue ones on divers places. 
6. Then, .<iitting in quiet meditation, recite the following: — 
" /7i2m / This axe with a bull's head on the right will repel all the 
injuries of the Nag-pas and Bon-pos — soreerers; the snake on the left 
will repel all the classes of plagues ; the pig's head in the middle will 
repel the aa-day and other earth demons; the Unga image in the mouth 
will repel all the evil spirits without remainder, and the lamp on the 
head will repel the evil tftpirits of the upper regions. O ! the axe will 
cleave the heart of the angry enemy and also of the hoHts of evil 
npirits ! 1 I etc., etc., etc., eto. 


Daring the Sikhim expedition of 1888, near Mt. Paul on the 
Takola ridge, where the final attack of the Tibetans waa made, 
there was found one of the uiyHtic contrivances for the destruction 
of the enemy. It consisted of an obliquely carved piece of wood, 

' My Ldmaifm u» Sik^iin. 

about fourteen inches long, like a mioiature screw-propeller 
8t<e«iner, nnd acted like the fan of a winduiilJ. It w&s admitt* 
a charm for the destruction of the enemy by cleaWng them W 
pieced, a device for which there are western parallels. Andonh 
was written a lou^, uuiutelligible Bon tipell of the kind a3\ei 
r'a/t-rti», followed by a call for the assistance of the fifV* 
dt*ities Tam-din, Vajrapani, and the Garu^a, and conclading vi^^ 
** phatt phai '* — Break ! Destroy ! It may also he. mentioned hew 
that the bodies of all the Tibetans slaiu in these encounters vn« 
found to bear one or more charms against wounds, most of tbem 
being quite new ; and some of the more elaborate ones, w^Iiich (X»- 
tained in their centre figures of the other wea]>on8 charmed against. 
swords, muskets, ete., had cost their wearers as much as tweuty-6ve 
mi)ee8 a-piece. 

And for torturing one*s enemy short of death, there is the samf 
popular practice which is found amongst occitlentals,* namely, of 
making a little clay image of the enemy and thrusting pins intu iU 

The directions for this procedure are; — 

Take some of the earth from his footprints ; or better from tlie hoo» 
of Home wrecked person, and mixing with dough prepare a tniall 
tigui'e of ft man. On its head put thorns. Through the heart's re^'ion 
thrust a copper neeflle. Then say following spell : Oni Ghat« Jam-mv 
hatno hiui^fim ; during the recital of which move the needle briskly ov»t 
the region of the Iieart. If this proeesK is long continued then i\it 
bewitched [wrson will surely die within the day; but if done only fori 
time, and the needle and thoras are again withdraw^^ and the inui|e- 
body and needles oi-e washed, the onemy who is thus bewitched will oidjf 
BUlfor U^iitpoi-ary anguish, and will recover (for it is agaiiist niiddhi^ 
piinciples to t*ke life). 

" Prayer-Flags.'* 


hia J 

The tall fiagB inscribed with pious sentences, charms, and prayet*^ 
which flutter picturean|ue!y around every I^maist settlemeat« 
curiously combine Indian with Chinese and Tilietau symbolifim. 

It seems a far cry from Asoka pillars; to prayer-flags, but It if 
not improljable that they are related, and that "the IVees of the 
Law," 80 conspicuoua in Lamaism, are i>en'erte<l emblems of Indian 
Buddhism, like so much of the Lamaist symbolism. 

Everyone who has been in Burma is familiar with the tall masii 

fun-d<iiiig')y^ with their streaming banners, as accessories of 
irery Buddhist temple in that country. Each mast in Burma is 

rmounted by an image of one or more Brahmani geei^e, and the 
imers are either Hat or long cylinders of bamboo framework 

sted over with j:taper, which is often inscribed with pious 
^ntefnees. The monks whom I asked regarding the nature of 
khis symbol believed that it was borrowed from Indian Buddhism. 

Now, the resemblance which these poats bear to the Asokn 
pillars is certainly remarkable. Both are erected by Buddhists 
for the purposes of gaining merit and displaying aloft pious wishes 
or extracts from the law; and the surmounting geese form an 
essential feature of the abacus of several Asoka pillars. The change 
from pillar to post could be easily explained, as great monoliths 
were only possible to such a mighty emperor as A«oka ; but every- 
one could copy in wood the pious practice of that great and model 
Buddhist who had sent his missionaries to convert them. 

8uch wooden standards may have been common in Indian 
Buddhism, as some Burmese believe, and yet-, from their perish- 
able nature, have left no trace behind. At most of the old rocky 
Buddhist sites in Magadha X have seen sockets in the rock, some 
of which may have been used for such standards, although many 
of the smaller sockets were doubtless used for planting umbrellas 
to shelter the booth-keei>ers in their sale of tlower and other offer- 
ings for the shrines. Most also of the clay models of Taityaa in 
relief, dug out of the earlier Indian Stuj>as, show streamers tied to 
the top of the Caityas ; and in Ceylon the old Stupas are sur- 
rounded by what seems to be similar posts.* 

Liimaism, which, more than any other section of Buddhism, has, 
as we have seen, substituted good words fur the good works of the 
primitive Buddhists, eagerly seized ujwn all such synilxjlisin, as for 
instance, Asoka's historic gifts in their daily rice-offerings. The 
decided resemblance of its ** prayer-flags " to the tagun-dmiig of 
the Burmese is' not more striking, perhaps, than the apparent 


1 Mr. St. A. tit. John kindly informs ine tluit the utyinology ia fa* something long and 
straight + yvMt bark ur hunk -f tttiuui, a post. 

' Sec figures in FsnousoNV ffwfcwy of Indi<t and Eatteru Arc/tiUcturr. 

> These iiutanci'a u-pin mimething tnurv tluui the simple cloths and banners as propltia- 
Utry off«iringB, which, o( couiw, art* fuund in must animistic rpligionB — from the " rag- 
bufthes^of IndiA to the oharings of Uiv Uppt-r BunnL-^e and the Aino«. Anil Uif 
hypothetical relationBhip between the Burmpsuaml the Tibctaiu, baaed on the affinity 



homology which they present to the Aaoka pUtars. They aif 
called by the I^ilnias Da-cha^^ evidently a corruption of the Indiio 
Dhvajoj the name given by the earlier Indian Buddiiist^ to the 
votive pillars offered by them as railings to Stupas.* 

The planting of a LSmaist prayer-flag, while in itself a highh 
pious act, which everyone practises at some time or other, doesuot 
merely confer merit on the planter, bat benefits the whole country- 
flide. Aud the conclnding sentence of the legend inscribed on the 
flag is usually *' Let Buddha's doctrine prosper*' — which is practi- 
cally the gi»t of the Asoka inBcriptiomt.' 

Chikksr LOXG-nousK. 
Or Hor»e-Dr«p>ii, " Loii|[-niii." 

But the Lamas have degraded muih of their Indian symbolism, 
and perverted it to sordid aud selfish objects. 

The ]>rayer-flags are used by the Liimas as luck-oommaiiding 
talismans; and the commonest of them, the so-called "Airy 

nf tluHr lanffiUfifCiB, dM« not count for much, ms no r^al racial nUQoo has yet becdn 
|>rovecl. Probably rt-latwl to the84! prayt-r-flaes arp the stone pilUre called mmuU or 
polos I found in western 8u-Ch'uan in Cliiaa, and figured by Mr. Baber ("A 
Journi'y," I'tc, Sot/. Gtoy. Sec. Svyfit. Pirytrt, i., p. 19). 

1 dar-lc)i'of;. 

' Ct;yxiK(mAu's Siupa uf BurAit. 

« Aj* th*! legond iwunlly liears a Hon luid a tiger in its upper comers, while b^Icnr 
nre a Uaru<,U-bird And dragon (\agn), it seems not iiuiNMsible tlmt thesis may Im^ re- 
Intefj to tli<> Hurnmunting lion »nd tlic Ho-ralled g**f»v of A^oka'it pillartj. The rtt«« 
related t^i Hu« vri-rtion of tliP IfUiiiuist «tnndanl an* iHjmewhat Bugg«itivc of the Vedic 
rite of " nuHing Indra'a l»annor,'' which in lt« turn ia probably thv ohginaJ of out Ma}- 
poli>, and A^ka's pillars Be»n to lutve betm sotnewbat of the nature of the Jaya • 



liorae," seems to me to be clearly basefl upon and also bearing the 
tme uame as " Tbe Horse-dragon " of the Chinese. 

This HoRSK-DRAGOS oT " Loiig-hOY&Q " is one of the four great 

aythic animals of China, and it is the symbol for giyiiideur. It 

Is represented, as in the figure on the opposite page, as a dragon- 

''headfd horse, carrying on its back the civilizing Book of the Law. 


cv CV O ^^ 



ThK TlilKTAN' LT_\G'Uoit»E. 

Now this is practically the same figure as "The Lung-horse" 
(Hteraliy " Wind-horse ") of the Ulniai.'^t flag, which also is used for 
the expressed purpose of increasing the ffrarultmr of the votary; 
indeed, this is the nole puqwso for which the flag is used by the 
Tibetan laity, with whom Ihese flags are extremely popular. 

And the couversiou of "The Horse-dragon *' of the Chinese into 




the Wind-horse of the Tihetans is easily accounted for bv a 
fasion of homonyms. The Chinese word for ** Horse-dragoo 
LoTig-ma,^ of which /-o«/;=l>ragon, and »ia — Horse. In 
where Chinege is practically unknown, Long^ being the 
word, woold tend to be retained for a time, while the qnalifi 
word, TTto, transilated into Tibetan, becomes " rta.** Hence we 
the form " Loug-rta." But as the foreign word Long was 
telhgible in Tibet, and the symbolic animal is used almost wl 
for fluttering in the wtHci, the " I^ng " would naturally 
changed after a time into Lung or " wind,** in order to gcrt 
adtne meaning, hence, so it seems to me, arose the word 
rtfl,* or ** Wind-horse." 

In apijeiirftnce the Tibetan " ^unflf-horse" so closely resem! 
its evident prototype the ** Horse-dragon," that it could easily 
mi^aken for it. On the animal's back, in place of the ChiDe»- 
ciyilizingBook of the I^w, the Lamas have substituted tbe Bod 
dhist emblem of the civilizing Three Gems, which include 
Buddhist Irftw. But the Tibetans, io-their naual |prdiH way, vi 
these objects as the material gems and wealth of ^ooJ Ttick w 
thit( horse will bring to its votaries. ITie symbol is avowedly a 
Iuck*commanding talisman for enhancing the grandeur ' of t 

Indian myth also lends itself to the aiisociationof the horse 
luck ; for the Jewel-horse of the universal monarch, such v 
Buddha was to have been had ho cared for worldly grandeur, 
carries its rider, P«j/a«u«-like, through the air in whatever direc- 
tion wished for, aud thus it would become associated wit 
the idea of realization of material wishes, and especially weal 
and jewels. This horse also forms the throne-support of the niythi- 
cal celestial Buddha named Rnfnn-sanibhava, or " the t7«w/-born 
One," who is often represented KyuiboUcally by a jewel. And wf 
find in many of these luck-fla^s thut the picture of a jewel take> 
the place of the horse. It is also not-able that the mythical peopl*" 
of the northern continent, subject to the god of wealth, Kuvera, 
or VaiRrnvana, are " horse-faced."' 

Tlie (lags are printed on the unglazed tough country pa] 

> DtmouTiKR, 0p. dU P- 80. 
2 rLuh-rta; titiotlwr fnmi ot epettiiig nomi'times, tliuugli rarely, met with, in kLun 
rta, where k/jwA U said Co uioaii "ytuu* of birtii/' 
' T^ Tgym. 



era, ' 

hung upon the ridges of the houseti, uud in the vicinity of dwel- 

» lings. The printed text of this sort of flag varies somewhat in 
the order in which the deified Lilmas are addressed, some giving 
the first place to St. Padina, while ot tiers give it to the celestial 
Bodhisat, MaiijursT ; but all have the same general form, with the 
horse bearing the jewel in the centre, and in the four comers 
Lthe figures or the names of the tiger, lion, the monstrous garu4(i- 


bird, and tbe dragon — the tiger being opposed to the dniki-ii. 
accordance with Chinese mythology, as figured over the pa^c. 
A translation of one of the prayer-flags is here given ; — 

Hail 1 Vatjithufari mum ! (i^., yellow 
TIGER- Maiijusrrs sjiell.) UON 

Hail! tuthe jewel ill the Lotus 1 Hw*tl 
(i.*., AvalokitA'a spell). 
Hail! to the holder of the Dorjo! Ham I (i.e-^ Vftjni}*ni- 

Hail ! 10 Vajrasattva (The Diamond-sou led one !) 
Hail ! .Imnrtthnihiljtiu-itnlitft jtwOJtd, 

[The above is in Sanskrit. Now follows in Tibetan : — ] 
Hero ! May all of the above (deitle-s whose spells have been 

given) prosper [here is inserted the year 

of birth of the individual], and also prosper — 
the Bodt/ (i.£., to save from sicknesft), 
the Sptedi (i.f,, to give victory in dUptitatioos), 
and the Mind (i.e., tu obtain all deeiree) ; 
OARXTpA. of this year-holder [above specified] DRAGON. 

and may Buddha's doctrine prosper ! 

Here it will be noted that tbe three great celestial <Ufen»oi-w 
fiiiei of Lilmaism are invoked through their spellEi, namely : — 

1, Mahju^riy who conveys wisdom ; 2, AvUokitOj who saves 
from fear and hell; and 3. Vajrapdiii) who saves from accid^it 
and bodily injury. And in addition to the above are also given 
the spells of : 4. Vajnisattvay who purifies the soul from sin j 
and 5. Aviitdyua, who confers long life. 

It is interesting to compare with these Tibetan lack-flags tbe 
somewhat similar prayer-Hags ^ which the Burmese Buddhists 
offer at their shrines. " These," says Mr. Scott/ " are fancifully 
cut into figures of dragons and the like, and iu the centre ooutain, 
in Piili or the vernacular, sentences like these : — 

" By means of this paper the offerer will become very strong. 

" By the merit of this jjaper Wednesday's children will be blessed 
by spirits and men. 

** May the man born on Friday gain reward for his pious ofiier- 

" May the man bom on Monday be freed from Sickness and the 
Three Calamities." 

Ky«t ftba-taiug. » fU BMrMan, t. p. 235. 



Th» second form of the libettui lack-flag if* called <M-p^ 
It is of a long, narrow, oblong shape, abont eight to ten incbKn 
length. This sort of flag is for tying to twigs of trees or U 
bridges, or to sticks for planting on the topa of hills. Its test la* 
generally the same arrangement as form No. 1, but it wants tM 
horse-picture in the centre. Its Tibetan j>ortion usually clo*» 
with **Alfly the entire collection (of the foregoing deities) prosper 
the power, airy horse, age and life of this year-holder and make 
them increase like the waxing new moon." 

Very poor people, who cannot afford the expense of the printM 
charms, merely write on a short slip of paper the name of thip 
birth-year of the individual, and add** May his lu)uj~hoi*se prosper.' 

One lung-horae for each member of a household must be plMtftl 
on the third day of every month (lunar) on the top of any hill nwr 
ut hand, or on the branch of a tree near a spring, or tied to lb« 
«ide.s of a bridge; and on affixing the flag a stick of incense is 
burned. And a small quantity of flour, grain, flesh, and beer are 
offered to the geniits loci of the hilt-top by sprinkling them around, 
saying, So J iio! Take! Take ! 

A more expanded form of the luck-flag is the Gt/ai-taan dm- 
TOO, or *' Victorious banner,^ * which is generally of the same form 
as that first mentioned, but oonttiining a much larger amount ol 
holy texts, and also usually the eight glorious symbols, of which 
the lotus forms the base of the print. It prospers not only lucfc 
in wealth, but also the life, body, and jwwer of the indindual^ 
and seems to contain also si>ells addressed to the goddess Durgt, 
Siva's spouse. 

The Vast Luck-flag. This fourth form of Lung-ta is named 
"gLnh-po sfoh ry^fin,' or "That which makes vast like the Ele- 
phant." ' It is pasted to the walls of the houses, or folded up and 
worn around the neck as a charm for good Inck. It consists of 
crossed vajnis in the centre with a Gamda and a i>eacock, the 
jewelled elephant and the jewelled horse, each bearing an eight- 
leaved lotus-disc on which are inscribed the following Sanskrit 
and Tibetan texts. The other symbols are " the eight glorious 
symbols" already described. 

1 jrbyod-pon. 

) StiaidiiiiM roitduriHi ititti Saiutkrit ns Arya dlivaja iijn'a-kt?yiir rano maharuU. 

' gLari-|Ki sUib'i-^yiiB. 



And around the margin is tbe familiar legend ** the Buddhist 

eed," repeated several times, also the letters of the alphabet, 

jether with the words '* May the life, body, power, and the 

biry horse * of the holder of this charm prosper his body, speech, 

jd wishes, and cautie them to increase like the ^'rowing new 

>on ; may he be possessed of all wealth and riches, and be guarded 

iinst all kinds of injury." 

In the upi>er left hand disc: '• May the life of this cbarm-hoider be 

sublimely (like the flight of the garuiia hei-e reprewetited). Om ! 

aai hvhana W W t/e HwCtha ! Om ! Oin ! wirftit kuta katn gntn kata 

yo nitta snh tea »/t: RivaJiH .' Om ! ktli kill mill mili knrtt kunt htlni 

ye HictlfM ' O I Muy the Jifo of this charm-holder be ini-sed on 


In the npiier riglit-hand diiw : ** May the bodi/ of this cliarm-holder 
raised sublimely (liUo the flight of the peacock here represented). 
ij / t/ei' yer hohatia t/er t/er tje avdhd/ Om I aarba 7'atha*/atti Miri 
%iri bain bata miri miri miii mili ae bat<t *arba gaia-gata gkramoim 
■fm ijnt'i-fjata shramana tiarba ! O! May the body of this cliaim- 

If-r be raised on high." 
In lower left-hand dise : " May the power of this charm-holder be 
liiaed sublimoly (like the precious elophiuit here represented). Om / 
ier uter hobana mer mer ije ttmihti ! Om «arva dhartt dharn bara dhartt 
\i kha ye swAhd ! iSarra kiit klli na hnh kang U sarfxt bhara bhara 
imbhara mfiif/hara ! O ! May the power and weuitli of this eharm- 
bolder be incr«i»ed and all the injuries be guarded againsl. 

In lower right-hand circle: "May the ' Airy hoi-se* of this chjirm- 
holder be i-aint'd sublimely (with the celerity of 'the precious hoi-so' 
here represented). 0»i* / htm lam hohana lam lam Utm gtvOJul ! (hit t 
Sarxia kara kara phai ! Sarbha dhurtt dhnrn na phat / >S<lrbil kata 
hnfa kuta tut pftai! Harba hili k'di ua phut f Sarbha mala nutla 
efrfihd ! O ! May the ' Lumj-hor&e ' of the charm-holder be raised 
on high and guarded against all injury." 

In the central disc over the junction of the cross Dor-je is written : 
•' Om / mM 1/(1 rani jiweuti ije gwdhd ! O I May this charm-holder 
be given the undying gift of soul everlasting (as the adamantine cross 
Doi-je hei-ein pictured)." 

■ In planting these hiek-flags n special form of worship is ob- 
served. And the jdanting of these flags with the due worship 
is lulvised to l)e done when ever anyone feels mdiappy and down in 
luck, or injured by the earth-demons, etc. It is called "The 
great statue of the Lung-horse," and is aa follows ; — 

First of all is made a rice-oMerlng of the iiwivenie, uuiler a yellow 
(Stnopy, but screened on the four sides by irurtjiius of diH'erent colours, 
blue on the autt, red on the south, white on the west, and black on the 

uorth. The canopiw are to be fixed in the end* of a perfect eqwA 

bet ill the four directions, around which are the twelve-ye&r cvcle. \w 
nine cakes (faii*) representing the nine Me^as, eight lanipa re[ 
ing the eight parkha, eight ptanot«, twenty-eight constellntione « 
five Tonna^ five ifltUt (hdiaII balU of wheateu dour oflfered to dem 
ran8om)f five nrrows nnth silk streamers (mdA-diir) of the five Jiffei^ct 
colours, and many more vkUi rififan-hu and 'jiait. The alx>ve must I* 

F-arranged hy a pitu'ticMl man, and then the ceremony begiiit> with tl» 
lingers in the pi-oper attitude of the twelve eyclo of years, and reritB 
tion of the following in a raised and melodious voice ; — 

' Ktfg ! Ki/e ! In the eastern honxon fi*oui whore the aun ri^w, i' 

^ ft r^ioii of titters, hares, au I trees. The enemy of the tre»*s is the Iroa, ' 
which is to Ih> found in the western horizon, and whore the euemv. tlx 
life-cutting bdUd-ilevil, is also to be found. In that place are lb'- 
demons who injure the life, body, power, and the * Xun^-horso.* The 
devil who com mauds them also lives in the occidental region : hti isi 
white mun with the head^ of a bird and a monkey, and hold.^ u whitr 
hawk on the right and a black emou-rod on the left. Ob ! Bird wi<l 
monkey-hea^led demon ! Accept this rajuom and call back all tb« iti^ 
juring demons. 

" A'yc / Kyf ! Tn the southern horizon is a region of horses, snokn^. 
and fire. The enemy of the fire is the water, etc., etc. O ! Rjvt Mid 
pig-headed demon ! Accept this rau.sum and call back all the injuring 
demons." ......... 

" Ktje ! Ki/e! In the boundary of the ROuth-eaRtern horizon is » 
yellow dragontiendod demon. O ! Dritgon-headed devil ! Accept thif 
ransom and cnll back all the injuring devik. 

" Ktff! Kiirl In the bcjundiu'y of the south-western horizon is ■ 
yellow sheep headed womiin. ! Sheep-headed she-devil ! Accept 
this ransom and call hack all the injuring demons. 

" Kiie! Kyt! In the boundary of the nort'fi-westem horizon there 
is a yellow dog-heailed liemon. ! Dog-headed devil \ Accept tlm 
ransom and call back ilII the injuring demonii;. 

" Ktff ! Kife ! In the boundary of the north-eastern liurixou there 
is a yellow buLl-heiided demoness. O ! Bull-headed iihe-devil I Accept 
thin ran.<4om and all back all the injuring demons ! 

"O! Upset all the injuring evil Kpirit:s. the Ul-natured devils, the 
demons who injtu-e the life, body, (xiwer, ami the Zu)t</-hor»e, the 
wan^lering demons, the ill-lurk of bad ' A xti'/- horses/ the feuirful 
goblins, the bad omeu!<, the doors of the sky, and the eArth, and 
the itijuries of all nudi^atiitit d>n'ilu. 

" May we be freed fioin till kinds of injuries and be * favoured with 
the real gift, which we earnestly seek I ' " 

*' May virtue increase ! ' 
" Globy ! " 


Thf "Vast" Lvca-KLAii 
(Beduoed f.) 

hiMiti*Ii[?t>^4l^m^ I i-t-i-f f -f ^ 

;*cjx;>^*i*^#*| " ,.-':, ■•. 

^it|'#>?iAUii^^i^viii m 


IXH'UH iSAi'HiriciAi. KrrHJitot uk thr TnicrAX lUix Hiti.iraioM. 

(Bmlurwl I.) 



(iRSIill' aud priestcraft bad no place in primitive 
Bufiiihism. Pious regard for admirable j>ersoQg, 8Uch 
as Buddha and the t'ldera, and for ancient cities and 
sjicred f^ites, was limited to mere veneration, and 
usually took the form of respectful circmuamhulation (usually 
three times"), with the right hand towanis the admired object, 
as in western certMuouial,' and this veneration was extended to 
the other two members of thR Binhlhist trinity, namely, Buddh 
Word or Dhnrma, and t.lie Asseinlily of the Kaithful. 

After Bnddha'H death such ceremonial, to satisfy the religious 
eetii^e, seems soon to have orystaUize*! into concrete worship and 
MUiriticc as an act of affection and gratitude towards the Th 



> For instance, as in tiit? Scotch tiighlniidi*. "to mnke lltr iln^sit" or walk thiitt! in 
tliedirMTtioii of thi' sun's ctmrHf around Umjm wlumi iJii'y wifh wpH (itoumN-Ct'iUKii, 
AVvM thr. i/rbrititt Iq tke Uiuuiatftu^ ij., 1«4). \Vc alao follow the Mine rulr in |uu<t»ing 
(IccAtitm nniiul I'ur ilinncr-tnhlcs ; and it is tlio Uireotlou in wliich cattle LtvjmI mit 
the com.— Of. riwiithAiitaf p. 28/ 


Holv Ones ; and it was soon extended so as to include t!ie worship 
^^f three other tlassea of objects, namely (l)i J^odily relics (i^ar- 
^■r/iC'a); (2), Inmgf.s of Hmldha's person, etc. {Uihifttika) ; and (:•»), 
^We>>tments, utensils, etc. {Parifthogihri), And in justification ©f 
"such worship the Routhern Buddhists quote the sanction of 

Buddha himself,^ though of course without any proof for it. 

*k And we have seen how, in the objective phase of Buddhiana, 
ami especially in its Tantrik developrnt-ut, ritual is elevated to the 
front rank in importance, aud binds 
the votaries in the )iondf< of sacerdo- 
talism and itiolatry. Even in southern 
I Buddhism there is a good deal of 
priestcmft. The monks draw out horo- 
scopes, fix auspiciout) days for weddings, 
etc., and are sent for in cases of sick- 
ness to recite the scrijitures, nnd the 
jnrii as a charm against snakes, nnd 
evil spirits, and devil dances,* 
But in Lamaism tlie ritualistic cults 
are seen in their most develoi>ed form, 
and many of these certainly bear a 
close resemblance outwarilly to those 

» found within the chunh "if Home, in 
■the pompous services with celibate 
and tonsured monks and nuns, candles, 

» bells, censers, rosaries, mitres, copes, 
pastoral crooks, worship of relics, confession, intercession of "the 
Mother of (Jofl," litanies and chants, holy water, triad divinity, 
organized hierarchy, etc.* 

1^ It is still uncertain, however, how much of the Lamaist 
symbolism may have been borrowed from Roman Catholicism, or 

A Lama I'uisst." 

1 Rabdt'* Eatt. Jtfon., 316. 

a " After tito conrhuion of t>ii> i>eriih(>ra (in tlw nvinth of Kliata [July] in thp ^od'it 
teuiptes}, Uu'olBceni, etc., onpa^d in it, inctudinff the i-lcpluntA, liavi' ccn'ninni4« fur 
itli*' conciliation of lesser divmitie't nnd evil spiritj |ierfi>rni«l, calltv.! Balibnt-nvtimH, 
Gar&yakuii-it^liina. »ad \Valiy;ikiin-netJnia, TlieHAlilml-nt^tima is a devil dnacp i»fr- 
formydfor firt^diiysafUrrtlu? pLTalu-raby a chxtun of peru>iu, tuinrH] BaJifnil fraMmfM<i, 
eupprinr to ti»e Yakdraso or dmnl-dancers."— /tiywrf (/.*■»«*■« T^nvrt f'ommiuioners, 
O-ylon. 1872. p. 6i»-82. 

' After (Morgi. • Cf. Bvc.ii..fia 


^wrtti. Large Christian communitieit certainly Kriat«d ift 
' w«i t«i u Chin*, near the borders of libet, as early a.< flip it-veaxi 
century A,n.* 

ThaB bafl it bappened, in a system which ackin>\vi .. 
Creator, thai the monks" are in the anomalous jx^^itioii ■ -p-^ir-i- 
a host of exacting deities azK) demons, and hold the keys of beD 
and heaven, for they have invented the common saying, "^1011)001 

■ M ^ngUi-Ui, ov*r thr eastern bnnliT of Tibet, b an pdict atone, erecud (7 
the CbinMi^ cmpefor T««miog, 780>788 A3, vfaich c»ota.inB «n aocount ol ^ 
arriral of the miaaionaiy Olopan (probably a Ounwe form of RAbbaa-nwok) fpB 
Tat'«in ( Romaii pmpirvX in the }rear cqulralent to a J». 68fi. bringing aacrcd boofa ai 
isufTM : of tbe tmialatioa of t^ aald books : of the impcriaJ approval of Uip dotstim, 
and pefmiHioD to t^ttch H publicly. Thirc follows a decree of llw e.zn|ifr<>r TaiUttHli 
a vtiy famous |iriace, uaued in ras in faviiur of the nw doctrine, and unksini * 
church to be buiJt in the square of Teacc ami Jui^tice at thi? capital. Tb*.- e m p H rrt 
portrait vms to bv pUc<-d in the cburch (in the mj-ol gdnl»^^ of luifan). EaoCcm^ 
(650-6SS, thp devout pAtr>»i aleo of the Buddhint travr!]«T Hju^'n T»tAag) coiituiard t» 
favour it. — See Yri.B in Marco Pul'^, ii., 23, whrre a photof^raph of t}w in6cripU»n a 
giv^n. The t^trt alun states (KiBCHits's OAVjmi flliutmta\ tluit in fiie yi^-ors 006 as4 
713, tlie BouEes, or Buddliivt idiilatroutt |)ri«<«t8, niified a Itimult against the Chriitbua. 
which waa quelled by order of the emperrn* Yveo-8un-ri-ta*i. 

The Mnharamadan traveller, Abu Zeid al Hassan, writing in the nintit centiirr 
(Bbcacdot*s traoat, Lond.. 1733, p. 42). states that "thousands of ChrJstiaiu ** wrr 
inaMacrcd in S. W. Cfiina. 

In t)ve tii-elfth centur)- JengUit Khan aiid his tuoceason were wen inclined u> 
Chrifitianit}' ; his principal wife waa the daughter of king Ung Khan, who ww * 

Ill the thirteenth century- Marcu Polo found in the norlli of Yunnan a few Nestortaa 
Omstianu.— Yrr.E, J/./*., ii., 53. 

'* In 1346," writes Hue {CAittete Smpirr^i^p. 141), ** Plan-Carpin was sent to the grvrt 
Khan vt the Tartars by pope loniicent the Fourth. .At Khara Kltoroum, tJie capital of tlie 
Monf^U, he saw, not far from the palace of the sovereifrn, an cdiftce on whidi wa* ■ 
little cross; 'tlu-n,' ^ays lii>, * I was at tlie height of joy, and suppoainf; that there must 
be sointt ClinKtEaiiA Th«-rf, I t>nteri>d, and found an altar niaj^uficentty adomrd : thftv 
vrt'Tv r«^|>ri>Ht'Mtatio()M of tin* Saviour, the Holy Virgin, and John Lhr Baptist, and a laf|;e 
silver crosit, wit-li pearlis nnd other ornaments in the centre : and a lamp with eight 
jets of light humi'd before the altar. In the sanctuary was seated an Armeaiaa iwak 
of swarthy cmnplexion, ver}* thin, wcarin^^ nothing but a coarse tunic reaching only 
down to tho niiddli- of his log, and a black mantle fasteaod witli iron rlnsps.* *' 

And ln13S6 iKtrrA reached pope Benedict XII. from suveral ChrisUau Alans holding 
high «tfTice at the court of Catnl^aluc, in wliich tlu'y cnnvey*>d their tugent request for 
the uominatiuri »I an arL-iibishop in »uccejwi<ia to tlie deceased John of Mnnto Corvino. 
John MarignaJli says of thcM- Al.iiw tliat in hi« day there were aO.Ofn) of them at thr 
gn-iil Khan's Bervi«'. wnd nil at least nciminally Christians.— YciK, MP., ii., 164- 

AjhI ill the fourteenth century, stiU tn-fore Tsong Kho)>a's era, not only wrrr 
miamiotiarii't* of the Roman Church esfiibliahcd in tlio chief cities of Cliins. but a 
regular trade wnw carried on overland b*-'twiM»n Italy and China by way of Tajii, 
Astraoan, Otrar, and Kaiiml.— Vclk's Mam Polu, u ISo; Couf. also Thf Xfstonaru<Mit^ 
tAtir Riiwitt, by Dr. Badobb , 


'Lfuna in front (of the votary), there is (no approach to) Gocl." 
^nd so instilled is such belief in the minds of the laity that no 
iportant business is undertaken without first offering worship 

The necessity for offerings at the phrines of the images, etc., is 
low insisted on in all the forms of Buddhism. 

The regular offerings will be detailed presently. But there is 

10 limit to the viiriety of thiugs that are offtrred. Wealthy volaries 

>ffer art objects, rich tapestries, gold and silver vessels, jewels, and 

le plunders of war, including weapons. In Burma, some of the 

irlient knitting and embroidery efforts of young girls are devoted 

Buddha's shrine, along with American clocks and chandeliers, 

^ins of jam and English biscuits, sardines, and Birmingham um- 

>rellas. And most of these, and still more incongruous objects, 

fare offered on Lilmaist altars ; even eggs are sometimes given. 

We have aheady seen the general form of daily service as prac- 

tif*ed at Potala and lesser cathedrals and temples, and by isolated 

luionks in iienaitage. Here we shall look at some details of jmr- 

ticular acts of worshi]j and celebration?. 

Personal ablution is enjoined, as a sacertlotal rite prejtaratory to 

worship, on the principle of purity of body being emblematic of 

purity of heart. But this ceremonial purification seldom extends 

^to more than dipj>ing the Lips of the fingers in water, and often 

even not that, for the Tibetans, like most mountaineers, are not 

remarkable for their love of waler or soaj). 

» Before commencing any devotional exercise, the higher Lilmas 
perform or go through a manceuvre bearing a close resemblance 
to "crossing oneyolf,'* as practised by Christians. The iJima 
gently t^juches his forehead either with the finger or with tlie bell, 
uttering the mystic Om, then he touches the top of his chest, utter- 
ing Ah, then the epigastrium (pit of stomach), uttering HCm. And 
some Lilraasadd Sva-hS, while others complete the cross by touch- 
ing the left shoulder, uttering Dam and then Yam. It is allegwl 
that the object of these manipulations is to concentrate the jmrts 
of the Sattvttt namely, the body, speech and mind, upon the image 
divinity which he is about to commune with.' 

1 lite Sv&lia, etc., arc licid to mean knowledge (Von-ton) ami » kind of A'lVfMa 
|fp'rin-)a4), and the Hvl- ayllubk's are myBlically givcD the roUowing colouni from 
fibovc dowuwnrdfi : wliitv, r*\l, b)ui>, yt'Iluw axid gn^iu 





In the worship of every Budilhtst divinity there are sevou it^"^ 
nized 3tHges,' evidently framed on a Hindu iiuxiel." The stJig» 
are*: — 

1. The Invocation — Calling to the feast or sacrifice. 

2. Inviting the deity to be seated. 

'A. Presentation of oiferinge, sacred cake, rice, water, flowers, in- 
cense, lam]>9, mut^ic, and oecaHionally A m<in4<^ln orroagic- 
circle offering, for which there is a ii]>ecial tuanuaL 

4. Hymus in praise. 

it. Repetition of the si^ecial spell or mantrnt 

6. Prayers for benefits present and to come. 

7. Beneflirtiun. 
-Miuiy of the Lamaist offerings are of the nature of real 3a<.*rifioe. 

Some of the objects are destroyed at the time of offering. Cet^ 
monies to propitiate demons are usually done after dark, and the 
objects are t.hen commonly thrown down '"' dtliljfire" Frequently 
the SHcrifice iH given the form of a banquet, and accom]>anied bj 
games aiwl sacred plays and dances. 

What are calletl *' the Essential Offerings or .Sacrifice " * geem to 
represent the earlier and purer offerings of Indian Buddhism, and 
are little more than tlie fresh-cut flowers and incense which were 

1 Tn>.. Yan-lae-bduii. 
* III tliv lliiidil wurship of a deity Uierv are sixteen stagM of wremoniAl adonUaia 
fnlliiwing un the Invocation to rome idmlAiu), and tlif> Tn\'itAtion to be seat«d (dt«ai. 

I have italirized thnsv stages which in- 

7. Akshjit, offering ricp. 

8. iNwAjw, oflcring flowers. 

9. D/iup(i, nnerins iTicciiac. 

10. DijM. (iffenns; Inm]>. 

11. JVnii'irfyn.offfring food- 
is. AchniAiia, seond <'fri;rinA n\ watrr 

to rinse inuutli. 

13. Tombuin, nffpiing l>ctel. 

14. Supari or pugn. ofToring Arcca nut* 

15. Daksliiinft, ■"•fftTins iiirtncy. 
1ft. Niziij.tti, waving li^lita or catiijdKir 

It may also be cnmpftrcd witlj tlic Jnina ritual by Dr. J. Buboi«s Indinn AtUi^uaeih j 
i.. 367. »tc. 

■ Another pnumeration giv(?9 : 1, Salutation : 2. Offering; 3, Onnfesaioa of ai»j 
(adig-'a'agft) ; i. Rt^joicing (yld-rang«) ; 5, Exhortation ('skul-wa) ; S, Prajren lor I 
temporal and other blessings (gaol-gdob) ; 7. Prayers for spiritual blessing (bgho-baki 
* Ner-spyod mch'od-pa. 

and in (lat-h stage ttMntrat arv cbantfd. 
found in lUo above Lftmaitit ritual :— 

I. PJMya, wnahiiig the idol's fwt. 

2- Axgha. washing the idol's tianda. 

3. Achinaoa^ offering water to rinae 


4. Snanm baUiiiig the "l J^^ Uniaa 
j^„] I dresa&ndbathe 

5. Vabtni. dressing tht- [their idolK only 
I niicf <ir twice 

J A year. 
U. Cbandau, offering sandal wood, itaff* 
run, or hoti pnwder. 




iHtomary offerings even in the seventh century, at the time of 
[iuen Tsiang. These offerings are set uijon the altar already de- 
ihed, before the image worshipped, accoTni>anied by the rhyth- 
tnic rerital of incantations and music. 

These " essential *' or necessary offerings, which are needed 



^^H of the Units. 

I in every service of worship, are seven in number, and each bears a 
I s|>ecial SaiLskritic name de:$eriptive of its nature,' and must be 

I ■ 1. v4r*^A<nii fin TibKan rA^A>,nrf'Kovll<<ntdrtnkiiig river wattT. 
2 f'li liynm (Tib., ;«A-*i*/*f, or tlw* c«oi wAtar for woiihing ftvt. 

3. f'ukk'ff iTib.. mr-totf), flower. 

4. Itku-pt (Tih^ du-p6), incrnfii* fumoit. 

5. A-loke (Tib., miiti-ySAl^). lamii. 
0. Gtm-dke (Tib., ti-rArtA), porftimed water Tor anointliig body. 

7. JVai-ri'dya (Tib., :^W-;r|>, ftacrwi fwxl. 

8. ^afita iTib^ mi-iuoi), eynitKil!4. 
Ttiis onlrr in rvvi-raed in Mtabluliod churcli and Kar~tfyu-pa tmiples when doing a 

oertAin kind of tutcUry deity's worsliip. The liimaist arrnunt of the history of thiuw 
aftfriii£8. U tlut each -wha offcrt'd tn Ifuddha hy snme cfU-!«tial or nthor pftrsom 
namely ■ — 

^r-yA<fjM.— Indra, the king of ipxls, offered thta, tlic water of elght^fold virtur*. to 
X\\r Buddha fnr fifi-ocral use. 

/\i i/^rtin,— gTsiiir-na-rin-ch'rn, the kinjf of the Nagaa. offered s'atvM/$il^ tlie purify- 
ing water, tn the IliiddUa for washing his feet. 

I'ukk-pe. — (iHitgit I>%-i, Ui<! lietidcas, offered a flower-nwary h> the Buddha for 
drcornting hiit liead. 

Dhu-pi.—"T\w glonoiis Kbeu," the incenBe-acUer. offered awfet-anu'Iliiig incense to 
the HuddJia. 

A-toki-~'Vhc ({old-handed king nffi^red the darkncas-clcarin]; lig^t forinvijfoniting hia 

* mch'od ymi. f s'ab^ C-ail. J dug-spo^. (| drl-cli'ab. J| zal-za^. 





placed in the bovis almtdy deflcrihed,* and in line in tfap 
onler. In the third and fourth bowU on fhe top of the riceb«(»] 
should be placed resjiectively a flower' and a stick of mcen!*;»i 
in the sixth bowl i«hou)d be placed perfumed water; and l&^tl5i 
cake, into which have been incorporated a few filings of the prpoue 
metal»'; but Ihe^e details are only ob*ervetl on s{>eciaJ octasiani 
Ordinarily all of the bowla are tilled with plain water. On plv* 
ing the above offerings in po:ittion in the order noted, the benri 
of a full service of worship is obtained by merely chanting tbe 
following hymn : — 

dwi-^i SiVfVut ! Which being interpreted is; **Come! Coinr! 
Om! The Thunderbolt I Tartake of these offcringft : Excellent n*yi 
water for drinking, cool water for washing your feet, flower- f"- 
decking your hair, pleasing incense fiujies, lamps for lighting ibr 
darkness, perfumed water for anointing your body, sacred food, the 
music of cvmbals ! (here the cymbals are sounded). Eat fhllv. 

But the high-church Lilma, or Ge-lug-im monk, must chant a 
longer service, which us noted below.* 

GMA-idU.— Zur-|>lmcl-lnf^|M, tlH' King of liandtrms. tifferi^ ZViVAV/, thouodimc 
•omt, to the Huddha for n'fiv6i;fnf^ his body. 

yai'tritlya. — Mgoii-^natliU'tuetl-dAnu nthikni data laB-absrin (Uii^ lord]r*c-fh«id+' 
give; Uu! liouw*<i«'UiT, ottered tbc food of hundred taaU-s to tbe Uuddhft for lUfiprft- 
tag h)8 hcjillli. 

Shofitit. —TUp divine and Naf^-mnithK r»ffen>d <7jt/*jiijmn,tlie pleaMut music, U; tjw 
lliid(.lti.i fnr (')tit'rin£ hii t-Are. Tin- Huddtia Mcsiii-d i-ach of the ofTnings, uid fiact 
thou tlicy are <:t>n«id»Ti'd nacre*!. 

' S<»^ p. 2W7. 

1 Th<^ ll«wi>rs most coiuiuQitly itsed for this purpoac at Lhasa luid M)ld in bouth»> nr*i 
tJu> tmnpltfi, nrt> thf common nmrigold {Cal^nduki — Tib.. f;ur-Kum me*tug), and w1iit*> 
iuid hlur aMtefH (skal-bzau), and hollyliocks. 

1 See xnnext^d figurtr fur the bhtck cuntaining thrse t»cta]a iiuttncd HinH:h'i-n 
brdar-ni, [or ivV^ma]) ; the inctalH are usually gold, silver, c<ii>|ifr, braas mid iron. 

* iVittito rr»r»in/rtfyiiyfi / jVawo BAttyamile r*tjixi mru /iMttminyit TulAa'/titiit/n tu-i'itt 
Mr 'jMiyayruu li»(Uiiuii/ti / Tfu/ytiMit .' (tm Vajm rhf/iiri / MiiAaUnihttMtlltu t'ap< ! 
i\titAabtKfJii»MHKlofi (uriiH KnttiMmi i'ajni ! Sarlxi Jatrma nwnfami bi^vdAitHa mjfu «m7M ' 

ThiK miintm inviti's all thi' Jioaa and tlictr (C4^-I<>stia)) bOIu). f>« / .Vqmo (lAn^axt 
ffihpf Afiu iMjaiflt f Tiilhoffdlaifii / Ariiaie mmtlj/iiht tan /JitrfAtiyii/ TadtfoiXn t tim! 
fmkfK ftnkjH tmifiti / i>»kiH4fH puApetK yuAptwdb^itrt / jmttfte utmht^tM jnedMI TMe 
should be repcattnl sevfn timoa, afti'r whidi the uiagio-circlc and fo<Kl |:rain» slkniU 
be offered. When the Uwnp is nfl<Tfd. thi- following sliould U- rt'pe«t«l — 

" 1 Arraiigc MiIb lamp with great rfverenoe,aQd offer it to the Bnddha, the law.atnl 

vpHsels of rice and <jf cake. Thei*e are placed in four rows, the 

tlif Order, Thr"Uy)i fhi' powrr uf Una virtuoiw »I<i-J, let mf ho ixiKscanfd "f iUiuui- 
mitiiig knnwlfdg'S aitd let the nnitnal iM'itigti hv olfan-il nf tin- mbtty inipuritit-K which 
surrounds thorn.'' 
Tliun he miut rw up, and Johiiiig his hands In devotional attitude, rliant ** Tlif> 
Linvitation " :— 

i **lbeg 3n>u O Patrons of tho animn) beings! Pcmon>\*anquifll»ng gods! Jiiias 
and your nrtinues ! to nppr>:>at'h this humblo dwelJing. I bt^g yoxi, tnerciful ownew of 
miracles, to approach this hunnblr- dwfUing and ri-Cfin- thti«t' offrringn." 

[Then hoWinjf haiidi hiTiz-intally, Itow do-mi and say :— ] " I bnw down hplun- the 
Lonuut of Ihr thpM- fim*'s and <ti thi- t^-n dirr<-tians, and )>cforc th*' prix-ioue Tliree 
Holy OnPK with grratpat rpvorcnro and oceans of praise." Om J Xanut Jdaijutritftt 
XiiMiute* .H**-/^'/ Xnuto uUitrntfu-it/rnloiilitt f [how down at, once at each recitation of 
this mUHttyi]. 

Tkt PfrnittatioH 'if t^triM^i ; ** I here offer up all the mo«t excellent offerings of 

order of which from before backw^ards ia rice, wat«r, loiniii,! 

cakes. And far the grwit demoniacal l utelary'iJ sernce eiti* ( 

used ou a se|iarate altar vith 
ledges (see also figure on page ! 
on each of which are set ■ bovI 
of one huu<lrerl and eight of ttol 
offering noted, and on r«peei&l fivAl 
great Ihu reliefs of colaured baUal 
are offered, many of them of artjftsi 

A still more elaborate ftrT«I^^ 
meut of foo«l -offering^ i» seen a 
the banquet to the whole as9eiabi^| 
of the gods and the demon*, | 
entitled Kon-ch'og - chT - du. -f 
" sacrifice to t he whole awembU 
of Rare Ones,** which is frequeutiy 
held in the templest. Tliis feast J*! 

obtterved by I^mas of alt sejts, and is an interetitiog sample 

of devil-worsliip. The old fashion is here detailed, but it 


4. Ctalff. 

5. BuUvr- 
ly Lamjis, 

t. OnMtonkc 
X Bier. 

hnly drinlcmg water, fnot-vashlng ffati>r, A(>w('r», inci<iie4<. lamp, arent«d toilrt witbY. 
roi.ll nnd miiMc. wJiich I have l»ere arrangiNi in full, to you with all my Iwart. 

*' I wmft'HS all my past sins and re|>ent at all my ainful diMHU. I heg vim to bli^* 
mi* with tnalmbcidhi, »<> that I may turn tlti- wheel of tJii> Law and l>e useful to all tlir 
niiumil IwJngs. 

** I hiin* hert' arranj;cd tht- fluwfrs i<ii thr jHiri' »*nil of iin-cnsi-, and tlic Mi Utra. 
(IcckL-d witliftun, moiin, and tlii- Tuur contittfiibi, all i»f which I offer u|i to Uii'IludiUia^ 
wilh tjiy wlmlf- heart. 

" May all the aiiimul Iwln^ he blessed witit pcrfrction and purity, ami Ite born 4b 
briKlitcr reeioDB. Jd«m 0«ru nUna mitiufofn kam wiVvnhi y>»»t/ [TIhii uOfi up li^ 
raaRic-rirclt' in suitahlt> momieir, for description t»f which w^ jirovjotu* chapter, and 

" May my Lama, tutelar)- deit}- and tlie Holy Oiu>a, arid tlic potent. M»ha- Va jrwUiars 
remain insopanihly with the Kumuda flower. 

" Nfay all the animal beings be freed from n>-bJrtlut by being bom into Cbf ponr 

" May [ be endowed with Arm rcaolrv and ability it* rvacue aiunuU twing* Trvtn 

the worlda of woe. 

" May I be endowed with an unfailing ocean of knowUnlgv to emblems to adrmnoe 
the holy r.-ligion among botli orthodox and hetwoJox. 

" May my miaty ignorance b<' cleari^d by the Uriglit ray* of Manjuar! 'nam on higli 

" May my dojiiren bf all nmlixoU through the grart> of the Jinaa and ttioir celestial 
Hon!i. and tjio auspirioun breath of thu Siiprfiiii' Oneii. 

» ('f. Hue, ii.. 42; RocantLi^ L., 70. 

iffers from that of the reformed or high church only in provid- 
ig for a slightly larger f»Rrty of demoniatal guests ; the Ge-lug-pa 
viting only the Xollowing, to wit, their chief Lama, 8t. TsoA- 



2 O 

tt o 

e O 

= o 

s O 

• o> 

r 0> 

• O 


















!^i-jm, their tutelary deity Vajra-hbairavR, Vnjrftsattva Buddha, the 
leiiied heroes, the fairies, the guardian demons of the tje-lug-f»a 
reed, the god of wealth, (be guardian demons of the cavefi 
rhere the undiscovered revelations are de])osited, the five sister 

•priies of mocmt Erereflt, the twel«ie aerial fiende&^eB (Tuyvei 
•am diiw, and tbe raorp important local Kod«. 

n&f awnfioe •boold be done in the temples for tbe - 
the Unas on tbe lOcK aiid lath of everr month. <>n i-i > : 
lajni^ii it mu»t be dooe omet annaallr at the expeow of «nif 
tndirkhial layman who cm afford it ; aud uu extra occssiuDii 
tbatiksgiTiDg for a SQOoeMfnl ODdf^a^:iiii;. nrui r> a pmpiti 
death, and dUasler. 

The arrangement of tbe banquet i> Mionn in tbe fof^DU| 
dJa^^ni ; — 

In tbe inmost row are placed tbe large coloured and oi 
Bfiling cake« for (n) the chief Lama-saint, who in the 
the old school is St, Pttii$iut^ (h) tbe tatelarr deity, in this 
(rurft VtX'-pOj a fierce demoniacal form of the saint, and (r} t^ 
Hhe^evil with the lion-face. For the saint there is ahio pbc«d« 
either side of his cake a &kull-<iipf the one to Ui:= right contuit- 
ing coanlry wine, here called ** Ambrosia" (a9nrita)^ in Tibet« 
literally " de\-ils' juice " ; and the contenti^ of the other are calW 
blood (nuE.'/'i), though tea-infiuioii is nsually offered in8t«ad. U 
the serond row are the cakes for the guardians and protector (rf 
Lauiataui, usually with Buddha's cake (\o. 4) in centre- Th* 
order of the cakes for these guardian demons is as follow* — iht 
attaclied tigurcB relate to the foregoing diagram : — 

No. 13. The Nun fiendewi of Di 
kung moDanter^'. 
,. 14. The live everliucting sJs- 
tei-s of mount Ever- 

No. 5. The Lion-faced demonefiti. 

„ 6. The four-armed " Lord," 

a form of Mfthakalu. 
„ 7. The god of wealth. 
,. 8. The " Ruler of Tibet's 
guardian" (and in Sik- 
biu) the !4[>e(.'i]i) guar- 
dian of the Sa-dtdfta 
£>. The demon blacksmith 
(reil ami black colour, 
rides u goat and t-arries 
an nnvil and a hellows, 
wu** made a prot«ctor 
of Lumiiism by St. Pad- 

•» 10. The Lord of the Rik- 
mIiiih devils. 

,,11. The Ijoc'ulity protector. 

„ 12. Thu Sihja deuii-gnds, 
white aiid bliu'k. 

13. The spirits of the Uok- 
drowned persons. 

16. The homestead demaa- 


17. The couQtry-god Kan^- 

chen-dsbiiga (moan- 

18. The black devil, nd 

devil and A'Ajni of 
Durj Uiug or speoiaJ 
locHlity of temple. 

19. The demons who <mu»* 


20. The twelve atrial 6en- 

dcbses of disease < 2^h- 
ma ) 

fo. 31. The demon owners of 
the "Ter" caves where 
the hidileii i-evelations 
are depixit^d. 

No. 22. The black and red devilfl 
and NSga of parent 
monastery of the 
priests of this temple. 

Tn the third rnw are placed the "ess^^ntial offerings " already 

escribed, which are especially intended for the superior gods. 

In the fourth and outmost row are an indefinite number of 

Wojy-i-ake-i, which are esi>ecial dainties as an extra couj-se for all. 

hese cakes contain ordinary im^mo cake of cooked rice or Iwirley, 

th the addition of some wine, and a mixture of cooked flesh and 

mI i^orts of eatables available. 

The stages of the wort^hip in this feast are as follows:^ 

XbU Invitation to the deities and demons to come to the 
feast (Skt., dvdkan). This ia accompanied by great 
clamour of drum.s, cymbals, horns and fifes, so as to 
attract the attention of the gods and demons. 
'Jtnd Kequesting the guests to be seated (Skt., d^an). 
'Srd. Ueggiug them to pai-take of the food offered. 
4(A. Praises the goodness and admirable qualities of the 
guests. This is done while the guests are partaking of 
the essence of the food. 
5ik. Prayers for favours immediate and to come. 
&th. The especial delicacy, the 7"«0(?-cake, is then offered to 
all, on four i)late8, a plate for eac)i row of guests, and 
one plateful is reserved for the iJimas themselves. 
Then is done the ceremony of *' Expiation for religious duties 
eft undone,"' which wipes off all arrears of religious duty. Here 
Jthe sacristan throws skywards, amid great clamour of wind and 
biiiss instruments, several of the T^so^-cakes to all the demi-gods 
and demons not .»;pecially included in the feast, (*ne y'V^f/K-ake 
is then given to each Liima in the order of his rank, from the 
highest to the lowest, ns the food has been consecrated by the gods 
having partaken of it. 

Each I.*aaia must, however, leave a portion, which is collected! 
carefully, in a plate, in order, from the lowest to the head Liima. 
And on the top of these collected fragments ia placed a whole 
cake. Then a celebration called Lhnk-ilor is done, and the whole 
of these crumbs — the leavings of the Lamas — are contemptuously 
thrown down on to the ground, outside the temple-door to the 



starveling ghost* and tlioseevil-ttpirits who have not yet l)efn ft\'\ 
jecteil by St. Padma or subtiequent Laiiuia, 

The efficacy of these cake-ofFerragu U urge4j nt length in 'i- 
inanuttl of the established church.' 

llie special rites and celebrations are usually detailed in sejanf* 
inaiiualft ; but each Ge-lug-pa monk has a general uaaiiual of wurehi;> 
etc., t^ntitletl" the monk's timely MemomDda," ' and ^eerot; tocofp- 
ji(K)!id in some measure to the Dina Chariyjiwa of the CejloDw,* 
in which are giveu directions for personal and general devoti 
as well 118 for mona8tic conduct, from which 1 have alivady 
exlmctfi in the chapter on the order. 

The ser\ice is mostly in Tibetan, which is like the Latin^ 
the |>a]ial mas»-hook$ used throughout Mongoh'a and Las 
t<'mples in China, the only exception beiug tlie privileged toinj'V 
at Pekiu.* Mueiic is much used, though it is in the main an «/■ 
piercing din of drums, loud trum|>et«, horns, and clashing cymbnlf. 

The leaders of the choir also have a psalter or score in which thr 
swelling, rising, and falling notes are curiously represented hv 
curves, as shown in the annexed photograph ; and the points at 
which the severaUnstrument* join in the choir are also dulv noteil 
therein. The iwiuses are marked by bells and cymbals, and rhf 
effect at times of the noisy din and clamour suddenlv lapsing iDt<i 
silence is most solemn, and even impressive in the larger cathedral* 
with their pious and sombre surroundings.^ 

I "nu; lJr*kig-pa in.'iiin«I eaya : — 

Thi' U(lvantagi-.s to the rhantor of the above scnrice are tJiat : His wiahes will bi* ftU 
n-aliM-d ; weuitli ami luclc will incn-a5« nccordiiig to lii» wiahcci ; hf> will obtain iicntrr. 
aiid alt hw niiw will Ik; lilottotl mit ; he will eubjrct Ihc evil spirita and will dulr t»*r- 
form clinrity, imd the prrUx. will obtain Ji'livt-niiici- liy luiii^t re-b«"jni in ihp liearciii. 
tint] hi' himrtfU will nlso obtain li^avcn, ;itiil it Imis Vxhti said that lie will ultimitrhr 
•■htalii HuftdhithtKH). 

The bumt-offpriiig of iiicoii*!.', analogous to the Vodic Homtu but sprcially in- 
t^ndcd for drmons, inrludfs by riann* the Tiin-mn and other Tibetcin fiends. It a 
a mixture of jncenM- and biittfr heated to ignition on coaU. Tlif tvlrbratiun b 
di'tailed above. Cf. also Schlao., p. ti'Q \ jAitscH^ |>. 210, for kinds of cakes. 

3 dOr-nImi-gi dus dran. 

a Kait tfoA.. 21, andaUo"thr lUJly Manual of tiu> Slmman" of UteClunescv Bjul'i> 

» i'.f. Kin-PBN, if., 228. 

> All.)i<)iigh thi' instrunifniH Hre wit-ldod with clamour, each i« ukaui|>iil(ilfd 
strictly acfording to i-uU-. Thus with the cymbals, at the w^rd Aryfutm the i-ymhaU 
are hi-ld hori^^ontally .ind Hti-iKk wiUi mid-tinker erect. On Mm//.a«i,lifld bvluw wnnt 
and the upper cymbal w nmd^ to revolve along the rim of the lutt est, etc., ftc. 


The daihr oelebnuions of the high church monk, or the Gc-faif 
|tt Lmma, eomprise the following services : — 

1. Tbe " Reruge-farmula " (mTun-aoilk}. 

'2. mTuA-akoh niM-yiit-pft. 

5. The four-fold pnjer for the Animab (Seimt-bB kyJ )> 

(. AnoUwr prmjrer for AxiimaU (K^-ad-par gyi nnifn hAjnt) 

d. Ptvyor for the Bu-th (8»gx'i b\iu brUbe). 

A. SMTificul oflferini^ (mCh'od-pu byin brlabs). 

7. iQToc&tion to the Jiau (Spy&a-'dren). 

H. Offering of hftthiag water to the Gods and Jiaaa (K'ro^- 

*^ Tui-Sol)." 
9. SalutalioD to Buddhu, Sftinta »ad lAmae (P'yag.'t'aJ). 

10. OflbringB of " the neoeaar; thiuga "(ml^b'od-pK). 

1 1. Offerings of " &\e aensoous things " (*Dod-yoD-l6a). 

12. Offimngft of *' seven preciouB things " (rgy^aj-nri sua bdun); 

13. Coofession of SiuA {bS'ag«-pu). 

14. In pruae of the Jinu and Buddha-putras (rJcs-«u yi-niu). 

15. Turtiing the Wheel of the Law (Ch'oa-Vor bskor-wa). 

16. Prayer for ftttoiuing Kir^aoft (Mya-D&D lae-mi Was wnJt gvol-n 


17. Prayer for Blessing (beAo-wa). 
18 Magic-circle — OQering of the Universe. 

19. Prayer to Limji-tntor.' 

20. The Tutelary's invocation — YamautAkii. etc. (for €re-lug-pa) aiwl 

Guru Tak-po Kah-gye, etc., fur Niii-nia. 
31. Sacrilic-ial worship (ch'oga) to the demons, after <Urk vith («k« 
ttorma), inoeose and irine with the libations (jgSer-skyemft) 
the Kang-s5 banquet!^'' 

We will illustrate a few of the^e services by some abstractB and 
extnu'ts : — 

A good sample of the worship of a I^lmai^ divinity ia seen id 
that ofTSrfi, the Virgin of northern Buddhi!^m,and the "Godded 
of Mercy." 

The raaaual of Tar5*s worship * is one of the commonest booklets 
in Tibet, an<l is iu the hands of nearly all laymen, most of whom 
can repeat her hymn and chief sei vice by heart/ 

. I*dfl«. ' See i*. JA*. 

■^» Ab«tm<'le«l hy ww in rnuBidoroh]!* drtmilio J.RM.S., 1894. {k (», t-tc. 

• Tlifliio'k i» )>ittitl(Kl "Rlvml-macUtar «iVin-^i b((tod-)uigziuW or "Tlii-pntuv 
sp4>IU< />Jl(/iiin;if>f Till' Piin* Orifcuul Tirfi." Ami iMiK>mri'ilil.ion!it}icUtt*nniHl**M(>t|iife 
of the ./I'jwM '* irgyal-yutn i. «Iho " M<irh<*r nt the Tatho^flCluis." The manual extcmdi 
to'tl»irty-«gl»t or forty pag*^ t»f five Iuh-b each. The ffr(>At«r jtoition. including *' Th* 
Kxhfirt^ilioii " jiiiU "The llj-mn," in aU<-^d intemnlly tn (lave bven comiiOM'tl by " The 
great Vairocnnn-Buddlin of the Ulljraai<' Pprfectkm" [dtM>g,-pai Kafii-iv^'ae raam 

TunVs worship, like that of mo«tt of the Alabayana and Tuntrik 
dtieij, is (lividetl into the seven Htages already mentioned. 
The service is chanted in chorus, and the int»a.snre used in chants 
ing the hyuiu, namely trochaic in eight-syllabled linen, I have 

I'ndicated in a footnote to tliie Iiymn. 
A portion of the manual is here tmnHlat«i — 
^' If we worship this dublime and pure-souled goddeais when we 
etire in the dnsk and ari^ie in the morniug, then all our fears and 
worldly anxieties will disuppear and oiu- sins be forgiven. She — 
the conqueror of myriad hosts — -will strengthen us. She will do 
iore Ihan tliii* I She will convey us directly to the end nf our 
transmigration — to Kuddha and Nirvana I 

" She will expel the direst poisons, and relieve us from all 
ixieties as to food and drink, and all onr wants will he satisfied; 
ind all devils and [dagues and ]x>ison8 will l)e annihilated utterly; 
Mid the burden of all animals will he lightened ! If you chant her 
lymn two or three or six or seven times, your desire for a eon will 
realized I Or should you wish wealth, yoji will obtain it, and all 
Dther wishes will be gratified, and every sort of demon will be 
wholly overcome." 


lF*Ha:i! O! verdant TTira ! 
The Saviour of all beings ! 
)escend, we pray Thee, from Thy heavenly mansion, at Potala, 

flogether with all Thy retinue of gods, titans, and deJivererB I 
i^e humbly prostrate ourselves at Thy lotus-feet I 
sliver us from all distress ! holy Mother ! " 

Presentation of Offerinos (Sacrificial). 
I** We hail Thee ! O revtrVl and sublime Tiira ! 
^''ho art adored by all the king.* and princes 
Of the ten directions and of the present, past and future. 

par Ninn<tnd«id oh'»n-pn] and usually inttfrpn-ieii by tlu- Lntii;iN «» n-ffrring tj 
Vairocltana. the first of the inythlral Jina-ltiKl(llia« ; tnit il may prnKtbly be tin* K:u«)i- 
mir Monk Vairocaina, of the "*Jrpat IliiinriTf IV-rft'clion (.WiiA<(-x';««,ki) '' form of the 
KufldhUt il'wtrine, who lived in tin* r'ighth c^ritiiry A.n., nnd » Tinted translator of 
-■Sttiisbrit Scri|rtiiroa into th« Tilx-uii. An apiwndis: i* Higne 1 by tti»dun I'ub, The 
iirand L&itui, wbu built Tiiiihi-lhuiipn nmnaatory nnd 1445 a.v. 

F F a 


M> pmy Thee to acce]>t ihe5«» ofTerings 

Of flowera, inccDse* i>erfumc<i lamps. 

Precious f<x>d, the music of c\Tnhftlfl, 

And Die other ufferiugtt ! 

We sincereW bog Thee in all Thy divine Forms * 

To imrtake of I he food »ow ofFere<i ! 

On confessing to Thee ]>emtently their sinH 

The most sinful heart!*, yea I even the comtnit-ters of the 

Ten viceii and the live bomidJess itinsi 

Will obtain forgiveness and reach 

Perfection of sonl — thiHiugh Thee ! 

If wt: (human lieings) have ninasaed any lue^rit 

In the three i^tatvs," 

We rejoice in this good fortune-, when we consider 

The unfoitnnate lot of the poor (lower) animals 

Piteousiy cngulplied in the occau of misery. 

On their hehalf, we now turn the wheel of religion ! 

We iinjiloro Thee by whatever merit we have accuiuiilated 

To kindly regard all the animals. 

And for ourselves I 

When our merit has reached perfection 

Let us not, we pmy Thee, 

Linger longer in tliis world ! " 

KvMXfl iM TarI'b Prjusb. * 

(The traiulntion I hare mnde almost literal. Each sep<ifnt«> %\xda ] 
in addressed to u npecLil one of Tara's twenty-one fornix — the u&oitf u( 
which is giveu iii the uiat-giu for refei-enoe.) 

Cnrii. thaUottirr.) 

Arya Tirii ! HaU to Thee ] 

Our Deliverers sublime! 

J Tlie poUTnorphifltn nln^adr rnferred to. * Kimii, Rfipa. »ut»J Aru|ili. 

» As tlii-. hymn U s-i i>'>|»ular nmon^t Lam»iflt pitiple in Tilu't, .Siklum, ftr, Igtw j 
here In the- Lb&w fUnk'Ct tU seconil ftaniui, which is tlu- pr<.tp*'r com uien content nf tl)^ 
liyinn, in order to show its mi'trc 

Ch'&it u'al I po-ou I Aiir-ma | iia. m6 \ 
Ch'eti-ni | k^-o'ig j Ing-ion | u-tua I 
Jig-Uu I 8um gon I c*a ky6 \ E'al-R)i | 
Ro'VLr I u'o-wa | le-ni [ juiL-ma j . 



<1. Tiril. I li«- 9uf.reineljr 
Ooiiraj[caiu. > 

(2. t«r£.o(WI)lle-ni<»n 

(3. Kit. Uic ^Idni- 

(4. Tiii.tbe(4nuid 

<6. Tnm. the t>Mt Tht**^ 
WorU Worker.) 

(7. nri. tiM BuppnaMf 
of Strife.) 

irf(hipr«iiwPowi!r. I 

Aviilok'u's inetiesenger 

Rich in power und pityH store. 

Hail O Tftrft ! quick to 8a ve! 
Lotus-horn of pitying tear 
Shed down by The Thrue-World-Loid, 
(Orieving sad for sunken t>oult«.) 

Hnil ! to Tht* with fulgent fnce, 
Brilliant lut u hundre<l moons 
Of hm veftl glenming in the light 
Of myriad duzzling stare. 

Hail 1 to Thee whose hand is decked 
By the lotnB, golden blue, 
Eager Soother of our woo, 
Ever tirele*s worker, Thou ! 

Uail ! to Thee with pil'd-up hair, 
Where Tathagata sits flhrin'd, 
Victor' of tlie unirerse. 
Thou H tmiiitly victor too ! 

Hail to thy '• tuttdrii-hun," * 
Piercing ivulniK of earth nnd liky, 
Ti-eading down the seven wotlcU, 
Bending prostrate everyone ! 

Hail ! adored by mighty godH, 
/mlroy lirfthinfiy Fire and Wind, 
Oiitwtly hoide-** and Gandharvmi 
AJ unite iii praudng Thee ! 

Hail ! with Thy dread " ir« " and **phat " ' 
Thou drttroyest nil Thy foes : 
Striding out with Thy left foot 
belching forth devouring firel 

Uail ! with fearful epell ^*/«-r«" 
HntiiMhing tlie bmvest fieniU, 
By the mere frowu of Thy browB, 
Vant|ni6hing whole hordes of fots ! 
etc., etc., etc., etc. 

I /Ky«l<WH = Sauakrit Jimii. 

' lliiH is » purtiuti ot T&ri'fi 8|M'II, fur wliicli m-** uwr jmgi'. 

■ jMyrtir wpriln usetl by wiwinl^— /Jim/ titiMOii bri-ak Mr yinjiith ! 

[Hei-e i-> repeated uii the rosary 108 timiH*, or as often an po6aWp,llr 
spell or muntrn of TirS, namely : Om ! Tar^-tu-Ux-re tu-rr Svd kd ' 

The jtuiHtm of 8IU Tara ia Om / Ttl~re lu-id-rg ma>ma d'yur'pun-yt }»• 
na-uusfi'tin ht-ni Svii-ha I 

The rosarr used iu Situ Tara'fl worship Lt a BodhiUe, while Tin nc 
quires either n Bodhitsr or tur<(Uoise one.'] 

pRAVBaH roR Blkssinos. 

We impioit! thee, O I Kevered Viotoriotw Bfia*ja*^ii ' and Mwiafil 
One ! to purify ua and all other beings of the universe thorouclUr fraa 
the two evil thoughts ; and make us quickly attain the perf«ctiaa ol 
Buddbahood. If we cannot attain this perfection within a feir |i& 
cycles, then gniut \x& the highest earthly an<l bearenly happiness umI 
nil knowledge. And preserve us, we beseecli Thee, from evil <ni ' 
plague, di»eafie, untimely death, bad dreams, bad omens, and all tlw 
night feai-y and aocidentH. And in our passage through thi« worifl 
grant unto ua the mo^t perfect bliss, beyond pot^tihility of increase, lad 
may all our desires be reulixed without exertion on our part. 

Let the holy religion prosper. And in whatever ])lace we dwell, w 
l)eg thee to soothe there iliseaae aud poverty, 6gl»ting and disputes, ud 
iacreaae the Holy Religion. 

And may Tliy benign* face always beam on us and appear lArge lik^ 
the waxing moon iu forwarding our heart's desire of admission to the 
heavenly ciix-lo and iViVi'dyrt. 

Let ua obtain the favourite gods' of our former lives and entrr 
into the prophesied paradise of the Buddhas of the past, present and 
future 1 


Now ! ! Thou ! The Great Worker ! 
Tlitni Quick Soother and Gracious Mother, 
HoMiiig the uptal flower I 
T^t't Thy glory corae. Maiufalam / ' 

The ofleritig of the universe as a so-called ** magic-circle ** is aa 
essential i>art of the daily service of the Lamas, and has been 
desoriberl in the previous chR]>ter. 

The following hymn in praisB of the Three Holy Ones is recited 
at noon with the presentation of the offering of rice. 

* Iftit ie*" pnffp 5S0fi for detail* i>n ** LinmiBt Roaariea." 

* bc'om-liliin-'tlaj-ina, |)r<ji)utinci>d "rhom-deii-d^-tna," 

« In contradistinction M " ftu-y-face " (khro-bo ; Skt. icrcdka). 
4 8Urub-liAlu>llu. 

* tijfr^ • . prDiutuno<>d •* TW-Ui -*Ao. " 

Htvit to the Tureb Holy Oxes. 

OM ! Salutation to the Omiiiscient Ones ! Biuldlia, The Luv and 
The Church ! 

Salutiition to Butidha Bhagnvan, the Vietorious and All-wise Tatha- 
Vata Arbat, wlio has gone to happiness ! 

[e is the guide of goils and men ! 
fe ia the root of virtue. 
[e ifl the fountain of all treaaui'e. 
le is ailomed with perfect en- 

le ia iufornt^d with nil-beauty. 
[e i& the greivt-est flower of ail 

the race. 
[e ift admirable in all his actions. 
Te is admirable in the ejes of all. 
To delight.^ in th*^ faithful ones. 
Le is The Almighty Power. 
Co is The Univei-sftl Guide. 
[e is The Father of all the Bodhi- 

[e is The King of nil the revered 

le is The Leader of all the dead. 
[e owns infinite knowledge. 
|.He owns immeasurable fortitude, 
lis oomuiandfl are all-perfect. 

HiR melodious voice is all-pleasing. 

He is without eqnnl. 

He is without desires. 

He is without evil. 

He delivers all fi*om sorrow. 

He delivei-s all from sin. 

Ho is free from worldline^ts. 

Hid senses are the sharpeet. 

He bravely cuts all knots. 

He delivers all from deepest 

He delivers all from this woeful 

Hehas crossed thcocean of misery. 
He is perfect in fore-knowledge. 
He knows the past, present and 

He lives far from death. 
He liveiK in the pure blisisful land 

where, enthroned, he sees all 


Salutation to the Holy Law ! — (Okarnui) 


t was the viitue of the 

It was the virtue of the 

it is the virtue of the 
1 hour. 

It bos excellent sense. 
It has excellent words. 
It is unalloyed Law. 

The Law has been well 
gavan. It brings all to 
all-sufficient support, and 




It is all-perfect and i^uminating. 

It is the all-pure Law. 

It ifl perfectly clear. 

It is free from disorder. 

It is everlasting. 

It points the direct path. 

It realizes the desires of all. 

It benefits the wisest men. 

ordered and taught in the J'inaya by Bha- 
perfection ! It fultils all desires ! It is an 
it stops re-birth. 

Salutation to The Assembly or Clergy {Sauffha) of the Mahayann 1 

They live in peace. 
They live in wisdom. 
They live in truth. 
They live in unison. 

They merit respect. 

They merit glory. 

They merit tiie grandest gifts. 

The goodness of Buddha is immessaraUe ! 

The goodoeaa of The Law U uumeasui-able ! 
^Aud the goodnefiB of The Clergy is immeafiurable ! 

3y planting our faith on The 1 m mensurable Onee we cthAll reif i 
ftiauur&blc fruit in the Innd of bliitj*. 

Sftlatation to the Tulhu^atn ! The Merciful Patron, the ohuuba 
Uuide. the ocean of knowledf(i* ami jjflory. 

Salutation to the softening Dhamm ' the pure gift of the hflilt,! 
<Jfliver«?r from evil, and the be«t of Truth. 

SaluUittitn to the Assembly 1 the deliverer, and guide to lh» ' 
taitl), the tenrher of pure wisdom, and the pofiseflsor of the bolj 1 
ledge for onltivuting the (human) sot). 

The " KEntfE-FoKMt'LA " op the LAmas^ 
The '* Refuge-formula** of the Lamas, which I here li 

well illustrates the very depraved form of Buddhism iirofe»(«d I 
the majority of llamas ; for here we find that the origiuid 
Refuge-formula (Skt., Tri^ntiya; VAM, Sftrftnagaitutfm) in 
Three Holiep, the Triratiui — Buddha, The Word, and The 
sembly — has been extended so as to comprise the vast hort ol 
deitie-8, demoTi» and deified saints of Tibet, as well as manv of 
the Indian Mahayana and YogiicSrya saints. 

The version here trannilated is that used by the Kar-ma-pa and 
Nift-ma sects of Kama5, hut it is practically the same b» that n 
general use in Tibet, except among the reformed Lamas of th* 
establiflhed church — who address a less extensive circle of saintj 
and demons, and who substitute St. Tsoft-K*a-i)a for St, Padma* 
sambhava. It is extracted from the manual of worship entitW 
the «Kyab»-'gro, commonly pronounced *'Kyamd6/'* which literallr 
means "the going for protection or refnge"; and itB text is « 
follows : — 

*' We — all beings — through the intercesaion of the L&ma,' go for 

I'cfuge to Buddha ! 

" We go for refuge to Buddha's Doctrine {bhannn) I 

'* We go for rtfuge to the A^itembly of the Lunna {Stinjjha} ! ' 

" We go for refuge to the Host of the Goda and their retinue of 

tutehuiea and Hlie-devils, the defenders of the Religion^ who people 

the sky 1 


> Contr!buti<l to /*rf. Ant;^. 1SB3. 

" It is a LSmaist uxifjin, as iLlr<>iidy ixitcU, Uiat tK)U.}-man can nddresK the BoddhM 
ftxcept throiifirli tlt^ medium ul a Liim.i. 

* The (foliig-pA f'jrtnuln bi'i^iiiK tliiiK : lidag ^f>gfi nnm-iiikoh (laii n)ftaiiw*]MU 9n»- 
c'an t'nnie-c'at] bLa*ina la HkynliB ku mrliio. SjinB-rsfjiu-lt^T skyahs-su mch*Jo C*V: 
kyi fllni'nbs iu nirli'io, lUfi'-'dun-gyl nkyalw liu-mfh'io. 

'* We go foi' I'ofitge to the victorioaa L&maa, vho have descendeJ 
'HI heaven, the hoMcrs of Wisdom and the Tftotrait ! 
** We go for refuge to the Buddhas of the Ten Directions, and to 
>lie primordiAl Samaniahhndra. Buddha with hi» spouse ! 

Then the foUo^-ing deities and saints are addressed as refuges. 
The Incarnate Sambhoga-kij^, the Mild and Angry Loving Onr 
the Sirmana-kakfa MtiJm Vajradhara ; the Diamond-souled Guide — 
ffijrcutaha ; the Jina — the Victorious Sal-ya Muni ; the most pleas- 
ing Viijnt IncarDat« ; the Fierce Holder of the Thumlerlwlt — Vajrn- 
jMhti ; the Goddess- Mot her. J/orwr* /Vi'f ; the Learned Teacher, Aenrifft- 
Maujit^i ; the Great I'anffita Srt SiiiAa ; the Jina Suda ; tl»e Great 
/'««'/iVfl Himah Mitra . the Incarnate Lotus-born Dhai-makaya Padmn- 
tfttidt/tava : (hitt wife) the Fjiiry of the <^Jcei4n of Kore-kuowledge ; the 
Keiigious King, Thi-Srou-deu-Tsitn ; the Noble Apocalj-pse-Finder, 
Mv:iu-bHn ; the Teachers disciple, the Victorious Stfinvira Dangraa; 
the Reverend Sister, the L*uly Hiufupcara ; the Incamat* Jina '* Zhaug- 
t^in ■' ; the Guru, clever above thousandH ; the ReligiotiH Lord {Dharmn- 
lultha) Guru Jo-Rer ; the Illusive Idon UijtVta ; the Great Siddhi, the 
Clearer of the Misty moun — grub-ch'en zla-wa-miin-ael ; the Sage 
Kttmaraja ; the Prince, liimala RhoAara , thei-enowned Candrakirti ; 
the Three Incarnate Kind Bi-others ; the Bodhi«it, The noble Ocean ; 
the Incamate Saget, the Holder of the religious t*ajnt ; the Eutirely 
a4>coxnplLshed and renowned Speaker ; the Great Teocher Mahdffuru 
OharmniHlja ; the Revelation-Finder Tiff-po-lin : the Beligiou8 King 
of Acconip tilth ed Knowledge*; the Banner of Obtained Wisdom ; tht§ 
Peerleiw active Vajra : the Radical (Skt, Sfftht) L&uib Awika ; * the 
Lima of the Mt'ila Tantra of the Tliree Time^; the Sage, the Accom- 
plished Soul : the Religious LoWiig King, the Holder of the Doctrines * ; 
the Reverend Abbot, the -Sky Vajra ; the Noble Jew^fUed Soul — " Pal- 
znh " : the Assembly of Mild and Angry tutelary Deities; the Holy 
Doctrine of the Great End — Mahotpanna .' 

" We go for refuge to the Male and Feniale Bnint« of the Country ! 
'*0! Lima! Bless us as Voa have been blesijed. Blesa oa with the 
blet^sings of the Tdntrtu ! — 

*' We beg You to bless us with OM, which \» the («?cret) Bonv. We 
beg You to purify our aina and pollutions of the body. We beg Yon 
I to increase our happine«4 without any sickuees of the body. We b^g 
You to give OS the real undying gift of bodily life \ 

"We beg You to blefis ua with AH, which is the (secret of the) 
I Spcccb. We beg You to purify the sins and pollation dl oxa 8pee«h. 

^H 1 The flnt Hhotjya kinf; of Silthim. eirc. 1050 A.D. 

^^1 £ This may be * nelerenoe tt the Kreat cjnp(>ror A^oka. or his Doafc«sor Cpttgupu. 
the frjurth patriarch nf ifac early Buddhist diureii in liidU. 'ir tt may tie only tlu> 
titl«? 'it a Lama. Sevpnii aisu nf the foregmng iHImi which I havp tnuisia>#d an* 
\tnipn nam**. 

Tlip sixtii BhoCiym king of .Sikhim, ^<^- 1770-90 aji. 

We beg You to give ur* the imwer of Speech, We beg Yon lo ouok 
i>a UB the gift of perfect aud vietoiious Speech '. 

** We beg You to hlesfc uh with HUM (pi-onouaced " Airm '| wtuA 
is the (secret) Thouqiit. We beg You to purify the pollutian and s» 
t>{ our Miud. We beg You to give us good uudex^taiiding. Wf ^ 
you to give us the real gift of u pure benrt. We iKJg You to a 
1-ovrer us with The Four Powers )of t)ie heart) I 
'•We pray You to give us the giftb of the True Bodti^ Spf^,^ 
Mind.' Om! Au ' Hrsi: 

*' O ! Give us such blesEiug \i» will clear uwny the siiw anddefileoMl 
I if bad deedtf ! 

'* We beg You to soften the evils of bod causes ! 

" We beg You to blt*» us. with the proaperity of our body (i.c.,httilU 

*' BleAS U8 with mental guidance ! 

" BlesH UH with Buddhnhood soou ! 

" Bless us by cutting us off from (worldly \ illusioois ! 

" Bless us by putting us in the right path ! 

" Bless us by causing \\h to under8t;ind all things (religious) ! 

" Bless us to be useful to each other with kindliness \ 

** Bless tiB with the ability of doing good and deliverizig tbeaoin 
beingK (from miseiy) ! 

*' Bless lis to know ourselves thoroughly ! 

" Blest) us to be mild from the depths of our heart ! 

" Bla«iK us to be brave as Yourself ! 

" Bless us with the Tiintra* as You Yourself are blesaed I *" 

'' Now ! wf — the innumerable animal beings — conceiving Uiii 
(thi-ough the efficacy of the above dharanU and prayers, we have beco©' 
pure in thought like Buddha himself ; and that we ai-e working for tte 
welfare of the other animal beings : we, therefore, having now acquin^ 
the qualities of the host of the Gods, and the roots of the Tatttnu, lir 
?'i-wa, rGt/as-pa, dHau and P'rin-his, we desire that all the other anioul 
beings be possessed of happiness, and be freed from misery ! Tj^t u^ 
all animals! — be freed from lust, anger, and attachment to worldJi 
iiiBiirs^ and let us perftfclly understand the true nature of Tb* 
Religion ! 

'• Now ! O ! Father- Mother — Y(A-y^tm — the Dharmahaya fiattmmta- 
bhadra .' The Sanihhwfaka]fa Santi Khrddajtrataral-a, mild and unerr 
Loving Ones ! The Nirmiina-Kfifja, Sages of the skull-rosary ! Aai 
the Mitla-tfintra Lama I I now beg You all to depart ! 

" O \ Ghosts of Heroes I Witches ! Demoniacal Defenders of Tbt 
Faith! The holy Guardians of the C'cimmandmeuts! And all th<w 
lluit we invited to this place ! I beg Vou nil now to depart ! ! 

"O! most powerful King of the Angr)' Deities! The powerful 
iJivara, and the ho«t of the Country Guardian Gods ! And all those 

» Tliis triad rcfAra t" tbf mytititi Yoga or unwn nf "Th*' tlirpo «ocret«," whidLtlv 
JnpAneoe okll, Sjin-mit.Hu-itiWt. 

coNF^siox OF sms. 


I that we invited to this place, witli al! their retinue ! I beg You 
all now to depart ! ! ! May glory come ! Tcuthi-ahok ! and Virtue ! Oe-o / 

C'oKFKasioN or Si»8, 

%e Confession of Sius^ is doue twice a month in public 
nssembly, in presence of the abbot and senior monks. It in no 
proper confession, only a stereotyped form chante:! in chorus. 
The full form is practically the same as in southern Bud<lhisin." 
The fhortest form is here given : — 

** I liere confesa the yins which I may have committed by the body, 
speech and mind, and through lu8t, niiger and Rtupidity. 

'* Listen to me, O 1 gi*eat r/ym-holdiiig Lamas' and all the Buddhas 
und Bodhisate of the ten directions ! L repent of all the sinful autf 
which I have committed from the time of my birth up to the present. 
*tneh UK : committing the ten imvirtuous deedfi and the iive waverings, 
trans >:re8sing the vows of deliverance, the teachings of the Bodhisatu, 
the vows of the secret mantnu, iri-evereuce, and want of faith in The 
Three Rarest Ones, iri-everence and want of faith in the abbots and 
teachers ; separation from tlie lioly religion nnd the best commands ; 
want of reverence to the revered clergy ; want of reverence To parents, 
and want of reverence to one's faithful fellow-mortals. In short, T 
liere confess to all the Fajra- holding Lfima-s, the Buddhas and B«-»dh- 
iitats of the ten directions, all the ains which hinder my readying the 
heaven of deliverance; and I promise never agiun to commit these 

There are also numerous rites on the same lines or by magic- 

ThF MAlifC-CinCLK Taiibhkaci.k. 
I. Chart ii.r Mosaic. . Umltrella. 

i. Giihet. *. UftTiner*. 

circles, postoring aud mummery, for obtaining su^>ernatural powers 

' gfl«-hy<«n. See pagfs 32S nnd Ml ; nnd rf. ScHijioiNTWitiT, p. 123. 
■i Cf. PratitAokthtt sfttra^ "The Book of Itelivorance" and Us Tibetan TPTSbm. traoi. 
by RocKKiLi.. > Protmbly mythical RuddliH, Vujradliiira 




and for fmrpoftcs of eorcery. Some of these latter I hftre absctziM 

in tlie chapter on necroDiaucy. 

(>f Rpeoiftl celebrations it will suffiL** t** refer only to one ' 

the most interesting, which some Buro])e.iny who witnes^ai > 

pompoiu* and ^leron service, b*» 
compared to the Cbrintiao Eb- 

The "Elcharist" 


This JjLinaiKt Utorgy, the «!»- 

bmtion of which is 

118 the frontispiece, oo _ 

t'otint of its dispensation <( 

L<onsecrated wine ^jA \stmiL 

has been compared bv Hur 

;iTi(l others to the Christitt 

Kuchiirist, although it bis 

reality, as her« shown, t 

ctremony f or g^ratif ying tbf 

rather un-Buddfaistic cm' 

ing nftfi long earthly life. StUL 

It iitivftrthelesa presents mw? 

parallels to the Chri^tuui rit' 

tor conferring on the worthy it- 

Hpient '* the life everlasting." 

It is entitled " Tlie Obtaininc 
of (l<^'i»g) Life," ^ and is a vm 
goo<l H»niple of the Liixnaist blend- 
ing of Uuddhist«' ideas with 
rlemnn-worMhip. It seems to ii>- 
'Uiporato n good deal of the 
pri^-Lainai»!t ritual, and ibK 
I H'nedictionfi and aj>i-inkUiigaf 
holy water are auggetttive of 
Xestoriun or still later Chri»- 
,, ^^^^^ tiaii infliienoes. 

•- - *— This sacrament is celebrated 

with miK-h pomp at j{tat«d 



TuK EccHARiin' otr Lamaism. 

1 tn tbi> Anniie Qmtrtfrijf^ 18Mi lart of thfit article wiut published by me. 

riods, on a Incky day, about once a woek in the larger temples, and 
iittracte numerous votiiries. Crowds throng to the temple to j'eceive 
Jte coveted blessing. Its benetits ave moi-e particularly M>ugiit in 
of actual illnoss, and when deiitb Reems imminent; but every 
^Uage must ha%'c it performed at least once n year for the life of 
ie general community, and after its ].»erformance any proloiigation 
life is credited to tlii^ serrice ; while a fatal result is attributed 
the exccflsive mixdeedii of the iudi\*idual iu liiii last life or in 
previous birlbu. 
The chief god atjdrcs.sed is ^iitUWiiik Amitiiipm or Aparamttaf* "The 
3d of) infinite Life," or "The Eternal." Unlike the Chinese Bud 
Ifaistfi the Lamas never Ainildf>Im (the Budtlha of intinite 
lit) with his reflex Amitnt/itg : they represent these differently, and 
iit them witli diHereut functions. The otiier gods specially ideutified 
rith life-giving powers are ''The five loiig-Life .Siaters,'"' mountain 
ttymphs presiding ov«r the everltusting snows, and to a less degree the 
vhite Tara, and UshiiTsharani; and even Vaiiut, the Lord of Death 
Uoiself, may occasionally be propitiated into delaying the day of 
" ftth. 

The pi-iest who conducts this ceremony for propitiation of Atniiiitjus 

ind the otlier gods of longerity must be of the pur»\st morals, and nsu- 

Fftlly ft totiil iibstaiiier from luejit and wine, lie must have fiLste<i during 

ithe gr*Miter pai-t of the twenty-foiu- lioiirs preceding the rite, have 

repeated the mantriu of the life-giving gods many times, I00,00l> times 

if ^xissible, and he must have secured ceremonial punty by bathing. 

'1 he rite aiKO entails a lot of other tasks for the preparation of the con- 

l«ecrated pills n.nd the arriitigement of utensils, etc., and extends over 

two or throe days. 

The arrangements are as follow : — 

trpou an altar, under the brocaded dragon-canopy, within the temple 
I or in a tent outside, Jire placed the following articles : — ■ 

1. Z«u*/'Mm, the ordinary altar waier-vas>v 

3. Ti-hum, the Ta3<> M-itli pc-iidjiit ntirmr and eoittAining water tin^'d vnxh saffmn. 
9. dllaA'bum, Uu- " empowering vas« " witli thi* ctiAplet of tbe Five Jiiuu. 

4. 7Vc-f'UNi, thu ** VAsc uf Life," spt-cial u> AwiUyu, with a banner nf |K>«oock*ii 
fistthiTH and sacTt^d Kiwa-grasx. 

5. r/<w**ait, or " llu! wiiu- uf Life," crumUtiii? of beer iti n skull-lfiwl. 

6. T/t-rilf or the " pilta of Lite," inadr of, «iigar and Imtter. 

7. CAi-puur, or wafers uf flour and ImtU-r aiiJ rice. 

8. mDak-iiar, or aacrod diviriinff-da^^'er with »ilk U^eU. 

9. rttor^eAi ijmmA t'ifj, nr the diviniiig-bi^tt, a nifni or tliuaderbolt^Cfptre wHIi t^igfat 
rt<%eji to which a BtrinR is atl.ichfd. 

In the preliminary worship the pills aj-e made from buttered dough, 
iind the ambrosia or nmrita {Tib., dud-isi or "devil's juice ")i8 brewed 
from spirit or beer, and offered in a skull-bowl to the great image of 

> Tib., Ta'e-iiog-nicd. 

» Tu'e-rin-che-Aji. 


pviv bj %hm aaBatic rite* 
■■a I.' aad Jii—iil mm ikm fnmtmm^ ■IwliMia &«bi tfca 
Ih^v of BttUn AiirtfjrM pftft of ifas divine wHinni of that 
hf flkmamg tka m^ td Its wij^jaki ym w r «y apcm tlw 

I Uw iw gti of ^MiiM j rf koU» in his la{s and ApplTiag tt 
•ai to ub on boaoa, aw Im lieul. Tims, tluvigjb 111 
•tna^ as bf a ti i wg i aph wirv. paMU tba ^vine spirit, and tKe 
UMiA BaDtalljr a oaa ei TO that ktt heart Ea in adoaJ union with that 4 
the god j l wi fw yat, and that, for the Iimm being, he is himfeelf that pid 
Then he tavofce* bia tntBJat y- fcn d, and thfoi^ him tiie fearful hi 
nerfced Umya^rm (TWmdinX the hiog of the demons. The Lima* aati 
thin dirin^ tnad namely, the Boddha and the two demon kings) tncir 
pocmie in hiak, and exhibiting the fonn of all three Co cpnitBal 
I hia divine favoom H* tnfcaa np the 
ttfonweratea tta eoBtenta, aaying , 

owl. tS% 

Then be tjainUea aome of the water on the rice-otiTenogH ^^^, 
the evil apsrita, ajring, **I have purified it with Mvaihmc^^ 
verted it into an ooean of neetar withia a precious J7AMm-howl. 
vkanmu-kkam ! tVanu dMarma naniyanut^'anMa taiio ! Om f At 
JfiSt/t ! phat .' SitihS ! I now desire to bestow the deepest life-powec 
on theae people before me ; therefore, I heg yon demons to accept Uui 
oake-<»flerin)|r, and depart without doing further injaty." 

Hcrtr the Lima, assuming the threatening aspect of the demon-kings 
who tiTSf for the time being, in hU body, adds, " Should vou refuae to 
go, then I, who am the most powerful Hayagnva and the king uf tbt' 
angry deuon^, will crush you — body, speech and mind — to dust ! Obey 
my mandate and begone, each to hi^ altode, otberwtHe you KhaJI »nSSa. 
Om tuMhhani" etc. Now, the Lamas and the people, believing that all 
the evil HpiritA have been driven awiiy by the demon-king himself, shoot, 
"The gods have won ! the devils are defeated ! " 

The Lama then pmceedti to secure for himself the benediotory power 
of life-conferring. He first meditAtes on " the guardmnHieitieu«," niui- 
muritig thus: "The upper part <of the divine abode) is of thanderb(^t 

' He lisujilly wfar» a itmutif («tod«i^(igi, r>n which ue embradered m^ttk) QuaeH* 
f niblimiH t)i luclt, iiu-IudiiiK ttii- At/, etc. .See pp. 3M, 396. 

1 Iti 4<mtliiTn UuilUhUin \* found a ven* siiitilar instaDce ot wremonui] uiunn widi a 
IltidahiHt SvUhU. At titc i>irit ijntritta) celelinition "a ucred thrnid, uiUihI Uid p>ryi 
itiVtt, U fMU*«eU round Um int<Tii.r of tilt' building, the vad >tf whklu aftpr lM>tnfi 
fiMtoiuiI Ui Ihf rt'iidinK pliktfnrm, ja plnwd near the relit: («f UihUUliI. At surli titaw 
ii« Uic wtiiili- .if thi'Vri^'MtN who an* prp»(Mit LriKagr? in dLanlin^ in churufi. thf ronl fai 
uiil wiriCTl. (itul t-uch \>rivtn. tiikiit hold of ii, (hu6 miikinif tli** (^•uiiuunicatioii cnmplvto 
iN'twPKii t'ttch 'if (hi- LfficiiitingprieBl*. the relicaiid tiic iut«riar wallitot the builditiK " 
■"liailUY'H S, JJoiuic/iiim, p. 'iii. 



tenU and hangings; the lower pjut of oarch foundution and adanianliue- 
Keat ; and the walU ure of tltunderl>oltf<. The entire bttihliuf^ is a great 
tent, protected by pi-ecious charms, so that the evil Bpirits cam neitlier 
ilestroy it, nor can they gain entry. Om .' vajra valchtfa rdkhya mtiv 
, tikhtha vajratjt svUhA ! " 

Then the magic-circle (ma^yfal^) is uflenKl up, saying : — 

** I( I fail to n'fcr t« the succ**»siv»' LJinia-^Hiiitit, my wonjs .-inil deeds will cmutt 
fornothing. TlK^n^ffnv miut 1 pniis** th«f holy Lanuu to M'curt> thfir blessing towanls 

I the realizatiou of mj- pUns. O holy Fndiita-mmf'hm'a^ in you are concent rat^HJ ail the 
hleulngs of the prpscnt. past and future! V<ni arc tho Hiiddha of thi- g^reat 6iuU 

I Perfection {.UttMa-ntp/tnita) "wWi bt'hrld tlit* face nf L«>rt) .tmilr'tyus. O 8aiiit possesst-d 

' «»f tlie gift of undying life, of life liiAting till tbi* worlds of rt:-ltinhn an* emptied ! You 
hid aMay fr-wn u», in the snowy rt^ons, the rfvelation upon the true i-awncf of thn 
live hundred ' Ohtainingn of Life." Tlie one which wo now perform is ' tlit? inm palacr' 
of the altaiumcnl of l\tc' iTt'e-gruh lc'(i^kyi-/Ao't'raA), And is extracted fr^tmJh'oM' 
wtf/i'tfy-jpyi-ViM. It was discovered by the aaint ' DMih-Tt'on'saih'jto in th*» rave 
where you tiid it; and this niodc of endowering a person with life haa romf doMrn to 
me through many generations of ftajnt«. Now, O Lord Amiui^m and the hn^t of mdiant 
(foda ' I beg you to siutain the animal bcin^ vast oa tlie starry host, who nrne, with 
gn-M re\Tir«'nc** and prai»e, approarh you. Om a Auij*/ O holy shrim- of our refugee ! 

WW/' O HoRts of Uie Bright World of Light! tad'ma i'od-pKrritrtMtt-vt^mn- 

r Then here is repeated " Ts'e-*fjwf^" or "The Invoicing of life,' thus : 
"O L-ird AMi'ttlpus, residing in the live shrines whence Kliitering rays ib<jol forth* 

I O ! <fajntk*tttvi in the west! Viimn in the south ! .V/I^ nijn in the west t VakjSa in 
the north ! Bnilmui and Indm in the upper regions ! and yimfttt and Tnksht in the 
lower rcgiona ! And especially all the Buddhas and IVrilhiaatwais ' 1 lK>g you all to 
hlcfifl tnc and to gratify my wisheti liy giving me the gift of undying life and hy w^fte^n- 
in|^ all the injuries of the harmful splrita. I entreat jou to grant life and implore 3-uu 
to cauM> it to come to me. fJri .' 1 be^ your bleseing, O Buddha^ of the thn.'c tinie*. 
(DipBokara, Sakya Muui and ^laitrcya 1.